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Plate I 
(See page 139) 

Musee Royal 

des Beaux-Arts 


{)e ^rt of ^ ^ 
®alkries d^ ^ 

Being a History of the Flemish School of 
Painting Illuminated and Demonstrated by 
Critical Descriptions of the Great Paintings in 
Bruges, Antwerp, Ghent, Brussels and Other 
Belgian Cities. ^ j^ J> J' J' 


Esther Singleton 


L. C. Page & Company 





Copyright, igog 
By L. C. Page & Company 


All rights reserved 

First Impression, October, 1909 

34 9 6(b 

Electrotyped and Printed at 
C .H . Simonds&' Co., Boston, U.S.A. 



In the following pages,! have endeavoured to give 
a concise description of the works of art in the Bel- 
gian galleries as well as some of the most famous 
masterpieces to be found in cathedrals, churches 
and other religious foundations. The visitor to the 
galleries of Antwerp, Brussels and Bruges will im- 
mediately notice that the great majority of the pic- 
tures are by native artists, only a few foreign works, 
principally by Italian and French masters, being 
met with. Dutch pictures, of course, are found in 
considerable numbers; but the Dutch School is so 
closely allied with the Flemish that it is difficult to 
distinguish them till the time of Rubens. Even the 
Little Masters of Belgium and Holland closely re- 
semble one another in character, especially the 
painters of genre and still-life. Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds thought it more reasonable to class the pictures 
according to their size rather than the birthplaces 
of the artists, the style and manner of many of the 
Dutch and Flemish painters being identical. In- 
deed, the Dutch claim Thierry Bouts, who removed 
from Haarlem to Louvain to study with Van der 

vi IPretace 

Weyden, as one of the early lights of their School. 
The first Dutch portrait-painter, Jan Van Score!, 
was a pupil in Utrecht of Mabuse, the Fleming; 
and the great Frans Hals spent the first twenty-five 
years of his life in Antwerp. At the end of the 
Sixteenth Century, Northern Art had become Ital- 
ianized and the division may be said to have finally 
occurred when Rubens dominated the Flemish and 
Rembrandt the Dutch School. 

During the Seventeenth Century there were 
many Flemish painters who were essentially Dutch 
in feeling and subject, especially the School of 
Teniers and the painters of animals, flowers, fruits 
and still-life. 

Difference of religion was one cause of varied 
development of the Schools, for while the Protes- 
tant Dutch were painting portraits and scenes of 
domestic life, as well as pastoral landscapes and 
marines, the Roman Catholic Flemings were still 
painting great altar-pieces and pictures of sacred 
and ecclesiastical history. The latter, however, 
were generally lacking in the old spirit of devotion. 

This book is intended as a help to the student in 
tracing the course of Flemish Art by the most not- 
able pictures to be found in the Belgian galleries. 
The introductory part contains short biographies of 
the chief masters whose works appear in the galler- 
ies, principally, and descriptive matter relative to 

preface vU 

their place in the course of Flemish Art, together 
with some description of their individual art qual- 
ities and their influence on others. 

In describing the art of the individual galleries, 
the general plan has been to deal first with the gems 
of the collection and the works of the greatest mas- 
ters, grouping the latter irrespective of subject. 

The student may occasionally notice what he con- 
siders a false attribution of authorship. This will 
be due to the fact that there is still great dispute in 
that regard among art authorities over many works 
of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. In all 
cases of doubt, I have adopted the opinions of the 
latest authorities who have written on the subject 
of Flemish Art. In describing the pictures, I have 
gone to the works of those authors who write most 
interestingly, as well as to those solid historians 
whose authority is recognized. I am particularly 
indebted to the writings of Blanc, Mantz, Michiels, 
Weale, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Fierens-Gevaert, 
Wauters, Hymans, Fromentin, Jacobsen, and many 
others who have contributed to French and Belgian 
art periodicals; and I have acknowledged my in- 
debtedness in the text for all verbatim quotations. 
I desire to thank Mr. Arthur Shadwell Martin for 
valuable assistance in the work. e. s. 

New York, July, 1909. 



Preface v 

I. Flemish Painters and Painting . . . i 
II. Bruges — The Hospital of St. John and 

THE Picture Gallery of the Academy hi 

III. Antwerp — Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts 136 

IV. Antwerp — The Hotel-de-Ville and the 

Musee Plantin-Moretus; Ghent — 
The Museum ;Tournai — The Munic- 
ipal Picture Gallery; Ypres — The 
Museum; and Mechlin — The Civic 

Museum 230 

V. Brussels — Palais des Beaux-Arts . . 260 
VI. Brussels — Musee Royal de Peinture 
Moderne; Hotel-de-Ville; Musee 
Communal; Musee Wiertz . . . 342 
Index 359 

%iQt of HUustvations 


I J. Van Eyck. — St. Barbara . . Frontispiece 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Amsterdam 

II Jan Mostaert. — Scenes from the Life of St. 

Benoit 2 

Palais dcs Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

III Lambert Lombard. — Human Calamities . . lo 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

IV Thierry Bouts. — The Last Supper . . . i8 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

V Lucas Van Leyden. — Dance of the Magdalen 26 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

VI Jan Swart. — Adoration of the Magi . . 34 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

VII PiETER Brueghel. — Massacre of the Innocents . 42 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

VIII School of Van Orley. — Lady with the Pink . 50 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

IX Jan Van Coninxloo. — The Marriage of Cana 58 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

X Cornelis de Vos. — Portrait of the Artist and 

His Family . 64 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

XI Frans Snyders. — Still Life .... 72 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XII David Teniers the Yoltnger. — The Five Senses 80 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

XIII A. Van Utrecht. — Kitchen .... 88 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

XIV J. B. Madou. — The Fortune-Teller ... 96 

Musee Royal de Peinture Moderne, Brussels 

XV E. de Schampheleer. — The Old Rhine near 

Gouda . . 104 

Musie Royal de Peinture Moderne, Brussels 



Xtat ot irilu6tratton5 


XVI Frans Courtens. — Returning from Church 

Musee Royal de Peinture Modcrne, Brussels 

XVII Memling. — The Mystic Marriage of St 


Hospital vf St. John, Bruges 

XVIII Gerard David. — Cambyses Condemning Si- 
samnes ...... 

Academy, Bruges 

XIX JoRDAENS. — The Family Concert . 
Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XX R. Van der Weyden. — The Seven Sacra- 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXI Q. Massys. — The Entombment . 
Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXII Floris. — Fall of the Rebel Angels . 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXIII A. Van Dyck. — Portrait of a Little Girl 

(With Dogs by Jan Fyt) 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXIV Rubens. — Madonna with the Parrot . 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXV Rubens. — The Coup de Lance . 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 
XXVI Jan Fyt. — Two Harriers 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXVII Clouet. — Frances II, Dauphin of France 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXVIII Ter Borch. — The Mandolin Player . 
Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXIX Frans Hals. — Fisher Boy .... 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXX Antonello da Messina. — Calvary 

Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp 

XXXI H. Leys. — Re-establishment of Worship in 
the Cathedral of Antwerp 
Musee Royal de Peinture Moderne, Brussels 

XXXII G. De Craeyer. — Assumption of St. Cath- 

\^ 1. IIX^ • as • • • • 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

XXXIII A. Moro. — The Duke of Alva . 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

1 10 








Xtst ot miustrations 



















Rembrandt. — Portrait of an Old Woman 254 

Palais dcs Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Jacob Van Ruisdael. — Landscape (With 

Figures and Animals by A. Van de 

Velde) 262 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Palamedes. — Musical Party . . , 270 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Patenier. — Repose in Egypt . . . 278 
Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Jan Brueghel. — Autumn Presenting Fruits 

to Diana 284 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Mabuse. — Jesus in the House of Simon the 

Pharisee 294 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Martin de Vos. — Portrait of a Lady . 300 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Teniers the Elder. — A Farm Scene . . 308 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Van Delen. — Portico of a Palace . . 318 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Jan Steen. — The Gallant Offering . . 326 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Flemish School. — Portrait of Marie Pacy 334 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Holbein. — Sir Thomas More . . . 340 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

J. Stevens. — Dog at the Mirror . . . 346 
Musee Royal de Peinture Moderne, Brussels 

Hobbema. — The Mill 350 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels 

Wiertz. — The Forge of Vulcan . . . 356 
Musee Wiertz, Brussels 

Wot art of t\ft 
33elgian <SaIItrie0 



Before the Fifteenth Century, pictorial art in the 
Netherlands was at a low ebb, and confined mainly 
to mural painting and miniature. The artists were 
inferior also to those of Cologne. The oldest known 
mural painting, dating about 1300, is a Christ bless- 
ing the Virgin, in the refectory of the Hospice de la 
Biloque at Ghent. Melchior Broederlain painted in 
1398 an altarpiece now at Dijon, the subjects of 
which are the Visitation, Presentation in the Tem- 
ple, Annunciation and Flight into Egypt. These 
show a strange mingling of ideality and realism, 
simplicity and delicacy. Some of the heads are 
beautiful and graceful; but many are trivial and 

The Van Eycks (Hubert, 1366-1426; and John, 


2 Ube Hrt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

1 380- 1 440) were the founders of the School of 
Bruges and the glory of early Flemish art. No 
research has succeeded in tracing their beginnings, 
their studies, or their masters. When they first 
appear in the records, they are already high in 
princely favour. In 1432, Philip the Good, Duke 
of Burgundy, visited John in his studio at Bruges. 

Whether they invented oil painting or not, they 
certainly perfected the process, probably by substi- 
tuting a siccative oil, Or varnish, for the oils pre- 
viouslv in use. 

Their great picture. The Adoration of the Lamb, 
marks a revolution in the realm of painting, similar 
to the changes introduced about the same period in 
Italy by such innovators as Gentile da Fabriano, 
Pisanello and Masaccio. For the first time for 
many centuries, an artist had again set himself the 
task of painting the open air, and adding the beauty 
of man to that of nature. In his personages, noth- 
ing Gothic remains. It is true that most of the 
individuals wear the costume of their day ; but there 
is freedom in their attitudes, gestures and facial 
expression. The landscape is at once fresh, precise, 
luminous, limpid and profound. The Van Eycks 
are the first to display a passionate love for smiling: 
landscape with its rivers and meadows, hills, trees 
and flowers. 

Hubert's qualities have been summed up as fol- 


JAN Palais des 

MOSTAERT Plate ii Beaux- Arts 

{See page 281) Brussels 




fflemisb painters anb paintina 3 

lows : — " He carried the realistic tendency, already 
existing in the Flemish masters, to an extraordinary 
pitch of excellence, whilst in many essential respects 
he adhered to the more ideal feeling of the previous 
period, imparting to this, by the means of his far 
richer powers of representation, greater distinct- 
ness, truth of nature and variety of expression. 
Throughout his works he displayed an elevated and 
highly energetic conception of the stern import of 
his labours in the service of the Church. The pre- 
vailing arrangement of his subject is symmetrical, 
holding fast the early architectonic rules which had 
hitherto presided over ecclesiastical art." ^ 

The Adoration of the Lamb, which is, perhaps, 
the most famous picture in the world, inaugurated 
the Flemish School of painting, which thus attained 
greatness with one bound. It is the joint work of 
the two brothers, though, perhaps, Hubert had by 
far the larger share in its production. Various 
learned critics have attempted to distinguish the 
styles of the two brothers and have pointed Out to 
their own satisfaction the parts painted by each; 
but, as they all differ in opinion, the layman is satis- 
fied merely with regarding and admiring the picture 
as the work of the Van Eycks. 

This gigantic altar-piece was ordered by Jodocus 
Vydts, a burgomaster of Ghent, and his wife, Isa- 

^ Kugler. 

4 Ube Hrt ot the JBclQian (Ballertes 

bella Borluut, for their mortuary chapel in the 
Cathedral of St. Bavon. Van Mander tells us that 
when it was finished " swarms " came to gaze upon 
it; but as the wings were closed, except on special 
festival days, " few but the high born and those 
who could afford to pay the custos saw it." The 
great work consisted of two series of panels. The 
upper wings, when closed, represented The Annun- 
ciation and the lower portion portraits of Jodocus 
Vydts and his wife and of John the Baptist and 
John the Evangelist. Sibyls and half figures of 
Zachariah and Micah ornamented the semicircles 
above. When opened, were seen three upper central 
panels, representing Christ, with the Virgin on his 
right and John the Baptist on his left; and below 
these three panels, the great panel, representing the 
Adoration of the Lamb. Next to John the Baptist 
and next to the Virgin were respectively the two 
groups t)f Angel Musicians and St. Cecilia, now in 
the Berlin Museum, and beyond these, at each end, 
the figures of Adam and Eve, now in the Brussels 
Gallery. Above the figures of Adam and Eve, were 
miniature groups of the sacrifices of Cain and Abel 
and the death of Abel. 

Only the central panels in St. Bavon's are the 
original work of the Van Eycks : the missing wings 
have been replaced by copies. 

" On a panel which overtops all the others the 

iflemisb painters ant) painting 5 

noble and dignified figure of Christ sits enthroned 
in the prime of manhood, with a short black beard, 
a broad forehead and black eyes. On his head is 
the white tiara, ornamented with a profusion of 
diamonds, pearls and amethysts. Two dark lappets 
fall on either side of the grave and youthful face. 
The throne of black damask is embroidered with 
gold ; the tiara relieved on a golden ground covered 
with inscriptions in semicircular lines. Christ 
holds in his left hand a sceptre of splendid work- 
manship, and with two fingers of his right he gives 
his blessing to the world. The gorgeous red mantle 
which completely enshrouds his form is fastened 
at the breast by a large jewelled brooch. The 
mantle itself is bordered \/ith a double row of 
pearls and amethysts. The feet rest on a golden 
pedestal, carpeted with black, and on the dark 
ground, which is cut into perspective squares by 
lines of gold, lies a richly- jewelled open-work 
crown, emblematic of martyrdom. 

" Christ, by his position, presides over the sac- 
rifice of the Lamb as represented in the lower panels 
of the shrine. The scene of the sacrifice is laid in 
a landscape formed of green hills receding in varied 
and pleasing lines from the foreground to the ex- 
treme distance. A Flemish city, meant, no doubt, 
to represent Jerusalem, is visible chiefly in the back- 
ground to the right ; but churches and monasteries. 

6 Xlbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Balleries 

built in the style of the early edifices of the Nether- 
lands and Rhine country, boldly raise their domes 
and towers above every part of the horizon, and are 
sharply defined on a sky of pale gray gradually 
merging into a deeper hue. The trees, which oc- 
cupy the middle ground, are not of high growth, 
nor are they very different in colour from the un- 
dulating meadows in which they stand. They are 
interspersed here and there with cypresses, and on 
the left is a small date-palm. The centre of the 
picture is all meadow and green slope, from a fore- 
ground strewed with daisies and dandelions to the 
distant blue hills. 

** In the very centre of the picture a square altar 
is hung with red dan ask and covered with white 
cloth. Here stands a lamb, from whose breast a 
stream of blood issues into a crystal glass. Angels 
kneel round the altar with parti-coloured wings and 
variegated dresses, many of them praying with 
joined hands, others holding aloft the emblems of 
the passion, two in front waving censers. From a 
slight depression of the ground to the right, a little 
behind the altar, a numerous band of female saints 
is issuing, all in rich and varied costumes, fair hair 
floating over their shoulders, and palms in their 
hands; foremost may be noticed St. Barbara with 
the tower and St. Agnes. From a similar opening 
on the left, popes, cardinals, bishops, monks and 

JflemlBb painters anb painting 7 

minor clergy advance, some holding croziers and 
crosses, others, palms. This, as it were, forms one 
phase of the adoration. 

*' In the centre, near the base of the picture, a 
small octagonal fountain of stone, with an iron jet 
and tiny spouts, projects a stream into a rill, whose 
pebbly bottom is seen through the pellucid water. 
The fountain and the altar, with vanishing points 
on different horizons, prove the Van Eycks to have 
been unacquainted with the science of linear per- 
spective. Two distinct groups are in adoration on 
each side of the fountain. That on the right com- 
prises the twelve apostles, in light grayish violet 
cloaks kneeling bare-footed on the sward, with long 
hair and beards, expressing in their noble faces the 
intensity of their faith. On their right stands a 
gorgeous array of three popes, two cardinal monks, 
seven bishops and a miscellaneous crowd of church 
and laymen. The group on the left of the fountain 
is composed 'of kings and princes in various cos- 
tumes, the foremost of them kneeling, the rest 
standing, none finer than that of a dark bearded 
man in a red cloth cap stepping forward in full 
front towards the spectator, dressed in a dark blue 
mantle and holding a sprig of myrtle. The whole 
of the standing figures command prolonged atten- 
tion from the variety of the attitudes and expres- 
sions, the stern resolution of some, the eager 

8 Zbc Htt ot tbe Belotan Galleries 

glances of others, the pious resignation and con- 
templative serenity of the remainder. The faithful 
who have thus reached the scene of the sacrifice are 
surrounded by a perfect wilderness of flowering 
shrubs, lilies and other beautiful plants, and remain 
in quiet contemplation of the Lamb." ^ 

On the wings are represented pilgrims coming 
to worship the Lamb. The group on the left repre- 
sents crusaders, knights and noblemen, kings and 
princes, all in splendid costumes that give an idea 
of the magnificent court of Burgundy. In the last 
panel on the left Hubert Van Eyck is seen, dressed 
in blue velvet lined with gray fur and a dark cap on 
his long brown hair, riding a spirited white pony. 
Not far from him and near two riders is a man in 
dark brown trimmed with fur and wearing a black 
turban, his face turned towards Hubert. Critics 
agree in supposing this to be John. 

The group on the right wing represents ascetics 
and saints approaching to the Adoration. Among 
them the Magdalen and St. Christopher are notice- 

John preferred easel pictures to frescoes. On 
account of the wonderful finish of his work, his 
paintings were comparatively few in number, com- 
prising half a dozen Madonnas and about as many 
portraits. The latter are remarkable for their real- 

^ Growe and Cavalcaselle. 

fflemlBb painters anb ipaiutlno 9 

ism, which st)metimes approaches brutaHty. Many 
critics consider John the equal of Raphael, Diirer, 
Holbein, Velasquez, Van Dyck, or Rembrandt as 
a portrait painter. 

The Van Eycks had as pupils or follow*ers all the 
Flemish and German painters of the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury. They reigned supreme north of the Alps, the 
Schools of Tours and Cologne alone preserving a 
certain independence. Even in Italy, their pictures 
sold for their weight in gold, and their new process 
of painting was propagated through Antonello da 
Messina, who had learned their secret. 

Roger Van der Weyden (1399- 1464) in his life- 
time was as celebrated as the Van Eycks. He visited 
Italy in 1450; and was so highly esteemed there 
that, On his return home, orders followed him. He 
was very versatile and produced miniatures and 
wood-engravings, as well as paintings in oil. His 
works greatly influenced German art and artists, par- 
ticularly Martin Schongauer, the greatest German 
painter of the Fifteenth Century. In Flanders, his 
great disciple was Hans Memling. 

" His figures, among which males predominate 
both in number and interest, do not all possess the 
impassibility sometimes attributed to them. Their 
beauty, or their moral significance, is merely re- 
strained, just like the artist's own emotions. Both 
need to be discovered. As for the expression of the 

10 Zbc Htt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

colour, the nbvel truth of the light, the profound 
feeling of the landscape — these are incontestable 
merits in the Louvain painter. They explain his pro^ 
found influence upon Memling, Gerard David, Quen- 
tin Massy s, the Master of the death of Mary, his 
prestige with the Sixteenth Century Renaissants, and 
the growing admiration of modern criticism for his 
genius." ^ 

The Descent from the Cross, signed 1443, of St. 
Pierre of Louvain, is probably not by Roger Van 
der Weyden, notwithstanding documentary evi- 
dence in its favour. It is by a very close pupil, or 
follower. It is very archaic in aspect, and the work 
is cleanly and conscientiously done. It recalls the 
master in many of its qualities. The clothes are 
painted with extreme care. Joseph of Arimathea 
is robed in a magnificent houppelande of brocade on 
which jewels sparkle here and there in settings of 
artistic design. The Virgin, with her thick neck, 
small mouth and pointed chin, reminds us of the 
MaUre de Flemalle by her sculpturesque character. 
Noticeable also is the popular character of some of 
the types, and the forced pathos of St. John. The 
colour is very brilliant. 

A master who occupies an important place in the 
Fifteenth Century, a contemporary of Roger Van 
der Weyden, is known as the Maitre de Flemalle. 

' Fierens-Gevaert. 



Plate III 
{See page 280) 

Palais des 

Beaux- Arts 





fflemtsb ipatnters ant) iPatnttng ii 

A Primitive in his composition, he is more mod- 
ern than Roger Van der Weyden on account of his 
atmosphere of reaHty and his picturesque interiors. 
He was first known as the Maitre a la souriciere 
(Master of the Mousetrap), because St. Joseph is 
working upon a mousetrap upon one of the panels 
of the triptych in the Merode Collection (Brussels) ; 
but as many of his important works, now in the 
Staedel Institut (Frankfort), are supposed to have 
come from the old Abbey of Flemalle in Liege, the 
critics gave him this name. He is enveloped in 
mystery, though some would identify him as 
Jacques Daret. 

Hans Memling (1425-1495) appeared just as 
the Van Eycks and John's beloved disciple Roger 
Van der Weyden had solved the most difficult prob- 
lems of painting, and created a new manner: their 
successor had only to follow along their path, and 
make use of their resources. With his inherited 
treasure, he built a magic palace in which the ideal 
reigns, and beauty is enthroned. 

Roger recognized his talents, and even took him 
for a collaborator: Margaret of Austria had a 
triptych, the centre of which was by Roger, and the 
wings by Memling. It is even believed by com- 
petent critics that the master took the pupil to Italy 
with him in 1450. 

In his altar-pieces, Memling almost always fol- 

1^ XTbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

lowed a narrative method : he Hked to develop an 
action, and to tell the story of his characters by 
means of successive scenes. His exquisite taste and 
feeling applies to nature as well as to mankind. 
Under his brush, the light sometimes assumes 
golden tones never eclipsed by Claude Lorraine; 
his deep and limpid waters, his swards spangled 
with flowers, his thick woods full of mysterious 
shadows, and his beautiful azure skies half veiled 
with light mists place him on a level with the Dutch 

Memling is one of the three great Flemish Primi- 
tives (counting the two Van Eycks as one). Van 
Eyck surpasses him by the almost hieratic grandeur 
and solemn harmony of his compositions, and the 
keen character of his portraits, in which, however, 
we feel some remains of the manner of the minia- 
turists. Roger Van der Weyden is sometimes 
stronger in drawing than Van Eyck, but more reso- 
lutely naturalistic in the best sense of the word; 
but Memling, although some of his portraits, not 
all, lean somewhat towards weakness, has put into 
his whole work the dream of a tender, delicate and 
passionate soul, an almost Raphaelesque love of the 
most aristocratic grace and elegance; and, in his 
most inspired moments, he has risen by his qualities 
as a designer, modeller and colourist to the level of 
his greatest brethren in Flemish art. 

fflemtsb painters anb IPaintfna 13 

Taine sums up the characteristics of the art of 
the Primitives as follows: 

" A Flemish Renaissance underneath Christian 
ideas, such, in effect, is the two-fold nature of art 
under Hubert and John Van Eyck, Roger Van der 
Weyden, Memling and Quentin Massys; and from 
these two characteristics proceed all the others. On 
the one hand, artists take interest in actual life; 
their figures are no longer symbols like the illumina- 
tions of ancient missals, nor purified spirits like the 
Madonnas of the school of Cologne, but living be- 
ings and bodies. They attend to anatomy, the per- 
spective is exact, the minutest details are rendered 
of stuffs, of architecture, of accessories and of land- 
scape; the relief is strong, and the entire scene 
stamps itself on the eye and on the mind with ex- 
traordinary force and sense of stability; the great- 
est masters of coming times are not to surpass them 
in all this, nor even go so far. Nature evidently is 
now discovered by them. The scales fall from their 
eyes ; they have just mastered, almost in a flash, the 
proportions, the structure and the colouring of visi- 
ble realities ; and, moreover, they delight in them. 
Consider the superb copes wrought in gold and 
decked with diamonds, the embroidered silks, the 
flowered and dazzling diadems with which they or- 
nament their saints and divine personages, all of 
whom represent the pomp of the Burgundian Court, 

14 Zbc Brt of tbc Belgian Galleries 

Look at the calm and transparent water, the bright 
meadows, the red and white flowers, the blooming 
trees, the sunny distances of their admirable land- 
scapes. Observe their colouring — the strongest 
and richest ever seen, the pure and full tones side 
by side as in a Persian carpet, and united solely 
through their harmony, the superb breaks in the 
folds of purple mantles, the azure recesses of long, 
falling robes, the green draperies like a summer 
field permeated with sunshine, the display of gold 
skirts trimmed with black, the strong light which 
warms and enlivens the whole scene; you have a 
concert in which each instrument sounds its proper 
note, and the more true because the more sonorous. 
They see the world on the bright side and make a 
holiday of it, a genuine fete, similar to those of 
this day, glowing under a more bounteous sunlight 
and not a heavenly Jerusalem suffused with super- 
natural radiance such as Fra Angelico painted. 
They are Flemings and they stick to the earth. 
They copy the real with scrupulous accuracy, and 
all that is real — the ornaments of armour, the 
polished glass of a window, the scrolls of a carpet, 
the hairs of fur, the undraped body of an Adam and 
an Eve, a canon's massive, wrinkled and obese fea- 
tures, a burgomaster's or soldier's broad shoulders, 
projecting chin and prominent nose, the spindle 
shanks of a hangman, the over large head and 

iflemisb painters anb painttna 15 

diminutive limbs of a child, the costumes and fur- 
niture of the age; their entire work being a glori- 
fication of this present life. But, on the other hand, 
it is a glorification of Christian belief. Not only are 
their subjects almost all of a religious order, but 
again they are imbued with a religious sentiment, 
which, in the following age, is not to be found in 
the same scenes. Their best pictures represent no 
actual event in sacred history, but a verity of faith, 
a summary of doctrine." 

Thierry Bouts (1400-1475) was a great con- 
temporary of John Van Eyck. Without useless 
luxury, or great tragic bursts, his painting is char- 
acterized by the probity, sincerity and impeccability 
of the most religious conscience. His restrained 
colouring, of rare quality, does not run to golds, 
nimbuses, or brilliant accessories. His art is not 
sumptuous, nor princely, nor passionate. Like the 
great Florentine Ghirlandajo, he clothes a character 
with bourgeoise austerity. People have so strongly 
insisted on the phlegm of his personages, that some 
critics (notably Voll and Heiland) have tried to 
detach him from the Flemish School in order to 
make a Dutch Master of him. . 

In the church of St. Pierre, Louvain, are two 
important pictures by Thierry Bouts. The Martyr- 
dom of St. Erasmus was painted about the same 
time as the Last Supper. It is painted on wood, 

16 XTbe art ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

and represents the saint in a landscape on a stretcher 
beneath a windlass on which his bowels are being 
wound off by two executioners who are being 
watched by a judge and attendants. On the 
wings of the triptych are St. Jerome and St. Ber- 

" Equally disagreeable, and quite as character- 
istic of the master as regards treatment is the Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Hippolytus in St. Sauveur at Bruges, 
depicting the saint stretched on the ground and 
about to be torn to pieces by four very large horses, 
led by servants. This hideous scene, treated in the 
style of Memling, has furnished one of the argu- 
ments in favour of that painter's stay at Venice. 
The painting as a whole has been much restored and 
touched, and the tone and colours are altered; but 
the composition is poor, the character of the heads 
and figures is defective, the dresses are in bad taste, 
and the attitudes are exaggerated according to 
Bouts's custom. The figure of the saint is thin and 
slender, and its muscular development faulty. The 
wings are in better preservation; one, containing 
an incident from the Hfe of St. Hippolytus, a group 
of men, being like the central panel, the other, 
representing a kneeling man and woman in a land- 
scape, being cold in tone, whilst it is soft in outline, 
and more in Memling's style than the rest of the 
altar-piece. The ill-restored obverse of this triptych 

jFlemtsb ipatnters ant) painting 17 

represents in chiaroscuro St. Charles, St. Hippo- 
lytus, St. Elizabeth and St. Margaret." ^ 

The Last Supper is the central panel of a polyp- 
tych, painted in 1464, for the altar of the Holy Sac- 
rament in the Collegial Church of Louvain. It is 
now in the church of St. Pierre, Louvain, near the 
Martyrdom of St. Erasmus. Two wings of the 
altar-piece are in Berlin, and two others in Munich. 

" The Last Supper is one of the most profound 
and best-painted works of the Fifteenth Century; 
and if one were to make a list of five or six supreme 
masterpieces of the Flemish Primitives, this would 
have to be included. The painter introduces us into 
a fine Gothic room opening into other apartments. 
In the centre, the tall table is set for the last meal. 
The disposition and attitude of Christ and His 
Apostles conform to the traditions observed in the 
representations of the ancient mysteries. Christ has 
a chalice before him, and in his left hand holds the 
Host, which he blesses with his right. Two apostles 
are placed on either side of the Saviour, and three 
others are at each end of the table. St. Philip and 
Judas sit facing Christ. This arrangement is also 
borrowed from Mediaeval dramaturgy. These 
transpositions of a ritualistic scenography in nowise 
injure the originality of the composition. The de- 
tails are painted with a fidelity that the Maitre de 

' Crowe, 

18 Ubc Hrt of tbe Belgian (Balledes 

FUmalle would have envied. What true emotion, 
moreover, there is in the faces! Behind Christ, a 
servant — or perhaps the host ! — stands with 
piously clasped hands; and beside the buffet is 
another personage in whom some people have 
thought they recognized the painter himself. In 
the framing of a narrow window, appear two other 
youths who might be the sons of Bouts : Thierry 
and Albert. All the heads — those of the august 
participants in the mystic festival, and those of the 
simple bourgeois who contemplate the Eucharist 
breathe truth and fervour. All these men are at 
the same time very close to life and very close to 
God — and, before leaving them, Christ has desired 
to be like unto themselves more than ever. Hence 
arises the strict unity in the expression and the strik- 
ing elevation of the sentiment. Rightly has it been 
said of this picture that, after the Adoration of the 
Lamb, it is the very type of the image of devo- 
tion." 1 

Thierry Bouts had two sons, both painters. 
Thierry, the eldest, was called '' pictor ymaginum," 
and died rich before 1491, leaving a son, Jan, who 
also became a painter. The younger, Albert, died 
about 1548 and enriched with his productions sev- 
eral churches in Louvain. Albert Bouts forsook 
the strong qualities of his father's school to launch 

^ Fierens-Gevaert. 



Plate IV 
{See page 272) 

Palais des 

Beaux- Arts 



jFlemtsb ipatnters an& pafnttng 19 

out in the refinements of a somewhat doubtful 
taste; and the School of Louvain with him is in its 

After the death of Memling, the last representa- 
tive of the pure traditions of Van Eyck, the Flem- 
ish School halted for a time between its first manner 
and another better adapted to the tendencies that 
were directing all minds to antiquity. It would be 
interesting to show the successive minds through 
which the new ideas gradually won their way, and 
those that remained faithful to the old art; but, 
with MemHng, the filiation of the heads of the 
Bruges School stops : we cannot say with any cer- 
tainty who was the pupil of his predilection. The 
centre of the School which had first been displaced 
when Van der Weyden removed it to Brussels, now 
abandons Bruges for Antwerp, and remains there 

Among the immediate followers of Memling 
were Gerard Van der Meire, at Ghent; Joachim 
Patenier and Jerome Bosch at Antwerp ; and finally 
Gerard David at Bruges. His elegance was also 
imitated by Gossaert, Bellegambe, Mostaert, and 
Lancelot Blondeel. 

" The painters of the Fifteenth Century had long 
studied and represented the world, mankind and 
religion under their most brilliant and gentle as- 
pects. Piety, innocence, calmness of spirit and love 

20 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Balleries 

of good without hatred of evil passed from their 
souls into their pictures and thence into the hearts 
of the multitude. Even their vulgarity is ingenu- 
ous : it does not take its rise in the cruel pleasures 
of raillery: it is the simple imitation of forms 
which are most commonly seen. They have diffi- 
culty in expressing odious feelings, anger, perfidy 
and wickedness. Savage moods are rendered with 
serious and pensive expressions ; tyrants and judges 
look mild and kind ; executioners pity their victims ; 
the pagans massacring St. Ursula's virgins have 
perfectly tranquil faces. 

" This harmony, desired by intelligence and 
dreamed of by poets, is personified by the Bruges 
School and realized in its pictures. There is no 
war between man and man, or man and nature; 
no more storms, catastrophes, clouded skies, nor 
melancholy days. Everywhere we see grass, 
flowers, green boughs, singing birds, gleaming 
waves, shining stars, an eternal spring. The most 
perfect Christian ideal governs all the relations of 
man, God, and nature." ^ 

But this ideal, being opposed to reality, was soon 
dissipated. The Bruges School could not fail to 
produce artists who, while making use of its tech- 
nique and manner, formed a kind of opposition. 
These are named Hugo Van der Goes (1430-1482), 

^ Michiels. 

IFlemtsb painters anb iPainttno 21 

Simon Marmion (1425-1480) and Jerome Bosch 
(1462-15 16). The first two habitually regarded 
life under its most sombre aspect, painting on their 
panels figures of desolation. Their successor, 
Bosch, took for his domain the twilight regions of 
the fantastic world, the place of Divine tortures 
where hopeless tears endlessly flow. 

Although truth and exactitude and observation 
of nature are not lacking in Jerome Van Aken 
(Bosch), he did not work with the patience of the 
Van Eycks. His rapidity was not entirely detri- 
mental, since it made his form more free and supple; 
he learned a better expression of the attitudes and 
movements of men and animals. Hotho tells us 
that the imaginary ground of his visions, although 
full of men, animals, monuments and rustic details, 
does not look at all encumbered; there are even 
wide empty spaces and solitary vistas. His capri- 
cious taste is noticeable in his general dispositions. 
He carries further than any other in the Bruges 
School the contrast between light and shade, cold 
and warm tints. He freely opposes vermilion, yel- 
lowish green and reddish brown with ochre mixed 
with blue tints, or with grounds of greenish blue. 
Red and yellow flames break from the dark smoke, 
and bright gleams illuminate the surface of the 
ponds, or are reflected from the armour worn by 
hideous skeletons. 

22 Ube Hrt of tbe Belgian 6allerte5 

Hugo Van der Goes, so celebrated in his own 
day, is not represented in any of the great Belgian 
galleries. In Italy, it was said of him that on this 
side of the Alps he had no equal. Critics still praise 
his broad and simple work, the austere expression of 
his faces and the strength of his colouring; but 
blame his hard outlines, dark shadows, and absence 
of chiaroscuro, or relief and transparence in the 
flesh. Like Memling at Bruges, in Brabant he was 
the last important figure in Van Eyck's school, 
which, under Massys, was soon to be transformed, 
and then to bow to Italian influence. After him the 
old Gothic manner soon disappears. 

The theocratic art of Van Eyck preserves in the 
dispositions of the groupings a regularity that is 
still ritualistic: Van der Weyden was the first to 
make his divine personages breathe with human 
feelings. Gerard David (1450-1523) went a step 
further: he painted real scenes; and, after some 
examples that he had perhaps admired in Italy, he 
taught the Flemings great historical composition. 
It is with this profoundly original creator that the 
admirable Burgundian epoch comes to an end. 

Gerard David was a productive painter ; and had 
many pupils. His was a pious and gentle nature, 
fitted for subjects of a tranquil character, delicate 
assemblages of saints and Virgins enthroned. He 
was a continuator of Memling, sometimes with an 

if lemi0b ipatnters an& paintina 23 

unequal brush, but with great charm of sentiment 
and an almost modern melancholy. He was also 
well acquainted with Massys, and imitated him. A 
Descent from the Cross, painted in 1520, now in 
the Chapel of the Sacred Blood at Bruges, is al- 
most an exact copy of the picture by Massys in the 
Antwerp Museum. 

" It is not known where Gerard learned his art, 
but most probably at Haarlem, or under Dirk Bouts, 
but the composition and colouring of his earliest 
known pictures show that before settling in Bruges 
he had travelled in Italy and come under the influ- 
ence of the Venetian School, probably of Carpaccio. 
Certain details such as the amorini, the garlands of 
fruit and flowers, and the Medicean cameos repro- 
duced in these, prove him to have visited Florence. 
His works were formerly often attributed to Mem- 
ling, with whose style they have a certain affinity. 
David lived in Bruges for forty years and received 
many commissions not only from the magistrates 
and citizens of that city, but also from France, 
Italy, Spain and Portugal. He is reckoned among 
the most esteemed Netherlandish painters, remark- 
able among other qualities for his careful and truth- 
ful painting of landscape. Some critics suppose 
indeed that his landscape backgrounds were exe- 
cuted by Joachim Patenier." * 

^ Weale. 

24 Zbc Hrt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

" Contemporary with David were a few artists 
who painted with a pathetic sentiment sorrowing 
Virgins and beautiful dying Christs in which the 
profound rehgious emotion of the Flemings still vi- 
brates. Among these were the unknown masters 
designated the Master of the Assumption, the 
Master of the Mater Dolorosa, the Master of the 
Death of Mary. But this intimate dramatization 
lof violent grief, this tranquillity in the attitudes 
that double the psychic eloquence of the characters 
becomes more and more rare. The calm, pensive, 
concentrated art of the great Bruges period dies 
with the splendid city whence it spread over the 
world. The Italian current carries it away with all 
its anatomical efforts, its care for external move- 
ment, and its receipts for style and composition ; till 
at length the Romanizing taste, already dear to Jan 
Gossaert, triumphs with Van Orley, Blondeel, Lom- 
bard, De Vos, Coxie and Floris." ^ 

Jan Mosaert (1474- 155 5) may be regarded as 
the last of the Gothic Flemings. He carried on the 
old traditions to the middle of the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury, respectfully and with great talent, recalling 
the blue and hilly distances of John Van Eyck, the 
superb stuffs of Memling ornamented with gold 
and gems, the minute exactitude in the detail of 

' Fierens-Gevaert. 

iflemtsb painters anb IPatntina 25 

Bouts, together with the strong colouring and hie- 
ratic gravity of all. 

Joachim Patenier, or Patinir (1490- 1548), and 
Herri de Bles (1480-1550) were two of the first 
Flemish masters to raise landscape to special im- 
portance. They mark the transition between the 
naive Fifteenth Century school, which they saw die 
out, and the Italianized Flemish style of the follow- 
ing period. De Bles, known also as the Master of 
the Owl, from his frequent introduction of that 
bird in his pictures as a sort of monogram, treated 
subjects of various kinds, but generally with a land- 
scape background very carefully treated. His for- 
est, mountain and meadow views are loaded with 
details and complicated with rocks Or intense and 
sombre verdure. In him we find the exaggeration 
of the naturalistic system inaugurated by John Van 
Eyck. He is nevertheless a curious painter, and 
deserves a place in the history of Flemish landscape. 

Patenier was his compatriot, and almost his 
neighbour, painting similar subjects, but being 
superior to De Bles in fineness of execution and 
feeling. In fact, details that should be lost in the 
distance are often too faithfully rendered. Patenier 
always conserved the patience and care of the old 
miniaturist. He was the first painter to give less 
importance to the figures than to the landscape of 
his pictures. But the great Primitives, as well as 

26 Ube Btt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

Leonardo da Vinci, Perugino, and many others, 
had treated nature with more breadth and fideUty 
than he in the backgrounds of their compositions. 
Van Mander says that he introduced pretty Httle 
figures into his landscapes. It is doubtful whether 
the relatively large figures in some of his pictures 
are by his own hand. 

" The Sixteenth Century is generally regarded 
as a period of decadence for the Flemish School, 
but this opinion must be received with some reser- 
vations. The school became enfeebled because its 
heads, repudiating the qualities that had character- 
ized their predecessors, adopted a new manner 
without completely assimilating it. They became 
less and less Flemish without becoming entirely 
Italian. But this period of transition, the greater 
part of which was filled with frightful wars, was 
not of long duration. During the first half of the 
Sixteenth Century, the galaxy of artists of the Low 
Countries showed themselves to be as brilliant as 
ever: it is the period of Quentin Massys, Jean 
Mabuse, Bernard Van Orley, Lucas Van Leyden 
and Jean Bellegambe. Here again numerous and 
original talents appeared. Weakness was not be- 
trayed till the following generation, which sub- 
mitted completely to the influence of Italy. How- 
ever, it did not decline without glory; and, among 
other works of merits it can claim the religious 

2 i ^ 

^ *^ 61 

s '^ 











jf lemisb painters anO painttrtG 27 

works of Frans Floris and Michael Van Coxie, as 
well as the portraits of Pourbus and Antonio 
Moro." ^ 

The pious and tranquil character of Flemish 
painting suffered great changes under Quentin 
Massys (1460-1530) and Jerome Bosch (1462'- 
15 16). Massys put more boldness into the design 
and gave freer movement to his personages ; he also 
treated with equal interest episodes of ordinary life 
and religious subjects, while Bosch, as though he 
foresaw the revolution for which Luther and Calvin 
were to give the signal, painted purgatorial scenes 
with an exaggeration bordering on the ridiculous. 
To some degree, these two artists formed the transi- 
tion between the Primitives and a whole galaxy of 
artists who lived in the first third of the Sixteenth 

Massys succeeded in harmonizing in his work the 
contradictory tendencies that were appealing to his 
contemporaries. He was largely converted to 
Italianism ; but Gothic inspiration still illumines his 
masterpieces at Brussels and Antwerp. He was 
somewhat isolated in his conservatism. One of his 
imitators was Martin Glaeszone, whose genre sub- 
jects are without spirit or charm. 

" Massys," writes Wauters, " was the first in 
Flanders to comprehend that the details should be 

» Wauters. 

28 Ube Hrt of tbe Belgian 6allettes 

subordinate to the whole; and to put into practice 
the great law of unity. Sometimes his style takes 
leave of Gothic forms : his lovely Virgins and his 
charming saints, captivating, dreamful and of subtle 
beauty, are the promise of a new art, less mystic 
and more worldly than that of Memling. We per- 
ceive that we are in an intermediate epoch. But, 
notwithstanding this strange influence, Massys is 
as Flemish as it is possible to be. He is the 
creator of the Antwerp School, the prophet of its 
splendours, and he forms the glorious transition 
between Van Eyck and Memling, who have dis- 
appeared, and Rubens and Jordaens, who are to 

Except Massys, who grew old without leaving 
his Antwerp studio, all the heads of the Belgian 
school after Memling followed the same path with 
more or less success: Mabuse, Van Orley, Belle- 
gambe and Blondeel should be grouped together, 
not only because they were almost exactly con- 
temporaries, but also because their common sub- 
mission to Italian influence is visible in their works. 

** The first Italian influx takes place with Jan 
Mabuse, Bernard Van Orley, Lambert Lombard, 
Jan Mostaert, Jan Schoorel and Lancelot Blondeel. 
They import in their pictures classic architecture, 
veined marble pilasters, medallions, shell niches, 
sometimes triumphal arches and cariatides, some- 

Jflcmtsb painters anb patnttng 29 

times also noble and vigorous female figures in an- 
tique drapery, a sound nude form, well proportioned 
and vitalized, of the fine pagan stock and healthy; 
their imitation reduces itself to this, while in other 
respects they follow national traditions. They still 
paint small pictures, suitable for genre subjects; 
they almost always preserve the strong and rich 
colouring of the preceding age, the mountains and 
blue distances of John Van Eyck, the clear skies 
vaguely tinged with emerald on the horizon, the 
magnificent stuffs covered with gold and jewels, the 
powerful relief, the minute precision of detail and 
the solid, honest heads of the bourgeoisie. But as 
they are no longer restrained by hieratic gravity, 
they fall in attempting to emancipate themselves 
into simple awkwardness and ridiculous inconris- 
tencies." ^ 

Jan Gossaert (Mabuse, 1470-1532) went to Italy 
in 1508, and stayed there for ten years. On his 
return, his work naturally showed Italian taste. 
His new manner is fully presented in the Jesus at 
the House of Simon, in Brussels. 

A famous contemporary of Mabuse was Jean 
Bellegambe of Douai ( ?-after 1530). His Adora- 
tion of the Holy Trinity, in the church of Notre 
Dame de Douai, in nine panels, is one of the typical 
masterpieces of this period of transition. His sons, 

" Tainc. 

30 Zbc Hrt of tbe JSelgtan Galleries 

grandsons and other descendants carried his school 
and traditions down into the Eighteenth Century. 

Lucas Van Leyden (1494-1533) painted in every 
genre; and was one of the ablest artists of the 
period who engraved their own works. In this, 
he displays great delicacy and extreme finish, match- 
ing Diirer in quality. His pictures are clear and 
delicate in colour, and varied in character and ex- 
pression, but his drawing is hard and mediaeval in 
outline. His subjects are taken from sacred history 
and contemporary manners. He was also a good 
portrait painter. 

Lancelot Blondeel, of Bruges (1496-1561) loved 
to paint scenes with magnificent architectural set- 
tings, the capricious ornaments of which are in 
Renaissance style. His figures, quite Italian in 
taste, are carefully executed; but they are man- 
nered, and the flesh tints are cold. 

Jan Van Coninxloo (1489-?) of whom little is 
known except that he was the son of a painter of 
the same name and had a brother, Pieter, also a 
painter, is famous for his splendid altar-pieces 
formerly attributed to Gilles Van Coninxloo (1544- 
1609). The latter was a pupil of Gilles Mostaert, 
travelled in France and Italy, and was one of the 
best landscape artists of his day. 

Bernard Van Orley (1488-1541) inherited the 
sceptre of Flemish Art after the death of Massys 

fflemisb patntets auD patntina 31 

and Mabuse; and, after having swayed it with 
glory, transmitted it through his pupil, Coxie, to 
Otto Van Veen (or Vsenius), from whom it passed 
to Rubens. 

Notwithstanding a strongly marked Italian in- 
fluence, his very unequal, but, generally, very finely 
composed religious works, preserved a characteristic 
Flemish colouring. At a period when the last imi- 
tators of the Primitives seemed to follow the old 
rut, Van Orley, by a singular blend of originality 
and imitation of Italian art, played a great part in 
the new outlook of painting in his native land. 
Bernard displayed many marks of the new spirit 
that was about to animate Flemish art. He did not 
like the patient execution of his predecessors; he 
was the first Flemish painter who worked in a rapid 
manner. In fact, the swiftness of his brush became 
famous. He therefore substituted for the charming 
and simple minuteness of the old school prompt 
labour, and opened the door to mere fabricators of 
painting. The renown of Van Eyck and Memling 
wearied him ; and thus we are far distant from the 
ingenuous modesty of the early artists. A pre- 
sumptuous trouble succeeds their calm reverie; and 
already foretells fatal struggles which will fill men's 
hearts with bitterness. 

If Van Orley was not the pupil of Gerard David, 
at least he was under his influence during his first 

32 Zbc Hrt of tbe JSelQtan eallettes 

period, where his figures have much action, and 
characteristic heads with rather large features. His 
architecture is full of false Renaissance, confused 
with Gothic motives which reveal his imperfect 
knowledge; and, in his landscape backgrounds, we 
see the hollowed out rocks of his contemporaries — 
Patenier, Bles, and the Master of the Death of 
Mary, etc., — at that period considered very roman- 
tic. His foliage is of a lovely green, and his colours 
tend to a pale blue, while the flesh tints are reddish. 

In all his pictures, the learned character of his 
drawing, the boldness of his attitudes, the correct- 
ness of his foreshortening, and the vigour of his 
expressions remind us of Italian art. But notwith- 
standing Van Orley's personal admiration of and 
attachment to Raphael, he imitates him less than 
Michael Angelo. We note the same hyperbole, and 
the same striving after difficult postures : from that 
time, energy suited the Flemish spirit far better than 
grace. But in spite of foreign influence, Bernard, 
in many respects, preserved the taste of his own 
country. His colour belongs to the school of Van 
Eyck; his types are of the Netherlands; his inte- 
riors, with their beds, curtains, dressoirs and brass 
ware, are all northern in character. 

The famous Last Judgment in the Church of St. 
Jacques, Antwerp, enables us to study the painter's 
last manner. This beautiful composition was 

fflemtsb painters anb iPainttuG 33 

painted between 1537 and 1540. At the top of the 
triptych, in the centre, we see Christ, the Virgin, 
Saints and Angels; but all this part is neglected 
by the painter, who devoted his powers particularly 
to represent the separation of the just from the un- 
just. We see them in innumerable multitudes 
leaving their graves. In the midst of them, we 
see Adam who starts back in terror at the sight of 
the demons and the condemned; whilst Eve, com- 
pletely nude, seems to await with confidence the 
execution of the Divine promises. The painter's 
fine and intense colour, and his deep knowledge of 
anatomy, are strikingly apparent in this capital 
work. His talent as a portrait painter also gives 
great value to the wings, on which are painted the 
givers of the triptych, Adrien Rockox and Cath- 
erine Van Overhoff, with their children and patron 

Pieter Coeck (1502-1553) was a pupil of Ber- 
nard Van Orley, and accompanied his master to 
Italy. He went to Constantinople, and the *' Man- 
ners and Customs of the Turks," published by him 
on his return, served his contemporaries and suc- 
cessors for the Oriental costumes and accessories of 
their historical and religious compositions for two 
or three generations. Rembrandt made use of it, 
as we find it in his inventory. Coeck also trans- 
lated the works of Vitruvius and Serlio, and greatly 

34 Ubc Hrt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

influenced the decorative art of his day. His pupil, 
Peter Brueghel the Elder, married his daughter. 

Michael Van Coxie (1499-1592) was another 
celebrated pupil of Van Orley. 

" Michael Van Coxie had a feeling for elegance, 
which he expressed everywhere — in his drawing, 
his colours, his figures, his grouping, his draperies 
and the smallest accessories of his pictures — which 
charmed his contemporaries. For them he revealed 
a new style: the freedom of his pencil, his knowl- 
edge of anatomy, the easy carriage of his person- 
ages, the skilful way in which they were grouped, 
— all these merits heretofore unknown could not 
fail to delight his spectators. They did not inquire 
into the origin of all this ; they simply accepted the 
new style without inquiring whence it came. More- 
over, the sky, the trees and the landscape back- 
grounds had also a modern expressiveness." ^ 

The Cathedral of St. Rombaud, Mechlin, pos- 
sesses parts of two fine altar-pieces by Michael Van 
Coxie. In the one, dated 1588, painted when the 
master was 89 years old, we see St. George, stripped 
naked and bound to a wheel that is beginning to 
turn : planks studded with nails will tear his flesh as 
he passes over. This frightful execution terrifies 
the spectators, who turn their heads aside in order 
not to see it. Two soldiers even, who should be 

' Michiels. 



Plate VI 
{See page 280) 

Palais dcs 






jflemtsb ipainterB anb lC>ainting 35 

hardened to such scenes, are taking to their heels. 
The executioners, moreover, can not restrain their 
emotion. Although the saint's body has not yet 
suffered, his face expresses a secret horror that his 
will can hardly control. His eyes, however, are 
fixed on an angel who is bringing him the crown 
of the elect. The two wings of the triptych depict 
other scenes of the saint's martyrdom. 

The central panel of the second triptych is dated 
1587. The subject is St. Sebastian bound to a tree, 
and about to be shot to death with arrows. The 
body is a fine study of the human: it is elegant in 
form and well drawn. The head is distinguished 
with an expressive nobility. The archers are shoot- 
ing from a ridiculously short distance. The back- 
ground is composed of a charming landscape and 
cloudy sky. The whole work is unusually harmoni- 

Other scenes of the martyrdom occupy the wings. 

The last picture here is the Circumcision. The 
great interior of a splendid temple where the cere- 
mony takes place is painted by Coxie's collaborator 
Jan Vredemann. The picture displays great ele- 

Jan Van Hemessen (1500- 1555) was a painter 
who still clung to the past even when the Renais- 
sance was in full flower. He copied, without com- 
prehending, Massys and Mabuse. Sometimes he 

36 Ubc Hrt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

goes to the limits of ugliness; his colour is hard, 
and shadows heavy; but he has a turn for expres- 
sion, and his simple energy approaches original- 

Josse Van Cleef (1500-1556) was one of the best 
Flemish portrait painters of the school of Holbein. 
He recalls the latter's delicacy of design, the pleas- 
ing intensity of his colour, his grounds of strong 
green, and his attentive rendering of detail. In 
him we see the first dawn of the flamboyant tones of 
Jordaens. He serves as a link between Holbein 
and Antonio Moro. 

Flanders was just breaking away from the simple 
forms of the religious art of the Fifteenth Century, 
when Italian influence hindered independent native 
development. Lambert Lombard (1506- 1566) 
went to Rome in 1538 with Cardinal Pole; and al- 
though he remained there only a short time, he 
studied and was profoundly struck by the works of 
Andrea del Sarto; and was dazzled by the other 
stars of the Renaissance. On his return to Liege, 
he opened a school there, and publicly taught that 
the Middle Ages were for ever ended; and that 
Italy was the country of the ideal. Floris, then 
twenty years old, went to Liege to study under 
Lombard, soon surpassed his master, and proceeded 
to Italy. 

Frans Floris (De Vriendt, 15 18-1570) was very 

jflemlsb painters an^ Ipainttna 37 

inappropriately called the Flemish Raphael, for he 
was a far closer imitator of Michael Angelo. He 
forgot his origin to become not merely an Italian, 
but a Tuscan. Of the Sixteenth Century Flemings, 
none more absolutely disowned his nationality, nor 
possessed to such a degree the gift of assimilating 
the style and temperament of others. 

" Besides two sons of some artistic celebrity in 
their day, Floris left many disciples, the greatest of 
whom were Martin de Vos, Lucas de Heere and 
Martin Van Cleef. His influence on his period was 
considerable. The authority of his constantly ap- 
plauded work, the character of his imagination, at 
once fiery and delicate, and the prestige naturally 
attaching to such an able imitator of Michael 
Angelo and Andrea del Sarto enabled him to dis- 
cipline almost all contemporary fancies and organize 
a great school that reigned flourishing and admired 
till the first years of the Seventeenth Century. This 
school, however, more Italian than Flemish, had 
against it the old traditions of the country and the 
eternal resistance of the national temperament. It 
can only count therefore in the history of art in 
Flanders as an interval during which skilful rhet- 
oricians held the stage without having time to finish 
the piece. The sudden appearance of Rubens put 
these foreign comedians to flight, and the school, 

38 Zbc Hrt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

having recovered itself, began to talk Flemish 
again. ^ 

Faithful to the habits and tendencies of his coun- 
try, Martin de Vos (1532-1603) did not fail to give 
importance to details, multiply accessories, and open 
a window on a landscape. By this trait we imme- 
diately recognize the predominance of a Flemish 
mind that Italy has not entirely fashioned. It is 
strange that with De Vos the secondary group al- 
most always overpowers the principal figures. 
Sometimes the scene, instead of being repeated in 
the distance, is continued. If, in the front of the 
picture, we see the Prodigal Son casting himself at 
his father's feet, in the distance, we see the tables 
already set, and the feast beginning. And, as if the 
painter wanted to play with the solemn laws of 
Classic Art, he places on the same canvas the Prodi- 
gal Son revelling, on his knees, and herding the 
swine: an ingenuous and entirely primitive way of 
despising the unities of action, time and place ! But 
we must pause a moment before those backgrounds 
where the artist has, so to speak, worked in the 
echoes of his drama : they are generally landscapes. 
Martin de Vos thus shares with Bernard Van Orley 
the honour of having introduced into the Low 
Countries a genre which was to be carried there to 
the last limits of perfection. We know how the 

^ Paul Mantz. 

iFlemtsb painters an& patnttnG 39 

Sixteenth Century painters viewed the country: it 
was under the strongest colours. Before Paul Bril, 
before Brueghel, Martin de Vos fobed his landscape 
with those green and blue tones whose sharp crudity 
to-day astonishes our eyes, accustomed as we are 
by the great Dutch landscape painters to the melan- 
choly and sweet harmony of broken colours and 
autumnal tints. It was, moreover, quite simple 
that the love of nature should begin with tracing 
the brilliant image of Spring. Martin de Vos did 
not merely represent the flat country of the province 
of Antwerp; he gave movement to his landscape, 
cutting it up with accidentals full of grace and in- 
terest; he invented happier forms for it, as well as 
the violent colours of emerald and ultramarine. 
It would even seem that in painting Nature, he 
went to Germany rather than Flanders. Lastly he 
enlivened his backgrounds with forest cabins and 
Gothic villas. 

*' Less mannered than his successors, De Vos, 
however, like Tintoret, strove after contrasts of atti- 
tude and movement and picturesque ease of car- 
riage; but in his pictures we do not find, as in 
Bloemart's useless personages, idle figures, or mere 
fillings. Moreover, with De Vos we see the dis- 
appearance not Only of the last traces of the Italian 
style Imported by Van Orley, Lombard and Floris, 
but the remains of the Gothic art, some vestiges of 

40 xrbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian Gallettes 

which were still noticeable in him, especially in the 
angular folds of his draperies and the choice of his 
stuffs. Next comes Otto Vaenius, who forms the 
transition between De Vos and Rubens, as De Vos 
did between Vsenius and Floris." ^ 

Lucas de Heere of Ghent (1534-1584) was 
archaeologist, numismatist and author of literary 
works, including a poem on the Flemish painters. 
He painted many portraits at the Courts of France 
and England. His Solomon and the Queen of 
Sheba in Saint Bavon is dated 1559. 

Antoine Claessens ( ?-i6i3) was probably a 
pupil of Massys. His Last Judgment (signed and 
dated 1574), in the Bruges Town Hall, exhibits 
qualities of expression and exquisite finish char- 
acteristic of Memling, but the colour is browner 
and heavier, and lacking in freshness. 

The three brothers Francken, Frans (1544- 
1616), Ambrose (1545-1618), and Jerome (d. 
1620) were famous in their day. Though not one 
of them went to Italy, they all studied under Floris, 
and were influenced by Martin de Vos, following 
with considerable success the somewhat cold 
methods with which Flemish genius was trying to 
combine with Italian grace. They lived to see the 
triumph of Rubens, and find themselves neglected 
as representatives of a discredited school. 

» Blanc. 

If lemtsb painters an^ painting 41 

There was a large number of secondary painters 
in the last half of the Sixteenth Century that pre- 
served somewhat of the old Flemish genius. Among 
these may be mentioned the Brueghels at Antwerp; 
Peter Aertszen of Louvain, and his pupil Joachim 
Bueckelaer David Vinckboons and Lucas Van 
Valckenburg of Mechlin; Frans Francken the 
Younger and Joost Van Cleef of Antwerp; Frans 
Pourbus the Elder and Younger, Willem Key, 
Nicolas Neuchatel, called Lucidel, Geldorp Gortzius 
of Louvain, Mark Gerard of Bruges, Paul Van 
Somer of Antwerp, the Bril brothers, Mathew and 
Paul, Josse de Momper and Rolandt Savery, Adam 
Willaerts and Bonaventure Peeters of Antwerp 
(marine painters), Hendrik Van Steenwyck and 
Pieter Neefs of Antwerp (architectural painters), 
Hans Bol of Mechlin and Hoefnagel of Antwerp 

Pieter (Peasant) Brueghel (1530-16 — ?) re- 
ceived lessons from Van Orley and Jerome Coeck, 
but his real master was the long dead Jerome Bosch, 
whose fantastic works fascinated him. He went to 
Italy, of course ; but was more affected by the Alpine 
landscape than by anything else. On his return, he 
may be said to have revived the Flemish spirit which 
was daily dying under imitation of the Italians. 
Brueghel would not allow^ himself to be carried 
along with the crowd : the peasant become painter 

42 Ube Htt Of tbe Belgian Galleries 

consulted only his own tastes. He reproduced the 
familiar scenes of his boyhood which had lost none 
of their charm for him. By his love for the mar- 
vellous, his talent in landscape painting and his 
ability in painting village manners, Brueghel re- 
newed the traditions of Flemish painting, gave one 
hand to the past and the other to the future. A 
disciple of Bosch, and allied with the Van Eycks and 
Memling, he prepared Teniers and the kermesses of 
Rubens, Brouwer and Van Ostade. His pastoral 
tendencies gained for him the name *' Boeven 
Brueghel " (Peasant Brueghel) ; and his comic 
scenes, " Viesen Brueghel" (Droll Brueghel). 

His two sons, *' Velvet " (1568-1625) and 
*' Hell " (1574-1637), were equally famous. Pieter 
received his sobriquet, " Hell," from his love of 
painting fires and infernal scenes. Flames in dark- 
ness are admirably represented in his works. The 
sombre character of the period with its crimes, per- 
secutions and atrocious wars is reflected in the 
tragic pictures of both father and son. 

