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THE ART- REVIVAL 
IN AUSTRIA 



EDITED BY CHARLES HOLME 




OFFICES OF 4 THE STUDIO,' LONDON 
PARIS, AND NEW YORK MCMVI 



N 




PREFATORY NOTE 

REVIVALS in Art spring from a sense of disquietude concerning the 
existing order of things; they are the strivings after truer and nobler 
ideals. The efforts made to this end are sometimes encumbered by 
false issues, but there is never lacking in them some element of right 
which will be recognised and supported by those who have a keen and 
real interest in the advancement of human culture. 

That there is much of genuine value in the present-day Austrian revival 
is apparent to all those who take more than a superficial interest in the 
subject, and some effort has been made in the following pages to select 
from the various branches of art a few representative examples illustrative 
of the new movement. 

The Editor desires to express his thanks to those artists who have kindly 
assisted him by allowing their work to be reproduced, and to Herr 
Hofrat Koch, Herr F. Tempsky, The Miethke Gallery of Fine Arts and 
The Modern Gallery, Vienna, The Wiener Werkstaette, Messrs. Redlich & 
Berger, Messrs. Gilhofer & Ranschburg, Messrs. Gerlach & Wiedling, 
Messrs. Anton Schroll & Co., and the various firms who have permitted 
their copyright designs to appear in this volume. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION A : 

MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA, BY LUDWIG HEVESI. ILLUSTRATIONS AFTER : 



Alt, Rudolf von 

Andri, Ferdinand ... 

Angel i, Prof. 

Axentowicz, Prof. Theodor 
Darnaut, Hugo ... 

Delug, Prof. A 

Engelhart, Josef ... 
Graf, Ludwig Ferdinand ... 
Hampel, Walter ... 
Horovitz, Leopold 



Hayek, Hans von . . . 
Jettmar, Rudolf ... 



Kasparides, Eduard 
Klimt, Gustav 

n 

Liebenwein, Maximilian 



Mediz-Pelikan, Emilie 

>> 

Michalek, Ludwig 



Moll, C 

MQller, Karl 
Nowack, Prof. Hans 
Nowak, Anton 
Orlik, Emil 
Roux, Oswald 



Ruszczyc, Ferdynand 
Schmutzer, Ferdinand 



(f The Patricians' Club, Innsbruck " water-colour 

(in colour) ... ... ... ... ... A 29 

t( Slovack Peasants " pastel (in colour) ... ... A 5 

Portrait of Sir H. M. Stanley ... ... ... A 10 

Pastel Study for u A Procession " ... ... ... AII 

Birch Trees by a Canal " ... AI2 

March Wind " (in photogravure) ... ... A 4 

The Wind " pastel (in photogravure) ... ... A 9 

A Garden Study ... ... ... ... ... AI3 

A Quiet Corner" Tempera Painting ... ... A 15 

Portrait of H.I.M. Franz Josef I., Emperor of 

Austria and King of Hungary A 16 

Portrait of Countess Potocka ... ... ... A 17 

(l Winter by the Riverside " A 18 

The Approaching Storm" water-colour (in photo- 
gravure) ... ... ... ... ... A i 

Sunrise " Original Etching ... ... ... A 30 

(( A Mountain Lake " Original Etching... ... A 31 

(( Moonlight " (in photogravure) ... ... ... A 8 

tl The Big Poplar " (in colour) A 19 

Portrait of a Young Lady ... ... ... ... A 20 

The Adoration of the Magi " Tempera Painting A 21 

St. Margaretha " Tempera Painting A 22 

A Copse" A 23 

Landscape Original Etching ... ... ... A 38 

Portrait of Hofrat Prof. Theodor Gomperz pastel 

(in photogravure) ... ... ... ... A 2 

Building the Railway Bridge over the Tsonzo, near 

Salcano Original Etching ... ... ... A 32 

Beethoven's Home in Heiligenstadt " (in photo- 
gravure) A 3 

The Church of the Carmelites ... ... ... A 25 

,,The Glazier's Shop, Hall (Tyrol)" (in colour)... A 24 

Znaim (Moravia) ... ... ... ... ... A 26 

4 , Sunday" Original Etching ... ... ... A 35 

tl Snow Scene " coloured etching (in colour) ... A 34 
,, A Funeral Procession in Lungau " Original 

Etching .. A 33 

Ballade " (in photogravure) ... ... ... A 6 

Portrait of Josef Joachim Original Etching ... A 36 

i 



SECTION A Continued. 

Schmutzer, Ferdinand ... The Equestrian " Original Etching A 37 

Stohr, Ernst Moonlight " ... A 27 

Svabinsky, Max ... ... Portrait of a Lady wash and pen-and-ink drawing 

(in photogravure) ... ... ... ... A 7 

Tichy, Hans .Spring" A 28 

Uprka, Joza A Moravian Wedding " (in colour) ... ... A 14 

SECTION B : 

MODERN PLASTIC WORK IN AUSTRIA, BY HUGO HABERFELD. ILLUSTRATIONS AFTER : 

Bilek, Frantisek Moses " B 8 

Canciani, Alfonso Dante" ... ... ... ... fill 

... ... ... ... ... ... B 13 

Engelhart, Josef ... Figure for a Tombstone .. ... ... ... B 5 

Gurschner, Gustav ... Monsignore Polus Pasquinelli ... ... ... B 17 

Hanak, Anton Portrait Study ... ... ... B 9 

Hellmer, Prof. Edmund ... Study for the Goethe Monument in Vienna ... B 10 

... Hygeia B 18 

Heu, Josef ... ... The Artist's Mother ... ... ... ... 814 

Kiihnelt, Hugo ... ... u Despair" ... ... ... ... B 7 

Luksch, Richard Reliefs on the facade of the Sanatorium at Pur- 

kersdorf ... ... ... 83 & 4 

Marschall, Rudolf ... Pope Leo XIII Big 

,, ... H.I.M. Franz Josef I., Emperor of Austria and 

j, ... King of Hungary ... ... ... ... B 20 

... Ludwig Lobmeyer ... ... ... ... ... B2I 

Metzner, Prof. Franz ... Nibelung Fountain B 12 

,, ... Portion of the Stelzhamer Monument at Linz ... B 16 

Saloun, Ladislav Study for the Huss Monument ... ... ... 815 

Seiffert, Franz ... ... The Strauss and Lanner Monument in Rath- 

haus Park, Vienna ... B i 

Sucharda, Stanislav ... A Study of Children's Heads B 2 

Wollek, Carl Tamino and Pamina " Portion of the Mozart 

Fountain at Vienna ... ... B 6 

SECTION C : 

THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA, BY HUGO HABERFELD. ILLUSTRATIONS 
AFTER : 

Bauer, Leopold A Kitchen c i 

Children's Room ... ... ... ... ... c 2 

... Bathroom executed by R. Masini ... ... ... c 3 

Demmger, Wunibald ... Country house in Gutenstein, Lower Austria ... c 5 

... Villa in Gutenstein, Lower Austria ... ... c 6 

Hoffmann, Prof. Josef ... Covered Pavilion in the Sanatorium at Purkersdorf 

executed by the Wiener Werkstaette C 7 

" Entrance to the Sanatorium at Purkersdorf executed 

by the Wiener Werkstaette c 8 

ii 



SECTION C Continued. 

Hoffmann, Prof. Josef ... Hall of the Sanatorium at Purkersdorf executed by 

the Wiener Werkstaette ... ... ... eg 

... Dining-room of the Sanatorium at Purkersdorf 

executed by the Wiener Werkstaette ... ... c 10 

* ... Kitchen executed by W. Miiller ... c n 

... Bedroom ,, ... ... ... c 12 

... Country House ... ... ... ... ... 13 

... Bent Wood Furniture executed by J. & J. Kohn c 14 
... Room in white enamel and black oak executed by 

the Wiener Werkstaette ... ... ... 015 

... Country House ... ... ... ... ... c 16 

,, ... Bedroom Furniture in bent wood executed by 

J. & J. Kohn ... ... ... c 17 

... Reception-room executed by the Wiener Werk- 
staette ... ... c 18 

... Kitchen ... ... ... ... ... ... 019 

... Wardrobe executed by the Wiener Werkstaette... c 20 

>, ... Desk and Chair ... ... ... ... ... C2I 

... Billiard Room executed by the Wiener Werkstaette c 22 

... Bedroom executed by W. Miiller... ... ... c 23 

... Piano in oak stained black executed by Borsendorfer c 24 
... Card Table and Chairs executed by the Wiener 

Werkstaette ... ... ... c 25 

... Villa in Vienna ... ... ... ... ... c 27 

Jurkovic, Dusan ... ... Country House ... ... ... ... ... c 4 

Kotera, Jan ... ... Villa in Bohemia ... ... ... ... ... c 28 

Public Offices at Kralove Hradec in Bohemia ... c 29 

... ... Country House ... ... ... ... ... c 30 

Krauss, Baron F. ... ... Design for a Parlour (in colour) ... ... ... 026 

Moser, Prof. Koloman ... Kitchen Dresser executed by the Wiener Werk- 
staette ... ... ... ... ... ... c 33 

... ... Bedroom in white maple executed by the Wiener 

Werkstaette ... ... ... ... ... c 34 

Ofner, Hans ... ... Study executed by Heintschel & Co. ... ... c 35 

55 5> R om 5> .5 c 36 

... ... Entrance Hall executed by Heintschel & Co. ... c 37 

Entrance Hall ... c 38 

... ... Buffet executed by Heintschel & Co. ... c 39 

... ... Hall Stand F. Mittringer ... ... ... c 40 

... ... Card Room Heintschel & Co. ... ... c 41 

Ohmann, Prof. ... ... The Hall of Antiquities at Magdeburg ... ... 042 

Olbrich, Prof. Garden Villa 043 

... ... Fountain exhibited at the St. Louis Exhibition ... 044 

Dining Room in the house of the Chaplain-in- 

Ordinary to the Grand Duke of Hesse ... c 45 

Orlcy, Robert ... ... Study executed by Richard Ludwig ... ... c 46 

55 ;> J) 5 55 C 47 

iii 



SECTION C Continued. 

Orley, Robert Toilet Table in grey beech executed by S. Oppen- 

heim c 48 

Washstand in grey beech executed by S. Oppenheim c 49 

Prutscher, Otto Dining Room executed by Johann Seidl c 50 

... Design for an Entrance Hall ... 051 

M ... ... Sitting-room executed by L. Hermann 052 

Bedroom in elmwood executed by A. Pospischil ... 053 

c 54 

n Bedroom in ash and ebony executed by Carl 

Prommel c 55 

Urban, Josef Winter Garden 056 

Dining-room in mahogany, inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl, executed by Hollmann ... c 57 

Library in mahogany inlaid with ivory and mother- 
of-pearl c 58 

Boudoir with walls of purple silk and mahogany 
inlaid with mother-of-pearl, executed by Sandor 

Jaray c 59 

n Music-room in natural mahogany executed by 

Hollmann c 60 

... Dining-room executed by Hollmann c 61 

... Sitting-room in Hungarian natural oak executed 

by Sandor Jaray ... ... ... ... ... c 62 

n ... ... Sitting-room in Hungarian natural oak executed 

by Sandor Jaray ... 063 

M Boudoir executed by Sandor Jaray ... ... 064 

Wagner, Prof. Otto ... Armchair in oak, inlaid with mother-of-pearl and 

aluminium, executed by Alex. Albert ... ... c 32 

Witkiewicz, Stanislaw ... Country House in Zakopane style, Galicia ... c 31 



SECTION D : 

MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA, BY A. S. LEVETUS. ILLUSTRATIONS AFTER : 
Andri, Ferdinand ... ... Book Illustration 



Barwig, Franz 
Bohm, Adolf 
Czescka, Prof. 

Died, Fritz 
Ederer, Carl 

Emmel, Bruno 




Woodcarving Street Figures 

Bookbinding executed by the Wiener Werkstaette... 

Casket in beaten silver presented to H.I.M. Franz 

Josef I., executed by the Wiener Werkstaette 
Textile executed by J. Backhausen & Sons, Vienna 

(in colour) 
Stained Glass Window executed by Carl Geyling's 

Erben ... 

Pottery executed by Gebriider Redlich ... 



D 40 
D 41 
D 42 
D 74. 

D 24 
D 67 
D 89 

D 83 
D 2 
D 7 



IV 



SECTION D Continued. 

Engelhart, Josef ... 



Wood Intarsia executed by Kehl 







Falke, Baroness ... 

> i> 

Gurschner, Gustav 



Hoffmann, Prof. Josef 



Book Illustrations ... ... ... ... . 

Tableware executed by Bakalowits & Sons 

n > ... 

Palm Pot in bronze ... . 

Table Lamp ... ... ... 

Ash Tray ... ... ... . 

Fruit Stand executed by the Wiener Werkstaette. 

Gold Brooch 

Bookbinding 

Jewel Box 

Clock 

Cigar Box 

Silver Spoon 















>? 

n 
> 



J 






> 





D 7 I 

D 72 

D 73 

D 34 

DS5 

D 56 
D 6 

D68 

D 69 
D 4 
D 13 
D 14 
D 17 
D l8 
D 21 



Beaten Metalwork 



D 58 

D 59 

D 60 

D 6l 

D 62 

> > > D 64 

j, > D 65 

... Cotton tapestry executed by J. Backhausen & Sons D 85 
Hoppe, Emil Table lamps and flower stands executed by Baka- 
lowits & Sons ... ... D 48 

Kramer, J. V u At the Fountain of Bitir" Illustration from 

Ver Sacrum" 032 

Lefler, Prof. Heinrich, and ,<The Sleeping Beauty" book illustration (in 

Josef Urban ... ... colour)... ... ... ... ... ... 030 

Lefler, Prof. Heinrich, and Hanschen, wilt thou Dance ? " book illustration 

Josef Urban (in colour) ... 044 

Lenz, Maximilian ... Mural Decoration in hammered brass D 70 

Loffler, B.... ... ... Ceramic figure ... ... ... ... ... D i 

Luksch-Makowsky, Elena Panel in beaten brass set with stone ... ... DII 

Covers for ventilators in hand- beaten brass ... D 66 

Mehoffer, Prof. Josef von H The Archangel Michael" Mural Decoration... D 79 

u The Archangel Raphael " Mural Decoration... 080 
Notre Dame des Victoires " Design for a 

window ... ... ... ... ... D 81 

Design for a window ... ... . . ... D 82 

Messner, Franz Carpet executed by J. Backhausen & Sons ... 092 

>, >, D 93 

Moser, Prof. Koloman ... Fruit Stand in silver executed by the Wiener 

Werkstaette D 3 

... Flower Pot in galvanised iron executed by the 

Wiener Werkstaette ... ... D 5 

v 



SECTION D Continued. 

Moser, Prof. Kolomai 



Ofner, Hans 


Olbrich, Prof. 

Powolny, M. 
Prutscher, Otto 





Schoenthoner, V. 
Sika.J. ... 



Clock in ebony and beaten silver executed by the 

Wiener Werkstaette ... D 12 

Silver Brooch set with stones executed by the 

Wiener Werkstaette ... ... 016 

Bookbinding in morocco executed by the Wiener 

Werkstaette D 22 

Bookbinding in white buck leather executed by 

the Wiener Werkstaette ... ... ... D 23 

Glassware executed by Bakalowits & Sons ... D 45 

>, D 47 
Beaten metalwork executed by the Wiener Werk- 
staette D 63 

Tray executed by Bakalowits & Sons ... ... D 10 

Tableware ... ... D 54 

Tapestry in the music-room of the Grand Duke 

of Hesse D 84 

Ceramic figure ... ... ... ... ... D i 

Hand-painted Bonbonniere ... ... ... 015 

Cigarette and Card Cases executed by R.Melzer,Jun. D 19 

Jewel Case in rosewood executed by Johann Bauwic D 2O 
Blotting Case in seal leather executed by R. 

Melzer, Jun ,.. D 25 

Pocket Book in seal leather executed by R. 

Melzer, Jun. ... ... ... ... ... D 26 

Leather Blotting Case executed by B. Buchwald D 29 
Electric Light Pendants executed by Bakalowits & 

Sons ... ... ... ... ... ... D 46 

Crystal Flower Bowl executed by Bakalowits & Sons D 49 

j> D 5 

Electric Light Pendant D 52 

Glass Mosaic executed by Remygius Geyling ... D 76 
Glass Fillings for a sideboard executed by Carl 

Geyling's Erben ... D 77, 78 

Wool Tapestry executed by J. Backhausen & Sons D 86 
Textile executed by J. Backhausen & Sons 

(in colour) 087 

Textile executed by Carl Giani, Jun. (in colour) D 88 
Hand-Knotted Carpet executed by J. Backhauseu 

& Sons ... ... ... ... ... D 94 

i> D 95 

D 9 

Leather Blotting Case executed by B. Buckwald... D 28 

Toiletware executed by J. Boch ... ... ... 08 

Red and White Glass Vases executed by Bakalowits 

& Sons ... ... ... ... ... D 9 

Coffee Service executed by J. Boch ... ... D 10 

Electric Light Pendant executed by Bakalowits & Sons D 51 



VI 



SECTION D Continued. 

