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"TU^yio-^-fe 7 U^^-MXQ Jtft 

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A Sanscrit Grammaii, including botb tab Classical Language, and 

TBB Older Dialbcts, of Veda and Bhahmana 

B» WiLiiAii Dtight Whitney. 
















Entfind MCOrding to Art of CongTeBi, in tiv jtu IST9, bj W. D. Wliitnajr iu tb« otitx 
at tba Librmriin or CongroEiB mt Wuliiiigton D. C. 

Frintcni: BrBittovf & Hltitpl, LcliHlg. 



It was in June, 1875, ae I chanced to be for a day or 
two in Leipzig, tliat I was nnespectedly invited to prepare 
the Sanskrit grammar for the Indo-European series projected 
by Messrs. Breitkopf and Hftrtel. After some consideration, 
and consultation with friends, I accepted the task, and have 
since devoted to it what time conld be spared from regular 
duties, after the satisfaction o'f engagements earlier formed. 
If the delay seems a long one, it was nevertheless unavoid- 
able; and I would gladly, in the interest of the work itself, 
have made it still longer. In every such case, it is necess- 
ary to make a compromise between measurably satisfying a 
present pressing need, and doing the subject fuller justice 
at the cost of more time ; and it seemed as if the call for 
a Sanskrit grammar on a somewhat different plan from those 
already in use — excellent as some of these in many respects 
are — was urgent enough to recommend a speedy com- 
pletion of the work begun. 

The objects had especially in view in the preparation 
of tbis grammar have been the following: 

1. To make a presentation of the facts of the language 
primarily as they show themselves in use in the literature, 
and only secondarily as they are laid down by the native 
grammarians. The earliest European grammars were by the 
necessity of the case chiefly founded on their native prede- 



ccsftoTfl; and a traditional method was tkns ceulilished which 
luu been perhape Eooiewhat too closely adhered to, at the 
expense of cleamesa and of proi>ortion, as well as of Kcieu- 
tific troth. Accordingly, my attention has not been directed 
toward a profouader atndy of the grammatical science of the 
Hindu schoolB : their tvactiingB I hare l>ooi] contented to take 
as already reported to Wosteni IcamerH io the existing 
Western grommarfi. 

i. To include also in the presentation the forms and 
conetmctions of the older langnage, aa exhibited in the Veda | 
and the Brtifainfina. Graesmann's excellent Index -VocabuUr 
to the Kig-Veda, and my own manuscript one to the Atharva-' 
Veda (which I hope won to be able to make public'), gave 
me in full detail the great mass of Vcdic material ; aud this, 
with some aesietancc from papilK and fricnda, I have sought 
to complete, as tar an the circumstances pcmiilted, from the 
other Vedic texts and from tho rarions woriis of the firtli- 
ma^ia period, both printed and iuanu»cript. 

3. To treat the laa^nage throughout as an accented one, 
otnitttng Dotlnng of what in known rcitpocting tho nature of 
the Saaakrit accent, its chauges in eombiuatiou and iuflcctioii, 
and the tone of indiridua) words — being, in all this, ne- 
ceaearily dependent especially npon the material presented 
by the older accentuated teste. 

4. To cast all statemeota, classifications, and 80 on, 
Into a rona oonBialcnt with the teachiags of liogaiiitic science. 
In doing this, it has been neoeasary to discard » few of the 
long-used and famiUar divigioos and tcrmn of San»krit gram- 
mar — for oxamjilc, the clasnificatiun and nomecolalnre of 
"apecial tenses" and "general teuKCH'* (which io no indefen- 
sible that one can only wonder at it» having: maintained itMlf 
BO loDg), the order and icrntinology of the coujugatinii-claseeB, 
the separation in treatment of the facts of internal and ex- 

* It vu publUbftd, ai vol. XII. of tba Jounuil of (be American 
OrledU) Scxietj-, la iSSl. 



Icrnal enpbnnic ooitiliiuiition, and Uie like. Hut care has l>ceu 
takcD to fucilibite the trunititiou from the old to the new; 
and the changmi, U is bcltovu), will cotnmciid tbems«lvcft Ui 
nnquulifiod accoptoucc It liao bceu soagbt also to help tw 
approcUdou of the charActcr vf the InsgDage l>y putting its 

' facta as far as possible into a etatitttical iorm. la this reitpect 
the native grHtnmar U especially defieient and misleading. 
B^atd has been cvuittaDtlj' had to the .practical needs 
of Ibc learner of ilic language, nod it baa l>een attempted, 
hy due arrangement and by the use of dilfcrent sizes of 
iype, to make the ^ork as usable by ooe whose object 
it is to acquire a kuowledge of the classical Sanskrit aloDe 

iM those are in which the earlier fonntt nre not included. 
The costoni of traDsHtcnttiDg all ^aoHkrit wordtt into Kuro- 
pcan charaetcn), \Thieh hatt bceomc naiial in KuniiwuiD San- 
skrit gruminars, is, us u matter vf cooriie, rctaiued through- 

^out', and, bccAQHC of the diflicalty of iscttiufi; oven a small 
Mskrit type with auythiug hnt a largo Enropcan, it is 
practiced alone in tbo Binaller ai7.cs. 

While the treatment of the facts of the language ban 

^tbns been made a historical one, within the limits of the 
lagnagc itself, I have not routarcd to make it comparative, 
by bringing in the analogoas forms and processes of otiier 
elated langaages. To do this, in addition to all that was 

' attempted beside, would have extended tiic work, both in 

,r)ntci)t and in time of proparatioa, far beyuud Ihv liniibs 
signed to it. And, haring decided to leare out this cle- 
ment, I have done so consistently tbroughont. Explanations 

^f the origin of foruis have also been avoided, for the same 
BOU and lor others, whirh hardly call for Btatcmcnt. 
A grammar in necessarily in great part founded on ita 
prcdeeeasurs, and it would be in vain to attempt au acknowl- 
edgment in detail of all the aid received from other echol- 
ar^. 1 have had at band alwaj'a cspceially the very ochol- 

arly aad reliable brief summary of Kielboni, the full aod 



excellont work yf Monicr WilliiLms, tlie smaller gratninar of 
Bopp {a wonder of learning and melbod for tlic time when 
it was prepared], and tbc volnmos of Ucnfey and BlUller- 
Ah rcf^ards tUc material of the lanfruapo, no other aid, of 
coarse, boa been at ail comiMiiablc with Ibp great Teters- 
borg lexicon of Bi3btlingk. and I{«tb, the existence of wliicb 
gives by itself a now cliaraotcr to all Investigations of tbc 
(Sanskrit language. What 1 bavc not foimd tbcix ur in tbc 
special collectioDa made \ty rnysttif or by otbcnt for tnc, 1 
hare called below "not ([notable" — a provixional deslfpa- 
tion, nfC«e8arily liable to correction in dotnil by tbc rcsolla 
of further researches, for what conccrue the verb, its forms 
aud their classiticatioQ and nscs, I have had, as every one 
ntiiBt have, by far tbc moat aid ftoiu Delbrllek. in bin Alt- 
iDdiscbeR Vcrbnm and bis raiiotu syntacti<.-«l contribu- 
tions. Former papils of niy own, Professors Arcry aud 
ISdgrcD, have also helped nic, in cuoncctiou with tbl8 
subject and with others, in a way and raenBtiru that ealia for 
public ackDowlcd^mout. In respect to the important matter 
of the declenflion in the earliest language, I have made great 
nao of the clalKirato paper in the Jonrn, Am. Or. Soc. [print- 
ed contcmporaocoasly with this work, and used by mo 
ainiotit, but not ()uile, to Ibe end of the subject] by niy 
former pupil Prof. Lanmaa; my trrjttment of it k founded 
on his. My manifold obligatioua to my own teacher, Prof. 
Wctwr of Berlin, also require to he mentioaed: among other 
tbings, I owe to him the use of his copies of certsiu un- 
poblisbed texts of the Urahmana poriwl, not otherwise scce«»- 
Ible to me; and he was kind enough to look throogb with 
me my work in its inchoate condition, favoring nc with 
valuable enggestioDB. For this last favor I have likewise to 
thank Prof, DelbrUck — who, moreover, has taken the trouble 
to glanoc uvor for a like purpo.<w Ibo greater part of tbc 
pn»of-shcct8 of tlic grammar, ut they eame from the press. 
To Dr. L. Ton Scbr&der is dnc whatever nso I bare been 


Preface It 

able to make (unfortonately a very imperfect one) of the im- 
portant HaitrHya^I-SaiiibitK. * 

Of the deficiencies of my mork I am, I think, not leas 
folly aware than any critic of it, even the sevoreet, is likely 
to be. Should it be found to answer its intended purpose 
well enoagb to come to another edition, my endeavor will 
be to improve and complete it; and I shall be gratefnl for 
any corrections or suggestions which may aid me in mak- 
ing it a more efficient help to the stndy of the Sanskrit 
language and literature. 

GoTHA, Joly 1879. 

W. D. W. 


TO THE Second Edition. 

in preparing a new edition of this grammar, I have 
made use of the new material gathered by myself daring 
the intervening years,** and also of that gathered by others, 
BO far as it was accessible to me and fitted into my plan;*** 
and I have had the benefit of kind suggestions from various 
quarters — for all of which I desire to return a gratefnl 
acknowledgment. By such help, I have been able not only 
to correct and repair certain errors and omissions of the 
first edition, bnt also to speak with more definiteness upon 

* Since published in full by him, 1881—6. 
** A part of this new material was publiabod by myself in 18B&, 
as a, Sapplement to the grammar, under tbe title "Roots, Vorb-Forma, 
and Primary Derivatives of the Saoekrit Language". 

*** Especially deserving of mention is IIoltiiniann'B collection of 
materia] from the Mablbbirata, also published (1884] in tbe form uf 
a Supplement to this work ; also BBhtlingli's aimilar collection from 
the larger half of tiie Bunayana. 

X Preface. 

very maay points relating to the material and oBages of 
tbe langoage. 

Id order not to impair the applicability of the referen- 
ced already made to the irork by TarioQB aothors, its para- 
graphing has been retained anchanged tbrongbont; for in- 
creased convenience of further reference, tbe enbdiriaions 
of paragraphs have been more thoroughly marked, by letters 
(nQw and then changing a former lettering); and the par- 
agrapb-nambera have been set at tbe outer instead of the 
inner edge of the upper margin. 

My remoteness from the place of publication has for- 
bidden me the reading of more than one proof; but the 
kindness of Professor Lanman in adding his revision (ac- 
companied by other timely snggestiona) to mine, and the 
care of the printers, will be fonnd, I troat, to have aided 
in aecnring a text disfigured by few errors of the press. 

CircumBtancea beyond my control have delayed for a 
year or two the completion of this revision, and have. made 
it in some parts less complete than I should have desired. 

New-Haven, Sept. 1888. 

W. D. W. 


Bbiek Account o^■ tuk Ixthan Litkkatube. 

It seems desirable to pre here such a sketch of the 
hisloiy of Indian literature as shall show the relation in 
one another of the diffcicnt periods and farnu of the lan- 
guage trealed in the following g^iumuar, and the position 
of the woilts theic quoted. 

'Hie nAmc "Saoskrit" [Miihskfta, 1087 d, aitomcd, olab- 
\arated, p*r/eet«d\, which \» poptiUrly Applied to the irholo 
ancient and sncred hngu.ige of India, helongs nioic pmperly 
only to that dialect which, regulated and established b^ Oie 
labors of the native gmmraaTian)!, hiu led for the laiat two 
thousand years or more &n anificia.1 life, like that of the 
Idtiu daring moat of the same period in Europe, n« the 
written and Hpoken means of communication of the learned 
and priestly caste; and which even at the present day fills 
that ofBee. It m thus distingoished, on the one hand, bom 
thfl later and derivptl dialeels — a» the-Fraktit, forms of 
las^ago which hnvc datable monumeut^ from as early as 
the third century before Christ, and which ate represented 
by inscriptions and coins, by the speech at the uneducated 
charaeters ia the Sanskrit lUamas (see below), and by a limited 
liti^tiiturc; the i'iih. a. I'rakritic *lialeci ivhidi became the sau- 
ted language nf Buddhism ia Ceylon and Fartliei India, and \» 



mill in service there as such; aiid yei later and moie altuieil 
loQ^efl rorniiii]^ the tiansition to the languiigea of modern 
India. And, on iho other haod, it is d)Stinguitih(>d, dut 
wry iDUch less sluirply aud widely, from the older lUaltwl* 
ot forms of itpcccli prc^euied in tlio ciuionicul litctuluii;, 
thu Vcdft imd lirahtiuinii. 

Tiii* (itoi, of tho Hxatlon hj Ivarned IriiatincDl of nn 
aiilhoTizcd mode of cxptcMion, which should thcn<-efonh be 
used according to rate io the interooarse of the educatcti, 
ia the cardinal one in Indian linguistic history; and ax the 
native grammatical literature has determined the form of 
the language, lO it has also to a large extent determined 
the g:ramnialical treatment of the laiif;;ua(re by European 

Much in the history of the learned movement is still 
obsourse, and opinions arc at variance even as to poiatB of 
prime oonswjuencc. Only the coDohuting works in llic deve!- 
opmuiit of ihc gramattcal science have been presetveil to 
tw; and tliougli they arc evidently the perfected fruit* of ir 
loQ^ seriot* of Icuncd taliors, the reconU of the latter aTc 
lost beyoud recovery. The limp and the plaec of the cre- 
ation of tianahrit are unknown; and as to itfi occasion, we 
have only our infcrcuceB and conjcclurcs to icly upon. It 
seems, however, nltogcthcr Itkctly that tlie grammatical scninL^ 
of the aocicul Hindus was awakened in great measiue by 
their study of the tiadilional sacred texti*, and hy their com- 
partson of iu diflferent language with that of contemporary 
use. It IB certain that the grammatical study of those texts 
(f&khfts, Itlly branefiesl, phonetic and otlier, was sealouily 
and eflectircly followed in the Rrahnintiic schools; thin is 
attested by our possession of a number of phonctico-f![ram- 
miitical treatises, ' prBtif Hkhyas (prati f ikhSm Mon^nff to 
each leceral text), each havin;; for subject one priaoipal 
Vedic text, and noting nil its pceuliarilics of fornt; these. 
Ijoth by the depth and exactness of their own researches 
and by Ihc number of aulhoriliea which they quote, speak 
plainly of a lively seicnlific activity oontinued during a long 
time. Wliat part, on the other hand, the noiicc of differ- 



eeaeee l)otwe«n the oorreot Hpi>«oh of tho lenrncd aii<l the 
altered di»lect8 c»f ihe vulgar may have 1miid<' in the same 
movement is not easy to determine; but it is oot customary 
that a language has iu propor iisa^t-s fixed by rule until 
; the dangi't in diittinctly felt o( it« undergoing conuption. 

The lalion of the general school of Sanskrit giamnuu 

reached n climax in ihu K^<'<'"ntnariaD Pauini, whose text-book, 

cootaining the facU of tJic language cant into the highly 

anftil and diflicuH form of about four thousand algebraio- 

formula-tike ruU'4 (in the ^lalcmeni and arranftemctii of 

which brerity alone i» had Id view, at the cost of distioct- 

neas and uaambiguousnow], became tot all after time the 

tfluthorilativo, almost saeicd, norm of correct speech. Ke- 

jifpecting his period, nothiog realty definite and tiuytworthy 

'is kuowni hut he is with much piobabiliiy held to have 

lived some time (two to four ceuturies) before the Christian 

era. Me has had commeDlaion^ iu abundance.', uod ha^ uiidor- 

gonr at Uieii hands some mea&uie of ameudment aud eoin- 

pletiou; but he has aot been overthrowa or superseded. 

,The chief and most authontative commentary na his work 

is that called the Mahfibh&ahya great ccmmtnt, by Pa- 


A languase, evea if DOl a veToaeutar one which is in 
tolerably wide and coualant use for writing nnd apeakiog*, 
1)1, of ooutate, kept in life priocipaJly by direct tradition, by 
oonununicatioD from leaclier to Mholar and the study and 
irailalJon of existing texts, and not by the learnin;; of gram- 
tnatirol rules; yet the existence of grammatical authority, 
and uspcciuJIy of a single one, deemed infallible and of pre- 
scriptive value, could not fail to exert a strong regulative 
tcflueuce, leading: to the avoidance mote and more of what 
was, even if liageriog in use, inconsistenl with his lenchiogs, 
and also, in the oonstant leproduetion of texts, to the grad- 
■ tial eflfacement of whatever they might contain that waa 
sapprnvcd. Thus the whole more modern literature of 
India has been Taninized, so to apeak, pressed into the 
mould prepnred by him ajid his school. What are the 
limits of the artifioialiiy of this pioceeii iii uot yet known. 



The attentioD , of special sttideou oi tlie Hindu grftmrnat 
[and the subject is 90 intricate and difficult that the numbei 
a exceedingly small of those who hare inasteicd it suffi- 
ciently to have a oompetent opinion od such general matteraj 
has heen hitherto mainly directed toward dcteiRiiuia^ what 
the f^naskril aoooiding to Pai^ini really is. toward exphuning 
the Innguago from the j^ammar. And, naturally enough, 
in India, or wherever else tlie leading ohject is to learu to 
speak and write the language correctly — that is, as author- 
ized by the grantniartaus — tliai i* the proper course to 
pursue. Tills, howerer, is not the way really to understand 
the language. The time must won come, ox il has come 
ahesdy, when the cndcaror shall be instead to explain the 
giftumar from t)ic language: to teat in all dL-tait.-', m far 
aa shall be found possible, the reason of Pinini's rules 
(which contain not a tittle that seema problemntical, or even 
sometimes perverse); to determine what and how much 
genuine usage hu had everywhere as fouadsition, and what 
traee* may be left in the literature of usjigcs posseasing an 
inherently nuthorized character, though unratiBeil by him. 

Ily the term "classicar or "later" language, then, as 
constantly used below in the grawmat, is meant the lan- 
guage of thome literary mOHiinivnti<i which an- written in cou- 
Forroity with the rules of the native grammar: virtually, the 
whole proper Siuiskiit literature. For although parta of this 
ore doubtless carlit-i than Punini, it is impossible to tell 
ju«t whnt parts, or how far they havo escaped in their style 
the leveling influence of the grammar. The whole, too, 
may be calltxl so for an artillcial literature as it is written 
in a phoDCtic form (see grammar, 101 n) which never can 
have been a truly vernacular and living one, Nearly all of 
it is metrical: not poetic works only, but norrativos. histories 
(so far as anything desernng that name can be said to existi, 
and scientific treatises of every variety, are done into verse; 
a prose and a prose literature hardly has an existence (the 
principal cxecptionij, aside from the voIuminouB commen- 
taries, are a few aturies, as tlie Sa^akumSraoarits and the 
TBaavadattlt), Of linguistic history tJiere is next to nothing 



ID it all; (lut only a history flf style, and this fot the mo«t 
pan HhowiDg a. gradual depiavatioii, an increase of artiticiality 
aad im iatea«ificiition of certain more undesirable fcatun^s 
of the langti.-i^u — such as the uite of paMivo const nictSontf 
nnd of participles inst«a<l of vctlis, and tlic aulntitutiun of 
comjiounds for sentences. 

This being the «onditioD of the later literaturo, it is of 

^so much the higher <;onse<iuence thai there is an earlier 
litviatutc, to which the suspicion of artificiality does not 
nttaeh, or attaches at leaHt only in a minimal degree, which 
hiu a truly reroacular chaiacler, and abounde iu prose as 
well AS verse. 

The tesulls of the very earlieat literary piaductiveneAs 
of the Indian people are the hymns witli which, when ihey 
had only viosgud the tlireshold uf the oountty, and when 
their geoigraphica.! hoiizoa waa slill limited to the river- 
of the Inilus witli its tributaries, ibcy praised their 

r^pdfl, the dei6ed jioirers of nature, and accompanied the 
ritee of their comjiaratively simple worship. At what period 
Ihcee were made and mog cannot bo doteimiaod with any 
approach to aoctuacy: it may have ticcn at early a» 2000 
II. C. Thoy were long handed down by oral tradition, pn>- 
erred by the care, nod inercaBod by the addittooB and 

'imitationf, of succecdiuf; gcnenUions ; the mass was erer 
growing, and, with the change of habits and beliefs and 
religions practices, was becoioiag variausly applied — sung 
in chosen oxtracts, niixed with other material into liturgies, 
adapted wjtli more or less of distortion to help, the needs 
if a ceremonial which was ooming to be of immense elab- 
oration and intricacy. .And, at some time in the course 
of this history, there was made for pteserration a great ool- 
lectiou of the hymn-material, mainly it« oldest and most 
genuine pan, to the extent of over a ihousaad hymns and ten 
thousand versiw, arranged accoiding to traditional authorship 
and to subject and length and metre of hymn: this collection 
is the Bls-Vodk feda of vertes (re) or of ht/mnt. Other 
collections were madu also out of the same general mass 
of traditional material: doubtltuw later, although the inter- 



reln-lioru of tlii» period nre a« yet loo uncleAr to allow of 
QUI spcukiDj; with entire coQtideace ab to Anything oonccm- 
ing them. Thiis, the Sfims-Veda I'e^Ut of rhutU (sBman), 
cuolAiaiag only attoiit il sixth an much, iu verses neatly nil 
found in the Hig-Veda aUo, bat Appearing hcio with numa- 
rous differences of reading: these were pash.iges put togethn 
for chanting at the wma-sactificce. Again, collections cilled 
by the compiehensivc name of Y«jar-Vod» VsAa of na^ 
rificial forrtwlat iyftju«| : these contained not verses aJone, 
but also numerous pro^ mtL'Tunccs, mingled with the former, 
in the order in which they were pracLioally employed in 
the oeremoniee ; they werc> etrictly liturgic-i) cullecLions. Of 
these, there arc in existence sevor-ii texts, wliioh have their 
mutual differences: ihe VSjaaaneyi.Saihhilll (in two slightly 
disoordanl versions, USdhyandina and KBQval, somctimeR 
also called the White Yajur-Veda; and thp various auid 
oonsiileiuldy diflering t^'Xts of the Black Yajiw-Veda, namely 
the TUtUrlya'SaitiUitS, the HUtriya9l*Sailiihltfi. the Kapi«> 
(halA-SsibhitS, and the Kft(halta ilhc two last not yet pub- 
lished). Finally, anolher historical collection, like the Rig- 
Veda, hut made up mainly of later and Iom accepted 
msterial, and called (among other less current names) the 
AUiarva-Voda Veda of Mc Athaixana (a legcniUuy priestly 
family); it w somewhat more than halfas bulky as thv Rig- 
Veda, and cxialainv a certain amount of material correMpoad- 
ing to that of Ihc latter, and also a Qural)c>r of brief prow 
passages. To thie last oolleotion is Yi;ty generally lofuaed 
io the orthodox titeniture the Name of Veda ; but (or us it 
is the moJn interesting of all. after thr Ilig-Vcfla, beoause 
it contains the latest amount of hynto -material {or mantra, 
as it ia called, in distinction from the prost; brlihinans], 
and in a language which, though distinctly less antique 
than that uf tht- other, is neverlheless truly V'vdic. Two 
vetsiotu of it are extant, ono of them in only a single 
known manuHcripl. 

A not insigniAcant Ixxly of like material, and of various 
period (although doubtleM io the main I'l-lougiog to the 
lalast time of Vcdic productiveness, and in |kart perhaps 



tlie imiuUvc work oC a yet moio motlora tinio). i* scaUered 
through the texts to lie later de»cribfid, the BrShmsoas aad 
the satras. To nsspmhlo and sift aod compaio it is uov 
one of the pressing needs of Vedi? study. 

The fusdamenlal dirisione of the Vedio liteiatuie hcto 
aiontloncd hnro nil had their various sohools of sevtarieo, 
each of the^ with a teil of il« own, showing some differ- 
ences from thofic of the other schools; but those mcutionod 
above ore all that ate now known to be tn existence; and 
the chance of the discovery of others grows every year 

The labor of the schools iu the conservation of their 
sacrod text* was exlrnotdlnary, and lia« been crowned with 
such suoceu that tlie text of each school, n-liatcver miiy 
be ita difference!) horn tho«e of other schools, is virtually 
without various readings, prcccrvcd with all it? peculinrities 
of dialect, »nd its amalluat and most exceptional trails of 
phonetic form, pure and unoUscuied. It is not the place 
here 10 describe the means by which, in addition to the 
religious care of the iKctaries, this accurasy was secured: 
fonos of lexis, lists of pecutiaritiee and treatises upon iheiu, 
and so on. MHien this kind of care began in the case of 
each text, and what of original character may have been 
effaced before it, or lost in spile of it, cannot be told. Rut 
it is certain that the Vedio records furnish, on the whole, 
a wouderfully aocuiale and trustwoithy picture of a form of 
ancient Indian language [ns well a.& ancient Indian behels 
and institutions) which was a natural and undlatoited one, 
and which goes back a good way bi'hind tJic clast^iciil Siut- 
skrit. ItA diffcicnccs from the latter thu following treatise 
endeavors to show in detail. 

Along with the veisea and sacrificial formulas and 
phraac'-s in the text of the Klack Vajur-Vcda are given 
long prose sections, in which tlie ceremonies are described, 
their meaning and the icnson of the details and the aocom- 
[lanying utterances are discussed and explained, illustrative 
Ic{>cnd8 are reported of fabricated, and various sjieculatioas, 
etymological and other, are indulged in. Such matter comex 


stIH LrrmoDrcnos. 

to 1*0 called brthimpa ^apparently relattag to the brahman 
01 Vjornhip). In the White Tajnx-Veda, it ii Kpanied into 
a work by it«elf, beside the ladiliiti or text of rerses and 
formulan, and ia called the (Jlatapatha-BrBioiaqa Brahmana 
of a hundred teayt. Other similai collections are found, be- 
lonfpng to variouK other schools of Vedic stady. and they 
tiear the common name of Brthmaqa, with th&name of the 
school, or some other distinctive title, prefixed. Thus, the 
Altareya an<l KSn^Itakf-BriUuDa^aa, belonging to the schools 
of the Rig-Veda, the Pftfic»rUifa and S»^Tiny»-Tftrith ms?a » 
and other minor works, to the Sama-Veda; the Gopatha- 
BrfthmaQS, to the AthaiTa-Veda ; and a Jaimirdya- or Tala- 
vskKro-BrBhmava, to the Sama-Yeda, has recently Burnell 
Iteen discovered in India; the TSittirlya-Brtbmava is a col- 
lection of mingled mantra and brShmaija, like the saifahitS 
of the same aame, but supplementary and later. Those 
works are likewise regarded as canonical by the schools, 
and are learned by their sectaries with the same extreme care 
which is devoted to the saifahitftB, and their condition of 
textual preservation is of a kindred excellence. To a cer- 
tain extent, there is among them the possession of common 
material: a fact the bearings of which are not yet fully 

Notwithstanding the inanity of no small part of their 
oontents, the Krahmanas are of a high order of interest in 
their bearings on the history of Indian institutions; and 
philological ly they are not less important, since they re- 
present a form of language in most respects intermediate 
liotween the classical and that of the Vedas, and offer spe- 
cimens on a large scale of a prose style, and of one which 
is in the main a natural and freely developed one — the 
oldest and most primitive Indo-European prose. 

Beside the Brahmanas are sometimes found later ap- 
pendices, of a similar character, called Arai^yakas {forest' 
scrtiom): as the Aitareya-Ara^yaka, TSittiiTya-Ara^yaka , 
Brhad-Ara^yaka, and so on. And from some of these, or 
even from the Itrnhmauas, are extracted the earliest Upa- 
ui^adB [sittings , lectures on sacred subJecU) — which , 




bovrerer, are conliDut'd auU atldcd to down to a compara- 
tively modern lime. The; l-jKiuishada arc odo of the liant 
by witich the Ittaluuo^a liteiAtuie jNtsses over into the latci 
theologiojil tileratutt?. 

AnoihcT line uf uaaaiiioo is shovrn in tbt- SQtoraB {linee, 
ruiea). Tlie vrorkft ihua named me analogous with tlip 
RrahmA^as ia that they heloug to tho Mhooh of Vodio 
study anil ate named from tliem, and that they deal with 
the leligious eercniuniee : tivncinfc them, howertjT, in ibc 
way of pTCHcriptioii, not of dugmitliv explanation. They, 
too, contain sotnc mantra or hymn-iiiatcm), not found (u 
occur eUewhere. In part (frSuta or kalpa-satrag] , they take 
up Iho great sacri6oin1 cetemonii:^. with which the Brah- 
maiia« have lo do; in part (grbya-sOtYSs), they tvach t[iu 
minor duties of a pious KouHcholder; in aomc oases (afi- 
mayficftrika-aQtrasi they lay down the general obligiitioas of 
one whose lift- is lo aocordance with pr«scrihed duty. And 
out of die last two, or especially the lael, come by natural 
development the law-books [dbartna-^Sstrasj, which make 
a coospicuous figure in tJie later literature: the oldest and 
most noted of them being l)ia( c&lletl by the name of 
Uanu (an ont|{towth, it is believed by many, of the Manava 
Vcdic school}; lo which are added ibat of Yajna^aHcyat and 
many others. 

Kesiwotiu)^ the ehronology of lliis development, ot the 
date of any chus of writings, slill more of any indindual 
work, the less that is said tlic belter. All dates given in 
Indtiin literary history are ptns set up to be bowled down 
Again. Every important work has undctgODC so niau)' more 
or leM Uansforiuing changes before roaohJng the form in 
which it oome)' to ui*, that the quealioa of original cou- 
■tiuction ia eoniplicatcd with thai of final redaction. It is 
so with the law-book of .Manu, just mentioned, which has 
well-founded claimii to being regarded as one of the very 
oldest woiks of the proper Sanskrit litoratutc, if not the . 
oldest (it has been variously assifrt"^. <*) periods from six 
oenluries before Christ to four after Christ;. It is bo, again, 
ia a Hill more striking degivo, with the great legendary 



epio of ilic HahAbharata. 'llie ^onntl-tvork or Ihis is 
douI>t1e«a of very carl)' date; Iml it h.^ served as a Icxt 
into which matcnjils of various character and perlo<l hnvc 
bc«ti innoren, until it has Im-codil- a hetBiogeneotis rana^, 
ft kiad of c)-cto|K(liB ftir the wanior-caMc^ hard to separate 
into its CQDStitucQt [>arta. Tlic story of XTala, and the phil- 
oflophical pucin Shagavad^Gitl, arc Iwo of ihi^ most notwl 
of iu episodes, llio RamAyana, the other most fAmoiu epie, 
ia A work of another kind: though aiKo wnrkexl over nnd 
more oi Ic»h altered in il» trimsmiKiion to our time, it is 
the production, in the main, of a einglo author (VUmlki); 
and it is generntly boherf'd to be in part allpgoriral. re- 
preseutiag the introductioo of Aryan culture and domiaion 
into Southern India. Hy its »ide stand a number of miaor 
epic«, of various authorship and period, as the RaghuvaA^a 
(ascribed to the diamaliat Kalidxsa), the lOghakSrya, the 
BhatUkKvya [tbo tut, written clucfly with the grammaticat 
intent of iiluttrating by use as many as poKible of the 
numerous formatioa!) vrhicli, though taught by the grani- 
marians, find uo place in tJic literature). 

The Pnr&Qan, a large class of n-orks Rio«Lty of immense 
extent, are best mentionwl in conneetiou with the epio. 
Tliey are pseudo-historical and prophetic ia chaiacter, of 
modern date, and of inferior value. Itcal history finds no 
place in Sanskrit Uteiature, nor is there any conscious 
hietotical eleinem in any of the works composing it. 

Lyric lioetry ia represented by many works, some of 
which, 00. the UegUadata and Qltogovinda, are of do tnean 
Older of merit. 

Tlie drama is a still more noteworthy and inipurtant 
braoeb. The first indications of dramatioaJ inclination and 
capacity on the part of the Hindu-'^ uiis seen in cerliiin 
hymns of the Veda, where a mythoI<^ica] or legeniUry 
situation is conceived dramatically, and set forth in the 
form of a dialogue — well-known examples are (he diidogue 
of Saramn and the Panis, that of Yama and his tleiez Viuni, 
that of Vasiiditha and the rivers, that of Agoi and the other 
goda — but there are no extant intermediaries between these 



and ihe staudard tlrama. The Ix^nmiogs of the laltfrr iliitc 
from X period nlien in itL-tual life Uie highet aaA vdiieatcd 
ehatacteis used Sanskrit, aiiil tU« loirer ant) uncducatiid iiscil 
the popular dinlecU dorived fioDi it, the Prakriut; nod their 
dialogue reflects Uiis condittuD of things. Then, howcrrr 
leatimnf; (not to call it pudiintry'' ioterroned, Aod stereotyped 
the new element; a Pntkrit grammar grew up beoidc th*.- 
Sanskrit ^ammnr, aecotdinf; to tho inles of which Pr:ikril 
could be made indefinitely on a sulstriite of Hanskrit ; and 
none of the exlstin(; dramaa need to date froni the time of 
vemaoulai use of I'lakrit, while most or all of them are 
undoubtedly much later. Among tho draraatic authors, 
KulidttSB is iDconiparublT ihc chief, and hin Qakunt^lS it 
distioctly his maelvrpiccc. His date lias bccu a matter of 
much tn<iuity and coiilrorvrty.; it in douhtletw vonio con- 
turif's later than our era. The only other work deserriog 
to be tneolioni-d along witli Kttlidnaa's is the Ui-cohakatikft of 
^iidrakEi, also of questionable period, but bcUered to be 
tlio oldest of the extant dramas. 

A partly dramatic character belongs also to the fnlilo. 
Id which animala art- repruseiited as acting and speaking. 
The most noted works in thiit depiutmeot are tlie Fajkca- 
tantra, which ihroitgh Femnn and Semitic versioiiH has made 
ill way all over tlic world, and contributes a considerable 
quota to the fahle-Iiteialurc of every Kuropean langiuige, 
and, partly fnuuded on it, the compamtirely recent and 
popular Hitopad«9a {taiutary iiulruction). 

Two of the leading departments of Sannkrit scicnlific 
literataie, the legal and the grammatical, hare bocn already 
sufficiently noticed; of those remaining, llie most im])nrLant 
by for in the philosophical. Tlie bc^iunings of philosophic^ 
al apcculalioa arc seen already in some of the later hymns 
of the Ved.-i, more abundiintly in the Hrahnmi^as and Aran- 
ytkaa, and then especially in the rpanishads. The evo- 
lution and historic relation of the syslcm^ of philosophy, 
and the age of their text-books, arc matters on which much 
olitcuTitr mill rests. 'ITicrc arc nir ayatems of primary rank, 
and reckoned as ortltodox, although really staadiog iu do 

xxii Intboduction. 

accordance with appioved religious doctrines. All of them 
seek the same end, the emaacipation of the soul from the 
necessity of continuing its existence in a succession of 
bodies , and its unification with the All-soul ; but they 
diffei in tegatd to the means by which they seek to attain 
this end. 

The astronomicaJ science of the Hindus is a reflection 
of that of Greece, and its liteiatuie is of lecent date; but 
as mathematicians, in arithmetic and geometry, they have 
shown more independence. Their medical science, although 
its beginnings go back even to the Veda, in the use of 
medicinal plants with accompanying incantations, is of little 
account, and its ptopei literature by no means ancient. 


Chap. Pagt. 

PBPPACEI .. . ^ ^ ^ * . - , V 

Intboddctioh xl 

I. Alphabet 1 — 9 

II. SvBTBic OP Sounds; Pkondnciation .... 10 — 34 
Towels, lOj CoiiBonftnti, 13 ; Qoantity, 27; Accent, !2a 

III. Rdles of Euphohic CouBraATiOM 34 87 

labodqctqr;,. 34 ; ^qclples, 37-, BnJes Of Vowel Cora- 
blnatlOD, 42 ; Permitted Flnali, 49; Deupltatlon, 53; 

Surd knd Sonint AMlmllttion, 64; Cambinationa of 
FiasI 8 tad r, 66; ConTenlon of a to q, 6t; Con- 
Tonloa of n to ^ 64; CoDTenlon of DanUl Mutea to 
Lingual* aod PaltUIa, 66; Combiiiationa of Final iii 
69 ; Comblnitiona of Final m, 71 ; the Palatal Mutoa 
and SibUaot, and b, 72; the Lingual Sibilant, 77; 
Extanatoa and Abbieviation, 78; Strengthening and 
Weakening ProeetMa, 81; Qi^ui and Trddhi, 81; 
Yowel-lengthening, 84 ; Towel-Ugfatenlng, 8o ; Natal 
iDctement, 86; Bedaplteatlon, 87. 

IV. DECLBHBfOIf 88 — 110 

Gender, Number, Caae, 88; Usea of the Caaea, 89; 

Endings of Declenaion, 103 ; Variation of Stem, 107; 
Accent In DeelanalDn, 108. 

V. Nouns akq Ao.rEin'iTEB ,. m — 176 

Oaaalfloattoa eta.. Ill; Declension I., Stoma in a, 112; 
Declention II., Stemi in i and ti, 116; Declension 
IIL, Stoma in Long Vowela (ft, I, a): A. Boot-words 
etc., 124; Sterna in Diphthongs, 130; B. Deri rati ve 
Sterna etc., 131; Declension IV., Stems in f ot ar, 
137; Declension V., Stems In Conionants, 141; 
A. Boot-stems etc., 143; B. DerivaltTo Stems in as, 
is,-iiahl63^ O. DeriTative Stems In an, 156: D. 
in In, 161 ; K In ant or at. 163 ; P. Perfect Psr- 
tidplea in vSii», 169; G. Compatatives in yft&a or 
yaa, 172; CempaiUon, 173. 


f%Ap. Page. 

VI. NUMBBAL8 177 — 185 

CiidljitJg, 177; Ordlnils etc., 183. 

VII. Prokounb 185 — 199 

Persontl, iSb; DenoiiBtTttlTo, 188; InteirogattTo, 

104; ReUtlTS, 195; otlicr PronounB: Emphatic, la- 
doflnllo, 198; Nouiib oiod pronomioally, 197; 
Pronominil DerlTitlves, PoueBglTes etc., 197; Ad- 
jDctt*eB declined proiiomlnilly, 199. 

VIII. Conjugation .■ . . . 200 — 226 

Voice, Tense, Mode, Number, Person, 200; TcTbtl 
Adjecttvei 4iid Nouns, 303; Secoodaty Conjusatlona, 

203; Penonal Ending*, 201; Sobjuaotlve Mode, 209; 
OpUtlve, 211 ; IiDperatlre, 213 ; Uses of the Modes, 
216; Participle*, 220; AagraBnt,220; BedupUoatlon, 
222 i Accent of the Verb, 223. 

IX. The Phesbnt-Stbtem 227 — 278 

O^neriJ, 227; Conjogatlons and Con] ligation Claesos, 
228) Root-Olaas (jecond or ad-clus), 231; Ite- 
duplkallnfi Cites (third ot ha-olass), 242; Nasal 
ClaiB (seTonth or rudh-eUss), 250; nu and u-Clasecs 
(tilth and elKhth, or Ba- and tan-classea), 254; nS- 
Clua (ninth or kri-clasE), 260; a-Class (first or 
bbQ-oltss), 264; Accented &>CI*sg (sixth or tad- 
class), 269; yB-Cl*Bs (fourth oi dlv-dass), 271; 
Accented yi^Olass or Passive Conjagatlon , 275 ; 
So-called tenth or our-claes, 277 ; Uses of the Pres- 
ent and Imperfect, 278. 

X. TbE PERFECT-SrSTBM 279—296 

Perfect Tense, 279; Perfect Participle, 291; MoOcs 
ot the Perfect, 292; Pluperfect, 295; Uses of the 
Perfect, 296. 

XI. The Aoeibt-Systems 297 — 330 

Classification, 297; I. Simple Aorist: J. Root-Aorist, 
299; Passive Aorist 3d sing., 304; 2. (he a-Aorist. 
m>i 11. 3. RedupUeatad Aorist, 303; III. Sibilant 
Aorist, 313; 4. the B-Aorist, 314; 6. the i^-Aorisi. 
S-IO; li. the aiq-Aorist, 323; 7. the sa-.^orist, 325; 
Piecatlve, ^36 -. Uses of the Aorist, 328, 

XII- Tire Fctuhe-Ststems 330 — 339 

I. The B-Futaw>, 331; Preterit of the B-Totnre, Con- 
aitlonal, 334; II, The Periphr»stic Fnlure. 335; 
L'ies of the Faiares and Conditional, 337. 


Cbap. P*(«- 

Xin. Verbal adjectives and Nouns: Partici- 
ples, Infinitives, Gerunds 340 — 360 

Puaive Participle in t& or n&. 340; Put ActWe 
Ptiticlple fn tavailt, 344; Future P«b»1vo Puti- 
ciples, QerunilWcB, 345; InfliiitivBR, 347; Uacs of 
iho InfliiltUeis, 361; Goruiids, 365; AdvurhUl QBTUiifl 
In Mill 359. 

XIV. Dbrivatitb or 8econdars Conjugation . . 360 — 391 

I. PbebIvu, 361; II. Intoiisire, 362; PKsept'SysteiD, 
366; Pertect, Aorist, Future, etc., 370; IJI. Desldei- 
ftllTC, 372; Preseiit-Sy«t«iD, 374; Perfect, Aorist, 
Future, etc., 376; IV. Caus&tive, 378; Present-Syatem, 
380; Perfect, Aorist, Future, etc., 383; V. Denom* 
instlve, 386. 

XV. Periphrastic and Cohfound Conjugation 391 — 403 
The PeriphTMtie Peifecl, 392; Purtlcipl*! PerlphtM- 

tlc Phruei, 304; Oomposltlou wltb Prepositional 
PreBxee, 395; Other Verbal Oomponndi, 400. 

XVI. Ikdbclinables 403 — 417 

Adtetba, 403; PrepoalHonB, 414; Coiijunctlonfi^ 416; 
iQteijections, 417. 

XVil. Derivation of Declinable Stehs 418 — 480 

A. Primary Derivatlvea, 420; B. Secondary DerlTi' 
tl*es, 454. 

XVIII. Formation of Compound Stems 480 — 515 

CIas:>ifl cation, 480; 1. Copnlatire Compounds, 486; 

II. DeterDiioatlTB Compouuds, 489; A. Dependent 
Compoands, 489; B. Descrlptt«e Compounds, 494; 

III. Secondary Adjeotive CorapoandB, 501; A. Pos- 
seuiTe Compounds, 601 ; B. Compoundii with QoTetned 
Final Membet, 511 ; Adjective Componndi as Nouns 
and as Adverbs, 512; Anomalaus Compounds 514; 
Slum-flualB altered In Composition, 614; Looeo 
Construction vrith Compoonde, 616. 

Appendix 516—520 

A. Examples of Varlons Sanskrit Type, 516; B. Rx- 
ample of Accentuated Text, 618; t^ynopsis of the 
conjngaiioa of roots bhii and k(, 620. 

Sanskrit-Index .'J21 — 539 

Oeneral-Index 540 — 551 


.tfa«. A yatwi a*-teaa. 

Aft A^«rv>-Pi^a£QSc^n. 

AV. AikarT>-T4ifi>. 

R. IT Ef . BriiiBUR*!. 

BAC- Briwi-AsnT^brC^aauM. 

(y (;aknuli- 

r;0«. f;i£Ui7mi»^:;rfcTa-SBin. 

DKC. iM^Kiubini-CMiu. 
E. Kt>4* HBb. Bftd R.. 
OB- 'ffjpMbk-BnhittaAa. 
0«»- rj</bbniya-Orhy^(Mtra. 
M. IIiU/ps4e^. 
Ibr. lUrirsDgc 

JUH. Jlimltilrft • Upiaifsd- Brih- 

K. Ibtbftlu. 

K>p. K»p)fibalt-8uifaiti. 

KB. K&OflUkl' 'or giokharsna-; 

Kf(U. Ktufltdtl-Briliiuna-Upuil' 

KV^. KAtylytna-VrinU-Sfitra. 
KH. Ktu^ikft-KfitrK. 
KH8, KAtbft-ilarit-Sigsn. 

'<«tbft UpADifftd. 

XT'- Zb^Cjbdmil 

Zjji. liL j-ty si»->*iaiiLk- ^Hi.^ 

X. KuQL 

KIT SanitHa-CpHDai. 
KtfS. Till iiflTi I 

Xiah TTiiwiOi'T^ 

P^u. PaSeassmx 

PB. Paaar^t*- c^ TiKiirv- BHfc- 

P6£ riiMtii tfikii nil I 
PC. Pacn rponni. 
B. Bsaifxu. 

Bsgk. B>g]tcnAc>> 
BPr. BiifTcd»-Pti£iEikk7s. 
RV. Kv-Veda. 

5B. ^Taf»-Bnkva&a. 

Spr. iRdiickc ^itnch« BShtfinfk'. 

3T. Suu-TcdL 

TA. "nittirijv-Ancfmka. 

TB. Tiittufja-Bnlmiui. 

TPr. Taictiri7a'Prttic«khra. 

Tribh. TribUfrintu «oDm. to 

TS. Tiittiriyt-Suohiti. 
0. npuiifids. 
V. VedM (RVt AV., SV. . 
Va«. Vuiatha. 
VBS. Vuihs-Brhftt-SvuhiU. 
Vet VetalxpK3csTiii^l. 
Vikr. Yikramorra^i 
VPr. VBJMMeyi-Pratii^hy*. 
VS. Vijueneyi-SaiiihiU. 
VS. K&n. do. Kinva-text 

Y. Tj^ftkralkfA. 



1. Thb natives of India write their ancient and sacied 
languRge in a variety of alphabets — generally, in each 
part of the country, in the same alphabet which they use 
for their own vernacular. The mode of writing, however, 
which is employed throughout the heart of Aryan India, or 
in Hindustan proper, is alone adopted by European scholars : 
it is called the denuiBgarl, 

a. This nune li of doabtfnl origin ftnd value. A. noie compteheiulTe 
Dime la nBgarl (peib«pB, of the eittf); *nd d»va-nftgari ii nigarl of 
the godi, 01 of fA« Brakmant. 

S. Much tb»t relates to the blatoty of the Indlin alphabets la itlll 
obacaie. The eaiUesI written monnmenta of known date In the country are 
the IniorlptiODg containing the edlsts of A^ka or Pl;adaal, of about the 
middle of the third century B. 0. Tbsy are In two different aystema of 
ehaiactera, of whioh ono ahow* distinct signs of derivation bam a Semitic 
tonrce, while the other in also probably, though mnch less OTidentty, of the 
same origin. From the latter, th« Lath, or Southern Atoka character (of 
Oimar), come the later Indian alphabets, both those of the northern Aryan 
languages and (hose of the eouthem Dravldian languages. The nSgari, 
deviuiAgari, Bengali, Onzeriti, and others, are varieties of Its northern 
derivatiTei ; and with them are related some of the alphabets of peoples 
outaide at India — aa In Tibet and Farther India — who have adopted Qindu 
enltnre or rellgioD. 

a. There is reason to believe that writing waa first employed in India 
tor practical pnipo^ea — for correspondence and bualnegs and the like — 
ud only h; degrees came to be applied also to literary aae. The literature, 
to a great extent, and the more folly in proportion to its claimed sanctity 
ud authority, ignores all written record, and assumes to be kept In existence 
It oral tradition alone. 

Wkitnaj, (lianmar. 3. *d. 1 

3—] 1. Alphabet. j 

8> Of the deruiKgafi Itielf there are mlnoT T*rletieB, depending on 
dlffeieDoei of loulity oc of peiiod, as bIso of inditido*! hand (lee esunple* 
In Webei'a Mtalogae of the Beilin Senskrit H9S., in Ri]enditUt> Hltra'i 
noticea of HSS. in Indian libnrlei, In tlie pufalUbed fac-ilmllet of In- 
gcriptions, and so on); and theie »e In Home meuure leBected In the trpa 
prepared for piiutiug. both in Indlft and in Europe. But a etndent who 
make* tilmaelf familiar wltli one atjle of printed chaiacten will hare little 
dlfflcnlty with the others, and vlll eoen ieain, by practice, to leid the mann- 
icripte. A few Bpeeimene of types other than thoae naed In thli work are 
gJTen In Appendix A. 

a. On aocouDt of the difflcnltr of combining them with the smaller riiei 
of OUT Koman and Italic type, the devAn&gari oharacteii are need below only 
in connection with the first or largest elze. And, In accordance with the 
laudable usage of recent grammara, they are, wherever given, also truu- 
literated. In Clarendon letter*; while the latter alone are osed in the other 

4. The student may be adrised to try to familiarize bimseif from 
the start with the devanftgari mode of writiag. At the same tim«, 
it is not indispensable that he shoald do so until, having learned the 
principal paradigms, he comes to begin reading and analjaing and 
parsing; and many will find the latter the more practical, and in the 
end equally or more etFecttre, way. 

6. The characters of the devanBgarl alphabet, and the 

Euiopean letters which will be used in transliterating them, 

are as follows; 




. g a 

' m a 


• ^ * 

• I ^ 


simple ' 


> 3 n 

• TS" B 


' s r 

• ^ f 


i" ^ t] 

/ palatal 
diphthongs j ^^^.^ 

" ^ e 

u qt o 


» : 1} 


>• ^, :i fl or th {Bee 73o]. 

■nrd EOtd up. 


■on. aap. sanl 


11 ^ k II 1°{ kb 

" II B 

» ^ gh u 3" ^ 


B tT » ^ oh 

»sT J 

» gr jh « 3T 6 



"C t -5 ti> 

» I 4 

» ^ 4^ » in 9 


» FT t « BT th 

H ^ d 

•• U dh « R n 


« q I 

> n !T7 ph 

<• ^ b 

•• H bli «■ IT m 


• ^ h 

m. To tbeso may bo aiidod a Hvgml I ^, wliioh iu mbm of the 
Vedic uxu tAk«i the plice of 3 f ^l><io otKurrine between two 

towcIb 1 64 1. 

e. A f«w Qtlmr Aouods, recognlnd by tlK theoHw of tli« Hindu 
i;raidni!irijins. liut tiittior tiavitiK no («[innte ehartcters to represoDt 
ihcut Of only vnry rwnly and oicoptloniUtf irritun, will bo noticed 
bvlow If] b, c, S30). Sueh are the gottaral tod labial breathloga, the 
•ani aemWowcIs, and other*. 

7. Thti oidei of nriaDgemcDt given above is that in 
which the aouads ite catalogued aod dcvciibed l>y tlie native 
giammari&Ds; and it baa been adopted by Euiopean scholan 
u the alphabetic order, foi indexes, dictionnrioa, etc. : to the 
Hiodua, the idea of An alphabetic arrangemeDl for such 
practical uses is wanting. 

■■ to *0Bia wMka (u tli<: PcMrabntf leaiMnl, a vieaiBa whirh li to- 
SardMJ M •qnUUKni to tn4 «it1iin2v*bln vilh > tiMlini (173) it. thvugk 
«tiu«) >» Ttaurgs, (l*«a Ibe alpbabedr pt«r« of the nlbltant. 

8. The theory of the deTsnftitarl, as of the other Indian 
modes of writing, is syllabic and consonanlftl. Tliat is 
to say, it regards as the written unit, not the simple sound, 
but the syllable jakvara); and further, as the substantial 
part of the syllable, th« consonant or the consonants which 
precede the vowel — this latter being merely implied, or, 
if wijiten, being writteu by a subordinate sigu attached to 
the eonsoaant. 

9. Hence follow theae two principles: 

A. The forms of the vowel-characters giren in the 
tlphabetical scheme al>oire ate used only when the vowel 


1. Alpiiabbt. 

fonns a ay Ilnble by itself, or is not corabincd with a preceding 
consonant: thut is, whea it is either iniual oi picce^led by 
another rowel. In combinAtion with s oonsonant, othei mode« 
of repreAcnutioD arc used. 

B. If more oonmnnuts ihnn one pteecdo the rowel, 
fonning with I't a single syllable, their vhaiacters must be 
conibineO into a single compound character. 

a. NalWc nioJu lu*^. in mnnoflcripta ui<l inMriptloDa, lr«ats 
iho irholi> maierial of a aeittpitce alike, noi Bepurailog liswonU from 
ODU Hiiuilier, any tnon; than tbo iyHablcH of the •ani« word: n fioal 
couonant is camblnad Into one written ayllable wltb the ioftlAl Towel 
or consoDanI or conaooAiita of the fottowinK word. It norcr occarrod 
to the Hindus to Bp«oe their vonJA la ouy vty, evon nhero tbo mode 
of wihing adiniltvd anrh trcBtn)i.-iit ; nor (o begin x para^rMph on a 
DOW line; uoi to writ« one lino of vcnc Dudvr anoilior: OTorytbl&K, 
wftbout ex«optiOD, i« written aolli) by thcni, (itiinp (lie wbole pn^e. 

b. ThuH, (be aeatecce «.nd Tcrse-line ahaih rudrebtilr vasubhlQ 
oar&iay fthani Adit^Air uta HfmdovlUh iKig-Voda X- 125. 1: t«o 
Apiiendii B) I icoftttrr uilh the Viisiu. tht Rttdrm, I with Hit Aitityaa 
and U« Jlt-fioil» 1b thii* syllnbitetl: a ham ru dre bhi rva au bhi 
^oa rft m;a ha uA dl trU lu ta vl gva dtt vai^. cacli syllftble end- 
log wilb II von-el [or ti vuwel modided bf tlie nasal-sign anutvlUra. 
or liDving ifao bicd of a final broatldoif, vivarga, added: cheae belnf 
tho only olcmpnw that can follow a vowel In tho sama aytl;ibl«); and 
it 18 ito^elber wlib tli« next linei written In Itie manuscripu after ibEs 

(iHP-<W#; I ?I#nTTTpfRt 

Each syllftblo is writleu eeparately, and by many sprfbei the 
auooesaire aylUblos ur« parted ■ little from oiie aootber: thua, 

^^■^'itm^i g^i 5] rrni ^in i^(^ 

and >0 OD. 

o. In WcHien; practW, liowevcr. It in nlnnml tinivertally eusJoniary 
to divide pariigraiilis. lu make tho lines nf rortw follow Dn«) anotiicTi. 
and nlto lo a«piirato t)iv wurda to far aa tbia cao be done witboi; 
oliauKiuff the mode of wrltiDg tlictn. Seo Appcndii B. wlivro the ver 
here givva ii ao treated. 

d. Furlhor. in works prepkiod fot bet^ianera In tbo langnaffo, it 
la not unoonnioii to lauka > more complete tuparatlon of worda by a_ 

Wbitiko or Vowels. 


Tree lue of tlie Tirftma-elfo {11) OMitr finil coMOouitii: Ihiu, for 

a^ "^rf^ ggfipi »j(i(^ ^^ yii^rh^ 3?! fe^^s i 

AT even by indlcaliog also tli« combinatioBS of Initial and Goal vowels 
1126, ia7j: for example, 

^ UnH^Vil ITT fiMTTi ig^ i-^tui q^TJ qftpIT >TT II 

e. In traosl iterating. Wflsloni method! of separation of words arc 
of conree u> be followed ; to do otherwiae would be eiinple pedantry. 

10. Vndei A, it is to be noticed thai the mode^ of 
indicating a rowel oombined with » preceding consonaat 
aie as follows: 

a. The short 9 & has no writtea sign at all ; the con- 
inanl-sigQ it^olf implim a following a a, imless some olhei 

rowel-aifin i« attached to it (or else the virRma: 11]. Thus, 
the coaMuaot-signs as given abore in the alphabetic scheme 
are leally the ngns of the syllables ka, kba, etc. etc. (to ha), 

b. The long 9T & is written by a perpendioular stroke 
adei the consoDantr thus, ^ kS, -JT dhft, ^ h&. 

e. Short if i and long ^ I are wiittco by a similar 9trolce, 
which for !>hort i is placed before (he coasoaant and for 
long i is placed aft«i it, and in either case is connected with 
the coosoaant by a hook above the upper hne : thus, % ki, 
srt ki; m bM, 'it bM; i^ ai, ^ nl. 

Th« book kboTC, mnilnK (o Ihn left or to Uio right, it bUtorUalljr th« 
eMMrtlal pan of the durwwt, hiTltut be«n ongtoallr the whnlo at It; the 
llook* wore osl)t Ulcc ptuloTigetl; >a u la rvMb *l] Ibc wiy •loon bcaldc 
Ike ceuHWint la the MSS . tber ilnKHl aeT«t hut iha hotUoaiil atroke 
ilttvn ■eton tltfin ■(»■■•. tbougli tbij !■ addod In the priooil chutetcra: 
lka>, esldiiniUr % ki, ^ kl: la ita MS^.. i%, ^; In pilni. fsji. ^■ 

d. The u-sounds, short and long, arc wiitteu by hooks 

attached to the lower end of the oonsonant-sign: thus, ^ 

kn, ^ kfl; T <ja, J 40. On account of the necessities of 

combinatioD, du and dD ate somewhat disguised: thtis, X) 

^; nod the forms with ^ r and ^ h aie still more inegular: 

thus, ';^ rn, 3t m; 3^ hu, ^ M. 



». The r-VQweU, short aad long, are writteo by a aub- 
joicud hook, tinfjle or double, opening towaud the ri^t: 
thus, ^ kr, ^ kf ; K df, ^ dj. la the li-«gn, the hook* 
aie usually attached to the middle: thiu, ^ bf, ^ h(. 

A> to Um comliiniUoii of f vtib ptvoodlng r, ice bdov, 14 d. 

t. The 1-vovrcl u wiittcn with a reduced fona of ita 
full iaitia] character: thus, ^ k); the corrcapoading long has 
no real occuircnce [&3 a), but would be written with a similaLr 
reduocd sign, 

g. The diphthongs are writtca hj sttokcs, single ot 
double, above the ujipci line, combiued, for OT o and ^ So, 
with the ft-«igD aitet the coniiocajit: thus, % ke, % k&l; 
^ ko, ^ lt»u. 

b. In IODIC cterantcorl niMiiKrlpb (ki In Ui« B«iijill >Ip)iatwi}, th« 
(iiiKle aifvkc al>0Ta, ur du« iif tha double onM, I» topUMd bi ■ iliu llWc the 
h-$ifu b«fan iba conMnani: Ihu, |^ kfl, Ri Ul; (^ ko. I^ ktu. 

11. A. ooDBonant-Bigo, however, is capable of being madej 
to nguify the consooant-eound alone, without an added vowel,. 
by baring writtca beneath it a stroke ca.llcd the vlrKma 
{re-it, ttop): thus, 3B k. 5^ d, 5 h. 

a> Blnoe, m «m pointed oat tbove, tb« Ulnrfu wilu tlia wordi ol ■ 
aHrMMM MnllQUQutlT lit* ong wort (6a, b>, ib« Ttrtma it to c«iMnt oUlad 
tbr «al; wbitii t Quil eonioiuiit otoan b«ror« & paue. Ilitt ii It klt» oc- 
cMlontlir lOK'irKd M by KTlbo*, oi tn pttni. In itAv w> ktdM m kwkwird 
6T dlflleuU torablnatlon of tunioniBl-tljfui: tbtu^ 

%liit: U^bhUy, feKH Ut«u, H't*^ »nk5?a; 
■ii4 It U u*«4 to tatXt ■ trpuitiou of woidi lu tuit picp»ted for bagia* 
DftM (0d). 

12. Under B, it is to be noticed that the consonant 
combinations arc for the most part not at all difficult to 
make or to recogotite for one who is familiar with the 
■imple signs. The characteriittic part of a oousonant-Mgai 
that is to be added lo another is taken (to the escluaiou o( 
the hoiisontal ot of the perpeadieular framing-line, or 
hnth), and Ihcy aio put together aoootding to cooveaienc 



cither side by aide, or one above the other; in a few ooin- 
binatioofi either arraagemeut is allowed. Tlie conaonaut that 
u to be pioaouQoed first is set befoie the olbei in the one 
order, and above it ia the oilier order. 

a. Examples of the side-by-gide arraogemetil ate: nr gga, 
ST jja, ^ pya, ^ nma, rTt ttha, ^ bbya, 7^ Hks, Oil fgA, 
rm Ota. 

b. Kxamples uf the above-and-belovr anangement ue: 
Wi lito. tT leva, ^ ooa, ^BT flja, ^ dda, ^ pta, ^ tea. 
3 tra. 

18. In some cases, however, there is more or less ab- 
breviatioa or disguise of the independent forui of a oon- 
Kooant-sign in ooinbinaliou. 'llttu, 

a. Of ^ k in "^ kta, ^ kla ; and in ^^m k^ etc. 

b. Of ^ t in tT tta; 

o. Of 7 d in T d^, fC dna. etc.; 

d. Of IT m and TI y, when fulluwiiiff other eonMaanta: 
thtu, ^ kjB, ^ kma, ^ ftma, 31 flya, ^ dma, tu dya, 
^ bma, ^ hjra, IT ohya, ^ dbya. 

e. Of ? 9, which gcQeruU)- bevomet 71 when followed 
by a eoiwonaot; thus, iT 90a, tT fna, ^ ^va, ITI 9;a. The 
BMDO change is tuual when a rowet-si^a ia added below; 
thua, g 9U, 51 9r 

f. Other oombinaiiona, of not quite ohviotu value, are 
nr OQa, H Ua, ^ ddba, 7 dbba, ? ^ca, 1? 9(ha; and the 
compounds of ^ h: u ^ h^a, <?: bnu. 

g. lu a caae or two, no trace of the constituent tettera 
ia recognizable: thus, cf k^a, 'g jiLa. 

11. The tiemirowel i[ r, in making oombinatioos with 
other consananlii, ii treated in a wholly peculiar manner, 
analogous with that in which the vowels are trea.led. 

a. If pronounced before another oonsonaat or comlinatioa 
of Donaonanta, it is written above the latter, with a hook 


L Ai.i'HABsr. 


opening M the right (tauob like the sign of the rowel X- 
as writtvo uudet a CDosoaAut: lOo): tbiu, ih rkn, ^ r9*, 
^ rtv», ITrJ nnyft, F^ rt«n«. 

b. Then, if a consonuit-group thus oontainiag r as 
first member is followed by a vowel that has its sign, or a 
part of its sign, oi its sign of nasality ;anuav&rB: 70. 71i, 
written above the line, the r-Rign is placed furthest to the 
right: thus, ^ fke, ffc rkai, ^ rki, sjif rkl, ^ rko, f^tkS±, 
■^ rko4. 

e. If T is proDOuaced after another consonant, whether 
before a voiTcl or before yet another consonant, it la written 
witb a tlrmight stroke below, slaating to the lefl: thus, 
V( pru, H dhxa, 3 sra, R sra. ^ ddhra, tT ntrs, P7 grya, 
17 srva, ^ ntrya; and, with modificatioaa of a preceding 
conaoaant-sij^u like those noted above (IS), K tra, X dra, 
? 9ra, ^ bra. 

d. When f r is to be combined with a following ff r, 
it is the vowel which ia written in full, witli ita initial 
character, and the consonant in subordination to it: thas, 

16. Further combinations, of three, or fonr, or 0^*00 
five consonant-signs^ are made according to the sajne ruleit- 
Esamptes are: 

of three coa«nnantif, ?l ttva, SI ddhya, Tl dvya, XJ 
drya, ^ dbrya, r^^I pttva, 5^ ^oya, W (fliyar ^ tvya ; 

of four consonants, SR ktrya, ^ fik^ya. ^ vtry*, 
rF^ tamys; 

of five oonsouants, f^ rtsnya. 

L Th« niMiutflript*, uid (bo lype-ronti u wall, dirM ftofo ooe anvthM 
mora In tTinir minasenieGT or rpcaontm (om'bln*ti6n( thui in «ny olli»r rotpoci, 
oA«it bitliic p«i;al irlilet wh1«b «ii* n»ad« i llul* pn<iir<t to iiiiil<it*Uiiil. It 
Is ^uiie ii»rJ«u U) Klia In s Kraminii ib» wkolB lartM of poHible cotntilBatlans 
((Otna of tlitni titaatlvely («w) whuh »tD prorHed for tn iny gi<on lypo* 
Autt, u «ica iu (U. There U uclblii; whIUi dn< tkulllult]' nltli lli« timplo 



Vajuovk S10N8. 


tifni uti «lik tkc ftbOTc rulis ftf cemMMiloa will nc< oubU Uh ttwlent 
(•«dtlr U) uiil)w ud expUln. 

16. ft. A tigD called the svngraba [separator) — namut}- 
5 — is occutooally used in the manuscripu, sometime* ia 
the DunneT of a, liyph«n, sotnetimcs as a mark uf liintus, 
•omctimca to maik the elision of initial il a after final r e 
or gi o (18B1. In printed text», especially European, it is 
ordinarilj' applied to the uae last mentioned, and to tltat 
alooc: tiiuB, ^ Ja^<^to 'bruvBui, ^ Jsisflr^ ao 'br&vit, for t« 
ftbruvan, ho abravlt. 

b. If the vlidvd initial-rowcl is nasal, aad has the &nu> 
»Tftrft-si^ {70, 71] vrritten abore, this is usual!)- and more 
propeily ttansfcned to the eliding vowel; but eometimes it 
is writtea iostead orer the aragraha-eigD : thus, for so fkijum&D, 
from fto ancumftn, either ^ iM^H or ^ J5jiiw, 

0. The sign ' is used in place of sometliing Lliat is 
omitted, and to l>e understood from the connection: tlius, 
'JlH'lHfl*! -rR <^ vlrasenasutas -tarn •tens. 

d. Signs of punctuation are I and ». 

At the «Bd of a v«ne, n paiKfjrkpb^ or the like, the kltor of 
tksu It OTilitiiiTilj writUio tinco. ntth ttio figure of oniimcrstiou 
betWMn : thus. II ip II. 

17. The DumeraJ figtire« are 

\ \. \% ^ -i, ^ i. \ b, i.^^, b 1. Z 9.. ^9. ^ ti. 
In eombinatioo, to express laigex nucabers, they ue 
used ia precisely the same way as Kuropean digiu: thus, 
t^H 2^. fe^o »*o. Booo 7000. v:^ lS»ft. 

18. Th« Hioda ftnuemariaoi call the dlfTereDt sonndi. aod tb« 
olian«t«rs represeutiDg (hum, bj s Ur* [maker) adilcd to the souud 
of tke lellDr, If > voire), or to the letter followed by a. ifa ooiiiouuiil. 
Thai, the souud or cliaraotar a » caltod ak&rn; k Is kakAnt: ood 
M> OD. Bat tliu kkra is aXia omiltvd, and a, ka. ptc. aio used aloaa. 
Tte r. howtvor, Eb not cnlled rak&TA, but only ra. or rapba »aaft\ 
the sole eumple of a ipedfic namt: for so alpUabetSo element of Its 
clws. The enuavlra sod vlsarga are alaoknonri \tj (hee« names alone. 






I. Vow«l«. 

19. Trb a, i, and n-rowels. The .Sanslcrit >uu thew 
tht«« eiulieet uid mo«t univena) vowels of lada^Europcaa 
laog^age, in both short nad long fiirm — Q a and W ■, 
7 i and ^ I, 3 u 3' Q. They are to he pionounoed in 
the "CoDtincntaP oi 'Italian" mftoner — u ia/ar oi/arth^r, 
pin and />•?*'«, pu^l and rul«. 

50, The a is thn up<Mioit vowel, an utteritnce rroni th<i cipaod«d 
tliroat, BUnds in no relation of kioiJreil with any of the cIumb of 
oonaonaiitnl sooH'iI*, Rnd has ao oorrva ponding Noinirowol. Of lli« 
close voweIb t and a, on Che other band. 1 is palatal, and tludet 
tlrongh it* ti«iiiivove) y Into tlio palatal and guttural oouoaant- 
eUiBea; u la simllaily related, throngh !ti aemivonel v, to the labial 
cloas, aa iovulving in Its iittcrnncc » nnrmning nn<l roundiiig of 
tbo lips. 

a. Tbo Ponlneui soliomfl (oomateniuy lo Pinliil's punmir L 1. 9) 
etUfM a M ^linral, bat lypirenily only in ordai to el<a ibtt mi«a u 
wtU n th* tact a vovot; iio one of Ilia Ptul^li]-!) puts a Into oa* elHt 
vUli k ete. All theae anUiatltlu couoar In cUllng the 1- *uil a-«oir«li 
rupocilioir piJital lad Ubta). 

51. The short n in not prononncod In Inrlia with tho full oponaeaa 
of t, M its currcDpoDdiog short, but usually na tbe "neutral yowel" 
(English ao-oatled "aliort «", of iwt, srin. hlmd. et*.j. Tliia pecnlUHty 
appears Teiy early, iHibg ackuowled; ed t>y Panin! anti by two of the 
P»ti5ftlthy>8 ;APr. i. 38; Vl'r. i. 71). which call the utleranw Bfttfavyta, 
ooctrW up, dimm44 It is wont to b« ignored by Weateiu scbolus, 
•SMpt (lioso who have Btiiilied in India. 

SS. The a-vowelaaie the prevailing vowel-Boaada of the language, 
being about twice as frequmt na all tlie oth<;rB t<»clading diphtbooga) 
taken together. The 1-vewels, again, are abont twice u numeroiu 
aa die n-rowals. And, in each pair, thn short vowel ia more than 
twice p'/i to 3 timeB; as commoQ as ihu long. 




a. Fw RtftN pndM eitlmitM of fr^nencf. At Ottt and of Aa Mksr 
tiptiibetic cletaonla, ui4 f«r flt« *ay <n ntlth Oitj 'nn oblUacd, •«« 
b«loir, 75. 

28. The r- and l-vowela. To the three simple rowe1< 

^Treftdjr mentioaed the Sanskrit adds two others, the r-vowcl 

and the ^-vowel, pUialy generated br the abbtcviation at 

tyllaliles eontaining tespeedrely a ^ r or ^ 1 tiicng with 

another rowel: the ^ x coming almost alwavs [sec 237, S41-8) 

from ft^ KT or J ra, the ?I J from 55? »1. 

a. Some of thu Uiudu ^immarliai «dd to Ihc ilphiti*! alio ■ loni {; 
bsi Ikls l( only f»r the Mkc of »n •ntOclal tyinmctiy, iIdk the loand da«i 
Mt ftnnr to > flnfle icnolnn vatd In ih« bofnijK' 

£4. The vowel 1? r i* simply a smooth or untrillod 
pi-«ound, assuming a vocalic office in s^rlUble-making — a*, 
hy a like abbreviation, it has done also ui octtain Slavonie 
languages. The vowel ?T 1 is an /-sound similarly uttered 
— like the V^glish /-vowel in such word) u ahle, tmgUj 

■. The muden nindns pronounce tbCM vow»li u n', ri, fi (or 
orev In% having long loit the tiabU and the facility of k'ivId? a votcI 
v«liw tn the pure r- and f-soanda. Thoir oxamplo U vridoljr followed 
fajr EiropcaQ scholars; and benoo also the [dlatortlag aad altogeltiBr 
sIlteetloiuMc) trsnaliterations ji. ff. )i. There is no real di(16«iilly in 
tbs way of actialriag and practlalu; the true uttoraoee- 

b. SoiDft of Ike gnmiakiiabii (mo A Pr. I. 87, iKite) alt«iupl U dolliM mm 
aculr tha vkj In which. In thMu tdwuU, « nal r- oi ^eteinent It eomtdned 
oltli *noictbliig cIm. 

as. Like their corrMpoadliV stmlvoirsla r aod 1. these vowels 
beJoD); ntupei'tivvlj' to the general Hegnal and dental clawcs; tho 
BOphodlc iaflueuoe of r and f ll8e:< sIiowj) this clearly. They ars 
so raaked in the Paainean Mhouivi but the Praii^hyas la goaoral 
■trangeiy ctasa them with ibe JthvBmdlUra sounds, our "gnltarata" (38). 

88. The ebort x i» found In every variety of word sad of poiitioo, 
aod is not rare, boing Juiit about as fre<ineet an loug 0. Long r U very 
much more unutiani, oecurriDg only in coruin plural caeoe of nona- 
slsois hi X l371b, d.37&l. The | Is met with only Id some of ths 
forms and derirAtivea of a »ingl« not very voutnion verbal root |lc)P)' 

27. The diphthongs. Of the four diphthongs, two, 
the 9 e and tn a, are in great part original Indo-European 


II. SvflTKM or SoincDS. 


aoundfl. In the Sanskrit, they wear the aspect of being 
products of the increment or streogtbeoing of ^ 1 and 3 u 
respeolivel)", and they are called the cortesponding ku9»* 
vowels to the latter (see below, 23B ff.), the other two, \ U 
and StKu, aie held to be of peculiar i^anskiit growth; Uiey 
are also in geueial results of aLoiliei and higher iaciement 
of ^ i and T u, to which they are called the oorresiiundiDg 
Tpldhi-voweb (below, 236 If.). But all are likewise eome- 
tiines generated by euphonic combinatioa (137); and 0n o, 
especially, is oommoa as result of the alteration of a final 
Wq^M 1,1781, 

2B. The r e and ^ o ate, both in India and in E\irope, 
usually pronounced as they are uanalitetated — that is, as 
long e- [Knglish "lonji; a", or e In M(ry] and o-sounds, without 
diphthongal oharnoter. 

a. Snob thoy npfinreudv alrea/ly wore to tlie nQthgra of the 
i^rAti^akliyaB. whicb, wtiili; ranking Uiein as diphlliong« (sadidhyakfara), 
^ivc rulca Ksprettii^ ibcir ptonUQCiatlon In a mftnnor implylug tli«ia 
to be virtually uniuiry sounds. But their ouphonii; tje»tmoiit ^181-41 
cli»rlj- thovtf tliom (u hsTo bncn still attlie period when tlie eupbixiio 
laws cfitablithcd tbeoiiolToa, aa they of courao wnc at tbclr vngiu, 
fMl diphibones, at (a +■ ■] and sir [n + ui. From them, oa ihe sane 
evidence, ihe li«Bvler or T^ddhi diplithoDga were dbtlngaialied by tlw 
length of tliuir a-oluniuQt. as iti [S 4- •) anil uu {a + w|. 

K Ths neogiilxalile ■]l^tinotD«M Of tbo two elrinenU lu (he vfddlli- 
dlpfatbonii la uotlr^d Ii>- ihi) Ptit ^kbjM (to* APr. 1.40, mit*); bat ibt 
kUiIod of thaii- I'leuiBuia Is althur dtflned ») equil, ci t]i« m ti mida of 
iMt quanCiti ihtn tbc i and w. 

99. The ligliter or gu^-JiphtkooKB sre nucti more f^equcut 
|6 Of T (imeaj than tlie btukvior or v|-ddht-(liphtti(in>ct. ami the a and 
ai Uian tlio o uud au i> half mor«I- Ituth pulra aru Hoin<>wliai iuvr« 
than half aa common as tlie Ninple I- and u-vowels. 

30i Tbo (nnual naiua gtteu y Ibe Hindu poii'iutrltii) to Ibe vunob 
t« avara tone, ih« tlmplfl vaireU ir« «all»'l aamaaak^ara hamngmnnu 
tytltibU, RDd ib« dlpbtbongt ti« c«tl«d auhdliTakfara conbinalioH-iyllaiilti- 
Tha pofitiiOTi of thf fitguxt m thMT uuertne* li d»flneij lo ba oiie of opennMi. 
oc uf non-oloiiue. 

IL Aa t* qaaMtljr tad uxcnt, Mxi b«lo«, 76 S., 80 IT. 




II. Consonants. 

31. Th« Qlndn namo for 'consooAnt' Is vTa&Jftna »Mn«/M(w. 
|Tha eoiiKooBoU ttrc. divided bj* llifl RrammariMG into ipar^a timtaet 
or RinlCi antahiitli&, iaifrm/diata or soinivoircl, oiiil OfnlBa tpiranf. 
They will bero be ukeo np nnd deusrlbod lu tbi» uriler. 

Sa. Untoa. Tbo loutot, vpftr^a, aro m> called m Involvtni; a 
rompleto cloiBro or contnot ispftr^), Aod not nil npproxiiaalian only, 
of the monih-orgnDB by irhidi they anj prnduccd. They &r« diTided 
Into fivft gUism or terie* ivsrga), according to the organg and parts 
or urguns by which ibo contuct is mitdn; and Nt«h aerlos Is oompoied 
at five neinberR, dltTerltig acoordins to the aReoiniiaQiiiioiits i>f tbe 

S3. The five mutc^enes are cjillud jespcctively gultuia), 
palitt»l, liiigunl (or cerebral), dental, and kbiai; and they 
arc armoged in the nxAer »» ju»t mentioned, begianiag with 
the contact made furthest Imclc in the mouth, coming For- 
wAxd from point to point, and ondlng with the fionlmoM 

84. In each Mtrivs there are two sutd aembets, two 
sonant, ant) one oasnl (which is also soD&nt] : for example, 
in the labial sene«, ^ p and '^ ph, ^ b and ^ bh, and ^m. 

a. rbq oiflatit^o >i<< by lie niii>lii giiBiuiBiiiiii ciUcil rt'tp«ulf*«l}F^ra(, 
ttt^mJ. tkird, Jourth, uid tart on fifth. 

b. 1'kc aii)<l coitt»ii*au ar* kiMim u agbofa timeU*t, •ml iti« toatnu 

II ^Ofavant haciny tm4 ; and th« dMcrlpiicn> nf lh« siunmuttiit arc In 
wcorilaiic^ wtili the** Ibrdi. All illkx ncoKiiiw i dlRcmicv ol t9ii«, iiid not 

III any nunner a dlllttrcacc ol foTce, wholbai nf coiiUit or c( cipiilsloa, a> 
t.-)MriiTn| th« tH« c'i<*< '!*»(« in que<4tou. That \he AWatvbtn ^•paad* oii 
vlTAra optMmg, «t saifavftra tioimre lof the (loMIt), la ab» rs<«Kn<Md 

br <bfM. 

86. The first and third membera of each series are the 
ordinary corrt^ponding tiurd and sonant mut«a of Eutopeao 
language^: thus, ^ k and IT K, FT t and ^ d, ^p and ^ b. 

80. Nor is the character of the nasal any more doubtful. 
What ET m is to q p, and ^ b, or i^ n to <? t and T d, that 
is also each other hjumI to ita own series of mutes: a aonant 
expulsion into and through the nose, while the rDouth- 
oiRans are in the mute-oontact. 

X i-cvzsM a iaaoa. f4 

.=-« 11103' -d' Am JH ^nifdm J^ 

:fauak iiiiiiii 'iie joiri sms T k w^ saY« ^iu eocrapaadiBC 
ioni Mpir a tg "^'sh, mit bade sie mtaa; 7 k. i^ eonc«- 

Mtvr :« amtv )a«mn uui Hi^-nrr u ieceEmiiie. 

'>!•■> '.&• aaMffimau ~. una Bouum us ^uaii \3 nan? AJtic^ BunAfw, 

uTMM trp-rMfv *<> i:^ b.i;u;Aiaii:*i *v '«r-% aom. 

•H X vMcSar «a«. *'ta a ave ^vc'Ki! V-wan>i >:^!r zh« iKmA '.t wmiM aau- 

ttt^u 9ivuanv'AUi?a '.9 jf *»-'<> * :bia>.-a)r lad i«dj« a* <I^B>«t Itflavliig 
tk* auw i# ■ "{tuoa: >Ks'~. :9EMC w M 13 «9ijkaRit4 wotn^r* •! thft 

SfMnt •^t«e« «« *c:: 'a **• ta Uiii. in th* pcnBuciatiw rf A« *enac«lu 

^ 9v tk4 rs>is-«U7M. d« uf ixafiM «f ktk c l wti in ««ned ■ o f nKn : 
«bk-k Mv^t »*o •«*« -wMp«t*frf »f « -—S •/>»»rf» (ttiittf flfmMi 
i« .*> ».x« Mj*.*^-^ *•"*'■ « *eetmf^i^ *J • V>*^ (*•>•», 88)- 
\,tJ Ml* «»»rtt* «4iorit!*# i*da* A* *»rf iJpinws u m»d« by the rombi- 
Ml><M> ^ ••* »Mi *»B-*»F»r»»» '■■»! >» (^n wHwr*"*"* ""^ ipiiMt; ud 

tt«^HI.J ^Wiv», t*^ »»» »kJ» -'■'^ ■^* *• *"" ''*^* *•' «piritM Of 
<»W» i\v«W *fcM.«M. «4 •**^ d» .^f th lb* fMW « U, tfc «• tt, Oh 

M « *»>*<* >»(•".' »•*««» puwai. «ij •( a« i-i. PiniBiW M 

ll w mmI Aiuoaf EuiopeMi scholan to prooounce 
»\f A^mtM «• th» corresponding non-aapiiatee 

QurrtTBAL ahd Paijitai<>I 

with a foltowitig b: for example, 9 tb neailjr u In Eogli^ 
hoathook, ^ ph as in haphazard, U db as in madhouse, >T bb 
u in abhor, and en on. 'I'his is (as we hare seen abore) 
sUiotly aoeuiate only as regards the nurd aspirates. 

88. Tho RuBant asplnlM are |in the opiaioa of noit], or at laoat 
rfpreeeal. origins! lDili>-EuropF)>D soaiids, vhilo tbo surd upIrMM 
sro • special Indiut developiacnt The Tonuer uro more than tvrieo 
aa eoiDJiWB SB tho btwr. Tlic uuupirawd {rnin-nnMiI) nmtee aro very 
much iBore freiiuent (& dmesj (hau the aspintai {for the special f!re- 
qucBCf of bb aod original gh. Me 60 and 60); and araoag them tbo 
•urda are vn>n> aoiiioioas i2Vi timca^ thaa the Bonauta. The lusili 
icUeHjr n and ta) aro nearly ai fr«qaeDt ae tlic ■urd BOii-aspirat«a. 

tVtt uko Op now the teveral mnU-Mrles. 

89. Guttural series: Ti k, l^^kh, n^g. q^gh, ^ fi. 
Tbeee aie the oidinary Eutopc&n /- and y-aouDcia, with iheii 
conesponding aspinttes ood nasal [the last, like EogUah n; 
is tinging). 

a. Tba f attarab ata dallatJ I7 tk« Piiii^khrM a> iD»iJe bj ooaurt of 
a* baae vt (he taBpi« wlU (he baw of ihc lav, and tbej are ralM, fron 
A* fnaatr aigiui, JUiTdmnliya trmgiu^oot loutuit. Tb* faataaaa acbnins 
dcaerlba ihem tliurly *a luadc lu tlie ifaioit (kaQthft). From the en phonic 
lanaenoe uf • It oa > foDowinf S (bektr, IBO), «a m*T p»(li>pa Inftft th*l 
In tbcil vlUraD-v U« Ufigw wu «*■■ ilrkim tack la tbe laoutii. 

40. The k is b; far the commontst of the frntlsnil soriue uocorrini; 
eoiuiilorsblji' noro oftea than idl tiie otker fonr taken together. The 
Bisal. escept aa ataadlug before oae of the oihera of the laine series, 
ie fonnil only as final [after the lorn of a followitifc k : 386, 407; in 
a %tiy aaall number of worde, and na prodaet of tho aaeiinUatloD of 
flaal k tu a following nasal (161). 

41. '['he Snulcrlt guttural lerlei roprewnts uol; t minoriiy of 
lado-Europwagntturalt; theae laat hare suffered isore and more general 
eotniptioa tbao soy other olasi of ooasonante. B j proceaae* of alteration 
nhlch tw^B In the tndo-EuropeaB period, the palatal mntea, the 
palatal sibilant q. and tli« ssplrallou b. bave cume froni gWurtU- 
9m9 tlieae tar ions aouude below. 

42. Palatal seiies: ^ c, ^ oh, q[^J, ^ Jh, ^fi. 

Tbo whole palatal aoriL-s ia dcrivativu, being KOiiented by the 
eemptloti of original gutturals. Tho o c-oraea from an original k — 
\Aow also, by snolhtr degree of alteratioa, the palatal aibllant 9 
belov, 64j- The J, is like atauner, cornea froai a g; but the 


It. Srannif or Sowds. 


Siukrit .} [nclndes In Itsair two itgm» of ntteiBtloD, one oomsponl- 
in^: to the tlUrntioa of Ic to a, the oAer bi ihkt of k lo ^ !im tilcnr, 
S19;. The 1b eoiiidirbnt toon coramtni ibao the J labout u tow 
to thre«J. Tlio ngpirnte ob !■ very much len fr9i]ueDt la tonih of «\ 
»ai conies fW>m the original gronp »k. 'I'hn soniint uplnit* Jb Is 
QlCAMively f^re loccurrioK but once in RV. not once in \\\ ui4 
hnrilly hitir-ft-iloscn timca In tlie wbolo uldnr UiiKvagoi: «Ii«ro found. 
it la ^itb<!r onomntopootlc urof aDonmlousor not iDila-Buropoan origin. 
Tbe DRsiti, ft, never o«curt except imniDdintelj before — or, in a, 
mdbII number of irntdb, nlsu kfter iSOli — one of Iho otiicrt of die 
nin« Mriei. 

43. Oenec, is tho onphonio proMwea of the iftn^ttBgo. tlie 
trontment of the p>lauls \» in many rnitpootH paoiiliar- In (tone 
HiltinilonB, (he oriplnhl unaltered guttunl Bhow<i luielf ~ or, u 
It )i]>pOSra from tli« p<iitit of vliitr of the Sanxkrli, tho piilitt«l revortti 
to its original ^ttural. No piiUul ever occnra ui a gnu). The J Is 
differently treaieil, According na it represvutM tim une or the otlicr 
decree of altvrntion. Aod o and J {exceptaniScialty, in the nlgobraic 
rnlea of the griuuaiariansl do not interchangA, as correnponding anrd 
And BODitnt. 

44. The palatAl mutes are by Kurupcan scholars, as by 
Uie modem Hindus also, ptonouDced with the compnund 
soimdi of English rh and j (ia church and judgt). 

a. Th«lr dncrlptlen b; th« old Hludu ^miiitriBTra, bamver, gWea Ihvm 
anot IcM a^Kolulfly ilmplc ctiancter iktn bnlong* to the oth«r iniito. Th'rj 
are calind tAlavya palatal, and d«olared to be rotined ifiliiii the p&tit<? tj 
th« inyijinor tbe toapii«. TLq]^ aeem to b>ro baon, llicn, broiiglil rorvrard In 
tb« Dioiiih from ili« f^Kunl ^Int, and made aiaOiBt the banJ paltle at a 
paint nat far f(Mu (he llnirna] i>ne (balov. 4ft). but vltb the opper Qal lurfata 
at tha lonjpo infloid «( !■■ point Svcb toDnda, tn all liin)pagoa, paa* wallf 
lata iha (Ennllah) ek- and j-iimnilii. Tho valuo of the ob u makingr the 
procading Towel long b; poiitlon" (S&7). md Ita fceqaont ari|1niiiaii 
frotn t + ^ (303). lead tn the foipirlon thai It, at Imt, may hue bid 
dila rjuracter fiota tW bsfiiiiiing: (onpafd 87 d, ab«<rc, 

48. Lingual t«rie«: ^t, ^^ Jh, |^^, C <M». "n^V The 
linguul mutCH nie by all the native authorities dctincil as 
uttered irith the tip of the tuoguc turned up and drawa 
back into the dome of thu palate [somenhat an the usunl 
l^Dglish smooth r is proaouaced). They aio called by the 
grammariaiu mardlianya, literally head'a^umts, capitals, 
eepkalica; whioh term in iu many Ruropean gmmmara 


LiHOCiL AKH DRtrrAt. Mimis. 




n>nileFe<l liv 'ecrebrnla'. In praetic«, Amonft KtiropcAn 
Siuukritisls, no attempt ie made to tUstinguiali them from 
the denials: ^ t u pronounced like rT t, ? 1} like ^ d, uid 
10 with the Test. 

46. Tbe UdkiuiIs kto tnotliiT iwiL-<irig)Dil aeries of Munda, 
confDg; oalDly from the phoaetlo sltoratioa of tha Mit enriei, the 
dOBtalf, bnt sIko id part occurring in woidi tliftt Kave ou tmeoble 
Iii<l»-Enropeiin eoonectioD, and are p«rb»p) derived from Uie xIj- 
original )iui|rna{[e« of lodiii. The tvodcncy to lini(ualUiitloa ia a 
poaitivo ono in the history of lliii Ifuigvago: dentila easily pus into 
linguala niuler tft« inflnenot) of eontiguoui or nelgbbuiiriog lingnnl 
aouads, but not tlie coDti^ry; and all thu aounda ot the claaa lioeame 
itiKfliRdly iBori> ft«<|nent tn the titer literatim. The conditions of 
Ibeir ordinary oeevrreiKe are briefiy these; I. f cornea from a, mnch 
vote rarely (rout 9. J, kf. En euplionic oirenntUncr* nutted boloir 
J80( S]8ff.,ii 1. a dvQlAl mnio rulloirinjE 9 ia aasimllAted to it, 
bcnoinirtg linjnul i(. Xh. 9: lOTj; 3. n ie often changed to 9 after « 
lilgtMl vowel or semivowel or aibilant in tlic aamc word Il68ff.'/; 
4. 4b, which ia of very »re oeenrrence, coin«a from asaimitatioa of 
» dcDUi after | il08«: or b ass;: h. % aud 4 come oeoHlooalty 
by Rubatttotion for Bome otticr sound which ia not allowed to staRd 
an fiul ;I48, I4B-7f. Wbeu ori^iiated In these wnys, the lingunl 
leltera oisy bo regarded ai normal; in any other caaea of their 
ocenrrenCQ, the}- ar^ either prodncta of abnormal onrruption, ot ai^a 
of the noa-lndo-Enropean character of the wonla in which they 

■■ In ■ cMtjilii BualMt of puucM bumcrlollr cximlncd (Wlow, 76), 
i^ abnOTOUl oeconanete of Ittifoal uutct wcto leu tkan half of tht wboU 
aa»ber [74 «at of 169), and mMt of thua (i3) ware of 9: ilt vert raiin<l 
mtn ftvqiieni la the Ut«« pMUfu. In tkc Rlg-Tda, only !'• vorda b««e 
u tbaemial (• only 6, «ucfc a {b: oalr t, tuch * ^h; iboul ^ (Intlndlnt 
fi rooiR, nnulj *lt of ohkli )i*ie ilnrloilvo*) ibaw tu obnnriul ^. keatdet 
B thai hat« 94: and 99 (lnctii<lihc I root) thow 1 9. 

tK Taken all tosether, the llnKnala are by far the rareat clue of 
tautea (about M/j prr cnot. of tlio nlphaliet; — hardly half lu frequent 
eren aa the palauls. 

47. Dental aeriea: tf^t, ^th, ^ d, '4 dh, ^^n. These 
ate called by the Hindu* also dantya Jentaf, and are 
described aa fnrmvd at the toeth (or nt the roota of the 
teeth), by the tip of th« tongue. Tliey are practically the 
et^niralenta of nut Kuropean /, </, n. 

Vkllaar, OfkaMr S. *l 3 


IL SvaniH or Sookm. 


B. Bat lb« mfldern ninda* uo iM to pnnoDSH diflr danuti «lih tin 
Up »f tbc tongui? Uinial well for"u>l igaintt the Qpp«i t««lh, to thit thoie 
ftMindi ^t t ktlirht llnee of il>e qiiKltly tiplaniiint to lbs Kvisllih mil M»laro 
flr*«k (Jlt-««aii4«. Thu iltaonee af tint qnallty In th>* Eiitcipon (rcpix:U1lr 
lh« Knelitli] 'Inilati I* iloubtlen the reaton vhy to Ih^ ett cX • UliMla tto 
Uttsr appou moK an*log«u> vitlt hU llDgnalK, uid he U apt to lua the UaigiiaLt 
III miMat KnropMU wwd*. 

48. Ttio <10Bt«l« are one of tko Ind'>-GuTopOMi vriginnl iniito- 
clMsee. la ibclr oMnrrenoe in SanskTit they ire jost tboat as freqatnt 
■u ftll ilio nlh«r four cliuuec tokun tugechnr. 

40.>l;il surioi<: 7 p. T pH, 5 b. J] bh, IT m, 

Thc^te louiids iirc calleil oftbya labiai by \\\c Hindu grnni- 

marians atiso. Thoy aic, of couise, the (>qutvult;at« of our 

80. Tb« nnmori«al reladon* of tho tabtals arc a little pficiitlar. 
OwiDiT to the abmnco (or almoAt entire absence) of 6 in Iiido-Europeati, 
til* Sanskrit b also is grontl^ exctioilecl in rra^iipnoy by bh, wlileli 
U the tnoflt common of all lliB sonant aspiraten, as ph b tlif^ teitst 
ooramon of th« »urd- Tlic na*>] xa (notwilliAtaDdiaK its frequent 
enpbODio mutaMuiifl vben final: SIS IT.; occurs jnst atioiit an uflon as 
ttll the other foni memben of the *tit\t* cotntbor. 

I. From an t»x\i perioi) in i)ib hUtor; of the Uninii<«, bat Increaiinsli 
Utet, b *nd V oxcbanif wlcli on« another, oi fall lo bo dlitlnfnl>liii>l tn the 
maiininripK. Thiw, iko donbl*' Tom-rormt byli uiA vfh. bidb and vadh. »ii(l 
•0 oa. Ill tho Kcutal niitiuKTli't*, v U «-i<l"l]i wTfKen liutoad of mot* orlfloalb. 

61. Semivowels: JT y, ^ r, 51 1, 5 v. 

a. Tlie iijuns ^T«n to tkli <^t«s of lanndi by ibe Ulnitu gnnmiriAti* li 
antAhatba ita»<ling bede^eu — titboi froni their chinvlii a« iil(ei^ni»» 
Intnim filiate bi't»<-'*u lOweL and rontonant, oi (more probtblvj from ihe 
ntr-'urD»l«nrc of Ibolr being placed betweon tlie nnloi uid splnntt III t1ie 
atn»g«meDt «r ibo coiuonanta. 

b. Tbo HomivowclB arc clwly akin with tbo soveral mule serlei 
in tbeir pliyslcal f^hArncl^r. and tlicj nro olastiSed nlons with tliose 
eeihia — though not vlthout »otne dlscordancea of vlovr ~ by tbo Ulnda 
Brammarlana. They nre luild to bo prodHOcd with tlin nnranu aliithlly 
In contact ilf atspf^a' , or Id Imperfect conlacl duhHpTf;ai, 

68. The 7 r is cleiaily shown by it» inHuence in 

ouphonic prooeases of tbc Un^ua^ to be a Hd^bI sount 

or anv made with t)te tip of the tongue turned op into th| 

dome (if the piilntc. It thus resembles the KugUsh smooth 

and, lilte this, acftn* to have l>oen UQirilled. 






a. The Piniiioiu inhomg iMkMir u • Uofoal. None or ilie PriiipAbyw, 
bi>ve*«r, 'tiM* M \ nor Kie Uiay nntlnly «on>Ulenl wltb ono anotboi In Id 
inerifOiin- l'<» thu niui pkn, (her dciln« li h mtils st 'ihc loou of the 
Mtlti". ThU W4<ilj givo it • poiliioii like thai trt Iha vibtaMd r; bm no 
tutboritr hiiiU at > ilbiatlon u botonxin^ h* It. 

b< In point of froqaoncf, r Mtandx very liigh on ^o lilt of con- 
KtOMiU; it It oenriy egoal witii v, n, m, asd y, tnd oiily oicccded 
by I. 

S3. The FT I is n >oimcl of dental positioa, and U to 
defined and oUiMud bjr nil the natitc aulhorilicH. 

a. The pccalLu «b>ncie( ol ao l-t«and, a* in«»lvlBg •xpnldoa at li« 
iMe (rf lI)D loufuo tl&niE "itb conia't m lu tip, M nol ootleod br any IIItKlu 

b. Tbi; MmlT0B6l» r arid I ut Mry olilel) liileidiaiiSMblii In Snukrll, 
, bolb In 1901* andbmOlxw, lud cici In ptDflxoi: ibaia itc fov t««|ii coniain* 
I tug a 1 wblch dfi not iboir &1sa fanD» vIIIj r; wanlf wtUieii wiib tbe one 

IMMt uc (oaod in otliui tcitf, m in otiior put> c>t tbc Mmo laxt, written 
wilb tbe oUior. Id tbo Utct pcrUdi of tbo lancnaKc ih*j aro nvra Mpataied, 
and Ibe 1 Amoidn ilectdodlr nore frvqueut, lltoogL 4l«a]« mu/li ran-t Uiail 
tbv r (oaljr u 1 to 7 or S or 10). 

64. 8oine uf tlie Vedio tuxto Iikva anuther /•wotmil, *rritt«ii with 
K allgbll; differont churuur (it is ^tod at Ihe end or the alphabet, 
bm). wkieli it aobstltated fur a linj^ual ^ [»■ kIm tlio ume Tolloiriid 
by b for a ^ vtien occuning between two roweb. It Is, then, 
donbllcai A liapial /, odb nuulo tiy hteucli .:al Iho aid«of Ibe toniruo) 
of iha lingaal iiutoad of ilio dental uDte cloaore. 

m. Kxamplta u*: »X ^'>. '" ^J !"?•. ''"» JB i'J*ai *fl»^'^ 
mQliufa, f«r RTtgl? ml^bufo. but ET^Ft miijhTin li U <iipvrLillf In 
tha Klf^Vtda i*d lu auxJllui Ittaruota tbat tbU tubadtnUon ia uawal. 

66. The 77 y ia SaQskiit, as in other languages geneially, 

staoda in the ctostrtit reintionship with the vowel ^ 1 (short 

or long); the two exchange with odc another in cases io- 


a> Aikl In dM Tcda (a> iba niBtre iliova) *a I it lery often to be read 
»t«K, la eonfonnily ntlli ibo nit* of Ibn latei Sanaktii «upbony, a y U 
nltlAB. That, th4 Dual l-iowal of i won] nnuUu 1 b«foto an Initial voml; 
Ikat of a (Um luuntain* itiolf unelian|t«d baffrM an ewliiiE; and an eiidlug 
■I d«Tl«*Uo<i — tn ytt, tyn — hai 1 InitaaU ul y. SvOi cvc« will bK luMcti 
Ui MOte detail Utf r. Tbi Mtuiioey of lti« pbiynamaiuin In i^Bitaiii motit and 

iluaa* «f vwtd* f>i<>*t Ibtt thU wu no Rierol; opliani! Iiilcnihulij,-". Vnrj 

rniMblr. (b* Sanikrlt 7 bad avBryvhore luore of an i-i-baracter Ibaii botoDgi 
to ilia cnrmpoadlng Kurof cau iobb^. 


66—] 11. System op Souhdb. 20 

66. The y ia by iU phfuiCBl character a paUta) utterance; and 
it to claased as a palatal Bemivowel by the Hindu pbonetists. It is 
one of the most common of Sanskrit sounds. 

67. The ? V is pionouDced as EngUah or French v 

(German w) by the modern Hindus — except when preceded 

by a consonant in the same syllable, in which case it has 

rather the sound of English to; and European scholars follow 

the same practice (with or without the same exception). 

a. By its whole treatment in the euphony of the language, however, 
the V stands related to an u-vowel precisely as y to an i-vowel. It 
is, then, a o only according to the original Boman value of that 
letter — that ia to say, a u>-Hound in the Eoglith sense; though (as 
was stated above for the y] it may well have been less markedly 
separated from u than English v, or more like French ou in out etc 
But, as the original w has in most European languages been changed 
to V (English), so also in India, and that from a very early time: the 
Paninean scheme and two of the Prati^akhyaa (VPr. and TPr.j distinctly 
define the sound as made between the upper teeth and the lower 
lip — which, of course, identifies it with the ordinary modem o-soand. 
As a matter of practice, the usual pronunciation need not be seriously 
objected to; yet the student ahonid not fail to note that the mles of 
Sanskrit euphony and the name of "semiTowel" have no application 
except to a u-souod in the English sense: a e-sound (German le) is 
no semivowel, bat a spirant, Htanding on the same artioulate stage 
with the English (A-aounds and the /. 

68. The V is classed as a labial semivowel by the Hindu phonet- 
ical authorities. It has a somewhat greater frequency than the y. 

a. In the Teda, under the B«me clicnmBtftQces m tlie y (4t>ove, 66 a), 
V if tn be read w a vowel, O. 

b. Ab to the interchange of v and b, see above, 60 a. 

&e. Spirants. Under the name fl^mau (literally heatf 
steam, JIatus), which is usually and well represented by 
spirant, some of the Hindu authorities include all the remain- 
ing sounds of the alphabet; others apply the term only to 
the three sibilants and the aspiration — to which it will here 
also be restricted. 

a. Tbe term Ib not found in the Paninean scheme; by different trettitea 
the gattural and labial breathing!, these and the vioargB, oi all these »iid 
snuBVftra, are also (In addition to the albllanta and h) called Ufmao (lee 







AFr. I. ftl ntu). Tli« ot%uu ot uuttinr* no 4i»«TlbftJ u belug In ibc 
poAlUoii »( l)i« nutt-uitie* to irkieh tMit iplruil belmtK) raipMiUToly, but 
nilotMvd, w uaclMvd in ili« aUdle. 

60. The H B. Of the ihTce sibilants, or surd ^iiants, 
this IB the oae of plainest aad leBst questioned character: 
it is the oidiuary Euiopeaa s — a hiss expelled betneen 
the tonguti and the roof uf the mouth diieotly behind the 
upper ftoni teeth. 

a. It U. ilieD, dental, as it U classeiL bjr &U the Bindu autborttlea 
MolwitbilaniliBg At grMt totiies wliich it aulTL-TH iu Sanskrit uupUony, 
1>7 conrerunii lu llio other sihilaots, to r, to vtwrm. etc., it is 
*till rtry liigli uinuog Uie coinKiuAutx ia the utdcr uf frMjuonoy. or 
o<iikri<lcrabl]r uiurv cviumun than hoth the other tvu idttilanta toother. 

61. The T 9- .Ka to the i-haracti?T of this sibilant, also, 

thetc is no ground for real queation: it is the one produced 

in the lingual position, or with tho tip of the tongue 

levertcd into the dome of the palat«. It is, then, a kiad of 

aA-soaod: and by European SiiaskriliMs it is pronounced 

as an ordinary th French eh, G«rman sfh], no attempt 

being made (any more than in the case of the othei Ungual 

founds: 4Si to give it its proper lingual quality. 

B. Iu ItngnsI ekaracter b ahowa by its wholu uu]ihi>oi<! iafiacoo*, 
ud it la dtrMribed and cliif«i>d a« lingital by all the lllnda author- 
ltl«* [tko APr. atlda, i. Ti. iliat tbe tou{;uo iu if ult^mui^e Is trough- 
»Iia|>edl. In il> sudiblu quslity, it is a aA-aotind rattier Ihao a caoDDd; 
Bnd, in tlw niiuidcntble vuriet}' ot sibiUnt-ulterBiic^, even in tho 
Mune comatuotty, it may coincide with the oA of sosno among 
ouraHvos Yet the K^nRrNt and normal «A ia [mUIsI (aoo b«low, 68] ; 
and Ihrcivfore tbo Bit!:Q ^■ mnrltcd in HccurdHoco iriib tho other JIo- 
gual letters, Is the only nnexcepiiooable traDiUteratloa for the EUada 

b. In iii»l«nt fmnaBBlallon la India, f li niM^h o»iifnund«>l alUi kh; 
Mill Ue oialillMrlptl tn apt to eicliaase tke ihaiMter*. Some l«(«i inaiB- 
■latcal iroatlaa*, to*, tkk* note ot ilic icLtUontblp. 

dft. I'bia sibilant lae irsa Dotlced above, 46, and will be mon 
pirtkalaily explained belovr, ISO IT. is do orl)clnnl toitad, but a 
product of llifl iingaaUiatlon uf s uudor ceiialci iMiphouio ooadltiona. 
TW exceptfona are extretaely few (9 oat of 145 noted oocnrrsiKes: 
1% «ad of a iiarcly siioradic character- Tbe Rl£-Veda has (apart 


n. Ststem of Sockob, 


rivm y hUi. 162 b; ouly lwelv« wotOb wlifdi aliow a f under vther 

a. Tlie Bntl f of > root hu In lome mwu aiubot % omre ladrprndpnr 
valuA, •nd 4w!* nol remrt to s *heii Ike au|i)Kiiiln ronililloiM at* ninoitiil, 
but iheirf tnoniktoQB fomi (2fl6-6). 

63. The 31 9- This eibiljint is \iy all the uativc authoritiri' 
rlnsscd and described lu palatal, noi is tticrc ajtythiag in 
it« history or iu enphnnic treatment to cast douht on its 
character as such. I( is, Lhen, made with the flat of the 
tongue against the forward pait of the jwlatal arch — that 
in to my, it is the usual and nortna.1 ^A-sounO. Ity Rurnpean 
scholars it is ratiouely pionounced — more often, perhaps, 
as » than a^ th. 

m. Tha rwo At-Mundi, q w& ^, ara madit In the >ua» put of the 
noutb (tho f piobiblf nlhct Turthw li«ek), hut witli i iIinnrKiit [tart oT 
the tODKUo: ami Uiny tn doubtl«tc nol mor« uiilikit thtti, Tni uMtiplr, thf 

IBO f-MiXid), «rht*ii f aiiil t ( and It "iDuld bn liul 19S* pri)|ipt tn J'cnuiMlncD 
thcim both n* ODD th Ihlii to pTOnoUQriD Ihn Ilneuoli .mil dentil* ilik<7. Tu 
ii«Kleet th» diffrience of 8 anil q Is mui'li l»M (u !>« ■rpiovcnl. Tli* visty 
DMi tcltlloDshlp of 9 «nd c l» atlMtod liy their i^uplioiiic ixeKinieDt, irliirii 
U to a ^oniidor(h]« extant lb« mdio, and by (hcii tiot iiitK^atui couTuiiaii 
by th« nilMit or iuanii6Cil)'li. 

64. An wna mcntiiincil abovo 141), cho f, like c. comes from the 
cQmipilon of Ka orit;inal A-Round, Ijy loss of niute-coiitact as well %i 
turwaril aliifl of the point of |in>diiotion. In virtiw of tliJ« durivKlioD, 
U RoiDn'timCR jtliough [cm often than o| "rovcTti" lo k — that Is, the 
iirifrinnl k Appcurc iDstouii iif it: 43!; while, ua tho otbor kanO, «a h 
aA-soUQiI, it Ia tu a certain eitunt oonrurtibic to (. lo point of frequency, 
it stltclitlf «x«ftO(is lli« Iitttcr. 

66. The remaining spirant, ^ h, is ordinarily pronounoed 

like the usual European surd aspiration h. 

a. TUa b n«l, bowoMt, lb taal charaetei. It li d«Bii«d by all tlio natlre 
Utbottim u) nnt a i^uid, <>l<im«i)l, but * sonant (ol »)•• an utinnnvo intoi- 
inadUu b«itVR«ii ib« Vra); ind it* vhnU Ta)a« In llie ttipbo'iiy at th* laTigntge 
ta thtl at a «ou>nt: but what Ig itt piBcia« valut la vrry hard to «*y, Tlia 
Ptiiliiuii (dhciiia riuka it la guttural, at U diFo* also a: ttiU luaaiu iiotliliig, 
Tbfl Pfalltakbyaa tiitng it Into iio T«lal!«u with lli«i fullutal eiauj one of 
tbooi quoiet lb* opinion of toma luthorltlM that 'ft hai lb« aama po«ill4H 
witk tlo bosfniiluf of ihs fallowlni i«wd" (TPr. I(. 47) — whl'li ao f« 
UontUM II with out b. Th«i» Is uotiifng in it* eiipbaiolo inllncnce lo tnatk' 
tl u Ktaiuing anr (noa of s<altUTtllt atlituUKii cfaatMtcr. b> *auiu uf 







Uia a*ti<B phonnliHt it l> iilciitlfUd wftb lb« lipirallaw at lb* Maut 
wplncn ^ ■ritli ilin eli!m»nt br wlitch, tnt lunipla, gh cHirirx (Tom g, 
TkU *iaw [« tal>part0j by (bs •Urinllnii Af b fl'Olu Iho upinira (ntut 
P«ni:ripb), hT ti»t of ) +b ftom ^ [M)> »>4 hy the UMtinoiit of Initlil 

fa aflet ■ Uml mato (163J. 

d6. The b. ut ulreHdjr noliceJ, is not an original Huund, hut 
comes in orarly all coaca from an older Kb (for the few iosUincro o( 
its derivuloo froai Ah nad bh, M« below, 323);;<. It i» a vuMy 
■ore frcqnoDt sonod tbao tlio uadiu^od Kb innately, oa ' (o I): mora 
freQueDt, IndeM. than anf of the frH'ciT^I miit«a Axc«pt k. It appcwt, 
lUco J iSie; lo iQclodo Id itaclf two stages of coTTUpdoD of gh: one 
corrcsponiilnK wllb that of k to o, the oihor with that of k to q; 
c«e below, 223, for lUi! nMta bokmging Co the iwo cUmvs rcflpoctlvely- 
Like tlifl other sounda of guttural derlTulioii, It wimotimcs oiliiUIt* 
"rcmntEoD" (48) to ita otipiuil. 

67. The : (i, or TiBarga (visarjanlya, :is it U unifoimty 
called by the PialHMkliyas aad l>y I'anini, ptolwiMy a* Moni/~ 
ing U (ha end of a sylUUc!, appears lo be meioly a stud 
hrcalhin^r <i ^i^^' ^-^ound (in the Kuiopeati sbdm of A), 
uttered Jo the arttculatiag positioa ot the preceding vowel. 

«. One Priliriikhi> (TPr. ii. iH) girm jstt iLti Jul duciiption of it. 
It b bjr mHoiu 4ulborlilot eUmciI with h, or wlib b ftOd •: kll of Uitia 
■M illka Mua4i in wbote UUnnM the n^ulli-oifui* ba*« no dellBllB 

98. Tho Tiswrg* is not original, but alvrays only » nibatltilte 
for &Dt1 B or r, Ddther of which \» lUlowed to mninuia itself aDOkaoKed 
(170 ff>'. It is a oom[iaTatlvety recent ueiulur of itie alpliabetlc 
BTHttim; till) oMior euphooic ehaagoa of final ■ and r havu not paastd 
through viaarga as an IntenDedlate atage. And tlt^ Hladu aDihoriiles 
BT« coDsiiieraljly iliacorilant irith on« SDoDior a-s to bow far h la » 
aMOMary subatiLute, and kuw far a |>ennltted one, allenutivs with 
a libilant, bcfort' » follDWin; ioitial surd. 

69. ftufoTo a Hunl ^ttural or labial, icspectivuly. sotuo of tho 
natlTc anthoritjca pemili, wlilli- iitliLTH rct|uiri-. caiivRrstoii of final a 
ot r tntti th« ai>*eailud jlbvamuliya and upadlim&niya siiimuU. It 
sajr bo fairly qamtlonMl, prrliuiin, wheilmr thoM two sounils arc iwt 
poie granuBatieal abetTnctioas, di-viscd lUho the loaf )-vowet: S3 a) 
(b «trdpT to Tonnd out the atpliahtC la gruatur symntotry. At aoy 
nie, tMtb inaoBScripta and printed texta ia gntiernl tnnko no account 
tf tJwtn. Whatcrer Individual «liararter thoy may hare muat bit, 
It would secni. in tho ditoction of ibo (Ucnuan, cA> and /-aoandf, 
Whet written at all, they ar« wont to bo truiili tinted by x *i>d tf- 


II. Sysixii or SouHD*. 


TO. Th« :. ADUflvKirft, & or ih, is « na«U flound bicking 
that cIcMure of Ui« org»n» whioh U required to make a 
uMul mute ui oun tact-sound [36]; io it« ull«raiice there u 
nual reaoaanoe aioag with luinc dugice of opcaa«u of the 

71. Tt)«*« I* dlacardinoo or oplnloo »Doog boib \he BIii^k pbonuittU 
kud ibelt iua<l«iii Eurapvan tuac«i«m nspMtlng tbe roJ chutct«t ot thl*^ 
olaniftiiii ko&re ■ Hill* iloUU !• neccMtfy heto with fog*r>l lo iu «(«u'iotieaJ 
ui4 ib»U «l«wt ot It 

m. Coiuln iiMtli In Sanalitii ate of cvnll* cbancMr, kiwkf* to be 
■MlmlUi^il 10 ■ (oltoirliif: cou«onint, of fbilercr iJiutctc* Uist any k«. 
8u<:h «»■ nn«l id In irnlcnio-romyiittloii (SIS). Ihn pFniiltlmftln nual 
« toar 4nd > Diul of luetcinttiit {266) in ReucraJ. Jf uue «f llioMj atMll^ 
«luiil« bcfoie * («uUct-l*U«t 01 mate, It bofomc* * natal null* MrrMpAud- 
lug lo lh« lutct— tbtl ia, A lUMl uThranoc ia ibo Mue poiiUon of ib* 
nioiiUi-areani whick gltAt ih<- *uce«Ming mnU. U, ou tbe olht't baud, Iktl 
rallAwin^ con»Di>ani iluea nut IutoI'io * cojiuei (bsin^ aanmliowol ue oplianl), 
(tie NMtl cliioieni t* aUo without eonun: it li • uaail u(ti>ran» wlih 
<iirlo«sd mouth 'peg (II I. Tbn iLui^riioii In. noir, vh«thoi thU naiat uucnnoe 
be<:«iiiw uierfly a uu*! iiilecliou of Uie prefedlug vowel, tuinlui It into • 
naMt TOwel (ai In Priincli on, bii, «», otc,, bj> rcaion of a tlnillai Ion q( 
■ iiM«) niiitej; or tihahcr It h in element of moio IndirUu&l ctutnctn, 
bavini pUc« botwoon tie xivrol aiid ihv ooiinotmiil ; «i, one* noM, «hetb( 
it is •ometliUM (be one ihliiB tiid nomrtlmi-e tbe other. The oplnloni of' 

lb* Plitltikbyaa tnd Pt^JiiI ire briefl) at tnllowt: 

Ix Tb« Atbuva-Cratlfihh r* bMds thtt tbe n<«ult U ororfwhue • 
iiaMlltod igwnl, nsMpt whou n or m )■ aialniilated lo • toUooInf 1; In 
that rue, the n or m becomet t nu«1 I: thtt li, tbe nml ultereuce it 
ntule 111 the l-po>lttoa, 4iid ht.i a pvKcplllik I-fh tractor. 

O. t'b« othor Prniifakbyaa ti-ach a (tmiUt couTtttion into a iiual 
(OQiiterpan lo th« icmtvowtl, oi ■ u»al leulTowol, before y aod 1 antl t 
(not before r Uw). In mott of Uu olh«r eatee wb«r« the Athvra-liTiti^ilthrt 
ackikOwIo<lgc« * naul yo«bI — naiii«lr, betoie r and the ipliuilB — the otban 
li-jch tbi- inlenenUoo adet Ibc ro««l ot • dbllnct u»*l element. calliHl tbe 
auusvAra o/twfcwK. 

d. Of Uie aatute of ibU iumI ■fitvpltee lo (ho towel uo iDtelUslMy 
cteu accoeiDt la ylvcn. It It eald (BPi.) lo be tltbei to«c1 ot ooiiioiUDti 
It It dn«lucd (BPr., VPt.] to be nude *lth the new aloao, or (I'ft.) to be 
iiaial If to tb« iLual mute* , It la betd by tom« (tU't.) to b« Ibc aouaul lous 
of tbo n*«al muWf; In iU fomaUog, u Ih Lbal Of lowul wid ipltaiit, Ibeti 
l> (nfr.) no n>aUL-t. As te it( qnictity, lee faithoi on. 

•. Tbei* are. Low«<rt, totain caM* aitd cUetet of <aeM whmt iImim-, 
utbei tmlhMlllH aUo >Uiw«Jede« e n—^ tovoL So, oifiecUUr, wUenri 




2b ^^^^W Aniintaka. [—78 

■ AiiU n U utitvd (S06-8] u ir It «ero as (lu UitOftally «jdci fgrin); 
a«4 kiao In ■ tm»U nnmhtt tl (feeUltd worl*. Th«v lUo n«nt(«n Ibe 
docuiite o( D*Ml ia«il iii*u«4 of naiwvar* m b«ld by Mm* (ud TPi. 
U nBMTUin ind Inrontlilciil In tu chutce titivtoa thii on« and Iha Wtint). 

f. In Pl^tnl, tmtUy, th« prevtUlng dottrlaa f* ibkt of aniiBVilra 
oivrybVTPi u4 It la eten tllowed In m»aj cmm irh«r« th« Prtti^vkhjriii 
pret'^tlb* outji K iiual inulD. Bui x ni*d iMinlnwiil ii tbo allowoil iniU\b<l 
txAva ■ Mlnl*aiT*l, t»i > iia»il <tow<>1 U >lto»<'<l In Itie rwM (mentioned 
lion) wken Mtna of tbn Pittl^tkbyw require- It by u«eptl«iL 

f. It b evUeDily > f*ii qoattlm wb<Mli«c lU« <IUt«rd<n(» and iiiiMrulaiy 
of the Blftdn phonetUu ia airlof lo a reU dilTeience uf vllunncB tn dlltaKni 
eliMM ftf CMU and In dllfernnt lecUltleii, or wbctbot to a dtlTMCnt wbolutle 
ftnalyilt of «ktf b K«llr ere(yi''>*'B *^' utae uttoieneo. If nniuivkra 
la a naiaj ciemont (allaolits Ibr vovH, It cvnuQl vail ba aiij Ifaiiig bu< 
dlWt a i^mkn^tloii of the aane irovel-soniid wtlh nualliy addeJ, at > 
tiaatUced lill ol oootial-TOwtil taond (Id (he laUer raM, beneTer, (be &l(e(fng 
laSiMDee »f ui i ot u-iewol on a tuMowini; b ouitht to lio prevontej, which 
la Mt tbo raw: aoa 188> 

79. Tlie aMlraMntcd nuiil elomenl. whctlior vimctl as nauHisd 
VQirol, DMal iaibItowoI, or IndepeDdtnt ftnuavAr*, tins ihtj vulue of 
Ronictbinj,' ftdded, Id uuklns s benvy o^lUhle, or loutcth by iKMitiOD (IB). 

a. Tlie Piill^ikkyja (VFr., RPrO gWi- dEtutrntnadoDi of tb» qiiintti.r 
ot Um uiuevftr& cumbluiiig wUh ■ thuri uid *ith a long vowel retppctitfly 
to make a ioai >7llable. 

79, ft. Two (liffi-Tuni sipxid, : and T, An found in the nuuiiiacripta, 
iodlcatlBK tbo nasnl sound here treated of. Usually tbey an wtitteo 
kbovv tbo ayllitbli.', aiid cbvra they *«oni tmiat DHtutallf to Imply ft 
nuul affectioo i>f the vuvrel of tbo ayllablc. > tusal lAnonHalka} vowel. 
Ilvnco aoixiv toxta (SaiM- aod Ya,Jur-Vcdul, when ttiey mcui n real 
uiuavira. briog one of tbc sl^e down Into tbo ordinary cqiuodaiiI- 
pkacv; L>Dt tbe lunge i* not gi-nttml. Aa botnccn tbv tui> siku*. 
•odio nuiiiAciiplB employ, or t«Dd to employ, the ; n-bcrv n UBBKlhcd 
laDoaftallcii v>>w«l ia lo be recogvieod, nsd olaenhoro the ;; nnd this 
dl»llDClioa la coDaialently obtvrrvil id many Kuropoan printed tirits; 
ud tbo former Is cslUnl liut anutiOslkx 8ii;n: but tlio two are doiibl- 
teaa originally sad proptirly Mjuiralunt- 

b. tt Is a very ooumon ciiaiotn of the mnQiiwripta to write itie 
MiuBTira-ii^ for soy aaul following the votre) of « aytlibl*. oitbor 
before ftBotksr coiuouant or as ffn»l [not beforo k vowd), wilfaotit 
uy refeienco to wbutbur it ia to be pniDOiincod u naul niut«. uuil 
aemlTowel, or aauBvant. Souii! printed (exia follow this alovouty nnil 
und«atrtbl« habits but mnit uritu it nasxl inuto wbeceTer it )• to be 
pronofiiwvd — eiue[i(iug u'h«re il in on asiiuiilnted m iSlSi. 

78— J 

II. SrSTEM OF Sounds. 

c. It is convenient also in transliteration to diatin^ish the u- 
Bimilated m by a special sign, ifa, from the uiasv&ra of more inde- 
pendent origin, &; and this method will be followed in tbe present work. 

74. This is the whole systsm of sounds recognized by the written 
character; for certain other transitional sonnds, more or less widely 
recognized in the theories of the Hindu phonetists, see below, &S0. 

75. The whole spoken alphabet, then, may be arranged 
in the following manneT, in order to show, so fat aa ia 
possible in a single scheme, the relations and important 
classifications of its various members : 





a, a 

nn )-ii 

* . 





■ Vowels 



fi f 




1.11 I'll 

■T« 41 

























Anus vara 

















asp. , 

























■ n 














Gutt. Pal. Ling. 



a. The figures set under tlio chitractors give the average per- 
centage of frequency of each sound, found by counting the aumber 
of times which it occurred in an aggregate of 10,000 sounds of con- 
tinouB text, in ten different passages, of 1,000 sounds each, selected 
from different opochs of the literature: namely, two from the Eig-Veda, 
one from the Atbarva-Veda, two from different Brahma^&s, and one 
each from Mann, Bhagavsd-Oita, Qakuntala, Bitopade^a, and Vasa- 
vadatta (J.A.O.8., vol. X., p. cl). 



III. Quantity ol sounds and syllables. 

IB. The lliodii gianimiirians lake ihc pains to (kfiQe llie 
ijuautity of a coDSQcaut ^without diGtinctioD among consonants 
of dilTetent classes) as half ihnt of a short vowel. 

77. ThL7 als) de&ae the ijuantily of a lung Idlrgba) 
vowel or diphthoa^; as twice llial of a shoit (hrasTB) vowel — 
making no diHtitioiion in tliis respect between the ecui^h- 
ond the irrddhl.-<tiphthonga. 

78. Kesidi^s Uitjii^ two vowol-qunntitius, iho Hindus 
acknowledge a ihiid, called pluta ;liierally mcimminy), or 
protrticlei), and having three mora* in three times the quanlily 
of a »horl vowel. A protracted rowel is marked by a follow- 
ing figute 8; thuit, EIT^ &). 

A. Th» prolrsctcd vowels m ptaetJeally of rue nccurreuco :ia 
BV', three c&sca; in AV., fifl«cti ; in tli« BtfibmAna literaturu, ttccidedly 
more freijueall. They are tiiod fo cam of i|ucstloDiBK, npwtally of 
m balanciiig betw««3a iwo nlternativcs, aad alfto of cslUng lo a dlstsnvo 
ur nrKrady. Tbe i>rDtractiun is of thH last syllat^le id s word. i>r (d 
a vLolo )itirAii«; and tho prolractod sv1Iab1« lia« usually tbo acute tono, 
in addition to any uihcr acvunt the word Diay iiuvo; lontetiinva it 
takes aJso anuav&ra, or ia made uaoal. 

b. Exkuipl«i tn- adliA^ evld Aaiad up&rl avid fcst^c I.KV.) ifos 
it, /odmM, Moirt KM it. /'.irtoolh, abviff idiia bbflyAi id^m itl 
(AV.) tafiny, it this morr. vr u thai t iigaisl patniva.ifj aotnam piba 
CTS'I Jfni! Mow icHA lAy wpi>V4«! drink (A» •omo- 

o> \ 4lfbUMnt is praincied ti; prolongftticn of lu Dm n o-clemcnt: 
Uiiu, s 10 E}1, o to Sso. 

d. Tbr tlgn of |iiotr*<il«(i li aUo ■«niLrtliiiM wrttteu u ihe tornll of 
•ooaKMt MiuliliiJtIoii, whcu io-ckUcd kampa occum: spc l>dq«, 87 d. 

79. For metrical purpoavs. syllabli's (not vowels) are 
ttistinguished br the grammarians a« henry (gtira) oi light 
flof bn). A sj-llable is heavy if ita vowel ia long, or short 
and followed \<j more ihan one Mosooant ("long by po- 
ailion',. AniisvOra and visarga couui as full oousonanta in 

79—] II. Systeu op Soum>8. 28 

making a heavy syllable. The \aal syllable of a pBda (pti- 

mary diviBion of a verse) is reckoned as either heavy or 


a. The dlitiDction in terms between the dlffercneo of long sod Bhort in 
vowel-ionnd ud tbtt of betvy «nd light In »;ll&ble-conBtTuctlon it vtlunble, 
and aboiild be obieiTcd. 

IV. Accent. 

80. The phenomena of accent are, by the Hindu gram- 
marians of all ages alike, described and treated aa depend- 
ing on a variation of tone or pitch; of any difference of 
stress involved, Ihey make no account. 

81. The primary lones [svsra] or accent-pitches are tvro: 
a higher (ud&tta raised), or acute; and a lower (anudKtta 
not raised), or grave. A third (called avarita: a term of 
doubtful meaning] is always of secondary origin, being [when 
not enclitic, see below, 86) the result of actual combination 
of an acute vowel and a following grave vowel into one 
syllable. It is also uniformly defined as compound in pitch, 
a union of higher and lower tone within the limits of a 
single syllable. It is thus identical in physical character 
with the Greek and Latin circumflex, and fully entitled to 
be called by the same name. 

8S. Strictly, therefore, there is but one distinction of tone in the 
S&nskrit acccnlnal system, as described by the native grammarians 
and narked in the written texts: the accented syllablo is raised in tone 
hbove the unaccentod; white then further, in certain cases of the 
fusion of an accented and an unaccented element into one syllable, 
that syllable retains the compounded tone of both elements. 

83. The Bvarlta or circumflex is only rarely found on a pure long 
vowel or diphthong, but almost always on a syllable in which a vowel, 
short or long, is preceded by a r or t representing an originally acute 
i- or u-vowel. 

a. In transliteration, in this work, the ud&tta or acute will be 
marked with the ordinary sign of acute, and the avarita or circumflex 
(as being a downward slide of the voice forward) with what is usually 
called the grave accent: thus, d, acute, yk or va, circumflex. 

20 Accent. [—85 

84. The PitUfiUiyM dltttngnlBb and nime sep&i*tely tlie clrcnmCesed 
tones ulalns if dlffeient proeeiacs of combintllon : thuB, the clrcuinBei Is 

a. Ki}iipra (^quie/e), when »n icute 1- ot u-vowel (sliort nr long) Is 
oODTaited Into y or v before a digstmiUT vowel of grave tone : ttiaa, vyllpta 
tnoi vf-fipta, apB7kntir l^om apa^ ant&r. 

b. J&tya (native) oi nltya (otrn), when the same comhinatloii lies 
forthei back. In the maku-np of a gtcm or form, and so iB coiutani, or 
belongB to the word In all circumstancea of ita occurrence: thni, kvk (from 
kua}, avhr (auar), nyak (olak), badhaya (budhnfa), kaoyA (kanls], 
na^^ (nadi-as), tBiiT& ttacll-ft). 

o. Tbe words of both the above cliBees are in the Veda, In the great 
majority of caBoi, to be read with ceBtoration of the acute vowel aB a Beparate 
tyllable: thu«, apBu ant&r, B6ar, nadiaa, etc. In gomo texts, part of 
them ate written coriespoiidiDgly : tbiis, suvar, tanuvft, budlmlya. 

d. PragllfF(a, when the acnto and grave vowels ars of Buch nhartcler 
that tbey ate fuBed into a long vowel or diphthong (128 c) . thus, divl 'va 
(RV. AT. etc.), from divf Iva; BudgAtfl (TS.), from SU-adgAtft; aSl 'v& 
'^aiyat (?B.), from n& eyk aqniy&t. 

«. Ablilnihita, when an Initial grave a is absorbed by a final acute 
6 or 6 (136a): thns, te 'bruvan, from ti abruvan; b6 'bravlt, from 
86 abravit. 

85. But further, the Hindu giammarians agree in de- 
claring the (naturally grave) sylliible following an acute, 
whether in the same or in another word, to be evarita or 
circumflex — unless, indeed, it be itself followed by an 
acute or circumflex; in which case it retains its grave 
tone. This is called by European scholars the enclitic or 
dependent circumflex. 

a. Thns, in tfrca and t^ oa, the syllable na and word oa are 
regarded snd marked aa circumflex ; bat in tina te and t& ca Bvitr 
they are grave, 

b. This seemi to mean that the voice, which l9 borne up at the higher 
pitch to the end of the ar.nte Byllahle, does not ordinarily drop to grave 
pitch by an instantaneous movement, but descends by a more or leas per- 
ceptible slide in the conrse of the following syllable. No Hindu authority 
snggestH the theory of a middle or intermediate tone for the enclitic, aay 
more than for the independent ciroumflei. For the most part, the two are 
IdentiBed with one another, in treatment and designation. The enclitic 
circumflex is lllcewlBe divided into a number of sub -varieties, with dtlFereiit 
names: they are of too little conaeqnonGe to be worth reporting. 

vlum eltwlj vitTfvei b?* ui^we j>«> 1. litt jn&efitstii^taa. tsnsvlet 

tJii« melitic u tii« ■>«% tluriw fol^^ris^ la »c«u-. tad fiJkwi^ ii 

eircwtuflex Biaintuu Ja damncr is aZ sismiiviiK. v^ilt tfa caciitic 
Worf a foUovui? rirvaxfitr •:« aenu k^Ms ia nrruiifles uanrur. 
aod bc<«n(* ipv'*^ : KKvtiCiTef, i. ia nj^j of iLe tjsuxii of naridsg 
a«e«Bt b^k/v, 88. tlt« r>o an qalte differei.i.T ajiieu.t^ 

87. Tb« acetTBiaati'ja U Baik«d is naameripu oahr of the older 
liwnntr*' uaxMlr. n ibe {rnmarr Veijk texu. or ■"*■*"**■ in nro 
of tbe briiiBiat^a 1 ai-.tinTa and ^,afpatha . to ifat Tiimr^Ta-Ansyaka, 
in e«rtain {«Ha(«« of ihc Aiurera-.^rai-Taka. a^d in lie Suparriadtiriijm. 
There are a namU'r of D>etliod* of vritis^ accent- more or lea* diilerent 
from one aitother: tbe out fonod in iBaD:iKr:pu of tbe Rig-Teda. 
wbieli b moit widely kLo«o. and of vhich mosi of ibe otberft are 
only alight modifieatio^i. b as follows- 

>. The acDte if liable is left nDmarked: tbe ciTeomflex. whether 
independent or ebciitic, baa a tbon peipendicniar stroke above; and 
tbe grave next preceding aa acute oi independent, cireamflex haa a 
abort boriioDta) stroke belov. Thus. 

»J]^u agnfm ; 3^TFT jahoti; ^^ taavi: Wi" krh- 

b. Bat tbe iatrodactory grave stroke belov cannot be given if an 
aeula syllable is initial; hence an unmarked syllable at tbe beginning 
of a word ii to be nndentood as acute: and hence also, if several 
grave syllables precede an acute at the beginning of a sentence, they 
mnit all alike have the grave sign. Thus, 

^: Indra^; ^ t«; ^fr-uM karin-Mi; HN^IHI tavijitS. 

c. All the grave syllables, however, which follow a marked cir- 
cumflez are left unmarked, until the occurrence of another accented 
syllable causes the one which precedes it to take the preparatory 
stroke below. Thus, 

H4!jn*4-tMi^ Bud^ikaaadidi-k ; 
but y-i^n+M-iJ i wiM^audf^Dtaeariidre g&vftm. 

d. If an independent circumflex be followed by an acute [or by 
another independent circumflex), a figure 1 is set after the former 
oircumflexed vowel if it be short, or a figure 3 if it be long, nod the 
signs of accent are applied as in the following examples; 

y-HTtrT: apev hint4^ (from npaii nntAb); 
(lUl^f^: n^As T&oi^ (from rayo av&oi^]. 




Tho MtloailB of Uila mdJ« of dMi^aUon ii not well nnd«rMdo4i Itia 
Ptill^hTU ftw n« »Mi)iint of H. ]n tbc schoU«i1>- uKuHict of the f)-lttble 
M> dudt**)*' I* otiit * pfcallor ^umar ot reuiadt of tba *o!m, e*lM 

e, TW Mceni-fDtika tr« wrltMn wtib red InV In tke miBiiMiripu, belae 
added kfier Uib text ia wrlllcn, and perbipi ofion bf auothn ktnd. 

88 B. N«uly aewtilnijl wiUi tbU, ibe Blit-Ved* uK^tlioil of dciitiutliiig 
amcnt, if* the mctbcMlt cmployod In ihc manunorlpu of lh<i Atbuv^Vcdt. 
of tbo Vijauncyl-Niiuiliii*, bitd o! tho Tu t till va- Smith Its, Bnhmini, tiiil 
Xra^ytkfc. Thnlr dlfTdtsaeoii from li Am of irlfllnit [nipurtiinc*, (OiialttiHE 
B»I»lx in pi-(ulUi wiyi of niaihiii^ ili« citDiiuiOoi iliU pMcedo) ui mule 
(87 d). (n »nni* man II HIT I plj ef tkfi AihirM-Vi'di, ihi> RMcnt-aiaik* ate 
doia Uisutd of atfvluii, tud ibat foi ibc circuraOet In nude wltblii the 
(jQablo iiittraJ at above it. 

b. In luiKit luaiiuacripti of ilie Miitiaranl-Samliit*. tlie wuto lylUtile 

Itoelf, Ti(>ticlti> lu •mtoundlngi. It luukfd — nmnoly. by a pcrpcixllciilaf 

•bnke abuTc the srHable (like thai of Ibo otdlnuT dtciunDi'i In the KV, 

naibodl, Tbo hidi-pomlnni rlraumflcx has a book bnn«ith Iba ■)'1l4l>to, lod 

' Uie rlmtitiittox befuie ui ictilu (87 d) la deiioteil i\mply by a lleiue 3, 

'itaAding bnfi>r* iMUtad at iiUi the i-ircumflAiecl ayllible. 

0, The ^'lUpitba-Btahmacia u«eaonty ■ i!nglaannont-iil|tn, thr hoiizantal 
•nolo tinnMtb Ihf "ylUlilp (llkiN lb<i «n»rk tot ifTavii In KV,). Thla U put 
oikIci an ar.iiti*. «t. If Iwo or uiurr icatei InimtidiatGlT fnlloir one lunihcr, 
oniy uiidai lb-- pmcedlnE »)llii^t«. To mark an Independent clrcuuiftrx, It 
la pal uiiilri iho i>icfi:ditiE ol'*t)lr. The ntoibod li aQ Imprtfoct oiic, allow- 
Ini tnany aiublitultla*. 

d. The i^JLtna-Toda ni'thod ia tba moat Inliltale of ill. Il baa a doun 
dtff«T*al ilfna. tonilating of llgurci. oi of flfuto &ii<l t-ctleti camblned, all 
ptaced aborn the ayllabldt, ind ttD'ins a««)nlliit both to the aoaeniml nhararl*! 
«f tb« ayUnbln and to its aiiirounilliii*. lla orlfiu li ohMuro; If aiiylhlnc 

LiROre la IsillcatAl by it than by the olhec rimpler tyalcmt, tiiv fad baa not 

[fcM* <laa3aaUr>.i<-d. 

69. la this work,ftS«rorj'thingpvfiaiii thi}dovniiAga.ri cli»r&cteTB 
is ftlSQ given in traoBliteratioD, it will in general ba nnnecetsary' to 
muk the Moetit exoejit ia the trunBlilerntud tona; isbctu, howerer, 
Uie case Is ottierwiee, there will b« adopted thci inctfaod oT marking 
onlj* tho ivatly wceented ayllablee, tl><> ai-tite nud the Independent 
niraamllei: tho lklt«r by th<i ii«unl srnrlte-si^, tho fonnor by a small 
a {(OT ndlttai abovo Dm syllnble: thus, 

^^ tadra, ^J Afnc. T^T avkr. ^TOn nodyha, 

B. Theie beinc itTon, attrythinf die wbkb the nindn tboorr ircof 
nli«« >« dependent on and aoeotapinTlOj! ihom can nadily lie undonloed 
tl luplted. 

07 — ] III- Euphonic Cokbination. 34 

07. In this work, the accent of emcb word tnd fomi will in 
general be marked, bo far as there is authority dstermining it> pUce 
and character. Where specific words and forms are quoted, they 
will only be BO far accentuated as they are found with accent in 
accentuated tests. 




08. The words in Sanskrit, as in the other lang^uages related 
with it, are in great part anaiyeable into roots, suffixes of deriration, 
and endings of inflection, these last beiag added mostly to sterna 
containing suffixes, but also sometimes directly to roots. 

a. There are, of eouTie, a certain number of uuiaOected word* — 
indeclioa'bleg, particles i and also not a few that are Incapable of anilyil*. 

08. The Sanskrit, indeed, possesses an exceptionally analysable 
character; its formative processes are more regular and transparent 
than those of any other Indo-European tongue. Hence the prevailing 
method of the Hindu native science of grammar, whiob sots up a 
certain body of roots, and prescribes the processes by which these 
may be made stems and words, giving the various added elements, 
and laying down the rules by which their combination is effected. And 
the same general method is, for like reason, followed also by Eurc^an 

100. The euphonic laws, accordingly, which govern the combination 
of suffix or of ending with root or stem, possess a high practical im- 
portance, and require to be laid down in preparation for the topics 
of declension and conjugation. 

101. Moreover, the formation of compounds, by joining two or 
more simple stems, is extremely frequent in Sanskrit; and this kind 
of combination has its own peculiar euphonic rules. And once more, 
in the form of the language as handed down to us by its literature, 
the words composing a sentence or paragraph are adapted to and 
combined with one another by nearly the same rules which govern 
the making of compounds; so that it is Impossible to take apart and 
understand a Sanskrit sentence without knowing those mtes- Hence 




in iKraaMil degna of pmetical inportiBM Mooi^'ug to tfce w1>j«t 
of cuphoaia eomblnsclon. 

». Tkiit oupliguiR tnt«nlap««<lsnM of tb* i^Ofil* Of « •tataaco U uii- 
ImwD U «uy athui Iwiguagu In uijtlilng Uk< (ha Mao 4«grM| uid il 
tunnol bat Iw satporttd of b«liiB it I*4*t In part trilBrUI, ttaplying m 
trKIIca lot" n^ceuar} (uil lixarlftttle cult^ of vli«t lii the liditg Idupiigu 
«rae only optlonil praeticM. Tbi* U nirongly IikUeaIbi], lnila«'l, by iba 
eftiloDM of tho oilier dlilecl uf ibi' V^dsi and uf (hf il^ilind PrtkrlUc 
dUerls, la both of >bleb *ome ot ihe rnlei (npoclilly itiil u tu ibu hUtui : 
«M 118) >Te oftnn vtoUlcil. 

lOS. The rooU wMch uro AulhenltcAtcd by thoir occurreace in 
Ui« lilaiarjr miiuiitneiilii of ibe tmiKniX'''- eAIll(^r Hiid Iktcr, number 
bi.-tire«n elj;bt nnd ulnr biindrad. About balf of Uim« beluD^ fully 
tu the lu|:uBge dirougboiit lU wbole history; some {about • hunitrod 
and EFtyt ar« liraitcH to th« Mrlior ot pr«-«1a«fttoal period; 0oiii«, 
tgBia (over a liuntlred and Iwonty], auko their fint nppewnncD Id 
Um lA(«r Udjeohkc- 

•. Tbcro are in Ihii utitnber toot* of Tct7 •llieno cliaiioKir. Thoau 
»«catTlii( only talat arc, al loaat In great part, prosiimabtT of socondary 
Ml^n-, and a cunain nuiul'cr wc evvn doabUete aillOtIa). owl onw ot 
Iwica booaBM fottiid III ibt tooi'tUla of tba lllDilu (tanmaTUita (108). 
B«l nlco of Ibc rcft, fama aro plainly Mcondaty, wfalk otbora ar« qn««- 
UMubte; lAil not a few arc «ariatloiii or dlfTereotlaifd ftemsoroue anotber. 
Tiiu*, ihTi! am root* ■li««'iii| mp^ctlTiily r and 1, a* rnbh aii<l Inbb, 
tomo aiH mliio, kfftr mil k;al: mnii with and alibout a tvengthvolng 
iiMol, ai vnnd nail Tftd. mutd and mnd; roois In ft and In a natal, at 
IcIiA aud Icban, (& aud gam, jA and Jan ; rauta made by an add«d •, 
u trt trun tf, mnA fioiu man. paft ttoia bfau, yft fmm I, n>«ti ili« 
prwdnct of redupliraii«ii, u Jok^ fn-a gbas, dudb from dtiQ; rooia wiib 
a llnal nlbllaiil of rormiliic atl^ln, u bhn3tf »ni bhik| ftam bh%|, 
nakf froM nac. Qntf fnui gm, bfts fmui hi, ro"t<roriaa held apart by 
a we1I-«auMU1i<'il 4[i«wdanr« of InflcoHao and meanins, wbieb yol ata 
probably dlfl«r<TRi itdvi of one tool, aa kffdray uiiicn plou^, vUhtOw 
and rH Jlnti. vf tnti/nt and t? ekttott: and to on. In maiiy aneb tu** 
Il I( doubtni wbtUiat wa ougbt la ai-.bnonrlpjgo two r«ou or only onui aiid 
M ahiolnta rale nf dlfttntlton tan be laid down and maltitalnad. 

103. Iho llil ot root* elven by ttie [IlQdii ^nmiuHiaiit contatni 
•boat t«o ibouiand rooti, wltbaut Inclndlng all IhoM nhltb ntuiloiil* ot 
Ike luctufs are compelled to rcMsnlie. Considerably worn than balf oS 
Ihia nunib«r, lb«n, arc anauthuitlcateJ by uao ; and allbaDgh aomo of 
ibrK may yM ems W li^ii, or may btTo esleled witbont nnding tbt-ir 
»ay into any of tbe preaaned Iflcraty dttennienia. It u ordain ibii moat 
(t* D<lJU'>u*i made la part f»i ibe oiplaiutloa of worda faletl) dMcrltXd 
M ikcli dorivatifM, but in lb« main for nntnovn and pcrbapa uiidtKOTtrablo 




«. Tbo Mou aii«iithenUr4ted by irwnble lue «DI ta nudt no ircovnt 
of In (hli Kfi-mniai — or, If notloeJ, will b« ipoalAcd ii ot tlu( chmolsr. 

104. Hm! forms of tbo roota u hem uiad vlll b« found to diff«r 
in ciTtiiiii ra»|ic<.'ii> from ihoao ijlvta hy (bo Kntivo gnuamwiuiB nai 
adopted by some Europem voi\ts, llins: 

a. ThoM roou of wMcb Uir tnltlU n and s iro iriulAily cuninrlfd 
lo Q RBd f aitei certain pieflxM kte by the Dindu gikmrnutiiK gWnti u 
beginning fritk 9 «cid f( no wcMcni •nitioritjr fvltaw* UI* oikaple. 

b. Tlio OluJuM rluslfy u ttimpic nou ■ nambot of derived items: 
ruilDpUcMcd one*, m dfdbl, JAgf, dnrldrA; pr««rat-*i«nif, u Otqu: uid 
donosilattWe atvuii. ti avftdhlr, kamir, sablite, muatr, aAotv, ortb, 
ond the like. TIior mo Iii Eampcin work) gcurnillr ndncvd to Uielr 
tme Vktoe. 

o. A numliei of roou ondlni In an a vhlch ■■ Incipiltrir IretUd IB 
the pnMnt'iyatona uo mitten Id tlw nindu limta alth dJphihoop — s ot 
a 01 O; here Ibef vlll be retin1«d u A-tooU (tea S61). Th« O of inch 
lool-torDia, MpceUUir, It puiuty atlliiuyi no forma oc daTl'itlvva made 
from ihv nou Jaiilfy It. 

d> Vhe loott ihoning Inttirhanjeably f iiid Ir and Ir or W and 
Or (24a) tie oiltt^n by tbe Hlndut whli r or with f, or villi botli. n« 
f hen' aha to »tily foTinat, Intenilad to maik Ihe tooU a* Uablo to wrtaln 
luailtllcatloiK, »lnco It nowlicie ahow« lt««lt in anir form ot detlTatKc. SoA 
[•oti "111 In tbi» wcirk be written with y. 

0. Tbn toot*, nn tlic oth«i hiiid, ibowlng a variation betveen f and 
ar (tatcljr r«) aa woalc and *Wmf ioimt wUI bo bat* wttl1«n witb f, ai by 
the naU*e grtniaiariaiu, alilioiii-h many Eiinpean attiharttlai prefer ihe other 
ot attong form. So lonf ai m writ* iho nniitongtlicnoit vownl in trtd ami 
<fl, in mad and bbO, and iLfU like, eontlttency aoenia to r«i{aft« tbat wt 
wrllo U In cfj and Iqp aUo — la atl cue* alike, wlibaac roAironsa lo wbal 
may b^vo been (he tnorF' oMslnal Indu-Biiiop«an form. 

106> In many raac* of root* (bowing more than one (oirc, tha eelerCian 
tt e TeptcMntillvs fora It a mttter of cotnparatlre indifferent. To deal 
tiltb luch (aa«* aMonlltig <d thslc MxorlcU rbarnetor la the p^il r4tber o( 
la Indo-KnropMn compatatltB giainintr than of a Suuktil Rramiiiu. Va 
must id <ioiil'Eit 10 accept aa i»ota what elenenti acom to bavo iiib the 
irfaolc that «aln(B in Uie exisiins condition ol ibe UnguiKU. 

100. Steiaa u wdl mi roots bare tb«ir varisiiona of fonn (311). 
Tbo Blnilu irrnnimariiiiis imnitlly kI'o tho weaker fitrm Ha tlio aontuUi 
one, and dorivc Ihe otb«r fiom It by a strength cdidk cbitngc; Boms 
£uTOp«au aathorities do the Mine, while othora prufi-r tiiu oontnuy 
mvlbud; thv obolcB la of UDeM^^nllal oooaequvnce, and niAf be doler- 
ininMl tn aoy ca»o by motive* of couvenienoe. 

107. Wfl eh»ll accordingly coOBidtir 6rat of all, ia the preaent 
ehaptui. the rttphoDic prtnoiplea imd laws which eovem the cnmbiaitUon 



r— loe 

o( the elcouDts of worils nixl of words is clcmonta of thv seDkncR: 
then will I>e taken Dp the nabjccl of luflcctlon, uadtir the Iwo hnAn 
of dedooMOn and conjufc&tino ; aad ad account of tho olauoa of 
uitiBllected words will follow. 

ft. Tha ronnntioii of co^ngsthnuil fttoins {l«nM and mode-Bleou ; 
ktoo (MTtfelplM utd ikfinilive) wilt bp txaght, an \% lautl, io ootincclluQ 
wllb tho prooouM of cnnjugatlonAl lufltciion; t)i»t of UBlnflMied 
word*, la cooneotion with Hie various clussos of iboaD wordi. Bat 
tb* |CCT^*I tnbject of derivatiofi, or tho formation of decHnabk stnn«, 
will be taken up bj Itaelf later ititttp. XVIl.^: and It wfU b« followed 
by wi account of tiM fomatlon of compound itcmji (tbkp. XVIII.). 

108. It is b^ no meanH to be expected of bcginneTS 
io the languAge that they will attempt to mnater the rules 
of euphonic combination in a bod^, before going on to learn 
the pAiadigms of ioBectJon. On the oontrary, the lending 
paradigms of declension may best be learned outright, 
without attenttoB, oi with only a minimum of attention, 
to euphonic rule. In Utlciag up conjugation, however, it 
■a practically, a« well as theoretically, butter to learn the 
forma na combinaliuaa of Mem and ending, with attention 
to ntoh lawa of combination a« apply in the pattiouJat cases 
oonoetned. The lulee of external combinatioD, governing 
the make-up of the eoatenco out of worda, should be 
grappled with only when the student is ptepiwed to begin 
the reading oi the foruiatioD of seaieQcee. 

Principles of Euphonic Combination. 

108. The rules of combination laaihdbl putltng togefher) 
are in some respects ililferent, according as they *l>p'y "^ 

a. to the internal make-up of a word, by the additioa 
of derivative and ioBectional endings to rootn and stems; 

b. to the more external putliiig togellici of stenu to 
make comimuad steins, and the yet looser and more accidental 
oollooatioo of woida in the sentence; 

0. Hcooe thej aio usually divided into rules of inleinal 
eorabiQatioo, and tules of external combination. 




110. In both clMtM of eaMv, howorer, tto gctuxnl plntiplM 
of cutiibiaBltoD an the Mm« — and likeiriie, to a gretit silsnt ihv 
apeoUc tmitm. Thu diffoKsMi dcp«nil En [uirt oa lk« ooounonM nr 
nou-oeeatteiKe of eeruuD combiDatJons in the one clau or the otter; 
In pfttt on the diffoieife of treatment uf th« nuuu si>uBd •< fiiul of 
> TOO* or of an eitdiog, the fomer being mvro porBist«Dt tlimii die 
latter; In pari, on thu accurrence in external ^ooikioation of Mrtelk 
ehaufcea whi«h are appartotlj' pboociic but mily biatorioal; aai. noK 
rr«qu«i)t Aod 6i>D»pi<!tio09 of all, on the laet tkat (1&7) vaweU and 
•ecDiTOvrels and oual* cxeieU« a aunkntixiiLf; influeneo in oxt«rMl 
C0Ribinati4>n, but noi in Inienal. Uoiuie, lu aroid tiiuieoeaur>' npo- 
tltlou as well m the nrpanttun uf wliat r«Nllj' belongs togetheT, t]i(i 
rules for both kinds of cumbiaitiun are gireo below In oonnectlim 
nith ono lutatlier 

111. a. Uoreover. b«foro luae-cndinga begiuilajr wirh bb and ■ 
(Mniety, tibj&m, bliU, bbjas, nij, ibe treatmeat of tbo Enala of ttctiM 
U In i^enorsl the Bane aa in tbe coaUiutioaB of wonls >!padai with 
one >notti«r — licence tbow ondli^ ara Knuelimea c«Ih:d pAda-und- 
lDg», and Ibe cuaea the? form are known aa pada-cuea. 

b, Tbc iDp0runc4 tit tbia diitinctloa ti tonevbtt cuKctnttd Ij Om 
ordinary aUUmtnt «I it. In ttet, dh U tk« uily Mninl kii« initial </t an 
ending oco^nliif la eonjcgatlira, m bh tu 'ttclensten; and Ao dilTtrtitM 
of ibalT irMiaani It In part o*isg to U>« one cwntDK ^nte eeUialou uouallr 
«1t)i ibe anal nf B root uiil (bo otbot «f an cndmf , and In pan Is iha fact 
iKal dh, aa a dental, la iu«ta aailnitlabU bi palataU and llui;uali than bb. 
A mae« Matkod and pi«M*uatia illattnotlon tt mada b*i*««n an and tlin 
aeibal eudlDf:a el, ava, etc.. upedilly after palatal aoanda and ^. 

0. Further, boforo coruia of the suffixea of derivation Uie final 
of a atem ia tametlmea treated in tbe latne n»nncr m that of a word 
is compoBltloD. 

d. Tbla U wyt lallj iha oaae b«fct« Mrondary *i«rSx«i luvinc a 
naiktdly dUUnci once, like lh« poicenJve muit aad Taot^ (be al>«u*«t- 
Maklng tvas >bo luMx ot malari*] vuCT^t and •« ee; and ll li nineti 
OMie (requcui In iht Utn Uiifuace than In tbe eaiUts. The eaanplM ue 
aporadla in «)>iraeter, and uo rale ran b« {ttaii to ee*OT tbeoii (or dotUU, 
•cc the Taiioiaa autBiM, in cb<p- XVII. In ikw BV. (■» juif be ninniionfid 
bert) Ibe only enanplae are vidy^nmant (beiiJi* gftn^Lmant. kokiid- 
nant,a««.), p^dvaot (bMidadatrdkot, naftr^tvaat, ric^), dhnadWn 
(beaidt nwuKsvin. «!<.). fagmfc (braiije aitnA, idhmi. etc), mtinmij» 
(bHUe laanaamJtra, »(c), and SLbJubyu, kldard. q»iijA, and bAIiot^ 
duroyA, iakfdhoyu (ihmj<|ij namaAjr^ vaeavft. etc.); and the A.T. 
add* "niT a&hOTKn (RV aahivui)- 

Ua, n« leadlsf mlet of iniersal «anbliMil«n (■■ alietdy Haled: 
lOB) t: :' "U(b tn of !■»**> lUinaodUtc Impofiane* lo a banner in 
tbe tail. .:« hia Oral ueb U to maaict ibe principal ptiMUfna of 

39 Obneral Principles. [—117 

intlaetlon ; the rulei of eitemal combination m*y b«ttec be left uiitouohpd 
nntU lie comei to dealing with wordi In seotenoes, oi to truiiUtlng. Then, 
hovvrer, they »ie Indlipsnsable, linco the propoi foTm of the waidi th&t 
eompOM the (enteuce ia aot to be detenniacd without them. 

A. The general principles of combination aDdorlying the enphonio 
nlea, and determining their cluaiG cation, may be elated as follows: 

118. Hiatus, la general, hiatus is forbidden; every 
syllable except the initial one of a sentence, oi of a word 
01 phiaae not forming part of a sentence, must begin with 
a consonant (oi with more than one). 

*. For details, and for exceptions, see ISSff. 

b. In the eullei tanguage, howeTer, hiatat In OTory poiitlon vat 
abvndantl; admitted. Thin appcan pUtnlj' from the mantriu, or metrical 
patta of the Teda, irhere In Innamerable initances y and v ire to be read 
at 1 and U, and, leaa ofteu, a long vowel la to be TBiolved Into two vowelB, 
In otder to make good the metre; e. g., vSryftnbn baa to be read a> 
Tftli-K-qA-ftm, srafvyam la su-a^-vl-uni and lo on. In the Brihma^ai, 
•1m>, we find tvao, btot, dy&ue described as disiyllahlea, vyftna and 
eatram ae trieyllableg, ri^anya aa of four syllables, and the like. See 
further ISSe. 

114. Ueaspiiation. An aspirate mute is liable to 
lose its aspiration, being allowed to stand unchanged only 
before a vowel or semivowel or nasal. 

IIB. Assimilation. The great body of euphonic 
changes in Sanskrit, as elsewhere, falls under the general 
head of assimilation — which takes place both between 
sounds which are so nearly alike that the difference 
between them is too insignificant to be worth preserving, 
and between those which are so diverse as to be practically 

116. In part, assimilation involves the conversion of 
one sound to another of the same series, without change of 
articulating position; in part, it involves a change of position, 
01 transfer to another series. 

117. Of changes within the series, the most frequent and im- 
portant occur in the adaptation of snrd and sonant sounds to one 

Svps<Knc ConiKATioit. 

ftnoUiar; but iho mskU and 1 hkvs t\»o ia eerUin oaM* Uwtr special 
MsiiniliiilTe influouee. Thua: 

a. )u ibu ivo cImmb of oou-naMl mutM and »p1nnu, nr4 vid aoiuirt_ 
ue whcllf InRDniptltble; no Mitil of rlOm oUm «aa either pvead* «r fall 
4 nnuic of eiihor. 

b, A uaM, aiinl or aonant, b asiliiillaied by Mng cksnged to 
Otmapnndnrit of tbe otber klnil; of Ibn spliantt, lb« mtd ■ !• the onlT aQ«~ 
haxlng > sonant noriMipaiiiileiit. nainvli r. to vtilrfa It l» «>ni«itiblB In ci- 
lanitl combination (164 S.). 

0> Tb« unsalR am more frovl)' ootnbintblu - a bimI dbt elthw ptiMcdo 
or Tollow 1 miitn of etthm kind, or the souant (pirant h ; It may aim folloi 
a lunl spitant (aihlluit); no naaal, Iiiiw4>'*i>t, rxew pr«H«i]M a libilant In (be 
iiitrriot or B wotd [it la cltaii^cd iiuKai to anuBv&ral; arid la KWmal 
oombtnatlon tboit concnrrcnee I* uauaUy iioliU-l by Inaortioa of a aunl mats. 

d. A iciiiivairo] ba« ntlll Iftt lonanliilnf influnnrAi and a vo«el |«m( 
of all ^ betb aro ttctlj pracniind aiiil foUowed by aonnda of »t«Ty atbet 
«laie. In t1)ii luiartoi of a vord. 

e. Beloift a sibilant, hoirc«e)r. fi tonnA, ef th<i Mmivowela, only r vd_ 
««ry rarely 1. Horvovoi, In «iUtnal ooiablnMUon, r i* etian <bati|adl U> 
■lard «>9ft««pODd«ni a. 


f. Ill conipoaltton and aciii<-nu-apU«oatton, fnlUal lowula and $aa 
vo*roU and natala at*D r«^ttlt» Ibo pMetUnf OniU to bo lonant. AnJ 

fg. BcToTO a natal and 1, Ha aulnllaUTO fnteu U (onttlmot eatried 
futlUot, b)- tbo coiiTuniou o( a Qual mute to a iii»nl vx I (Mp«ctiv«Jf. 

1 18. or utavvrelona Involving a chaagv ■>! urtlcuUlo poailiun, the 
moat iispoKitiil are dioso of douul louuds to lingual. HBd, leas atteu, 
lo palatal. Thtu: 

a. Tha d?nta] a anJ n an tor} fioqnenUy Mntniti to f and i; by 
tha aaalmUiliug influenoti «( contigUDUs oi nelghbuuTlng linf ual souudii : tbu j 
even b; aoundt — tia>o«l7, [• aii<l u-to»^1i and k — «thl<b ba*e th*ios«ti 
no Ungual cbaraotor. 

b. A noti-n*aal d«atal rnoto ta (wtlh a few esMpttoni tri exi 
MiDbiaatiari) m>il<i lingual wbon it oobim Into ««Ul«iou wllb a lingual w>ul 

O. Tba doiital luiitea and atbilant ats mads fwlatal hj a cootlgnoat 

But alcoi 

d. A m (not ndJcal) la *B»<nllatad to a Mlowlnt eonaonant, 
irhatovci ktod. 

e. For oerlain aoomalona vaaea. tot 1B1. 

119. The euphonie conbina lions of ihs paklAl niiitoo, the palati 
atbilant, and tlie atplratioo, ua bolag soanda dcxived by pbonedo 
filteiatloD frooi i»ora origitis] i^attaraU i4Sa'.], are loade iMoaliar 




snil cont^ic»t«ii by tiro eirauni»btn«c* tlinir rovcnJoo to s ifDltiirAl 
fonn (CH- the Kppranuc* of tbe uiultcntd guUunU IbsIohiI of tliein : 
43]; ud ths different tnwtinnnt of J and h aecorillni,' as Ihtiy peprtmnt 
ow> or siiothor degrca «f Kltcratioo— tho ooc tendlog, lUe o, noro 
10 tlie guttural reTemtOD, tfao otber Rhnwinp, like f, k more filMliint 
itfMl lidgnsl cbnnieter. 

ISO. Tli« liaguul •ibiUnt f, idio of dorivativc charitctcr ifrom 
dcBtal fl), ftbowt ao nidicnl finnl peciillir and pmbloiaalio phenowana 
of com bi nation. 

121. lixtviition nad abbrCYiAlion of codso- 
onnt-^Toupe. The iiatirc giammnriaDS itllovr or lequirc 
cdtain cxtco»ioae, by iIupHcatioD ni insertion, of groups of 
oontmoantg. And, no the oilier hnnd, abbicvi^tion of cei- 
Uin othei groujts in allowed, ftod found often piAoliaed in 
the oiBDuscripts. 

1S2. Permitted Fioal*. The portnilted oecurrcaoe 
of Otiotuiianl« at tdo cad of » woril » quite nnrioivljr 
restricted. In generul, only one oonsonnnt is allowed aftur 
Iho last vowet; and thai must bv Di'ither llio nsj^iirntioD , 
nor fi eibilanl, ooi a setntvuwe] (save raielj' H 1)( nor an 
aspirate mute, not a sonant mute if not oasal, nor s pnlatal. 

128. lucre ui em and Decrement. Besides theie 
more or less regulAi chaoges accompanying the oombinatinn 
of the parts that make up words, there is Another class of 
A diflerent chariuter, not conttimiug in the mutual adaptations 
of the p&rt«, bat in strengthening or weakening changes i^f 
the parts thtmsclvcs. 

124. It [fl imposyible to carr^ tbcoufrb a perfectly syBtcmatic 
arnutfetncot of tbii (leiailmd ruiM of ciiiitioalc coiDbliiatioD, hceause 
tha dtflr«nrnt varictica of eupboaic chanjto mon nr less «veil&p and 
Intersect oae aDolher. 1'tto order otMerrod below irlU be m follows: 

1. Rules of TOwel cowbioailoD, for llio avnidaneo of Uatiu. 

3. Ruks a* to pemiittMl finals !»itic<! tlicae DuderUc tbe forihcr 
trsatmrai of filial coiuonaata tu oxl«riiat onnibiuatfoiil. 

i. Ibiles fur Igas of aspiratioa of an aspirate inut& 

4. Kules o{ snrd and ■ooant anitDitation, inoluding thOM for final 
a and r. 




188. A> reic^rds llie lux^nl of tli«tte vowel cvmbiMtioiM, it ia 
to ho noticed thai, 1. a« a mntt'T of rtoureo, tiic uulon of avute with 
Miitc ylolila acute, aod tlwl of erave nitli finve jklila griive; tbut 
of eirf^uinSox villi eiroumllcx «»DD«t a«cnr; 3. h cir«umtl«x with 
fotlowJDK Rculo yields S'^ute, tbe fin&l grave elviuoiit of tbu former j 
b«injt riu*6d to ntxiU piich; « Kfi^vft willi falloninK souto doca thv 
aKme:, as n» upvard slldo of tho voico on a lylUblo Is sckittfwledKod 
In ibe UuKiiSKe; but, 3. wlion ilie former uf tho fuwd HuoientH is 
iicul« and th« lattor grave, wo migbt «sp«ct tho resulting sylUbla 
lo be In K«aenl ciicumflex, to repreaent botli tbe oriKimU touoa. 
Piinlni ID fact mllows this acr-nnt in vrtry such casa; and In a alnglo 
aocentimtod Brahmnna l«xt f^B.). the clrcuuiQei Ia nrKiiUtly writtobi 
Btit ttin InnRiiafCo show*, on tli« wbolo, an indispoRltioD to allow th» 
filrcumllflx to real do eichcr long TOirel or dipbtbong as Ita solo basis, 
and tho seuto olemciit i* iiDireri>d to raltc ihu olluir to iu own tovol 
of pitch, msklnff tho wbole syllable scute. Tbe ooly exception to 
thU. In moat of tlic tnxts, U th« combination nf ( and 1, which bir- 
comVB i: ihua, dlvi *ts, from dlvf ivm; iu thu Talttlrlya tvtia aluno 
anoli ft cast- follawa the genoral rule, while Q and u, Instoad, make 
h: ihuti, Bud^ta frun su-udgAta- 

130. Tho i-vonels, the u-towc1«, and W Ti before a 
diaaimilar vowel oi a diphthong, ue it^utail}* coavcrted each 
into its owQ corit^spoadiog semiyowcl, ? y oi ? t oi ^ r. 
Examples are: 

^rMi-t ity aha (Iti+aha); 

qfucl madbT Ita (mftdbu+irs]; 

SH^-alW duhitrarthe (dtihltr<arth^; 

Mll'U stry aaya (itrl-f wya]: 

gV vadhTtl (vadhQ-Uj. 

a. Bui ia iotcraul combination tho I nnd u-vovrela are not eeldom 
chiuiEcd inateud (o iy aud uv — sod tbis etpecially in monosyllsblea, 
or after two cunBonants. whore otherwUa a group of coneonant 
difficult of prouuucUiion would lie tha raaalt. Tbe oaaea will 
notioed below, in uxpl&iDinK iaSocted foroia. 

bi A radical I-vowel in conrerted into y evM bofore i In perfect 
tena«>iadeetioD: ao nliiTima (Qinl-f-tna)- 

o. In • few apondiii oum, i ind o bft^mv ly iiid av fun iu wotd- 
compoiktion : «. g., iriysTl Itxi-t-avi), riya&gn (vli-ftasa). eurita 
(an + Ita): tcmpuo 1804 b, o. 

d. Net verr letilocs, llie iimu «onl (sapediHir u found In differtnt 
ttxta of tbc a1d«t la]ifui(a) ku moie ihin oub form, ■honing Ttriout irottinent 


Vowel Cokiukatioh. 

r— 131 

tt an I- rtt u-vi)w*I r e. if. airkr nt aitrar. tanvfi oi Utnuve. budhnjra 
. « bndhnljr^ rdtryU "t rjltriyAl. Vor ihr in<»i pxi, iloubllMa. t!iei« 
uc only tn-o v>!« of wHllUf ihu Minn pmnunelalioii. nu-ftr, badhnfih, 
*nd Ml on ; viJ Ui« JUooccUiii^c )u* uo atii«r impnttanai^, hl>loHp«l or phaix-tkv 
Tbrn ia mora or tw« «r tUt 4tffiBteiics of UMtinent of an I- at a-cUmoni 
4ft*r * cABtoiunt In til ptriodi bf tti« Unjtuv'' 

S. In Um olilvr Unjpi»g«, thor* U 4 miiltod iHfTorcnee, In rMpert U) 
Ika frvqiMiny iif Towvl-coniliiiMtioii for ■vaidlnx hUtyi m aonipatsi) with 
th*t o( iioii-«einbliiat(»n and eoiiMiiQAiit hlatui, btitwecn tlio «]»■ nf ukm 
«k«re two vowttl-Mundi, ilaillar o( diMlnillji, noiild i^nilexe Intoono (129, 
IftT) Kill l)i*t wh«te >n I- 01 n-vowil woulit b<T convxMil into • Mtut- 
TOwa). Tkni, In woril>rainpniiT.-oti, iho ratio oi the cttei of ootUict^ towkU 
t« diMe of hUta* Are lii ItV. u Die to «nr, In AV, ■> ntnetean (a one, 
while Ike AMM of Kmiiowvl-coaTQnlon tn in IIV. only oae In twelre, In 
AV. only nil* In Bvo; In aentBriotr-rornbinallaD, Uio cat«* ttf oMlMMno* 
%n In botlt ItV. and AV. about m mtoii to oar, while tbote of «etnli*w«l- 
fon*eT«iaii art In KV. only oni> in Ofty, in AV. oup In flvii. 

b Fo« Mitalti 'a«c* et |li« Iod> or awlmlUtlon or L and U bafore j and 
T tM^MUialr, MO S33 a 

ISO. As regards tbo ntcvnt — here, lui iu the pr«c«iliug omo 
(1SS>, tk« only combinallon requlriog notice to tliai of au acute i- or 
a- TOiral vrith m folIuwiriK gnvv: Lho t«iiiilt ia oiTOuiuflei; aad aueb 
cues of «ircinnaes are many (imes more fregnnni thim any anil all 
others- RxlllDpll^*l are: 

soft? vyiijtl [vi-uvH); SPJi^IM abhyaroati; 

s^ nad^fia inadi-Su): 

ffc|5J STi^t* (^u-ifta]; (H—^tH t&nvia ^Umu-iia}. 

a. Of a atinltu rooiblnitliiii uf arutu t With folloMiiic tnf*, only > 
ttngla oua ba* btafi n«i<4 In accented trxu: namsly, vUfL^tr itkt (1. a. 
▼Uafitf et&t: ^'B. ilr. 6. S')): the swcuiiLatloii la In aocoidancc wlib lbs 
ralM for 1 uid u. 