" During the second half of the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury, Pieter Brueghel is the great jester of the 
Flemish School ; he is one of those who used gaiety 
as a mask in order to hide, and sometimes to reveal, 
the anxieties and the melancholy of a period when 
human life counted for so little, and when struggle 
was in every mind and every heart. Therefore, the 


*- Si 












t— 1 



















V— / 








iflemtsb painters anb patnttnQ 43 

slightest fancy of the painter of peasants is worth 
more in a moral sense and in historical value than 
the most learned reminiscences of Floris and De 
Vos. Moreover, he is closer than they to the tradi- 
tional ways of Flemish painting. He believes in 
boldly contrasted colours, and in the strong tonali- 
ties so dear to the old Fifteenth Century masters; 
he strives for energy and character; he paints men, 
houses and landscapes as he sees them; the creator 
of a school which gradually changed and finally was 
extinguished, his was the honour of adding the 
protest of his own frank burst of laughter to the 
resistance of the national genius against the inva- 
sion of foreign methods. 

" However, this healthy and robust art was 
scarcely accepted and comprehended except among 
the lower classes. The aristocracy and lettered 
classes of the day remained entirely in sympathy 
with Italianism; and Flanders in denying and be- 
littling herself. Early in the Seventeenth Century, 
Otho Van Veen, fascinated with the ultramontane 
painting, always sought after the tenderness of Cor- 
reggio and Andrea del Sarto ; and the three Franck- 
ens prolonged, not without coldness, the lessons of 
the School of Fontainebleau. Before long, also, an- 
other principle came to complicate and sadden the 
situation. Several artists, recently arrived from 
Rome, and affected by the violences of Caravaggio, 

44 Xlbe art of tbe Belgian Galleries 

made a specialty of vigorous tones and heavily ac- 
cented shadows, and tried to persuade their coun- 
trymen that it was good taste to paint black. The 
native genius was about to suffer a new assault, the 
Flemish element was compromised, when, in 1608, 
Rubens returned from Italy." ^ 

Peter Aertszen (1505- 15 73) was a pupil of Allart 
Claessen. He worked at Amsterdam, Antwerp, 
Louvain and Delft. In his treatment of religious 
subjeT:ts, he imitated Lucas Van Leyden and Heem- 
skerck, but he introduced simple and even vulgar 
touches of realism powerfully expressed. His draw- 
ing w^as free and his colour lively, which renders 
him one of the first representatives of that natural- 
ism that is the glory of the Little Masters of the 
Dutch and Flemish Schools. 

Joachim Bueckelaer (1530-1577), Aertszen's 
nephew, followed in his steps. He was famous for 
his markets, fairs, kitchens, interiors, game, fruit 
and still life. He painted Biblical scenes in the 
costume of his own day. 

David Vinckboons (1578- 1629) settled in Am- 
sterdam, and reintroduced landscape painting which 
had been neglected there for more than fifty years. 
Savery and Coninxloo assisted in this. He was a 
follower of Velvet Brueghel though witH individual 
qualities. He then proceeded to treat religious 

^ Paul Mantz. 

3f lemtsb painters an^ ipalnting 45 

subjects in a familiar manner; and excelled in 
kermcsses, in which he loved to make the strong 
reds and blues of peasant costume play against the 
bright and sombre greens of the landscape. To-day 
the latter have changed to yellow and brown. 

Lucas Van Valckenburg (1549- 162 5) painted 
excellent landscapes in gray and silvery tones. He 
was also a portrait and miniature painter. 

Joost Van Cleef, called the Fool (1510-?), lost 
his reason and died at an early age. His portraits 
are remarkable for their sincerity of expression and 
brilliant colour. His works have often been con- 
founded with those of Holbein and the School of 

Pieter Pourbus (15 10- 1584) and his son Frans 
(1540- 1 580) may be ranked among the best por- 
trait painters of the Sixteenth Century. By their 
patient methods and respect for the individual char- 
acter of their sitters, they belong to the school which 
Holbein founded and reigned over. Pieter Pourbus 
can best be studied in his religious pictures, on the 
wings of which are usually painted the donors in 
devout attitudes. Here his serious brush excels in 
reproducing in their intimate reality and every day 
costume those Flemish nobles or merchants, kneel- 
ing, with joined hands, with familiar faces endowed 
by religious conviction with touching gravity. Be- 
fore the central panel of his triptych, he places not 

46 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

only the father and mother, but also the children 
in order. On one side are the sons severely clothed 
in their black pourpoints; and, on the other, are 
the daughters, with their faces half hidden in their 
white hoods. The Bruges churches are full of such 

Frans was perhaps an abler artist, but lacking 
in his father's touching simplicity. He was an ex- 
act and sincere portrait painter ; and liked to intro- 
duce into his religious pictures the faces of his con- 
temporaries and his friends. His style was a com- 
bination of Flemish taste and Italian influence. In 
his Christ among the Doctors at St. Bavon several 
of the notabilities of the court of Philip II have 
been recognized. 

Willem Key (1520- 1568), a portrait and his- 
torical painter, was a pupil of Lambert Lombard 
at Liege and a comrade of Frans Floris. Painting 
the Duke of Alva, he was so terrified over hearing 
his announcement to kill Egmont that he died of 
the shock. 

Nicholas Neuchatel, called Lucidel, who became 
a famous portrait painter, entered the studio of 
Peter Coeck of Alost in Antwerp in 1539. His 
portraits are noted for their refined feeling for col- 
our and careful treatment of detail. The dates of 
his birth and death are unknown. 

Gualdorp Gortzius, called Geldorp (1553-1616 

Iflemtsb painters an^ painting 47 

or 1618), was a pupil of Frans Francken the Elder 
and Frans Pourbus. He became one of the best 
portrait painters of his time. 

Paul Van Somer (1570-1621) painted portraits 
in Antwerp with his brother Bernard, but went to 
England, where he worked for many years and 
where he died. His colour is warm and clear and 
his execution finished. 

Another favourite Flemish portrait-painter at the 
English Court was Mark Gerard of Bruges, spelled 
also Geerarts, the son of a painter of the same name. 
The dates of his birth and death are unknown ; but 
he was a pupil of Lucas de Heere. 

Paul Bril (i 556-1626) at first painted the tops 
of harpsichords and finally found his way to Italy, 
where he studied under and assisted his brother 
Matthys. He was patronized by Clement VUI 
and painted many landscape pictures, to some of 
which Annibale Carracci contributed figures. 

" He viewed nature with a fresh eye — selecting 
her natural and poetic rather than her arbitrary and 
fantastic features. He was the first to introduce a 
certain unity of light in his pictures, attaining 
thereby a far finer general efTect than those who 
had preceded him. His deficiencies lie in the over 
force, and also in the monotonous green, of his 
foregrounds and in the exaggerated blueness of his 
distances. Nevertheless, this painter exercised a 

48 XTbe Hrt of tbc Belgian Galleries 

considerable influence over Rubens, Annibale Car- 
racci and Claude Lorraine, and must ever occupy 
an important position in the development of this 
branch of art." ^ 

Roelandt Savery (i 576-1639), a native of Cour- 
trai, is noted for his wild rocky landscapes where 
savage animals dwell and for his poetic feeling, 
especially in his treatment of fine woodland scenes. 
His landscapes are often crowded with animals. 
He was a pupil of his brother, Jakob (1545- 1602), 
a landscape and animal painter and a disciple of 
Hans Bol and inherited his talent from his father, 
Jakob, a native of Courtrai, who settled in Amster- 
dam about 1550, and excelled in painting animals, 
birds and fishes. Josse de Momper (1564-1634), 
also a painter, followed the fantastic landscapes of 
the older masters, with high hills and strong sun- 
light. David Teniers the Elder, Henrik Van Balen, 
Peter Brueghel the Younger and the Franckens 
Contributed the figures in his foregrounds. His 
works are numerous. Josse de Momper was also 
a famous etcher. 

Adam Willaerts (1577-before 1662) painted 
river and canal scenes, fish markets, processions, 
harbour and coast views and villages and ships on 
fire. His waves are not always natural; but his 
colour is vigorous, his touch broad and soft and 

' Crowe. 

fflemtsb painters an^ patnttna 49 

the groups of figures with which he enlivens his 
scenes correct and full of spirit. 

Another marine painter was Bonaventura Peeters 
( 1 614- 1 634), whose works are unequal in merit, 
but who had great talent for composition and the 
arrangement 'of light and shade. He was especially 
fond of a tempestuous sea with lightning flashing 
from the clouds, and a ship in danger. His works 
are rare in public galleries. *' His pictures," says 
Crowe, *' have generally a very poetic character, 
though often untrue and mannered in the forms of 
the hills, the clouds and in the movement of the 
waves. On the other hand they have the merit of 
a great power and clearness of colour and of a mas- 
terly handling." His brother Jan Peeters (1624- 
1677) painted similar subjects successfully. 

The same spirit that prompted a rich man to 
have his castle or more modest home perpetuated 
on canvas, led him to wish for a representation of 
the venerated church or cathedral, whose bells he 
had heard every day of his life, and in which he 
had been baptized and married, and in which one 
day he would be buried in the tomb of his ancestors. 
A special branch of painting, therefore, arose which 
had for its object the reproduction of the interiors 
of Gothic churches. Here we find the painter far 
removed from the architectural draughtsman, for 
the rigid rules of geometry are little to his taste. 

50 Zhc Brt ot tbe JSelotan Galleries 

The first Flemish master of this genre was Hen- 
drik Van Steenwyck (1550-1604), a pupil of Jan 
Vriedeman de Vries, whose architecture introduced 
into his pictures proves his devoted study of Vitru- 
vius and Serlio. Steenwyck was a master of per- 
spective both lineal and aerial, and treated the 
artificial light of lamps, torches and candles with 
marvellous accuracy and effect. As a rule, he makes 
the spectator pause at the entrance of the great 
portal giving him a view of the entire nave to the 
high altar with its lace-like rood scr'een, white 
cloth, holy vessels and lighted tapers. Again he 
will give a view so that a side chapel is conspicuous 
and where one dim lamp throws its orange gleams 
through the dark shadows. In many pictures, too, 
by his use of colour and treatment of light and 
shade he gives the spectator the same impression 
that he receives in the cathedral itself. The human 
figures were supplied by one of the Franckens and 
other masters. 

" I love to find in the pictures of Steenwyck not 
only the exact architecture of the cathedrals with 
their springing columns, their glass windows, their 
sonorous pavement and that marble font in which 
the roof of the edifice is reflected, but also the im- 
pression produced by all these things at different 
hours of the day, that moral essence that emanates 
from it all and the unexpected poetry of a scene 



Plate VIII 
{See page 279) 

Palais des 






fflemtsb ipatnters ant) iPatntina 5i 

whose elements are after all only stone, light and 
shadows." ^ 

His son, Hendrik, was his pupil and follower. 

The best of Steenwyck's pupils, Pieter Neefs 
(1570-165 1 ), painted in the same style as his 
master; but exceeded him in his warmth of tone 
and in the truthfulness of his torchlight effects. Jan 
Brueghel, David Teniers the Elder and Frans 
Francken the Younger contributed figures to his 
pictures. Pieter Neefs the Younger (i 601 -after 
1675) was inferior to his father. 

Among the Flemish painters of interior ar- 
chitecture must be mentioned Antony Ghering 
(?-i668) and Willem Van Ehrenberg (1637-1675 
or 1677). 

The architecture is also good of Denis Van Als- 
loot (1550- 1625), who was particularly noted for 
his representation of public squares at the time of 
some national fete or public procession. 

Jan Van Rillaert (about 1508- 1568) was a native 
of Louvain and was frequently employed to paint 
and design the decorations for public ceremonials. 
He also executed numerous works for churches, 
convents and the Town Hall of Louvain. His son 
of the same name was also a painter. 

Adam Van Noort (155 7-1 641) was a Fleming 
who never went to Italy : he was a great painter, 

' Charles Blanc. 


52 xibe Hrt of tbe JBelgtan (3allertes 

however, and had many pupils. Among the latter 
were Rubens, and Jordaens, who married his 
daughter. He painted little: but in his master- 
piece at the church of St. Jacques, Antwerp, we 
find an intelligent prescience of all the qualities 
which a few years later were to be the honour of 
the Antwerp School. In this picture, Rubens and 
Jordaens are contained in germ, and announced in 

Otho Vsenius (1558- 1629) was another great 

" The pictures of Vasnius," says Wauters, 
" never fail to excite interest by their correct ele- 
gance, the charm of their female figures, and their 
sincere feeling for the beautiful. To-day the work 
of Vsenius, by its coldness and mannered Classicism, 
leaves us somewhat indifferent, but the artist is 
nevertheless assured of immortality, for he was the 
master of Rubens. This honour he shared with 
Adam Van Noort." 

The Resurrection of Lazarus, in the Church of St. 
Bavon, Ghent, is considered by some critics to be his 
masterpiece. It is a picture that any of the great 
masters would be proud to sign. In colour, it is 

Karel Van Mander (1548- 1606) is better known 
as a poet and the author of the Lives of the Flemish 
Painters than as an artist. His chief glory is to 

fflemisb painters anb patntino 53 

have been the master of Frans Hals. The Church 
of St. Martin contains several pictures by him, 
though only one is signed. It is dated 1582, and 
depicts the Martyrdom of St. Porphyria, and, as the 
inscription informs us, of two hundred knights, 
who, remaining firm in their belief, were decapi- 
tated with her and thrown to the dogs. It is a work 
of very ordinary merit. The foreground is occu- 
pied by three bleeding corpses and their severed 
heads. The middle distance is devoted to the execu- 
tion of the saint. The open space is surrounded 
by a multitude of spectators, and men on horseback. 
The distant landscape is closed in by mountains, 
the faces of the whole crowd are singularly lacking 
in expression : even the saint looks entirely indif- 
ferent to her fate, and shows no holy ecstasy. The 
contours are constrained, and some even hard. No 
fine effects of distance are rendered ; and the artist's 
beloved Italian method is only half-heartedly fol- 
lowed. He halts between the old and the new. His 
colour is startling and crude. The Last Judgment 
here is equally unsatisfactory. 

Frans Hals, who is often classed in the Dutch 
School, is claimed rightfully as a Fleming by birth 
and education. Born in 1584, at Mechlin, he 
studied under Karl Van Mander, who vainly tried 
to impart his enthusiasm for the Italians. After 
his master's death in 1606, Hals followed his natu- 

54 Ube Hrt of tbe BclQian Galleries 

ral bent — portraiture ; but with what success is 
not known. The return of Rubens from Italy, and 
his subsequent exclusive sway in Flemish art, in- 
duced Hals to emigrate to Haarlem about ten years 
later. He died there in 1666, — the last of the 
great Flemish portrait painters. 

John Snellinck (1544-1638) was a painter of 
religious subjects; and, in his colour, was a worthy 
forerunner of Rubens. 

Abraham Janssens (1567- 1632) studied in Italy, 
and returned to Antwerp during Rubens's absence, 
and gained great fame and success. He was the 
greatest painter in Flanders at that time, and was 
heartbroken at being eclipsed by Rubens on the 
arrival of the latter. He painted magnificent pic- 
tures in the Italian taste, being a follower of Michael 
Angelo. He is better represented in the Belgian 
churches than in the museums. 

St. Luke Painting the Virgin's Portrait adorns 
the Cathedral of Mechlin. Placed on a platform 
and holding her Son, Mary poses like an ordinary 
person. Seated before a desk, the Evangelist 
sketches her image in crayon on a piece of paper. 
He holds his head well back to examine her atten- 
tively. An old man standing behind him — St. 
Joseph perhaps — criticizes his design. A box 
placed against the wall contains a skeleton that is 
brought to life by the presence of the Virgin, and 

fflemisb painters an^ painting 55 

that clasps its hands and adores her. The artist 
has doubtless intended to make us understand thus 
that the two personages are an apparition. The 
Saint could not very well have painted Christ in His 
infancy! The scene is decorated with a Roman 
monument, and Renaissance ceiling and windows. 
In the back of the room, a servant is grinding 
colours; and, beyond, a half-open door reveals a 
spacious chamber, with a bed and table. 

" The manner in which this picture is painted ex- 
cites some surprise. First, we notice a considerable 
penury of details, quite in contrast with the prodi- 
gality of Rubens. The flesh, the stuffs, the furni- 
ture all lack shadings and transitions; and form 
large plaques. The enormous draperies, which re- 
call the vestments of Guido, do not belong to any 
species of tissue, an Italian custom approved of by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds and academical professors. 
The colour is brilliant but hard : the carnations es- 
pecially, to which the artist tried to give a southern 
tone, are somewhat harsh and dry. One would say 
that they belonged rather to wood than to flexible 
and living flesh. The types are not very happy. 
Mary's head does not announce much intelligence, 
and borrows no charm from heavy eyelids denuded 
of lashes. Christ has the face and expression of a 
coarse little peasant. The male, energetic head of 
St Luke would suit a warrior perfectly: the band 

66 XTbe Hrt of tbe Belatan Gallertea 

around it, tied in a knot on the brow gives it a still 
more martial air. Yet this picture shines by its 
vigour, and attests long anatomical studies ; but we 
seek in it vainly for grace and supple life. 

" Christ Descended from the Cross in St. Jean's, 
in the same city, presents the same character and 
tendencies." ^ 

Martin Pepyn (1575- 1643) was influenced by the 
school of Frans Floris. It is unknown to whom he 
was indebted for instruction, but the animated heads 
and elevated character of many of his works show 
the new art introduced by Rubens. He acquired 
such a reputation in Rome that, when he announced 
his intention of returning, Rubens was quite dis- 

Martin Pepyn had a superior talent, a delicate 
imagination, and a profound poetic sentiment. But 
his tastes and faculties had nothing in common with 
the boldness and dramatic energy of Rubens and his 
pupils. He loved gentle piety, calm, reverie and the 
tender sentiments of the old school. He liked its 
colour fine and polished like enamel ; and its minute 
truth in the execution ; he liked its types, the grace 
of its accessories, the opulence of its costumes, and 
the tranquil splendour of its landscapes. 

Nicholas de Liemaeckere, called Roose, (1575- 
1646) was a fellow pupil with Rubens in the studio 

* Michiels. 

jf lemisb iPatnters an^ patnttna 57 

of Otho Vsenius, and the collaborator of De Craeyer 
in various decorative work. He painted sacred sub- 
jects almost exclusively. The Ghent churches and 
the convents of the whole province were enriched 
with his works, taken principally from the mystic 
legend of the Virgin. He was, or at least he tried 
to be, the painter of the celestial court; but he is 
only religious in intention : his somewhat heavy 
painting is too often enveloped with heavy and black 
shadows. His skies are generally lacking in depth 
and light. What is worthy of praise in him is a 
facile imagination that is always ingenious in 
mingling his groups and varying his attitudes. If 
it is true that Rubens praised him, as is said, we 
must believe that he wanted to praise the inventor 
while generously shutting his eyes to the faults of 
the painter. Roose's best work is a luminous Entry 
of the Virgin into Heaven in St. Bavon. It suf- 
fers by being in the same chapel w^ith Rubens's 
famous St. Bavon Distributing His Riches to the 

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) received his 
early lessons from Otho Vsenius and from Adam 
Van Noort. He is the recognized head of the Flem- 
ish School of painting and his influence was world- 
wide. He went to Italy in 1600 and stayed there 
eight years. In various pictures painted soon after 
his return, we notice copies of figures in composi- 

68 Ubc Htt ot tbe Belgian Oallertes 

tions by Michael Angelo, Annibale Carracci, Titian 
and Daniele da Volterra. The chief result of his 
Italian studies was his adoption of Classical myths 
and history as the ground-work for the illustration 
of his genius, which is essentially Flemish. 

" It is only in large compositions that his powers 
seem to have room to expand themselves. They 
really increase in proportion to the size of the canvas 
on which they are to be displayed. His superiority 
is not seen in easel pictures nor even in detached 
parts of his greater works, which are seldom emi- 
nently beautiful. It does not lie in an attitude, or in 
any peculiar expression, but in the general effect, in 
the genius which pervades and illuminates the 

" The works of Rubens have that peculiar prop- 
erty always attendant on genius, to attract atten- 
tion and enforce admiration in spite of all their 
faults. It is owing to this fascinating power that 
the performance of those painters with which he is 
surrounded, though they have perhaps fewer de- 
fects, yet appear spiritless, tame and insipid; such 
as the altar-pieces of Grayer, Schut, Segers, Huy- 
sum, Tyssens, Van Balen and the rest. They are 
done by men whose hands, and indeed all their 
faculties, appear to have been cramped and confined : 
and it is evident that everything they did was the 
effect of great labour and pains. The productions 



Plate IX 
(See page 280) 

Palais des 





Iflemisb painters ant) Ipatnttn^ 59 

of Rubens, on the contrary, seem to flow with a 
freedom and prodigality, as if they cost him noth- 
ing; and to the general animation of the composi- 
tion, there is always a corresponding spirit in the 
execution of the work. The striking brilliancy of 
his colours, and their lively opposition to each other, 
the flowing liberty and freedom of his outline, the 
animated pencil with which every object is touched, 
all contribute to awaken and keep alive the atten- 
tion of the spectator ; awaken in him, in some meas- 
ure, correspondent sensations, and make him feel a 
degree of that enthusiasm with which the painter 
was carried away. To this we may add the complete 
uniformity in all the parts of the work, so that the 
whole seems to be conducted, and grow out of one 
mind ; everything is of a piece and fits its place. 

" Besides the excellency of Rubens in these gen- 
eral powers, he possessed the true art of imitating. 
He saw the objects of nature with a painter's eye; 
he saw at once the predominant feature by which 
every object is known and distinguished, and as 
soon as seen, it was executed with a facility that is 
astonishing. Rubens was, perhaps, the greatest 
master in the mechanical part of the art, the best 
workman with his tools, that ever exercised a pen- 

" This piower which Rubens possessed in the 
highest degree, enabled him to represent whatever 

60 XTbc Hrt ot tbe Belgian (BaJleriea 

he undertook better than any other painter. His 
animals, particularly lions and horses, are so ad- 
mirable, that it may be said they were never prop- 
erly represented but by him. His portraits rank 
with the best works of the Painters who have made 
that branch of the art the sole business of their 
lives; and of those he has left a great variety of 
specimens. The same may be said of his land- 

'* However, it must be acknowledged that he 
wanted many excellencies, which would have per- 
fectly united with his style. Among those we may 
reckon beauty in his female characters : sometimes 
indeed they make approaches to it ; they are healthy 
and comely women, but seldom, if ever, possess any 
degree of excellence : the same may be said of his 
young men and children : his old men have that sort 
of dignity which a bushy beard will confer; but he 
never possessed a poetical conception of character. 
In his representations of the highest characters in 
the Christian or the fabulous world, instead of 
something above humanity, which might fill the 
idea which is conceived of such beings, the spectator 
finds little more than mere mortals, such as he meets 
with every day. 

" The incorrectness of Rubens in regard to his 
outline oftener proceeds from haste and carelessness 
than from inability: there are in his great works, 

fflemtsb painters an& patnttng 6i 

to which he seems to have paid more particular 
attention, naked figures as eminent for their draw- 
ing as for their colouring. He appears to have en- 
tertained a great abhorrence of the meagre, dry 
manner of his predecessors, the old German and 
Flemish Painters ; to avoid which, he keeps his out- 
line large and flowing : this, carried to an extreme, 
produced that heaviness which is so frequently 
found in his figures. 

" Another defect of this great painter is his in- 
attention to the foldings of his drapery, especially 
that of his women : it is scarcely ever cast with 
any choice or skill. 

" Carlo Maratti and Rubens are in this respect 
in opposite extremes; one discovers too much art 
in the disposition of his drapery, and the other too 

" The difference of the manner of Rubens from 
that of any other painter before him is in nothing 
more distinguishable than in his colouring, which 
is totally different from that of Titian, Correggio, 
or any of the great colourists. The effect of his 
pictures may be not improperly compared to clusters 
of flowers; all his colours appear as clear and as 
beautiful : at the same time he has avoided that 
tawdry effect which one would expect such gay 
colours to produce; in this respect resembling Ba- 
rocci more than any other painter. What was said 

62 Ube Hrt ot tbe JSelgian (Balleries 

of an ancient painter, may be applied to those two 
artists, — that their figures look as if they fed upon 
roses." ^ 

Contemporary with Rubens were several great 
artists who, though influenced by his genius, pre- 
served an independence of their own. The chief 
of these were Caspar De Craeyer (1582- 1669); 
Frans Snyders (1579-1657); Cornelis de Vos 
(1585-1651); and Theodor Rombouts (1579- 

Flemish critics place Caspar De Craeyer (1582- 

1669) on a level with Rubens and Van Dyck. 
Raphael Van Coxie was his first master; and De 
Craeyer's early works reflect his style, which he 
abandoned to follow that of Rubens. However, he 
retained his own individuality; and was greatly 
admired by Rubens and Van Dyck. When Rubens 
saw his Centurion Dismounting from his Horse, he 
exclaimed : " Craeyer, Craeyer, nobody will ever 
surpass you ! " Van Dyck painted his portrait. 

His compositions are learned and judicious; re- 
jecting all superfluity and ostentation, he aimed at 
the higher qualities of correctness and simplicity. 
Less daring than Rubens, he is always correct, and 
although he never soared to the height of that as- 
piring genius, his works possess both grandeur and 
dignity. His colouring is chaste and tender, re- 

* Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

fflemtsb painters anD painting 63 

sembling in its carnations the clear tinting of Van 

De Craeyer had a marvellous facility of execu- 
tion and filled the churches of Brussels and its en- 
virons with his pictures. In 1664, when eighty-two 
years old, he left Brussels, and established himself 
in Ghent, where he painted with extraordinary 
ardour notwithstanding his age. 

Owing to the presence of Caspar De Craeyer, 
there was a slight artistic movement in Chent which 
produced a few painters of the secondary rank. 
Chief among these were Nicholas de Liemaeckere, 
called Roose (i 575-1646), a pupil of Otto Vsenius 
and an occasional collaborator of Craeyer and 
Craeyer's pupils; Anselmn Van Hulle (1594- 1665 
or 8) ; Antoine Van den Henvele (1600- 1677) and 
Jan Van Cleef (1646-17 16). 

Van Cleef assimilated his master's style in com- 
position, nobility and expression. The Infant Jesus 
crowning St. Joseph in Ghent is one of his best 

Pieter Thys (16 16- 1683) shows the influence of 
De Craeyer in his historical pictures. His colour 
is fine and vigorous, and his drawing correct. His 
architectural backgrounds are exceptionally well 

" Towards the end of the Sixteenth Century there 
arose in Flanders a whole generation of valiant and 

64 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

robust painters, marked with the stamp of na- 
tional genius, that again gave a Flemish character 
to Flemish art. For about a hundred years, there 
had not been a national painter in the country of 
the great artist who had invented oil painting. 
While the Brueghels, a race of peasants both simple 
and humourous, were creating at the dictation of 
Nature singular pictures which were undoubtedly 
scorned by the ambitious followers of the ultramon- 
tane style, a fantastic and violent man, Adam Van 
Noort, gave full rein to his own caprices without 
worrying over the strange importations from that 
Italy that had become the necessary pilgrimage for 
his forerunners and rivals. Living in the midst of 
courtesans and smokers, his original manner, as ar- 
dent and disordered as his life, is a great contrast 
to the cold manner of his imitators. Youthful en- 
thusiasm flooded his studio when the Italianized 
Fleming, Otto Vaenius, also opened a school. 

*' It was Van Noort's studio that Jacob Jordaens 
entered when Rubens and Van Balen had already 
left, and in the studio of Adam Van Noort, Jor- 
daens was at home. His imagination accommo- 
dated itself to the rude practice of the old master 
whose studio had another attraction. Love which 
plays such a large part in the life of the artist at- 
tached him to Catherine, Van Noort's daughter. 

" Rubens was then in his glory, and Jordaens 

CORNELIS Palais des 

DE VOS Plate x Beaux- Arts 

iSee page 332) Brussels 




fflemtsb painters an^ painting 65 

entered his studio without leaving that of Van 
Noort. He studied both masters at the same time, 
copied the warm and vigorous paintings brought 
home from Venice by Rubens and soon became a 
consummate workman. At the age of twenty-five 
he aided Rubens in a series of allegorical pictures 
for Marie de Medicis, that were finished in Ant- 
werp in 1623. 

" Antwerp suited perfectly this ardent genius who 
was not even equalled by Rubens in fire and exuber- 
ance. If Rubens is the painter of Bacchus and sen- 
sual nymphs, Jordaens is the painter of Silenus and 
the lewd satyrs. If Rubens had not been the creator 
of the supreme expression of the Flemish style, Jor- 
daens would have had to invent that rich picture, 
fleshy, full of muscle and vitality; for it should not 
be said that Jordaens imitated Rubens. They are 
of the same family and the same temperament; the 
one more distinguished, more thoughtful and more 
profound, the other, generally speaking, ruder and 
coarser. However, when Jordaens constrains his 
fervour and tempers his execution, he resembles his 
master; just as Rubens when he is carried away 
and roars might be taken for Jordaens. There are 
Jordaens attributed to Rubens and Rubens to Jor- 
daens. Rubens stands between Jordaens and Van 
Dyck. Rubens is gold, Van Dyck, silver, and Jor- 
daens is blood and fir^, But all three have run 

66 XTbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

through the same gamut of colour from high to low 

" Thus the fine and delicate Van Dyck reaches 
the red of Jordaens in his Silenus and the satyrs in 
the Brussels Museum and Rubens also in the picture 
in the same museum of the Martyrdom of St. Lie- 
vens where the executioner drags out the tongue 
of the saint in the midst of a glory of angels that 
descend from the sky to offer the palm of martyr- 

" Jordaens loved freshness, fecundity, brilliancy 
and energy. Every one of his pictures presents 
these rare qualities. In six days, like God in the 
Bible, he painted Pan and Syrinx, life-sized figures 
in a dazzling landscape, — one of his masterpieces. 
But on the seventh day he did not rest. His inde- 
fatigable hand created ceaselessly new images and 
gave life to new figures. Rubens painted about 
three thousand pictures; Teniers about three hun- 
dred and fifty pictures in a single year, and Jordaens 
nearly equalled these prodigious producers. He 
frequently executed at a single sitting a portrait or 
a life-sized figure. 

" And his fortune increased with his renown. 
His house was as luxurious as that of a great lord. 
Brueghel, Rubens, Van Dyck and Teniers had the 
privilege of living in a palace amid all the magnifi- 
cence of civilization, surrounded with masterpieces 

yiemisb painters au& painting 67 

of art, marvels of industry, and all the resources of 
wealth. Van Dyck was carried away by alchemy 
and Teniers ruined himself several times; but Jor- 
daens, whose loyal and frank character attracted 
everybody and to whom Rubens vowed brotherly 
friendship, lived all his life in delightful abundance 
and in undisturbed good luck, happy in his dappled 
horses that he painted with so much fire after he had 
ridden them, and his beautiful stuffs in which he 
dressed his models after he had worn them himself. 
From 1639 until his death he lived in Antwerp on 
the southeast corner of the rue Renders. 

" Although he collaborated with Rubens in sev- 
eral important works, Jordaens often painted with 
Snyders and Jan Fyt. The fat servants by Jordaens 
accord very well with the shining game, silvery fish 
and lobsters catching the light on their sharp points 
of Snyders ; and the tawny hares, the pheasants, 
ducks, boars and hunting dogs of Fyt could not be 
in more appropriate company than those brave 
trumpeters that Jordaens painted with such lusty 
life, adding such a fine contrast to the still life. 
But, while he lent his aid very willingly to others, 
Jordaens never required help in his own work, 
painting always with his own hand his horses, 
dogs, cows, sheep, landscapes and sky. Nobody 
could paint handsomer fat oxen than Jordaens; 
nobody could depict stronger and more valiant 

68 Ube Brt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

horses and his panting dogs dispute the palm with 
those of Snyders. 

*' Jordaens was also superior in portraiture, as he 
was in allegories, religious and mythological pic- 
tures and subjects of caprice. In fact, his manner, 
which does not lend itself to subjects of distinction, 
is particularly appropriate to the translation of na- 
ture required for portrait painting. His Silenuses, 
his Satyrs, his cow lo and his Baccantes follow 
mythological tradition and his Nativities and Ado- 
rations of the Shepherds Roman Catholic tradition, 
but do not lead Jordaens into delicacy and mysti- 
cism. ^ 

" His early marriage and the intimate relation — 
half friend, half assistant — in which he stood to 
Rubens prevented him from visiting Italy as other 
masters had done. He attained, however, to great 
eminence in Antwerp, and executed a very large 
number of pictures. Although these unmistakably 
show the proximity of Rubens, yet his own artistic 
nature is strongly expressed in them. This was so 
vehemently realistic in character as to degenerate 
occasionally into the rude and the vulgar. In his, 
as compared with Rubens's far narrower sphere of 
invention, the humourous takes a prominent place. 
In sense of beauty also and distinctness of forms he 
falls far short of his great model. On the other 

^ Blanc. 

fflemisb painters anb ipainttna 69 

hand, in power and transparency of colouring, and 
in mastery of general keeping, he may be placed 
on the same level; and in a certain golden glow 
and depth of chiaroscuro, he even excels him. Nor 
in the power over his brush can he be considered 
inferior to Rubens, though not to be compared with 
him in equality of impasto. Indeed to his over use 
of glazing, without the necessary foundation of 
solid colour, are attributable his occasionally unsub- 
stantial glassy effect, and monotonously luscious 
tone. His works differ, therefore, in merit accord- 
ing to the degree of their completion, and of his 
sympathy with the subject. Seldom does he satisfy 
us with his Biblical pictures." ^ 

Cornelis de Vos ( 1585-165 1) was an admirable 
portrait painter, and excelled in compositions of a 
half-historical, half-devotional character, in which 
the personages are represented in contemporary 
costume, and are largely portraits. Rubens admired 
his work so much, that he used to send the over- 
flow of his sitters to him. He was a brother-in-law 
of Snyders, and a friend of Van Dyck. Burger 
says that his portraits might be attributed to Ru- 
bens. He may be ranked with Van Dyck and Gas- 
par de Craeyer. 

Peter Sna^^ers (1593- 1662) painted pictures of 
large dimensions representing battle-fields, troops 

' Crowe. 

70 XTbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

on the march, and besieged towns, in which land- 
scape naturally plays an important part. He pos- 
sessed the exactitude and patience of a topographer ; 
and his military compositions are painted with great 
spirit and freedom. The Thirty Years' War sup- 
plied him W'ith plenty of material for his work. 
Sometimes he painted scenes of Biblical history. 

Gerard Seghers (1591-1651), a pupil of Abra- 
ham Janssens and H. Van Balen, is notable for his 
well-balanced compositions, elegant figures, broad 
treatment, harmonious colouring and graceful ac- 

Paul Mantz says of the last period of his art : 
" While he was treating such subjects as the Ec- 
stasy of St. Theresa, his brush began to forget its 
ultramontane education and became Flemish again. 
In his work we find certain pictures that we are 
astonished to meet with and in which the influence 
of Rubens is plainly and unhesitatingly inscribed. 
His best work in this last manner is the great Ado- 
ration of the Magi that decorates Notre Dame, 
Bruges. How strange! Carried away by his sub- 
ject, and fascinated by the element of luxury and 
decoration inherent in it, Seghers spread upon this 
canvas the luxuriant splendour and almost the very 
tones of brilliance that the Antwerp master taught 
us to love. Having once taken that road, the con- 
verted artist did not again turn aside. The old 

iflemtBb painters anb iPatntluQ 71 

imitator of Caravaggio became one of the most 
ardent disciples of Rubens." 

Theodor Rombouts (i 597-1637) was a pupil of 
Abraham Janssens, who was a strong opponent of 
the teachings of Rubens. In Italy, he joined the 
disciples of Caravaggio. Like them, he took de- 
light in subjects in which the picturesque element 
of costume and the caprices of chiaroscuro held the 
first place; and, like Manfredi, Gerard Seghers and 
Valentin, he painted tavern interiors, musicians 
playing the lute and guitar, jovial drinkers at well 
spread tables, and generally common subjects taken 
from the least poetic reality but to which the capri- 
cious play of light and shadow lent a fantastic ac- 
cent and strange magic. He had the temerity to 
try to rival Rubens in scenes from Biblical history. 
He died in the flower of his age. 

Rombouts painted happily all kinds of festivals, 
debauches, charlatan games and a thousand other 
sports of that nature, as Florent Lecomte informs 
us. However, these are now so rare that it is prob- 
able that most of the originals have been given to 
Gerard Seghers. 

Frans Snyders (i 579-1 657) -was apprenticed to 
Hell Brueghel; and it is said that he also studied 
under Van Balen. 

" His whole treatment of the animal world, his 
developed form of art, his clear and frequently 

72 XTbe Hrt ot tbe ^Belgian Galleries 

glowing colouring and his broad and masterly touch 
were inspired by the example of Rubens, to whom 
he stood not in the relation of a scholar but in that 
of a thoroughly independent fellow-painter. This 
appears from the human figures painted by Rubens 
in Snyders's animal pieces, from the animals intro- 
duced by Snyders into Rubens's hunts, as well as 
from the flowers and vegetables executed by Sny- 
ders in other works by the great master, and which 
were so painted as not to mar the unity of the piece. 
Next to Rubens, he is the greatest animal painter 
of the time. Like him, he has the faculty of de- 
picting his subjects in the agitated moments of com- 
bat or chase. The artistic arrangement of his ani- 
mals in the space allotted was probably owing to 
his visit to Italy, when he resided principally in 
Rome. Even in his large culinary subjects he is 
not more remarkable for the treatment of single 
objects than for the skill with which he places them 
together. He w^as closely allied in friendship with 
Rubens's two best scholars, Van Dyck and Jor- 
daens ; and assisted the latter in the same way as he 
did Rubens. His fame was so great that princes 
and nobles vied with each other for his pictures." ^ 
Jan Fyt (1609-1661), so long neglected, is now 
classed as one of the best painters of animals : he 
apparently went straight to Nature for his instruc- 

' Crowe, 

a V 


1— I 





C/2 Ijq 





iflemtsb patnters anb patntina 7S 

tion. Fyt had no real need of collaborators. For 
the composition of an interesting picture all he 
needed was a hare hanging from a nail in a tree 
trunk, a few dead birds with their rich plumage 
contrasting with the verdure, and a guardian hound. 
There is breadth even in his most finished works. 

" Jan Fyt is, after Snyders, the greatest animal 
painter of the Flemish school, and at the same time 
quite independent of him in style. He laboured oc- 
casionally in conjunction with Jordaens and Wille- 
borts ; they painting the human, he the animal fig- 
ures with the fruit and flowers. In subjects of 
hunts, he approaches Snyders in composition, and 
quite equals him in fire and animation. In drawing 
he is often less accurate than Snyders, but by far 
his superior in sunny effects of light, alternately in 
a cool and warm scale of colour. He painted the 
greyhound especially with such success as to be 
approached by no other master. He renders the fur 
of quadrupeds and the plumage of birds with ex- 
quisite truth, and with more detail than Snyders. 
What Potter is to cows, Jan Fyt is to hares. His 
touch, in full marrowy colour, is as masterly as it 
is original." ^ 

The Antwerp school was practically one large 
family in the Seventeenth Century : the painters not 
only knew each other, but were bound by ties of 

* Crowe. 

74 XTbe Htt ot tbe Belotan (Balledes 

blood and marriage. They painted each other's 
portraits and they worked for each other ; they wit- 
nessed each other's marriages ; stood godfathers for 
their children; and often at the death of one of 
their number, were guardians of their children. 

Snyders was the brother-in-law of De Vos; 
Simon de Vos, of Van Utrecht ; and Rombouts, of 
Van Thielen. Jan Brueghel I married the daugh- 
ter of Jode ; Coques, the daughter of Ryckaert ; and 
Teniers and Kessel, Velvet Brueghel's daughters. 
Brueghel II married the daughter of Janssens; 
Jordaens, the daughter of Van Noort; and Van 
Thulden, the daughter of Van Balen. 

Flowers had- been beautifully painted by the 
Primitives enamelling the grassy swards. We find 
in the works of Van Eyck, Memling, Roger Van 
der Weyden and others the iris, the daisy, the violet 
and the anemone painted with great affection and 
delicacy. Van Mander mentions the names of some 
specialists in flower painting, Jacques de Gheyn 
(1565- 1 625) being one of these. Georges Hoef- 
nagels (i 545-1 601) seems to have been the first to 
have used garlands of flowers or fruits for the 
frame of little landscapes and miniatures ; and after 
him Velvet Brueghel and Daniel Seghers. 

Daniel Seghers, (i 590-1661), who studied with 
Velvet Brueghel and who also became a Jesuit 
novitiate in Mechlin, soon returned to his flower 

fflemt5b painters an^ painting 75 

painting, and cultivated in his home in Antwerp 
the roses, HHes, jasmines, marguerites, peonies and 
honeysuckles that appear in his garlands that sur- 
round busts, madonnas, saints or portraits in 
camdieu, or grisaille. Many of the latter were 
painted by Van Dyck, Rubens, Quellin, Van Thul- 
den and Cornelis Schut. Seghers's renown ex- 
tended throughout Europe; and soon every col- 
lector wanted to possess one or more of his charac- 
teristic pictures, which, to quote Wauters, have pre- 
served their brilliant tonalities, their luminous 
freshness and continue to envelop with their per- 
fume and dew those swarms of bees, butterflies and 
beetles that the painter delighted to place among 

Adriaen Van Utrecht (1599- 1652) travelled in 
France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. He. contributed 
the fruit to Rubens's Pythagoras and his Disciples 
in Buckingham Palace, sometimes attributed to 
Snyders. His large kitchen pieces are famous. 
Fruits, flowers, living animals, particularly dogs and 
monkeys, and all kinds of things to eat, he painted ; 
and all objects of still life, besides domestic birds 
and dead game. Crowe says : " He combined great 
skill of arrangement, and a force and w^armth of 
colour which sometimes approaches Rembrandt, 
with great truth of detail, and in masterly and 
marrowy treatment." 

76 Zbc Hrt ot tbe JBclQian Oallertes 

Teniers and Jordaens also worked with Van 
Utrecht. He particularly excelled in depicting lob- 
sters, crabs and oysters, the silvery scales of the 
shad and mackerel, and the rosy flesh of the 

Frans Ykens (i 601-1693), a pupil of Osias 
Beert, and who also studied in France, was an ex- 
cellent painter of fruit, flowers and dead game, 
worked in Antwerp and Brussels. He was an imi- 
tator of Van Utrecht, as is shown in his Purchase 
of Provisions, in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg; 
and also painted garlands of flowers in the style of 
Daniel Seghers. 

With a broad soft brush and masterly style Alex- 
ander Adriaenssen (i 587-1661), painted fruits and 
flowers, and particularly fish, which he represented 
with such freshness and glittering colour that per- 
fect illusion is often produced. He grouped his 
subjects with much taste. He studied under Artus 
van Laeck, became a free member of the Guild 
of Painters in Antwerp in 1610-11, and was a 
great friend of Van Dyck, who painted his por- 

Another Antwerp painter of fish, lobsters, and 
other marine animals was Jacob Van Es, or Essen 
(1606-1665 or 1666), who imitates nature with 
a marvellous fidelity. The fish-market is his 
favourite subject; but he painted also flowers. 

fflemtsb ipainters an^ painting 77 

fruit, dead game and other still life. The human 
figures in his pictures were often contributed by 

Because he painted lobsters and oysters as well 
as Van Utrecht and grapes and plums as well as 
Abraham Brueghel and " desserts," or tables set 
with oysters, lemons, cheese, wnne, fruits, nuts and 
other accessories he has been called " the Flemish 
Heda." His pupils include Cornehs Mahu (1613- 
1689), Isaac Wigan (161 5- 1662 or 1663), and 
Osias Beert (1622-1678). 

Philip Van Thielen (i 618- 1667) was a gentle- 
man of rank. After T. Rombouts had married his 
sister, he took lessons from him. He had a passion 
for flowers, and soon studied with Daniel Seghers, 
delighting like him in weaving floral crowns around 
medallions, and making insects swarm about the 
blossoms. In the Seventeenth Century, his pictures 
commanded high prices. 

About this time Jan David de Heem established 
himself in Antwerp; and inspired a great many 
artists to become specialists in fruits, flowers and 
desserts. Among these may be mentioned Clara 
Peeters (painting in 161 1); Ambroise Brueghel 
(1617-1675) ; Jean-Paul Gillemans (1618-1675?) ; 
Georges Van Son (1623- 1667); Jan Van Son 
(1658-1718?) ; Jerome Galle I (1625-1679?) ; Jan 
Van Kessel (1626- 1679) ; Caspar Pieter Verbrug- 

78 Ube Hrt ot tbe JSelgtan Galleries 

ghen I (1635-1681); Nicholas Van Verendael 
(1649-1691); Elie Van den Broeck (about 1653- 
1711); Jan Baptiste Brueghel (1670- 17 10); and 
Abraham Brueghel (1672- 1720). 

Peter Boel (1622- 1674) came of a family of ar- 
tists. His father, Jan (1592-?), was an engraver, 
his brother Jan Baptist (1650- 1688 or 1689) was 
an engraver and painter, and his brother Coryn 
(1620-?) a famous engraver. 

Peter Boel was a pupil of Snyders and his uncle 
Cornelis de Wael in Genoa; and excelled in birds, 
animals, flowers and fruits. His drawing is correct, 
his touch spirited and his colour natural. 

David de Coninck (1636- 1687), whose pictures 
are rare, was a pupil of Jan Fyt, and resembles him 
in colour drawing and general style. 

Jan Miel (1599- 1664) fell under the influence of 
Pieter Van Laer in Rome, and is still remembered 
for his capricci rather than for his large religious 
compositions. Lanzi says he was noble in his ideas, 
grandiose, more elevated than the generality of his 
compatriots, possessing great knowledge of perspec- 
tive, remarkable for a vigour in chiaroscuro that in 
no way excluded delicacy of colour, particularly in 
cabinet pictures. He possessed a singular talent for 
figures of medium proportions. He was a man of 
superior mind who was applauded for his facetious 

fflemisb painters an& painttuG 79 

paintings in Rome, and for those of a severe genre 
in Piedmont. 

David Teniers the Elder (1582- 1649) was a 
great artist of independent spirit ; but he is not well 
known because many of his best works have been 
attributed to his son. Soon after Rubens returned 
from Italy, Teniers went there and studied under 
Elzheimer, imitating his chiaroscuro and light ef- 
fects. He still remained a Fleming, however, in the 
type of his personages and especially in their spirit. 
He liked to represent smokers seated in dark to- 
bacco shops, alchemists seeking hidden secrets, mu- 
sicians and beggars walking in the sunlight. So 
that by the character of his essentially realistic in- 
spiration, Teniers announces his son, and prepares 
the way for his approaching triumph. He also 
painted mythological scenes. He remained in Rome 
for ten years. On his return, he soon found himself 
eclipsed by Brouwer and Teniers the Younger, and 
fell into neglect. 

David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690) was 
taught first by his father, and afterwards greatly 
influenced by Rubens and Brouwer. Although per- 
haps inferior to the best of the Little Dutch Mas- 
ters, and even to Peter Brueghel and Brouwer, he 
has never been surpassed in some qualities : the 
justness of the physiognomies and attitudes of his 

80 Ubc Hrt of tbe Belgian 6allertes 

modest heroes, the restrained spirit of his execution, 
the flower-Hke freshness of his hvely and dehcate 
colouration, and the atmospheric clearness of his 
landscapes with such fine skies. 

Another merit in this master is the smiling phi- 
losophy, the good nature and even the dash of dis- 
tinction he manages to cast over the most common 
scenes. His religious and heroic pictures have been 
deservedly neglected by posterity. 

He was an indefatigable worker, having left 
more than 800 pictures. The principal subjects are 
kermesses, inn interiors, hawking parties, drinkers, 
bagpipe players and other musicians. Temptations 
of St. Anthony, monkey scenes, conversations, 
guardrooms, kitchens, bowling games and land- 
scapes filled with little figures. His landscapes 
were often painted by Jan Wildens; and his still 
life was frequently the work of Jan Wildens and 

The most distinguished pupils of David Teniers 
the Younger were Abshoven, who died very young, 
David Ryckaert III, Frans Duchatel (1625- 1694?), 
whom he loved as his own son, Arnoult Van Maas, 
De Hont, Ertebout, Matheus Van Hellemont and 
Gilles Van Tilborch. 

" The qualities which most attract us in the 
works of Teniers are his picturesque arrangement, 
his delicately balanced general keeping, the exqui- 




iflemtsb painters ant) painting 8i 

site harmony of colouring in his details, and that 
light and sparkling touch in which the separate 
strokes of the brush are left unbroken — a power 
wherein no other genre-pd.mttv ever equalled him. 
On the other hand all the charm of his humour can 
hardly atone for a certain coldness of feeling, while 
his figures and heads have a degree of monotony 
which is especially obvious in scenes with numerous 
figures. Occasionally, also, too decided an intention 
is seen in his arrangement ; so that upon the whole 
his greatest triumphs are attained in pictures of 
few figures. The different periods of his long life 
distinctly appear in his works. In those of his 
earlier time a somew-hat heavy brown tone prevails ; 
the figures are on a large scale — twelve to eighteen 
inches high; the treatment is broad and somewhat 
decorative. The influence of Brouwer may be per- 
ceived here, though the idea that Teniers was a 
scholar of his is quite erroneous. Towards 1640 
his colouring becomes clearer, continuing in this 
tendency up to 1644, when he had attained a very 
luminous golden tone, and changing again from 
that into a cool silverv hue. With this there also 
ensued a more careful and very precise execution. 
Pictures of this class up to the year 1660, though 
occasionally we find him returning to his golden 
colour, are prized as his finest and most character- 
istic works, After this he again adopts a decided 

82 XTbe Hrt ot tbe ^Belgian (Ballertes 

golden tone, which is sometimes very powerful. In 
his last years, the colouring becomes heavy and 
brownish and the treatment is undecided and trem- 
bling." 1 

David Ryckaert (1612-1661) imitated David 
Teniers and Coques, who married his sister. He 
painted familiar scenes and peasant gatherings. He 
was fond of representing cottage interiors with 
peasants at table, taverns with drinkers quarrelling, 
alchemists at their retorts, doctors in their surger- 
ies, and artists in their studios. He was also fond 
of lamplight effects. 

Anthony Goubau (161 6- 1698) painted historical 
pictures, genre, city scenes, markets, etc. Some of 
his works are reminiscent of Ostade; but he more 
particularly followed Jan Asselyn. His composi- 
tion and chiaroscuro were excellent. 

Gilles Van Tilborgh (1625-1678) also painted 
tavern interiors, peasant festivals and kermesses in 
the manner of Teniers, but in his warm and some- 
times opaque colour he resembles Duchatel and 
David Ryckaert. 

Pieter Bout (1658-17 — ) was a genre painter in 
the style of Teniers. His manner somewhat resem- 
bles that of Velvet Brueghel but is not so stiff. He 
adorned the landscapes of others, principally Bou- 
dewyns, with his charming little figures. 

' Crowe. 

ff lemtsb painters anb painting 83 

Frans Duchatel (1616-1694) was a cavalry of- 
ficer, who gave up soldiering to become a painter. 
Naturally, he painted military subjects, and genre 
pictures after the style of Teniers the Younger, who 
has consequently been credited as his teacher. His 
manner, however, still more nearly approaches that 
of Coques. His few pictures are highly prized. 

Anthony van Dyck (i 599-1 641) at twelve years 
of age entered the school of Henri van Balen, a 
good historical painter, one of whose pupils was 
Frans Snyders. Thence he soon went to Rubens, 
who recognized his genius and employed him in 
finishing the pictures he sketched, and making 
finished drawings of pictures his engravers were to 
reproduce. Even before his departure for Italy in 
1 62 1, his pictures were esteemed by many almost 
as highly as those of his master. 

Van Dyck's industry was tireless : in the short 
span of his life he painted nearly a thousand pic- 
tures. He had three styles which are easily recog- 
nizable. The pictures painted during his five years' 
residence in Italy are distinguished by deep tone 
and colour and marked dignity of character and ex- 
pression. The Turin gallery contains many splen- 
did examples of this period. His Flemish style 
covers the period between his return in 1626 and 
his departure for England in 1631. These works 
are executed with much impasto in the lights and 

84 UM Hrt ot tbe JBelgtan Galleries 

transparency of colour in the shadows. His third 
period is that of the last decade of his life spent in 
England, — from 1631 to 1641. The pictures of 
this period are distinguished by grace and elegance, 
but show haste, and many are slight in execution 
and were frequently finished by assistants. 

In the second period of Van Dyck's artistic ca- 
reer just before embarking for England, he painted 
several pictures of sacred subjects. One of the last 
was the Raising of the Cross, one of the treasures 
of Courtrai. Another was the Passion, in St. 
Michael's church, Ghent, which has been almost en- 
tirely ruined by repaintings. Another, in a much 
better state of preservation, adorns the Cathedral of 
St. Rombaud, at Mechlin. This is a Crucifixion. 
*' The most brilliant light illumines the magnificent 
torso of the Saviour. The features are disfigured, 
and the fat cheeks have a lymphatic and unhealthy 
look. The head is consequently lacking in dignity, 
which is a grave defect. The painter has given 
energetic attitudes to the thieves, on whom he has 
lavished all his skill. The repentant thief looks at 
Christ with a gentle and pious expression, and the 
impenitent thief turns away in a very dramatic man- 
ner. The most beautiful figures are those of the 
Virgin and St. John ; but excessive grief deprives 
the latter of all nobility: his wild eyes roll about 
under blood-shot lids. The Madonna, in gray 

fflemtsb painters anb painttna 85 

tones that recall Murillo, abandons herself to an 
affecting grief; but it is also unfortunate that her 
black lips surpass probability. At the foot of the 
Cross, on the left, we see the heads of two men who 
are ascending the hidden slope of the mountain, 
exactly as in the picture by Rubens in the Antwerp 
Museum, which represents the same subject. The 
pupil, however, has not equalled the master." ^ 

" More noble than Rubens in his choice of form, 
Van Dyck had fewxr faults than his master, but 
perhaps also less grandeur. His colour was as 
charming without being so splendid. His design 
w^as learned, but without pedantry ; and his con- 
tours were always governed by the sentiment of 
grace, or the fire of genius. Very nearly the equal 
of Titian in portraiture, Van Dyck has sometimes 
risen to a great height in his historical compositions, 
in which the beauty of the expression is often as 
admirable as the excellence of the touch.'"' 

Van Dyck's followers were numerous. The most 
important included Thomas Willeboirts, called 
Boschaerts (1614-1654), a pupil of Gerard Seghers, 
and later an imitator of Van Dyck; Theodoor 
Boeyermans (1620 1677 or 1678); and Pieter 
Thys, or Typrus (1616-1677 or 1679). 

Theodoor Boeyermans very closely approaches 
Van Dyck, by his close study of that master's 

* Michiels. ^ Blanc. 

86 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

works. His facile imagination plays with great 
compositions ; in his design he takes happy liberties ; 
his palette, sometimes somewhat sombre, yet 
abounds in rich and brilliant tones. In the manner 
of Van Dyck, he paints luminous and living heads. 

Thomas Willeboirts was also a pupil of G. Se- 
ghers. He painted history and mythology. He tried 
to imitate Van Dyck ; but his heads have little ani- 
mation, his colour is cold, and composition weak. 
He painted some fine portraits, however. 

Justus Suttermans or Sustermans (1597-1681), 
a pupil of Willem de Vos and Frans Pourbus the 
Younger, was inferior to Van Dyck only in por- 
traiture, and greatly admired by Van Dyck. Most 
of his life was spent in Florence, where he was court 
painter to Cosimo H and Cosimo HI. 

Abraham Van Diepenbeeck (1607- 1675) was one 
of Rubens's most brilliant pupils. His compositions 
for windows were very famous. He also painted 
pictures with historical, religious and mythological 
subjects. His colour was fine and touch vigorous; 
but he lacked expression. 

Victor Wolfvoet (1612-1652) was a follower of 
Rubens, of some reputation. His pictures are rare. 
The Medusa's Head at Dresden is the work of his 
father; but a picture by him in the Church of St. 
Jacques, Antwerp, shows what lessons had formed 
his manner. In this Visitation, imitation of Rubens 

fflemtsb painters an^ patnttnG 87 

is very evident; but the chiaroscuro is more 
strongly accented, the colour softer and less brilliant 
than on the canvases of the Master. ^' The Virgin 
seems a type borrowed from the latter. St. Eliz- 
abeth, bending the knee, leans towards Mary and 
touches her abdomen with the finger of her left 
hand as if she would say in veneration : ' There the 
Son of God is preparing to save the world.' The 
Virgin rests her right hand on the matron's shoul- 
der in a familiar attitude. St. Joseph and St. 
Joachim, painted in very dark colours, stand behind 
the Jewesses of predestination. Two little angels, 
with hands full of flowers, hover gaily above the 
personages. Mary and Elizabeth are fat and heavy 
women with flabby cheeks. Here again, distinction 
lies with the men : by the elegance of their features, 
St. Joachim and St. Joseph are much superior to 
their wives. A peacock is pluming himself on top 
of a stone vase on a pedestal behind Elizabeth. The 
principal merit of the picture consists in the strength 
and beauty of its colour, its vigorous and sombre 
tints." 1 

Jacques Fouquieres (1580- 1659) was one of 
Rubens's aids for landscape settings for his sub- 
jects. Contemporary critics h^d nothing but praise 
for him. Mariette also praises his ability as a 
painter of the depths of the woods, the shadows and 

^ Michiels. 

88 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

freshness that sleep under their branches, the poetic 
effects of distance, the physiognomy of plants, rocks 
and mountains, the tranquil mirror of sleeping 
waters. He painted his own figures in his works. 
At Brussels, he was the master of Philippe de 

Lucas Van Uden (1595- 1660) was the painter on 
whom Rubens most frequently called for the land- 
scapes of pictures when he was too busy or too 
weary to paint them himself. Rubens regarded his 
pupil with paternal affection; and sometimes 
painted striking figures in his landscapes, which 
naturally rendered them salable, and Van Uden 
famous. Teniers also sometimes contributed little 
figures to his landscapes. He was particularly par- 
tial to waterfalls. 

Jan Wildens (1584- 165 5) also was sometimes 
employed by Rubens to paint the landscape settings 
of his pictures, notably the Lion Hunt, the Chaste 
Susannah, and Llagar repudiated by Abraham. 
He was an adherent of Josse de Momper. He 
painted wide landscapes with rocks and woods that 
gradually lose themselves in the blue distance. The 
colour is weak ; but the landscape is enlivened with 
pretty little figures. His pictures are very scarce. 

Frans Wouters (1612-1650) was a good land- 
scape painter who gained brilliant success in his life- 
time. He treated the figure as well as landscape, 

"^ '^ ^ 





»— 1 



I-, f\) 



V ^ 


rt -^ 




1— ( 









If lemiBb iPatnters anb patnttna 89 

and liked to decorate his sylvan scenes with nude 
female forms, which he executed admirably. His 
landscapes are particularly distinguished for their 
excellent aerial perspective. His large works are 
often heavy in colour, with prevailing yellow tones 
that are far from pleasing. 

Theodore van Thulden (1607- 1676) was a fol- 
lower of the grand style of Rubens, if not a pupil 
of his. He painted allegories, familiar scenes and 
religious subjects; and designed glass windows, 
and was an etcher besides. 

Jacques Van Oost the Elder (1601-1670) be- 
longed to the School of Rubens, being one of those 
who did not receive lessons directly from the illus- 
trious Antwerp master, but formed their style by 
penetrating his spirit. Portraits by him were 
greatly in demand by sitters, as good judges noticed 
that his flesh tints were fresh, brilliant and natural. 
He also painted Biblical scenes, and sometimes sub- 
jects of real life. His son, Jacques the Younger 
(1637- 1 713), went to Italy like the rest of his tribe 
and remained there some years. The pictures of 
father and son are so like that it is hard to 
distinguish them. The son's work, however, 
shows more Italian influence in colour and com- 
position. He draped his figures with elegance and 

Cornelis Schut (1597-1655) was a bright star of 

90 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

the second magnitude in the days of Rubens. 
Though the feehng for grace and elegance was 
denied him, he possessed in the highest degree that 
of movement, force and health. The flesh is exalted 
in his exuberant figures, his compositions have ac- 
tion and bustle, his draperies float in eternal agita- 

Pieter Van Mol (1599- 1660) was an ardent dis- 
ciple of Rubens : he painted history and portraits ; 
but his types were lacking in style, and eyes habitu- 
ated to Italian elegances saw in them only heaviness 
and triviality. But by his breadth of execution and 
his pompous taste for rich robings Van Mol declares 
himself a Fleming. Feeling his relative weakness 
in Antwerp, he left and settled in Paris where he 
was welcomed by the best artists of the day. 
Among the disciples of Vouet he rendered the best 
testimony of the power of the Antwerp school. 

Gerard Van Herp (fl. 1604) was a pupil, or at 
least an imitator, of Rubens in painting history and 
genre. He displayed rich composition, fine colour 
with great transparency, and good drawing. 

Jan Van Hoeck (1598-1650) painted portraits, 
and mythological and Biblical subjects. He prof- 
ited so greatly by Rubens's lessons that he grew to 
be his equal in some respects; and was greatly es- 
teemed in Italy and Germany. 

Lodewyck de Vadder (1600- 1660) followed Ru- 

iFIemtsb painters an& patnttng 91 

bens in general treatment as regards colouring, light 
and shade and breadth. 

