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UC-NRLF 






UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 




No. 


GIFT OF THE PUBLISHER 
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LIBRARY 

OF THE 

University of Califprnia. 

GIFT OF 






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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/artstudiesforschOOrydirich 



Art Studies for Schools 



HINTS ON THE USE OF REPRODUCTIONS OF 
HIGH ART IN THE SCHOOLROOxM 



ANNA M. VON RYDINGSVARD, A.M. 

Formerly Professor in the Massachusetts Normal Art School, Boston, Mass., and Translator 

of "My Lady lyegend." "Vera Yorontzoff," "FIndymion," 

"Judas, a Story of the Passion," etc. 






A. FLANAGAN COMPANY 
CHICAGO NEW YORK 



Re 



COPYRIGHTED 1903 

BY 

A* PLANAC ' ' ' 'COMPANY* 



PREFACE 

THE results obtained by the teaching of drawing in the 
public schools, in a systematic way, have proved the 
wisdom of those who were pioneers in the work in 
the early 'seventies. It was to be expected that this universal 
development of the art instinct in our young people would 
lead to the demand for high art in schools — at least so far as 
the placing of good examples before the eyes of the pupils is 
concerned — and this demand is being met by thoughtful edu- 
cators everywhere. 

It is our purpose in these pages to show what practical 
use can be made of pure examples of the pictorial art in incul- 
cating lessons of permanent value in youthful minds; and also 
how they can be made auxiliaries to the regular school studies, 
such as history, geography, literature, and science. 

In teaching art in schools it is an excellent idea to present 
groups of subjects appropriate to the seasons as they come and 
go. As the gathering in of the rich products of Mother Earth 
approaches, take a look at a few harvest pictures by cele- 
brated artists. The ever fruitful topic of Thanksgiving comes 
closely after, followed by the beautiful Christmastide. There 
is a large range of subjects from which to choose for Christ- 
mas, and many excellent lessons may be taught from them. 

The months of February, March, and April give us patri- 
otic days to study pictorially, and spring is a subject delight- 
ful to old and young alike. The loveliness of June and the 
patriotism of the Fourth of July furnish their subjects also. 

3 

221774 



PREFACE 



The lists of J. Frederick Hopkins, Supervisor of Drawing 
in Boston public schools, and of Henry Turner Bailey, Super- 
visor of Drawing in Massachusetts public schools, have been 
used as a foundation for the choice of subjects in this book; 
though a number of additions have been made. Any teacher 
interested in the matter can make out an equally good list 
from the catalogue of Perry Pictures or of the Soule Photo- 
graph Company. 

Many of our illustrations are used by courtesy of the New 
England Publishing Company 



INDEX OF ARTISTS 



Name Page 

Adam. J 8 

Adan, L. E 2S 

Alma-Tadema, Sir L 138 

Bastien-Lepage, J 116 

Bayes, a. W 46 

Blashfield. E. H 78 

BONHEUR. R 16 

BouGHTos. G. H 42 

BOUGUEREAU, G. A 70 

Breton, J. A 32 

Bridgman, F. a 172 

Briton Riviere 174 

BuRNB-JuNES, Sir E 134 

Chapman. J. G 50 

Cimabue. G 52 

Cobb, Cyrus 114 

CoRoT. J. B. C 126 

CORREGGIO (A. A.) So 

Dagnan-Bouveret, p. a. J. 12, 76 

Dyck. Sir A. Van 84 

Fromentin. E 178 

Gainsborough, T 112 

Gardner, E. J . 164 

GuiDo Reni 142 

Hardy, Hey wood 170 

Hoeckert, J. F 10 

hofmann. h 130 

Holbein, H 106 

Holmes, G. A 150 

Hunt, W. M 14S 

Ittenbach, F 68 

Jacque, C. E 162 

Japy, L. a 40 

Knaus, L 82 



Name Page 

Landseer, Sir E. H 156 

Lebrun, M. L. E. V g6 

Leonardo da Vinci .... 56 

Lerolle, H 74, 152 

Max, G 72 

Memling, H 58 

Meyer von Bremen, J. G. . .154 

Millet, J. F 20, 166 

Murillo, B. E 66 

Raphael 60, 102 

Rembrandt van Ryn . . .38, 94 

Rem, Guido 142, 144 

Renouf, E 146 

Reynolds, Sir J . 98 

Richter, G. K. L no 

Riviere. B 174 

RoNNKR. H. K 160 

Rosa, Salvator 120 

Rossetti, G. C. D 132 

RUBKNS. P. P 64 

Salvator Rosa 120 

Sargent, J. S 140 

ScHRKYKR. A 180 

Titian 86 

Troyon, C 14 

Turner, J. M. W 122 

Van Dyck, A 84, go 

Velasquez, Don R 92 

Vernet, E. J. H 184 

Vigee-Lebrun, M. L, E. . . . 96 

Vinci, L. da 56- 

Wagrez, J. C 168 

West, B 118 

Zuber, J. H 30 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



Page 
Alexander and Diogenes (Sir 

E. H. L.) 158 

Angelas. The (J. F. M.) ... 24 
Assumption of the Virgin, The 

(T.) 86 

Aurora (G. R.) 142 

Baby Stuart (Sir A. Van D.) .90 
Baptism of Pocahontas (J.G.C. ) 50 
Beatrice Cenci (unkn.) .... 144 
Blessed Damozel. The (G. C. D. 

R) 132 

Bowles, Miss and Her Dog (Sir 

J. R.) 100 

Buttermaker, The (J. F. M.) . 26 
Caligula's Palace and Bridge (J. 

M.W. T.) 122 

Can't You Talk? (H.) .... 150 
Christmas Chimes (E. H. B.) . 78 
Circe and Companions of Ulysses 

(B.R.) 174 

Corner in Venice, A (J. C. W.) 168 
Dance of the Nymphs, The (J. 

B. C. C.) 126 

Daniel in the Lions* Den (B. R.) 176 
Death of Wolfe. The (B.W.) . ii3 
Departure of the Mayflower (G. 

H. B.) 46 

Diogenes in Search of an Honest 

Man (S. R.) 120 

Don Balthazar Carlos (Don R. V.) 92 
Fascinating Tale, A (H. K. R.) 160 
Feeding Her Birds (J. F. M) . 166 
Fighting Temeraire. The (J. M. 

W. T.) 124 

Forgotten (H. H.) 170 

Four Little Scamps Are We (J. 

A ) 8 

Girl with Cat (j. F. H.)' . . . 10 
Gleaners, The (J. F. M.) . . . 22 
Golden Stair, The (Sir E. B.-J.) 136 
Halt in the Desert, A (A. S. ) . 182 
Haymaker, The (L. E. A.) . . 28 
Helping Hand. A (E. R.) . . .146 

Holbein, Portrait of 108 

Holy Family (B. E. M ) . . . 66 
Holy Family (P. P. R.) ... 64 
Holy Night', The (A. A.-C.) . 80 
Horse Fair, The (R. B.) ... 16 

Hosea(J. S. S.) 140 

Hunting with Falcons (E. F.) .178 
Jesus as a Boy in the Temple 

(H. H.) . : 130 

Joan of Arc (J. B.-L.) .... 117 
John Wesley Preaching to In- 
dians (unkn.) 48 

June Clouds (W. M. H.) ... 148 



Page 

Kabyle, A. (A. S.) 180 

Lark, The (J. A. B.) 34 

Lebrun, Madame, and Her 

Daughter (M. L. E. L. ) . . . 96 

Madonna and Child (D.-B.) . . 76 

Madonna and Child (G. M.) . . 72 

Madonna and Child (H. M.) . . 58 

Madonna and Child (F. L) . . 68 

Madonna Enthroned (G. C; . . 52 

Madonna, Meyer (H. H.) . , . 106 

Madonna of the Chair, (R. S.) . 104 

Madonna of the Lily (L. daV.) 56 

Madonna, Sistine (R. S.) . , . 60 

Mill, The (R. yan R.) . . . . 38 
Morning in the Highlands (R. 

B.) 18 

Nativity, The (H, L.) . . . . 74 
Oxen Going to Labor (C. T.) .14 
Paul Revere's Ride (C. C.) . .114 

Penelope Boothbv (Sir J. R.) . 98 

Pet Bird, The (M. von B.) . . 154 

Pilgrim Exiles (G. H. B) . . . 44 
Pilgrims Going to Church (G. H. 

B.) 42 

Portrait of an Old Woman (R. 

yan R.) 94 

Portrait of Himself (H. H.) . . 108 

Prayer in the Desert (E. J. H.V.) 184 
Procession of Apis-Osiris, The 

(F. A. B.) 172 

Queen Louise (G. K. L. R.) • .110 
Raphael Sketching the Madonna 

(R. S.) 102 

Reading from Homer, A (Sir L. 

A.-T.) 138 

Repose in Egypt (Sir A. Van D.) 84 

Rest in Flight (L. K.) . . . . 82 

September (J. H. Z ) . . . . 30 

September Evening (L. A. J.) 40 

Sheepfold, The (C. E. J.) . . . 162 
Shepherdess, The (H. L.) . . .152 

Shepherdess, The (J. F. M.) . . 20 

Sick Monkey, The (SirE. H. L.) 156 
Siddons Mrs. (T. G. ) . . . .112 

Sifter of Colza, The (J. A. B.) 36 

Sistine Madonna 60 

Spring (J. B. C. C.) 12S 

Temeraire, The Fighting . . . 124 

Tribute Money. The .... 88 
Two Mothers and Their Families, 

The (E. J. G.) 164 

Vintagers, The (J. A. B.) . . . 32 
Virgin, Infant Jesus and St. 

John (G. A. B.) 70 

Watering Trough, At the (D.-B. ) 12 

Winter (Sir E. B.-J.) .... 134 



Art Studies for Schools 



A LITTLE TALK TO THE PUPILS 

MANY of the valuable facts in the history of our race 
have been gathered from art remains, that is, from 
ruins of buildings, of carved ornaments on buildings 
or of wall paintings, and from decorations on pottery, on metal 
objects and on woven fabrics. This is because, in all ages, 
artists have put the customs of the people around them, the 
costumes worn by them, their games, their great deeds in war, 
etc., into their own carvings and paintings. Then by-and-by 
the feelings and emotions of people took a place among the 
subjects represented. And so artists began to wield a great 
influence over their fellow-men by means of their art. 

As you study the pictures in this little book, you will find 
that very different thoughts and emotions are stirred in you 
by pictures of varying character. Some will rouse your mirth, 
others may make you feel sad, while many will stir very noble 
thoughts about doing good to others. 

Do you fully realize what a power it is to possess the gift 
of stirring the emotions and arousing worthy thoughts by what 
one can paint on canvas or carve in marble ? It is a power to 
be carefully cultivated and cherished as a gift from God, never 
to be abused or misused. We should try to keep before our 
eyes and in our thoughts, the works of those men and women 
of genius who have been so grateful to God for the goodness 
and beauty He has created, that they have striven to put it 
into their pictures and poems and music so as to make of 
them blessings. 



ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: J. Adam 

Birthplace : France 

Dates : 1801-1867 

Subject : Four Little Scamps Are We 

ALL children are fond of animals, and as these have been 
the humble companions and faithful servants of man 
since the creation of the world, it seems fitting that 
we should devote some of our time and attention to a study 
of them as they have been portrayed by various well-known 
artists. 

Look at these four fluffy little kittens in a row, all of one 
happy family, I am sure. It is easy to see they have had a 
kind mistress. Did you ever think how much expression 
there is in animals' faces and motions? Observe these kittens, 
for instance. The one on the left seems amiable and con- 
tented< with head on one side; the next is deeply thoughtful, 
with head cast down, just as people's heads usually are when 
they think a great deal; the third one is keen and alert, ready 
for anything that may happen, and looks as though prepared 
for a spring; we could imagine he saw a bird. Now the one 
on the right is funniest of all; so pompous an air, such com- 
placency, 'would well fit a grandee; he seems to say, "Do 
you see my fine neck-tie? I am the only one who wears a 
silk ribbon." Dear little things! let them take comfort now, 
for soon they will have to work hard catching mice; and 
perhaps they will not always be so well cared for as they 
evidently have been thus far. 




Four Little Scamps Ark \Vk — By J. Adatn 



10 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Paul Hoecker 

Birthplace: Holland 

Dates: 1854- 

Subject: Girl with Cat 

WHAT first catches the eye in the picture opposite? Is 
it the black puss}^ with her bright yellow eyes, or the 
girl's funny shoes that look like boats, or those two 
queer knobs, one on each side of her forehead? Perhaps 
it is the sweet face of the dear little girl herself — and I think 
that is the best part of the picture. 

Where do you suppose this little maid lives, to be wearing 
shoes so odd? She lives far away, across the ocean, where 
the poor people are called peasants, and where women and 
men, and children, too, have to work hard in the fields, and 
so need very stout shoes that will not wear out so quickly as 
leather ones would. Besides, these wooden shoes are cheaper 
than leather, and peasants in Europe are very poor. That is 
why so many of them like to come to our country; not because 
they do not lov^e their native land just as much as you love 
yours, but because, after they have worked long and faithfully 
over there, they have little to show for it, and nothing to lay 
up for their children or with which to give them an education. 

This little girl has had to learn most of her lessons from 
nature. She has not been able to go to school as you have. 
But she has preserved a sweet disposition, as you can see by the 
expression of her face, and she must be kind, for the cat seems 
to love her. And that is something everyone can do — be 
sweet and kind, no matter what happens, and then everything 
around one goes more smoothly and all who meet one are 
made happier. 

In Holland and Belgium, in some parts of France, and 
along the Rhine you will see little boys and girls wearing such 
shoes as this child has on, if you ever go abroad for a 
summer journey. I have a pair bought in the town in Den- 
mark where Hans Christian Andersen was born, and some tiny 
ones obtained in Stockholm. 

Think how many things you have to be thankful for, to which 
those peasant children are not born! Do you believe you 




Girl with Cat — By Hoecker 



12 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

arc <rrateful enough for having been born in so glorious a 
country as the United States, where the best in education and 
art, as well as freedom of life and thought, is the birthright of 
all her sons and daughters? If you have not begun to express 
your gratitude and show your love for your country, begin 
to-day, and you will grow up to be a better citizen, a credit 
to your native land, and a help to your fellow-men. 

Point out the Rhine River. Who was Hans Christian Andersen ? 
Where is Stockholm ? 



Artist : Pascal Adolphe Jean Dag*nan-Bouveret 

Birthplace : France 

Dates: 1852- 

Subject: At the Watering* Troug^h 

THE picture shown on the opposite page has a charm for 
all lovers of animals, and is just such a scene as any 
one of us may have witnessed, time and again, in the 
country. The "farm hand" has brought his two noble horses 
to the watering trough to cool and refresh them after their 
day's labor. We may be sure they have been working hard; 
the white horse drinks in a very thirsty manner, and the black 
one looks important and self-satisfied, just as people are apt 
to look when they are conscious of having done their duty and 
know that reward is near. It is easy to see these are foreign 
horses, for their harness is different from any to which we are 
accustomed, and as the picture is from a painting by a French 
artist, we may guess quite safely that they are the horses of 
some thrifty French farmer. 

Dagnan-Bouveret was born in Paris in 1852. He is still 
living and painting and is considered one of the great artists of 
the contemporary French school. He was made an officer of 
the Legion of Honor in 1892, and has received many medals 
for his work, which is fine in drawing and coloring, and beauti- 
ful in sentiment. He also paints portraits, and his small, 
single figures of Breton peasants are real masterpieces. 




At thk Watering Trough— i5j Dagnan-Bouveret 



14 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Constant Troyon ? 

Birthplace : France 

Dates: 1810-13—1865 

Subject: Oxen Going to Labor 

CONSTANT TROYON, who painted these "Oxen Going 
to Labor," is one of the most famous landscape and 
animal painters of the last century. He, too, was 
born in France, at Sevres. Authorities do not agree as to the 
exact date of his birth, but it was between 1810 and 1813. He 
came of a poor family, his father being employed in the porce- 
lain factory, where he himself worked as a boy. From the 
start, however, he was ambitious to become an artist, and when 
he finally began to exhibit his pictures he quickly gained a 
reputation in England and the Netherlands, as well as in his 
own land. 

Troyon took many medals, and was decorated with the 
Legion of Honor in 1849. He was elected a member of the 
Amsterdam Academy, and received the Cross of the Belgian 
Order of Leopold. 

Troyon is noted for variety of effects, strong coloring, 
and grandeur of line in drawing, and many critics declare that 
his pictures rank with those of Millet and Corot. There are 
many. fine works of his in the United States. So indefatigably 
did this artist work that at one time he was threatened with 
the loss of his sight. 

The picture shown here arouses thoughts of activity, for 
the man and his oxen are going forth to the day's labor; but 
if they remain faithful all day, they will earn the sweet reward 
of rest at evening. Do you notice that the impression of 
strength which the oxen give is added to by the broken ground 
and by the picturesque shadows cast before the animals ? These 
shadows tell, by their length, that the sun has not yet risen 
far above the horizon. 

For what is Sevres famous ? 




Oxen Going to Labor — By Constant Troyon 



16 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: Marie Rosa Bonheur 

Birthplace : France 
Dates: 1822-1899 

Subject I: The Horse Fair 

THE next two subjects are chosen from the works of a 
Frenchwoman celebrated as a painter of animals. The 
fine, spirited one called "The Horse Fair" is perhaps 
the best, and certainly the most noted, of her pictures. It 
is owned by the Metropolitan Art Museum of New York. 

Marie Rosa Bonheur was born at Bordeaux in 1822, into a 
very artistic family, for her father was a painter and her 
brothers, also, were artistic— one, Auguste, having left some fine 
animal pictures. Rosa began to exhibit her paintings when 
she was only nineteen years old. This does not seem remark- 
able to us until we realize that it was over sixty years ago, 
when it was not so easy as it is now for a woman to win 
recognition. She continued to paint during a long life, dying 
in May, 1899. 

One very interesting thing to know is that during the 
Franco-Prussian War Rosa Bonheur' s residence and studio in 
Paris were respected by order of the Crown Prince of Prussia. 
Another fact of interest is that she founded, in 1849, ^ ^^ee 
school of design for young girls at Paris, and was director of 
it for many years. This means much, for in those days the 
privileges of girls and women were few, especially in France. 

Rosa Bonheur received many medals for her work, was 
made a member of the Antwerp Academy (1868), received the 
Leopold Cross (1880), and also Commander's Cross of the 
Royal Order of Isabella the Catholic (1880). Is it not sin- 
gular that, excepting a rnedal or two, all of the honors received 
by her were bestowed by countries other than her own? Her 
first medal, won in 1848, was accompanied by a valuable vase 
of Sevres porcelain presented by Horace Vernet on behalf of 
the French Government 

In order to gain admission to the places where she could 
study the animals she wished to paint, she was forced to put 

When was ths Franco-Prussian War ? 



18 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

on man's attire; consequently many queer stories — most of 
them exaggerated — have been told of her. 

She was so absorbed in her work that she sometimes actu- 
ally would go to the theatre in her studio jacket daubed with 
oil paint. But the people knew her so well and respected her 
so highly that such trifles passed almost unnoticed. She was 
kind, benevolent, honest and upright in character; and may 
be counted as one of the great women of the nineteenth 
century. 

Subject II: Morning" in the Highlands 

Mademoiselle Bonheur was an intense admirer of the novels 
of Sir Walter Scott, and was led, through her interest in them, 
to visit the Highlands of his native country. This was in 
1856, and soon after began to appear her beautiful pictures 
commemorating the visit — among them "Morning in the High- 
lands," showing a herd of fine cattle on a high plateau, with 
a glimpse of one of the lakes for which Scotland is famous. 
Her nature was in harmony with the rugged character of the 
Scottish peaks, glens and wild tarns, and this enabled her to 
transcribe their weird charm to canvas with a sure and sympa- 
thetic hand. 

