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A Series of Lessons Covering All 
Branches of the Art of Caricaturing 








In the writing and illustrating of this book my aim has been to 
produce a comprehensive and concise treatise on the art of caricaturing. 
It has been made as brief as is consistent with clearness and complete' 

Although the text is brief, no illustrations Ttfere spared. The 
many plates illustrate all points necessary, and each of the points 
illustrated are explained in the text with reference to that particular 
illustration. In addition to the plates there are many caricatures of 
famous men included. 

Acting upon the assumption that it is easier to work if ones 
assignments are already made, Chapter XII has been made up of 
assignments and suggestions, which makes this book a complete course 
in caricaturing. 

If you obtain half as much pleasure and profit from the use of 
this book as I derived from writing, and especially illustrating it, I 
shall consider my time well spent. 

Wishing you much success. 

Mitchell Smith. 



Frontispiece Facing Tide 

Foreword 7 

List of Illustrations 11 

Chapter I Pen Lines and Material 15 

Chapter II The Face and Head 2J 

Chapter III Expression 31 

Chapter IV Exaggeration 37 

Chapter V Comic Figures 43 

Chapter VI Action 47 

Chapter VII" Shading and Shadows 55 

Chapter VIII Technique 61 

Chapter IX Animals 69 

Chapter X Lettering 75 

Chapter XI This and That 81 

Chapter XII Assignments and Suggestions 85 

List of Illustrations 


George Arliss Frontispiece 

Plate 1 " 14 

Nicola, The Magician 16 

Gladstone 17 

Frederick, The Great '.". 18 

Robert Herrick 19 

Plate 2 22 

Plate 3 24 

Bolivar 26 

Qemenceau 27 

Plate 4 30 

Plate 5 32 

Marshal Foch 33 

Plate 6 36 

Plate 7 38 

Bismarck 39 

Plate 8 40 

Plate 9 42 

Robert Tristram Coffin, Poet 44 

Plate 10 46 

Plate 11 48 

Benjamin Disraeli 49 


12 List of Illustrations 


Hate 12 50 

Lorado Taft 51 

Marshal Joffre 52 

Plate 13 54 

Plate 14 '56 

.Woodrow Wilson 57 

Plate 15 60 

Charles G. Dawes 62 

Jack Dempsey 63 

Plate 16 64 

Plate 17 68 

Plate 18 . . : 70 

Josef Lhevinne 71 

Charles Darwin 72 

Plate 19 74 

Caret Garrett 76 

Joe Byrns 80 

Booth Tarkington 84 

Giovanni Martmelli 87 



"*"""'" - WITH FIN LINES/' LINES. CflNDD' 



L =L 



P5 " i ,^^-"* ^' x V 



Chapter I 

Pen Lines and Materials 

The necessary material used in drawing caricatures are few and 
inexpensive if we compare them to the tools of some of the professions, 
such as surgery, etc. 

The student of caricaturing should procure a number of drawing 
pens in various sizes. Gillotts drawing pens are perhaps the most 
widely used of all pens by cartoonists and pen apdtjnk artists in 
generaL For drawing cartoons and caricatures siw^70J^opand^^ 
are the ones moat uattk-Qtber si?es and styles oipBSsmay be very 
useful; especiaU^^owl poin^ens for drawing heavy lines for the out- 
lines of cartoons. mttrtTBook are reproduced a number of caricatures 
that were outlined with a lettering pen which enabled the artist to 
get an- effect markedly original These lettering pens may be had m 
many sizes, and shaped with round, square or oblong nibs. The 
student, or, prospective student is advised to obtain some of these, 
because every artist should learn to manipulate the lettering pen and 
brush in lettering. Nearly -all art work requires more or less hand 

Other materials needed are, black waterproof drawing ink 
Higgins is very good and pencils for sketching arid drawing. All 
drawings should be completely drawn with pencil before drawing in 
ink. Art gum erasers, thumb tacks for fastening the drawing paper 
or board to the drawing board will also be needed. The most satis- 
factory material to make the drawings on is a good grade of Bristoli 
Board. But if the drawings are not intended for publication, a good 
quality of heavy, hard surface bond paper gives satisfactory results, 
and is also very good for sketching. Caricaturing requires a great deal 
of sketching, and one should keep a supply of good paper for this 




purpose, to record ideas and impressions before they escape from the 
mind never to return from that oblivion where all things mental and 
material eventually go. 


After which sudden outburst of scholarship and philosophy, let 
us consider the manipulation of the pen, for the benefit of beginners 
who are not familiar with this medium of drawing. 

The drawing pen is held the same as in the proper position for 
writing; that is, with the thumb and first and second fingers of the 
right hand. 

A variety of pen lines are used in cartooning and caricaturing. 
Fine lines, heavy lines, slow lines, fast lines, irregular lines^ and shaky 


lines are most frequently used. On Plate 1 are illustrations of various 
kinds of lines, dots, shading and etc. E, F and G are called Crosshatch 
lines and they are used for shading. There are some examples of 
Crosshatch in the iUustrations m this book; especially, of F, Plate 1. 



Graded lines as in Q, R, S, T and U are drawn by increasing or 
decreasing the pressure on the pen; they are best drawn rapidly. Ends 
of lines dhat do not have their termination in other lines are usually 
drawn thusly. An example of this is Fig. 3, Plate 9. 


K on Plate 1 was made with a small camels hair brush, which 
every cartoonist should have. L is also drawn with the same brush. 
Lines such as these are sometimes used to stripe trousers. See Fig. 4, 
Plate 10. N is dots drawn with the brush, and M is termed Spatter, 
which will be explained later. 

Pen Lines and Materials 


V and W are stamped with pads of denim and knit goods, 
respectively. One can often create something original by experimenting* 
and trying many ways and techniques of drawing an object* or 
caricature. The same pad used in stamping W was used in drawing 
the caricature of Robert Herrick. 


In the drawing of caricatures and cartoons or any other com' 
mercial art, for that matter the artist should know something about 
the processes of reproduction for that particular form of art work. 
For pen and ink work the engraving is made on a sine printing plate. 
It is not necessary, however, to know all about these processes of 
reproduction. The artist should know that all work intended for line 

2o Caricaturing 

rqproducttons should be made on white paper or Bristol Board with 
black drawing ink. The drawing to be reproduced is photographed on 
a chemically treated sine plate, which is then treated with acid. This 
acid eats away the surface of the sine, except the photographed' lines, 
which are left in relief, somewhat like printing type. Colored inks do 
not photograph well; neither does black ink on colored paper. 

Drawings are usually reduced about one-half the original 
dimensions in reproduction, which makes them really one'fourth the 
original sise. Since the dimensions are, of course, reduced in proportion, 
it naturally follows that the pen lines are also reduced in the same 
proportion in breadth, or thickness. Therefore, in drawing for repro- 
duction one should use heavier lines than appear in a printed drawing. 

Study the many drawings in this book to see how they have been 
drawn. Notice that the outlines are invariably the heaviest, while the 
lines for shading and such, are finer. Notice also how the lines have 
been drawn, and how the pressure on the pen has been decreased 
gradually at the end of lines to taper them, and avoid that cut off 
appearance that results from bringing the pen to an abrupt stop at the 
same pressure, making the entire line the same thickness. 

Study an accomplished artist's work and take advantage of what 
he knows, and put your own original ideas in the drawing. This is the 
road that leads to success in art. 















Chapter II 

The Face and Head 

The head is not so difficult to karn to draw, but to learn to draw 
it well requires diligent study and practice. It may not seem reasonable 
to the beginner when told that it is much easier to karn to draw the 
head well, than it is to draw hands well. 

Although the features of the head and face are exaggerated in 
cartoons, in life they follow closely definite proportions. These proper- 
tions are as follows: The eyes are about midway between the top of the 
head and the bottom of the chin; the nose is as long as the distance 
from the nose to the bottom of the chin, and the mouth is erne third of 
the distance from the end of the nose to the bottom of the chin; the 
top of the ears are about on a line with the eyebrows, and the bottoms 
on a line with the end of the nose. 

To draw a front view cartoon of the head, draw a perpendicular 
line for the center of the face, as B, Kg. 1, Plate 2. This line will be 
equidistant from the eyes and split the nose and mouth in two equal . 
parts. Near the center of this line draw a horizontal line, as FF, Fig. 1. 
Next draw line EE for the brows and the top of the ears, and GG as a 
guide for the bottom of the ears and end of nose. Lines A and C, Fig. 1 
are drawn equidistant from, and parallel to, line B. These are all the 
lines necessary in drawing a cartoon, but in drawing a caricature of a 
definite face it is better to make guide lines for the top of the head and 
bottom of chm in the proportions outlined in the preceding paragraph. 
The next step is to place the features with a pencil, beginning with the 
eyes; brows, second; nose, third; mouth, fourth; ears, fifth; and finish 
by drawing hair, chin, etc. 