Joost Van Egmont (1602- 1674) was a pupil of 
Van den Hoecke. He went to Italy, and, on his 
return, joined Rubens, afterwards going to Paris, 
where he was a successful portrait painter in the 
fashionable world. Mariette said : " Nobody was 
more capable of painting a head well. I have seen 
some that are worthy of Van Dyck, so freshly are 
they painted ! " 

Erasmus Quellin (1607- 1678) painted historical 
and devotional subjects, and portraits. 

Paul Mantz says : '* The manner of Rubens, that 
fiery and dramatic master, being softened down 
with three of his pupils, in their pictures assumed 
an elegance and poetic charm the absence of which 
is sometimes regretted in his own works. Van 
Dyck, Erasmus Quellyn and Jan Van Hoek form 
this graceful trinity. Although far less famous 
than Van Dyck, the others were perhaps not infe- 
rior to him; and therefore many of their pictures 
are attributed to Charles the First's painter. 
Quellyn possesses a delicacy of form, purity of taste, 
harmony, brilliance, and suavity of colour that au- 
thorize us to compare him with the princes of the 
palette. What masterpieces could eclipse the St. 
Roch of the Church of St. Jacques, or the Holy 
Family of the Church of the St. Saviour, Ghent? 

92 ui)e Hrt of tbe ^Belgian Galleries 

If one could place them in a gallery beside the most 
famous pictures, they would bear the hard test with- 
out loss of credit. The latter picture represents a 
halt in the Flight into Egypt; the three personages 
have been surprised in the solitudes by the shades of 
night. In order not to lose their way in the desert, 
they have halted beside a fountain under a palm 
tree. St. Joseph has taken the infant on his knees, 
and the daughter of David stands in front of him 
with crossed hands, while the nursling holds out 
his arms to her in a burst of affection. Behind the 
noble Israelite, two adult angels seem to be await- 
ing his orders. The Biblical ass, cared for by other 
celestial messengers, is reposing after his toil. 
Little angels flutter in the sky and among the foli- 
age. Such is the composition — so far as language 
can explain it; but what words can not render is 
the admirable type and majestic character of the 
carpenter of Bethlehem, the exquisite beauty of the 
Virgin and the profound sentiment that animates 
her, the grace of the celestial envoyes, the affection- 
ate expression of the Christ, and the perfect taste 
of the general disposition. The entire work an- 
nounces the imagination of a poet. The colour, at 
once sombre and transparent, as is required by the 
hour, and the necessities of the painting, astonishes 
us by its vigour, fineness, splendour and softness, 
all at the same time." 

fflemtsb painters an& painting 93 

Joos Van Craesbeeck (i 608-1661) was a baker, 
a boon companion of Brouwer, from whom he 
learned to paint. In some quaHties, he surpassed 
his master. He painted the same subjects, but de- 
lighted particularly in ugliness of the human face. 
Many of his pictures have been attributed to Brou- 

Gonzales Coques (1614-1684) is a painter of por- 
traits and interiors of elegance, wealth, gaiety and 
happy serenity. He is one of the best artists of the 
second period of the Antwerp school. He liked to 
represent truthfully well-to-do people in their daily 
life out of doors and indoors. The distinction of 
their attitudes and their poetic elegance, he bor- 
rowed from the works of the defunct Van Dyck; 
and he owed the boldness and strength of his colour 
to a study of Rubens. However, in the dimen- 
sions of his pictures, and their consequent mi- 
nuteness of detail and finish, he reminds us rather 
of the Dutch School, — especially Terburg and 

" Coques studied under David Ryckaert, whose 
daughter he married. He devoted himself largely 
to portrait painting. The combined animation, 
taste and elegance of portraiture which distinguish 
the works of Van Dyck were obviously the objects 
of this painter's ambition ; and in his best pictures, 
representing families in whole length figures, he has 

94 Ubc Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

attained these qualities in a high degree. At the 
same time his drawing is good, his warm, brownish 
flesh-tones clear and harmonious, and his touch, 
though on so small a scale, broad and spirited. 
Like Van Dyck, he often introduces greyhounds 
and other dogs. His sitters are generally in the 
open air. When his background is exclusively land- 
scape, Artois became his assistant ; when the figures 
are represented on the terrace of a stately mansion, 
Ghering lent a hand in the architecture. The fruits 
and flowers in his pieces are often the work of 
Pieter Gysels; and in the few pictures by him 
where a room forms the background, he was helped 
by the younger Steenwyck. His portraits of single 
individuals, which are numerous, are, as a rule, of 
inferior merit." ^ 

Charles Emmanuel Biset (1633-1682) is one of 
the last great masters of the century. His pictures 
are very rare. His William Tell, which is a picture 
of the members of the guild of St. Sebastian in 
Antwerp, is one of the gems of the Brussels gal- 

Jacques d^Arthois (161 3-1 68 5) as a rule painted 
the thick woods, hollowed out roads and ponds of 
the forest of Soignes. Teniers the Elder, G. de 
Craeyer, Gerard Seghers, Van Herp and Pieter 
Bout frequently animated his landscapes with peas- 

^ Crowe. 

fflemtsb painters an^ painting 95 

ants leading cattle or sheep to market, beggars, or 
merry-makers returning from a kermesse playing 
upon their bagpipes. Sometimes the subject is 
taken from the Bible or sacred legends. His model 
was Vadder, whom, however, he does not equal in 
clearness of colour. 

His pupil, Cornelis Huysmans (1648- 1727), re- 
sembles him in general style, though his pictures are 
smaller in size and more ideal in character. His 
colour is warm and glowing; and his works are 
carefully finished. His brother, Jan Baptist (1654- 
1716) was his pupil and imitator; and with these 
the Rubens period closes. 

Jan Siberechts (1627-1703?) was one of the first 
to break away from the conventional treatment of 
landscape and to anticipate the audacity of modern 
realism in his colouring. He seems to have been 
ignored by his contemporaries overshadowed by 
Udens and Wildens. He was taken to England by 
the Duke of Buckingham. 

Frans Van Bloemen (1656-1748), curious to see 
the enchanted landscape of Italy, left the green 
fields of Flanders for a short visit while still almost 
a child and never returned. He painted the en- 
virons of the Eternal City ; and his talent in inter- 
preting the luminous plains and distant mountains 
gained for him the name Oriszonte. His forests 
and meadows are often of a vernal green, his dis- 

96 Ube art of tbe Belgian GallcxicB 

tant hills delight the eye with their veils of blue 
mist that are both true and poetic. His ground is 
well modelled, and has vigour and relief; and his 
foliage is broadly treated. 

Adrian Boudewyns (1644-17 — ) was a landscape 
painter of high reputation in his day. His works 
show Italian influence, though it is not known that 
he crossed the Alps. 

Abraham Genoels (1640- 172 3) went to France 
in 1659 and was employed by Lebrun to paint 
landscape backgrounds in the Battles of Alex- 
ander the Great. After a stay in Rome he re- 
turned to Antwerp about 1682. He was a fol- 
lower of Nicholas Poussin, and his works are 

Another follower of the Poussins was Jean 
Frangois Millet (1642-1680), who settled in Paris. 
His figures and landscapes are always harmonious. 
One of his pupils, Pieter Rysbraek (1655-1729), 
studied with him in Paris but returned to Antwerp 
in 1692. His works are rare, but " have a grandly 
poetic and melancholy character. His trees and 
w^ooded backgrounds are particularly well under- 
stood and the form of his clouds fine ; his colouring 
powerful, but inclined to be gloomy. His figures 
taken from Biblical or m3^thological subjects are 
well composed, and sometimes play an important 
part; others are careless in execution, and disturb 

? = "^ 

^ ^ <r 

,^ -5 "^ 

s ^ 








fflemtsb painters anD patnttno 97 

the harmony of the picture by their monotonously 
red flesh-tones. Most of them, however, are of 
idylHc character." ^ 

Bertholet Flemael (i 614- 1675) imitated the 
manner of Poussin, and executed his principal 
works for Paris churches. His pupil, Gerard de 
Lairesse (i 640-1 671), w^as also an imitator of 
Poussin. He gained a great reputation and trans- 
planted into Flanders the arcadian and academic 
style. After him the Flemish school steadily went 
from bad to worse. 

Philippe de Champaigne (1602-1674) went to 
Paris in 1620 and is generally classed as a French 
painter. His chief master Jacques Fouquieres, the 
landscape painter, (1580- 1659), however, was a 
native of Antwerp. He was employed by Du 
Chesne to work in the Luxembourg with Nicholas 
Poussin and succeeded Du Chesne as superintendent 
of Fontainebleau in 1627. His landscapes are 
poetic and enriched with charming figures, and in 
colour surpass those of Poussin. As a portrait 
painter he holds high rank. 

Jan Van Bredael (1683-1750) belonged to the 
school of Velvet Brueghel, with its landscapes of 
blue horizons, meadows sown with bright flowers, 
pictures of rural life, in which we see innumerable 
little people enjoying themselves, or at their various 

* Crowe. 


98 Ube Hrt ot tbe ^Belgian (Ballertes 

avocations. However, he falls far behind the mas- 
ters he imitated. 

'' For the Flemish School, the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, is a long entr'acte during which the stage, so 
nobly occupied of old, is sad and deserted. Here and 
there an artist appears to remind us what Flanders 
was in colour and decoration for two centuries. 
France was triumphing in spirit and grace, Italy 
though decadent was still ingenious and smiling, 
England at last was producing original masters, 
but Flanders was asleep. At the beginning of the 
Eighteenth Century, the school that Rubens had 
glorified was all astray : it was the period of the 
great empty and pompous machines of Richard van 
Orley (1652- 1732), the vapid inventions of Du- 
venede (1674- 1730), that too assiduous pupil of 
Carlo Maratta; it was also the time of Victor 
Honore Janssens (1664-1739), that vapid and char- 
acterless painter. After these come Frans Ver- 
beeck (1686- 1755), Mathieu de Visch (1702- 1765) 
and Gaeremyn (171 2- 1799), sad workers in an art 
wandering farther and farther afield. Criticism 
here would have to be sad and silent, if its attention 
were not arrested for a moment by the name of 
Verhaghen." ^ 

Pieter Joseph Verhaeghen or Verhaghen (1728- 
181 1 ) occupies the same place in the Flemish 

I Blanc. 

fflemisb painters anb painting 99 

School that Tiepolo holds in Italian, and Goya in 
Spanish Art. He became court painter to Prince 
Charles of Lorraine and was patronized by Maria 
Theresa, who gave him means to travel through 
France and Italy. Verhaeghen was the last fol- 
lower of the Rubens school. 

Balthasar Beschey (1708- 1776) first painted 
landscapes in the style of Jan Brueghel and later 
devoted himself to historical and portrait-painting. 
Among his pupils is Andries Cornelis Lens. 

Andries Lens (1739- 1822) was inflamed with 
the Classical teachings of Winckelmann, and en- 
deavoured to install in Antwerp the academic sys- 
tem contrary to the theories proclaimed by Rubens 
and his school. In all his works, his accessories, 
costume, arms and architecture were historically 
and geographically correct; but his tameness and 
bloodlessness make us sigh for the anachronisms 
of the old masters with their fire. 

Pieter Thys (1749-1823) painted flowers. 

Guillaume Jacques Herreyns (1743- 1827) is in 
many respects the last of the Flemings. He saw 
the extinction of the facile Eighteenth Century art, 
assisted at the renaissance of the pseudo-antique in- 
augurated by the school of David, and in a few 
years would have seen Flemish painting again free 
and regenerated. His work is a compromise be- 
tween the diverse schools of his period. His design 

100 Uhc Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

is correct, but cold and featureless. His colour is 
brown and reddish of a tone that shows how low 
the successors of Rubens had fallen. 

It is only natural that French classicism should 
take deep root in Belgium, particularly in Brussels 
after 1815 when Jacques Louis David (1748- 1825), 
the famous head of the modern French school, ban- 
ished from France after the Restoration, established 
himself in Brussels. Lambert Joseph Mathieu 
(1804-1861), a pupil of M. L Van Bree was one 
of those who fell under his influence ; but his pupil, 
Frangois Joseph Navez (1787-1869), continued his 
cold style and sculptural simplicity. He succeeded 
particularly in portraiture and formed a whole gen- 
eration of artists, such as Charles de Groux, Alfred 
Stevens, Charles Hermans, Jos. Stallaert, Baron 
and Smits, who forsook the paths of their master 
for those of realism. 

Navez's chief pupil, Jean Frangois Portaels 
(18 1 8- 1 895), who became also a follower of P. 
Delaroche in Paris, was one of the chief Belgian 
painters of the early Nineteenth Century. 

A great rival of Navez was Gustav Wappers 
(1803-1874), the founder of Flemish Romanticism, 
who expresses in his works the exuberant senti- 
ment, violent colours and enthusiasm of the revolu- 
tionary school of 1830. His Burgomaster Van der 
Werf during the Siege of Leyden, painted in 1830, 

fflemtsb ipatnters anb ipatntiuG loi 

and Scene from the Belgian Revolution of 1830, 
painted in 1834, were received with enthusiasm, 
though they now seem somewhat theatrical. Ni- 
caise de Keyser (1813-1887) adopted his style. 
His Battle of the Spurs, now in Coutrai, painted in 
1836, is very famous. Among his notable achieve- 
ments are the paintings in the entrance hall of the 
Antwerp Museum, representing the great masters 
of Flemish Art. 

Another historical painter of great reputation, 
Louis Gallait (1810-1887), a follower of the cold 
romantic school of Paul Delaroche and often com- 
pared with Ary Scheffer, made a stir with his Ab- 
dication of Charles V (Brussels) ; the Severed 
Heads (Tournai) ; and The Last Moments of 
Count Egmont, painted between 1840 and 1850, 
works, which, according to the Belgian critic Wau- 
ters, '^ will live, without any doubt, as the most 
perfect specimens of historical painting during this 
period of transition, when the study of the Middle 
Ages and the Sixteenth Century was pursued with 
an ardour almost equal to that w^hich marked the 
study of the antique at the beginning of the Italian 

His pupil, Edouard de Biefve (1809-1882), also 
devoted himself to historical works and made a 
stir with his Compromise of the Belgian Nobles 
(Brussels Museum), which, like Gallait's Abdi- 

102 Ube Hrt ot tbe ^Belgian Oallertes 

cation of Charles V, was greatly admired in Ger- 

Other historical painters include E. Slingeneyer 
(1823-1894); Alexander Markelbach (b. 1824); 
Jos. Stallaert (b. 1825) ; and the most influential 
of all, however, Hendrik Leys (18 15- 1869), 
founder of the Archaic School. Leys was a pupil 
of Gustav Wappers and F. de Braekeleer. At first 
he was attracted by the masters of the Seventeenth 
Century, but changed his style to follow the early 
Flemish and early German schools. 

Among his pupils are Jos. Lies ( 182 1- 1865); 
V. Lagye (1825-1896); Fr. H. Vinck (b. 1827); 
P. van Ouderaa (b. 1841); Alma Tadema (b. 
1836) and Henri de Braekeleer (1840-1888), the 
son of Ferdinand de Braekeleer; Felix de Vigne 

Among the other early painters were M. L Van 
Bree (1733-1839); J. B. Madou (1796-1877), a 
genre painter who has much in common with the 
Diisseldorf School; the eccentric Antoine Wiertz 
(1806- 1 865); and F. de Braekeleer (i 792-1883). 

The French realist, Courbet, had many followers 
in Belgium. Chief among these was Charles de 
Groux (1826-1870), who painted gloomy scenes 
from the lives of the peasants and labouring classes ; 
Constantin Meunier (b. 1831), who often depicts 
miners and iron foundries in the " Black Country " 

fflemlsb painters an^ painting 103 

of Belgium; and Jan Stobbaerts (b. 1838), a 
painter of labourers, landscapes and still-life. 
Charles Verlat (1824-1890) is another who painted 
in the style of Courbet. His Cart and Horses, 
dated 1857 and now in the Antwerp Gallery, a large 
street scene, gave him a reputation as an animal 
painter. At a later period, he devoted himself to 
religious subjects treated in a modern realistic 

Alfred Stevens (b. 1828) paints fashionable 
ladies; Joseph Stevens (1822- 1892) is a clever 
animal painter, particularly of dogs; Charles Her- 
mans (b. 1839) was the first to paint street scenes 
in Belgium in the style of the large historical paint- 
ings, such as Daybreak in the Capital, painted in 
1875 and now in the Brussels Gallery; Jan and 
Frans Verhas, painters of children and child-life, 
and Emile Wauters (b. 1846) a pupil of Portaels 
and Gerome in Paris, a painter of historical pic- 
tures, portraits and Oriental scenes, are among the 
most celebrated Belgian artists. 

Landscape painting for the sake of the landscape 
itself begins in Belgium with Balthasar Paul Om- 
meganck (175 5- 1826), a painter who was original 
on account of the novelty of the subjects he chose 
and by the charm of his colour. Camille Lemon- 
nier calls him '' le doux Ommeganck " and the " hon 
Dieu du paysage." Gentle is a good attribute for 

104 Ube Hrt ot tbe BclQiarx Galleries 

him, because he selected idylhc scenes and animated 
them with shepherds and shepherdesses, sheep and 
goats, enveloping all in a warm light that has now 
become golden in tone on account of the numerous 
layers of varnish he gave his pictures. Though not 
so artificial as Watteau and Boucher, Ommeganck's 
scenes are still very studied and conform to the 
conventional idea of what was considered " pic- 

The picturesque prescribed the straight line and 
the perfect curve : a tree had to appear convulsive 
and distorted; a road had to sink or wind; a 
stream to follow an incline over an irregular bed 
so as to foam and fall in cascades, and melancholy 
ruins had to be introduced. Stunted trees, or 
giants of the forest struck by lightning, were fea- 
tures of Dejonghe and Keelhoff; and, as roman- 
ticism loved contrasts in the works of Dejonghe 
and Kindermans, the minute attention to detail is 
strikingly out of keeping with their immense pano- 
ramas, almost epic in conception. 

Eugene Joseph Verboeckhoven (i 798-1881), 
Ommeganck's most renowned pupil, was possessed 
of great industry ; and, as he painted for fifty years, 
his works are numerous. Verboeckhoven was 
neither a classicist nor a romantic; he was purely 
conventional and his best quality is his correctness 
of drawing. His grass and trees are too crude in 

"5 2J -5 

^ Cj <^ 

"a 2 

M^ "<; ^ 
s ^ 









Jf lemtsb ipatnters an6 ipatntfttG 105 

colour, his skies lack fluidity and his rocks are 
blocks of chocolate. His sheep, shepherds and dogs 
are very conventional and monotonous. Van 
Assche, greatly admired by Navez, and Roffiaen, 
were painters of Swiss scenery at this period. 

To the older school of landscape painters also 
belong J. B. Kindermans (1805-1876) and J. P. F. 
Lamoriniere, who has been called " the painter of 

In the contest between the classicists and roman- 
tics between 1830 and 1840 the landscape painters 
took little part; but insensibly they abandoned the 
stiffness of the traditional classic school and began 
to understand nature better, although they still in- 
dulged their taste for artificial composition. In 
treating landscape the subject had to accord with 
certain preconceived ideas. 

Theodore Fourmois (1814-1871), attracted at- 
tention in 1840 with his Mill in the Ardennes. This 
work, as well as his scene in the Campine near Ant- 
werp, and his Pond in the Brussels Museum, show 
the first step towards realism. In some respects 
Fourmois resembles Hobbema. No Belgian before 
him had dared to represent old w^orm-eaten planks, 
muddy stones, dilapidated builcjings, or landscapes 
under the mists and snows of winter. Until his 
time. Nature had to be seen in the brilliant sun- 
shine of a summer's day, or under conditions of 

106 Ubc Htt Of tbe mclgian Gallettes 

magnificent horror — either sublime or tragic : au- 
tumn, winter and spring did not exist as far as the 
painters were concerned. 

Among the followers of Fourmois was Quinaux 
( — 1895), who reached his climax in the Ford 
on the Lesse (Brussels Museum). 

Edmond de Schampheleer (1825-1899), who has 
been called " the modern Rysdael," was a great 
lover of Holland and was fond of representing the 
canals with all the mysterious reflections of the 
trees, mills and houses on their banks. With less 
colour than Fourmois and more virtuosity than 
Quinaux, De Schampheleer is a link between Four- 
mois and Hippolyte Boulenger. 

Hippolyte Boulenger (1838- 1874), a follower of 
the French Courbet, represented Nature as he saw 
her. To arrangement of subject, therefore, he 
added the note of interpretation. Settling in Ter- 
vueren, a beautiful corner of Brabant, he soon pro- 
duced many admired works, such as the Allee des 
Charmes (Brussels Museum), in which are com- 
bined rich warm colours and atmospheric effects. 
His rocks, grass, trees and water are also full of 
life. Boulenger was chief of the Naturalists and 
attracted a whole school of followers at Tervueren, 
which became a sort of Belgian Barbizon. 

Alfred de Knyff (1819-1886), educated in the 
French school, brought into Belgium the mode gris 

fflemtsb patntets anb ipatnttna 107 

as applied to landscape. Because what critics are 
pleased to call the '' rigidities " of nature, when she 
is locked in the embrace of snow and ice or prepar- 
ing for her wintry sleep, or in a mood of fog, mist 
or rain, had been neglected, the dull tones of bistre 
and grayish violet, ochres and siennas tempered 
with gray had not been thought of. De Knyff was 
followed in the mode gris by Theodore Baron, 
Jacques Rosseels and Adrien Joseph Heymans. 

Theodore Baron (1840- 1889), a somewhat aus- 
tere painter, fond of melancholy landscapes, bare 
boughs of autumnal and wintry trees, dark rocks 
and ice and snow, was an ardent protagonist of the 
mode gris. His pupil, Jacques Rosseels (b. 1828), 
has more gaiety of temperament, which leads him 
to more light and richer colour. To this group 
belongs Adrien Joseph Heymans (b. 1839) who 
settled in the village of Brasschaert, near Antwerp, 
where a colony of artists gathered for many 

Contemporary with the School of Tervueren, an- 
other at Termonde in Flanders, with practically the 
same ideas, grouped around Frans Courtens (b. 
1853), a distinguished '' Impressionist" and one of 
the most famous of the modern Belgians, and 
Jacques Rosseels. 

One of Courbet's most energetic and healthful 
followers and also a follower of Hippolyte Boulen- 

108 XTbe Hrt of tbe JBelotan Galleries 

ger is Louis Dubois (1830- 1880), a painter of land- 
scape, figures and still life. 

In 1876 the Cercle I'Essor was founded to 
develop more fully the theories of the Schools of 
Tervueren and Termonde Naturalism and Impres- 
sionism. Among this group may be mentioned 
Adolphe Hamesse, a painter of forest scenes, the 
Campine and sand-dunes, Joseph Francois, who 
loves the yellowish roads near Brussels, particularly 
with their autumnal foliage; and Jean Degreef, 
probably the best landscape painter of the Essor. 

From the Essor was derived a group of painters 
called ''XX" (1883-1893), including Vogels, 
Toorop, Emile Claus, Rodolphe Wytsman, Anna 
Boch and Theo. Van Rysselberhe; while a later 
society called '' Pour I'Art " included Adolphe 
Hamesse, Dardenne, Ottevaere and Coppens. 

Among those who have worked individually are 
the realist, Henri Van der Hecht, a nephew of the 
romantic, G. Van der Hecht ; Denduyts, who affects 
dark and dreary scenes of winter and autumn; 
Binje, whose work is solid and sincere, Isidore 
Verheyden (b. 1846), who likes orchards and 
bright sunny landscapes; and Theodore Verstraete 
(b. 185 1 ), w^ho paints sad scenes — men and 
women of the fields broken by work and poverty 
in landscapes that correspond in sentiment. 

Nor must we forget Marie Collart (b. 1842), a 

fflemisb painters anb ipatnting 109 

lover of rustic scenes, hedge-rows, gardens, little 
houses hidden under the trees, seen with sympathy 
and beautifully executed, occasionally with an 
archaic touch reminiscent of the elder Brueghel and 
Van Ostade. 

Alfred Verwee (1838- 1895) has been called " the 
Belgian Tryon." He is a bold painter, a marvel- 
lous colourist, and endowed with an exuberance 
that links him to the line of Rubens and Jordaens. 
In vast meadows with spongy emerald turf bor- 
dered by far distant horizons his cows and bulls 
and horses appear with grace and beauty and splen- 
did form. Verwee's pupil, Frans Van Leemputten 
(b. 1850), is a painter of peasant life and agricul- 
tural labour, chiefly in the Campines. Another 
pupil is Jean Degreef. 

Among the more modern men are a number who 
seek to represent luminous vibrations and sacrifice 
richness of colour for the delicate play of rays and 
the floating dust in the sunlit air. Conspicuous 
among these '' Luminists " are Theodore Van Rys- 
selberghe, Emile Claus, Rodolphe Wytsman, Anna 
Boch, Lucien Frank and Joseph Heymans. 

Rodolphe Wytsman paints very radiant works, 
delicate and charming in colour and treatment ; and 
his wife Juliette, a fine flower-painter, who paints 
flowers blooming out of doors, has the same quali- 

110 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Balleries 

Albert Baertsoen, Maurice Blieck and Victor 
Gilsoul also belong to this group. 

Among the marine painters are P. J. Clays 
(1819-1900), Louis Artan (1837-1890) and A. 
Bouvier (b. 1837). 

"^ "V) 2 

,?; ^ 03 


















1— ( 



















The Hospital of St. John 

On arriving at Bruges, the visitor will soon find 
his way to the Hospital of St. John, which has ex- 
isted since the Twelfth Century and where the Sis- 
ters of Charity still care for the sick. The entrance 
gate is opposite the west side of Notre-Dame, and 
not far away we may note some quaint sculpture 
dating from the Thirteenth Century. 

The Hospital is practically a Memling gallery. 
Here we find two works ordered by Jan Floreins, a 
brother of the Hospital of St. John : one for the 
high altar of the church attached to St. John's Hos- 
pital ; and the other a smaller triptych. Both were 
finished in 1479, and the original frames still sur- 
round the pictures. The great triptych, Memling's 
masterpiece, is sometimes called The Marriage of 
St. Catherine. 

*' The central panel represents the Blessed Vir- 
gin seated on a metal faldstool, with the Infant 


112 XTbe Hrt ot tbe JSelglan 6allerie6 

Jesus on her lap, surrounded by saints and angels, 
in a spacious pillared portico, or open gallery. A 
cloth of honour of rich brocade is suspended from 
a canopy, immediately beneath which two graceful 
angels hold a crown over her head. Two others 
kneel beside her, on her right a little farther back, 
in alb and tunic, playing a portable organ; the 
other, on her left, in girded alb, holds the Book of 
Wisdom, of which Our Lady is about to turn over 
a leaf, whilst she supports with her right hand the 
Infant Christ. He holds an apple in His left, and, 
bending forward, places the bridal ring on the 
fourth finger of the left hand of St. Catherine, who 
is seated a little nearer the front; the sword and 
wheel, emblematic of her martyrdom, lie on the 
ground beside her. Opposite her, St. Barbara 
seated, with the emblematic tower containing the 
monstrance and Host behind her, is reading atten- 
tively a book she holds with both hands. In the 
background are the patrons of the hospital, both 
standing; on the right, St. John the Baptist, with 
the lamb at his side; and, on the left, St. John the 
Evangelist, youthful, mild and pensive, making the 
sign of the cross over the poisoned chalice which 
he holds in his left hand. The carved capitals of 
the pillars on the right represent the vision of 
Zachary and the birth and naming of the Baptist. 
Between these pillars is seen a lovely landscape con- 

Bruges 113 

tinued on the right shutter, the foreground of which 
is occupied by Herod's palace and courtyard. In 
the landscape the Baptist is represented praying in 
a solitary forest, preaching on a rocky hill to a 
group of seven persons, pointing out Our Lord to 
his listeners, baptizing Him, pointing Him out to 
Andrew and John and being led to prison. On the 
extreme right of the shutter the daughter of Hero- 
dias is dancing before the king to music played by 
minstrels in the gallery of the banqueting-hall, and 
in the immediate front she is holding out a dish, 
on which the executioner is depositing the head of 
St. John. The burning of his body at Sebaste, by 
order of Julian the Apostate, depicted just to the 
right of the centre, completes the series of scenes 
from his legend. On the extreme left of the centre 
panel beyond St. Barbara's tower, a brother of the 
Hospital is represented looking on at a respectful 
distance; the master of the community. Brother 
Jodoc Willems, appears between the pillars to the 
left of the Virgin's throne, superintending the 
gauging of wine beside the town crane in the Flem- 
ish street; the little Romanesque Church of St. 
John is seen in the distance, and to the right, the 
house known as Dinant at the corner of the Coorn- 
blomme street, in course of construction. The land- 
scape background on this side offers the following 
scenes from the life of the beloved disciple: — his 

114 Ube Hrt of tbe BclQian Galleries 

immersion in the cauldron of boiling oil ; his being 
led to a boat in which a soldier is waiting to trans- 
port him to the isle of Patmos; his baptizing the 
philosopher Crato, behind whom kneel his wife and 
two disciples in a chapel with a rood-beam and 
crucifix. The carved capitals of the pillars repre- 
sent the restoration to life of Drusiana and St. John 
drinking unharmed the poisoned wine, which proves 
fatal to the priests of Diana." ^ 

The left shutter represents the saint seated in 
the isle of Patmos, contemplating the Apocalyptic 
vision, a composition of wonderful accuracy and 

Four members of the community — the treas- 
urer, the director, the mother-superior and a nun — 
are represented on the outside shutters, kneeling 
devoutly in prayer under the protection of their 
patron saints. 

The smaller triptych, ordered by Jan Floreins, 
represents The Adoration of the Magi. Here the 
Virgin is seated in the centre supporting with both 
hands the Child on her lap. On the right, the oldest 
of the three Kings is kneeling kissing the foot of 
the Child ; behind him the negro King in gorgeous 
brocade tunic advances with a costly cup. St. 
Joseph, holding the cup offered by the first King, 
stands on the Virgin's left; and at the window 

« Weale. 

JSruQes 115 

near him a man's head is seen looking at the scene. 
According to some critics this is Memhng himself. 
On the Virgin's right, the third King is kneeling 
with his rich chalice, and behind him the donor, 
Jan Floreins, kneels, turning over the leaf of his 
prayer-book which he rests on the old wall. Be- 
hind him is the head of his brother, James. 
Through the opening above the Virgin's head is 
a sort of pen where the ox and ass are visible, and, 
beyond, a long street bordered with houses and 
with the town-gate in the distance, is delicately por- 
trayed. By this road the suites of the Kings, 
mounted on dromedaries and horses, are approach- 
ing. The subjects of the wings are the Nativity 
and the Presentation in the Temple; and on the 
outside of each shutter there is a single seated figure 
seen through a cusped arch. One represents John 
the Baptist with the lamb at his side ; and the other 
St. Veronica with the napkin bearing the imprint 
of the Lord's face. These panels have landscape 

The small triptych, dated 1480, representing the 
Dead Christ mourned by His Mother, St. John and 
Mary Magdalen, was painted for Adrian Reyns, 
who entered the community in 1479, and who is 
represented on the interior shutter, protected by 
St. Adrian in a suit of plate armour. On the oppo- 
site panel, St. Barbara stands with her tower in her 

116 XTbe Hct ot tbe Bel^tan (Balleries 

hand. In the background of the central panel, 
Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus are busy 
preparing the sepulchre at the foot of some 

On the wall hangs also a portrait of Mary 
Moreel, daughter of William Moreel and Barbara 
van Vlaenderberch, whose portraits are in the Brus- 
sels Gallery. It is known as the " Persian Sibyl 
Sambetha," and was painted in 1480. She wears 
a crimson bodice over which is a brown robe 
trimmed with white fur confined by a broad green 
sash. Her hair is brushed back from her forehead 
and over it is a conical black cap draped with a 
gauze veil, which partly covers her face. A gold 
chain with a jewelled pendant hangs round her neck 
and rings ornament her hands. Her left is laid on 
her right hand resting on a kind of parapet. 

A more remarkable portrait, however, appears on 
one panel of a diptych ordered by Martin Van Nieu- 
wenhove, a member of an old Bruges family. His 
portrait occupies the right panel, and a picture of 
the Virgin and Child the other; but these make 
practically one picture. 

The Virgin stands in a room between two win- 
dows, supporting with her right hand the Infant 
Jesus who is seated on a cushion placed on a table 
that is covered with an Oriental carpet. With her 
left hand she offers Him an apple which He is about 

Btuaes 117 

to take. At the other end of the table, on the other 
panel, kneels the donor, his hands folded in prayer 
above a book of hours with a gold clasp on which 
his arms are enamelled. The lower portion of both 
windows is open, but on the upper pane of one is 
represented in stained glass his patron, St. Martin, 
on horseback dividing his cloak. Through the 
lower window is seen a landscape, — a winding 
stream with swans, a bridge with a tower at each 
end and on the bridge three men and a woman. On 
the lower part of the window behind the Virgin on 
the left hangs a circular mirror in which the figures 
and room are reflected and above it the donor's 
arms in stained glass. On the window on her right 
are circular medallions representing St. George and 
St. Christopher ; and through the open panes below 
is a beautiful landscape with a road winding among 
trees to a distant town. On the road a peasant 
woman is walking with a basket on her head, 
and farther away a man on a white horse is 

" This diptych is a remarkable example of Mem- 
ling's skill in dealing with light, which is here even, 
with but little shadow, producing peculiar clearness, 
and imparting to this interior an impression of 
space. The Virgin with her fair oval face and 
broad forehead is quite one of his happiest crea- 
tions, while the donor is one of the most interest- 

118 Ubc Htt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

ing portraits he ever produced; the landscapes also 
are exquisitely finished." ^ 

Last, but by no means least, is the marvellous 
Reliquary of St. Ursula, ordered by the Hospital in 
1480, to enclose some relics of St. Ursula and the 
11,000 Virgins brought from the Holy Land. It is 
a Gothic chapel in miniature, of carved oak with 
gabled ends, two feet ten inches high, three feet 
long and one foot one inch broad. Its slanting 
roof is adorned with six medallions, cresting, finials 
and statuettes of saints coloured and gilt. The 
medallions represent the Coronation of the Virgin, 
the glory of St. Ursula and four angels. The sides 
are divided into six archings, three on each side, 
in which an episode in St. Ursula's life is depicted. 
The first panel represents the arrival of the pil- 
grims at Cologne, where Ursula and her compan- 
ions prepare to land; the second, their arrival at 
Basle, where Ursula appears on the quay while her 
suite is disembarking; the third, the Pope sur- 
rounded by his court in Rome with Ursula kneeling 
on the steps of the church; the fourth, the Pope 
accompanying Ursula and her companions back to 
Basle, he sitting, with his cardinals in the same 
boat as Ursula; the fifth, the attack upon the Vir- 
gins on a bank of the Rhine; and the sixth, the 
martyrdom of St. Ursula herself with the walls of 

3t Weale. 

JSruges 119 

the Cologne Cathedral in the background. On one 
of the gable ends is represented St. Ursula with her 
maidens gathered under her cloak and the other 
depicts the Virgin standing with the Child on her 
right arm and being worshipped by two of the 
Hospital nuns. 

'* The masterpiece of Memling's later years, a 
shrine containing the relics of St. Ursula in the 
hospital of Bruges, is fairly supposed to have been 
ordered and finished in 1480 after the painter had 
become acquainted with the scenery of the Rhine. 
This shrine is one of the most interesting monu- 
ments of Mediaeval art in Flanders, not only be- 
cause it is beautifully executed, but because it re- 
veals some part of the life of the painter who pro- 
duced it, and illustrates the picturesque legend of 
Ursula and her comrades. The delicacy of finish 
in its minute figures, the variety of its landscapes 
and costume, the marvellous patience with which its 
details are given, are all matters of enjoyment to 
the spectator." ^ 

The Picture Gallery of the Academy 

The Museum containing the Picture Gallery of 
the Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architec- 
ture, founded in 1719, is situated in the Rue Saint 
Catherine. Here we find many pictures by John 

* Crowe, 

120 Ube Hrt ot tbe JBclQian Galleries 

Van Eyck, Memling, Gerard David, Pieter Pour- 
bus and others, that will attract the casual traveller 
and delight the student. In no other city can 
Gerard David be so well understood, and so we 
will first look at his works. 

In 1488, Gerard David was commissioned to 
paint for the town-hall two panels that would recall 
to the magistrates that they should be honest and 
just. Instead of painting the story of the judge 
Pieter Lanchals and other members of the magis- 
tracy who, accused of corruption and malversation, 
had been tortured and put to death, David selected 
the story of Cambyses as told by Herodotus. Si- 
samnes, a royal judge of Egypt, having been bribed 
to give an unjust verdict. King Cambyses had him 
strangled and flayed and then he had the judge's 
chair covered with his skin; and, naming the son 
of Sisamnes judge in his father's place, charged 
him to remember on whose seat he was placed to 
administer justice. 

" In the first panel, Cambyses, who, attended by 
his court, has entered the hall of justice, is order- 
ing the unjust judge to be seized. His corruption 
is indicated in the background, where at the door 
of his dwelling, he is receiving a bag of money 
from a man. Cambyses, the first finger of his right 
hand laid on the thumb of his left, is apparently in- 
sisting on the truth of the accusation. Other judges 


MEMLING - Hospital of 

Plate XVII St. John 

{See page i ii) Bruges 




Bruges 121 

and persons of distinction stand around the king. 
The unjust judge, laid hold of by a vulgar-looking 
man has a terror-stricken countenance. He wears 
a red fur-lined robe over a black underdress; in 
his right hand he holds his head-cover of blue cloth 
which he has taken off on the entrance of the king; 
his left rests on the arm of his seat. Behind him is 
stretched a cloth of honour, of brown bordered with 
black, suspended by straps to rings in the wall. To 
the right and left of the justice seat are two oval 
medallions in cama'ieu with allegorical subjects, re- 
markable as being the earliest instance of the occur- 
rence, in Netherlandish pictures, of pagan sculpture. 
Above the cloth of honour is the date 1498 and still 
higher a bracket on which are seated two amorini 
holding two wreaths of foliage and fruit. On the 
wall above the garlands are escutcheons with the 
arms of Philip the Handsome and Joan of Aragon. 
The scene is represented as taking place in an open 
gallery or portico looking on to a square, which 
bears a general resemblance to the square of St. 
John at Bruges. 

" Cambyses wxars a robe of dark blue and gold 
brocade lined with fur, and a mantle of blue velvet 
with ermine collar and trimmings, white hose, san- 
dals and a red velvet cap bordered with fur and 
encircled with a rich gold crown." ^ 

» Weale. 

122 XLbc Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

Behind an officer in armour, there is seen the 
head of a man of about thirty, which is the earhest 
known portrait of the painter. In the foreground, 
there is a white hound with a gold collar and a 

The second panel representing the Execution of 
Sisamnes shows all the details of the horrible scene 
surveyed by the King and his courtiers. One of the 
ten noblemen has a hawk on his wrist and in the 
foreground a poodle is indifferently scratching his 
ear. In the background, on the left, the son of Si- 
samnes is seen seated in his father's chair, behind 
which hangs his father's skin in place of a cloth of 
honour. He seems to be refusing the contents of 
a purse which some people are offering. Beyond 
a wall in the background the trees of a park are 

*' Each panel measures 5 feet 1 1 inches by 4 feet 
8 inches and is vigorously painted in a brownish 
tone with wonderful finish. They are well com- 
posed, though the foreground of the first picture 
is a little overcharged. The backgrounds are ex- 
cellent, and the form and foliage of the trees in 
the park faithfully rendered. The figures are well 
drawn, most of the heads having a great deal of 
character and the hands being admirably mod- 
elled." 1 

I Weale. 

:BruGe5 123 

The triptych called the Baptism of Christ was 
painted soon after the Judgment of Cambyses and 
Execution of Sisamnes, ordered by John des 
Trompes, a treasurer of Bruges. 

" In the foreground our Lord is seen girt with 
a loin cloth, standing in the Jordan, the water of 
which comes up to His knees. His hands are 
joined in prayer and His face wears an expression 
of deep recollection. The Baptist kneeling on the 
bank to the left is pouring water out of the hollow 
of his hand on the Saviour's head. He wears a 
tunic of camel's skin confined at the waist by a scarf 
and over it a red mantle. To the right kneels an 
angel in a cope of gold brocade edged with a red 
fringe, and having an embroidered hood bordered 
wnth pearls and precious stones, holding our Lord's 
robe on his arms. The Holy Spirit coming down 
as a dove from heaven in a glory of gold rays hov- 
ers above Christ's head, whilst high up in the sky 
is seen the Eternal Father surrounded by wingless 
angels blessing His Son. 

'' The scene of this picture is laid in a splendid 
and highly-tinted mountainous and rocky landscape, 
which is here a more important feature than in any 
earlier representation of the subject. In the mid- 
distance, on the right, is seen the Precursor, seated 
on a moss-grown rock preaching to a group of 
twenty-five persons; two others are drawing near 

124 Ube Hrt ot tbe Beloian Galleries 

to listen. On the left, in the shade beneath the 
trees, S. John is pointing out the Messiah to three 
of his disciples, one of whom is leaving to follow 
Him. In the background are rocks and a city, 
above and beyond which rises a mountain crowned 
by a large castle. Nothing can well be finer than 
this portion of the picture; the trees vigorously 
painted and finished with wonderful minuteness, 
have evidently been studied individually from na- 
ture, as though of many different kinds they each 
and all preserve the character of their respective 
foliage and form. Between their trunks we get 
glimpses of really distant landscape. The herbage, 
lilies, mallows, violets and other flowers in the im- 
mediate front have never been more admirably re- 
produced by the art of the painter. The wavelets 
of the water agitated by the wind in the broader 
part of the river, and, in the less exposed inlet, the 
concentric circles around the Saviour's legs expand- 
ing and intersecting each other until they break 
against the banks are another instance of careful 
observation. The transparency of the water, the 
reflections of surrounding objects and the shadows 
on its surface are faithfully rendered. The bedding 
of the rocks, too, is imitated with perfect truth. 
The colouring of all this portion is so remarkably 
bright and lovely that the faults of the composition 
are not at first noticed. The principal group not 

aBruges 125 

only surcharges the foreground, but is somewhat 
inharmonious in colour, this, however, being doubt- 
less due to overcleaning — the picture was in 1579 
daubed with black distemper on which were painted 
the Ten Commandments, and thus escaped being 
destroyed or stolen by the Calvinist iconoclasts." ^ 

On the right wing on the grass kneels the donor, 
John des Trompes, in a fur-lined robe with his son, 
Philip, by his side; and behind him his patron 
saint, John the Evangelist. On the right wing ap- 
pear the donor's first wife Elizabeth von der 
Meersch and her four daughters protected by St. 
Elizabeth of Hungary. On the exterior of the 
wings, the artist painted at a later period the Virgin 
and Child and Mary Magdalen Cordier, the donor's 
second wife, with her daughter, Isabella, and St. 
Mary Magdalen, behind whom through arches is 
seen the courtvard of a house. 

In 1436, John van Eyck painted the most impor- 
tant of his religious compositions (after the Lamb), 
the Madonna of the Canon Van der Paele. It is 
signed and dated; and the words inscribed on the 
frame, taken from the Book of Wisdom, are the 
same as those in the Adoration of the Lamb over 
the Virgin enthroned beside God the Father. The 
Roman church to which the altarpiece of the Canon 
Van der Paele introduces us is probably the basilica 

' Weale. 

126 Ube Hrt ot tbe ^Belgian Galleries 

of St. Donatian, the Cathedral of Bruges, which 
was formerly adorned with this masterpiece. Be- 
yond the arcades opening on the ambulatory, len- 
ticular windows, such as John van Eyck often 
painted, admit a soft light that caressingly glides 
over the squat and almost dwarf columns (if we 
compare them with the stature of the personages). 
" Seated under a green da'is, clothed with a purple 
mantle, the Madonna, with her rounded forehead, 
full cheeks and robust neck, repeats and achieves the 
type announced in the Virgin of Chancellor Rolin. 
The Infant Jesus plays with a parrot, and grasps at 
flowers in his Mother's hand ; some people consider 
him * without charm and without grace.' That 
may be; but Van Eyck has represented all that 
tender infancy, robust and Flemish even, possesses 
of roguishness and knowingness. To the left of 
the Virgin kneels the donor, George Van der Paele, 
Canon of St. Donatian — elected in 14 lo, deceased 
in 1444. With his square and chubby hands, he 
holds his horn spectacles, his breviary and his 
gloves. Bald, with a few sparse tufts over his ears, 
his brow bony and hard under the fine skin, his eyes 
underlined with flabby folds, his jaws and double 
chin also covered with fat, — this canon is illustri- 
ous in the art of portraiture. Behind him, stands 
his patron St. George, a cuirassed youth with a 
broad grin — a curious survival of mediaeval 

Bruges 127 

archaism. As a pendant to St. George stands St. 
Donatian, the patron of the ancient cathedral of 
Bruges, in splendid episcopal robes, the proces- 
sional cross in one hand, and, in the other, the wheel 
with five candles recalling his miraculous rescue. 

" The throne, with its beautiful carved accesso- 
ries, the Oriental carpet, the Virgin's golden hair, 
the armour and pennon of St. George, the embroid- 
ered cope of St. Donatian, the fluid light that sifts 
through the windows into the ambulatory, all har- 
monize on a golden woof, the materials sometimes 
thickening in the shadows, and the modelling being 
obtained by superpositions of lighter and lighter 
and more and more transparent layers of colour, 
so as to make the most of the under ones, and rein- 
force the values without depriving them of their 
brilliance. Translated into glittering colours of 
enamel, this picture dictated the ordonnance of a 
great number of Bruges pictures. Memling nota- 
bly adopted the formula for his masterpiece, the 
Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine." ^ 

On the top of the frame of the portrait of John 
van Eyck's wife, we read : Conjtix mens lohes me 
complevit ano 1439, 17 Jtinii; and, on the bottom : 
Etas mea triginta trin anorn.^ Ah ik kan. " In 
this young woman of thirty-three years, with deli- 
cate white and rose complexion, blonde lashes 

* Fierens-Gevaert. 

128 Ube Hrt of the Belatan 6allerte0 

and almost imperceptible golden eyebrows — only 
blondes were beautiful in the eyes of the old Flem- 
ings — people insist on seeing a stiff, disagreeable, 
nun-like, ugly, middle-class woman, — and com- 
plain of the Master. But how could anybody help 
looking somewhat like a nun in that horned and 
turned-up head-dress? It is true that the lips are 
rather thin, but the features are fine, regular and 
distinguished ; and the hand is exquisite. Is there 
anything to shudder at? John van Eyck never put 
more soul into his painting; his brush has marvel- 
lous caresses for rendering the transparent and 
fresh epidermis, and for painting the soft and warm 
shadows in which the pretty ear is bathed; and the 
microscopic sinuosities of the ruche that borders the 
white coif are cut so finely that they never become 
confused. John van Eyck reached the end of his 
career without any failing, or the slightest diminu- 
tion of his genius, and I imagine that he proudly 
dedicated this marvellous ex-voto to his young 
companion ; and that it was with legitimate pride 
that he could inscribe on it his device : Als ik 
kan:' 1 

A Head of Christ, a reduced copy of a picture in 
the Berlin Museum, is of the school of Van Eyck. 

Memling's fine triptych, in its original frame 
which bears the date 1484, was ordered by William 

^ Fierens-Gevaert. 



Plate XVIII 
{See page 120) 





JSruaes 129 

Moreel for an altar-piece for the chantry chapel he 
gave to the Church of St. Jacques in Bruges. 

" In the centre is seen Saint Christopher bearing 
the Infant Christ on his shoulder across a river. 
He supports himself with the trunk of a young tree, 
and is looking up with an expression of wonder, as 
if seeking an explanation of the incomprehensible 
burthen which is weighing him down. The Holy 
Child, smiling graciously, enlightens and blesses 
him. A hermit, leaning on a staff at the mouth of 
a cave in one of the lofty rocks, between which the 
river flows, holds up a lighted lantern. On the right 
stands Saint Maur, reading attentively a book 
which rests on his left arm ; he wears a white tunic, 
black scapular and cowl, and holds a crosier in his 
right hand. On the left, Saint Gilles, in black habit, 
holding a closed book and caressing a fawn at his 
side; an arrow aimed at it has lodged in the saint's 
right sleeve. On the right shutter, with his five 
sons grouped behind him, is the burgomaster Will- 
iam Moreel, kneeling, with his hands joined at a 
prayer-desk on which lies an open book. He is 
protected by Saint William of Maleval, who wears 
over his steel armour the black habit of the order 
of hermits which he founded. The arms of the 
order are blazoned on the pennon of his lance; at 
his feet is a demon in the form of a wild beast. In 
the background, to the right, a moated manor, pos- 

130 Zbc Hrt of tbe JBelgtan Galleries 

sibly Oost Cleyhem, and a farmhouse with a 
church beyond it on the left; between them a 
wooded landscape. On the left wing, Moreel's 
wife, protected by Saint Barbara, kneels opposite 
her husband, with her eleven daughters, the eldest 
of whom is clothed in the habit of a Dominican 
nun. In the background are a castle and trees. 
The figures in this triptych are admirably grouped 
and modelled. The refined and meditative figures 
of Saint Maur and Saint Gilles contrast well with 
that of Saint Christopher, which is full of life and 
vigour." ^ 

" One of the most famous works in this gallery 
is The Last Judgment by Jan Prevost, in which 
Christ, clothed in red, is seated on a rainbow, with 
his feet on the terrestrial globe. With his right 
hand he indicates the wound on his thigh, and in 
his left he holds a naked sword; upon his knees 
rests an open book, inscribed with the words Bonum 
et Malum. The Virgin, in rose coloured robe and 
blue mantle, entreats for humanity on the right; 
and, by her side, are St. Catherine, with a piece of 
her wheel; St. Peter, with a key; St. Paul, with 
a sword; St. Bartholomew with a knife; and 
other saints. On the left we see John the Baptist, 
with a lamb bearing the standard; David, with a 
harp; Moses, with the Tables of the Law; St. 

JSruoes i3i 

Anthony; St. Stephen and others. Two angels, 
supporting the Cross and sounding a trumpet, are 
beneath Christ, and out of the trumpet issue two 
legends : ' Appropinquate vos elccti ' and ' Ite 
maledicti in aeternam.' In the lower part of the 
picture is represented the Resurrection, with the 
abode of the blessed on the right, the walls of which 
are of gold studded with precious stones and hell 
on the left, represented by a city of fire. In the 
foreground, with a crown at her feet, a woman is 
being offered a white robe by an angel ; behind her, 
a monster is seizing a kneeling woman ; and an- 
other monster is hurrying towards a soldier in a 
lake. In the background, there is a sea on which 
there are vessels, some of which are taken posses- 
sion of by angels and others by demons. Some of 
them have reached the shore, and are discharging 
their passengers, who are being led by angels and 
demons. This picture was once in the great hall 
in the H6tel-de-Ville above the sculptured chimney- 
piece. It is full of religious feeling and notwith- 
standing some bizarre details it produces a striking 
effect. The colour is also good. The upper part 
is distinguished for the beauty, variety and senti- 
ment expressed in the heads ; with the exception of 
the Virgin and St. John all the saints are dressed in 
white. The saint who receives the habit of the 
elect and the angel who is giving it to her form 

132 U\)c Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

a charming little group. Some of the punished en- 
gulfed in the lake of fire deserve notice on account 
of their expression, and also the demons, some of 
which are as fantastic as those of Brueghel and 
Callot. The flowers in the foreground on the right 
are faithfully painted." 

The frame is a superb piece of carving dated 
1525 in the upper part between the two lions sup- 
porting the great golden shield with the double 
black eagle of Charles V. On the sides are the pil- 
lars of Hercules and the device ''Plus oiiltre." A 
copy of Prevost's Last Judgment by Jacob Van den 
Coornhuuse, with some variations, also hangs in 
this gallery. 

It is interesting to compare Prevost's work with 
The Last Judgment by Pieter Pourbus, also in this 
gallery. Here, in the upper part, Christ in a red 
robe is also seated on a rainbow; at his feet are 
two angels sounding trumpets and near them are 
the heads of cherubs. On the left is the Virgin, 
accompanied with saints and prophets; and, on the 
right, John the Baptist with others. Below, the 
Resurrection is depicted; the elect being escorted 
to heaven by angels and the condemned to hell by 
demons. Eve, responsible for everything, is in the 

Pieter Pourbus is also represented by The De- 
scent from the Cross (1570) and by portraits of 

Bruges 133 

John and Adrienne Fernagant. The Descent from 
the Cross is an elaborate triptych where the faith- 
ful are taking the body from the Cross and the 
Virgin seated on the ground and surrounded by her 
holy women gives herself up to grief. The Mag- 
dalen is kneeling in front. In the background three 
disciples are placing the body of the Saviour in the 
sepulchre in the presence of the Virgin, St. John 
and the three holy women. Jerusalem is seen on 
the horizon. Bearing the Cross is depicted on the 
left wing and the Resurrection on the left, and there 
is a predella with the Adoration of the Shepherds 
in the centre and the Annunciation and Circum- 
cision on the left and right. 

Jan Fernagant is in his room, through the open 
window of which the Place de la Grue is visible. 
The subject wears a black doublet with cherry col- 
oured sleeves, one of his hands is gloved and two 
fine rings are on the other. The portrait of 
Adrienne de Buuck, his wife, was also painted in 
1 55 1. She wears a black robe cut square in the 
neck. The sleeves are dark red. A white cap is on 
her head and she wears a gold chain around her 
neck. In her right hand she holds a rosary and 
gloves, and on the forefinger of her right she wears 
a ring. There is a dog on the bench ; and through 
the window you see the Maison du Coq in the rue 
de Flandre, with its ornamental fagade, dated 1542, 

134 Ube Hrt of tbe JBclQian (Balleries 

and in the street are seen children playing with dice. 
Farther away appears the chapel of St. Jean. 

The Death of the Virgin, an unknown work of 
the Brabant School of the Fifteenth Century, has 
always been greatly admired, as is proved by the 
number of copies that exist. The Virgin draped 
in blue is lying on a bed also covered with blue 
drapery. She is surrounded by saints and Jesus 
appears in a glory above. The expression of the 
Virgin's face has always attracted the praise of 

Two works by Lancelot Blondeel also claim at- 

In an oval surrounded with architectural orna- 
ments in the Renaissance style, St. Luke in a green 
robe and purple mantle is kneeling before his easel, 
painting the Virgin w^ho is seated in an arm-chair 
in a green dress and red mantle with the Child in 
her lap. The latter regards the painter with a half- 
frightened air. The mosaic pavement is partly cov- 
ered with a rich rug. Above the frame, which is 
ornamented with leaves, rams' heads, monkeys and 
grotesque figures, are hung the arms granted by 
the Emperor Maximilian to Albrecht Diirer and the 
corporations of painter-artists — an azure shield 
with three shields silver. The same arms are 
painted on the window of the little inner room in 
the background of the picture where a man is grind- 

IBruGCS 135 

ing colours. St. Luke is a portrait of Blondeel him- 
self. The work is dated 1545. 

Another work by the same painter is The Legend 
of St. George, a picture divided into five parts by 
rich architectural ornaments. The central panel 
represents St. George, wearing a suit of armour and 
a helmet with white plumes, mounted on a bay 
horse covered with a red and gold cloth. The 
knight turns towards the right, brandishing his 
sword to kill the dragon already wounded by his 
lance, the point of which is sticking in his throat. 
Beyond is the princess, in a yellow skirt and gray 
bodice with red sleeves. A dog is by her side, and 
in the background there is a fortified city. The 
other panels represent the saint's martyrdom. 

Jacques Van Oost the Elder's various pictures 
are St. Augustine washing the feet of Christ, who is 
disguised as a pilgrim ; St. Anthony of Padua and 
the Holy Child; St. Anthony resuscitating a dead 
man ; portraits of two Arquebusiers ; and a Theo- 
logian dictating to a young clerk, both of whom are 
seated at a table in a study. 

Two landscapes, or rather, river-views, by Jan 
Van Goyen, are the only notable modern works. 



The Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts owes its ori- 
gin to David Teniers the Younger and his col- 
leagues of the old Guild of St. Luke (founded in 
1382), who obtained from Philip IV, in 1663, let- 
ters patent authorizing the Corporation to establish 
an Academy on the model of those of Paris and 
Rome. For a time the members held their meet- 
ings in a hall in the Bourse, but soon occupied the 
old Franciscan monastery, still standing, on the Rue 
du Fagot. For many years the two works now 
described as the wings to Martin De Vos's Saint 
Luke Painting the Virgin were used as interior 
panels for the large double entrance door of the 
salon d'honneur of the Academy. By 1765, the 
Academy had collected forty paintings, twenty-six 
of which are now in the Museum. 

The present building was finished in 1890 from 
plans by J. J. Winders and F. Van Dyck. It is a 
handsome edifice in the Greek Renaissance style, 
the main entrance a portico supported by four 
Corinthian columns with lateral loggie on the upper 











( ) 







1 1 



1— t 













COLLEGE, OF i\^^^M_ A«Ti 


Hntwerp 137 

story and embellished with allegorical figures and 
medallions. The massive rectangle encloses six 
inner courts. 

The great Vestibule de Keyser contains the large 
staircase with marble w^alls, a great bronze vase by 
Drake and C. Van der Stappen's marble statue of 
David. On the landing is Daybreak, a high relief 
by E. Jespers. The visitor will pause to look at 
the striking paintings by Nicaise de Keyser, trans- 
ferred from the old Academy and illustrating the 
history of Flemish Art. The principal pictures are 
over the entrance and on the right and left walls. 
The one over the entrance contains fifty-two figures 
and depicts Antwerpia on a throne in the centre 
beneath which are represented Gothic and Renais- 
sance Art. On the left, Quentin Massys is seated 
and Frans Floris is standing; and above them are 
the architects of the Cathedral of Antwerp ; on the 
right, we see Rubens with Otto Vsenius, his teacher ; 
Jordaens leaning over a balustrade; Cornelius 
Schut on the steps wdth Van Dyck next, David 
Teniers the Elder, G. de Craeyer, Jan Brueghel and 
others. The picture on the right wall represents 
forty-two painters and sculptors and that on the 
left the same number of painters and engravers. 
Twelve other pictures, describing the various de- 
velopments of Flemish Art, also decorate this Ves- 

138 Ube Hrt of tbe BclQian Galleries 

The left wing of the ground floor is devoted to 
the Sculpture Gallery, in which there are some 
paintings representing old Antwerp; and the left 
wing, to the Rubens Collection. This was opened 
in 1877, when the three hundredth anniversary of 
Rubens's birth was celebrated in his native city. 
It occupies nine rooms and two side halls, and con- 
sists of engravings, etchings, woodcuts, photo- 
graphs, etc., of most of Rubens's works. In the 
anteroom, there is a marble bust of the great painter 
by J. R. Pecher, placed there in 1877. 

Passing up the staircase, we reach the first floor, 
where are exhibited both the Old Masters and the 
Modern Painters. 

The former, comprising about eight hundred pic- 
tures, are in the rooms in the centre and on the 
right side of the building; and the modern works 
(about three hundred) occupy the rooms on the 

When the French army carried away in 1797 
many of the works that had been collected from the 
old Academy of St. Luke and various churches and 
corporations, Guillaume Jacques Herreyns, director 
of the Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Archi- 
tecture, used his influence and his money to save 
the remaining pictures from the hands of the sans 
culottes, often, indeed, at the risk of his own life. 

The present Museum was established in 18 17 to 

Hntwerp 139 

house the works that were returned from France 
in 18 1 5, consisting of pictures by Rubens, Van 
Dyck, Jordaens, and others, to which were added 
the twenty-seven pictures saved by Mr. Herreyns, 
consisting of seventeen by Rubens, five by Van 
Dyck, two by Cornehs de Vos, two by Van Thulden 
and one by De Vriendt. 

The first catalogue, pubhshed in 1826, numbered 
two hundred and seven works by old masters and 
eleven copies. 

The gallery was enriched in 1840 by the bequest 
of the Chevalier Florent Joseph Van Ertborn, a 
burgomaster of Antwerp, whose collection of 136 
masters, from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury, contains many examples of the first order. 
His bust, by J. Geefs, is in Room C. 

This legacy was supplemented by another in 
1859 from the Dowager Van den Hecke, nee 
Baronne Baut de Rasmon. This consists of forty- 
one pictures, chiefly of the Seventeenth Century. 

The Antwerp Gallery is rich in examples of the 
Primitives, of Rubens and his school, and of the 
Little Dutch Masters. 