Sika, J. ... Electric Light Pendant executed by Bakalowits & 

Sons D 53 

Stohr, Ernst Illustration to a Poem. From (1 Ver Sacrum " ... 031 

Stooss, Betty Cushion D 97 

... ... Portion of a Table Cover ... ... ... ... D 98 

Sumetsberger, E. ... ... Leather Jewel Case executed by B. Buckwald ... D 27 

Taschner, Ign. .., ... Book Illustration ... ... ... 035 

D 36 

- - D 37 

038 

... D 43 

Tauschek, Otto ... ... ... ... D 39 

Urban, Josef (see Prof. 

Heinrich Lefier,). 

Wachsmann, Rosa ... Textile executed by S. E. Steiner & Co. ... D 90 

... Design for a wall paper ... ... ... ... 091 

Zelezny, Franz Woodcarving Martin Luther ... D 75 



The Copyright of each Illustration in this Volume is reserved by the Owner. 



VII 



A 1 RUDOLF JETTMAR 




THE APPROACHING STORM" 
-WATER-COLOUR DRAWING 
IN THE MODERN GALLERY, 
VIENNA 




MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 
BY LUDWIG HEVESI 

,HE Sun of Modern Taste rose in the West. 
It needed some years to enable its beams to 
reach the art of Austria, but slowly did light and 
warmth arrive, amid difficulties which had their 
natural causes. In matters of art Vienna always 
inclined to conservatism, for the reason that 
Flanders and a large part of Italy were for a long 
time Austrian. The glorious Venetian and 
Flemish painters of the great days still give their 
stamp to the Viennese galleries, which are among the richest in the 
world. Vienna is, inter alia, a Rubens city of the first rank, and it is 
no wonder that the powerful Austrian painter, Hans Canon (1829 
1885), should have lived and died a student of Rubens in partibus a 
sort of posthumous Jordaens. Hans Makart himself (1840 1884), 
who inaugurated a period of splendid colour, and intoxicated the whole 
of central Europe with the hues of his palette, was a new Paolo 
Veronese, and had a most dazzling effect on the unstrung nerves 
of a Jin de stick. It was indeed the last brilliant blaze of an old 
" Gallery art," which was destined to be followed by a new art based 
on nature. Add to that the baroque traditions of the great Theresian 
century. Vienna had come down to us as a beautiful baroque city, and 
in every street there still stand the magnificent palaces and cathedrals, 
dating from the time of Bernini and Juvara, for this spirit is not 
to be lightly thrown off. On the other side, the Academy of Fine 
Arts was a solid fortress of the historical point of view in art and 
of conventional taste. Its chief teachers of painting were pupils of 
Rahl, the monumental painter of the city extension (Eisenmenger 
and Griepenkerl), and its architects were those of the historical style, 
the " Gothic " Schmidt, the " Greek " Hansen, and the " Cinque- 
centist " Ferstl ; and from this Academy history-taught and 
history-teaching there arose the Society of the " Kunstlergenossen- 
schaft," whose members had the lead in the " Kiinstlerhaus." 
Simultaneously there existed a leaning towards Parisian colour. 
August von Pettenkofen (1822 1889) had come into contact with 
Meissonier and the French painters of the East Fromentin, Gerome, 
Diaz, and others ; but he found in Hungary, in the valley, of the 
Tisza, whose praises had already been sung by Lenau, a European 
Egypt of 1 200 geographical square miles, with a lovely little Nile 

A i 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

and a life as sunny as that of the East. His work was of supreme 
force in point of light and shade, done in the warm brown tones of 
the " little masters " of the Netherlands and their Parisian imitators. 
And at the same time the landscapist, Emil J. Schindler (1842 
1892), was striking the clear, lyrical notes of the Masters of 
Fontainebleau. These two artists were free, true spirits, born a 
little before their time. 

Of genuine forerunners of modern painting there was certainly no 
lack. Of recent years they have been reverently disinterred, and 
their works, displayed at special exhibitions, have aroused general 
astonishment. Thus appeared several times the great genre and 
landscape painter, Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller (1793 1865), who 
was deposed from his position as Professor at the Academy because 
he painted in the open air, in full sunlight, at that time con- 
sidered far too advanced and by means of pamphlets strongly urged 
the reform of the Academy root and branch. Another leader in the 
revolt alas ! a sadly embarrassed one was Anton Romako 
(1832 1889), the memory of whom was revived quite recently by 
an exhibition. It was the rehabilitation of one scorned in his own 
time, one who in the struggle for freedom strove to break his bonds. 
He was the author of the bizarre but thoroughly nerve-inspiring 
picture, Admiral Tegethoff in the Sea-jight at Lissa. Of the same 
type, a man of headstrong artistic obstinacy, yet not devoid of 
discretion, keeping himself well under control, was the landscapist 
Theodore von Hermann (1840 1895), the real precursor of the 
" Secession." He, too, wasted his time in the Kiinstlerhaus, and then 
enjoyed a posthumous fame in the " Secession." The auction sale of 
his property was a great event in Vienna. His favourite motto was 
" truth." He strove to be absolutely true to nature, and hated every- 
thing in the way of studio-made compromise. Indeed, he painted 
his frost-covered winter scenes seated in the snow, like an Esquimo, 
thereby catching the cold from which he died. Yet another nature 
essentially the same, but of a more delicate fibre, was Rudolf von 
Alt (1812 1905), who only a year ago died, a Methuselah of ninety- 
four. Like the Spire of St. Stephen's, which he painted so often 
in all lights, he, too, is one of Vienna's signmarks. In his case we 
have to consider a whole dynasty, for his father Jacob (1789 1872) 
was an excellent painter of city views, and his brother Franz (born 
in 1821) is so still. The " Veduta," or view, was in the family blood. 
But Rudolf was also highly interesting as a figure painter, and the 
crowds of figures in his views of Vienna form a rich source of infor- 
mation, covering about eighty years of Viennese life. His abandon- 
A ii 



A 2 UUSWiQ MICHAL.EK 




HOFRAT PROF. THEODOR 
GO MPERZ PASTEL 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

ment of portrait painting, while still a young man, was a sheer act 
of friendship to the lithographic portraitist, Kriehuber, with whom 
he did not wish to come into rivalry. Rudolf was the leader of 
the Viennese "Veduta" painting, the true biographer of Vienna, old 
and new, the indefatigable chronicler in whose water-colours and 
marvellous pencil-drawings a whole world of picturesque beauty, 
now demolished, continues to live. His was an honest, cheerful, 
and domestic character, and he was as a painter quite simple, ever 
absorbed in his task, and producing easily and tirelessly in fact, a 
real type of the Austrian and the Viennese in the days of the " Waltz 
King," Johann Strauss, and the local, dramatic geniuses, Nestroy and 
Gallmeyer. Sprung from the Viennese people, he was a genuine son of 
the soil, to which he clung all his life, full of its scent the " Wiener 
Luft " full of the spirit of the century, on whose sundial, year in, 
year out, the shadow of St. Stephen's Spire performed its round. 
In Vienna they call such an one an " Urwiener." Moreover, he made 
several journeys, which extended even to v the Crimea and to Sicily. 
In Italy he painted many delicious pictures, at first working in oils, 
in which he was always somewhat heavy. He never went to 
Paris, and thus remained free from its influences. He was original 
through and through, yet at no time did he allow his originality 
to ossify into mannerism. He gladly let himself come in con- 
tact with all the tendencies of the period ; he was always 
up-to-date and opportune, and we can immediately tell the 
period of his pictures, even though they be undated. It is 
remarkable that the author of the minute detail work of early years, 
of the Biedermaier period and the so-called " Vormarz," should 
have acquired, in the freer and more decorative Makart days, such 
breadth and richness of brush, as though he had never had aught to 
do with the laboured drawings of old Vienna ; and in later years, 
when his trembling hand made writing almost impossible to the old 
man, he invented for himself a method of forming his characters 
with the tip of his brush, point by point, never failing to hit the 
right place. Then came the " pointillist " movement in Paris, and 
one saw that from sheer physical necessity Alt had long anticipated 
it. Thus all the styles and modes of painting of a whole century 
are reflected in his work. Even in his early water-colours, done 
in the thirties of the century, one often finds him busy with 
the problems of to-day as when he depicts the play of the full 
sunlight on some broad plane, or paints in oils a Viennese eclipse of 
the sun (1842) simply as an atmospheric occurrence, as a study, quite 
in the modern spirit. At the sale of his works by auction, in 

A iii 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

February last, the lots numbered 487 (two-thirds of which were small 
pencil studies) and realised 181,000 Kronen. There one came across 
many " incunabula " of modern painting. Rudolf von Alt is 
now on the road towards the attainment of international celebrity, 
after living out his long life in bourgeois modesty, content with 
nothing more than mere local appreciation. Indeed, of recent years 
the Berlin historical exhibitions have recognised his rank. He was 
the great, the real recorder of Vienna's doings, just as Adolf von 
Menzel was the faithful chronicler of Berlin. Two diverse, yet 
at the same time parallel natures, which an essentially historical 
century created its representative artists. Menzel, as a son ot 
politico-historical Prussia, as a contemporary of Ranke, depicted the 
story, internal and external, of his native land ; while Alt, product 
of a Southern land full of charm of form and colour, native of a 
delightfully situated art-city, became, before all else, the delineator or 
his own locality, its landscapes and its views. When, on the 3rd of 
April, 1897, nineteen young artists came together, to found the 
Viennese " Secession," they chose as their leader Rudolf von Alt, and 
he accepted the title. They found him young enough, and he felt 
himself not too old to be young in their society. 
Meanwhile the " Secession " had become absolutely indispensable in 
Vienna. A too businesslike point of view prevailed at the Kiinstler- 
haus, manifesting itself in the shape of something like a protective 
duty on art. For many years the exhibitions had prohibited the 
admission of all foreign contributions, in order to preserve the 
market for the home artist. Thus the great public was kept in 
complete ignorance of the various transformations which Western 
art was undergoing. Viennese painting might continue to hobble 
peacefully along the old, well-worn track ! International exhibi- 
tions were few and far between, but the third of these (in the 
spring of 1894) gave some sign of what was going on in the West. 
This sign came, not from France which still sent nothing but 
officially-approved works, naught of Manet and his school but 
from England. For, in addition to Leighton, Herkomer and Alma- 
Tadema (whose Fredegonde was bought by the reigning Prince ot 
Liechtenstein for 15,000 gulden, and bequeathed later to the 
Modern Gallery), one saw here for the first time the " Boys of 
Glasgow" Brown, Cameron, Reid Murray, Pirie, Macaulay 
Stevenson, and others, whose open-air work caused a complete upset 
of existing ideas. The storm thus raised came to a climax in 
December of the same year, when the entire "Secession" of Munich 
appeared as guests in the Kunstlerhaus. The old-fashioned public 
A iv 



A 3 O. MOLL 





BEETHOVEN'S HOME 
IN HEILIGENSTADT" 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

and its antiquated painters jeered loudly, but the iron wall which 
hitherto had formed the horizon of Viennese art was broken down. 
Some young artists were elected as members of the "Jury" of the 
Kiinstlerhaus, and soon there followed exhibitions of modern 
pictures such as Segantini's Two Mothers, Dettmann's Hei/ige 
Nacht, &c., which of course aroused another storm of criticism. 
In the "Jury " itself there were hard battles to be fought, and finally 
the " young men " withdrew, to form their own society, the " Seces- 
sion." From that time forward Viennese painting gravitated towards 
the " Secession " until the schism occurred last year. It modernised 
the whole art of Vienna, so that even the Kiinstlerhaus itself was 
compelled by force of circumstances to fall into line. Fresh forces 
were moving in all directions, the rejected of former "juries" 
emerged from obscurity into fame, and other groups of young 
artists were formed, notably the " Hagenbund," and applied art 
followed in the path defined by art pure and simple. 
Forthwith there sprang into prominence an artist who was destined 
to establish a style Gustav Klimt, born in 1862, the most 
significant and most original force in painting since Makart. His 
name is, as it were, a battle-cry ; to many people he became and 
has remained a veritable bete noire. His three great ceiling paintings 
for the aula of the University Philosophy, Medicine, and Juris- 
prudence formally signify three years of the aesthetic civil war 
during which controversy raged even among the professors them- 
selves until finally the artist, who was treated by the Minister, 
von Hartel, in the most correct manner possible, voluntarily 
withdrew the pictures and returned the sum he had already received 
for them. Klimt is the absolute, go-ahead, unmitigated artist, the very 
reverse of an everybody's painter. He has no regard for aught save 
his own artistic vision, and goes on his way, silent and reserved. 
Anything in the way of speculation with regard to the commercial 
side of his work, any thought of taking notice of the oft-repeated 
charge of morbidness, is absolutely remote from his mind. The 
segment pictures in the staircase of the Hofkunstmuseum and the 
ceiling paintings in the Hof-Burgtheater reveal a graceful draughts- 
man and a powerful colourist of the Makart type, with a certain 
suggestion of his luxury of hues. But the " unrest of the modern 
soul" soon asserted itself. In the play of light and vibration of 
colour, as exemplified strongly in his Schubert, he allies himself with 
the most modern tendencies. The nerves of a nervous age quiver 
at fresh contacts. New aspirations arise in form and in colour, a new 
vision appears, the latent hauntings of everyday fancifulness, the 

A v 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

unwitting dreamings of a world to all seeming so wide-awake. Jan 
Toorop observed these phenomena, but in another way. Whistler 
also saw them, and he, too, with other eyes. Klimt was akin to the 
one, in his fantastic scenes which are beyond anything seen before in 
their ornamental tendency ; he reminded of the other in his women's 
portraits, wherein not the body only, but the soul, the temperament, 
seems to be revealed, wherein one sees not alone the coursing of the 
blood through the veins, but the very disposition of the nerves. 
His portraits and his landscapes are generally admired, and even the 
Philistine has by now become accustomed to them. They have 
been much imitated, and already Vienna has a plentiful supply of 
false Klimts. But his phantasmagorias, great and small, are still 
beyond the comprehension of the simpleton in art, for they really 
mark something new in ornamental painting. Whole series of pencil 
sketches from nature have been made for the terrific realism in every 
face, in every piece of foreshortening, in every pair of wrung hands. 
Something like a mosaic of vague metals and enamels, lovely as 
jewels to the eye, like the feerie of the Byzantine mosaics at 
Ravenna, Palermo and the Church of St. Mark, is the Fata Morgana 
which leads the artist on. The masterpiece among these trance-seen 
visions of his was the fresco decoration of one of the rooms at the 
exhibition of Max Klinger's Beethoven. A long frieze depicted the 
yearnings of unhappy humanity, which first seeks help from a knight 
in armour of gold, then finds consolation amid the rose-blooms of 
Poetry, and finally comes to Joy itself in the Freude of Beethoven 
and Schiller (" Seid umschlungen Millionen"). But on the way 
mankind must first pass by a multitude of human sins and vices, 
the prince of which is the hellish monster, Typhceus. And this 
Typhceus fresco is the most extreme example one has yet seen ot 
Klimt's orgie of ornamentality. For months the artist worked on 
this decoration without fee or reward, content to lavish such splendour 
on this one opportunity, though it was believed that his pictures would 
subsequently have to be erased. But happily it was found 
possible to detach them uninjured from the walls, and they passed 
into the possession of a lover of art. Klimt's art is one of the 
highest refinement, but it is notably lacking in that "sweetness" 
which has made so much of the art of the igth century unacceptable 
to us. On the contrary, it has a certain harsh loveliness, like that of 
the Primitives, and the eye leaves it refreshed. Remarkable too 
is the originality of his handiwork. It suffices to look at a square 
inch of one of his paintings to recognise his touch immediately. 
Next among the " Secessionists " to demand notice are Giovanni 
A vi 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

Segantini (1858 1899), from Arco, Southern Tyrol, and Josef 
Mehoffer, the Pole, born in 1869, a professor at the Academy of 
Arts at Cracow. Of Segantini it is not necessary to say much 
here, for he was one of the best known painters of our time. 
Even that quaint method of his mature period, to paint by tiny 
single strokes, his simple " divisionism," was sufficient to make 
him unique. Moreover he is highly modern in the bold truth 
with which he depicts an earth nigh to the heavens, and in 
the " soul " whereby I mean the poetical pitch and ethical 
glorification which his absolute fidelity to truth in nature 
acquires. But MehofFer is now the most powerful colourist in the 
monarchy. From the portraits and " society " pictures of his 
early days, when he resembled a Spaniard of the Zuloaga or Anglada 
type, he went on to mighty colour work, such as the stained-glass in 
the Cathedrals of Cracow and Plock, and more particularly in the 
Cathedral of Fribourg, Switzerland. Therein he revels in unre- 
strained luxury of form and colour, revealing, as it were, the 
deliberate abandon of the artistic temperament in a way scarcely to 
be seen elsewhere. In these glass-paintings the art of the church is 
suddenly raised to unexpected heights. Many forceful talents are 
now being specially applied to the solution of the ecclesiastical art 
problem. This is the period of Otto Wagner, who is now building 
in Vienna the first church designed on modern principles. Last 
winter the "Secession" held an important exhibition of Ecclesiastical 
Art, in which the Beuron style was for the first time publicly 
displayed. The Benedictine monks of Beuron Abbey, in the 
principality of Hohenzollern, have, thanks to the creative skill of 
Father Desiderius Lenz, possessed a new style of ecclesiastical art 
for thirty years past. To complete this presentation of the work of 
the Beuron school certain Viennese painters took part in the labour 
of painting a baptismal chapel. Each picture was by a 
different hand, composed in a different spirit, so naturally there 
was no very harmonious result, good as Was each separate portion 
itself: but here I will do no more than mention the charming glass- 
painting by Ederer. 