There are many ways of drawing the features in a cartoon, which 
vary with the different expressions. Since the subject of this book is 




FIG 4 


/ jCss* 


The Face and Head 25 

caricaturing, only this will be dealt with here. The features are drawn 
lifelike in caricatures, except in ones where extreme exaggeration iff 
used. To make a drawing appear lifelike is ratter difficult fof 
beginners, because there are a great many little tricks for doing this, 
which they do not understand. Some of these methods are illustrated 
in the caricatures of Von Hindenburg on Mate 7. Figure 1 was drawn 
from a photograph with little exaggeration, while Kg, 2 is exaggerated 
a great deal. Note in Fig. 2 the outlines for the black shadows under 
eyebrows, corners of eyes, wrinkles, under nose, under mustache, and 
under difrt on the white collar. These outlined shadows have been 
blacked in on the large drawing giving it life and sparkle. Attention is 
called to the highlights on the eyes, also. This is vary useful, and is 
invariably used to make the eyes lifelike. The Mack bow tie and other 
shading give the drawing tone, or color, which heightens the effect. 
Do not forget shadows under ears in profiles, and faces other than 
direcdy front views. 

Caricatures are either drawn from life, or from photographs or 
portraits. For the student who has not studied drawing from life it will, 
perhaps, be easier to get a good likeness by drawing f rom photographs. 
In good photographs the wrinkles, shadowy and conspicuous features 
are more easily seen which helps one to know what to exaggerate to 
get a good likeness of the subject being caricatured. Highlights on eyes 
and hair are more easily seen and placed correctly on the drawing. 
Another advantage of drawing from photographs is that the head is 
more easily proportioned correctly. This is because the various features 
can be measured on the photograph and enlarged proportionately in 
the drawing. For example, if one is going to make the drawing five 
times as high as the head in the photograph, he can determine the 
correct proportions because he can measure the width of the head on 
the photo and get the width of the head in die drawing accordingly. 
The nose, mouth and other features may likewise be measured and 
placed correctly. 

However, one disadvantage of drawing from photographs is thai 
you can only get one viewto work from, unless you have photographs 
in different positions of the same subject. With two positions it jp 
sometimes possible to construct a third view. How this is done is 
illustrated on Plate 3 with the <^catures of Ex-Kaiser William. 



I on this plate was drawn from an old photo taken while he was Crown 
Prince. Fig. 2 was made from a late photograph. By using these two 
drawings a third (Fig. 4) was constructed showing the old man with 


the same view as the one as Grown Prince. Figures 3 and 5 are simply 
caricatures of the same subject in different techniques and degrees of 
exaggeration. The shape of the nose, forehead, hair, and other features 
m Figures 4 and 5 are such that it was possible to draw a profile also. 
Although drawing from photographs has some advantages, 

The Face and Head 


drawing from life also has its advantages. In life drawing many sketches 
of different views and positions can be made to determine the best, and 
this should always be done when possible. Caricatures of some subjects 
are better drawn in profile, while others are improved by using other 
positions. There is only one sure way to determine which is best, and 
that is by experiment. 


There is also a way to measure from life to aid the artist in getting 
the true proportions in mating a drawing. To do this, hold a pencil in 
a vertical position at arms length and sight over the top of pencil, 
putting the top of pencil in line with the top of the head, or whatever 
object you are measuring. Next place the thumb on the pencil in line 
with the bottom of chin* The length of pencil from your thumb to the 

28 - Caricaturing 

top, will be used for the height of the head in your drawing, placing 
guide lines that far apart. The pencil is then held horizontally to deter' 
mine the width of the drawing. The height of forehead, length of 
noee, chin, etc., can be properly proportioned by using this method. 
This method is not only useful in drawing from life, but is good for 
4jwing from still life, also. 

The features and proportions characteristic of the difference in 
the various ages should also be considered here. 

The peculiarities of infancy and early youth are as follows: The 
cranium and forehead are much larger in proportion to the rest of the 
head; the eyes are somewhat below the center of the head; the features 
and head as a whole are more gracefully rounded; the neck is much 
smaller than in an adult, in proportion to the si2 of the head; and the 
legs are much shorter in proportion to the length of the torso. With 
age the head becomes more diminutive, and the bony structure becomes 
more prominent at the forehead, bridge of the nose, and the jaw bones. 

With old age the flesh becomes flabby and falls away from the 
bones, causing the bones, muscles, tendons, and blood vessels to be 
more in evidence; and furrowing the face with wrinkles in the face 
and forehead. The dome of the skull appears broader, and the face 
shorter, caused by the loss of teeth and straightening of the lower jaw 
boxes. The nose is more powerful if not larger and the features in 
general are more prominent, adding to the character and dignity of 
years. The eyes also appear deeper in their sockets, which illusion is 
caused by the aforementioned relaxation and drooping of the flesh 
above and below the eyes. 

Models of advanced age are easier to draw, and to get a good 
likeness of , because of these characteristics mentioned in the preceding 
paragrapLyTbe smooth rounded features of youth are difficult to 
draw and obtain a good likeness for the reason that thero is nothing, 
br very little at most, in o^p fn rtkhV^">fcj^^ is the 

reason that women and children are sd3o)h4 g6od-^3^ects for 








Chapter HI 


Expression is very important m cartooning and caricaturing. Just 
as a cartoon is an exaggerated drawing, so is the expression in a cartoon 

On Plate 4 are illustrations of twelve of the most used expressions. 
They are labeled underneath each drawing: fright, surprise, anger, 
attention, smile, sneer, pain, laughter, stupidity, weeprrig, anticipatioti, 
and contentment. Study these drawings carefully and analyze each 
expression. To help you do this, each expression .shall be considered 
separately and their mam characteristics noted. 

In fright the eyebrows ire lifted and the forehead wrinkled. The 
eyes are opened very wide, and so is the mouth; and the hair stands 
on end, 

Surprise is similar to fright except that the mouth is not opened 
as wide and the eyebrows are not lifted as much. 

In Anger the brows are drawn down in die center and are 
knotted, or knit, and irregular, with the forehead wrinkled vertically. 
The eyes are pardy covered by the brows. The corners of the mouth 
are drawn downward, and very often the teeth are visible as in the 
illustration. Also the hair stands on end or is disorderly. 

Note in Attention the shape of eyes, eyebrows, nose and mouth. 
Study the wrinkles around the eyes, mouth, and forehead in all the 
different expressions illustrated. 

In Smiling the brows are lifted in an arched position. The eyes 
are pardy dosed at the corners. The corners of the mouth are drawn 
upward and may. be opened slighdy, or closed depending on the 
particular expression desired, 






The expression. Sneer, is drawn with one eyebrow drawn down 
over the eye, which is partly closed. The nose is turned up slightly and 
wrinkled. One corner of the mouth is up and the other down. The 
proper relation should be kept between the features. That is, the 


corner of the mouth should be elevated on the side on which the 
eyebrow is down. 

The eyebrows in Pain are knotted somewfeat as in anger. The 
nose is wrinHed and the mouth is- opened. Note particularly the eyes 
and mouth. Such mouths as are used in the illustrations of fright and 
surprise would not be suitable here. 

34 _ Caricaturing 

Laughter is very similar to smiling. The only difference being, 
the brows are higher, the eyes more closed, and the mouth opened 
wider. In Uproarious Laughter the nose moves upward to make room 
for the mouth to stretch big and wide, showing teeth, tongue, tonsils, 
or what you will. 

Stupidity is expressed by drawing the eyes about half dosed as in 
the illustration, and the mouth drawn down on one side. Drunkenness 
is expressed much the same. Especially the eyes. 

In the illustration of Weeping note how the eyebrows are drawn. 
The eyes are partly, or entirely dosed, and tears are drawn to hdp the 

Study the illustrations of Anticipation and Contentment. Note 
how the brows, eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn. 

Although these expressions are suitable for cartoons, expressions 
in omcatures are seldom exaggerated as much as the illustrations on 
Ptfte 4. They were drawn this way so that you might more easily see 
JKJW to represent these many expressions. 

A very good thing for beginners is to study the expressions used 
in some of the better comic strips. Popeye, and Moon Mullins are 
especially good in this respect. Expression should be suited to action 
and vice versa. For example, a head and face with an expression of 
fright should have a body with the characteristic action of fright; that 
is, fingers far apart, feet off the ground, etc. 

On Pkte 5 are some reproductions of caricatures in various 
expressions and poses of s<5me rather famous men: Adolph Hitler and 
Admiral Coontz;. Figure 1 has a stern look obtained by representing 
the mouth, or really the mustache, in a straight line. In Figures 2 and 3 
note that the same general principles were used as in the expressions, 
"Smile" and "Anger" on Pkte 4. Figure 4 is a two thirds front view 
caricature of Hitler, smiling. Figure 5 is a profile of Hitler, angry. His 
nose trouble (mustache) takes on a new aspect in this drawing; that of 
a rather stiff brush perhaps. In Fig. 6 he has a grouch, while in Fig. 7 
he is rather calm. Figures 8 and 9 are to illustrate that animals can be 
drawn with almost any expression. However, expression is more 
difficult with some animals than with others. 





