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vossiev mniBSB ov thb vbsvch ivititutb, 











J. HE present grammar, which is chiefly intended for beginners, is 
believed to contain all the information that a student of Sanskrit 
is likely to want during the first two or three years of his reading. 
Bules referring to the language of the Vedas have been entirely 
excluded, for it is not desirable that the difficulties of that ancient 
dialect should be approached by any one who has not fully mastered 
the grammar of the ordinary Sanskrit such as it was fixed by PAnini 
and his successors. All allusions to cognate forms in Greek, Latin, 
or Gothic, have likewise been suppressed, because, however inter- 
esting and useful to the advanced student, they are apt to deprive 
the beginner of that clear and firm grasp of the grammatical system 
peculiar to the langua^ of ancient India, which alone can form a 
solid foundation for the study both of Sanskrit and of Comparative 

The two principal objects which I have kept in view whUe com- 
posing this grammar, have been clearness and correctness. With 
regard to deamess, my chief model has been the grammar of Bopp ; 
with regard to correctness, the grammar of Colebrooke. If I may 
hope, without presumption, to have simplified a few of the intricacies 
of Sanskrit grammar which were but partially cleared up by Bopp, 
Benfey, Flecchia, and others, I can hardly flatter myself to have 
reached, with regard to correctness, the high standard of Colebrooke's 
great, though unfinished work. I can only say in self-defence, that it 
is far more difficult to be correct on every minute point, if one endea- 
vours to re-arrange, as I have done, thie materials collected by P4nini, 
and to adapt them to the grammatical system current in Europe, 
than if one follows so closely aa Colebrooke, the system of native 
grammarians, and adopts nearly the whole of their technical termi- 
nology. The grammatical system elaborated by native grammarians 
is, in itself, most perfect; and those who have tested P&nini's work, 
will readily admit that there is no grammar in any language that 

a 2 


could vie with the wonderfiil mechanism of his eight books of 
grammatical rules. But um-ivalled as that system is, it is not 
suited to the wants of English students, least of all to the wants . 
of beginners. While availing myself therefore of the materials 
collected in the grammar of PS^nini and in later works, such as the 
PrakriySrKaumudl, the SiddhSnta-Kaumudl, the Sirasvatl Prakriyft, 
and the MMhavlya-dh&tu-vritti, I have abstained, as much as pos- 
sible, from introducing any more of the peculiar system and of 
the terminology of Indian grammarians* than has already found 
admittance into our Sanskrit grammars; nay, I have frequently 
rejected the grammatical observations supplied ready to hand 
in their works, in order not to overwhelm the memory of the 
student with too many rules and too many exceptions. Whether 
I have always been successful in drawing a line between what 
is essential in Sanskrit grammar and what is not, I must leave 
to the judgment of those who enjoy the good fortune of being 
engaged in the practical teaching of a language the students 
of which may be counted no longer by tens, but by hundreds f. 
I only wish it to be understood that where I have left out rules 

* The few alterations that I have made in the usual terminology have been made 
solely with a view of facilitating the work of the learner. Thus instead of numbering 
the ten classes of verbs, I have called each by its first verb. This relieves the memory 
of much unnecessary trouble, as the very name indicates the character of each class ; 
and though the names may at first sound somewhat uncouth, they are after all the only 
names recognized by native grammarians. Elnowing from my experience as an examiner, 
how difficult it is to remember the merely numerical distinction between the first, second, 
or third preterites, or the first and second futures, I have kept as much as possible to the 
terminology with which classical scholars are familiar, calling the tense corresponding to 
the Greek Imperfect, Imperfect; that corresponding to the Perfect, Reduplicated Perfect; 
that corresponding to the Aorist, Aorist; and the mood corresponding to the Optative, 
Optative. The names of Periphrastic Perfect and Periphrastic Future tell their own 
story; and if I have retained the merely numerical distinction between the First and 
Second Aorists, it was because this distinction seemed to be more intelligible to a 
classical scholar than the six or seven forms of the so-called multiform Preterite. If it 
were possible to make a change in the established grammatical nomenclature, I should 
much prefer to call the Fii-st the Second, and the Second the First Aorist; the former 
being a secondary and compound, the latter a primary and simple tense. But First 
and Second Aorists have become almost proper names, and will not easily yield their 
place to mere argument. 

t In the University of Leipzig alone, as many as fifty pupils attend every year 
the classes of Professor Brockhaus in order to acquire a knowledge of the elements of 
Sanskrit, previous to the study of Comparative Philology under Professor Curtius. 


or exceptions, contained in other grammars, whether native or 
European, I have done so after mature consideration, deliberately 
preferring the less complete to the more complete, but, at the same 
time, more bewildering statement of the anomalies of the Sanskrit 
languaga Thus, to mention one or two cases, when giving the 
rules on the employment of the suflixes vat and mat {§ 187), I have 
left out the rule that bases ending in m, though the m be preceded 
by other vowels than a, always take vat instead of mat. I did so 
partly because there are very few bases ending in m, partly because, 
if a word like kimr-vdn should ' occur, it would be easy to discover 
the reason why here too v was preferred to m, viz. in order to avoid 
the clashing of two m's. Again, when giving the rules on the 
formation of denominatives (J 495), I passed over, for very much 
the same reason, the prohibition given in P4n. in. i, 8, 3, viz. that 
bases ending in m are not allowed to form denominatives. It is 
true, no doubt, that the omission of such rules or exceptions may 
be said to involve an actual misrepresentation, and that a pupil 
might be misled to form such words as kimr-mdn and kim-yati. 
But this cannot be avoided in an elementary grammar ; and 
the student who is likely to come in contact with such recon- 
dite forms, will no doubt be sufficiently advanced to be able to 
consult for himself the rules of P^nini and the explanations of his 

My own fear is that, in writing an elementary grammar, I have 
erred rather in giving too much than in giving too little. I have 
therefore in the table of contents marked with an asterisk all 
such rules as may be safely left out in a first course of Sanskrit 
grammar*, and I have in different places informed the reader 
whether certain portions might be passed over quickly, or should 
be carefully committed to memory. Here and there, as for instance 
in § 103, a few extracts are introduced from F&nini, simply in 
order to give the student a foretaste of what he may expect in 
the elaborate works of native grammarians, while lists of verbs 
like those contained in J 332 or J 462 are given, as everybody 
wiU see, for the sake of reference only. The somewhat elaborate 
treatment of the nominal baaes in t and 4, from $ 220 to $ 226, 

* In the second edition all these paragraphs are printed in smaller type. 


became necessary, partly because in no grammar had the diflFerent 
paradigms of this class been correctly given, partly because it 
was impossible to bring out clearly the principle on which the 
peculiarities and apparent irregularities of these nouns are based 
without entering fully into the systematic arrangement of native 
grammarians. Of portions like this I will not say indeed, fia>n^<r€TaL 
Tty fiaWov ^ fiin^(r€Tai^ but I feel that I may say, ^ ^ ^ ^ ftwflr 
'ft'W ^: ; ' and I know that those who will take the trouble to 
examine the same mass of evidence which I have weighed and 
examined, will be the most lenient in their judgment, if hereafter 
they should succeed better than I have done, in unravelling the 
intricate argumentations of native scholars *. 

But while acknowledging my obligations to the great gram- 
marians of India, it would be ungrateful were I not to 
acknowledge as fully the assistance which I have derived from 
the works of European scholars. My first acquaintance with the 
elements of Sanskrit was gained from Bopp's grammar. Those 
only who know the works of his predecessors, of Colebrooke, 
Carey, Wilkins, and Forster, can appreciate the advance made 
by Bopp in explaining the difficulties, and in lighting up, if I 
may say so, the dark lanes and alleys of the Sanskrit language. 
I doubt whether Sanskrit scholarship would have flourished as 
it has, if students had been obliged to learn their grammar from 
Forster or Colebrooke, and I believe that to Bopp's little grammar 
is due a great portion of that success which has attended the study 
of Sanskrit literature in Germany. Colebrooke, Carey, Wilkins, 
and Forster worked independently of each other. Each derived 
his information from native teachers and from native grammars. 
Among these four scholars, Wilkins seems to have been the first 
to compose a Sanskrit grammar, for he informs us that the first 
printed sheet of his work was destroyed by fire in 1795. The 

* To tbose who have the same faith in the accurate and never swerving argumen- 
tations of Sanskrit commentators, it may be a saving of time to be informed that in 
the new and very useful edition of the Siddh&nta-Kaumudi by S^rt TMnitha-tarkav&r 
chaspati there are two misprints which hopelessly disturb the order of the rules on the 
proper declension of nouns in t and il. On page 1 36, 1. 7, read *fl<C^ instead of ^pfNl^; 
this is corrected in the Corrigenda, and the right reading is found in the old edition. 
On the same page, 1. 13, insert •! after f^RT, or join f^i^mpfHftV^Vi^. 


whole grammar, however, was not published till 1808. In the 
mean time Forster had finished his grammar, and had actually 
delivered his MS. to the Council of the College of Fort William 
in 1804. But it was not published till 18 10. The first part of 
Colebrooke's grammar was published in 1805, and therefore stands 
first in point of time of publication. Unfortunately it was not 
finished, because the grammars of Forster and Carey were then 
in course of publication, and would, as Colebrooke imagined, supply 
the deficient part of his own. Carey's grammar was published in 
1806. Among these four publications, which as first attempts at 
making the ancient language of India accessible to European 
scholars, deserve the highest credit, Colebrooke's grammar is 
facile princeps. It is derived at first hand from the best native 
gmmmars. a^d evinces a familiarity with the most intricate pro- 
blems of Hindu grammarians such as few scholars have acquired 
after him. No one can understand and appreciate the merits of this 
grammar who has not previously acquired a knowledge of the gram- 
matical system of P&nini, and it is a great loss to Sanskrit scholar- 
ship that so valuable a work should have remained unfinished. 

I owe most, indeed, to Colebrooke and Bopp, but I have derived 
many useful hints firom other grammars also. There are some por- 
tions of Wilson's grammar which show that he consulted native 
grammarians, and the &ct that he possessed the remaining portion 
of Colebrooke's * MS., gives to his Ust of verbs, with the exception 
of the BhA class, which was published by Colebrooke, a peculiar 
interest. Professor Benfey in his large grammar performed a most 
useful task in working up independently the materials supplied by 
P4nini and Bhattojidikshita ; and his smaller grammars too, pub- 
lished both in German and in English, have rendered good service 
to the cause of sound scholarship. There are besides, the grammars 
of Boiler in German, of Oppert in French, of Westergaard in Danish, 
of Flecchia in Italian, each supplying something that could not be 
found elsewhere, and containing suggestions, many of which have 
proved useful to the writer of the present grammar. 

But while thus rendering foil justice to the honest labours of 
my predecessors, I am bound to say, at the same time, that with 

* See Wilson's Sanscrit and English Dictionary, first edition, preface, p. xlv. 


regard to doubtful or difficult forms, of which there are many in 
the grammar of the Sanskrit language, not one of them can be 
appealed to as an ultimate authority. Every grammar contains, 
as is well known, a number of forms which occur but rarely, if ever, 
in the Uterary language. It is necessary, however, for the sake of 
systematic completeness, to give these forms ; and if they are to be 
given at all, they must be given on competent authority. Now it 
might be supposed that a mere reference to any of the numerous 
grammars already published would be sufficient for this purpose, 
and that the lists of irregular or unusual forms might safely be 
copied from their pages. But this is by no means the case. Even 
with regard to regular forms, whoever should trust implicitly in the 
correctness of any of the grammars, hitherto published, would never 
be certain of having the right form. I do not say this lightly, or 
without being able to produce proofs. When I began to revise my 
manuscript grammar which I had composed for my own use many 
years ago, and when on points on which I felt doubtftil, I con- 
sulted other grammars, I soon discovered either that, with a strange 
kind of sequacity, they all repeated the same mistake, or that they 
varied widely from each other, without assigning any reason or 
authority. I need not say that the grammars which we possess 
differ very much in the degree of their trustworthiness ; but with 
the exception of the first volume of Colebrooke and of Professor 
Benfey's larger Sanskrit grammar, it would be impossible to appeal 
to any of my predecessors as an authority on doubtful points. 
Forster and Carey, who evidently depend almost entirely on 
materials supplied to them by native assistants, give frequently 
the most difficult forms with perfect accuracy, while they go wildly 
wrong immediately after, without, it would seem, any power of 
controlling their authorities. The frequent inaccuracies in the 
grammars of Wilkins and Wilson have been pointed out by 
others ; and however useful these works may have been for 
practical purposes, they were never intended as authorities on 
contested points of Sanskrit grammar. 

Nothing remained in fact, in order to arrive at any satisfactory 
result, but to collate the whole of my grammar, with regard not 
only to the irregular but likewise to the regular forms, with P4nini 
and other native grammarians, and to supply for each doubtful case, 


and for rules that might seem to differ from those of any of my 
predecessors, a reference to P4nini or to other native authorities* 
This I have done, and in so doing I had to re -write nearly the 
whole of my grammar ; but though the time and trouble expended 
on this work have been considerable, I believe that they have not 
been bestowed in vain. I only regret that I did not give these 
authoritative references throughout the whole of my work*, because, 
even where there cannot be any difference of opinion, some of my 
readers might thus have been saved the time and trouble of 
looking through F&nini to find the Stitras that bear on every 
form of the Sanskrit language. 

By this process which I have adopted, I believe that on many 
points a more settled and authoritative character haa been imparted 
to the grammar of Sanskrit than it possessed before ; but I do by 
no means pretend to have arrived on all points at a clear and 
definite view of the meaning of P4nini and his successors. The 
grammatical system of Hindu grammarians is so peculiar, that rules 
which we should group together, are scattered about in different 
parts of their manuals. We may have the general nile in the last, 
and the exceptions in the first book, and even then we are by no 
means certain that exceptions to these exceptions may not occur 
somewhere else. I shall give but one instance. There is a root 
ffP| jdgrii which forms its Aorist by adding ^ isham, ^ <A, fi(^ it. 
Here the simplest rule would be that final ^ ri before ^ isham 
becomes ^ r (P&n. vi. i, 77). This, however, is prevented by another 
rule which requires that final ^ fi should take Guna before ^ isha/m 
(P4n. vn. 3, 84). This would give us wirmfic?i ajdgar-isham. But 
now comes another general rule (P&n. vn. 2, i) which prescribes 
Vriddhi of final vowels before ^ isham, i. e. v^uiiM ajdgdrisha/m. 
Against this change, however, a new rule is cited (P&n. vn. 3, 85), 
and this secures for irnj jdgri a special exception from Y^iddhi, and 
leaves its base again as wn^jdgar. As soon as the base has been 
changed to "mn^jdgar, it Mia under a new rule (P&n. vn. 2, 3), and 
is forced to take Vjiddhi, until this rule is again nullified by PAn. vn. 
2, 4, which does not allow Vfiddhi in an Aorist that takes interme- 
diate ^ i, like iiHN(M cydgarisham. There is an exception, however. 

* They have been given in the second edition. 



to this rale also, for bases with short i» a, beginning and ending 
with a consonant, may optionally take Vriddhi (P&n. vn. 2, 7). This 
option is afterwards restricted, and roots with short m a, beginning 
with a consonant and ending in ^r, like wx^jdgaVy have no option 
left, but are restricted afresh to Vjiddhi (Pfijgi. vii. 2, 2). However, 
even this is not yet the final result. Our base ymn^jdgar is after 
all not to take Vriddhi, and hence a new special rule (P4n. vn. 2, 5) 
settles the point by granting to WPlJdgri a special exception from 
Vriddhi, and thereby establishing its Guna. No wonder that these 
manifold changes and chances in the formation of the First Aorist of 
^OJiJdgri should have inspired a grammarian, who celebrates them 
in the following couplet : 

" Guna, Vriddhi, Guna, Vriddhi, prohibition, option, again Vriddhi 
and then exception, these, with the change of ri into a semivowel 
in the first instance, are the nine results.'^ 

Another difficulty consists in the want of critical accuracy in 
the editions which we possess of Pd^nini, the Siddhinta-Kaumudl, 
the Laghu-Kaumudl, the SArasvatl, and Vopadeva. Far be it from 
me to wish to detract from the merits of native editors, like 
Dharantdhara, Kdiin&tha, T4rd.n^tha, still less from those of 
Professor Boehtlingk, who published his text and notes nearly 
thirty years ago, when few of us were able to read a single line of 
P&nini. But during those thirty years considerable progress has 
been made in unravelling the mysteries of the grammatical literature 
of India. The commentary of Sd.yana to the Rig-veda has shown us 
how practically to apply the rules of P&nini ; and the translation of 
the Laghu-Kaumudl by the late Dr. BaUantyne has enabled even 
beginners to find their way through the labyrinth of native grammar. 
The time has come, I believe, for new and critical editions of Pdiiini 
and his commentators. A few instances may suffice to show the 
insecurity of our ordinary editions. The commentary to Pftn. vn. 2,42, 
as well as the SArasvatl n. 25, i, gives the Benedictive Atmanepada 
^^Nif vartshtshta and n6^ startshishta ; yet a reference to P&n. viL 
2, 39 and 40, shows that these forms are impossible. Again, if 
P&nini (vni.3,92) is right — and how could the InfalliUe be wrong? — 


in using ^npnfNftr agragdmini with a dental n in the last syllable, 
it is clear that he extends the prohibition given in vin, 4, 34, 
with regard to Upasargas, to other compounds. It is useless to 
inquire whether in doing so he was right or wrong, for it is an article 
of faith with every Hindu grammarian that whatever word is used 
by P&nini in his SAtras, is eo ipso correct. Otherwise, the rules 
affecting compoimds with Upasargas are by no means identical with 
those that affect ordinary compounds ; and though it may be right to 
argue a fortiori from wmftfftf pragdmini to ^iirnfMH agragdmini, it 
would not be right to argue from ^Rpvpr agraydna to hutt praydna, 
this being necessarily inmrr praydna. But assuming ^npnftrftf agron 
gdmini to be correct, it is quite clear that the compounds laiH i fttifl 
svargakdminau, yjufaiut vrisha^dminaUy ^rmH i fti harikdmdni, and 
gfil^iit^ harikdmena, given in the commentary to viii. 4, 1 3, are all 
wrong, though most of them occur not only in the printed editions 
of P&nini and the Siddh&nta-Kaumudi, but may be traced back to 
the MSS. of the Prakriy4-Kaumudl, the source, though by no means 
the model, of the Siddhd^nta-Kaumudi. I was glad to learn from 
my friend Professor Groldstlicker, who is preparing an edition of the 
K&Sik4 -Vritti, and whom I consulted on these forms, that the MSS. 
of Yimana which he possesses, carefrdly avoid these faulty examples 
to P&n. vni. 4, 1 3. 

After these explanations I need hardly add that I am not so san- 
guine as to suppose that I could have escaped scot free where so many 
men of superior knowledge and talent have failed to do so. All I can 
say is, that I shall be truly thankful to any scholar who wiU take 
the trouble to point out any mistakes into which I may have fallen ; 
and I hope that I shall never so far forget the regard due to truth 
as to attempt to represent simple corrections, touching the declension 
of nouns or the conjugation of verbs, as matters of opinion, or so far 
lower the character of true scholarship as to appeal, on such matters, 
from the verdict of the few to the opinion of the many. 

Hearing from my friend Professor Btihler that he had finished 
a Sanskrit Syntax, based on the works of Pdnini and other native 
grammarians, which will soon be published, I gladly omitted that 
portion of my grammar. The rules on the derivation of nouns, by 
means of Krit, TJn&di, and Taddhita suflBxes, do not properly belong 
to the sphere of an elementary grammar. If time and health permit, 



I hope to publish hereafter, as a separate treatise, the chapter of 
the PrakriyfirKaumudl bearing on this subject. 

In the list of verbs which I have given as an Appendix, 
pp. 244-285, I have chiefly followed the PrakriyA-Kaumudl and 
the S&rasvati. These grammars do not conjugate every verb that 
occurs in the Dh&tup&tha, but those only that serve to illustrate 
certain grammatical rules. Nor do they adopt, like the Siddh&nta- 
Kaumudl, the order of the verbs as given in P&nini's Dh4tup&tha, 
but they group the verbs of each class according to their voices, 
treating together those that take the terminations of the Parasmai- 
pada, those that take the terminations of the Atmanepada, and, 
lastly, those that admit of both voices. In each of these subdi- 
visions, again, the single verbs are so arranged as best to illustrate 
certain grammatical rules. In making a new selection among 
the verbs selected by B&machandra and Anubh{itisvardp&ch&iya» 
I have given a preference to those which occur more frequently 
in Sanskrit literature, and to those which illustrate some points 
of grammar of peculiar interest to the student In this manner 
I hope that the Appendix will serve two purposes : it will not 
only help the student, when doubtful as to the exact forms 
of certain verbs, but it will likewise serve as a useful practical 
exercise to those who, taking each verb in turn, will try to 
account for the exact forms of its persons, moods, and tenses by a 
reference to the rules of this grammar. In some cases references 
have been added to guide the student, in others he has to find by 
himself the proper warranty for each particular form. 

My kind friends Professor Cowell and Professor Kielhom have 
revised some of the proof-sheets of my grammar, for which I beg to 
express to them my sincere thanks. 


5th April, 1866. 



i. HE principal alterations in the new edition of my Sanskrit grammar 
CQnsist in a number of additional references to F&nini^ in all cases 
where an appeal to his authority seemed likely to be useful, and in 
the introduction of the marks of the accent I have also been able 
to remove a number of mistakes and misprints which, in spite of all 
the care I had taken, had been overlooked in the first edition. Most 
of these I had corrected in the German translation of my grammar, 
published at Leipzig in 1868; some more have now been corrected. 
I feel most grateful to several of my reviewers for having pointed 
out these oversights, and most of all to Pandit B&j&rftmaiiftstrl, 
whose list of notes and queries to my grammar has been of the 
greatest value to me. It seems almost hopeless for a European 
scholar to acquire that familiarity with the intricate system of 
P&nini which the Pandits of the old school in India still possess ; 
and although some of their refinements in the interpretation of 
P&nini's rules may seem too subtle, yet there can be no doubt that 
these living guides are invaluable to us in exploring the gigantic 
labyrinth of ancient Sanskrit grammar. 

There is, however, one difficulty which we have to contend with, 
and which does not exist for them. They keep true throughout to 
one system, the system of P4nini ; we have to transfer the facts of 
that system into our own system of grammar. What accidents are 
likely to happen during this process I shall try to illustrate by 
one instance. B&j4r&mai^trl objects to the form fi^ pun^u as the 
locative plural of jin9( pumdn. From his point of view, he is perfectly 
right in his objection, for according to P&nini the locative plural has 
Anusv&ra, |f purhsu. But in our own Sanskrit grammars we first 
have a general rule that ^^ is changed to i^^^ after any vowel 
except m and wi d, in spite of intervening Anusvfija (see § 100); 
and it has even been maintained that there is some kind of 
physiological reason for such a change. If then, after having laid 


down this rule, we yet write ^ pvmsu^ we Biinply commit a gram- 
matical blunder ; and I believe there is no Sanskrit grammar, except 
Colebrooke's, in which that blunder has not been committed. In 
order to avoid it, I wrote fi^g[ punsu, thus, by the retention of the 
dental «( n, making it grammatically and physically possible for 
the ^^ to remain unchanged. It may be objected that on the same 
ground I ought to have written Instr. j^m punsd^ Gen. 5^^ punsdh^ 
&c. ; but in these cases the \s i& radical, and would therefore not be 
liable to be changed into 1^ sh after a vowel and Anusv&ra (PAn. vin. 
3, 59). Professor Weber had evidently overlooked these simple 
rules, or he would have been less forward in blaming Dr. Keller 
for having followed my example in writing 511 punsu^ instead of 
^ pumsu. In P4nini's grammar (as may be seen from my note 
appended to $ icx)) the rule on the change of ^5 into 1^ sh is so care- 
fully worded that it just excludes the case of jj purhsu^ although the 
^su of the loc. plur. is preceded by an Anusv^. I have now, by 
making in my second edition the same reservation in the general 
rule, been able to conform to P&nini's authority, and have written 
^ pumsuj instead of fif punsu, though even thus the fact remains 
that if the dot is really meant for Anusv&ra, and if the ^ ^t^ is the 
termination of the locative plural, the ^ s would be sounded as 
1^ shy according to the general tendency of the ancient Sanskrit 

I have mentioned this one instance in order to show the peculiar 
difficulties which the writer of a Sandcrit grammar haa to contend 
with in trying to combine the technical rules of P&nini with the 
more rational principles of European grammar ; and I hope it may 
convince my readers, and perhaps even Professor Weber, that where 
I have deviated from the ordinary rules of our European grammars, 
or where I seem to have placed myself at variance with some of the 
native authorities, I have not done so without having carefully 
weighed the advantages of the one against those of the other 



August, 1870. 


CHAPTER I.— The Alphabet 
The DevanSgari letters . 
§ I. The Devandgar! alphabet . 

2. Direction of Sanskrit alphabet 

3. How to write the letters . 

4. Sounds represented hj the De- 

yandgari alphabet 

5. Number of letters . 

6. The letter It . 
f • Jihydmiilfja and UpadhmSntja 

8. Signs of nasals and their substi 

tute .... 

9. The three nasal semivowels 

10. Consonants without correspond 

ing nasals . 

1 1. Anusv4ra before /, sh, b, h 
>l^i2. Names of letters 

13. Vowel signs, initial, medial, and 

final .... 

14. Consonants followed by vowels 

15. Yir&ma .... 

16. Combination of consonants 
1 7^ The sign for r 

18. The Virdma used as a stop-gap 

19. The signa for a pauae . 

ao. The Avagraha. List of com 
pound consonants 

21. Numerical figures . 

22, Rules of pronunciation . 











CHAPTER II.— Rules of Sandhi. 
§ 23. Object and use of Saudhi . .11 
24. Distinction between External 

and Internal Sandhi . .11 
2$. Classification of vowels, long, 

short, protracted . • .12 

§26. Monophthongs and diphthongs . 

27. Nasalized vowels 

28. Light and heavy vowels • 

29. Acute, grave, and circumflexed 

vowels . . . . 

30. Guna and Yriddhi . 

31. Guna of <X, d . 

32. Combination of vowels at the 

end and beginning of words. 
No hiatus .... 

33. Vowels meeting the same vowels 

34. Vowels & and <i, followed by 

di£ferent- vowels . 

35. Vowels d and d, followed hy 

diphthongs. . 

36. Voweb i, A, ri, followed by dis- 

similar vowels 

37. Vowels e and o, followed by any 

vowel except d . 

38. Voweb at and cm, followed by 

any voweb . • . . 

39. Treatment of final y and v 

40. The hiatus occasioned by Sandhi 

41. Vowels e and before d • 

42. Unchangeable or Pragrihya 

voweb .... 

43. Irregular Sandhi; prepositions 

ending in <X or ^, followed by 
6 or o 

44. Prepositions ending in <X or ^ 

followed hj fi , 
^ 45. The of oahfha^ and otu^ 
^ 46. Irr^^lar compounds 
:^ 47. The final of indeclinable words 
:)t 48. Monosyllabic indeclinable words 
:^ 49. Sandhi of the particle d • 















:^§5o. Particlee unaffected by Sandhi 
:^ 51. Protracted vowels unaffected by 

Sandhi .... 
g2. Table showing the combination 

of final with initial vowels . 

53. Combination of final and initial 


54. The eleven final consonants 

55. No word ends in two consonants 

56. Classification of consonants, ac- 

cording to their place 

57. Classification of consonants, ac- 

cording to their quality, i. e. 
contact^ approach, opening . 

58. Surd and sonant consonants . 

59. Aspirated and unaspirated con- 

sonants .... 

60. Changes of place, and changes 

of quality . . . . 

61. Changes ofplace affect Dentals, 

Anusvdra, and Yisarga 

62. Final t before Palatals ch, chh, 

63. Final n before /^A, fl, /• 

64. Final t before f, fA, ^, 4K ? 

(not ah) , 
6g. Final n before d^^k^n (not sK) 

66. Changes of quality 

67. Final ^ f, <, jp before nasals 

^ 68. Final k, f, <, jp before maya or 

^ 69. Initial h after final kft,t,p . 
f o. Final t before I . * • 
f I. Final n before I . . 
fa. Final », n, n after a short vowel 

73. Final n before the firsts and 

seconds .... 

74. Final n and n before i, eh, a . 

75. Final n before i or a (not ah) . 

76. Final ( before «... 

77. Anusv^ and final m 

78. M in pcmady and before conso- 

nants .... 

79. Final mheioTehn,hmfhf/, hi, hv 

80. Sam before fyi, acmakjri . 

81. Sam heiore rdf, aamrdij . 
8a. Yisarga and final « or r • 



The only final sihTlantinpauady 


Yisarga, and itsmodifications 



84. Yisarga before a sonant letter 

changed to r, and exceptions 




Final radical r . . 



Final r before initial r . 




Pronouns aah and eahah, af/cbh 




Bho^ ..... 




Exceptions in compound words 



Nouns ending in radical r . 




Initial chh and medial chh 



Initial i changeable to chh • 



Final h, gh, dh, dh, bh, throw- 


ing their aspiration back on 


initial g, 4> ^t^* 



Table showing the combina- 


tion of final with initial con- 

sonants .... 




yatif or change of n into n, 

and a into ah , 




Change of n into n 



TfipnoH and kahvbhndH 







Change of n into n in a com- 

pound .... 




Optional changes of n into n in 


the preposition ni 




Change of a into ah 




Change of a into ah in the re- 

duplicative syllable . 




Change of a into ah after pre- 


positions .... 



% 103. 

Extracts from P&nini on cer- 


tain changes of a into ah 



* 104. 

Change of a into ah in com- 

pounds .... 



* 105. 

Change of e^ into fh . 




RiTT^KH OF Internal Sandhi 



% 107. 

Final vowels. No hiatus . 



4c 108. 

Final d and d, followed by 


vowels .... 


* X09. 

Yerbal bases md 



¥c "O. 

Final t, t,u,d,fi changed to 


y,v,r; finalt,«,t«,4,rt,r« 


changed to iy, uv, ri, ir . 



4c I". 

Final ft, before consonants, 


changed to ir or l^ . 






* "7- 

:yb§ii2. Final eyai,o,<m changed to 
ay, dy, av, dv; roots ending 
in diphthongs . 

Final consonants, only eleven 

Two consonants at the end of 
a word impossible 

Sonant and surd initials require 
sonant and surd finals 

Final aspirates lose their aspi- 
ration • . . • 

Final gh, dh, dh, hh, followed 
by tj th, lose their aspiration 
and change t, ih into dh 
^ 118. FmsA gh,dh,dh,bh,f oWowedhj 
dhv, hh, and 8, or final, lose 
their aspiration and throw it 
back on initial g, d, d,b . 

Final chj,jh changed to ^ or ^ 

Final $h changed to f . 

Final $h before 8 changed to k 

Final sk before t, th, changes 
them to t,th , 

Final 8h changed to t before 
other consonants 

Final^' in certain roots treated 

like «4 . . . . 

Final i, chh, Juh, 4ch treated 
like 8h . 

Final 4 changed to A; . 
Final h before 8 treated like gh 
Final h treated like gh or dh. 
Final A optionaUy treated like 

gh or 4h . 
Final h of nah treated like dh 
Final 8 changed into t in cer- 
tain nominal bases 
^ 132. Final 8 before 8 changed into t 
in verbal bases ; 8 dropt be- 
fore dhi; optionally changed 
into t , . . . 
^ 133. Final n or m before sibilants 

changed to Anusv&ra 
4t 134. ilTunchangedbef ore semivowels 
:y^ 135. If imchanged before y,r, I . 
^ 136. If changed to n • 

137. The five nasals abbreviated 
into the Anusvdra dot 











































§ 1 38. Annsv&ra before i, 8h, 8, h . 

4t 139. i\r after ch orj changed into H 
140. Chh changed to chchh . 

:)t 141. (7AA before norm changed to/ 

^ 142. Final y and v dropt before 
consonants, except y . 

i/t 143. Final iv, ir, wr lengthened if 
followed by consonants 

% 144. Final vr and ur lengthened if 
ending a word . 

% 145. Radical if or t^ at the end of 
nominal bases lengthened . 

^ 146, 147. Doubling of consonants • 
148. Explanation of some gramma- 
tical terms used by native 











CHAPTER m.— Declension. 

49. Gender, number, and case . 64 

50. I. Bases ending in consonants; 

II. bases ending in vowels . 64 

51. I. Bases ending in consonants; 

no bases mn,fi,y . . 64 

52. Terminations . . .64 

53. Li. Unchangeable and L 2. 

Changeable bases . 65 

54. I.i.Unchangeablebases;«u^ais^ 65 

55. S<vrva4dk . . .66 

56. Chitralikh . . . .66 

57. HarU,agnimcAh,8uhfid,hvdh, 

gup, hakvhh . .67 

58. Jalaanuch . . . .67 

59. Special bases in ch; hnmch, 

prdfich, vfUch . .68 

60. Prdchh .... 68 

61. Ruj, Hrj . . .68 

62. Bases in j, changeable to ^y 

8a/mrdj, vibhrdj, deoej,vUv(j^ 
8iij,par{vrdj,vUvardj, hhfijj 68 

63. Irregular nouns vaj; kkamj, 

cwaydj .69 

64. Bases in r; gvr, vdr,pur, dvdr, 

kir 70 

65. Bases in »/ A.basesformedby 

cu, 18, U8; sumcmtM, 8ujyott8 "71 

66. Jaras ajudjard . . .72 

67. Nifjarca and nvrjara • • 73 






AnehaSf purudamhs . 74 

:yb§i94. Optional feminine compounds 



^ 169. 

Uianaa .... 


:)^ 195. Pathin, ribhvkahiuy mathin . 


* 170- 

Bases in ; B. bases endiDg in 

196. Aham, ..... 


radical s; pindagraSf supis. 

;yb 197. Aham at the end of compounds 


9UtU8 .... 


ifc 198. Ahan at the end of compounds 


^ 171- 

Pipathis . • . 


199. Svan, ywoam, 


% 172. 

Mia, sajus; list of bases in a . 


^z 200. Maghaman .... 


^ 173- 

DhvaSy sras .... 


^ 201. PUshan, aa^amam 


^ 174- 

Bases ending in /, sh, chh,ksh,h 


^ 202. Uan 


I. 2>{/, dWY, 8prU 


203. Bases in in, dhanin 


a. i^ai .... 


204. Participles in vas . 


3. FiV .... 


205. Participles in iva,8 


4. Dkrish .... 


206. Bases in tyaa, gariyas . 


5. Z>w«^ .... 


^ 207. Miscellaneous nouns with 

6. Pr^cAA .... 


changeable bases, pdd 


7. Taksh .... 


^ 208. Vdh 


8. Lih, guh 


ifc 209. JSvetavdh .... 


9. DieA, ushnih . 


:yb 2ia Anaduh .... 


10. Druh, muk, snih, snuh . 


211. Ap 


II. i^o^ .... 


:^ 212. Pums 


^ 175. 

Tv/rdsdh .... 


;jt 213. Div, dyu .... 


^ 17^. 

Pwroddi .... 


^214. Asoffh and other Metaplasta . 



Ukthaida .... 


215. II. Bases ending in vowels, 

^ 178. 

Praidm .... 


subdivided . . 



I. 2. Nouns with changeable 

216. II. I . Bases ending in an^r vowel 

bases; A. nouns with two 

except d . 


bases, a(2a< 


217. Bases in ai and om 





2 1 8. Bases in . 



B. Nouns with three bafies, 

ifc 219. Dyo 


pratyach .... 


^ 220. Bases in i and i2 . 



Bases in at and amJt; adat 


I. Monosyllabic bases in t and 


The nasal in the nom. and ace. 

t2, being both masc. and fem. 


dual of neuters, and in the 

A. By themselves ; dhi, krt, M 



feminine base . 


:)i^ 221. R At the end of compounds . 


* 184. 

The nasal in [Participles of re- 

:|^ 222. 2. Polysyllabic bases in t and ^, 

duplicated verbs 


being both masc. and fem. . 



Brihat, pfishat 


% 223. The five fuller feminine termi- 




nations .... 



Bases in mat and vat 


224. I. Monosyllabic bases in i and 

% 188. 

Bhavaty Your Honour . 


^ being feminine only, dhi, 

^ 189. 

ArvcU and arvan . 




^ 190. 



225. 2. Polysyllabic bases in i and 


Bases in an, many van; rdjan. 

4, being feminine only, nadt, 

ndma/n .... 


vadhil .... 



Brahman, dtvan . 


^226. Compounds ending in mono- 

^ 193- 

Feminines of bases of nouns in 

syllabic feminine bases in t 

an, voffi, ffion . 


and 4, mbhrU . 

























Compounds ending in poly- 
syllabic feminine bases in t 
and Hy bahuireyast . . 107 

Strt 108 

AtisM . . .108 

Bases in t and u, masc. fem. neut 109 
Kati . .111 

Skikhi Ill 

Pad 112 

Akahl, asthi, dadkif sakihi . 112 
Bases in fi, masc. fem. neut., 

naptfiy pUfi .112 
Krashfu .113 
NH 114 


IL 2. Bases ending in a and d, 
kdntah, tdf tarn . .114 

Bases in d, masc. and fem., 
vUva/pd .... 116 

Hdhd 116 

CHAPTER IV.— Adjectives. 

§241. Declension of adjectives . 116 

242. Formation of feminine base . 117 

243. Priyah, fem, priyd .117 
:)t 244. Fdchakah, pdchikd .117 

245. Feminines formed by $ . . 117 
^ 246. Exceptional feminines in i . 117 
ij/t 247. Irregular feminines .117 

;yb 248. Formation of feminine sub- 
stantives . . .118 

249. Degrees of comparison . . 118 

250. Tara and tama, how added . 118 

251. lycM and ishfhaf how added . 118 

252. Exceptional cpmparatives and 

superlatives . .119 

CHAPTER v.— Numerals. 

§253. Cardinals and declension of 

cardinals, eka . . . 120 

254. Dvi , . . . - . 124 

255. Tri, tisfi .... 124 

256. Chatwr, chaUuri . . . 124 

257. Fanchan, Bhash, ctahfan . 124 
2^ 258. Construction of cardinals • 124 

259. Ordinals . . .125 

260. Numerical adverbs and other 

derivatives . . .126 


CHAPTER VI.— Pbohouhs. 
§261. Personal pronouns . . 127 
262. Sah, sdytat . . . .128 
:yb 263. Syahj syd, tycU . . . 128 

264. Possessive pronouns . .128 

265. Reflexive pronouns, waycan . 129 

266. Atman . . .129 

267. Svahy ivd, svcMn . 129 

268. Demonstrative pronouns^M^/^, 

e8hd, etat . . .129 

269. Ayamy iyam, idam .129 
;|^ 270. £nam, endm, eruU .130 

271. AsaUf cacMy adah . . . ISO 

272. Tah, yd, yat . 131 

273. Xah, kd, him . . .131 
:i^ 274. Pronouns modified by o^ . 131 

275. Compound pronouns, f<ie^p/<bc. 132 

276. Tdvat &c. . ... 132 

277. KcUchU Ac. .... 132 

278. Pronominal adjectives, aortw, 

vUvtty Ac. .... 133 

279. Anyah, anyd, cmycU .134 

280. Ubhau, ubhsy tubhe . .134 

281. Ubhayah, yt, yam .134 
:^ 282. FUrva and its optional forms . 134 
;yb 283. Fraihar}$a and its optional 

nominative plural .134 

:yb 284. Bvittya and its optional forms 135 
2f: 285. Adverbial declension . .135 


§286. Active and passive .137 

287. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 137 

288. ParasmaipadaandAtmanepada 

in derivative verbs . .138 

289. Passive . . . .138 

290. The thirteen tenses and moods 138 

291. Signification of tenses and 

moods . . . .139 

292. Numbers and persons . .140 

CHAPTER Vin.— The Ten Classes. 

§ 293. Special and general tenses, in 

the ten classes . . .140 

294. Special or modified, general or 

unmodified tenses . .140 

295. Division of verbal bases . .141 

C 2 


§296. I. First division; Bhft, Tud, 

Div, Chur classes . ,141 

297. II. Second division, and sub- 

divisions .... 142 

298. Ha, Sn, Tan, Eri classes . 143 

299. II 5. Ad, Hu, Rudh classes . 143 

CHAPTER IX. — ^Augment, Reduplica- 
tion, AND Terminations. 

§300. Augment and reduplication . 145 

301. Augment a . . . 145 

302. Reduplication in the perfect, 

and in the Hu verbs . .145 

303. Qeneral rules of reduplication 146 

304. Aspirated initials . . .146 

305. Guttural initials . . .146 

306. Double initials . . . 146 

307. Initial sibilant followed hj a 

tenuis .... 146 

308. The vowel of the reduplicative 

syllable is short . . .146 

309. Medial e and ai are redupli- 

cated by t, and cmhj u , 146 

310. Final e, oi, are reduplicated 

by a 146 

311. Irregular reduplication by 

Samprasftrana . .147 

312. Short initial a . . . 147 

313. Initial a followed by two con- 

sonants . .148 

314. Initial ri . . . .148 

315. Short initial i and u . . 148 

316. Special rules of reduplication. 148 
^ 317. Nij, vij, vUh . .148 
^ 318. MA,hA .148 
^319. Hcm,hifji,chi , . 148 

320. Terminations . . . 149 

321. Terminations of first and se- 

cond divisions . . .149 

322. Regular conjugation . .150 

CHAPTER X.— General Tensed 

§323. General or unmodified tenses . 159 

324. Reduplicated perfect . , 169 

325. Verbs which may form the re- 

duplicated perfect . .159 

326. The periphrastic perfect . 159 


§327. Strong and weak termina- 
tions 160 

328. Weakening of base . . 160 

329. Bases ending in d and diph- 

thongs, how changed . . 161 

330. Bases ending in t, C, ft, w, ^ fi, 

how changed . . .161 

CHAPTER XL— Intermediate i. 

§331. When it nrnat be omitted, 
when it may be omitted, 
when it rrmst be inserted . 162 

^332. List of verbs in which the inter- 
mediate i mitst be omitted . 163 

^t 333. Verbs in which the interme- 
diate i mtist be omitted in 
certain tenses . .165 

^ 334' Special rules for the redupli- 
cated perfect . . .167 

^ 336* Special rules for the 2nd pers. 

sing. Par. of the red. perf. . 167 

^ 33^- Table showing when interme- 
diate i must be omitted . 168 

^ 337« Optional insertion of t . . 168 

^ 338. Necessary insertion of i .170 

339. The intermediate % never liable 

to GuQa .... 171 

340. Insertion of long i . .171 
^341. Optional insertion of long t .171 

34a. Periphrastic perfect . . 172 
^ 343« Periphrastic perfect of inten- 

sives and desideratives . 172 
Paradigms of the reduplicated 
perfect .... 172 

CHAPTER XII. — Steengthening and 


§344. Two classes of terminations, 
strengthening or weakening 
a verbal base . . 175 

^ 345- Special forms of strengthening 

and weakening certain bases 177 


§346. First and second aorist . . 179 

347. Four forms of the first aorist . 179 

348. Rules for the first form . . 180 




^§349- Stales for desideratives, inten- 

Bives, &c .... 181 

350. Bules for the second form . 181 

351. Terminations b^inning with 

St or 9th . . . . 181 

352. Boots in d and diphthongs . 181 
^353* Mt,mi,dtyU . . .181 

^ 364. E(m ' 181 

^ 355. Gam 181 

^ 356. 7am 181 

357. Bules for the third form . 182 

ifc 358. Mt, mi,ll. . . 182 

^ 359* 7a^ny ramiy nam . . . 182 

360. Bales for the foarth form . 182 

jyt 361. iSUah 182 

2^ 362. Btth, dihf lihy gvh • 182 

Paradigms .... 182 

363. Second aorist . . . 186 

364. Boots ending in 4, 0, i, ri; dfii 187 

365. Boots with penaltimate nasal . 187 

366. Irr^alar forms • . . 187 
iff 367. Verbs which take the second 

aorist .... 187 
^ 368. Verbs which take the second 

aorist in the Par. only . 188 

^ 369. The Tan verbs . .188 

370. Beduplicated second aorist . 188 

iff 371. Sriy drUf sruy ham; M^ dhe . 189 

372. Shortening of bases ending in 

ay 189 

373. Bases that cann6t be shortened 189 

374. Compensation between base 

and redaplicative syllable . 189 

375* Vowelsof redaplicative syllable 190 
% 31^' Verbs beginning and ending 

with doable consonants • 190 

^377. Verbs with penaltimate H, r^ . 190 

378. Verbs beginning with vowels . 191 

:||lr 379. Irregular reduplicated aorist . 191 

Paradigm .... 191 

380. When the diiOTerent forms of 

the aorists are used . . 191 

CHAPTEB XIV.— Future, Conditional, 
Pesiphsastic Futube, and Benedictivb. 

§381. Future .... 192 
382. Changes of the base . . 192 


§383. Conditional . . . .193 

384. Periphrastic future^ . .194 

385. Benedictive . . . .195 
;yb 386. Bases ending in ay . . 195 

387. Weakening in benedictive Pa- 

rasmaipada^ strengthening in 
benedictive Atmanepada . 195 

388. Intermediate i . .195 
^ 389. Weakening of base before y . 196 
^ 390. Verbs ending in i, u, ft, ft .196 
:)t 391. Verbs ending inn . , 196 
^ 392. Verbs ending in d. . 196 
^ 393* ^erbs which take Samprasi- 

rana 197 

^ 394. Other verbs which take Sam- 

prasirana .... 197 

^ 395. iSds changed to Hsh . 197 

396. Benedictive Atmanepada . 198 

CHAPTEB XV.— Passive. 

§397. Atmanepada terminations . 198 
398. Special tenses of passive . 198 
% 399 Causative, denominative, in- 
tensive bases . . .198 

400. Weakening of base. Paradigm 199 

401. General tenses of passive . 199 

402. The aorist passive . . . 200 

403. The 3rd pers.8ing. aorist passive 200 
^ 404. Aorist of verbs ending in d . 200 
:yb 405. Aorist of verbs ending in ay . 200 
;yb 406. Aorist of intensive and desi- 

darative bases . . . 200 
^ 407. Irregular forms . • .201 
% 408. Verbs ending in am .201 

409. Paradigm . . . .201 

410. Future, conditional, and bene- 

dictive passive . . .201 

411. Their optional forms . .201 
:jl^ 412. Aorist passive of intransitive 

verbs .... 203 

^413* Optional forms . . . 203 

CHAPTEB XVI.— Participles, Qbbunds, 
AND Infinitive. 

§414. Participle present Parasmai- 

pada. .... 203 
415. Participle future Parasmaipada 204 




§416. Participle of reduplicated per- 
fect Parasmaipada . 204 
^ 41'j, Participle of reduplicated per- 
fect with i, . . . 205 

418. Participle of reduplicated per- 

fect Atmanepada . .205 

419. Participle present Atmanepada 205 

420. Participle future Atmanepada 206 

421. Participle present and future 

passive .... 206 

422. Past participle passive and 

gerund .... 206 

423. Gerund in tvd . . . 206 
:)t 424. I. The terminationB tah and 

^df with intermediate i . 207 
4t 425. Penultimate u with optional 

Guna .... 207 
:)t 426. Tvd with intermediate i and 

Guna .... 207 
4t 427. Tvd with intermediate i and 

without Guna . . .207 
:^ 428. Nasal lost before ^A,j9A;vancA^ 

Itmch .... 207 
:)^ 429. II. The terminations tah and 

tvd, without intermediate i . 207 
2^ 430. Final nasal dropt before tah 

and tvd . . , . 207 
:)^ 431. Final n dropt and vowel length- 
ened ; final chh, v, rchh, and rv 20S 
:)^ 432. Boots changing t^ to 1^ . . 208 
2^ 433. Final at changed to d or i . 208 
3/c 434. Bo, 80, md, athd, dhd, M change 

their final into i . , 208 
^ 435. JSo and chho take iot d. .• 208 
;|t 436. Exceptional forms . 208 

^ 437. Verbs which take Samprasi- 

rana 208 


3/c 438. Verbs which lose penultimate 

nasal .... 209 

439. Causal verbs . . . 209 

440. Desiderative yerbs . . 209 

441. Intensive verbs . . . 209 

442. Participles in TiaA . . . 209 
;|t 443. Adjectival participles . .210 

444. Vat added to participles . 210 

445. Gerund in ^a . . . 210 

446. Gerund in tya . .210 

^§447. Gerund of causatives . 
2f^ 448. Ghu verbs, md, sthd, gd, 

hd, 80, take final d 
;yb 449. Verbs ending in nasals 
^ 450. Verbs ending in rt 
^ 451- Ve,jyd,vi/e, 
% 452. Mt, mi, di. It 




CHAPTER XVII.— Verbal Adjectives. 

§453' Verbal adjectives, JTrifya .211 

454. Adjectives in tavya . .212 

455. Adjectives in aaitya . .212 

456. Adjectives in ^a . .212 
^ 457. Exceptional verbal adjectives 

in ya and tya . . . 214 
^ 458. Verbs changing final ch and^ 

into k and g . . . 214 

459. Infinitive in inim . .214 

460. Verbal adverbs in a/m . .214 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Causattvb Verbs. 

§461. Causal bases, how formed . 215 
;yb 462. Gupa or V|iddhi . . . 215 

463. Exceptional causative bases, I. 

^11 217 

464. Conjugation of causative verbs 219 

465. Passive of causative verbs . 219 

466. General tenses of the passive . 219 

CHAPTER XIX.— Desiderative Verbs. 

§467. Desiderative bases, how formed 220 

468. Desiderative bases, how con- 

jugated .... 220 

469. Desiderative bases, with or 

without intermediate i . 220 
^ 470. Strengthening of base . . 220 
;yb 471. Exceptional strengthening or 

weakening. . . . 220: 
^ 472. Desiderative bases, treated as 

BhA verbs. . . .221 
473. Reduplication of desiderative 

bases .... 222 

if^ 474. Bases in av and dv . . 222 

^ 476» Sru, iru, dm, pru, plu, ckyu . 222 

476. Internal reduplication . .222 

:)^ 477. Exceptional forms .222 




CHAPTER XX.— Intbsksivb Vbbbs. 

§478. Meaning of intensive or fre- 
quentative verbs .223 

479. Verbs which may form inten- 

sive bases .... 223 

480. Two kinds of intensive bases. 

Atmanepada . . .223 

481. Intensive bases in ya, how 

formed and conjugated .223 

482. Parasmaipada bases, how form- 

ed and conjugated . .224 

483. Conjugation of Parasmaipada 

bases .... 224 

484. Beduplication of intensive bases 224 
if^ 485. Verbs which insert nt . . 225 
ifc 486. Verbs ending in nasals . .225 
iy^ 487. Jap, jabh, dah, dcmUy hharij, 

pai 225 

He 488. Char, phal .... 225 
ifc 489. Verbs with penultimate ri . 225 
^ 490. Verbs ending in ft .226 

:^ 491. Exceptional inten3ive bases . 226 
492. Secondary and tertiary bases . 226 

CHAPTER XXI.— DbnominativbVebbs. 

§493* Character of denominative 

verbs .... 227 

494, 495. Denominatives in ya, Pa- 
rasmaipada . . 227 
;yb 496. Changes of base . . . 227 
497. Denominatives in ya, Atmane- 

pada 228 

% 498. The Kandvfidi verbs . . 228 
:yb 499. Denominatives in sya . .229 
ifc 500. Denominatives in kdmya . 229 
501. Conjugation of denominatives 229 
s/^ 502. Denominatives in aya . . 229 
^ 503. Denominatives without affixes 230 

CHAPTER XXIL— Pbbpositions and 


§504. Prepositions, Upaaon-ga , . 230 

505. Prepositions, Gati, . . 230 

506. Prepositions, Karmapravacha" 

niya. .... 231 

507. Adverbs . . . .231 

§508. Conjunctions 
509. Interjections 


. 233 
. 233 

CHAPTER XXIIL— Compound Words. 