Among the style-inclined painters of the " Secession " there are 
several who strike an individual note, for example, Adolf Bohm 
(born in 1861) in the ornamental stylise landscape, with a strong 
leaning in the direction of applied art ; Alfred Roller (born in 
1846), who is at present a reformer of the established state of things 
at the Imperial Court Opera, where the classical scenes owe their 
novel anti-realistic form entirely to him ; Rudolf Jettmar (born in 

A vii 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

1869), chiefly an etcher of fantastically-heroic scenes ; Max 
Lebenwein (born in 1869), water-colourist, interpreter of knightly 
legend and saga, and J. M. Auchentaller, whose ornamental 
whirlings are influenced by modern English examples. 
The popular element has two clever and truthful exponents in Josef 
Engelhart (born in 1864) and Ferdinand Andri (born in 1871). 
Engelhart is the son of a wealthy citizen, and lives in one of the 
most popular suburbs of Vienna. His brusque scenes of Viennese 
life are full of jole de vivre and fresh colour. There is strength 
and there is race therein. At the same time he is a man of inter- 
national culture, who has painted in all kinds of styles in the 
ateliers of modern Paris, in the churches of Spain, and beneath the 
blue sky of Sicily. His plastic work, too, is ever gaining in strength, 
and he has been producing, in the way of applied art, original 
things full of excellent workmanship. In the house of the well- 
known manufacturer, Herr Tausig, there is a room ornamented 
by Engelhart with large scenes from Wieland's " Oberon," most 
fancifully and gracefully disposed in the true decorative manner. 
Andri, on the other hand, is the jovial illustrator of peasant life, of 
which he depicts the various types and costumes (notably the gaily- 
coloured cottons) with all vividness, and preferably in pastel. 
Moreover, he has higher aspirations, and, as occasion serves, rises to 
great symbolic altitudes, as in the mural painting in the baptismal 
chapel already mentioned ; and, lastly, his carving shows real 
maestria. Another important personality is Carl Moll (born in 
1861), one of the founders of the " Secession," which, however, he has 
quitted, to join the "New Secession." As a painter he proceeds from 
the landscape school of Schindler, having since rambled in the Hansa 
towns of North Germany, in the footsteps of Gotthard Kuehl. 
But only in the "Secession" did he became quite modern in the matter 
of light and colour problems, and that attitude he still adopts to the 
utmost extent. A virtuoso in regard to technique, he has had con- 
siderable success with his interiors, landscapes and views. But 
his personal r6le in the modernising of the art life of Vienna consists 
in his restless energy in the service of a pet idea, and in the sociable, 
business-like and diplomatic qualities which are requisite in the 
struggle to maintain these interests. He was the very leaven of the 
new movement, a Minister of Fine Arts without a portfolio. A 
man of the Ideal was also Johann Victor Kramer (born in 1862), 
Engelhart's student companion in Spain and Sicily, and afterwards 
an Eastern traveller who put the sun of Memphis and Baalbek on his 
palette. His pictures of Palestine have a deep, almost a sacred tone. 
A viii 



A 5 ! 




.SLOVACK PEASANTS "-PASTEL. 



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A 5 FERDINAND ANDRI. 




,SLOVACK PEASANTS"-PASTEL. 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

His religious works, too, he steeps in the full magic of the plein air. 
Like him, Rudolf Bacher (born in 1862), now a professor at the 
Academy, comes from the good school of Leopold Miiller " the 
Egyptian." He possesses the serious, historical style the solid, 
substantial art of painting ; furthermore, he is one of our leading 
portrait-painters, and, incidentally, a delightfully humorous delineator 
of dragons and other "fearful wild- fowl," and a plastic artist to 
boot. He also did sacred work, and other such pictures have been 
done by Wilhelm Bernatzik (born in 1853), w ^ a ^ so aspired to 
Viennese genre and lastly to modern landscape. He belongs to the 
energetic class, is an abundant producer, and was taught in Paris. 
After Schindler's death Eugen Jettel (1845 1901) occupied a fore- 
most place among our landscapists. He lived mostly in Paris, and 
belonged to the Barbizon School. A delicate, lyrical nature, to whom 
everything was a bright, sunny idyll. In his later years his art 
blossomed forth again in a series of delicate pictures of the Istrian 
coast, whose solitary, remote nature prompted him, under the 
influence of the sunshine, to the tenderest confessions. Ludwig 
Sigmundt (born in 1860) takes a high place to-day as a delicate and 
emotional painter of landscape. Inwardly he remains ever devoted to 
his familiar Steiermark scenery, and attempts nothing extraordinary ; 
but everyday Nature speaks to him in pleasant, intimate tones, 
and her light and her air permeate his canvases. The charm he has 
extracted from homely themes has often caused surprise. The same 
simple wild-flowers are picked with firmer grasp by Anton Nowak 
(born in 1865), who grows in ability year by year. A poetical 
dreamer in landscape and figure-work, who had early and notable 
success, is Maximilian Lenz (born in 1860), and he has, moreover, 
learnt the secret of the exotic world of the Pampas of Argentina. 
A moonlight romancer is Ernst Stohr (born in 1865); a pensive 
teller of fairy-tales, Friedrich Konig (born in 1857), over w ^ ose 
shoulder the " muse " of old Schwind is still peeping. In 1897 there 
returned to Vienna the brilliant Parisian illustrator erstwhile 
officer in the Austrian service Felician, Baron Myrbach, who was 
born in 1853. He came back to be the Director of the re-organised 
" Kunstgewerbe-Schule," a post he has now resigned. A good 
all-round man, skilled in figure-work and landscape, he nowadays 
affects the modern method. W. List, Anton Miiller, the " Viennen- 
sia " painter, Otto Friedrich and Hans Tichy also belong to this 
group. 

In the " Hagenbund " there are also several painters who stand out 
as individual forces. Ludwig Ferdinand Graf (born in 1868) went, 

A ix 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

when quite young, to Paris and Brittany, and brought back with 
him sundry experiments with broken and pulverised colours, piquant 
discords and dainty absurdities. In addition to interiors, landscapes 
and portraits he devotes himself to visions such as never were 
seen ; they are very personal, even when he has a model. Each 
year he becomes different, ever seeking something new, but his 
tendency is always towards style. Indeed, in painting landscape he 
has already produced interesting work. Altogether original is Wilhelm 
Hejda (born in 1868), painter, sculptor, maker of furniture and 
discoverer of polychromes in new ceramic elements. Here we have 
simply to remember his pictures, which in their simplicity of pro- 
duction often attain to charming effects, and are always possessed of 
a certain style which commands attention. An uncommonly skilful 
designer, inventor, water-coloiirist, draughtsman, illustrator and 
costumier is Heinrich Lefler (born in 1863), who, in conjunction with 
his brother-in-law, Josef Urban, the architect, illustrates fairy-tale 
books, large and small, in colours, and, furthermore, has decorated the 
Rathskeller in the Town Hall with mural pictures of jovial Viennese 
life throughout the centuries. He was director of the costume 
department at the Imperial Court Theatre, and is now a professor at 
the Academy. He has not lacked for models to imitate Boutet de 
Monvel and Vogeler yet he has much original skill and charm, and 
the ready dexterity of the born improvisator. To a somewhat older 
generation belongs another member of this group, Alexander D. 
Goltz (born in 1 857), who, like all the pupils of Anselm Feuerbach, 
sets his poetic feeling in a minor key. He has followed the currents 
of his time as best he could, without cutting out a special course 
for himself. From the atmosphere of Paris, with its cabarets and 
cafe-chant ants, Raimund Germela (born in 1868) came home a full- 
colourist, at least on a small scale. His canvases overflow with the 
pleasure of living, especially in his park scenes, which display a stylise 
luxuriance. They are closely allied to the work of Somoff and the 
" Simplicissimus," but without their humour. On occasion he makes 
a "raid" into the domain of Socialism. Among the landscapists of 
this group must be mentioned Kasparides (since resigned), Konopa, 
Wilt, Ranzoni, Zoff, Ameseder, -Suppantschitsch and Baar. In the 
" Hagenbund " we also came to know the Dresden couple, Karl 
Mediz (born in 1868) and Emilie Mediz-Pelikan (born in 1862). 
They followed an almost identical path of expression and develop- 
ment, which led them to Dachau, to Uhde and to the Belgian fishing 
village of Knokke some of the head-quarters of impressionist students. 
Both husband and wife have a picturesquely fantastic vision of things, 
A x 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

which, in their representation of ice-clad mountains, becomes quite 
stylise ; and in contrast to a background of panoramic character, the 
foreground is depicted with almost microscopic accuracy. Thus Karl 
Mediz paints every thread, every hair in his life-size Eismanner, which 
made his reputation and now hangs in the Modern Gallery ; and 
in the same way Emilie Mediz-Pelikanin, her slender little trees 
in tubs, which she generally likes to place on some terrace on a 
Southern sea, depicts even the tiniest crack in the bark. They have 
both painted much in these Southern seas chiefly about Corfu and 
have studied the blue deep with a bird's-eye view as it were. Karl 
Mediz is also a master of portraiture. He has done quite a series of 
portraits of persons in Dresden society, all executed with minutest 
precision. 

The contribution of the Slav races to the artistic assets of the 
Monarchy is very considerable. With them aesthetics are at the 
same time politics, and artistic growth means also an increase of 
national importance. The success of such a standard is naturally 
great, though in a land divided in its language there is of necessity 
a tendency to division of materials and means. Thus in Galicia we 
have Poles and Ruthenes ; in Bohemia Czechs and Germans. The 
Poles have already great traditions, and a patriotically historic art in 
the great paintings of Jan Matejko (1838 1893), and Artur 
Grottger, who portrayed the stirring tragedy of the martyrs to free- 
dom (1837 1867). But modern times have even here wrought 
great changes, and the national temperament now seeks expression 
rather in the highly-coloured and "ethnographische" style. We have 
already mentioned the window paintings by Mehoffer at Fribourg. 
These, as also those of Stanislaus Wyspianski and other religious 
painters like Leon Wyczolkowski (b. 1852), are of a romantic and 
symbolical character that verges on the fantastic. Nature and the 
various phases of the native peasant life are represented in an 
impressionist manner by Joseph Chelmonski (born in 1852), Jan 
Stanislawski (born in 1860), and more stylistically by Ferdinand 
Ruszczyc and others. A note of the past is struck in certain 
political paintings of a seditious character, such as Etape (Students 
on the way to Siberia) by Jacek Malczewski (born in 1855). A 
more international spirit of the stamp of the newer Munich school 
is that of Julian Falat (b. 1853), one of the most enterprising of 
snow-painters. A hunting guest of the Emperor William, he has 
immortalised many imperial shooting scenes. He is the director of 
the School of Art in Cracow. Adalbert Kossak (born 1857) * s a 
painter of battle-pieces and Peter Stachiewicz (b. 1858) a delicate 

A xi 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

legendary painter of the life of the Virgin. Kasimir Poehwalski 
(b. 1856), at present professor in Vienna, a painter of elegant por- 
traits in the manner of Bonnat, is now striking out in a more 
modern style. Zygmunt Ajdukiewicz (b. 1862) is a genre painter in 
an older style with a predilection for painting horses, also an illus- 
trator of the revolutionary episodes of Kosciuszko. Thadeus 
Ajdukiewicz (b. 1852) is a refined painter of equestrian, military and 
sporting portraits. 

The Czechs, though they entered the lists later than the Poles, 

have, nevertheless, soon become their artistic equals, standing high 

in the modern Parisian art world, as in the case of the late Ludek 

Marold (1865 1898), who in Paris and Munich was considered a 

brilliant genre painter, mostly in water-colours ; and Alfons Mucha 

(born 1860), Sarah Bernhardt's poster artist and illustrator of " Use 

Princesse de Tripoli," etc., who, however, never lost his early piquant 

peculiarities of style, for instance, his wire-like curling of women's 

hair. Parisian elegance, which however found a speedy limit, was 

also a characteristic of Adalbert Hynais (b. 1854), who did his best 

work in the auditorium of the Burg-Theater. He is a professor in 

Prague, with the military painter Rudolf von Ottenfeld, the painter 

of sunshine Franz Thiele, who studied in Italy, the Parisian 

pointillist Vlaho Bukovac, a Dalmatian, and the over-sophisticated 

mystic Maximilian Pirner. Much fame has been won by the two 

landscape painters, Antonin Slavicek (b. 1870) and Antonin Hudecek 

(b. 1872), both ardent seekers after new colour effects. 

At the present time the four principal artists of the Czecho-Slav 

nation are Hans Schwaiger, Joza Uprka, Max Svabinsky, and Emil 

Orlik. Hans Schwaiger (b. 1854) is the quaintest. His name 

conjures up visions of Wandering Jews, Anabaptists, Sorceresses, 

Gallows-birds, the Gnome, King Rubezahl, arid the Waterman ot 

the frog-pond. He is an untiring fairy-tale teller, and seems to have 

lived through all his brilliant extravaganzas and blood-curdling ghost 

stories. For many years he dwelt in a wooden house in the middle of 

a wood on a spur of the Karpathians. A woodman, well versed in all 

the secrets of the forest and of the slovaque legends, abroad an 

intimate of poachers and vagrants, and at home surrounded by 

ancient curios, a dabbler in magic, something of an alchemist, 

magician and devil worshipper, no wonder that Chaucer's 

"Canterbury Tales" and the old Simplicius Simplicissimus furnish 

his favourite reading and much of his inspiration. He is an 

"original," and what he draws or paints mostly in water-colours 

displays a gnarled rusticity and a queer fanaticism. The spirit 

A xii 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

of the old German woodcutter seems to have revisited him, the 
sturdy humour of the cobbler Hans Sachs, and the perilous practical 
joke of the Thirty Years' War. His principal picture is an enormous 
water-colour, The Anabaptists, an incalculable turmoil of quaintly- 
apparelled and desperate-looking people of that reckless period, 
masters and servants, soldiers and women, fanatics and fools, demi- 
gods and cripples, all massed together, a kaleidoscopic picture of the 
age. Schwaiger's humour, his phantasy, his spirit lore, his inventive 
power are inexhaustible, his paintings are legion. Later he found 
his subjects in the old towns of the Netherlands, but since he became 
professor at Prague, he has given little of his art to the world. 
The second "original" is the Moravian peasant-painter, Joza Uprka 
(b. 1862), who lives and works in the unpronounceable Hroznova 
Lhota. His invariable theme is the peasant-life of that place, 
whose unquenchable colour and movement he depicts on his 
canvases. These weddings, rustic feasts, harvestings, avalanches 
of gay colours in the most brilliant-,, sunshine, excite much 
interest, though they are quite drawing-room affairs modified 
into prettiness. According to him his country only produces 
beauties. His sudden success, however, has not spoilt him ; he 
works earnestly at the conquest of the whole scale of Nature's mood 
as he finds it at his threshold. Filled with the same patriotic 
spirit, centred on his own span of earth, is Jaroslav Spillar, who 
unfortunately has of late become mentally deranged. He devoted 
himself exclusively to the portrayal of one of the most ancient races, 
the Chodes in western Bohemia, who observe ancient customs and 
preserve a most magnificent national costume. An energetic and 
productive genius is Max Svabinsky (b. 1873) of Prague, a graphic 
artist who devotes much attention to contemporary portraiture. 
He has devised a peculiar technique of coloured pen-sketches. 
Over a heavy groundwork of strokes he lays a delicate layer of water 
or pastel colouring. The effect is original and rich ; also in life- 
sized heads, figures and scenes the technique is effective, and has 
made him a specialist in this line. Again, there is Emil Orlik 
(b. 1870), a man of unusual talent, a universal painter in all styles, but 
with a genial turn for realism. He passed many years in Japan, where 
in friendly intercourse with the artists of the country he fathomed 
the secrets of the Japanese coloured woodcuts, which he varied and 
appropriated to his own use. Besides this Japanese speciality he has 
of late years turned his attention to things nearer home. The old 
houses and courtyards of the Bohemian and Moravian villages, the 
old-fashioned costumes of the provincials, their neatly kept interiors, 