The celebrated little St. Barbara is signed and 
dated lohes de Eyck me fecit- 14^'/. It is only a 
sketch. Karel Van Mander tells us that John's 
sketches wxre more complete than the finished 
works of other artists. In spite of its small dimen- 

140 Ube Hrt ot tbe aselatan Galleries 

sions the St. Barbara shows what dehght John took 
in confining a vast space in a small frame. An im- 
mense tower that proclaims the architectural genius 
of the master mounts into the sky. At the foot of 
this giant, workmen are busy pushing barrows, 
transporting materials, and cutting, hammering and 
rolling stones; while ladies and lords on horse- 
back, and curious on-lookers circulate through the 
busy scene, and on the top of the tower men are 
setting blocks of stone hoisted by the crane. The 
left background consists of a wide stretch of hilly 
country, and in the right background is a fantastic 
city terraced into a pyramid. St. Barbara is seated 
in the centre of the foreground, spreading the mul- 
tiple folds of her dress over the whole width of the 
panel. Her pensive countenance, framed by lightly 
frizzed hair, is marked with the spiritualization of 
the feminine type announced by the Virgin in the 

The original of the latter has disappeared, but 
this museum owns one of the five known replicas 
(catalogued merely as Bruges Master of 1499) 
which forms part of a diptych formerly attributed 
to Memling. If the copy is exact, it establishes a 
tendency in John Van Eyck to refine his female 
type. But the copyist has not the infallibly sure 
touch of the master ; the little square tiles of the 
pavement, decorated with lambs, are not drawn 

Hntwetp 141 

with great firmness. On the other hand, the artist 
remedies these weaknesses by a very fine feeHng 
for values and hghts. 

The student will take great interest in examining 
the methods of the reputed inventors of oil paint- 
ing. The panel of St. Barbara is of oak, entirely 
covered with a chalky ground : only the sky is 
painted in azure, with a slight tint of purple. The 
composition proper — people, landscape, tower — 
is finely drawn with the brush in brown colour. 
The shadows are indicated by hatchings, also 
drawn. The foundation is doubtless a preparation 
of gum, or white of tgg; the parts drawn are ex- 
ecuted in tempera; the sky, not needing any draw- 
ing, was painted directly in oil. It remained for 
the master to lay upon the drawn parts his coloured 
tones with bases of amber, mastic, perhaps also 
sandarac, mixed with siccative, and, at the last 
moment, reinforced with terebinth. Having thus 
combined the colours with an oily varnish, John 
Van Eyck doubtless proceeded with successive glaz- 
ings, taking up the work of the modelling again 
with each new coat, preserving for the lower ones 
their sonority and laying on his materials so ad- 
mirably that they have resisted the attacks of time ; 
and the centuries have even added an inappreciable 
patina to his tones of enamel, gold and gems. 

The Madonna of the Fountain, and the portrait 

142 Ube Htt of tbe JBelaian Galleries 

of the painter's wife (Bruges), are the two last 
works known of the master. The Madonna is 
dated 1439. There are many rephcas of it; and 
the work undoubtedly owed its popularity to its 
exceptionally sweet character. Here we are no 
longer in a church, but in the open air. The artist 
has not changed his model for the Virgin, but the 
affectionate bend of her head, the attitude of Jesus, 
and the thick clumps of flowers in the background 
are novelties that enrich the art of John Van Eyck, 
and reanimate the noble maturity of the master with 
a breath of juvenile mysticism. Stephan Lochner's 
Rose Virgin (1435) was the inspiration of this 

A magnificent replica of Van Eyck's Madonna of 
the Canon Van der Paele, came from Watervliet. 
It was executed in the course of the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury. The size is rather smaller than the original, 
but the technique is very sure and strong, particu- 
larly in St. Donatian's blue cope, with its gold em- 
broidery, and in the finely shadowed head of the 

A beautiful little picture of the Virgin and Child 
Jesus, the wing of a triptych has been attributed to 
Memling. It is certainly of the school of Van Eyck. 

The Virgin is standing in the nave of a Gothic 
church wearing a green dress, red mantle, and a 
superb crown that sparkles with jewels. On her 

Hntwerp 143 

right arm she holds the Child Jesus. On the border 
of her dress are the words "' Salve Regina mundi.'* 
In front of her stands a vase of flowers, and, in the 
choir in the background, two angels are reading 
a book. 

The details are beautifully painted and the per- 
spective is wonderful. 

One of the panels of this picture is a portrait of 
Christian de Hondt, Abbe of the Dunes, dressed in 
the white habit of the Cistercian monks, kneeling in 
prayer, his hands clasped over a rich missal; his 
mitre in front of him and a little dog asleep by his 
side. The room in which he kneels, says Henri 
Hymans, " is one of the most delicate interiors of 
its kind. Everything breathes calm and comfort. 
In the high chimney-piece of white stone where 
hangs the abbatial cross, on superb andirons a 
bright fire burns. On the brackets of the chim- 
ney-piece, within easy reach are some fruits. 
Farther away on a credence are some metal jugs 
of elegant form and some cups and also a bed 
draped with blue curtains. On a shelf are books. 
It would be hard to fancy that Van Eyck could 
do better. The only work that can be compared 
to this is the St. Jerome by.Antonello da Messina 
that belonged to Lord Northbrook and is now 
in the National Gallery of London." 

The Nativity and the Benediction by Juste de 

144 tlbe Hrt of tbe SSelatan Galleries 

Gand, a pupil of Van Eyck, represents the Pope 
in rich dalmatic and tiara, holding a monstrance 
in his hands before the altar in a chapel. On 
either side kneels an angel with outspread wings 
dressed in bluish robes and swinging a censer. 
Upon the altar stand two candles; and above it 
is a polyptych, on which are represented the An- 
nunciation and various scenes of the Nativity. 
Banderoles with Latin inscriptions are seen below 
the altar. 

The Antwerp Museum has several pictures of the 
period anterior to Van Eyck. The Coronation of 
the Virgin is a Franco-Flemish work of the last 
quarter of the Fourteenth Century; it has a gold 
background; the seat and the folds of the robes 
remind us of the miniatures of Beauneveu. The 
dreadful repainting does not prevent us from feel- 
ing the southern influence in the work. Another 
early picture, of important dimensions, is a Calvary 
on a figured gold ground, showing the donor, 
Hendrick Van Ryn, kneeling before the cross. It 
is dated 1363. 

The suffering type of the Christ, the arch ele- 
gance of the Virgin and the fluting of her mantle 
would class the Calvary in the cycle of the composite 
works if the spring of the figures and the length- 
ened face of St. John did not announce the style of 
the school of Haarlem, as fixed by Thierry Bouts. 

2 °3 






















Hntwerp 145 

Of Thierry Bouts himself, we find here his 
famous St. Christopher, and a Virgin and Child. 
St. Christopher, clad in a blue tunic and red mantle 
and a piece of white drapery around his head, is 
fording a river with the Child Jesus on his shoul- 
der. The latter raises his right hand in blessing. 
On the left, a hermit with a lantern issues from a 
grotto and on the right is a landscape. The moon, 
seen in the sky, is also reflected in the water. 

In the picture of the Virgin and Child the figures 
occupy nearly the whole canvas. Dressed in a blue 
robe and red mantle, with her light hair falling over 
her shoulders, the Virgin is seated with the Child 
Jesus on her knees supporting him with her left 
hand and holding his foot with her right. The 
Child lifts his left hand in blessing. Behind theni 
is a row of trees in thick foliage against a blue sky. 

A Nativity and a Holy Family are good examples 
of Albert Bouts. In the former, which is full of 
animation, there is a resemblance to the works of 
Hugo Van der Goes and the Maitre de Moulins, par- 
ticularly in the garland of angels that hover over 
the figures and the shepherds who are coming joy- 
fully to see the wonder of which they have heard. 

In the Holy Family the Virgin is very charming. 
Beautifully painted is the book she is turning, held 
by a radiant angel over whose head through the 
open window we see a delightful landscape. 

146 XTbe Hrt ot tbe BelGtan (Ballertes 

Thierry Bouts had several followers. The gal- 
lery has a number of paintings that show themselves 
to have been more or less happily inspired by his 
manner : St. Lienard Delivering Prisoners, a quaint 
street scene ; the translation of the Body of St. Hu- 
bert; and the "portrait" of St. Hubert. In the 
latter, the accessories are very well painted; and 
the saint's physiognomy has the characteristics of 
the faces of Thierry Bouts. A Resurrection is also 
painted under the influence of the Louvain portrait 

A small Annunciation allows us to appreciate 
with what ingenuously true grace Roger Van der 
Weyden interpreted the initial mystery of the Re- 
demption. It is a sort of miniature, very brilliant 
with its bed of green dai's and scarlet covering, with 
the pretty blue and white robes of the Virgin and 
the Angel. The execution is lacking in strength, 
in the heads particularly. Its authenticity has not 
been conclusively established. 

" The Seven Sacraments is one of the master- 
pieces of this gallery. The central panel, the Eucha- 
rist, introduces us into the open nave of a church in 
which rises a lofty cross bearing the Christ. In the 
foreground are grouped the holy women, and the 
Virgin swooning in the arms of St. John. In the 
background, with no figure to break the intermedi- 
ary spaces, is an altar decorated with charming carv- 

Hntwetp 147 

ings. Before this altar, a priest, in a rich chasuble, 
is elevating the Host. On the wings, where for 
once the artist has made an effort to dispose his 
groups in perspective, are represented Baptism, 
Confirmation and Confession on the right; and Or- 
dination, Marriage and Extreme Unction on the 
left. The various scenes are displayed as taking 
place simultaneously in the aisles of the church; 
and above each of them an angel unfolds a phylac- 
tery — while the central panel represents the deep- 
est emotion, — with the striking depth of its open 
decoration, the rigid lines of the cross springing 
into the vault, the pathetic amplitude of the drama 
evoked at the entrance of the church, and the im- 
mense space figured behind the sublime Christ, a 
Christ of infinite suffering and infinite protection, 
— the side panels, about one-third smaller, affect 
almost the feeling of genre pictures, — and, at all 
events, introduce real human beings into the relig- 
ious scenes, placing the symbolical work almost at 
the service of representations of contemporary life. 
Roger thus introduces an unknown element of ex- 
pression and beauty into Flemish painting. Fa- 
voured by the naturalistic tendencies of Flemish 
mysticism of the Fifteenth Century, and without 
abdicating in any degree his lyrism and piety, the 
master materializes the great religious symbols by 
showing us the vrhole life of one of his contempo- 

148 Z\)c Hrt of tbe Belgian (3alleries 

raries from the cradle to the grave. The genre 
scenes assume great importance, and are neverthe- 
less clothed with a clearly symbolic beauty. The 
genius of Roger Van der Weyden was needed in 
order to harmonize the realities of life and faith. 
He was about fifty-five years of age when he painted 
this triptych. It had travelled, and suffered many 
hardships before it was rediscovered in 1826. Some 
heads have been repainted (see the sacrament of 
Baptism) and with their soft modelling and brown 
tonalities are in strong contrast with the clean han- 
dling and transparent colours of the faces that 
have been respected. But, on the whole, the col- 
our has preserved its original character, and it is 
an endless delight to listen to the soft vibration 
of the reds, blues, violets and whites of the man- 
tles, chasubles and angelic robes, singing their pure 
notes in the harmonic web of an immense silver 
ground." ^ 

The Portrait of Nicolas Spinelli is one of the 
earliest pictures that is correctly ascribed to Mem- 
ling. " It is a bust," writes Weak, " the face in 
three-quarters turned towards the left, is that of an 
energetic full-blooded Italian, of from thirty-five to 
forty years of age, with black hair escaping in long 
thick curls from under a black cap. He wears a 
black close-fitting dress, with white linen round the 

^ Fierens-Gevaert. 

Hntwerp 149 

neck, and in his left hand holds, so as to show the 
entire face, a coin with a profile head of the Em- 
peror Nero with this inscription : ' Nero Claudius 
Csesar Augustus Germanicus tribunicia potestati 
imperator.' The background is a charming, well- 
wooded, sunny landscape traversed by a stream on 
which are two swans ; on the farther side is a man 
on a white horse, and on the near bank to the left, a 
palm tree, probably introduced to signify that the 
person represented was an Italian." 

This portrait was once thought to be the work 
of Antonello da Messina. 

Attributed also to Memling is the famous trip- 
tych, Christ and the Angels, a rich composition. 
The central panel shows Christ in the centre with a 
golden crown and chasuble of brocade fastened with 
a large jewelled clasp. His right hand is lifted in 
blessing and his left rests on a globe surmounted 
by a large cross. He is surrounded by six angels, 
three on each side, who are singing from an open 
book. The rays of light behind the head of Christ 
form a star. Five angels are represented on the 
right wing in rich dalmatics playing the lute, mono- 
chord, cittern, trumpet and flute; and on the right 
wing five other angels play the trumpet, horn, harp, 
hurdy-gurdy and viellc. 

To Memling some critics have attributed a Monk 
of the Order of St. Norbert, turned three-quarters 

150 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballerles 

to the right, in white robe and mantle and with 
folded hands. 

A member of the Croy family is attributed to 
Hugo Van der Goes. The subject, with shaven 
face and chestnut hair falling over his forehead, 
holds in his joined hands a rosary. He wears a 
dark red doublet and a gold chain is wrapped sev- 
eral times around his neck. 

A fine painting by Jan Mostaert Deipara Virgo, 
originally an altar-piece in the Rockox chapel in 
the church of the Recollets, shows the Virgin and 
Child surrounded by four Angels and below them 
three Prophets and two Sybils carrying scrolls on 
which are inscribed their prophecies regarding the 
Incarnation. The faces seem to be portraits; and 
in the whole work there is much that recalls Quen- 
tin Massys. 

Two portraits in this gallery distinguished by 
their warmth, clearness and general softness of 
treatment are also authentic works by Jan Mostaert. 
From the armorial bearings on these canvases they 
have been identified as Portrait of Jacqueline of 
Bavaria and of her husband, Franck Van Borselen. 
The former died, however, in 1436 and the latter 
in 1470 while Mostaert was not born till 1474. The 
man has a smooth shaven face, wears a yellow 
doublet, white shirt and gray mantle, a large velvet 
cap to which is attached a medal, and his left hand 

Hntvverp 151 

rests on the hilt of his sword. The woman is in 
a black bodice ornamented with precious stones and 
yellow sleeves trimmed with fur, a white cap and 
white veil. 

Engelbrechtsen, the master of Lucas Van Ley- 
den, is represented by St. Leonard delivering Pris- 
oners, and the Transfer of the Body of St. Hubert. 
St. Leonard in a frieze robe is leading in a street 
a prisoner and followed by three others who issue 
from a tower. On the left a lord in gray with red 
mantle lined with yellow and a steel helmet is 
followed by two pages. On the top of the tower 
St. Leonard is again seen among the prisoners. 
On the right there is a street lined with brick 

The Transfer of the Body of St. Hubert has 
eight monks surrounding his coffin at the door of the 
church of Andrain in the Ardennes, with a land- 
scape through which a river runs in the background. 
On the reverse St. Hubert is again depicted and 
also the stag with a crucifix between his horns. 

Nine pictures are attributed to Lucas Van Ley- 
den : St. Luke, St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. George, 
two Adorations of the Magi, The Ring, and David 
and Saul. 

In The Ring, an old man wath his back to the 
spectator and profile turned to the right places a 
ring on the finger of a young girl who is dressed 

152 Ube Btt of tbe Belgian (Galleries 

in a white bodice and a red skirt with green border. 
Around her neck is a chain. 

In David and Saul, the latter is seated on his 
throne in a pink robe and white turban. David in 
gray and yellow doublet is playing the harp. The 
ladies of Saul's harem are seen in the middle dis- 

Massys was in the plenitude of his talents and 
powers when he painted his masterpiece, The En- 
tombment. This triptych, painted in 1508, as an 
altarpiece for the Chapel of the Corporation of 
Joiners in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Antwerp, 
is a perfect poem of grief and suffering. The right 
wing represents the Beheadal of John the Baptist, 
with the daughter of Herodias bringing in the 
bleeding head of the Forerunner on a silver dish. 
The subject of the left wing is the Martyrdom of 
St. John the Evangelist, showing him already 
plunged into the boiling cauldron. These two 
scenes, described with that dramatic and, at the 
same time, familiar sentiment that renders the Fif- 
teenth Century costumes additionally strange, are 
pictures of rare interest from a historic point of 
view, but nothing in comparison with the principal 
painting, the Entombment. 

On the highest point of a vast landscape that 
occupies the background of the scene, rises Calvary 
with its three crosses : two of the latter still bear 

































Hntwerp 153 

the corpses of the thieves ; but Christ has been taken 
down from the fatal tree; and, in the foreground, 
we see His pale corpse surrounded by the holy 
women and pious personages preparing to entomb 
Him. About the victim press the Virgin, kneehng, 
speechless, and almost overwhelmed by a grief that 
can never end ; Magdalen, wiping with her hair the 
bleeding feet of Him who pardoned her sins ; St. 
John, supporting the fainting Mother of Christ; 
Joseph of Arimathea raising the blood-stained head 
of his master, and gazing with pity at the hideous 
wounds made by the Crown of Thorns on that noble 
brow. St. Anne and two other holy women help 
to complete the group. Certainly, we are far from 
citing this composition of Massys as a model: it 
abounds in absurdities ; the inexperience of the 
drawing is glaring; and this singular work may be 
quoted as one of those in which the ideal is most 
at fault. It is even noticeable how far behind con- 
temporary ideas the painter was. In 1508, Leo- 
nardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo had already 
astonished the world with their masterpieces, Ra- 
phael had long been in full possession of his genius ; 
but, for Quentin Massys, Italy did not exist; and 
with his eyes still turned backward to the Middle 
Ages, which for all others had just come to an end, 
he ignored the great awakening, the Renaissance ! 
With regard to beauty of form and purity of 

154 XTbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

type, the painter of the Entombment is still a bar- 
barian, but, with regard to expression, what amount 
of science would equal in value the touching sim- 
plicity of this loyal artist who works not with his 
school memories but with his heart! The general 
impression gained from his picture is one of poign- 
ancy. The personages introduced here are awk- 
ward, ungraceful, grotesque even, if you like, but 
they are moved to the very depths of their souls, 
and have put on eternal mourning; and in this con- 
sists the value of this work. 

There is also much to be said about, and much to 
be learned from a study of the picturesque quali- 
ties that abound in it. Here we see Massys un- 
trammelled, free, and at length master of himself; 
and here, before the advent of the Great Masters, 
he reveals to us the blossoming of a Flemish School, 
or, rather, an Antwerp School. Massys is the vis- 
ible and glorious transition between the colourists 
of Bruges, who have just disappeared, and Rubens, 
whose arrival at the end of the century is to be the 
surprise and joy of Flanders. It is not that Massys, 
in the Entombment, boldly plays with all the tones 
of the palette, and knows the secrets of learned op- 
positions, for at that date Venice alone could de- 
cipher the enigma; but at least he has an exquisite 
feeling for intense scales of colour, a profound re- 
spect for the justness and propriety of local shades. 

Hntwerp 155 

and especially a warm and lively manner of ani- 
mating his human carnations, an excellent method 
in which we can foresee the genius of the colourists 
to come. 

The Head of Christ and Head of the Virgin are 
beautiful examples of the first manner of Massys. 
In these pictures, we recognize the work of a still 
timid artist tied to the Fifteenth Century with the 
closest bonds. In the shape of the faces and the 
sentiment of the attitudes, Massys has invented 
nothing new. Respectfully imitating the forms 
raised to honour by his predecessors, he has relig- 
iously given to Christ his known physiognomy, re- 
presenting him as he was painted at Cologne and 
Bruges at the beginning of the century. The head 
is surrounded with a light aureole, and the body is 
covered with a tunic of a reddish tone which is 
clasped on the breast with a brooch curiously en- 
riched with precious stones. On his left is seen a 
cross of beautiful Fifteenth Century workmanship. 
Christ is raising his right hand in blessing, with 
a hieratic gesture. This effigy, which is somewhat 
lacking in relief and which reveals a careful rather 
than a bold brush, stands out coldly against a green 
background. The Virgin, which serves as a pen- 
dant to it, perhaps is more novel in character; the 
type is marked with more individuality, it is almost 
a portrait, and we recognize in it something more 

156 Ube Hrt ot tbe JBelgtan Galleries 

human and personal, with the feeling of that inter- 
mediate school that was preparing the way for the 
splendours of Flemish Art. As for the execution, 
it is as timid in the Virgin as in the Christ. The 
general colouring of these two pictures, that are so 
remarkable for the patient simplicity in their ma- 
king, is tender, soft, and even somewhat pale. 

In Sir Joshua Reynolds's account of his visit to 
Flanders, we read: 

" The Chapel of the Circumcision where is the 
famous work of Quentin Massys, the blacksmith. 
The middle part is what the Italians call a Pieta; 
a dead Christ on the knees of the Virgin, accom- 
panied with the usual figures. On the door on one 
side is the daughter of Herod bringing in St. John's 
head at the banquet ; on the other, the Saint in the 
cauldron. In the Pieta, the Christ appears as if 
starved to death; in which manner it was the cus- 
tom of the painters of that age always to represent 
a dead Christ; but there are heads in this picture 
not exceeded by Raffaelle, and indeed not unlike 
his manner of painting portraits; hard and mi- 
nutely finished. The head of Herod and that of a 
fat man, near the Christ, are excellent. The paint- 
er's own portrait is here introduced. In the ban- 
quet the daughter is rather beautiful, but too skinny 
and lean ; she is presenting the head to her mother, 
who appears to be cutting it with a knife." 

Hntwerp 157 

The Magdalen is a charming figure, standing be- 
neath a portico holding a vase of perfume, the cover 
of which she is lifting. Her low-necked bodice is 
brown, bordered with fur, and with violet sleeves. 
Around her neck is a cross suspended on a cord and 
on her hair a gauze veil. Through the arcade you 
see a landscape with a house on the left and a castle 
on the right. 

The Accountant is a good example of a subject 
which Massys was very fond of painting. There 
are many variants of his Misers, male and female. 
Sordid avarice and kindred expressions were ren- 
dered by him with much sympathetic treatment, and 
not a little exaggeration. The two figures in this 
picture are painted with strong naturalism. 

The Four Maries Returning from the Tomb 
shows the influence of the early masters of the 
Bruges school, an influence that constantly weak- 
ened after the artist's departure for Italy. 

Bernard Van Orley has several important works 
here. There are three portraits : two male and one 
female. An Infant Jesus lies on a green velvet 
cushion with the right elbow leaning on a trans- 
parent terrestrial globe: the right hand holds an 
apple. A Virgin and Child shows Mary in a low 
cut red bodice and blue mantle seated on a stone 
pedestal, gazing at the Infant on her lap, holding 
cherries in His hands. The fine landscape that 

158 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

forms the background is attributed to Patenier. So 
also is the landscape of the Adoration of the Magi. 
The latter is the central panel of a triptych, the 
wings of which were completed by A. de Rycker. 
This was formerly attributed to Joost Van Cleef. 

A triptych of the Last Judgment is a good ex- 
ample of Van Orley's hasty work. He had the 
whole ground gilded before laying on the colours 
so as to render them more brilliant and durable, and 
in order to give more transparency to the sky. The 
terrestrial scene occupies less space than the firma- 
ment and the Heavenly Beings. The Son of Man 
seated on a rainbow with the terrestrial globe under 
His feet is awkward in gesture : infinitely more 
beautiful are the circle of cherubs and the six angels, 
one bearing an olive branch, a second brandishing 
a sword, and the four others sounding trumpets. 
Below, the dead awakened by the voices of St. 
Michael and the other archangels standing on a 
cloud, with palms in their hands, start from their 
graves. To the right, are the elect; to the left, 
the condemned. The Last Trump that opens so 
many tombs finds one not yet closed : a funeral is 
in progress in the foreground, at which a priest, 
accompanied by two deacons, is reading the prayers. 
Innumerable bands of the resuscitated are visible, 
some raising their hands towards Heaven and 
others driven towards Hell by demons. A second 

Hntwerp 159 

zone, containing thousands of the Blessed, forms a 
semi-circle above the first, and above this is a third 
band, and higher still fly myriads of angels. The 
wings of the triptych each show three works of 
mercy, and the backs have scenes of saints distrib- 
uting their goods to the poor. The faces of the 
latter are eloquent of greed. 

The Fall of the Rebel Angels is one of those 
energetic motives in which Floris appears to the 
best advantage. At the top of the picture the good 
angels are fighting the demons; their ardour in the 
holy cause is well expressed in their austere faces. 
St. Michael and two others are attacking Satan in 
the form of a crowned dragon, who is writhing his 
monstrous folds in the midst of equally strange fol- 
lowers with fantastic heads and tails. Some are 
beaked like vultures, and some have the heads of 
cats, monkeys, tigers, boars, and elephants. Only 
the bodies are human. In displaying all his re- 
sources of anatomy, design and perspective, the ar- 
tist has here manifestly followed Michael Angelo, 
reproducing all his violence; but the colour is bril- 
liant and carefully managed, the whole being rich 
and harmonious. It is generally considered Floris's 
masterpiece. It is signed, and dated 1554. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds saw this picture in the 
Chapel of St. Michael in 1781, and wrote: "The 
Fall of the Angels by F. Floris (1554) has some 

160 XTbe Hrt of tbe Belgian (3allerte5 

good parts, but without masses and dry. On the 
thigh of one of the figures he has painted a fly for 
the admiration of the vulgar; there is a fooHsh 
story of this fly being painted by J. Massys and 
that it had the honour of deceiving Floris." 

St. Luke Painting the Virgin is the product of a 
sober mood. In the centre, the EvangeHst, in an 
ample rose-coloured mantle, with a gentle face of 
regular features turned towards the spectator, is at 
work, while a pupil with a jovial face is looking at 
us as he grinds his master's colours. To the left 
of the easel is the symbolic ox bearing on his brow 
the arms of the brotherhood of painters. This pic- 
ture has a historical interest because St. Luke is a 
portrait of the painter Ryckaert Aertsz, and the 
colour grinder is Floris himself. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds was probably 
the original Nativity painted for the Cathedral of 
Notre Dame in 1559. The Infant Jesus is lying 
in the cradle, while the kneeling Virgin adores her 
God. On one side, shepherds are approaching bear- 
ing their offerings ; and, on the other, male and fe- 
male peasants, with faces of severe and charming 
rusticity, throng about the new-bom child making 
festival. This picture, which must be regarded as 
one of the most important works of Floris, is par- 
ticularly remarkable for facial expression : the 
heads are fine and gentle; and the accessories and 



Plate XXII 
(See page 159) 

Musee Royal 

des Beaux-Arts 




Hntwerp i6i 

animals are painted with fine breadth. Unfortu- 
nately, like the Fall of the Rebel Angels, the colour 
consists chiefly of reddish grays and neutral tones, 
and therefore looks dull and faded. There is no 
doubt that this sad colouring was one of Floris's 
souvenirs of Michael Angelo's fresco. The ani- 
mals are beautifully painted. 

Martin de Vos has three triptychs in this gallery. 
The central panel of the first represents Christ's 
Victory over Death and Sin, symbolized by a skull 
and a dragon. Lightly draped, Christ stands be- 
tween St. Peter and St. Paul; behind the latter is 
St. Margaret with her hands crossed over her 
breast, and the lamb beside her. Behind St. Peter 
is St. George in Roman armour and bearing his 
pennon (red cross on white ground). Two angels 
hover above in a glory, completing the pious mys- 
tery of this mystic picture. St. Margaret is a por- 
trait of the painter's wife, Jeanne Le Boucq. The 
left wing shows Constantine Building a Church at 
Constantinople in Honour of St. George; and the 
right wing is a picture of the Baptism of Constan- 
tine. It is signed, and dated 1580. 

The subject of the central panel of a second trip- 
tych is Caesar's Penny. In the middle, Christ in a 
gray robe and red mantle stands with his left hand 
raised and pointing to the sky. Facing him is a 
Pharisee in a yellow robe and blue mantle, who 

162 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

holds out the coin. Behind Christ stand his disci- 
ples with women and children. In the left fore- 
ground is a soldier leaning on his spear. Priests 
and Elders are grouped behind him and the Phari- 
see. The background shows a city square with 
Flemish buildings. The subjects of the wings are 
the Tribute Money and the Widow's Mite. 

The third triptych shows St. Thomas touching 
the Saviour's Wounds, in the centre; and the Bap- 
tism of Christ and the Beheadal of St. John the 
Baptist on the wings. 

The central panel from another triptych has a 
portrait of the painter's wife as the Virgin whom 
St. Luke is painting. 

Another picture is St. Francis d'Assisi receiving 
the Stigmata. 

Michiels strongly criticizes both the colour and 
forms of these pictures. He says : " The forms are 
generally elegant, but of too mincing and effemi- 
nate an elegance. In the Baptism of Christ, the Mes- 
siah has a foppish air; women will undoubtedly 
say that he is a handsome fellow. The St. John 
the Baptist has the look of a mawkish countryman. 
The artist's calm is repeated in his personages : no 
strong passion has taken hold of them, no tempest 
agitates their hearts : they make us immediately 
remember that the painter was of Dutch race. To 
look at the imperturbable phlegm of the Messiah 

Hntwerp 163 

and His Apostles one would not think they were 
in Judaea. Without the slightest doubt, they have 
come out of the coffee-house, where they have been 
gravely, slowly, peaceably smoking their pipes and 
emptying several mugs of beer. That is where 
Jesus harangues his disciples, between two puffs of 
tobacco and two gulps of beer. Jews from Am- 
sterdam and The Hague have come there to listen 
to his parables; and the Son of David catechizes 
them with an impassible air. In some pictures, we 
even see the wife of Martin de Vos. In these, she 
plays in turn the role of the Virgin, female saints, 
and martyrs, like a good Frisian actress. On her 
head, we look for the gold plaques and large lace 
cap that are worth many a glance to the charming 
daughters of the fogs." 

Simon de Vos has a portrait of himself with 
smiling face, disordered hair, light moustache and 
beard. He is dressed in a black cloak and white 
ruff; and one hand rests on his hip, while the other 
holding a roll of paper is posed on the back of a 

Michael Van Coxie seemed to have a special 
fondness for dramatic subjects, as may be seen in 
the two wings, also in this gallery, representing 
episodes in the life of St. George. In one, the Saint 
seems to have completely lost his heroic nerve; and 
exhibits the most profound anguish and terror as 

164 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

he submits to the tortures of his executioners. In 
the background is the statue of Hercules that St. 
George has demoHshed. On the reverse, St. George 
(a portrait of the painter) is represented in that 
supreme moment of kilHng the dragon, standing in 
all his glory with the vanquished dragon at his feet 
and the broken lance in his hand. The other panel 
shows us a scene of horrible torture where the saint 
is being flayed alive with a novel instrument, while 
one of the executioner's assistants brings a basket 
of salt, and another, acids, etc., to aggravate the 
wounds of the Christian martyr. On the reverse, 
the saint appears kneeling with a cross in one hand, 
and holding in the other a ribbon that is attached 
to the neck of a lamb. 

In these works, the nude figures are executed ac- 
cording to Italian methods. They show a remark- 
able knowledge and skill; and occasionally fore- 
shortening occurs with bold and good effects; but 
the School of Bruges makes itself felt. The mem- 
bers of the tortured body are still intact : there is 
no blood, nor gaping wounds, nor torn flesh. 

The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian has suffered 
from the ravages of time, but is admired for the 
fine expression of the chief figure, its somewhat 
original pose, its vivacious head and its noble fea- 
tures. He has just received the first arrow; and 
be it noted that the enormous bodies of the archers 

Hntwerp 165 

are out of all proportion to their heads. At the 
side, on the left, a man is seated with his arm 
around a hunting-dog ; and in the distance the Em- 
peror Diocletian approaches on horseback with his 
suite. This work is signed and dated 1575. Am- 
brose Francken the Elder painted the wings. 

Another interesting work is a St. Margaret; this 
is supposed to be a portrait of the painter's first 
wife, Ida Van Hasselt. 

Sixteen pictures enable us to judge of the medi- 
ocre abilities of Lambert, the father of the famous 
Adam Van Noort. They are passable productions 
in the prevailing style of the Sixteenth Century. 
Perhaps the most noteworthy are the Calvary, and 
the Entombment. 

This gallery has a large number of pictures by 
the Francken family, the members of which are so 
confused, and the consequent attribution of their 
individual works so uncertain. 

The fight between Eteoclus and Polynices is by 
Frans the Elder. Frans the Younger has six exam- 
ples of his work; while Ambrose the Elder has 
nearly a score. Of these works Michiels has this 
to say : 

" They do not give us a very- high idea of his 
merit. Ambrose was certainly a mediocre man. 
Examine any piece, the Multiplication of the 
Loaves, for example, and look for eminent quali- 

166 Ube Hrt ot tbe Bclginn Galleries 

ties in it: you will be disappointed. The general 
aspect of the picture is hard, the personages do not 
stand out from the background, but seem to be ap- 
plied like paper cuttings, — not at all an agreeable 
effect! The Messiah is a fine baker's boy, heavy 
and common, with big insignificant eyes. The 
other actors are no better, an old man in admiration 
shocks our eyes and mind by his air of profound 
stupidity. The brilliant stuffs of the costumes are 
the most successful part of the whole thing. The 
work as a whole denotes a vulgar ability, without 
inspiration, vigour, or originality. 

The Martyrdom of St. Crispin and St. Crispin- 
ian, which attests more verve, surprises one by the 
strangeness of its subject and the manner of its 
treatment. While the two propagators of the 
Faith are being flayed, awls in the executioner's 
hands and in a basket suddenly take life and dart 
at the executioners and other terrified persecutors. 
Farther away are depicted the various tortures that 
have been ineffectually inflicted on the Christian 
heroes : here, they are being cast into a river with 
a millstone around their necks, and yet manage to 
swim; there, they are being cooked in boiling 
water, and a sudden spurt scalds the eyes of the 
judge who has condemned them. The feelings of 
the personages are rendered with a certain artless- 
ness. The extreme precision of the contours, the 

Hntwerp 167 

enamel of the colouring, the somewhat hard firm- 
ness of the touch, in short, the entire execution 
carries us back to the Fifteenth Century. But the 
complete absence of perspective spoils the effect of 
the picture. Here also the colour is lacking in half 
tones, and the brilliant costumes alone lend some 
attraction of the imperfect image. 

The Charity of St. Cosmus and St. Damian re- 
veals the inferiority of this artist in another way, 
by the lack of balance and good taste. 

This lugubrious scene shows us the interior of 
a hospital. In the foreground, St. Cosmus has just 
finished amputating the leg of a patient. We see 
the bleeding stump while the operator is getting 
ready to adapt an artificial leg. The limb cut oflF 
lies on the ground with the saw, a vase full of blood 
and some soiled linen. It is a horrible spectacle. 
The patient's face, contracted by intolerable agony, 
produces an effect no less hideous. On the side of 
a platform are aligned three copper basins full of 
coagulated blood. x\t the back of the room, is an 
unfortunate one of whose veins has just been 
opened; also another lying on a bed. Before such 
a frightful picture the most resolute man turns his 
head away." 

Frans Francken the Younger has an early pic- 
ture dated 1608, called the Works of Mercy. In 
the left foreground, the poor are having bread dis- 

168 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballettes 

tributed to them; in the middle distance, travellers 
are being welcomed under the peristyle of a house; 
in a room the sick are being cared for. In the upper 
part, Christ in Glory rests on the symbols of the 
four evangelists. Mantz says : " This painting 
shows us the talent already characteristic of the 
young master. It is executed without great show, 
but not without conscience ; and his contemporaries 
must have seen more than a promise in it." 

The subject of the central panel of a triptych is 
the Four Crowned Condemned to Martyrdom. In 
a public square, the Emperor Diocletian, on the left, 
surrounded by his court, orders four Christians to 
abjure their faith : they are SS. Severus, Severin, 
Carpophorus and Victorian. They stand on the 
right, pointing to Heaven. In the middle distance 
is a statue of ^^sculapius. The pictures on the 
wings are the Flagellation, Summons, Death and 
Condemnation to Work of the four crowned mar- 

Jan Massys (15 10-1575) painted Biblical sub- 
jects chiefly. His Hospitality Refused to the Vir- 
gin and Jesus, represents an inn in Bethlehem 
where a woman in a yellow dress and blue apron 
refuses hospitality to the Virgin, who is dressed in 
a gray robe and is accompanied by St. Joseph in 
rose tunic. Two chickens are conspicuous in the 
foreground. In the background, Flemish houses 


(With Dogs by Jan Fyt) 
Plate XXIII 
{See page i88) 

Musee Royal 

des Beaux- Arts 





antwerp i69 

border a square. Another good example of this 
painter's style is the Story of Tobias. 

Patenier's Flight into Egypt presents one of this 
artist's characteristic landscapes. The Holy Fam- 
ily journeys on a rocky road, where the statue of 
a false god falls from its pedestal; on the right is 
a wooded valley, where houses are seen near a lake 
upon w^hich swans are floating. Mountains and the 
sea appear in the distance. 

It is interesting to compare this with a picture by 
Herri de Bles, called The Repose in Egypt. Here 
the Virgin is seated on a mound in a blue robe and 
white gauze veil with the Child on her knees. The 
latter has a coral rosary in his hand. A gourd, 
a basket, some fruit and a stick lie on the ground. 
In the middle distance St. Joseph is sleeping and 
on the left is the ass. A castle appears in the distant 
landscape, and on a tree is an owl, — the painter's 
emblem and signature. 

The pictures by Mabuse (Gossaert) are The 
Four Maries Returning from the Sepulchre; the 
Upright Judges; Ecce Homo; Virgin and Child 
Jesus; Portrait of Margaret of Austria; and Por- 
trait of a Woman. 

The Four Maries is remarkable for the rich cos- 
tumes of the women. The Virgin is clad in a robe 
and mantle of blue with a white veil. She is sup- 
ported by St. John. The Magdalen looks upon her 

170 Zbc Hrt of tbe Belgian OallcvicB 

with much emotion. The latter is dressed in a 
yellow brocade with a violet mantle and holds a 
vase of perfume in her right hand. The other two 
women are on the right : one wears a blue dress 
with yellow sleeves ; and the other, a blue robe and 
green mantle. The background shows a landscape. 

The Upright Judges are mounted, one on a white 
and the other on a brown horse. They are richly 
dressed, and are followed by soldiers and several 
persons on foot. 

Ecce Homo represents Christ seated by a column 
and ridiculed by a man and a woman. A priest is 
seen on the right. The background is architectural. 

In the Virgin and Child, which some critics think 
may be the work of Van Orley, the Virgin is 
dressed in a blue robe embroidered with pearls. 
Her sleeves are black, her mantle red and her black 
veil is held by the Child Jesus who is standing on 
a table where there are some cherries. On the left, 
there is a lily in a vase; and in the background, 
a window. 

Margaret of Austria is dressed in a black robe 
lined with ermine, a low-necked bodice and white 
coif. Her left hand, resting on her breast, is orna- 
mented with a ring. 

The lady in the unnamed portrait wears a black 
dress with red sleeves slashed with white; a pink 
chemisette; a white belt with a jewelled clasp; a 

Hntwerp i7i 

diadem in her light hair; a chain around her neck; 
and in her right hand she holds her gloves. 

Two works by Gerard Seghers are interesting 
because they show the painter's development. In 
St. Louis de Gonzaga, he shows his Italian studies; 
and in The Marriage of the Virgin the influence of 
Rubens is felt, particularly in the head of the Vir- 
gin. It is a fine and stately composition. 

The historical paintings of Otho Vsenius are two 
scenes from the life of St. Nicholas; the Calling of 
St. Matthew ; St. Paul before Felix ; and Zacchaeus 
in the fig-tree. In the latter Christ is the central 
figure of a group in full light, wearing a gray robe 
and pink mantle; he is followed by a crowd, and 
looks up at Zacchaeus, who is in a fig-tree in blue 
tunic and yellow mantle. In the foreground a 
woman in dark red is holding a child by the hand. 

The Foresight of St. Nicholas has in the fore- 
ground a mother seated on the ground, surrounded 
by her three children, thanking the saint who ad- 
vances, followed by a large crowd, and slaves carry- 
ing sacks. Among those present we note the ship- 
master to whom the saint had appeared in a dream 
and persuaded him to land his cargo at Myra where 
the famine was severe. 

The Antwerp gallery is particularly famous for 
the number and beauty of its works by Rubens. 
Among these is the celebrated Christ between Two 

172 ubc Hrt ot tbe JBelgtan Galleries 

Thieves, also known as the Coup de Lance, ordered 
by Nicholas Rockox for the Church of the Recollets 
in Antwerp. It was painted in 1620. Some critics 
consider it Rubens's masterpiece. Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds admired it intensely when he saw it in its 
original position and said : 

'' The genius of Rubens nowhere appears to more 
advantage than here: it is the most carefully fin- 
ished picture of all his works. The whole is con- 
ducted with the most consummate art; the compo- 
sition is bold and uncommon, with circumstances 
which no other painter had ever before thought of; 
such as the breaking of the limbs, and the expres- 
sion of the Magdalen, to which we may add the dis- 
position of the three crosses, which are placed pro- 
spectively in an uncommon picturesque manner : 
the nearest bears the thief whose limbs are break- 
ing; the next the Christ, whose figure is straighter 
than ordinary, as a contrast to the others; and the 
furthermost the penitent thief : this produces a 
most picturesque effect, but it is what few but 
such a daring genius as Rubens would have at- 
tempted. . . . 

'' In this picture the principal and the strongest 
light is the body of Christ, which is of a remarkable 
clear and bright colour; this is strongly opposed 
by the very brown complexion of the thieves (per- 
haps the opposition here is too violent) who make 

Hntwerp 173 

no great effect as light. The Virgin's outer dra- 
pery is dark blue, and the inner a dark purple ; and 
St. John is in dark, strong red; no part of these 
two figures is light in the picture but the head and 
hands of the Virgin." 

Christ on the Cross, originally in the Church of 
the Recollets, Antwerp, dates from about 1610; and 
the letters N R on the cross under the feet of Christ 
would seem to indicate that the work was ordered 
by Nicholas Rockox. The figure of Christ is en- 
tirely the work of Rubens; but the distant view 
of Jerusalem is by a pupil. The eclipse of the sun 
is to be noticed in the upper right hand corner. 
The sky is filled with dark clouds. 

The Incredulity of St. Thomas, representing 
Christ in red drapery, showing his wounded left 
hand to St. Thomas in blue drapery, while St. John, 
clothed in violet, is seen in the foreground and St. 
Peter in the background, is the central panel of a 
triptych ordered by Nicholas Rockox for his mortu- 
ary chapel in the Recollets Church in Antwerp. 
Rubens painted this between 16 13 and 161 5. On 
the left wing is the portrait of Nicholas Rockox 
himself, and on the right wing that of his wife. 

" Behind the great altar is the chapel of the 
family of the Burgomaster Rockox, the altar of 
which is St. Thomas's Incredulity by Rubens. The 
head of the Christ is rather a good character, but 

174 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

the body and arms are heavy : — it has been much 
damaged. On the inside of the two folding doors 
are portraits of the Burgomaster and his wife, half- 
lengths : his is a fine portrait ; the ear is remark- 
ably well painted, and the anatomy of the forehead 
is well understood. Her portrait has no merit but 
that of colour. Van Dyck likewise has painted a 
portrait of Rockox, a print of which is in his book 
of heads of eminent men. It should seem that he 
was a great patron of the arts : he gave to this 
church the picture of the great altar, which has 
been already mentioned." ^ 

The Adoration of the Kings, painted in 1624 for 
the high altar of the Abbey of St. Michael, is the 
masterpiece that inaugurates Rubens's third man- 
ner; and in this work the entire virtuosity of his 
palette is exhibited. Moreover, it is entirely by his 
own hand, and every part still preserves its extraor- 
dinary transparency. Most beautifully is the light 
arranged. The King kneeling in front is suffused 
with brilliant light that gradually diminishes into 
the shadowy background. 

In the stable on the right stands the Virgin in 
red robe and gray mantle holding the Child, who 
is in the cradle at the foot of which an ox is lying. 
St. Joseph stands behind this group. The Ethio- 
pian King, in green robe, black mantle lined with 

' Reynolds. 

tlntweri) 175 

fur and a white turban with red stripes, stands near 
the Virgin with a cup in his right hand. In front 
of her kneels a King in rich dahnatic and white 
surphce, his page presenting the cup ; and the third 
King, with long white beard, and draped in a red 
mantle, faces the spectator and holds a cup in one 
hand and the cover in the other. The followers of 
the Magi occupy the background, and among them 
should be noticed a knight on a chestnut horse on 
the left, and two servants on camels in the centre. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds described this work as fol- 

" The great altar, the Adoration of the Magi ; a 
large and magnificent composition of near twenty 
figures in Rubens's best manner. Such subjects 
seem to be more particularly adapted to the manner 
and style of Rubens ; his excellence, his superiority, 
is not seen in small compositions. One of the kings 
who holds a cap in his hand is loaded with drapery; 
his head appears too large, and upon the whole he 
makes but an ungraceful figure. The head of the 
ox is remarkably well painted." 

The Christ a la Faille (of the Straw) was orig- 
inally in the Cathedral of Antwerp, where Sir 
Joshua Reynolds described it as " a Pieta by Rubens 
which serves as a monument of the family of 
Michielsens and is fixed on one of the pillars : this 
is one of his most careful pictures; the characters 

176 Ube Hrt of tbe ^Belgian 6allerlea 

are of a higher style of beauty than usual, particu- 
larly the Mary Magdalen, weeping with her hand 
clenched. The colouring of the Christ and the Vir- 
gin is of a most beautiful and delicate pearly tint, 
opposed by the strong high colouring of St. 

In this work, Christ is leaning against a stone, 
on which is a truss of straw, and his body is sup- 
ported by an old man in the background. In the 
centre, the Virgin lifts her eyes to heaven as she 
holds the corners of the winding-sheet. Behind 
hers are the heads of St. John and the Magdalen. 

Saint Theresa was painted in Rubens's last 
period, between 1630 and 1635, for the altar of St. 
Theresa in the Carmelite Church, Antwerp, where 
Sir Joshua Reynolds saw it and noted : 

" At an altar on the opposite little niche on the 
left Christ relieving Souls out of purgatory by the 
intercession of St. Theresa. The Christ is a better 
character, has more beauty and grace, than is usual 
with Rubens; the outline remarkably undulating, 
smooth and flowing. The head of one of the 
women in purgatory is beautiful in Rubens's way; 
the whole has great harmony of colouring and free- 
dom of pencil; it is in his best manner." 

Christ is standing on a hillock, in red drapery, 
and is turned towards St. Theresa, who in a brown 
robe, white mantle and black veil, is kneeling. In 

^ ^ <4, 








^ to 





Bntvverp 177 

the foreground St. Bernard of Mendoza, founder 
of a convent in Valladolid, is being drawn from the 
flames of purgatory into heaven by angels. In the 
centre is a young woman; and on the right two 
fishermen whose faces express suffering. 

The Last Communion of St. Francis is entirely 
the work of Rubens's own hand; and was painted 
in 1619 for the altar of St. Francis in the Recollets. 
It is inspired by the Last Communion of St. Jerome 
by Domenichino; and the influence of Annibale 
Carracci and that of Michael Angelo Caravaggio 
are both seen in the picture. 

The Holy Trinity was painted about 1620, after 
Rubens's return from Italy, where he saw Mante- 
gna's Dead Christ (now in the Brera), as he has 
imitated the foreshortening of this work in the fig- 
ure of Christ stretched out on the clouds with his 
head on the knees of the Deity and lying on a piece 
of linen held by God the Father. This Christ is 
one of Rubens's most celebrated figures. The fig- 
ures of God and the two angels are the w^ork of a 

This was one of the works carried to Paris in 
1794 and which remained in the Louvre till 181 5. 

The Education of the Virgin is supposed to date 
from about 1625; and is a charming picture. St. 
Anne is seated on a bench of stone, the back of 
which forms a balustrade. The columns of a pa- 

178 XTbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

vilion are seen on the right; and some dimbing 
roses on a trellis on the left. The Virgin, dressed 
in white silk with a blue scarf, is Helen Fourment, 
the future wife of the painter, and St. Joachim w^ho 
leans over St. Anne's shoulder is the same model, 
only older, of St. Joseph in the Virgin of the Par- 
rot. This work was returned from the Louvre in 

When Sir Joshua Reynolds saw this picture, he 
wrote : 

" In a recess on the right, on entering the church, 
is St. Anne and the Virgin with a book in her hand, 
by Rubens. Behind St. Anne is a head of St. 
Joachim; two angels in the air with a crown. This 
picture is eminently well coloured, especially the an- 
gels; the union of their colour with the sky is 
wonderfully managed. It is remarkable that one 
of the angels has Psyche's wings, which are like 
those of a butterfly. This picture is improperly 
called St. Anne teaching the Virgin to read, who 
is represented about fourteen or fifteen years of age, 
too old to begin to learn to read. The white silk 
drapery of the Virgin is well painted, but not his- 
torical; the silk is too particularly distinguished, 
a fault of which Rubens is often guilty, in his fe- 
male drapery; but by being of the same colour as 
the sky it has a soft harmonious effect. The rest 
of the picture is of a mellow tint." 

Hntwetp 179 

The Virgin with the Parrot belongs to the mas- 
ter's first period and was executed about 1614, and 
presented by him to the Guild of St. Luke. The 
Virgin, in red robe and blue mantle, is seated on a 
bench in front of a wall, caressing the Infant Jesus, 
who is standing beside her with an apple in his 
hand. In the shadows on the right, St. Joseph, in 
a yellow cloak, looks at these two figures. On the 
left there is a column overgrown with foliage ; and 
on a pedestal a parrot that is biting a branch. The 
figures are by Rubens, and the column, the land- 
scape and the parrot are by another hand retouched 
by the master. 

The Virgin and the Infant Jesus is the wing of 
a triptych. The Virgin, in a red robe with white 
sleeves, is supporting the Child, who stands by a 
marble pedestal. St. John writing the Gospel is on 
another wing of a triptych. The saint is lifting his 
eyes towards an eagle, and he holds an open book. 

The Baptism of Christ was painted in 1604- 1606 
for the Jesuits' Church in Mantua; and in some 
respects resembles Raphael's work of the same sub- 
ject in the Loggia of the Vatican. Christ is stand- 
ing in the Jordan, baptized by St. John. Two an- 
gels at his side are holding his red mantle. Men are 
seen undressing on the right and in the background 
women are bringing their infants. 

The Dead Christ and the Weeping Women was 

180 Ube Hrt of tbe JSelgtan (Ballertes 

executed in 1614. Christ is lying on a bed of straw 
in the centre, his head supported by the Virgin ; and 
the Magdalen in violet silk kneels on the left. On 
the right are St. John and three kneeling women; 
and, on the ground, the sponge, a copper dish, a 
broom and a hammer. In the background, the sep- 
ulchre is seen in the midst of brushwood. The 
figures are by Rubens, Christ being similar to that 
in the Holy Trinity in the same gallery; and the 
landscape is by Van Uden, or Wildens. 

In Jupiter and Antiope, the latter, a nude figure, 
is seated on the ground, her head leaning on her 
right hand; on the left Cupid is crouching with 
his quiver. In the middle distance, Jupiter, in the 
guise of a satyr, is bringing fruits in a horn of 
plenty to Antiope, who seems to be shivering with 
cold. The background shows a landscape with a 
waterfall. This picture dates from 16 14, and is en- 
tirely by Rubens. It was formerly called Venus 
refroidie and was purchased from the heirs of M. 
Allard of Brussels in 1881 for 100,000 francs. 

The Hunt, another work of Rubens (a sketch 
in grisaille), was purchased in 1891 for 5,000 

The Prodigal Son was acquired in 1894 for 45,- 
000 francs. The scene is laid in a stable, where 
grooms are feeding and tending their horses, and 
where, in the foreground, a servant, in a gray skirt 

Hntwerp i8i 

and red bodice, is throwing the contents of a bucket 
into a trough, where pigs are feeding. She looks 
with pity on the kneehng figure of the prodigal son 
whose face is bathed with tears. In the back of 
the stable a peasant woman is going towards the 
cows with a lighted candle. Outside is seen a hay 
wagon and still farther away a groom bathing a 
horse in a pond. Sir Joshua Reynolds, who saw 
this work in Antwerp, considered its great charm 
to lie in the dramatic and pathetic expression of 
the prodigal son, whose attitude and face show the 
repentance that fills his soul. 

The Portrait of Gaspard Gevartius, secretary of 
the town of Antwerp (1593-1666), is also a fine 
work. The subject is seated in an arm-chair near 
a table on which stands a bust of Marcus Aurelius. 
His face is thin and pale; he has chestnut hair and 
light moustache and goatee. He is dressed in black 
with fluted ruff and white cufTs. In his right hand 
is a pen and with his left he turns the leaves of 
a register. In the background are books and a 

Rich as this gallery is in examples of the best 
work of Rubens, the Antwerp Cathedral possesses 
two pictures, which are, perhaps, more famous than 
any painting here. These, the student will un- 
doubtedly wish to examine, and, therefore, they 
may be appropriately described in this place. They 

182 XTbe art ot tbe BelGtan Oailcvics 

are: The Descent from the Cross; and The Ele- 
vation of the Cross. 

The Elevation of the Cross was painted in 1610 
on Rubens's return from Italy. Some critics prefer 
it to the more celebrated Descent from the Cross. 

" The Elevation of the Cross is the first public 
work which Rubens executed after he returned 
from Italy. In the centre is Christ nailed to the 
Cross, with a number of figures exerting them- 
selves in different ways to raise it. One of the fig- 
ures appears flushed, all the blood rising into his 
face from his violent efforts; others in intricate at- 
titudes, which at the same time that they show the 
great energy with which the business is done, give 
that opportunity which painters desire, of encoun- 
tering the difficulties of the art, in foreshortening 
and in representing momentary actions. This sub- 
ject, which was probably of his own choosing, gave 
him an admirable opportunity of exhibiting his 
various abilities to his countrymen; and it is cer- 
tainly one of his best and most animated composi- 
tions. The bustle, which is in every part of the pic- 
ture, makes a fine contrast to the character of resig- 
nation in the crucified Saviour. The sway of the 
body of Christ is extremely well imagined. The 
taste of the form in the Christ, as well as in the 
other figures, must be acknowledged to be a little 
inclinable to the heavy ; but it has a noble, free and 

Hntwcrp 183 

flowing outline. The invention of throwing the 
Cross obliquely from one corner of the picture to 
the other is finely conceived ; something in the man- 
ner of Tintoret : it gives a new and uncommon air 
to his subject, and we may justly add that it is un- 
commonly beautiful. The contrast of the body with 
the legs is admirable, and not overdone. 

" The doors are a continuation of the subject. 
That on the right has a group of women and chil- 
dren, who appear to feel the greatest emotion and 
horror at the sight : the Virgin and St. John, who 
are behind, appear very properly with more resig- 
nation. On the other door are the officers on horse- 
back ; attending behind them are the two thieves, 
whom the executioners are nailing to the Cross. 

** It is difficult to imagine a subject better adapted 
for a painter to exhibit his art of composition than 
the present; at least Rubens has had the skill to 
make it serve, in an eminent degree, for that pur- 
pose. In the naked figure of the Christ, and of the 
executioners, he had ample room to show his knowl- 
edge of the anatomy of the human body in different 
characters. There are likewise women of different 
ages, which is always considered as a necessary part 
of every composition, in order to produce variety; 
there are, besides, children and horsemen; and to 
have the whole range of variety, he has even added 
a dog, which he has introduced in an animated atti- 

184 Ube Hrt ot tbe JSelgtan Galleries 

tude, with his mouth open, as if panting: admirably 
well painted. His animals are always to be ad- 
mired : the horses here are perfect in their kind, 
of a noble character, animated to the highest de- 
gree. Rubens, conscious of his powers in painting 
horses, introduced them in his pictures as often as 
he could. This part of the work, where the horses 
are represented, is by far the best in regard to col- 
ouring; it has a freshness w^hich the other two pic- 
tures want ; but those appear to have suffered from 
the sun. This picture of the horsemen is situated 
on the south-east side, whereas the others, being 
east and south-east, are more exposed. 

** The central picture, as well as that of the 
group of women, does not, for whatever reason, 
stand so high for colour as every other excellence. 
There is a dryness in the tint; a yellow ochery 
colour predominates over the whole, it has too much 
the appearance of a yellow chalk drawing. I mean 
only to compare Rubens with himself; they might 
be thought excellent even in this respect, were they 
the w^ork of almost any other painter. The flesh, 
as well as the rest of the picture, seems to want 
gray tints, which is not a general defect of Rubens ; 
on the contrary, his mezzotints are often too gray. 

'' The blue drapery, about the middle of the figure 
at the bottom of the Cross, and the gray colour of 
some armour, are nearly all the cold colours in 



Plate XXV 
{See page 172) 

Musee Royal 
des Beaux-Arts 





Hntwerp 1S5 

the picture; which are certainly not enough to 
quahfy so large a space of warm colours. The 
principal mass of light is on the Christ's body; but 
in order to enlarge it, and improve its shape, a 
strong light comes on the shoulder of the figure 
with the bald head : the form of this shoulder is 
somewhat defective : it appears too round. 

" Upon the whole, this picture must be consid- 
ered as one of Rubens's principal works, and that 
appearance of heaviness which it has, when seen 
near, entirely vanishes when the picture is viewed 
from the body of the church. 

" On the other side of the two doors are likewise 
two pictures : St. Catherine with a sword, and St. 
Eloi with a female Saint and Angels, as usual finely 
painted; but the figure of St. Eloi appears too 
gigantic." ^ 

The Descent from the Cross was painted in 
1611-12, at the order of the Guild of Arquebusiers 
of Antwerp. 

It is a sombre and austere picture with less colour 
than is usual with Rubens, and more restraint of 
emotion. The startling effect of the whiteness of 
the winding-sheet, which produces a great central 
light against a dark background, was suggested by 
a similar work by Daniele da Volterra in Rome. 
'^ When we remember the carnage with which Ru- 

^ Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

186 Zbc Htt of tbe Belgian ©allcries 

bens's work is crimsoned, the massacres and the 
executioners torturing their howhng victims, we 
recognize that this is a noble execution. Every- 
thing here is restrained, concise and laconic, as in 
a page of Holy Writ. There are no gesticulations, 
cries, horrors, or too many tears. Even the Virgin 
is not sobbing and the intense suffering of this 
drama is expressed by a slight gesture of incon- 
solable motherhood and tearful eyes. The Christ 
is one of the most elegant figures that Rubens ever 
imagined for the painting of a God. He possesses 
a peculiar extended, pliant and almost tapering 
grace that gives it every natural delicacy and all 
the distinction of a beautiful academic study." * 

The Magdalen, who is kneeling at the foot of the 
Cross, is one of Rubens's most admired female fig- 
ures. On the inside of the wings are represented 
the Salutation and the Presentation in the Temple; 
and, on the outside, St. Christopher carrying the 
Infant Saviour and a hermit. The Descent from 
the Cross was taken to Paris in 1794. 

The altar-piece of the Rubens Chapel in St. 
Jacques, Antwerp, where Rubens is buried, is a late 
work by the master representing the Madonna and 
Child with Saints. The Virgin is seated in an ar- 
bour with Jesus in her lap, being worshipped by 
St. Bonaventura. St. George, with three holy 

* Fromentin. 

Hntwerp 187 

women, and St. Jerome are also present. Tradi- 
tion says that St. Jerome is a portrait of Rubens's 
father; St. George is the painter himself; and the 
three women, his two wives and Mademoiselle 
Lunden, who is the original of the Chapeau de 
Faille in the National Gallery, London. 

Van Dyck's Crucifixion was painted for the chapel 
of the Dominican Sisters. They had attended Van 
Dyck's father in his last illness, who made his son 
promise to paint them a picture as a debt of grati- 
tude. This work was painted in 1629; and re- 
mained in the church until 1785, when it was sold 
to the Academy of Antwerp. St. Dominick is in- 
troduced beneath the Cross, with upturned face and 
extended arms. St. Catherine of Siena, crowned 
with thorns, kisses the Saviour's feet. She is clad 
in a gray robe, black mantle and white veil. At the 
bottom of the Cross is a stone with an inscription, 
and on this stone leans a child angel with a reversed 
torch nearly extinguished. Angels hover above in 
the clouds. 

The Lamentation for Christ, or Pieta, was a 
favourite subject with Van Dyck; and this gallery 
contains one of the most famous examples in the 
Entombment. Knackfuss writes : 

" We see the sacred body stretched out long and 
rigid, with head and shoulder resting on the 
mother's lap. The Virgin leaning back against the 

188 Ube Brt ot tbe JBelaian Oalleries 

dark side of the rock, a cleft in which is about to 
receive the departed, spreads out her arms in loud 
lamentation. The disciple John has grasped the 
Saviour's right hand and shows the bleeding 
wounds to the angels who have drawn nigh and 
who burst into tears at the sight. This group of 
St. John and the Angels stands out in soft, warm 
tones from the pale blue sky. The pallid flesh 
colour of the body is shown up with a peculiar and 
striking effect by this juxtaposition of a cool, light 
tone and a warm, dark one on the one hand, and, 
on the other hand, by the pure white of the linen 
sheet and the bluish green of the drapery spread 
over the Virgin's lap." 

In a second Entombment the scene is also a 
grotto, where Christ is placed on the winding-sheet, 
his head against his mother's breast. On the right 
kneels the Magdalen, in yellow skirt and dark red 
bodice, kissing the Saviour's left hand. St. John, 
in red mantle, is advancing from the middle dis- 
tance. On the left, are the nails, the crown of 
thorns, the inscription and the sponge in a yellow 
basin. The style is full of grandeur and the heads 
are noble. 