§510. Manner of compounding nomi- 
nal bases .... 233 
^511. Treatment of feminine bases . 234 

512. Six classes of compounds . 234 
I. Tatpurusha, determinative 

compounds . . . 234 
lb, Earmadhdraya, apposi- 
tional determinative com- 
pounds - . 234 
Ic. Dvigu, numeral deter- 
minative compounds . 234 
II. Dvandva, collective comp. . 235 

III. Bahuvrihi, possessive com- 

pounds . . 235 

IV. Avyayibhdva,adverbialcom- 

pounds . . 235 

513. I. Determinative compounds . 235 
;)t 514. Exceptional determinative 

compounds . . .237 
i)^ 515. Inverted determinative com- 
pounds .... 237 
>lt 516. Determinative compounds end- 
ing in verbal bases .237 
517. Ih. Appositional determinative 

compounds . . 237 

:yb 518. Inverted determinative com- 
pounds . . . .238 
519. Ic. Numeral determinative 

compounds . .238 

:)^ 520. Modifications of the final letters 

of determinative compounds 238 
521. 11. Collective compounds, Ita- 

retara and Sam^ira . . 240 
2ft: 522. Precedence of words . . 240 
:)^ 523. Nouns ending in ri . . 240 
:yb 524. Names of deities <&c. . . 240 
:it 525. Modifications of the final letters 
o^ collective compounds in 
the singular . .241 

:)^ 526. Idiomatic expressions . .241 
527. III. Possessive compounds . 241 
:yb 528. Modifications of the final letters 

of possessive compounds . 241 





§529. lY. Adverbial compounds 
4t 530. Exceptional compounds . 243 

i)^ 531. Modifications of the final letters 

of adverbial compounds . 243 




List of Verbs . 
Bhii Class (Bhv&di, I Class) 
L Parasmaipada Verbs 
IL Atmanepada Verbs 
in. Parasmaipada and Atman 
Tud Class (TudSdi, VI Class) 
L Parasmaipada and Atman 

IL Parasmaipada Verbs 
m. Atmanepada Verbs 
Div Class (Dividi, IV Class) 
I. Parasmaipada Verbs 
IL Atmanepada Verbs 
III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 
Chur Class (Churddi, X Class) 

Parasmaipada Verbs only 
Su Class (SvSdi, V Class) 

I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 

IL Parasmaipada Verbs 
III. Itmanepada Verbs 






. 269 
. 270 
. 270 
. 270 


Tan Class (TanvSdi, VILE Class) . 272 

Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 

Verbs . . . .272 
Eri Class (Kry^, IX Class) . . 273 
I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 

Verbs . . . .273 

IL Parasmaipada Verbs . . 274 

III. Atmanepada Verbs . .274 

Ad Class (Ad^, II Class) . . 275 

I. Parasmaipada Verbs .275 

IL Atmanepada Verbs . . 279 

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 

Verbs . . . .280 

Hu Class (Juhoty&di, LEI Class) . 281 

L Parasmaipada Verbs . .281 

II. Atmanepada Verbs . . 282 

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 

Verbs . . . .283 
Rudh Class (Rudh&di, VII Class) . 284 
I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 

Verbs . . . .284 

n. Parasmaipada Verbs . . 284 

nL Atmanepada Verbs . . 285 



Ok the Accent in Sanskjkit . 286-292 

Index of Notjnb 
Index of Vebbs 

• 293-297 
. 297-300 





Initial. Medial. 

Initial. Medial. 


^ - 
















W T 










?. f 











#% ^ 








t ^ 






ch (or *) 




^ « 










^ ©^ 






jh (or^A) 




^ *. 
^ « 










t (or 

8 (or «) 

^ « 




th (or th) 
4 (or tl) 




^ <i 






4h (or dk) 






If. (or n) 





^ " 











m (or f») 










m (orlfe) 








1)1 (or h) 





(JihvimMya), x 








^ Sometunes represented in the Veda by ^S» SS* \ (<>' 0* 
3 Sometimes represented in the Veda hy oSS^ 59^9 1^ (o^ ^)' 



§ I. Sanskrit is properly written with the Devanftgari alphabet ; but the 
Bengali, Grantha, Telugu, and other modem Indian alphabets are commonly 
employed for writing Sanskrit in their respective provinces* 

Note — Devandgari means the Ndgari of the gods, or, possibly, of the Br&hmans. A more 
ouirent style of writing, used by Hindus in all common transactions where Hindi is the lan- 
guage employed, is called simply Ndgari. Why the alphabet should have been called Ndgari, 
is unknown. If derived from nagara, city, it might mean the art of writing as first practised 
in cities. (P&9. iv. 2, 128.) No authority has yet been adduced from any ancient author for 
the employment of tlie word Devandgari, In the Lalita-vistara (a life of Buddha, translated 
from Sanskrit into Chinese 76 a. d.), where a list of alphabets is given, the Devandgari \a 
not mentioned, unless it be intended by the Deva alphabet. (See History of Ancient 
Sanskrit literature^ p. 518.) Albiruni, in the nth century, speaks of the Nagara alphabet 
as current in Malva. (Reinaud, M^oire sur I'Inde, p. 298.) 

Beghr&m {bhagdrdma, abode of the gods) is the native name of one or more of the most 
important cities founded by the Greeks^ such as Alexandria ad Caucasum or Nicsea. (See 
Mason's Memoirs in Prinsep's Antiquities, ed. Thomas, vol. i. pp. 344-350.) Ck>uM 
Devanftgart have been meant as an equivalent of BeghrlUni ? 

No inscriptions have been met with in India anterior to the rise of Buddhism. The 
earliest authentic specimens of writing are the inscriptions of king Triyadarii or A4oha, about 
-^'250 B.C. These are written in two different alphabets. The alphabet which is found in the 
inscription of Kapurdigiri, and which in the main is the same as that of the Arianian coins, 
is written frt>m right to left. It is clearly of Semitic origin, and most closely connected with 
the Aramaic branch of the old Semitic or Phenician alphabet. The Aramaic letters, how- 
ever, which we know frt)m Egyptian and Palmyrenian inscriptions, have experienced further 
changes since they served as the model for the alphabet of Kapurdigiri, and we must have 
recourse to the more primitive types of the ancient Hebrew coins and of the Phenician 
inscriptions in order to explain some of the letters of the Kapurdigiri alphabet. 

But while the transition of the Semitic types into this ancient Indian alphabet can be 
proved with scientific precision, the second Indian alphabet, that which is found in the 
inscription of Gimar, and which is the real source of all other Indian alphabets, as weU as of 
those of Tibet and Burmah, has not as yet been traced back in a satisfactoiy manner to any 
Semitic prototype. (Prinsep's Indian Antiquities by Thomas, vol. 11. p. 42.) To admit, 
however, the independent invention of a native Indian alphabet is impossible. Alphabets were 
never Invented, in the usual sense of that word. They were formed gradually, and purely 
phonetic alphabets always point back to earlier, syllabic or ideographic, stages. There are no 
such traces of the growth of an alphabet on Indian soil; and it is to be hoped that new 
discoveries may still bring to light the intermediate links by which the alphabet of Gimar, 
and through it the modem Devan&gart, may be connected with one of the leading Semitic 

B 2 



^ 2. Sanskrit is written from left to right. 

Note — Samskrita (li^il) means what is rendered fit or perfect. But Sanskrit is not called 
so because the BriLhmans, or still less, because the first Europeans who became acquainted 
with it, considered it the most perfect of all languages. Samskrita meant what is rendered 
fit for sacred purposes ; hence purified, sacred. A vessel that is purified, a sacrificial victim 
that is properly dressed, a man who has passed through all the initiatory rites or samskdrasj 
aU these are called samskjrita. Hence the language which alone was fit for sacred acts, the 
ancient idiom of the Vedas, was called Samskrita, or the sacred language. The local spoken 
dialects received the general name of prdkfita. This did not mean originally vulgar, but 
derived, secondary, second-rate, literally ' what has a source or type/ this source or type 
(prakfiti) being the Samskfita or sacred language. (See Vararuchi's Pr&krita-Prak&sa, ed. 
Cowell, p. xvii.) 

The former explanation ofprdkrita in the sense of the natural, original continuations of 
the old language {hhdshd),' is untenable, because it interpolates the idea of continuation. 
If prdkfita had to be taken in the sense of ' original and natxiral,' a language so called would 
mean, as has been well shown by D'Alwis (An Introduction to Kachch&yana's Grammar, 
p. Ixxxiz), the original language, and samskrita would then have to be taken in the sense of 
refined for literary purposes.' This view, however, of the meaning of these two names, is 
opposed to the view of those who ^med the names, and is rendered impossible by the 
character of the Vedic language. 

^ 3. In writing the Devan&gari alphabet, the distinctive portion of each 
letter is written first, then the perpendicular^ and lastly the horizontal line. 
Ex. •!, 4, W*/ ^, ¥9 ^kh; I, *i, ilff; ♦, M, "^ffh; ^, V^i, &c. 

Beginners will find it useful to trace the letters on transparent paper, till 
they know them weU, and can write them fluently and correctly. 

§ 4. The following are the sounds which are represented in the Devanagari 
alphabet : 

Hard and 

Soft and 













Short, Long. Diphthongs. 

I. Gutturals, 








^a ^d 

Ijc ^at 

2. Palatals, 








^i %n 

3. Linguals, 








^ri ^ri 


4* Dentals, 


^th ifrf 





-^{i Wi) 

5. Labials, 


HI/?A ^b 





9ti -mH 

Unmodified Nasal or Anusv&ra, * m or ^ iJi. 
Unmodified Sibilant or Yisarga, : i^. 

^ In the Veda 7 4 and 7 4^, if between two vowels, are in certain schools written 
35 / and oS^ fh. 

^ 7 A is not properly a liquid, but a soft breathing, 

' 7 1? is sometimes called Pento-labial. 

* The signs for the guttural and labial sibilants have become obsolete, and are replaced 
hy the two dots t J. 

-$ 8. THB ALPHABET. 5 

Students should be cautioned against using the Roman letters instead of 
the Devan&gari when beginning to learn Sanskrit The paradigms should 
be impressed on the memory in their real and native form, otherwise their 
first impressions will become unsettled and indistinct. After some progress 
has been made in mastering the grammar and in reading Sanskrit, the Roman 
alphabet may be used safely and with advantage. 

^ 5. There are fifty letters in the Devanagari alphabet, thirty-seven 
^consonants and thirteen vowels, representing eveiy soimd of the Sanskrit 

^ 6. One letter^ the long i{ ft, is merely a gnunmatical invention ; it 
never occurs in the spoken language. 

^ 7* Two sounds, the guttural and labial sibilants^ are now without 
distinctive representatives in the DevanSgari alphabet. They are called 
JihvdmUliya, the tongue-root sibilant, formed near the base of the tongue ; 
and Vpadhmdniya^ i. e. afflandus, the labial sibilant. They are said to have 
been represented by the signs X (called Vajrdkjiti^ having the shape of the 
thunderbolt) and % (called Gajakumbhdkriti^ having the shape of an 
elephant's two firontal bones). [See Yopadeva's Sanskrit Grammar, i. 18 ; 
Histoiy of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 508.] Sometimes the sign X » 
called Ardha-visarga, half-Visarga, is used for both. But in common 
writing these two signs are now replaced by the two dots, the Dvivindu, :, 
{dvi^ two, vinduj dot,) properly the sign of the unmodified Visarga. The 
old sign of the Visarga is described in the Katantra as like the figure d 4 ; 
in the Tantr&bhidhftna as like two 7 f A's. (See Prinsep, Indian Antiquities, 
vol. T. p. 75.) 

^ 8. There are five distinct letters for the five nasals^ ^'f^»^n,Janf^n^ 
i(^97», as there were originally five distinct signs for the five sibilants. When, 
in the middle of words^ these nasals are followed by consonants of their own 
class, {h by *, *A, ^, gh ; n by ch, chh, j\ jh ; n by /, /A, ^, 4h ; n by t, th^ 
dy dh ; m by p^ ph^ by bhy) they are often, for the sake of more expeditious 
writing, replaced by the dot, which is properly the sign of the unmodified 
nasal or Anusvfira. Thus we find 

iffvilT instead of ^rf^piT ankitd. 

ivf^HT instead of ^rfvWT anchitd, 

jAnrr instead of ^f^ITT kuiiditd. 

fff^TT instead of ^ffi^^ nanditd. 

^ftniT instead of ivf^inrr kampiid. 
The pronunciation remains unaffected by this style of writing, itf^nrr 
must be pronounced as if it were written ^rf^piT aitkitOy &c. 

The same applies to final n m at the end of a sentence. This too, 


though firequentlj written and printed with the dot above the line^ is to 

be pronounced as H m. ^^9 1^ is to be pronounced ^v^ aham. (See Preface 

to Hitopadesa, in M. M/s Handbooks for the Study of Sanskrit, p. viiL) 

Note — According to the KaumlLras final ^^ m tn pausd may be pronounced aa Anusvfira; 
cf. Sarasvatt-Prakriyll, ed. Bombay, 1839*, pp. la and 13. W\ I <l VI^TOm 5 ^^Hi Xi^HM^H I 
^^Rn% ^ I WTOT% >V^R^T«}^li) ^^fw ^^. I ^>T I ^^'^H The Kaumftraa are the 
followers of Kumftra^ the reputed author of the K&tantra or Kalipa grammar. (See 
Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, Preface ; and page 315, note.) S'ftrvavarman is quoted by 
mistake as the author of this grammar, and a distinction is sometimes made between the 
Kaum&ras and the followers of the Kalllpa grammar. 

^ 9. Besides the five nasal letters, expressing the nasal soimd as modified 
by guttural^ palatal, lingual^ dental, and labial pronunciation, there are still 
three nasalized letters, the ^^^ 7^, ^, or t^, w, ^, y, 7, v, which are used to 
represent a final 1^972, if followed by an initial ^^9 c^ /, ^t;, and modified 
by the pronunciation of these three semivowels. (Pa^, viii. 4, 59.) 
Thus instead of TT infir taTh ydti we may write nxqrfir tay ydti; 

instead of w cwi tarn labhate we may write l^k^ ted labhate ; 
instead of 7 ^^flT tarn vahati we may write ll^^flc tav vahati. 
Or in composition^ 

'^ijlff samydnam or m6\\'A sayydnam; 
^Ib^ samlabdham or ^r^Tf sallabdham; 
HH^rm sathvahati or ^rl^^fw savvahatu 
But never if the 1^ m stands in the body of a word, such as 1KI9^ kdmyah » 
nor if the semivowel represents an original vowel, e.g. Rig-veda x. 13a, 3. 
^ ^ 'WR'^^ sam u drauy changed to ||%|K«^ 8am vdran. 

^ 10. llie only consonants which have no corresponding nasals are t r, 
«^ <, T^^ ^A, ^ «, 7 A. A final i^^ m, therefore, before any of these letters at 
the beginning of words, can only be represented by the neutral or immodi«- 
fied nasal, the Anusv^. 

A xs(hi tarn rakshati. Or in composition, ^t^fir samrakshati, 

t ^mftfir tarn Srinoti. ^BWlfrfir samiriw>^i* 

W ^nirt tarn shakdram, ^Whlfw samshthivati. 

a ^Rfir tath sarati. ?mflr sarhsarati. 

a fxflr tarn harati. ll^iOl samharati. 

J II. In the body of a word the only letters which can be preceded by 

* This edition, which has lately been reprinted, contains the text — ascribed either to Vi^l 
herself, i.e. Sarasvatt, the goddess of speech (MS. Bodl. 386),orto AnubhAti-svarApa-Ach&rya, 
whoever that may be — and a commentary. The commentary printed in the Bombay editions is 
caUed ^tl^, or in MS. Bodl. 383. thfPa^ i.e. ^i^h^nft. In MS. Bodl. 382. Mahtdhara or 
Mahidftsabhatta is said to have written the Sdrasvata in order that his children might read it, 
and to please fs'a, the Lord. The date given is 1634, the place Benares, (Sivarljadhant.) 

-$ l6. THE ALPHABET, 7 

Anusvftra are ^iJ '^sh, ^s^ ^ h. Thus wy: athia^, v^^ dhandmshi, if^^tftr yaid^m, 
tifp simha^. Before the semivowels i^y, \r,T9l9\v^ the i^ m, in the body 
of a word, is never changed into Anusvfira. Thus '^m^ gamyatey tf^ namral^^ 
hit: amlal^. In i^ifh iamyoh (Rv. i. 43, 4, &c.) the rh stands 'padlnte/ but 
not in ^rnrflr idmyaii, (See § 9.) 

^12. With the exception of Jihvdmitltya ^ ;( (tongue*root letter), Upadh* 
mdntya X <f> {tohe breathed upon), Anusvdra * fh (after-sound), Visarga : i^ 
(emission, see Taitt.-Br^m. iii. p. 23 a), and Bepha r (burring), all letters 
are named in Sanskrit by adding kdra (making) to their sounds. Thus 
V a is called W^ilTt cAdraff. ; w ka, 'WWTKl kakdrahy &c. 

§ 13. The vowels, if initial, are written, 

^, ^5 x> %y ^1 ^K ^> (^» '. ^f ^f ^, ^>* ^ ; 
a, 4, », r, ri> K /«> (/0» «*> <*> ^» «» ^» ««; 

if they foUow a consonant, they are written with the foUowing signs- 

a, a, f, /, fi, rU Ih {lf)y «» dj «. «*» o> ««• ' 
There is one exception. If the vowel ^ ft follows the consonant ^ r, it 
retains its initial form, and the r is written over it. Ex. f^^fln nirfiii^. 

In certain words which tolerate an hiatus in the body of the word, the 
second vowel is written in its initial form. Ex. nt^RQ ffoagra, adj. preceded 
by cows, instead of ntsu go 'gra or T^lfr gavdgra ; ^ftil^ goaivam, cows and 
horses ; Tfm praiigay yoke ; f)nr9 iUaii, sieve. 

^ 14. Every consonant, if written by itself, is supposed to be followed by 
a short a. Thus ii is not pronounced k, but ka ; iK not y, but ya. But li k 
or any other consonant, if followed by any vowel except a, is pronounced 
without the inherent a. Thus 

-mkdy fmki, irtHf *r», ^ *r/, f *?», (]f «o, f *«, 7| w, **^i%*fl«, 

ij^ koy 4t Aatf . 
The only peculiarity is that short f t is apparently written before the con- 
sonant after which it is sounded. This arose from the fact that in the 
earliest forms of the Indian alphabet the long and short V% were both 
written over the consonant, the short $ inclining to the left, the long % 
inclining to the right Afterwards these top-marks were, for the sake of 
distinctness, drawn across the top-line, so as to become f% and iA, instead 
of % and 4. (See Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, ed. Thomas, vol. 11. p. 40.) 

{ 15. If a consonant is to be pronounced without any vowel after it, the 
consonant is said to be followed by Virdma^ i. e. stoppage, which is marked 
by ^^. Thus ak must be written W| ; kar^ nr^ ; iky ^. 

j 16. If a consonant is followed immediately by another consonant, the 
two or three or four or five or more consonants are written in one group 

8 THE ALPHABET. § 17- 

{samyoga). Thus atka is written ^cm i alpa is written 'W^ ; kdrtmya is 
written iEn^« These groups or compound consonants must be learnt hj 
practice. It is easy, however, to discover some general laws in their forma* 
tion. Thus the perpendicular and horizontal lines are generally dropt in 
one of the letters: ^ + ^='«**a; W + ^ = ^«rffl/ i^4-^=W/va;. ^+5ir 

mktva; ^^h\+'^ = m ^^y^' 

^17. The t r following a consonant is written by a short transverse 
stroke at the foot of the letter; as 1(^ + ^=111 or '%kra; T + T = g^A; 
1^+T:=?r orir/ra; ^ + T:='5rfra; H^+T + x:=I ^A^ra. 

The ^ r preceding a consonant is written by *^ placed at the top of the 
consonant be&re which it is to be sounded* Thus ^+ 9= V% arka ; ^+ 
i^+iT=:^r^ varshma. This sign for ^r is placed to the right of any other 
marks at the top of the same letter* Ex. ^ arkam ; iR^^r arkena ; ^sXx 

^ k followed by i^ sh is written t^ or ^ ksha, 

i^j followed by If ^ is written Tfjna. 

^jh is sometimes written ff^jh. 

^ r followed by 7 ti and 9 1£ is written ^ ni, ^fH. 

Z d followed by 7 1« and if^His written 7 du, \^^' 

l^i, particularly in combination with other letters, is frequently written '^ 

^18. The sign of Virdma ^ (stoppage), which if placed at the foot of a 
consonant, shows that its inherent short a is stopped, is sometimes, when it 
is difficult to write (or to print) two or three consonants in one group, placed 
afler one of the consonants : thus W^ instead of ^ yunkte. 

^19. The proper use of the Yir&ma, however, is at the end of a sentence, 
or portion of a sentence, the last word of which ends in a consonant. 

At the end of a sentence, or of a half-verse, the sign \ is used ; at the 
end of a verse, or of a longer sentence, the sign 11. 

{ %o. The sign s (Avagraha or Arddhdkdra) is used in most editions to 
mark the elision of an initial V a, afler a final ^"V or ute. Ex. ^sf^ so 'pi 
for irt ^rfl? 80 apiy i. e. H^ irf^l saa apt ; irsftl te 'pi for i^ mfq te api. 

List of Compound Consonants. 

II *-*a, mr k-kha, nm k'Chay is k-ta^ ^ k-t-ya, ^ k-t-ra, ^ k-t-r-ya, 
K k-t-va, n k-na, ^ k-nrya^ W k-ma, m k-ya, n or n k-ra^ gsf orifSf k-r-ya^ 
9 *-to, V k'Vaj fsr k-v-yGf ^ k-sha^ W k-sh-ma^ ^ k-sh-yay w k-sh-va ; — 
W kh-yay ?f kh^a; — nj g-ya, u g-ra, ijf g-r-ya ; — K gh-na, 9 gh-n-ya, 
TR gh-ma^ Tflr gh-ya^ ir gh-ra ; — ^1 «-*«, |f w-*-/a, |p[ n-k-t-ya, ^ ii^k-ya, 


^^ ^^ ^ ^9 

nr 9-ya, ^ 9-t^a. 

T ^dOy II cT-dAa, « d-bhrya^ ir £f-ma, v <f-ya> "^ ^a, S d^-^O'y T ^-^^i 
ir rf-t^-ya ; — M dh-nOf iff dhr-nrya, nr dh-ma^ m dh-ya, H rfA-ra, 9 dh-r-^a^ 
«9 dh^a; — ^ n-/a, iw n-t^a^ w n-t-ra, ^ nwfo, Hf n^d-ra, ^ n-dha, 
•^ n-dhrtaj w »-»«, ^ »^a, 5p n-jHray 'm n-ma, a| n-yo, ^ n-ra, iir «-^a. 

H p-ta^ m p-t-ya, jf p-nCy tq ji-pa, ^ j7-ma, "■! p-ya, m p-ra, jf p4ap 
vf p-va^ ^ p^Qy 1^ p-a-va ; — ^ai b-gha^ "m Ihfa, ^ 4-da, v b^AOf |f 4-na, 

V d-ia^ ^ ft-Ma, 99 b-bhryOj v| d-ya, n ^a, V A-va ; — "li bh'-nay v^ bhrya^ 

V iA-ra^ )^ bhrva; — ^V m-mi^ «iT m-^a,' IV m-p^a, if m-ia, nr m^bha^ 
m m-ma, vq m-ya, ^ m-ra^ j[ tih-la, if m-va. 

«l y-ya, ^f y-»a ; — ^9 l^ka, W l-pa, m IrmOy -gi ^ya, V ^to, ^ f-ra ; — 
U tMta, «| t^^a, tf v-ra, if tM?a. 

^ i-choy VI i-ch-ya, v ^na, ^ ^a, W i-ra» ^ i-r-yOy ^ ^Ja^ iff ^a» 
«| f-v-^a, "9 <-ia ; — ^? «A-^a, w sh-f-ya^ 1 sh-t-ra, w sh-f-r-^Oy f sh-f-^a, 
W ih-thay W sh-^y iqn sh-n-yay tq «A-^a, ig sh-p-ray ^ M-ma^ v| ^A^a, 
H «A^a '~r:?? *:*S ■* *-*Aa, ii| #-/a, iRq ^/-ya, ^ ^/-ra, ^ ^/-ra, 
W s-thay m s-noy W( *-»-ya, W *^a, n #^Aa, 9 s-ma, W{ s^m-yay ^ •-ya, 

"Ci ^*9^» K ^"^^^ V A-mo, W A-ya, f A-ra, n A-fo, 3( A-i;a. 

Numerical Figures. 
^ 21. The numerical figures in Sanskrit are 


These figures were originally abbreviations of the initial letters of the Sanskrit numerals. 
The Aiabs, who adopted them from the Hindus, caUed them Indian figures ; in Europe, 
where they were introduced by the Arabs, they were caUed Arabic figures. 



Thus ^ stands for^ e of ^Wt ekah, one. 

^ stands for W dv ai ^ dvau, two. 

^ stands for I' tr of IRt tray aft, three. 

d stands for ^ cA of ^i«IIO chatvdrah, four. 

M stands for ^i? of '^^ paHcha, five. 
The similarity becomes more evident by comparing the letters and numerals as used in 
ancient inscriptions. See Woepcke, ' M^moire sur la Propagation des Chif&es Indiens/ 
in Journal Asiatique, vi s^rie, tome i ; Prinsep's Indian Antiquities by Thomas, vol. ii. 
p. 70; Chips from a German Workshop, vol. 11. p. 289. 

§ %%. The Sanskrit letters should be pronounced in accordance with the 
transcription given page 4. The following rules, however, are to be 
observed : 

I. The vowels should be pronounced like the vowels In Italian. The short W a, 
however, has rather the sound of the English a in * America/ 

%. The aspiration of the consonants should be heard distinctly. Thus W Kh 
is said, by EngUsh scholars who have learnt Sanskrit in India, to sound 
almost like kh in 'inkhom ;' ^ th like th in * pothouse,-^ ^ph like/^A 
in ^ topheavy ;' ^ gh Uke gh in ' loghouse ;^ V dh Uke dh in 
* madhouse ;' ^ bh like hh in * Hobhouse.' This, no doubt, is a 
somewhat exaggerated description, but it is well in learning Sanskrit 
to distinguish from the first the aspirated from the unaspirated letters 
by pronouncing the former with an unmistakable emphasis. 

3. The guttural l? it has the sound of n^ in ' king.' 

4. The palatal letters ^ ch and ^j have the sound of ch in 'church' and 

of J in 'join/ 

5. The lingual letters are said to be pronoimced by bringing the lower 

surface of the tongue against the roof of the palate. As a matter of 
fact the ordinary pronunciation of /, £f, n in English is what Hindus 
would call lingual, and it is essential to distinguish the Sanskrit dentals 
by bringing the tip of the tongue against the very edge of the upper 
front-teeth. In transcribing EngUsh words the natives naturally 
represent the English dentals by their Unguals, not by their own 
dentals ; e. g. OfX^^ TiirekXaT^ Tn$f?|^ Oavarnmet^ti &c. * 

6. The Yisai^a, Jihvdmdliya and Upadhmdniya are not now articulated 


7. The dental ^ 8 sounds Uke s in ' sin,' the Ungual 19 sh Uke sh in ' shim,' 

the palatal ^ i like ss in ' session.' 

* Biihler, Madras Literary Journal, February, 1864. Rigendralal Mitra, ' On the Origin 
of the Hindvi Language,' Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1864, p. 509. 


The real Anusv&ra is sounded as a very slight nasal, like n in French ^ bon/ 
If the dot is used as a graphic sign in place of the other five nasals it 
must, of course, be pronounced like the nasal which it represents *• 



^ 23. In Sanskrit every sentence is considered as one unbroken chain 
of syllables. Except where there is a stop, which we should mark by 
interpunction, the final letters of each word are made to coalesce with the 
initial letters of the following word. This coalescence of final and initial 
letters, (of vowels with vowels, of consonants with consonants, and of 
consonants with vowels,) is called Sandhi. 

As certain letters in Sanskrit are incompatible with each other, i e. 
cannot be pronounced one immediately after the other, they have to be 
modified or assimilated in order to facilitate their pronunciation. The rules, 
according to which either one or both letters are thus modified, are called 
the rules of Sandhu 

As according to a general rule the words in a sentence must thus be glued 
together, the mere absence of Sandhi is in many cases sufficient to mark the 
stops which in other languages have to be marked by stops. Ex. VMO^illflPT 
^^g^ ^^PTT 'nnnT: astvagnimdhdtmyam^ indrastu devdndm mahattanui^, Let 
there be the greatness of Agni ; nevertheless Indra is the greatest of the 

JHstinciion between External and Internal Sandhi. 

^ 24. It is essential, in order to avoid confusion, to distinguish between 
the rules of Sandhi which determine the changes of final and initial letters 
of words (pada)^ and between those other rules of Sandhi which apply to 
the final letters of verbal roots (dhdtu) and nominal bases (prdtipadika) when 
followed by certain terminations or suffixes. Though both are based on the 
same phonetic principles and are sometimes identical, their application is 
different. For shortness^ sake it will be best to apply the name of External 

* According to Sanskrit grammarians the real Anusv&ra is pronounced in the nose only, 
the 'five nasals by their respective organs and the nose. Siddh.-Kaum. to P&n. i. i, 9. 

The real Anusyftra is therefore ndtikya, nasal; the five nasals are anuttdsikay nasalized, 
i.e. pronounced by their own organ of speech^ and uttered through the nose. 

c 2 


Sandhi or Pada Sandhi to the changes which take place at the meeting of 
final and initial letters of words, and that of Internal Sandhi to the changes 
produced by the meeting of radical and formative elements. 

The rules which apply to final and initial letters of words {pada) apply, with 
few exceptions, to the final and initial letters of the component parts of com- 
poimds, and likewise to the final letters of nominal hsu^s (prdtipadika) when fol- 
lowed by the so-called Pa^fa-terminations (hit bhydm, fin bhiJ^^ «>n bhya^, ^ su)^ 
or by secondary (taddhita) suffixes beginning with any consonants except i^y. 

The changes produced by the contact of incompatible letters in the body 
of a word should properly be treated under the heads of declension, 
conjugation, and derivation. In many cases it is far easier to remember 
the words ready-made fi*om the dictionary, or the grammatical paradigms 
firom the grammar, than to acquire the compHcated rules with their 
numerous exceptions which are generally detailed in Sanskrit grammars 
imder the head of Sandhi. It is easier to learn that the participle passive 
of f^ lih, to lick, is c^At: IHha^^ than to remember the rules according to 
whichiE + T^A + < are changed into ^-hW^A + /, ^+^</ + rfA, and ^+^^ + ^; 
^^ is dropt and the vowel lengthened : while in ^iftf^ + IK parivfih + ta^, 
the vowel, under the same circumstances, remains short ; parivfih + tai^ = 
parivri4h + tai^y panvfi4+dJuiijt:=parivri4-^4^ai^=:paHvri4hai, In Greek 
and Latin no rules are given with regard to changes of this kind. If they 
are to be given at all in Sanskrit grammars, they should, to avoid confiision,^ 
be kept perfectly distinct from the rules afiecting the final and initial letters* 
of words as brought together in one and the same sentence. 

Classification of Vowels. 

^ 25. Vowels are divided into short (hrasva), long {dirgha\ and protracted 
{pluta) vowels. Short vowels have one measure {mdira)y long vowels two, 
protracted vowels three. (P&9. i. 2y 27.) A consonant is said to last half 
the time of a short vowel. 
I. Short vowels : V ^9 ^ t, 7 ti, ^ ft, 7l( li. 
%. Long vowels : W a, ^ ^, is tl, ^ f^, 1^ e, ^ ai, ^ o, ^ au. 
3. Protracted vowels are indicated by the figure 1 3 ; v| <^3y^^\^3iW^3y 
%\^ i* ^\^3i^\^'^i' Sometimes we find V ^ ^, a 3 i, instead of 
^ % ^ 3 ; or ^ ^ 7, 4 3 1«, instead of ^ |, au 3. 

^ %6* Vowels are likewise divided into 

1. Monophthongs {samdndkshara) : V a, ^ a, i^t, ^ f, W, 9 12, ^ fj, ^ff, l^ li. 

2. Diphthongs {iandhyakshara) : 1^ «^ ^ ai, ^ 0, ^ au. 

^ 27. AU vowels are liable to be nasalized, or to become anundsika : ^2,^d. 


§ 28. Vowels are again divided into light {laghu) and heavy {guru). This 
division is important for metrical purposes only. 

I, Light vowels are Vo, l^t^^tiy^ft^Tif/t^if not followed by a double consonant, 
a. Heavy vowels are ^ d^ ^ f, ^ it, ^ f^, ^ e, ^ ot^ lit o, ^ at<, and any 
short vowel, if followed by more than one consonant. 

j 29. Vowels are, lastly, divided according to accent, into cicuie (udfttta), 
grave (anudfttta), and circumflexed (svarita). The acute vowels are pronounced 
with a raised tone, the grave vowels with a low, the circumflexed with an even 
tone. (P&9« i« If 29—32.) Accents are marked inVedic literature only. 

Qw^ and Vriddhu 

§ 30. Ouna is the strengthening of 1^ {» ^ i^ 7 u^ 9 l2, ^ fj» ^ f^, IE /i, by 
means of a preceding v a, which raises ^t and^ ttoTie,'9 u and 'mitto'^o. 
If ri and ^ K to 1»^ ar, in fi to mt^ al. (P&n. i. i, 2.) 

By a repetition of the same process the Viiddhi (increase) vowels are 
formed, viz. ^ ai instead oi^e^^au instead of ^ 0, IIT^ dr instead of 1V^ ar^ 
and trn^ di instead of ^ a/. (P&9. i. i^ i.) 

Vowels are thus divided again into : 

1 . Simple vowels : wa^ WT(4, \if %iy Tf w, ifi d, ^f», ^rf, "ij/i. 

2. Gu^a vowels: ^c(a + «), ^o(a + tt), iRar, iTc^a/. 

3. Vriddhi vowels : WTd ^di^a-^a-^i)^ ^dtt(fl+(i+tt), WTi^dr,in7^a/. 

^ 31. V a and ^ d do not take Ouna, or, as other grammarians say, 
remain unchanged after taking Gu^a. Thus in the first person sing, of the 
reduplicated perfect, which required Guna or Vriddhi, ^Aan forms with 
Guna wnjc^ghana^ or with Vriddhi '^^^J9^ jaghdnay I have killed. 

Combination of Vowels at the end and beginning of words. 

^32. As a general rule, Sanskrit allows of no hiatus (viv^tti) in a 
sentence. If a word ends in a vowel, and the next word begins with a 
vowel, certain modifications take place in order to remove this hiatus. 

§ 33' ^or the purpose of explaining the combination of vowels, they 
iDAy be divided into two classes : 
I. Those which are liable to be changed into semivowels, j^i, ^ ^, V fi, is ^, 

^rit'^rt ; also the diphthongs, ve,^ ai, ^ 0, ^ au. 
%. Those which are not, V a, VT d. 
Calling the former liquid *, the latter hard vowels, we may say : If the 

* The Pr&tis&khya calls them n^mtn, for a different reason ; see Rig-yeda-pr&tis&khya, 
ed. M. M., p. xziii. 


same vowel (long or short) occurs at the end and beginning of words^ the 
result IS the long vowel. (P&n. vi. i, loi.) Thus 

^ or ^ + W or l»T = ^ S'^d = d. 

I^or l+^or |=s|i + t=i?. 

V or «4-^ or ifi='ai ^-f u = tf. • 

"ijor ^+^or ^=^rr + rf = rf». | 

Ex. 9W VM^I^ni =3 ^WM'l^ril ukivd'\'apagachchhaH:=zukivdpag€u:hchhaH, i 

having spoken he goes away. j 

'^ ^^^ = H^l ^9l1 nadt + IdfiSi = nadidrUU such a river. i 

i|| ^^ = ^shj kartri + riju = kartriju^ doing (neuter) right. j 

f)|i| ii^f)r=fiil|^tf)r kintu + udeti = kintildeti, but he rises. i 

Or in compounds, ^^ + ^|l^ = ^T^)^ mahi + tia^ = mahiiahi lord of the earth. ; 

^ 34. If hard vowels (long or short) occur at the end of a word, and the 
next begins with a liquid vowel (except diphthongs), the result is Gu^a of 
the liquid vowel. (Pan. vi. i, 87.) Thus 

^or^ + ^or^=^fi + i = c (at). 
^orWT + ¥orifl=^5 + S = o (au). 
^ or WT + ^or ^r=iR d-^-ft^^ar. (P&p. 1. 1,51.) 
Ex. ir^ 1^ = W^^t tava + indra^ = tavendral^^ thine is Indra. I 

HT 9W=^fNn 9d + uktvd = 8oktvdf she having spoken. 
t HT ^flr = irflF: ^d + fiddhii^ = sarddhi^, this wealth. 
1!^ mmKl = IHRVnc: ^ava + likdrahk = tavalkdraJ^, thy letter fi. 
Or in compounds, mwi + ^fte = ^nv^fr: kdmya + MA/ii^ = kdmyeshtih^ an 
offering for a certain boon, 
f^ + 9^1^^ = f^lfhl^^ hita + upadeiah = hiiopadeiah^ good advice. 
J 35. If hard vowels (long or short) occur at the end of a word, and the 
next begins with a diphthong, the result is Yiiddhi. (P&n. vi. i, 88.) Thus 

^ or ^ + 1? = % a + c==ai. 
^ or ^ + ^=^ a + at = ai. 
^ or ^+^=^ a + o = ai«. 
^ or ^H-^=^ a + dtt = ai«. 
Ex. Tf^ u^ = n^ iava + eva = tavaiva^ of thee only. 

HT ^A^ s %f^ 9d + aikshishfa = saikshishfa^ she saw. 

* The letter "Iff Zt is left out, because it is of no practical utility. It is treated like ^ r*> <>^ I 

substituting JSl for ^ r in Gupa and Vriddhi. Thus '^-f- V^^hlS U+anuhandhah becor 
c9H^V! lanuhandhahf i. e. ha^dng /t as indicatory letter. 

t Some grammarians consider the Sandhi of a with ft optional, but they require 
shortening of the long d. Ex. WVT-h^V^ brahmd'\'rishih:=:WWfftt hrahmarshifi or 
^qf^Vt brahma jrishih, Brahma, a Rishi. 




m ^itWl = ir^lv: tava + oshfhah = iavatuhiha^f thj Up. 
W^I^W^rf) = ^fyw^^ sd + atdsukyavati = sautsukyavaii^ she desirous. 
Or in compouDdsy T7ir + ^ig^=ti^in rama-^ aiharyam^rdTnaiivaryafn^ 

the lordship of Rlboia. 
^ftrrr + Ilhf4 = ^^^^Ht^^iiBUd + aupamyam = sttaupamyam, similarity with 

Stt&, the wife of Rfima. 

§36. If a simple liquid vowel (long or short) occurs at the end of a 
word, and the next be^ns with any vowel or diphthong, the result is 
change of the liquid vowel into a semivowel. (P&n. vi. i^ 77.) Thus 

■ w or WT=^ or HT 

^ii = yii. 

^ or ^= If or ^ 


^or^ - 

7ori9l=^or ^ 

i ^ 

6 tf 

^ or ^=^ or ^ 

By ai = ye, yai. 

.^or ^ = iit or lit 

^0, au = yo, you. 

'^ or WT = tor TJ 


l^or ^=ft or tt 


f or ^ " 

¥ or ^=^or ^ 



ifor ^=>: or\ 

e, ai=^re, rai. 

.^ or ^ = ^ or ^ 

.0, au=^rOy ran. 

'm or ^=W or ^ 

'5 = t;5. 

^ or ^=ftr or tH 


vorifl - 


^ . 


^or ^ = % or % 

e, ai = w, voi. 

.ift or ^=ii^or 41 

^0, fltt = ro, vatf . 

Rf «r=' 

rarar dadhi + aira = dadi 


milk here. 

Hr^ 7?r = ^i^ A:ar/ft + uta = kartrttta, doing moreover. 
«f^ 1[7=<fftiR tnadhu + it;a = madhviva, like honey. 
1^^ ^1^ = ^idr^ na^f ^ + ai4asya = nadyai4asya, the river of Ai^a. 
In compounds, 7|^ + ^=:«fv4 nadi-hartham = nadyarthain, for the sake 
of a river. 

Note — Some native grammarians allow^ except in compounds, the omission of this 
Sandhi, but they require in that case that a long final vowel be shortened. Ex. ^V^ HH 
chaM atra may be ^nfKpf chakryatra or ^fn H?| ehakri atra, 

^37. If a Guna-vowel occurs at the end of a word, and the next begins 
with any vowel or diphthong (except a), the last element of the Guna-vowel 
is changed into a semivowel. If a follows^ a is elided, and no change takes 
place in the diphthong; see § 41. (P&n. vi. i^ 78.) Thus 

I? (e) 4- any vowel (except a) = in^^ (ay). 

lit (0) + any vowel (except a) = 1R(^ (av). 


Ex. ^ Wf9 = ^sraRPRK sakhe Agachchha = sakhaydgachchhay Friend, come 1 

?R^ ^= ^nrftf sakhe iha = aakhayiha, Friend, here ! 

nnt ^^^zjfui^f^ prabho €hi=prabhavehi^ Lord, come near ! 

m^ ^Fhni = 1PTi$M prabho ttU8Aadham=iprabhavau8hadham, Lord, 
In compounds, Tft + t^r:='nJh|r: go-\-iid(^=^g(wlia1^. There are various 
exceptions in compounds where 7ft go is treated as ir? gava. (^ 41.) 

^ 38. If a Ypddhi-vowel occurs at the end of a word, and the next 
begins with any vowel or diphthong, the last element is changed into a 
semivowel. (P&9. vi. i, 78.) Thus 

% (at) 4- any vowel = ^nn^ (ay). 

^ {au) + any vowel = in^ (dv). 

Ex. f^ v9: = finrnr9: triyai arthah^iriydyarthab> 
ftrt ^ = ftnn^ iriyai fite = iriyayriie. 

T^ iv^ffln^ss iqi<l%jDi'ii ravau astafnite^ravdvasiamite^ after sunset. 
W^ X^=1ITflfftr tau iti=ztdvUi. 
In composition, i04-^=f|T^ nau-bartham^^ndvcartham^ for the sake of 
§ 39. These two rules, however, are liable to certain modifications : 

1. The final « y and ^v o(%nay, iraav, which stand according to rule for 

^ e, ^ 0, may be dropt before all vowels (except a, ^ 41) ; not, however, 
in composition. Thus most MSS. and printed editions change 
^ VTSRK sakhe dgachchha^ not into ?nnnTaK sakhaydgachchha, but into 

^l?r miNA. sakha dgachchha. 
ig^ ^ 'Sakhe ihOy not into Tlirftl^ sakhayiha, but into ^m ^ sakha iha. 
wit 'f^ prabho e&t, not into Wi(^f^ prabhavehi, but into inr wf^prabha ehi. 
nnt ^A^rl prabho aushadham^ not into iPT^vM prabJiavaushadham, but into 
IPT ^Fhni prabha aushadham. 

2. The final i^y of ivpi dy, which stands for ^ di, may be dropt before all 

vowels, and it is usual to drop it in our editions. Thus 
ftl^ w4: iriyai arthaf^ is more usually written f^m W$: iriyd arthab instead 
of ftinrnr^ Mydyarthab. 

3. The final ^ r of ^BT^ dv, for ^ du, may be dropt before all vowels, but is 

more usually retained in our editions. Thus 
lit 1^ iau iti is more usually written irrf^^ tdviti, and not iTT jflf id Hi. 

Note — Before the particle 7 u the dropping of the final ^y and ^ v is obligatory. 

It is without any reason that the final ^y of Gui^a andVpddhi and the final ^9 of 
Gupa are generally dropt, while the final ^v of Vfiddhi is generally retained. It would be 
more consistent either always to retain the final semivowels or always to drop them. See 
Kg-veda-pr&tisftkhya, ed. M. M., Siitras 129, 133, 135 : P&9. vi. i, 78 ; viii. 3, 19. 


f 40. In all these cases the hiatus^ occasioned by the dropping o{^y and 
^ Vf remains, and the rules of Sandhi are not to be applied again. 

§ 41. ^ e and ifV 0, before short v a, remain unchanged, and the initial 
^ a is elided. (P&9. vi. i, 109.) 
Ex. f^ iV9=f^s^ Hve atra = iive'tray in S^iva there. 

wit' V«|J|^llU = mt*'^^JfTO prabho anugfihdna^prabho 'nugrihdi^. 
Lord, please. 

In composition this elision is optional. (Pftii. vi. i> 122.) 
Ex. ift + WW: = 'ft«'W: or nhnBt: ffo-^aivd]^=go'ivdiL or go aJhdf^^ cows 
and horses. 
In some compounds iHT gava must or may be substituted for vf^ go, if a 
vowel follows ; ^nrnvt gcwdkshaf^y a window, lit. a builds eye ; 'iH^. gavendraiy 
lord of kine, (a name of Krishna) ; imftpj or iftsftpt^am/tnam or go ^jinam^ 
a bull's hide. 

Unchangeable Vowels (Pragrihya). 

{ 42. There are certain terminations the final vowels of which are not 
liable to any Sandhi rules. These vowels are called /Tro^Aya (Pd^. 1. 1, 11) 
by Sanskrit grammarians. They are, 

I. The terminations of the dual in ^ (^ 9 t2, and ^ tf, whether of nouns or 

Ex. V7t ^ kavi imau^ these two poets. 
flTTft ^?rr giri etau, these two hills, 
^nv ^ sddM imau, these two merchants. 
"W^wnr bandhH dnaya, bring the two fiiends. 
(91^ ^ late ete, these two creepers. 
f^ ^ vidye imey these two sciences. 
^nni^ ^P^^ Saydte arbhakau^ the two children lie down. 
^nm% ^TPft iaydvahe dvdm^ we two lie down, 
in^ ^1^ ydchete artham, they two ask for money. 

Note — Exceptions occur, as 'Hlfhf manivay i.e. *Wft 1{^ mat^i wa, like two jewels.; ^^Hin^ 
dampativa, i.e. ^Mff1 ^ dampatiiva, like husband and wife. 

a. The terminations of ^nftamf and ix^^amd^ the nom. plur. masc. and the 

nom. dual of the pronoun ^r^ adas. (Pfin. 1. 1, iz.) 
Ex. ^iift WiVTt ami aivdi^ these horses. 

^fft JJW* ami ishavaby these arrows. 

m^ ^pSift am4 arbhakauy these two children, (This follows from rule i.) 


Irregular Sandhi, 

§ 43. The following are a few cases of irregular Sandhi which require to 
be stated. When a preposition ending in v or ^ a is followed by a verb 
beginning with T[€ or wt 0, the result of .the coalescence of the vowels is 
1? c or ^ 0, not ^ ai or ^ au. (Pan. vi. i, 94.) 
Ex, IT + ^ifT^ = ^if?^ pra + ejate =:prejate, 

Tff + ^^ = ^"^^W upa H- eshaie = upeshate. 

1T-i- ^^^f?r= iTR^fif pra + eshayati ^preahayati *. 

'TCr + iwfir= ^^rfif para + ekkati =parekhatL 

'9^ + ^ftilfif = ^M^MPri upa + oshati = uposhati, 

iRT + ^ft^ = MO^Pri para + ohati =parohatu 

This is not the case before the two verbs ^^ edh, to grow, and ^ t, to go, if riused by Gui^a 
to 1? e. (P&9. VI. I, 89.) 

Ex. "W + ^Wn = "^hMW upa-^edhate=:upaidhate. 

In verbs derived from nouns, and beginning with 1? or ^ ^ or o, the elision of the final 
V or W a of the preposition is optional. 

§ 44. If a root beginning with ^ ft is preceded by a preposition ending 
in W a or ^ a, the two vowels coalesce into ^btt^ dr instead of ^R ar. (Pan. 
VI. I, 91.) 

Ex. Wi| + ^^Of = ¥im<aini apa -f- richchhati = apdrchchhati. 
'R + ^5^Dflfk = WnSlHl ava + rindti = avdrndti. 
H + 1^ = HT^ pra + fijate ^prdrjate. 
TOT + '^^iftr = ^TO^fir pard + rishati =pardr8hati. 

In verbs derived from nouns and beginning with ^ fi, this lengthening of the V a of 
the preposition is optional. (P^. vi. i, 92.) 

In certain compounds ^^ riii^my debt, and ^IH litah, affected, take Vriddhi instead of 
Guna if preceded by ^aj H + ^'^ =^V[t9 pra-^rinamznprdrnam, principal debt ; ^^ + 
^pir= ^^i3 f«na-|-n?am=rtiuiniam, debt contracted to liquidate another debt ; 5[hlf + 
^^IR = ^H^lflt ioka-^-fitahz^iokdrtah, affected by sorrow. Likewise "^ <2A, the substitute 
for ?TO vdh, carrying, forms Vriddhi with a preceding ^ a in a compound. Thus "PhB + 
"Vf ! viiva-\-iihah^ the ace. plur. of r«ini«ii^ vi^avdh, is frin!^ vUvauhah. (P&n. vi. i, 89, 

§ 45. If the initial ^ o in wtVt osklhah, lip, and Wt^ otuh, cat, is preceded in a com- 
pound by V or ^c, the two vowels may coalesce into w au or wo. (P&n. vi. i, 94, 

Ex. ^WC + ^ftWl = 1WOTJ or ^IV^t adhara + oshfhah = adharaushlhak or adharoshthafi, 
the lower lip. 

^?y + 'f^ ^'^J^S* or ^[f^tj: 8thiUa'{-otuh=zsthiUautuh or sthiUotuh, a big cat. 

* In nouns derived from r1^ presh, the rule is optional. £x. h^ or h^ preshya or 
prtti$kya, a messenger, fmpresha, a gleaner, b derived from Itpra and ^<9^. 


If WtV osh(ha and Wt^ otu are preceded bj W or W a in the middle of a sentence, 
thej follow the general rule. 

Ex. Wf + Wt9l = •i«itv* mama+08h(ha^=z mamaushfhah^ my lip, 
§ 46. As irregular compounds the following are mentioned by native grammarians : 
^t svairam, wilfulness, and #f5w watrm, self-willed, from W + ^ sva-\-ira, 
Wlfn^nooft akshauhini, a complete army, from ^[^ + 9f^«0 aktha+Hhint 
"UtSl praudhah, from H + WSl pra-^Hdhaft, full-grown. 
mftprauhah, investigation, from Jl '{•'9Sfl pra-\-iikah, 
ttmpraishah, a certidn prayer, frt>m H -h ^^i>ra-|-e«&a^. (See § 43.) 
Vm praishyah, a messenger. 

§ 47. The final ^ o of indeclinable words is not liable to the rules of Sandhi. (P&9. 1. 1, 15.) 
Ex. V1[t ^hi^ aho apehi. Halloo, go away ! 

§ 48. Indeclinables consisting of a single vowel, with the exception of WJ d (^ 49), are 
not liable to the rules of Sandhi. (P&n. i. i, 14.) 

Ex* ^ i^ i indray Oh Indra ! 7 "9^^ u umeia, Oh lord of Um& 1 
W ^^^ evam. Is it so indeed ? 

4 49. It^d (which is written by Indian grammarians WV^ dn) is iised as a preposition 
before verbs, or before nouns in the sense of 'so far as' (inclusively or exclusively) or a 
little,' it is liable to the rules of Sandhi. 

Kz. W 11 III l| 411^= unmnfra ^ adhyayandtzszddhyayaiUU, until the reading begins. 

W l!4iqVI<^= €^l|ll^(!^ ekade^dt:=zaikadeidi, to a certain place. 

^n Wnitfwi = VlfJ^fNA d dlochitam=:dlochitamf regarded a little. 

in Tljt =: vMf d ushi^am =s osh^am, a httle warm. 

in ^f)[[ = ^f^ d lAt =5 e^t, come here. 

If m ^ is used as an inteijection, it is not liable to Sandhi, according to § 48. 
Ex. in rt ftlc5 Jn(^d, evam kila tat, Ah, — now I recollect, — it is just so. 

4 50. Certain particles remain unaffected by Sandhi. 
Ex. ^ ^ A« indra. Oh Indra. 

4 51. A protracted vowel remains unaffected by Sandhi, because it is always supposed 
to stand at the end of a sentence. (P&9. vi. i, 135; viii. 2, 83.) 

Ex. ^^^VT ^ I ^f^ devadattd 3 ehi, Devadatta, come here ! 

D 2 
































































































































5^ S 





1. ^ 
or ^ 



as. •«• 










x^ ^ 



§» « 

















































g '8 










*8 - 















Combination of Final and Initial Oonsonants. 

§ 53' Here^ as in the case of vowels, the rules which apply to the final 
consonants of words following each other in a sentence are equally applicable 
to the final consonants of words following each other in a compound. The 
final consonants of nominal bases too, before the so-called Pacfa-terminations 
(^ bkydm, f^ bhib, W bhyab^ ^ 9u) and before secondary (taddhita) suffixes 
beginning with any consonant but ^ y, are treated according to the same 
rules. But the derivatives formed by means of these and other suffixes 
are best learnt from the dictionary in their ready-made state ; while 
the changes of nominal and verbal bases ending in consonants, before 
the terminations of declension and conjugation and other suffixes^ are 
regulated by difierent laws, and are best acquired in learning by heart the 
principal paradigms of nouns and verbs. 

j 54. In order to simplify the rules concerning the changes of final 
consonants^ it is important to state at the outset that eleven only out of the 
thirty-five consonants can ever stand in Sanskrit at the end of a word; viz. 