XSl. Of a diphthong, thv final i- or u-clement la changed 

to iu coneaponding scntvowcl, T| t ot cT ▼, before anv vowel 

tn diphthong: thus, 7 o [ivAUy at: 28 a) becomes QT ay, 

and sn o (that in, an: 29 a) Ki'comcc 03 •▼; 7 &l Liecomea 

gra fty, and 5T in becomes OR St. 

. No chan^ of occcot, of coarse, occur* horo; caoh otUIdmI 
•ylbble retalits iu syllabie lilenlity, nad tieaco also its own luoe. 

b. Biantplai can be gtioa ofily tor (nUiUsl romblnaliaa, liotiA in ellarnsl 
Mvkluatteli ^\tt« ar« ruilhri cbaugrv: avv lb« DSII pirifta^ Tbns, 

^ ns7a [ne-aV. 'TFT nSya iDftl-a!; , 

»R bhava (bbo-«;, Ht^ bh&ra (bh&n-a). 

198- 1 




132. lu eiierual coDiliiaation, ire hare the imporlaat 
additional tu1« ihiit llie semivowel lesuUing fiom ihe coa- 
vernQD of tbe fioal element of a diphthong ia in geDeral 
dropped; aod the resultinfi; hiatus is left without further 

19S. That is tu aay, a final ^ e (the most frequent 
caac) becomes simply ^ a before aa initial vowel except 
Q a: sec 186, beloivj, and both then reniaio iinohauged; 
and a final 7 U, in like manner, becomes (every Trheie) 
gi &. Thus, 

FT WMl: ta BgatSb (to-f i«amt); 

RITT ^ nssara Iha [nagare+iliaM 

RFTT U(^IH tasmS adad&t [taam&i + adadSt); 

n^in "iffiM strtyS uktam latriyKi + uktam). 

a. Tbo hur er*iniii«rl»t< illow ih« 7 In inch rnmbliutiDM to bu elUin 
r«Uiii»iI 01 il{0|>pe'l, but Ui« anirorn prMilifv «r th« manuacripU, nf tt^rr 
i$e. In w^cordaiiee >llli Ibr (trlM Teqnimttant nf tin) Todle ^inimin 
(PriI^Uby*>), I> Iv omit the sMnlTOwcl a.nil lM>e Ih" lilali». 

b. Tlic pc»tilan<v of Ihtf lititui ciiifcd ty thit omLiBion li a pUIn 
tndUatloii of llie i omptintlvcly romat losa of the intMroiIng coniontnul 

& IiibUi>i1««, liowevor, ot ibu arotdkiioe uf hUtua by coolitnition of Uic 

remilnlng Onil *an«J with tLp rollo*Kln( Inltiii Mcotdlng to tlte ntnal ruJu 
u* mM witli III every period of the Unguage, fram thr RV. iluwu; but 
tbav in ntc «nd vt upoTaillc cbarnctcr. Comptm iho *lmllai ttintmnni of 
Uia lititu* aflet s \aU fllial a, 176-7. 

d. Toi ttia praullar (rcatmniil of tbb «oinUn«Uoii In oailatn caMi by 
th« MS., M« Mow, 176d. 

134. a. Tbo diphtbuner o lex&ept u phonetic tlieruiion of fioftl 
sm: mo 17Bai la nii unuHiuI fimil. iippfsfinji; only In tbe stem go 
(3610). In tlio voe. sing, uf a-stenis ,341, In words ot which tli* 
Boal R U ooioblued vtlli Clii^ |ia(ti<ilo a, in ftLho. itnd in » ttw intor- 
Jectioiii. In Ihe lam two cluses It la ODCombinnble Ibfiluw, 138c(]: 
the vocatives BOmMlmes Tetsin tbe -v nod nometiined lone it [tbo 
practices or different texta are toe differont to be brioHf klated); go 
I In ooiDpoiilioQ only! <loe« not ordinarily lose Eta final olenent, but 
ma«Da gi^v oi go. ^ linu) m hecomoa a, witli followEiig hiatus, 
before aojr vowel savc b ifor wbkb, m« the next para^rapbl. 




b. The ^ V df CTT? St from ^ ftu is usually retained: 

HN'4 tftv era /tau + era); 

T'TT^FSTiit ilbhftT Indragal i ubh&u 4- iodr&gal]. 

e< In iKe Met lutgutfo, bovevcr, li li In lonts iciU dnpptil 1i«- 

■11 U-Toircl: Ihut, tft abh4u; III »Am trxU ll )i (TMled IILs ftl, oT 

iu u-«I(>uieiit beforu umy initial toitetr that, t& tnrin abbi la* 

185. After fitiAl 7 o or 9^ o, an initial Q a disappears. 

A. 'I'bo rosuklaK ncicrnt ir as if the a ncr*) not druiiped. but 
nttier absorbed into ibe pre<-eiiiiie dliththoiig. havinit iU lona duly 
wprCMBtcd in tli4 combination. If. namclj-. tbo • or o is grave or 
clrevoifl«x and the a acuio, t)te fwmer LiecouM wnte; if the « or 
Is Mcutc nnil the & srave. tl>e former bo^omes cir«nintlex, tu usu- 
•llf Id tho fuRino of an ikciito »n(l r grave element. If tollt are 
icut« or botli Kniv«, no chnnga, of eoiitw, i> »oon in tho raiulL 
iExauploK arc: 

% J5ISR to 'bruvan ,te abruvan); 

^ IslcOrT ao 'bravlt isa^ abravit); 

t^MH-^idt ^: bliliBitaTjo 'gm> (UfialtAvya)? ago4); 

uf^-<l JiPftrT yad indro "braTlt lyid indrftti fibravltl; 

UKKI-'JI liraifi^ yfid rtjany6 'bravlt [si<\ r&'janyify 

b. As ta tbo u(« uf ih« avAgtaha sign in a« ucc ol «noU ui elliian, 
•iw ibo**, 16. Iu Utnilliftnlloii, Iks reverwil ipmUopbo, or ronRh bii'iitli- 
IM, will bu «i«4 In ilki* work lo rvpioM'it il. 

O. Tbl« tUilMi or nbinrjiilon of InltUI a iftir flntl e «r o, vlilnU ta 
tii« Iktot UnRDBgc It tits lii>iitiaM« rulv, is in the Vcd* onlf on occMioiial 
oMuntoee. Tbna, In tli« RV., out o( newiT -1900 InstincM of iucb in 
inllUl a, 11 U, •■ tki! motia ibaw), to be totVy omitlod ouly abonl loveniy 
tlnat-, !■ Ibtf AV., Ipu iIihi 300 ttmM oul of abonl 1600. In notUei 
work U lliera txij accordBiice In reipcct to thr combliiatton in qvoMlon 
I hctWNa tke Sfittea mil Riiokta roini ot the l«it: Iu HV., ihi> a t> (m 
written} pliilcJ In more dikti tbifu i)Ukn<Fni of ths caiet; in AV*., in aWnl 
tw» Ikiiils; •nil in boib texts It It ntiiicn In * niLmber of liLTUnccs «h«rr 
tha laeln- requlrea III omltaian. 

(L In k fItK cue*, an Inlttil A U ihtu HIdeil, eipecially U)«t of 

«. To tho rnleH uf rowel conbinntioia, aa abovd Itatod, th«r« 
are ctrtaia (.•xcoptioae. Some of the more Isolated of ibtse will L« 

49 Permitted Finat.8. [—141 

Permitted Finals. 

139. The sounds allowed to occur as finals in Sanskrit 
words standing by themselves (not in euphonic combination 
with something following^ are closely Umited, and those 
whifdi would etymologically come to occupy such a position 
aie often variously altered, in general accordance with their 
tteatmeot in other circumstances, or are sometimes omitted 

a. The TAiiety of cousonints thtt vrould evor come at the end of either 
■n InOeeted foim or m derivitlve Btem io the Ungutge ia ver; smUl : namely, 
bi fotmi, only t (at d}, n, m, B; in deriveliTs items, only t, d, n, T, B 
(tod, in B few lare irords, J). But almoat ail couGonanU d xur aa flnala 
<rf roots ; and erery laot is liable to be found, alone ot as last member of 
a compound, in the character ot a deciiiied s^em. 

140. All the vowel sounds, both simple and diphthongal, 
may be sounded at the end of a word. 

a. But TieStlier f nor } ever actually occurs; and f is rare (only u 
neater sing, of a stem in f or ar. oi as Qua! of such a stem in ronposition). 

Thus, indra, fiv^ya, ak&ri, nai^, d^tu, oamtl, Janayitf, &gD6, 
Qiv^y&l, vayo, agniii. 

141. Of the non-nasal mutes, only the first in each series, 

the non-aspirate surd, is allowed; the others — surd aspirate, 

and both sonants — whenever they would etymologically 

occur, are converted into this. 

Tbns, agoim&t for agnlm&th, suh^ Tor suh^d, virut for virudb, 
trl^fop for trl^tubfa. 

a. In a few roots, when their final (sonant aspirate) thus 

loses its aspiration, the original sonant aspiration of the 

initial reappears; compare ^ h, below, 147, 

ThuB, dagh becomes dhak, bndh becomes bhut, and so od. 
The toots exhibiting this change aic stated below, l&B. 

b. There was some question atuong the Hindu grammarians as to 
whether the final mute is to be estimated as of surd or of sonant quality; 
but the great weight of anthority, and the invariable practice ot the manu- 
scripts, favor the surd. 

Whitney, Orammar. 3. «d. 4 



r— iM 

b. Final mlitil s U mI'I liy the grnmaiiriuii to tin cifainfnd to t: hni 
ii« MiK cXBHtple of t^« cnntOTilan U quoUbt*: m« 196; aiid com|>arc 
UK ft. 

140. The oompouad ^ kp i« prescribed to be treated 
as simple ^9 mot Lecomiog ^ k by 150t below]. But 
the case U a laie ooe, and its actual tteatment io the older 
lan^fuage iTie^lai. 

h In iho only KV. mio nhen tli« kf bu i qaa>t-n4le»1 <4m«oIm — 
namely anili ttoai ail4k;, mil imynk from ymyBk^ — Iha eanfBnIen 
ia 10 k. Atin, of foirai ot ih« s-KoiiM {ttu 890), '«■■ bive odti&k aar&ki 
■rUk, etc. (lot adbakf-t «ic.]; but 4tin aprftt* fty*(t »vt^ iuir*t (fnr 
kprUcf-t ^(f.). And RV. Ua* iwlc« Oky&a rnm yyai. anil AV. miM grKs 
fcoin fajl (uronglf rcfciTeil by BK. to ymi*iia]. both '2d dog., wben tb« 
poiaaiul andlng hu pcrbapa ctovdcd out tlia TOut-llaal and Kiias-aJsn. 

b. T1)« ntimotal |af atr li ptThap* bntur Vt be »s*ti]Ml x lakf, with 
ll» kf traaiad aa f, a'tnrdliig to tho acccplrd rain. 

147. The upinttioQ ^ h te not allowed to mnintain 
itaelf, but (like ? J and ST 9) either reverts to ita original 
guttural form, appe-iriag an ^ k, or is changed to ? { — 
both in accordance vrilh ita treatment in inflection: eee 
below, 222. And, also as in inflection, the original sonant 
aspiration of a few roots [given at L65b| reappears when their 
final thus beoomes deaspiiated. Where the ^ b is from 
origiaal U db [223 g), it becomes ^t 

148. The Tb&rga aud aouevSra are nowhere etymolog- 
ical finals; the former is only the substitute for an original 
final ^ t or X r; the latter occurs as final only ao far as 
ii is a substitute for t\ m [aia h). 

149. Apart from Uie voveU, theo, the usual finata, 
nearly in the order of their frequency, are : ^, IT m, R a, 
rf t, eK k, i| p, T. y, those of only sporadic oocuirence are 
? fi, FT 1, ni q; and, by substitution, - ih. 

180. lo general, only ooe consonant, of whatever kind, 
is allowed to stand at the eod of a word; if two or more 
would etyraologically occur there, the last ia dropped, and 
again the last, and so 00, till only one remains. 


III. Euphonic Combixatiom, 


a. Thiu, toduits bccoues tudaat. aod lliis tudan; uda&c-i 
bMouiM udaAb (149), sud this udaA; and akcb&ntit (»-*or^ M sine., 
uf yehani feeOb]) Is iu like inMiiQ^r tedm-ed Ui aehSn. 

h. But D Doti-nMal tiiiile, if radic&l &tid not auffixal, u retained 
nftcr r: tiiii», (Irk from OrJ. v^k froui I'v^J. avart from y-rjt, unArV 
from ymji, luhiirt from ioli&rd I'hc cage i* oot a conmon oue. 

c Fm TellM of foniMr double Oiiftl*, prMerrcd by Ike Ul«r Imiirnic* 
■■det di« ill(^iit>t< of *pp(t«ii< i<i<t>honk roiiiblnMloiM, •«« b»1ow, 807 9. 

16l> AiiDUulotih Eonniraion* of • (ln*l muto to onp of uiadioi cIam 
aro Mca'loiiallv mot «1tb, Biainple* ara : 

a. or BmI t la k: thui, l, ia ■ tvw «orrIa th*l lia«* usuiaed t 
iprHil <ilue u pjirtlFlin, a> Jr6k. tOj&k (bMldi< tAJ&t), fdhok (liealde 
l^at), pfthalc, OtUc; aiitl of kiiidnd rhatarter li UUdagdint (TA.)! 
'i. In hnro >nd tben> i n>tb«l fotin, u flAvifak (AV, and VS. Kl^.), 
dombhl^CApau.), avi^yak (Piiaik.), thalak (VS, MS.; s Abarat); 
9. In looi-noaU or thf t addrd to loot-iUin* (3S3 •), u •dhfk Tut -dhft 
(diJliti «nd Uirt) at the end of irompounAii, sufrOJc (TB.), Pf^f^ (^^0 • 
and 4. nr may fiinhiri nol« hero Uie anemiluut ebkfva (AB, i fur Intsva. 
yldh) Biid avakaiun (Alt.), and ika (MniuiiiM In kni from muculinet 
In U (117ed). 

b. ill Dull d o( t Id a lingual I tliaa, pad in Telle pa41>^B> 
pA^bhl. p&fjblva: upftn&tJbhyBm (^B); vy artf (MS. Ill, 4. 9; 
ywm» <Amr), and {larhap* ApA 'rftf (US.^ ot fraj?). 

O. ur k iH J to t, In an iMlattd luunplo or t«», a* aamjT&t, AapC, 
Ylfvaitt (m K.), and prsTitoa (VS. T».; AV. -kfn). 

d. In Ttlttlil)'a (niti. ot (h* triil of antif^bb and trlf^bh 1« a 
■utintil: aa, anuf^iAk oa. triffugbbls, aou^toc'^''"''' 

f. Of a laUal to a dental: la kakud fat an4 bealde kaklibb; In 
■aibitdbbll (TS.J ftoin K*n>= ^'^ ^^ ^dbhla, adbh7Aa, ftam ap at 
ap (SOU). KiMpUns tho nm, tkoao l«ok lUe oaaoa of dUalmlratlaOi rat 
aiiMtpla* of I)" rnmhlnillnn bbh am not T*ry ra^l^ In the older languagu: 
llmi, kaki^bbhjraiD, trlqt^bbhls. kakubbhan^ nouffab bht. 

r. Th* fitttni pratldhQfaa, -ft (Tnlltirira texu) from pratiduh ir^-. 
kiilaUrf anaiullM. 

IAS, For all the prooenes of external combination — 

lllAt U to *aj, ID ooinpo«iuoa nod senteace-coUocation — 

K ■titm^flnnl or wnrd-lin&l is in geneial to be regarded as 

ItjivlniT, mil iu etyniologiRoI fuim. liut that given it bjr the 

iiiIm m I«i permitted llnali. Kiom this, however are to be 

lilii«|i4«ii| iliti » itnil r: titv various tr&usformalioos of these 

miunAt Ihivo tmlliliig tu do with the viaorga to which aa 




fiaals before a pause the;* have — doubtless at a com- 
liaiatively recent period of phonetic history — come lo ba 
reduced. Words iriU everywhere in this work be written 
nith &Dal s or r instead of If, and the rules of combtnatioo 
will be stated aa for the two moie original aonnds, and not 
for the visarga. 


1$8. An aspirate mute te L-liaagcd to a non-Mpirate 
before an'>tbor noD-ousal mute or before a. sibilant; it stands 
uoaltCTcd only liefore a vuwl-1 ur semiruwcl or nasaK 

■■ Sneh B MM (ui OAlf 4iIm In Inurail oomUiutiQiii, iImm the 
pfoeaicM of Hterntl t«nb1ettIon piMVppaM tlie r»du«tlftii of Um Mplnw 

W « noli-upltalR «ntd (162}. 

bi PtKliullr, ilio, lbs ralM m (» «liui^i «f uplnU* coneetii 
klnpn unly Ika aniftni miiIimm, «inc« tim mr4, bnlflf of Uiet doTdo^«iil 
tod nrer 04«tit»a<*, •» htrdlr ever f«aiid in (iiatiiam tbat mII Tot Iktir 

164. Hence, if such a roulu i» lo be doubled, it is 

doubled by prefixing iu own correaponding non-aspirate. 

•. Qnt la llw nuniucrlpu, balk Vndli knd Itut, u uplrtu muU 
It nol mUM) Ainuil mlltrn double — nipixlallr, If jl b« un« of ian ownir- 
mce: lor Mua^« (RV.), *iihfcti«ii, j^jt^atl 

166. lo a few toots, when a final sonant aspirate (Q 
gh, tl db. 7 bb; also ^ b, as representing an original 7 gh) 
Urns loses it« aspiration, the initial sonant oonsoaant (T\ g 
tir 5" d or 5 b) becomes aepirate, 

a. TliM It to i*Ti >■■•> oillilnal initial uplnfc of tuck rooti ti rMl«re<l, 
«Wn lu pE«Mii<» don* not iBIcrfeie «Hb (lie i:uphaiilc !*», of comparMlTelr 
(TCont origin, wbleh (in Saiiikril m in fliMk) foitld* ■ real U botk befln 
ua vMd with aa Wplral*. 

b. Tbe roots which abuw this peualiiir cban^'e are: 
Ik cb— dagb; 

in b [hi 0(i«ir>al gix) ~ dab, dih. dub, drab, dl-Ah, sub ; *ad 
•1*0 f*b U*i ^< I'ter (lMldentit« jlgtkflt^a); 

hi dh— bandb. bsdb. budb; 

la bta — dkbb (bui only !■ the Uter d«idtrut*e dblp»« fat whlob 
iM 9ld«r lui(Diit^ hu dlp«a). 


HI. EvrBO:(ic Coxbikatiok. 


O. The (Bins diiiife tpp**!! when lti« lav m to flnaU «<Mt*M lh« Uwa 
of Ihe ufiitatlcin tt ih* end of the root: tee iboi'v, 141. 

d. But tnai dAfa, duh, djrub. nud guh ate found in tli« Ve>)a 
aUo htmt vrittiDnt thr^ tMtorod inlilU M^pint^^ tbiii, dakqat; vlakfat; 
dndnlcfa ata.; Jucukfa; mltrftdruk. 

*. TKu ttmus auiloiEx l> rullu«it<l )•> dAdh, l)ie iKbieiUled mbaUtnln 
ot titt pna«(il-«t«nf dUtU, from ydhft (667). in inuc of tiie foinu of 
ivnliigallnn : thut, dhatthns from dftdh-(-thu, adhatta fKtn adadh-f- 
tn, adliaddhvam fivui adadb+<Ui7am, nn. 

f. No CM* la mat wtlh of ihc lliraaiiig back of an uplralivn npoa 
camblnatlou witit tite "iA ting, ttnpi. aci. eiidlni; dbt: lliiu, dogdtal, 
daddhl (RV.J. but dhugdhviun, dhnddhrftm. 

Surd and Sonant AMtmiiation. 

156. Uodei thU head, there is nrpecially one very marked 
and important difference between tha inlernal combinatinns 
of a root or item with suffixes and endings, and the external 
combinauoDS of stem with stem in composition and of word 
with word in sentence-ma king: namely — 

107. a. In interna) cumbioauoD, the initial rowel or 
semivowel or nasal of an ending- of inflection or derivation 
exercises no altering inflaence upon a finaJ consonant of the 
zoot oi stem to which it is added. 

b. To tliU ruU there aie lome nc«pttoiu : thus, lomo of ttie deitntiiM 
DBteJ at 11 1 di filial d of a wot bvfcra lb« f^rtldplal aaCAt nti (067 d); 
and ibe latuit aoWd bdov, 101 b. 

0. lo ezteraal oombinatioa, on the other hand, aa initial 

sonant of whatever class, even a vowel or semivowel oi 

oafial, requires the conversion of a final surd to sonaat. 

d. Ii bu bacn polotct 6Ut abovo (IKS) that In tbo mlM of astf^tnal 
cMnblnitlon only idDllted OiuU, alonit wilt e aiul r, nMd be Uken 
AfcouBi of, all othen belDg regatded aa nduord w lh««a b*lM« MOblnhiQ 
trlih lnitia)i. 

IBS. Finnl Towele, nasals, and H 1 are nowhere liable 
to change in the processes of surd and sonant asnmilation. 

a. TUe r, bowover, baa a corrospi^adlo^ »unl \vi ■.,« ■■liidi U in 
eOBStliDM cbM(«tl la esteraal eonbitiatloD. otMlut clc-nnatuius tliai 
fftvar a surd utMi - [ITSj. 




150. With the exceptiona nbor« stated, Uie collisioi] 
of etird and Boaant sounds is Avoided in combiuatiocs — 
and, le^laily and usually, by awiiDitating the 6iial lo the 
following initial, or by tegreasive asBiinilation. 

Thus, to inlemal combination: itsi, &Ul, nttliASt att& (Kadf 
«1 «le.'; ^a«(lbi, qft9dtiT4m:vQA^+dhletc.<: — ii]t>jterfial<K>inbiD&lioD, 
4btiad Bjr&m, ijig Jiva. ^4 a^it&y&h, trl;ti^b Apt, dlg-g^ja, ;it4- 
mhA, aroid-dhUma. bfbJkd-btaann, »b-ji. 

teo. If, however, a final Booant a«piiat« of a root ia 

followed by rT t or !| th of aa ending, the assimilation is in 

the other direction, or progressive : the oombioation is made 

•ooaat, and the aspiration of the 6nal ;loet according to 168, 

ftliovej is transferred to the initial of the ending. 

Thu*. sfa with t or th baeomea gdbi db witli tlie same boconiM 
ddb. a» bnddhi (t'budh-r- ta), rvddbAa O'Timdfa 4- thaa or tas)i 
bb witb (liu Mune bvcomes bdb, as labdbi (yiabh-t-ta)> labdhva 

a. Morcuvur, h. aa rq)r«i)t;iitjn^ oriKinal gfa, is tntHtcd in tti« auM 
laaaner: thus, dugdh^ doKdhum froia doh — unil comptiro rtt^bi 
ud ll^bi frvu mb ao'l Ub, vie, sasb. 

b. In tbl* comMtutlon, u tbe loiitiii iipiiitlon 1* o«l l«it but trantfamJ, 
tk« TcUoratkiii of ibo tnlLtl atpiwion II6S) dou not uko pltce. 

C> In dodta tnm ydiA (166e), tbo more uoimtl m«thn<] n (oMawt^-, 
Ik* db la Biiile iDnl, tm (ht Inttlil agplrtted; tbnB, dbatthaa, dhattna. 
And av. t>u dbnktam Unload of dagdbam fmn i^dagb; and IA. bw 
tnttain iiiitMtl [)( Inddbam Iron I'ldb. 

181. Before a. nasal in external combinalioo, a Anal 

Btite ma.y be simply niiuJe aoniint, or it may be still further 

lasiuaiUted, being changed to the QAtal of its own claw. 

Thus, viih«r t&d n&maa or tin n&maa, -vig ma or vi& m«. b44 
^vBofa^B or bktf mab^u, trla^ub uaaim or brlft&m ntknitn, 

a. la pnttlw, ibe «oaT«fit»D Ini* a RMal !• »Lmgit tntailably niid« 
la tia Bumlpta, u, fadaMl, It U by Ui« l^iil^ikhTu roqvlied and net 
MtiiUiAd BanJr. Etcs by ilia gcitetil Gruao>arl>i» " '» requlrod lii tbs 
•••rxa* f^9«vatl. and befon mltrft, and iha aufflK msim (iaa5)t 

b. Brca In iM„n^ on bint Mod, lk« aaaie (UlnlUtioo U ntdo In 
imm flNjH /wivrti^ oM«d ai 111 d, aal in iho na-patttolpit" (867 d). 

* farMtllc iBMaaew »r« net «iUi avea In vetb-liiQectiou: tbiu, 




Ktianotl, atliinnyiit (MS. i for ntchn-), nifiinltm (Lf fl. ; tin mjda-), 
JfiimiByiuia (K9- ; '01^ J&Sid-) : t^*9», bo^etci (like Old dooUe aiplntra, 
104 a), (to iloabtln* Ui bo rejected u bite teidiiig*. 

16S. Before 1, b fiiiiil t ti sot merely made BOBant. but fully 
Kselrallatod, bi^coniing 1: thus, t*! lubhatc, ulluptuni 

163. Before ^ h [thtt case occurs only iu external 00m- 
binatioD), a final mule is made sonaiit; and then the ^ h 
may either remain uDohaoged or be converted into ihe 
eonant aspirate ooriesponding with ilie Toriner: tltua, either 
'TT^^ tad bi or ?IT^ tid dhi. 

a.. In prtcilcG, tli« Ititci method U atmoM liiTaritbly follavftd ; and tk« 
irammttUni of tbe PriUfaUya perloil are atulj unintnioiu In i«qiililo( It 
The phanMto dlffcmncci bci-senn the Iwo I* xeiy tUclil. 

EumiilM are: v^ ghutalj, ^(}4t>ota I ;«(-(- bota]. taddhlta 
(tat+hiu), anugfub bh{. 

Combinations ol final ^e and :^ r. 

104. The euphonic changes o£ IT b and "J" r aie bcel 
considered together, because of the practical reUtion of 
the two souadx, in composition lud Bcntence-coUocalion, 
M cnrieipoading surd and sonant: in a host of cases K » 
becomes X i^ ''^ nituations rciiuiiing or favoring the occur- 
rence of a sonant; and, much less uAco, ^ r becomes n b 
trhere a surd is required. 

a. la Internal combl nation, tbe two are Tar lenB exchaogcable with 
one another: and this c\m» of ra-io* mny best be tnkvn up firnt. 

165. Final t radli^al or qnas I -radical rthat ii, aot baloeelnfT to 
an enillDK o( dcrivntiun) rumajne unchnngod bofore both aunl and eonant 
•uuDils, nnd vxva before bu in dccl^DBion: thus, plparfi, catortli^ 
oBtiirqu. pOrf^. 

168. Final radical s remaitu beroro a lurd in grenAral. n&d uaa- 
■II)- bororo », M in qiami, fftstva. Mte, agi^qu jtho last Li alM 
writtea aqttiqu: 178.': bnt it In loit in &sl <K'aa4-Bl: 636) B(>for» 
■ soiMini (ihat ill, bh; in ibtclenniuti, it it Iroatvd a* in rxicmnl eon— 
biaalioa: tbu*. ft^irbhla Betoie n sounnL (Chat in. dfa la i-oDJUf-aiioD — 
it ai'iicnra to t^a itri>])[i<:d. itt Icuot aftor long a: tliuH, qAdbi. i;aca(!>il 
caic&dhi ;tho only quotabk ca>cs); in Bdbl (f'osH-dlii. >■< 
toot qrllabi« is irruKiilarl)- altureii; but in Sd pcna. |>L, ihbwb 
tJhvam, aa Adhvain, fftdta-rnoit arkdbTam iSS' •' ' 



FCSAI, 8 AKD r. 

C— 160 

rMA«j, it i». oii a«(}»uiit of tb9 cquiralescn and intORliaDgeabllit; of 
dbv and ddhtr (332), itnpoBsIble la say whcchor tlic a in omitted or 
OoaverteJ into d. 

ft, Plnil niltoit • U *«rr itn; KV. (tvitn, b«lb ^i ftat. *lnf.) tn«U 
iigtiaa tram vgiMt la tbfl Mine miaii*! u my Ditliutry irocd ending 
la aa. 

b. Foi mttaio cuw d UnfuUr lua o( tka a of ■ not or toiiK4t«ai^ 
IDC 889 b^. 

167. In a very fow oaaoe, fioal radical s befoto a la oUaiif^ed (u 
t fperhups by dia«lmUAtion^: tftoy uv, fr^ni v'vaa Jocf/f ^aleo spond- 
I Ic^lj froa Taa«Ai>i«, ^'B., und vamcbthr, Bu.), tbo [iiture vatsy^ml 
I ud aoritt Aratsain: from i sbas, (bo dnlderatlro item jigfaataa. 

a. i'w t U tppat«nt eixUdf of the 3d ting, in B-««rbi>, ■•< SSBa. 

IBB. Aeootdttig to the fttiaBtuiuf, iba lliul a of crUln oUm rooli, 
flsed ts uoaa-at^mf, boranics t nt lUv oriil of the word, iiid befai« bb >nd 
aa : tbiu, dhvaa, dhvadbtUa, eradbhjraa, arntau. Bat gcnaliiB MampW 
ol nth cb*n|[o &r« not <]ii«ubl«. 

a, Spoikdlc cucf of a [Ike conianlan snt [ound In the Yedi: lutnolr, 
madbhia iLitd midbbyia from mu: a^idbhis fiom uf&e; sT&taTad- 
bbyu from sv&tavoa; Bvi,rudbbla etc. (uat quDtabU] l^m tT&TU. 
But tlia lettiiUty of tte ooavcrdon ht-to U op«n lo inTo denbtj It tathtr 
M4iua lh« iab*t[ta<li)a of s t-iMm foi • a-Mein. The isnic U truo of (h« 
cbuigi of tUi V> nt In tb* dedcntloa oT pexr«ct ptttiolpUi (4B8). I'lic 
*Uin aaa^Ti^ (404), from anaa-vab, U xiomalouB and lioUMd. 

b. Id the rouip^iiiidt dtioobtins (duB'^unA) and p&raccbvpa 
Ijponis^ps), tbe final a of tbn tlrs) momhM \t Iraitad ai if ■ t 1^03), 

160. At (1)0 final comonftot of deriTAliv« et«ins and of infl«ct«d 
Tonnt^ both of dooluQston and of coDJu^tioa, s ia oxtrt-maly [rcqnunt; 
' and its chafig«i form & anbject of fint-rate Ituporianoe in ^»uTlBk^[C 
oupbony. Tbc r, on tho vtbcr band, ■■ ijuiCo ntt. 

K. Tbc r If ffand ■• oilglnal Antl In cxritlQ CMc-fvnat of ■icn» In 
r or ar (360ftji In roat.«temB in Ir ond ur from »oott in f {383 b); 
In * 1111*11 nnmlvr cf oiliei itvnis, u avAr, (Uuu- snil tidbor (boxldu 
ihan ud ddtaaji: 430), dvar or dur, and thu Yedic v&dbar, Ufais, 
[▼aaar-, vaaar-, qmter', aapnr-, aabar-, atbor- (ct 176 e); In k 
fev parUtlw, ■( antir, prSt&r, p6nar; »ud Id the anrnffil ostur 
(488 g)- 

b. 'Ihn «upbcinlc tTottnent of ■ and r yleldlD| predMly tbe uoie 
raioll «Iter all lowdi «i(*pl a and X, there are oarlatn rormi with rvgard 
to vblob It U uno«itiin wbolbar ibcy oud In a ot r, md aplnioui dlifer 
lupecUng tli«tii. 8acb ate or (or as) «f ilo gen,-4t>l. slni- ot r-«lemK 
(371 a), and ua (or ar) of the 3d plar. of totb* (BSOoJ. 


m. EVPHtRtlC CownKATios. 


170. a. The If ■, a* alrcitdjr notiocd [148], booomea 
visarga before a pautc. 

b. It uf rcuuDCil unohKnged only whcit followed \>j 
fT i or ST th, ihc surd mutc« nf its rnvn cIdm. 

c. Bcfote the palntn) nnd linguiil Hiird mtitos — ^ o aad 
S" ob, 71 i luid ^tb — it 18 nanmilftted, becoming (he libilaot 
of either cIms retpectiroly, oftmely ?[ 9 or ^ 5. 

d. Before the ^ittiiial and labial suid mutee — Wi k and 

PI kh, T p and t; ph^ — it is also theoietioallj- assimilated, 

becoming respectively the JLhTKintUIya nnd apacUun&nlya 

sintanls (89); but ia practice these breathiogs aic imkaonn, 

and the mnvenion iB to TiBarga. 

Exampldiarei U» b. lftta« t«, caltque i«; to «. tatai; oa. 
ohAyA; pAdaftalati; 10 d. nnils^ kamam, purtiqa^ kbanati; ya^i 
prfipa, vfkefth phnlavan. 

171, Th« first thri'a of tbesi? rules are almost nuiTerat]; to 
last one there ur« nuuiuroiiH eicfiTpiiona. the etbtlanl bHug retained (oi| 
by 180. convertiMl inio ?1, lispeciuUy In compoundfl; but also, la Ik 
Vvda. even [u sentcnrc ■^OIllbi(llltia^., 

a. In the Vcdfl, Iho letentlon of iho alMUnt In oonpounJ* !■ (k* |MM*1 
nil*, tti« c^coptloni lo which >ri> ilo(*lt«d In Hu V«dlc gruBinii*. 

b. In tba Uur lingtik|«, Ibn rdcntlnn ■■ mainly doiermliuid by the 
InUmicy or the antiquity iind fMqtmicy or th« comblnitloo. Thiu, ike flnil 
•IVIani of a prDfOdllon oi a wokI lUllnf tk» oflln* of a prrpivlilcn ^afotv 
• vprbi] root U wont to he prueriDil : aiit] tbAl of * item befoK a ilerLfaitirB 
of yk^, lufnio pati, bafor* kalpa >nd k&ma. an^ lO on. Bxaioplu am 
Damaaltara, TftoaapaU, arufkOma, paroakalpa. 

o. Th« Vcdk toiomlon of ilis aibltaiit la MutrtKa^toUocatloo b d*uU4 
in full til the fHii^ikliyM. Tba cbtor g)»*m> af um* u«: 1. the llnal at' 
K prapniltlon or iu llko bprom a >«i1m1 rna ; ?. of 1 (enltlTo bafor* a 
sorrnilns naiinr u dlvila putnLb, l<^a pad4. ^- of an nbUUre befot 
pirl: u him&vatai piri, 4. «f eibi-r Imt •■Utttdabk fuet- u 
ptti, erf? pO(T<» yia paUlT* parldhl; p&t&ti, etc 

173. Befoie an initial sibilaot — ST 9, 17 9, na — T]^i 

either ■ [atfBMHM^H^^^HiBe sibilant, or 

H II fhm* ni>'i>ii(a ■( larlanca (■•• 

M b« vada, a»d In 

CoNDtKA-noxs or Fucal ■■ 



pwt Ibey ftilow eitb«r at plnaiirt. The nHie ■>( the mtiiiunttpta li klto 
AitMiJiBt; tho coiivDt>l[>n to TUATga l> tliR previbnl pr>nllt«>, lliouck tho 
•IblUat U >U» uot Inrrt^uenilT loaaA wtlucD, Mpedallir In Soaih'Iii<ll»n 
tntnuKtIpt*, EniopMU «dltoT> gonciallj write vJMkrgSi l>(il the Ul«t 
dicU«nirlv« and gloRurlaa gonarally mtkr (he ilpbiboUc piM* Of a Dvrd tbu 
wme M II thn irtbUuil wore mA InatMd. 

EitmplCB nrn: muiuti vvsyam or manai iTajam; indn^ q&nif 
or Indrsf qar*h; tt^ fnt or t&f ;«(■ 

173. Thera firn one or two QxcepEioim to thoie nine: 

a. K ihe InlUal alblUat bu a auid mute after It, tlio flntl 6 aiy bo 
dti>ppo<l al|nK«th«r — and by xotne anIhorElIca (h i(»|uir«it U> liB so diupped. 
Tbn, vifftva Btha ot vftyuTB^ sthsi oatuAton&m or catuJ^stonAin. 
With t«K>td ti thlt point llic niag* of tbo ill(rvi«nl mintucriplj and «<)itiout 
ia pMtly at Tari*iic«. 

b. Before to, lb» ■ la allo««>l U> b«coiii« Tlsarga, toMead of bdng 

17'!. heioit a Booant, either vowel oi consonant (ex- 
cept X *"■ ^®* ^''®?' 1,* '8 changed lo the soaanl ^ r — 
unless, indeed, it be preceded lijr Q a ot iTT &■ 

KxunplMnre: drvapotir irn, Qririvo; manor K«coliatl. tondr 
ap«Di vraafr ajaaityftt: tftyor adntBJt&ma4;aarTBir ttu^ilti; affn«r 

a. For a low uioi llk# dti^flqit, dtk^^o, sec bclnv, IMd. 

b. Tbe ex«]ama[iuti btioe (466) Iomi Iu b b<>fote towel* and wuDt 
t*ntonant>; tha«, bho iifti<|*db« (and ib« • It tomotlnsa found ontltlad 
•iM letote aaris). 

o. The endiDgs ?n as and 9rF[ &a [both of which oie 
exIiemcLf common) follow rules of theii own, namely; 

17K. a. Final OH as. bcfoic any sonant oonMoant and 
bafote short IT a, is changed to i^t o — and the ^ a after 
it is lost 

b. Th« rojultiat iccaDlnitlOD. and the tv.l ibal the lost af a 1i only 
oecaiibnal In Ihe oUar luigais« of tbo Veda, hiro been palnltd ant afcovo, 

Examplun urc: nnlo nKioA. brahma^yo vodkvit; manobbars; 
bantavyo 'ami; nnyonya (anfas -^ tui;a\ yoQQrtbam (ya^aa-f- 

c. Pinal ^ aa before any otheT vowel than Q a toaea 
iU tr a, becoming simple ^ a; and tbc hiatus thus occa«ion- 



in. Ervuojiir Comsimatiow. 


d. Tlul U W MjF, ik« o fro* H U WtMad m u odsliikl ■ U limited 
U tlw unH iinutlcn : tee lSS-3. 

ExaiDplw %n: bfbadkcvii trrlaa. Kdltja !▼&. nimatUctl, 

170. Ei<«pt(au to tb« nlu m to Sakl m an: 
k TIk* luMulnaU*!' mmMnlbm ffo»o»B« ais uil tfia tnJ (Vt^Jlcr) 
B7&B (4Ma, 409 Mib) l«*e iMt ■ littt a Any MOaaiual: tbus, M., 
dftdftr^ i* taie, nfa puru^A^ liw «mh; km so 'bniTtt Aa 

b. liiMtacM u« not vUb, boih U tW asiUn uid to tha Ul«r Uit- 
!<■•(•, or tSMesakl ff tb« bitten iltsr thantfoB af at, by eaubtiutloil 
(it tb« raKalnllif And k wlili ihs fvllawlnf fadtUl Tovel.- Iliiii, tate 
*vaoa (latoi-f-uvftua). payofQl (pftru-^aK0\ ftdhUuift (sdhas-f- 
Ksuir): t«atf»n IS3e, 17Tb. ]» tk« Tads, lorh m cMnbiMttoa i> 
•oiuoUmet «lin«ti ^r (ha nem to b« ntnfMi, (bavck thi wrlttea mt ku 
lb« blUiu. But aa In RV. 1* tn tk« crvat Bijerili- of cum comblael with 
tU bltuittii« •gwd f. r- ■* 'd ftfr M id, at 'smU for ti. oimU, 
•*& *4adhi)> f»r 14 offtdU^i and alalUr axMBflaa uq fMud i1m in t^a 
•Uiw VwJle i«xu. 

9, Oihw »p>r»Jlt UncuUrtUM la ib« treaUMSt «( flnal as qkut. 
Thn*. It l« uhinfad U ar liuu*4 of o »ivm tn BV. l* •t4s, enc« In SV. 
In 4vH (KV, Aro), onee ta MS. in dJUnbhi^Mi In bhmrM ((emnd ot, 
tb» tno or ■tuad «Rat*ne«a bltOs, bbuvM, •v«r). aiccpi t> lu carlle 
utfruiisiiMi; In ( aurlM of wonli ia ■ Brikmuia puMgc (TS. K.). lU. 
JlovAr, tiKrir, bhlznir, tv«f4r, grntit, bhflt4r, iDd(K. oarT)pQt&r; 
111 Jnaar tn<l raftbftri tai mow of tbear-iteiai aouA n ieS« *rap«ihai 
ol kliKlKi) chiiKlvt. On tbt otkw kind, as li leitnl tlnw^i rb«ni«4 lo 
In ItV, kefoN k inrl <«naMi«iit; anl ais tvira. tad j4s onec^ retain* It 
llnal illIUDt In t llko pxltlon. 

d. Id us., Ilia Uiul ■ IcA kahre Umqi by dicntloD cf rlther h 
(o) ur • (IM) la tDwle loac tf itttU «a*aoentad and If (he tDllooIiiE Inldil 
tt*ol l( aoccnud: thai, BlirAiti (ftoa vdiM + Ml)! nirupT4tA iadx&ra 
(haw •v^to + Cnd*), >nd *1eo kirr4 ika- (bom fcinros, kecauu rtrtaally 
kftrlH)! but tdltyi Indra^ (mm oditrii + ladro^), rtiltare (from 
•U I (UN). 

177. ("'iDAl OR Kb beforo noy sooutt, whether vowel or 

I'onaitDAut, loflos ito 71 e. becoming simple iTT i; and a hiatus 

(bill (inoniioDfd retnnins. 

a. 'I'liH nuVntaiiiiice of ib« bltlai In tkeie (kmi, ai In Lhal uf o andj 
a llld al (tbw. IS3-4^ *onin> 10 lii-llcala ■ r««ia]i Iom *f the Intormeditt 
0))lnl<'na irn riUldBd ■■ to «k*t thit ihosld ha<e boen, Somo af 
lit* rmumailiiii miIbIUu the twa of b to (bat af &t, Miuulnx 




ibe Bontenion to A; la botb altka — bui yiDtvbljr aiily » * natOr or 
fcmal MnTSnlcacn In nle-nuklng. 

b. TIm*, (DO (•• in tke (iinllM caaet at s «aJ U »ui 9: 183 e, 
170b), ihera u* eiBBplet to W fou4, tetbeullct mil laior, of elTa«cin«iU 
of tb« hiattu. 

176. Final ^ r, in gcncial, shows the same foim which 

^ • would show uoder tho Mme conditions. 


Thus, it bucoinos vlearga vrhcn iiuul, aud n aibiliat w tIswk* 
an initial tiird muto vr *ibilatit (170); tliiu. radatl pnn*];. 
IdvM U^ Bvitf 0*, CKtufootrftrlAfnt) itn<J (in«,d) pr&CiuitMia, 
rtntastja. oetuf(aya* dhfutva; pr*tA)i knrotl, antotiptta. 

b. Bat Driginai final r preoedeil by a or a msintiiitis jtaolf uo- 
»l before a flonaiit: tbna, punar tti, prAUrJU. &kar Jritt);), 
dimsft, r&nlM. 

C. Tbe r li pHMtreil uncktiifcil vren bctvrv a tui'l in a Dumber ot 

VtiU oowpouad*: (ho*. «hftri>ittli avkrcwiu, svAroakfos, BTorpftti, 

BTBTi^i. ■vaiTtU; dliOr^&d, dbOrqahj ptbpMl, vArkAryA, t^iipads, 

tjptinarttai and In tom* M thcfn the r 1* eptioaalJjr roulntd tii tbs laiat 

[|uigu>ec- Tha RV. fcUu liu &Tar lujua^ onca In Mnteoe«-«emUiutloii. 

d> On tbo otb«r ban4, Dnal tt ot the TMb-forn Atit It tbanged l« 
'e itlit* * Mnuit In ««**»! i^MM In RT. And r it Inat, IUp s. In ont 
01 two caMi in tbo lame text: tliuf, aksA fndu^, &1ik evA. 

t7&, A double r is nowheri.' iidraiitod; if lucb would ooour, oilier 
b; ratSBtion of an ariginal r or by con^cnloo of s to r, one r is 
«ait(«d, and Ibe pr«cedlii^ vowol, If short, ta made long by Mnnpnn- 

ThRs, puDfl runotsi OTPAU rfjAtl. mittfi rlbio, JjoUratJut, 

«. Ill iMiie Vodic (nilJ, ba««<>er, tber« an InlUSOU «f ftr eb*D|nd to 
e M»t Initial r: thua, av6 ZObftTS. 

Conversion of n^« in \9' 

L80. The deotal sibilant Cf s is ch&nged to the lingual 
V^f, if immediately preceded by any vowel save S a and 
91 S, ot l>y ^ k or :f r — unless the n^n he final, followed 
by T r. "^ 

a. Tbo uiliullatlni Inflntam of th* (ir«eedlti| lingnat iD«eU Mil 
Mmhowel l> abfiDim enaufh : ibal of k and tb« other «owali ap|it«n to 
b« Am to a aomevbat Tottaotad poatllon of Oa tonc«a In tbe moatb dnitni 




lb«lr ntWnn'-c, caiulnc tu il|^ u> kmIi ibe xintt of tW navlli hmm Mslly 
•( a polni futibet Inurb thui tb« dtttUl one. 

b> Th« piiioT*! Qinda srimntu pNMrlbM ibe uiD* o^ngo tflw * 1 
tlio; but til* Priti^akbyai jtlvo do laeh rule, and phonetic coiuldetatleai', 
Ui« 1 b*lnt ■ dmial tontid, u« thtaXutcXy kgdiut It Actual cm«» nf tba 
(Mnbln»llon do not (NCGur Id the older Unxuag*. nor hare ia| bieii polnliid 
•Ut in lb* taur. 

o. The Towoli tbnt ciit»e the nlterUioo of b to 9 a«y be ealleid 
for brevity's aakc "alterant" ruwoU. 

181. Houca, ID tlio iDtcriot of a SMaskril won), tlio dootal > to 
DVL utunlly found nftsr aay vovol Mve • ud 0, but, Instead of U 
tli« liDjrtuI «. But — 

•■ A follonlDK T preronta the «Qiivoraloii : thua, osra. ttaroa,! 
Cftmisrs. Aud it i« but ioldoui tosilc in tho forma and derivatives of 1 
H rout coaimlnlag >n r-element wheihiT r or x)< whatever ike posltloa 
o( that cloiaent: thuR, atowrtf, «ts|-t(uii, tuirlatpik. tlntlre, portarnt. 
To this Tiilo there are n few excepUotifi, as vl^r, vift^jA. nffffta, 
rffpardliaat aAvi^ttalr*, otc. lu ^u^dh tliv finnl f of it rout is 
presorrud rir«ri Immeillatcly b«f«r« r. 

b. Thl* dlMlmlUiltig influeite* o( ■ follawlag r, u compared wltb 
ibe inTirlibls anlcaiUtini iiiflMnca of ■ prooedlDg r, U pwallai and prob- 

o. Tbs tRniirton«« of f In iiiccm»1tO lylUblM !a tamotlniet Maided 
lia-rlni; Ibn rpriDcc s urKhuged ; tbna, DiABkfl, but eifakUi jOafalft 
but yABlflmubi. SimiUtlT, In tertaln deaidoratlva tonsnU«iu; <«• btkniQ 

d. Otiiet euM an aporadle: RV. baa tlM toruia alsioa *ni sialetis 
(but BlficKtasI, aDd the ticin* rbina, ld«ti. bfsa, busA, b|SAyKi a 
liiieic roL'i pU, wiib Ha derii>itl*u poauka, U fuund ono* In (B. ; MS. 
liu mfemr^ii: muaolB beglBa to be found In AV.; mid mch C4MI 
grow rnore nuinituiK; fM puihs and the loot* aliiB and hiAs, lao b«low, 
189 b. 

18S. On Uia ulliet Itnnd (as waa pointed out abov«, 6Sj, tlie 
vcGitrroDco of ( ia tjannliilt words Is nonily limlled to casos fulling 
ander this ni[«: otiieri ar» rnthtr aporudir anonialiot — cxcopt wlierttJ 
f El tlio prodtict of 9 ur kf bcfora ■ dontAl, u ia drofttun, oaf^oil 
tTAf^: BM SIS. Ml. Tlius, w« find ~ 

a. ftmr roota, ka^. laf. bbaf. bh£|. of whieb Uia lait Is eoiDinini 
aad li found u c»tr ■• tbo Bnlnninii. 

b. FiKiLer. In RT., &9B, kttvi^tL, co^aU, ci^a, JiU^a. P&9T^ 
baqkJifa, vAfn( (for vok^tP). k^fthai au'l, by lainialoiva allartlloD 
of mitlKal B, -fftb (torOfib «ic.), ft^t^ba. upof (ut, and piubably apa^a 
*nj aqthlv4j:it. Such otaaa ^too more coniuoii Utrr- 

o. Tbe nuninal (Kf, u already niiMd (140 b), ti mora ptobibly 



[— ISB 

183. Tbo nafta ligation of tlio xlturKitl rtiwol — or, in otbet viotAa, 
iu b«iag folloiTAd by uiuuvftru - iIi^lb tiut prcTOOC ita altering effeot 
upoo tbo vibiliint: thus, baviA^I. partifiql. And ibo alteration Uikt* 
pjsca in tbo initial b of an undingnner tbo Glial s of a acom. wkethec 
the Intier bo regarded ua alau obangod to 9 or ki c-onvertod iKO 
vlsargs: thuii, hnvi^fu vr havi^qu, paru^fu ur pnru^fu. 

*. But lb« a (f puiba (304) lenuloi nuckaagoj, ipp^gciily t>a 
MMUl at lb< rclaluod ionic or Hi rdu« as puns; alio tbai 9t ytdiks, 
)>«a*aM af ita tilne u bins (hlnud al«.); i'dUb (ItV. onljr) i* mate 


lU. Tbc priuciiwl cwM of altoriitioii uf a in intvrMil combitiHtioii 
are tbeae: 

m. In endinga. inflectional nr dcrivatiro, bogllinlDg vilb a — tbus, 
tui ■!, me, Bva; a of albilaat-aniiBt, fuiure, and d«al(lentlv«; aiiffisca 
ana, anu, a^a, etc.— oftur > final nllcraut vowel or consonant of root 
ur atcm, Or a uDlOB-TOweIr thus, JubOifl, gefa, an&lyaia, bliavl(y&inl, 
fu^rOfo, dofija, jlffu, vUtfu, alcarfam. 

b. Tb« final a nf n hIciii befont an ntiding or (nffis; thti!' havlfft, 
Itavifae, cU- , Tnifli bavla; qakfufmaiit, fogifha, ladnufa, moau^ja, 

c. Bovls baring a Ilnal atbiUal (cicept Q) after an altnanl towel are 
— with the fticaptioa of fiatltl»ui on<« anil pla, nlJ^s, hIAa — reirtrdt4 a* 
enilini iu 9. aat a; aad wncanlng lh<fi itualu^nt of tlilt ( In Gouibtntii«(i, 
>•• bolow. aa6-8: 

d. Thi' iniiin! a of a rout after a rcduplicatiou: thaa, al^ada, 
aufrtpa, aLf&aalt, oofkOyata. aanifva^at. 

e. BsMfted la In (naaril an btlUal radical a In a dealdaratire rtun, 
wbm Uia deitdcradve-aifD b«(am«i f : tbu*, aUlTfatl tnta }'^, aUafikfatl 
from /bbIU- Aitd there an otbei featuring «ai«f. ai troena (pttt Irm 
^t«aa>. etc. 

186. Bat tho aame «bnngc occum alao, on a conaldecabto aeaiti, 
in extoraal oombiaaiiou, vapccially Id composition. Tbna: 

a. Botb to Terlial forma and in dorivntivcii, tlio linnl i or u of a 
propoaition or older like prefix ordlnaiity liDguHlizci the ioltlnl a of 
the root to wbich it ia prvGipd; aiaoR aucti cotnbiniilioiia .iri! Uotti ot 
gn»t frtquflacy und of peculiar Int)ma<:jr. analogoun with thoai- uf r<.iut 
ot at«iti and affix: ibaa. abhifto, pratlftbi, njfikta, vfflta; anu- 
fnidbim, an^dka; tbo casoa arc nnmberleaa, 

b. Tlic pitndpal cxcopUoni »ie In aMioidkiicii wltii the pTlndpUi( 
•licadT laid dowti: umely, when t1it> lout (outaiim an r-«lcm»nr, lad when 
• iMtirRara of An ilblUiit vi.a14 <*k« pUoc. Uai ihvrc aic Um otbeii, 
■fa oiora IiretnUr Ghaiartei; and (he coin[ileit: iccoani of Ibe iieaunent 
■t lotital radical ■ aftCT a pTeAi xould ba & mallei of frteat d«tUt. ind nM 

Vanh Kl«1af beta. 


Ookvbmiom or q to ^ 


lingtial sibilant or semivowel oi row«l) — tbat is to taj, 
by ^ ft T ""t 01 ^x OT ^ f — : aod ihi», not ooly if the 
altering letter aunda immcdiatL-ly before the noMl, but at 
frhatcvoT distance from the latter it may be found: unleu, 
indeed, there imen'coe (a coiuonaQt moving the front of 
the toogne: namely) a palatal ic:tcept Uy), a Ungual, or a 

a. Vi nty tbnx Bgnn to «iiimItm tke ratiottaU of the prMcat: In 
the wuked piDrifTttf oi th« I>«Ka*se wwATd Ungnal uUensM, Dip«<l>lly 
of Uw au(], (ho tip of ibe lonnto, «h«a onrs nvtrud Inw the InoM lln- 
fu>l pcititlun try Ibo iiiiar4nr« of ■ ni>ii-«niiuct lingual clemenl. leodt w 
hang chare aad mike its nut itui] contict In Ihu poiliion; tiiil dow lo, 
Kniiiii the prodlTlly It Mtladod by lb* uucraneo of ■ lliidud muW, or iho 
orgin li tliTDwu out of a^JoxiDSUC \*y iha utioruioo of in eieiDODt whidi 
ctvto 1( to •Moint! 1 ililToitnl jiottuia. Thli ia not Iho o»« with Ihe (Ollor- 
•la or UbUU, vbklt do not taoTo tho ftoiit pari of tbo tongno (tad, ai tho 
inllaciKo of k nn rollo*rtii( s ihow, ihn KvUortJ pORlilon ftTon tlie ra««H- 
•4on of a tlnfuil): atiil Ihr y ih loo vrMkljr palatal lo Inierfero with tho 
ftlUnttoD (tt Its n«xt TolatlvB, tha i-tmrol, Itaalf l!ii|ualUw a a). 

b. Tbia ia a rule of contuiit application; and (at wai polotwl 
ont aboTo, 401 ttia great minority of acoDiToncua of 9 la tiic languag* 
ant ibo TMult of it. 

ISO. Tho rulo baa force enpociallj — 

a. TboD ■ofBae), of iuflectlaii ot doriiadon, are addod to tool* or 
BD* ooiitalning one of the aliDiiiiit ai^uiid*: tLiu, rudri^a, radr^ftm, 

irfrli^a, vtriqS, vltrlQl, dtt^, h&rA^l, dv^AQl, kri^mt. ^rv^tl. 
kfubti&nd, gh^A, h&i-na, v^knA, rugni, diJivl^a, Ifii^ pura^fc, 
r^k^aa. oik^K^a, oiklrfamai^, Ic^pam&tfa. 

b. 'When tho final n of a not or lUin eonw lo be tollowod. In Infladlon 
«T deitmloD, by luob «oiiriiU ■* allow II to fnol itio cir«c( of a precadinf 
altorlnf caute: tbiia, rcnm yTaii, r&^anti, rLnjrati, rflra^a, art^tfua; 
ftffm brahman, brihma^A, brihmai^f, brOluaai^ii, brahma^yk, 
brUuna^vaa I. 

«. Thu form piqak (HT.: 2d and Sd fine, impf.), from fplQ, U whollT 

191. TblB nilo [likolbat fur tbccliaoi^ of ■ to 9) applied otHctly 
and capeciullj' Rbee tbo naeal and iha canse of its alteraiioD botb li« 
viihin the limit* of the Kama intogial witrd; but [also like tho othar) 
It Ifl extended, wltliin ccruia limiu, lo compound warda — aod eroD^ 
10 tli« Veda, to coatiguoua words in tbo eontCDce. 

Wbila*!, Onnaat. \ ad, t 

lee— ] 



iMiDfly, in cottatn Vodlc coinpooiidi «!ih diu: db^Jibba. da^&(. *tft^hl, 
dOQ&fa. dai^^* ((onparti th« moidrIovi puro^i/Q u4 -^iq^- paxtt + 
y'dl^)\ iiid, Id the 1>iigu>^e of tmj period, nru'a <otnpauDtl> ol fOf, 
«l(h rh*nRe of iu v<i««l to in ati^Mni qnallly (u tn TOi^um «nd BOtpium: 

e. UctwiM-'n DtiiI ( 111'! ifiit^il a, llic iiisurtiu'i "i > t is p'liDittod -^^ 
or, I'toordltig ig >«id« avdiorltlM, requited: that, tf4| oahAsrAh or fk%l 

SOO. Tfie 0&8CS of UBlnitlatiun of a d«nul tu i contiguous pulnul 
uceuTHliDOMODly in «xteraal combloUloii, Aod before an luitial pat»tiil. 
Tlier« is but ou« cue of InteroHl eonblnLtion, uanicty: 

201. A. ^ n oomicg to follow a piilalal mute in intetnal, 
pombi nation is iuclf made |taUtaI. 

'fliiw, jieAi (tlie ouly insUoce after o), sraJM, Jajfii, ajfiata, 

202. a. A final 7\ t before no initial palatal mute ta 
iusimilatcd to it, liocomiog ^ c befotc Q o or S" oh, and ^j 
iMjfoic ^i [\ih doeo not occur). 

TliuF. uo carati, ctac chuttr&m, rldyuj Jarate; jratajAjJana. 
vidjt^lbva, bph dcobandait, BAcoiirita. 

b. A BnnI ^ a ia nasimilated before 3 j, becoming 3T ft. 

o. All ibe gT«ainariiiui. ot vieiy patiuil, require ibi« usimllatlon of 
D W J i but ll Ii tnoic «[t«u u«gl«c(t<l, 01 only »ccwi«ii*l]r nadc, In tbt 

d. Fm n tiofnrc * luid pakial, lae below, 808. 

208. Before the palatal sibilant ST 9, both tJ t and ^ n 

are uBsimilated, becoming respcotivel^ ^ c and H fi ; and^ 

then the following m 9 may be, and in practice aJmoat 

aln-aj's is, converted to W eh. 

Tbti:!. vedavlo Chftrab (-rit ^n.), tao chrutvt, hrcchara (brt4- 
^)«ja)i bj-buA ohaftt^ ur fOfah, avapafi oliet« «r foto. 

a. Some tutliQritlM r«<4td tbe eonvoniioii of 9 (o ch aha t or n u 
CTcrynbere oblitatory, Mhen as only optiorial; aoiiiB (iicepi, pcremptoitly 
M Dpiionatly, a q tollovc^ Ity a niu<*. And (omc require tbn uuo cou- 
^•nloD afur evcri isuio tavc m, tcadlns alM vipAf ohutudri, &aa( 
ob&at. anu^tup charadi, quk ohnoi. The uanuMrii^ti c«aetaliy vnt« 

cb, tnalsad or oofa. u reault of tho cwmliinailoii of t u»d f. 

b. In the MS., t kiiil Q af» alio mala Duly voniMnMl (Dto & <}: e. s. 
lAA ffttaai. vtAvafiy&a. 



Ccmbinations of final \a, 

fi04. t'inn) mdicAl n U isKimtUtctl in inC«ranl cootbiDttioil to a 
followiug Bibilitnl, bocouiloK AnusTftra. 

TlioB, vkhai, riAava, vdABftt, mkAsy&W, JfgbAAMCi. 

a. Atr-atiiag Id >he jiaintDiritRi, it U ti(«l«d bef«re bb *ni in In 
4tclH>fl«fl M Iri «st<^Tiul cambluaiinn, Hui ibo tmu-i ttn, ay bMi, tiof**- 
Ivblv ruo, ind RV. ku riAsn Kiid tUlbu (tho only Vedle eumplw). 

b< Ftntl n of 4 •li-(l<aUia lutOx U lurularly ud uually dropped tttun 
» cAMoiUiiil ill iiinacliaa »iid comptMllian ^In <ompoiilion, eiM kibn ■ 
tOTcl; ti>d ■ ladi'-*! D occatloDilIy ToUovt (lie itm* ibI« ; mt 181a. 439. 

laoss. es7. 

tt. Fm uaUnllftUon of n to k preceding pdaul, tt« £01. 
Thus nnalnJoff cmob nro tb««o vf externitl cgnbinatioii. 

flOB. a. Tbo asatDuUtioii of n ia cxtumal ooiabiiuktioii tg a, follow- 
iag loninl pftlaul utiil the palai&l albiUnt q have been Blrwdy ueated 

(SOS b, aosj. 

b. Tb« o is «lai> deeUrfld ia be assIidJUUhI {beeoating: q) before 
« MUDt liogunl :4. 4i»t 9)> buE tbo cim nrcly if ever ocuare. 

BO0. A n u Also ua-MUiiliiMd lu > fullowiDg ioitiAl 1, beoomiDK 
Hike m. 813 d) ^ nnul 1 

a. Thfl intnaicilplt to a irr*t extent dlsrrc*rd tbU inle, Ivartng Uie 
n n(i<b>ii|i!<li but 41m) tiny 1" p4" ■ttninpl to follow 11 — and that, •Ithoi 
by vHilnj! the Milnlltto'l n (u llii: iulmllatcd in, 213 f, and ]um ai 
nxeaably) *ilh iNc antievSra-aign, or (tie by d«ubUnf; the 1 tiid piiltin) 
■ tipi Of rMMlity Rbuto; tbo lattct, howcToT, ti inexwi. and ■ btiui v^y 
noulil t>A to M)pataM 111* t«v, 1'a, itritini iba Knl with Tirftm* *n4 ■ natal 
tlga *boT«. Thea (rmm trtu lokAn]: 

-. -V -^ -• 

Tie lacond uf ikcio mMhoiU la tha ona ohmatt follovad In piliit«d text*. 

907. Bofbre the llngiinl sod dentil albllanla, f and a, final it 
reottlns oneluiigcd; but a t may aIho bo Itmcrted between tbe lutaal 
and tba siblUnt: thua, t^ f^t or tint f&(; ■p'l'^T' aio or nut* 
:)iiot Bin. 

■• AoeMdtag le mini of ibe (riamikrtanavt tha PraafKltbyai (not BPr.), 
Um litiMTlon of ilia t li incli oaei U t, aeeOMuy "oe. lii the manniMlpta 
H la very fie^ttadtlY inadi;. bui tint unlFarmly. It It ptobibly * piir«ty 
ipbenttlo pbononeoon, a irkUilllori'^aund toeaie tbc dgubto cbiniio of tenant 
(la autd a*d nual (o non-nuil uitvianca — altlioegk l)io not lnf(Fi|nrnt 
, Mte* tn wU<-h dual a ittndi foe nricluil Qt (m btaaraa, abharw), 
' tlllllllillj nay baia *td«d t« ntabliili li u a tale. Iti uikloey iHlk the 
Bvenlen «r n f idio ficli (SOS) U pUpable. 


UI. EoritoHiu CoMstKA-noK. 


908. Before the aurd palatal, liagtuJ, aod daotal niutef, tkcra la 
iaserled aftor int.} n ■ nlbiUut of ench of thoie oIums reRpectlTety, 
beforo which thti n Iwcouu* anuarara: lliua, d«vAA^ oa, bhvUq 
ObicIyaM, kumartfis trin. abbarafta tatub. dndbaAq (425 c) oarum. 

a. Thla lule, nbleh In tfai oUHtCftl Uafak|« hw cfUbUfbed luelf in 
tka (onn ken given, u > phoned* niie of naiaiyiiig ■pplitatton, tailly 
lavolvM a hUioric (tarrlvnl, The Iirg* tn^odtr of cut* at lla*l u in ibo 
luunuce (net ta tnm three i|ti4MiinL] ut tot crttlnal nai anil Ilie nienHon 
of ibo illiiluil in Bucli ndOt, wh«n once tt* bi»1oi1c«I ftmuid hirl keea roigoiim, 
ifu «x(«iid*) by miilf^' la «1I oihtn. 

b. PiMtluUj, tbc mla «ppliM oiily to a beforo C lod t, >lnp« cuas 
InioUlait ibe oiknr InlllaU oooot oitbct not at *II, ot only wEtk eiuaae 
tftrlty (tlu) V«da doM not prQtviii an oxunple ol any of tbcm). la tti« Ta4a, 
Ikii tnnaitkcin i* UM dvoy* made, tad i)i« different t«lti htje vill, rr«tfil 
to l( (lUTMoal iu»)|M, wkkli >ra tultj otpUlncd Ln tbeli Ptulflkbvut in 
geMial, ti h Im4 frequent In Uia older leils. Vbm ibo ^ doe* not sppou 
botvccn n uti a, lh« n b of oanrw MtlailUled, beaoaiing fi (&08}. 

aoe. Th« aauie retontioa of otifpual fiital a after a aaaal, and 
MikBeqitetit icMtmoot of [apparsnti finul ta. In. Qn, fa wit ihey vere 
afts, Ifts, OAa, t^ (l<iii£ iiasalliad vowol with final a^ vbom itaelf 
nlM ia other Vcdic foirus of combloallon, which, for th« sake of unity, 
may be briefly atated h«ro («9<>th«r: 

a. Final in htecmtt i& (oMkUisd &) hefon % foUowia; tovel: ikj>l 
It W t*r, <LAa, <rllii niu4l vuw*l, U treutd UU Aa, *lib p«n <ro<>r«l (177): 
tkac, dvriik b 'hi. dpnbnddh&A ib&, malUtA ool. Tliin U *» iixtr«m«lr 
•ominon eu*. Mpt'oUII)' In l(^'. One* or ivltc, ik« a iipi>nsr> lu ^ bofon 
p: ihui, ■rfctovlUilf pftjr^ 

b> In like maiinu, B it irtatad ttt«t auel 1| (L, f* m 11 wvnld be ttta 
lh«M vowali wbrn pnrv, IiaMinlnit r beforp k Minaiil »onnJ (174), and 
(iD>«h more lately) ^ Xieton a larj ( 1 70) : ito*. iw^aiiiT Iva, attadAx 
yuvuiyllAr ut, njftr abhl ; nfAti pitram t.aD<l nfftf p-. MS.> 

0. BV. hu aneo •!& bifUre jr. HS. uanally \*» sA laMvad c< U. 

810. Tbr luuaU n, (}, n, oceurring aa finala aflvr a »lion vowel, 
are donltletl b»r(iru nnj' lulllal vow«h thut, praty^fia dd e;l, ody4iua 
adltr^, la&nn-lfa. 

a. Thlt U ali« i» bu i*|atdf<4 u a hlatorUal aarvivil, the tvcoud 
iiual 1>»<tif an atalnlUtlciii oT an otlglnal cooMnMit foHotring tbe tint. It 
U alwajri vrtllta In ih« aanafcilptt, itlh«iifh lh« Tedle iaiiir« laatu to 
■h«« that ihn dapllrUliM vm Mroeiliaw euitteJ. Tk* BV. hu tke tcm- 
ponnd vrfai^qva. 

til. The unmU a aoil 9 boforo a albilaot are allowed to in- 
wrt roapoctiTi'ly k and V— w b >a07) luorta t: tbua, prat^&nk 


Oqhbisatioks op fikal m. 

[— ftia 

Gombinations of flnal ^ m. 

aiS. Final radical IT m, in interna) oombiQatiou, is at^ 
BJiQilnted to a. fnllowin^ mute or spiiant — in the latter oaae, 
beooming anutiTka; io the former, becoming the nasal of 
the Hiune rlasa with the mate. 

a. Otfota m or T (u nhfii Dnal: 149 a), il U clui)4«d t« d; (bm, 
rtoiD i^gam cQTnr Agontaa, uganmahi, gtuivolii, Jnganv^i (wbtcli 
ftppokf to t« tlio oDiy i|uol«l'lo MMi). Acurdlng to tie gtammulint, iba 
■una eboBgt Is mvlo lu ihv Inflection of loot-Mcow lebre bh i>ad ma: thai, 
prt^Anbhts. prRC&asu (from praMjAm: prm •)- V'<!*in)- Ko ilertTed nooit- 

I Mara itni)> !a m. 

b. The (B. Mi KC^. hkn MniTsnt tnd g&mvant 

S18. Final R m in external combioatioQ is a 8et>-ile »ouad. 
Leaag asaimilatvcl to any follomn^ consonant. Tbug: 

■• It njuialiu tmuhungi^ qdIjt before a rowel or » Ubial mnte. 

b. Bm (Ua. by ui anoniilous nxoopilon, bofoM r of Ida roni rft] In 
BkinrAj «nil lie detlintlTrn BftmrtUM aud BSmrtUys. 

o. Guforv a mule vf uiy utlior clua tbau IaUkI, It bocomes ibo 
nual of that class. 

d. Uefore llie sotnifovruls y, 1, 7 it bvcotavR, according to Lhe 
Hindu jnitmniarians. a ubmI &«iuivowel, tbe nitHiil countarpart of eaeb 
jnapectfrel/ (ue 71). 

•■ Bflfora r, a slbllaDt, or b, It b«comea ftnoavarn (boo 71). 

r. The mkiias«rl|>tB ami tbn edllloiit tn ttnttti latk* no ittenipt lo 
AI«On|oli>h lhe BM>I (unat pn)dni:e<l Ii/ Uie kaBlmllatlvii 4r m l>Vf«re a tfUvw- 
Ing Mnilvciiral from llitt Irufate > apiraul. 

g. Dm if h be iminadlA[«lT folloirod by tiuMlier coi»oiiniit (wblcb un 

' onlr be « DAiat AT ivmnawc]), Ibe m li illoixtd lo be uaimlUud to tbtt 

rollowlns contonani. Tbit Ii> tiMaui^ tbc li bu uo poaltlaii of tbfl nooib- 

^stKU* ptcultxT to iUeU, but li uKand iu ibe piuition at Uia aost rannd. 

Tha Prltt^byu Ao noi Ukc *nf noUoe of iho ta*ii. 

b. Cue* MO mil villi 111 tbe VeJa irhate ■ Dual m sppean is be 
drofptd tefor* t wwel, tfco flunl ud Initial rowolt bslnc ihoo conblnod 
tM« OB*. The pad«-t*at tb«ti genuallr tl«e* ■ wioux inierp'oUtlon, That, 
aaiiiv&nBiiio 'bhayaifakajnm (Itv. vui. I, 3; pads-texi: -auitt ubh--, 

SV. -OBIlBm). 

i. It ban buen pointed ont aboro {73i that tbo asBloallated m ia 
BOncraUy ropreaentad iii testa by Ibe annsvarK-aign, a.nd ibat in t&la 
work tt it cmsaliuntcd by di [Inaload of a nasal rautfl or A). 




The palatal mutes and sibilant, and ^ b. 

fil4. Tbt^Hc kouhiIh thaw lu aonie sltuatioiu b r«venlon (43) 
t» the original gutlunii from vrliioh (lie)- ttru derived. Tbe troBt- 
oMmt or J ftsd h, ako, li differant. Booording aa (ho^ reprtBeoe tbn 
van or tbo otlivr of two different itegroBS or alteration from their 

original a. 

SIB. The pAtatils sikI h arothe least b(»1>I« of nlpbcbetlosoimd*, 
iiudcTgoiiig, in virtue of Lhoir dtrivktivo ebwMter, alteration in nanjr 
owM irbere otter aimilsr Bouods are rMnlaed. 

S16. Tbtts, in dcrivatioii, cvon Wfgro vowels, *nmiv«w<>I«, and 
nawUa, reTenloa to guttural form is by uo meaDB rare. The caws 
are the folio n-lng: 

a. Rttote a or lufilc a. ilnAl « bsMniM le in aakiL. ^T&Oka, arki, 
paka, vakA, fuka, parka, markA., rfka, pratika cu., r»ka, a6ka, 
moka, rokA. ^dka, toka, mroki, vraaki;— iln>l J tre'om«s g in 
tjAea, bb&g«, bhagi, rACN >&««■ bbafigA, aa^ga, avaags, pfiga, 
tanga, yunga. varga, mArga, mrsA, varga, earsa, naga, rega. bhosa, 
yug^ J&Ka, loga, r^ca; — Hti*! h hi?r(tt>;«i> gh iii achA, maithA, argbA, 
dlrshA (ant) dr^bljaa, dr^btftba], degba, megb^ ogba, ddgba, 
dr6Kha, mogba; kdJ la dughAaa ii><l maK''iun&ua. In seka i^aii) 
we h*ye fiutticr an •oomalouB tukrtitulluu v( • tiui<l for thv Dual louaiit of 
tha root. 

b. In aaotker atoliic af d«rivatl*«a with a, Hie alieied tonnd appears : 
aiaaipla* ara iJA, yA)a. guoA, foea, vr*J&, vortJA, yuja, urj£, doha. 

0. Before the lofltee aa ut-l ana, ibp gotcural oul)' nnly appoan: 
nasiply, tn Aftkaa, 6kaa, r&kaa, Q&kaa. bhargaa. aad in roga^a; alio 
lu cbbog4ya. 

d. Hcfoio u l-Towal, tb« alteroA wantl ipji«ar« (axoapt In Abbogl, 
iHfijiLtB, tigltA. moki, ephlgi) ; thua, ftjl, taj!, rdd, q&ci. vivlol, 

a. BetOfe □, tbe gntlura] nappeara, aa a mie (tbe auei aiv foir) : tima, 
afikn. Taftko, roku. bhfgu, mirguka. raghu (uid r&ghljraAa). 

f. ncfo(« a. Ilic ciimpRt nt rrvoniliin atn few, excepi g( J (becuiuing 
k) before Iba paitid|ri*l emliiic Da [067 o)'. thus, TAk^aa, vagnu (witli 
ibo flual alM made Mnaut); and pirHrlplu bbagsri^ rug^A, «tc.; and 
apparently VXtP}^ f^o"^ VVT^- 

g. BofDce m (nf ma, man, niant, min], ibu guttutal goD«Tally 
appeirs: thiu. ruknaA, tlgmi, rugnnn, f-gma («ith lonant cliange); tak- 
mAa, vAkman, s&kman, yugmAa; rwkmaat; rgnin and ▼■smln 
(with Ronani •.haii^'O: — bui Ajman, ojm&a, bbuJmAn. 

h. Before y, tbe illered •ouii'l It luod; thai, paoya, ynjya, yajyu, 
TiXlya, bhcvlTiL. Soch *a»M u bhogya, yogyi, negya, okya are doubt- 
laM lOcotiiUir deriTatlTei freta bboga «t<- 



I— 110 

I. Bt/tm T, ihe tuet xto faw, and lh« UUJ^> tppi»iitly dlit(l«d: itin«, 
takrs, Mkm, vaJcrfc, ^okrA. v1bt&, uciA, Iusta, mfgro, vioicrii 
but viS'* oixl P^J^^OJ- 

j. B*(ore ▼ (or Uia ■ufOi** va, rui, Tin, cu., >iid panirlplil Tft&e) 
th» guitiirti ii ncuUriy pmarvsd: ihu*, rlcv4, pkkva, viUcvs; vikv*n, 
(tcvaa, rtltvu), ijulcvttn, mrgvui, tugv&n, yo^an^ fkvftiit, pfk- 
v>at; vngvia. ragv&ni. vaicvuiu (wiili muliei i,Dii<uit diini;.-); vlv&b- 
TitAa, rirtkvfttis, vivlkvdAji, rurulcritAK, f u^ukviiAB ; ^ uf iikvMiA, 
(UQiikvknl tiv4 bofoto ibr imion-ionol 1 in okivdAs (IIV.. odcl-). Au 
Ckcsplioa la jkivttO- 

k. Tho ra*<itIoti of h in rlvrlTitlor U coD>pinUr«ly tub. The ADkl 
J wUch Ui onalngnut »lih q (916) nhum inucti leu proclivit; W Mv«»Ion 
Ihu that trhkl) conisiponiia I'ith O. 

I, A llkL- rt'FCilou «iiow> itiair >U« i« n>tM ciMiit In oonJUKnilonal 
it«ni-ronnftlbii «nil tufluinioii. I'bui, llii inlUil ndiul bacoBiv* tnttntkl 
•ri«i rill) tDilapllcMloii In (be pivjicut oi porfcoi or <l««llcu(tvi> or iiil«D*lTi! 
Mb», orlD decitalivaa, o( the roots ol. olt, Jl. HI, baa. »id InJ&giirl iVitJ: 
and htM bBODmw ghn oi> ihu nllilon of • (403, d37). Tkn BV. haa 
vlxrakmi frani ^vac dikI vAvAkro from yvofic; end SV. bu Basfgmali* 
(RV- -stJ-)' Aiid ivfiirp rsn Hi: of 3d pi. mid. w« have g T^r railcal J 
In feafsrwi. ursniii, aaAAfgram (all In BV.). 

217. Final ^ o of & loot or stem, if followed in inleranl 
csombinatioD by any other aound ihan a Towel oi aemtTowel 
or naaal, leverts (43) to iu origiaal ^tlural value, aod showB 
e%-eT>-wheie the same form which a ^ k would show ia the 
same irituatioa. 

Thtt>, viktl, uvAktha, vUci|i, TOkvrtiDl, vagdU; vlgbhia, 
T&k;6; ukt^ ukchi, vftktjkr. 

A. Ax\d. as fioftl o bitciiinua k (above l4Sj, the saste rule appll«a 
alai> 10 in «xu;riial com hi nation: thns. vtUt o», vig &pi, vmit m«. 

Eiatnples of o reniHining unahanged Id infteclion are: acjH*, 
ririeri, v&d, mumucmUie. 

218. Fiaal 51^9 levcrt* to it* original ^k, to i&tomal 

conbiDatioD, only before the -ff ■ »f h verbal stem or CDdio^ 

(whence, bj 180, ^ k«); bvfote rT t and a th, it every wfaeie 

becomes QT f (wbeuce, by L97, '{^ f ( and W v(bl ; before q^dh, 

H^ bh, and ^ su of the loc. pi., aa when fioa] (14S}, it 

r^ularlj bccomca (he Ungual mute (^ ( or ? 4). 

Thu*. Bvlkfata, vekfjraoii; v&f(i. vi^^k, didoftu; didi$<Mi). 




s. But * ftv roou exblbU the rercnioo of 6ul 9 Ui k bi-foro 
bh And an, Md also when final (14B;; thoy ue die. ^f^ *Pn. and 
npUoiwlly oaf) and vty bat in V. alwftya vlkfu, loc. ]>I.. but vi(, 
vi^bhiv, oto. Rxanplei sre dlluaibflu, drsbbls. hrdlapfk, nak 
[or BBti- 

KxBint^o* ol 4 ramaiDia^ ua4luiii£6d ti«(br« towoIi etc- arc: viff, 
rtvlf7W, MTlfran, nfaoml, VRqmi, afmW. 

b> A f Knaina Incfululy unckui^d t>»fot« p In tlie tompousd rlfpicl. 

218. Final g^j is in one set of words tieaicd like ^c, 

and in another set like ST 0. 

Tbas, from jovl.- iynktbAs, ayuku. ruakti. TOkil. y6ktrA, 
y6k^jiml, ynlc^u; rubsdbi, ikrugdhruD. yiisbhfa. 

AgalD. froiD mrJ cic: &mrkQat> STRkfjiml; mirfVL, mrft^. 

m, Te ll» rortunr ut yiO-ulua b«]aos (an ihovn hy Aelt qaotaltla 
roriBiJ ihoat iKBiny rovu ami imIIc*) Me«>; namrlr, bb«)i MkJt t^raO (not 
v.). r»i <*/«•, Bv^), mojj. ttij, tU. vjj, 1 laJ 'i bhiij, yui, roj, vtj, 
•4J, bba&J, fl&li ib'J, sr^j, bbl^AJi ^*fj> — *^< ><tei«» tMrnoil viih 
Ihn lurexw aj and U (3«8. IV), u tn^, TAQlJi wA rtvO. Uiontb 
Mauintng lb* tout yij. 

b. To Ifco IxUt or mfJ-tlBM belonff Oiit<F >b<Mt nM third ■> nuij; 

ii»melr^y»J, bhrajj. vraj, rtj. bbrW. mrJ. arJ- 

O. A coDildvriLlilu nuuibi-T uf J-fDOt« ue not pUuxl In droaiDitinMa 
la ciblblt tb« ()l*lln<tlm; but iiarJi roQM uo tn piut anlgntblo (o ouo dt 
the other cltu on thn rTldmoe of Uie idited langui^M. The dUii notion 
tpp«4i<, uuncljr, only *li«n iko J occat> u Ami, at U followed, dtlier tn 
lafleoilon or tn iI«t1*MIo«i, by « dentil lOQie (ti tta, Alt), or, la iioui- 
fadactlon, by bh or SU. In derivitlon (aboT^. 916) wv Ditd ■• ft aomv- 
tlmM ftom the jofJ-olMi: thus, m&rga, sJirgai etc.; tad (SL6. 1) baton 
V«dle milt, endlnfft, aaenEmahe, asrgraD, tu. (bMide aufiriro) — 
«Mt* Ubtu the yuj-cluo uccut only ru;^jre, ayti^nui, bubhujrtre, 
vlth J. And U9. tua TiqVMfk from ytji. 

SSO. Final eh (kilt iiodef t)i« rales of combinMioD almoBt only 
in tlie root praoh, in whicli It U tr«aloU lu if it -Horc (j Ipro^ bolDg, 
iBdcod, its more orlfciulU form): thus. pnikqy£mi, pr9t4, uiid xIao Iho 
dorivattre pra^ni. As final aod In n«uD-inflectlcni ibeforo bla and au), 
it ie ohaDgcd to tbo llngusl uute: tliun, pra^vivtkA. 

a. MClrtA U caltod the partielpio f>l moroh, an4 * gaiund milrtva 
il (Itmi to the »a)o root. They (with mttrti) luntt doablloii nuiu from a 
•tmplci form of tlio root. 

b. Of jb there ie no occurreuoe: the granrninrinns rc<iuiru it to 
bo ttoated like e. 


COMBiHATtoKS or riXAI. kf, h. 


Sai. Tbe eompaunil M '■ not infreqaent an fiiul of a root (gmer- 
Ally of demonslrabl; ]>4!roniIa[7 (irigin), or of a totisc-«tcin [•■atniu: 
Bee Mow, a78ffi^ >itd. in the not very fiequeiit cuea of lu Inteniftl 
ooiDbloKtion, it i* tieatod iu> if h Binglfi •oudi). follairtBjc Iba nilot 
for g: thus c&k^ (c«kf+fle), cUtfva; cAffc, Acoff*, ftarOffam. 
^■nt*. tv&fV^. As (o Urn treAtment whea final, see 146. 

a. Tkof, we mte unght by the irainnurlMt* to mtk* iikIi fonn* M 
gerAt, gerA^bbia, Kor&tfu (hoin gorUcf); tni ■-(■ (diully havo f4t> 
fC^bhia, f«(au rroiu eftk? m 904 1.146 b). Fur Jagdha eU. ftooi »'jnkf, 

b. Id tbe UuBle uicmaluui iodi vraqo. tlio cuuipouuil ^e 1> mI<1 10 
Mlow th« ralo* foi uliupto q. Froni It ue qnoublo iho roluic VTAJc|y&U, 
ih« ceniBitt vf^tTlt (AV.) kod vrktrt (RV.), wd tbe putielple (857 e) 
v^kijA. Iti c toTctia to k in tbe deiliallvp vmskB. 

393. 'Xhe TooU in Tiaal ^ b. like those in 3 J, full intn 

two classea, exhibiting a similar diversity of tieatment, ap- 

|>eariDg in the same kinds of combiaation. 

ft. In the one class, as dob, vta bavc h rov«rBl<Hi of b (as of 0) 
to a gutlural fonn. and lU Irentnioiit an if it ncre still its orieiiinl gh: 
Ikns, idhukfam, dhokfjrami; dusdham. dngdhA; ildhok, dhitk, 
dbugbbis, dbukfu. 

b. In the other cIkm. mx ruh mid aah, ve \imvv a g^nCltinil n- 
rerftlon (as of tjl odIj before s in veib-foriuatlon and derivation: thai, 
arukifat, rokfr^ml, sakfiyA, sokfA^i. As final, In txtemil coaibl- 
oatiaa, nnii lu nous -JnilGc lion before bb and su, the b IIUb O beoomee 
• lingual oaut«: tim; turftfaf, prtana^a^ ayodhy&^. ttirftaa^bhla. 
tar«f4t«u. But bofviu a aemal EDutu it, tb, db; In vcrb-inflwiion 
4011 Is ileriTatJOD, Its eiiphomo eiteet is peculiarly ei>in|>l[cated ; 
It turos tbe doatnl into n liuijniU .an would i}',; bill it itlso niakca 
U WHiani and upiralo las would ^: »e« 160]: and fDrtlier. it 
■Uiappearfl tt««ir, arid tfao preceding vowel. If sboH. la IimglbeBod: 
ihiia, froiB ruh with ta cemea rfi^bit, froia leh with td comea Ibiht, 
bun gob with tar ooini>a gQjbJir. from m*h whh torn comes mft^tua. 
bwa Ub wlUi taa or tbaa coibqs U^iia, frum lib vith dbmm cuoim 
h4bT&m, hto. 

c. Thti Ic 11 if we lud to ttauma la tniialtloa iKiuiid t laaaat uplraia 
Uapikl •llillsnl fh, wltb the Miphinitc tKntt* of * ttngul and of ■ wnant 
xftutc (ISO.I, tuelf illia|ip(Mrlng undfr ihe Uw of Iho eitiilnf laofnaga 
>bl(k »dintt« n« MiiUil tibUant. 

2S8. TIte roots of tlie two claasea. aa nbown hy tlieir forma found 
)■ MB, are : 

F<>f tlie ftfst or duh-ctiLM: dab, dUi, duh. dnih, mub, aoUi 
■■^ -<f ufpfb is ainiUirly umi>d;: 




b. of tho acoDDd or mb-olM*: rah., aaix, mill* zUi or lUi« goli, 
ruh, dfAb. trtb. brh. baAh, aprbf?). 

O. Kilt muh form* iIm (nnt lii RV.) Ihr ptitiriplo m&^a ami iitfml- 
Donn mu4b^r, vt will ai ii]UK<lb4 and ma|[dh&r; *nd druh tiiJ snlh 
UD tltoved by (h« gnnotuUna la Ig lUtawlM: Buch tonus at dru^tui uid 
Mtl^ba, hnwovtt, luTft not tM«ii atei irltb In »««. 

d- ITMm raoit o( Itia mh-rUM wo Bud alaa In Ibe V«t« Uie fanu 
gartlii^, Doiu, alng., and prl^Kdhfk wi<l dMdhfk; aod huico puruspf'k 
(tlia only occnrcaDce) iloei sot Miuinly prarc V'BPr'> (" ^<'' ^' ^« dtili- 

e. A BiiiDber o( t(hcr h-roob %n not proTed by ibott ooBnirlRf fonu 
W bolons to elthet claai; (]i«y, too, «tv wHh idmvoc Im* oonUeoM BMlpicd 

10 tbe OIK DC Uu> athtr by oompariion wl(h th« raUwd UngiuKe*. 

f. En durlTalloii, Ucnire certain aufdiea (StO), nr* bare gb inataid or 
b fnin Txib* of cIUmi daw. 

g. Til* nul nob tones fram odginaL db liiiioa'l u( gb. and lla icveratou 
li a«oordinKly to ■ d«ntal muU: ihn<, nats^dml, naddhA, up&nAdbhla, 
upftDftdjruga, knup&natlca. $a alan Iho taut gr^ comta from («>il)i 
Vedic) grabb, and <bu«« labial* In many latan aud daiitailiM [iliougb 

11 li aitimlUiail lu otlict b-toDU !u ib« <le«l<J«nll«« atcni Jlgbpk^). In 
tike maniwr, b I> nind for db tn soma of Ibo fornu »i<l (lerhatlvea or 
^dhjl ptiti aiid farther aaalocoui ficu sra the •(eni kakubi betlJo 
kaJtabbA, Ibe doublo Impeiailra rnidliiB dtal and hi, atiil the dattTo 
mihTam baalde tijbbyam (491). 

&S4. ItieKolattUea of [«mblii*tlan ue: 

a. Ttir VD*r«1 J !i nut leiisthvDad afUi tb* lota of tl)« h-olcmeiit: that, 
dffbA, tf^a, bf^liA [iho onl; naata; and in ilie Vuda tbdr Ont «yllabla 
baa aetrloal laloe aa betiy as loui). 

b. The root! vab and aab cbaiiRe tln-lr rowel t> o hialaid of loiig- 
tbHilnf it: ihua, vofbAcD, vo^b^m, To^b^, B&4''*'*''*- But ftom aab 
In ibo (ild«i UnEnage forma vlth A ari- muco tteqiiuat: tliua, *f^b*t A^K^^^ 

(al*o lilur), al^ar, I'br root tf^h c1ian|;;>!« iLa lowol of tU r.I.i»->lgn 

aa Into « litBUa'l of ]uiu;tb oiling It: tbiia, tfnatpil, tfi}60bu, atp^ot 
((ho Ktuumariiiu tetcb alio tp^abmi and t|^«kfl: but no aiicb fnnnt ar« 
qaotable, and, If «v*r actually Id iU9, tbey matt havo boon mad? by falto 
uiAlvfy wltb Ui« otbenj. 

Ot Ibaw aaomalouft vowel-diangai k«iu to aland In oouncclloa with 
Ibc fact Ihat tho caica ibowliig Ihem at« the only oi>a* wbor* Other thau 
an alictaiii vowd (180) comcf b*r»to tli» Ungiutliad aibllanl nptHontallve 
<>f tho b. Compaii.' f^^aQA He. 

d. Appirontly by dUtlmllitlan, thu Dual of vab In Iho anomalout 
•wmpouiid ana^vab U nhatiKvd to d InaUtid ot ^: •e« 404, 




The lingual sibilant ? f. 

sas. 8)Dce the lingual aibilanl. in iM maxl and DonnkI occiirren- 
en, is (18S; tho product of linxuttliBation of a advr curtain altonut 
•oands, v<t might expocc 6Dal railical 9. wlion (in nre cmobI it coraos 
to HtAiul whi>r« a f eariDot tunlntain ii«nlf, to revert tu Ita orijpin*!, 
B»d bf tTPHtcii «*iiK would bo irMttod under tliu aaioQ oireanatanccM. 
Tkut, bovever, is uue only in b very few instancAB. 

a. ^anBly, in fbt pr«flK diu (e*l<taiiUy Jdetiilcal with t'dti;): in 
BAJds (olTerbfaliy <>i«4 r-tf^-fann rrom v'iUf ); iu (KV.) vivM bml &nvM, 
from t'vlf i to lijres ("^'')i ''""» )^I ■"^ '" Afi*< 'tum 9IQ ■* Mcurnl- 

UT foHB of l/Qto. All (hpM), OIMp* tlW OtU two, UO IMiN Al l«*f o^n 

Id quMttoa. 

286. Is geaetA\, final lingual 79, ia inlerna] combinatioa, 
is treated in the same maonei as palatal 71 ^. Tbiu: 

•■ Bcfun t Kiid tb it rcuiaicg uaclinagoi), vnil tbe Utter »e ■•- 
■Imilatvd; 0. g dviftaa, dvlfthu, dvfiftum. 

Tbb U a CAtmuon aiil iidrrecil) ii«tM«l t umbtDatlun, 

b. Before dh, bb, nuil mn, as also in oxtomiil combloation (14C], 
It twcomM K lingual loute; iiinl dfa U tiiailo liiigual (by 186| after It: 
■. g, pl9d4bl> vlf4'*'> viv]^4''^ dvi^^vam. dvi^bhia, A<rl\mh', 

g. So (Ito tbo db u( dbvun 08 ondinji or 2d pi. mid. litconio* ^h 
ifiai flnU f of 1 ten»»-iuii), wheihot tho ^ be lefuded u loit or u con- 
mrtail (a ^ b«fc>rc II (tbo muiukcrlpu *fi|u ilupljr ^bv, not ^d^v; 1>'ii 
lki> la uubl<n«ai: m« 3t3S) Tliui, aherf i>t B-autlit tieni< 1.081 tt), Bsto* 
^hvnm. nvr^vatn. oyodbram (iW oalj quoiabla «*m), fcon aslof -f- 
dbvam cu-i but arftdliTun tiom arBa+dbTum. Portlier, tftrr the f 
•f tf-M)«1ti sUina (SOI a), Undid d^^Birtt artidbvani. ttjKiiidl>w&> 
T«i>t4bTam (tho only qnotibk wni), from i^aniif + dbvam etc. I'M 
•CUB, ia Iko pncidrc (9M), ft* bbaviifidhTatn, it, u la probable 
(■irfortOMtcIf, nv ctiBipl« ul ibla prtaon it qHQUbli ftoin aiijr pvt of tbe 
llt«ntv«), tbe prwitlTc-eiyn s (qj l« tn b« ragudi'd ai prawiii In th* furut. 
AccMdlng, Iio«e>ri, to tkc Uiiidu gtaiumaritiia, lb« ui« i>( ^b ur iif db in 
tha lf>aarlit and prM*ll*e detirndt on whi;lbL-r tb« i or If or ut 1^ It <ir 
It not "^tK^Aiti by • aamlioiMl or H" — wlilok batb In litelf iiipMr* 
MWilwi utd la uppoatd l« the crldence of ill Iho quotable fnmu. MorooTM', 
ilba aaoM aalbotjtlna prM«rib« ilia chauto of dh to ^h, nndac th« Mine 
[ttatrlttltin aa to ciicutBtUnota, In tbo perf, tnlil. cuJlng dbv« alio: In tbl> 
toil, vitbaat any conceivable (Mton; *nd no eitmplf of dh^e In tba 
U pi. pwt ba l>Nn potuted ont in tba liiantaio. 

d. Tbo conTeMion ot f tu ( (01 f) u ilntl uid before bb and BU it 
parallel wlib tbe libc cumeiaioit ofi}, and of J and b bi ibc mrJ aad rub 




daMM «f rooit, *nd porbipi with lbs ooeatlonil eliM(« of ■ U t (187-8). 
It tt » ytiy InficqiiCQl c»tt, oMurrtoi (m*b •» II in»7 bu •••nmoi In tho 
ciM of (19) only ""'< '» RV. Aud ourp in AV. (•dpi( mJ -prut), mlitjuugli 
(bocfl texts b>ie »ore Ikui 40 t«i>i* wiih fln»] f; tn tbv BtUmtt-Qu, 
moKorcr. lii*« boen untlMd runh«T uulj -prui( atid vJt (^b). lod -fUf 
(K.). TniB pl&f, RV. bu (bn ■nvmtloiM form pli^ak {!U And 3d dng., 
Im pliU9*B «iid pinsf-H. 

•. Before s in mtorD»l combination (exe«pl su of loc. pi.) It be- 
Mtnei k: thoM, dv4kfi. dvek^y^Uni, AdvUc^am. 

f. TUf cbinfiv it «( ADvraUoBi pbonctic (boiMl*', and dlfaoult ut 
explinUioD, It ti Uio practletlly of Tory ntv ocriittraee. th* ihiI? RT. 
Dsamplei (iparl from plaak. »&«•*) «re vivek^l. frinn j'vt^, aTid the 
dwtd. Mem rtiiX^ (mm t rif ; AV. hu uiily dvlkfat lud dvU^ata. 
and th« dMld. «l«m ftqlik^k from l^flif- Othci axmiiplitf ato qnotablo 
ftflin I'l'lcn iiid pif and vif (^B. *te.), ud 4I4 (V^O: and Mmj aia t>y 
tb« Hindu grammaiiani prcacrlbed, to be tona»i from aboni balf-a-doten 
Olliei lootj. 

Extension and Abbreviation. 

997. As ■ g«nenU rule, cb ia aut ulluweil by the gnBtmarianti 
to Btuul iu thnt form afiter h vowvl, but ih (o be donblftil. twooming 
oA Iwblcli th9 ntftniucrlpta w>ia«tiaiM write obtil]. 

a. Tb* varloaa antliDrille* dtw|[T«d wllh ona ancitW in dMall *■ Ii> 
tkU dapllcatino. A<cutdlus to Pi^lsl, ob li doutiUd '■itbln a yvii atici 
cltb«r a long 01 a tbon inTcI; and, ax Initial, ncetataiily aFlcii a ibon >nd 
aftei the pviltcla* • anil mS, tnd upilunally orciywberc aftet a loog. In 
BT., Initial oil i* duublcd aftor a long rowal nf i onlj, and ecrtaln tpocUl 
OMN afur a abort vowvl ar« "sonptod, Foi tbe requlrvd um(« In Ibe othiir 
Vedic t«xta. ne thelt aevetal Pntifakhjii. Tbe Kitbtki writ** r«i original 
eh (not oh team cofnblnaliAii of t or n wlih ^ : 809) aflw • *Ow«l 
Btnrrwbci* foh. Tbn roannacrlptt In gvneial itilte >liiiple eta. 

fa. OptniuiK are itlll at (ulan«« m (o bow tu tbla dupllcalton hw 
an rtymoloftral gnaimd, aad bow tu It ii tiulj an acknuwUdcmant uf tlie 
fact ibat ob m>k« a boavy oflUUa o^wi iflai ■ akort -rowcl (make* 
"pMition'*: 79) A* tb« ilupiluilon t) accepitd and fullowed bi Don 
RvropMU •^o(a>*, {( will be alio i^Joplol In tkU work iu woida and aen- 
(Mt«a (not iB roDta and >t<Mi»}. 

828. After r, anj- consooant <;sai>o a spirant before » rovrtH) is 
by tba ^amraarUns eitlier aJIoived or reiinirod to b« itoubtfrd {M 
upirate, b)- piefixing tbo corr«»pandiag non-Bsplratc: 154). 


' ^ *• r 

Wfi arka, or 11^ «xkk&: ^lTIT kftryn, or 'lil'JJ kMryytt; 
Qq arttu. nr Qr? arttha ; ^t4 dlrRhft. or ^J^ dincKha. 



[— sai 

M. 8oin« of th« tntk^ilUa* inelmle, >loDg cith r, klM h oi I m tr, ot 
tban one ot then, In thb ralcL 

b. A rioablad oon«on>ui arint r li vary c«nimoD In niaKfcrlpti and 
liKTipUou, u alw 111 nitine i«it-e4iUuDii aail la the mtlfM pdiiloiu ;»• 
pirad ^ Entopsia MboUn — -In liter onc«, ckc ^uplleiliMi I* uuivonully 

c. On iko olliei band, tlie muiuictlpli otioo wHta a «lit|ln tMunMnt 
«ner r vbcra > <loubla ona ti ctynKtlDglctllr TCqulrcil: thut. kftrtlke^r 
v&rtikft, fur klrtUkeya, v&rttlka. 

SS9. Tho Drit cntiKonuti of i rronp ^ vhothet iaMlM, ot inittal 
•fUr » T«««l ol ■ pra<4<llup void — 1* by tbu fniiiinui>n« eltk«i 4lla«ed 
01 nqnlrrd u bo itoBblwl. 

It, ThU iluf licaUon It i]|<>t>*i] by Pinlnl and roqulnd by tbo I'ritlfiklirw 
— ta balk, with mentloD dI inthoillliti vho deny tt allAseibr. Foi cerUln 
nSMpllon*, iM tic PrittfUhyM ; iho in«ontnc of lli<> wbolo matler I* l«o 
Obtcnra lo juiUfy ili« itiliif of ileutU beta. 

£30. Other cases of estoirioii of cansMMt-Ktonpf, ceqnirod by 
(OHIO of the authorities, are the followlDg: 

m. Iteiwoea * non-nutl and ■ dmiI mate. lb« iiiMntou ot aotallBA 
yKBUa (((ciiu], tit DKtil (uunlcrpirls. U tinfht by the Priti^ikhyM (tai 
•inaei ta Ptplnl'i (oamciittry): t*t APi. i. 'J't, noi«. 

b. It«l«-reii h mi s ruUovtnic imatl inula iho Prilti^iibliyst t«a<li Ibtr 
iMKtton of a nwal miaat ull«d D&nikya: toe APr. t. 100, doio. 

e. BmItmb r and a follovtug coniuntiil lli* Priti^dihyu toaob th« 
fnwnioa «( a Svu«bluUctl ot c<MPet-_ftr<iffautit: tvt APt. I. iOi-1, tutta. 

di 6aBM authoriltM kUnmo tbi* luBsttluii unly b^loco it ipirBUt; lli* 
othart regard II at Iwlte u \tmg before a eplranl m befciK i-Cy uibei enn> 
aonitil — luiMiIy, ■ hklf or ■ itutrtei mora b*[ure iho riirnifr, u iiukrlai cv 
ui dgbib befuic Ibe laltet. Oau (VPr) adisiu tt aflct I u well aa r. It 
k fwloutif dtsrrlbcd ai a Trtipaaiit of l^e lowfil * nt of f (ot )). 

•• 1\t Kpr. pnu a aTsrabhakM nlsn betireeii • tenant oonMoiit 
and ■ fullnwiait lautp ot apltini; and APr Inltodaeo* an olMnrnl nllad 
Bphot^oa (rfMlinD«iiiA«r) betwctn a gutlntal mA « pncodlni mnia e( 
aMtbw alaas. 

& For one vt two other omh o( yet niara dotibtfnl vittia, mo i)ia 

B81. Alter a niiMl, tbe f{>Tin«r of two noD-naRal miitu may 
bo droppod, whotbe* ItomogeDcouB aviy with the uaaat, or vith both: 
thni. Tu&dhf for yuHgdbl. yuAdhrAm fur yuAKdbvAiii, ftfit&m for 
aftkttim. pnari fur pofiktl, ahiatAm for oblnttlm. bhinlhi for 
bbincULi. indb6 for lnddb«. 

IL Tbs abbtnttUoD, ailmrcd by Pinlol, U tc^iiltcd l.y APt. (tba 
•Iker l*iill9(khyai tak^ no mult* or itj. It U the moi» luual pnetlc* of 
tka niMBi0lpta, Iheagb ika (all stonp It alto often written. 




98ft. Ir general, a double conBoaaat (lucludinK *a upir«t« whl«h 
is doubled ttj' ibc prefixion of a non-MpIrate) In CQiuljiDikUaB witli any 
other oooMDaet ta by ttio nuouaciipU irHtUa aa simple. 

A. Tlal la to ny, Ihe eMllian male nf Ihr ntniiirrlpu mtkM no 
iitvmtito bvt«^en (hone ei<i<)|» in vhlrh > pbonFtic dqpllcjtion (i illowad 
by Uie r«lot cltcu *bu>o (S2B, 226) anil lUnr* In vhlcli tlie dapUiatlon 
li etywoIoEiral. Ai flvrry tv *ft«r i vawsl tin/ aUii lo properly iriil(«n 
Mr, <o datlvd *n<l tattva m>r bo, uid tlmoil lixnHibly aiv, vrtKD m 
datri and taCvA. A* k&rta&a l* \Uo pmp«rly k&rttftiu, m kOrttika 
(ttom kftU) i* wtlHvu u kJtotlka, Su In ItiQtctiuD, wi^ havo klv>y>, Tor 
«umpl», maJfLi etc., iJiH majjftt, rnxn m^&iL Even in tutupuinioa 
utA >«ni«iicv-i'uIlo[;4t1(in thn iiuDn ■bbTovUilmik sro mule: ttint, li{>djn>t^ 
ten lifddjoUi; ehia&tr nara fur oblniitty obsa. Hence It ii )iiipMa(b)« 

In dclannlna b) (hu cilitcnoo of utilten iiiif[e whctliDi «c ihaalil Ttjiril 

ftdbvun Of AddhviUD (_tmD yBM), ^vi^hvata ot &dvi^4^vaiD (Iton 
^drlfX ** l^ ^i^e foni ol a tec«nd person piurtl. 

S83. a. Inii'iice* ue fomtrlimn mvi villi uf afparml Ion (p>erbtpi 
iifl4t ci>ai«trion 10 1 ■emltowel) of i or u beltore y or t reipecilirly. Thiia, 
In th« BrihiBi^M, t6 and n6 *llli folluvlni vti Mi. «ft«i inako tvti. 
nvkf (alD) tviv&, Anvil); nail othtt •iKinplef from tl>e older luifua^n 
an acvart- (aou + v'TaFt); parran. pautTanti, parT<7&t. parT&Qa 
(iMu-i -f-yaa, e\t.); abbytirtl (abU^lymrti); antaryftC (anlor ^i;atj; 
otrv&o, c&irUca. canrodana (o&ru + v&c, et<.); kyknt for klyant; 
dvyoga (dvl -(- yoga); auTa, anvaaiuia (anu |- va. Btc); prcbibiy 
vyAnoti for v^ yunotl (RT,), urv&^I lura-v&qi). qt77sri for (^u-vart 
(BV.); vftuak (vl-t-yAjn&); and ilie Uie airar^ for envarpa. Blor* 
•Bnmalont abbravlaUnDf are tbo comman troa (tri-f-rcs); and dvpca 
(dvi + roa: S.), M*d tn^I (tri-|-«9l: Aput.}. 

VnHh*!, (f-rutn e«i«t of the; loei Af a tibitaBt laqultt. notiG*. Tboa: 

bi AccOTiltng 10 Iba llindo gtammuiana, the a of a-aorlit etem* ti 
■eel after a aliorl towoI In lb* 2d and 3d ting, middle: ibui, adlUila 
and adiU (lal »1tik. ftdi^l), akfUlU and akfU !.!>' atiig. ftknt). ll 
la, bAoever, probiUu tbkt lach ouni arc Id 1i< explained In ■ dIBoitot 
■iiaanir : ace 684 a. 

o. 'I'be B betweea two malea Is Iwat la all coiubiaatioos of the 
ruote bUi& antl etambh vitii thu prvfix nd: Urn*, ut thus. atUilt«, 
lit tbUpaya, nttabdha. etc. 

d. Tlie aana oiulttloii ll new and tlien made In cibvr aiuitlaf eaeea: 
ilitti cit knmbhimoaa (tor akAcDbh-: HV.); teamilt tut« (for stuto) 
and puToruk turn (tot Btata: K.}- Uio cotupnundi rkUi& (rk + tthA: 
i'H.) and utpbulinKa; (lie dcrlvarUo utphWa (t'ephal). On tbo eUtat 
^•M, we ha«c vldyut atouiyaatl (UV.), uUUiaU, kakutatha, etc, 

•- 8o alw tbe leate-ilgn of (be a-aorlit if luit aJier a filial taiiaeaant 
"f e reel bafore the Initial eeiiionant of an ending: tbni, aoUntta (and 


(ti tbU. by 381, BCb&nta) (ur ocbfijitsta, qftpta tor gApsbi. Uptam 
(w tftpBtoin. AbhUla Toi RbhUcHtB, amAuktam for Ainftukatiun. 
Time lie tbs obIt qiiM«ble cuoi: compMs 8S3. 

f. A Dn»l B sf nrat or tcit«e-flciR li in a fcir InsuaoM iMt an*! ■ 
MiLUit attiinle, «nil tlie combiaatlon of inui«« In tbnn luai* m if iia albUuit 
tti evet tDWtv«tie<l. Thai, tnm th« Tool gbMi, wlUi «inlMioti eT tkg 
*(>inl ui4 tk«n nf the find liMUm. *e Ime lh« foim gdha ffot gh>-ta: 
9d ali)^ taM.). (he puticipU gdbK (In i^dhjd^, nuil |ha dcHTi«lT« gdhl 
(tor gbB-U; !■ B&-||rd)ilK u>'l [unh«i, tnm Uq ndapIlr«tod fom of tka 
•ante Tvoi. or |/j«kf, oc liive Jngdh«, Jagdhum, Jagdhrft, Jagdhl (Itam 
J&KbK-tft «('.); ilto, in ltk« mnitnei, Ima bapB, raluplluilon ufbhui, lli« 
htm bsbdhABi (foE baUiA-t&iB]. Accocdlug lo the Bindu iraiuuiuluia, 
Ik* lUi* una l«u or the wrlatflgn B Ukot place Allm a Boa] losuil 
aaptnia of a nrat httim an andlns bcgliinliif; wtili t t.t tb: tbna, fran 
I'mdlL, n aaritl atom arCUtB act. an^ nruta niiJ., oomo tin aciWa dual 
■nd j^lural pcTtoni oriuiddbBiii ■»<) ftr&uddb&tn and ariiuddba, and the 
middle flDBnlai yvivja* oruddbU *i'<l BTocLdlui. Neno o( ibo ac(l*e 
fOTHf, bewffn. luve been found qiiotab(« from the lltcntnia, aDdent oi 
modera; and the middle fonna adult alio of a dUfecoit oxplaaatloa: *ee 
83«, 883. 

Strengthening and Weakening Processes. 

984. VadtT this bdad. wo tak» up first the cbAneca Ibkt tffttit 
vowclx, asd tb«D those tliiat aOfect coiuoDaala— sililing Tor uinYeiiienoe'B 
uke, in e»«h e*M, b brief notice of tlin vownl ftnd eotiKOiuuit dcBoenu 
Ikat likro cono to bow thv apparaitl of^ce of oooDectivcfl. 

GuQa and Vrddtil. 

335. The so-called gu^a- and TTddhl-changes ate'the moat 
tegular and frequent of vowcl-cluiogeB, Ueiog of coustant 
occurrence both la iafleolion and iu derivatioa. 

%, A guva-vowcl (gupa secondary quality) differs from 
Uie correspontUug simple tuwcI by a prefixed a-element 
which IS combined with th^ other according to the usual 
rtiles; a vrddM-vowei ivrddl" yroiof/i, increment], by the 
farther prefixioQ of a lo the gupa-vowel. Thus, of ^ i or 
Ihe cone(|K)iidiii^ gu^a ia (s4-i=:) ^ «; ihe conespoud- 
Trddlti is '— }'^tt But is nil gtmating piDcesaeii 

'ii{ed — or, as it is sometimes expressed, 

•t 6 


nL BorHomc OHnuMAnoit. 


a ft M ita own guiia; W S, of oouise, TemaiuB tuohnaged 
foi both Kmja and v^ddhl. 

aae. The series of oorrespoading degrees is then us 
eltnple vowel n A 1 i u Q r f 


n a 

ar al 

Trddhi A U Au Ar 

a> TlkCtB li navben! tay owum-nce of f in n tJUidlon lu unilwco 
ettfacr RO^a t>T vrddM-chsnte ; nor dc«> | (96) vvei toJtU chaogt to 
vrddlil. Th«(imie«UT, f wtuld !■■*« tb« m»* c1i*ii|w a( Xi ■"' "^^ 
rrddhl cf ) w»nld be ftl 

b. In »ce«iidatf detlvnU*Bi tequlrfiij rfddhi of tb« lint ayUablt 
(1S04), ibe of go (301 o) U ctnntthtned to gAu: Auk, Rtiimats, 

887. Hie hbloriul reUtlonf of ibe momlien nf okcJi Yowvl-coriot uv 
(till iDslt«ri of MM* differiMico at opinion. From Uip ■pei'ikl i>oln( of rtfev 
ef tb« StDikKt, the olniplo lowili wcat tbo ufctt of bolns In BOOMal ibt 
ariginil or funilamenUl on««, tnd th« ollien of b«<liif pradnHt of dielr 
IncnniCDl ot tucaphsnlng, In t»v l«*l^r•l degT««ii — •« th*t ib« ro1«a of 
ronuHon dirM* ■. I, a, r. } to be nl8«d to euija or vrddhj ntp«rti«elr, 
ondar ■pncldod coadltioiiB. But ^ tiat long benn bo rlwrljr bmd to ccme 
by ■bbruvitHon ut weakeniug rtom in uirtlet U (oi ni) (bat many Enropetn 
gi»miD*il>ni haTc prtfoired lo tnat tho gui^-fomi o the ofl^lnal aad 
the oib«[ K* Ibo drrivtilre, Tbni, Foi eumpic: Instoad ol uranlAic ccnaiD 
mob to be bbf and vrdh, mid makiui; trota ibem bharati tod vardhati, 
Ui4 bhfta ind VTddba, by the nftmo lukft wlmh fiotu bba aad al and 
fkvm biidh mJ cit form bhavati knd nayati, bodhati and eetaU, 
bhuta uitt aita, buddha and dtta — tboy «9iuiae bhar and vardli to 
be tb< toots, and glr« tb« raloa 6f f&miallon (or tbaoi In r«T«ra«. In tbU 
vort, a« atn«d]r itBted (104 ft), the j-tvno I* preftrred, 

fl38. 'I'he guna-iuoreiueiit ia an lDdu-£un>jH;»a plienoioontfn, anil 
is In many caxes soon tu ooctir in oonnoution witb in accent on the 
tBCTMiaed syllable. It is found — 

a. In ioot-«yllftblM : ^lltier iu Infiectloa, as dvi;^ from /dvif. 
d&hml from ^duh; or ii> ilerimlou, as dvvftt, dobas, dv6gtuiDi 

b. In foi-matlTU olemoots: oithor conjugatioDal claM'si^R, an 
tan6tal from tAnu ; or aurfixos of derlratlon. In tndoctloa or In further 
derirnlhin, an matiijrc froni niAtl, bbAniraa rrum bhAnu, pitArnm 
bum pitr [or pitAr.. hantavja frucn hintu. 

S3e. '11m vrddhl-lacrvniout u apcdficallj- ladlaD^ and lla ocour- 
rptice in leai fra^nnl bbiI roRBlar. It la fonml — 



ivtfh Ain> Vrddhl 

F— MB 

a. In root and Rofllx*^IUiblos, fnatpsd of gusta'. Ihne, atofitl 
from )'BCa, B4khlly»m from aAkhl, 4nUfam fraiu yn\ Utis^mxa 
and kftr&rati and k&rya from |>^ (or k«r), dttinua rruni dAtr lor 

b. Ktpncfiilty oflrn, in InitiAl »yllablos in »?eoDdary dcrtvation: 
tliuB, DDAiinsA from m&nas, vUdyutA bvat vidftit, bliAomi from 
bhfimi, pArtbivft from prthivi [12041. 

Bui — 

MO. The Kuiia<iitcr«uient does not usmlly take plaoe in a beaTf 
»v1labln oniling witb ft coninnxDt: tbnt l» to (>ay, th<^ m1o« prcsrribln; 
ga^o. la procosHen of dorivatioii and Inllectlon do not Kjiply to a short 
vonol which i* "lottK hy poAitlon". nor (o m Iud^ vonvl unl(«s it b« 
final: thus. o6t«U from ^olt, hat n(ndatl from >'iilndi a4y»tt from 
ym. bnt Jivatl from yjlv. 

s. Thd vTddhl-lnrrvment l« Dot IUb1« to thit mUletion. 

b< Gic«ptt<>t« (0 I'm r><lc are oecwianallf met wlili; thui, eht, ohBS 
mm 1^; hd^jrftml, lieijas, «t«., ttoat ytd4; 009a eu. rrom t/0114: 
&list« «(c. ^m fOh foiuidcr; and eipealally, ftoiu ruou {□ W: didiva 
dtvlf^atl, divana, «f ., fmm ^dlir; tlf(beva rram y^t^v: BrevijUiit. 
W^Tttka, from ystiv — on acpoiinl or whkli it U, <1oubt1*ai. that ikwM 
HMrta tic wrltUii with tv (div rti*,] bj tbo Uiudii sncninarlaiM, althoiigb 
tbsy nimbviv *li(iw 1 klinri t, tn nitliar vcib^fnnn* 01 •Inrlviilvn*. 

O. A r«w eMiin oennr of pmlongaili.n lii«tM<l ct iatntawt: thv* 

Tb« oIibh^m of r (iuor» original ar or ra) are so vartoas aa to 
eall for fiirihor dOBCTiptlon- 

Ml. The incrummta of r «n touotimei » and rh. inatoad of 
ar and &rt namely, eapccially. whor« by inch lovrinal a difncull coin- 
UaatioD of coDSonants la avoided: tliua, from fdfQ, drokayimi and 
idrakfam ; bot al«i> prth6 and prath. pfOh and prach. kfpj and 

24S. In I Dumber of roots [about t doxen iiaotable ones) endliig 
in f (for mciro oiiKin"! ar;, iho f changoa butb with ar, and noro 
Irragularly, in a part of ihe forma, with Ir— or alao irith tir (cape- 
cialty after a Ulilal, in pf, mf, vf, aporadicaliy in otbursj: which ir 
and or, agaio, arc liable to prolongation into Ir and Br. Thiia. for 
example, from t|' (or tar], we ha^o Urati, titarti, tat&ra, atlirifam, 
by ri'inilar proccsfusi but ulao tiratlt UryaU, tlrtvA. -tirra, Urna, 
and evon [V.) tui7&ma, tuturyftt, tarturAqo. The truatment of ancb 
roots baa to be dfacribed in apeakliij^ of each formation. 

a> For tbo pnipuse of actiflvltUy iaclUiliii< l)ii> ^nulUrlly of Ireatiaent. 
auth n)ou bio by thH Hindu Kiunmarlan^ wilil«n vidi long f, or a'lih hcrtb 
F anil f: no f actoally arpaan aayvbrta ancint tb»tr fornif. 

S4fi— ] 



) jr trtar oi»(, tf, I iix crwtA. 

e. Ths (<|«tnUkl*i) f mi f-iontt *r« f , 1 df fitrr*, 1 p^ ,^ 1 ntf ifi«, 
a»T rAmw, Btr, hTT- 

! d. Form ■natafioiii villi tti«M %.rt •nnmlmo* mad* tltn IVon otber 
rwti: thn<, cirna, cirtvfl, BarcQryA, fnrn i^OAr; spflrdliin uid Bpftr- 
dhiM ffoni ^apfdh. 

94S. In a few MM* ( eoMci from Ih* contn<tl«n of offcw tyllaliln* 
ikan wr 11111 ra: ilinii, in t|-t« aad tfUya, fmu lii la f fqo, fr«inru; it 
bttfkQVi, fri)ui rQ. 

Vowel- lengthening. 

*<4. Vo««l-lcD7t)icnlug 70iic«nu o»pc«isllj t auid a, aince tbe 
tenstliedfng of a f« in part {cxcnpt where in nvldcot toftlofry with 
tliKt of i NQd a; iDdl*lit^iii»iiiibIci rrom lU iocrnaivnt, itnil f ts nutdo 
Ion; only In cerUtn plural caMa of sum* in r (or v: 868 fT.). Lan^tli- 
eniiiK is n inucli ninr* lrragnl»T and irporiJic change tlban Ii>arem«ai, 
ud its caHL-s viU in goneral l>e left lo be pninted out in connflatloa 
wltb tbt! prucfiHtM (if inilucliaD and derintilon: a fow only will bo 
mentioned bote. 

9M- a. Final ladlrkl 1 *nil n am »peci>Uy UahU l« pnlongxUon 
bcfori! y: at In paulvi! ind geiond ixid to on. 

b. Final [iilical Ir and ur (rruin viiiable r-toou: 848] am UaU« to 
pinliingilion brfoto all rnn^onaiili oxe^plUuiMaf |>(ir*MiaI nndlni*: n»n<ly, 
bvTpr* f aa<l CvA and na; and [b d«ttfnal«a li»(ot« bh and B (898), 
Hadical ia hM tbe Mmo i<rnlongalUa In dMlMidon (S8S). 

S48. C»mpflu*tary Icnphentng, ar abt«rpiian by a iaw«I of th« tint* 
(K a lod f«llaii1ii$ coiiavnaiil, i* ly iin nifani <uninioii. CcrUiii intuaee* 
af tl haw bMn polnteil eut abnte {ITS, 188 C.d. 189 d,22Sb). Pvchip* 
■ nek cMca •« pltt fat pitars (371 a) and dhnni foe dilMiliU (490) are 
to b« elui«d lierfc 

547. Tkp Sual vowil of a (otnint monitiar of a nonipoiind U otua 
lavla lonf, opcctally Id tin Veda, fiolungiiton* of final a, and bafoio t, 
ue most lyequMti boi t>M* tec raund of every varioiy. Biuaplei are: 
dOTftTi, vayuDAv{d, prftvff, fUvaau, (ndrSvont, aadauHa&d, ^nUA- 
ma^ia, vigv^nora. ^kSda^a; apljd, parli^li, virudti, tuvUnagba, 
tvlflmant, qUUrant; Tnaujlt, aaorndb, a&maya, puriivuu.; , 

548. la iho V«da, ihc final tow«1 of 1 word — gcoerallT a, mufh 
los ofl«n i aiid a — ia In a larfe iiombM of cues prolonged. Utnally 
■ho ptcilongatlan laku pUc* wbat* It it Ia*ai«d by the metrr, bnt lome- 
t'nta avcn wheic (lie BGtr« uppo*c> tbB ebaD|[« (for detail*, tvs the tuIoui 


"Wtai* of vklcb the SaaU ata iboa tteatad ara: 



I— &K0 

ft, PirUalo*; ntmvl)', 4thS, AdhA, tvi.. utn, Rbu, ha. ih^ Ivk, 
ol. nnft, ni. lulc^ kt)&, &tr&, y&tm. titrA, kutra, onj-itro. ubbay- 
IdA, od^i, Jt«ehX, ipA. pra: fttE. oi. yicU, aahi. nbhi, t{; O. tA, 
hA* ili, BUk^d. 

b. Cue-fonns: Mpeoiall; Inalr. (tiif., m enA, UnA, f&nft, »v6iillk, 
kiid Wtrn : ninly em. *i"K.. »• tsyt. hnritf&MjrL I'aMi beildet tbaae 
•te faw: 00 sfmi, vr4a1>lift. hariyojaaft (von.): tanvi (!««.): "x^ <u1^ 
•lut (nM imTClir) purtU 

e> Veib-fMiB* uadliig tii a. in (n>at iiumbDr bdcI *>r1etir: tbaa (notTly 
ta Iti* Dfd«r of tb«ir cOIaplTlliT'^ firqusncr). Id liiii- Irapi. act., m plbB, 
■yA, gftm&yi, dbftriyk;— '!<! pi. uri. in ta >tid Uuk as sthft, nttA, 
blbh^tA, JajaU, grvuta. ansdali, nayatha, jiTKyatba (>nd ona or 

Iwo in tftDft^ KTlf^ftnii. hnnCnnA): ~ <i( |il mrl, iu ma, ■■ Tldmfti 

rt^^niA, rdbrSma, ruhemft, TanuTain&, oaknnA, mansijinft: — 
^ ting. Imp*. mM. In sva. u Tukfva. i^ifvA, dftdhifvd, vahiMvl: 
— lai and 3il Hug. fett. aoi., u tikU, vlvOfOt Jograblift; li tlag. parT. 
art., v*ttU; — '14 pL f*tL act.. umJA, oakrft. Of leTb-farni ttiMng 
tn 1, oDly tlir IS ulnit, Impv. i^ci. - Ibua. kfdhl, Icfi^abi, Icfldfat, frudhi, 
gr^udbl, qT9<^^ dldihl. iaiO, 

d. To diMc B»7 bo added lb* goroAd Im jra 1,003 &), m ^lilgdryA, 


849. Tho alteratloo of short « lo mi I- or u-vowel In tlie formutlvo 
pniccucs of the ianguage, eicepi Id r ur u- roota (aa esplaiued &lK>re); 
ia a a}K>ndic phoDomvnon only. 

S60. But lb« ligblcnlox of a Iod|: i e«p««iall7 to au i-rowel 
taa kIm Iu loss), la a froiiucDt praceui no other Towel it ao an- 

a. Of tha <lu*-»iKii nil (of tli« krl-cUit or vertii: 717 IT.), ths 
S \t In oaib forma ebtngod to I, and lietoro vovol-itnilfnfct dropped allo- 
pitimt. Tilt Sul a at oenain ro«la is tc«ai«d in Ibe »»iaa iii4iiri«t: tlia*, 
mK. ba. el'', [6S3-S). And bom lom* roota, &• and I- or t-foem* (O 
Intorcluiife thai It it diTloiilt M dainty ibem of 10 detwrnlsa tba Irnv 
cbata«bir *f tba r«ot. 

b. Uadioal ft U weakaacd to (ha leinliUBDe of ttiS nnUn-vowol I In 
cvruln Torbal (itn»: *■ poitoec dadlma from yda etc. (794 1i): aorid 
fHfitH^a* inm ydbK elc. (S34 a); proMiH jahltDM trom >1iA otc. (666 1 

9t Badloal A U *h«iicnad to iba taoiblant* It itMn-B In a nninbcr 
f»Aaplicat«d rorut. ai tlf(ha. plba. dada, aU.: ace 671-4; al*o la a 
fgti aorUu, at UlTUU, &kliyam, •ir. . ho 847. 

d. Dtdlul S MUMtlmM baeoBua o, oopMlallf b«foroyi a* atliftyiauil, 




951. C«rt«ta ft-rooti, bMAWe of tb«ir pMulUi eitktngM with i and 
i-foiiB>, otpooUUr '" fariuhig th» prawint nwiii, im K><^n by liie Hlnla 
smDinatUiu u toau ending in e ot U or o. Thtia, Trum '2dh& tueJk (dlie) 
tomo th« pie«riil dh&yKtt *iiil p(it!<ipl« ■ml ;«nin>l dhitA, dtaiCviti tlin 
DthET fonu* kit raida fcnm dhft, «* dsdhus. adhfit, dhftayatl, dbdtavfl, 
dbipajrati. ftom 1 gA >t»^ Ctt"^) camu (he praaoiit gilyati, tho ^lU- 
dpU kDd gemiiil gIC& nxl ICitvi, and putim gly&t*. iiid ibe otbu tenu 
Atom gl. From ^d& fnt Ido) come the pfMcnt dydti and piniclplc dil4 
ot dinA, and ihu utbcr (ontiB rroiu dA- Tlic InceuUrlUct o[ itiMo nou 
will be (KAt«d b«bw, uudet tbe varioui farmationi (t4e flipt'^Sally 761 d IL). 

558. By a proacn of a)ibi«iiiUon eusotlilly Akin wltb tiiat of ar ot 
r« la f, iba ir« (luiully Initial) of a nnnber ot lOot* becMOM n, and tba 
ja 9f B Dinrb fmalli-r namber brconiu 1, In <«nBiii verbal fomi aail dorlT- 
■lira*. TbQB. from vao rom« wiaa, uoyitAtB, uktvi, ukti, uktJ, 
uktbi^ tK- ; (torn taJ cone iy&jo. UJ^<Lni> iflvi, iff^ {f tl* etc. bco 
below, naiet Ite rarlaiu tormaUoni. 

a. To ihii rhangd 1* sti«gi by Kutxtpotii cTammailnat tbc name at 
ftUJlpraftinU^ by adaplation of a iizm used In lli# rkatinn gianjmic. 

353. A tbon A, Df t«nt nr fndlnR. In nut InfrnqnoailT tott batweca 
oODtonaiiti ill a weakunod ayllable: tbua, tn v«tb-f>:jrii(t. ghnAntl. dpaptom, 
Jogm&a, J^jfiufli Aj&Ata; in nonn-fonnt, rAi&«, rtuAt. 

SM. Union 'TO wal*. Alt Ibe ilmpl* Towela oota* to iwiitne In 
cQtUlD «u«» tbe aapvmt of union-iowcl*. ot iueiilona brtWMa not ui stem 
and ondtns of Indo'Clon or of rlortTaunn. 

n. Th«( character belong aftvneat to i, wliitli ia vcfy widely tu«d: 
1. bcfoTfl the e nf RorltC and tntnrc And dnldetativi) aleuif, u In AJtvlfaili. 
Jlvl^y^ml, j{J1vii)3jal ; % In t«ii*e-liifl»c<lau, »|ie(uaUy pprfc<t. aa jljl> 
riia&i nncaiiSflnally aUo ptiwriit. aa Anili. r6diti; 3. In ddnratlon, aa 
jlTito, kh&mttua. Janitf, rooigi^n, •-it-, 'ic. 

b. T.<iii£ I It utrd noiunliiarf ini.tcKil ol ahiirt: lbii>, Jucrahlfom, 
STAhifydml; bravltl. vfiTadlli; tarltr, aavitf ; It la aUo ofbcn iiitiu- 
(luood licfon B and t of Ibo 3d and 3il iltig. of verba: thun, lala, aeit. 

c For dotalla rvtpocUnc tbt-ae, and tbe tncK UreEuUr aud aporadto 
occunencM ot u- uiil a-io«tle iu iih<r^ moio cbanniai, en bolov. 

Ifaa&l Xoorcment. 

SU. Both in roots and In endingo. a diatiuodon of Btran^r and 
weaker forms in my often caade by the pmcnce or absence of a 
na«ftl «1«ment, a naul mute or anmvinL b«for« a following eon- 
soBsnt. Ib geu«ra), th« stronger furia it dttnbtlesa tlic more original; 
but, in tbo pr«aei)t eondiiion of th« langnafte. tbe nasal lias eeme in 
groat mfiasare to seem, and t» «o<ne extent also to be usedi as an 
aocubU; slrauKtlie&injr element iotroduoed under certain ooodltioni 
in fonoatiTe and inftcwUve proc«sBei- 


Nasal Imcriuieht. 


a. BxaaplBf vo, of Tooif ; ro mi afio. gvath »n'l icrantb. vld 
Old vlnd, dftf and dAAq. araa mid sra&a, dfh *ii>l dfAb : uf coling*, 
btainuitam mil bhirftU, manaai mil m&n&Asl. 

flft6> A fliikl n, whKhvt of ■(rm oi of r«'>(, li )««* •toblv Umd any 
Othat ransoiuiit. nliere • vMkM farn It ciliad foi: (liu>, tnm riSkti wa 
kkvp T^ft and r^abhis, and hi c amp okI lion tI(jb; ftoa dbuiia, djianf 
tad dhanfbhla im) dhiui; fn-m i^lian >« hive liatliii ud hatA, i-tcr. 
A Hfial 11 Ikol m li totuDtiiiiM tro*i»d In tb« aanio way: ibui, Ima ygua, 
KKbi, KBtim, RaUi, zAti. 

357. Iiiiertvd n. On (he other hand, tliA njietl n hai eonc to >e 
nad with Kteu — »ii, iii th« liter hiaioi; of the Uiigaa«<i, vltb fnenuinic 
■~ fr«^««a<y M a iiBl»D-oanaaDint, Intortad balweon Tnwal*: Utnn, fron Hfol, 
ignbift and ogmnllin ; rcom m&dhn, midbanna, m&dbunl, mAdbQnl; 

S68. Iniaricd y. a. ATIm llual a of > luni, a y i* afien (aund ai 
ipfueatly • mcto nnloii-cDiiioiiant befoiv inothai vowel; tkoc. In luflectlnci. 
Ub&yl Mc (844), W^TStl i^t". (1048), <}iviyia fit. (363 0). sAyati 
«M. (761 e)i rankL<r, lo il«riiatioii, -s&ya, •yi^Mii. diyolca etc.; 
-fltb&rlka; pHy&na, -KA^aDs; dlifi.]ru, •bayoa; athiyia oic. (luanj 
cMaa): 'hit&yin, -tAtSyln; atbAyuka. 

b> Oth<c laiMU ipondic a-nt at iDteltcd y— *n*li ■* thai la (1|« 
ptonan&^dntis arun. lyam, vaTam. yO^am. Brayam; ud in optulvo 
Lid««UoB bafotfl ail oiidiug b«f tuning nlih a Tvvrel (666} — will be palat- 
M ml bela« In their connteUoo. 


S&9. KoduptlcHtlon of a root [origiDatiDg ilnutitlsas in iU eom- 
ploio repetlcloii) ha« coma to be a metfctxl of radlesl iacrcRicat or 
RttDfigtliMiiig in variont fonnaHr* procMRM; oantlr, 

a- In pr«seBt-8l«ii) fornistlon |64Bff.}; as dAdaml, blbh&rml; 

b. in |Mirr>^<;t-«tcin foniiftlion, uliinint uii[veritultj-(782(r.j: iBCat4na, 
dadbtu, cntutra, rlr^oa, Iul6pa; 

c. in itoriHi-DtAtii forouuion i8S8<r.j: tut &d3dluurani, &auo3ravam: 
A. tDlnteoalvfianddesldcrativC'eieinfflrmatiaDtihraiighautilOOOfr, 

lOBaif.i: aajtosbantl, J6baviu, marm^iyku; ptpRsaU. JfihaAsati ; 

«. In the fonnitilaa of d«rirativo notiD^toma ;ll43e!: a^ p&pri, 
o&roarat s&mhf, cikitu, nuUimtaaL 

L Rulra fur Uie IrKttment of tbu nKlopIlcation in lkw« MTaral «Mot 
will ba glxtm in Iha proper cvonecliiMi balair< 

900. Aa, by re«WD of tlia atrongtha&lng and veakentng cban^a 
iDdieaUHl above, the aame root or Rt«in aol naMoai exbibila, in th« 
proeeaoea of inflection and d«rivatIoD, varletlet of ahnmser nml v«k)ieT 
fona, tbe diatincdon and deacritition of tlicae nrtetlea forma an im- 
portant part of the aubjeeu hereafter to be treated. 






261. Thegoiiertl BubJ^ctof derleuxion inchidca nomis, adj^tlres, 
■ad pruBoanft, all of vrhich ar« Indoctod ia oBSentiitlt}- the nunc nuoncr. 
But wbile tbe oorreapftudence of nounti ami ailjoclives is bo cIom ibat 
thty cannot w«l] bo aoptriktcd in (r<'ftiiucn( [ctiip. V'.), the pioDouoit, 
vrhicb exliibit raanf pecalaritiee, nil) be best dosltwilbiD a eoparaic 
ehaptcr iVUi; itnd the wotylt <lMignntlng n»tnli«r, or nmnerula, alio 
torm * duB poculUr enough to roqDir« to be pnwouted by thom- 
•ftirm (tbap. Vll. 

262. Declensional forms show primaiilr case and num- 
bei; hut they ttlso indicate gendet — Kinoe, though Lfae 
distinotiom of geader are made partly io the stem itself, 
thoy xlm -appeal, to do iaoonsiderahle extant, in (he changCH 
of inflcctioD. 

363. Gender. The gondeis are three, oamely maaou- 
line, renunine, and neut«r, as in the other older Indo-Kiiro- 
pean languagea; and they follow in gfeneial the aame lawa 
of distribution aa, for example, in Greek and Latin. 

a. Tbn nniT "ordH whlti iliow no tigu of (•a<ler-diiliu<tiDa *Te tti« 
penotul ptoiiouni of tbe lint tiiil •econd panou (491). tad the niim«t»lt> 
ihoTft faur (483). 

264. Xumber. Tlie numbers are tJiree — singular, dual, 

and plural. 

a, A r«w iii>id» kra a*«d only In the plural: m dSrSa tcift, tpM wattr; 
ibo oiiin«nI dva t»o, U dual «u1r> 'i^d, u in Mhet Uiigitftiiiv, atony WMif 
■n, by die naMte of tbeli an, faond Io occur only in the ■Iie'''"* 

966. An to the nses of the ouubera, It neodn vnly to bo r<rinaflted 
Ibat tlif dniil is (vfith only«ry rare and sporadic exceptioMi ani 
uttittiy ill nil fmu vliere tiro ol^eots aro l<'pL'iilly lodlcAtril, whelber 
directly or by ciMnbiaatioo or two inilindttalv: thtu. cItA w dri* 

VApftUvi ubh& BtJun nulyhemen mJ ^gMtttAl"' )rrof>t'aut lo Um.' 

(Uivaib ca mJtnafftih oa botarlluj|M^^^HWiMhil'^iAp^in** 



t— BBB 

ft, TliL> jual la aMd aluDit (witboat dn fifii) propariy *hm itir 
diiilItT of llie nbJrGb iiidlcitcit If '«et1 undi^nlDOd; IbnK a^TtnfiU Itr Itrnt 
Ariniu; Indruiyii bJtri Jn^ra'a iiro hays; lial tosya dvAv a^vlu steli 
A« A«i t*eo horitt. fini imw Mid tliira ibo diwl tuadt kluno ptvirnuiUy 
lliu«, TfrdAlb vsdftn 7«dajl Vi m» Vt4a or tw6 or mnrr Ouui liro 
•kAfOft* 9 Kts 'wo bimdrrd and tirti/-»nr. 

2d6. Case. The cases aiu (incluflio^ the tocbUvc) eight; 
nominHtive, aootisativc, iastiumenta), datire, ablalivc, gen- 
itire, locative, and vocative. 

a. Tbo ntdnr In *hlch thcT *Tc bcic Ricnllonnd 1« ttiat Cilthllahcil Tor 
Ikom by the Hindu |;iiidid> riant, and ■w«pIod ffom tli^ie by Wiataro 
MbotkH. Tbo Hindu nkiauf of the tkMi are faiindcd on tbl* orler: ihe 
■■•MuiiutiTC 1> calltd pra.tbU»K Jlrtt. lh« aroQtttire drltlTft nfonH. ihe 
g^ntiiiR fftf^i nixth (ic- vlbhtdcti dii^itian, I. tr. tatt), ct«. The oI>]mi 
MBghl iti thii krr*iitein«nt li (imply to h1 am to on« anMhnr ibnae cmm 
*liUh «re to A grfatT oc l»« eitsnt, ia on*- or anoihcr niimbi^r, Idenilol 

form; ind, pnUinj: tlin nominathM Dnt, %* iMdini; uao, Ui*ra la no 
rMhci order by nblcti Ihti object comlil b<> kUalntd. TIiR *«catliB li not 
coDeidotrd and nameJ by tliu native ciaininaiiaai u s cue like iho tpsl; 
In tbU work, il will bo (ii*)! in ibe klncuUt (wh«n alone it I* r«ai dl<- 
Uniultkad fraiu ibc uuTBliiatlie uthetwlifl llun by accent) at tbe end of tliR 
leriM of ca«c«. 

A eompendioiu itAtomeDt of th9 luws of thft cham ii givon in 
the following pttnigyKphs: 

fie7. L'mob of the Noniloaliv*. The nomiDiitivo tn tlie «ase 
of the Bubject uf the HentisiicH. and of itnj wonl qiinii faring tlio sub* 
jcct, wlMlb«r attribnliveljr, id ap]iOBitton, ot »s |)TedIc»te. 

fl68. Ona or two poiMilUr coii»trucltoDs call for nottee: 
S. A pr*dlcat« nittnlntlivD. inmetd of an objafUvo prcdlut* In tbn 
■ccvMtlTQ, Lt »»<■•! wUb KiMdln vci1>>roti[i> Ibil tlgnlff tojtiuding nr cilllng 
•ne'x loK^ Diu>, adinaih manyttte papivin (RT.) Ac tAiuta h* hat bftn 
drmkinp tonm; bA. mnnyotn pnrft^vtt (AV.) V mag regarrl Hirmtif an 
true M anrient thing*: durs^ vlt Uiuli 'rooftthftt^ (MS.) I/mu ktut 
tiaimeJ It ftr a saeinr aut of trrmlttr-, {ndro brSlima^^ bnivft^a^ 
(T,S) Inr!ra preUmiing to hta Brakman; kaCtbave satyav&dllK.) lAmi 
hooitrtt digtrJf truUtfuL tJImlUtly irttti Ibi* ptitwr rQpaih kf : tbui, 

}kni}A rap4ih kftvi (TS.) UMny m a blmek /vrm (i. v, mtimg «k(rp* 

' f«r kimtt{f «M iww Utat u htafK). 

b. A word miiie by iU (1 109) loglrslly predlrat* to an obJeH In 
»rdlBiH1r nomlnatiio: lliaa, svafgd lo)t& tti ^oib rAdiutti (AV.) irAsf 

'Oiiy call the. ket^Tfotj/ teorld; tain agniftomii ity acnk^atc (AD.) H 
Aty ilyU asolftoian; vldarbhnrSjntAnvjriih dMHAyoDti ti viddbl 
mftm (MBh.) liatnt au for Hit Fidarbha-kiitti* doubter. J)a»uj/anti by 




tMm«. BoUi wniUiiciiaoB Me 'omblucd iii «u&«ib hi bftlom ity UtM^ 
Vlto 'ty era tu muitrad«m (M.| /or to an intrant man ike^giv* tXa 
NOTM of tliUil', t,ul t/ttH of •/ath*r' to rm« who imfvU (A* saercd text*. 
e. A noniliiktlr(>, iiitieail of a kM-oiid vooittlie, tu EooictliniM adilpd la 
a t«OAtlv« by etk aud; tlitti, Csdnt^ c« Boraath pibstaib bfhsBpate 
(RV.) togelker teilh Imira, do yt Iir« drink the noma, O SrhaapaU! vi^TO 
doT& jAfamAiuig ca oldatA (T9.) O ye AO't/odit and (A« tacrijicvr, 

360. tJsoi of the aucntattve. Tbe acutwitiTO U especially 
tlie CAM of die dirL'ot utiject u? it Iraosiiive verb, laii of any wotd 
qiulifjing tliat object, as attrlbuttf ur appOKllJv« or objective piedi- 
oaie. The ooaatniolJoo of tli« verb is shared, of course, by Its psr- 
tidpliu ami iiifiaitSveB; but aUu, in .Saoskrit, by u number uf other 
deriTativOB, Utviiig u inoio or Iohs particjjiial or intiattival cbnrsclvr, 
■ad OT«D Htmi-liiiifa by uouno uod aOjMtivee. A few prcpositiiiMis 
Mire Mcompanied by the scousutive. As lius direct ot>jocl. or goti 
of tDtftiun or acliPii, tlio sccuMtiva i« oouBtrued e»p».<iuily witb vurbs 
of upproiicli and address. It is found used icDru advurtitally «a ad- 
junct of pliwe ur timo or tDsnner; «iid a boat of adverbs are ac«iu- 
Ktlve oases in form. IVo aocusatives are often found aa objects of 
the larao voo-b. 

570. Thr nt* of lb* «<iet)iaaia m direct ob]eot at • tciDnitlire nrb 
and of Id InOniUvM and pirtlclpUe tl«^II]r needs lllusirstton^ an exsmple 
or two >r«: agnlm I^o 7 prau* Agni, akeao bharanto^ trm^i'nf 
himagt; bh6yo ditom arbssl thou ahmtldtt yivt more. Of pcedlcaie 
vooli >iii>.Uf)Ing tlie objt^ct. an ckiinpln it t^un ugr&m kfpomi tkA 
brahmi^am [KVO him T maJiv formidable, kim a prwst. 

571. Or v«i1ia) (iRriiitivofl hi'tng m far a |iinlclpts1 chsrscior thai 

tbay ibar* tlin roriitmcIlDn of llin vvlb, Ibc TUialy li tvnilderablt ; thiia — 

a. Det[<*tiv*.ii In u froui (t?tide»ti«i> MeiiJt (1038) baie wbolly the 
(hinrivi of pTeacni pirlirJplpg^ tbiii, danxnyantlm abhlpaaTa^ (MBb.} 
dttiring to tcin Danai/anii; dldrM"*' janatclLtmaJBm (K.I dtnring to 
•M Janaka'ii dau^Mfr. lUrvly, ii1i«, vhu miht-I rtouii lii ft (jom nich ■ tiMH 
ihns eTargom abblkOOk^ayfi (B.) uiU dttirt of puraditt. 

b. So-f^dled primary lUiiisllvn* tn ta luv-t ih« lanir cbuaclci; t}i«^ 
maiii kimlul (AV.) locmg m« ; eoam abblbbOfli^I (MBh.) addttiaing 
kim. Kicn tho obvlooaly accaiidary garbbfa Uu tu ^'It. iha muu toti- 
Mruetloii : Ibus, B&rv&fl bbOtltai garbh; bbbavat ka bteame prtfHOKt 
•ct'A all ho\n0%. 

0. l>criT.ktlT*a in oJca. in thr Uttir Ungntg«: u. bhavontam abhi> 
vAdaka^ (MBh.) inlwdiny to ra/uto j/m; mlthllun avarodluLkaf^|,ll 
heaitgint/ Milhiia. 

d. .Nouns In tar. yeti rinqunmiy in Ibe older lanfuife, and 
pbtaatlc futuia bum* (94Sff.> in ihe liu-r: tbua, faao* 


I "niR AucUSJlTtVB. 


■biito 'U viimii dttM. BUgbinl(RV.) leio tloj/ell, 0- tlragvn, teittitrik 
ba^y, httioutih hrgtMtt; t*u U 'daiii Muruh bartftr&u (J&) /or 
Kt«y MEM on ^u uuievrtt; traktlkML);! Baii)7U(i« pr&^ttn (MIth.) rUkinfi 
lift y> baUit. 

a. Tli« r««i IimI^ ill tlia oMer lftiiitii*«e, u»»d vlUi ibi valiM «t * 
pietMi p»iiid|il« » ihe and of • ttuDpaana : ibu>. y&di rniOiifa paribhflr 
£•1 (BV.) tcAof offering Ihoa tarroimdeat \ prelceUat\', Ahlin ap^ pari* 
ffhim (KV.) thr dngon eOfi/lHing the tcatc'. Atho t ttipetlulre of > 
root-iWin (468, 47 1 ) : thu, tTdlfa visu devayst^ vtinlfflub (IIV.) M«m 
nrl riit/ tfiuHttr of Wfriitk Jot the pioat; ti aomuii nom*pdMin& (IIV.) 
lA«)r (wo dfv U<r grtaUtl drinkert "f toma. 

£ n« dcflikilvo tn 1 Rum the (t^ipccUlly iti': rol«pllr«lcj) root, In 
tte older lani^utE.<; ihui, babbHr v^ram pap{|; aomtuh dadir gAti 

(RV.) hearing the ttmniierAtiil., drinking tfn ici/nn, heatowing itiir, y^JUm 
ftt&ol^ (ItV.) ezttn^inif (ite Mtrijlff. 

g, DeTliitlio» III okn, rr-tT rt»tqoiitl]r lii th« BrUuntQa taa|iia|t: 
thug, vats&Af o& ghjiculco v^ka)^ (AV,) oHil Om voff dMttt^ Kit <Wom: 
v6duko riao bbavHti (73) Ac leini a garmrHt, kKmultft «oaiIi strlyo 
bhnvanti (MS) thf xnunni fait in h'^e iriVA him. 

h, iHhat cuea aro morn tpocniic: lliua, derlialttat la o, •* Isdro 
dr^ha Old or^jah (fIT.J Indra brtakn up even lehal u /lul; nil *v& 
'tbai} pUtfkoiii rikttukm (M. | (j; no mnana entiUeii to hit /at3ier'4 
t<H4iU\ —in iitau, »* vi^a old inyatnubhUi (RV.) irt'fA (A* ftrMA«f4 
o/ N)Aa(«c«r M 4tronff\ — In atba, " yuj&tliAjra U«v^ (i'^-) <* hmA* 
nffrriag to Cl« j;Mb:~ln ana, *« taifa Divlira^e (HBb.) in nutrmitrng 
Aim; arUBSAeMa iva bhojone (K.) at if in taling onXs omn Jleah; — 
in BDi, u. •Rm6tsu turvApi^ pituijrfla (KV.) ttctrtoming fan m 
rma&irf^; — In tl. » n& t&lb dbflrtl^ (RV.) Ihrrt it ho iiyttrtHjf him; — 
In van, ai ApaQCJiddnshvlt 'imaiii bhaimti (HS.) ht dou not ctmm 
nhort of fnod,-~\-n SQU. u vthlrit oln namnrlgnaviil; (fV.) bowing 
evin firm Ihiitgti, 

272. Kiauiplea or >n accnuiW* nUli m ocdmiry noun •>( h'IJociIvii 
UO only oerulonal! mrh «btdi m ftoavnia faithfut to, pr&UrQpB 
evrrtfpofjiny to, nbhldhf^U dartitf to etipt m>iU, pnttfJlfto irfpomU 
fy, mty be nxirled m iihliig in accaMiive In liiini! ut ihn pteiMnititin thoy 

. coDUln; ilfo Anuka, «> anuJcA devt v&i^^nin (UR.) M>> ^'W* arr imferior 
lo Ktrniffo. RV. bM t&m antirvatl^ pregnant viA him, utd AV. kw 
null kirnena thmai/k hoittg tat. 

273. Tbe diTMt conitranlon uf tti*a vltb prfpoaltloiu l> eomptn* 
Hrcly roMdciad In Stnikrtl (IISSS.). With iho «ccautl*a in) oftonoii 
fonnil pratl. tqipotitr to, i» refrreiice to. «tc. ; aUo ana afttr, in (An Mwna 
«/; antor ot luitari &«/iritm: titMy nti ncroM; abhi itjMi'ncJ. to; anil 
ctberi (1128). (.'ue-Ioimi wbith bata uaumed • prepotltlonti value ■» 
alao often HMd with ibo apcuaatlitt: aa antaro^a, uttarvQA, dakqli^ona, 
•▼ara^a, ardhTam, ite. 

S74— 1 



9T4< Tlic accaifttive l« *«>ry ofl«ii round kiM at oltjcct af verbn whieh 
In lb« r«Ut9d lmnKU>EC< ^k not tnnAilivv, 

ft. It lUad* wpedAll)' w th« coil ot inotiun, viib f^bi of icoia):, 
brinfjliiit. MudlDR. «nil lh« lUe Ihus, vidikrblilui aEomiui (MBh.) tke^ 
wm( i« fuIarM«i dlvadl y«yu^ (HFIi.) tAty leent to }ieai»m; vuueul- 
mftD dl]&TantAt> (MDti.) runntn; (o letxtdt and AmAmi ap6 dfTsm ud 
TaJtftnti (AV.) lAey rarry up loaten U> tht «tjr; dorlll yiO« (AV.) / 
HidJte vffairtg <« M« j)«/<. 

b. Widv -ntba id«uiIii|: ^, lliii i> *n axtr««nfl]r coiniDon Miulniellon, 
ud Ac MM ol nti ■ verb witb «ii »b«t»ct noun iitkea peenliat pbitMi ' 
of Weminf ; lliu*. aamMKm stl A« got* totqualitif (I. n. &»cm»M«fnBl); 
8« gftoched badhratAiu mama (MBh.) he thaU become liiMe to fr« tlain 
iytnr, wi pAftcatvam flsntnh |H.) he W4u rMolitd into thej(c4 nlrm»nU 
(iHtitrteml ditfdutiett, iii4tl) 

«. Torb* of •p«ailiis follow tho fjut rul«: ihua. tam abrftvlt A« 
(uif (o Arm, prUcrof ad uccUr aftl^adbam (AlBh.) the crM out hudfy 
U U« ffitkaJhan. yis tvo Vaea (AV.) icAo tpolut to the^. 

d. 'Ilin U4nni|itian nl >n Bteiuitife utijoct b ucepdnnallj mcjt tn 
Stntkrlt, Mid fui'h an ubjDRi U olltn laki-n by a leib ot pbiu« whlcb i* 
Mrleily ol liiUtntltlTo r.hUAr.ttr: thui, fl&basA prA 'ey mnsin (Kr.) n 
mifSl lAtiu atmUm/ Hit. nrf aA«0(r) nUm^ deva <rii brJilima a&m 
aviMJauta (MS.) lAe $)<»b tewv ilitcuttiny (lit. verr taiktng fojicMir) 
brahman; ant^r tA! mi y^JQad yanti (MS.) tur^ly tfiri/ arm rutting 
mt off (Ui. are yoing lictumen) Jrom tlu offrrinff; tidi s&di babliQTa 
(QB.) A« And inffirtviuraa taUii hf. 

STB. EiunpUa of tbn cofiuu urEumiiive, ar HciuatlTo tX InplUd 
oti)*ct, arn not Intrrqunni: thiiR., t&paa tapyJLmaha (AV.} m« dtf^fnAiMw; 
U Ul 't^ edbatikm edliiili cakrlK (V'B.) (Aiy pro»fi»rtd uith that 
fmptrifyi ufltv* BolchavMaiD (R.) ahidimg happSy. 

978. Th( wciiMdvo I> ftftcn tuiil Id moie advnbUt eoD*tra«tl»iiK. 

a. OccMlanilly, to ttuDOia niRUBTe of *p>M : thai, yojana^ataih 
■antnoi (MDb.) to goahundred leaffun; qa^ uoobrltoyojananl (UBli.) 
tit /m^iim Atp/>, 

b. Hnah more often, to denote m«wu» or dandm af Ulna; tha>, 84 
aadivatsarjun Ordhvi 'tlfpiat (AV.] A« shod a jwor upr^U. UarA 
riitrir dilcQital> ny&t (T9,] hi him fie eorutertUd thrtt Mt^Ut; gatrA 
trin ahor&trKn [MElli,) hanitf tfaotM three o«nyiJW« Ay*. 

C. Si'mntlniM, l« •letioie tho point ot kpaw, or, oftioai, of Uina: 
yim aaya dt^aiii dAayul; ayit (^B.) iirAii(««<r rt^i-M Am 
b in; UnAl tiili ratrlib aahtf " Jaglma (gn.) he . 
leilh him; ImSiii rajauub vyuflAm [Ml)b.} liia^ 

d. V«ry on»n, to doaoM 
Tboa, tlio iioitlcr a««aMtive of 


r— S7B 

(1111), La ntfl aAvRiMilly, while cattAln ilnri* pf wmpvuRda are llina 
nwd to mA all est^iil thit iho Dlnilu irrimnuiflaiu hart) made of tbo« ■ 
■p«eUl (Jvert'lt] cUh (1318). 

«. 8pecUl oati tnt nmialunally met wUh : thoi. brahmnc&rytun 
UTl«a |(;iB.] it k«pi a Irrm of studtittfhip: pbKUlb pacyinte (M^.) fAiy 
rt/HM tkfir J^ail, s^ifa divyadhvam (H3., S.) gvAU far a tote. 

S77. Tho BMiiutivi- i), uf <aiirt«. freely ti4«d wllti nlhcr cimi to limit 
Ltie Mmo Trrli, m ilir imiii! nr^nliei. Ami nbunciei it it nta^lr vith a 

«<rh III two JiHi'ti^Til coiDtcTiclloiiM. 'Up i«ll) aur tnkn lwi> *<cn»tlvm, ami 

Id «a<ti coiiitmctiaii; uicl luf.b rombluailnna are quiie freqtioiit in Sanakrit 
Tbu*, with T*ibt «r arpoaline, aakina, hivlnf hirfrUfM; a*, Itpo yAOAmi 
bh«B«J&ia (ftV.) / atk the voltn /«r mrtiiein^; tvtm fthttdi Mttf am 
icchAmi (It.) / detir^ trvtX ft-om (Am; tvUi vayxdi ^anm»di gaUlih 
(UKli.) at hat* reiarUJ l<i (Am for luetor; — «lt)< vnclw crt bri«i^n|, 
<mii4Ibr, rvllowin;. impinlne, aajlng: u, gurutvaib oarub na;snU(H.) 

' dtny ^tn^ a umri In •■/■tjitrb^ility; Bit* cA 'nvotu mllifa vanam (K.) 
and Ut S\ta aecom}Mttj/ me Co th* fortit; Bap6(ns(uh mt *Ta afjuity 
iatam (UV.) U«y /(( mc yn Aem* iecil adoitttdi, tarn idam ab»vit (HBb.) 
Mu ht Mi4 to Am- i — aad in athai lc»* roBin«n <a>cc ; «r, TTkf&lb pAkT&lh 
pbilAib dhOnuM (RV.) «tAfea rij»« Jrvil JVom Un Irr-t; iim nf&m 

'VtA 'dbok (AV.) pvifti he mintd ftpm A^r; Jilva rUyub nalam 

'tMBkJiArijujF Mm tAc im^MnytMmJVafa; amu^taifa paptth gH]) (ItV.] 
j/«r«ibtdthe PanSoflht-kmrxArm^YXja ioob&TA^ putraifa pn^oiinadar' 
QRBam (R.) u« Uriah to im our ton for fA« Zoaf lime. 

a. A cauMtlvc form »f r tn»lll*« vaib rcRObrlr ailiiilla ma acna- 

'aaiire Abjaciii. (hiu, davifi Dcati^ TtSyayC ha7{l,i (liv.l m«lra«M^M' 
^•di drink tht oblatimi; ofadhir ova pliillaiii jfruiiayatl (M^l A« maAM 
th« planh htar fruit; ve^ljo dspayeC karftn (11.) ht thotild e4mu ii4 
marehanU to pay iax<*. Hot au'^li * ciu-itilTo >oiiiii(1id» talc* aa Uiftn- 
manul tnttead of a aeMiid i«cnn(lT*: ■«• S8Sb. 

876. DsoB of the Inatruineiital. Tke innnuneDlftl ii orig- 

inalljr Iho tcifA-ciue: it il«DO(ea s^aoeiKy, acoompanineat) HNVbitiini 

f — paasing ovar ioui tlie eipressiou of means and inatrament by the 

ttatne transfer of mtaDioK wlilcti appoara in tlie Knfflivh propONtioaa 

teilh and bfi. 

a. Near!]' alt tb« luca of tlia <*ao are rtadlly deduilble ft»m (hi* 
' fUndamonial maaning, and afaow naUitnc anoiu>l»<ia at diflliritli. 

970. Th« InaAruniDnUI U ofltai uaod lo atKnlfy ai»^oiup»»irn*nt : Ihna, 
acnir dev^bhlr i esmat ("V } mat/ Agni eomt hilAtr along with Ik* 
godt : marudbhi rudrnm huvcma (RV.) wn teouU tvit Rutlra with th* 
ifttnift; dv&porena BaliOyena kva 7&syBst (MHh,) tvhilhtr vilt fAou 
go, u-ith Drofitira for fempomofl t katluiyan tifti%adh«a« (MBh.) talkiup 
*eith the A'uAanMoM. Bat (b« ralalion of aiiapla aoMnapanlmral la aiot* 
ofian h«lp«d to pTaincT axpimtan by prapodUnna (aaha eu.: M4). 


IV. Cbclxkiuov. 


280. Tli« In^Kumoiilkl ol nicani «t Intlnmenl ot agtnt ti jtt son 
rr«4ti«ni: tJiiii. bhadrAih kir^ebU^ fT^njSasft C^v,) w^ k<« Awr 
tcitii Mil' rani wAaf I'j propUioaa; fawtrcna nldhKnam (MBk.) i/(«(A hy 
th* iMvrd; keelt psdbby&ib bau eajoi^ (SlBli.) i^ufu ip#r4 «fat» Ay tftd 
ri*phtmtii tfiti thtir fvtt; pf-thak pAi^bhydufa d>rbtuiC«ruaaUUr 
BaranitQDa IliniffbopakanlqtJiikibbftm akyl^i Uya(AOs.) ii>i«m1- 
niy tktir lyu ici'U ^mh huUtr. hy hrJp of tht fiHiuite* n/* dkrblw-uran, 
leilh the Mwmb wtd rmg-jbigtr, tuiug tha two hoMdt ntfnMi're/y, Aud 
till* puao Mctly ATM into (h« «spr«»alaii of urculon ai tcwon (fi>T -wlili'li 
lb* »bl»Uto !■ niorft froqucni): tbu, kfpftya Mrou^ftjMty; tma Mtyeaa 
in virimt of Ud( trtiVi. 

881i Of tpeclal kppllealioni, tti« TallowlnB may be naliced: 

«. Aorordance, c^uaUtji, llltMiM*, and Uib Ilk*: thni. aunidi Jy&U^ 

pAdoraJaiA tli]jnt> (^IBh.) (o thf dutl of who»» /t*i I orii not equal. 

b. Print (tr vlilrh nbulncd); Ihiu, da^&bhih kripftti dbauubhlt^ 
(RT.) fu ftuya tciih tart Jiinti i^v%A qataBAhasreQa dlyatfist qabftU 
nuuna (It.) Ui ^ohal^ he given Dir far a AmiiiA'Mf thoasand rmc* , aa Ve 
'kfabrdaTttifa d£tlL r&]A 'fTahfdtvona vU iMDh.) M> kiitf tetB giv* 
(A<* (A« *t<T«t tct<nc« of diet in rrtvrn for (*«( of honts, 

O- Htrfium, >»d heiiAH a1«a »pi>er »r •luuitn- oe ra«d, ItmicrMil: thu, 
udni ni nlram anayanta (KV.) fAcy braugAt [him] at it uvn a nt^ 
fy t^lcr. i) *h& yStufa pathlbbir deraytnll^ (RV.) fma« Ai'iW &y 
god-trvctltd pat&t, Jsfcmur vlhOyasft (Mnh.) Mry trmt ojf ttnMi0A 
Uc dir. 

d. TlniA pa'Rod ihroiiKti, at by Dm UpBit ot which inythlnt ts brought 
tbout: thu>, vldarbh&u rAtam ioob&mf akUmft (MBli.) / KiiaA to ga 
to Vi^rftha ui th* cnnm* o/«nf rfoy; te ca kolena mabatt yAUTaauD 

pvattpfldlrtt (II.) an3 Ihey in a hrng time atlaintll adoleacentfi tatra 

kAlana Jtyanto mftnavl dirftjiajivlna^ (H.) (A<r« in lima art &<w-n 
nun tetiff-littJ. Thi* uaa irt iba InaliumeDUl bonlM* upon that c4 lb* 
lOUtlTt uid abUtixQ. 

•■ Th* put «t tli« liDdy «n (or by) wbfch anytkln| l« born* U ainallir 
eii^iMiod by tlte iTutruiii«»utl: u, kukkurah akandtaano "byata (U.) 
a Jiff I* carri^ on the thouUer; aiiJ (hi* i'on>'i?it(itlon (iditanded to inch 
tun u tulayft k^am (II.) ;iuf nn (i. i- xa at ta he carrietl hy) a iaiaucr. 

r. No! iiifr«ijiiont *r« auch phi»sr» no babODft kin) pmlApomt (K.) 
trAol i' lAe vm of (). «. t« gained by) nutrk tatkiuf/'f ko nu me JiTlt«nB 
Vtb*:^ (MOh.) mltal o^'tet m life to »i«? nirt^Jaa tu klm ftnfadhai^ 
(11.) A»l mAnt Am a mil mm to do toilA tnvdieinrt'it 

g. An inftrunatital ot acconipkiiimeitt \» ui^caalonally ii>«d dmHi ot 
quiu Willi lb# value of an l»Firiiiu«nta1 abH^Iuto: Ihtu, Da traja 'tra 
nuyft >aaUiit«iia Uk *pl dstit k&ryt (Pane.) tntk nw «( hmd, iAom 
futdtt fttl no imririy tehntavrr on (Ai* poinf. 



S88. ft. Tlie (till itmct Ion of ■ psuh* verb (or jiutii'.lple) with an 
IkflTMntiilAl ot ibv KjcnC In eoronioa tnm (be <«Tl!«ti pa(io4, mni becoiuflt. 
4Miiltdl)' note to taiei. tbs piitlvc p»nlcti)1o vlih loaiTVinraUl Uktn; to 

n* M»al •iMnl cbn plana nf an ■ctUe v^rb with its (ubjett. Thru, yntnftnft 

datUh (RV.) yiven Ay l'«"«i; fttblllr i(}jal? (1^0 tf> J* yraintd Ay 
nyM: vyAdhons j&lftdi viBttn}«m (II,) by lit iunter a nil \irai\ tfirtaJi 
MO obrutvA JftradgavGiio *kUm (H.J JaraJ^ava, hearing thit, taid; 
Bftf* guitftV7Am (II.) / s^qB go. A predleat* to th« Inttnuoent*! «nb]pct 
of mih a MfittroMlon In, of coiirie, alio In tba i mini men t»l : tbui, wlbuilA 
tav* *nuo>rapB nuyft sarvaUia bhsvitavFua (D.) hatetferth Ithait 
ahf^f* ^ t^ eotoftation-, atrotiit&ir btiavit«Tyaih bhftVHdbtii(i (Viki.) 
y«t nun/ A« otUn^n. 

b. A e<uMtl*« i«b toDictJinca tikui in InitnimaaUl itittMJ of ui 
acnwtiTc 11 *e<x)iid objMi: iliui, uuh qvftbhl^ kbsdayed r^s (tl.) 
U« Antjr thoaid havt A«r tUvourtd bj/ doga; tfi v&raijaiilL 'grftltliyftt 
(HS.) ie ohumF I'tiriMM to nitt thmt. 