Chapter IV 


Exaggeration is the life of a cartoon or caricature. Really that is 
what they are exaggerations. The three forms of exaggeration in a 
humorous drawing are, exaggeration of form, expression, and action. 
However, exaggeration of the face and head in caricaturing is the 
purpose of this chapter, and exaggeration of action will be treated in 
a separate chapter on action, 

A caricature is an exaggerated drawing, having a likeness of one 
particular person. This statement raises the question of what to 
exaggerate. What to exaggerate depends entirely upon the features of 
the subject being caricatured. The most noticeable, or prominent 
features of the model are usually, if not always, accentuated. For 
example, if the model has a round face and large eyes exaggerate these. 
See the caricature of Andrew Carnegie on Plate 14. If the nose or ears 
are large exaggerate these as in the caricature on the jacket of this 
book. Or a prominent jaw may be accentuated as the artist has done in 
the drawing of Bismarck, Page 39, and Ex'Kaiser Wilhelm II, Plate 3. 
The chin, beard, hair, etc., may also be exaggerated. 

Since the caricature is supposed to have a likeness of the carica' 
tured, it naturally follows that if the most noticeable features are 
exaggerated, it will be easier to get a likeness of the model. As to the 
degree of exaggeration, there is only one way to determine what 
degree will give the best results and resemblance to the model, and that 
is by experiment. It is always wise to make a number of pencil sketches 
trying various degrees of exaggeration, and different techniques, before 
making a finished drawing with pen and ink. 

On the Exaggeration Plate 6, note the various degrees of 
exaggeration, used in the drawings of Lafayette, Figures 1, 2, and 3. 







There is little accentuation in Figure 1, while Figure 2 is exaggerated 
more, especially the eyes, chin, jaw, and ear. The saye features are 
enlarged in Figure 3, only more so. Figures* 1 and 3 are only sketches, 
and as Figure 2 seemed best, it was made the large finished drawing. 
Practically the same thing was done in the two drawings of the English 


Poet, John Masefield. Attention is called to the difference in exagger- 
ation of the hair, nose, mustache, and chin. Figure 4 on this plate is a 
caricature of William Makepeace Thackeray. 

In drawing caricatures a good rule to follow is this: first, make a 
drawing as true to life as possible using little exaggeration; second, 
study this and make several sketches to determine which features to 





Exaggeration - 41 

exaggerate; third, experiment to see which technique is most appny 
priate for the exaggeration used. If you are drawing n life, make 
sketches of profile, front, and two'thirds front view. By doing all this 
sketching and experimenting you can get much better results. Study 
the caricatures of Howard Thurston on Plate 15, for an example of 
different ways of caricaturing the same person. Also the caricatures on 
Plate 8. Extreme exaggeration was employed in the large head on this 
plate which gives a humorous effect, and at the same time a fairly good 
likeness was retained. Also see the two caricatures of General John J. 
Pershing. Plate 13* The chin, jaw, and ear were accentuated most in 
these drawings. 

Expression and exaggeration should also be employed to bring 
out, or express, the character of the Jjerson caricatured. The caricatures 
of Ex Kaiser William II, Figures 4 and 5, Plate 3, are examples of this 
point. By using a stern expression, and exaggerating the jaw, beard 
and other features, the artist endeavored to represent a conceited man 
with a strong wflL Likewise, an effort was made to represent the 
character of Von Hindenburg in the caricatures of him, Plate 7 9 the 
character of a soldier. There is little exaggeration in Fig. 1. Note how 
the eyelids droop in this drawing. Ybu will also see that the head is 
rather square, very strong and f ort'like, and naturally suggests squaring 
up; and certainly the mustache is far too good a chance for exagger- 
ation for the alert and original caricaturist to omit. In Fig. 2, and in the 
finished drawing you will note that a likeness was retained from Figure 
1, while the strong character of the Old Soldier was enaphasised, 
obtaining as a reward for study and sketching a very original caricature 
of a great German. 

There is one don't, especially, in exaggeration. Never emphasis 
deformities, or grave abnormalities. People with deformities are invar" 
iably sensitive and no < one would want to hurt such an unfortunate 




Chapter V 

Comic Figures 

Just as a framework is necessary in drawing the head, so is it 
necessary in drawing a body for the head. 

You should know the proportions of a comic figure. Since comic 
figures may be such gross exaggerations, the proportions of the limbs 
and torso may vary much in various types, especially between slender 
and corpulent figures. Note the proportions of Figures 3 and 5 on 
Plate 9. However, in the average figure, the torso and legs are of equal 
length with the knee midway of the Icgi exclusive of the foot. The 
hands should reach midway of the thf^h and the elbow half way of the 
arm, which makes the elbow near the hip when the arms hang 

For the beginner or amateur, it is better to draw a sort of skeleton 
for a guide as in Figure A, Plate 9. Next block in body, legs and arms. 
Draw head as in Figure 1. Draw clothing, adding buttons, wrinkles, 
etc., to give it life, as in Fig. 2, and finish as m Fig. 3. The same 
procedure is used, in drawing a sideview comic figure. This is illustrated 
by Figures 4, 5, and 6 on the same plate. Figure 7 shows a different 

The most difficult part of the body to draw is the hand. The 
amateur should give this item a good deal of study and practice, 
drawing from his own hands as a model, and from other artists* work. 
It would be wise to clip hands that are good in various positions, from 
cartoons to keep for reference or models when needed. Quite a lot of 
humor can be added by well drawn and well placed hands and feet. 

Some of the various ways of getting humor in the feet are, by 
turning the toes out, or in; turning the toes up at the end; exaggerating; 


44 _ - Caricaturing 

the foot, and drawing it in other awkward positions. The shoes should 
be in keeping with the other clothing. That is, a well dressed man has 
shined shoes, while a hobo has ragged, worn out shoes. The rich man 
is usually represented with patent leather shoes with white spats as 
Figure 6, Plate 9. 

CfllTOEtL // 
V^V \-TfT- 


Qothing is really a little difficult, but much diligent study gets 
fine results here as everywhere else. It should fit the body and should 
drape naturally to get a good effect. Wrinkles and folds are used for 
this purpose at the shoulders, elbows, knees, and elsewhere. See 
examples of this on Plates 9, 10, 1 1 and 12. Note also how the tie and 
collar are drawn, the lapels* buttons, button'holes and pockets. 

However, a good comic figure must have action and proper 
shading. These will be treated in the two succeeding chapters. 





Chapter VI 


Action is all important in cartooning. It is the item that creates 
greatest interest in a cartoon, or cartoon composition. 

Of course action is exaggerated in cartoons just as expressions and 
forms are exaggerated. In cartoons, even though the figure is not in 
motion, it is necessary to have what cartoonists term action. On 
Plate 10 is illustrated this kind of action. In Figure 1 the man is sitting 
erect and has little interest about it, except just its comical appearance. 
In Figure 2 this has been improved by having this man sit more on his 
spine and moving his knees up by putting his feet on a footstool. Note 
also the difference in Figures 4 and 5 on Plate 10. Figure 3 is another 
example of action without motion. Do you not think this is a better 
cartoon than it would be if the sailor was standing erect, and the 
"crows nest" was larger. However, there is much room for improve- 
ment in the drawing of this cartoon. 

Action should be suited to expression, and conversely. In anger 
the hands are tightly dosed and shaking, as if threatening to hit somer 
thing; the feet, or foot stamping the ground, and a general disorder of 
the hair, hat, cravat, and other clothing. Angles in lines, or between 
lines help to express disorder. Figure 2, Plate 12, might be classed as 
anger and determination combined. 

Appropriate action for fear might be as follows: running, or if 
standing, jumping off the ground; hat flying in air, hair standing on 
end, and fingers spread wide apart. 

The characteristic actions for stupidity are, dumped form with 
hands and feet relaxed, causing them to take awkward positions. 
Straight and gracefully curved lines express order, or stillness, 




FIG 5* 





Study the appropriate actions for the various other expressions. 
You will find some examples in this book. Other good examples of 


action you can find in the daily comic strips, especially Popeye and 
Moon Muflins, and in the cartoons of Herbert Johnson, Tony Sarg, 
and other top notch cartoonists. 




In the act of walking, the hands, feet and other parts of the body 
change position rapidly and this causes a shifting of wrinkles and folds 
in the clothing. The hands in different positions are necessarily drawn 
differently, and these details require dose study. In walking, the 


qrward foot may or may not have the heel resting on the ground, but 
it is usually drawn straight, while the rear foot is bent at the toes with 
the heel off the ground. See Figure 2, Action and Shading, Plate 12. 
There are various other details that must be watched dosdy, such as 
the weight of dothing, keeping the proper relationship between the 



arms and legs in action, and others. Note the comical action in the 
walking figures (2 and 3) on Plate 12. Also Figure 6, Plate 9. 