^ *, l^ii, T^t, ^% \t> '%ny i^p, ^m, c^ /, : bf • m. 

1. There are five classes of consonants, consisting of five letters each ; 

thus giving twenty-five. In every one of these five classes the aspirates^ 
if finals are replaced by their corresponding unaspirated letters : mkh 
by .W*; ^gh hjifff; V cAA, however, not by ^cA, but by ^^, &c. 
Ex. f^^ffiisw{^chitralikhj painter; voc. f^l9fc9i|r chitralik. This reduces 
the twenty-five letters to fifteen. 

2. In every class the sonant (^ 58} letters^ if final, are replaced by their cor- 

responding surd letters ; ^^ by ^ Ar ; ^ £f by 1^^, &c. Ex. ^ hfid, 
heart; nom. nArt^. This reduces the fifteen to ten*. 

3. No palatal ^ch can ever be final; hence the only remaining palatal, 

the \chf is replaced by the corresponding guttural V Art* Ex. ^rT^vocA, 
speech; voc. ^^vdk. Final i^/t does not occur. This reduces the 
ten to eight. In a few roots the final '^J is replaced by a lingual 
instead of a guttural. 

4. Of the semivowels, (i^y, ^^> <^ A \^y) «^ ' ^s ^^^ ^^7 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ found at 

the end of words. This raises the eight to nine letters. 

5. ^ A cannot be final^ but is changed into Jj; sometimes into 1^ A or w /. . 

* Some grammarians allow the soft or sonant letters as final, but the MSS. and editions 
generally change them into the corresponding hard letters. 

t The only exceptions are technical terms such as V^ achy a vowel ; "wlni ajautabt 
ending in a vowel, instead of WMI aganta^. 


6. Of the sibilants, the only one that is found at the end of words is Visarga. 
For, radical ^^sh cannot be final, but is replaced by ^ {. Thus f^dvish 
becomes f^^dvit. In a few words final ^^sh is changed into v k. 
Radical ^i cannot be final, but is replaced by Z f. Thus "ftr^vii becomes 

ftn^ vit. In some words final ^i is changed into ^ k. (J 174.) 
Final radical ^« is treated as Visarga. 

The Visarga, therefore, raises the nine to ten ; and the Anusvara, to eleven 
letters, the only ones that can ever stand at the end of real words. 
Hence the rules of Sandhi afibcting final consonants are really reduced to 
eleven heads. 

§ 55* It is important to observe that no word in Sanskrit ever ends in 

more than one consonant, the only exception being when an ^ r precedes a 

final radical tenuis '^k,J^f,n^tyTfp, Thus 

^rfiw^ + W = ^rf^W^ abibhar + / = abibhar, 3. p. sing. impf. of H bhriy to carry. 

^rftnr^ + ^= ^fflw^ abibhar + « = abibhar, 2. p. sing. impf. of ^ bhri, to carry. 

^<<>J| + ^= ^44 M suvalg -h 5 = suval^ nom. sing, well jimiping. 

But "51^^ ilrk^ strength, nom. sing, of iiJ^tJr;. 
V<ir<<<\ avarivart^ 3. p. sing. impf. intens. of '^[f^vrit or w vftrfA. 
^BPn^ amdrf, firom ifH mrij. (P&n. viii. 2, 2,4.) 

The nom. sing, of f^wt^chikirsh is f%vh chikib, because here the r is 
not followed by a tenuis. 

Classification of Consonants, 

^ 56. Before we csui examine the changes of final and initial consonants, 
according to the rules of external Sandhi, we have to explain what is meant 
by the place and the quality of consonants. 

1. The throat, the palate, the roof of the palate, the teeth, the lips, and the 

nose are called the places or organs of the letters. (See ^ 4.) 

2. By contact between the tongue and the four places, — ^throat, palate, roof, 

teeth, — the guttural, palatal, lingua^ and dental consonants are formed. 
Labial consonants are formed by contact between the lips. 

3. In forming the nasals of the five classes the veil which separates the 

nose firom the pharynx is withdrawn *. Hence these letters are called 
Anundsikaf i. e. co-nasal or nasalized. 

4. The real Anusv&ra is formed in the nose only, and is called Ndsikya, i. e. 


5. The Visarga is said to be pronounced in the chest (urasya) ; the three or 

five sibilants in their respective places. 

* Lectures on the Science of Language, Second Series, p. 145. 

- § 59- EXTERNAL SANDHI. 23 

6. The semivowels, too, are referred to these five places, and three of them, 
'^Vf (9^> ^^9 c^^ ^ nasalized, and are then called Anundaika. (4, ^^ 
^, or 4^ <9; ^9 jf, /, V.) X. r cannot be nasalized in Sanskrit 
^ 57. According to theii* quality {prayatna*, effort) letters are divided into, 

1. Letters formed by complete contact (spfishfa) of the organs: ^k^ Wtkh^ 

^ffj ^ff^y Vii; ^cA, itcAA, iry, T^jh, ^n; zt, ZfK ir^, »^, ^n; 
ir/, ^/A, ^rf, vrfA, ^»; J^py i||/?A, wi, HiA, ifm. These are called 
Spuria in Sanskrit, and, if they did not comprehend the nasals, would 
correspond to the classical mutes. 

2. Letters formed by slight contact {tshat sprishfa) : ^y, tr, H /, '^v (not f A). 

These are called Antah^sthd (fem.), i.e. intermediate between Sparaas and 
Oshmans, which has been freely translated by semivowel or liquid. 

3. Letters formed by slight opening {ishad vivfita): X X* V^» ^**» ^^9 

^ 0, ^ A. These are called (Ashman (flatus) in Sanskrit, which may be 
rendered by sibilant or flatus. 

4. Vowels are said to be formed by complete opening (yivrita)^, 
^ 58. A second division, according to quality, is, 

1. Surd letters : ^*, ir*A, ^cA, itcAA, zU ^tK 1ft, ^'A, ^P, '^ph; X Xf 

^ i, ^shy ^s, X 09 <^d Yisarga : ^. In their formation the glottis is 
open. They are called Affhosha, non-sonant. 

2. Sonant letters : nj, "^ffh, ir^, l^jA, z4, «*^A, ^ rf, vdA, w A, hAA, Tii, ^*, 

^n, ^n. If w/ ^ A, TTy, x^r, 75/, Wt?, the Anusvftra *m, and all vowels. 
In their formation the glottis is closed. They are called Ohoshavai. 
^ 59. Lastly, consonants are divided, according to quality, into, 

1 . Aspirated {mahdprdr^a) : m kh, '^ gh, it cAA, T^jhj z th^ V ^A, ^ /A, v dh, 

"RI^A, H AA; X X> V^> '^'^j "» X 0; f *; ti^e Visarga : 4 and 
Anusv&ra * th* 

2. Unaspirated (alpaprdna) : all the rest. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the change of ^ch into ^ A is a change of 
place, and that the change of ^ ch into nj is a change of quality ; while in the 

* Sanskrit grammarians call this ^I'^AU IR^ dbhyantaralt prayatna^^ mode of articu- 
lation preparatory to the utterance of the sound, and distinguish it from ^fl^ R^c^t vdhyah 
prayaindfi, mode of articulation at the close of the utterance of the sound, which produces 
the qualities of surd> sonant, aspirated, and unaspirated, as explained in § 58, 59. 

t Some grammarians differ in their description of the degrees of closing or opening of 
the organs. Some ascrihe to the semivowels duhgprishfa, imperfect contact, or ishadasprishia, 
slight non-contact, or tshadvivrita, slight opening ; to the sihilants nemaspfishfa, half-contact, 
i. 6. greater opening than is required for the semivowels, or vivrita, complete opening ; while 
they require for the vowels either vivjita, complete opening, or asprishfa, non-contact. Siddh . - 
-Kaum. vol. i. p. 10. Rig-veda-pr&tis. xiii. 3. In the Atharva-veda-pr&tisftkhya i. 33. we 
ought to read ^S^^l( eke 'sprishfam instead of ^ ^V die spfishfam. 


transition of ^ ch into i^g, or of ifi into it «, we should have a change both 
of place and of quality. 

^ 60. The changes which take place by the combination of the eleven final 
letters with initial vowels or consonants may be divided therefore into two 

Final letters are changed^ i. with regard to their places or organs, a,, with 
regard to their quality. 

I. Changes 0/ Place, 

§ 61 • The only final consonants which are liable to change of place are 
the Dentals, the Anusv&ra, and Yisarga. The Dentals, being incompatible 
with Palatals and Linguals, become palatal and lingual before these letters. 
Anusvlb*a and Visarga adapt themselves as much as possible to the place of 
the letter by which they are followed. All other changes of final consonants 
are merely changes of quality ; these in the case of Dentals, Anusv&ra, and 
Visarga, being superadded to the changes of place. 

§ 62, Final \ t before palatals (^ cA, "^ chhy njy 15 jh^ ^ n, 31^ i) is changed 
into a palatal. {P&s^. viii. 4, 40.) 
Ex. TTiT + ^ = WW tat + cha = tachchOy and this. 

Tn^+ ftRftr = TrRatTftr tat + chhinatti = tachchhinatHy he cuts this. 
Tn^+ ^pftfir :^ TPqjptfrtlT iat + fyinoti = tachirinotiy he hears this *. 
in^+i!Ti|^ = 'irwni^ tat +jdyate = tajjdyate, this is bom. The final 
1^ ^ is changed into ^ch and then into i^j according to § 66. 

In composition, ipnr + ihfT= •I'l^fll jagat +jetd =jaffajfetdy conqueror of 
the world. 
The same change would take place before an initial T^jh; and before an 
initial if ^, H^/ might become either l{^j or ^^fi, (J 68.) 

§ 6^, Final Tf^n before i^y, ^jh, s^riy and !i^i is changed to palatal ^ w, 

Ex. inPSl + invfir = inw^lflr tdn -{-jayati = tdnjayati^ he conquers them. (P&9. 
VIII. 4, 40.) 

Note — Rules on the changes of final ^n before ^cA, "^cAA, and 3^/ will be given 
hereafter. See § 73, 74. 

J 64. Final \t before \ty\t^9 1^ ^* ^ ^> ^9 (i^o^ \*K P^?- vm. 4, 43) 
is changed into a lingual. (Pfin. viii. 4, 41.) 

Ex. in^+T^=wpn^ to^+^ya/e = /a^i^ya/e. The final \t v& changed 

into ^ t and then into ^ 4 according to ^ 66. 

In composition^ fnr + ^^=W2f)v tat + fikdzsztaffikdy a gloss on this. 

^m^ + 7^ = ^^^7^ €tat + fhakkurai, = etatthakkuraJ^y the idol of him. 

* ^ iy according to § 93, is generally changed to K chh : IRplnflf iaehekhfii^ti. 


The same change would take place before an initial V 4^; and before an 
initial 9 n^ 1^/ might become either i|r ^ or n^ 9. {§ 68.) 

§ 65. Final if^n before ^ (?, ^ ^A, ^9 (not \«A, P^^. viii. 4, 43) is 
changed to m^t^. 

Ex. i|fT«^ + VTTO = HCimiHI.: mahdn+4dfnarai = mahdn4dfnaral^y a great 

Note — Rules on the changes of ^n before ^f and ^fA (not \sh) will be given hereafter 
(§ 74). The changes of place with regard to final Anu8v4ra (th) and Visarga ($) will be 
explained together with the changes of quality to which these letters are liable. 

2. Changes of Quality. 

^ 66. Sonant initiiJs require sonant finals. 
Surd initials require surd finals. 

As all final letters (except nasals and ?^ () are surd^ they remain surd 
before surds. They are changed into their corresponding sonant letters 
before sonants. 

As the nasals have no corresponding surd letters, they remain unchanged 
in quality, though followed by surd letters, unless the contact can be 
avoided by inserting sibilants. 

Examples : 

1. 1|i before sonants, changed into if^g: 

WOf^ + ^= ^mtijiji samydk + uktam = samyaguktam, Well said ! 
fW^ + VsprfH = ftnnrnflir dhik + dhanagarvitam = dhigdhanagarmtam. Fie 
on the piurse-proud man ! 
In composition, f?f^ + Tfin = fl^TiTif: dik + gaja^ = diggajal^, an elephant 

supporting the globe at one of the eight points of the compass. 
Before Pada- terminations: f^+ fW: = fllff^ldik + bhiljk = digbln^ymBtrum.'phxr. 
Before secondary suffixes beginning with consonants, except \y: Y1^ + 
fira = ^T^in^ vdk + min = vdgmin, eloquent *. 

2. tf before sonants, changed into ^^: 

^qfxnT? + ^ = M(Xm*4 j^flrfora^ + ayam ^parivrd^ayam^ he is a mendicant. 
i|fbn^ + V^ = M fiM 1 < gH Pi l parwrdf + hasati =:^parivrd4 hasati, the mendi- 
cant laughs ; (also itftXT^ Wflr parwrd4 4hamti. § 70.) 
In composition, ifficm^ + fll?J = MfUII fty il parivrdf + mitram s=: parivrd4nii'' 

tramy a beggar's friend. 
Before Pada- terminations : ilftm^ + fti: = MfVfll^t parivrdf + Wt^ szpari" 

* Pfti^ini is driven to admit a suffix ffmin instead of min, in order to prevent the nasaliza- 
tion of the final consonant of vdchj cf. PIL9. viii. 4, 45, v&rt. 


3. y^p before sonants, changed into ^ft: 

V^^+^V?f=^KJ^ra kakup + atra=^kakubatra, a r^Ion there, (inflectional 

base Ti|D^ kaki^h,) 
in^ + IIT: = "mtZl op + gJui(ak = abghatdf^^ a water-jar. 
^8n^ + ifiR = ^rain op '\- jay ah = abjayaj^^ obtaining water. 
Wi^^+ IW = VRm op 4- may ah = ammayah^ watery, (f 69.) 
^9^1^ + f^ = lijifw AaAt^p + bhih = kakubbhii, instrum. plur. 

4. \i before sonants, changed into ^ d, except before sonant palatals and 

lingualsy when (according to § 62) it is changed into ^J and ^^: 
^rfti^+ ^RT =^Rf^^ sarit + cUra = saridatra, the river there, 
ipnr + ^3|n = ^nnfhBrt jagat + Uah =^jagadiidhy lord of the world. 
1f1(+ V^ = 1^¥^! mahat + dhanuh = mahaddhanuh^ a larg^ bow. 
i|^+ f^ = l^fin tnahat + Mt^ = mahadbhi^f instrum. plur. 

IT i before sonant palatals, changed into ^^J: see ^ 62 : 

^rfb(^+ fci = nftWii ^orit -Vjalam = saTtjjalam^ water of the river. 

1^^ before sonant Unguals, changed into ^ ^.* see ^ 6% : 

CTi^+ TPTC = inr|TiTO etat + i^marah = eta44Amarah, the uproar of them. 

Note — ^There are exceptions to tbiB rule, but they are confined to Taddhita derivatives 
which are found in dictionaries. Thus final l^t before the possessive suffixes ^^mat; 
m^rfl/, ftn^rin, ^c5 vah. is not changed. Ex. fii^ n^ + ^= f^^»^ f{^t%dyul + vai = 
vidyutvaty possessed of lightning. Final "^s too, which represents Visarga, remains 
unchanged before the same Taddhitas. Thus HH^ + fV«^= n «l fts \t^as + rtn = t^asvin, 
instead of n^ifVftn^<e;of?tfiy see § 84. 3. 5«ilfn^4- 11?= 'ilfi fd m ^yotis-^fnat=:jyotishmat, 
instead of ^HtftAl(^jyotirmatj § 84. (P&n. i. 4, 19.) 

^ 67* Additional changes take place if the final surds "^k^Jt^ Tfif \P ^^^ 
followed by initial nasals, chiefly t^n and i^m. The nasals being sonant, 
they require the change of ^ A:, ^ ^, if^ty and i^j? into T\g9\49^ d, and i^ ft; 
but these final sonants may be further infected by the nasal character of the 
initial nasals, and may be written 1^ i^y Ti^ n, v^ n, ^^m. (Pa^. viii. 4, 45*) 

Ex. flpi^ + ifm: = flyy^m: or f^S^fm: dik + ndgah = digndgah or diiinagah, 

a world-elephant. 
Wi|ft5^ + Htft=''^ft5j|flr or iqftB^Rtfi^ madhulit + nardati = madhU' 

li4nardati or madhulinnardatiy the bee himis. 
Vn|^+ ^IR: = innir« or inrum: jagat + ndthah ^jagadnathah or jagan- 

ndthai, lord of the world. 
V^+^=:iri|^ or W^ ap-+nadizsabnadi or amnadi^ water-river. 
Unjr + gw = irngm or mvin prdk + mukhah =prdgmuktuii or jwdflmtt- 

AAa$, facing the east. 
)9^+in(=synRinl or h^^ bhavat+matam=^bhavadmatam or Ma- 

vanmatoiit, your opinion. 


Note — If a word should begin with a guttural, palatal^ or lingual n (^ n, ^n, or ^n) 
then a final- 1|^^ would change its place or organ at the same time that it became a nasal! It 
would become 1^ », ^H, or ^9. There are, however, no words in common use beginning 
with ▼ «, f a, or ^ t»- 

§ 68. Before the suffix ^^ maya and before fRf mdtra the change into the nasal is not 
optional, but obligatory. (P&n. viii. 4, 45, v&rt.) 

Ex. ^^ + ini = ^i^«i vdk-{-mayam = vdnmayamy consisting of speech. 

>r^^ + IT^r = f^rrt^WI^ madhulif+mdiram = ftutdhuUnrndtram, merely a bee. 

TH^+ 'nW = n<«iic) tai-^mdtram^ztanmdtram, element. 

Note — Ninety-six is always ^^QT^fir sha^^i^aoatiy never ^^4mf)l shaj^voH* 

§ 69. The initial 1| h, if brought into immediate contact with -a final "^k C^^), 7 ^ (^ A* 
^t {\ ^)j \P (^^)* is commonly, not necessarily, changed into the sonant aspirate of the 
class of the final letter, viz. into ^gh, ^4^,ydh, ^bh. (PiLi^. viii. 4, 62,) 

Ex. fW^ + i5r«r«li=ftl'<fla'«lt or ftl'lirWH: dhik-{-ha$timalis=dhigha$tinafi or dkUfghat- 
tinaft, Fie on the elephants I 

l|ftnn^.+ ^ = ^rfiCIIT^in or ^ifnnjin panvrdf-\-hataft=iparwrd4hataf^ or pari' 
vrddipiataltf the mendicant is killed. 

in^+^== n^jn or HTW tat+hutamz=z ladhutam or taddhutam^ this is sacrificed. 

V(^+^T^ = V^T^ or W9in!V ap+harai^am^^ abhor ai^am or abbhara^tam, water- 

^ 70. 1^^ before c^/ is not changed into ^ d, but into J^L (Pan. viii. 4^ 60.) 
Ex* mi + cl3V = Kfni tat + labdham = tcUlabdham^ this is taken, 

^f1^+(9cl17=)(ill^li bjihat + laUttam ss bfiAaUaldtam^ a large fore** 

^71. Final ^n before c^ / is changed into T^l; but this 7^1 is pronounced 
through the nose, and is written with the Anusvdra dot over it. It is usual 
in this case to write the Anusvftra as a half-moon^ called Ardha-chandra* 
Ex. i|^F^+ c9W = ^Vfl^ftn?: mahdn + laihah = maMl IdbhaJ^^ large gain* 

^ 7ij. Final T ^ iPr n, and ^n^ preceded by a short vowel and followed 
by any vowel, are doubled. (P&Q. viii. 3, 3a.) 

Ex. ¥1^+ Wiv: = Vl^m: dhavan + aiva^ -=- dhdvannaSvaJ^, a running horse, 
mir^ + uri^ = UTT^T^ praiya'h + date = pratyaMaste, he sits turned 

toward the west. 
^'ni(^+ 'Vri)' = ^vrai^ sugars -h aste = mgann^tej he sits counting well **. 

If "^ ii, ^ n, and 1^ n are preceded by a long vowel and followed by any 
vowel, no change takes place. 
Ex. ?i^)i^+ insi'irer kavin + dhvayasva^ call the poets. 


* Technical terms like 'VOrfif w^ddiy a list of suffixes beginning with w^, or fniW tinanU 
words ending in /t», are exempt from this rule. See also Wilkins, Sanskrita Grammar, ^ 30. 

E 2 

28 EXTERNAL 8ANDHI. ^ 73"" 

§ 73. Final n^n before initial ^ k, "Wf^kh, and ^^p^ ^pky remains unchanged. 
Final f^ n before ^ch, ^^ chh, requires the intercession of i(^i. 
Final ?^n before Jji \(^9 requires the intercession of ^sh. 
Final i^n before T^/, \thf requires the intercession of l^«. (P&9. 
VIII. 3, 7.) 
Before these inserted sibilants the original t^n is changed to Anusvfira. 
Ex. '^W9^+^Wlir?:=l^WTC hasan + chakdra = h€uamichakdra, he did it 
vr^+1(nn=Vl4^(VT: dMv(m-¥chhdgdik^dMvaniichhdgdl^^ a run- 
ning goat. 
*leS^ + firflpT: = ^^f^P^H: chalan + fitii^hal^ = chalamshtift^haJ^ a 

moving titU^ha-bird. 
li^n^ + TfC =: ^tlV|K* fnahdn + thakkura^ = mahdmahthakkural^y a great 

^T1f^+ in^ = ^l4w^ patan + taru^ sspataihstarul^, a falling tree. 

Note — Ttf^pra^dm, quiet, forms the nom. WflT\praddnj but this final ^^n^ being the 
representation of an original ^my is not allowed before ^ch^ If^chk, J^f, J^th^ l(^t, ^th to 
take a sibilant. Ex. IQIT*^ "^ f^Pnflf == in^TftPrnW praidn-i- chinoti =zpraid1lchiBoH ; not 
^tlVfVl ^Or pr(Udihdehinoti. (Pki^. viii. 3, 7.) 

§ 74. Final ^ * and n^n may be followed by initial ^^i, ^«A, ^* without 

causing any change ; but it is optional to add a i| A after the 1^ 1^ and a 

^f after the ^9. Thus ^ iMa becomes n ^kSa (or n ifikchha, § 92); 

1^ iisha becomes n iiksha; T^ iisa becomes v« iikia; iqi nia becomes 

H^ nfia (or ?|n nt^hha)] n nsha becomes unr nfsha; inr nsa becomes 

:q^ visa. (P&^i. VIII. 3, 28.) 

Ex. VT^ + ^=9T^^ or WIV^ (or OT^lfir) prdik + ieteszprdiiiete or 

prdiikiete (or prdiikchhete), 

^n^+ ^rcflr = ^IKIIini or ^sm^infir sugan + sarati = suffafiaarati or 

§ 75. The same rule appUes to final 1^ n before s^ i and ^ s, but not 
before \8h, where it remains unchanged. Before 9^ i it is first changed 
into palatal 1^ fi* (^ 63) ; and ^ ni may again be changed to W^^ iichS, 
S9^ fichchh (f 72, 92), or '^nchh. Before ^*, ^n may remain unchanged, 
or ^n« may be changed into im^rUs, (P&n. viii. 3, 30.) 
Ex. wp^ + ^ = inp^ tdn 4- »Aa/ = tdnshafy those six. 

1fnT + ^ng<9n^=lfT'^IT|(3T^ or Al^ll^cftl*^ or AINILl|<4r«^ or TTT^W^^ST^ 
tdn + idrdiUdn = tdfiidrddldn or tdnchMrddldn or tdnchchhdrddldn 
or tdnchhdrddldny those tigers. (P&n. V111.3, 31.) 

* To allow «(» to remain unchanged before 9(^^ was a mere misprint in Benfey's large 
grammar, and has long been corrected by that scholar. 

^ j 77. BXTERNAL SANDHI. 29 

irn^+^Rlir = 1f1i9fi^ or irrmn^ tdn + sahate := tdnsahate or taiit$ahate^ 

he bears them. 
f^ (f^) + ^ =fln^ or ff«i^ hin {hiMs) + m = Jwmu or MniiUy among 
enemies. (The base f)||^Aim^, before the '^iu oi the loc. plur., is 
treated as a Pada.) See { 53^ 55. 
^ 76. A final ^ ^ before 1^9 must remain unchanged, and if / may be inserted. 
Ex. 11;^ + irfbn =: iiprftin or ii^wfVfl: shat + saritah ^ sha(aaritai^ or shaftsa- 
ritahi six rivers. (Pftp. viii. 49 42 ; 3? 29.) 

^ 77. II m at the end of words remains unchanged if followed by any 
initial voweL 

Ex. "An + ^V^ kim + atra = fwrST kimatra^ What is there ? 
Before consonants it may, without exception, be changed to Anusv&ra. (P&9. 
VIII. 3, 23.) 

This is the general rule. The exceptions are simply optional (P&n. viii. 
4, 59), viz. 

Before i|[ k, ^^kh, i^^g, \ffhf i^fi^ the final ^m or Anusvtbra may be 

changed into ^ H. 
Before ^cA, J^chh, n^j\ Tijh^ TJ^n, to n^n. 

Before J^f* \tf^9 \4f \4^9 ^t^> to l^n. 

Before nj, i(^/A, ^rf, i^rfA, i^», to i^n. 

Before i^/ij T^ph, ^6, )^£A, «^m, to i^m. 

Before i^y, <^/, ^t?, to |[y, ;3^J, Hy. See f 56. 6. 
Hence it follows that final i^m may be changed into Anusvfira before all 
consonants, and mtut be so changed only before 9( i, w «A, ^9, ^ A, and tr^ 
i. e. the five consonants which have no corresponding nasal class-letter. 

It would be most desirable if soholan would never avail themselves of the optional 
change of final Aausvira into ^ », ^ ^> ^i^, '^n, ^^m, We should then be spared a number 
of compound letters which are troublesome both in writing and printing ; and we should 
avoid the ambiguity as to the ori^nal nature of these class-nasals when followed by initial 
sonant palatals, Unguals, and dentals. Thus if 1ft '^H^ tdm jayati, he conquers her, is 
written IfTW^fv tdfi jayati, it may be taken for IfT^ iimPa tdi^ jayati, he conquers them, 
which, according to § 63, must be changed into HfSHrffT idSi jayati. In the same manner 
HP^inrfk tdn damaiyaH may be either WPT ^^nrfk tdn damayoH, he tames them, or If^ 
^iniflf tdm damayati, he tames her. All this uncertainty is at once removed if final l^^m is 
always changed into Anusvfira, whatever be the initial consonant of the following word. 

Ex. ftiw + i|3ftfti=fli W^rfW (or flifdft) kim -^ karoshi = kim karoski (or 
At9l karoshi). What doest thou ? 
^1^ + Hf^ = 1^ wfV (or IRJWif ) iatrum +Jahi = iairumjoM (or iairuii 
Jahi), kill the enemy. 


i|^+TrTfir=if?ff Tirflr (or vf^lMcOl) nadim-^tarati^nadi^ tarati (or 

nadin tarati)^ he crosses the river. 
^l^^+^infir = g^ ^ffflr (or ^psiwftr) ffurum -j- namaii = ffurum namati 

(or gurun namati)^ he salutes the teacher. 
fliif + 'Hci = fii 1W (or (Vim) kim-\'phalam=ikim phalam (or kim 

phalam)f What is the use 1 
*Hn^p^+ iftm^ = ^n^ nNriinr (or l^n^BpAHhnr) idstram + mimdmsaie = 

idstram mimdmsate (or idstram mimdmsate)^ he studies the book. 
Before i^y, c^/, ^t?: 

lWT3^H-^nfif = ^rr?R ^nfif (or Hi^i^KllOi) satvaram-^-ydii^satvaram ydti 

(or satvaray ydti), he walks quickly. 
ftrin«^+c5HTr=ftniT <W1> (or f^renfrirr} mdydm-k-ldbhate^vidydm la- 

bhate (or vidyal labhate), he acquires wisdom. 
THi + ^ = W %^ (or Tl'^) tarn + veda = ^a/» rerfa (or tcHv veda\ I 

know him. 

Before ^r, l^i, n^»A, i^», ^ A: 

^R;iin^+ ^fl^ = ^1^ Or^^Ol itarunom + ro^ft^t = Ararunam roditiy he cries 

9WI4I^+ $^ = ^TBiTirf ^ iayydydm -^ iete == iayydydm iete, he lies on 

the couch. 
«fhm + ii%ir = ifhBf ^l^ moksham-^- seveta^moksham seveta^ let a man 

cultivate spiritual fireedom. 
1^l^+|nR[fW = «rvt ^irflr madhuram^-hasati^madhura^ hasati, he 
laughs sweetly. 
^78. i^m at the end of a word in pausd, i. e. at the end of a sentence, 
is pronounced as m, not as Anusvlb*a. It may be written, however, for the 
sake of brevity, with the simple dot (^ 8, note), and it is .so written through- 
out in this grammar. Ex. wAevam, thus, (or ^[^^evam.) 

§ 79. Final ^^m before 1^ A, if ^ A be immediately followed by ^n, i^^w, 

\y9 <? ^> ^ ^> ™^y ^ treated as if it were immediately followed by these 

letters (PAn. viii. 3, 26; 27). See, however, § 77. 

Ex. f^+ wkszfiiwkoT ftF^ kim + hnute = Hm hnute or Hn hnute. What 

does he hide 1 

fVlH + ir: = f* in or f^^. kim + hyal^ =z kim hyai^ or kiy Aya*, What 

about yesterday ? 
ftn^ + WcWfir = fli V<9^ or fVRRT^ilflr *»m + hmdlayati = *tm hmaluyati 
or kimhmalayati. What does he move ? 
^ 80. If ^ kri is preceded by the preposition W{sam9 an ^« is inserted, 
and ^^m changed to Anusv&ra. (PAn. vi. i, 137; viii. 3, 2-5.) 
Ex. THI + ^fm = ^^?r: sam -f- Art^ai^ = samskfita^, hallowed. 


^ 81. In w^m^^samrdjy nom. W^ samrdfy king? "^ w is never changed. 

Visarga and Final 1(8 and T^r. 

^ 82. The phonetic changes of final sibilants, which are considered the 
most difficulty may be reduced to a few very simple rules. It should only 
be borne in mind : 

I. That there are really five sibilants, and not three ; that the signs for the 
guttural and labial sibilants became obsolete, and were replaced by 
the two dots (:) which properly belong to the Visarga only, i. e. to the 
unmodified sibilant, 
a. That all sibilants and Visarga are surd, and that their proper corresponding 
sonant is the ^ r. 

^ 83. The only sibilant which can be final in pauid is the Visarga. If 
Visarga is followed by a surd letter, it is changed into the sibilant of that 
class to which the following surd letter belongs, provided there is a sibilant. 

It should be observed, however, that the guttural and labial sibilants are 
now written by : ^^ and that the same sign may also be used instead of any 
sibilant^ if followed by a sibilant. 

Ex. wm + "mm = mn ^wm (originally THT X 'WW:) taiai, + kdma^ = taiai kdmah 

(originally taia-j^^kamafi), hence love. 
^1: + ^i^ s= ^^^Nrj;: pHrriaJ^ + chondral = pUrr^ chandra^, the full 

iTCh + VVlt = flO^mMI taroi^ + chhdyd = taroi chhdydy the shade of 

the tree, 
^ftiH + TBfir = 4hfV(9flf bhUa^ -f talaii = bhitashtalatij the frightened 

man is disturbed. 
Ht<t: + 7^ = ^MV^: hhagnab + fbakkura^ = bhaffnashthakkural^, the 

broken idol. 
•IWT: + Hit = HVlWIi nadydb + Hram = nadydstiram, the border of the 

7nrT:+W=:^TOT: to (originally ^niTX^) nadydb -^ pdram =z nadydb 

pdram (originally nadyd<f>pdram), the opposite shore of a river. 

Visarga before sibilants (P&n. viii. 3, 36): 

^ + fip^ = ^HftsnS^ or ^ f^nj: supiab + Hiub = supiai Hiub or 
supta^ Hiuljt, the child sleeps. 

•ipn + W^np! = NMIuftc^lt or Hnn ^ttv^in bhdgab + sho4aiab = bhdgash 
sho4aSait or bh&gal^ 8ho4a6abi a sixteenth part. 

WW: + ^jrt: = IWWWf: or iKVmi ^^^ prathamab'\^8arga1^::^prathama8'' 
sargab or praihamdb sarga^, the first section. 

32 SXTfiBNAL 8AKDHI. § 84- 

Note i — If Visarga is followed by an initial '^ts, it is not changed into dental ^$f 
but remains Visarga, as if followed by ^». (PIL9. viii, 3, 35.) 

£z. '!fm + Wrfw = l(nrt l^rfv ^afhaf^-^-isarati = iaf AaJl tsaraH^ a wicked man cheats. 
W* + W^ = 1C W^ ka^-^-ttan^zzikdli tBoru^, Which is the handle of the sword ? 

Note 2 — If, on the contrary, Visarga is followed by a sibilant with a surd letter, the 
Visarga is frequently dropt in MSS. (P&9. viii. 3, 36, yftrt.) 

Ex. ^^ + l^J = ^^ l^r or ^^ W devdft'{-8tka=:devdlt stha or deed $tka, you are gods; 
(also ^^rn9T devds giha,) 

^fts + ^^yfil = l[ftJ ^^fn or ^ft ^CAf harifi-^sphurat%=zharift tpkurati or hari 
sphuratiy Hari appears ; (also ^fd^^cfv haris q>hurati.) 

Note 3— If nouns ending in l^is or ^S^u^, like ff^ Aovi/i or V^S dhanult, are followed 
by words beginning with 1^ k, ^kh, ^p, ^^pk, and are governed by these words, ^$k may 
be substituted for final Visarga. 41 (M 0^1^011 or Tlfot ftnvflf sarpishpibati or satpif^ pibati, 
he drinks ghee ; but fnsg ^rfn: f^^ i^^^4 tisktkatu sarpih, piba tvam uddkam^ let the ghee 
stand, drmk thou water. (P&n. viii. 3, 44.) 

j 84. If final Yisarga is followed by a sonant letter, consonant or vowel, 
the general -nAe is that it be changed into ^r. (See, however, J 86.) This rule 
adtnits, however, of the following exceptions : 

1. If the Visarga is preceded by ^ d, and followed by a sonant letter 

(vowel or consonant), the Visarga is dropt 

2. If the Visarga is preceded by va, and followed by any vowel except Wfl, 

the Visarga is dropt. 

3. If the Visarga is preceded by V a, and followed by a sonant consonant, 

the Visarga is dropt, and the V a changed to if^ 0. 

4. If the Visarga is preceded by ^ a, and followed by V a, the Visarga is 

dropt, V a changed into ^ 0, after which, according to ^ 41, the initial 
W a must be eUded. The sign of the eUsion is s, called Avagraha. 

Examples of the general rule : 
irff: + irt = Vftrti^ kavil^ + ay am = kamrayam^ this poet. 
Ijfln + ^^fir = tftr^^flr ravif^ + udeti = ravir udetiy the sun rises. 
Hh + T3Kflr = ^rHNKfir gaulf. + gachchhati = gator gachchhati, the ox walks. 

flfi^ + WHflr = ftri^^'riTI vishnu^ +jayaH = vishnur jayatif Vishnu is victo- 

^I^ + '^V: = ^^[h^^ paioi + bandhdf^ ^paiorbandhaJjky the binding of the 

9f* + ^ ^ ?1^ mttAt^ijl + muhui^ = muhunnuhuif gradually. 
^niJ + ^rrflr = ^rgflfir vdyui^ + vdti = vdyur vaiiy the wind blows. 
i^jl^ + T^Rflr = f^H^lnni Hiuh + hasati = Hiur hasatiy the child laughs. 
tfft + V«n =: Af9if: ni^ + dhanah = nirdhanahy without wealth. 
^ + «rtfln = nflAn dui. + n{/t<Ji = duroiHhy of bad manners. 
9iftAR + fii: = iiftflrfil: jyotih •+• Mi^ =:jyoiirbhi^y instrum. plur. 


Examples of the first exception : 
wist: + wft = WI8T wft ahdit + ami^sz aivd amtf these horses. 
irPTTO + ^wm = ITOTIT ''^VK dgaidJ^ + rishayal^ = a^a fishayai^, the poets 

have arrived* 
IWTt + mn: = fin mm hatd^ + ^q/ai^ = hatd ffofd^y the elephants are killed. 
TfWfm + ^RT: = ^nnrr ^RT: tinno/^^ + na^a/jl = unnaid noffdiy the high 

imn: + ^nii^ = in?rT V^iHt chhdtrdl^ •\- yatante ^ chhdtrd yatante, the pupils 

HT: + ^ = 'nfW; mdi + Mi^ = mdbhii^ instrum. phur. of in^ 9nd«, moon. 

Examples of the second exception : 

^m + WTTIK = ygn wnnc *a/aj + dgatai^ = *tt<a dgaiah, Whence come ? 
ic -f f[^ =riV ^: A-o^ -). etf Ao^ = Aa e^Ao^, Who is he ? 

^ + ^5fti: = ^ ^^ftf: *a4 + fwAtiJ = *a fishihi Who is the poet? 
inrt + WTfi^= 'HT mfl^ maTiai^ + ddi = mana dJi, beginning with mind. 
Examples of the third exception : 

^fhrsn + ^ = ^Hift Hv: iobhana^ + gandhal^=:iobhano gandhai^ a sweet 

scent. ' 
^pR: + ^^^ = ^TRt ^^^ nUtanah + ffhafai^ = nfl/a^to ghafai^, a new jar, 

the lingual fi. 
ftrtwn + IfH: = ftrtlilft ^^ nirvdriai + ^ijpaA = nirr^no cf^jpa^, the lamp is 

blown out. 
mftw: + m^ =i»lftTft mnr: a/fta^ + md^aiS = atUo mdsa^, the past month. 
ipn + HIP = flft illp *n^«* + ya/na4 = ki^o yatnah^ effort is made, 
vni: 4. ^: = inrttn: fMtnah + rafnaf^^ manor amal^^ (a compound)^ pleasiog 

to the mind^ delightful. 
^ + ^ = ^frfW: na$ + M«$ = nobhib, instrum. plur. with the noses. 

Examples of the fourth exception : 
^: + VI = ^«^ narafy + ayam = naro ^yam^ this man. 
^: + mftm = ^s^Ain t^ecfaA + adhitah = t'^^o ^dhiiaiy the Veda has been 

vn + H^ = W^^^ ^y^i + astram = oyo ^stram^ an iron-weapon. 
^ 85. There are a few words in which the final letter is etymologically z.r*. 
This ^ r^ as a final^ is changed into Yisarga^ according to § 82, and it 

* It is called TiRit Ow^S rajdio visargafi, the Vissrga produced from r. It occurs, 
preceded by V a, in IpTt puna^, agun ; IRH prdtaftj early ; ^IH an/o^, within ; ^QTt m^o^, 
heaven; Hl^ aAo^, day (§ 196); in the voc.sing. of nouns in ^p, ex,^f(lpitaft, father, 
from f^pitfiy &c. ; and in verbal forms such as WiTR^ cjdgaty 2, 3. sing. impf. of W^jdgfi, 



follows all the rules affecting the Visarga except the exceptional rules j 84. 
2, 3, 4 ; L e. if preceded by V a, and followed by any sonant letter, vowel 
or consonant, the ^ r is retained. 

Ex. g^ + wf^ = '^fflfifpunai^ + api =punarapi, even again. 
jmn -f ^=m^:!^prdtai^ + eva ^prdtareva, very early. 
Win +^1? = WTI^ bhrdtaljL + dehi = bhrdtar deh% Brother, give ! 

J 86. No ^r can ever be followed by another 7^ r (P&n. viii. 3, 14). Hence 
final Visarga, whether etymologically ^s or ^r, if followed by initial T.r, 
and therefore by ^ 84 changed to ^r, is dropt, and its preceding vowel 
lengthened. (P&n. vi. 3, 1 1 1 •) 

Ex. 'Piy + ^nn^ = flr^TTsn^ vidhu^ + rdjate = vidhil raj ate ^ the moon shines. 
^rnK + T!W = WTIT T!W hhrdtah + raksha = bhrdid rakshuy Brother, protect ! 
yn + ^&»ft = J'n tc^punafk + rogi=pund rogi^ ill again. 

These are the general rules on the Sandhi of final Visarga, ^« and ^r. 
The following rules refer to a few exceptional cases. 

j 87. The two pronouns W. safk and f!^ esha(L, this, become iff sa and 
^ esha before consonants and vowels, except before short V a and at the 
end of a sentence. (P&i^. vi. i, 132.) 

Ex. ir: + ^f^rfk = iff ^^^ifir sai^ + dadati = sa dadatiy he gives. 

^ jj^. = Iff i^^ sal^ indrah = sa indraft, this Indra. The two vowels 
are not liable to Sandhi. 
But W* + ini^= ifftsH^ sal^ + abhavat = so ^bhavaty he was. 

i|ir: ^ mritah sai^ he is dead. 

Sometimes Sandhi takes place, particularly for the sake of the metre. 
Thus Iff m«a esha becomes occasionally fhl «ai«Aa, he, this person. 9^^ 
sa indra^ appears as B5: sendrab. (P&n. vi. i, 134.) 

The pronoun 1^ syai^, he, follows the same rule optionally in poetry. (P&n. 
VI. 1, 133O 

§ 88. irh bhoby an irregular vocative of }fm(^bhavat, thou, drops its Visarga 
before all vowels and all sonant consonants. (P&n. viii. 3, 2,2,.) 

Ex. irh + |;5nT = rft Ij^nr bhob + iidna = bho {Sana, Oh lord ! 
rffe + ^TO=Ht ^TO bhob + devdb = bho devdby Oh gods ! 

The same appUes to the inteijections H^ft: bhagob and wifh aghob, really 
irregular vocatives of \m^bhagavat, God, and w^^c^Aava^, sinner. 

J 89. Numerous exceptions, which are best learnt firom the dictionary, 
occur in compound and derivative words. A few of the more important 
may here be mentioned. 


I. Nouns in W^^m, ^iB> ^i^U8,/ormtfi^ the first part of a Compound, 

I. Before derivatives of^kfi, to do (e.g. M^kara, WT. kdra)^ before derivatives of V^^ibam, 
to desire (e. g. VIT kdntOt "WR kdma), before 4^ kathsa, goblet, ^W kumbha, jar, 
WT^pdiray vessel, ^^11 kiM, counter, board, Wfltkan^y ear, the final Visarga of bases 
in '9^^as is changed to ^«. (P&9. viii. 3, 46.) 

Ex. ^0^ + IRS = V)l(ljKU ^eyah+karai=zA'eifaskarafif making happy. 
Wfl + IPC = fl^ljkU ahah-{-karalt^ahaskarah, sun. 
Wm + ^^ = ini^^ ayali-\-kumbka(i=zayaskumbkal^, iron-pot. 

There are several words of the same kind — ^which are best learnt from the dictionary — in 
which the Visarga is changed into dental sibilant. (P&9. viii. 3, 47.) 

£z. Wt + "^^ = W9I^ adka^+padam^^adhaspadam, below the foot, 
f^^ + ^ifin = Rj^fWfht divah+patilt^dwaspati^, lord of heaven. 
^TTf J + Vfifl = ^n^Wfftn vdcha^-^-patift^vdehaspatift, lord of speech. 
Hn + IPCS = HIHKit bkd(t'\'kara(t=^bhdskarap, sun, &c. 

3. Nouns in ^w and ^^««, such as Ifftt havih, V^ dhanuf^, &c., before words beginning 
with ^it, ^ kh, ^p, and ^ph, always take '^sh. (PA9. viii. 3, 45.) 

Ex. ^rfnt + ^nf = «R*iin sarpift+pdnams=sarpishpdnam, ghee-drinking. 
WPll + ^iTIft = WIJfc^lHl dyulk+kdmalL^^dyuskkdma^y fond of life. 

Note — ^i^<^«i* bhrdtushptUrali, nephew, is used instead of HTJt 'JJST* bhrdtufi putrdh, the 
son of the brother. 

II. Words in IV^as, ^is, ^^us, treated as Prepositions. 

I. The words cpn namaft, ^t pur ah, fldX tirafty if compounded prepositionally with ^ kfi, 
change Visarga into ^«. (P&9. viii. 3, 40.) 

Ex. •!*!: + iro = •PraroJ namah'\'kdrafi=:namaskdrafi, adoration; (but fR ^pWT 
namalt kritvd, having performed adoration.) 
yj + ^W = ^^.^m purali+kfitya=ipuraskfitya, having preferred. 

fiftJ + ^ST^ = fflUftlO tirah+kdri^ tiraskdri, despising. In flftJ tiru^ the change 
is considered optional. (P&p. viii. 3, 43.) 

3. The words ftfimj, ^duli, ^f^vaAi^, HTftfJ doih, Itl^lpr^ufi, ^npchatuk, if compounded 
with words beginning with Vit, ^^kh, ^p or ^ph, take \sk instead of final Visarga. 

Ex. f^ + ^StHl = fn^^ini nili'\-kdmai^niskkdmaft, loveless. 
i«R + ^m^fl = f^*4MS ni^+phalah=znishpkalalt, fruitless. 
^nftn + ^pf = Vrflfl^fTf dvih'\'kfitamz=dnshkritamf made manifest. 
Jt + Tflf = ^i^ii duh-^kfitam=zduskkfitam, badly done, criminal. 
^VJt + ^ata = '^AMit^i cAa/vA+ibofMims^cAahifMotiam, square. 

III. Nouns in m^as, ^is, 9^ us, before certain Taddhita Sufixes. 

r. Before the Taddhita suJBixes ^^mat, "^Ifvat, f^mn, vad^t^vala, the final ^^s appears 
as ^s or \sk (§ 100). 

Ex. Win + fii^ ^ H ^y^^^tejaft+vin = tejasdn, with splendour. 
^Miin; + ITH^= alfi Ol Vf \jyotih 4- ma^ ^yoHshmat, with light. 
fK 4- ^c5 = ii|M^ rajafi+vala=srajaspah, a bufiblo. 

F :;^ 


3. Before Tfuldhita suffixes beginning with 1( t, the ^«, preceded hj \ i or 7«, is changed 
into \sh, after which the 1^^ becomes Z ^ 

Ex. '^R; + W:=WPty arehilt-^tvam:=archi8hfvaim, brightness. 

^^ + Vm ^ ^3»M chatufL^ tayam = cAo^tuAf ayam, the aggregate of four. 

3. Before the Taddhita suffixes "^V^pd^a, iRff kcdpa, '^ka, and in composition with the 
verb ^i9^rn kdmyaH, nouns in IV^ as retain their final ^ «, while nouns in ^ is and 
^^tw change it into \8h (§ 100). (P&n. viii. 3, 39.) 

Ex. ■'TO + Vm^ = H M^H I ^ payaft-^pd^am sspayaspdiam, bad milk. 

VK + ^rar = ^nras^ pay o^ -f kalpam =payaskalpam, a little milk. 
rS + ^ = M^ifSK ya^ah+kah^ya^askafi, glorious. 

H + ^itf^ifn = ««^<9iiMinn ya^aik+kdmyati=ya^Mkdmyati, he is ambitious. 
^TO + '^^^ = «rM"Hi^i 8arpifk-{-pddam = sarpishpdkm, bad ghee. 
^ITO + ira^ = ^RaoiKsi «af7?i/^+ita/pam= sar^Aita^am, a little ghee. 
VJt + 15 = Vg«ifc dkanuh+kdl!k^=dhanii8hkii(i, belonging to the bow. 
'-' ^* + ^Wrfir = V^MilMlOll dhantifi+kdmyaH^dhanushkdmyati^ he desires a bow. 

^ 90. Nouns ending in radical \t {^ 85) retain the \r before the ^ w of 
the loc. plur., and in composition before nouns even though beginning with 

Ex. 1T^ + ^ == If^ vdr 4- «« = vdrshu, in the waters. 

ftr^ + ifin = ifftftn gir -hpatiit ssgirpatV^, lord of speech. 

In compounds^ however^ like Jil^Oi; girpati^, the optional use of Visarga is sanc^ 
tioned (P&n. viii. 2, 70, v&rt.), and we meet with jOimOi: gthpcttilf,^ ^iifin dhUh- 
paiihy and ^{^f^ dhdrpatif^; ^n^lin svaipatih and 9^flR svarpaiihi lord of 
heaven ; H^tilOi: ahaJ^patii^ and ^r^^fli: aharpatil^y lord of the day. 

^ dhary the Pada base of ^CTITf^aAan, day, is further irregular, because its final ^r is 
treated like ^« before the Pada-terminations, and in composition before words beginning 
with ^r; hence ^■^[J + filJ = ^I^tfir: ahdfL+hhHk^=- ahobkif^ j W^ + ^ = ^'^^ ahah+su = 
nhdtau; ^T^ 4- TRIt = V^UHl ahafi-\'rdtraitszahordtra^, day and night. (P&9. viii. 2, 
68, v&rt.) 

^ 91. itcAA at the beginning of a word, after a final short vowel, and 
after the particles w\d and mmd, is changed to ^ssichchh. 

Ex, m + irnn= irt ^l^l tava -f chhdyd = iava chchhdyd, thy shade. 
1IT + f^a^ = IT f^X^ md + chhidat = ma chchhidaty let him not cut. 
W + V^^= wra[Rprfil a + chhddayati = dchchhddayatiy he covers. 
After any other long vowels, this change is optional. 

V^Ov^l^l or ^r^^Ownn badarichhdyd or badarichchhdyd^ shade of Badaris. 
In the body of a word, the change of it chh into IK chchh is necessary 
both after long and short vowels. 
Ex. ^^Pa ichchhatiy he wishes. Ihst mkchchha^, a barbarian. (Pai^. vi. 
h 73-76.) 

^§ 93. EXTERNAL 6ANDHI. 37 

^ 92. Initial 9 i, not followed by a hard consonant, may be changed 
i^to It chhf if the final letter of the preceding word is a hard consonant or 
^^a (for ^»). (P49. VIII. 4, 63.) 

Ex. ^ni| + 91^ = wnV(nr or ^nvw vdk + iatam=ivdkSatam or vdkchhatam^ a 

hundred speeches. 
i|fnm^+^ = i|fnm^ ^ or MfVni^iilk parivrdt + iete=:parivrdf Me 

or parivrdf chheie, the beggar lies doiwn, 
^C1^+ IPii =5 Hfi^^i or irfWHi mcAat + takafam s maAocA iakafam 

or maAaeA chhakafam, a great car. 
in^+ lBf|ik^= irf{1%isr /a/ + ilokena = tachchhlokenay by that verse. 
vn^+ Ifrv: = Vl^^w: or vmfur: ihdvan-\'iaiah^dhdv€di iaiai or 

dhdvaH chhaia^f a running hare. 
wi^+19^==^V«9^ or Wt^w^ ap + iabdai :=s ap iabdalk or apchhabdahf 

the sound of water. 

^ 93. If 1 A, ^^A, ^ ^, i^cfAy or yi{bh stand at the end of a syllable which 
begins with i[^g^ \^4^ TRd^ or \by and lose their aspiration as final or 
otherwise, the initial consonants 1^^, ^^4^ \^9 or ^d are changed into 
\gK J^4h, \dh, }^bh. 

Ex. n duh^ a milker, becomes ipr dhuk^ 

ffrfp^viivagudhj all attracting, becomes ^m^jnyiivaghui^ 
'^^budh^ wise, becomes ^Mv/, 



§ 94. 













00 ^ 


so ^ 








































































<<9 O 

«t9 O 



«<9 O 



«t9 O 


































c* 1^ 

NO ta 


5* ft, 


•4 tQ 



00 E^ 








J -It 














































•F4 aS 







a; IB. 


^ ft? 



"8 s 


§ 94. 









E- W 







^ >» 










l» l» 

S" t» 









I* N 

s ** 











• • 


2* t* 











2 » 








5 W 









S W 












o> W 













» r 












«- Ik 









'o (r 









W 9 

•o IT 









^ IT 










» IT 
+ •• 

^2 'S 

w W 










n3 -d 





































• • 

• • 













s g 

• • •• 

. 9 

•8 .a 


.a 5 


s ^ 



H -d _g 



J a 









I " 'S 
-3.1 5 



•S ^.1 

:« . 

S - -3 


. * .S 
I i* 3 









IK • 




IK' KA' 




1? i 

















no n3 





















le le 




































1 • 


















































s r 
































a • 

°° IB 










• • 

" \ 













a 8 

^§ 96. CHANGE OP l^n INTO U^^l. 41 

NATI, or Change 0/ Denial i{^n and ^s into Lingual ^Jl and ^ah. 
§ 95. In addition to the rules which require the modification of certain 
letters at the beginning and end of words^ there are some other rules to be 
remembered which regulate the transition of dental ^n and ?E^« into lingual 
^^1} and ^^sh in the body of words. Beginners should try to impress on 
their memory these rules as far as they concern the change of the dental 
nasal and sibilant into the Ungual nasal and sibilant in simple words : with 
regard to compound nouns and verbs, the rules are very complicated and 
capricious, and can only be learnt by long practice. 