983i Mm; liiattniuL-ntal ccnitiDitiant ue anob m «Ul In tntiiUtioti 
fot otksr prapDiiUniit tbaa ui'tA ei iy; ;ot iktt itoe tnttrumiinUl nlttion li 
■HuUr t« b« tMc«d, ctpiTcaally ir th« ttytQalogiMl aeuto of tbo notdi b« 
c«r*rHll7 eoniMeiH. 

O. MoA> >nomil«iiilr, ho^aver, the IntlrumenUl it u&td tntur«luinK«*bly 
iflb Ike aUttlTo vllh ootid* il^lfyini: •apar*tlon: tlmn, vkUAlr vlyatB^ 
'^{ILT.) t^arofMi /Vom M^iV ra/rM; mi 'him Atmtoa vj Mhilil9l(AV.] 
iff nw nof />« HftwrMl ynxn lAr hrtalk of U/r; sa tftyi vynyujyata 
IBk.) AfiCMparfeiJ/roitnAM-; ptpmAaU 'Vfti 'aaih vi punanti (MS.) 
e^AAM Aim JVitm faiil (eoinpit* Ritgtlih pariid uMy. Tb* aiuia 

inc nuy b« tciTCD m tbo ciue btcii itb«ii acMimpuiled by aahs taithz 
bhartrA aoba viyogml;) (SIBb.) Mparmtimt frvm h*r Hutitaid. 

S84. Tba pccpMitions uUof Ui« tnilnuBtnUl (1127) *tc Iboto ilg- 
alTylnfi icHk lUid tb* Ilka: lha>, saha, vitb Ihn tdrMbUI urortU eoatalnlai 
■a at lu «l«m«nt, w aUcamt aftrdliaiai •amcbiun; — auA, ta faaaral, 
a vord BunipitiUKleil witb ao, laiD, aaha Uhu an iniitumMHal u Itn rDfuUr 
and aaiDial rMapUmnnt. But alio tb« ptitpoaiHon vlOA iciCAouf lalcta 
nnaUoiM th» iniuunenul (ef. S8Sa). 

BBe. Usa* of tho Dative. Th« datlvo 1b the caae of tba 
intlitcct ol^Kt — or tliM toward or in tli« direction of or to order 
to or for wbick anfllilug ia or Is doM [cither InlransltlTelj or to n 
direct objoctj. 

a. In m«to ptiy tlul caiinfationa, ih« niM of tlin dative apptoaett tboM 
*f Ui« aociuailve (ikc aoto propM (o-oaie), aod lti« two an MOMUaiM 
lUt«T<liiDga«blr: but th« gancral tiId* of lltc dsltT« u Ik* totftfcj- at Jor- 
caM It aliDoU vvorywhcto dUtliictlr tc be lr»t«4, 

Mfl. Tbai. ibi daltvc U umkI wHh — 

a. Vordi litairftnic pw*, «A«rB ouf, at^Cgn, niiil ih> Ilk*: ibitt, ]f6 n& 
dAdUl aAkhyo (KV.) inio gimM not to a JUtnJ; yieabi 'amil QlinnB 
(KV.) taafoir v/teu Arm frroteetioH. 

a«e— J 


b. Worilt ilgnlfflni: tAou<, aiuiowtMw, Jm/ww, and tka lik«: Clitit 
dh&Dor dor^aya rtmitya (K.) lAvu Ue £ott In JUma; ftvlr ebhjo 
ttbhAvat B&Tyo^ lll^'-) ^' *■"> •"■" mani/aiUA te ih4m \ itupar^aA 
bhlmlgra pratyaTedajriul (Ml>ti.) Ury ORMunimf SHupana to BHitnai 
tftbhykln pratijAlya (UUb.) htteiny promued tu /Aan, 

■ lid tk« likn: thiu, nlve^Ayn mano dadtiuh (MUh.) tJWy ttt thrir mind* 
upMi tHtrnipiuff; mat6 'v> putr^bhyo tnf^ (AV,) bt grtuiMU ai a 
motXar In her loiiv: ktn) Mm&bbyuii b|-9ife ^UT.) vAy art (Aou oMfiy 
4rf Mir kim&ya BprhByttty UmA (Spr.) £A« muV Jaujit for Ion. 

d. Woi-)< >Unir]tti£ pfMIt, mit, eondttee, «nd iti« Ukc: Uiiu, jadyftd 
KwatA viprebhya^ (M.) tefttUcnr m pUasing to Braimaiu; tad 
Onantyaja kalpat« (RU.) Aot makea for inunortality. 

a. Waidi ilpblfytiif inetinuti'Mi, oirimiice, and tLi- Ilkt!: tliaa. mUiyadi 
namanttm pradl^af c&tasrati(nv.} ht ikt four quarttm bme thtnta'.cra 
to mt, d«Tobhyo camaakftya (Milb.) loving paid hoii*«^t U tie g«d*. 

t. Wonls «UiiliTtiic Aw/iny of easting: u ytaa dfl^Afe Aayasl (AV.) 
<ciC& icAteA Uou ktirlttt at tt« imptotu. 

g. In foma of th«n eenilrncilont tko sHiItiw« aai l«««iiv« ue Um 
luod: aw bolos. 

SB7. In ha men' dlitlnodw aanac, aa dgciifyiait for. for tie btnt/U 
^, uAA reftrenee to, aiid Uie lllio, iho dattio ia uacd frtoly, an^ fn a 
Cnai vatiaty of tonatnioHoni. And ilii* nae paaiea avet inW ikat af tbo 
ilailvs ar «nd oi purpato, wblch Is oxtroravly common. Tkai, ifwtk ^9- 
T&ni Aaaa&ya (AV.) making ih arrotc for hurtin^i (CThl^iiDl to Un- 
Mimatriga biatam (Itv.) 1 1^9 thy hand in erdrr to kappint**; rttfpig*. 
mUiTadi badltyaUifa aap4tnebbya^ parabbuTs (AV.) lu U bomtd 

0N ui erdtr i» n^aity fur mt, in order to dmtrHcti«n for iny tntntitit. 

m. Stwh a AiXive U much uMd ptMU<«ll**ty (and ofi«a««l with iba 
copula aniilUil), lia the «cnM uf nviiJUa /or, lemdt toteard, alio w iutmtded 
for, aniltainiiW; oiitliablelo, ui<i to ean Tbu». upadego mitrkhCqadt 
prakop^a na fAntaye (O.J yosi/ fouiueJ _ltndt\ to the esatptrolion, 
Mt th« coneHiatiim, of fo«h: aa ca Caaykh aaihtof Aya nt 'bbavat(n.) 
iMil Ac was not (o her uititfatlimt; susopA aal n& HibhSyB. (RV ) then 
art a goad htrdtman, not mm fvr chratiag (I. e. not <e 60 cAoofod). 

b. TheiB uaca ot tko daUMi a(u fii (ki) olitiic Ubfttace MjKietalljr lUva- 
tnUd bf llic dtdte tiifliittivu, for whiuli sea 88&. 

888. Tbe da(i<r« la not UMtil wlili |>rcpoalUoii* (11S4}. 

S8d. Uaea af the AblatiT«- Tli« ablative ia th6 /rom-«Ha«j 
in tho Tariutia acDHea of that prcpaiJUvD; it ia uacd (v oxpitad r«moi 
»»paratiou, (liDtinClioo. i**uo, and ibe like- 

980. TI1U al.Ii.liva b uw4 wl>i!<u cipuUion. ranwval, dlniiwUOn, r- 
tewi%, drdi It .1 Md ni|ir«M'1: (Am, U Dodhnntl 

patb6 Tfk '/ frnm (A* jMirt: Qui pri 




jriOfiamukhdt (M8.) A* t-triiy ffi>M mecg Jrom Ih* /aee a/t/u taerijlef. 
WUCi KBmid «ata b»t{^ (AV.) /irr ^nn vi bt yonr wwirVr : pktiib do 
vfUt (RV.) jan- ih from Uit wolf -. fcsUbtmAd dyim avur&sal,! (RV.l 
Ae i^t (III. made JIrm) the tky from falling. 

991. The abUllve Id iu<^'I wh»ra pneadute >r 1hii« tita MmotliliiK 
»t rrosi a Marie »r itirllng-ptilnt In iljjiilfleil: thiiv, fukrit kf^^dc) i^a- 
nlf(a (BV ) Uif hrijiht on* ha* Amk hartt fr«m lAt tiarl oni; loblULt kra> 
dha^ prabhavatl (MBb.)/^««i'o" «rMM yt-oni ^ri^; vitUt t« prftt^m 
■rldtun (AV.) / AarY imw tAy life-btr«tt fr«m IK* inW; yA prlUurt dl^A 
NbbldAaanty oamiu (AV.) irhn attati wi frmn Oie t^^u^erlt ^arUr: toe 
ohratyA sakhlgftQAt (llllh.) hmiiag heard ihatfrmi Urn trwp of fritnd*; 
v&yur anUurlkfftd abhfifat« (MBh.) tht witul ipnkf from the s/rg. 

&> Hence aim, proMdiire w Inta * eania nr ooM«lon li (IfotOed by 
tba «bUtU«: tbU It **p«rliilly froqiitnt (ii Iha Uter lui^akge, mid in iecli. 
nlc«l phtaseolO|7 I* ■ (taniltui; cons I ruction ; [I burilen «n lutlitmcalU 
fiaUnutioM. ThD», Tiyruyn. QUfoU dod&ra iRV) /rAm (ht, r«mon 
of) tilt ff*ry of Ihf thundrrfrill hf iturit miinnEpri yaaya d»Q(ji«bhKjrfet 
aarve dharmam anurudhyanti \}A^\i^ frnm frar of who** rndaUan 
co»itaHl lo Jutf; aJcbaml^rltatvAd akftraaya (TrlMi.) Aerowai) « oom- 
fouw ON flfmait of a. 

t>. VDff rtittjf, *n «bl«dva bu tbt> **n'n ol afttr: thnt, agaoobtum 
ahorMrBt Urtham (MB)i.) thvg tenU Vi tkr *hrine afltr a wtA«f« (byt 
fakarat aakara takar«i^a I -^'O 'f**^ \, i'tf'^t ■< m int^rUti t 

SdS. Oba or two tpaclal appllcatloiu or llii: abliUvf conaU-ni.'lloii an 
(0 !« Mliced: 

a. The iIiUUt* vritl woMt tmplrtni ter (tnrtlli'd rB<;etl fram): tboi, 
tiajrft JsUErSb e&rvam ablbbet (-W ) cv^rylMng xnu (j/rat</ of her at 
hte tirtA: ykmAd rftjanta k^fjAjra^ (KV.) u; uiAun mortal trtmhU; 
TOfmitd bbjjr^ C*^') tlirfvifh ftar v/yov; yaamftn ao 'dvlJaM lolcn^ 
(BbO.) 0/ icAom Uk imrM it not afniJ. 

b. Ibv ablntl"' i>r CQiapariMii (•llMinttUn from): Us*, pri. rlrtaa 
dlv4 indnkh pftlilvyii^ (BV.) /nrfru i* grcaltrr than the hemnn aiidlAe 
tariA. Villi a r«a>paratlTa, ot otiai «ronl uicd In a klndrnd way, ili« abU- 
tiro U Ike iii|ii)at and alniMl eoniuni tunalru«Ui.'n : tbo», ar&ddl^ mvtdi- 
yif (UV.) M-trtfr than ike Kiet*i\ With taamAd dahkh«tarain CUAb.} 
trAst M moTri painful iftan ikai ? ko mttrSd aaya^^ k.!'-) ■'^o •'m '^o* * 
frimd: gft avr^ithA mat (AB.J fAoti A<wf thotrH ikt hint ralAtr than nu] 
^Babbyo graatlUaab QnftbA graatblbbro dbArlvo varAb (M,] 
pAaaeuor* 4/ tfxta art. hrlttr than i^itoritnt inot; mtumtttrtr* erf bttttr 
Ihtm ;>oMcMor<); t4d asjAtra tvio of dadbsuill (AV.) w* a#( (Am 
ilMm tUeuhtrt (away) .A%Mn IAmt pdrvt vigvamild blidraoit (SV,') 
titrlirr Ihiai ali beinft. 

0. 0(CMi«l>al1y, a frobaUr pMlcUlVc gMlUTe b Mfd vilb Ihu mn- 
fMitlr*! ar aa Ui4lfatBvatal (ai In a comparlaon af aqaaUtj): tlnu. 
Whllaaft Oni**af. B. *L 1 




ni 'Bti dbUiyfttATO maniR (ll.) Hurt u uo one mort JfTitmato t/ian I 
(1. «. n>y auftrwr in foHana): putram nuuaa prSl^Ur earifftSam 
(MBb.) a HM d&arer \han m^ lift. 

d. Ooc4ainiiiUy, nn ibUllie <■ naod IncMkd of ft ptnlUvc gcaltlTe: 
Aim, mithunad ekaili js«bUia C^^) ht »lew 'm* out of the pair; 
t«bbya ekuu (KSS.) on* oj Ikeat. 

293. Tb« ibUtlie I* atai wflh » Ttrirtj of prepMldao* *ni mrd* 
tharlnt > i>r«iinsiiLi»iil dianctuT (IIM); l)ut tU Ui«ta baro ritb«t ui ■>!- 
•o:M*l Tiluv, u ulrcnflbentng or dcflllini Ujo yroin-ichtion, ihau any 
propcf gft'finiin fcrw. Wn mty notlAo horer 

•■ 1q lb* V*di, Adlil and p4rl *ro nafh uscJ ai diiEcimt aiid itreogtli- 
untng uDnncts vlUt llio abUUic : u, Jftto hlm&vatns p&rt TAV.) 6nm 
/"rovn ih* EifUiUi^a (/arfA): aamudrad Jidhl jaJ!Uf o (AV. ) U«h 4r( 
iorra y)^>N the octan -, eixaatuix p4ri tiMthatal^ [t^'-) ■n'M'm^ /#r(A 
yh>N> Udf ieAi'(4 tlandt fa»i. 

b. AU» pari (uiJ porfts), In the s«iue of faru^ard Jt'«m, aiiJ htate 
\^f9fe: la, purn Jkriteet^ {I^^-) fttfore niJ ape: and heiiae atao, vlili 
«ord* uf pnuoUoii nn'l tU Uk«. /rem: u fSfuaAnsI} purt nld&t^. 
(BV.) tMwinji /mm tli-wUl. 

O. Also &, In tb? leaw of AtM«r^/t'wn, sU fA^ tray/Vofli: h, d mttlftd 
4na qufyntu (aV.) kl ■'( dry etmipieMif up frtrm th< roof: t4aiiUld A 
nadyo n^a stba C^T.) iinr« that tinu y« nr* nri/Mf rivtri. Bai oaa-i 
allr, an<l («p«.-iallr li> the Uwi UnEoagv, Um niManmiioal «f Intcml 
iinpUed tn 4 U ravvriod Id diiccilon, niiil the coii*iracclon moant ell thr 
«ray to, until: u yati glHbhyn a oaiuudrat (KV.) jroini; front thr 
moHMfflMi (e tA« octan; d "ayi yi^lLuyo 'dfco^ (VS.) mifiV /Ae inuf o/ 
iiiit Morri/ter; ft foijaf&t (M.} ttU ike <i>(«nlA y«ti-: & prtidAnftt (^0 
tmf */ A«r mafTM^. 

884. Ui«0 o( the Ooaitive. a. Tho proper value nf ilie 
g«BltiTA U B^eciivnl; it heloogi b> And qiialifici a noun, dcsi^atio^ 
•omotUog routing to tlie latter is ■ maiiiMir whicb thv Daluro of llie 
ease, or the oonnoction, detinea more D«arly. Other tronltlve con- 
stnictiona, with a^Jaotire ot verb or propaaiciun. appear i« arise out 
of this, by a iDor« or lota distinctly unceabie cnnaoclloii. 

b. The tiH uf the Keaitive liaa bccomo inucb oxt«Dded, espe- 
cially in the latar langnage, by attribution of a noun-cbRmeter to tho 
ailj««live, A&d by presuant verbal vongtructioa, bo that it oftOD beaie 
the aspect of being a iubHtitnte fur otiiei uaKfl — ai dative, iutru- 
Donta), ublutiv«, lovatlve. 

306. Tka geultlva la lia iionaal ti^ocUvD oaniCTmiiivoD with > Maa 

m pronoan If dicilltiblo IbIo Ui* iiiual r«rtctiei: '■. . .tiuii 

or tffunevMot, ln*tii<)lB| Om a«m>leB>ai at la., ■ *: 
tls««tare, iti'- ':M^^^^^^H^^^MML |>ir 


(TsM Or TSE Gkhitivk. 


•^ulTal«iK« (fdg «/ Jtmne), aad «f (litfacteil>ll<: (oMn «^ Ik^fwr), do n«t 
otcui, ud hudl) Uut ftr aialailil (Amuw t>/ic4>od). Ksmploi ui: (ndra- 
•TAT^a^ Intirti'* Aufderlolt; pItA putr«^m,fi>M«r a/«<mm; pntr*^ 
pltaif '<*'* <*/ '^' /other, pltu^ kftmii^ patraaya Ms/rtAm-'j /or* o/fi« 
•Ml; ke na^ irAieA o^ >m: qatuh flltufiillin a AhimJtcJ ^ono/* *tarv». 

a. Til* Aipmalan nl pjBWMlati etc m tlw ptit ef pnnauiu U iii«l« 
■Imutt cnttraty bjr ib« grnlilva mm, and not by a datlvfd poMMiIra ftd- 
JwUto (616). 

b. BsGcptional ewn Ilk* nagarnvjrft mArKO^ tie road to Ike city 
{H. U ehtmin it ParuX 7U7B 'batll dflta IpllU^ (MBb.) tu utttttugtf 
U •tAv'M / am iraMW, tie 0Tcul'/n«|]f mcl wlib. 

908. Tk« gmltl*!! la d«p«iidNil on mi •JJtriiTB: 

a. A ««>cttie1 pini'iTi) (Mtlti<« with • miicrUti)*, or MoitieT word 
ot dnllu ■ubstuiilril value: ibai, ^•((hadl Vlrfti^ftm Artt t-f Aivdm: 
TlrudhaA vlrjravatl (AV ) 0/ plattt U« nighty (m^Mti) mt. 

b. Very ^Iitn, hy ■ iruurcf or ili< piMcuiM) geniilve from nana to 
•4lMtt*e. tba tdjatdro btliig Irettvd m if Ii bad iMim-TilDe : iho*. taaya 

alt «t nnurttpa^ m aadf^att rttrmhUng him (1. f, Am /Ae); taaya 

IjiIt* '^'^ t« Am (Art dtor oao): taayA 'Tlditam unkt^wH U k!m (Am 

XunktuHCH lAtng); faaTj-of caraoolntlm (fiv.) to kfatriJict4t«hym»rt«U 

{their olgtei ttf utcrijice): ipalto Darananq&m (MBh.) duir«t of mm 

mud tcMn^n (Jhtir olf/tH of dfir*)\ jrnajra ka^a praaQta^ (H, ) tf 

vhMmattT hor* (hi* sm): baaUvjo 'ami na ts (HUb.) I am mt ttt 

\la tlaim of Arr; klm BrthiTiad] vofiooyitavTaia aatl (11.) rvAy AiitJ 

Ihtrt ht a Hrtwicitiff of wujtptianttl 

t. In p*Tl, by K coat I ruction tlmllu i« th*l «f T«ifri «Uck lab* ■ 
loaitlM objaci: thiu, abhij&ll r&Jadhann&Qam (R.) vnd«r*tandiug tS<> 
iidtir* of n king. 

887. The c*nHI«« M oVjMi of a *«t^ U: 

ft. A pti«M>a^c fcntiive of tliu NcipiaaL by prtfiitni toiiMructioa , 
«llb **Thi t{;niryin( pii'«, tmfort, ci/mmunieatt, ta'l (bn like ; Ibaa- varUI 
pnidSyft 'sjra (MBh ) hmiitg hMtaund ffifU ujxm Aim (matt* th*m hi* f>y 
hnteieai); HOfio oivadltam (II.) iV \fa» ma^ knotm (« (A« hiny (maite 
'kit hf knnxMfff); Tad aajaaya pratUfi*?* ptuiar ftnyaaja dljrat« 
(U.) (Aot o/tfT (tuny promittd /« »n# «Aa w gic^n to anolXtr, Tblt oon- 
Mruc'lon. by wblcb t)i« gcniilrc bReamN jiabititnie tor • daUro 01 lut*U*a, 
■b»un<l* In tbr laUr Uncuae*- ^'^^ I* •xtowl*'! mmoUui** to pr«Vleiiikllc 
ttd dirihult ca;M. 

b. A (In uoH «••«•, pi«b>t>lr) pirtlilra fonHlre. ■• • tta* CMDptMn 
M* abMlnu (ib]Mt tlian in aeitiuulTo: thuR, with vetbi me)iilng/iiu'(ai« 
itMiA, M«.), as p{ba BUtAaya (AV.) Jriitt (af) thtioma: aUdbva^ 
fajra (RT.) tmut tt> driitt th* §»ttt rfnaKjiWi — "ith veibi ni«aiilar 
'■■' ;h^ iMtik Impirt^d) «f., %t AiAAU. ni> atattaajra (RV.) kntou} 
.orfaiti'Jjr; — «llh torbi maanlnc 'V'tjl, ^ tati*fie4 01 JK/W 

aee— ] 

IV. DccLt»6toy. 


witA: u, m&My ^dhMol^ (RT.) Jo lAeu mjey the Juier; IJyMFa 
pararanti iS.) Oirj/ /lU teith hutUr; — wllh TOiba ineinliiK prrrtie*, n«<*. 
etm fvTi rtgard •1th rerUni; vf rarloui k!n<t»: *i. T&8iq(li)U5ra stDvatii 

{ndrO »^ot (B^) '"*« tUUntJ tl> FWmAUs wAo wyw praiiifuj Ai.rl; 

y&th& m&jna emirfit (W.) thirt h« may tMmA ff mT\ (Mya ookopa 
(MBIl) ib« ■■■it* «U£r>)' «' A"M- 

o. A i«nitivf) of moM doubtful fbancior, with verbs Dtnnli^K rif<r or 
hat* autlortty: tH, tv&m Igiaa viadnKm (RV.) ttau oH lord of ffc^ 
tUnyt; y&thft ti&m t^iOi vlrf^ftol (AV.) t/iat I atag ntl* over them; 
k«thfti)i mrtynh prabluvatE vedA^&atnividim (M.) A«to Ant (frofA 
power 9L'«i* tAdie ufio ^/i9ic (Aa I'edtu ami Ire-atiteit 

d. A ■eoltlie, tn«u«d of ui >blM(««, I* t^meciiiiM Ibond uMd «l(fc » 
verb uf recciiiki; of anj binJ (Ueatlii^ iiiclndcrd), Uid with one ot (tAiing: 
Aa*. yo rftjftkh priUigrlin&ti lubdhacy* (M.) u-JlooUFr accrpU a i/tft 
from a grttdy king-. ijn^U me (Mbb.) Uam fivm me\ blbhimaa tava 
(MDk.) H>* are tf/mid of lliet. 

M6. A (•nltiT^) in it* mub) pM^Mtlte smte l> otWn found m prndt- 
i!ftte, and not teldutu nl'b ibu '«pula ■imilt«d: tfaii», y&Bht 'so mfcoia 
kMrala^ fAT.) ttal (Ami atai/tH ko ulolfy ntiiw: «arTAt> auiipatt&yM 
taftja sadini^fadi yaeyn mitiMMD (H.) u// good Jortunm are Jiit irAo 
Aw a AanUnUtl itiinrf: — m DbJ«(tlve pre<li»tc-, btiaitufa putram Tii«- 
nanel (M.] M«y rMdynwc a ton m* tho /natuairt. 

S99> a- ^'■■i fi<:p<»ltiniiAl rninxniRiitfim of ihn ^< ntttii' (1 130) aie for 
ibc Bioit part viih tnch prntofltlonit u tro really noun-cun« and hive the 
goteram«iit of aach: tliui, agre, arthe, kfto, iii^ IhD Ilk«; alr» wtlh 
oibci prcp^uUlnual wotda vlilcb, In (fan general loocuntia nf ate of iha 
lMiiltlT«, 111"* boromn (kalmlUlail to UiMo. A fav man real pc«p«*lli«iu 
take iha grulti^'^: «ltbcr luualljr, like up&ri akopr, or ori»i1<mtltir. Uka 
adh&a, ant&r, 4U. 

b. A gonltlTa It oeeulonaJty nwd lu Iha older UngrxK" "lt)> m 
wtreib, eilhfz «r plice or of lime-, tliut, T&tra kvk oa kur^lk^otn&ara 
(^R.) invhatttnr part of XtinilaMra ; yilra til bbAmer j&yeta (MS.) 
«N vhiit »pot n/* nfH^ Ak may kt korti; lii^Im A^ni^)^ (I^^' ) •■' ''^<' 
Hmt of the riny; yimyH rittryAI? praUh (M8.) on AW <nnrn o/ irAdt 
n^Ati dvl^ aathvatanriMjra (K.^ fiin'«« a y«gr. Soeh oxprvtaion m (ko 
lit! OtKUr Utv Utcr. 

300. *• The tenlttve la very Ifltia aiei adrorlilallyi a (few genitivra 
of time oc«Dt In ihc oMor Untaa(«: a>, aktOB Ay ni^ht, TBStoa Ay tlay; 
and (bero »ro fonnd titer attch cues aa kAaya Olt kilaBya (V) a/''''' " 
certain limt: tattilp kOlaaya tnahata^ prayayftu (R.) (A«n <^n- « fai^ 
triN* Ac Ktnt /orl^. 

b. A feaitire, orlglnatly of paueraton, p*iain|| o^et Into oi^« of (tatral 
nuceniiniinl, romM In ibo (iter Ur|iiBf4 {the conalmtdon It unknovn 
•arllev) (o be need abaolalely, *it1i an afrevlaf participle, or lelle nrolT 


USRS OP TUX Locative. 

[— aoa 

an adjective. Fern such <aav» ur ili« roUomlng — pafysto btikamOrkha- 
■ya HAkfiUir bbak^itAt^ auUib (H.) of a« /ootiiA k«r<m. iDhOe ht 
lm>k*d on, tite y>urijr v:rrt tatrn Ay Uf iplinettinont, 01 (ato *r(lb&riltr&^ 
k«tb&1^ kcttliajralo mamk (K55.| An^ my nigfU tcai yautd in Mting 
ttoriet, or k&rtavyasyft kanivat>>l> kniptvm ak riy amtpaaya kUo^ 
plb«tl Utdnuun I IIJ "J a ii-'ofli necdimj ta lie done bat k/t tutdnar tiiiK 
qviokiji drink* up •*<• aMtriM — (um* into carMfiejr, by liirt^Ming lBii«pou- 
d«iK« of 111* e^ultlTe, tncb othat cum ■*; divadi Ja^oia munlaftiii 
pa<;yat&iti Mda (U. ) Ka wi'nl Utm to h^ai'tn, 0t» ateeliti looking an ; srsib 
IftlmpatBA tKsya devadataa tidA tihyvtyA vAkyuu UiA (VlBb.) iw Ai- 
thifji iamffiUd, a dirine mftmnifi'r entaing aiidrtntd himi Iti TlidiiiK wli 
*Bj« dbanur Avavfte vuiftt (lUgU.) tchih lit fhut^poke, the tow tttnwjran 
tif Jornt. Tbfl gmiclir itl»j)i liidicitu i lldni tctor, utd ibo ptnldple li 
utiinll} one of >«cin|; or lifirliij ot iiiuHng, Mp^nUlly tlte funner. Tbo coa- 
(tTiirtlonliMid b]-ihc Hindu ('•'"■■>•' )*ob to conYDy (n luipllMtloti «( diMcgtid 
«T deapltoi and tuch U oftwi to ba roeotitlMd In It, thoush not ppfvalltngly, 

801. Uses of tho Locative. «. Th« liUAtive is prDpcrly the 
w^MO. tliv cue «xpr«RftSo£ iliu&tioa or l«>i;at-ioD; Irut fu avbeio of 
DM bu )ifl«B HnnsvbBt oxt4)U4]ed, 10 aH lu touch wid ovoriap tli« 
bouadartM of other caim, for whlob it »eoiiiB to be * subalUUe. 

b. va-riHtioin of (lie eevM of in are tbose of amid 
or am«n^< oh. and at. Oi courte, ttlvo, situation in timo ai n«\i as 
plMM Is fndtMted by tho cmxe; and it is applied to jret Iocs phyBicai 
relalioaa, to tplieru of notruii nud feeling au'l kuu^vleil^e. tu iititte of 
lUsga, to McoiDpanying oirciiDiBiaDOe; and out of tliii last j^iovo tbi> 
freqnont iii<i of thci tocsiiTo as iko on*o abNOIute. 

0. lloreovsr. by a pregnant oonslTuatioii. the iooatlTe i« med 
rduiKtte tbo plac« of rest or MMfilion of Mtion or motion [itito or 
~M ta JD&taad of u or on; fierinRo in vitb aocuntive Instoad of dative, 
coinparo En(liali thtrc for tiiiit*i-). 

SOS. a. The looMlvt of akuBlloD !■ )pa«o htrdlf nead) Dloittalioit, 
An waapla ot too am: si devi dtvi sthA (AT.) kAmA o/ywii ^erf> 
orw M haavm: na davofu dm ynkfcfa tAdfk (MBh.) not »ma»f godt 
•r Yaktha* ia tvefi a vnr; pirvatanya pr^^M (KV.) on M< ridj/t f/thc 
mcuntmn: vJdAtho aantu devnh L"^ .) "'"^ '^< 9'^ ^' ■>! U« MitoAh/; 
dafamo pade (MKk.t ol rA« twth ttef. 

b. Tka toeatire of tlm* iadiutai iW poUl of tlma *l wbjcli anydiln^ 
UkM plata: Ibai, MyA o^&ao vy^tAu (RV.) ol (A« tAint'nf fvrth nf 
ihiiimen: eUamlnn ova kUs (MRb.) «<yuj4 (An/ fi'm*: dvsdai;* vftrfe 

(Ultb.) lA (A* (U14//IA ycer, Tlial tt>« ar«U««li*<' I* Ofcaalciially um4 In 

tkU lOnaa, Inilead ot iba loeallva, «u polritad out tbivc (S78o), 

C. "nta foraoii wtlli wbon, Inatuad ot tbo plaw at wklch, ona U ut 
rNoatat ia pat ia th« locatWa: thai, t(|tbaBtj aamin poQ&Ta^ (MS.] 
aniamU (Aiji iriXJt kim; gtirAu vasan (M.) /tViiiy at a U«Ali«r'(; and, 
PMgBtatl]!, tAvM tvajl bb&vifyAiai (UBh.) io iojip «fr// / eUm* to Au. 

308— t 

IV. Declbk&iox. 


303. The Iwalln or ipheN or ronilttloii at dtODnuurce li of tcf 
rniai-nl lun: Uiiik. mide Ahim Indro JaghAna (KV.) m /Wy /»Jra ■/nc 
HAf tiragan; inlirAi>ya HumatA'^ ByAma (ItV.) may ice A« rn tltt Jat^r 
»/ M'tra; t» VKOsne rKt«m (MBIi ) Jtiit/hUi in Ikf iCorJt. 

«, Tkii coiitlinrtU'n i«, on (h« one hand, K^vnlited tttu an eipiM*] 
•ton tat I'lt rAf ■•uiKei' ot (om «/*, «i iriU r«f«re»«* to, r^retiag, and 
UlM iu Uin bt«r Unmice a inj irtil« ntitu. loudilnc upon t«niUire and 
ilallMt rontini'iloim- thui, A *mjt>ii bliaj* gritoio Afveau gifu (AV.) J^ 
^Kraia li htm in retainerg, I'n hortrt, in ciUh; tJkin (t aakhitvA Imabft 
(RV. I Aim itf« krg fur friMidiMp: upJLjro 'y«b ina.yA ilnt* ftnajTAR* j 
tava l.MBIi.) (Ai* iri«i»J ffU Jtvittd fry mt fur (iri'tA re/ertnce (a) brittying 
Hitf ititJtcf ; latltTO kira^ih atriylUi(tl.) tt«Mu« «/(■<■ tJt«cau«/) 
a tromtm't t^itrtily-, n» ^nkto 'bhavaa nlvSra^e (MBIi.') A« i^oa na( 
MpdUc e-/ prtv«iiting. 

b> Oh (bo uihoT baud, Uio cipivMton iy tli« lorttiva iT • («i>diilon oFj 
iblng* in wbfrb aiiytbiot Uhea pltfi', or of a Mndlthnlng 6t actDtnpanylng'^ 
ctt«Dm8Unr«, pttaes vt«t Inio a vTi>1l-fiiiiiki'd ■biulutiM-oiitt ruction, which la 
kiioim »^en In tba ctfUeat tUge or t)ia langnagc, but l)0Mmot mnrc rraqni-'rii 
laUr Tr«Mltl«iul oiatnplM ira: hAve tvft ftdra 6dlt« hiva mft- 
dbr&lhdine dlvA^ (RV) / oo'I 'o Mm irf rA« arum tun (trA«n &t tun 
hat nam), / tali at mi^imm <•/ iht Jay; apuftdlw k|te 'pi ca na ma 
iLOpft^ iMDIi.) oni/ «rcu Ml eat* of an ofiaet ctnnniiVW, Ihtn it no 
on^ai* on my jvarf. 

0> TtiL* nnmial cuniiltioii of tits abaolui* tonitriiccioi) it «lib a paili> 
dpi* KCcuaipanijDg tliu uutiui tLu*. BtlT^i bartiifi aamidh&ne agaft^ 
(liV.) tcAtit t&t barhfs wr ttretcn and liejln kindltd; kSIo ;ubhe prlpte 
(UB'^.) It propiii'/iu tiim having arrivid, avoaiuiE Ijr&ih ritrSr a«tt«als^j 
oa^ATAlambtnl oaadramMi (ii J (A« night havtH^ drawn la a ciMt, 
and tht moon r.iimg Aa tht tummil of the tcrtltm mountain. 

d. Ilul ibe noui) nay be wanting, oi Diay be replaced b; aa adrcitlal 
Mibaiituto (a* OTatQ. tathft. Itl): Uiua, rarfatl rM«N U raiiiti [aQi7«] 
a«tamit« ^/t*r nnttt; i^tyimr* dtgyamtaa (S.) uhiU tA*rt it tttn 

[«ofn(> pari] af thr tun; it; ardhokta (I,' ) teilk thtte leaidt half uitfrrd: 
aamAbbl^ aamaaujaftte (JIBb.] itMng fvU</ atttnl/ni I't fry ut; cvam 
Uktc kalioA (MBh.) it being IAm tpoktnhy Kaii; tatha "nu^tlUte LH-J 
it titiitff Ihut acffomplithtd. S<i UIiavUc the ^''^'^P'" ""T '"' sauting (aj 
i-opula BaU ut till) like hartog u bu (applied) : thn*. dOra bhaye 'Aa mm*' 
nf faar b*ing rtmoU; while, en tbe otbcr bind, tbu parllclpic aati '■If. la 
MiDAtiiiiaa redundamlT added (o tho otliK partlclpW : (hiu, tatJU kfte latl 
it htiug th^t ifwaa. 

e. Tba)oull*« It tmnwiA'.j nati adTarbially «r pt«'po«ltl(inaltT(1116): 
tliot, -artli« or -krt« in At ntatltr of, far (A« »oi» a/; ape in front ^ 
«J\ (18 mOttml; sMiiipa ntat, 

304. Tin ptognini roititnitllaii by «hl«li the lociUve eomea to ex> 
ptoia the |oa1 or abjeot of motion «r action at fcrllog cxenlaod la net 




iuie«nuii«n from Ikc niliot titno. li la by no ni*iiu U )m *b»ipty Urtlu- 
l«liheil from Uie anlliurr ccmilrueUan; tbi two pi« Into on< aDoUutr, with 
a 4«ab(/a) Utittoij between. Ic oonan: 

au Gfpi>o!U)y wlili leibi, a* or arrlvtnf, ttiiiitg, pbdiig, eodmul- 
(Mlug, bMlowUig, *n<) aanf otbcn, In ■ilaitlonn Kliun kit *«euu(iT« ar 
■ dfttlfB CoF ■ KODlilvH, 29T a) mlgbt be icuk^a (ut. irnl eifhaiigoBtilo with 
thctn: thiu, bA id dev^su g«cch*tl (RV'.^ tAn^. trnig, gai* to (ia f*» amtng) 
the gadi; ImAifa ao yiOA&m Biatt«9u db«lil (KV.) tet thu ogaiHtf ^ 
owra amouff Ou ImmoriaU; yk &«iflc&oti r&Bum ofwUtifa (-^^O "^ 
f<mt in the j'uiee into (Ar pfanta (or, tJn juift that it lit tA< planfs) ; mi 
pr&7aoeb« "fviuM dhanam (U.) ■'^ '■"' "Jf^"" '^*olVi to a lord; p&pAta 
DUdlnyKm (Ufib.) Ae /eil to [to at to bi upon! (Ac tartfi; slciUMUlfl 
kftTft (U.) ptMiitg on tit thoutdet', BOitifrulTa purrom asmOsu (MBh.) 
Auri'nj htfort promittd at. 

b. Often klaa with noDoi >di1 ailjcriiici in timllu contlriicllon* (llie 
ini^unta* not ilwiy* omj to tcparst* from Uio«o of tlic loettlva meuiliij 
■TtYA rtfvtae^ Ut: iibav<>, 308a): (hoc, dB7& BarvabhOto^D f«mptutiim 
loienrd aU er4»ture9; anurttgub nSl^adbo t^MHIi.) affetiion far th» 
yii^aOm; MUi umyaa vfttah sadl tvajrl (M Hh] Iht king Aw dto^* 
Map^ proftrly toward tJiee- 

S06. T)i« pcapMliioiu contiTDod wiib (he l«»Uie (11S0) iluid to It 
Diiif 111 thv idiUoa ot advorbtU dcmcuU itTcnRllioiiInc «»4 dli*M% tU 

906. Declensional fotms are made by the addittun of 
«ndiui^ to the stem, or base of iaflenion. 

ft. Tlie stem iuelf, however, in many words and cIimm 
of wotde, is lialilc to varifttion^ especially assuming a stioo^r 
form in tome case* and a weaker in others. 

b. And ketwvoii stem and ending ate sometimes inserted 
connecting ulomvnta (or whftl, ia the recorded condition of 
the laaguftge, have the aspect of being «uch). 

0. It««roetfnR mil ibM* puliiu. ilir JntftlU of uratmeni, u eihibllod 
by uacb Utti of wonto ot bjr iloclo worltt, will be girw In tbe hllswtus 
chorion. Una, httHvior, it 1* dMinbl* sUo lo preiettt A brief inncnl tIow 
<f tk«a, 

807, GndlagB: SlD^ular. a. In tho BomiDatWf, tbo osoal 
nuBO and fen-eodiBf is ■ — vhich, however, is weiiUiik in dotivative 
A aad I'Btcms; It Is al»o euphooieally lost tl60i by consonanl-aloms. 
NOBters in ^nnral havo no ondiog. but »bow la this csm (be bare 
■teiD; a-BtemB alone add m (as in the aecaH. maae.). Among tho 
proBOunt, am Ib a frec|upnt masr. HDd fcm. nnui. endtoS (and >s foBUfl 
even in du, aod pi. i ; and n«Hli:t» ah«w a Tonn in d. 




b. In the accusottvo. m or am ii the masc. and feni. Piidins 
— tun being ailcl«d sfinr a oonitimnnl nnd f, atnl nftur i and fl in th« 
mdical du'iaion, and m elsewhere after vowroh. Tbu Bvnier lociisittiire 
l» llk« the nun i Dative. 

a. The instruraeiital ending (or »11 ^iideri alike is A. Witb 
final i- itud u-vowclii, the & m variously' combined, and in tUe older 
laaguimt) it is aouutiniLfe tust by contracttUD witli ttioto. .Stcinv Id a 
inako Ui« vhao end iu «aa (HoiucrimeB ent Id V.), and those in R niiike 
it end in »yi: but iusMnce* occur, En ihe early language, of iiiiuediac« 
additlou of t tu both a uud &- 

d. Vbo datire ending Is in goa«ral o; and wilb it likuwi«o the 
luodtu uf coiublDStlou of i and u dual aru varloua [aud diMppeatance 
bf eoatrsGtiOQ not unknown in the oldest langniiee]. The R-Rtems 
arc i|uit« irregular in tbis case, making H end in Sya — oxc«pted is 
the pmnomlnai olemeot-ima, which oinblnes (apparently) with a to 
HUQftl. In Clio poisonul pronouns le fouud bhjrom \at h;akiaj. 

e. A fuller coding &i (like gen.-abi- k» aiiil l»c. iia: aoo below; 
iMtWfl to feminine iienia oaly. It is taken (wttta interposed y| by 
(he icroat olsas of those in derivative B: also by thoxo in derivative i, 
and ias reckoned In (be later l»Dgnas«J in derivative a. And later 
it U allowed to be tak«ii by rouiiniDO stems in radical i and B. and 
oven by those in l and u: these laat have it iu the earliest language 
In only exeopttooal instances. For the sobstitntlon of U for »bl.-;»ii. 
t», soo belov, b. 

£ The al>lative has a apeclal ending, d (ortj, ool^ lo a-stems, 
maso- an>l neiit., Ike a bdn^ longtlicncd bufuro it [weept !o the per- 
non^l pr>iuontis of let ajid 3d persoQ. whu-h hare the same endiDK 
at lo the ji)., and even, ia the old lani;tiii«:ei in the dual;. Krerywbere 
else, the ablative ie idetttioal vrith tbe genitive. 

0. Th« geutlive of o-atetas (and of uno pronuminn] u-iteui, 
•mu] addii e^a. Elsewhere, the nnual Rb1.-f;en. ending is a«; lint it» 
irrejTularliivii of treatment in eombinalion with s sienfliiul arn con- 
siderable. Wtlh I and u, it Is eiiber dirMiJy added [only iu ihc uld 
language., added Mith interposed n, ui' fused lo ea aud ob ctsapect- 
ively- With x ior ar) it yields ux tor us: 108 bj- 

h. The fuller to is taken by feinlotne elema precisely as &i it 
ukeu ia the dative: sec aboTe. But in the laogaago oi tho Br*b- 
taa^as and Sutms. the datlTO-ending U U regularly and coniDiwIy used 
iuatead of to, both of ablative and of genlllk-e. Sec S6&d. 

i. The locative eoding U 1 to ooasonaal- and f- and a-stama 
Iftiftng with a to e in thi^ laitvr . Thu !• and u<altiais [unless the 
flaal Tovrel in savod by aa hilininiii ■! iMrilJilfclllti e(>d In iu: 
Imt the Veda baa some 
and av-il out of. 




tram l-iUtat usd ftl»o in ft and L Thi» {>ninomiDal «l«Bieni -sms 
makes llie locsiivu -unln. Slemt ia an En ibc uldcr lRiifamK« orMD 
loM llie L and use Uio buro ■i«iii im locktire. 

J. The cndiDf im ii tho loouHre eortiMpoudciit tu dst. U ind 
■bL-pen. As, knd U caken tiader the eame eircauiaiaBC«s: see above. 

k. Tbe vocarlTo ;iuiieas by accfitkl: 314} U distin^Ubcd from 
(lis MniiDaiive only in the singular, and not quite always tUere. In 
«-«t«uB. It U tWuBatlercd ttera, &nil &o aIm In moat conwnaot-atemi : 
tpot u«Bter8 ia an and in any drop tbe u. and tfae oldwt lBagua(« 
fans ft<^<inctimea t vocativo in s from ittvta in nt and Aa. Sumi in r 
change Iliia to mr. In mate, and ftiu. i- and n-si«u)i, the caK «ndti 
TU|MOtivcly ia a and o; In nuiitflre, in the laine or in 1 and u. Stonia 
ia B chaii|;e & to a: derivatlvo i nnd a are shurteaed; radical •tctna 
ia long vowaIs ubo tho DOmiDativo form. 

306. Dual- a- Th« dual baa — exeopt ao far a> tbe voeative 
ia tomulitncB diBlinirutahMl from DuminatiTC and accuaatlvo by a dif- 
f«reiu» of aCMSt: 314~onl>- throo ca«o-forma: ouo for now., aocua.. 
aad roc.; uu« for intLr., dai.. and sbl, ; and oue for geu. and loc- 

b. But the pionouns of let and 3d person in tbe older laogua^ 
di>llDj;nish Kre dual eaaea: US9 49S b. 

c. Tba iiui<:- and fi'io. cndinx I'or iiuiii -8ccua.-roo. Is In llin 
lator laaptage oaunlly la; but Inatead of this the VMa liu pre- 
vailiDgly &. StciDB lu a miikr the case end in e. Stems in I and a, 
nuMe. and feni., lengthen thuau vowels; and dbrivatifti I is the Veda 
reualnj regalarly imuliangod, though laU-r it adds tu. Tho noutor 
«ading ii only t; with finil a thin oomblnM to a. 

d. The unlvonal <>udiiig lor the lDitr.-dat.-thl. U bhy&u. 
Iiefora which final a is mnda long. In the Teda, It la oft«n to (m 
read a* two iyllaltlei, bhluo. 

e. Tfae unlverRal ending of gen.-loo. la m; before ttila, a and 
i allku liecoise a lai}. 

806. riaral. a. In tho nomioatlvc, the goneral muculbc 
and feminine ending Is aa. Tbe old laoffaagv, hnvcivcr. often makvi 
the eate to aaaa ioalnnd of M fn>m a-:>(rinM, nod In » -few exampica 
atao from a-atems. I'Vom derivative I'Stonia, Is ioateid of yaa Is thu 
regular ami uaaal Vcdic furiD. rroDOtninal a-sloina niilce the maae. 
DDOii. in «. 

b. Tho iwater endiDg- iirhi«U ia aooatatire alMl f* !■> general i i 
aud before tliia the (i&al of a stem Is apt to b« »trenglh«ked, bj- 
irroluii);atto& of a vov»l, or by iatertion of a naaal, ur by both. But 
in tbo Veda the benoa recultiog forma in tnl, Ini. Oni arv fr«4uerntly 
aUreviatftd hy loan of th<; nl, and iioinetiiueo by farther ahortentsg 
ediog vowel 




c The scrunatfre ending ia alao as la coosotiant-sloiaE aod 
In the radical divisJOD of I- and u-st«iiis find in ttic old lanevage 
even clBewbere). St^ms in sboft towcIr longihcn those vowcU and 
add in the miMCnllnft n (for tiM. «f which abundADt tiaces Temiloi. 
Md In the femltdoQ e. Id tbe neuter, thiscasv is iik« the numinaiivr. 

d. Id the in* tru mental, tho CHi>c-«ndinK ia «veT>-nlicr» bble 
Moept In ft-etemB, where la tbe later laoguago the can Hlwayii end* 
fn «■, bat in thft earlier cither in Ua or the more rcgalar ebhls 
ilbttls la tfa« two pereonal pronouni; and the pronominal vlcin a '601] 
uiftkefi «blila only}. 

e. The dailTe and ablativo hurc in the plural tbo Mmo rono, 
with the ending bhras [in Veda often bhiasi, before which only a 
)■ alt«rcd, becoming •- But tho Mo ponioiul pronoun* diatin^inh 
the two cuei. haviog for the ablaltve the singular ending [as above 
point<!d out), and for tho dativi.' the peculiar btafam (almoat never Id 
Veda bblam). which they extend also into the singular. 

f. Of tbc genitivo, tho nnivcrtnl cniJiug ia am; wbtoh |exc«pt 
optlooally a^ei radical I and tt, and In a few scattering Vedlc In- 
ataace«I taken aftor finnl vowels an inaerted eooRonant, a in ttio |iro- 
aomiaal declension, d elsewhere; before n, a ahori vowel \a lengtb- 
ened: befurtt b, a beeomea a. In the Votla, it la freqntiatlj* to be 
proaoimocd In two syllabloe, as a-am 

K. The locative ending it au, without any exceptiona, and the 
only chaogc biiforo It is that of a to e. 

b. The Toi^allve. aa In tbe dual, differs from the norolnativo 
only by its accent- 

SIO. The normiil achemc of eodingfl, as leeognized by 

the nxtivc grammariaDa [nod ooQTcnientI)' to be assumed as 

the basis of special descnptions), is tlits: 




n. t D. 

IS. t a. 

m. r. a. 


e — 

an I 

as 1 


am — 

«U I 

as I 





















a. It is taken In bulk by the oanaonantal stems aod by tho rad- 
ical division of I- and Q-stems; by ocher vowel-sinus, wltb more or 
less coaiiderable rariations and modi tic Ations. The endings which 
have almost or quite unbroken i»agc, ibrougb stems of all vlaases, 
are btixftm and o« of tbo dual, and blUa. bbyaa. &m, and an of tho 


Stroxo axv Wkak Stem. 


811. Variation of Stem. a. By fat tlie most im- 
poitant mattei under this head is the distinction made in 
Urge clnsses of words (ohiefly those ending in coasonnnU) 
betneen strong and weak stem-forms — a diBtinotion stand- 
ing in evident connection with the phenomena of Rc«eat. 
In (he Dotn. nnd kceiifl. siog. atod du. and the nom. pi, 
,lhe five ea*c8 whose endings aie never accented: 316 a), 
the stem often has a stronger or fuller form than in the 
rc«t: thiu, for example (404), ^slTTT r&i&n-ani, ^tTRt rftiKn- 
So, {1UHM rioBn-as, against 'jniT rSjfi-IL and 7T1TMII rfija- 
bhis; or {4BOb| tTTTR mahSnt-am and (447) *l-JrW adAat- 
am against M-JH' uahat-S and U-iHI adat-fi. These 6ve, 
therefore, are called the caseA with strong stem, or, hiiefl]', 
the strong cases; and the rest ate oalleil the cases with 
weak stem, ox the weak cases. And the weak eases, 
ogain, are in some classes of words to be distinguished into 
cases of iveakeet stem, or weakest cases, and cases of 
middle stein, ot middle cases: the formet having endings 
beginning with a vowel (insu., dat., abl.-geo., and loc. sing.; 
gen.-loc. du.; aco. and gen. pl.i; the latter, with a coneonant 
(inslr.-dat.-abl. du.; instr., dAt.-BbI., and loc. pi.}. 

b. The class of strong case*, as above defined, belongs 
onlf to masculine nnd fcminitie stems. In neuter inflection, 
the only strong cases arc the nom.-aee. pi; while, in those 
stems that make a dtttinclion of weakest nnd middle form, 
the nom. -ace. du. belongs to the weakest class, and the nom.- 
acc. sing, to the middle: thus, for example, compflro [408] 
5fr'jry pratyuflo-j, nom.-acc. pi. neut., and tRTrail praty- 
ifio-as, nom. pi. masc.; TrO^ pratlc-i, nom.-acc. du. neut., 
and ^r[H!-l pr«Ho-os, gen.-loc, da.; ^IfW^ pratTik, oom.- 
acc. sing, neut., and Hr'jfi'W pratyag-bbie, instr. pi. 

SIS. Oilier ctriiliMis Mnovrn chielly iko Bml tetml of ■ tlrm, »ni 
OH) h» iDiinlj itti to b« faliil«d oot In ilMall be1o«> Of coaiMfaanc* 




MMUih l<i Btekiion liure U Onlj Ibo ruQA-itrcngthsnliif of > lliul 1 ur u, 
wbiek In (ka \ttct Ungo^se U *lwiy> inido bpfor« u» of iiom. {''• utJ • 
*r iliLalaf. lit ni&M. and ftm.: tri Uic Veda, It dpci iiul tlwayi ukc plau; 
aot li (t foTbliMtD in dat. flnn. umii. alia^ an4 it i> *ccn tomdiinta In 
loc. lUg. Final ( haa gai^-aUenglheuIng In loo, alng. 

819. Inaarilon* between 3i«iii and Rndlnif. Vttr vo'cl-aiamt, 
■A addad D aftan nakM Ita appfrirancL> liBrort' id t'tidlnp. Tbo app«iidag* 
U of leaat <|iiaallonaUa oilgin In nora.-tc'^, pL noiil., whcrr (ho !iil«irh*n|:a 
In tho oH Untnafa of Iha fonui of a- aud l-tiema with ibwe «f an- and 
llL-it*nii It ptaity complolc; >nd tho U-dcmt follow ibstt tnilogy, Klat- 
nbun. It U UMt wlilnly iiid flimly ciiablUbed In tliu seu. pi., wbnt; (n 
lh« ^aal maM of caaaa, and from ika MrHcit pariod, tbe anMnt la rlnu> 
allr nkni aflM a mv^l. In Ids !• and u-at'.'tnt of Ibc Utoi Uogui^e, Utn 
lualr (Inc. of iD*tn. uid ncui. U aepttttcd by its preaniioa ^oi tba (em., 
and It ii Iti Iba dOit wraktat t:a»L'a mada a uiual dlailiKUan of uuuiat formn 
flam iiiucultAa: bai tb:^ aip^ul «f the malttr In lh« Veda If v<ry dilfaraiii^ 
Uian Iko appvarance gl ibe U U UT«riwh(r« tpcndic; tEtv ncni^r ibowa no 
■pacUl inetlnatlbti la lake It, «ni It li not eielndcd «v«a ftoia tba r«sil- 
lilna, la Ibo vndtnj aom (lom a-ateaii [later lararia>1«, eaiUnr prtdoml- 
luiliii) Iti piMoiiaa (pp«ara to Itave v«:ked tba mux ootitldafaMe ttaiia- 
formation of otlf|lnU nhapc. 

n. Ttiu pU» ot D bafora gtia. pi. im ia lakeo by s In pronominal 
B- aud •-tiein*. 

b> 1'l>a f after A bafoto ibe audllif* di, ftn, and Bm la aaM piolabty 
an InMrtlon. inoli a« la made alMwkura (SOS). 

Aocont in Declension. 

014. ft. Aa a ral« witbout nxeoption, tbo vttcatiro, if accouted 
III nil, U arccbtod on tli« lirsl sylUble. 

b. And Id thaTodalibn cmc li a rare one}, wb^never a syllabte nrilloii 
at ma la la ba pronouacrd ■* loo by reiiorallon of & aomlvnvol to vi)w«i| 
liHH, Ibo lUM alnuiuiil outf hu tho V4c*tlic att«ut, and iba ayllable na 
wHIIvii la «lr«iiaia*L (83-4): ibua. drftilt (I. t. dltiu) vtfasn diuylhble, 
Uul dyAVia wban monaay liable; Jy&lt* wbon fot j(ak«. 

o. Itat (lio vofttllvo la ac«enle4 ouljr wbon it aUnds nl tta be- 
glilkliK of n BCiiletice — ur, in verte, at tlic lejcfuninf iilsu of a 
iiinlrUtal illviaiuu ur pida; «laewhvrc it ia hccIhIIon orencttlic: thua, 
A«na jriih y^A&ih parlbbAr Aal ',RV.] O Agnil irJ>at«v*r offertnif 
Umu praltUtt; btit Ap« tvi 'Cna i 'auiti (KV.) ftnU tkt», Jfni, u« 

di A *onl| ar nwra iban ana word, quallfflng a tacallva — naually 
an ailjaill** or apyatltin noun, tiai lometlmea a dapmdsnt noun In the 
f'MiHta 1*air taialf In anv oiliat ea«a) — aonatHnMa, ao lat as accent la 



[— 9l« 

c*nfem»d, • unity otlb tba voMtl*«: ibu* (all i)u eunplw from RV-), 
*i tha bcgliiiilng of t pAdK, «ttb nnt lylUbls of tbe eombinntton acconud, 
(ndr* brAta^ O brotlter Indra! r^ftn scms O Xi'ny Soma!^\ba> 
data mwf yimfA/u/ mtMengtr! bdtor yavi^tha iukrato iiiuoii/ yauthful 
tiilkd offerer! Arjo napftt eahaavan tnigAly ion of ttrtnijih! — In the 
Interior or a p&du. wUhouc ^rcni.t, somftaa Indra glrva^ah ihm samat, 
O ionf-l«i'iiifi ludra! tiv aqvlni bhadrnhantfi. eupa^I y«-. O A^einn 
of propUi<m9 and lieauli/ut hands! L rAjftnft maha ftMym gopa hiti>er, 
y« ftcw hmgly ffuardiana of f/reat order! 

e. Oil (he Dibrr IiahiI, t«n tir more InilrpDnilonl or ooSrJIniiie vocotlvM 
•t the beslnii<iiK of a pnda arv T«ituliTlr and osuilly both ■d«ciiic4; tbac, 
pltftr mitafa O father! O mcihtr! Acaa fndrn virui^n mitra d6vii|^ 
Afpii! Indra! y'aruua! Milrti.' ffod*! ffttftinute ^■ataJcrato (Ann e/ 
a hundred aida! uf n hmrkdnd arU! v^aia^ha ^okra didlva^ pSyaka 
(fit, kriff^t, «Ai'iiiM<7. fUantin^ «n*! Arjo napad bbiidntfooe mm of 
tlrtn^K propiliinaU/ brigkt ont! But itae \f%U ottri odulona] Iti^pilar 
eicopllons bath tn thu aigd to (ho p»enilliiK raU. 

f. V«t bTPiitr, the loctdio tlutl aud plural wtU be gtrcn la iha pu- 
ailttnif b.'Inv tloni with Ihn nomloailvo, wltboiit taktni iko Iniubia t» 
ipedf]' 111 each InttiiiM ibal, 1( tb« latlcT be aiK«iil«(] alxwheM ttun va 
\hM at»i iTllabU, th« Lcctiit or tha vocufvo ii dUtBraut. 

816. As ro^urda llie uttier cusea, nika for dnngo of ftOC«nt ui 
deHeneioD iiave to <Io ooly with mono sy II Abies and wftli stoma of 
niurv itian one syllable vrhicli sre Hcccnleduu llic Biial; fur, if a stem 
ho aco«nted on the pi-Dult, or anyoihir sjlUblo further buck — as 
ie i&rpaDt, vari, bliAgBvaat, flumAnaa, aahiBravl^a — tbe accunt 
rcniulDs upon Ihsl syllBblo thrutigh the whole intlectloD (cxcppt in ih« 
Tocativo, AH ux))iainC(l in tlie precudinjf pnriLgnpIij, 

a. Tho onlir eicvpitlona »« a few numeral ttonu: oM 483. 

316. Stems xcconted on ibo &ual (iacludin; nionusyllablesi are 
nbjoct to vnrinticn of accent lo dedooaion chivHy in virtue of tliO 
fact that soiDO of ihu uudinKS bave, while olhera L&ts noi, or hsTe 
in leiia ilei^ep. a teatieocy thomsolves to take cho accent Thus: 

a, I'hv ending* oi ih« BftmiuativB aud accuHlire aluguUi aiiJ dual 
aud of lit* n«niii»tlTa plu»1 (thai l> In nay, of Iki- atialtf r^lec 811) bti* 

jao l«ii<i«u<;Y tq uka tko acwnt away ftoin the *l«in, and ar« (livr^forv udIt 
QcentMl when a fliial vo«el of lh« oUu and tb« voitfl of tho unding are 
loaded togethui Into a alnflc vob*) ct dlpbtlong. Tbaa, from dalt^oome 

attsu i;=dattA + iiul and datUs (=dBttA + ui): bni nom oadf eome 
ladrftu (= nadi -t- ftu) »tid nadyiM (=n*di4-aa'). 

b. A.II thn ntb«r anilliisi MBOUaiai lake th« aoceut: btit thou beglnndift 
vllh a lowtl (I, V. <'! tbo weakoit caaoa: SI 1) do to tnoiH readllx tlian 
ihoM beginning wltb a umionant (I. t. of the nitddlo cam: 811). Tha«, 
riom TLiiiA cuinii nftvi inA QAubhia; titm iDali4at, Iio««vEr, com* 
muhatii hat mah&dbbis. 




Tbo Kenenl ruin of scoeni, llii>n, may bo tbu Stated: 
317. In the declensloQ of moooe^lUbic sterna, the Accent fall* 
upon t)i9 potllnx 1b ■!! tli« WMkk citsei iwtOiont disductioD of tniditle 
ao'l w«ukcst]: tliuft. nftvt, ninbhytm, titvim, aiUfA; vftcl, TftcbbU, 

a. Rut *ame mnnoRflUM* iUmt Main llii; ac-;«nt Ihrc^nghDut: tliui, 
B^bbi*, givftm, g6fu. I'oi >ueh ctus, toe bolov, 360. 361 0, d, 37S, 
$60, 4S7. Anl 111 lb* Aft., pi. (U* turn U «von orten«r mcctt3t«d tbao 
Ihu eiitliiig, fonii! wotfls *ha admltllnK HlheT ■ocantUBtlvn. 

316. Of polysflUbic Bleins «Dd!aK lu oonsoDaats, only a few shift 
U» itocent to lb« ending, «od thst in tli« woakoat [not tho middlo] 
esMa. Such nr«: 

n. fictniit p*rtlolplM !'• Ant or hi thni, Iron tuil&nt, tudatlt *Btl 
tudtitoB in<l tudatlbiii but tud&dbhyftin ftnd tiid&taU' 

b. A fan ulJfctlvM b><tn| lh# total or tiieb ptMlci^lot, m mabat^ 

0. sit:tu» of wbkli ibo icoontoU Unl loiei lU arlUbk tbtraier by 
tync .f iiii.n ct ih-> vowel: ibu*, mojj&it, mctfdhiie, dAmniLB (froiu majJAn 
«t4.: 133). 

d. 0(h«r (potidlc <Mci iKll bo tiotlond aador tin dlRnniil doclentl»n«. 

0. (Uie-r<»TiM umI •dverbUlly ■ometimei »hoT i ehAR^ftd iirtont: 
■eo 11 10 IT. 

819. Of polysyllkbic atoms ondtnjr la aocoated fthort vowela 
tfa6 final nf the stem reUins the Kccont if it retains Its sylinbio 
Identity: ihus, datt«na mid dattoya from datti; aguIoA and aaroAy* 
from asol; luiii also dattibbyas, agaibbis, nod bo on. OtlierirlM, 
tbe accent ia on the oti>linj;: sixl tbnt, icheihrtr Iho final Rmlllio end- 
ing are combtaed laCo one, as In dattftia, dtaenRii, acaiii, dbands, 
and ae oa: or whath«r tbe flmil is chanftod into a semivowel before 
th« ending: liius, dtiCDTa. pitra, Jamyoa, bfthvos, etc, 

a. Rn[ Km of llio gm. pi tiuni »toiii> In { ami <d siiI f niay, *nd lii 
Ihc olrlet UiiBiugn tW«xii dues, tiLv ibu accuiit, iHoii|li k.pitttcil by □ ttvat 
Um tiom: tbni, asnlnibsi, dhen^nnm. pitfnim. In RV., at«n detiTttiTO 
i-ittm* ihow utnall} tliu laiii* ibiri: (bus, bahvlnAm, Of tirmt Iti i.. 
«i1y nnmeniU (483 a] folluw Ibl* rulor tbiu. saptftaiin, dagftnim. 

380. RdOt-voTds III 1 aud Q u HiuJ luembera o' conniiaands loinln tbe 
ac^aiit t]iniiij;Iinul, nol vliltlln; il ta *ny of tho ooAlnp. And In Ibc older 
langnafo there ar« poLyiyllabk words to loni fluat voirds fhloh follow in 
tUi Napoci ai in oth«Tt ibe tailegr of *be root-deolcjitlon (b«low, 868 IT.). 
Aj*tt ft«n lb'**, Ibe treaiiin«nt ot iit'ini* In darlvatit* long (««i«I« U, ■< 
regardt t'!Nnl, tho uia« m o( lbo» In ibort (e<reU — tare ibat ths tuti' 
la not ihroiia foiwani upon tho viiding In Don. )>1uial. 



t— 3*3 



881. a. Tns accordance in inflection of eubetantive 

' and ftdjectivo stems is so complete that the two eoQaot be 

teparatcd ia ttentmcDt fiom one another. 

b. They may be olnsgifiod, foi ccnvcnienee of deserip- 

tioD, «8 follows: 

I. Stems in Q &; 

n. 8t«ro8 in Z i and T n; 

HI. Stems in QT &, ^ 1, and ^ %: namely, A. tadicaU 

sterna [and a fcwolJiurs inflected likcth«ra};B. derivalive stems; 

IV, Sl«mB in n* r (<" QT* *r); 

V. Stems in coaHonanls. 

9, Tbar* I) TiHlilag tbiolntr In tkU a1*«ti(l«»ttDti and wftnifiaiaiit; 
li U nieielx b«lIeT»l to be opan to w few obJecttoiM an any uUier. K« 
(Onnnl cgrMinanl bat bi>«n teaclked tinnng *chaUri at to tbo iiambet ind 

|Sr4er at SoJiaixlt -ledoiitbiig. The Htonii tii a ut heie ti««t«d mat boctuta 

[»f ike grmt ptcrloonin^nM of tbo »lwt. 

SaS. Tbn dlvtsiOD-liue between mibsMntivci hdiJ ntljoctive, sIvtstb 
AD unccrtAln ooe Id early Indo-Europenii Un^B^c>, is oven more 
tvAvcrliiK ill Sanskrit tljim olsewliere Thure are, howerer, !b all tlie 
t^cleasiona u divided Abovi; — unlt^M wo cxrupt tlin Diem* in r oc 
r — words wblob are dlelliictly ftdjectivee; and, Id general, thej^ 
■arc intliieted pnclicty like iionii-*t««is of the lame final: only, among 
1 c«»»»Dant-itciDB, Uiore are cerUitu Bub-closses of ndjoctive bicds witfa 
, iieculiaritles of lufliMitiun to which lliero Is anioag nouns notlilng cor- 
, KNjioudEiit,'. But thcTix Are alao two considerable clnsses of adjective- 
' eompouo<]s, requiring Bpi>Glal ootlcd: namdy — 

329. Compoiuiil adjeotfrcs baviuf at final monitMt t baro verbal 

not. wtcb liie vaine of a jireaeat participle ;38S a 6F-: : ebOB. eu-df q v»f'- 

tl^^iitg; pra>budli fortkumeing ; ■•drdh •'<>* hating; T«da*vld I'tJa- 

tJiiMsmff: vxtxn-hkn Vitra-daying; upastha-sAd liUiitg m tk» lap. 

■Svery too: i« liaUe lo bo tisui) In ihle way, ■□•! siicli compounds are 

not infrequent In all agoa of tlio lanKuaga: s«v chaptar on Compound*, 

below ,1869;. 




It. Thti riAM Is CMCntiiJI; onlf ■ (pocUl <Uw of ranpoiind uljentlves, 
iin(« in tli« etrU«it Ve<ti the ilmpU •' well m titt Mmpoanfled root mtt^ 
idmelltiiM mad adjortliol/. Hut the compDandcd roni «-u fion the ^oginniAj 
mucb mole iirun lo uied, inil the luer tbe mora cxcIusIvpIt, to that 
pfwtlcalty tbe oI*m la « aeptnW and Impurtant aue. 

394. Compound adjectives huTing a houd bs final meinlter, but 
ubtaioios *a adjective ecdsv tie<j<^!iiJanly, U)' iiiivm); tliv idea o( 
poiMttion added, ud boln^ intlectcil as adjectives in tb4> three gen- 
ilera [l£8Sff.i. Thuii, prigAlcAQiA deairc <•/ fr-offrnj/, whencti tho ad' 
jective prajAkftma, tooaning ^t*iroui li, e, having dttirel »/ propmy; 
eabUrya (sa+bbftryA) ^"^InQ <"<«'< t^if* along; and so on. 

K, In a f«w utM, filto, tha lltial noun It tynlaMlcally objaet ef tha 
pTM«ding rnciDbM (1300-10) ibuii, atinUra iminoderatr (ati m&tram 
tdjwnrf m<(uw#); yftToyiddvegaB griping ateay tnrmitf. 

336. Ueoce, uad«r each decIeaaioD, we have to notice bovr a 
KMil or a noun-atam of that dQClenaioD i« inlleeted when final member 
of an adjective coiiipounU. 

a. As to ncceut. it ae^da only to be remaTlced horo that a rooi- 
•Kvti endiug a cumpoimd has the accent, but 1.320^ loses the pecu* 
llaHtjr of moooayllaMc accentuation, and doea not throw th« toBe 
forward upon tlie eodin^ (eicept afto in certain obi forvts: 410i. 

Oeelenslon I. 

Btems (masoQltDo and neater! in ? a. 

826. a. Iliis deoleDsioa coaiAiQe the majorily of all the 
(leclioeil atema of the language. 

b. It8 eodings deviate raoie widely ihsn any others 

bam the aormal. 

8S7. BndlRfa: Slnguiii. a. Tba tion. aaaac haa th« normal 
oadlus a. 

b. Ttie ac«. (mMc. an^ neut.] addi m (itot am); and Mt foroi li*> 
the Qfflee also of nom. nsnur. 

0, Th« laitr. obuiB*'* a U> eoa unlfnrmly In lli« latci Uiigaajt; and 
orau in llie oUiut Vttlic tliU 1* ilic (iciKlomtiiaJJl audbig (in RV., GigKt 
ninUlB ut all cwea). It* Ocial U \u Vcdic >«()c tc«<iiiciitlv v>d(i totig (eaS], 
Sol ibe iii.rro>l en4tD« fi — tbnr, jniO, BuhivS, inablCvA (far yajfiina 
W.) — b ali* not raw tn Qxt Veda, 

d. The Jai bu iya U- tf ■- n'Vtif aya lo aj, alike in all a««> 
of (be laafnaxc 

• Tbe abl. ha^H^^^i Mq fr«a Hid e>l- 

im of lh« ctidinR], 


DBCLBitRHUl [., a-«nBn. 

t— 8» 

b«r*n «Ueh m U (dmIo loag: IkU Midwr 1* faond lii no other noim- 
deelenden, uid dwwbere only In ihe p«nonal praoaBnii (of «U nnmben). 
f. Tbv gBii. b*a B7B Mld«d (e th* fliiki ftj Hi'L this ending !■ aU^ 
liniied la a-Mems («itli Uib ilnfis ucaptioo of tti* proDonn lunaqfa: 
}1]. lu flnil a Is In onty threo hmm mado Ions Id (hs V«di; «nd lu 
li vocUiieil (asia) Almosi u tircly. 
f. Tha loo, rniidi In a (u it bf cotnblDlns ili4 norniKl sndfng 1 with 
the Una) (if Ibe ttun), willioai eicoptiou. 
h. ThB *o<. U llio bun turn. 

9S8. Dual. K. Th* iuti ondlnga In gonsnl us Uio noiiuBl ohm. 

b. The n«iii., ut., lati loc. muc. end In lh« latfi UngiiAt* ttwaTi In 
tXL In tba VoiU, howOTor, th« diu»I cniling It gltnplr t (lu UV,, In 
iBTeii cigliihi of tlie ODcurreaeaO' tlia Ktiue cmm lu ib» nouL «nd tii e, 
nblck appdJLn to be lb.« rRinIt of foaton nf lh« gum-llitiL with lti<> iioruiil 

O. Tbe lu»tr,, ilaL, tad kbi. b»io bbyftm (in only oii» oc two Voilio 
iMUnoei rasolied Into btUftm), wtUi ih« itora-fluBl tcnglboDod to & beforo It. 

d. Tbo B*n. and loi'. b^To a j IniBTlod *f(«t tbo UBni-final horaro 08 
(«r M tf Uie a hid beon rbanced (a •). In ohb ot two (doubtfolj Vedl« 
Ifuunoe* (fti ilM In the ptononilntl foima anoa tnd jroi), OB !• laboilliiud 
rot the final a. 

988. PIat4l. a. The nom. nuc. hu In ibe liter Iuip>*Se tba 
endiBR M GOBbtned with a« flnal n to ia. Bnt In the VsAk the 
grading asM buiMd b rnquent (ons third o( the ooennoMW In ItV., but 
only ouo iweDiy-flfili la the pcculUi parti of AY.]. 

b. Tbe ice. maeo. eads In fin (for eatlict KlU, of which abnndtnt 
traeea mre left In thn Veda, and, und*r Iho dlxgnUo o( apptient ecpbonlc 
[ <omblD«Uert, eron iii ibo Uler lugua(«i loe abum. 808 IT.). 

C. Tlivi nam. and aor. ntnt. hav* In ihs Uler IfeniritBji* alwayi the 

[•nding anl (Ilka iba «n-ei«Dii: bsb 4fil; or cleo vtth a, •* in th« ten. 

fl, httarf nomikl i). But In lh« Vtda tbii «Ddliic altunitM with alnaple 

kR (vhleb lu BV. t« to tal m throe to Ivo, ta potnl «r fraquency; In AT., 

I'M tbna to foar]. 

d. Tbo iniB'. eDd» Uiet alwtfr In tis; bnl In the Ved» it fvund 
FiibandanU; the man nonnel form «bhia (in UV., neuly u Iroqn^nt u Us; 
[ill AV , only ens OftU aa rioquBnl}. 

e. Th« dat. and abl. hive bhyaa at endlnr, with a Initead of lli« 
Aaal a boAre It (ai in iho ^edte Imtr. «bhla, the 1«e. pi., (he gen. loc. 
dt. [7], and tbe loMr. lin;.). "Hie tewlntlon Into ebbiaa li not Inrreqoonl. 
In Uie VedB. 

r. The gen. onda In KnUD. the Aniil a halnf lengthened aad btvinff 

n tnurtnJ bttan llii.' normal ending. Tbe < of the einHnu l» nrt ael^om 

(In leu than half tbe lDiUn«j) to ha t«*<l « t«« lylUblei, aam : opinions 

an divided m to whether the taiolntlen 1* hiacorUal or mMtlca only. A. 

Whiiaay, OiawHT. *. *i. 6 

^^M vaa—] vTnootb 

A3IO AojBormB. 

114 B 

^^^^1 ncT tnall nn.mtior (tulf<«< 

■do ton 

) of oimmplu ' 

of rinplc Km *» ttidlnc B 

^^^H iitMud of ftnftm occur in 



^^^H g. Tlie loo. oiKJa In i 


-ttut It to Hf. 


■Ii» nonukl ondliig. B 

^^^H befvn wblcb tbu eifim-Du*! 

1 1« cti*B|»l 10 « (irttb 09ns*^a*ni change «f • B 

^^M to 9: 180)- 


^^^1 b. or Mscent, In this 

dGOlenslou, nothing requires to be Hid; the B 

^^^H BflLiltle ft«c«DUid in Uio 1 


roUioR fu owo 

Bceetii throiiRhnat | 

^^H sao. Examples 

of d 



examples of the fl 

^^H inflection of s-«t«n)8 

may be taken 


k&ma m. loo»; ^fl 

^^^^ 7^ devi m. ffod; tllfU SayA q. mouth. 






^^^^^^B kduiaa 

asy^m ^^H 



UlftlH ^^B 

^^^^H kliB«m 


aeykm ^^H 

^^^H ?Tn<rH 



^^^^^^H kAni«iia 

asyona ^^H 

^^^^B *mnj 

«mini ^H 

^^^^^H klmAy& 

anyija ^H 

^^^^H *mw^ 

oniTTf^ ^^1 

^^^^H kAtnat 


bylit ^H 

^^^^1 4imHJ 

MlfURT ^H 

^^^^^^1 k^MOJP* 


asyiura. ^^^1 

^^^^^1 ^iTtr 


mru ^H 

^^^^^H kAiDc 


aajre ^^H 



wm ^1 

^^^^B klm* 


JUra ^H 



^^^H A. «r^ 


UTH^ ^1 

^^^^H kiUnlu 


^^^H I.D.Ab. ^lilkdlH^ 

mnji*jjiM^ ^H 

^^^^^^1 kimAbhrSm 


aay&bliTam ^^^| 

^^^H 4.mJI4^ 



urwul^ ^^B 

^^^^^^H kiniftj'OB 


Biykroi .^^^^H 



^^^H 4,U[rf[^ 



Mit-dlH ^^^H 

^^^^H klnaa 


•ayini ^^| 



































Eiinplci of the prenliw \'ti\i' fmna an; 

«. SIHE, : Imtr, rKv4then&, yi^fi* (auch s^iiltirv foiiDi u AQVMlft 
■K puivljr Rponilie). 

b. Da.: iiom. ate. nMc. dari; gnu.-lix'. pMity6e (ttem pft«tyk). 

0. fl.: non.-vop. oitsc d«vjUM; nonl. yiigft; Iiuir. d*T«blLis: gen. 
c«r&Ui&m, d«Tjtnaam. 

331. Among noiics, ihor.^ »ro no irregnlaritiM iii thU dodensloii. 
For irregular auineml bases In a (or an), 8M 493*4. Far the irreg- 
1itaritie« of pronouiiiiHl slemi in a, wlitcli ore more or leu fully 

,absr«dal8o by a f«w adJe«tlveeof pronomiual ktnilred, see tbe chapter 

' on PronotiDS [496 fT- 


939. Orl^nat adjectives In a ar« an ozMedinitlf largo elaae. the 
icr«at niajorily of nil adjectives. I'bere la, bowover, do such Iblng as 
a f^inmioe turn in n; fur tito feoilnlDp, tlie a Is ohangeil to i— or 
ofteu. tbough far leas often, to I; and it* dccioaeiOQ U tliOD like (bat 
of 89I1& 01 devi 364], An oxHinplo of the compiotn d«cl«iit!oa of an 
adjaotire a-slom Ld the three geoderi ttUL be given below (3ee|. 

a. Wlietlifr m muc-aent. iiem In • *ha1l iotm ila hmlnliM In 4 or 
In I i> ■ qurtlion to ba tlcttrmlned In grtnl pait oiily liy nctusl ■)*•£«, and 
not by Ktsmmitlc*! rnl*. Certain Impotuni rliMV* at wotd«, bowev*r, rati 
ba polnlqil out Khkh take ib« Itu oomoiBn eadln; i far tbe rnnlciine: ibnf, 
I. tha (•*>>' noni^reai] iceonda/f deilvitlraf In a vllh vTddhi or lb« fltal 
•jUable (ISOA): « (. ftmitHt -m, mioiifa -^t, ptTam&nft -nl, paur^ 
T^talMk -ai; 0. prlTnarydaritnlvH in ana «llhiM«nt en iho railltil lytltbU 
(IIBO): ». (. oidana -nl, aaihgrAlUL^a -^t, anbtaAgaifakira^a -si; 
3. primuy HutlialUM In a, niih (tioiiglhoalng ot lb« t«tl)cil tylliUe, 
baling a luaoi-piritdplal roeanlDf ; e. |. dlviUcari -rl. avahrftmi -mi. 


39S— ] 

V. Hotms Axa Aomcmwi. 


In mKja (]996) tnd tan* (lfi48e): o. g. ajraBmis'a •;!: Kdya 
•al; f>. moit atdlnil nuniGi^i (|48Th]: «. g. paiicami •mt, BtVI 
•^f, tlUc*!-**!!!^ -nii- ^0' * 'Bw wordi uiake tli« r«iiiliiia« In dtker 
ST 1: r. g. kiTal& or •!!, ugrtl oc -rj, p4pft ot -pi, rAinl ot -mi; hat 
ordinarily acly one of thete U t(««{>ted u iei:n1». 

333. Tbete sre no verbal roots ending In a. But a i* BometinK 
•ub*tltut*d for lli« GrkI A of « root lanJ, rAroly, for final on], aad It 
ll tiieo luflecbxf lllco bd ordinary uljectivc in a (see beloir, 304), 

854. a. A noun coding in a, irh«D occorriBg as fins! neinber 
SB s4jc«tiv« oonpound, is infiocted liki; an uri^oal adjvttvt In a, 
msking Its tooiinine likoHiBe iq i or i i367'. 

b> For tW Etioit part, in idjcotlva fompousd bB>lng > nquii Jn a «■ 
fluai member milN lu femlnliu in i. But tlier« tre Bnmeraa) oioeptlont, 
eortaLn tioiUB Uklnp, tuuallr or *J««y», I IhMmJ. S»mo «t tli* «oiiimon»t 
ef tbew ara ai toUovt: akqa «<;<< (9. t- lobltftlc^, dvyakfl. ksvaJc^I], 
por^ Ua/ («- g- UlapanjI, saptap&r^i: but okapArpi), mukha /act 
(t. |. kn^^amofchli durmukM; bat trlmukhS etc.), afiga AviA, bod^^ 
(e. g. amavadytSal. aarvkfigi; but ontaraAgi etc.), ka^a Airrr (■. k> 
nike^i, muktakcfj or -fi, etc.), kai^a Mr («. t- motaUnirQi ; but 
gokarpA tf-.X udara btHj/ («. K' lambodarl). mOla ri>«< («. c- paft- 
oamillli but «ftcnn ^t&mfUft et«.). The *otr STMI m«J«ntx «( ratb 
nouiu (u tko eumpleR mdlciia) Blioiry piir(» of Ue body. 

o. Oo ;Ih) other hand, a feiniiiinc noun eadlfig la derivative A 
■borlmt* its fioal to a to form a niaMutine and nout«r baao: a^o Sd7 a. 

d. In (raqatnl aaie', dodii* of etintonant endlnt ue, m llaal* of cam- 
ponndf, trarufcned W tba a-declimloii b; an added lufllx a (1806 a] or 

ka (tass). 

Declension II. 
sterna (of all gendora) in 3 1 ailtf 7 n. 

336. The atems in ^ 1 and 3 u are iafieoted ia ao akmj 

aocordaoee witb one another that they cannot be divided . 

into two separatf! declensions. Thej^ are of all the t>itec 

genders, and tolerably numerous — tho«c in ^ i mors 

numerous than thotc in 7 o, esp^dsllj' in the Feminino 

[there are more neuters in 3 a than in ^ i]. 

a. Tfaa ondiacs of .thU dMlanaiao slio rtiffitr frcqaontly and 
widely from tbo Donaal, and tfce Irregularities in tba older iaoKuage 
are auaMioiia. 


DeoLesstoK II-, 1- ass o-stbus. 

036. Bndingi: Slngul*!. s. Tli« noin. nmc tnd (em. ulds to the 
tleai ih« nomtl Bwlinii a. Thn nan. mil ace ueitt. It lb* htm tlon, 
wli&DUt piKtIng. Ill tUe Vcd*, Uld Out a q( t few aontcn I* Itaftbened 
(048 b): Ihu), aril, purA. 

b. Tbi- «cc. iDMc, ia<l fcu). i<l<It m n> tbi' iWbi. Ve<]i« Turnu Ui l«m 
utj QAxa, •n<l, villi n, isUQ hDliI unuu, >i« cteeukoly nr*, and dAubtfal. 

O. Tho Iniir. r»m. tii llin liter Isnguagn Itkoi) Ihe iiurmiil •nding & 
(Inply, whlla Iha niste. and nout, liitrrt a beroHi U, mikiUK inK aii'l unK. 
But fn Ih* Veil*, form* iii yji nnil vS (oi lA bii<I Uft) »« not inlicqaont 
In mittc. uiil neiit. aUo; vbtU ink f* foanJ, very ran-Iy, u a tvm. «nJtng. 
HanoTcr, fnm. yB 1* often (In tiro Ihiiilt of ilin Di'oumnoot) contnoted tt> 
1; and Itiis ii rvuii aotuetSni'tM ibotttnacl to 1. An ailrerblal ladt. In Ufi. 
from biir-t'doicn iimuii (n u oroirf. 

d. Tbo <Ibi. aiui. aiiil fem. Kiinat«a Ihc final of tlte aton lirtoro the 
andln^ «, making ikya and kw. ThoMi uo Iko pni*iilllns ending* in iko 
Teda lEkcirllei but tkv more n»ruia] ya and 7« (oc a«) alDO otcurj and 
tbo fem. hu In tbU «u«, at In the Indf., aometmei llio form I for le. 
Id the \wtat language, tli« ncnwr U tcqulml In thli, u In alt (b« othvr 
w«akeat citc«, lo Inierl n befuie ibe noriail endiJi|i: ^at In Ibe Voila *ar.1i 
fovms uc only ipoMdlCj ««d tbe naal. dat. baa atao lbs formi a^a, re, 
mt^, lUo Iba oUiw gendert. 

a. Tbe abl. and gon, maao. and faoi. bavD tegalaily, both ewUer and 
lalM, Ike cn4]ini s a'ftb tuuaied lonel tiefoR It: thut, as, oa; and In tbc 
Veda, Ibe aont fornii tbe eaaea In tbe same "ar, altboiicb oaaa. rei|uind 
later, la also noi infrcqiieut (law doea not occur}. Uul tbo aonBal fetmt 
yaa (ar las) and vaa (»i uaaj ate alao frequent in both eaaw. and uralAT. 
A I tnuc- aitding, UBM iicniir* twlcfl tn KV. The anumaloui dlotyAt (lO T9. ; 
In tbe coiKipondlng pataagei, vldy6t VS.. dldyAttt IL, dldir&a HS.) 

I> of doalilful rJiacB'ter, 

f. The l«r, tnuc, and fam. baa for regular eodlng In Ike lalet Ian- 
(iitgo Au, Teplanliig belli Bnali, 1 and tl. And thU U In tbe Veda also tbe 
intitl fwjueiit endlri^: bui, litalde it. Ibi' l*itaiui roim (tboui half a> ofKtn 
III KV.) tbaJT loc. iu 1: thiu, a^ni; and HU U found oiiea uvaii In tbe 
iieiil«r, The RT. bu a namber o( oiamptei of maie. and neut. lacttlT** 
In Ovi (thn narmal ending and the u gumted betore II] from u>at«iDi{ 
■nd c«ttalii donbtrul true* of a cottDipMidlog ofi frotQ l-iutni. Ilalf«a- 
iottn loitaiUiM In 1 (rfi|aidi-d by th« Vedic giamniariait^ at pr«CTh;s «I 
OJIcombliisbli.': 188 d) are made fran i-itnina. The Uiei laiicuige makM 
As nt^uler loratlvH In inl and uai; but (be farmei never ncentt lit Iba 
oldeat teat*, *i^ the liOer ocil)' lery rarely. 

g. The UXfiT grammar ollowt tho iJal., abl. •£«»., and Iod. ftin. to be 
foriDi>d at irltl wltb tb» fuller fern, lerniliutlona of leng-Tooel alAma, namely 
U, U (for whirh. In Britbrnatia etc., U li aubtdMted: 807b), bn. Sxtrh 
fomii >re qalte rare In ibe otileal Unfutce «r«Q flom I-etem* (le«a Iban 
40 oc«arrenoet altoxelber Id BV. ; tbrr« tiiDaa aa nany Iti AT.); and fnm 
U-alaua tb«y ate ainioat naknown (Ar« la RV. and AV.), 


V. Kousfl ASD AtMBonves- 


b. Thv voe. guniM tlie flnil frf ih« m>b, In nia«c. uil («tn.. altko 
U (h« uirllvr and In Ui« litnr UnfotjO. In ()>b nauL, il U Iscm i11ow«4 
I* ba eKbei of the *uii* form or Ibo tmiltcrflil «1*in; iB'I ibl) wu probibljr 
tbi! nufe in th« older time >lio; Dot Intuncci ciiovsti «re qaai&tila to 
ilet«riiiln« &e qa«atioa (AV. baa a oiimi ^nd VS. o one*). 

997< Du>). a. The lalir and MrlUr linttugo ajtme in tuiMnt '^*' 
noDi.-icr.'TOC. m**r. »rd frm. by lensthuilng the final erf the itotn. Tbe 
*uvf tudi In ttic n«ulvT ((aooiillnK to tlic ruU Kl*«ti ibovr) and Ulor In 
Lai ftnd naii bat tboio cadinK* sru ii<iail]r uiiisoini in the Ttda (m. iudnad, 
tb« «iMa ar« of Dnlr r»rc iioauindm}: AV. ka* in! tvloa (BV. pertiipa 
ance)i VS.Iim uni onoo, ttV. his ol rVom ono a-a(«in, and I, ojiee ibert- 
eaed 10 f, frotD oiio at two i-atrn*. 

bi Tlte uiivaryiDC eudin^ of Uatr.-«Ui.-aUl., In all cendsni la bbyha 
added Id Ibe niKihnnged «t«m. 

O. Tbe geD.-loe. of all ages add OB to iho (MB In nue. and fem.; 
In it«ul, (be laid Ianfna|o Intoipoic*, an •hewLsrc In tfao weakctl oaaoi, 
a n; probably in the varltec Vcdlc Ite foim vtraM ha llLn thtt of die otlict 
g«Dd«rs; bat Iba onl; Dccnrteona notad li onn unoi in AV. 

338. Ptniil. 0. Til* n«[iL-ior. mat. and f«m. adda the nonaal aod- 
iiig OS <o lli« curi«t-:d itstu-Dnal, making sffts and avKs. Tti« exocipUon* 
in iHi! Veda arc viiry fuw: one word (art) liai ias in both itKndcrt, and a 
f*w rnroinioM bavc Is (like l-ii(«a>a): a v*ry few a-B(«mi bare uaa. TIiv 
iicuL noiD.<ai!C end> lattr tn inl aiiid {Lnl (Uko Anl from a: 3S0«1; but Iba 
Vada kaa I and 1 (about «qnally fraiinrntj much oftcucr than tnl; and & 
and (nHce oaiially) n, mote thui half at uftra m Qnt 

b. Tbe actua. male, ends in to aud On, foi older las and Gin*, of 
wbluli plain iracM raroiln in Iha T*da In nearly half the lustaneaa of oiuiir> 
r^ncc. and ct«d not tnfraqn«n(]T tn (he lain Isngna^r, In the guli« of 
pbonctii combination (806 n.). Tbo accua. fi^m, ondi in ia and as fine both 
iau«. and f»m. forma In tw and tiKS bib foand ■piiii<f;ly In lb* Veda. 

0. Tlie InaiT. of all gendvri addi bbis to iho <leai. 

d. Tho dal.-aU. of all gendert add* bbyas (in T., almoit never bhiui) 
to tbe aiem. 

«. The g0n, of all giudora la roada allko In taAiQ and aaftm (of 
nbicli tbo ft ia not aotdom, In llin Vnda, to bo rMolvoi) into aam), Sterna 
with accented Onal In lli« lat«r language roajr, and In Lba caitler alwaf* 
do, Ibrow forward tha accent upon ibi ending. 

f. The loc of all gmd«ii addi eu (ai fu: 160) to the aum^llnal. 

g. Tbe accent ta la Mcordanoe with t^ gendril ruleB stread^ 
UiU down, cad tbvtt ue no itreguUtitios ciHLn^ fur special notioe. 

989. Examples of declension. As models of 1-stems 

may be taken BJti ftcni m, _fire: nf?! g*U f- yotf, OrTTT 

»irl a. water. 


DSCLSKAIOS !!■, I' AMD a-«TRllfl. 

[-330 ^H 


Stapilu : 








vtvt ^H 







vtrl ^^H 




Mrf^ini ^^ 




v£ii^ ^^H 



im. n!^' 

?lf^ ^1 



gitaye, s&tjU 

valine ^^H 


mfifni;^ ^M 



RdktM. gitjSa 

vitri^as ^^H 



n^. irnnq^ 

^ft^ ^1 



gkt&u. gatr&m 

vtrixfL ^H 




^7Tf(. =7?^ ^H 




vui. tAt* ^^P 




H R.A.V. Mil) 


erifriifT ^^H 




V^Tl^I ^^^1 


enfpTlT^ ^1 




^V 0. L. 


^TTirnn^ ^H 




virifO* ^^H 





ETlftfOT ^^ 




vjb-l^l ^^P 



arrfifti ^H 




ritafi ^H 

^^^ i. 



^rfrfm ^1 




Tllrlblila ^^M 



^Jfp■ml ^B 




vllribhTaa ^^^| 



^nftmrr^ ^H 




viri^fcna ^^^| 








varifu ^^H 


V. Noma awd AMaonrM. 


840. In otitt to mark ittor« pUlBlf ihe abionco tn T»dte U«gutg« at 
(ome of tha fOTiui wblch uu comiuuii Uier, all tb6roiiu»( Yed{e«c«iin«TiMi 
•rn uldod bctaw, uid lo the oMtt ot iholr fr«^ueii«T. 

a. Singular. Horn, nfcnla t(«., u abova. 

b. A«c: tuaac. Mgatis, jmyitaa, ftnni^uni^)! lam. and iMnt. ai 

e. In^ir. - maif. afrn[n&, rajrya and urmiJi; (an. icittS, utUU 
niat;&, taTrktli dbulnS; n^nt. wamlDf. 

d. Dat; nut. agoAyo; fun. tujije, Qti. turjril; muL Quc&;ie. 
». Oen.-abL: mw agD^, kv^mn, arli«; fen, &dltAB, hOtytU and 
bhdmUB; Deal. bbliroB 

f. I^a: male. nKnaii, ngnll, Aj&yi{'); ftin. lt||p«tAn, uditfl, dhd- 
nutUjlp), t6(U. bbtkmy&ia; n«ui. aprati, aaptAraQmau. 

g. V««.: u abo*« (iMUl. waatlnf^ 

b. Dnal. r(oiii.-Bc«.-Toa. : nut. hirli fan. TavBti: dcvi. Qiici* 

I. Ituli.'tlat.-aU.: aa ikorp. 

J. 0«n.-lMi. : naie. hAiioa; feu. yuvatyds and JimtoB-, netit. nantlni. 
k. PluTil. Kffin.: ma««. asniTU; tna. nat47«Bi bhfimb; noat. 
qaet, bbftrl. bhilri^l. 

1. Acnu*.: maac. agnlDi fern. kfitlB, fuoft7BB(T}. 

m. Intf., dal.'ibL, and loo.: ai abnvo. 

n, 0«n. : maac. fcm. IcBvinim, j^'?'^*''' ***■ C"*!!!. mnilns). 

341. As models of n-st«mB outy be taken SHT 94tru m. 
cntmi/; y^ dbomi f. c«c; ipj midhu a. Aofwy. 




Ak II. 















dhtnjiv*, db0DTft{ m&dhuas 


tj^. t)-.^ 

dlianau. dbanvim m&dhoQl 


iTi. qm 


midbui tuiidlio 

H ]2I Dbolbxsioh IL, 1- A»x> a-onau. 

[348- ^1 



^^^^N.A.V. 91^^ 


irrfr ^^ 

^^^^ QtoQ 


m^^huni ^^1 

^^^^ I.D,Afc. !tl5ji-^14^ 


q[^>^ ^1 

^^H 9&trul>b7&ia 


m&dhubbyAin ^^^ 

^^^^0. L. in^ 1 H^ 


^^^^^H 9&tn-o« 


m&diiuiiD> ^^M 



^^^^K T. 


^^^B ^tTAvas 


mitdbOni ^^H 

^^K^A. UIH-i 


iFif^ ^H 

^^^^^^^K '"^^ 

ir *. 


^^^^B fitrda 


ni4dliQal ^^1 


qiJHq^ ^1 

^^^B <;Atru1>hlB 


madbubbiB ^^H 

^^^^ P. Ab. 5ia'7]H 


T'r- {JVI ^H 


■s % 


^^^^^^B ^tmbhyfts 


mndhubbyiw ^^H 

^ G. ffnrnrq 


iN-im ^1 


e-, -\ 


^^^^^K qitra^lm 


mJidhCuiiin ^^| 


^^^B fAtrufU 


mMibtUfu ^^H 

^^P 849. Tho hirni of Ve4ic 

McBrrcnca an fWMi We (or tko a-ucms ^^H 

^^^ In tho Mmo in*nnRT m for tli« i-«(ena •&«¥«. 


^K^ k. Slninlir. Nom. : niMC. 

uii t«B. M atioTo; DML ori, ur*6. ^^H 

^^^L b. Accui. : JDMC. k«tuti), ibbinikm, aucetuiKuaC?] ; (cm. dlieafim. ^^| 

^^^f 0. IniiT.: mtN. kstunit, pit^n in^i kr&tuA; fi 

pB. Adhenu* *uJ ^^H 

^M pAQTft, ftfoyi; neui. BtAdhunS, mAdtarA. 


^1 d. J)aI. in»r kotAv*, (ji^ 

v«: ((Tp.y&TAve, ifVUi; ncii. ph9T0(i)i ^^| 

^B vr4v*, miidhune. 


^B e. Abl.-wD. : mux. insiiy6B, plCr&i, ojlraqae; fmn 

. slndbos, I(va« ; ^^M 

^M ii«Bi. midbTas &nd mAdhoas, 

mi .1 Kim, mAdbuQaB. 


^M t. I.or : rwr. pttrAu, Btln&vi; fern, BlDdhiUt 

r&Sivba; ^^M 

^^^ «<dAu. snnnvi, uJno. a^nuni. 


^^^B K> Vo«^ : u iboYu. 

^^^H b. Unal. NoB,-*t«.-vor.: 

miae. uti ftfu. u aboTC; neat, urvl, ^^| 



^^^^^^^i. iMU.-diL-abl.: ■< ibov*. 

^^^^^^^^J> Oen.-loc, M iboi« Ibiit 

roe nr ooa). 


^ k. riiral. Nan : thut. rbbivBt, raidhox* »ni9 midbTftB; tern. ^^| 

^^^^^^ ms, fatttkratvasj nenL 

. purd^, pnrA, purA 


V. Sons* «aB AouHsvifc. 


(tau Willi ihe leto- 
liKfttlti n-Btoms, 

L ham.: aw^ r«^ ?•«**■: I^- ^Ctab 
MtM tnaam id ^miL 

■■d oafy a v«ry few 

CAM* a pocntjuly 
Ft wUch In Ui« nom. 
In tiM oiker nsM 
Tim iMtc »i dsL ■!■(. iMVtt the sonnitl 
r. wttbMt iMiw * a «r «B^. ite »W.-g«». tiDg. adds 
w; ud tte W aiw. mU» in. lb* imk >> Ufta acni- Thu: 

ata» lifeMk aMMia^ likkf^ attbT% MkbroB, oULhjrao, 

*a liMUK "fP^*" M& Cka wafMai* m «muUt iacUneJ like a« 
•tMti* «iw>l* i^Um U3^' b) M>lMI >* MkidiaMl. 

4. rhM* >• * imiiiiailiw *•.. HkM (ilMlbMi ttk* devl: 364); 
%mk *^ tfmt -4 — i^V •«• «te aMMtlMMtoaM «Mi aUk CMftlitiii* vilna. 

0. MM M. U <lMdB»4 r«r«Uilr Ik If MtliiJii, Mac «ken it hM 
Uw m— fciNt '"^ ■MMfv; «bM ■■(■■ipMUiliil ud wkcs oMkaiss 
«MlHwi ll I* tadMlad Ulw attU u Ui« iiwtr^ du, abL-gin^ ud 
iHUb at^, fhraim i*q^B*IVK vMro^ pAlyAtt. TWa an weatiAiiftl 
'iiriin-r- >d oatertw »( ih» ««« «hMM «€ &««*- 

kM^midi dM>»»»> Wwi^ 4 W4«n« Jftr ■■ rf y. 

(k MbI I- wi/» Wt Ma (H. •!■* Jirjiw la A* T*d«. 

f . Atl iwyw. J — %i. fc>JA kM ta ih» V^it mrjkm In pt. nom. »nd 
W«M,i w*M- m4 teat, h* «s««k da«. ta artn or arriAi- 

th VI t>r^ W t« ICV- kh» MM. v4b (Wdde via). U ike pUni it 
tMauM vtktalA, vIMtjMk kM vlnfai 

4hft ««« *Mkl tMM, didhl Mmb, and aUcthl aigK. 
Uv •««• nthlnHc *1A «it4 cMtpkmeailiig fDimt Tium 

iWgH H> 4n lahf^H •«.»■> wh ik« «!••• la an, Iwlow (48i). 

ti I'hi ahtM V«Uii 'MMt ll UMl M Btka mp put of Hib Inflaction of 

V . > W U»kt Ika Mna( <ai«, fti wlilch Iha coneipoml- 


Ml. MiliilttNl •iil|<«'liv*i 'ifiniB in i lire few; those la n are mucb 
uui« .mKii-titii. iiiwo^ ilwrUative T«b-»t«ni» rotmiof a participial 




adjectiTe in n). Thetr tnfleetioa in Hko that of iioaiis, Kcd hna been 
iuclud«tl in the riiira ^-ivcii aboi-«. In tbon vrcak oaeesi boweTer — 
namel}', th« dal., abL-gen., and loc. .lin^., and thn K<>a.-lae. dual — 
lo wtlcli neuter nouns difor from maECilliDCi la the Uwr laDguagO 
by an inasried a (we have seen above that this dilTereuoo doet not 
«xbt la tli« V«da;, the neuter adjective i* allowed lo take oitbor 
form- Tbe stem it the eaine (vr maiculiae and neater, and g«iicn.lljr 
land allowably alwaja) for reailnlnv «!»(>■ 

a. Tbm ue i f^ Intiincei of i femlntne noun in I stAndinit (boido- 
lluea wilb c1iine«il accrai) beildo a niiicalliie In i: ibuf, kriml to,, krlmi 

(.; Ukhi (343 a) m., saktai i.i dundabM to., dundabb.1 ( ; dhuol 
»., dhUDi I.; ^ak6nt m., ^alninl or -nl t. In iba Uwt languigc, «*;»- 
tlaltr, ibuo is a Tcry rtcquont Intciatiinxe of i and I •■ Qnala at the umo 
*l«iu. So ■djKtlis In i luakei a ttguUr foininiiLu !d i. 

b. Vlth ticni!! In u tbc ctK Ir qullc illttcTcnt. While tho remlnlnt 
ai«y. uni \a pirt Jom, en-l l» u. HLa th« mueultne uii ccnUi, i tpe- 
rial (ti&lnint-*c<in U vften madn bjr Icngllxinlng tbe a lo 6, or alH b; 
s4dlnt I; *na Tar lom* (tnm* • hinlnlne U formal) Into two of th*«C ll>t«« 
?•)«, or «i«n in all tbe tbttc: ihu>, k&rO, •dipsiH, faadhjlS, oari^dt 
TMaayti; -anvi, urvi. gurvi. pQrri (ulih prflbntitwn of a b»(o» r: 
coaip*rv a4Bbj, bahvi, prabbvl, raghvi, s&dbvi, av&dvi; — pfthA 
and prlbvt, vibliti and vlbhv), mfdu aj.d mcdW. lo-ghu ind Uabvl. 
v4au tiid T&avl; babhru mil bablirlS, blbhatsA t'nl blbhatad, bhlr^ 
and bhirO;— tanA and land and Canvi, phalcu and phalsQ and 
pbalcvl, madhu unA madhA and mAdhvI. Tbeco aie alio aoiua faul- 
Bine aonn-atoma lu Q itaiiding (uiDstly wlib cbanged accent) bealde mai- 
culliiM lu u: ttm», ifffti id., agrfl f.; k&dru a, kadrA f.i rucRuIu 
in., gugroltt f.; Jatu iu„ Jattl [.: p^dAku ta., px^tltti f. 

846. Boots ondiDj: fa i or u (or |r: 876 b) reKulariy add a t when 
UMd as root-words or as root-Goals of compounds; and lioaco c]i«rs 
are no aiiyeotiTes of the loot-claaa Id tbis dMloasion. 

a. Vel, Id Ifae Vod*, i Ton wotdi AiKiing in a titiriit tadleal a ar« 
J««rincd aa If iLI* wcro aunixil: tbut, &amrladlirui su^fu; and ibe AV. 
baa p^tanajl (»&«), Ko«[i in & tometiinea alio ihoTttn a to tt: Ibai, 
prabhu, vlbhd, etc, (,384); go (301 e) bcconea ga In (oinpMlil^n; and 
ra pvtbafi b«comoa ri (^361 •); while ruoti In ft fomrtiinoi ipparentiT 
vcaktn a lo i (In •dbl ttaai )'dha tte.: 1 |6S). 

348. Compuund adjoctlvoa having nouns of Ihts declension ss 
jinat member are Inflected In genaial like original adjectir«s of lh« 
same endinga- 

a. But In igeh fompoiindi a dnal 1 ar n ts tontetJtnM IcnKbensd ta 
*ona a ffmlnlne fl<iiri : Itui, su'Qro^, svayonl ot -ni, -K&ti-ayaffI ot 
•tl; Timorft oi -ru, durba^a or -flu, varatanft, mttrbaadhu ; and 
BV. baa ^fTl frvta fifu. 

MT— J 



Declension III. 

BMma in loos vowels: QT K, ^ I. 3 Q< 

S47. The steins eodiog in long rowel* fall into two 
well-marked classes oi din'sioiu: Jl. monosyllabic stenu — 
ino«tlf bate toots — and their compounds. wiUi a compat- 
atirely small number o£ oth«r« inBectcd like them', B. de- 
rivative feminine stems in ^ 3 and ^ 1, with a small num- 
ber in 3r Q which in the later language have come to be 
inflected like them. The lalier division'is by far the larger 
and more important, since most feminine adjectives, and 
considerable classes of feminine nouns, ending in ^ R or 
^ I, belong to it. 

A. Boot-vordn, and those Infieoted like them. 

94S. T^e inSection of these stems is by the normal 
eadiogs throughout, oi la Uie miuuier of oonaonant-etenifl 
(with QT am, not ^ m, in the aoous. aing.); peculiarities 
like those of the other Towel-decleaaioos are waDlin^, The 
ainiple wuids are, as uoiiae, willi few cxceplious (emiDine; 
as adjectives [ratelj;',, and in adjective compounds, the; are 
alike in masculinn and feminine forms. They may, for con- 
venience of description, be divided ioto the following Bub- 

1. Root-words, or moQosyltablca bavlng (be aspect of stich. Those 
in A trd 80 rare tlist It i» bniJIy poasiblo to make tip a wliole sohecno 
of forms in actual uw; titoat \u I and a are more numcrons, but still 
very few. 

3. Couipounils liavin^ suoli wonJa, or other roots wttfa long final 
vowels, as last taembor. 

3. Pol^-syllnbic woTde., uf rarioiw origin and olmracter, Including 
in the Veda uanj- wbioh UUr are uanaferreil to otber duclensJoDi. 

4. As an appuuilix in this cJus tre may moat eonfonlently 
describe the baif-doutn stems, mosUy of regular iadeotimi, ending in 




34B. ]tono8}-IIablc itenis. Bffore th« endfu^e befinniiiv; *■<>■ 
Toweln. tical i i> cbftng«d to iy itnd & to nv; whilo fiaal t Is dropped 
kltogethfr. except in (lie mrong casntt, and In tlic ace. pi, which Is 
like tbe noinlnatiTe itccoTiijig to the ^AmmarUn*. & is Itttt horo also : 
GO initt«nep9 of itic ocriirrcDCc ot 6ucb a Tona npp4ai (0 tw qiioUblo)- 
Steoie in i and a are in the later language allownd to take optionally 
t)i« fuller eutl in gn fti, ■«, am in the vjngtilar C<lat., nb'.-d'on, lor.]; but 
DO such foriiii Bia ever met with in the Veda (except bhljrftl[f], RV., 
oac«/. Befon: &m uf ^n- pi., d may or uiay not bo inaerti-d ; in Ihe 
Voda it ia ioj;ular)y iniortod. with a itn^le rxceptiou (dlii;tm. onci-!- 
The vocative in Uka iho Dominntive iu the singulKT as well aa tha 
olhot nunibcii': but insUucos of lis ocimhtcudu in un com pounded uteua 
are not fuiiud in the Vedii. and muat b« extremely rare Bverj'whert. 
The curlier Vudic dual cudiu^- is A inatesd vf Au, 

dBO. To ihe t- and a-ateius tlto ruica fur mono^llAblc aceoaC 
apply: tho accent is thxouii furwani upon iho ending* in all the weak 
ea!t<!v escejit the a«ciui. pi., which is like ibe ooui. But the (t-stcnia 
appear [tbi: iuatanccA art; extremely Tew) to keep tlio scceut U]i»a tbe 
•taai through out. 

Sfii. ExampldB of tleclensioo. As models of mon- 

osyllabie inflection we ma^ take tR JB f. progeny; 'it dltt f. 

thought; and >T bh& f. earfh. 

a. Th« flrii of theae ti iitber arbltrarlty nibuded from Ui« lout euoi 
wbt«Ii tcluillir octur; of tbe loo. aiiig. ind gen.-loo. du., uo V*itic exuaplM 
rron &-it«nis are fpand. 













dbtre. dhiyftf 

bhuv^, bbUTSi 


diajia, dbly^ 
dhlrl, dbtyilm 

bhuvi, bhuvim 



H SSI— ) 












^^_ I.D.AK 

H 0. 



*• ^ 




















dhlyitni, dbln^m 

1 bhuv^m, bh&ndin 





36S. Monoiyllubio stous in compoai ttoD. Wben tbe nonns 
tbovt described oeour as Gnxl member of x ccunpouml. or whCD any 
root in a or I oi a Is foutid In a like poiiitiou, (he inflootlon ot an 
l^ton is as above. Bnt 1- and a-stoiDB rollun a dirMed UMge; tlie 
final TOfrel beCora a rowel-ending is either converted into a short 
Towel and Mmiroiro) ily or nv, se aborel or Into a Hmlrovel ainplj 
ly or ▼;. The aecent is nowhere thrown forward npon tho ending;*; 
and therefore, when i and ft bMOine ; and y, tho resultio); sj-ttable 
Is clrctimdei i89-4;. Thus; 

Mavr. and fem. SlncnUr: 

S. V. 


















A». 0. 











DsCUXtttOK tn., K-, I-. AND b-erBMS. 

[— S6« 

N. A. V. .dhljftu -dhT&a 
L D. AV -dhibliyam 

0. L. -dhi^M -dhy&s 

Plan! ; 
K. A. V. -dhlyM -dbyiM 


D. At>. 






•bliuviu -bbviu 

-bhuvoa •bh7&« 

•bhuvas -bhr^ 




ft. A» M lb* admiMibllliy of iba fnller endln|B W, Ss, uii Km In tlie 
cjnn>l*t (fnmliilne), gnminkllckt tatttoritliii ar* •acnnwlut at Tarl«ne«; but 
<b«T ^'o i»vi>T found In tlie Vtujs, md bus bvoa oialtlfl from tbs abovv 
atfcwie u ptetiftU)i anrul. 

b. I( t«0 cDiiNonuita pr«e»dc tb» AimI I or Q, (lie dlM]rlUbl<i (anal, 
vlth i7 uiil UT, KB teiularly wiltNn; alt«T one oonionint, tiie iim{« la 
viTjiliig. Thn grimro>r1«na praicrlba ty and nT irb«n the inonoiTllBMc ((md 
hM more the (hurarter of * noun, and y »n(] v whan It b motf pnraly * 
verbal toot with pArtUlplil ir*lu«i. No tatih illiUnclloii, bowevnr, U !■> bo Men 
In tba Vodk — wher*, motuntt, ttic dlB«ran«« qI thu two (vrna i* only 
ttapb1«, ttncfi ibo r&< and vA-focmi iind lb* roll aro alirafi to ba ruad aa 
JiaaylUbln : 1ft o( I< and aft ot Qft. aiiil a" on. 

0. Ai t6 DOnttt ■(«Mi foT aueh kdJ««t]vM, tbt S67. 

8t8. A fan fbrtbn VodU IrrotDUriiliM or paeoliattlfM auy be brlofly 

K. Of tb< ft-it*nia, Iba fariMa )b 8s, Km, ft (dn.) aro lomMtniM (o 
be rMd ai clUartUblM, ftfts, aam, as. The datiie ot tko Mam oud a« 
InflBltlae li ti (ta fr k-fe) il>»<, prokhy&i. pnttiraftf, partdif. 

b. Imcnlir ttaiufiu of iliti accuiit lo the oudin); in coupounds fa ksd 
In a caan or t«o^ tbaf, ftvadyubbiyil (ItV.), jldbl£ (AV.). 

8M. But oompotinds of tlu) cImi nbove d«»cribo(l aro not in- 
ft«qiwiilly tfanBf«rr<:d to otlior modes af Infioction: tlio ft ahorCeoed 
to ■ for t nin^cullDfl innd nontcn ttem. or deolinix) liko a item of 
the derivative ft-oUas [below, 994;i as fomluino; the [ and f\ ibort- 
eaed to t and q. anil InDoclod aj of tlic teoond rlecIensioD. 

a. Tbn*, oompounJ iitmi in -ga, -Ja, -ds. 'BUia. -bbu, and oihen, «« 
found even In the Veda, ud betooio freqnant liter (being mado fram all, or 
naartf all, Ibc ioc4( In ft); aad iporadlc cawi litim jrt oUurt ootoc: Tor aiiiople, 
1)ftap^, vayodbaii and ratnadbibbls, dhanaaftfa (all KV.); and, 
froB 1 and Q eosipoandt, vefaQria (TS.^, Ahrayaa (KV.), ga^o^bbta 
(RV.), karma^is (CB.) *J>^ rt^afbltJftB (O^'O ■n'l senftnibbyaa (V3.) 
and CTftmu^tbhla (TB.). aapanft (AT.). QltibhrLTtt (T$.). 

b. Suit nto» nuneroui u« the reminiiiei In ft nhUh bate IW their 

V. Novms ajcd Ajuectivks. 


KMt-declMisioii: «SKnipl«a an pn^^ (of wktch Ik* tiniket «mpifWtS» la 
p«il kaTc toM-form»), BTftdli^ qradtUi^ pratiatt, ud otlisn. 

e. Thai, In the UUr Uagtu^e, i tew FtminlDet in | m mt-i^ fnm 
ika iMai tn a*kortoi)«4 rton &: tkvf, gopl, gog{ht, puiiuigf, PAIUmU'i 
bbojasl, bliujaibsi, surspi. 

366. P(>Iy*ytlBti!c Stem*. StOin* of UiiN iliriitm (A) of more 
tlijia OBC ifilable sra rery nio tndocd ia Iho later laugmce, and by 
M> mMDi eoanMn in (he eftrll«r. Th« R[g-Ved«, bowevor, pr«seiiU 
» not ineootldvnible body of tb«tn ; and u tli« clus ii«arly dies out 
Ufer, by the dibnso of Its stems or their tranHter to othor nodes of 
doclcnsioo, It awjr bo but dacrilied oa a Vedic bMU. 

a. Of vuau in i, mucnUnM, hktr-k-dcun occur la ikfl Tada: ptotbft, 
mantblL. t»i Xbhvk^i an oclttrviie Tlootd by Uic iMet snnmu': w« 
bttoir, 433-4 ) o^AuA (nfiiDi pr.) b«i the m«iiuIow aom. ti^f. Uf&nA 
(tod \tit. ti ««)I mt dftt. U44ae); matul grtat it fooad only ia mcui. atng. 
wd ibandMtly In cDnpOfliton) iUk/r^Kt bu only Auua dm ilenrabta 
bom ita. 

b. Of Btuau III I, oi#t lerenty u* found In tb« T«d*, no«r!]r kU 
ftoilnlnc*, and »t1 (cccnied on iba Hod. Ilklf of ibo ftailulDM ue formed 
fram Diaacnilnei «ith ohooxa of acMitl; ibut, kaljftfl (m. kalyt^ja), 
purufi (m. piira(a); oiben abaa so ebing* of xocai: that, ranii (m. 
yamA); others «tUl ba*e no rorr<>i[i>odtnt nia«cutla«(i; Iba*. nadi. lakfinl, 
sOrmi. Tbe mutaliiic* ub (boat Md tii oniubat; fu ciarapU, rathl. 
prtvi. atari, aU, spathi. 

O. 01 >t«nu tu 0, ihe unmbn i> «Biall«i: ihetp, too, ore nearl]r all 
fonlntnei, and all accRntfd on fbc Onal, The ouJotJtT of tboni are the 
T'lDlDlnc adjcctltu in Q (u maiK-uUitei Id Q oi a (iboTr. 344 b) : tbaa^ 
cara^jli, carlfQ^* JiSbsUAi cutdhd. \ few aro doom Iii i, «ltb 
«banfe of ■Kent: Ibua, a^TlIt (igm), pr<l)>^li (pplUcu). fra^tll (firi- 
^ora); «i mlthoui cbtnfi:, u ajlA. And ■ fo^ hkve no «>nw|)on(IInc 
cnuMllaca: tkiM. taati, vadihi^, oamtl. Tk» mucaJiMH an oalr t«o Ar 
lbx«»: namolT, ptflgtj, k^kadAgd, makad(!); and (k«ii fMw an of ib« 
atnoit nrily. 

8B8. Tbe node of decleoslon of tli«H worda ma)- be Dlustrated 
by tbt> rollowln^ examiilM: rathi in. e*ariot«rri nadi f. ttr*am; toatl 
r. (mV- 

a. N« one of ib* Mtvetei «M»plei o«oar« In aU itaa n»«i>: '"nna rnr 
<^ll]||M|iM «anpl« >t ^1 U qnotabl* tf |iDt in brukati. Vo loe. slnf. ftoin 
UylftteM ocean, to •letorvlac wbat U« fonn would be. Tb« tlan nadt 
ii ■aUrttd u oxample ponlr In ocdar to ampliMlie tiio dUtennoe tiMweoB 
ibo earlier taB(BBfe and the Tatrr in ie«atd to *■ wprda of IbU dtrlUon i 
nadt is luer the a»tol of duhatlte lalretkn. 



DECLCXHIO.V ni., IUDIOAL ft-, I-, iJi'D a-KTBKH. [—868 













tun n fl 





AV 0. 





I I * • « 







S. A. V. 




t D. Ab. 



[ tftnfibbyim] 






11. A. 








D. Ab. 












b. Tbe CUM — cadlnm, tanuam, «te. — at* wrtUan kbova ucoM- 
Ii( n ikelt ini» phooetit tatm, tlmoct InvirUUr beUiniiBg to Qwm la 
tk« T»4«[ In tb« writtDH texl, of Murw, lh« ctoiii-flaU ii mad* ■ M«l> 
niv«l, mnd th« mu]t!nf> (ylTtblo li clicamflsied: thua, aadytuii, tjiD- 
vkm, etc.; ontT. " omd, iftot two tcmMnaiit* tho rtnolToiI foriui ly biiiI 
Bt ue viliiea lait«a,d: And ilan wbotc iho tomblniilon yr nonlil otbet- 
■iM (mdIc tbiu. oakHyA, [asrivAi.] and mltrflynvsn. TW RV. tolly 
tthtt itaryfcm cm. iwlct, mud taavto etc. foui iliuei; and Rii«h ooo- 
HMIiaiu »« not* oAMt aude in iLn AV. Theaading A of Iks oaiii.-«M.-we, 
te. to tbe cialiilMt «( Iho uicr Ku. Tba nvn. dag. In ■ Craai ItUMt 
ti fotn4 In tti« oUm Uogui^ ibBiit ilitr Hum, fton o*ai iblnr rtuni. 

8fi7. IcTDKnUrlllM «i Tonn, pi«ptily lo called, *ra letr fev in (hit 

'dlfUloti: ountt •« loo. Aug. (ioiiMd or catnvi) ocean t. few tiuiei; and 

tk«r« I* «nodi«r doabtfal mm w I«i> of ibe una kind; A^ 1\at,\ d ti ro- 

RUdttl M pxsSThj* or aiicoEnbtDible (138); taaol li Imgtfacacd to tearl 

In a puufs bT two ; •jrAvafl U «n«B at twU« ibbrsTUltd 1o -rrl^. 

86B. Tbe practM of tntiif«r to tic otkct bm of I- and u-dcelentlon 

(halow, Man), vhU hu noail; ntlofnilabtd lUi ategfiTj of wotdi In 

b« Uttr l»i(tu««, bai lu b«^Blii«( In the Teda; but In BV. tboy ara 

^«it«*»it«ly ftantr: Okintly, dOCUttDi lot. riux., iwro, ati4 fva^rultm, do., 

inca, and dr«ritsaft, lam. dag., wltb two or three oiber doubtful cat**. 

la ibo Aihtrran, «e Hnd ibe mea. tiog- knhdm, tan Am, Tadbdm; tbe 

Ifiitr. Unx paUdld aa<l one or ton olhuii; the daL >lii|. VldhvAf, fva> 

kifrnAf, acroval; tbo abl.-caa. *li>(. pnnarbhuv&B, pp1ftknita. gvayrofaj 

find ibe toe ting. taQ^im (vlth aoosuloui *c«eBt). ActuMttTc* pluitl la 

b anil fia an iMwbeca mot wltb. 

Wbltaay, Onsaaf. X ti, % 

Me— 1 

V. Kouxfi jlhd Aujeotivim. 


969, A4J«ctl«« cmnpMiadi DVB Am* w<n4»tf tarj fcw; ibo** vbicli 
«Miu ue 4Mllned ULn the tinpla umu: Uimi, hlrk^jrava^Is uid amhfcft- 
imstBrta, iutptatanOs tni s&rvManOs, ill eon. •iii§. isMciiUn*. 

Stems ecdlng in diphthongs. 

360. Tbcn aro oeruio aonosyllsbic atraiR cndioK in diphtliongn. 
which vu ti)» few ami too diverse in InOeelloit to make a docl«iieJoii 
of, ftnd which ma]? be taoit sppropritttelj- dui[>o>ed of hcK, in eon- 
nmtJoti wltli the Bt«iBe In l Md 0, with which tbey have uMt Affinity. 
Tbey an: 

a. atoiDB in an: n&fi and stftu; 

b. atemi lu U-. rii; 

o. M«ou Id o^ go noA dyo ^or drii, 6iv). 

861. ft. The stem o&d f. iAi> U entirely regnUr, taking the 
Kurwal radiuj^ UiiouKliout, and falioniog the lules Tor oioooeyllabic 
s«ceutuBtioo |317;— «ic«pt that tho aecna. pi. U said (it doM not 
appear (o occur in avtM^uted tests; lo be like the nom. Thus: nsua, 
nivam. akva, nlvA, nftv&s. iiAvf ; nivhu* nAubhyitm, nivia; n^vaa, 
oi^Tas, niubbfa, nftubbjiaf aAv^, nSn;^. The ■lom Blft4 m- 6«S 
b apparenlly iiifleried in the wine way; Iwt few of lu forais have 
bam met with iu natt. 

b. 1'h« atom rftl I (or n.l wwoJU night be better daierlbed ns 
t* v>tih a u D ion-con wiuuit ; iSfiO} fotcrposod before vowol vodinga, 
and ifl regnlarly ioUecied itii auch, with nomal codinj^i aad aoeo- 
•yllabto ac««ut. Tliua: rjEa, riyam, rflyj, rtyfr, rAjr^ tikri; rdy&u, 
rtbh;&m, rftjroa; rAyas, rijim, r*bhia, ribbjris, rtyimi rtau. Bat 
in tlia Wda die nccua. pi. Ls cilther rfiy&a or r^a«; fvt aooiu. aiag. 
aad pi. »re alno utted the iiriefer fonoe i^m (RV. once: rAynm does 
nvt occnr lu V.j and rlU |SV., odc«}; and the gea.-Blsg. b aotuediaes 
nuouittlttusly accented r^as. 

c. Tbe sten gi m. or f. biU or cov is much more irregular, la 
the iLroDK uatcf, eicei)t »i>ttus. aigg., It it BtreiigUiODeil to giii, form- 
ing {Ilk« ae,&; gkua, givau, s^^vaa. Id acous. ilng. and pi. it baa 
(like rai: the brief foruia gim and g^. The aM.-gen. ^nf, is ite 
(as If from gu;. Tiir rent iv roKularly mado frnnt so, with tie aonnal 
eodliigs. but with aocvot always remalulng irro^i&rly upon tlio alctu : 
thna, gJlTft, B^ve, nixri, KJkvoa, gJirftm; K^bhrim, eobbia, gAbhTaa. 
gdfo. In Che Veda, naochur form of the gen. pi. Is gisimi chcnoui. 
eic. du. ia (aa In nil other such cases) nlso givk; and g^, gbs, and 
gAs arc nut Infrequently lo bo procouuced ns dlMyllabiOs- An nc«. 
pi. is found B few times glLvsa 

d. Tbo atom df& f. (but In V. uanally m.) (ly. tUy Is yet more 
aaumaloua, havlu^ b«aide it a minpler st«ra dyu. which Imkoium div 
boforo a vowcl-endiag. The naUve gnunuariitns treat tho two •• 


DxcLBNsioH III, Vivinao}ia/,u Srcug. 







dlvAtn Ayim 


divJt [dyavfti 


iivi dyftve 


dlvAa dyofl 


dlvAs djrda 


divf dy&vl 

{Dd»peDdeiil word*, but it ii mart cunveDiuDt lo put them together. 
The st«ni dyo U inflt<et«*l prectaely like c6, a< abore described 'i'he 
complete de«l«ii4iun it M folloifb (with fonua not ■ctUKily met nith 
In OM l>nt«k«t«<l! : 

Do*]. Plural. 

ltd.,..) ^t,.u ;',x.^,SLT 

dyublUs |dy6btils)»m dyobmramj j p^y^.^^^^ d,6bhy«l 

Jtdlr6. dyiw] 'j^^ ,j^.^^, 

B. TI>« du, flag. dyAve ii iwt r<iuiid Id Uiu Mily Itncoaie. Batb 
dtvM xid div&S ai:':iit u aennt. pi. In V. A* uooi, ntr. du., dylvA U, 
u Mcnal, tbe nintJLr Vtdk foriu; otir« ocuurt dyivi (<lii.J, m If a n>uMf 
f«tni; >n4 djftAs Ii touaii onc>: u«(«l m »bUiiT«, TW cato* dytus, dy&m 
awl dyUn (odm) ant read Id V. »oinctJDiiMi a* dUfTllabln; and tho flrit 
M httMUxA vocattTd thftn bccomm dyS^ (E. t. dittos; soo 314b). 

f, Adjeeliie cnmpouuJa having a dipbtboii|ial neiu it Rntl m«iDber 
110 not iiiiiDOtoa*. mill ifiiil tu •IkkU'ii llii' dlpliibong to o vuvr). ThAi, 
fioiB adu no liaru bbinaonu; ttom go, icreral wurdi llkd &gu, eaptacUi 
■ugu, bkhugu (f. -sl^ Tfi.J ; «nil, M'ttfHpuDdtriKlr. rSd R^au lo b« induced 
Ui rl In brhidrayo and fdbAdrayai (RVj. Iiid«riiailo(i, go malnulna 
fU tail fonh in cotrA, MI6UL, -gSVA (f. -eavl]. Mr.; ai Dnt mcmbei Of 
a MapMBd, ll b v*rii>uely u«»i«d: iLnti, s&v&qlr, givlfti (but gsOctr, 
gaS(tl IL), ane.; KOO^vA ar gO*^», gorJilta, coopaqa, etc. In ocruiti 
ewa^oundi, ■!««, dyu or dyo ukM ui launaluu* fvmi: ibut, dy&urdA 
(KO, dyaurloU (f Ik}, dyftusaioQita (AV.). In r«v4at (anliis ihia U 
tot rsyivauit) r&i bacatau* r*. KV. bu AdhrlgiTae fnm Adbrigu (of 
itMittoattil« Impoti); and AV. bii ghrtaatttvu, ippatMiUy accoa. pi. of 
Ktaftast6 ut -Bt^. 

B. Derivativo stems in ft, I, O. 
862. To this division belong all the & and I-gtenu which 
hnvc not been spcci6cd above *» belonging to the other or 
root-wotd diruion; nnd also, in the later language, most 
of the 1 and Q-atems of the other division, bj- triui^fcr to 
ft moce piedominaat mode of infection. Thus: 

I. a. Th« great raxas of derivative fcminlae A-items. aubtita&tive 
a»d M^ectire. 

b. Tba lAfl««ili)n or iheM awns has inalBU<n«d lueir with lltUa ehuga 
tkrvngh tba whol* Ujlory of tlio language, bdng alnoat pradaoly ibe aame 
tn the Vodaa ai liur. 


T. Horns AMD AancmrMM. 


2. s. Tb« gnat mua of derivaUvc femiitmG I-ntmii*. 

d. TU« cUm U witbo«t exoepti«ii in tin lal«r Iaiicii<c«- Is (>>• earlier, 
II ntttn tbo vxcfifUvB pointed out «bt«e (86fib): tliit AaDlBlitu nMde 
wlOicliaafl* of •eorat folltv tku mod* 6f dMl«iul«B odIt «htB tW Mcsnt 
b aM on Iks 1: tlia«, ti-riql, pAmf^i, ptlUtnl, rohlnl. 

•. The I-MaB> of lbi« JItUIod la c4aer»l if iccuddd m at4^ br 
crauacUod «f M tvller CMliiig In ji. Tbelt InQccUan kai ^coma In Ihs 
UUr Uiipt*(e Msuwha nliad wiili tka er ih* ot^n dliiitot), uid m tar 
41Sen» tnm Ihe Tftdlo faSMtlm : m« btlvw, 363 g. 

f. Tarj finr d«rl>&ilTc *t«4ii« In I u* r«««^fM4 by iba fnmiiuttvu 
u decUaed lite Ike root-dlrldoo ; tka Vedic waida of that elui mi. It 
tMitatJ 1b ue, tOBtfetrod lo tKb noda of lafloelion. 

g. A TM7 iiBill ODBibn srnuruline I-Mens (lulf-a^oun) tn in th« 
V*)k dadtaod u of Ib4 dorirtUtt dfrtnioB: tboj or* ■ fw rare piftper 
ounai, aiUll etc.; aad rtft^ mil Blri (obI^ om am auk}. 

3. b. The Q-«teiiM BTO Tov In nttmbort and are tnatftn from the 
«tliflr dividos, kM)BiIUt«d Id Infleetion In tbe irrent olus of derivative 
S*meau (pxcept tkat they rotnin th« mding ■ of the Doa. sing). 

898. Ed ding I. TLc polati of diatliutlaii betweon Ikli »nd iko otbei 
dlvMoB ue u foUovA: 

B. In Bom. ftof. Ika iu««l B-andlnc li nnilnc: rir.epl In Iha D-siemt 
and a T«rv f«v i-«teiM — nundr. Ukyml, tttii, tantri, tttndri — vLloli 
bar* pKMTTtd tU vadlDc o( ibo oikor dtnilon. 

b. Tha icibui. ainf. And pi. xld (Imply m and m tenpncttTidjr. 

0> Tk« d>(., •bl.-sen., *nd foe. *lng. Ukc slwart tko hiUor ondlnfi 
■If tM, ftm; ID'] ih';»« tfo Mpuateil (lom ib« iDtl of ibc t-itetot by an 
laterpoaod jr. In BrubmiriiL oCl, U la genanlly nlwtllnted for &• (307 h). 

d. Bftfare Ibo endings & of Inatt. tine- ■"<! o* i)^ KeiL-lao. tfu., Qia Anal 
of ft-ttctn* f> treated a* If changed to •; but in tko Vod*, tli* tnitt. vnJ- 
lag A Tety DfUn Qa noarly half tUo occutioncraj liloudt «ltb ibe Btul to S. 
The ;2 al ■•«tonia ]« in * fov Vodi« asitnplot 46nlrnd«d to i, and Avon 
to 1. A. lot. dns. in 1 occuta b f«w tlmor. 

0. In oU ibo weakett cue* abofo oientlonad, tha ac«*nt of an 1- or 
n-t(«a bavins oeni« OnU li ibrowit forward npon tko eodins- In tbe 
mnalnlng eue of the ikma «lui, Ibe gt«i. pl,, & n U alw*y> Intcqioacd 
bMiTMB Mom and ending, and tba accant icnalM upon tb» forinci (In RV,, 
h«ir«Ttf, It U osually thmwn faiward upon the ending, ai la i uid u-stamt). 

f. Is <(0e. ting., flnil ft beoomn e; flnal I and a are ibottoued. 

g. In nom.'act.-Toc. dn. and aom. pl. appears In I (and a)ttcm« a 
uatked dl0«Nflca bol'oen tbo oullct and Utet langoa^*, tbo IttWc bonov' 
InR tho tonus of tko other divMoa. Ibe du, eudlnc iu it unknnwn in 
KV., and loty t*n In AV.; tbe fodle andiog U I [a oorraipondiDg dual 
«t 0>»(tma dooa not oecor). The ngnlar lator pl. ending m bat only a 



ioabtfnl axiaiile oc tro in RT., «n<l • Terr null rnunbcx In AT.; tbo 
CM* ihot* (uid II te ftna of tmt fn>iB«nl o«cnri«iMc] ad^ b atntplT; uid 
(hooBh 7a»-r«Tin* o««u In Uie BfiliiiMnM, tlong wllb la-t«nn», ^(b i-rc 
u>»d imthtt ladllTMtniJr u nom. nnd u<tu. (u, lndu4, tluy iAin«ilin«» 
iBtwekani* «Im In ihc opici). Of t-Maow, ilia du. aont «to. «ii<ti in e, 
botli MiUor and l*t«(; in pi., of coons, B-roris* ut liidlttlDtiilth«ble tfom 
U-t9ian, Tb» RV, hu • Uw «xajiiplM of issa foi la. 

li, Th« mnalalai omm «*1I for ao ranuili. 

864. Example! of decleasion. As models of tba 
inflection of derivatiTe steins ending in long vowels, we 
maj- take IRT a^nfi f. army; ^IrU\ kanyft f. girl; ^^ dovl 
f. goddet*; WJ vBdhft f. trojnon. 





I. D. Ab. 










































































V- Moint* Am Annscn^Bs- 
























a^ V 













^ J 




S- V. 




«. to Ui« Vcd> Todhd b • iHw Whoslnc lo tie other iUHdoa (llki 
tend. (boTc, sod). 

36S. EiunplM «[ TadU Una* tn: 

ft. a-fltomt: lam. tlaf. mapifl (tbl« rl»;l«r fomi U etpcelUlr enn- 
ia«o rrotD tlEnu is tA sad U); oom. pi. VBf^Bfta (•bwit twenty «iaiiipli-«)j 
ftnt. fl. &rmdiBain&MUi (■ cue *r tvo). Half thp bhjM-u(*> tre to 
ta ie4d u bhima; Ihm Km ef pa. pi. Is ■ few timM la be rr^olved Into 
Sam: ind tbe 4 and Am of non. mcdi. tine are, vtry rmlp, to ba 
neaUd In thu **a» maiiBn- 

b. I-«tBB«: iiuir. (I*(. (Ami, ^mi; loc. cftiui; nom. etc da. dovi; 
nom. pi. dcrb; gto. pi. bnbTiaim. Tli« Oo'l ol i)i« slom t> to b» nul 
•1 ft Towcl (a«t ;) ri«4u«ntl|r, bin ii«l In ibo uiijvriiy ot intUncM: iblu, 
derUt devlia. dovtiUn, r6dasios. 

c> Tba iporailie loMuitM of Uinarot bntvotn Uiii dlTliloa and llto 

pTw^dlnj; hftT* boos kliMdj (Uflclwitly l)«tk«il. 

d. Of th« rtf nUr aitbadtotiMt mado In tks Bra:biB«na laRgu*|n (807 h, 
S39g, 963 o) «f it« dil. iliifi. vndini; U (or the toD.-abt- <"-lln£ fta, to 
■11 cUtiM ef tiorda utnlitlnx the Uttar cndins, % Tew «iui>pti<s tsiy he flson 
fccn;-. abblbbfityW irapiui) (AB.) a tiyn of oeerpotetring; trtftnbha^ 
ea Jie«t;*i oa (A.B.) »/ U* m«(rM «rtrfu&A md Jogtiti; tAco daivyi 
ca mKntiiy&i o* (AA.)4>^«^MrA. ioikdiew anJ hmnan ; otriy&t poyi 
(AB.) Kommi'» mUk: dhenvdt vi etAd rdtalj (TB.) Wa(, /«-.i>«a. m 
ae«r o/«* foir; JlrpftJlU trnciih tKB.) o/ sf*oJ aAu. ; jyWa^ TW, 
(AB.) «H,^»w (o tt* TAjja; aayiU diro *9in4d BDtArUnat (VV^O 
a>'. *«»«.. yVom U« ato«*^*/' T!i. .""i" M.t-i-i.r.rtcn la t»»4» alico 
lie AT,! IfcM, avipftUtv MJ - jlitm d*v- 


DEOLCHSIOX, 111. DmtVATIVB ft-. I-, AMD a-^TEUS. [—308 

366. Tb« Doati Ktrl t icmikm (pi«tut>Iy eqntneled fian eatrj gme- 
rtUriz), foUoyn ■ mivtd declaiiajon; thiu, «trJ. ■tr(]r&m or strim. BtHsi, 
•triyll, HtrijrM, «triyiiii, Btrl; atrljrKu, ■tribhyim. atriyoB; atr(yM, 
atrlras or stris, strtbbfa, Btriblijp&a, sCriqitm, striqu (bat tti« tcnni- 

ttlro* Btnm >n<l atrt* aM not rAiln<l In ihi! olilpf liuigukirF, and tbe Toc. 

atri ia nut quoUHv). Tbo ucoatUAi; uii It ibat ur a ntot-arard; ihn fonii* 
{eofHpimoiittF Ihe nom. *ii)g.) an Iboie «f 1fc« oHmt or d*tt*atli« di*ltI«D. 


887. ft. Tb« oc«arrooco i>f ori^nitl ujjootlTU in long finiil vow»le, 
and of componiids Imvlng as final mciutiei a itnra of the tint division, 
hu b<!«n nnffickntly trtiuted «l>ovl^, f>o Ciir kA nuscnllnv And feminine 
Ibniiii Ke coDcoracd. To form a ocuur s»m In coinpoailloD, th«nile 
of the later lugua^e is that the Bual long towoI b* abortMod; and 
tli« Htcm ao mado la >o be ■ofloct<)d liko KH adjective In 1 oru (dSO, 
341. 344). 

b. 8u«h DADleT tutjat m ^etf nn, and In the oldet laiiciU|B aliaogt 
iliLko«»ii. Of nauten from i-atcma bara been noMd in (he V«da only 
luuri^HTam, ace. iln^. (a maK. foTin), anil suAdtafaB. sen. alnc. (funa 
■a iiiiuc. >iiil f«ni.); fmn ft-«t«iuci, only a Ivn cximplcr, iind from Ktiu- 
farm* wbkh mlgbt bi! oiair, and tiin. iilao: tliiiii, vibhu, aubhu, Mc. (nam.* 
MC. tins-: ccai|i*ra 364); BQpfiS >iid mayobhuvS, Imtr. •iiiR.t and 
aubyobb^ BC6.pL (oouptropurii: 34ak); tmo A-ateut occui only bilt- 
a-di}ien oiauiplM at a iivtn. ulrijc. In 4s, 1II(« lli* niMC aiid hia. fotiu. 

o. Compounds linviog noiina of tli« socond diviaion as final 
RieDtMr an common udIj fmm derivaiivfle in A; and tlieaa Bbortrn 
tha final to a in both oiaMulins and ncntor: tbua, from a mot and 
pr^)a progeny come tbe Guaao. and neut- Htem apn^a, fern, aprsjt 
cAi'/tfbM. 8uch componnda triih notins in 1 and Q arc said to b« ln> 
Seeled In cuaao. and fem. llko tlw simple iri>rda (onl; witb la and On 
in aoc. pi. uaac); but tbe examples gtveo by tbB granimarlana are 

A. SimiB with tb«rtened Bnal ate oecattonally nMt irlA: thna. eks- 
patDt. attsiakftnl : and mth adYvrba (rhiI. ling, sccoa) m apabbUml. 
nbhyHjJaylul. The airn atri l« tlircctod to be iliattraad lo atri for all 

388. It is eonvenient to give a complete {wrsdigm, 
for all genders, of an adjcctivc-«em in Q a. We take for 
the pur(»ose on plip& H>it, of which the feminino is usu- 
aHj made in en & ia the Inter Iftoguage, but in | S in the 

^^K^ 3BS— 1 




136 J 









^^^^ H. 



lint ^H 









niiTli^ ^H 



plpijn ^^1 












qp% ^M 

^^K_ ^*^ 






pkp7^ ^H 

^^^r 0. 





plpjr^ ^^H 

^^■^ L. 






pipynm ^^H 

^^^^ V. 



<nn ^^1 




ptpi ^H 








<ii^ ^1 





pftpjrAu ^^H 

^^^^ I. 


wfr^n^i^ ^1 




papibbyftm 1 








pipyia ^^H 








tTTTn ^H 









pAprs* ^^M 

^^^^ A. 




Qirrq^ ^H 





pipti ^H 

^^^^ I. 



'AvyiPw^ ^H 



nUbttls ^^^1 
















Declension IV. 

Stems In ff r [o^ ^tT ^* 

889. This declension is a comparatively limited one, 
being almost entiicly composed of derirative nouns formed 
with the auffix cT tf (oi W^ tar), whiob m&kes masculine 
nomina a^enlti yused also partioipially], and a few aouss of 

K. Uiit it ineltidM alio a f«w nounn of r«l>doiisbi|) not madft 
with tbiil enf&xr Datml)- <l«vt m., av4>T' and D&aandr f,; and, bealiles 
tkMO, nf m., Wt (In T.) in., usf lin V.) f., Bavyaffbr in., and ttie 
ftorintno nuioorAla tia^ nnil cataaf (for whlcb, seo 48S e, g). Tlie 
faminltie.i Id tf are only mAtf. duhitf. and yitf. 

b. Tbo iDficcdou of IboBO Bt«ua Is qulto clotoly analogous wltli 
that of stcicB In i and a (Recond declemlOB]; Iti pooullaiity, as 
compared wlib thvin, ccnoists malnl; in tbo tiestiii«Dt of the stem 
itsoir, whit'h has a double form, fulter In tbo etronjc cii8C«, briufer la 
Ui« neak oniia, 

370. ForniB of tbo Stoni. In tbo weak ouM [exoeptlng tbe 
loc. slot;.] tbo st«in-liDal In ^t whloli in tlio woakmt oasM, or bufore 
a vowel-end log, U chatigod rcguliirly to r :1&0>. But as regards tli6 
strong cases, the slenu of tbii ductcD«ion fall Into two claflsei: la 
one of then — n-hioh la T»ry iiiut^b tlio largor, oontainiTig all tbe 
nmnma agmtU. and alsu thu nouns of rolatlooslilp n&ptf and vrhof, 
and the irregnUr words etf and BavTa9tl>r~ tbo r is vriddhiod, or 
bccotnca dx; in thfi otber, containing toost of the aocins of relationship, 
vltb of and nBf. the x t< gvnitcd, or chan^ to ar. In both classo?, 
tbo loc. sing, liu ar as stein-finnl. 

371. Endings. These art in gcnoral tbo normal, but with tbc 
olloving exceptions: 

a. Tha nam. alag. (mane. *ai tora.) eadt ilviirs In A ("'r oriilnal an 
Ot ftrs). Tli« *»(. ilng. md* in ar. 

b. The acouK, ting, iddt am to tha (itieuglheiMd) (tvni; ibo aacot. 
pi. baa (Illcc 1- inl u-6iaiD«) a m mMo. oadlni tnil a u f<<ui. euding, with 
the f langtbonL-d baforc ibem. 


v. Kocxs AXD AtuscmrXH. 


0. Til* »bl.i«a. da^ chwcM r t^ tv (ot ns: IBOb). 

d. Tk« fvn. ft. (m In 1 ftad n-ia«m>) iaMita d bttmt km, and 
Ukftkan* ikn •uv-flakl bebca It. Bat iha f ot of nujr >U« nsMln vkaci. 

•. TkB abuT* an tb> tnlM of Uw hut Ungnigs. Tht oMir pteianra 
eefUln deriulans tnm tWn. Tkw: 

r. n* •»!]■■ Is tiMB.>«i!r.<*Dr. la. la (u Bstwully In tlit VsiU) 
IMfBlutj t IammJ «r An («al> un fta-fatnt In BV.). 

(. Thi I af lac. dne. b lf«c*^a«' u t to » few «otd>: Ihn*, kutAri. 

h. In tW ft*. pL, «ka BT. hm ■■•«« srAcrKm, «>tkovi Insdned n; 
ib4 B«r^ iMiMd «f npftm b frafiMiu. 

1. «>ibo> ln«<«UiUl*« of n( *n ikn tla^ iu. oiM, |«n. n&nu, and 
IM, nM. Thp TmU initM ilv»r* oroim in gN. pi., boi iu ; ti tn 4 
■r^riiy of '•••> oairlctltir lonf. 

J. Tka tUcn tw^ f. ditm b** Dm *oe. dng. ll|ar, Ui« «fla. (Uf. oflfAa; 
ami Ika aMU*. |>l. aUo nnnU, aaJ lo<. ■I114: oor^ (wliih U Bctricallf 
irl*)lt*b'o: tUfim), u U in Mia]an *lUi I and Q-tteBiiL Ooca ocean 
(wH In hia, ttat-t ^*' '' 1* to ba nad u If t^ ngttlar ttltTUaUe fMni, 
OfArt (IM Ik* Ufktiiga •( ■ aad 9, mo 181 «). 

k. rrotn Ktt «oi»« oqI]p tiras ((ppaNntIf) and atfbhia. 

1. In ika iML-tco. <!«., tlt« r U dmott thraj* u be rwd aa a Mpa- 
rai* •ilUtii*, f, baCttra Uu endtnc o«; tkii<, pit^a, ct«. On the oontrary, 
nAnftnflKTl u onoe w b« rod nintndri. 

iu> ^'"' nauiar Imnm, m* below, 376. 

0Tt. AcronL Th« acMiiiuation foUoira oloMly tli« nUoa for 
|i *ihI ti-al>'iiia: ir uii Iho final of ike stem, tt contlouee, u «eiic«, on 
lliH i'(irn'*)Hiii'llii|[ ■j'ttabln iliroughuut. exi^«|it in lh« ^d. pt, where 
ll MHiy tia [ami lu tlin Vedji alnsj's it) tlirown fonr»rd upon the 
anillliHl wtiara, la tlio wnakot euea, r bficamo* r, th« endiog Iikh the 
flUKiiitl. Ttm Iwu iDonitiylUbli] atcou, at niid attf do mt show tbe 
lUMiiiiayllalilo MCMt: Iktu ib«aideB the fomu already ^veu abova), 
Hflihia. ii^u 

I'm* KKniiiplfla of declension. As models of this 
Wmlv itf liillwtiiin, wo may uke from the flist class [with 
Mrf ><' III 1)10 atronA Tormsj the stems clfT dfitt ■»' ^''^i^'' 
iiwtl tlM avAaf f, aMft-r; fiom the second cl&ss {with S^ ar 
(u Otti sliiinn fiiiiiii), tho stem flrl pltf m. faihtr. 
% flFTT WCT fiffT 

nffin w!iri, ftrTTt. 


«v *>arftiu 

pit Aram 

^L 139 

DEOI-ENfllOll IV., f BTXHf. 

[-379 ^H 




itr^i ^1 











pilr« ^^^1 




%r H 








mfr ^1 




plt&rl ^^M 




f^ ^1 




pitiur ^^^1 







iw^ ^1 




pliArdu ^^H 

^ At 

1- ^T?mPi 

(4H^«14^ ^H 




plt^bhyftm ^^H 



mm ^1 




pltc68 ^H 






IHfl^ri^ ^H 




pit&raB ^^H 







plt^Q ^H 



1 *>. 




pitfbhiB ^H 






pltfbbynB ^^^1 



rwniiri^ ^H 



pit^&m ^^^1 








pitftu ^H 

^^^P a. The femimoe Htpm 

HIH mfitr, mot/ier, is inflected pie- ^^H 

^K risely like 

[tJH pitr, excepting that its aecusative plural u ^^| 

H mT'T^m&t^fl 


87»— J 

V. Nonffi Ajrs AMtorms. 


b. n« p«enlln T»di« (otm* hkn bM9 (oftUlaiiUr tmuncvd kboTOj 
lti« only oaM of oUiaf Utui ipondle oecwranc* beUt Ike Mm. ttc dn. 
duiri. ■v&ttftrt, pitirA. *aA the gen. pL of nf, narfan. 

o. Tie nam. pi- rerai pltarfts uid mitaras eu. ue fotuid UMd ftlM 
•1 Kctu. lu iba *ple*. 

374. The Stem kroftf v^ J^ttal |Ut'lr A<»r/«r) niibBlItatae In tb« 
ntiddl* c*M« Ibe corrMiioDding forsis of krd^ta (8^ kj. 

376. Neutur foiuii. Tbe punmiuiuiu prescribe h complote 
■outer decloaaian «l*v fi>r fcuit !n t^. precbel^ AcoortlAUt wlib Ifctt 
of virl or raUtm iftboTc, 330, 341;. Thus, fur exantple; 




N. A. 













db&tr, dhAUr 



B. The wvHiceat cases, buwovor iM of i- and n-stanu Bead ad- 
jwtirvly: 344;, nra allowed alio to be (omti like lk« oomapondiag 
maioiiliiio oaaee: thus, dbttrA etc. 

h. Ho ineli n«Bitc Um* cbuK« lo occur ts tli« V«iU, but tk«y ba^n 
In apihMr In ib« 8r>>hiii*nw, under Influent* of th« eeMon Uodeuey 
(tompw* Ufltni. Srtter, RttUrin ; Fr. mrnUtir, omoI^mm) (« gtv« ibU 
N«n<m a^nti* *. morn adjeciiie ebsrutec icitlliig 11 rorrvspmid la gendet 
with tke u«un nhl«h It (<>ppixltlTcty} ^iiilian*. Tbua, wi? h&ie in 
TB. bhartf sdiI J«naylct> qni]ii>'ing antirUtQam; uid bhoitr?! end 
Janaylt^l, quUI(yla( sAkfatrft^r, m. In U., Krahftf^, (|UAltf)r[ng 

0. Vlian ■ f«aitnlae noun U fo bo quiJiBed In like muutr, tho ainil 
riHUlolii* dnl*slUo In I Is emplnyt^il: (hut, in TB„ bhartrjriu iinij bbar- 
tryfti!l« Jajiit7itry)is md Jftnofltryftu, qasltrylAg ^paa >nil alioE^tri; 
sad infb tusunrss ue not OEinuiuniou, 

d< Ths IIT. ibnw* th« suBO ivndeaty retv cvrlonsly once la ibo iccoh 
|il. mfttfn, 1nt1*ul of mitfa. In ip[>o»Iiloo ^Itt oiMKurii* noun* (UV. 
». Wiy 

a, Otbet Bearer torn* la RV. are atliit&r gen. ting., dbmAtArl lac. 
Itli|.] eittl tw (be aoni, elng., Iiielesd of -tp, a Um more oi less donbtmt 
MMi. alhtlar. athatixr, dharUli. 


nVB. a. Tlien aro no orl^oal adJo«l!vM of this doclenston: for 
Att ifititiil-ii>U<"^<lvsl pliaiaolar of thu douds composing It, am above 
j|^|it>' il>" 'entiiliie eleio Umade b;'tb« suflix \: tbtis, d&trf,dhatrL 

U. Hv»l« rndlog la r ("ko tho«o In i and u: 346) add a t to m&h« 
%^aWuiltl> Xniti whoa occurring ns final looniber of a cotniMUod: 




Uqb, karmakft :\^., vajrabli^ O^bf'. bAlih^ (Kbr i* From aome 
r-Tonta, rIhu, kto insUe atvia* In ir n&tl ur: aoo bcluw, 9B3 a, b. 

o> Noniu in r sb finals of adjcodva oarapfraDtlB are Inflected in 
tho ume mAoneT aa when simple, ta the nutulioo nod feminiM; in 
itlio Dcntvr, they voulil donbtlcn hnyo tho pecaUnr ncowr ondiogM in 
^ Bom.-ftea-vDc. of all numbers. 

d. Bat ta. bM opM tT&tpttAraa, nom. pi., having tftM /or /other. 

Declension V. 
stems ending la Conaonante. 

877. All Btetns ending in coasonanta may properly be 
classed U^Qthei, as forming a single comprehensive declen- 
■ion: since, though some cf them exhibit peculiaiities of 
iafiection, th&se have to do almost esolusively ivith the stem 
itself, and not with the decIcnsiODal endinga. 

878. In this decleusioQ, masculines and feminincs of 
the same final are inflected alike; and neutets aie peculiar 
(as usually in the other declensioue) only in the nom.-acc- 
Toc. of all aumbei9. 

a. The majority of eonaonantal sterna, howevei, are not 
inflected in the feminine, but form a special feminine deriT- 
atiTe stem in ^ i [nevei in tXf B], by adding that ending to 
the weak fotm of the masculine. 

b. Exoeptioas are In geucral tbe stems of dirisiona A and B — 
umely, tho radical alem* eto., and those hi as and la and as. For 
special oHsof, SCO bslow. 

370. VnTiiilioos, as Letwucn stronger and wcalcci forms, 

aru rery general among consonantal stems: cither of two 

ide^grees (strong and weak), or of three (strong, middle, and 

weakest! : see above, 911. 

a. The peculiar neuter forms, aocoidiug to the usual 

rule (311 \3\ are made in the plural from the atrong stem, in 

lingulai and dual from the weak — or, when the gradation 

*ia threefold, in singular from tJie middle stem, in dual &om 

the weakest. 


V. NocMa AXD ADJKcrm 


b. Aa in itic cftw uf eteins eliding in ahort vowels lAajrHol, 
▼ori^. midhuni, dAtf^i, ti^.}, & nasftl fometimes appears in the 
speclAl neuter plunU cm<» wbicli U found uowltere clae in iaflectiun, 
ThuSt ff^'" ^^0 Btems in as. U, tin, tho GOm-Hcc.-vuc pi. in -UbI, 
■lA(ii, -aAiji are very oommoD at every period, Accordini; to tlio 
gr&niiusrians, tho radical tlvttn etc. [division A; urn tivat<-tl iu the 
tlUBiB WAj; but e&amples of such ueutcrs aro of flxtrome rarity in the 
Isoguage; no Vedic text ofTcn one, and Id die Biabmants auil Siitras 
liKTe b««D uoted ootf -huntl i AU. vll. 2. 3), •vrntl IPB. xvi. 3. T «( mL\ 
•bhAfkJi [KB. xxvli -}, -bta^Qtl i^li. rlli. 1. 3>1. and -yuhH iL^S. il. 1. 8;; 
u-hile in tho Iklcr tanguago U found here and there a caa6, like 
•fruatiCRasb.i, -po^l (.'{(.ii it may be quostioaed whethor ibeyan 
not later annlot^cjtl (oriuutioDS. 

380. The endinge are throughout those given above (310) 

u the "aotmal''. 

a. By the g<?DeraJ law aa to finals :IB0], the a of tlie non, »1n^. 
masc- nod fcrta. i> alwaya ina(- nud irrefiiiiUritlcs uf trtiitinent of tho 
final of the attsm in thii caau are not inrn<qiirat. 

t>. The evu- aiid ubl. nliiK. we uevei aieiiiiKU't>bed in form from 
one another — nor ar«, by undiag, tho nom. und accnH. pi,: but these 
Kxaulluiev dilTer in Bt«ni-forin. or In acceot, or iu both. 

361> Chungo Id the plaoo of tho accoot is llinitvd (o id oooty liable 
atoms and the [nrtioiplos in 4nt (accented on the final;, for dflUule, 
soc b<ili>w, under dtviiiioDa A and B. 

a. But 1 Taw at the compnnnils Qf the raoC aflo ot no *hoir an Irregolsf 
shift «f ae<«iil la Uio uldnat Uu(u<i!a: sea boloTr, 410. 

363. a. For convL-nicDce and cltutmen of presentation, 
it will be well to sepai&ti; from tlie general mosa of conson- 
antal Sterne certain special classes which show kindred pa- 
culinritiea of inflection, and may be best described together. 

B. DerivAttre Mems in m, la, ua; 

O, Derivative mems in en (an, nun, Tonji 

S. Derirative stems in iu (in, mint Tin); 

E. Derivative Bt«nu in ant (tiot, m»ut, vantj; 

7. Perfect active participles in viba; 

Q, CompaiatJves in yUs or yae. 

b. Theie lemain, tlien, to consiiluic division A, espc- 
daUy radical stems, or those identical ' ' ^*^ »«ot«i, 


ION v., COKDOKJkXTAL R(>Or-!tTKMII. f— 388 

together with a comparatively smnll number of others which 
are inflected Hke these. 

Tbejr will ba Uikmi up in tbo onlcr tliiu InditAtAd. 

A. Boot-itonu, snd those Inflocted Ufco tbom. 

388. The stems of this division may be classiBed a« 


I, a. Koot-at«Bi», IiatId]; iu tbom no demoDHtrkUe «lc>noiit addid 
l:A:nwt: tlinB. to r«r(e, kCt umy. p&d /oat, dfQ dtrtetion, mkh {V.| 

b. Suali (temf, bowot«r, u« not tlmrs pKciAflly lAeotlokl In torn 
itlUi Ihe root- ibuf, vie from (VftO, ST^ tiDn y'ef], mdf fraio ymuf, 
tt(q rram fvnH;«(^1, uf from fVan thine; — Inia tnou In Intl r nomc 
Mwa ill Ir mil or: ttiui, ijr. E-ffr. Stir; J&r, t^t dhiir. pfir, mur, 
itnr. aphur; »i>d paur from ^pe«r. 

0. Wtih tl>M« nuy t* nnktil tba *t«ai wick rcdnpliotMd root, m 
eikit, j-tvijudh, vfcttiTUi, SMyAd. 

d< >Vu«i( or ihb divfttoii 111 unwiniiouuded um tie lol«r4bly beqiieiil 
Ib th« elier Ungntec: thiii. In KT. uc fannd mora itiwt * linmlioil of (hatu ; 
In &V,, tbdut *tit]' ; bill In Ui« cluflot ^odirii ibu powaf ot ualiig ny 
mil U will In ihti «r«y li loit, ind (hn eumplw nv compantlvoly (•«. 
Id all ^rioil*, hovevM, the niIJectiTS u«4 ■> tat\ at > coiupoiiii4 tt Tery 
oomnwn (su btbrw. Ml). 

•■ As W (be tallt)EUr« uk of vulous oum or ihc root<naiia, te 871. 

n. f. Stems made br tlie additivu of t (o » GoaI short rowol of 
a root. 

f. Vq propel TOot-lUin endi iu ■ aboit voval. *lt)iou<b ttiotn un (8M] 
■santipka al nuitfer vf •■eli t« ■lion-TOwol-JoeleaiUiij i \at, 1 «r n at [* 
■4ds t to auk* ■ AooUnotile Xonn: ibni, -jlt, -Qrilt, •kft. ItooM in r. 
howevtf, as haj juit beeu leon (b), aUo mako itaiiu In ir Ot nr. 

b. As r«csrd» Uie freqne'ncy mil um of thgi* woniB, iko uho Is trua 
u «u M»l«d aboro tnpccttng roai-*ioin>. Tlie Voili, »tF«ir* rximi-Iv* (if 
ncarlr tilnr socb ralD•Uon^ a tvw ol tbcai (mit, r{t. Btut. hriit. rft, 
•■d dyut If (Un It Ukcit frotB dyu) in iDlapnndant vie. Of too» Iu f, 
t Is addcJ br kr, dhr* dbvr. bbft TT. Bf. spr, br, snd hvX' Tba roots 
Bl (ot gam) aoJ It&n alw maie -R&t tnd -hit V kddKion of tba t to 
an alibrcTUuil fotn In a (cbtu, odbvagAt;, d}ruc&t| dvigati navaitAt, 
sBd ULtbbit). 

IIL L Mouoayllsbic tilso a f«ir HppMviiHf reduplicntcdl stems 
■at ccrtaittlf cofiD<>ciibl« iriib any verbal root Iu the lau^age, but 
Itartac tbe aspect of root-sttms, u coutainiug no traceable sulfix 




tbiu. tv&O clui. pitb rouil, bfd i*«rf. &p and vtr Mr«t«r, dvir 
£s mMHA, kakubti ami k&kiiil Mnnrml. 

■mas cf Uiav oMtloa* in liter oie, whll* oilun kat« tom Innilamd 

•Urn BWdM oi derlmilon •» luie b^cona Mxtlnd. 

k. Sl«Be iBoro or I«m otc«rljr deriratiTe, but ntdo irith vaStat 
o( T$tn or ena Isolated occvrreitce. Tlira: 

t. <tOfi**tlTM (V.) ftMD prApoiitioiii irtth the tonu vat: arvCtAt, 
tr&t, udT&t, nivit, psirBvit, pmrtl, aoihT&t; — Z dwlTRtliM (V,) 
In tu (p(Trfa4p« ibbiatUted from tAtl), In t ttm IwlaMd lemt: Om 
upu-itat, d«v&tU, vrkitst, ■MritAt, aarriUt; — 3. ockei dm*i 
tItM In t prKieilMl l>r virtouf lOwtU: thnt, digit, rthit, nOiit. sr»vAl 
■AQC&t. TOeh&ti n&pOt: ta4^t. dlvit. yo^Jt. rohft. Bsrlt. har{t;1 
marat; yakft. ^Uqrt: wd Ibo Bumenli for 30, 40, X, trUg&t etc. 
(476]; — I. ■Mmi In ftd: An*, dfqid. dlin&d, bbasid. vanid^j 
far4d, auoid; — &. itotiu in J pre(«4cd by <ririo«a lovcU: tLnt, tffQiU^I 
dhnA). MoAj, bhl9^; qqU, vft^ti, bhuiij, ni^OCO; inrJi — 6- • 

to« aUm indlni; lo ■ alMlmt appirentlir r^riBitive itiBi, JSifl, •dAB* 

bbia, mda. bhiq: — 7. a remnmi ol nnrliwinibtn nw«fi, mrh u Tiftip. 
WpA^, k&pftb, f ui4db, ifCdb. pfkqiiidli, r«sb&tl'i'), aarigli, viorub, 
Uf^Ui. kav&f. 

384. Uendcr. The rooC-st«P)l are rapularly fnntnioe as 
vetiimia, and msacotlDe aa •»«««•)* aftntu) (wtitcti b probably onlj mi 
MitetaDtive use of tlielr adjecUre vatne: below, 400l But tlifl femi* 
nina noun, witliout olianginj; Its gender, la often aI«o na«d conarabiljr: 
e, g., drub f. {>'ctrub be mtmicotj muns AnnnM^ amtit^, and also 
AtfrnMT, Atftn*. mtniy — thu bardoring on Ui« maaculun value. And 
Miw of the femlnlnes liave a completely concrete meaulnf. llinmsk 
tliA wti»l« dirilioti, tbo tniuenlinoi are miuh Ich nimerous than tlie 
fSBbUBes, aad the seoten nuoal of all- 

•. Tl« lnd«p*Bi«nl n«Dt*r ticni are bfd (kIm •bll-d), dija, vix, 
tvhr, miB Jl4»h, io mouth, btiia, d6a («ltb vblch my he mantloDed 
lh<' ttiiltcUniblo* ^fan uid y6«); alio tbu ippiMBt darlTMlie* yUE(t, 
filq-t. kipftli, iarJ. 

386. Strong and weak steoi-fonni. The distinctioa 

o( thoM two clnssoB of forms ia usually made either hy 

the precence or absence of a nasal, or by a differeno« in 

the quantity of the stem^vowel, as loag ot short; leas often, 

by other methods. 

880. A naaal appMrt in the Blroog eases ct the following werini 

1. Coupwuili htTlns u llBal n«iahcr tb« root me k feSe: Ma Maw, 

407 a.; Mid DV. hM moM umvyifkoam b«B roel VTaoi — 2. Tb» 




•Ma f»i, (otDctliBM, In Um bl4«r Un(ai|«: ihss, aau. ting, f&a (for 
yuAk). *c«tii. yuAtam, da. yuf^ft (bui ilio j^am mkI y^ft); -^ 
3. Tli« *tAPi 'dff, M flnil ot ■ eoiDpound la th* oltlvr 1*ngu>x«; but i>iilT 
tB tlu nom. bIdk- muc, and not alwiyi: iLu, anyftdfO* IdfD, kld^ 
Udffi. etidrn. aadfA and prftttsadt^: but alto idfk, tidfk, cv&rdrk. 
Met — *• foi patb aod paiii», nlilcL rabfUtuio u^io «xicudtd tutu, 
kaS tot diut, i« bdov, 3M — 0. 

987. Tbp vowel it (• tongdwnod in RtTong cmo* m follovs; 

1. 0( iho tv-nla TRO, B«0. Ottp. aiLbll, 9UI, In * fo* Eniit*n««i (V.), 

al tha eDil uf rompounils: — 2. Of Iho roou vab and Bah, but IrmcnUrly; 
■•• b«!ow, 40& — A: — 3, 01 ap ipofrr (ms 99B); alio In iti cainpnnnA 
rltyip; — 4. or p&d /nnC in ihn componndB of thb won!, tn Ilie Uur 
Iwif'g-. th« Eun* Ungthi-niiiff Li tanAe In the middle «a*c* alM; U1<1 In 
BT, and AV. ih« nom. ilDit. iicni. ti boifa -pit and -pAt, «bU« BT. hM 
•nc* -pi^*, uid padbhla and pKten oecar ta tha BtabBunaa; — 9. Of 
naa ntut (? nlbft »«b]. dii. r<im„ ltv„ onny, — S. 8pof*4l<i cmc« (V.) 
atit; rU 0), tot). Hint.; pftthis and •rflpas, aMoa. pi.; viialTitiaa, 
Mtn. pi. The >tran|rtb«nod forms bht^ atul r^J are ooiuunt, thiongb all 
elUMt tit C4H8. 

388. Other tii(Kl«a of dllTeretiUatloD, bj oIIbIod of a or coDtnwtloa 
of tbe BjrllAliIe coniuiniDj^ it, sp|>uftr iu « few sums: 

1. In •ban: *ev bulow, 40B;— 2. In k^ara (T.). alonf wlib pro- 
lonxattou ft/ at tkni. k;&mfi du., k^ajnae t>1.; kfaua iiuti. ihiji,. kfimi 
l«t.alax., kfia&l abl. lUit.; ~d- in dvar, «iniUMt«4 (T.) to dur In i^tak 
w«M (but «Ub aome Mnfiuloo cf tli« two ciaMU); — 4. In mfhl, «bi«h 
beconM, Is BT., aOr Ui weak cases; Ial«i It U IndtcUiublv. 