For running action study Figure 1 on Plate 12. Note the action 
of the arms and legs in running. The elbow is, of course, bent upward 


of the arm in the backward swing, and downward on the forward 
swing. The knee of the forward leg is bent upward, while that of the 
other is bent downward. The forward hand is dosed, and the other 
is partly open with the fingers pointing upward. The feet are drawn 
practically the same as in walking, except that they are off the 
ground. Drawing them off the ground improves the action a great 

Action 53 

deal, and is dooe by simply drawing a shadow underneath, as you may 
see in the above mentioned drawing* Other details that add to the 
action are, hat blowing off, tie and coat tails blowing backward, and 
the dust sucked upward and forward ov^r the shadow, and underneath, 
and to the rear of the man. Especially note the fine streamlines running 
back from the feet, and from the head, showing the movement and 
direction of tie hat. The short curved lines to the right of the hat 
causes an illusion that makes it seem that the hat is also in a twirling 
motion. In Fig. 4 on this same plate see the notes flying from the 
singing man^s mouth. 

The front and twcKthirds front view figures in motion are drawn 
somewhat in perspective. For this foreshortening is employed. If me 
stands in front of you and points his hand and arm at you, you can not 
see the length of the arm, but you will see the arm in foreshortened 
position. The hand will also appear larger in comparison to the arm 
because it is nearer the eye of the observer. So in the above mentioned 
positions motion of the front and two-thirds front figures the hand 
and foot in front appear larger. An example of this is the feet of Figure 
3 on Plate 12. For an example of hands in perspective you are referred 
to Figure 2 on Plate 11. Also use heavy lines for the nearer objects and 
conversely for the more distant objects. 

Analyse the action of Figures 1, 3, 4, and 5 on Plate 11. Figure 1 
was meant to represent the excitable, shouting type of baseball fan 
instructing the player in what to do next. The use of skeletons in draw- 
ing comic figures as explained in tfe preceding chapter, is doubly useful 
in acquiring good action. 

Keep the weight of the body balanced properly on the feet. In 
Figure 3 mentioned immediately above, note how the body is balanced 
on the feet. If the legs were in a vertical position here, then the hand 
would have to support part of the weight of the body, which it is not 
doing here, but is only picking up the brief case. 




Chapter VII 

Shading and Shadows 

Shading is employed to put tone and life into cartoons* In shading 
the artist must take into consideration the purpose of the cartoon, and 
the proper technique to be used in the cartoon. When it is consistent 
with the technique and purpose of the cartoon, it is advisable to 
employ a variety of shading. For example, say the coat should be solid 
black, the trousers striped, and the vest shaded with parallel lines. 

The different methods of shading are, solid black, stripes, cross 
hatch, plaids, dots, checks, and stipple or spatter. Plates 9, 11 and 12 
illustrate these various styles of shading. Suitable shading gives a 
cartoon a professional appearance. Lettering pens or a small brush are 
used for making large stripes or for solid black areas. Sometimes stripes 
are not drawn solid black, but are only shaded with a fine pen- Rgure 
1, Plate 11 is an example. Figure 2 illustrates checks and Fig. 3, plaid 
and wriggly stripes. In Figure 4 note how the socks are drawn. There 
is no outline of the white parts. Note also how the white spats are 
drawn on Plate 12. Also how the shoes and hats are drawn, shaded, 
and highlighted. 

Shading helps to express character, A cartoon of a tramp would 
naturally be shaded quite differently from one of a rich man; and a 
cartoon of a cowboy would be shaded differently from either the rich 
man or the tramp; due to the different type, style, color, weave, and 
material of the clothing. 

Shadows are also very important in drawing cartoons and carica' 
tures. On the various plates in this book note how the cartoonist has 
handled the shadows. The caricatures on Plate 7 are good examples of 
shadows on the head. Your attention is called to the shadows under 
eyebrows, under upper eyelids, at wrinkles, under nose, mustache and 





Shading and Shadows 


chin; and in the completed full figure caricature at the right, the 
shadow under the coat on the trousers. These shadows aid in giving 
the drawings depth or perspective, by causing the features to stand 
out more prominently. 


In th' drawings on Plates 11 and 12 are other applications of 
shadows. They appear under the collar, lapels, buttons, pocket flaps, 
vest t coat tails, belts, trouser bottoms, and under the spats on the 
shoes, and under the shoes. Shadows under the shoes aid in making 
the feet appear in contact with the ground. The right foot of the foot' 
bafl player, Figure 5, Plate 11, would appear on the ground if an 

58 Lancaturing 

appropriately drawn shadow was drawn just back of the toe. As it is, 
bodi feet are off the ground. 

Just as shadows are used to make the feet contact the ground, so 
are they used to show that they are off the ground. Figure I on 
Plate 12 illustrates this point. Notice that these cross hatch lines are 
drawn so that the shadow seems to be laying flat on the ground. If the 
shading lines were drawn vertically and horizontally they would not 
make a satisfactory shadow. With the lines drawn vertically and hori' 
spntally the shadow would not appear flat on the ground, but would 
appear as if in the air, resting on its edge. Now if there was a house 
or board fence directly back of this figure, and in a line parallel with 
the direction this man is running, on which his shadow was cast, then 
the shadow would be drawn with vertical and horispntal lines. In 
that case the shadow would have the approximate shape of this figure 
in silhouette. 

Shadows that are not in perspective should conform to the shape 
of the object from which the shadow is cast. In Figure 3 on Plate 10, 
notice that the black shadow under the crows nest follows the curva' 
ture of the mast. The line shading on the mast, crows nest, and tele" 
scope also bring out the surface direction, or curvature of the surface 
on which the shadows fall. Curved strokes are essential in representing 
rounded objects, and straight lines in representing plane surfaces. 
Surface direction is represented by lines drawn in the same general 
direction as the surface direction. 

The same direction of light and shadow should be maintained 
throughout a composition. That is, if one object in the composition 
is lighted from the East with the shadow cast Westward, all other 
objects in the same composition should be lighted and shaded accord- 
ingly from the same direction. This is an error often made by 
beginners. Although absolute accuracy is not necessary in cartoons as 
it is in the more serious arts, gross incongruities will ruin an otherwise 
good cartoon. Therefore, the beginner should watch carefully for 
such errors and correct them. 




KATE 15 

Chapter VIII 


Technique is the method of performance in art; in other words. 
the style or method used in producing a work of art. 

In caricaturing the purpose of the drawing may influence the 
technique of the artist, or rather may influence the artist in choosing 
the technique. For example, a caricature drawn for newspaper repro- 
duction is usually drawn 'with pen and ink lines similar to the drawings 
on Plates 8, 13, and 16. Some artists use Lithographic Pencils on a 
specially prepared, pebbled surfaced board. Ripley of "Believe It Or 
Not" fame produces his drawings by this method. Wash is seldom used 
in this country for newspaper drawings. 

A large number of caricatures are used in sports cartoons for 
newspapers. Sports cartoons may of course illustrate various sports, 
such as: boxing, baseball, basketball, football, golf, hunting, fishing* 
horseback riding, and others. Often in these humorous drawings the 
central figure is drawn with a small body and a large caricatured head, 
somewhat as the caricatures on Plates 8, 13, and 16. Around diis 
central figure are drawn smaller action figures illustrating one or more 
sports. Names, dates, comments and other lettering and details are 
placed so as to make a good composition. 

Somewhat the same technique is employed in political cartoohs, in 
which Presidents, VicerPresidents, Senators, Congressmen, Cabinet 
Members, Governors, and other statesmen and prominent men may 
be caricatured. Here again the purpose of the drawing may determine 
the way it should be drawn. By "purpose of the cartoon" is meant 
whether it is intended to aid or injure the one caricatured. If it is to 
harm the caricatured, naturally he wifl be represented differently from 
what he would otherwise. Figures 1, 4, and 5 on Plate 3 represents 




the Ex'Kaiser as a rather stern, ruthless, and strong willed monarch. 
There is no doubt that he is stern and strong willed, but not so 
terrible as these caricatures represent him. Figures 2 and 3 on the same 


plate represent more of a kindly old gentleman, but even in them one 
can discern that he is no weak person by his stern features and promi- 
nent jaw. It shoulcl be interesting for the student to study some of the 
caricatures of Thomas Nast, if he can acquire reproductions of same, 
even though cartoonists of today do not go as far as Nast did. 


Humor is very important in newspaper cartoons. There are three 
ways of putting this quality in them, and these are, action, expression, 
and exaggeration. A cartoon is rather flat and uninteresting if it lacks 
these qualities. 

Some of the caricatures in this book might be termed modernistic. 


Especially the caricatures of Hindenburg, Carnegie, R. T. Coffin, 
Marshal Foch, Lorado Taft, Charles Darwin, and Jack Dempsey. 
There are also others of this type. Some of these are spattered; some 
are drawn with straight lines; some with curved lines; and some with 
light and very heavy lines which were made with a lettering pen. The 
character of the person and the shape of the features has determined 
the technique used, for which they were most adapted. It is assumed 
that the above named caricatures are best as they are, although carica- 
tures of the same men might be drawn differently. The caricatures 








BOfW (86O 


Technique 65 

of Woodrow Wilson might be drawn with curved lines, but it would 
perhaps not be as good as this drawing and would lack its originality. 
However, the drawing of R . T. Coffin could hardly be drawn well with 
straight lines due to the round face. Neither could that of Carnegie, for 
the same reason. They are simply not adapted to the techniques 
.employed in some of the other drawings. 