Her strongest points were keen observation and retentive 
memory, and because of these qualities she could work up 
paintings long after she had been on the scenes depicted. She 
regarded Nature (whose loving disciple she was) as "the prob- 
lem which more than any other elevates our soul, and enter- 
tains in us thoughts of justice, of goodness, and of charity." 

Tell something of Scotland, and name the principal lakes and mountain 
peaks of the country. 




$> 



20 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Jean Francois Millet 

Birthplace: France 
Dates: 1814-1875 

Subject I: The Shepherdess 

ONE of the favorite subjects in modern art is sheep, both 
because of their own picturesqueness and for the relig- 
ious symbolism attaching to them by reason of their 
gentleness. Pictures of sheep and shepherds always lead the 
thoughts to the One who was called "The Tender Shepherd," 
and of whom it was said, "He shall feed his flocks like a shep- 
herd." 

The painter of "The Shepherdess" was Jean Francois 
Millet — one of that great number of artists who have been so 
unfortunate as not to be appreciated during their lifetime. 
His style was so original that neither critics nor public at first 
knew what to make of it; but to-day there is scarcely a home 
without a reproduction of at least one of Millet's paintings. 

However frequently we turn to the works of this artist, 
there always seems to be something new to learn from them. 
This is because of their absolute faithfulness to nature, and the 
sympathy they display for all phases of life, especially the 
life of the working classes. 

Just look at this shepherd girl, who seems so lonely on 
the wide stretch of plain, in spite of her sheep and her dog. 
As she stands there knitting, one would like to know what the 
thoughts are in which she appears lost. 

Millet was born in the North of France, in a little hamlet 
(Gruchy) perched on the iron cliffs of La Hague, overlooking 
the waters of Cherbourg roads. He was the eldest son, and 
worked in the fields with his father till he was eighteen years 
old. 

Returning home from the fields one night, he made such a 
clever charcoal sketch of a round-shouldered, stooping man 
he had passed on the way, that his father immediately advised 
him to go to Cherbourg and find out if he had talent enough 
to make his living by the art he loved so well. 

At Cherbourg people were astonished by his skill and orig- 
inality, and he stayed there three years painting. He never 




The Shepherdess — By Jean Francois Millet 



22 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

had a teacher in the usual sense of the word, for his genius 
was so remarkable that no one had the courage to try to direct 
it. Those with whom he worked at this time are described as 
watching him "with the astonishment of a hen who has 
hatched a young eagle." 

From there he went to Paris and had a hard enough time, 
for he was not understood, and was very harshly criticized by 
several leading critics. While studying in Paris he was glad 
to paint portraits at five francs apiece, which is equivalent to 
one dollar of our money. And when he could not sell the 
beautiful things he composed and painted, he was not too 
proud to make signboards, and did a horse for a veterinary 
surgeon, a sailor for a sailmaker, etc. 

He finally left the city and settled at Barbizon, an obscure 
French village, where he spent the rest of his life, devoted to 
his family and his work. Here he painted scenes illustrative 
of the peasant's life of toil. 

Subject II: The Gleaners 

"The Gleaners" is considered the finest of all Millet's fine 
paintings, and is owned in France, where it hangs in that 
celebrated gallery called the Louvre. It represents three 
humble toilers in the fields eagerly gathering the stray spears 
of grain left by the harvesters. This is an exceedingly skilful 
composition — which means that the figures of the peasants 
and the other objects in the picture are arranged with great 
artistic ability, according to the rules of high art. If the figures 
of the three women had been close together, or if they had been 
scattered in a row, the chief beauty of the scene would have 
been lost. Then the grain wagon so near the clump of trees 
shows ingenious arrangement, for if the wagon had been farther 
to the right it would have looked like a lonely dark spot. 

And what suggestiveness there is in the picture! The very 
attitude of the three women with their bent backs suggests 
the burden of the life they lead. The outlines are bold and 
strong; they tell their story in no halting language, but speak 
direct to the heart. This particular painting, when exhibited 
at the Paris salon in 1857, stirred up much controversy about 
the condition of the working classes. 




■3 



24 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Indeed, the secret of many of the harsK things said about 
Millet's work was that it called the attention of the public to 
the wretched state in which the French Revolution had left 
the peasantry. The tales he told on canvas were too true to 
suit the leaders of 1848. And the reason they were told with 
fidelity and sympathetic feeling was that he had lived the life 
he depicted, and knew its every phase. He maybe truly con- 
sidered the peasant's apostle. 

Subject III : The Ang^elus 

Probably of all Millet's paintings the one you have heard 
most about, and have seen reproduced most frequently, is the 
one called "The Angelus." 

These peasants are busy in the field at close of day, when 
they hear the distant church bells ring the hour of evening 
prayer. They instantly drop pitchfork and basket, and 
devoutly bow their heads. Could anything be more simple than 
this scene, as far as details of landscape and the lines of the 
figures are concerned? Yet does it not awaken a deep respon- 
sive feeling in your heart? Do you not seem to hear the bell 
that hangs in the church-tower across the fields, seen in the 
dim evening light? If any one place seems more fitted than 
another for the heart to turn devoutly to God in praise and 
prayer, it is some quiet spot in broad fields, in deep forests, 
on lonely mountain-sides, or on the illimitable ocean. It is 
the true touch of sympathy in all nature that makes this 
picture great. 

This painting was brought to the United States a few years 
ago and exhibited in many of the large cities. An American 
bought it for a very large sum of money — $120,000— but later 
it was purchased by a French amateur collector who gave 
$150,000 for its possession. 

Millet felt and portrayed all the glories as well as the 
tragedies of nature. Unprejudiced critics who examine his 
works "are charmed by the truth of them into forgetfulness 
of their method of manufacture." And this is the height of 
art. One English critic says: "His works are suggestive of 
the poetry and sentiment of Burns, and the sympathetic feeling 
for nature of Wordsworth." 




The Angklus — By Jean Francois Millet 



26 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Subject IV : The Buttermaker 

The picture which you see reproduced on the opposite page, 
sometimes called "The Woman with the Churn," is more 
generally known as "The But<-ermaker." It is among the 
most familiar of Millet's paintings and is now owned in Boston. 

It is sad to know that many of the persons who decried his 
work, and tried to prejudice public sentiment against it, 
bought up a number of his pictures for miserably small prices, 
knowing that they could sell them for large sums later. One 
exception to this behavior is the case of our own American 
artist, William Morris Hunt, who was such an admirer of 
Millet that he settled at Barbizon for several years, in order 
to study the man and his work. He bought, in 1853, two of 
Millet's paintings — "The Sheep Shearer" and "The Shep- 
herd." Two other American gentlemen purchased paintings 
at this time, somewhat relieving the artist's poverty. 




The Buttermaker — By Jean Francois Millet 



28 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist : Louis Emile Adan 

Birthplace: France 

Dates : 1839- 

Subject: The Haymaker 

LOUIS EMILE ADAN was born in 1839, in Paris, and has 
a studio there now. He has received several medals for 
his work. 

"The Haymaker," by him, is one of those nature pictures 
in which man and out-of-door life blend so harmoniously that 
it gives one an indescribable sense of pleasure to see them. 
One thinks involuntarily that the artist must be one of those 
who find "sermons in stones." 

How the figure of the girl stands out against the rich, dark 
background of trees, and how the soft outlines of the hay-heap 
contrast with the rigid pine trunks! How the moment's rest — 
while she adjusts her girdle — suggests the busy motions when 
she plies her rake! And the sweet head and face of this 
peasant girl — so simple, so pure in outline — really do one good 
just to look at. 

Notice how light masses rest against dark ones, and dark 
masses, like the girl's skirt, against lighter portions, as the 
ground and the hay. This is because contrast is essential to 
the pleasing effect of a picture. The parts of the main figure 
are thus "thrown into relief," as the technical phrase is, mean- 
ing that the figure stands out and looks as though one could 
walk around it. 

Then the soft curves of the head and face contrast with the 
severe lines of the rake, while those of the hay present a 
strong contrast to the tree trunks. Those who look upon pic- 
tures unthinkingly, little realize that the effect which pleases 
them so much is due to the observance of features as simple 
as those suggested. 

Finish the quotation begun above: "Sermons in stones," etc. 



I 



^ 




The Haymaker— Zf>' L. Emile A dan 



30 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: Jean Henri Zuber 

Birthplace : France 

Dates : 1844- 

Subject: September 

*TN THE Temperate Zone, where we live, there is great 

X variety of climate, and while some persons complain of 

our summer heat and winter cold, surely it is more 

interesting, and comfortable, too, to have it as it is than always 

hot, as in India, or always bitterly cold, as in Lapland. 

We have the soft, mild days of spring, when the tender 
buds burst into leaf on shrub and tree; the full, warm sun of 
summer, that ripens the grain and fruits; and the rich colors 
of autumn, when the air is laden with perfume of gathered 
harvests. The cattle browse lazily under the trees, as in this 
picture, where the shade is cool and refreshing; and Nature 
seems resting after putting forth all her strength to provide 
winter supplies for the children of men. I do not doubt many 
of you have been in beautiful country places, but probably 
not often where there are trees so large as those in this picture, 
and casting so dense a shade. 

Did you ever think what a vast amount of meaning there 
is in a tree? It was once a seed in the dark ground, and its 
nature bade it struggle upward toward the light. Then it 
rejoiced in the sun and air and dew and rain; it struck firm 
root and bore the lashings of stormy blasts; it bravely with-" 
stood winter frosts, and grew always higher and higher toward 
the sky. A tree represents courage, patience, trust and faith- 
fulness, perseverance and protection; the little birds nestle in 
its branches and sing; its cool shade refreshes man and beast. 
And yet the axe of man can with a few blows destroy this 
slow and beautiful growth of years. Children, never let a 
tree be destroyed if you can prevent it, unless absolutely 
necessary for the good of mankind. 

The man who painted this picture was born in Rixheim, 
Alsace, in 1844. He is well known as a landscape painter, and 
in 1886 received the decoration of the Legion of Honor. 

Tell something of life in India; in Lapland. Where is Alsace ? 




September — By /«an Henri Zuber 



3-2 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: Jules Adolphe Breton 

Birthplace: France 

Dates: 1827- 

Subject I: The Vintagers 

MANY autumn industries have been the subject of pictures 
by the best artists, such as the gathering in of the har- 
vest, sheep shearing, driving animals to country fairs, 
etc. Among the latter is that famous picture by Rosa 
Bonheur — "The Horse Fair" — about which we have already 
studied. In the picture reproduced on the opposite page we 
see another autumn industry, which is quite a feature of 
French life, depicted by Jules Breton. 

This artist was born at Courrieres, in 1827, and is cele- 
brated for his pictures of peasant life, which are full of sym- 
pathy and a pathetic realism. He has received many medals 
for his work, among them a medal of honor at the Salon of 
1872. In 1886 he was made a member of the French Institute 
and was appointed a Commander of the Legion of Honor in 
1889. Many of his best works are owned in the United States, 
and you may have seen some of them. To see the original 
of a painting is better than looking at the finest photographic 
reproduction ever made. 

"The Vintagers" shows a group of young women who 
have been gathering grapes from the vineyard, and are carry- 
ing them to the winepress, where they will be made into wine. 
How admirable are the well poised figures and the strong, 
sweet faces, which work in the open air is so apt to bring! 

Notice their peculiar wooden shoes. One would think 
they must be very uncomfortable, but they are worn by most 
of the peasants in European countries. Do you remember 
those worn by the little girl whose picture we saw on page ii ? 
They were unlike these in shape, as she lived in a different 
country from these young women. In France such shoes are 
called sabots. 




The VwTKG¥.KS—ByJuUs Adoiphe Breton 



34 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Subject II: The Lark 

There is no artist whose pictures of fresh, vigorous, out-of- 
door life in the country have more charm than Jules Bre- 
ton's. What could be more eloquent than the little scene 
shown here? It is called "The Lark," and the joyous expres- 
sion on the face of the crude peasant girl, and her parted lips 
as she gazes up into the sky, tell us the bird must be pouring 
out his exquisite song of praise to the morning sun and the 
Maker of all this glory. Behind the hamlet, at the edge of 
the field, you see the rising sun, and know that a busy day is 
just beginning for the girl who comes with her sickle in hand 
to the fields. How strong and hearty she looks! Out-of- 
door life has kept her well and cheerful and appreciative of 
the beautiful in nature. We are sure of this, else she would 
not look so joyous over the lark's song. And do you not 
think there is an expression on her face such as people are 
apt to wear when they meet or listen to a friend? 

The general expression of this picture is one of strength 
and joyousness. The thought of joy goes so naturally with 
that of song! But the look of strength is very marked, not 
only in the girl's sturdy figure, but in the very character of the 
rough ground, with its well-defined shadows, over which she 
has been stepping so briskly. And another suggestion of 
strength is the bird itself with its power of soaring so high in 
air that we say it "soars to the sun." 

There are two very beautiful poems about the lark — "Hark, 
Hark, the Lark," by Shakespere, and "To a Skylark," by 
Shelley — which you should read. You would be sure to enjoy 
them. 




The Lark — By Jules Adolphe Breton 



36 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Subject III: A Sifter of Colza 

This wonderfully strong and effective harvest scene by 
Jules Breton is destined to become a classic, for the compo- 
sition and treatment of line and of light and shade are unsur- 
passed. There are no violent contrasts, yet the figure stands 
out boldly, and if any one sentiment more than another is 
inspired in us by contemplating the picture, it is the thought of 
"the dignity of labor." Notice the sky-line (Breton excels in 
beautiful sky-lines), the masses of light and dark, and the dis- 
tance effect so well carried out in the figures of the three men. 

One very noticeable thing about the main lines of the objects 
in the foreground is their subtlety. Look carefully at the 
sifter, at her sieve and at the bags of grain just beyond the 
sifter at the left of the picture; the figure of the sifter is 
upright, one would say vertical after a hasty glance, but a care- 
ful look shows us the slight tilt backward of her figure, which 
changes the main line from vertical to oblique Then again, 
the first quick glance shows a sieve horizontally held, but that 
careful look proves it to be tilted upward slightly into an 
oblique position. There is great charm added to a picture by 
such subtle touches. Then the contrast between the soft lines 
and masses of the grain bags and the rigid lines of the sieve is 
an excellent addition to the expression of the composition. 

The pose of this girl suggests the unconscious pride that 
fills every honest laborer's heart, for there is nothing that 
keeps the nature wholesome and sweet and dignified like hon- 
est work of some sort. It does not need to be manual labor, 
neither must it be mental labor, to win respect; for the sim- 
plest task well done becomes a perfect thing of its kind. 




A Sifter of Co\.zk—By/uUs Adolphe Breton 



38 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Rembrandt van Ryn 

Birthplace : Holland 

Dates: 1607-1669 

Subject: The Mill 

REMBRANDT VAN RYN painted "The Mill," repro- 
duced here. It shows a windmill such as is to be 
found in many European countries, where they do not 
have all the fine machinery for making work easy that we 
have in the United States. 

See the bold treatment of the clouds, and of that cliff on 
which the mill stands. One seems to see also a blaze of sun- 
light on the blades of the wheel, as they stand out against the 
dark clouds rolling overhead. This picture makes one think 
of a very crisp, cool autumn day. 

The date of Rembrandt's birth is a memorable one on this 
side of the Atlantic Ocean — 1607. 

Many persons think the word "Rembrandt," which is 
generally used to designate this artist, is his family name, 
van Ryn meaning "of the Rhine." But his surname was 
Harmenszoon, or "son of Harmen," his father's first name 
being Harmen. So Rembrandt was his own Christian name, 
just as yours may be George or Mary. It is surely a great 
mark of distinction to be known through all ages by one's 
Christian name alone ! There may have been other men called 
Rembrandt, Raphael, Guido, Leonardo, but to the world 
there is but one man brought to mind when each name is 
mentioned. 

Rembrandt was celebrated for his effects of light and shade, 
which are technically termed "chiaro-oscuro" — a very queer 
word, for, translated, it means "light-dark." 

Some writers have claimed that this artist was born in the 
very mill shown here; but though it did belong to his grand- 
mother for a time, he was not born there. His family was 
prosperous and owned several houses. It was in one of these — 
a very comfortable house in what we should call West Street, 
in the city of Leyden, Holland— that he was born. I do not 
doubt that Rembrandt, with his strong inclination to study 
the effects of light and shade under peculiar circumstances. 



r 




The Mill — By Rembrandt van Ryn 



40 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

studied tRem in this old mill, but his wonderful chiaroscuro 
effects are certainly not due to his having lived there, as has 
been asserted. 

Rembrandt is called the "Frince of Etchers." He tried 
many new effects in this kind of work, and produced some 
very original results. 

His first wife was a beautiful woman of considerable wealth, 
and as he made many portraits of himself and of her, we have 
an excellent idea of the appearance of both of them. 

What event in United States history does 1607 suggest? 



Artist: Louis Aime Japy 

Birthplace : Switzerland 
Dates : Contemporaneous 

Subject: A September Evening: 

THIS exquisite picture, called "A September Evening," 
is one of those said to be full of "poetic feeling." The 
artist who painted it, Louis Aime Japy, was born in Berne, 
Switzerland. 

A good artist never puts the principal object right in the 
middle of .the picture. So the clump of trees is a little to the 
left, while the flock of sheep is massed to the right. Although 
the horizon line is about halfway from top to bottom of the 
picture (a thing to be avoided, if possible), that beautiful 
wooded bank in the distance, to the left, relieves the harsh- 
ness that would have appeared if the sky-line had been 
unbroken. 

This is one of the most peaceful, idyllic scenes that could 
be imagined, and cannot fail to bring beautiful thoughts. We 
feel very sure that the artist deserves the various medals that 
have been awarded him. Two of his paintings are in the 
Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington, and you must certainly 
look them up if you ever visit that city. 

Point out the most famous natural objects in Switzerland. 




A September Evening—^/ Louis Aivie Japy 



42 ART vSTUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Georg-e Henry Boug-hton 

Birthplace : England 

Dates : 1834- 

Subject I: Pilg-rims Going* to Church 

GEORGE HENRY BOUGHTON is an artist who paints 
with sympathy and tenderness scenes from the life of 
the early Puritans in this country, and of the Dutch 
settlers in New York, called Knickerbockers. He was born 
in England in 1834, but his parents came to this country when 
he was only three years old, settling in i\lbany. 

At an early age Boughton began to study art, without a 
teacher. When about nineteen years old he made a sketching 
tour of Great Britain. In 1858 he moved to New York. Two 
years later he went to Paris, then to London, which latter city 
he has made his home since i85i. 

This artist's work is very popular in England as well as in 
our own country, and you have probably seen engravings of 
several of his paintings. One of the best known is his 
"Pilgrims Going to Church." 

You have all heard of Plymouth Rock, and perhaps some 
of you have wondered why a rock should be so famous. Some 
of you have heard why from your parents, I do not doubt, 
because they are proud of their forefathers who had something 
particular to do with Plymouth Rock. Others among you may 
have read that fine poem by Mrs. Felicia Hemans, called 
"The Pilgrim Fathers," and thus have had impressed upon 
your minds the event connected with that rock. 

It was indeed a great day for our country when a small, 
weather-beaten boat, called the Mayflower, came sailing 
across Massachusetts Bay, from the direction of Cape Cod, 
and a brave band of Puritans landed at the place ever since 
known as Plymouth, after a wearisome voyage on the stormy, 
wintry ocean and a short rest in Provincetown Harbor. 