S80. The endings are as stated above (880). 

a. R«BpeoUiif; tfaeir eombbtatlon witk tbe final of the tteni, a» 
veil aa the lr«atCDCDt of cbo lBtt«r irli«ii it oooan at ion «u(l of iho 
word, tbo nil«s uf euphoDio oorabiBation Ichnp. III.i are to be eon- 
•ttll«d; tb«r Inquire miKb mora oomlMit and varioui ]4)plieation fa«ia 
than aaywben el<« in deBleoaiOD. 

b. Anontlau tnaf t"^ rallad (o a f«w iiSMptfonal caiM »f couMoalloB 
{T.}; midbbia aii4 mUbby&s frDm mlU month; thu wboUy anonulona 
pa^bbta (RV. ana VS.: AV. baa Urnvp padbhfa) rmm pfcd; and aarit 
asil Bar&^bhTae eDnraponitlog t« a nom. pi. Barighaa (Iniictd efsarAhaa: 
88S). D&a U appaieailr fn dim, by 149a. 

a. Accartins to tbe ininnurUiu, lumtM ttema, nttl«aa tbay and la ■, 
rufal Of a awniTowd, tab* tn nain..a<«.-Toe, pi. a •iicnsikoninx uual bi>faf« 
the final coniooant. Bat no mcb caaM (Ton neater ntDa-ium* appear orec 
W haf* bean niM «lih Iu nM; an^ t» ragarda tdJocllTc atcniB ondlng In a 
(wt, B«e abftTc. 37Bb. 

Wblla*/,9iMaBai. S. ■!. |0 


V. Noi;ks asd AiMBcrirEa. 


yitUwg: -(Qtuk, •ddluua, -dliusbhi», -dbukfa; — nib-el>M (SSSb, 
1471. .lUi liekiitf- -tiU Aiham. -liiJbhU, -Utau. 

g. aieiD* Id m (143b, ai2a: uuly pra^lbi, uoiu. (Ihk., quoUbk): 
•4&ID quitting •{an, -Q^mMii, -qanbbit, -gjuua. 

80S. Tba root-stsms in tr ind ur [383 b; lenytiieo tbetr vowol 
wh«o the fiaa! r U followed b^ unothGr coDson«nt (MCb), aoil alio 
in ihe Bom- slug, (nhore (lie cnw-cndinj: • ii lost]. 

o. 'ilias. frou gfr f. *nt\g conie gir iiHvii gi>'am» BirJt oto.; 
Kirau. Eirbhyun, liroa; stvoa, glrbhls, girbby^ giriun, bIt9& 
(166); and, in like BMuatr, from pur f. *iri/»skoid como pdr iptib , 
p^Mm. purlUetc-; puriLu, parbltyitm, pur6t; piiraa, p&rbhTs, par* 
bliy&8. puMlm, pDrfu. 

b. Tharc ua ou toou in tB (t-iieiM iIh ext«cilvely m\-i pis) sr in 
US; bnl (ma the root fBa with lu & wo4kaaod to I (S&O) ooibo th* 
noun SqIs r. hUuiitg, wUcli U InOoeM like glr: tluti. JL^la (4{i^\ 
AfJfam, A^[f*> UC'! B^ftn. Affrbhr&m, &^(foa; llflfaa, Aqirbbia, , 
a^frbliTaa, ftgl^am. acttifn. And si^ds Uig^er I* tppueutly » nmt 
typad iMmln^vc of like fnmiatlon rrotn the toot Jaf. The fnna affjlpr&t 
(TS.), Ct»ia Uio loot-Msai pm^. Ii liolited knd anomalc^o. 

c. Tba«« ■icni in ir, xa, ia (Ww ■ W\p pro1c>ng*l>»n of vowel 
lo cotDpofiUou uid dcrliBiton: iho*, glrvfti>m pQrbhld. dliQrsatihl 
dbCstva, iglrdj. Sqi^vaa^ r«a. (but *lio itCrvvn, sfrva^aa). 

dt He n«ttte citmmu mu op a dale of qnul-iadloki titan, Ilka 
Jlgamia dtJitring le go, naiia fiOQt th« dwddenttTo ooajiig*tlon-«ltia (1097), 
tiid proictU-flt fur II ■ decianaloD Uke lliat of S^lfl: Uid«, Jigunis, Jti 
mifo, jigamirbhla, JtgamS^iu, tit. Sneh * du* «pp«m to bo a me 
HgmMl pt tkt (ttaautUM, iLato no axaEapl* of It bat be«a tbaad quotabli 
flnm Iba HUuttm, etlhet ttiiUt oi Utar, and ilnM tbm If. la fid, at 
mora k dMldnrailTc atam Jlgamia thaa ■ taoiaUTo noni gaioa;. 

899. The stem 4p f tester la infioctod ooly in tbe liluial, aud 
with diHimilatlon of Its final before bh lo d (151*]; thus, apas, 
apAa, adbhb, adbbyia, ap^, apad. 

a. But RV. ltd ibB ting. In»tr. apt and $tn. apjis. la the e(rli*i 
U i n*»g* (etpccUlly AV,"}, tad civa In ibc cplci, U« nom. and icciu. pi. 
RiRiu ate oeeuloatnT eonhued In um, ipta balag nnylojrtd ai aeeu., 
tad ap&a ■• aaalantvt, 

b. Betide* tta itaai ap, eaia-forat of thft voTd tia lomMlinKE mti 
In c»n>prttltion *ad duilvitton; thof, foe example, abj^ ftpodavata. 
Apom&ya. apaonuutt. 

894. The (torn p&dis dl man b Ttrf IrrOgiilar, mbatitstii 
pCunUa in the stroog caB«a, and loaing iia • :nM;aa)arilf| bofor*3 
initial bb of a caM-«DdiDg, and likflttriae (bf analogy with this, of 
by an abbreTbtion aliio with that BOttc«d at ft3l| in the It>c. plaral. 
IbG Toeatire la (In accordance vilb that of the wiDevhat iiiuularljr 




loBccMd p«rfeet parUoiples: ece4eaa] p^&n in tkc UUr laogiuiee, 
but pumfts Id the earlier. Thus: pum&n. pnumitam. puihal, 
paibtAi poihB&s, poihsli pi^aa ) pnaitftaBtt. pmnbltyfaa, pu]faK6«; 
pAmlAsu. ptubBis, pombhiB. pumbhjria, piuhadm, pmfasu. 

B, The 4'->-«iilui>tiou of tbe yttk Ivtjbi, It will Iiv noticed, li Ibal of 
■ lra« luunoaylUMc turn. Tbfi tamt vtih bb-cnding* iMwhat* oeenr iu Hlv 
oMot luigut^, uoi do thty appear (e bmv* boMi cHmI froni Ae Itur, 
latUnoM of lb* confmlun of tttong kdiI wtak form* nn aceaflonally mat 
wltb. JlX to Ihn ntonitoii of B nnllnpialtied In Ihn woikoii caina (wliMie* 
lUCMMrllir follow* thkt In (bu lae. pl.J. tee 183 a. 

b. Thit alfin >ppi*an iin<1nr * M>nit<tait%1i> itjinf of tormi tn rom- 
poddon and ilerlfaUDii: ibu*, aa poitlfl iit puih<;cali, puihntva, pudis- 
yrmot, -poiluka, etc; u pum lu piiihviitia, pndirQpa, pmhvat, 
pumutba, «ec.; » poibsa tu ptuhBarant; — tt iJm end of » componnd, 
kitfcer *lih It* full loflcottoo, w <a ntripuihB irtc. ; or u ptulivk, (n 
Btripoiiiea, mafaftpadua; ot u puma In strlpama (TS, TA.). 

38B. TIh •tiiiD path a. road is defective In dccloDuun. fannlo; 
only the woftkr-st cosrs, whilo tliu xlrung are made fnitn p4ntht nr 
p&ntbon. and llm oilildlc from paUiI : H-e uador aa-etctius, bolov, 43^. 

389. Tho titna d&nt m. tnoth Is perhtpB of pnrtklplHl origin, Bad 
hae, lUo a pnrtiolplo. the faraiB dkat and d&t, stroDg and woak: 
tbUB (V.?, d&a. diaitauit datii, clc; datia ace. pi. etc- But in the 
mlddlft cai^s It ban ihe munuayllnblc and not tlie participial accfiat: 
tbue, dadbhUi dadbbyi^. In noni. p). uccnra alav -datoa ia>t«ad 
of -daotaa- By the gnrnmariaiis. ibe airoag cases of tbia vord an 
re<iaired to b« osdo froin d&nta. 

387. A number of other vorda of tkls division are defective, 
DuktDK |>att of thoir Inflection from atema of a dlfferont form. 

ft. Tkui, hfd ^4art, mAbm oi mAa n. hhmI, mim ta. menfA, ads 
r. MOM, nig t. night (not foiled In Ibe oMic Inntuigs), p(t f. dmiy, trs 
stid bf ita gianuiurLtui to lack tho ooin. of tXL nnmWti tnd the m«u>. 
slnf. sail du. (the uoniera, of cohtw, the kc pi. also), nuklag ihem 
r«ep«ctl*e1)r trooi hrdnjra, m Knsil. moaa, nuiJUi, aiqi. pttanS. Bm 
tka BU(« Ui tho eldut liniivtfcti It u«l entltelr in MCoidanoe with tbti 
NfalrMient: Iha*, vc Bod maa j9««A teen*, ulng. ; mos nmntk a»ui. *inc.- 
and niad n^itrih in. From pft o«car* eolr the loo. ^l. pftaii and (ItT., 
eaee) tba lanM cue «ltii danbla eadliis, p^Afa. 

S8<8. On tho other liSQCt. certain stent of tlili division, allowed 
bytha i^rammiiriADa a fall indeotloD, are uaed to fill up (ho defioien- 
cfei of those of anothei form. 

a. Tbut, iafj n. Iflooti. 9&kft n. orAtre, tUi^ a. tivtr, doa n. 
(alM Di.) fwt~ann. bare betide them defeclire flemi In dn: Me Maw, 
ddft. Of •»■■« or ihna, tiaw«T«r, U •D]nkin( but tLa naai.-actL dug. found 
In the Older Ungusfi:, sod albct tat«) lalei ara tint very (Caniilf fepiMcated. 

AXP AotKntt^ 


M * 

■Mi ^bmOt to *• 1M«L Swk «>» -vidA. -aida, -difs. bfei^i, 
^m t f i^ *Fi»» Ml doni, pan. dlntr*, -dn*. ii<^ nUA, kftpl. 


MSI OHfiMl a^ta rtm knf^ the rMt-fom «» eoap«nd?cl; 
mil a« lUwt li^i^*. 

a. Ak«« ■ »m*» mn f toMi ftiM &e BT^ far ti« mm put Mly 

«0]. Bat ai^and adtndvw, teri^ & not u ^ 

of the luenc?. 

». Po3M«JTB a4)eeiir« w pwJn ■!■•, o( Ae «■• <■«■. an 
sot Ttty fkk; *"t^** m* VM^anK mB t^tmwJ fctvJ; aliyame 
mm-AmW; c&tafpad / w > ««rf; Mifaird hirf lifaA ^i%; 
ittytp It e rtti-ai^i i<w»» j»w— wf M««n: Mliiwflili /liiwiilii) 

*4fTlk< wljr ■■ ika 

Uattttt, Mir Am dw tMioia*! attt m « lAe (407 ftX Am «ia 
kM (Ma). iUm «lih pad, M ttupadl. drlpUt. wl «ta daiil, •• 
Tt^adatl, nd auU. ianoi (AT.), ApuadI (*V6>- 

IncgilariflM «r ialMlM awav la ik» feUvwtag: 

dOt. Tbe root has aly, ai fini of a wpo aa d. b iiieecad 
iM B» hn like K dcrirstiv* aoaa ia «b ,belo«-. 490 ff-, t b e B »i^ bft 
ia Ike asm ng, aai loaiag ii> n ta tha bMIi caiea aad Id a to 
tke WMkMtMMibrtoaljrapdaMllyla tW bcit^'- Futbcr. vkM 
Dm Towet i> Int. h te tcaiact wfih fotlowliic n nvnu ta It* «%- 
laal Bk- TIm: 

Ul»oh Vm Comhomamtal Strmh. 
















vTtrahibhytm W^hfibhyM 





A, At 10 tbd ctitDge of n u 9, ami 193, 1S6. 

b. A temlnino It inicl<? by ailillnit i to, ns nfnnl, th» «l«tn-(om shown 
In Uh wcftkcrt raMa: Ihur, 'V7traet^D,{> 

e. An *«cQi. pi -h&naa (llk« tlie nom.) &1ao tKvn. Trtrob&bbls 
(BV., oum} 1* the only middle e*ii(>-foim qaotablc> from the aldor Isnguaco. 
TniUlUoiU to thi> a-dealonMon biEln klrCAdy In the Teda: thus, lo -bJi 
^V. AT.), -shni (RV.). -haiia. 

403. TlitT root vab mrrif st the end of a compoand tft sfttd tif 
thi- grauciurians to be leaKtbenad to vAh in boUi tlie Unng mi. 
middle cMea. and contnicbtd id thowubott cuoe to Ob. wliirh with 
a proocdiDK n-vowvl become) tu()97oi: tliua, fioiu harrav&li lacri- 
JUfhtarin^ lopithct of Afmi], havyovitt. haTTKTiham, hRvyAnhS, 
etc.; bftvyftvih&u, tiKT7KTd4'>bjftia, liaryftutios; havjaTibnv. 
baTT&iihas. havyttciujiUiis, etc. Asd QvctavAh inot [{notnblei is 
uid to be further irti-gular Id niaklng tho Dom. alag. to vfta «u<) the 
vocative In vas or vu. 

■. In (hu Mfller Uuctuff, only ilianji fortiiK of eompounilt with vah 
bkve been fonml to ocnarr namnly, 'vi^, •TJUiam. -vihAu or •vlthS, tnd 
•Tilhas. Bal fcmlniiiM In I, from tba wVftlMl Moiu — m ttUTtuhU 
dlljAubif paf(bAuhI — nn met vrith In ibe BrUimu^. TS< bai ibo 
la«Salu nam. tLniC' pAftt^^^J^ 

40A. or vory iirogulur fanuntion and infl«ottoa is ono eomoion 
of valii nanclf ans^TAh lanas + vali ^urdw^tariny or 

i. e. or), ItA stom-foriD in tho strong oasftft u ann^vAh, 

In tbo'wMkust anaduh, hd<I in t)i« uiiltUe aaa^ud (perlia}M by illa- 
siniiitlun from asaijui;! , Moreover, its nom. and roe. dug. atu nwdu 
Id vSo au<l van {»* if fmnt a vuit-at«iD]. Tbun: 













anaduh aa 

an«4.idbh,sm y^^^abhy, 




V. NoirjtS AXI> AOJBCTIT*'*. 


a. Ann^udbhTui (A.V>, om«o1 Is Uki only niiildU caM-form qwMtMe 
froB Ihii older Uncm^a. Bnc ccmpuuiidi ihotiliig Dm mlddl* «t«]n — u 
ftoa^ucohato, nnn^odarbtt — tn iu*l vlili in Brniatpat mc. 

b. Tke correiponding fmlniiu ilen (of nrj Inftiqiitiil ootmnnea) 
U vliliKT sDA^uhi (VB) oi ui»4-rtbi (R. Hi;.)- 

406. T)i>- rdM tah oi'tTAmt^ hw In tlie T«dk ■ d«ubte itngulirity: 
ICI ■ 1* ch»iigMibl« to f erea itriw ill o-rom-l — •• alto la Id flatlo 00- 
tvnoBM u ■» Independent ailJteUte fKV., tHob fit) — vhtle It Mm*. 
tfniM Tonultts un<b>itgi>l afler in 1 or n*rowel; and tu a la olthM prolonged 
Qt nniftlna uiH^uijcd, in buth itraiin sail «»ik rumt. Tbe ^noUMt rormii 
«re . -f^t. -ffitaxB or •■iihiun or -niibAti). .aiiht, •«&• or •oiha, -f lUias 
01 -^tiAB or -sUias: •B&bA (<tu.): -^dluis •>[ -siUim. 

400. The eompoaua AVikyii (iT^J M'^' offrrin^) a trrtain prittt Ot 
(BR.) n ctriain saeri/tei li uU to furnt ibe iiam. and roc riiic Kvaytm, 
ami to M*k« III nldtlte tuem tnm nvmyk*. 

«. lu onl)' quolahle romi u av&yks, f. (RT. and AT., Mdi onc«). 
ir tiio «>fni la a defflvailYB ttcm Bva-f->/yaJ camitiaUi, avsy^ 1i vecy 
probaMy from ara + i^^a, whiib bu ili« lonit moutnx. Bst sadJuuiiit 
(BV., ou<e) and porodma (RV. twk*) thotr a »1in!lai apparent ■vbiiftntlini 
ill num. eini;. of ttio cMcendlng a sllci loni & Tor ■ Dnil noLfODRontni 
(d uii q t(!it«eU*e)y). Compue alio (he »U«(cd ^AtttvBs (>boie, 403). 

407. roiniiuunds nilb aflo or ac Tho rout ao or afio 
DiaV«a, in eombiimlion vlik prupoRttiotu nnd other wards, n consid- 
cnblR class of famUiarl)- nH<l si^ectlfflB, of qtllo irre^iiIirronnatlOD 
and iuflectlon. In somo of which It alinoet losei ita character nf root, 
and Iwiconi<>H an ending or derivation. 

a. A part of tbMo ndjoctttoa hare onlj- Iwo ateoi-fortDB : a utrong 
in aBc fjleldlog ab, from aOka, In aona. ainir- maac.), and a weak In 
a«: otliera di*tln^!«li from the middle in ao a w^keei «teu) in e, 
before wblcli tlio a Is vooCiacCed vlUi a preccdinir t or a into 1 or O. 

b. Tbo fOmUitie in inado by adding I to tlio tun-fonH ttaed in 
tlie neakeal caoes, and Is aceeuted like tbem. 

408. As fixaotploa of hiBfrction w« nay take prlike /orward, ttitt^ 
pratyUlo vppotiU, leMt, vi^raLo going aptirt, 

Slntttlar : 

If, V. prin prix pratyio prat;4k 

A. pt^oam pr&k pratyAflcam pratjrak 

I. prica pratloA 

t>. prftoe pratio* 

Ab. G. pnlooa praao&S 

U pr4c4 pratlcd 


K. A. V. prAfloSn pT^I pratyaAcfiu pratloi 
I. 0. Ab. pr jcbfayftm praty^bhyim 

0. 1.. i>r£co« pratlcoa 

Tlfva&oam vi^ak 


Wfvnficau vifQot 



[— 4ia 

Pluril : 
If. T. pr^osB prilAei praty^oaa pratjr&iiot vffviifican v{f vnfioi 
A. iwAou priftol prktloAs prat^fcaol vf^QoOs vlfv&fict 
I. pritcbhiB prmtrAgbhis v^fvagbbta 

D. Ak. pr^bbjM pratyA«bti;as Tf^va^bbjas 

O. pr^&m prfttloJhn vt^aoom 

L. pr^lkfu pr&tyiMo vlfTok^n 

a. The /enUiiliM itetns »« prici, pnin«i, vC^aoi, reaiwctiTolf . 
h. fio «xAmpla of Ui« lulJillo form* «i«4ptlTis thv ■ii>ia. etc. tins. 

Mat. (tnd tlila laaenUy luvd m xdvotb) li found «lthei In BV. ot AV. 
In ihe uui* «>sU U U'^Uns Urn nom. «U. pt. B*ni. la fi«i; but ot tUi * 
aunibct cf Biamplc* oritur la Iho ElTabiDknM: ttxu«, prjLScl, praty ftltM ^ 
•rrlfiol, eamyAiioi, uiULryafloi. anvaitoi. 

400. a. Liko p>^a %to inlleeted iLpiQe. &Tftflo. p4rAfio. arv£ac, 
adhariQc, and ulhorB of ia.ra occurrence. 

b. Like praV^o Jiro infloctcil nyUio (i. «. niaflo), oamj'&fio 
(aam-l-a&c, with im^Blarlj Inscrlod 1, aad fidaflo ivreakOHt etop 
6dio: ud + afio, rith i laierted fn wcalcMt omh oitlyi, with a few 
utbcr larfl ateio!- 

c. LIko v{gvai^o l« Infloctod anv&Ao, also three or four others of 
which odI; isolsied fonns occur. 

d. Still more Irregular Is tiryUio, of which the ve*keat Bt«iii It 
tlnqo itirAfl + oo: tlia other ttvtaa itre made Arom Ur-f afio ur ao, 
with the ioaertfld I]. 

410. "nia aeneniutllon aC tlieau woiiti Is lri«|aUi, u r«$irda both 
tho iMmi thenuclvaa anil thalr Inflectud fornw. SAiavtitiiM tha ana et«n«at 
baa Ihe tana and aonatimva tba otli«i, wltboul any tiipsrent roMon Tot ihe 
dlSannoe. If the compound la aomited ou tha Itiil t/llabla, Ihe accent 
tl ablflail ta KT, to lit) rnJiuK In tba woalitM cm4* {irorldad tb«lr atom 
ahowa the taiit>aoU«n to I ot Q: thus, prfeft, arvioi, adbartoBB. but 

pratioif anOe&a, BOmicf. Dnt AT. anj Ut.>i IniU uamllr konp tha 

acMB* npon Ihe ataca: tba*, praUoI, samiol, auAoi (BV. ha« pratidm 
MM*}. Tha thlft ot aoPMil to tba ornllni*. and efan ta polyaTllablc atama, 
t« ical&tl all uanil aoalesT- 

B. DorlvatiTO stams in as. Is, us. 

411. The (ftems of this division are prevailingly oeutei; 
but theie aie also a few raasculiofle, and one or tvo 

412. The stems in Q7I as are quite numerous, and 
DKMtlj made with the suffix QT^M (a small number also 

^^^^^" with RTI tas and mi nas. 
^^H aie few, nod almost all 
^^H 371 Oft. 

^^^^^ 418. Theii inflectioa 
^^^^r miLamilifin nnil f^mininr 

AXi> AiUKcnm. 

and some are < 
made with the 

is almost cat 
stems in CIH as 
;.; and the noa 
tion (of a a or 



mind; m^^L 


tbscurel; the other* 
euffixeit 5^1* and 

itely regular. But 
lengthen the vowel 

s.-acc-voc. pi, neui. 
^ t 01 3 uj before 

As eTamples we 
^giraa m. Angiraa; 

barta ^H 
hnrfa ^^H 

•7- Ml ^1 

Iinvlfaa ^^^| 
ha vis ^^1 

taavJrbhfim ^^| 

^^H of the enrling in oom. sin 
^^H DUike the snine pioloDga 
^^^^^ the inseited aaeal (nnusv 

^^^^H 414. Eza-mples of 
^^H may take iHA la&tuia n. 
^^H 'i-lkri haviB u. oblaiion. 

^^^H ^^ 
^^^^B inn 

^^^^^B m&aaa 

^^^^^H m&nasl 
^^^H L Ab. ZRt^TTTH^ 
^^^^^H mAnobliTSiii 

^^^^^B manaiofl 





r ''i 



Dt:<.'Utxsiox v., Snuts is •■■ 1b. us. 

[—41 a 

Plnral : 

a. A. V 

D. Ab. 
































In like mauner, ^«1^^«&ic?tta a. eye forms Md'-Jl c&kfOft, 
rjdi- u |H oak^urbliy&iQ, ^^ff? odttflUift, nod so on. 

41&. Tedlc ttt. lTt»fut*rItiii*. a. In lliu olilor I*nto*f#, Um 
eodinge -aBtUD (vtr. tUtf.) utd -asss (gvnenlly Duin.-sfv. pi, ; uuce or 
nrtu c*n.-*b). rin|.) of tUinii in as >ir not lnri»qnetiilv <anin<ied to •int. 
•itt — «. g. Sf itiai v*db£in ; auridbASi AiiAgAa — *i>(l cut of audi forma 
Knw, both euLut and Ulcr, mibuttutn-ftflmii In A, u ftga, Jar£. medha. 
Sa frocB olh«t fuTin* ;r<>w rtfiint in a 4111I in asa, wblcli fxcbangu iD(>r« or 
lata «tUi tboM In aa ititough ihe wliolc lilttqrr of the Uniutfa. 

b. Hon (t*tl«riiig ItctstLl&rlliei nay in mentlonod, u feUowc 1. Ibo 
inul mu'. and fem. da. undliiK In A iiutuid of fta; — "I. u^as f. i/aim 
ofUn pioloDg* lu a in the ctliei iiTtfiig inara, at Id tbo nom. >tn^.: Ibiu, 
Qfiaam, u^dbjl. Ufdsas (»n'! «ncn in a weak raf«, u^isoaj; aiid to Ita 
taltt. pi. oecun onrir (KV.) uf&dbbls Inttoad ut uf6bhia, — 3. from 
toqis li OHM (BT,) touiKl a ilmiUr dual, toqia*;— 4. (lom avivma 
and avitavaa occur iu RV. » uum. ainjc. uiaac. in T&n, aa If from aalata. 
In Ttnt; and In th« Bribmana* It foniid ihu dat.>abl. pi. or tike forEnatloa 

o. The iwmt In ts and us alio tbow tnaitUoiif n Meaw In 1 and 
O, and In ifa ind Ofa. From Janus la onco (ttV.) mide tbe nom. alnf. 
Juilia, after the manntr of an aa-ftem («f. atM JftnOrraaia ^'tl.). 

419. The (tamcaaiiaiis »|tatd ng&nss m. 4» rPcnUr xtvaD-form of tLu 
ptopei naioa nvilood aboto (8&&a), bin (tTc 11 the lrrc«mar non. a?4a(L 
and th« tm. u^anita or n^ani or o^anan- Fonui fioiu tb« as-tttni, 
vva BMD., hn tomctlnct met with In the Ut«i litcraturv. 

a. A> to latm* ttoia aa>it«in> to ihsn or Uiar aad ftdhan or Adbar, 
!«• bclaw, 490. 


V. Kotnttt Aim 



417. s. A f«w nemer nomu in m with iCMDt on tke radical 
•jrllable hav« corrMponding Kdj«c(lv«a or a]>pellMlTe9 Ln As, with 
■coent on the eodiiig: thiu, (<ir Mtapls, ipa» it^k, apia oetitu; 
tirma ^mtltM«M, tar4a jtHcft; fifaa yWy, TSfAa flvn'mi*. A few 
olhei«iiDiliu' ndjecliTca — M t«v&a miffitj/, vedtaia/iwu* — aru witbout 
eomsupondia^; douos. 

b> Orij^fiwl Ki^jecUrn in Is do not occur tu to alleced desldei^i 
atlra adjecUree in la, soo 889 dj- But in ua are foiutd aa nauf ad- 
jeoHvM aa bouu (about ten or e>cb clau); aad tn sOTeial iustaucoa 
adJMliro and doob atanil aUlo hj aide, ndtboat dlffer«nc« of a«c«Qt 
BUCb a« appeitra to tlio stoma la aa: •- g. Capua AoaJand JM; t^ub 
tcondtr ttuil wtndtrful 

418. Adjectiro compounds having: imuiu of thb dlTlaloi aafladi 
nauber aro very commoa: thu*, aumtmas /oi'ara&Jy taiitdtd; dii^ti- 
ijUB teng-Uetd; fakr&^octa hafittg hrtViaitt briyMneu. Tho BtfiOl- 1 
foTRi i« lii« nme for alt imid«ra, and eaoli gender Is Indectud fa tiili 
tuual maiiDcr, tbo atema in m making tlictr uom. Ring. ina«c. and 
fom. in tM [like Ulglras, above!- Tbos, from Bam&naa, itje Don. 
and ac«us. aro aa folloira: 

U. L B. ML L 

N. eam&iils 

A. BtuDioMsm •oaa i 

and tUe other caaea (eavo th« vocatJTO] arc alllce In all geaderft. 

a. In Vodi lad Brihnkna, the neat nom. ting, la la a wiuldenbls 
aaaibi't of Uuuoccc nuija tn Sa, Ilka the odier g«ii4i:n. 

b. From dlri^iTiia, in Ul« nunaeci 

I dlrsXS^-y™'^ dirBhtyu^a -yufJ dUshirufaa .yOfifi 
1. dlrgbifofa dlrghilyiurbli;&m dlrsbljorbbla 

etc. ale. et«. 

418. I'ko (ma antfiAB Hnn'raffcuf (d*latd ac nuanlni tiaw la Uia 
lai«i Unsa*f«) founi tba nom. ting. naM. and (era- aBahi. 

C. Derivativo atotoa is. lua. 

120. The stems of this divisioo ate tho«c made by the 

three sufiixi's W{ im, iR man, ood ^ tui, togothot with 

b fen- of more questionable etymology which arc inficcted 

like them. They are almost exdusivelj' mosouline aud 


481. The stem lus a triple foim. Id the itrong cases] 

i aamAnaain 


n. a. t, 

*iiati atuDanaaaa 



DBOLXDHtON V-, Stems ik an. 

I— 4S« 

o£ the inascutine, the vowel of the ending is prolonged to 
OT ft; in the weakest canes it U in general slnick out 
altogether; in the middle cases, or before a case-ending 
begiuoing with a coosonaQt, the final \n in dropped. The 
R a is also lost in the nom. ning. of both gendera (leariog 
OT ft w final in the mascnline, f1 a in the neuter). 

». The peculiar eases of the neuter follow the ufual 

analogy (811 bj: the noni.-aw.-voc. pi. have the lengthoaing 

to cn ft, a« strong caves; the nom.-aec.-TOo. du., as wcake«t 

cases, have the loss of Q a — but this onlj' optionAlt^, not 


b. la Ui« loc. stag., sIbo, tlte a tnsy be either rejoctcd or reuln«d 
(ooapare tbe correipunitinit aiaK«vl(b retems: 879j. And after the 
m or V of tnsn or ran, when tlicflo ar« proMdod bjr anotbor con- 
soaaut. llie a Is alwtya relainod. to avoid i too great accnmalatlon 
of coDfonsats. 

422. The TOMtive sing, is in masculines the pure stem; 
in ncutcr-t, either this or like the aominative. The rest of 
the inflectioQ requires no description. 

4ifl8>. Aa to scceat. It needs only to b« ramarked tkat vlten, in 
tbe vealCMt ea.»«^ nn scute A of the suffix U lost, th« lone is tbruwn 
(onrard npoa tlio eadlofc. 

424. Examples of declension. As such uiity be 
taken JT^^ rijan ra. iiing\ silriR^ fttmAn m. toul, seffi 
'inF^niman o. name. Thus: 





























oamDAS ^^H 


^mr. 7ra*5( 

MM ft 

^rrnr. ^TTTTn ^| 


r&jiU, rnJMiu 


nanuii, nRmaal ^^H 







Tinman, aama ^^| 






^mt, ^inHT ^H 




nAmnI, n^anl ^^H 



HIMJ^UIil^ ^H 




nlmabhyfim ^^H 







ninmoB ^^M 





^H\U ^M 






aimAni ^^^M 





nimini ^^H 




W^^ ^M 



nimabhiH ^^H 




^TTT'TFI^ ^1 




numabbyas ^^H 







nfainAm ^^H 







nUmasu ^^H 

^^^V m. Tbe 

weftkc!(i CMOS 

of mQrdb&n in. AMcf. would bo accented I 

^ m&rdhnt. mfirdhno, mQrdluiis, mtiTdhii&s { 

xcc. pi.) m&r<lhnam. ■ 

^^^^^ etc; iud so 

1 ill all Biiollar i 

Bases llgo. slne^ mardhni or mOrdhinlj. I 

^^^H 4a». V 

• di« IrroKuUrUla*. •• Bare, w «U«wbare, tba oidlDf of ■ 

^^^^^^ Uia naDi.-«a:. 

••no, ifx. muc. fi umtlly It Initud of Ao. ■ 

^^^H b. Tha bif«r«t funu (wild 

1 ejt'cU'il •) of iho loc. siuf,, >nU of lli» iinat. | 

^^^H iiODi.>«eit.*vi>o 

. do., it quite 1 

miniiiU In the older 

UnBDiCa. BV. wtllR* ■ 

^^^1 ones 9«tadAvnl. bat li (« tu 

bn ff dJ qatftdivani : 

; uii •Imllu CMC* occur 1 

^^H AT. (but 

«l«a Mrani timet 

1 •moi). In the Brahuiknu, loc, tuub furiue 1 

^^^H »* dh&manl 

and «&numr an vory mueh uoro nonunon tlian nicb u alinl | 

^^^^^ lomni. 



DGCi.t:s8toK v., 9tkim im tax. 

[— 4SS 

C« Bol lhi9Dgh«ut both Tods and Bi»Iibi(ii*, in ibbmiaUd fofni of 
lh« loc. (loK-, witk lh« »adliig 1 omlttad, oi liUntlMt with th« cUm, li of 
MBtldcrabl)' uior^ rri>queTi( ocovimici' tli*n (he ivfular foim r thuii, mO^ 
dhin. kArniKn, idbvua, bmtdu mardbini ctn. Tip d hu all tbn 
viiul Mmbinatluii* of * Anal s: u. i>. mQrdliaiia asym, mardhant sa, 
nttrdba&a tvo. 

d> la tie nom.-acc. pi. n»ul^ also, an ahbir-vlaled fonn U oomiDiMit 
loidliiK Ib a 01 (iwleo M oftin) a, IniUad of tnl: tiia«, brAhma md 
brUimA, b«sid» brUunl^: oamporc Ihti Bimllar aerlea of t-iidingt Irom 
a-iietna, 3S9 o. 

e. From a few titan in man ii maJu mt abbrovUWd iatU. tilaic., with 
Im* of m a* *<>U M of a: ihii<. raahin^, pnithini, vari^ dUni, 
pro^ bbOntli fuT tnahtmnti rU Am) drfighms and ra^mi (i^v., 
(•eb on««) ar« p'^rbtpt for drAgtimilna, rUTiD&iift. 

r. Other of (ho veakejt ouea llisu Uio Inc. sin;, am Bomcilnio found 
vhb llift a of llir lutfli nitsined: t)ia*, fot oKimple, bhumasA, domaDa, 
TJlmaaaa. uk^&aaa (atcoa. flji <«. in ibe loflDitivfl Oviitm (B70d) 
— trSniKQ*. Tidia&s«, dAvtoe. eIi. — ibo a altnj* nnuloj. Ab«ut u 
ituncroB* ai« th« (rituncv) in vhlch iht a, cnltiad In ih* wdlun fona 
»f Uia Uxi, if, u Iha uette aliuwa, to ba teatoNd in raiding. 

g, Ttku TOO. slnR. Id vaB, wblch It Hit uaual Toillo form ttota ttetaa 
In rant (belnw. 454 b] U found aba fnrm a few in van, poihspa by a 
tnnifei to tUu vant-flodcDFlon: iIidr, ftSvaM, vrarftvitB. UUdvaatl], 
prAUritvfts, rnKtaii^TBR, vlbhUvaa. 

b. For word* ot wbtcb tbo a is do( nude long la the ittong tun. 
He tim ttrtt ptt^!%ph. 

4S8. A fow tUtaH do nut mako tho n^rutar leagthoniDg of n ta 
tbe btroDg caaea |oscept cbo notn. sing t' Thiu: 

a. Tli« lunM of dlvtnidai, pQf&n, aryam^n: tbiu, pijfit, pa^ 
t^ata. pQ99^ ««■ 

b. Ib Iha Vada, okf&u. 5u/J (but alM ukfiijam); T^^axi •n<ru/tf»i 
vffan ciW/e, (mU (but rf^K^Mm and vffft^a aro alto met wlib); tmko, 
abbTfTiitloA frf UiaA&: and lira ot thtet otli« tealtering form*: ULarri- 
^am, jdmona. Ab4 In a uumbnr of additional lutMi«M, (he V«d]c metre 
•Mni to donund a nbeie A li vrttldn. 

457, The ttems i;v&a ni- Uoij aud yuvan yotnijf bnvo in tho 
weakmt caaon tho contracted form Qun kod rAn itritli r«t«Dtion of 
th« scoentii in ilia slroDc: and middle cases tbey itro regular. Thus, 
flvi, cvtliuun, ^anl, ^una. etc., QTibhyfim, qv&bhia, *tc-; yfirt, 
y^Tbiami yduft, yuvobbis, etc. 

a. In dati. RV. Lii uacu ylla& fur yiivIiUI. 

458. The stem inasih&raii (/vmrroiu (later, almost oxclnalvely a 
use of Indral in cuntrnciiNJ in tbo weakest Itasca to maghon: thtie, 
maBbivd, magltiTaaam. magb6aa, magb6ns, olc. 


V. Nouns axd 


&. The ftV. kii oa(« tka weak form mnghonka la dmb. pi. 

b. Panll«l with tklB i* rovnd tha »totu ma«ti&TUit (illtlUos X); 
Ulri ft«tii ibe Utwc alone In thr oMot Udkuk^H' o" maile the iDlddle ««■»•: 
tkiu, nuutttavadbhis, maslutvRUii, ru. [iiot nutshnvabhU «u.). 

488. A. Sti'iBF In a. nia, vm, pinllol vltb Uimii In an, man, van, 
»nd doabtitss In mmny ouo* derl*«d from lb«Ui Ihiungli ItautltlonU fnnnt, 
■rc flcqaent lu bMb tk« mtIUf mid tba Uta lui^tge, pniticoUilT u fln«l 
Aenben «f oonjifliuidi. 

b. A nnDl)er of an<iitems ara mora or toss defectirfi, nia)Lliu; ft 
gwrt of their forms froia other stems, Ttius: 

430. a. The sUmd Aban n. Jay b la (tio later langna^o uk«i1 
only in the sUobj: adiI WMkMt caeos, ibo uiMiik 'vUh th<! qdiu. 
slug, n-bkh tisuully follows their analogfi coming from UiaroT&boa: 
aanivl)'. ^ar noia.-s^c. siiiK., Ahobhrim, Abobbls, etc. iPB. ha« 
aliarbUB;<; but UmiL etc., kbni or iLha&i [or Ahani, ihal or Uiani, 
Uatni lasiJ, In v., Uii), 

b. In lbs oM«4t Uiifuste, ilis nlddU smm Uiabhls, Ahabhrts, 
Abaau Uto occur. 

o. In rompMltioD, only abar or abas U lusd u pc<<c»dlD( nMUiIxT; 
t% flosl membu', abar, abas, ahan, or ihe dsrlTiilfw aha, ahna. 

d. Tho sHiia ddban a. iMf(/«r ckgIi»is«s In lik« niAnuei, in the ol4 
hacnneo, will) Adbar and ttdbas, but liu bonnmo Ucit ui aa-«taat only 
((ix-^|jt in thn frm. ttdbnl of ■dji'ciini- cunipniimla); ihuj, ddbar •>! 'Adbaa, 
ddhnos, ddban or Adhanl. titdbnbhin, ddhahsu. As derlv«MTM Umb 
ti us Btkd* bock (ldliaiijr& Sid Qdbmtiya. 

431. Tho neuter Btoms ak^ia ryr, aaChAn hone, dadblLU eunit, 
•aktbin thigli, fonii in the later lsii|ctia|(u only tbo «-ttak««t CMOS, 
alcfV^ asthni, dodbnAs, aakthni or salithJuil. and so on; iLo roat 
of tho InllecUOD Is taaile from tt«ni8 lu i, akQl etc: see above, 

a. lu tke oUn luigusSi OthiK CMm finm thr, aS*M«ina ncriir : llim, 
akfdQl, akf&bhis, auAakfaau; asthltjii, asth&bliia, uikI AathAbhyas; 

43S. The nntilcr atoms aa&n hhoti, ;ak&n (itrcr, qakAn "riiure, 
ia&n motiU, adiin icatpr, dofan /orr^arm, j'&^b^ broth, an) ruiiuirftd 
to tnako tliclr noni.-spc--voc, tu all Dimibers from the parallel Btoms 
4cfJ, Tikft, qkk^it, &iyk, ildaka in oldvr laopisge udak&, d6a, 
ytlf&. which aro fully Inflooted. 

a. Earlier oci^r* alio iKi^ dual dofA^i. 

433. Tho Item i>&athan in. road \a rockoood ia tho later laii^sKa 
M ntakiog ihe complole eel of stroo; oaaes, with Hub Intgolarity that 
tk« noiB.-voe. iivg. adds a a. Tho correapondiDR mUldk coeea an 
laado from pathl, and Che weakest from patb. Thus: 

161 Dbtmoisiok v., DBmrATTTB 9n»B Dt fta. f— 438 

from p&nthAn — i>&iitht*, p&nthlinKm ; p&nthintu ; i>&nthKnna: 
from psthi— patbfbbrami pstlilbbfa, pathibhraa, pntbifu; 
from path — pitthi, pAtbi, pathia, pkthi; pathos; ptiUi&a or 
pAUuu (Mcoa.}, patlubi. 

a. In till' olden Uivgaigc (RV.), bowovat, the •troog •(«■ li only 
pfantU: ittns. p&ntuas. n«in. tiiiK.; p&nth&m, loo. itns.; p&ntbftB, 
nom. pi. ; ind cnm in AV., p&athAnam iiid piathftnna ■m nrn mied- 
pucd nlth the othm. Fnin patjii Dcmi kUa tbo nom. pi. pntti&yas •!)<) 
gen. pi. pathlntm. ttV. fcu aiic« p&th&s. >«c. pi., with lon^ a. 

494. fba <t«iDt minthiua ui. alirrmy-Hiek, and fbbulcfJLn m.. ui 
eplibnt of Indn. in gimi by Uia etamintrUiu tbc hidc inacciion witb 
p4lltliail) but onlf s few eut» liavu been funnil in tuo. lii V. occut (ram 
t)ia r»nno( Uac ■'-'c. slaj. mdaUifciii, and koii. pi. Buttaiiijiai (like tin.' 
Mrrwp«iiiln« tut* item p&ntban)i rron th» luur, the nnn. rinii. fbha- 
fe|b and -voc. pt. cbbukf Se, IUi« the oon«<puiidlng Vadic fonni of p^thau ; 
Itni *Uv tho tec. (liig- rbhukfiii,iam and nam. pL |-bbilk(A9**- whieb 
■ra «ftar i|all« anotlmr uioilvl. 


435. Origpsat adjnctiru nlooi* in an Nr« alawnt L'xcIuBtvcly tlioM 
Biado witk tho mfUx van, u Tijvfto taerijtcing, sutvan yixumg tt« 
MHu, jltran «M7u«fM$. The ttcta In miM. and oeut. only [but 
Bpomdic case* of ita uso m foni. occur in BV.}; thi! correapoadlog 
f«n. AteiD It taftde In vart: tliim, yd^^arl, JltvarL 

436. Adjfictivo compouticli having a noun in an aa linal tDom* 
bor arc taflcoUiil aftor tlio omilcl of auun-iteintii and lUe ihahouIIdo 
furais »re lomolliDca imd also aa feminine: but uRaally a vpfcial 
fominlna is Dtiada by adiltng i lo tlic n-oakest form of tb« roaBcnlima 
atemi tbui, a6iDai^tU. kilalodlmli, dkomardlinl, dnr^imni. 

437. But (aa wai paliiled out abota: 4B0a) nouna In an oceuttUiK 
M Bnal uinmbcn oT roiapaiindi oftan •ubttlluut ■ irt^ni In a f<>( tliil In 
an: ttiu«, •rSJa. 'Jaimia. -adbT«> -Aba; tiigir reuiiiiiiie U in a. Occ*- 
■lonal asah>ng«a ol Meoti la tail and in vaJOt ftt«i> oeeni'. lha». Tivitsvan 
and viv&arnat. 

a. Tli« remaning dlviriooa of tbe ccMUOuaniat deolension ar« 
vnule up of wljectivc slema onty. 

Z). Dori.Tati7« atooiH (adjectlTa) in in. 

48B. The stems of this division ate lho«e fonned vith 
tho suffixM ^^in, Sh mlD, and m^Tin. They aie mM- 

«hlla*)t, Onuur. 1 M. II 




a4kM Mttst MU 



TORT i4hHt^ 5Rfn 
Ul^ hillnii UUlol 




•• The dCTtvcd fciniiiltie eteu In ini is ioflectod, of coorBC, like 
*ny other femiolne io dertvatire t (364 . 

441. a. Tlivrc tn so imeuluiliw In llie Infliiction of In-stiMns, 
in either tb« earlier bncuu^o or Um l«tur — eic«|i[ (h« uhubI Vadfo 
dual ondiag in t inatead of Au- 

b. Sums in in «t^*iigc wlilt daw in t ihrongliOut tli« vbal« bU~ 
lary o' tb* l*ngaa(«, tliOM ot tli* one eUn baiiig dciclnpud out ot (liaa« 
•f Ibfl otbci oftpn thiDUfl Itknilllanal form>. In > miicb ■mallT niuitbei 
«t n at m , ManM Id In are ctpandcd Io itomi In ina 0. g. ^Ucina (RV.), 

B. DeiivatlTO sWma (adjeotiTe; io ant lor at). 

448. These stems fall into two sul>-<l)viuoDtf: t. thoHe 
nude by the a\i£6x K(r\ ant (or q?T at), being, with a TOiy 
few exceptions, active partioiplea, present and futute; 
2. tlioM made by the possessive suffuLes HtT manC aod 
^ vast |oi ciff mat aad ^?T vati. They are inasculine aud 
aeutet only; the coneepondtog feminiue is made by ad- 
ding I t 

1, Participles in sot or at. 

44a. The stem hiu in general ft (iouble form, a strongei 

and a wcjiker, ending reatpectively in Iin ant and CIrT at. 

The former in tAketi in the strong cases of the masculine, 

with, iu usual, the nom.-acc.-vuc. pi. neuter; the Inller is 

taken by nil the remaining cases. 

■■ Bui, In tcccrdtncn vith Um title Tot llie faioiktlon of ibo lamlnlnc 
'iteia l^fcotoa, 449). the tuiiii« putktplu*, iiiJ ttio ptcavnt p«nidpl«i »r 
feib* «f ibd tod-clmu or aeocnUJ &-cItu (7B2)i *<>4 of <oib( pf the ad- 
cUs* or roo(.dut endlni In ft, are by the grunourfjiDi *novnI to uakv 
dt* oinBwaoo.-T«e. da. naat. tram «ftbct the ■u«Tigc<r »r lie weiku alvm , 
aad iku ppeacni participles froai all oitei tre>«ut-s(iMui nmllni la a *i« 
rBi(u]r«d Io iu»k« tha ■woe tram lb* ilronit >l*iii, 

444. ThoHe verba, however, which iu (he 3d pi, ptes. 

active lose *! a of the usual ending TrT nti (S60b|, lose it 

also in the present pariioiple, and hare no distinotion of 

ratrong and weak stem. 


V. HamU AHD Adjectiviu. 


a. Sacli tr* ifca ^Mb* fArmlni thdr prcHnt-stani lif redapllCRttmi 
vilbonl ■d't(4 n: r>aiu«ly, tboM of lk« K>ltipll«acin( vr llQ-«l»>« (666) uid 
Att liil»n*lvn( (1019): Uu, froni i^hu, pTeMnt-cim Jotin, pinui|ile- 
4lm ]6hTat^ lD(»a(l«hiMa iohu, l*ta»*l>e puttclplf-tinni JohvKt 
fuiihi:!, fchii ptrtlriyln of ntM apparaatlir mauiBl&s * conlra'ted rt4uf1f- 
«*Uua: nunnly, cAkf«t, di^Att dlsAt, fltsftt. si^oat; tke Mrbt pMtl- 
<lrl« dbAkfftt. udTBstUktOV VavTdh&nt (KT., oma}, i>blcbliua«a 
linlwllb«t«udlaf lu tfd«|>Ur*tle«r, ranM, Uke ike de«ld<intl«A pirttolrlM 
(tOM), ttvm * (tviu tk a: compare vt7r<Uifcntai Tftr7dh&«vA. 

b. Ktan t]iMu **tb« ira *lIov(>d kf the snininMlaB* la naka Ike 
nam. -««:.• toe. pi. iiuut. tti «ntl. 

44fi. Tho inflection of these ttems is quite icgular. The 
aom. sing. maM. ct>me* to end in )9=1 ua by the legular 
(ISO) lo«s of the two final conB'>naDts from the etymological 
form QrTT nuts. The vocJitive of each gvndor is like the 
nomi native. 

440. Suws acccnlc<l on the final a^Uablc throw the acoent 
fornrarU apon the caacending In tlifi woakait caaei (mol In (h« middle 

a* In tbo dul a«ut. (u Is tb« terolnins iietn'J tnm nek ptrtldptu, 
ik* loeMit I* &QtI If tbi n li reutnod, atJ IT It k Iml 

447. Kxamploa of dcolension. Aa vuch may fteTve 
>I?TT btiAvant bftMy, C^rT adAnt eating, ^^^jtihvai tacri' 
_ficiRg. Thia: 






ira^^^ >i^ 

5?^^ 5?r(^ 

3^. ^T^ 

bh&van bhivnt 

■d4n adat 

Julivat ,)ahvat 


M-.HH, ws^ 

^-AHl a^^-rt. 

bhik van tarn btUvat 

adijitam adAt 

Jubvatam JdbTat 


























Dbclkksiom T., 

Dbritattvf. Stbhs 

IK tat, 1— 4«e 


H^ HS^rT 

^^ **<i. 


bb&Tui bb&rftt 

Uaa &dat 





■ »whV 'Vm 

q^ »^fll 

t^^ ^-ft^i 

adAntau ndati 

JubTKtAu J&hvatl 






J ubr od b hyftni 







Plural : 

N. V. 

M=iH4^ iwrn 

Uir\^^ M<rH 

^]',',fiH^ g^ 

bbavant&B btaivanU 

sd&ntui acUuiti 

J&bvat«« Jdtavatl 


j-i^.HH^ -^'AW 

bbivatas bbtivantl 

adat&8 adiati 

jujivatas Juhvatl 








D. Ab. 


















a. The fataro paitlciplo bbaTlfrint may fora in uoio. etc. daal 
BtvUT eitlier bbavifyinK ur bhsTlfjatJ; todiuit, tllher tudinQ or 
tndati; ydat {I'y*!. cither fiati ar yscf. And J&bvat, in uom. et6. 
plural neuter, may iiiako also Juhvantl jbCRlile JiUivatl, aa given in 
the pwradi^ above). 

b. Bai IbMe itrang tario* (•« trvll m bh&Tana, du,, •ai lu Ilka 
tnm p(*tont-*triii» In niiat««iitAd a) ttt <iuil« oonlnrr t« geiwnl tluloKT, 
atiil M ■omcohat doubtfal chtnet«T. No txtmplo of tl«in U quQtalila, 
ailfcer rrom Ui4 oldor oi Troin tbu laUr Ua^aag*. Tk« '■4aM oonnoraad, 
indnvd, woalil ba arBtTwhara of rata oeeanonea. 

MS. Tha Vedic ildriralloai tnta tba modal •» abote niion uo («w. 
Tb« diul ondtDK fta la antr one »lath m common at &, Aunrailoai accent 

u w«a III a UM M tTo: aoodAte, rattalrBjitAin, ud vjigb&dbhlB (If 

liU U a partl«lpl«X Tba oiilf lailanco In V. of oom. «lc. pi. Deal, !■ 
ainti «ltb ioagtbeuod < (.Mtapwe tha tatMiIo intf, beli>ir,4SlH, W4a]; 
oaa or t«o axaatplM la aatl am <|(i«ubtt (ram B. 



440. The feminine pArticip1e-stem, as aXie^Ay aUL«t1, 
if made Ii^ ikilding s I to elthei the strong or the weak 
stetn-rorm of t)ie niaso.-neut. The rule« as to whieh of the 
two forma shall be taken ate the same with those g^iven 
above respecting the nom. etc. dual neuter; oamel}-: 

a. Participles frani t«n»o-stemB ondtns: in nti»ecm«4 a add I to 
tbo ttroag steiu-furui. or make their feminine 1q anU. 

b. Sack ini the bbU oi VMcctnUit a-rl^ia und ibc d\v n-r yn-r.1as« or 
prMflM-tWmi («h«p. IX.), fciid ibfiilMlJonUvei i>iid uuaUim (ch(]>. XIV.]: 
thus, frniii ^htl (tt*in bti&va), bhAvantl; rram ydlv (iMid divya), 
diTTant! ; rvoui bubha^a anil bhavAya (<teild. twl ciut. of i^bfl), 
biibhfifaiid *nil bhAvayanti. 

s. ExMptlon» to Iblk nl« ire nov ind tli«ii net with, a*«n (Km tbt 
MIllMI p«rlod. Thii*, KV. ))»> Jdrati, anU AV, ttie dtoldcratlTc ai^MmaXl; 
la H. Mont vadati, ^ocatl. trp7fttl, tail In 9. fnritier tlftJiatl, ud tbe 
MQiftUi* namayatl; nhtlo in thn DptM and \Ucr aacb nMoi (Indndlnft 
dMider«tl*ca iitJ miiitlTt«) uo moie Duuiaroiu (abonl Dflr Ms iiuoulil«), 
IbeDKh (till only ipoTtilio. 

d. Participles from t«iiiift-«tatDS in acocnted a nay add ttnt iamio- 
iiH)-ti$Q oJtb«r to tbc (trong or to tbo ireak ttuiu-fonD, or mjty makv 
ibeir femlBineB In aatl or In ati Twilh accent u here ooted.i. 

s. Sutti are Cb« pH(en(-4l(>Bti cif Ihc tad or kweai«d &-p1*m (7S1 tt.\ 
tW B-hiluroi (639 B.\ inJ tbe dii]U)iiiIiiatlTL'>fl (1063 fT.); thu>, from I'tud 
fiicm tud4), tudanti or tudatii nrom bbaviyyi (fut. «r /bhQ), bba- 
rifyJknti or bhaTif yatl ; froni devaya (dcnom. uf d«v&.), devnydati 
or dsnrati 

t. Tbe fortui In dtnti fram ttiU oLim sm IbA pn*klUng onM. No 

fnhm nn. ptrtlctpin \ix atl it qanmblr from ihr n1i]«r UiiEiiiijte. From 

'p(M.-s(om( In k no foand thuro ffijatl uid sifioatt (KV.). tudatl tni 

pinratl C^V,), Proia 4 nno ml native*, dewatf (BT.j, dOTaqratt Uid 

qatrftrati (AV.)' 1" Bl>P- o*-'"" dhtbfyatl. 

S. Teibi of iho ad or ToutTliM (61111,] andlng In S ue given 
by tb« gTtmiiudani iho iiani« option m ro(*rd« tbo fvBiintne of th<< prMcnt 
participle: thiu, ttota y'fh, jAntI at yfitl Tbe ol<l«r lanisijto tlTocdf ns 
Mtanp)* of the fomei, *(i Ikt m noted. 

h. Frotn other t<>niin-ston)ii lliao tlio*o ftliwdf ^Mcified — thnt 
ia to sajr, from tbo runininlng cUseoe of preMBt-fftSma sod from tbu 
inteaslTas — ibe femlalae Is fomtd ia ati lor, if Ibo tteni tie other- 
aocacted ibsn on the final, in atVi only. 

^Tbiu. adati from t^ad; jobvati tttfot yhn; rnflj'ti Ina yyni;. 
]t»m ytn; kUTTftU Fkxu ykf; lurtijiati fioDQ (/krl, didiqati 
(iiii«n«. or ydi^}. 


Dufn-Biemos V., DRitivATrvB ^reufi ix anL 


J. fcnliilnt itema nf ihU «!*» ara a(>aitloiiill7 (but Ibe mm t« mucli 
1m* rrpfDcni Ihiui tu oppMllv: abow, o) (oniid wllh lh« iiU4l: lliui, 
y&ntl (A v., oucc), tud&Qtt (^B.. but prababt; from tka wroodKry &*Miiin), 
Kfhrutntl (S.), ttiil, in the cpln itid Uiri, (Urli forew «» brOTtkntl, 

mduiH, otnvanti, koiriuitl. januitl, mn^^BDU. 

4S0. A fow vrordM ure ptrticipliil in iotm nnd lDfl«ctloo, tboBgh 
not in meAQiiiK. Thus: 

m. brh&st loftcn written vrb&at; grtat; it la lafloctotl like a 
IMftieipU (wltli brhnCt Mtd brti&ntl In du. and pi. neuLt. 

b: mahint ffreat; inflected like a purtictple. bot with the IrrcR- 
uUrily tli»t till* a of tfau coding in leagthunvil in the •Imng forme: 
ItiuH, mohiin, mMhinUtm; mshiiitAa [nouL mBhaci;; mabdntaB, 
maliAnU: instr. rualuti etc. 

o. pffjuit rptf^hd, bikI (in Veda anir) rn^tuit tiiniitf. 

d* JAgat mvva^(f, lively (tn the lalet UitgukBc, u nontuj noun, vvrtJ), 
• rwlupllAiU/i (orntiiloti from Vsan H^: lt« nom. «io. neat. pi. ti tllovcd 
by tb« gntninarian* to be ouly jAgKDti. 

«. r^nt nnatl (only nocf^, lii RV. , fhiUi) 

f. All thuM form their f«nihilno in all obI^: Uiiu, brtwtl, 
mBhati, ptfRti aDd rA^atl (contruy to tbo rule for parliolpIeB). 

g. For d&nt IvtflA, which i* perlM^ of p*iiinipl*| oiiifin, iw mbon, 

461. Tlic pruiioininHl ndjtcttvet (yant nud kiyant are Inllectnd 
like adjeetlvea tu rnant and vast. hitvlDic 1463] (y&n and k{ySn a* 
noin. nuuc. tinie:.. lyati and kiyati as nom. etc. dii. notit. and as 
femlDlne atoms, and tyantl and Idyontl us nom. «tc- plnr. nont 

m. Rut Di« M^nL pi. (y&ntl anil tha loe. ifng.(t) klyatt ire (OdDiI 
Id av. 

2. Posoeflsivea in nuiat emd 7ftnt. 

462. The adjoctives formed by theae two auffixea are 
inflected precisely alike, and very nearly tike the participles 
in ER ant. From the Utter they differ only by len^henin^ 
the ET a in the nam. sing. maso. 

a. The voo. sing, is in an, like that of tlio pariieiple (in [h« 
Ultir IwyfOfft. namely: Tor tbat of Ilia old^M, aoc below. 464 b<, 
Tti« ncdt nou. ate. aia In tbe dual only atl ior mtn. and in (lie [iIuthI 
uti (or 4nU). 

b. The feniatBe I* always made ftam the Wfak Btom: thiia matt, 
vaU (ui nitO, TiW. Om.' oi twi> eases of nl Instead of l arc met 
vltb: thus. antArratnl iB. and Inter), pativatnl (C). 




c The icMol, bovorcr, is never thron foririid (u in tira 
participle] upos lh« cM«-«iidinf; or the feminine RndiDir. 

46S. To illustrate (he iaflection of mioh atemK. it will 
be auffioiont to ^ts a part of the forme of '|5lMfl pa^um&nt 
pofussinff raUlf, and ipplH bhAgai-ant fortunate, blessett. 






pBQumin psQumit 

PH^om&ntiun pacumU 





btiiftarimtaim bhAgitTAt 




ff.A.v. *nnn#l 




pa^um&ntAu pa^umiti 

pOMjamintns pB^amintl 

pft^umiLtaii pcqtuiaiiiti 
I. qsiqft'.ll 


bhigaTontAu bhigavstl 

bhil^vantas bbAgav&ntl 

*UWrl4 MlMM 

bh&Karatas bh4icftvtuiU 


Id diul luac, nom. et«., A (tnj 

4M> Vedie Irre^uUritlet. 
In) ts tke ir»atly pTixtlUng ondSii;. 

b. In TOc >lnjt. muo., tbu cailtng In the oldort Untniga (ST.) |j 
■taon klamya In M tniMtd of tut (u In Uis [iL-ifi^ol purtlripl*: b«law, 

409 a): thuf, ttdriTaa. haiivM, bb&numM, taaTipnM. Sach tocMlTOi 

In RV. oMtir man thui ■ huii^reil tltnw, vhilc n«l ■ ilnffle iinqiic«tlM*Un 
loiUaoD g( one in an li ic \>e fonnd. In tho «iher Tctllc irnu, nxAUm 
In «■ ue i>stfeai(ly i»r« (tiiit bhagaTaa and lu contrMiion bhftgoi u« 
mot -wiA, even In the Ulci Uiicuce); uid In ili«tr ptoilueclan Of BV, 


f, DBSTATns 9aM» is aaL 


Aat tk KV. tMba Oa *•■. Is aa alM ■f y tf«»0> (n« » fr« 

e. Is KT^ IW MO. ««. fL SMML, tS «• Mil MM 

«MU, •«3« t» ftati liMliil af I 
I K« Mck lorma brc h«a aMai dwrtsR la &• 
!••* sati l> Itf <«nSM af ik wif K»a famt^ m' » 
pU« gf Ik* uaa mBsi kn faittM* tmm Oa BiHaijii ' tksa, tSraiia, 
•tiTaati. jCratia. tfqt&vaatf . | 

rm-Ma, 4ei. 

d. In « fc* («i^ ar as) ^ai « ^ li^rti <mm, 
•(■Mai tal wnt tea* tt m^ ■ Mafr; Asf am tm fm^ •yMMlto H 

fena i gf i Mi t* b« mtU vVk • ftslska w«ik 

4M. TlM M«B imnt n \n\f. iCwrf, ha* ika »■■. rtsf- arrC, 
froB ima; sad io th* alte !>&(**£• alio tk« ne. arvaa aad ■cess. 


469. BciUw dtt pMtldyfa bUvaaL tken b aaalket U«bi U>*- 
Tsnt, (raquesUj ued tn lOpecaM siilfi ■• Mliaticale fur the 
prvDona of di« BMoad pMSM (lat toa at raad, of eoane. ■ith a verV 
in tho lUid pOTsoai, «Utfe b teaad wiA the kJ&x raat, u4 so 
deeUned, haviiic is tb* aoa. tiaf. bbivlB; sad the tontneui fons 
blm gf itc old>strte TacstiT* bbaraa u s comDOD escIsBiati<ni of 
ftddnn: yMt. nr.' lta ortfta has been Tirion^ etpisiiwd: tnu It b 
4otilKlMa a c-nuacthn of MAs>wt. 

4ftT. Tbc pioMMiMt Uj*tttTw tivsnt, at^rant, yivaiit, aad tk« 
Vadlc nam. uUruit. trirut, etc, u* lallMad Uk< otiUDuy dariralftM 
Dram nonm. 

p. Perfect Participlea tn tUs. 

468. The active participles of the perfect lensc-sjatcm 
are quite peculiar aa regards the inodificfttioas of their Mem. 
In the ftroDg eases, iaeludiag the nom.-acc-Toc, pi, neat., 
th« fortn vf their vufiU is ^it^ tUs, which becomes, bj 
regular pioce«« 150|, vin in thr aom. ring., and which is 
shortcaed to ^^sf^raa in ihc roc. sing. In the weakest 
cases, the euf&x is coauacied intu 3? tt«. In the middle 
cases, incluiliog the iiDm.-ac«.-TOc. neot. sing., it is changed 

to ^T»V 

a. A oaiOft-Towtl i, if prantt (a th« strong sad stlddlc ciSMt 
dlMfpeuB in tke wealtett, befors Of. 

^^^t 460-] 


^^H neuter c 


^^1 these 

^^^^1 Ab 

V. Nou»« &K 

The forms as thui 
Dly; the correKpoadiD 
le weakest form of t 

The accent is xlwajs Dp 

Examples of infit 
participles, n-e may 
(whicli has inegiilai 
he perfect meaning 
li£ having ttoo^ from 


m. n. 

Tldvio Ytdvit 

D Adjbctiver. 170 

described aio maKuUne and 
g femiDiRc it made liy addisg 
em, ending thus in m\ li^l. 

on tbe suffix, vb«tcver be ita fono. 

!ction. To ahow the iolleotioQ 
take the stems i^^f^ vidviiaii 
loss of the usual reduplication 
from v^ Tid, and rtlH'JJH^ 
Vm Bthft. M 

tAStlilviD tasthlrit I 

VldVOABUS vldT&t 

r 1 1. 

tutblvlUiBajii i&sthlv&t 1 




viAvtka vfdvat 

tiftthivan Utsthirat ^J 

▼tdvitoSa vidujl 

vldvidb It jrSm 

tMlhividbhyfan ^^ 




N. V. 
















a. The femiiiino sienii of these two panioiplet ate fi|5'fl 
vidaffl and rfW'jl tuthiliql. 

b. Other oxftmplM of the difTereul )it«ins Ar«: 
from ykt "caitiriiiB, oakrv^C, eakru;, ankrafl; 
From I'Qi — nlniv^*, nlnlr&t, ntnyu;, nlnyu^l; 

from I'bbia ~ bttbbav^As, babliQvit, babbaWif, bAbbdvufi; 
from I'tan — tsnivtl&B, univit, tnuf. Undfi. 

40ft. a. ill III" <>1<l<'*i l>nfi>ii|c (RV.). th« vomUt* ting. mii^. (like 
Ikftl of TiiDt Mil inBnt-«l«ni*: aboro, 464 b) ht* tb« ending ras lut«iU 
of van: Uu9, clUtvas ('hinced U> -van In ■ pwtlle] puuaxe of AV.], 

ttttrru. dldivoa, ml^bvaa. 

b> Fonn* riam tlia mtddlo Mm, la vnt, ir« axtrMD*!; rare Mrllw: 
oalf tkr«a (Catanvit and vavitvAt, neul. diig., and JigfrAdbbla, Instr, 
pi.), WB fouid In KV,, sn<l nnt ono In AV. &»■! In ths Vadi ih« wciUmI 
flen (Mt, •« litrr, ihn mid<H? imi^) U miiiln the ba«l> nf comparlfon and 
dnlratton- Ihui, Tld^tara. ddaqn^t^ira, ml^uf(ama. mlt^ufoant. 

o. An «unipla or (vo of (ba uxt of the weak itom-fonu fvr mm<i 

llSolarlr ■>>a<l<: tn>i>i (b« ttnag ate taoud In KV.; thcr w^ caknifam, 

^•ie. Heg., and ibibbnifW, uom. pi.: •muf&m, by 1<« »<f-uiil (nnlrva nn 

«noi), l> iitiheT (Vmd a dtri*atlT« Mtein «muifd; an*! ^R. ba* profiifaiii, 

Stallir IwttnM*, MpoeUlly froin vldvlifia, ua nov and Ihcn mot with 

laur («a« BB., nndeiT vldrllAaK 

d. Hie AV. haj QBoe bbftlUvitftaM, iw If a |>artlclp=it fortn {ram a 
aovn^ Imt K. and TB. gin In Un; (Orrtqondini patiase bhaktlvAQaa , 
eakhviAaan (RV., ootv) la of d^ublful tkanatci; otdv^ai (BV., once) 
«h«ira t fncivlvn lo faiimal fona of Uie Onal ct fxte, thtwben aukiKwu. 

^^^L^ 4B8— ) V. NOU-SB AMD 

^^^^H G. ComparatiTflB 

^^^^^ 408. The comparntive adji 
^^^H (below, 407] have a double Toi 
^^H neuter: a atroager, endiog in JJ 
^^^M in the strong cases, and a vca) 
^^^m in (he weak caBes (there being 
^^^B wenkest]. The roc. sing. maj» 
^^^1 the older language see belnw, 
^^^H a. The feminine ia made 
^^^^ maso.-neut. ateta. 
^^^^^ft 464. Aa mndela of iafleoti 
^^^^^^ give a part of the forms of 

in yBAa or yaa. ^^| 

cctives of primju}' formation ^^| 
m of stem for mancutine and 1 

m ySfia (usually ^/llH lyft&B], 1 

icer, in TP^yna |or ^UW^lyaa), 1 
DO distinction of middle and H 

0. ends in ?H yan [but for 1 
465 a). 1 
by adding ^ I to the weak ^J 

ion, it will be suflioiBDl to V 
UU*I 9r^yas better, and of 1 

lifting 'if^ ^1 

g&rlySn girtjaa ^^| 

^^H irTtTT^^girlyaa heavier. Thus: 

^^^T W.A.V. ^tJtRT ^Hrfl 
^^^^^ft 9r^a&s4u Qi«yaBl 

^^■^ B. V, iiiijiHH^ wurtn 

giriyan c&^as ^^H 

ITTTTlt^ irfTCTtft? ^H 

^^^^^■l qrejobbla 

R&ny««u g&rlyAAai ^^k 
K^iyobtiiB ^^H 


CoxpARisoN or 

r— 467 

■. The feminine steins or these A(Ijcctir4» nnr UUhI 
f MyasI and i||~IU^1 BirfytiBl. 

4d&, a. Tlis Veitn too. lawo- (u In Uw t«0 jpt«tc4ll(u: dIrUba*: 
454 b, 4e8a) u In ye» iniiMd »l yaa: itiii», ojiyiu, JyOyoa (KV.: nu 
cKunplM RUcvhctc K«ve bocn nntud). 

b. No «]LiiDpl« of • mldiUe cua a««iin ta RV. vr AT. 

C. In Ut» but l*nKiiix« 4rc tmnd « Trr; fow appiiem Munplot ol 
ilMtiit MM! na4« tt4Uk the v«*l{*r ■Ura-rorm : that, kaniyBaaiti nail 
yavlyBMiuii mc. bum.. lUKuyaMlu dn., ykTifOsas ti»ni. pi. 


466. D«nviiti*c adjective eUtma haying a compai*tiTe 
and superlative mcxniag — or often also land mote oiigin- 
alljr) a merely inteu»ive rulue — are made either directly 
from roots [by priiuaty denvatiou',, or from other deriTatire 
or compound iteiDS (by seoondaiy derivstioo). 

a. The fobjett of tompahioii bulonga mati? prapptly to (Iw cbijiUi al 
ierifitlan; but It bUiiiIb In iQch iimt relation to Inflection tint it l». In 
MMnbiK* wliti tba luv&l ouiMm In gtuiuD»ni, MnTenicntlj »»l mfub))' 
nwnili trrated brtaflr b»iv. 

467. The suffixes of primary derivation are |QTT lyaa 
(oT iu Ih lySoBJ for the eomparatire and ^ iftha for the 
superlative. The root before them is accented, and usually 
•treagthencd by gunating, if capable of it — or, ia some 
euM, by Qaaalieation or piolongatioa. They are much more 
frequently and freely used ia the oldest langtiage than 
later; in the claaaioal Sanskrit, only a limited number t>f 
such comparatives and superlatives are accepted in use; and 
tbese attach themselves in meaning for the most |>ait to 
other adjectives from the same toot, which seem, to be 
their corte^Ktnding positives; but in part also they are 
artificially cormeoted inth other words, uorelated with them 
in derivation. 

■■ Thus, from Vfc^tp ittrt come kfiplyaa and kfipt^fha, whlcb 
Twlonn (o meaning to kfipri fMidfc; from yvx tnr»mpau CORI" vfcri- 
caa and virif^ho. wbleb bel«ii|; bo tuni br^Mil; vhile, for examplo, 


V. Nooks axd Adjkctivkb. 


k&nlyui nud kLniffhs ate utUcli«d by the gramniarfKQS to jruvmn 
yunwjr, or ilpft *»iiiU: and Tfrrqiyu and viLrfiv^ to Trddlii old 

408. From VMi nud Br4hii«qii U){|:cLhcr, considerably iiion; llian 
It hunilrud iii»ttuicei of tlifs primary fonDaUon In ly«a aud l^V''* ''■> 
iDiDy CRMB only one of ttio pair »cluKlly oocurring] »it to bo iinotcd, 

a< About but ol tboi* (111 RV., Uie dcFlile^ m^«rlt)') fcoivng, In 
aeiDinjC u In fern, 1« th« btrc root In It* t4lBcHTe viln*, u ttg>4 e(p«- 
glallf It Iho end of eompDundi, bul lomttUnei alio liidepfixUiiUr : tl)u», , 
tnm V tap (mm enia*t tApif(bK «jr««Mi(i0/y ^r7ii'»f ; ftotn ^yaj ogtr awM ' 
yOlyoM bhA yiji^ ^ih httUr And 2m< (oi r^ry ireJ/J sacrijicinif ; from )/rudlt 
,^A( oomu y6dtaljw ^^>>ijl ia(f«r; — In a r<iw IntUncot, tbo ilnpt* 
TOot U alio Icuud lucd ■» MrwapODiliiig potlttv* ; ibua, jd hatt)/, r^ul 
«Ith J&vijaa kJid jitTiqtliR. 

b. Ill ■ Iittl« rlui of intiaaeei (^Sght), Lhn too* hi* ■ pcpMltion 
prr1lt>!il, vWb lli«il Uk«f thii AO^iiI: lliu«, 4gaiaif(ha upreiaity rmiini/ 
hither ; vieaLyiq{ba fifti cieariiiff aicw^) — in « CMifla of CM«t (&<jraml- 
f^tui, ^arlvmpiftlu, isthcyuj, the uegatlTC putiele 1* pteHxed; — 
til A •IiirU wvril (qAmbh«viqtl>*V *■'* •l«BMBt of uiothot kind. 

0. The woril* of thU (nraiatlon «<imotlmei tiko an aecuatllvo objuct 
(••« STle). 

d. But ovcn in tlic oldpst l&nguagti nppeura not infrnqiMmtly tbo 
wme uCtHohment in luoaniotf to a d«rivatiro adjectlTO whicli (ae point- 
od out aboTCl is uiual in the liktor tpocdi. 

0. ItrtliU* the (iuiiipli» thit ncrut alio litar, olhen ata met wlllk Ilkfl 
T&rlffba clinirat (yiiXtt ehoitv), bftrhlq^lia gr«al«tt (bf^hint ffrtnl), 
d^tba (fuiieAiwrt (6qam ?«Mb!y), and eo ou. Ptobablr b; aiialuty wUb 
ILm*, ULh ruraiaUnni un In n f«w cum* niul>: train lh« aiijiir«ntl}' rtillea] 
tjrllablM at woidi wtikli liifc no Dtberwlit IiKcabU tutil U ibu Uii^ntitc: 
tbo*, krodhlros and tcrtulhiftha (K.) trom k)rdliu, athivifu und 
fttfaAriifVIiB f'viu eUiar&, fA^^^* C^^') '""" f&^vuit, diijiyns (AV,] 
■nd i^lq^ha (1'S.J rrDni ai^ii; mi ta on. And )-«t agiin, in > Il-v esctp- 
llonsl caM*, tho aurOxM IJras and t^fba uv implied to lUma wblcb aio 
theDMoWe* palpably dorivaliTo: Uins, a^'j^^ia (rom tQu |RV.; »nly iMU«), 
tikf9lra« (AV.) from tOcfi^A. br&hoiii-ii* and briluniftJ)* (TS. su.) 
from br&bmaii. db&rmtf (ha (Ta.) frum dhijiuan. dri^lfta (TA. : 
iutieni of d&rblfthn) frum df<pi^ r^hiyan (TS.) ^tuia rilghu, Tbniu 
■t» bogtoaluga, not fullowtd up laiw, of tlia oauaaiou ul tbe rorraalion to 
nnllmlud aMt. 

f. In niTtyaa ot Divyas and n&vl({ha, fltom iiiva mot. and Id 
a&njBB ftOBi aAna ■>M (all KV.), «« liaic aluo foroiallon* unonniiccod 
wlib verbal ruou. 

448. llio stcua in iffbn arc inflected Uko ordiuary adjuctivtis 
in A, and uiiikii Uicb remiaint-a in A; tho«« in lyu tiaTO u poculUr 
deolvu^n wbloh baa bevn deanriljcd above (403ff.l. 


CiMiFAiusn.<t OP AoJKcriviu. 


470. or peoahritlfls uid Irregalwltlci of rumatiot), ike follow- 

a. Tho tuflli lyna bu Id * r«w liutuitcc th* brttfer form y»e, s"li«r- 
•ny >■ •Iteroktlvt «ltb (hi^ otber : thus, tAvljraB ind tAvytm, aknymt 
ind akvyaa, tAhIjab *ad vinya*, p&nljrHa >nd p&nyna, utd m froui 
nbb «Dd aah: etojrw occurs fttono. Frdm bha nunc bhttyM ami 
bfaftfiftha, bi' irliiFti ItV. hM ■!*» biLnviyuM. 

b. or roou Iti a, tko final bUml* vtUi iba InllUI of tlio aM^nii. U *: 
thu, aUiAyoa, dbifttao, y^f^*; bat inch toimm *re in tii«< Vi^i f«iiDr- 
(1)7 10 be icwkoil, M Ohhimfigi, T&JLflba. Tbv ruut jyft roimi jy^itba, 

o. The iwo tootm in i, pii and ^, roim prAyiu iii4 prig(lut »uil 

d> Frvm ibc tout uf fjd •rnrne, wllbout alrai>ct)i«uliijt, tJ^'" ""^ 
tJlffba; but In th* oldu Uiiga«gfl «Im, mtn ng«tl*rly, v^iyiM ami 

471. The suffixes of Becoii<lary derivntioD are rj^ tara 
tuiA fjt\ tama. They aie of almost unrostrioled applieatioD, 
being added to adjeotivea of every form, simple nnd c^om- 
{Muod, ending in rowels or in oouBonanta ^ and thi^ froni 
the cAtliort period of the language until the latest. The 
ttooent of the primitive temainfl [with rate exceptional) un- 
changed; and that form of stem is generaUy taken which 
appear! before an initial oonaonant of a oute-eading [weak 
Uf middle fotmi. 

%. ExAiupliM (of older aa wall *• Utar gemirrencei mn: tiom 
vowei-atetas. prly&Caro, v&hnitama, rathitara and rathitama 'iKV), 
eAmtara, potftuna, aviiralctatartt; — fnim cucMuoiint-Mti^inK. tfkA.- 
taioa. gaqv&ttama. mrcjRy&ttama. tavaataia and tavAatama, turl;- 
{ama, v&pu^(am. tapasvltara, yatjiuvitamB, bbi^aTattAra, hlra- 
^aTftflmattaaia;— fromcoiapoiiada, ratnadhlttama, ablilbbdura, 
•ulcfttarn, purbhlttama, bhOylfthabbilctainii, bh&ridaTattarat 
fuclvratatama, atnkamatama. 

b. Uui Lb lk« V«d« tbii £ukl n vf a Meu If tofnlulr tetoliwd: tiu», 
madintara and madiutama, vrv^tama; »nd 4 f«v lum* nea add t 
uMl^ thni, aumbhintara, rayfatama, madtn^tama. In ■ cm* ar 
■«», iho ilfouj! fttm M I imaaat parUdpla li uken: tbui, vt^dliaattama, 
a&hanttamai aiid, at % fttteai f»nirlflt, Ui« »MkMt tiru): thm. vidiif- 
tara, ml^bOftamA. A r<mlnlM flaa) i la »barleiie4: tliua, ilevltama 
(RV.). tejaavinitama (K.J. 

4T1— ] 



0. Id thft old«T l^gatgf, the ««rdi of UiU formiKMi ar* not moch 

nwrs frr^aeiil Ibii Uiom of tlin iithai: thoa. In KV. Ih« ttenn In Ur* 

«nd tajoa nn te Diom In lyaa tni if(ha u time lo (wo; In AV., enly 

M lit to Hvd: but Inter (be t<>ni)«[ vin > gro«t pM^ndctkiM*. 

47ft. l^flM cotaps-nttivM awl suporliitirM ar« Inflwtod llko 
■mlfnsry adJe«Ur«i in a. formlog: their femialne In i. 

473. a. Tliat liwpeoially in tlie Veda, aome stouii wlilcb uo 
nouuH ratbcr tlian ai]Jc«tlvc« form derlvativoa of e»mpari»(in U iiAtural 
vnouch, consliJerlng tlie uni:ertala nR.iare of the diviaioa-liuo betwceu 
BubvUiiUro bikI kdjflctivn vnlue. Thn», no barD virJitora, vlrAtamo. 
vUinltoma, mattuma, nftams. maruttama. and su oit, 

b. Tbe *ufti£OH tarn Rnii tama nl«« mmko forma of enmparisoD 
frum •omo of the pninaininal roots, as ka, ya, 1 I'see faeloir. &S0): 
and froni cort&in of tlio pT«pi>*itiwis, u ud; and ihu udvorliullj' luod 
accnsatiTe loldcr, neuter, •tarom : Ulor, fcmiDiuc. •tarftmi of > com- 
paratlve in tara ftom n prepunttiim is C'lapluyud tu uiuku a L>ocrc«- 
ponding coDiparalivc to the prepvsitioD itac^ll 'boluw, Uiej; wliUo 
•tarlm and •tam&m uiiili,<> decree* of campariflOB from a few Ad- 
verbs: tbae. natartUn, natamdai. kBthubtarBiii, kutaatarftm, 
sddhfttamtm. nlsil'Bt&raia, ot/>. 

O. Bj • wholly tuibuoDB combinalloti, Oadlug no wainnt la tlm 
cutlet ui4 man ^nntne utagM of the Ungual, ilic lafUxet of conrpiirlioa 
Id Ibett UTcibUl feminine brm, -tarKm and tam&m. ue lalci oIIokcI 
to be addad la [■■rf«nml firnii of vnrtia: ihiu, aldatatar&m iR.^ iho oaly 
caM Qoteil Id th« epiM) is m^re dap^ndeTit, vyatJiayatltarOin diiturhi 
tniftv, alabhatatarSm nUoiVMr/ in a higher deyn^, haiifyatitar&m teill 
fow^ tnort. Kff cxampUa of ibli u(« of -tam&m tn qaotablc. 

d. Ths iiifllia of Mfondary ompirtioo tro not Infrequent}; added 
10 Ihoae of primary, fonulny dnuble couipaiatlirsi uii trpctlktivto: CLat, 
Karijrastara, ^roqtliatarn and gr^tliataoiaT pApirnatora. ptplf^ha- 
tara anJ -tama, bboyaetaram, etc. 

e. T>i<: uHo of tama a« ordinal stiffix !« anted below (487f, ; with 
this value, it Is necented on the final, aod makea iia fetnioiae in I: 
diuti. ^atataiii4 m. a., yatataml t, AunifrrJU. 

474k Pron a few- worda, noatlf preposltlona, degree* of ooa- 
pariiWii an made by the )inef<<r aurexeti ra and ma: tlms, Adhara 
and adbamA* &para and apam^ Avara and ovamiL, upara and 
upamA, &ntara. uutaiaa, paramA. madlij(un&, oarBmA, aatlma, 
ftdlma. pAQAiina And ma i* al»o iiM-d to make otdfnala ibelow, 487). 






476. The flimple cardinal numeials for the first ten 
numbeiB (irhich are the foundation of the whole class}, 
with theii deriTatives, the tens, and with some of the higher 
members of the decimal series, are as follows: 

1 f^ 

10 ^ 






I s: 

20 ^^ 







■30 f^airi^ 







40 t(«in|!(|(^ 







1 TO 

so MaiVlf^^ 




6 qn_^ 

00 qPa 

10,OUO,UOU ch\\i 




^ HH 







8 5^ 

80 MilTirH 






9 ^ 

00 H^Ih 






10 ^ 

100 51rl 






a. The ftccent aaptA and aqt& Ib thst boloiiging to thesB ssoiJi In &1| 
teeeiktaateil texu; ■ccording to tbc gmmmiiTiaiii, they are s&pta anJ i^fa 
In the Ut«T Uncage. See below, 463. 

b. The aeries of declnaal numbiira maj' be carried still further; 
but there are great differences among the different aatliorities with 

WkllBtf, Urumnr. I. id. 13 


VI. !ti 


fwt»r4 10 thrir mmm; udtfccrt to mm ar Im iiT > 

m. Tkw. Ik tU T3, •*! U. •■ 1^ ar*tA. >ir«tA, 
irtrada, njrblrada. MBBodi*. toMbr*, 4ota. parttf^iA; K. i**waM 
Um «pIm o< olytita ud pnkjr&M, mU Iwb iMtfrB >A« ■jvrbvdA 

m l«kfa (/m vr UlAj «n4 koU iiror,) , t»t m ImUm •«■ !• vvm 
b« |<MM ihu! m.45,ffT,MO, u ilrary I'l frwm, a Wib, r; fiU 
tmnJ, »ifKt IktmJrwJ ami ttmttf. 

It. Aj Is U« »I1*#»4 «u«-tenu p«ftaui tc. Mi Mav. 40C As 
Is li* («fn> fkkf loMMd <rf faf, ■«• *h«*>, 146 b. TW mmm dvs 
l« coHp'olilon mil <l*rlrulvB ttoa u dvl and dvl; aatAr ta 
It •Honi'J e4uir. Tlia otdo («rM of a^V* U «ftAi •■• htfaw, 
Forai )n '^at Kn4 •fall ta Um t«ni irr >'rHl«iMllr UtackMsitf: «. f. 
vUfBt (MBk. %). trttfittl <JkB.), pkfioAqaU (Kt.). 

f. Tim oUior iraaibara »ni nproHd by tlw Taricna coapnition 
Aod lynlMtle*) combinMioB uf tlioM giTea kbore- Thu: 

476. TImi udd nnvberi tietweeu tke tron tew »r« Mad* bjr 
prHAiItiK Um [u««nl«l' lult lo (lit Un bi wUcJi tu talae U tu ia 
•i|i)a<l: Iriit wltli vkHmh tnoptUritlM. Tlttu: 

ft, ak* in II bvcowM akt. l>Bi Ik «lMithtn aduofaJ; 

b. dra ta*<otne* tiT»rp>li<M dvt; bmt In tS-JS mil la » H la 
l<ii»l«Liat'*>)la «ttb dvl. in<l. 1b S7 dvi tlusa it naed; 

e. lot trl li luhiiiuud lb num. p). »*»■ Wijaa; bat trl MmU b 
tUH •lluviJ Id ja-Ti iBil la va, lad la 43 tri aUaa U ni«Ii 

d. 9M !>•'«■•' V tn "i "i^ mkm dts tnUUl d of d«^ ISn^U 
(IMd)i obevhov lu fltwl un<l«rroM iha rtfnlu ranianloa (9S6 b. 198 b) 
M I M 4 N 91 tniL 111 M llio n at naTstt ia aiaUaflaiad tu li i.tSBcj; 

•. afla lM**ai-i affA (49*) >" '0-^t u4 tuM **%lmt f«m In Uo 
|«r«Mdttl( OMlblaall«B). 

It Akatrt&qat 
IX dvitnAfat 

II trAfaatriAfat 

)l a4tiMtrl/>;«t 
l> ji4&eatrUicat 

IT aapUtHAQBt 
Ik a4tAm£««t 
■« nAvabri&^at 





41 otia^iafll 
(ft pUkoafaftl 

iT saptifaffi 


-> akS^U 

«• oiuirafltt 
»a pUoAgiU 
ie f44aftCI 
17 aaptifltl 


Odu Ni;MitKM. 


g. The nninbcT* SI'99 an mtJe Uk« IboM tvt 91-W} 1^ nRnfcan 
il-t9. il'Sa. 71-79, ind 91-99 »n imiIk lUe UiMe for 0/*«V. 

b> Tbc fonn* mid* wM dvA »nd trayBD tn tnun usual tliui tbeic 
with dvl uid M, wklAh iiM li*tdly u> t'T i)u«bid ftoin tbo vMci lltutBluii- 
O'. and Bi.). Tli« (amu uu<l« villi of^ Ui"*^^ «f &4t&] w *lu)i»t ex- 
tlailT6]y lued U) tb« oMar lltetkltiK (483), uul tic not Infieqnsai lii tt« 

477. Tti« ftboTo ar» tb« nornisl cxpros&ioEis for tlie odd nun- 
bers. But equivalent RabBtltutoa for tliem are alio variouHy mndc. 

a. Ilr uaa of ib* i-tj«ctl'«« Qua iltfieieut >tid adhika r^unJaut, li> 
c«inpwltl«n *ilh Ittcrr iittmb«r* whtrb m to b« •ubtrtcud or tiilt^. aud 
«llh»T liid«p«adBUly qiullfriitA 01 (nure luiullr) in cDmpofitiiii «ith latgoi 
iiDiDbeis whlcli ire (o be inireMOd «( dimiiiUbsd by tlic uUivi-i: ihiu, 
tryttnafa^t^h tixtif rf^/trunf Ajr fAnt (I. «. d~): aqtttdhUcaoDvatlti 

,MMdy mirraiMf iy njA( (i. u. BS); ekfidhikaitL qfttam <i huiuired *h- 
ertattl by m» (f. e. loif; paBconatii ^atam lOo U»t 3 (i. n. 9i), I'or 
the tiiiirs, MpHUIIy, Aaek tubitltuio* m fikonarlAfati^ M ht* 1, or rfl, 
ire tiot Dnwrnmun ; slid later ihr Ska I is left off, aud QnaTlAQatt tit, 
baiM tb* Minv *t1ao. 

b. A caie-form of a ttiuUet iiuuiliet. Keueially ika out la cnniwrtoil 
1>7 n4 nal with t lar;*T numboi from «Iilcb tl ta to be <lndueu>d: lba(, 
AkajA n& triflQ&t (VB, PB. Kb.) not thiri^ by mu (99); dvIbbjUi 
u& 'qitlm (^I^) no4 eS^Uj) hy ttta (78) ; pafte4bblr ni eatviri f at£al 
(VB.) iMl /onr AHwIhiri Aj/ ^vt (390)-, ^kaamOn n4 paftoig4t {\n ordiual] 
49 (TS.); ikaayfti (abl. Uta.i 307 hj ndpaAoifit JU <rs.)i mau oficn, 
4kAD (1. e. «k&t, iiregQlai ibL foe UumSt) dA TiA^atl^ t9\ Ucftn n& 
Cat4m 99. Thii lait fflnn U «dnttUd iJ«o fa the Utet Unfoic*; the 
iitb^i ar* foaiid In ibo Briliinanat. 

0> InaUncca t4 mnltlplIcattoTi bjr a pntac^ nunber ar« <tH«ilu>illy 
latt vfth: thii», trlqapti (Atm* Mrm; tri^avA Aria ritii«i trlda^A 
UrtM iM. 

d. Of conrae, ihe numbtrt to be idded UfBtber d»t tw eipreiMO b? 

, IndcpcnJonl words, «lik eanoMlinf atid: (hni, n&va ca oavatlg ea, or 

nlkva aavatli; oa niiuty and him; dvda go viAgatif oa fioo sMrf 

Hut lb* coouadlia 1> a1*« (at kui, in tho nldfi luigui«i>) »0I 

BDi omitted: (btU) aavatlr a&Ta M; trifiQitadt ttia 33\ aflttr 

47S. Th» laina mctliod* aro also varlciualy used for fonDlDg Ibe 
udd tiunib«r> ubOTe lOo. Tliui: 

a. Tb« Kdilail iiiiuib«r <> praflltd to ibg other, and taUi (b« aooenti 

for eianpU. dktc^tam sot: oft^atam tos\ trlAg^cobataia iao; 
■ttlTl&faUfatam /f-^^ o^tuhsahaarAm (RV. ; anlcn tb* aonent la 
wr«ii|) JMfj j aqlUaaliaaraia lu&Q. 



VL Boi 


kii4 ik» «cnipainn4 !■ «likM ■*<« ts fnllff thi Mh«r nnatcr m ti fonliei 
tan(u<i*4*l «Hb it; tbo* p*flo*<1hifclA ^atMK « pftJkoCdhUutfatiuii 
iOi. Of wane, ana d»jSei*^ (m «1m Mk«t *«dU tquoisni CO Ana or 
mUlQui) Bty bt u«4 ts tW wm waj: tkiu. pafteoBwfa Qstam »;>. 

f^lAA g« no, f«Um «kadi «• f»l. 

«Te. AaotlMt mimI »elkad (bicbafag la tbe BritamMta*} of 
futtttlag tW odd ana'btn ifcov* IM b ta ^sftiuy tlw luf«r ttombCT 
bj H »dj«MiT« dMlnd frea Uw tmaXkrt ni Mmttcs) wiib tlia 
brtefet ordiiul (below, «M]: tkoi. drtdafAMi c«l4m, JJ! He If a 
AwMfcWo/a l^■««H, or tAarMte-uWiy i» ; eMnf oatrbiAfUi f At4m 

480. Tu moltiplT oat nniDlMi by aiiother, udcqi; Uk higher or 
tlM lower deMBliiktioiMy ihm abaplMt uul !«»« uDbigtiow meihutl 
U to nuke of tbe BOlUplIeil BOiabcr a dual or plural, qiiaJi6eil by 
Iho otber as aaj- ordiaary no<u would b«; and tkia met^d ta a coua- 
noD OBB Id all agee of the laaguage. Piw eianple- pdtfioa pafioA* 

Ua^bUi tPiM iAtm «<yAh«* SW, . »4ftca f asiat >m kw^ntli ; tri^l 
■ ftli A Mri l p I Utm UowMiid*; la^t^ miTiAaT^H^I ni^OM; dftf* ea aahaa- 
r&fif Mf' ^'' f^EA^^ niySix^: and, eoBbined with addldoa, ttiyl 
qat^ uAjrasurlAqacadi o« 333; aahamtm dv* paflecnadi Qatam ava 
OB fMM. 

a. la Mt «XMpUMMi CAM « t«o, 1^ eidteU tett an^ui to takd 
the t>Im« «r Iba wrdlaal u aaiapUoad t& a Hln OMUHaaMaO! Ikiu, faf- 
trlft?iA? pa eariirat (HV.) «>0 0'*- /f"" ■>/ iJi* Mny-4U kind); 
trinr akada^au {K^ .) «r trafa okada^fcaah l^^'S. tIIL 21. t) :ixJ. 

b. fir ■ pMm)itr uti •btflty lUofloal ton*ita«tl*a, moh a «MnUMtIoa 
la trtQl |aQ(li;aUiil, wblcb •icfai to Ucaiiy too (3xf(»-i-W), li np«*»- 
cdlr w^ In tiiD Btihma^M to aiaui 390 ^xtOO + SO); m alao dvi 
VtXxmvriA^h faU ?J< (hm f$e)i iv*^»f%kn% tri^i faUtsl W2; aB4 
Dtfcar Ilka cuct. And «van B. kki trajra^ gats^at&rdliA^ JM. 

481. Dut tbe two faotOTB, naltiplior and multiplied, are alio, 
and in later usage moce generally, combiaed ictu • oompuitnJ <itci.'«Dt«d 
ou (he final): aid this is then treated aa «d at^eciire, iiiialif)-tDK thu 
■umbered aovn; or vli>e iu uenter or feminine ;in ^ slnf^ular b uaed 
■ubatantively: tbtu, da^a^aUs looo; ^*\qtaii\j padtUbhi^ (HBh.) 
icM 900/o<a-4oldiM-g. tr&yoatrl&qat Irl^ati^ fataahaar^ (AV.) tS93; 
Avt^mlim cr drlijati iOtt; a^lAdaqafatl law. 

a> In iha 010*1 iib»tlK« «f Mfentuatlcn, Ui*re uUv* MiiMilmni ■ 
,|ii>iitl«ii u to hew « eompoiind numbattbtll b« nndwilood: nhtUiet ana> 
||Nt«la, tai tfsamplv, ii affafatain iita or a||aylrtm «M>, and tie lik«. 




U2. Inflection. Tbpioflection of the cardinal namerale 
iM ia many leapecta inegulai. Geadei is diMiDguisbed ouly 
by the first four. 

B. Ska one la declined aftoi tho mamifr of a ptonoaful adjtc- 
tivR (IfhR K&rvm, bHAw. 604'; Its plornl tit (it«d la th« •nnu of tomr. 
MfCam «»«■. Ita (tiinl don not occur. 

b. 0"M<loatl hiait of t,be ordiniT dcplenrion ate in«t vllh ; (bui, 4ke 
(IM. ilnt.). *k«t (477 b). 

e. In (h? Ut.« 1it«r>tiir", «ka ia uM>d In tlio «anjte uf d eertaiii 
nr pven Homedmpi almost of a, u ait isdtBoite article. Thua, clco 
wyBgJxn'fy IH.I n errtem liffiir; ekaamln dlae em « etrbiin Jay; huto 
dwj^Bin oleum AdAya U.) laAim/ a Hick in hit htnd. 

d. Dva Ii/'h is iIuhI only, ami Is ontlroly regular: thus, M. A. V. 
drt6 Idvi. Vodik] in., dv* f. n.; 1. D. At>. dTtbhyftm; U. I., driyofl 

e> Trl Urer ts in niMc and neut. nearly rcinilar, like an oidinary 
attiB in I; but tho tr«iiltiT« ia as if from trayi [only In tbo Ut«r 
laagqa^: ihc tof^nlar trl^im oecuni oom! in RV.). Par the fominlae 
It baa tlin pvciiliiir lAum tlaf, irliict la Infiected In gimeral like an 
r-Bt«in; but [he noin. und aenua. am iiliki>, and »how no atrongtlioBlfig 
of tliti r; and th(« r is uot prolongod Id tbc goo. (eicsepting in the 
Vvda). Tliua: 

0). B. r. 


trayaa trl^i 



tnn tni^i 














««fBainail»n ttarbhfa, tlarbhjAa, tlsfi;tra. in>l tlafqa. li uid \i> bo 
■l»(> ■Ilnirol In tbe Ul<'r 1an;uig«. Tha itpm tiaf aecnn In <»iii[>mIiIod 
in UardtiailTft (B) o ^nv icifA Ur(« smMM 

g. Cator frmr ha* oatrjEr Iibc more original form) in ()>« atroog 
oasfs; in tho fen. it snbititutes the st«in o&taar, apparenily aUn 
vritli liaf, anil )nfli»!t«d lik« it ibut with aDoinnluu) cliaojje of Hf«eui, 
like that in tbo higher aumbera: tf) below. 4SS:'. Tbiia: 
m. n. r. 

]t, catvAraa oatvlrl oatoaraa 

A. caturaa oatvibl c&taaraa 

1. eaturbhia «ataafbbla 

D. Ab, oaturbUfM cataaf bh^wi 

O. eatunjAm catasf^im 

L. oatuTfu oataaffu. 





bhyaa, niuaasa — tkc gon. tlono btlns. Mihnt, Ukn Una «l «a n-vuimt 
Mnf«n da^Bnim with {adr&qaai •nil ndmn&m oi AtioAnftm. no trtes 

4«dtMlMt or Muporitlon. trom an; o( Uina vonls (thou^ ^'B. bu twlea 
dA^ubdsf In, lot (Ke ufual daQftdo^la). 

486. n. 'rho tnna, vi&Qntl niid tri&^ftt cl«., vriUi thrir oonpoBBde, 
WO dcclinotl rognUrly, u feminine sWine of tbo iftm* endfncs. tod In 
All DDiubcn. 

b. QMA and asban-H sre declined rOBiilor)}-, n» tmier (or, nrtiy, 
to the lat«r langiik^i!, oa muoulvso) alcniB of tho aiuno fioalt In »U 

0. Th« like la me of cJie hi)thor Dtunbom — whlcb luvo. Indeed, 
no |ira|>«r numeral cliaxaat«r, bat are ordioarr nouns. 

480. CoDatruotioii. Ai re^farda Ihetr oonatrnollan with the 
nouiui eouiuenwd by them — 

a. Tho words for i to IS aro in iho main naed adjectlvety, 
■jtreeiDK In cute, and, If they diallnguiali gmilcf. In (onder alau. with 
iho noona: iliita, dcfibhJr virfil^ teM ten haro**; jh dari dlvy 
6k&d&^ BUi& (AV.i vAAf eiectm jrixfa of ynu art in hearen; poQciau 
Jisofti a»i4ii^ (j&« fire Iriftr*; CAtaafbhir girbhlh u-i'(A /o«r tvuyt. 
Barely occur atic.U combtBatlou u d&f a kaUfintm KV.] lea pitJttm, 
rtQniib fat R.; tir momm. 

b. Tho DumeralB aborc l» are conetraed osDnlly aa notma, either 
taking the Dambemi oono aa a dopcndoDt icctiltire, or ataodlnir In 
tbe Mncnliir in apposition wlUi it: Uiua, c'taih dBai^ oi ^ataib 
dlcEnim a humirnl jbifj i>r <t KunJftd cf ii*€4»; TiA^atyi h&ribbit» 
teilh iKonty ^y; faffyddi (arditBQ t> «Q Mitvmn»; fatina pitqU^ 
teiik a luMJrttl /ntu**, fatUi aohiaram aT^tatfa Rykrbtidai& Ja- 
gbtna ^akro d&aytmain ;AV.. the •••tffMg [IndmJ titf i hunJntl, n 
IJnitttand, a mt/riaJ, u hmiJreii millwri, af tifmom. OMMlonally tlmy 
arc pni in ihi: plural, lui If uned mora otljectively : tliuv, paftca^ad- 
bhlr bA^att^ tci« Jf/ty arrotct. 

0. In Uio older langua^-, th« numeral* for 3 and upward aro 
aonvtiines nsed in iho Qon.-aw. rorm [or aa if Indeelinably) wUb 
wUicr ca*4)s also: tbuit, piitOA kf)ff{fu itneng lAe /Iv* ra^n; aapta 
rttljftib o/ Mt!4ft hariii; aah&Bram fflbbl^ mU a thrfumnd barAi: 
^n.tAih parbh{^ un'fA a huntlfil »ir*Hgkoid*. SiMnxdic tnittaneM of a 
like kind ate aUo met with later. 

487. OrdinaU. Of the claastjg of derivative wohU 
comiog from the origioal or cardinal niimcraU, the ordin- 
als are by far the most important; and the mode of thoir 
formatioQ may best be «:(plaii)ed he^e. 



b> ftvn 4v4 T, tad irf a, owe driiJT* ud tft^ MWDtMUrlir, 
dn^fk dvita a^ Attiiiwd trite ; 

4, ^ a, nd mtMk 7, take tta wdlnc tha: iK«*, 

»i k«t iwjtavM m «m4 tttov twira and 

I •» tta uMir h ac— ffB «a|y: paltoaiha, 

4. tba a^Mcali far i aad 7 mmattf. aoA (be a. S, ». add ma. 

a. hr JiA » nA, Oa 

aanka a^M with tke 
rfatama ale. aeeaitoaaBr 

r. far Ibt 
lU ordlMl kM a 4aaMa 

te: IW Bther, i ha» f , 
Aw. T«A«4 TMA; trUfi 


; but akB- 

M OBvanl, 
%r tUlag ika fsll (H|)er> 
i|fl^allniiit_ MbQattami, 
k, uriA kbbtaviadoa of the 
eaCTtrtfi^ tfia. pafiotfA 
l^latA mM; a^li aMl; aavati wU; aact to 
afeOTlAvft tm. m ummn ^k N«i i|taaa«vtrU94 <«M[ 
urf: akafiMi <li«; awl a kfaBa rtt^t tad fttuvU^ 
Ml AM«rt*f4 i«a; — «■! i» M. or Iktaa iwo fanat, the latttr 
Ml htiafar ia kgr far *• M*« n— Bt. Aa Mbtf babkjc aot qaotabls 
ftaa tt* V«4h aad astraMety lanljr b«at tha BrtkBana*. Prom iuA 
a^ IW WW«r fc>nB la aDovwl b.v tka fnaaariia* oaljr to Ue odd 
aMte^ s^fa ^ ^ t*** "X* utoi bat it la lami K wii mat witli. 
Mm fa *• fataa faafWf*. faM the Apia M. 

. Of Ite Ugktr CT^n* fttk aad aaMarm form yata f mi and 
hM iMt nnf Bati harr alio dKimpIn farm: ilms, 

^ iff tk* Ofdtaab. utilfcanij .aad *4r&'. drltJrt. trtlya. and 
m*-- _^|^ lAlTW fat* iMr CiaWM fa t. all ili« lett make U 


«a* T%« iiimh. M fa xfen liici«<w. fa** •<h«r ikan oidiiul 

««^^4iiaM» m^n kt maufav^ ta ftactlMiali, u tlinl- 
^ ^ ^B^ fw* w w — m / tH m emUinmg so many, 

Ma »Ww. 4T») Im^ « ••» •*** 

,,««BMlaM JtoMl lUt (Mr aMMI bo 





onl^- urdliA; Md oftturtbi (MK. pic.), pAfleftmli, *ni to oa, «ra ie«»n(««] 
M In ib«li (rrdliul au. 

489. Tliero atb other numeral rlerlvatiren: tbiis — 

•. tmiltiplioslivo Milvccbs, as dvil (ici'cy, trU <&»'£••, cAtua/imf 

t>. ftdvvrhn with th'' «nffix(iN dlijl (1104) iind Qw (1106): finr 
•xnmple, «k«dblt in 'mm irny, ^aUuSbA m n imnJnd itfgM; ekft^am 
MU Ay o>w, QRtRQ&S Ay lianiirml*: 

e. coltcrtivm. im dvCtkirK or dvftf& n /iiin-, d&^ntK^a or dttf&t 

d. KilJMtlvM like dvika etmtpotuil «f two, pa&caka r^ntitiing of 

and lo an: but thvir trt-ntuiant bi'lonHn rntlior li> tliu dicUonar}-. or 
to the rhapti.'r on derivation. 



490. Thb pronouns dilfet from tJie great masa of nouns 
and adjectives chiefly in that thej- «ome by deriTation fiom 
anothei and a very limited set of roots, the so-called pio- 
Dominal or detnoDStiativc roots. But they have al^o many 
and marked peculiaritiea of inflection — lome of which, 
however, find analo^ea in a few adjectives; nod such ad- 
jectives will Accordingly be described at the end of this 

PeriOnal Pronouns. 

491. The proDouDs of the tirst and leeond pcTioDs aie 
the most iite^laj and peculiar of all, b«iuf[ mnde up of 
fiafrmentii coming from various roots and oombina-tione of 
roots. They have do distinolion of gender. 








iMiTTiiifciim. n&s 

yafmftkam, vm 

b« Th« briefer aeceiwl fonoa for aeeuB., dat, uid gas., hi kU 
nmiiber*, ue lecentleu; and bonce th«y «ni not allowed to >Uti4 Kt 
Ifce (Kooning of m ■anteDoe, ur clMwbere witere key eBphuia ia iMd. 

e. But they w>) W qiulllUd by tuaftte^ *41tioet*, u k4)*<<ivea.' «. g. 
te Jijata^ w/ (Am ir*«i a eonjiwror, vo TTtAjhjaitt for jf«m that «tr4 
roBjiittJ, naa trlbhri(j tn tu thrtt (4II RV.). 

d. The klilitlTc milt Li utciitlnM In eno or ivo AV. pUMiu. 

491. Forms of the older lanKuago. All Lho forma ^von 
ive «rn Tuund niAO Iti the older Ungoago 1 whlcfa, hairevor. hu tXto 
othera tksc Hftcrvattl iliiuipiMiar fruiu iifle. 

R. Tkut, via Aod m f«w Um«a lliu iiulF. ting, tri (oujy BT.: like 
nunifi Hit m,Ka\^t)\ fttrtber, tbu lee er iu, «lii«. mi (ooly VS.) 
M»d tve, •ti'l tke dii. or ]r>«. pi. ami^ (vlitoh U by br (h« tauunencM 
or iliMfl e-fonni) and 7114111k; ibrlr final • U uDi»tnbliutilD (or pi»* 
■tfttya: t36b). TIip Vjt. mik«* twlev tb» ■»(- pi. f^m. yUfm^ (if if 
jrofmin acr^ log rilulnriltely a miucvUnB frim). Tbo itMiies tn bhjam 
•M In ■ nnnbor «f rMai wriiten. ftnd Id ]r«t oUien to b« tmiI u If wHiten, 
wMt tdw, Kltlt low qf Um flnU nual; »ii4 In • lue loeUnca or tvo «« 
Wtc ia Uk« inanncr Munilka and ytifinjkft In llm j|«n. plaiU. Tbe iubU 
leMlsUooi «f i4miT«*oi to ^9y%\ wo tcido, ■nd ara oiptdklly ttciBent fa 
tha foniu of tha ■wond ftttut (toito tor tvim ete.^. 

b. Bui ibc doaU, atioiG «lt, near a T«ry dltfeKKH upK* urllcr. In 
V«d> and BrikiBaM uid 3utra ttie iiumiu«U'«s are (wttli ucnaiaual 
CU^Ms) ftTim anil jruTiio. and Mir tl>* accuatliet AvAm uA jraT&n 
[b«l tu BV. the dual foran* of let p«n. ekaiice not In oe<ai, anleta In 
TimLT], aac«, lit •▼4m}-, tu Imu. Id BV, li eftbci yur&bbr&m (eccun 
alio onr« in A^.} Ot ynribbyim ; an aU. yuvit app«an onn* In R.V., 
wd Avit twlM ta TS.; ibo ^cn.'too. la la BV. t«alv) 7QT6a Init«a4 «f 
rtlTfcyoc TfcBi w« have ture a dlniiiMlen (tUevfaoK unkiMwii) o( five 

BUI i)«al rain, by endlnpi tn piil aciwiduit with tboic of Ibe otlioi 


AM. pHrullai endlDGi- Tke eiidliit am, aypetrlni In the bob. 

It mJ yl. lud Vedlc du.) of theM frouQoiw, will be toDod often, 

y la ilnR.. imong th« other pTonoonf, The bbjBin (>.<[ byun) 

• '•'g. and pL b met wltb only bote; Itt nlatlonahlp «lil) (Kr 

bliyM, bhle ol tbe ordlna/y declntlon It palpoble. The t (01 


YII {*ao!(oui>ti. 


d} of ih« *bl., Ibaofli b«r« pr<«ed«d hy t then tow"I. U d»abtlt«« tk« 
HM» «lth tk>( of ibB a-4i«c1«4is)on «f B«iini ni •dj«i'-tl*M. Tbu (hn nnn., 
rtkl., BBiI ibl. vndlap ibonlJ be Id* Kmo In ting. »id pi. (*ni1 in p>rt 
til Ills nirl>« lin. ilfo), only ih<< M«in la whicb Umi ut added beiaf dlf- 
fnent, U uuparallelsd eUa«h«ra lo th# UntDsco. Tb« «1«iDftnl BOU «ppeu- 
lei( ill tk« i>lur*l tore* alii be ftiunit (r«|a(<nl In iha tntlMtlou o( ilic 
■ln{slAr In o(W pronomliiil W'>Td(: In bet, the oirapDun-il ttcm kana 
vUcb undcrllM tbe pluitl ol abam teotun tv bs tint simc tb*( lutpilibeD 
p*n of iba tlBgalu £««»« of a]ram CSOl)- "i^ 't* vUue of >^ u be ■ 
tptvldlMilofi «r tbo UMnhig <JU*« p*T*atu. Tbc eenltiTO ilnitiilw. mAma 
Md UvB, ba*s BO aoaloitl'* aliewhere; ibe dartnUan nom tHem nr tbe 
■ilJ«cUi<t* infTT'*!*'* niid ttvaka (bdoir, 616b) >v|;;o(t>i tb« pcmlbllliy 
nf tbnlt being ihtmielTca tuieoiyped 9l«itu. Tli« g«ii. pt_. ■■TwifVMWi uij 
ynfmikani, ur rarutnly of llili ckkra:-iFr: iiBTMly, ncnttr fttnf. QMeform* 
of the •djectlti' M'tn* aamftkft and jrufinlka, nihci fmcs of «bkb are 
fbnnd in tb« Vedb 

494. Stem-rornis. To Uio Iliatla gnnmuiana. die stoma of 
tbu porionnl proDuuni) are toad and aamad, and trad and ^ufmad, 
bucauao iheM arc forms nircl i<i h curtain Pitvnt, nnd atlnwcd ui Iw 
lnd«liiiitely n««d. In derivation and coupoelilon ilik« tad, kad, «tc.: 
am below, uoder the othnr pronaona). Wonta uru thiia fumioil frum 
them evnn in tlic older !ai))tiiai!« — namely, nstkrtn and mitaakhl 
and aamitaakhl ^RV.i, tvidyool and mattAa {AV , Cv&tpltr aitd 
tT&dTlv&oana XS]. tv&tpraaftta and tvnddovatyli and yuvrnd* 
darvatya nuil yufianddevat;^ l^'B :. asmadd«vatya PBi; but luuoh 
mora nuueroiiB are ihoac that ahow ifcn itiopcr Ktcu in a. »r wiib 
th« a leot^lieiicd tn t: ttiiia, mitTnnt; aaiiiatri, aamndruli, etc^ 
tr&jata, tv&vant, tvddatta. tvtnid. tvitTaan. tv&ata. etc.; ]nif« 
midatta. yu^m^ita. etc.; ynvllvant, jruv^ku. yavidhlto, jruv^ 
datta, ynvanita, etc Anl the lator language alBo lia« a few worda 
made iu the same way. aa midr^. 

a. ThB Vedia hii« ceiialn more Invalkr ci^mblnuloni. wlib c^mpleUi 
farmi: ibni. trJiiiikBina, CrftmOhuti, niampa<;y&, iiiBjnaaaty4, aami- 
bitlt ahathpilrT&, ahamottBri, ahsihTu, aiiadiaaaa. 

b. Proin the sieioa of the grHmourutKB come also tbo derivative 
BdJ«ctivRa mBi2(7«, tvadiya, aamadiya ytifmadiya, baring u pox 
■TMlve value; »e« below, 616a. 

fi. For Bva aixl ava;4m, aeo b«)oir, 618. 

Demonstrative Pronouns- 

406. The aimplMt ilomoDsiia.tivo, H », which anawen 

;iIiio the imrpoae of a pflrtODAl pronoun of the third person. 

tiiaj- l>B xmX - Qimle oi depleamon tunial in 

189 Dbmonbtbatite Pronodhs. [ — 406 

so many ptonouns and pionominal adjectives that it is 
faiily to be called the general pronominal declension. 

a. Bnt this root has also the special irregularity that in the 
nom. slug. tuaBC. and fem. it has b&b [for wlioee peculiar euphonic 
treatment see 176a,b) and ai, instead of t4a and tt (compare Or. 
o, ^, TO, and Qotb. ta, to, thala]. Thus: 



m. n. f. 

fl4B tit aa 

A. a^ flfT^ Wl^ 

tim t&t t^ 

ttoa tirB 

t&amU tiayU 

t&om&t t&ar&a 

t&aya t&syfia 

t&smln t&By&m 

N.A.V. (Tt ^ ^ 

Mill t6 t6 

I. D. Ai>. (TP-Tnil^ fTP-TTTil^ 

tibliyfim tabhyftm 


t&yoa t&yoB 


U titni tta 

A. (TH fITi=T Hiq^ 

tin tltui UU 

I. ^ tf^Nff^ 

Ufa tabhla 

4BB— ] 

1). AV. 



pRONomia. ■ 






b> TbD V»dwi >bo« no a4t><it Inej^nliTlUoa of luOeDtloQ llitn tboM 
ahlch iK^lon^ to >I1 lUnif in a ftnd I: ntnely, ttaS sometlm«: niiUllr 
Ut (m UA, do.; aftan ut hr Utol, pi. neut ; uiuallr t6bhia foe 
IliBtr. pi.; ind the ordlnar; tmoIiiIIoti*. Tho ItV. has one more caw-fo 
ft«u Uie roDi sa, naurl) ■Aamin (*'currliic nawly lutlr u often m lAa* 
)]iln)i ind Chi'. tkM once ewnnat. 

4M. Tbc pe«ulixrltics of the goncrat pruauuaioiil dcclcntiDn, k 
will 1i« nuliccd, ttM tbese: 

a. In ih« iliiituUr, the use of t (pioperly d) m endtnt at doid.->m. 
nevl.; Ibe combtnatlvn of anotbct •leneat OBUi irltb Uie coot In Mue. and 
neat. d*L, abl., and loo., and of »y In fam. dai, i^l.-ian., and loci; aiid 
tbo inaso. aud neul. loo. i!Jidiui[ In, whkh la ri'itTiotcd to this dccleniton 
(except tn tha uomstaus yAdtqmfD RV., oner). T^n iiibatllutlan In B. 
of U for Ab aa f««n. sndlii; (S07b) waa Ulnatnied xt 386 d. 

b. Th< dual la pnoioal) that of Donn-atoiaa in a and i. 

£. In lUc plttnl. the inpgvltriiUa atu lIniilR'l la t^ r<:>( taa In 
maa<\., and llie UiMttlon of 9 tnalnml of & bcfufQ MB of Chi; gnu., (^o SMBL- 

nnM b«lii| tiwlBd before it ta tlie aane manner at before m of Ike 1m. 

467. The stem of tb(H pronoun Ib by tho ^ntmranriJinK i(\\ 
Q* tnd: and fram tbal foroi come, in fnct. tho tlcrivstlvo odjoctivt 
tadtya, with tattv&. tadvat, tojunaya; and numerouB oomponi 
suvb aa taachlla, t^JAn, tattkorn, tndnnaiQtara, tanmatra, etc.^ 
Tluwe compuDodB are not rare even in the VetU: ho t&danna. tadvid, 
tadva^ oti>. But derivatiTee from tho trtll^ ror>t ta nrn a)M tnaayri 
fiBpeclallj- advortx, a» Utas. t&ira, t&thil, Udlt; tho adJectiTU 
vant and tAti; and the compotiod tid^ et«. 

498. Tlioug^i the demoiie Ira live rout ta is pre rail iDfitj- of tlw 
third person, it in nlw frcoty aaed, both in ibv oNriJi'T langtia^u and 
in Ih^ later, a.a qiinliiyinjt tbe protioona of lh< first and seconil pomoo, 
giviuK «nip)iu(D tv thvui: tbu», a6 liim, (Am /, or / Mrt; s& or oi 
trim (AoK (Aani to vaysiD. wthtrt; tsM^ mama o/m*hfr^ tumiAMj 
tvmyl in (Am fA^ra, and ao on. 

4&9. Two otbCT' demoutUntive 8t«ma appear to contain ta a« 
MD oleiueot: aud both, tiko tlio simple ta, gubatlcute aa in tbe nom. 
slug, inaao- and fem. 




a. Tbe onv, ty^ la tolcrabljr eoainoti fattlioaj^ naly a tliird 
or it* powibI« forau occur) in ItV., bat rare id AT., and uluioat 
UokkoWK later, its noni. Btng., in the thmo ncnailorR, in syis, tj^ 
tyfct, aiul it makee die kcumUtm ty&m, tyim, ty&t, rikI k^us mi 
throng llio rouiaiDing eaieo Id lli» unine manBer u u. It bu in 
BT. tbo Inslr- fern, tyll ;ror ty&jfi. Instead Af'aya aa tK)in- siDK> 
tern, h hIm found tyt. 

b. Tbe oUier Is the xtaaal demoustratlve of aeuct poaldoti, cAm 
A«r», and is ta frequrnt iik: tbroiigh all periods of tlio laugnago^ 
It prefixes e to Ibc siinplc root, fonniiig the nomlnstiTM e^&a, «ft, 
oU.t — ani) 9» on tbroagh tliu whole inflection. 

c. Tbe aLcui tya hnn ouiilior euiupuuuda nor dariTStlvoa. Bui 
(ram «ta uro form«d both, in tbe sane maniier as from the aiinplv 
tA. only inuvb iMa nnmcruitt: tlius, stoddi i^BO. vtadartha, oto„ 
fmiu tbo so-oallird nlvni fltnd; and otod^; and oUraat I'ron «ta. 
And effr, lik« »a 496). U Uited (« lualif}* pionoUnA of (be Itt unA 
111 pttraoai; o- is- o^ 'htuDi oto vayam. 

DOO. There ia a dufoctive prononiiuiil stonj, eaa. which is acccnt- 
leaa, and heuoe OMd only in situaiiooH vii«rv no ctopbatii falla npon 
It It doea not ocour elavwhuro tbaii iu the accuHntivu of all nuiubvra, 
tbe iMlr. •Ibic-, and tlie gen-tnic. dual: tlius. 

D. II. t. 

Biug. A. enam eiiat vn&m 

I. anoxia eaajlL 

Da. A, «D&u en« trn« 

Q. L. AnajM eoajroe 

PI. A. Miaa eoftnl «□&« 

t, Tha BV, but flnoB Imteail of Qitayos, aiiU in on* or l«o lutaiioei 
Mc«uli a f«nn : tliui, naixa^ matm (V), AB. nac* mab aI»o u noia. nanl. 

b. A* ma Ii alvift Hard lubaUntivalY, It liu BLOin ectilr thus ta 
tb« ulna of H ttilrd p«rt«ntl pr«noau, aacimphaU<t. App&t«nt tunijilea 
«f Its tdje^fd ni* htTt >nd there met irttb tta doubUts* the Naalt Of 
enntuitaii «lUi «t« (4Wb}. 

e. m> nun roimt naliliei dcrlTuUaa nor <oinp»uii>]a. 

001. The de«leosioD ot two other (lemoDBltaliveii is so 
iiregulatly mad« up thai they luive to be given io full. Tbe 
one, QQQ ay&m eto., is used tut a more iude&nite demoo- 
strative, Mm ot tiat; the other, Q^ uKii etc., aigoitie* 
especial); the lemotei relation, yon or yonder. 

m. They are tut follows: 



VU. Pkoxouhs. 

192 1 





Bi. n. 


■■ «. 


^^^^^ fl. 

501?^ 5^ 


qjft «^M 

^ ^^M 


ay4ia Idim 


Mftii a<Ua 


^^^^^ A. 

Wl Wl 


V^ "^ 

°^ H 



uoum odia 

•mdm ^^H 

^^^r^ z. 



MijiJI ■ 





Ainajft ^^^P 

^^^^^ » 




*^^ ^H 





ajnu^U ^^^1 





«M'-tJIlJ^ ^^1 





amufyCa ^^H 

^^^K ^' 




Mj^UIH^ ^B 

^^^t L. 



Kmufyto ^^H 


M^'-Ulll^ ^H 





ftmiifjr&u ^^H 




^^^^ fl. A. 

jflt ^ 





laiofi ImA 




^^^^ 1: Ak. 


*Ji^MJH H 



undbtu'Am ^^| 

^^■^ Q.U. 




^^^L ^' 

^ ?»iriH 


Wl" 0^ 

^^ H 


tat mini 


md£ Aindnl 

unda ^^H 

^^^H A< 

^ff^ 5»n1*T 


«^ Q^ 

'^11 H 


UuAii iBltal 


■bAil ""<t»* 

UBib ^^H 

^^m 1 



Q^IH^ ^^1 





a.mdbhi« ^^^1 

^K U.Ak. 








undbhyaa ^^^| 









vmtffAm ^^H 

^^B W 




^ H 



krattfu ^^^1 




1h Tha HIM fi»nu iTR owd in tho oliet Unciufr, «ltkon| ntUttm. 
«i(«p« ihic (u niail] imi ocenn foi ImAu uid Imtnl, isd uii6 Tsr 
Amiilli ftmnyS wbtm ut«d ulv«ibl>llf la M<4nteil oa tlic Had., ftmuji; 
BsAu (with iion^t, of Eiourte, on Urn Onl, iaiu. or wlihaat ncraoi, astm 

8)4) I* DWid slao W 100UIt«; lual. luu. or.iMirt a« <o»tl<ro. 

tot, m. Thu foniier ot Ibes" two pMn-Muu, ar&n ftc., pblnly ttmyt 
lUBlf 10 m plefcd logeibRr t>()m ■ uDmb«r ot deftctlrc Rtomi. Th« mijorilf 
of fonn* <«air finui lh« i«ot k, «IOi oblrb, u In tho utdtiiur piouumlnil 
declatulon. ama (f. sj) it cuioMiied In tke alngutu. All tLwc funna from 
S ba%R I1>A pitr<ill*rity thitt in Iholt tubttunllT* mia lliey ire «ill)iri irc*iiiiii1, 
u 111 iho |)UftdLgiD, Di n«c«RUou (lUe «aa aud Uib )*eiiii<l raiuin tti>\n 
ahAm tnd tv&m). The renAlnlni lomit ut tlyray* nci^ntod. From anA 

oainc, with nnlln n;f[iiliiilly, Ml^nft, Hn&yO, ftO&JOB. The ttntlg «M*« 

!■ (lull nnd pTiinl. ■■■<] !■ pit! lu clajuUt, mms nnt lain n>|[ul*rlv fmn * 
■Utn laiA And «y4m. l]rJua, IdAm am «tiil«nily lu bs latMrfil (a ■ 
ilmpk iiMt 1 (ItUtin bciiix ippaKiitlr a doobtc form: Id, Utn tad >tc., 
with ending am). 

b. Tkr Veda }iat from the root a alio t!he IntlrvmeutiU onJ and a^i 
foaed III ctiDtral ad tciblally], and llio coo. loc. dii. Ay6t: iVoin EmB, 
ImAajra oceor* onoe In HV.. irpawnitl In AA., aiid IraUa and Imafti 
UloT. Tbc HV, ti*» la a imall DuiubtT ol IdiUhcm iIia tirutalar nacfti- 
iMllon i«miU. osya. Abhio. 

e. Id miiu]c%-)' witb tliti otlier pronouns, IdJim is by tli« tt'tkui- 
umriuu I'^ftrded aa repreaonlaliTO atom of ihii proDiimlnal dc<:ti'n- 
ilon; and It is aoCitslly found mi tn^ntcd in ■ TSiy ■miUI numlMr of 
coaipouoda [Idwnmifa «ad IcUkibrapa tio of Brahmsnu aguj. An 
ragnrds lln! actual stMDS, aaa fnmtiheB notbio? furthnr; tmm Ima 
contM only tho adverl) Im&tbA (RV., oaoe); bat a sod i rBratali it 
nuinber of <I«rivati\-(ia, niixtly advorbial: thOB, for e<ianiple, Ataa. 
4tF«, dtba, ad-dhifr';; ItAs, fd Vcdlc partlcln!, Ida, ih&. (tara. tm 
(Vedi« partiolej, Idff, perkiipa eri and ev&m. and utlicra. 

B03. Th« otbw ptOBOun, aa»& elo., hu amn fut lU leadiitK ncju, 
wktoli In tbo (tngutax tako* In tomUnatlMi, lilc the k-itouu, tlia cUmcot 
■ma (t ay), and vbicb Mtu to ami in pan of ibe buuc aud n«ai. 
plutaL In put, to4, lUe an adjacttva o-itaoi. It Iciistbcni Iti diu] fu ibe 
(ciuUilne. Ih« (M. tiaf. unAfya It ibe onlr uamplc in tbc launa^Ro 
ftf Ibe «ndlB( sya ^d«d to any <rtl>ct lliui an a-alani. Tl<^ nan. pi ami 
l« naUino lu form; III 1 U [tike ibai ot • dual) pracr'V; *" vxeuipi 
tna oetablnallon villi a fftllowlnit nvel (136 b). Aaiu iiid adit are 
alto «ltl>«ut laiUifiti ai rcgiida tbelt eiiJliig*. 

B. The gramiuariau*, a» uiual, treat adfco *a ropreaeatatJvo st«ia 

of the deeleoaiOD, and It Is found in this cbamctcr in as nitrentcly 

antali nambiyr of words, as adom&ln; ndemaTa Is of BriUiaa^ia mne. 

Tlie ^B. has aUo aa&ualUnan. itui moat of (bo dl^^ivBtltw. us uf 

Whliatf iMMUMr. 1 •& 13 


V[L Pbosoi'ns. 


lbs OUM, cone froai amu: Ibni, amuUia, amutm, ainutb&. unudS. 
tunAaW* amavAt, amoka. 

b. Ill Itie oMoi UiigBig* occun tke nwi tva (m'ciiIIim), tnetnluc 
<fn«, ntimy n mm; II U ort''n««l rouml npatinl, u ana and onolluir. U 
follow* tin urdtniiy proiionihul decleiulon. Prou U U nuda lh« {«lM 
»eMuilM>) uliwb tvaduini (MS.). 

c. FracmanU 4f abeihet ■lemonttMUn not vr t«6 ut mat with: thai, 
Amaa A« ue««n U • tonnuU tii AV. knil lii Brihatni* •U.; a76« M 
f>l■,•IM^. dnal U fbunA in HT.; ib« pirtl«l« u poluu lo n roM u. 






Interrogative Pronoun. 

S04. The ohainAtenslie {tart of thv interTOf^ntive pro- 
uominal root is ^k; it has lh«! tliree rorms T ka, ^ kt, 
^ ku; liui the whole deolcnsioaal inflection js from ^ ka, 
excepting Uio aom.-aoc. >ing. neut., which it frnm iT ki, 
luul hut the anomalous form WT kim (not elsewhere kuowa 
in the lajiguage Crom a aeoter t-steio). The aom. and 
acciu. siog., then, ore as follows: 



and the tetii of Uie declension is precisely like that of rf 
ta (abnvr, 406). 

a. The Vtd> kw lu acMl Tulktloiu, ki and kftbbia foe kini an 
kfefs. Ii nlw tiM, aloDi vJlli k{m, tb* pionoailaall]! h^gnUt •avWi kU]l 
Mid kuiQ (^r kam) li 1 rrr^nciii pknide Tin aiuc. tana Ua, ttrntt- 
pDiiiilnff to kisa, oceum m» a >lat«utypt<l tx*t tn tlie coiobltialUni oikta 
M'\ nUklB. 

606. Th« ^aramariaes treat klm aa nprtaeotative eifim of eIic 
Inlenoipilive pnnioun; and [l Is in Tact w uaed In a Mt IarK« number^ 
ur word*, iif wblch H Tgw — klmmaya, kfaiikar4, kldikCmy^ kiik- 
dorato, kljiiQiUi. and lito peculiar klihjii — ito liaok evea to Uie, 
\Wa ami Br«lim(ia. lu closer aoalir^ with tbt> otlior protiouDft, tli4 
rvrm kad, a coople of tiiacs iu tbo Vela tkacpayii k&dartha). aad' 
not tarrmjiiratl; lalor, ii foimil a« firet ia<:>iDb«r uf unmiMiinrit, Then, 
tram tba nal roots ka, kl, ka ar« made manj' i)«rlvatlre«; an 
froai U and ku, espeelally tbu lalttf, uuinj' coinpouuda: ibm, kit 



(— M8 

kaxhit kBtbdm. tutdm. katardi, kat&ma, kirbi; klyonc, kld^ ; kbtas, 
kutra. fciiha, kvct, kuvtura, tcuktkrtnaii. kunuuttrln, etc. 

506. \Wiuu» ruran uf tlits pronoun. >• kad, klm, >iw] ku laod 
nvDiy, koj, kt Uie ttogiunmir of comiKiiiiida, luve pMaed froiB au 
InienogUlTA maaalitr. tkraoKh u cxelitinaiory, (» Uio vdou uf pro- 
fizoB tignityUfi; mi umisual quality — eiltier wooULuff adBilrKbl(<, or, 
i>floD«r. something ooDbemiHlblfl. This nu becios la tho Veda, tint 
b«ci>iiie« lUDch mora conimon in lab;? tlnio. 

607. Tlis intcnoKitiire protionn, ah in otiivr UiHtungw, tta»» 
readily in ica iudepeodont tne alio (u iin exeUiUEory Bemine. 
UotL-Ovur. it U by vftriuun addnl parttalo* cnnvnrtml tu an itiiletitiiti: 
mMulnfc: tliiis, b> c», oank, old, kpl. vft, either a!oui> ur with t)i« 
niUitre jn ilieluw, 61Ii iireAieil Ihiio, kJtq cAoii un^ «><; aA k6 
*pl H<4 any our: yjbil kdni cit ickataotf^: yatain&t katatn&c oa 
(rAidoMr iMiir. Uci^onaJly, the tatenogattve by itaelf aeqnitM a 
ginllar ralue. 

Relative Pronoun. 

60B. The toot of the lelative pronoua is id ys, vrhich 
from the (luliBst period of the language haa lost all trace 
of the demoiuuative meaning originally (douliUeits; bolooging 
Id itt nuO is tiacil aa lelalirc ouly. 

509. Il is inflected tvilli eotite regularity according lu 
the usual pTouoininal devlensiou : tliui, 




a. Tk« VndM ibowi li« atutl viriiilniw (4 Ihett (onw. yt for ytli 
for jAai, »ai y^bfala fur yifs; y6a for y&yoa ■!«) ncann mtn; 
ytaL wlilt [Molongtd aiMl, h In KV. inks ■« comnion u yioa. IImh' 





n, II. 



n. 1. 

n. u. 


mi UH^ 


a niff 


ji* yU 



n tt 

y« yiloi 


y4m yAt 


yB^ y* y4 

fin jini 





















VU. Pbohoums. 


luiioiu OMar iu y^bhloa, mi<1 y^qSAiD utA yita»m. Tht canJuncUoii 
yftt l« ui abltUve foiu u-cotdlng to Uut iMdLnUT JnrJaailon. 

610. 'Dw UM of ]^ M roprc»cnlAtiv(! «t«iD begins very early; 
WH lime yitUma In the Veda, uad yttUcirin. 7*cld«v&^ in the 
BriUioitiiA: later U icrows more general. From th« propcir root eomo 
also a ooosidoniblB saiioB of iIurivattvoB: ydtu, yitl. yitc*, yitlift, 
7&dK, y&cU, y&rhi, yitvont. yatara, yatam^; Hud the eomponDil 

oil. Thv combliution of ya with kn Iu mako an indefiillt« 
proBDun has been noticed above lOOTl. Its own r^petilion — as 
y&d>y«it — give* it Mnuetinies a. like loeaiiiDg. vruu throtij^h the dis- 

61S. Ono or two uiarkud pecalbuitjes in the Satukril iim of the 
raUlive Rutf Ihi heso briefly notieed: 

«. A T*ry dwided prebTMiae far imtttiic tbo ralidrt <IdaM before 
tbii 10 which It telitcc Ibua, y&h aunvatAb 8aklt& tilemA tndrftya 
B&yata (KV.) wAo it IJu JHmd oj tht toma-pmmr, U> that ludra «tVi^ y<; 
y&ib y^lliLth parlbhilbr Aal «A Id dev6(u gaoohati (R\.) tclutt affrrmg 
Uou pTotttUtt, titei in tmtA goMh to th* fwi»; yi tri^apti^ pariyintl 
b41S. t^filb aodhUu m« (AV.) ukat thriet *«etn fo o&ott/. Ouir atrmjth 
may ht auign to ml; B»i& y6 adbartd Kr>U^ l4tra aantr arftyy^ 
(AV.) tehitl JUiMx i'( y</nJ*r in Ih* lUpli, litrr M Uo ir-UrAut I*; tahk 
yka me iMX Ham (Til.) aiong kM t/iat uMch *» ntine; haAsftaUfa 
vaoanaiii yat tu tau m&di dahatl (MHb.) Awt wkal thr uorjt of Uc 
nnnw irvre, (Aa^ 6vrM mw; aarvaaya locanain ^Aatraifa ya»y« nft "a^ 
andfaft ova aa^ (U.) who doM itttpotMt Uaminff, tiu ty* «/ tvrryAinff, 
blind intlttd it A*. Ths Mhei MnDgemtnl, though (Yt^utni vu9ujb| Is 
notably Img uiual. 

b. A lieqaeat oenTetsivn «f the lubjcct or objeol of « veib hj an 
«4il»d r«]atlv« inio • sabUaatlt* «lau«: tlitu, n4 Tmijb pra ^pat piu- 
ru^eyo TOdii^ y4h (AV.) may lAert not reach him a human dtajfy 
MM^Mn [IIi'It, bcAu/ m *ikA a tvcapon}; pitri :^o pAhi yAd dh&nam 
(AY.) jirotret of u« ipAut iMoUA [tAvr* u|, apUaArg^ 'po mAra^a 
k|«trly&di (npitba^ ea y^ <AV,) may Uf WM'winj; ptant c/mnuo 
aicuy tA< ilitfa** and fA« w/m; piifkare^ li|taih rAjyadi yac ca 
'nyad raau klifaoana (MBk.) by PuMara imu takm ovoy U* ittripc/mii 
nixf tehatertr othtr jn-oprrtff [(A(r« tpo*]. 

Other Pronouns; Emphatic, Indefinil*. 

SL3. a. The isolated and uninflecled pionomiaal wotd 
^(W BVByam (fiom the tout ara; signifiefl ««//, oicn self. 
By its fotiu it appeitra to tw a oom. aiog., ood it is often- 


Pronouinal DKKITAirrBB. 


est U9e<l as nominative, but along with irords of all p«tMn8 
and numbets; and not seldom it lepieMnta other oases aim. 

b. 8v«y«ia Ii ftlso useid ns ft •t«ni in composttioa: tbod, rnvm- 
rv&ii, flv&yamblid. But ava itself lUHualty Kdjectivr: bolov.O10e) 
liss the 8ain« value in compoaltioQ; and eren Its tultactMl fonus sra 
(in ihs older Unga&ge Terj- nircl;) luod as rellexlva proDoun. 

o. In RV. alone uo foimd a few oiamplos of two tndefintia 
pronoUDi. aama (srcenilvts) any, «rrry, and alini at*ri/. all. 

Nouns used pronominally. 

&I4. a. Tbn noun atm&n tout Is widely cmptoyed, in tho sin- 
gnlar (estmnivly rarely in othor numborsj, ae r«flexJTe pionoim of all 
three pBriiona. 

b> Tlip Tionn taBlH hoiiy Is employol In Uie simo manaer (but In all 
nuinbnn) In thu \rim. 

e. Th<i a4je(<tiv(i bbavant. T bhavatl, 1b aaed Ua already pointod 
ont: 4B9) in rettpc'Utrul iiddrttas ita tiulititituti; for tbo pronoun of 
tke aeiioDd peni»ii. Its construction with the verb in In ant^ordannQ 
with lu truo charai'ter, aa a word of tlio lliird porsoo- 

Pronominal Derivatives. 

filft. From pronominal roots and stems, an well ae from 
the la^ci class of toots and fiom nouD-stcms, are fotmed 
hf the ordinary' suffixes of adjective derivatioD ceriaia irotda 
and dawten of wotda, which liavc Uius the charnoter of pio- 
minal adJecttveH. 

Some of the nii>rc tuiporutnt of tfauo may be briefly noticed here. 

819. PvsseHsivcR. a. Prom tbe roprpientative steniB mad etc. 
are fomiMl tho adjectlvos madlpa, asmaxlija, tvattlya, ynqma^rot 
tadlya. and etadlya. which are used iti n poeeenire seam: rtlating 
to lUf, tnittf, and to OD. 

b. Other poiscssirt-g arc n>atna]i& ralto nx&maka, RV.) and 
CKvaU, fjfoD) tbo Kenlllres m&ms and t4TS. And RT. has once 

c. Ad analofoo* dediatlie froni lb* c«a1llT« amuf7ft t* ban^yi- 
ya9& (W. etc) ^tsemdant ^f tucA anJ tucA « <m«. 

d- I( w*8 poinicd out klio'n (498) that ibr "gnaltlTi a" aamikam 
■ml yofmlkam ate loally tUiMtfTMl cum of poaMaatve a«UMtl>M. 



«, AH OHb Mi4t Imrm cut* 
k. Otfcw tmtrvtnm at » Uki 

kMK- >«1 (ecaiYtlai Wn) IW f !■■»<■*■ ««• m ttMlf 

fcMi ■ (Mtn >(«>• IB Ik* bn —f i. «UA f wlMi gnaaSh u 
fMM<MV' nUOM ¥j A* a«i*M«w MM rf (ha fH—ia {Mill 

BIT. Hx tLm Mfti »Bt mn bnM4 hvm Am fnmmOmd rooi^ 
with (irolaaitatlo* iir tliHr lul Towth, tfc« adUwdvci oiiraBl; tri- 
r aa t , jiifiiiiimit yavivmat, llwit, «tAvaat, t'IvsbI;, — — iag a^ 
ny f«W, i*k# M«, Hi. (K iImm, lu>««rcr, miIj tte bat tkrw sn fa 
•M ill Ilk* biaf lu>((M(«, !■ tb* Mmi« al' r«HlMi uid f— r «t. Tb«]r 
Mr* lii<«et«d 0k* oth«r a^Jvcttvc mmm Ib v«at, d»Ui« (Mr fsai- 
BtaH (■MttMSt). 

a. Wsrili of iliBlUr iiic«bIbs fmn tke nota l ajul U u« IjuLt 
■b4 klyuit, Uflaeud In tk* aunn naaD«r w« abort, «JtI. 

A IS. T'liB iirrfiunilitaJ roola ibow a lika iiroluogAdoa of roard 
In xfiulfliMiltni with tbo riot di^ *m, lotfA. and Its dOTtTsdroi -dns 
MImI iqall" rarrlyi dflifa tliiu. mAdr^, -drfa; tlridrc -df^a; jof- 
oadn. -drgai lAilf^, -d^a, -<lrkfs; etM|^, •dfft. -dfkHi f^*4C* 
•dtfft: Idf^, -dtqc, -dfkii; Ud|^, •dn*. -drkfM. They niMti o/my 
t'r'i M« vr ff^Mtfihi^ mr, miH ikii Ijko, luxl Wdff aad til* follovring 
Mr* (t>>t nn>!irMiiiii>u, wiUi tfaa lenii! uf la/is aod qitala. 'ilie forms io 
dff iiro imvaxlud fof gavilaf; Uiu«i in dffa >»d dfkf»?^ Iwv« fo- 
Illllll»i4 III I. 

ftlt. KruiB U. Ic«, jTB come titi «» nmy. k&tl Aaip MMnyf yitl 
(W momy. Thry hnvu n (|ua«l-DutnoTal akanriAr, »aA am lnfl«cH4 
'tike t1i« nuDMirali p4&(w uiv.: above. 483i only In tkc plural, and 
widt tlin liaii' BtviD Hfl Don. Mill MocuM.: tbui, N.A. t4tl ; I. ate. titi- 
lihla. (Atlbhyu, tUtnim, UtUfu. 

AWi Kfnii j» (In V. ami B.) and kn ootne tbe oompiintiroa and 
MporUlU ■'•• ynUni adiI jrAUm&, ned kaUi^ and katami; and from 
I, lit iai|iitrntls^<^ Itara- I'or tlivlr Inflwlimi, »ec below, 623. 

All. [isrlvallriM wllk Ilia niifSi ka, soiuetimen oonvoj-ing a 
•IImiI'iiiIIti- vr II contutniitiiouii mvanlng. An made from oerlain of the 
,i<iiiiiiialD«l rool* iin>l 4(cmii lad may, acrorilloi; to tkc gTiminariuiBr 
liw (1141I11 rtoiii ilii'iii »Ili ihna. from tn. UkAm. tok&t, Ukia; from 
■R, Mklll froKl !■• 7*kAat jakd, yaki; from aa&u, naakau; from 
atiiu. Hiitiika. 

H, Cki itir iianii'iaii* ami ((|)i|Baiiltr ii««>) advetbe toriaed tioni pto- 
wAulMtl •"""> •"<' Ailto'lM (t>ali>«, 100? T.). 




Adjeotlyes declined pronomirally. 

622. A aiitnbei of adjectives — some of tfiem coming 
from pronominal rooU, others rooie or I<>ii8 uniilogoias tritli 
pronouns io uae — aie inflected, in part or wholly, aocokI- 
ing to the proaominal decleasioa {like rf t'^ ^^Bj, vrith 
fcminiae stems in ft. Thos: 

R39> The coiDp«rativ<:'s and auperlst!v«« from pcusoniiiul rtxitN 
— utucly. katart and katainA. yatari and jttunit, anil ftara; 
alto anyi olfitr. and its com)nrativo aoyatari — *ru declhiwd like 
ta thtxiUKHout 

A. Ittii ••.ttai from IhoM wdHi foniM bp*'1h ac^nUng to Uie kdjMtirs 
riwl'-KSlnn »'« >por*ill«JlT tact xAth (a. f . UartyAm K.). 

b. Aura t*ktt iMCMluiiallr tbv (ottn anjaC la aorapMhlon: tkiu, 
anyatk&ma, anyataUiftna. 

C24. Other vordR are so in&ocled cxcejit in [ho now. -sec. -vo^. 
sing- noiit. whcr« ttiey hnvu tbi' orili&iir; adjective form am, ii>iii<wil 
of (he proaominal at (ad), Soch arc s&rva ali, vlqva ail, entry, 
aka mtr. 

a. Th«*e. siM, sm dm w1ilii>nl vi«!p<lan. st IstM In lbs eitll«r 
ImiKuixi! (e.g. vl^vftya, vl^vat, rl^a RT.: Aka lor. (tn^. AV.)i. 

6a6. Y«t other word* follow tint tntae model DMially, or in Knot 
of tbeir signlflcstlons, or optionally; but In other senaes, or without 
kofwn rule, lapK Into the sdjoctivo Infleotlon. 

a. Biich ir« ili« cumpaiatlToi ind snpetUtlvet tram prepaalilon*) lUins: 
idhorn *nd adham&, iatarn niil Antama, ipara .\n<l «pam&, fcvaca 
ud aroni, uttara tud attain^ upara *&<! nptuod. Of ihNa, fm- 
ii«BiiD*1 fotmi ara (teddeJlf man niiiMt«nt flron UkS Muparttlvu than 
(ton tb(r aBpcrUtlToa. 

b. TiinliDi. lb* tapftitatlies (witbout c<iTTa»pooillns comparatlvM] 
paramA. cnnun^ madliTamA; and aUo anyatama (whoM poslllfoiad 
coDipiiailti' bvlnng l« lb# clui llril ueatlsned: 589). 

C. Further, tits ward» p&ra rfufonl, olAer; pirvt prior, tmt: dik^l^a 
rifit, totitfi. pa^Ima brfiimt. ifettrm; nbhiyn (r. ubb&rl or ubhoyi) 
«J b<M kiniU or parlut; D^ma tJte mii, hclf; and tin- |iat«««l<r<; nvA 

6S6. Uc«ailoiial fo>m« at iko ptononitnil dat4i?a*lMt *» mat Kllli from 
nnmeril idJetUtN: o. «, pratbmndsrte. trtiyaarim; and from other 
w«(ds having aa Indclliiila riumnral eha/aciar: (hna, MpA^/cv: ardli4A<i/<; 
Mvalanif; dvttayao/ the Ueo liittdM; \itivrti ouUide — andcibon. HY. 
has once samftnism&t. 





SS7. The subject of coiuugatioD or verbal inflection 
ioToWes, as in the other lao^agca of the family, tlie di>- 
tinotions of voioe, tense, mode, number, and peisoa. 

ft. Further, besides the nmpler or oidiaary coajiiffation 
of a verbitl root, there are certain mnre or lew foUj io- 
voloped accondary or dmrative oonju^(ioD«. 

fi2tt. Voice. Thcie ate [an ia Greek] two voices, active 

and middle, diitirqcuished by a difference ia the personal 

endings. Thia disiinctioa is a pervading oae: there is do 

actiire personal form wtiioh does not have its corresponding 

middle, and rice virsa; and it is extended aljo in part to 

the participles [but not to the iufinitive;. 

699. An actire fom fs called by the Hloda gnmrnaiisna 
paraiBtli padam a wor4 for on^tArr, and a middle form la called 
Btmans padam 4 word /or ntt't uif- tlie tanna oipht be best para- 
phtasad by Irantilive and refltxiet. And the dlatinctiuu tbus viproMicd 
ia doubtteta the uriginal foundation of t]ie dlfferonco of active and 
middle fonna; in tli« roeorded oondltloa of (be lan^-uage, howovi-r, 
the aDtitboeta uf Iranailive aad reflexLvn innatiinc ia in no small 
measure blurted, or oven altogether ofTaccd. 

a. In diD apic* diero la maeh «ff*«Mn«nl of tka itlMInctlan 1>o1»b«u 
aoUM aud middle. Ilia chvloe at rolco belD$ *cry »ttcu dtUflulued Xj 
iMitrlul («nU4ftrill4nt h\«nt>. 

B30. Some vecbe are conjugated in both voic 
in one only; aometimea a port of the 
only in one voice, othcra only in •' - 
a verb usually infloctcil in 
other ooour; and Mm 
the verb is eotnpoucdod f*ilh »un 




SSI. The middle forms outside tlie present-syatem (for 
which ihcie is a speoial passive inflectiou : see below, 768 ff.], 
uid Mmotimes also within that system, are liable to be 
lued likewise in a pafiaive seaite. 

682. Tease The tenses are ae foUowB: t, a ptescat, 
with 2. an imperfect, closely related with it in farm, baring 
a prefixed augment; 3. a perfect., made irith rcdiiplicjttioa 
(to which in the Veda is added, 4. a so-called pluperfeet, 
made from it with prefixed augmeat) ; 5. an aorist, of three 
different formalioiLs: a. simple; b. reduplicated; o. sigmatic 
or sibilant; 6. a future, with 7. a conditional, an augment- 
tense, standing to it ia the rclatioD of au imperfect to a 
preeent; and &. a second, a periphrastic, future (not found 
in the Veda). 

a Tlie tvnses here dtotlDgalslieil |1d accordsnce with pievailing 
usage} u Imporfect, p«rrect, plaperfeot, »ik1 aorlat rcc«lTa thoao 
dUdcs rrom their correspondence fo node of TonnHtioii ivith tenses 
■O called (d other tuDfUAgcs of tbo fiuoily, vvpocUlly in HrMik, Nnd 
not at all rroni iliffL-rvnoes of titiie desl^atcd bjr tlieiu. In no period 
uf tbo Sanskrit lan^a^^e ia tli«ro any exproaaion of imporfoet or 
plnperrect tiue — nor of perfect time, except in the older laDgnagv, 
whero the ''aorisf' has tbisTaliie; lator, Inpcrfecl, pArfoel, and aorist 
are so many niidioeriiiiianted past teuses or pceterltB; aw below, 
undn the diirer«Dl tensm. 

683. Mode. In respect to mode, the dltFureace botirccn 
the classical Sanakiit and the older language of the Veda 
— and, ia a less d<^cc, of the Bmhmiuiiu — is especially 

a. In tbe Vodn, tbo pnaont tonao bu, boiidea Ita ladicativn 
Inflection, a suhjiicctiFe, of coonldertblo variety of fonnatioD. nn 
optative, sad nu tuiporuttre (in Id aad 3d perauna}- Tba miuo thruu 
modes aro found, though of nueb less freqaeot oceaireoco, as belosg- 
ing to the p^frfeot; and thej are mado alao (rom the aoritts, beiug 
of especial fieqaeuc)- fruiu the simplo uorist. The fnturo boa do modes 
tan aceaaional cane or two are pacely eicoplioaal}. 

b. In the classical Sanskrit, the present adds lo its in- 
dicative an optative and an imperative — of which last. 

(08— 1 



moreover, the Brst penoiu aie a remiunt of (he olit stib- 
Jiint'live. Ad(1 tlie aoiist ha« also an optalire, of sumewhat 
]>eouliar tofleotioa, usually called the precatire (oi bena- 

B34. The present, jiorrect, and future teiuca have each 
of them, alike in the carlirr anil later lfuif*UAge, a pair of 
piutictplos, active and middle, shorio^ ia the Tnrioufl pc- 
etiliaritiee of the tvoao-foimatioiu; and ia the ^'eda are 
found such participles iiclongiog also to the nuriat. 

636. Tense- sir ate ma. The tenses, then, with theii 
aeoompanyiog modra and participleB, fall into oettain well- 
mstked gtoupK or systems: 

1. ITie prcscQt-syatem, comivosed (if the present 

tense with its modes, iu participle, and ita prcleht whieh 

we have called the impeifeet. 

11- The peiTect-sy stem, composed uf iKe perfect 
tease (with, in the Veda, its modeH nnd it* jnetrrit, the 
so-called pluperfecti and its paiticiplc. 

ni. The aorint-sTstem, or Hyatems, simple, re- 
dnplicAted, and sibilant, composed of the aoiist tease 
along with, in the Inter language, itn "preontive" opta- 
tive ;but, in the Teda, with ila various modes and it« 

IV, The future-s y sieins; I. the old or sibilant 
future, with its accoinpaoying preterit, the conditioaal, 
and its |Mtrlioiple; and 2. the new periphrastic future, 
sae. Number aoid ferson. The verb has, of course, 
tJie same three numhers with the nonn: namely, singular, 
dual, and plural; and in each niimbex it baa the throe per- 
sons, fint, second, and third. All of these arc made in 
urary tense ajid mode — except that the firai pureons of 
the imperative numben ore supplied from the subjunolivc. 


Vn&BAL AiMBcnvis axd notiKR. 


637. Verbal adjeotives and aouas: Participlee. 
The pnjticiples (letuoging to tlie tcnse-syeioms Imve been 
Already spoken of above (S84>. Tlieie is besides, coming 
directly from the root of the verb, a participle, pTevailingljr 
of past and passive or uometimes neuterl meaniog. Future 
passive participles, or gerundives, of several different Cor- 
malioQS, are also made. 

638. Infioiiives. In (he older langua^, a very ood- 
•ideiable vatiely of derivative abelraol aouas— only in a 
few S)K)iadic instances having anything to do with the lease- 
systems — ate used in an infinitive or quBsi-ioftDitive sense; 
most often in the dative ca^e, but Fomelimes also in tbe 
ooousatiro, in the genitive and ablative, and <vei)' rarely) 
in the locative. In the olaaaica] Sanskrit, there remains a 
aingle infinitive, of accusative case-form, having nothing lo 
do with the tcnsosy stems. 

638. Gerunds. A to-called gerund 'or absolnlirel — 
bcinjf, like the infinitive, a stereotyped case-form of a de- 
rivative noun — ia a pait of the general verl^systcm in 
both the earlier and later language, being especially fret^uent 
in the later l<uiguage, trhcrv it has only two form*, one 
for Dimple verbs, and the otiiei for comjiound- 1t4 value 
is that of an indei;liDable active participle, of indetcrroisate 
but prevailingly past teiue-ohataotcr. 

a. AaotliCf gcrand, an ndverkiallj' uMvi- acousstlvo ia form, is 
fmind, but only riir«ly. bulb owllcr and Ulur. 

540. Secondary conjugations. 'I'he iiecondary or 

derivative conjugations aie as follows: I. the paasive; 1. tJie 

intenaive; 3. the desiderative; -1. the oauaative. In these, 

a oonjugatioQ-stem, instead of the simple toot, underlies 

the whole system of inflection. Yet there is clearly to be 

seen in tliem the ohaiaoter of a present-system, expanded 

into a more oi less complete conjugation; and the passive K 




so puTcIy a i>ietent-sy8teni that it vill be described in the 
chapter devotetl to that part of the infleotian of the verb. 

a. t'ndor the same general head belongi the subjcot oC 
deoorainative cODJtigation, or the uoaverfiioD of ooun and 
adjectiTo-gtcms iato ooojugation-stems. Farther, that of 
compound coajugation, whether by the prefixioa of propo- 
titiona to roots or by the nddition of auxiliary verbs to aona 
aad ndjeetive-stems. And finally, that of periphraitie ooa- 
jugatioo, or the looser conibiaatiou of auxiliaries with verbal 
aouaa and adjectlvoi. 

541. Ttic cliain^teristio of a proper (fiaitc or personal! 
verb-form i» ilo personal ending. By thia alone is deter- 
mined its character aa regards number and peraon — and 
ia part also m regards mode and tense. But the distino- 
tiona of mode and tenae arc mainly made by the fotmatiou 
of tense and mode-Ntems. to vrhioh. r»lhcr thiin to the pure 
toot, the persoux) endings are appended. 

a. la Uils rluipter will b« given a gmeral aoeouDt of tbo pOf 
sunal ondiDSii, and nlio of the farmxtlon of roode-atenu from tenne- 
ateiQN, Aixl of ilio-ie rlmcntH tn the rormttioii of toiwn-ctewii — tho 
aagnenl and the mdnptlctitioa — vhidi arc found io moro tbui uno 
teiMO-*rntein. Thou. In iho folli^wing cluipter*, meh loaM-:ty»t«m 
vlll ha taken up by itself, aad tbo raotlrnds of formatloa of its atoms, 
bMb t«ns»>»t«int Mid uoda^tauii, nod thoir combin&tinti irlth thn 
vndiofB, will \>e doMrlbod ud Illustrated In ilotall. Ami tbv ovm- 
plate eonJufctUon of a few model verbs will be exhibited la eyste- 
nKHo anramgwiBuiit io Appvudix C. 

Perianal Endingi. 

642. TLe vndiiigR of verbal iafiocdon arn, as irM pointtMl out 
■bovti, ilifferunt Ihrougliout in the a«tlvo uid middle roloen. Tboy 
UO also, as lu Qtctk, usuiklly of tno sonowkat varying furins for 
tbo same pnrtoo la tho same voloo: one fallor, oallvd piimary; the 
olher briefer, called sec omlary. There nre also lata perviidinir dlffer- 
enoca, dopeoding upon other condltiuos. 

a> In th« «plM, ex<haa|M of prinuy and aftMnJary mUio eadliift, 
(ctpMtaJly ibc rabstltutlou o( ma* TO, (a, for maa. vaa. thi') nrc not 



bi A nndenaed il-iteiunnt ur ill ihu Tarl«du of aodlttf for uth per- 
•on and anmbor bcin fnllusa. 

643. SinKnUr: First jierBon. a. The primtry eBding in 
tha actlvD fa mi. Tlio stibJuocllTe, bowevcr (luier inip«r]ilivo] , li<w 
nl iMiead; wid in th« old«Ht VtiAtt lh» ni it tnnctluws mntiiiK, 
nod Ibe per*on eoda to < (p* H llie ai of ial noro dropiiei]^. Tho 
smwiidHry eDtliou it pn>pt'rl>' m; lint to this m u b lias come to 
bu BO p«rsiBt«itl> iirefiKod, appnrlni: Tognlarly whun- iii« tcoM-Klaia 
dow DOI tteeir end in a (ran for Tttrm or vanm in liV.. odcc, aail 
abhcUn US., MftdLlm TS. otc, «ikn«m TB.. are nir« «iM>inaIiea>. tliuL 
It Is txinveDJent to rfiokoa am hb emliiiKi rather lliau m. But the iwr- 
foet t«nM liu neitlier mi nor m; its endbg is aStnply a 'soueliiBM 
A: MBo;; or. froiu ft-roota, Au. 

b. The pTiinSTy miiidlo onding, sccordin; to the analogy of llie 
other persoiu, w»uld ba ro^larly mv. But su Uam or aiodo, al 
toy pwiod of the Inngnafce, sbowa any relie irbatevur ol* a m in tiiis 
pereon; the prlnarj ending, present as well aa |ierfe«t, from a-steiuit 
and otber* alilie. i» e; »i<l to it rorresponds i &> aecondary eodio^, 
trtiicb blirada with the tioal of an a-atem to •. Tho optative has, 
liuwcT«r, a iii»tead of 1; aad in the subjuncciru (later impnativf) 
appears U for •■ 

Sd4. bloRond porsoD. a. In th« nclive, the primary eniliiig 
Is at. vhlch Is shortened to « a» secondary; sa to iJk Imi of tliis 
• utuit I final radical cunaouatit. ten bulow, S6B. But the perfeet 
and the InperntlTe deeort heru entirely the auolOfcy uf the other 
fonu. The perfect ending is invariably tlui (or tbA: a48o:, Tbu 
lai]ierative Is fnr Iom tu^'ular. Tba Mlvtl tnria ol its L-ndliig Is dU; 
whiob, howeref, is tnore often rednced to hi. and in the great nu- 
Jorily of TurlM rificiudini; all a-atnm*, at uvery period of the laagMage] 
no eidiog is present, but tbe batu stvm aunds sa porstmal form. 
Id a very siaall claan of verba (799-8), ftaa is th« <adii)(. There is 
alto aa altcnativu en^nf tit; and this Is ereu «eed vpondlcslly tn 
otber persOBH of lb* impenuiTS (mo Movr, 670-1). 

th Is >b» middle voice, the priiasry ending, both present uid 
perfeet, ih so. 1'be BMoodary stands In no apparent relation to thia, 
beioK tbSe; Had in tbe Imjiuralive la found only era [or flvft' S48c), 
which in tbe Veda to not seblom to be read aa sua In the older 
laBgUK);e, es is oomelimeo strengthened to atl En tlic auhjunctivti. 

646. Third peraon. a. Tba aetive primary cndinK <* ti: tbe 
WCondary. t; aa to the lose of tiie latt«r nfter a final radical con- 
aooant, nee l>«luw, &C6. Bat in tbe imperative appears instead tbe 
IwoHltar ending tn; and iu the perfetl no characteriBtk contooani Is 
prcuriDt. and the third porsoa has the eaiBis eoding aa the lirat. 

''• Tins primary aiiddbi nadiag is t«, wilh t* as corrcsponiling 
In tbe older language, t« la often alrungtbenod to tU In 


VUl. COMJtrr.ATiOK. 


the asbJniKtivc. Is tbo perfect, tbo niiMIe tliir<1 perxm baa, UkflMi« 
ncllrc, tko sanie eniline with the first, namely • almply; Bnd in the 
vMvr tangitsgi', th« Itaird itcnms proscnl n1*(> cifl«u tunua tlia dialinctive 
iwrt of lu t<>rn)ln«tioii. aoil oomeB to fioinoide in form irltli iho Rrat 
iMtd MS. Ituii aduha for sdugdho,'. To thlv e iictrba|M ourraspoiidH, 
OS wcoodaty. tli« 1 of lliu uotiat 3d pers. passive :8^ff.i. Tbe Itn- 
peralive bn* tAm (or, In tha V«i]a, Mraljr ftm^ foi ita cudlng. 

646. Bn«l: Plral p«ra<in. Uoth in itcliva uul in middlo, tie 
dDAl lirst pcrtwn is in nil its varieties precincly like tliu cuiroBponil- 
Ing pliuftl, only witli subslitntioii of v for tii« m of the Utter: tliue. 
T«a !no TMl liA« 1>ceB fouwL tu oMiiri, v*, vahe, roUt Tabti. The 
pi^von is, of coiirau. of caniparallvoly raro nse, and fimn thff Veda 
no form In v«e, eren, U qucilKble. 

847. Second and Tbird porsons. a. In lli(< active, tbe prlniflfy 
ewlfiifi; of tfa« aecond peisoti \» tban, nni) tlial of the tbinl u taa; 
aad tliia relalion of th to t appt'ura also in the porfoct, and rana 
ttirouKb Ike wliolo series of middle endioKa. The ]>erfm:i «vllnga ara 
primary, bnt have a inatoail of a ta vovel; and an a has beeonie bo 
peraiaiently preGied lliat ibeir fonns have to b« reckoned as nthu* 
anil atuB. Tbe sm-oudiir)' enilinK* eihlhit no detinable relation to, 
[Iki primarf lu tlipse (wo porsona; choy are tarn itod tSm; and they 
are us«0 in the Imperative a« well. 

b. In the middto, a lonif S— wbioh, how<>vor, with tlm final 
of i-tteua becoKWH e — baa t>«c«aie pretJied to all dual endini:*, 
of th« second and Ihird pentoua. ao aa lu fortn an inseparable jwrt 
of cheiu idldhith&Q) AV„ and JibitbAni ^., are ieolaiedaDumaUea). 
Tho priiuary vndin^, pccaent aad pcrfMt, are Kthe and ftte: the 
•ocondary {and liupetative) are lUiiiii and AtAm lOr, with Btfui-fiiut 
a, etha vtc-l- 

c. Tbn lU|:-VrOa hat b very !«« forma In kftlie >n4 Uto, ■ppareutly 
fiem Ctlia aod eto nlih lUbJunQtlvo »irvniit)ii)ninK (iI.d| tie all ilttilUd 
balw: .a* 61S, 701, 737, 7SS, 836. IOCS, 1043). 

S48. Pioral: First peraou. a. Tbe earliest fona of the 
active cndlQK la mnai, uliioh in tli« otdcAt laniniace i» more froqurut 
than till) briefer nas (in UV., as fire to one; in AV.. however, only 
as thn^o to four] lu the clatmiCHl iiaubkriC. oias !s tliu culurive 
priDuuy enillDg; bat tho s«»indar)' abbrovialt'd ma boloojn atto t« 
the pcrivct lund the enbjunciive (Imperative]. In tlie Vodu, ma ofi^^a 
btKomea mft iS48c, eapocially lii tlie pcrfout. 

b. Tho prinmry niiddln ending ia mah*. This i« llfliluved bi 
Uie iccoodary fi>nii U) matil: and, on tbe otbvr hand, it ia rvmlarly 
llu tk« Vvda, not iuvariably strongtheaod to mabU in tbe subjuiivtivu 

M9. Second pcreon. a. TU>- :>rtTt<> primary ending Is tba. 
The aecotKlary, aLx> iiuix-railre. i . .< ^a v>>d Veda, ti only 




nnce In iropr.i. Bill In Uic perfecl xny cliirHcteritlic consonatit fs 
waotiDK'. uiil tbe nadinff m •impi}- a. In ihc Vada, llw sylUbto na. 
of problCDinlic urigin, is nol lafroqaeotty addtid to botli forms of llie 
ondiBK. RuklD? thftiu inToly thuii] und tana. Tbn forn.» in wliirli 
lhl« oc«ars will b« i1«t«U»d below, oiid«r the dlfferoot fonuiii«fia; tlitf 
nddilion is Tery nrolyniBda exeppdn; to ponoss of tbu linitganftral 

b. The mlildln prioiwy «ndhi|t Iii dhve. whieb liMoojiit to tho 
pcrfroi an well na to thr present. In (bo enbjuDCllTo of tbc older IsD- 
goage it ii aomeUiBC* Rtreiigtlioned Ui dbvfii. TliR si'MniUry land 
faDpenUiTO) OMiUng i* dhvona lin RV., ont« dhva): iind dlivkt la 
ODca met with Id tJio Imperalivp i67i d|. Iti th« Vodn. tlio v of kU 
tlieiw eadinca U aonatimva lu liu ruMtlvvd Into u, jud the ending 
becoiDM disiyUiibtr. Aa to the cliange of dh of tlicM eDdfoica lo ^h, 
MO aboTO, fifl6e. 