If the head is drawn in a modernistic technique, the body, if a 
body is u&d, should be in the same style. This was done in the carica- 
tures of Hindenburg and Howard Thurston. 

Since stipple, or rather spatter has been employed in a number of 
drawings in this book, it seems appropriate to explain here the 
procedure for this method of drawing. 

The large caricature of Carnegie on Plate 14 is spattered on the 
hair, eyebrows, and beard. As one can readily see, first an outline 
drawing is made. If it is suitable to be spattered, a stencil is cut for this 
purpose. To make this stencfl, place a sheet of transparent paper, 
sufficiently large, over the drawing and trace the outlines of the areas 
to be stippled (spattered)* If transparent paper is unavailable, the 
drawing may be traced with carbon or graphite paper. In this way the 
drawing to be traced would be placed on top. The next step is to cut 
out the portions to be spattered from the stencil, as the shaded area in 
Figure 2, Plate 14. A single edge razor blade, or a pocket knife is very 
useful to cut the stencil where it is inconvenient to cut with shears. 

Place the stencil over the outline drawing so that the cut out 
portions register perfectly with the outlines of the drawing to be 
stippled. Thumb teck the two together, or place weights on them to 
hold them in the desired position. Pour a small quantity of drawing 
ink in a saucer or similar receptacle. An old tooth brush is used for 
spattering. Dip the brush lightly in the ink and draw the brisdes across 
a coin or other suitable object as illustrated in Figure 3, Plate 14* A 
litde practice will teach you to do this properly. 

Some solid black should also be used with this spattered shading 
to give contrast and thereby improve the drawing as a whole. In the 
Hindenburg Caricature, Pkte 7, spatter shading has been used on the 
body and in tie lettering underneath, as the same technique should be 
employed consistently throughout an entire drawing or composition, 
as stated previously in this chapter. 

66 . Caricaturing 

Quite often wash is used in caricaturing. For this technique, Lamp 
Black water color is used with a water color brush. First an outline 
drawing is made with a pen and black waterproof drawing ink on water 
color paper. Then the wash is applied with a camels hair brush. 
Additional washes are used for the darker parts, and an effort is made 
to blend the two values. 

The frontispiece is a reproduction of an air'brushed caricature 
study of George Arliss by Eddie Burgess. This drawing was made for 
a theatrical display, and the artist has produced something original and 
very good. This caricature has originality, humor, and most important 
of all, it has a fair likeness of the subject caricatured. 

Caricatures of some subjects are better drawn in one technique, 
while others are best caricatured in another technique. The only way to 
determine the best technique for any particular subject is by good 
judgment, and experiment. 




Chapter IX 


The caricaturing of animals should be learned along with the 
caricaturing of the human form. Cartoons of animals are frequently 
used in newspaper drawings; especially political cartoons* in which 
they are employed as symbols of political parties, or of the various 
nations of the World. 

These symbolic animals and the things they represent are listed 
immediately below. The donkey is the symbol of the Democratic Party. 
The elephant represents the Republican Pirty; G. O. P. (Grand Old 
Party) . Other symbolic animals are, the Tammany Tiger, the British 
lion, the Chinese Dragon, the American Eagle, and the Russian Bear. 
Animals are sometimes used as symbols for ball teams. Wildcats, 
Panthers, Tigers, Bulldogs, and others are employed for this purpose. 

Practically the same rules used in caricaturing the human body 
are used in caricaturing animals. The greatest difference is that of form. 
As in the case of the human form, the forms of animals are exagger* 
ated; the most prominent features being accentuated most. Action and 
expression are also exaggerated. The expressions of animal* are prac^ 
tically the same as that of humans and the same rules apply, although 
it is sometimes more difficult because of the difference m the form of 
the head, from the form of the human head and face. 

The action in the movements of animals is necessarily different 
from human action; especially in the quadrupeds. The actions of walk- 
ing, running and galloping are essentially the same in all animal^ except 
apes and other bipeds. These actions are rather difficult to describe, and 
should be 'studied from life, and from the work of artists who are 
especially good in the dr^f fey^st 1 ^ *p of anfmal$ t 



4nimals _ 

In walking, quadrupeds only have two feet on the ground at one 
tome. Take the horse for an example. If the right rear foot is forward 
and on the ground, then the right front foot is slightly off the ground 
just in front of the rear foot. At the same time the left rear foot is 



lifted to be brought forward, and the kft front foot is also lifted and 
moving forward. The head is moved alternately up and down with each 
step and the tail also varies in action. These descriptions can only 
impart to one a general idea, and the principles of the various actions, 
for as stated previously, to get the actions correctly drawn one must 
use a good drawing for a model, or else draw from life. 



Running action is similar to walking except movements are faster. 
The running or trotting action is little used in cartoons because 
galloping gives a better effect. 

In galloping the feet are moved in pairs. Both pairs are either 
under the body, or the front pair are more forward, although they may 


still be under the body, and the rear feet are extended to the rear. All 
feet are off the ground with shadow underneath to improve the action. 
The head is thrust forward with die nose held higher, considering the 
height of the head. The mane and tail are blown to rearward. Galloping 
action is illustrated by Figure 5, Plate 18, and Figure 2, Plate 17. 

There is also the action of standing, Fig. 1, Plate 17; climbing, 
g. 3; bucking, Fig. 6, and die bronco on Plate 8. Swimming and 

Animals 75 

flying are illustrated by Figures 1 and 2 on Plate IS. The pelican in 
Figure 2 is also an trample of accentuating the most noticeable features. 
The fish which has just escaped from tie pelican's beak adds interest 
to the drawing. 

Quite often comic animals are represented wearing human ap- 
parel; such as hats, spectacles, suits and shoes; and quadrupeds are 
given the same action as bipeds. Examples of this are Figure 4, Plate 18, 
and Figure 5, Plate 17. Other examples are Mickey Mouse and Felix 
the Cat. 

In caricaturing animals the style of drawing is influenced by the 
purpose for which it is drawn. For example, a donkey drawn in a 
political cartoon intended to aid the Democratic Party should be sleek 
and fat with a merry expression; on the other hand, the donkey in a 
cartoon for the aid of the Republican Party, or to criticise the Domx 
crats should be drawn with a starved, moth-eaten, down-and-out ap- 
pearance. The expression should be consistent with the style; such as, 
stupidity: ears drooping and eyelids heavy and pardy dosed A donkey 
drawn to illustrate a book for children might be represented quite 
differently from either of the two above. You should always consider 
the purpose of a cartoon and choose the style accordingly. 

However, you must also consider the idea to be expressed. A 
donkey drawn to criticise the Democratic Party might be drawn sled: 
and fat if it was intended to criticise the party for reckless spending. 
You need only to use good judgment in delErmining what to do and 
must have a basic knowledge of a thing to be capable of using the best 
judgment. Of course there are exceptions to this rule, but as a general 
rule it is quite true. 





Chapter X 


Lettering is necessary in most forms of commercial art. The 
student of Commercial Art, Cartooning, or Caricaturing should 
acquire some knowledge of this subject. Therefore, this s&ort chapter 
is included so that the student may know the first steps in lettering. 
Oily the most important points in lettering can be treated here, for 
lettering is a long subject, enough for a book in itself . In fact there are 
many books published on lettering and the student is advised to obtain 
a good one on this subject and learn to do good lettering. 

Lettering is really not very difficult, but it requires a knowledge 
of the various strokes, guide lines, forms of letters, and the materials 
for same. However, practice is necessary to acquire the dexterity 
required to do good lettering. 

In pen and ink cartoons and caricatures, lettering is often exagger" 
ated, just as the drawings are exaggerated. It should also be of an 
appropriate style to harmonise with the technique of the drawings- 
Note how this was done on the plates of this book; especially, the word 
"Carnegie" on Plate 14. Note the word "Hindenburg" on Plate 7. 
Block letters were used to harmonize with the caricature, which is also 
somewhat of a block form. This caricature shows strength of character, 
and block letters suggest strength and power, so it is apparent that this 
style of lettering was the most appropriate for this drawing. The 
shading on the letters is also made to match the drawing. 

For lettering you should have lettering pens in various si^es and 
styles, black lettering ink, a T square for making vertical and horizontal 
guide lines, and pencils, paper, and other materials used for 




There are three classes of letters used by letter craftsmen. They 
are, Gothic, Roman, and Text. Gothic letters are those having the 
elementary strokes of even width. The four top lines on Plate 19 are 


Gothfc. All letters having elementary strokes consisting of light and 
heavy stroke^ or rather lines are classified as Roman. Text letters 
indude all styles of Old English, German Text, and the letters derived 
from the two. 