A xiii 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

the whole sober, dainty, childish world which in each dwelling 
revolves round its centre point, the family patriarch, he portrays with 
a naive virtuosity all his own. Also as water-colourist, pastellist, 
etcher, lithographer, draughtsman in all styles, he is a great inventive 
personality. The leading German collections (Dresden, etc.) possess 
all his work. Last year he was nominated professor at Berlin. 
In the old Vienna Artists' Association, whose home is the Kiinstler- 
haus, modern views are now universally adopted, though there are still 
many representatives of older schools who preserve their adherents. 
In the field of portrait-painting conservatism is still a strong element. 
Two of the elder celebrities of this branch are Leopold Horovitz 
(born in 1843) and Heinrich von Angeli (born in 1840). Both have 
painted distinguished personages for years past. In the seventies 
of the last century Angeli was Court painter of Austria, Prussia and 
England, in partibus. Queen Victoria and her daughter, afterwards 
the Empress Frederick, employed him considerably ; the English 
nobility sat to him gladly ; so did the Viennese Court, with the 
Emperor Franz Josef at its head. Horovitz had his aristocratic 
clientele chiefly among the Hungarian and Polish magnates, the cele- 
brated politicians of those countries, e.g., Koloman Tisza and Pulszky, 
and interesting women such as the Princess Sapieha, Countess Potocka. 
the Berlin beauty, Countess von der Groeben, and the Viennese 
lady, Frau Dr. Loew, of whom he did a remarkable portrait. The 
best recent portraits of the Emperor Franz Josef are by Horovitz : 
one of these, in British uniform, was painted for his English 
regiment. These masters combine the qualities that were so highly 
prized at that time, and many of their paintings have successfully 
resisted the changes of fashion. It is interesting that they should 
both have been born in Hungary ; moreover, there are three 
Hungarians now figuring prominently in Vienna as " high-life " 
portrait-painters Philip Laszlo, Arthur von Ferraris, and Josef 
Koppay. Although they have become more and more firmly estab- 
lished in Vienna, yet they cannot be considered as belonging, 
properly speaking, to the school of Austrian painting. Further- 
more, their international fame keeps them busy in all parts of the 
world, and they are continually travelling from place to place. All 
three have their peculiarities in the matter of style, and on these their 
positions depend. Laszlo proceeded by way of Lenbach towards 
Gainsborough and the English colourists, when he met a fellow 
traveller in the person of Koppay ; while Ferraris has been schooled 
in the elegance of Paris. Other prominent portrait-painters include 
Viktor StaufFer (born in 1853), Canon, Hans Temple, Julius Schmid ; 
xiv A 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

and among the quite young men but newly "arrived," John Quincey 
Adams, Joannovits, Schattenstein, SchifF, and Victor Scharff (born in 
1872), who while in Paris was a gifted pupil of Whistler, and since 
then has painted a good deal in Volendam, Holland. Ludwig Koch 
cultivates the sporting portrait, which he handles with vigour and 
freshness. 

In genre painting various men of talent are to the fore artists of 
the older school, like Franz Rumpler, that graceful eclectic, or the 
more modernised Alois Delug, now a professor, and a striver after 
greater things. Both of these men have found their own right 
mood. Others are Eduard Veith (born in 1858), who has adopted 
the English fairy tale style; Charles Wilda (born in 1854), 
who has turned his back on the flesh-pots of Egypt to seek the cooler 
joys of Lower Austria ; A. H. Schram (born in 1 864), a rather fanciful 
colourist, who has, however, relapsed into excess of " sweetness," 
even in the agreeable work he did in Damascus last year ; Alphons 
Mielich (born in 1863), a still more pronounced Orientalist, who, 
with Professor Musil, discovered the anci*nf Arabian desert castles, 
Amra and At-Juba, and copied their wall-paintings. Some have 
gone abroad : to Paris, Eduard Charlemont (1848 1906), who 
executed the ceilings 54 metres long in the foyer of the Burg- 
Theater ; to Rome, Adolf Hiremy-Hirschl (born in 1860), who 
became " modern," after having copied the style of Alma- 
Tadema in his scenes of ancient life. In Albin Egger-Lienz (born 
in 1868) we have what may be called a posthumous historian. He 
has painted the story of the Tyrolese fight for freedom of 1809 in 
pictures large and small, big events and little episodes, all conceived 
in sombre and heroic spirit, but abounding in modern effects of 
colour, and broadly and freely painted with the hand of to-day. 
The great historical school of other days has died out, but a few 
notable survivors remain : Sigmund L'Allemand and Julius von 
Payer, the famous Arctic explorer and discoverer of Franz-Josefs 
Land. The local Viennese genre picture in the style of the old 
petit 's-maitres has more or less esteemed exponents in Anton Miiller, 
Kinzel, Hessl, Baron Merode, Zewy, Gisela, and others. Isidor 
Kaufmann (born in 1853) cultivates the Jewish genre style with an 
old-fashioned "ethnographische" particularity and a neat solidity 
which recall the early Dutchmen. In landscape the long enervated 
School of Lichtenfels is dying out. From the Schindler period there 
remain several excellent artists, whose lyrical charm never fails to 
find admirers. At the head of these stands Hugo Darnaut (born in 
1851), while the others include Rudolf Ribarz, who lived for 

A xv 



MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA 

many years in France, and died recently ; Hugo Charlemont ; 
Ludwig Hans Fischer, who travelled and painted in Egypt 
and India; Benesch Knupfer (in Rome), who has watched the 
naiads of the Latin Sea ; Eduard Zetsche, who has painted 
graceful monographs of our ruined castles ; Robert Russ, who has 
bathed in the sunshine of the South Tyrol ; and the old, but 
rejuvenated August Schaffer (born in 1833), Director of the Imperial 
Picture Gallery, who forms a link between the present and the past. 
Modern in his landscapes and " Veduta " work is Karl Pippich (born 
in 1862) and ultra-modern Heinrich Tomec (born in 1863), both 
of whom are interested in rare aspects of light and colour. Then we 
have Friedrich Beck, with his novel impressions of snow scenes ; 
and, lastly, Rudolf Quittner. 

Neither has the reproductive art of Vienna been idle these last few 
years. The spirit of the new age no longer meets with opposition, 
even the schools recognise the policy of " the open door." In the 
albums of the meritorious "Gesellschaft fiir vervieltaltigende Kunst" 
(Society of Reproductive Art) the modern style of graphic art fills 
the chief place. As a teacher the first position is still held by 
William Unger (born in 1837), the old master from the old 
galleries. He gives free rein to his pupils. They etch in colours, 
too quite in the modern spirit. A strongly independent and 
versatile painter-etcher is Ludwig Michalek (born in 1859) 5 an ^ 
effects even more powerful have been realised by Ferdinand Schmutzer 
(born in 1870), a natural black-and-white artist of uncommon force, 
who has turned out plates of I'ao metre and even 1*50 metre 
high. The first of these represents a young horsewoman, the 
second the Joachim quartet. Whistler, the Prophet of the little, 
delicate plate, would have crossed himself at sight of such excesses. 
The foremost portrait-etcher in Vienna to-day is Schmutzer. His 
strength is shown in his large portraits of Rudolf Art, the painter, 
and Paul Heyse, the poet, also in the smaller, but artistically richer, 
portraits of Professor Gomperz and Joachim, the world-famous 
violinist. The popularity of the eau forte is now so widespread that 
there actually exists an etching club for ladies which has issued 
several interesting albums. At the Kunstgewerbe-Schule, the 
Myrbach School was, until the resigning of that artist, a training- 
ground for all descriptions of the graphic arts the poster and the 
caricature included. 



A xvi 



GELHARi 




A 10 PROF. ANGELI 




PORTRAIT OF 

SIR H. M. STANLEY 



A 11 PRCF. THEODOR AXENTOWICZ 




PASTEL STUDY FOR ,,A PROCESSION" 



A 12 HUGO DARNAUT 




, BIRCH TREES BY A CANAL' 



A 13 LUDWIG FERDINAND GRAF 




A GARDEN STUDY 



JOWIO FERDINAND GRAF 




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A 15 WALTER HAMPEL 




A QUIET CORNER" TEMPERA PAINTING 



A 16 LEOPOLD HOROVITZ 




PORTRAIT OF H.I.M. FRANZ JOSEF I.. EMPEROR 
OF AUSTRIA AND KING OF HUNGARY 



A 17 LEOPOLD HOROVITZ 




PORTRAITIOF 
COUNTESS POTOCKA 



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,,THE BIG POPLAR" (BY PERMISSION OF THE MIETHKE GALLERY OF FINE ARTS, VIENNA). 



A 20 GUSTAV KLIMT 




PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG LADY (BY PERMISSION 
OF THE MEITHKE FINE ARTS GALLERY, VIENNA) 



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A 24 PROF. HANS NOWACK 




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..SUNRISE" FROM THE SERIES 
OF ORIGINAL ETCHINGS THE 
TWELVE HOURS OF THE NIGHT" 



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..BUILDING THE RAILWAY BRIDGE 
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-ORIGINAL ETCHING (BY PERMIS- 
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A 34 OSWALD ROUX. 




SNOW SCENE COLOURED ETCHING (BY PERMISSION OF GILHOFER <t RANSCHBURG, VIENNA.) 



A 35 EMIL ORLIK 




..SUNDAY" ORIGINAL ETCHING 



A 36 FERDINAND SCHMUTZER 




PORTRAIT OF JOSEF JOACHIM ORIGINAL ETCHING 



A 37 FERDINAND SCHMUTZER 







..THE EQUESTRIAN" ORIGINAL ETCHING 



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MODERN PLASTIC WORK 

IN AUSTRIA. BY HUGO '. 

HABERFELD. 

i HE art work of nations is divided into two 
varieties : the " Kultisch " or traditional 
and the individual. Greek plastic work was 
for a long period traditional, the entire 
people, and not the few only, producing it. 
Artistic methods were as uniform as was the 
general view of life and the conventions of art 
were accepted just as unhesitatingly as was 
the inherited idea of the Deity. Art was 
a public matter, like religion and politics, and all personality was 
put aside. There was seldom any individuality in the workshop ; 
there existed no artistic proletariat, because each force organically 
found its proper employment. So long as everything is surrounded 
by a single symmetrical idea, as in the case of Greek art up to 
the time of Praxiteles, or as in the Gothic art of Christianity, so 
long does traditional art predominate. Let this idea be shattered, 
however, and it vanishes, or else joins in alliance with the most 
heterogeneous abstractions, creating the most heterogeneous forma- 
tions. Then begins individuality in art. And that individuality 
has now endured since the Renaissance. Just as one's outlook on 
life has expanded, so have the means of expression increased and 
multiplied. The individual creator stands in the forefront ; his 
special characteristics, shared by none else, form his chief claim to 
recognition. The artist has withdrawn himself from the protection 
of the society around him, has lightly embarked on his calling with 
all its possibilities of happiness or tragedy ; and beside him walks 
Mecasnas, the patron. 

It is but natural that in both epochs the arts should have developed 
diversely. The Grecian temples and the Gothic cathedrals were 
the colossal outcome of those national forces and aspirations which 
in wonderful, mysterious order expressed themselves in the might 
of their architecture, in the pathos of plastic art, and in the 
loveliness of colour. The kinship of the arts was never sundered ; 
from architecture sprang sculpture and painting, with new themes 
and new blossoms. Since the days of the Renaissance it has been 
otherwise. The monumental fresco has been superseded by the little 

B i 



MODERN PLASTIC WORK IN AUSTRIA 

easel-picture, and painting brought into its most fertile field of work. 
Yet standing alone there came into being a world of inexpressible 
beauty, which strove to attain a grace of subject and of method 
never reached in fresco painting. The severance of sculpture from 
architecture was most pernicious. Unlike painting, sculpture did 
not follow the new laws imposed by its separate existence, and 
thereby it escaped the great stream or development. Something 
alien, something cold, made itself apparent in most sculpture, and 
the quality of the work steadily depreciated. 

While throughout Europe during the nineteenth century the 
opportunities for a revival of plastic art were altogether unfavourable, 
things were no better in Vienna. Our greatest sculptor of bygone 
days, the highly-gifted Georg Rafael Donner (1693 1741), came 
from a school of sculpture imbued with high traditions, yet he had 
no worthy successors ; and thus the glorious period of the Viennese 
baroque style reached in him at once its highest development and its 
end. The sculptors of the first half of the nineteenth century were 
either bound fast to the stiff forms of academic classicism, or had 
lost themselves in trivial genre work of the " Empire-biscuit " type, 
which had no connection with sculpture, but was rather an offshoot 
of the truly delightful Old Viennese porcelain work. About the 
middle of the century there came with Anton Fernkorn ( 1 8 1 3 1 878) 
a strong infusion of the North German influence into Viennese plastic 
work, and this was further emphasised later by Caspar v. Zumbusch, 
who was born in 1830. The works of these two sculptors are 
marked by the same strongly-developed influence of the bronze-cast 
technique, and by a certain monumental effort, produced not so 
much by heroic conception or form as by the colossal disposal or 
their material, which ever seems to dominate its surroundings. 
Beside these " immigrants " there arose a group of Viennese 
sculptors. These were few in number ; indeed it has been estimated 
that of two hundred Austrian artists who took part in the Paris 
Exhibition of 1867 only two were sculptors. Interest in sculpture 
was at that time very slight in Vienna, and it was left for artists of 
a later date, artists more fully qualified, to increase that interest. In 
this remark I of course except Karl Kundmann (born in 1838), 
Rudolf Weyr (born in 1847), an< ^ particularly Victor Tilgner 
(1844 1896), so thoroughly Viennese, and full of talent. 
The public, who, since the colour-craze of the Makart period, 
had developed a fashion for visiting art exhibitions and studios, 
still regarded plastic work with a lukewarm attention ; and even 
to-day, when painting and applied art are of world-wide importance, 
B ii 



MODERN PLASTIC WORK IN AUSTRIA 

sculpture is still more or less neglected, and does not occupy by 
any means its proper place. But meanwhile appreciation of this 
most noble of arts is growing with increased knowledge, and 
perhaps the twentieth century may be spoken of some day as " the 
Sculptors' " century, just as the nineteenth is styled " the Painters'." 
The most recent revolution in Viennese art, which came about with 
the foundation of the "Secession" in the spring of 1897, had a less 
favourable effect on sculpture than on painting. The young 
generation of painters and applied art workers had produced many 
brilliant works, whereas only a few isolated successes had been scored 
in sculpture ; and, apart from that, the painters had a great advantage 
Throughout the nineteenth century there had been a regular, 
historically-evolved succession of Austrian painters, the list beginning 
with Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller, and including Theodora v. 
Hermann as a representative of the modern spirit. To such as 
these our young artists could always turn for inspiration when in 
danger of being too much diverted by foreign models and influences. 
In the domain of plastic work the only tradition of this sort is that 
of the Viennese medal. Its real founder was Josef Daniel Bohm 
(1794 1 865), a delicate " Romantiker," who was inspired by antique 
and religious art. A pupil of his was the somewhat prosaic Karl 
Radnitzky (1818 1903), who in turn became the master of 
Joseph Tautenhayn (born in 1837), an artist of great fertility of com- 
position, and of the talented student of character, Anton ScharfF 
(1845 1903)- It is interesting to note that ScharfF was 
commissioned by the City of London to execute a medal of Queen 
Victoria. There proceeded from the School of Tautenhayn, who 
was a professor at the Academy, and from the School of ScharfF, 
who was director of the Engraving School of the Mint, a number 
of talented medallists : Rudolf Marschall (born in 1873), chiefly 
known by his plaquettes and his medals of Kaiser Franz Josef I. and 
Pope Leo XIII. ; then Franz X. Pawlik (born in 1865), Joser 
Tautenhayn, Junr. (1868), Peter Breithut (1869), and Ludwig 
Hujer (1870). 