Change o/* ^ n into ^^ n. 
§ 96, The dental n», followed by a vowel, or by ^n, n^m, ^y, and \v, 
is, in the middle of a word, changed into the lingual n^n if it is preceded by 
the Unguals ^li, ^f<, ^r, or J(sh. The influence of these letters on a 
foUowing ^ n is not stopt by any vowel, by any guttural (n k, Wt kh, 
^ffy ^gK **, %K *^), or by any labial ^;^p, HjpA, -^ft, ^bh, Hw, '^v\ 
or by \y^ intervening between the Unguals and the ^n, (Pftn. viii. 4, i ; 2.) 
Ex. ^ + tft = ^^irf nri + nam = nfindm, gen. plur. of ^ fifi, man. 
Ti«: Jtarna^, ear. 
J^^ ddshanam, abuse. 

Tj^vfimhanam, nourishing, (v A is guttural and preceded by Anusv&ra.) 
^liiv arkena, by the sun, (^ k is guttural.) 
JJdilOl ffjihndti, he takes, (v h is guttural.) 
ft(t^ kshipnui, throwing, (^p is labial) 
iff^ premnd, by love, {f^m is labial.) 
irviv: brahmanya^, kind to Brahmans, (v A is guttural, i^m is labial, 

and f^ n foUowed by i(y.) 
fTpnn nishannai^, rested, (i^n is foUowed by ^^n, which is itself 

afterwards changed to ^9.) 
ir^^tl^ akshaiyvat, having eyes, (19 n is followed by ^t^.) 
Tfiilm prdyenay generaUy, (i^y does not prevent the change.) 
But ir^ archana, worship, (^cA is palatal.) 

^v4^ arnavena, by the ocean, {^^n is Ungual.) 

t[^ darianam, a system of philosophy, {n^i is palatal.) 

w9^ ardhena, by half, {\dh is dental.) 

TB^^ kurvanti, they do, (^» is foUowed by T^/.) 

<IHI«|, rdmdn, the R&mas, (t^h is final.) 

Note — ^^njn rugnah^ like "^WUR vrihutf^ (P&o* vi. i, i6), should be written with l(fi. 
The "^g is no protection for the «^n. Thus ^^iCn aynt has to be especially mentioned as 
an exception for net changing its •! » into ^ 9 in compounds, such as ^Rff^ iardgmiin 
(P&9. Ga^ hshubhnddi.) 



CHANGE OF l^n INTO ^^fi. 


^ 97. The ^n of ^nt<, the sign of the Su conjugation, and the tl^n of 
ifind, the sign of the Kri conjugation, are not changed into ^n in the two 
verbs Ij^trip and ^jp^ kahubh (P&9. viii. 4, 39). Hence 

igiilfir tfipnoti, he pleases *• ^Vlfif kshubhndti, he shakes. 
But ^^^ihfir irinoti, he hears. ^^^9^[fh(pit8hndti, he nourishes. 
^HPOr kshubhdna, imper. shake. 

Table showing the Changes of\ii into K^n. 


in spite of intervening 


if there follow 


Vowels, or 





(including l| h and Anusv&ra), 




(including \v)y 



and n^y. 



j 98. The changes here explained of t^^n in the middle of simple words, 
(whether it belongs to a suffix or a termination,) are the most important to 
remember. But f!^9» is likewise liable to be changed into ^9 when it 
occurs in the second part of a compound the first part of which contains 
one of the letters ^r», ^T^, ^*'> or ^«A, and particularly after certain 
prepositions. Here, however, the rules are much more uncertain, and we 
must depend on the dictionary rather than on the grammar for the right 
employment of the dental or lingual nasals. The following rules are the 
most important : 

I. The change of 'i^n into ^n does not take place unless the two members 
of the compound are combined so as to express a single conception. 
Hence imff bdrdhri, a leathern thong, + ^19 nasa, nose, gives wnfl^mn 
bdrdhrinaaai, if it is the name of a certain animal ; according to Wilson, 
of a goat with long ears ; according to others, of a rhinoceros, or a bird. 
(UnMi-Sutras, ed. Aufrecht, s. v. P&n. viii. 4, 3.) But ^^ charman, 
leather, + ^inf^Rir ndsikd, nose, gives ^^HlC^I^ charmandsika^, if it means 
having a leathern nose. An important exception is nk^iH^sarvandman, 
a technical term for pronouns, {^k sarva being the first in their list,) 
which P&^ini himself employs with the dental '^n only. (P&^. i, i, 27,) 
Other proper names not following the general rule, are f^Rpnn trinayanaJ^fy 

W ^ — » 

. * In the Veda we find ^v^(^ tripnuhi, Rv. ii. 16, 6 ; "^Jlir?; ffTpyaoo^, Rv. iii. 42, 2, 
■ t The S&rasvati says i^ml ^, that the it is optionally changed when Trinayanaf^ is 
a name. Hence f«^«iHn^ trinayanah or fiS|in«n trii^yanah. % St^* ?9* 

-J 98. CHANGE OP 1^ n INTO T^n. 48 

three-eyed, name of S'iva; Tljif^ raghunandanal^^ nlame of R&ma; 
^jfJh^: svarbhdnui^ name of Rahu, &c. 

Words to be remembered : 
^RPlA: agranthy first, principal, from ini «S^«, front, and ^ nf, to lead. 
Umrfh grdmanihy head borough, from jfm grdma, multitude, and ift ni^ 

to lead. 
^?nn vritraffhnaitj Indra, killer of Vritra ; but ^|^ff^ vritrahanam, ace. of 

^^fip^ m/raAan. (P&i?. viii. 4, la ; aa.) 
f^lfV«f<ft or fMbsr^ girinadi or giriftadl^ mountain-stream. 
VX!PJ[p(iTdhnam, aflemoon, from vjj pard^ over, and ^^[f^^ahan, daj; but 
^^llln: sarvdhr^al^y the whole day, firom ?er% sarva, all, and mn^ ahan, 
day ; and the same whenever the first word ends in % a. (P&9.VIII. 4, 7*) . 
There are minute distinctions, according to which, for instance, iflnrnr 
kshirapdnam if it means the drinking of milk, or a vessel for drinking 
milk, ^: 'il(li.i|H; kamaahk kahtrapdnai,^ may be pronounced with dental 
or lingual n{^n or ^9); but if it is the name of a tribe who live on milk, 
it must be pronounced ^^tt^mn kshirapdnai, milk-drinking* (Pa^. viii. 
4, 9 and 10.) In the same manner lipft^nf^ darbhavdhanam, a hay- 
cart, is spelt with lingual mn; while in ordinary compounds, such as 
l^j^eilffj indravdkanam, a vehicle belonging to Indra, the dental i^n 
remains unchanged. (Pan. viii. 4, 8.) 

2* In a compound consisting of more than two words the «r n of any one 
word can only be affected by the word immediately preceding. Hence 
Hm^l^m mdsha-vdpeiia, by sowing beans ; but im^Hcui^H indsha-kumbha-' 
vdpena, by sowing from a bean-jar. (P&in. viii. 4, 38.) 

3. In a compound the change of 9|[n into ^n does not take place if the first 

word ends in itg, 
Ex. ^^1^ + wnt = V^'''^ n* + ayanam = figayanam. 
Some grammarians restrict this to proper names. (P&n. viii. 4, 3, 5.) 
Or if it ends in \shy and the next is formed by a primary suffix with ^n. 
Ex. ftf : 4- "V^ = Ph"iM nth -{-pdnam = nishpdnam. 

^T^ + ^n^= Miju|l^«i y<yul^-{-pdvanam=iyajushpdvanam, (Paij. viii. 

4. 35') 

4. In compounds the «^ii of nouns ending in w n, and the tTn of case-termina- 

tions, if followed by a vowel, are always liable to change, 
d) ns^l iPm*)^ vriMvdpin, rice-sowing, may form the genitive irtf^^TpTO: vrU 

hivdpinai^; but also lAf^^Tlf^ vrihivdpinai^. 
lAf^mMlOo or inr^qiMir*! vrthwdpdfii or wihivdpdni, nom. plur. neut. 
inrt.<^|i)iU or iftf^^n^ vrihivdpef^. ov^vribivdpena, instrum. sing. 

G 2, 

44 CHANGE OF J[^n INTO ^9 § 98* 

Likewise feminines such as dir^^lfil'llfl or 'lfln|qirV|ff) vrthivdpini or vrihivdpint 
(K&s.-Vritti viii. 4, ii,) 
Note — ^The «^ii of secondary Buffixes^ attached to the end of compounds, is, under the 
general conditions, always changed to 9^t>' Thus ^IfTV! kharapah (i.e. donkey-keeper) 
becomes VSKM'I^HIt khdrapdyai^, the descendant of Kharapa. HIAHIjiIki; rndtfibhoginafL^ 
fit to be possessed by a mother, from TTV mdtfiy mother, and HtTt bhogait, ei^oyment, with 
the a^jectiyal suffix ^Ina {samdsdnta), is always spelt with ^9. (See also § 98. 6.) Again, 
while •i*l»i(«i«fl ffarpabhagini, the sister of Garga, always retiuns its dental «r n, being an 
ordinary compound, Wt^^f^Wf gargabkagini would have the lingtial ^9, if it was derived 
from «i«l«l«ii gargabhagafi, the share of Garga, with the adjectival suffix ^ in, fem.J^inif 
enjoying the share of Garga. Words which afker they have been compounded take a new 
suffix are treated in fact like single words (samdnapada), and therefore foUow the general 
rule of § g6. (P&9. viii. 4, 3. Kfts'.-Vfitti vm. 4, 11, v&rt.) 

5. If the second part of the compoimd is monosyllabic, then the change of 

a final «^n followed by a terminational vowel, or of a terminational «^n, 
is obligatory. (Pan, vm. 4, 12.) 

Ex, ^[9^ vritrahafiy Vritra-killer ; gen. "n^??: vritrahanaJ^ ; but ^ttl]^ 
dirghdhnt (P&9. vm. 4, 7.) 
^tnn surapahy drinking surd ; nom. plur. neut. ^iiMiOu surdpdni, 
'^ftrHT. kshirapahi drinking milk ; instrum. sing. I^^l^ kshirapena. 

6. If the second part of a compound contains a guttural, the change is obliga-i 

tory, even though the second part be not monosyllabic. (P&i;i. viii. 4, 1 3.) 
Ex. ^ft^iiif: harikdmahy loving Hari ; instrum. sing, l^fi.'aci^ harikdmena; 
but ^iji|l04r«f agragdminu (Pa^. vm. 3, 92.) 
^UMI^iliinr iushkagomayena^ instrum. sing, of 3JcapAinT iushkagomaya ; 
(nvai iushka^ dry, ^f\pn gomaya^ dung.) 

7. Likewise after prepositions which contain an T r, the 1^ « of primary 

a£Sxes, such as VtT anaj ^qf^ ani^ infN aniya^ ^ in, ^ na (if preceded 
by a vowel), and ITR mdna, is changed to ?!^ n, but under certain restric- 
tions. (P&n. VIII. 4, 29.) 
Ex. '^^^m pravapanam ; VMJPi pramdnam ; U\^H\^ prdpyamdnam. 
While in these cases the change is pronounced obligatory, it is said to be 
optional after causative verbs (P&9. vm. 4, 30), and aft;er verbs begin- 
ning and ending in consonants with any vowel but ^ a (Pfin. vm. 
4, 31); hence iPTnra and ^^ praydpanam Bud praydpanam ; irdw or ^if 
prakopanam or prakqpanam. Again, after verbs beginning in a vowel 
(not ^ a) and strengthening their bases by nasalization, the change 
is necessary ; it is forbidden in other verbs, not beginning with vowels, 
though they require nasalization : hence n + I^Tti = ^i^^pra + inganam = 
prevganam ; but H 4- #W = rtr^ pra + kampanam = prakampanam* 

^ 98. CHANGE OF \n INTO U^^n. 45 

Lastly, there are several roots which defy all these rules, viz. htM^, )|iAt2, 
j^ pHy Vf *am, 111^ gam, ^fT^pydy, ^ vep : hence WfR prabhdnam &c., 
never nvn^j^ra&Adnam; n^inr/'ravepanam, never T^mni pravepafjMm* 

8. After prepositions containing an T r, such as wn^^antar, ftr^mV, ^nj^flro, 
i|f^ j^ari, and Upra, and after ^^«r, the change of 9^n into ^n takes 
place : 

1. In most roots beginning with w n. (P&n. viii. 4, 14.) 

II + ^Ifftr = nUFffir j^ra + namaii =pranamatiy he bows. 

"iltT + ^^=Mil4j[^nf pard + nudati =:pardi(iudati, he pushes away. 

^tm + VlfK = ila^iin i an^a^ + nayati = a^arnaya/t, he leads in. 

H ^ ifpnc =: nrnnv: pra + ndyakah =praitdyakaii, a leader. 
The roots which are liable to this change of their initial 1^ n are entered in 
the Dhfttup4tha, the list of roots of native grammarians, as be^nning 
with IB 9. Thus we should find the root Tf^inam entered as ip^^am, 
simply in order thus to indicate its liabiUty to change. 

2. In a few roots this change is optional if they are foUowed by Krit affixes^ 

viz. (P4n. VIII. 4, 33.) 
fioftr niSy to kiss ; nftjftnr^ or iiftlfVlA^i pranvhsiiavyam or pranitimtavyam. 
fiir^ nikah^ to kiss ; nftir^ or nfif^ pranikshanam or pramkahair^am. 
ftrfllfniJ, to blame; irfto^ or nfthpf jvramnJanam or pranindanam, 

3. In a few roots the initial «([ n resists all change, and these roots are entered 

in the Dh4tup&tha as beginning with ^«, viz. (PA^. vi. i, 65, vart) 

^ nrity to dance, 
if^ nandy to rejoice. 
t|^ nardj to howl. 
in nakky to destroy. 

im ndfy to fall down, (Chur *.) 
ffr^ ndthf to ask. 
ifV^ nddhy to beg. 
ff nft^ to lead. 

Ex. xfityllc^ parinartanam ; jfii^A^ paHrumdanam. 

4. The root i^naiy to destroy, changes Tin into ^n only when its 91 i is 

not changed to \8h. H + ^f5pn^ = vmp^pra + naiyate =praiui8yate ; but 
H + in: = If^Wtpra + nashfai =prana8hfaJjk,destrojed. (Pfin. viii. 4, 36.) 

5. In the root iTT an, to breathe, the ifn is changed to Ti^^n if the ^r is not 

separated from the il» by more than one letter. Thus ii + ifftfftf = 
UrAnfir pra + aniti = prdiiiti, he breathes ; but ^ + wfirfir = ^Aftrflr 
pari + aniti = paryaniti (P&tanjali). The reduplicated aorist forms 
mf^mif^prdninat ; the desiderative with X[KSpard is MunuOimfil pardrfi- 
nishaii. (P&9. viii. 4^ 19, i^i.) 

* It is not "H^fiaf, to dance, but If^nat of the Chur class, and hence written with a 
long d. Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 41, note. 

46 .CHANGE OF i^n INTO m^n. §99- 

. 6. In the root j[9ihan, to kill, the i^n is changed except where wh has to 
be changed to ^^A, (P&V. viii. 4, 22,) Thus n + ipi1^=r nf^qi^ j^ra + 
hanyate = prahanyatej he is struck down ; ^hf^miT antarhaiyyate 
(Pan. VIII. 4, 24) ; but n + iifir = TcHhi prd + ghnanti srpraghnanti^ they 
kiU. Also nipQff jE^raAa^anaTTiy killing. 
The change is optional again where ^n is followed by ^m or ^v. (P&n. 
VIII. 4, 23.) Thus iVffiiT or 1i;f)l!R prahanmi or prahai^mi ; 9^^ or 
Hf^ir: prahanvafk or prahai^Lval^, 

7. The ^n of 7[ nt< of the Su and of ifT n<2 of the Kri conjugation is changed 

to Uln in the verbs f^ At, to send, and ift mi, to destroy. (P&p. viii. 4, 15.) 

Ex. Ilfiglffrdl prahinvanti ; Tpiftfif^ prami^nii. 

8. The IT n of the termination Wlff^dni in the imperative is changeable. (P&n. 

VIII. 4, 16.) Thus H 4- H^lftf = TW^rrftr pra + bhavani =prabhavdni. 

9. The w n of the preposition f^ niy if preceded by upra, rtftpari, &c., 

is changed into m n before the verbs (P&n. viii. 4, 17) ^T^^arf, to speak, 
TfF nady to shout, ^^paty to fall, ^/>a£?, to go, the verbs called ^ ffhu, 
iTT^* md, to measure, ^me, to change, ift so, to destroy, ^Aan, to 
kill, in yd, to go, ^ t?d, to blow, ^ drdy to flee or to sleep, vg\psdy to 
eat, ^vap, to sow or to weave, ^t^aA, to bear, ^iam, to be tranquil 
{dw)y f^ chiy to collect, ^ dihy to anoint. 
The same change takes place even when the augment intervenes. 
(Pan. VIII. 4, 17, v&rt.) 
um^K^d pranyagadat ; 'UWU^^pranyanadat 

^ 99. In all other verbs except those which follow n^ gady the change of 
f^ni after uprOy vftpariy &c., is optional. 

uftnr^fir or irfHnrvfir pranipachati or pranipachati. 

Except again in verbs beginning with 11^ ka or 'Wi kha, or ending in i(^ sh 
(P&9. VIII. 4, 18), in which the ii^n off^ni remains unchanged. 

Wf^ndHf pranikaroti ; jfiHmX^ pranikhddati ; uPh Pm H(k pranipina8h(i. 

* Where it seemed likely to be useful, the Sanskrit roots have been given with their 
diacritical letters {anubandkas), but only in their DevanHgari form. P&nini in enumerating 
the roots which change f«Tnt after J^pra, "^ftpari, &c., into ftf ni, mentions 1Tm<2, but this, 
according to the commentaries, includes two roots, the root mWmd{n), which forms fii#flo 
mimite, he measures, and the root ^^m€{n), which forms ^Vnmayate, he changes. Where 
fn this grammar the transcribed form of a root differs from its Devan&gart original, the 
additional letters may always be looked upon as diacritical marks employed by native 
grammarians. Sometimes the class to which certain verbs belong has been indicated by 
adding the first verb of that class in brackets. Thus iam {div) means ^dmyati, or hm 
conjugated like div, and not idmayate. 

-J lOO. CHANOB OP H* INTO \»h. 47 


Change 0/^8 into wsh. 

^ ICO* A dental ^s (chiefly of suf&xes and terminations *), if preceded 
by any vowel except m, %n &, or by i| A:, ^ r, H 2, is always changed 
into the lingual i^^A, provided it be followed by a vowel, or by 1^/, ^ th, 
iljUy i^m^ i^y, or ^v; likewise by certain Taddliita suf&xes^ '^ka^ w^kalpa^ 
^f^pdia^ &c. 

If an inserted Anusv&rat or the Visarga or nsh intervenes between the 
vowel and the ^ «, the change into T^sh takes place nevertheless. 

Ex. wf^sarpiSf inflectional base; ?rf9: sarpi^, nom. sing. neut. clarified 
butter ; instrum. isf^mi sarpishd ; nom. plur. w(tf^ sarptmshi (here 
the Anusvara intervenes) ; loc. plur. ^tf^^ sarpiiahu (here the 
Visarga intervenes), or ?rf^ sarpUhshu (here the ^sh intervenes). 

^TT^ vdkshUf loc. plur. of m^vdchy speech. 

H^ipi^ + ^ = ^^^9^ 9<^ffrv(ii(ik + w = sarvaiakshuy omnipotent. 

ffirfVvi^ (1^) + ^ = f^l?ffi9^ chitralikh (A) + m = chitralikshu, painter. 

Tft^ gtrskUf loc. plur. otf^gir, speech. 

WR^ + ^ = ^W^ kamal + m = kamalshu, naming the goddess Lakshmi. 

lltiQirfk dhrokahyati, fut. of "Sf druh^ to hate ; (here ^ A is changed to 
^ky and the aspiration thrown on the initial ^<f.) 

if^V^ pokshyati, fut. of ^^ptuh^ to nourish ; (here '^^sh is changed 
into ni^ k.) 

Bf^ + ^ = ^rf^w: sarpii^ + kai = sarpishkait ; adj . formed by i| ka, 
having clarified butter. 

irt: + IPC = ^lf9fT5 sarpilj^ + taral^ = satpishfaraii ; (here the 1^ / of 
ire tarah is changed into 7^, as in ^ 89^ III. 2.) If the penultimate 
vowel be long^ no change takes place; ii\wXTJ gtstard. (Pftn. viii. 
3> loi.) 

irf^ 4- m = '^[f^i^nsarpil^ + mat = sarpishmat, having clarified butter. 

* The ^« must not be a radical t^s: hence ^fl^ mjpMatf, because the ^« belongs ta 
the root ftw^jpt*. (PA9.VHI. 3, 59.) Yet Hrf^J^ dHshati, firom root ^ll^iitfff. The rules 
do not apply to final ^»j hence llf)«1%AA agnia tatra, (Pftn. viii. 3, 55.) 

t The Anusy&ra must be what Sanskrit grammarians call num, it must not represent 
a radical nasal; hence, even if we write 'jj^punuu, loc. plur. of ^i^pv^, man, Pada 
base ^^punij it does not become '^pufh$hu. (Pki^. viii. 3, 58.) According to Bopp and 
other European grammarians, who do not limit the Anusv&ra to the inserted Anusv&ra> 
we should have to write either ifypufhshu, or, if we wish to preserve the ^«, ^^/ncn^* 
According to PlL^ini, however, ^ puihsu is the right form. The S&rasvati prescribes 

48 CHANGE OP ^« INTO ^ «A. § ^Ol- 

Table showing the Changes o/* ^ s into i^ sh. 

Any Vowels except W, wr^, change if there follow 

(in spite of „ ^ Vowels, or 

inserted Anusv&rajVisarga, or sibilant intervening,) 1^^, ^^^9 

also T^f *, ^f, <^/ ^^ ^n, i^i», 

if immediately preceding, K*A ^y, ^V. 

^ loi. The same rule produces the change of ^« into i|(^«A in roots 
beginning with ^«, if reduplicated, provided the vowel of the redupUcated 
syllable is not v, ^nTa: Ex. '^^g^svap, to sleep ; Redupl. Perf. "^bb^^ stiskvdpa, 
I have slept f^ sidh, Des. ftlf^mrfir sishitsati. This rule is liable to 

§ I02. Again, many roots beginning with ^^s change it into ^«A afler 
prepositions requiring such a change, viz. will ati^ over, w^ anu, after, 
^iftl apiy upon, irfW abhi, towards, fVf ni, in, f^ nir, out, ^/lari, round, 
Tffn prati, towards, ftr w, away: Ex. wfiT + ^if^= ^rMflfff abhi + stauH = 
abhishtauiiy he praises. The same change takes place even aft;er the augment 
has been added, in which case the ^ « is really preceded by an v a : 
Ex. Wirrh^ abhyashfautf he praised. Some verbs, after these prepositions, 
keep the i^ «A in the redupUcated perfect : Ex. ftn^ sich^ to sprinkle ; 
niWrH^ni abhishinchatif he sprinkles ; 1i(h(Vi^^ abhishishecha, he has 
sprinkled. In the intensive ftrv sich does not follow this rule ; hence 
v(*ldr4l«|ii abhisesichyate (P&n. viii. 3, 112) ; but in the desiderative ^ « is 
changed, vfHM^n(fir abhishishikshati* Many other cases must be learnt 
from the dictionary or from Pfinini. 

§ 103. In order to give an idea of the minuteness of the rules as collected by native 
grammarians, and of the complicated manner in which these rules are laid down, the fol- 
lowing extracts from P&Qini have been subjoined, though they by no means exhaust the 
subject according to the views of native grammarians. It need hardly be added that 
beginners should not attempt to burden their memory with these rules, though a glance 
at them may be useful by giving them an idea of the intricacies of Sanskrit grammar. 

Native grammarians enumerate all monosyllabic verbs beginning with ^ $, and followed 
by a vowel or by a dental consonant, (likewise f^Rf^ ami, to smile, ftff? svid^ to sweat, 
9^ svad, to taste, ^N^ naflj^ to embrace, ^X^^nap, to sleep,) as if beginning with ^«A. 
Thus they write f^ shidh, VT shthd, f^ shmi, (Pft?. vi. i, 64.) 

This is not done with ^^«nP» to go, ^^srv, to let oflP, ^^'^•frt to cover, ^f'^^f/r** to 
cover, ^styai, to sound, Bl|^«eik, to go, ^ sfi, to go, in order to show that their initial 
^^8lB not liable to be changed into ^sh under any circumstances. 

They then give the general rule that this initial ^sh is to be changed into ^ 8, in all 
these verbs, except fW^jh^hiVf to spit, and ^^^shvashk', to go, (and according to some* 
in 19 shfyai, S&r.,) unless where ^«A is enjoined a second time . 

^§ 103. CHANGE 0¥ ^^8 INTO ^sh. 49 

Now ^^sh toT^^8m these verbs is ei^o'med a second time : 

1. When a preposition, or whatever else precedes it, requires such permutation, according to 

general rules, f^ + wOl = ftnnf)r in+stauti = vUhfauti. «^«eo forms fVlW sitheva 
in the reduplicated perfect. 

2. In desideratives, when the reduplicative sjllable contains ^or 7t or ». ftl^nc^A, Des. 

f^DviMOl iishitsati. 
But if the ^ « of the desiderative element must itself be changed to K «A, the initial V # 

remains unchanged, f^^sidh, fV H f\| M fff iisedhUhati. (P&9. viii. 3, 61.) 
Except in ^s/u, and in derivative verbs in W^aya, where ^« is changed to "^sh, ^ttu, 

Des. 3f5^ Huhfitshatu f^S^iidh, Cans. «VI|fk sedhayati, Des. f^jR^ffV^fif tUhedha' 

yishati; but ^^^^1 suMhati. (viii.3, 61.) 
Except again, in certain causatives, in W^aya (viii. 3, 62), where '^^B is not changed into 

^^9h, XW^ tvidy nrBu^nnun nwedayxshatu flTf «raa, i«faii^i«i<iin smddayuhatu 

VKgah, f)l4ll{fVMni sisdhayishati. 

3. In certain verbs, after prepositions which require such a change, even when they are 

separated from the verb by the augment, viz. ^«tt («»), ^«tf (tud), ^ so (cftv), ^9tif{ad), 
^l^stubh {hh4) ; or even if separated by reduplication, in the verbs WT sthdj ^X^^ 
$enaya,i^P^9idh,9fF^8ich, ^i^$afij,^l^^9oaHj,Wf sad, ^St^stambh, '^^^svan, «^s«v, 
(the last only after ^(ft pari, ftf ni, fkvi: viii. 3, 65.) 

After prepositions : V&|l|llAOl abhishuf^ti, ulifJ^Ol abhishuvatu w5nRfiT abhishyatu 
^if^fmTjiarMA^att/t. 'Vffkjg^^ pariskfobhate. vf*lf I^Ql abhUhfhdsyati. ltmWfBPf(fk 
abhishei^yati, vfi^Mfffparishedhati. H fW Oi^ Of abhishifichati. h P^^ «i Hi parishqfati, 
Vfky^^i^ parishvajate (viii. 3, 65). f^T^t^fw nishidati, but vf)nfh(Ar pratiMati 
(viii. 3, 66). irfilWlfif abAMAfa6Afi^/t (viii. 3, 67 and 1 14). Also W^VfVQ aoashfabhya 
(viii. 3, 68, in certain senses), ft and H^mutfl vi and ovotAvaya/t (viii. 3, 69, in 
the sense of eating). Mfut^ A parishevate. 

After prepositions and augment : H M( jf|t fl a&Ay a<Ati^/. m9 J^ H jparyo^Atioa/. Wlini 
abhyashyat. vAwtRparyashlaut, VMIf^Hfl abhyashfobhata, W^WTf{^abhy€uhfhdi, 
H M| HIQ 4| II abhyashenayat, ^^(W^f^varyashedhat. W^^tft^niahhyashifichat, VlnK^Hf^ 
paryashajat, l|M|*^l|ff ahhyashvajata, VMIl^^fl abhyashidat. ^•*lf WTI^ abkya- 
shfabhndt, VI U|'4U fl vya«Arana/ and V II U|IU |l oo^Avo^a/. h M 4 s n paryashevata . 

After prepositions and reduplication (viii.3, 64): H fil il Vi abAi/ojA^Aau. timlftwftnrtif 
abhishUhenayishati. wM^k^^f^ff^flK abhUhishedhayUhati, HlBlOlftmiOl a^AisAt- 
ihikshati, ^VfkfMlVftr odAuAtsAanA^Aa/t and UMllWuJH^ a6Aya«At«AaffA«Aa<. 
M(Xriu|||||| |7amAisAvanA«Aa/e. ftfftPfWfil nishishatsati (viii. 3, 118). ^ififlfW 
abhitashfamhha, W^f^H^l^ avashashvdi^, VlfkjPn^ parishisheva, (the last only 
after nftpori, ftf «•, ftf rt.) 

4. Only after the prepositions Vlftpari, f^ni, ftvi, the following words (viii. 3, 70): the 
part, ftnn sita^, the subst. Wit sayaft, ftr^«tp, ^saA; ^ Art (if with initial ^^s, 
Vf skji) and similar verbs ; ^ «/«. 
The words mentioned in 4. and ^h^soail; may optionally retain ^«, if the augment 
intervenes, (viii. 3> 71.) 


60 CHANGE OP ^* INTO \sh. § IO4- 

5. After the prepositions W^ anu, f% vi, Vft pari, ^rfW abhi, ^ni, W^syand may take ^sh, 

except when applied to living beings, (viii. 3, 73.) 

6. After the prep, fkvi, "^^ti^skand may take ^sh, though not in the past participle in 

ftta (viii. 3, 73), but after the prep. "^rfiCi^an, throughout, even in the past participle 
(viii. 3, 74). ^rftmnn or Vft^S^ parishkannah or pariskannah. 

7. After the prep, ftf^nir, ftf ni, f^T w, the verbs ^J'^spAtir and ^^e^sphul may take ^sh, 

(viii. 3, 76.) 

8. After the prep, ftf w, ^S^skambh must always take ^*A. (viii. 3, 77.) 

9. The verb ^V^ as, after dropping its initial vowel, takes ^^sh after prepositions which 

cause such a change, and after W^prddur, if the "^sh is followed by ^y or a vowel 
(viii. 3, 87). ^(^^\Habhishydt, Tf\^'W:^^prdduhshydt, m Jt 40f prdduhshanti. 

10. The verb VF^{svap, when changed to ^\*«p, takes ^sh, after ^ su, fllr*, ftl^mr, 5^<^«»r 

(viii. 3, 88). ^f9^ sushuptafk. ^^! dukshuptdh. 
Exceptional cases, where ^« is used, and not \sh: 

11. The verb ftr^WcA, followed by the intensive affix (viii. 3, 112). H (*l S ftl *M H abhisesi' 


12. The verb ftn^^A, signifying to go (viii. 3, 1 13), ^Hl^ vOl parisedhaH. 

13. The verb ^ sah, if changed to ^R^ sodh (viii. 3, 115). ^(Vlh^ parisodhvm. 

14. The verbs W^stambh, f^^^siv, ^(W sah, in the reduplicated aorist (viii. 3, 116). 

M 9l(l ^^IliparyasishahaL 

15. The verb ^su, followed by the affixes of the ist future, the conditional, or the desidera- 

tive (viii. 3, 117). V in ^*t ^ Pil abhisoshyati, Wfil^^ abhisusiilk. 

16. The verbs Wl^sad, W^f^svailj, in the reduplicated perfect (viii. 3, 118). ^RfiWHT^ 

abhishasdda, ^vf^n^m abhishasvaje. 

17. The verb T^^sad, optionally, if preceded by the augment (viii. 3, 119). •m«Ii<^i^ or 

"^^nff^nyashidat or nyasidat, 

§ 104. There are many compounds in which the initial ^s of the second word is changed 
to ^sh, if the first word ends in a vowel (except &). Ex. ^ i^i\ii^yudkish{hira, from'^^ yudhi, 
in battle, and f^lKsthira, firm; ^5u«^Att,well; ^dushlhu, ill; ^^V(\ sushamd, beautiful, 
ftlWt vishamalt, difficult, from ?Rt samah, even ; f^ST^^trishtubk, a metre ; ^r«TWWT agnU 
shomau, Agni and Soma ; •iin-q^ mdtrishvasfi, mother's sister ; fM ij^^pitfishvasri, father's 
sister; 'ftWJ goshthaft, cow-stable ; ViOhS^HI agnishfomah, a sacrifice ; sti^Pnel^i jyoti^ 
shtomah, a sacrifice, (here the final ^s of iHtfir^jyotis is dropt.) In g^^itii^ turdsdh, a 
name of Indra, and similar compounds, ^« is changed to ^sh whenever ^ h becomes Zf; 
nom. ^CF^f^^turdshdl : ace. Jii^l^ turdsdham, (P&n. viii. 3, 56!) 

Change of Dental V dh into Lingual ^ dh. 

§ 105. The ^ dh of the second pers. plur. Atm. is changed to 7 ^ in the reduplicated 

perfect, the aorist, and in ^Ufsh(dhvam of the benedictive, provided the ^^dh, or the ^shi 

of ^fM shidkoam^ follows immediately an inflective root ending in any vowel but V, ^BTT a 
(PAi[^. viii. 3, 78.) 

Ex» ^ kfi; Perf. "^^j ehakfupive, 
^chyu; Aor» ^Wl^ achyotfhvam, 
^plu; Bened. ^ 4) ^ plosMdhvam, 




But ft|1(^A«At/>; AoT, ^Kf^(^ akshibdhvam. 
^Qf^yq;; Bened. V[Wfiy^yak$h(dhvam, 
If the same termiDations are preceded by the intermediate ^ t, and the ^t be preceded by 
1(y, l^r, c^ /, ^r, ^ A, the change is optional. 

Ex. ^lu; Perf. ejc^f^d hduvidhve or <;}c!|ni} luluvufhve. 

IJ lu; Aor. H^Ollt alavidhvam or HcftiV^ alavi^hvam. 

^ lu; Bened. c^fV^iJ lavUhtdhvam or cftl^i^J lavishi^hvam. 
But ^^6tM^A ; Aor. VlftfMiil dbodhidkoam. 

Rules of Internal Sandhi, 

§ 106. The phonetic rules contained in the preceding paragraphs (^ 32—94) 
apply, as has been stated, to the final and initial letters of words {padaa)^ 
when brought into immediate contact with each other in a sentence, to the 
final and initial letters of words formed into compounds, and to the final 
letters of nominal bases before the Pada-terminations, and before certain 
secondary or Taddhita sufiixes, beginning with any consonant except 11 y. 

There is another class of phonetic rules applicable to the final letters of 
nominal {prdtipadika) and verbal bases (dhdtu) before the other terminations 
of declension and conjugation, before primary or K|it suffixes, and before 
secondary or Taddhita suffixes, beginning with a vowel or ^y. Some of 
these rules are general, and deserve to be remembered. But in many cases 
they either agree with the rules of External Sandhi^ or are themselves hable 
to such numerous exceptions that it is far easier to learn the words or 
grammatical forms themselves, as we do in Greek and Latin, than to- try to 
master the rules according to which they are formed or supposed to be 

The following are a few of the phonetic rules of what may be called 
Internal Sandhi. The student will find it useful to glance at them, without 
endeavouring, however, to impress them on his memory. After he has 
learnt that f\g^ dvishy to hate, forms |tf^ dveshmi, I hate, itftv dvekshi, thou 
hatest, itflf dveskfi, he hates, wi:Zadve(, he hated, %ft dvi^i^h Hate ! fk? dvif, 
a hater, f^^ dtnshafk, of a hater, f|r^ dvi(su, among haters, — ^he will refer 
back with advantage to the rules, more or less general, which regulate the 
change of final ^M into wk, Zf, J^d, &c. ; but he will never learn his 
declensions and conjugations properly, if, instead of acquiring first the 
paradigms as they are, he endeavours to construct each form by itseli^ 
according to the phonetic rules laid down in the following paragraphs. 

I. Final Vowels, 

§ 107. No hiatus is tolerated in the middle of Sanskrit words. Words such as 
H^'i praiiga, fore-yoke, Pfln^ titaii, sieve, are isolated exceptions. The hiatus in com- 
pounds, such as ^I^XW^pura-itd, going in front, «pnrfte nama-nktih, saying of praise, which 

H 2 


is produced hj the elision of a final ^« before certain vowels, has been treated of under the 
head of External Sandhi. (§ 84. 2.) 

§ 108. Final V a and WT d coalesce with following vowels according to the general 
rules of Sandhi. 

^ + ^rftr tuda + ami = fl ^1 Rl tuddmi, I beat. 

^ + ^ tuda'\'i=z'J^ tude, I beat, Atm. 

^Tf + ^ citf»a-f-i=15[Tn ddne, in the gift. 

^fPf + "^ cMna+felfR dtfne, the two gifts. 

If we admit the same set of terminations after bases ending in consonants and in short 
V a, it becomes necessary to lay down some rules requiring final V a to be dropt before 
certain vowels. Thus if W^am is put down as the general termination of the ace. sing., as 
in '^T^vdch-am, it is necessary to enjoin the omission of final Va of f^ ^va before the 
^ am of the ace. sing., in order to arrive at f^ £vam. In the same manner, if ^ am is 
put down as the termination of the i. p. sing. impf. Par., and ^ e as that of the i. p. sing, 
pres. Atm., we can form regularly ITbh advesh-am and fv^ dviske; but we have to lay 
down a new rule, according to which the final V a of ^ tuda is dropt, in order to arrive at 
the correct forms ^V^ atud{a)-am and ^ tud(a)e. By following the system adopted in this 
grammar of giving two sets of terminations, and thus enabling the student to arrive at the 
actual forms of declension and conjugation by a merely mechanical combination of base 
and termination, it is possible to dispense with a number of these phonetic rules. 

Again, in the declension of bases ending in radical WT d, certain phonetic rules had to 
be laid down, according to which the final W d had to be elided before certain terminations 
beginning with vowels. Thus the dative ^"^111? + ^ iankhadhmd+e was said to form 
^RM Sankhadhme, (to the sheU-blower,) by dropping the final WT d, and not ^^ITIh iaii- 
khadhmai. Here, too, the same result is obtained by admitting two bases for this as for 
many other nouns, and assigning the weak base, in which the WTd \b dropt, to all the 
so-called Bha cases, the cases which Bopp calls the weakest cases (P&n. vi. 4, 140). Each 
of these systems has its advantages and defects, and the most practical plan is, no doubt, 
to leam the paradigms by heart without asking any questions as to the manner in which 
the base and the terminations were originally combined or glued together. 

§ 109. With regard to verbal bases ending in long W d, many special rules have to be 
observed, according to which final WI<f is either elided, or changed to ^1 or to ^e. 
These rules will be given in the chapter on Conjugation. Thus 

JTT 4- ^■Hw pund-{- anti = Jn fn punanti, they cleanse. 
JfT + m pund'\'mafL= jWl^ti punimah, we cleanse. 
^ + f^ rf^H- Ai=^fl5 dehi. Give ! 

§ no. Fmal ^«, %i, ^u, "^Stf, ^p, if followed by vowels or diphthongs, are generally 
changed to ^y, ^ 1?, ^ r. 

Ex. irfif + ^ ^ IW ma/t'H- ai=:matyai, to the mind. 

ftffir + ^ = flBfTj: jt^'-ftiA==yt9yttA, they have conquered. 
HT5 + Wh ^ >m«n; bhdnu-\-ohr=bhdnvoli, of the two splendours. 
fln[ + ^UX=:f^mi pitri+d^zpitrd, by the father. 
fwft + irfw = ftrwrfk hibhi^ ati = hibhyati, they fear. 


In some cases ^t and ^^ are changed to l^iyj 7tt and '94 to T^«9; ^n to ftrij ^f^ 
to ^tr and, after labials, to 1^ «r. 

Ex. f^jftr + W^ = f^RfftPr^ ^Uri+athult=ziUriyathuft, you (two) have gone* 
>ft + X= fiift hM'\-i=:bhiyi, in fear. 
^ + ^bHw = ^^fw yif+an/t=yitoan^t, thej join. 
^ + ^ = 355* ytty«4" w^=y*yttwAi they have joined. 
^ + ^ = ^3^ sushu-^e^sushuve, I have brought forth. 
^J^+ ^= ^fil &M+t=6A»vt, on earth. 
^ + Wn ^ Wfn ffifi+a^«:= mriyate, he dies. 
'I + ^iflr := ftltfif ^+ fl*« = ffirati, he swallows. 
^+ ^ = M^lVpflpr^+fssjpoptiri, liberal. 

When either the one or the other takes place must be learnt from paradigms and front 
special rules given under the heads of Declension and Conjugation. See ftpmfk Inhkyati 
from W^ hhi, but fflf^pAfjihriyaH firom |rt hri, 

§111. Final ^r^, if followed by terminational consonants, is changed to ^ Ir ; and after 
labials to "Ql^tfr. 

\ffr^9 to shout; Passive 'AW gir-yate: Part. '^fAlgin^. 
\pri, to fiU; Passive '^^Im pHr-yate s Part '^B^*p4n^, 

Before the "^y of the Passive, Intensive, and Benedictive, final ^t and 7« are lengthened, 
final ^ r» changed to ftrt, final ^ fl to 1^ fr or Ti^ 4r, (See f 390.) 

$ 1 1 a. ^ e, % at, Wt o, ^ ati, before vowels and diphthongs, are generally changed into 

^■n^^flyt ^■nn^y, ^B^flw, ^n^4». 

^ + ^IW= ^^ de-^-ate^dayate, he protects. 
^ 4- ^ = TW rat+«= rdye, to wealth. 
m + ^^ ^ ^o+e=:^at>e, to the cow. 
^ + W = ^n^ nau-^-afis^ndvalk, the ships. 

Roots terminated by a radical diphthong (except ^vye in redupl. perf., P&9. vi. i, 46) 
change it into WT d before any affix except those of the so-called special tenses. (Plli^. vi. i , 45.) 

^ + TIT = ^ynn de+td=:ddtd, he will protect. 
^ + ^rhr = ^T^ftll de-^-siya = ddsfya, May I protect ! 
y + TIT = irnn tnlai'\-td^^ fMtd, he will wither. 
Ifft + TIT = TfmiT io+td=z^dtdy he will pare. 
But in the Present ^ + ^lflr= ^fOTflf gUn+aHszgldyati, he is weary. 

2. ^na/ Consonants. 

^113. The rules according to which the consonants which can occur at 
the end of a word are restricted to ii^ A:, T^ i^ ^ f^ ^ ?i T^/, ;^ n, ^p, 1^ m, c^ /, 
: i^, * m, must likewise be observed where the last letter of a nominal or 
verbal base becomes final, i. e. where it is not followed bj any derivative 
letter or syllable. 

Thus the nominal base "^^yudh, battle, would in the vocative singular be 


^ yudh. Here, however, the 1^ dh must be changed into ^ d, because no 
aspirate is tolerated as a final {§ 54. i) ; and ^d is changed into if^t, because 
no word can end in a soft consonant (^ 54. 2). ^u^vdch, speech, in the voc. 
sing, would change its ^ch into vA:, because palatals can never be final 

{§ 54- 3)- 

In w^ft^ adhokf instead of imftf adoh, the aspiration of the final is thrown 

back on the initial wd (^ 118). The final i^A or ^gh, after losing its 
aspiration, becomes t^^, which is ftirther changed to ^^A:. 

^ 1 14. Nominal or verbal bases ending in consonants and followed hj 
terminations consisting of a single consonant, drop the termination altogether, 
two consonants not being tolerated at the end of a word (^ 55). The final 
consonants of the base are then treated like other final consonants. 
TfT^ + ^= ^T^ vdch + « = vdky speech ; nom. sing, 

lrt^+^=:Hr^ /wdncA +*=jwdn, eastern; nom. sing. masc. Here Wi| 
prdiik^ which remains after the dropping of ^«, is, according to the 
same rule, reduced again to X^^prdiiy the final nasal remaining guttural, 
because it would have been guttural if the final v k had remained. 
*9^^l ''^ ^^ '^^^suvalg + « = 9uvaly well jumping. Here, afi;er the dropping 
of ^«, there would remain ^7^ suvalk; but as no word can end in 
two consonants, this is reduced to ^MM 9uval. Before the Pada- 
terminations "^^^^suvalg assumes its Pada form ^in9 ^vva/ {^ 5^\ 
hence instrum. plur. ^^foU: suvalbhil^, 
^in[ir + ^= ^Vl^ ahan + « = ahan, thou killedst ; 2. p. sing. impf. Pto. 
lil|^+ « = ^a^Z adveah + / = adveff he hated ; 3. p. sing. impf. Par. 
m^ + 1^= ^mt^ adoh + / = adhok, he milked ; 3. p. sing. impf. Par. 

Exceptions will be seen imder the heads of Declension and Conjugation. 

^115. With regard to the changes of the final consonants of nominal 
and verbal bases, before terminations, the general rule is, 

1. Terminations beginning with sonant letters, require a sonant letter at the 

end of the nominal or verbal base. 

2. Terminations beginning with surd letters, require a surd letter at the end 

of the nominal or verbal base. 

3. In this general rule the terminations beginning with vowels^ semivowels, 

or nasals are excluded, i. e. thej produce no change in the final cori'- 
sonant of the base. 

1. T^+ fW = ^rf^ vach + dhi = vagdhi, Speak ! 2. p. sing. imp. Par. 

1JW + i^ = Tmk prich + dhve ^prigdhve, you mix ; 2. p. plur. pres. Atm. 

2. ire + ftr = ilfl^ ad + si = aisi, 2. p. sing. pres. thou eatest. 
^ + fw = ^iftl ad + ti = atti, 3, p. sing. pres. he eats. 


3- H'fU^+^sir^fif marut +i = maruti, loc. sing, in the wind. 
^^+ ftl = ^fPf vach + mi = vachmi^ I speak* 
in^+ in^ = jfofk grath + yate ^grathyate, it is arranged. 

Exceptions such as fi|^ + ^ = finn AAW + nah = bhinnaJ^, divided, H^'+ in = 
*pnn JAo; + nai^ = bhagnah, broken, must be learnt by practice rather than 
by rule. 

^ ii6. Aspirates^ if followed by terminations beginning with any letter 
(except vowels and semivowels and nasals), lose their aspiration. (^ 54. i.) 

Ex. inir^+fir = *nfftr mdmath + ti = mdmattif 3. p. sing. pres. Par. of the 
intensive ^pnn^mdmath, he shakes much. 
%W + d = %^ rundh + dhve = runddhve, 2. p. plur. pres. Atm. of 

Ip^rudhf you impede. 
cl^+ ^ = H^ labh + sye = lapsye^ I shall take. 
But ^+ ^='5ftT yudh + iz^yudhiy loc. sing, in battle. 
c5t>^+'i:=cAwK lobh ■^yai^ = hbhyal^y to be desired* 
tp^ + Trfw = "^[Vlfif kshubh + ndti = kshubhndti^ he agitates. 
It is a general rule that two aspirates can never meet in ordinaiy Sanskrit. 

§ 117. Iffinall^^A, ^^,^JA,)^&A are followed by 1^/ or "^M, they are changed to the 
corresponding soft letters, 7^^, \4i \^y ^^> but the Ht and "^/A are likewise softened, and 
the ^d receives the aspiration. See also § 128. 

Ex. ^^9V + fir = ^lirQr rui^h'\-ti = runaddhi, he obstructs. 

([^ + in = nv: lahh-^toA = labdhaft, taken. 

^^+ ^ = %VS rundh-^-thah^irunddhali (also spelt ^Vt rundhafi), you two obstruct. 

^^+ in = %in rundh-^taft^rrunddhah, they two obstruct. 

^^I^+lT = ^'iW abdndh'\'tam=z abdnddham, 2, p. dual aor. i. Par. you two bound. 

Vlh^+ ^l = '«i4«it abandh-i-thdhzrzabanddhdhf 2, p. sing. aor. i. Atm. thou 
In ^nwfv abdnddham, 2. p. dual aor. i. Par., the aspiration of final ^^dh is not thrown back 
upon the initial ^b, because it is supposed to be absorbed by the ntam of the termination, 
changed into ^dham. The same applies to V^JIl ahanddhdh, though here the termination 
^in thdlt was aspirated in itself. 

§ 1 18. If ^gh^ ^ 4K ^<^A, H6A, V hy at the end of a syllable, lose their aspiration either 
as final or as being followed by VStdhv (not by fW dhi), ^bh, ^^8, they throw their aspiration 
back upon the initial letters, provided these letters be no other than ^^, V ^, Vcf, ^b. 
See § 93. 

Ex. Inflective base ^frtM^A, to know; nom. sing. ^1^6Aii/, knowing, 
lustrum, plur. ^Dh bhudbhi^, 
Loc. plur. ^7^ bhutsu. 

Second pers. plur. aor. Atm. ^^^ abhuddhvam. 
Second pers. sing. pres. Intens. 'frfh^ + fff = ^•Jlfwi bobodh-^-si^bobhotsi. 


Desiderative of ^>^dabh, fimrfir dhipsati, he wishes to hurt. 

First pers. sing. fut. of '4^+^inf^=^tiQrTftr bandh-^sydmizszbhanttydmiy I shall 

^ dahy to bum ; y^dhak^ nom. sing, a burner. 
^ duhy to milk ; V^J49 adhugdhvam, 2, p. plur. impf. Atm. : but 2. p. sing. imp. Par. 

jf^ dugdki. 

Note — l^dadlh the reduplicated base ot^dkd, ^^fffi^dadhdmi, I place, throws the lost 
aspiration of the final ^dk back on the initial ^d, not only before V3(dho, ^«, but likewise 
before l(t and l^M, where we might have expected the application of § 1 17. ^ + 115 = VWJ 
dadh-\'taik=:dhattah; ^ + ^=VW dWA+f*a^=rfAa«A^i^; ^4-% = VT^da<?*-f«e= 
dhatse; T^ + V| = >|^ dadh + dhvam = dhaddhvam, 

§ 1 19. If ^chf ^Jj ^jh are final, or followed by a termination beginning with any letter, 
except vowels, semivowels, or nasals, they are changed to V it or ^T^. 
Ex. Nominal base ^'^vdch; voc. ^T^r<^, speech. 

Verbal base ^^vach; 3. p. sing. pres. ^^+ flr = ^^ftR«ocA-f h*=rfl*/f. 
gW + fil = ^JfHl yufLj-\'dhi=zyunffdhif 2. p. sing. imp. Join ! 
But loc. sing, ^n^ + ^= inf^ vdch-^iz^vdehi. 

in^ + ^ = ^IHR vdch-^-ya = vdchya, to be spoken. 
T^ + Ht = 4 VIZ vach-^mali = vachmah, we speak. 
T^+ ^ ^ ^W vacA+f 0^= vacAroA, we two speak. (See also § 124.) 

f 120. "^^A at the end of nominal and verbal bases, if it becomes the final of a word, is 
changed into ^ f . 
Ex. Nominal base f^^(l9»A; nom. sing, fif^dvif, a hater. 

Verbal base i)n(,cfoi«A; 3. p. sing. impf. Par. Vl^ advef, he hated. 

§ 121. Before verbal terminations beginning with ^s, it is treated like ^ k, 
Ex. ItY + ftr = a (V| doesh-^n = dvekshi, thou hatest; hor, '^tf^^^fladmkshat, he hated. 
^it^ftfpokshyati (posh-^gyati), he will nourish. 

§ 122. Before H^t or \th it remains unchanged itself, but changes 1^/ and \th into ^f 
and ^fA. 

Ex. fl|^+ TK = ftrt (tewA+^fl^ssrfpwAfoA, they (two) hate. 

^ffn + 1R= «(hv«i iarpish'{-tamam=:8arpishlamam, the best clarified butter. 
This rule admits of a more general application, namely, that every dental l(t, ^th, ^ d, \dhy 
^11, and ^«, is changed into the corresponding lingual, if preceded by ^f, ^fA, ^^ ^^» 
l(jp, and \$h, (P&9. viii. 4, 41.) 

Ex. fin + f^ = f^Uft dmd-\-dhi=: dm44hi, hate thou. 

^ + w = ^ lli+ ^tf = iffc, he praises. 

1|^+ ^ = ^mt «Aizf +ntffn= sAan^tdm, of six. 

yS+ n^lm^ M^^QlS «Aa/+fi<*t'<i^=<^?9<n^<i^4> ninety-six. (Pft^. viii. 4, 42, 


§ 123. Before other consonantal terminations ^sh is treated like Zf, 
Ex. fn + i9 = f)n^ c{oMA+(IAvafR = cfeict^oam, 2. p. plur. imp. Atm. Hate ye 
f)n + ^ := finrS dvish+su = dvifsu, loc. plur. among haters. 