They were pilgrims of the deep, seeking a place in which 
to worship God in the way that seemed right to them, and 
ever since their memorable voyage and safe landing on the 

Read passages from "The Courtship of Miles Standish." 




8 

^ 

■« 

^ 

^ 






44 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

rock at Plymouth they have been called the Pilgrim Fathers. 
And there were Pilgrim Mothers among them; yes, and little 
children, too. One child was born at sea, and so was called 
Oceanus, from his birthplace. Oceanus belonged to the 
Hopkins family, and one of his descendants was a signer of 
the famous Declaration of Independence. 

Many trials had to be endured and many hardships 
suffered by these Pilgrim Fathers before the country began to 
be really settled, and they could feel as though they had a 
permanent home on this side of the Atlantic. 

Among their principal trials were the attacks from the 
red men whom they found living here, and who had been 
named by Columbus nearly one hundred and fifty years before. 
When he came h^re from Spain and found a land inhabited by 
savage tribes he thought he had reached India, and so called 
the people Indians. 

As we see in the picture, even when the Pilgrims went to 
church they were obliged to carry their guns, for they did not 
know at what moment the fierce red men might make a raid 
upon their settlement. 

Subject 11: Pilg'rim Exiles 

This beautiful and touching picture is one of the most 
admired of Boughton's works. It shows three of the early 
settlers watching for the provision ship from England. One 
can easily read the thoughts expressed in the sad faces; what 
do you suppose those thoughts are? It is not hard to under- 
stand why the pictures of this artist are so popular; there 
is always something about them that touches the heart, and 
true feeling is sure to be appreciated and respected. 

The fact that Boughton's work is valued rightly is proved 
by the honors that have been conferred upon him. He was 
made a National Academician in 1871, and an Associate of the 
Royal Academy in London in 1879. 







Pilgrim Exiles — Bf G. H. Boug/iton 



4G ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : A. W. Bayes ^ 

Birthplace: United States 

Dates : Contemporary 

Subject: Departure of the Mayflower 

ANOTHER great hardship endured by the Pilgrim Fathers 
during the fxrst winter and spring was lack of food. 
One can easily understand that when they took in a 
fine harvest the first autumn — that is, in 162 1 — they were filled 
with thanksgiving to God for His goodness and protection; 
so they set apart a time for prayer and for feasting. They 
did not forget those Indians who had been kind to them, 
so they invited the .great chief Massasoit and ninety of 
his men to their feast, and entertained them three days. 
They had many good things to eat, and among these wild tur- 
keys played a prominent part. It is for this reason that 
turkeys have been considered the proper thing for Thanksgiv- 
ing dinner ever since. And is it not a beautiful custom to 
repeat every year that day of thanks for a good harvest? 

The story of the Pilgrims is so interesting that it is to be 
hoped all will read it carefully. It will then be seen why 
the small band should feel so sad when the Mayflower left 
them in the spring, to sail back to England. 

With the departure of the vessel they were cut off from all 
connection with their dear mother country, England, which 
they felt sure most of them would never see again. In fact, 
nearly half of the original one hundred and two persons had 
died during the first winter, because they were so poorly 
provided with protection against the severe climate, and 
because there was not proper food for them. What those 
brave men and women endured for the sake of principle 
entitles them to all the reverential homage that has been paid 
to them by their descendants. When you ire older, you will 
appreciate the great value to us of what they patiently endured. 




^ 

^ 

^i^ 



^ 



48 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Unknown 

Subject : John Wesley Preaching to the Indians 

VERY early in the history of this country pious men began 
to preach to the Indians and to tell them of God's 
love and goodness, in order to soften their hearts and 
take away the desire for revenge and killing. 

The greatest early preacher or apostle to the Indians was 
John Eliot. Later, John Wesley preached to them and con- 
verted many. John Eliot translated the Bible into the Indian 
language for the benefit of those he had converted. This pic- 
ture represents Wesley preaching to the Indians; and you 
can get a good idea of the way they decorated themselves 
with feathers of eagles or turkeys, with skins of wild beasts, 
with bracelets, wampum, etc. One of the chiefs sits smoking 
"the pipe of peace." At important councils held between the 
settlers and Indians, if the latter were in a friendly mood this 
pipe would be passed around, and every one of the company, 
white men as well as Indians, must take a puff at it. 

Wampum was made of parts of shells and was used as 
money by the Indians, who prized it very highly. The first 
settlers, therefore, bought their lands in what seems to us a 
very easy manner; but they did not mean to cheat the Indians, 
and they gave them what the red men prized. Besides, it 
required much work to cut out the purple and the white parts 
of the quahog shell, polish them, and drill holes in them so 
the Indians could string them on thin strips of hide. Labor is 
always an equivalent for money, and should be paid for. 




John Wesley Preaching to the Indians — Artist Unk?ioii)n 



50 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: John Gadsby Chapman 

Birthplace: United States 

Dates: 1808-1889 

Subject: Baptism of Pocahontas 

WHEN you read about the Indians who dealt with the 
earliest English settlers in Virginia you will find the 
beautiful story of how Pocahontas saved the life of 
Captain John Smith. She was an Indian princess who became 
a Christian and married an Englishman named Rolfe. She 
went to England after her marriage and received much atten- 
tion, as a person with such a noble spirit deserved. 

The picture shows the baptism of Pocahontas, which, we 
may be sure, had a great effect on the Indians of the tribe of 
her father, the great chief Powhatan. The original painting 
is in the Capitol at Washington. (Capitol, you know, is the 
name of the building where Congress meets and where the 
laws governing our country are made. The walls of this 
building are decorated with many fine paintings representing 
scenes in the history of the United States.) 

John Gadsby Chapman, who painted this picture, was born 
in Alexandria, Virginia, in 1808, and at an early age showed 
his artistic talent. He studied for some time in Italy; then 
returned to the United States. Here he painted in New York 
and other cities, and was very successful as a teacher of wood- 
engraving, in which branch of art he was most efficient. In 
1848 he went back to Italy, where he spent the remainder of 
his life, having his studio in Rome. 

Besides being a fine painter, wood-engraver and etcher. 
Chapman illustrated a number of books, and was the author of 
a drawing book which is said to be one of the best of its kind 
ever published in English. 




Baptism of Pocahontas—//)' John G. Chapman 



52 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Giovanni Cenni Cimabue 

Birthplace: Italy 
Dates: 1240-1302 

Subject: Madonna Enthroned 

ONE of the most beautiful figures in art is the Madonna, 
or "Our Lady," as she is called in the Roman Catholic 
Church. 
This representation of the mother of our Saviour is perhaps 
of more frequent occurrence than any other in all the schools 
of art, during all ages, in all lands, and irrespective of the 
religious belief of the artist. This is because it is the most 
lofty and appealing type of motherhood that history reveals 
to us. From the earliest times, the higher qualities of woman 
were embodied and worshiped in goddesses; there was Isis of 
the Egyptians, Astarte of the x^ssyrians, Freya of the Scythians 
and of Scandinavian mythology, and Aphrodite of the Greeks, 
but it remained for the Virgin Mary to combine all the quali- 
ties venerated in these types. It is the idea lying behind all 
art representations that we must try to gain, and in this case 
one can see it is tenderness, purity, humility, fortitude, and 
self-sacrifice, as well as grace and beauty, that are the objects 
of reverence. 

At first the pictures of the Madonna and Child were used 
as religious symbols, instead of decorations, as was afterward 
the case. All early religions were full of symbols, especially 
the Christian religion, as the first Christians were opposed to 
making a picture of anything for its mere beauty, as the 
pagans had done. The circle represented eternity, the tri- 
angle and trefoil the Trinity, the quatrefoil the four evangelists, 
the fishes Christ Himself, the dove the Holy Ghost, and so on. 
This custom caused the first painted Madonnas to be very 
stiff and cold representations. In fact, they looked what we 
should call "wooden." You can understand this when I tell 
you that the "Madonna Enthroned" by Cimabue was hailed 
with such delight by the Italian people because of its grace 
and beauty, as compared with what had been produced before 
it, that they danced in the streets and shouted for joy when it 
was uncovered before them. And yet so great has been the 




Madonna Emhroned — By Cimabue 



54 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

improvement made since m the technical part of painting 
— that is, in making things look natural in shape and color — 
that this Madonna of Cimabue seems to us crude and hard. 
We must not forget, however, that there is something deeper 
and grander to be reached in art than correct shapes and 
colors — that is, the spirit of the picture, the meaning, the 
expression, the lesson taught. 

At the time when Giovanni Cenni (called Cimabue) was 
born — about A.D. 1240, in Florence, Italy — there was a great 
deal of deep religious fervor among the people, and this 
sentiment became the most noticeable thing about the paintings 
of the early masters. In spite of all we call progress, no 
modern artist has ever been able to put so much true devotional 
feeling into his pictures as did these founders of the earlier 
schools of painting. 

Cimabue is often called the restorer of painting in modern 
times, and the title of Father of Modern Painting has been 
bestowed upon him But though he carried the art farther 
than his predecessors, and adopted a gayer and more natural 
scheme of color, he was only one of a number of painters who 
were affected by the general intellectual and political awaken- 
ing of Italy in the thirteenth century. 

Although he lived and painted so long ago, there are 
remains of his work still to be seen in the Upper Church of 
San Francesco at Assisi, and the "Madonna Enthroned" is in 
the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. There are 
Madonnas of his in the galleries in Florence, in the Louvre in 
Paris, and in the National Gallery, London. 




A Madonna — By Cimabue 



56 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: Leonardo da Vinci 

Birthplace: Italy 

Dates : 1452-1519 

Subject: Madonna of the Lily 

ABOUT the middle of the fifteenth century there arose one 
whose works not only surpassed all that preceded them, 
but have been a model for imitation ever since, and in 
many ways stand unrivaled to-day. This artist was Leonardo 
da Vinci, who was born in Italy in 1452, and became the friend 
of all the great men of his day, such as Raphael, Michael 
Angelo, and Savonarola. 

Da Vinci is thought by many persons to have been the 
greatest genius that ever lived, for he had equal talent for 
painting, sculpture, poetry, music, science, as an inventor 
and as a diplomatist. His paintings are very numerous, and 
all may learn their beauty through the many excellent engrav- 
ings and other reproductions of them. The most celebrated 
one is the "Last Supper" of our Saviour with His disciples. 

The example given here of a Madonna and Child by 
Leonardo speaks for itself, in its wonderful grace and beauty, 
its lofty devotional expression, and its faithfulness to nature. 

The greatest poets of all ages and countries have made the 
Madonna the theme for their inspired verse. Dante in the 
thirteenth century, in Italy, gave the strongest impulse to 
modern art. His imaginative description of the character and 
appearance of the Virgin Mary served as a model for Giotto — 
who was the next great painter following Cimabue — and for 
many other artists. Then Chaucer, the earliest English poet, 
both wrote and translated verses on the Madonna. Petrarch, 
Milton, Wordsworth, Shelley, and Browning, all have written 
inspiring verses of this kind. Here is a short bit from 
Browning: 

There is a vision in the heart of each 

Of justice, mercy, wisdom, tenderness 

To wrong and pain, and knowledge of their cure; 

And these embodied in a woman's form, 

That best transmits them pure as first received 

From God above her to mankind below! 



I 




Madonna of the Lily— /?y Leonardo da Vinci 



58 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist:" Hans Memling* "^ 

Birthplace : Germany, or Flanders 

Dates: 1425-50—1492-5 

Subject: Madonna and Child 

HERE is a Madonna and Child by an artist about whose 
early history very little is positively known. Some 
writers give 1425 as the date of his birth, while others 
place it as late as 1450, and it has never been quite settled 
whether he was horn in Germany or Flanders. It is certain, 
however, that in Flanders he painted most of his pictures — 
historical subjects and portraits — and authorities agree in 
naming him the most distinguished artist of the Flemish school 
in his time. One critic says: "For harmonious frankness of 
color and purity of expression, Memling must be put at the 
head of old Flemish painters." 

Memling attempt?ed more in the way of composition than 
many who preceded him. In this picture he represents a 
home scene in the life of the Infant Saviour, and shows part of 
a landscape through a window, as well as flowers and other 
objects on a sideboard. This kind of study would be called 
"genre" to-day. 

You can see at a glance this is by one of the early masters, 
yet what exquisite sweetness in the mother's face! What 
dignity joined to humility! Well may our students of to-day 
study such noble paintings as this. 










Madonna ani> CtiiLD — B}' Nans Memling 



60 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: Raffaello Sanzio 

Birthplace: Italy 

Dates : 1483-1520 

Subject: Sistine Madonna 

ONE of the greatest names in the realm of art is that of 
Raffaello Sanzio — or Raphael, as he is called — who has 
given to the world its most famous Madonna, the one 
called "Madonna di San Sisto," or the Sistine Madonna. It is 
owned by Saxony, and hangs in the royal gallery at Dresden. 

Nearly everyone is familiar — through reproductions — with 
this wonderfully beautiful picture, but the effect can never be 
truly felt till the original is seen. When one first sees the 
painting, it is difficult to realize that mortal hand executed 
it It seems impossible that a human brain should have con- 
ceived anything so holy and elevating in its influence on the 
observer. So spiritual is the effect of the figure of Mary, that 
clouds, even, do not seem necessary to bear her up. 

There is a peculiarity about her eyes, in that they are not 
"focused," that is, do not appear to look at the same point. 
This is intentional, and is what gives them the expression of 
looking into indefinite distance, as though they saw all that 
her child would pass through as the Redeemer of His race. 
"Completely human and completely divine, an abstraction of 
power, purity and love," is what one writer has said of this 
Madonna. It is the last of the many Madonnas Raphael 
painted, and without exception is the most beautiful one. 

Raphael was born in Urbino, Italy, in 1483. It is said that 
his father was his first painting master, but the history of his 
earlier years is somewhat obscure. He was an architect and 
sculptor as well as a painter, and his great reputation was won 
in a very short life, comparatively speaking, for he died on 
his thirty-seventh birthday. Many persons think that, had he 
lived as long as Michael Angelo or Leonardo da Vinci, he 
would have surpassed them to such a degree that everyone 
would now unhesitatingly place him at the head of the Old 
Masters. These persons forget, I think, that it is not the num- 
ber of one's works nor the length of years of one's activity 




Maik)Nna i>i .>A.> .^isTo, OR SiSTiNE Madonna — By Raphael 



62 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

that counts for greatness, but the quality of one's genius, and 
its fruits. 

Great as Raphael was, he was so wholly unlike those other 
two mentioned (and all others) tnat comparisons are profitless; 
we should rather be glad there are several great masters who 
istand side by side on the topmost plane of known excellence 
in art. Raphael's delicacy of sentiment and correctness of 
drawing are remarkable, as well as his beautiful coloring. 
These qualities are nowhere better shown than in the most 
celebrated of all his works, the Sistine Madonna. 

The Sistine Madonna hanging in the royal gallery at Dres- 
den has been considered the famous original until within a 
few years, when a purported original has been brought for- 
ward and the Dresden picture declared to be a copy. The final 
verdict has not been pronounced by the art authorities. 
Truth is what we are all seeking, but in the eagerness of 
modern research, one must beware of imposture and idle spec- 
ulation. Let us believe that this work, truly divine in its 
inspiration, is that of the immortal Raphael's own brain, 
heart, and hand, till we are compelled to believe otherwise. 




SiSTiNE Madonna in Detail — By Raphael 



64 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Peter Paul Rubens, 

Birthplace : Flanders 

Dates: 1577-1640 

Subject: The Holy Family 

HERE is a Holy Family by Rubens, the great Flemish 
painter, who was named Peter Paul because he was 
born on the day hallowed by his church to the saints 
Peter and Paul. Though he was born into a rich and influen- 
tial family, he chose the hard and studious life of an artist, in 
preference to one of ease as page to the Countess Lalaing, his 
godmother, which would have led to some high diplomatic 
career for him. His genius was the dominating force of his 
life and early made itself felt. 

This Holy Family of Rubens shows more chastened types 
than many of his pictures, for the plump, rosy, cheerful 
Flemings he loved to paint were not the most ideal models 
for sacred figures. This picture includes Joseph and the Infant 
Saviour, the Mother, and Elisabeth, who stands with her 
hands clasped behind her little son John, afterward called "The 
Baptist " The atmosphere of the picture is one of domestic 
love and peace. Scenes like this, as far as the children are 
concerned, have been witnessed by many of us, while the sat- 
isfaction of Elisabeth seems not unfamiliar; but the element 
which lifts it above an everyday scene is the adoration 
manifested by this same Elisabeth, the look of awe on the 
child John's face, and even on the holy face of the Virgin 
Mother. 

Observe how well the lines are arranged both for harmony 
and contrast, how finely the light and shade are disposed, and 
also what fine effect the rugged Joseph introduces, bending as 
before a higher power, though expressed in a weak babe. 

There is much to admire in this picture and much to learn 
from it. The original hangs in the Pitti Palace at Florence. 

Where is Florence? 



I* 




The Hoi.y Family— 7?^ Peter Paul Rubens 



66 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Bartolome Esteban Murillo 

Birthplace: Spain 

Dates: 1617-18—1682 

Subject: The Holy Family 

THE cut opposite represents another artist's conception of 
the Holy Family — an artist who was the greatest 
painter his country ever produced. His name is Bar- 
tolome Esteban Murillo, born in Seville on the last day of the 
year 1617. He was the son of a mechanic and suffered great 
privations in his youth; for you see genius is not confined to 
any rank in life: it is as likely to be discovered in the child of 
a miner or factory employee as in the heir to millions, and it 
knows no bonds nor bars, but leaps forth to its own place, a 
light to the world. 

Murillo had three styles, carried along side by side: What 
was called his "cold" style w^as for genre, such as his famous 
beggar boys, and for landscapes; his "warm" style was for 
religious subjects of a descriptive character, like the one 
before us here; and the "misty" style was for religious 
subjects illustrating the power of religion over the human 
soul, as in the pictures of the visions and ecstasies of the 
saints. 

*'The Holy Family" of Murillo hangs in the Louvre, Paris, 
and is one of its priceless possessions. 

Let us study this picture. First of all, one's eye is held 
by the exquisite figure of the Child, which is the perfection of 
grace, beauty, and gentleness. Then the beautiful Mother's 
face holds our attention, through its purity and sweetness, its 
devotion and wrapt expression. The little John holds up the 
cross which symbolizes the suffering that was to be endured 
by the Saviour of mankind, and which, terminating like a 
staff, suggests John's preaching in the desert, and also the 
staff of the Shepherd (you know the "Good Shepherd" is one 
of the names given to our Saviour). The strong, clear-cut face 
of Elisabeth, with its adoring expression as her eyes are lifted 
to the Infant Jesus, makes a fine contrast to the soft, youthful 



Where is Seville? 




Thk Holy Family — By Murillo 



68 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

outlines "of the children and of M'^ry. The lamb very 
frequently occupies a place in such pictures, to typify inno- 
cence, and as a further symbolism, for yOu know "He was led 
as a lamb to the slaughter." Above the heads of the group, 
wrapped in clouds, is a representation of Jehovah, proclaim- 
ing, "This is my beloved Son," while the dove hovers just 
above the Infant Saviour's head, symbolizing the descent upon 
him of the Holy Ghost, and the spirit of peace and purity. 
The forms of little angels in the clouds, surrounding the figure 
of Jehovah, bend in loving admiration and wonder over the 
Holy Child below. 



Artist: Franz Ittenbach 

Birthplace : Germany 
Dates : 1813-1879 

Subject : Madonna and Child 

LET us examine carefully this modern German [Madonna, 
^ by Franz Ittenbach, who lived from 1813 to 1879. 