Austrian plastic work on a large scale, however, boasts no fruitful 
tradition, such as painting and medalling possess. Every prominent 
sculptor with us has always been an individual apart, an excep- 
tion. We have never had a school whereby or wherefrom a 
number of artists guided towards a common ideal might be 
produced. The evil result of this has been that all our young 
sculptors alike have had to rely solely upon themselves. It had, 
however, this advantage, that there was no such embittered struggle 

B iii 



MODERN PLASTIC WORK IN AUSTRIA 

among the sculptors as with the painters ; moreover, certain artists 
of the older generation being, as it were, isolated and absolutely 
independent, found themselves able to join in the new movement. 
Among those of our sculptors to-day who may be described as being 
in the full bloom of their knowledge, is Edmund Hellmer (born in 
1850), whose artistic character reveals a remarkable inconsistency. 
On the one hand, Hellmer possesses the delicate grace and the 
light-heartedness of the Viennese spirit ; on the other, we see 
a sour hypercritic, never satisfied with what he has done, who, 
to make his work still better, regards it ever from a more 
minute, a more captious standpoint. Thus he is a most elaborate 
finisher, never knowing when to leave his work alone, but 
pottering over needless emendations until nearly all the charm 
and spontaneity have been lost. How he began may be seen 
in the monumental group on the roof of the Parliament House, 
representing Kaiser Franz Josef I. granting the Constitution. 
Here the academic spirit is mingled with a want of self- 
dependence, which shows itself in too close a suggestion of certain 
antique compositions of the same style, the result being that the 
work has a rather stiff appearance. In the same way his second 
big work, the Turkish memorial erected in 1883 in St. Stephen's 
Cathedral, although it reveals more freedom of treatment, yet it 
makes no " monumental " impression on the beholder, and con- 
nects its creator with the group of men who follow in the 
train of Count Starhemberg, the artistic Liberator of Vienna. So, 
too, his later composition, Oesterreichs Landmacht, which stands 
in a niche in the castellated fa9ade, is not very satisfying, for 
while it is, in point of positive skill, far above the pendant 
group Oesterreichs Seemacht by Weyr, it is greatly inferior thereto 
in temperament and vivacity. Finally, his last monumental work, 
the Castalia-Brunnen, for the courtyard of the University, is 
excellent plastically, but its rather unfortunate architecture weakens 
the effect. By the nature of his gifts Hellmer is most " at home " 
with the single-figure memorial, wherein he contrives to put all that 
is best in him. Here we have a memorial of the landscapist, Emil 
Jakob Schindler, depicted in tourist costume, reposing on a rock ; 
and then the Goethe monument in the Ringstrasse, where, not 
only as a great poet, but as a great man, the figure is seen seated 
in a fauteuil ; and, lastly, the graceful statue of the immortal 
Empress Elisabeth at Salzburg, and a tombstone relief for the 
grave of Hugo Wolf. It should be mentioned that Hellmer 
is a professor at the Academy, and a famous teacher. From 
B iv 



MODERN PLASTIC WORK IN AUSTRIA 

his school came Therese Feodorowna Rics, and at the most recent 
exhibitions there came into prominence such talented and highly 
promising pupils as Hugo Kuhnelt, Anton Hanak, Franz Ehren- 
hofer, and Alfred Hofmann. 

The second artist of the older generation to fall in with the modern 
spirit and to meet with a right hearty welcome was Arthur Strasser, 
who was born in 1854. As a sculptor he belongs to a school which 
in painting has won many triumphs namely the Oriental ; and his 
work forms, as it were, a plastic pendant to that of the late Leopold 
Karl Miiller, the well-known painter of Eastern subjects, who died 
in 1892. His best things are Japanese, Egyptian and Indian genre 
paintings, in which he displays remarkable skill in depicting racial 
characteristics and animal nature, combined with a strong sense of 
colour. It is easy to understand that he revelled in Makart. When 
Strasser joined the " Secession " his knowledge increased, and whereas 
formerly he had been chiefly occupied with small bits of sculpture, 
he soon began to devote himself to life-size^monumental groups, such 
as his Mark Antony, who rides in triumph in a car drawn by lions, or 
his Amazon Queen Myrina, who in grotesque embonpoint sits on a throne 
of stone, holding two tigers chained, and with knitted brow looks 
darkly down. For some time past Strasser has been a professor at 
the " Kunstgewerbe-Schule " (School of Applied Art), and one rarely 
sees any work by him nowadays. 

The rest of the older men among our sculptors have not fallen in 
with the new movement ; but for the most part have remained 
attached to the old association, the " Kiinstlergenossenschaft." 
None of them approach Hellmer or Strasser in importance, yet 
some there are who deserve to be mentioned. 

Hans Scherpe (born in 1855) is a popular memorial sculptor, 
whose Anzengruber is much admired by the uncritical portion of 
Vienna. The poet is represented as pausing during a walk on a 
cliff, at the foot of which stands the Steinklopferhans, Anzengruber's 
finest character, breaking stones. Hans Bitterlich (born in 1860), 
a skilful craftsman, is now completing the figure in the memorial 
to the Empress Elizabeth. The architectural portion of the work 
was done by the " Oberbaurat," Ohmann. Last year Carl 
Wollek completed a Mozartbrunnen, the group, Tamino and Pamina 
being sympathetically treated in a flow of melodious lines. Josef 
Kassin (born in 1856) came to the front with his group of a sick 
girl and her nurse, commissioned by the Rothschild Hospital. By 
Hans Rathausky (born in 1858) we have a good memorial of 
Adalbert Stifter, the poet ; by Franz Seiffert, the figure portion of 

B v 



MODERN PLASTIC WORK IN AUSTRIA 

the Strauss - Lanner memorial, the highly effective architecture 
of which was designed by Robert Orley ; and finally should be 
mentioned the distinguished wood-carver, Franz Zelezny, and his 
rival, Franz Earwig, whose works show all the severity proper to 
the material employed. 

As I have already said, plastic art played but a small part in 
the events following the establishment of the " Secession " in 
Vienna. And the meaning of my remarks will be easily under- 
stood when it is realised how few sculptors are to be found 
among the members of the two artists' associations. To the 
" Secession " there still belong two sculptors. I am, of course, not 
thinking here of Hellmer, already in high esteem, or of the highly- 
gifted Hugo Lederer, who is essentially Austrian, although he 
has lived for some years in Germany, where he has executed several 
notable commissions, including the Bismarck memorial for Hamburg 
and the University fountain at Breslau. The first of the two 
sculptors just referred to is Alfonso Canciani (born in 1863), whose 
design for a Dante memorial (the poet, standing on the edge of a 
precipice, beholding the torments of the damned) attracted con- 
siderable attention, although the composition as a whole is conceived 
rather from the painter's than from the sculptor's standpoint. The 
second of the two is Othmar Schimkowitz (born in 1860). He 
worked for a long period in America with Karl Bitter, a native of 
Vienna and a pupil of Hellmer's. Among the various works that 
have brought his name into prominence are the Astor memorial 
doors for Trinity Church, New York, and the equestrian statue of 
Washington. On his return to Europe, Schimkowitz attracted 
attention by his share in the Gutenberg memorial, in which he 
collaborated with Plecnik, the architect ; but since then, with the 
exception of an excellent memorial tomb, he has produced nothing 
of similar merit. The " Hagenbund " boasts five sculptors among 
its members. Mention has already been made of Barwig, the wood- 
carver. Gustav Gurschner (born in 1873) shows great taste in his 
small pieces, but he is somewhat inclined to mannerism, and 
his applied art surroundings and connections cause his work to 
smack rather too strongly of pure and therefore not always of 
novel decorative effects. Joseph Heu and Theodor Stundl are two 
young sculptors of all-round capacity and much promise, good both 
in portraits and in figure compositions, but as yet undeveloped and just 
at the start of their careers. The most original member of the little 
group is, undoubtedly, Wilhelm Hejda (born in 1868), painter and 
sculptor ; but as yet he has not fulfilled his promise of the savage 
B vi 



MODERN PLASTIC WORK IN AUSTRIA 

genius which marked the work of his early years the savagery alone 
has remained and that has overstepped the bounds of art and 
of technique. As a colourist he is outre, yet he occasionally obtains 
the happiest effects. So too his sculpture, which inclines towards 
the horrible, is, as it were, bedaubed. Among the best of his most 
unequal works is the coloured colossal relief "in yellow, green, gold and 
glass cabochon on the fafade of the " Hagenbund." It represents 
Pallas Athene protecting the Arts, while the people pay homage 
to the goddess. 

Of the artists who at present are attached to no association 
must first be named Richard Luksch (born in 1872), who retired 
from the " Secession " with the Klimt group. He combines a sure 
mastery of form with great fancifulness of vision. Of this quality 
there is a good example in his oak-carved Wanderer, a naked man, 
of life size, striding over rough ground, whence, with each pace, 
spring up on every side forms human and animal, symbolical of the 
creatures and the ideals which he, in tke course of his life, has 
ruthlessly trodden down. Luksch has recently produced much 
good decorative plastic work for buildings of the Wagner and 
Hoffmann style. His wife is the daughter of the Russian painter 
Makowsky, Elena Luksch-Makowsky, an extraordinarily talented 
artist both as painter and sculptor, not only showing genius in the 
daring of her conceptions, but also creating from sheer love of the 
beautiful. The only woman sculptor to be compared with her is 
Elsa v. Kalmar. She commenced as a painter, but, turning later to 
her more decided gift of sculpture, studied in Munich, and then for 
two years in Florence, in order to learn of the old masters. Mention 
should also be made of Joseph Milliner, who is still attempting 
colossal figures, and who ought to develop into one of our most 
refined plastic workers. 

The Czechs have given to the world a number of sculptors. Even 
before the modern movement there appeared a sculptor of note, 
Joseph von Mylsbek (born in 1848), a plastic artist of truly monu- 
mental greatness, imbued with historical feeling, not acquired, but 
innate in his heroic nature. Although an Academy Professor in Prague 
he has no direct following, since all the younger school treads a path 
widely removed from his, with the exception of one, the eldest 
amongst them, Stanislav Sucharda (born in 1866). Beginning as 
Mylsbek's pupil, Sucharda continued to work for some considerable 
time in his manner, only later turning his mind to that form of 
plastic art which is to be found in the still unfinished Palacky 
monument. His portraits of children are especially remarkable. 

B vii 



MODERN PLASTIC WORK IN AUSTRIA 

Possessing a similar style, Frantisek Bilek (born in 1872), displays 
something of the primitive but expressive Gothic manner, some- 
thing of the painfully realistic naturalism of those most religious 
artists. A truer exponent of sheer form is Ladislav Saloun, who 
does portrait figures of ladies in full dress in the style of Carabin 
or Troubetzkoi, and gives us a powerful example of his art in 
the Huss monument. Joseph Maratka, who worked for many 
years under Rodin, has produced exquisite female busts and statues. 
And there is also Bohumil Kafka, who has already done good 
work in portraiture, and shows still greater promise. 
We now have to render homage to a sculptor who belongs to 
none of the afore-named categories. The art of Franz Metzner 
is chiefly characterised by the fact that he strives to prove that 
the historical development of plastic art, as I have sought to 
demonstrate in the opening of this article, has its issues in its 
close alliance with architecture. What he desires is a blending 
of architecture and plastic art, in which the plastic work should 
appear as a flower sprung from the architectural soil. By 
architecture Metzner does not understand a mere building for 
practical uses, nor even a purely ornamental construction. He 
would have mighty temples, halls, mausoleums, the stately art of 
pure form, the harmony of great lines, free from petty detail, the 
beauty of stone heaped upon stone. Such is also his plastic work ; 
not a copy, but a symbolic representation of life and nature, a 
simplification of form rather than a striving after variety of character- 
istics and expression. And in the same degree as his architecture 
and sculptures are of heroic proportions, so is the spiritual side of his 
work a search after the great forces which govern our existence 
and rule our lives. 

Metzner has designed a memorial statue of Richard Wagner in 
Berlin and a model for the Empress Elizabeth memorial. He 
also created a design for a Nibelung fountain which was to have 
been erected in front of the Vienna Votiv-Kirche. He is working 
at present on a monument of Stelzhamer for Linz, the capital of 
Upper Austria, a fountain for Reichenberg, an Emperor Joseph 
memorial for Teplitz, and a Mozart memorial for Prague. 
Metzner accepted with pride the commission of Bruno Schmitz, 
the gifted creator of the " Volkerschlacht" memorial in Leipzig, 
for the entire decoration of this monument. Austrian sculpture is 
thus honoured in this young master, and he is undoubtedly its 
greatest hope to-day. 



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RELIEFS ON THE FACADE OF THE 
SANATORIUM AT PURKERSDORF 



B 5 JOSEF ENGEUHART 





FIGURE FOR A TOMB 
STONE BRONZE 



B 6 CARL WOLLEK 




TAMINO AND RAM INA "PORTION OF 
THE MOZART FOUNTAIN AT VIENNA 



B 7 HUGO KUHNELT 




DESPAIR "-MARBLE 



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MOSES 



B 9 ANTON HANAK 




PORTRAIT STUDY 



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THE ARCHITECTURAL 
REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA 
BY HUGO HABERFELD . 

the fact that it has taken its rise from the 
domain of architecture lies the strongest proof 
of the organic character of the modern art 
movement in Austria. For whenever a new 
style makes its appearance, it is in architecture 
that its first indications are to be seen. During 
the unrest of transition architecture affirms 
most emphatically that she is the Urmufter, 
the proto-parent of all the creative arts which 
have originated from her as their common source. Architecture 
is the first among them to accommodate "herself to the new spirit, 
and her conquests and reverses determine the fate of painting and 
sculpture. For this reason modern Austrian art also began with 
architecture. 

In October, 1895, ere yet there was the slightest thought about 
" Secession " among us, when our modern painters and sculptors 
were either to be found among that reactionary group, the old 
" Kiinstlergenossenschaft," or pursued their studies abroad, a book 
made its appearance bearing the title of " Modern Architecture." 
Its author, Oberbaurat Otto Wagner, who had only the year before 
been appointed professor at the Vienna Academy, herein formulated, 
for the benefit of his pupils, his views on the nature and aims of 
architecture. The book has since run through many editions, but, 
when it first appeared, it was greeted by Wagner's colleagues with 
open hostility or even scorn. The rising generation of architects, 
however, rallied to his cry, and welcomed the bold innovator. 
Born in Vienna on the I3th July, 1841, Wagner attended first the 
gymnasium at Kremsmiinster ; then the Vienna Polytechnic, whence 
he migrated to Berlin, to study at the Bau-Akademie. Ultimately 
he returned to Vienna and became a pupil of August Siccardsburg at 
the Academy an architect whose merits, like those of his friend 
Van der Null, are nowadays much underestimated. He had a 
marked influence on young Wagner, who found in him a kinship of 
ideas and sentiments not only in relation to art but in regard to 
matters in general. Siccardsburg stood foremost among the older 
generation of Viennese architects in recognising and advocating the 

c i 



THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA 

importance of constructive principles ; and being, moreover, a man 
of the world, with a wide knowledge of its ways, this side of his 
character sympathetically reacted on Wagner's persevering and 
practical nature. Then, just at the time when Wagner began to 
work on his own account, Vienna entered upon that brilliant epoch in 
which are associated with the first expansion of the city the names 
of Ferstel, Hansen, Schmidt and Hasenauer, who created that great 
thoroughfare, the Ringstrasse, famous for its monumental structures. 
It occupies the site of the glacis which had encircled the old city 
with a girdle of green. That was in the third quarter of the past 
century, a period when in German art and science the historic view 
prevailed that view against whose pernicious domination young 
Friedrich Nietzsche launched the second of his " Unzeitgemasse 
Betrachtungen." 

The architects just mentioned were artists of large ideas, but them- 
selves imposed limitations on their capabilities, in the belief that 
only in one or other of the historic styles could they give expression 
to their architectural aims. They enjoyed a great reputation in 
Vienna, and settled for years to come the direction of architectural 
activity there. But while their surpassing talent enabled them to 
thoroughly master the ancient styles without sacrificing their 
independence, their pupils and imitators, on the other hand, became 
hopelessly enslaved to these styles. With them all that an architect 
need do was to copy, with more or less skill but without a particle 
of " geist," the examples given in the text-books. One needed to 
see with one's own eyes the low ebb to which architectural under- 
standing and taste had fallen to realise the pressing need of a change 
like that which Wagner inaugurated. 

Wagner's great merit one may say the greatest is to have instilled 
into architecture a new life ; it is through him that it has ceased to 
have that petrified rigidity, that weary pedantic character it once 
had. " Art exists for mankind, not mankind for art," he once 
wrote ; and thus he regards architecture as a living force fulfilling 
individual needs and aspirations, and at the same time a monumental 
document of social life. But while thus regarding architecture as 
the highest expression of human knowledge ever striving to attain 
the divine the highest because nature provides her with no model 
for guidance he requires of her that, like an attentive handmaiden, 
she shall be subservient to all the requirements of modern life, and it 
is the highest gift an architect can possess to perceive these needs as 
they arise. Once the end to be aimed at is clearly recognised, the 
question of appropriate materials calls for solution. From these two 
c ii 



THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA 

factors purpose and material there ensues what we call form or 
style. Hence there is no such thing as a style which is universally 
appropriate and applicable. Style being a product of these two ever- 
varying factors, its determination must depend on concomitant 
circumstances such as locality, climate and so forth ; while all new 
methods and inventions which may serve to enhance comfort have 
to be taken into account. 