-§ 128. INTERNAL SANDHI. 57 

Exceptions to this rvle, such as Y^^^^T^^i noiii.^|^(2Aftib, and to other rules will be seen 
under the heads of Declension and Coi^ugation. 

§ 134. In the roots Wt^^bhr4f, to shine, ^JW^mfij, to wipe, ^VV yaj, to sacrifice, Hl^^r^, to 
shine, '^j^sfij, to let forth, and ^il^^bhrqJU, to roast {^S^bkrasf, P&p. viii. 2,36), the final 
^J is replaced hj ^«A, which, in the cases enumerated above, is liable to the same changes 
as an original ^sh. Thus 

in 4- If = ^ miij-^-tha^^mrishtha, you wipe. 

rn^ + ^ = ^1^^ rdj-^-su^zrdfsu. HUi^+ ii = 'WmiJ ayaf-^-dhvamsszoyail^hvam, 

§ 125. Most verbal and nominal bases ending in 1^^, ^ chh, ^ksh, VicA (some in 
nij.§ 134) ftK treated exactly like those ending in simple ^M. 
Ex. Nominal base ftl^vi/; nom. ftr^vtf, a man of the third caste. 

Fut. ^9^ + ^Vrfk = %^ITfll vei-{-sydm^=ivek8hydmi, I shall enter. 
Put. periphr. ^1^ + VT = ^VT ve^-^-td^sveshtd^ he will enter. 

f^n^ + VI = f^V^ vU'{-dkvttm=:vi4iP^am, enter you. 
Loc. plur. f^n^ "^ ^ ^ ^Vi ^+^ = ^'^f Among men. 
Nominal base T(t^prdchh ; nom. 1|T7jirif, an asker. 

Verbal base Jf^^prachh: X(^ + mrf^ =^ HVfllOl praekk-\-9ydmi:s^pr€Lk9hydmt I shall 
ir^ + HT = VfT praehh+td^prathfd, he will ask. 
HTV + ^ = VX^prdchk-^su ^prdlsu, among askers. 
Nominal base IfWtaksh; JH^^ "^ ^ ^ ''^^ taksh-^iu^iafsu, among carpenters. 
Nominal base X^^rakshj 'Tta^ + ^ = 'ftt^ goraksh-^-tM^s.gora^tu, among cow- 
Verbal base ^^^ehaksh; WB^+ % = ^^ chaksh-^-Kzi^chakBhe, thou seest. 
^V + li^ = ^^ chaksh'\'dhve^=.eha44hvei you see. 
HV vro/cA, to cut; nom. sing. ^vpf. 

ira + ^9IT6v =s IIUIMIOi vr(Ueh'\'ayd!m^=:vrak8hydmi^ I shall cut. 
IfW + TfT = KWl vraich+td^vrashfd, he will cut. 

§ 126. The H^i of fllfS^cft/, to show, '^ dfis, to see, ^Jl^«pr*'» *<> touch, if final, or 
followed by Pada-terminations, is changed into "^ k, 
Ex. Nominal base flpl^ dU; nom. sing. fip| (2i4: ; instrum. plur. fljfhi: digbhijj^ ; loc. 
plur. f^[^ dtifc^Att. 
^S^dftf/ nom. sing. "JUr rfft*** instrum. plur. ^0*i: drigbhili. 
In the root ^noi, the change of l^i into ^ * or ^f is optional (Pi^. viii. 2, 63). For 
further particulars see Declension and Conjugation. 

§ 127. ^ A at the end of verbal bases, if followed by a termination beginning with ^f, 
is treated like ^gh, i. e. like a guttural with an inherent aspiration, which aspiraetion may 
be thrown forward on the initial letter. 
Ex. ra¥ + ^9IT6v = c^VfUOl leh+9ydmi=z lekshydmi, I shall lick. 
<((Vf + ^9IT6v = ^it^^nfif doh+sydmi^dhokshydm, I shall milk. 

§ 128. In all other cases, whether at the end of a word or followed by terminations, ^h 
is treated either (i) like '^^gh in most words beginning with ^d (PA?, viii. 2, 32), and in 
Tfim^ ushifih ; or (2) like ^ ^A in all other words. 


68 IlfTERNAL SANDHI. § 129- 

Ez. (i) ^duh; nom. ^^dhuk; instrum. plur. vfi^dhugbh^; loc. plur. ^|l| d&uXrMtt «• 
part. pass. ^'Vt dugdhah. 
^n + in = T7t diih+taft = djri^hafk, fast, is an exception. 
Ex. (a) fc5^ Uhj nom. "ftlT /if ; instrum. plur. ft^fkl lufbhifi; loc. plur. ft^^ Kf«« 

fty^ + in = cATt Hh-\'taft=:li4hah. 
^W + in = 155t ruA-f eo^ = r4fha(k. 

In cATt ZlbZfta^ and C7t riidha^, ^"^^ ^+' are changed to ^ + ^ ^+^9 or, more 
correctly, to ^J4-^^ (§ n?); then the first ^^is dropt and the vowel lengthened. 
The only vowel which is not lengthened is ^ p j e. g. ^ + IT = ^ vfM-f /a=: vrtcfta. 

The vowel of ^T^ sah and ^ raA is changed into ^ o (Plln. vi. 3, 1 12), unless 
SamprasArai;ia is required, as in the part. '9fSl 44ha^. (P^P* vi. i, 15.) 

§ lap. The final ¥ A of certain roots (TF c/ruA, ^ m«A, ^^ snuh, fw^ snik) is treated 
either as ^gh or 7 ^. From ^7 druA, to hate, we have in compounds the nom. sing, 
"ira dhruk and ^ dhruf (Pkiy, viii. a, 33) ; past participle 7*^ drugdkah or "ni drii^aft. 

§ 130. The final 7 A of «T? iiaA, to bind, is treated as ^ dh, 

Ex. 9m«i^ updnah, slipper; nom. sing. WHl^Eupdnat; instrum. plur. ll'MMi||« upd- 
Past part. pass. «T^ + IH = «nr naA+/aA=fsa€2tMa^, bound. 
As to ^f*TR ano4uh, ox, &c., see Declension. 

§ 131. The ^« of the nominal bases VBC^^dhvas, fiEdling, and Q^«ra«, tearing, if final 
or followed by Pada-terminations, and the ^ « of ^1^ rot, the termination of the part, 
perf. Par., before Pada-terminations only, is changed to 1^/ (P&9* viii. a, 72). See, how- 
ever, § 173, 204. 

Ex. V|^ dhxxu^ to fall ; nom. sing. y/(^dhvat^ nom. plur. URR dhvasalt, instrum. plur. 
ttriks dhvadbhi^. 
§ 132. Verbal bases ending in ^«, change it to 1^/, before terminations of the general 
tenses beginning with ^ s. (PII9. vii. 49 49.) 

Ex. 7^t7(w, to dwell; fut. ^ + 1WTftT= HWiifti vas-^-tydmi^^vatsydmi. 
Before other terminations beginning with ^«, final ^^s remains unchanged. 

^re[ + ^ ^ ^Vw vos+M = raM0, thou dwellest. 

1^ + fff = ^rfin #(u+n = fOMt, thou sleepest. 

f«H^ + W s: fifw nimi-\'S€^zniAis8e, thou kissest. 

HH^ + ftf = Msft^ pepe$ 4- si ^pepeshshi, thou hurtest. ( § 1 00. ) 
In certain verbs final ^s is dropt before f^ dhi of the imperative. 

^n^ 4- flf = ^prftf ^-{-dhi = iddhi. (PA^. vi. 4, 35.) 

^nr^ 4- "ftf = ^rvrftl ckakds-^dht = chakddhi. 

In the same verbs final ^<, if immediately followed by the termination of the second person, 
^«, may be changed to HJ or remain ^^8, 

^9^[f^^+'^^^^(^H^or^r^• aid8+8=zaidt or aidh. 
Before the II / of the third person, it always becomes Itt, 

W5n^ + H^= W^nH aid8'\-t=zaM, (PAi[^. viii. 2, 73, 74.) 


Final II /, V d, V ofA before the '^s of the and pen. sing. Imperf. Par. may be regularly repre- 
sented by II / or by ^«; H^H^ave/ or ^l%« avehy thoti knewest; ITi^lQII aru^a/ or ^T^Hn arw^, 
thou preventedst. (P&9. viii. 2, 75.) 

§ 133. «Tn and '^m at the end of a nominal or verbal base, befrae sibilants (but not 
before the ^nt of the loc. plur.), are changed to Anusvftra. 

Ex. til Ml H Hi jighdAuati, he wishes to kill, from ITtf Aon. 
^AMIn hramsyate, he will step, from '^l^kram. 

But ^iV[«^ suhifuu, among good strikers^ from ^i^*^ wAtn, Pada base of ^%.^ tuhifhs. 
If «( n were changed to Anusvlira, we should have to write ^f^f^fuAsffwAfi. 

§ 134. ^n remains unchanged before semivowels. 

Ex. f^Vn hanyate^ he is killed, from l|l^Aaii. IK^f^^tanvan, extending, from IT^tan. 
H^^A prenvanam ♦, propelling, f^m Ip^inv. 

§ i^« ^ff^ remains unchanged before the semivowels l^y, 1[ r, c^ /. 
Ex. «si*«fi kdm-yah, to be loved, i^m IRI ibom. 

Vnt tdmram^ copper, from IHI tarn and suffix T^ra. 
WJgl amlcihi sour, from ^PT am and suffix 79 la. 

§ 136. l^m at the end of a nominal or verbal base, if no suffix follows, or if followed by 
a Pada-termination, or by personal terminations beginning with IVm or ^v, is changed into 
5^». (Pi^. VIII, 2, 65.) 

Ex. Tf^lX^praidn, nom. sing., and H^nf^ praidnbhih, instrum. plur., JX^gJ^praidnsu^ 
loc. plur., from JK^pl^^praidm, quieting. (P&];i. viii. a, 64.) 
1|J|W| aganma, we went, and VT5^ aganva, we two went, from Jn^ + l^aro+mfl, 
Tfl^ + ^ gam-^va. 

But nom. plur. H^ii«ii praddmah, 

J 137. With regard to nasals, the general rule is that in the body of a 
word the firsts, the seconds^ the thirds, and the fourths of each class can 
only be preceded by their own fifths, though in writing the dot may be 
used as a general substitute. (^ 8.) 

Ex. VRdin^ or Wl^^ diankaie or diamkate^ he fears. 

lll^rt^^^H. or n i rriilfir dlHigati or dlimgatiy he embraces. 

^rairf^ or ^W^ vanchayati or vafhchayati^ he cheats. 

Tnm^ or 7l4l37^ utkanthate or uikamthate, he longs. 

if^ or JV^ ganium or gathtumy to go. 

Hi^n^ or wiik kampate or kampate, he trembles. 
In compounds, such as ^ + ?S^: sum + kalpait, it is optional to change 
final IT m, standing at the end of a Pada, into the fifth or into real Anusv&ra ; 
hence ;r?I9: or ^r|^ samkalpah or sankalpaJj^, (See § 77.) 

* If the 5^n before ^r were treated as Anusv&ra, the second 5^n would have to be 
changed into a lingual (§ 96). P&n. viii. 4, a, v&rt. 

I 2 


{ I38« In the body of a word, Anusv&ra is the only nasal that can stand 
before the sibilants 9^i, i^M, ^^Sy and v h. 

Ex. ^^ damianam, biting. '^■Tsff^ yaj4msh%^ the prayers. 
1|^: hamsai^, goose, tl^ ramhate, he goes. 

§ 139. «^fi following immediately after ^ch or IT J is changed to ^ iS. 
Ex. MIgi ydchfld, prayer. TT^ r^^i, queen. ^^jajHe^ he was bom. 

§ 140. ^chh in the middle of a word between vowels or diphthongs 
must be changed to ^ chchh, (See $91.) 

Ex. ^^^ fichhy to go ; ^Itarfir fichchhatif he goes. 
jr^: tnlechchAaljk, a barbarian. 

§ 141. "^ehh before a suffix beginning with ^n or <f m is changed to 9^s. 

Ex. WIJ + •! = IW; prachh-^na^prtUnafk, question. 

HiH^ + 1H=Hiii ^n pdprachh + mi ^zpdprahni, I ask frequently. 
Before ^ v this change is optional. 

§ 142. Roots ending in l^y and ^o throw off their final letters before terminations 
beginning with consonants, except ^ y, 

Ex. "^+ n: rrr^w: pHy-^-tdfi^ip^tdfiy decaying. 
5^4- •!! = TpDt fttrp+naj= /tfr^, killed, 
fijftf^ + ^fl^^ fljf^^n'^«KcK»4-»4n = didivdn, having played. 

§ 143. Roots ending in ^o and ^r, if preceded by !^« or 7u, lengthen their ^« and 7», 
if ^v or'^r is followed immediately by a terminational consonant. (P&n. viii. 2, 77.) See 
No. 92, W^ tvar. 

Ex. 1^(2x0, to play, ^1^1 Hi ^vyati, he plays. Bened. l(\^K(ri div-ydsam, 
^^r, to exerts ^ffUgiln^. 
Wfri (i. e. ftl^^'tr), to grow old, ^4Vn jiryati, 
f^ffir, voice; instrum. plur. 'ftrnJ girhhih, loc. plur. 'ftg^r«Ati. 

There are exceptions. (Pfti;i. viii. 2, 79.) 

'^ibur, to sound. Bened. ^^4^1 kurydsam. 

On a similar principle 7tt is leugthened in 5^+ WRt = ij^iii turv-^-dvah^riUirvdvah. 
(PA9. VIII. 2, 78.) 

§ 144. Nominal and verbal bases ending in ^tr and 7^«r lengthen !^t and 7fi, when 
^r becomes final after the loss of another final consonant. (Pftn. viii. 2, 76.) 

Ex. f^ + ^= 'ft^ or 'rtt^ir+tfsr^rfr or gik^ nom. sing, voice. 

§ 145. Nominal bases ending in 1^«< or '9^«5 (the 1[((«9 or ^S^tu being radical) 
lengthen \% and 7tt when final, and before terminations beginning with H&A or ^^$. 

Loc. plur. ^^^ + 9 ^ ^1^*^ gupis'\-8u = tupfhshu ; nom. sing. masc. and neut. 
Nom. sing. masc. tiqt^ + ^=^r^ 8ajus-^$=isaji!hj nom. sing. neut. ^B[i|* <af4J^. 


-§ 148. INTERNAL SANDHI. 61 

Doubling of Cbnsonants, 

$ 146. According to some grammarians any consonant exceptor and Wh, followed bj 
another consonant and preceded by a vowel^ may be doubled; likewise any consonant 
preceded by ^ r or V A, these letters being themselves preceded by a vowel. As no practical 
object is obtfuned by this practice, it is best, with S^&kalya, to discontinue it throughout. 

In our editions doubling takes place most frequently where any consonant, except the 
sibilants and f A, is preceded by ^r or V A, these being agun preceded by a vowel. Thus 

^rip arka, sim, is frequently written wil arkka, 
l[WP{^brahman may be written lfWfR{brakmman, 

If an aspirated consonant has to be doubled, the first loses its aspiration. Thus ^V^ or 
Ain vardhana or varddhana, increase. 

§ 147. A sibilant after ^r must not be doubled, unless it is followed by a consonant. 
Thus it is always, ^Av varshdlii rainy season; Vl^l^S ddaridh (PriLt. 387), mirror. But we 
may write either ^^4n or ^^^nndar^ate or dariiyate, it is shown. 

Explanation of some Qrammatical Terms used by Native Qrammarians. 

^ 148, Some of the technical terms used by native grammarians have proved 
so useful that they have found ready admittance into our own grammatical 
terminology. Quna and Vfiddhi are terms adopted by comparative gramma- 
rians in the absence of any classical words to mark the exact changes of 
vowels comprehended under these words by Panini and others. Most 
Sanskrit grammars have besides sanctioned the use of such terms as 
Parasmaipada, Atmanepada, Taipurusha, Bahuvrihiy Karmadhdraya^ Ejit, 
Taddhita, Unddiy and many more. Nothing can be more perfect than the 
grammatical terminology of P&nini ; but as it was contrived for his own 
peculiar system of grammar, it is difficult to adopt part of it without at the 
same time adopting the whole of his system. A few remarks, however, on 
some of P&nini's grammatical terms may be useful. 

All words without exception, or according to some grammarians with 
very few exceptions, are derived from roots or dhdtus. These roots 
have been collected in what are called Dhdtupdfhas, root-recitals, the most 
important of which is ascribed by tradition to P&nini*. 

From these dhdtus or roots are derived by means otpratyayas or suffixes^ 
not only all kinds of verbs, but all substantives and adjectives, and according 
to some, even all pronouns and particles. Thus firom the root ii^ man^ to 
think, we have not only W^ man-u-te^ he thinks, but likewise iff^ man-as^ 
mind, ilT«f^ mdnas-a, mental, &c. Words thus formed, but without as yet 
any case-terminations attached to them, are called Prdtipadika, nominal 
bases. Thus from the root ^^an, to beget, we have the prdtipadika or 

* Siddh&nta-Kaumudif ed. TaranlLtha, vol. 11. p. i. 


nominal base 'sr^fjan-a, man^ and this by the addition of the sign of the 
nom. sing, becomes ys^mjan-a-Jj^^ a man* 

Suffixes for the formation of nouns are of two kinds : 

1. Those by which nouns are derived direct from roots ; Primary Suffixes. 

2. Those by which nouns are derived from other nouns ; Secondary Suffixes. 

The former are called JSH/, the latter Taddhita. Thus ^r^Jana^ man, is 
derived from the root ^^^Jan by the Krit suffix V a; but ^(^f^janinay 
appropriate for man, is derived from ^nfjana by the Taddhita suffix ^ (na. 
The name prdtipadika would apply both to "^^jana and ^(^dm janina^ as 
nominal bases, ready to receive the terminations of declension. 

The Krit suffixes are subdivided into three classes : 
I. Krity properly so called, i.e. suffixes by which nouns can be regularly 
formed from roots with certain more or less definite meanings. Thus 
by means of the suffix w^ athuy Sanskrit grammarians form 
^iT^ vepathu^ trembling, from ^rcp, to tremble. 
Tg^I^ Svayathu, swelling, from ftgi ivi^ to swell. 
T^f^ kshavathUt sneezing, from '^ kshu^ to sneeze. 
?j^ davath% vexation, from 5 rf«, to vex, to bum. 

%. Kritya, certain suffixes, such as jr^ tavya, ^Hfhr aniya, il ya^ ^fi^ elima^ 
which may be treated as declinable verbal terminations. Thus from 
^ Arar, to do, is formed ^K^ kartavya^ ^ITTHQ^ karai^iyUf wA kdrya, 
what is to be done, faciendum. 

3. Uiiddi^ suffixes used in the formation of noims which to native gramma- 

rians seemed more or less irregular, either in form or meaning. Thus 
from 'i^vasy to dwell, both '^[^vastu, a thing, and '^j^vdsiu, a house. 

The Taddhita suffixes are no further subdivided, but the feminine suffixes 
(atripratyaya) are sometimes treated as a separate class. 

A root, followed by a suffix (pratyaya), whether Kfit or Taddhita, is 
raised to the dignity of a base {prdtipadika)^ and finally becomes a real 
word (pada) when it is finished by receiving a case-termination (vibhakti). 

Every base, with regard to the suffix which is attached to it, is called 
Anga, body. For technical purposes, however, new distinctions have been 
introduced by Sanskrit grammarians, according to which, in certain declen- 
sions, a base is only called Anga before the terminations of the nom. and 
ace. sing., nom. and ace. dual, and nom. plur. of masc. and fem. nouns ; 
besides the nom. and ace. plur. of neuters. The vocative generally follows 
the nominative. These Aftga cases together are called the Sarvandmasthdna. 
Bopp calls them the Strong Cases. 

Before terminations beginning with consonants (likewise before Taddhitas 


beginning with any consonant except ity) the base is called Pada, the 
same term which, as we saw before, was used to signify a noun, with a case- 
termination attached to it. The rules of Sandhi before these terminations 
are in the main the same as at the end of words. 

Before the remaining terminations which begin with vowels (likewise 
before Taddhitas beginning with vowels and i^y) the base is called Bha. 
Bopp calls the Pada and Bha cases together the Weak Cases ; and when it 
is necessary to distinguish, he calls the Pada the Middle and the Bha the 
Weakest Oases. 

Nouns, whether substantives, adjectives, or pronouns, are declined through 
three numbers with seven or, if we include the vocative, eight cases. A case- 
termination is called ^^i? or f^^i(f%vibhakti, lit. division. 

Verbs are conjugated through the active and passive voices, and some 
through a middle voice also^ in ten moods and tenses, with three persons and 
three numbers. A personal termination is called fir^ tiii or fH^irf^vibhakti. 

A declined noim ajs well as a conjugated verb, ending in a vibhakti, is 
called Pada. 

Particles are comprehended under the name of Nipdia, hterally what falls 
into a sentence, what takes its place before or after other words. 

All particles are indeclinable {avyaya). 

Particles are, 
I. Those beginning with ^ cAa, and, i. e. a list of words consisting of 

conjunctions, adverbs, inteijections, collected by native grammarians. 
%. Those beginning with V pra^ before, i. e. a list of prepositions collected 
in the same manner by native grammariaus. 

When the prepositions beginning with j(pra govern a substantive^ they 
are called Karmapravachaniya. When they are joined to a root, they are 
called Upasarga or Oati. The name of Qati is also given to a class of 
adverbs which enter into close combination with verbs. Ex. ^nft 4ri in 
^lO^ Urikfityaj assenting ; ?rn^ khdt in W(¥pn khdtkfitya, having made 
khdtf i. e. the sound produced by clearing the throat. 

64 DECLENSION. § 149- 



^ 149. Sanskrit nouns have three genders^ Masculine^ Femininey and 
Neuter ; three numbers, Singular^ Dual» and Plural ; and eight cases. 
Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, Locative, 
and Vocative. 

Note — ^There are a few nouns which are indeclinable in Sanskrit : ^T^ war, heaven ; 
Unrm ^y^» ^® ' ^^Tl *fl^«'» ycar> (of Vikram&ditya*s era) ; ^R svayam, self;' wBf sdmi, 
half; ^ bMrf atmosphere ; ^|f^ sudi, the light fortnight, and wf^ badi, the dark fortnight, 
the usual abbreviations for l^j|IMII|! hiklapakshatL and f WHT^ hrishiiiapdkshahj or Vjc^MV|« 
bahulapaksha^f (Warren, K&lasankalita, p. 361.) According to Ridhak&nta, ^flfsiMft is used 
in the West only. 

Some nouns are pluralia tantum, used in the plural only ; ^fO« ddrdh, plur. masc. wife ; 
Vim dpa^ plur. fem. water; ^l%n varshdh, plur. fem. the rainy season, i.e. the rains; 
f^mrn nkatdt^i plur. fem. sand ; 4ic4l« hdhvMk, the Pleiades. 

^ 150. Sanskrit nouns may be divided into two classes : 
I. Those that have bases ending in consonants. 
7,. Those that have bases endii^ in vowels. 

' I. Bases ending in Consonants. 

^151. Nominal bases may end in all consonants except V9I, s^^, ^y. 
The final letters of the inflective bases of nouns, being either final or brought 
in contact with the initial letters of the terminations, are subject to some 
of the phonetic rules explained above. 

^ 152. Bases ending in consonants receive the following terminations : 

Terminations for Masculines and Feminines. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Nom. 1^ s (which is always drop t) \^au 1 IK a* 

Ace. mam J J 

Instr. Wtd 1 f^.bhii^ 

Dat. Tffe y^bhydm I ^' , 

AbL ^a* J 1****^'** 

Gen. irt ttij 1 ^ dm 

Loc. ^ t J * ' -> 1 **« 

Voc. like Nom., except bases in ;^n and ^^s iS^au ^ iK a-/l 

Neuters have no termination in the Nom., Ace, and Voc. singular (Pada 

They take ^Hn the Nom., Ace, and Voc. dual (Bha cases). 

They take ^ t in the Nom., Ace, and Yoc. plural, and insert a nasal 
before the final consonant of the inflective base (Anga cases). This nasal is 

-§ 154- 



determined by the consonant which follows it; hence ^li before gutturals, ^H 
before palatals, Hf^n before Unguals, ^^n before dentals, f{m before labials^ Anu- 
SY&ra before sibilants and ^ A. Neuters ending in a nasal or a semivowel do 
not insert the nasal in the plural. (See S&rasv. i. 8, 5; Colebrooke, p. 83.) 
§ ^53' Bases ending in consonants are divided again into two classes : 

1. Unchangeable bases. 

2. Changeable bases. 

Nouns of the first class have the same base before all terminations, this base 
being liable to such changes only as are required by the rules of Sandhi. 
Noims of the second class have two or three bases, according as they are 
followed by certain terminations. 
Thus from im^pratyach, Nom. Dual XffiA pratyaHch-au ; base wj^pra- 
tyanch, (Anga.) 
Instnxm. PluT. ififri^. pratyaff'bhii^ ; ha^e im^pratyach. (Pada.) 
Qen. Dnsl vjif^. pratich-oi^ ; hsae jnHl^pratlch. (Bha.) 

I, Unchangeable Bases. 
Paradigm of a regular Noun with unchangeable Base. 
§ 154. Bases ending in ^^n and c^ / are not liable to any phonetic changes 
before the terminations, except that in the Nom. Sing, the ^* of the termi- 
nation is dropt (see § 114; 55) ; and that in the Loc. Plmr. a ^ t *»«y ^ 
^inserted after the final v n. 

Base ^^jfm^sugdny a ready reckoner, masc. fem. neut (fi-om ^ «i, well, and 
root im^gan^ to count.) (Accent, P&n. vi. i, 169.) 



^M4Ui sugdi^'d 
^«I4U sugdn-e 

^"TOt sugdn-aft 

L. ^«i(Vi suffd^'i 
V. ^T^nt^ra^ 


N. A.V. ^n^ sugdf^ t 












'^^Wi'^ sugdn-bhydm 






^'1^ sugdi^'i 

r ^'Wli sugdi^-ah 

r ^tllW sugdi^'bhyafi 

^VROf sugdn'dm 


^«iRu sugdn-i. 

* Or ^^ sugd^if-su, § 74. 

t As the accent in the vocative is always on the first syllable, it should be remembered, 
once for all, that wherever the nom. ace. and voc. are given together, the vocative is under- 
stood to have its proper accent on the first syllable. The vocative of the neuter sugai^ 
would therefore be, not sugdn, but sdgai^. 




§ ^55- Bajses ending in gutturals, ^ k, Wfkh, n g^ ^gh. 
These bases require no special rules. 

Base ^if^ aarvc^dky omnipotent, masc. fern. neut. (from ^ sarva^ all^ 
and root ^|(n^ iak^ to be able.) 



N.V. ll4^SPV<aroa^ 

A. 4lqy4i sarvaidkam 

I. ^9^141 sarvaidkd 

D. flq^l^ sarvaidke 

Ab.l • 

r IR^niS sarvaidkaji 

L. ^rf^lf^ sarvaidki 


MA8C. FESf . 

41^9^ sarvaMkau 



jAw^ ^arvaidghhydm I -§-«-. ,^^^^ri.,^x 

f tiw^l* •*!• sarvaiagoliyci^ 

IR^nvt sarvaddkdm 
^^9^ sarvaidkshu * 

4ll)l4l* sarvaidkofi 



41^9140 sarvaSi 



N. A.V. ^^9fl|^ sarvaSdh 

AU regular nouns ending in ^^, ^kh, i\^g, ^gh, ^ t> ^ fh, ^^4, ^ 4h, 

\^9 ^^A» ^rf, ^rfA, '^^p, "^ph, ^*, ^bh, may be declined after the model 
of ^rt^ aarvaidk. 

§ 156. Base ending in?^M. fNei Tc^^ chitralikh, painter, (from f^chitra, 
picture, and root ftS^^likh, to paint.) 







N.V. (Vlfffc^tt chitralikf 1 n_ r "^ 1 ^ ^ 

I. n^«r<o«i chitralikhd | l^l^fcTf^ 

D, f^^(fl^ chitralikhe r^^^<^'^chitraligbhydm^ ^ 




ftWftjftf cMtrali 




ftwftwft ckitri 


Note— In the paradigms of regular nouns with unchangeable consonantal bases it will 
be sufficient to remember the Nom. Sing., Norn. Plur., Instr. Plur., Loc. Plur., and Nom. 

♦ On the change of ^ w after ^ifc, see § 100. 
t ^k instead of l^AA, see § 113; 54. i. 

-§ i5«. 



Plur. Neut. The Ace. Instr. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Sing., Norn. Ace. Voo. Gen. Loc. Dnal^ 
Ace. Gen. Flur., follow the Nom. Plur. The Instr. Dat. Abl. Dual, Dat. Abl. Flur., follow ^ 
the Instr. Plur. The Vocative is the same aa the Nominative. 

§ 157. Regular nouns to be declined like irtlRf MrtHi^a^. 


NOM. 8. NOM. PL. M. F. INSTR. PL. 


l^ftH^Aan/, green 
m. f. n. 

vPhH^ agnimath, fire 
m. f. n. 


-kindling wfr^WT^^ 


^ agnimadbkih 




' agnimatka 

t agfUmatsuX agnimantki 

^KffiAfuf, friendly 
m. f . n. 






^(iM^A, knowing 
m. f. n. 





^J^^l?, guardian 
m. f. n. 





V^H Aoitf^A, region 






^ 158. Bases ending in palatals^ "^ch, ^ chhy l^j, l|jA. 
Bases ending in ^cA change ^cA into 11 i, or n^, except when followed 
by a termination beginning with a vowel. 

Base ifc^^ja/amticA, masc. cloud (water-dropping). 



N.V. fra^iatemn* 

A. ^<^H^ jalamttckam 

I. lldy^l jaUxmuckd 

D. V|<4IJ^ jalamucke 

\ W^^^^* Jalamuckatk 
G. J 

L. i|eM|fV| jalamueki 



>■ Wc9y^ 


1c«I5'*mI jalamugbkydm 


r fc9g^ 




9|c4^^1 jalamueki 


N. A.V« ^raj^jatemu* 

Decline like n^^^^^^jalamuch^ — ^^n^v4cA, fem, 
skin; ^rew:A, fern, light; ^«mcA, fem. ladle. 



lfT9^^ jalamuckaji 
ifcS^f^ jalamugbkifi 
lTc9^pn^ jalamugbkya^ 

HRfPJ^ jalamuckdm 


bf c5^r^ jalamuHcki 

speech ; W^ tvach, fem, 

* t^M final changed into H^f. See § 113; 54. i 
t See § 66. % See § 54. i. 

K 7, 

Final ^« dropt, § 55. 
II See § 118. 

68 DBCLBNSIOK. § 159- 

§ 159* Special bases in ^eh, 


^P"^ kruHck*, moving crookedly, ^^ g«^fi?S "^P^ ^W (Accent, P&ni. vi. i, 182) 

a curlew kriih krunbhifi kriinkshu kruHcha^ 

1fff^pr<2f(cA, if it means worship- W^ HI^Rrt W^ llfw: (Accent, P& 1,182) 

ping prdn prdhbhii^ prdnkshu prdHchah (Ace. the same) 

^p^Vft/cAf, cutting VS ^[7^ 7^ Y''* ('^*^<'®'**> ^^•'^'* '> ^^^) 

§ 160. Bases ending in ^chh change V ehh into 91/, which becomes ^ f, when final, and 
before consonants. (See § 125; 174. 6: P&n. vi. 4, 19.) 


VX^prdchh, an asker T[^prdl JfX^^prdSah VX^^^prdibhCh in^pr^^ jfif^prd^^i 

§ 161. Bases endipg in l^j, if regular, follow the example of nouns in ^cA, except that 
they preserve ^j before vowels. 


^^ rttj, disease IJf *ttA: ^^Ht rujajk <5fhi: rughhif^ ^^ rukshu %ftf ruHji 

^S^ 4ri, strength ^1^ ilrk |) ^S^ ^rjdh ^rf^A: drghhifi ^90^ ^rib«&« ^rf^ iirji 

Other regular nouns in 9^j, — ^i^PTvattv, m. merchant; ^^IW^hhishajy m. physician; 
^U^^^ftft^', m. priest; ?9nf <ra;, f. garland; ITfif a«ft;, n. blood. (On the optional forms 
of v«i^flupj, see § 214.) WSS(majjy Nom. Sing. T^ mak, diving. 

§ 162. Bases ending in II j changeable to ^ ^. 

Some bases ending in IVy change 9^j into ^f or ^ ^ when final, and before terminations 
beginning with consonants. 

* Derived from the root ^l^ArttHcA. The Nom. Sing, would have been jP^ + l^triMi* 
+«y 1^« and ^k are dropt, see § 114. 

t Derived from the root TC^vraich, (in the Dh&tup&tha, ^Vt^^^> to cut. According 
to Sanskrit grammarians, the penultimate l^s or SI /is dropt, and ^cA before consonants 
or if final changed into ^ ^ (See § 1 14.) 

X The form ^fTpf (i^ot Tl^vraf) is confirmed by Siddh&nta-Kaumudt (1863), vol. i. 
p. 182, 

.|| On the two final consonants, see § 55. The Nom. Plur. Neut. would be ^iW ikji 
or ^^Hihrji. At the end of compounds the optional forms are ^rfntfrjf or «(^ HHiji, 
The latter form is confirmed by Colebrooke, the Siddh&nta-Kaumudt, vol. i. p. 194, 
and the Prakriyi-Kaumudt. The Prakriyft-Kaumudt (p. 44 a) says : ^rf^T I '^ vj^Qi 

5lrf^i ^|fiS g^^rfir^ i ^^ff^ fBiftr i wnm^ ' »|fMTtfiil< i i \ wffit i (P& i, 

72, viLrt.) 

-§ i63- 



Base ^^i^samr^, masc* sovereign. 

Singular. Dual, 

masc. fkm. ma8c. fbm. 

N.V. MHU samrdf ") ^ ^ 1 

\ > ti^i«ii samrajau > 

A. 41^191 samr^fam J J 



I. TWIT samrd^d 

D. 4IW^ samrdje 

b. 1 
- J 


* HH\^*m 9amrd4bhydm 


L. mrrftf samrd^ 


H^lini samrdjc^ 

Hm^Ri: samrdtfbhi^ 
HH\^^ samrdi/bhyafL 

HHm\ Mimrdjdm 

^H\\^ samrdftu or 4IM 1^1^ samrdftsu * 

The words which follow this declension are mostly nouns derived, without any sufi^, 
from the roots WT ^^r^' (S^^^^ ^^^ ^n^)f ^ shine; ^fmfij, to dean; 1|l^y^/ (except 
^fi^i^W/rt;), to sacrifice; m^r^^, to shine, to rule; '^l^^rv, to dismiss, to create, 
QEf^^srqj, wreath, and V|i^<Mr*y, blood, are not derived from ^'^sni); OTI^6Arcjj;, to 
roast (^Smi). Also vfi^ft^^parwrdj, a mendicant. 






Hitiii^ vibhrdj, resplen- 










q%H(ieo<?;J, worshipper 





of the gods 





t^^^i^^viivasjfij, creator 





of the universe 





M (Vsii ^parivrdj, a men- 









' parivrd(9u 

0|HI<I«^ vihar^iW, an 





universal monarch 





'^f^bhfijj, roasting 









§ 163. Irregular bases 







I. lh^*A££<yir, lame 

Wlkhdn ^ 

iNn khdnjaiL Wf^ khanbhih ' 

in^ AAanfu 

♦ Cf. § 76. 

t From another root, l%«if^ vibhrdk, (ViMiOh! vibhrdgbhih &c. may be formed. (Siddh.- 
Kaum. vol. i. p. 165.) 

X From ^ (i^a, god, and ^(^ yaj, to sacrifice, contracted into ^1^ y . 
II The lengthening of the W a in f%^ viiva takes place whenever ^J is changed into 
a lingual. (P&p. vi. 3, 128.) 

IT See Siddh.-Kaum. ed. T4ran&tha, vol. i. p. 165. 



§ 164- 

2. vm^ra avaydj, name of a Vedic priest, has two bases. The Nom. Sing, is W^IIT* waydhk, 
and all the cases beginning with consonants (Pada cases) are formed from the same 
base^ ^V^^q^ avayas. The Voc. Sing., too, is irregular, being, agunst the rule of 
these bases, identical with the Nom. Sing. Some grammarians, however, allow 
% ^S[WV* he avayaji. 
Base ^S^^^^avayas and VHITl^aoay^^. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 




N. V^llll avaydf^ 
A. Ti«|44in avay^jam 
I. ^Rnrnn aoaydjd 
D. ^RTTW avaydje 

Ab. "I 

L. ^nTtftf avaydji 

l ^^Mi«Jt avaydjau I V^^N* avay^ah 

V^4tRlS avayobhifi 

' ^^rits^ avayobhydm 1 ■% , , .. . 

V WWWJ avayobhyaik 

> ^SMi«n* avaydjofi 
like Nom. 

WWVP^ avayafLSu 
like Nom. 

V. WTHTJ avaydj or UWJ avaya^ 

§ 164. Bases ending in ^ r. 

Bases ending in ^ r are regular, only ^ t and v u, preceding the ^ r, are 
lengthened, if the ^r is final or followed by a consonant {§ 144). In the 
Loc. Plur. the final ^r remains unchanged though followed by ^«A. {§ 90.) 
Base ffl^ffir, fern, voice. 







N.V. »ft:^^ 

A. f^t.g<ram 

* flro girai. 

I. fhrjsfird 


vfifil: ^r&Ai?^ 

D. mtgiri 
Ab. 1^ 
G. J 

L. fhft^w 

* ''ft^ girbhydn 

. i/t^ girbhyd^ 

f^fXri girdm 

Base ^Ttvar, neut. water. 






N.A.V. ^•r^i 

^TRJ v^* 

^rft rirt 

I. ^ITO rW 

w3t vdrbhydm 

^IWt vdrbhQii &c. 





Jf^pwr, f. town 

^1m/J ^tTprfraJ 

^ ;7^6A« ^p^s&t^ 

n^ dvdr, f. door 

it: ife^ VTC dodraik 


dvdrbhtli Wl^ dvdrshd 

f^f^ ibfr, m. f. n. scattering 

^ Jb/A fVt; KroA 


HrbMI^ ^ ib^Mi^t 

* According to P&n. vi. i, 168, vdri would have the accent on the first, while hrtdit 
according to P& i, 171, would have it on the second syllable, because the Nom. and 
Ace. Dual in the neuter are not Tritty&di, but are Asarvan&masthlLna. 

t Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 125. 

-§ 1^5. 



^ 165. Bases in ^#. r, 

(A.) Bases formed by the suffixes ^V^6W^ ^^9 ^tt'. 
Bases ending in ^« change the ^^8 according to the general euphonic 
rules explained above. Thus 

^V^o^^ if finaly becomes IR ai^. (^ 83.) 

ir^a« followed by terminations beginning with vowels remains unchanged. 

1^ and '9^^is and us followed by terminations beginning with vowels are 

changed to l[i^ and 911^ ish and u$h» (See § 100.) 
W^^as before v^bh becomes ^0 ($ S4. 3) ; l^is and W^^us before ^M 

become ^ir and ^tfr. {§ 82.) 
W^^as before ^ 9U becomes ir^ as or IKI afk; ^is and ^ t^ before ^ su 

become ^ish or ^ ii^, T^ush or T* ui^. 
Besides these general rules, the following special rules should be observed : 

1. Nouns formed by the suffix w^^as lengthen their w a in the Nom. Sing. 

masc. and fem.^ but not in the Vocative. Thus Nom. Sing, m* f. 
^pnfr: sumandtiy well-minded (fi/i^v^s) ; Yoc. ^ir: sumanab. 

2. Nouns formed by the suffixes ^ or Tl^ w or «« do not lengthen their 

vowel in the Nom. Sing. masc. and fem. Hence Nom. Sing. m. f. 
^9i|Vir* sujyotii^f having good light, from ^ su, good, and l^tfin jyoii^y 
n. light ; ^[^nB|: suchakshuft^ having good eyes, from ^ su, good, and 
^: chakshui^f n. eye. (P&^. v. 4, 133, com.) 

3. Neuter nouns in ^f^^as, '^is, T^tw, lengthen their vowel and nasalize 

it in the Nom. Ace. Voc. Flur. From wm mana(L,^^^mandthsi; from 
"^^tfinjyoiii^, '^i^tfff^Jyotimshi ; from 't^ chakshuf^, Wf^chaksMmshi. 

Base ^iiH4^ sumdnas, well-minded, masc. fern. neut. (from ^ su and 
^H^^mdnas, neut. mind.) 



N. ^«i«ni mrndndfi 

A. ^«infi sumdnasam 

I. ^•in^i nmdnasd 

D. ^Tvf^ sumdnase 

Ab. 1 

f^»in«* sumdnasafi 
G. J 

L. ^TvTfrr sumdnasi 

V, '^'R* sttmanaft 


N. A.V. ^'HIJ raimfna^ 






^•fnl^nl sumdnobhydm 

^nn^i tumdnasolt 

^TvpEu sdmanasau 


^•mtfl sumdnasi 




^|ipf^ sumdnasa^ 
^ffftftl! swndnobhi 
^nm^» swndnobhi 

^HAHI sumdwudm 
^H«i^« sdmanasah 


^^nrfftr wmdndrhsi 

The rest like the masc. and fem. 




Base ^nftfir^ sujyotis^ well-lighted, masc. fern. neut. (from ^ su and 
l^f^h(^^Jyotis, neut, light.) 







N.V. ^9ifHlTt 8ujy6Hh 

A. ^THiin^ sujy6tisham 

I. yW^Oim sujydtishd 

D. ^^Ol^ tujydtiske 

Ab. 1 ^^ 

G. J 

L. ^nftflrft sujy^Hshi 

[ filfHirA sujy6tishau > ^SUftf^T. sujydtishah 

f ^ilftflmt 8ujy6t%rbhya^ 
^sinOmi sujydHsJUbn 

^^ Or ATT sujydtirbhydm 

f ^^tftPdift: sujydtishoh 





N.A.y. ^ilftfln Mvy<dtA ^ilftflmft <i9y<^/M&^ 

The rest like the masc. and fern. 

^HI^J l TOl $i^y6ti^JU 

Decline after the model of ^iHT^ ^umamitf and ^iijtfll^ stffyotis the 
following bases : 

^V^ vedhas, Nom. sing, ^vn vedhd^j m. wise. ^c;[^ chandramas, N. s. 
^f;[i!n cAait^Jramai^ m. moon. K^hi^ /7racA«/a«, N. s. jAkV. prachetdi,^ m., 
Nom. prop, of a lawgiver. fi^^fNn^ divauka$, N. s. fii[^^ divaukdi^ m. 
a deity, ft^m^ t;iA<2ya«y N. s. fn^pn: vihdydi^ m. bird, mr^l^ apaaraSy N. s. 
mn: apaardhf f. a nymph. 'vfN^ mahaiyaSy N. s. in^WK mahaujdiy 
m. f. n. very mighty. ^nR[ pay as, N. s. inn payal^, n. milk. ^HT^ aya*, 
N. s* inn ayai^y n. iron. in^ yaias^ N. s. iT^ yaiai, n. praise, ^ftr^ AavM, 
N. 8. ^[fin Aari A^ n. oblation, wf^ archis, N. s. irf$: archif^, n. splendour. 
IVT^ dyu»9 N. s. inj: 4ytt/l, n. life, age. ^^ vapus, N. s. ^ t^opu^, 
n. body*. 

§ i66. ^TSJard, old age, may be declined throughout reg^ularly as a feminine. (See § 238.) 
There is, however, another base Wtl^jaras, equally feminine t» and equally regular, escept 
that it is defective in all cases the terminations of which begin with consonants. 

* Any of these neuter nouns may assume masc. and fem. terminations at the end of a 
compound ; «TV^f%S nashfahamhy Nom. sing. masc. one whose oblation is destroyed. 

t Boehtlingk (Declination im Sanskrit, p. 125) gave Ifi^'ara*, rightly as feminine; in 
the dictionary, though oxytone, it is by mistake put down as neuter. 

-$ ifi;. 



Base ^(^jard. 


N. ^mjard^ 

A. Wfijardm 

I. "fStrm^jardyd 

D. mjMjardycd 

Ab. ^ncnmyariiy^ 

G. irCT^i: yar^y^ 
L. mmljardydm 
V. ^jdre 


N.A.y. iftyar/ 
I.D.Ab. "^CTJ^ jardbhydm 
G.L. IRlftjyarrfyoA 


N.v. ^ro:jWA 

A. "iltn jarah 
I. IfTTfiTtyartfAAiA 
D. Ab. '^(KW* jardbhyah 
G. Hirnof jar^n^fm 

Base "f^lT^jaras. 


deest; term. ^« 
^Kfii jards-am 
M^^^i jards-aft 
«i<tii jards-ahk 


deest ; term. )^ bhydm 


deest ; term, f^t &&iA 
deest ; term. >i^: bhyah 
'^fft^i jards-dm 
deest ; term. ^ su 


§ 167. In compositions, besides tbe regular forms from '^^ jard, viz* fn jO nirjardh, 
fvTTO nirjardt f^HR nirjaram, (ageless,) grammarians allow tbe base in ^ 5 to be used 
l>efore all terminations beginning with vowels f- 



A. r«i9|i fUrjaram at 
I. HiiMU nirjarer^ or 
D. fn ^ 4^1 M nirjardya or 
Ab. xn^Kxnnirjardt or 
G. ftr^tW nirjarasya or 
Li. 1*1 «ii. mxjare or 


MASC. FElf . 


T «!nW nirjarasam 

ftm^FT nifjarasd (Hi^iftlH 1 

TnnOT nirjarase 

■ftrnHK nirjarasah (f^fTnWTI^i 

ftnron nirjarasafjk (ftnitS^ 

frnro^ nirjarasi 


'*' The declension of '^(K^jard, as a regular fem. in VT<^, is given Here by anticipation 
for tbe sake of comparison with the defective ^O^jards* 

t By a pedantic adherence to the Siitras of P&igiini some monstrous forms (included in 
brackets) have been deduced by certain native grammarians, but deservedly reprobated by 
others. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. r. pp. 103, 141.) 

X The declension of ftf^fc nirjardh, as a regular masc. in W ({^ is given by anticipation 
for the sake of comparison with the defective 'f«r^X^nti7ara«* 

74 DECLENSION. J l68- 

Dual. Dual. 

N. A.V. ftf^U nifjarau or ftww fdrjarasan 

I.D.Ab. f»l^<l*'rf nirjardbhydm decst 

G, L. ftwrtte nirjarayo^ or ftTWTlnt nirjaraiofi 

Plural. Plural. 

N.V. 1*1 Au* niryardli or ftrtrW nirfaroiafi 

A. ftwCn^ nirfardn or f<TOT?JK nirjarasaii 

I. ftfAiJ nifjarai^ deest (f^mSi nirjarasaili, masc.) 

D. Ab. ftpftw nirjarehhyah decst 

G. ftmrrof nirjardndm or ftTiTOlf nirjartudm 

L. fn^^g niryareshu deest 

Fern. tlf^JJ nirjardf like ^ffHTib^A 
Neut. T^iiKnirfaram, like ^sfw kdntam. 

Neut. Sing, deest (f^^nl my^/oTMom) ; Dual 
tn ^ i.^1 nirjaroH: Plur. Ph 4 U f\l nnjardihsi. 

§ i68. 'nn^^aneAflw, m. time, S^^V^vrtMlffm/a«y io« name of Indra, form the Nom. 
Sing. vWf^i anekd, ^^^^purudamid, without final Visal^. The other cases are regular, 
like ^•in^ sumanas^ m. Voc. ^ V^^ he anehaft. 

§ 169. T^tT^tf/afurf, m. proper name, forms the Nom. Sing. T^RTti/an^ and the Voc. 
Sing. T^nfr^tt/anan or T^FT u4anaft or y^^u^ana, (Sftr. i. 9, 73.) 

§ 170. (B.) Bases ending in radical ^«. 

X, From f^lTpt^, a lump, and ^jm^gras, to swallow, a compound is formed, (Vi9ti^p*9^ 
gras, a lump-eater. 


From f^l^ pis, to walk, and ^ m, well, ft compound is formed, ^ft^ supis, well- 

From ^ tu8, to sound, and ^ m, well, a compound is formed, ^3^ tutus, well- 

3. In forming the Nom. Sing. m. f. (and neuter), the rules laid down before with regard 
to nouns in which ^l^as, !^m, "V^itf) belong to a suffix, are simply inverted. Nouns 
in ^M and 9^im lengthen the rowel, nouns in ^V^(u leave it short. 

Ex. Nom. Sing. m. f. n. fifift pi^^^raft, ^^t suptft, ^^ suti^t. 

3. In the Nom. Ace. Voc. Plur. of neuters, nouns in ^V^m, t^M» ^^m» niLsalize their 

vowels, but do not lengthen them. 

Ex. Nom. Aec.Voc. Plur. neut. fi) S{j (\l pii^^ogrwmsi, ^ftf^ «»;n«fut, ^^flfra/vmn, 

4. Nouns in ^w and ^m Ungthen their vowels before all terminations beginning with 


Ex. Instr. Plur. ^^Af^ iupMhi^, ^|1|f% suUhrhhi^, ^^ sut4hshu. 

5. The rftdical ^« of nouns ending in l^if and T^m, though followed bj vowels, is not 
liable to be changed into \9k. (See 4 100, note.) 

-§ 171- 



Base ^if^^^pi1y/affra$, eating a mouthful, mate. fem. neut. 

MA8C. rSM • 

N.V. K^W piif(/agraft 

A . iH^titi pij^ffrasam 
I. n<«tl« I pind^rasd 

B. lH«ii« pin^grase 

Ab. 1-^j 

^ f iWVH* pin^agraaat^ 
G. J 

L. ri ««4 (Vi pii^gran 


N. A. V. fMfli: pin^agrdh^ 




MASC. rsM. 



I f^}vifMiitn4to^o%4m 

>- Witf^iipt? 




\ r4lut^ pii^^agrobhyaft 

Wnr^ pifyfagra^su 


Base ^3^raffw, well-sounding, masc. fem. neat. 


MASC. ruf. 

N.V. ^M/^ 
A. ^^ ««/««aiii 

D. igirn./«.e 

Ab. 1 

L* 93^ Stt/tM> 


N.A.V. '^SltuUl^ 


MASC. rsM. 



^l|j% 9ut4rbhydm 







r 9^P^ suMrbhyaft 

^g^ iutusdm 

^p^^ w^s^ or ^1[^ t«<4« A«A»* 


§ 171. Nouns derived from desiderative verbs change ^^$ into ^^sh when necessarj. 
Base f^l^f^pipafhis, wishing to read, masc. finn. neut. 


N. ftroftt/wpafACJ 

A. fM ilQt 4 inpaf &Mam 

I. f^ M Cs m pipafhishd 

D. finriV^inpa^ftisJIs 

L. fVmftft|»f|Nifikis4t 

N. A.V. flrort: iiyo^AIS 







- iMnt^^ ptpa^huhau 
» f^r(A^ pipathirbhyin 

* f M^tni pipathuhaik 

fVUdlfnt pipatMrbki^ 
> ftrirt*^: pipathirbhyali 




Omr^Hl pipatkiihi 

URT7KT pipathiskdm 


ftnifTfV jnpafAisAt (see § 172) 

« Siddh.'Kaum. vol. i. p. 187. § 83* 



§ 172- 

§ 172. The nouns VlQ|l4^^t«, fern, blessing, and ^ij^sajush, masc. a companion, are 
declined like f^^^fi^pipafhis, except in the Nom. Ace. andVoc. Flur., if they should be 
used as neuters at the end of compounds*. 

List of different Bases in ^St 
Base. Nom. Sing. Nom. Pl. Instr. Pl. 