This artist was born near Cologne, on the river 
Rhine, and was a pupil at the Diisseldorf Academy, which in 
his day was the leading art school of Europe. Everyone 
went there to study, just as to-day all students of art wish to 
go to Paris. Ittenbach painted historic subjects and portraits, 
and designed and executed frescos in two German churches. 
He received numerous medals and honors, was a member of 
the Vienna Academy, and had two fine orders conferred upon 
him. 

His works are simple in design and execution, but so full 
of deep religious feeling that they seem more like those of 
the early devout masters in this respect. The picture repro- 
duced here is a great favorite to-day. The two doves are 
symbolic of innocence and gentleness. 

Point out the city of Cologne. 




Madonna and Child — By Ittenbach 



70 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Guillaume Adolphe Bbug-uereau 

Birthplace : France 

Dates: 1825- 

Subject: Virgin, Infant Jesus, and St. John 

AVERY pleasing subject is this "Virgin, Infant Jesus, 
and St. John," by Bouguereau, one of the best and most 
popular of modern French artists. The Madonna is 
"enthroned," as it is called when she is seated. The second 
and third figures are Jesus and St. John, who so lovingly greets 
his little cousin, Mary's Son. 

Bouguereau pursues quite a different manner from his 
countryman, Millet. He, too, loves to paint rural scenes, but 
he idealizes them: he takes the view of such scenes that appeals 
to the poet rather than to the analyst. Many of his subjects 
are religious in character, and he has decorated the ceilings 
and walls of two churches in France. Bouguereau was born at 
La Rochelle, in 1825, and is still living. When he was twenty- 
five years old he gained the famous prize at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts at Paris called the Prix de Rome, because it entitles 
the winner to study at Rome. This artist remained there five 
years, and made the most of his opportunity. 

Bouguereau' s work is characterized by culture and grace, 
by excellence of composition, and by very careful execution. 
In examining the subject given here you can see for yourself 
that all of this is true. There is no crudeness of drawing or of 
pose. All is graceful, sweet, dignified, and there is an expres- 
sion of affectiori about it — especially in the little St. John — 
that strongly appeals to us. There could hardly be a better 
example of a compact design, without crowding, without hard- 
ness or stiffness of line, or of light and shade. Does not the 
effect of light and shade in this picture suggest opportunity 
for rich coloring? 

Many of Bouguereau' s paintings are owned in the United 
States — about thirty of them in New York, seven in Philadel- 
phia, and several in Boston and St. Louis. 

What great event in history was connected with La Rochelle ? 




Virgin, Infant Jesus, and St. John— ^_y Bouguereau 



72 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist : Gabriel Max 

Birthplace: Bohemia 

Dates: 1840- 

Subjeet: Madonna and Child 



HERE is a Madonna and Child by Gabriel Max, a modern 
artist usually spoken of as a German. He is, strictly 
speaking, a Bohemian, having been born at Prague, 
in 1840. His father was a sculptor, so you see he was born 
into an artistic atmosphere and had good instruction as a 
child. He paints genre and historical subjects. He exhibited 
first in 1867, and ev^er since then his fame has grown steadily. 
He was professor at the Art Academy of Munich from 1879 to 
1883, and has taken gold medals for his paintings from both 
the Munich and the Berlin Academy. 

He has used this subject of the Madonna and Child several 
times and always as the "Madonna of Love," as this treatment 
of the subject is called; for there are "Madonnas Enthroned," 
"Madonnas in Glory," "Grieving Madonnas," and many 
other divisions, according to the different stages in her life 
and that of her Son. There are no details in this, nor in the 
other Madonnas of Max, to divert attention from the main 
thought. 

Study the expressions here: the proud, calm joy of the 
mother; the tender mouth, yet the sad foreboding in the eyes, 
and the strength to endure which is so plainly told by the 
contour of the lower part of the face and by the brows where 
thought sits enthroned. The clinging attitude of the Child is 
the key-note of the loving story, and while the face is undeni- 
ably infantile, the eyes speak much — more, indeed, than we 
can interpret in words, words which always prove so cold and 
empty when we would express what lies in our hearts. Such 
a picture not only stirs thought, but deepest emotions. Our 
mind speeds ahead to the dark hours of misunderstanding, of 
keen anguish of spirit, of ignominy and cruel shame, in store 
for this innocent Babe when, as a man, He "put off childish 
things," and began His Father's work — showing the way weak 
humanity could and must work upward by the power of truth 
to life eternal. 



Madonna and Child — By Gabriel Ma. 



74 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Henri Lerolle ^ 

Birthplace: France 

Dates : 1848- 

Subject: The Nativity 

ANOTHER very modern picture of the Madonna is this 
one by Lerolle, who is of the French school. It rep- 
resents "The Nativity," or birth of Jesus of Nazareth in 
the humble stall at Bethlehem. This picture may be said to 
belong to the naturalistic school. It is very sweet and 
tender, however, and impresses the lowly circumstances of the 
birth of Him who was to become the Prince of Peace. 

Henri Lerolle — figure, landscape and portrait painter — was 
born in Paris in 1848. He has received many medals and the 
decoration of the Legion of Honor. His work is full of poetic 
feeling and, like Millet, he is fond of painting solitary figures 
in the midst of vast and lonely landscapes. 

These pictures of the Madonna and Child, especially the 
last one, remind us of the sacred season of Christmas, and we 
should try to learn all the lessons this blessed time teaches. 
It is the time of giving to one another in commemoration of 
the greatest of gifts to the world, Jesus, our Lord and Saviour. 
It is a season of rejoicing, because He brought promise of 
joy eternal to the redeemed of the Lord. 

It is the season of promising to be a better boy or a 
better girl because of the wonderful blessings showered on 
you in this glorious country of ours, where everything that is 
good and true in art, in religion, and in education, can be 
enjoyed and developed to make us more worthy of the perfect 
manhood of Jesus and the perfect womanhood of His mother, 
the Madonna. 




The Nativity — Bjf Lerolle 



76 ART STUDIES FOR vSCHOOLS 

Artist : Pascal Adolphe Jean Dagnan-Bouveret 

Birthplace : France 

Dates : 1852- 

Subject : Madonna and Child 

THE representation of Madonna and Child by Dagnan- 
Bouveret is quite different in conception and treatment 
from any we have looked at. One may easily imagine 
that the artist, though a Parisian, has studied a peasant-mother 
type in portraying the Virgin Mary. The Child is wrapped in 
swaddling clothes, quite after the fashion of European babies 
in general. But we cannot deny that the effect is a very noble 
one. Why? Look carefully at the lines of the composition, 
at the background, at the effect of light and shade, and at the 
Madonna's face. 

Several of the modern representations of this subject are 
rural or rustic Madonnas. This picture is an illustration in 
which the mother comes toward us down a leafy alley, clad 
very much as a peasant woman might be, and holding her 
Child as such a mother would. The sentiment of loving 
devotion, most beautifully portrayed here, impresses the 
observer first of all. It matters not how tall the trees are, 
how the light and shade play among their branches, or 
whether the distance effect is subdued to the foreground; for 
although all these things are skilfully managed, the central 
thought is the dignity, the simplicity, the love of the mother. 

It is a singular fact that in representing the Madonna 
artists have almost always made use of the female type of 
beauty of their own countries, instead of painting her a Jewish 
maiden, as of course they all knew she was. That is why the 
Madonnas of Rembrandt and Rubens, which are so plump and 
rosy, fail to please us as much as do those of Italy and Spain, 
or even this French peasant woman, accustomed to the 
hardships of life, as you can see by her sad, sweet face. 




Madonna and Child — By Dagnan-Bouveret 



78 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Edwin Howland Blashfield 

Birthplace : United States 

Dates: 1848- 

Subject : Christmas Chimes 

AS THE season approaches when we commemorate the 
birth of our blessed Saviour, the whole air seems filled 
with joy, all faces wear a happier expression than usual, 
and it seems as though peals of music and chimes of bells fill 
the air, sung and rung by invisible choirs of angels. Our own 
American artist, Blashfield, has given us this picture of the 
Christmas chimes being rung by beautiful, joyous angels. 
The whole spirit of the season can be read in the free, sweeping 
lines of the figures and their wings, as well as in their bright, 
glad faces. The dove, symbol of gentleness, adds a note of 
harmony to the expressiveness of the picture. 

The lessons taught by the Old Masters have been applied 
by our best modern artists, who have endeavored to seize the 
spirit of devotion of their great predecessors, and to add to 
that all that modern thought and clear insight into spiritual 
things afford. 

Edwin Howland Blashfield — genre, historical and portrait 
painter — was born in New York city, where his studio now is. 
He was a pupil of Bonnat, and painted abroad, mostly in 
Paris, from 1867 to 1878. He has done some fine decorative 
painting, and all of his work is scholarly; his coloring is har- 
monious and his drawing good. 

This artist is also well known as a writer and illustrator of 
articles in the foremost American magazines. 




Christmas Chimes— ^j Blashfield 



80 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Antonio Allegri (Cbrreggio) 

Birthplace: Italy 

Dates: 1494-1534 * 

Subject: Holy Nig-ht 

HERE is a very famous picture, the original of which 
hangs in the celebrated Dresden gallery. It is the 
"Holy Night" of Correggio, who was born in 1494. 
Correggio's real name was Antonio Allegri, but as he was born 
in the town of Correggio, in Italy, he is known by that name. 
As little has been learned of his early training in art, critics 
are at a loss to account for his style and method of painting, 
which are totally different from those of his predecessors, and 
display most brilliant originality of conception and execution. 
His figures are remarkable for their sweetness of expression 
and grace of pose. 

Correggio painted historical and mythological subjects, as 
well as landscapes. One critic has said of him: "In facility 
of handling, in absolute mastery over the difficulties of fore- 
shortening, in the management of light and shade as distrib- 
uted over vast spaces and affecting multitudes of figures, this 
great master has no rival." Several of his fine works are hung 
in the Dresden gallery. 

"La Notte," or "Holy Night," represents the birth of the 
Saviour and the shepherds standing in adoration. There is 
one peculiar effect in this painting, and that is the light 
appears to come from the face of the Child, and to be cast on 
all objects around. It is said this is the first historical 
painting in which such an effect was employed. You know 
that, in everyday life, light falls through a window from one 
direction, so that the shade is on the farther side of the objects 
in the room; but in this picture, as the light comes from the 
centre, shade is seen on that part of each person or object 
farthest from the Babe. 

This is symbolic of the fact that this Child grew up to be 
the "Light of the World," the Saviour of men, for He is 
"the Way, the Truth and the Life." 




Holy Night — By Antonio Allegri {Correggio) 



82 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Ludwig Knaus 7 

Birthplace : Germany 
Dates: 1829- 

Subject: Rest in Flight 

THERE is a modern artist named Knaus, a German, 
whose work suggests Correggio's style in the drawing 
and general expression, although the surroundings in 
Knaus's pictures are much more simple than those in the 
paintings by the Italian master. His compositions are full of 
lightness and grace. Look at this one, called "Rest in 
Flight." The scene represents a short rest during the journey 
of Joseph and Mary into Egypt with the Infant Jesus. 

Herod the Tetrarch was filled with fear and envy when 
he heard of the birth of Jesus, "the son of David's race" — 
which meant He was of the royal house of Judah. So he 
determined to slay the Child. As he could not find just where 
the parents had concealed Him, he laid the wicked plan of 
causing all little Jewish children under three years of age, 
born in Bethlehem, to be killed, so as to make sure that Jesus 
should not live to grow up and rule in his place, which from 
the prophecies he feared would come to pass. 

But you know an angel of God appeared to Joseph and 
bade him take Mary and the Child and flee to Egypt and 
remain till Herod was dead. They obeyed this command, 
and there are various pretty legends about angels ministering 
to them on the way, about barren trees suddenly bursting into 
leaf to give them shade, and about springs of pure water 
welling from the sandy soil to refresh the tired and thirsty 
wanderers. And more than one artist of renown has embodied 
these legends in beautiful paintings. 

Ludwig Knaus is the foremost genre painter of Germany, 
and one of the leaders of what is known as the Diisseldorf 
School. He is a member of the Berlin, Vienna, Munich, 
Antwerp, Christiania and Amsterdam academies; and has 
received the decoration of the Legion of Honor and numerous 
medals. 




Rkst in Flight — By Ludivig Knaus 



84 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Sir Anthony Van Dy<3k 

Birthplace : Flanders 
Dates: 1599-1641 

Subject: Repose in Eg-ypt 

HERE is another picture illustrative of the flight of the 
Holy Family into Egypt. 

During the journey Joseph and Mary rested in a 
cool, shady spot, and in this picture are represented as being 
ministered to by angels. Notice the serene, protecting look 
of the Virgin Mother; also the beautiful attitudes and faces of 
the angel groups, especially the little angel nearest the Mother 
and Child, and the one seated on the cloud, holding a book 
from which he seems to be singing. 

Sir Anthony Van Dyck, who painted "Repose in Egypt," 
was born in Antwerp. He was a pupil of Rubens, and early 
showed himself possessed of so much talent that he could 
repaint portions of his master's work and not have the differ- 
ence discovered. 

This is the way it happened: Rubens was away from his 
studio, which was locked. His pupils obtained the key, and, 
contrary to their master's orders, entered the studio. One of 
their number fell against a painting on the easel, and, as it was 
wet, rubbed out the arm of one figure and the face of another. 
Of course, they were very much alarmed, and decided that 
they must repair the mischief. Van Dyck was selected as the 
one able to do so delicate a piece of work, and he succeeded 
so well that Rubens did not discover the accident. 

Van Dyck was a tremendous worker. Although he died at 
the rather early age of forty-two years, he had executed nine 
hundred and seventy-one paintings. He inherited his talent 
from his mother, who was noted for the originality and beauty 
of her embroideries at a time when an embroidery meant a 
picture. Her most remarkable one was "Susannah and the 
Elders." She taught her son wholly until her death, which 
occurred when he was only eight years old. 




Repose in Egypt — By Van Dyck 



86 ^ ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Tiziano Vecellio (Titian) 

Birthplace : Italy 

Dates: 1477-1576 

Subject I : Assumption of the Virg-in 

IN 1477 — the year we all know by heart because during it 
Caxton's first book was printed in England — a very inter- 
esting boy was born up in the mountains of Cadore in 
Italy. This boy is said to have shown by the Madonna which 
he painted with juices of flowers on the walls of a house, what 
wonderful talent for art he possessed. He was the son of a 
well-to-do man named Vecellio, but we know him best by the 
name Titian, which calls to mind at once exquisite coloring, 
graceful forms, delicate expression, richness of composition, 
and a semi-classical style. 

Titian painted historic and religious subjects and also por- 
traits; and as he lived to be nearly one hundred years old, 
painting up to the very last with unfailing steadiness of hand 
and keenness of intellect, he has left an immense amount of 
work to testify to his industry. One of his most famous 
pictures (probably the most famous) is the "Assumption of 
the Virgin," delineating the belief of the Roman Catholic 
Church that after the death of the mother of our Saviour she 
was borne by angels into heaven, where she received the 
crown of life eternal, and was placed at the right hand of her 
blessed Son. 

Sec all the cherubs of heaven hastening to bear up the risen 
Virgin ! Could anything give a better idea of her ethereal- 
ized, spiritualized character than these little hands bearing her 
aloft? Notice the rapt and adoring attitudes of the disciples 
left on earth, especially that of John, "whom Jesus loved." 
We can always distinguish John from the rest by his beautiful 
and spiritual countenance, which has something womanly 
about it, and seems to foretell the wonderful visions of his 
which are called "Revelation" in the Bible. 

John Ruskin, the eminent writer, artist and art critic, 
declares that "Titian's power culminated in the 'Assumption,' 
Teter Martyr,' and 'The Presentation of the Virgin.' " 

Among Titian's portraits are sev^eral beautiful ones of his 




Assumption of the Virgin — By Titian 



88 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

daughter, Lavinia. In one she bears alqit a basket of fruit, 
and turns to look at you over her shoulder. Perhaps the 
"Sleeping Venus" is as well known and as beautiful as any of 
his mythological subjects. 

Subject II : The Tribute Money 

This is another of the most famous of Titian's paintings. 
The shrewd, cunning Pharisee —who thinks he has trapped 
Jesus by his question, "Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto 
Caesar or no?" — is powerfully contrasted with the mild, digni- 
fied, patient Nazarene. 

It is interesting to note some of the remarkable things that 
took place during that one hundred years Titian was living. 

1477 — Caxton's first book printed in England 

1492— Columbus's voyage to Western Continent 

1519-22 — Magellan's voyage around the globe 

1521— Diet of Worms, Martin Luther 

1529 — Diet of Spires, Protestantism 

1545 — Council of Trent 

1572 — Revolt of the Netherlands 

Much more could be told about the lives and works of 
these great artists, but it is to be hoped an interest will be 
created in them, so that the student will look them up for him- 
self. 



^^M 


'^^m ■ 


f ■.■ _« 


V'^/^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 






V^^^^^^^^^l 


^:* J 



The Tribute Money — By Titian 



90 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: Sir Anthony Van Dyck 

Birthplace : Flanders 
Dates: 1599-1641 

Subject: Baby Stuart 

MANY of the most famous artists of the world have 
devoted a part of their skill to portrait painting, and 
a few of them have won their fairest laurels by this 
kind of work. Among them were Titian, in Italy; Van Dyck, 
a native of Antwerp, and therefore of the Flemish school, as 
was his even more celebrated countryman, Peter Paul Rubens; 
in England, Sir Joshua Reynolds; in Spain, Velasquez. 

The picture on the opposite page, familiarly called "Baby 
Stuart," is from a group by Van Dyck representing the chil- 
dren of Charles I, King of England. Charles was a great 
patron of the arts, and so sent for the illustrious Flemish 
portrait painter to go to London, where he was made court 
painter, a great honor in those days, with an income attached. 

It was in England that Van Dyck had his most brilliant 
success, and many of his masterpieces are owned there to-day. 
He was buried with extraordinary honors in St. Paul's 
Cathedral in London. He was a generous patron of all who 
excelled in art and science, for great minds like his cannot 
feel envy of others' success, but glory in it for the sake of the 
good it does the whole world. 

Baby Stuart's name, at the time when the picture was 
painted, was James, Duke of York; but he is best known in 
history as James II, King of England. This dear little baby 
head, which is a great favorite, gives no hint of the things the 
man, James II, was to do and to leave undone. James was 
not an admirable character; but we must not forget how diffi- 
cult it was to be a good king in those troublous times; let us 
try to have some pity for weaknesses and those acts of which 
we cannot approve. 

Tell something about James II of England. 




Baby Stvart—Bj^ Van Dyck 



92 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Don Rodriguez de Silva y Velasquez 

Birthplace : Spain 

Dates: 1599-1660 

Subject: Don Balthazar Carlos 

THIS is the portrait of another royal little boy, Don 
Balthazar Carlos, son of King Philip IV, of Spain. He 
was born in 1607, a little earlier than "Baby Stuart," 
who was his own cousin, as their mothers were sisters. 

The father of this little Spanish prince was a great patron 
of the arts, and it is said that he could paint very well him- 
self. So he drew around him many noted artists of his day, 
among them his subject, Don Diego Rodriguez de Silva y 
Velasquez. That would be so long a name to say every 
time this artist was to be mentioned, that it is usually short- 
ened to Velasquez. Oddly enough, this was his mother's 
maiden name, Silva being his father's last name. The Span- 
ish custom is to use the surnames of both father and mother, 
joined by "y^" which means "and"; and in shortening, it is 
the usual thing to drop the mother's name. Velasquez, how- 
ever, preferred to retain his mother's name, which is one well 
known in Spain. 