Previous to his appointment as professor at the Academy, Wagner 
had erected a large number of buildings some public, like the 
Landerbank and Dianabad, but principally private houses and flats ; 
and he even built on a large scale at his own risk. In 1894, the year 
of his appointment, he commenced his first great municipal under- 
taking the construction of the Metropolitan railway in Vienna. 
When he came on the scene another architect was already in the field 
with plans for this railway, and the eventual adoption of Wagner's 
scheme seemed to denote the victory of the new spirit over the old. 
Wagner steadily followed his new principles, first of all in his plans, 
and afterwards in construction tentatively at first, but with more 
and more freedom during the progress of the undertaking always 
keeping in view the end to be subserved namely, rapid, safe, 
and comfortable travelling, and adapting the form and decoration 
of the various structures in harmony with their purpose and the 
material employed. In the Gumpendorfer Bridge, a huge 
structure which carries the railway high above the streets, the 
decoration is meagre, consisting only of vertical rows of wreaths, 
discs, and festoons, Wagner's favourite motifs. The pavilion at 
Hietzing, used as a private station by the Imperial Court, although 
quite a plain building, is as pleasant and graceful in appearance as 
any little rococo temple. Besides the two factors purpose and 
material there is another which is taken account of by Wagner as 
affecting form and decoration, that of environment. Thus the 
proximity of Karlskirche determined the diminutive size and ornate 
character of the station buildings on Karlsplatz, and the covered-in 
precincts of the station on Franz-Josef-Quai, the gallery-like con- 
struction looking towards the Danube Canal. On this one achieve- 
ment, then, there was brought to bear a wealth of experience and 
inventiveness, and even engineering knowledge, such as is rarely to 
be met with among architects. 

Since then not a year has passed without some extensive undertaking 
being planned and thought out down to the smallest detail by 
Wagner, regardless of whether it would be executed or not. The 
year 1898 brought his truly original plans for an Academy of Fine 

c iii 



THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA 

Arts, for Theophil Hanscn's luxurious structure on the Schillerplatz 
no longer sufficed to meet modern requirements and views. While 
this covers a superficial area of 5,429 square metres, Wagner 
requires for his plan 122,500 square metres, and on that account 
has placed it in the outskirts of the city. A wonderfully co-ordi- 
nated architectural group forms the foreground of his clever project. 
The central building, surmounted by a lofty dome, and destined to 
serve as a great hall or Ehrenhalle for ceremonial occasions, is to be 
of granite, with metal decoration partly of beaten copper and partly 
of gilded bronze, the latter more particularly for the circle of wreath- 
bearing figures symbolizing Victory above the dome. From 
this central building leafy walks lead off right and left to the side 
buildings, longitudinal structures in which the galleries are to be 
located. The problem of lighting is solved in the most natural and 
practical way, the side aisles obtaining their light laterally, the 
centre aisle from above. In the rear are situated the pavilions to be 
devoted to instruction and work, planned with most lavish regard 
for the requirements of modern art teaching. A model of the entire 
scheme was shown at the second exhibition of the " Secession," but 
the project has not been carried out ; nor have Wagner's plans 
for the reconstruction of the Capucine Church, containing the 
crypt of the Imperial House of Habsburg, nor his first plans 
for a modern church, though with regard to this latter he has 
utilised the experience and results derived from it in a church 
he is actually carrying out. But the most interesting among 
those of his projects which have not been carried into execution 
is that for the Vienna City Museum, which has culminated in 
a conflict of opinion more passionate than any which has raged 
about a building in Vienna for many long years. The matter 
is at present in abeyance, but a genuine appreciation of the 
pre-eminent qualities of Wagner's scheme appears to be spreading, 
and we may yet hope to see the museum standing alongside the 
Karls church in surroundings worthy of it, for the modern structure 
of glass and iron aptly expresses its practical purpose, just as Fischer 
von Erlach's baroque fabric suggests the ritual religiousness of his time. 
Of undertakings which have not simply remained on paper two or 
three of recent date call for particular mention. In the first place 
there are the Miethauser, or flats, in the Friedrichstrasse, which 
Wagner erected in the summer of 1899, and of which the two 
fronting on the street may be regarded as models of the modern type 
of Viennese houses of that class, just as, at an earlier date, Hansen's 
Heinrichshof represented the older type of houses in the Ringstrasse. 
c iv 



THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA 

Another building now approaching completion is the church for the 
Lower Austrian Lunatic Asylum in Breitensee, an outlying suburb 
of Vienna. The church forms a quadrangle surmounted by a 
dome which, with its overlay of red copper plates, is visible 
from a great distance. The fa9ade consists of a columnar 
portico with roof, and is surmounted by two towers bearing 
statues of the patron saints of the country. The lunette above the 
portico contains a pictorial mosaic by Professor Koloman Moser, 
to whom is also due an altar-piece representing " Paradise." The 
interior is a model of precisely calculated adaptation to requirements. 
As an instance of Wagner's thoughtfulness in regard to details, it 
may be mentioned that when designing the confessional boxes, 
(which are usually turned out in factories after a stereotyped pattern), 
he took into account a possible hardness of hearing on the part of 
the priest. Then finally we have the Post Office Savings Bank 
building, another masterly creation. As regards its style, Wagner's 
object was to give the structure a modcrfe character appropriate to 
its purpose as public offices. It is a brick building, the lower 
portion of the exterior being faced with granite, and the above with 
slabs of Laas marble and stoneware, while the roof is of slate. 
Inside, the predominant feature is the quadrangular central hall, with 
a superficial area of more than five hundred square metres and 
divided into three aisles by two rows of pillars. In a short time 
the building will be finished, but with untiring energy Wagner 
is already hard at work on new projects, one of them a great 
bridge over the Danube Canal, while another is among the greatest 
he has yet essayed the plans for the Palace of Peace at the 
Hague, which he has been invited to submit in competition. 
Before going on to speak of Wagner's pupils and continuators, we 
must mention three among the most notable of a large number of 
architects who stand apart from him, or in opposition to him. 
First there is Oberbaurat Friedrich Ohmann, the chief among them. 
He is, like Wagner, a professor at the Vienna Academy, and is an 
adherent of the school founded by Friedrich Schmidt and continued 
by Von Luntz. In 1899 he was entrusted with the supervision of 
the construction of the new Imperial Hofburg, already commenced 
by Hasenauer. Ohmann was born in 1858, and after studying at 
the Vienna Polytechnic under Karl Konig, an able but now 
decidedly underestimated man, became a pupil of Friedrich Schmidt 
at the Academy. Though receiving his most decisive impressions 
from the historic school, his position towards it has never been 
that of a mere imitator, but always that of one who derives aesthetic 

c v 



THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA 

enjoyment, whose artistic individuality and creative power are not 
strong enough to conceal in his work the influence of the beauty of 
the past. The baroque style more especially has found in Ohmann 
a superlative draughtsman ; it was in Prague that he made close 
acquaintance with it, while professor at the School of Applied Art. 
At that time, too, he erected a number of houses in Prague, restored 
churches and castles in various parts of Bohemia, and worked out 
the plans for the museums in Reichenberg and Magdeburg all of 
them excellent achievements, though here and there wearing a 
hybrid aspect through the conjunction of both historic and modern 
styles. At Vienna, whither he was called from Prague, he has 
approximated more closely to modern views, as is shown by works 
carried out by him there, both public and private. But his talent 
has not yet reached its fullest development, and one may expect 
from him yet finer achievements than hitherto. 

Another man who at first favoured the historic school is Max 
Fabiani, a professor at the Vienna Polytechnic ; but he has, obviously 
under the influence of modern ideals, attained by degrees to a freer 
conception, which has so far been most sympathetically manifested 
in two business houses. The last of this trio of architects is Franz, 
Freiherr von Krauss, who has diligently experimented in many 
directions, always with aptitude but without any pronounced 
originality. His greatest successes so far have been the two theatres 
in Vienna the Jubilaumstheater and the Biirgertheater. 
Otto Wagner has trained quite a number of architects, some of 
whom have already become celebrated. At their head is Professor 
J. M. Olbrich, who left Hasenauer and went to Wagner. Olbrich 
is a man highly gifted, impulsive and imaginative, a poetic inter- 
preter of space, and a decorator of rare taste. Through Wagner he 
acquired self-restraint and a severely critical attitude towards him- 
self and art. Still Olbrich retained so great a fund of enthusiasm 
that he became the leader of the younger generation of architects. 
His Vienna buildings, true documents of the " Ver Sacrum," 
have all of them provoked the fiercest conflict of opinion. His 
first effort was the " Secession " building, erected during the 
space of a few months, a work vigorous and fresh in conception, 
sober yet impressive, well-proportioned and graceful, and withal 
a personal creation yet dictated by " purpose." The particular 
problems presented by an exhibition building have never been 
better solved ; the interior has been so planned that instead of 
being fixed the walls are movable, so that any desired portion of 
the space may be available with top light or side light. Olbrich, 
c vi 



THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA 

too, was the first to plan country houses of a modern type in the 
outskirts of Vienna and he designed the first monument of a 
modern character in a Vienna cemetery. He would doubtless 
have been a pioneer amongst us in many other directions had not 
the Grand Duke of Hesse summoned him to Darmstadt in 1899. 
We can see from his book " Ideas " how much Austrian art has 
lost by Olbrich's migration to Germany. 

The next and, after Olbrich, perhaps the most important of Wagner's 
pupils is Professor Josef Hoffmann. He was born in 1870, at a little 
Moravian town, and in 1897 joined the Vienna "Secession," for 
whom, in the following years, he designed and arranged some very 
fine exhibition interiors. In 1899 he became professor at the School 
of Applied Art, and in 1903 founded, in conjunction with Professor 
Koloman Moser and aided by a wealthy and generous patron of 
art, the organisation known as the " Wiener Werkstaette," to which 
he devoted his whole attention on his retirement from the 
" Secession." Hoffmann began as they atl began he allowed his 
imagination full play. In this way there came into existence on 
paper the most colossal edifices, among them the vast scheme 
for a Palace of Peace, a gigantic combination of temples, 
piers, gardens, fountains, etc. Then, when Hoffmann received his 
first real commission, it became clear that along with his 
imaginativeness he possessed, in perhaps a still greater measure, 
the constructive sense. In 1900 he began the construction of his 
villa colony on the " Hohe Warte," a plateau charmingly located in 
the midst of a hilly country, typically Viennese in character, and 
the group of dwellings he has erected there blend happily, both in 
the aggregate and individually, with their surroundings. The houses 
are situated in the midst of gardens which have been planned as 
architectural adjuncts, not in gardener fashion, and are all alike in so 
far that they all bear the conspicuous impress of their designer, 
though each is different from the rest. The windows are not placed 
according to any apparent symmetrical system, but seem to have 
been put here and there just at those places where the architect 
thought they were required. The interiors are of a simple, homely 
character, pleasantly and conveniently arranged. In Austria Hoff- 
mann has, up to the present, been most successful in planning private 
residential houses as far as possible in harmony with the character of 
the inmates, and in which full regard is paid to comfort. At the 
same time he has successfully undertaken houses destined to accom- 
modate a larger concourse of people ; for example, a workmen's hotel 
at Kladno, dating from 1902, and the Sanatorium in Purkersdorf, 

c vii 



THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIVAL IN AUSTRIA 

near Vienna, finished last year, in which all the complex needs of a 
hydro have been provided for in the most simple, ingenious and 
agreeable manner. 

Quite lately Josef Plecnik, by birth a Slovene, has come so much 
to the front that we feel justified in giving him the third place. 
Art-lovers early recognised and appreciated his talent, perceiving 
throughout his work a remarkable sincerity of feeling savouring 
almost of early Christian times. From his religious fervour, charac- 
teristic of the Southern Slavs in general, they anticipated that he would 
some day attract the notice of the world by some achievement in the 
domain of modern ecclesiastical architecture, and if he has not 
already fulfilled these expectations it is not his fault, but simply 
because no commission has been forthcoming. 
Among Wagner's pupils of this generation there remains to be 
mentioned Leopold Bauer. Quite early in his career as an architect, 
and when he had hardly left the Academy, he published a book, 
" Verschiedene Skizzen, Entwurfe, und Studien" ("Sundry Sketches, 
Designs and Studies"), which showed him to be the most radical 
and consistent among his brother architects. Six years have passed 
since then, and Bauer's views have undergone a marked change. 
Not that he has in any point diverged from modern principles, but 
his attitude towards the architecture of the past is no longer one 
of downright opposition. He has come to recognise that if archi- 
tecture as an art is to be a vital force, it cannot wholly neglect 
tradition. He would step in where the organic evolution of 
Viennese architecture was suddenly interrupted at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, the period of the Biedermaier style. Then 
we must just refer to Jan Kotera, who was one of the founders of the 
" Manes " Artists' League, and is a leading organiser in the art-world 
of the Czechs. His erections are principally country houses, and 
he successfully and happily combines in them constructive principles 
with the traditional Slavic mode of building. Finally the brothers 
Hubert and Franz Gessner deserve honourable mention for their 
Artisans' Home in Vienna and the District Offices of the Kranken- 
kasse (Sick Club) at Floridsdorf both of them structures admirably 
fitted for their functions, and permeated by a genuine feeling for 
social welfare. As to the younger disciples of Wagner their number 
is legion, and we must refer readers to the annual publications, 
of the " Wagner-Schule." In these confirmation will be found for 
the assertion that contemporary architecture in Austria can challenge 
comparison with that of other countries, 
c viii 



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KITCHEN AND CHILDREN'S ROOM 



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C 57 JOSEF URBAN 




DINING ROOM IN MAHOGANY 
INLAID WITH MOTHER-OF PEARL 
EXECUTED B^ HOLLMANN, VIENNA 



C 58 JOSEF URBAN 




LIBRARY IN MAHOGANY INLAID 
WITH IVORY AND MOTHER-OF- 
PEARL. OLD SILVER FITTINGS 
BY S. JARAY, VIENNA. LUSTRES 
BY BAKALOWITS & SONS, VIENNA 



C 59 JOSEF URBAN 




BOUDOIR WITH WALLS OF PURPLE SILK AND MAHOG- 
ANY INLAID WITH MOTHER-OF-PEARL. EXECUTED 
BY SANDOR JARAY, VIENNA 



C 60 & 61 JOSEF URBAN 



' 




MUSIC ROOM IN NATURAL MAHOGANY. EXECUTED BY HOLLMANN, VIENNA 




DINING ROOM. WALLS WHITE ENAMEL WITH PAINTED DESIGN. FURNITURE IN 
BLACK MAPLE WITH SILVER FITTINGS. EXECUTED BY HOLLMANN, VIENNA 
LUSTRE BY BAKALOWITS & SONS, VIENNA. CARPET BY GINSKY MAFFERSDORF 



C 62 JOSEF URBAN 





SITTING ROOM IN HUNGARIAN NATURAL OAK. WITH 
GILDED FITTINGS AND WALL HANGINGS OF EMERALD 
GREEN AND RED SILK. EXECUTED BY SANDOR JARAY 
VIENNA. ELECTRIC PENDANT DESIGNED BY OTTO 
PRUTSCHER, EXECUTED BY BAKALOWITS& SONS, VIENNA 



C 63 JOSEF URBAN 




SITTING ROOM IN HUNGARIAN NATURAL OAK WITH 
GILCED FITTINGS AND WALL HANGINGS OF EMERALD 
GREEN AND RED SILK. EXECUTED BY SANDOR JARAY, VIENNA 



C 64 JOSEF URBAN 





BOUDOIR. EXECUTED BY SANDOR JARAY, VIENNA FUR- 
mTURE IN NATURAL MAHOGANY INLAID WITH.'MOTHER 
OF-PEARL. LUSTRES BY BAKALOWITS & SONS, VIENNA 




MODERN DECORATIVE 

ART IN AUSTRIA '?;./; '.r ^^|f } ' 

BY A. S. LEVETUS ^ ; 

TRUE feeling for art and decoration is inborn 
in the Austrians. Their national art is sufficient 
proof of this. But the modern movement in 
decorative art owes its inception to outside 
influence to England ; its development, how- 
ever, comes from the Austrians themselves. 
Even before Hofrat von Scala held that memor- 
able exhibition at the Austrian Museum during 
Christmas, 1897, where he showed nothing but 
the best English furniture and household effects, Chippendale, 
Sheraton, Heppelwhite, and others, the young Austrian artists 
had long felt that nothing but an upheaval could bring their 
art out of the slough into which it had fallen. They had become 
mere copyists of old and senseless forms ; they were young, and 
living in a progressive age they realised the necessity to express 
that which they inwardly felt. 