^^fv^sumanas, ^tstt: °^: ^^^W. ^iRfftr ^Htfil^: 

kind, m. f. n. sumandh^ -nah sumanasa^ sumandmsi sumanobhih 

^i^tfir^sujyotis, ^a'ftfin id. ^TUiPilM: ^i^ftTflfP^ ^3^*iPi!f&: 
well-lighted, m.f.n. sujyotih sujyotishaft sujyotimshi sujyotirbhih sujyotishshu or -tiftshu 

fiwVP^pindagras, ftl^: id. f^i^OW. f^J^f^ fTOJWW: WTOT^or^IT:^ 

lump-eating, m .f .n. pindagrah pit^dagrasah pindagramsi pii^grobkih pintfagrassu or -grahsu 

'•RBT^cAait^, splen- ^'HliTJ id. ^nBTTH ^wflff ^*|Bt: ^«hli^ dr ^«lir«^ 

did, m.f.n. chakdh chdkdsah chakdmsi chakdbhili chakdssu or chakdltsu 

Log. Pl. 

flTT^ or ^^:^ 
sumanassu or -nahsu 

^j^^PilbS or °fin5 

id. ^^J 

id.8 ^[ftnr: 


id. ^3^: 

id.8 ftnrfw: 

?ft^rfo*2,arm,m.(n.) ^ 
(Accent,,i7i) dol^ 

^?Hf^supis, well- ^pftj 
going, m. f . n. supih 

f5^ suius, well- ^: 
sounding, m . f . n, sutHh 

finiftr^ipa^Aw,desir- fMsJIt 
ous of reading, m.f.n. pipafMh 

f^nO^cAtWrs, desir- Pm*!? 
ous of acting, m.f.n. chik(h 

VrfipT^ifiw, blessing, y^T^ld^t^ id. WlP^R! 
f. (Voc. id.) d^ishaft 

^'^^^sajus, compa- V^sajdh id. tig^t 
nion, m. (Voc. id.) sajushah 

^^j^^suhimSy one who ^f^ id. ^fifHt 
strikes well, m. f. n. suhin suhinisaf^ 






ddskshu or ddhshu 

fupiffA^Att or sttpGishu 

M^A^Att or sutdftshu 

pipafkishah pipathishi^ pipafhtrbhifi pipafhishshuor-thifishu 

id. r^raOTt t^wiif rVBtTH: i^Afctj 
chikirshah chikirshi^ chiktrbhih 






dHshshu or dsfhshu 

sajdshshu or sajuhshu 

* Some grammarians do not allow the lengthening of the vowels in ^i^iTPr dHmshi and 
^Rjftl sajdmshi. (irfTrfw g;^ I ^° «j. d. <|0. 1 H^uA-^^li^H^fiU mPHMr<4iN^^f<(d4i4ftn^<< 
H^^iira ^rtnni: 11 ?I^: Nldi^H «lri«*41J|^NNI^Il) This may be right according 
to the strict interpretation of P&ioiini, but the Pr&tisakhya (xiii. 7) gives the rule in a more 
general form, statmg that every neuter ending in an Ushman has a long vowel before the 
Anusvara, the Anusv^ being followed by si or shi^ 

^ The Vocative is ^Tvft sumanaft. In the other paradigms it i^ the same as the 

^ <^t^cfo« may be declined regularly throughout as a masculine. But it is likewise 
declined as a neuter. On its irregulsur or optional forms, see § 914* 

^ Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 197. ^ ^« not changed into ^jsh; see § 100, note. 

^ Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 194. ^ See § 75, 

-J 174, DECLENSION. 77 

§ 173. Uf^dkvas (from t^^^dhvams, to fall) and B^«r(u (from ^P^sraths, to fall), when 
used at the end of compounds^ change their '^s into 1^^ in the Nom. and Voc. Sing., and 
before terminations beginning with consonants. 

N.V. V[^U[f(^parnadhvat N. A.V. UlSui^ parnadhvasau N. A. M^Bui^: pan^hvasa^ 
A.'^ivn parnadhvasam l,D.Ah,'^'6vnfipany^dhvadbkydm I. M^^Cd* paraadkvadbhih 
I. M^VbI^I panyidhvasd G. L. I^SiT^i^t parnadhvasofi L. ^W^ parnadhvattu 

§ 174. Bases ending in 9^/, \sh, ^chh, yi^sh, ¥ h. 

Bases ending in these consonants retain them unchanged before all terminations begin- 
ning with vowels. Before all other terminations and when final, their final consonants are 
treated either like ^ f or like "^ Ar. 

1. Bases derived from fi^ Jt/, to show, '^S^driiy to see, ^?^4pn^, to touch, change ^^ 

into ^ At. (§ 126.) 


f^ dUy f . countiy fip^ d£k f^. dUaft. fifffl dimH fi^fhi: digbh^ f^ diksh^ 

2. Bases derived from f13f noi, to destroy, change 3l[i into ? f or ^ ib. 


^ft^^>feanii/,m.f.n. '3(Nll^or°»T'5 *^^»W ^^'ffip ^*^n^fii:or°^#H: ^''H^or^*^ 
life-destroying jioanaf ox ^nak 'fia^a^ -naiMi '■noifbhih or 'Uagbhi^ -nafsu or 'tiakshu 

3. All other bases in 9T ^ change their final into 7 (. 


f^vi^, m.f.n. one who enters f^v{f ft^tri'/oA f^if^v^m^i w^fWj r»^6*iji ftn^vtV^t^ 

4. Bases derived from V^ dhjish, to dare, change ^sh into "^ k. 


dadhrik dadhfishah dadhrimshi dadhfigbhifi dadhfikshu 

5. All other bases derived from verbs with final ^sh change ^sh into Z f . 


"%^c7t?i9^,m.f.n. hating f)p^dv{t fimdvishah HfH dv^nuhi Hl^fkt dvUPfh^ f^^^dvitsti 

6. Bases ending in V chh change V chh into ^ f . 


1Tni^|ir^cM,m.f.n. asking Wl^prd( Ift^.prd^ah vHf^prdm^ m^filtprtf^AiJi XKT^prdtsd 

7. Bases ending in ^ ksh change ^ ksh into Z t, 


ini^/ait«A,m.f.n. paring l^tdf* H^l tdk$hah 'if^ tdnikshi J(^f^* ta^hi^ JC^tafsiii 

* If differently derived If^^taksh may form its Nom. Sing. If^ tak, ^ftX^goraksh, cow- 
herd, which regularly forms its Nom. Sing. *i\<.^gorat,mB,j, according to a different derivation, 
form Tffttjl^gorak, (See Colebrooke, p, 90, note ; Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 187.) So (HH^pipaky 
Nom. Dual Pm M ^pipakshau, desirous of maturing ; (kH^ vivak, Nom . Dual ni«i«ji vivakshau, 
desirous of saying ; fi^V^ didhak, Nom. Dual R{H>I|t didhakshau, desirous of burning*. 

78 DBCLBKSIOK. § 175- 

8. Moot bases ending in ¥ A change ¥ h into Z f . 


ft^a^ Kh, m.f.n. licking fcl^ Uf fc97t Khaf^ ftif^ Umhi PcS^Rrt li^h{(i fc9T^ U^sd 
^^A,m.f.n. covering '^gMt ^JlP^Ao^ '^l^gumhi "^j^^. gku4bh£h '^^ghutau 
On the change of initial ^T y into ^gK see § 93. 

9. Bases derived from roots endmg in ^ h, and beginning with <^ d, change ¥ h into ^k. 

Likewise ^Tim^ tuhifihy a metre. 



|^(^A,m.f.n. milking "^dhvk ^.d^kaf^ ^ddmhi "^^^^ dhugbhili "^^dkuhsM 

ID. Bases derived from the roots 7^ druhy to hate, ^m«A, to confound, flT^ snih, to love, 
^¥ mtiA, to spuCy may change the final ¥ h into ^ f or ^ ^. 


lg|rfniA,m.f.n. IJ^or^ ^T* '^ V^.otI^. ^or^ 

hating dhr^otdhriik dnihait druihhi dhrujbMfLOtdhrugbh^ dhrufsiiotdhrukshd 

II. Bases derived *from W futh, to bind, change ^ h into 11^ f. 


^!^ffnf^updiMh,f. a shoe T^THIl^up^af '¥in«TCt upiinahafk ^H\*\^iupdnadbhifi HM\HfHupdtuitsu 

Decline (^m^^vipdi, f. the Bejah river in the Punjab. ft^v»A, f. ordure. ^^nrfA, 
f. anger. f^lJi^rtprtMA, f. drop of water. Hi Dl ^9»o»ib<A, wishbg to enter. f%^«n»A, loving. 
*\^^ goduhf cow-milker. TMPcdf madkuHk, bee. fiiP^^tTwA, f. splendour. ^€(i«i ^bahutvishf 
m. f. n. very splendid. iQig^ ratnamush, a stealer of gems. (^9^ ^r^> m. f. n. such. 
yitipH^kidfU, m. f. n. Which ? Wt^p^marmaspfU, giving pain. 

§ 175* U^^l^ turikdh, m. name of Indra, changes \s into ^sh whenever ^ A is changed 
into '^ ^ or ^ f . 

Kom. Sing. 'gO^m^ turdshdt. Nom. Dual ^U^l^ turdtdhau. Instr. Plur. ^THIT^fH: 

§ 176. ^rtlT^pitro^, m. an offering, or a priest, is irregular. The Nom. Sing, is 
^^inpttro^^, and all the cases beginning with consonants (Pada cases) are formed from a 
base JitSl^pttro^. The Voc. Singular, too, is irreg^ar, being identical with the Nom. Sing. 
(§ 153)) though some grammarians allow ^ ^Oai hepuro^* 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. ^ftH puro^dXi jOsi^incro^att ^^IT^/mro^o^ 

A. ^drnp /mro^^am jO il ^u puro4diau "^[iiWV^* puro^dial^ 

I. fdsnPlwro^tf jd:it^ pmro^bhgdm ^iit^* puro^hi^ 

.D. ^iWJ^ puroifdse ^[(tit^ pwro4obkgdm gO lV*C puro^obhyafi 

Ab. ^OsiV*lHiro^(i^ ^[ittt^ puro^bhydm ^iM\^l puro^hyafk 

G. ^dlT^imro^^a^ ^p£k¥T^ iwro^oft J^n^fi puroid^dm 

L. ^(dirf^ jmro^ ^dnifi^ incro^<2^ ^:^imro^M 

V. ^dir: or <^* j9«ro^4 or -^ ^(tm^ puro4dhu ^(ttUg: purw/ddal^ 

-§ 179' 



§ 177. Another word, 4i%^||l4( ukiha^, a reciter of hyams, is declined like ^[tiVTS^ 

Nom. ^I^p^rint ukthadd^, Aec. Sing. 9#q|llii vkthtMsam. Inttr. Flur. W^nffrfW: 
ukthaiobhifi. Voc. Sing. "TW^q^: or ^HRT^ vkthaid^ or ttkthah^, 

§ 178. Bmcs in v^m. 

Bases ending in ^m retain ^m before all terminations beginning with vowels. Before 
aU other terminations and when final, the ^m is changed into «(fi. 

Base ll(^UHpraidin^ mild. 



Nom.Voc. J[^[t^praidn 

Acc. ii^ii«i|>rai(^nuim 

Instr. JC^Itm pra£dmd 

Loc. inRTfH|^ai<lm« 


ICASC. Flic* 


ICABO. ntM. 

Wf[Vm pra^dmau 
Wf[Vm praddmau 
n^ll*^ praidnbhydm 

V^nn praddmaf^ 
V^rfv^ praidnbhi^ 


A. Nouns mth two Bases, 

§ 179. Many nouns in Sanskrit have more than one base, or rather they 
modify their base according to rule before certain terminations. 
Nouns with two bases^ have one base for the 

Nom. Voc. and Acc. Sing. 1 
Nom. Voc. and Acc. IHial > of masc noims*; 
Nom. Voc (not Acc.) Plural J 
Nom. Voc. and Acc. Plural of neuter nouns ; 
and a second base for all other cases. 

The former base will be called the A1^ga base. Bopp calls it the strong 
base, and the terminations the weak terminations. 

The second base will be called Ihe Pada and Bha base, Bopp calls it 
.the weak base, and the terminations the strong terminations. 

The general rule is that the simple base, which appears in the Pada and 
Bha cases, is strengthened in the Anga cases. Thus the Pada and Bha 
base ixi^^prach becomes in the Anga cases 'vlt^prdnch. The Pada base of 
the present participle ^P^ adaty eating, becomes ^in adant in the Anga 



* Most nouns with changeable bases form their feminines in ^#. A few, howerer, such 
as ^in^ddfMm^ are said to be feminine without taking the ^ I, and some of them occur as 
feminine at the end of compounds. 




cases. This gives us the following system of terminations for wordd with 
two bases : 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 



^« (which is always dropt) 

^ au 

w; ah 


V am 

W au 

« ah 




wit bhydm 

Ut bhih 



«IT bhydm 

vq: bhyah 


^ ai^ 

)i«lf bhydm 

'»K bhyah 


v: aA 


vt: 0^ 

tvt dm 




^ oh 







Nom. Ace 



§ 1 80. Certain words derived from ^^^anch, to move, have two, others 
three bases. 

Vjrn^ prach, forward, eastern, has two bases, nH[ prdnch for its Anga, 
Tff^prach for its Pada and Bha base^ and is declined accordingly t. 







N.V. W^prdht 
A. lA^praficham 





^•1 / 


L. Vjf^ prachi 

I prdchah || 

infiW prdgbhih 

^ KW^ prdffbhyAn 1 j 

V T(P^^. prdgbhyah 

Xir^i prdchdm 

f Ul^lprdchoh 

* AAga base, or^ according to Bopp, strong base with weak terminations. The termina- 
tions are called in Sanskrit the Sarvandmasthdna terminations. 

t Compounds ending in IV^ ach retain the accent on the preposition, except after 
prepositions ending in ^» or Vtf. This rule does not apply to f«Tn^and W^ddhi (Pfto* 
VI. 3,52-53). H6nce HKJ^pdrdchy ^^[^ODdch, W^prdch, '^^^Mich; also ^^f^nyach, 
^^r\ddhyachj ^Vf^sadhryach, h^'^^v(8hv<ick : but UM^pratydch, <IM|^ samydch, 
^W^ anvdcK 

X Wf^i^rtfn stands for VXWprdhk: this for HHi^jJrtfflcA+^f. 

II In the declension of words ending in V^acA, the rule is that if IH^^acA has the Ud&tta, 
B8 in HVA^pratydch, Hi^^samydchf ^[^^^anvdch (§ 180, note), all terminations, except 
the Sarvan&masthftnas, take the Ud&tta (Pa^. vi. i, 169-1 70). The rule P&p. vi. i, 182, refers 
to ^^a^cA, not to W^ cLch* The rule PsL^, vi. i, 222, is restricted in the Veda by vi. i, 1 70. 
V^^prdch is treated as if the accent were on the preposition. 

-§ i8i. 






WT^ prdcM 


same as mMC. 

I. Tfl^ prdchd 

The feminine of m^prdch is w^prdcM, declined like fern. m.\L 
Decline w^(j^dvdch, downward^ south. Strong base Wti^dvdnch. 

B. Nouns with three Bases, 

^ i8i. Nouns with three bases have their Ahga or strong base in the same 

cases as the nouns with two bases. In the other cases, however, thej have one 

base, the Pada base, before all terminations beginning with consonants ; and 

another base, the Bha base, before all terminations beginning with vowels. 

In these nouns with three cases^ Bopp calls Anga base the strong base ; 

the Pada base the middle base ; 

the Bha base the weakest base. 

This gives us the following system of terminations for words with three 


Singular. Dual. Plural. 


Nom.Voc. ^* (always dropt) 

^ au 

w: ah 

Ace. ^ am 

w au 

W. ah 

Instr. ^ d 
Dat. ^e 
Abl. w: ah 

virf bhydm 
)i«lf bhydm 
v^f bhydm 

)i^: bhyah 
vq: bhyah 

Gen. in ah 

yitx oh 

^ ^171 


Loc. \% 

^ oh 





Nom. Ace. 


Terminations included in two lines require Anga or strong base. 
Terminations included in one line require Pada or middle base. 
Terminations not included in lines require Bha or weakest base. 

Words derived from ^h^ aiich, to move^ with three bases. 

HHTV pratyach, behind, has for its Anga or strongest base vA^pi^atyaRch ; 
for its Bha or weakest wrt^^/^a/fcA. The Pada or middle base is nw^jwa- 
tyach. Hence miT^ pratyaii, Nom. Sing, inasc^j mgi^ pratyak, Nom. Sing, 
neut. ; Vlft^ pratlcM, Nom. Sing. fern. 











. V[¥(9pratydn JRi^i praiydflchau 
Wi^ pratydfleham uA^ pratydHehau 

Uri^i pratydiieha^ 


1 Wrt^J pratichdft* 




inlfV pratlekd 
Jlffl^I pratichd^ 

HVF^ pratyaghhydm 
IIW'**ll praiyagbhyam 
lIN'Mll pratyaghhydm 

Wffilt pratyagbh^ 
T(^P^^ praiyagbkydik 
•iiH*^ pratyaghhydh 


llfl1^! prattchdhk 

UrfWtJ pratichdlt 

llrfl^i praUchdm 


"Wtt^ pratklU UlA^l pratickdli 

Var^ pratyaksh4 







inrt^ pra/fcA^ 

H«n^ pratydflchi 





The following words, derived from ^t^a/icAy to movey have three bases : 

Anoa oa SrmoMG Bask. Pada oa Middle Basi. Bha or Weak Babb. 

irA^j9ra/y(^Ay behind (P&i;i. vi. z, 5z) V[¥(^pratyach inff^prattch 

W^ samydnch, right (vi. «, 5«) 
^4^ nyd^h, low (vi. 2, 53) 
inn^'o^^^^A, accompanying (vi. 3, 95) 
VP|^ ant^i ncA, following (vi. 2, 52) 
fl*^ vishvaiich^ aU-pervading 
yg^^idafich, upward (vi. 2, 52) 
fll9^ tirydAch, tortuous 

^omr^ samyach 



fifi^ vishvach 

Jpift^ sarnich 


fl^ vishdch 
flrc^ tiraich 

ftr^ tiryach 

Bases in n^at and *^^an«. 

I, Participles Present. 
§ 182. Participles of the present have two bases, the Pada and Bha base 
in ^a/, the Anga base in wi^an/. (Accent, Pfti^. vi. i, 173.) 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 




N.V. W^addu 
A. ^tr^addntam 

V^ffi addntau 

^4"« oddntafL 

H^A* adatdfi 

I. V^fll ocfa/^ 
D. H^ a(ia/^ 


ll^[lQf adddbhydm 




WffiKt adddbhifL 
> ^Rfnt adddbhya^ 

^^nt adatam 
H^fJ addtgu 

* Rv. 1. 173, 5. 

-§ 1 84- 











^f^fnr ad!(w^ 

§ 183. There is a veiy difficult rule according to which certain participles keep the ^^n 
in the Nom. and Aoo. Dual of neutersy and before the ^i of the feminine. This rule can 
only be fully understood by those who are acquainted with the ten classes of cocgugations. 
It is this, 

I. Participles of verbs foDowing the Bh^> Div> and CSiur classes must preserve the ^n. 
II. Participles of verbs following the Tnd class may or may not preserve the ^^n. The 
same applies to all participles of the ftiture in ^9n(^sya^ and to the participles of 
verbs of the Ad class m^d. 
III. Participles of all other verbs must reject the 9^ii. 

I. ^^^^bhdvat. Nom. and Aoc. Dual Neut. H4l(t hhdvanti^ 

^^^dioyat, ^[Wlft dkyantt 

"^KH^ckordyat, ^ntTift chordyanH. 

II* Q7l^/«M2f£^. ^fiilituddnti€x'^B!fii%dat^. 

^^if^C^in(hhav%shydt (fut.). Wftn4lft llaoishydnii or Hft^Tlft bkavishyait 

TTT^^ ydt. ifhft ydnti or ^Wlft ydt^. 

III. W^addt, Nom. and Ace. Dual Neut. W^^adati, 

Wjpijiihvat. ^[Wli hikvati, 

^«^nV«»nr<^. ^9^d\ sunoatt. 

^^^rundhdt, %^f!ft rundhaii, 

Jf^n^^tanvdt, in^ift tanvatt. 

Mlm^H^Mndt, ^tnnfikri^ti 

The feminine base is throughout identical in form with the Nom. Dual Neut. Hence 

H^hft bhdvanti, beings fern. ; ^jf\ tuddnti or §^n1 tudatt, striking, fem.; M^adait, eating, 

fem. The feminine base is declined regularly as a base in \i, 

§ 184. Another rule, which ought not to be mixed up with the preceding rule, prohibits 

the strengthening of the A&ga base throughout in the participles present of reduplicated 

verbs, except in the Nom. Ace. Voc. Plur. Neut., where the insertion of i^n is optional. 

With this exception, these participles are therefore really declined like nouns in HJ with 

unchangeable bases. 

Base ^Ij^dddat, giving, from ^dd,U> give, ^^iCi ddddmi, I give. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 



N.y. ^;H^dddat ^^dddat 
A* ^^ dddatam ^^^^dddat 
!• ^^ dddatd 

D. ^dddate 

^ * f^^9*dddata^ 

L. ^^Ol dddati 



fl^^dddaiau Y^i^dddaH 

^^[fVf dddadbhydm 





dddata^ r ^^^ dddati * 

i^^fjlt dddadbhilt 

r^^^lW dddadbhyafi 

^^[^A dddatdm 

* Or ^^fw dddanti. 
M 2 




The same rule applies to the participles 'W^^^jakshat, tB^g; vfnn^y^ra/^ waking; 
JflfOgJidaridrat, being poor; ^jl^^nidsatf commanding; WWP^F^^chakdsat, shining. But 
^m'Hjdgatf neut. the world, forms Nom. Flur. "^nrhfjdganti, only. 

§ 185* '^f^^^^ great, ^ip(f[^pf(8hat, m. a deer, n. a drop of water, are declined like 
participles of verbs of the Ad class. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 




N. V. "'pp^ hrihdn T?^ hrihdntau 'f^* hfikdrUa^ 

A. ^ili hfihdntam ^^m bfihdntau ^f^lH bfihatdfi 




Yflft hfihati 


^[^ftl l>fihdfUi 

N. A. *^fl[hfihdt 


§ 186. n^maAa^, great, likewise originally a participle of the Ad class, 
forms its Anga or strong base in ^fdndnt. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 


N. T^Tt^ moA^n 
A. I^hf mahdntam 

T^tljt mdhdntau 
^^Ifll mahdntau 

H^tiTi tnakdntah 

Hi^Al mdhatdfL 

I. n^n\ mahatd 

D. ^R^ mahati 

Ab. 1 

*n^n\ mahatdh 
G. J 

L. T^fVmaAa^/ 


r M^tNi mahddbhydm -i 



ti^iO mahaii 

H^fjit mahddbhi^ 

9T^ITt mahddbhyal 

iT^Wf mahatam 


N.A.V. ^^mahdt 

•1^1 ffi mahanti 

The rest like the masculine. 



N. «i^in mdhati 

Bases ending in the Suffixes in^^mat anrf ^vat,/or»i% <A«V -4ilya £a«^^ 

in iVT^^mant an^ ^vant. 

J 187. The possessive suffixes in^«7ta/ and ^ ra^ form their Anga- 6r 
strong base in in^man/ and '^vanU They lengthen their vowel in the 
Nom. Sing. Masc* These suffixes are of very frequent occurrence. 

^§ 1 88. 




^^tfhmju^afffUmat^ having fire. 







N. ^H n*! i«\ agnimdn 
A; ^M«i4n agnimantam 

Wnfinit agnimantau 
nPifMflr aaninuintau 



V. ^ (< «i«««^ agniman 




^(••Wfll am 


N. V. ^rfr^nni o^mma/ 



N. ^rtVfJinft agnmati 

in^ra^ is used i. after bases in v a and yf\ d. 

Ex. vnrn^jnanara/y having knowledge. f^Wf^vidydicat^ having know- 
But ^fftjff^agmmaty having fire. X^^i^hanumaty having jaws. 

%. After bases ending in nasals, semivowels, or sibilants, if preceded hj^a 
or ^ d. (P&9. VIII. a, lo.) 
Ex. xffii^f^jpayawaty having milk. "Wf^jP^udanvaty having water. 
But "^itdfifnvnjyotishmaty having light. '^fA^glrvat, having a voice. 

3* After bases ending in any other consonants, by whatever vowel they may 
be preceded. 

Ex. f^n^K\vidyuivat^ having lightning. 

There are exceptions to these rules. (PA?, viii. 2j 9-16.) 

§ 188. >nf\bhavat. Your Honour, which is frequentlj used in place of the pronoun of 
the second person, followed bj the third person of the verb, is declined like a noun derived 
by ^ro/. Native grammarians derive it from HT hhd, with the suffix ^va^, and keep it 
distinct from H^TI^&Aova^, being, the participle present of ^bh4^ to be. 

H^ftAovo/, Your Honour. 

Singular. Dual. 


ilchli hhaoaiUaM 
)l4ln hhnantoM 

N. H^\\hhaifD6n 

A. Vnni ^Aovan/am 

V. >n^ hhofDan or H^ bhofk 



H^TWt hhaoantah 


N.A.V. ^^^bhaoat 



^Wlft bhavaii 


H^flT bhaoanti 




H^lft bhavati 




^^^^bhavat, bemg, part, present. 


N. ^n^bhaoan 
A. H^ bhaoantam 

V. H^l^ 6^09011 



W^llT bhavantau 





N.A.V. ^ifWff^bhavai 



§ 189. ^V^arva^, mMC. horse, is declined regularly like nouns in ^«af, except in the 
Nom. Sing., where it has ^^ arviL ^A^f^arvan in Vl^l^ omirraii, villioixt a foe, is a 
totally different word, and declined like a noun in W^on^- Nom. Sing. Wf^ anarvdj 
Nom. Dual WSTtPOt anarvdii^uj Ace. Sing. W<nil} atuirvdifamj Instr. Sing. VhI^I 
anarvapdj Instr. Flur. wHHW: anarvabhi^. The feminine of lAl^arra^ is ^Apfiarvatt 

§ 190. fnfl^hiyat. How much ? ^^tya/, so much, are declined like bases in ^f[mat. 
Their feminines are DllllA kiyaH, ^<iifl iyati. 



N. f^Pffl^lkfydn 
A. M« kiyantam 
I. f^mtl kfyatd 
V. f^r^«^Kya1l 


N. A.V. ftra^^Atyo/ 



fti^lJt kiyantau 
Ol4fli kfyantau 
r^mvi hiyadbhydm 




fViPKl kiyatd^ 


Bases in W(an (w(an, in^man, li^yan.) 

^ 191. Words in "W^an have three bases : their Anga or strong base is 
in«( dn ; their Bha or weakest base ^^n; and their Pada or middle base W a. 

Mark besides, 
I. That the Nom. Sing. masc. has ^ dy not yg^^dniay 
2» That the Nom. Sing. neut. has va, not 1R(|{». 

3. That the Yoc. Sing. neut. may be either identical with the Nominative, 

or take f|[n* 

4. That words ending in in^man and nsf^van keep nT^man and lf(ra» as 

their Bha bases, without dropping the v a, when there is a consonant 
immediately before the ^9l man and ^ van. This is to avoid the 
concurrence of three consonants, such as x^parvn from vA^parvan^ 

-J 19a. 



or ITTTV dtmn from imni^ Atman. This rule applies only to words 
ending in i|9^ man and ^ von, not to words ending in simple 
fT^ an. Thus mp[^ takshan forms iraOT tak$knd; i{^ m«lr(2Aan, 
^ mirdhnd^ &g. 

5. That in all other words the loss of the v a is optional in the Loc. Sing., 
and in the Norn. Ace. Yoc. Dual of neuters. The feminine, however, 
drops the v a ; thus tnft rdjfit. 

Tm9{rcljan^ m. king. Iis\g^xmff{r4jdn; Pada, xmrAja; Bha, TTtrajfi. 





N. TSmriid 

A. TmT4w6'ifoM 

TTITRt rdfdnau OIH* rdjdnah 

TXm^Hddnau [\ 


V, l}m\rdjan 

I. TnfT rdijfid 
D. XJ^rijfie 
Ab. XSr*rijfiah 

THI^ rdjabhydm TJlfRlt rdjabhif^ 
TT'Wt rdjabhydm illW rdjabhyafk 
TT^fMlf rdjabhydm TTIfMn rdjabhydfi 

6. trrt^/i 

TXt^* rdjfio^ Tnrt rdjfidm 

L. tl% r^'flt or TnrfH rdjami 

iWi rdjHoh ^ 

Jfim^indimdn ; P^a,^vrPfn^ 



W(^ ndmni or ^W^O ndmani 


iflili^ YMfmon, n* name, Anga, * 


a; Bha,im 






SflHlf^ ndrndni 

V. ^fW ndma ( 

or inmi[ fMman 

L IflW nimnd 
Ab. vfTV namno^ 

'^^K^ ninabkydm 
*fW*<ll ndnutbhydm 
tl*l*<ll ndmabhydm 

*IW*Mi ndmabhyali 
•TTHW ndmabhyti^ 

G. ifnTnl^Mia^ 

«nirt n^nwiiw 

L. «TTi% fi/mm or •fWfi n^mant 


^ 192. Nouns in which the suffixes ini( man and Wt^van are preceded by 
a consonant, such as mi^ iroAman, m. n. the creator, ini^ yajvan, m. 
sacrificer^iftf^^ari^afi, n* joint, form their Bha base in in^ man and ^ran. 

"Vis^ 6raAm(fo, m« creator. Anga, HVI^ brahman ; Pada, irv iraAm(f ; 
Bha, mP^ 6raAm<fn. 



§ 193- 





N. WT hrahmd 

A. 4H4li hrahmapam 

7 bra^ma^a^ 

won hrahmd^ta^ 

I. nran &raAfiu^ 
D. miw hrahmdne 
Ab. IPnran braAmefnoA 

WVW hrahmdbhydm 
mn^ hrahmdbhydm 

"nrW hrahmdhhyafi 
"mV* hrahmdbhyafk 

• &raAfiMffia4 


L. HHfilT brahmdffi 

mrant broAfiuf^o^ 

mrafh hrahmdi^li 

mrOff braAiiuffUfoi 

fiw^ braAfiM^ra 


N. A. mt brdhma 

dtman, self ; ^M^ sudharmany 



mrart brdhma^ KWXf^ brdhmdni 

brdhma or mi^ brcfAfium 

Decline ^QW^ ycyvan, sacrificer ; 

hOi R; ^^ pratidivatiy one who sports, fix)m flf^^ffiqfk tfiv dtvyati, lengthens 
the flj di to ^ di, whenever the ^ti is immediately followed by ;^». Nom. 
Sing, nfirfipn pratidivd ; Nom. Plur. llOlR^MM* pratidivdnaJ^ ; Ace. Plur. 
vSiK^rg; pratidlvnalk ($ 143). 

§ 193* Wor^ in Wv^an, like Km^rdjan, king, fonn their feminine in %iy dropping the 
Ma before the \nj XS^rdiHi, queen. 

Words in ^9[yan, like ^sli^9{^dhivan, fisherman, form their feminine in ^^vari; ^^^nft 
dMoari, wife of a fisherman. (See, however, P&9. iv. i, 7, vftrt.) 

Words in ^^many if feminine, are declined like masculines. qi«i«\ d^man, fem. rope; 
Nom. Sing. ^^IKl ddmd. Ace. ^^[m^ ddmdnam ; but there is an optional base I^TUT (2^m4, Ace. 
Sing. ^^T^ ddmdm. (Pft^. iv. i, ii; 13.) 

§ 194. Nouns in Wv( an, l|i|[ man^ ^[9f^van, at the end of adjectival compounds, may 
either use their masculine forms as feminines, or form feminines in WT^. Those in Wv^an, 
if in the Bha base they can drop the Wa before the i^n, may also take %t (Pt^9- iv. i, 28). 
Thus, Nom. Sing. masc. and fem. ^^Hi sucharmd, having good leather, Nom. Dual 
^^kxm meharmdifauj ^^m suparvd^ ^l|$|'l||T suparvd^fou : or, Nom. Sing. fem. ^-^fli 
sucharmd, Nom. Dual ^'^ngucharme, Plur. ^'^A u sucharmdli j ^^fmsuparvd, ^H^suparve^ 
^^Hfn suparvdft. Of 'WJTJ^tlbahurdjan, having many kings, the feminine may be, 
I. HJiim bahurdjdf Dual ^j<im«U bahurdjdnau, 
3. "^^^IWflbahurdJd, Dual ^fKJ^bahurdje, 
3. MJUSS^ bahurdjHi, Dual WpX^bahurdJflyau. 
Ol^lfll dviddmni (P&9. iv. i, 27), having two ropes, is an exception. 

Adjectives in ^«(van, which form their fem. in ^T^var^, ^A^Pi^^dhioan, a fisherman, 
^fhrrft dhioari, ^(t^pioan, ^^ft^ pioari, fat, may do the same at the end of compounds, or 

-^ 196. DEGLEKSION. 89 

take ^ vd. ^W^ff^Pd hahudMvari or ^JMOwI baiudMod, Nom. Dual ^J^A^ bakudhive, 
having many fiahemien. (Siddb.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 309.) 

§ 195* vf^pathifif m. path, has 

for its Anga base im^lpdnihdn (like XJW^lTdjdn) ; 
for its Bha base V^^^path; 
for its Pada base X[^pathL 

It is irregular in the Nom. and Yoc. Sing., where it is imi pdnihdi. 

Singular. DuiLL. Plural. 

N.V. ^i^.pdnthdk vr^V^ pdnthdnau N. 'irffT^tl pdntMndik 

A. A^\A pdnthdnam A^w pdnthdnau A. VTT^paihdtt 

I. '^[^ipathd Vlf^^ pathibhydm I. "Vfifft^. pcMbkitL 

The terminations after '^V^paik have the Ud&tta> hecauae they replace a lost UdAtta^ 
(P&9. VI. 1, 199.) 

^% IV|«t fibhukahin, m. a name of Indra, and lfVp( maM^n, m. a chuming-stick, are 
declined in the same manner. The three hases are, 

^4^H T^kvkskin } 
'Hn'^ mdnikdn J °^ ' 

TV mat A J 

Tnl matM J 

The Nom. and Voc. Sing, are ^V|^ fibkukskdlk and ^kmi mdntkdh. 

Vf^ptUkin, '^^(Vlli, fibkukskitt, and Wf^ma^Am form their feminines X^tt patki, 
^^9(1 ribkukskif Wlf\ matki, 

§196. A word of very frequent occurrence is 'nfH dhauy n, day, which 
takes ^(^dhas as its Pada base. Otherwise it is declined like ^9m9{^ndinan. 

Singular. Dual, Plural, 

P. N. A.V. H?: dha^ Bh. N. A.V. ^ dkn£* An. N. A.V. ^mftf rfA^t 

Bh. I. W]pdknd P. I.D.Ah.^n^rfAoftAyifm P- I. ^Iftfir. (OoftAiS 

Bh. D. ^dkne Bb. G.L. mj^tdknofi P. D.Ah. ^lft^:<ao6Aya# 

Bh. Ah.G. ^rjp dknah Bh. G. ^rfAiwIw 

Bh. L. mf^dknif P. L. Hf^rfAoMttt 

The Visarga in the Nominative Singular is treated like an original ^r (J 85). 
Hence Vf^ ahar-afiai^, day by day. In composition, too, the same rule 
applies ; iHTfiHin dhargafjMhf a month (P&ii. yiii* 2> 69) : though not always, 
V^iMt ahordirai^^ day and night. (See § 90.) 

* Ot^^dkani. f OtW^akam. % Ot'V^dkaisu.' 


90 DECLENSION. § 197^ 

§ 197. At tbe end of a compound, too^ ^Sin^aftatiis imgolar. Thiu ^I^Tfvl^dir^A^iUm, 
having long days, is declined : 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. l^htUT: dirghdhdik * N. A.V. (f)Qll|14Ul dirgMkdu^u N.V. ^lIlflQ: dtrghdhdi^lk 

V. ^^^n^ dirghdhah A. ^t^^ljl! dirgMknai^ 

A. ^1 i I f lid dirghdhd^am I. ql 4 1 ^ (Ws dfrghdhobhifk^ &o. 

Feminine, >jt^1]jt dirghdhni (Pft^. viii. 4, 7). 

§ 198. In derivative compomids with numerals, and with ft tn and TTPT adifa, ^H]| ahna 
is substituted for W^aAan.- but in the Loc. Sing, both forms are admitted; e.g. JBlJp 
dvyahndt^, produced in two days; Loc. Sing, ^t^dvydhne ot^sff^doyahni or W^doyohanu 
(Pft^. VI. 3, no.) 

^ 199. i|9^ ivan, m. dog, ^^ yuvany m. young, take ^ iuny ^ yUn 
as their Bha bases. For the rest, they are declined regularly, like WKf{^ 
brahman, m. (Accent, PAi^. vi. i, 182.) 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. ^ W N. A.V. miHi hinau N. ^iRt Wii# 

A. ^tT^^anam A. IRTt^i^fui^ 

V. "qp^^^in I. n!^. ivdbhifL 

The feminine of i8R( iran is VRft iunf; of ^pi;^ yfiviin, ^;«rf?n yuvati^; 
according to some grammarians^ '^^yUnl. 

§ 30O. ^W^maghmoany the Mighty, a name of Indra, takes H^^\:\maghon as its Bha 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. H<Mf^l fnaghdvd N.A.V. •i^«ii«il maghdodnau N. ITR^TR ? ma^Aife4na^ 

A. vnnTn maghdvdnam A. TJt^ maglukia^ 

V. T^^fiu^^aoan I. H1R6u ma^Aifea^At^t 

The same word may likewise be declined like a masculine with the suffix ^11 vo/ or 111 ma// 
(see ^(••i»n^ agnimat, ) 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. HH^X^maghdijdn N.A.y. vi n^ nl maghdcantau N. ^Wiwi maghdoantaf^ 

A. HIRW maghdvantam A. ^Wnit maghdvata^ 

V. W^^^mdghavdn I. W^m^l maghdtadbhifi 

The feminine is accordingly either n^Vl tnaghdni or W^^nrt maghavaH, 

§ 301. ^[^«^ |9i&A<£fi and* ^An^aryamdn, two names of Vedic deities, do not lengthen 
their vowel except in the Nom. Sing, and the Nom. Ace. Voc. Flur. neut. ; (in this they 
follow the bases in ^m; ( 303.) For the rest, they are declined like nouns in W^an,* 
(see XX^^rdjan,) 

* P&p. viii. 3, 69, v&rt. I; Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 1^4; but Colebrooke, p. 83, has 
^iQlfl dtrghdhd as Nom. Sing. 

t Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, p. 81. 





p4shan, pUska^ piUhn 


f^ fro fHw: 

pUshd pUshdi^ pUshi^ 


pUshdbhift p4$hdi^ 

aryaman, aryama, aryami^ aryamd aryamdnafi aryanu^ aryarndbhih aryamdi^ 

Loc. Sing. JiJvii piUhffi or «f[n(Vi piUkdi^ij or, according to some, ^jf^p^hu (Sdr. i. 9, 31.) 

§ 202. The root ^Aan, to kill, if used as a noun, follows the same rule ; only that 
when the rowel between ¥ h and «( n is dropt, ¥ h becomes ^gh, 


^Aofiy f ha, l{<^hn ip hd ffft haiu^ IH ghnafi Iffkl habkii^ ^TfH hdni 

brahmahan, ha, ghn brahmaha brahmahd^afL brahfnagk$idfk brahmahdbhi^ brahmaha^ 
Loc. Sing, mifk brahmaghni or HII^Au brahmahdifi. 

Bases in ^ih. 
^ ^203. Words in i^tn are almost regular 5 it is to be observed that 

1. They drop the 9(n at the end of the Pada base. 

2. They form the Norn. Sing. masc. in \t; the Nom. Ace. Sing. neut. in 

\%; and the Nom. Ace. Plur. neut. in ^ tm» 







Vf«nfT dhan<ndu 

Vfvpn dhan{nalk 


Vinn dhaninam 

Vf«nfT dhan<nau 

Vfvpn dhandtafk 


vfnni dhaiUnd 

VlfH^ dhanibhydm 

VfVrfW: cfAaii^Ai^ 


Vftfn dhan<ne 

Vftrwrf dhanOihydm 

Vf^TW dhanibhyal 


. Vtnii dhaninal^ 

VfH^ dhanCbhydm, 

Vf^T^n c^Aow^Aya/ 


vPn^^i dhanina^ 

Vfflfih (^Aan/fto^ 

VPffHl dhanindm 


Hfifftf dhanini 

Vf^nih dAan^noJl 



Vftp^ dhdnin 

VfVRT dhdninau 

VfVnn dhdninaf^ 

• Nbutbb. 





N.A. VftTcJAaw/ 

Vftnft dkan(n( 

Htllfff dhamni 



Vfif JAint or m1^«^ < 




Decline ^tirftj^mee^Mmn^ wise; ^^jrftsi^ yaio^m^ glorious ; ^rfN^^t^^my 
loquacious; ^sirrftli^Ar^n^ doing. 

Note — ^These nouns in ^tn, (etymologicallj a shortened form of IR^an,) fbllow 
the analogy of nouns in W^^an (like TTi|«( r^'an, mH9{^ndman) in the Nom. Sing, 
masc. and neut., and in the Voc. Sing, and in the Nom. Ace. Plur. neut. They might be 
ranged, in fact, with the nouns having unchangeable bases ; for the lengthening of the 
vowel in the Nom. and Ace. Plur. neut. is but a compensation for the absence of the nasal 
which is inserted in these cases in all bases except those ending in nasals and semivowels. 

N 2 



§ W4- 

Participles in ^vas. 

§ 204. Participles of the reduplicated perfect in ^ vas have three bases ; 
^vf^ vd^ as the Anga, ^n^ ush as th« Bha^ and ^ vas as the Pada base* 
According to Sanskrit grammariansy they change the ^^ of '^vas into i(i, if 
the ^tf is finals or if it is followed by terminations beginning with ^Jbh and ^^s; 
(see § 173^ 131.) But the fact is, that the Pada base is really '^vat, not 

Anga, ^^^fg^runuivdms ; Pada, 7^^§m^rurudvas ; Bha, i^i^^rurudush. 







%4('|l^ rurudvamsau 

'^^li^i: rtirtMlvflfmfa^ 

<^^J[^ rtfmdi&Aa^ 


y^^^ ruruddshd 

)^?^[W: ruruddshafL 
^^H* rurwkisha^ 



^ISmf rurudvddbhydm 
^^iWf rwrudvddbhydm 
^^liNi rurudvddbhydm 




^^^^ ruruddahi 

^^^[^ rtf nM/tt9A^ 


^^ar^ ruriM^rcf/m . 






^i^SiiV rurudvamsi 



1^^^^ rurudushi 



^ 205. Participles in ^va« which insert an ^ t between the reduplicated 
root and the termination, drop the \i whenever the termination '^vaa is 
changed into w^ush. Thus 

Wftipni^ tasthivdrif from m? sthd, to standi forms the fem. ff^j4t tasthushU 
^i^W^lf^i^pechivan^ from Tf^pach, to cook^ forms the itm.^r^ pechushl. 

A very common word following this declension is ^xw^vidvdny wise, (for 
rV| ri I If(^ vividvdn) ; fem. ft^ vu^t^^A^. 

K the root ends in ^ t or ^ ^, this radical vowel is never dropt before '^t^U8h^ 
the contracted form of '^vcu. Hence from «ft nt, rH«fl4l«f, ninivdn; Instr. 
ftf^tvT ninjfushd ; fern. fVf^4t ninyusht 

■J ao^ 



Decline the 

following participles : 
































{ 206. Bases in ^11^ fycw (termination of the comparative) form their 
Anga base in ^i|i^ iydihs. 

Pada and Bha base V[ft^^^gdriya8f heavier; Anga base 'tdP^^gdriy&m$. 



N. V:C[^^gdHydn 

'rtNfNit gdriydihtau TfNfv: gdriydfhtaft 

A. « 1 Mlfi gdriydmsam 'lO^i^ gdriydihsau 


N. 1^1 gdriya^ 


^rthftwrf gdiiyobkydm 


*iO<itil gdriyoH 


N. nttlRn gdriyan 


«iOm«* gdriyasaft 
ItfNtRlS gdriyobhift, &c. 


irfNfftr gdHydmsi 

Miscellaneous Nouns with changeable Consonantal Bases, 

§ 207. WoTds ending in ^l|T^/N!^i, foot, retain 1|T^ ptfi as Anga and Pada base, but shorten 
it to '^^pad as Bha base. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N.y. ^^n^ supdd ^m^ supddau 

A. ^^Tn^ supddam ^mi^ supddau 

^Ml^ supddaft, 


^m|: supadafk (Bha) 
L ^^Qlt supddbhif, (Pada) 

* 9^111 changed into «(ii according to § 136. 

64 DECLENSION. § i^oS-' 

The feminine is either ^Hi^ supdd or ^[^nft wpadi (Pll?. iv. i, 8); but a metre consisting 
of two feet is called Pa^qi dvipadd, 

§ 208. Words ending in Wl^ vdh, carrying, retain ^TfP vdh as Anga and Pada base, but 

shorten it to ^ Hh as Bha base. The fern. 10 ^Sl^ 4ki. 

Rnal Thw interchangeable with ^^, ^{^ ^^ (See § 128 ; 174, 8.) 

The 9tf of ^ ah forms Vpddhi with a preceding V a or WT ^ (§ 46). Thus f^Hl^lf 

vUvavdh, upholder of the universe. (Accent, Pft^. vi. i, 171.) 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

A. ft m'<< I ( Mowdham h^^i^ whavakau f^^^'fStfl vihauhdft 

I. ffinr^fW: mitfotM^QEbA^ 

§ 209. ^Iimi hetavak is further irregular, forming its Pada base in ^l^o(», and retain- 
ing it in the Nom. andVoc. Sing.; e.g. Nom .V oc mn^ u ivetavahj Aco. m n «i 1^ hetatfdham ; 
Instr. '%m^ hetauhdj Instr. Plur.^ri^tRi: ivetaochhC^, &c. ; Loc. Plur. wF^^ ivetctoaltsd. 

Some grammarians allow nknsif ^etavdh, instead of ^lUf hetauh, in all the Bha cases 
(Slir. 1. 9, 14), and likewise ^nm MtacaJi in Voc. Sing. 

§ 210. A more important compound with ^Tf otf& is W^ano^A, an ox, (i.e. a cart- 
drawer.) It has three bases : i. The Anga base ^njif. ana4^dhj 2. The Pada base VIK 
ana4iuds 3. The Bha base Vf|J| ana^uh. 

It is irregular besides in the Nom. and Voc. Sing. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. Wryp^flfio^v^ N. A.V. HHj!^ aruufodhau N. V»TfT?J ana^dhc^ 

\, WHf^^anadvan I. D. Ab. "Vlvf^flf anat/udbhydm A. xins^; ana^uhatk 

A. ^nnpit anadvdham G. L. ^«ij^i ana^uholL I. ^njfk* ana^udbhifk 

I. HHJ^I anajuhd L. WHJI^ ana^^m 

If used as a neuter, at the end of a compound, it forms 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. A.V. WifJ^ ofto^ ^"ip? ana(ftth( W^fjtf^ ana^dthU 

The rest like the masculine. 

The feminine is WJl^ anaifuhi or VHJIfl ana^dM (Pft^. vii. i, 98, v&rt.)* 

^211. ^(\op, water^ is invariably plural^ and makes its v a long in the 
Anga base, and substitutes 11 ^ for lip before an affix beginning with H bh. 

Plural: Nom. wm dpahy Ace. ^B^ &pd1^^ Instr. ^nftj: adbhif^y Loc. ^c^apsi. 
(Accent, Pin. vi. i, 171.) 

In composition ^sr^ap is said to form '^^avdp^ Nom. Sing. masc. and 
fem., having good water; Ace. T^j^svdpam; \ris\x. "^m svapd, &c. Nom. 
Plur. ^m: 8vdpa^; Ace. ^9^ svapai^; Instr. wfw* svadbhii^y &c. The 
neuter forms the Nom. Sing, ^^(^^svap; Nom. Plur. ^f)| avampi or ^iffi 
svdmpiy according to Wfierent interpretations of Panini. (Colebrooke, p. loi, 
note.) The Sarasvati (i« 9, 62) gives ^otf^ WSTTTftf svdmpi taidgdniy tanks 
with good water. 

i ai4. 



§ 3ia. ^P^/hhtm, nuud, has three bases: i. The Anga base ffh^piim^inis / a. The Pada 
base ^piim/ 3. The Bha base ^J^jwitw. (Accent, V^, vi. i, 17'.) 

I. ^UTiniffu/ 

N.A.y. JHi 4IT pumdnuau 
I. D. Ab. ^M|f pumbh^m 
6. L. ^lnS|)tfm^^ 


A. ^|TnptMn«i^ 
I. ^f^j7«m&&i^ 

The Loc. Pliir. is written ^ jpufXui^, not ^jncm^Ait or ^f^iwMtt (§ loo, note). The SArasvatt 
gpives '^^pankshd (1.9, 70). P&Qioi (viii. 3, 58) says that ^ nvm only, not Anusvftra in 
general, does not prevent the change of ^s into \9h; and therefore that change does not 
take place in ^Pi^*^ tuhinsu and ^^^puiiiuu. In the first, \n is radical, not inserted ; in the 
second, the Anusvftra represents an original ^m, Cf. Siddh.-Kaiun. vol. i. p. 186 : ^Hl^m 

In composition it is declined in the same manner if used in the masc. or fern, gender. 
As a neuter it is, Nom. Sing. ^fV mp«fii, Nom. Dual ^^^ wpufM, Norn. Plur. ^^Hff^ 

§ 313. f^dip or ^ dyu, f. sky, is declined as follows, (Accent, PA9. vi. l, 171 ; 183) : 

Base l^cifr, ^ dyu, (See $ a 19.) 

Singular. Dual. 

N. nhdyaSfi N.A.Y. f^ijlcf/vaii 

A. f^ dham I. D. Ab. ^p>lf dyitbhydm 

I. fl^ dwd 6. L. f^^ dM(i 

D. f^ dM 

Ab. G. f^plt divdfi 

L. ftfffdfp/ 

Another base In dyo is declined as a base ending in a vowel, and follows the paradigm 
of ^^0, § a 19. (See Siddh.-Kamn. vol. i. p. 138.) 

C!ompounds like ^f^sucKv, having a good sky, are declined in the masc. and fern, like 
f^itp. Hence ^W S tudyaui^, ^t^4 tudicam, &c. 

In the neuter they form Nom. Aoc. Voc. Sing. ^^ 9udyu, having a good sky ; Dual 
^fij^ sudhf; Plur. ^r^Hc 8udwi. 

§ 314. A number of words in Sanskrit are what Greek grammarians would call 
Metaplasia, i. e. they exist under two forms, each following a different declension, but one 
being deficient in the Sarvan&masth&na cases, i.e. Nom. Voc. Ace. Sing, and Dual, Nom. 
Voo. Plur., and Nom. Voc. Aoc. Plur. of neuters. (Pft?. vi. i, 63.) Thus 

DsrsoTiva Bask : Bask dsclknbd throughout : 

*i. W4I«^ asan, n. blood ; ^^'\ <wr(f > ^' 

*3. Wn^ dsan, n. face ; WTW dsya, n. 

♦3. 'W^^udan, n. water ; ^Rf^ udaka, n. 

4. ^dat, m. tooth; Aco. PI. ipn datdftj ^ danta, m. 

N. flp^fl^iHijk 
A. fifV: dhdfi 
t. ^[fii: dyiSbkii^ 
D.Ab. ^)^ dy4bhyafi 
G. fiipit dk>dm 
L. IR dyiishu 

* No accent on Vibhakti. (Pft?. vi. i, 171.) 


*5* ^n^l^<fo<Aa»y (m.) n. ami; 

6. «T^ii(», f. nose ; Aoc. PI. '^Wl na^j 

7. f^T^ nU, f. night ; Aoc. Fl. fH^ nUd^; 

8. '^pad, m. foot ; Ace. PI. V[^. paddhj 

9. ^I^IT*** f. anny f; Loc PI. ^J^pritfd; 

10. <ri^ mdihs, n. meat ]: ; 

11. TT^m^, m. month || ; IVT^ misdh^ 
*I3. l|l|ff^yaiban« n. liverlT; 

•13. "^jn^y^&Aan, m. pea-Boup; 
♦14. ^^\ iakan, n. ordure; 

15. ^ «itf, n. ridge ; 

16. ^ Apd, n. (m.); Gen. Sing. |p^ hfiddli^ 


^t^ dos, m, n« 
frftniT ndsikdf f. 
f«nn miitf, f . 
Xft^pdda, m. 
^n«ii/7n/afi^ f. 
IFIT mdfhsa, n. 
^insr mi^a^ m. 
^T^yoAft^ n. 
^ y<29Aa, m. 
"^l^Pi^iakjit, n« 
^T^ 5tfntfy n« 
^^ hfidaya, n. 

A. Plur. ^V^^f^ onifLji or ViUpH flu^t, 
I. Sing, ^i^^ asfHd or WHT asnd. 
J., DuM^nsffiasfiffbkydmorW^^P^tuabhydm, 

A. Flur. ?^AI«^ danidn or ipn dato^ 
I. Sing. ^W«f dantena at ^Kl datd. 

Dual ^fvraf dantdbhydm or ^[lOf (2ai2&Ay^. 
A. Plur. «!nn[«^m4i«<{ii or IVnn m^a^. 