BOO. Third peraoD. a. The full prltsary nidlng Is aatl in 
the aciiva, with aQt« tm oorrtiapundiD^ middle. 'X'be niddlA •eoond- 
«ry onding Is snta. tn irbicli alioald correspond an aotlvo ant; but 
of tbo t u&ly itltu)p.>(li(ir qiiestloiiable Inuxn are luft, in.Uie tiiplionia 
trvatmcDt of a finiil n (307<; tliL* ending la on. In the impcnitivo, 
aatu auJ Aut&m take rku place of aatl und iuit«. Tbu InittiJ a uf 
ail IbOK cndinKU it like that of am in tbo lut elitg.. dlMppfjiriiis 
after tbo SdbI a of a teuc-stoui. 

b, Slitn'uvur anU, anlu, ante, antam. anta are all liable to bo 
weaken&d by thu loim »f their oanl, bvconini; nci vtc. In tbn «<iHv«, 
thin ircakunitig takes pUc« uuly aftor icduplicatcd oou-u-items iand 
afltrr a few roots wbick aie tr«iiteJ lu if rviluplicatfl &39fl.;; in tlw 
taidillu, it occttn aftor nil tvnic-sionis lavo thoao eadln^ iu a. 

e. Funh<>r. for th'- Mjcunilnry aetire unding an there t* a aub> 
Mltuls OS (or ur: 198 b; iho eTid«ac« of the Aveatan fafors tlie 
latter form), which la uaacl in tbo SBm« redapUcaUni; *«rba that 
chuge antt to atl etc., and vrhich accordiuj^ly appears as a weal(i?r 
oOVralaliTe vt an, The same us !a nlwi nsvJ aniveraally !■ thf \>f.f- 
foot, fu the optative lOOt iu Ihc Babjanciivo;, In those fomiB of tbo 
aoriat vboM st«m does uol end in a. and iu Uio iuipurfoet of root- 
items endlait In i, and a few others 631 . 

d. Tbo porfMt middle has in all pi^riuds of tlte langua^u tbo 
pevoliar oDdiiig re, aud the uptativo baa Ibe allied ran. in thia poi- 
son. In the Vrda, a Tari«ly of other eudia^s coiilaiulDi; a r as dlt- 
tlnetive consonant are i&ol nith: iianiely. ro land Ire and rata tn 
tho pr«8«Bt; rata in the optAlIro both of prcM>i>t and of aoriat); 
rtrs in ibe perfect; ranta* ran, and ram lu aotlats (and in an im- 
|)*rfeel or two>; rim itmi ratam in the inperalive; ra in the inpcr- 
feoi of duh (MS,', The three rate, ratam, and rata are foand even 
la tbe lai^r lauKuago in oDt< or two verbs 6BBj. 




651. EteloB- sr« glT«a, for couvenieace, in tabular forin, the 
BoheilM of ouiIiigH u kccsplod in the cluiicsl or lat«r laiigi>«ee: 
utmeljr, a> (h« regular ptlmarf «ndbigit, used in tlie iinueut indicattTw 
and tite future land the snlijaDCiivc in partj; and b. ihu regular 
asMbdary eoJIugs, uaed in itie !mperf«at, tlie eoaditiooal. tlie aoriat, 
ibe optativ« land tli« aubjuDCtive id parQ; and further, of epMlal 
selieaBea, o. the perfect o&dtn^ (etiteflf ptiaaArf. Mpecially iu die 
nlddle]i and d. tlio imperative endioKa icliiefljr iflcoudwryj. To tlic 
ao-oalled imperative enilingB of tbo lirat penov is ptefix&d the ft whiob 
ia praotioally a |>uc of lb«ni, IhouKti really containing cIk- niode-aljpi 
of tlio aiibjuDi'tiTU from ivtitoh th«y art* derived. 

6BS. Fnrtbor, n part of iht eDdinga are marked viih an aooent, 
and a part are left anaooeoted. The latter are tboae wliicb uev«r, 
vndcr any dreuoiBtAacw, receive tbo aoemt; tbe rormor are aeconted 
la considerable claases of verbs, though by no ineauB In all. It will 
be noticed tbat, in general, the unaticeDled eoiUnipi are tlioae of ihs 
aiogiilar active; but tbe 3d sing. Imperative has an accented ending; 
anil, OD the otbor hand, the vliole tterles of lat porsoDi liuperaiivc, 
oollvo and middle, have nnacccntod ending (this bointc a cJinracterlstlc 
of ihe Rul>junfiiv« foriualion wlilcb they rflpreB«nt>. 

603. The Bclieuies uf normal endin;^, then, are aa follows: 

a, Primary Endings. 

Kli**. Blld'llO. 

fl. d. p. t. d. p. 

-vAa tai4e i vAtie mAbe 

thifl UU bA ^ttae dbvt 

tiU anti, iLtl t^ itt iknte, kto 

h. Secondary Ernlia^ 
I stB vi mk 1, 6. vkM mUii 

3 • tAm tiL ttii» ^CbOm dhviua 

1 t t^ An. ila ta ittaa ftnta. Ata, tin 

c Perfect Eilincs. 

I • tA mi i T&be mUie 

dthos ft ah itho dbT6 

Atoa 6« i Ite re 

d. Inperatlte Kiliapt. 
ava ama fti tvahU AoaaHftt 

tAm tA Bva Itbam dhvAm 



1 tba 

3 a 

I ani 

3 dliL hi, 

s tn 

tin Antu. Atu tim ^tftm AntAm. At&m 

6M. In gcQcrd, Ibe ralo 1$ followed UiM »u jct-mtcd vndln^, it dU- 
«|IUMo, I* •M«ul«d on iti ftnl ^ylUMs — alU tiia totuUnt naioB-vontla 
•r*i r»guJ«il, Ui UU nvptvt, w IM4ip»l puts «r Iha «D4ln(<^ But tho 


I>EB60KAt. E«DI]Ca«- 

(— W7 

Sd pi. eiiaiiig au »f Om pna. lQ<Ut>. mlddlo Iwi In RV. ibo acMni at^ in 
• auDibM of icrb* (i«« 613, eB&, 699. 719); tad m oeeuionallnsun(4 
is net wlib Id otber tnijing*: ilini, tntAi ('cc 719, 788). 

1186. The ««c4ndw7 wdlngi of the iiui?«iid ■ud illrd perton* docnlu, 
u wnaittiiig of an ftddod consonani wliboDi tdttcL, (honld tofululy (IBO) 
b« tott wbatiCTct tlio root or (tom to vhtch Ibey aM to be kdded tw«lf ondi 
In ■ nnMoani. And ibl* nU) li In gen«nl roUowcd} jrel not vtihoot «- 
Mptian*. Thiu: 

a. A coot endlnx In ■ d«it>l mute iDinetlinM ilrops tbis Bntl mati; 
luilraJ of the added e In the neond ponou; and, «n the Otfcn hanil. a rout 
•t etoDi ending in b tomeUiDeA drops tbU ■ inMead of the adied t la tlie 
Ihiti pcMon — In «1ibt>i «Mn. »iitkblUtiiti( Ih* ordltiaiy KUtloii of • and t 
III thrM peraqui, [iiat«ad of B and B, aud t and t. The ctimple* noted *ie: 
1A rinr sv«B (to 8d ring. av»t), Vvid. AB.; 3d tins aluit, |^, ^B. ; 
•ebat> cgl^Bi JI'' A^'iii. I Konkst, v'cakll*, KT., a^ftt, KfU, AB Mnh. 
R.; asrni, ^arai. vs ; alilnat, ^lAa. ^;R. TS. liB. i.'<impue aino tlm 
a-aoitel r»rm* «yAii ind srAit (14A n), In vblib the umc IsRncnn 1» to 
be Men; and funbei, ivJait nic. ifiOS a), and precatlic yftt l<ii yu (83TJ. 
A aluiDiT ]aa> of any other llnal cuDBOBaat U oifeMl**!)' rare: AV. hat 
vnee abtutnaa, foi -nalt, yVbaSii- Ibotc ate alio • few qum «b*ia a 
1*1 ting. U inefularly modeled after a 3d tin<. : tbiu, atrijam (l« atfi^atj, 
ytji, Kl'., aooUaam (lo noohiunt', yoMA, HDli. . eompm ntrthct 
the 1«( dnr in m inttud cf am. 043 a. 

b> AgalD, a iinlon-tQucI 1> igmeiiniai InlioduFcd bcfiite ibv «udtii|, 
cuiiei a ot i or i; tao twicw, 691 b, 631, 819. 880, 1004 a. 1068a. 

Si lu • tew leolalod catoi tn llu oldci iBUfuige, tUt 1 U elkMicetl lo 
U: tee befow, 904b. 836, 1 068 a. 

CM. Tbe changeH of form vhtch raoU and steioa undergo ia 
tfcoir comblnatlona willi theae endlngv will be pointed out In dct^t 
b«lDw, under the various foruutious. Here uiay be simply menlloaeii 
la Bdraoce, aa by far tlic moit Impartani among; tliieni. a dlitiuctioo 
of fttronser and weaker form of ateoi Id luge rlasBea of verba, stantl- 
in; in relation with tlia accont — the ti«m belnji of atrongcr form 
whoD tbo accent blla Bpou It, or Wore an accentlesA eadinic, and vt 
wMker form when tfae At«eat ia on tbe ending. 

•. Of the endingfl inarteil at actenteil in \b« Hbeinn, the Ca of 3d pi. 
to not Idfie^uontly in the Vvda tmatnd ai nnaooented, the ten* rotting on 
lb« tlott, nbUb t> itteaitthin<>'l. Mncb Imb often, ibe tam of U do. Ii 
treated In tbe etni« ii»7i otlier *ndln(», only iportdteally. UeUlli are itt*en 
andei ibe TUlotta formMloug brloir. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

667. Of the nubjanetive iui)de (aa wa« pointed ont abovo) only 
frafimeata arc loft in tho lat«r or claaaical language: namely, la the 

Wbltatj, QnBBat. X •!. |4 

BW— ] 

Till CottJVQATlUX. 


■9-MUod fint penou luiperai(v«, ftnd Id iho nae iftTft) of ilio inper- 
fect and M>H>t p«raiiai wlihnnt auKoieat after mA prohltiltWe. In 
tlis oldest period, bowaver, it wu a very fr«ja«i)t fotnutloD. htiag 
tllTM or four times u common u tbe optative in tbo BIg-Veda, aad 
nwtily iho uiiBa Id iIic Atharvan; but kJroady In tbe BrabmauM H 
beconiea comparatively larc. Its varieties of (onn ars oonsidorable. 
and tomoticnua ptiTplexiog. 

008. In ita normal anil regular fonaatiOD, a apedal mode-item 
i> mado for tlxi aubjiuetiro hy udding to tb« teaaa-atwn an a — which 
oamUaen wlib a final a of the teoM-itom lo A. The aoo«nt reata 
npon thu teaae-stc>iu, which aocordlngty biu thu Htrong form. Thus, 
frvm ifac .itiong' prots«nt-st«ni dob (v'^uli; it niatlo Ihti eubjnuciive- 
■teai doha; froiu Joho i|'hu!, juli4va; from jun^ [f'7Uil> Tiutlkj*; 
from 9onb lY^^'t aua&va; from Ui&va i^ttdK t>liATti bom (ud4 
(^tudl, tndi; from aoyi. [pass., ^raol, vojA; and »o od. 

660. Tb« atom tlisa fomwl la Inlected in i;:enerHl as an a-atem 
would bo Uflocted In tho Inilicalirp, wllb coiutaat acccat, and & Sot 
• before tbe ondingv of the lint p«rHOii i7S3 1; — but wiib the follow- 
lag jveouliaritieB a« to endioic ote-; 

SeO. a. In (ho Kctii*. the lit line, bu si a> ending: thu*, d&bail], 
yno^Jitnl, bh&vanl. But In iht Uig-Veda ■omciIidm ft (imptr: ibui, 
iyt. br&TM. 

b> lu lit du., Ut p]., tnd "H p)., the eudliiji« Me tLo tM«n4aty : th«i. 
tfibSva. d6baina, d6tiaii: bhivSva, bliiTSBU. bh&vU. 

0. In "ii jitrl 3') dit. and ^1 pi., ihe endinp ore pilauy: tbut, 
dAhathna, dobataa. d6ha(ha; bhivatbas, bhivKtaa, bbAvltba. 

d> In 2d and Sd *lns., tbo sDdltita tn elih«r prtinary «t Hcondary: 
tbnii. d6ha>l or d^baa, dAhatl or d^liat; bb&vAal or bb&vda, bhiv&ti 
or bbavftL 

e. OcMtionaUy, luniu «Ub double modo-alKn tt |,by uflinUatt<^ii i« 
tlM mora aanoreut lubjnucdtei frim untc-it^nu in a) tre met with frani 
aon-ait«ina: tbnt, AeRtba ftom m; Ayta, i^yM, drfto Ergm e (yl)- 

661. In Iho Dtlildla, tanoM iHtb MiwDdur liutead of primary esd- 
inga are veiy nre. being fouud rnitr In the M pi. (where Ihejp ite woio 
ftequeat thtii iku i»luiuj}, and in a mm oi tvo of tbe 3d Aim- (uid AB- 
hai onec uyAUiAB). 

K. The (triUng pecntleilty or •nbjonotlve middle infloctlen i* (he fra- 
faent (tmnftbonlnc o( • to Al In the enillact. Thli t» leM icnonl In tbe 
*ery eullvtt 1tiicu>ct< th*u Uler. lu Iti ting., &i Uune i> (eoud at endlsg, 
oTon la BV.; and la Ui da. kl«o (af rare oocorrDnoe), onlf tvahU 1^ net 
with, la lit fl, amfhfi prevail* In UV. and AT. (Kmaha U (uuod > 
few ttmoa), *ud i* alono Imown Utet. la 2d >iDg., rti t«r ■« ifoea ; 
aat *oau in BV., boi (• iks only rem la AV. ud the BiihuupM. In 
Sd (lag., Ui lOr to oc<«n on<« la RV., a»4 \a tbe pie4omlmBl lera 



[— e«6 

In AV,, iiid ibo enly oxo Ut«r. Iti id pi., (UitU for dbvo I* hand kn 
«I1C w«r4 111 RT., •ud « few tlotM In lh« Biihnii^M, In 34 pi., dUi 
for Dte 1* thu Bidhak^ form (of fti Itan fnqaeiit vrcvmiKt); It »«i:an 
n*<lk«T In RV. Mt AV. No tofh itnil ondlnc* u thU tad t41, f«t the 
■nd t«, an anywhero fDun<l; tml BV. bM tn ■ fow «orrl> (iilns: k^i-e, 
B47 o) Aiths inil kite, whiuli npjiDar in b» ■ lik(> *nb]iiDCtt» sirniiiAeiilng 
of «U)« idJ ei« (■.lihoo^b round in ona lndlc«tlt« formj kp^TSit«). Bo- 
foio the Ai-Dtidiiis*. tba vowol )■ rtgntirlf long ft; but ftutAi ln*t««d of 
ftaUil U two or ihrrt tttnia m«l with, ami oaco or cw1f<i {TS. AS.) fttU 

ft6S. The sulijunctivo oodings, thm, In oomblnsttoR with tli« 
HUbjniKtttve oode-ilgD, are ah followa: 

i. r, u 






nttaon ntba 







fiint«. «ata 

a. And in fiirth«r comblDAlion nltli final a of a (ooM-etcm. tho 
lidtiil a of all lb«se endings becomea ft: thug, for ex&mpli^ iu Id pen., 
ftsl or Aa, AUiBO, Athn, Aoe, Adh^e. 

663. Buldea tbt> proper iubJn.ii<!tlT«, with mode-atgs, IB tM ttlpU 
f«nn — wltli pHtnary, with ■UtDglbsoed prlnury, uid wltk teeondir} ond- 
tug) — the una of «(ibjnnct!**, lo the totm "Impaifkci •nbjnnettw'* aud 
"llapiopM »iibJuiii*iiT«", h«( b<wi> *No glvon to ibc ludliutlTO formi <*r Inipot- 
fect lad loriit whan oted, «[lh the luimeitt oml(t«d, In « nodil lonia 
(balov, B87): mcb ue being <|b1i« contnon In RV., bat tipldly itittg out, 
10 ihd in ihu Biibinapa luipiafe 4nd later U Is hMdly niel wllb except 
■ftet mft problblilvo. 

ft. Aa to tb« gcncnl uaa of tba tabjuictln, tee below, 674 S. 

Opialive Mods. 

664. a. Aa hsa been already pointed oaf, ib« optative ta of com- 
pftTRlively rare occorrciico in the laniniitlt« ol" 'be Vedai ; but It gaina 
rapldljr In fro^jnoncy, and aLrmdy In tlio Brahmacns griistly oiit- 
Biunbera tbu subjunctive, And atill later comes almost oatirel; (o tAkn 
ibi place. 

b. lu iDMle of fonnalloD la tie »ai« iu all perfoda of th« 

666. a. Tbe oputlre modo^i^ i« In the Active Take a dif- 
ferent one, ftOCDidinK aa it i» «dil«d to ft teftM-ftMm ending la b, or 




to (MM eniling in nume otlier final. lu tb« Utter eaM, it b ji, M«antod: 
tliii fft La BpjMiiJad to tlio weaker fonB of lh« t«iiM>4t*iB, aad Uket 
tlto rogiilu urte* of BecondftT)- eodingB, witb, is M plnr,. ub to* 
■toad of An, and lots of Uio A before it. After ao a-Htcin, It is t, 
UBBcoentftd; tUs I bleuda with Uiu linal a Ui s (which then is aocQDted 
or not kocordinf; to t1i« iMoeot of (lie a); mod the U inninuined 
unohuiged bi>rorv m Towel-ondiDf [ttio. ttij. by in«uis uf an interposed 
flupboBic y. 

b. In tho middle voiop, the modo-Hijpi li i tfarovj^ut. and takos 
the aecoutlary «udlnp, nllli a In lat i>iii|;.. uid nm Id 3d pt. After 
■n a-fltam, the rulet ai to iu oomblnation to e, the accent of the 
latter, ftnd Ita rotootloa before % vawti-nadiTig «riU) iiit<sp<»ltloii of 
■ }, are tfao baido aa In the active. Afutr uoy other final, the weaker 
rcirtu of Btciu in tak«D, a«d the ai'dCnt is on the endiag !exoei)t in 
one claas of vorbt, where U falla npoo the ton»o->t«n : eev S4&;; uid 
the 1 [as when canMiwd to e] takes an Ituerted 7 before the Towel- 
oodingt {m, fttUn. BUm). 

o. I( li, of mime, ImpoMtbU t» t«ll fram tbe form wlMillier 1 01 I I* 
eomMnal villi the llul of an a->Um to •; bat no f»od kmob appaan to 
nlM IM uiuminc 1, ratbur ihui ibe I vbloh akowa luaU la the othtv daw 
of M«DU ill the mtddln rotee. 

B6S. The eotnbinod nodo-EiflrD (uid endiiifS of the optatire, then, 
aro as followa, In thoU double form, for a-etems and for others : 

a. fer non-a-atens. 

>c4l>B. mlddls. 

). d. p. (. A. f. 

1 yam ydva yitOA iyi irUil Im&hl 

i y£s j'atam ynta itbiia iyithim idhv4m 

I jit yatam yua iti lyAtint ir&n 

b. cenhined with tho final ef s-xtcas. 

I oyam ova ems ej» erahi eamhi 

1 ea eum eta eUUIa eyatta&ai •dhvam 

1 at «ttm «rQs eU ey&t&m «nui 

o. Tku yft U In tbc Ta^a not lolduni reaoUed Into i&. 

d. The Mntaelod aontni, hi aeuioyam, !■ toand in TB. and ApiR. 
Cectala Vtdlv 3d pi. ntddlc form in rata wilt b« netitlonect bulaw, uadit 
lh« ruiou fomatloai. 

687. Procativo. Ptocatlve fortna are anch as hare a sibi- 
lant Inserted betirwn tbe optative^ign and the ending. Tbey are 
made sItDoet only from the aorist stems, itod, though aJlowed by the 
grapimariaQfl to Iw formed from rvery ruol — the acttre preoative 
from the sintplc aorist, the middle from the sibilant aorist — are 


Oftativb llooe. 


ptMtioally of ran ocoan«i>c« ut every perlutt of the laofiaag*. and 
etpocially Ut«r. 

ft. The luened a ntn« in ih« rciJvr tbrnash the wholn i«1m of p«i- 
(lom; in th« mUdl^, it In slloirei] only in ihi.i %l ind %I psnnu «laf. tnd 
du. >nd iba Id pi., uid U qndtabln cnl; for tha 2it and 3d ting. In Uie 
2d (Inf. lot., the fntattrv totxn, liy muon Of th* aueuutiy Ims of lb* iddod 
», U not dUtiofulihAblg ftuu Ibn flmple opuUve; In the 3rl slug, tci., tbo 
■MM U tho cua In iba laUir Uu^isr, wbleh (eompue 666 &J mvm tho 
penooal eniUag t inaUud uf the prockUic-dcn •; but the hV. ntully, tnl 
th» otliai TedU U>iu to ume citent, btve the pKp»t endikit 7U C'"' 
yUt). Ai M ^ In th« U pi. mid., ko SSe «. 

b. The M«ant U w In the dmpla optative. 

668. Tho prcctttive endings, thon, Mceirted in thfl titer luguR^ 
<;U>cluiliit{^, ia timokcte, thust) whicli an idettlical wilb ibe simple 
optatlv*), an as follow*: 


(. d. p. •. 

I yimm yisra y&ma [ly&l 

a [rial jrAstam y^ta iffli^ 

H Istt] jrbtAm ydsUB i%t& 

a. Bt*pe-;iluii th« ptccaiiTt, t»c fonUvr eSl If. 

b. A* to the ^eMnd D*W of IIif uplall'O, w« b«low. 573 A. 


d. p. 

(Iv&bl) [ImAbl] 
ifoathAm i^vAm 

iT^tUn [irini 

rmperalive Mode. 

SeO. The imperatire has no mode-sign; it Js made by 
addioff itt own endiuga diicctly to the tenBe-rtcm, jtirt ns 
the other endioga are addc4 to form the indicAtivc tcusea. 

a. Qtuft, la 2d ud 3d du. >ud 'id pi., ili fonni ate indUtingutilitbla 
b«m thi>to of Iko anpaent-praWrlt ttvn Iba Mm« tUtd with 11* aoflaflit 

th The nile« t« to the hm Of tbe dUFneoi widln«t — eepoeltUy la 
2A ting., w\nt the Tatlcty U toQiidtrable — vill be (Itm btlan, In connee- 
tl»n rltli the miIoqi ttato-ty^tBia: T)id nndlng tAt, howover, b** (O niieli 
thai li pMolItt In lu to* tbjl It rails for a llttis explanation hare. 

670. The Imperative in ttt. An imperatiw forui, uauaEly 
havio^ the value of a Sd per*- alsg'., bat aomotlnes alao of otber pcr- 
MDti and DuulMrs, la madfi by addiog tat to a prenvol leaiw-stfliD — 
fn ita weak form, if it have a diataaettoD of etrong; aad weak fofui. 

a. Eiuaplet ue: brQtit, batit, vitt^t; pipfUt. Jahliat, 
dhattit; kryntat, kanitat; m-b^ltat, Jinttit; ivatat, rUf^Mt, 
vaaaiat; vli;atdt. a^jaUt^ aayatat, nafyatat, obyat&t; kriyatAt; 


VIII. Co)wuo*ncBt. 


caiiut7*Ut, oy&raj-Atat, TATByatAt; ipssUit: JtcrtSt. No «iaurl«( 
1it(« bwiu foend ttoai * nnut-cUiB laib (6&0), not »ny otbri tlun tbow 
Iitie Given (tool 4 paaitTe, Inicn.ilte, oi de»ider«t1ic< Tbe few ncccnieil 
MM* tndkAto Uikt tbe (airoktion follom lli« g«nen] into fpt »dd tnide «ltb 
tB accsDUd MldllU (MS). 

b< Ilie ImptnitTi) in tftt is nnt a Tory rare r(»nnatl<Hi In the otd«r 
laagaagA, being tuadv (in V,, B., anil S.) from alMiit flHy root*, aitd in 
10vu4 ■ bnnilrcd and tttiy cvcnrteucet. Later, it i* verr ununial: tbnt, 
only a rfnglt Aiample has bMn soUd in HBh.. and on* In R. s and «onei- 
pMdlngly few In jrea ODeie niodein lesli- 

071. A) TCs:ardB iu mei&iDg, Ihia form appeam lo Utvu |ir«- 
vaillngl)' In the Brabmanne, and (raoeably but mncli leaa dtetloctly tn 
the Vedic Mrt*, » tpeclfit; teniw-TBlue added to iu iiii)d»-Tftlu» — as 
eigfiifying, mmoly. an injunclioD to b« carried out at a later timo than 
itie present; tl le ;Uko llie Lntlu Tonns in to and tola) » posterior 
or futura iutporallve. 

a. Biamplta arv: Ihft) 'vA mfi tEf^baatam abby^bi *ti brUbl 
taih iu na asat&ifa prntipr&briitAt (V''-) *"!/ ^ ^**' "e^"** to "•« oj / 
itaNif ^Htfi her«^ and \ i»fttr\far^\ tMHOUnct h«r lo nt m haviitj/ cent ; y4d 
brdbv^ tfqfhft dr&vlva '^ dfaattat CRV.) ■■•A«n iAom J,cH ttand hji. 

rijAf. [MriiJ bcaUtur riihn here (lod ilmllatlf In many cue*); ntkdlam 

udvoho bbBvo 'duhya pr&tt dhavatAt (A\'.) (n a eamtr up tht a*etnt: 
^fUr taclnff tttrrierl u^y. run hark again; v&naap&Ur Adbl tVJk atfaA«;att 
tAaya vitt^t (16.) Ou irt0 leiU aaeaui thee, [tlten) fake vott of it. 

b. y.\»mi>\rt, oJ tu tun aa (itbai than 3d filni, xie u foliOTC lit tinf., 
4vyuf&di J&arrlftd ab&m (AV.; unly cuar) Irl uir tcaCck till Jaj/-hr«ais; 
u Sd alnfc., piltnar mi "vlqaUd nyt\? (T^.) M utaith twn* u^nin to 
m», ayiiii tf^aya riH miirdhiDaili vf pMayat&t <C-B') tJu king Aam 
t^att ma/ie Am ketiJ Jtg ojf; 10 2d da„ nitsatytT abruvan devi]^ 
ffmax t vataatad Iti yVM.) ihr jf^ii ittidU Ut« tteo A^iint "hriag thtn 
ha«k a^oitT; at 1-\ |>l., lipa^ . . . dCT^^a na^ ankfto brOtat (TS.) y« 
ir«r#rt. amioitun m to tht i/otlji 01 trtii-dMr*. In iha tatot laotnaga, the 
preTdliiif value njipeini lo b* that ot a 3d alng.: thna, bbavLn pras&dadl 
klumtAt (HBh.) majf i/our ni»-tMip do t)u Jmm, KiiaA bhBv&tt 
abUrak^tat (DKC.) M ymtr txttUney froUvt him. 

o, AcooiilInK to tlia naUns fnmnatlaM, Ua Inpaiatlvo In Ut la t« be 
naed irith a leoodictiTc ImpUcation. Ko Inlaaee of neb wa trfatn tv 
ba qoolabl*. 

d. Id a t*n>i« rofc>t«d HTV^JjaK^^^^ Blahma^laa 

>nd Sitlna, aad < '-'^^MIIIH^^^^^HE!. " 

AVS- ¥98.). -^ -"■- ■» ' ' '■ ■ •n»<"U(» 


One or tju Uooas. 


Uses of the Modes. 

S7S. Of the tbiee modes, the imperative ia tlie ono 
most ilistiact and limited in ofBce, Had most uochanged tn 
uie ihroughout the whole history of the language. It sig^ai- 
fies a command oi iojuDcttoD — an attempt at the exercise 
of the epeakci'fl will upon some one or something out«ide 
of himself. 

tL This, however (id Sanskrit m in ollmr lan^uagoBl, is bf no 
meau Always of the medo foroo; the eommiind aliadea off Into & 
doinuid, AH exhortation, Hn cntietty. »a cipreMion of exmcst doatre. 
The Imperative utio aometinict li^iliiM an adiumpUon oTroDCoiBion; 
And occanlonally, b; pregnant cooetruetloii, It beeomea the ctpreulon 
of semotbitig coailttional or conlivf^tit ; but it dvM act acquire any 
re^ar uac in d^pendont-claufiu-muking. 

b. Tlio Inipornllx is iiuw tnd thL->i ii»«l in aii [uMricgatiite acotcDVc: 
ihui, bravihi ko 'dyU 'vn mayft viyt^^atAm (R) tptai.' ul« thatl 
HOW he ttparoM by met k»ttaam M* giuj^vaata^ IcrljanULm (H.) 
kow art Oujf to h* mada rirluQuti kaamU pio4>4 pradljst&m (T»i.) 
to %eAtim tJiM the offtriiijf he gwent 

573. The optative appears to have as its primary office 

the expteesion of wi«h or desire; in the oldest language, 

iu prevailing use in indepeadeut olausee is that to which 

the name "optative" properly belongs. 

a. Bat the espreasiou of desires on the odc hand, pftsws natnratly 
OTCr into tliat of requeal or oDlroaty, so tbat tho oplatin bocoraca 
H eoft«Bod imporativo; and, on the othor band, it eomea to signify 
witat is geDDrally dMirabIn or proper, what abould or ought to b«, 
•»d to beeoaiee ibe mode of preacriptloa; or. yet attain, it is veakened 
Into signirj-in^ wfaai luay or c-an be, what 1* Ulcely or unnal, and so 
becooea at laat a softened slutemsnt of what is. 

b. Further, tbv optativo in dffpmdeut cluuscs, with relative 
ptonouna and conjunetion*. beoom«a a re^lar means of oipreaBiou 
of the coDdlUooaJ aad comtlDgea^ in a wide and lucroaslog variety 
of asoa. 

Q, Thn »o-eall4d pi««aUve forma (M7) ara oidtnartly iiMd In tho 
proper oputlva i*iue. Rat la ttia l*Mr lin^aa^ Uiey ue &e(iiI«iii11) hi it 
wlUi la Ufl utbuT utiOt m tka oputi«a : (ba*, aa hi prapa^yftmi mnma 
"paaudTtd rao chokam (Bha.) for J do net ptr»iv* what aAmcU di^«l 
my grHfi f*^ btaOytour vlbliQtaya^ (^■■I'-) *^ ***^ lAould ht 
rkanga. Alia tudj with mA: ft* 076 b. 




il*al avag evr lift; BamftQVMiUti m& foeal^ (UBIi,.i t* com/orUil; <h 
itef gn4t«: mft bUiflti or bhtl^ (MBta. R. dM wtht afraiA; tnA bbut 
kUAsy a parlay n^ '^,) M >uit a tiiangiaf fimi tak» piaM. Exasiplw with 
tlio iiupprfvcl Hfo: ma bibhor aft marifjraaf !ftV.) tfo notjtar; thou teiit 
not JiVf mS emU *tiat s&khiD kurutbA^ (AV-) •'o »ol melu JritmJ* 
<>/' Mroi ; mft putr&m aant&pyMhaii ;UBh.i do nol mrrmc /or M; aou. 
The reUdon of the tmpQrruet to tho ttoriil conitrucliun, in point of 
freqaencj'. ia in BV. «boul aa one to five, in AY, allll lesa. or about 
one to ftix; And thoitgb iufttancos of tho Imperfect aro quotable from 
all tbe older text*, tbc^ arc exceptional nod lorroquont; wlillo iTi tbo 
a|u» and iator tlisy beoonit) oitroniely rare. 

b. A giufle optative, bbiOoma, U urad problMllvelj vuli mA In 
RT.; t)i6 older Uii^ntge piMnnii no other txarnpU. »nd the connrnttioD 
ia ««r7 ru'^ aUo Ut«>. la an ftsunplc ot t«o, aljo, the praeatlTB (bhiLyftt, 
R. Vtaa.) follnw* mft. 

c Th« KV. hi* «nce tppMontlj' mi with an Inparulvaf hut Ibe 
puiii^« It piohthlr (Corrupt. No other inch mm Is loet with In the oldpf 
Uneotge (uiila» Bfpfti TA. 1. 14; doufcllcH « b*d tetding for a^paa); but 
in the «plt« tiiid Uuti the contductlon l>e|tjn# to ippeu, ind bocom«R an 
oidliikiy Toim of prohibition tbu*. ma prnyaooho "fvare dbanam (EI.) 
rf» Ml ftHCoir tetaltfi on n Jorrf-, Bakhi mat 'vadi vada (Vtt.} _fHenil, 
Ho net »p»ak tJnu. 

d. Thn ^B. (it. fi. 1)) ippaui to olI»r ■ iln(In cuuiplo Of a tma 
BUbJonctlT* wfth mS, n{ padyftaSt; that* tt psrhapa aonttMii; wrong 
tbont the rvsdJni 

Ci In the «ptci and later, fci> toilit reiin aoi di-pii^ed ot augoiuut la 
owailoiitll]: in«t with after mft: thua, ma tvAifa kUo *tyagU (HBh.) 
l4l not (he time />a» thet ; mA v&UpatliiUii anv agft^ (H.) tfo luitj'oltoic 
yStCi rwut. But Ihu time mmui*]) ucniin tlut (.no or tbivO lima* En Ihi* 
ntdot Uti(aag«: Unm, vyapaplat (V^Oi *S** ^I'^.l, ana^t {K$.). 

680. But tliouBOalio of tfaeDptatiro with nl nof is a probibitivo 
sense appoan Id Ibe Ynla. and beeomes later a familiar consbuctlon; 
thus, && ri^yama kadA oand iRT. Mi^y i<v jni^trf h« Inarm at anp 
Iwm; nica tlsrJ^'^ ni Jtihnyflt ;AV,: and if ttrjt, not ^raftt ptrmi4*i<m, 
M hint not laeri^ee: t&d a tAtbfi ak kurySt |^'B,) bml ht miut net 
ilo tkat mo; tin divA ^aylta ;^V3S..' Itt him not tl*ej> hy day; na tvOih 
Tldrur JanOli Hlth.' let not p*opl* Ahoht thee. Thla In ibe later 
langua^o is tlie ooiT»ln.tlve of ibe prMcrlplive optative, aad Ixttli are 
extremely cumtuon; su that in a l^ext of prcacripllTe cbamotea the 
optative forua luay come to outaotuber tb« iudicutire aud imperative 
togetber ;aa is tho case, fur exMniilu, in Uauu<. 

B81. Id all dopeodenl ooaatructioua, it is alllt barder ovvo in 
the oldeai langun)^ to esublif<li a defiiiit« distioctioa bctveen sub- 
junctivf' aod optative; a inotbod of iwe of either t* searciely to be 
ftfund (o vbioli tlic other doee not furuleh a practical eqoivaleut — 


Vs*9 nr TUB Uoiisfl. 

I— 67» 

our rc<elf«rti grmtt unto M( to K^ik» aguin; Wgin ntify aOnii} . . . ajl to 
Bumittfr 1>h(itv MBoA IKV.) nuy ik^r* (« to <u a Jon.- Ut Oua Jnvor 
<if (Ain« b* Durt. It !■ not tbiv seldotB the c«bo tbat vsniloBe of 
clw ■»■« puttge fa dlffereat texts show different inodet u vuioas 

0. There is, iti fiut, nothlog In the eurlloiC erajiloynoDt of lh«ae 
modes to prove that they might not »U bo spcoinlliod luos of foniiB 
origlnilly equivalent — bsvin^, for instance. & geoent future meaatag. 

679. A« eiamplea of the less charncIerlBtio use of aiibjnnctivo 
■»d optAllfo in thc! »lilcr^iing«, in ioditpcntleoc claiix'B, may bo 
gooted the fallovLng: ii gtit ts gaoobSn {ittort yuRaol (RV-) (Adm 
tour a^ tciU ttoubtleti coait; ykd . . , b& mar& {tl m&nyaaa iTLV.) 
if Aott Vtinkett '/ AnUmtdW; vA tA n&^anU n& dubhntl t&skuratt 
IRV.j Otty do not t^waiM torf; i«» IAi'i'/inui Aami /^m; kamnili dovora 
turffft vldhomn iRV-! (o»rA«f gcJ t/mU w» ofir MatumT OKnioft t-nsriia 
ftfDAvaC . ■ . dlv^dlve iRV.) iy .<^i an* m^ jaw ic^oM ncry dai/, 
ut*i *nlib brslun&^o dadyat t&tbl eyos^ qiv& ^At |AV.} tmt 
Jtouid gir* htr, hvtctfir, to a Srohman: in thai ea*« iht wilt b* prepitiata 
(inW faverabtf, Aht^T-tiiaT dadyAt [^B.} com tKonU gin ttstry dug. 

677. The aee« of the upintire lu the Uter Laugn»ge are of the 
utiDOit vaiiely, covering the wliola field oocupiud jointly by the tno 
toodea in etu-licr tiue. A few exauiploa from a felugle text (UBfa.l 
will be moneh to tliastnite ibuiu: uccfaiirt«ili au *va bbaAJlj&ib oa 
ktU7&ih pAdddhSvnnam / wiVJ not tat of the rtmnant nf iii* tai^njifr, 
t leilt not ptr/onn tAr foot-laeuUon: JO&tln vr^jBt let her gif to htr 
r«Miv4*i aSi Vufa a& korhloit knryit JU lAowU tiot act (Aw at anjf 
tiiH$, kUbnih Tidyfiiii noladi nfpwn A<w tin I know Mttg yaUit 
ntoMTf* aaiiiqfirAl? er't to viadetft *pl eakliKdi krmeit but in mm 
9f htr aiandonmtint liirre may Itr a thantt; «A( nMjr aito JtnJ happinrtt 
tommthtrex kkUiaib rOao vUtarteyaih ne ea budbyeta me prlyA 
Hmb can / rttl tiff the yarmtml and my Movrd not waAtt 

S7a. Tliii lattr uM of the fir*t poreoos eubjunctivo u to-called 
linperstive iDTolvee bo change of ro»tniclion from former tloar. bnt 
only rvHtriction to a ftinglc kind of u«o: thite, dtvyava /•■( us tteo 
play: UA kararftiji te k/hiI dtaU I do Jot theel 

679. Tht) Imperative npfatirc, or probibl[l«e. Is from tbo MTlfest 
period of the laogua{;u le^larty and luiuily eijirenaeii by the particlfl 
ml with an aagatontlcM past fora, prvvnilingly aoriat. 

a. Tbna, pr& pata m4 "h^ raihsthA^ lAV.) fiy a^'Vi ^ ""* **^ 
JWn: dr^iA^ oa mtlhyath radUyntu mi cA "hhia dvIfatA tvdh&m 

(A.V<I ftwfA /*' iny /'<•' '" '"^'tt ta mr. and M mc mrl br Anb/ttt t« myjbti 

BTT kfyHm iLbhayndi Jyottr indra mi no dlrgbi abbi luuiaa 

temlsrit^ iRV . / leoitld idn bmod ftarlnn li^bt, O ludra: let not Ifur 

'*ig dmrkiHue* roirw up<m w; tat na lyub pr& mofl^ iRV.i rio wt 


vni. ConjiraATiON. 


•u Wlih iko ooodlUiMal uM of labjmcQM ud tpuura I* fBithci to 
b« ttofuti tb*t of the to-«alled eondiitoatl wbm: le* ^to«, MO. 

r. At U IndlcAMd br BIU17 »( lJi« oskiaplci Gi*«n kt>OTe, li !■ iini*l 
111 « <«adliiiHial t«nl«nM, eonulDlns procaiU and ■podotli, U «nplar ilvAfa 
(b« unic tDOilc. vbcthcr aabliiuMUe 01 oputlte (at ooiidltl«iu)J, in «*tii 
of lb« two <UuH>i. Kot Ito older lingutjtw, tbla li > nils v«ll-til(h ot 

qstte irltllaul WOeptlOB. 

689. No dlui&cllon of BMntBg has b«ea flBtab)iBk«ii batwaaa 
the nivdes of ihe pTMeot-sUn wid those :!a the older Isogugej of 
the perfecl and Borisi-tysUna. 


888. PaiticipleB, active and middle, are made from oil 
the tense-Btems — except the periphrastio futuie, and, in 
the later laa^u.-!};^, the a/trist [and aorist participles are raio 
fhiiti tlie b^naing;. 

a. The paitlf-lplet UDtDOtiKtad nWt ibo Un>r>*yiiUiiu an imlod In 

nhp. xui. (esait). 

58«. The general paiticipial endings are QtT ant (weak 
foim q?T at; fcm. 5Ifft anti or ?I?ft »M; see above, 449) for 
the oclive, and m=| Kna (fcm. 9HT &uS| for the middle. But — 

a. After a teMe-«Wm «D(IIng la a, tlie Htlv« participial snf&x 
fa rirtuall}- nt, odo of tlis two a's beiag loK la the eotableatlou oi 
■tem-6nal and sur&t. 

b. After a tcnsc-steni oDdinic in •- tbe middle purtJcipiBl liufTix 
Is muia iDstcad of ana Rut iheri! are occasioBal oiccjitiuDA la tbc 
nie as to the tu« of mtoa and ina raipe^tlvelf. whioh vUl be 
poiniod oat In cooucctiou witb the various fonustioiiB I>c1mw. Such 
exceptloDB tan especiullj- fr«()i)oiit fn the cansative: sec 1043f. 

0. Tbo perfect baa in the active the peculiar auffix vaAa (wmkeiit 
form uq, tntddle form rat; fem. ufi: see, for the iiinoctioa of ttia 
(Mitleiple, abovo, 468 ff.'. 

d. For detail*, u to form of Blem etc.. sod for spoeial exeuptions 
S9e tbe folIonliiK chnpien. 


M6. Tbe augment ia a abort Q a, prefixed to a tcnse- 
atein — and, if the latter b^ia with a rowe), combining with 
that vowel irregrularlf into the heavier or vrddhi diphthong 




(186b)- It la alvrayt (withoul any exception) the accented 
element in llie \eil>al fomi of wliich it makes a pait. 

n. In llie VuAa. Ih<? autmenl If In > f(« fvrni* tout k- ittv, MlRtr 
ivta, avr^i, ivr^ak, avidhjrat. iiyuDak, iyukta, dyukffttim. 
Artvalc, drftik, (AnA y&s U ivldhat. RV. II. 1. 7, 9P). 

680. The AUKineat ia a sikd of put time. And sd au^taoul- 
preterll la made from «Kch of tbo t«n>e-«t«m> fri>ni which thr nyHtciu 
of coi^U|C»tion is derived: namelj. tho lioporfix^l, from the prouDt- 
alom: tho plopiorfcet fin tb« Vcd* only), from the jicrfcc [-ftlem : tie 
condltiouat, from ibo futaro-stem ; vbik la the »urin such u preterit 
•tand* without anjr corros ponding present indloatlre. 

£67. In tbo «arl^- lan^s^, ospocially in the KV., the ooourroDM 
of fOmM identical iritli thonc of ausfaenl'lenneB Mve for the lack of 
an angmcnt i> quite frequent 3ucli forais lose ia general, ulOQKwith 
the augment, the apecific character of the tenMa to which tliey bolon; ; 
and they are ihvn otnpluyed in part Don-modally, wlih olthor a pros- 
ent or a past senBo; and in part mudallj, nitli oitlier a aabjunctlvo 
oir an optative «en»e — specially often and regularly after ma pro- 
bibidvo iS78]; and thia last montiooed u»e cornea dovn alio Into the 
lnl«r language. 

a. In RT., ike kVKmcntlBu tormi. ate uoie than btU u comnuili U 
lb* angmnntcd (iboat 2000 anil 3300), lod uta n<«d« ftom the prHoni, 
pertaci, and aorlit-iTtt«tn*, but consldetibly ov»r half from the aoiiit. 
Th«1r noD-niodil >.nd modal D*of fcio of nosily oinal ftc^neaay. Tho Mnis 
«ilna of the nuu-iuodiUy mad foroii is nioio often pift than picseot. Of 
tka moialt)' nued foTina, nnaily i lUtd ate cvnstmed wUh m& prablbltlrei 
Ito real bare lwie« u often ui opiall** u t praper nibtuDnIre Tstuh 

b. In A v., tho nmnerlnl ralktleiM ata TWy dtltetcni. The iBgrnent- 
Ism foimi tit leu ibsQ ■ ttdrd is Dany u the ■annenttd (abooi 47^ to 
14&0), sail aro preTaiUn^ly (tantc llun fooi flfUia) aatUtlc. 'S)iv uoD-mudal 
uea m only » tnncli of iha oiodal, lit the modtlly n&od forma, abatit 
fMt &flli* air coDslraed with mi prablbltlTc : (be iwt are elif«fly optadio 
la Talus. Tbrn, In the lansusse cf Ihr Brahwiipai (not Inoludlng the 
tnantra-niaterlal wUch they eonlalnj, the loa* of augmnnt ■■, «are tii 
oMWluoal sporadlo casea, teelrlcted to the preblbttlfe copttttiollffii with mft; 
u4 the nnu) eentlnoH to bo iht cut later. 

0. The acMntaaUoii of the su(n>emtlc» forma li (hronsbout lu aceord* 
eacM with that «( iiaauiniNiled uomi of staitUr foroialiun. BsaaplM will 
be tdten below, atilM iho TStlons toiuea. 

d. Boatdei the •ugnenllrtit aortit-rvnai wllh ma pNblbltl**. (hoin 
are aho found oocaalonally lu the later lan^uaKe angniNiUeM iDpotfect-fotiiia 
{very rarely ■ot1at-foii>]t)f "hlch hive Ibe lame ralue a( If tlisj were aug- 
mented, ind are tei the most port eiamplcs at metiiul llcenie. They era 
■apedaily ttoqnent tn the opiot («hen«e aome Motee of diem etc qa»labU]. 





588. The deriTfttioQ of conjugatioant and decleosioaal 
stenu from rooU bjr ledupHcatioa, either alone oi aloog 
with othei foimative elemeata, has been aJieady spoken of 
(26BI, and the fonnatioDs in mtiich reduplication appears 
hare been specified: they aie, ia pttmary Teib-infleotion, 
the present (of a certain class of verbs), the pecroet (of 
neatly all], and the aorist (of a large number); and the ia- 
tensire and de«ideialivo secoadaty conjugation! contain in 
thcii sterna the same element. 

&B8. The general principle of rodupUcalion u> the pre- 
fixion to A root of a put of itself rcpcAtcd — if it begin 
with Gonsunants, the initial coasonaut and the voircl; if it 
begin with n Toircl, that vonel, cither alone or with a follow- 
iog coQBonanl. The ratictiea of detail, hovrever, aie very 
coosidetubJe. 'Ihus, ebpeoially, aa legaids the vowel, which 
in present and perfect and dcsiderative is regularly shorter 
and lighter in the redupliciuion than in the root*«ylkble, 
in aorist ia longer, and in inieosive is strengthened. The 
cliffeieaces as regards an initial eonsonant arc less, and 
chiefly oonliaeil to the intensive; for the others, certain 
general rules may be here stated, all further details being 
left (0 be given in oonacctiou with the account of the sep- 
arat« formations. 

&dO. The consonant of the leduplicatiog syllable U in 
general the firat oonsonant of the root: thus, 'IMffi' papraoh 
from yV[^ praoh; fsiPH fifri from V^ f>^i ^^^ bubudh 
from t'^fJ. But — 

a. A non-aspirate is gubnituted in re<l(i plication for an 
aspirate: thus. ^ dadb& from c^l; f^ blbtar ftom t^^bh^. 

b. A palatal is «ub«tituted for a guttural or for ^ h: 




thus, ^T oaky from »^kr; IMfy^ cikhid fiam ^fl^ khid; 

^J3A JAgmbh frum yV*} grabh; !r^ jftkf from y^ hf. 

Q, n* ««««ilMial rctcnlov, ob Ilia o(b«r hind, «r > p*l*U) la iba 
TtHeH TiUMe to fuituiil Tom bu b«eii aoEtcod ibiii* (S1S,1), 

d. Of Iwo ioiiial consananU, the second, if it be a 

i)OB-aa«al mute preceded by a dbilant, is repealed instead 

of the first: thus, rj^ tfcsf from tfrT str; rlf^ taatkS from 

f'^sn flthS; 'JHi'^ cft-Bkand from yV^F^ skand; fJi-Wyj, 

owkhttl from i/ra?J akhal; OTlff cutout from »'5Irr 900.1; 

TPTO pMprdh from I'm sprdh; ^^K puBpka( from ^V^ 

Rplia(: — but THHT stanS From y^m snK; TTHT Basinr from 

iTT amr; HH snsru from i^SI bto; ISlfSTT ^^9119 from y^WJ 

Aocant of the Verti. 

S8I. Tbo «tit«iueata vrbloh hsTu been made Kbav«, aod tbose 
whifJi will be tuude below, m ti> tlie ncnunt of verbal forms, appl/ 
lu thoBO MWB iu wtiiob Cbo verb is ictiulljr accented. 

It. Bur, Mocordin^ to tbe grKmmarisDS, and (wcordln;; u> the iw 
nriable pmctico iu Hccentusted tfxu. the Terb Ii fa tbc majority of 
ita oc«aTreoc«s uiia«c«Dt«d or toueleei. 

b. Tbtt u b) Mr, or tmnt, tbe *<rb ta lu ynpet rouu, IU re'*onU 
ar to-<4lli!d atiliD forwi. The vcibal ooun* and kdjecllni, orihv inilBlilvca 
ud ^tdelplM, 4r« MbjMt to pnwlicly tfa^ utne ttwt ot tccaat u otbcr 
n«ii[u uid adJecUvra. 

GOB. Tfae Kflnenl rule, eove>ia« owtt of tbo cmm, ta this: Tbo 
vtrU iu as iDileptDdeot clause ta ttoKceotad, unkaa It stand at llie 
bOKinninjc of tbe claaM — or also, la uebical tost, at tbo boginninv 
of n pada. 

•. t'M tb« ftMwal of the Totb, (• wall a* Cot ihmi of tbo laciitlTa 
UBo (abvre, 814 o), Uw bctUudiig of t pAdacauiiU u tbat e( a >eni«ac», 
otuhvor bt tb« IbClul ««ajwcti«n of lb« pida njlk wlal precodo* It. 

b. Eiuaplca of tb* nnatwated «eib ua: agulm Ide pnrdttltom 
^fH4 I praite. the ^ut~priait ; aa Id dav^u gaochati tial, Irufy, geta 
to 1A< fod»: &icno nOpAyano bhava O Jgni, bt mmjt «/ aet*M; Id&m 
indra (^rnuhl somapa lAia. O JnJm, loma-Jfimiir, Arar; samaa to 
rudra kf^^a^ Aomajw (o Me#, Jfatfra, mv ojfitr; y^anuuianya paqi^ 
pAhl Uu taeriJUtr'i tallU proUet IAoh. 

0. nenee. tker« aie two prlaolpal silutioiis in wlildi the verb 
retains Its aoooai: 


693. Flrftt, ibe v«rb Is ucoeuUd wkmi It stand* xt tli« WgioBlag 
of s vliiue — or. in vnnt. of s plda. 

A. Exmple* «f lh« vaib icc«RI»d •( Iimi] «f Ibe MBUnee ai*, !• 
pnM cundluulhTuh dtlv^ifa kirma^a be purt for ih* Sivint 
rervnang: SpDOCI *m4ih lok4m he irin* ttiU worlit; — In ier(«, *li»* 
the bMi) or tbo NRiilanw U alio that ot On pfida, sjamd 'd iDdraayn 
^ArmoQl nuy it* he in /nAvj'i protertion; dor^Ajra ma yfetudh^nAn 
aAout M( M< M>rMr«rs; g&matt rijebblr A s& noj;) uMjr Ac mom wtA yo«d 
Utiti^t tn fu: — \a tcik'. whoic tbe liod nt Ibe cliaic U '"ilbin (he pidfti 
ti^Olt) pihj i;radbi bavam JrinA of thtm, hew tuir mil; s&atu maUl 
■&>tu pit* aiiea ^vi sisttl viQp&tt^ b( fA< mofhtr *U*p. M Ihe father 
ifttf. M th4 «fo{f »i**p, let tit€ mwfcr tlrep; vf^vitkaniiaa XiAilua M 
pAhjr Mman FiVra^nnaii, homagt to thet: prvteH ua! jruvtm. ..Hlfia 
Qe« dubit^ pfoohi vSdi n&rft lAr Kn^'i dmtghter taid to you "I pray 
j/ou, t/e »irn"; Tky&di te v&]r> indra vlddhi fU 9^(1 pri UiarAjDKhe 
■r« A^fT M«, InJra, itfengtheninf/ ; take note of lu. 

b. Extmpt«i of tb* *nrb ftiroMitcd m tho bind of th« pAdft when thi* 
i< not th<> b«*(l <if (b« »«nteaci.' »re Atlift tw AatamiuSdi vidy^nin 
•umotin^m m way tee fiit'oy tJty mmt intimate faton; db&li, '9yi 
ogruvCI pitid) dl^bltu praUkftmyam DAoAir beatovi Bf mi tAif j^iW 
u kuibanii acrarditu) tti htrwuh; yfttudhtnatja aomapa Jataj pr^Jtm 
i/dy. O Soma-dr inter , tfie progi^nt/ nf the *orcfrer. 

694. Ceruiu ip^cUl cmo und«r lhi« hnad oto kf [oH'Ow: 

a. As 1 v«a«tlTO fMB» uo lyuucUcal i>tit «r tlu HatcnM to whlcb 
It il ataobed, bm U aniy ta exiomil *pp«nd*g« to It, ■ verb f«1lD«lDg 
*n InttUI tochUtq, or niuin iliui vii«, b accented, » ir it u«iO lltelf IntUal 
in Ibe «UuM »t p&da: thu*. llfrutk&nja ^nidhi b&vam (t (Ami a^ 
Imleiting em's, Krar our cali. aitn v&ndbxiatao tvA O $it'i, ice revrrtHre 
the*: vifvs devA viaavo r&k^ttte 'la&m nM jr' j|o<ir, t/t Vanu, pnttct 
Ihit man; uti "ga^ eakrufatfa devft d^t JiTirathK putiB^ liktmatc. 
Aim, O godi, who luu committed o-tmc, i/a gode, yc maXs to lie* again, 

b. It nDTC ibin on* v«ib r«11ai> « woid ot woidi tynisotliMlljr con- 
imtteA «1tb ihom *II, oiilf ibe nm loiu lu ■cerni, tb« otben beliiR ireaud 
aa If Ibay wci« Initial Toib* In *op*iala i^laoMa, vltb lb> lainv Kilju"'^^ 
underilOMi : that, tari^ilr U Jayatl k^^tl piiifyati tutcM>/ul he cotiguert, 
ruUt, IMrivet; anltTAn . . . pAr&oa indra pri mf^i jiibi oa our /oo*.' 
/mfro, rfrtM /«■ niray oiW j/«y; aamAbbyadi je^ yetal o» /<>•- «» 
eoaffiwr maljght, iBalfMot havjqal^ pHMtbitaaya rttAih hiryataili 
VTWft Jufitbtm O Jpaf omT Soma, of fiU oAMim *>( forth fart«k^. 
"'JV' V '"igliiy ooM, ttik* plftuure. 

O. Id IUc Bitanar(b« 
tUBillni; bctwcru loo 
Drat ■lorii', aliil 
0« (/qr (A< jii 
ttoAna wy 

,..,J.'^ ...i.ifil VwA- 



[— Hfi 

d. It ku vntt eanc to bo * fonntl nil* tiiii ■ loib InmedlUaly 
fallovlnit tnothai vcib la urcRaiDd: Ibat, s& jrA et4m av&ID apiaM 
pDrjrilUi prol^B pagiibhlti (VH-) uhomtr tcorMp* him ihm it JilUd 
teilA ejf»j>ri'ig anJ eaUU- 

DSB. Soflood, tha Terb it ftoeMted, whtuver iu poiitiOD, in t 

d, Tlio dupe II lien cy of > e1>iiie {■ in tb« Tcry smt najorily of «uck 
rpiidtiloiK'il bj the rvl»ilvi- iitniiniiii ]ra, nc ctifi cr lu dcriTill*r» ur c«m- 
poundi. ThiisT y&jfa jtvl&Jkib paribhilr aai •rAa/ offeriny ihou yirtiUeU»li 
6 U 7«Rti y« apttrt^u pJt^yAn M«^ are mntni; wAa «W bthoU htr 
h*rea/tir. sfthA j&n me &sti t^na olon^r utIA fAdt t«Ai<tA wmtnn; y&tra 
anh pl!lrve pit&rab psrsyA^ tehtlhir onr falArr* «/ al^ tlrparttd; 
adyi muriya yadi yAtaiJhfiiia 4«mL bi >n<i i/iV on tht tpol, if I am 
a Moreerer ; yAth^ liftny aDupArvdch bh&vnntl i*$ daif* foUow ont 
ttimOur in ortttr; y'ivsiil id^ih bhuvanaiii Tigvam Astl Ao«c grtat Ihir 
tolA rreaiitm it; y&tktmfla t« jubiun^ tJtu no aatu vAof detiriif 
•PC wcriffiM to IAm, ff( Mat Afcomt oun; jatamAa t{tn>B&t vAiVAoron* 
oR« Aifiiva to *nfoy. 

b. rh« ptMone* af ■ relillvs wdM In the aonteaca d«M not, «r ooniie, 
MMDt till! vecb. unl«M till) ii rvilly iho piodioto of i deppiidcDi eUui«: 
llini, ipB tye tay&vo ;athA yanti tA«y nMiie ojf /Ar Mevet (oi thievti 
4e)i yit etba j4g&<.' ca rajate ipAo/*e«r [w] immoi'aUf oni' raoi'ofi/* 
frondfcu; yathtkamaih nl padyata Ae /im down «t hit pltmurt. 

o. Tbc panidc ca ntion it mi'sos if, and aid (oa + id) if, five ui 
u«eat tn tbe verb: tliD<, brahmi odd dhaatam serahlt lY n ifraAmati 
Aa« jfraiptd ker hand; tvkax ca tioma no v&fo Jivutuih n« mar&mBlie 
1/ (Aou. •^oma. wnlteat u» to iir.4, tut ihall not die; i oa fcAcchftn mltr&^ni 
aii& dadhAma ■/ Ht mill eame here, ira tciU mali€ /ritndB witk Kim. 

d. Tbeie «s a Tary rw pauafci In abl'-b tbo logittal dapandaiiM of a 
cUusu rontiinlniE no inbordlnntlrg void sppukra lo bI'ii ih» verb lu >eo«nt: 
tbiii. a&in A^vapar^aQ o&raati no D&ro 'smakam ludra ratbino 
Jayanta tth-tn our mm, hofg-ieiHytti, e«mr into eoitfiiei, Ul Iht thariolr 
jSfAt*rt of <mr »idt, O Jndru, uiii\ IA» nittonj. Rarelj, Uo, 4(i loipeiatUa 
10 faUoiving utotbor imputtiTe tbit II* trnlion mii M*ru ■ con«iii](i«iii',v of 
Ibn Ikller'i !■ a«oeiiM<l: Ibui, tliyain it gahl ICJ^ITVfU vix tiok p{ba 
rom« bitktr quirkly: ilriuk al«ng iritJi Hit A'aatiw (i. o. tn orrier to drink). 

«. A Itv othoi pariulc* giTB tb« **rb >ii secant, In i|nu« of a tligbt 
•abnTdiimtlnji force b<<1oii|lnii to Ibcm: thui, luptdklly li{(witb lu negadon 
oabf), whieti ill 111 fnllESt talue mauOM for. but afcadci off (Toid that Inia 
a mnr^ UKeT^ritUa loiKai Uia rrrb or *Mbi conceded »itb ic are ilwaji 
aceutttud: Ibna, vl ti muJioaiitain Tlmuco bl aJuiti Ut (Aem rtUma 
Ami, /or Uuj/ are rtltatm ; yio cid dbf . . . anAcaBti Iva amtel if 
tct, fonoolK, art at il were unrrnowneJ; — alao oM (ni-l-td). maaaliic 
Uii, that not: tbu«, aH tvA t&pftti sAro arolfl Hat At min man **< 
hum (Am uith hit h«am; vir^aoi oad ▼ioohinidSal >ti Miyi'n;f« kimat tf , 
Wbit*«r, Onaan. i. *i, ]f 


VIII. OovjvoAtvm. 


"htl t ent iff tA« vwiif^ (ta<b cftM>» u« rtcquont \% lh« BrthaafM};— 

•lid llic Inlenogillre kuvtd lehetktrt Ihu4. oktbfrbblt; kuvld tf^btUX 

tfiUi tir tome AiiW for txtr praitMf 

tWi Hut ftirtllur, the vnrti of a jtijOT oJanM ll oul in frequent If 
iMontcd U ftntitbetiCNl oonacraotion. 

a. SoMttDw*. Ill* ttlatloD df til* tWD etiiUHa U tcadUy »pabl« «r 
litlBf raianlod u ibal of protuU uui tpodoiU; bin orien, >l<o, *aeh ■ 
r«Uil<ii< I* TSry tndUiiiMli aaJ !)■■ tmm* «f UlllWila ikide aB Into iIimk 
of ordtiiMf to^nllutlvn, lh« Itne b«t«a«B tfeaa ipjicatlnc t« b« rstbct 
MVltnrllT ilrawB. 

b> In M*iiT 9**v, tba •ntlihed* b nkd* dUilneInt bT the preunca In 
Iha two rUHtM at rorraliUTd vordt, c«pt<itllr &aj*— >nT«i ekm~4kih 
Tft— Tft. «•— oa: >bns pr&-pr& *aj4 yAntl p&ij uiyi BMt« Kfme ga 
Ml «•>/ »ii. ell*n it'l abotil (w l( It vK«n trAi2f i^nw j)o (te.)i ud vft 
■lftoUhv*tu 6p* V* pfl^odhviun *iOt*r pnttr out, or jfll up; ■4lh C» 
"dhyAsvA 'cna pr4 oa vmrdliaye loim holh Ho Unu tttytt^f become 
4mJM^ 'tyh •••m' i(a (Aini inert^M tiu j>«r*«H. Dot li U alw nadt vrlth- 
oqt tnob brip: ibnt, prt( *>AU^ pnO^ JuiiyaU p&rl prJJUA BfliQatl 
lk§ miiarw yy nj xwy JU fimtrat**, M* iorn A# mtftriirM; &p« ^ufmAd 4kTa> 
nln Ri( ^nndn upArarUtt [VkoufS] thr Sat ftnt au-w/ from yw, «A« 
Ji>M MAt r4iiiM f« u; iU( "ndbA 'dhvair^ bhivati nh. yAJAwai rUcfUal 
■tiDuiU rAr jvriMt ifffM ri«< frM'Vmt Mm^, M« iTmnmw rfo ito< ifMtroy CA* 
Miivt/'^f 1 kiiia admi n-lv'LnU ktea bOyante hy wJUm t«>ii fA« oim katiO] 
tn (A* MWM JipptJ otitt iy wA«n [on U< otier htind] or* lAey offrrttit 

5Vt. Wli*>* Ik* r«cfc «»n)d be lb* uiina iu tlis («n anttlbtlioil fltuMv, 
II ll IMI liiri«<|a""tlr umliivil III ib» (MMid; tbB», b«*ld* c«aipM« exprM- 
*laKt Ilka urri od *■! vftsrl Oi U &i>fA tlau orl Ar>«ai< anil Uou itp( fniMf. 
p«ror, mmth ittieavt, IntomplfU sua* like atgair amofuitA lck4 ^Id 
yumA '•mtn Agni wm in t/nmUr tcoriil, I'oma [wiu] tn (Am; aathni 
'nri\t pr^lA^ pratlUfth"*" inAftaina 'njrjpji ly toiie ifwie rrnaturM 
ttottJ firm. hj/flrJt otttTt: dripito oa a&rraib no r&kf& citufpftd 
yAu Va am\f arkm hoA protrri tvtrpHtmf oj e«r« Ikat it biptJ, and 
ah* lt^^»ttvtr fW m guMtruptd belonyt to in. 

a, A^'•nln>llun of lh« vwt In tho (oiiiht or c«« antltlW'tl'al 'Utiim 
b • tul« iiiwlr •IiMIf |«1I«wv4 III the BrHhm*ii» than tit ibe Ted*, Mid 

III III ilip HV. ! Uu*, In Itv., abbC dynih mahliiA bbnvau 

I "I 'va»>) ntilil *iiiilh pftltlvidl mahlia f am mpvrior t« fAt liy 

(N yr«ii'>tH', <tl«M (• Ihit ffrttil wirlh; and enen Indiro Tidur JtAsirnsaq 

KHM. 'I'liam ara ooriain atnta or leai di>ubi6tl caaei U> which ■ 

IVltl fliMW la |>l>ttti>|M M->«nlO(] tar OOiphMU, 

a lliiHt iiixfk'li'all) liiirnttt oani iii any Ktu, >nd tn connectiao 
«i«h «M«>*iitiTi< |i*iilpl->, u klla, ahftA. otA, *iid (In ^'B., lesoluty) 
MmIS' l^i"t UAiita *iDltili pftlUTUb vlbh^&mahU earn* •».' M M 






609. Tub 'preseat-tystem, or •ystem of forms comii^ 

from the pieaeDUstem, u composed (u was poimcd out 

alMVCi of a. preMnt iDdiontive tense, together with a gub- 

junetive (mostly lost in the cluisicnl lujigu.i{;e), an optntivc, 

an imperntirc, *ud n participle, Bod also a pnst tense, an 

augment-pTcterit, to which we give (by anAlogy with the 

Greek) the name of imperfect. 

a. Thean foioti often |t« io StMkrit ituiiniu* bj Ilia aum* of 
"fprclal tontrt". wbUc the oihet (entft-tr*l«iD* •« •tjU-d "Ken«n| wnioi^ 
— » If lh< fotuier w«w m»4» tram >. ■ptcUl t«nM ihon of tnodii^il Tuot, 
«lill« Ui« Utlcc Ciims, kU alike. TroiD tho root iiMir. There U oo rcuoa 
why ratk k dlitliicnon «nd DomcimUinn) ibattld lo rotiriicd; (Inca, on tha 
««« b«nd, (b« "•ptcUl l«na«**' cnma 1a oii« mi of T*tb* diranJy ^n the 
roou ud, on ibe oIIidt hind, the oUibi lanie-iiriietai «ra modtjf mulfl from 
■temi — *ud, In the rxr a( th* lorlM, ffom »i«u« hkiiiig • vtriet) of tojta 
cotDpinblii aith ibU of piomil-fuiiu. 

600. Practically, the present-system ia (he most prom- 

ineni and important part of the whole conjugation, since, 

from the earliest period of the Ungnagc, its forma are very 

much mote fT(y]ucRt than those of alt tho other lystema 


a. Tbaa. In tbe Veda, lb« OMumnoci of per«Mi«] fonn* ef Ihle ■fwttin 
we to thou of all oihtfi* >boDI u tbreo to onoi In tb* ^lurafs Braboaajia, 
M Ihra Io oa«; In the Hlt«p«4e(;>, u ill U .mu; In thn Kkktinlalo, u 
oljbi ■• eaa; ta Mina. u tbltiy to ono. 

001. And, as tbcie is also great variety in the mwincr 
io which difforent roots form their present stem, this, as 
being their most conspicuous diffeieace, ia made the basis 
of their principal cla^siticatioa ; and a verb is said to be of 
(hi» or of that conjugation, or class, according Io the way 
in which its preaeat-stem is made and inflected. 




eOS. In a small minoritjf of rerba, the prcwent-stem U 
identical iHth the loat. Then there ate betides {excluding 
the passive and caugaUve) seven more or less different mcth- 
oda of forming a present-stem from the root, each method 
being followed by a larger or smaller number of verbs. 
These arc the "cIbum" or "oonjugation-classes", as laid 
dowD by the native Hindu grammarians. Thei^ are ar- 
ranged by the latter in a eerlain wholly artificial and un- 
systematic order (the ground of which has never been dis- 
covered; ; and they are wont lo be designated in European 
works according to this order, or else, after Hindu example, 
by the root standing at the head of each class in the Uindu 
]i«tt. A diSetent anaJOgement and aomenolature will be 
followed here, namely aa below — the classes being divided 
(as is usual in European grammars] into two more general 
olaasea or conjugations, distinguished from one another by 
wider differences than those which separate the special 

603, The chsses of the Pmer or woK-a-CoNjiTGATioN 
are as follows: 

I. The root-class (second olass, or ad-olaas, of the 

Hindu grammuiiaiu'i ; its present-stem u coincident with 

the root itself: thus, ij^ nd eat; ^ I go; 01*1 &8 «tV; ITT 

yft go\ 1^7 dvl? hate; X^ duh milk. 

l\. The reduplicating class [third or hn-olass); 

the root is reduplicated to form the present-stem: thus, 

^5" juhu from v"^ bu san-ifitei ^ dadS from yZJ (M 

grc«: VS(iX bibhf from (''I bhr Aear. 

III. The nasal elasi (serenLh or rtidh-clus); a 

Mai, extettdnd lo the svlUhle =l ua !ti altoag futios, it 
iiMiiiil biifuiD llie Gd n root: tbos, 

-^T rsadli (DT T^I rupAdh) fiooi f^pl nidh oittntrt; 
'lIMJi fri' -^ 



[— flW 

IV. a. '['he nu-olasB (fifth or B«-fllani; the sylla1)la 
q Du is added to the root: thus, ^ atmu fiotn VH ru 
fresi out', 91^ Hpnu from yvm Bp obtain. 

b. A Tury small oumbet (only half-&-<lotoa) of roots 
eodiog- abeady ia ^ a, and aleo ooe rery oomnton aod 
quite iiregularljr inflected toot not to ending (^ kr maAe], 
add 3 u alone to form the pre«ent-stcni. Tbia is the 
eighth or taa-class of the Hindu grAinmarians; it may 
bo hett ninked by ua aa a mb-clas*, the n-olats: thus, 
fpt tana feom j'jn tan ttreUh. 

V. The iift-class [ninth ot kA-claM); the syllable 
^ □£ for, in weak formg, ^ dt} is added to the root; 
thus, BFil'in kn^l (ot SEhrit kriflli from ycfft kri frwy; 
TfT^ stabhnfi [or FrT^ Btabhol] from vTTTM stabb estab- 

004. lliese classes have in common, a» their most found- 
amental characteristic, a ahift of aoceat: the tone beia^ 
now upon the cndinj;, aod now upon the root or the class- 
sign. Along with this goes a vaiiation in the stem itself, 
which has a stronger or fuller form when the accent testa 
upon it, and a weakei or briefer form when the accent is 
on the ending: these forms are to be distingtiished as the 
strong Item and the weak stem respectively (in part, both 
haTe been given abore}. The classes also form their opta- 
tive active, their 3d sing, imperative, their 3d pi. middle, 
and their middle participle, in a different manner from 
the others. 

«05. In the classes of the Sboohi> or »-Co»jooation, 
the pteseDt-«tcm ends ia n, and the accent has a fixed 
place, remaining always u]mii the same syllable of the 
•tan. and neror shifted to the endings. Also, the optative, 
*^« 2d aiag. impr,, the 3d pi. middle, and the middle 




participle, are (as just stated) ualike Uiosa of the othoi 


eoe. The clasaeB of this conjugatioQ are as fullows: 

yi. The a-clasa, or unaeeeated a-olasa (first or 
bhQ-«1a«'; (ho added ctass-si^fn is a simplj; and the 
root, which has the accent, is <if cnpablc of it) slreagth- 
eoftd by guoa throughout: thun, >R bhdva from »^I bhQ 
&«; ^ naya from v^ nl iead; ^J bodhA from v^ 
bndh trtuta; ^ v&da from y^^ vad tpealt. 

yn. The &-cla8s, or accented a-elass (sixth or 
tud-ola£8] ; (he added clasB-sigo is a, as in the preceding 
class; but it has the accent, and the unaccented root 
remains unstreagthened : thus, H^ tuda from i'^^ tud 
^nut\ cn BrJi from i-TRT sn let iooat\ ^ sura from 
|Tr stl yipr ttirl/i. 

VI ir. The ra-olaat> (fourth or dir-class); ya ia 
added to the root, which has the accent: thus, ^ojj 
divya from j'T^ div (more properly f^ dlv : see 768] 
piayi 'Rtr n&hya from y^ff^ nah AtW; 3i^ knidhya 
from V^iV krudh ie aitffr^. 

TX. The passive conjugation is also properly a 
present- system only, having a olass-sign vrhioh is not 
extended into lite other systems; though it dilTers marlc- 
«d]y from the remaining classes in having a specific 
meaaing, and in being formablo in the middle voice 
from all ttaositiTe reibs. Its inflection may therefore 
best be treated aext to that of the yo-class, irith which 
it is most noaily ooonectcd, differing from it as the 
i-class &om the a-clasa. U forms its stem, namely, by 
adding an accented ya to the toot: thus, 9^ adyi from 
y^ ad cat; "^ISfl rudbyii from y^i nidb obttruct; 
^cXt bttdhyA from v^ budb iro*«; flTO tudya from 
y^ tud tAru4l. 




607. The Hindu graranwri&DS reckon a teotti cUw or our-clftBe, 
httving a cl&83-Biicu iya nilded to n itroDjtthonecl root {tbua, corAfu 
from Kour]. and aa inllecllon llko that of (he otber a-at«inB. Siuoo, 
however, thU tteni Ib not limited to Iho iiresent-stoin, but eitetida 
also Into tho mat of tbe coiga^tloD — wblla It also has to a great 
extent a cartsativp value, and ma; be fornied in itiat rnlue fVom a 
largo tmrnbor of roots -~ It will bo best tn>aled in full along with 
tb« derivative conjngatlona (chap. Xt\'., KHIIT.). 

008. A small number of roots add In the pr»eut-9yst«m a oh, 
or sufaetitato a «b for tliolr final coasonanC. and form a stoni «ndiiiff 
in Gha or ob^ nblcb U tbon iiifl«cled like anj- a-stom. This is 
htBtoriratly, doitbtlM*, a true etaiii-«ign, anRlogous with tbo rest; but 
tbe verbs ahonitig it ar« so few, Aod in formalioD bo Irregular, that 
the; an not well to txt put inKothor into a olass, but may best be 
treaMd aa spodai eaaoa falling under t)io other classes, 

•• BmU iddfng eh ua ( tui TV, nhM niiko (ba ilenii fAAtai and 

b, Roou «nb>ti(u(lnit cb Tor thrli ami ica If, nf («( vas lAwu), 
gmm, yam, vbioh nuke the tiem* Icch^ uoohA, g&osha, y&ooba. 

o, or the so-called teou eadlng lo oh, leretai u* mate or In* 
dearly eMni*, w)io*o aw liui bona oit*n>l<»l fntn Ibe pcscnt lo other syit«mi 
oC taiiM*. 

609. Hon* art net nbollr lluiiod, avcn in the later laugoagv, tu 
one iDOit* of rormitlan ef ihelr pccunt-itcm, but u« letneiiniea re<kon«d 
as belonging to ii>a or more dUTgrvnt oenJasadon-eUsiM' And nicb nrlvty 
of fcnaalioii ii (ipaddlr freqiieHt lu the yeda, belag exhibited bjr a 
AonsMoiabl* ptof ntiloti of th* roeu Ihare ocnairln^ ; alrnady tn ihn Itrihniims, 
faooeier, a conUlUon t> ruarliBd iiaaity *stci-Ing In tbU feepect <rlih the. 
claMletl Unguksa. Tho c1lff«f«iit pTOMnl'formiilon* somollniAi ht^D difter- 
enees at meaQlDi; jol not marc Importaui enea tban iie often found belniis* 
lag to tb« Bane formation, nor of i kind (o thov clearly t, difference <>( 
value u originally belonging te the tcparato clu>e« of pretenia. If anything 
»f this itnd li lo bo eit»bllih«d, it nuil bo fiam the dorivatlve cuujv^titrn*, 
wblcb ate a«pmt«d by no fix«d line rrom (bo piesoni-tyitooia. 

610. Vfe take up now iho dltTcreat claana, Id tho onler iu which 
they havo boen anangsd above, to describe non In detail, and with 
lUnstniloD, the formation of their present- slcnii, and to nollct) th« 
Irregularities bolonglng ander oaoh clan. 

I. Roof-class (second, ad-class). 

611. Id this class there is no clase-Bi^n; the root itaelC 
IB aJao preaect-atem, and to it are «ilde<l directly tlie per- 

01 IH 

IS. pKesEKT«miui. 


acMial endings — but combined in subjunctive and optative 
with the cespeetire mode-signs; and in the impeifect the 
augment ia prefixed to the rooL 

a. The accented eodin^ i&Kfi) regvluly take the a«ceitt — esmpt 
ID liie imperfect, where it falls va the auiiniivat — uid boforo tbem 
the root ranaiiu imoban^d ; before tbe tmiicoented endings, the rout 
uk«a the gOfA-ctroiigtbeniiig. 

b. It )■ only io the flnt Utree oluau that tLo andln^t mub Imma- 
dtitdy iB ooDU't wltli ■ fliikl oon»oniiit of the looi. Md ihii tbo rales tax 
cottMDMil oombinition htie to be doUA and appllail. In th«M dauo*, Ulab, 
•dttltioiia] putdigma wtll b« gtroo, to Uluitraic ibc ufldM <d comMuttlou. 

I. Preteot lodfoatiTe. 

81S. The endings are the primajy (with Q^ 4to ia 3d 
pi. fflid.)i added to the baie lOQt. The lool takca the accent, 
and haa gu9», ir capable or it, ia the three persons sing. &ot. 

Examples of inrieolioQ: a. active, rout ^ i go; 
strong form of rool-stem, ^ i; weak form, ^ i; middle, toot 
&■ fiV, stem Ra I'irregularly accented throughout: 628). 














b. root dTiq Aatt: bucdk Bteui-fonD, dr^; weak, dvif, 
nilea of combinsiioD for tho final f, aee 9fl0. 

I dv*(mi dvifv&B dvl|mAa drifi drlfvUi* dTt^mUw 
t dvik^I dvlfthJM dTifthft dvlkf^ dvl^th« dvli}<;ihv« 
s dv4>i;ti dviffAa dvlfinti dri^l^ driftte dvlq^to 

c. root dull milh: »troiiK atctn-form, d6b; weak, dub. Fur riilei 
of oombinAlioD for the final b. and for tlie eonverilon of the initial 
to dlL iie 82Sa, 196, 100. 

1 d^hml duhvAJi duhmAM dnhfr duhv4fa« duhm^e 

1 db6kfl diuEdhos duKdbi dbnkfo duUttbe dbngdbvi 
i docdhi ducdUs duhinti duadb* duh4«a dutaite 



[— «1« 

4. root lib iici; atmtg stent, Mb; weak, lib. For ruka of 
combiDAtioB of tho ftaal b, soo BBS b. 
1 lUuni llhv&a Ubm&8. lihi UhT*h« lltamiUie 

1 U^ It^Ui&a lib4otl U^« libit* lOMa 

61S. Kxiniplet of Uia Sd ling. intd. oolnddsni la fora with tho IM 
■UiC. ki« Dot UK In the oldsr lingua^ (boib V. «nd B.)i the no't freqUBnt 
extraplet uv 1^, duh&, vide, ^Ajro; more ifnttillo ai* o1t4, bruve, bavi. 
To tta* of the ?•! III. li ftd(t>:<l na ill sth^a, pitbina, yAtbinn. 
TbE Itreittilu iccecl of Ihs 3d pi. mid. 1> Tonnd In RV. Ici rlfaat^ dtabat^. 
Eiunpte* of lliti »tno ptrtan m re »nd rate fttso ooeat; tbiu (bealdet 
thoae m«nUoni]d below, 996-30, 836), vidri. •ad, iilib •aslliuy vowel, 
arbln (nnleif thcoo ti« to bo t*nkad, niker, at porfoot rorma wUkDat 
T«daFM''4Uon: 790b>. 

2. PrOBODt SubJUBcUve. 

614. SubjiiDCtfro foraiB of this clu« &r« nixt tmoommoD in the 
older laaguago, and noarif all Ihoee which tbo formation aajwhere 
admits are qvotable, (rom Veda or from Brihuana A oomplete 
pandlgm, accord I ngl)', i* givoa bo low, wllh the fow forma not 
aetuailj qmitable for tbla claaa eocloaed In biackets. We may take 
as ntodola (as aboTO^ for tho aotivo tho root I po. sod far tho utddle 
tbo root OB til, from both of whtoh noniorons forms are met with 
(although Dolther for theso oor for nay otherit can tbo vholo aeries 
be found Id actual use]. 

n. Tho aiode-«toiuft aro ^a (^-I-aj and i»A <'da-f-a,' roBpccllFelT. 



jkyatbaa &jatba 
ijataa ajan 




I IslTmbU 



I ibttinabM 
I lU&dhTU 


616. ThB RV. hsi no middl* (omi fn U 6ic«pl tbixe of the lint 
pciaMu Tha lit riaf. •(«. la ft »cc«ra only ta XV., In «rt. bravft, 
Bt&Tt. Ths ^ anil 3t] ilns. »eL vlth prlmarr endlaca ut reiy unusual 
In tbo Btthai^M. Fonai Iticcaluly laiAt with long ft. Uko Ihoio from 
prssaat-Manu la a, are not nit to AV. lod 1),: Ibnt, ayfta, oylt, iyfta; 
Aaftt, brivftt; bravfttbas; aafttha, ayfttbft, bravfttba, hasfttba; 
ftdftn. dobftn. Of u)l<l'll« Ina* wl(l> i^cunduy endlogi arc found h4iianta, 
Sd yl^ knd Iqata, 9d King, (aftor rat proklMtlra), «U«h ll u Uelated 
«MiB|i1«. Tb* only dual p«»»ii in Ut« l« bcivftlto. 

ei0— ] 



3. Fr«a«at OpUtiTe. 

61S. The petaon«1 eaAings oombined witli the mode- 
sigoc of lhi» mode (TTT yS io act., | I in mid.j have been 
given in full above (Sedj. The stem-fonu ib the unaccented 
and uaslieogihened lOot. 

,1, p. 

BSlyiitliiim aaidlirun 

nsjyiURni ^tirtto 

».. In tli« »*u>e mttnner. rrnm yivif, dvifyam nod dvifijri; fmm 
Vdob, dubyim anil dublj&i from v'llb, tltayiLin aod LUity&. Tho 
laflectioa \b so T«^Ur tliAt the eiample above given is enough, iriih 
th« ndilition 9f dvlstyi, to sliow iLe uunoul u»fMitQHCloD in tbo 
middle: thu», Blcg. dvl^lyi. dviflthda. dviflti; dn. dvlQlrUil, 
dvl|l]rdUi&m, dTifiyaUUn; pi. dvifunAlii, dvifidfav&m, dvifir&n. 

b. Tho KV. hu ones tana In 2d pi. aci. (In ayfttiuia). 














4. Freaont Imperative. 

617. The imperative Adda, in second and third pereoiu, 
its owD endings (with WTR &t£m in 3d p). mid.) directljr 
to the root-ettfm. The stem is accented and strengthened 
in ^d aag. net. ; elsewhere, the accent is on the ending 
and the loot remains unchanged. The first persoiu, so called, 
of the later language arc from the old subjunctive, and 
have ita strengthened atem and acocnt; they are repoatcd 
here from -where the^ were given above (814 a). In the 2d 
sing, act., the ending ifi regularly |aa in the two following 
claasca) fv dhi if tlie root end with a consonant, and ^ M 
if it end with a vowel. As examples we take the roots 
already used for the purpose. 



>HD, ad-CLAHSJ. 

t— 618 

a. Thus, from the roots J i and QTH Ib: 









mt- ii H i 'i 





b. From the routa dviq and dub and Uh: 

I dvef&v'^ dv^&va dv^Sma 

s dTAft^i dvtft&m dvi^intn 

I d&hCni dohBvft dohAmA 

•i dugdhl dugdhim dngdhi 

3 digdhu dugdliAm dabAntu 

t Llftal Hijliibn lliJhA 

1 litpin h()him lihinta 

dv^Vil dvA^vfthU dv^&mohii 

dTikfv& dvttatb&m dvi^t^^^m 

dvlftam dviq&t&m dvifiitAm 

dohU ditUvahfti dihtawhU 

dbnkf^A dubithftm dtaugdbv&m 

dugdhim duhit&m duhAtAm 

IMitl l^havahlU lAhftmuhU 

lUufvi lllidtbSm tt^TJni 

\l4tiim tihium Ub&tBm 

016. Tba '2d tlii^. ict ending tftt 1i louiid in ihe older UnRoa^ In 
t fev Totbi ot thli cUat: t»moly, vittAt, vit&t, brtlt^t, hntftt, TfttAt, 
SCatSt. la 3d line. mid., two or three vttbf litrr In tbe older Uii|tii>gn 
tbe ending Sm: lliiii, duhltm (only IIV. rue), vldtut, ^ity&mi aiiil in 
8d pL mtd. \y. b»n dutar^m iiid duliratftia. Tim nne at tiuiB (ut ta 
in 2d pi. >H. iainite Irrquciii in lh<! Vrds: tfaur. Itana, yfttino, attana, 
cK. And la Btots, AM Ataaa, bravitaaa, fAretAaa, bantaus, w« b»vc 
MaaiptM In Uia iin* porton ef • itron^ (and icwnted) ttem, 

6. Present Partlolple. 

6ie. a. Thu active paiticiple has the ending; QrT &nt 
(veak ttcm-form QTT at) added to the unetiengthcnod root. 
Mechuiieallf , it may be foimed from the 3d pi. by dropping 
the final ^ i. Tiitw, fot the vctbx ioHeotcd »bove, the active 
paiticipice me ?JH yAat, i*t-r\^ duJiAnt, Kyrl^dTifiiit, %^t[^ 
lihint. The femininu stem cuds ueually io ^IrTI Btt^: thus, 
mH yati, J^fft duhatf, f^Trft drlflali, ^\^r\\ Uliati; but. 
from toots in ii, in Qltfl Sntl oi QTrft ftti {448 g'. 

«1»— 1 



b. The nxiddle participle has the codlag ?H ftni, added 
to the unoitengthoned root: thus, ^^TPT iyitnd, J^H duhaoi, 

c. Tbe rool Os form* the aaoniKloiia mmI EwUted iilna (in %V. 
Also a«ln&:. 

d. Bui » number or thc«e piirdciplna in Um oUm Ungtuigo b«vo 
a double ACveDt. ellhet on tbe endiag or an tbe raillca] Hyltable: 
thus, iQft&i mad ffKnn, ohOnA ftnd 61i4nK, dah*ii4 nnd dubsaa (alNO 
d^ebtJU], rlhA^Jk aud rililQS. TidAni and Tidftnn. buvKdA and 
«&Tftna, Btuvtn^ aud starinfc aod BtiTftiu — Ui« l«ii( ktving ia [lurt 
hIio a BtroDg funo of thu rmx. 

6. Imperfect. 

fl20. This tenoc adds the secondarr endings to the runt 
Bfl iocieased by prefixioa of the augment The root has the 
guQA-stretigiheaiDg (if capable of itj io the three pcisoat of 
the aingular autive, ahhoitgh the accent ia always upon the 
augmeut. Example* of inflection aie: 

a. Fiom the toou ^ i and ?m fis: 











liathta taftthftm 


titam ^aa ^ta iUataiu iaata 

b. Front the rooia dvi; aud dub »cd lib: 

I Uve;am AdTt^va Advipna Advlfi &dvifratil Advlimahl 

t 4dT«( &dvif^m &dviB(a Advif fti&a AdvlfathUa jidvi^i^hvam 

t &dv6t iidvlftAm Advi^n Advl^t* idvl^tam idvl^ata 

1 Adobam itdubvn Adubma idubi Aduhvalit AdahmahJ 

t Adhok Aduadham Adaftdha Aduitdh&s AduhKtham AdbiiKdhvuu 

I Adbok AdugdtaAm Adubaa Adusdba Aduhatam Adubat* 

1 Al«ham Alihva AUbma Alfbl Alibvkhl AUhmnbt 

I Ale) &U4bain AU^hn Alit^hOa AUbUbam AU^bTua 

a Alet Ali^faAm Alihan AU^ha AlibAtAm AUhata 

eai. a. EooU «Ddii)t; III i may in llto lUer laogvage optionatly 
Uka am instead of an In Sd pL aoL ;t1io a being lott \ittow it): and 




In the oldor tboy nlwiij-a do so: tbiis, Aym from v^ft, &ptiB fWtm 

|'p& proUft. nbbuB frum I'bbA. Tlic rntuic (.■mlinj^ i* nlxo allowud 
Knd m«( vith in Ihi- cii«i> or s ftfw roots viKlini! in conBonanlB niuiely 
vid ItWK, ckkf. dvlf. dull. m^J. RV. bus ftWiqus. 

b. Thii pnillnB taos. 'id pi. wL, U ftHind In th« TaJa In iyfttana, 
ftsMtano, ft{t»na, AbravICana. A itiong tiem l» (mn tn ibc Ut pi. 
homo, Slid the 2d jil. abrav-Ita *'id Abravltanft. 

0. To M«o Ui« chutcl«r<kt!n vnrllnRi tii ?(I and lid tlnn- «ct, ihi> rnot 
Bd Innem a; tliaa, idas, lldat; the tout oe InMtn 1: Ibiii, ^Eb, ^t 
[*•« below. 630}; <i'OiDpare iIm 091>4. 

6SX The- Ti*e fit ihe pertona of this itnav, wltl»nt aninnent, in tha 
o)d«r Ungu»|r. b>i bocn iipTk«d abot-a (687} AiifliKindwa Impoifec*' «C 
Ihli altu an ralbn oncemmon In thii Vpila; iljii«, hka. vm. "24 Blni.; 
hon, T«t, Btftut, dJui {'i\ 3d dug.; bruvaoi, duhun, oitkqua, 3d pi.-, 
TMU. sau, 3d ilnf. Olid. 

n3. The Htm oi not-tirm of aotbt ta Idanllcal in lt» formation with 
thU Impwroet'. »M bolow, 8S8II. 

eS4. In tl>o VbJi (bm bardlj anuidc of ibe RV.) ire towxH MrUlii 
2d Auf. forma, hoiini: an linpciatlTo taloa. tnado l; abiding tlio tiidlng al 
W tb* (aecontod aod itrcn|[ttiuud) toot. In pan, they ani the only tooi-forni 
b«lang!agloth«r«attftotD vMch Ihey come: that, J^^t (fot joni, (r«ni t'JUf)t 
djiikfi, p&rfi (v1>i- j>iHt)t pr&ii, bbnksl, rktal. eiWl, tao^li but tbd 
taaJorltT nl tiien bai« forms [pat or more) of a r<iot-pr«aun(, or tomctiafiM 

of ■ root-aotlit. boilds tban : tlim, k^6^1 (j'kfi ru/r), J6fl, d&r^l, DOkfl 

CvHa? At'din), neql, matBi, mOal (ymft niMiiii't). Tdkqi, y^ubel. y&ai. 
yitsi, rani. vAik^i (jviah'l, ve^i. frofi. aokfli Tbatr (orcnal churiuiaT 
U inmnvhat dUpuwd; bni tb«]r are piobsblr Indltadra penaaa Ol lbs loci- 
daai, «Md 1mp«Tativiil]r. 

8S6. Forms of this clus Nre msdc from nearly l&n roots, either 
in tbu v»rlier lanKuoge, or in tb« later, or iu bo^: aamely. from 
aboat &0 tbioiij(h th« wtiutti llfti of thu lHnh'iinj{«). from SO in tlii> older 
IMsriod lof Veda, DrAbmRina, and SCitr») nlotir, and frofo a fovr labont IS) 
in Ibo later period icplc and classical; OBly*. Kot a few of these 
ro»t», bowRvor, show only Bpnrailic root-form*, bpsldo n more usual 
co^jut^iUun of MiUD otber olitaa; nor la it in all cues poiisiblc Iu 
Mparate ctearly root-prMont from root-aoriat fonu. 

a. Many roola uf ibis class, as of the other classes of the first 
conjugation, aliuw traimfera to the ii«cund ur n-om^QgnUuii, funning 
a HnOugBtion-Btem by adding a to their strong or wetJt atem, or 

' 8n«b Kateiatnta of numbora, wltb regard lo tb« vationc paitt of tba 
■litem of ronJ'iEillcin, aie In all eami taten from ibft autbor'« SnppUmtai 
to tbU j^Diinu', piititltil "Itoott, Voib-Ponnt, and Prlmanr Dariialiic* of 
the Haoikrli Lanfoage", wh«r« llrts of root*, and details as l« f^ros vtCii 
ari! also flTon. 

aas— ] 



even to \M>th: thuB, from ymxit both tnSi]a t^S?) imi mf}a. 9ucb 
lai»rcrs are met with ercii in the oldatt IkOEuace; but they UHually 
barAnip more froqu«nc Ifttwr, often oitahltahttifc k n«w mod* of prount 
itUlcctiou \ty the side of, or in eulietlcution for, the earU«r tBode. 

b. A niimWr of mots ofTor trrnftiilnrif.irs uf influRiioni tlicite ue, 
in Uic laMD, polDlcd out in tbo rollowiug IJa^l^;^aph^ 

InegiilaritieB of Uie Boot-olSBs. 

eSO. Tlic ruoti of tlie cluiid cudinf; in u have in lh«Ir t>Crou|[j 
forois tiin vrddhi inete»i] of thv Bu^a-ilrenfitlioaiaic liefor* ati mtlir 
bc^iDDliig wiib » cousonHDt; thus, from ^'aCu, stBdmi, &st4at, and 
tlic nice: Imi ^tavam. sl&v&nf. eio. 

a. Rooi* found Ic t\)illilt iMii pnoiilUrlti In atlual vj* u« kqi^il, ya 
Wiite, BQ (oi 8Q) ini})c/, sku. itu, uiu (tUais in the eailfut UiigiugeJ, 
no, ro, ind hnn. RV. hu one* itofl and anfivon. Oompiro kIjh 688. 

637. TiiP root mrJ nU" hs* thit vrddhl-vonol In ItJ stron; 
furiui; tliuM, tnnrjmi, &iiiAr|Bin, imarf (I&Ob); and lliu i>hiq« >tr<'DK- 
thcning is luid to lie nllitnoil in wwtk fnrnw before endinrs bujrinning 
with k vou*«l: iliuH. marjantu, unOrJan; liut tha oti\y ijuuULtiltr unite 
ts m&ijltft (L^S.]. Forms from a-stviae begin to apponr i)lrof«lj 
in AV. 

a. In tha uth«( toll<o-(T^>«■I>^ •1*o> tnd In doriittlDii, mrJ ihowsorcea 

lb« Vfddhi iiiFtnjkd iif llrn KCU}A-fl<r«iij[thitiiinc. 

628. A number of roiits aouent the radioitl syllable ChTougliuut. 
tr(>lh iu Atrung Mt)d iu vraak fanxta: ihuK, nil (hoKO bu^iDiiIng ivlcli a 
long rowol. as, i^, ir, i<;-, anA abo cakf, tnJif, trA, oiAei vaa cbiAu^j 
fUUi 9I '•'■ '■ud afl All (liuse. uxcL-pt t&kf Hud trS [un'l trS also ill 
tbn Vvdic foroisj. arc urdiniiiily conj iiKaluil in middle votca 
t'onuB with tdu eam^ IrroKiilar accont occur now and thm Is lite Vo 
from otbrr vciln: tliuo, m&t«va. T&ksva, eUcsvo, siifc^Tft, fdtwt. 
Middle parttdiples flo ai:ccntctl have bouri noticed sbove |619d . 

6ae. or tlio roots nienttondd in the last painf^ph, qi lie has 
tbogu^a-stronyilienlD^ throughout: thus. 9&y»i Q&fo, fiylya, Q&yinn, 
■ad eo on. Ottier IiretEnlftriliOB in lis [uRectlon (Iti part already noticed) 
apo the 3d pi. ptnoos 9«rat« lAV. etc. have aIso ?*Tej, Qerdtim, 
&f«rata ;RV. hasalso&qeraii,). tlie 3il sing. prcs. ifhye tit.) aod ini|iv. 
oiySm. The twilatcd iiutivn forra Aijaynt U nouimou In the oldvr 
languagoi oUier a-forms, ttctire mod mldiilo, ac«ar latiir. 

6S0. or the i«ma m«l*, it} xnA I9 Ini«tt • unloa-<o«*l t befors 
certain ondlngs: thus, i^fi^i iQldllVD. i^QTa Ithcio tbreo httng tu- uiily 
fiMtti* notod la Ibo oldai Ungnagc); but IIV. hu itt^a txiiiilu i<;i;a: tbo 
^>U. hu once I^to fo' l^. The 54 pi. l^iro (on »ciouiit "f lt» ap.ncivtj 
tt atn ippuantly pretont nehu ibsn ptifoRL Tbo M9. hu onne the 3d mug. 
iiaft. U^ (Ilka adutin: 686). 




831. The routs md Wity. avap al^*p. tm hr*atkf, mnd Qvaa Uov 
iii&ert a uiilaii-viiw«1 i liijforo uU iba euilings be^lnniiif; witb • con- 
•onani. «xcftpt the • nnd t of 2il iinil :kl *inK. impt.. where thi>y iinusu 
iDBMtd ollli«r a OT 1: tliuo, svipiini, fvJMl^, 4nltl, atid (mat ar 
inlU Anil ill tLti other foruis. tli« lH«t tlim^ arn allDvrod to «cc<-nl 
Hither root or cndinfC- Ihu*, avikpantu and qv^aantn (AV-l. or 
§Tap6ota flCc- Tho AV. bite av&ptu instead of tvdpita. 

a. In the oldm Uiien^t^, >'vun makci tint tim« lii>«ttiAni! ih'iv 
vamitl, avamit; and othrr cudi ocFuloriBllr occur: iba«, J&nlava, vaalirrn 
(►'vas thtfi4). gnatblhl, atanlhl (ill KV ), yamltl vJB.). floolrol (M li'b.J. 
On tlie QibcT b>&i|, ^'an i-atly laikea f«rtui frcin ui n-il«in: iba*. anatj 
CAT.); ppio 4Dant (Vn.)i opt anat (AR.)' 

638. Thfl root brQ i^miX-, aajt ;of ver}' friHiiient nuel taken the 
■ID ion- vow el I afr^r ihe root wtiea alrcn^ttieDeil. b«<fore tbe Initial 
connonniit of «ii oailiiii;: ttiiiA, br&viml, brsvifi, bri^viti, Abravis, 
^bravit; btil bramiU, brvyam, n-brnvam, Abruran, <>tc- S|H-i-ml 
oocational IrrfKulariiicn xre brCUul. bravUil, abruvaoii abrttviui, 
bruyAt, and )ipOTadl<>- forms from an a-atftm. Ttiit tub], iliinl briv&tte 
lias bu«n noticed above i^lBj; >l4o the strong fonuB nbravlta, 
Abravitana 981 a^ 

633. Some or iha room In a are tllowed ta tie iDlteclait llkn brQ: 
naiBDlj-, ku. tn, ru. and ntu ; and an oenaitanal InaMncs U mtii *ltli of 
A form 10 madu (In T,h« alilsr lantuai^, enlf taTitt ntilcd i In the Ul«i, 
«nly atavimi, onco). 

634. The not am (hardly rnnnd tn Ihr lau>r Uneunp!) uk*t 1 ai 

milon-ion»l; ihun. (UUl^ C'^^'Ot amStl »oA ftmlt aiiil aini^va (TS,). From 

}^gam o«nir ^amlfva (VS.; TS. famiqva) irid gnmidhvam (Tn. etc.}- 

086i Tbg trracvUrlilM of yAah In the older Uiifu&ge bare iNien 
aliMir '» P*rt notfd: lb« 34 pi. iii<Lii\. cdIiI. duhalA, duhri, and dahriita: 
3d slDg. Imp*. duh^Lm, pi. dubi^m >n4 dobratAmi impf. a<il. di elug. 
AdUhat («]iirh ii r«and ilta la t!ic Ultf Unsaaxe), Si pi. aduhras 
(bMtdo Aduhan aii.l dahua); ike mid. pple dughana; uol (^uiw vn- 
«»npl«d eUeabmJ t^e opL fornii diUiIy&t and duUy&u (BV. anlf}. 
Th« MS. ha* adnha 3d «ln|. <uid adntina 3d pi. Impf. mid., appan-jilLy 
fomad to eeneipouti to ibc proi. duhe (618 1 tnd dnfaro ai adocdba and 
adobata «orrDFpon<1 to dtigdho luJ duhata: otrnpar* Ufa (680)> ri'l^ied 
la Ilka manuci to the Si fine- 1^«- 

Some of the roots of thia cIun are abbrerlatad or otbenrtee 
reskeued in tbeir weak format tliits ^ 

686. TKe root ^ ae 6« loses ita vowel in weak fnims 

(except where protected by combinatton with the augment). 

lis 2d sing, indie, is Q^ aai ^instead of aaalj; iu 2d nog. 

impv. is 1^ edhi linegulaily from udhi). The ituertioD of 

ese— ] 

I2L. FUsasKT-srSTSH. 


^ I in 2d and 3d sing. impf. has been ootictid alieady 

•. The fortna of Uiift oxlicmely commoa reib, uc, then, 

a» follows: 











sf onia 
































Itsit ^ 





ParlicipU ^TT Bant [fern. TTrTt satt). 

b. BcsiileB tlie (otiut of tbu prusent-ayiiteni, lb«rti la made from 
this root ool)' » ptirfect. isn etc, ;600l, uf wholl)- rcguUr inflectlcnL 

O. Th« V«dlc ■Dbjuiidiio faimi u« Lha tmiiil otifa, made upiMi tb<i 
•tela h»*. Tli0y »re In fmiiteiit an, uid appe«t famt «>poe<»!1}) aran 
tn Iu» uxlt whftN the tubjnnoil're la aliDrol loil. Tbe molullaii slim 
etc. (opC) IB conaiui In Vcdtc lerae. Ai '2d ad-I 3<] sUig. Itupr. it 4 few 
Umei met witb the luoco iionutl As ((or ts-B. is-t). Sthiua. 2d pi., ww 
ncMU •toTc (01 3 J. 

d. Middle forma from y'vi ar* alio fiten bj ibii gruuiDLtUii* u allow- 
•d with cottain pnpmtUoiit (vi-t-fttl). bul tie; ais not iiHotabla; smsbs 
au4 ay&mahe {0 eccnr in tka cple*. but ai« ntn«lf tlt'tinru of tba otdl- 
mvtT rpU contualoii of lotces CBSSa). CunfuaJona of primary iu<l socondair 
endln^t ^ Daniel )', bvb in<l imn (rui rare), and, «n tba athtt h*ail, fljftVBS 
and Bjruu«9 — u« aliir vplc. A mlddlu ptMent ladle»Ilv« U aaid t<> ti<t 
cempouiided (in Ut and 24 pArtana) vitb Ike nomcN itgmtU Is tr (ti^') 
(o forin a porlphruUo futvi* la tbo nlddl* *i)l«a (but ••« btlnv, M7}. 
Tlte IM dsff. Indle. U he; ike real U la Uia nsusl raluion at mJddla tn 
asdra f»rmi (tn 3d pen., ss, dliTB, Bva, dbvaiOf vilb <otat lait of tba 
root lUolf). 


Boot-clam (secomd, ad-oLAW). 


637. The rool bao imiU, (lay i» trostad lomsvlnt ttUtr tbo 
iDMinor or Qoim-RMRiR in an in (leelAuloo (481}: In wenk fonua, it 
Idhh iU n Iwforc an Initial canaoiuci lexcepl m anil v\ of h iwraotial 
«n<Hag [not in tli« optotire), and it» a bnfntr mi initial vowel -^and 
in the latter citao ita b, in coDMct with tbo o, ib chugod to gh (oom- 
pue 40S;. Thua, for eiaioplo: 

pT«i»nl Indlc&tlT*. 


1 h&nmt hRn7As h&nm^ 
1 bftAsi hath4s hatbi 
1 b&nU haUa ghn&atl 







a. ltd participle Is sbn&nt ifcm. gtiaati]. Ita 2tl tinit, impv. U 
j«hi lb}' anainaloQi diMimiUtloD, on the model of redupIluMting 

b- Ulddle fnna ftom iLls mot ata fMqiiaiii U Ilia Biihniai^ai, aiid 
Iboia tbai oeouf aie format In (na«tal aaoonUng to Uw tama rul«: thna, 
lutfa, bannulia, ghiuite; ahatA, aghttUlm, aghnnfjt (m A&^ alio 
abata): gtiDlta (bat alto hanlta), I'flTiiii from traaarcr>ftonu, bana and 

(hna, are ni'Cl with truat an early periuii. 

698. Tlie TOOl va^ &> ta^tr l» in tlie wo«k fonns nearly and 
URUally MQtnMited to uq (as is thu pcs-rcct: TfMbj: thus, agm^l 
|V. : OMO apparontlf abbreviated in KV. to fmoal). uqAntl ; pplo 
Ofaat, uqftni. Middle furui» lexcept tbe pple) do not occur) uor do 
tbe weak foma of the impitrl'Ml, which bk given as Ao^va, aaqtaiD, etc. 

ai RT. haa In like onannec the putlclple ufft^ rroni Iha root vas eiathe. 

flSe. The root ^bi ordrr shotri iioiD« of tite jteculiuiiiir)! of n 
tedopllcated verb, lacking [046| ibo n befom t in all 3il porsona pi. 
Mill in the ar.Ure pariicipla. A part of lie active forma — Danely, 
tlte weak forma havinn Andingt hnf^itming witli «)n«0Daiit& (including 
the opUtlTol ~~ arc Ruid lo come frum a ttcni with wcakf^nod vowol, 
Qlf laa do tbo Hoiiat, 8&4, and some of tlie derlvutivea I ; tiut. except- 
ing tho opistivv iql^Am tU>,. U. S. lUid lat«r;. no ancb forma am 

a. The 3a ilni. Inpf. U af ftt (CH «|, and the (am* fonn ia *ild 
to be allAwad aUo ai 1i Ang. Tbt ?d «lnf. Impr. I^ ftdtal (with loUl 
loM af tbe a); and BV. bu ibe iiront 2il pi. 9&at4tta (*lth anomalotii 
acceal)-, and a-foma, honi atam fILaa, noraaloii^ti nvcni. 

b. Th« middle InllectioD ig regulu-. and tbt accvnt [apparently) 
always upon tho radical aytlAlde (fiate, gttsat*. cAaUu;. 

O. Tba togt dfti; wonMy lias Id like manner (RV.) the pple d^at 
(uot diqaat)- 

MO. Th* d«Db1a lo-ulUd root Jakf ral, laiigk U in aTtdcDt tadti- 
pUeatlon o( Kliaa anil haa (eapeellvnli. It ba* the tbtance of a In act. 

Wkltaaj.Onuiau. 1. «l. 18 


IX. FllRflRNT-8Y.STt:M. 


Sd ^twM pL ind ppl«. »iid lh« 44»iit on th« »»t bafera T«wd^nilins». 
wfckfa Inlonf to lednpltiMtBd Tatbi; and It alia toko tba onlan-TOir*! t 
!■ iko niuiiier sf md me. (ibtne, 981), I'or tu rorini ud derlTiUvAi 
made wlUi «tiM Ian at ikr fliul slbllaDt, «» 3S3 £ 

Ml. CerUln oilier olivloualx reduplicjit»d verb* «t« trvkCed 1^ 
ibn native ^rammarisni u if Bituple, And rerorred to ihia conjagallon: 
auch aro the iQUiimivel^ Teduplicaled Jficr <1080&. d«ridrd 1024a], 
Md trert [lOMa}, didhf «tc. <:e76), Mid cakto [677;. 

II. Reduplicating Class ilhird, hu-ctan|. 

e42. This dug fonns its prc«ent-et«m by pieOxiug u 
reduplication lo the foot. 

043. a. Aa iegiu<U the oonsonnat of the reduplication, 
the gvncTtl rules whi(>h hare a-lreadj- h«ea giveo abore (590) 
aie followed. 

b. A \oag vowel is sliortcncd tii the reduplicating 8j\- 

ftble: thus, ^ dadS from y^ dS; f^ift bibhl from y^ bhl; 

tfjj JuhQ &om i'^ ho. The Towel R y never appears in the 

reduplicatioa, but is leplaced by S i: thus, f^>T bibbf from 

l-n bhfj iTTT plpro fioi" kT'T pro- 

o. F«( oatb* III "Ucb a •od ft >1k> am imcaluly rcyrtaoBiad in ilio 
radvpUcalion \ty 1, m* b«b>, 660. Tba roat vyt (T. B.) maLo* vararttl 
chi-i cakjfcnt (RV.) u my doubtrol. 

d. Tba onl; root of tbla class irith initial vowsl b r (or ar); 
It talcea sa r«dupticstloii 1, wblcb Is held apart from tbe root by sn 
tuterpoisd y. thus, lyar and trv ltk« l^^ttcr hss aot bSMi found In 
setual use). 

044. The preaeat-etem of this class (as of the other 
classes belonging to the first or non-ft-conjugation) has a 
double form: a stioager form, with ^naied root-rowel; 
and a weaker form, without gima: thus, from y^ hu, the 
two forms are fT^ juho a-od ^^ Jubu; from y^ bhl, they 
are vi^ blbhe and f?}f1 blbbl. And ibe rule for their use 
is the same as in the oiher classes of this conjiifCiUioa: the 
strong slem is found before tlie unaccented endings (fi&2jl, 
and the weak stem before the acosnted. 


RzDDPuc&mia Class vtiurd,]. 


94JI. Ac«<>r<1iii)i; ti> xH tho iwAlactM of the first general oonju- 
(!»lioB, wc Bliould eipoct to find tho acooot upon ibc rQut-ifll»bl« 
when Uria It tlreiij^UienAd. That Is aetiulty tbe Mae, bowerer, only 
Id % kuiftll tninority of the roots compoaiDg the olaas: nnmrl^r, to hu, 
bbl tno test-forcQB io the older luguBgel, brl [no teB^forlIlB found Id 
ttie olAet l«i)j{ua^;, mtkd (very rAre), Jan (no fonns cf thit olua 
fuund toocctii), ol noliw (id V.), jru stpani* (in older Ungual only), 
and ID bhc in tlii' laU-r Uaguaf^u (Io V. it gOM with lb« u^ority: 
but KV, hikfl bllih&rti nucc, aait AV. twice; and thiH, iho later 
accentuation, is found >I«o in th« DrahcnsnAsJ; and UV. Laa once 
IjAr^. lu alt tlie reel — apiiarenilj, by a recent traniifer — it rests 
upon tbe r^diiplieatlni; lnab<ad of upon the radical syllablo. And la 
both claescs atik«, fbo accent ii anomalouely thrown back apon the 
rtiduplioaliDa In tbnae weak fornu of which thn cndlni; bUKin* wUh 
a vowdl; wbilo In tli« other w«ak fonaa It Is npoa th« ondlng ;t>iie 
cnutpare 066 a). 

k. Apparaottr (tbe aum with wittina ■nccni m loo few to d»l«rmlne 
tb« point ■•AiifaoMilty) tha mldill* optative mdliut*. tya Ms. (666), *Tfl 
nakOBcd throuEbout m endlnga wiib InlUtI rovel, and throw btck tbe 
•ecMil BpMi Ib4 r«(Itiplleitlon. 

646. The rerba of this class lose the ? n in the 3<1 
pi. endings in active as well ns middle, and in the imper- 
fect have 3TT v^ instead of 0^ an — aod before this a final 
radical vowel has gu^a. 

1. Preaent IcdioatlTe. 

647. The oombin.'ttioa of stem and endings is at in 
the preceding class. 

Examples of inflecti 
stem-form, 3^ juh6i weak 


on: a. y^ hu mcrijict'. strong' 
form, ^^ Juhu |or Jdliu). 


jnbav&a Jniiujn&s 





J ohuthis Jnhnth& 




3*5 iw 


JohutAa JUiTati 






b. Root H bbf hrar {given with Vcdio accentuation} ; 
atioDg stem-foim, PT'I^ blbhnr ; weak, l^t bibtip (oi bibhr). 

1 i^nft' feiR^^ &"-in5i^ ra& ^^j^ ftiin% 

blbharml blbbrvis blbh|iD4a 
bfbbArql bibhrthuD biblirtli& 

» fe*iH PT'fT^ raafa 

blbbsrU bibbft&s bibbnci 

c. Tka a «r ha (liiiA ihai of ihn i:lBM-«<gni Dd and a: He* bslow, 
687 «) Is Mid to be nmlHlbU bffot* v (nd m of tho endlni^ or 1m do. 
■ad pi.: fkn*, Juhv&a, JobvUis, «to.} but uo aaah r»niu an qnM4bl«. 















2. Present SubjunctiTO, 

648. It li Dot poMible at ptc«eat to dnv • diMtnot IIb* bttxosa 
thoae iubjaiitU'« fona* ot lltf oldot l*nfuag« Kblch itioiild b« nctvncd m 
b«lanKiiiii la l)i« prMcst-tTitem kitd ib(«« wbidi »bovld fc« iMl^ued to th« 
parfaoi — or eTea, to (ons uhu, (d lh« rednplluUd Mirtal and |uuii>t*a. 
Bate win be nottc«d only tboto vhtnh moit eli«rlr kelong i« tfcls cli'i; 
ib« OMK doubtful cMsx vill be ti<at«d ander tbo pnfoet-cpleiN. Bt««pt 
In Dm peiMci* (whid) tonttnna in iu« a* '^roperadTM" Aom to tba luat 
Uiu^aain), M)bjtin<itl*fs from tooti bailag nnniiiltkably a tedapUcateJ 
pCMtnl-iT*t*'ni a'o ol (at rmm rreqneot gconmncxi. 

049. 'X'be subjuuctive iuod»-«t«m in formed ia the luaal miMincr, 
wHh tiie mode-siKn > nnd guijia of the root-vo«'«l, if this is capable 
of sneh atnaglfaealng. The evldenee vf the fev ACMsted fortus met 
with indicates that the »cc«iit is laid ia Mcorclitiiee wttb thM uf the 
stroo^ ladtcAtive forms: tiius from vba, ihe flt«in would be JabAv&; 
from >'bhrt it woiilil he bibharft ibut btbb&ra Uior]. BeforA the 
uodc-aigci. fiaal rstlical A would b«, ift accritiliknco with uiitlogiee 
elsowbcro, dropped: thus, tUda from yii, <Utdba from y€hi (all the 
fofin* nctuRlIf oceurriog would be derlv^lo from th« secondary roots 
dad and dadb]. 

8D0. InsKad of giving a tfaeorolicalljr conplctc scbnoo of 
luflectioD, It will be brttei to notfl all tbe exampln qaoublo (nm 
tho nldiir languaice (acci^at^d wh«ii found m> oMorriiv]- 

a. Thus, of lu p«rwns, ne ha>e In ibo icttie JubATftnl, bibharft^ft 
d«dliu, dadb&ni. Johftm; jahavamft, d&db&ma. jUtAma; — >n ik« 
■Iddls, dadbli, miaiu; dttdbtvabai; jubaT&mab&i, dad&mabe, 
dad&inahil. dadb&mahU. 

b. Iff Dibn pttMiia, «• hara wlik ptfnatr cadlag* In tbt mrtin 
biblmrtal («tth doiibUi oi»d«-iU»: SSOa), didbatbaa, iobaritba (do.) 


Qbdofuoatiho Cutsa (TBIRD, bU-Ci:.A88)i. 


uid JulUTaUifti In th« midiUo, (UicUiw«; didb»t«, r&ntM, dAdlifttU, 
dtuUtU; — with MMndtry coding), dAdhAs. viTSsna, Jtihavit, bibharat, 
TVyivat, (UdUat, dodhinat, babhUAti dadhan, yujavui, Jubavon. 

8. Preseat Optative. 
851. To form this mode, the opUtive eodingt given 
above [666b), as made up of mode-sign and personnt endings, 
aie added to the unetiengihened stem. The aooent is aa 
already stated |845ftl. The infleetioo is so le^ulax that il is 
unneccjiSAry to gire here more thnn the first peisoos of a 
aiogle vexb: thus, 

Mti*e. middle. 

S. d. p. •. d. p. 

1 H^TiTM^ g^.vi£f ^rsj.yrt ^'?3'j M'?3*ir^ 5^iW^ 

jubuyom juhuynvn jakuy^a juhviya juhrivabl Jiafavinuihi 
r«. cK. tu. ctt, OK. »«, 

4. Fresent Imperative. 

662. The endings, and the mode of their oombiQation 
with the root, hare been already given. In 2d sing, aot., 
the ending is f^ hi after a vowel, but ftj dhi after a con- 
sonant: ^ ho, however, foima s|!^[u juhudhi (apparently, 
in order to avoid the reciuience of ^ h in two succeesive 
syllablosj: and other examples of fij dhi aA«r a vowel are 
found in the Veda. 

6SS. a. Kxample of lafleotion: 

■elWe. mlddtt. 

i. ^ i. 

JnliAvaai JuhAvava 

Jabudbf Juhutim 

5W ^^^^-^ 
JohAtn Juhutilm 

b. The v«rb« of 
in tho MMB nation 


•. d. f 

Jnb&vai JvUiAvAvBhAl Juh&vamaliai 

Jahutim J^vXtbn Juhvatim 
the otber dlvlsloa differ here, an In the indicative, 
of Uielr strong formi only: tuHnely, Id all tbe 



904 hA rmtoM, inia.: ihiu, j{blt«. Jihtdlivv. j{hiit«; JIhlfva. 
jibatam; UUUta. lOUiaM. V^- ^** Jtbltbaiu {fat jmatham). 

690. h& ijuil. u(. (oriKliullT idomickl with ibe fonuei). m*; railltsr 
•boiton Ih* t 10 1: thu>. J&batl, jAbltM, jahltat (AV.); JnUmaa (AV.), 
jKhltM (TDO. ikbltant (TA.), «JnlUUUn (TS. AH,)- In tlt« opUUTv, 
lh« radlMl *o«ret ii iMt •Itagoih^; Ihu, Jahr&m. Jabriu (AV.). Tb« 
^ ntn<. Imp*., aftcordlu; 14 (be gr«mmuiuu, U JtUiihi or JoUlil or 
Jahftlii; only tlie lint i]tpe4ra quotable. 

«. Fo'm* from »n a-fi(i>m, Jajis. un mada for tlii* not, Mtl trtn 
d«rlT>liii«a from » (|tiad-rt>c>l Joti. 

666. T* givt, mU.: thiu, raridbvam, r»ribh&a (tmpf wttbout 
lagiMint); and, wllli I In rcdnpltcKdon, riritai. Rui AV. hM r&rtara. 

a. la tboM T«ib*, tbe 4CGGnt U goirarftllr eootuut ua the redupllMUsg 

667. TliA tiro root* dt sod dhft tho conimonost of Uic cltM) 
lose tbrlr radical Towol alCogcLber In the wo&k forias, bolsg sbortfiDOd 
to dad nnil dadh. In 2(1 aiuR. impv. net, thoy form roRrectlrely 
deh{ and dheltf. Id combination tritli a following t or th, ttio iinal 
dh of dtdli does iiol follow tho t|>cclal rule of coiubinatioD of a 
final siiDKiit anjiirato ibccomlDg ddb with ttio t or th: 160j, tint — 
H alno befuro b and dbv — llie inare general mlos of asplntti uod 
of surd and oonnot nombitiatEoD; a^nd ita k»t ajipirution Ea thrown 
bMk upcm tho Initial of the root (lOOl. 

066. The Inflsotlon of v'dlia !», tliea, m follow*: 

Present InilicMiTC. 


1. d. 

1 dAdh&mi dadhv&H 

1 dAdh&Bi dhalthoB dhatth4 

> dUhUl dhattia d&dbaU 




PrH«Kt UpMtive. 

1 dadhfia dadhjlva dadbyima didhiya d&dhivalii d&dhlmaJii 
Mt. fltc. vte. au. alt. tit. 

I dJidtaliiii diidhftva d&dbftmA lUuUi&i ijai:lh&rabai dAdhacni 

1 dhahf dhatULm dhattit dliatstra dadhftlhfta dbaddhram 
1 d*dh«(u dliatt&m dAdbata dUa-< dadbatam 

t AdAdbam idadlivfc 
1 AdadbU idli 


• Mllxaddlivam 




PuiUlplw: act. didhAt; mid. dAdUnft. 

K. Ib tb* nlddle (cKtept inipf.}, unlr th<r>« tontt st» ken Mconud 
tat «htcb Hum Ik •utboHt)' In ih« tneuntoated UaU. w tharo t* dlMwdince 
betwB«n iho •otual miocm knil lliat whUli tb« intloglM sf 1^ daM would 
leid u l» expect. BV. hui oueo dhitse: dadfai •nd dadblte mlgbt t>i 
porl-Mib, ■« fir u tb« foiiD U «an6eni«d. RV. wii^anU dftdUt& tatce 
(dUUte tbtU«}; 4D*«ml «ili«r t««u b*te dAdblta, dlkdhlnui, d&dItA> 

b. The root Ai Is luflodlod in precisely the BaiuA v*y, with 
Cluingre everywhere of (nulicnl) dh to d, 

6d9> Tli« o1d«r Uiiti»|«i bu [tr«)(u.lHriUi)t u r«lt(>«B: 1, ih(< nsual 
lUtrug form* in 2il pi., d&dfaatA ml ^dadhUa, d&dUtt and AdftdUa; 
1L tb« niUKl UuiK nntllnfi In (ti« urn* ponoti, dhattana. dAdBtann, Mc 
(664. 606); 3. ib* 3(1 iliix. todkoM. dodta^ (like Ui hiiis); 4. tbe2d 
ting. InpT. Id. doddhl (for bnth dchl ^nd dhahl}. And R. hju dadml. 

870. A number of nmts bavo been Cranirorred from thU to the 
■• or bhO-rtaH (bcluw, 749J, tliulr roduplIcKed rout bcoomtn^ a 
■tenotyped stem loflocted after tlie nuuiiier of B-Btemi. Theie ronta 
■re mM follown: 

671. Id Hit periods of the Ungual, from the roots atbS sUuul, 
pt drink, and ghrft <»■<//, are made t)io presents tlfftUUBl, ptbtial 
iwftb Irregular soituotiiing of th« second p), aod Jigiu-Oial — which 
then are inflected not like ro{intoil, but like bhAvftml, a* if from 
the prMeot-steou tt^llis, piba, JlEtara. 

67S, la tlie T(4> (MpscUUy; *l«ci later), tbe r«dupllu(«d tdmi dt 
tni dhft are iotnaUmM turned Into tbe a-(t«mi d4da and dddba. or 
hiDccted M If i«Ma dad and dadh of the a-cLaw; and lingle tatmt at tka 
uoia duneier are mtAe from otbet leou: tb&t, mimantl (v'mft htOMi), 
rirata (ytfL. giw. 3d ling. mid.). 

673. In tbe Vtd*. alio, a Ilk* CKoadtry turn, Jigfaa*. ti made ftoai 
V^aa (wltb MDlstlofi of l)i^ T*dlc*l vQwcl, and oonrenlon, u»u*l !n tUt 

' net, or fa U gh wben In eonuct witb n: 637); aad mbo af the fonni 
al aa/90, ttota I'Mto, aVnr th« aua« oonTataieo to an at-aieta, aa^ea. 

674. la AB. (tIIL Q8), 1 almltai *e«ondat]r fotto, Jlchya, la glvan to 

yhX ottiA. thiit, JlcbraU, Jighyatu. 

675. A few lo^cUlMl root* of tbe Orat of tnoi'cI*M ir* tli» prodoeta 
of rrdnpllcatloii, more or leii obilooa: iblu, Jakq (640). and ptottably 

< 91a (from v^aa) and cak; (from ykM/^ or a lotl root kaa <m). In the 
Ted* U found alra Biu^, Teem yeac. 

676. Tlic gttiDuikrIans mckDii (u alrcadr notlaad, 641) aeveral roov 
of tbe most eridnnilv rndopliuin cbaraeur a* tlmple, and lidonging to the 
te^^eUM. Some nf itiMs (JacT> darldrft, verl) *io tesuUt Inicnslv* 
noma, and alll br dcirribud bvloir uiidsi luieuahot (lO&Oa. 1024a]i 

I dldU dam. to«i'ih«r «iik Vtdi« didi «Air« aed pipl nttU, Lt« ■omatlnea 
lelM elaaaed as InleatWtei trut they ba*e out tbo proper radnpl It alien «f 




frou yjvi all the fonas for which euBplu h&To been noUd u< 
acttully oeenrinff io the older Ungntgo. 

uciTo. middle. 

I, d. p. ■. d. p. 

t ynni) ftni yon^&vk jnni^Sma tuqaJU jmniLJ AtnahU 

1 yonUu TuoaJ&dbvU 

) Tiui&jat ymiiijntaM yun&jan Tun&j&ts 

987. Tie KV. hM ooco afljatna, wUeb l> tiiMiiAloBi m btdnj; maile 
frciD tbi! ve«k leiiM-ftem, Poring vllh doiibic loode-ttin Ate moC wlib : 
th«>, tf^Ahln C^V.). r&dbnivSt mi yunajftn (^B.); tuA. ihp only 
qnotibl* «iiaiil» of 34 ilo. xa. (iKsidM afijftt&a) it hln^AtM [.^iB,). 
QB. Im tlto UnaetvAB ■■ 1<I dn. act: in el*««liBrB uiiaikniplcil lorm. 

3. Presaot Optative. 

686. 'Xhe optative is made, as elsewhere, bjr adding the 
Dompoundcd mode-eodiogs to the weak form of piesent- 
Btema. Th ua : 

■. i. p. 

I groH g^iFT ^Ttrm 

«. 4. J>. 






II to. 

a. AB. hM oQiw the 4iioiiulou« lit tiag. leL vf^Iyam. Anil forma 
Itke bliufijirtlin •;Bt, 7Ufi]lTBU >f<? ^""* ■»'! thore nel nlih In tbc 
«Iil«* {bbuA)l7*Un o'lcft In 008.). UBh., too, bu »nce bhafijitun. 

4. Present ImperatiTa. 

680. In this ctau (u the roots all end in oonsonuLt*}, 
the ending of the 2d sing. act. is altrayt f^ dbi. 

S. d. p, 

until Pi jTEfFT gs^rm 

jrun^&nl yun&JAva yuniuSma 
macdlif TttaJkt&a yu&kti 

ii-** iJi'i ^^^ 

TunAktn yaahtfa* ynt^^iat 



d. J. 

yiiniJ»TBb«l yiuiAjtaii 




DTB, rndb^XJiBSI. 


600. ThoT* li no oMORBue, lo hr u noted, of Ike nniltiif tit In 
rmbt at thli claa*. Th« YcdA bu, ■! Biiial, MCDMlmca MroBf roiaui, and 
•DinttlEui* UiR ciidjiii tKua, In th« td pL wl.: tiitu, onitta, ruB&kta, 

6. Pro8«Qt Farttoiple. 

991. The participles ate made in this class as in the 
preceding ones: thus. acl. ^arl^jrufijdot Ifem. ^^fft yuAjadji 
liU. g'^TH yu&Jftail ,but RV. has isdb&OBi. 

6. Imporfoct. 

6d2. Tlie example of the legulai inflection of LbiR tenie 
needs no introduction: 



-J -» 

47110 ok 


&yaAjm» iyufijl 

&7iiaktam draft kta 


dynnkthts 47itfl)ttham AyoncdbTsm 
iTuhktA &7ufijKtaiii &7iiiUat« 

a. Itio endings « and t are aeooesaiil)' loat In tbo nasal class 
tbroiigboni In !d and 3il ling. act., anlna saved at the exponse of tlifl 
final radical coiiaonant: which in > caac of very ntr« occarreneo (the 
only qnutable examplea ware giveo at 666 a]. 

SS3. Tbe Vcila ibowi as Irn^aluitica la thia tcnte. Oetunanrai of 
4U(n*atl<^M Tonni ire hnni, e*pe«itlly In U >»d Sd iilng. •ot., iba<r{n( 
»D a«nani lik« thu of tbe preMnt: f«r axsoiplir, bbln^ti pT9^> ▼79'^ 
pi^Uc, rl^Uc 

a. Tka tit siof. aei. oCr^am lod aooUnam {tot atfQadam and 
aochinadam) wan aated ibtrt, %i 66&a. 

994. The ruoU or (Lis olaaa naaib«r about MHy, mora Utaa 
half of tbcra bciog found only in tb« earlier luaguai^ei no uew one* 
Diak« tbuir lirat app«arBBc« litor. Thias i>f tiiSBn, afij aad bha41 aad 
hl&a, carry their naaal alM> lato otbor tenaa^yMviiia tbaa tbo prvaont. 
Two, rdh anil abb. maka prvsent-ajslanti also of other claflses having 
la (be olaaa-ttlgo: thna, fdhnod (nu-ctaan) and nbhnftti 



H. titttf of th« root* Riakn totnt* ftom iMondRnr a-itNot ibua, from 
■4JK, unda, umbh&. ohinda, tr&li4, pl&f*. VftiA, bhuftja, rundlut, 

Irregularities of the Nasal Cl&sa. 

696>. Tb« tool tfli oMnbiQf* tfijali wlih tl, tu, ou. Inta tT9*^l( 
tffiS^hu; tnd, aoeordiiK M >)>* granuDatUiw, bu >]«<■ HKk fonnt u 
tfifduili: M« aboTC, SMh 

696. Tim toat hlAa (t>y origin *pp*tciitly • dMlile»tlT« fmm ) baa) 
aoMnu irri-KuUtly ibt not'iylliblc lu the we«k fvrm*: dint, lif6iMintl> 

IV. Nu- and u-classei (fiftN and eighth, su- and tan-classe<>. 

607. A. Tbv picscat-atem of th« ua-clus ta made by 
adding to the toot the ajtlatle ^ au, which Uieu is the 
atjoi^ fornu receives the acceat, and is strengthened to^n&. 

B. The fev roots of the u-class (about balf-a-dosenj 

end in *! a, with the exception of the later irregular ^TT ky 

(or kar) — for which, see below, 714. The two classes, 

then, are closely conesponilent la form; aad thejr are wholly 

acooidant io inflection. 

a. Tht: Q (ff viilivr cluB-slgn Is allowed to be dropped before 
▼ nad m of tba I si da. ud 1st pL endings, sieept vhoa Ibe root 
(nu-«Us»j eada in a cunnODAnt; «nd tho a bofor« « vnwol-eadJog 
beeuinte v or uv, aeoordiag ss It Ir preceded by one or by two 
•osaoasntB tftdai. 

1. Present Indicative. 

098. Examples of iaflection: &. nu-o1aM; mot 
g an preet out; strong: form of stem, ^sun&; nresk form, 


■rtl<r«. middle. 



eandmi sonav&e 

aoadfi sunutbAa eonatlii 



aunuvibe stmumUia 

aaaofi aonTAths stmadhTi 

S&5 Ha- AKDu-fpirra AKDnoinm, iB-juiDtMiKiLABfiMj. [—700 

» g^i^ HHHfi^ R^^fri g^ ^i^ y^ 

ftunotl atinut&M auv&ntl Bunata MunvAt* mmvit* 

n. Tho fortDB itinT-ils, annmiu, aanTAho, HonmAh* uo alter- 
native with tfaote given here foT Ist du. and pi., and In piacdcw ara 
more common. Fruni ytp, howovec (for example}, only tho foimfl 
with u can iKcur: Ibas. ftpnariM. ftpnam&h«; and also onljr Apnu* 
T&ntI, ApnuvA, apnuvAU). 

B. u-o)as8; toot 7R taa stretch: stiong form of stem, 

tJ^ tfino; weak. rR tonn. 

1 rt^i[*i HHH^ rl**)H^ a^ d*^^ H-^f? 

tanoiui tanr&B r^mwAa tanvA tmiv&he taamAhe 
ate. «tr. ^I«. ate. I'lc. «tc. 

b. Tha Infltctiou Is so pmctMnlj* llk« that given abava lUat It 
la not vortb wrItinK out ia full. Th« abbravlaled fonus In tat ^tn. 
and pi. M« prcMDti'd liori^, in«t«a4 of ibc rullur. vliich rarol/ occur 
(M no double coiinouani cyer pracedefl'. 

608. n> In <ho ()M«i l(iiRiu{n, no Mtong 2^ penuni iv. ut pL, 
and no ttiana-«ni1ing, ctitnce to oteiir (but Ibvy ire niiin«i«iu tn thn 
UapT. ftn4 Impf.: *oe betow). Tb« BV. hw iotdtsI cuw of iti* Irragnlsi 
*r<«tii In 3il pi. mid.; ibui, kf^Ta-tA. tsnvat^. msnvate. v^pTatA, 
apl^vati. * 

bi In EIV. DGoat lUo lOT^ttl 3<) pi. oiitJ. in tr« (rom pr«)Mnt-«t«ii» 
of thiB «!»•: tfciH, tOTlra, r^Ttrv, pla-vtr*. ti^vlr4, sanTtr4, Uarlr^ 
or th«t«. plnvire, and biavirA niEbi be p6rfo<t« witbAut tcdapliutlMi 
ftoni ibB (c>uiid>r]r toou plnv ■Qd hlnv (1m)««, 710). Tb« 2<1 «lni{. aild. 
(«lik paMive talae) ffpvl^A (BV.) U ol iDOUitlou* and quMilODabIa 

S. Present Subjunctive. 

700. Tbfl aattjniiMtTQ inodw-Rteiii is miul? Jo the hbuI naBner, 
b/ adding a to the gnttstsd and accented clawi-iiit^n : iUuh. auniva, 
tan&TB. In tbe follovinf; eohenie arc i^^on o^ the formi of which 
exJUDplaa bave b<ien met with in actual uae in tbe older languace 
fiou altlier <IItIbIi>d of the claui aomu vf iben are qalte tmiuerouBly 
Kprmaatod there. 

■nlve. mid 410. 

1. i. ]>, a. d. p. 

aunivftra atuiTftma aunAvU annirftvalUU aoailv&maliU 
mnivatha aan&vaae eiuiAv&lthe 

■un Avail 





701. Of tlie btiefcf 1m tli^. Mk, BV. kt kni^'Tft *"<! binftTL 
Votm* with dwblA ia(M]»>(1<ii Mtor (iMt in RV.): thni, kfoivU «n<l 
kuTftTAt (AV.); *ga»T*U>Jt (K.), Iq^TtUia (VS.^ but .vath* U 
Kinvi-tuxi). karavfttba (V^.). On tlii! nthn bind. M^avatU li fOaiid 
o»cn (IB T^.). Vaniii llki^ spnuTiinl, ftrdtinavat, kgnavat, net Mih. 
now and tkt^n iti ih« old«i i«KU, ir« doobilm to be tetuded u bLis 
raadltiKi. BV. bu In a ilngto puuje IqMjT&fte (lactead af kfoAvAlt*); 
ifce «iil7 torn (n cltii« li •qn&v&ltbe. 

3. Freaeat Optative. 

702. l^e combined eodings '6M) ate added, aa oaual, 
to the weak tease-ctem: thus, 


a. i. f. 


■onaydm eunuyiTa sunajdma auoTlyi sunvlvUil sonvlmUil 

eW. tU. etc. «U. etc. ttC. 

a. Fiom yap, the nudillo optative would t>u Apnavlf & — ^nd »<> 
fn otk«r liko euus. 

1. PreaoDt Imporatire. 

708. The iafleclion of ihe impeiative is in geaeial like 
tliat in the ptecediog classes. As tegiuda the 3d sing, act., 
the rule of the latei language is that the ending 1^ hi ia 
taken whenever the root itself ends in a consonant; other- 
wise, the tense- [oi mode-} stem stands b^ itself as 'id pci- 
80D (for the o&ilier usage, see below, 704 . Aa example of 
inflection ia: 


annATtof suniviva eun&v&nia 





•nnntkn suoutA 

sunauLm nuiT4nlu 


*. d. f. 

Bun&v&i ann&TAvab&i sun&vAjaahAl 
euDUfvA Bunvitcbam aunudhviia 
sunutam ennTitam 


257 Hu- AHDU-(rirTHAaDBH}HTIt. «a- AHUtaO'lOLABSBS. [— 7M 
a. ]-Votn I'lp, tho 3il nog. loi- would be apnabl: from i^m;. 
lie idmIo BpnuTantu, Apnuv&tbSJti, BpnavAtAm. Bpnuv&tAnii 

704. In Ike vatlleit langiuge, the mlo i* to the omUilQa ot bl 

tttet 1 KM with flnil towpI dniu not hnld icno'l: In RV., mah formi ■> 
inub), Iq^uhl, otnubfr dbOnnlil, ^f^uht, apr^obi, hinubl, ul 
tumhl, Bunuhi, ire nwri} Uirlc« u rrtijii«nt in sm »» i&u, fll^u, 
Bun&a Uuiu, kod thajr llkf; In AT., hawi"i«r, lli*)r arc enlr ono ililb 
u fteqnenti tnd tn thr BnlimaijM they appear oztlj apor»d!«tlly: cxtn 
9T1^udh{ (wilU dhi) a«<uT« •amal time* ]ii ItV. RV, bu t>i« 1m itug. 
irL. hiniiTA- Tbe eiidiDi t<t I* tnvai la k|n^utat and htnuUt. and 
kuvntAt. Th« atroBs tUn-forak it round In '^d dn. art. In hi&otoia aod 
kfnotajn ; aji>l in ^ pi. act. In kf^otA and kf^ituia, qf^dca and 
ifn>ot4uim, Run6ta and aundtAna, hls&ta ud hlDotuu, and tuioCa, 
kordta. Th* •tiding Utaa omdm only te tbe totmi juii qmolwl. 

6. Frosent Fkrlioiplo. 

705. The endin;^ EIrT iot and CIH ftni ate added to ttie 
weak form of t«ase stem: thus, from y^ bu oome act. H—W 
Rviuvint (fern, HPl^ft aunvatt), mid. JI-^W sunvBni; fiom k?R 
urn. r(-r(rl tanvant ifem. HMrfl tanvati], rl-^M tanvBod. From 
yWl Bp, they aie afEfTO Spauv&Qt uod UlU'iJH Spnuvani. 

6, Imperfect. 

706. The combmntion of augmented stem und endings 
U aooording to the iul«« already atated: ihu*, 

acU«», mtddto. 

«, d. p. 9. d. 

WFRT? yH-l'l WtFR €IhM ERH^fe' 

dflunavam isunava Aaonuma &aunvl 

WRtn HiHHi! wfvt SM^rni 




asunutnni asunutit Msunulha* oflunvatlihm Munndhvam 


-J -^ J 

Asonutam Aannvan Aeunuts AautiTatflm &simvata 

D. Ilure. 33 oUowkiwe, the briefer fotnu isunva. iaiuuna, ison- 

^unmabi nta allowed, aud laore iianaj, exoopt fioiu ruoti 

fioal eunfODHiii. a« dbrv whiolt makea, for exainpir, alwajm 

ama rtf , aud alMi Adhn^uvan, 4dbrf9UTl, &dh)^uvUhKBi. 

•vatAm. 4dJmnuvat*. 

• T, Or««*ui I i4, 


707 -] 



707. ^Uonc ttcm-rorau and UlU-nniKag tn fnand onir In ItV , [n 
ftkf^oCa, akfijottinn. A«gta«ntlM« form* wlU icc«iii are mlnrdin, 

708. About fifty roots make, eltbor exclotlTelj* or Eo part, tbelrj 
piesso [-forms after tbe niaiiiii.>r of lb« na-olau: half of ihoDi do 
only ID tbe older langaagti ; ttiToa or four, only In tho later. 

a. A* to tnnirtn to tbe a-conjonctoii, too beloK, 71S. 

706. The roots of ttie other division, or of tbo q-cUm, sr« 
exlr«ni«ly few, not uiceodlBs eight, eveo IncludlDg tf on Recount 
of tarut^ RV-. and has on aooOanc of the oocnfTOncc of h»nftini 
oneo in a Sutra iFGS. t. 3. 171. BK. rofer tlie stem iau to la of tl»e 
tt'Ctaaa iiutokd of i of the nu-olaa*. 

IrreKUlaritleB of tbe qq and u-olaRsoa. 

7IOt Th« nM4 tfp b« phaud f« Hid ij Ik* gnntiiHlMii to nuia 
ih« n or 1t« (LM«.<l|n iinUngii>llwd In Uio hl«r laii(«i|a — wb«r», howeTcr, 
loTOui at «oiOim>*10i> o' U>l* clua »r« verf nro; whll« iu tb« Teda tlis 
tcfolar cliuiie ia mide: thu, trpQU- 

711. The root i;ru htar Is contracted to qf before th« olaas-si^n, 
formlug <iY^6 and 9rn.u m atom. Its farma fp}VJf4 aad ^i}viri 
hare been noted above :688 b]. 

712. The root dha xAa^e In th« later laiiguaga (and mirely in 
B. and B.i shortens Its vowel, uakinit tho atom-forma dbuno «nd 
dbunu (earllQi dbiui6. dbQna). 

718. Tbe aa-catlrd root Qn>a, treated b; Ibe Dttlie gianiiniriKn* m] 
^iatylUtik Mid bolaoging io (Hb teot>«lM« (I.), i> propcily a praannl-itein 
oT thla cIms, with ancinalout comiactloit, from tlii: root Vf (or v&r). In 
Uio T«d(, It hi* no farmi; 1•hi>^h tn uot rrRuUtly made sccncdint to th« 
Dii-claisj but la tiu BiitiiDtnt lii)Kai||« aio touai tgmvtiiBM tncb fuma 
ta Qr^Kutl, aa If Iron an u-root et the rati fliau (696); tnd th» cnun- 
mirtini ii»k« for It ■ pcire<x, aoilat, fniuio, etc tu 3d alug. iinpi. aft. 
It Otqu o: Qr^Utal; luimpr, Ai^roos. tunoot; Iu opt. mM., OrouTita 
(E.) or flrVTlt& (T.S.). 

714. The extTemel)- common loot m kf (or lur) maJie\ 
is in the later language inflected in the ptcacnl'VySieai ex~i 
olusirely aoooiding lo the u-olass iljeing the only root of ; 
that class not eoding in ^d;. It has the irregularity that 
in the stixiDg form of sietn it [as well as the ola«9-fligu) ttas 
the gu9«-8treogthoniiig, and that id the weak foim it ifl. 

•^^._. J 


tn kur, so that the two fonns oF stem ate tfi^ kar& ^^| 

ajiA eft^ 

kura. The cla«s-«igii 7 u is always d 

Topped he- ^^U 

fore ^ y 

and R m of the lat du. aod pi., and 

»lso before ^^^ 

77 7 or the opt. act. Thna: 


L, Fresont 2adioBtiT«, 


Mtlie. middle. 



il. p t. d. 
kuTvia kurmia kurv6 kurv&be 

kunn4he ^^M 


*kMH^ ji|>KI i}i}'A f^ 
kurutlulls korutbA konif* kurrith* 

kanidhv4 ^^1 

1 *(llfl 

f*^ *^ r ■% 

kurvAtQ ^^H 

^i^iHH^ jr^lIM ^i^ ji^H 
korut^ kojviittl kiirut4 kurvit* 


2. Present Optatire. 

^uw '^m ^ifu *^i* 

kuryara kuir^a kurvljfc kamvAhl 

T ~ ^^H 

■ 1 •hlilH 


etc tu, •>(«, rtu 
a. ProBOQt rmperativo. 

elc ^^H 

■ 1 «(«(l|l|| 

*(^1^ '4,(4M *(^ *f4JW^ 

*iHW^ ^M 

H karAvAQi 
■ knrA 
H karitu 

karivftva kar&Tima kaTivU kari-vATabU kaiATimali&l V 

kurattoi koruti kuruavA kurvilUiaiii 

r p 

kurutUiT&m ^J 
kurr&tftm ^H 

kuraUtm knrvinta kurutJdxi kurvitasj 


4. Present Participle. 


^^B ^^knrrint feni. ^Hl korrKU) ^i^PD kurri^ ^H 


6. Imperfftot. 


H 1 swiHH, «^ ^f?^ ^"JT^ «*^^ 

H AkRrsiv&in UturTU Akurma Umrvi UcurvKhl 

ikurmaU ^^M 

■ 3 H4ii lt|^ 
H Ubtob 

1^ AltMOt 

ti*l»H*|^ »'^^iyi '-^'♦r'^i'l W'^.'jNi.^ 'Jjv'^'i ^H 
Ucumtam fckumta Iknruth&s Jikorf fttJifiin ikurudhvam ^H 

UnirutAm Akurvan Ucuruta AkurrfttBiD 

Akurvata ^^H 


11* ^^ 


IX. P« 

716i in BV,, ihli KM I* it^Uftr liilia«l«<j iii ihc prc40iit-i}«tciit ' 
ftDCOtdine (o tha nu-clu(, ui^iif lh« ttom-fmnii fcTQ6 and k|^n ; the 
oatj ts«cpuoii» Mc kunsu oiico aod kura twic« {>)I lu tbv leiiili bwk)t 
In AV., thii nu-forme *r* •till man ibkit irix tim*« m froiiKMit u 
u-fatiDB (naiiilf lulf at •lifcb, iii4ir««v(>r, afo ii> praii* putagt^); but In 
tliA Brthmiu^ Ungnigq ind taUr, ibe n-furiiis tro viod U lbs «xcliisl«a 
of ibo Mben. 

a. Af lt( flng, pfM. art. li found kurml in tke apot. 

b. Wbu ineinlar tucuii Itvia kf ai ■ verb of iIib nu-cliM ocuni In 
(ko oldci lansuage ban: bocn •licad]' noticed abon;. 

e. Tte lKiUi«d furm taniU. from ftf, abaw* an appar«nt^nalo£y 
wllb Ibae u-fonut ttum kr- 

716. A few verbs bo lon(;iag oiigi null y to theao clnascs tiavo been 
shifted, ID part ui iiltogolber, to tbe kiititu, their proper claBa-ilfn 
liaviog btieu aterofftyped &a » part «r tha rout. 

a. Tbut, lu RV. wc iai foenu both from Ui« itcin ina ()'i ut inj^l 
tud alto from In^a, TB{ii«eiitlnB a ilnrlvailvc qiiaal-ioat Inv (aiid the»«( 
latter alone orour In AT.). So lUtwlaa ratam fiatn a ctom p^va boeidA] 
thoM tiocn p}u (yf); and fiotn hinva btuidv that* frooi hiau (fill}. 
Tbe tu-uUed root* Jinv and pinv are doabilen ot thn uma origin, alUiouf h 
no foiiui from the ilcin pico ■» uti with it any period — unloM plnvlr* 
{•bove, 688 b) be to rvguded, uti AV. hM iba partldpk plnvdat, r. 
pinvatl. The grainmaii«i» eac up a toot dkluv, tiat only foiiua fromj 
dbi [atoiu dhinuj appear to ocoiu lu ihs prc««ni-iir«lcai (iha aarii 
iidhiavit it round In PB.)- 

b. Occuioiial a>formi *r« mrt wilb a'to Iiuiu other rood: thns, 
olnvata ate, dunvtwva. 

V. m-dut (ninth or kii-ciass), 

717. The claiw-iiij^ of this class u in the strong forms 
iho sylUMc m nS, acoeuted, which is added to the root; 
in the veak foims, or where the acc«iit falls tjpon the end- 
ing, it is ^ Ql; but before the ioitia) vowel of an ending 
the ^ I of T) Bl diiapiKuua altogether. 

I. Present tDdtcaUve. 

716. Kxamplu of inHectioD: root Z^ lu-I in^: filiQug 
form of stem, Z^Tt\ krl^; weak form, thluH krl^I (before 
a vowel, ^ffrm krli>). 


TSt-CLAM Kurm, taet-caJiBl). 





d. r. 

>. d. 



aIuiW^j^ -jfiuTI^M^ 

chlul ohlllil-4^ 



kriQtv&B kriijlmas 

knQ6 kru^lvihe 



a,iiirpJ4^ ■M.niflJJ 

yi HIMH 


krlQitha* krioithi 

kriqifi krinilUiQ 


A ^- 

- -~, -, -, 

*^ *^ 



•nmM *iiiin 



krinitAa krin^ti 

krt^U kni^te 


719. Id the V.tit, the 3d ulnff. mid. hi» th* tuaa fMa wllh ihv l«t 
In ETQ^' "■" petutiit neratt o( 3(1 pi. mlil. U weo tn punstt kiid riqmtA: 
>n<l vp;^£in&li6 (bciM* vrVRaAhft) atcua mcc m RV. 

S. Preaont Subjunctivo, 

7S0. TliD •abjtmctive fonos irhicli h»\a brwo fonnd es«mp1ifiad 
[d Veda and Drihmaim are giren betow. TheaiibjDiictive toudfl-steni 
is, of conne. India lio^talublH In Tnnu frotn tbe atron^ tenae-itteai. 
And the Id and 3(] tinfc, act- (willi McundHTf enilings) are ittdiitin* 
gnbhable fixKu ao^ratleaa Irapcrfvcta. 

>ct(«n. middle. 

B. •!. p. •. i. ]'. 

I kriqkni kTlijitma kri^ krl^ftvAhii kri^iiinBhAf 

« kri^ta kri^Stha krtpSsii 

t krlnltt kri^Jln krinAtOi kripaatU 

a. Fresent Optative. 

721. This mode i!i foTtned nod inile4;te<l with entire 

regulaiily; owing lo the fusion of tease-sign and nioili>-Hign 

in tlie middle, some of itb penons are indittiDguishablc from 

augnieatless imperfects. Its first perwus are as CdIIows: 

•cthe. mlddlt. 

>■ <1- p. I-. i. p. 

I ^rifniriim ^ftrntm^ --iTiiiiltiM t^tmn Trum^ titl ' m^ i ^ 

krlQlyim krli^lylva kriQiyAma krinljA krli>lTi)ii kri^imilil 







4. Ft-eaant Imporative. 
?3S. The endiag ia id Mag. act., aa heiag x\waj» pre- 
ceded by a vonrel, i» ^ hi (nerct ^ dhi); and there ate n.o 
examplea of an omisaion of it. But this peraoD is forbiddpit 



to be formed in the clanical language (rom lOOtA cading in 
a coDBooaot; foi both clasff-Bigu and ending it subctituted 
the peculiar ending cm Soi. 





d. p. 

krifiv&hU krbjjitmah&i 
krlDitth&ra krffldhvim 


kri^itam kn^tlUin 
uiA io Id slug. act. mre 


krii^mt kriijitAm kr!nlt& 

kru)atu krlQitttm kriQ&nlu 
B. Eumplos of the oading 
Krt><9^ badhAni, alabkAni. 

788. Tie «a4iac in* i> kOovu klto to tbe auUert Utiaiu<*: of Uie 
riamplet Jb«i £!•«•, ill kra found In AV., muI Ike flnt twi) lu RV.; oikcn 
•in if ItOBi anfftQa. skabhAaa. Bot AV. hu »Uo orbbQUil (aIio AB.), 

and own gfh^Utl, vltli atioiig Horn; BU*. hu badhnlhj. SUong MStD* 

ut tU[lliai_ round la gr^dhi *nd ■trQ>hl (T9.), pr?Uil (TIV.), ud 

fril^hl (ApMl.), Uti, with uiOBiiIattt M-MDl, ptmfthi aiii) qfljfthi (SV,); 

and. In id pi. Mt., In punltta (.KV.). Tbe endliic tat of 2d iiiiig. •«. 
n<;vDn In BT^^^'tA^ JSnitit, piinltlLt. Tbo oniUnx taa« U fonnd In 
punltAna, p|'i>Itaiia, ^rlQiuna. 

B. Preaent PartlolpL«. 

724. The poiticiplcs ue regnlaily formed: thus, for 

example, act. t^IUhJ^ krbp&nt (fcm. U^TFrft krtijatt; mid. 

'aflnii^ kit^HnA. 

6. Zmporfoct. 

72C, There is nothia^; sjiecial to tie noted as to the 
inflection of thia tease: an example is ' 


t. d. 

ikrlQam iLkD^Iv* Akrlnlmft 
ftkrlntts ikkrtijitam dkrl^ita 

g iCn i Mrt^Mitn' i rH i 'i^MgtrmH 

UnlQat UtrTnltatn Jikrl^nn 



■. il. p. 

Akrlni Ucrl^ivftU Akrinimabl 

^n\imim\ Mrf!l*iiiyM eranTftnq 

•s -* -, 

frkrujiiUiaa lUnqathKm Akrlfidhvftia, 


£r«-CLAS8 (MDITB, loKL^im). 


730. It hat httti p«lntcd omt *t>ov« Oitt aagineiiil«M penoiu of tUs 
UuM MB In put IiidUUufuUliktil« tn ronn ttoat mhiancAn miiil npuilvo 
ponoui^ Sanh a* c*tuinlr 1)*lonf lioN >i« (In V,) kfiQjn: aqaftSt 
rto&n; crbhijaM, vr^Ata. Tbe AT. hu ohm ainit iniMkd ol miuftt. 
MBb. lua a^als iJhr mft. 

a. AU. bw th« UIh foim i^AcdmU, utd la AA. oocun aTTQlta «■ 
Sil planL 

7B7. Tlie roota wbkh form tbeir preunt-B^Btems, wbotly or in 
part, ftftor tlu; luaiuutr of this class, nn over finy in nnmber: bni, for 
nbuut three liftlis of them, th« forms are quotable only from thn older 
Inngusi^^e, siiil for half-a-tlozeo thoy tu»ke llieir first appcAnncc Ulur; 
for leu than twenty nro thof in use throofh the rbole life of iiu) 
Inngnage, from tbo Veda down. 

a. At to Muodittf *-tiitm*, t«s 781. 

IrreguJariUeB of the nS-olasa. 

738. a. Ttie rooW ondiD); Id Q ahorien that vowel before tho 
alua-sign: thux. froni Vpa, puniu and pumU: in like tmuiiior bIao 

jfl, dha. la. 

b. Th« ra«[ Tli (B.S.] (ornit tlthftF vUak cr TlinA. 

789. The root gi-abb or gnh (the former Vodle} Is weAleud 
lu gjbh or gfh. 

A. Ai fbiT porfecr ilta in wckk totXDi kti g^bb oi 8Tb, It U not 
Mi7 u ice why Uio fitmnftilans fbeold not luve writteu f latl«ad tt rm 
ia th« to»t. 

730. a. A few of th« niota have u mor« or lesii pereistent naaal 
kti fanua outside thv prvicDt-syitcoi; aiich aro without oasal bofoTo 
t1i« daU'Sifn: thae, crath or sraDtta, badh or baadb, m&th or 
OMtnth, alubb or akambh, atabh or acambh. 

b. The root jut also 1o»m its oasal before the daaa-stga: thae, 
JAniti, StkoM, 

731. Kot rarely, forma Bbovlng a transfer to iho B-conjiiKatk>ii 
are met with: thua. even la UV., mttutti, minat, aminaata, from 
yioi; la A v., ^rv*^ *^*>^' Vn'i '""^■'t KT'^'^ Ikna, prt^a, matHna, 
etc And from roolH p; and mf fuf. foraidd the Maiu* P7^ lind 
mroA, which aio intluctnl after tho taanacr of tbfl &-«Uaf. as if fioin 
roots pi^ and mn- 

73S. Id tbe Veda, an appareiitljr denominative inflection of n 
Btum in a;& is not infremient b*siile the coBJugnlion of rixits of tbia 
riasi: ihan. BTbhAya. mathay&ti, a^rathAyaa, okabbftyita. ast«bli> 
lyat. prufA7Jtnt«, mu^A^it, antl so oti. S«e below, 1066 b, 


|DL I*Ki:eiUiT-sv8TSU. 


Second or ^-Conjugation. 

783. We come now lo tlte claMes which compose the 
Second ot a.-CoQJug:atioD. These aie mote markedly 
similar iu their motlo of inBectioa than ihc preceding cl<i8so« ; 
their common charaeleristicB, already stated, may be here 
repented in giimmnry. lliey arc: 1. A tinRi a in the present- 
stem; 2. a eonstuut acoent, not changing between stem and 
eading; 3. a briefer form of the optative mode-dign in the 
active, namely I instead of yfi [oombiaing in both voices 
alike with a to ej; 4. the absence of any ending .except 
when tat is used) in 2d sing. impr. act.; S. the conversion 
of initial i. of the 2d and aA du. mid. endings with Bnal a 
of the stem to e; 6. the use of the fnll endings anidt anta. 
antlLm in 3d pL mid. forms; 7. the inrnriable use of an 
(not oa) in 3d pi. impf. act. ; S. and the use of m&na instcAd 
of Sua a» ending of the mid. pple- Moreover, U. the stem- 
final a becomes S before m lutd v cif Ist personal endings — 
but not before ara uf 1st sing, impf.: here, an before iho 
3d pi. endings, (he in luitt, and the short a of the 
ending remains (or the oontraryf: thus, bhivanti ibh&Ta-f~ 
snti], bharante (bhaTa-fanta), abhavam (abhava-j-am]. 

a. All these charnateti alios belong; not ti> tke uiflectlon uf the 
a-prcaoDt-iystem alone, but also tD that of tlio a-, leilnpliouhxl, nod 
aa-aiirials, the a-fumt^, and ihe iloflideratlve, canaative, and ili^niuii' 
instlve prcscnt-nti'iuit. ninl ie to wy, wherever ju coiijujpitioit nu 
a-u<>m Is fuunti, it is inflected in the same tuanoor 

VI. A-clas8 (first bhO'Class). 

784. The present-stem of this clnas is made by lidding 
9 a to the root, which has the accent, and, when that ia 
possible {2S8, 240], i>> !>UeRf(thencd to gai^a, Thus, ^77 
bhiva from v^ bhQ: ^RI j^ya from iH ji; ^X b6dba from 
y^m budh: tn airpa from ^Tm a^p; — but =1? v&da from 
}'^ »ad; ^^nr kTi<ja from fWtt krl^. 


A-CLAM irtnar, bh&obAsai. 


1, PrfiBent XndlcatiTe. 

7S6. The endioga an<l the rules for their ooaibinalion 
with the stem have been already fuHy given, foi thin and 
the olhet (unta of the ptespitl-systemi aad it oDlf temaias 
to illustrate them by eiamples. 

ft. Example of iofleotion: root >I bha be; stem i]^ 

bhiva [bbo+a: 181). 

aciiv«. midills. 

•. 4. p. B. 4. f. 

1 H^TW mH^ *l=)Wt( *R I^Tl^ ^Wl'l^' 
bh&r&mi bhit7kv«» bhivUQAi bh4v* bhivftTnJis bhfcvimaha 

bhiivMi bhivttliu bhi.vatha bti&Taa« bh&veUie bbiradhve 

bb&vatl bbivatas bbivaotl bhAvat* bUvMa bb4vant« 
b. Tbi- V. hu but * iinflc «x*in|-lft •>! tbe thasB-endlnE, iitmoly 
TAdftth&ntk (and no otker Ib lajr clsM of tKit ron]uii»tluo). The («t fl. 
■Id. mcutamalii (ttv., «n«o) U pTobihlj mn amn, KV, bu 96bh» oiicii 
M 3d atniuliT. 

2. PreseDt SubjunotiTe. 

796. Thv iDude-stom it bbiiva il>hiT'a -^ a). Subjuoctiv« forms 
of tkiB coiJugatioD uo very uumeroua Id tbe oldn Ungua^; the 
rollowiuf BClieiiie iaHlanoos all tUat bare btea round to occur. 
Bttlv*. nlddlo. 

1. d. p. K t. pl 

1 bbivftnl bh&vAva bh&vSma bbitr&i bhivftTohU bhAvomatiU 

> Ik^"!** bhArtthaabhivatbalJJt'f!, bhividhval 

bhivftti , . . „ .^. ^ ibhavAU ... ,, 
■.!.* :.. bhiTitaa bhAvto {. . . .... bhiTilto 

Ibti&TAt Ibb&vatai 


737, Tbe 1i du. Bid. (bUiTAiUw) do(« i)ol ch*ae* Is oceut In thU 
cUiBi lad yAUUt* U (bo nly «ttiapl« of (bo 34 pnfoo. No luch pl. 
aid. f«nu u bbivftdbva, bh4Tfinte ua ak1« fram any c1u« with ii«n< 
flnd «; (ucb ki bb4vaata (whlob ■■« voir tvtumonj uc, of conrw, prap- 
«ly •■unnenllM* ImiMif^eU. The HrUuniau (MpartUtT ^B.) prefBi Ibe 
14 dn;. BCi. In a«i ■ii>) (he 3d In at. AB. hu ttio 3d aine. mi.). hsraUU; 
■nd a 94 pl. In ant&l (vartantAl KB.) bu beoD oeUd ones. KV. bii 
•xunplM, areft ond mada, oT ike briefct lot »ln|. oct. 


IX, PREHfiX'r-sraTBM. 


Irragulsritiea of tho a-olaaa. 

7-lS. A Tflvr v«tba liave irregulu vowel-cbuccfi ia fotni&K tlie 
prMent-Rtem : tliua, 

a. iUi eoiuidtr hu Bii9&-»uviigth»nlD« (ac*liiiit MO); tfau*, Abate. 

b. I7P (or krap) Itunnil, on llin rontnry, T*iiialn* Bncl>iiii.|t«it: tlius, 

0. gull AiW« luu ptolooitiUDn Imiud or guija: thai, gdbatl. 

d, kram ttri'tr rvgululti longilmni Ito towsI tn (tie (otiva. but niA 
in th« inUdle: \hm. kntmatl, kramBte; but ih« Tontl-qDtQiiUe* 4re 
•MDAvbat raised up, ct«u from tLt- oldeBi Uiiguage down- — klam tirt li 
uld (0 form klAmati etc., but U not q»i>t«bU ; — com nliL iLe prcpo- 
ftlti«u t rirxfi tU mouth fotint iofioaati. 

fl. In Ibo laior Unguagn *re (unnit occaalonkl htm* at thti dtu fratu 
Ill(} K>^#i aail they ibuir ihu Miiie v^dhl (tnilead of SW^) vblcb bplocun 
to (bo mat In It* idots propei inOccUoii (827]: Ihu*, mirjanra. 

f. Tba gmomirltiiB girc ■ iiunibi'r of roau In nrr, xliicli thay dodjirc 
to lonstbwi tho n lii ths pra>oiit<<Um. Only thrsci ir» round tn [iiniui 
Umttad) ukc, sni] ib^ tliow no (otns anywhere wlih ihort u. All ap]>«Ki 
to be of «veon(lary fonntilon from toou In f or ar. Tb« root muroli 01 
milreh coagulate hi* jlkowlao only Q In qnotablo fotmii. 

g. Tbe onomatopofillc tool ^ffHW tpeu> U vrltton by the ^mtDKTiMin 
ai f(h]v, utd dodaittd lo lengtbon ti> *oveX In tbc pt«*Bnt-«fn«iD : cani- 
fut 340 b, 

740. Tlio roots daAf &i^r, ratU <«'«■', saflj kaag, svnfij emiraer^ 
of which the Qunl It h other partR af ibe eonju^tlon daI oonMMit: 
loss it ID tho prCt)Ciit-sf*l<:>ui: tliuit, da^ati etc.; aoflj forms Italb 
Bajatl and eajjatl '(trobiLbly for aajyatl. ur for aasjatl from aasa- 
jutij; mftth or manUi liun matbati later, tn geaatal, as the pranDiit 
of this cUbh is a Blrunj^ihunitiK formation, • root that bos eueb a muul 
an/nrlivre has it here ulso. 

747. Tho roots K«in jro and yam rmtl make the pHMot-atems 
ftaocha nnA jaooha: ihun, gAotiiamt etc.: soe 906. 

748. 1^10 raot Bttd tH forma mida iconjcotiirod to bo ooatr&oted 
IroiD alada for aliadaj; thus, atdunl i>tc. 

74B. 1'rtitiiifcrii to tlii* olasK frum other claaseg are not r&ro, as 
baa been already jjoioted out shove, both thronshoul the proaent- 
8)*«t«iii nud in oecasioiiul funns. The nmst Important oiMia are tlro 
fuUoiring : 

a. Tbe ruota in a, atfaa iland, pa drink, and gbi* nn«/i, fonn 
the proseDt-sleius tifthn jtlftbaiol etc.), pfbn iiiCb&iai elc.j, hhi] 
fisbra ijfgbr&mi etc.j : for tb«M and other almllar caa«a, am 071-4. 

b. Secondary root-forma liko inv, JInv, pinv, from simpler rootH 



I— 76a 

uf tbc ou-cIhis, an- citlioi ruuod ilougudu ihoir oiigliuls, or bsr« 
crowded lh«ae out of uae: Me 716, 

700. Uu th« oUer haod, tlis roul dhftm or dtun* Mmv rorina 
iia preami-atem ttom the biotr original form uf th« root: tliu«. 
dh&iQBU etc. 

VII. Aoeeiited ^-class sixth, tud-eiass). 

751. U'he pieeent-atem of this class hae the accent on 
the class-sign Q i, and the root remaiiis uastiengthened. la 
ita whole inflectioD, is follows so clotely the model of the 
preceding claw that to give the paiadigm in full will be 
uonetuasar}^ (only for the Bubjunctive, all the forma found 
to occur will be instanced). 

152. Example of inflection: i«ot f^ vi^ enter', Btam 
R5T vi9A; 

1. Fresont Indleative. 

> . 





I i--jyti M 









2. Preflent SnbjunotiTO. 
t vlQ&ai liQiva Tiq&uft vi^ii vi^tvthU vlfimahKl 



nlSi ^^'- ''"*"'" 

a, A tlitfla txiiaplo of tlio bri«fbi l»l ilng. tct. la larkf^ Tb« vnlf 
fMUU iu Utile and Ut9 ue pry&Itbe antl yUTUte. 

R. Profl«Dt OptAtivo. 

ei«. cw. eic. <rc. elc. •(«. 

b. TU RV. hu tk« eniUiis t«na oot* Id ttr«UD« ^ pL ML, Md 
rata in jascrBtB 3d pi. alil. 

1 W-HJH^ Tsm^ TsmR 

76»— 1 




A. Present impersUve. 

The firtt persons having been given above as aultjuoo- 
tivos, the aecond are added here: 

vl^i> vl;4tpjn Ti9&tu ri^^va viq«UiAin vifftdhTom 
*k. ct'- ttc etc. Mr. ««. 