A charming Portrait of a Little Girl represents 
her standing in a landscape with a view of Antwerp 
on the horizon. She wears a dress of blue damask, 
a white collar and a black cap with plumes. She 

Hntwetp 189 

holds by a leash a spaniel and a greyhound, and on 
her left wrist is perched a falcon. In her right 
hand, she has also a little bag. The animals were 
painted by Jan Fyt. 

Jean Malderus, fifth bishop of Antwerp, is seated, 
his two hands on the arm of his chair, his face 
turned towards the right. He wears a white sur- 
plice, violet camail, and black beretta; and a gold 
cross is suspended on his neck. He holds a book 
in his left hand. 

Caesar Alexander Scaglia, Abbe of Staffarde, 
standing with his right arm on a column, is dressed 
in a black cassock and mantle, the folds of which 
he holds in his left hand. On the right, a piece of 
yellow drapery is gracefully looped. On the pedes- 
tal are the Scaglia arms, an inscription in honour 
of the prelate, and the date of his death, 1641. 

The Family Concert was a favourite theme with 
Jordaens; and the one in this gallery ranks among 
the best examples. On a panel in the background 
the proverb appears " Soo d'oiide songen, soo pepen 
de jonge " (As the old ones sing, so the young ones 
pipe). The people are grouped at a table where 
a meal is served. On the left ah old man in a gray 
robe bordered with fur, and a black hat, with spec- 
tacles on his nose sings while beating time with his 
right hand. He is also holding a music book in his 
left hand from which a bagpipe player in white 

190 Ubc art ot tbe IBelaian Galleries 

shirt, blue vest and red cap is reading. A little 
boy between the old man's knees is playing a pipe. 
In the centre a handsome young woman (Jor- 
daens's wife), richly dressed and wearing a blue 
cap with yellow plumes and pearls around her neck, 
holds in her arms a little child also blowing a pipe; 
and on the right, an old woman in a high backed 
willow chair dressed in gray with a white cap sings 
from a sheet of music which she holds in her left 
hand, adjusting meanwhile her spectacles with her 
right. By her side stands a greyhound resting his 
muzzle on the table. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds was also a 
favourite subject with Jordaens, and the one in this 
gallery is his best. He liked to group around the 
cradle male and female peasants bringing their 
cows, goats, sheep and panting dogs, and their 
children loaded with offerings of game, fruit, dairy- 
products, and all things good to eat. This concep- 
tion is far removed from Memling's mystic Na- 
tivity. The head of the Virgin is unusually ele- 
vated in character. 

In the Last Supper, Christ is seated in the centre 
of the table in gray robe and red mantle holding the 
cup in his left and with his right hand offering 
bread to Judas, who is seated in the foreground in 
a gray tunic and yellow mantle and caressing a dog. 
St. John stands on the right. The other disciples 

Hntwerp i9i 

are grouped variously. From the ceiling hangs a 


lamp with lighted candles ; a piece of drapery is 
looped on the left, on the right is a door and in the 
background a window. 

The Sisters of Mercy of St. Elizabeth was 
painted for St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Antwerp. 
In this, the nuns are distributing food and clothing 
to a crowd of beggars in the foreground, while in 
the background the Mother Superior is ladling out 

Commerce and Industry Protecting the Fine 
Arts, and an Entombment, do not call for special 
description; but the spectator's attention will be 
attracted by the Portrait of a Woman seated in an 
arm chair the back of which is ornamented with 
lions' heads. She is beautifully dressed in a violet 
robe trimmed with fur and sleeves and collar of 
white. She wears a black hat and in one hand holds 
a handkerchief and in the other a book. A red 
curtain is looped up in the background. 

Van Uden was very fond of rivers, and deep blue 
skies with floating white clouds and slanting sun 
rays. His trees are carefully studied; and their 
species are easily recognized, wfiich is by no means 
the case with some of his contemporaries. Two 
pictures in this gallery exemplify these qualities. 
*' One (No. 978) depicts a Flemish landscape, a 
real and varied site, which the artist must have 

192 Ube Hrt of tHe Belgian Galleries 

painted from nature. Two big trees stand on a 
knoll in the centre of the canvas, and reach to the 
top of the frame. On the day on which the artist 
observed and copied this idyl, the atmosphere, so 
often obscure in the Low Countries, hung gray and 
dull over the fields. Van Uden ingeniously repro- 
duced what he saw; so there is no sunlight in his 
picture, and the sombre uniformity of this great 
page not only deprives it of all charm but also des- 
troys all effect of perspective. The other picture 
represents the Abbey of St. Barnard on the Scheldt. 
It is a topographical view in the style of Snayers's 
works, but much harder in tone and not so well 
executed." ^ 

There are two pictures here that give a good idea 
of the qualities of Snyders. The Eagle's Repast, 
which was long attributed to Fyt, presents an excel- 
lent motive with much verve and energy. Two 
eagles that have just finished their chase are fight- 
ing on the top of a rock. One is devouring a wild 
duck, and has its wings displayed to defend its prey 
against the attack of its less fortunate companion 
which is about to dispute possession of the meal. 
The bare peaks about them give an idea of pro- 
found solitude, and a cloudy sky spreads its gray 
veil over the mournful desert. Few pictures of an- 
imal life are conceived in so poetic a manner. 

' Michiels. 

2 K 






„ ex 

> •-• 

X bo 


u <^ 




Hntwerp i93 

The second picture shows grouped at a park gate 
several pieces of game, among which are a hare 
and two partridges tied to a tree. Various imple- 
ments of the chase lie on the ground, with two 
quails and a snipe ; behind a block appears the head 
of a dog. There is again a sort of poetry in this 
rustic trophy dressed at the door of a lordly enclo- 
sure. The dead animals and accessories are vigor- 
ously painted, but the colour is too sombre and 

Jan Fyt's Two Harriers are full of life and the 
spirit of sport. The two hounds, in leash, one white 
marked with yellow and the other gray with white 
markings, are lying down beside a tree, with heads 
turned to the right; in the background pieces of 
game are hung up. 

Abraham Janssens painted The God of the 
Scheldt for a chimney piece in the town hall. In 
this emblematic figure, there is vigour both in 
colour and design. The gigantic body of the river 
god is a good piece of work in the grand style, and 
bold in execution. The Adoration of the Magi, 
and the Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist, 
by the same painter, are inferior to the above, and 
do not worthily represent the painter's powers. The 
types are vulgar and the work is hard. 

Six pictures by Pieter Van Lint class him among 

.' Michiels. 

194 Ube Htt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

the artists who submitted to the influence of Ru- 
bens. The most remarkable of these paintings re- 
presents a ford. A troop of pilgrims, soldiers and 
women, grouped on the bank of a river, are pre- 
paring to cross. The right background is a moun- 
tainous region whence a cavalier with a young 
woman en croup is urging his horse into the water. 
On the margin of the river, lying in an elegant 
attitude, a very pretty woman attracts the eye. On 
her mischievous face, coquetry is mingled with ele- 
gance. Above her stands a man with a black beard 
who wears a singular costume. The influence of 
Rubens and the imitation of the Italians are equally 
balanced in this picture. 

Like Quellin the Elder, Jan Van Hoeck liked to 
concentrate his interest and emotion on a few actors 
in a drama. In his Virgin, we can admire that 
happy mixture of the style of Rubens and the Ital- 
ian manner that forms such agreeable combinations 
in the pictures of Van Dyck. The Virgin is stand- 
ing in a Glory, and presenting her Infant to St. 
Anthony of Padua, who is kneeling in adoration 
before his Messiah. 

The Tithe (a copy), Visit to the Farm, a Flem- 
ish Kermesse and The Bearing of the Cross are 
good examples of the phases of '' Hell fire " Brue- 
ghel's art. The Visit to the Farm is an interesting 
picture of a great living-room and workshop where 

Hntwetp 195 

various peasants are grouped. One man is seated 
on a large settle working, another at a table drinks 
from a bowl, two others are churning and another 
receives a loaf of bread from the lord who is visit- 
ing his tenants. His wife on the right is opening 
her purse to the delight of a little boy at her side. 
Another child sits on a chair and a woman on the 
left beside a cradle. An enormous pot hangs in 
the centre of the room. 

The Kermesse is full of life and gaiety. In a 
street in the middle distance a number of peasants 
are dancing in couples. On the left several drink- 
ers are seated at tw^o tables. On each side are low 
houses where peasants are drinking and quarrel- 
ling. In the background on the right a body of 
archers follow a drummer and on the left a proces- 
sion enters the church. 

In the Bearing of the Cross Christ is carrying 
the Cross with the help of Simon. In the fore- 
ground St. Veronica in a green robe and brown 
mantle offers her handkerchief to the Saviour. On 
the right under a tree St. John and the holy w^omen 
are seen; and in the background, soldiers, the two 
thieves in a wagon with their confessors, and a 
great crowd. 

David Vinckboons has a characteristic Kermesse 
on the outskirts of Antwerp. Peasants occupy the 
foreground ; people are seated before an inn on the 

196 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

right; ladies and gentlemen are grouped on the 
left; there are booths in the middle distance; a 
brawl occurs on the right ; and in the background is 
seen a castle on the bank of a river. Mountains 
appear on the horizon. 

The cjualities of the old school that lingered in 
Martin Pepyn may be advantageously studied in 
the two triptychs from the Hospital of St. Eliza- 
beth. " One is consecrated to St. Augustine and 
narrates several episodes of his life. His Baptism 
is a perfectly composed piece. The catechumen, 
pale with emotion, kneels and raises towards 
Heaven eyes that express the most fervent devo- 
tion. A person standing behind him presents a con- 
trasted character : this is a young deacon whose 
features shine with frank benevolence. The other 
figures approach still more closely to the world of 
reality, and form a still more marked contrast to 
the neophyte. The background of the left wing 
introduces us frankly into ordinary life : the poor 
who receive the alms of the holy preacher verge on 
the comic. The same opposition is noticeable in 
the scene between the other panel in which the Con- 
fessor of the Faith is working his last miracle, 
where his noble visage respires the calm strength 
given by conviction, and the vulgar haste of the 
people impatient to reach his abode. 

" The second altarpiece is a sort of poem in which 

Hntwerp 197 

St. Elisabeth of Hungary appears with a legendary- 
charm. In the central panel, she is distributing her 
jewels to the poor; the right wing represents her 
washing the feet of the sick; and then we see her 
assisted to her deathbed by a Dominican monk. On 
the left wing, a throng of the indigent are crowd- 
ing to obtain a share of her gifts; desirous of 
recompensing so many virtues, Christ at last wel- 
comes her at the threshold of Paradise. 

" The first scene is perfect in effect. The princess 
occupies the centre of the panel and angels hover- 
ing in the sky bring her a crown. Her charming 
head expresses pity, gentleness, disinterestedness, 
benevolence and modesty. A man holding a basket 
full of presents, two women, and two young boys 
holding a casket of jewels are excellent portraits 
evidently : they are full of character, truth and 
animation. A beggar woman with a naked child 
on her lap sits on the lowest step and smiles at 
her little ragged boy who, having received a gold 
chain from Elisabeth, shows h to his mother, radi- 
ant with joy. No one can look without pleasure 
at the saint washing the feet of the poor. In her 
humble attitude, she preserves all her grace and 
dignity. The panel which represents her deathbed 
equally attests poetic faculties of a superior order. 
Assisted by a noble and grave monk, she listens to 
an angel who reads her good deeds from the Judg- 

198 Ube Hrt ot tbe BelGtan Galleries 

ment Book. The most lively piety and the strong- 
est faith are depicted on her features : her soul is 
about to depart at the sound of the words that 
promise eternal happiness. What enthusiasm and 
happiness shine on her face! What suave beauty 
the artist has given to the Son of Man! A little 
angel in the clouds opens his arms in a transport 
of admirable joy." ^ 

His Passage of the Red Sea, also in this gallery, 
is signed and dated 1626. 

The character of St. Luke Preaching is more 
archaic than the above. It formerly adorned the 
room where the Fraternity of St. Luke held its 

Christ the Pilgrim and St. Augustine is a subject 
furnished by Christian legend. Christ on his jour- 
ney of redemption through the world is seated be- 
fore the holy bishop, who, in the robe of the her- 
mits of his Order and accompanied by several 
monks, is piously washing one of the feet of the 
celestial pilgrim while the other foot is bathing in 
a copper basin on which is the master's signature 
and the date 1636. Above in the sky are God and 
the Holy Spirit surrounded by angels. This was 
the last picture Rombouts painted. 

Pieter Van MoFs Adoration of the Magi gives 
the student a very favourable impression of that 

^ Michiels. 

Hntwerp 199 

painter's talent. The Infant Jesus is accepting the 
gold offered to Him by an old monarch kneeling 
before Him, who has a long white beard and wears 
a brocade mantle, the ends of which are upheld by 
three boys, also kneeling. The other two kings 
with their suites, composed chiefly of well-armed 
soldiers, form a circle around the principal group. 
The background is closed by a clump of trees and 
a ruin. The colour is clear and brilliant; and the 
taste of Rubens prevails. The boys are particularly 

Five panels, each representing one of the senses, 
are by Gonzales Coques. A man in gray, lifting 
something to his nose, is Smell; a man in gray cut- 
ting a pen is Touch; another in gray, looking at a 
glass which he will soon drain, is Taste; one in 
black, playing a lute and singing, is Hearing; and 
one in gray, with spectacles on his nose, looking at 
a statue on which he is working is Sight. 

Coques is also represented by a portrait of a lady 
who is standing with her left arm leaning on a 
column. A turned-back curtain shows the land- 
scape background. She wears a low-necked black 
dress, trimmed with lace, necklace and bracelets of 
pearls, and holds a watch in her right hand. 

David Teniers the Younger is well represented 

The Flemish Drinkers is an out-of-doors scene. 

200 Ube Hut ot tbe JBelgtan (Balleries 

where on the threshold of a house a woman is 
standing with a jug in her hand, near several men 
grouped round a cask. One of them is seated on 
an upturned tub; and another is standing, amused 
at a barking dog. On the opposite bank of a river 
there is a castle among the trees. 

Morning shows three peasants talking in the 
foreground, and three others walking towards a 

After Dinner is a fishing scene. Three fisher- 
men, having drawn their nets, show a comrade their 
good luck, which they are packing in a barrel. In 
the background, on the left a pedestrian is crossing 
the bridge that leads to a castle. 

The Old Woman in a gray dress and white cap 
is cutting tobacco on a table on which are a jug and 
a piece of chalk. 

The Guitar Singer depicts a man in a violet 
jacket with gray sleeves and a plumed red cap play- 
ing a guitar and singing at the same time. A peas- 
ant is listening and another is behind the door. 

The Duet contains three figures. In the centre 
a lady in a gray robe, yellow bodice and white ker- 
chief and cap is playing the flute, accompanied by 
a man in gray on the guitar. In the background a 
servant is opening the door. 

Teniers has here also a view of Valenciennes 
with a bust of Philip IV in the foreground. 


Dauphin of France 
Plate XXVII 
(5"^^ page 222) 

Musee Royal 

des Beaux- Arts 





Hntwerp 201 

Adriaen Key has a Last Supper, where Judas ap- 
pears in the traditional yellow robe with purse in 
hand. This work is dated 1575. His two por- 
traits of the Smidt family were originally hung in 
the Church of the RecoUets. In one, Gilles de 
Smidt, a benefactor of the Convent of the RecoUets, 
is kneeling before a Prie-Dieu covered with a gray 
cloth on which his arms are embroidered. His six 
sons kneel behind him, and, on his left, his daugh- 
ter, Anne, in black, with white cap and ruff. 

The other picture represents Smidt's second wife 
and her daughter, Beatrix, kneeling before a Prie- 
Dieu. They are both dressed in black with white 
ruffs and caps. 

Gilles Mostaert illustrates the period immediately 
preceding Rubens with a Crucifixion, and The Last 
Judgment, where Christ is on a rainbow draped in 
a red mantle with the Virgin in blue and St. John 
in green. Below the Saviour, the dead issue from 
their tombs : the blessed are being received by St. 
Peter into Paradise, and the damned are being cast 
into hell by the archangels. Fourteen compart- 
ments below represent the Seven Capital Sins and 
the Seven Acts of Mercy. 

Other religious pictures that deserve more than 
a passing glance are Jan Van den Hoecke's Virgin 
and Child and St. Francis d'Assisi ; Jerome Van 
Aken's Passion (not satisfactorily attributed) ; Jan 

202 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgtan Galleries 

Schorel's Christ on the Cross; Hendrick Van Ba- 
len's wings of a triptych, the subjects of which are 
Concert of Angels, St. Anne and St. PhiHp, and 
the central panel of another, the Preaching of John 
the Baptist; Pieter Claessens's triptych, Calvary, 
the Resurrection and Christ Bearing the Cross; 
Theodore Van Loon's Assumption of the Virgin; 
B. Spranger's Jesus Calling Little Children to Him ; 
Erasmus Quellin's Holy Family; Lambert Van 
Noort's Calvary, and Entombment; G. J. Her- 
reyns's Christ's Last Sigh; Paul Bril's Prodigal 
Son; Balthazar Cortbende's Good Samaritan; 
Crispin Van den Broeck's Last Judgment ; Jan Van 
Hemessen's Calling of St. Matthew; and several 
works by Gerard Van der Meire, which include 
Bearing the Cross, Christ Among the Doctors, the 
Crucifixion, the Presentation in the Temple, the 
Entombment, and the Mother of Sorrows. 

Abraham J. Van Nuyssen has a Virgin and 
Child and little St. John and an Adoration of the 
Magi that also deserve notice. 

Daniel Seghers has painted two beautiful floral 
wreaths around the busts of St. Theresa and St. 
Ignatius Loyola (painted by Cornelis Schut). 

Josse Van Craesbeeck has an Interior of a Tav- 
ern, where people are smoking, drinking and ma- 
king merry; and a Brawl in a Tavern, in which 
one man is defending himself against two others. 

Hntwerp 203 

A man and woman throw water upon the com- 
batants and an old man is asleep in a chair. 
Cards on the floor show what has occasioned 
the trouble. 

Cornells de Vos is represented by several por- 
traits, the most celebrated being that of iVbraham 
Grapheus, messenger of the Corporation of St. 

He has grayish hair, and a smooth-shaven face. 
On the front of his black doublet he has displayed 
medals and plaques. He wears a white fluted ruff 
and a gray apron. In his right hand he holds a 
mug, in his left a large drinking-cup which he is 
about to place on the table where similar hanaps are 
standing. These cups are interesting because they 
are all masterpieces of goldsmith's work, prizes and 
presents won by and made to the Guild of St. Luke, 
and were melted to help pay a tax levied on Ant- 
werp in 1794. 

This master has also a picture of St. Norbert 
receiving the Sacred Vessels hidden during the 
Heresy of Tanchelin, formerly in the mortuary 
chapel of the Schnoeck family at St. Michel's 
Church. This church and the spire of Notre-Dame 
are seen on the horizon; and among the figures 
kneeling in the public square before the bishop are 
members of the Schnoeck family. 

Lambert Lombard (Susterman) has a Portrait 

204 XLbc Hrt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

of a Man in black doublet and brown mantle hold- 
ing a letter in his right hand. 

Pieter Pourbus is represented by a Portrait of 
Gilles van Schoonbeke, with a book in his hand. 
He wears a black doublet with brown sleeves, white 
collar and cuffs and black cap. The picture is dated 
1544. The portrait of his wife Elizabeth is dated 
the same year. She is in black with a white cap and 
her hands are joined at her belt. 

Among many other portraits, we note Beschey's 
Portrait of the Artist ; Abraham De Rycker's Louis 
Clarys (the right wing of a triptych) and Marie 
Lebatteur, wife of the above (left wing) ; Simon 
de Vos's Portrait of the Painter; P. Van Lint's 
Portrait of the Artist; Pieter Thys's Henry Van 
Halmale, Burgomaster of Antwerp, and Maximin 
Gerardi, Echevin of Antwerp; Van Veen's Jan 
Miraeus, Echevin of Antwerp; Jacob Denys's 
Gregory Martens; Otto Vsenius's Jan Miraeus; and 
Valentin's Gamester. 

Goubau's Study of the Arts in Rome represents 
a landscape with an aqueduct in the plain, and a 
fountain in the foreground ornamented with a 
sculptured bas-relief. Here several artists are 
working and an amateur in a black costume appears 
to be examining a sketch. The scene is enlivened 
by sheep and shepherds and groups of people 
among the ruins. 

Hntvverp 205 

Genoels has a landscape in the Classic style, 
where Minerva and the Muses are seen. 

The Village Fete by David Ryckaert introduces 
us into a large room full of merry-makers. The 
father of the family, in red, has a ring in his hands ; 
the grandmother is rising from her chair; a young 
mother has a child on her knee; and among other 
groups a man is embracing a servant, who is carry- 
ing a dish; and a woman is trying to arouse her 
drunken husband. In the background, a landscape 
is seen with a farmhouse on the bank of a river. 

The Serment, or the Archers' Brotherhood, gave 
Schut the order to paint for the altar of their 
chapel in the Antwerp Cathedral the Martyrdom of 
St. George, which is now in the Antwerp Museum. 
*' The saint is on his knees on the steps of a Classic 
temple. He is about to submit to torture; but he 
does not see the executioners with their swords, nor 
the priest who is pointing to the statue of Apollo, 
for he looks into the sky which has opened and 
shows the angels coming with palms and crowns. 
The picture as a whole has brilliancy and vitality; 
the arrangement is broadly conceived; but, if 
closely examined all the characters that take part 
in this drama are of vulgar type, and, we are com- 
pelled to say, of an ugliness that causes the lovers 
of pure lines and beautiful forms to despair." ^ 

* Michiels. 

206 Ube Hrt ot tbe ^Belgian (Balleries 

Descamps considered it the best work of this mas- 
ter, — a picturesque composition, full of genius, and 
correctly drawn. 

The Pool of Bethesda is one of Boeyerman's best 
works. The sufferers are grouped around a stone 
basin in the foreground; and, on a step above, 
stands Christ, in violet robe and red mantle, ac- 
companied by the Virgin. On the left in the fore- 
ground, two men are bringing a cripple in a chair; 
and, by a column on the right, kneels the donor, 
Helen Fey, whose epitaph is inscribed on the pedes- 
tal with the date, 1675. An open portico is shown 
in the background and in the sky some angels un- 
fold a banderole. 

The Visit is also a valued picture, — a garden 
scene, where a young man is receiving a priest who 
is going towards an old lady dressed in black and 
seated in an arm-chair. In the middle distance, a 
young man in yellow giving his hand to a young 
lady in blue and white affords a charming combi- 
nation of colour. Children are hiding behind 
some red drapery in the middle distance, and 
in the background a page carries a glass and 
a carafe to a fountain. There is a dog in the fore- 

Hans Jordaens's Death of Pharaoh depicts the 
Egyptians being swallowed by the Red Sea. In 
the middle distance, Pharaoh and his chariot are 

Bntwerp 207 

being engulfed. On the right, the Hebrews are sur- 
rounding Moses on a rock. 

Pieter Bouts has a Village Fair, where in a public 
square a peasant is buying some pigs on the left; 
and, on the right, cavaliers are seen before a tower. 
Cattle appear in the background and a street which 
loses itself in a wood. This picture is signed and 
dated 1686. 

First among landscapes by foreign masters let 
us look at Ruysdael's Waterfall in Norway, painted 
in 1649, where a road climbs and turns towards the 
right upon which a man and two women have 
stopped. In the foreground, on the right, a large 
tree stands in the centre of brushwood ; and, in the 
background, we see a low-roofed hut, and, farther 
away on the horizon, a steeple. 

There are also two Landscapes by Wynants, one 
representing a water course, a hill covered with 
brushwood, a road on which a shepherd leads his 
flock, and a grove of trees in the background where 
a cavalier is seen. The figures are by Adriaen Van 
de Velde. 

Adriaen Van de Velde has a beautiful landscape 
with a mountainous background; and, on the left, 
in the middle distance, sheep and a shepherd and 
shepherdess, — the latter asleep. In the foreground 
we see a bull and a cow; and, on the right, on the 
border of a pond, more sheep. 

208 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belatan (Balleries 

Another picture by Adriaen Van de Velde is the 
bagpipe-player. On the left, near a hedge, a shep- 
herd is playing the bagpipes to which a shepherdess 
listens while the cows and sheep rest. In the mid- 
dle distance, one cow is standing, and in the back- 
ground we see a hut and a river. 

Another by the same painter depicts The Pleas- 
ures of Winter, where, on a frozen canal, people 
are skating, and a sleigh, drawn by a richly capari- 
soned white horse, carries a lord and lady, while 
the coachman hangs on by the runners. 

This should be compared with Isaak Van Os- 
tade's Winter, where on a frozen canal skaters are 
making merry. Children and peasants are also 
drawing sleighs of various kinds, and some of the 
skaters are gathered about a tent, where food and 
drink are sold. In the middle distance, there is a 
sled drawn by a white horse. On the right, peas- 
ants and huts are seen. 

There is also a Landscape by Jan Van Goyen, re- 
presenting a farm near a river, a grove of trees in 
the centre, a plain in the foreground, and a bell- 
tower on the horizon. Many peasants enliven the 

The Watermill by Hobbema is a characteristic 
landscape in Guelderland. On the left, by a water 
course, is a mill, the wheel facing the spectator. In 
the centre, on the opposite bank, there is a grove 

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{See page 212) 

Musee Royal 
des Beaux-Arts 




Hntwerp 209 

of trees bordering a road, along which advance a 
peasant and a boy towards a wooden foot-bridge on 
the right in the foreground. The flat and wooded 
landscape occupies the background and on the hori- 
zon is seen a bell-tower. In no other landscape has 
the artist given the lights and shadows of a golden 
summer's day with more truth and beauty. 

Two Italian landscapes are very interesting ex- 
amples : one is Jan Baptist Weenix's View of an 
Italian Port; and the other Jan Both's View of 
Italy, showing a mountainous landscape with a lake 
in the background and two peasants leading a mule 
along the road. The figures are by Andreas Both. 

Karel du Jardin's Italian Landscape, C. Van 
Poelenburg's Landscape and Figures, and C. P. 
Berchem's Landscape, Figures and Animals may all 
be classed w^ith the above, being full of the Italian 

Two Cavaliers by Aalbert Cuyp is interesting for 
the figures as well as the landscape. Before an inn 
on the left a gentleman in gray doublet and black 
hat strides a white horse which a groom holds by 
the bridle; in the centre, another in red and a felt 
hat with yellow plumes is mounted on a bay horse. 
The background, on the right, shows a river bank 
and a castle on a mountain. 

In a marine by Jan Van de Cappelle, a bark with 
passengers on the right is approaching a fishing- 

210 XTbe Hrt ot tbe ^Belgian (Ballertes 

boat. On the left a barge and other boats at vari- 
ous distances as far as the horizon. The clear sky 
is lightly dotted with clouds. 

Salomon Van Ruysdael has also a Marine in 
which a sail boat is going away from the spectator 
and in the middle distance is a row boat. Under 
some trees on the left nets are drying on the bank 
and on the right other boats are going towards the 

The Ferry is full of life and animation. In a flat 
boat moving to the right there are three cows with 
a herdsman, a carriage drawn by a horse carrying 
a family of six, and several other people seated in 
the front. The ferryman is pulling on the rope to 
make the boat cross ; on the left is the bank covered 
with tall trees and the horizon has a church. 

A Calm by Willem Van de Velde is in his best 
manner. In the centre a Dutch ship seen from the 
poop with swelling sail is about to fire a salute ; two 
sailors are in a neighbouring barge. On the left 
a boat advances, and other boats and ships are seen 
on the horizon. 

Simon de Vlieger is represented by a Calm Sea 
under a luminous sky. In the foreground near a 
buoy is a fishing-boat ; in the middle distance on the 
right a three-masted Dutch sailing pavilion. On 
the bank are windmills and trees. 

A typical work by Aart Van der Neer is Moon- 

Bntwerp 211 

light in Holland. The moon is reflected in a canal 
on the right, where boats are also visible. On the 
bank, in the centre, two peasants are talking; and 
on the left a miller in his wagon and a pedestrian 
and his dog are seen on the road. In the middle 
distance is a mill, and, farther away, a town. 

Turning now to genre by foreign masters, there 
is an interesting picture by Eglon Van der Neer of 
a Visit to the Invalid, painted in 1664. The invaHd 
is seated by a table on which is spread a red cloth 
with designs of black and white. She is dressed 
in a blue robe embroidered with silver, a white cap 
and a red bow on her bodice. She holds the young 
baby on her knees. A young man dressed in brown 
and white leans over her. In the background on 
the right is a canopy bed and a page is by a chair. 
A young lady dressed in white silk and a pink plaid 
bodice approaches the invalid. 

A Village Wedding affords Jan Steen a chance to 
depict various types, variously grouped. The scene 
takes place in a hall. A cavalier, in gray and a 
yellow mantle, is seated at a table, talking to a 
w^oman dressed in gray and red. Between them the 
head of the bride appears. Farther away a fiddler, 
standing on a table, enlivens the company with 
music, and several dancers appear in the centre. 
Another cavalier stands on the left in slashed doub- 
let and plumed hat. In the centre, a dog is lying 

212 xibe Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

down beside a mug and a leafy branch hangs from 
one of the beams of the ceihng. 

A picture in Jan Steen's best manner is Samson 
Insulted by the Philistines. In the vestibule of a 
palace, Samson, whose feet are bound by cords, 
which are being pulled by children, and whose 
hands are chained, is being crowned with a fool's 
cap by a man, who is also fastening the chains. 
Samson is dressed in a yellow tunic, and his locks 
are strewn over the floor, by the side of his turban. 
A standard-bearer and a dwarf appear on the right ; 
and, on the left, Delilah is seated, in a blue robe 
with a dog at her side. She is being caressed by 
an old man and is mocking at Samson at the same 
time. A great number of other figures enliven the 
scene; and in the foreground, on a piece of blue 
drapery, are placed a copper dish, a flagon and the 
scissors, with which Delilah cut Samson's hair. A 
curtain is hung from the ceiling; and, on the bal- 
cony and staircase in the background, musicians and 
soldiers and many people are grouped. 

Ter Borch's The Mandolin Player represents a 
young girl with light hair, and dressed in a gray 
skirt and pink bodice, seated on a red chair play- 
ing a mandolin, and reading from a music-book 
placed on a table covered with a blue and white 
carpet. In the middle distance a young cavalier is 
standing, in gray doublet and mantle and a wide 

Hntwerp 213 

baldrick across his breast. He carries his large 
broad-brimmed black hat under his arm. 

Adriaen Van Ostade's Smoker is seated in a hall 
with pipe in hand, puffing smoke into the air. He 
wears a brown vest, gray apron, and red cap, and 
has a butcher's knife at his belt. On a round table 
a match, some tobacco in a paper and a glass of 
beer are placed conveniently. A window opens on 
the left upon greenery. 

A characteristic scene of rustic life is The Village 
Wedding by Jan Victoors. The chief interest cen- 
tres in the bride and groom, who are dancing and 
holding each other by the hand. The groom is 
dressed in brown, and the bride wears a brown 
skirt , red waistcoat and white bodice. Behind 
them, a table is served; in the background of the 
room the guests are crowded together; and in the 
foreground, on the right, two children are playing. 

In Richard Brakenberg's Kermesse, everybody is 
making merry in a hall. In the centre some guests 
are at a table and on the left a cook stands by the 
fireplace with three children at her side. Some 
children are gathered round a barrel on the right 
and a young man is teasing a servant. Another 
servant is talking to a woman who is cutting bread, 
and in the foreground a little girl is asleep on a 

An Interior by Cornelis Dusart the Younger 

214 TL\)C Htt ot tbe Belgian (3allertes 

depicts a family gathering. The central group con- 
sists of a peasant who is holding a piece of bread 
to a child in the arms of the mother, who is seated. 
Her green bodice, black skirt, violet apron and 
white cap form a contrast to the man's blue trou- 
sers, brown vest and gray cap. On a table in 
the middle distance a man in gray is cutting bread 
and looking at a little child. Three persons are at 
a table in the background, a fourth is standing; on 
a chair is a pot of beer; and on the left, a high 
fireplace and a stairway. 

The Fish Vendor, by Willem Van Mieris, The 
Two Ages, by G. Schalken, and an Old Woman 
with a Bottle, by Arie de Vois, should also be 
noticed. The subject of the latter wears a red 
dress, brown mantle and a black cap, and she leans 
with her left hand on a balustrade and lifts a bottle 
with her right. 

Hondecoeter's treatment of birds is excellently 
illustrated by a picture " Animals.'' In the centre, 
a white duck and ducklings are in a pond; on the 
left is a black duck; and in the middle distance, 
another duck lifts its foot. 

Philips Wouverman's splendid horses appear in 
his Combat of Cavalry and Halt of Cavaliers. 

Gerard Houckgeest, who was so fond of painting 
the New Church in Delft, has a View of this inte- 
rior, showing the tomb of William the Silent in 

Hntwerp 215 

the middle distance and a grave-digger at work 
on the right and also the grille of a chapel. In the 
foreground, on the left, a pillar and a dog are con- 

One of Gerard Berckheyde's Views of Amster- 
dam should also be noticed. It was painted in 
1668; and shows the Dam with the Town-Hall, the 
New Church on the right; and, on the left, in the 
foreground a fruit-market and numerous figures. 

Among the choice portraits is one of a Young 
Girl by Bartolomeus Van der Heist. She is stand- 
ing in a park holding with her left hand the collar 
'of a white greyhound and in the right a hunting- 
horn. She is dressed in yellow and wears a red 
scarf. Pearls ornament her neck, ears and hair. 

Another attractive work is Daniel Mytens's Por- 
trait of a Young Woman, dressed in black, which 
brings out the blonde of her hair. She holds the 
folds of her dress in her right hand and in her left 
some flowers which are attached to her belt. Her 
plumed cap is ornamented with jewels and she 
wears a necklace and earrings of pearls. A balus- 
trade and column are seen in the background. 

Mierevelt's Portrait of Prince Frederick Henry, 
dressed in armour with a yellow scarf over his 
cuirass from left to right, is another portrait that 
deserves the visitor's attention. 

Frans Hals has a notable Portrait of a Dutch 

216 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Balleries 

Lord, seated. His face is smooth-shaven; his hair 
long and brown ; and he wears dark clothes slashed 
with w^hite and braided with yellow; a flat collar; 
and a black mantle. His bare right hand points to 
the right and his gloved left hand holds the other 
glove. His coat-of-arms appears in the back- 

More famous, however, is Hals's Young Fisher 
of Haarlem, a boy with arms crossed on his breast 
carrying a basket on his back, who stands facing 
the spectator, smiling and showing his teeth. He 
wears a red vest and gray cloak and his unkempt 
hair escapes from his red cap. 

This should be compared with Rembrandt's 
Young Fisherman, also in this gallery. The sub- 
ject of this picture is three-quarters turned to the 
left, with a smiling face and half-opened mouth. 
He wears a red vest, white shirt and gray hat. 

One of Rembrandt's many portraits of Saskia is 
also here. According to Vosmaer, this represents 
the painter's wife in the last period of her life ; and, 
according to Bode, it is a copy, with alterations, of 
the famous picture at Cassel. Saskia is seen in pro- 
file against a gray background turned towards the 
left wearing a brown mantle trimmed with fur 
which she holds with both hands. Her large red 
hat is adorned with plumes; and jewels sparkle on 
her hat in her hair and on her neck and arms. 

1 , ^/- 

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'^'V •! 




Plate XXIX 
(5"^^ /Jag^ 2i6) 

Musee Royal 

des Beaux-Arts 


V .- T' 'N uNlVhRSlTY 



Hntwerp 21T 

Two other Rembrandts remain to be noticed. 
The Portrait of an Old Jew, with grayish beard and 
moustache and right eye half-closed, is very strik- 
ing. He wears a brown doublet, a carelessly tied 
cravat and a red and white turban. 

The Portrait of a Dutch Burgomaster, shows the 
subject seated in an armchair, with one hand on the 
arm and the other lifted. In the background, on 
the left, a table with some books is seen in the 

Among Italian pictures there are several attrib- 
uted to Simone Martini (or Memmi), pupil of 

The Annunciation is an exquisite little work of 
this painter's later period. On a golden back- 
ground, with crossed hands and strong wings, the 
angel Gabriel gracefully kneels clad in pink and 
blue drapery. A diadem sparkles in his hair and 
he holds a slender lily. Three other works depict 
The Virgin; The Crucifixion; and the Descent 
from the Cross. The Virgin is seated on a marble 
throne covered with rose-coloured drapery, and 
wears a blue mantle bordered with gold. Her right 
hand is raised and her left hand rests on an open 
book on her knees. She seems to be afraid of the 
apparition of the Angel. Above on the left the 
Holy Spirit descends in a ray of light. On the 
steps of the throne stands a lily in a vase. The 

218 Zbc Hrt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

background is gold. This is similar to the picture 
of the Annunciation by the same master in the 

The Crucifixion represents the centurion piercing 
the side of Christ with the lance. The Virgin is 
fainting in the foreground in the arms of the other 
holy women. The Magdalen, in a red robe, em- 
braces the foot of the cross; and there are soldiers 
on the right, a standard bearer, and a child who 
points out the Saviour to his father. Angels are in 
the sky. 

The Descent from the Cross shows the disciples 
on two ladders taking the body from the Cross, 
while the Virgin, Mary Magdalen, and others wait 
to receive it. A child stands by holding the 
winding-sheet and a vase of perfumes. In the 
centre, a man, whose back is turned to the spectator, 
has the nails; and, in the foreground, a bishop is 
kneeling by a skull. 

The Antwerp gallery is fortunate in possessing 
two works by Giotto — St. Paul and St. Nicholas 
of Myra. 

On a gold background St. Paul, seen full face, 
stands in a green robe embroidered with gold and 
a red mantle embroidered with gold and lined with 
blue. In his right hand he holds a sword, and in 
his left a red book. 

St. Nicholas, Bishop of Myra, is also standing 

Bntwerp 219 

against a gold background. He wears a white sur- 
plice and a green dalmatic lined with red and em- 
broidered with gold. His right hand rests on the 
head of a kneeling man, and his left holds three 

Another valuable Italian picture is by Fra Ange- 
lico (Giovanni da Fiesole), representing St. Romu- 
ald reproaching the Emperor Otho HI for the 
murder of Crescentius, the senator. In front of 
the door of a convent, St. Romuald stands in blue 
and gold vestments with a golden verge in his right 
hand, and with the left repulsing the Emperor in 
rose-coloured robes and golden crown, who not- 
withstanding his promises has put to death the 
Roman senator Crescentius and carried off his wife. 
Beside the Emperor stands his favourite, Tham; 
and, in the foreground in front of the bishop, and 
seen from behind, a dwarf leans on a golden sword. 
Monks appear in the rocky background. 

The Crucifixion by Antonello da Messina, the 
first Italian painter who followed Van Eyck's 
method of painting in oil, is a remarkable picture, 
uniting the characteristics of the Italian and Flem- 
ish schools. In the centre is erected a very tall 
cross, to which Christ is nailed; and, on slender 
trees on either side, are bound the thieves in curious 
attitudes, — contortions that suggest Michael An- 
gelo. On the right, St. John is kneeling in gray 

220 XTbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian 6allertes 

robe, red mantle and black shoes, his profile turned 
to the left; and, on the left, the Virgin is seated in 
a deep red gown and blue mantle, with her hands 
crossed on her lap. In the foreground, we see an 
owl, bones, a skull, out of which creeps a serpent, 
and a rabbit. The scene is enacted in a beautiful 
landscape where the green valley sinks between 
hills, one of which is crowned by a castle, enclosing 
an arm of the sea. The sky is clear and the atmos- 
phere bright and springlike. The precision of the 
Flemish school is strikingly exhibited. 

Here we also find a work by Titian, representing 
St. Peter in a red robe and brown mantle seated on 
a throne on the left of a terrace, overlooking the 
sea where several vessels are seen. The base of 
the throne is ornamented with bas-reliefs and on it 
lie the keys. Alexander VI, in green dalmatic and 
tiara, majestically presents the kneeling Jean 
Sforza, lord of Pesaro, who bears the standard 
with the arms of Borgia in his hand. He is dressed 
in a black robe with white sleeves and his helmet 
lies at his side. The figures are three-quarters 
natural size. This is an early work, dating before 


" It was probably painted at the very moment 

when the favour of Alexander the Sixth enabled 

Sforza to take command of a squadron against the 

Hntwerp 221 

Turks. He caused Titian to paint his likeness in 
adoration before the majesty of St. Peter. During 
the reign of Charles the First of England this pic- 
ture was part of the furniture of a private room in 
the palace of Whitehall. It passed after the revolu- 
tion with many other works of art into Spain. At 
Villa Viciosa, in San Pasquale and in the Palace of 
Madrid, it was seen at various times by Conca and 
Mengs. William the First, King of the Nether- 
lands, presented it in 1825 to the municipality of 
Antwerp. Though soiled by travel and skinned by 
cleaning, it has survived a very thorough process 
of repainting, which seriously affects the harmony 
of the colours ; but we may still discern beneath 
the scrumbling of the restorer the primitive beauty 
of the design and the clever facility of the hand- 
ling. ^ Baffo ' kneels with the banner of the 
Borgias in his hand before the throne of St. Peter. 
His dress is that of a Dominican, but the helmet of 
a knight lies before him, and proclaims his promo- 
tion to a military command. The figure of Alex- 
ander the Sixth in full pontificals, bending to rec- 
ommend him to the apostle, tells of the protection 
to which he owed his appointment and the favour 
of the Holy See is suggested by St. Peter, who 
sits on a throne to the left and gives the suppliant 
his blessing. In the distance to the right, the 

222 Ube Hrt ot tbe JSelgtan Galleries 

waters and forts of a military harbour in which 
galleys are at anchor complete the subject." ^ 

Part of an altar-piece by Jehan Fouquet (1415- 
1483) court painter to Louis XI, represents the 
Virgin and Child Jesus, which is of historical in- 
terest owing to the fact that the Virgin is a portrait 
of Agnes Sorel, mistress of Charles VII, King of 
France, who died in 1450. It was given to the 
Cathedral of Melun by Etienne Chevalier, one of 
the executors of Agnes Sorel. As Agnes Sorel had 
no children, it is supposed that Fouquet's own son 
was the model for the Holy Infant. The Virgin 
is seated in an arm-chair, the back and arms of 
which are of marquetry enriched with pearls. She 
wears a gray dress, very low in the neck, and a 
white mantle lined with ermine. On her head is a 
superb crown studded with gems and pearls and 
beneath which falls a gauze veil. The Child is 
seated on her left knee. Three red angels, one 
above the other, stand on either side of the chair, 
and the blue background is filled with cherubim of 
the same colour. 

One of Clouet's most celebrated portraits is that 
of Francis II. The subject is turned three-quarters 
to the right, one hand upon another posed upon a 
rail, wears a yellow doublet slashed with white, 
red sleeves with black edging and white shirt. A 

' Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

Hntwerp 223 

medal is suspended by a black cord around his neck 
on which the letter M is engraved, and above his 
white linen cap beneath which his blonde hair falls 
is a black hat with white feathers and a medal repre- 
senting St. Francis kneeling before Christ. 

A Holy Family by Victor and Heinrich Diin- 
wege, brothers and painters of the school of West- 
phalia, is an altarpiece formerly in the Church of 
Calcar. In the centre on a high throne is seated 
St. Anne in a green robe, dark red mantle and white 
veil. In her left hand, she holds an open book and 
her right is placed on the shoulder of the Virgin, 
who is seated at her feet. She is in a blue robe and 
her long unbound hair is adorned with a golden 
crown. In her arms, she holds the Child Jesus. 
On the left, in the foreground, Mary the wife of 
Alpheus, in a blue robe, red mantle and white veil, 
holds two of her children on her knees, while the 
others play at her feet. Behind her stands Alpheus, 
who is counting on his fingers, and an assistant. 
St. Joseph in a blue doublet with green sleeves and 
red mantle is handing a basket of cherries to St. 
Anne. Mary Salome sits on ^the right in a yellow 
skirt lined with blue, a green mantle and white 
veil. She holds two children on her knees. Her 
husband Zebedee stands behind her, dressed in red, 
wearing a turban and reading a book. St. Joachim 
is against the throne looking at St. Anne with a 

224 TLbc Hrt ot tbe Belatan (Ballertes 

hat and a cane in his hands. The background con- 
sists of a landscape where a city is seen on the bank 
of a river. The name of each child is in golden 

A Portrait of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, 
is by Albrecht Diirer, seen full face long beard and 
moustache, black clothes, fur collar, white shirt and 
cap covering his ears. On the left a coat-of-arms. 

Conrad Fyoll has a fine triptych, the central panel 
representing the Adoration of the Magi and the two 
wings The Nativity and The Circumcision. The 
King with the Order of the Golden Fleece around 
his neck is supposed to be Philip the Good. 

Lucas Cranach has a characteristic Adam and 
Eve. By the apple tree laden with fruit Eve stands 
holding a bough with her left hand and offering 
an apple to Adam with her right. The serpent is 
coiled around the tree. 

Charity is another picture by this master. In a 
landscape where there is a house on the rocks in 
the background, and a hedge in the middle distance, 
is seated a young woman nursing a child. Other 
children are variously grouped around her. 

A Portrait of Erasmus in his Study is by Hans 
Holbein the Younger. The scholar wears a black 
hoiippelande bordered with fur and a black cap. In 
his left hand he has a roll of paper. His right hand 
rests on a book resting on a table beside a porcelain 



Plate XXX 
{See page 219) 

Musee Royal 

des Beaux-Arts 


rpusr^- ^p LIBERAL ARTS 


Hntwerp 225 

hour-glass. On the shelves in the background are 
volumes and a golden cup. 

A Portrait of a Man with blonde beard and 
moustache, also dressed in a black houppelande and 
black cap and white collar, is also attributed to 

The Gallery of Modern Paintings contains many- 
good examples of Belgian paintings since 1830, al- 
though it is not, on the whole, as fine a collection 
as the Brussels gallery. Historical pictures, por- 
traits, genre and landscape are all represented, land- 
scape, perhaps, occupying the greater number of the 
frames. The Antwerp painters are well repre- 
sented. Hendrik Leys is seen in a Flemish Wed- 
ding in the Seventeenth Century, — an early work ; 
Rubens at a fete in Antwerp, painted in 185 1 ; Pif- 
ferari, painted in 1856; a portrait of his wife and 
daughter; and studies of portraits and costumes 
for the frescoes in the H6tel-de-Ville. 

Nicaise de Keyser may be studied in an Easter 
Procession in Seville; Charles V liberating Chris- 
tian Slaves on the Capture of Tunis, painted in 
1873; ^^^ ^ ^^^1 Fight, dated 1881. His pupil, 
Charles Verlat, by a number of works that show 
his versatility: a Pieta; Vox Dei, a triptych, 
painted in 1877; Buffalo and Lion Fighting 
(1878) ; Madonna and Child with the Evangelist, 
a triptych (1873); Oriental Studies; portrait of 

226 Ube Hrt of tbe BelGtan (Ballertes 

J. Lies, the artist; the Rising in Antwerp on Aug. 
24, 1577, when the shattered statue of the Duke of 
Alva was dragged through the streets; and his 
celebrated Cart and Horses, painted in Paris in 


Ferdinand de Braekeleer is represented by Plun- 
dering of Antwerp by the Spaniards in 1576; and 
The Village-School, painted in 1852; his son, 
Henri de Braekeleer, by The Gardener and a Tav- 
ern in Antwerp. 

Among the earliest pictures are The Death of 
Rubens, painted by Mattheus Ignatius Van Bree in 
1827 ; and the Holy Family painted by F. J. Navez 
in 1848. 

The historical subjects include: 

Gustav Wappers's Brothers de Witt awaiting in 
their prison in The Hague the entrance of the mob ; 
A. de Vriendt's Pope Paul III before the Portrait 
of Luther, painted in 1883; Battle of Trafalgar by 
H. Schaefels, painted in 1879, and the British Fleet 
before Flushing in 1809, painted in 1889; Ch. 
Ooms's Philip II paying the last honours to Don 
Juan of Austria; and J. Lies's Prisoners of War, 
The Foe is Coming, and Albrecht Diirer travelling 
on the Rhine, painted in 1855. 

Edouard de Biefve's Banquet of the Gueux, rep- 
resents the gathering of several hundred of the 
Netherland noblemen on April 6, 1566, when they 

Hntwerp 227 

drank success to the Gueux, the day after they had 
presented their request to Margaret of Parma for 
the aboHtion of inquisitorial courts. The scene is 
Count Kuilemburg's palace in the Rue des Petits- 
Carmes in Brussels. There is also a copy of Louis 
Gallait's picture in Tournai, representing the guilds 
of Brussels paying the last honours to the bodies of 
Count Egmont and Count Hoorn. 

Among the classical subjects is J. Stallaert's Im- 
molation of Polyxena on the funeral pile of Achilles ; 
and there is a copy of Wiertz's Contest for the body 
of Patroclus. A popular picture of legendary sub- 
ject is Lady Godiva riding through the streets of 
Coventry, painted in 1870, by J. Van Lerius. 

Among religious pictures we find J. de Vriendt's 
Raising of Jairus's Daughter; Constantin Meu- 
nier's St. Stephen, painted in 1867; ^^^ The 
Shulamite Maiden, painted by Wappers in 1870. 

Wappers's Mother and Child (1854) is also in 
this collection; and turning to the portraits the 
most notable are : Jan van Beers's two of Benoit 
the composer and Henri Rochefort and his famous 
Lady in White; J. F. Portaels's Hendrik Con- 
science; E. de Latour's Portrait of a Painter 
(1855); and a group of artists by H. Luyten, 
painted in 1886. J. L. David has a study of a head; 
and there is a likeness of Constantin Van der Nest, 
by Wiertz. 

228 XEbe Hrt ot tbe 3Belcitan (Balleries 

The Coffee Roaster by Charles de Groux is one 
of the most highly prized modern works. The vis- 
itor should also notice Victor Lagye's Gipsy 
(1875); Verstraete's House of Death; L. Abry's 
Barrack-yard (1887); J- P- Van Regemorter's 
Quarrel over Cards; G. Portielje's Lost (1894); 
Van Engelen's Belgian Emigrants (1890); A. 
Stevens's Despair; E. Slingeneyer's Martyrs; J. 
Lies's Contrasts; Van Leemputten's Distribution 
of Bread in a Flemish Village (1892); J. Geer- 
aert's Interior of St. Paul's Church, Antwerp; P. 
Van der Ouderaa's Judicial Reconciliation in St. 
Joseph's chapel, Antwerp Cathedral (1879); Jan 
Van de Roye's Fruit; and E. Farasyn's Old Fish 
Market at Antwerp. 

Animals and landscapes with cattle are numer- 
ous. Jean Baptiste Stobbaerts has a picture of 
Dogs, and another called Leaving the Stable; J. 
L. Van Kuyck has a Stable; Marie Collart, a 
Farm- Yard, painted in 1890; A. J. Verwee, 
Horses; Verboeckhoven, Going to Market, painted 
in 1854, and a picture of Cattle, life-size; and Th. 
de Bock, a Landscape with Cattle (1898). 

Isidore Verheyden's Pilgrims in the Antwerp 
Campine; J. T. Coosemans's Winter in the Cam- 
pine; Isidore Meyers's On the Banks of the 
Scheldt ; J. B. Kindermans's Landscape ; Theodore 
Fourmois's Scene in the Ardennes near Dinant; 

Hntwerp 229 

Frans Courtens's Avenue of Trees (1894); P. 
Clays's River Scene near Dort ; L. Fr. Van Kuyck's 
Wood cutter (1882); J. P. F. Lamoriniere's Pine 
Wood; B. C. Koekkoek's Scene near Cleves 
(1882); H. Source's Return from Flushing 
(1878); L. Douzette's Winter Scene by Moon- 
light; E. de Schampheleer's View of Gouda 
(1878) ; A. de Knyff's Village of Chaslepont; L. 
Munthe's Winter Scene; A. Alphonse Asselberg's 
Sunset; Jacques Rosseels's Landscape; and Neigh- 
bourhood of Waasmijnster ; Van Luppen's Autumn 
Scene (1878); L. Artan's Sea-Piece; J. F. Ver- 
has's Beach at Heyst (1884) ; E. Leemans's Sum- 
mer Evening on the Sea; and E. Wauters's On the 
Kasr-en-Nil in Cairo are illustrative of the devel- 
opment of landscape and marine pictures in the last 
half of the Nineteenth Century. 

There are few foreign painters represented; but 
the visitor should notice A. Achenbach's Stormy 
Weather in Ostend harbour (1875) ; Bouguereau's 
Women at the Sepulchre (1876); and Cabanel's 
Cleopatra testing Poisons on Criminals. 



antwerp — the hotel -de - ville and the 
musee plantin - moretus ; ghent the mu- 
seum ; tournai — the municipal picture 
gallery; ypres — the museum; and mech- 


The Hotel-de-Ville 

The H6tel-de-Ville deserves a visit. It was 
built in 1561-65 by Cornelis de Vriendt in the Re- 
naissance style; and was restored in 1581 after it 
was damaged by the Spaniards. The figure of the 
Virgin, the patron saint of Antwerp, was placed in 
the niche above the central portion of the building 
in 1585. On her right and left are figures of Wis- 
dom and Justice. 

Mural paintings adorn many of the halls and 
rooms. The subjects naturally deal with Ant- 
werp's history. Chief of all is the Salle Leys, which 
was decorated in 1864- 1869, ^7 Hendrik Leys, "to 
glorify the ancient rights of the city of Antwerp 
and to relate by examples taken from history, how, 





Hntwerp 231 

in exercising these privileges, the written law lives 
in deeds." These pictures exemplify: Indepen- 
dence, or Solemn Entry of Charles V, who swears 
to respect the privileges of the city (15 14) ; Self- 
Defence, or the Burgomaster Van Ursele giving 
the magistrate Van Spanghen command of the 
municipal guard for the defence of the city (1541) ; 
Municipal Rights, or Batt. Palavicini of Genoa re- 
ceiving the rights of citizenship in 1541 ; and Self- 
Government, or Margaret of Palma giving the keys 
of the city to the Burgomaster during the troubles 
of 1566. These works are in Leys's third manner. 
Paul Mantz considers them the painter's crowning 
work. He says : 

" By these you can best appreciate the maturity 
of his talent, the sureness of his style, his art of 
grouping people in great scenes and of individual- 
izing types, and finally that retrospective intuition 
which he possessed in such a high degree that he 
makes history live again." 

Above the doors are portraits of the twelve 
princes who governed Antwerp from Henry I of 
Lorraine (1220) to Philippe le Bel (1491). The 
arms of the city and guilds are on the ceiling. 
Mural paintings also by Leys adorn the walls of 
the ante-room leading to the Salle des Marriages, 
which were taken from the painter's house in the 
rue Leys, when it was pulled down in 1898. 

232 XTbe Hrt ot tbe JSelglan Galleries 

The Salle des Marriages contains five frescoes 
by Lagye (1885-1891) : I. A Druidical Marriage; 
11. A Roman Marriage; III. First Christian Mar- 
riage in Antwerp, in 650 ; the Marriage of Philippe 
le Bel and Jeanne de Castile in 1497; and IV. the 
first Civil Marriage celebrated in Antwerp in 1796. 

In this room, the visitor should note a fine Re- 
naissance chimney-piece of the Sixteenth Century 
in black and wdiite marble. 

A chimney-piece by Cornelis de Vriendt, with a 
relief representing the Judgment of Solomon, orna- 
ments the antechamber of the Salle du Conseil Com- 
munal. A finer chimney-piece, however, decorates 
the Burgomaster's Room, a splendid example of 
Renaissance sculpture, representing the Last Sup- 
per, the Raising of the Serpent, the Crucifixion, and 
Abraham's Sacrifice. This came from the old 
Abbey of Tongerloo in Belgium. 

The great staircase is ornamented with Belgian 

Musee Plantin-Morctus 

Lovers of old furniture will find much to interest 
them in the Musee Plantin-Moretus, in the Marche 
du Vendredi, the house of the celebrated printer, 
Christopher Plantin (15 14- 1589), a native of 
Tours, who, after spending several years in Paris, 
established a printing business in Antwerp in 1549. 

Hntwcrp - 233 

Here he kept twenty-two presses at work. From 
1576 until 1876, when the city purchased the house 
for a Museum, the family had carried on the busi- 
ness, Plantin having been succeeded by his son-in- 
law, Moretus and the latter by his descendants. 
The house and its contents offer a rare example of 
the dwelling of a Flemish man of wealth at the 
end of the Sixteenth Century. In addition to the 
fine old furniture, tapestry, gilt leather hangings, 
rare books, old bindings, etc., there are ninety por- 
traits of interest, fifteen of which are by Rubens ; 
and there are also many drawings, title-pages, 
vignettes by this versatile master, who frequently 
designed for printers. There are also other designs 
by Erasmus Ouellin, Martin de Vos, Jan Van Or- 
ley, A. Van Noort and others. 

Ghent: The Museum 

The Museum of Ghent was created by the French 
deputy Citoyen Hopsomer in the year VI and was 
housed in Church of St. Pierre; but about 1809 
it was removed to its present home in the old Con- 
vent of the Augustines in the rue Sainte-Margue- 

Though not ranking with the galleries of Ant- 
werp and Brussels, Ghent possesses many valuable 
and interesting w^orks. 

234 XTbe art of tbe ^Belatan (Balleries 

Burgher wrote: 

" The Ghent Museum contains several fine paint- 
ings, among which are those of De Craeyer ; a great 
Rubens — St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, 
painted in 1632; a Van Utrecht of the first order; 
a Last Judgment by Van Coxie ; a Martin De Vos, 
signed and dated; several works by Nicholas Lie- 
maeckere (called Roose), a strange colour ist whom 
we seldom see in the Flemish churches; and some 
rare pictures, such as a Peter Boel of Antwerp — 
Dead Game ; and an excellent Heda — a table set 
with fruit and drinking-glasses and with a back- 
ground of sky." 

Caspar De Craeyer, who removed from Brussels 
to Ghent about 1664 and was responsible for a 
slight artistic movement in this city, is largely rep- 
resented in this gallery. Moreover, many of his 
works gathered here are masterpieces. 

Let us first examine The Judgment of Solomon. 
Fine of type and commanding in attitude, the new 
king, seated on his throne and crowned, extends 
his sceptre bidding the soldier, who has a sword, 
to divide the child in half. The gestures and faces 
of the two mothers, the true one kneeling and ar- 
resting the soldier's action, are eloquent. The dead 
child lies on the steps of the throne. Many specta- 
tors are on the right, and soldiers stand on the left. 
The shadows are very heavy. 

Hntwerp 235 

The Coronation of St. Rosalie shows her grace- 
ful figure kneeling before the Virgin, who is en- 
throned with the Infant Jesus in her lap. At her 
side are two angels with roses; and a third, above 
the group, holds a curtain. St. Rosalie is in white 
satin with gold-embroidered mantle ; her hair is un- 
bound ; and she holds a rosary in one hand, while 
the other rests on her breast. A branch of lilies, 
some books and a skull are by her side; and an 
archangel also beside her is handing the crown to 
the Child Jesus, who will place it upon St. Rosalie's 
head. A mountainous landscape appears in the dis- 
tance on the left. 

The Martyrdom of St. Blaisius is the last work 
painted by Craeyer. In the excessive agitation of 
the attitudes, the freedom of the design and the ex- 
aggerated warmth of the colour one would rather 
recognize the ardour of youth than the chill of old 

The painter was eighty-six when he signed this 
work, a copy of which is in the Brussels Museum. 

Another fine picture is called St. John in the 
Island of Patmos. The sain,t is seated on a rock 
and gazing into the sky. By his side is an inkstand, 
and, in his right hand, a pen. On the left is an 
eagle's head. 

In Tobias and the Angel, the latter stands on the 
left watching Tobias, who is extracting the gall 

236 U\)c Hrt Of tbe Belgian Galleries 

bladder from a fish. Behind him his dog is drink- 
ing from the river that flows through the fore- 
ground. Only the trunks of the trees are repre- 
sented and mountains are seen in the background. 
Among De Craeyer's other pictures are : The Vir- 
gin Delivering Souls from Purgatory upon the In- 
tercession of St. Simon Stock; St. vSimon Stock 
Receiving the Scapulary from the Virgin ; the Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Laurence and a series of pictures that 
decorated the triumphal arches erected in the 
Marche du Vendredi in Ghent on the entrance of 
Ferdinand, cardinal infant of Spain. 

De Craeyer's pupil. Van Cleef, is represented by 
four pictures. The Manna is, perhaps, the most 
original. Here Moses, with a rod in his hand, lifts 
his eyes to Heaven while the Children of Israel 
gather the manna in a rocky and verdurous land- 
scape. St. Joseph crowned by Jesus is also con- 
sidered a masterpiece. The subjects of the two 
other works are a Holy Family and a Crucifixion. 