Hence in 

No. I* N.V. A. Sing, is ^^^^^^^ tufik only ; 

N.y . A. Dual 18 ^sra^ (Ufiji only ; but 

N.V. Plur. is H^ftl asjriiiji only ; 
No. 4. N. A.y. Sing. la^Wlf^f^dantafi, am^ a, only; 

N.V. A. Dual is ^[m dantau only ; but 

N.V. Plur. is ^Vn dantd^ only; 
No, II • N. A. V. Sing, is ^T^^i^rndsaft^amya, only ; 

N.V. A. Dual is W(m rndgam only ; but i I. Sing. nmH mdsena or ^mX mdsd, 

N.y. Plur. is WC9tl mdsd^ only ; \^LIhal^W(^fnd8dbhydmoT^V^mdbhifdm. 

No. 13. N. A.y . Sing, is '^tf^4>^^|r^Aa^,am,a, only ; f A. Plmr. '^JJft^ yHshdn or ^V!R y^skifo^, 

N. A.y. Dual is ^3^ yiUhau only ; but " I. Sing. "^^9 yiishei^ or ^jVHT y^shi^, 

N.y. Plur. is ^jpn ydshd^L only ; [ I. Du. J^T^ydshdbhydmoT^^^^ sIMhydm. 

L. Sing. ^yii8heoT^^^f^'Shafli or^ftn -shffi, 

Granmiarians differ on the exact meaning of Pft^ini's rule ; and forms such as (j^N^^ 
dosha^, Nom. Dual Neut., would seem to show that in the Nom. Acc.yoc. Dual the base 
^^C^doshan may be used. (See Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. pp. 107, 131, 141, 144.) By some the 
rule is restricted to the yeda. 

2. Bases enixng in Vowels. 

^ 215. Bases ending in vowels may be subdivided into two classes : 

1. Bases ending in any vowels, except derivative v a and w a. 

2, Bases ending in derivative v a and w d. 

* No accent on yibhakti. (P&9. vi. i, 171.) f Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 131. 

X Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 141. H The Sftrasvat! gives aU cases of TT^m^ (i. 6, 35). 

IT PAjp. VI. I, 63. 

^§ ai8. 



I. Bases ending in any Vowels, excqpi derivative v a and wr &. 
^ 216. Instead of attempting to learn, either according to the system 
followed by native grammarians, or according to the more correct views 
of comparative philologists, how the terminations appended to consonantal 
bases are changed when appended to bases ending in vowels, it will be fiir 
easier to learn by heart the paradigms such as they are, without entering 
at all into the question whether there was originally but one set of termi- 
nations for all nouns, or whether, from the beginning, different terminations 
were used after bases ending in consonants and after bases ending in 


Bases in ^ ai and w^ au. 

^ %iT* These bases are, with few exceptions, declined like bases ending 
in consonants. The principal rules to be observed are that before consonants 
^ ai becomes W d, while w au remains unchanged ; and that before vowels 
both ^ ai and ^ au become im ay and im dv. 

Base^ rai, Jj^rdy^ m. wealth; (Accent, Pft^ji. vi. i, 171.) ^nau, ifT^fiav, 
f. ship; (Accent, P&n. vi. i, 168.) 

N.V. TK ri-h ^\ nad'lL 
A. XjArdy-am tfT? nio-am 
I. TP^rdy-d ^T^ndv-d 
D. xArdy-i •fl^nA?-^ 


>• ^Cnir ray^ttu fTw ndv-au 

XJ^rd'bkydm ni*^\ nau-bhydm 



• fidO'6(^ 

TPK rdy-afk •TW ndv-afk 
TT^ rdy-dlt* l^XT^ndv-a^ 
Tjfiir* rd-hkihk nt^* nati-ftAiJk 

tjlrf rdy^dm "fT^ ndv-dm 


G. ; 

L. Xjf^ rdy^ •nftfnA?-/ 

Decline |T^: glau^, m. the moon. 

Bases in ift o. 
^218. The only noun of importance is lit go, bl bull or cow. It is slightly 
irregular in Nom. Ace. Abl. and Oen. Sing, and in the Ace. Flur. (Accent, 
Pft^u VI. I, i8a.) 



N.V. ift:yarf.^ 

A. if ya-m 

I. ^T^gdv-d 

D. TffH gdo^e 

L. ift gdo'% 

f 1w 


fft^ gd-bhydm 

I 'rife gdv'Of^ 


IW gdv-afi 

iftfilJ gd'hhih 

X gd-bhyaft 
iflj gd'Shu 

* In the Veda the Ace. Plur. of T rat occurs both as rdyah (Rv« i . 68, 5; 98, 3; vii. 34^ 3a ; 
VIII. 52, 10; X. 140, 4) and rdydft (Rv. 1. 113, 4; iii. 2, 15). 


98 DECLBNSIOK. $ »I9"- 

If bases in ^ ai, w o, w au are to be dedined as neuters at the end of compounds, they 
shorten ^ at to ^ i, and IIt o and Mfau to 'Vu, and are then declined like neuters in ^t and 
7 ft. The masculine forms, however, are equally allowed (if the base is masculine) in all 
cases except the Nom. Ace. Voc. Sing. Dual and Plural. Hence Instr. Sing. neut. ^fbllT 
suriifd or ^MMi surdyd; but only T^^^sunund. 

% 319. Wtdyo, fem. heaven, is declined like ^go. It coincides in the Nom. and Voc. 
Sing, with fif^dir, sky, but differs from it in all other cases. (§ 213.) 


Wl dya4^ 
W dydm* 

11% dydve 








L. W^dydn 

V. l[n dyauli 



> Vrn dydvau 

lit^ dydbhydm 

> VJ^S dydvofi 


WT^ dydva^ 
VHW: dydbhili 

f VtW dydbhya^ 

W^ dydodm 
Vt J dydshu 

Forms of dyu which occur in the Rig-veda : 

Sing. N. dyaus : A. d{vam, dy(m; I. dwa{dM, by day) ; D. dM; G. divdk, dydft; L. dh^, 
dydtrij y. dycSis (Rv. vi. 51, 5). Plur. N. dydvahj A. dyun; I. dy^hih. Dual N. dyivd. 

Being used at the end of a compound Wtdyo forms its neuter base as ^dyu2 e.g. 
Xf^pradyuy eminently celestial, Dual M^«f1 pradyunt, Plur. Jf^f^ pradyihi (Siddh.-Kaum. 
vol. I. pp. 144, 145); while from f^cftv the neuter adjective was, as we saw, ^l^ttecfytr, 
having a good sky. Dual ^R}*|1 9udiv(, Plur. '^fif^sudM (Colebr. pp. 67, 73). Xf^pradyu, 
as a neuter, cannot take the optional masculine cases (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 145). 

Note — There are no real nouns ending in IT e, though grammarians imagine such words 
as ITS e^9 the sun, ^^ludyadeft, the rising sun ; Nom, Dual 9ll<^4i udyadayau, Nom. Plur. 
W^^I udyadayafi. 

Bases in ^ J and "a <2. 
I. Monosyllabie Bases in\t and 9ii, being both Masculine and Feminine, 

(A.) By themselves. 

§ sac. Monosyllabic bases, derived from verbs without any suffix, like ^dhi, thinking, 
lift kri, buying, "^Idy cutting, take the same terminations as consonantal bases. They 
remain unchanged before terminations beginning with consonants, but change final \( and 
9l^ into f^iy and T^tto, before vowels. (P&9. vi. 4, 82, 83.) Their Vocative is the same 
as their Nominative. 

(B.) At the end of compounds. 

§ 221. These monosyllabic bases rarely occur except at the end of compounds. Heie 

* K&8ik& VI. I, 93. 

-§ 221. DEOLBNSIOK. 99 

they may either chaDge %( and "9^il into ^^iy and ^fip, or into ^y and ^o. They 
change it 

I. Into l(^iy and tn«o; 

a. If the first member of the compound forms the predicate of the second, and the 

second maintains its nominal character. Thus Mm Hit paramanQi, the best leader. 
Ace. Sing. H t.«i Thm paramaniyam. Here ?fttiil$ is treated as a noun, and seems 
to have lost its verbal character. VlpAs Mdhadhifi, a pure thinker, a man of pure 
thought, Ace. Sing. ^-sOfll iuddhadhiyam: ^^ htdkifL^ a man of bad thought, 
Ace. Sing, ^f^ kttdhiyam, (Sftr.) 

b. If ^ I and 9 1^ are preceded by two radical initial consonants. HMflilt jalaMft^ a buyer 

of water, makes Ace. Sing. i| t^r^ijalahiyam. ^Vllt suMft^ well foring. Ace. Sing. 
^n»i^ stJriyam, (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 1 19.) This is a merely phonetic change, 
intended to facilitate pronunciation. (P&p. vi. 4, 8a.) 

3. Into ^y and ^v, under all other circumstances, i.e. wherever the monosyllabic bases 
retain their verbal character, illliilfll grdman((i^ leader of a village, Aoo. Sing. IfTRPilt 
grdmai^yam; here ^imgrdma is not the predicate of •I'h nih, but is governed by v^t itlj^, 
which retains so far its verbal character. Wftl pradkih, thinking in a high degree, Ace. 
Sing. T[dfpradkyam; here Ti pra is a jpreposition belonging to ^dhi, which retains 
its verbal nature. 71^2 unn(h^ leading out, Ace. Sing, '^^iunnyam; here ^ik2 is 
a preposition belonging to ^ ni. Though ^^ is preceded by two consonants, one 
only belongs to the root. mWI* iuddhadMh (if a Tatpurusha compound), thinking 
pure things, would form the Ace. Sing, "^f^iuddhadkyam^ and thus be distinguished 
from "^g^* hMhadhif^ (as a Karmadhlbraya compound), a pure thinker, or as a 
Bahuvrihi compound, a man possessed of pure thoughts (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. up), 
which both have ^Hirf^M iuddhadhiyam for their accusative. The general idea which 
suggested the distinction between bases changing their final ^^and '9^4 either into 
nty and T^fio, or into ^y and ^r, seems to have been that the former were treated 
as real monosyllabic nouns that might be used by themselves (>lh dh(h, a thinker), or 
in such compounds as a noun admits of (^Wh sudhifk*^ a good thinker; ^vVh 
iuddhadhth, a pure thinker or pure thoughted); while the latter always retained 
somewhat of their verbal character, and could therefore not be used by themselves, 
but only at the end of compounds, preceded either by a preposition (TVWh pradhi^, 
providens) or by a noun which was governed by them. The nouns in which \i and 
9 il stand after two radical consonants form an exception to this general rule, which 
exception admits, however, of a phonetic explanation (§ 330), so that the only real 
exception would be in the case of certain compounds ending in ^bhd. ThuB>f^bh4 
becomes ^^6A»v before vowels, whether it be verbal or nominal. (P&p. vi. 4, 85.) 
Ex. ^^^! svayambh^h, self-existing. Ace. Sing. tsi*i«|'^ svayambhuvam, (S&r. i. 6, 61. 
Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 1 19.) Not, however, in ^^t^t varshdbhdp, frog, Ace. Sing. 
^4p4 varshdbhvam (P&p. vi. 4, 84), and in some other compounds, such as «R^ 
karabhUft or ^VRi^t kdrabhUh, nail, "^^^ punarbhith, re-born, "^[^t dfinbhUh, thunder- 
bolt. (P&n. VI. 4, 84, virt.) 

* WMh sudhih is never to be treated as a verbal compound, but always forms Ace. Sing. 
^Anf MufAtyam, &c., as if it were a Karmadhibraya compound. (P&9. vi. 4, 85.) 

O 2 


100 DEOLENSIOK. § 222. 

2« Polysyllabic Bases in %i and "SI ii, 

§ 332. Polysyllabic bases in ^ ^ and "Sltf being both masculine and feminine, such as 
Vl^l pap(h, protector, the sun, ipfh yayi^L, road, and ^1^ nfit4hy dancer, are declined like 
the verbal compounds Wttl pradht^ and ^H|cj)* VfikshM^, except that 

I. they form the Ace. Smg, in X^ &nd ^kiimj 
3. they form the Ace. Plur. in ^It and "^li^i^. 
Remember also, that those m%f form the Loc. Sing, in ^ ^, not in nyi, 

sinH«fli vdtupramihy antelope, may be declined like V[^* papi^ ; but if derived by fsp^ 
kvip, it may entirely follow the verbal JTifl pradhth (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 1 16). The same 
applies to nouns like '-yill! sutifi, wishing for a son ; ^^ftt sukhih, wishing for pleasure. 
They follow the verbal TOft pradhih throughout, but they have their Gen. and Abl. Sing, 
in ^ 11^ V ^IJt sutyuh (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. |. p. 130). If the final long ^^ is preceded by 
two consonants, it is changed before vowels into ^^iy* Ex, «^; iushk(ljij Sirt«ii4i 
hishkiyaut &c. 


§ 222. 




2 a. 





&< a. I" ll §- 
*• a, *** 




^ AS 


;5 ll S» 1* 

i. S 5S S - 

^ S§ ^ "XS ^ 

^3Q ^ 1. b I. b 





-. I, i, I, i, fe. fe, 


si ^ - 


o '^' "^* ^ "^ ^ "S 

§ 2 § I ^ ^ 

til it ^ 



S S *§ "s .^ "^ .« .« ^ 


3 « «9 'S '^ 




5 g ^ IS 5 ;§ S 

fS ^ S 'ts S "« 

S *S 2 «s s fS 

eu" J 4 ^ >2 ^ 


4^1 a 

«<S pC! ^^ 

^ ^s ;S 

^ ::« :S 










































*>— ^ 

















p ^ 



>•! 1.11. 11.1. gi %\% i.t%H.% 



•ft c* 

<• H ^ 52 ^ 

o -S ^ ^ ^ 

§ ^a >• >• ^ 


1 3 


-^ ^ a J -^ 



I • 


*A oCS 

8 ^ 


X s s 

I 2 ^ -8 'S I -S -S ? P -S 



t § § I I 
J •§ ^ J» S 


^ ^ g -g 




^ ^ ^ e "^ •Atf 

I I ^ I If I |l 


Q Q I S Q 

S § i I S 

? ? £ 2 ? 

I, I, ^ ?« ^ 







$ 333. All these compounds may be used without any change, whether they refer to 
nouns in the masculine or in the' feminine gender. If the head-borough or the sweeper 
should be of the female sex, the Dat. Sing, would still be t|i«i^ ^SK^ grdmai^ye striyaif 
WR9^ f^9R khalapve striyai (Kftsik^ i. 4, 3). Sometimes, however, if the meaning of a 
compound is such that it may by itself be applied to a woman as well as to a man, e. g. 
WAlpradhtftj thinking, some grammarians allow such compounds to be declined in the 
feminine, like H^Sftt lakshmilk, except in the Ace. Sing, and Plur., where they take ^ am 
and W: oA; K^pradhyam^ JWl pradhyali, not Wfipradhim or Wt^XpradMtL (Siddh.-Kaum. 
voL I. p. 136). A similar argument is applied to ^t|L* punarbh4h, if it means a woman 
married a second time. It may then form its Vocative 1 ^«T^ he punarbhu (Siddh.-Kaum. 
vol* I. p. 138), and take thejive fuller feminine terminations (§ 324). 

Ma8C. and Fbm. 

Fbm. only. 













J[^ pradkye 

or vApradhyai 



or mtlpradhy^ 


nun pradhya^ 

ox XtWlpradhydh 



or TfyApradhydm 



or it^pradhi 



N. A.V. 

nuf^ pradhyau 

V:^ pradhyau 

I. D. Ab. 

Wtt^ pradMbhydm 

Vtftuii pradhfbhyibn 


WBtn pradhyoh 

Wfn pradhyol^ 




m* pradhya^ 

nW pradhyaft 


nun pradhyafi 

nUR pradhyat, 


inftte pradMbhik 

Xri\^. pradhtbhUi 


. W^^ pradhibhyah 

nWtW pradhtbhyaf^ 



or irlt«lf pradkbUtm 




I. Monosyllabic Bases m%i andv^^ being Fendfdne only. 

§ 224. Bases like yft dhi^ intellect^ ^ M^ happiness, |(t hriy shame, 
Wt bhi^ fear, and ^bhrU^ brow, may be declined throughout exactly like 
the monosyllabic bases in ^ I and "9 1^, such as ^ 14^ a cutter. Their only 
peculiarity consists in their admitting a number of optional forms in the 
Dat. Abl. Gen. and Loc. Sing, and Gen. Plur. These may be called the^t^ 
fuller feminine termimUions in ^ ai, ^ d^, ^tn dh^ ^ dm^ and iff ndm. 



§ 225- 




Optional ftaller 


Optional ftiUer 

fern. only. 


fem. only. 





N. ift: dhiii 

);:; bhih, 

A. ^n dhlyam 

^ bMvam 

I. fWm dhiyd 

^irr Mttt;^ 

D. f^dhiyi 

ft^ dhiyal 

^ AA2«t;^ 

^ bhuvai 

Ab. dm </Ai^<£$ 

ftnm dhiydlf, 

^^ bhuvdi^ 

^irn A*tit?<4 

G. fMn: <;Aiy<C^ 

fmr. dhiyaff, 

^T* bhuvdi^ 

^^ AAw(/^ 

L. f^<;%t 

fW^ dhiydm 

^[fl ftAwrf 

^^ bhuvam 

V. ^.dhih 

^ Mt/^ 




^^ dAt^vatt 

I.D. Ab. iftinif dhibkydm 

^gvqf bhibhydm 

G.L. ftnfh <«ltyrf* 

^^ bhtivdfjL 



N. f)nv: £?Afyai& 

^ bhiival^ 

A. f^: dhiyaj^ 

^. Muro^ 

I. >ft^. (f^rMf^ 

^ Mt{M{/l 

D.Ab. vN: dhibhydh 

^ini: bhUbhydh 

O. fWirf ^Af2^(/m 

ilhri dhindtn 

^^ bhuvam 


L. ^(f^^Mii 


^ bkdshu 

2. Polysyllabic Bases in \ i an<i? "a oi^ d^in^ Feminine only. 
§ 225. (i) These bases always take the full feminine terminations. 

(2) They change their final ^ i and "9 it into J{^y and ^t; before terminations 

beginning with vowels. 

(3) They take ^ m and ^9 as the terminations of the Ace. Sing, and Plural. 

(4) They shorten their final \t and "^Kl in the Vocative Singular. 

(5) Remember that most nouns in ^ J have no i^« in the Nom. Sing.^ while 

those in 'mm have it. 

Note — Some nouns in \i take ^s in the Nom. Sing. : V4h avih, not desiring (applied 
to women); H^jftt lakshmift, goddess of prosperity; W^ tarifi, boat; ff?fh tofi^ri^, lute. 

Versus memorialis : W^lcAU^flilOAtf^^VllUiy^l^'l* ^MIHIH<f ^?Ri;TTf ftlc^jWt f 
lif^[r«R U (Sftr. p. 18 a.) 

Base ^ nadi and T^muiy, Base "^niyadhtl and '^^vadhv. 

Singular. Singular. 


N. T^nadi N. ^vadhd-i^ 

A. Tvff nadt-m A. 'f^vadhu-m 

I. ^TOT nady-'d I. ^v|t vadhv^ 

-$ 226. 



D. ^ nady-at 
Ab. tnrr: nddy-d^ 
Q. inv. nady^ 
L. ifvf nady-am 

N. A. V. fflf^ nady^au 
I. D. Ab* ifT^t»rf na(f /-ft/ 
G • L. ^nrih nady-dt^ 


N.V. ifw: norfy-flij 

A. "il^ nadi-i 

I. ^rf^ nadi'bhil^ 

D. "Sf^^an nadi-bhyak 

Ab. ii^^vif: nadi-bhyal^ 

G. H^lffi nadi-ndm 

L. inf^ nadi-shu 

D. ^^ vadhv-ai 
Ab. 'WIT: vadkv'di^ 
G. "wn: vadhv-dh 
L. ^vrf vadkv-dm 

N. A. V. W^ vadhv-au 
I. D. Ab. ^^{jvf vadhd-bhydm 
G. L. iTttft: vadhv-6h. 

N. V, ^wr vadkv-Sh 
A. *^ vadki'h 
\. t|^[fW: vadhd-bhih 
D. ^n^ vadkurbhyah 
Ab. ^t^HH vadhd'bhyah 
G. ^r^ vadhd-ndm 
L. ^ifj vadkd'Shu 

Compounds ending tn Monosyllabic Feminine Bases in^t and 9 tL 

§ 3a6. Compounds ttie last member of which is a monosyllabic feminine base in ^^ or 
V I?, are declined alike in the masculine and feminine. Thus ^J^* stfd&li|l, masc. and fem. * 
if it means a good mind, or having a good mmd, is dedmed exactly like ^ dhili, ^jfft 
subkrifltj masc. and fem. having a good brow, is declined exactly like W* bkriffif, without 

* The following rule is taken from the Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 136. It^l dh/G^, intellect, 
stands at the end of the Karmadhlbraya compound like Wfi^pradhih, eminent inteUect, or if it 
is xised as a Bahuviihi compound in the feminine, such as wAi pradkih, possessed of eminent 
intellect, it is in both cases declined like ^S^ffh lakshmih. It would thus become identical 
with Wfilpradhih, thinking eminently, when it takes exceptionally the feminine terminations 
(§ 333). The Ace. Sing, and Flur., however, take ^am and Wt aft. The difference, therefore, 
would be the substitution of ^y for ^»y before vowels, the obligation of using the fliller 
fem. terminations only, and the Vocative in ^ t, these being the only points of difference 
between the declension of f9H!Th lakshmff^ and ^ dhth, fem. The SiddhAnta-Kaumudf, 
while giidng these rules for IPlfh pradMlt, agrees with the rules given above with regard 
to ^|M^: sudhih, &c. 

t The Voc. Sing. ^^ judAru is used by Bha^, in a passage where R&ma in great grief 
exclaims, ^ f^liH W^ % ^ hd pUah kvdsi he subhru, Oh father, where art thou. Oh 
thou fine-browed (wife) I Some grammarians admit this Vocative as correct ; others call it 
a mistake of Bha^ti ; others, again, while admitting that it is a mistake, consider that 
Bhat^ made R&ma intentionally commit it as a token of his distracted mind. (Siddh.- 
Kaum. vol. I. p. 137.) 



§ aa6- 

excluding the fiiller terminations (jkai,^flldh, irf dm, ^n^)* for the masculine, or the 
simple terminations (^ €,^alt,Wt ah, ^t, ^ dm) for the feminine. The same applies to 
the compound ^Wtt sitdhih, when used as a substantive, good intellect. 

If the same compounds are used as neuters, they shorten the final ^ < or ^tf of their 
base, and are declined like ^Tlft vdri and ^ mridu, with this difference, however, that in 
the Inst. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Sing. Dual and Plural they may optionally take the masculine 

Maso. and Fmn. 

Opttonal ftillar IbmiB. 

Optional forms for nenters. ezoefpt 





N. ^: sudhiJ^ 

ijl^ mdhi 

A. ^fViT siulhiyam 

^fv MMf Ai 

I* ^|fW mdhiyd 

or |[fW«IT sudMnd 

D. '^l^sudhiye 

^fll^ 8udhiya% 

or ^ftl% 9udhine 

Ab. T^^amx audhiyai^ 


or |[fViT: #tMf AinaA 

G. ^|fiR: sudhiyafjk 

^iVim sudhiyd^ 

or ^[finrt 9udhinah 

L. ?|fM^ mdhiyi 


or ^f^fiT ^d%jm 

V. ^^ sudhilk 

^«i£{At or ^^iMJAe 




N. A.V. ^|fti4^ sudhiyau 

^ftRft sudhini 

I. D. Ab. ^^1^ mdhibhydm 

or ^ftiHrf sudhibhydm 

G. L. ^fV^qh sudhiyoh 

or j^iV^*^! ft^f At»o$ 




N.V. ^f^in sudhiyai 

^^AfVr ft^AJiii 

A. ^jftro 8udhiyah 

^lAf^ ^^^A^nt 

L ^pfHii: ^^ JMt^ 

or ^fV^n stulhibhi^ 

D. ^iA»n sudkibhya^ 

or ^fifW sudhibhyab 

Ab.^fsftsm 9udhlbhyaJ^ 

or ^fV»n sudhibhya^ 

6. ^gftnii sudhiydm 


or ^^A^ sudhindm 

L. ^iA^ «tf (f A&Aii 

or ^ftlj 9udhishu 

* 1 can find no authority by which these fuller terminations are excluded. In ^j^^«1 
bakuireyaii, the feminine 'ihf^ ireyait retains its feminine character (naditva) throughout 
(Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. ii6); and the same is distinctly maintained for the compound 
irAt pradhth, possessed of distinguished intellect, if used as a masculine (Siddh.-Kaum. 
vol. I. p. 119). 

-§ aa7» 



Kbm. and Fern. 

Opttonal ftiUer ftnnt. 

Optional forma for neaterB»eioept 
Norn. AocYoc 

with beautiful brows. 




N. ^s^subhrO^ 


A. igfi sfubhruvam 

^ 9ubhru 

I. '^^ subhruvd 

or ^^IITT ^dArund 

D. ^^ stdfhrme 

^^ #tt&Aruvai 

^^ 1^ 9ubhrune 

Ab. ^1^ mbkruvaJjt 


or ^^9: subhrunab 

6. ^^ subhruvai^ 


or ^^19: ^udArtttia^ 

L. ^^fir subhruvi 


or ^^1% subhrui^ 

V. ^ «< JArd^ 

^subhru OT^'bhro 




N, A. V. ^^ MfMruvotf 

^I^nift n^Arifi^f 

I. D. Ab. "^^^ 9ubkrilbhydm 

or ^fHff syhhrubhyam 

O. L. ^f^ subkruvo^ 

or ^^^ mbhrai^b 




N.V. ^^: subhruvafk 

?|^|f)ir wbhrili^i 

A. ^1^ subhruvah 

^l^flir 9ubhrAi(fi 

I. ^l^fW: subhfilbhi^ 

or ^^fW: «tf iAruiAt^ 

D. ^^v: MfiArdMya^ 

or ^^f»n M^Aru&Ayo^ 

Ab. ^^: mbhrHbhyah 

or ^^jMH Mf iArud^a^ 

O. ^fWf subhruvdni 


or ^f^ «tedAr<{9am 

L. ^^ «iMrt2»Ati 

or ^^ mbhrusku 

Compounds ending in Pohfiyllabic Feminine Bases tn ^ t a$id 9 ti. 

§ 337. Feminine nouns like ^l^ midland ^m^cAomtf may form the last portion of com- 
pounds which are used in the masculine gender. Thus ^J^NM^ bakiUreyasi, a man who 
has many auspicious qualities (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. pp. 116, 11 7), and H fdl ^*J^ atichamd, one 
who is better than an army (Siddh.-Kaum. voL i. p. 133), are declined in the masculine and 

N. ^Jwnft hahuireyati * 
A. Wi^M^ bahuheyasim 
I, ^^it^pi[X bahuheyasyd 
D. ^IJ^^Hm bakuireyasyai 
Ab. Wyitront bahuireyasydli 
6. 'Wf^^Q^OTt bahusreyasydh 
L. Wjvlll^i bahuireyasydm 
V. "Wf v)4|f^ bahuireyasi 


fjilll^i^ bahuSreyasyau 
Wj^^W bahuireyasyaa 
4f ^^4llM|t bahuireyas(bhydm 
4f ^^4llM|t bahtUreyas(bhydm 
^wifWllMi bahuireyadbkydm 
^j^Ml4\: bahtOreyasyob 
^^M^^\ bahuireyasyob 
W^miMT 6aAti^6y<uya» 


^J^^iMl bahiUreyasyab 
^fM^^^ bahuireyatin 
^j^^lARi: bahtUreyasibkib 
^Ww[f[\^s^ bahuireyasibkyah 
^jfitVlWi^ bdhuireyadbhydb 
^f d<44fi«if bakuheyastndm 
^^wf^lt^ bahUreyatishu 
^T^hPEKft bahuireyasyab 

* From cT^epfh lakshmil^j the Nom. Sing, would be ^ifjCWUlrtl atildkshmiff, 

P a 


N. Hfll^'Ji atichamiift 
A. V (A^^atichamUm 
I. uPrt^HI atichamvd 
D. vPa^^^ attchamoai 
Ab.^wftP^*TR attchamvdl^ 
G. vHl'^^l* atichamvdfi 
L. linil^MT atichamodm 
v. vOmi} atichamu 


vfiH^*Hi atichamvau 

nfh^W atichamvau 

'Wfil^lJ^n atichami&hydm 
^nH^IJMI atichamdbhydm 

^rfiT^^^ atichamiSfhya^ 

\l atichamvafL* 

Nouns like 9*1 lO Jtufiulri, a maa who behaves like a girl, are declined like ^j^Htil 
hakuireyati, except in the Ace. Sing, and Plur., where they form ^TTV kumdryam and 
^IIT^! humdryah, (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. pp. 118, 119.) 

^ 2^8. ^ 8trl^ woman, is declined like Tf^ nadl^ only that the accumula- 
tion of four consonants is avoided by the regular insertion of an \i^ e. g. 
fipin striyd, and not '^ssinstryd. Remember also two optional forms in the 
Ace. Sing, and Pliur. 

Base Igftstri and f^^nstriy. (Accent, P&n.yi. i^ 168.) 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. ^ gtri N. A.V. (idlir 8tr<yau N. ^RH striya^ 

A. ^jfF stiim or (^4 striyam I. D. Ab. ^pf)^ stHbhyam A. ^! «/r^ or Ugfm striydfL 

I. f^ppn^/rty/ G. L. %nih ffriyejj^ 

D. f^jfl^ striyai 
Ab.G. i^pRH striydlL 

V. f^«^W(Pfti[^. 1.4,4) 

§ 229. When ^^ sfrl forms the last portion of a compound, and has to be treated as a 
masculine, feminine^ and neuter, the following forms occur : 

I. ^fif^. stribhih 
D. Ab. 9fh«i: stHbhydf^ 

G. ^fNrt«^r<»/fn(P&9.i.4,5) 
L. kjj[\^ strUhu 





Hfilf^PS atistrih 
rirfllf^ atktrim or 
t^vflrf^pi atistriya 

irfM^ppnr atistrind 


D. Vftim^ atUtraye 
Ab.G. ^t^f^ atistrefk 



wfil^ijf atistrau 
vPfl^ atistre 



^rfir%n dtistrih 
r VPrif^ atistrim or 
[ vPflf^A atistriyam 

nfVf^MI atistriyd 
VPilf^^ atistriyai or 
Pri^^ atistraye 
r HPift^l^t: atistriydl^ or 

Wfkf^gprf atistriydm or 
VPri^pji atistrau 
^Vfk^ atistre 




HPtlP^g|4UI atistri^ 

r VPflf^^JU atistrine or 
L ^ffiH^B^ atistraye 
VPil(^4U« attf^rttui^ or 

vPdl^pIT atistrau 
^Vflf^ atistre 


Vfri^! atistre^ 
WPri (^ (lU a^is/rtV* or 

* The neuter is said to be N. A.V. Sing. WJ*l^rfl bahuareyast, N. A.V. Dual «ij^««tn«fl 
^^aikuirtfya^fir, N. A.V. Plur. lj$>4|^PH ^aAtiireya^nf, Dat. Sing. i||^^ C^?) or 
**^t% baJnUreyasyai {-sye ?) or -«6ic, &c. 

-§ «3o- 





N.A.V. Vn i l\{j4t atistriyau 
I.D.Ab. wGlf^ri^ atistribkydm 
G.L. VlOlf^lih atistriyoh 



irffffSPtt atistrayah 
Hfif^fhrj^ attstrin or 
^ifkf^gnn atistnya^ 
wfirffSffo atistribhi 
VPilf^^ atistribhy 
wftnEjfhoi atistrindm 
Vfwf^^ atistrishu 

Wflf^nit atistriyau 
HflffiSRVt atistribhydm 
VlOlf^lih atistriyofi 



vHl^fl^: atistraydhk 
J Hfil^liP: a^wM$ or 
1 ^rfkffann atistnyah 

wPiif^diR?: o^/rt^^ 

vOlf^W atistribhy 
vOl^mt atistrii^ 


Vfrif^'lin atistrii^i 
^VflffiSPlt atistribhydm 
^tfir^pifh atistrino^ 


In the masculine final ^1 is shortened to ^t, and the compound declined like ^if^ ifcam^, 
except in the Nom. Acc.Voc. and Gen. Loc. Dual. In the Ace. Sing, and Plur» optional 
forms are admitted. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 134.) 

The feminine may be the same as the masculine, except in the Instr. Sing, and Ace. Plur., 
but it may likewise be declined like ^^g^ str< in the Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Sing. 

The neuter has the usual optional forms. 

Bases inj^i and 7u^ Masculine ^ Feminine, Neuter, 

^ 230. There are masculine^ feminine, and neuter bases in 1^ t and 7 u. 
They are of frequent occurrence, and should be carefully committed to 

Adjectives in ^i are declined like substantives, only that the masculine 
may optionally be substituted for the neuter in all cases except the Nom. 
and Ace. Sing. ; Nom* Ace. and Voc. Dual and Plur. Ex. nf%; iuchift, masc. 
bright 3 nf%: hichi^y fem.; vfv iuchi, neut. 

The same applies to adjectives in 7 u, except that they may form their 
feminine either without any change, or by adding ^ t Thus c7f : laghu^, 
light, is in the fem. either c^ laghui, to be declined as a feminine/ or c9^ 
laffhvi, to be declined like tf!(t nodi. 

If the final 7 1« is preceded by more than one consonant, the fem. does 
not take \i. Thus Trf^^a^u, pale; fem. xft^ipdrufu^* 

Some adjectives in 7t« lengthen their vowel in the fem., and are then 
declined like ^ vadhdh* Thus ttjj: pangul^, lame; fem. "TO paiigilf^. 
Likewise ^^f^ kuruh, a Kuru ; fem. ^^[^ kurHlf, : some compounds ending in 
"9^: ilruh, thigh, such as ^pft^ vdmorui, with handsome thighs, fem. 
TO^ vamorulh 


Bases in \i. 









Bases in 7t<. 


poet tnat{, thought o^^ water mfuli^, soft nifidd,Boft 

N [^^' 

[ kavdy-e 

Ab.G. 1^ 

[ kav4-lk 

V (^ 





WXHtnatdy-eot mttJO 
IW maty-ai vari'^ 

^nXmati-h or ^ifVuil 

Tin mo/oi^ or <||fXRu 
IfTTT maty 'dm vdri-i^ 





mfuft^, soft 


^[^mfu2(fo-eor ignrnfuiii^iitfor 
^ mfidv-ai l|^ mfiddv-e 
ipfhmfidf^^or ^ign* mftdi^iia^ or 

l|^ mfuioi^ or •jjlT*! fiiruli»Hif or 
l|lf mjidv-dm ^J^ mjidad 

N.A.V. I 




irftr^or ^p^ 

Ttftsft ^ 

vdri»^ mpdd 



[ havC^hydm mati-bhydm vdrubhydm mfidd'bhydm mfidd'bhydm mifidd^hydm 



N.V. 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ , 

vdri'i^ infidv'6^ 



kaoi-n matt-fk 
[ kavi'bhUk maH'bhifk 

ikaoi^hya^ maH-bhyat^ 
fqTni •THnfT 

kav{'8hu mati'Shu 


mifiddo'dfi mfiddv-aft 







vdri'bhydtk mfidd-hkyd^ mfidd'bhyafk mfidA'bhyatk 

t^rr^ ^.^ ^^.. 

vdri-thu mjidA-tku mjidUslut 

* The Gui^a in theVoc Sing, of neuters in ^t, 7«, ^r*> i'' approved by M&dhyandini 
Vyftghrap&d, as may be seen from the following verse : ^R^j^VT ^f|ilQl|p|%iM ^hf IHIT 

t Nouns ending in short ^t^ 7«, ^p, and ^a, and having the accent on these vowels, 
may throw the accent on •ITit^ in the Gen.Rur. (Pfti[^. vi. i^ 177). Hence matindmy or, 
more usually, matMm, 

X The lines of separation placed in the transcribed paradigms are not intended to divide 

-§ as*- 



§ 331. lAr kati, how many, '^flfyaH, as many (relat.), and Iffir taii, so many, axe used 
in the Plural only, and take no tenninations in the Nom. and Ace. Plural. For the rest, 
they are declined like 1|Pt kavi, and without distinction of gender. 


Nom.Voo. Wfif kdti 

Ace. Vfir kdti 

Instr. ^iflrfk: ibirt&Ai^ 

Dat. IVfirW kdtibhya^ 

Abl. ivflivr* kdHbhya^ 

Gen. inftsft kdtiiUbn 

Loc. ^VflfJ kdtishu 

§ 232. vftr sdkhi, friend, has two bases : 

^mT^^sdkhdy for the Anga, i. e. the strong base. 
^[f^sdkhi for the Pada and Bha base. 
It is irregular in some of its cases. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. Wmtdkhd 

A. 4lfl|4| sdkhdyam 

^IWmi tdkhdya^ 

I. 91^ sdkhyd 
D. W^idkhye 
Ab. ^f^ idkhyvfk 
6. W^9dkhyu(i 
L. 41 WT sdkhyau 

TlAf^ sdkhibhydm 
TlAf^ sdkhibhydm 
^rftPi^f mikkibhydm 
4l4Nii sdkhyol^ 
Wiwftl sdkhyo^ 

^rfMWt sdkhibhifi 
^f^S^ idkhibhyafi 
HftlPi^t sdkhibhya^ 
Wift^ sdkhtndm 

like Nom. 

like Nom. 
The feminine mftfoAA^ is regular, like i|^ mi{f<. 

At the end of compounds, we find ^% $akhi, masc. declined as follows : 
Base ^fi(W tusakhi, a good friend, masc. 


^««iM muakhdyam 

^41^*1 susakhaye 
Ah. ^^BWtnMoAiU^ 
G. ^'B^ fMoAiU^ 
L. ^Hfii muakhau 


^jWWm siuakkdyau 

^HMW susakhdyau 

^frf^P^f 8U$akhibhydm 

^«wii MwoibAjfO^ 
^«wi* tusakhyoli 
^P9t^ 9iuakkdyau 

^4lfll^; susakhdya^* 

^vOiMlS ficiaibAt6Aya^ 
^H^«ri 9U$akhMm 
T^^gf^ tusakhisku 
^H^W* suiokhdyali 

At the end of a neater compound ^% sakhi is dedined like ^Tft 0^ (§ 330). 

the real terminations from the real hase, hut only to fiunlitate the learning hy heart of these 
nouns. Masculine nouns in short '9u are )fT^ bhdnu, sun, ^^ vdyu, wind, nf^tntA^ti, nom. 
prop, ^ft^ pQu, as masc.> is the name of a tree ; as neuter, the name of its fruit (SAr. i. 8, 1 7). 
Feminine nouns in short Vu are V^ dkenuk, cow, ^IJt rajpifi, rope, K^ tami^, hody. ' 
* Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 11 9. 



§ ^33- 

§ ^33> vfffpati, lord, is irregular: 

N. Vfiflpdti^ 
A. Vf^pdtim 
I. '^fVlpdtyd 
D. Vl^pdtye 
Ab. G. V^l pdtyuh 
L. "^wipdtyau 
V. yfkpdte 


N.A.V. v:iftpdti 

I.D.Ab. ^ffir^ pdtibhydm 
6. L. mftlpdtyoh 

N. Mn«i;/?<£toyaA 
A. MriT«^/?(f//» 
I. MfifRn pdtibhifi 
D. Ab. ^OrflfMn pdtibhyah 
G. IlifhfffiJiftlnAn 
L. ^rfirjj^rf/MAtt 
V. MAm pdtayal^ 

"^pati at the end of compounds^ e.g. ^[jtfjf bhilpatif lord of the earth, 
V!9nmfiX prqfdpatiy lord of creatures, is regular, like ^irf^ kavi. The feminine 
ofi^pati is V^ paint, wife, i. e. legitimate wife, she wfab takes part in the 
sacrifices of her husband. (P^. iv. i, $$.) 

$ 334. The neuter bases xtHsf akshiy eye, wf^asthi, bone, ^fifdadki, curds, n?<^Msakthi^ 
thigh, are declined regularly like '^(ift.vdri; but in the Bha cases they substitute the bases 
m^I^ akshi^, ^irn asthny ^^dadkn, fiflpJJ sakthn. In these cases they are declined, in fact, like 
neuters in m^an, such as ^iH^^ndman. (See note to § 203.) 

Anga and Pada base ^ff^akshi, Bha base mTOaibsAn. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N.A. wftf i£JtsAt N.A.V. nfVl^ dkshini N.A.V. WHflOlf (fj^^A^^t 

I. WVUI akshna l.D, Ah.^tf^^ dkshibhydm I. ^ fll| (W: dkshibhih 

D. ^nn akshiiL^ G. L. V^lHt akshndh 

Ab. G. V^mt akshndh 

L. Vft^ir aksh^^ and VmRu aArsA^ 

V. V^ <£ibsAe (or wftf dkshi) 

D. Ab. ^lfB|VEf: dkshibhyah 
G. tn^oi akshnam 

£a«6^ tn ^ ri. Masculine^ Feminine^ Neuter. 
§ 235. These bases are dechned after two models : 




Base «T1| ndpifi, grandson 
N. 'mnndptd 
A. l{WXt ndptdr'am 
I. •THT ndptr-d 
D. ^n^ndptr-e 

Ab.G. 'H^lndptufi 
L. «fMUsit4jp^ar-» 
V. -HT. M^talt{r) 


^n[ svdsri, sister 

I^IHK svdsdr-am 
Htil svdsr-d 

^T^! svdaufjk 


VTJ dhdtfi, providence 

VTJW dhdtT<-i^ or ^irgfT rfA^r 
^Ijiit dhdtH-ne or 1TO <i*<ftr^ 
VTfpin dhdif^'i^ or VTJt (f A^ 
VTjfiff dhdtrC^ or ^nwft dA^< 
V!^ d*//r» or VHT: dMifaA(r) 

* If If ri has Ud&tta and becomes ^r and is preceded by a consonant^ the feminine 
and the Aj&di Asarvan&masth&na cases have the Ud&tta. 

-i 336. 



A. •nrs^fu^/i^-n 

I. rn|fW: ndptri'bhih 
Ab. tryn ndptfi-bhya^ 
L. *T^ ndptri-shu 


^Wt svdsfi-ft 
4S4{n?! svdsfi'-bkifi 
t»4i»Mi svdsfi'bkyah 
WW^^ svds^'bhya^ 

IfllHUl svdsfi-ndm ( Ved. svdsrdm) YTipDT dhdtfi'ffidm 


4S4IIM svdsdr-au VTfllft dhdlfi^fi 

^1^^ svdsfi-bhydm VTf)^ dhdifi-bkydtn 

W^ svdgr-ofi VT^pfh dhdtfi-fott 

2. The second model differs from the first in the Ace. Sing., Nom. Ace. Yoc. 
Dual^ and Nom. Plur.^ bj not lengthening the v a before the ^ r. 

Base ftrjjPt^Ki 'IT^wwi/K. 

Singular. Dual. 


N. f^Kfd pitd 

N.A.V. HHIUnd^/^r-att 
I. D. Ab. Tp'rt ndptri-bhydm 
G. L. •fljfc fu(jpfr-o^ 


A. ^^pitdr-ammfltmdtdr-amlP^^^-^^ 
1. f^^pitr-d 1T?|1 mdtr-d 
D. ftlW/wVr-^ IfT^iii^/r-^ 
Ab. 1V|t jithi^ ft]: fikl/i^ 

G. f^^*pitii(i my.mdtufi IftRirh 








(VlffU padr-afk ^TH^ rndtdt'Ch 
f^n(^*pitf{-bhiiL ^Xf^^^mdtfi'bhUL 
J pitfi-bkyafi J mdtii'bhyd^ 

\ p(tah{r) mfT* mitah{r) f^n(9p<tarau^TW^mdtttrau f^flUX p(tarah •niiC mdtarah 

After the first model are declined most namt»a actoris derived from verbs 
by the suffix ^ ^H ' ^ dS/ff, giver ; ^ itor/ff| doer ; 1^ tvdshtfi, carpenter ; 
ftf h(Stri, sacrificer ; >r| bhartri, husband* 

Afi;er the second model are declined maBCulines, such as ^rif bhrdtfi, 
brother; Wn^jdmdiriy son-in-law; ^ devrt, husband's brother; if^ 
savyeshthriy a charioteer : and feminines, such as jf)^ duhitri, daughter ; 
^^^ ndnandri or Hl«i^ nanandfi^ husband's sister ; titj y<i/p> husband's 
brother's wife. Most terms of relationship in ij ri (except ^1^ wdsfiy sister, 
and ^ ndptfiy grandson) do not lengthen their ^ ar. 

Note — If words in ^ p are used as adjiectives, the masculine forms may be used for the 
neuter also, except in the Nom. and Ace. Sing, and Nom. Ace. Voc. Dual and Plural. The 
feminine is formed by \{; '^^kartjriy fem. W^kartri, like «P(t nadt 

§ ^36. idf Mshfu, a jackal, is irregular ; but most of its irregularities 
may be explained by admitting two bases, id^ krdshtu (like ^ mridu) and 
litj kroshtri (like «rq[ naptri). 



N. IVtfT krosh{d 
A. WWtt.kro8h(dram 
J ldj(<ll kroshfund 
fWn kroshfave 
Hcftl krosh(oft 
li(ft kroshfu^ 
WSi kroshfau 
V. lit St hroshfo 


N.A.V. lAsiO kroshtdrau 

I.D.Ab. litf^ kroshtubhydm 


J Hffil kroshtvoJi 
L IKtS^ kroshfroli 


N. litrrc kroshtdrai^ 
A. l£tf«^ifcr(»A^ 

I. IKtjfk: kroshfubh^k 

D.Ab. ldjWitro«Af«6Aya^ 
G. litj[Hi kroshfUndm 

The base 'fit^kroshtfi is the only one admissible as Afiga, i.e. in the strong cases, 
excepting the Vocative. (^ IStVS ke kroshfah is, I believe, wrongly admitted by Wilson.) 

The base Ituf Aro^Afu is the only one admissible as Pada, i. e. before terminations begin- 
ning with consonants. 

The other cases may be formed from both bases, but the Ace. Plur. is litp[krosh^n only. 
(P49. VII. 1, 95-97.) 

Those who admit Ht^krosh^n as Ace. Plur. likewise admit ijhv itro^Afum as Ace. Sing. 
(3&r. I. 6, 70.) 

The feminine is WXl kroshfriy declined like '^V^nadi, 

§ 337. v|[ Aft, man, a word of frequent occurrence, though, for convenience sake, often 
replaced by «ft nara, is declined regularly like f)|f pitfi, except in the Gen. Plural, where it 
may be either vTOrt njii^ or ^lOTT np?^. (P&9. vi. 4, 6.) 




N. -mnd 

•TO ndrau 

•RS fufro^ 

A. "^tndram 

^f(U ndrau 


I. W nrd 

•p^lf nribhydm * 


D. ^nr^(Ved.i«£rc) 

HWn nribhyim 

W^K nfibhydh 

Ab. ^ n4h 

^JWlt nfibhyim 

^pift nr{bhydi^ 

6. '^:ni^(Ved.fiira#) 


«pirr nf»7^ or fWt nrinim ( Ved. naram) 

L. '<^flu^ 

^ wrrfj 


V. 'Hlndli 

«Tu lufrott 

•TO fwiro^ 

The feminine is tfrtt ndrt. 

2. £a«^« ending in in a and VT ft« 

^ 238. This class is the most numerous and most important in Sanskrit^ 
like the corresponding classes of nouns and adjectives in uSy a^ um in Latin^ 

* The accent may be on the first or on the second syllables in the Pada cases beginning 
with ^bh and ^ «. (P&9. vi. i, 184.) 

-J 239. 



and OS, 17, oy in Greek* The case-terminations are peculiar, and it is best to 
learn "qifw: kdrUaf^, iihfT kdntd, iihi kdntatn by heart in the same manner as 
we learn bonus, hona, honum, without asking any questions as to the origin 
of the case-terminations, or their relation to the terminations appended to 
bases ending in consonants. 





Base ^kdntd 



N. lir. kdntdh 



A. iM kdntdm 

^ihrf kdntdm 

^t^ kdntdm 

I. Wk^ kdnt4na 

WK^t kdntdyd 


D« wTR kdntiya 

WfcA kdntdyai 

irfirni kdntdya 

Ab« '^i^ITUkdntit 

^ihmn kdntdydhk 


G* ^shnEV kdntdsya 

HflfPnt kdnidydf^ 

lihr^V kdntdsya 

L. *^ kdnU 

^VhrPVf kdntdydm 


V. -^kdnta 

^ ibiii^c? * 

^ ibinfa 

N.A.V. iliflik(kta4 



I. D. Ab. llhfP^ kdntdbhydm 

^Vhnvirf kdntdbhydm 

^Vhrpjlli kdntdbhydm 

6.L. Hhx^. kdntdyofi 

Ifhnfh kdntdyoft 

'^dttrftl kdntdyofi 

N.V, ^rfirn kdntdft 

^fffl* /(^t^^ 

'^iintH kdntdni 

A. lhlAl«(^A:<^/^A 

irfm: ib<&f<^ 

lihrrftf kdntdni 

I. mfi: kdntaa 

itfnrSi: kdntdbhif^ 


D. Ab. ^ifihiii: kdntMyafi 

'llhrn^t kdntdbhyafi 

irf^Vin kdntibhyaf^ 

6. ^ihrT«ff ^^//ii^ 

^ShfRf kdntdndm 

^ShfRf kdntdndm 

L. ^frij it<^^^A« 

Hhn^ kdntdsu 

mk^ kdnt4shu 

Note — Certain adjectives 

in WS a^, ^ ^9 ^ am, which follow the ancient pronominal 

declcDsion, will be explained ii 

1 the chapter on Pronouns (§ 


fio^es tn ^&, ilf<»c«2^fi« and F(niitmne. 

§ 939. These bases are derived immediately from verbs ending in VT d, such as V^pdy 
VIT dhmd. They are declined in the same way in the masculine and feminine gender. In 
the neuter the final VTiJ is shortened, and the word declined like ^^i^kdntam, 

Anga and Pada base f^T^PHtihapd, Bha base f^C^^vUvapy all-preserving, (masc. and 
fem.) The neuter is declined like ^lUtkdntam (§ 338). 

* Bases in W ^ meaning mother, form their Vocative mWa; e. g. ^TS akka, W^tanba, 
^19 alia J But ^Nrrn ambd^d, ^nnc9T ambdldy and llftrVT ambikd form the regular Vocative^ 
H^lf ambdde, lKn« ambdle, MtWmtanbike. 

Q 2 



§ 240- 


Mabculinb and Fbminins* 







OtMim vUvapd-m ftfU^r vUtmpau 

(V^mi vihapd'h 

ftrvn vi^ap-afi 

P^mm vihap-d 
fqniH vUvap-e 
Pcinm; vihap'ofi 

ftnWffill vihapd-bhift 
flWITWi: ffUvapd-bhya^ 
Rl^MWt vihapd-hhyaji 

^[^X^ vUvap'4m 

r«IHIMI^ viivapd'Su 

N, HmiM vUvapam 

Decline 'fO^MK somapd^y 
dkanaddf^, wealth giver. 

$940. MasoulinesinW^, 
as follows : 

Base ^T^ A^Atf . 


N.V. ^rptMAii^ 

A. 1|T1|T A^2A(^ 

I. fTfTA4£^<2 

D. 1(1^ A^at 

Ab.- ^!^l! ^A(2A 

G. I^I^U AtfA(2jl 

fqniH vihape ftf^'TTftT vUoapdni, &c. 

Soma drinker; ^RfHTTt iaiikhadhmd^, shell-blower; 

not being derived by a Krit suffix from verbal roots, are declined 

^n^ hdhau 
^tp hdhau 
^T^P>lf hdhdbhydm 
^I^P^ hdhdbhydm 
^TfT^ hdhdbhydm 
l^T^ hdhau^ 
^Vpi hdhaufb 

^nr: A^A(^ 

^TflfW: hdhdbhih 
^T^TW hdhdbhyah 
^T^TW hdhdbhyah 
IgT^ A(f A(?m 
^I^T^ hdhdsu 



^241. As every noun in Sanskrit may, at the end of a compound, form the 
final portion of an adjective, all the essential rules for the declension of such 
compound adjectives had to be given in the preceding chapter. Thus in the 
declension of neuter nouns in w^flw, like inr^mcfna^, mind, the declension of 
mll^lf^^nandnasJ as an adjective masc, fern, and neut., was exhibited at the same 
time (^ 165). In the declension of nouns ending in consonants, and admitting 
of ho distinction between masculine and feminine terminations, (this applies to 

* The S&r. i. 6, 38, gives the optional form ^T^t hdhSh in the masculine. At the end of 
a feminine compound the same form is sanctioned in the RApAvali, p. 9 b. 


all nouns with unchangeable bases,) the special forms of the neuter in Nom. 
Acc.Yoc. Sing. Dual and Plur. had to be exhibited. See § 158, K^f^jalamuk, 
^fif9^ jalamuchiy ino^f^ jalamunchi. In the declension of nouns with 
changeable bases, the more important feminine and neuter forms were 
separately mentioned ; and in the declension of nouns ending in vowelsi all 
necessary rules with regard to the same subject were fully stated. 