Velasquez was court painter for Philip IV, and as Spain 
was at that time one of the leading powers of Europe, and 
great men of all countries came to its court, there was a fine 
chance for making portraits which would cause the artist's 
talent to be widely known. Many of his works are owned in 
Russia, as well as in England, France, Germany, Sweden, and 
Italy. 

The little prince here shown never reigned as king, for he 
died in 1632, in his early manhood. Many portraits of him 
were made by Velasquez, some representing him on horse- 
back, some with a baton in his hand. He was called Prince 
of Asturia; the people's hopes were centred in him, and con- 
sequently they felt his early death keenly. 




Don Balthazar Carlos— /^y Velasquez 



94 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Rembrandt van Ryn '? 

Birthplace : Holland 

Dates: 1607-1669 

Subject : Portrait of an Old Woman 

ANOTHER able painter of portraits, although he did his- 
torical scenes and landscapes as well, was Rembrandt 
van Ryn, who lived at the same time as did Rubens, 
Van Dyck, and Velasquez. You remember his picture,* "The 
Mill," which we studied earlier in the book. 

Rembrandt painted vigorous people admirably, for he had 
much dignity himself; but he had not so much feeling for 
grace and beauty as many artists have. He appreciated the 
venerable look of aged people, and has left in paintings and 
engravings some fine examples of his power to portray this. 
This "Portrait of an Old Woman'' we feel sure must have been 
a good likeness, for the expression is so "lifelike," as we 
say. 

Many of Rembrandt's portraits are bright and joyous, and 
among the finest he executed are those of his first wife, to 
whom he was devoted. He made over fortv portraits of him- 
self. 

Rembrandt founded a new school of Dutch art, and became 
the most famous artist his country ever produced. He did 
not go to Italy to study — in fact, is said never to have been 
outside of Holland — but he studied men and nature faithfully 
and with genius. His work is thoroughly original and Dutch. 

This artist had in his house in Amsterdam a fine collection 
of Dutch and Italian paintings, armor, glass, porcelain, etc. 
But he gradually became poorer and poorer, and finally was 
obliged to sell his home and all of his belongings at auction. 

What, of interest to the whole world, took place in Holland — at The 
Hague — during the summer of 1899 ? 




Portrait op an Old Woman— ^^ Rembrandt 



9G ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Marie Louise Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun 

Birthplace: France 

Dates: 1755-1842 

Subject: Madame Lebrun and Her Daughter. 

THE French have always been considered a very courteous 
people, and they must be so, when their art biographers 
are too polite to state the age of a celebrated portrait, 
landscape, and historical painter because she happens to be a 
woman, as in the case of Madame Vigee-Lebrun! Her Amer- 
ican biographer has no scruples, however, in giving the dates 
of her birth and death. 

Marie Louise Elisabeth Vigee received her first lessons in 
art from her father, a portrait painter, who taught her draw- 
ing. She perfected herself in her work by a careful study of 
the Old Masters in the Louvre, and at the age of sixteen she 
began to paint portraits. She married J. P. B. Lebrun, a 
painter and picture dealer, and became a fashionable portrait 
painter and a leader in the most aristocratic society of Paris. 
She was beautiful, as well as accomplished, and her home was 
a gathering place for interesting and cultured people. 

Madame Lebrun painted just after the First Empire, and 
so one sees in certain of her pictures a tendency to imitate the 
classic in the style of dressing the hair and in the drapery. 
You notice it in this charming portrait she painted of herself 
and daughter. 

Napoleon, the hero of the First Empire, had a strong taste 
for the classic; he modeled his career largely after that of 
Alexander the Great, and introduced the costumes of Greece 
and of the era of Alexander into his court. 

Madam.e Lebrun painted some very fine portraits of distin- 
guished personages, one of whom was the then Prince of 
Wales; but, though she was made member of the Academies 
of ten different countries, England neglected to confer this 
honor upon her. 

This artist was still painting finely at the age of eighty 
years, and when she died left 662 portraits, 200 landscapes, 
and 1 5 historical pictures. She would have been remarkable for 
her industry even if her work had not entitled her to renown. 




Madame Lebrun and Her Daughter— ^j/ Lebrun 



1)8 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Sir Joshua Reynolds^ 

Birthplace : England 
Dates: 1723-1792 

Subject I : Penelope Boothby 

THE next picture is one familiar to all lovers of art, and 
is so full of charm that it hardly needs to have its 
beauties pointed out. Study the quaintness of this 
little figure, Penelope; the mobcap, mits, kerchief, and short 
waist; the grace of her pose, the falling locks of hair, and the' 
bow in her cap. There is not a stiff line anywhere. We feel 
sure this must have been i "speaking" likeness, from the eyes 
full of mirth, the upturned corners of the sweet mouth, and 
the delicate oval of the face. 

This fascinating picture is by Sir Joshua Reynolds, the 
most illustrious of all painters of women's and children's por- 
traits, and an artist who introduces landscape into his pictures 
so beautifully that we can plainly see he would have excelled 
as a landscape painter had he devoted himself to that branch 
of art. 

Joshua Reynolds was born in England in 1723, and was the 
son of a country clergyman and scholar. The father had 
intended to make a physician of this son, till he saw what 
unusual aptitude for painting the boy possessed. Joshua 
painted his first portrait when he was only twelve years old, 
his studio being an old boat-house on the beach, his canvas a 
piece of sail, and his colors common ship paint. 

There are many very amusing anecdotes told about his 
boyhood. He persisted in drawing even in his school-books, 
and on the back of one of his Latin exercises his father wrote 
beside a sketch: "This was drawn by Joshua in school, out of 
pure idleness." He was, however, fond of literary exercises, 
and early developed habits of careful thought, which you may 
be sure helped him in his painting later. It is certain that if 
a boy or girl acquires, while attending school, the habit of 
doing things well, the important duties of life will also be 
well done. 

Joshua made a set of rules for himself which contained 
much wisdom; here is one of them: "The great principle of 




Penelope Boothby — By Reynolds 



100 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

being happy in this world is not to mind or be affected by 
small things." 

He was finally allowed to go up to London, when he was 
about eighteen years old, to study under the fashionable 
portrait painter of the day, Thomas Hudson. At first he made 
only copies, but he wrote home: "While doing this I am the 
happiest creature alive." 

A few years later he went to Spain and Italy, and remained 
in the latter country two years, studying the works and the 
methods of the Old Masters. You will find that nearly every 
good artist in every age has done this, no matter how original 
his work may have been. Reynolds made a special study of 
expression and effect, which he excelled in later in his own 
work. 

When he returned to his own country in 1752 he found 
art there in a very poor state. He sprang into favor at once, 
and as his work caused quite a revolution in methods, he 
has been called "the father of English painting." He 
became first President of the Royal Academy, which was 
founded in 1768, and during thirty years he exhibited 272 pic- 
tures in London, besides delivering lectures at the Academy, 
and contributing articles to art magazines. He painted on an 
average over 100 portraits a year for many successive years, and 
during 1757 he had 665 sittings, all of which were recorded! 
You see, the men who have become really famous have nearly 
always been great workers. 

Subject 11: Miss Bowles 

One of Reynolds's most attractive portraits is that of Miss 
Bowles, with her dog. We do not know which to admire the 
more, the dog or the little girl, both are so natural. Notice the 
pretty effect of the landscape background, with the light fall- 
ing through the trees. Of course, this is not what supplies 
light for the figures, but it is what we call "suggestive." 
You can imagine Miss Bowles and her dog have just finished 
a romp in the woods; her wide-open eyes suggest healthy 
exercise and that she is almost out of breath, while the dog 
looks perfectly willing to rest in the arms of his mistress, even 
if squeezed a bit closer than comfort requires. 




Miss Bowles— Zfy Reynolds 



102 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

•\ 
Artist : Raffaello Sanzio (Raphael) 

Birthplace: Italy 
Dates : 1483-1520 

Subject I : Sketching the Madonna della Sedia 

ALTHOUGH we seldom think of Raphael as a portrait 
painter, several of the figures in his most celebrated 
works were painted from life, among them the three fig- 
ures in the picture, "Madonna della Sedia," which means 
".Madonna of the Chair." 

The story of this painting is a very pretty one, and prob- 
ably has some foundation in fact. It is said that in the open 
country surrounding Florence, in a little hut under an 
immense oak tree, there lived a very pious and kindly monk. 
The oak tree and a kind-hearted young girl who brought him 
food he called his "two daughters." One spring a terrible 
freshet swept down the mountain streams and carried every- 
thing before it, even the poor little hut of the monk, who, for 
safety, climbed his beloved tree and was saved. Here his 
other "daughter," whose name was Maria (the Italian for 
Mary) found him when the water had subsided sufficiently for 
her to go to him with food. He declared that his "two 
daughters" had saved his life, and as a reward he knew they 
would both become famous. 

In time Maria married a cooper, and the oak was cut down 
and used for staves and hoops of casks. One day Raphael, 
then a young man, was wandering disconsolately about, search- 
ing for a model for a Madonna picture he wished to paint. He 
was growing discouraged when his gaze chanced to fall on the 
wife and children of a cooper, who formed such a picturesque 
group that he instantly saw the long-desired model was 
found. He had no painting materials with him, so he seized 
a piece of charred wood and drew on the end of a fresh, new 
cask the group known as the "Madonna della Sedia." 

The first picture represents this scene. The model for the 
Madonna was Maria, who had tended the old monk so faith- 
fully, and the cask on which her portrait was drawn had been 
made of the wood of the oak tree, and thus did the "two 
daughters" become famous. 




Skktching the Madonna della Sedia— ^/ Raphael 



104 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Subject II : Madonna of the Chair 

The "Madonna of the Chair" is one of those pictures at 
which we never tire of looking, and in which we seem to find 
some new beauty every time we look. 

Not only were these fine portraits, but the figures were 
grouped into a fine composition, which means that they were 
placed in such positions with regard to one another that the 
lines were beautiful, the light and shade fell agreeably on the 
faces and draperies, and the expressions on the faces were 
suited to the story the picture had to tell. This is one of the 
Madonnas of Love, for the protecting care and affection of 
the mother and the loving trust and confidence of the Child 
are the chief expressions that appeal to us. The elder child 
of the cooper was made to represent John the Baptist, who 
stands with his little hands folded, in an adoring attitude. 
His eyes are full of love, too. This is the look we should 
always have for one another — a look full of love and gentle- 
ness, for you know we are all "children of God." 




Madonna of the Chair — By Raphael 



106 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Hans Holbein 

Birthplace : Germany 

Dates : 1497-1543 

Subject 1: Meyer Madonna 

THERE was a curious custom long ago, when it was the 
exception to appreciate and patronize the arts, of put- 
ting into a picture the features of the rich man or 
woman who ordered the painting for his or her church or for 
some convent or town hall. This was done even when the 
subject was a very sacred one. A striking example of this, 
and a famous one at the same time, is the picture called the 
"Meyer Madonna," by Hans Holbein. 

This artist was born at Augsburg in 1497, but was brought 
up at Basel, where he illustrated some of the works of Eras- 
mus, a very remarkable man about whom we shall wish to 
read some time. The most noted work Holbein illustrated was 
called "The Dance of Death," and represents Death accom- 
panying every rank, age, and condition of persons, from the 
king and queen down to the smallest infant, to show that no 
one can escape his acquaintance. It is a gloomy subject, but 
was a favorite one during the Middle Ages. 

Besides these things, Holbein painted sacred subjects, and 
in the one shown here he introduced portraits of the whole 
family of the burgomaster, Meyer, who ordered the painting 
as a tribute to the help of the blessed Madonna and Child in 
healing his little sick son. There has been more conjecture 
over some of the figures in this composition than over any 
other ever painted. Some say the Infant Jesus represents the 
sick child, he having changed places with the Madonna's 
Child, who is standing on the floor. The probable explana- 
tion is that the Infant Jesus is represented as having healed 
the burgomaster's son by taking the latter's sickness upon 
Himself, and extends His hand in blessing. The Meyer baby 
stretches out his plump, well arm and hand, and looks at them 
in surprise. 

The Madonna appears very gracious and loving as she 
gazes down on the adoring family: — the burgomaster at the 
left with his two sons; opposite him and next to the Madonna, 




Mkyer Madonna — By Hans Holbein 



108 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

the first 'wife; next to her the living wife, and her daughter 
telling her beads. The original of this painting is at Darm- 
stadt, while the one at Dresden, long thought to be the orig- 
inal, has been pronounced a copy. Holbein did not follow 
the Italian Old' Masters' style, but shows great originality of 
composition and expression. 

Through the efforts of Erasmus, Holbein was sent to Eng- 
land to execute an order from Sir Thomas More. While there 
he distinguished himself as a portrait painter, receiving the 
patronage of "bluff King Hal," as Henry VIII was called. 
The painting of Sir Thomas More's family has been consid- 
ered very remarkable. Unfortunately, the original was 
destroyed, but copies of parts of it exist, and also the sketch 
of the first plan which was sent to Erasmus. 

Subject II : Portrait of Himself 

The cut opposite shows a portrait which Holbein painted 
of himself. 

Holbein lived and worked over three hundred and seventy 
year? ago, and everything was very different then from now: 
the customs of the people, their way of traveling, the costumes 
they wore, the manner of talking and writing (very few could 
write), and I suspect the very way they thought was different; 
so you see it is necessary for us to know something of the 
times in order to imagine the surroundings of the Old Masters. 
With this knowledge we gain a better insight into the ideas of 
the painter and into his motives; then we enjoy his work much 
more. 

Some paintings that appear very curious to us to-day are 
valuable as being the best of their time, and as exerting, 
for that reason, much influence on public taste and on the 
development of art. But for them, the beautiful things that 
have been produced since would not have come into existence; 
so let us try to study a picture for what it has been worth in 
helping art grow, and not attempt to compare it with beauti- 
ful things produced under very different circumstances. 




PuKTRAir Ol HiMSKLF — B}' Holht'tH 



110 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Gustav Karl Ludwig* Richter 

Birthplace : Germany 

Dates: 1823-1884 

Subject : Queen Louise 

THIS picture has been extensively reproduced during the 
past fifteen years. It represents the mother of the first 
Emperor of Germany after its reconstruction into an 
empire. This Emperor was Wilhelm I, who, though he died 
as recently as 1888, was alive during Napoleon Bonaparte's 
career, and was a boy of about eight years of age when his 
parents were so cruelly driven away from their home. 

There is a pretty story about Wilhelm and his brother 
Friedi;ich gathering blue corn-flowers (what we call 'bache- 
lor's buttons") to cheer their mother, Queen Louise, as she 
sat, dejected, on the roadside leading from Berlin, mourning 
over the hard fate of her family. There is also a story of the 
dread Napoleon I felt for the influence of this noble and beau- 
tiful woman at the time of the Treaty of Tilsit. She was 
much respected and beloved by her people, and he called her 
"the man of the family," for her intellect and character were 
superior to those of her husband, Friedrich Wilhelm HI. and 
her influence on the terms of the peace more to be feared by 
her country's great enemy. 

How much more interest this picture has for us, now that 
we know the woman it represents had a strong, loving char- 
acter ! 

The painting is modern, having been executed by Gustav 
Richter, a German artist widely known for his masterly por- 
traits. Strictly speaking, "Queen Louise" is not a portrait, for 
it is said that a lady of Berlin, who much resembled the queen, 
posed for the figure. The original painting hangs in the Art 
Museum at Cologne. 

What was the Treaty of Tilsit, and when was it made? 




Queen Louise— /?y Richter 



c; 



112 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist : Thomas Gainsborough 

Birthplace: England 
Dates: 1727-1788 

Subject : Mrs. Siddons 

TILL another portrait painter of much fame was Thomas 
vj Gainsborough, an Englishman. The youngest son of 
a clothier, he was born down in the country in 1727. In 
his fifteenth year he was sent up to London to study with a 
drawing master named Gravelot, from whom he learned the 
art of etching. Gravelot, recognizing the boy's talent, 
obtained admission for him to an academy where Gains- 
borough worked for three years at painting. Then he opened 
a studio of his own and painted a few landscapes and did 
some modeling. He became one of the greatest of English 
artists, and was one of the original members of the Royal 
Academy. 

Gainsborough painted many persons of distinction, among 
them the famous actress, Mrs. Siddons, whose portrait is 
shown here. This woman was the daughter of an actor 
named Kemble, who put her on the stage when she was a 
mere child, so her whole life was passed before the footlights. 
It was much more rare in those days for a little child to be put 
on a theatrical stage than it is now, and only those called 
"prodigies" were so treated. 

Mrs. Siddons charmed all London by her beauty as well as 
by her talent. She was in the habit of playing at the theatre 
of the immortal David Garrick, and she excelled in the great 
plays of Shakespere Do you notice the large hat with plumes 
which she wears? Gainsborough had a great fancy for paint- 
ing his women sitters in these hats, so you can nearly always 
tell one of his portraits by them. For many years this style 
of head covering was called the "Gainsborough hat," but in 
our day it more frequently receives the name of "picture hat" ; 
you can easily see why. 




Mrs. Siddons— ^>' Gainsborough 



114 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist : Cyrus Cobb ^ 

Birthplace : United States 
Dates: 1834- 

Subject: Paul Revere's Ride 

NOT long after Thomas Gainsborough reached London 
and settled down to his peaceful painting, a famous 
deed was performed on this side of the Atlantic Ocean 
which has been made the subject of painting and of sculpture. 
This was Paul Revere's ride, and it has been represented in a 
fine and very spirited way by one of our own American 
artists — the sculptor Cyrus Cobb. 

It is not necessary to go to the works of European artists 
to find occurrences in our national history well illustrated. 
The artist who feels a subject most keenly can portray it best; 
and who can value the great events in the history of our coun- 
try as can those who have breathed its air from their cradles? 

Cyrus Cobb was born in Maiden, Mass.. in 1834. He and 
his twin brother studied art together and it is said that they 
refused opportunities for European travel, wishing to have no 
teacher but Nature. Cyrus practised law in Boston for several 
years, but now devotes his time to his art. He is a musician 
and a poet, as well as a sculptor. 

You have of course heard of Paul Revere's midnight ride 
and the lanterns that were hung in the tower of the Old North 
Church in Boston, according to the agreement — "one if by land 
and two if by sea." 

At the left of this scene are Colonel Conant and Richard 
Devens, advising Paul Revere how to give the alarm through 
Middlesex County. Devens was a member of the "Committee 
of Safety." The two men engaged in concealing the boat in 
which Revere rowed from Boston to Charlestown are Joshua 
Bentley and Thomas Richardson. They were all patriots. 

That was a time that tried men's souls. Had it not been 
for fearless men such as these, we should not to-day be enjoy- 
ing the blessings of liberty, education, material prosperity, 
and brotherly love which distinguish our country. 

From what is tbe above quotation taken ? What is meant by "Commit- 
tee of Safety"? 




Q 



116 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Jules Bastien-Lepag'e 

Birthplace : France 
Dates: 1848-1884 

Subject: Joan of Arc 

THE next picture takes us to another land and a different 
epoch, but also represents something renowned in his- 
tory — the episode of Joan of Arc. It is one of the most 
singular occurrences in the story of human events, and I trust 
you will read it up thoroughly. There were many intermar- 
riages during the past centuries between members of the royal 
houses of France and England, so there came a time when 
it was difficult to say just who was the rightful heir, and this 
question was put to the test of war, as was then usual. After 
long years of conflict, a young country girl claimed to have 
been told in a vision that she should lead the army of France 
to victory. She performed this successfully (1429), and as 
she compelled the English to leave Orleans, she is often called 
the "Maid of Orleans." 

This picture of the unfortunate "Maid" is by J. Bastien- 
Lepage, a well-known French historical and portrait painter. 
It represents Joan in the garden of the inn in which she 
served, just at the moment when she saw the vision of herself 
fully armed. A sword is presented to her, while she is com- 
manded by a voice from heaven to liberate her country. It 
is a mystic subject, and the artist has certainly succeeded in 
giving it that character. 