But there were other factors besides this exhibition which led to the 
upheaval. Just about the same time a young architect, Adolf Loos, 
a Viennese who had travelled much and lived in America and 
England, returned to his native city, and through the medium 
of the " Neue Freie Presse " expounded his views on men's 
clothing, furnishing and decoration. The interest he aroused 
helped to create a desire for better style, and in the shop 
windows were displayed articles which were more or less 
echt-englisch. 

Naturally there was danger that the Austrians would again become 
mere copyists, but of another style. Luckily all fear soon passed away. 
Out of Professor Wagner's school of architecture a number of young 
architects came, men of intelligence and capability, filled with a 
burning desire to show what they could do. They were conscious 
of their power, for, as in modern architecture so in modern decorative 
art, Otto Wagner was the leader. He filled his students with 
his enthusiasm, but he in no way sought to restrict them ; and 
therein lies his greatness. Freedom of thought to all, based on a 
firm scientific foundation, might well be his motto. And long before 
there was any outward expression of the new movement in Austria 

D i 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

" The Studio " was unostentatiously but surely doing its work there 
as in other countries besides England. As Herr Muthasius said in 
his lectures on the " English Home," given at the Austrian Museum 
a few weeks ago, " The Studio " led the way to a new order of things 
by resolutely showing only that which was best. 

But a struggle followed, for it was not easy to change the order of 
things. There were fears that the Austrian style (sic) would be lost. 
The authorities forgot that the fine Biedermaier period had long 
passed, giving way to commonplace imitations, which they were 
only too anxious to preserve. 

Finally, in the Spring of 1897, ^ e "Secession" was founded. It 
needed an upheaval to bring about a complete change, but even 
at the first exhibition held by this society promise of a great future 
was shown. The word " Secession " caught fire ; everything outre 
bore the title " secessionistisch," and as in painting and architecture 
there were true and false Klimts and Otto Wagners, so in the arts 
and crafts there were true and false secessionists. But what a world 
lay between the two ! The stranger coming to Vienna, who knew 
nothing of Josef Hoffmann, Olbrich, Koloman Moser, Plecnik, 
Leopold Bauer, Jan Kotera, Adolf Bohm, Roller, Krauss, and other 
secessionists in the arts and crafts, must have shrunk from " Seces- 
sion " with a feeling of horror that in a city famous for art such 
" un-art " should be found, and longed for those bronzes, leather 
goods, porcelain and other objets d'art for which this historic 
city had long been celebrated. " Secession " has survived this, for it 
is no longer a by-word, but one to which all honour is due. Even 
the split has made little difference in this respect. The "Secession" 
has done most to bring about the modern development in the arts 
and crafts ; it showed what other nations were doing, and introduced, 
among others, the Belgian, English, and Scotch schools to Vienna. 
Oddly enough, the two latter appealed most to men like Hoffmann and 
Moser, for while Van der Velde found footing in Germany, Ashbee 
and the Mackintoshes were preferred in Austria, though Olbrich 
followed in the footsteps of the Belgians. Out of these foreign 
elements has arisen a true Austrian style, which has gradually but 
surely developed during the last eight years. 

The appointment in 1899 of Baron Felician Myrbach as Director 
of the k.k. Kunstgewerbe-Schule (Imperial Arts and Crafts School) 
was a step in the right direction, for he had travelled much, and 
had lived and studied art in Paris. He was a man of large ideas, 
conscious of the strength of his staff, which numbered many able 
men Josef Hoffmann, Alfred Roller, Koloman Moser, Arthur 
D ii 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

Strasser, Rudolf, Edler von Larisch, and, later on, C. O. Czescka 
all young and earnest men, great both as artists and teachers. 
Their appointment marked a new era in Austrian decorative 
art. What this Kunstgewerbe-Schule has done for modern art 
in Austria can already be seen, for every year it is sending forth 
a number of new men eager to prove their ability. Some few 
manufacturers have helped, and all honour is due to them, but here 
again practically unsurmountable difficulties had to be contested. 
Many of these manufacturers had been accustomed to get designs 
for nothing ; silver had been sold per weight, with no additional 
sum for the artistic design ; who could have thought that the 
work of the artist would also have to be taken into account ? 
Such things were practically unknown ; why should the old regime 
be changed ? This struggle is still going on, and is likely so to do ; 
the public are at fault, for they desire cheap things, and in the search 
for cheapness the artist is too often forgotten. 

But in spite of all this there is a general desire on the part of the 
educated public to employ the architect for the furnishing and 
arrangements of the home though means do not always allow this. 
There are several good men in Austria, men of many and varied 
talents, who have produced good work and helped to stimulate 
activity in art. Fortunately, too, there are capable workmen, for 
in cabinet-making especially Austria is to the fore. The workmen 
have a true love of work, and delight in the expression of the artist's 
fancy, especially in fine intarsias, mosaics, and other inlaying. 
The finish is admirable, and it is no wonder that such men easily 
find employment in foreign countries. 

But it is not always easy for artist and workman to keep in touch 
with one another, and it was with a desire to span the bridge which 
necessarily exists, where the artist makes designs for the manufacturer 
and for various reasons is allowed no further interest in them, that the 
Wiener Werkstaette was founded last year, with Professor J. Hoffmann 
and Professor Koloman Moser as artistic directors. It is not given to 
every man to see his ideals fulfilled, but these two professors are among 
the fortunate few. They are both men of great versatility and capable 
of achieving what they have set before them as their task. Hence 
their success. Professor Hoffmann's great aim is to follow in the 
footsteps of Ruskin and William Morris, to create a home of art in 
Vienna, and so bring about a right feeling not only for the artist but 
for the craftsman who breathes life into the artist's work. Some of 
the young artists who are trained at the Kunstgewerbe-Schule are 
employed by the Wiener Werkstaette ; the seeds have been sown 

D iii 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

well, and, from an artistic point of view, great success has been 
achieved. And that is what concerns us here. 
Utility is the first condition, but there is no reason why the simplest 
articles of household effects should not be beautiful. The value 
does not lie only in the material, but in the right thought and 
treatment of the material, and its power to convey that thought 
to the minds of others, to convince them. This is no easy task. 
What it is capable of producing the Wiener Werkstaette has already 
shown. The new Sanatorium at Purkersdorf, near Vienna, which 
was designed by Professor Hoffmann, is a convincing proof of whac 
may be achieved by the united aid of artist and workman working 
together in harmony for a common cause. With the exception of 
the textiles which, however, were designed by Professor Hoffmann 
and the kitchen utensils, everything was made by the Wiener 
Werkstaette, including the building itself. The interior is very 
refreshing, from the roomy hall, where Professor Moser's fine glass 
window may be seen, to the living and bed-rooms above and the 
kitchens below. Professor Hoffmann has a predilection for white 
and black. What might appear monotonous by mere description 
is not so in reality ; the lines are harmonious and restful, and the 
distribution of light everywhere is admirable, for the professor is 
too great an artist not to be mindful of every detail. There are 
billiard, card, reading, and music rooms, and salons for ladies and for 
gentlemen, as also a joint drawing-room. There are also bath-rooms 
for every possible treatment, for a sanatorium has something of the 
nature of a hydro. There is no superfluous ornamentation, neither 
is there too little. The chief beauty lies in that due proportion 
which is so prominent a feature in Professor Hoffmann's works. 
Nowhere has he shown this better than in the Sanatorium ; at every 
step something new is presented to us, something that appeals to our 
finer feelings. Everything was designed by Professor Hoffmann 
except the salons, and these emanated from Professor Koloman 
Moser, who shows here, as always, a fine feeling for colour ; indeed, 
he is a great colourist in the arts and crafts. 

Professor Hoffmann's lines are more severe ; each room has its special 
characteristic, and here we can learn the lesson of the artist's ideals. 
Their further development will be seen when the villa which the 
Wiener Werkstaette is building for M. Stoclet in Brussels is finished. 
What are the artist's ideals ? These may be gathered from his 
works, which, though not written, speak a language to us. From them 
too we gather where his strength lies, namely, in utility combined 
with structural beauty, a quick eye combined with real intellectual 
D iv 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

ability, a creative power combined with right judgment for the 
exercising of it, a love of form combined with the power of right 
adjustment, and a special gift for the practical. How far-seeing he 
is can be gathered by the dressmaker's salons he has fitted up for the 
Frauleins Floge. The show-rooms are veritable homes of art, 
there is nothing obtrusive and no detail has been forgotten. 
Everything has its due place even to the electric lamps on the 
ground arranged to give light for the adjustment of the customer's 
gown. Indeed, these salons are essentially serviceable and artistic. 
To him the artistic value is the same, whether it be the simplest 
article of everyday use or the most expensive ornament. In 
everything it is the thought underlying all which is of the greatest 
value ; hence he can have none but thinkers around him. His 
workmen must be in sympathy with the artist whose ideas they are 
executing, not merely perform their work in a perfunctory manner. 
He has given them artistic workshops, he recognizes that their work 
too is noble, and that only when they give what is best in them will 
they be ennobled and refined by their work and worthy of their hire. 
He has travelled much and seen much, he knows what other nations 
are producing in art, and is jealous for his own country. He has also 
given much care to the solving of the bent-wood and wicker problems 
in furniture, in which he has been ably supported by Messrs. J. and 
J. Kohn, and the Prag-Rudniker Korbwaren Fabrication, Vienna. 
Professor Moser is also a man of manifold powers. There is hardly 
a branch of applied art to which he has not turned his hand. He 
has studied, too, in workshops, in glass manufactories, in textile and 
other manufactories, and everywhere has gained knowledge, and the 
experience gained he has put to good use. To know the value ot 
the materials in which a design is to be executed their intrinsic 
value means much to the artist. Like all the men of the modern 
school, he has an eye to utility, for utility should be the basis of all 
applied art, and therefore it is for this reason that he has given so 
much attention to the articles of everyday use, even beyond such as 
are made in the Wiener Werkstaette. The glass designed by him 
has won praise outside his own country ; the latest development is 
the application of the square a prominent feature in both Professor 
Hoffmann's and Professor Moser's designs to glass ; some very fine 
results have been achieved, and an additional charm has been given 
by making all the wine-glasses and tumblers of the same height. 
There must be nothing to disturb the harmony ; no discordant 
strain. 

In his interiors, as in all things, Professor Moser shows the same 

D v 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

right feeling. His artistic balance is well poised, both his hand 
and his judgment are unerring. His strength lies within himself; 
he, too, is a creative power, but of another genre. His mind 
is a fertile one, filled with rich stores of fancy ; his colouring is 
warm but well modulated, and his taste perfect. He has evolved 
an art for himself an art peculiarly his own and at once recog- 
nisable. If his designs do not show the masterly dignity of Professor 
Hoffmann's, yet they possess a charm and beauty revealing not 
only the true artist but the true Viennese. 

These two men, Professor Hoffmann and Professor Moser, have 
created a new style in decorative and applied art, a style which is 
essentially Viennese ; and although they have learned much from 
other schools, theirs bears the unmistakable mark by which it will 
in the future always be recognized as Hoffmann and Moser. Both 
men are far-seeing, and they will continue to advance. New 
developments are continually taking place, some branches shoot 
forth, others are lopped off. Each artist is a resource in himself, and 
each holds the future of Austrian applied art dear to him. 
Professor Czescka is another power in the Wiener Werkstaette and 
a true artist in every sense of the word. Since Baron Myrbach's 
resignation he has become a teacher at the Kunstgewerbe-Schule, and 
his pupils are already giving evidence of his influence. His forte lies 
in decorative work. The casket here reproduced (D. 67) is a fine 
specimen of his conceptive power. It was presented to the Emperor- 
King Franz Josef by Messrs. Skoda & Co., the torpedo manufacturers, 
and has been lent by his Imperial Majesty for the exhibition 
now being held in London. It is 53 centimetres long, 37^ wide, and 
20 high. The fourteen columns are supported by ivory feet. These 
divide the sides into ten panels bearing seven different designs. In 
the middle one is seen the Imperial arms specially arranged for this 
purpose by the professor. The panels to the right and left show 
two men-of-war armed by Messrs. Skoda and borne along the waves 
by sea monsters. All the designs are beaten into the silver, which 
is richly gilded over. The lining is formed of silk braids of yellow 
and black, the Imperial colours. The casket is a veritable work of 
art, both in design and workmanship, and was made by the Wiener 
Werkstaette. 

Frau Elena Luksch-Makowsky is a strength in herself. Her 
designs, be they for beaten metal work, ornaments or ceramics, show 
precision, beauty of conception, rich and fertile imagination, and 
sure technique in expression. She possesses varied talents, and her 
work is always interesting. In all that she does, whether great or 
D vi 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

small, there is underlying truth. There is power and there is 
character in her work, a delight and a surety which are convincing 
of her real love for it. 

Professor Olbrich, from his adopted home in Darmstadt, exercises 
his influence chiefly in Germany. His noble designs, simple in 
their construction as they appear to the uninitiated, bear the impress 
of a great mind. Like Professor Hoffmann, his strength lies in 
construction combined with rare beauty and simplicity of form. 
His interiors show deep thought and intense feeling for what lies 
before him. All he has created gives evidence of his richness in 
ideas nobly conceived and nobly executed. 

Leopold Bauer, who is a leading member of the " Secession," and 
holds a foremost place both as an architect and decorative artist, 
began his career by throwing off all traditions. This may be seen 
in his architecture as well as in his interiors, and the results were 
highly satisfactory to those interested in the modern movement. 
He met with much success. His first inttrjeurs show the influence 
of the quadratic in ornamentation which is so prominent a feature 
of the modern Viennese school. Later his opinions changed, and 
he came to the conclusion, not without much thought, that all 
development must proceed in natural order. For this reason he is 
little influenced in his later work by foreign schools of decorative 
art. He feels that the architect is not supreme in the arrange- 
ment of a home, that in decorating he must take into account 
the persons who are to inhabit it, that they must feel that it 
is really a home. We all love certain treasured articles in our 
homes, and cling to them for the memories they recall. Such are 
our friends, and were they banished by the dictatorial architect, it 
would cause us pain. Leopold Bauer understands this, and attempts 
nothing radical. The favoured piece shall have its right place, due 
respect must be paid to it. Yet his interiors do not suffer from this 
liberality of thought and judgment, for he has too fine a sense of 
rhythm to allow this to jar, the harmony is still preserved, but the 
old form is the key-note for the orchestra which is to fill the room 
with beautiful music. In this lies Bauer's success. He understands 
his art and he understands man. His interiors bear the stamp of 
intimacy. This Bauer aims at, and this he achieves. 
Jan Kotera is a Bohemian and lives at Prague. As a decorative 
artist he has gained much fame. His art necessarily differs from 
that of the Austrians, for the natures of the peoples are different, and 
the nature of a man is expressed in his work. He is a true Wagner 
disciple, accurate and just, and possesses a fine feeling for form. 

D vii 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

Josef Urban is a leading member of the Hagenbund Society, and 
generally arranges its exhibitions. He is fertile in thought, rich in 
imagination, and ever open to receive a lesson, and for this reason he 
has learned when to curb his thoughts and when to express them. 
His work has warmth of tone and a right sense of concord. He 
clothes his walls in silks and in brocades. His furniture is well 
thought out; there is no over-burthen of decoration, which yet has 
its due place. His interiors have a peculiar charm and delicacy, 
they are dainty but never merely pretty. They express the rhythmic 
swaying tones of a Strauss waltz, for he is a Viennese to the core. 
He is versatile, as are all these Austrians, with a quick eye and a 
rapid hand to grasp an idea and to express it. Alfred Keller is 
another member of the Hagenbund, and is doing good work. 
Oskar Laske is the architect of the " Jungbund," and is very successful 
in decorative work and as arrangeur. Marcel Kammerer and Emil 
Hoppe are also coming men. They are pupils of Otto Wagner. 
Adolf Loos believes, like Bauer, that in every home the architect 
should take into account, when planning the room, that ancient pieces 
should have their right place, but the harmony must be preserved. 
There is no reason why they should be banished to undignified places 
not worthy of them. What is to be avoided is the striking of a false 
note, and it lies in the artist's power to prevent this. As long 
as the harmony is preserved a few grace notes will not destroy it. 
So a lamp given by a treasured friend, a table or some other object 
dear to its owner, must have its honoured place. He has a preference 
for fine-grained mahogany, and, as all really good architects should 
do, chooses the woods himself. In many respects he differs radically 
from the other Austrian designers. He believes it is impossible to 
" find " new forms for chairs, and never attempts to use any but 
copies of real old English styles, which he considers the best in 
existence. And here again must a good word be said for the 
Austrian workmen nowhere are there more excellent ones, and the 
copies made in Vienna, by the fineness of their finish, equal in 
beauty those made in England. Adolf Loos' walls are panelled 
below with spaces for pictures, while for the upper part he uses 
English or Japanese wall-papers. He delights in warmth, and is 
much influenced by English and American art in decoration. 
Robert Orley has lately come to the fore as a decorative artist and 
architect. He studied under Friedrich Schmidt, the predecessor of 
Otto Wagner at the Academy of Arts. His principles are as sound 
as is his judgment. He aims at comfort in homes ; " modern but not 
extravagant " is his motto. He has been much influenced by the 
D viii 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

great movement going on around him, and has known what to 
adopt and what to reject ; and out of this he has formed a style 
peculiarly his own and generally appreciated. He knows the value 
of the study of the materials in which a design is to be carried out, 
and adapts himself accordingly. 