Theodor Rombouts's Five Senses is one of the 
most famous pictures in the gallery. Every one of 
the figures around the table is splendidly treated: 
the old man on the right adjusting his spectacles 
and holding a mirror is sight; a young man beside 
him, beautifully dressed and playing the guitar, is 
hearing; a sort of Bacchus, with tiger skin thrown 
over his body, a glass in one hand and a bottle of 

Hntwerp 237 

wine In the other, is taste; a blind old man feeling 
a marble bust is touch; and a young man standing 
with a pipe in one hand and a clove of garlic in 
the other is svicll. In the foreground, are melons, 
onions, bread, musical instruments ; and a building 
with columns, partly covered by a curtain, occupies 
the background. On the left, is a tree trunk. 

Like his master Janssens, and fellow-pupil Se- 
ghers, Rombouts was behind the times : he strug- 
gled against the tendencies inaugurated by Rubens, 
and yet sometimes he was influenced in spite of 
himself by the methods he professed to combat. 
The Dream of St. Joseph, when closely studied, 
shows that this master was hesitating and weak in 
his art faith. The angel that appears to the sleep- 
ing saint to warn him that it is time to flee from the 
persecution of Herod is inspired by the Itahan in- 
fluence; it has dash, and shines with a vital and 
agitated grace. The lower part of the composition 
is more vulgar, and the style is that of the common 
Antwerp school. However, the painting is quite 
broadly and freely done. Descamps says in his 
Voyage pittoresqiie, that it is correct in drawing, 
well composed, well coloured and has ease and 
strength in its execution. Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
who saw this picture when it was the altar-piece of 
the Dominican church in Ghent, wrote in his note- 

238 Ubc Hrt of tbe Belgian (Galleries 

" St. Joseph Advertised by an Angel, by Rom- 
bouts. The Angel is an upright figure and treads 
on the air with great grace ; his countenance is like- 
wise beautiful, as is that also of the Virgin." 

In this picture, the St. Joseph has fallen asleep 
and before him stands an angel in white satin robes 
bidding him take flight into Egypt. On the left, 
the Virgin is seated with the Holy Child on her 
lap and angels with baskets of flowers bear them 
company. Other angels scatter flowers from the 

A curious work by the same painter shows the 
bust of a man whose right shoulder is bare. He 
wears a rose-coloured silk cap adorned with a blue 
plume and in one hand holds a lighted pipe and in 
the other a glass of beer. 

Rombouts's mythological pictures are rare. His 
Themis, or Allegory of Justice, was painted for the 
decoration of the Hall of Justice of the Hotel de 
Ville, Ghent, in 1635. Themis is seated on a 
throne surrounded by judges whose decisions she 
inspires. Four figures, representing the four quar- 
ters of the world, and other symbolic personages, 
respectfully listen to her decrees and seem to render 
homage to her infallible wisdom. It is warm in 
colour and broad in drawing and composition. 

Nicholas de Liemaeckere (called Roose) is rep- 
resented here by eight works: The Trinity; a 

G. DE 


Plate XXXII 
{See page 302) 

Palais des 






Hntwerp 239 

Bust of Christ with the Cross on his shoulder; a 
Bust of Christ Crowned with Thorns ; the Apotheo- 
sis of the Virgin; St. Bernard praying before a 
Crucifix ; St. Norbert, with a cross in one hand and 
a ring in the other; and two Holy Families. 

The scene of one Holy Family is laid in a land- 
scape. St. Anne is presenting an apple to the Child 
and little St. John has a parrot for him. St. Joseph 
is near the latter. Two angels on the right scatter 
flowers on the Holy Child. 

The other Holy Family represents the Virgin as 
seated on the left with Jesus in her arms. With 
her right hand she offers him a bunch of grapes 
from a dish of fruit on the edge of which a parrot 
is perched. The dish rests on a basket of fruit and 
around it are melons, grapes and pears. In the 
centre an angel with his arms full of flowers is 
running to offer a lily to Jesus, and St. Joseph 
hands a pear to Him across the Virgin's shoulder. 
A pear-tree and a rose-hedge are decorative ob- 
jects behind the group, and in the background we 
see a church and houses. In the foreground there 
is a flower bed in which tulips are conspicuous. 

Rubens's St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata 
shows the- ecstatic saint kneeling full face by a rock 
and receiving the stigmata from a winged cross, 
which appears in the clouds on the left. Behind the 
rocks, a monk lifts his right hand and regards the 

240 Ube Hrt of tbe BelGtan (Ballertes 

cross. In the foreground plants creep over the 
rocks and around the trunk of a tree; and before 
the saint are an open book and a death's head. 
Mountains are seen in the distance. 

The Holy Family by Martin de Vos the Elder is 
dated 1585. The Holy Child is seated on His 
mother's lap and holds in one hand a grape from a 
bunch held by the Virgin. He seems to want to 
hand it through St. Anne to little St. John, by 
whose side a lamb is lying. The picture is filled 
with a number of other figures and incidents, and 
far away in the distance the Visit to Elizabeth is 

St. Sebastian Consoled by Angels after his Mar- 
tyrdom by Peter Thys the Elder shows the Saint 
lying under a tree. Angels are beside him untying 
the cords and withdrawing the arrows. Two an- 
gels are bringing from the sky the crown and palm 
of martyrdom. 

The same painter may be studied in a Temptation 
of St. Anthony and a Conversion of St. Hubert. 
The latter contemplates the stag with the crucifix 
between his horns. 

Passing to another conversion, we find a very 
different work in the Conversion of St. Matthew 
by Jan Van Hemissen. St. Matthew is standing 
behind a counter in a splendid hall. Turned 
towards the left, he has crossed his hands on his 

antwerp 241 

breast and is looking at Christ, who is in the fore- 
ground among a group of men. A scribe is busy 
near St. Matthew; and other people are counting 
money and occupied with papers. 

The visitor cannot fail to notice Frans Pourbus 
the Elder's large triptych with twenty-two scenes 
from the life of Christ, and which contains on the 
back a representation of the Last Supper. The 
same artist has another large work, Isaiah Predict- 
ing to Hezekiah his Recovery, with the miracle of 
the sun for the central panel; and, on the wings, a 
Crucifixion and the Donor, the Abbot del Rio. The 
Raising of Lazarus is represented on the reverse in 

Of Jordaens's three works, St. Ambrose, The 
Reconciliation, and Woman Taken in Adultery, the 
second is the only one hard to understand. The 
subject is taken from the fifth chapter of St. Mat- 
thew. Two men are embracing before they ap- 
proach the altar, on which is burning a lamp and 
where the High Priest stands with censer in hand 
to bless them. An acolyte with a taper stands on 
either side of the altar. Many people are bringing 
offerings of pigeons, chickens and sheep. 

Another religious work of importance is the 
Vision of St. Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, by Theo- 
door Boeyermans. The saint is kneeling in ecstasy, 
supported by an angel, and receiving a heart from 

242 Ubc Hrt ot tbe JBelgtan Oallertes 

Christ, who is descending from a cloud. On the 
right, is a kneehng CarmeHte martyr, and behind 
him St. Theresa with a crucifix in one hand and a 
heart in the other hand. God the Father, the Holy 
Spirit, a group of angels and the Virgin are 


The Last Judgment by Raphael Van Coxie 
shows Christ seated on a rainbow, extending his 
right arm. On His left is the Virgin, on His right, 
St. John and around them are many saints. Below 
the rainbow, two angels are each holding an open 
book. On the left, are the Elect looking to Christ; 
on the right, the Damned being strangled by ser- 
pents and demons. St. Michael is seen in the back- 
ground. It is said that the painter has depicted 
himself in the midst of the Elect, wearing a green 
hat, with his profile turned to the right. 

The characteristics of Verhaegen — bold execu- 
tion and brilliant colour — ■ are shown in his Pres- 
entation in the Temple, painted in 1767. Simon, 
in pontifical robes, at the left of the altar offers the 
Infant Jesus to God. Mary and Joseph are in front 
of him and Anne and Joachim a little to the left. 
An old scribe is writing the name of the Child in 
a book supported by another old man. Choir-boys 
with lighted candles, two women, one carrying a 
child, and children playing with pigeons, are to be 
noted among the groups. In the background are 

Hntwerp 243 

seen rich columns, the temple walls, golden vessels 
and a green curtain. 

Among the other devotional pictures we should 


Martin Van Heemskerk's Calvary and a Christ 
Crowned with Thorns and attended by two angels ; 
Van Den Avont's Holy Family in a landscape, with 
rocks and distant mountains and angels bringing 
fruits and a lamb ; Van den Heuvel's Adoration of 
the Shepherds; Jan Janssens's Annunciation; and 
Gossaert's Ecce Homo. 

Two interesting works in which Nature is of 
more importance than the incidents are by Lucas 
Achtschelling, an early painter of landscapes. One 
represents a mountainous background and a sunken 
road where Christ and two disciples are walking 
to Emmaus. On the left by a river two shepherds 
tend their flocks. A mountainous background, a 
river and a grotto furnish the setting for the other 
in which the kneeling St. Benoit receives a basket, 
which is lowered to him by a rope from another 
monk. Near St. Benoit a demon is seen, taking 

Pieter Neeffs's talent for depicting the reflection 
of artificial light is seen to advantage in The De- 
liverance of Peter, in a subterranean prison with 
heavy pillars, lighted by lamps and by a fire on the 
left. Among the sleeping prisoners attached to the 

244 XTbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

columns by chains is St. Peter, who is being de- 
livered by an angel. Lances and arms are placed 
against the walls and columns, and two soldiers on 
the right are asleep at a table. 

An interesting work by the now rare Wouter 
Knyf, a native of Haarlem, and famous for his 
views of towns, is a view of a town on the border 
of a river. Houses and castles with towers and 
drawbridges are represented and also boats of vari- 
ous kinds. Many figures enliven the scene. 

Here we also find the masterpiece of Frans 
Duchatel. Every one who has seen this picture is 
at a loss to explain how it is that its painter holds 
so small a place in the books devoted to Flemish 
art. It is an enormous picture, about twenty feet, 
depicting with perfect accuracy the ceremony of the 
Inauguration of the King of Spain, Charles II, as 
Count of Flanders and Duke of Brabant. This 
festival took place in Ghent on the Place du Ven- 
dredi on May 2, 1666. Charles, who was only a 
child, does not appear in Duchatel's picture. He is 
represented by the Marquis Francesco of Castel- 
Rodrigo, governor and captain-general of the Neth- 
erlands and Burgundy. After the Marquis come 
the bishops of Bruges and Ypres, the high clergy 
of the good cities of Flanders, the kings of arms, 
the flower of the nobility, the chiefs of the city 
guards and the burgomasters, bailiffs, aldermen and 

Hntwetp 245 

recorders of those old municipal associations, which 
even in the Seventeenth Century preserved so much 
vitality and importance. Around these personages, 
who are nearly all historical portraits, and among 
the doyens of these guilds and corporations of 
workmen and artists is grouped a crowd of the 
curious attracted by the solemnity of the spectacle. 
In the midst of these is a modest painter, Frans 
Duchatel himself, holding in his hand a roll of 
paper on which you can read his name and the date 
1668, a valuable detail, because it proves that this 
work, whose execution might easily have taken ten 
years of work, was accomplished in less than twenty 

*' This great picture is one of the cleverest works 
of the Flemish school. In the arrangement of 
these groups, collected without confusion and com- 
bined without disorder, you feel the natural swarm- 
ing of an active and joyous crowd. Each person 
separately considered is a portrait and it is evident 
that Duchatel painted from models. The heads 
softly-lighted have character; the horses, the arms, 
the clothes, the accessories, the platform decorated 
with bright colours for the ceremony, and even the 
houses with their peaked gables that surround the 
scene, all are treated with great spirit and with a 
brush that is purely Flemish. The colours are 
vigorous and warm and, whether studied as a whole 

246 Ube Hrt ot tbe JSelgtan (Galleries 

or in detail, whether examined from far or near, 
the vital picture impresses the eye as a free, virile 
and striking work." ^ 

Among the portraits of interest is one by Frans 
Hals, dated 1640, and Van Dyck's Portrait of a 
Man in mantle and ruff with a beautifully painted 
ring on his little finger. 

■ Pieter Brueghel's Wedding Feast is an interest- 
ing picture of contemporary manners and customs. 
In a country house a group of guests are seated 
around a table, the bride in the centre, dressed in 
black with a yellow collar. Behind her, on a gray 
curtain, two crowns are hung. The scene is en- 
livened by musicians and servants in more or less 
bright costumes. 

Two interiors of a church by Henri Van der 
Vliet are interesting studies of their class. A View 
of a Garden with Animals, cocks, rabbits, a par- 
rot and a peacock, by David De Koninck, and a 
Landscape by Asselyn should be noticed and also 
two mythological works by Richard Van Orley. 
One of these represents the Transformation of the 
Pierides — the nine sisters who defied the Muses 
— into magpies. In this there is an allegorical 
figure of the river that falls into cascades in the 
foreground. The other work depicts Juno placing 
the eyes of Argus in the tail of a peacock. The 

* Paul Mantz. 



iSee page 336) 

Palais des 






Hntwerp 247 

goddess is seated in a beautiful landscape with her 
nymphs; Iris descends from the sky; the dead 
body of Argus lies in the foreground; Mercury 
takes flight to Olympus ; and the cow lo escapes on 
the left. 

The Ghent gallery is rich in still-life. Of the 
first order is Adriaen van Utrecht's Fishmonger's 
Shop, which appropriately ornamented the chim- 
ney-piece in the kitchen of the Abbey of St. Pierre, 

The shop is filled with fish of many kinds — on 
the walls, on the tables, in baskets and in kegs. 
Towards the left is the shopkeeper, with a knife 
in one hand and a slice of fish in the other, talking 
to his wife. A young thief takes advantage of this 
moment to run away with the purse. The sea is 
seen in the distance. 

** This picture is a masterpiece," says Paul 
Mantz. " The Flemish brush has never rendered 
with more sympathy, and, at the same time, breadth, 
the rude envelope of the lobster, the amusing de- 
formity of the crab and the silvery scales of the 
fish. And what solid and faithful execution! 
What care in every detail! What masterly free- 
dom in the whole ! " 

From this picture, we may turn to a splendid 
still life group by J. Van Es (or Van Essen), who 
very nearly equalled Van Utrecht in depicting lob- 

248 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

sters, oysters and other shell-fish, while his exquis- 
ite treatment of fruits gave hiin the name of the 
*' Flemish Heda." The table is temptingly set with 
a dish of oysters with two lemons by its side; a 
pepper-cruet; a terra cotta jug; a glass with a gold 
foot; a dish of white and red grapes; a golden 
vase; a bowl of pears, apricots, plums and hazel- 
nuts; a plate of olives; and two enormous dishes 
of pastry and cakes. 

The fine example of Heda here, so much admired 
by Burger, represents a table covered with pewter 
plates, glasses and a pewter mug, which is upset. 
On the plates are olives, the remains of some pies, 
a lemon and some hazel-nuts. In the background, 
you see a landscape, with buildings, a waterfall and 
distant mountains. 

Very similar is the picture by Cornelis Mahy (or 
Mahu), in which the same objects are arranged on 
the table, in nearly the same order. 

Another appetizing table by Frans Ykens is 
spread with a w^hite cloth and dishes containing the 
remains of a dessert. On one plate are two lemons 
and a knife, and behind it a glass half filled with 
wine ; there are also a pew^ter mug ; a bowl of nuts ; 
and a dish with cheese standing in front of a Vene- 
tian glass. 

Peter Boel's Dead Game is an excellent example 
of the work of Snyders's favourite pupil. In a 

Bntwerp 249 

lovely landscape, with mountains in the distance, is 
a grove of trees on the left, and on one of these is 
suspended a dead hare. Beside it a heron is lying 
and scattered about the ground are partridges, 
woodcocks, a duck, and some little birds. 

Among the other still life pictures let us glance 
at one by J. Speeckaert, representing some peaches, 
plums, cherries, etc., and a basket of flowers on the 
rail of a balustrade ; Fruits and Flowers by Joseph- 
ine de Noter, also containing a bird's nest; Flowers 
and Fruits by Adrienne Jeanne Haanen; Flowers 
by Henri Robbe, consisting of six roses, two lilies 
and a peony; and a very elaborate picture by Jan 
Robie, showing a table set with fish, lobsters, arti- 
chokes, a plate with lemons (one partly peeled), 
and, on a carved sideboard, a dish of strawberries 
and a vase of flowers. 

Among the works of the Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth Centuries we may cite J. B. De Roy's Sun- 
rise, a landscape with animals; Joseph Paelinck's 
Judgment of Paris and his Juno ; another Juno by 
J. B. Maes-Canini; a Landscape by P. L. Kindt; 
a winter scene by Josse Sacre.; a view of Ghent in 
winter, by P. F. De Noter; a landscape near Cour- 
trai and a Landscape in Stormy Weather by J. B. 
De Jonghe; two Italian landscapes by Edouard 
Devigne; a landscape with animals by E. Ver- 
boeckhoven; Fishermen Casting their Nets by 

250 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belalan Galleries 

Moonlight, by L. De Winter; a landscape by 
Lamoriniere ; the Morning after a Shipwreck by 
P. J. Clays; Nicaise de Keyser's Massacre of the 
Innocents; Landscape with Animals by P. X. De 
Cock; the Fisherman's Widow by H. J. Bource; 
F. De Braekeleer's Bats, where the whole house- 
hold is in a state of excitement because two bats 
have managed to get in; La Queteuse by G. L. De 
Jonghe; Hermaphroditus and the Nymph Salma- 
cis, the latter crowned with flowers and kneeling 
on the border of a stream with her right hand on 
the shoulder of the young man, by Navez, who is 
also represented by Virgil reading the ^neid in 
the presence of Augustus; the Harp Lesson, by 
Joseph Geirnaert; Chess, by J. J. Eeckhout; Hebe, 
by Charles Picque; Flora, by Victor De La Croix; 
The Saviour and the Pharisees, by Louis Gallait; 
a Landscape, by H. D. Verbeeck ; Noah Leaving the 
Ark, by Jean Bataille; Landscape, by Rosseels; 
Mother Bathing her Child in the Sea, by Zorn ; The 
Little Painter, by Verhas; Bulls Fighting, by A. 
Verwee; and Cows by Xavier de Cock. 

Louvain — The Museum 

The H6tel-de-Ville of Louvain is one of the most 
beautiful town-halls in Belgium, a rich example of 
late Gothic architecture built by Matthew de Lay- 
ens between 1447 and 1463. The fagades are lav- 

Bntwerp 251 

ishly embellished with statues of persons prominent 
in the history of Louvain, and decorated with carv- 
ings from the Old and New Testament. 

The interior is somewhat disappointing; but the 
Salle Gothique has a finely carved ceiling and is 
adorned with pictures representing local events and 
portraits of eminent citizens. 

The Museum on the second floor contains civic 
antiquities and a few paintings. 

Of the Flemish School of the Fifteenth Century 
there is one representing Christ in the Arms of God 
the Father. The latter, in a red robe and crowned, 
holds the naked Christ. Below, two angels in 
white hold the ends of the winding sheet and two 
others hover above with the instruments of the 

Cornelis de Vos's two wings of a triptych show 
on the left the donor, Kinschodt, in a black costume, 
kneeling before a Prie-Dieu, accompanied by his 
four sons ; and on the right a similar picture of 
his wife, kneeling with her five daughters. 

There is also here a picture by De Craeyer of an 
Angel presenting to Christ two little boys and a 
little girl. 

The works of Jan Van Rillaert seen here are 
somewhat in the style of Bernard Van Orley. The 
chief of these are two wings of a triptych — the 
Fall of Simon the Magician and The Defeat of the 

252 Ube Hrt ot tbe 3Bel(3lan Galleries 

Mohammedans (or, rather, The Conversion of St. 
Paul). The first depicts an assemblage of lords in 
a landscape, all in brilliant costumes, some standing 
and some sitting, looking at the magician and 
demon in the air. In the middle distance there are 
ladies on white horses with pages holding the 
bridles. On the reverse is a picture of St. Margaret, 
who is seated in a church turned three-quarters 
towards the dragon coiled at her feet. The saint 
is attired in a green robe with pink sleeves. Christ 
appears to her in a cloud. 

In the second picture, St. Paul is lying under his 
horse; and Christ appears above in a cloud. On 
the purse of a man conspicuous on account of his 
red cap, the painter's monogram appears. On the 
reverse is the Deliverance of St. Peter, who is in 
the prison where the soldiers are sleeping on the 
right in the background, and the angel in a rose 
coloured tunic stands in the centre. 

The Beheading of St. Catherine, with Calvary 
on the reverse, and The Miracle of the Fish and 
On the Way to Calvary on the reverse are two other 
panels by this famous Louvain painter. 

Here we find three works by Verhaegen : Moses 
brought before the daughter of Pharaoh, a Trans- 
figuration, and an Adoration of the Magi. The 
latter was painted in 1780, for Maria Theresa, and 
is one of the most important works of this artist. 

Hntwerp 253 

Tournai — The Municipal Picture Gallery 

In the centre of the town, on the triangular 
Grand' Place, is situated the old Cloth Hall (Halle 
aiix Draps), a Renaissance building of 1710, which 
has been restored. In 1890, the Municipal Picture 
Gallery, containing more than 400 works of art, 
was placed in the first floor. 

The works attributed to the early masters are not 
satisfactorily authenticated; but there are several 
interesting works of masters of the Seventeenth 
and Eighteenth Centuries. 

Attributed to Hugo Van der Goes is St. John 
Preaching, in which the saint, in a violet tunic and 
aureole over his head, stands in a pulpit in a land- 
scape, surrounded by numerous hearers grouped on 
the right. 

Another work is attributed to Mabuse, represent- 
ing St. Donatian, clothed in a rich dalmatic and 
carrying a cross in his hand. Before him is his 
symbol, a wheel with lighted candles. 

A Descent from the Cross is attributed to Roger 
Van der Weyden. The background is gold. The 
body of Christ is supported on the left by Joseph 
of Arimathea; the Virgin, in gray, stands in the 
middle distance, with St. John in a red cloak; and 
a saintly woman is on the right. 

A portrait of John, Duke of Burgundy, is of the 

254 XTbe Hrt ot tbe JSelgtan (Galleries 

French School of the Sixteenth Century. His eyes 
are lowered and he wears a black costume with fur 
collar and a black cap. The background is green. 

Among the other notable works are a Crucifixion 
by Velvet Brueghel; three portraits by Van Oost; 
Interior of an Inn, by Adriaen Van Ostade; a 
Tavern Scene, by Adriaen Brouwer; a still life by 
Jan Van Son; another still life by Adriaenssens, 
painted in 1642; a family scene, by Van Dalen, 
where a lady is playing the clavecin while her hus- 
band turns the music for her, and a little girl and 
a little boy amuse themselves in the foreground 
with a caged bird. 

Another family scene by Theodore Van Thulden 
represents a group on a fine portico : a young 
woman in a red skirt and black bodice with a little 
girl in white by her side; an old lady in a green 
dress and yellow cloak with jewels in her hands; 
and near her a man who holds the hand of a little 
boy in gray. 

Among the portraits, that of the Archbishop of 
Cambrai, by Hyacinthe Rigaud y Ros deserves 
notice. The subject is seated, and wears a blue sur- 
plice lined with red and a blue collar. His right 
hand holds a book, and his left is placed on his 
breast. A yellow drapery is looped on the right. 

An equestrian portrait of Louis XIV by Lebrun 
shows the King on a light yellow horse that rears 



Plate XXXIV 
iSee page 335) 

Palais des 



boston university 
cjollegf: of liberal arts 


Hntwerp 255 

towards the right. He wears a doublet of blue 
trimmed with red braid, a hat ornamented with red 
plumes, long black boots, and holds a whip in his 
right hand. Horsemen are seen on the right of 
the landscape background. 

A Proposal of Love is in Watteau's characteristic 
style. A charmingly dressed young woman is 
seated under a tree and by her side a young man 
in brown. Cupid hovers over their heads regard- 
ing them with interest. There are groups of other 
lovers in the shrubbery of the background. 

Louis Watteau's Flemish Kermesse, Inn Scene 
and Dispute of Soldiers are also interesting pic- 

One of Louis Gallait's most famous works, The 
Severed Heads, hangs here, called also the Last 
Honours Paid to the Remains of Count Egmont 
and Count Horn by the Grand Serment of Brus- 
sels. The two bodies are lying on a stretcher, 
covered with a black velvet pall, on which is placed 
a silver crucifix. The heads are lying on a white 
pillow stained with blood, and clots of blood hang 
on the beards and hair. On the right stands a 
lord, in black velvet doublet with yellow sleeves, 
a red scarf across his breast, an arrow in his 
left hand, and a hat in his right, who is look- 
ing at the martyrs with bowed head. He is 
followed by soldiers in red uniforms, carrying 

256 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

standards and pikes. Behind the bodies stands a 
soldier in armour with a yellow scarf across his 
breast and his two hands resting on the hilt of his 
sword ; and on the left, at the head of the stretcher, 
are placed on an altar a crucifix and candles, which 
a monk is lighting. The work is signed and dated 
1 83 1. A reduced copy hangs in the Antwerp 

Gallait is also represented by the Portrait of his 
Mother and Sister; portraits of Louis and Charles 
Haghe, painters of Tournai; and a Portrait of 

The visitor wnll also be interested in Van Sever- 
donck's Defence of Tournay by the Princesse 
d'Epinoy, whose statue in bronze armour and 
wielding a battle-axe, by Dutrieux, stands in the 
Grand' Place in front of this building. 

The archaeological museum is arranged in the 
east and west galleries ; and here we find interesting 
collections of coins, faience, metal-work, ivory carv- 
ings and several illuminated manuscripts, including 
a Roman of the Rose (Fourteenth Century), a 
Book of Hours (Fifteenth Century) and a psalter 
that belonged to Henry VHI of England. 

Ypres — The Museum 

The Museum of Ypres is housed in the Halle de 
la boucherie (Meat Market) in the Marche au 

Hntvverp 257 

beurre nearly opposite the old Cloth Hall. It com- 
prises a collection of antiquities and a gallery of 
old and modern pictures. The most noteworthy 
are the Miracles of St. Benoit by Rubens, and also 
a sketch for a Landscape; a Bacchus by Jordaens; 
some portraits by Van Dyck; a copy of Brueghel's 
Kermesse in Antwerp; a copy of Leonardo da 
Vinci's Christ among the Doctors; and a Conver- 
sion of the Fisherman by Jan Thomas. In this 
work, the painter, who was a native of Ypres, shows 
his love of colour. The Child Jesus is standing on 
a rock held by the Virgin in red and St. Joseph in 
gray, and being adored by the converted fisher- 
men who are gathering around him. Here are also 
a young woman in a black dress and dark red cloak 
and pearls in her light hair, and a lord in a red 
tunic and yellow cloak. In the middle distance are 
seen a young man and the head of an old man. 
On the left in the foreground we see angels, and on 
the right a hedge of roses. 

The Broken Bow, painted by Louis Gallait in 
1850, is perhaps the most famous of the modern 

Mechlin — The Civic Museum 

In the main building of an old Gothic house, 
built in 1529 by Rombout Keldermans for the 
Great Council and situated near the Grand Place 

258 Xlbe Hrt of tbe Belotan Galleries 

the Civic Museum of Mechlin is stored. Here are 
civic antiquities, historical relics of Margaret of 
Austria and a few pictures. The most valuable 
work is a Christ on the Cross by Rubens, especially 
valuable because it is solely the work of his hand. 
It was painted between 1613 and 161 5 at the order 
of The Oratorians of MechHn. The work is re- 
markable for the bluish tints that appear on the 
rosy flesh and the brown shadows around the out- 
lines. Two other works of value are St. Francis 
and a Holy Woman, of the Sienese school, and St. 
Peter with the Keys, an Italian picture of the Six- 
teenth Century. 

Liege — The Municipal Museum 

The Picture-gallery of Liege, consisting of about 
two hundred paintings, is situated in the old Cloth 
Hall, built in 1788, in the Rue Feronstree. Most 
of the works are modern; but there is an interest- 
ing Last Supper by Lambert Lombard. We may 
also note : Orpheus in Hades, by G. de Lairesse ; 
The First Child, by C. Verlat; Landscape by J. 
Rosseels; Landscape by I. Verheyden; Cattle by 
A. Verwee; La Barrier e Noire, by A. D. Knyff; 
Mary of Burgundy entreating the citizens of Ghent 
to Pardon her Ministers in 1477, by E. Wauters; 
a Sad Home Coming, by H. Bource; Murder of 
Burgomaster Larnelle of Liege by the Spaniards, 

Hntwerp 259 

by B. Viellevoye; Washing Turnips, by E. Carpen- 
tier; Cobbler by L. Bokelmann; Pasture by J. H. 
L. De Haas; Landscape in Guelders, by P. J. Ga- 
briel ; and Reading Aloud, by F. Willems. 

Modern French painting is well represented by 
Ingres, Corot, Diaz, Daubigny, Delaroche and 
others ; and there is a good Interior by F. Ziem. A 
copy of Wiertz's Contest for the Body of Patroclus, 
signed Rome, 1836, is also here. 



In the year VIII, when France decided to found 
fifteen departmental museums, Brussels was one of 
the towns selected. The painter, Boschaert, was 
sent to Paris to make a selection of some of the 
pictures that had been carried off by the French 
army; and when the Brussels Museum was opened 
in 1807, the catalogue, arranged by him, numbered 
five hundred works. In 181 1, thirty-one more pic- 
tures were sent from the Louvre, including St. 
Martin, by Jordaens ; June bestowing her Treas- 
ures on Venice, by Paul Veronese; and the Vene- 
tian Senator b}^ Tintoret. Since 1845, when the 
city purchased the gallery, it has grown in impor- 
tance and is now one of the most brilliant chapters 
in the interesting book of Flemish Art. In 1880 
the collection was housed in the new Palais des 
Beaux-Arts, designed by Ballat, an edifice origi- 
nally intended for musical performances as well 
as a gallery for paintings and sculpture ; but which 


Brussels 26i 

is now devoted exclusively to these two branches of 

The style of architecture is classical: the en- 
trance is adorned with four massive granite col-^ 
umns, on the top of which are four colossal statues, 
— Music by Degroot ; Architecture by Samain ; 
Sculpture by W. Geefs; and Painting by Melot. 
Above the three portals are three bronze busts : 
Rubens, by Van Rasbourgh ; Jean de Boulogne, by 
Cuypers; and Jean Van Ruysbroeck, by Boure. 
Two marble bas-reliefs — Industrial Art, by Bru- 
nin, and Music, by Vin(;otte — are placed over the 
windows. In front of each of the wings stands an 
allegorical group in bronze : on the left. Instruction 
in Art, by P. R. Van der Stappen ; and on the right, 
Coronation of x\rt, by P. de Vigne. The Vestibule 
contains bronze busts of the principal Flemish ar- 
tists. The door in the centre leads into the main 
hall, which is devoted to modern Sculpture. 

Passing up the left stairway, at the foot of which 
is a marble group representing the Fall of Babylon, 
by J. A. Ducaju, we reach the Gallery of Old Pic- 
tures that occupies twelve rooms. 

The visitor can study the Primitives and their 
immediate followers to great advantage in this gal- 
lery, which contains some very choice examples of 
their works. 

The two panels of Adam and Eve were the two 

262 ube Hrt ot tbc Belgian Galleries 

extreme wings of Van Eyck's Adoration of the 
Lamb, in St. Baron, Ghent, and were acquired by 
the State in i860. Of these Crowe says : 

^' The attempt to paint the nude figure of the size 
of Hfe, with the most careful attention to minute 
detail, is eminently successful, with the exception of 
a certain degree of hardness in the drawing. Eve 
holds in her right hand the forbidden fruit. In the 
filling up which the shape of the altarpiece made 
necessary over these panels there are small subjects 
in chiaroscuro: over Adam the sacrifice of Cain 
and Abel ; over Eve, the death of Abel — death, 
therefore, as the immediate consequence of original 


Fetis accords to John van Eyck a famous Adora- 
tion of the Magi, which Wauters considers the 
work of Jan Mostaert, and others accord to Gerard 

Under a rude shed, supported by pillars, where 
an ox and ass are conspicuous, the Virgin is seated 
with the Infant on her lap. On her right kneels the 
Magus from the Orient kissing the right arm of the 
child; behind him is St. Joseph, a portly figure. 
Opposite the Virgin kneels the European King in 
a robe of green and red mantle bordered with er- 
mine fastened with an agrafe on his shoulder. He 
is presenting a rich golden vase and behind him 
stands the Ethiopian Magus in green robe and white 

•l Vl <0 




< < cu 



X bio 








• '^isiv'LKsiTy 


^Brussels 263 

turban and holding a vase of carved ivory. Behind 
them stand numerous other persons and in the back- 
ground others are seen on camels or horseback and 
bearing banners. A shepherd and his flock are on 
the eminence beyond the wall and stairs, and a dis- 
tant city and blue mountains are seen in the land- 
scape background, while high in the sky shines the 
star that has guided the travellers. 

The Head of a Weeping Woman is an excellent 
replica of the holy woman, who, in Van der Wey- 
den's masterpiece in the Escorial, sobs beside St. 
John, partly covering her face with her coif. This 
head is a summary of the master's dramatic genius, 
and of his extraordinary power of expression. This 
copy must date from the end of the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury. Moreover, the Virgin with closed eyes, and 
face harmoniously turbaned, who is being supported 
by St. John and Mary Cleophas, is to be recognized 
with the same clothes and in the same fainting con- 
dition in the admirable Descent from the Cross at-, 
tributed to Petrus Christus. 

Let us look at this picture, which is still a bone 
of contention among modern critics. '' The Flem- 
ish Fifteenth Century can count few works so noble 
and harmoniously moving as this. The lovely, un- 
dulating landscape is particularly noteworthy. 
Here we find no violence, nothing startling, no ex- 
cessive effects. The simplicity of the composition, 

264 Ubc Htt ot tbe Belgian Oallertes 

the individual importance of the types, the rhyth- 
mic sweetness of the landscape bring the painter 
into close relations with certain Italian masters — 
the female figure on the left evokes the Orientalism 
of Gentile Bellini. The fainting Virgin was surely 
inspired by the Mary created by Roger Van der 
Weyden for his Descent from the Cross. The 
whole work seems to be that of a master who had 
profited by the teachings of Roger, and especially 
of Thierry Bouts uniting the two by the charm of 
a genius full of nobility, gentleness and rhythm, and 
one would be tempted to think of some Italian or 
French disciple of these masters, if in the folds of 
the hills in the background between St. John and 
the man shaved in the Burgundian style we did not 
discover a Flemish village, with pointed roofs, 
massed together, near a crenellated castle." ^ 

The little Pieta, so dramatic and so precious, may 
well have been painted while Memling was working 
in Roger's studio. Four personages are grouped at 
the foot of the cross standing up against a sky il- 
lumined with the setting sun ; their gestures are 
rather angular, but nothing could be more dramatic 
than the attitude of St. John supporting the body 
of Jesus with one hand, and with the other pushing 
away the Virgin to keep her from again kissing her 
Son's face, and thus get fresh food for her grief. 

Brussels 265 

The contours are softer and more bathed in atmos- 
phere than is usual with Roger Van der Weyden. 

The two large pictures by Thierry Bouts, repre- 
senting the Legend of Otho, are of rare interest to 
the student of the Primitives. Critics find fault 
with their dimensions, the Gothic tracery added at 
the top after the picture was finished, the lanky 
forms, bony heads and wooden bodies of all the 
personages. But a great spirit conceived the whole ; 
real sentiments are expressed in the two scenes; 
types of absolute verity are represented in them; 
and they sum up the physiognomy of a whole 
period. With this Legend of Otho, historical and 
monumental painting appear at the same moment 
in Flanders. In the first picture, the Emperor, 
Otho, on his wife's denunciation, has an innocent 
noble decapitated. Behind the wall that encloses 
the royal grounds, the accuser and her husband 
look on at the execution. Flowers spring from the 
blood of the innocent victim, but originally the 
blood flowed from the neck over the ground. 
Plants that hide the bleeding trunk were not painted 
in till early in the Nineteenth Gentury. It is the 
expression of the principal actors that is admirable. 
Although the Emperor is listening to his wife's ac- 
cusations, he is evidently troubled by doubts. The 
Empress is striving to dissipate this disquiet, and 
closely watches Otho's face to mark the effect of 

266 Ubc Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

her lies. The noble marches resolutely to his death, 
turning his back on the sovereign whose advances 
he has repulsed, and exhorting his wife to bear her 
trials courageously. A Franciscan monk accom- 
panying him seems more moved even than the con- 
demned. In the foreground, the work is accom- 
plished. The executioner lays the head in a cloth 
in the hands of the kneeling widow, whose sobs and 
tears have given way to an expression of immutable 

In the second panel, the widow undergoes the 
Trial by Fire (with red hot iron), and establishes 
her husband's innocence. As reparation for his un- 
just sentence, Otho condemns the Empress to the 
flames. The Emperor, irresolute, kind and full of 
remorse, forms a fine contrast with the energetic 
woman kneeling before him. 

" The courtiers manifest their astonishment and 
emotion, whilst in the first panel, the magistrates 
assembled at the execution show no feeling. But 
how real and significant these bourgeois of Lou- 
vain are; and how everything of their period and 
their race is expressed in them ! The same may be 
said of the nobles and ascetic chancellors assembled 
in the second panel. Even the grouping of these 
lords and bourgeois is new in character, and re- 
minds us of the figure disposition of certain quat- 
trocentist frescoes. As for the stake scene in the 

Brussels 267 

second panel, in its minute proportions it is treated 
with a lightness, one might be almost tempted to 
say a humour, that comes as a charming surprise 
in this austere work of art : it is almost Nineteenth 
Century genre painting. The colouring of these 
pictures merits close attention, — the second espe- 
cially, where the king's scarlet robe, the green sur- 
coat and red hose of the youth leaning on his cane, 
the carmine robe of the widow, the rich clothes of 
the courtier behind her, the beautiful pavement, the 
sombre marbles of the throne, and the clear land- 
scape of the background form a rich and grave 
harmony not quite so strong as that of John Van 
Eyck, but perhaps more subtle and more penetrated 
with vivid and expressive light." ^ 

To see Memling adequately, we must go to 
Bruges and Antwerp, for in this gallery we have 
a few comparatively unimportant works. 

Two panel portraits of William Moreel, grocer 
and burgomaster of Bruges in 1478 and 1483, and 
of his wife, Barbara Van Vlaenderberch, face each 
other with their hands joined in prayer; and be- 
tween the columns of each picture a beautiful land- 
scape is seen. The hands in each portrait are par- 
ticularly fine. 

The hands are also noticeable in the portrait of 
a man said to be Nicholas Strozzi. 

' Fierens-Gevaert. 

268 Zbc Hrt of tbe ^Belgian (Balleries 

The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, supposed by 
Wauters to have been executed for the Guild of 
Archers in Bruges, is also attributed to Thierry 
Bouts. The saint is tied to a tree in the foreground 
and two archers are aiming at him from the front. 
The landscape background is very fine. 

To Jan Joest, or the Master of the Death of the 
Virgin, is attributed a Holy Family which is sin- 
gular in the fact that St. Anne occupies the place 
of honour and holds the Child on her lap. On her 
left sits the Virgin, and on her right St. Joseph, and 
on either side of the porphyry columns of her 
throne a delicate landscape is seen. On one side 
there is a castle on the bank of a river and on the 
other a simpler house with a tower on the hills. 

The great triptych. The Legend of St. Anne, 
ordered by the Brotherhood of St. Anne of Lou- 
vain for their chapel in St. Peter's church, was 
carried off to Paris in 1794 and restored to St. 
Peter's in 181 5. In 1879, the Brussels Gallery pur- 
chased it for 200,000 francs. 

In the central picture, the characters are grouped 
at the entrance of a portico through the three 
arches of which is seen the distant landscape. 
In the centre, are sitting the Virgin and St. Anne 
with the Infant Jesus between them, the latter 
holding a bullfinch by a red string. St. Anne is 
offering some grapes to the Child. On the Vir- 

Brussels 269 

gin's right is seated Mary Cleophas with her chil- 
dren; and on the left of St. Anne Mary Salome 
with her two sons; leaning over the balustrade, in 
the left compartment, are St. Joseph and Alpheus; 
and in the corresponding one are Joachim and Zeb- 

The left wing has for its subject the Annuncia- 
tion of the birth of the Virgin ; and, on the reverse, 
the offerings and donations of St. Anne and 
Joachim at the entrance of the temple; the right 
wing depicts the death of St. Anne, and on the 
reverse the refusal of Joachim's offering, in which 
the donor of the picture is represented in the cos- 
tume of the period. 

This is the earliest known work of the artist and 
was painted two years before the famous triptych 
in the Antwerp Gallery. It is supposed that 
Joachim Patenier aided with the landscape back- 
ground in the central panel. When the picture was 
restored in 1864, it was discovered that it was 
painted in distemper, touched with oil in the shad- 
ows, and the whole covered with a varnish of white 

The Last Judgment by Floris is a triptych in 
which the terrors are displayed in a similar manner 
to those of other masters. Christ, surrounded by 
cherubs, is seated on the animal tetramorph that 
represents the Four Evangelists. Above Him, an- 

270 TLbc Btt Of tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

gels bear the instruments of the Passion; to right 
and left the Patriarchs are ranged on the clouds, 
like a celestial conclave. Lower down, God's mes- 
sengers sound their trumpets, the dead spring from 
the tomb, and the earth is covered with their innu- 
merable ranks. 

*' This painting is well co-ordinated ; the space 
is harmoniously filled with the various personages, 
but there is no feature nor striking merit to chain 
the attention and reveal a superior man. The cen- 
tral picture contains only two interesting groups; 
the subject of one is the painter's own resurrection. 
Time raises the stone of his tomb, and Floris mounts 
from the bosom of the abyss, looking at the spec- 
tator. It is an excellent portrait, with facial char- 
acteristics that betray the brutal passions that ruined 
his life. Facing these two figures are a devil and a 
condemned soul : the devil has chained together the 
hands of the latter; and, lifting him by the chain 
and one leg, is casting him head downwards into the 
everlasting gulf. Horror is well depicted on the 
sufferer's face. The condemned about him are ter- 
rified at his punishment, and the agony expressed in 
their faces renders the scene more dramatic. The 
right wing presents a similar spectacle, showing the 
vestibule of Hell. Those banished from Heaven are 
falling into it in strange postures learnedly con- 
ceived. The strength of design and vigour of ex- 



"> «o 































boston universitv 
college: of liberal arts 


J5ru50el5 271 

pression denote uncommon ability. The principal 
group contains a lost soul suspended by an iron 
chain by the neck, to which he clings to lessen the 
weight of his body; a demon holds one end of 
the chain while another demon lifts the criminal by 
the feet and balances him over the dreadful open- 

" The left wing, which represents the ascension of 
the elect, satisfies neither the mind nor the eyes. 
In order to treat this well, gentle, poetic and con- 
templative feelings were requisite, and these the 
painter did not possess : calm and grace were lack- 
ing in a coarse drunkard. Heaven appeared to him 
in crimson waves of old wine, and he sought hap- 
piness in the dreams of drunkenness," ^ 

The art of Albert Bouts can be studied here in 
its different aspects — in two Assumptions, the Last 
Supper, Jesus at the House of Simon the Pharisee 
and St. Jerome. In the Assumption the bluish 
tones dominate and the heads are unpleasing, but 
the painting of the wings is more sympathetic and 
in a higher key. The landscape, with its combina- 
tion of local elements and bluish- distances in which 
the influence of the south is felt, is truly remark- 
able. The painter has depicted the donor kneeling 
in the left wing with his wife Elizabeth of Nau- 
snydere. The kneeling figure in the other wing 

^ Michiels. 

272 xibe Hrt of tbe JSelaian Oallertes 

is supposed to be the painter's maternal uncle Henri 
Van der Bruggen, called Mettengelde, who was also 
his tutor. The second Assumption is a replica. 

On comparing the Last Supper with the Last 
Supper of Thierry Bouts (probably a reduced copy 
of his picture in St. Peter's Louvain), the distance 
that separated father from son will be appreciated. 
The arrangement of the apostles at the table is the 
same, but there are grimaces on the faces. In 
every other respect the faces conform to the con- 
ventional type. The accessories are finely treated 
and also the clothing and w^e must note the novel 
arrangement of the folds of the table cloth. An- 
other feature that should be observed is the chim- 
ney-piece in the background : in place of the funnel 
shaped chimney-piece of the ancient Flemish type 
that occurs in his father's work Albert has a carved 
one that proves his admiration for the new style of 
decoration that was being introduced from Italy. 

The small picture of Jesus in the House of 
Simon the Pharisee is painted with a surer touch. 
The flesh is well modelled and the young man 
standing on the left is very Italian in appearance 
and costume. The landscape seen in the distance 
between the columns on the right under the light 
of dawn or sunset is indicated wnth delicacy. In 
St. Jerome there is a suggestion of the Van Eyck 

JStUSSelS 273 

Note the little crucifix painted with such delicacy 
of touch. 

Lancelot Blondeel's St. Peter is seated in pontif- 
ical robes on a golden throne, holding the cross in 
his right and the keys in his left hand, while behind 
the throne a fine landscape is visible with rocks on 
one side and a feudal manor house on the other. 

" The Brussels Gallery makes us acquainted with 
a much neglected painter of uncertain name, desig- 
nated by sobriquets — in Flanders as Herri de 
Bles or de Blesse, the " man with the tuft " on ac- 
count of the tuft of white hair he wore in front of 
his head, and, in Italy, as '' Civetta/ because he used 
the emblem of an owl instead of his signature. The 
Temptation of St. Anthony by this Herri de Bles 
is a most unexpected work with its bottle green and 
blackish green landscape, its bituminous earth, its 
high mountains on the horizon, its sky of light Prus- 
sian blue, its audacious and ingenious masses of 
colour, the terrible black that shadows the nude 
figures and its chiaroscuro so boldly obtained from 
the clear sky. This enigmatical picture, which 
smells of Italy and announces the landscapes of 
Breughel and Rubens, reveals a skilful painter and 
a man impatiently in advance of his time." ^ St. 
Anthony is seated on a mound at the entrance of 
a rude hut built between two trees; two naked fe- 

^ Fromentin, 

274 XTbe Hrt of tbe Belgian Oallertes 

male figures on his left present him with a dish on 
which is a fantastic little figure; and near them is 
an old sorceress dressed in red. The whole work 
is filled with indescribable monsters. In the back- 
ground there is a chapel between a high rock and 
a river where there are some bathers. 

The Last Supper formerly attributed to Lambert 
Lombard is now given to Peter Coeck of Alost. It 
bears the date of 1531, and represents Christ in a 
gray robe and seated in the centre of the table be- 
fore an open window showing a charming land- 
scape supposed to represent Jesus entering Jerusa- 
lem. In the foreground, Judas in yellow robe and 
green mantle, rises from his stool, with a purse in 
his left hand. A basket of fruit stands on a table 
on the right and one on the floor on the left and 
two dogs are noticeable in the foreground. On the 
wall are two medallions in grisaille and above the 
window a delicate painting on glass representing 
Adam and Eve in Paradise. 

The works of Michael Coxie in the Brussels 
Gallery give the spectator perhaps a higher opinion 
of him than those in Antwerp. In the Crown of 
Thorns Christ seated in the centre and draped with 
much elegance endures the tortures of his enemies, 
with an expression of deepest grief. His persecu- 
tors are grouped around him in an ingenious man- 
ner, offering him the crown of thorns and the bur- 

Brussels 275 

lesque sceptre, with jests, grimaces and laughter, 
and one of the four is about to slap his face. 
Through the arch is seen the sky from which the 
moon slipping through the clouds sheds a melan- 
choly sadness over the scene, and here we also see 
an apparition of God the Father. 

The Last Supper is fortunately, like the above, 
in a state of excellent preservation w4th all its orig- 
inal brightness of colour. The great table is placed 
diagonally in a hall of rich Italian architecture or- 
namented with marble columns, and on the right is 
a dressoir of several stages on which stand splen- 
did articles for the table service and by which stand 
two persons in Sixteenth Century costumes, and 
before it a young boy is pouring wine from a golden 
vase. Christ has a noble and serious head, but his 
nose is peculiar. The four apostles in the right 
hand corner are greatly admired by connoisseurs, 
for the character, nobility and vitality they express. 
The wings of this triptych represent Christ washing 
the Feet of his Apostles and Jesus on the Mount 
of Olives. The picture originally ornamented the 
altar of St. Gudule, Brussels. 

Another triptych was painted like that of De 
Craeyer for the Grand-Serment de I'Arbalete of 
Brussels for their chapel in the Church of the 
Sablon, and on the reverse of the wings devoted to 
the Assumption of the Virgin and the Descent of 

276 Ube Hrt ot the Belgian Galleries 

the Holy Spirit are portraits of the great dignitaries 
of the Corporation. The Virgin is lying on a very 
low couch in a magnificent Italian palace, her hands 
joined and her eyes raised towards the sky. On 
the right is an angel with a palm branch, and around 
her stand the apostles, John on the left being dis- 
tinguished by a head of great originality and vi- 
vacity. Mara, Elizabeth's niece, with a book on 
her knees is praying. At the foot of the bed is a 
little table on which stand a lighted candle, a flagon 
and a basket of fruit. 

Joachim de Patenier, whom Albrecht Diirer 
called such a good painter of landscape, exhibits 
this quality strongly in his Mater Dolorosa, in 
which the Virgin is seated by the cross in the centre 
of the picture, supporting the body of Christ on 
her knees and holding a fragment of the crown of 
thorns. On each side are three medallions repre- 
senting various episodes of sacred history. Mos- 
taert is supposed to have painted the figures. It 
is the landscape, however, with Jerusalem in the 
distance, that claims the chief interest. This is also 
the case with Patenier's other works — St. Jerome, 
kneeling In front of a crucifix with his cardi- 
nal's hat and a lion at his feet while the landscape 
shows a lake and a town ; and the Repose in Egypt, 
a subject that Patenier and his pupils were very fond 
of representing. In the latter, we see Patenier's 

JSrussels 277 

peculiar taste for fantastic hollowed out rocks and 
uneven ground, broken by streams, trees, and moun- 
tains crowned with castles. The Virgin is seated 
with her child in the foreground on the trunk of 
a tree, and in the distance wander the ass and St. 
Joseph, the latter to gather fruit. 

Of Bernard Van Orley there are several works, 
including tw^o wings of an altar-piece representing 
scenes from the life and martyrdom of St. Matthew 
and St. Thomas, the central panel of which is in 
the Imperial Gallery of Vienna. The whole altar- 
piece was originally in the Church of the Sablon of 
Brussels. It is interesting to note that the young 
man behind the executioner of St. Matthew is a 
portrait of Van Orley himself. 

Two pictures of his middle period are the Birth 
of Mary and Joachim in the Temple in which the 
architecture shows much advance and the woman 
with the fine oval face with heavy dark hair parted 
in the middle proves that the painter had been in 

The Trials of Job is painted in the artist's second 
manner, when he was Court Painter to Margaret 
of Austria. The central panel represents a great 
feast of Job's children which takes place in a hall 
of rich architecture with splendidly sculptured col- 
umns of marble and a view of the country is seen 
beyond. The hall is collapsing; the columns are 

278 XTbe Hrt of tbe JSelgtan Galleries 

falling; the people are seeking flight; and at the 
summit are the malicious devils who are presiding 
over the destruction of the hall. On a pillar in the 
foreground is the date 1521 and the painter's name 
with his favourite device : " Elx sijne tijt " 
(" Every one has his day "). 

On the right Job is seen naked and seated on a 
stone, receiving the news of the disaster, and in the 
background we see his house in flames. The left 
wing represents the theft of Job's flocks by the 
Sabeans and the Deity giving Satan permission to 
tempt Job. The right wing depicts Job's three 
friends. The story of Lazarus is described on the 
reverse of these two shutters. 

In his representation of hell in this work 
Van Orley has equalled Bosch and Breughel w^here 
the rich man lying on his death bed has a vision 
of his future punishment and a touch of humour is 
added by a devil in the form of a pig presenting 
to the Rich Man a plate of toads and serpents and 
this butler from Hell has also a napkin over his 

This great work was ordered by Margaret of 
Austria and sent to the Count of Hoogstraeten 
w^ith orders to place it over the chimney in the 
room she occupied when at the Castle of Hoog- 

Two wings from a triptych are also the work of 









^Brussels 279 

Van Orley. One represents the Birth of the Vir- 
gin with the Marriage of St. Anne on the reverse 
and the other the Offering of Joachim Refused, 
with an apparition of Christ to the kneehng Virgin 
on the opposite side. These were once attributed 
to John van Eyck. 

His George de Zelle, a physician, and Guillaume 
de Norman, captain of the whole of Burgundy, vice 
admiral and envoy of Maximilian of Austria and 
of King Philip, are interesting portraits. An un- 
known portrait called the Lady with the Pink, once 
attributed to Garofalo, and now given to Van Or- 
ley, or to his school, will attract the spectator. Her 
light hair is surmounted by a diadem of gold and 
pearls and a kind of black velvet bonnet. Her bod- 
ice is black ornamented with gold embroidery; her 
sleeves blue ; and across her breast is a red drapery. 
On the table before her stands a golden vase into 
which she is about to place a red pink. She is near 
a window, opening upon a landscape in which a 
belfry, a river and mountains appear. 

Modern study and research by great critics daily 
results in changes in the attributed authorship of 
many works of the early masters. Thus the latest 
researches give many pictures to Van Orley that 
were formerly given to others. Among others 
are : 

The Human Calamities, once attributed to Lam- 

280 XTbe Htt ot tbe ^Belgian (Ballertes 

bert Lombard, a Martyrdom of St. Catherine at- 
tributed to the Master of Giistrow; head of an old 
man, attributed to Quentin Massys; a Pieta, with 
Phihppe Haneton, secretary of Charles V, and Mar- 
guerite Numan his wife, with their twelve children 
under the protection of their patron saints, on the 
wings; and the portrait of Dr. George de Zelle; 
the Adoration of the Shepherds (No. 336) and 
the Adoration of the Magi with its wings, once 
attributed to Jan Swart. This picture shows the 
Virgin seated on a stone bench, above which rise 
red marble columns at the side of a ruined arch 
above which is the Star that has guided the kings. 
She holds on her lap the Child before whom the 
kneeling King from Europe presents a golden vase; 
behind him is the Magus from Asia, who also brings 
a golden vase, and on the other side of the picture 
the Ethiopian approaches with a golden vase and 
sceptre with his page holding his robe. Behind the 
Virgin two spectators are contemplating the scene; 
and in the distance is a castle and landscape ani- 
mated by the suite of the Magi. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds (No. 51), long 
attributed to the German School, is now given to 
Jerome Bosch. 

Five works by Conlnxloo are the Birth of St. 
Nicholas, Death of St. Nicholas, Jesus among the 
Doctors, the Marriage of Cana with the Miracle of 

Brussels 28i 

the Loaves on the reverse, and the Apostolic An- 
cestry of St. Anne. 

Another work probably painted by this master is 
a Virgin Enthroned with the Child in her lap, two 
accompanying female saints, and God among clouds 
above the tracery of her superb seat. 

By its style and colours the Parentage of the 
Virgin given to Coninxloo belongs to the School 
of Gossaert and Blondeel. 

The general characteristics of this master — the 
large heavy hands, the oblong ears strongly planted 
upon the cheeks, and the thick full mouth, are also 
found in the legends of St. Benedict, formerly at- 
tributed to Jan Mostaert, and now to the Flemish 

These two panels depict episodes in the life of 
St. Benoit. In a delicately painted landscape St. 
Benoit and the cure of Monte-Preclaro are seated 
before the repast w^hich the latter was ordered by 
heaven to bring to the saint in his retreat. The 
story is told in various episodes in the background. 
In the second panel the various episodes of the 
broken sieve are told, the interior of the kitchen 
with the weeping woman and St. Benoit kneeling 
forming the chief incident and affording a fine pic- 
ture of a Mediaeval kitchen. 

The reverse of these panels represents the Mass 
of St. Gregory; and it is noticeable that the carpet 

282 Ube Hrt ot tbe 3BelGian (Balledes 

of the altar steps is sprinkled with violets and mar- 
guerites, the emblems of Margaret of Austria, to 
whose court the painter was attached. 

The Fall of the Rebel Angels, long attributed to 
" Hell fire " Brueghel then given to Jerome Bosch, 
and now again attributed to Brueghel, represents 
St. Michael and two other angels armed with long 
swords and disguised so that they would not be 
recognized descending into hell and pursuing the 
rebel angels. The whole work is a mingling of 
hideous and grotesque monsters, producing a fan- 
tastic effect. 

Pieter Brueghel the Elder is represented by the 
Census of Bethlehem (of which there is a copy in 
the Antwerp Museum). 

The Massacre of the Innocents by Pieter Brue- 
ghel (called Peasant and also the Droll) is repre- 
sented in a singular manner as taking place in a 
Flemish village in the depths of winter. The 
ground and the pointed roofs of the houses are 
covered with snow, and a small pond in the fore- 
ground is coated with ice. In the centre, a group 
of armed horsemen preside over the bloody execu- 
tion. Soldiers are forcing the doors and climbing 
through the windows ; parents entreating mercy, or 
attempting flight with their children; and, on the 
right, is an inn with a great star for its sign, with 

^Brussels 283 

the inscription '' De is in de Ster," alluding to the 
star that guided the Magi to the Holy Child. 

This is supposed by some authorities to be a copy 
by him of the original by his father in the gallery 
of Vienna. 

Jan Brueghel the Younger (son of Velvet) has 
a fine work entitled Autumn. In the centre before 
a grove of trees Autumn, represented as a young 
girl, is seated. Her hair is blonde, she wears 
a rose coloured tunic clasped with gold, and she 
holds a horn of plenty from which fruits are falling 
upon the ground. Before her stands Diana in a 
blue tunic with her crescent on her head, her quiver 
on her back, her left hand on the head of a grey- 
hound, and a dead hare in her right. On the right 
of Autumn is a child carrying bunches of grapes on 
his shoulders and followed by a goat. The sward 
is brilliant with flowers and the landscape extends 
far in the background revealing the towers of a 
castle among the trees and still farther a vast plain 
traversed by a river. Birds and animals enliven the 

Very different in style is St. 'Norbert, preaching 
against heresy in Antwerp. The saint is standing 
in front of the porch of St. Michael's Church and 
behind him are several monks of the order of Pre- 
montres led by the Archbishop of Magdeburg. St. 

284 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

Norbert is surrounded by a circle of auditors, and 
in the background are seen the Cathedral of Ant- 
werp and several streets. 

Fetis and other authorities give these two pic- 
tures to *' Velvet " Brueghel. 

Although Rubens is not so well represented in 
this gallery as in Antwerp, there are many exam- 
ples of the master that illustrate his versatility. Of 
his early period, we have one of his best versions of 
the Adoration of the Magi; The Madonna of the 
Forget-me-not; The Assumption of the Virgin; 
the Coronation of the Virgin; the Dead Christ; 
and Christ about to Strike the World with Light- 
ning. Ten years later come The Martrydom of St. 
Lievin and Christ Carrying the Cross. Of mytho- 
logical subject we find Juno arranging Argus's eyes 
in the tail of her peacock ; Meleager and Atalanta ; 
and the mutilated Venus at the Forge of Vulcan. 
Among several sketches and studies, Four Heads 
of Negroes is of great importance ; and in portrait- 
ure, the Archduke Albert; Isabella; Jean Charles 
de Cordes; one of the latter's wife; and Portrait 
of a Man. 

The Adoration of the Magi was painted about 
1615 for the altar of the Church of the Capuchins 
in Tournai, and during the last siege of Tournai 
was pierced by a bullet. Carried off to Paris in 
1794, it was returned to Brussels in 1802. Though 




^Brussels 285 

some of the unimportant work was done by a pupil, 
the hand of Rubens is evident everywhere. The 
outlines are firm, the tones brilliant and the colours 
laid on in great masses. The introduction of a 
stairway in the stable is somewhat forced; but it 
is very effective. Perhaps the most striking figure 
is that of the kneeling King, upon whose bald head 
the little hand of Jesus, who is held by his mother, 
tenderly rests. This King wears a magnificent 
mantle of gold, an ermine cape and a blue robe. 

The charming Madonna of the Forget-me-not 
dates between 1620 and 1624, and is painted with 
the greatest tenderness and care. The Virgin, in 
scarlet robe and blue mantle, holds the Holy Child 
on her knees by the linen that drapes Him. In one 
hand He holds a forget-me-not and grasps His 
mother's veil with the other. The Virgin's hair is 
brown, while the Child has those blonde curls that 
Rubens was so fond of at this period. Near the 
Virgin is a rose bush, and on one of its flowers 
a fly is conspicuous. A bird is perched on a neigh- 
bouring tree. The flowers and landscape back- 
ground are supposed to have been painted by Velvet 
Brueghel; but the figures, with their lovely tints, 
are by the hand of Rubens solely. 