AH slanting fetters are classified as Italics r^rdkss <rf their oder 

classifications. Therefore Gothic, Roman, and Text, if drawn slanting 
are designated as Gothic Italics, Roman Italics, and Text Italics, 

Different styles of lettering pens are adapted to the various classes 
of alphabets. The pen to use is one that will best produce the demen' 
tary strokes of a letter with the least amount of effort. For Gothics 
there is either a round-nib pen, or a square-nib pen. The chisel pointed 
pen and the oblong-nib pen are adapted to the Roman and Text fetters. 
However, Romans may be made with a round-nib pen by using double 
strokes as in the words "DOUBLE-STROKE" on Plate 19. 

In the words "King" and "Mars" the letters are outlined and 
shaded. They are Gothics, also, according to the preceding definition. 
There is quite a variety of lettering on the other plates in this book 
which the student may study. 

For lettering, square the paper with the drawing board and draw 
horizontal guide lines with a T square as illustrated on Plate 19. Note 
the number and distance of these lines, and how the letters are placed 
between them. As you will see, the small letters b, d, f, h, j, k, 1, and t 
extend upward from the body of the letters, while the letters g, p, q, 
and y extend downward. Capitals rest on the line on which the body of 
the small letters rest, and extend to the uppermost guide line. See 
"Card" on the plate. 

The arrows on the four top lines of lettering illustrate the direc- 
tion of strokes employed in constructing the letters; and the numerals 
show the order in which the strokes were made. The beginner should 
use this plate for a guide, until the strokes and their order have been 
well learned. 

The various strokes overlap in seme letters. These complete 
strokes are illustrated separately on Plate 19, for the letters C, d> e, O, 

It is advisable for beginners to draw vertical guide lines, or slanting 
guide lines for Italics, so that all letters can more easily be made 
perpendicular, or if Italics^ with the same slant. 

Lettering should first be drawn in with pencil and then with the 
proper lettering pen. Special care should be given to the layout of 
lettering in regard to composition, balance, etc. 

Spacing of letters is another important item , There is no fixed rule 

78 Caricaturing 

for the spacing of letters. Some require more space than others, and the 
combination of letters in some words may determine the space. Some 
letters of the alphabet are broader than others, while some are narrow. 
The only practical way to determine the proper space for them is, by 
one's aesthetic sense; that is, to obtain a pleasing result or effect. 
Certainly ugly gaps and crowded letters are detrimental to the 
appearance of lettering. 

Lettering provides an outlet for artistic expression, although to a 
less extent than the fine arts. New letter styles may be originated from 
the three basic alphabets, and there axe many ways of shading them. 



Chapter XI 

This and That 

Perspective is the art of representing objects, on a plane surface, 
in three dimensions, as they appear to the observer; the effect of 
distance on the appearance of objects. 

The relative si^e of an object is determined by the distance it is 
from the eye. If you look through a small aperture, such as a hole 
punched in paper with a small pencil lead, you may see a large 
mountain at a distance. Another good example of perspective is a rail- 
road track. Stand in the center of the track and see how the rails run 
upward and inward till they meet and vanish at an indefinite point. In 
perspective, objects of this nature, below the level of the eye, ascend to 
eye level; above the level of the eye they descend to the eye level. So 
telegraph wires beside the R. R. would descend and bear inward 
toward the track until they converge and vanish at eye level, which is 
also the "Horizon Line." 

Besides the relative sizes of objects in perspective, there is another 
way to obtain the illusion of distance in drawings. This is by color. 
Color is less brilliant at a distance, than it is nearer the eye. In line 
drawings, distant objects are simply drawn with finer lines, which 
really amounts to the same thing. 

In art, arranging objects in a pleasing group is called composition. 
To obtain a pleasing group, there must be a balance of the objects 
represented, according to si?e, color, and importance. If there is much 
bright color near one side of a painting, and subdued colors are used 
for the remainder of the picture, then the attention of the eye will be 
attracted by the bright color to that particular side. 

Objects of most interest should be placed near the center of the 
composition. Tones and values should be balanced. No large open or 
blank spaces should be permitted to detract from a composition. To fill 


82 Caricat 


in such places lettering and other detail may be used in cartoons. For 
compositions representing outdoor scenes, outdoor details may be 
employed, as: clouds, trees, smoke, automobiles, houses, fences, etc. 
For indoor detail, pictures on wall, windows and curtains, doors and 
furniture may be used. On the plates in this book, note how large open 
spaces were avoided by the placing of the comic figures, lettering and 
other detail. 

As suggested before, you should keep a "morgue of clippings," for 
reference as models when needed. Of course you will only want to keep 
unusually good examples of various kinds, techniques, actions, etc.; 
otherwise you would collect a large number that would very likdy 
never be used. Practically all artists do this, because no one can draw 
just anything from memory. Clippings are also an aid in getting ideas 
for drawings. A composition in a clipping may be adapted for an 
original drawing, in which entirely different objects or figures may be 
used, according to ones need. Don't copy outright an entire figure or 
composition, in the same technique, for this is really stealing, or at 
least, attempting to steal. Stealing another's ideas, either in Art or 
Literature, is termed Plagiarism and is punishable by Federal Statutes 
pertaining to Copyrights. 

To copyright drawings before submitting them to Editors or 
Publishers is unnecessary, as well as expensive. Only printed matter, 
with a few exceptions, may be copyrighted, and then it is necessary to 
pay a fee. However, if you should publish something you wish to Copy- 
right, write to die Register of Copyrights, Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C, requesting the required forms and information. 
You should do this previous to the printing of the work for there are 
some requirements as to the printing; especially of the Copyright 
Notice, which should contain the date of Copyright, and name of the 
owner of same. There is also a specified place for this notice in books. 

Drawings intended for sale should be made on a good grade of 
Bristol Board, and a margin left all the way around the drawings. They 
should be mailed flat, and'require first class postage. Enclose postage 
for the return of the drawings. Only send good drawings of a reason- 
able quantity . Enclose a neat and terse letter to the one you are sending 
the drawings to, written with pen and ink or typewriter if possible, on 

white letter sise paper, &/ 2 x 11. It is unnecessary to tefl the 

This and That 

Editor your qualifications in submitting free lance work, for he wifl 
consider it upon its merits regardless of your training and experience. 
If he likes your work and it is suitable for his publication he will 
purchase it, otherwise he will return it to you if you have enclosed 
proper and sufficient postage for that purpose. It is the quality of your 
work, and not how or why you can do it, that interest editors most. 
Caricatures are becoming rather popular, and are widely used in 
Newspapers, Magazines, Books, and other printed matter. Some of the 
maga2^nes using caricatures are, The Saturday Evening Post, American 
Magazine, Colliers, Bookman, Esquire and others. 

Another good method for selling caricatures is to sell the original 
caricature to the subject from which it was made. Hobby Caricatures 
are perhaps best for this purpose. They are made with a large head and 
a small humorous body, illustrating some hobby or sport; such as: 
Painting, Fishing, Skiing, Golf, etc. 

Caricatures are also employed to a considerable extent in the 
theatrical business. They are used in Posters, Newspaper Ads,, and in 
Theatrical Displays, An example of the latter is the caricature by 
Eddie Burgess, see Frontispiece. 

Always strive for originality. Do much sketching, and try out any 
idea you should think of. The greatest pleasure in Art should be in 
creating something original. How exalted and wonderful it is to create 
something good! 

Practice caricaturing from life and from photographs dipped from 
magazines and newspapers* Good studies may also be found in Histories 
and English Books containing pictures of writers and poets- 
Success is to the ambitious and the persistent. Do not be d^ 
couraged if you do not gain recognition immediately; few artists have. 
There is pleasure in Art for the one that enjoys drawing, regardless of 
profit or recognition; and one who does not care for drawing will 
perhaps never succeed anyway. So, my dear reader, if you really like 
to draw, take SUCCESS as your goal and let nothing whatever deter 
you from your course. If you do this your success is assured 




Chapter XII 

Assignments and Suggestions 

This final chapter of assignments is included to facilitate study of 
the principles of caricaturing explained and illustrated in the preceding 
chapters. The author knows from personal experience th&t it is much 
easier to study when one has definite assignments of work to be done. 
Although it is presumed that the majority of people who use this book 
will have had some practice in drawing, many will be beginners, or at 
most., not far advanced, and it is especially difficult for the novice to 
study without a guide for his efforts. The amateur needs something 
of the professional's experience and imagination in the form of sugges- 
tions to add to his own initiative in producing an original work of art 
both drawings and suggestions which he can grasp and follow. To a 
great extent the imagination must be developed. However this does not 
mean that some are not gifted with more imagination than others* but 
that whatever imaginative powers one has must be developed, just as a 
very talented artist must develop his talent by study. Even Michael 
Angelo, one of the greatest artists of all time, had to learn to draw just 
the same as a less talented artist, but he probably learned much quicker 
and with less effort. 

Perspective is the science of representing things as they appear 
rather than as they really are. It is accomplished by the careful repro- 
duction of lines, colors, lights and shades. But the most perfect drawing 
cannot entirely overcome some degree of flatness in a picture. This is 
due to the fact that an artist draws only one picture and our eyes see 
two pictures when viewing objects in reality. Look at some cylindrical 
object such as a barrel with the left eye, dosing the right, then vice 
versa and you will note that you see farther around the right side with 

86 Caricaturing 

the right eye, and farther around the left side with the left eye. So each 
eye gives a slightly different picture of the barrel or other object. These 
two visual images are combined in the brain into one visual percept. By 
means of the stereoscope one looks at two pictures, seeing them as one, 
and the objects in the picture stand out in startling perspective. 