Baron Krauss joined the army of moderns long after he had begun 
to practise as an architect and decorator. He also is a pupil of 
Friedrich Schmidt. As a decorative artist and architect he has 
made his power felt. His aim is simplicity combined with comfort. 
His chief work is seen in the provinces, where he has built several 
villas and entirely furnished and decorated them. The interior 
decorations of the " Burgertheater," Vienna, which he built and 
decorated, show that it is possible to have artistic arrangements even 
when the money an important but unfortunately necessary factor 
is limited. 

Otto Prutscher, Hans Ofner, Franz Messner, Wilhelm Schmidt, 
are all pupils of Professor Hoffmann, following in their master's 
footsteps. They have appreciated his teaching too well to neglect 
utility in what they produce. The right balance between art and 
utility is a prominent feature in the modern Austrian school. All 
the students at the Kunstgewerbe-Schule have drunk deep of this 
learning. Each element must have its due place and harmonise 
with its surroundings, and all conflicting elements must be avoided. 
There must be a surety in the building up of the whole. Otto 
Prutscher is rich in ideas and possesses a lively phantasy and a fine 
sense of harmony in line and colour. His strength lies in the 
interior decoration of the house and what pertains to it. Ziilow 
has been successful in decorative furniture of another genre, 
namely, the adapting of the traditional designs of the peasants to 
modern art. 

Many women, too, are to the fore in the applied arts. Before the 
modern movement they were chiefly interested in the old methods 
of coloured embroidery in silks, of flowers and other designs. The 
workmanship was always good, for the Austrian women excel in 
needlework of all kinds. Now they are taught on nature's system, 
and at the Imperial Kunstgewerbe-Schule they learn all branches of 
applied art, and by turning their thoughts to the simplest articles of 
every-day life are opening up a new field in art. The women students 
can turn their hand to most things, as can the men. Furniture 
building and architecture do not come within their scope, but all 
household properties do, and just in these they meet with success. 
The Austrian lady's linen closet is to her what the china closet is 

D ix 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

to the Englishwoman. Here art has a place, and the work is 
especially suitable for women. The bed linen is a source of joy to 
all, not for its elaborateness but for its simplicity. Fraulein Marietta 
Peyfuss has designed some fine pillow-cases and " Kappendecken " 
these correspond to the upper sheet in England and button 
over on to the quilt, the corners being mitred. Fraulein Peyfuss's 
table-cloths are original, and at the same time works of art. 
Fraulein Uchatius, Fraulein Hollman, Fraulein Exner, Fraulein 
Sodoma, Frau Taussig-Roth, are each doing their share in the 
promotion of decorative art. Fraulein Trethahn has designed some 
tea and coffee services and toilette sets which, though original, bear 
traces of the new school. Fraulein Wachsmann has designed wall- 
papers, linings for books, carpets and other textiles which show 
fine feeling and sound technique. Fraulein Sika has turned her 
talents to electric pendants and table decorations, including tea and 
coffee services ; Baroness Falke to ceramics and electric standard 
lamps. Some of these men and women artists have formed a small 
society called " Kunst im Hause." 

Fraulein von Starck is teacher of the art of enamelling at the 
Kunstgewerbe-Schule, which in itself is the best testimony of her 
capabilities. Bruno Emmel, B. Loffler and E. Powolny are 
devoting themselves to ceramics. In the course of time each 
artist may perhaps devote attention solely to some particular 
branch. Being many sided, as is but natural considering who are 
their teachers, they are trying their strength in every direction, and 
each is doing his share in raising the standard of Austrian 
decorative art. 

A new generation is also arising at the Imperial School of Em- 
broidery, where, under the teaching of B. Loffler, Fraulein Betty 
Stooss, Fraulein Guttmann, and others are searching new methods 
for carrying out their own designs in embroidery, and what is 
generally called fancy work. The Kunst-Schule fur Frauen und 
Madchen is also doing valuable work ; two of Professor Bohm's 
students, Frau Sakuka-Harlinger and Fraulein Podhajska, have done 
some good decorative work and are excellent in modern toys, which 
subject does not come within the scope of this work. 
Many men are devoting themselves to special branches of the arts 
and crafts. Gustav Gurschner, whose bronzes are known far and 
wide, is also a sculptor ; Ernst Stohr is a painter and mural 
decorator ; Maximilian Lenz is a painter, yet he has designed some 
beautiful electric lamps in beaten silver ; Friedrich Kb'nig is a 
painter and designer this reads like the old signboards ; Engelhart 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

is a painter, a sculptor and a craftsman ; indeed, nothing is more 
astonishing than the versatility of these Austrian artists. 
In Austria there is little opportunity for the artist as far as fireplaces 
are concerned. This is a land of stoves, which are much better 
adapted to warming the rooms and equally distributing the heat 
than open fires. Therefore the artist must devote his talents to 
designing such things as tiles and door plates, for which, however, 
there is little demand, the question of cost being important. It 
must be remembered that here flats are the rule ; they are built 
for the purpose of letting as cheaply as possible, and all unnecessary 
outlay must be carefully avoided. In some few villas there are open 
fireplaces, but they are not in favour because they do not give out 
sufficient heat to warm all parts of the room, which is a very 
important consideration in this cold climate. Therefore for the artist 
there only remains the gas stove, which is generally welcomed. Here 
all the artists mentioned have employed their thoughts and talents, and 
some very fine designs have been made by the leading men, many of 
them with fine mantelpieces, which were unknown till within the last 
few years. Electric lighting is coming more and more into vogue. 
This gives a splendid opportunity to the artist, and here again the 
leading men, including Professor Hoffmann, Professor Moser, Urban, 
Bauer, Krauss, Prutscher, Ofner, have done some excellent work. 
With wall-papers few artists have concerned themselves, for the reason 
that they are not in demand. A visit to the leading firms taught me 
that most are imported from England and Germany, where the cost 
of manufacturing is far less than here. Neither do the leading 
architects use paper for their wall surfaces. Professor Hoffmann 
uses either rough cement or stuccoed mortar, or stains the walls 
to harmonise with the furniture, and heads them with a frieze, 
the design, of course, conforming to the furniture. Many architects 
use silk, or a special kind of textile which looks like buttercloth, and 
has the advantage of being washable and cheap. This is sometimes 
used in natural colour, and sometimes has a special design made 
by the artist. Wood, too, plays an important part in wall surfaces, 
especially in dining-rooms ; this generally reaches about one-third 
of the height, the upper part being stained and headed with a frieze. 
The Prag-Rudniker Korbwaren Fabrication have even found a use for 
shavings for wall surfaces which were designed by W. Schmidt. 
They form a good background for wicker furniture. 
The curtains are simple. Some very fine results have been achieved 
by the application of a simple geometrical design on white or cream 
lustre specially manufactured for this purpose. This is very effective 

D xi 



MODERN DECORATIVE ART IN AUSTRIA 

and at the same time very practical. Chintz and cottons of the 
simplest designs, spotted or checked, which have the advantage of 
being cheap, form artistic hangings, and are used by many leading 
architects. The chief thing is artistic value combined with 
utility ; hangings may be very expensive and yet, from an artistic 
point of view, valueless. White batiste, of a special design, is also 
favoured, especially by Adolf Loos. 

Stained-glass windows are rarely seen in the residential flats or houses. 
Professor Moser, Professor Mehoffer, Professor Roller and other 
artists have designed some very fine windows for the " Secession," for 
public buildings and for churches. They have also designed some 
beautiful mosaics. Few, except Professor Moser, have turned their 
thoughts to glass. He excels in this, for he understands the nature 
of the material. Some of his pupils follow in his footsteps, and 
with fairly good results. In silver-plate much could be done were 
the public educated up to a due appreciation of art. As it is, the 
so-called " Secession," which is nothing but a base imitation of the 
real thing, finds buyers, and often at a cost equal to the genuine. 
Matters are mending ; everywhere there is a desire to understand art ; 
there is movement, and that means much ; anything is better than 
the dead monotony of a few years ago. The manufacturers need 
educating, as do the public, for Austria does not in this respect 
differ from other countries. 



# * 



The work of the Wiener Werkstaette appearing in this Volume 
is reproduced by kind permission of Herr Hofrat Alex, Koch y 
Editor of t( Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration" Darmstadt. 



r> xu 



D 1 B. LOFFLER AND M. POWOLNY 




CERAMIC FIGURE 



D 2 BRUNO EMMEL 




POTTERY EXECUTED BY GEBRUDER 
REDLICH, GOEDING, MORAVIA 



D 3 PROF. KOLOMAN MOSER 




FRUIT STAND IN SILVER SET WITH STONES EXECUTED 
BY THE WIENER WERKSTAETTE (BY PERMISSION OF 
HERR HOFRAT KOCH) 



D 4 PROF. JOSEF HOFFMANN 



D 5 PROF. KOLOMAN MOSER 




FRUIT STAND AND FLOWER POT IN GALVANISED 
IRON ENAMELLED WHITE EXECUTED BY THE 
WIENER WERKSTAETTE (BY PERMISSION OF HERR 
HOFRAT KOCH) 



O 6 GUSTAV GURSCHNER 




D 7 BRUNO EMMEL 



PALM POT IN BRONZE 




POTTERY EXECUTED BY GEBRUDER 
REDLICH, GOEDING, MORAVIA 



D 8 & 9 J. SIKA 




TOILET WARE EXECUTED BY J. BOCH VIENNA 




RED AND WHITE GLASS VASES EXECUTED 
BY BAKALOWITS & SONS VIENNA 



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D 15 OTTO PRUTSCHER 



D 17 & 18 PROF. JOSEF HOFFMANN 





HAND PAINTED BON 
BONNIERE 



D 16 PROF. KOLOMAN MOSER 






SILVER BROOCH SET WITH 
STONES EXECUTED BY THE 
WIENER WERKSTAETTE (BY 
PERMISSION OF HERR 
HOFRAT KOCH 



JEWEL BOX IN PAINTED MAPLE AND CLOCK 
IN HAMMERED METAL AND MARBLE EXE- 
CUTED BY THE WIENER WERKSTAETTE 
(BY PERMISSION OF HERR HOFRAT KOCH) 



D 19 & 20 OTTO PRUTSCHER 






CIGARETTE AND CARD CASES EXE- 
CUTED BY R. MELZER JUN., VIENNA 




JEWEL CASE IN ROSEWOOD INLAID WITH 
MOTHER OF PEARL AND VARIOUS WOODS 
EXECUTED BY JOHANN BAUWIC, VIENNA 



D 21 PROF. JOSEF HOFFMANN 




CIGAR BOX IN SILVER SET VflTH STONES 
EXECUTED BY THE WIENER WERKSTAETTE (BY 
PERMISSION OF HERR HOFRAT KOCH) 



O 22 PROF KOLOMAN MOSER 




BOOKBINDING IN MOROCCO INLAID EXE- 
CUTED BY THE WIENER WERKSTAETTE 
(BY PERMISSION OF HERR HOFRAT KOCH) 



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D 27 E. SUMETSBERGER 




LEATHER JEWEL CASE EXE 
CUTED BY B. BUCHWALD VIENNA 



D 28 V. SCHOENTHONER 



D 29 OTTO PRUTSCHER 




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LEATHER BLOTTING CASES EXE- 
CUTED BY B. BUCHWALD VIENNA 



JRBAN. 











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C.MOENTHONER 



D 29 OTTO PRUTSCHER 





D 30 PROF. HEINRICH LEFLER & JOSEF URBAN. 




,.THE SLEEPING BEAUTY "-ILLUSTRATION TO "THE FAIRY STORY 

CALENDAR" (BY PERMISSION OF GERLACH & WIEDLING, VIENNA). 






O 33 FERD. ANDRI 



D 34 KARL FAHRINGER 













O 35 IGN. TASCHNER 





D 36 IGN. TASCHNER 



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D 37 IGN. TASCHNER 




ILLUSTRATIONS FROM CHILDREN'S BOOKS PUB 
LISHFO BY GERLACH & WIEDLING, VIENNA 



D 39 OTTO TAUSCHEK 



D 40 FERD. ANDRI 





D 41 FERD. ANDRI 






D 42 FERD. ANDRI 



D 43 IGN. TASCHNER 





ILLUSTRATIONS FROM CHILDREN'S BOOKS PUB- 
LISHED BY GERLAOH &. WIEDLING. VIENNA 



URBAN. 




,. MANSCHEN, WILT THOU DANCE ?" ILLU.V 
. XLIWS-Kl ANG-GLORIA" A COLLECTION Of fO'.f. AND 
CHILOffEN'S SONQS TO BE PUBLISHED SMCR' t V *V 
r. TEttPtKY, VIENNA, it Q. FREYTAO, LEIP/l* 



O 4O FERO. ANORI 




A * 

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43 ION. TASCHNER 




PUB- 



D -44 PROF. HEINRICH LEFLER & JOSEF URBAN. 




,,HANSCHEN, WILT THOU DANCE? "-ILLUSTRATION TO 

,,KLING-KLANG-GLORIA" A COLLECTION OF FOLK AND 
CHILDREN'S SONGS TO BE PUBLISHED SHORTLY BY 
F. TEMPSKY, VIENNA, & G. FREYTAG, LEIPZIG 



O 45 PROF. KOLOMAN MOSER 




D 46 OTTO PRUTSCHER 



GLASSWARE EXECUTED BY BAKA 
LOWITS & SONS, VIENNA 




ELECTRIC LIGHT PENDANTS EXECUTED 
BY BAKALOWITS & SONS VIENNA 



D 47 PROF. KOLOMAN MOSER 




GLASSWARE EXECUTED BY BAKA- 
LOWITS & SONS VIENNA 



D 48 EMIL HOPPE 




TABLE LAMPS AND FLOWER STANDS EXE 
CUTEO BY BAKALOWITS & SONS, VIENNA 




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D 55 & 66 BARONESS FALKE 




TABLEWARE EXECUTED BY 
BAKALOWITZ & SONS, VIENNA 



D 5761 /PROF. JOSEF HOFFMANN 




SILVER SPOONS EXECUTED BY 
THE WIENER WERKSTAETTE (BY 
PERMISSION OF HERR HOFRAT KOCH) 



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D 66 ELENA LUKSCH MAKOWSKY 




COVERS FOR VENTILATORS 
IN HAND BEATEN BRASS 



D 67 PROF. CZESCKA 




CASKETIN BEATENSILVER PRESENTEDTO H.I.M. 
FRANZ JOSEF I. BY MESSRS. SKODA & CO. 
EXECUTED BY THE WIENER WERKSTAETTE 
(BY PERMISSION OF HERR HOFRAT KOCH) 



D 70 MAXIMILIAN LENZ 




MURAL DECORATION 
IN HAMMERED BRASS 





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D 76 OTTO PRUTSCHER 




GLASS MOSAIC EXECUTED BY 
REMYGIUS GEYLINO, VIENNA 




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D 79 & 80 PROF. JOSEF*VON MEHOFFER 




..THE ARCHANGELS MICHAEL AND RAPHAEL" 
MURAL DECORATION IN THE CHAPEL OF THE 
CATHEDRAL AT CRACOW 



D 81 PROF. JOSEF VON MEHOFFER 




..NOTRE DAME DES VICTOIRES" 
DESIGN FOR A WINDOW IN 
THE CATHEDRAL' AT FRIBOURG 
SWITZERLAND 




- 



85 



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D 83 CARL EDERER 




STAINED GLASS WINDOW EXECUTED 
BY CARL OEYLING'S ERBEN, VIENNA 



D 84 FROF. OLBRICH 




TAPESTRY IN THE MUSIC ROOM 
OF THE GRAND DUKE OF HESSE 



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D 97 & 98 BETTY STOOSS 




CUSHION 




PORTION OF A TABLE COVER 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



N Holme, Charles 

6808 The art-revival in Austria 

H64