When Sir Joshua Reynolds saw The Assumption 
in the Carmelite Church of Brussels, he wrote : 

" The principal figure, the Virgin, is the worst 

286 Ube Hrt of tbe Belgian Oallertes 

in the composition, both in regard to the character 
of the countenance, the drawing of the figure and 
even its colour; for she is dressed, not in what is 
the fixed dress of the Virgin, blue and red, but en- 
tirely in a colour between blue and gray heightened 
with white; and this coming on a white Glory, 
gives a deadness to that part of the picture. The 
Apostles and the two women are in Rubens's best 
manner; the angels are beautifully coloured and 
unite with the sky in perfect harmony; the masses 
of light and shade are conducted with the greatest 
judgment, and excepting the upper part where the 
Virgin is, it is one of Rubens's rich pictures." 

This picture dates from about 1619 or 1620, and 
C. Schut is thought to have had a hand in the work. 

Fromentin's criticism is worth attention. He 

** The Assumption belongs to Rubens's first 
period ; it has been greatly repainted ; and its orig- 
inal qualities have suffered. It is brilliant and cold 
at the same time; inspired in the intent, and 
methodical and prudent in the execution. Like his 
other pictures of that date, the surface is clean, 
polished, and somewhat vitrified. The mediocre 
types are lacking in naturalness ; the palette already 
sounds the dominant notes of red, yellow, black and 
gray with splendour, but with crudity. As for the 
qualities already grained, they are here applied in 

Brussels 287 

a masterly manner. Tall figures leaning over the 
empty tomb, all colours vibrating over a black hole, 
— the light disposed around a central mass, power- 
ful, sonorous, undulous, dying in the softer half- 
tones, — to right and left, nothing but weaknesses, 
except two accidental strokes, two horizontal forces 
that connect the scene with the frame half-way up 
the picture. Below, the gray tones; above, a sky 
of Venetian blue wn'th gray clouds and flying 
vapours; and in this shaded azure, Her feet 
plunged in bluish clouds. Her head in a glory, the 
Virgin, robed in pale blue with a dark blue mantle, 
and the three accompanying groups of winged 
angels all radiating with rosy and silvery mother- 
of-pearl. In the upper angle, already touching the 
zenith, a little agile cherub, beating his wings and 
glittering like a butterfly in the light, mounts di- 
rectly into the sky, like a messenger more rapid 
than the others. Suppleness, breadth, thickness of 
the groups, marvellous grasp of the picturesque in 
grandeur, — with a few imperfections, all Rubens 
is here more than merely in germ. There is noth- 
ing more tender, frank and striking. As an im- 
provisation of a happy task, as life and harmony 
for the eyes, it is accomplished : a Summer festi- 

To the same period belongs the Coronation of 
the Virgin, painted for the Recollets in Antwerp 

288 Ubc Hrt of tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

about 1625. Rubens had little hand in this except 
retouching; but the two heads of the angels in the 
clouds are his. The circle of angels below the Vir- 
gin, who rests on a crescent, are very graceful. 

In the Dead Christ, the Saviour is lying on a 
stone near a grotto with His head on the Virgin's 
knees. On the left at the entrance stand two angels 
with outspread wings, one holding the lance, the 
other lifting the linen that covers the Saviour to 
show his wounds. Behind the Virgin is St. John; 
in the foreground, the prostrated Magdalen with 
dishevelled hair, looking attentively at one of the 
nails, with the crown of thorns and the inscription 
before her; and on the right are two holy women 
in black and St. Francis. The latter is said to be 
a portrait of Charles d'Arenberg, who gave this 
work to the Church of the Capuchins, Brussels, in 

Fromentin tells us that '' Christ about to Strike 
the World with Lightning belongs to a species of 
declamatory eloquence that is false, but very mov- 
ing. The world is a prey to vices, crimes, arson, 
assassination and violence; we gain an idea of 
human perversity from a corner of animated land- 
scape such as Rubens alone can paint. Christ ap- 
pears armed with lightning, half walking, half fly- 
ing; and while He is preparing to punish this 
abominable world, a poor monk in his frieze robe 

IBrussels 289 

prays for pardon, and with his arms covers an 
azure sphere, around which a serpent is wound. 
This saintly intercession not being sufficient, the 
Virgin, a tall woman in widow's robes, casts Her- 
self before Christ and halts Him. She neither im- 
plores nor commands. She is before Her God, but 
She speaks to Her Son. She opens Her black robe, 
displays Her ample Immaculate Breast, lays Her 
hand upon it, and shows it to Him whom She 
nourished. The apostrophe is irresistible. One 
may criticize everything in this picture of pure pas- 
sion and of early effort as art, — Christ who is 
merely ridiculous, St. Francis who is only a scared 
monk, the Virgin who resembles a Hecuba under 
the features of Helene Fourment : Her gesture 
even is not lacking in boldness, if we think of the 
taste of Raphael, or even of Racine. It is none 
the less true that so many pathetic effects of such 
vigour and novelty are not to be found on the stage, 
or in the tribune, or even in painting, which is his 
real domain." The landscape is by Van Uden. 

This picture was painted for the high altar of the 
Recollets in Ghent, where Sir Joshua Reynolds saw 
it. He called it '' a profane allegorical picture," and 
describes it as follows : " Christ with Jupiter's 
thunder and lightning in his hand denouncing ven- 
geance on a wicked world represented by a globe 
lying on the ground with the serpent twined round 

290 Ubc Hrt ot tbe Belgian Galleries 

it: this globe St. Francis appears to be covering 
and defending with his mantle. The Virgin is hold- 
ing Christ's hand and showing her breasts; im- 
plying, as I suppose, the right she has to intercede 
and have an interest with Him whom she suckled. 
The Christ, which is ill drawn, in an attitude af- 
fectedly contrasted, is the most ungracious figure 
that can be imagined : the best part of the figure is 
the head of St. Francis." 

The Martyrdom of St. Lievin was painted about 
1635 for the high altar of the Jesuits' Church in 
Ghent. Fromentin advises the spectator to look at 
this great work critically and to forget if possible 
the terrible and savage scene of murder, with the 
saint dying in convulsions and the frightful assas- 
sins, the one with his bloody knife between his teeth 
and the other giving the tongue to the dogs, and to 
look at the white horse rearing under the blue sky, 
the bishop's golden cope, the black and white dogs, 
the expressive faces, and all the azure, gray silvery 
and sombre tones of this picture; and, notwith- 
standing the horror of the scene, he will soon be 
convinced that it is one of the most radiant and har- 
monious of Rubens's works. The animals have 
been attributed to Paul de Vos. 

Christ Carrying the Cross was painted for the 
Abbey of Afflighem in 1637 and is entirely the work 
pf Rubens. In the centre Christ is falling under 

JSrUS6el6 291 

the weight of the Cross; two men come to his 
rescue; and St. Veronica is wiping his face. Ru- 
bens seems to have taken more interest in the bril- 
liancy and movement of the procession ascending 
Golgotha, — the guards with floating banners, 
gleaming cuirasses and splendid horses, whose skins 
glisten in the sunlight, than in the sombre group 
that forms the subject of the picture. " I look for 
a note of grief in the brilliant climb to Calvary," 
says Paul Mantz ; " but I cannot find it." 

Fromentin writes : " When Rubens painted the 
Road to Calvary, he had already produced the ma- 
jority of his great works. Here we have move- 
ment, tumult and agitation in the forms, gestures, 
faces, disposition of groups, and in oblique, diagonal 
and symmetrical folds of drapery, going from bot- 
tom to top and from right to left. Christ fallen 
beneath His Cross, the cavalry escort, the two 
thieves held and pushed on by their executioners, all 
move along the same line and seem to scale the 
narrow slope that leads to the place of execution. 
Christ is fainting w^ith fatigue, St. Veronica is wip- 
ing his brow; the weeping Virgin rushes towards 
Him and holds out her arms; Simon the Cyrenian 
supports the gibbet; and — notwithstanding this 
wood of infamy, these women in tears and mourn- 
ing, this victim crawling on his knees, with panting 
lips, humid temples, staring eyes that inspire com- 

292 xibe Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

passion, notwithstanding the terror, the cries, the 
death so close, it is clear to him who knows how to 
observe that this equestrian pomp, these banners 
waving in the wind, that cuirassed centurion who 
turns around on his horse with graceful action, and 
in whom we recognize the features of Rubens, all 
this makes us forget the execution, and gives the 
most manifest idea of a triumph. One would say 
that the scene w^as melodramatic, without gravity, 
majesty, beauty or anything august, — theatrical 
almost. The picturesque, which might have ruined 
it, is what saves it. Imagination takes possession 
of it and elevates it. A gleam of true sensibility 
flashes through and ennobles it. Something very 
like eloquence elevates the style. In fact, I know 
not what happy force, what inspired outburst made 
of this picture what it was destined to become, — 
a picture of trivial death, and of apotheosis." 

Soon after his return from Italy, after 1611, 
Rubens painted Juno arranging in a peacock's tail 
the eyes of Argus, who has just been killed by Mer- 
cury, a splendid picture, rich in colour and showing 
memories of Titian. Juno is of the Italian type, 
wath hair as black as ebony. The corpse of Argus 
is strongly modelled and of a type much used by 
the master. The peacocks were painted by an as- 

A magnificent landscape representing the Cale- 

Brussels 293 

donian boar hunt belongs to the master*s last period, 
1639 or 1640, and is entirely by him. The landscape 
is superb and the dark forest trees are illuminated 
by the light of the setting sun with fantastic effect. 
In the foreground, Atalanta, surrounded by a dozen 
dogs, one of which is biting the ear of the furious 
boar, is drawing her bow. Behind her gallop two 
horsemen, and, on the left, Meleager is about to 
attack the boar with his lance. 

In Venus at the Forge of Vulcan w^e see Vulcan 
busy at his forge in a dark grotto, and Venus in 
red drapery holding Cupid by the hand advancing 
towards him, but turning her head to look at Pan, 
who is offering her some grapes, figs, apricots, ap- 
ples and pomegranates. Behind Pan, Pomona ad- 
vances with a basket of fruit on her shoulder, 
accompanied by Ceres, crowned with wheat. The 
w^ork is much mutilated and dates from about 1622. 
The fruits are by Snyders. It is interesting to note 
that Vulcan and his Forge were painted in at the 
end of the Seventeenth Century to replace an old 
woman who was warming herself at a fire. This 
part of the w^ork w^as cut out, and is now in the 
Dresden Museum. 

The Four Heads of Negroes was acquired in 1890 
for 80,000 francs. Its lightness and suret}^ of touch 
prove it to be the work of Rubens's own hand. 
Very striking are the gray and blue reflections that 

294 Ubc Hrt of tbe BclQian (Ballertes 

play on the chocolate colour of the skin, and the 
reddish tones of the nose and ears show the char- 
acteristic execution of Rubens. These heads were 
studies for an Adoration of the Magi. 

Anthony Van Dyck is represented only by The 
Martyrdom of St. Peter; Drunken Silenus; Por- 
trait of Alexander Dellafaille; and the Van Vil- 
steren Family, a work much admired for the natural 
grouping of the seven individuals. The father of 
the family, in black, is playing the lute, his left arm 
resting on the back of the chair on which his wife 
is seated. The latter, dressed in green and white, 
holds a baby in her arms. On her right, we see one 
son holding a flag; a little daughter is playing the 
clavecin; a second daughter is standing at her 
mother's knee; and, in the foreground, a little boy 
is beating a drum. 

Two pictures are by Jan Massys — The Chaste 
Susannah and Lot and his Daughters. The figures 
in both are life size. Susannah is seated in a beau- 
tiful garden near a fountain, and the Elders are 
hidden behind a piece of architecture. In the dis- 
tance are temples, palaces and mountains. 

Lot and his Daughters, signed and dated 1565, 
is one of those curious works that describes several 
episodes on one canvas. In the background, we see 
the burning of Sodom; Lot and his family led by 
the angel; and the metamorphosis of Lot's wife. 


M ABUSE Palais des 

Plate XXXIX Beaux-Arts 

{See page 295) Brussels 




^Brussels 295 

In the foreground, Lot is seated on a rock under 
the trees with one daughter on his knee, while the 
other, seated on his left, offers him a basket of fruit 
with one hand and a golden cup with the other. 
Both daughters are richly dressed and the latter 
wears a fine necklace and earrings of pearls. 

In the famous triptych by Jean de Mabuse, or 
Jan Gossaert, the central panel represents Jesus in 
the house of Simon the Pharisee, with the Resur- 
rection of Lazarus on the left W'ing and the As- 
sumption of Mary Magdalen on the right. This 
w^ork displays the style acquired in Italy by Ma- 
buse. The central picture is highly decorative. 
The first object that strikes the eye is the superb 
double staircase carved in the Renaissance style that 
occupies the centre of the hall where Christ is seated 
at a table on the left wath one of his apostles beside 
him and Simon, in a rich brocade robe, at the head, 
facing the spectator. Beneath the table Mary Mag- 
dalen kneels, kissing the feet of the Saviour, and 
beside her is a vase of perfume. On the right, stand 
two Pharisees. A squirrel is seated in the middle 
of the hall eating an apple, and ih the background 
there is another table at which people are feasting. 

This great work long attributed to Mabuse (or 
Jan Gossaert) is now supposed to be the masterpiece 
of Herri Met de Bles. It is supposed that the kneel- 
ing figure in the wing representing the Assumption 

296 Ube Hrt of tbe ^Belgian (Balleries 

of the Magdalen is a portrait of the donor. The 
mitre at his feet is wonderfully painted. The other 
wing depicts the Resurrection of Lazarus. 

The Prodigal Son by Jan Hemessen bears the 
date 1556 and is a picture of episodes. The fore- 
ground is occupied by the prodigal son in his days 
of pleasure, rioting at a table with gay companions ; 
in the middle distance, he is being chased away; 
and in the background, behind the portico, we see 
him tending swine; and, on the right, his return. 

Several pictures by Van Coxie in this gallery are 
not dated, but belong probably to his last period. 
They inspire a very high opinion of his powers. 
One of these is the Crown of Thorns. In the centre 
of the panel, Christ, seated in a noble attitude and 
draped with unusual elegance, endures the out- 
rages of his enemies. One persecutor is making 
one of those malignant grimaces full of impatient 
fury which nothing can appease; another presses 
the odious crown down on his head with infernal 
joy, the joy of a coward who torments a defenceless 
man. A third brutally raises his hand to strike the 
calm face of the Redeemer. A fourth mockingly 
presents him with the derisive palm, the reed scep- 
tre. The artist has ably grouped them around their 
victim. The Saviour's features express poignant 
grief. Above Him is an open arcade through which 
the sky is visible. The moonlight lends to the scene 

^Brussels 297 

a character of gentle sadness and poetic melancholy. 
The colour of this picture is beautiful and vivacious ; 
and the nudes reveal the knowledge and strength 
of a great master. 

Unlike many pictures of the same subject, the 
Last Supper does not suffer any diminution of in- 
terest by imitating Leonardo da Vinci. The action 
passes in a great hall of Italian style and rich archi- 
tecture. The table is placed aslant, so that all those 
present are visible without any one of the sides 
being unoccupied. On the right is a dressoir of 
several stages garnished with precious vases. The 
setting of the table attests the best taste, and the 
general harmony of the composition charms at first 
sight. Christ's head is dignified and serious, but 
the effect is slightly marred by the singular form 
of the nose. The finest part of the work is four 
figures of apostles, three at the right corner, and 
one a little towards the left. The last figure is 
standing up in order to hear Christ better. Dis- 
tinction and truth, nobility and strength, life and 
character, are all united here with rare happiness, 
and I doubt if any one has eclipsed them. The 
type of the young slave in the foreground pouring 
out wine is again ably chosen. These two pictures 
are in perfect preservation : the gradations of col- 
our have lost none of their vitality. The wings of 
the triptych, Christ Washing His Disciples' Feet, 

298 XTbe Htt of tbe IBclatan (Galleries 

and Christ in the Garden of Olives are of less im- 

Two portraits in this gallery show how closely 
Martin de Vos followed Nature in rendering the 
human face. They adorn the wings of an altar- 
piece the centre of which is missing. One is the 
donor, an old man with white and thin hair and 
white beard. He wears a black pelisse trimmed 
with fur, and a ruff. In his right hand, he holds a 
prayerbook, and lays his left on his breast. The 
execution of this is of astonishing minuteness and 
prodigious verity; in the head and hands, the 
delicacy of the work almost rivals that of Denner. 
The eye is watching, and the lips are about to speak. 
These merits are so much the more striking because 
the figure is almost natural size, and the image is in 
a condition of perfect preservation. 

The other effigy, that of the donatrix, shows less 
care and attention. The lady, dressed in a black 
robe trimmed with fur, wnth a gold chain around 
her neck, has her hands folded. A prie-dieu cov- 
ered with black-flowered red tapestry is on her left. 
The face lacks surfaces and details; the artist's 
brush has lagged heavily over the wood. The 
hands, so beautifully rendered in the above paint- 
ing, are negligently treated in this one (Nos. 488 
and 489). It is none the less true that this painter, 

' Michiels. 

^Brussels 299 

when he took the pains, became the equal of the 
best painters of portraits. 

The portrait of a young woman with her arms 
on a table on which stands a vase of flowers of 
brilliant hues is attributed by some authorities to 
Martin de Vos. It is dated 1564. 

Three works by Rubens's master, Otto Vsenius, 
will attract the student, — a triptych representing 
the Crucifixion the central panel and Christ on the 
Mount of Olives and the Entombment on the 
wings; Christ bearing the Cross; and, more par- 
ticularly, the Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, 
painted when the artist was thirty-three, and on 
his return from Italy, when he was architect and 
painter to Prince Alexander of Parma. Fromentin 
was greatly struck by this picture. In his note- 
book he wrote: 

" At first glance it seems Roman, but it is rich 
and more supple. On account of a certain tender- 
ness in the types, an arbitrary crumpling of the 
draperies and a little mannerism in the hands, you 
feel Correggio infused into Raphael. The angels 
in the sky form a beautiful mass, a half tinted and 
sombre drapery of yellow is thrown like a tent with 
turned back folds across the boughs of the trees. 
The Christ is charming ; and the young and slender 
St. Catherine is adorable. With lowered glance, 
a chaste and infantile profile and a firmly set neck, 

300 Ubc Hrt ot tbe :B5elgtan (Ballcries 

she has the candid appearance of Raphael's Virgins 
humanized by the inspiration of Correggio and also 
by a very marked individuality. The blonde hair 
that merges into the blonde flesh, the grayish white 
linen, the colours that blend or contrast very capri- 
ciously after new laws and according to the indi- 
vidual fancy of the painter, — all this is pure Italian 
blood transfused into veins that are capable of turn- 
ing it into new blood. This work prepares the way 
for Rubens, announces him and will also show him 
the way.'* 

This gallery owns several striking works by 
Caspar De Craeyer. 

The Dead Christ on the Knees of the Virgin 
shows the influence of his first master, Raphael 
Coxie. The work is painted on wood, according to 
the custom of the old school. The kneeling figures 
and the heads are greatly admired. The Miracu- 
lous Draught of Fishes, on the other hand, shows 
the painter's obligations to Rubens. The vast sky 
that spreads over the figures, and the sea extending 
behind them and on the right, are, however, unlike 
Rubens's compositions. The work is remarkable 
for its brilliancy of colour, the correctness of the 
attitudes, the elegance of the types and the general 
harmony of the whole. The Saviour, in violet robe 
and purple mantle, is painted in such bold relief 
that it seems as if He might walk out of the frame 



Palais des 


Plate XL 


iSee page 299) 



^Brussels 30i 

at any moment. The small blonde sailor in pink, 
who, with others, is examining the net, is one of 
the master's best creations. " Indeed," writes 
Michiels, " this picture is so briUiant that it might 
be attributed to Jordaens : its tones even surpass 
Rubens's scale." 

The Adoration of the Shepherds is also admired 
for its beautiful modulations of colour and general 
air of tranquillity. Above the group, consisting of 
the Virgin and Child, Joseph and five shepherds, as 
well as the ox and ass, angels hover in a cloud with 
the banderole of '' Gloria in Excelsis." 

The Triumph of St. Apollonia is also a fine work. 
The saint wears a superb costume and holds with 
one hand the folds of her mantle, while in the other 
she carries the instruments of her torture, — a pair 
of pincers. She is surrounded by angels, one of 
whom offers her a metal basin with a bloody piece 
of linen, and another crowns her. 

The Virgin as Protectress of the Grand-Serment 
de I'Arbalete of Brussels is one of the Antwerp 
painter's most famous works, particularly as re- 
gards portraiture. In the upper part of the picture, 
the Virgin, with folded hands and surrounded by 
angels, some of whom carry palms, protects the 
members of the corporation, the archers who are 
kneeling with their rosaries and prayer-books in 
their hands. The Doyen is to be distinguished by 

302 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Galleries 

his rich costume and his hat ornamented by a rich 


De Craeyer was also fond of painting the Con- 
version of St. Hubert. Here we find a picture sim- 
ilar to that in St. Jacques, Louvain, but smaller. 
St. Hubert is kneeling before a pillar on the top 
of which appears the miraculous stag. Two dogs 
are by the side of the saint, and the head of a third 
appears in the thicket on the left. On the right, is 
a groom with the huntsman's horse. The open 
country on the one side is well contrasted with the 
grove of trees on the other, where the action takes 
place. In an old catalogue the landscape is accorded 
to Jacques d'Arthois and the animals to Snyders. 
Fetis gives the latter, however, to Gerard Seghers. 
We should also note St. Paul and St. Anthony the 
Hermit; the Assumption of St. Catherine; St. 
Anthony and St. Paul in the Desert; the Virgin 
adorned by the Angels; St. Florian; St. Agapit; 
the Apparition of Christ to St. Julian; and the 
Martyrdom of St. Blasius, representing the saint 
suspended from a tree, submitting to torture, a copy 
of his last work now in Ghent. 

Jordaens appears in various pictures that show 
his skill in depicting religious, historical, allegorical, 
fabulous and mythological subjects. 

First, let us look at the great St. Martin Exorcis- 
ing a Demon, painted for the altar of St. Martin's 

Brussels 303 

at Tournai. It is a very striking work in both con- 
ception and treatment. The scene is arranged on- 
the stairs of a wide portico. The sufferer, with 
naked body and head thrown back, is being held 
by four persons. St. Martin, in golden dalmatic 
and mitre, advances, with his right hand elevated 
to exorcise the demon that escapes from the mouth 
of the possessed one. By St. Martin's side, a young 
priest carries the cross and behind him are two dea- 
cons ; on the right, a child and a dog are seen ; and, 
in the background, leaning on a balustrade, beneath 
an arch, is the Roman Proconsul, in a Flemish 
costume of red and black, and accompanied by a 
black slave with a bird on his wrist. 

Rebecca and Eleazer is an elaborate work. The 
chief figure is offering a drink to Eleazer from a 
flagon of chiselled metal. On the right, a servant 
holds a white horse, and from the well in the centre, 
Rebecca's companions are filling their jugs. Elea- 
zer's servants are busy unloading the camels. The 
great landscape, which contains a road leading to a 
distant town, along which advance shepherds and 
shepherdesses, was painted by Jan Wildens. 

Susannah and the Elders was purchased in 1895. 
In addition to the three principal figures, there is a 
peacock on a balustrade near a statue of Cupid ; and 
a little dog, in front of Susannah, barks at one of 
the Elders. 

304 tlbe Hrt of tbe ^Belgian (Balleries 

The Triumph of Prince Frederick Henry of 
Nassau is the sketch for the artist's masterpiece in 
the House in the Wood at The Hague, one of the 
series of historical pictures ordered in 1652, by 
AmaHa of Solms, widow of Prince Frederick 
Henry. The Prince stands in a chariot drawn by 
four white horses, two of which are led by Mars 
and Hercules. The others, mounted by Time and 
Mercury, trample under foot Hate and Envy. 
Victory crowns the hero; Renown publishes his 
exploits ; and Abundance scatters riches. Lions, 
warriors and women surround the triumphal car. 

The Allegory of the Vanity of the World repre- 
sents a child blowing bubbles, a parrot, and on a 
table a number of objects, — arms, musical instru- 
ments, packages of pens, a terrestrial globe, a 
wrought metal dish full of fruit, a perfume-vase, 
a death's head and a large lantern, typical of life, 
the light of which Time is extinguishing. 

One of Jordaens's many representations of 
vF^sop's fable of the Satyr and Peasant is composed 
of five life-sized figures. The Satyr, crowned with 
ivy, is rising from the table at which the Peasant 
still sits blowing in the spoon that he has just lifted 
from his bowl of smoking soup. On the right, a 
woman in a yellow dress holds on her lap a little 
child clothed in red, who sticks out his tongue at 
the Satyr. Before this group is a dog. Behind, 

^Brussels 305 

in the middle distance, an old woman holds a glass 
with one hand and with the other a mug of beer, 
which she is about to stand on the table. A plate 
containing a fish's head and a sausage stands before 
the Satyr. Trees occupy the background. 

Pan and Syrinx, acquired in 1895, shows Pan 
crowned with ivy, standing among the reeds and 
contemplating the young and almost naked nymph, 
by whose side is a child with a lighted torch. On 
the right, a satyr is sitting on the ground, with a 
little girl in red drapery. 

In no branch of art was Jordaens more successful 
than in mythological subjects, which allowed him to 
bring together in vast landscapes fruit, flowers, 
nymphs, satyrs and bacchantes; for his brush de- 
lighted in combining all the splendid colours of 
leaves and petals and velvety fruits with the satin 
skin of the flaxen-haired Flemish women that he 
knew and the shaggy flanks of the goat-hoofed 
satyrs that he imagined. 

Fecundity is one of his best works of this class. 
Here we have a nymph standing with her back to 
us and holding a white draper}^; another nymph is 
gracefully posed on the ground, leaning on her left 
elbow and holding a bunch of grapes in her right 
hand; behind her a child is seen in profile and also 
a third nymph, dressed in a red robe, in the folds 
of which she is holding some grapes. On the right, 

306 XTbe Hrt of tbe JSelotan Galleries 

are two satyrs, one of whom has a child on his 
shoulders, and on the left are two fauns, one kneel- 
ing under the burden of an immense horn of plenty, 
filled with fruits of many kinds. 

It is interesting to compare with this a somewhat 
similar picture of the same title, the figures of 
which were painted by H. van Balen and the flowers 
and landscape by Velvet Brueghel. Fecundity is 
seated on a mound, holding in her right hand a 
horn of plenty from which fruits and flowers are 
falling. Cupid, standing beside her, overturns a 
basket of flowers ; at her feet, on the left, a monkey 
is seen. The background is filled with trees, and, 
through an opening on the left, a swan is seen float- 
ing on a pond. 

Another Fecundity is the work of Lambrechts 
and De Heem. The former is the author of the 
medallion, representing an allegorical figure of 
Fecundity with two children by her side in grisaille, 
and J. D. de Heem of the surrounding garland of 
fruits and vegetables. This picture was once in the 
famous gallery of Cardinal Fesch, and was bought 
in Rome in 1862. Here we may also see Jan D. 
de Heem's charming Bouquet of Flowers, repre- 
senting a glass vase holding tulips, roses, a peony 
and bluets. This vase is standing on a marble table, 
where a snail and a caterpillar are crawling. 

His elaborate Vanitas shows us a large table 

Brussels 307 

under a column upon which are placed some roses, 
cherries, and grain; a skull crowned with ivy; a 
flute ; some books ; a compass ; a shell ; some 
spurs ; and a bottle with the label — aqua vitcB. 
On one of the books is written Rekening (ac- 
counts) ; on another, Biblia (Bible) ; on the third, 
Navolging Christi (Imitation of Christ), and, on 
an open register, the painter's signature. On the 
right of the landscape background, is seen on the 
summit of a hill, surrounded by water, a representa- 
tion of Calvary; and, farther away, Antwerp with 
the spire of its cathedral; on the left, below a 
lifted curtain, the ground undulates in the distance. 

David Teniers the Elder's treatment of rural life, 
in which his son afterwards surpassed him, appears 
in only one picture. On the left, against the wall 
of a farmhouse, a peasant leans with his back to 
the spectator; a second peasant with a pot of beer 
and a pipe is near an overturned barrel on which 
stands a jug. In the centre are household utensils ; 
on the right is a water course bordered with trees 
and a house; in the background a peasant dressed 
in red with a straw hat is going- towards a village. 

Five typical works of this school make us famil- 
iar with Jacques d'Arthois, who loved to paint the 
landscapes of Brabant with their dark forests and 
deep roads, animated with peasants returning from 
or going to market, or kermesse, beggars and 

308 Ube Hrt ot tbe JBelatan (Balleries 

huntsmen, which were contributed by Teniers the 
Elder, Gerard Zegers, or Peter Bout. These are 
two Landscapes; the Border of a Forest; Winter, 
where the snow covers the ground and merry skat- 
ers are exercising on a pond to the right, while 
peasants warm themselves by a fire and down a 
winding road comes a chariot preceded by a horse- 
man ; and the Return from the Kennesse where sev- 
eral groups of peasants, some with cows and others 
dancing to the bagpipe, advance along the road that 
leads through the trees. The figures are the work 
of David Teniers the Elder. 

The Promenade of the Boeuf-Gras is the subject 
of a w^ork by Mathieu Schoevaerts. Here preceded 
by fife and drum advances the garlanded ox of the 
carnival. On the left is an inn where the sign of 
the Swan hangs and peasants are eating, drinking 
and dancing. The picture is full of life and move- 
ment and is crowded with figures. 

Another animated crowd is shown in a Great 
Festival, by J. L. de Marne, where the cattle market 
has attracted a large number of buyers and sellers 
around a fountain surmounted by a statue of the 
Virgin. A lively Dutch kennesse by Cornelis 
Dusart should also be noticed. The people are 
grouped outside of a tavern and the work is signed 
and dated 1695. 

A Night Festival by Peter Molyn the Elder rep- 


Q ^ ^ 





















^Brussels 309 

resents a street with a crowd in the distance, and 
in the foreground a merchant before his shop which 
is Hghted by a lantern. Two children are near him 
and five persons a little farther away. Towards 
the centre children are circling around a big fire. 
This picture is dated 1625. 

An episode of the Carnival by the Walls of Ant- 
werp by Adrian Van Nieulant shows four couples 
in disguise and wearing skates executing a quad- 
rille on the ice. Other masquers are coming from 
the left and the crowd of spectators includes all 
classes of people. Carriages are also waiting in the 
distance. The ramparts are filled with spectators 
and a bridge crosses the moat to one of the city 

The works of Daniel Van Heil, about whom noth- 
ing is known except that he was born in Brussels 
in 1604 ^rid died about 1662, are rarely to be met 
with. He devoted himself to conflagration and 
winter scenes. One of the latter in the Brussels 
gallery is very interesting. In the centre there is 
an enormous pond of ice where many skaters are 
enjoying themselves while people, and carriages cir- 
culate around this pleasure ground. On the right 
there are some houses, the roofs of which are cov- 
ered with snow, and in the background are more 
houses and church spires. 

The Pleasures of Winter are also represented by 

310 Ube Hrt ot tbe JSelatan Galleries 

Aart Van der Neer, where on the outskirts of a 
village people are enjoying themselves on the ice; 
some are skating, some are playing pall-mall and 
others are spectators. A man, a woman, a child 
and a dog form an interesting group. In the middle 
distance there is a sleigh drawn by a gray horse 
with a blue blanket, led by the coachman. This 
painter is also represented by a landscape seen at 
moonrise ; and on the canal that crosses the country 
a boat filled with people is drawn by a horse on 
the bank. Among the trees are seen a number of 
houses. The Yssel at Moonlight represents the 
banks of the river, cows in the meadow, groves of 
trees, houses, windmills and fishermen in their boats, 
or busy with their nets. 

Two pictures by Denis Van Alsloot, of whom 
little or nothing is known except that he was the 
son of a Brussels painter, are of much historical 
interest. They represent the Procession of St. 
Gudule, the origin of which is lost in tradition. 
In the first picture the procession is passing the 
H6tel-de-Ville, which is decorated with garlands. 
The windows and street are crowded with specta- 
tors. The trade guilds open the march, and at the 
head of each the youngest master walks with the 
keerse, or pole, surmounted by a painted, or gilt, 
ornament, to which are suspended the attributes of 
the profession. 

Brussels 3ii 

The second picture represents the rest of the pro- 
cession : giants, allegorical figures and cars, and 
various corporations with their patron saints. Here 
is St. Gudule with her lantern, the light of which 
a malicious little devil is trying to blow out; St. 
Michael in his courtier's costume v/arring against 
the Evil Spirit; St. Christopher carrying the Child 
Jesus; St. George and the Dragon; St. Anthony 
on a sled drawn by two horses ; and many others. 
Members of the Guilds carry their banners and 
soldiers, their armis. In this picture, the view is 
taken from the H6tel-de-Ville, so that the Maison- 
du-Roi faces the spectator. The fagade is deco- 
rated with flags and garlands, and hundreds of 
heads look from the windows. 

The great Dutch landscape painters have some 
beautiful works here. Jacob Van Ruysdael is rep- 
resented by a Landscape; the Lake of Haarlem; 
the Ruined Tower; and Landscape with Figures 
and Animals, the latter by A. Van de Velde. Sol- 
omon Van Ruysdael has two delightful works, one 
a river, where fishermen are busy; and the other a 
Bark crossing the Meuse, where a boat is ferrying 
across the river a carriage to which four horses are 
attached. On the right, a house appears under the 
trees, on the left trees and bell-towers are seen; 
and on the river stretching into the horizon many 

312 TLbc Hrt of tbe Belgian Galleries 

There are also two characteristic works by Hob- 
bema; one a Mill, and the other the Haarlem 
Wood, with a road winding under the trees, along 
which horsemen and peasants are advancing, the 
figures of which are attributed to Barent Gael. 

Other landscapes here include a beautiful view 
of Dordrecht by Jan Van Goyen in which Albert 
Cuyp painted the figures; several charming land- 
scapes by Wynants; Landscape with Ruins (twi- 
light effect), by Nicholas Berchem; Italian Land- 
scape, by Jan Both; Italian Landscape with Mer- 
cury and Argus and Cows, by Gaspard Dughet; 
Rocky Landscape by C. Huysmans; Landscape 
with Animals, by J. B. Huysmans; Landscape and 
Farm, by Albert Klomp; Dutch Landscape, by J. 
Koning; Italian Landscape, by Francois Millet; 
Deer Hunt in a Landscape, by F. Moucheron, who 
has also a Rocky Landscape; Italian Landscape, 
by Nicholas Pimont; and two episodes of the Chase 
by Wouwermans. 

An early picture of the dunes of Scheveningen 
which have attracted so many painters is by Ko- 
ninck. The dunes are seen in the distance, as well 
as harvest fields, a cottage surrounded by trees, two 
farms, and a long palisade on which a man is lean- 
ing; on the left, in the foreground a woman is 
riding an ass with a man by her side, and on the 
right is a peasant woman with her flock of sheep. 

Brussels 313 

The Beach at Scheveningen, by Benjamin Cuyp, 
should also be noticed. 

Of the few marines one of the most striking is 
Backhuysen's Tempest on the Coast of Norway, 
where black clouds are chased by the wind across 
an orange sky and the waves are breaking with 
fury on the rocky coast, while the sea violently agi- 
tated tosses the ships about unmercifully. The sun 
is setting and on a piece of wood floating in the 
foreground the painter has signed his name. 

Another stormy sea is by J. T. Blankhof. Here 
an English ship is driven by the wind upon a tem- 
pestuous sea, and followed by a large boat in full 
sail. Other boats and ships are seen to the right 
and left; and the coast in the background affords 
a view of a town with its spires, windmills and 
houses. The sky is stormy and on a floating plank 
covered with foam the painter has signed his name. 
Bonaventure Peeters has also a storm at sea where 
the waves are violently agitated. Several boats and 
ships driven by the tempest are trying to gain the 
shore, where people appear on the rocks to render 

William Van der Velde's View of the Zuiderzee 
shows boats and ships at different distances with 
sails shining in the sunlight. On the left two sailors 
are trying to float a shallop. 

The historical pictures include : Croesus showing 

314 Ube Hrt ot tbe JBelatan Galleries 

his treasures to Solon by Francken the Younger; 
the Army of Louis XIV encamped before Tournai, 
by A. F. Van der Meulen; the Battle of Prague 
(1620), Battle of Wimpfen (1622), Battle of Hal- 
berstadt (1622) and Siege of Coutrai (1648), by 
Peter Snayers; the Princes of Ligne, Chimay, 
Rubempre, de la Tour and Taxis and the Duke of 
Arenberg coming out of the Palace of the Duke 
of Brabant, Brussels, in the costumes of the Golden 
Fleece, by Gilles Van Tilborgh, and Maximilian I 
hunting in the Tyrol, by Tobie Veraeght, the only 
known work by this painter. It is dated 161 5. 

An interesting historical picture that needs ex- 
planation is that representing the triumph of the 
Infanta Isabella, who on May 15, 161 5, took part in 
the archery contest of the Grand-Serment and 
brought down the bird at the height of the bell- 
tower of the church of the Sablon, Brussels. In this 
picture, she is receiving by the side of the Arch- 
duke Albert the congratulations of the dignitaries 
of the Corporation of Archers. She is again seen 
on a balcony in the foreground bowing to the crowd, 
while her attendants scatter money from the win- 
dows, and again in a chariot drawn by six horses 
in a big procession. 

This work and its companion — the Procession 
of the Young Maidens of the Sablon — were long 
in the Sablon church in Brussels. The latter is also 

JSrussels 3i5 

represented in the background of the last named 
picture in which march the six young girls dowered 
by the Infanta followed by men in white, the mem- 
bers of the Grand Serment and then the Archduke 
Albert and Isabella with a taper in her hand. Cour- 
tiers and attendants bring up the rear. It is inter- 
esting to compare this with Rubens's portrait where 
Isabella is in black with ruff and pearls, a golden 
diadem in her hair, a cross and image of the Virgin 
on her breast and a blue fan in her hand. The 
companion portrait shows the Archduke Albert in 
black velvet with ruff and the order of the Golden 
Fleece on his neck. He holds a plumed hat in one 
hand and rests the other on his sword. 

William Tell is considered the masterpiece of 
Charles Emmanuel Biset, whose works are so rare. 
He was supposed to be a pupil of Gonzales Coques 
and was director of the Antwerp Academy in 1674. 
Ordered by the syndics of the brotherhood of St. 
Sebastian of Antwerp to unite all the members of 
the corporation together, he selected a scene in which 
he thought he could make them interested specta- 
tors. The action takes place on a long terrace behind 
which is a wall ornamented with the shields of the 
Brotherhood of St. Sebastian. The doyen is seated 
and around him are grouped the standard bearer, 
drummer and other members, dressed in black with 
the inevitable white band. In the centre of the fore- 

316 Ube Hrt of tbe JBelgtan Galleries 

ground William Tell is about to draw, not the fam- 
ous cross-bow, but an arrow in compliment to the 
Guild of St. Sebastian. On the left Tell's son 
stands with his back turned and an apple on his 
head. On the left are also some buildings of fine 
architecture and upon a balustrade leans Gessler in 
the costume of a Turk and near him on a pole the 
hat that Tell refused to salute. In the background 
the rocky landscape and snow-capped mountains 
inform the spectator that he looks upon Switzer- 
land. The architecture was painted by William 
Van Ehrenberg or Hardenberg and the landscape 
by Emelraet. 

In addition to the mythological works by Rubens, 
we find several others of this character that are 
deserving of attention. One of these is Carlo 
Maratta's Apollo Pursuing Daphne. 

This work was painted at the order of Louis XIV 
and was in the Royal Collection until 1802, when 
it was sent to Brussels. Apollo running on the 
right has nearly caught Daphne, whose hands show 
that the metamorphosis has begun. On the left are 
a nymph and also a young man who is trying to 
arrest Apollo. Above the Peneus that crosses the 
landscape is the figure of the river-god with his 
urn, and near him two nymphs in a shady grove. 

Diana and Endymion, by Jean-Baptiste Van Loo, 
represents Endymion on the ground sleeping with 

3Bru5sel6 317 

one of his dogs beside him, while Diana, accom- 
panied by Love, is borne towards him on a cloud. 

^neas hunting the Stag on the Coast of Lybia 
allows us to see a typical work of Claude Lorrain, 
in which beautiful scenery is depicted in the fresh 
clear sunlight of early morning. The incident of 
the hunt is subordinate, where the Trojan warrior 
has just captured his sixth stag, and Achates is at 
his side with a quiver full of arrows and leaning on 
a javelin. It is the harbour that we notice, where 
the seven vessels are riding at anchor, and the great 
rocks that have been hollowed out by the sea, and 
the rich verdure of the charming landscape that 
reaches to the breaking waves. 

Other notable works are: Van Dyck's Drunken 
Silenus; G. de Lairesse's Death of Pyrrhus; Van- 
nuchi's Jupiter and Leda; and Dido Building 
Carthage and the Forecasting of Lavinia's Future, 
by Janssens; and Hecuba Blinding the King of 
Thrace. The latter, a much disputed work, is attri- 
buted to Mattia Preti (il Calabrese), and represents 
a crowned woman in robes of white, pink and yel- 
low, rushing impetuously upon ihe king and thrust- 
ing her fingers into his eyes. Another woman holds 
the king so that he cannot escape. 

There are in this gallery several fine examples of 
interiors of churches in which peculiar branch of art 
the Dutch and Flemish masters excelled. Steen- 

318 Ube Hrt ot tbe JSelgian Oalleries 

wyck the Elder has painted the Interior of St. 
Peter's, Louvain, from the entrance of the great 
nave with a chapel on the left where a priest is 
officiating to several kneeling figures. On the same 
side are other chapels ornamented with altars and 
pictures, and on the right we note a lady accom- 
panied by a child that is playing with a dog. On 
the same side, a beggar is seated by a column. The 
choir and the jube are seen in the background. 

The Interior of a church by Steenwyck the 
younger should also be noticed. 

There are also three by Peter Neefs the Elder, 
two especially fine ones being interiors of the Cathe- 
dral of Antwerp. One of these is seen during the 
day. On the left we see a priest carrying the sacra- 
ment and also a brother distributing bread to the 
poor. The other is more interesting on account of 
the light from the wax tapers and torches that dis- 
pel the gloom. A baptism is taking place. The 
third represents a church during a sermon. Fr. 
Francken is the author of the figures that make up 
the congregation. 

In this connection we may also notice the interior 
of a church by Emmanuel de Witte, where in the 
distance is seen the preacher in the pulpit and here 
and there numerous listeners standing and seated, 
great lustres, the organ people standing by the 
columns on which coats-of-arms are suspended, and 












Brussels 3i9 

in the distance windows whose painted panes allow 
the light to fall through in lovely hues. The same 
artist has here an interior of the Delft church. 

Isaac Van Nickele or Nikkelen has also led the 
spectator through the great entrance of the Haar- 
lem church, to give him an extended view of the 
interior lighted by a copper chandelier hung from 
the vault. We also see the organ on the right and 
many groups of figures. 

It is interesting to compare these works with that 
of Guardi representing the Interior of St. Mark's 
with the newly-elected Doge receiving the acclama- 
tions of the people. 

The Portico of a Palace, by Dirk Van Delen, was 
painted in 1642. The portico supported by columns 
in the centre on the right is the palace where several 
persons are listening to music. In the foreground 
are a cavalier and a lady accompanied by a grey- 
hound ; and walking down the steps are five persons 
and a child. People are also walking on the left in 
front of a monumental fountain. Splendid build- 
ings fill in the background. 

Fruits, by Jan de Heem, consists of a reddish 
marble table on which is a pewter plate with two 
opened oysters and a quarter of a lemon; a bunch 
of grapes ; also a large glass, around the base of 
which are some ears of wheat ; a mulberry bough ; 
another half-filled glass; more oysters; some oys- 

320 TLbc Hrt ot tbe JBelaian (Balleries 

ter shells; and, on the right, a butterfly uncertain 
where to alight. 

Another picture by this artist represents a table 
with a brown cover where stands a basket of 
peaches, grapes and a melon ; an upset pewter mug ; 
a large glass half filled with white wine; a pewter 
plate on which is a cut lemon; a whole lemon; a 
cut pomegranate; a pipe and some tobacco in a 
little piece of paper. 

Cornelis de Heem's Fruits and Flowers shows 
a blue and white porcelain bowl, filled with peaches, 
plums and grapes and decorated with convolvulus, 
stands on a stone table, where also lie some plums 
and grapes, a melon, a cut pomegranate, a branch 
of a mulberry-tree with its fruit, and a tall Vene- 
tian glass with a cover. 

Jan Fyt's Fruits and Flowers in a Landscape 
shows in the foreground near a rock a great vase 
of flowers and a bunch of pinks thrown on the edge 
of the basin of a fountain; some melons, figs, 
plums, peaches and grapes on the ground ; a 
guinea-pig rooting among the vine-leaves; and, on 
the left, some pumpkins and a vigorous artichoke 
plant. Through a vista, there is a glimpse of ruins 
around which are grouped several persons. Moun- 
tains rise in the distance. 

A Wagon of Game drawn by Dogs, by Jan Fyt, 
always attracts attention. In the foreground of a 

Brussels 321 

landscape of great extent, where the distant moun- 
tains are lighted by the setting sun, stands a httle 
country wagon across which a board is placed 
transversely. Upon it is piled a heap of game and 
birds, — among which we note a hare, a peacock 
whose long tail sweeps the ground, a cock, some 
chickens, partridges, and, on the ground, near the 
wheels, a duck. A cat is watching her chance to 
attack the game ; but the two dogs, of strong limbs 
and rough skin, are on the watch : one is resting 
and the other stands guarding the game. The deep 
ruts that the wagon has made in the road should 
be noticed. 

Remarkable for its grouping, as well as for the 
individual treatment of each object is Snyders's 
Game and Fruits. On a long table covered with a 
brown cloth are arranged a kid, a swan, a pheasant, 
some quails, some little birds, a boar's head, a lob- 
ster, a basket of fruit, a dish of strawberries, some 
oranges and asparagus. A man is approaching 
with a basket of oranges and fresh figs; a crouch- 
ing cat eyes the game greedily; and a squirrel 
nibbles an apple. 

Beautifully painted are the animals in Albert 
Cuyp's Interior of a Stable. A brown ox spotted 
w^ith white is standing in the centre lighted by a 
window that gives a view of the country. Near 
him a black ox is lying. In the middle of the stable 

322 zbc Hrt ot tbe ^Belgian (Ballertes 

is a partition, on the top of which a cock is perched ; 
a sitting hen is seen in a basket; and in the left- 
hand corner, a wooden tub. 

Melchior d'Hondecoeter is well represented by 
a Dead Cock hanging by a nail on a board ; a splen- 
did Crowing Cock, standing on a wall with two 
hens in front of him, two ducks and five ducklings 
near a pond in the foreground and the trunk of a 
dead tree on the left; and the Entrance to a Park, 
where, on a w^all ending with a column on which 
stands a stone vase, a peacock and peahen are 
perched. Below them we see a turkey hen, five 
ducks, and, on the right, a guinea fowl and a par- 
tridge pursued by a spaniel. Still farther back are 
a turkey and two ostriches. Some one is coming 
through a distant portico, w-here there are two 
statues on pedestals, and above the building the 
trees of the park lift their heads. 

Of equal interest is an elaborate Dead Game and 
Fruits by Jan Weenix, where on the bough of a 
tree hang a hare and a turkey, while some par- 
tridges lie on the ground. The trunk of the tree is 
brightened with climbing convolvulus and poppies; 
and, on the left, stands a basket of peaches, grapes 
and other fruit. In the middle distance, we see a 
little temple and a statue. An obelisk rises in the 
distant landscape. 

Mignon shows his genius in painting flowers and 

Brussels 323 

the meaner creatures that love to lurk among them, 
in his Flowers, Animals and Insects. At the en- 
trance to a grotto stands a tree in whose branches 
birds have made their nests, and at its gnarled roots 
blossom marguerites, poppies and bluets. On the 
left is a clump of large mushrooms. Two serpents 
are gliding among the fallen leaves; snails and in- 
sects creep about ; here and there flutter butterflies ; 
and, near a big stone at the foot of the tree, we 
note a squirrel. 

Nor should the visitor fail to examine the fol- 
lowing: Dead Game in a Landscape by Pieter 
Gysels, consisting of a swan, a hare and various 
birds, also the gun and other attributes of the chase; 
Still Life by the Spanish Pereda, where are spread 
near a rock on a little mound a melon, pomegranate, 
peaches, grapes, figs, plums and a cauliflower. 
Rachel Ruysch's bouquet of flowers in a vase on a 
table where plums are also lying and a large butter- 
fly hovers; a bouquet or rather a garland of flow- 
ers tied with two knots of blue ribbon, by Daniel 
Seghers ; Fruits, by J. Van Son, consisting of white 
and red grapes, peaches and cherries, with a white 
butterfly hovering over them ; a table with a brown 
velvet cover, on which are offered an orange, a 
peeled lemon, some nuts and a Venetian glass filled 
with white wine, by J. Van de Velde. 

The rare Adriaen Van Utrecht appears at his 

324 Zbc Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

best in the Interior of a Kitchen, where in the 
foreground is placed a table partly covered with a 
white cloth, on which stand a chicken and some 
meat, a large pheasant pie, jugs and wine glasses. 
In front of the table, to the right, is a wooden block, 
on which are placed a cabbage, a cauliflower and 
some carrots, and near it is a basket of grapes. An 
elegantly dressed lady is sitting at the table, so at- 
tentively regarding the pie that she does not see 
a gentleman with brown beard and long hair trying 
to embrace the cook, who holds a chicken in one 
hand and a spit in the other. 

A more homely kitchen is depicted in Pieter 
Aertsen's Dutch Cook, in which the chief figure, 
of natural size, stands before a fireplace, where she 
is roasting a duck on the spit. She rests her right 
hand on one of the andirons and holds a cabbage 
under her left arm. In the foreground, a young 
boy, holding a dog on his knee, is turning the spit ; 
and, in the background, a woman is placing a red 
vase on a buffet. 

David Ryckaert's Alchemist in his Laboratory is 
famous. The old white bearded alchemist is seated 
before the furnace, a retort in one hand and a pair 
of tongs in the other, to stir the fire. He is turning 
towards his wnfe, who is pointing out a passage in 
a book on her knees. In the background an appren- 
tice is mixing something in a mortar. Utensils 

Brussels 325 

stand on a table on the right, and some copper 
saucepans on the floor. This work was painted in 
1648. Three years later, his Rustic Repast was 
finished, where we see a family group at the table. 

Schalcken, that Dutch master who was happiest 
when painting the lighted candle and its effects 
through the dark shadows, may be seen here by the 
picture of a boy holding a lighted candle in his left 
hand and applying a stick of wax to its flame. He 
is smiling, and so is the little girl at his side who 
is watching the performance with interest. At first 
glance one might take this for a Gerard Dow. 

In a Musical Party by Palamedes, a gentleman 
dressed in black with slashed sleeves sits carelessly 
in the foreground, with one hand on his hip and a 
pipe in the other ; a lady in a rich red dress is play- 
ing a lute ; behind her a violinist ; and in the back- 
ground a lady and gentleman sitting at a table. 

Music is also the motive of Ostade's celebrated 
Flemish Trio, where in front of a rude house, 
shadowed by a beautifully painted vine, three peas- 
ants are probably making most inharmonious 
sounds. One sings and plays the violin at the same 
time; another sings from the music; and the third 
is struggling with a flute. A jug, pipe and tobacco- 
box stand on the table in front to refresh the per- 
formers after their exertions. 

Very cleverly treated is Ostade's Herring-eater, 

326 Ubc Htt Of tbe ^Belgian Galleries 

seated at a table before the door of his house, on 
which we see a plate of herrings, a piece of black 
bread, a pot of beer and a napkin. He holds a her- 
ring in his left hand, and with- the other is about to 
cut off a piece, which seems to be intended for the 
dog at his side. 

Inn scenes with travellers halting, stables and 
farm scenes that permit the painter to represent 
landscapes and groups of figures and animals are 
plentiful in the Brussels gallery. 

Among works of this class two by Isaac Van 
Ostade — Halt of Travellers and the Reeler — 
should be mentioned. The latter shows a farm 
scene, where a peasant woman is sitting at the door 
of a stable, turning a reel, while she holds a spindle 
in the other hand. A man is talking to her and a 
boy is grooming a horse in the stable, near the door 
of which a pig is lying. Very beautifully painted 
is the vine that festoons the door with the sunlight 
falling on the leaves. 

Another farm scene by Siberechts shows how 
little life has changed in the Low Countries since 
this picture was painted in 1660. A landscape, tree 
and farmhouse occupy the background, and peas- 
ants, busy at various occupations, are grouped in 
the foreground. From the stable on the right, a 
shepherd is leading a flock of sheep, which is re- 
garded with much interest by a dog. 



Plate XLiii 
{See page 330) 

Palais des 



rn,^^^^^^ UNIVERSITY 

Brussels 327 

Saftleven's Interior of a Grange is full of charm- 
ing details, such as household utensils, vegetables, 
children playing at ball, and an owl perched on a 
cabinet. A woman feeding chickens also contrib- 
utes an interesting episode. 

Another Dutch Interior, by Egbert Van der Poel, 
shows us a Dutch housewife plucking ducks by the 
side of a table, on which are placed kitchen utensils 
and vegetables. Other wooden and copper vessels 
lie on the floor. In the background, a peasant in 
a red bodice descends the staircase holding by the 

Pierre de Bloot shows an interior where five 
peasants smoke, drink, and play cards, unmindful 
of the two pigs at their trough. Adriaen Brouwer 
has a characteristic Quarrel over Cards; and also 
a more quiet scene where the peasants are smoking 
and drinking. 

Two Dutch interiors by Molenaer demand at- 
tention. In one, five persons are seated at a table 
and a sixth, standing with his back towards us and 
dressed in red, is cutting a ham. Other persons are 
variously grouped and one man is^ asleep. 

Very famous is t^ie Flemish Interior by Koedyck, 
representing a brightly lighted room with a high 
ceiling. Here we see, on the left, a chimney-piece 
on which are ranged porcelain plates and a copper 
candlestick; on the right a bed over which is bal- 

328 Ube Hrt ot tbc Belgian Galleries 

ustrade with open shutters above, through which 
peeps the head of a child. By the fire is a tall 
wooden settle. A woman, seated at a table, ap- 
pears to be rubbing it and by her side stands a boy 
who is looking out of the window. An interesting 
object is a cat resting on a foot-warmer. 

A charming work attributed to J. B. Weenix is 
that of a Dutch Lady at her toilet. She sits before 
her dressing-table and mirror in a chair of carved 
oak, dressed in a red bodice and a striped skirt of 
green, violet and white beneath which peeps a white 
satin slipper. She is adjusting her veil. There is 
a window on the left. Another picture of the same 
class is by Philip Van Dyck, but the lady is younger 
and has powdered hair, and on her dressing-table 
stand many toilet articles. This bears the date 

Teniers is one of the heroes of the Brussels Gal- 
lery. His chief works are the Five Senses, The Vil- 
lage Doctor, a Kermesse, a Flemish Landscape, 
Temptation of St. Anthony, Interior of the Arch- 
duke Leopold William's Gallery and Portrait of a 
Man in Black. In the first picture, Teniers shows 
how well he can paint people of high life as well 
as peasants, and of all his many representations of 
this subject, this is considered the best. It gains 
additional interest from the fact that the cavalier 

Brussels 329 

playing the guitar is Teniers himself, and the lady 
in blue who is smelling a lemon is his wife. 

The other characters represent the other senses. 
In the foreground on a chair lie a red mantle and a 
gray hat with plumes, and at the foot of the table 
stands a bread basket. Also to be noticed is a mon- 
key with chain and ball. The Village Doctor is a 
splendid picture of a contemporary laboratory. 
The doctor is seated at a table with an open book 
before him, examining a bottle. An old woman is 
seen in the middle distance and also three men. All 
the utensils of the laboratory are wonderfully 
treated. The Kermesse in this gallery is one of 
the best representations of its class, and was painted 
in 1652. Various classes and types appear. On 
the right in front of an inn ten persons are eating 
and drinking. Other groups are busy drinking, 
eating, flirting, love-making, and dancing. On the 
left, a cavalier supposed to be Teniers dressed in 
black advances, holding by the hand a lady dressed 
in yellow wath fan in hand whose train is borne by 
a page. They are followed by two young girls and 
in the distance the carriage waits their pleasure. 
In the background on the left the chateau of Dey 
Thoren is seen. The Flemish Landscape is a pretty 
scene where a river bordered with trees and build- 
ings crosses obliquely towards the background; on 

330 Ube Hrt of tbe Belatan ealleries 

the right, a bridge and a garden with open gate; 
and on the left peasant woman milking a cow with 
a man talking to her. The Temptation of St. 
Anthony was one of Teniers' favourite subjects. In 
this version, the saint sits in a grotto with an open 
book in his hands, and an old woman with her hand 
on his shoulder points out the monsters by which 
he is surrounded. A lady in black silk with won- 
derful bluish reflections offers him a diabolical 
beverage. Terrible noises must proceed from the 
animal musicians; one singer has birds' claws, a 
fiddler the head of a fish, and an oboist the head 
of an animal. In the background among the rocks 
are seated St. Paul and St. Anthony the Hermit, 
to whom a raven is bringing bread. The gallery 
of the Archduke Leopold William represents the 
Archduke with a flower in his hand examining a 
drawing that Teniers is showing him. Two per- 
sons stand behind the prince, one of whom holds 
a bronze figurine. The walls are covered with 
pictures. The Portrait shows a man in black with 
yellow gloves, behind whom is a landscape. 

A Gallant Offering is typical of Jan Steen's 
humour. It takes place in a room with a window 
and curtained bed in the background, and an open 
door on the right, through which a young man, 
dressed in gray with a red cap enters with a dancing 
step, holding a herring in one hand and two onions 

3Bru56el0 331 

in the other, which he wishes to present to a stout 
woman seated in the centre of the room, and who 
smilingly regards the present. Opposite sits her 
husband, so absorbed in the grave business of 
cracking nuts that he does not see the young man 
nor the glances exchanged between him and his 
better half. A servant woman, who is bringing in 
the coffee pot, is laughing heartily at the joke, while 
a man behind her, also enjoying the fun, puts his 
thumb to his nose and points derisively to the hus- 
band. A little dog in the foreground barks at the 

Steen's other pictures are the Recruiting Officers, 
once called the Rhetoricians, an inn scene; the 
Operator, in which a quack is operating upon the 
ear of a child ; and the Fete des Rois. 

In the latter we see the King astride of a barrel 
in disordered costume and wearing a paper crown. 
Harlequin and a woman are on his right, and sev- 
eral other persons are variously grouped. One car- 
ries a death's head on a dish. 

The Flemish Wedding by Theodore Van Thulden 
is one of the most valued pictures of familiar life. 
Here we have a merry wedding scene graced by 
the presence of the lord of the castle, who with his 
wife is seated on a mound while another couple are 
standing in the foreground. Their servants ac- 
company them and the carriage waits in the dis- 

332 XTbc Hrt ot tbe JSelgtan Galleries 

tance. The peasants are full of joy. The bride is 
seated in the centre of a long table with a floral 
crown suspended over her head, her companions are 
eating and drinking, groups of dancers are making 
merry on the green, and the bagpipe player is stand- 
ing on a barrel. 

Among portrait painters Cornelis de Vos occu- 
pies a high place. It is said that Rubens, who 
could not undertake all the offers that came to him, 
frequently sent his patrons to this artist with the 
words : " Go to Cornelis de Vos ; he is my second 
self." The Portrait of the Artist and his Family 
in this gallery is his masterpiece. De Vos is seated 
in the centre in the middle distance, seen full face, 
his black costume bringing out the blonde of his 
hair, moustache and beard; his right arm rests on 
the back of a chair, on which a child is seated, wear- 
ing a green dress with white stripes, a white cap 
and lace cuffs, and handing some grapes to its 
father from a bowl of fruit in its lap. Directly in 
front is a little girl in white with a green apron, and 
a white cap on her blonde hair. She wears a fine 
necklace and bracelets, and rests her hand on her 
mother's dress, as she looks at the spectator with 
the frank curiosity of her years. The artist's wife 
is seated in an arm-chair near a table covered with 
an Oriental cloth. She wears a black dress and a 
white waistcoat embroidered with gold, beautiful 

Brussels 333 

lace cuffs and a round plaited ruff of enormous 

A highly interesting portrait that has been the 
subject of much controversy of late years is one 
that was described in the inventory of Margaret 
of Austria as '' a portrait of the son of Philip the 
Good," by Van der Weyden. It represents the 
famous Charles the Bold in black doublet, with red 
cap on his brown hair and the Order of the Golden 
Fleece around his neck, while in his hand he holds 
an arrow. Mr. Wauters thinks that this arrow 
signifies Charles's devotion to St. Sebastian, to 
whom he made a vow during a serious illness in 
July, 1467, and therefore could not be the work of 
Roger Van der Weyden, who was then dead, and 
he therefore accords it to Hugo Van der Goes. 
Still, Charles the Bold may have been a devotee 
of St. Sebastian or a member of some archery guild 
before this date. 