0. Thfl pndiriK tlU l< round In KT. md AT. In mr^aUt. TTbatRt, 
anvatXt; uthrr ■■isaytM mo not LikTieqimit fn ib'? Dt«liiDB^k laaiiaaje: 
Ibut, kUdAUt, chratAt, pfcchaUt, TiQattt. sfJaUit; and liler, BPf^a- 
Ut. the 'Id tiag. lot. audfttu and mafioStu oe«ui In SQum (rf, 740). 

6. Present Participle. 
Hie aetire participle is isi5W Tl^int; the middle is 

d. Tb« t«mlnliie »r tba ictlTe ptrtlolple li iiiuall; nudii from ibe 
«l'(ins ttum-foriD: thui, vifJUltl; but aouietlinei (Totn tlno «««k: thu«. 
Bifiointt «ud aiaoatl (ICV. uxd AT.), tud&uU ud tudati (AT.): •to 
ateva, 448 d, a. 

a. Midtlle puti'uplcH in ioa Inntead of m&na uv- dliuv&n4, dlif ;Sl9,&( 
U^tua, Q7iLna, In lb* nldar Unguge; hr^Cna, muncftnA, spTQ&na )n 
tka UUt (.f. 741 a), 

6. Xmporfect, 

I sBfsw mImwh wf^idH 51^ qfem^ lammf^ 

4vlfiun avi^Ava ivl^aoxit ivt^a Avl^Avaht Avl^amolit 
eto. o«. tW, eie, «c. etc. 

f, EiamplM of iu|iii«iiil«M forms ■ecaiiMd »re Sfjia, afJM, tirAnta. 
f. Tbe a-ioil«i (646 IT.) U In gonan) iho sqalvklcnt, u Mfn^ lU 
fonas, «f >n ImperlKt of tbli cUii. 

7B3. Sterna of titv 4-clau aca mado from DMrly a buadred and 
fifty roots: for about a tithd of th#i)«, in both the earlier and the 
Utor langna^; for a half, in tbe Qarlier only; for th« rvrauinder, 
ae&rly twt^nty, only in tlie later lanjua^ Ainoni; thein ara a numbsr 
nf tranafero fVom the oksaea of the aon-a-cot>j ligation. 

a. la >cm« of ibMa ttanifen, it pr9 *iid mf|^ [^3i)- ^hen taksi 
pU(o «IiDMi ■ *«ttiD^-ap ot In<l«p villi an ( tixiU. 

b. Tbe ttomt loeb&, noebA, md poohi m teekoned ii btlondiif 
TM^Ulinly U} Ibe lOoti If dttire, vaa )Ain«, and f ga. 

e. Tba MOW WTliiea by th« Hladn puamaituii with flnal o — 
nimclT, oho, do, 901 and ao— •and (onaltif th« piMdnt-staau obyAf 



1— 7M 

dj&t Qy6i e;a. are more propeilf (u k«vlii« u uc«Mod i in tb« •(«■) 
ta b« tvckoned (« Ihii eUta than to Uh Ta-oltM, wfccm the ttallTa cUhI- 
Beitlon put! tb«tn («ec 761 gj. Th«r ippMt Iv ba malogviu wltk Out 
lunu k^o, Bvo, hvR. noiei) bcUiw (Tfi6). 

l7M. Tie TOOU troa which &-*t«iu uo nadn bare oenaln nottotakk 
i1s(ill«a of fona. Rudly anr or Ihaca ba*« loot voweU, ta4 noiM kars 
lang liiuri»t TDirela; rerr fow ban fiasl TOWflUg and nona (tare two or 
Ihrae UuMftri^ 4111I l/lftJJ ft* Mhamtd, «)vUb iloaa not oudt In anraciean- 
tttalvd Uii, and It p«iba[i* to b« int-'ricd r(ib«r 10 Ui« a-r-lw*) faavu ft at 
radf«^ nir*), except u thli [arnv* 1 efttnUaation with r. wkldi U than 
toilDMd with It to f 01 ■otDo o( tb« mail iub«iltiitc) of f. 

IrreguIaritiM of t&e A-oloae. 

TS6. The roots iu 1 ajiil u and a DLaag<.> tbose rowels Into I7 
and av b«fote the oiBfls-eiffn: ttiit*, kfly^, juri, ruvA; euvA, etc.; 
and ora, bva occur, inatosd of stivft knd han, in tho older luifiu(«, 
K'hilo T3. liM tb« panloijilf kfy4nt K. hiw dhnva from I'dbfl- 

7ft& 'llitt tbroo root* in r forni the prc4eDt-«t«ia« klr^ itiri 
(also itUsi, tlrA. itad ara eomctlinca irTlttcn as klr etc.; anit sur, jur, 
tur aro r<>all7 onljr varietie* of gf, Jf, ty; lud bbar and npbur are 
ovldoDtly related witb otbor &r or ^ rogt-rorms. 

a. Tbu common loot pmoh out makoa the itiem ppiobA, 

757. A> to Iba atona •driji tnd -prljrA, and miiyi and dhrlj^, 
rtmntlniefl reckoned a» bolongtui to Ihit tlaaa. lea bdov, 773. 

7ft8. Altboiigh tbo preB«nt-H«Bi of ihU olaa* ahowp in goneral 
a weak form of tJie root, there are nevertlielen a DUBber of rtwu 
bolongtog to it whicb ant Btre^^«n4d hy a penultiinalo nanal, Thua, 
the Rtom muAoa la made from ymati rtttatt ; aL&oi from veto *priiMa; 
vlndi from >vid Jiad; kj-nt^ from ('IcTt cut; pAAiji ftuia v'p'f 
infvnt; tfiDpi frotD vtrP '"tny^ lump& frou ^lup brea/i; Uiap& frotu 
Vlip fifiMr; and ooAaaionnt lorni* of iho aaixie kind an- mi-t with front 
a few otfaeta, aa tuada trova y tud tUrmt; bfAhi from t'brb *trt»ylAM: 
ijlihA (h««id(^ dfAha] from ('d|-h mak^^mt; fombU {beside cumbfaa) 
from v'fQbh *Am«; TS. has fpiUaBli from ^^alb [ioiieail of fnttb&itl|t 
uAcba. TindbA, aumbfaa, arc of (loubtfiil rhsractor. 

a. N«aall/.ud &-!teiui arn alao In ecvoral Inalaiir-ea mailo by Iraufer 
from ibc naul cluu: Ihna, tmda, tuabha, fiSK plAf&, jn&ja, nindba, 


VIM. Ya-class Kourth, diT-class). 

7S9. Tb« preseDt-qtcm ot this olaM adds IT yft to tlie 
aoeenCed but unstEeagthened root. Its iaflection is a.lso pie- 




cuely like tbai of the r-cIom, and may be presented in the 
tame nbbieTiat«d fonu as that of the 6-ctass. 

760. Example of iofleclion: root ^ aah (■ind; 
stem ^r?7 Di&ya. 

1. ProBOnt Indiofttlvo. 

■cUtc. nlddU. 

•. d. p. •. d. p. 

nihyKni nUirSvaa u&hrAmtts ni)iy« nUiylTabs nibybaoh* 
Me. etc. (ic. vtc. etc ett. 



S. Preaent Subjunotive. 

n«fay&sai oifayadliviu 

nAhyatBB n&hyftn nUijfttAl n&bjpanl&i 

a. A tid pi. mid. In actai IjajantAl) oecon once la TS. 

3. Present OptatiTO. 

•♦■S'lM^ 'ps^ ^^^ '^WJ =Pn^% ^f5*tit 

luliyvyaia oAhyvva oibyvma n&hyera naby«valii n4hyem&lxl 
etc. etc, cw. etc. Otf. rte, 

b. F«( two or tli(M 3d ring. mid. foTuu In ItA (rot •!«)( M* 788 b. 

a ^I5r ^*NdH 

4. Present Imperative. 
=R3?T =Fn7^ H-JU i-JI H 


nUiya n&byatant nibyata nabyasva ii&tiyattiAni nUiyadhvam 
nn. «l«. Me. «n. eW. tm. 

e. Of Ik* *fiding btna. ItV. hai oti« »nnipli', n&byatana; tlia and- 
ing tAt Is Touad In aeyaUltt kturayaUt, ottfx'tat. 

6. Present Participle. 

The actire participle it H^JUH nihyaitt (fern. ST^I^ nih- 

yftntl); the middle ia ^^HR Q&byamftna. 

e. Imperfect. 

I (R^ mum tl-i-JU I i | 53^ «H<MMr% ifHWFTf^ 
Anahyam Aaah^ftTa Anahyama ia&bye Analiriirabl AnabyBjoahl 








Ya-CUIB8 (rODBTB, dlv-CUM): 

t— 761 

d< Exunplo* of •ukukiiUm* htat* iboving the icqcnt bdonglnc (o tke 
tt-«y«l4<in arft (iyttt, pd^^yat, p4^r«n, Jiyatht*. 

761. Tli« Ta-«lu8 BteiBB bt« more ikjin a huadred kud tUrtj^ la 
nuab«r, auil D«arl7 Imlf of tlieui have forma Id lue iu >11 periods of 
th« Iugiu|(«, about forty nvcurrfoK only in tlie earlier, and about 
tklrty aoly Iu the oMKlorD poriod- 

a. Of Ibo rouU laiktnit ya-*t«ini, ■ i«ry eAiiiMenblt fttt (o*aT Uty) 
•igQiry ■ tuta or (mUd;, Of 1 Donditlon of miuil or b^dy: thna. kap Aa 
amfry, Uum &r vtmry, kfndb i* Auitf/rf, moh ft* Mi^meJ, lubh fia 
hutful, gof An (fry, etc. etc. 

b. A fanbar frnmbet h*Te * more or Icta <tliUnr|]j paialirr tonM, 
and ut tn put evident 4DiI in pan prwumtble ttawlar* from iha paulte 
ot yi^liM, with tbaafo of soeenl, and wnieilBi** Uto wlib kuUBpilo* «( 
active NidtB|s. It U not pcaaibla lo di*« preciaely the Ualu of tiM dM- 
idaai; but then wo in tbe oldai l«a|tus* ■ aatobei ot nIatT c»ata, InwUth 
Ibe Roeent witm ui< ohannaa. and (Itc otbere aie to be Jad^ br aBaton 
«I(h tbeaa. Thw, Vmue rams m6oy«t« ooce ot twlrc. bwlda Up iMaat 
iniicy4t«, la UV. aad AV.-. aod In Uio Bithmana* th« tomai la the 
twulu Kuot. SimlUr thanitM uo foond alw tn Ta^onna frata etbar 

iiaoia: that, tram kfi Jtttray, Ji o* JfA mjmf, tap h*ot, dfb mtikt firm, 

[P«0 mnA, PVJf/J^ ml damaff. rlo ^f«, tap frre«A, hi /wn. AtUia 

ai* euly aiade tram mmc of tboac, and ibay gn* maf« co»ai*a 

■t«r. It Is vonhy of aper.lal meattoa Ihil, tMm the Teda down, iljste 

I it hntt bIc. U tovnd aa alternl paaalia ot otli^lital 7a-tatiaiUoa Vy iho iliF 

«r i^an gin birHL 

e> A aaaaMataM* bolf of toota (aboni tonj) dlffo frona the above la 
bavinf an appiMaily dttiiBkl tiaiultiTe or nenur aieanlnf: vxamptaa m 
am Mrmo, nali bind, pa^ «•<, pad fo, fUf rfo^. 

d. A namber of roeti, uf Tartoaa waanlng, and of tomavbal iloabtfkl 
, thiraotcr and rclatlont, haTtnit pra«cnt-«tciiu cadtng In jm, am bjr tba lutlte 
(taBBiailaiia urtltcn with flaal dlpblhuflct, U at e or o- Tlini : 

«, Becti rcUoofid a« tadln^ la 11 aad betoaglac lo the •- (or bhft>J 
ftlaea, aa gU M>y (g^T^U "t^y Aa Uk«» abow afenadaaUr, and m Hi* 
ai fan etelualvelir. ^tanai onaldr (be pt«eeBt-c]rei«n, there leene la 
'be ae g«od faa*»u wby they tbonld not nihcr b« retried ma ft-toou of 
' the jar«lu». Ther ue kf * Aara. gt «tui(f, gU fie iMivy, irt aotw, OhjB 
ikini, prt jSH up, talA fW«#, r* (UrX, vi &• A^nni, gyS coagvLU*. i^t 
fio«% ityA atig'tn. Some ot ibem are cTideni eiteailecia at itapln rooB 
by iba aJdillon at t. Tba aacondan roMa tCy abWcA (halde tauj^ and 
44J o&acrra (bo«ld« Ci) appaar to be of ibaiUr tbanetet. 

f. Boota re<kan»l at aadinc In « and holan^ag w the a- (er bbCt*) 

f Jina, aa dhe mek (dhiyati ate-^L Tbeee, lea, have t^fatBa, and •Mn«> 

tXmt» I-foema, oalaido ib« praeaat ayiie^ aad aia heal tegaeded m S-roola, 

elihor wtlh ft weakened t« a before ibe daae-iliB «f tUi daae. oi viih t 

Wklta«r, aiawawf- I. ad. |8 




irwlvikod to [ or 1 «iid lRfl»«d tURonUug to tbe ■•(!«(». They uo dli& 

bQ)- As ot Uadtod totm miy b^ nicnlloned day tliare titd nratr szfMftrf 
(probably denamiaitlni of Ty&ya). 

g. A f«* root* anilldaJly vrllten "Itli llaal o ud tecXooed la tte 
jB ni»>, wia rtdtekl Towel loic bofare (bo <luf<(gn: thu>, do tut, Umf, 
prM. dyitl otc ThMe, u biilnit mn tattnuti A la tha it<n. ban 
pUlulr no right to be put In tkli clui; Md tli»v uo bMlac lefened (o tb« 
A-dMl ((Wi sbsvf. 7B9fl). OnuUo the p;eient-iyitem Uic] <Iio« ft- nad 
f-rafn*i utd lb ttut tjtteta air ya l< ofteD rMolnd Into 1» to tb« ot>lMt 

768. TIm y»^UM b tha oaljr ane iboi btr dtscribtd uhleb tbovi 
uy Utid«n()r tow^ri * rottriUbn to « ceruln T^rioiy of manning, li Ibli 
teadBliciy, u w«ll u tn tba form or lt« tlgn, it aiifaan rolttod iillh Iha 
cImi or ditUnrtty ileQiioil tHRtniiig whidi U nnt to be taken up^tbs 
piMlt», irlth y4-(lfn. Tlioii^b very f*r txaat l)*ln| at wtdaljr uaaJ (i ibe 
latur bMldc otliaT prManl-iry*teai«, It Ii In tome cum an Intraniltm 
eOn]iiC*ttoB by lh« Mu ot a tfMiattha of aome otbar daai. 

Irre^larttloa of the s«-ols*6. 

199. Tb« toota of UU* clu* endiiig ii mm Ingthvn their vowel 
tit tormlag the preMnt-sIem: tli«y nre Uam. tun. djim, bhrojn, ^uo 
6< yuMf , ^ram : for example, tluoyAtl, framyati. From kaam, brw- 
•ror, only k^amyRt* oocura; and gam fdAor mskra qMnyatt B,'. 

764. Tbe root mad hnii Ibe Buote lengthening: thaa, midTBtl 

768. The roots in Iv^ namely, div, slv, Brtv ur grir. and 
y(hiv {horn which no foruis of this flaas ar« quoublei — are written 
by tbe gnnmariSKi wilb l«, knd a similar Iragthenin^ la the preiieDt* 
syvtem la prMoribetl for tIteiB. 

&. Thfty appMi to be pTop*rIy dlB ptc. tlare tholt fowltrnd fln«l 
la •tbcr fonna li tfway* tl; div it by thla provtd to b(T« nMhfii|( t» do 
«tib tfco aatiimed leol dtv tftwie. vhlnh ehinsst ta dyn (961 d): «o«pKre 

766. Float tfc* tooia Jp anit tf (kUo writioa ■■ Jar and tlr ot tor) 
cttint ibe tteau jfry* and tfry*. and jAryn and tOiTa [ttaa Uit two only 
In ftv.y, ftom pf coma* pdrya 

767. The raot vymdai k abbnrlaiU lovldh: tbua, TidhyKti. And 
■ui root »U«h In other fonni bai a pcnultiaaie tiual Inet li hair: thu, 
dffay« rram d^JLh or Sfh ; bhrkgyn fioni btarA&f ot bhra^ ^ ri^ya Itota 
raftj ut r%j. 


AcoBtmp yi-OLASB (PASAtrs). 


IX. Accented y^-class: Passive conjugation. 

76A. A certain foim of iirceeDt-etein, inflected witti middle 
endisgs, ia used only in & pusive sense, and !■ formed 
from all raou for which there is occasion to make » passive 
coQJugftUoD. Its sign is ao nocemed 7T ya added to the 
lOot: thus, ^^n hBoyd from y^ han slay, 9P^ Spyi 
from v'Qn &p obtain, JJ^fJ SX^Y^ (torn VJP^ grh (oi grah) 
I0ise: aod so on, without anj^ Teference to the class accord- 
ing to which the active and middle forms are made. 

768. The form of tli« root to wbicli tb* pusive-alga la added 
Is ifiiacL' the accent it on thesi|:D] llk« weiik ona: thti>. n penultimate 
nasal U dropped, sad any slibrvvUtion which is ma.dc in tlic woali 
furms of iba perfect 704), iu the aorist optntlvo (682 b', ot before 
t* of the pKtalve participle [964;, lit taadu alwi ia tlio paiaive preaoot- 
■jBtem: that, a^k from )'a&j. badl^ri from t'bandh, n?7& from 
t'vae, 1J7& from v'^aj. 

770. On the other baod, a final vi>«^l of a toot U in Keoeral 
liable to the aame chants as in otiwi' parta of the rerb^l lyatsm 
wbcro it in follnved by y- thus — 

a. PtBtl 1 and u ar« leogtbaDed- thus, miyi rron v^iiu; aajA 
fhna I'su; 

b. final a U naually cUanged to I: thas. dl^ from fda; hiTi 
from (lia: but JfiayJL from t^JfiH. aad to khjAy^, khSyA. amSyA. etc; 

0. final r in in p^acral rbanred to r1 tbus. lotiyA from ytag; 
bat if prccodod bj- two oonMnnnU Inad alao. It is claimed, ia the root 
fi, il baa instvad tho gu^a-strniigtbeiiiag: thtu, 9m»rji, from I'smf 
jtbe only iinotable cn»e. ; — and la those roots whioh show a ehanj^e 
of f lo Ir and ur (ao^calliMl f-verba: aeo 943], that chaago in luadc 
here alto, nod the voirel la le^UieDed : tliua, ifixyk Itoiu y^jj, pOry^ 
from ypj. 

771. The inflectioD of the paasive-stem is precisely like 
that of the other a-atemii; it diSers udIv iu acceut from that 
of the class Jasl |{iveo. It may he here pceseated, therefore, 
in the same abbicriated form: 

ft. Example of iafleetion: toot 7 kr make; pasBire- 
slem f^I^Tr kriyi: 






1. Precent Indicativet 
«. '1. p. 




2. ProBeat Sabiunotivd. 

I>. Tbe fortas noticed u iKciirriDg is the old«r lutguago are alo&e 
here iniunced: 

«. 4. p. 

I krijil krtjltinaliU 

I kriyldhvU 


O. Tbe 3d pi. ending aotAi la Tauad onoe (ucyAntai K.). 


a. Present Opia.tive, 

kriyAjra kriy^aht kriyimahi 
ate «cn. Ktr, 

d. No foniij af ttie pknivt aptttlTn cbiii«e to ettua In RV, m AV, ; 
tbcj u« tVnad, ho'avar, In th» Bribmcnu. OtiL*. hu onec dJunSfltai 

4. Presont Imperativa. 

3 fa^nra 





fi. PreMnt ParUoiplo. 

0. This is made wUti ihe sutfix IFH mSna : ihiu, fsfpjzinn 


r. Ill UM, tbl« putlalpltf U vtnll dltttngvlibftd from tbe otbtr pmhItit 
pulidpto by lt« dUiine*tT«l]r pT«Mnl mMntnc; thai, kftii Amt, bol kriyi- 
mlLi^a ni prvom of tloing, m tting Jmtt. 

0. Imporfeot. 

ikriy* 4kri;avalii ULriyfttnaht 

K> Tb(> pa«tl<«-M|[n U navtr mialTod tmo la In tbe Vndi. 
77ft. Tk6 roots t*n nnd khan mtnalt}' form thotr piMiivoi from 
parallel roola in a; Ibo*, t«;At«, khay»t« i1)UC niao taayato, khan- 



f— 776 

yat«; ; aixl dham. In lili« maiuier mikes either dta&myate or dhmAy&te. 
Tbe corr«8pOD<linfC forai to Yitui, iimncl)' Ji7*t« r*b«vr, 761 b;, is 
apparttntlj a iT&nBfer tu cho prouodiDg eluu 

77S. Bjr chcir forut, nuij&te rfm, aail dhriy&to HMiNtatiM itn^/, 
it lUadfMt, are {Muslves from tho roots mr <fi« and dbf AoU; nltboagh 
noithcT \a used io n proper pftssir« Mote, Mid mr in not Iranaitlvfl 
except in Uio derivative fonu mn^ (above, 731). With thetu ara to 
be eouiiared tlie stems ftilrtyA An^ci aud &-prly& 6« ^"'Vi wklch are 
p»Tliapi peculiar :i4apUiiii>iis uT lafaninic or paHives from Uia ro«ta 
df pitrtt and pr yiiV- 

774. Exiinplci ot Ib« n*iu(e( of alnmi fmcp ibc yii- oi puslT* 
clMi to (he ya- i}[ liiiianiitlTa cUtt wcio cliirn abcio (701 b]: ind II «u 
■1(0 polDled out ibLt ictlTfl iDit««<l of midille cndJnt* ate a««*alon>Uy, ereii 
In tbe oMltn lancni^, amiinrd by ronni ptoporly pWflTtj oiknipjss *re 
i dhmaratl knil vy ^prnfyat (<,iltO. bbOy&tt (H£1C)- la t^« 'pica, 
'bDHStec (u • pan of tholi g«a»ril coiifailon «r aotlie uid mlddJo (Omn-; 
B29a), wMva eadlnn u* hy ne meaoi libfraqnancir t4k«a hy iho putlTt; 
thua, ^akyatl, ^rOyanti, bbiiyantu, Uy«at-, nc. 

*rbe 80-oaUed Tenth or our-Otus. 

776. Aa waa DOt)c«d itbove f907:, the Uludu graanDariaaa — and, 
arter thoir fixaiDple, mote Kuropoan also— recognize jet auotber 
conjuKatlon-claas. coUrdlaate wltli iboaa alreadj deacrlbed; Ita atomt 
shun- tb« claiB-siirn aja. a<!d«d U> a fr«neral1y strrtii;ttiened root [for 
di^iailp aa to tlio titr«Dg(UeuiDg:, bob 104fij. Tliaugh (bis 1b qo propor 
clasB, but a Beoondary or derivalire conjogatiou |lts Htems mo parti; 
of cauBBtlvB fonuaEiOD. partly deDomlaaiiTO with altered accent) an 
abbreviated example of ita forms luay, for the aake of accordance 
with othor ^itminarB. be added bore. 

a. Example: root oint Otmi, meditate; atem elntiya: 
t«ti*a. (aMdlf. 

Pnt. iDdlo. oiatikytmi eintiye 

Sub). eiatiy&Qf otntiyBl 

Opt. eitttiyeyam clnt^eya 

Pple. ointiyant olntiyaiaaaa 

Impf. acintAyam jkointaye 

b. Tho (nfltetlon, «f tenrta, la tka bmbb with that at ethOT fortat froa 
Di (738 a). 

0. The nlddlB participle, In Uic totoi UaKuatts la more often o>B4a 
with &na JQitfad ol mbi&: thu. elntoytiw: bbb 1048 f. 




UsM ol ttie Preaerl and Imperfect. 

779. The usm uf the mude-foitue 'tf the i>ri>»«iit-syit«ii) hM 
been alre&dj briefly treated In th« proocding rhnpter ;&78ff.;- The 
WUft'iUM of the mo iixlfcstlre leitins, pratont imd imperfect, call 
here for oniy a word or two of oxplkoaHon- 

777. Tbe pretest hu, basid«i Its fltrictlf preseat one, the no 
■nbsidiaiy neea which belong In gtmrrkt to thu tonne: Dainiily. tb 
eiprewlon of hibltiul action, of faturo acdon, and of paet aclion in 
tlvoty somtiun. 

a. BitipptH of fninic Dwalog m: imkHi o4d vt Ime oiar&te 
tAta vr&. no •bhfbhftrantl (CB-) I'frHy ifthett fmUti ihit up, tAmtit^-^ 
htHI itra<</Mievjr fft 'A* Aclltfr «f w ; Rgulr AtnabhaTtuii prftdAd ji 
vtAabatl "f'tf'****fr (MBh.) Affn* f^ hU oim prttmot tchtrcxmr U- 
NitiaJJtan «A«*iU iImiW; avlgftUub ta 'ato klib fcaivml teiTa (K) »i>^ 
eomt to f Am ; (rAef «laU / Ai /or (Am f 

h. Bi*mplu (if pail m«*iilng are: ^tt&rft eAr &dh^r«^ putr4 ftald 
diou^ gaye aalt^rateA nA dheoi^ (KV.) 1A« nuUer irtu mmt, Uk Mn 
untii'r.' U«r« 7JS>mi ^«m, Ut< a eotf leiti h*r ealf: prahaoBnti oa U&j 
keoid abbyaaftyantl o& ^ar* okurvata dayfcdi kocit (MPii.) 
ridieult htf, »om* rteiU A«p, imm jitfiVri A<v: tato yas^a vaoan&t tat 
'vaJaiDbitfis taih sarve tlrsakurvanti (H.) a*rf>if>on fAcy n// /all t»^ 
rtproaeJitug Aim by irAoM aJricf tk*j/ ha4 atigltttd IAmv. 

776. In cosDGCtiou wlib cortaln pariicica, the prosent hu rather 
Bioi« duliuitely (lt« valuo of a put lonte. Thiii: 

a. viHh puri femarlg: Uii». saptarfia a lia am* val ptiri 
rkj|& Ity ^akfate ((B.) tM* mmn ^v-i, namrly, art o/ old aiUed th» 
ktmr*; tanmitram api oon mahyaA aa dnd&tl purft bhavtn (HDb.) 
(/■ gam katr never hefort yifen nte *i,'«i nn o(o»i. 

b. with the usc'EintiTD putUlv sma: thui, grnme^a ha ams TJ 
Ud devi Jayaotl y&d c^Atfa Jdyjam iak rfaya^ ca tSB.) in tnM^ 
AitIA foda «nrf lafei uvea ip«mI 14 Ui'ii bg ptnanM lekiU tfM (o itf iDAn; 
aTiffalp kallna dyliU Jlyate ama nalns tad& l^Hlib.) Mwi Ifala, Mty^ 
fMMdWMf Ay Saii, teat htatm in pio)/. 

s. No viftniple «f ilitt latt coBsUnollon U found hi «ii(B«r RV. oi AV., ' 
or tlsewbete In ihe mettloU pLita of the Veda. In tha BnliaiaiiBa. entr 
hibltnal *(tlon U i^xpraHod bf Et At all paHodt of (h» Uogaago, tbo naaj 
ol ama vith a larb at pan uaeTtratlTa putlclc, arltb ao ttttct en 
tente-Mixwiing. U vuty eoauDan; aod tho caamirlci lat«t aM btTdljr 1« 
dittingaUhad txota tho pteteni at llvDljr aantUon — of vfalcb th« ^bvl 
eanitiuetlon li donbUeai * fotn. 

776. Tbu liDpctfccI ha« rc^maiDcd unchanged in riilui; throuji 
the whole history of ihe lang^a^e: It la the cenie of tinrrstion: it 
expreaaea simple piut tiuiv. nitbout any utber implication. 

a. Compare ahal it iaid Ulnr (end of eb>p, X. and cbap. XI.) u 
■ha Ttlua (tS the otiiar pate IMiaaa, tba pr.rfaci and aotIfL 


CoAiucTiiKttTtai or tub PtitrMtjr. 



780. TiiK pecfeot-sy«t«m iu the latet language, a« liaa 
been seen above (fiSfij, conaiata only of an indicative Mnw 
aad a paiticiple — both of ihem in the two voices, active 
aad middle. 

L Ib the old«M )aagu&({0, the jiorfe^t liaa also its modds aud 
ha auiciBeiit-pnteril, or pluperfect, or ia out leaa Atll Id Iu uppsniua 
i>( ffttBS thsa ia the pIew1l^ay«(o^l >•• 806 0, 

791. The fotiuauon of the perfect it cuentially- alike 
in all vetb*, difTereiicea among them betn^ of onlj aubord- 
inat« coDter^upncp, ot having the oharaoter of irngularitiea. 
The chaiacl eristics of the foimatioD ue these: 

1. A Stem made by rechipHcHtioo of the root; 

3. a difltiDction between stronger anil veoker fornu of 
Men, the former being used (m in preaente of the Find 
or oon-a-oonjugatioa) in tho lingular active, the latter in 
All ether persons; 

14. endings in some respeota peeuliar, unlike those of 
the preaent; 

4. the frequent uae, e>pe«ia)ly in the Utcj language, of 
a union-vowel ? i between stem and ending*. 

782. Kednplieation. In roots beginning with a oon- 
•onanl, the reduplication which forms the perfect-stem is 
of the same chaiaoter with that which forms the preaont- 
•tem of the roduplieating oonjugntion-eUss sec 048] — but 
with thia oxceplioD, that radical ? a and OT 8 and (f ^ or 
Q^ arj have onljr Q a, and never 2 t, as vowel of the re- 
duplicaliog syllable: thua, from »^ PTjf oomes the |»reaeot- 
Mem ftw pipT, but the p«rfec«-stcm qq papF^ from kTT m* 


X. PBRFHOT'-SrftTRll. 


mtiuure comes the presents-stem T>1^ mimB, but the peifeot- 
Btem cm mamB; and to on. 

a. IneRuUrttlH of iDota wllH laitUl eoatonuiU irlll b«sl<«abetoir, IBt. 

788. FoT roQU beginning witii a vowel, the niles of 
leduplicatioa are these: 

a. A root vriih initial ^ a befbie a vingle fioal conaonaiit 
te{>eat8fheQa, which then fuses with the ladical vowel to^B, 
(thioughout the whole iofieotioDJ: thus, QT^ Bd from v^ Bd 
eat; and in like manner QT^BJ, ETFI^Bd, KTm Bs, 91^ Bh. The 
toot H r foims likewise thcoxighout ^TTf Br {m if from fTJ' ftr). 

b. A root with J i oi T u befoie a single final conso- 
oaiit follows the same analogy, except in the strong forniR 
[nog. act.); heie the vowel of the radical syllable has guQa, 
becoming ^ e or ^ o; and befoie this, the reduphcating 
vowel maintains lis independent form, and is leimTated from 
the radical Eyllable by its own semivowel : thus, from i'^ 
i9 comes ^ [9 in weak forma, but ^d^iye? in strong; from 
Vm uo, in like mniinor, come 'SM ttc and W^ utoo. The 
root ^ 1, a single fowcl, also falls under this rule, and forms 
^ ty |y added before a vowell and pj iye. 

a. Roots which begin with voweU long by nature 01 by 
poisition do not in general make a perfect-system, but use 
iaatead a penphrastlo formation, in which the perfect t«i 
of an auxtliaiy verb is added to the aocueative of a verba 
noun [see below, «hap. XV.: 1070 ff.). 

d. To ihi* cul'', liooeinr. t'ip oAtotn (prabably origdiilly apt 1067 f) 
QaaMttoW* ui iixc«ptlou, maklug tbo r^nKUnt potfcnl-4t«ni ftp (u IF frtiB 
ap: »b«v«, s1. Alfo It Ktei irlth l^i (B.V.) and li^lr« from vl<L tni 
Irtr* (V.) trom jlr. 

«. Tor ifaa pKull&r n^upllrAlIon tZL, bolMigliig In cnrUlii root* wit 
iDlUitl ToKclii, »n b«1o«. 788. 

784. A numtor of roou bcgiuRiPjc witb va and eudtng with 
■iiif;le conMniMit, whicb In varioo* of ihoir verbal forms and dorii 
ativea abbreviat« tbe 7* to u, do It alio io tlie pnrTccl, and ar 
tniKted Ukfl rooU wttb tnltUI a <aboT<>, 768 b', exMpt thnt Ihey rotuto 




Uw tail form of root In tlio stroog peraons of Uie singvUr aetiro. 
Tbua. from yvmc ipNik come tui haiI uv««; from VnM dv*U come 
Of nnd uvfta: and so on, 

ft. Tkfi rootii tIio«iDf[ Iht* ftbbr«viAtioii wt tim, ▼«p, vad, vn^, 
VMM, Tith; BDtl vft uetifc Is e*id to follow tbo Mm* roJe. 

b. A iiingli- root bt^Kinntag with ytL. luunalj 71^ offkr, hu Ike 
a«iB« ooatTK^oti, forming tbc itcmn iy«| knd U- 

6. Onatlciul nniptfoni ire Rial «llh M. t&vSOA i>nd Vftvakfe 
(BV,), vavUp* ■nil varUiA oud vsvUitttuii (E. nnd later), yojc (V,}. 

7S6. A uuinber of roots lutvinfc ys after a Gnt iciilial coaKaosnt 
Utk« i (from th« s'l in*t«ftil of a in tho ntduplicftting splUbt« : tlius, 
from f'vyao e«ines viv7»o; fron) i-py* comes plpfL 

a. Tb«ac root! »* vyno, vyath, v^adh. vyA. iyh, pyl, syttnd; 
uid, In (ho Vsda, al>o tyaj, wilb ojru bikI dyuL wblcli lia<e the raot- 

T»«tJ a. Olhei tpOIldlC MMl DCtUt. 

b. A single root with va la troatod in tliu saino way: OBinely 
svap, which fornin aufvap. 

o> Thew raou tre for ifao mcMt pan kbbreitsted la tbc irnX formt: 
MW Lstow, 704. 

786. A «oi»id«Tal)le niiiBb«f of rooti have in th« VAda a loaK 
vowel in Uielr redupHcallon. 

«. Thiu, al rooU radupUemlliiK «tlli L: ku), kfp. Br^< ^TPi tffK 
d^li, dbp, dhf;, aam. moli, mrit t&n. ran. radii, rabb, vii&«, rui, 
T*f , vaa c/a/^. tS^, vyj. vf'- fnr<lli< v^f . god prefait, aah. akambb. 
Son* of ibM* o^-«ut only tn ltol*to4 caioi ; minr bave *ln totm* wilb 
Aon vawel. Hon are Vedk onlf; bat dCdhAm !• common also tn Ihc 
Brihntna Uiigaagf, and 1> *<ren fnund latei. Ai i» jAgr, tee lOSO a, 

b. Of TOOU THdupliialiui: *Ub i: ibo >a-u1l<xl iuut« (870) dldhl ami 
didl, iffal'b iniko tti« pcrferl from tbi? Rime alcin wilh lb( pi««enl: tbua, 
dld6tha, didArn; didhlma, didh^us (>lt« dldhlTua, dldijua). Bvt 
pipl k» pipj«t pipyu^i *<' ' *lll< 'hoit 1. In AV. oci:aM <>n(>« JDU^Si 
aiid lu AB. land AA-J bibbsjra. 

O. Of loou reduplicating "lUi £1: tu, JQ, and tjtt («r fVA^ 

787. A re* rdsU bcglunlag "UK itia (darltallv*: 4fi) palaUl nuiR* 
mi ttpintioa show a taviniOB to Ibe more original ruilunl In tb« raiUaal 
vjrllabl* alW tbi> reduplication: (hu», ^ol form* oiki; | oit fniid* oikll.; 
VJ] Toms Jigl; (lil forin* jlglil; ^liKU formi Jasbiui (and the uuie 
rerenlOBi aiipKar In olbot todoplloalail torn* of tbaw roota; S16. 11, A 
noi dA prolttt It »ld br tbt ftammulaat U lOtn dlsl; but nolOiti r«ot 
not pwfaet I* ^aMsilo. 

788. A Bittflll Dumbor of roolR vllb Initial a or f i&r. show thv 
auouiuious redupilcaiioa in la tbo poiftict. 

a. Tb«« (Urn fMna o«(«Tring aalaly in lbs oldtr Imkuhil- anljr) ; 




Ibe *rc«n( U kllowed %o bll an any one ol ibi ifllablM ot ibe «-«rd, ud 
the toat-«TlUblD tr unMct'iWd bu ividoUiiim tba wMk Totid [uunaly, In 
tontt»t\<4 ■ictn* wltl e for medial «: below. 794 e: ind In MtUlii otfasr 
T«ib>, M vIrUiltui). The cBiUei Unxaafc, henetci, affotd* no •lanple 
of ■ 2d tliii;., whit«v«r lu mdinf, McentBd oa any olbtr tlian the ndieal 
*yllaM«, ot ralltog (o GOnfotm U ib« rnlM of »Ire&gth«itln|i ta g1r«ii aborc 
(li a. o, a). 

b. OtcMloiial lotMticiu of strengthen 111 i; lu olhoi thui lliu aliij;ul*T 
^rM4ia txt iiitt with : ibnti, juyoivtma anij viTOQOS (RV.). ptUpftTQlia 
(K«lr.), and, In ihr «plc*, ealutrtus and cnkarttrw, oakar^fttns, Jugfl- 
litro, aaaftmira, bibhediu, vmvUiatas. vlve«;fttua. vararfus. TUu 

root* d|', PC, anit ^f. anil nptiiin>.ny ^j, uo aal>l hy Ihe gliiDiaarlUia to 

ka*(> ih« ttrooe Ktom In w«ak fiTini: but no estinplM appuar to b« 'itiottble. 
AV^ howoTcr. has once J«fa.aruB (probably • false Kadlcg); aii4 lu the 
laicT UnsQiiie occur cMkarv (K^f •nriter) end tutus. 

1. Tbe not mfj ha* (a* la the prtocat-iyitsiii : 637} vyddtii Inatoed 
at gu^a In siront roTini- thot, namtrja; and yguit C^Uo i« liipretetii: 

746 O) hat Q Inalcad of o (bot alao Joguh* E.). 

764. As ragianU the weakeniDg In rteak fonns: 

a. It has been seen abora (78Sbt tbat root* be^uuliiK with 1 or 
a fun rcdaplkatlng anil radioul syllable Uiji^ether t« 1 or & iu the 
weak foruia; and {784j ihst rootc contracting va and ya to u or 1 
in tits rodupllcatfon do It aliio in tbe root la weak ToriuH. ihvi two 
elemrau liore also eualoBcinjt to Q or 1 

b. A tef root* having ya and va after a tim Initial raiuouant, lail 
redupllcaling from the aemWnwal f78S1, rnntr*ct Ihr ya (ltd va l« 1 and 
a . ihus, vlvtc ftom j-'vyao. vivldli from yvyaOh (but vlvyadbua 
MBh.^ BUfup froia I'avap. Tbo ot(-ndod rooia iyt, PV^ VjA, QvAt 
bvA iboi* a tUnttu apparent eontisctlon, making ih«tr wank forma ficiia 
lL« almpUr foou Jl, pi, •Tl, <)Q, hQ, whlie hvi muit and fvft may get 
tbrtr •tTong forma alao from ibc lawc (and aoly Jljyftu li ijnoiabic frnm 
Ihe olh*™| 

c The root grabh or grab (If li be ntltien tbna: t'O 728 a) con- 
inMe to B^, mating Iht^ thte« fortoa of atnm Jagrib (I*t and 2il «ln|. 
a«l,), J«grlbi(3Jj, mill Jagflii but prnoh (if it be to wrluea: lo* 760 a) 
tenulni undiansed ilironghout 

cL Some roou omit In wi>ik fonns of lhi« tunw, oi In tniine of ibam, 
a naaal which la found In tt> ilioni fonna: (bii>, wo ha\w aakradA etc. 
(HV.) irviu v'krand; Utasri (BV.) fmu >^ta&B; dadafrifia (itv.) Cron 
ydaA?; bedhi^, badh6, et\ (AV.) rrom y^maAh; a^ag (^:B.) ttam 
l^aa&J; oaakabhoni (AV.) from |,^akambbi taatabbua etc. (V.), 
taatabhtni (VB.), from j/atarabb. Compare alM 7e8a. 

a. A number of loots hartug medial a betwoco aingle oonaoniuila 
drop tliat TOweL Th«Be are, in tbe later language, sam. khan. Jait, 


Stboko asd Wsak Stbm-poiimh. 

[— TO6 

baut ghsa; tboy Tona tiro weak stoma Jaem, oftktui, J«l&, JsRha 
LCOBparo 637i, Jakf .Mcnpirc 0<Of; bill ItV. bu »bc« JnjiuiuB. 

f. In ihe old UniTUWi! ir« fouuiB In tlk« muuicf mamiUtba tnd 
tnoBuitte rtom i/man ; vavna from ^7mi; tatno, tatnl^, tatnliv 
rKtn v^ao (bi»ld« tatane. ind tnte, u if rrom yU): pttptUna wd 
pa]itua ind pnptivltAB from Kpat (br-*ida pet-fiimi; bt-lsw, it)-, papns 
rtooi KPUi; Mgclma wl anqciUi lu^oe mi Bo^olrd, froro >^&ao. 

g. UuoU iu g«ii>rnl hnviag mediiil » bafnre u ainglv linil con* 
sookiit, ind beginning also with a ringlfl conaonaiit thtt ts repeatted 
un«h)uig«d iu tlie teduplioailou — tbat ta. not aa aaptrat*. & goltnntl 
niaie, or ti — contraci tbcir root and reduplication together into oae 
ayllablf, bsTin^ « as Ita towoI'. tbua, I'aad forma tho weak atom bmI, 
ypoa fonu» peo, yyno forme jem; and so oo. 

h. Orialn ro"U iici ti»ln| I1i« ionn l>*r« ileflnad Hit dar.Iued by th« 
grunmarliD* to aoderjo the fame coiitruitluu— au»t of tbeia optionally; 
and axanplM of (bcjn av iii fenni*! of Tcry tk» (KCunonce. They m at 
foUowi: rU (K.C.) aud rOdb (radh?), nocottbii&ndluc tkeli tonx vowel; 
phB4>, phal (ph«lir« C^), bhaj (occoia from BV. down), itioujsh (ht'lr ial- 
ibl ii dbanccd m tedDpllMtlon) Crap, traa (treaaa K.0.)> Qratb, ayva, 
wvui, iLoDgh thtjr botin with mtm ibin nna cani«nanl: dambb (dobhua, 
RV., fnm tbo wcukor dabh). (hough II cn<]> with morii Ibio ona; Mid 
bbram (bhr«mua ru. K8S.), bbrft), BTanth. svafij. In uptu iif tnora 
c«Mori« ilian oix- to the contrary. And ^B. bat aajoa Ttem ynmSti. kiiA 
KB. hai ^remuB rrom v^ram. On the other buid, KV. baa oncerarabti* 

IdA, and It. luu pBJ>atU«, rui pOtlU, itoni ^'pat- 

t Thla Mutratilon U >ll««nd alaa In 3d fln(. a«t. •ban tW endins 
It itlut) Ibnt, cenltba beald* tatantha (bni na csamplM ara ^noublo 
rnm tli« oMw lanjpiacv). 

j. Tli« raqi* qaf and dad {tnta dl: 678) ara atld lo r«jcoi Ih* 
Mftbaclion: bat no pcrf««l ronai of oltbet %fftu to hire bfi«n met with 
In na*. 

k. From ytf ("■* tar) oHon toma (ft.); and jama rram ^ji* la 
autboiUed by ihu snmDiailaot — both agala*t thn cencrai analog of iMia la r- 

1. Roots radlag in ft Iom tbeir * beforo all endlaga b«{tiiDia|r 
with a rowol, i&oludinfi tbo«B endingrs thai aunne the anlon-TOwol i 
|79e) — unlraa In Ibo Utt4>r oase II be preferrod to regard lli« 1 as a 
wMken«d (orni of the t. 

70S. EndingR, nnd their union vith the stons. 

The goacritl scheme of cndiDgs of the perfect indicative has 

been ulrendT given (663 oi; and it ha» nlso been pointed out 

(&4Sai that TAou ending in 01 B have €t Su in Ist and 3d 

aio^. Mlive. 


X. I*BftrK7r«T8ixi(. 

k The endUg nuM liwIciAd »( ■!• tt foniid is ^o^runua (E.O.). 
For tlie lUfveil oeuureiiM of ^n tiMiml «r dbve in U pt' ^^- *'* SM 0. 

7M. Those of the endings which begin mth a con- 
sonant — namely 7t tha, =7 va, iT ma in active; n se, ^ 
vahe, CI% make, Ij dhve, ~7 r« in middle — aie very oflea, 
aod in the later language tuuailjr, joined to the base with 
the help of ao interposed union-vowel ^ I. 

a. The ■Rton>vowal 1 t* ri»und wtd«ly uied tlio ia cthet puts of Hut 
gcaoral Teib*l tftum: nuiiM;, In tbc iJbltuil Mittil, lh» Tutun*, *n4 Utc 
Teibtl noiini iiiit ii]j«ctiTM (u bIm la oUieT clutet of danmifa aWni). 
In the Ulcj Ungutge, ■ cctUln debtee of «oitft*{i9iiA*aco L* ncn UBOOg Ac 
dlOereiil put* or tbo iaai« neb, ■! reKWdi tbelr tua ot Don-iu« ftf a* 
NHMCliTer till lU* orreopODdenoe U net •« claae thtl fSDCTftl rule* t«t- 
pgcting It ua be Rhoa with id^ftaUKv; «nd tt will be bc«t to mat ««!> 
feimiiloD by Itielf. 

b. TIw peifDct IB th« tense ia wtileb Ui« uso of 1 baa calabllsliod 
ilBcir most vlilely aod firoily In tti« later laofUig«. 

707. The most important rules aa to the use of ^ i in 

tlie later Inn^age aie aa foUowa: 

ft. The f r« of -id pi- mid, has it always, 

b. The other consonant-endiogs, except ^ tha of 2d 

ling, act.) take it in nearly all verbs. 

o. But it is roj«et«d chrotighcml by oight v«rb« — anniely kf 
bhr btar. Sf i/d, Tf pAoosr. dm rtrn, ijra ktar, atn praite, arujlaw;^ 
null it U sllowablj" (not uiiutltji rvjvcietl hy aoiae otben, ia gaaeial 
accordance trilli tlielt luage la otber fomiatioiu. 

d In 3d sing, act., it ie rejected not only by the eight 
verbs just given, but also by mauy others, ending in rowele 
01 in consonants, which in other formations have no ^ i; 
but it is also taken by maoy verlis which reject it in other 
formations; — and it J9 optional in many verbs, including 
those in 01 K (of which the QT B is lost when the ending 
is ^ itba], and most of tho«e in ^ i, ^ I, and 3 a. 

•■ Tlie niltu of th<^ fisnimuluK, cijieaLaltT u rtfinia iba iu« of tha^ 
•r Itlia. ma «nl Into inlniu ilrlall, and ito nftt whaUy eoBilitanl with 
wi« anothoi; mil, u ihi- (armti trn vary tnfieqnant, II li not pitnlMe ID 
erttldae ill* Uitemenu nude, aad to UU bew (u (b«r are (itindnd oh tke 
(*tla ftf a»tf». 



t, Wilb this i, ft final ndioal l ur i ie nut uontrinedi but okaDg- 
»d into y or i;. Tb« Q of t^bhO bocomca Qv tliroughout before » 

TBS. In til* oldor UD(uifn>. th« mmf l» In put qslto otbei- 
witQ. Tims: 

n. In the RV., the Dtiloa-Toircl 1 li Ukcn b)- roou nnding In esn- 
MMDU pniTtd«d ttt* ImI bt1I»M« tribe Mcfu \» ■ heiTj mie, but uoioibei- 
olie: tLui. ^itha, uv6«tUta. riVeditba. but tntuttba »uA rivyiUcULar; 
ficim&i paptlma, vcdiiaa, fuyopUaii, tm joKanma, josfbluaa, tuju^- 
ma; uoif6, InjAlfs, flaaUkl^o. boi vItIMs uid dadT'lE9« ; bubhujmiba 
■nd fAf(tdmah« tU. I^na ea>mpl«« ot tvabe or Immliv •'haii» te u'Otii, 
nor lar at tlxhtt Idhvs «r dbv«); IJira, JK}&ire, yetiro, tatakflrt, 
bui a«k]pri, vlvidri, duduhr^ paepr^^br^. tataai-^ (*r><l •* on : 
t«eaty4*i> fornu). Ttiw only nxcnpilaii in RV. li vittha mm ^rld, 
wlibooi i (In Br., kino tttha rrotii yaii: b«lo«, SOI a). TU oi)i«rVMli>; 
Wata pT«nBl BMhinit iDDonfllaicat wiUi Ibb rale, bat in ib« Brihuaiiu Sil 
pi. t"rau hi ir« are mad* aft«t Usiht ariUtile* •!•«: thu*, aaarjirft. bubudfa* 
lr«> TUTUltrCi rurudlil»< 

b. In roatj vndliif <riih a lovel, tbe etil; iiMf« b mora aMil|r Ills 
Uic lM4r Tbn«: foi rovtt In A Iba rule It tke •■m« (tx(«pi thai no 7A 
line. In itba U aui <tlih). u dadblaiA, dadhi^. dadbtdbvi, dadhlr^ 
(dia Anly penoiu with 1 •]uoUt>l« rr«m RV, »ua AV, ; aiifl KV. hat dadhr* 
IwtB*); — TMta In f tpp*" ■!*<■ f> follow lh» iMSi lulc: ai oakrfA. 
papf^a. vttvx^i. vavpn&he, but dadhrifa >»d Jabhrifo, and ia S<t 
pi mi'l. t>otl> (!akrlr6 >.a\\ dadhrlre , — ^fati bai both babhAttis 
(nnuIlTj and babbdritha, bai aiily babhOvlmi (AV.). But than an 
(Ound, agalnrt ihe Utir tulai, aufttma, oloyu^a. Jobari. tnt ixOxtyth, 
wllhODI 1 : th« Inatanoea are loo law to fonnd a mln opon. 

700. TW nidlnt lire or !ld pi. nid. Ii found in KV. La tli (ormi: 
naaielT. olkiCrira, >fl«|-bbTlr4> dadiira, bubhujrlr4, vlvidrlr^ aaa{j- 
lira; to «bieh SV. addi dudubrlre. and TB. tladrtjrlre 

SOO. Kxamples of inflection. Uy wsy of iUuBtra- 
xUm of the rules given above may be ^en in full the per- 
fect iodicative iaflectJou of tlie followiog verbs: 

«. As eiarnpte of the nornuti taSootioD uf a. root witb 
final consoaaot, we lake the root 71 budh A-notc: ita ationf 
fonn of peifect-vtciD is ^RiU bubodta; wealc fom, ^^^^ 

actlTs. ntlJUa. 

t. d p. *. 4. p. 

bttb^dba bubutlbiv^ -dhini biibudb« -dUvUia -dhlniAha 

800— J 



bubodhltha -dlutliuB 'dha 

bub6<Iha •dhAtoR •dh^a bubudii« 

bnbudlijfe -dhatbe •dtaidbv6 

'ibito -dbire 

b. Tba MMrUd Tariatjr ot pMalMo aoccix in li Udb- xt. (iltOTv 703 g) 
t)ee4* to bo BOtod Iwtli la tbU uid Ld itv reoulalnf fnilfau. 

o. A* exftmple of the normal inflection of a root mth 
hnal i or u-vovcl, we may take the root =fl ni Uad: its formi 
of it«in are fH-ni niniy or fn^nU niniy, ami R^ alnl, 

DlnithmnlnijrithK nlny&thtia ninya ninyi^i ninyfttli* nlnyidhv* 



ninyos ninyi 


di Tlio root krl wutUd nak« (138 aj is weak forma dkriylvA, 
etkrtyAroa. eUertrua. ^te.; and v'bbQ U inflected a* fcritovra in the 
active (mldillo foriin not quotablri- 

I babhftva bBbhSvivh bAbbOTimi 

■J babhtithB. babbAvltba. babhAv&thna babbbTi 

1 babbdrn bsbliflv&tua babhQv^ i 

Other rootn in Q or a ebang« ttils b> av befon tlie initial vowel of 
an ending. 

e. As example of (he inflection of a icrat ending in QT S, 

vre may take TJ dB give: its formi of item are ^^ dadS smA 
^ dad (or ^ dadi: sec above, 764, 1). 

dadftu dadiTJt 

dadttha. dadltha dad&thua dadi 

dadA& dadAtus dadua dadi dadat« dadlri 





d&dlvaha dadlm&he 
dad£the dadldliTa 

f. Tb« KV. hu (HK* paprii (or paprdu (tod Jabi lot JabKaf). 

BxAliri.M OF iNFLeCTiOh'. 


g. As pxatDpte of a loot with meilial 9 a ohowing fusion 
of toot and leduplicatinn, resulting in medial ^ e, id the 
weak foims !7Mgj, we may take ?H tan strtich' ita foims 
uf stem aie ^7H tatin at rRTR tatfin, and ^ tso. 

tatAuft. tAtann tenivn te&im^ t«u4 t«iuvUie tanimAb* 

a fT?psi, =T^ PRsra ?jr=F S1=w ^=nii ^f=W 

tat&ntha, t«nitha t«nAUiiu tsnft tani^ tenathe tanidtiv6 

tattna tanAtua ton^s taoA tenita tanlri 

h. Tho root Jan, with the others wbloti espel meiliul a in wenk 
fftrma iVMe;, inakoa JiO^ntba or ji^fiithi, Jajfitvi, JsO^ua; Jalfti, 
J^lfttmAbe, Ja)&lri: and bo oa. 

i. As oxaraple of a root irilh initial ^ tk coDtraoled 
to 3 u in the roduplicniioD, and contracted witli the redu- 
plication to ^ Q in wenk forma (784), n-v may lAkc ^ rac 
tpetii: ita foims of stem aie 3^ri^uvig or S^T^uvJc, iind 
3^ Ho. 

Qv&oa, uT^ca iicivA acimi Qei noivUie Qclmidia 

UT&kCba, Qv&oltJia itoAtbuD uca Qolf6 Qc^tbe ucidhTd 

urioa &c4tua boiia Qo4 Oo^ Qolri 

J. Id likn mnnnor, i-yftj forme Ijik]* or ly^B> iy4f(ha or tf AJitha ; 
U^ Ulq6. and so od; )'uo tiaH uvoca snO uvooitba in Uiv atroiig 
(ona*. Mtul all the re«t litco vao. 

k. Of the four toota tn H r mentioned At 7B7 o. the 

inflection is as follows: 

oakara, oak&ra cakfvi oakrmJt oafcr^ cakrvUie eakpnibe 
oak&nba cakrathaa oakrA oakn^ oakratho oakfdhvi 


Wfcl«a*r, OraaoMi. 1. (1. 

oakr&tua oakrna cakri oakntta 



X. l?a»not*»tnmm- 

I. Of the rooM la ff r io gcoeia), the fiitt peraoDs are 
made «« follows: 

dadlwrtx. dadbars dodtirlTi dndtuimi d«dliri dodhrlT&li* dadiuHnAtii 

B. Wt mity timber util liar«, fln*lt^, Die lOtUc ItiDMHOti (Uir mMdtc 
la aai In um) ftf tbe )>orfr<l of aa Ar, vbkli (Uko b&bhAT* and cak^ra, 
girtn ibinc) It fiofotnilf cmiiloved u id kuxJIluy. 
I 4aa haivA UlmA 

1 iaitba AtUliiu U4 

801. A few iiu9c«llaDeotu irrogulAritic* call still £ot , 

a. Tbfl tool all j^moA oeeurs only ia the perfect itidic»liv», and 
only Iq the 3d p^nonn of all nnmbora and tn Out 3d »lng. and du.. 
Id acdve ;RDd In Id sing, the h U IrreguUrly cluBgcd tn t baforo 
tli« ending:!: thn*, Utba, Aha; abatbus. Kbatna; ah^ iln V., only 
thh xtid ih&B nrc ueC wtib). 

b. Ftoin (/va tcemr, (be 34 pi. tcL Qvua o«iir« in RV.. uid 
olbei rertt^ft firiu ■ppvars (d biTC bem in«t vlih la au. It U allowe 
b/ tli« gmnmulin* Id bo lnfl*el«d [•gularly m va; and alM •■ vay (tbc 
piefent-Elvtn li v&;a: 701 f), with cgntrtetlun iit va to D in weak roimi 
and futtbni, In iltr iml fonnt, u <iiRp)« u. 

0. Tbo Not vyik fnttJnfi hmi 111 RV, Iho periMI-foiait vivyatbos txti 
■rfvyfr, and no oUi«n burt bvao ini'l with In ii«d; Uio p&niDuilaa* tnqn 
the Mronf fotnu w be made from vyay, tni the «c*k from t1. 

d, Tli« t«ot I ff forau la KV, ud AV. [bo %I ilnx. ki. lyitlw 
bailde lb* refnttr tritha; »nd bMld« lrir4 ttom \1r, KV. lit* lorenl 
ilinai orlra. 

9. RV. hu an anoDulaui icotnt In didfQO tnJ dadffT* (beeid* 
dadrkfi) and the pple dMfftna. And clk«ta |.on<«, be«i4e oikMaJ t* 
mrhepe * kladKd naomLlr 

f. PcttDui of ibe pHrteci ttom (Le Ir-fomu of roaU In cbanjirabla f 
(MS) arc tiCinu and tlattefl [b^b KV.); und Ibay liioa (WRMpoadl 

K- Thn bi^tatJ tool BITQU (113) i« «a1d b) (ho gTammtiiaDc 10 mtks 
tb« pvffeet-ilem Ar^tuiu; tbo roots inaJJ a»d BW) a^ "*!<' t^ inafCt a 
■ual In the lA Mnit. aMln, whKii tbe »dJ1dk U limpln t]]a: tbni, ma- 
ma&ktba, naoaAflha (aLan nuunajjltha >iid aefithn). 

h. FntthPT may hn noted aasaJJatMS (MUh.: v'aa&j. <*bieb be* tn 
p>>il>e the (Fcundiry form Bi^], rummdhatoa (RO^ *<iil dudOhua (BhP). 

i. Tin aiiumaloii* ajtUErabhSl^arfi (Alt *1, 'ib^ M«nia ■ foimation on 
the pcif«€i'itrui (^but pnhtps fnr aJiKrabhifan, deild. 7). 




F«rfect Fartiolple. 

803. The ending of the active ptuticiple ia ?tlT vS&s 
(that is to say, in the strong Forms: it is contracted to 3? 
i^ in the weakest, and replaced hy 3^ v&t in the middle 
foTiOB: see above, 4S8 fF.j. It u added to the weAk Form 
of the perfect stem — as shown, for example, in the dual 
and phiral of the active iDflcctioa of the gireo verb; ud, 
mcchnntcallj, the wen1ie-*t partictple-steiit is itlentirritl with 
the :td pi. aolive. Thu:., ^^ral^ bubudhTSfi», fsR^ftt^ 
ninlvOna, »Hi^tH oakrvifia. 

808. If the weak form of the perfect stem is monosyl- 
lahie, the ending takes the union-rowol t i [which, however, 
disappears in the weakest cases): thus, HH^lM tenlvifit, 

3r1%^^acivift», ;ifg^tR^j^fiivfiA«, gr^gtrt^ sdivi^ from 

f^ad: 788 n}. and 9o on; ^^^\^ dadlvSAs and it« like, 
From root* in OT &, ore to l>c reokoned in the one class or 
the other aooording aa we view the I 1 aa weakened root- 
vowel or as union-vowel (764, 1). 

a. But patttelplM ot whieli lh« perfccUtum to wonoiylltblc by >I>- 
tvneii of (ke iiiduplitailoii do uut Ilka tho uuio&*iow«l : thm, vldv^s, 
tod In v.. diqviA* (3V. iM^ivita), ml4hvlt&*. aahvlt/tB. knld- 
vUUi(t): anil It. bu »bo dadv^ IXV. dadtvAfia tiul unce dadavlAa) 
tnm ydt (oc dad: 67S); *ii ka-LijvUa (t'a^ tai) omom In TS. tai 
TU. Uul AV. hu vlQlvdAa tnd varjivftika (la aoi«tlvi rem. 4TarJafl). 

804. Othnr V«dlc ImpilxHam cilltii( for noUnc iM tow Tbe long 
Tovel of lb* redupir'atlon (786) ippeAri In lb« participle ii la Iba tndltallv*: 
lliDi, vAvrdhvtAa, saaatavlAa, JQJnv^a. RV, and AT. kiv« sasavtAa 
fioni ^Bsn "T aa. RV. mikM ilie |<tttl<!lpUl forai* af y'tf ii[ tar (iodi 
dlffcront mOiliflc«ii<'iii nf ihn mai: t)io*. tlttrvAAa. t>ui tatarofaa. tt«- 
■pactln.t ihfi o'-cftttntid «.xoli«n|«a of ttniif anil vrak lUnt In inA«ctlaii, 
■M «l>ove. 468 a. 

806. a. Prnm roAla gam >i"l ban Hit Taila m*k«ir ih« Mrmif tiMoe 
Jagaavias (ai to ibu n, iiv«8l8a) tuA jachanv^a; ibc later Uitgvago 
kUowi «UbM ibeiB or ihe uotc ra(ut»r Ja^fmiviAa tad Jaghntvilfia (tha 
wtMkut (UiD-fom* b«in| OT«iywhaM JafSBtky ind JaghD^) HV. baa 
. aba (atanviftB. 


X. pExrscT-nvrsM. 


b. tnm tktse nwU, vid 7(M^ rlf, utd df^ , tfae Um !•■««««« klton 
MiMl ptiUclpt»-M^u 10 k« ■>«<• wlik tbe vbUc-tovsI, t$ >«tl m In U« 
MgmJu BiMsot vtihmi ti; Uu, TivlflvkAa or vlrifvUc; dftdfQivftto 
•wm in KthC. PR. hM ono* otoohtdirtAti. 

806. The ending of the middle participie is ins It 
is added to the weak form of peiferl-fiem, as this appeats 
in the middle inflection: thus, ^^TTR babadhtni. i^HJW 
ninySni, ^ZH dadanil, fpiR tentaa. 3flH jajftiBi, i.HH 

a. Id tlie Veda, the loni ledoplietilni rovcl Is ihowa by nuT alddlt 
psnlclpW : iliiu, viv^dliAnM, Tftraaini, dAdfhl^A, t«ti^in4, *te. 
KV. Ii»} gafttfftoi fniu y^l |«lih trrq^ittu go?*, w Id tbc pnasiu- 
■rM«iii- 6S9ji tlBtlri^ fnn v'stT, u>l one*, oriUi m&oA, ■ufmkQ* 
Itam f«f. A tcv puUElplei irlih loDg (eJopL ro«r«l hfo It Incfatuly 
MiWBiad (u If ntliGT intnulfp^ 1013): itmi. tAtulftna (4l»o tOtrUftaAL, 
bibadJitnK, fi^adAn*, fd^nj^na, fd^uvUnn. 

807. In tlio Utcr [nogoii^, Uiu perfect partiiuple* bnve neuiv goo* 
out of uh; even tli« actire «pp«in bat Tan\y, mil is made Tron 
very few verlM, and of (be niddle hardljr noy (isaiu|>leN an; quulabic, 
»xfc SQcb u ih* proper asin«< jnyndliAna, the adjoctiTe sjiDotm* 

Ilo<l0« Of the Perfect. 

800. ModM of the perfect beloo^ onl]- to tbe Vedio lugnji^^ 
M'1 oven ai« »eI(lom fvuud outnitle of tti? Kig-Veda. 

m- 1« ilraw ib« lini? lacaly aad dlMindly b«t«c«n ttiaie and tka 
modc-romu tram otlici tcdopUcatcd IniWiMiai — tha pi«MDb-«cin •/ the 
(•dapllrXlnc el(M, lb« rcdoplicated lorlsl, and (b« inlanalre — h iM>t p*»- 
»lbl«, »inee do olttrlon or tvtta oitiU wbicb da>« not In Hme c*hi bil, and 
tin** tka ftauil oquiiilcDca of niodil form* from ill atcmi (68S), Uid tl 
taninaii uBv ef thr w » pTwcni In «hf v^j^ (023), .ioprt»» na of 
• rrli«riiiii of iii««nini. There can bo no ru«(iniib1« 'l.iuM, hn«eT». that, 
I cnn*iil«t*M<' badjr uf form* tre to he rrrkoncd facra; opuilvci Ilka 
qrlm mil babhOjU tnd babhOyat, Impentliei llko b&bbOta. inb]an»n 
dva* Ilk* Jabbirat, Ihow tuck dli(lri«tl'a obaisclcriaUca of ibe psrfacl 
fonnitlnii ih*( by ibnii (iidnBy oth«i ilmlitr wordi ira ronDdantly nl 
M beloiiclliii to the perfect. 

SOP. The nurmaJ motbod of making such formB iroutd apfi 
lo be ai fvUowa: froiu it reduplicatud perfevt-aten, m [for «xanpl4 
mumn(^ an tmporalive would be madu by aimply apfwudlpf, 
naaal. the luipi.'ra(iv« ending; the derived sabjunotlve mado-fltei 
fTonld bt; mum6o> Eacceiilcil after tbe aaaloKr of tbe atruox for 


I 30» 

H of the perfect iiiilfcntivfl., and woali lake uitbei primary orwcoadvy 
H endings; and Ibo optative modL-^lema would b« momuoj^ in the 

active, lud mumuol laccetit on pereoakl endittgs) to lUe nlddlc. 
And tiie prent tnnjorilj of ttifl fonni in qMstinn laboiil Ikreo 

t|iwrt«»l are mada in tti<«e w&vs. Tfaiu: 

1610. Eiftiuplva of tke regular subjunctive fonuatloD are: 
m. W'tli toi'-ondAiy tinJliigii, Kriivm li. dag., pAprithaa, cAkAuaa, 
mAnAhaB, plpr4yaai trabodhaa, r&r&i^ae; 8dBiiif.,oUc&nst,JabUmti 
rirft^at, aAudiat, pa»pkr^ht, piprajmt; l*i pi-, olUtaftma, tatiainu, 
fHfAvUDa; 3d pi., tat&aaD, papriiChui (oibM peisoos lo not oetm). 
TkU U tk* lugaM cUh of cum. 
b. vlit pttmiry Midlnfa, acUve: li«i» aaem to belong oaiy dadhfcr- 
ifftti tod TBT4rt«ti: oompkic th<' fcrmatUn with lilBaranl aeeenl balo*, 

ten a. 
a. of OBlddla roroM oomr only tho Sd ling. UttApato. ({Dffcmat*, 
nv^jate, JuJd^ate (SV.. ItV. hts J^o^atol: tnd ile3a pi oakAnanta. 
tat^naiHW (>uil pmhaii* 1*0 or throe oilier): belt'*', 811 b. i-iid). 

IBII. B«t M4 a (aw stitijiuieitTM *r otbar fanaaiioa oeoar) ihaa: 
a. With atT*nttti<>ii<Fd ioot-*]'l 1*^1*, m iboT*, but willi totunt on Ifca 
teduptlutlpn (*» III ili« iD^«rliy ut pieavni-f«rnn ot tbv ndaplicatiag olaM: 
■b*t«, 645) Half the I(-nns «lUi |)rlniu]r nndtngt, h'Uva, jirepAnd^rtia, 
■nd ■!« nv* tary nre: for e«iaipl«, Jt^Ofaali j6jo^ti| J^OfattlM, 
j6Jofatfaa (ntbni penaiis do not aceut). With leeondin einliiic*, JAjOfaa, 

tJ^JOfat, anil JL^Of &o «r(> lhf> forinR thai WloB|; noil dtttiD'-tl)' h«t* (ainne 
ditdfeQaa and suqUdaa »te. aia pnthtp* ta«liar aarlati}. And thata li no 
mlddla r«rin but JuJofat« (ftT.: aep tiotr. SlOo) 

b. Vlih niiitr*ii(t)M>iJtd raat-tyllatili> oiitar a •mall bady af r«ma. 
wblch an ippairntlr alao a(«eotad on Iba rvduptloaiioii (lAcraind aximplca 
are fonnd qbIt In Sd pi. mhl ): thua, uA*e, tot example, momueas; 
TavTtat, vlvldat, gOqavat; the onlr nlddl* roiaw an dadhT^ata, 
TtTTdbata. 3d ting.; it'lti o&kramaitta, didhnanta. rurueanta (wiib 
(tadabbantat paprathanba, mAiitahaiita, Juhuranto, vhlth might *1m 
balvnc tiUcwheni: SlOo). 

0. AMenleil t-n ihe ending its TftVfdh&ota *o,l oskfp&nta (wbloh 
arc ntker to be eatlad aDumenlteM plup«ifM;ti). 

d. Aa (4 biitti wltb double n^de-alKn, «r traaafora lo an a^foaJncatUta, 
aae l>rlo«, 81 S. 

BI8. Examples of tk« ra^lar oputive furnation aM): 
a. In alalia: fit ■!»[., Ana^yHin, Jacadtrim, papi-flyUa. rfrlo- 
jrAmi 24 tini,, vaTftjAs. vl-ri^y&a, qu^riifb, babhfkylla; UJ 'Ing., 
Jocamrtt. vavrtjat, tatujr^t, babliiir&ti 2d du.. jacmyAtam. quqtQ- 
jrtttini; lv( pi., a&aahjixna. vAirttyiram, qQguyBma; tM pi., tatanju*. 
TSTtJj^, vavTtyua- Tbe torni* tro qalle aamereafc 


3C. FsKntcT-srsTEH. 


b. In Blildt*, ihn fomi m tov; dumIt, Id ilns., vAvftlya; 2d 
ling., Tft<rT«UiIUiltB, <mkf«mItfaftB ; 3d dnf.. Satcntltm^ vsTi^ita, 
mtotfjlU, dudhuviCk, ^u<}xioiU; In pi.. vftvi-UraKlii. And Maft- 
MffhU *iicl ririflf^tt tp^vtt tv funtl'h Biunplvii nf ptorailT* BpuU*e 

C. Tkart I* DO irta|ulM uod* of roimuJan of p*rfiiet oputirar. In^l- 
Tldual trieculitlUu aie shown by ooiuin faiiu: Urns, cakrijrfia, paplrtt, 
{U^rayoa tod ^uqrayatam. vllh Iretlmcnt cf tliu flml ■• bvfot« th» 
pftutf^-algn ;& (770); annjyftt with ^ll«rt iiiitUh ^l^rltA fntm fvni 
JskflySt I* «iioBa*1ou(^ rirlfoa iu the only form lh*l (Imw* * nuvaB>vo«*l 

■ {viilott >l*<? lll^t, fiom >'•*)• 

61 8> Of lefoJii tmporail'e fom*, onlr ■ Tvry tm*!! Mankor an w 
b« qiiot-r^): aimMTi Ktlve, cSkuidhl, mTftndhl. clldddtll. Utlgdlil, 
mumuKclhf, fu^uKdht, aiid pIprlM: oSkiuitu. r&rantu. mumokta, 
and bftUiatu; mumukt&at ind yarrktami JuJu^V^Qo^ •'"' vftrrtt«a« 
(onlKW wi> *r^ lo add mamoddhj, maraatttu mitm&tt&na): — niM<il», 
vavflOTR and vKVfddttvwn. A*, baa «»«o dudf^TAn. 

614> Aa incBiiltr iniperatlTM niiy ba Ic(^k■>D0d aorcral which ahow 

■ ■kl«n-i4w«l a, nt hat« bmn mnarerrRd Ui in •-tOii]a|aUMi, Such ut, 
In the loiiT*. muiiiia*tam ^nA Jujo^tttoi (U du.), and mum6«atK 
(3a pi.); in ika luMdlc, piprAyaava (only odc foind wlU aKviiOi Md 
D&mahaiiiva, vflvrdbasva, vAvTfasva ('!•! itni.), avil mftmAhanUiu 
(3d pi, : pTtibakly ic %*■ aceeiiird -Abvb and •4ntimJ. 

916. Such lnp«ratl>M *■ lh»*«, laktn in CAnnftlvn with aoiB* of 
0)0 anbjanclivnii gUrn abovo (anil ■ few of the "plnpcrfMl" fom*: balow, 
8fi0), «uigr*l ■■ pUuaiblp Ihe Aaiuuipliun uf a iloubU fiBaMt-aWM, with 
ndnpllcallon and added a (arltli *ti1rh Ibe detiddrellve nntaa irauH bs 
tompaMbU: brlow, )0S8lT ): for rttniplc, JuJOfft from ^Jo^, from «hioh 
WOoM L'OiuH J{ijo;aAi <t«, mi] J{|jofAt« (811 a) a* tMl«atl<«, Ji^o^atf 
tit, t» fnhjunp.tlvalT **fi uigmentUtt Imparfi^ct, aii'l jnj«;«taiii aa In- 
panrtl**. Hodt of Itaa formi fittsa abuTw aa inlijimetlrn yiixh primacy 
•ndliie larji a naika'l aitd conalaiit aulijunttivi! r.biiactni, and vonM |UM 
taltly well a> SnillRntiupa And it ippi'in lolsnl-Iy wrtaiii ihi( fiou *m» 
root al Irul. v^dh, audi ■ <!oublR >t<iin i> ti> bi- lecogiiitBil ; fioiD VlvTdU 
fODia le'dily v&Tfdhato, vSv^dhAitta, and fiom ti iloua can tomo Mcu- 
larl; vAvrdliaava, vkTrdb^to and rKvr<lb&U (anno, KY.)— and, yvl 
mato, lh» particlplo vavpdhiDt (HV. ; AV. vLvflhAnt: an I«oUtcd cua)i 
ret «nn hero *•« hiTt alio vkvrdUUilU, uot vArrdli^Uias, To unUM 
d«al>l« preHnl'tWm*, howCTcr, In all Uie cMSa would b« highly Imptan- 
dbla; It b botlci to tocogfilin tbo tormatlon ai on* bo^un, b«t not car- 
rial OQI. 

». Onlj otiB otber aabjuiictlvo with (lo«bl« mode-fflgn — naaitly, 
p«PrB*>l — I* 'ootid M Mt bMl4e vftTTdhfttl. 

816. Fonna of dllTorcai iii«d«l ate not Tirry trldnm mad* tma ilm 
nmo Mat: fot axaanpU, fraui f'muc, tho aabJuiiciitiM miun6aa*> Ba6nu>- 



I -mi 

obO, tad muEQuoii; honi )'dbn> dwlhirfati tad dadhrfBt*; fni 
^>rl, the iDpcntiTrji plprlhl uiJ pipriy*ava. 



817. Of a.0 nDfcmont-pToturit from the p9rfeot-el«m, tu wbicfc tho 
naste of plopecfacl Is given on the in^und of lia fornialion (tboafb 
not of ir* laoknitifc't ■!>« Wdn proMntB a Tow eiampk'H; «nd one i>r 
two fonss of tbo Ifttur UoKuage . mentioned kIjvvv, 788 b. tiuro Also 
tiaen wifcrred lo il. 

■■ Tbtn tt muub uf Uie tuoc Oifflciill? In dttUiigulililng tlie pluptifeet 
u (be ^ifcet modal (iimu kinclrtd KdnplldaUd [c>rmttluni. Belwaon t( and 
lli« torix, howoT«i, 1 illir«nitir« at rui^inlnit hrlp* U make > Mfittilou. 

816. The iu>tm*I pluperfect ihoultl kbo* ■ ncroiig Mum in tb« ilDlitl** 
u(i*v, Bud I vMk aue cltuwtiftTo — Uiu^, mumoc »iid mumuo — irlih 
Mjpitni pntBied ^nd t«fond>rv «ailinfi &ided (lU in ^'1 pi. id,, at* in 

a. Uf fortDj aitdr xeonlirif to thi> modol. we hiv«. lu tlic i^v*: 

til klac, ajBcrabtiaiii aad aoBonkfam («Ul«b, bj tu tonit, islttti bo 
■Drill: 660): 'i'l t\ag. ijacani iU tins., nj«([ui uid aeUc6t, U do., 
unumuktam ; 2d pi. ^aganta, md AJagnntana md ojabhartaaa (a 
«tr«ng rorm, n ofieo In lii'a pencil- 658a). 'M pi (puthtpi). anu* 
Btandua knd amainadus, Tv ilmu may be iddvd iha kugmsiiilois oAkAn 

ii4 r&rto. oUcMam and oskaram. in tha midflle, tlia 5d pi. aoakrlntn 

<ad nlagmiran (^wllii Imn luBtcid uf atal, md ibe augmBiiUaM 'Jd slnt- 
JugurUiaa inJ tufaptta&a, ire ihc mort tCKUlu taimi la be (ouad. 

616. ?^c\trkl rorva rfum rool* cndltif: ta conKnanU *aii ihc •-udliit* 
In 'Jd Knd 3d litg. mH. br iu*«rtini an 1 (Sft6b): (liu*. 4bubbct|i». 
avivaqli; arlrcsilt, ijasrabblt (avdtvarit a'ld avftvaflt&m ai* rmili«r 
LuuiittTvaj; ind tL» aiuti»«ntlM( jIhiAflli (aMcmtfj u>i! dadbarfll b«1oag 

850. A In" FoTmi iKuw » ticM «ndln|: In m: (h*y a'p. In tha •cltn: 
M stilt., aaaanvjat. adkltat, aeobxat; In Ihu ialddl«: 9d alap., 4p^- 
rata; '2i dn^ ApaapfdhathAm ; .^d pi., atltvlfanta (oliUli by Eu totia 
oalftii t« •otiH), Aaadrliaiit:.i (iid eakradat, oalq-p&ota, Tdv^dbiaU, 
Jnburanta, »ou)'l pi'rbapi hr bMl eUMlSod htra u anfiit*nlt«M forss 
(compaM Sll, abnrr). 

Uses o1 the Perfect 

851. FitTft-cU are qnoMble m made from toon than hair ibe 
roou of ibo laogiiagi', huiI tkijr altouad In ase at avary |M>riod ■nd 
tu aliooit all branofaca of the liloratutv, tbou^fa nut alrftjra wllk tbe 
•am« tuIbo. 

a. AecotdlBft to tbe Ulndn iramuuilani, tbe pwfsd U aied in Iba 

881— J 

Z. Vmnnm-mnaM. 


iHTTalton of Ucta a«l «ttneue<l by (lie Diititor; bui iben i* no evld< 
of tin lifllnit rlikct niclnilielf or dUtlnetlvnly lo cattployed *1 any period. 

b. In ItiB laler InnmoKe, It is simply a prnterit or pMl Ubb*, 
eqilval(!iit witb tho iRiforfnct, and froel; lDt«rchiing««blc or ootlr- 
diiutwd wit}) it. It Id on (he nbola Icia cominoa thun tlie Iniiierf«ol. 
althotigb the prcforuncM) a1 difToTdut Nutlior* mre Jivenc. And It sons- 
times exceeds thu impcirfuot In frociuonc; icomparo 087'. 

o. The pcrfpcto veda nml ah* «re evi-rywln'io u*«<l Hitli praRUDt 
vtloe. Id the Br&hma^ii*. ulso otiiers, espeoiallj' dftdb&ra. also dIdlTft, 
bibhKjra, eto. 

8S9. Ill tbc ttTCbmavu, iIa ditllnctian uf b>ili«-Tkla* belir««n pn- 
r««l and litip(-rr««t la kltnoit allogvlb'^i loot, u In the liter laiiftupi. Bvi 
tn moft of ihe tnu the tmparftM It lb* otdlnuy t«n«* at ntmtlon, tlio 
perb(i being onl; «xcrpiIoaally uni, ThuM In PB., ihr \my<-rfvru an to 
tiie petl9tt» u mora than » himdrnd to nn«; 111 tli« Brihmiriii patti of T.V 
Md Tn., u oiei tliirly-foat ID <'ii«: uid In tli«<)« o( M». Eb •liniii ih» 
unif proiHittlon ; In AR.. *« mare (han foni to one, lh» p«rfa«l appMrlUB 
•nottly In fTsUlii patURU, oiboto It tiliM the ptieo ft iinpflrroci. It la 
oalj In ^D: that thi! porfert Is mnch more oommuiity iiaeil, anil eves, lo 

• c>>iiat4i'rab!* OXtOnI, In 'o'lMltiatlDTi with tti<i impeirort. Througkout (ha 

Brtbminis. hovevn, tfae piMfect r»Ttioif>tei> tiive hi it^tteu] ih* ino "pM* 
fact'' «a1u<i. indlcatlns a eomptolfil or ptaxImitA paat. 

6S3. In ti« VeJa. tlio owe la lerj lUlteKat. tha fiurteot ii umA 
M psil t«Ti*n III namtlon, but only ranilyt •oinetlmpii aUo it lu« ■ Irao 
"petfcri" a«me, or Bisninm * ooiuploted ur pi<iilnii>ie psat [like ibo aortn 
of IhA a\i\n Iiiiguugn; 938)^ bnl o(lonti»t il ha> a vilue baldly or not 
M all dlatlBfultliabU iii point ol time from (ba pittcni. It la iLd* the 
«qiil*aUii( of impeiftM, uotlat, and preitnt; and It Mcun <o<itdlnit«d wlik 
tiion all. 

s. Kxainploa at* . of porTeet vltb pmiiitit, n& fTftmyantl ok 
xav&OKitj it« T&yo d& paptuh (Itv.) (Ary trnu-y h«< n«r lUp, Mey.Ay 
lAw Mr«b; sA M u rig& k^ayKtl carfAQinoBQ ai^ ni neml^ p4ii 
tt bttbhlLTIt (KV.) A« i« fr«(A r»/f» *i'»s o/" mfit; ftr *wiA»-it«» them aU, 
M the tchtri tlie spohtt; — of perfect «lil> aarltt, itpo rui^oe jtitrntlr 
ni s6^H ■ ■ > AbhQd »gaify Buatdbo mintif &9JUD Ak&r Jr&tU bSdh- 
mmAnA tAmAAiil (KV.) iha 11 Mme ^niniH^ iit* a young inititirn: Agm 
AoU of^tartd Jor the Jsinjllnft of morlaU : lAr ^ttlh tnaJe H^hl. iln'rinff oiray 
Oe liarkutu ; ~ nf fi-rttn with (mpaifatt, Ahann ihixa inv apAa tatorda 
[RY.) he ttetc lie dragon, k» pttnt4rat<J io Ut* ii>0t«r«, St)«b a AoiTtlloailati 
M titlft l«ti It ef rQmtant ofouirciice in tbe tatut laugaafe: e. g. momude 
*p^)nyac «al 'ilRm(K,) A* teeu ylnit. itn4 ji<ii4 hon/r fn \rr; vaatrfinto 
jBgrUia okandhade^ff *afjat tas^a arajam (MBh.) tht tcok A«M nf 
U« wiirf of Ail f^nnHif, and droppfit a garltmd on hit tkoiiUwi. 


VjkUBtiHS or AonBT. 


(— 8*4 

[ 297 


^^^ 824. UimRn the nftme of aomt iu« laaluded fw wm 
poiutetl out above, S3S) lhie« <iuile diaUncl fortnattoa*, oaoh 
of which htm ita «ut><Taxietics : nuinclj — 

I. A BtupLR AORisT (equivnlsnt to the Greek "seooDd 
aoriat"), aoalogous in all respeota aa to form and ioflection 
with the impeireot. It h^ two varieties: I. the loot-Koiitt, 
with a teaae-«tem identical vrilh the loot ioortesponding 
lo an imperfect of the root-olaM); 3. the s-aorist, vritb a 
tfoee-fitom endiag in Q i, or with uoioD-vowel ^ m before 
the endinga (correspoadiog to an imperfect of the i-claw]. 

U. 3, A itKi>uPi.K\riN'(i AOKtrr. perhapH in urigin iden- 
tical with iia imperfect of the teduplicntiitg cltus, but having 
oome to be separated from it by marked peouliaritiet of form. 
It usually has n union-rowel ^ a l>efore the cadiogs, or is 
inflected likt; an imperfect of one of the a-<)asMa; but ft 
few forms occur io the Veda without euoh rowel. 

III. A aiGMATic or siiiit..\.vr vuttiKT ;corrtispondtjig to the 
Groek 'firu aorisr;, luring for its teusc-sigo a H a added 
to the root, either directly or wiili a preceding auxiliary 
; 1; its eodings arc usually added immediately to the teuse- 
tdga^ but in a RmatI number of root« with a uoion-TOwel 
9 a; a very few ro»t« alao are increased liy ^ a for ita 
formation; and acooidiag to these differences it falls iabo 
four varieties: oamoly, A. without union-rowul CI a before 
endings: i. a-aorial. with CT ■ alone added to the root; 
h. if-aorist, the same with interposed ? 1; h. sly-aorist, 
tlie &ame an the preceding with ^ a added at the end of 
the root; B. with union-vowel a a, 1. aa-aoriat. 


XI. AotuivsiriTiiui. 

92b. All these varieties are Nniod together and 
into a single ooaiple\ system by certain i-uriespondenee* 
furm imd mpaning. Thus, in regard to fortn, they are all 
alike, in the indicalive, augmeni-protorits to which there doe 
BOt exist any rorreKponding prcttent; in rvgnrd to meaning, 
although in th« later or olassical language they are ainiplyi 
preteriu, t^xchangeatile with imporfccts and perfecu, thefl 
all alike have in the older language the general valoe of 
a completed past or "perfect'^, triuaaliiLahle Iiy /met <ioH« nai 
the like. 

8M. TIm avrUt-tyaiMB tt a Cramailon «( iiifreqaml oeaaneaN 
miirh «r the cbMlnl H«ii*lirit (1>* lonnt an fbuiid, ft» aumple, wt 

(H«nt]r-Onc tlmM Ib ill* Nils, v)|lil In the ltlu^«ita. MvM In JJaau. dl 
each In tha BhagkTMlrQiU xni ^'akanlall, and ultly-iii limea, rr«m (uai-^ 
IMh rMM, tn Ihn tnt boftk, of about Q6W ItliM. ol Iht Bamiyafa: 
paf* n7l>). Bail li ftttttto* no p>rticipl«, ii«t adjr nod?) i^MEepdnf liT' 
ibe pioUbl(lt« uw af 1U anKmenUrM tormt: im 670; akd (h« a»-csllwl 
ptt-taU"' : •<)« 0fil e.)i Id Ih* «Uot laaf«ag*) «n ill* o(lM<r hkiiJ, it I* 
i{«li« comuiOD, tnJ lua lb« •bate rariMy wt bMm btlokgtax to thu priMiiL 
*ii>l •omotlmo p^inlclploa. Ila deaerlp^lMi, a<eoiilln|lf, »Btt bn (It 
naloly a* Ibal of a f*n ot the oldu Unpiife, with da* notloB of It* 
MMhm In laiM mt*. 

SB7. a. Ill ihn BV.. nouly h*lf lh« r«ou OMuniuf ahsw aoctel 
9f on" or aiiuibei claM: In iho AV,, rith«i Un than oae Ibiidi «iid In 
(ilh«r Mxu of tko oldvt langna^o cotnpanllvclj fa« Mwbta om*r abltl aM 
not fMnd In IheM two. 

b. Uuta Uia» aftr raou, In RV. and AV. uigatber, malM Mttai fan 
o( liiura than ona ctaat (not UfcUiK Into account (h« ledMpllcaiod ot "cai 
(Ito" aatit()i tint no law appeaf* lo undotUc thU variety; t-t taj 
•nch aa li Ltnglil \tj tbn B>»uii>i«riani, belVtMi •t4lvr Ot Ml* tJau and 
mlddlr ot aiiolhat m («iT«latltw, ihare ia ro (rata dl*««T«taVtf. 

C EuBplu an: of rUctM I and 4, wdhWtll vnA dbaaas ftOi 
I'dltK, ayuji >nil ayuk^ta ttam fyvj: — uf I aud &, anT^bluiai and' 
asrabhif ma fivm »'grabh, mnthM and marfif^as ftosi fmif ; — 
of I atxl 'i, krta and ll»t froib y^i — of 'i and i, nvidam aiid arlt 
hota i^Tid^jii^, anijam aol antikfit fron ^nlj; — ot 'i aa<i ft, 
ma and asftuifam rtam v''*U|''<-( 2 aud 7- *ruhftm and nrukfat 
Inat ^rub;~»r -t aiid 6, amataua and amadl^iu rt««n >iBaiS) — 
n( t and 6, hacmahi and blaifOs from ybl; — of 1 aad ? and i, 
atnntiL ^ml ntAnnt anil atCa rri>in )'Xuii — al I anil 4- aiid &, mtnxi 
ran in<l &t)tiutsl itid b6dhl|at fMv Kbndfa. iatar and strflya 


I. BO0T>A(HU8T. 


■atorla from Vstp. Ofl«n (be sfoond, or (erand miH tbtid, don b rop- 
i«Kai«d >y only an iMlMcd Torm oi (vo. 

1. Simple AortsL 

828. Tiiin id, of tbe llircie priDci|aI liivieiuot of •orUi, Uw one 
l«ist rfinuvoi] from the xDalogy of fonu* ulrexly explninod; it U 
like an Euiiierfeot, of tht rool-clkas or of tUo A-oImi, wIthoQt a cori-ea- 
poiiiltiiK ]>rei*eiit incliwtive, but with [mare or lees f^meiitoiilj) hII 
tho othor pfirts which go t» mak« np * eomplot« promit-«fitci>>' 

1. Root-aorist. 

829. a. This fotmiition is in the Uier language limited 
to a few roots in QT ■ and the root M bhO, and in allowed 
to b« made ia the actire only, the middle using instead 
the ft-aorist l-li. or the i^-aotist {h]. 

b. The loota to i^ ft take 3n as as 'Ad pi. ending, and, 
as usual, lose their W S before it; H bhQ (as in the p«ifeet: 
793 aj retains its vowel unchanged throughout, inoerting 
3 T after it before the endingH tp^ am and ^ an of 1st 
•ing. and Hd pi. Thus: 























For the oUs«ical Sanskrit, this itt tho whole story. 

B30. In tbo Veda, tbcea ttaio roots arc dot idctlly tbc inost (n- 
qnent and conapiisuoua repreioDUtlvcB of the foncatioa: vKiiociaHy 
tiio roota gftt da, dba, pa dn'rA, otba, bbtk; while sporadic fonns 
are made froin J&a, pra, sH. hlL Ah tu lli«ir middle forms, see 
b«)uw, 634 a. 

a. ln(t<.<>d of abhuvam, RT. Iiu twie« abbiivam. ithP. hi> acan, 
3d pi., LoMaad ot epu. 

631. But HorisU of tbe same class arc also made from a uusi' 
bor of roota in f, and a few in t- nad n-vuwdU mhorl or long) — 


XL AoKurr-srsrKMa 


ginm. d&rgaa. yamau. No nUiUe fonui u« oUmIOb^U wlit cfrBi4M<m 

e. The bcKu bliuvuB, bhuTU, bbiivaU bfadran. Mil Uiaranl 
(eutDp>r« abhuvaio: 630 aX miiA ihv l*»Uied qrnvat, ara of d»Dhlful 
hdvotltisi i irtUi * dllTcccnt t':c«nl, lb<:y wosld icen to b* of tte ti«« 
cUs*; brtc, » cuqm>Btrvii^«nlng would t» mon rcfvlu (bsl note ik* 
ftbWUK «r gUQa 111 Uia Mibt tii<llo«ll*« aad Iho p«ifcei oT I'Wifi), 

B8T. OpIdlTo. The aptiii>e tclWc of |U> untu con*Htii(«i, wllll 
i B luurpoacd hctwetn mnd^ilin ind rctioiMl endinei (667), tho p(«e»> 
live >ctf*r of ihc Uiiiilii cTamrimrlftiM. aii'l U tll^wi^d Irj lb«rn to be made 
rtoiD uTtry Tfitb, tttpj rtmfnlxlng no eoniiecilmi bct'nen H anil tha aofM. 
Rui in <h« 2d ilnr Iho Iiitar[>i>t«il ■ l« noi dUlinsuiibible riom lk« perMBil 
oiiding) ■n'l, bH«t tlw auit«al p«ilod (mw 888). the ondlnR crow^ «uttltc 
ribllani In tka M alni., vtiich thai «>mM (o end In ytt lniu<4 of ftm 
(Minpar* 65Sa). 

A. Ill (bs »ld«« laiiKuaga, k«w*v«r, par* npullvn farm*, wlllMnl tfa* a, 
•n nu4e Itra thli tunw. Krum iDOto in ft ocovi [wiiti (ban|« of A to ■ 
ImSim ika y: 960 d) dojKm, dhAjrIlin and dbCTua, (ud sth<7Am«; 
III u-Tvwoli. bhQyAina; i" fi krijOma; in oo»«onftnt«, a^yltm uid 
aqyima inl a^yui, vrJy^m. <;BlcyA.m, yi^yiva *nd yn^yjittin, aUiyA- 
ms, inil tfdyus. 

b. The optaliTC mlditlc at the toai'turtit It ant TocagniMr) by tba 
Ulnda RnuDuticiu at mihlng • part of t&o pce(Btl*e fvnnitloo. Tk« BV. 
hu, bwp»v«r, nv pueatlvii fnnns of It, n»maif pUliftA *n>l ranel^a 
Much ai»tt> oo«nnon In thr oldM lan(0«f« i>r« pnrp opuiii0 forMo: ximelir. 
Btt%yh and aQlm&hl (thli apuiUa I* eapndally rommnn). Indhfy*. sralya. 
muriyA, ruclya; arlta, uhlta, vnrlta; Idhtnahi, Tiaflmalil, naM- 
mabl. prolmahl, mudliuaKi. jramlmahl : and pn)t<ibly, fram t-roou, 
aim&hi ind dhimahl (vblch ralikt tUo he kugmcatle** tndlcati**, aliu* 
odfaimabl lod adbltSm mlto occur). All ihsM rormi nevpt the tbrM 
In 3d )ina, mlghi bu pcitr«tlTA ■onotdltig lo iLb gan^ral undcnundlni «t 
that niNlc, M belnc or y«nona wblch ckd by ihe nattve auihoridu aie nvt 
filaloied Biat to exhibit the liii«ttod >lblUii(. 

888. i*rpratlTi> actlT« tftinit uT tliii aori)t aro auila fmni tlla eafUMl 
pi'dvJ »r tha lanpivo. In BV,, ihoy do doi ttnrnr from any r«ol wMch 
bu not alM oibot M)tl)t rotns of the lamt cltat to abcw. tta BV. Hotni 
aro- 111 tin;., bhOybuun; ?d alaii,. vrjiM, jfioylB, bh&yta. nrdhyCa. 
satayM; f)il sinjt, (In -yu, r<ir •jraat; KV. lua no 3d tine. In ySt, vbldi 
1* talar (lie iiiilTenal I'lidUic). aTyan, a^jrfia, |y{Ity&a. gamyu, dachyla. 
poyaa, bhAyd*. ysmyM, ytiyU, vrJy&»> qrOyfta, ■■byiUi; let pi.. 
kriyAama (bMfd« krly&ma^ 6S7 a). AV. bm >u l*i pei*ani oiag. la 
-yAsani, one 3d In -y^a, oao 34 In 'yftt (and ono la •yta, la a KV, 
puuja), tbnt III •ydama (beOile one in yima. In ■ H\.p*m*gt}. 
■n4 tlM ti bbdyOstha (doubilui a ral*c Mading : TB. hi* ^ata In tli* 
eoriMpondliig piM!ii«), Froni tfals Urns on, ibe pui* oputli* fonao uufly 




■ppMr (tke eiMrtlon* ire giren In 837 a). But ibe preutlie tormt u* 
bvWs raiamon, oxoplint ■* nudo rroro ^bhQ; Hsd tram nn oihni t>>M 
uyifauii UVr t (o<np)olc *crtu of pcriaai t(uoutile (miIv bhOjUva 
■nd bhflyiBtAm bsluc n^iitini;: &n'l the**' t»« pMMM hata do irpmcai- 
Uir* bom aoy toot)* All lo^etber, Mtlic optitlTc or piccaliTs (oiuu an 
mad* lu Uio otdBt lanjnikito riom qi«i Sfly tqoIi; *ad the epic and elMakal 
taxfa »dd th«in too* batdly « doion mont: ••« rarilitr 086. 

B98. Inptiitivo, laipM*tlt« totaa> o( tb« tooi-aorlK wc nol nr« 
lu (hi- fitly lknfn*f«. In the nlildtt, tn<l««(l, klTn<>tl only Ika '24 jUr. 

occur*: It It >i.'c»iiMd tritlivi rvguliily, oa tbe undiiig, la kfWfi, dlliST&, 

yulifvi, «i on ika mat, h mitsva, yikfva, vAfiava, rJtava, B&kfvai 
dlfva (iid mMva ms n«t roimit with ■ED<nI: tbr 'i'\ pi. i> r«prMBn(ad 
by kftUtTsm, ro^ram. Iti the Mtiw, >!! tb« pinom i?d and 3d) am 
fosnd in hh; cismplM ar«; ?d aint.. kfdlif, rfdhl, QOcdhJ, frudlll, 
K«dU. yaihdhf, gahl, mUil, sAht, mogdhli M *ia%., gaditu, cUtU, 
ftfto* ^rotu. a^tui '2<1 do , dAtAiu, jitAm, fakt&in. ^rutAiu, bhutim, 
•PCUm, Kat&m. rlktiua, vofbam. alMin, aut&m; 34 On., only gaih- 
tftm. d&tam. ve<piiin: "M pi, gftti. bhatA, qrata, kfta. gato. data. 
db&taa&-, 3-1 pi., only dhantu, ^ruvantu. 1'bew aie ibe ni«M i«ru!m 
Iorii)>; but irraiutarltlet la Id bulb tr«ent and iircDgiliealiig aru iiM infn-- 
^Dont Thus. ■Iron; runni In ^ dn. and pi. ir« jtaibt4ia, vnrktMiD, 
Tartam ; kirta, giifata (one* BaAtft). jr&ibta, vartta, beta, f r6la, afrta ; 
inJ. wiih tanA, k&rinna. gJulltnna, ymfatnna, aotana. and tie tnccalm) 
dhetana (^dhU); tn IM do,, E^iiitAiii. Much mon mrcnlar ire y6dlti 
(Iii*>«*il oryuddhi) from ^jadb. aaj bodhl from both t'bndb and f^bfi 
(laMMd or baddbl and bbfidtaf). A (Infle rorm (3d dufi.J Id Ut Ii 
foand, naMaly (AoUlt Wc ftnd Iqpdhl ilto UMt (Mltb. BbK). 

a. Jki in 'Id penou ilnpiUt In si norei the tlmple tool nted In -aa 
1bP«im1v« aeiuA, ■«« abore, 6fl4. 

Partiotplee of the aoot-aorlat. 

HO. In Uio olilett Unguafe, of th* RV., an foDnd a nurnbdr of 
pnrtlciplos wbiob muii bo Mckooad a« belODiriBK W tbU foriuativn. 

a. In ihe Miive, tliay ate ni.tiDin«ly f«w: nanaly, kiiat, oltAnC (T), 
gmaat, atbAat, bbld&nt, vrdbiut, dyutaat> (oaly to coaipoaKtouj, 
lod [irobatily pdh^at- And BhP. hu mptant (but ptabahiy by cnot, flu 

b> In (hr mUdJc, lb«y *i< In ItV. aucb ni^rii numoiona, Thfl a«Ma( 

UiuuaUy on Uic Dnilot iht Ueai: ihai, arlMiib. Idbftna, krt^ joftfA. 
tnlfji^ nidtnA, pifijil, prcAoA, praUttnA, budb&nA. bbly&aA, 
BumAoi, moDdanA. ji^UiAi rucaaA, rlpftiifc, ttO^, oro^ gubb- 
ftoA, aaa&na, aurftnA oi avinA. «rJftnA. aprdbftnA. bly&n&l-'bai 
•omoUmM ca iL* rotxtiyliaMD : ibn*, duua, oj-AvAoa. ruhft^a, nhAna 
(pm.?), rAaina, yunbhana; — «liiH ■ (a* *^v both a<c«uivaOtitu 

840— ] 

XI. Aoai«T4TaTn8. 


(flompirc 816 d| ibai, dnftai aad dtQ&oB, dyvtAai >nd dyAtOaa, 
7BUI1& aad jr&tAaa ; uid eet*II« «iid brsyft^a occur duly lii compiwltlaa. 
A vair torn of ih«M u* loaaA -Aitt ot l«lce In Mbui ttiti, ntmcty olUos. 
dynliiu, rahft^a, viMKaft. auvftiuti xiJ -kupatu onTun oii«« In 
KfiM. (ilT. as. «), 

Ml. All tofrether. tlie roots ezblbiUng in Ui« oldof Isn^agv 
fonns wbich art) niih fuir probability to be rockooed to Out rcmt* 
aorUt-ayatem mM about a Imndnd and thirty i over otghty of tfaen 
mtk* suoh fomu In the RV. 

FuwiTO AoriKt third p«noa ftinguUr. 

842. A midillc third pi^rnon liTij^ulnr. ol' jiot^uliar fomiatinn nod 
ptcvailinelf puelvp meaning', b made from muiy verbs Id tbe older 
Imi£||K|j<-, and b«.i beomne a regular part of the pAaHvo ouigugittioii, 
being, accordiag to the gramtuariaQB. to be tubttituied always for tbe 
proper tLird iwnon of any aoriet middle tliat Is iwed in h puaive 

848. This person is formed by addiag ^ i to ilie root, 
which takes alao the Augmeai, and is usually suCDj^thened. 

». Tbe •nilliijt 1 liolong* viifwbMF only to Ilia lint pcMon; «nd ibU 
ihlid pedon appcrenlly «t«n(]i in ibu tame raUilun to ■ Qnl te 1 u de, 
111 the middtn ioi««, [he rognlu .'Id tlnic. piArfant, and >]m lh« ^qtuKl 
Vcdlc M ting, pieecnt or tlio noi-claii (^18), whUh ttn Identical tn fM« 
wltb llinli reapecttro 6tti imnoni. Tb>l ■ f«U«r enilliic bi.n b*«i iMt alt 
i* extremelr iuiptobahlej kdA honoe, w an korlut fornifetiDu rroni th« iIid^ 
rant, Ihta I* inoit propDrl; ln!tt«d horc, to Mnnvctlon •tltli Ilia oidinaTT 

844. Before the cadiog ^ i, a final vowel, and usually 
also a medial Q a betoro a single cooeotiantf have the vfddhl- 
■trcDgtlieaiug ; other medial ToweU have tha guQa-strengtheo- 
ing if capable of it [240]; after final ^ lk it addod JT y. 

a, Kianiploe (ill '•{ ilitm >iiioubli! (tain ibo oldet Ixngahgv) are' 
ttoin lootanudlng In t, Juflayi, AdhiTi, &pft]^l: In Mb«r rowvU. &fr4yi. 
ialhvi, iihAvi, Utftrl. Aat&ri; — from roolt wuh inndUl i, u, f, a«Ml. 
ioohedi, a^efi, ibodhi. Amoei, ArQJi> &dar^i, aaarjt, vaxbli freni 
roow villi msdial a *trfi>iti boned, as&mi, &pAdl, apAmi, avaal, vftpl, 
Aaftdl (tlicM *» all tbe eullsr canct): irlih ■ unclianx'^l. oiil> ^aol (and 
HT. liiiK tioiiv J&iil), »nJ, III h>?a'y tyllibttM, Junynkf), vandi, ft^<Vt^ , 
ayandl; "lib Bi«dIol a, AbbrAJi, Aradbi ; — Irom root* with [nttUI 
TMTol. Irdhi [flnly nut). 

l>. Actvrdiu^ ID tho ccatnniatUnt, acrUIn roeu in am, and fvadh, 
letain the a. unchaaieJ: (|uoUlil« u« ajani (ot ajKiuj, ogaml |ur ngfttnt). 


Siupui AcmsT: t. b-aomht. 


uvanl, KTSdhl. *Ifo Kruil; und th«r« m noiuil b««ldrt, from lonu 
xDinallmci ihoirlnc ■ dimI, Rda&fl, Knunbbl, arwadhi, tOambhl. 
abbafUl or abbSli, Rtunblii («1«-*r>i «ttli praiia^iUuTig) or aUbbi, 
■aUmbht; fU. hu wn^fi. 

C. AncmmtlMs tatan, oa Id all othrr likt rmm, irc met witli, with 
cllbvr IndlckClr* Dr Rnbjiinnltni vi1d»: «ian)p!w [be«|ilr« tb* Iwn oi thina 
ftlrvadr flTsn] ue; dbijrl, qr^Tt. bb&rl, r«fll, v4dl, rool. ]4al, ptcU, 
•tdi, ardbl. The tcrrnt, wlinn pieiont, is alwiTi «a lh« rwit-«ylUbU 

S4A. Tl>ew totjD* iro mnitt in RT. mm tony mot*, (tid *U ibe atket 
eullet uiu eornblDta sild only ibout l««atr lo Uie aumt»«t: from th« 
UlM b*(<**g« an quotaUi tbltlr <t rorty nurC} In &e opt«« iksy m 
DM'It vnknavn. IFhoa ihcy tohic fi-'im toiU of n«nter mntntUf, w torn, 
pruli rad, bliriU, ridh. ruo. BaAJ> itiey l»Tei (tlhc tlie bo-uIIoiI potUa 
putlcipla >a tm- e&2) » 'kIu* p>iiilTal«ut t» Uut sf oilier mlddl* t>tnt; 
la ■ u*« >r twa (RV. vl<. 73. S['!j; T8. uvlil. 10; TB. II. C- 10*) lh<.T 
>pp4ai nta M ba u*ad trKniltlvaly. 

2. The a-aorist. 

846. a. ThiB aotiat is in the later Isjiguage allowed to 
be made from a large aumber of rooU looar a hundred). 
It it made in both voices, but is nue in the middle, laott 
of the roots formiog their middU accotdin^j to the s-cUm 
(S78(r.) or the i^-cliun (808 If.;. 

b. lu closest analof^ is with the itnjwrfect of the A-etuM 
(761 ff.); its infleotioa ia the same with that ia all parliculata; 
and it takes in general a weak foim of toot— save the tools in 
S r {three or four only), which have the go^a-stieogthening. 

e. Ai example of infleetioa laaj be taken the root 
frn aio jtaur. Thus: 


i. p. 



d. p. 

fcalfiftva ietoma 

ialcftTahl ialoamatil 

daloatam Aaioata 

yiH^miH^ yiH'I'JIH^ WIHriyt^ 
^ioatb&e asloctbAm &sio«dhTaa 

» Mimn^ 


4«)oaiam 4slo«D 
r. Onvaar. 1. •«. 


IW Irtwi1«i aCOIa imM It 1> pmm»i w M0ri«t 

§gmm* mm b»m tftm «fl>W ikM «M wt > « tM»l nu: 

i. 4. p. •- * 

t irldwn 4TUtvk ivldkia* ivldti [irldftrsfai] . 

1 iTidM Avldan [«TidaU] \v^AMkm^ 4i 

A. Tfc* aUAla <»mt *r< r>n Is cho cuUm tknc«>(*, m Ib 


SuiPLR Aobut: 2. a-AoaiBT. 

[— ssa 

b> A«g«enllcM formt, oilb Indieativ* AT M(1iJ«lM*lt« value, ara nol 
lafro^aVM. Bminplv*, thowloie acnul on th« leii«»-«lgn, •r.roHliig to the 
ftti^rtl tn*)«jttM cf ihn rormaclnn, iri^: nihAm, Krpst, bhoj&tv Tid4t. 
■rntain, voo&tA, ftik&n; vidata *nd Ty&C* ($4 »'i>||-}i «riLmKtil, 
qlfKnulil. T-idinta, bndliinta, niTVanUt (for eicepUtm* u r«pnl> 

Uodes of tbe a-aorlBt. 

84B. The *ubJun<;tS>B fDirrii of (bl» (oiUt ant fev; tlioie wblnh oMiaz 
•m ta>lMiO)d bet««, lo the nctiioil •hlcb -wit folUwcd toi tbs Indtcatltt: 
1 [vidaT»1 vicl4ma [Tid&mah«] 

I {"IjI^' vid«Ui«B vidatta 

] vfdit [TidStilP] 

a. TImi aniliiii Uiaua I* found anee. In rlfftUuuiK. Or mlildl* foroi* 
OMot otil<r i^I^tai (AV.: bQt doabtlfu mltrM^iiii! for •^l^yktU) and 
^IfKixiAho (W.. far RV. ftfanubi). The fonn a&dathaa ff«iDi •■! iaiit- 
aXiir, nikito from a w»tiitti prMntit-ilain, 

860> Tfae optatUei aio tew in tbe oldi-n lau^uaKt, hui becomo more 
bvqonnt, ind in the Ri&haiBi|u *>« not nru. Bi*it>ptw »r: in u-tWe, 
bbldeyom, vldiyun* sao^ruii (TH. ones sauem); vldAe, Kanio*-, 
C«lii«t, TOeot; Ram«t(un: soniAnin, QAkAraa, aanAraa; vaT«ta; In 
mlddlai, (0"ly) vldnya; f[«niitmBhl, vmietiialil : ruhethka «ic. In Av 
■piM Dlilt be vlaaM latLer ki pTe>«nl fonim «( tbv i,-iiUti. 

•. A Onglo iDiddla pr*c«llva term oc«Ut«, aun.itr vld«f(a (AV,, 
onte); It it BO lioliud t^al bov mnek raiy be Infamd from ft I* tctt 

B61. A tompli^tv Bcdci of adits l(npcittl*« tomii ite made bom 
l^ead (lucliidtnf BRdataiia, 2*1 pi.), mil tba rnldlt« sadHJitAin. Oib«i 
iDiperaiinct tte >vry rant; nmal]', ■&!!», aAra, ruha, Tld&; rubAtami 
Tiditam; khr&ta. TS. h*a once vrdh&tu (conipaie 740). 

Partioiplos of the e-aoriBt. 

BOfl. m. The artuB partlrlplw tTP^t. rifant ot rifonC. vi^hint, 
^If^t, 9ua4at. a&daut. and (in |tiiticipi>l tMiDpaunda, 130ej kftoab-, 
gi^uuit-, vidant- (all BV.), uc to be aMlcnod vltb pUuiibillir lo ibU 

bt LSkewlie the middle ptnt<:lp1ei gufaAtn&na. dhfiflkni&na, dAaa* 
mina ('i), pftitinlaa, f uoimiiia, and prtbap* vrdhAaA, arldUaii. 

IrMgularilieB of th& a-aoriat. 

BBS. A fov Irrpgnlaritii'* »'•& p«(uUariti«a n»r be nutlccd berr. 
Tbt! loota In f, wbich (S47) *hn« a il(«ncibai>tnf llkn that of Uiv 


aes— ] 


pniMi of >k« OMfccnwd ••«]»■, hfn ifkrwit* tbe toctnt upim th* 
tMikU ■rlltbU, ltk« tlut clut: lb«», rrotn vY, Jtrftnt* (*a|oianil«u 3d 
pi.). B&rat aiiil s&rft. Tt)c (oui sad (allows ika umc nl«: (bu, aAdib* 
tam; tii<l trvm y'm^a ■>« (aund kkiiM >nd •4&at aad BAnttnu *nd 
afcno, t>M)<l« san^woa ■ml aui4i&i>- H t> ijuaiiiaiuiilfl wkeik«c Uim*. 
aW n«i tiu« •lulcignc* of the bhfl-rlut (tiiiKcinled A-«lu)]| t»K*«ttt'«TM«OL 
Oa ih« aib«r baiiil, r&bat (beilie ruhAm, ruliAra, ruhitam), fffat 
an<l ffiCUi (1), viil rifant or ri^ant u* motn UoUt<?d tjjm. la il«w 
•f *Drh M thcM, the (oiBtB from tlu auni Uliiva ■ad frClW (836 c) 
ua p«rtj*p» u bo refened hithar. From fVao, (he opUUrv U aoccaicd 
Tooiyam. vooia, vooAma, voo^TUs; hImvIidi* thv »i«out 1«»d A* w«i- 
fylUblv: tbu*, v6o«, vAuat, vdoati, vboautk 

S04. a. Tko (tern too bai In Voi\t nio woll-nlch utnned ih« 
'vtlao of > root; lla formii an rery varioui and of frcqUFOt uid. In |tV. 
MpodftOj fat outnauticriiiji In oi^cqitcikw >U Mtiec fona* rno yvu. 
BMM«i thoi* *lnMdr itli«n, w« tni vooft (In ting, im^i.) lad roMtl, 
TOoAvabU; vocohi vovojrot TOMmabii TOoaUt C^<l *iog.), Toaata« 
Tooatatn. vooata. 

b> Of th« »l«ai no^a only na^at as«ire> 

0> Tha KUt ^kn (» in toin* nf It* prMont Am*'. 689) I* woaleatd 
10 qlf, and mik** a(tfani' 

8&5. Isolated forma wkloli Uave moit or leaa voMplelcIf it» 
atpeec of Indicativo pr<M«nU iiro made in the oldo«t langnago fmm 
gone roots beside ihe aoriitt-syeleuiB o( tUe &nt two classM. U mant 
bo left for malurer rRtii'uroti to dvtnnuine how far tlix)- may b« n>lies 
of oTJ^'naJ preaenti, nnd how tttr recent prodootloni, made In the vaj 
of conversion of tht Roriit-ateni to a root in value. 

a. Surh fonn* *rt Itie faUowIng: from yitj ntcfiii, k4rql, kfthas, 
ki^ba, kn«: from \'g»m, gathi: f'om Vol 'jalArr, catl; from I'dA 
^W, diti, dMu; from ^'dh& /»«, dhatl; dcm yp* iJriitJt, pdtbAa, 
pAotl ; from v^br, bbortl ; from ^muc. muc^tl ; Utm >'radh, rudli* 
maa(v); fiom yrrt. vartti. 

II. 13] Reduptjcatetf AorisL 

ess. The reduplioatdl aoriat ia diifeieal ftom the other 
fotma of aotiat iu that it hm oome to be attached id almost 

all cases to the derivative {causative ete.] eoojugatioa ia 
WJ &;a, as the itortst of that conjugation, nnd ia theiefoto 
liable to be made tiom all roots which have suoh a conju- 
ga,tioD, beside the aoriat or aorieta which belong to their 
ptjnutrj' conjugation. Since, however, the ooanectioa of 




the two is not a formal one (the aorist beiag made directly 
from the root, and not from the causative stem], but rather 
s matter of establishiid asHncimiun, uwin^ to luDsfaip of 
meaniog-, tho formation anil inflection of this kind of aoriat 
is b«8t tteated here, alooft with the otheis. 

B&7. Ita chaxactcriiitic is a reduplication of the ladieal 
Bjllat'le, bj whirh it is aaaimilnted, on the one hasd, to 
the imperfect of the reduplicaling olaas (656 ffl), and, on the 
otbet hand, to the ao-oalled plujwtfect [817 ff.j. Rut the 
aorisi reduplication has taken on a quite peculiar cbarncter, 
with few traces left even in the Veda of a different 'lon- 
ditioa winch may have pieceded this. 

6B8. B. As regards, indeed, ths consonant of the re- 
duplication, it follows the gcncnil rules already ^veu (seoj. 
And the quality of the reduplicated vowel is in general as 
in the formations already trcatod: it oceds only to bo noted 
that nn a-von-el aad r [or nri arc usually (for exceptions, 
aee below, 860i repeated by an l-rowel — as they arc, to a 
oonside-table exicat, in the rcdupUciitcd present abo [660). 

b. But in rcgnrd to quantity, this aorist aims always at 
ettabliahing ii diversity lictwccn tho reduplicating and radical 
syllables, making the one heavy anil the other light. And 
the preference is rery markedly for a heavy reduplicntion 
and a light root -syllable — which relation it brought about 
nrherevcr the condilioas allow. Thtis: 

859. If the root is a light arllable having a short 

vowel followed by a single conionantj, the reduplicauon is 

made heavy. 

a. And this, usually hj IcnKthening tho reilupliMling vowrl, nilli 
I for mdi^Kl « or f or ] :\a tbe tln|^« it<ot ront&inli^ tbst <row«l|: 
tlint, aniifom. adodn^am. aJUanam. avlvftUiam, aoIk]);iam. I'bs 
grcnt majority of n-iJupliratctl acnl«t« *re of t}iiii form. 

bt If, however, the root t>«e<nB with two eoaionants, so tkat ths 
roJupltcAting lyllablo will lio lioavy wbatevor the qvMil^ gf Its vowel, 




PI two fn»u 1- and n--r«ot^ «i(b gm^ii h*tMt ibt «n<iDg' iIib*. ^f rkTUa, 
A«uo;aTUB, a^HQtmirun, luiufams; bnl ■!•» ftblbtuOu* (V^O* *"* 
Dlnifiu (MBbJ. 

868. In tkff tat^r iBngDii^, » fflw roots are uid by the grun- 
Kurimti (i> make thi* aotiit «n a pari ot their primary conjngnlloii : 
ihej aie grl and gvl, dra aad aru, tLam. und dht «urA (gvi iBd db* 

B. In Ihs oMftr luixvif* are ftiiiiii) fratn >''Qri a^i^ret anil aqlQTftTUS 
(aot]««d in tbe pr*r*illng itin^Txph) inil ftflfrtjttt (^B]; rrom ^dm* 
adudret uid adudruTat (TB. : oot uxd uiorlnl); trum v'^ru, aNiurot 
uad (•ii;riiMiitU») auBroa itiid aasrot; from ykua, aolkomet&m biiJ 
■mantn (^B.S.). or rain» ■nilogoui irili thvt^ urnur ■ URinber tioni iMttjJ 
In u or u: thai, anunot md nnnot from >'nu; Tuyot ftooi f'ril.' 
M}Nir«(«; dt^dhot ream ^dbil i apupot Ironi )'pu, tOtoa and UUot Ccun 
(■tU; aati^at from ysd; — uiil on* at Ivo rron rMtt tn 1 or 1 thua, 
ai^l rmn c'al (or sA] &iW-, aralin«t rrom fmA brilote; aplpren (with 
apiprajmn, notlcad abovaj frcnt VprI (ui4 iba ''rropRrfnttU" trem dldbl 
etc., 676, ir* of MRMFOnitlrif fcrin). And (roci ^'oyu k(« nud*, wiih 
a 111 If vowel 1, ■oa(>yaTlt *ii<l acuoyavltana. Few I'f tbue fbrnu pcvMMJ 

■ nceo(»ii1f canialUn at *. decidedly lotittlc vkIup, uid t( li TCTf doabtfal 

wheifaM they itionld not be utixnad w iho peifoci'STiiein. 

b. FtDm tie Uwi Unguiga tte i^iiotabU) onlf a^i^rlTat at«. (9d |L, 
•yan oi -yus) *iid adadruvat. 

Uodaa of the Bodttplicat&d Aoriat. 

M8. a. A» in uUtcrpreturit fonuatiDDBtUioauginoDUofa ia41catlva 
|Mr«OnB or this aorist ard used aubjnncttvdly, aod i\ity ate rery mli 
moi« rrofjaear thsu true tubjunctivea. 

b. Of tij'i Utfr ate foiiii'l onl; rlradhB (lit >lB8.)i UtapLet; 
oIk}p&tl >i>il elifadh&ti, and plspr^ati [at if comafvndlne lo in indlc- 
tllv* apiaprk. liko a^igaat]; tnd p«rUp« Ibc la aliif. mid. qaQTae&I. 

o. Tlie ingraenUcM ladie«ti<a form) ara a«e«nted tn eanaral «ti the 
icdupll-aation: Uin«, didharaa, nlna^aa; Jljanat, plporat; Jtjanajitj 
•l)o affvap; but, on the otter band, wo hiio i\in puj^at, QlQritha 
and qtgnjithat. anil duttravat iinl tuft^vat (wtilcti nay p«tbpi belonf 
to ih« pcifect. •Mta^m 610). Acioidlnf iq tti'^ iutlt« puniuTUna, tba 
BMcDt T*«ta altbsr on tb« ndlul BTlItbIa or on the on« ibti fallowt (i. 

870. OpuKvo foTBia tro t^fn rarot. Tha iMut iiDMlbuabl* UM U' 
IhH mUMIi- "precativc'' rirl^Iffa frlrl^lal* <>■* ba-'n raiikod tboie wtlb 
■*'"t't|f. aa * pftrfcct: SlSb). Cuoriivimahi aed eacyavtrata ba- 
tMi( atUiM h«r« or id lh« fo;ruci-*7*«>iit. 

671. or (mputatlioa, wt bave tba loduMtablu ratmi pupuraato md 
TivratbanttL Am) Jlcrtim ^inl Jt^rti, and didhrtam *nd didli|t4, 




•nd J«JaatAm (■II KV. only), ud p*ili>pt aufQctttt* (AV.), wa to ba 
toreircd ItlilKi, la torti^pomllns in ibi- Indluti^*! (wflAout nal(n>TO»e]J 
^^OT uii BdidhAr: tliolt tliail t*do|]lliiill»g voiml mai tlii<It iceet 
Milmilila Ihem cIohIj to Uo redDpll<iU«i] im^jfeeM (850(1.), wllb whl<ti 
«F nt prdbabi/ tf> r«|;ar't thli loiUt U ultliaae*)^ i«Ut«d. 

87S. Ko participle it (ounil belonging to tlie re<luj>tieftt«d aorjM. 

879. Tbe Dninber of root* (tarn wblcb tkia aorfet is met vith 
ia tbfi Mrlier UnxnaKU b Htwul u huiiilred and twesty. lu tlio lat«r 
8«inkrU it i* uduru&I; in the fttrieo of lau-r tattn uentioned above 
^M] It occnn ool}- twice; and k baa been fouud quoubl* frooi b«r(lly 
ffty Tooia la the vbalo ejiii; itnd olwiaical litftruture. 

til. Sigmatic or Sibilant Aorlst 

S74. a. The <»>inmDn icnsc-Hi^D of all the rarieties of 

this Aomt ia A H a iconveitikle to 17 9: 1801 whicb is Added to 

the root Id formiDg the leDae-stetn. 

b. Tlila alblltnt baa no analoituea auwiif tb« cUii'tlfui of Ibe ptMent' 
ayatcm; bot ll U to be cotnpirFd uith thai •rblck ippoii* (an4 likuvtiM 
witb «t wiUiftiit ibo aamo nnlon-ioi'Dl 1) In ibo item* »f lh« tanira l«nae- 
tytUtn (93SIT.) ani] of tbo dMtilantif* cunjuvatlon (1097 ff.). 

o. To the loot thus increased the Augment is prefixed 
aod the secondary endinge are added. 

S76. In the case of a few roots, the sibilant teOM^teiD 
(ftliraya endiag in cf kf' is further increased by an 9 •, 
and the ioilcctioa is ncftrly like that of an imperfect of the 
secoud or a-coojugation. 

876. ». In the rsat majority of ease«, the sibilnat is 
the final of ihu t«Dse-st«m, and the infleetioa is like that 
of an imperfect of the first or non-a-oonjugalion. 

b. And these, again, fall into two neaily equni and 
stiongly marlicd clashes, according as the sibilant is added 
immediately to tlie final of the root, or tritli mi auxiliary 
vowel ^ t, making the tease-aign ^ I9. Finally, before ibia 
^{it the root is in a very small number of cases iocieated 
by a ^ a, malting the whole addition f^ BI9. 

877— J 

XL Aousr^nrsTEMs. 

SI 4 

877. Wo hare, then, the folloiring oUeaificatioD f<or the 
rartetica of nbiliiot-uoriit; 

&. With endiags Added directljr to Ltic sibilant: 

4, with T{» Bimply «fier (he root: «-aori8t; 

5. with 5 1 before the R e: Ig-aorist; 

0. the same, with H s at end of root: slf-aoriM. 

B. With CI a added to the aibilaot before the endioga: 

7. with sibilant and CI a: aa-aonat. 

a. A* regtnU Oxe dliiinttlon between Ibu Tonnb ind lltUi fbfmi, ll 
■aiy bi; mIiI tfi ■ ^ncnl way ihit tlui*e rooU Incline to take Ihu auxllurir 
1 In iha •aiUi vLlcb Uko It >l>o In aihct roiiuktloii* i bat li ti ImpnitMc 
U) by dawn an; ilK(>t ralM i* to ItLit iiMirtUDC^. Oompaie OOS. 

4. The 8-aortBt. 

B78. The lease-stem of thia aorist ia made by adding 
TT 8 to the augmented root, of which also the rowel is tuu- 
ally eirengthened. 

870. The general rules m to the gtreogthcning of the 
root-vowel ate these: 

ft. A final vovr«l {invludiag R r] ^^^ the vrddhi^change^ 
in the netive, and (excepting |T r) B^PA >n the middle: thua, 
from |/^ laittiy netive stem WN aiiBi^, middle stem Tt^anof; 
from yV qra fi^ar, ^tW^ a^r&uf and ttWIPt a^ro^j from 
ym kT mate, SRiW akSrfl and ^RTT akr?- 

b. A medial rowel has the vrddhi-chauge in tlie active, 
and icmaioB unaltered in the middle: thus, from yW^ otiftod 
seem, active atem Ql^TRT aachKntfl, middle stem *1':4t-H 
aechanta; fiom KTf? rto haee, ^^ arftUm aad wt^ arik^; 
from r"^. rudli otmiruct, *A\\fH argute and *X\y^'A aruta; 
from V*^ erJ pour out, iicn^ asr&kf and CIRiT narM- 

BBO. a. The ondings are the usual wfondary ones, with 

us (not Wi an) in 3d pi. act., and ^r{ ata (not OrT anta) 
in 3d pi. mid. 


StmLAttT Aosnr: 4. ft-AOKin*. 




b. But before H b aad FT t of 2d and 3<I siog. act. u in 

the Utet lan^age always iaserted aa ^ I, making the end- 

iogs ^ Is and ^It. 

C Tbli im^rtlon U nnknoirn In th« culIcK Iiii^«|c (of the BT.): 
•M bolaw, 868. 

881. &. Before endiiv* beKinumK with t or Ul, the teD>e-«i|n> ■ 
U IS33«-o! uiDitMd )tft(<r the HdbI cODsonant of a root—uefms (Iiis 
Im r, or o or m ivonverwd to *auavank,'. 

!>• Tti* aame otniulaii It uf o(nit%* uj>d« bofon dhvKlQ ifui b eoM- 
MMbl; ini) aRct < loitd Die ^IblUm it eJcber ctDtiK'il or iMlcntlaitd [tbe 
aqnlTRlencc or dhv *n>) ddhv in tbo ibt^orlDi of Ac grkiumaiiim *cd (ke 
piftdiee or tb« DiMiDiurlpri mikoi It linpoftltlo to aay wliich: 28S)i uid 
th«n the anding Immdim (}lman. provided the itblUnt, if rMaiuM, wmiM 
b«ve boen f (290o): tbnv, aMto^vam ani RTf'^vUD (k«>idc a«tof- 
sta »nd BvT4Kta)i if^^vasa (^df regard: i^t., Daw), which !■ I« 
dfthAa (2d aiuc) ■■ aTi^vAm and avnKta io avrl >nd aTrtbas; *nd 
kr^hvuQ (M.). 

Oi Arrordlni: la (be stammttiiM, the «mlB»lsTi or b befiire t kiid tb. 
ttkv* pIao« iJm afUir ■ thurt rawwl (th« <■■* on oneur onl)r In Ih^ ^ ind 
9d idif. nildOi but we Iiivl- io«u aboiD (634 R) iliit (hu I* to be ilewtd 
r*lh«t u 1 inbttiratlon Id IboM p«i>0D> of ibe fonu* or the rartl->orl«I. 
Kdllliar tn th* eulli^r nai In Ibo later Ian guige, howeTcr, dosa lOf cimptc 
oetnr of tn ieri»>form with b tftiintfd after a abort *ow«l btsroto thcio 

d. All4r Ibe flnal lonaDi atplratA of a root, ib« ilbUaiit b#foT« ibe 
aama cMdlngi 1> iitld bf tbc lllndn giamiairlana to diMppeat allogctber, tbo 
eoiiitiinalbn of ih« a*plrsi» nlib lb« th or t itf tbn vnilinc belug thiin 
nud« aco'iTillnit la lh« oidintry inl< tat Hacb uMt (180): Iboa, from (be 
Hem arHuta, for arlDdlf*, b midn arAuddhft, u If fioin krludb-t-tft 
4It*etly. No ciuppla ef aucb a form ti quotable froiu tlio lltcraiiiitii kat 
tbr comblDJiiion t« aaiabUabsd liy ibe tuciamtct of oUiw abtitUr cum 
(999 1). In lb* Diiddto, In llli* naoiiM, ■mta '^ta becoiuM amddbo, 
M tr ftoo arwl]i-t-t«i bni all »u<h foim* Umlt aUo of WUik nadwaued 
u af Iha nwt-aoibL Tboce thai bare batn fcnnd t« oeout ware kItw 
•hei« (SSft^Ji ptDbaMy tbr]r bolong «l Uan In port u tkl> aoHal. 

m. Ttqu tho tbr«>e iiaail loota gam, t&n, man ar* oiailo ibo 2d aud 
8d tiny. mid. pettoua ocathts atid afaCa. atatliBs and atata. and amata 
(amatb&a not qsoublr^, rvctoned by thn nul>c framnarlaua a* B-idtiac 
tttma, Mado, after looa ot Uittr tnal ro»t-iiaa>l. vltb t«M olao of tlw aiblUat 
aflar » ah«n *ft««l. Tbnr am d4iibll''W baitnr ><>f«R»4 (o tbi root-aoriM. Bnt 
JB. boa a ootTDipinidliif Iti Biii«. aCa«l (rata J^taix. 

882, Ag examples of the inflectioo of Ibis variety of 

eas— ] 

XI. Aou»T-«rSTisHa. 


MbUaot ooiiirt we may uke ihc: roota ^ n\ had, and f^^ 
ohid aa off. Thus: 

I. i. 

1 t^ffp^ yM\v.\ 





d. p. 

5l%7iri^ Mr'^rM O^^TTT 

&ooIi&ttSftin toota&itsra icohAitsou 

ioebiiWia Ao«bRit>*m icchnltta 

: M'^rtftr^ q^TTTq^ Ht^ctJM^ 

&ech&it«1t iochftittfiia Iwohiitma 


mid dip. 



ie«bltta Aoohita&Uiu 

a. Prom ^nidH ofob-tu-t, tho 3d aud 3d ilu. and Id pi. net. and 
the 2>l iui<l 34 king. mid. wuu1<l be iriuddtuun, dr&addhlni, 
Arauddhii, fcruddlian, iruddhn; tv>m csfj poiiv out, &«rAf(mia 
&srBf(&m. aBTftftft. aant>iAa, oarfta; from i^di^ ***. »drftqt«ia Me. 
(m from ofj'. Bui fruni ^Icf <fo tbe »□)« pflnons In th« oeiivu are 
Uarftam. iUtfotAoit ikAi^la; (mm ytKattrfteA Uiey an fctUatun. 
itAAsUliii. AUAsta. 

8B3. Thn MnlHiia of a In tho kgUt« ponona (i«oliUtt*m, iecfaU^ 
Unti AoohBltta) U a cut of vea nte oocamaeei >ll the quotable bub- 
piM >Bre si<«n *t)0 1 e (fiSS «). Ai to Iho Uko oniittnn in inU'U» pCrtOH, 
HO SSI. Th* ciiL'. hu tvUo AvUstam for avata-Um. f^^voa dtctO): 
tbi* miT be viewA'l is mnMtitt rttt o! total dU>I>p6iiriii<« of lli« iJbUuU,, 
and o»a«cia«nl iMloratlon a< Ibe On*! ndletl to (U origiiist ftraa. 


SiMLAxr Aobut; 4. ••aokist. 


B64. C«rUin raols in * nenken the t in middle inllectioD lo 1 
(4a aI»o in the root-aorict : aIm>?«, 8&4a:; lhea« aro aaid to be etliAi 
M, «D<1 dbft; Id ibsDldor Inoguage lixvu l>eeu outMl idlfl iiiO udlfuta 
from fdt git^ iHuil uU^ perhapt oiion Trom i^d* iiti<f . mdhiqi uod 
ftdbifata (will) ihr optndvo dhlfimi from fdhft fiul, and asthlfatfti 
Kbo HiEmtbu and Bglfata tiom VRA </» iwltli *dlil!. 

•• Tbo midOlt inUactioD uf tlia aorist of fdlt w»uld bo, ihrn, 
uowdltig to tlie ^ammnrians: idlql. idlthBa. &dlta; Uii^ahi, 
iullfUli&m, Adifit&iU) Adifmahi, Adii^vam, Adifnta. 

98St K«ot* «ii<lii>g In changMbk f (>v-oaUod tovu In f: S48) w« 
mM t7 tke pnumtriut* V> MBteit thi* towoI u ir tn uikddlnlorTDa: Uioii, 
aaUr^a aatirf^aa cm. (Uom )^Stf); of aocb (oru*, ban****, liaa bwa 
round ill ilie uldpi Uneaife oiil) KklTfatn, PH. 

886. Tbu B-narifit is mxdis Id iIjq nldcr UiDtcua^ frotu about a 
handreil aad forty root* i!lii RV.. frosi nliout neviMitf) in AV.. from 
about firiy, of which Aheon ue addttiooal to tboM in BV.j; and tlw 
«pl(i and olnailcal llleralare adda but a rery atnall aaiulMir. It has in 
the VodA cerulB iiecullariiit'B uf stem- formaiion and iaflection. nod 
•1*0 th« full tttie» of iuo>1a« — iit vhich the optaiiro middle ia re- 
(alMd alto later u a part uf the "iirooative" (but s«o 626 b. 

887. Irreguliirldu of Btein-forinatloD lire iis follows: 

a. Tkd ■iii-ti)(ili*ning oT tho tooi-trllkUn U bow (nil Uicti liTcgulatlr 
made or omttied; thu*. ajrokflt (AB), obetsla (D.:^.; lUo otccn Is 
HKb., bu (anbar yotiUa), rotsia (KU.); amatanaiRV.), ayftiiial 
and u«u»l (AB.). wUtfl It'-, (V.n. : I'm!!), mUiata (AV.) tnd mLAatam 
(TA.): lopalyk (D.>; uid Mllb. hw droRdhia. from |/b^ !■ nado 
nankflt |1'. tu.}, tnd fi«in r'meJJ. am&Akfit {doi quoUblo). Tbo fona 
ayunkfrnabl (tthP.) \» daubllM* ■ fil»e tuaJlnc. 

b. A nAlcil filial tuua) u loit In agaamahi (it^-) *nd gaaitliBm 
(T&.) fmtn v'cam, *nd In lb* opt*tlT« mMil;a siiJ voatmahi (RV.) 
(Ton ymta and ran. 

e. Tbe r«ota hO. dhfi, and ntt have ft ln*t*ad cf o In t)i« mlddta: 
ihiia, ahO^ta, ndhufata, anfi^ an^l an&tfttAm and antlfAta; V'<^iu 
(oc dhOrv) makAt adhdr^ata. 

A. ^B. hu OBM KtrSMttdLia for atrtBtflxo (Vtrt). 

888. Tlio principal pnculLarily of Ibe old«r laBKtiae« in r«Kard 
to iBfluctioa It tlio frG<|U«iit abaenoe of 1 In Uto oodlaga of 3d and 
3d ilfl^. Oct.. and the conacquent lo^a of the coiuonjuit-eQdi&|{, and 
agcttlimcia of rout-fioula ^IBOi. Tliu fuma wilbont I arc the only onue 
found in BV. and K, aod tbey outaQtnber the otlidrf ia AV. iiad 
TB.; in tfa« Brahiawiiiis thi^y grow rar^r (oulj ono, adr&k. occiin Id 
OB.; 0D«, a;a4, in KU., aod two, adrak and aj't. lo (JH.; PB. ba* 





8SB. IT th> roM asili In • ra«al, anlr the Miuo(itai of ib« ■ndlnt 
1* B««cMulty l«M^ Uci, aprKa (fvr bMh spria-B t»d ftprA»-t) rran y'prt; 
kS'l tn tlk« uuiiwr abOfl rntn t'iKl; — A)W> (>to' ftJUf-l) tmiB yjl; ud 
la IlkF ninitfi aoliB fr»B t'cl, »i^ nUs (kuenioiill(«i) Tiam l^nli — t»A 
jKiU (foi syftn^t) Ircni yya. 

m. Dul (m Im Bthrr IU« cum : 688 *) l^n cndlnf li aom-ilfliHi frmtt- 
ml (I tW I'lpedM of iha idtue-tlg*; «ii4 «e bare In 3d dnf. ^JUt (b^ 
ltd* aiaiB >nd i^JUflt) ftocn r%'. uid la like Kuaei ftcftit, b^tU^ 
ahUt( nUt ('lo BiMiplo htTo bnen nat»l eiccpi tna Mola in i aad i)r 
(o&ip»i« ft;&s anJ vte, 'H king., 890 &. 

BSD. ■• It tke roo4 (^In tilhBr iti almi>l« cr atrDiijrtbeapd fom) naia 
ta ■ ovaaokwi, iU« w »> 'tlgii li tot wlih tli<^ vndiBg. That, «bbSr (te 
abblr^t: i^tii" Rbhaifun, ■bhlr^fAm) fina I'bhf -. oU«>r tik* umi 
aro abAr, and (rrom louta in kt) akfftr, »t*Jkr, asTAr, hvtr. Farther, 
irltiX (006 r: tot BX*ifct-tJ rraiii yrto; lUu tawa m aqvUt tro« 
^frlL, and (from loDU wlUi meillil u) adjftut frcira l^djut, arAot b«« 
fYudh. wA mAuk (ton l^Uue. Fnrtbu, fiotn root! tudlng In tiio pala* 
tail and h, aprlk trottt t'pfo, asrUc from v'«rJ> *bhlk f^«ni ^1)1)^ 
•drtk fi«K K'<lr9< AdhAk rnm vdah; but, wiih ■ iliBenm cbaaet of 
Ibe Bnkl, ay4( (loro yyhj, aprtt T'Oin V'PF'it)- AvKf finoi V'*^ **^ 
aarCf ffom ^'afj; and (aboTo, 140 a) arOa ippfi;! w lund rnl^'A fn AV. 
for ar&9-B rtoai >'arJ; KV. bu alae twleo aylla (ton l^yaj. Pttrtbtt, 
r>oin rooti endlag Id a niul, «Un (ion ^tan, IUiAd from ^'IchaB, agrftn 

•ad ui&n (toiD v'vYwn ud nam (148 a). 

b> ir, astlii, Uia i«oli cii4 In a double 'MiMBiBt, the Ullri ft ih* 
two I* la«t alent "111 t«a«»-*tfn and cndlnx: IbnB, aoollKa (for a«eh&]it«-t, 
btatdo aeobKotta and aoehftBtaua) rioro ^ehaadi and oUim lUo cMoa 
«ra akrSn. atkAn. and uySn. 

8BI, A rcUe of tbtl pcoiUuItT «( lbs Aider inflkrtlon bia 
piMiirvad to iha laiti lantnafo in tha 2d dog. bbAla, frem I'bU. 

Uodea of tha s-Aorist. 

8@S. The ladicatlve twtnit witliout aDgneot are it»ed In ■ nub- 
jtinntlve ■eiia{', espe«Ullyaft«riiUt prohibitive, and art* not sncoma«l 
ExUDptci with accent, bowovvr, aro cxtJi-nii:]}' rsro; tboro hat 
Doted only vAAal, coidille: jtulgloK from tliia, the tons wonld tie foun 
on tli« radical itj'Uable. According to tlio Ilindn gramma riaaa, it may 
IM laid ou eitiier nwt or ending. 

683. Pro|>er tubjiitictive forms are sot rtro En KV., but 
naTkcdly InRA ootninoa In t\t« tn(«r Vedio toxt«. and vary aeldom Rif 
with In Uio Brihma^inft. Tbey aro regularly made with giu>a-a(r«RKtl 
eiklnjc of l)i« radical vowel, in liutli acliva aad laitlille, anil vritb ac«ent 
on Um no*. 


SiML^iKT Aotuar: 4. •-aobist. 




o«fnti, par^ti, pto&ti, maitMtl, roif^tf, vkkfAtl, uk^ati; d&a«Uuu, 
dhlMthM, pirfatbas. vKk^aUiM, varqatbw; pABstu, rftiluatA*. 
rafefMM, v&kfOktas; dhAsnthA, ne^atha, pirfnthn, m&tafttba; — 
In aild<J)«, nm^U. mULali; m&AMSo; IframMto. tri«at«, darfits. 
ix^uto, jftkfaU. risaU, vaAsiiU, Bik^t*. ba»«ta; triUitlie (not 
trBaAltbe, m ve *li4uld iillier aipccl); nAiiisuitc, m&AiMmte: and, 
wiU ihe fall"r tnJtnfl Ui 34 Hng., m^AUi. 

b. Tbe fotim «lili i«cou<I*(y endinig aie [actlte oiiIt): jA(>B, v&kfaa; 
dii^at, n^f*t, pAJcf&t. pir^at. pr^vat, yUtfat, 709ft t, vAAaat. vU^t. 
T^vat, sAual. chanttat, oc?. (<qiiic ivcMy i>(|i«it)i jakfatdiB: tU* 
■Ama, sikfAma, Bto^&ma: par^an. yaihaan. yofan, r^aan. vakfaa, 
y*^>ii, prdfan. Of thcw*. yakqat ud rokfat si^ [uaud not Miolf la 
till Bnhnuijfti; anf olhnrf, liuitly nxirc ihiii apDMdltttlr. 

6S4. or liteguUritlM aic ic bp noiad ib« lotlawlDg; 

a. T1>e rotms dfkfaao uxl prkfofa (^ (iiic. mid.) lack ibc fXUfM- 

b. J*fam> etofam, uid yofam (AV. yQ^ani, «lih Q for o u tn 
ItnBtata rU.) apppai (0 b< ftrit ponona ferniad vndar saTernmatt of iho 
uulacT b( ihe lerond iml Itiifil — uiileia lb«y bm rallei a( t aUU of 
Ihlnga aautioi ta thn Tfddhl-iltonfUicnIn;: in «htr)i em* Jofma la to 
b« cainpared vltb tbam (we iliould expect )Alfiiia «r Jofitna). 

O. FtDiB wot* Id a arc made * Ttw form* of prnbtwuitle obarattar; 
MDeljp, jflfam (onlf caae 111 RT.], kbyefam. Jfiefam, fefun and 
ga^a, de^ma, Mtfam and aat, athefam and atba^ua. Tli«t[ Titue 
U opUtlia. Tbe tnilof) of Jefam and JeflOa lugitMta tlia poatlbfilly at 
thctr dedntlati Itom i-forma of ihu ft-taau; or lli« •IlilUni iDl|bi bt ot 
a picMtlTS rhsractci (llim, y(L-i>B-am) Thai iboy roallr b*loa( la tba 
if-a«rl>t app»(ri liifbly iupiobablf. 

di Tbe UV. baa a ta« dIfflcuU Bnt paraoni inlddla In h, «ht<li aia 
peibap* b*«i noitd bera. Tbay ar«: t. Itom (ba aiaipU tr«t, kffs, Ufa 
(ail'] ohi^ef), atufft; % (ram pr«aFni--)iaiBi, aroMe, f^tH^ yijaae, 
Clyl|«. BT9[%A and ptmtfi. 7\ey btvn tbt talUi^ ol IndUsUre pKacnI. 
Caupare below, S97 b. 

89&> OpIatiTC fMm* o( diia aariat are mada In tV middle aniy, and 
Ikcy bavo In ^ and 3d alag. alwayi tba prccall<e a before the «iidlnti. 
Tbuw tovtii lA aoanr la tb* otdvr lingtiaiea aia: dlfiya, dhiqiya, bhak> 
fly4, maaiya (for taaOavaJ, makflya, rftalya, lopsiya, a&kfiya, 
BiTfiya: ma&ei^thAs : dst^lq^, bhakfi^ta. maAat^fa, mrkflffa; 
bhak^Imahl, dhukftm&lii, maAaim&lii, va&Blm&fal, voaimahl, 
■akflmUil; maAairata PR. bt* bhuk^iqtya, wbioh thoold belong 14 
a 8tf-««i.aL fb* IIV. CoriD tv^ltbam (for ti-toiyAthtin or tTAaktham) 
la an liolatnd anoKalr. 

a* Tblt eptatlve fnale* a pari a( the atirapted "pMoailTe" of ihc laiar 
]iii|uaj(i: ice baloa, 023. 92fi b. 

Bee -I 

XL Aobist-vvstemb. 

S80> Impanllte petMu tnnt ibli miIsi an citKmrlf tug: we fla4 
tt« 3il *j«g- kct. nof a iikI parf a kod tko 34 ^ 1. yaibBata vliftn a-n*iu, 
•nd ihvwing ralkiT, ttKitttcro, > tr««tw«nl cf th>- Mtrttl-iteai »s • MMt)| 
tad iba !U «ia|. told, ruat&m Md pi. raaaiitlm [oi whUti (ho 
at*; ba Ml 4), 

FartioiplM of the 8*aorist. 

607. a. AoiItb paiiUiflM at* d&kfat or dhik^t, *ii4 aikfai ' 
(both BV.), 

b. 1/ |4Jas* faWio, 8H d) >■ U hn Ndi*A»d i* aa s-aofUt form. 
rft]aa&n& la mi B-ioiitt ctrtlfltrlc; «iid of • klndrsd ibtticttr, appirentlr, 
*if ar<]a«&n4. 6baalna, jrayatAn^. dhljsBan&. mandaBioi. yamm- 
sftn^ rabhB«aii&, vydhaaanA, aahaaftxifc, qavaa&ai, all in liv.; with 
namasan&, bhly&aana. Id AV. In BV. tnun alio onm dbifamA^ 
appuonilj »a a>r»nn ot an a>aariii of i^dbl 

5. The l«-»oriat. 

808. The (ease-«tera oC Uiia aoriat adds the ^«oeral 
tense-sign n ■ by help of a pTcfixcd nuxiliarir rowel ^ 1,J 
making ^ if, to the root, which ia usually stieagtheiied, 
and which hint the nugmeni. 

ese. The rulea ax to the ftticogtbcniag of the loot are 
as follows: 

a. A final vowel has Trddbl io the active, and gti^a ia 
Lhe middle: thus, fT^f^^ ftpSvlf n-nd grrfl^q^ apavl* frot 
Vl pQ cleaiue; OfTTfT^Rarif, act., from kTI ty pan; MVlPjH^l 
B^aylf, mid,, fiom yljH fl /i>. 

bk A medial vowel haa guQa, if capable of it| in both 
Toioes: thus, y^fsil slogi?, act and mid., from v'^^ 119 
fear, VfJTTTI arocid from }qyj ruo sMne; ^!^^f^__ avar^lj 
from y'^^rn rmn; but 53TR7 ajlrt^ from j-^TRI jiT Jiee. 

a. Medial Q a ia Mmetiroes lengthened in the active; 
but it moic utiually ictnaJns tmchangcd ia both Toioca. 

d. The iwti ifi xh« older laatniso ulilcti iko* ili« longiliMilu ai*^ 
kan, tan, nuo. stan, avan, ban, vr«), sad. mad. oai*, tsar, avar, 
Jval, <laa, trfts. i'loai raa, »an, krun, vad, reJc^, «ad sab *«cdi totmt 
ol boUi Uud<. Ftniu riuatb ot mantb tr* ami* iba tvo atatni nattUf 




000. a. Of etccpHoni mty bt noifiA- i^rJ hu (u n]»«b«r«: 8ST) 
Vf<ldlU intiMd of BiifK: tlmi, amarji^am ; ^Btr t>u astarls, •ii'l y*^ 
hM aQuU (ilio eijarUt in AV.), with gugji in acUTr. 

b. Ibo fooi grabh ot crati bM (u In future ctr^, below, 836e, 966) 
iMif t Iniw^d of 1 iMrDrc ihc tlblUtii: ihiM, «er«bhifm«, •srtthift** 
acnibU(Ata. Tbe loou In cbangaablo f (to-called noU tii f: S4S1, u4 
^VT ■>" •■t'l Iiy '^° giunmicltiK 10 Jo ib« Mino optionally; Imt no f&rua 
witb loP| I fmn tnilt not* hate bwn roon<l qnotabk. A SQtra (F08.J 
bia anee SOftylft* ^^ t'Bl (daBblltKi a faho readini'). 

901. The endings axe u ia the preceding fonnation 

(3TI us ami QrT ats in ?d pi.). But in 3d and 3d nng.. 

the com1)inaliona i^-e and if-t aro Tiom the earliest period 

of the language contracted into J^ ta and ^ It. 

a. Tbe 3<1 p^ mid- iboiild end nlwaj-s iu l^bvan (or 144i>*i»*>> 
from If-dbTam: SS6j; and tt>la li in fact tbe fonn In (be only exam- 
pl«a quotable, namelf ajanlfbvmm, arti^Tois, Blndhl^livam, v«- 
plfhvani; u to tbe rule* of ike nail re gritimiariaiis rrtpeellaf tlin 
taattir, aee ftMo. 

90Z. Ai examples of ifie iofleclion of the l^-aorist may 
be Ukeo the roota 1 ip^ chanse, and ?ti budh waAe. Thus: 
attlT«' middle. 

■■ *. p. »- a. ^ 

emlwT^ *vi \ Uu m\U'-^ Huf^fy MMfHyP^v u'll^'^I^f. 

Apftvli^am Apilvt^va ap4riqni« iLpavlfi ipavi^vnhl fcpnvifmahl 
ipSwto 4p*vJ4taiu Ap&vitta ipaviftUa &parit4Ui&m ipaTt^bvata 

m \ 'i \ '\^ oTTfTTTn ammiT^ wpjvj mw 'j h i ^ wmmh 

apAvit apftvif(aiu apartfUB Apaviffa 6pBvlf&t&m ilpatrlqata 

fRTiTpPi^ BWlfira a^f^jTT »jg"?r-jfq qgifeqf^ y-^liyimi^ 

AbodbifaindbodhifTa Abodbifma Abodhl^l ibfxlhlyvabl AbodhlyaalU 







SOS. Thi! nsinber of roota froin wbich fonm of lliU aoiiat liave 
be«ii noted in tbe older laDgtuge ia nearly b hundred and lirty |io 
RT^ about eighty; ia AV-i nore tban thirty, nf which a dox«a are 
adilltloual to those in RV.); (be laur texts add let» than ivealy. 
Amwag thoae are no roaU la S; but othcrwiw thoy aro of every 
variety of fom (rareit In final I aail r. Active and middle |>«rM»i 
are fre«ly made, btit •pariagly fVon the ume root ; only about fiftaeu 
Whilaojri dnmoat. ). *i. S| 




roots Iwra both uilTe muA middle torm* hi Ihd older lan^ftgv, and 
of Ihitae a part onlj aiMplimallj in tbc cat mles or (be olh»r. 

■■ No nlo A]>p»an to foveni tke eboke of bm^ betvMB Ifc* 
If- auti ibe a-aortat: aad In tio aBall luniibvr of c—ai Uie aana 
•howl fonna of both c la »a<» . 

804. IrtennUrftlM ua u> k« noticed u tol'.nwt: 

a. Th« MsincUd fonu Kkrunlm, agrabttlm, and avadbbD (nrlli 
aagmanllM* TAdhlm) an ftnud fn 1« tlaf. t«L 

b. Fot 4«artt »tcnft la AT. ^«rUt; tlao (U • part ot Uie nMBuerlpti) 
QarSla far Qails; ac^aJiAlfun it (ftand In AB. (alao ib* iiMaMroiia torn 
^•RTRbbaifam: tmSOl i). AJaylt, *lth th*it 1 la Ue milmt wnr* 
la T^. 

C AV. haa once nadiftbAs, vlthont (09*. 

d. Tba foTiM ■ttrtma (BVO. aTldlraa (AV.), ia4 MdtaltbAe 
(TA.), ibowA tkej Uck Ue Ubtliat, aia rerhip* l« be ntmcd to thU 
MiriM: eoaipara ■vlti, 006. A («« atinllw ■?»•■ occur Id the splci*, uid 
in of llk» dosbiral ch*racler: thu. J&nlUUa, mSdltilia. VUtlUib. 
faAklthla, tiU (Um oouttTe: 1048) aghStaylthAa. AgrbltCm »n4 
KTMUiAa and Kr)>I^ 1' *ot falae readlni* (or srl>9'-f *'^ prohablr 
lirafalar piMenl-(oimklli>n(. 

Modes of the ty-aorist. 

MB. Aa usaal, auainvutlpM ladlcaU*e (amu of ililt MTt>t are man 
ooBBOii tlun proper lubtunctiTca. Eumpli!*, ot all the paraona fowd Iv 
oMar (tai lixluiilng &11 (hn (ccnntai] word)), are. In tli« ■rlJTi'L 94Aalfani« 
vidhlmi m&UUs. v&dtils. yiilB, aivia; Avit. jAnrit, mAtbit, vfcdb- 
It, v*qlt; mardhlatatn, dofiffain. hiAaif^am; aTi^tAia, JADlftAm, 
bAdhlftSm; qraml^ma, vidlaniBi vadbi^fa md Tadbiffaaat mBth- 
Iftwa, hlAalfVi; hvArlfas. Krithisiis; — ia tha mtddia: rtdhlfl; 
jAalffhiu, inarfiffhiia, vyAthlfthU; krAmif(a, Jinlffa, p«vif{a, 
prAthlqta, mAodtfla: ryathismiibl. Tbe acteiii 1> on iba iMtHyllibla 
(Iftlifiaa, AT. ODCP, ii i)oDbtl«u ad cnar). 

000. a. Of iubjiincttr« f«rini «lUi primary aadlai* •etm mly ike 
lit tint. ■<!. daviaAni, ksd the lit pi. mid. (wlib nntircn^baoad O) 

yftolfOmahe loJ Bini^Amabe. 

b. Farmi wlih taMndary endLnga are alnwH llmttod to 24 and Si 
ling, tf', Tli*n ire tnuni: a-rifas, Icanisaa, l&rifaa, rakfi|aa, vAdh- 
I9M, TidlH*> v^ifM, caAstfu; kitrifat. Jambhi^t, Jfrfl^at. 
takflfat, torlfst. nlndlf&t, pirl;at. b^dhlfat. mArdhlMt, rAeifat, 
yodblfftt, rakflfot, niDifal, Tyathifatt ^aAai^at, aanifat, lATtfat* 
Tbey are mtde, It «til b« nailcp't, vltb eniire retalarlty, by addlax a Ut ibo 
tmaa-ittni In If b»foia ib« vndtuKi- Tbc only mlirr pcnoni fonnd to ixrur 
are tbe 3d pi. ■'(. aanlfaD and ntld. ainifknta (ind J». hti Yantfanta. 





tot tho pt«bl«aiitib raaufanla o(RT,). wlileb ue aUo regvlit. Bb&Tlfat 
(All. Dime) Ir « tollLniT «>tQipU of ■ forin villi don^l* Ri<jiio-«tEE> : oislf- 
(hnt [RV. ; Sf. iimwftd Jinlf^hal] tcemi b«prlei*lr cotrnpt. The ndleal 
lylUble fttviy* htii tha ftr.crni, ind lu vowel UMiilly fturoM* with thir of 
Uie liidlrati*!): but wu hkvo saa- in the luhjniiRilie ^kiiiit ss&olfani 
(w to coy- *nd riui-, ion holow, 908). 

907. Tba middle oplAtive of Utia aoilnt tUo fonna ft part of tb« ftC- 
oei>l«'1 "pfAAallvft" at ilio liur Unia*K« (623. (KU( b). 11 it Toiy r>r« >t 
(II portoOi, being made in RT. from urilr Qte luun, «Dd [b AV, Ttom two 
nf Ui« iiniA u»A {tnra lbr»« tddlilDnkl «ne» (nix of Ihn alglit htv« other 
l^-foTiDi); ■id tha rfmtlnliig t«iii xld, ao far u tiolkvcl, only four othtr 
rcrat*. All th« formic found lo ncniir \i<< ai fdlcwx: jaoi^ij'li, icdhlfiys, 
•dhlsiydL, ruclqlyft lud rooififa, gmiqiyft; modl^iffhia; Janiflffa; 
vftniai;t«; sahi^lvBhi; idbisimah1> edl)M(lmalil, janifinahi, tAriQi- 
mnhi, mandlflmahf, vandislm4hl, vardbl^Lnihl, Bafalflnuthl *a<l 
a&hiHimUt. Tbi^ nnceni la on the eiidhig, and thii wuitUI lead ut la ai- 

peol ■ vrtak folm nf loot thro1>g^ont; but iha oaagn In iLU Trft|ioet appvaTit 

to be Tulniu, atid th» ooaca aro loo tew to allow of tcttlng up any nilc. 
Tba forma Jftnl^erun and -7a, ttom a lacondary i-ateiD, mkut In K. 

908. Of impnratii • fnrtna, wg hiT« from |/aT a aetfM : itunely, 
avi^^^I, dvIb^u, avlff&m, avlti (If thi*, aa a«cina probablr, ttand* 
au<itniloiiily far avl^td) aud Bvlf(Aiia; iwu of Ihaatt an of uiimiitakabty 
liii|i«ia'lTii foifa. Oihei forma o«ar only In 'ii ilu. and ?d pi., aii4 ato 
accordingly aach aa inlghl also bo pubJUDctiru uacd impstadTdy ("blch 
la fnnhar madn probable for (wn of ihrm by tbdr iccrniuallan on thn 
ioot-)TU>blo): thpy an kraml^ttun, gazal^tam, oani^t&m. cajt^tuo 
Cm^ainit aoST^^m), t^f(Aia, ^odbiffam, vadbi^fam, qnathiitam; 
r^l;taaa (acAiTisi aiO^^ua), gnatlil^tana. 

900. No worda having a participial oodlng after If aro foand 
anywhtre to 00c nr 

810. Thi8 fs tho oaly aorl«t or which TimnB an mado In Itio 
seeoDdar? and denominative eonjngntiont: «« below, lOSb, 1046, 

6. Ilie Bi^-aorist. 

811. Aoooidiog to the giammariaae, tliis aomt is made 
from roots in cn S [including ITT mi Jir, ITT mi [01 ml) damage 
and ^ IT cling, which substitute foime in ft), and from 
*{R nam fiov. 7]R yam reach, and jrt ram be eoHlenf, and is 
used only in the active; the corteapoading middle being oF 
the 8-form {B7eff.j' It" iuflertion is precisely like that of 
the if-aoiist; it is uancceuaiy, theo, to give moie than 

en— ] 

XI- Aoni81V8r«TEH8. 


its first persons, which we may form from the roota Tn jrft 
ffo and ^ nam how. Thus: 

*■ d. p. •. i. f. 

iyAatfam ^yBBlfra iyAelfmti Anuhst^ajn Aauhsifvm inadiBifma 

eu. »«. elo. ttc. trt», etc. 

9)9. The •Jf'>o(l«t ta ptopetly onlr • «ii1i>fi>riD of lk« if<aotfiL 
bitliif lh« wnte-ilfii uii »ndliiEi or Ihu IttlH idded lo 4 form of toM 
inetDued bi *n hHaA t. 1( It of extNind nrilf In tbi oUar l»M(iiafa, 
Iwllll nt^Q in BV. only tnat ih« idok ga ting nrxl yft y«, aad In AV,^ 
only from hft /«irw, »d dovbtlM* kIw rrom ^yt. fill up u)d van m«»1 
(•M Mov, ei4 b); UtB tMniluine uMar l«iu add JiiB knoK (R,), Jfft otur-T 
fi0iMr, dbyt tkink (fB. odoc: ihB oitlii«n rM,d»-db&-). *ud ram htt^tt* 
Uttt (SV. : • bid TWiMt ror RV. rtolya); »ther ArtbrnaBi fotut wblob 
mlfbi b« >1m or tb« t-Mnin we adrftait, avlMlt, tad ahvlalt; aad bliiik* 
flflfa (PB, S.] nn)<t ti« r«flu<]«d m *n anaioklnui r«nD>ila« froa> I'bfaaJ, 
■nloM wo prefoi lo (dniU « lecsiulary root bhukf , llko bbak^ from bb«}. 
In tb* l«t«i Uiignign hati bnnn rnnnd i|nnu)ilc fcnra otbcr rcou only glials, I 
adhmlait, aniiidult, npftslt, mllMs, ari'l amnftal|ua. 

ft. TLo puticlfU haaaiD&aft tad OBUutiie Uaayanti (RTJ thowi 
Ui*t bU b4d Uioiutd, oien ot ■ *«ry «u]t p«d«d, the ralnt of i *«f«ii> 
d»rr tiM boddc hH for «tbet fomu thtn tho koH>L 

013. Tho «hal« *orli!« of older ladlcxtlra fonnt (imlUlii^ u denbt- 
fol, th« U ind 3d tlni) la u fotlowi; ■ctelfftm. ftj&Aai^Eo, ajas- 
t|am, adhy&ai^Mni a!7&af9tAm> ay&sl^VAni; iuii&ai«ma; a)fiaal|;a, 
A^asiq(A: actoifaB, aySslfUa (U^Iqus i» fT^ia \'a3t^ aUaiii)- 

a. f nimii williDul auf iDUiit arc ihi^ir : J&Aalf am, roihilfam, hlsl' 
fami hasi^^m; htsif(Bm; UUiftai liAalftia, K^Ifiu, JOlalfus. 
Tbe icccni nould di^ubllces be upon the ruoi'iyllsblo, 

914. a. Of propn (nbjanctlTM uo foao'l iwo. gftaifat and jdalfnt 
(both KV.). 

b. Optaiiv^ ■!« not int( TiT« : nimaiy, yUialfftiaa uid pyaaiBimahl 
(for vUeb the AV. utnuitrlpt* lead pyaQlflmaM, ultored in tb« edttloa 
to py«rlf-'l; »«>d doabtlcu vaA^iflya ^AV., (wic«) ti w b* nonyctod m 
vaftaiflya, tod bclonp hero. Aa to bbnkftflya. *t* aboie, 919. 

o. 'Iha oecoiit of yaalf^m (like avlftim, 006) *ho«a It >ft ha a 
tnu lmpanilv« fonn; *iid yUlija (ftV.. once) It donbtlMi Uflnne, vltb 
Bnomdou* 1 for 1 

01&. Middle form* of tbi* ooriat, II *W\ be nollced, o«cQr rrom tb« 
opbiiT* only) but, coiuldorliig tba gicat luiiy tt tho wboV* fonnaUon, w« 
ua lurdly Jiutll«d Id ooDuliidlug tbit In ihs tndent Utmni^o lb» nlddla 
per»«u In -alfl, •aiffiiaa, et«., were not allowtble, 111* tbo«e lu •Ifl, 
-iftti^ ■tid the oibeii of li« If-xorlit 








7. Tho BB-ftoiist. 

016. In the later language, ihe roots allowed to Cotm 
this aorist end in IfT 9, ? (, or ^ h — all of them sounda 
which in combinatioa with the tenae-eiga make f| k^; and 
they have ^ t, ? u, or fT r as radical vowel. 

a. Thejr ■!» ■« foUoirii <U^, rlf, U^, Vlf* Ul;, kru^ ruf, n>f;, 
vpm tvif, dvlf, ^lif, vif, kpf; dih, mlta. lih, gvb, dub, rub, tj-b. 

Vfhr Stf b i from •boiil h«ir at llitiD BU-furin*, t*il<*r ot lil<r. tra 'lUnlabU. 

Rome uf tbvni ui.;, n> «iih nrTUtii mvn\\t>g* qiqki, take wiiiU of olhti fttniii. 
And > few *r« idllowdd tu ilrop both teiia<i->U<> *ifl vaioo-ronv} a In '«r- 
Uln pcnoni of the middle: ttiu It, ili«r '^^f axkfi ItiitMd fonn* of Ibo 

917. Aa the tense-stem ends in U a, the infleotioa is 
in the main like that of an imperfeot of the second geneia) 
eonjugatioD. But (according to the gratomaiiana: the forms 
uofortunatelj have not been found quotable] the l«t sing, 
mid. enda in 3 i instead of ^ e, and the '2d and 3d du. 
mid. in 4IIEJUI fithSm and UFHIH StSm, as in imperfects of 
the other conjugation. Both active and middle inflection 
is admitted. The root is throughout unslrengthcned. 

918. A« example of iofiecuon we may lake the root 
1^ dl9 poif4t. Thita : 

*. 4. p. •. 

adikqam idlkaiva 4dikt&ma &dil(|i 

Ulbfos idlk9atam UUIcfata Uik(atbSa idikfJtth&m Adikqadbvan 

4dlkfBt Adlksatjlm idlkfan Adikfsta idlkqatam &dlkqanu 

910. Ill the urilti Unguage. t&a rormi ol tha aa->9r]|i tin budlip 
tMfft tfcta ipondic Tti*7 aia inado in BV. Qvb (eT«ii t«oi*( In AT., 
(rOB two of ihcje snl nron tvo otbeni tni ihs nsalnloi ttiu add Ma 
matt, makliif nlnaUan la til (iha l*ltr Un(iii|o mikei no addltlBiu (« 
thU namlier). Ai later, all ktve 1 01 U or f ai rooi-TDrtl, uid 1 nnal 
ronMnani wl.Id) r»>uliliiM with 8 t» kf; bat (liwc ate In dt« lilt also t«« 


d. p. 

idikfKvabi idikflmahi 

»19— J 



Miding In i, nanielT Birl ■"'^ ^J ^'^ *^ cxkmplu noMd are Kt*«ii 

a. So r>i u tli» milJl* hmt >m tonMrncd. tkit «friUi wmM be ftaUf 
espldn«4 M > tr*arr«t of «9tUUi ■-wrlit) to an ••IntUclloa. Th« mwlivd 
dUr«rMiee in the (tKOgtb of nuliul nwal in the ictlre, hewerar, Huidi 
In Ihe wuj el tb« •nccaufnl ippllcatlon of lotb tn •ipUaatton to (he aatl«*i 

e%Q. m. In Ilia ladjutirf, bc Dad, In thoactiTc. avck^am; kdrtikf*^] 
kdhukfu, orokfAa, ftkruk^u, asprkf«« [and UBfa. ^M* amxk^a)y. 
Adlk^nt, nmlkfttt, KlUcf«t, nTtkaat, dJcraka«t, KghnkaU, adokaBt 
tnd Adhukf&t, Arukqat, avrk^t, kk^kfat. JLtnrkqat. igpflu$»ti 
ttgbukfntam) srukfAma, ami'kfAma, avfk^&iuft; &dbukf&n. ftpik> 
fan (KPlfX anikfan, aspirkfan: — in lli« middle, only akrkfathU 
(^Icff), idhukqat&, »ti<l anifk;aata (_^ni MBh. tiia tUD|'lEf«tA f). 

b. Forme HlihoDl naiiueiit [no ttoe ■ubjonctlief nccnr) trt. In the 
>M|ite: dfkfam, iDfkqam; duk^ae, rukfu, mfkfas; dvile^Ati 
mfk^ta; dhokf&n md dukfin; — In ttto nlddl*. dvikfvUi, dukfttta 
•'III dh&k^ta, dliukt&Dta. 