The homely details of the picture are more pleasing in 
color, as they serve to throw into strong relief the powerful 
and impressive figure of the woman, with her rapt gaze, and 
also the representation of the vision floating in air, the face 
being seen among the leaves of the trees. This is far beyond 
mere landscape or figure painting. The idea is not solely 
to give a pretty play of light and shade, or a graceful pose of 
the human form, nor simply to bring before the observer an 
historical event: it is an attempt to grasp the mysterious 
springs of human action and to. reveal the motive power that 
guides the progress of events in great crises. 




Joan op Arc— ^^^ Jules Bastten-Lepage 



118 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

« •-* 

Artist : Benjamin West 

Birthplace : America 

Dates: 1738-1820 

Subject: The Death of Wolfe 

THE first American-born artist to attain distinction was 
Benjamin West, who was born a "Friend" — that is, of 
Quaker parents — at Springfield, Penn., in 1738. It is 
said that his first lessons in painting were received from 
Cherokee Indians, for these savages understood the prepara- 
tion of enduring colors from natural sources. 

When only eighteen years of age West began to paint por- 
traits in Philadelphia. He was so fortunate as to gain the 
interest of a Philadelphia gentleman, who sent h'm to Italy to 
study. After three years in Rome he went to England, where 
he spent the rest of his life. He long enjoyed royal favor, 
and succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as President of the Royal 
Academy of Art. 

Benjamin West was original and courageous enough to 
paint the figures in his historic scenes clothed in the style of 
dress of the era he was representing. Before that, classic 
draperies were considered indispensable. The example of 
his work here given — "The Death of Wolfe" — attracted wide- 
spread attention and has become famous. The composition 
is skilful, bringing into prominence, as it does, the figures 
of General Wolfe and the companions of his last moments. 
The strong Indian figure crouched wonderingly before him 
gives a contrasting note, while the background, though prop- 
erly subdued as to detail, distinctly conveys the idea of bat- 
tle; the clouds of smoke rolling away, and the light of victory 
shining out, show us that the sacrifice of this brave and bril- 
liant man's life was not in vain. 

The English are proud to claim Benjamin W'est, but we 
do not forget that he was an American, though born on this 
continent at a time when we were colonies of England. 




i 



120 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Salvator Rosa 

Birthplace: Italy 

Dates : 1615-1673 

Subject: Diogenes in Search of an Honest Man 

DIOGENES in Search of an Honest ]\Ian" was painted 
by one of the most illustrious artists of his time and 
country — Salvator Rosa, born near Naples in 1615. 
His parents were poor though educated persons, and wished 
to have their son prepared for the service of the church, but 
genius would have its own way, just as was the case with 
Michael Angelo, whose father intended him for a weaver, and 
with Correggio, who was to have been a wood-cutter. 

As a boy, Rosa, like the great Murillo, had to sell his work 
in the marketplace to support himself. One of his pictures 
attracted the attention of a patron of the arts, who placed the 
young artist under a fine teacher. Merit of a high order is 
sure to find a high place, and finally Rosa was employed to 
paint for the Grand Duke of Tuscany at Florence, and for the 
cardinals at Rome. He was fearless in his speech, and widely 
known as a conversationist. He wrote satirical and dramatic 
verses, and composed some beautiful songs, which are sung 
to-day in every country. 

His best works were landscapes, though he did historical 
pictures, and wished to be known by the latter subjects. He 
depicted the wild and terrible in nature — shipwrecks, banditti 
on wild mountainsides, trees torn by fierce storms, et cetera. 

The picture reproduced here is one of Rosa's historical 
pieces. Diogenes was a cynic philosopher; that is, he 
despised the pleasures and even the comforts of life, and 
especially the pretensions of men to goodness, when their 
lives were at variance with their professions. He preached 
practical goodness rather than the holding of theories, how- 
ever sublime. He is said to have gone about with a lantern, 
searching for what he considered rare indeed — an honest 
man. 

In what country and near what beautiful body of water is Naples ? 
Look up the story of the visit of Alexander the Great to Diogenes. 




Diogenes in Search of an Honest Man— i9y Salvator Rosa 



1-2-2 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Joseph Mallord William Turner 

Birthplace : Eng-land 

Dates: 1775-1851 

Subject I : Calig-ula's Palace and Bridg-e 

LET us look now at two pictures by an Englishman who 
was one of the greatest of landscape painters and in 
many respects one of the greatest artists of the world. 
This is J. M. W. Turner, who was born in London just four 
days after the Battle of Lexington. 

In "Caligula's Palace and Bridge" wonderful power of 
landscape painting is displayed. Everything is embodied 
that a perfect landscape demands — beauty of line in composi- 
tion, detail in the foreground, atmosphere and delicate dis- 
tance, graceful foliage, water clear and dazzling, architecture 
that, instead of introducing stiffness, lends poetry to the scene, 
and living forms that harmonize in their classic pose and dress 
with the time set forth. It is truly idyllic, and when the 
charm of color is added, no wonder a result is produced that 
captivates all beholders and at once places William Turner in 
the front rank of true artists for all time. 

The life of this painter is an interesting one to read, espe- 
cially the early years of it. It is said he gave signs of his 
artistic ability when he was very young indeed, by drawing 
with his finger in spilt milk. His first sketch of a building 
was that of Margate Church, made when he was nine years 
old. At school he drew cocks and birds and trees and 
flowers on the walls, while his schoolfellows did his sums, 
that he might indulge his artistic proclivities. At a very 
early age he drew portraits of his father and mother and of 
himself. Strange to say, his father intended him for a barber, 
which was the elder Turner's own trade, but seeing the boy's 
great natural talent for art, he aided him in its development. 
William early became a wage-earner by making both black 
and white and wash drawings for architects and others. 

Up to the time Joseph Mallord William Turner startled the 
English public with his original and brilliant productions, the 

What was the date of the battle of Lexington ? 



I 







124 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

^ '\ 

palm had been awarded to Claude Lorraine, a Frenchman, as^ 

the greatest landscape painter who had lived. But that great 

art critic, John Ruskin, was so enthusiastic an admirer of 

Turner that he set him above all others — unjustly, some think. 

Turner was a great genius and a most wonderful master of 
color effects, but his drawing was not always good; he was 
willing to sacrifice some things in order to gain new and 
startling effects in color. 

He found landscape painting in a deplorable condition 
and raised it to a height it had never before attained. He was 
the first artist who dared "paint the sun." You will see, even 
in the reproductions of his paintings, what floods and bursts of 
sunlight are displayed. His coloring is pure, dazzling even, 
and delicate; he is faithful to nature, yet his is the truth-tell- 
ing of the poet and deep thinker. 

When he died he bequeathed his paintings to the nation 
(Great Britain), and that is the reason we see so few of them 
elsewhere, for, of course, England would not part with them. 
Two of his works are owned by the Lenox Library, New York; 
two by Mrs. Vanderbilt; and the much talked-of "Slave Ship" 
is the property of Miss Hooper of Boston. 

Subject II : The Fighting' Temeraire 

Outside of his art Turner was not considered a brilliant 
man. His powers of intellect were concentrated on his work, 
and there he was master. He excelled in those landscapes 
where water formed a part of the scene. "The Fighting 
Temeraire" is probably the most popular of all his paintings. 
It was first exhibited in the National Gallery in 1839, ^^^ 's 
dear to Englishmen's hearts. The contrast between the man- 
of-war and the pert, pufifing tug is a good example of modern 
progress that appeals to all. The patriotism of the British 
is stirred by the sight of a veteran ship of their navy, of which 
they are, as you know, very proud. Let us hope for a new 
order of things, when navies and war are no longer needed ! 

When and where did the "Temeraire" distinguish herself ? 




I 



126 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Jean Baptiste Camilie Copot 

Birthplace : France 

Dates: 1796-1875 

Subject I : Dance of the Nymphs 

HERE is a very charming example of the work of that 
landscape painter of France — Jean Baptiste Camilie 
Corot — who, though born in 1796, has not yet been 
surpassed in his department of art. 

This subject, "Dance of the Nymphs," shows all of Corot's 
best qualities — skilful composition; effective distribution of 
light and shade; beautiful drawing; lightness of effect; grace, 
joyfulness, and poetic sentiment. 

Corot was born in Paris and educated there. He had no 
early struggles to maintain himself, so his paintings are as 
full of joy and gayety as was his nature. But that is not all 
they contain: they are poems, every one, and are as full of the 
tender story Nature has to tell us as a symphony by Mozart. 
One critic, indeed, calls him "the Mozart of painting." He 
has also been called "the Schubert of landscape painting," 
because he mollified the classics and was powerfully carried 
away by romanticism. 

His was a dreamy, poetic nature. As a boy, he loved to 
hang out of his chamber window on summer nights and 
watch the vapors creep up from the meadows and lakes; then 
he would imagine a fairy dance going on, as the mists curled 
and waved, assuming strange shapes. It is supposed that his 
manner later in his paintings — the veil of mystery pervading 
their atmosphere — is due to impressions then received. The 
weird, etherial look of his "Dance of the Nymphs" is just 
what we should expect from an artist of his temperament. 

Corot sketched in the open air all summer — at dawn, sun- 
set, and for moonlight effects. These sketches he worked up 
in his studio during the winter. The nature he painted is 
called: "A nature deliciously impossible, where, in the uncer- 
tain twilight of dawn, in the shade and retirement of great 
trees, shrouded in mysteries, we hear the gentle beating of the 

Who were Mozart and Schubert ? 




Dance ok the Nymphs — liy Corot 



128 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

wings of awakening love." This feeling for the picturesque 
caused him to rebel against the "decorative, abstract, and 
arid" style of painting of the First Empire. One writer says: 
"All his physiognomy is made of two elements, gayety and 
thought — the lips smile, the look meditates." 

Subject II: Spring* 

This is another of his pictures that seems all joy and glad- 
ness. Does it not suggest that Nature is putting on her spring 
dress ? The tree appears to be fairly rushing into leaf. The 
maidens and children are anxious for the first blossoms; the 
eldest even reaches eagerly beyond her height for the beau- 
tiful things, as youth always does — youth which is well typi- 
fied by awakening spring. 

Corot painted industriously for many years before his 
genius brought pecuniary returns. When it did, he displayed 
the utmost generosity in helping poor, struggling artists. At 
the time of the Siege of Paris, he expended 25,000 francs for 
the relief of the needy. 

He was dearly beloved by his friends, and whatever the 
differences of opinion of the various literary men of his day, 
they united in praise of Corot the man, even those among 
them who did not fully understand Corot the artist. He was 
called "Pere Corot" (Father Corot) by his fellow-artists, and 
they caused a medal to be struck off in his honor just before 
his death in 1875. 

For his works he received many medals and the highest 
rewards from the government, being elected an officer of the 
Legion of Honor. After his death the pictures and sketches 
in his studio were sold for 400.000 francs; and this was after 
he had presented some of his most valuable works to the 
Luxembourg. Several of his pictures are owned in the United 
States, and I hope you may see them some day; for no matter 
how good the reproduction of them in black and white, the 
mysterious charm they .possess lies in the coloring, which many 
have tried in vain to imitate. 

When was the Siege of Paris ? What is the Luxembourg ? 







C/3 



130 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Heinrich Hofmann 

Birthplace: Germany 

Dates: 1824- 

Subject : Jesus as a Boy in the Temple 

HEINRICH HOFMANN, who painted this picture, was 
born in Darmstadt in 1824. He is a portrait and his- 
torical painter of note and occupies a prominent posi- 
tion in the art circles of his native land. In 1870 he became 
a professor of the Art Academy in Dresden. 

Anyone who goes to Meissen, where the famous porce- 
lain is made, will be well repaid, for on the walls of the old 
burg there one will see the beautiful fresco, "Betrothal of 
Albrecht the Brave to Princess Sidonie," by Hofmann. In 
this Albrechtburg the secret of the now world-famed porcelain 
manufacture was discovered by a prisoner of noble birth who 
had scientific tastes and was allowed a crucible and other 
implements of the chemist to experiment with and to help 
pass the hours of imprisonment. 

In the Dresden gallery hang several of Hofmann's finest 
works, among them the subject opposite, which he calls 
"Jesus as a Boy in the Temple." The radiance shining from 
the figure and face of the youthful Christ is lost in the 
reproduction in black and white; color is required for that 
effect. Most rich, most luminous, soft but clear, are those 
colors in reality, while the figure of Jesus, in its radiant white 
robes, is unsurpassed for beauty and religious inspiration in 
all art. How varied are the Jewish types here portrayed ! 
And yet they are all natural, as they were painted from living 
models in Dresden. 

Who, seeing a picture like this, can say that artists to-day 
have no religious inspiration and can paint only impression- 
istic scenes from nature ? Although the methods of modern 
artists are different from those of the Old Masters, as is but 
natural, they are often impelled by as pure a motive and as 
deeply devotional a sentiment. 



132 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Gabriel Charles Ddnte Rossetti 

Birthplace : Eng-land 

Dates: 1828-1882 

Subject: The Blessed Damozel 

THIS picture belongs to the mystic style of subject. It is 
the work of a very interesting man who was born and 
lived in England, though he was of Italian parentage — 
Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti. His father was an Italian 
patriot, a commentator on Dante, and, after taking up his resi- 
dence in London, a professor of Italian at King's College. 

From boyhood Gabriel was an admirer of, the poems of 
Dante, and in after years took many subjects for his paintings 
from the works of that illustrious genius. Rossetti was him- 
self a poet of great feeling, imagination, and pathos. One of 
the most beautiful things he wrote is "The Blessed Damozel," 
and he painted the picture from which this head is taken, to 
illustrate the poem. 

Rossetti possessed the most vivid personality and the 
rarest imagination of any man of his day. He seldom exhibited 
his paintings, and they are now for the most part in private 
collections in England. He was one of the founders of what is 
called the Pre-Raphaelite school of painting, which attempted 
to promote the study of nature itself rather than of the great 
masters of Raphael's day and immediately after. 

Those who believed in the doctrines of the Pre-Raphaelites 
were known as the Brotherhood, and published a journal 
called The Germ. "The Blessed Damozel" was contributed by 
Rossetti to this organ. Following is a descriptive verse of 
the poem: — 

The blessed damozel leaned out 

From the golden bar of heaven ; 
Her eyes were deeper than the depth 

Of waters stilled at even ; 
She had three lilies in her hand, 

And the stars in her hair were seven. 

Rossetti preferred to write his name "Dante Gabriel " and 
it IS thus we usually see it given. 

Who was Dante ? Of what artist was he a friend ? 




The Blessed Damozel— />'j Dante Gabriel Rossetti 



134 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

ArtiM: Sir Edward Burne-Jones 

Birthplace: Eng-land 
Dates: 1833-1898 

Subject I: Winter 

HERE is the reproduction of a painting by a famous and 
a very charming artist of Welsh descent, born in Bir- 
mingham, England, in 1833. His name was Edward 
Burne-Jones, and he was knighted for his great services to art. 

Sir Edward Burne-Jones was one of a distinguished group 
of men whose achievements have, during the past fifty years, 
shed a lustre on the name of England. His friend and teacher 
was Dante Gabriel Rossetti — of whose "Blessed Damozel" you 
have just read — and in his first work he showed a tendency to 
imitate Rossetti's manner, which he later abandoned, how- 
ever, for a style of his own. 

This artist's parents intended that he should become a 
minister of the gospel, and he was sent to Exeter College, 
Oxford, but his great talent for art was not to be suppressed. 
On the same day that he entered Oxford another young Welsh- 
man, William Morris, began his studies at the university, and 
these two, who were destined to become illustrious, grew to 
be firm friends. The poet Swinburne was a collegemate of 
theirs, and dedicated his first volume of poems to Burne-Jones. 

The circle of which these young men later became a part 
included the eminent artist, teacher and poet Rossetti, John 
Ruskin, Robert Browning and Alfred Tennyson. 

Burne-Jones and William Morris, the poet and artist, worked 
together from their earliest college days, and each was a great 
help and inspiration to the other. They had high ideals and 
a love for the deep and mystical in nature. Burne-Jones, 
especially, inclined to idealism and abstract beauty rather 
than to realism. Man}^ of his works are symbolic. His 
drawing is original in its style, but graceful and correct; his 
coloring pure, brilliant, soft. He designed many stained 
glass windows that have become noted. One is in Trinity 
Church, Boston, and is called "David Instructing Solomon in 
the Building of the Temple." 




WiNTKR — By Burnt-Jones 



136 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Subject II: The Golden Stair *? 

This example of Burne-Jones's work is reproduced from a 
water color — one of the paintings made between 1870-77, 
when he was not showing any of his pictures to the public, 
but was working steadily to build up his art for future recog- 
nition. 

Some one has said: "The impression of this picture is that 
of a poem set to exquisite music." The fresh, fair young 
girls are painted in monochrome (which means the hues, tints, 
^and shades are of one color), and the effect is as sweet and 
pure as the thought of youth should always be. The harmony 
of pose and of movement, yet the pleasing variety at the same 
time; the long sweeps of the curves that affect you like a deep 
draught of fresh air; the calm, serious faces — all are worthy of 
earnest study, and cannot fail to inspire one with good 
thoughts. 

That is what a really fine picture always does — suggests 
noble thoughts. The more we study such examples of true 
art, the more cultured we shall become, in the best sense, for 
our activities of brain, of heart, and of moral life will be 
stimulated and enlarged. 

This artist died June 17, 1898, and, it is hardly necessary 
to add, his death was a great loss not only to the art world, 
but to the world in general. For a person of refined nature, 
worthy ambition, and genial personality exerts a wonderful 
influence for good on all those who know him or his works. 




The Golden Stair — By Bur)u 



138 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist*: Sip Laurens Alma-Tadema 

Birthplace: Holland 

Dates: 1836- 

Subject: A Reading from Homer 

THE next picture is from a painting by a very interesting 
artist who is living to-day in London — Laurens Alma- 
Tadema. He was born in Dronryp, Holland, in 1836, 
and early conceived a passion for Egyptian and Graeco-Roman 
archaeology, which greatly influenced the style he adopted in 
his work. 

Alma-Tadema holds a unique place in English art. Born 
in Holland and inheriting the independence and frank orig- 
inality of his countrymen, he still possesses a taste for the 
classic, and it is the combination of these two qualities that 
gives the peculiar distinctiveness to his compositions. While 
he places his personages of ancient Greece and Rome among 
appropriate and harmonious surroundings, he makes them 
alive. That is, they walk, they talk, they eat and drink, they 
laugh, they read, and they do all this very much as we do; so 
there is a familiar quality about his works that has con- 
tributed to their success. 

The characters he represents do not simply pose in stiff 
togas or chitons, but move, and breathe forth their enjoyment 
of life. "A Reading from Homer" illustrates this. How nat- 
ural that pose of the listener, face downward on the ground ! 
Scarcely a child but knows that position, and we think of the 
Greeks as children of nature, so it seems especially fitting. 
Note the pure, graceful curves, the fine sense of proportion, 
and the beauty of expression all through this picture. 

Alma-Tadema has been made member of the Royal Acad- 
emies of five different countries at least, and has received 
many medals. He became a naturalized British subject in 
1873, and was knighted by the late Queen Victoria. He mar- 
ried an Englishwoman who paints well, and has a daughter 
who paints better (so I have heard him say) than he does 
himself. 

In what countries were togas and chitons worn ? Who was Homer ? 