There are four essentials of a good caricature: a likeness of the 
person portrayed, exaggeration, simplicity or economy of lines used in 
drawing, and originality. The best method of attaining these four 
essentials in one drawing is by much study and sketching, trying die 
different ways of drawing one caricature. A good rule to follow in 
doing this is to first draw a picture as much like the subject as possible, 
not exaggerating. Next make another drawing exaggerating the most 
distinctive characteristics and simplifying the drawing, leaving out 
lines not necessary. Keep sketching, exaggerating and simplifying as 
much as the drawing will stand and still retain a good likeness. Add 
your own originality of execution and you have the most you can do 
with your present knowledge and skill. Some faces seem to have been 
made to order for cartoonists while others are very difficult. It is only 
by experiment that one learns the easy ones. Of course such simplified 
drawings exaggerating the most distinctive characteristics of the per' 
son they portray are little more than suggestions of those prominent 
features which our eyes catch, our minds suggesting the balance. ' 



(1) With a Gillott's pen number 303, practice the vertical 
parallel lines in Figure A, Plate 1. Practice these lines until you can 
draw them evenly and steadily, free from nervousness. Be careful 
to space them as evenly as possible. Unless you have done consid- 
erable work with a drawing pen, it will be necessary to draw them 
slowly at first. Speed will come with practice. Your purpose when 
beginning should be perfection rather than speed. 

(2) Figure B on the same plate is also produced with the 303 
pen. Only slight pressure is used in such light lines as these. Prac- 
tice these horizontal strokes. It is practically impossible to draw per' 
fecdy straight lines without the aid of a ruler or some kind of straight 

ssignments and Suggestions 


edge. Free hand lines are not supposed to be straight hard lines* such 
as the draftsman employs; but should have slight variation to convey 
feeling, and variety to prevent monotony. 

(3) The wavy vertical lines in Figure C should be less difficult 
for the beginner than the preceding exercises. 


(4) Figure D illustrates shaky lines which have movement from 
left to right. They are termed dynamic because they convey the sense 
of movement. This movement is obtained by the longer oblique 
stroke opposed by a shorter stroke, and by the variation. However, 
the variation or irregularity serves mostly as a relief from the monotx 
ony which results from exact repetition of a stroke or motif. 


(5) Figures E and F are termed Crosshatch. This type of tone 
is often employed for shadows and not infrequently for shading of 
clothes. Practice them until you have gained some facility and sure* 
ness in handling the pen. 

(6) G shows a combination of the lines in Figures C and D to 
form a dynamic Crosshatch. Parallel lines or straight lines in cross' 
hatch are static. Static is the opposite of dynamic; therefore, static 
lines do not convey the feeling of motion. 

(7) Movement is obtained by opposing strokes in the herring' 
bone weave of Figure H. Practice this pattern of strokes with a 
larger pen, 

(8) Make several copies each of Figures I, J, K, and L. Also of 
N, O, and P. Spatter work will be treated later. 

(9) It is important that you attain facility in drawing graded 
lines. Without this ability you can hardly do professional looking 
work. Make several sheets of the exercises in Figures Q, R, S, T, 

(10) Also see what you can do with Figures V and W. Re- 
member that originality is one of the most important aspects of any 
kind of art. 

(11) Make careful and exact copies of the four caricatures 
which are included in the first chapter. 

(12) Make original caricatures of these four men. Feel free to 
make any changes which you think will improve them. You may 
change the expressions, and employ more or less exaggeration accent 
ing to your mood. Give your imagination free range. 


(1) With a ruler or T"square draw the lines as in Figure ! 
Plate 2. Draw them twice as large as they appear on this plate, for 
you remember that drawings are usually reduced to ^2 se & repro- 
duction. Figure 1 should be drawn in pencil. Over these pencil guide 
lines sketch in the face of Figure 2. Finish as in Figure 3, draw it 
with ink, then erase the pencil guide lines and you have an interest' 
ing head. 

(2) Copy Figure 4, saipe plate, and add a small body if you 
care to. 

(3) For further practice in drawing the head in direct front 
view, copy Figures 2 and 3, Plate 3, and the caricature of Qemenceau 
on page 27. 

(4) Figures 4 and 5, on Plate 3, illustrate the head in 2/3 froot 
view. Draw these. 

(5) Draw the caricature of Bolivar, on page 26. 

(6) Going back to Plate 2, make ten diagrams of Figure 1. Using 
these guide lines, draw ten original comic heads, front view. To get 
variety in your work, vary the features, such as different shaped and 
sised eyes, noses of different length and shape, etc. 

(7) Using similar diagrams, draw ten side view (profile) comic 
heads* Employ the same form of variation as in exercise 6. 

(8) The head in 2/3 front is more difficult than the front or 
profile. But this greater difficulty should only serve as a greater 
incentive to conquer, instead of as a discouraging factor. Draw ten 
heads in 2/3 front. Block them out with die aid of guide lines. If 
you need further help, refer to drawings in this book and to cartoons 
in magazines, such as Esquire, Colliers, Saturday Evening Post, etc. 

(9) Age. Draw five heads of old men and five of old women. 
Refer to this subject in Chapter IL 

(10) Youth. Draw five heads of children. 


(1) For the purpose of memorizing the essentials of expression, 
make several copies of each expression illustrated on Plate 4. 

(2) For each expression draw a small comic head but simplify 
further the features and expression. 

(3) Draw each expression in profile and 2/3 front view. 

(4) For further practice of expression turn to Plate 5 and make 
exact copies of Figures 1, 2, and 3. Can you express the smile, the 
sfcern and angry expressions? 

(5) Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7 show Der Fuehrer smifitig, angry, 
sad, and interested, respectively. 

(6) The cartoonist makes animals express their feelings also. 
This is illustrated by Figures 8 and 9 on the same plate (5). Copy 


(7) Copy outright the caricature of Foch on page 33. Reprcx 

90 Caricaturing 

duce exactly the parallel line and Crosshatch shading in this drawing. 

(8) Draw a donkey's head, side view, smiling. 

(9) Draw an elephant's head as above, except substitute anger 
for smile* 


(1) Draw about fifty eyes in various shapes, sises, and degrees 
of exaggeration ranging from mere dots and slits to the large, "come- 
hither'" eyes of an irresistible young lady. 

(2) Draw a large variety of ears in all shapes and si^es. 

(3) As for noses make them long, short, slender, fat, roman, 
pug, crooked, and flat. Draw them front, profile, and 2/3 front. 

(4) Copy Figures 2 and 4 on Plate 6. Also both caricatures of 
Masefield on this same plate. 

(5) Draw several original heads, using for features, suitable 
ones selected from your work in exercises 1, 2, and 3. Also get variety 
and exaggeration in hair, jaws, and chins. Make double chins, pointed 
chins, chins with beard and stubble beard. 

(6) Copy the head of Bismarck, page 39. Change any part you 
wish, but be sure to retain a likeness of the subject. 

(7) Copy all three drawings on Plate 8. Note the snorting 
expression of the pony. 

(8) Copy Figures 1 and 3, Plate 7. Note the difference in 
exaggeration and technique. For an explanation of spatter shading 
as used in Figure 3, refer to Chapter VII and the accompanying 
Plate, No. 14. 


(1) In all exercises for this section, employ the method of block' 
ing out figures as illustrated in Figures A, B, 1, and 4, Plate 9. Copy 
Figure 3 following the procedure as illustrated. 

(2) Copy Figures 5, 6, and 7. Get the same expressions and 
actions as in the originals. Also same shading. 

(3) Originate ? comic figures in front view. Get a selection of 
fat, slender, tall, and short figures. 

(4) Same as Exercise 3 except in side view. 

(5) Same as 3 and 4 except 2/3 front. 


(1) Read carefully the chapter on action before beginning the 
following exercises. 

(2) Copy all figures on Plate 10. 

(3) Plate 11 illustrates several good action studies. Copy these 

(4) Copy the action and shading illustrations on Plate 12. 

(5) For a change and rest from figures, copy the caricatures 
on pages 44, 49, and 51. Also the one on page 52. 

(6) Draw a boxer, side view, punching a bag. Get plenty of 
action into it. 

(7) Draw Hitler making a speech. Make hair dishevelled, eyes 
wild with emotion, mouth opened wide, and arms and hands wikfly 
gesticulating. Place M on a balcony and very simply, suggest a 
crowd listening. Remember simplicity is essential for good cartoons. 
Good cartoons suggest rather than portray faithfully. They only 
show the essential with everything superfluous omitted. 

(8) Draw a football player kicking a football. Can you ade' 
quately represent a hard kick? 

(9) Draw a baseball player running to first base and really make 
him step on it! Suggest the stadium full of wildly cheering fans. 

(10) Do two action figures of your own choosing. 