«. Thrrn ito no oputlve formi. 

d. Impwall** *!•: In Ike Md**, mj'kf atam : In tbv mMd1«, dbnk^ 

«. Tk» taw •cc«iit«d fanna wicbout augin«nl wblclb ac«ut tuvs tka 
una on the lenKe-iIgn si. Id analogy vtlk Ibe a-toriit (2) and Uie tmpar* 
licl of tk* 4-cIm*: a tlag]« aiocpUoii i> dbukfAta, wbicb ptobakly n«*Aa 
OMDdatlon t<; dhukfita 

f. The Mp'itiloii or Initial d and g, afte>f )oh of thie a»pvrat«d quallly 
uf llie rooi-Onal (IBS), la aean Iti formi rrom the ro«U dab am) suh, bni 
noi from drub (only ■ tlii|l« eat*, AB.); BY., howgtcr, bai alio adukf at 
•nd dukfas, dukfin, dukfato. 


m. Aa the lo^oalled proealivo is allowed by the j^rftniiuriau 
to be ma<I« is tha later lan^^ace ftvm trviy rovt, and In aa Inde* 
penduat vay. without roferenee to the mode of fon&Btloo of ths 
aarixt tiom the Mine root, U la deiirable U> put to^tber here a brief 
alatvmut of the rulua givon for it 

032. The piecative active is made by adtUog the active 

piecative endings iftbove, 668] dti«oUy to the toot. Hut: 

a. Of Sni] rooi-vovelit (ta befute the piHlTC-flEn jA: 770). 1 and 
U ate Unilhoued: j la uanaUy nhin^cd la rl, but to tr and ia i" tkoaa 
reote which citevliuft ihow Ir- and ur- formi (ta-c»lted f-re«ts; 2481. aad 
U ar In x *"<' amr- ^ U changed to a in th> root* d4, dhi, Btha, pft 
Jri/ii, g4 $inff, and a fov otheti, In pail optlooaUf. 




b. Tbo root Ui piiertJ utumei iis weikoil forai: a pBaultlmtte niul 
!• loM, «■ tn badhy&aun tnm yl>andbi Ih* nou vhUti tn abbrrvltud 
In tbe *etk pcnoni or \\it parfr'oi (7M) htte (be uuie >bbieii4lion bcre, 
*• tn ucyiLHtuu, (Jyaaum, vidhy&sAin, 8Upyd«*iii, gfby&iami vq&» 
foriu* fifyOsAm (ccutput fl38, 864d): atid «u an, 

0. It ku bflon pointed out above (687) tbit tb> attln pneattw U an 
oputtie of tiic root-aorist, nUIi • pTablemiUo Inicttloii of ■ albtLant bctwMS 
modv-alcB ud «u<11iie. 

OSS. a. The prec&tire middle is tn&de by adding the 
middle piecalive endings (ftbore, 6€8j to the lool iocieaseil 
by H^ » or 5<I^ Ml — that ia, to the ten»e-«om of an B-aori«l 
01 of ao l9-aoiisC ;but without augmenij. 

b. The root ii strcogtheaed acooiding to the rules that 
nppty in forming thv niiddlo^em. of the ■ and of the t^ 
ftoritt* rcspectivoljr : in gencMt, namclj, a fiaal vowel it 
gunat«d in both formatioas; but a medial Yowel, onlj- be~ 

foie ^ ifl. 

S. Al wai poiiiMd «ut abote (697) Ihs middU pra<at|ir« li naUy Ibe 
optMl^e 9t Mitalu aoitaU, vlth 1b« Intcrton of a albllanl b*t«BiMi no4«- 
jIgB and audlnit only (m (at as aiitli«nllctl«d by um) in tb« 2d tad 34 
■iBKUlar. In tbi: otdar l*n£«af#, aaeb focm* are o(ton«M niada (row tbo 
s-torlfi (896) ■n'l ihc If-wrlM (807); but tlio fnm ibt raot-iorlii (837 b), 
tbn a-aoriil (850a), th« rc4uplictUd aorUt (870), mi tie s^-aoilat 
(014b); and tnu tram tbt pe:f(U (SlSb)- 

0S4. As example of iafleotion, yre may take the toot 
H bbtl 6e, which ia eaid ;iio middle aotist or precative &odl 
it ia quotable] to foim it« middle on the if-slein. Thua: 














XI. Aom8T-8r8TKM8, 





a. The forms Klfaa 
verr qnMiIorikbU vUnc, 





bT Ibe KTunmttluif w 3d tnd 34 diul ue of 
M i»;bi(]i the place (idfitMl lo the iJMUiit. 
TtUM p«rM)n(, aiKl )h« 2d pi., b«T« neTm been met vitli In ue, ¥ow Ike 
qoMtten FMpenfnf Uie eniisR of Hie 3d pi., u dtavun or ^vun. •»■, 

9S6. a. Tho pTceatire itltTD Is ■ htta ot veif tub »TC(Uteiie4 In lb* 
elutk&l laucatga. In «*oh of the icxU klioady taon than oaa ntatti to 
(Huiu, Nala. Blit«&*>d-Giti, C«kuntela, llilopide^) It ovcht* oaco and n» 
aoro, uid not bilf-H-Joirii feimi bt'e heen totmi qqa(*bl« fre-m lfa« ^c*. 
A« to Ita vilae, i«e fr73o. 

b. Tbe ptvrallie u^dOlv It litliully uukiiown in Ibe wbDlu Ut«ri 
llt«r4tor«, not i MiirUi 0Acarrrni;« ot It hivliig bMu brougbt to ligbL Thu 
filiP. bie tmev rirtol^fa, wliidi It sIm > BV. fonn, bal«ng}B( probably t» 
the tedtipllcat«d loritt: ttr 870. 

Uses of Ihe Aorisl. 

826. Ttie uiM oF the aorisl luode-l'oniiB >» has beeo already 
polatud out: US) appotr bo accord with tlivaa of llie Btode-fomu of 
tlie pTMoat-ByetciD. Tha predilection of tho earlier lanjtuage, con- 
tinued eparinfcly is th« lator, for Uto augmcuUeu forma in prohlbttlvO 
exprcBslon after nat was BufficloDilv etatvd tnd illuaitutcd above 

a. Tho t«n«o-«*lH« it lite wttat iadlcaUfo hu alto been man tbin 
ante nferred U, kni call* onl)^ far temowbit more of detail and for fUw- 
iratlon bere. 

9ft7. The aorist of the later language is simply » pret- 
erit, equivaleat to the imperfeet and perfect, and frequcollj 
co&T<Iitiated with ihcm. 

a. Tbuk. tato^i »a gordabba^ luguijaaa t4^7&mftaa; t*nl ' 
'bbu pa&oatviun acamat |lf.) ihrrrupon be hrat tlu dfifiiitj/ iritA a tiitk: 
anil ^M-fiOf Ihe IttUrr Jird; tnta^ aft vidarbh&n aftamnt punah; tl 
tn twndtiivjaaa^ aamapttjajrat (MBb.) Mrr«u>><ru nhe totnt biuk «r- 




oU 'nam (MBb.) ht vm JiUeA vith afefUen. aud mid to kin; tUD Bds- 
b&t kKfthfti^ BO *bhad <]ivyBvaipuB Ud& (tt] kt hirnad him with 
teood. and /u bvamt l&tn a htactnljf /arm. 

93S. Tbc lioriac of the oldur lansuagt liu (he value «r a prop«r 
"perfect": th&t it, it aijiiifieH lOBKitliiug pait which is viovred u 
couipleied witti referouoe to tli« preseiil: t-ni It reitulrM acoordlpgiy 
to bfl rendered by onr t«Qse mads wiili tbe niixlliftry hav*. In genanl, 
il Sndlcaiea what haa Juai taken p)a<«i and orioneat aomolblDg wblcb 
tbe siMMkor tmi «xperienced. 

a. dnniplv* fiutE (fao VnAa iiii : p^i "m^ gAm kii«f«t« ptry 
■Lgnim BhT^nta, devdfv okmta «r&v(t^ k& imaili ^ dsdtiar^tl CKVO 
Mm^ Arrr A4HIC Inrf ei&out a mtr, tA*^ Anc-f farrit'l around Iht jtrt. thty 
have done honor to t/ie god* — who thali I'enlltrt anythinii a^aintl thtmt 
ya.m ftfohJiiDa miknaal ■& *jita t 'gftt (RV.) Ai wfiom iri^ (y/irmerfy, 
Impf.) <OHpA( icifA cirr rni'nrf !iaf (iioie. aoi.) i;<irn«; yono *ndro IlftvifA 
krtVT Abtiavad dyucony uttam^t?, Id&ih tid *krl dav& uapfttni^ 
kllli 'bhaviHD(RV,] tSat Uiattot *y wAiVA Jnttra, making it, beeamt (luipf.) 
0/ iightit gtorff. t have ttoui mad* , j/tgoil*: 1 fuite b«f:ome/i'*ti/^m Mmtiitv. 

bi Exftmplat rrom th« Btlbmani language lire: si bA 'BmlA Jyig 
UT&HK... tito ba Kaadharrilh adim ikdire; Jyoff v& iy&m urr&i;! 
manufy^^T avfttslt {^'It ) sAfi /tii«>J ifi'/A him u /oiii; (I'mc. ^'Acn thg 
Oandharvoii »aid to aim another, "thin Urva^'i, JorMi>!h, >ia* direll a long 
timr aau'iig morlaU" ; taaya h« dantfth padlra: tadi bo Vaca: apat- 
eata v& asya dantAh (AD ) hit trtlh/ell nut. Ht. taid to him: "hit feclA 
truly har/ /alifn out" ; Indraaya vrtrAifa JaKhii69a indrtyftih viryadi 
pptbivim Anu vy JUohat t&d o^adhayo vlrildtio 'bbavan »k 
prajipatiin lipA 'dhLvad v^i-tr&iii me joghniifa indriyttib viry^ih 
Pftblvim koM ry &rat ti^d o^adhsyo virfkdJao 'bbavaoa iu (TS.) 
0/ Indra, ichtn he had ttain Vritra, tkf/ertr anrimight leetii aiPay into Ih* 
tarth, and btcame Ihr kr^-hi anil ptattr; hf ran to l\ajAfiatt, toying . "nig 
/^ret and mii/ht. aftrr §laying Vritra. hart gone airaij into tkt tarth, and 
harr bccoirif Ihe lirrbt and plantt*'. svay&m onam abhyuditya brujrftd 
vritya kvS 'vfttslj^ (AV., in pro»a p*M»(t«) grting tyi (n Aim in ymon. 
Itt him uy: " Vr&tga, where hatt Ihou ufiOiW t yhd tdtnSlfa dvfcu vivida* 
maoaT eyktftm aliiai adar^am ahdim aQrAuifam ill yn evi. bruyjid 
ahanv adarqam Iti tiLamii «v& QraddadhySina (C*) >/"•>»' (hu ihauld 
come liitfuting nith ant anotMr, [Ihi onr] toying "I havt ««i~. [the other} 
"I have htvrd", uie thonU hMtvt tht on* teko mii "I A«('« itat". 

83d. S. Thla diiiincilon of Ibe toriil fram llie Impcifeot and p^fMt 
Qi wn^oH of nunilon U tttj comnion In ibc Rri>hman» langatgc? (locluillns 
the older llptnlihaiti tad lh« SQu**), and li c1ok1> obtcfTcd: itolatlon^of 
It U rrty ran, aa'l li (o bi rcgttded u cltbct dii« U Mnaplian of text or 
IndlcMti'e »r a Uio nrliiln. 

b. Id ihe Tedle tymoii, tlio hoio dUiin*tl<>ri fi pre*»lenl, but U b<itli 
M (Jeai aui] Ism airlcUf mBlDtalncd ; inanj paiMCcn nould admll an 



mud >wntiT«l}, «bi)e inttttte^tomt ut aIm •gewloaiUr enplojrwd la 
lb* aorlH KttM. 

MO. Th« boundary tiaiwtco wbM tiu Jb«i boM ud vliBt U U >■ 
■fUMwni ome, uiJ li lonMUinea 0TtnMppe4, w ibkt mi auriai ippoum 
■Wm a ptcMDi nlgbi cUdj, or vu •ron nik«r t« b« «iy«ci«<I. Tlin*: 
srtMMIi* bluvBtwa tnd«T« n* tU Miao vtl rU« lida^ aoo&A- 
yU *vU "Be atad Tftjfia bade •eiktpat (Ul. i. 30. 7) "&« y« Mm/bfv 
(a6/# *taU for our Indu", ht layt; Zndu u king Sana; ty tMil in#Mnf A* 
Aw mvrfeUMn |liul«ul of amAm Umr) luitahU /i>r kin^ Soma ton! iifrMti 
vftro^ tpo yid &dbhlr abhlfUo&U v&ru^uD evfti *iiam akar 
(MS. 1*. S. 10) (A« maUrt art Vanma't: u« Uof A* btyotm him K.ith teatrrt, 
kt hat maJ* Ann Fotwimi: pft&e4bliir vrisbJTttTaU plUikto arsjfio 

ytT&n eri t^U* Um AaMbi Ibo T^v&n evA ;4)&to tinaU 
r&kfU«y ipKhftnU (MS. I>l.a 6) A* Mtntn k-^ j(t>f iJlrt/oU i* tA< «jrW^ 
•n;,- «« ifrMif at m iht offtrinj, 9/ it lt« ha* [thtrt^] t<Atn hoU : Ottn, «f 
^tmI at it th» oJMag, /torn it A« *mt4t aieoji A* tUmtuu. Tku Won \t 
»vt vlUi In at ti« BfitiBui^Mi but It It MpasUlly ftcqami lu lb* US. 



9S1. Thu verb has two futures, of rerr dilTereDt age 
and character. The oae has for t«nse-8iga a Bibilant followed 
by TJ 7a, and it an iuheriUDce from (he time of lado- 
tluropean unity. The olher ia a periphra«tio formation, made 
\ij appending an auxiliary rerb to a derivative noun of 
agency, and it is a leceut addition to the Terl>-sy«tem ; ita 
beginnings only are met with in the earliest language. The 
former may be called ihe s-future (or the old future, or 
Bimply tho future;; the latter may be distinguished as the 
{leriphraatic future. 



[— eM 

I. The ft>futiir«. 
932. Tbc tense-aign of this futute is the Byttable T? ■;&, 
added to the toot ehhet direolly or hy nil auxitiaiy Towcl 
; i (in the Uu«r ca>e beoomiDg ^ ify^;- Tbc toot ha« 
the guvo-vtrcn^lheoiuK. Xhu>, 6om y^ dA ffice U fotmed 
the futuio tcase-slrm iHU dSsya; from yZ ^ S^t the stem 
W^ OQyi I front t''^ duti mtVA. the stem cnTH dhok^yi ; 
from fc^bha be, the ateci >lfirn bhavlflyi; from j'^fCi^rdli 
tArioe, the stem vPV^ ardhl^yi; and so on. 

>. Hut ri>>iu XjiT /tVe lb« ateui is Jivi^rfi, from yOk^ iprinhlt ft 
is nkqi^yi, and ao on i240|. 

b. Thfie am banllr anj Vedlo case* o( rctolutiun «f lfc« UliM-)t|n 
sya Into Bik; RV hu k^efiintaB onee. 

983. This teoBe-stem is then inflected precisely like a 
pTe«eDt-»tem eadiog io q a (second general conjugatioo : 
783 a]. We mhy take «s models of inflection the future of 
YQ cm gicf, aad that of v^ kr make. I'hus: 
scUrc middle. 

1. d. p. t. il. 

I ^It-UlSl ^I(-JWM ^THTTO^^ ^TFTt 
daeyaml dftsyaraa duyitmas dftayi 

disyisl d&Byatbu disy^ttLB dlsyifi« daey^the dlayidbve 

3 41 ta^ iit^nHH ?tf!iSt ^t?qi^ jrr^Tf ?thA 

daayiti disy&Ua d&sy^tl dtsyiu d&Byit« daayinte 

I ^tr^lfH 'fin ' -m^-JM '<in ' >^JHVt . ^#=& Hifi'-'JH^ '♦lU^m'^' 
luuifjraj&ikkriaykyfM kuri^ydmos kt^f^dkarlfyaTftbakarlfyinuUia 
we. ettf. eic. ele. •«. eW. 

M. In iho rplci arc round occulinal ciiac* of 1st du- and pi. In va and 
ma: B. f. rajfasyAva (R.), bbak^yava (^uajtilve: MSb.}; fifyUnft 
(MBIi.), vatajraoia (It). 

B34. With ntgard to tlio iiM or nan-use of the auxiliary TOVeL 
1 lieforo Uiu elbiUot. tbaro is a du^oe vf KOneral accordwuce beiw«en 
lUa taoMe acd tha oth«r future aad the de«td«rat]Te ; but It Is by do 
sMans abaolutv, not ato &Dy dvliuili; rules to b« laid dowD with rv 
gard to it [and ao much tbe less, bucaiisD of tlia infrequeucy of the 
two Uitur formativni In acluol uae;: between this sod the aorist 

d&syavahe daayamaks 




'■•uorist on die oee lide, or If-aorUi on ibe other. «oy correopQiidciice 
Ib sllll less tra&esble. Pru^CkAlIf, It is Doecaury to l«ani, nii a mat- 
ter of MBMfe, how any given root aaiue UiflB« Taiion* parts o{ Ita 
co^jngfttJoakl Byatctii. 

SSB. Below U idd«d » tutemcot of tba luaga, »i ngaMi the aulUar; 
««««l, or all thn TODU fonnil qaoiabia — Foi the noil piti, lu the tana at 
* ipodSutkn of thoie nhiph utd ihe (Fnie-ilcii directly 10 the root; lit 
bnrkvCa aia (unli«r iu«DUanad the othat rooli wtilch teeuding M As gran* 
nikritn* ilio tcAite the tDxlUujr r«w«l. 

ft, or rfloU cailag In *oweIi, th« |Tcii majortir (cxi;«ptlag tbone In 
j) take lie 1. Tliai, lU In i (nunieTQiu, aud nnnoMiMry to tpetltr: but 
tompate o bBlo«); — tliOM In 1, «■ kfi pM***, ot ga0tcr, d moI*, ml, ■! 
Ot Bft &iW Ist^ya), hi; bom i. It^i ^e»tToy. and Ji occur foniu cf botli 
dlaswa; fri [and i;vlj hai 1; — thoii In f. » kri. bhi, mi. vli; hot ^ 
'i'# an<l nl liaio liDtb rotmi [«iid 4) <*>><* 1]; — Ilu»e la u, at oyui clru, 
pto. ^ru. hu; bui sa pr«t» out and Mu Ita*« botL roinie [»nd kfu. 
kf9a, DO, yo. m. aaa take 1]; — »! tbotc in 0, dhu md bbu take 1; 
aO bu both (ornu. But all in f (nomerouf. and tmne^eHtrr to iitaeiry) 
(■he i [ihoM lu «haag«al>l« f, ot M*«all«d f-ngu (S49), ate Mtd bj tha 
irinuiurltiit to Uk4> althor 1 or 1: do I-fomr, howeTsr, atn qoatabU]. 

b. Of lODlti codiDR In iDUtcB. ibout half odd tbc t«ti«e->isn dl[««t])'. 
Tbna, o( toula «ii>l'>iiit in (uituisU, g&k: — in palatal?: Iti 4, pad. mnc, 
rlo, TIM, vto, vra^, sic (but yAo Mkc* 1); In oh, pnMb; In J, bbiig', 
mti (oiarltfya and mrakfya), y^, bhaj, yuj. vrJ, wti {aitu bbraJJ, 
ra^, BBiU, ava^Ji >^t> >^|i "hllo tyi^, bbi^, md m^ (ma&lc^» anil 
majji^ya) have bmb rorme, and tU (vljifya and VQjlsya) au'l vra] 
(ako 1; — III daulalt: In t, k^ <-»( and v|l [aUn cft and nft] make 
boili fumu; 111 d, ad. pad, ^ad/cj/f. ekand, ayand. obld, bbld. vld 
/Enii, nnd [ilto bad. kbld, avid, k^ud, tadj; vhlln sad isntas-a xai 
aldl^ya) and vid Imou> oiakn both furui* [aUo ohjil and trd], aud vad 
ba* i 1 In dK vyadb (vwtaya), rtdh, aidh tuee*^, bndh. yudh, rtulh, 
rrdll [alau eidli. krtidh. k^udli, qadb], and b«ndli and sldb repti 
ba*« both rocmi; <□ n. tun, while man md ban have botli f(<nni;^lii 
UUiU- tn p, Sp, kflp, itiip, tfp, an' fBrnpaya und aarpaya) falio 
gap. Up. lap], nhllc tap, vap. avap, d^p- ""l IMP haru botb f«Tina; 
Iti bb, yabb aiid rabb, labh bating botb fafuij tn m« ram, while kran, 
fcfaiD, nam, and yam iu»k« both rotma. 

e> Of th« rootD teckoncit bf the Kf^mmarlaD* aa endtni In tamimrela 
(791 d-K) "ill talt t. And tS or rt •reniv, vyft Oi vi «n«irJ«p, and hvi 
DT hQ ffl// lake 1 y-fetni, u In thou prctent'iyit^Di, to whicli then 1 U addcit: 
ibua, vaylfya, vyoyljya, hrayifya (but »i«o hvAaya). 

d. 0( (diita eiidiiig in ipiianu, the mlnortiy (about a Iblid] ate wtih- 
eal lb* aoKlllaiy fowal, Tboy arv . tuola tn q, dJQ, vtg, dr9 (drakfya), 
apl^ (epiakfya) [aUo daA^t rlq, li<;, kruf, mrQ], "hlla nag A« /e«( 
bu botk toiina (tufikfys and na^ifrit); — in (. pif, vi|, ^f [alao 


Tits ft>FtITDBK. 


tTJf, dvif. Qlif, tuf, dof, puq. guf], «hll» kn hM both rotmi (ki«k> 
f7> ind karfl^ya); — In 9, vttathin^. tm rMiv [■]» ghaa], vMlo vum 
^wtU \iM hoih fnrmi: — In h. mill, diah. drub \tito oabt dlh, UhJ. 
wbilo dah, vah, a&h mid ruh hire both fonn*. 

a. Ill ihe older iKngaiitn. ■ tiikJOTltT (tbont Bra nliiiba) or ilnipl« lOOIs 

•dd tbe sy* wilbuut a'liilluT 1; t>t tb« futuret ocourrinj Id llic Utet 

luifutge onl)r, n»rly three quaitere bavD ilia 1, thla b«1ns gmmllr t«k«n 

'fcy uy root of Ul" origin ind cl«rk»i]*v charncter — m It l> ttai) utilfurmly 

Ittkcfi in >««andity caii]v|i>d«i (1019, 1030, lO&D, 1008). 

936. A< tbe rool l> itrenglheiird to fiirm ibn it^cii or tbi« rulurv. to, 
of * root tliMi hu t itinngflr irid t vtuXtst (atxa, Uia itmngitr Tomi U nund: 
ibim. fram ^'iMTOdti 01 badli friW, bhuitsyK OT baadhl^&. 

a. By kn IrrtKuUr iti'^ngthftnfng, notikfya (bMld* OB^ifyA) l« mad« 
from yna^ b« Ittt, >>«) msJUcfy* (betide majjlfja) frani )'ixu(JJ tink. 

b. But • f«» rooU nitke fiitut«-«leai« in th« Ut«T Unguigo villhont 

«tfaiipb«iiiB(t: iliaf> Ukhl^yo, milter* C*!*^ TSO, viJlnrft (tUo yvjlfra), 
■19m (faK M Bl)( RQf7A (B39 b], BphuUfTa; ■■i4 V^><lh mtkca 
vatoyA f'oni tbe wcokur form vldb. 

e. Th« ^'It. hti oBi'c th« inonitrMi brm a<;navl;yftnuhe, m«4« 
nppn tbe ptDMOi-xttin agnu (697) of (/ag itflam. And lb* Utrr Ungni«« 
niak«t aldl^ya *Dit Jabl;ya I'rnm ibo prMeDlitenia of |/aad mil v^^- 
Campim farther brayifya Me., 936 0. Alio UijrSylfya fram ^hfO, 
(bMldf khyOsya) appran to b« of almlUt ctiartcivr. 

d. A cumbei ot loou vltli modtiil f itiengihsn II lo ra (Ml): thua, 
krakfys, trapsya. drapsya. drakfya, mrak^ya itji-Hi'le m&rkfya). 
Vrak;ya, aralcfya, arapaya (beildo narpeynj, md tnr&diifyii (i>ui^c 
mardl^ya); and )'k]p raraii Uai>ajra (beildt kalplfys). 

a. Tb« root gralt (■laci lia doublet glab) taktti 1 Iiiit*«d of 1. m II 
dow tlto In the tot1<t •nri eltnvteNL 

887. Thli fiiturc I* oompanUvalr r«n> In tlic old«n hngu^tc — In 
pait, appaiaiitlf, bcrauM tbi' luw of a future ant to ■ Utue esiant anewMod 
br aiibjanrtlTD form* — bat bonomoB in«r» and more noramon lator. Tbui, 
tba RV. hia only m<«iiI««ii ooAnrrMiMa of peiaonil fanna, ^m nine diffettnt 
root« (with panlciplM rrom ilit addlilonAl rooM); the AV. hu flft; occurranceo, 
tnia l««BtT-Dvo Toni« (with )»ifil'-jpl«t from aeien more): ^nt the TS. hu 
oeoananoM (persmal formi and particlplea lagatbai) tnta ovrr aixly roota; 
•nA tonnf from aiOM tban a hundred and tHiy n>Ot> axe ^aotable (roni the 
«lder tcxia. 

Hodea of the s-faturo. 

838. UaJe-foiina of ibo fmnre ue of tbe nim«M nxity. Tbe enlr 
•xanple la tbs older UnintBO U karifyia, 1A aln^ nlij, Mt, OMarrlnc 
oni-^ (ni (wl-t) In flV. (All, lta> ooce notayKTabU. and OB. ku efyft- 
matiU. uAay&mBlUU, ■thiaytioahit, but ibei an doabtlcaa falu 




lendlnfs for -ha, T*n or ibioc opiuire form* kt» found !■ ibe tfkt: thu, 
dhkkfyat *nd mw&arer&n (MBb.), mx\A drftkf7«ta (R.); alto aa intpar- 
ttlVG pattjmiitu (Ilki.). And Mitnl 'J4 pi. mid, li> dhvam u* ()iKiteMtj 
tnm tb« tpifi: tbut, TotsjwlhvsiD, lavinradhTam, »>d (ihtuttuUn) 
kklkfinj'iidhvam (Ptl.) aii<] JWaylq jkdiivtua [MHb.: *n4 i>uo Uxi bM 
mok^yadhvam ii I. t33. 13, vhrnt thn "iiirt ntBilt mok|AfM>lhvunl| 
uid btaaTlfyadhvam (MHb. R.): Il U ■ niaitai at qaMlion *ba(L«t 
ut tn bo krcounUd « ct)*l ioipontWe fwimuion, or an spio (ubttitntioD 
aflcoadarr fac (ximaiy ending* (rompare 54S ■)■ 

FartfeiplOD of tbo s-futurs, 

Q30. Participles are made from the ftiture^Rtem precisely' 
AS from a present-stem in IT a: namely, by nettling in the 
active the ending TT nt, in the middle the ending ITH m&os; 
the accent remains upon the stem. Thus, from the verba 
instanced above, ^TTTTrl dftsy&nt and ^JTQTTH d&sy&mSDa, 
^ft^ITrr^ kanfy&ot and itf^WWirn karivyant&va. 

a. AfoHiniE tci the ((aiomarliiir, ths feminlnii i:1 lb* aoilio paiilctplfl 
tt made cither in inti nr In ati; tot cnly t^t former hu betti noMil ■■ 
o«ciiTr(nK In lh« nl<liir !in^na|#, and tbo latter <a emyv^vr* rxtrpmvly 
nre: kd thait, 449 e, f. 

b. In BV. oi^enn once sttfyaati, Irom ymii, «iih anomalani umbi* 

Vretont of the s-futuro: Conditioiial. 

940. From the fiitiire-Btem is maile an augment-preterit, 
1)y prefixing the augment and addia(> the serondary endings, 
in precisely the Hame m»nacr as an imperfect from a prcscot- 
slem in ^ b. Thia pieterit ia called the eondilional. 

a. It lUodfl related to th« [nnini, In tatm »vi mvuilng, W ibe Freiith 
tondttlniial auratt t> tbo fulnm tairai. or at thv Kngliilt iBtmid ktn>* to 
mil Aov*'— ntnrlT " (hn Uenniin wUrd* hahn» in v*rJ* intm. 

b. ThuB, from tho roots already instanced: 

MCtlf*. n Id die. 

t, H. p. (. il. p. 

'I u<u*jii a-iitdirj SiFfiTTi sRFTt a^in!n-ri% a',rwjirt% 

idOsyam AdAarAva idasr&ma AdAsye AdanyAvalil Adasyftmahl 


Tub CosmmoHAL. 


i B7TWIH OtTPI^rn 9'.lfn?T M^IVU'IIH «ik3>9li( H-iRJJ^IM 
idftayan UAnfstam adJUyata iMlJ^jrttthAa &dtay*tbfiiO Jidiaradliran 

idanyat AdftSfatAm idUytm Uftayata &dftB7«t&m Adi«ruit& 

1 *w.r(wjH^ twifr-jJH y-iifjujiH «<*.nwj m.riujmn^ H'j.nvjwn^ 

Uiaritram AkarinrAva UE«ri|y*ina ikarif jo AkarifyAvaht ikarifyftmabt 







Ml. Tb« cporllttonil U thn nntt of ill (k* form* of iHn fiaiiikill 
mb. Th« nv. hu but 1 lincle tiiiuplft, ibharlfyat \eai going In earn/ 
iff, iRil n«n<i of itic Vodlv tciu rnrnUlitt •nottjvr. In th# BiKhimt^u It 
li hMiIlr tnoro cuDimDn — bxoopt In ^, Vhen tl li cntt iritb note lb«n 
Dfty llmM. Not lioei U, 1ik« tlA rutnre, bneoaio mon rrrqaini 1*(«t: nal 
Bn oxampld ncenr* in Nal>, Bb«gt(*it-(9lti, o' ilIloju<l«^; rinlf an« In 
Muiii; ktid no in ^*jkiitiU)i. In the «hot« HIth. (UoltiinaDu) tt li foanil 
aboM iweniy-llva time*, tiom (hltte»n rooti. Tko inlddla roTini un »x- 
tr«m«lT ftw. 

II. The Periphrastic Futur». 

B42i s. Ttiis formation conlains oaly a sinf^le indicative 
active tease [or also middle: seo 847], without otodes, or 
participle, or preterit. 

b. It consista in a. derivative nomen ageutia. haviog iho 
value of a future active participle, and used, either with 
or without nn accompaDying nuxiliar;, in the office of a 
verbal tense with future meaning. 

S43. The noun is formed by the suffix rf tf [ot rfj" 
tar]; and this 'aa in its other than verbal uses: seo lt82i 
is added to the teat either directly or with a preceding 
auxiliary vowel ^ i, the root itself being strrnfjlhnned by 
guQK, but the accent resting on the suffix: thuo, 7H d&tf 
from v"^ dft pine ; ^Pi kartp from v% kr nuike ; 5i[ei<i bhartlf 
from vH bha Ac. 

a. Km Ti>ewili the ptOMBcn 01 tbtonca ot •)» tov*1 i. ibo nugt U 
I4M bjr tho gncnmarUiii lo b« gsavfallr ihe fame aa In itia ■■future fiaiti 
llta MiD« raot (»boTf, 836). Th« ibmI tmportanl u'vpllon Is th«t Ilia 
loots tn f tat« no 1 : ih«r, kartf (ajtatnii kartfjra) ; toota ban ■><! gam 
ikow Ike luoo dUttraiM; vhllt vft, Vfdb, and ayand bate t bun, ibnafli 




Ml In ik« s-ratDiB. Tie faw rorma vlilcfa occut Id ib« oUItt Imgnf* 
•(tea with (bai* ilaUoioib. 

644. la the Lhint persona, the nom. mas«. of the noun, 
in thfi three numbers respectirety (SISl^, is used without 
auxiliiuy: thus, HfTfTI bhavitS hf or xA« ot it ttill be; 
HPwifl bhavitirau ioM teUt 6^; >Tf^fTl|M bhavitiraa /A«^ 
tn'J^ Atf. In the other peKons, the firtt and tecoad persons 
present of yfEfff m be (036) are used ae atuuliary; and ibeyi 
me combined, in all DumbcTS, with the singular oom. niaec. 
of the Qonn. 

a. Thu0, from t^ dB. ffiee: 






t aiHlPH 

« 3.TrtlfH 

J ^TrlT 
b. Occ*«t«n>11r, 1 1 


lb« vp!<-4 siiil lil'T (ilioust ii«r<]r In ttie gld«t 
lHi(Siflo), Ike norm of thn lent* u glv«ti nb-ovii lit tn Tiulmit TNitMla dt- 
pwtoit ftais: Ibui, by ua-* oT tli« inilliar; in (h<! 3il p«ni>ti kUd; by lla 
oniMion fn Ibo lit ur 3<1 penon; by liiTcnlon of the urdur of noun aad 
millUiyi hy liiHtpoiltian of othei word* bnt**cn ihnm^ by ut« of ■ ilaU 
or plunl nam. with Ae auxlIUiy ; and by mo o( t frailuitis fonn of lh« 
noon. Ei.implri «i«: vaktA 'sti (KBb.) A# kh'O aptai; nihonta (KBb.) 
/ thali 01 tAm leiltalriie liowii, yoddhft 'bam (B.I / xhatt fighi, aliaib 
dn^t* (MBh.) / nAoy^ w, karta niuii te (FlhP.) / «>/; i/a /»r (.W, 
traih btiAvitd (Mlli MrRh.) (Av» iriVr tr; ural fconta (Htib.) / uWf 
gtt; pTatlKrahit& tftm naml (Mlth.) J teiU rieen-4 her. KantA tvam aai 
(HBh.) thou tfiTt f/iy; kftrtarau svah (MHh,) tot tto tluU th ; draqfry 
aoml (HUb.) / (f.) ihaU me, adbtinvltri (Nil*.) «A« trOt inerMut, 
gttntrl [Y.) eAa t»iil ffo. AB. hai ddm acta U 2d ilng., ttON triVJ ^r«Mi 
JLB. milcei the eomblnuion ^maQanSnl bbavitAraa Ma wnuCirm 
vOt U 

0. All 0|<IaIlT« of Ilia auxiliu) appcata 10 bfl OIi<« tutti. In yoddbft , 
Srtm / M-DuM jtfAf (H. 1. ^'1. 25 Pauttoit; bai iba Bombar c<dflion raada 
roddboiii yaayomi). 

946. TbH accent in tli<iae combination*, m in all Iho ordinary 
ohmtb uf collocation of a verb wftli a preceding piedioaie nous or 




Mljeotivfl ifiea.i, ia on (be notin ICMlf; ud, uallka all tbe uue TorbtU 
rormB. tlto combiDation ntoina its iiee«flt nvryvhtn avua ta an in- 
depondeot cUuso: tliiu, t&rbl vl atiDaffrd bhikvltiaml >;9'IJ ^Am / 
<4dil &« out of litmgtr (wlioru bhavl^rizDl. If used, would be aceeot- 
teaa). Wbelhor In ■ di}p«Di)«nt gUhso ihi? »usillar/ verb wnuM mko 
ao aceeni |68D), and whetLer, tf to. at the expense of ihe aM'eDt at 
the aDun {u (n thfi caau of a propotitiun conpoiuidad witli a vorb* 
form : 1088 b), vo are without Utc lucsna of deteraiiciiD^. 

846. Ill UiQ VeiU, the iiotnina agtntit In If or tar, likft tuIoui otbai 
dwi*adiB nouiii(S71], but wLili iMpeoUl fcoqaancy, *n usol lu pwtUifdal 
ooiiurnclloii, gorenilni ibo •<qatult« If ikcf coma rrom roott vboM «abal 
fann* do ao (1 18S). orteo, aUo, lli«y are uied pradkatlvelj, wtlh or wllhoul 
MtonpsnTlaf copnU ; yn without but ImpUcallon of tine ; Lbsy an rot tbo 
kAgtnniiig*, bat aiilT th« roteminan, of a n«w luDM-farmation. OcBanllr. 
ittiBD Ihof bate ■ pinl'ipUl *»lao, ihe raot-tyllablp (or > pteBs pr««<dtDg 
It) baa liti Bicent. Ttt« (en^e-aie beeina, bnt ralbor npartoxlr, In tba 
Brabmana* (fram vbloh aboni Iblitr tniiui arn ^autablt); aiud ii gcewt mur* 
ounnian lkt«r, thmch tbo pulpbnailr. futnia U novbare nearly to fruqnetit 
a* ibe a-futnn (it la qnouilo taiar ^m about ihlrtj additional tootaj. 

947. 0. A r«« ItolaMil ttl«inplt ara made In the Brahma^a* to fom 
by tnilniy middle poraona to thU IiRare, vltb endliiEi <orrD(pondlri( anc* 
tbs Diutl faabiun lo tboaa nf tho artlia pnrMua. Tbn', TS. h»a oaen pro- 
yoktiiM) T tcUl apylji (lUndlng related to prayoktOaaii aa, (or axample, 
qaso to 4&ami); (B. faia-qaylt^a IA<mi iKalt lie (alailUrly r«lat«4 It 
qajritAatK and TB. bai ja^^ioabe wa witf moAw offtrmg. But In TA. 
la found (I. It) yaf(ahe *» l«i ilif . ilMirlftc a pboB«ile MmipandanM of 
a problumatle cbaia^ur, nol ola-ii>b«ra ninl with lu Ibe Ungaa^. 

b. On thn baali of mnit Utitatli* formaljosa *• ibM*, tke nallva 
natntnailana a«t up a complcta middle ladMtlon for tbe perlphiaatio Tntare, 
aa hiUuwa: 

.. 4. ^ 

I dlttha dltrinA* dttfagHlw 
1 dlt^M dtttutht dBHtdbve 
1 dU< dlt^u dftt<n« 

C. Only a ilngla oiaapla of auch a uldill't lina li«nii brooght to llfht 
In the later Itiifiufe, nan«ly (tba caauUve) darqayltabe (lUlf.). 

TTaoa of tti« Futur^a and Oondition»l. 

SM. Ai the ■■futiire ia tbe commoner, ao alao It Is the oaa 
mure ladataiteljr u»ed. It exptvaaoa in ^neral vhat ta suing lo taica 
placs at aoine time to oone — bat ofiea, aa id otli«r languages, add- 
In; on tka uae hand an iinpllcatiun oi will ur Intenlian, or <■■ tba 
other hand (hat of proinist.- or ihroalcoing. 

Wbllatf, OraaaMf. a. >d. U 


Xtl. Pirruuc^TvrBM*. 


■, A f»« exiatpU* tn: TU^y&tj Uf&mft^ paijinro Tfftimls 
bhAVlfrKtl (^U.) tf u going la nam : I'arjattya it ffcittg la &« rifh n rani 
liMjiMr- jr&a tAo at vkdn fclni foi korlfjratl (RV.) ifAarrrr 4m« i 
Ammv that, triiat ipiU hr Jo iritA vivtrf A Tfti vKyun aftiiT dhlsrftmi 
'th* jriiy&di kdfa ksrlfyftUu I ^B.) we ore fotnf U build Ikr UcoJIrms' 
/Am tehat »iit goud^f tkm {adro 'bh;UiidrtTa banifjrAn (^'D.) Urn 
Iudr« ran at, inUttlinf to tlay ; S^dj ari karif jAttut aftUkib dvrlir 
yij&ijrtao bluTif/Ktba (RV.) if jre iritf rfo Mm. ye «A<«tf 6« wortAy ^ 
lh« tatri/ter alenf teilk the yoJs; d4nt4s t* fAtajUOti (AV.) l&y I^M ittll 
fuU «»«(; dA mu-israsl mt blbb«^ (AV.) (Aow «Ml <«<>( iIm; b« int 
qfniH: br&hi kva yM7Ul (MBh.) W/ iw; inUrv 4irv jwh f«Nf C* ^f 
r«dl mftih praiy&kh;AaTaai vifun ft«thA«9« (MBA.) */ gou ihall < 
MM, J ttill reacrl :o poitou. Ai la otlivi Ikiigniyw, the ItnM U alM (OBI 
Umm u>ed for itio ciprcfalon af > rniijoetar* oi prM«asptl«n : tbn*- 
Tjraifa d«TO gAiidbarvo vi btiaTl9yatlCMBk.)irA9UfJluf A# wi/it 
afad,or aOandiiarva; ad7aBVBpa;mnti(MBh.)tl*y iniut &« ^—piatg not. 

b> Tb« (pWiM of (Dtute aud daiMeiKtlT* boHei upon obe UMt 
kli4 ikf «D« la Mmnilmet m«i wlUi ^h%n tba uibcr uil|bi b« txp* 
KsiBptM or tbc fD(Br« t4kiMi In ■ qaMl'dMldentiTC icbM tn u f«Uawt; 
jAd dftqdfs bbadrAdi kulfjrAKl tAvtt 't tix. •fttyjon (BV.) ifAol 
/arvr lAou fUUH to btttotc m tAjr Hter«Atj»ar. Uol «/ Vt«t &««MneM aelual 
(m nir-f^ hr-MifM oftou/;; j&thA 'nyAd vadlfjr&nt ■& liTAd vAdat 
((B.) at if, inlciuting to «ay oim (Aiiij). mic ■er/'a (<> laf imolAer. 

M8. rh« periplirsatic Tutura ia defiaed bj th« fnuamsriiiia m 
Bxpreaalng t>i>metUlB^ to be dooe at h dttfiniM ctioo to eouo. Aa^i 
this, thuujib but fainlly tmccAblo in latfli aac. li ■ diatlnct ctuuAOt 
isdo of the foraDation iu the Ungonge wlivre it €rat inakea ita ap* 
pMnnoe. It ia eBpecl&ll]r onen UMd aIou^ with ^ia tomamv. 

a> A raw axtiaplM «ra; adfA v&i^yaU ... ^o vn^fi(M3.) it it 
fl^ng te rain ttuf^ .- it triU rata tomomfc ; yatarln t4 Una fm^ kAml- 
Uraa te j«tarag<K.) vAii^iwr of tie« partit* thttt tkall fAiMaa (aman-Mr, 
(A*y tnTi rMfiur; prAtAr yaqt^mah* (TB.) wa thaU merijici fn a Mirrw a j 
vwntMjr; iQrkbi vah paktAaiai (VR.) •»■ mmA onJ mcA « <by / vid 
t9ok for you: tAti m& okAih rjttrlm Ante Qsyitia* JRtA n \» 
tArU putre bhaTlii i<,'H > f^Ux y«M aUU /m tnU •>» ma »^l. and . 
that time Mh «t>n of ^ourf mff 6« W». lu Mkei rase*. IU« dellnlteae 
o( tlna ti waniliK, but an eupkuli. ^ of ■p«ritt ectulnis', m*id* i>erlii(« ' 
w baltns » tbe fo«a i timt, blbbflil mt pAraylvr^ml trA tl: kiaiaAa 
mA pArAjri^jrAai tr AasbA imify aArrft^ praji airve^ht. tAtu ti 
p&rafitlemi *ti (V''-} "fport •"* <>"<' '^ ■»''/ '^tf yxi -"luf >'<■ /Vmial 
wiat will yon tap* maf MUtf A» ^ jfaMf u ^in^ fa Mrry a_^ otf 
eraafawM; yVmn lAat 7 viU tare yaw. aou/ >I; parld»*>]rAlh Mklciifv^ 
BAbao obokablisyaifa prftptOsiiiii^ (OB) (A^y i«f u;> a i/n»ai»taf k>h : "aoa 
ora yaMjt (« nttei leM ffrt»l pain anJ dri^J"; j^a 'jakfl yaffiba 
(TA.) / »Mrifi«t, /*ai« (atrijfartf. a««f / lAait tacrt/trm. In )at a«ke4 





(B tbe older Untna^ ereD, and yet mere In ih" liur, ihU rninrc tppeari 
to %c D^nlvilani lo the otber: thn*. prqjA^ftm ankdi TiJJ&ILtltRino fodt 
TldTftn VK Jahoty avldTftu vft (AB.) in Au eMIiiren tte thuli kufw him. 

wKttfier he U one that tafrijicta tetlh InoitleJfe or telAimt kitowiadge', Tak> 

Uamo vQ idnih devobtiTiLli C'^^O "" '^^'^ f<^ f^** to 'A' g<*dr. yndi 
■Tirtho maint ^pI bhavttS tAtti evaiEk avlrtlutih karl^ySmi (MHh.) 
^ latar my oien affair »htUl cofim up, M«ii f witf atltnd (■> my own o^oir; 
kathufa to hfaftviUsr 6ka tti trUi nrpaqooiioi (Unh.) &uf AowviU 
yoM fjf( a/ou$ aUintf that, king, u Iht emw of uiy yri^ aftnut ywi. 

650. Tlie oodltloaal wouli eoom to bo raoac «rigit>ttlty and 
properly u*«d to Mgniry that somtthlne umu jAin; to bs dono. And 
ihle v*Iao It hag In lis only Vcdic ocoitrrcnci', nnd occARJonally vHc- 
whor«i. But iidniily it hiia the n'oie ordinarily cidled "ooadttional"; 
and lo ili« gtt!%i majorlly of tin on«arrpnc«s it is fbuud [Ilka the sub- 
JttOGtive and th« opuiElvG, when uaed with the lums T&lue] la both 
elausoa of a coDdilionnl utrotcnc'ii. 

a. Thvt, p6 vjtrtyA sinun Atrd 'btaarlfyat pr& tUi Jitnitrt 

vld&fa IIV&aa(BT.J him. vhn Urai going Jl*re /« cnri-y off t'rilra'a irtttjllh; 

Ail mtflltfr protlaitwd to the hwieing one; tjat&jnub dUa akarlqyam 
(All.) / wai yoing to maJcr (lAouA/ Adp< made) lie com lirt a hnniirrd yean 
(In olfacr ier*lr>ni or the mdis ftory !■ iil^O'l Dir othsr cUu»c, In abl'h the 
ooudltianal hu • t*Id« iDorv rcmorO'l finDi it* oi!$In>h tkns. in OIV. if 
j/ou, viiloin. had not ntopp&d [prlcrahlfrah} my mnnCA ; tAla ev& '>]r« 
bhayiiii vi ^ftjra kasmkd dby &bh«fyad dvidyAd vki bhayUi 
bbavati (9'*l therrnpon hit f<ar iltjtarUdi for tf tcAwu irot A* (» 6« 
afnriJt «tfa*io» of fear «n»*t from a iteond p*r»om; utpaptta elHub 
tAo monft yid viUa^ parTAdbiaTata (^'l'-) Ak Itaprd up ; A< (Aanj^AI 
>i brntr that h« ihouli put m a ymrmmf. sA t4d »vi nt *vlnd«l 
prajjpatir yitrlE IkOfyat (MS.) Pr^apati. v«rily, dij ml lA^u ylinuf 
wAcr* Am vat to {thtfuid) uwrifitt; «Taih cen nS 'vak^yo niQrdh& t« 
vyapatl^yat (r>B.) i/ yaii thoald mnt iptak tktu, your Atad ntmU Jly 
off; B& yid db&i tltvsd evi IthKVi^ywi jArttyo hU 'v& 'gn pr«jit> 
afffaa tavatyo b&i Va 'bhaviijjruti ok pri ^aaifj-tmta (V"-) i/* A' 
A<u/ 6(cw <Mi/y •« mncA, tArrr %eoutd hat* bern only t« aumy livittg rrtaturt* 
at tfen irratid at flrtt: liny m^ulJ Aarn /tad no proffttty; kith Tt 
liliavifyad orunas tamoaKifa vlbhett* taib oat aolinarakira^ 
dborl ni 'karlfyat (*,') mmihU the Da^n, fortooth, be the sfotttrtr of 
tkt darkntM, if tkt tioiumtit-rtiytJ our diJ uot «4 her on the frpnt of 
Am chariot T 


fl»l— ] 

Xin. ViRBu. AsjitcnTM AMv Vimju. 




9S1. K. TsosB verbal adjoctivos. or |»rtl«lplei, wbleh we intde 
Troni tnti»o->lcini, Hud lo conatitiito t put of ibe Tkrioas tesM< 
eyBioai*, li»To b««ii «lreii<l>- tre»liMl. It r«maiD» to doicribe certain 
otben, which, boing mado directly from tli« root iuelf. belong to the 
T«rbd tj'Btfiin H» « w)iol«, and not to any parllcuUr part of IL 

b. The tnfinillre (wilh a few upofadic PiMplions in the older 
lanpu««J nUo comw in all oaee* from tbe root dirtcUf , asd not from 
■koy of the dwived tenie^teina. 

o. The MJBo It true of tbt ao-csllsd ceronda, or indMllublv 

Passive Participle in tA or ni. 

653. Ky the aooeoted Buffix ?! ti — or, 'in a compai^ 
atirely amall namlMW of rwlw, ^ a& — it formed a verbal 
adjective which, when cominft from UansitiTe verbs, qiialj- 
fies aojthiag as baring endured the actioo expicsnod by 
the verb: thu«, ^ datU given; 3?7 ukta tpoken. Henee 
it is uBually called the passive participle; or, to dislioguish 
it from the participle beloogiDg Lo the passive preaeol- 
syateni f77I], the paat pastive parlioiple. 

a. When made from aa inuajigitive or neuter verb, the 
Bame participle, a« in other lan^ages. hu no pawive but 
ODiy an indefioite past seaae: thus, IPT gata goru\ ^ bhCLti 
been; cifiTH ^iXixA fallen. 

9S8. In general, this partieipte is made liy adding ff 

tk to the bare verbal root, wilh observation of the ordiaary 

rules of euphonie combination. 

a. Sooe roots, howovsr, require the preflxton of the auiliar^ 
vowel i to the iiuf6x. For lhe»o, and for the vorbe tlul add nA 
iutesd of U. see beiuw, sea. B57. 




b. A* to the acceut when Ibo root l» preceded bjr a preposition. 
B«e 1086 a- 

95i. The root before rT ta has usually iu weakest form, 
if tbeie is anywhere io the verbal system a disiiaoLioa of 
Treah jLod strong forms. Thus: 

a. A pvuiiltituate bmsI Is not seldom dropped: exampla art 
aktjt IV«&j.^ b&ddhii (>'buidh'', ^iwbdh* yqnmbh', d»4ii {fdn&fi, 
•nuta i)Br«ft8), bA^iin (v'baAb. 

b. Boots vliich arc abbrevlatoil In die wosk forms ot the p«r> 
feet |784| sulTer the same abhrcvinlloD here: examples nre nkti 
;yva<i|. nft* Vw* ihinr', upti <';.vap: nleo vapt«<, H^ht {^'vtiik}, 
mptA (KsTApl, l4t& [fr»i:, viddbi iVTiadb ; — and, br a similar 
procedurs, I'pradli lor pra^; mukes pnfJi. rbbraAf makoa bh^U 
(boslde the ivgiilu bbraf {4;, and f'qra hoU makc-s {ri& [bvstdo frtti]. 

C. Final a U wnkened lo i in gliA {y'ek iinf), dbltii l^dbaauot), 
pltk (Kpft ilrtnil), sphlta; mA JitA, vitA, (]lt& u* midv from the feM> 
J^i, vya, ^&, (oi Jl M«.); — »nd fuithfi to i in ohiti (beilile ohati], 
dlta (Kdft nfiPiifa •nil da hind), drita (P yArAsU€p), blt& (I'dhft^iirt: 

wlUi fa for dh: but dblta also ori'.UTa In V.), mitA()^IBk ruaiwe), fit4 

latso <iACa), Bit4, DthitA. 

d. A DnU m U loit ali«r a In gatji, nati, ynt^ rati (fnm ygna 
eu.)', sail a llnsl n In k^ta. tati. matA, bati. At t« tlw othw mots 
Id Bin ftnd an laklng ta, ■«• B66 a, b. 

O. More lioUfa-'d rarai mr^^ •fita I RT.: ^ar), otA «( Qta (^vft tre«ri). 
Qlf t4 C*'*o C&Bta : ^qas). mtLita (rfferr»d to fmOriita): Ai to -cdha 
and JasdfaA, icb 333 f. 

f. Oil the oth«r band, VSrad wAv* avfttti. 

0BB. Of wore Irre^lar character are the following: 

a. A numti«T of roots eDdlng in am letnln the Dasal, and longth«a 
the radical vowol [as also in somu otiiera of tiicir verbnl fortsa: thus, 
Uifati, kritbtA. klijhtA. kf&ibta, cfchta, t&iht&. dSifatA, bhrtmU, 
riihU. gOifatA !)9am bt juivt, ^rdifatit [froiu vI^aid utc); and ono 
In an, dbvan tovnd, mukps dbvinti. 

b. A f»w roou In an malie their pirdolple rtnin inoitDr tno'.-futm 
iB a; tho*, khiti, jatA, -vfttar auAj dbam b» buOi dbamltA »»<l 

o. C«rt*tB ioqm In Iv tak* aaUffl-fena (74&a): thua, dfAU (K^Iv 
fioy), f^bynta, syati; but Vmiv tiuk«a •mata. 

d. Ffom raet* In chsageibl* r (cenarally lakiim na* 967 b) »n mails 
• lao pOl^ <>'pr fUt: twaldo pfta), flTta and ^rtfc ^^ff crutA); aad 
flrta li rinktt in*d« tnm y^tl ou. 

wy <j». •■i««>. Jhr <*r •• , 

nu; wr, 4w. •»»- ^r;— c « 

kir. ■»< 


<w, iHM, klM«, )>K nMi Air. MJ. «t4 ■!*•««} Mi ad 

tolM (wi*"; iraM* m4 Mm*)! ~ n. M «Mtat*, «, pM, f«as, riM 

I'M I* -^M ittuwim Mif ratCi): knd. UU. B>d, end. ^id. 

miA, ft4, rt^, V"^. rt* *«»«». hrtd; •!*• trad in t^ (,ilii» h w] 

HMMA m4 OUaB*^ BMd kM Mk DUUl U<d IIU4UI4 (tk« KslMnr 

•f fMM IM A UM •«- MTd)^ adh. Lftidb. gadh. dodh. nUh. 
l*Mti, •pmrtth. wi. In. kv«i. dbvui. pu. nn ritt^, no. tlazL. 
iv»N, <'"l fllixwi (•!« iJhT»i»t4); — 4. In UbUl«, oop. jnp. rup, 
«iii1 iM««li( kup ikupta r*i') »iid lap (Upt* "picX occuiunkiij kfip, 
««|», up, dfp, VNp, f*p. *bIU Jap t.u Votb ttt lod ita: crabb 
(■flililU), V"*'''< *k*btl. u<l iic«iU«tuiliF lubb, otilli kfubh uiJ 
•Utpti !)••- wih /mm*( tin, dham, fam U^r. ttlm, ».d k«am lu 
M^M (»i<" llfWllUJl - '' t» 'pl'*"**. "^ M'. >?. kifl. kT9, rft9. ^a^. 


i'AHHivE Pahticii-ls ih ta OR na. 


wbllc pif faM both foim*, knd nr9 Ukei it& cnlv Ui«; Iq *«utt, If, kof, 
trf, tvif. pruf, D1I9. rflf. ha^, hn^, *l>o muf tx^cpi ui<^, nhiia dhff, 
ruf, •■■•1 bfq *b<»* both foiini ; Aa, btUB, bbAe, n>l, iMt vm r/ofAr, 
bWj *iBn u lArow ncBUloiiUty, vhilo kas, BTas, yas, tab JiAtn', vam 
ififrll, qAs (oltlj ^i;f& >'id fftstai), ^bb, hkI hi*** mako boih toiiniii 
ib. zrota (EftuUil. Jab (unnondiiy farm of hh). mah, raJi. ud oTculMiklli 
Qfa rvmopis whilv gAh ha« VoUi foniiK. 

o. or roau Bcidliig In *Dir«1ii. only 9I /■#, wUoh ai*k** ^ayita (iriifc 
SU^B of root, M alae<ihero: 689). 

d. In g*n«riJ, > mot milnttlnt lu fiitl toitB bcfMC Itn; but there 
uA « few esceptluQa: Uiiii, gfbhltA itid g^bili (tlia root being iMkoned 
u crabh uidgntll: aae 780j, uditA (klao vadlta In tbn Iitnt kn^tgD), 
UQlta (fVaa iAin«; b«aiilu nffi), u^ita (yvas (iu'^fl: al«o iporkdlcklly 
vanitn ind ufi^o.), ukfitft t^Vakf mcreast), qr^hiUi (v'^rath]. From 
finfj arc luide both mfjita mil m&rjlta (with ttrensthcning u Id jitcMiil 
aud «Us«hBi«: 6S7], he»ld« mrQt^ 

•. Initatd of 1, Imt I i» Ukcn In sf''^^ *"d ETtiltA- 

eS7. The suffix 7 oi (alwaj's without auxiliary ^ i) is 
taken instead of rT U by a number of roota [about seventy). 

a. r«n»lD root* In I: thu>, k^K. gli, drft run. drt *U*p, (kUo 
iriUt), oiU i_»itv mlatA), vA (foif filto vMa), fjft (Uto^ln^). atyft, 
h& /iMice (»tio hln& and hXta). h< go Jorth; >iid dft <^cult mik** dla& 
(aI«D dita and -tta). FarUm, corlatn root* hi i- and a-vo«e)i: thai, kff 
Aflrf^ (kflQS: alxo kfftfc). ^I, pi, li tiit>f. vH, 9I or Qyt /vofutatt 
(brtliln 9y&na and qlta), hrl (biiKiilii hrlta)i da burn (il>i> dutaj, Itl, 
gQ; 4tid div tamrtit niaku dyOna (compkK 7S&]. 

b. Koou 111 r- w>>l''li befure the •ufflx bacoioM [r nr Or: iha formi 
•m, aT7>a (lai«i beild" ftk), kirqa (v^ Kmtt*r), glrpi (v'ST •^ifUote), 
JlroA ui'i JOrpi (v'Jt un'fr uirai/). tlr^i ami ttirpA (alM turt&), dirQ4 
()^df pitret: alao d^a). pun^a {\/ptJiii'- k1>« purtik and pfta), mdr^A 
(fmr fiMA), 9lrp& (y9f tnuA: »L(d flrta atiil (jOrcAP). etirpA (alM 
atrta). Of like Fh«rt.-t4r vlth the*« are Ir^ from ) Ir, elr^ (bulda 
oarita) fiutii ^car. Run^ fb«li)c gdrt4) fiom yg\xr, ■ ■ccondiry tann 
of gf, ajid oCkrQ^ lliMidq oarvlta) Irou i^aarv, vhlcb it alio plainly ■ 
taeondkry root 

e. A fa-K rnnu dndlng In J (whltb bnoomea gt hxtan lie tafflx ii«aln>t 
tfa« ii«uil rol« of [iit'inal tomblnalioii : HOT): thttt, bbagna (i^Iiafij), 
bhnsaa ()/bhuJ bmd). macni (i'mt^U), rnsvi, vlfna (heiMu Tihta). 
Farib*r, two or (hma riidlnc In O lilnilltilj iriui«dj; (hiii, aknjt (>'ao 
01 afie: alio Mlta and afielta], Tfk^ (|'*VTaga), and appuantl) 'Prtva 
(KV., onM; vtih doobly Inofttlar chaiiji^ at Toot-flnal, from KPr°)- ^"^ 
00* root la r, lacoa. 


XIII. Vkbbai. Amkctivks ani> Notink. 


d- A ROBfiid«TkbI« numbet, aoatu of tlksn **T7 (OtDmM nii««, of MM* 
In d («U(b, i^ntt otdlnitT nil«, bMotnei n hetan tha laffii: 167 b). 
Tti« form* nt: oniui (kUo utt*), mi^aP, kllnn>, k^o^^^fa, k^vl^^B, 
kbtnoa, clianna, o>iiiia&, cbf^QJ^ tunnik, tT99^ i»iiui& (iIm nitttA 
uid oudltn'), pnnnik, bblnnit, vititui (y'vid jSuJ: tUo viUi), ganon 
lytfrnd/aU], BftDn^tilHo BBttil. skAaoA (vakandj. syanni (Vsyandj, 
■vlnni, hkniiR. And inna /oaj, in ipito of Ita dlfllerant mmaI, appMi* 
tft b« ft Uko roiDiaUon tiom yitA tat, 

0S8> The (iBtivo grarofaiuMn* reckon aa pArticiplei of this for- 
tutlon « few misoollanouui derivative ndjectiTu, coming fraa roota 
which do not uake a rvguUr pHrtioiplv: aiioii are ky&ma bural, kf^i 
eniaeiattJ, pftkvft ripf, phull& txpimdtd, faults dry. 

Past Active Fartiolpl« in tavant [or navsnt}. 

869. Fiom ihe past passive pailioiple, of whatevei 
foimAtion, is made, by adding the poaecseivc suffix ^n 
TkUt, a McoQdB.Ty derivative havioi; the meaDing and cod- 
■tTUOtion of K peifect jtotivo participle: for cxnmple, W\ 
3rT^H t^t kft^vBii hating done that; Uifa DlglrQBVSD hacing 
awallouvd >lim down. Its infleetion is tike th«t of other 
derivatives mado with this suflix (452 ff.}; iu feminine eoda 
in ^rft vatl; its aoocnt reituiBS on tho pArtieiplc. 

600. Detl*»tlvo v«Mi of (Ml ri>riiiitlon ub hnai In RV,, bui wltlint 
anyililiijE like a ^itlolpUl v»lne. The AV. hu i iinj;la manipir, with par- 
ttdpltl iDc<iDlii|; ; aq ituvftt; Atlth&u on4» i/uut having ttattn (1a«- att*.). 
la Uu> Uitliinti^u til" It IH budlf lutt wiib. In tho laior liofiiif*, komirvT, 
11 camM l« bo qaite Mnuawn. A-nd tbeto It i* chiefly oted predtMltrilir, 
aa<t oft«iiMl ollhoot upnli *ipr«t«nd. or with Iha tiIii* o( • jMTvonal rerti- 
f«rni Is 1 fM tents: fuTinkTlIy, and not *»ldani. Ugnifylng immedUto pa*l, 

or having a tm* "pcTTecl'' vdoo; bit lUo (like ttic old pBi(act uid Uin oM 

aoriit In laUt naa) ooaitng to b« ti«i>1j n««d roi lnd#nnlt«< ttmo, et lib the 
tUm «/ ike linpeirpct (779). Foi (-iiinplv: cnaifa nn ka^dd dfffavSU 
Htf MM /ta4 *MH [or «0ir) nw; ■& nftkulsih vjrAptdltaT&O A< ittiroftd 
Ua MAwurnon; or, with oopnli, oiabat krochraib prtptavatr aal (Aou 
fiatt fatUm upon grMOt tnuory. AlUtougb orldnAllj «Dd proporlr made 
mIjt fMm Iraniltlw •Biba (with an object, to *blch Iho participle la ta 
■laadi In tho reUtlon of an ebJccilTc pio'llr«ii*«), li !• ilnallr fouad lliO 
from tnirtadiKei: ilmt, oQt«iu aaiii<;ritavatl ((0 ^^ httttme uniUd 
wiili the auBt^-tr4e-, gatavat) (lb.] tft* hoM fotK. 

a. The atitrn pirtlclpla li alto mado In (be ««oondir)i cooJuKatlau: 
t. |. daiflCavaiit haviitg thoton^ prabodbltavaat Aavuijr awaftowd 




b> PmmmItm iln In 1b ntdi fran ptntvi ptntdplM m Hn*- 
tlmca fDiitid B*a<l In an uialofUM wannvr, nvirly ■« perfect ■'■tlra pirtld- 
ptu: «. |. tft^n hnmfiaaifietd, vlJiUaoniBnyiuiitiUb (AD.) (AinMan 
tlumMkf to AoM MNjtMrW. 




TutUTO 'PMfliTO Ftrtidplos: OorundWeg. 

9fll> Cettain deTirative adjectives (for the most part 
more oi less clearly secondaiy derivatives) htive acquired in 
the language a r&lue as qualifyiof; tramelhing which is to, 
or which ought to, sufTei the actioo expreesed by the root 
From which they oome; aod they are allowed in be made 
from every verb. Hence they are, like more proper par- 
ticiples, sometimes treated as n part nf the gtmeral rcihal 
system, and called future patnive participles, or gerundives 
(like the T^tin forms tn ndia, to which they correspond in 

960. The suffixes by which such geruodives arp regu- 
larly and ordinarily made are three: namely Zt s% fTST uvya, 
and W-flu anlya. 

L Derivilliei tn ya having thli v(la» ut inidB lu all pnrlsdi Of tbo 
Iragaaga, ttam tha nttllsat down; Ihr elbni tnou« of mon iii«dvni origin, 
balag vnHrelr «*ntiug In tho oldMt Veda (RV.), and liinllx knoirii In tho 
blar. OthiM darlTttirw al i fioaUar ehatMto, wtiliib &n«nr*rd dttappMr 
tnm Ui«, *re tonoA in th« Ytila (866). 

803. The suffix ya In tta gcnindlve use ku notliing to dis- 
tinplUli it from tbe nam* suffix m «(»|>Kiy<-d to oaks itdjecUres and 
■oms of other obaractcT (»oc bolow, 1813|. Aid It tdklWta also tlie 
■amo varlet; in the treaCment of thu root. 

a. Tba arlKlD«l valva or lb* suni It tft, and u »anb It bu to bo read 
Ul Ike t*rr (Ttkl ni^ortty or iU VodU occiitrarioo*. Il»n<« tbr c»ii*tr>[nn 
of • kad o M ajr mil av t>*(nrn 11 (aM botDv). 

b. Tbut: 1. Final t Imicooic* « baforo tli« auflii: dAya, dbreya, 
khfoya, mcya iporhaps di-ta etc-, witb cnpboalc y InterpotoUj) bat 
KV. lias ooee 'JBtya ~3. Th« othor vowuU oithor roiaaia uochutg- 
«d, or bavo th« gvofm or tbe vrddht atrongtliPDinK; and s uauatly 
and o always are treaiiiit luforn tlic ya as thoy would t>« before a 
voiritl: iliM, -kfayya, jAyya. bAiiyya, layya; nJiTya, bbivya, hivya, 
bUvyi; virya: and, in (he later laDgusfo, nlyo. Jvya, dhflya sueli 
«aacii are wanting oarlivrj. In a fen- iMtanee*, a abort rowel adds t 




before tba tufBz : Urns, itya, mitjn, qrutya, alutyo, kftja (tfae onl] 
Vedic eXAmplee)- — 3 Medial ■ reinklns nnchao^^d «r 1b lengtkene 
IhVB. dAbhja, TindTSt a&dyii; midT&, T^oirft- — 4. Medl*) 1*. a>i' 
and r-vowels arc uncliaoiced or hsvo tlip giiQ4-aU4Bvtti«n)ng: ibiii, 
i^Tft, gubTB, dbnya; dv^fTt^, yidhya, m&rjya. 

«, The RV. fau about run) exvnjilra of Uil* |*ni»4<*«, aiid th« AT. 
addi btU u nikny inor*. Hicr^t lii bhlTli (once), the acceni In BT. 

I* klwiiTi oil (lie rootl AV. Iiaa MT*!*! r>*«* nf neon I «n Ik* 1 of ih* 

■nrili (titncc vrlttm Adj^ AfT^< -Tyftdhr^ •dharqyk), Aoeardbif to 
tba gnmai*ri(r>i, tb>> irtcnt Ir on tha n)<i( or niM tbe aadtiis I« dteiiM- 
ftcsedl *l«*yi tbc toimei, If Ibe jk foUo* ■ rowol. 

•S4. a. The tuffii taTya U a RMondftry adjective derinUre 
from the infinitival noun tn tu (bolnw, 688, audo by adding the 
•affix ya fpn>p«rly la^ whence the accent yk., before wbicb the liiuil n, 
M musl 1 1 90S a|, has KOQ^'trcnRthoning, and is ro»olvBd Into *▼. 

b. Ilonce, as rettitrd* both Ihn form taken by th« root and l)i« 
use or ouiisalon of an anxUlitiy tovcI 1 beton tbo Uvra, the rulee 
are the uitnc ui r^r tho formmtlon of the infiolttve Ibelow, 9M). 

O. No aiuDplc or Ihl) rormitlon It fonnit In BV., asj in AT. occtr 
onlf iwD, Janltaryw md biAaltavya. Iii the Brihmana lansutee It h«- 
(Ir* (0 be n<7t nx", and 1* m»d« both from tbe slmplo mat ind from Ibo 
dtrliail canJUEitlonat atania (n#xt cbaplV()i tn ih« c1mcI«U langii«|t« II (* 
lUll moT* frequent. A«<:OT<)lnK to tba painnitrlan*, Ib« a-roenl of <hf> word 
la e'lthet etttmoBnx on the llnal or *ont« Ml (h* p«nnlt: tbui, lurt«TT& 
or kart&vys; in the aceontnaEBd tatto. It la alirafa the (ermai (lb* aAt»at 
tivya glten lo cfvfain pmndtTta in tbe Pttenbuis lexlcona li an aTior. 
grovlog out of the amblgiiaui arxenlaatiou of fB.: 86 o). 

MS. K. llie Buf£z anlya 1» In like nmDu«r tlie product of 
■eooniliry derivation. mad« by K<ldiog: the adjective sulfii ly& 1916) 
to a noaun adimtit foriaed \iy tbe eumuoo suffix uut. 

b. It followR, then, u re^atdi ite mode of formation, tbe rnlei 
for tbe guffix a.ns (b«lQw, IIBO), 

e. Tlilt dertvatlTe alM if unknown tn BV., and In AT. U feanri «n>r 
In Qp^jlvaniye and AnuQtra^Iya (in both of whlnh, moreOT«r. tt* dU- 
ilnpt gemndlto t*Iuc oilmlu o( qnoiitlon). In tli* Btahniiinaa (*hcre lou 
then ■ doteii ei&mples of It bavo been uoted), and lii tbe laiet lanfuafie, 
11 If lea* eommnn thui the fEOtandln In tavya. lu accent, i* In all tbe 
dftlTttlvee wltb the anlflx tja. la on ih« peniUi: iba>. kariL^iya. 

966. Olber raFniiliaei of Uodrtd *tliM m lottnd la Iba Voda m 

•■ Cenndlvea In toa er tva. apparantly undo (torn ik» inBuliival 
i»nni In tu vtib the added tuflLx a (ISOB). Tbc)' are kaj-toa (In i«a 
o(«iimnoei kirtva). -caihtTa, J&ntaa. Jetua, nJofataa. viktiut, sotti*. 





■Dfttua. faiatua, hMua, hdtva; uit), «itli auitliary i (or I), Mnitva, 

b- Gornnaiv'd In «nU nt cnyA ('-otiifkri' IS17): iLey irc Ocfonio. 
I^iala, oArt'^I*. df^nU, -dvlf v^la, bhOfO^rn, yucUi4ni«, vJira^l* 
(tnd bliiysnyft BliP.) ; vSib one exftinpl« Troin an appcniil aorlit-atam, 
jradu^nya, md time m tout Iium t^ranilary rcrb-iMnu (mo bcloir, 1010, 
1038. 10680). 

O. (t«ruii4lTi» In i^« (viioe ijyu- ooBipicr 1218): Ihay *ra d^- 
ftyla, panllyla. vidiyla. ijnviyUi. tanav&yla ; oiih k few from teisoit- 
Aaj conJuftUon-daiiia (below. lOld, 1038, lOBl, 1068«)i >nd BtUfiyln 
b of doM ktudred wliti them. 

d. A f«v •Uj«c(lvM In vUoM, u pBOoUout, bhldvUau (jtaij theia 
qBOUMc), arc Nskonfld u gomnillTtn bj th« ^immriuii. 

667. Tbe divitioD-Uoo bctwMn pArtiHpUl And ordiniiTy ftdj«e- 
UvM i) loM ■trictlf dntWB in Sanskrit tbsu in Ibo oth«r Inilu-Enru- 
pMB Un^nafM. Thaa, juyectlreB in u, u will be soon latei (IHS). 
fro* ■ccoodkiy oonjngatioDBl steota, hava |>nrticipi*l valufl; bm) In 
tbe Brlhmanu with an eiunple or two Id AV.) is foand videly snd 
conimooly uK^d a partiiii|iial ndjcctivo fumied vriih the nuffix uka 


968. The later language hu only x lingle tntiDitiTe, 
which ia the accusatire case of a veibal ooud formed by the 
suffix g tu. added to the root uHuallr directly, but oftea also 
with aid of the preceding auiJlia.Ty vowel S i. The form of 
the iDfinitire ending, ilieiefore, is ^IT turn or ^^ ttum. The 
root h&« the gaoft-EtTengtbeoing, and is aooented. Thus, for 
example, ^r^ itiim from i^ 1; ffiHtt kirtuis from k^ kr; 
tilj^M c&rltum from y^T^ oar ; mE^IHII bh&Tltum from f^l bhfl. 

m. As rvgiirdi th« uso or omliaion of 1, (be iB&Dlllvo [as ftlso 
tbe g«niid In tva. Ml i follows Id meoeral the analogy of (h« paeaire 
participle i9&8j. Exauiplos arc nrith the f;entnd tiddodl u follnwa: 
dagdlU. digdham. daKdhvi rnun ydoJn; bhla&i. bb^ttum, bbittW 
from ^'bUd; inatA, mintum. matvi from i^MUi; Q^I^^ v64bum, 
I14bva from f'vfth; patlti, pfttltvm, patltv^ Trom )^pBt; yaoita, 
rioitam, Tioltvt from yjto; qaylti, ^f^tum. ca^tvA from y^ 
Bui osrtatD exception* and apodAl caaes require noUw. Ttina: 

b. Of iMt« baling iM qnotabU parttclpl*. iiiaiil[l*« (l«aii in tU U» 
■■•do Rom ad, eagb; ta Ito fruoi ufiob, lU) nmcMbr, k^ap, InQtl), 
lek. avar; ud in boU from yabb 


XIIT. Vn«BAi. AnjRcnvBs Asn ttovM. 


& Of iMtt mtklng pwtlciplM U bnih forina, ib Inflnttlvi tttm Is 
tu miria qaoublr for kftp, kfubb, t«p, tyaj, 10^9, lobh. vaa atw, 
9*kt atabh; uaiy In Lta fur gUi. carr, jap, mad, yac, vaa, ^afia, 
fvwi; III boili foi Mt Mre*!-, bh rcniorf, gup, o»r, lOfi (mjLrf^a, uftr- 
Jlta)( lap, vas dwtil, gap, Qfla. 

d. Alto in « nUDbot of oUiiu cmm (bt«U*s (hoM ■lr«>Jy notdead) an 
tiillitltl*e flem b oitde bolh wltb and wltbotii i. Thut, In tddlilon to ih* 
■lora rcfiiUt forni, • i(ein In itn U a'uitontlly lani vltb rrun r«Dli a^ 
oXtem, If awA, bandh, bbaj. yt^ OUItnm), rudh obttniO, ruh^ rn, 
Bad (aiditiUBX "^i tuu^, h;; auit «■>■ Iii tu ban rooU Aa, ULftf. vtd 
Amdv. Uaili r^nui ocent >I*d fioni c«rUlii am-noU, ii»iD«ly oaoii yaxD« 
ram. md. with B b?fnT« tu u In tlic ppto, kram »nd bhram (kf«a 
kM only kfnmtu, iigilnn the uiilngy of kamlitAf; foitfaer, fmn (citMii 
toou In varlibie j, nimely tf [tarto. tarttu], vj emtr (v&rtu, varltu), 
tnd atf (atartu, ataritu. etililtu) (bat rrum gf rruth <i^wm\r g4nta, 
QUitu. and trom vf cAoosr only varltQi wLll« ^ neailoiD and PT^ 
nako tb«li inflnttlio fton «tliet rooi-formi. nunttr slrltnin, pftrltnm); 
ronbm, Inm ■ Ipw vovol-noU, namely nl, ojii, Bti (sAtu): ami Da>lly 

a. Ac'iafl the uitlofy of ib« participle. InllnlltT«-Ri«Dii Id lta «An 
• Dnal Mnaonuii iie mido Tram th« tatu av, kfan, khan and Jaa (ifco 
pf]M eaoABt fiom kbs anil JAJ. (rob, Jabb. tata. dlv phy uU div 
Imttml (b«tb dovitu), maJJ, V(^ rfdh, Sfp; mid iflct b Anal vovtl, 
from lODla In % Bkmely pQ. bliQ, sQ (alio BQtu), and troin i^rl and ifvl; 
M 10 n>ota In railabln f, aea Jod aboie, d. 

f. Aa ibo loHnltlve U made Inm tb* (MMnl«d and) alKaBihanat 
loot, fo It Datanlljr baa, ai a lalo, ibo •iroii<«' '''' rull«r rcet-ff»nB whan 
a waaker at eonttaried, (ana li taken by lbs ptnicipU (and tarnnd n 
tvt): «. (- viktU agaliitt ukti [and uktvd), yi^fn *calo*t l^^a (and 
IftTt), banddbtim agilmt baddliA (md baddbvi), and (O on. D«iarr» 
Inn 'P**!*! noltM *re Kfttu (ygt *ing) Bg*lnt.t dtA. and dliAtn (ydtM 
(wot) a^nit dbit&i &i)d >o trnns dft ffivr and bfi ieave an made ealy 
dlta aiid hKtat but dhB put, lOB mraeiirr<, inil nthS ixld to the leculir 
dhftte, mBtU, atli&tu the laic totm* -dhltu, -mitUt -atblto; aod bA 
or at baa aitu, actu, and -aitn; Tft nrwr* (ppln uti) bM boib Titn 
and Qtu; bQ orbvB bat liavitu, bv&yltu, inrl bvMu. Tb« no\ ryadh 
makoa LU only qnatabla Infliild**, vaddhum, tron lta vidfa-(oni: rncn 
sa&J w 9»i ooauT both ea&ktn aTid aaktu. T>ia aDomaloaf ople loiau 
Qitum (vyaj) *»d aidituin (taadi, vara nnllonad abor*. Tba t«o( 
grab iiuk<« gTJkliUum. 

g. In lb* Ul(>r UiiKnaKf, (be lnfliilli>a-al«m form* poMei''t(« com- 
ponndi >|ih kAma and maaaa (tapcciallr (he roranei): r. f, avaptu- 
ktma hmting It^ icit/i to tUep, ya^tukAma ilMir«v* ^ uurifirims. 
vaktumanaa mwdt^ tn ff««k. 

h. lu •*[» >u« iiiatancM. d«tl<» taiblllM* In ta*a at ta*U m* 




■td« fratn tba Uiflnillt* (t«iii In ihc luni Jugusg* (m ■bnndintly la tk« 
efttUer: 070 b): Ibu), pr&tll)arUv« (BliP.). An4 jlvftu (973 a) is 
aate fuuud In Hfit> (I. 3, 61 •= ^ill), Ib « tiUMl-Vodlt liymu to tiM AotIm. 

960. In tke Veda lutd Brabtnans, buwi<r«r, r nuiabet vf toiImI 
nouM. HMiiM ai<tiMiu, in various of their eaus, ve naed In eon- 
■tructiODO Trhicli Miiuitato tbent to the inGuitive of other lsu^ag«« 
— altfaoflgli, ven it not fur those i>th«r later and mora develoiiod 
and proBouuud [oftoitlvea, the oocstructlDoi in questiou tai^ttt iioas 
M orilisary oaMt^oiiitruGlioiiR of a Mimewhat |]«ciUiar kind. 

970. The nonna Lhii« used infiDitivelr aro the folloiring: 

a. Tbe root-uouD. wfihuut derivative suffiE, la so UB«d in lt« 
teeuMtlTe in am, ita dalivu iu o or {from ft-ruots) U. its gsaltlvo 
aitd ablatfvo in oa. and lU louatlve in 1. 

b. Tho vorbal udiiti in tu is ao uaad in it« accuBstirA In turn, 
iUi dalire in lave ot lavftl, and itH nbUtire and Kouilivv la toa. 

Of ctkat noiiD* only ilrtHl* M*a<, ganenlly d>tlT<«, uc reokonod la 
osad «lth liiOnlliTe iiJue; ibua: 

e. Fioai thu verbal noon Id aa, the datira to aaa; and alao, ta 
aa «xlreca«ly aoull number of (oiUiicea, a dative In ae (or fSf, from 
a Doan formed with ■ simply. 

d. Prom nonas in man and van, daiivna ii maac and vana. 

e. Frum nouaa in tl, datives in taye, or ifroiu ouo or tvo verba) 
ia trtl. 

f. Tnm iioima in i. ilativ«H In &re. 

K. FroiD aouaa in dbl and g), daiivoe iu dhyOl and fyU- 

h. K few iu6altives Id ^mijI ua perhaps locatives fraoi Doaoi Ib 
ao added to a root inereaaod by a. 

1. t'rotu a Binglo rook dluf, are wade lu&nllively lUfld fonng In 
tiri, of which tho irramtnatieal ehani«1«r U qtieaQonablf . 

J. Anii>iii; alt tbase. tbe fonuii vbkh bite boM rl|bt la sptclU uesl- 
menl %t IndnittvM, iin iccoDit of bblng of paeuitu fonasiJao, <» ftom 
raroie.' uut foaod tu eibet naa, or for both Katoni, ut thoaals ;«, qanl, 
tarl, dhyii, and UvU. 

k. EiMpi the various caias ef the derirttlve in tu, siW of th« rool- 
aoon, ibuM inflnlttrr* are atmost wbolly naknowD «a1iM* tba ltif-V«d«. 

L Other tufdxM uid forms tbtu tkcua noUttd tboTe nlehl l>« added ; 

f«T It U ImpOftitblf ta draw iny dicJ Una beiBran tbc ttM* cl4»^) u 

iQllnltlvB md Uic onliniry cM>--a*cs: Uini, prajdpatlih pmunAm UtOm 
(TB.) thtii watt la aJt Pri^Spali: vigvaib jlv4di praAuv&iit! uarAyii 
(HV.) ^ifkmitt^ evrry limnf Ireiiuf lo moltoo ; npAti t&rmiya ood&yan 
(RT.) imp*Bin</ Vu) tMferj Io/Um; qaknuyid vr&haQiya (instaid of iba 
aaaal grUUttuu: V"! may b« aitt to apprthcnd; ft tamaaU (iaalMd at 
(ha a*Ml tamltol^; S.j tmiiV mAmmImm. And thn *»-<atl«d ladahlfa* 


XUI. VbkmI' AnmcnrBs «kd Novks. 


m fMnd c«Mli»Ud In Ou ains nntaBce witk r«aiiiMn nomu, mi vrrnn 
Willi Mmponnd tunna: o. g. oiriUve . . . SbbofJtya 'ft'V* ^*T^ 0^^-) 
to go lOroed, (o vnfojf, to n*k tetaith ; &it«trtQAjB na prabutun 
gii«l[^ ^^,^ ^^ (Atf rMM(« <>/ U* Ji»lrt**tJ, not ,^f- harling at Oka 

More tpt^dil rale* u u tli« varlou* (oreuttant (k u follow*: 
07). Tha root-uaun u««il u Inflaltti* ku tb« Mm« foni (axeopt ti*l 
ll doei Ml take, an tdded t: 368 f)> '"<! ^b^ Mine uoant, b»tb when da^^ 
Mill when oonbliidd villi pr«potltiani, m In Iti olbec mm. In <h* taj 
fT«4( najoritx of iBtuncoti, It i> m*ie fiooi moU •ndtng !■ ■ eoHtoBADii 
bat kho from t r«w In A OdtTftr dt. dhl. pi P, ml, yt), from nr« sr 
ttiM In i- anil a-«air*U (hi, ml, bhil), md riam on* ot i«o In rUtDjtMbt* 
X, wbUh taku the ir-forai (tlr. Stir). 

a- lb* I06U In ft fo^roi the (mm. In Km, ib« dil, tn U, ibn itil. la 
la (uiidfint«niline avOBfi buforu £ u fgi Avuti uid not ftvaa&i la RT. 
tti. 53. "20), and the locmttto In O (only Iwo oianpls*, «r wliEota on* U pw 
k>pi b«nat nndtntood *• datito). 

879. Tbo liiOiiUivo n<Fuu lu In It nitdo Irooly rram rinu of •*«(} 
rnrm. Th« looc Ukci ibe sni}a-atttiigth«iiin;, If <ap«bU of it, >ad often 
tUi (ku ouitlUiir vowel 1 ^ofoTt (hn aufTlx (nMonllng lo tbc lulc* *lr«o4]r 
(Wed, 8SB]. Tbu toot ia iseunteil, udI«m Ibe notin bs «jinbin«d vlib • 
prspoiiltDn, tn whtrh cub iha IM«r hit Ibn Mccnt InMaid- that, IcArtnm, 
Atave, b4atot; but nikutum. olretave. nlrbantoa. 

a. Tbe dttlie In lAVKl la in two rotpocta anomBlout : In bavlof tk« 
fai-avy tomlnlns ondlug U %\ong wllb » attengthanad U; and in I«Ubk ■ 
donbtv scesnl, ona on tbo mnt or nn tb* pniflisd propoaiUon, and th* olhtr 
on th« ondins U: thoi, MAvil, b&DUTftf. itystavAf, ApabbaruTAl. 

978. •• The InOultlTe iu Bse U made In BV. fraiu about mnt;- 
Dvo roota; In AV. and Ul«c thorn haic basn onlod no oihoc axamplaa n( 
11. la neatly three qninera of thu ntei. tb# accent La on ih« luftli: e. t, 
rlU4e«, Jivuo. bhJy^se, tuJAaa; tba oi caption i xtc ciUcfKa«; db^aaa 
(vllh 3 Imoriod bpfore the mnU: 86B); and iytao. btiAru«, Bpiraat, 
b&nta* (with srui^-att*Dgl1ien[ng of thn rcat). SttongthDOlDg of ihc root 
la alio ahown by Jkv&so, dch&ao, bbojut. (ObhAao. In puf fftMl h 
Men, Apparently, th« prei«nt-«tem tnatead of the laat. 

b. Tbc cndtiif BO ll oxtrcmalT taie, b«ln| foond galy In JlfA ud 
porhapf stuf^ uid one or two ettll mora dbubttul tuw. 

074. IntliiiliiOH In niftno »r« irii^ from only Are root*: tbua, trt- 
tnaQo, d^aae, d&rmane, bb&rma^s, and (with dlirBiont accent) Tid- 
mice. From >'dA comet dftv&ne : turv&^e may eome dltnnly tram ytf, 
«i ihioiigh U>o aeroBdary loot turv; db&rvKije la railiet froui ydhStTV 
ttkn (roDJ ydhvf. 

Bit. B. Tbf inltiiilfT«» In Uy its l?(&ye (yl^), plUt;* (|^ 
irink). Tlt&y0. eltAya, ind peihap* <itA]r« (Qtijpe npn t.. AW^ Au mimi; 




RT.). In tjU, the only esainplM oot«d tn Ityftl (RT.J Md st^bjrU 
(MS. AB.}. 

b. Witli aye tn toimrd tf&ye. mj&ye, df^iye, niMhiyv, yudliAye, 
•ftnJkT*; and oitA7« (^^ I. Krl'^y* ("-). 

9T6. Tkt aiiJlng dhyll U, man tliMi uiy M\irr, \mf%lu »nA tul- 
««• la iu irMliuciit. It hat alviyt »n A btrore II; ind tn the mijorlty 
ftf CM** It 1« tnunlcd open thl> a, snd liIiI«<1 In ■ weak farm nf r«ol : 
Uu*, fuoAdtayU. pc^UlvyU. dtaly UtayU, liuvAdbyal. Uhi ii>'.' ton» 
«f ro6l fi ib« itnuf one In » fi-w men ninely, qKjridhrU, atnvidlt- 
jU, tAridhyHI, Jaridbytl, mandidlifU, TABdidhf&l. In balf-a- 
doton totuit. ktain, the root bti tbu Mcciit: utiuely, kf^TodhjAi, g^madb* 
711. jitSa^hyai (bat onos m iwIm k1«o nl'^tijrU), TAh>dliy&l. 
aihAdbyU, bb&radhyU. In ■ ilii|U imUoce, plbadbyU, iii'^ anton 
U tiiri dUtlnctl; to ■ prcioni-ilaii) ; *nil tn onn, TCTrdbidfayll, m a 
pwTcct tMm. Finally, tii a numbor of Uiitaacof (i4ii}, tbli LuDnlilTn la 
m*i« bom a caiuu<T« (Mm In ay: lliua, mMAtyidhjU, rifftyidbjU. eio. 

a. Tbti laflnldve U by no DMtni nt« In HV., batni nad« In thirty 
Bv« dlffetcnt hnat (irtth leirealT-twtt ounrtensMj. Itat It U hirdly kooan 
eut*M« of tba HV. ; the AT. bu It but diim (Iu a p««M|c foand alM la 
RV.); tad al>e«rli«rt half-a-dfti«n txanplai har« ti«en noUeud. In mantra* 
pauagra (one o( iheui TS. fdioly tt*it ginuidbjra]; In tlio BiiiliiDana 
UB(Di|e pnp«t (t •ppain to b« entiNly otntlii;. 

977. An oiample or t-wo u« m«t wttli of la InOslUv* lu qy&t: thiu, 
rohlfyOl (T9.X aTjaUilfjrAi (K. Kap.: US. avyitblfOi YH- vyaUitfat), 
•nd pMhapf -dhBsyU (POif ). 

0TS. The tiiQulU'Cf infftvl arc: tfifl ft) b«ai ^If Mn<f, •bbtLfipl 
(icdD >l)bfl: QOfiijl fioia v'^ 01 9t<; naf&Oi '»" t^'oi: aak^JiQl 
from K'aabi pai^ni fram ^ pf, toiifiqi from I'tpi and gr^Iii^i ami 
-•tn>lf&pi f^in K^KT *"'' "^ — "*<> '*■< tontalnlni rtldaet praMHl imte- 
*l(Bg (cMuparfl tba lit tlnf. gf^f^i 064 d) 

&7B. TbK mly liidnUlie In tarl Ix dhart&ii («IU Ita cviapoand 
vlttbsnitrl), mm p'dbf. 

TTsoB of tha luJlnltlTaa. 

»80. The itiaa nf tb« •o-called infinitirea ar« for the moBt pvt 
eloMlf aacofdant nltb tbo*o of tho corteapoDdlng eaaaa IVwu other 
abstract nonna. Thiu: 

881. Tho aeeuaatlva, wblob U niado only froa tbo root-noua and 
(he noun In to, li naad aa ol^Mt of a verb, 

a. EapeeUllf, or tama fran tb« t««t fak ft« aU*, an4 arb h* •CorfAjr, 
AoM tte rv>t w (A* |ra«Mr. Thiu, ^aJttoiB tvft samidbua (RT.) nuy 
•M atvomptith t/ky hmJ li n f , mA gaksn pratldhAin If um (AV.) may tluy 
Mof &r ikU« to^ (A* arrow (« (At itriiifr; toAno va imiiii aadyib P'fT- 


Xni. Vkrbal ADJBonvKS and HoUNft. 


l^ttttn ftrb&tl m4il«t) p&rlbhAvlCiua (T8.) tht mind, fartaotA, (wn mt 
onee attttin aikJ tifpMiM W; k6 h; Hi*yi 'rhati cuhfAifa nAnis icrk- 
bltum (^B-) /or tcAe u wttrUtji to takt hi* §«er«t itpttt t lii iko Vc<U, Us 
wnattnctlan wlib itievt turbt ii uiily ooo KPtoog otban; In A« Bnkiu^A, 
II bw«incB U« gntitty praTsleni ant (thrta qu*tl*rt or mor* of all Uie cmm). 

b. Furilici, of Tcrbi of nation (nut mort froquviit Mu}: thn«, 
(UkfM^Aai b&tom «U (TS.) A« jfCM (o «ii«ri^M ttiinyt ptrUtining U 
4atrijk*'4>t gifU ; ladrmifa pmtlnun emy tyut (it v.) 1 //> la Xndra for 
(U e. *W#<cA o/ At"") 'A* tfn^t^ning mit of Hf*; — of ^diif j>cr*»4 W, 
mi*r1aA*: u, ak itUifa Jtt&U B^rvun. evA cUgdhudt dadhN (VB I A«, 
or «Mnu a» hont. 4«ywi (« ini-n tilt unitortt, — u( vtilir taronliig JmiW, 
Ai^, notiff, kttou, uil (Ii« like : ta, pigin Ticftaiii vellhft sirvAa 

p&rihuitum tVIL) ther^are one dwaU not ^ atnftti U gmotktr th§ 
JSrt; — kiij of othert. 

B8S. Of tlio iofinitlro datiroi, tb« fuadunonul nad uauAl mbsa 
U thu oxpreisod by /or. m «r<f«r (o, _^ U« pttrjutte of. 

EumiilM ■»: Tfgvtuti llvittfa oiuraBc bodh&yantl (,KT.) amijlraiajr 
•rcry lic-tng rvtatarf la rnatioit; tan upn ynta ptbkdhyll (BV.) («m« 
<o Jriak Vum : aftl 'Ubfa to dord udador &tcave (AV.) Ms gaJ* <J>W 
Nof 9>uir htr (o (i0« /or «t<M^; pr&I "d ;adhiT« dAasoun ftidrttb 
(RV.) /nrfm letni forward to JIght tk< dtmvn; oUa(MX no db*bl vlkhyftl 
(BV.) ^HW tu MjrU /or tookhtff tAnai. 

Soae t«cn1l>r oomtnetlooB, bowcTtr, irov cut of iMt ute «f ifea )•• 
flnttliQ d&il>c. Thiu: 

a, Tb* noan vhtrh la logtiiUf ibe cabjeet or the objMl of the aMloa 
•tpminl by tbe laJUiltlTc ti rrequMitlr put beildc II In lb* d«tt*o (bf ■ 
(ottitruction vblch It In put « pertticlly ilmpls me, bat wbleh U str*t«h«d 
beyond )U nainnl bounrUHci by i hltid of »itti«11im): thai, ettktra 
attryaya pimtbOm imvetaTi a (RY) Ae nun/e n track for tht ran fa 
foUotP (maJr fer the iHn <■ fmcA /or JIm foUottiitgy, ifyfitv ^^tg* 
rU^obhyo vinik^s (RV.) he whU Am A»mt (o purtt Ua ihiNOM; 
rudriya dhiuiur i taaoml brahmadTtf* Q&rava bintavi u (BV.) 
i afrptfA fA« bo*r for Rxidra, tAat ici'lk hit arrow h* may ihjf tJt* broAiiw 
A<i(«r; acmAbhynih dfQ&ye airftya. piinar d&tftm kaxaa (KV.) mjy 
lAiy yriinf /i/f •'ydi'n, tAal ipa may wa Ua mon. 

b. An iBflnlto wli^ y'kf miuU U yiad DoHly ta tfa* muc vt » 
ctniulro Trrb: ihn*. prii 'ndhiih (jroi^iA o&kfaaa itava kptlia^ (HV.) 
g* mak« U« biinJ anJ lama to st^ and go; agttlih aatnfdba oak&rtha 
(BT.] {A«M hatt made tht Jirt ta be kiiutM. Of ilmlUi duuhv l« u 
oMMlonal oouaituctioii with *iioLh<-r irib; >t, jr&d Itn u^mAai k4rtav0 
k4rat Ut {U^'-) H-Anf h« itmA <f 6« Jcn<, may A< de fA«l; kaviftr 
loehftffil amlid^a (RV.) i dc«w-< U *«* lU tagM. 

a A d«Uro tnUaillrv U not teUcoi iii«A ai t piadlut«, luoiednMa 


UflM OP THE iNPlitmVBS. 


"Hh, liDi ni4(c Mtutily wKbout, t coyul* (X|ireiMd; tbni, sgalr ivn oi 
praUdhffe bhavatl CT3.) U« j(m, A« m not t« &« rf*uUd; mahlmS ta 
ui;«na ii& «Bihiiil9« (VS.l tiy gmitati* U Hvt to It attaint^ Ay anoMcri 
nikun iodro □fkartave ni Q&kr^i pArt^alctave (RV.) Indra i» not 
la bt pat tlotrii, tht mighty otu ia not to hr otinytiwrrrd. 

d. Sometime* an tiiflnlUTo h uiod wltboiit a cnpiiE* tiM qnlM nculy 
ibt t*iu« of tu ItnpwkdTe: tbtu, Cyi ms yaq&sft . . . auqlj^ buTidhyfti 
futi] (RV.) ttittf ffUrittli antM aIi«U the ion of V^'j iHcake for nie; 
sOktftbblr vnh . . . (ndr& nv agni 4vas* buvjtdhy&i (atahj (RV.) 
u'M iiaur liyitutt thati jft call note on Indra and Agttifor aid; vuadkAhyi 
ogiiid) nAmobhl^ fDsmi] (RV. ) ht mr gr*et Aifni with Kootayr , aamiUl- 
ea^ oa BtirAjO viqva itfiB tariq&^i (Ft v.) and /«( oar merijintrt trou 
all rrgioin: tAn lUU Vtliii Ic&rtavai (MS.) Uuf nuift not &« ((.no «a; 
brabtnadvifa^ g&ravt hintavA u (Itv.) M t/i* arrow ttay tha briAma' 

hairrm. Tb« iiifliiJllTi'i ill dhjr&i and fa^l (nhUh Ullci U tu kll tw DtM 
MCOldaiit wUb datliai) aio IhQi* In trbl'^h Iba iiitpcrtUTe value U moat 
ditUnotly to bu lecoKuiM^. 

e. In the Urahniapsa inl Sulru (atpri^lkllr tn VB) tlia dailva In tavii 
b uol aMdau uied witb a raib alitnifyEiic 4ptjk (brQ. vao, oh), to oiprea* 
ttie Dtd^Hnit of anythliiK lo be done : tbci», taamfid osndhlnllm «7& mdUnj 
{loohetta.vJl{ briiyM (V^^O Otertfare let him direct the roott of iXe platttt 
to he cut up {iprak ia order to their tutting up. (,1. yi Tai;i;ii Adftnftya 
T^danti who ditiuadi from yiviiig Iht row: AV.), 

968. Tbe abUtivc infiaitivo — which, like tlie aeeuiitlivt', iamado 
only ftviD the root-nouD and that in tu — is foun^ ospodally whti 
the ptcpotitiona it until and pur£ h^ore, 

a. Thu«. k UlDito^ (TS. »lc.) until tshmution; porit vtaH} pr4- 
vadlto^ C^*^') ^tf"rr itttranee of the roice. lu ihe UtShinana liogiiage, 
ihU i« tbe wnU-nlib oiclnalv* ron*iract1oii oX tlio iblitlvc (ll ooiori aUa 
Willi prak, arv&k. a(c.)i iu tbe Vitila, ilii liitac i« uibA aliu aftai ft4 
irHhuut, aiiJ an«i t«ccr«l Tfrbi, aa tr& anil pA f rot(4iC, yii uparatt, bbl, etc. 

b. In a ft^v inataiici), by tn altracOoD liniUi ta tbal lUalUalad 
abo*« (or Iba d«tlm (B8Sa), a nnun dnpundnnl nti thlt InflriitW^ U put In 
tha abUtlTi* beaUla it: ihu*, pur& vAgbhya^i sampravaditof^ CB-] 
bffon tJu uttrraner togrtfirr of th* coinw; trtdlivaii] karLiid avap4dali 
(BT.) tmit *M from failing dawn into the pit; ptirft dakfi^^abhyo natoh 
{Apa«i ) hrfore the gifts are taken ateai/, 

064. Tlie gcvillvD [nflnltlvc iliHTiDK Ilin same fonu as the ab< 
Utlv6i ia in coniinixi iiae in the Drnhnmriii l&iiKtiiif;!! lu dc^ondnnt on 
levari tord, maaler, onployod adjectivcly ia the sooao of eajmbh or 
Jiirfy or «r})awi/ lo. 

a. Eitniplea are: ti [devata^] levari enadi pradabal^ <T^.) 
li«]f art lilrty to turn kim up', Atha ha vt ifvari 'gttlib dwi )tiA- 
cld daurltdm ^pattor vl v& bvilltoti iK^) *" '" ^"'A '>' *• /loAk, 

Whilaajr, Uhuiuiu. i eil. 4^ 

eao— I 

XIII. VuittiAL AoJBCnvM AKtt ^ovtta. 

b. Tbe pieOiloii of tlie lufMire pinkila, a ot ao. do«* mi eaiiw 
the cmnd tQ ttkt the foim In ja; tliai, alqrtvft. nnirayitvA (bat tt. 
bu aclntrm. Of utB]MuD'it villi otbri ih«n inliai prtAK-i, IIV. bit 
punBrdiya, k*r9Bcfhya. p&dBc^hya. b&atavfliya, Araiiikjtj'ft, 
nkkliuUkttyii. mithaiipt'^^ft) AV. bat Ainlioi lutauuikftjFB. 

091. The tul^ ^ tTft has iho icoent. U in usually 

fl(ld€<l directly to ihe loot. but often al»o with inlerpufiitiun 

of the uiixiliary vowel ^ i ~ with regaid to which, ad well 

na to the form of the root before it, the formatioa nearly 

ngrces with that of the participle in rT tft (9B2 S.], 

a. Exainpli!* oT the general accoTdaoce of |iH««ive paritclpto, in- 
finliive, auU geruiid In regard to tbe use of 1 were glfoi afrovv, 
ess a; furlber ipeci6catl«iia nn callod for, m folluwa: 

b. The quoUMe cootc In vkritt>l« f (S4S) (buage U tg ir: lliu, 
tinv&. BtirtvA (iI>o otftvi)-, Lnd car nukw «Ua eMra (I'^e Olr^)-, 
— KKiti lu a allow 111 g'-iiural the Mm* wolenliif m in the pirtttlplp; but 
from dlia }'ut 1* quDtibl* only dhitvi (hitvaj. ttoai mt m»attirt laitvA 
mill mltvft, Itaui da ifirt only dattTJt, tiom cbft cbayitva ; — of kwI* la 
am, kram uid bbnun ami yam nrnkii fDtma boili -nitti anil witliout 1 
(t* in Ac laaiittlia), but rnm Ii>« mtva md raditrft, inrl dam lad Tkm 
naka damlCvft uid vaniltvA. 

0. Tli« auxilUry vowol U ukan ij Not* gram, tDUf. ^ap, and ^te 
(fdaitrA) [whovo pamciplu hai« both fotini), «I*d trjr oAj, nrt (nar- 
tltvt). lac, "'"^ tival (■c*ln>l *niilogT of pplcj; and ^o (u»k«* QO<lltT&. 
On Ihe cjilier hand, tnin ruj (rufl^a) aud Trafe (vfkna) coma ndctvi 
aliil Tfflvi A»il both roiint Me rofcilfl [a* alio In Infliilllvf or partlt4pl«] 
tnni Qtir, vaa direU (uf^vft, n^itvi), ni (nitri, nayltva), and mfl 
(mi^tva, m&TJftvAJ. 

d. While tbe rormtiloQ I* li> Reiioral «u« raqulriiu;, Uk« tha pautva 
pkRldpla (•!. g. oplva, iiki^ uptd; odltr^, like adlt&). a «ntk orwwakanad 
roat, lh«TR 4IC loQifl cuci In wlilob tt la mtdu (lom a atiAny or ■ti«ii|;tk- 
anad loui-furiu. Tliua (bM)dii thv imtmicfi aliiMdy slveti: eUylCVi^ 
raihtva, ^aaitvfi, oAyltva, ^ooltva, nojiitva, marJltTA)| wa Bud 
otaardltTB (Apui.), daAft^i, and spbarltra, ami, from ■ niuabK oT 
co'iit, ■ iccond itronK toiia boildn llie moto regnUi ireak one: iianxly, 
a&ktvs. bhaaktva. bhutiktvil. oyanttvaCbutUc aktvit ate.); oayltva. 
amftyitvA, stnaritva (b»ide oitva et^)i roditva (boildo ruditvft), 
■ad siaoLtviL (ti<4lii« alktva). Tli« Ual iTinwi the Inflnonra of tte 
pieMDt-it«m; ii <Io atio mSrJitva (abo««) and JighrltrA (v'RhM). Tia 
form ifJiutva (ApMl.) la doubilgai * r«U« taidlng, fur f^Jiyutra, 

9B2. The Huffix n ya is added directly to the root, 
which is accented, dut has ita weak. form. A root ending 


Qgrukd 1.x 7b. 


in a short rotrcl tiMPt FTT tya inM«ad of IT y>: thus, %(FTJ 
•Jity«, ffJrU -Btiitya. ^irTI -krty*. 

a. ft4)ou In vailkblft r (MS) eh»ngo ilut *«•»! to Ir >r Br: thiu, 
kli7*, K^A> tiryn (*nd tdrT*), djrya, pAryft, firy*, atjrjs (>Ua 
Btftya): — lunii m a bivo (or Ibe tnotl part -Sya; ixit dhJl >uat- lankni 
dhlyA, ind dniiMe fonni uu founil from fining (ga;*, Kiya.'), pi drink 
(p^a, plja^ da ffice (d&jra, d&dya), da Jiviitt (dAjo, dltya), m& 
mtaturt, rxchtng* (ittJtTa. m{tya), bS &iW (aiya, ays); li itltHg h«s 
Idya 01 Uya, u If in a-ntb; *iid kban md dbua n»ke kbOja an'l 
dhmilya, from th«lr a-formc — ih« toat> in an ^nA am mAklnc ihtir 
pMil'-l|>ii' In Kta (964 d) "oki^ ills |(;prun<! in at}'a, I'^it tltn Uicr In aoys, 
aiaja (i; f. s&tya. gaioya; hAtya, haaya; bui tan inilmn u iMani 
torat CAya, iiiil from ram ohIt ritmya tt iiunUljl'-): — ih? rai'ii In It 
141(1 ya to thrir Ivform : lhu(, ffblvyEt civya; — ■ Tew rooU In i aiid 
a •'Id ys tn ilin l«niiihen«il vowol birid** «dd1ftK tya: thua, I ^o (lya. 
{tya; aUo ayyaj, d jhCAm- (ttya. oltya), and plu, ya imiU. an. etu 
(ptitya, platya, aic); wh-lln Ic^i litrlroy hia odIt iM^ya- 

b. Thlt g«miiil, ihoDel ir«enKd en liie roni-tyllibla, If Kenerally a 
weakaning tonniiloti: ihni »it mniv. viihont ■ itiL-nEtbcnIug nt»l fonnd 
111 aodjo <ith<<r (otiDt, aoya, aJya. Idhya, udyn, ubhya, Erathya. t&oya, 
da^ya, b4dhyK. bhajya, UpyA, lupya, vUM^ya, ^rnbhyA. sAJya, 
Hkibhya. atAbhya, ayadya. Hvi^ya; irtih wrakrotnn nf oth^'i ktnda, 
tcrhya mi tcfbhya. prttshy", uoya, udya. upyn, n^ya (vaa •ft^U), 
4hya, vtdHya. viyn, vrfcya, ap^dbya, bt&yDt — bui fiotu a imubet 
of nota uo mula bbth ■ itroiienT an'l i viafcRT (arm- iliii<, manttiya «ad 
io4thya, marjym tnd mfjya., nindbya an'l rudfaya, ^ftAsy* aod fAs- 
ya, q&Bya and tjl^ya. skAndya and ak&dya, sr&Asya and araaya; — 

Uii otilf itrong rormi irn roiuid trora rooU aro, «▼, Oiiy, ql (qByys)a B) 

well at Inm rarutn teou witli a coiitunt naial ; *. g. uflob, kamp, 
nand. l&mb, qnfiJc; i«o1ai»d chm ara Ofya (^a^ JUi-n), prothya (alto 

o. "Ibcr 9p?rlal fa*M 'i' libyk aii'I flbyM (I'fllt rrMi'ij'ti), KUrya 'nd 
Cthra, gubya and Emiya, ruhya and rOhya, bhramya md bhrdioya. 
4yya (baildti Itya, lya), gbrftya aad Jlsbrya; »nd anjotyn (bmid* 

008. Tbo oldor laaguac* baa th« Htmo two K«raad funoatioM, 
kaviog the saine diititiotioi), and tineil In Iba same wnf. 

a. Id RV,, bowctat, tbo nnal ot y« i* ta the gtiM majority ol lii- 
tUaeea (fuUr two thIMt) long (m If U« InMtnitionUl andlng of a dcri*- 
•Uvr aoUD In I or U). la AV., totin • appnan vnly one* in n ttV 

b> lnfl«iid at trl alune, tbc Teda lia« ihivt totm ot tlie auflla. nau«lr 
tri, triyn, anJ trt. Of lliww ihwa, tvf it Jwddcdly the eoinniVMitl La 
BV, iihiny-Kto itMntrcnoea, agUiigt twauty-ODi «f tvft); but ti la vokaowB 


Xtil ViiKiuL XtxJccrtTBa and Notwii. 


U AV., aad *tty tu* alievhot* tn Ui» »tdei Un^iu^; tv&TS li (onad ulna 
time* la RV. («iilr oucQ ««U14t tbc i«nlh |1««k), fke In A V., u4 fcui h^lf-*- 
doien tlnci clHvlier« (in ^B.. ohm n«in * MUutlTe nen: aplgarltrir*]. 
Tb* hitiortul lalftUoa of tha tkn* fono* !• obtcnte. 

0. T«« (rtbet ^onind •njlsu, trfinain tnd tmuUD, Ut iii«DllMi*d 
by tho grkuintrltiii m o' Vtdlc «*c, but ili«r bi*e i>owh«t« kooa l«wid 

994. The use of this gennid, tboagb not ohsofring in its ekar- 
■otor. bMomcR mnch tnurv fr«(]iieiil, nnd «ruii excetslve, to tbe Ul«r 

■, I'tiu*. In tbe KaU Mil Dlugavtd'Oitt, which bits oslj me UOlk 
M ininy vatb-fonns m AT., ibfM tt« man lb*n thr«« tiniM u dm^ •>- 
■mplM of ih« gMvnil M In tbc UtUr. 

b. In gunciriil, Ihn comnd U in kdjtinel lo lb* (abjMl of a ••nteDoe, 
aail i>spi«Hi!« *ii KCI or noadillon ItHlongin^ to ibt MbJ««t; ibiu, vijnqa 
hotvi sir apfch bmuJ* [HY.) miiing irith hit tMwMdtrhott. he p9tinJ ' 
Jarth tkt leatm; pltvi adinftsy* vtvj^ho (RV) htuing riruitk af tkr 
tana, ha tmrtJ rlrong; ti yajftiora r&saiii dtaltvi vlduhja jaJUih 
ytlpAiia yopa^tvA tiro 'bhRvon (fJR.) iavinf mffnil /hU tin wap •>fthf 
oftrtti^^ having mUfced tht offtringdr^, having hSaditd it with At tarrifieial 
pott, (Aey Jitappr^rnf; ^rutvU *vb oS 'bruvan (MFh.) imi^ kmfinp htarJ, 
tkey Mid; tufa CA dOro drtftvA Boi'dabbl '7am Itl cMtrl dbAviUt^ 
(Fl.) Q»J harinff lettt Aim ■*» thf dittanct, fAi*nJ:u<p 'i*l t* a iJu-ai*', Ai< ran. 

o> Dm It ihc lo(lr«l inbjtct, the rc^l tfBiit, li pat by th« eoB>int*l«ii 
of th« tentvnce in i dopondpnl rue. It In atiJI qaalifl«4 by tha gMvnd: 
thu(, itTljaifa dfttv^^'y* kltftv&ih tutAp* (BV.) H JittrMttn Ifit ganbttr 
(1, « ti* gambler if dUlretiti) at utint) hit uife; tftdl hU "luiii dnt^ 
bbir vived* (^B.) ^/Vor rown- ttpon him (i. r- A« irot afraid) fhtn ht 
Mio Aim: vidhAyA profltg vrttlm (M.) H'A«n A««iltiy>atNiy aA"*;"^**^- 
"*? /'"' '^^ rtppnri, klih nu me myftd idaifa kftvR pinb.) irW, 7 
(KHMlrr, would happen to mr if T did thtt; — in<l expednlly. whantpudn 
fOTin 1* glvin to tbo aatitence, the semud qnaliSoi the tgonl la the tnitniBeiila) 
0He(S89*): thna, tatatt Q*bdftd abUJUya Bft vTAftbrflQa Ii*ta^ (H.) 

Ikerextpon he iron Alain hy the tiger, cAo re<ofni:etl him Ay Am pMm; 

tT»7A SB r^a QokiuitKiaifa puroskftya Taktavya^ (<;.) prttntrnff 
fttkimtalii. tfitu mittt tay to the king; haAB&n&ib vmoanoib fratrft 
yatliB m» (gon. toi lunt.) naifadha vftoh (Mlth.) tw thu XithaA»H 
IMM oAaiffi hjf m* on htariup the iPordt if thf neaiia: lbi« tonitruMlon 
It oxtninvlf commoii In tnuab <if tbo laior Saoikilt. 

d. Oe«uloniJt|, tb« (ernnd qntllllea m tseiit, etptclally an Indallidu 
ana, tbai L* uaviprsKod : tbu>i, tada 'txdi *▼■ paktrft khAdltavja^ 
(n.) rA«n h» fhaii fi* tatm {bt; lu] rooking him on Hu tp^t; sad aayasya 
pratljfiiya puaar anjaa^n dtyate (M.) tAaf, ajttr heitig promittd ^Ut 
kA*« ont AdJ pTomited h*T) (n ont, tht it giviai again to OMotAer; BQOlB^a 
CO 'ktadi aavioArya 7>t IqrUuQ |,U.l vhat ont *ay a/Ur matitTt lhimf\t, 


DsBs or THS Oeruhv. 


cjtd dot* aflrrfuU 4tlA»rtttion. Hchm, *tiil nura alllpilrkllv, irter •lam: 
til"*, ftlaifa Ticftrrs (C) mmigh «/ h^nUtian- t&d Rl&dl t* VUlftlh 
IBtTft (11,3 jio /lure deite Kith goimj to (Ar forttt. 

•. Olbof lui rdgulu cannliiK'll'iai aio mei wllli, eiptolally In thr 
ofdcr UiLfUfv: thuf, hi thn Riiiin«t ot ■ pKiilclpIc wtih man «nil Ibo Ithe 
(168 k), u t^ hiAaltvo *VA mans {i^B.i Jte thought itc kad Aurt hun\ 
H Kdbhlr dbblfloyn aUtsTlU V* 'mutykC* (AB) having iprMtM 
Hum itUK leattr. S« Miet»d kiauttf to haet e^futiuttd tttm; — In th* 
ma«n«r of > puddplo fonnln^ ■ «udiIiiuod« lenan oltb \^l (1076 a), u 
mdram «t(U 'Mr ftrabhya yKiM (Ad ) fty mMnu 0/ fAnn (A<y &««f> 
toX-iMij Wd n/' Indra, — u ijuilifyinj a lubunlfntto Eaambir of tl]ii Mnlvnte, 
af^ puro^iqtun ev^ karmaifa bbutvi sArpaatam (V-) '° '^' 4<i<Ti* 

Jieial take ereepiHp about, hopiitf itcomt a (ftrl<it>« ; ajodhy&m ■ > • 

■aphenatb aaavao&tn bhOtva JalormiBi iva (R.) ittlo AgotO^na, likt a 
tiirff thai ha4 htrit foamy an4 rnitrinf/ ; — «ian abtoluUly, a* AHthyAaa 
-r&i devt iftvlt tint samid avUidat (?B.) vhm the goJt hml taeri- 
Jk^ iBith tht gutMt-efffiig. ttrift btftl thefii. 

t. At lu the (*i> viawpUt bofcicjibe iMt, a pn41ctt« it^tA wtih 
bbQtvl U put in the larii- faio witb ih^ tnhjcct: tiiiu, tiirlliN, tAd iT&m 
•TAi 'tad bhutW y^ati (VB ) •<> liatmif Mm S*«<Mne (Aw riu^ A^ 
m«i«( offtriny; yen* vAtnanenft 'pi btatitva (TeiO ^ mAmr, (mn tcAm 
A* had it««nf a dtoarf. TIil- coiiitracCion la a nre one. 

(, A nnnbcr or c«tDi)di b«'i< tbeir moanlne •iionuatol (aaiUiBM 10 
(ho >nmblant< of a pn<po«iU«ii or kdvcTb^ tti''h nre adhikfCya m«l»af 41 
>n^'«<r( u/, 1. a. rttftHiitg, of: id&ya. uplcrhya taking, I. p. triU; ad- 
dj^a poiiiliHff lotemrJ, i, a. al; AaAdya, orrMnf/ at, I. c. along, ty; 
vabhra fifjriHHin;, i.*i. from; tmibliiyti bring with, t. e. imU; aadUiatra 
Hriking tofethcr, 1. r. an unuan; praealiya nnng force, i. t>. vutlcni^: 
craktTfc, paiitjrajya, tnuklvA, vihAya. uddbftyftt varJoyitvA Utaeinf 

nwf el«,, i. r, f^rr/ir/ijj, iriiAuuf; aui Mkart. Kkami'lM aip: QakaataUm 

ndfaikrtya bravimi (V) •' «"* *p<«)<'f9 of (,'akiin(ala , tarn uddi^ya 
kfiptalagnda^ IH.) hating tAraicn (Ar eutigel at Aim; nlmittaih klibcid 
ftaAdja (U.) /or *omi< rcMon iw o/Avr. 

b. Tka strand li in tW Ut«r lingutge comcttniM (onnd In Minpo> 
■IdoD, •■ U a. noD*-*t«m: •- g. praaaliyaliara^ taJimg tcith pi«ltnrm\ 
pr«tyabbAva MUtenei a/l*r d*ath; vlbliaiyapa(ha t/rparaU —luneiatiM; 
aambhClJ acamao a jT'x'n^ (0)MA«r. It la al-o ottvu t*p«alad (IMO). la a 
ilUtilbtitiio iRtuc: c. [ bA TAt BBiniiifJya-aanuiirjya pratApra-pn* 
tapya prA yaoohati tV^O •'" •"** roMt, afttr miping anJ tearmittf th«m, 
hr- hoHiii (Ann avtr; KrfalCTft-grhltvft (KCS.) at mkA taAiMj;; UDOantyo- 
■oxiamya (Pane.) tvtry time that they arur. 

Adverbial Q«rttncl in un. 

WB. Th« accDMtive of ft dtsfvative n««irn artionit In a, nsod 
wlTintHilly, aisuiKM ntniMinM > valiH ud wiuUnctiaD ao acconl* 


XTV. Seookhabt Ci>iuxra*nD!i. 


ani tritb lliftl of the usnal gerund that it cftoaot well be oiled by 
a diffnrnnt nam*- 

a. No eiuuple of ■ pecaitu 2«rundUt roDtlrnttlon vitb luch » fom 
occo» ellhftt In BV. m AV., ftllbon^h ■ ioKta ■4TMUftl a«eu*aUrM •(» b 
be cliu*«d lu rcpic^priil 112 (hn fDrniatlon. tfaar, abhy Kki a m »m , pratAt- 
kam. pra^odam. niUrain, abhlaUmdUB. *i<^- ThU g4nin4 la foucd 
Wpecl*]lT tn Ihi Ittlbmt^o an*! Sflttw, whare It <• not ran*; In the aplal 
It 1* KlfemMr 1nrreqn«nt: laUr, hlus. It owvn nry aparingir. 

b. A Onil "oitI hn% Trddhi-ttrangtbanlDK httatf A» asKx: (ha«|l 
oAvam. ^rAvam, kAram; flnal A i4<l« y: tbuii, khrAyom. yAj^m; a 
neillal *o>»l liu gu^B {if <-«|ia1>lr i>( ji: S40): Itiua. kfepam, kro^ASi. 
vATtain [hue ikfun, pOrum); \ tni'lUI n betara a ilnfle codwum b 
Itngihi^nuil ttiui, krAmam, oAram, graham, svodam (but gnuitttasi, 
lambbam). Th« accmi la on (b» radical trIUblc. Kd uaeompoundad «s- 
implti uc rannil in llic oldrr Ungnig<T, •mi r>ti<>m«ly te-K in tli« l«t«T. 

o. Kxamplt* are kfunaib va im£ay afigoni vjratyiaadi ^ti 

(i^B.) ^' I'*' rhaiiifinj thf pmition of Am limht at fUvtMre; 6ttarAn> 

attaraih qikhoih eomSlimbbaih robot <(,'il.) h» wmild eiimi, lakhg 

hold of a higSrr and erer a higher limb; apaHfU mah&nSg&m irft ' 

'bhUams&raih didrlnfittro^ < V'l^O h€r*<ffl*r, runnii;) tv^ther w il trirc 
obavl a ffreat mnkt, tfttt) teiU trith to mw Mm; nitaAof AsAm at^al 
aima^^haia (V^J ""^A separate mmung of then Mrir naw>««i yo 
viparyibam >,v»tAtMH(:\i.) trhtuem' iuriM it wptiio dottn: tAh11tk^»• 
pad) knindltiufa prarfttA (^'.) «A«> proceeded In cry. Ihrovtng uf her 
ana* (irith ann-loMing). navaofttapaUavAnl dar^aifa-dar^aili madbti- 
k&rt^Aib kvai^ttani qrATaib-qrfivtuh paribabhrama (DKC.) A« 
waiidtred about, coiutasiltij fftinij th« yoHitg thooU of tht mtm{p>. anrf Amt- 
wijp At humtnini/ of the h»f». R«pe*l«d farmit, Uko thote tn the laM VL.»\ 
ample, an apprortd la tli« laWt lan^iufrcii tbcy iln not occur earliw (%a| 
tiHUad ef tb*i)i tha r«poal«il oHinaiy kotuihI : 984b), 



999. SBt^oKDART coDJugatione are tho»e in whioh a 
vrhole systeiu of foim«, like that already d<.-*cribetl m made 
from the simple root, is made, irith groatet or Icsb oom- 
plKtcnew, fiom a deiirative ooujugatioa-Btem ; and is also 



t— we 

tuuAlIy oAoneoted with n. eeituD definite modifintion of 
the ori^nal radical sense. 

a. Wi> htve t«en, Indeed, that the Idnie-crcums era %it« for Ihe mwi 
pail tniuia Itom d«rimi*a-)trma; lad tv«n ihM. In a»iiie e»»p», nth itonui 
•uune ihe (pp«mTic« mil vtlmi of reou. and iie m><1a ih« bult tf • 
n>mplclo con) HI! «t tonal ■]>l«in. Nor it ihaio any Jltllaet dWltloo'lliic to 
ba diawn bttwcen umo-ST* ■•■■>■ 'nd dcrlfitlTe oonJngBtlan.ii the Uttw ue 
pTB*«iit-«T*'«>i>> "Mcb have been oip^ndsd lolo «an}D|»lloaa br lh« iddttltin 
Of otlici tcD*«e, tad ot [lariictplta, Influitlvo*, »nd ae en. In th« e*ille*t 
Unr>U". tli*lr fofiT" nnuiite of thf prt««tit'(r<t«m u* attll ^nl(« rwp, 
baldly tn»tu tb>n (p^ici'ltc , anil v<mi later tfaoy are — i>itb Uie ei<^vpifan 
0( DD<: ot iwo ronnaiinii* ■blcli attain a rompantlve froiiiii^ne; — ranch l«M 
eentmno tkan Ibe t«rre«pondln( fettna of prlcntt; oaiiju gallon. 

087 . The secondary coojugations nre : 1. PMsive ; 

II. Intensive; HI. Desideratire; lY. Causative; V. Donoin- 

1^ Ttie pkHiTo b eliMed beie •• a eeeondaiy oeqjngatton booanac of 
lU inaleir *<ll< Oke ethen In recp«ot to tpi'tirie Mlns, aii<l rreedom ef 
rimnatleii. altboiigb It daea nol, like tkem, mako Iti (otma onlaldo the 
ptMcnt irtten) riom li« pteieni-iieD). 

I. Passive. 

dns. The p«Mive coajugiilion ha« been alrodj in iho 
main de«oribcd. Thus, we have seen thai — 

ft. It baa a ipeeial pieaeol-syBtcm, the ftem of wiiioh 

ia piesent only, and not made the baaia of any of the re- 

■ mauung forms; this stem ia formed wiU) the accented class- 

raign 17 ya, and it utkee ;with exceptions: 774i the middle 

endings, Tliia ptesent-system is treated with the otheis, 

abore, 768 ff. 

b. There is a tpeoial paasive 3d sing, of the anrist, 
ending in ^ i: it is treated abore, 842 V. 

o. In the remaining tensee, the middle forms are used 

aJw in a passive sense. 

d. Bb( (k« pauln nss of mutdle rerou ti sot tMoaaat It ti ofteoMt 

et wltb Is ib« perfect. Tbe p«rU«tple to a gr«*t «st*nt lakiw tli« ptae* 

a pail peuHo tonae, and ikB t*nindlre Ual of a fuivte. On ike olbof 

e»e— ] 



htai, In tlio gltoi Unguis (RV,)i iiU4dlc foriiti «I aVM pteMBl-tT»UK« 
•M In ■ Mtitldmble nnmbei of cuoi «mpl«T«4 *itl> ymiie muAlBg. 

•• Awniiitg K iho cnmniMUut, ibarc bi*t be fomtd Tcom hihc 
v«b«, Ht puilT« a»«, • <p«d»l Men fct (bd Mtitt aud the Iwo fiuiiif 
•;M«iDi, colixUlag In tana vllb liio pnculUt 3d rtng. toilil. 

f. Thill, rrom fdi {>oi. 3d ainii. ndAri), bMide kAiml. dAST*, 
datAbe, kl>o Jtdtrlfl. dArlfy^i dajiUtli«. Th« p«nDtH)o& to ntkm thl( 
ilevbl« foniiitiDn eitenda lo ill not* ttMaz In roweli, *n4 to smlu df^ 
and huL No mob patilve rsnn* OMnt In tha <ild«t Unf^igc, and not balf- 
■-doien u« <|tiatsble rrom ih« Itt»r (<it« Hod adlKylfl ind astbaTlft in 
DKC, and MiAyifntK In KuoL). 

g. A* to ib« *ltc«ed puilre Infltellnn of iha p«rlyhnitlf pCTfert, we 
b«.Io», 1078. 

h. Be«idM the participle (lom the present tense-stein 

(771. &), the passive has a past participle lo rT ta [062), ot 

1 na (987), and future paiticiptea, oi gerundive?, of Tarious 

formation 'Sfll S.), made directly from the root. 

099. As nlrouily pointed out J&8S m,, tbfl langungc, espacuill; 
Ifttci lias a decided precllIectinD for the pualvo foroi of Uio sealenee. 
This u ;ivon In |»rl by tho ubc of finito ii&e*ire forau, l>iit oftca*r 
by tbst of ib« paaaivo partlclpio aoit of ibcgorandiTo; tho participlo 
being tulcen in put In n pr«B<«t twoa<>, hat luoro utually In a pMt 
iwhulbor indoSjiltD or proiimale put;, und soiuutlm«e with ■ copnk 
fiXpresBed, bul miioh ofloiiur witbonl ii; and llic Ki^runilive r^preftent- 
ing dither » pure future or ou« intli lltii leotic of n<-GR»*ity or duty 
added. A Turtb^f exaniplu In; latrOl 'ko yu7S brUtmaQO dnt^M^* 
tad) df^l^vA hamenn pI^ltA vnibjBta: aakhyft nsro katbitnm: ■okhl 
poraqo *Tadi ^bitvii m&mci m&tuti aunlpam ftnotsTyn^ (Vvt) 
Uttrt the mw a young lirahmaa: al tight of hun the ftit tkt pong* ^ 
loin nhe taiii to hrr frienit; "Jriend, you rntut (akt and iring thit mmt 
to my "H»(Aef". lu some gtylM of Inter Saiiftltrit, tho prevniltiiff ex- 
pnsaioa of put limn is by oiosm of tUc paaaiw pauticipk jtbud to 
Vol., BO «xtntne case, inoi« than slno tcnthfi:. 

R. A« In utboi UucniKO*' * 3d ttiif;. puu<i It frt«lr niada fiaHi 
lnlr*niitir« u «el1 u trtnattlid verb*: ih>ti, IbA "samyaUm com/ Mi\tr; 
tvayft tatrftl *v* ethijrutajn do you ittaod Jtttt there; sarvUr JUaoa 
AdAyo 'iJ4iyatAm (II.) Ul ali Jiij up trith thg n*t. 

II. Intensive. 
1000. The iotcnaive (sometimes also called fioqaent- 
ativej is that one of the secondaiy conjugations which is 
leMi lemoved fiom the analogy of foimatioas aliuody 



[— looa 

dworibed. It is, like the present-aj'Stem of ihe second con- 
ju^tian-cliiHB {642 ff.;, the inftoctioo uf a reduplk'ati'd tU'iii, 
but of one that is peruUiu in having a eitenf^iliened redu- 
plioalion. It is decidedly less extended deyond the limits 
of a pieseut-system than any other of the derivntivo oon- 

a. The intensive conjugation signiiirs the Tcpotilion or 
the intendifieation of the aotion cxprcMcd by the piimiity 
conju(^tioa of a root. 

lOOI, According to the graromariBaH, the inteoaire 
coDJugation may li« formed from ncaity all the toot* iu the 
laogvage — the exc^^^ptions being roou of more than one 
syllable, those conjugated only caiisatirely /helow, 10&6J, 
and in geaetal those b^inning with a vowel. 

a. tn het, ba«e«isr, inlcittlTM iii Ibo Iktei Un^utce ue isry lu*, 
so tUQ tb*t II If bar4 i« l«ll pt«<it»«lr »htl *iIda it la Iio g/ma to 1^ 
ralM «l the aUlTc htbididu ropeoUng llitin. Not i(e tbtry it >11 cvntinon 
ftUliM, *i(«pl I'wtnpit^lvaly) tn lh« RV., wkieb tont«]ni ibonl lix Mtanthi 
*f tbo wbolo nninboi (itlbcr ver ■ ttuudrv^) qnouMo fr«cii V«d* Kiid Brih- 
nupi *bA Kntrt-i«xti; AT. ku Im* th»n b«ir •• muij u KT,, aiiil maiiy 
tt tlMa in RV. )>uMgaa; fMa Itin Uui Un(u«fn km ^notable iboui twenty 
«r theM, tboul Imvi man. Imt tor lh< mMI put only In an «e»irr«noe 
ot two. 

b. UeiiM, In tbe dnitrtptton to be Kl*cn bdav, ibe wmtl apx* of 
th* lonnMlofi, u •iblbli»d In tbo older Uagv*^, will bo btd prliiuilly mi 
•SpMlilly In Mow; tDil tba oiamplM will b« of tenn* foiind tli«te In u«. 

lOoa. The Btiong tnteasire tedupUcalioo is made iu 
three diiT^reot ways: 

I. K. Tb« rod Dpi I eating syllable is, &a elseirbere, eofupoited of » 
■iagte consooaat with rolioviDg vow«l, and, so far m tliv couaooaot 
[a ootMenied, followa th« rnlea for proMat sad perfact r«dupllc«tioo 
{B<K)}; but iho vowel is a Imry oae. radical a ssd r or «| b«lag 
r«dupUeat«d with i, an i>TOwol by «. aad an u-rOwel b; O. 

Riaiiiplcs me: vlTSd, bibadh, ^AfTas, rlraodli; d*dr< dadlif ; 
oakit, t«tu, aani. vavli; ^Qtie, popruth, oo^ka, iohix. 

U. b. Tlie reduplicatiu( syllabi* baa a tinal oaasonaat takpo 
from ih* ead of tks root. With an exc«piioii or iwo, tills consoiuuit 
Is edUief r lor lea aubstilulv i; or ■ nual. 

looa— I 



^AAShan, t«A«lAn, dondaq (>-'<I*A9'" da^), JaIt)Mbh(^'JaiD))b or J»bh), 
tantu (I'taAB CI tarn), wnnam i^)^am), yaihrun (i^un). Tbr lunl 
U KMlnllAiod o tli« Initial cooMtnaiil. 

e. Only lenU hi^ae s or f ■* ta««l uiihe i>ii« rarm t>f TedBpIiaition. 
bnt vlih (nek rooU It li mor* i^ommon tlian Bllher of tbs «(kat flonns., 

A. IrieguUi fonnatlona «f till* eU*> are: vlth « flnti oili«r than r 
Of D III ilM rvdupUcAtlon, bcdbiidb, wliti a anal ot*»\ Id ili« redtplt- 
cailon wUdt la not fhunil in llio toot, JkAc^ i^^)' jBtU^P (C-: uil 
JaOcQj'at PDk U {Htrbpa fiom v'ffU; (bo iMei lan(vaKn hu fnnbti 
<l *nd*h ); wtUi Ml aaomaluu* liilllal conHnnant in r«4ii plication, Jarbhur 
lt<rm ybhXU ((ompars iha Vedtr {iMhrt J&bbSTR riqin |'bll|', 78Q b), 

f*lg*l tivm Vsui: wlih vkrlnut irMimfnl af ■» {■ ot ar-slameni, d&rdu 
and dArdlr, o«rkar bihI oarhir, tartar ixxl tKrturf onroar tn4 oar> 
our. jargur md jalgul. 

0. The raau i aod f an (ba ooly viioi with lowo) laltlkl fonaing »» 
InlMuIro tUB: i iDkkM lyir (T PU., ones); f niak»i th« Urtcular alir 
«r tHj. A* u> ihn ilnm tyo, ica brla«, lOSl b. 

ni- f> Tho (imI up] i cation in (lusj^Unbic, mi 1*tow«| bttag addod 
kfier H final coDBonant of th« redDplleallBg Ejrllable. Tbis 1-towcI U 
in tli« older langiwgu abort before n doulile cooaaaant, and loag be- 
for* a singio- 

i-» jimpi"!. Its: ganig«m (mh gfLnlgmBtam), varlvyt, vonnrah, 
oanlfkad, eanifvan; navinu, davidlyut (tnil thn pirtidpUs davidhvat 
bill (Avltuat). A tlngti! eitaptlan a* to the iiauiCJtT of the 1 U davi- 

g, Tlii» uiFlhod I'f t^ilupllration la folloved in the older Ui'itaac* 
by tboai thirtr ronti. Tfcut, of not* having flnti i^t pfnnltlmair □ (onra 
m), and D 111 tho loil 11 [)li riling fyllahlr. pan, pban, aan, avan, ban; 
■am; krand, ^oand, skand, arand; ot taou batlne flnal »t moiliil f. 
asA r In tVi* reJuplUatiiiK s)ll*l)to. kp iruAe, tf, Vbf, vj, dfJi taf^, 
T^i ttU an>; ilM mluc (nulimluo); ^ fnrlliot, of tool* aiaumtag la 
Ibe i«ilupllo4ilon a n not foiitiil lii Oin rnal, only vah (QD.: lh(< (TkB- 
madaiiK lUow glxo kan, pat. pad ; and poolpad la fuolabU Ulcr; aad A(S. 
^aa oanlkhQdat. tw which TIl. toad* )c4iiIkhuBat) ; flaally, of tooU 
bating U ■>! u (■ radlral tow el, wlih av bororo Ih* i-vowol, to, dbO, 

BO. djmt. 

b. Ill tiilF ciut, the g«nanl tnlc* u to the fann of the rcdiiplluitag 
MDaoiiaiit (590) aiD riolated lit thi- caso of ghaajghait and bbarlbhf, 
and of ganlgaia, kaiilq: (but tlic rogalar cankf tUo oetnra), fcanl- 
krand. and kanl(kAad (but alio oaaifkand ottiin) ; >Iio in v^w^vhwn 

1. Th« tcreralon to in«re original gatliinl form tfter tk* rednplifattoa 
In eeV|t^ ^id J^kgluo *■"' CbuiIsbaD, <• In nocordanM "ith vhai take* 
plus it»«<r)io.-n (Sie. I). 



1009i Tbu wuio rout [» ollowcil to form iu ratoimivo bIoid in 
mure tbaa one way. 

Tbiu, In the oMwr Unrni^c. Aidj «nd dardp; dXdhr tnil dardUr: 
cAonl Md ottxcmx {*ai o»reur); tartar (inil tortur) mi<1 Uiritf-: 
Jattgtni and saolsaiiii jonehnn An>l Ebacislina; puaphaa nui 
p«niphan; marmfj tnA marloarji marmrv '"^^ tn«rliiif^; varrrt 
uid vkrlTTt; Jarbbr »i>J bhariblir; dodhCk mi dnvidhA; uonu «ii<i 
uarlBu; b4badh mJ badbodh. 


1O04. The model of DoimKl iotensive inflection is tJie 
preKnt-tiysleiii oftJii; teJuplicatiog coDJugation-class (642 fT.); 
and this ia indeed to a considemble extent followed, in 
respect to endings, ittengthoning of stem, and accent. But 
deviations from the model aio not rate ; and the fomis are 
in geneial of too infrequent opciirrvncc to allow of satit- 
faotory elanaification and explanatiou. 

a. Tlie must uinrkcd ittvgHliinty in ibc fraquent Invertiun of an 
I betvMD the Btom and ending. Aci:ordlDK (o the gnunmaHanR. this 
la allowed In all tlie tttoag forma l)«fut« an ending beginninK witli 
a consonant; and bcforL* the i s final rowct hae RU^a-stroDgtheBiDg, 
but a nedial ona remaiaa uaobanfvd. 

Present-Syatem . 

1006. Wo will take up Hid parta uf the presant^jatani tn tWr 
order, giriDg first what is rccogntiod as regular in iho later lao^Qaffi), 
and llicn vhoning buw (hf fonuatwa appoan in the Mrlier texts. As 
moat giauitoanaiii do nut alloir a middle Inflocliou, and middle foimi 
are few even In the Veda, no attempt will be made to set up a par- 
ailigm for tbu niiddiv vuigit. 

1006. As example of inflection nuy be taken the root 
R^ vid kmtc, of wliich tJie intcuaive stem Is (il4^ vevld, 
or, in strong forma, WJ^ v4vod. 

a. V'lihor rioni tkis nor ttam any vthar rent ara nera tban a raw aoat- 
urlnx tatott (MUbIIt quoUUv. 

t. Pree»nt Indlcattv*. 
T*T«lml. T«vldlml T«vldv4B 


tooe— ) 



3 «WVH. ^f^^tfe 
v^vetti, v^IdlU 



b. From KfT >>^ t^B eiogular forina wilh auxjliaiy vowel 
would be sTi-f^lM joHttTlmi, sMtF? Johan^i, ^l-t^ifn 

1007. a. Tt« furaw toutti In th« el4Bf 1]infa»jt« ■(TM In s«i*onl 
with tbc panJiiim. KxftUplM arc: lit >iof., flarkRrml. vaTCfmi; 3d 
•iii|,, Klar^l, dArdarfi; !ld >ine., ilutl. dAdbkrtl, vovetl, nonaktt, 
JaOghuiti, k&nikraiittl, gftnlgaihtl ; 3d du., Jubbrtfts; l<t pi., oonu- 
miw; iJi pi.. Jiffrfttha; 3d pi.. dAdhrkti, nlnadati, bhuibfanttd, 
virv^tatit d&Tldratatl, aeoijftti, md, irKtalulr, TavlfADti; uid. wiih 
ikw KuillUiy Tqitt, johttvlmi, oikj^imj; ca-kufitl, noiu,Titi, dnrdi 
ritl. JorbbuTItl. tio num witb i\§tiU»)/lo loJupil'athin Itkw the ■uitk 
iu9 I Is uiy el iU (onu. 

b. A tinsln doBl rorm with I Md iironit lun oocun: tiamMr, Car* 

O. The mldilU' (ormi (eiind U oeenr tre; lil ilnr, Jiipive, iieilU«; 
Sd dug., nealkti, e&»Tto; and, with irrrgvliT iccint, t4tilct«, d6dlff«: 
wItb trr«|EUlir Ioh of floil radical nuil, ninilBtfl; with andlnit a liuUt4 
of ta. o&kit«, j&ng«h«, J6Knv«, yoyuve, babkdhv, and (w)tb liiagnlaf 
Mcmii) badbadh^: ^ii du., sararat«: 3d pi.. dMigat«. 

2. Present SabjonotiTo. 

1006. a. Subjunctjire famu wltfa primur nndlafi »n «streiii«l]r nn: 
ihnrs bkT4 bfl«n natlsod oiilf jaAghinani, iiffarMl (A.V.}t and, In Ika 
middls, taat«Bait« (3d du.). 

b. PortiiiL Hiih ■•«oad»t]i «nd!a(a «r« more fVeqneDt: tliu>, 3d dnc-i 
JaOCbaaaa, Jalgulaa; 3d (inc., jisarat, oikitat, bobhavat, otofc|f4, 
J& n g h a a at. bArbrhott. mtlTmrJat, m&rmrqat. parpbarat. dar^vat, 
canlfkadnt, dnridjrutat, aaulfva^at; !•■ du.. jaQcbaaftva; Ik pL, 
oarUr&ma, vevldama; M pi, plpatan, ^^uoaa, oarkiras; sad, 
irll^ d«abl« modt-attn, oAfca^an (AV ). Of tbf in1d<II« >r« funnil only 
3d perwai plnnl: thus, J&bglianaiita, Jartiffanta, maroifjaiita. aoou- 
vanta, ^"^"T^f 

8. PraieDt Optative. 

1009. This mode would show the uaatieDgtheced stem, 
witb tbe uBual «udiiigf [fWe}, accented. Thus: 



i— 1019 

Tevldjrioi vtvldytva 

•W. c<c lib. 

a. ne oplatire Is reproKnted by on]]r in eXBinp1« oi two In Ibp »)(]«> 
UiigD«|o; thiu, tcllTc, vovl^U; (AV.). jAfcryoe (I<B.), jacrlyot (AB.X 
jk<f;&ma (VS. MS.; kai JicrijStiUi TS,); »V. b» only oikanyit (pfur); 
middle, aenUlta (KO- 

4. Prosent ImperataTe. 

1010. The legulnr formi of the imp«rntivc, including 
the usual subjunctive first persona, would lie at follows: 








V^OttU, V^idltU 7<JTlltiUB 

1011. ■- DIdor Iniftrttlf* lotta* Bra lui rire llijii oputtvo. Tlta 
b.gmMMit b«ve bean (Itcd abot« (JaQKhdnatll, lli« only iccenud ox- 

li^loM not conwfpond witli iha lODdrl, bm U In confoimity with tka 
iu1i|iiii(.llvc o[ the irdupUotlnK prcieoOi ''>■ propot iiij(»pr>UtM ut: lA 
*\ue.. dldfbf, ilardfhi, earkpdbi, Jiefbi. nonlffdhi, r&randdhi; Am 
•adlnii Mt U fonnd m OUrkftU >iid jBsirUti anil tha latui (ti wu 
paiutod on! ako<*, 671b) U uacd tu AV. u Km pettoa >UJ^: barb^ 
*li«wi til rU««b«r< Dnpinllclad Im of h bi-tute tbe ending bl; 3d >!■■(., 
dUtaartU. VflTOftu. dardartu, marmarttn; 2(t rln., JlK^tom; Mdtt., 
' JlC|t4m-, 'Jd pi., JSgl^ta; caOk-rAtUBta (B^-, ante'] hu kn inomtloat 
nnloifTDwol. In the middtt xrfce It found oniir nenLkgra K'U)- 

b. Of imppniitu fanna «1lh MilUur !< 1^^'- bvi hoik | AV. hat 
Tivaditu anil Johsvitu, and anrb an Kiinpllmei fonnd In the Brlbma^u; 
AV. haaalto, tcalnai nil*, taAataaihi and Ja&tthanm ; VS. ha« caka^nil. 

5. Prosent Partioiplo. 

1012. The intcnsire pariioiplcR, both Active and middle, 
liie compiratiTcIy common in the older language. They are 

formod and inflected like tho<se of the reduplicating present, 
and have the accent on the reduplicating syllable. 

lots— ] 



KximplM tn: Mil**, oHuQAt, atondt. fi^Utet. mAmymt, fo^n- 
cU, ronivat, dsrdrat, m&nn{'J&t. Jfcfttfianat, a&naunAt. p4oI> 

otitlUoa, ybyurtxiM, rdroeAaa, J4rbbart4«,airRfti^ Jafyftbbfcna, 
n4niHHW Bff », dind^cASK. !(■ nlAdU putldple thn«« tb« dluTlUbb 

1018< •• Oi> w«o«nt *f tb«tr ««c«nt, rb«U^, rtr&ltfi^A, mi4 

cipl««, •ItkoBfb no othvT pRrf«<l (omu wlik liaai]r ndnplktUoa rt*B the 
nnc raou we«r. Tbe mri-rriic U, hnvtrt, na4«i«d uauriAdi by il>< 
■inni*Ulubl)rliiten*t<rc b*dlw(lh4ii4 ml mftrai|')&a& (badto mArmy Jftoa), 
At w qd^aoAna Mr., m(> 0M& 

t). Tbc ItT. kM OBM J&aiJiiiatM. sen. ling., vHb rtoc-Toirri rut 
»Dti kiuikrftt apyMn U Im ue4 «ne« fnt kinikradat. tr cUcit it to 
be itfcttcd t« >^ft (OrtMiMna]^ H b A* onl; oxsaiph of tn inieulT* 
fiotu * HMI Id a. tbd lu MMBI Is UMulMU. MannnuitM (AB.) U 
p«rhap« ■ till* TMdIiig; bnt t«m« vitb lb« hbmU Ino^krly rsuijted tn 
fdVBd rape4t«dl; In iIir «plr« »n<l UI«t: that, teUhan, dedlprAsOtD 
(Unh.). Jkjval&nt (HBk. R), a*rUn>«iit*u (BhF.), rArn^onH IB.) 

8. Iinp«rfeot. 

1014. The imperfect is regularly inflected u rollout: 

<• p. 

irarldva ivsvldaui 
jtrerlttoia Averitta 
4T0TlttAm Arevidua 


Avevet. Averldia 
Avevot, Arevidlt 

1016. Tbe tiup«t(c(4 (oitns fraud La (be «uU«i l«xu At« not hhi 
out. Th«y art), tndniltng tboM fMa «bt>'b Iba kniotoM U oralttcd, 4a' 
feUowf: In kttire, lat »fn(„ aoUEn^ani. d«dl9sm; "id 'io^ •J'smr, 
adardwr, dArdar; 9d iiB)t-, adordar, adardhar, avartvar, dardar. 
Unlfkaii, divldjoti nAvlaot; 2d du., adardrtam; Ut pi., mansfjioA; 
3d pi., onannaniDK, adardirua, aoarknua. AJohavus, anoaaTos; 
uid, Willi (iiiilUry t, in ^I tliif., avaviuiit, ivftva^It, ivSvarit, 
AjToyavIt. Aroravit, ^ohavlt; uid, inagtiUrly, loSddn., avtva^lUm. 
Tlie mlildle farnu atfi aitr«ui«lir fon: nain*ly, 9d atng., Adadlfta, Anan- 
aata iVIUi liiia ot Uie Oml ndlMl in > wuk foiiu of fOMj; 3(1 pi. 
^armiJAta. &nd avA-raqanta (whicb, If It belong! bne, *bow* t trtntftr 
' on a-it«iuj. 




1016. Derivative Middle lafleotioD. Prom cTery 
intensive utem, aa above described, may be formed in th« 
piesciit-«ystoni a further derivative coDJiigalion which is 
foitnally identical tvith a paasivo, being made ly the acceuted 
■ign U y&i along with middle endings only. It hua not, 
howercr, a paosire value, but is iu meaning and use iu- 
distinguiahablc from the simpler conjugation. 

a. A final vowel before tlila ya \» irea^led la berote the pstBive- 
■i(D 7* {110\. 

b. The infieetioD n prffelMly Ilka that of an^ other sMm ending 
in a In cbe middle voice: Ihas, from ytoxS, inteitsiTu ittein marmij, 

I la tnad« thdprt'RCnl in>Ii«stivo maiMiirjyo, mannrJT&*«> marmrJyit«, 
etc.; oi>tatiTo ffiarmrjyira, manurJy6lIifta, macmijr^ta, kic; \a- 
peradvo mannTJy&svs. mannr}7^'^'<i^ '<'^'' parti«iplo marm^Jji- 
mtna; impvrfoct luiiarDi|-J}r«, AmamiiJratbaa, Amarmi-Jyata, via 
•nbjuaetire forms do not oceur. 

e. In ■ vflty tev (poftdte cmh, iheM yi-fonu «n (Inn ■ pusin 
iklu«; ibai, Jaflgbnnramana la M^V.) bambhrrnxnyate, dUhmft- 
yam&na. pepIyamSna In Uu Uut Uhkhiei-. Aiid >']tivv piiiUtplM 
(0S9 a) Hc not niiliwiWB: ikai, dedipyantlm (Mltb), dodhOyani 
(Mild. libP.). 

1017. This kind of intCDsive inflectioD is more common 

thnn the other in the later language; in the eArlier, it is 

comparatively lare. 

a. In HV,, y&-faiaa an niido ttt-tti «1|bi rca4, fl«* 9f f'klA liava 
aUo ftxm tf (hn alnplei Mnjngiiion; tiM AT. aidi oiw now: the oikar 
narllat laiu (to far ** abaar>«d) absuc twaniy marv, tod k*ir til ikem h4V« 
llfcuwtM fonnt of ibv ilnplor renjuxttioii. Tka*: rrnsi V^rJi marmij- 
yit* ot«., aB<l uarlin|-jy«ta; froiu f^, tartaryanta; r>iMn year, 
cAraOtT&maQa ; tttm yni, nanlyiraji, ate; rron yvu vavlyat*; frooi 
irlb, rorihy&ta «(«.; ttMa yij, vaviJr&t*: from Kakn. oofhOyAao «■«-{ 
frniD (dlq, dtdi^yate; fram yicib^, oUia^rite «*<■; from v'vxlt 
vCvadyamaDa; fjom i^nntn, n*niMin;adhvam; fcom ^vah. vanivali- 
yita ate. (••lib l«uKllita«<l cvet'Ta««t, ulapwbocc snUuowu): tKU ykjtmA, 
kaDlkradyim&na; from yv^ varivarty&isana (^U-: th^niii ba 

vaj-Ivrty-Ji f""" Voir?. aoiarlmfCT""** (V- ^ '^* "** "'*^'- amarfmF'* 
•yanta)! (rem t^yup, foyapyinta ato.; tnia ynnd, anonndyanta: 
fMM |/vU, avevliyantai rt«ot vJobli* Ja^J^by^ita •!•;.; irom )jap, 
Jafljapyimkaa ; aad m en. 

Wklla*!, anKBiv. J. •!. 





tb» oth«i iiiKnd'cs abOT^. Tkey u*, far the pnisnl'iyitttDi, the »uup- 
wltb ibooe a<;l(nowI«dggd m rcrnUr li(«r. Th« oldei p«ifecl la Ilk* tbe 
other liil#n«lT«i perfect* founi) In llV.: nimol]', jBgant lyta,, with ibe 
ptrtlriple JtspriAfl ; and s rutucc iMari^yk-, t pudve putlctptc Jagarlt&, 
t-tid a ceruri'llTV jBcaritavja, ira mirl with In Ihe fltUnnu^u, The old »»riit 
(RT.) 1j t1i« yni*l tnlupllotod ortc>t«IIai1 ctuvttho sortit: lbn!>, AJIkdt. TIic 
CriinniaTiana (irri it iit th« later langni|{a a pertoct irilh silditioaal rednpli- 
e4llaii, JaJ&Kftra tU,, an if-aoriit, ^jAguifun, -'■■• j- — ■'-- jllgiryllgini. 
ind *i«rytMns "'B" tbkt U nc«'IM la m»l(i tip i Mn>plet4 eat|J«i|>tii>n. 
Tbo ppif. JAjftg&ra 1> quolabla (icni tli« i>[>lc9 auil lit«r, at lUo ths ptil- 
phtattle Jig«rAm Aas. And MHb. hx ihn mniilalni) jlffpinl, and altO 
a-formt, a> JA^Aratt »ai Jftg'ram&^a. 

1081. (t. Tbt >tcm tr^ya (irtivc qhI)') rtyvlate, from whldh ■ 
number of toina ira mulv in ItV,, bai been viewed at an IninnilTC tioni 
Vr^i ot fj. ll tacki, bowa(«r, asj- analegy with the fnl«nalv« fomuOoii. 
The lame U true of Iradh propitiate (only Irodliftnta and IridhTU, 
appamilly foi ir*dhikdh]r&i). 

b. Tbe middle ii^iu iya. not 1iitK<[Di;ni In tbe oldeat laii^rueKi-, li 
otton ettleil an luienilva of ^ go, but vltboul tay pKipriaiy, aa ii liaa uo 
aulofv Of form vbakrei wllli an intfntlTc. The belated In pL Imshfl, 
eoniMen in RV., ii of quetlioiiable cltari«l*t. 

loss. The real 11 Uthr, wilb tanaUnI iateorive lod a plication, 1*11; 
it quite itft'gnlat In InSe-Mlon ■n'J acfieni : iliua, pirs.. loltiyatl >'id lelft- 
y*t«, (iplrj Iftlny&nti and loUty&t&o (gaa. >iii«.l and lolArAmAnm irapr. 
alelftynt aixl alolvt and nlolljAta, pert, leltm and 1«U;k (T). 

1083. Tbi> BV. anomstout foiia dut fer cUrd), 3d and 84 line, 
rion l/dr er dor, li donbtfolly xettiiti4 la ilie InLendve, u it abbrerltted 
fro* danlnr, EV. ka* one^ nvarlvna («r -vnr) «l>«i<r iha aenie r«f nliat 
A rofro tt«n Vvfl, at antriTTCua. The ronn rsranita {RV., onee) leetne 

10S4. A Bivked Intcnsivo or fm^urntKliTn meaning Is sot nitrityg 
eatilj' to be iraued in tli« fnnnii classed aa IntoDiive; and in Mine 
of thinn it la qnlto effaced- Thiia, tho roots olt, nii, vlf nan their 
InlMMire preaent-sj-atfim aa IT k tvere an ordinary i'M)nJuK*<i'>ii-cl>'*l 
not (• U olli«rw[ei) with gf JBbt'- T)t« RrnniinariuQa reckon thq 
infloctioD of nlj and vlf as hilniigjuc to tho red a | it i eating pretieot- 
qrattim, with irtcKo^rly atrtngthcnMl rednplication; and tbey treat tn 
tho aame way vie and vtj; Jlgf, aa wo bavo •om, thoy acconot » 
liinplo rout. 

a, AIm darldrt, tntenilTc or ydl% run, Is made bj llw ennitatrlana 
a almpli' raat, sail funidlicd «!th i complete act of eeaJspUonal foTin*: 
•I dadaridr&u: adaridrUIL cle. etc It dees nM occur tn the older 
t*ns«a(a <aalN> (Uridrnt TS., for wLtnb VB. MS. read diridr*), Tke 
•*-<alU>l reoi vtvl ^fiutlrr it a pure inlcadve. 





I0S6. It b (Uovi'il by itie gnmrnitUaa in tmle (idu (kn iincioiva 
(Um alxo • puflTc, •laildmciip, cituktlTn, anil la on : Ihiu, (ran v*vld, 

ll*u, voridftyif&mi. Pat •nek runatiimt iia eicoMiTaljp nto; q««t«U« 
■ra Tarlvariiysotl AV., J(ig«riywtt TB. tu.; lUdlitrByfttl JD., 
dsada^BfitvA UKC. 

III. Desiderative. 

1030. By (he desideiative oonju^atioa i* a^aified a de- 
HITO fur tlie action or (.-oiidilion di^noletl l>y t))C ciinple root: 
thus, f^Rlfh pibaml / f/r«ii, de«id. TTTRTR pipfi«iLmi / w^^ 
to ttrtttk; iTwlH jiv&ml / Utt, de«id. RIsIlftlllW jOivifKmf 
/ d($ire to Ht*. ^uth a. ooRJu^tioa ta allowed to be formed 
£rom aay simple rgot io the laaguage, and also fiom any 
csiuiitire stem. 

A. The ilegider&tlrc GonJugatiOD, alikoagli tta foras »at«i<Ie tli» 
pnwiMjiWm are «zu«niely ran fo the ohlMt laDguaco< t* Barli«r 
uid Biora fully expanded tiito a whole verbal Byawn tli4D tlia latea- 
aivti. IM fonitA tat alao or iacresainff froqneucr: naoli rower Uun 
the toMittfYsa io BV., vtin auinorouB ia llie BrahcuanaH aod Uier; 
not one third of tbu wliolo number of nmta latioiit a husilriMl) notad 
ai LariBK • (leaidoralive coajitgation in Veda and Brahma^s have 
sticb ia KV. 

1027. The desiderative st«iu iti formed from the simple 
root by the addition of two cbaracteristioa: 1. a reduplication, 
which alvr.\yfl hna the aoceot; 2. an appended *1 n, — which, 
however (like the tense-signs of aurist and future), sometimes 
takes before it the aiudliAry vowel ^ i, beeoming ^ l^a. 

a. A tew tiisunces In ih« tcnolu'lltiB |urt of (" '" wkick the aeceat 
UMhemUs laU — tboi, tiflliMet, yljfift&ntam, vtvldtf&aU, IpsiBlae 
•^lantl probably be r«Etr<ltd ,v* firois. 

1028. The root in general remains uocbaji^d; but with 
the foHovring eieeptions: 

a. A fiiuil i or a id luoglbvaed before aa: thus, cikfTaa, cUcSf*. 
JlClfa: fUfrO^a, JuhOfa. cokfilfA. 

b. K ficul r lirroaivs ir or ur bvfore wm: tbue, «lklrf«, UOrfa 
(alBU irreeiilar))- tuturqa IIV '. dldhirQa, atslrfft, ttatlr^a lalso to- 
■tftrfai, JibUfa; bubhur^a. mumunfa itbe only ezampke qaotable]. 




c. ItofHrp if*, t finil i* or u- or provrl arcMMrily, and k 
ptttultiiuaie I or u or r opUoiall}'. hue ibn BU^-»tn!rngt1icn}ti|t: no 
ex«nip1i.>4 kTc c|uotiit)1f from tliu uldoi toxu, Uier occur ^l^ayl^a, 
flgftHfn; oika^ifa, uicArtifa, mioiardifa, vivftTfifa. ^uqobhifa: 
livt ntntdi^o. 

ltor« ■pocbil oxcejitlona are: 

d. A tern rooti In A wukvn Iblt itomO to I Of ami 1: Ihiu, HK^^a, 
ft^'^^ t't^ fo; plpIfS (bNlrIc pipllsa) (mm \^pA rlrini. Jibifft lAV.) 
tnm yhi mnore (Jiblte: 694); didliii^ | tnildc dhitea) fron. ydnt. 

«. A few raoi* III an or am Unjttbmi ika Towat : (biis. jig&Asa (beilde 
lifKmlfB) from KCuh; JightAsa rrota KbU; mimliAsB rmin vmUi 
•ml UtUaa from y/taii. 

f, EC«v«»(on 10 gutluiil ftiiin «t an fiiUliI ifttt ili' R>dDpllc*lion It 
M«n In oikI|M fratn yd, cUdtaa now ydt, Jfstfa rmin |('Ji, JighAiBa 
ttom ybui; *nd vhi U mU lo utakif Jlghi^a (no iifxiunoaco). 

g. Tha r»ol* van and mid inkkn WvAaa and alfftaa, fram tb» mil' 
rom Tt Md •&. 

h. Tti« tool JIv formi Jniyiifa ((B.: JiJlTlfai, VS.); anil tk« otbnt 
mt* lo It (766j u» required io Diais tW umo cbugt before la, lai In 
liafe SUpa brfar» ifa: (hui, aiuTQfa or aliavlfa froio /bIv. Svap 
rprmi lainiWB. Sbarr romis dadtiQr^. 

i. tnltlal 8 it lunilly left mi(liaiig«l id f *niir itio t<KlDpI|ratlon 
<Nh«ii ikr ilo(l<)ar*tlTc stin bw 9 (164 e)i ihn*. alsaflkfa (gB.: ^lalU), 
■Ad BiuyufB (tid aiianiiia, acrontlne tu Ih* sraminitlaiiai Vut tUffeB^B 
la mn will 

j. Futlbcr mar ^i ■aatlooa'l a« prMoribad ly Ibft tnaimaiiuM: 
nlnaU^B (i>t nlDHQl^B) Into yaaq Ac lint: mtmBAkfa from I'majj 
(««tBr* in mimB&k(u): mlmArJifa (or mlmrkfu) (ram y'ta^i- 

1029. The oonaoDant of the [o<luplicnttoo follow* the 

geueral ruloc (500); the rowcl !a ^ i if ihs toot liaa an 9r 

vowel, oi Tf r* or ftn i-vowel; it it ? u if the toot liaa no 

u-vowe). But: 

a. A fpv ru«U liaia a loi>e tow*I lii Ibo rtdupUoatlag ■TlUM■^ ihna, 
brtibat— fwio yhtdh or bftdh ; mlmiAaa troni i^man ; aal totoryi (BT.) 
tiom ytW: dadUqu (AV.) toA dadoAksu (C ) arc proWbly falae funu. 

b. Fntin |/af li madn (^'IL.) aglfifa, and froci |'«dli (Til.) 
•dJdhlfa (ullh a moAv of rvduptldUon lUc that Mlaaxd ataiallatM tii 
tbe rr(l>]|i1iaHng aon<t: 863}. In lb* old» Un|t»0», ikoM an ibe onlr 
tvila irilb InliUI ruwat wblcb hno a dt«lilmlif« Utta, ase*pl Ap an<1 
fdll, which haw ■bbrrilalnil iicbii- tr« the ni^il paragnpfc. In (hn Uter 
laiinaio o«eDr rnrthnr Bfjflfa {yi^ ittlt) an<l toikflfa [|^f)i and tbn 
ftunniatltiK a^d oUien, a« orJIhifB (Kaiti). uodjdlfi (|und)i ardi- 
dhifa (I'rdfa). 



[— lOM 

M active model f^ Ipea setA to obtain, ftom v^IFT &p obtain; 
M middle, IrTWa titik^s tndure, rtom ^It^I tlj A0 tAorp (see 
bdow, 1040]. 

1. Preeent Indloativa. 





^Mml fp«B.v»B ipa&maB tttikaa tltlk^vahe t[tU(fdni«h« 
«itc etc •*<. atr. ste. elc 



2. Presoct Bolijuiictive. 

ipiAms tltJk^ 

titlk4a,vahfti titlkfAiEnhAi 







tpe«r«m {pMTtt 

8. Pr»aent Optative. 
jps«in«i t{tlkft0y« Utikaevnlil tittkf6iij«hi 







tp»Bt<ua JpeatA 

4. Preiient Imperative. 






S- Pre«etit Participle. 

^rxiT^ipiuit If. ^:^^ ipsonti] PTf^atmn titikyama^ 
6. Imperfect. 

1 %5R^ \mra >7im mniHgt uifirH'riNr.j. «fHrddwi<- 

aipsam afpfl&TO aJpaAma itittkfa iUtikf&vBhl Atlrtk^ainaM 

M*. Me. MC. ole. «le. cto. 

>. Tbnra kN alnifttt ■» IrtPitHUrlilEi of inllaHloii to tie lepOTMil firam 
Ikt o|iI«r Itiigua^. No Itl f\. I» masi, or 2d pi. In tbiuis ot tano, li 
ntl wltki of tli4 LmpT. Id tAt, crly iputAt. T)i« qnoUbU ■ablniKOre 
Stnn* iM ihMe In aOal, s4t uiJ sat, sta, lud Bftut*. KIIU. Iw> JU&Aaita 
(tt 738b). Bat tlH rem. ppla aifAaatl (iiwitwil of elfUanti) oecan 
oikM «t twice In ike oldct l«iu; ind RV. Iiu dfdhlfl^a. 

b. In Uu nplci and Uiet *n ftnnd ipftridi^ fMm> «f (he nen-a- 

losa— , 

XTF. Secohdaiiy Cohjooatiok. 


(MMnicBtloa: tfa««, Blftf)tfin«B iDliP.}, titikfnmha attd babhttfM* 3d 
pi. (Unh.): and tkc fern, fiudnlplcf Upeatl and olklrfBtl (MBli.: agatnal 
440 b). The uiinutMU jighift^it ocean tUo la HBb. tnA Vu. 