I 

ei 
H 
S 

o 
W 

o 



Artist : 


John S 


Birthplace 


: Italy 


Dates : 


1856- 


Subject: 


Hosea 



UO ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Sarg-ent 



JOHN S. SARGENT was oorn in 1856 in Florence, Italy, 
of American parents. He has lived and painted many- 
years in Europe, and his studio is now in Paris. "Hosea" 
is a detail from the frieze designed by him for the Boston 
Public Library, representing the prophets of the Old Dispen- 
sation. This frieze is a part of the decoration — as yet unfin- 
ished — of an upper corridor, and represents the history of 
religion, from the early days of idolatry and through the 
period of Jewish captivity. Each prophet's figure and expres- 
sion is conceived and carried out in accordance with the char- 
acter portrayed in the books of the Old Testament. 

In examining the whole frieze,* one will notice that the 
groups at the left are composed of figures in mourning or 
despairing attitudes, while those in groups at the right are 
hopeful, expectant — looking for the fulfilment of the promises 
of prophecy. Yet in each group there is a contrasting figure, 
and Hosea is the hopeful prophet in the sad group at the 
extreme left. It is said that this youthful Hosea is the 
favorite figure of the artist. 

We notice that the intent of the best artists is to put into 
their paintings something besides mere beauty of face or figure, 
historical suggestion, or a pleasing effect of water, trees, or 
mountains. Their aim is to fathom the thought back of all 
this — the purpose of the Creator in surrounding us with so 
much goodness and beauty — and to bring their interpretation 
of this purpose before the mind of the observer in a way to 
arouse deep thought and earnest feeling. 

* Such excellent reproductions of this frieze have been made, singly as well as in 
groups, that it may be easily studied. 




Sargent 



142 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist: Guido Reni '^ 

Birthplace : Italy 

Dates: 1575-1642 

Subject: Aurora 

THIS picture is probably familiar to you, for it is a great 
favorite and has been reproduced by photography and 
engraving during many years. It is by an Italian 
artist, Guido Reni, who is generally called by his first name 
alone. His works belong to three classes — historical, 
mythological and portraiture. The "Aurora" is of the second 
class and was painted at Rome, where it is owned in the 
Rospigliosi Palace. The Dawn is represented as a beautiful 
woman who precedes the chariot of Apollo, the Sun-God, as 
he rides across the heavens to awaken the Day. 

Guido Reni was the son of a well-known musician and 
singer, who intended that his son should follow the same pro- 
fession as himself, but the boy's genius for art was early dis- 
covered by a celebrated Flemish painter living in the city of 
Bologna, where Guido was born, November 4, 1575. Guido's 
father taught him to sing, and to play the harpsichord and flute, 
but this did not satisfy his artistic longings; and in after 
years he used to tell how, as often as he dared, he would run 
away from the harpsichord and draw rude sketches and form 
figures in clay. 

In the studio of the Flemish artist he made such progress 
that at the age of thirteen years he was allowed to teach some 
of the other pupils. Yet his modesty and dignity were remark- 
able, and he won the respect of all who knew him. You see 
there is a lesson to be learned from this talented boy who lived 
over three hundred years ago. 

Guido was so beautiful that one of his teachers, the illus- 
trious Annibale Carracci, painted him as an angel in several 
pictures. 

He was passionately fond of music, and during his last 
illness his friends had musicians play in the hall just outside 
his chamber. The effect upon him was soothing, and as he 
wiped away his tears he cried: "And what, then, will be the 
melodies of Paradise ?" He died August 18, 1642. 




I 



144 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Unknown (Possibly Guido Reni) 
Subject: Beatrice Cenci 

ANOTHER picture which has been ascribed to Guido 
Reni is this mournful but lovely portrait of a woman, 
supposed for years to be that of Beatrice Cenci; but 
many modern critics and historians contend not only that the 
work was not executed by this artist, but that the painting is 
not the likeness of the unfortunate princess whose history is 
so sad. If it was painted by Guido, it cannot be a real por- 
trait of poor Beatrice, for she was put to death almost ten 
years before he began his work in Rome. 

Modern critics seem very harsh and cruel sometimes when 
they take away our cherished traditions — robbing us of our 
belief in William Tell, for instance, and even destroying our 
faith in King Arthur and his knights. But it is because they 
are searching for truth that they do it; and it is better to have 
the true statement about anything than the prettiest legend 
that could be invented. 

After all, to appreciate the true loveliness of the picture it 
is not necessary to know the artist, or whose likeness it is. 
The original painting is in the Barberini Palace in Rome 




Beatrice Cknci— A r//s/ Unknown 



146 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: Emile Renouf 

Birthplace: France 
Dates: 1845-1894 

Subject: A Helping Hand 

HERE is a very attracti\'e scene, and one that appeals 
strongly to the sense of humor of the spectator; for it 
is very plain to us that, though this dear little girl 
thinks she is helping grandpa, in reality the heavy oar is alto- 
gether too much for her tiny hands to grasp or her frail arms 
to move. Her proud and loving grandfather is evidently 
humoring her, however, in the belief that she is of great assist- 
ance; in fact, she probably feels sure the boat could never 
reach shore but for her help. 

Did you ever see a little maid dressed just like this? 
Probably not, for as the artist, Emile Renouf, was born in Paris 
and painted French scenes chiefly, we may feel tolerably sure 
that she is a little French peasant girl, living in one of the 
fishing settlements on the coast of France. Emile Renouf 
painted landscapes, marine views, and genre, and received 
several medals for his work. In 1886 he visited America. 

When studying another picture we learned that the line 
where earth and sky seem to meet (called the horizon) should 
never be just across the middle of the picture; we also learned 
that the principal object should never be in the middle of the 
space from left to right. The sky line in this picture seems 
to cut directly across the old fisherman's cap, but the sea 
mists are so thick in the distance that the horizon is very 
indistinct. The figure of the old man is certainly in the middle 
of the canvas, half way from left to right, but is he the main 
object in the picture? Is he the one who is lending a helping 
hand? No, it is the quaint little maid who is the object of 
greatest interest, and she is to the left of the middle of the 
picture, so our rule is observed, after all. 



us ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist : William Morris Hunt 

Birthplace : United States 

Dates: 1824-1879 

Subject: June Clouds 

UNTIL a very few years ago you might have met in Bos- 
ton a tall, slim man, with a long gray beard, upon whom 
everyone looked with great respect, and whose words 
were most attentively listened to by all those persons fortunate 
enough to know him. Especially attentive were they when 
he discoursed on art, for he ranks as the best American painter 
of the last half of the nineteenth century, and was no other 
than William Morris Hunt, who executed "J'J"^ Clouds." 

This artist was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, in 1824. 
He was a student at Harvard for three years, but left college 
on account of ill-health, and went abroad. He spent a winter 
in Italy, and then went to Diisseldorf, where he studied with 
the idea of becoming a sculptor. Next taking up his resi- 
dence in Paris, he began to paint. One day he came across 
some of Millet's work, and immediately set out to look for 
this new master. As we know, he found Millet living in the 
little village of Barbizon, and became not only a pupil but a 
warm friend of the great French artist. 

Returning to America in 1855, Mr. Hunt opened an art 
school in Boston and taught by criticism, as French masters 
do; and never was teacher more kind or more anxious to help 
each student to make the most of his talent and ability. 

Morris Hunt possessed the power of making the simplest 
subject interesting because of the truthfulness to nature 
expressed in it — truthfulness in form, in color, in feeling. 
His works are owned by art lovers all over the United States, 
and many are in the Art Museum at Boston. Some very fine 
decorations in the Capitol at Albany, New York, are by him, 
and he also executed a number of masterly portraits. 

The subject given here is simplicity itself, and shows the 
master from the fact that in spite of its simplicity it is inter- 
esting. If you could see the beautiful coloring of the orig- 
inal—the soft grays and blues of the clouds, the tender and 
varied greens of the trees and of the foreground — you would 




Junk Clouds — Hy William Morris Hunt 



150 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

be even more pleased with it. The presence of the bov and 
girl on the little bridge adds the touch of human nature that 
every picture needs to make it perfectly successful. Have 
you not been in just such a quiet place on a June day and seen 
the clouds pile up exactly as they do here? 



Artist : G. A. Holmes 

Birthplace : England 
Dates : Unknown 

Subject : Can't You Talk ? 

IT IS not always the famous pictures of the world that 
appeal most strongly to the observer, or to the greatest 
number of persons. Whether the artist be widely known 
or not, evidence of genuine feeling in his work stirs the heart 
when his compositions are studied. 

The picture entitled "Can't You Talk?" is a charming bit 
of primitive nature, where the kinship between all forms of 
animal life is the underlying thought. The dear little baby — 
whose intellect has not yet reached the stage of development 
where it recognizes the superiority of man over other creatures 
— feels only the bond of affection and sympathy between 
himself and the noble animal seated before him. We almost 
expect the dog to answer baby's question: "Can't You Talk?" 
He surely looks wise enough to, should the power of speech 
be granted him for the purpose. Another sympathetic touch 
is added by the kitten peering through the doorway, as though 
greatly interested in what is going on. Altogether this is a 
very satisfactory picture, and one which leaves a pleasant 
impression on the mind. 



152 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

'\ 
Artist : Henri Lerolle 

Birthplace: France 
Dates: 1848- 

Subject: The Shepherdess 

WHAT a gentle, restful scene is presented here! It is by 
Lerolle, the artist who painted that beautiful picture 
of the shepherds' vdsit to the infant Saviour as He lay 
in the lowly manger at Bethlehem. 

The composition of this picture is calculated to inspire a 
feeling of tranquillity. The sheep themselves typify peace 
and gentleness; the broad field stretching into the hazy dis- 
tance makes us think of a warm summer's day, which idea is 
added to by the facts that the animals seem thirsty, and that 
the shepherdess has taken off her kerchief and carries it on a 
stick over her shoulder. The foliage of the trees is not 
luxuriant enough to give the impression of great vigor or 
energy, and the cot in the distance, at the right of the back- 
ground, hints of a place of rest and shelter at the close of day. 
There is something particularly good about the arrangement 
of these tree-trunks, and about that sheep in the foreground 
which appears on the point of touching the hand the girl holds 
out. 

What does the picture suggest to you? Does it not put 
you in mind of the vacation that is approaching, when you 
will go into the country and see just such flocks of sheep, with 
soft white wool ? But you will not find a girl like this taking 
care of them, for we do not have shepherdesses in our country, 
as they have in France, where this one lives. For this is a 
French landscape, you know, and that is a French peasant's 
hut in the distance. 

When this picture was first exhibited it was enthusiastically 
received by the French people, and the government pur- 
chased it very soon after it appeared 




^ 
^ 



154 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

*i -^ — 

Artist: Johann Geopg Meyer (von Bremen) 

Birthplace : Germany 

Dates: 1813-1886 

Subject: The Pet Bird 

THE Pet Bird" is by an eminent and very popular 
painter of genre pictures — Johann Georg Meyer, 
better known as Meyer von Bremen, as he was born 
in the city of Bremen (October 28, 1813). He was a pupil of 
the Diisseldorf Academy, which, in his student days, was the 
most celebrated art school in Europe. The school of Munich 
became its rival, and Paris now holds first place, on account of 
the great number of masters of all nations gathered there. 

]\Ieyer von Bremen began his art career by painting bibli- 
cal subjects, but soon made a journey into the mountains 
(Harz and Tyrol), and studied there the types of life which 
have served in his many popular genre scenes. In 1863 he 
became a professor in the Berlin Academy. He received a 
medal for work shown at the Philadelphia Exposition (called 
the Centennial), and many of his best paintings are owned in 
New York and Philadelphia. 

This pretty home scene speaks for itself. The bird is being 
fed on a morsel from the children's lunch, and the little fellow 
has saved a piece which he seems anxious to give to the pet, 
the expression indicating this being made more apparent by 
the gaze of his elder sister, fixed so interestedly on him. 
These children have been taught to be kind to dumb creatures, 
we feel sure, besides having gentle instincts. 

The thoughts aroused by the picture are so pleasant and 
natural that we almost forget the effect is due to the mastery 
of art. There is no apparent striving after effect; the very 
simplicity and sweetness of the subject and its treatment are 
what appeal to us. Such a picture is a bit of history, too, por- 
traying the customs, the costumes and the furniture of the 
period, which fact gives it an added value. 



Why was the exposition held at Philadelphia in 1876 called the Cen- 
tenniaP 




The Pet Bird— ^^ Meyer von Bremen 



156 ART vSTUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Sir Edwin Henry Landseer 

Birthplace : England 

Dates: 1802-1873 

Subject I: The Sick Monkey 

HERE we have one of the fine nature studies of Sir Edwin 
Landseer, who, though a portrait painter of merit, is 
noted chiefly for his pictures of animals. His great 
talent lay in his power to portray those qualities in dumb 
brutes that show their kinship with man. 

The mother-instinct of loving protection and care for the 
suffering offspring is the attractive element in this picture, 
and the effect is enhanced by the very evident indifference of 
pater familias, who is coolly enjoying his melon and has 
greedily provided himself with another piece of fruit, which 
he guards betv/een his hind paws. Grotesque though these 
creatures are, the expression of love as shown by the mother, 
makes the scene appeal strongly to human sympathies. 

Edwin Landseer was born in London in 1802. At the age 
of five years he made sketches showing his appreciation of 
animal character and humor, and work that he did when only 
ten years old was exhibited in 1874 at the Royal Academy. 
It is hardly to be wondered at that the boy should develop 
great talent, as there were in his immediate family no less 
than eight persons who attained distinction as artists: his 
father, John Landseer, a famous engraver, whose lectures on 
engraving before the Royal Institute, and persistent efforts, 
did so much to raise the status of his artcraft; his uncle, 
Henry Landseer, a painter; his eldest brother, Thomas, an 
engraver, whose finest work is his engraving of Rosa Bonheur's 
"Horse Fair," and who has done much by his reproductions 
of Sir Edwin's paintings to make the latter well known; his 
eldest sister, Mrs. Christmas; his sisters Emma (Mrs. Mac- 
kenzie) and Jessie, and his brother Charles. 

Edwin and his brother Thomas together wrote and illus- 
trated several books for young people, among them "Stories 
about Dogs," and "Stories Illustrative of the Instinct of 
Animals," both published in 1864. 

This artist had every advantage of study in his youth. 







■^ 


^^^^^^^ 


1 


1 


^m'>' 






^^^^^^^^^^^^H« 




■'^^^m^' 



The Sick Monkey — By Sir Edwin Landseer 



158 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

■" . '^ . 

and afterward enjoyed the favor of the English royal family. 

The late Queen Victoria, whose love for animals is well 

known, was a great admirer of his pictures, and proved a true 

friend to him. He painted portraits of the queen and various 

members of her family, and taught her and her husband how 

to etch. 

Landseer was knighted in 1850, as a reward for the excel- 
lence of his works, and he was the only Englishman honored 
by a gold medal from the World's Exposition at Paris in 1873. 

Although Sir Edwin painted lions, monkeys, deer, and 
other animals, his fame rests on his dogs. As one critic 
said, "The best defenders of his genius are his dogs them- 
selves." There was a clergyman in those days, known as 
Sydney Smith, who was also a great wit. When asked if he 
would not sit to Edwin Landseer for his portrait, he replied: 
*Ts thy servant a dog, that he should do this great thing: ' 

Subject II : Alexander and Diog-enes 

Look at this example of Landseer' s work. What a story it 
tells; what humor it shows! If you will read the story of the 
visit of Alexander the Great to Diogenes, you will under- 
stand why the artist named the picture as he did. 

Edwin Landseer's friendship with Sir Walter Scott — also a 
lover of dogs — and a visit made to that author in Scotland, 
helped develop the romance and imagination of the artist's 
nature. He differs from Rosa Bonheur in showing the rela- 
tion of dumb animals to human beings, and telling stories with 
his pictures. The French artist rareh^ did this; she was con- 
tent to present animals by themselves, though always with the 
greatest possible faithfulness to nature. 

One of the most interesting of Landseer's pictures was 
painted by him for the then Prince of Wales. It is called 
"The Connoisseurs," and shows the artist himself sketching, 
with a dog on either side intently watching his progress. 
This group is thoroughly characteristic, for it is said that 
wherever Sir Edwin went he was sure to be followed by a 
troop of dogs, his devoted pets. 

From what did Sydney Smith quote, "Is thy servant a dog," etc.? 




Alkxam»kk AM) DioGENKS — By Sir Kdivin Landseer 



160 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

'\ 
Artist : Henriette Knip Ronner 

Birthplace : Holland 
Dates : 1821- 

Subject: A Fascinating- Tale 

MANY a wholesome lesson has been taught by means of 
pleasantry — that is, by wit and humor, or some bright 
saying. "A Fascinating Tale" is what might be 
called a pictorial pun, for while the title seems to promise a 
delightful story to the listener, it is the eyes of the cat and 
her two kittens that are fascinated by the sight of the tail of 
the disappearing mouse. There could not be a spectacle more 
alluring to the feline race, and you can easily see this 
expressed in the eager attitudes and excited expectancy of 
the three pussies. 

The artist who painted this picture is a woman who was 
born in Amsterdam, though she now lives in Brussels. Her 
maiden name was Henriette Knip, but she is known by her 
husband's name, Ronner. Her father was an artist, also, and 
taught his daughter. She paints animals, especially those 
we call domestic animals, in a manner that shows she not 
only observes them and their habits very carefully, but also 
appreciates the humor often displayed in their actions. 

No one would imagine from the style of her pictures — so 
full of fun and spirit — that this artist has had a life of care 
and trouble; and yet such is the case. Though brimful of 
talent, apparent in her earliest childhood, she was obliged 
to work hard and long for the fame she has undoubtedly 
won, and for years after her marriage she had a desperate 
struggle with poverty, supporting an invalid husband and 
family of little children, and toiling early and late at her art. 

This is a very simple little picture, but it is well made up 
as to straight lines and curves, flat surfaces and round ones, 
bringing in contrast of form, while the two kittens furnish 
color contrast. There is no stiffness in the straight lines of 
the many books, as some are tipped sidewise to give us 
diagonal lines. 



Where is Amsterdam? Of what countrj^ is Brussels the capital? 




A Fascinating Tale — By Henriettf Knip Ronner 



162 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist : Charles Emile Jacque 

Birthplace : France 

Dates: 1813-1890 

Subject: The Sheepfold 

THE artist who painted this picture is celebrated for his 
portrayals of sheep going to pasture, grazing, coming 
home, or in the fold. His name is Charles Jacque, and 
he is, as you may hav^e guessed, a Frenchman. 

Few French artists have a more widely extended or better 
deserved reputation than Charles Emile Jacque, and he was 
even more generally known as an etcher than as a painter. 
His knowledge of barnyard animals was remarkable, and he 
was nicknamed "Z^ Raphael des Porceaux'' because of his 
lifelike pictures of pigs. He kept these animals, as well as 
sheep and chickens, so as to be able to study them the more 
thoroughly. 

His work brought him several medals and he received the 
decoration of the Legion of Honor in 1867. 

In looking at this pretty scene it seems as though we 
could almost stroke the fleecy coats of the sheep, so naturally 
are they painted. And see how safe and contented the hens 
look! It is all so suggestive of good will and peace. Do you 
remember who was called the "Prince of Peace" and also 
"The Good Shepherd"? Do you recall the story of the shep- 
herd who went out to find the one little lamb lost on the 
mountainside, while all the other ninety and nine were safe in 
the fold? The lamb is such a gentle creature that it was much 
used by the famous painters of olden times to symbolize the 
Saviour — "The Lamb of God." Another domestic creature 
referred to in a very beautiful passage in the Bible is the hen 
with her chickens. It is sad as well as beautiful, and begins: 
"Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how often would I have gathered 
thee," et cetera. I am not going to tell you the whole of it, for 
I wish you to look it up. 