(1) For further practice in the use of parallel lines, Crosshatch, 
and spatter in shading, copy the drawings on pages 56 and 57. But 
before doing the exercises for this chapter, reread it (Chapter VII) 


(2) Draw a cube of about 2 inches square. Use a model if pos- 
sible, and have the light coming from only one direction. Shade the 
block, using tones of different values for the different planes to bring 
out the form forcefully. Also represent the shadow cast. 

(3) Draw a cylinder standing on end, about 4 inches high and 
2 inches wide. How can you show the curvature of the surface? 
It also casts a shadow. Draw the shadow. 

(4) A chair is setting in the sunlight. Draw it with a shadow 
beneath. Use Crosshatch for the shadow. Does the shadow seem to 
lie flat on the ground? Does it stand on edge? Why? 

92 Caricaturing 

(5) A burglar is running very rapidly beside a board fence. 
The moonlight casts a shadow from his feet to the fence and a part 
of his shadow is on the fence. Draw him. Suggest houses on other 
side of fence, also a few bushes and trash to represent an alley scene. 
Have you gotten a pleasing contrast between your light and dark 

(6) Draw a fat man in a boat fishing. The boat is small and the 
man is so heavy that it is almost standing on end. Draw shadow 
beneath the end of boat which is above water. Also the shadow 
of the man is shown on the water. Can you represent water simply? 
This is a good exercise. 

(7) Draw a man's coat, front view, without the man. Place 
shadows under lapels and buttons. Make wrinkles as if coat were 
on a man. 

(8) Draw a vest and trousers as if they were on a man but 
don't draw the man. Place shadows where needed. 

(9) A pair of shoes are on the floor. The toes are turned up 
slightly. Draw them with shadows which emphasize this and show 
contact with the floor. 

(10) Remember all these tricks of shading and shadows. Draw 
an original composition, and shade it according to what you have 
learned. f 


(1) Copy the caricature of Jack Dempsey on page 63. Repro- 
duce the technique of the original drawing. 

(2) Copy the drawing on page 62. Note this is entirely dif- 
ferent from die one on page 63. 

(3) Copy the composition on page 64. This drawing has cross- 
hatch, parallel lines, and heavy stripes. The solid black affords con- 
trast and lends color to the drawing. Note the flying notes which 
signify that Paderewski is playing. 

(4) Copy the drawing of Coffin on page 44. All drawings 
should be mack twice the sise which they appear in this book. Note 
the simplicity of this drawing. Can you obtain the same expression 
as tie author has depicted? 

(5) In the two caricatures of Pershing, Hate 13, page 54, note 

the difference in treatment or technique. Copy these as exercises in 
technique. Also make a drawing of Sam InsulL 

(6) Copy the two caricatures of Howard Thurston, Plate 15. 
Note the simplification and exaggeration in Figure 2, 

(7) Using any model you prefer, draw a caricature using soft 
lead pencil and wash. 

(8) Draw another one with crayon or any other medium you 
prefer. Learn to exercise initiative and originality. If you have an 
air brush try a caricature in this medium. 


(1) After rereading Chapter IX, make copies of all animals on 
Plates 17 and 18. Do not draw them just to get them done, for 
such work will not be of any help in developing your ability to draw* 
Draw them carefully with the same actions and expressions, unless 
you think you can improve them. 

(2) Draw a donkey, side view, with Jack Garner in the saddle. 
Suggest a landscape of cactus and distant mesas. Can you make the 
donkey look lasy and slow? How should his ears be? His head? 
What about shading and shadows? 

(3) With the help of Plate 8, draw a bucking horse ridden by 
a cowpuncher. Have him holding a tep gallon hat in one hand, the 
reins with the other. 

(4) Draw a woodpecker pecking on a snag. How can you 
suggest flying dust and the rapidity of his head movements? 

(5) Draw the Russian bear eating a man which is labeled 
Finland. Draw this in the style of a propaganda cartoon for news' 

(6) Draw the British lion being subdued by Mahatma Gandhi. 
This is another propagandist^ idea. How can you best express the 

(7) Draw an elephant, labeled G.OJP., standing on rear .feet, 
boxing gloves on front feet, punching a bag which is labeled New Deal. 

(8) Take a good gag pertaining to a man and his wife and 
apply it to a rooster and hen; then draw an illustration of the joke. 

(9) Draw Peter Rabbit riding on a sled which is being pufled 
by a dog. Make a drawing of this idea which wifl interest children. 

94 Caricaturing 

(10) Draw any five animals you wish with any actions and 
expressions, and in any views you choose. But have expressions con- 
sistent with action and vice versa. Develop your imagination by orig- 
inating ideas. Develop originality by drawing correctly but differently. 


(1) Copy the lettering on Plate 19. Draw pencil guide lines 
first and lay out the lettering in pencil also, before beginning with the 
lettering pen. It is not necessary to make the fine arrowed lines which 
are on die plate merely for the purpose of indicating the direction and 
order of the stroke. 

(2) Copy the words "Drawing the Head" as they appear on 
Plate 2, page 22. Note the shadows cast by letters upon other letters. 

(3) From Plate 3, page 24, copy the word "William II." This 
is a style often used in newspaper cartoons. Letter the following 
words in the same style: "Crown Prince," "John Dewey," "Ferdi- 

(4) The word "Coonts," page 32, shows another style appro- 
priate for cartoons. In the same style letter "Marshal Foch." 

(?) Letter the words "Brandenburg * and "HohensollenT in 
the style of the word "Hindenburg" on page 38. 

(6) Letter your name with conjoined letters as in "Ignace 
Paderewski," page 64. Letter the word Roosevelt in the same style. 
Draw the two o's interlocking or passing through each other as two 
links of a chain. 

(7) Letter several other words in a style similar to that of the 
above exercise, but shade the letters differently. Always use guide 


(1) Draw a house in perspective, comic style. Have sunlight 
falling from right to left and shade accordingly. Where will the 
shadows fall? 

(2) Draw a straight road viewed from its middle. On either 
side is a fence* There is also a telephone line on one side of the road. 
All lines will converge at the horizon. 

(3) Draw a table in perspective. Also the interior of a room 
showing windows and door in perspective. For help in these per' 

spective drawings refer to Chapter XI. Remember that distance is 
suggested by graduated tones, the darkest in foreground and lightest 
in the distance. 

(4) For an exercise in composition, draw an interior scene 
showing a man and a pretty girl, furniture, windows, pictures on 
walls, etc. Arrange various items of the picture to put across the 
idea, for balance of objects, balance of tones with most important 
items most noticeable, those of less importance subdued, and those 
which are superfluous, entirely eliminated. 


(1) In magazines, histories, encyclopedias, etc., look up pic- 
tures of the following people and draw caricatures of them, apply 
ing what you liave learned in the eleven preceding sections: William 
Bankhead, Leopold Stokowski, Al Smith, Jack Garner, John W. Davis, 
Adolph S. Ochs, Bernard M. Baruch, Dr. Raymond Ditmais, W. H. 
Woodin, Senator Borah, Dr. Raymond Moley, Sen. Pat Harrison, 
"Diszy" Dean, Bfll Tilden, Clark Gable, Joe E. Brown, Jimmy 
Durante, Ernest Lubitsch, William G. McAdoo, Charles G. Dawes, 
Calvin Coolidge, Jim Barley, Herbert Hoover, J. Edgar Hoover, 
Eugene O"Nefl, and F. D. Roosevelt. 

Note: The Author of this book offers profitable and constructive 
criticism of your work. Address him, care of the Publisher, 



Size 6% x 10% inches. 

160 Pages, printed on Plate Paper. 

Cloth Binding $2.0O 

CONTAINS over two hundred original 
drawings from the pen, pencil and brush 
of Eogene Zimmerman (Zim), whose 
work needs no introduction. 

Every imaginable phase of cartooning 
is explained and illustrated in f ulL 

Teachers, preachers and professional 
chalk-talkers will find the book full of 
material that can be worked into illus- 
trated lectures. Authors and humorists 
may illustrate their own writing. Com- 
mercial artists, ad writers and sign paint- 
ers will find a wealth of humorous sug- 
gestions that can be applied profitably. 

School and college students can turn 
their art ambitions into profitable chan- 
nels, and even the professional cartoon- 
ist will find this a reference book worth 
many times its price. 

BBGXNKIHG with the simplest kind of 
practice sketches, the book leads you 
a dozen interesting' chapters to 

complete mastery of humorous illus- 
trating. Not a dull page in the course. 

Table of Contents by Chapters. 


A Word about Materials. 

Practice Sketches Faces in Carica- 

Comic Figures and Simple Cartoons. 

Wash Drawing. 

Action and Perspective. 

Cartoon Animals and Backgrounds. 

Character and Expression. 

Seasonal and Holiday Cartoons. 

School and College Humor. 

Illustrated Jokes and How to Sell 

Picture Animating and Chalk Talking. 

Humorous Articles How to Illustrate 

Sports Cartooning. 

Political and Editorial Cartooning. 

Write for our complete free catalog of books on Lettering, Sign and Scene 
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