1033. a. Deaidentive fom* onUIdc tli« pTOMtat-Hyston are 
extrcmcl)' r»rc in the ol<lc«t languagv- The HV. has only prrfect 
formti ftota it Hton miniikf — that, mlmikfithua, numlkfattw, 
mlmlkfjis: mtmlk^c, mlmlkyir* — aJvag wUh tlic pteecut foniiB 
ralmlRfaH, mimlkfa cic, mlmlkyaot ip|tle): ihefBhow thatmlmlkf 
or mlk^ has takon on cIm clmrmctur i>f an iadcp«&d«llt root. In AV, 
are found Uo uorlsl foiois. Irtsis and aolUtsIe. nnd a partldpla or two , 
from mlmaAaa .my; U«lou , lo37 a, 1036 aj — «U oi ihem from atMM 
wkieh have lout their diitiDCt dceiderntive memiiDg-, and come to bear 
an indcpundunt valne. The funua uoled (two the other earlier taxta 
wUt be glrcD in fall below. 

b. In thu later language, a complete system of vctlml 

foims is allowed to be made ia the desiderativo conjugalion, 

the ileaidonitive stem, Ictta iu Au»l rowel, being lieulcd us 

a toot. Thiia: 

1034. Perfect. The desideratiTe jMifeot is the peii- 
phiastio (1070 (T). 

a. Thos, ipa&di cakAra vtr,: tltikaajn cnkre u(c. Sach ronua 
ntu mudo iu ^B. from f/^ram, dhtirv, bfidh, ruh; and in CbU. 
from maD. 

b. Appirant peifett fonnB «r the ardlnki)- hind nuda tnn mtmik^ 
la RV. h»v« keea aottcad In lh« pt»AedlD|| pan<nph. Aad AB. (tIII. 21. 10) 
Km aiM» did&Bltlia 'Aau hml JrtirrJ (o j^um, 

lose. Auiist. Tlte aoriat is of the If-form: thm] 

^fcq^q iipaiflwn, MiHHMp-J ^titUt^i^L 

a. Tbc AV. Ilia netkltala. mi Irtnla (aufineall«sa, '«jih m^ pro- 
blUtU«r 67B). TB. bu alpslti <,:it. fiirCslt, aolUrfls and ajiKhaAsla. 
■a<a amlul&alft'h&B; Kit. JtJEL&>ifi; Jl'D- Aipsi;ina; >nd AA a<Uut> 
Bt^in. >'(> axtmplu hare been totiiid In the ItKir Uncntie. 

b. \ fnoMft fisliD klloKci — ikui, IpBy&aAm. Utikflflyai bat It 
never otdnn. 

1036. PutuieiL The futures aie niAde with the auxil- 
iary vowel 5 1: thus, 'firmifif ipsipydmi aiid J^P-flMlIfM 
Ipsitiami; PhTh fd^J UtU«i«yd and fHldHf<ll2 tiUkfitShe. 

a. The ^'B. hu tiLikfl^yata aud didfk^titnia. Sucli tomt ai 
JijaaayStnaa (UfVb.), dtdhakfySttil <B.), iikI mbnAiiayant (dOS.) a» 
donbUcia protcni*, wliU -sya- lilundninglr for -sa*. 




1037. Verlia.1 Nouns and Adjeclives. These too 
are maile with the auxiliaty vowel ^ 1, iu all cases where 
that vowel is ever uken. 

a. ]n ih'? oHrr lanintc* bive been notol- tiinjrlplr In ta, mlmAA- 
«it& (AV,. OB.). JUyfl9*t« (AB.). 9M9ra»tti .■■■l dWJtfllU (CB-); — 
ftriaDdiTu In tavyK, llpsltavya (All.). didbjisicaVTa (VBO. ■» Jtt 
jiiftisyit (CB); — n^'tmii In tva, mSmUtitvi fK.). 

1088. Ot vtWr drcliiiablc tUn* d«(i*«J fium Ihe ilMliliintiri; m«bi, 
by fu ib« nMt Min»on m t>it tdjaeUvc In u — e. c. tltlk|u, dipsu, 
blbhAta&t sl^fta^ (Itv. oaev dldfkfa) — kml il>» iliutMi doud in A — 
I-. f, ipet, bTbbaui, mlmaiisl, ^ugrO^d— botli of whick •» niwts 
ollb hicie»Uiit fra<4oni titmi in ttwly ciionli «' ihn laiTfiibte: MprciUly tlie 
foimei', whtrh Iim tAn v«liie ai>>l runHtfiiL-iloii (271 aj «f n prcMiit ptrtl- 
otH*- A r«w a^JivUvM In 9tisa (hiving * gwsndlvo rkirtfin: M6 b) 
OMucIn tlieeultet Lumuii:*: ll>tu, tUdflLfAl^ja (BV.), QugrOfAQyaCrii.;)! 
BiBlfe^jn (Pit). jUfiJUienya (AB.): *'>d. *>>l> Irrr.ftuUr rMlapllwUen 
(tppaMBily) pap^hf^^ra (it^O' dadhl|O^B (-IBj; mJ dldi-kfAya (KV } 
It 1 flvilUr foMMtloii. H\. hu klio BlfAsinl tnd rturukf&ijil, uid aif Jt- 
sfcta(P). In iko UioT UnguRjo, brtiJc* iqnin of ihi> fi>fii»tlon« •Irtitdy 
iiialtiicvil (ibiMu in u iTid ft. and lii Bya «ni1 sitaTya^ aia found * r«w 
■Inrivailni* in alia, u cikltitaka, bubhOijakB; ii:. aoa, u JiJIluaaa, 
dldtayAaana; tnd. «ni »rel)', iaaiiiya (cUtlteant7ft)iii(l tr(9agrtl9ltf); 
fuitUpr. McondaTY ittifdyp* (il«iiMtM) la in (r»iu lli> noon in A, u 
Ipais. jlg^tflli foiH or two ef ikate uucnr in iba oidtr tiuguMt)- And of 
v> »4jMUr< III a <**• ^i* an euatplc in bibbata4 (B.^ and lit«t), tod 
p«tliBp> In araUpM (AVr.)i Bu<b wofd« u ^tu^opaa, dUQOllcltaa, uu 
ti(b«( to tx qndaniMd ■» po»e»|to rmnfonndi vtth Ik^ noua In A- A* 
M aoan-itemt in Is, m<- S92 d. 

1030. Ueriralive or Teitjary t^oaju^ationa. A. 
pasaivQ is allowed to 1>e made, by adding the pniisivG-BigD 
? yd \n the deaideratjve root (or stem without fiaal tj: thut. 
i^f^Tlti Ipsynt« it ia desired to lo ohtatned', — aad a caiisAutive, 
bf adding in like manDCT the causativc-aign on &ya [1041]: 
thtu, J'-HCrirtJ IpaAy&mi / cmiat to deaire ohUtmment 

a. or lh«H rftrnaLti«n( in ihc oldci UBipia<n an (ontd mimaAsyfc- 
mSaa (d»«bttrM to b< n»d (or •aamana. AV.y, Itpeyfanana C,'^-)' ""* 
ruratayamSna (K.). llilf-fdMcu udi ;>ui!ti'a am >]ii<-'tAbli> laur. and 
oi'it ni tvu eanuiliei: a e. cUdtayate, Tlvak^atc, Jij&asyaUi cikir- 
fayant, clkltaayl^yatj. 

b. For Uie ilcsidcratiTo conjnicatiuD fonnctl on rnusativfl aivmt, 
wtaloh ia found a* early as iho Br&hmsnas. ace livlow, 1069b. 


IIV. Sacxonuunr OMJ0iu,ncM. 


1040- Soae n««a vUeh » imUttMtir* u fom kave lt»« tt 

pecalluttjr of deiidentlTe Banlig, tmA matmrnti the ralue of 
p»iMl«Bt toott: *ZAmplM u*aIkttaMr», fBgnpa Amf i*t, ttHV^ rnJhnw^ 

bl^tMU oUor, mltmft* ^(W^O-, fBfrttX aky. DovMOM BOaM of th« 

apiMreU cmU lit the luco^t witk albilAU iaaJ u* akin wiih the 
dsrid«fslH«i U otlgb: «. K- fO^ 4««iA«rmclv« of fwk. 

848 b). tkc (MMar !■ i ii MrfiBiIhF fcaai «Ut» tb* l«n*f «m ruber to 1m 
mOrfor tvfl 'bbBvtt (B.) ht k-^ /m la M*. 

IV. Cauttlivc. 

1041. s. la the Inter l&n^»ge b allowed to be maile 
ftom moat rooM a complete csuHtlrc coojugatioD. The 
buia of this is a oatteative stem, formed bv appending the 
ouiMiire-vign ^ ays to the, usiulty aUeogtheoed. root. 

b. Itut by no racaDB all coajugation-ttems formed bj 
the sign CHT aya are of causative value; and the grammariaiu 
regard u part of ihem as oooetitulJDg a conjugation-claaa, 
tlte tenth or otur^class, according to which toou may be 
infiected a* according to the other clasaea, and either alone 
or along with others I77B). 

0. In KV., Ihc propotUoa vllboni umailib «ila« U ImUf one tkliJ. 
Tbn (QRi>iii«D is > nun lAiieaitj AeMiBlDktIto ono tkkn my ot Um «Uict 
wiijue«UBn-eLft»er, n tateri5cdliie betwaen Ibea uJ tbe proper daaecB- 
laatlTM. A ciutailTe otvaiitBC baj MiablU1i*4 Itaalf In coiinMtloti «t(h 
tli« fomuUon, uid bfConiK prtdomlnuit, ibDQjh Ml exclulTe. A niiBibtf 
«r MDU of l*U ■ppearkDcc kiid pr«tMbly JviviilTi' thitMUif irv tnaladad 
la Ui« cUti, tai lomc pilpibU deiiominilltrt, «hich lack «ii1j th« lutial 
doaoiBliiMlvi: a<?cont (bclov. 1060). 

d. Tha ciiiMtlva fotmaiion it of tniivh mora rraiiucm uia, and num 
doddedlT clpin'Ud into a full <«n]agatloa, than tUhin (be intenMi* or tbu 
deiid*ratlT«, It U mtda from mere than thrM btntdni roou In tba tiulf iui- 
ni>g« (fn RV^ ffam about one bniidTod an4 Uly) i but hi lb' olJnt, lia 
(Afiiu onUiAn (lie piMOiii-iritain are l^apait from iho atunbwt reduptloated 
avrlai: KMfl) «K««'ili>gty (aw- 

1042. The treatment of the toot before the cauaatire- 

lign WJ aya is ae follows: 



I— io«a 

B. Hedlal or InitUI I, n, r, t Iuiyc thq guQa-^cnnfctheniBX [if 
GHiMbla of it: S40)i thiii>. vettoTa from t'^ld, eodoj-n from yend, 
torpay* from ytTPi »"<^ kalpftyn from f^fp {only vxample); buc 
olntATft, gnlpbaya, drAbays. 

b. But a re* looU Uck lb* turnitlicnliig; tlivur An-, In the older 
■■iiguaco, oit (oitnjrft mil c«t«ja). If, U, rif (rlfsyft >rid rafayftj. 
Tip (7lp»ya •tid T«p»ya^^ tuj, tur, tuf^ (tofaya «ii>l tof«y«). djol 
(drataya »nd dyotaya), ruo (ruoaya arid rooaja), quo (fuoaja ui-l 
fooitjra), ftibb (f ubboya niul ^obharn), kfp, mf^, npfti ; aud grnbh 
DuXti m KV. ^bhays. Duj ami guh kiigthtn tho looul luiiMd. MfJ 
Mmcilmta hsa vfddbi, ■■ lii othor tarnia: ihui, mBrJajro (I-mMc taar- 
Jays). On (he other hanil. RtiVa ipptari IrraKitUily (240 b) lii n-frvaya 
(b«*ll« frivBjrn), he^nya, mslmaya. SImilai irngnlitltltt In the Ittcc 
UarvHo »n ftlroya, talaja (aim toloya), chorsya (kiao eborajs), 
Btufaya, spburaya. No foriai made without atnojithcnlng tia>e • <aiuatt*e 
Titluo In the oldct Ifttiiuaito. 

c. A Sual VUWI-! ib» vfddhf-titroiifLhemug: thue, eay&ya, 
9 tyaya, oyftTsys. bbavaya. dharaya, atnja. 

d. But no real in I or 1 bat vrddhi tn tb« Tcda (nnlcn p&y^a 
(1c, Wow) cDinM tnm pi rirber than pji) — a«, in^Mcl, nfalaf Ciaia- 
tiiaa frum «uch not* *>« liSFdlf iinuubla: only RV. haa k^yaya (faciiidi! 
kfopaya) Uam yic^ pattt**; Tot a faw allttinatlveljr prrmliuxl form*, ac« 
ImloH, I. Ill R. Kiiil S.. 1l'lw^v(<r. rfvnr gSyajainil B&yaya [y»i or oA); 

•a<l Laict -ftyaya, cftyaya, emiyaya, ^ayaya. ntyaya. 

«. A (»•* root! hivo It fi'iio alio alili KU^s-iirvngt hailing: Uiub, oyn, 
dru, pin, yn atparau. ^ru, pi), atut aru; jj ictuU auay, dr pirret, sf. 
■IDf, hf ; vlf cAdWii mak«B rarsya Ulci (It la iii>t fouvd In v.; «p{e aba 

f. A luHilinl OT initial a iu a liglit tylU1>ie in euunrtiuiCB length- 
ened, aud somolicncs rcoLtiDa unctiaojcod : Ihuii, bbAJaya, avlpayci 
adaya; Janaya. qrathaya, anaya ibut mandaya, valcaya, bhak;giya'< 

K- The tonti in the vliler lat){Ga:;n whidi Vr«f thelf tliorl a aiP Jod, 
pan, av&n, dhan, ran, atan, Kam (ff&maya oc^ \n RV.), tarn, dam, 
raj (utuiily raftjaya), prath, ^rath, fiuttli, vyatb. arad, ahad;>^fMe 
(al(i> obaadaya), nad. dlivaa (aUo dhvaAaaya). rah. mah (alao 
mafibaya), nabb \»U« nambbaya), tvar, avar. bval. la lite lata 
linguagi!. fiircher, kvaQ, Jvar, trap, day, paq, rar, ran ring, vadli. 
val, vof, flatl), Bkhal, sthag. Doth Uitat am naila (althet li> Iha 
i>aiUai or iii ilia IiUt Urigiiag*, oc in bolli takoii togrthrt) by ad. kal. 
krua, kqam. ktaan. gha^ cam, oal, jval, tvar. daJ, dhvao, uad, 
nam. pal. bbrain. matb, mad, yam. ram. lag, lal, vatn, vyadb, 
^am 6r. 7U1W, ^rncn, ^vam, avBp. The icou «}iieU Uniihrn ilia TOin-l 
Bto daeldcdly tbo more nuin«n)iia. 

b. If ■ uaaal la taken la any of tho (ironf tarma or a na«, It naaally 
appean id the caaiatlvo fiteu: e. f. dambbaya, daii^ya, Indbayo, 

KMS— 1 

XIV. Sboosdakv Cosjuoatiok. 


UmpBTft, nmdtaaj-a, fundhaja, kinUya. dfiUiarA. Fmn > nanbei 
of Toou, tim* b«U villi anil irilhnul Us caul ir« rtitilo: Ihn* (bMldft 
tbon neDll«i>«d ahoic, s), ku&osya >a4 kooaya, gnnUuiTm »oi rntli- 
flipB, b|Uuj* o*"* bftrbByft. bhr«AQn7« ttii bbrl^iiTm, fnadhiijm 
»nd fodluirK, ftaAJ«yr> and m»Ji»yA, Blfi<Mya akd ssosya. In ■ r«v »r 
ihw* la MM Ui> mrivrum or pif*«m-i(i m'. 

L HoBt roota in ttanl ft, and tbo raot j, add p tiefure the ooi- 
Jngaliott-dgn : (litu, d&psTa* dhApara. athApaya; arpay^. 

J. Sorh uttm* ate mmtc in the rider Uo^icn ftoin Ite imu 
khjrft, cS fin^ (abo c<y<va)> ^Kt SlurA. jfiS, dl ;>Vp, dA 4f<V>'<ir. drC 
rtm, did p«< and dU fuek, oil mMuuFt, mli, yK, vi A/»w, atbS, Bol, 
hft rtmor*. tli4 UUt lanfmge ad^li kyead. dhmi, in4 bK /mif^. Pro* 
J&& aHil anS Kte tauti'l In AV, and Ulpi <b(i iibi>Tt«ttt<l tottat Jftapaya 
tnd anapayA, and rmm ^rl mly grapayiL (not In BT.). Abo, la tke 
Ut*r Uiiguigv, (li rnm* glapaya, mil mlK focma mlapay«. 

k. i^tatnt from i-iooU •howitig m p in.-, eirlict. g&yciya (klao gftpa- 
ya) ftvm )'ff& *ing, oh&yaya, p&yaya ficiu >'pft drinA («t pl\ pyfty- 
aya fcooi i/pF* «' PT^t^; aAyftya rr«iD ^'ai (at •!); aIm, Uior, favly- 
aya fraca ykTS {ot taft)) — aad furtbcr, fmn ra*ti v% iMar*, vyB, and 
Qt (or fi), anoniliug to ttio ^aa mart am. 

1. Tic Mjue p l9 tBtuii aUo bj * Tew 1- and I-rOM, vtlb oibn 
MCMttpvriylng lrT(fal«rIil«a: llrni. In lb* older Unfvagc, kaapaya (BV., 
ti««ld« k^ayaya] troa Vlfi ^mmm) JSpaya (V9. aud. ]ii<i j teem y^ 
Iftp&ya (Tit. and Uttr; UUt lUn Iftyayft) frcm ya elinfi; qrftpaya (T&, 
oiic«) (lom y^ri; adhyftpoya (S. md 1*t«r) trcm adhl-f-i^i — l>i tba 
Utar. k^Bpayn (betldo kfoyayn) rrom \lcfi lUatr^; m&paya fKiiB 
^'ml; emapays (l>i»l'lii smayaya) frttn yml: hrepaya fimn yiirl; 
— and tbii erxTBRiatliiK mat* TLirthot krApaya rrom (krl: cSpaya (becMa 
oSyaya) frvni ^ol jrsfAcr: btiApaya (t>oi.tdp bh&yay« and bhlf«ya} 
froB vl)hl; rapaya from ytl, and vlepaya fiatn yvU. Moreorar. yrab 
nakM ropaya (ft. and later) tailda rohaya (V. and laiat), and i^knQ 
rokktu knopaya (lite), 

xa. Mitni Anomalona eiar) in vhlnh th* fO-calUfd caaMtt*« b palpablv 
Uia doDOtnlnatlxr el a d-rlrcd noon, ate: pBIaya tron ypA proteti : prlpaya 
tiom l^rl; liBiiya (atFardliie (o grtniiBaitina) fram |^I; dhuttaya (tini 
i^Mitaic iQ wiuc) rro3i fdbO; bbl^oya rruEP y'bbi: gbAUya ftoH v'^*l> • 
■jlkAvaya tmn |^hA at aphAy. 

n. In (he Prakrit, tbe tauaatire *Mn (a made ftQia all note by Ike 
alditlon nf (ihc equUaleat ot) Apaya; aiid a nnmbat (aWnt a d«i«n) of 
Iikt f«i««tl»nt uf qioiabla from Sanikiii mia, moaUT »' <^c lale^t period : 
bnt tliiM, kridapAya, jivapaya, and dikfApaya, OMat IB tha oplia; 
and two, a^apaya ■»'! kfUApaya, tma ta Die Siltru. 

1043. Infleotioa: Preseat-SjrBtcm. The causative 
Axem is inflected in the pTcsenUaystcra precise!}' like other 

381 CAD8ATIVE. [—1043 

stems in 3? a [733 a): it will be suMcient to give here in 
general the first persons of the diffetent formations, taking 
as model the stem y}JTl dhBrAya, from yy dhf. Thus; 

1. Freeeot ZndioatiTe. 


B. d. p. 

1 UI(UlfH yi^UMH^ EJIfyHH^ 

dhSr&yfimi dh&r6f ftvao dh&r&yamos 

etc. eta. etc. 

e. d. p. 

dbOr&yo dhftr&yftvBlie dh&T&y&iiiBhe 

etc. etc. etc. 

a. The lit pi. act. in masl gieatl; outnumbets (at tan to one] that 
In maa in both BV. and AV. No example oectin of 2d pL act. In tbana, 
noT of 3d sing. mid. In e for ate. 

2. Freseot Subjunctive. 

For the subjunctive ma^ be inBtanced all the forms noted u 
occurring in tbe older laoguagei 

1 dhir&yS^i dhar&rftTa dhftriiTBma 

3 J^JS* dhariyathaa dhSriyStha 

3 If *^*" dhariyataa dhteiyftn 


1 dh&r&yfil db&r&yilvah&i 

b. OdI; one dual mid. form In Site occurs: m&diyBite (RV.). The 
onlf RT. mid. foTm in fti, except In 1st du., li m&day&dbv&l. Tbe 
primary endings In 2d and 8d ting. act. are more common than the tecondaty. 

3. fresent Optative, 

dh&r&yeyam dhftr&yeTa dh&r&yema 
etc. et«. etc. 

1048— J 








C> OptilUc fonu Bie lery nrt In lk« oldoM lin^if* (tota In KT., 
l«o In AV.), Ui«l b0COK» ntAiri oommon In th« Dnhmt^uti. A 34 ■!«(. 
mid. In it* iDiia^ ai eU (ef 736 b) ocrort on«n in B. (kSnujItA AB.), 
It not T«r>' r*n: In S. [■ scim »r tvo of oitnplM afe ^uoUMe), ani 
li >1m raou'l lu MBh. and litn. Of ■ corrMponlli^ 3J pi. in Iran onlyi] 
one ct Ino Iiuunnt4 eta lie pointed ttut (kAmAylTMi A^S-, kalpAjrlrui'l 

ft. FresdQt ImperstlTO. 


dbArAjatajn dbArAyata 
•ft. VU. 



dhAHiy«bhAm dhSrArodliT«at 
etc. etc. 

d. liftprrtilTfl p«non> wlib ilis mding tit occnr: dhkrAjmtAt (AV.) 
■lid oy&vayatAt (^B.) us U >inc. ; plt«y«tAt (VB.) It ^M kiiij. ; ^amM* 
jAtAt xnd cyAvAyntAt CK. etc.), lud virayatAt (TB.) are au-ji u 3d pi. 
Tftray«dhvAt (K. ale] it '2i pi^ anil Ik* uiily known oiamplo of siteb 
<ui mllnjt (mc •kOTt. 5481)). 

5. Present FarUoIple. 

^TpTrT^dli&rAyant q[|UHI<ll dbAr&yamAi}*. 

«. Tko r«miu!n« of the ««ti*o pkiUciipla !• cocuUrlr utA u(»Ily nada 
In antl (449 c]- lint > icir (w eKwplu* In (tti ire met vKb (oo< li 
ihB old-it lusgane"' Damoyati .^ptiLj. 

f. Yha middle pAriidpU in mAnA <« niuU ititavcti Iba nioU MMoty 
or t1>" I>ngai.g<i, ffum ItV. (only yfttAyamAnA) down, ud ts ibe onlf 
one in«t nitli in Iba cuIUt linguaGi^ (for IrtyAnM [*i«l], MS. il. 7. 12, 
l« eTtdenlly * Mt« rstdlni, perhip* foi Jr«yfe naa). But dncldixllr mon 
toAiinon lu the tpici tnd Utot U onn rormcd nitb Ana: e. g. kAmHyAni^j 
ointayAnft, pAlayAna, vcdnyftna. It la qni>u1>la tntn > laigM nag 
«r nou tliin 1« llie nion rofoUt paitlolplc iu mAna. Aa It ociaii In na 
ac««Mo«led lait, lU aeoanl eannat bo gUoi. 





e. Imperfect, 

etc. etc. 


iUlh&rar&valii ttd]iur*;ftmahi 
OK. oic. 

lOM. A« wu «b«Te polnMd out, th« fbrrnMioH tnto th* eautatlTo 
■Um ajB 0ii(8l<le Uis prei«nl-iTft«m are lu Uii- i)ld««t Iinfu*^ rtn 
tlmilod. Ill IlV. irn foniid two totmt of tha folun In syAini, onr paMi*« 
parUciple (ooditi), mi ics Infliiltlvpg In dbrU: Uto one ar two detJo- 
ttl*e Donni in tp (bodluyltf. codftyitii), tlv* lu ifija, taien In jtnu, 
an<I t few in « (&tlp&rmy&, cidb&rnjrn, paciuainklMy&. vl^vMUvJoya), 
knd In Q (.dh&rsj^ bbftTBTu. mandayii]. lu AV., Uw i-mo s-rature 
rarm* and tont g«riuid> in tvt; uid • few detlrMIt* ui>ufi-«l«iDii, tna 
oiin of vhtcb tB mule ■ pprlpliuiili) perfect (gamayibfi Cftkin). In tlia 
BrlhmuiM, VDibal d«ilTatlT<.> tona* beoomc moir uuni'^r'iut u>d T*rto«*, m 
Will be DoWd In deUII below, 

IMS. Perfect. The accepted causative perfect is tJie 
pcriphtastic (1071 &); a deiivative Doun in i U made ftom 
the causative stem, and to iu accusative, in im, is added 
the auriliary: thus, 

'JITUf tl^I^ dh&rar^ oaUra (et Baa: 1070 b) 
!J|^Ui 7^ dhoray^ oakre 

^ 0( ibl* pvifoct no ^itinpi* moot* In KV. ot 8V. or VS., onl; obi 
— gamaytih caUra — In AV., tnd but litir-a-doivn iii all ibe Tirfono 
Uitii of (.ho BU'-.k \aJur-ViiAi, and (tiHO nol In tho mantnL-paiui of the 
(cil. They ace >Uu by u) nii^ana (tequtiil Lu Iht^ BiihRia^aj, etccpl In 
(B. (*hue that (boDnil: «M(iA|', p'Hikipt, ht lh« tcaaoa ih»t (hU warb 
UM8 in conridciablo patt Uie perfect Instead ofJUie imptifm m Ito lumtlvi^ 

1046. Aoriat. The aorist of the causative conjugation 

is the reduplicat«d, which in general has nothing to do 

with the oauMtive stem, but is made ditectly from the root. 

a. It lua b4«u alii'idy rutly* d#Milbi>rl (>(«)i>, 8C9 IT). 

b. Its aiaociatiOD witb tlio causative is prutNtbtjr TouadDd on an 
orlglnal InteMivo ehars«t«r bcJonging to It an a rednplicated form, 
aad U a matter of gradual growth ; la tho Veda, It i» made from a 




eOD»!clDm1)l« nnuilwr of roou {la RV., more than b third of lU In- 
Btknc«a: in AV., about * liflb) which h>tv« no uUMttive stem In ^m. 

o. The caiis&ti%'e aoiist of )/li dli|-, then, is as follows: 

1 MfjHijn ?ifhi7F? ^tVjtfi 




Adidbara AdldJiaravBhi adidbftMnulii 

ft-:. «lv. etc. 

An eiMnpla wu infl«ote<l m fnll at 864. 

1047. In It few uucs, wWc the root hfts Be»nni«d o poeitlli 
tana btrforu the cauntivo tlgro — as by (be addflloa of a p or 
(sbove, I04Slfr.l — tb« rodnplkalt^d aorisi i« mftdo from thia form 
ls«tca<J of from tbc einplu root: thtu, atin^iMua itom sU»p (atenj 
athipara for ytthA. AArlBt-atcmi of thli ehanieter fromqiuuii-raot 
In ap itro krplpa |yf , Jtjnpii or JVI'pih JlJ&«p« or Jtjftfpa, flfrap*,' 
Uithlpa. JIblpa; ibe only otlier exaiuplo fTom tli« older languacA U 
bibhlfB from bblf fi>r yhbl. 

104B. Oui ■ few iporBdlfl f«nn* ef an if-i^iW Iron oBSMiivr c<.e 
Jafalkn-iteniB aie m^t iclihr ttmt, dtavanaflt (KV,; TS. )ui tnii«a(1 
vholly kncnuloDi dhvaaasrjt), vjrathoyia ■iid AUa;lt (A V.I, p;ay>yl^1 
tUla uid aT&darlftb&B (KliLi.), m tb« oidei luigmc* (UV. hu ■>• 
Qasjla riam » 'Icnomlnillvo ilcni)! In lh« Iiiu, aU&duyifata (DKC.), 
and proUlilT aghUayltUU (MBb.; t(tt -i^tBa: ct. 804 d). Ihe puaivq 
9d «Ins. aropl, from Ih* ouMtlTo ropojra, hu ■ lite oceiurTn<« (f^ilr.), 

104B. A pteeativ* U cT foonc i!Ia«pd by ihn giiiniinulKn* U 
inwti: foi Ihc eauMltv* tonjuxatton: tn (ba uitdill«, ft^oi Ibo (anuUvo j 
wllb iku aiiiUlarf i •nb«tttal«J (or lb Ina] a; la th« acllva. rr«m lb« 
rofn of lh« ia«t u airangihsnad In ibe MOMttvv »t»n>, boi nitkotti thai 
«ausaU*« ilcn: thw. 

UtUfWI db&rjrAsaia ct«. yijfij^O dh&ra7ls!ra •>!«. 

nia formation la lo b« rtganlcJ as pnraly flctitioa*. 

lOBO, Futures- Both futures, with the conditiona 
sat mtidc fiom the cauaative atom, with the auxitiar)' S i,^ 
which takes the place of its final Q a. Thus: 


«IfSr-mW dharaylflyiml mc. UIITOV) dhirayi^ aw. 

M U fU yj tl^dhftrajl wint m^Pu^HIUi dhlrayiflyfailfla 



t— lOBl 

Condition k1. 
VJIlRj^H Adh&raTi^yaas etc. QUI|IUM idh&nTify* •!«. 

Periphrastic Future. 
UTfPTrTTTT^ dhArajritaaml et«. 

■. I( bM bMn mentioned fttio** thM RV, and AV, e«ai*ln only («« 
•iiDiplM euh of th« t-fntiirv. uid none of Ibv pnlpbruUe. Tho farmct 
I b*ctn to appeal iu tli« STibma^at morp nuiueionalf, but Mill ipailnKly, 
rlih parliclplM, atiil conditional (only adtiATKylgjrat tJIS.; aUpsrlVT** 
thla CliUOi of UiB UiUr, ('B. tttorit two ioslaiinM <ptoaTitinBl *ttt 
iwatijlttti), Ei«iDpl«( o( both formarlon* are qnolabte tnsa tbo tiHi 
lanauaga (inelaHlng iko fnlddl" form darfajitAhe: 047e). 

lOftl. Verbal Nouds and Adjectives. These ace 

made m two different ways: either 1. from the full cnuta> 

tiv(! stem m the luimv miinucr as the futtircs, just det- 

ciibedi ; or 2. from ilic cau».itively strengthened root-ronn 

(with loss of the caua»tive-«ign]. 

*. To Ihe lirt«r c1ub» IwIonfC the passive p«rtieipl«, a« dhKrita; 
Ibo gGniniliru and Kt?rnn<l in ym. ns dbfeira, tUUrya; and tbo Kertiod 
Id am, ss dhlram; alio, ja tbe older laiignii^\ the rool-inliiiitiiro, 
w -dbftriua i>ic. i970a'. Tv the furmcr cHa bc^luuK llic iafiniil?e 
still tilt' ((I'Tund in tvA, ss db&rayitum, dhftmyitra, and tbti K<M-iin<1ive 
in tavyo, Bs dliArayltavya hIso, Id lb« older lAnKUiiKe, the [iiAniilcp* 
in tsvU nod dhyOl, »* jAnayttBvft{, irnyadhyOl, •■xi:]. The aoiiliary 
i is taken In cvrrjr fonnailoB which ever admlla that vowiil. 

b. EiamplM uf the paiklTit partl^ipU ue: teUA. Vftatta, <}Tivlti. 
But rrom tlio <|Da*J>io<il Jftap (1O40J) t> made Jfiapta, vlibout uiiIid- 

o. Buatplca of the Inflnftl'e and gcmmd In tvH an: Jiqajftum, 
Hhfrajltam; kslpBTitvA, Brpsyltrl. Utit Id the *plc«, and «i<eti laMr, 
rfafltilllvaa »iv qri winntllT mailB olih lots ol the TauaatlTC-il(D r «. |. 
Qe^ltum, btiaTlluiD, dliaritum, mocltum. 

d. Eiiiiiplu uf tht< it«Tui<d> III ya Hiiii axa arc: -bli^ya, •gUrra, 
■psdja, •v&ays. nOyya. -alhApya; -bli^&m. stbApam. Itot itriat 
kowids in tbo (ODt-irllal'lo no diffrrrnoo fiODi tha toft tftain sy of th» 
■Mtl*c<tlsn Iu tbo iKTiind, 10 dizllnxulih U from that bvlongi' g (o ih« 
rinarr (DnJiigBti«ti : v. t. -krara&yys. itaiii&yTS, -jsn&yya, -jTalAyya, 
•kalayyn, -^mayya, -ra««yya, •apayyn. 

•. Etampl«fl nl ih« gertui<lt*« In tavya aro: tsrpayitavyllt gam* 
layltarya, bvayijitaTya; of ih«t b> ya, atbipya. birya, yHJya; of 
fthat tn anlja. •thSpanlya. bbAvanlya. 

Wblimaj, Onwaar. 1. *d. Jft 


XIV. SccoHDAiiv CoitiuoA-nos. 


C Euoplc* «r oibor ronnuiom ocunliis la U« ol4or lMM(u«fe 4t« 
u fftUoiTi: nM-inllitltl*«, -Btlilpaiii, -viMw; — influltive la tu, Mhtr 
(ue* tkaii M<uuilvi>, 'JuiaTitavo; J&iiajrltKvAl, ^ty^yitrnvtl, -fcot- 
ayltftvii; c&mayitoe; — inltnltlT; in dbjftl. i^ay^dby&l, iray&dbyU. 
toABfv&dhj&i. nA^Aj&dJurfti. niaiida.5&dbyai, madiiy&dby&i, rtf- 
KT&dliy&i, vartajr&dlijr&l, vAjHyAdhiriU, By&ndaytidliyai (>II BV.); 
— KGranili'e 111 fijrya. puiayKyya, api-tuoriysra, traykirtyja (i* K^rt). 

g. Olbu nouii-<li<il<iiivni rton ili« r^aiiina fUm tM not InfiMiaeat, 
being d««ii]«dl7 ini>rv Duni<>rau» sud larioai ttitii from uty otket of the 
■croiidtrr roiijii^iioii-ilcinii. Biftiitplas (of oihcr klfldA than thMe Inttanoet 
In 10441 irf : Arpan*. d&panA, priQAna, bbifW}*; jiiBp»Jk«, ropaka: 
pBtujrUut BprhayUu; JonayftUt J&apU. 

h. All ihu i^lui« of derivitivM, It will bo Dollced. fallow In tv|u4 
to •ccont thv kn*l<>K; of ilmlUi tonaWIffna from Uid almpU not, nud ttiow 
110 influnnM; (/I tht lp*cl*l acMDI of lli« uiUktt««-<Uin. 

1092. Derivative or Tertiaiy Conjugstiooa. 
Kiom ihe oauKttive stem are made a passive and a d»- 
siderative coDJugatioa. Thus: 

ft. The pawire-«tem is formed bj adding the u*t 
pMare-sifrn U 3& to the causatirely strcnglheQed root, the' 
eauMtire-sign being dropped: thus, UTITN dhftivite. 

!>• Sucb p«Mtt«i are h>n3ly found In tl« Tnda (only bh^jjA- A-V.V 
but tomi; ttilny Itiitanorn arn met dUIi Iu tbe BrUimariRB am] Sfiinr- ox* 
unplrs >ra Jgapya- (TS,), sAdya- (K.). pAdya- (AB), vAdya- (TU.). 
BtlkApya- (OB.}; titd tbey bteomc quJta □uminun Utoi. 

o. The desideiative stem is made by redupHcatioD 

addition of the sign ^ i^a, of which the initial vowel ie[ 

the final of the causative stem : thus, i|^nfftr7H didhlrayl^atL 

d. TtiBir, lou. ■!« fonnil bote uid iliorv tn tbn Ur*liiii«nu ind lat«i 
(kbaai rafiy il^ini icu quotable): aiamiiUi ure plptyaylQa (K.), blbUg* 
ayl^ ajid alkalpayifa tnd lulobhaylfa (AB.), dJdrflpayi^ mil : 
nyi^a (VA.J. «nd to oi>. 

o. Ai lo uuiitlrn aii4a from tba liil«ii«lv« and 4aatd«tad*« ilei 
•M *bove, 1026. 1088. 

V. Denominative. 

1063. A denominative conjugation ia one that haa for 
its basis a noun-etem. 

a. Il li a yitrr now froTilllnfly tinlil that motl of th« prw*ai 
■iril^ma of ihe Saiitkrit *erb, aloiit with other formaKoiu tntloffoiH wlib 


!>£.<< OUUiATlVE. 

I— 1068 

proieut^jraUm, tre fii itisii ullimaie oilKiu duuciulniUtf ; Kiid ttui in»iir 
■ppu«Dt r»o>s «n> at lh« mid* dikMctnr. T1i« denorainaliTM «Urk are to 
ttWoi differ from ilai* aoljr la Uibi thalt oil|lii !• rcMtit Uid undluniMd. 

1054. The grammftrians teach that any noun-stem in 
the Uoguagc may he oonveited, without other addition than 
that of an IQ a (as unioa-rowel eaabling it to b« inflected 
aocording lo the oecoud geneial conjugation) into a ptese&t- 
aiem, and conjugated as 6uch. 

«. But tu«>i foiODfttioiM ue raM in actual i>i«- Tho KV. hu « f«« 
i«o1«t«d and donblfiil vstmplM, lb« al«amt of wlildi I» bhlv4kti A« Jl«itJI*, 
from bliif&j pht/sician; It l> madn liko • rvrm of tlm tooi-cUh ; abfal^nak 
•AMiM to bw it* ImpMffci ii«(Mir<lii)g 10 (Im iim>I ctxpi >Fid p/ktynto /•> 
ru/«j ipprin to be x riRiioiuttiitixi ur pAti iniiJ(«r; oihci pottlMi.- tatu 
AM IfK^D bt( . kfp&^antA, tarufomn etc., -vnnufftata, bburajsntat 
v&aanvatl. Ftom th« oilir.r alder tnti> are qnotabic kavy&at (TS.}t 
iglooat (Tit.)' tmmaiati (!:B.). avadbSaiaho (W^)- Ai<d ■ natiMet- 
■hle numbcT »i liitUiKca, BOaClf Saolstcd, •!« touDd In the latvi UngnagA: 
«. K, kalatasnt (Hith.l. arebanU (fgfis.). abJaU (<;*tt.1, eordabhati 
(Al>.), atka^^&te (SD.), JacanofftraU (fiuu), kcUfvACosahaAra- 
pattraU (Piu.). 

IOCS. In gfncial, the base of deDominatire ooojugation 
is made froin the noun-stem hj means of the conjugation* 
sign Q yi, rrhioh has the accent. 

K. The Identity ot Ikli ya «lih tb« ya of the lo-talM eavMtI«« 
cooJOKiUon, M maklnit wHk tho filial a of a noiui'BUiii the causatlTe-^tgu 
aya, U hirdi) it, be qneaUmed. VJIiat reUllan it luilalna l« tli* ya ef 
tht ya-rli.19 (769). of tbe pMtive (708), and of tbc d«ti*atii< iai«n*l<>e 
itam (1018), U mnch mora dtiubtfal. 

LOSS. IntonnodUto botweoa fli« donomlnAtlTo and cansativn 
conjUKuUoDti stands a clnna of vt'rl>fl. plain!)' dcuoiiiliiaClTe In orUtn, 
but bavia^ Itie CBUUlive nccont t'xamp1<<*, beginning to npin-ni at tbn 
earliest p«rilKl uf iho language, aio mantrijate aptait, taAtt comumI, 
Ifrom mantra, I'man + tra). klrtiyatl t«jmn«m»rvUa '.tma klrtl. 
yto[ jM-aur), arth^atl or •!« malm an oijvct «/, ««t« ifrom fcrtba ^ol, 
obfMt',. vaT^ayati dtpUU ifretn varpa etier.. knthayatl ur -to yirt* 
tha AoM Of angt\iitgt relatet {ttoia katbam hovr,, and ao on. Tboac, 
along with nice ronui frnui roois nbicli liave no other prMsol -sprite m 
idioufh thoy nisy msko arattfiinir totau ou<*]d« that system tmm 
the root directlyi, or whicb bavc tbia liesldo other piosetii-sy stems 
without causiitiTu meaning. ar« reckoned by the prainmarisDa m h, 
separate coDJUi;at ion-class, the cur>claes labuvc, 907, 776^ 



3UT- Sbccmdaby Coxjdoatiom. 


1067. UenominBtivea arc foimcd at creiy period in the 

histoiy of the langaage, ftom tbe cailicst down, 

a. Tbsy u-B frnqneat ia RV., vihicb coDtMins OT«r % hundreil, 
of all vkTicticv; AV. luu anty hxlf an maoy (and p«tiiodii1 fininii fron 
hardly » llilrct un maaj: ftom the rest, prcscDt panieiplts, or dcrii 
Klive nuuutii: AO., I-.m tliitu Iventy; ^'B.. liAidly luoro iban a douag^ 
KDd R> VD' Id Uic Intel UDgUAK" ^*y *'^ <iUut«Mc by buodnd^ 
bat fron the vul m^ority of stems occur only la oiuaplB or nro; 
tlie itoiy ones that bftve won any cunoucy ato tboae tbat bave asaunied 
tt« cbaractor of "ouoolaaa" varlw 

10S8. The do DO mi native meaning ie, as in other lan- 
gtiiigM, of the grcatost varietjr; some of the most ftequcnt 
forma of it are: tte tike, act tu, play Mr part of; regard 
or (rtai as; came to bt, makv into', km, mak« afjplication 
of; desirti, rcM for, crava — that which is signified by the 

a. Tbe moflea of treatineDt of tbe *li:ii]-fiiial are slto rarlotuii 
and tbe srHntinariaos make a certain more or I«bi definite aasigBBeol 
of tbe varieties of ueuDJoK to ttio varletlea of forn; but tliia allot- 
meot fiQd* oaty a diibiouB lupport in the UBages of tbo words aa met 
wllli evou in tbe later laugiinj^-v, and alill Wbh Id ibu earlier. Ui'Doc 
lh« formal da«»i beat ion, accuiiling lu the fiitul of the noua-atei 
and the way lu nliEcb tLis is treated before tbo deoomlnalire atgn 
will be the boat one to fulluw. 

lOBB. Frooj stents in a- a. The final a of a nonn^trai' 
oftftant TVtuains uncbnngod: thu#, smltray&ti play* ttt tnemy, u 
hoitiU. devay&tl eaffivaUt CA« i^iidi, u piimt. 

b. Tint fiaal a U alito of ion longthcncd : ibiig, aghAJ&Ii plant 
mUrhit/. prlyfty4te hold* dear; aQvSy&tl tnh for Aonet. ag&nay&tl 

C. Thtle In tko Tsda >ha *ariai)i modet of d«nanilntilm fonnatlttB 
•IS wall (llntrlbaiail, no (ids tbiiwliig ■ Diufcvd propvadi>tftuc«, In lbs Ut 
lin^iga the tut Bn^orltjp iif daiiomlnill**! (fully tetea elihlliO ua 
1^ two kind* Joat aotJMd: osmelr, niado rrom a<ateiiu, and ot (b» Ion* 
ara 01 Bya. tbo fomiei pKdanilnating. And tliert ti iMn a decided tan* 
danej tn gtve thn d*iioD)liittUM in aya an i-ctiic farm ami immUiio na^n- 
tn(, aod tbote in tya a Middle form and intranaitiva ornllv^ilie mtuctnfl. 
la Dot a ftw i^ua*, panllvl foroAtlun* from t)i« Mtna ftan llluntialo ibli 
dliUnctloii: <■. t,. kalu^ayati me/it* lurM, kaluftyote it ar Arcemn 
lurM; tartu>ayau ryuivtuitii*, tamodyata u i-trii«?nMl«d; flthUayatt 
totMtnt, fltbtiayato jrowa /mm. No diMltwt trwaa ot Ikia dlMlueton aia 




rcMittilutilo Jb Um Veda, dtlioagh Ui«r« tUo e«R«*tieadln|[ forvt with tlWTt 
n Slid nilU Ions ft MBttlDiM tu&d tide ttr •Me. 

d. Final & U aoiBefliiiH cHingcd W 1 (very »ni||r i'): tbne, Adhvarly^ti 
^«f/or)iu(Ar wa-t;?«; taiiflyitl ijmry'i(j;putrtyAUo<piitrtrAtldf«irM 
a Mft; mAAaly&tl erattt Jia/i; stOJi^'ta u rtady; oandrftk&oUyftU i« 
mootatonelHir. Not flft; twran of tlii> fotm arc <)uuubk. 

e. li !■ oocaalonallj droppvil (crur D m r); Uiiis, tvrftiJiyAti i» raput; 
adbvuy&tl ytrjnrmi (Jul taeri/iet. 

t. Other modM ot liMlmtnl *r« tpondle: (biti, tbo addition «r ■, m 
tn itanAByati «oi<itj tin br»Mt: tim ehtage of a to 6, u in varoy&tt 
pAiy* rte tciM>vr. 

1060. Kiom titim* in ■. PIukI a mnall; temaln*, u In gop^- 
kt\ pbij/t th» Arrdiman, proteets: pftaaayatt _/ijrAt«; but It ta aomollmM 
ifcmlnd Id iIid otbor mclhod* of an a>9tfl(D ; tha*, p[-CAa3rati JtghU; tilotUt- 
mlyatl ocfji THottama. 

1061> FiQiu tirnia 1 n I, i, and u, fl. Siicb atiMiia ai* (»a)ieciallf 
thMe In a, &] very rira. They ahow rvgulaily I tiid Q bnfur* yft: tbua, 
arfttlyiU (alio -tijr-) plal* ii^ury; jAnlyiti [alw -nly-] «mA« d ioi/*; 
•akhlyAtl dttirtM frieniUhip; ntrljate funu H»iin(m; — ^atrOr&tt aetk 
ttufof. rJi>;ati itttraighi; VAsfly&ti Jttirt$ wtalth; vniykti yrumilm, 
it diKontenUil wtlh ebon n. fc&tuy&tl arti in motum. 

a. UOTO ratEly, i or n U irratf-d aa « (ar elao U ffonattd, vllb loaa 

of ■ y or T): thus, dJiiinay&tl rotiiN morliny; laghayatt makt* fmier. 
SemailBina. •> to ■ (abvtc. 1058 f J, a ilbilant 1> addoil; ihua, avlfy&ti 
IN ttAemenI: ornfyitl anHM. Fcom dhl, BV. makts dhljr&y&to. 

106S. FiDtn oilier to w el -at nni i. n. Ptniil f la o1iaag«d to rt: 
lima, m&trly&ti trtat* m a moAtr (only quouble titmpU). 

b, Tim diphllioiica. in tha few ush ihal occur, ^ave their Inal *1a- 
mpm changed U ■ acnlvoiicl : tbtu, gavy&ti nceAt ea/ile, jpmi aToarfirtjp. 

1069. From oa naonani-aiama. A Onal eonaoaaniBiually rcnalw 
boroi' ya: tbita, blUfaJyAtl ji'aya IA» phffnnaa, rvrti; ofcnanyit! atin 
lik» a kuij; apoay&ti m aetirti namaayLti />ny* rvetrtue* ; suntBnaiiy&t* 

■, Bui ■ final n it Mmellmw dropped, and tbo preceding vovol (rcai.r<l 
aa « final; ihaa, rOJIlyite or rtUlyJitl ii tingl]/. ftoia rA)an: -kanaa- 
ynti rritm -karman; BT&mljati treafi as maittr, ttom avKmla: *T9i- 
y&to fton vf^an 1> ibe only nxaniplc tjnnub'c rrnm the older laofnage, 
Spnn^llc i*»et oacnr cf clhur final Cftntoiiaiit* aSmltarly Irr'alfd : ibna, ojl- 
y&t9 from ojaa, -maoAyate rn>ui -iiianaa~, — ofaiig, un the oib^r band, 
an a-*ii«al li obtaiionally added to luHi ■ rnnadnant bcfora ya; Ihu, ifaa 
7&ti ficni if, aatvantfati tnm astvaa. 

1084. Th* lart**! elua af Mnaonantal rtana ar« tboM «bo«iaB a ■ 
1>«roro ibo ya^ anJ, ai Ua* bccQ atcn abofc, a ribilant la midMIhk*. by 
anaJofT. added to a flaal roval, making lb* d£aoailtl?e-ilga vtrtually aya 

10B4— ] 



— w even, «lth a •(» »iA*A «ni3r«n !• or ti<T<nrei, aftrBi tnd Uti unuw 
to be tcwgniwd bf th« jcramKiiilanB u an indepeodBnt sleu, foralng <I«b«m» 
tatUTc* iliti cKprcc* dmiro: ihna, Biimnkbasjr&t* it titmy; Jlvanasfft- 
(la •nyi f«rr oflif«)i, TT^sjatl dtatrtt tAr irut'e (tho itn\j iicbtibK- «Km- 
)>l(s); nadliufjati <r mwUivujrati /onjpi /or A«»ry; kfir«ijBli ergraa 

1065. Tlia giammirian* nrton u « ipcRiml etiia ol dMomlDttlve* 
..!■ kftmra 'rrhM tt* tetnj oiil/ onItn>r)r «ii** aair rrani ■ ««iiipoand uoiio- 
' UfrtD bxing kima u lu tinti m«mbet: thuf, raUiaktmyati bmgi far 
thr rAortot [K. ; oTiiy cximpUi fouml 1b ike oldoi ItoKUk^Ji arUuiJclLn)- 
yaU itttirrs teeallh ; putrakamTaU ituAm n 4cin [th« onlir qnouble uuu- 
pte>); cdtnliii; from (li« po>»M«)«e Bompoundi rathakdma *<«. An4 arthA- 
plyati trraU at proptrty U ■ (lol* •jnotkblc) nminplo of » >lc« iMTlat 
lh« PnkHlte taoMtlvo fonn (I049q), 

a. tSleait or ifininklnuii fornintlnri «tii drAi^ayo rinm diTKba, dnu}li- 
aja fcam dr^ha, •ii'i pviliKpi mratJaya rroui mfdu. 

1060. a. A nnmbar of donomlntttt* •Urn* eceiH tu lb* V*da for 
irblch no carrctpuniliuii Doun-tUnu &ro rouui], •Jiioufji fot tX\ or ncarlr 
«U or Ihem tnltltd word* ippcar: ibnik, aukuy&, Ktabbuy^ ifudhja; 
dbif nny&, rlf >ny&, ruvanya, huvanyoi, IfaiiyA ; ratliary4i ^ratbaryi, 
Baparya: lyosya KH.)> Irasy^ dagasyi, makhaMsk, pana^yi, aa- 
oaayA. Tboao In anya, eapc^Wty, look like VM bogtaalngm «r ■ new 
coaj ofU lon-cltM. 

b. Ifkviiij itill luoin ihkt upGcr, honeret, ate ■ Vcdle (roup of ftema 
111 iya, wbick in sener«l Ii&ia Bllibd ihemitltti V> pKi«Dt<i;it«]ni cf il 
aa-ctDJi (7S2}, uid are f«ond klotigdde the formi of thit cUsa: Uiaf,! 
CTbbAy&ti besld« rfbhQRtl. Of «arh, UV. bu BrbhAy4, maUiByA. 
prufayA, raufAyi, ^rath&ye, flkabb&yA, ■tabh&y'k ^ '*=■' <rtt>t-ik 
h«ve DO iiS-c1u4 rompaiiioit*: tbut, damiyi, faniAyi. tudAyi (AV.); 
(lid panAya, na^Aya. vf^Aya (K^T^ rain), vasAyA [yvum tlot/ie), »ni 
|icili«i); a<;aya (vn? ailainl 

o. H(ii« uiQ] tiL^ tti. iiil«tii><i (IiD quuI>d«Daniniti«a« nMla tiota pn« 
laitopoetk combliiuiiuiiH uf touiidc, gvunnlly *<Ub rrpetltlen: a g. ki^dti- 
faya, thatatbatarAya, mifaintfSya, ^nra^ariLya. 

1067. Thi} diMiGntiiiiiivc iicnn in liV. >iid XV. with Mnotivc ucanb 
usilon ui--: Itv. nnkhAya, arthtlkya, ifi^ya (ilfo i^ayA), QrJAya, rUijfl 
kni&ya. mantrAya, mrsAya, vavrA.ya. vfiJJiya (ilio vOJayA). vtlAya 
aofvAya (^so aaifvayA) ; AV. *ddi klrtaya, dbupAya, palAya, vtrAya 

a. Tliu aw«Bt of Jumiya ind bAataya (BV.) U nhollj mumdou*. 

lOOSt InflectioB. The (leaomicAtive stems itrc in- 
Heoted with regularity like the other stems ending ia Qa 
(78S») throughout ihe preeenl-system. Forms outside of 



[— 10«8 

Uut system — except from the stems which are teckonfid 
to the catuative or cur-class, and which follow in all re- 
spects the rules for that class — are of the utmost rarity. 

a. In RV. Acdin no faroi n«i b«l«n|ln( u> (he pneeni-fyiun, *sc«pt 
QnajOH (wilh mi ptohlbiH'e), an if-«9ri<t 'ii ting. (f1, IMS), runber 
piunplea or Uu ■arlil kto OstVlt ((B.), pftpajrfft* i^^' P'" *'**■ ^^ 
prohiblt!t»), »n(l Avn^^ata (V.s. etc.). The funn 4»aparyUt (AV- 
Kit. 'i. ?03> '^c'> U '"' ' (BSRo). might bn aotiM; btit, u (litt tastru 
■how*, ta (fobab)y a co.*rupt rodiiisi anianasrlit, c«ruinly impoifact, 
■ppeais to ooGQi In TB, (iL 3. 8>). OtbcT fainu begin tn tppeu ia lbs 
Bfi^mattu: c g. ilia ratoiva sopisrlfyatt (CR.)< (uacbByify^t, ka?- 
^aylfT&nt, ftkftyl^T^t (TS.)> Uid paitii^iplvt bU^^ylU (.? JU. -Jtta) 
nod ^aait4 (tll.\ Ica^^JiritA, Qikitii, ao'l metcbitft (TS.). the eemai 
sadlflAkfQja (V^Oi ■"'^ '^ V '" iIj^ '*'<" UuguxK^, aUo, fnrna» out* 
■id* th« pTrMril-iyttam (eiwpl the pinidpl» in ta) ire only tpondic and 
ol tonlary aoojngitlon fomia tlicia aro baldly anf: •^umplM are the cAiita- 
tivM dUQmiraja and astii;aya rMBb.], and ibf desldeniWe abhlf IfS^a* 

b. Noon-d«rl vail VPS from dpnoattuliTo tlAm* falloir the analofy af 
iboao fnMU muuHtc) iteini (lO&ls). tu thv oldrr language, thuae la U 
and t (Mpedallj the fuTiuaiJ ant much lb« mod uamemo); laMr, that iii 
aaa pievaila ov«t til 0Ui«i*. 



1069. 0>'E peripbrn^tic foTmation, Ihu pcrtphrastio 
future, has bi:eu alieady described {842 0*.), since tt has 
become ia the later language a recognifteil part of eveiy 
verbal conjugation, anil since, though still remainig essen- 
tially periphraNtic, it has been so fused in iu parts and al- 
tered in construction as to asmime in coDsideiable measure 
the semblance of an integral tense- formation. 

By far the most important other formatiojn of the 
class is — 


Hllit mm* •oil kbout nlgklT nccurteBcci, chtetljr (roa Oif. bhi, xnil vid; 
llial from vid !• fnand in th« tmtiMt Dmrnhm- of IciU). 

b. ?ann* mUh Uta uritt o( Ulh ■uxllUrf trt ia tbe oIiImi Btibui*nu 
u (iiia«r»iu M (boH wltk ilia perfpei. TIiue, *tik nkur odoit ruBKyba 
(K.), Juiar&m anil Btdajim a»<i svaday^ mi Btiiftpay&m (M:t.)| 
uti witti «kru), vldim (TS. TH. MS.). With tlia xtrtUt opUil><- or pra. 
uiivc hu b«eii (ouiid DiU): pAvoy^ kilrftt (MS.). 

0. I.llv com bit! ■lid II* wllk athor l«iiiw *rc not calliely unkaawn ; 
Uat, juliavftib k&roti ((V^)- ^^ 'I'" ■'■ *''" l***" l>riiEiuj(T, uliere tura 
be*ii (lUTxl ii«ota)r1c bilf-a-itoieii tath euci m vidith kufoti (PtTic), 
Tld&tfa kurotB ■Dil k\irv*alu (firic. ci«.). 

d> Only i*ro »r ihn« aw« «f ib« a>« of aa imtvad <>f k^ m mitII- 
larr an mat vtth tn dio older Uncutfn: thay ara miUttrBTkm iM (AB. 
UB.), Jonsr&iD aaa (^'<t'.], >nd Uc^ui Asa (VVS.). 

«t A ilnglc exhmptc of tn icccnicd KoxUUty l« uici *ttli la tkc acMit. 
Dat*d laiU: niinfrly, &tlra«a;ftifa OAkros (i;ii> At wm io b« ax^ccud. 
(torn ibc ualaio of tbe wmbioatlan, tba tioan ilia rtlalna tu aoccnt (mU' 
P«r« 04A). 

Participial Periphrastic Ptirases. 

10*74. The frequent me, etpetiAWj in tho 1nt«r language, 
of a past or a future paaaive participle with thn eopuls (or 
also without it] to make participial phrosee having a value 
analogous to that of verlr-tcnscs, haa l>een already noticed 
{M9]. But other ainiilnr combiaationa are not unknoim in 
any period of the Uaguage, as roadc witb other auxilianee, 
or with other participles. 

a. Tbny oMiit etan in th« Vedt, bat ira tar niara cofltmoa ui 
Mtiaplcaoni Iti tl>e Uiibcuriai, and beoono ig^ln of minor wcouAt in Iba 
Utrr Uiieutge. 

1076. Exiuiipio;) of t)io variotiB formations arc a» fulluurs: 

a. A (iiaiiilly ptM«ii<) paitiolplv wltli ih" l«nt«t uf tba *«b 1 go. 
Tbia ia tbe eon) b) nation, uii tbc vhsli-, nt iridaat and moat fMquent oconr* 
ranco. Tbua: ftyigvano Tibh&JsDn eti v«dfth|RV.) A« «rri- pirta atr^ 
A* km/TA 0/ tic noii-ej'erer; yattift BQcjft rflaa^ eaibdadhad iyAd 
avam avU tftbbir yajaosya ehidraifa aaifadadJiad «ti iMi.} Jutt a» 
one teould mmr! [kafiUuaUi/] a e/iirotmf u-ifA a n^edlt, to ifilfi 1A(«< ooa 
nutids any drfftt of the tatrijk*; agnir vA Idarii vti^anaro dabans 
alt (PR') Apii fiievanara kApt humiinj Mt cretitir/n; td 'surft^ p4rA> 
JltB yAntO dj^vtpfthivi uplQrayan (TB.) thati Aturat. gtiting b*aUn, 
U«t iv/Ut/t tn'rA ktavnt auil rttrik; tt 'sys SfbA^ pa^&vs upomOryi- 
mAl^ft lyii|i(<,il.) lilt anmitb, Au /uuii'/y, teottU he contimnUy drslroyrd. 


Pabticipul Phkases. 


b. The fusv with the lerb our s» (eotilinuiltif ot haiiluafly) *\sn\ti\nK 
(lUl Biim dlainntly tliiti Iha ptoMdtni * tnntlnii«il or litbinii.1 Attlan. Ths*: 
•fftiiv agaiq earati pr&.vlftal;i (AV ) ^ym u ^afufant/y jmMimt an Ma 
^fwi ndau^tjfaih dunEjonashnaoUtQcaranti (ril.) lAty ivurA^a proelin 

O. Tlia time Kith (ho TOfbi Iji it'f lait IthA lianJ. with a Ulie naau* 
lug, ThB(, Juhvntn jMat«(K.) tbiy eatilimtt Mirifiri/ig ; to 'paklMmya 
pntivftvodato 'Uf(han (AB.) M<y, Saving gomi off, ktpt eArmtmtiy 
routing. In (be tmct UDgoagv, atlift i* tlio vtnb uflanut u(c<I, wiUi pinii- 
raUi oC rulona klod, lo mikr « ^«rbil phnia of contintiince. 

d. A. ptfxnt <it ru(uro ot perfect pKnlflfle with as (iid bbO it. 
The prUdpio 1b ortenmi ■ mtnra mtc as only \» u>»4 la ili« opUtlTa, 
bhQ (uu>lt7 In ollai rotmt. TIibf: yaJf punram on^anab aytt (Ail.) 
vkotvtr may nol havn inorfp tacrifiet be/ort; asmSvad evayaj&e kur- 
, vft^a ftaan (OH.) they iHJ tht tame Mny at the ttieri/iew; parikri^auta 
taan (MS.) iXtg toert ptmfing lAout; yktxn suptvt piimar ak 'vadrt- 
BJ&n bhJivAtl (1,'D-) fnhtH. a/t*r tiftrpiiH/. An it ««/ ^amy ia fall atltrp 
a^ain \ barjaifa bi Tak^yan bbavatl (Alt) fur At » intending to tarrif 
Utt mifrt/Se*; d&afant ayftt (K.) unity hr going to giet; ytea v^anena 
Byantayftat sydt (.VfO «'•'''• ■''Aat rthule As mny (c dionl ladrit«, Trua 
«xpTMi[oii« fur ptifeci iii<J plupcrfatt uiil fuinrs tcttwi Uuw trc capabU 
«f liiitnf Diado bj inch tneani, and now and diea *n made, but la no 
tegular and catidnaeil fuhlon. 

drmpoiition with Prepositional PreliHs. 

1076. All the forms, |>etsoaal an<l other, of veibaJ eon- 
jugMtioQ — of both primary and seeoncUry conjugation, 
au(l even to some esl«Qt of denominalive (so far aa the 
denoDiinative stems have bMome assimilated io value to 
simple roots) — occur very fretj^iently in combination with 
certain words of direction, elements of an adverbial character 
. (Me the next chapter], the so-called prepositions laccording 
to the original use of that term.', or the verlal picfixei'. 

B. PridicaUy, in tie lalei tuigiug*, li U a* l( • campouxled toot 
w«r« r«iiiied, out (f root ad r<reOi, frtrni «|l|<a th«n tho wbvle (qdJpriiImi 
(with derkvattTN: tclov, ckap. XVII.) Ii uaJ*, fait *i beu the dsiple 
tool. Tet, even tber«(and >tlll mor« in tb« »1iln !•«§«»(«: 1061 a-o), (be 
eombloailon la lo loose, and the mainbm retain lo nntb o( ibair lailopandant 
iklne, Uiat lu moit dittloiiarlei (thai of Sir Monier Willlana li an eictptioa) 
(bo (ODjnptiiiD ot cacb root flih piaflzos If troaml undtt lbs ilmpte tool, 
and nxt in the ■Iphabdle order of Iha pr«ii.. I>eilvati>e vorda, howavcr. 



art by iinir«nil a{n«ineni (iTcn In tltdi Indcpondcui ilptiibetic pUnc, llk« 
itupl* Hard*. 

1077. Thote veiba) prefixes ^vhich have value as such 
throughout the whole history of the l&nguage are givea 
helow in alphabetic order witli their fundamental meAniogs: 

QTrT iLti arrota, beyond, past, oeer, in excess', 

v(^ Adhi above, ocer, en^ on f«; 

IH 4nu after, alot^^ toicartJ; 

5rH' BUtAr bettceeity among, wit/tin\ 

BBt dps. atraif, forih^ off\ 

on ^pi unto, cToae upon or on; 

Slfn abhi to, unto, agavut (oCtea with implied violeooe]; 

C^ &Tft down, off\ 

"35" li** "/^j vp forth 01 o«/; 

3^ lipa to, uttio. toKord; 

H ni rfotcn; tw, tVi/p; 

ftl^^iUB oiri, forth; 

q^T p4tft to a dutance. OKoy, forth ; * 

'^ pirl round about, aroand\ 

51 pr& forward, ontcard, forth, fore: 

51% pciti in reeemed direction, bacA to or o^oui 

i? vi apart, asunder, atca*f, OHt; 
H^sam aJonff, teith, togethar, 

a. S«ai» of lhei«, of oonra*:, are lURd much rnoM widely tad IrttjiiMil! 
iivt olbwt. Ill orilor of fiAi^uaaer tn ili« oM«t Iui|iiaii« (m Mtliii4i«4 
tlin DttnibtT «f rooU wllh wiiiHi Ihny are round Vied In KV. and AV.}, Ik«y 
»ton4 a* rullowd prn, ft, vl, «ain, *btil, nl, nd, pari, «na, upa, pT«U, 
ava, Dia, ati, apa, para, uflbl. apl, antar. Apt 1* of tstt linitud 
■(D H ptoGx Ib tbi' laiar lingnagn, bailus bcnoino a ronjoiietlon, too, J*o. 

b. Tba motntng* glvan absia bi« oiiIt Ibo leading ohm. In MmbJKtilaaa 
VS root uid ptelljc tbey uiul<rf:<J nmcb mod I fl cation, boih llieial and flfuiatln 
— }«t Mildom In tiub ■ irajr that the iRpi of mnittion fna Uie fnnd- 
auciitU MDM ue DPI «*EV lo 1T*CR, Sometime*, lud<«il, tbe v«ta« of • 


Vbrbm. Poff txn. 


root ia hardly perfcpiibly nodtSeil bjr ikr tdditlon of th« p{*ttx. An In- 
toDilTfl ftotvo I* not tafr<^D(«illy gtvgn ly pari, v1, >ii<l aun. 

107S. PrtifixcH PMiMiiinlly ■bin whh the aboTe, bnt more dU- 
tinotly jidTBiliUI, and of mors rcBUlcted u*e, aie tbaso: 

ftohft (or 4oh*} U>, wU: tolerably fr-NiDont in RV. (n»*d wiili 
over iwoDty rooui, but ulrciK]}- unntuaj io AV. only two noU}, qslte 
nslTtGleil iu H., and eDlirely Itut in tlit> laler taogunge; 

ftv^B /ortA (d iifAf, III otpie: iiBicii oolj with the roots bhfl, ■■, 
and kr; 

tlT&a MrtntjtA, <rro*ttetiyt: out of ttffhi: bitrdly ii««i] except with 
kr. (Uia. bhQ lin RV., wllh thrct or four utfaere); 

pvHm iM /»-*«*, /orv^rd: atvi wllb ouly balf-a-doKeo toote, 
especially k|-> dbt, 1; 

prtdtiB /'orfA to m'tw: only with bbu, ma, Vf. 

a. A re« oibera, u batilB 0u(iiJ«, vina letOtntii, alan (with bhfk 
'■b4 kf) tM/^McniVy. proftrlg, aUtflt •>■ eitte, u« iilll leu riaio>*d frnm 
mdlDiijr idterbs. 

1079. Of ret mtin limited uwt. aad of doub- niJier than adrcrb- 
valui'. mo: 

^rad (or frstbP), ooly niUi dU (1° RV., onta *li« villi Iqr): 
Qraddhi heKtrt, tttjit; 

hlfl, onlr viik kf {tad ftb)o1«t« In ibe dwdul liBfiiac*): bUikf 
th* tMmd hloff, Imb. murmur. 

u And bcaidc ibrto lund tdi mon fonaluni tenblniilont: teo 
b«kw, lOSl. 

1060. More than ooe prefix may Ite act b«fote the same 

root. Combinations of iwo are <)ul(e usual; of three, much 

less common; of more th&n three, rare. Their order \b in 

general determined onljr hj the requirements of the menning, 

eftch added pieiix bringing a further modiBcatioa to the 

>inbiiiatton before which it la set, httl >^ ft is almoM 

'Berer allowed, cither cailicr or later, to be put in front 

of any of the othvia. 

a. n* TMy nra cmm tt ■fpueni preflsl** of ft to aaMbn pi«Ax 
(u ftvibanti HRb., ftTttanTKatti BliP.) ar* ptibayi bai* axplalned u 
baililt ilio B lM>rd iud«pi>iiili<ntl]i. *■ an advrrb. 

1081. In classical Sanskrit, the prefix stands immediately 
before the verbal form. 

a. Is tbe earll»r langaage, bowevor 'espedallf lo tba Veda: in 
tb« Brnliirana leu orten and more rcatrictedlyi. ita poiltlon Is qnllo 



frea: it may Im 8c|)«;*W from the verb by KMitker word or vn 
uiil au»y cren cone afier Iho form to vblcb ll 1>v1dds«; It nuy k1 
•bud ftlone, quilifylnf & verb tliil is UDderitood, or eoigolnUjr vl 
saoCb«r prefix odo tlial ia cixprMMd. 

b. Thai, Ml doTitl « "hi vkk^yati (RV.) h« dkaU bring fJU 
hiflttr; pr^ Qft AjrAAft Urlfst (AV.) may j« tengttat out our livtt; 
■ y&Utm upa drav4t (KV,) ■/« ye tw« c um* hither futri^; 
vSjebtiir ik bA DUh (KV.') uu^ A4 (vmr (CilA S'JU kithvr to w«: pi 
in&ih p&rl me prnjiifa p&ri 9«l) pUii yAd dhinun [aV.) frt^t^t mc. 
Mty prvfni^, ami what wtaiiA mw mi-h i yhx^^f aadfi t «a p&rft o* jkaM 
(AT.) /yom tpfcAMi Mwy day (A^ mfrantv nirf rrtirt ; vy kh&tb sirva^a 
ptp>at&ii& [aTftam] v( rik^me^a a&m ^yuif& (A^) ^ A"*'' 'fpunOti 
fnm all etiV. /rum diatair. (/ Aom j'oiunt mjfitlf] urilA /ly*; »i hj 
•aena pagyati (All) /or by il hi tfri: vi vi afi priu&]r2 pofabhtr 
rdbyftto (Ttt.) hs i> flrprieed oj yrogm^ imd aittU. 

c Tbroo or toai taitancM hiTc botn tli»d ftwa ibo Utn UagDi(r 
of a pte]1i wrpuitPil rroni, tn folloalng, ■ »rb; perlupi tbttpistx in m 
•iieh c*ic klmlu of boln^ logaMfJ k> kn ■4ietb. 

108S> Aa rvgarda the ne«6nt of verb-fonntt compounded witli 
preSxoB. only the ckbo needs to bo conaidorcd in wbioh the prefix 
■tands (as nlwayt iu the latar biogoai^) bnniedintvly b«rore tlie v«rb; 
otb«rwi«i>, verb and prelis aro trcnted as tw mdrpcndcat worde* 

1083. a. A porsunal Terbal form, ae bus bcoD wen aboro (68Sik 
IB ordinarily unaccented; before such a form, tho pr^'fii bas its own 
sooent; or, if tno 01 looru precvde tliQ H.imQ forni, the tmc aoaroit 
tli« latter U bo a«oetit«d, and (he otben lose their ac«ent 

b. If. howOTST, tbe r«rb-runB ia accented, tfa« prefix or preGiee 
ludo tbelr aoMjat. 

o. That U, is every cue. Ibe rerb along viik its nonaally 
aitoBtad pieGz or prtfixes ao far conatltntea a nnltf Diat the irbol 
combination U allowed to take but a alaiilo Hceeot- 

d. Cxamplo* an: p&7« *hl n&ri pfuuir A *hi k^iprim (AT.) gv 
avdy, *MnMM.> m«u agaiti ^aifAfy, Athi 'tttA vtpiiretaaa (RV.) Am 
•MHar y* *u>ay to ynur hotrtp; SftmdolDiisva 'noaampriyalll (AV.) 
j/atlttr logttlitT, go forth tor/ether after- y&d Kfhin upodAttl (W.) mJImi 
Aa fon ap I" the hoiitt; «viL ca tv&ib aariUBB BJagfcatlia (KV.} nnr 
that you, Sarmna. Adrc TAim c^fie Ai^Aer, y6ni "vl^fitali pravlvdQlthk 
*|>Ji^ (ItV.) enoeloprd in vhieh Ifiou Jidnt eattr At trat^rt. 

1064. A prelix, however, not seldom hat a more ladependeat 
value, aa a (joiicral advcrli of dlraoltoo, or a> a pr^pORition [la tb« 
titual iDadem senso of that term), belonging to and goiercing a notra; 
tn siicb uu«. it in nut drawn in to form put of u Turlml ooapottad, 
but baa ita own accent. The two kinds of am shade into one «BoEh«r, 
and ar« not divialbia by any dUtJaet and fixed line. 


Vekdai. Pxanxes- 

f— 1087 

ft. Thtio If In RV. • coniidtnU* numbtt of cuee (aDuie Ikirtr) tn 

wliich the pada-Ust fH«i unii«uuarilT, und pt6b»My wianglr, ib tndr- 

ondeat actKiit lo % ptcflt IwtDte ui •foonliod Teik (or otliot p(«llx); i(- 

tliiiiK, for nunple, imhat Into d Aruhat, vyiott iQt<) v{ ioot. 

abhyAvarflt [iito abh( ivnT^U. vyjUiirtit Into vi II awLrat (tnsUMd vr 

Bf&mtiftt vie.)' 

1066. Ib oombiDHtion v'nh the non-periODal paru of tlic verb- 
syalem — wiUi participles. iufini(iv«», uid geniudn— the j^^nural rule 
to that the prefix lunes ita accent, in favor of tbo olbot member uf tbe 
CompoDuil. But tlie preKs instead Kaa si>iii«tim«B the acciMit: namely, 
vbeo cuiubined — 

m. with the passive partiolpte In ta or oa: thua, p&reta jfom 
forth; ant&rhlta coneeaUd; ivapanna foOvn; a&mpQn^ compUtt 
(cf. 1384 . 

b. But ivm? FK'«p<ion> U iblt rale «re mei with: «. |., in ItV., uiolti, 
oiflci^ praf aaU, Difattik <«.; In JkV., apakrliA. 

e. with the iDfinlllvc Id ta 1978). in all Ita caaei: thus, s&ib- 
bartnm to tolUct. ApldhAtavo te eovtr up; Avagantoa "/ J^ternJing. 
Tlio doutily accented dHtiri! in tavsl retalna Its fiuil accent, bm 
brows llie oclicr liuck upon the prefix: thus, &iiv«tav&( /or /vIAiMf 
|Nif ; &pabtiartavai /or c«nymg off. 

1086. The oloaeneBS of combitiation hutwoon Ibu toot and tliu 
pnfix Is indicat«d not only hy Aeir unity of accent, bnt also by tbe 
bnphouic rulea {e. tc- 'B^> t92i which allow- the mutual adaptations 
of tho two to be nada to some ext^it aa if thoy were parts of a 
uuit&ry word, 

1087. A fen' cipeoial irrcgulBriltea call for notice: 
B- In the Iit4>T UnKii>|t«, api, adtai, and nva. In ciiiuu-etlon «tth 

tertiin roais mil tbvic detlvitlTvi, laiiictiinM to*" tliv iiiltiil vontl: u*iiiel)', 
api villi nab and dba, adbi vhU atba. ava with gUi eic/ c. t- 
pinaddha. plhlta, dhlftl^ltn, vngohya, vataflaa, vadAnyn, va^^abbya, 
vain4Uuis< vek^a^a. ralepans. In tte Veda, on tbe other huiil, I4 
lk In ■ low c«i(4 fouud Inslew) (ippufntly) ot nia vith >'lcf. 

b. The fliiit vovH of a preSK, espvcidly no t. It (onaneM In tlw 
olitct Un^ncgn) loinfllmra lengibeiied, o(pccUJI]r In dnrtTativi' worJi: e. t. 
pratlkora, nXvjU parlbAra. vlmEidb. adblvAaa. iplv^ta, abbivartA; 
anOrndb; nvftyntl, privff. npBvasa. In th* Ved*, lh« initial of ana 
li tioiDotlRiw leiiictbonad %nct ncckilie an: r. e. aolmudi, aa&aubrtri' 
o. In comblnitlDD viih fi go, iho piefiie« parft, pttrt, an^ pra 
totDttlinKx r.htii[(i ih<lr r to 1. In thii way in ronncd a tlnd uf dfilialiio 
slrin palay Jtce, inOi^elrd tortiiOing Ki Ui* a-rlaia, in middle vaUa, «bldi 
tia not ancominoii trom tb« Biihmuua d«wD, siid baa so laii tbe coO' 
•clAOMt'^t of its orttln thii It ii^rnctlBiH takoi the angoicnt pietbiad: Uma. 
apaIftylf(hAa (V^'8.)i apaUyata (It.), apaUyant* (HBb.); ii niak<« 

OBT-} XV. rRmiiiiKAsnc amd Cotawnto CoHionATicw. 400 

Ik* p*it|i)irwtlc ptvfacc poUytih calcre. Tbe ttem palyay, •lallnr'.T 
liAccud, oenin onir (■ om or l>o wxu (V&. J8. Jl'8.); and pltjr W 
beon f«nDd Mwkcm exeepi In MS. AIm U^ Imperfect nlUyAIA (TS. TIL: 
not H^aic^ In tbe padB-iest) txii fntttct nllnyuii cskrc (^'B.) an 
doabtltiM I coreMpondtng tarmition tnm yl wttli ols. tkoa^ aeuly akt 
I* torm ud mrulajt with rMin* fmcn yli -)- al. 8a ^m piul bccom« 
pftli III lh« eomlitiiktion palya&C l*;K. *X^y nboUiH vIuitmI m a 
laattTfl rpnD4U«n oi •« »^a&g + pori. Aud H8. hw aace pUbcfknyuil 
(ili. 10. 9 1 Id m etyin*Iotr)- 

d* Hie not kr nmix wmelimM mmscs (ut ictUns fn>ni a mote 
•itlttii'l fonilitlAti) mi lalliil • kft«r Ik* pr»llli>a ttxa, pftri, nil, »iitl opsi 
Uiiix, BoiiiBkurQtQ, somoBkarvaDt wiABtefta, etc.; pftrifkfnvuiti, 
p&rifkrta, rti.; nir nakfta; upaikfte. And (^ *i>4i<f(r ii ui>l i.y 
tha gtaiDBiaTlana i« a>ld ■ lii tli* Mma Dutiatr, undft <y<na>B eticun*Wi<««, 
after apa ud pratl (onlv apasklreiDa^a. pratlosskare. toib lata, an 

a. The puaifu putldpk! of the looU dft jr><^ ui<l dA cbI hu vflcn 
lt>« ab^vvlatcd (ono tCa anei • prallE — «( wkUb iko Onal vowel, IT 1, tl 
lenstkened (eoaiparo SKAf, an^ lb« derlviUve la ti. Mow, 11BT«> 

r. In • re« ipondlT. ^*e>, tbc anxBcot |> tahra brIiHe ■ preSx, 
butcail of Wlwiirn it and tho rootT thus, avafM^kSTflt (GB.)i ndqtra- 
patat(An.]; atiTaaatbcarat. pratyaamhharat, pratya-rjruhac, anv-J 
aTQtfet&m, apHU^it, nuu&bhjram^ (UBfc,); abLyao imaDtragratl 
[llu.]; Tyavaathipi (Sns )i ronnMn alw ib* fomu rwm paUf, *b«T«, «■ 
And. AB. bu one« ninljcja (ror niyuroia, a* r«ai tn tbi; c(«TMp»sdfac 
pa*Mg« ol 9^8.). Some of Iba ippartal ro«la of lbs liufuagc hive kfvn 
snspeetad of b«<ng r«aiilu of i limlUr naiflrtttnti of rooi and tmflsi a, (. 
dp tlom & + ap> v;ao from vl -f- ao, tf^ 'rum ati -j* 9} 

g. llin loM of tb« initial ■ of atbH and attLmbh alUrr tlir pr«flx 
ad bu bttn noiicvd al><if« [833o). Alto (lS7a, c), c«uiii pccullartUn 
«f eemMnatloB of a picDx afih the Initial vawel tt ■ tml 

1DB8. A» to tho mora tfeDcrnl advorbtal usm of tbo prrfix« 
and their prepoailinniil nam, boo tbo next ohaptct. 

1060. Ak Io tbu oumbirilian of tb« pattlcU* ■ or an piivatir*, doa 
at, and BU wr/f, «lih vnb-roini, mo 1181b, g, L Ai ta ibc addltlffn of' 
Ua ramparailve and in^tl«ttT« tiifaxM tarfim ui-l fnnmm » oiba, taa] 
abOTo, 473 e. 

Otber Verbal Compoonds. 

lOSO. It bus buen seen above that Mtne of (ho pnpntitioiwl 
prefixos arc ftuployoil in oombiiMtioii with only vorj* unal) otaaavs 
of rooia. naiiiely tboee whose laeaDlng makea tliotn best fitted for 
anxllfar; and pflripkrutifi osc* — sneh as kr uuilu, bbfl and as >«, 
dha put, I fo— and tbal tbo ftret of Uioao am widely iisod la coar 


Vbrhal COKPOtriiDS. 


blnntfoQ with a derivative id tm to make % pniphrsitfoconjufntliii). 
Snch roots have aUa be«D, from the i>4rli«et period of the languii^e. 
hut with increuinc frcquenoy. aond In soiDcwliitt aniilOKOiis coinhi- 
Bfttions witb oUiOr 'tlemcnti, sub«t>ntive and atU^frtivo hs w«1I ti» 
adverbUI; »n(l thU has bwmno. in pari, ilpvoloppd finallf loto a 
n!i;iilar and Imtcfiniiely fixtenilble nietliod of locraaalng thn monnut 
of variM) oxpTi^Mion. 

loot. a. The oiipi Ungna^ hu ■ nunilMT of (mosttj) rednplleall<rn 
onccnitopootiv i-ompuntui^ with toott Itp aiiil bhQ, llif prffltod oltuntnt epd. 
Ing in * OT i ((riiiTtll)' th» forni«t): iliut. ill RV,, akkhallk^ya rrooA- 
intj, JaAJan&bbATant fiimtneriny, alalibhAraat making merry, kiklrA 
hrvu /*<tr; In AV., mafma^t Itvam 7 A»r« tvuM^d; in VS., mas- 
mutf (itto TS.; MS. mpeinralt) leant; in TS., malmal&bb&Tsnt; hi K., 
moamatabbaTant. klkkiULkftra; in MS., bibtbabhAvant, bhArbharii 
"bbavKt; in AB,, ba.b«ibAkttrvm)t. The cegntaatlon, wbcia (bown, )i 
111* thil nt I veib-rnmi with •cimpinjlnit prcfll. 

b. Fimher, fombliialloni irlth yiif ■>' ii«i» uii'-.-* «(pcl «t ibt> ttTrlllce, 
and iii<3'tly ending in A: ibut, sv^&, avadh^ avac^; *'"<' T&^at. In 
lh**o, loo, (he kAOCNtnatlon U geneTally (hat of a >«rb wlib preSx^ e. g. 
BTac&kardl;! (VH,; but avadbi kaxotl [?) TA.), va(a(kiu7itt CHS.); 

and, irlth snoitier ptcfli, aDUTifatkoroti (^f^)* 

0. An ln*uniui nr two »Imi <feut of oxIlniTj woHi In turli <?ombl> 
nation*, put In ronMpondlnii Itirm; tlini, ^illa kurjAt (VD-) mai/ raatt 
on a pit (^ila)i anpjikartos (AB.) of ftUing citar cf debt; &lk;ft- 
btiSvayant (A A.) uniting. 

10&9. a. Th* nonii namws ohtitanfr, tvmagt, in a •<t1t nor; -pBrelf 
, Bonn-vilun. btfomca I'oniblneil with v^' ^" '''"^ Vedi, only with Oic cf-rnnrl, 
la namaakftya (biuldA hutastb;* ■"'' karnnstbra: abavr, SMb). 

b. A nllUry combinatiQn with y\ go \» thoirn try (h« aeonutiTa &«• 
tm hanu; which, appearing only In ordfiianr phnu) tn KV., U {n AV. 
cemponaded vltb the patdolplo* — In aataibjADt, aatomefy&nt, iMm- 
mlta (with ncooni like that of ordlaary i-omponnilii with * pieltx)— anil 

tn tho Rnhiiianas and tb* laut lantQifO 1* treated ^nlle like ■ pfellx: 

ibDj, aaeara^ (VBO- 

e. Oilioi ordinary aeouMtlT* rormi o( adJeetlvM tn oomblnaticii vllh 
verbal derliaeiiaa of k^ and Uifl ara foDnd taera and Umto In Iha older 
hnmiace: thai, ^taifakftya and iuienaihkfl7a(TS.); nattnambhlTuke, 
pdmaiuimbhiivuliB tw. (T?. el al.); (knanigkaroti (K^). 

1093. la tii« Mirly but not Id the earileBt lanpnaf^e, a Dotm- 
Bteiu chuH compoiinded vith k^ or bliQ (and vory i&relj with as), 
in verbal iiuiini and ordinary derfTaiirna, and ctien atK) in verbal 
formft, begins to Msanmo a conntant ending t 'nf aoiibcful nrlKln'- 

a. Theio It no iDSUnee ot ibli In KV,, unleia ih» i of akkbaJUtftya 
(■bove, 1001 a) 1* I« be ao expUlned. tn AV., beatd<a lk« obacoM 
WbllD«r. Oramm«i. X (4. )6 

lOM— 1 XV, PsairatASTic &xi> Comfovkd CoxJUOA-noa. 


Tftdkrta *») T&Uk&r4, I* round only pbnUkira^a. U iht> IiiituiuiLi 
bntaago, auniplM linglD to Mvut m«r« ori«ii: tbiu. In TS., fjetl, mltlk- 
iini, moffi; In Tb., runh», pb&U, krOH, udvAal; <n V<>> >ie«l<lM 
(ouie of (keie, kl*o old, kilvUI, ttvrl, dkridri, br&hina^l, miUiani, 
uvi; anJ a^&bbldbAnl, of which (w of naaffJ) Uia i nUbl b« iltit of 
■a omtlBtif ^ruumsilr^ fonn; In K., dvli In QB., pra7>ul; U KB., 
vajrl; In AB., msU (riom mntT*). Fram Cp«aUhm4 and Sua* an lo 
M addvd dvtm (ML.), uml CK^S.), lutrl iiid kugaU (AGS.). His 
•Meat U in gt>n«nl Ilka thai of thi> BlmtUr oombiiutioju ti««i<.-d kb««a(lMl): 
«. g. kmcSkurTioCi, aTDtttya, brOhmo^lbbAT*, mlthusitdifcvanlvtiit 
plMlikArtAvAi. ]u4rfkrt&; bui *«iu«(liB»t > mws «>llo<»(l«ii Ui«a |>l»o»: 
tliui, mlUiani bbivftolu ('i'S.)> pb«li lHlj4na*gto*ia (TS.3> TKfrf 
bb&trA (fA.). The i it tariouilr nttlml: uo« u aa nneonblniblo flaal. 
M la f7«tj ttlcorutK ind mltliuiii ftbhavut i'tSi.); ww w lublr to Um 
OTdloaty aauvtnloni, u in mlUmny 6aayi Rrim. mlUiuny HbUt- 
a^tm, and ■vyUcurvkC* (V^-)' 

b. Oa( of >iiDh be(laolu^ haa fto«s tu tha lalftr lincaatu the foUav- 

1094, Anj- noun oi adjective stem is linble to he oona* 
pounded with veibal forms oi denrstiTM of the roots ^ 
Iqr and H bbll (and of ^ ae also; but such ««ses ue ex- 
tremely rate), m the mimnet of a retbal prefix. If the 
final of the stem be ou ak- ot t-vowel, it Is changed to ^ X; 
if an u-TOwe1, it is chuigod to ^ 0. 

a. KiamplcB Of*: Bt«mbbi'bh&vatl tMnoM* m pott; akMllttlbhQy* 
&«i!oniinfM>/oiuniMrf;upttliArlkaiofi UwMoibttaR o^mi^r^iokhapT** 

b&n^Ujkrlkftik totn tapitft* tcilh hloio*o/iSt elatct; fitblUbliaviuitl 

hfcomc toott, kn^^^Uq-tn rin^thaped; aonbhikrU tnade Jntgrv^; 
Idhlknra^ pmcning; |:j&kftjft tfraifMvnmf. hatukarft^tt tdkittg *t 
caM«. A> Id ttt« caio of Oti diuDinlaiilTOi [1068 «), tlw cvmhlaailawj 
wiCb a-«t«iii« ate the tiAiaanna uiAJoflly, aod occilt abandaally (huilly lea 
tlikFi • tbgu«an>l iro qnoutiJcJ in the Ut»r luigii&Rn, bai (o( the m«cl 
only uiise ot twice ei(h; iboio miile villi 1- idiI u-itaui* are a t«tt inall^ 
uiLmbai. In a few IntUnoct, ilami In an and (m. villi thuia QiuUi 
cbangad to I, ate mM with: c. g. atnii-k|. juvl-bba; unm&nlkr, 
•maiit-bhli ; Una) ya ■(!«( a cuii»oii»iii U coiitrartod to I: e. g. kUai-kf; 
■nd anuDiilous catct Ilka IciLihdlfl-bha ocanr, Final f It told to bMoaitj 
ri. but no ciamplu aio qnoUBtc. Tlt« oombiaatiolu witli kf an aboi 
inrice u rr«<(noii<i m tbott with bbit, and aumple* vlth aa do a«t ^p«ai' 
to hiv« bean bioiutbt (o lirthl. 

b. SliolUt oomblnaltout ar« occMioudly mule vlth olomcac* of qun- 
HMublo OI a]l«gii(h«r ohaenro charwrtfr: »_ g. orarl-kf, urt-kf. 

C fiamplea an on altotttlicT «auUu| U iliv latoi langnge oC ■ at 


MOOX- JiKO Adjbctivb- 


•ul of 111* ounpMiniled Mtto-ann (f r. lOSl)- than. duhkhMcr, DlfknU- 
k:^, qambk-kf, and on* or two oilwra. 

1006. Of nil lli« funuH wbich comtlitnto or liro *tUcbed to tfa« 
verbkl ajstcni, the pamivd pAitlciplQ i« tho one most doMly utini- 
ktod In its treataoDt ui a oonibiiiBble eleiuenl to &« oniln«ry «ljiyttv«, 
Hoxt tt U come tho g»ruDil xad th« gcrandlvcs. CombiBatUntB of tbe 
kind above iroalwl o( are qvltv couuoon aiih pualve parttotplM od 



lOM. TiiB iodeoliDable wottU are less disuactl^r ilivided 
jioto separate paita of speech io Sanskrit than i$ uau«l 
elsewhere in lado-KuToptian language — etfpecially owing 
to the fact that the clasa of prepontioni haidlj* has <x real 
existence, but is lepnueated bj ceitain adverhial words 
which ue to a (;reatet or lew extent used prepoaitioiially. 
^They will, however, be briefly described here under the 
usual heads. 


1007. Adverbs bv suffiz. Classes of adrerbs, some- 
times of oonsiderable extent, are formed liy tho addition 
of adretb-makiog saffixes eepeoialJj to ptooomlnal roots or 
stems, but also to noun and adjective Kerns. 

a. TbcTc ti ao altlnM« dUFciiacc bctnMn nek lonisct tni tbo oao* 
ending! In dMtesalMii uid ibo iditrbi of thli dlTtitoa tomttlnivs ut tutJ 
in tb* iKUUtDr of raMi. 

1008. With Ch« lafGx tas are nadt adv«rba having au abUtiro 
SCUM:, and out rarely aU« an attlaitvo cotuiruciiuii. ^ob ar« made: 

«. TtuiD pranamiiwl toou, Iti atas, itia, Uttaa, yitaa, ktttas. 
amutasa avatat (ti«i foand eailtt<}; fraiu ih« pcvaofolaal «wiu la t or 


io«e— I 



d (404) or >ke p«r«>nkl pntio^nt: Ua», nuttia [tnlf azample 1* V.), 
trsttAB. UBUttas. yofmattaa; tad mm pranomlnal derhvUvM; thtu. 
ttwfttM, katarAtoA. 

b. Fram tionn ■»•! ••lj«rtlir« *ten« of srwry «I>m. *Iii(« tba ^krlleil 
pnhMl, bat aaro tn^ly Utct «. i;. mnkhirtAo, affraUs, rbbut4e. rltt4s, 
hrttu. qlTfatAs. Jkniaatu, awUs, r^iaftM, pllr4t«s, uiyita*. 
aayAtarAttto, aarr&taa, dftkfl^sUi*, *bhlp«t4a (one*. In BV,, tnn • 
nue-fonn: pkUuUkfl). 

«. From a h^ pteposttlont : Uini. ftbblUtS, par{t«8, JkntltsB. 

d> F.xxiiipln* of kbUtliK cansttiK^Ilon kfo: 4tO bhl^a^ (^^0 mvre 
t^a« lA«f; UtaJ^ ifa^Xhit (.A\ .^ Jrtm tiiat mrU; 4tO 'iiy«na r^B.) iMtA 
any Mlu-r Ikon Utit; a&rrato bbajftt (AQ3.) /fom all fmr; knt&f olrt 
d«<}ftd Offatyn (H ) arririaji /rorn itmt npioit or otAfr: porSd it»J} (R ) 
yVdir) f^M eitf, taamJt prcUtkOyata)^ (KSS.) /rom (Airf AwcT ftody. 

». Bat Ibti dlatlnetl** •blidro m«uiitng In nnt lnft(>qii«nlly tifiord. >ni 
a« adTub hu a □)'»« ^tfionl, ctpvOally a lotattva, valite; Ihiu, •cmtriw 
im /»^nt: asmftMualpataB in nur jrfMmM; dtukrmtUB in atf«riamf» 
wi(A •/•ity; ohAgaUM (D.l wiCA m/nrmMM to M« ^of ; pifAtO 'illiUtah 
(M.) tvperiof in virtur. 

lOBO. With tho auflGx tra (in the oltlor Uhitua^ often trB) ata 
made Bilvcrbs haviDg a locative bcuso, and MculODnlly alao a loca- 
tive ooaatructiaa. 

a. Tbese utvarbs ate nry few, compind witt Oioia la tai. Tliwr 
are farujdd ohii'fly (mm pTODDminiil iWmt, ind from othcc tt*oii) hcilnn • 
qiiatt-prnnDinlnal charmRUr: nimaly. In tra, Atra, titra, yktrA, kutra. 
&m&tra, noyAtrn, vlqvfltrii, narvdtra, »bhn7&tr&, aparntra. uttar*- 
ti«, itar&tra, anyataratra, parvatra, paratra, BamAnACni, skatra, 
UWkatra. ekaikatnt; in tr&. naiuntrjt, aatri, puratrJt. bahutri. 
diJn)1ijfttr4- ll»i a taw \n trfi wnio U-oni orditiarr nonm: tbni, d«T** 
tr&, m&rtTaCri, purufatr^ nuinufTatrJl, p&katra, garutri. kum- 
pa&oalatrjt. Thoie In trS are dbtln (tut abed fram thn «ihvi« tiy ih^lr 

b. BxamplM of losatlTc conatractlnn trn: hjiiita A dakflQatrit (n>M 
an tht right hand; yktri 'dhi (RV.) in tcMfh; akatra purufa (Mlth.) 
in a »it»^t man; atra mftr&tmakO (H.) in thi* jnardfrmit CT*atitre\ 
pFflbtmtraib Catra TUlyato (H.) »M'«vijt>iJy h^fit* him. And, u tie 
looaHm eaia la ucd al>o to esprMa tbo goal of iiioilon (304), ao tht »d> 
TMba In tra bavn inmrtlmM an tr^nsalUe u vt«11 u a looattve nUa: 
ibiu, tatra taooha y" U«rc ut Mi'Upr; patho daratrA T^nkn (BV.) 
readi Utat fo to .th6 tfOtU. 

1100. Oa« or two olh«r loffiioa of locality ara: 

a. ha, to Itia At«, koha toAaref and ihi^ VedU Tl^iha (aisa vt^. 
vUtft. Tl^rihA) <i/tcity« (oompa(« b«lDiir, 1104b); and Ihi (Ilka 4tM M«, : 


Al'VBKiKl BV l>&HtVAT10K. 


1009b} In *om«tiuKf utud aitb 1ciu*tlre-r4ja T»lae: e. tt- Uui aaxDe^e 
(H.) at (Am tiin/ii»fiiirr. ' 

b. tU. which It Killed la wordi tikviuK ilttiuly ■ local or diM<:tl<i« 
vtlQt: ihu*, ID AdTAiblU ipciuailtci, pr&t&t, udttktftt, tavftttAt; M 
•drrrbUI alilaltiet, ftrAttUt, ultariittAt, parftk^ttat: »d lo pi«pc»lilon»l 
tdiotbf, pa^clitat, adbiuitftt, uv&aLat. par&at&t. puriatAt. bahift^t. 
Apyttontly bj Liialqgy nllb IhnaR UnC, the Buftlx bu tlia funii eUt iu 

npArlQtftt (■n<i Bill*, ku udutit). 

Oi hi, lu uttorltbl (VB.) auil dakfl^OHi (ooi qn«uble). 

1101. By ibe suf&x Ui* are toaie ndvorbe of naiiDor, eBpeclally 
tnm pronomioKl rout) or atciut. 

a. I'huk tithft. jr&ttia; katbA *nd ittbi (by iha tide of «htch duul 
katb^m nxl iUh&ni : *uil (B. hu iuhit); uiil the ran) imitbA 4ad 
amiitliA. Aiiii iulM (V. ofton ittHA) m Ihtn doabtlo** tielonct wllb ihcm, 
Purtli«r, from a Inw Mt|ect]vi> ■■■<! noun hUiui, iDvltly «f iguul-iiroiiotniiisl 
abtraclcr: ihut, vi^v&thft, Bt^v&thA* oa^'^tlift, ubtULy&thS, apiirttlhAi 

I ItoT&thA, yktarAthfl, yatunitlia, lutiiratha, katamathA. purvithA, 
' pratn&thft, Qrdhv4th«, tLra^oatha, ekatha (JB.), ftuttii, nXmaUik 
(tiiici', AV.); lud ev&tha. 

b. YAtba b-ccDuiai uiDMlly taiietsH la V,^ wban DMd lu itia Roiiia of 
lv% *SUt a nuua ronaUif tb* iiibj«e( of comptrlion: that, tayivo yatbft 
(RV.) like thimtl. 

llOSi One or two otbei anffixes of uaaaer Hxe: 

a. U, in ItX thu*, very comiDouly iu«d, from tbe earlieet p«riod, 
espeaially na panicle of ifuoutioa, fuUuwLa^ tbs wokIb (itioti<(l. 

b. Etikniploi *»: braliiuaJAyA ^kn lU oM Avocaa (KV.) if the\f 
hatt toid "(hit u u fraAnniri'* wi/e^\ Utb davt abrnTaa vritya kitfa 
n& ti^fhasi *U (AV.) the ^<nt* »aij la Aim* " t'rillya, tMy iJ" yu Ktandf" 
Uften, ibn Iti l* nted morit pti-gcikiiily i tbua, yi^ fradd&db&ti B^tl 
devB {U (AV.) whatinr hoM Jait^ that tlta goiU atial; taib vyaghrolii 
munlr mOflko *7am Iti pntfyatl (H.) tJf »agt hotii upon Utat tigtr oi 

htiny rcaUy a moute: yuyadl klm 111 sldatha (II.) ichy (\U. alU^iitf 
wAot reaaon) do gou lilt 

O. But lU )■ MtDttiinoa uMd lu • Iw* ipvcfaliud war, lo mark aa 
unomatopwii, or to luditala ■ Beitami •. g. balilf t* <utu bil iti (AV.) 
M tf omu out o/ gnu leith u tjilult; Ity &ct« krqity kthi tl (CB.) 
An ploHghl Jiril Ihu tinij/, lAtn Viis tcay : or it pulnti rurvacd lo sumvlliligi 
tu bo laid; c. g. yan av ily Abur anyAni ohaadCAKi var^lyAAai kaa> 
mad bfbaty ucyata Itl (l>B.) »hm now (A«y tag (Am. "fAa vrA«r 
»u(r« flr* greater; tthy ia thr b^batl ipokcnf" It alio uitkM a uumbtr 
or ilerlTitlvra *iid compoandt : c. g. ititba tlia to-r/uutytfA; itivat in (Am 
/otAiDH ; Itj^AFttaam /or titia purpoit; Itibua a Hoty or hgead (li'- 'Aiu 
Jbrtnoth it ifoa). Ai to the ub« of a nomlDaUro witli iU a* piedl'al* (o 
an ucaHnv«, tea 286 b. 

ii(n— ] 



d. Witli Ika inni of (U b to tM ci>mr«tiid ditt oT tiU •*«. (BIB), ttui. 
«OT<I la abbnr|»i«d t« U (w9 gt Oire* tlBti In ^B- 

•■ vm In tra (touvlMt) /O*, <m, md •▼& (tn T. attati •vi), ^tlif-t 
lAu*. latet a ptiUa)« empbulilDC the prewdinf voM; (m (Am la vaed later 
Ik* tvktod •vim, wUdi kardly c>r««n In RV., »Bd In AV. oslr wtA i/vid: 
•I, aivUt vldvin knoKiag Uuui. 

r. U IMOT Tadic (AV. aW., »b4 iIm laMt parUofftT.) Irs Boro oftaa 
ooBDta (Or onljr a iliigla ajllibla. *va. 

1103. a. Br the >afGx d> ve B»de adverbi of tine, bat ftlmott 
only from pronomlaal roots. 

b. Thni, Udi, yttd£. YmAi (In ItT. *|ta kidi), IdA (flnly In V.). 
■ad aida, benide which I* 1^i]n<l oirttei tt&dam. BMfAsi dia*, In lb< 
o4<)nt liafim^a. onlr Mrradi; Utci i faw otfaon, nnyftdL, •kadft, idt- 
ysdft. A qa4>l-Ia»tlT* rum une in Mm ocexlonill^ tn atich plir**aa a* 
kkdAdd dlTU9 (H.) on a eatUtiu day. 

9. B; ltd p«rh4pi rat»i«<l dftnlm at* nuda Idfbtlm. C«diima« 
TtqradAnlin. tTBd&nIm (ton«l««). Vl^vftd^ oeinn u a^lfleliTB (a TB. 

d, Vlib rbl tie umIc, ftocn pronomhial rooU, t4rhl« ot&rhl, y&rhl. 
k*rhi, aiaurhl 

e. The (orns di, rnnnd onlf In 7idl if, la parbapa rclaUid with dA. 
in faim a« In nipanlnf. Sftd*d£ (KB.) !■ of donbifu) tbuauar. 

1 104. Rf t)ia anf^i dbS are formed adT«rb« Mp««klly frois 
DUmerftln, sltn^ifflOK -ffH. time*, tcagt, etc 

«. Tbui, «kadbi, dvldbt (aUn diHdbft and dT*dh<\ tzteba 
(in Ibe thn oldiir UnRua:^ onulty tredliiiX ^iLiJ^b^ C*'*^ fOiJliA toil ^sd- 
dtUt], dvAda^dhi, ekduuivUfatldhi, nahBaradhll, and to on. Alao, 
Batuially, rr«iu nordi havtni a qDati-niim^rtl •^lixracl"!: ibu>. aiKfcadbB. 
kktldhi tatldhjl, bahudfat, purudhd, vi^AdUi, ^agvadh^ 
apartmitadba, y&vaddbi. etavkddbi. mAsadhA. lu ■ nry Irv raaea, 
alio ftoin gDnanl Donn and adlectioo fUma: Ibiix, mitradha (AT.), 
prljadbit (TS.) prodliJt. US.), rjadb^ (TB.), umdbB >n<l oltrsdU 
(BbP.); *n<l fiDm ono vl>e(b, bfthirdhs. 

b. The pan>cl« kdhA or ftdhl. a Vndli: cqulvalMil uf kttM, ptobablr 
bcloaga b«tp (porudliit and vl iJ vA dhB. *lt)> ihoftnai-d Qnal, oeovt • few 
Uoci In BV.)i alto oddhl in Irulk; and perhapi eabi artU, w^blcb ha« 
an aijnlitlent aadha* In iRvnal Vr.din componnda. And tba otkM advafbt 
In ha (llOOa) may be of like origin. 

1106. From a h* iiumvcaU art uido maltlplUailia adieiba wHb a 
uuel), dvia. txim. >nd catur [piobabtr. for c«tare): 489 b. 

a. Tho tonnapandlng wuni fur oner, BAkft, U a forapound lather 

ikan a dianvaiive; and tli« tAtno charulnr botonci Btill oaot* aTidcnlliF t» 

paftoakftvu, nftvakt-troo, apsrlmlt&kttvM, mc., tb«*cb krt an* 
krtvBM nrv t*t*td«d by lb* native gramiiiaTiins •• innzM) tfc* MllUr 


AnVBRlM BY Drkivation. 


leitf (AV. ^B. HS.) have •BpUi kgrtv^a, (U^ kftvoa, dvodaqft kftvas. 

a^t^V ot4 k^tvMt i:t<:. AB. hu ib« Kdand»ni (orabinMion teif kftvab, 

b. Thu i{u»l-aufAx dyUM, from ■ MM-fonn of Aiv Jay. U in ■ 

flmilu tnannci vlded Ui Tuilnui drtnnnlnlnK wordn, genetaltjr made W i^ud 

I •: «. s- Anyndyun anoti*r day, ubhftr«dyiu (AV. -jr«d7U*) m vtUM* 

P^Vi pQlTVdyuB Hit Juy hejort. 

11M. Iljr cho anfGx 9&a are miado, capooially from nuni«riil or 
quantitative stemB, \a»ay iidvetbs of qukntit}' or nefuare or ntaaocr. 
t;eaerally lutd (liHtribulIveljr. 

I'Moton />/ s«Mr>n, {woohas foot &y /oat, akfaraqis agBM* ty ryOaU^ 
IgAQa^Afl in mJWf/«, atanbaiQ&a Ay fiuncArjr, panif^iii /I'mA I>ji fnnfr, 
LUvkeehAa in aieh and jm<A numi^r ai tjaanlUy. inil, In a inoi4< (•ruenl 
|«ari BarvB^ie whaUy, mukbTB^aa friitnpaUy. kfolirafsa •tinytiy, 

mAIUIiaq&B ai mindid. 

1107. B7 tbe euflii vtt sra made with great freedom, In every 
I of tbe lar>|^BKC, advrrlMiit^ifj-in;; after the mannar of, like, «te. 

a. ThDii. afifflrasv&t liiw Anyirat, m&ntiqv&t (ItV.) m Mann did, 
Jamadacntvit o/trr Ui« manner 0/ Jamtdofnt, pOrvavAc oi prataavAt 
et purt^avAl « 0/ o/rf, k&katUiTavat d/l«r (A* fatiion <t/ thi erew 
md tlt» palm'/ruit. 

b. Tliii ti taallT tlio ■dooiblillr »»rd ircmitlia (w!lh aJvurVUl ililft 

or uccDt: b«l4v, nil B) «f tbe lufHx vuit(ia99f)> whl«h In th* V«da 
mUM ecriiln adjartive (onponndB of a iIbIIh raeaniiu;; thni. tvivant 
ah* IAm, mitTant af my tart, 

1108. Bj- the Bnfllx aAt ire made trom noon* qiuMl-ajTerbt algnify* 
ling iVi nr iWfl U« (nmiiffon or ffta poMe A(i?n of what I* lodl««tcd ttr the 

BOiin: lh»y ar* uii«d only with lerba of beini, of beooming, aadofniaHng: 
nimoly, ofteneat kf and bbA, btit also aa, (Bia, jiL, *i>4 al fand, aerord- 
iitf ta the tnminart\iii, BBm-jwd). Soin« tw*nty-flT* aunplM are 400- 
labU from the Ittei llli-tatcti« : bal nene fiotD ili« aailier, whlah alas 
■ppeaia to coniUn notliinj tliat caiU WiXtt upuo tbe ortgin of tbU formation. 
The ■ of att la nol liable tn canTccalon Into f. Tbn connccllon wiLh lli(> 
tarb ti not so cloie u to u'qulce ibo use ot tho jteiund lii ya lintuad of 
that in tvfc (090J ; and other wotdi arc lomntimot Intcrpotod balvecn the 
ftdverb and trIi. 

«. Eiunplo are: earralcanii&^i bhaamas&t ]iurut« (MBh.) >Wmcm 

hsU d«tds (0 othM; loko 'yadi daayuaad bhavad (MBb.) Out teorU 

FtMuU Aro»NM aprty (0 barkariant; rasya bTftbin.BQ»8St aarraifa TttttlD 

Uit rHBb.) icAoM wJM( pnptrlff was ghm to Brakmam j Qiyatada bbftS- 

maaAd yAti (Qu.) it t* in*rafat^ rtJucmd to mAm; affiun Atmasit 

]C|tvt (V.) hae-iru) faktn CA< ^i*m le ena't («!/. 

1106. B. SafSsM, net e( aoon-daHiatlari or of luSMdoii, mar bo 
traoad villi nora ot Ism pUoiibtUty in a bv othei ad*«ib«. Thni, to 

noe— ] 



Bumptftf b prUAr larfy, auA amsiutke ateay; iu Aak^ixylt teilk r*)|M Aand^ 
uii olkltvtt wilA tunuAfarofiOM; In uADiao now, and olnAnAm variotHlgki 
Hut iLg «aMi ■!• In tbo Btlit too ma *■>] doubtful (4 bo w«til tMlico h*K,. 
b. In tb« aplu baHn to be (oBUd a miaxH t\u» (iboDt ■ doun m 
q^uiubU] of Bilvitrta b>Tlng ih* form of* Mpcalcd n*un-4i*ta ollli its Aim, 
occumo'^o etidliiK lii & tad lu atoeiiil Ut 1: «. t. Iiast&bastl Aand («' 
kaitd, ratbArvUii e^rint s^sinat thafit4, kKT^Ucarfi mit <a «ar. 

o. The kdverbi Uius fir dmoribed are almost Dever uied pre* 
positiotially. Ttuwe of tl»e uext itivtslvn, buwerer, ari: in inany id- 
bUuccs ao used. 

1110. CaBQ-formt used as Advoilis. A large num- 
ber of adverbs are more *or lew evidcDily cases iu form, 
made &om Btems which are QOt otherwise in tue. AUo 
many cases of known stems, ptonominal ot noun or adject- 
ive, are used with ao adverbial value, bein^; distinguistied 
&om proper caoes by some diffexeace of application, which 
is sometimes aocompanied by aa irregularity of form. 

1111. The accusative la ibe case mosl frvqwail; and widely 
lused adrerbially. Thns: 

*, ot prcnomfual aiem4: u, y4d if, vAcn, (A«(, •(<, , tAd (Am, stcfl 
kfm v>hy, tc/tttktr, bic.; Idim mm, htn; adis yonrfvr; ud m ail. Of 
llko v*lDn, 4p]>(r(iiilly, >ia Iho (nio«Uy Vfdin) |>«tlalni kid. h^m aud 
kam(FJ, Id, eld C'Oiunou at ererr pulod). smJid md eum&d. Im aad] 

tSm, (1>Y •oiua iffilded ■■ •till poMouIng piDnOiin-vttuc). -klol- Com^j 

ponndi tilth id 'le o6d •/. ii6d Itat, 6d. svldt kavid; wtib cid, tutold ; 
wltb *kIiDt nJIkini and malunit «ud aJcim- 

b. Of noijn<il0nit: ai, nima by namt; s&ktaam /lapfHp, kimam 
0( iciT/, ij you plfott; u4ktMll by Hit/hi; rkbaJt teerttl^ ; offcm yuirMjf 
(V.)l and »0 oil. 

C Uf adjocelva Macua, in unlimited tiumlten: »*, satyAm Irv^; 
edrim toigi. pdrvam /armvrlti; nitj'am cmuteitl^: bhtkyu >npr«, 
c^m; riqrabilhaiii confiJenil'/ , praka^am openJy. an^l to on. 

d. The nanur llajiilat U Ibn «*« eainiDohly emplorcd In UiU vay; 
and 11 1> to aand e*pccl«lly ai uadn from ftD*t nuinbora ul ncnapound ad- 
Jeeilve ium>, otua from iu«h la htcdiy oteut, 01 »r« not ki all foitiid, In 
adJoctlTB nae. Cettaln of thoao (dieiblAl eompounda, liiving an ludoell- 
natile la prlijr tuembet. art inid« by ibo Hindu giammultoi ■ tpeelal elm 
ot eoinpDund*, otUed Bvyaylbbava (131S). 

e. Bat the rpmlotnA itiiitulat also la aomuttmai uiad, ««peclal1y in 
[be *o-oalie'l ad'eiblal ■.'oillngt of compultoa, tarftm cid tttmtai, «kkh 
are ttu«bdd 10 panldw (<f. 1119), aad «v.n (473 0) le vwb-ronnat 


Casb-fwrkb as Aovkci 

1— ma 

*. c DAtarim, kaihaibtar&iii. uocUBUrdm, ^nUntermn, Jyokto- 

mim. Ill ilio aUd>t liQgukgc (UV. ■nil AV.}, ih« iiouter liiiUail at tbn 
fnoitniJie toim ut llieaa iuIUjim I* ftloivfl iIbdc in uivi ac 1119. 

tt Many adioibi eS obiciuc totm or <«iiDg<:Uou kr« tg b« cxplolaed wUb 
pnbifciKty at MciuxtrM of obMiaM noan or ■djo(Rlvi> tUou : AxanrlM «• 
tOsoilD III fiUnct; Biy&m nl eoenini/; iftkAm lAogwIiW, •riCA (pr«p.)i 
arajn t>r 41am gufjieiftit (in tho Utor Uiiguiga und »1lli i^kf In (ha maiinei 

of a prtSl : 1078 •); prAyiui MiuaUy ; IfiC loiHMokat; oinil&B wiiei- 

^MfwAltf; babifl ouUui*, mitbu tud mlihis. muha ami mubus, Jdtu, 
and 10 on. lC«dr[k utc., ■d'I nig Ik (In ItV.), kio pstkip* contracted 
fonna of adJccdTi.! havlofi yac or afio m thoir ana) (407 tl.). Tbo pro»- 
en<e of other roota ■■ flml mnatien la alao ptolwtilo for u^Adhftk, Aau* 
f Ak and Ayuf&k, aoufjha and auftbut xugap'tN cic. ComptK alio 
the fotuu In am hoMde iIimo in A, ahow, 1101 a, I102«. 1103 b. 

C. In (TaIIc) dravit quifJciy U lo bu auoa a changn of t.e««Dl for 
■he adieili*! uao [ppio drA-vaat r(ii««iHji}i and dratay&t ttouliif (KV., 
uuae) may bo anothor cumplo. Tba oonpuitive and •uimlAUve •anzM 
(■bon», •) show a liL* cliango; and U l> alto W bo r«aogiiti«d in tha derir- 
tUru with Tit (1I07J. 

HIS. Us instrumental it aUo often iiaed with adverbkl 
trIqc; gcnonlly in tha sln^ulkr, but Bi>matiiuf>a alsu in th« iilnral- 

a. or pranomlnil lUiiu; u, eiu aad v^t UyAi au^ amiti amuyji. 

bt Of neoD-ttem*: m, k^aqonn wUmttf; afcfopa cornfM*^; 

aktubbls iiy ni^hl; and »o on. 

e< Of adJecii^H, boib n*uter (not dlxinguUbable from iDBKOliii*) and 
tfiBliiln*: a*, akbilma whoUy; prtya^ mmtfy: dikflijVDa (» lAo MKiA; 
&ttar«9a fo the nertJi; 4ntar*9a teMin; oiri^ hny, — ^4nU« and 
^oakaia tioielt/; uooflia on high; meUa bctoK; paxaoAl* ajar, 
litritibhia mi/fliiUy; aoil ao «a. 

d. U«re donblful raaea. inoaily (ron ibc older laogaapi. nia; be ia- 

•taB(«d a« follova: tUa^ c&(«, deT4t«, bahdt*, md aaarirui (all KV.), 

bumoniriDoiii lannunenul* from uouni lu M; dTltti, t&ditnA, Irmi, 

[mffS, vftU. b4oA. aatbi(P), madbA (i.oi v.), kdbunA \_a. and Uusr). 

•■ Ad««tblaLI]r uwd liutnuoeniala an (In tko «ld«r Unfotf*), •ftaner 
tbaii any otfaer «i«e, diflliisuhhod from naimal InimiiatiDtaU by dlflWencv* 
of form: ihoi, eapeelally, by an itiafular a<««iili •*, »axi and tltvA 
(FiTcn abate); pcihapi gulalLi apUilt, Aaay^ kub«7i(l')i nakutyft. 
KVUpnAji, lamaiiij; adatrayn, pUya, ubharJ. auin]iaya(r); d*k- 
i)iai, mmAbyi; oSoitt prRct, uoc^ paqca, Urafcjti vaa&ni&; — is 
a (#w u-«tein*, by a 7 laiartod bofor* tho •tiding, whtch )■ ueodiod: ibua, 
anoyi (givan ahovaj, Itfiv^ aSdhiij^ ragbuy^ dhffnuy^, anna- 

Ulft— ] 



(11094, miUioyi; — anJ orviyi {tor xOvjt) «nd ri^Trli (prafctlr 
\ilJW»Jfi) Uf men xllsbtir IfMrulu. 

1113. Tlie dative hn* only vrrr leldnii to adnrbitt tiM. 

^ KximplM IT* apwiiyB /or |A« /Miirw (RV.: with rhuifad Mc«Dt): 
drSys Untj/: «rtbftya f«r the MiAa of: ahtiSjm prtttnify. 

1114. The ablmlTe is not Infraqnendj used adrerblallf. 

B. or pmnomlnd ttemi: u, k&nnftt irAyT nkannAt eamoUn. un- 
erpfUJly; tit, tit. ytt {V.: BOtmal fotna. iututd »r tbn prononliia] 
MBlU rtr,). 

b. Of nonn^iitcn*: u, latt noor; §att a/ttr; b*llt /«rtih^\ leat&> 
bsUt nnH^«/y: B«ki^t ou 1A« fart of. 

• o. OrioDL-ft, «r iillective iicini: ■>. dnrilt afar; mc£t i>i2»n; iMk^ott 
(eAwif^- %tk^t,% pUii'tii/, actuaHy; tMnuuitAt ccrnpietrly ; aclt^t not bif ; 
pr&tyak^tftjnst (AS.) mMf o&rtowA/; prAtjrsntlt (S.) to U* #Mrf. 

d. In t fi^w Initunc**, «dTfirbl*1I]r med utrUUiM llkewlfe ehoir < 
eliin(«d kormi In tbc cwIt l»neu»g»; Uii)*, apAktt/Wmi a/«r; MnCt^Vom 
near ^: Banit/^m vf M (bvt inltr. sAnB.}: uttftilt yrvm [A# nortA; 
fedllM<t &cfau>. 

Ills. The genitive is alwoat new mod tdTorbltDy. 

ik la the older iMfotcv octor ft)El6B (; nifAf, md T&«toi fry ^^: 
IiUt, cirasya lon^. 

1116. The locatiro U nooiedniee naed with ftdvertiiftl vnlne. 

a. Frofii nMii tnd aijoetLte ateni: tki (M«r; Sr4 »nd dftrt a/VI 
nbhlBTari behind; KsCamlkA of Aomc; ft4 let'fAMtffpr^p ): igr« ««i/>-mi(i 
Btbtne wuii«hS]/\ Mpadt I'mntM/Mf'/y; -utba and -kft» (roBunon In con- 
poiltioD) for the loAd of; aparffu in ^«r Inne: ixSiu yir«(; ndiaai 
in ««cr*(. 

1117. BT«n a nomlnallTa form appiMii* to b« ft«r«otTpKd Intn Ml td- 
TfibUI iiiluo In (V«ilin) hie, liii(>iTO(*.tii« pittlelr, »nd Itt voTDpomi^lt 
aikifl uiil mdklB, iibKitlTe particleB. And muc. nomlnatlTBi from afic* 
itstni C^ p&rJi& AB., nySo Ap**l.) *Tt Minatlni** found tucd by *«ti- 
(UtoMon far nouUn. 

1118. Yerbftl PreHxes and kindred irotds. The 
verbal prefixes, deHoribed ia the preceding chapter (1078 ff], 
are piopeiljr adverba, having x Bpeci.-tl oflice and mode of 
use in connection vrith verbal roots and their more imme- 
diate derivatives. 

a. Tbcir occanODal looser connection witfa the verb haa been 
iiotloed above (1084). In Uio Talue of geoBnU «4verl>a, boweTer. 



[— IISI 

ifeey only tu*lf occur (osoept u ipi lus mainly chuiifeO its office 
^frmn prefix to advcib or conjusctio* in (be liiu-rl«iiir>iaff«l; buttli«fr 
protioRitioniil uies an much noro (twtunt and iioporUDt: sto balov, 

b. Id coin poll tiuit iriib DObiis, tti«T 0'^*^ otb«i advaibial «teiuiDb] ciot 
InfrwjnentlT bai* u\ adJcatlTo taIb-o: i«c b«1ov, ISBl IT.. 1S06. 

1 1 19. 8*v«nt Hi the imBiM (u nodesd abari-, 473-4J bnn «em- 

p>rillve and nspeilallTa adJcCIlTFa, by llip tufQiet Uir« anil t&Si», or nt 

an'1 ma: ibiu. uttara ami attaai4, idhara and adtiami, Itpara uid 
apttmi, Avairtt ■ii'l avami, upara siH upam&, a^xl prnthomi la 
doolillts* of tha unifl chancui; alto, 4iitara and int&ma. Aii<l accua- 
tlvM of ta«}i A«rlTall*o at|J*«tlTM (foT ili« mwt part not oiliorvlia foonit In 
bm) ti4T« tbe T4lu» of comparativea, and mrety ■uporiatlTH, to Ike pratxM 
llienat«1i*9: thua, aiiiiQftaifa eit HaihtarAih a&ib Qi^ndbl (AV.) lAiti«r«r 
b fiTKftMf^ •&> Uou itilt furthrr qvinitn, vltonkih v( kmmKavn (SV.) 
4(nW« Mrf y#f m^t itiilfly ; pr& Uih haja pratar&ih v&eyo ioba (RV.^ 
Uad Aim forvard utili ^ftirther tairard alcantiiyt; &d •nam uttarAifa 
aaya (AV.) itaif Ami up still hiphtr. 

K. Bcalilct ihoa« InatancKil, are foutiJ a1»A iiit*r4m, ap&tar&m, kbbi- 
tnniD. aratarjimt par&tarttin, parastar&m. In tho Btihma^a* and 
Ul«r (abu'o. 1111 a), th* famliiiiic iceuutlTO i> a*«J Intloail: tbn*, ftU- 
tar^ and aCitamam, abbitanini. anutanutm, KlanUkn. praUtariai. 
nltaricn, ntt«.rdm, prAtantm and pratamitm, Tlt«Htm, aa^taffai 

(alio HV.. mien). 

11S0. Rlddrod In origin and chsr>ctar with thv vcrlMJ pre- 
flxo«. and aaed like ibeia except in compodUton vttb veibi, are a 
ifiw ntheradrarbt: thii*. avAa iimrn: adMa Mott (and adluatarlm) : 
par6a/ar«^ {and paraatarini; purtf (f/or-tf; antari >ppaii'utl}-, 
antii'-f-^: amanri, b*ttetm\ itatitwif; -npftfl ^6t*: and sahi (alMady 
mcntiuiK'il, 1 104 b; alnng, vifA, and ■4oa togHher, with^ tany be BOtlMd 
«-itb them. Vmi tritkeul, aod vlfu- t^wrf, appuar to bo related 
wltli vi. 

1121. Inaepatable Piefixes. A amall number of 

advcrbinl prefixes are found only in combination vrith other 

elemenU. Tbu«: 

a. Tb« oegatire preiiK a or on — an bffora vawtU, a before 

b. It ia foniUntil eiperully «lib Innumvf'hlw nonna and adja«tlTM- 
uu«h mot* riialy, yiib aditrtv, u a.kuCra u<A ipntwr (BV.), inwvm 
(AV.J. inadbas (TK), akaamAt, aaakrC; In imre euet, dto with pra- 
oouna (at Mad, akiliieU); uA «i«n, tn ib* later lingna^*, oov toA Ibcn 
vlth Tinbf, u aspTtwyanU (BhP. (S;.) lAty rf« no! dtttrt. olokayatl 
(SI> ) A4 Jo** nil n'oic. Ntiw and and than It U ptABsad to Havtf e. f. 
anakftmam&ra, anaTiprairulcta, anaTadjaCP). 




mi, tm Mit la n- 
ml Ac p wpw ili ja B4xa 

« aa«i« 

9f wmfcfiii— ■ 

M< fitiiit m rj wfik 

k.«k I fiiiht liBJiiiry pnfa m mJT (■ la 

daHljr iriiiUm iilt» hi -miik the praeafii( tba b to 

(io««4 Wr*, ihiirt it biiwi nit artij m ak ia ^tp aw ^Mi p<ftiri> 

to ite oUm to«m« (to fiV. Bor* ihM m> kaadiW dMa; to Um 

pwafiM put! of XV, Mij f«vtaw Omm:. mmI ens Bwlu wall y 


i. TVb fwiMi aa ■■■■dwii arVB** i* Bl m4 IMn \attn « *w^ 
IKK, w< nmtt4mn€ tM nfU toM •( UteyadMi ■•« ta V^ ul ite 
M«liCT if a ma4 doa (»k»«». Iv •] H b pntaUT ** >•••> I* f* w b« 
r*«u4«d M Ea cawpMttlM «ltk ite '•srfe. TW p*d«-MU vf AT. kU. 49. 
10 ra»d« ■n-4p*7tti. b«i lu tcMlBQBf U «t lttU« ot Ko vakM. K. hM 
aa SB v^&ljr«t« m4 aa Tit aa vido^ Mil K«V. hM an nda; TB. 
hu •ti«aiiib<MlbikjrsU(r); HBk uta BhP. Imti aapataatba: &. hM an- 

J. Tkc kUlBBuny ani a*«kU]r iapMdadn fMBiod ArBs «( iIm 
latoneculv* prM««a ^OS) m* bio»i uulogoo* with U« la»*pM>tii 

1123. Miicellaaeon* Adrorbi. Otbei words of ad- 
veibud cbuactet and ofjiee, not dearly tefetabte to uiy of 
the elaMe« hitherto treated, mity he meittuQcd u follows: 

a. AMSVftative p4rticU« fin part, only in the ol<l«r lineuaee ' 
tbtu, «£(i, bista, klla, UiUa, tu ,r*r« ia older Lanpuace!. Tftf, viri 
fts BrAbuiasE lasKaage only;, hi. binA, u. 4ha, ba. glia, siiiiiatia, 
ama, bbala. 

b. Of dials, h4ata U > WHid «f mmiiI anil liiellriatm ; hi )>■■ wuti 

al«9 *4i tlUtlra mtaaliif, Md Mctnu tb« varb vitb vlileb 11 tuadt In 
MBMctlon (ftQ5«): atna •onttine* tpptu* (0 gite • put tBtudn^ to a 
pt«*«ni tcTiM (7TB b)i u !■ otun nmbSnoit «ltb ibc lliui a of otbn par- 
tUba: tbui. 4tbo, n6, rab, Qt6, itpo, pr6; bui abo «ltti thai of vait- 
fortii*, •> datc^, Ttdmi. Th« flniJ o tbiu pradueed i« pravT-bya or na^ 
cMnblaable ilSBc). rsrilda* of klndcH vdoe, tltwdy ai«fiii<>av<l abov 



[— iisa 


am id, kAm or k&m, aid, jjttu, evik Romo of the M*ev«nii«« putldo* 
am inncli ii*ed In tin latn tntflnUI pnacry with ■ fiaraly axplodre vtloo, 
»* detlcM to help mtka oat iliu mtltn (pftdaptlru^a ttr»&-Jilterw); to 
FipocUlly ha, hi. tn, sma. 

0. "SegMiTft pknMti Ar«: b4, ligDifyiDs simple negation -,_ mi, 
eiKDifyiiiK prohibltiuiL 

d. As to (he •'.onMm'-tloii of the *(^b witb m&. lea *bo*e, &79. In 
the Vnria, au (or ntt: S48ii) hat lUo ximetlmit a nagatlre mcaiifni. FoT 

Ilia TfUln n& 01 rouipiTUuii, inn bulnw, g, h. 

e. In nahl, ni ii cDi>ibtn*<l vtth bl, both •lemcnli Tctilning their 
rntl ifiMnlne; alto wiih {d In D^d tft. It it peihtpt pt^nfiit in nana 
and oona, but not In hini (RV., oiks). Iti ncix^nl, n^ltlivt ak nnr mS 
)* wctl In rompoaltlan ui mtka n«sailTn eompounda, but, iiittexJ, iho tii' 
Bvpinlilr naRnth^ prefix a or an (llftfia)- •snnplton* aia (he V«dio par- 
ttelw n&kis hkI m^Ms, D&klm *n-l m^klin; >I«o nafilram ami ma< 
«iriua, aapnihiiaka, Hnd, in ih« Ui^r Uneiu^^. % ntitnb«t of otben. 

f. IntorrosfltivL' particles are only tltose already giveu: k&d. kin, 
Imrid, avid, nan&, of which the last introducea ao objeotlon or ex- 

g. or patticlea nf coiupKriAon liars ti«en niAotltmAd the loR«)Ma 
ivn. anil yathft lalao tonoloM when nand iti the aaino viny). Of fre- 
(juout occnTienco In tho oldMt langua^o 1b al»o ai, having (without 
loM of accent: thit aamo ponition and rains U tk« proRcdlng. 

h. Kiimtile* of (ha d4 of lompariaon are- ffidv{i|a (|fUiii ni afjata 
dTifUD iV.y.) M hort your wimity iAc an arrow at t\t numy of Ikt 
tingfr; T&70 Hi vxkf&m (AV.) cu hiftU to Ua tr*K', tjkxoinak tTftt&^ 
ptba (RV.) drink tike a thir*!^ buffala. Thta na* la i|Dnnti>llx "ipUlnoil 
an beins a modlAciDon or xlapiiitoii uf (ha n«gatt«e aae: Ihua, [allhoui/h, 
to h» turt] nnt [jirnfu«^] a Ihirily buffalo', ind to m. 

1. Of parcitilan of plaoe, beaitlos those alronily lueationed, laajr be 
nnticcd kvk lohtrtt (In Y., alwayt to be read Icua). 

J. Partlrtna of time ant- nA now lalin nA: nQo&m a-att mentioned 
ahovn, llOSai, »dyk aod aady&a and aadlvan iKV'., oitcrM t^Jay, 
at anet {all hdd to coduId tho olemont dtv or dTO), hyha yetter4ay, 
9v4b lomwrme. Jr6tc also relatad with dTnl long; pdnAr t^ain. 

h. Of particlee of manner, b«aidea thoae already raflDtlooed, ma^ 
be nollcett n^nS tioritnuSy (for nftaftn&m, its derivative, see 1109 a}; 
■aatrir (&V.| ttertllj/. 

L In the above eluMllMtioni an ItMlnded *U the Vedle adverbial 
word*, and moM ol tbeie of the latai Uagoafo: for the raR, tee the dio- 





1138. Theie U, iu alteadj- stated, no ptoper class of 

prepodttonfl jin the modern »ea8e of that (eim), no body of 

•w^tda having for theit ptevailing office the "^vuiument" 

of nouns. But maoj of the advOTbuil words iodteiUecl nboTc 

are used with oouns io n vray whieh approximfttee ihem 

to the more fully developed prepoeilions of other langttages. 

S. 1( «■>« mtid tnotbuT of lueh yrorit. — at rinA, Tto — Mcen ilnott 
■otoljr In prttpiMliional att, ibl« In moieljr ronallo«B uai nBt*MBU»l. 

1 124. WortU are thus uni) pTO|w«itioiiallf sloag witli mil tlic 
itouB-cuBa excepting tho (Uttrc. But io eeoenJ tlitniuf&co is direc- 
tive only, tloteiminiuE iDor« definitoty, oc stre^theaiag, the iiruper 
osM-iuo of tfao QQiin. 8oinetim«H, however, the case-UM Is not «u]( 
to Inue, and the noon then aetata to be iDor« immcdiittdy "gOTemed" 
by tb« prtpMition — chat is. to hive iu cMe-fonn more arbitrarily 
dfttorminAi] by iu awiocialiOB wfih th« latter. This Is oftencst true 

of the wciiftaiivp; muI aUo o( ihn g«nitiva, wUcli Hm. horr u ntae- 
vhcte (384 bj, sufftred an extensloD of its nonna] ipberv of tue. 

1186. a. The adrcrbi! by dcrivativo form (1087 baTo least 
of a pr«poaltiana] value [exoeptiotta are especially a few made iritb 
the >ufElx tas; 1088). 

b. klont of (lie verbal pre&xeB lesceplioiM am ud, xd. psrS, pra; 
aud ava aud vi sre altaost such) ka«« tL»ir prajKMitioaal or 4|aaai- 
prnpoaitioiuil dk* wttli mms; biit iBUch isore vi<l4>ly is tiie <»M«r 
IliBo tliao tn the InMr: in tlua ulaaeical lang^ua^ tbo ■•aga is atalaly 
reatriflied to prau, ana and ft. 

e. lUottt of the dirrctivu vordn akin vitb %h« mure propfr prv- 
lixeB are ajwd prepoBitiviiBlly : some of tliem — as saha. viua. upari. 
BOtarft, purft — freely, earlier aud l»ter. 

d. The eue-foruM used adverbiaily ate ia nany instancvi used 
prepoaidonally alM>: oftcn<<Hi, as waa to bo eipoctod, with tho goo- 
itive; but frcqtieDtiy. and from an early time, vtth tbe socasattre; 
BDOre rarely with other ua»cii. 

e. Wo irlll tak^ up now (bo (*»«* lot a brlaf cxpoiltlon, boglnnlnc 
with tbonu th(t ai« l*«iit freely uswl. 

1186. Th» Loettlva. Tib £•*« i« WM of all vMd with worda 
that call cltlu (la ii»n« of pT«po*ltl«». Of dittctlvM. antlr and lis Uim 
derlvulTe antar^ ineintng un'(Ai«, tn, uu «n«ae)i addoil lo li, and to tha 

ctaMlcal Iuu!u«^i> <•• well u oalUsl. Ol trt^aant Vedlc uis wtik It an A and 

Adhi; thni, m&rtyegv t among morialt; prthlvy^ idby o^ndhl^ 
Ue pttntU upou the toHh, t^O miyt dhftraylt'dhl (AV.) aHahiuh glory 




imwm; — i-pi ttid apa aiamucli nrw. tlius,*ri ftpdm Apl wUi faintl] 
(RV.) ir&«itr« >>i fAfl ijomain o^fA< toattr*-, nrnAr 7K upn ■&?;• [aAnti] 
(BV.) fckft ttr* up i/ondtT in the buh; — B4cft afonj «■»(* U Ml nia In 
RV,, but almott •Btlrfly Bukiiown lalan tfciu. pUr^ aioA aati rijyt'nj 
teith Act- pttrtnU, 

1197. Tti« Ittttrnnanlit, TLe iIlrectlTw ntad vlA tU« mm «« 
tlnott eulf thoi* ahicb eontalii tbo ujior.Ullv* pronooitn*! toirt bS: ts BftllA 
{molt fia^aont). M k A m , «ft.rdliitii. nunduu, MUnirft, BU-ittiftm 1 *iid, In 
tbe Veda, Uiv pnni s&m : u, be sumadbblti «Ul pi,ta[bhir nh vff a,^ 
fmatmaht (KV.) may wc he uniUd teith thy J'afort at men t^M thair 
»fMUM. Ky *uti*tUnilDD at tli>; t04iniiD«nul for iho aMdtlro of ispuitloo 
(MS a), vlni vilAotit (not Tedfc) Ukaa aomPtiinn tb« IiulniiacRtal; uid 
a«, la the Veii, avia ifotpn and paris beyond, >lUi vhkb th« tbUtlT* la 
alsa, and muck mar* Bormslty, constraari. And A4bl, in BV., fa nxd irlili tha 
InairumHTiulR anAnA ■nil snubhla, nb^m tbe l«cadT« irould Ira cipactMl, 

11S8> Tba Abtctlia. lu lb« p repot! liunal eonitructlaiit of Ihe ab- 
Ultta (aa «ti poiiiteil oat and partlr lUtutnie4 iboTs, S88X tbc ablailte 
tktuf dT iba cua, uid the meralT dlraetlTe falaa vt the <4dcd p*t1)d«, an 
tot Ilia lu^tt part (leaily lo be titt«d. Uany •( thn lerbal piellxM aiQ 
rnotn «t la» /Vaqnctitlr Jotii«d tn <k« oldar Iangu>j:e wlib Ibit oaw: oftm- 
Mt, &dbl and p4r(i niwa ipon41«a|]]r, Ado, Apa, &Ta, prdtl, and ibe 
»aparitl«e8 nfa and ▼{. Tbe nhuice of tuuanlnt at Ika abUtiTa «1<b 1 
At'fAar, by whloli It <«t»«a to All ili« otflne of lu oppotlt*, tba aotaaaDTa, 
WM infllBlmUir eipUlnad abora (S93 0). Of dineti** mida akin oiik 
tb* preAiai, mMj — a* bahfa, pttria, «v4s, uOhtM, pariw, puri, vtaK, 
atitl tir4a out 0/ kiiowMf/* •/— aecomptiiir lUa cue by ■ p«rraeily tagatar 
c«iuti«cllnn. Attn (hn •uic-farmi ■!■▼&, Vl4k, pa^tt. flrdbvin, 
pdrram, pAram. >a<l |^ teitAout, or ablcb the aaintal wnainicttan with 
ui aUath* U pTcdominant ««illar. 

1 1S9. Tka A<oa«Btiv«. Haay of the varbil yralxw and nUUd 
ir«id> take an afcompaiiflng aecuaatlva. HotI naluralJy (*ln<« Iba Mcaaa- 
Ow la euODilallr ltii> (o-iut«). tboaa that aipreaa a motlMi m kOod to> 
<nxA aajtblng: u abbf, pr4tl, ^u, upa, d. iM and idbi In lb* aeaaa of 
otw on to, or acrnia, hrtfond, tLr4a Mr'oti^A, aat&r and ontarA • tivn inraii- 
lac fiahcMoi, piri ttrovtui. Bta«plca at*: ;£^ pmd^QO abh( adrjro 
TlO&ft« (A'V.) vA«< ftutrten the eim look* abroad uhIq; Abodli; ogoib 
pr4t7 ftrttJm n^taam (RV.) Apii tmt Amm aie^kentd to niMl tk* ad- 
umtimf iawn; gaoobat kad&ott avaJD^niuii pratl (Hfih.) the might ga 
Mmtviithtr to hrr men fopU; Inuuh praltfrAmi arpatUb pratl ()[l)h.) 
Ann / wiO aek tcilh rmf^rtner t« ttu king, xokaut dttim karx dttibbir 
4 ta [AVj/o/Zoie after my mind mth your miMb; i Its i na)i (AV.) 
MiBia hith*r la ut; 6pa oa A "by arv^ (B*") "m* A>(A*r t"*la "*; go 
Airrb mirt^U All (av.) Ue jrorf tcAo u i<y»iMJ imrrCafr: aObi^llUjr* 
v4rcaa< 'dhy aojan (AV.) otetlUng abae* othtrt m p/iTry. AU« abhiUB 
iHd paritas, w-blcb karo • llhe vatw vltb Um ttinpla abbi and pixi^ 


XVI. tltDBOI.niABl.SA. 


tnt npAri o^mv (oncner ^th gei>1tttv). Ldm iMvnlini with otHaui 
Mffiiatl*n Mwtratliomi 1* thi iii« 6f tkU im« «ltb adliBS. pB»B, ptirftm 
Tina, twflri* uihsT ru«« wbt<-b ■pcm tnoM anltod ■» i^ Meanlsg of iIm«* 
paMlelM. Anil tbu uiae uty !>• talil >^r noK af Uia utrnMil cus-fotiM 

wtlb iihUll tliD bPontitl^a li nsd. Thiu, a nrtmbar ol ttUtnuaentiiU o( 

■liaatlon ot dtrMilon: u yd "v&reQt 'dltyiio, jr^ p&ni^A "dityim 
(TB.) thom wAo are AfJoKA (At «tin, ihirat mho art K^onJ tka ntn; iuitMmf* 
roDlm (Cit) wMiu the tcomfi; U bl 'dam antaraQa sarmm (AB.) /or' 
o^ (ibw tmiWrm L» bettimn (Ann; utturw}* K«rb*p«ty«iB (*^R.) to lAr 
norM •>/ M< A0lM(^Ao/<'«'^f >fv ; d&kfl^vna vMim (^(D.) ro (Ae tmth of 
th* tarrijirial fitsrOi : dakfi^ena vrkyavAtikAm (t.) ta lA« ri^f o/ (A« 
orrAonf; nlkn^il yununlLm (K") '"^'^ '^ I'lmund. (UmlUily, Ordh- 
Tam tnil [jfLrvam bt>» in trccMtfts object u well ■■ aii abUUvr; aui 
the Mme ii inid liur of fto. Abhimnkhnia tmeard kM ■ mora nataral 
ilXhi to conitni^ilDt) tIiIi thli ntt. 

IIWX The OenlilT*. Tit* word* w]ii«b an (cvinpknlfd ^ iba 
genHI've tro nixaily ntx-forms of noiiiM, or or •dj«<tfv«9 mail ■ub»U'<ti*«l|', 
TSbtnlnf giiongb at tlio nnuti'M-lMnctar to tak« ibic oKt *« itielr nMnni 
a4)iiMi. fi«eb u* tbs loutlTn* agro >b /rtrnt «/, abhyK^e n«<ir, Kith* 
and kfte /or (Ae rai« of, nlmttte nuil hetiu Ay rvowm «/, madbjv u> 
<A« tuiJH of; KEid atker «a*R>. *■ orthl;*. liftrm^lt, aaklqAt, hetoa. Ad<1 
TtfUXi, allboiiKh leia dlitctlf iind ohvlomlr, of the »un« chtnctet arc «Uiu 
■i|}Mt!T« I***** (lomo al thnn rIidwIiik oth^r ronitrvKon*, •lt*Ad; nArioo^); 
■a adbnrena, uttarana >n<l uttarttt, duksinviia >n<) dakfi^t, pa^oit* 
firdbvatsa. anancaram. aamalEQnm. aslcfftt. Mom qaMtl«aahl«, tnl 
llluitrMfoiiB TMhur of Ih* g>?a«nl loMineH of the nw of Oie genltiTB, m Iti 
ronirtranloiii (almoM wbolly nnknown In ibft oldott Uiigtiigr) with man 
propvr worrit of dliAttlnn; thiiH, witti iho drrttMlv* jMUTltaa, poratoa. 
and antltAs, and parastfit atkI pnrnatat (these found In i\.i> ItrtlitnLti* 
Ung'iMc: Jii, aaiiiviLtAttrBByii pivrrui'lt afltr a f^mr ; auktoaya puraa- 
tAt btfiirt tht hymn IaU.]); with antl, odbaa, nvoa, puru; «itb uparl 
ttfievt (fontnoo 1hI«); «Dd wiib antsr. 


IISI. The conjunction I, alio, ns a. distinct oIam oF vrotdj, 

are almost wanting. 

a. Tha combtDatlon of claiiaea la In SaaslcHt in (Enacnil of a wtj 
Bimpl« character; miioh of wliat in other Indo-Eumpma langaases la 
effwttd by nii^onlinntinir ccinjiinetinns is hero manafnd by meatia of 
oompoaltlnti of nnrda, by Lhe tise of lb« geraada (904], of iti '1 10S)| 
of abstract nnuna lo caafl-forma, nnd so on. 

1132. The relative derivative ndrprU, already given 




(1008 tl.), may propoily he i^^rded as conjuDctionn; and a 
few other panicles of kindred value, as o^d and ned (IIIIb). 
1183. Purely of coDJunotive value are ? oa omf, and 
m tS or (both toneleKt, and nerec hariog the fint place 
ia a iCDt«Qcc or clause). 

a. Of copulative nilua along witb oa. 1h in tfae olduf iangiiag* 
MpeDJklly ut& :Uwr It becoDiM * particle ot more ludefinite use]; uid 
ipi, tdtoa, UtthA, klib ca, with oUier partioltva mid ouinbiDations of 
pntiicloB. uf9 nsod ciflon &b ci>iiB«ctivOB of ctnutot. 

b. AilvenKtlfe la t& iut (rara In the older Udsaagej; alio. Imr 

Btronglf, U t(QD«l«M!. 

& Of Illative value Is hf for (originally, and In great gun at 
tvery period, aMeveratiTO odI;): oompan «bove, llSSb. 

d. To ea (u well u lo lu catDpoDiii] ccdj briooxt orMiloultjr 1I14 
mulling if. 

e. It Is na»dleH to vntdr Into further AtiM with repid ta tboM ntta 
wblch uur he not loM piD|>atly, ot idoi« fi«p*t\y, 4UI«d ooHjunotlvs Am 
kdvotbUI, (if tho parilclet titetAj sl**<i. under tli« hutd «i AdTOTb*. 


1134. The DlteTancea which may be claned as ioter- 
jections are, na iu other languages, in part voioe-^estuin, 
in part onomatnpcBiaa, aad in part mutilations and coriup- 
tions of othi;T parts of speech. 

1186. a. Of the cIuk of voic«-^>»catCfl are, for eiamplff: t. ba, 
biU, ahaha. he, bal |AV.[. myl, &7e. hoyA RV.;, abo. bA\ (RV.), 
bata KV.i or vato, autl protwlilj-i liiruk and Iiur^ {RV.}. 

b. Onontmlopovlle or Icnitutlve utterancoa aio, for example (In 
the older laii)(tia(«i: d^ei trMz ,;of aa arrow: HV): klkirA (palpita- 
Uon: bll .imI phi^ [pha«Vj or phU t^Utl lAV-j; httiit i<nt- 
mw tAT.:; q41 pat (AV.); i^, bl?, aa. nul has |PB.); and see tbe 
worda already qnoMd li comiMMition with tbe roota kf aad bhO, 
■bove, 1001. t 

0. Nonas and adjectit«a whioli kave Mitnnied an iat«ri«etii>iud 
diameter are, for example: bboa for tJbo vocative bbavoa, 4661) are 
or re !voc of ari tM«niy:: dhik ofw.' iIdbj be mere voice-gastare. bnt 
pethspe related with I'dib;'; liaf(am Kot i» ma! dl^trft MmiIAmmm.' 
araaU Mail! ta^tbu, aadliu goeid, »x t » H mi! None of tiiete are Vedic 
in lDt«TJ«cttoaal use. 




•m w bw J — r Ik «te« (■ 

11X7. TKs toott t hgmiel T M , both Tartal uid ptoooa- 
iiuU, ue uwd tit thai faue iua, or without aav addad 
fnfSx, u declinable iLeou. 

a. Aa to this hm of vtrbal rpoCs, ms baknr, 1 147. 

b. Th« gnwtft la tl root*, Ht-called. an eweaiiallT iledlBalil* i 
UtA hne*, U tMr fkrtb«r ttwtBent is derivAtioD, Omy Ate tbrongb- 
"ut t» MXXii4iiK« w\ti oihtt dtcUB»bl« iMu, ud out with Tvbal 

1188. Aput from tbia, ever; such stem u made br fe 

U. Aod these mffixea fall into two ^Dcia) clanee: 



r— 1140 



A. Primary au£&xM, or thow which Me adde<l directly 
to roots; 

B. Secondarv suffixeo, oi those which are added to de- 
riTfttive ttcias (oUo to piooomiiuJ root*, u ju»t pointed ont, 
and KDRietimctt to paiticlw}. 

a. The divltlon of piluiitT lufdias nettly ci>rretpan<l> la iba 1^ 
(moie ntfoter) ukI o^lLdl (\en rcgiiltr) tunUot ol the Ulndu fjaiuDutuw; 
th« Mrnidiry, M tlicit toddbitA-iunixe*. 

119d. Hut this dislicclion, though one of high Tftlue, 

theoielLoa.llv and piaclically, is not absolute. Thus: 

a. Suffixen cuuie tu bkve tlit> aspect and tti« uae of pHnaiy wU«h 
TiMtlly contain a MMondarj' elemCDt — tbol is to saj, the earliest 
worda flxhibttiDj; tli«iu wer« made by addition of ateoBiliir)^ suffixes 
to words alrvad)' dcrivativo. 

b. Sundry axuhploi of tM> will bs pointed am below: that, tint 
ll«tuudl*kl auRlirt. tavya, anUA, ato., (ha vafasM aim and aka, tra. 
and otii*». TbU orlfin i> ptobablt Tor moi« ca«M tbui adniit of d»to*n> 
nntJtm ; and it In uiuinbli! Tor «tban vhttb (bow aa dlitlnct tignt of 

0. Lvsti unon, a vuffis of prinury u«c paMos otot la part isto 
SMondary, throngh the Dedinm of use with dcnaniinattvc "rood" or 
otborwlM:: vsnnipl«a arc 711, Iibbd, iyaa nnd Ifttio, ta- 

1140. Moreover, ptimsry suffixes iicc added not only 
t» mote otiginal route, but, geaeially wltli equal fraodoio, 
to elemeut8 whivh huvo oome to wear in the tangiin|rc the 
aspect of such, by being made the baais of ptimary con- 
jugation — And even, to a certain extenl, to the bases of 
seoondaxy conjugation, the conjagation-stema, and the bases 
of (eoBe-inflection, the teo«e-EteniB. 

a. Tbc moit coniplciiODS cxainptM of (Ills are the panidplos, prnsent 
and fBtOTe tni perfect, whleb u» nsdo >Uko (ram tcnM and tfonjngiOtan- 
•tcwi «( ercty torn. Tbs IjiOalUiM (896 ff.) aiiacb itiaiBMlvoa oalr In 
■poradir Initaneet la tenK-tUm*, tod eroQ ftom Mnjasatlon-itemi iie mtda 
bui ipirlugly e«tll«i and tbo aaine U tru* ot ibc ganindlTc*. 

b. Oeu«i>l adjectives and naniii ub iom*«lut widvlj made from eea- 
]acaac»-H<4ai, MpftclallT tnm the fcaic of cauaatlvo Ma)uKttka: tea bstow 
tb« HfttsM aC114aj.]e). ft(I14»e.d), anaCHfiOn). aa(1181f). 
anl (1168b), u(U7eK-i). UfllCTg). tf (llSSe). inu (livfrt)). 
MludlMb). aka(1180d), &ka (llSld). tla(lIBSb). tn(118]d). 


XVn. Primary Obkitatioh. 


e. From i«n*e-»ieuM tbft euuflu M" f* lo'vr, biU a»l ankncm; 
thou, tt-ita praMot-xrin*, occtilonal JeriTitlvM in ft (L148J), ft (IMOd, «)t 
ftna(lISODl, 1 (USSd), n (llT8f), ta (1178e), tu (llOld), ukft 
(I180d), tr& (1186fl^ tl{1167(). Tin(nr in: lS39b, 1183a): rnn 
H«mi In • ■ tppaiVBtl; ot *oti>tlc cAaracIn (bwlJM inlnlUvea anU foni^- 
|T«i), ecriUoiul derliitlvM In a (tl48J), ftJlttlllSOJ), met (llS»b), 
fto (llSOn), ttna (11781, u (II6I0J, 1 (liseb), lf(bft (1104*), 
u (llTen. OS (lIMftX trCnSSe). in (lIBSa). 

1141. The primary suffixes are ftdded nlao to roots 
oompouDtled nith the verbal ptefixM. 

ft. Vrtis(ov>^r, tiaiii«'ly, loi; liftve been nrlginally and ttrictly Ibt 
mode of prodaction of tho dorivativM with prcfixe*, it ia tkron^out 
the recorded Ufa of (bo Un^iuMe u If the root «nd \t» prefix or pre- 
fixM ooiiBtilvlcd B Diiitf-, from wbicb > derivative Is fonii«d is tlw 
sane manner u from tka ■impto root, witli tbat modilicfttlDn of tke 
rftdicnl tnoanini; «rhi<.'li ujipiMM also in tlifi proper v«rlMl fonnH ai 
coinpoundcd with ili« Hamo pruGzot- 

b. Hot d«riTallTe« of flv«ry kind »« thus made; but. In Um nsia. 
theto eluata wUiob baTo moat of the TUibal foiee, vr wliicb are laoat 
akin in value with iDtinitires and participlee. 

o, Tbs acDurntioe Df >aoh darlntlm with prtiliet, kiid Itieif aooHt, 
vlll Im aot»i unddt eub tuRls balow. Ttxy xn ehl*A| (la aMiljr Ihi 
ord«r 9f Qi«li roiii piritEve rraquoncy}, bmi'lts root-MMM) iko** In a, in 
ana, u ti, m tar mil tra, and in In, ya. van •ai naa. 1 ui4 n, as, 
•ad « few otheri. 

1 149. The sul&tes of both claeHa are aonetlmM Joined to tbrir 
primitivra by a precedloKuslon-TOwel — that it to oay, by ons wbloh 
wears that uppct, and, in our ignoraniM) or nneortaiDty u to Its real 
oritflu, outy moat conveaieatly aud safely be called by that Dane. 
Tbe line between Iheao vowels and tboao deaorving to be maked aa 
of organic euffiul cbaracicr cannot be stiaTply dravn. 

Each of thti two KToat claasca will now bo tukctt up by itaelf, 
for more particular coDiidctatiou. 


A. Primary Oerivalives. 

1143. Form of root. The form of root to wtiich a 
primary suffix ia added \9 liable to moie or lew roriation. 

a. tty far tbo moat rreqiient Is a etrengUieaiii^ cbao)^, by su^a- 
or -vrddhl-iDcroment The former may occur uodar all circamatancm 
{ex'cept, of couna, where ipinn-cbaDge ie In general forbidden: 8W, 
MO}: tbuB, v6da frum ^vld, ni6da ^m ymud, rirdba from fTrdta; 


FoxH or Boot. 





&yana fton yi, sAvBna (ron yva, Bftrs^s from ywr; anil bo m. 
But the tatter i* ottiy alluwvil undsr &ucb cirouniatanuMi «b Icbtk long 
ft a* tbe multln^ towoI: that is to aay, witb Don-final a, and viib 
> ftoal !• or u-vowel and ^ before « ron-el (of tlie cudiug). ibns, aAd& 
froui y'aad, erAbh& fioiu KST^ti or srabhi rAh& from y'vah, dUjA 
frODi i^nlt bh&vA froai itiha, k&r4 from f'JsT'. iin-h stKogtbemag aa 
woald make vUda aoil m&udft diii!8 nut accvnipauy jirlinary deriTation. 

b. StiYUgthenliif In dvrlntiuti don not atuid In any inch BTldeat 
nonaeclion with i-ennl u ttmiftliriilne In ranjufitlon ; nor tui Mtj gvu- 
»l nilai b» IaIiI Ao-nn lu 10 it* nccuTi«nc« ; U bis to ba |iotnl«<l »u( in 
detail fni Mcb (utttx. So alio «ltb «ilitiT towel --eh* ocnt, vbtch tra In 
gsnen) •d««(4iu><o with iho«<i tauni] in inflaattoD Mid In t)i« fartnUlsn o< 
tanie- uid iiiodi>-iteDi». 

0. Tba T«f«r«lon «t * Oniil palsUI «r li to * gutluial hw bwtn alt««dy 
noUrcd (S16). A tttti n « m li «<eMiontlly lo«l. m In rotmulan* alrudy 

d. Attar a (hMt Saal *owet 1* t*in«ilme* >4d«d i t; ]ia»«)]r, *hftra 
a Tool U nMd M 4i«in »lthant iDfili fll47d), and bWor« « foUovtai; y 
01 T of van (11691. vara >[id varl (1171), jni onoe (lie&a). miJ tb 
(ISlda). Tti< praaaliDB of t bafota tbcM aiinlKca apiiHi* to lodloata an 
orlfiiuJ aetODdtrT den«aUoD mm derliatliaa in tl ainl to. 

a, Tb« nvt \» *«ni«tlinO) radupllntad: ratetf fa ih» urc wlibont isfBx 
(1147 0. e); oReneat befon a(114ek1. ifllBBo). u (I178d); bat 
alM befote othet ■■rOiH, m A (ll4&e), ana (llBOn). vans (1170a) 
van and van (Iieed. 11718. b). vanl (1170b). vl (ne3)."«1t 
(1183b}, aiu(lie»b). in (1163b), tiiu(Il»en), t« (UTda), tl 
(1157 d), thadieaa). trdlSSb), tra (11860. tUcadlSOO. ^ka 
(1181a), Ota (llSeo). ma (lie6b). 

1144. Accent No g«ii«ral laws rgoveniiD|f tlie place of tbe 
■went are to be reeogniBCd: nub ntrGi mitat in tbt« respect ba ocw 
aid«r«d by itself. 

a. la «inn«etioii oltb a TCiy fa* infltua h to ba nt^niwi a tn- 
fatn d«;Tec at UfUtufj i« acecnl tbn root In caaa of a nomrn aeiionu er 
inBaldtal derltallrt, and tbe nndini; in tbe caw of a aomrn agmti* or 
putidpUl dciliaUTc: (oi ib* aofllx''* a, ana, aa, an, md man, balow, 
wbar* lb* ciamplcg ate oeuiderd. L>i(r«rpncM of accent la voMi mate 
by tfi* iain# aoffli art aUo 0Maii«nal1y c«nuoot»d with dlfftMIMea «f g«ndM: 
aco ihc aufdxoi ■■ an^ man. 

1146. Meanin^E' As rfgarda (li«ir aigaificatiaa, tbo prinary 
(l«rirativua fall in ^eo^ral iato two gnat oIumh, tlw aw> iDdioatlaB 
tbe action expreuod by tlio verbal root, the vtbcr Ibe peraoa or 
thiBg In wbieh tbe adton appears, tbe agent or actor — th« latter, 
ettber aubatanlirely or adjectivcly. Tbe one cliwa ta more abatraet, 
iofinitiral; tbe other is tnore concretv, participial, (nber meanlogi 



dra: aUoBck ■!«• vc WC » I 
laMMbc Ikes Ib 

br wUik 4«intHw •( 

a. T* tadObm O* 
MiMtec UM •< ibM. >• aar 
— 11*7 

, *« vfl] fine 

of tbtmm^o^ m^ 
■eevt-ftooH or 

up tb« «afBiH . 

■Bd a«B thorn 



















nam, -nl* -an 





























An It 

DB, loa, una 

tf ot t*r 

1U7. Stcmi without suffix; Rooi-word«. Tline 
wordi ftttd Ihoil iwei have been already pretty fuUy coaiid-; 
ored ftI.oro (6*8, 348 ff., 38S If,, 400. 401 

a. Tfcry «« «»*d MpwUlly Uf ttic later UngUBge. almost solelyl 
u llntU nr «>iiiiH.uiidf. ana h"o liotl" fundwnentU vsla», m action- 
no»M« (frgquMlly M laflnltlw: 971). vaA m igDnl-nouBB tod a^Joct- 
im (ofWo |[»)vcn.ln)t w »«wll«: «»•!■ A. inioB-odunt. the, 
Kt* .Ulofly fantltilnwi 8M: in Bwny instaows, koworor. ih«y do 



Bl>0l"&T*H81 StkKS IK a. 


b. In a auiKll nnmbvr or worda, nwd; of nue oc«UtTeiice, ike 
reduplicated root is navd witbout suffix. 

O. The Vvdie cMvi ua; wKb ilnple radup11«aUofi, aasjhi, oUrft, 
dadfta, didyu *n<t dldjn&t, Jnllli, tnd perhaps trfcAgA mi ^(fn; «t(k 
inb^nafre ndop II rattan, •Belli, nmUmluo, yavlfudli, u>4 JdgQ SBd 
vinlvon (wllh tb4 tDt»ni<lTS infWad o( tbe luutl rftdlctl *»eQt). )a 
d&ridra ii ismi a uinafav to ilie «M]«4jeoNi«n. AaOsd U pn>btbl]r w b« 
uRileTitood 1* B conpontiil, BaQ^fid. 

d. Lf tb« root vnd iu ii ebort roweU a t i* re^uljr sQii usattUy 
%aA*A 363f-h), 

e. Kiam{ik« bate l)«cn gl«*n it iha pUce ]a« qioUrf. In Jtest tba 
t U kddtd to tha iiiutU*la<l form of j/gam r«dup)iMt«d, and xW^ 
(18., onse) tppeitt to pul it tHcv a Iotib <oi>el. In * iLngla InsUace, 
fr&Ucai^ft (KV.) •>/ /ufpntii^ oora, • «l«ui of ihi* cUm oocan m prior 
DontMi of t «oaip«0Bd. 

f. Wotd* of tliiB form Id coroblnatSoti with vorbal praSioi ar« 
veiy aumeroua. Tho aoceot rcata [b4 In coiiil>liuitioii of ihe aunowlth 
Ottier preo«ding elGmenU) on tti« root-ateia. 

g. A r«v neepUoDi In point of sccent ocent: thiu. 4vaB(l, lipssttu; 
and, with oIliM ItiB^Urltiea of bnn, p&rljrl, opistha, uparff^a. 

1148. tr 0. With the tufftx 9 • ie made ild immoiuely 

Inrge and heterogCBeone body of derivatives, of Tariout 
lueauiuf; au4l showiag vatiotu ireaiment of the root: Etu^> 
strenxlheQia^, rTddhi-stienKtheniag, reteotioQ unchaaged, 
and leduplicatioa. 

£u Koad part, they are otaigltiable under tli« two usual geueral 
hoails; but in part th«y hare heon tndiTiiluulized Into luuro itpooial 

t. (k With eca^a^mnjCthoiiiDC of th« root (wb«re Ibat i* pota- 
fblo: 890, S40]. Then aro tha gceal majority, being mare thaa 
twiBD ai numeroui as all others together. 

b. Uinir n«miM aettoni*- m, ^HkOtB wtunntt*, grihA tiiain, ijk 
uMMKwnf. tMs kn oie4.- Jjff. h&TS foJt, kr6dhA terati, JOfa MtrVyiNMf, 
tira <r«Wtny. MLFfi* riniMton. 

O. Mtny nowiMw af«Klt«: u, k(Ami patient, •vaJ4 Mfuf n'rfor, Jlv« 
A'VMp, BLCgb4 thud, oodA tntiUHg, plavA &oat, aart (roo^ earpA >#r- 
fMt, btaoji fftntroHi, khKdA dMSMiring. 

d. Of (ke axunpin beta |lTn, those ttndot b tM«t)i ih« radl»l lyl- 
UMo ui4 ihoM under e th« ondUif, And thit it ia p«cb*p* • Majority 
of cue* ibe t«cl u niaidj iho two etutos d( derUattTet; •> ikti, iskan 
in oottnecdon wllti kindKil Uett m to oDift mnsM, II binu »t fiieb • 
4Hhinit« of MOint %t • ■caotal tondenoj o* tb« l«ngna^ A Um tpocidio 


XTII. PsauuT OnoTAiHOi. 


■n»M vta af Ik* 

■f— rtl— ta IB i fl 


■ Am, fa* 

•r tka mImt 'niM 

Id m, an*, ^ aaaX Bm 

— aad Ik* nbjea nib A* » aacfc «]4i 

wl w w J Me«btH«wpMBU«*(lto l *f iff r bi 4utTMlaB. 

I •. Wltlt Tyddhi'rtiwutbwlag of Um not— tnt oar/ vl 
ft b t&e rM«lU>f ndifsl rowel: Uttt i», of aicdiAl k. uuI of fts^l f 
[■Ml «fi«ii', a or 6, 1 9t I nrs). 

f. KiuBpto d( »mw i ■ fw" M! Ubsa Jlwa, MilcA jJUvw. mMOk 
ma in , dtvi Jlira, tAri tr om ia g. T«c7 fr« lotai «l dMi iBtlrtUoi ni 
— M U f an q*otebti> «ltk M«at •• (ka tDM-tfllaU*. 

(. Eu*ipl*a of ateftU**!!** am: cribhA (MMf, Vfii4 iwijiii. 
aaj4 Uading, Jlr* iM«r. 

3. h. Wiih «iMlr««pliaB^ roo«, tb« «untplM ■•• tew: •, {. k^gA 
Imn, tur4 ropiJ, yucijMJb. aravA y iow, prUri ^mt. vr4 frwap, ^noi 

I. A ansbet *t void* *f ikii cUm, ««podalIr u M«VTt»s la con- 
yuMv*, wa dooKJcH mnlu of Uc mna/cr or rMt-«ic»( o ik« > lUtlin 
rtos; •■ %. -cbofK, -cpbam. -tod*, -dn*. •vlds, -Uim. 

J. A few ■««ttciu ue aiide, HprcUIIy In ih«»ldn lufoafB, Ooa 
|*tla»-«ta«i, noitlj (Miiiil*«: thns. •AmaT«. Ujurfta •Sfikhajm, -sJajs,** 
•d))lrsT*< -pArmrB* -mr^^K. •^unajrft (ronpu* ib« A^wou. 1149e.<l). 
abo ^MMcTLtlTv, (• bIbbktBft (c«n>i«te 1086). Ot«««)oaal exkmplpa alf 
ownt fran Uaop-Mam* : thitp, rroa nu-item. or lacoitdAfT itMna »dl 
b»iM incb, -htnvA, -Invft, -jlura, -plnvo. -slnv*, ••anvn, -afaav*;] 
(not otbcr*. •vna^ -lajtM, -etrna, •puna, -j&D*, -pa^ya, -iaui7a,1 
•daafK. -jurrBi -kiudhTa, -sym, -tiffha, -jlgbra. -piba; non fnnirr- 
■UBai, karlf7« (JB.i, Janl^a, )>li*vi;ya, raelf7a(?)i fappufrnilj fivn 
■orlil-ficmt, Jof&. nlfa-, pu^, prk9i(?). •hofa. 

4. k< DerlTailTct pn a rrom » tednpllc>tc<l root-form ue • mai