The Sheepfold — Hy Charles Emili' Jacque 



164 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

'\ 
Artist : Elizabeth Jane Gardner 

Birthplace : United States 
Dates: 1842- 

Subject: The Two Mothers and Their Families 

THIS delightful and suggestive picture was painted by 
an American woman, Elizabeth Gardner. She was 
born in Exeter, New Hampshire, in 1842, but has 
spent the greater part of her professional life in Paris, where 
she studied under various French masters, among them Bou- 
guereau, one of whose beautiful Madonnas you saw on page 71. 
She is now the wife of this artist, and lives and paints in Paris. 
Her pictures have been warmly praised, especially by foreign 
critics, and perhaps you are familiar with engravings of some 
of them. She painted "Moses in the Bulrushes," "Ruth and 
Naomi," "Maud MuUer" and that beautiful picture called 
"Cornelia and Her Jewels." 

The hen in the charming scene here shown is as happy 
in her way with her chickens, and as anxious to find food for 
them and protect them, as the pretty human mother is happy 
with and proud of her little one standing by her knee. I 
imagine this mother is teaching a lesson to her boy from the 
hen and her brood, telling him how kind he should be to all 
dumb creatures, for they can feel pain as we do, and they 
mourn for their young if robbed of them. 

Look up the story suggested by each one of the pictures named above. 
Read the beautiful poem "Maud Muller. " 




The Two Motmkrs and Their Families — By Elizabeth Jane Gardner 



160 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Jean Francois Millet 

Birthplace: France 

Dates : 1814-1875 

Subject : Feeding* Her Birds 

FEEDING Her Birds" is by that eminent French 
artist, Jean Fran9ois Millet, some of whose works we 
have already studied. They all bear strong evidence 
of the artist's deep love of nature — animate and inanimate — 
and treat especially of those aspects of it with which he was 
most familiar: that is, of peasant scenes, among which his 
early youth was passed. Although Millet became a very 
great artist, and even founded a school of painting, called the 
Barbizon school (from the place in France where it was 
located), he always loved to refer to himself as a "Normandy 
peasant." 

Do you not think the chief charm of this picture lies in the 
expression, rather than in the forms employed to render it? 
The figures of the mother and the children are very simple, 
and even homely; yet they are interesting, not only because 
they are of a type unfamiliar to us, but also because the 
subtle touch of nature in the scene appeals so strongly to all 
whose hearts are open to the many phases of nature study. 

I hope you will early become alive to the pleasure to be 
gained from making a study of the traits of animals, espe- 
cially those we call domestic animals. Do you see the hen 
just beyond the door where the children sit? Does not the 
fact that the fowl is attracted by the motions of the woman 
give you a better sense of the truth of the picture? By truth, 
I mean the story its author aims to tell in a way that makes 
its meaning felt by the observer, even if the latter lacks 
the faculty of putting his appreciation into words. The truest 
art is that which stirs the most genuine feeling. Have you 
not seen a parent bird taking home a good, fat worm to 
the fledglings in the nest? And have you not noticed the 
eager, outstretched beaks of the hungry bird-children ? If you 
have, you comprehend intuitively why the great Millet called 
this picture "Feeding Her Birds." 




Feeding Her Birds — By Jean Francois Millet 



1G8 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Jacques Clement Wagrez 

Birthplace: France 

Dates : Contemporary 

Subject : A Corner in Venice 

WHAT a charming scene is shown here! "A Corner in 
Venice" was painted by Jacques Wagrez, an artist of 
the contemporary French school, who, though he 
executes portraits also, is known chiefly for his pictures of 
Venetian and Florentine life in the fifteenth century. He 
works for the most part in water colors, and his paintings are 
remarkable for their fidelity in all details to the period repre- 
sented. The architecture and the costumes of the time are 
always correctly given, and while critics complain that his 
people lack character, his figures are drawn with the utmost 
skill and are invariably pleasing to look upon. 

In this example of his work a feature of Venetian life is 
delightfully set forth. I am sure you must have heard of the 
doves of Venice. The people treat these little creatures so 
well that the birds have grown utterly fearless, and in a cer- 
tain square in the city they may be seen in flocks, waiting 
about to be fed. 

The dove is another symbol of gentleness and of purity. 
Did you ever read the pretty story told by Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne about a girl in Rome tending doves from her tower 
window? She was an American girl named Hilda. 1 hope 
that some day you will read the book, for it is one of the most 
satisfactory of guides to the art treasures in Rome. Its title 
is "The Marble Faun." 

Many of our best authors and those of other lands have 
written about birds and animals in the most charming way. 
Besides Shelley's "Skylark" and Shakespere's "Hark, Hark 
the Lark," which have already been mentioned in these 
pages, there are "The Waterfowl," by William Cullen 
Bryant, "Llewellyn's Dog," and many others, which I feel 
sure you would enjoy reading. 




A CoRNKK IN \'i'.\:ck. ily Jacques Clhneni \\\i,i. 



170 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist: Hey wood Hardy 

Birthplace: England 

Dates : Contemporary 

Subject: Forgotten 

WHAT a contrast to the last picture is this! See the 
poor, patient pony left standing in the bleak snow- 
storm, while its thoughtless — yes, heartless — master 
carouses in the village inn. Note the dejected air of the poor 
little beast, and contrast with it the jollity of his rider and 
companions expressed in the shadows on the curtains. The 
poor pony is indeed "Forgotten." 

Does it not seem wonderful that a horse, which is an 
animal possessing much greater strength than the strongest 
man, should be submissive to his master, even when that 
master is cruel ? It proves what admirable qualities the noble 
beast possesses— qualities of patience, faithful devotion, and 
willingness to work. Let those who would abuse a horse, or 
any other animal, remember that the same God created them 
who created little boys and girls. Yes, and put feelings in 
them, too. I hope the children who read this book will 
never be unkind to animals, or allow anyone else to be cruel 
if they can prevent it. 

Heywood Hardy, who painted this pathetic scene, is one 
of England's contemporary genre painters. His pictures are 
exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Grosvenor Gallery, 
in London. 




FoRGOTTKN — By Heywood Hardy 



172 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Frederick Arthur Bridgman 

Birthplace : United States 

Dates : 1847- 

Subject: Procession of Apis-Osiris 

A NIMALS were highly regarded in olden times, and were 
i~\ even worshiped by some of the ancient pagans, espe- 
cially by the Assyrians and Egyptians. One of the 
chief gods of Egyptian mythology was Osiris, who was repre- 
sented in religious festivals by Apis, the bull. This animal is 
very powerful and even savage, as all children know who have 
seen one tearing up the ground in a country pasture. Because 
of the difficulty men found in subduing him, the bull was 
selected as a type of the Great Power which all nations and 
even savage tribes recognize. In this picture the unwieldy 
brute, covered with precious embroideries and decorated with 
flowers, leads the procession to the temple. The original 
painting hangs in the Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington. 

The artist who painted this picture is an American, Fred- 
erick Arthur Bridgman, who has a studio in Paris. Born m 
Tuskeegee, Alabama, in 1847, when very young he showed 
marked taste for drawing, and as he saw no other opportunity 
for gratifying this taste, he obtained a position with a bank- 
note engraving firm in New York. Two years later he went 
to Paris to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and now his 
reputation is widespread. He has received many medals and 
orders from various countries, and was made a Knight of the 
Legion of Honor in 1878. 

Bridgman has made a profound study of the civilization of 
ancient Egypt, and has lived in Algeria and other countries 
along the shores of the Mediterranean. His reputation has 
been gained chiefly by his pictures of modern Algerian, Greek 
and ancient Egyptian life, but he does not by any means con- 
fine himself to these subjects. He has traveled a great deal 
and has found something to appeal to his artistic sense in 
each country visited; he has painted peasant scenes and 
portraits, Swiss landscapes, and pictures of the ocean. He is 
remarkable for his absolute fidelity to local types, scenery 
and costume. 




Procession <tb Apis-Osirts — By F. A. Bruigman 



174 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

Artist : Briton Riviere ^ 

Birthplace: England 

Dates: 1840- 

Subject I : Ciree and the Companions of Ulysses 

GREEK mythology contains many fascinating legends, a 
number of them connected with animals. You doubt- 
less know the story of Ulysses and his companions, 
who, after the Siege of Troy, wandered for ten long years 
before they finally reached their native land. The chief 
reason they were so long on the way was that they kept turn- 
ing aside when they ought to have gone on. Among other 
places, they stopped at the home of a very beautiful but 
wicked and cruel enchantress named Circe, who took delight 
in turning into swine all who came near her to admire her. 

The picture given here represents the companions of 
Ulysses as swine before the cruel Circe. Is it not sad to see 
those who were once men turned into these ugly animals? 
This misfortune came to them because they did not attend to 
their duty. When people neglect what is right, their charac- 
ters change very unpleasantly, and this change of character is 
tolerably sure to alter the expression of the face, even though 
the body may remain the same. One's face will not remain 
beautiful if there are bad thoughts within one's heart. 

The belief that every person is followed by some animal 
who has the same characteristics as himself is expressed in 
the old Norse Sagas; so when we read there of the wicked 
girl calling on the wolf to tell her what to do to get rid of 
her beautiful sister, we know it was really the bad heart of the 
jealous girl urging her on. 

Briton Riviere, who painted this picture, was born in Lon- 
don in 1840. He is of French descent, his ancestors having 
been among those who took refuge in England in consequence 
of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The Rivieres have 
been artists since 1800. Briton Riviere's grandfather, father 
and oldest son were students at the Royal Academy, and he 
himself has been a member for some eight or ten years, though 
he did not study there. 

Who was Ulysses? What is meant by "Norse Sagas"? 



176 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

'" '\ 

As a schoolboy Briton Riviere drew and painted animals 
with marked talent; indeed, when only-seven years of age he 
made from nature a sketch of a wolf's head, which is said to 
have shown extraoidinary skill for so young a child. Two of 
his pictures executed when he was not over eleven years 
old were accepted and hung at the British Institute, and si.x 
years later he had three pictures at the Academy. 

Subject II: Daniel in the Lions' Den 

This is a companion picture, as it is called, to the "Circe," 
though it is quite different in character. Some critics con- 
sider it Briton Riviere's masterpiece. 

See how calmly Daniel stands before these raging beasts. 
They represent the envy, jealousy, malice and hate — yes, and 
revenge, too — of those persons who feared the upright charac- 
ter of the prophet, and the truth he told. Daniel was not 
afraid, however, of the punishment which kings could inflict. 
In this hour of trial, and what looks like great danger, he feels 
no fear, for he knows that the living God whom he worships 
and serves is the onlv Power, and that these w'ld beasts really 
have none at all. 

Could there be greater contrasts than this picture shows, 
as to expression (calmness and rage); as to attitude (upright 
and crouching), and as to line and masses of color? 

It is said that the home of Briton Riviere is one of the most 
attractive in London. His studio is large and convenient, 
though more simple than others built at the same time, and 
here the artist paints for half of each day. Years ago he 
injured his sight by too close work, and - now has to be very 
careful of his eyes 




Danii-x in int. LiosA' DtN— //v Br a on Rivier 



178 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 



Artist : Eugrene Fromentin 

Birthplace : France 

Dates: 1820-1876 

Subject: Hunting with Falcons 

THE Saracens, the Arabs, and the Moors played a prom- 
inent part in the growth of the civilized world by bring- 
ing the art, literature, and general culture of the East 
into Europe. We see their beautiful architectural works in 
Southern Spain, and in Granada is an especially fine relic of their 
times, about which Washington Irving has written beautifully. 

The people of these races have always been fond of ani- 
mals, as is natural, since they are nomadic; hence are depend- 
ent on these friends and servitors of man. The Arabs have 
developed a magnificent breed of horses, known the world 
over for their wonderful speed and rare intelligence, as well as 
their remarkable beauty. Many famous artists have loved to 
paint them, among others Eugene Fromentin, a Frenchman. 

The example of his work here given represents a hunt with 
falcons. The original is in the French museum called the 
Luxembourg, which was once a palace of the French kings. 

Eugene Fromentin was born in 1820, at La Rochelle, 
where his father was a physician. From 1846 to 1848 he lived 
in Algiers, and later spent a year there, both times making 
sketches and studies without number for his characteristic 
paintings of oriental life. Besides having made his mark as 
an artist, he is known as the author of several delightful books 
of travel and a successful work of fiction. 

He won numerous medals, received the decoration of the 
Legion of Honor in 1859, and ten years later was made an 
Ofificer of the Legion. 

He depicted oriental scenes almost exclusively and his 
paintings of Arabs and their life in the desert are remarkable 
for their spirit and truthfulness. Travelers who know the 
region well are able to testify to the correctness of his por- 
trayals even in the smallest particulars; while his attention to 
detail did not prevent the display of much originality and 
keen imagination. 

Where is Algeria? La Rochelle? 




Hunting with Falcons — By Eugene Fromentin 






180 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

" • \ 

Artist : Adolf Schreyer 

Birthplace : Germany 

Dates: 1828- 

Subject I : A Kabyle 

ONE of the very ablest painters of Arabian horses is 
Adolf Schreyer, who was born in Frankfort- on -the 
Main, in 1828. "A Kabyle" is among his finest 
pieces, one of those spirited, faithful representations that 
make us feel as though we had witnessed just such a scene in 
real life, and were glad the artist had had the genius to put it 
down in lines and shades and colors for us to keep — just as a 
great poet will say the very things that have been hiding in 
our own hearts, waiting for the master touch to summon them 
forth. 

Belonging to a wealthy and distinguished family, Schreyer 
had every advantage that travel and instruction can give. He 
studied the horse in the riding schools of his native city and 
then while accompanying the Austrian army in its march 
through the Danube provinces. He has traveled in all the 
principal countries of Europe and has visited Egypt and 
Algeria. 

Loving the horse as he did, he could not fail to be capti- 
vated by the noble, far-famed Arabian breed, which is so 
beautiful and picturesque, with its rich mane and tail and 
handsome coat, its shapeliness, spirit and intelligence. Nearly 
all his pictures are composed to exhibit this noble animal. 
Martial subjects are drawn by him less for the human interest 
they contain than for the display of some admirable character- 
istic of the horse. 

Adolf Schreyer has won medals at Paris, Vienna, and 
Brussels; in 1864 the Cross of the Order of Leopold was con- 
ferred upon him, and he is a member of the Rotterdam and 
Antwerp academies. In 1862 he was made Painter to the 
Court of the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 

His work is extremely popular in the United States and 
many of his finest works are owned in this country, chiefly in 

What does the word "Kabyle" mean? Point out on the map Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main. 




A Kabylk— /yj' Adolf Si'hriyer 



182 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

private galleries in New York. I hope you may be so fortu- 
nate as to see some of his originals, for you will surely enjoy 
them, especially if you are a lover of horses 

Subject II : A Halt in the Desert 

In Schreyer's pictures the animal always reflects the intel- 
ligence of its master, and its whole attitude conveys the idea 
of sympathy with the motives and wishes of the rider. In 
fact, in some of the pictures of this artist, the horse seems to 
be capable of independence of action bearing on the circum- 
stances; as, for example, the white horse in this scene. 

Traveling across the desert is very difficult and dangerous, 
both because of the lack of water and on account of the pres- 
ence of hostile tribes. In this picture the travelers have come 
to a green spot, an oasis, where there is a spring of water, 
and they are resting — both men and animals. But so accus- 
tomed are the horses to combat that, although the men are 
smoking unconcernedly, the noble white charger is on the 
alert, almost sniffing danger afar. The picture might have 
been called "The White Sentinel," so vividly does this beau- 
tiful animal express the character. 

The masses of light and shade and the color values are most 
skilfully arranged in this picture; the drawing is superb and 
the sky-line very beautiful. The sense of rest and activity at 
the same time is cleverly conveyed. 




A Halt in thk Dkskrt — Hy Adolf Schreyer 



184 ART STUDIES FOR SCHOOLS 

•" '\ 

Artist : Emile Jean Horace Vernet 

Birthplace: France 
Dates: 1789-1863 

Subject: Prayer in the Desert 

THE Arab represented in this picture has heard the call 
to evening prayer and has fallen on his knees on the 
ground, facing Mecca, to pay his devotions to Allah. 
How plainly we see it is evening rather than morning by the 
strong shadows cast so long and flat by both man and camel! 
There is no tree or hitching post to which the poor beast may 
be tied, so one leg is bound in that uncomfortable position to 
keep him from running away. It is doubtful if his feelings 
are as peaceful as those of his master. 

The picture is called "Prayer in the Desert,' and is by a 
very celebrated French painter, Horace Vernet, who was born 
at Paris in 1789. He was a soldier and loved best to follow 
the army into foreign lands. In 1814 Napoleon decorated 
him with the Cross of the Legion of Honor for his gallant 
conduct at the defence of the Barriere de Clichy, which he 
afterward embodied in one of his paintings. He was a great 
favorite of the Emperor of Russia, for whom he executed 
many paintings. His memory is spoken of as marvelous, for 
he never forgot a shape, a shade, or an expression when he 
wished to recall a subject to paint it. 

In some families the same profession is pursued by genera- 
tion after generation, and such was the case with the family of 
Vernet. Joseph, father of Horace, was one of the ablest 
painters of his day and taught his son and also Madame Le- 
brun, who painted the portrait of herself and daughter on page 
97. The father of Joseph, Antoine Vernet, also acquired fame 
by his paintings. 

It is said that Horace Vernet supported himself by his draw- 
ing when only fifteen years of age. He became known as a 
painter of military, oriental and biblical scenes, but after 
1836 devoted himself chiefly to battle pieces and pictures ot 
Arab life. 

What does "Allah" mean? Supposing the shadows in this picture to 
be cast at evening, in what direction must Mecca be geographically ? 




Prayer in the Desert— /^v Horace Vernet 



Art for Schools. 



LIST OF PICTURES. Prepared for the use of the Boston 
schools. This list is valuable because it is a guide to the 
best pictures for school use. It gives them in several sizes, 
styles and prices. QWe furnish them all at lowest prices. 

STATUARY.^ We carry the celebrated Wilton-Reuther stat- 
uary. Write us what you wish, height, and if possible some 
idea as to about how much you can invest, and we will give 
you full information. 

THE PERRY PICTURES. Reproductions of famous paint- 
ings and statuary, portraits of authors, poets, statesmen, edu- 
cators, musical composers, pictures representing historical 
events, etc. Sixteen hundred subjects, all carried in stock. 

PRIZE DESIGNS FOR RURAL SCHOOL BUILD- 

INuS. By F. W. Colburn. This book consists (1) of a 
general discussion of the principles of school house architect- 
ure, (2) of numerous examples including floor plans and eleva- 
tion of good practical rural school houses. Questions of size 
of rooms, arrangement of seats, control of light, tinting of 
walls, hygiene, heating, ventilation, extent of school grounds 
and material used in construction, all receive special attention. 
Many designs are printed, selection having been made from 
over two hundred designs recently submitted in a prize compe- 
tition. Price 25 cents. 

COLBURN'S HOW TO DECORATE THE SCHOOL 

ROOM. By F. VV. Colburn. It is hardly an exaggeration 
to say that nine-tenths of the attempted decoration of school 
rooms is done at random. If harmony sometimes results it is 
because the eye suggests that this or that **looks well." More 
often the effect is inharmonious or else no attempt at beautify- 
ing is made, simply because the teacher does not know WHAT 
or HOW. To help such conditions is the purpose of this 
book. A few fundamental principles of color, form and 
arrangement, and some suggestions about simple and inexpen- 
sive material, greatly modify the problem of decoration. The 
closing chapter deals with outside adornment and the arrange- 
ment of school grounds. The book is well illustrated. Price 
26 cents. 

A. FLANAGAN COMPANY, 
CHICAGO 



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OVERDUE. 



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