Two extraordinary portraits, both dated 1425, 
may be mentioned, supposed to be the work of the 
Maitre de Flemalle. One represents Barthelemy 
Alatruye, councillor of the Chambre des comptes in 
Lille, and who died at The Hague in 1446; and 
the other, his wife, Marie Pacy, who died in the 
same year. Their arms appear on the backgrounds 
of these pictures, which are dated 1425. Though 
they have suffered much from repainting, they are 

334 Ube Hrt of tbe JSelgtan Galleries 

striking works. Not only are the faces full of char- 
acter, but the details of the costumes are remarkable. 
Note the pins that hold the great folded head-dress 
of the lady, her jewelled necklace and her furred 
collar and sleeves; and note the rings on the coun- 
cillor's fingers, and the fur of his costume; but 
more particularly the wrinkles around his bright, 
keen eyes. 

Hals's splendid Portrait of Willem Van Hey- 
thuysen, founder of a hospital in Haarlem, shows 
him seated at a table dressed in olive doublet with 
white collar and cuffs, broad-brimmed hat of black 
felt and great yellow leather boots with silver spurs. 
In his hands he is holding a riding-whip. A book 
lies on the table and on the right is a greenish cur- 
tain. A landscape is discerned in the background. 

A portrait of a professor of the University of 
Leyden, Jan Hoornebeek, in the black gown of his 
office, is dated 1645. 

Probably the last work by the skilful and delight- 
ful brush of Paul Moreelse hangs here, dated 1638, 
the year of his death. It represents a young man 
dressed in a red coat, the sleeves of which are 
lined with green, holding a beautiful apple in his 
hand. Fetis thinks this may be a Dutch Paris of- 
fering the apple to some Utrecht beauty. 

Philippe de Champaigne's famous likeness of 
himself presents him with his right hand on his 


(See page 333) 

Palais des 






Brussels S35 

breast and in his left a roll on which is the date 
1668. The head stands out from a background of 
trees. In the distance is a view of Brussels where 
the towers of St. Gudule and the spire of the Hotel- 
de-Ville may be distinguished. This is a copy of 
the one in the Louvre. 

There is also a portrait of the artist by Gerard 
Dou seated at a table and drawing by the light of 
a lamp. He is about thirty years of age, and wears 
a kind of yellow dressing-gown and a close cap. 

Three Portraits by Ferdinand Bol are of inter- 
est : one, a distinguished looking man in black, who 
is putting on his left glove; the second a young 
lady in black with rich pearls, and the third one of 
Rembrandt's wife, Saskia, in red velvet and diadem, 
necklace and earrings of pearls. 

Rembrandt has two portraits, one of a man in 
black with lace collar and cuffs, holding a glove in 
his left hand, signed and dated 1641 ; and one of 
a woman signed and dated 1654, purchased in 1886 
for 100,000 francs. 

Pieter Pourbus, one of the greatest portrait- 
painters of his time, and whose studio in Bruges 
was the most beautiful one Van Mander had ever 
seen, is represented by what was probably his last 
work, a Portrait of J. Van der Gheenste, mayor 
and counsellor of Bruges, in black with a large 
ruff. It is signed and dated 1583. 

336 Ubc art ot tbc Belgian (Balleries 

His son and pupil Frans has the Portrait of a 
Man with short hair and reddish beard, dressed in 

There is also a Portrait of B. Van der Heist by 
himself. The picture is dated 1664. The artist 
is dressed in black, with band trimmed with lace, 
his long hair falling over his shoulders, and short 
moustache. He holds his gloves in his left hand. 
A large red curtain furnishes the background. An 
accompanying work that passes for his wife has 
also a red curtain for a background. Her dress is 
black over a white satin petticoat; she has sleeves 
clasped with gold buttons and necklace and brace- 
lets of pearls. In her right hand she holds a fan, 
and rosettes of gray ribbon ornament her hair. 
This picture is also dated 1664, but it does not jus- 
tify the beauty of Constantia Reinst, w^ho was said 
to unite the beauty and wit of Venus and Minerva. 

Antonio Moro's Portrait of the Duke of Alva, 
standing three-quarters to the right, with short hair 
and grayish beard and moustache, is a strong work. 
He is in armour and across his shoulder a red scarf 
is thrown, and around his neck is hung the order 
of the Golden Fleece. He wears his mailed gaunt- 
lets, and rests one hand on a table and holds a baton 
of command. 

Fromentin calls him a tragic and sombre angular 
and severe personage imprisoned in his armour and 

J5rU0Sel6 337 

stiff as an automaton, so black and hard and cold 
that it seems as if the light of heaven could never 
pierce his coat-of-mail. 

There is also a Portrait of Sir Thomas More by 

Other notable portraits here are: Two interest- 
ing portraits of sisters, by Thomas de Keyser, each 
representing a Dutch lady in an arm-chair; Por- 
trait of the artist, by Pierre Van Lint; Portrait of 
a Man by Nicholas Maes ; The Syndics of the F'ish- 
mongers' Guild of Brussels by Pieter Meert; Michel- 
Angelo Cambiaso, by Raphael Mengs; Hubert 
Goltzius and Portrait of a Man by A. Mor; Por- 
trait of a Man by Jacques Van Oost; Portrait of 
an Old Woman and Portrait of Young Woman 
by J. Van Ravestein; Portrait of a Woman by 
Jan de Reyn; Portrait of a Man by Strozzi (de 
Cappuccino) ; Portrait of a Man by Van der Vliet; 
Portrait of a Man by Jan de Baen; a Man, by G. 
B. Castiglione; Portrait of C. Danckerts de Ry 
and another of his wife by Pieter Danckerts de Ry 
supposed to be their son; a Man, by J. W. Delff; 
Portrait of the artist by C. W. E. Dietrich; Chil- 
dren supposed to be by F. Du Chatel ; an Old Lady 
by G. Flinck; two portraits, by Titian, one of an 
old man with white beard and one of a young man 
with black hair and short black beard; three strik- 
ing works by Coello of the daughters of Charles V. : 

338 Zbc Hrt ot tbe Belgian Callertes 

Jeanne of Austria, standing by a column with 
gloves and fan in one hand while she rests the 
other on the head of a little negro. She is dressed 
in black and her hair and bodice glitter with jewels 
and pearls. Margaret of Parma has a bridle and 
bit in her hand, is dressed in black and white and a 
black velvet cap with plumes on the side. Marie 
of Austria stands by a table covered with a red 
cloth. She wears a black dress ornamented with 
white bows, a great enamelled cross on her breast, 
a golden belt and pearls and jewels in her hair. 

Van Dyck's Portrait of Alexander Dellafaille, 
magistrate of Antwerp, shows him in a doublet of 
black damask with large ruff, and holding a fold 
of his black cloak in his right hand. 

Among the foreign works and subjects is one 
supposed to be by a French artist representing 
young Edward VI of England seen full face, wear- 
ing a black cap with gold border and a red plume, 
black doublet with red sleeves, white collar and 
cuffs embroidered with black flowers. He rests his 
left hand on the hilt of his sword. 

Philippe de Champaigne is well represented in 
his native city. His works include an interesting 
series of episodes in the life of St. Benoit, which 
once ornamented the oratory of Anne of Austria at 
Val-de-Grace ; St. Genevieve; St. Joseph; St. Am- 
broise ; and St. Stephen ; and a Portrait of himself. 

Brussels 339 

There is no collection of pictures in Europe that 
presents more enigmas than this gallery. About 
nine-tenths of the works of the old Netherland and 
German Schools — many of which are important 
altar-pieces with wings — are attributed simply to 
the '' Flemish School." M. Fetis laboured dili- 
gently to discover the authors of many of these; 
but the Wauters Catalogue (1900, 2d ed. 1905) 
shows many changes and discoveries. 

A quaint old German work depicts Noah and his 
family about to enter the ark which is moored at 
the border of a canal in a smiling landscape. The 
animals must have been already taken aboard, for 
there is not a trace of them. Nor is there the slight- 
est suggestion of approaching cataclysm. 

Jesus at the House of Simon the Pharisee orig- 
inally belonged to the old collection of the French 
Kings : it is attributed to the School of Titian. 

Five guests are seated around a table under a 
portico; on the left Christ is seated in red robe and 
blue mantle and turns to the kneeling Magdalen, 
who, in brown robe and white kerchief, wipes his 
feet with her blonde hair. Beside her stands the 
pot of ointment. On the right a little boy in dark 
red with his left hand on the hilt of his sword, 
stands beside a friend in a yellow doublet with 
green sleeves, a violet cloak, a white turban under 
his helmet, who in turn is talking to a bare-headed 

340 XTbe Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

neighbour in red with a green cloak. Two Other 
guests are talking in the background where a serv- 
ant is going away with a dish in his hand. On the 
right two other servants in Turkish costume. One 
is carving on a table. A kneeling negro is filling 
a flagon, and in the foreground there is a black 
dog. Beyond the portico is a terrace overlooking 
a garden. 

The graceful Albani is seen here in Adam and 
Eve in Paradise after the Fall. Adam on the 
ground leans on one hand and holds in the other 
the apple that Eve has given him. Eve stands 
under the tree around which is wound the serpent. 

Cranach the Elder's portrait of Dr. Scheuring 
(dated 1528) is one of the most important in this 
collection; and is recognized in spite of its ugli- 
ness as one of the strongest and most characteristic 
works of the great German master. It is full face; 
the hair and beard are black, long and dishevelled. 
The loose upper coat is of a reddish brown and 
faced with fur. The hands are crossed. The colour 
of the background is bright blue. 

A very splendid Virgin Enthroned is by Vit- 
torio Crivelli. The Virgin, crowned and dressed 
in a green and gold mantle over a red dress with 
gold border is seated on a marble throne. The 
Child stands on her knees held by her hands, which 
are very large. The background is gold; and di- 

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Palais des 






JSrussels 34i 

rectly behind the Virgin is a white watered silk 
hanging. The steps of the throne are sculptured. 

A wing of the same altarpiece depicts St. Fran- 
cis opening his habit to show his wounds, also on 
a gold background. 

Juno bestowing her treasures upon Venice, for- 
merly a part of the ceiling in the hall of the Council 
of Ten in the Doges' Palace, carried to Paris in 
1797 and given to Brussels in 181 1, is a superb 
fragment in Veronese's best manner. The great 
Venetian has here also a Holy Family in which St. 
Theresa and St. Catherine are conspicuous. 




The Collection of Modern Pictures numbering 
about 300 paintings and 50 water colours and draw- 
ings is situated in L'Ancienne Cour, a building ad- 
joining the Royal Library, which was the residence 
of the Austrian Stadholders of the Netherlands 
after 1731. The entrance is at the end of the Place 
du Musee. Passing through a glass door, we reach 
the marble stairway, at the foot of which is a fine 
statue of Hercules, by Delvaux. The lower part 
of the walls of the stairway is lined with marble 
and the upper part and the upper portion with plas- 
tic ornaments in the Louis Seize style, while the 
frescoes of the ceiling represent the Four Seasons 
by Joseph Stallaert. 

On reaching the top we come to a rotunda and 
a door to the left admits us into the gallery, which 
consists of sixteen rooms. 

Here we find a complete record of modern paint- 


Brussels 343 

ing in Belgium from 1830 to the present time and 
also some works by the classicists, David Mathieu 
and Navez. We may recall to the reader that Louis 
Gallait, Edouard de Biefve, J. F. Portaels, Wiertz, 
Alexander Markelbach, J. Stallaert, J. B. Madou, 
Alfred Stevens, J. Stevens, E. Verboeckhoven, 
Theodore Fourmois, Edmond de Schampheleer, P. 
J. Clays, Hippolyte Boulenger, Theodore Baron, J. 
Rosseels, Victor Gilsoul, Frans Courtens, Isidore 
Verheyden, Alfred Verwee, A. Bouvier, Louis 
Artan, Charles de Groux, Louis Dubois, Constantin 
Meunier, Charles Hermans, Jan Verhas, Frans 
Verhas, and fimile Wauters are identified with 
Brussels painting. 

One of the most important works in this gallery 
is Gallait's Abdication of the Emperor Charles V 
in 1555. It was painted in 1841. Charles V is on 
the throne. At his feet kneels his son, Philip II; 
on his right, is his sister, Maria of Hungary, 
seated in an arm-chair; and on his left, William 
of Orange. This work is very fine in colour. 
Ranking with it is The Compromise by Edmond 
de Biefve, also painted in 1841, Tepresenting the 
petition of the Netherland nobles in 1556. Count 
Hoorn is signing the document; Egmont is seated 
in an arm-chair; Philip de Marnix is in a suit of 
armour ; William of Orange is in dark blue ; Mar- 
tigny jn white §atin, and behind him is the Count 

344 Ube Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballettes 

d'Arenberg. The Count Brederode is under the 

Among other historical pictures we must notice 
The Widow of Jacques Van Artevelde Giving up 
her Jewels for the State, by F. Pauwels ; the Begin- 
ning of the Revolution of 1830 at the H6tel-dc- 
Ville in Brussels by G. Wappers; the Emperor 
Henry IV at Canossa in 1077, by A. Claysenaar; 
the Citizens of Ghent doing homage at the Cradle 
of Charles V, by A. de Vriendt, and also by 
the same artist, Excommunication of Bouchard 
d'Avesnes on account of his interdicted marriage 
with Margaret of Flanders; a Funeral Mass for 
Berthal de Haze by H. Leys, and, by the same 
painter. The Sermon (in the Reformation Period) 
and Restoration of the Roman Catholic Service in 
the Antwerp Cathedral in 1566. 

Another famous work is the Prior of the Au- 
gustine Monastery trying to cure the madness of 
Hugo Van der Goes by means of Music, by E. Wau- 
ters; the Cuirassiers of Waterloo by A. Hubert; 
Belgium Crowning her Famous Sons, by H. de 
Caisne; Battle of Lepanto in 1571, by E. Slinge- 
neyer; Erasmus, by J. Van Lerius; Siegfried of 
Westerburg, Archbishop of Cologne, before his 
captors, Duke John of Brabant and Count Adolph 
of Berg, by ISf. de Keyser; and several by L. Gal- 
lait, including the Violinist (art and liberty), 

Brussels 345 

painted in 1849, and The Plague in Tournai 
(1092), one of the painter's last works. Nor must 
we forget to pause before G. Wappers's Charles I 
of England on his way to the scaffold and Charles 
de Groux's Junius preaching the Reformation in 
a house at Antwerp with the light from the stake 
shining through the window, painted in i860. 

Landscape forms the subject of a great number 
of pictures, from the style of Verboeckhoven and 
Kindermans to the more modern examples of the 
Barbizon and Tervueren schools and to the still 
more modern impressionist painters. 

The great animal painter, Alfred Verwee, has 
many fine works in this gallery, including Cattle by 
a River; Zealand Team (1873) > Pasture in Flan- 
ders (1884) and Cattle at Pasture (1888). Cattle 
at Pasture in Picardy and Cattle beside the Scheldt 
by J. H. L. de Haas should also be noticed. L. 
Robbe's Landscape with Cattle in the Campines of 
Antwerp and Cattle at Pasture near Courtrai; 
Cows in an Avenue, by Em. Claus and a Cattle- 
Market in the Slaughter House at Brussels, by E. 
de Pratere, and Cattle in the Roman Campagna, by 
E. Verboeckhoven, are all of high excellence. A 
characteristic work of the last-named painter is his 
Flock of Sheep in a Thunderstorm, painted in 


A Stable by J. Stobbaerts is a good work and 

846 Ube Hrt of tbe Belatan 6allerie5 

also a Shepherd Dog Fighting an Eagle by Charles 
Verlat. Horses in Winter, by J. L. Montigny 
(1890) ; a Cat Playing, by E. Van der Bosch; and 
J. Stevens's Dog before a Mirror and Dog Market 
in Paris are excellent examples of his style. 

J. Stevens's Morning in the Streets of Brussels 
should be compared with Daybreak in the Capital 
by Charles Hermans. 

There is a very decorative Landscape by J. B. 
Kindermans and also a Scene in the Ambleve Val- 
ley; a Scene in the Campines near Antwerp 
(i860); and a Landscape near Edeghem by F. 
Lamoriniere and also a Landscape painted in 

H. Boulenger's Forest-Scene, Sylvan Landscape 
(1865), Avenue des Charmes at Tervueren, Au- 
tumn Morning and View of Dinant are among this 
painter's best productions. 

Theodore Fourmois's Scene in the Campine near 
Antwerp is also one of his most famous works. 
Then, too, we should note Victor Gilsoul's Calm 
and November Evening; Frans Courtens's cele- 
brated Milkmaid, painted in 1896, and also his Re- 
turn from Church and Shower of Gold; A. J. 
Heymans's Heath; E. Beernaert's Landscape with 
Ponds (1886) and Edge of a Wood in Zealand 
(1878); Theodore Baron's Winter Landscape; A. 

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J5rU8Sel5 347 

J. Hamesse's Evening in the Campines of Antwerp 
(1883) ; E. de Schampheleer's The Old Rhine near 
Gouda (1875),; Marie CoUart's Fruit-Garden in 
Flanders; Isidore Verheyden's Trees (1898) and 
Woman Gathering Wood; J. Rosseels's Heath and 
Landscape in the Campines; Joseph Theodore 
Coosemans's Chestnut Woods in the Campines of 
Antwerp; F. Crabeels's Hay Harvest; F. van 
Leemputten's Peat-Cutters; J. de Greef's Fond at 
Anderghem; and A. de Knyff's The Forest of 
Stolen and The Deserted Gravel Pit. 

In connection with the latter we may look at 
Alfred Stevens's picture of the Studio of A. Knyff. 
The versatile Stevens is also represented by Men- 
tone (road to Cap Martin), 1894; Portrait of a 
Lady, called ''The Lady Bird" (1880); The 
Young Widow (1883) ; In the Studio; and Lady 
in a light Pink Dress. 

H. Leys's Portrait of Himself hangs here; and 
there are several fine portraits in the room devoted 
to the foreign schools by Goya; G. Courbet of 
Alfred Stevens, the painter; Sir Thomas Law- 
rence; Sir Henry Raeburn; and. Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds's Portrait of W. Chambers, the architect. 

Among the best pictures in this part of the gal- 
lery we may cite E. Fromentin's Thirsty Land, a 
caravan in the Sahara, painted in 1869; Goya's 

348 Zbc Htt ot tbe jBelgtan (Ballettes 

Scene from the Inquisition and G. Courbet's ^' La 
Manolla," a Spanish dancer, and Torrent; and H. 
W. Mesdag's Sunset at Sea painted in 1895. 

Among marines the best are : Coast near Ostend 
by P. J. Clays, who also has a notable Roads 
of Antwerp (1869) and a Calm on the Scheldt; 
Sunblink on a Rough Sea by A. Bouvier, who 
has also a Sea Piece; and a Sea Piece by Louis 

Turning to genre we find F. de Braekeleer's The 
Golden Wedding, painted in 1839, and Distribution 
of Fruit at a School ; and Henri de Braekeleer's The 
Waterhuis at Antwerp; The Geographer; Stall; 
and Spinner; Florent Willems's The Bride's Toi- 
let; Alfred Cluysenaar's The Infant Painter; J. 
B. Madou's Fortune-Teller ; Village Politicians, 
and Mischief-Maker, a Flemish scene in the Eigh- 
teenth Century; V. Lagye's Sorceress; Joost Im- 
pens's Flemish Tavern ; Jul. de Vriendt's Christmas 
Carol (1894); J. Ensor's Lamp Cleaner; Charles 
de Groux's Departure of the Recruit; Saying 
Grace; Drunkard by the Corpse of his Neglected 
Wife; and A Funeral; C. Meunier's Tobacco Fac- 
tory at Seville; E. de Block's Reading in the Bible; 
G. de Jonghe's The Young Mother; H. Bource's 
Bad News ; and J. Verhas's Review of the Schools, 
on the occasion of the silver wedding of the King 
and Queen of the Belgians in 1878. The procession 

^Brussels 349 

is passing the Palace in front of which are the King 
and Queen and other persons of importance. 


One could pause a long while in the Grande 
Place, one of the finest Mediaeval squares in exist- 
ence, to describe its architectural features and its 
historical associations. There was not an incident 
in the city's history, not a revolt, nor an execution, 
nor a festival, nor a ceremony, of which it was not 
the scene; and here tilts and tournaments took 
place and the entries of sovereigns were brilliantly 
and joyously celebrated. Our destination, however, 
is the H6tel-de-Ville, the most interesting building 
in Brussels. The principal fagade facing the square 
is Gothic and was built in 1402-1443, and the 
light and graceful spire, 370 feet high, was finished 
in 1454 and is surmounted by a gilded figure of the 
Archangel Michael, made by Martin Van Rode in 
1454. The architects of the building were Jacob 
Van Thienen and Jan Van Ruysbroeck. A statue 
of the latter occupies the first niche in the tower. 
The whole facade is adorned with niches and 

Entering the building by the " Lions' Staircase," 
restored in the style of the Fifteenth Century, we 
reach the great Salle des Fetes, a magnificent hall 
adorned with oak carvings after designs by Jamaer, 

350 Ube Hrt ot tbe JSelotan (Balleties 

the city architect, and hung with superb tapestries 
representing the guilds, executed at Mechhn from 
designs by W. Geefs. 

From this hall, we enter the Salle des Marriages, 
lined with oak panelling and adorned with allegor- 
ical frescoes. Through an ante-room, the visitor 
passes into the Council Hall, where Egmont and 
Hoorn were condemned to death. The decorations 
date from the end of the Seventeenth Century, and 
here we find splendid tapestries of this period re- 
presenting the entrance of Philip the Good of Bur- 
gundy, the Abdication of Charles V, etc., from the 
designs by Victor Janssens, the author of the ceil- 
ing painting, depicting Olympus and its gods. 

In addition to portraits of former sovereigns, 
Maria Theresa, Francis II, Joseph II, Charles VI, 
Charles V, Philip III of Spain, Charles II of Spain, 
Philip IV, Philip II in Robe of the Golden Fleece, 
and the Archduke Albert and Isabella, his wife, 
there are portraits, busts and statues of famous 
burgomasters and several wall and ceiling paintings 
representing civic and allegorical subjects, by Count 
J. de Lalaing, Cardon and Em. Wauters. At the 
foot of the stairway in the corridor is a large pic- 
ture by Stallaert, representing the Death of Eber- 
hard T'Serclaes, a magistrate of Brussels, painted 
in 1883, and also the Assyrians Pillaging a Moa^' 
bitish Town, by Ernest Vandenkerckhoven. 

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1— 1 














I • ■ V .' 

Brussels 351 

Views of Old Brussels before 1873, by J. B. Van 
Moer, are in the Salle d'Attente; two pictures by 
F. A. Bossuet of Old Brussels, painted when the 
artist was ninety years old, are in the Cabinet de 
Techevin de Tetat civil; and there is an interesting 
altar-piece in the Salle de Maximilien, by a Belgian 
painter of the Fifteenth Century, representing epi- 
sodes in the Virgin's life. Portraits of Maximilian 
and his wife, Maria of Burgundy, by Cluysenaar, 
hang over the chimney-piece in this room. 

In the ante-chamber there are ten decorative 
panels representing kermesses and landscapes of the 
Flemish school of the Eighteenth Century, which 
formerly decorated a brewery in Brussels. 

Musee Communal 

La Maison du Roi, on the Grande Place, also 
known as the Halle au Pain, contains a small col- 
lection of pictures quite worth a visit. The building 
itself is one of the most charming specimens of 
Belgian civic architecture of the Sixteenth Century. 
It was erected in 15 14-1525 in the transition style 
from Gothic to Renaissance and was restored in 
1 876- 1 895 according to the plans of the original 
architect, Louis Van Bodeghem (or Van Beu- 
ghem). The interior fittings are also in the style of 
the period. It was in the great saloon on the second 
floor that Counts Egmont and Hoorn passed the 

352 xibe Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

night before their execution (5 June, 1568) and 
from it passed to the block by means of a scaffold 
especially erected. On the second floor is the Musee 
Communal, or Municipal Museum, established in 
1887 (entrance Rue du P'oivre), where are pre- 
served models and views of old Brussels buildings, 
banner, sculpture, the clothes with which the Man- 
nikin Fountain has occasionally been dressed, and 
treasures in china, faience, and metal, as well as 
prints and coins. The picture gallery contains ex- 
amples of Snyders, A. Moro, Goltzius, Bol, Cuyp 
and Mierevelt, and a few works by German and 
Italian masters. 

Musee Wiertz 

Among the show-places of Brussels that the trav- 
eller rarely fails to visit is the Wiertz Museum, 
situated in the rue Vautier, near the Zoological 
Gardens. It was originally the studio of the eccen- 
tric painter, Antoine Joseph Wiertz, whose chief 
works were gathered here, and now belongs to the 
Belgian nation. 

The building is in the form of an ancient temple 
to which Wiertz was about to add two wings at 
the time of his death. 

On entering the stranger's first feeling is one of 
surprise. The pictures are arranged in a long hall. 
The upper tier consists of colossal works some of 

Brussels 353 

which are thirty feet high, and are, for the most 
part, sombre in colour and lugubrious in subject, 
representing, as a visitor remarked, " awful specta- 
cles of woe and of suffering, masses of figures 
blended together, dead or dying; flight and per- 
plexity, together with forms of mighty genii of 
sorrowful and pitiful countenances with hands 
bringing comfort and blessing to perishing worlds 
— and all floating, ascending, descending, in be- 
wildering multitudes. '' Lower down a second tier 
of paintings. These, many of them, if not all, en 
peinture mate, richer 'in colour, and mostly episodes 
out of the earth-life and modern-life, and frequently 
very humble life, but none the less tragic — it may 
even be all the more tragic. Here and there a bit 
of whimsical drollery — here and there a bit of 
weird witchcraft, or magic — here and there, but 
very rarely, a little, a very little bit of sunshine 
and of peace, of rich bright landscape and peaceful 
idyllic life. The impression made upon the mind 
is firstly, surprise; secondly, the conviction that 
Wiertz was a man possessed of no ordinary powers 
of imagination and of no ordinary powers of exe- 

Every subject seems to have attracted this mad 
genius who has been described as having the heavy 
tread of an elephant, an imagination dark as a thun- 
der cloud and a brush broad as a besom. 

354 Ube Hrt ot tbe JBelgtan (Ballcries 

Subjects drawn from Homer, Scriptural, Chris- 
tian, symbolic, romantic, weird, satirical, humour- 
ous, pathetic and philosophical themes are here 
treated with a savage force and fury. The strange 
individuality of Wiertz is best exhibited in those 
works that contain a philosophical idea, such as the 
Genius of War, the Civilization of the Nineteenth 
Century, A Blow from the Hand of a Belgian 
Woman, the Orphans, the Last Cannon and the 
Things of the Past regarded by the Men of the 

The Genius of War is typified by Napoleon 
Buonaparte, who is standing in Hell, in his white 
coat, cocked hat drawn over his forehead, folded 
arms, lips compressed as with pain and livid face. 
Thin Hvid and lurid flames issue from his vitals; 
and, encircling him and pressing upon him, is a 
crowd of phantoms — widows, orphans and parents 
who have been bereft through him of their loved 
ones. They bring him reeking members of bodies 
and ofifer him with curses a cup of blood. 

The Genius of Civilization destroying the Last 
Cannon represents an enormous battle field, where 
dead and dying men and horses are lying in the twi- 
light. In a sort of aurora-like glow, the Genius of 
Civilization, in purple and gold, is breaking asunder 
a cannon, and behind her are the figures of Wisdom, 
Science, Labour, Industry and Agriculture, with 

JSrussels 355 

brows wreathed with the olive, corn and vine — 
bringing the blessings of peace. 

The Things of the Past regarded by the Men of 
the Future represents a cannon, a sceptre, a crown 
and an arch of triumph in the palm of an enormous 
hand. Through the clouds the faces of a man, a 
woman and a child look with pity and amusement 
upon these curiosities. 

The Contest for the Body of Patroclus painted 
in 1839 and The Triumph of Christ painted in 
1848 are considered his best works. Patroclus is 
a fine study of the nude. The figure lies in the cen- 
tre horizontally and Greeks and Trojans are con- 
tending for the possession of it, while, in the back- 
ground, Jupiter is about to throw a great rock at 
the Trojans. 

The Triumph of Christ is an original, imaginative 
and reverential conception. Here the Saviour in 
the character of a judge, hiding his face and clos- 
ing his eyes on a scene of violence, points the hand 
upwards to the light and a kingdom eternal. The 
chiaroscuro is worthy of Rembrandt, the idea is 

Among the other Scriptural pictures of special 
note are : The Flight into Egypt ; The Education 
of the Virgin ; The Sleep of the Infant Jesus ; The 
Descent of the Rebel Angels; and The Beacon of 

356 Ubc Hrt ot tbe Belgian (Ballertes 

Among '' the wild nightmares of the brain " are : 
Thoughts and Visions of a Head Cut Off; A Sec- 
ond After Death ; Hunger, Madness and Crime ; A 
Scene in Hell; The Birth of the Passions; The 
Burned Child; The Suicide; The Novel Reader, 
and Precipitate Inhumation, — all of which are in- 
tended to convey lessons. 

The Artist's Mother, too, should be noticed, — a 
peasant seated at her spinning-wheel, before the 
chimney, and wearing a red dress, a black apron, 
a plaid fichu of blue and yellow, and a white cap. 

As a specimen of Wiertz's lighter vein, there is 
a picture of a young girl in a garden admiring a 
rose bush from which unseen by her a little Cupid 
aims at her breast a fatal arrow. The spectator 
will be amused at a representation of the old story 
of the three wishes, where a magnificently dressed 
fairy waves her wand over the heads of the old 
peasant and his wife, she having wished for a sau- 
sage and he that it would stick to her nose. The 
old man is jumping in terror to see that this has 
occurred. Forge of Vulcan is also a notable 

Before leaving the Wiertz Museum, we must 
note a number of terra cotta and plaster groups of 
sculpture, also by Wiertz, which he intended to 
execute on a colossal scale ; and also several " sur- 
prises," painted upon the corners of the walls and 

■Si ^ 








1-1 X3 

i-i <o 

« <v, 






0) <^ 


^ s: 


—1 ^ 








^^1 I rroc np LIBERA'- A'^'-' 

3BrU96el6 357 

hidden behind screens. If the visitor's curiosity is 
excited, and he looks to see what is concealed, in 
the one case a chained dog is ready to attack him, 
or a Calabrian brigand points his loaded carabine 
at the intruder. In another place, through a half 
opened window, a young girl offers a rose. 

The general impression produced by this strange 
gallery is well described by J. Beavington Atkin- 
son, who writes: 

'' The Musee Wiertz presents pictorial and men- 
tal phenomena without parallel in Europe : the in- 
congruous creations here collected reach the grand 
and then descend into the grotesque; rise to the 
sublime and then fall into the ridiculous. The gal- 
lery is as a pictorial pandemonium, wherein rages 
the perpetual conflict between good and evil, God 
and devil, the carnal consuming the spiritual, and 
blasphemy raising its voice against religion. The 
artist has portrayed his character in his pictures; 
indeed, he may almost be said to have written his 
autobiography in the tumultuous composition of 
The Revolt of Hell against Heaven. Here demons 
are in mortal combat with angels, dragons belch out 
fire in the face of heaven, lightnings rend rocks 
asunder, the crack of doom has come. 

" In the way of ultra-naturalism I recall a brutal 
scene, wherein the mother cuts off the leg of her 
child and places it in a pot on the fire; likewise 

358 Ube Hrt of tbe :Belatan Galleries 

another repulsive composition of a woman depicted 
in two characters placed side by side : in the one 
she is gaily dressed, in the other she appears abso- 
lutely naked. In a third picture, a woman is seen 
bursting alive from a coffin. There are, also, some 
poor and childish monstrosities from the story of 
Gulliver. The Museum is likewise furnished with 
a series of peep-shows, after the manner of country- 
fairs, and further attraction is sought by sundry pic- 
torial tricks. Thus, a man is seen asleep at an open 
window, and in order to enhance the illusion, an 
actual shutter is hung on hinges against the wall. 
These examples may suffice to show that the paint- 
er's naturalism was of a low order." 



Abdication of Charles V, 

Gallait, loi, 343 
Abshoven, 80 
Accountant, The, Massys, 


Achtschelling, Lucas, 243 

Adam and Eve, Cranach, 
224; Van Eyck, 4, 261-2 

Adoration of the Lamb, 
The, Van Eyck, 2-8 

Adoration of the Kings, 
Rubens, 174-5 

Adoration of the Magi, 
Bosch, 280; Van Eyck, 
262-3; MemHng, 1 14-15; 
P. Van Mol, 198-9; Ru- 
bens, 284-5; Seghers, 70; 
Swart, 280 

Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, De Craeyer, 301 ; 
Floris, 160-1 ; Jordaens, 

Adriaensen, Alexander, 76 

Aertszen, P., 44, 324 

Aken, Jerome Van. See 

Alchemist, Ryckaert, 324 

Allegory, Jordaens, 304 

Allegory of Justice, Rom- 
bouts, 238 

Alsloot, Denis Van, 51, 310 

Angels, Fall of the Rebel, 
Floris, 159-160 

Animals, Hondecoeter, 214 
Annunciation, S. Martini, 

217-18; R. Van der Wey- 

den, 146 
Antonello da Messina, 9, 

149, 219-220 
Archers' Brotherhood, The, 

Artan, L,, no 
Arthois, Jacques d', 94-95, 

Architectural pictures, 49, 

214-15, 317-19 
Assche, Van, 105 
Assumption of the Virgin, 

A. Bouts, 271-2; M. Van 

Coxie, 275-6; Rubens, 

Autumn, Brueghel, 283 

Baertsoen, A., no 

Balen, H. Van, 70, 71, 83, 

Baptism of Christ, David, 

123-5; Rubens, 179; M. 

de Vos, 162-3 
" Barbizon, The Belgian," 

Baron, Th., 107 
Bats, F. de Braekeleer, 250 
Bellegambe, Jean, 19, 26, 28, 

Berckheyde, G., 215 




Beschey, B., 99 

Bethesda, Pool of, Boeyer- 

maiis, 206 
Biefoe, E. de, loi, 226, 343 
Biloque, Hospice de la, 

Ghent, i 
Binje, 108 

Birds, Pictures of, 322 
Biset, Charles E., 94, 315 
Bles, Herri Met de, 25, 169, 

273, 295 
Blieck, M., no 
Bloemen, Frans Van, 95 
Blondell, Lancelot, 19, 24, 

28, 30, 134-135, 273 
Boch, Anna, 108, 109 
Boeyermans, T., 85-86, 206, 

Boel, Peter, 248 
Bol, F, 335 
Bol, Hans, 48 
Bosch, Jerome, 19, 21, 27, 

Boudewyns, A., 96 
Boulenger, H., 106 
Bout, Pieter, 82, 207 
Bouts, Albert, 18, 271 
Bouts, Thierry, 15-18, 145- 

146, 265-7 
, Bouvier, A., no 

Braekeleer, F. de, 102, 226, 

Braekeleer, H. de, 102, 226 
Brakenberg, Richard, 213 
Bredael, J. Van, 97 
Bree, M. I. Van, 102 
Bril, Matthys, 47 
Bril, Paul, 47-8 
Broeck. Elie Van den, 78 
Broederlain, Melchior, i 
Brueghel, Abraham, 'j'j, 78 
Brueghel, Ambroise, yy 
Brueghel, Droll. See Pieter 
Brueghel, "Hell fire," 42, 

71, 194-195, 282 
Brueghel, Jan B., 78, 283 
Brueghel, Peasant. See 


Brueghel, Pieter, 41-2, 78, 

246, 282 
Brueghel, Velvet, 42, 74, 306 
Bruges, Academy, 1 19-135 
Bueckelaer, Joachim, 44 

Caesar's Penny, M. de Vos, 

Caledonian Boar Hunt, Ru- 
bens, 293 

Cambyses, Judgment of, 
David, 120-122 

Capelle, J. Van de, 209 

Cavaliers, Two, Cuyp, 209 

Cercle I'Essor, 108 

Champaigne, P. de, 97, 334, 

Charles the Bold, 333 

Christ about to Strike the 
World, Rubens, 288-90 

Christ and the Angels, 
Memling, 149 

Christ in the Arms of God, 
Flemish School, 251 

Christ Carrying the Cross, 
Rubens, 290-2 

Christ on the Cross, Ru- 
bens, 173, 258 

Christ the Pilgrim, M. 
Pepyn, 198 

Christ, Triumph of, Wiertz, 

Circumcision, The, Coxie, 

Claessens, Antoine, 40 
Classicism, French, 100 
Classists, 105 
Clays, P. J., no 
Cleef, Jan Van, 63, 236 
Cleef, Josse, 36 
Cleef, Martin Van, 37 
Coeck, Peter of Alost, 33, 

Collart, Marie, 108, 228 
Compromise, The, E. de 

Biefve, loi, 343 
Concert, The Family, Jor- 

daens, 189-190 



Coninck, David de, 78 
Coninxloo, Gilles Van, 30 
Coninxloo, Jan Van, 30, 

Coninxloo, Pieter Van, 30 
Coques, Gonzales, 93, 199 
Coronation of St. Rosalie, 

De Craeyer, 235 
Coronation of the Virgin, 

Fourteenth Century, 144; 

Rubens, 287-8 
Coup de Lance, Rubens, 

Courtens, Frans, 107 
Coxie, Michael Van, 27, 34, 

163-4, 274-5, 296 
Coxie, Raphael Van, 62, 

Craesbeeck, J. Van, 93, 

Craeyer, Caspar de, 62-63, 

234-6, 300-2 
Cranach, 340 
Crivelli, 340 
Cross, Bearing of the, 

Brueghel, 195 
Cross, Descent from the, S. 

Martini, 218; P. Pourbus, 

132-3; Rubens, 185-186; 

R. Van der Weyden, 253 
Crown of Thorns, Van 

Coxie, 296 
Crucifixion, Van Dyck, 84, 

187; A. da Messina, 219- 

20; S. Martini, 218 
Cross, Elevation of the, 

Rubens, 182-185 
Cuyp, A., 209 

Daret, Jacques, 11 

David, Gerard, 19, 22-23, 

31, 120-125 
David, J. L., 100 
Dead Christ, De Craeyer, 

300; Memling, 115-116; 

Rubens, 179-180, 288 
Degreef, J., 108, 109 

Deipara Virgo, J. Mos- 
taert, 150 

Dejonghe, 104 

Denduyts, 108 

Delen, D. Van, 319 

'' Desserts," ';;^ 

Diepenbeeck, Abraham Van, 

Don, G., 335 

Dream of St. Joseph, Rom- 
bouts, 237-8 

Dubois, Louis, 108 

Duchatel, Frans, 80, 83, 244 

Diinwege, V. and H., 223-4 

Dusart, C. the Younger, 213 

Dutch Cook, Aertsen, 324 

Duvenede, 98 

Dyck, Anthony Van, 83-85, 
187-9, 246, 294, 338 

Eagles' Repast, Snyders, 

Ecce Homo, Mabuse, 170 
Egmont and Horn, Last 

Honours to, Gallait, loi, 

Egmont, Joost Van, 91 
Ehrenberg, W. Van, 51 
Engelbrechtsen, 151 
Entombment, Massys, 152-6; 

Van Dyck, 187-8. 

See Pieta 
Ertborn, F. J. Van, Collec- 
tion of, 139 
Es, Jacob Van, 'jd, 247-8 
Essen. See Es 
Eyck, Hubert Van, 1-8 
Eyck, John Van, 1-9, 125- 

128,^ 139-142, 262 

Farm, Visit to the, Brue- 
ghel, 194-5 
Fecundity, Jordaens, 305 
Fish. Painters of, 76-77, 

Fisher, Young, Hals, 216 
Fisherman, Young, Rem- 
brandt, 216 



Fishermen, Conversion of 

the, Jan Thomas, 257 
Fishes, Miraculous Draught 

of, De Craeyer, 300-1 
Fishmonger's Shop, A. Van 

Utrecht, 247 
Flemael, B., 97 
Flemalle, Abbey of, 11 
Flemish Art, 31 
Flemish Drinkers, The, 

Teniers, 199-200 
"Flemish Heda, The," 77, 

" Flemish Raphael, The," 

Flemish Renaissance, 13-15, 

Flight into Egypt, Patenier, 

Floris, Frans, 24, 27, 36, 

159-61, 269 
Flower-painters, 74-6 
Flowers, 109, 249, 320-1, 

" Fool, The." See Cleef, J. 

Fouquet, Jehan, 222 
Fouquieres, J., 87-88 
Fourment, Helen, 178 
Fourmois, T., 105 
Fra Angelico, 219 
Francken, Ambrose, 40, 

Francken, Frans the Elder, 

40. 165 
Francken, Frans the 

Younger, 165, 167-8 
Francken, Jerome, 40 
Frangois, Joseph, 108 
Fruit, 75-76, 319-21, 322 
Fyt, Jan, 67, 72-3, 193, 320-1 

Gaeremyn, 98 

Gallait, Louis, loi, 227, 

255-6, 257, 343, 344 
Galle, Jerome I, 77 
Geldorp. See Gortzius 
Genoels, A., 96, 205 

Gerard, Mark, 47 

Gevartius, Portrait of, Ru- 
bens, 181 

Ghent, Museum of, 233 

Ghering, Anthony, 51, 94 

Gheyn, Jacques de, 74 

Gillemans, J. P., 77 

Gilsoul, v., no 

Giotto, 218-19 

Glaeszone, Martin, 27 

Goes, Hugo van der, 20, 22, 
150, 253 

Gortzius, Gualdorp, 46-7 

Gossaert, 19, 24, 29, 295. 
See Mabuse 

Goubau, Anthony, 82, 204 

Goyen, J. Van, 208 

Groux, Charles de, 102, 228 

Guild of St. Luke, 136, 203 

Gysels, Pieter, 323 

Hals, Frans, 52-53, 246 
Hamesse, A., 108 
Harriers, Two, Fyt, 193 
Hecht, H. Van der, 108 
Heda, 248 
Heem, Jan David de, 77, 

306-7, 319 
Heere, Lucas de, 37, 40 
Heil, Daniel Van, 309 
Heist, B. van der, 336 
Hemessen, Jan Van, 35-36, 

240, 296 
Henvele, Antoine Van, 63 
Hermans, Charles, 103 
Herodias, Daughter of 

Massys, 152, 156 
Herp, Gerard Van, 90 
Herreyns, G. J., 99, 138 
Herri Met de Bles. See 

Heymans, A. J., 107 
Historical Pictures, 314-16, 

Hobbema, 208 
Hoeck, Jan Van, 90 
Hoefnagels, Georges, 74 
Holy Family, A. Bouts, 145; 



Diinwege, 223-4 ; Lie- 
maeckere, 239 ; Quellin, 
91-2; M. de Vos, 240 
Hondecoeter, M. d', 214, 

Hospital of St. John, 

Bruges, 111-119 
Hotel-de-Ville, Antwerp, 
230-232; Brussels, 349-51 ; 
Louvain, 25O-2 
Houckgeest, G., 214-5 
HuUe, Anselmn Van, 63 
Human Calamities, L. Lom- 
bard, 280 
Hunt, The, Rubens, 180 
Huysmans, Cornells, 95 
Huysmans, Jan B., 95 

Impressionism, 108 
Impressionists, 107-108 
Inauguration of King of 

Spain, Duchatel, 244-6 
Interiors, 213-214, 326-8 
Invalid, Visit to the, E. 

Van der Neer, 211 
Italian influence, 28 
Italian landscapes, 209 

Janssens, Abraham, 54, 70, 

71, 193 
Janssens, V. H., 98 

Jesus in the House of 

Simon the Pharisee, A. 

Bouts, 272; Mabuse, 29, 

Joest, Jan, 268 

Jordaens, Hans, 206 

Jordaens, Jacob, 64-69, 189- 
91, 241, 326-8 

Jordaens, wife of, 190 

Judgment of Solomon, De 
Craeyer, 234 

Jupiter and Antiope, Ru- 
bens, 180 

Keelhof, 103 

Kermesse, Brakenberg, 213 

Kermesse, " Hell fire " 

Brueghel, 195 
Kermesse, D. Vinckboons, 

Kessel, Jan Van, ^^ 
Key, Adriaen, 201 
Key, Willem, 46 
Keyser, Nicaise de, loi, 137, 

Kindermans, J. B., 105 
Knyf, Wouter, 244 
Knyff, A. de, 106-107 
Koedyck, 327 

Lady with the Pink, School 

of Van Orley, 279 
Lagye, V., 102, 232 
Lairesse, Gerard de, 97 
Lamoriniere, J. P. F., 105 
Landscapes, 2, 25, 32, 39, 

103-9, 207-11, 243, 311-13, 


Landscape, Classic, 204, 205 

Last Judgment, The, R. 
Van Coxie, 242; Floris, 
269-71 ; G. Mostaert, 201 ; 
Van Orley, 32-33, 158-9; 
Prevost, 130-132; Pour- 
bus, 132 

Last Supper, The, A. Bouts, 
272; T. Bouts, 17; Peter 
Coeck, 274; M. Van 
Coxie, 275, 297; Jor- 
daens, 190-191 ; Key, 201 

Leemputten, F. Van, 109 

Lens, Andries, 99 

Leyden, Lucas Van, 26, 30, 

Leys,- Hendrik, 102, 225, 
230-1, 344, 347 

Liemaeckere, Nicholas de, 
56-57, 63, 238 

Lies, J., 102 

Lint, Peter Van, 193- 194 

Lombard, Lambert, 24, 28, 

36, 203 . ^ , 
Lot and His Daughters, 

Massys, 294 



Lucidel. See Neuchatel, 46 
Luminists, 109 

Mabuse, 26, 28, 29, 169-70, 

253, 295 
Madonna of the Canon 
Van der Paele, Van 
Eyck, 125-7, 142 
Madonna of the Forget-me- 
not, Rubens, 285 
Madonna of the Fountain, 

Van Eyck, 141-142 
Madonna and Child with 

Saints, Rubens, 186-187 
Madou, J. B., 102 
Magdalen, Massys, 157 
Mahu (or Mahy), Corne- 
lls, 248 
Maitre de Flemalle, 10, 18 
Maitre a la Souriciere, 11 
Mander, Karel Van, 26, 52, 

Mandolin Player, Ter 

Borch, 212 
Margaret of Austria, 11, 

170, 258, 277, 278, 282 
Massacre of the Innocents, 

L. Brueghel, 282 
Massys, Jan, 168, 294 
Massys, Quentin, 26-28, 

Mostaert, Jan, 281 
Maries Returning from 

Sepulchre, Mabuse, 169- 

Maries Returning from the 

Tomb, Massys, 157 
Master of the Assumption, 

Master of the Death of 

Mary, 10, 24 
Master of the Death of the 

Virgin, 268 
Master of the Mater Dolo- 
rosa, 24 
Master of the Mousetrap, 11 
Master of the Owl, 25 
Mathieu, L. J., 100 

Markelbach, A., 102 
Marines, 48-49, no, 209-11, 

313,. 348 

Marmion, Simon, 21 

Marriage of St. Catherine, 
Memling, 111-114; Vae- 
nius, 299 

Martini, Simone, 217-18 

Martyrdom of Saint Bla- 
sius, De Craeyer, 235 

Martyrdom, Four Crowned 
Condemned to, Francken, 
167, 168 

Martyrdom of St. Cosmos 
and Damian, Francken, 

Martyrdom of St. Crispin 
and St. Crispinian, 
Francken, 166-7 

Martyrdom of St. George, 
Schut, 205 

Martyrdom of St. Hypoli- 
tus, 16 

Martyrdom of St. Lievens, 
Rubens, 66, 290 

Martyrdom of St. Por- 
phyria, 53 

Martyrdom of St. Sebas- 
tian, ]\L Van Coxie, 
164-5; Memling, 268 

Meire, Gerard Van der, 19 

Memling, Hans, 9, 11-12, 
28, 111-119, 128-130, 148- 
50, 265 

Memmi ; see Martini 

Mercury and Argus, Ru- 
bens, 292 

Meunier, C, 102 

Miel, Jan, 78 

Millet, J. F., 96 

Mode gris, 106-7 

Modern Paintings, Gallery 
of, Antwerp, 225-229 

Mol, Pieter Van, 90, 198-9 

Momper, Josse de, 48 

Moro, Antonio, 27, 336 

Musical Party, Palamedes, 



Mostaert, Gilles, 30, 201 

Mostaert, Jan, 19, 24, 28, 
1 50- 1 

Multiplication of the 
Loaves, A. Francken, 

Municipal Museum, Liege, 
Picture gallery, 258-9 

Museum, Mechlin, 257-8 ; 
Ypres, 256-7 

Musee, Communal, Brus- 
sels, 351-2 

Musee, Royal des, Tournai, 

Musee, Beaux-Arts, Brus- 
sels, 136 

Musee de Peinture Mod- 
erne, Brussels, 342-9 

Musee Wiertz, 352-8 

Mythological Pictures, 316- 

Nativity, A. Bouts, 145 " 
Naturalism, 108 
Navez, F. J., 100, 250 
Neeffs (or Neefs), Peter, 

51, 243, 318 
Neeffs, Pieter the Younger, 

Neer, A. Van der, 210-11, 

Neer, Eglon Van der, 211 
Negroes, Heads of, Rubens, 

Neuchatel, Nicholas, 46 
New Church, Delft, Houck- 

geest, 214-5 
Noort, Adam Van, 51-52, 

57, 64. 
Noort, Catherine Van, 64 
Noort, Lambert Van, 165 

Oil Painting, Invention of, 

Offering, The Gallant, J. 

Steen, 330 
Ommeganck, B. P., 103 

Oost, Jacques Van, the El- 
der, 89, 135 

Oost, Jacques Van, the 
Younger, 89 

Orizzonte, 95 

Orley, B. Van, 24, 26, 28, 

30-33, 157-9, 277 
Orley, Richard Van, 98, 246 
Ostade, A., 325 
Ostade, Isaak Van, 208, 326 
Otho, Legend of, 265-7 
Ouderaa, P. van, 102 

Painters, Fifteenth Cen- 
tury, 19-20 

Painters, Sixteenth Cen- 
tury, 26-27, 41, 64, 74 

Painters, Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, 98 

Pan and Syrinx, Jordaens, 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, 
Brussels, 260-341 

Palamedes, 325 

Patenier, Joachim, 19, 23, 
25, 169, 269, 276-7 

Patinir. See Patenier 

Patroclus, Body of, Wiertz, 

Peeters, Bonaventura, 49 
Peeters, Clara, 77 
Peeters, Jan, 49 
Pepyn, Martin, 56, 196-8 
Peter, Deliverance of, 

Neeffs, 243 
Philip the Good, 2 
Pierides, Transformation 

of the, R. Van Orley, 246 
Pieta, Memling, 264 
Plantin, Christopher, 232-3 
Plantin-Moretus Museum, 


Portaels, J. F., 100 

Portrait of Agnes Sorel, 

Portrait of Erasmus, Hol- 
bein, 224-5 



Portrait of Francis II, 
Clouet, 222-3 

Portrait of Frederick III, 
Diirer, 224 

Portrait of Prince Freder- 
ick Henry, Mierevelt, 215 

Portrait Young Girl, B. 
Van der Heist, 215 

Portrait of A. Grapheus, C. 
De Vos, 203 

Portrait of a Woman, Jor- 
daens, 191 

Portrait of a Young 
Woman, Mytens, 215 

Portraits, 204, 215-17, 332-8 

Portraits by F. Bol, 335 ; P. 
de Champaigne, 334; G. 
Dou, 335; Van Dyck, 
188-9, 246, 294, 338; 
H. Van der Goes, 150; F. 
Hals, 215-17, 334; B. Van 
der Heist, 215, 336; ]\Ia- 
buse, 170-1 ; Memling, 
148-9, 150, 267; Moreelse, 
334; Moro, 336; Mos- 
taert, 150; B. Van Orley, 
279-80; F. Pourbus, 336; 
P. Pourbns, 335; Rem- 
brandt, 216-17, 335; Ru- 
bens, 173; C. de Vos, 
332; M. de Vos, 298-9 

Pourbus, Frans, 46, 241, 

Pourbus, Pieter, 27, 45-46, 
132-133, 204, 335 

Pour I'Art, 108 

Presentation in the Temple, 
Verhaegen, 242 

Prevost, Jan, 130-132 

Primitives, 11, 17, 25, 31, 74 

Prodigal Son, The, Hemes- 
sen, 296; Rubens, 180-181 

Quellin, Erasmus, 91 
Quinaux, 106 

Rebecca and Eleazer, Jor- 
daens, 303 

Reconciliation, The, Jor- 

daens, 241 
Religious pictures, 201-202 
Reliquary of St. Ursula, 

Rembrandt, 335 
Renaissance, 28, 36-8 
Resurrection of Lazarus, 

The, Vsenius, 52 
Repose in Egypt, H. de 

Bles, 169 
Rillaert, Jan Van, 51, 251 
Ring, The, Lucas van Ley- 
den, 151 
Rockox and wife, Nicholas, 

Rubens, 173-4 
Roffiaen, 105 
Romantics, 105 
Romanticism, 100 
Rombouts, Theodor, 62, 71, 

Roose. See Liemaeckere 
Rosseels, J., 107 
Rubens, Peter Paul, 57-62, 

64, 67, 68, 171-87, 225, 233, 

258, 284-94 
Rubens Chapel, 186 
Rubens, Death of. Van 

Bree, 226 
Ryckaert, David, 80, 82, 93, 

205, 324 
Rysbraek, P., 96 
Ruysdael, Jacob, 207 
Ruysdael, S. Van, 210 
Rysdael, The Modern, 106 

Saint Anne, Legend of, 

Saint Augustine, M. Pepyn, 

Saint Barbara, Van Eyck, 

Saint Bavon, Cathedral of, 


Saint Benoit, Legend of, 
Achtschelling, 243; Flem- 
ish school, 281 

Saint Christopher, Bouts, 
145; Memling, 129-130 



Saint Elizabeth of Hun- 
gary, Pepyn, 197-8 

Saint Francis, Rubens, 239 

Saint Francis, Last Com- 
munion of, Rubens, 177 

Saint George, Legend of, 
Blondeel, 135 

Saint George, Martyrdom 
of, Van Coxie, 34-35 

Saint Gudule, Procession 
of, Van Alsloot, 310 

Saint Hubert, De Craeyer, 
302; Englebrechtsen, 151 

Saint John in Patmos, De 
Craeyer, 235 

Saint John Preaching, H. 
Van der Goes, 253 

Saint Luke, Guild of, 136 

Saint Luke Painting the 
Virgin, Blondeel, 134- 
135; Floris, 160; Jans- 
sens, 54-6; Martin De 
Vos, 136 

Saint Martin, Jordaens, 

Saint Mary Magdalen de 
Pazzi, Boeyermans, 241-2 

Saint Matthew, Hemissen, 
240; B. Van Orley, 277 

Saint Nicholas, Giotto, 219 

Saint Nicholas, Foresight 
of, Vaenius, 171 

Saint Norleert, Brueghel, 
283; C. de Vos, 203 

Saint Paul, Giotto, 218 

Saint Paul, Conversion of, 
J. Van Rillaert, 252 

Saint Peter, Blondeel, 273 ; 
Titian, 220 

Saint Pierre, Church of, 
Louvain, 15 

Saint Romuald, Fra Ange- 
lico, 219 

Saint Sauveur, Church of, 
Bruges, 16 

Saint Sebastian, Van 
Coxie, 35 ; Thys, 240 

Saint Theresa, Rubens, 

Saint Thomas, Incredulity 

of, Rubens, 173-4 
Samson, J. Steen, 212 
Satyr and Peasant, Jor- 
daens, 304 
Savery, Jakob, 48 
Savery, Roelandt, 48 
Schalcken, 325 
Schampheleer, E. de, 106 
Schoevaerts, M., 308 
Schongauer, Martin, 9 
Schoorel, Jan, 28 
School, Archaic, 102 
School, Flemish, 3, 19 
School of Antwerp, 28, 52, 

School of Bruges, 19, 20, 

21, 164 
School of Clouet, 45 
School of Cologne, 9 
School of Van Eyck, 22 
School of Frans Floris, 56 
School of Fontainebleau, 43 
School of Liege, 36 
School of Louvain, 19 
School of Termonde, 107 
School of Tervueren, 106, 

107, 345 
School of Tours, 9 
School, Venetian, 23 
Schut, Cornelis, 89-90 
Seghers, Daniel, 74-75, 17, 

Seghers, Gerard, 70, 171 
Senses, The Five, Coques, 

199 ; Rombouts, 2^(^-7 ', 

Teniers, 328-30 
Seven Sacraments, The, 

Serment, The Grand, 205, 

301, 314, 315 
Severed Heads, The, Gal- 

lait, 255-6 
Siberechts, Jan, 95, 326 
Simon the Magician, J. Van 

Rillaert, 251-2 
Sisters of Mercy, Jordaens, 

Slingeneyer, E., 102 



Snayers, Peter, 69-70 
Snellinck, John, 54 
Snyders, Frans, 62, 67, 71- 

72, 192-3, 293, 321 
Somer, Bernard Van, 47 
Somer, Paul Van, 47 
Son, Jan Van, ^y 
Son, Georges Van, ^^ 
Spinelli, Nicholas, Mem- 
ling, 148 
Stallaert, J., 102 
Steenwyck, Hendrik van, 50 
Steen, Jan, 211-12, 330-1 
Stevens, A., 103, 347 
Stevens, J., 103, 346 
Still Life, Pictures of, 

247-9, 323-4 
Stobbaerts, J., 103 
Sustermans, Justus, 86 
Suttermans, J., 86 
Susannah, Jordaens, 303; J- 

Massys, 294 

Tadema, Alma, 102 
Teniers, David the Elder, 

79> 307 ^ .^ . 

Teniers, David the 

Younger, 79-82, 199-200, 

Ter Borch, 212 
Thielen, P. Van, ^^ 
Thomas, Jan, 257 
Thulden, Theodore Van, 

89, 254, 331-2 ^ 
Thys, Pieter, 63, 85, 99 
Thys, P. the Elder, 240 
Tilborch, Gilles Van, 80, 82 
Titian, 220-1 
Tobias and the Angel, 

Craeyer, 255-6 
Trials of Job, B. van Orley, 

Trinity, The Holy, Rubens, 

"Tryon, the Belgian," 109 

Uden, Lucas Van, 88, 180, 

Utrecht, Adriaen Van, 75. 

247, 323-4 

Vadder, L. de, 90 
Vaenius, Otho, 43, 52, 57, 

63, 64, 299 
Valckenburg, Lucas Van, 

Veen, Otto van. See Vae- 
Velde, A. Van de, 207-8 
Velde, Willem Van de, 210 
Venus at the Forge of Vul- 
can, 293 
Verbeeck, Frans, 98 
Verboeckhoven, E. J., 104- 

Verbrugghen, G. P., ^^ 
Verendael, Nicholas Van, 

Verhagen (or Verhaeg- 

hen), P. J., 98-9, 242, 252 
Verhas, F., 103 
Verhas, J., 103, 348 
Verlat, Charles, 103, 225 
Verheyden, L, 108, 228 
Veronese, 341 
Verstraete, T., 108 
Verwee, A., 109, 228, 250, 

Victoors, J., 213 

Vigne, F. de, 102 

Village Fete, Ryckaert, 205 

Village Wedding, J. Steen, 

211 ; J. Victoors, 213 
Vilsteren Family, Van 

Dyck, 294 
Vinck, F. H., 102 
VincklDOons, David, 44-45, 

Virgin and Child, Van 

Eyck School, 144; Ma- 

buse, 170; Memling, 116- 

Virgin as Protectress, De 

Craeyer, 301-2 
Virgin, Death of the, 134 
Virgin, Education of the, 

Rubens, 177-8 
Virgin Enthroned, Crivelli, 




Virgin, Hospitality Refused 

to, Jan Massys, i68 
Virgin with the Parrot, 

Rubens, 179 
Visit, The, Boeyermans, 206 
Visitation, Wolfvoet, 87 
VHeger, Simon de, 210 
Vos, Cornelis de, 62, 69, 

203, 251, 332 
Vos, Martin de, zi, 38-40, 

136, 161, 240, 298-9 
Vos, Simon de, 163 
Vredemann, Jan, 35 
Vriendt, De. See Floris 
Vriendt, C. de, 230, 232 
Vries, Vriedeman de, 50 
Van Hoeck, Jan, 194 

Wappers, Gustav, 100, 226, 

Watermill, Hobbema, 208-9 
Watteau, 255 
Wauters, E., 103 
Wedding Feast, Brueghel, 

Wedding, Flemish, 331-2 
Weeping Woman, Head of, 


Weenix, J., 322 
Weyden, Roger Van der, 9- 
10, 22, 146-148, 253, 263, 

Wiertz, A. J., 102, 352-8 
Wigan. Isaac, 'J'J 
Wildens, Jan, 80, 88, 180 
Willaerts, Adam, 48 
Willeboirts, T., 85, 86 
William Tell, Biset, 94, 315 
Winter Landscapes, 208, 

Wolfvoet, Victor, 86-87 
Works of Mercy, Francken 

the Younger, 167-8 
Wouters, Frans, 88 
Wynants, 207 
Wytsman, Juliette, 109 
Wytsman, Rodolphe, 108, 


XX, The, 108 

Ykens, Frans, 'j^, 248 

Zacchaeus in the Fig-Tree, 
Vaenius, 171 

Date Loaned 





The art of the Belgian galleries. 


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