^ 242. The chief difficulty which remains with regard to the declension 
of adjectives is the exact formation of the feminine base, and the rules on 
this subject are often so complicated that they have to be learnt by practice 
rather than by rule. The feminine bases^ however^ once given, there can be no 
doubt as to their declension, as they follow exactly the declension of the cor- 
responding feminine nouns. A few observations on this point must suffice. 

^ 243. Adjectives* in ila form their feminines in w\d. Ex. fmpriya^ 
dear, masc. fnx priyai^, fem. ftnn priyd, neut. fifA priyam, to be declined 
like imr kdnta {§ 238). 

§ 344. Certain adjectives derived by im aka form their feminines in ^VT ikd. Ex. ^mi 
pdchaka, cooking, masc. ^I|TW9: pdchakaft, fem. ^Tlf^l^ pdchikd, neut. ^IT^^ pdchakam. 
Likewise masc. %i«K sarvdkdhy fem. Vf^^ sarvikd, every ; 71^^ kdrakah, doing, iw(V«M 
kdrikds ^M^ ihatyakd^f present here, ^CPiQ^il ihatyikd. But ft^nST kshipakd, fem. one 
who sends ; «iMf««i kanyakd, fem. maiden; ^{4il chafakd, fem. sparrow; Tfim tdrakd, fem. 
star. Sometimes both forms occmr ; V^IW ajakd and wf^Tir ajikd^ a she-goat. 

§ 245. Bases in if ft and in «^n take ^ ^ as the sign of the feminine : ir| 
kartriy doer^ ^fi^ kartri (^ 235) ; if€^^ daif^in^ a mendicant, ^r<«fl dan^ini 
($ 203). Likewise most bases ending in consonants, if they admit of a separate 
feminine base : JCT^prdchy w^prdchi (^ 181) ; is^ivan, dog, m\iunl (^ 199) ; 
^W^bhavaty ^T^rn^ bhavati (^ 188). Some adjectives in ^ van form their 
feminine base in "^vari: ifl^^Jvan, fat, '^[^ pivari ({ 193). 

§ 246. Many adjectives in ^a form their feminine base in \i (§ 225), instead oi^d: 
q<u«i^* tfii^mayaJi, made of grass, f4U«i<n trii^mayi; ^^^l devafi, god, divine, \'4t devij 
in^t taru^ or ricJHt talunah, a youth, d^'iUl tarw^i; f^lK* kumdrah, a boy, ^*iiO kumdrij 
^ft^t gopaji, cowherd, 'iWtyopf, his wife, but ifrtTyop^, a female shepherd ; nnqil nartakali, 
actor, •fWt nartaki; ^T mpgah, a deer, Jpft mjigi, a doe ; ^^ sdkarah, boar, f|«a<l 
sdkarij ^M4K« kitmbhakdrah, a potter, l^^H^lO kumbhakdri. It wiU be observed, however, 
that many of these words are substantives rather than adjectives. Thus if?9't matsyaft, fish, 
forms mritnuitH {^ya being expunged before %/) ; •I'j^i manushyaf, man, H^^ manusM, 

§ 247. Certain adjectives in Kl tail, expressive of colour, form their feminine either in 
ItttdoT m •ftfi^: "^tltt iyetah, white, ^^WT^eM, ^Mffl iyenij Wletdh, variegated, 'Z^etd 
or WA 9nij Or^ift rohitah, red, 0(f Ml rokUd or Of^^l roAt^l, but "^tifl hetahy white, 
^i^ ^dtf/ ^vftfilTa^t/^, white ; MrcofiipaZt^^, grey-h(ured« 

* iprT^tT yv^uwocAana, the name for adjective, occurs in P&9. v. 3, 58. 


§ 248. The formation of feminine substantives must be learnt from the dictionary. Thus 

IKm ajah, goat, forms ^W^ajd. W^ aha^, horse, forms W^ahd* 

'Wr555 bdlafi, boy, forms Nlc4l bdld. 

,. , , «/. , - r TOTT Mlrd, a woman of the S^Mra caste. 

¥np sUdrt^, a sAdra, forms -{ ^^ .^ _ ^ ^, .. - cy^ j 
'^^ [^[jfTjftWri, thewifeof aS^iidra, 

Mnfcil mdtuldhf maternal uncle, forms n\^f!imdtuU or «ii§€6i«fl rndtuldni, an uncle's wife. 

Vl^l4* dcMrydtiy teacher, forms WT^Twft dchdrydnt*, wife of the teacher ; but lll^l4l 

dchdryd, a female teacher. 

^ifln patiliy lord, forms V[^patn(, wife, &c. 

Degrees of Comparison. 

§ 249. The Comparative is formed by irt ^ara, or $<il^ iyas {§ 206) ; the 
Superlative by in? tama, or ^ ishfha t. These terminations inc tara and IHT /oma 
are not restricted in Sanskrit to adjectives. Substantives such as Ji nfi^ man, 
form wim: fifitamai^, a thorough man; ^gf\ stri, woman, ?sfhnCT strtiard1(., 
more of a woman. Even afler case-terminations or personal terminations, 
inc tara and jm tama may be used. Thus from ^i||^ pilrvdhi^^ in the 
forenoon, yij^l^rtX pArvahnetarey earlier in the forenoon (Pan. vi. 3, 17). 
From "^r^nfK pachaii^ he cooks, ^^['iiiiiS pachatitaram^ he cooks better (Pap. v. 
3, 57), iT^finnrf pachatitamdm, he cooks best (P&n. v. 3, 56). 

§ 250. 7R tara and inr tama, if added to changeable bases, require the 
Pada base. Thus from Tft^prdch {§ 180), wwcprdktara; from ylf^dhofdn 
i§ ^^3)> ^^f^n^dhanitara ; from ^f^!{^dhanavat (^ 187), H9mrt^Aanat;a//ara; 
from f^nsm^vidvas (^ 204), f^:w^n vidvattama ; from vnf^pratyach (^ 181), 
vnni^fS^pratyaktara, There are, however, a few exceptions, such as ^i:i|^«flii: 
dasyuhaniamah, from !;^|C«^ dasyuhafij demon-kQler ; ^^iVpirt: supathintaraj^^ 
from '^^ffi^supathiny with good roads. 

^251. i^^iyas and jw ishfha are never added to the secondary suffixes 
f /ri, inr ma/, in^va/, ^Ti|va/a, l^vm, ^tn. If adjectives ending in these 
suffixes require ^ iyaf^ and jwishtha^ the suffixes are dropt, and the ^ iya^ 
and Jji ish{ha added to the last consonant of the original base. ^c4m«^ bala- 
vdfiy strong, '^rt^f^B[^^bal'iyas, ^fc9T bal-ishtha. ^^ dogdhfiy milking, ^t^N^ 
doh'tyas, !^^f^ doh-ishtha. ^(^H^ sragvin, garlanded, W^ft^srqf-tyaSy more 
profusely garlanded, iffivflv^ m^a^imdn, wise, ^Av(^mat^(yas, vi^nmat-ishtha. 

* On the dental «^», see Gana Kshubhn&di in the K&s'.-Vritti. 

t Before KT, tara and IHT tama adjectives retain their accent; before ^in^fy(M and ^ ishfha 
they throw it on their first syllable (P&n. iii. i, 4; vi. i, 197). There are a few exceptions. 

X Feminines in %(, derived from masculines, must shorten the ^C before KKtara and 
KIT tama; Ali|iu1 brdhmarii forms Mlnf^flT.! brdhmai^itard. Other feminines in ^ ^ or 9 tf 
may or may not shorten their vowels ; ^)fi stri forms tP^n^i stritard or i^^Ail stritard. 
Also dllUlflil ireyasttard or vi^filrt'il ireyasitardj ftj4hro vidushUard or ftjftUTT 
vidushitard (P&9. vi. 3, 43-45). 

-$ 252. 



§ 252. Other adjectiveB^ too, lose their derivative elements before |Tn^fy6» 
and ^ ishfha, or are otherwise irregular by substituting new bases for the 
Comparative and Superlative, iir: pdpaJ^, bad ; imA^ pap-iyas, worse ; 
TKlPn pdp-ishtha, worst 




I. wfini antika, near 


n^*«t( nediyas 

Tff^ nedishtha 

2, V^ a^a, small 


^ffrt^m kaniyas 

^ifvfV itanwAf Aa 

or VfSfl^m alpiyas 

vHmV alpishfha 

3. 7^ tim, wide 


^O^H^ variyas 

^ftlV vamAf Aa 

4. ^TJ fiju, straight 


^prt^ fijiyas 

^ffirv rywA^Aa 


^edic X^ft^(^^rajiya9 

Tftrf rajishfha * 

5. ^5 kji4a, lean 



HSf^ kraHshlha 

6. ftvv kshipra, quick 


t|Ml^^ ib<A«pfy<» 

^fftrV Jb^A^uA/Aa 

7. )|[^ kshudra, mean 


^^^^ ib«;ko%a« 

^(tfl^ kshodishfha 

8. ^J?5 ^r», heavy 



l|(Xv garish^ha 

9. ^ /ftpra^ satisfied 



9^49 fffpisA^Aa 

10. tjfra dirffhOy long 


^[nfrif^ drdghiyas 

^jrflW drdghishfha 

II. J[t cUra, fiu 



^[fVT cfovwA^Aa 

13. T7 dfi^ha, firm 



7{[f^ drafhishtha 

13. m(V^« parivri^ha, exalted ^ Pvr ^ parivra^h ^ffxjRth^parivra^yt 

IS VftttfiW parwra4k 

14. ^IfiMv^ broad 


1V4N^ prathiyas 

HftW prathishtha 

15. ll^l4Mj>ra/(Mya,praiseworthy ^ ^a 


^V iresh^ha 

or mjy a 



16. ftnTprtya, dear 



fn preshfha 

17. ^W bahu, many 



^fn bhUyishfha 

18. *4^ bahukiy frequent 

Mf baihh 

4^1 mi baihhiyas 

^^tfffW baihhish(ha f 

19. ^[9 bhri^a, excessive 


Vrp^lV^ bhroHyas 

^rf){fV bhroHsh^ha 

30. ^ inf»d»5 soft 


^q?(hn^ mradiyas 

vfi^ mradishfha 

31. ^^yuvan, young 


^«fl^'4^ yavtyas 

Vf^ yavishfha 

or W^^kan 


^Bif«TV iban»AMat 

33. ^^n7 vdtfha, firm 



^rrftfV sddhishfha X 

33. ^ vfiddhay old 


iT^ftn^ varshiyas 

^FQv var^AwA^Aa 

or mjya 



34 . ^^ 1 i.^ vfinddraka, beautiful ^vnW 

^?(hW^ Vfindiyas 

^f^ vpficfurA^Aa 

35. iWsMtra, firm 

^ stha 

-^k^ stheyas 

^OT stheshtha 

36. ^c9 8tk4la, strong 


Wft^ sthaviyas 

WPl¥ stkavish^ha 

37. Ow^ipAtra, thick 



^V spheshiha 

38. ^{9 hrasva, short 


4^1^^ hrasiyas 

iS^fi krasish^ha 

* PA9. VI. 4, 163. 

t See Phitsiitra^ ed. Kielhom, 1.7; 33 (30). 

X P&5. V. 3, 63, 



§ ^53' 



§ 253. Cardinals. 

1 ^ ZJ^Hi, W9f, ^^ ^kai^ (kd^ 4kam, one. (Base v^ eka.) 

2 ^Vyii %, dvaii, dvSf dv4^ two. (Base iff rft^a; in comp. ftr dvu) 

3 < ^nt, fllFJ, aWrr, trdyai^, turdhy trini, three, (Base ftffn.) 

4 ft ^iVnc:, ^tCWBlf ^^rmflCy chatvaraJj^^ chdtasrai^f chatvdriy four. 

'IJij cJuUur.) 

5 M iTV/MiAcAa, m. f. n. five. (Base VM9[^pafu:han.) 

6 \vpi^ shdty m. f. n. six. (Base ^^shash.) 

7 i9 ^nr sapid, m. f. n. seven. (Base JXVR{^saptan.) 

8 fc wwi ashfaii, m. f. n. eight (Base iRVt^ ashfan,) 

9 ^ ffViuifa, m. f. n. nine. (Base i^^m^navan.) 

10 ^0 ^ ddSa, m. f. n. ten. (Base ^TH^ daian.) 

11 ^ ^m^ ^iir^i^aia, eleven. (Base as in ^^19^ daian.) 

12 ^ ¥^[9 dvadaSa. 

13 ^^ ?Pihni trdyodaia. 

14 ^ "^VftV chdturdaia. 

15 ^M iN^ j^i^A^aia. 

16 ^ ifhrir shdifciSa. 

17 S.9 inn^ sapiddaia, 

18 ^t ^Bin^ ash{adaia. 

19 H^ ^n^ ndvadaia or 

V^fj^rfin UnavimSatii^. 

20 ^0 fr^flr: vi^dti^, fem. 

21 ^ ^nf^nfin ekavimiaiify. 

22 ^^ iir^yOi: dvdvimiati^. 

23 ^9 ?pitf^nifk: trayommiatih. 

24 ^i ^^reTyOi: chaiurvimSatii^. 

25 ^ ii^Ot^ni; panchavimiatiJ^, 

26 Hf Hri^Oi: shadvimiati^. 

27 ^ ^INDiynR: saptavifhiaiii^. 

28 ^b llBir49lOi: ashfdvimicUi^. 

29 ^ H^ntyOi: navaviihiatii^. 

30 ^0 f?!^!^^ trimidty fern. 

31 ^ ll^ircj^ll^ ekairimiat 

32 9^ YTf?T91^ dvdtrimiat. 

33 m ^TT^n^ irayastrimiat. 

34 ^i ^^Sf^SNn^ chatustritniat. 


35 ?M iMInn^j^ancAa/rimia/. 

36 ^<{ il^f)A^ shaftrimiat. 

37 ^ 4IHf)i V<^ saptatrimiat. . 

38 ^b WlOiv^ ash(dtrimSat. 

39 9^ •I^QhII^ navatrifhiat. 

40 to ^HIl(X(|l^ chatvdrifhidty fem« 

41 ^ l!4^i4irUll^6tacAa/v(frimia/. 

42 i^ Vl^i^l(t|l^ dvdchatvdrimiat or 
f^r^iVrft^ dvichatvdrimiat, 

43 ^9 ^irenrft^/rayaicAa/v^nmio/or 
rA^f^lftyi^ trichatvdrimiaL 

44 M ^A^i^ldj^iq^ chatuichatvdrimiai. 

45 dM M ^ ^^14 1 rUll^/^ancAacAtf /^({Wjnia/. 

46 M( N^^HIint^l^ shafchatvdHihiat. 

47 ^5 ^H^i^lfitlA «aj9/acAa/t;^rtinia/« 

48 ib llVl^i4in;iflaM^<^Aa/t;(frimia^ or 
Wf^i^in^lJJI^ ashtachaivdrimiat. 

49 i^ H^^KIinty ^ navachaivdrimiat 

50 MO li^T^i^ancAiiia/, fem. 

51 M^ i!4k 14^191^ ekapanchdiat. 

52 M^ fflM^llllA dvdpanchdiat or 
f^nrvT^ dvipanchdiat. 

53 M^ UCM^IIH<i, irayaipanchdiai or 
flRM'mitl^ tripancfidiat 

§ ^53- 



54 M« ^:^Nl^ chaiuhpaikchdiat. 

55 ^^ 'i^ M^ \^\panckapanchdiat. 
5^ *<*? '^^'^^'^I, 9hatpanchdiat. 

57 ^9 ^ H M^ I ^1 (^ saptapanchdiat 

58 Mb HflM^mn ^M^po^hdiat o] 

irrt^rrjn^^ ashtapafichdiaU 

59 M^ •IMM^mn^ navapaHchdiaL 

60 1(0 irf^ shashtthL^ fern. 

61 1(S IT^wflr: ekashashfiit. 

62 ^ Vl^fv: dvdahashiih, or 

f|r^: dvishashfiJjk. 
^3 M ^TO'lflr trayah^hashtUjk or 
f^RfV: trishashtiijt. 

64 l^t ^yuifV: chatushshashfii^. 

65 I^M TV^: panchaahashtil^, 

66 !{<{ It^^ffc shafshashfif^. 

'6y {^s ^Enmfr: sapitishashtilj^. 

68 <{t ^RVTirfT: (iskfdsh(i8hfiit or 

^rviff?: ashfashiuhfii^. 

69 1^^ "TRfv: navashashtiJ^. 

70 ,90 Ffffli: saptafif^, fem. 

71 »9S ^VffRflr: ekasaptaiii. 

72 5^ TT^nrfH: dvdsaptati^ or 

f^mrftr dvisaptatii^. 

73 9^ ^^I^hPit: trayal^aptaiiJ^ or 

f^wrfir: triaaptatih. 

74 <** ^:^nifw: chatu^aptaiii^. 

75 "^M ^HHIlftn panchaaaptatiff,. 

77 M Tnnmfk aaptasaptatih. 

78 t9b ^ranranifin ashfdsaptati^ 01 

W^hOi: aahffisaptatify. 
79 M H^^hDi: navasqptatii^. 

80 to ^nifHW: oi&fiil. 

81 tS ^nif^fHtr. ekditti^. 

82 t^ SHrtfln dvycMti^. 

83 t; 'q^rtfli: tryaiUii. 

84 M ^ fliJIiinf: cfiaturaiiti^. 

85 tM >i^n^BWn paHchdHtii. 

86 bit ^lIlAfln shaiaittih. 

87 t9 ^nn^ftfln saptdHtii^, 

88 bb ^VVT^I'HH: QshtdiiHh. 

89 b^ ^m^ftflr: navdiUih. 

91 ^^ C4«l^ni: ekanavaiih^ 

92 <^^ YPnrfift dvdnavatiii or 

fkrf^fln dvinavati^. 

93 ^^ ^Rt^nfli: trayonavaiih or 

f^n^^Hi: trinavatii (not 1 

94 ^i ^g^^Oi: chatumavfUih* 

95 ^M '^hnrrflr: pafichanavatH^. 

96 ^l^iimflr: Mannot^a/i^. 

97 ^5 «H«f«irfr: aaptanavatih. 

98 ^b WN<ini: ashidnavatih or 

isnnnfin askfanavatil^, 

99 <^^ H^H^f)r: navanavatih> or 

76 i9t( ^^mrftn shatsaptatih^. 

.100 soo ijnf ia/awi, neut. and masc. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 635.) 

loi so^ ^^wftrii ijrir ekddhikam kUam^ hundred exceeded by one ; or as a coin-> 

pound, I!4iin4«9lli ekddhika-iaiam^ or ?nmi^ ekaiatam^ as before. 
10a ^0^ srfW ?rf dvyadhikam iatam or %^ dviiatam, (Pft^i. vi. 3, 49.). 

103 ^0^ "arfVnt ^ tryadhikam iatam or ftnjlf triiaiatn. 

104 «io4 ^j[<fV%^ chaturadhikam iatam or ^^ chatu^atam. 

105 soM ^i^TfM% '^ panchddhikam iatam or iH^ j9ancAaia/am. 

106 ^olr ^iftri ^ sha4adhikam iatam or ^7^ sha(iatam. 

107 ^05 FRTfWr ^ saptddhikam iatam or ^rrr^ saptaiatcmt. 

108 sob ^rvrfVrtf ^ ashfddkikam iatam or ^VV^ ashtaiatam. (Pan. vi. 3, 49.) 

109 so^ ^rnfV^ ^ navddhikam iatam or if^^ navaiatam. 


122 KUMEEALS. § 253. 

no ^^0 ^^iifVfii ^ daiddhikam iatam or ^n^nf daiaiatam. 

Ill ^"W ^4 l <j[i i r w ^ ekddaiddhikam iatam or l!»mnn} ekddaiaiatam &c. 

or ^^Kn|[^ l(nf ekddaiam iatam, i. e. a hundred having eleven (in 

excess). Paij. v. a, 45, 
112^^^ TT^^nfVnir i^ni dvddaiddhikam iatam or Tt^ ^ dvddaiam iatam. 

1 13 ^^9 ?Rt^l?TfW4r )(nf trayodaiddhikam iatam or ^4)<;^ l(lii trayodaiam iatam. 

114 s^i ^ 4^ 91 1 ri(4 ^ chaturdaiddhikam iatam or ^g^ ^i ^l A chaturdaiam iatam* 

115 ^V\ ^'if^^nftr^r ^panchadaiddhikam iatam or ^i^^ ii[ipanchadaiam iatam. 

116 ^stf M^f^lirnA ^ shotfaiddhikam iatam or ^i^tl^ l|rff sho4aiam iatam. 

117 S^5 ^nr^^nfW^ ^it saptadaiddhikam iatam or ^Em^lRir'ap/actaiamia^am. 

118 ^^b ^irn?P(rrMr ^ aahtddaiddhikam iatam or WVT^ ^ ashtddaiam iatam. 

119 ^s<t «n^'^nfM^ '^fn navadaiddhikam iatam or fi«l<^l W 'uivac/aiam iatam. 

120 ^^0 f^^imfVv ^ vimiatyadhikam iatam or fnl ^ viiiiiam ia/am *. 

121 ^^S ^irf^^n^f^ ^ ekavimiatyadhikam iatam or mrf^ ^ ekavimiam 

iatam*, &c. 
130 s^o f^f^r^fVv ^ trimiadadhikam iatam or f^ ^ trimiam iatam*. 
140 sdo ^Vr9Tfc^r^fv% ^ c/uiivdri/hiadadhikam iatam or ^Hlft^ l|nf chatvd" 

rimiam iatam*. 
150 ^Mo ^Hrrp^Arir "^panchdiadadhikam iatam or ij^l^ i(|ff j^a/icAiiJam iatam* 

or ^!t9^ sdrdhaiatam, 100 +4- (hundred). 
160 sl{0 tmfv% ^ shashfyadhikam iatam or ivfV^ «AaM^i^a/am. 
170 ^$0 ^HimPhA ^ saptatyadhikam iatam or ilH 01^14 saptatiiatam. 
180 ^to v;flfiirM4 ^ aiityadhikam iatam or V^llOl^li aiitiiatam. 
190 H<^o «n7riV% ^ navatyadhikam iatam or tfCfOl^M navatiiatam. 
200 ^00 Ir ^ ^t'^ ^a/e or flnpir dvUatam or fy^ni^ dviicUt 
300 ^00 ?ff% ^tnrrf^ /r^ni jaMni or f?nrw triiatam. 
400 ioo ^iWlft ^nnf^ chatvdri iatdni or ^{T^W chatuhiatam, 
500 MOO irv ^nrrffT pancha iatdni or irv^ panchaiatam. 
600 <fOo ^ ^{nnf«T «Aa^ ia/dni or ^T^^ shafiatam. 
700 ^00 ^TR ^IiuPh «ap/a ia/^m or ?fin^ saptaiatam. 
^ 800 boo ^rv IHinf^ o^A^a iaMni or tnf^ ashfaiatam. 
900 <^oo fTT ^nirfW nava iatdni or tn^frtf navaiatam. 
1000 ^000 ^ ^nrrfW <^aia ia/(:{7ii or ^9T(r?rt daiaiati, fern., or i(r|# sahdsram^ 

neut. and masct 
2000 ^000 ir ^Vfir dve sahasre, 
3000 ^000 yffif^ Tr^9T% ^r^Tit sahasrani. 
10,000 so,ooo ^er^ ayutam^ neut. and masc.f 

* P&n. V. 3, 46. The same rules apply to W^ sahasram, 1000, so that loii might be 
^ rendered by ^^VT^ H^tJ ekddaiam sahasram, 1041 by ^^WWTftsI «^V ekachatvdrimiam 
sahasram, &c. t Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 635. 


§ 253- NUMERALS. 123 

100,000 soo^ooo Hlif laksham, neut. or fem.*, or ftfjw niyutam, neut. and masc.t 

One million, K^prayutam, neut. or masc* 

Ten millions, ^it^ ko(i, {em.X 

A hundred millions, V^ arbuda, masc. and neut 

A thousand millions, T^T^ mahdrbuda, masc. and neut., or "^tpnpadtna, neut., 
L e. lotus. 

Ten thousand millions, 1ft kharva, neut., i. e. minute. 

A hundred thousand millions, fimt mkharva, neut. 

A billion, f^nn mahdpadmay neut. 

Ten billions, :^ iafiku, masc, L e. an ant-hill. 

A hundred billions, ^^ iaf^kha, masc. neut., i. e. a conch-shelly or ^t^ 

samudra, masc.^ i.e. sea. 
A thousand billions, iTfn^ mahdiaiikha, or lirq antya, ultimate. 
Ten thousand billions, fn^ hdhd, masc, or mn madhya^ middle. 
A hundred thousand billions, wp[if^fnahdhdhd, or '^^parardha^ i. e. other half. 
One million billions, jp^ dAuna, neut. 
Ten million billions, >TfT^ mdhddhuna. 

A hundred million billions, nuj^ 1^1(0 akshauhini^ fem., i. e. a host. 
A thousand million billions, iffFsfH^^ tnahdkshatihint 

In the same manner as ^rftn adhika, exceeding, 7K9f Una^ diminished, may 
be used to form liumerical compounds. 4^Jt^ ^ pafichonam iatam or 
^^^lUn paftchonaiatam, 100 —5, i. e. 95. If one is to be deducted, tsr iina, 
without ^iv eka, suffices. iRf^l^flr: Unavirhiatib, or lE^^vfr^vHllt ekonaviihiaUby 
20 —I, Le. 19. Another way of expressing nineteen and similar numbers 
is by prefixing wwm ekdnna, i. e. by one not ; ^^rnfff ^rfvt ekdnnavimiati^, 
by one not twenty, 1. c. 19. (P&9. vi. 3, 76.) 

Declension of Cardinals, 
Singular. '^ ^*^' ^^®- Plural. 


N. ^WC ikaf^ fW 4kd ^ ^am '^ eke WlSC 4kdh H^iPh &idn% 

A. "WM^kam '^:^(kdm Vik4kam "WW^ikdn ^Wt ^<i^ F^Wfif^^^nt 

I. ^[^ (kena in^RT 4kayd ^^^Ff ^em ^: ^aih ^Wtftr: ikdhhifi ^t 4kaih 

D. ^^mi^^kasmai l^S^ ikasyai VW^ ^asmai vk^l^ebhya^^W^.^dbhyahVy^^Ukebhyah 
Ab. ^:^mT^^Ska8mdtW:^Sml4kasydl^W^fm^^^^asmdi ^ipsv:4kebhyc^T^:W(^:ikdbhya^'^k^:^ebhyah 
G. ^!Wf^^ixsya ^^S^Ukasydf^W^fi^^asya K^nl^keshdm ^4i\Hl ikdsdin K^Hiikeshdm 
L. W^(\§t\^(^asmin'^^S'^^asydm^^UH^(^kasmin K^^^esku <s«wq ^dsu ^w^ekeshu 
V. ^3S^a ^ifite ^^<^a l^/ifcc WWil ^dh W^fnf^ 4kdni 

* Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 635. t Amara-Kosha iii. 6, 3, 24. 

]: A different string of names is given in theVdjasan.-SanhitiL xvii. 2. See also Woepcke, Merooire 
8ur la propagation des chiffres indiens (1863), p. 70 ; Lalita-vistara, ed. Calcutt. p. 168. 

R 2 




^ 254. ffgdvi, two^ base T dva, like ivfir Mn^a (^ 238). 



N. A. V. ift drai^ t rfr^ 

I. D. Ab. yp^ dodbhydm TfV^ dodbhydm 

$ 2^55- ftr ^^i three, fem. fir^ <Mft. 


^J'^ dodbhydm 
Tljte dvdyofk 

N.V. ?nn*r(fyaj 
A. ?rt«^*r»i 

I. f^vfn: frid^^ 

G. ipn^ini <ray^ 
L. 1^ triskd 

fiXBl tisrdf^ (PA9. VI. 1, 166) 

ftf^Hft tisiibhyafi 
tfT^Si HsfVfdmf 

fcr>n tribhydh 

$ 256. ^VJ^ chatur^ four, fem. ^h^ chatasri, 

N. V. ^ifRTC chatvdra^ (P&n. vii. i , 98) ^V1I9! ehdtasrah 

A. ^fjt: cAoh^oA (PA9. VI. 1, 167) 

I. ^V^f^ cAo/i^&AiA 

D. Ab. ^9^ chai^bhyafi 

G. ^plr cAotufii^m 

L. ^^3^ chatArshm 

^VlP|<m chatasr^hyaft 
^4^^i chatiurvfdm f 

•^HUfi. ehatvari ' 
^3^ chatdrbhyah 


iN«^/>ancAany five. ^«A(mA^ six. tnn^a^A/an^ eight 


N.A.V. ir^prf«cAa 

I. iprfir: |iaticAi6A»A t ir^. shatfbha 

D. Ab. '^H^n/MiiScA^Aya^ ^T^^ sha4bhydf^ 
L. "^i^iC^paiichdsu 

^ivt ofAfoic or ^IV ash^d 

^rrfW: o«&/^A^ or m^ as^dbhi^ II 

WT^t ashtdbhydh or ^IVV<n ashtdbhya^ 

WRfi askfdndm % 

tH9l^ ashfdsd or ^VV^ ashfdsu 


Cardinals with bases ending in «^ », such as 9II9( saptan, ff^ naran, 
|ri^ daiariy l» 411^)1^ ekddaian^ &c., follow the declension of ^q^ pafichan. 
fHipfin vimiati^ is declined like a feminine in ^i; those in it / like feminines 
in II ^; 1(17 iafam like a neut. or masc. in IV a. 

$ 258. The constraction of the cardinals from i to 19 requires a few remarks. W^ eka 
is naturally used in the singular only, except when it means some ; ^% ^^^^ eke vadantif 

* Not firo tisiifi, nor "^nw; chatasf{!i. (Accent, PAp. vi. i, 167, v&rt.; vii. 3, 99, v&rt.) 

t Not ftPTOT tisriifdm, nor ^WOTrf chatasjiiridm (PAn. vi. 4, 4), though these forms occur 
in the Veda and Epic poetry. 

t Accent, P&n. vi. i, 180 j i8i. || P&n. vi. i, 172. H P&n. vii, i, 55. 

-^ 259. KUMBBALS. 125 

some people say. % dvi is always used as a dual^ all the rest from 3 to 1 9 as plurals. 
Ex. f^ffin ^[^% tribhih purushaii^, with three men ; <<«i^^i ^^m^ekdda^a pwnuhdn, eleven 
men, ace. The cardinals after four do not distinguish the gender; ^^iii^^i «flO* tkddaia 
ndrih, eleven women, aco. 

While the numerals from i to. 19 are treated as adjectives, agreeing with their substan- 
tives in gender, if possible, and in number and case, N^ihi* vimiatihk and the rest may be 
treated both as adjectives and as substantives. Hence HJ^iGi: ^i^l[|i viMatil^ datrih^, 
twenty enemies, or ft^fflT ^ici^* viMatifi iatraoaft: ^flR fVi^isi shask^ ^avafi, sixty 
boys ; '^ MIc^lP*! datam phaldtti, a hundred fruits ; f^VV^ ^^ triMatd vriddkaifi, by thirty 
elders ; '^ ^i^nl iatam ddsindm or '^ qitm* iatam ddsyafi, a hundred slaves ; Tll[f( 
f^niTt sahasram pitaraft, a thousand ancestors. 

Exceptionally these cardinals may take the plural number : 4^l||f)|(% pafiehiUadbhir 
hayaili, with fifty horses. 

j 259. Ordtnali. 

. iTinn, *^, ^, prathamdl^. Ay am^ *] 
^fff^:^ °m, ®^, agrimdfyy dy am, > the first, 
^rrfipn, °m,'^, ddimdhk. dy amy J 
ftnrhn, ®^> ^ dvUtyaf^y dy amy the second. 
ipN:, °in, *^ tfitiyahy 4, am^ the third. 
^fj^, Nf, ^, ehatwrtkdhy U am, ^ 
^9^* **^, °^ turlyai^y dy am, I the fourth. 
1^> "^^j °% turyaJ^ dy amy J 

'^^P^y ^, ^, j9a/u?Aa9mC^, /^ am, the fifth* 
^>vn, ^, ^y ahashthdfyy i, amy the sixth. 
^nw:, ^ift, ®«?, sapiamdl^y <, am, the seventh. 
^I?it:, ^f ^y ashfamdiky i, am, the eighth. 
^TW:, ®ift, *^, navamdf^y i, am, the ninth. 
^[HR:, °«ft, °ir, daiamdhy U «^> the tenth. 
^'W^j *^^f ^^9 ekddaidl^y f, am, the eleventh. 
^n^:, °^, ®^, navadaSd^y i, amy 
'^K9(f^*f °^> °^, dnavimidJjty i, amy 
^^WyO i aii: , "^9 ^'il, dfutvifhiatitamdiy iy am 


the nineteenth. 

f^. o^. o^. viMd^, f, am (P&9. v. 2, 56), 1 ^j^^ t^, 
W^lflm i ;> °ift, °4, «t)ft<a/(<am<i^, t, am, J 

«5|n, o,^, o^ <nm<«f*, r, am, 1 the thirtieth. 

i?nnnT:, ^, ^> trifhiattamdJ^y ty am^ J 
^Wlfl^°^ o^, chatvdrinMh, i, am, 1 ^^ ^^^^^ 

^HtintyiH:) ^j ^^9 chatvdrifkiattamdky if am^ J 

^'^np, ^, *^, panchdSdi^ 

r:, **ift, ®H, panchdSaiiamdijt 

;?' '» ""*♦ , 1 the fiftieth. 

IsatiamdJjky i, am^ J 

126 NUMERALS. § a6o- 

— ,^ 

irfvinn shashtitatndfyy the sixtieth *. 

^f^mflnnr: ekaahashfitamdi^j 

^^m ekashashtdhi 

^cnrfrnnf: saptatitamd^, the seventieth. 

l!MHniA4i: ekaaaptatitamdhA ^, . /, . 

> the seventy-first. 
^sRnnn ekasaptatd^, J *^ 

V^llfflAH; aiitUamdJ^y the eightieth. 

....>. ' > the eighty-first. 

^^j^. ekdiiidh, J ^ ^ 

^nfinPT:» ^, ^, navaiUamdi^, i, am, the ninetieth. 

KUtf^OlAH: ekanavatitamd^, \ ., • . ^ ^ 

V the ninety-first. 

r: ekanavatdJ^y J 

^nnPTty °ift; *^, iatatamdh^ <, am, the hundredth. (P&^. v. a, 57.) 
l!4iVAAH: ekaiatatamdl^y the hundred and first. 
^T^HiPr: sahasratamdl^, the thousandth, 

j a6o. Numerical Adverbs and other Berivaiives. 

>enp^ sakfit, once. IHIVf e^ad%4^ in one way. 

%: <fot^, twice. ffin dvidhd or INt dvedhd, in two ways, 

f^ trihy fhrice. f^m f ncIA4 or d^ tredhd^ in three ways. 

^ chaiui, four times. ^ig^ chaiurdhd, in four ways. 

iHnfi^ j^ancAaAp/va^^ five times. 'q^rVT/'ancAa^Ad, in five ways, 

il^^pi: shatkfitva^, six times, &c. 1^ shoifhd, in six ways, &c. (or i|Ti|T ?) 

^^i|^ ekaiai^, one-fold« 

f^nin dviSaif two-fold. 

ftpj; triiai, three-fold, &c. (P&i?. v. 4, 43.) 

v4 dvayam or fkinf dvitayam, a pair. (P&Q. v. 2, 42.) 


If4 tray am or ftnr4 trUayam or ?nift <rayl, a triad. 
^«gf4 chatushfayam, a tetrad. 
'^^Vn^i'a^Aatoyam, a pentad, &c. 

These are also used as adjectives, in the sense of five-fold &c., and may 
then form their plural as v^nmtpanchataydf^ or v;^^ paHchataye (^ 283). 

"^mpanchaiy a pentad, ^^ daiai^ a decad (P&Q. v. i, 60), are generally 
used as feminine; but both words occur likewise as masculine in the 
commentary to P&n. v. i, 59, and in the KHsikft-Vritti. 

^ The ordinals from sixty admit of one form only, that is IHH tamafL; but if preceded 
by another numeral, both forms are allowed (P&p. v. 3, 58). '^ datam forms its ordinal as 
^nnnn iatatamai. only (PAp. v. 2, 57). 

-J 261. 





J 261. Personal Pronouns. 

Base (in composition) m mad and Base (in composition) iw; tvcul and 

H9V7 asmad. 


N. irt ahdm^ I 

A. Kf mamy in md^ me 

I. iRT mdydy by me 

D. inff mdhyamy ^ m^, to me 

Ab. T^mdt, from me 

G. YR tndma, ^ m^^ of me 

L. ^f^ mdyiy in me 


iW /v^m, thou 

Hrf <rai», m /t;(!{^ thee 

f^in tvdydy by thee 

^ tUbhyam^ ^ te, to thee 

ffVI^ /vii/, from thee 

ir^ tdvaj ^ te, of thee 

fWftl ^V(fyt, in thee 


N. WTHf 4»<M?*, we two ^prf yuvdm, you two 

A. ^rnt ^</m, ^ notf, us two ^[^ yuvdm, ^ t^^m^ you two 

!• ^mr^ dvabhydm, by us two ^^TT^ yuvdbhydm, by you two 

D. ^rnrP^ dvabhydm, ^ na«^ to us two ^pn^ yuvabhydm, ^ t;(!{m^ to you two 

Ab. in^piilf dvdbhydm, from us two ^^V^ yuvdbhydm, from you two 

Q. lin^ifk dvdyoh, fft «ai*, of us two ^^pfh yuvdyo^, ^ t?4w, of you two 

L. VTTJV: dvdyo^, in us two f^njh yuvdyol^, in you two 

N. Ti vaydm, we 

A. ^r^n^ asmdn^ '^^ nai^, us 

I. W9n5?: asmdbhii^, by us 

D. Il9r4 asmdbhyam, ic nai^, to us 

Ab. ^BT^n^ asmdty from us 

G. ^r^RFi asmdkam, tf: na$, of us 

L. ir^RTI asmdsu, in us 


^ ydydm, you 

Tpn^ yushmdn, m vai^, you 

Y^nfW: yushmdbhih, by you 

^9fv4 yushmdbhyam, ^ t;a$, to you 

^pm ytf^Am^^ . from you 

^^irNi ytuthmdkam, m vah^ of you 

^^9Tr| yushmdsu, in you 

The substitutes in the even cases, iTT wa, ^ »wc, iff nau, in naij, WT /v<i, 
ir ^«, ^ t;<i/», ^ t?a§, have no accent and are never used at the beginning of 
a sentence, nor can they be followed by such particles as ^ cha, and, in vd, 
or, CT eva, indeed, ^ ha, ^n^ aha. 




§ 2,6%^ 


§ 26%. Base (in composition) n^ tad^ he^ she^ it. (Accent, Pa^.vi. i, iSa.) 








W^ftdh ^si 



wn id(i infH tdni 


it tdm ni tim 



irn f (!^ inf«f /^ns 


ihf tifM TRT tdyd 

ihr tdifui 


in^ tdibhih 1h ^0^^ 


l[m tdsnud IT^ tdsytd 

Km tdsmai 

ffW tdbhydhk 

HT»nf^Aya^ ^[^.tdbhyafL 


.imr^tdmidt H^mitdsydh Kmnf^tdmdi 

iN: tibhyai^ 

\ HTV>n idbhyaiL flMH tdbhyafk 


imt4sya Wmitdsyd^ irm idsya 


wmf ^^<^ iNi ^^A^ 


nfw^tdsmn K^H tdfydm 

Icf^SRl^ tdsmin 

ITT^ <^ i^ '^A« 




N.A. l^iau 



I. D. Ab. TTvqi tdbhydm 

IIT^ tdbhydm 

TTPft tdbhydm 

G.L. iritltdyol^ 

inftt /(fyoA 

inih r<£yo^ 

§ 363. Base (in composition 









^n tydft ^n syd 



' im: tyd(t> wrftf *y tf«t 


li tydm Tlf tydm 



wt: /y^ iinftf <yi»» 


R«T iydna THH tydyd 


^: fya<!^ 

Trrfk: fy/&Ai^ d:<yaa 



TTP^n tydbhydm 
tl tydyo^ 

D. m^<y<i«ma« TTF^ /y^Csyot TT^ ^yeCsnmt ^^ /y^Aya^ 7ITW /y^Aya^ N^t/y^ftyoA 

Ab. VI^^^Tf^tydtrndt Wmi: tydsydh W^^THtydsmdi W^l tydbhya^ VITW tydbhyai ^ W tydbhyah 

G. 7l^/y<^a "Ft^BHl tydsydlt W^ tydsya m^tydshdm W^i tydsdm wmHtydshdm 

L. n(\lH«f^^yc£»iim iHt<<( tydsydm Af^^tydsmin W^ tydshu 791^ fy^nc N^ fy^Au 



N.A. ?ft/yarf ^ fy^ 

I. D. Ab. ?n«rt tydbhydm W^ tydbhydm 

G. L. ?nffc /yefyo^ ?nfh ^y(fyoA 

Possesrive Pronouns. 
§ 264. From the bases of the three personal pronouns, possessive adjectives 
are formed by means of ^ iya. 

^^ly ®^, °4, tnadiyah, yd^ yam, mine, 
ff^t^, *^, ^, tvadtyal^y yd, yam, thine* 
IRfNt, *^, ^, tadiyat^y yd, yam, his, her, its. 
vm^lii:, **HT, ^, asmadiyahy yd, yam, our. 
f^W{^, ®HT, ®^, yuahmadiyahy yd, yarn, your. 
Tl^^, ^UT, ^, tadiyahy yd, yam, their. 
Other derivative possessive pronouns are v^tf^X* mdmdkaf^, mine; im^ 
tdvdkali^ thine; vnmic dsmakafi, our; ^orni: yau«Am(JA:aA, your. Likewise 

♦ P&n. iv.3, 1-3; IV. 1,30; VII. 3, 44. 


^rnrafhn mdmakinahy mine ; aim^IhI tdvaktnal^, thine ; Himi^lHi dsmdkinai^, 
our ; 4)^|«1iu: yaushmdkti^^ youf • 

Befleanve Pronouns. 

§ 2,65. wisvaydm^ self, is indeclinable. ^Qr4 ^im^wayam vfitavdn, I chose 
it myself thou chosest it thyself, he chose it himself; I9r4 ^^imA wayam vfita- 
vati, she chose it herself; ^ri ^TRin way am vfUavanfai^, we, you, they chose 
it by our, your, themselves. 

§ z66. wtjf(9{dtmdn, self, is declined like mp^ brahman {§ 1 92). Ex. viiii|4|ilh 
HHIT ^i|^ dtmanam dtmdndpaiya, see thyself by thyself, gnosce te ipsum ; vninrt 
ifH Ifimdtmano doshamjMtvd, having knovm his own &ult« It is used in the 
singular even when referring to two or three persons : vmnit ^^HMMI ipn 
dtmano deiam dgamya mfitdi^ having returned to their country, they died. 

§ ^6y. 9:, ^, ^, svdi^f wdj svdm, is a reflexive adjective, corresponding 
to Latin suuSy sua, suum. ^ ^ '^fx svam putram djishfvd, having seen his 
own son. On the declension of 9 sva, see j 278. 

Demonstrative Pronouns, 
§ z6S^ Base (in composition) inrf etad, this (very near). 

SiNOULAB* Plural. 


N. WV*eihd^ ^^etjb/ Wfni^etdt ^ eti Wmi etdh Wlttf^ etdfd 

A. ^tf/dm ^WteUbn WfR^^etdt 'Hf^^etdn WKH etdh WWtt^ etdni 

I. ^nt^et^M Wintetdyd l^imet^na J[lh eta<h inn9^. etabhih T^tetaCh 

D. ^:W^etdsmai VIT^etdsjfai ^K^ etdsmai whmeiAhyah ^^fnpiV*etdbhifah whmetMyait 
Ab. WWWn!^etdsnUU WJT^Iflt etdsydh W9f^inf{etdsmdi l^^^^et^hyah ^WtV* etdbhyah TW^eiSbhyah 
G. ^K^etdaya WIT^Bftletdsydh WK^ etdsya ^^ etAhdm WKX^ etdadm 4!fl^t etAhdm 
L. Ui^^etdsmin ^W^ etdiydm ^At^^etdsmin vk^etMu WKV^etdsu ^n^etishu 



N.A. mieiad ^ etd itk etd 

l.D. AJb.WWPf^ etdbhydm WlH^etdbhydm VWV^ et^kydm 

G. L. Vir^l etdyoi ^JPft: etdyoi ^umI; etdyo^ 

^ 269. Base (in composition) ^ idam, this (indefinitely). (Accent, P&9. 

VI. I, 171.) 

Singular. Plural. 


N. ^aydm l^iydm J^iddm '^imd Jfi^imdh ^ifn imdni 

A. ^tnuftn J^imdm JJ^iddm l^j^imdn ^J^.mih ^.ifn imdni 

I. nihran^ia WSmandyd ^i^aii^ ffif: «6*A Wf^.dbh^ .ffilt^ftA^ 

D. ^1^ asmai H^ asyai ^^ asmai ^?W ebhydh "VT^: dbkydi^ W)^* thhydf^ 

Ab,'%m^a8mdt WWl asydfi W^H^^arndt W^^ebhydf^ mW^dbhydfL W[^: ebhydh 

G. ^T^V asyd "V^BfK asydlk ^tW^ asyd ^^ eskdm WT^ dsdm W^ eshdn 

L. ^Kf^9^asm4n WPAasydm "V^r^afm^* W^esh4 ^T^dsd ^eshd 





§ 270- 




N.A.V. ^^imad 
I.D.Ab. WCf^ dbhyim 

^VP^ dbhyim 

WM|f dbhyim 
1IH41« andyoik 

§ 370. >nf^e/eii/ and ^tdc^, when repeated in a second sentence with reference to a 

preceding "^f^etad and ^ idam, Y«ty in the following cases, by substituting ^ ena, which 

has no accent. 

Singular. Plural. 


A,^eium Wyfiendm ^«n^«ia/ A,W,H\^endn ^^ endfi K^Sn endni 

r. ^^vfeitena ^9fmenayd KMn enena 



A. ^«Tr enott ^ ene ^ ene 

G.L. ^fffb enayoh^ 4!H^I enayo^ t^nnl; enayo^ 

Ex. ^I^«T ^m^PGOTAv ^ "lll^sinmil anaui oy^aro^Miiii odMtam, enam chhando ^dhyd- 
payOj the gramnuir has been studied by this person, teach him prosody. 

innfh ^if^ ^f?$ ^ti'4^: IV^ ^ anoyoA pavitram kukan, mayo^ prabhUtam tvam, 
the fEonily of these two persons is decent, and their wealth vast. 

§ 2yi* Base (in composition) ^f^adas^ that (mediate)* 

d ' > A 


■\ t 




N. irOT{uai^ 

^Rw a«ai^ 


A. ^f^amdm 


^: a(2r£/^ 

I. ^R^pn amdnd 

^r^irr amuya (Rv. i 

. 39, 5) ^J^'n axw&fid 

D. WIJ'R ami&Amat 

^1^^ amtlsftyaf 

yw^( amdshmai 

Ah. Vy^ll^ami&Afii^ 

H^vrn amdshyd^ 

VI|"M 11^ amdshmdi 

G. 1II|V| amdshya 

H^vrn amdshydft 

11*1 ■! amdshya 

L« ^^rUif|^ antllsAfntn 

Vy^lt amdshydm 

%i9jP^9{^ amdshmm 




N. Vft omf 

in|t om^ 


A. ^n|^aml2ii 

^1^: aml2^ 

in|ffT ameni 

I» ^VIlAfii: amlAki^ 

^P{fWs aml{6At^ 

IpfKii: am/&Atj& 

D. Ab. ^n^ft^: amiAhyaft 

^n|j|<i: amdbhyalk 

H*rtW amifhya^ 

G« WfKlf am<9A^m 

^Vf;^ arnishdm 

WiflMt amishdm 

L. ^nft^ aim^hu 



Wfi^ amUhu 

N.A.V.^am/ LD.Al 

). in{J^f amdbhydm 

G. L. irpnt omt^yo^ 




Belaiive Pronoun. 
^ %^2. Base (in composition) ^yddy who or which* 






N. THyajk -^Xyi -^ydt 

A. ^ydm ^yim '^^ydt 

I. H^ySna '^^ydyd ^[^y4na 

D. ^Kmydsmai ^(^ydsyai Vl^ydstnai 
Ab. ^^^RJf{^ydsmdi HfMU ydsydfi ^^^ffX^ydstndt 

G. VP^ydsya ^^f^^* ydtydl^ ^^(^ ydsya 

L. ^hi^ydsmm ^1^ ydsydm Vf^fl^jydsmin 

My^ it: yd^ 

^: y^hyaik 'TW: yibkyd^ 


N.A.V. -^yad 
I.D.Ab. 'm^yibhydm 
G. L. ^ni^ y(^o^ 




^■VMt yabkydm 

^nftt y<^o/^ 


^n^llf yibhydm 

THut y<^o^ 

^ ^73* Base (in composition) f% Km, 

Who or which 1 







N. MXhdii Wkd fiikim 

A. ^hdm '^kdm ftk^m 

I. w^kina mtkdyd n^k^M 

D. ^mkdsmai ^S^kdsyai ^mkdimai 
Ab. limi1^A(£nii(^^ ^l^rn it^d^ ^IWnr ib<£im^r 

G. ^V9I kdtya ^K^l kdtydh ^V9I Arifjya 

L. ^(ifi^^kdsmm m^l kdsydm '^S^^kdtmin 

'kk^ WXkii^ 

-m^kin "mXkih 

% ka£t^ HffW: kibhih 

ikni: kibhya^ ^IW kdbhyah 
ilra: ib^AyaA im^* kdbhyah 

^ kishu W^ kdi 








N.A. -^kad 
I.D.Ab. 'm^kdbhydm 
G.L. m^*kdyofi 





4ilMli kdbhydm 

m^* kdyo^ 


Wl^ kdbhydm 

§ 374. Pronouns admit the interposition of V^ ah before their last vowel or syUable, to 
denote contempt or dubious relation (P&9.V. 3> 71). W^^Mvayakd^ By theel instead of 
FHIT tvayd. ^^«pft: ywakayol^^ Of you two ! ^H^WlfWl asmakdbhih^ii^ us I W^ayakam. 
^«J o^o^atf, &c. (See Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 706.) 

s 2, 


Compound Pronouns. 

§ 275. By adding i^driS, "^driid, or i^drihha, to deitaiti pronominal 
bases, the following compound pronouns have been formed : 

irnp^ tddfii, irr^ tddriia, ril^H| tddjiksha, such like. 
tttrp[ etddrii, ieh i ^I etddfiia, WKT^ etddriksha, this like* 
trr^ya^Hly tcn^yddfiid, '^ii^ yddrihlia, what like. 
$^ idrii, ^^ f^fr^a, ^^ idriksha, this like. 
'ifftp^M^frJl, ^fi^ Mcffjia, ^Ift^ kidfikahd, What lik6? 

These are declined in three genders, forming the feotiinine in ^ 1 '^^'^ 
tddrik, m.n.; KTpff iddriSij f.; or Tirpr:, °?ft, ^, tddriial^, ?, am. Similarly 
formed are m^ mddfiia, Hl^^l tvddfiSa, like me, like thee, &c« 

{ 276. By adding ^ va/ and ^ yat to certain pronominal bases, the 
following compound pronouns^ implying quantity, have been formed : 

m^ tdvat^ so much, 1 

WKTW\etdvai, so much, I- declined like nouns in '^vai (§ 187). 

Jfm^^ydvaty as much, J 

CTlf fyo/, so much, l 

f^ %«/, How much 1 1 ^^ ^y^ mft M^ ^ M. 

Note — On the declenBion of Wk kdti, How many? irfit tdH, so many, and irfW yciift, as 
many, see § 231. 

§ 277. By adding f^ chU, ^iPT cAona, or wfV| apt, to the interrogative 
pronoun fv ^m, it is changed into an indefinlt4^ pronoun. 

Tasfim^kaichity wtP^kdchii, fTilf^f{^kithchit, some one; also 'wf^kachchit , 

^TOff kaichana, WT^R kdchana^ fw^^kimchanay some one. 
litsfiv ko ^pi, ^irrf^ kdpi, f^sp(f^ kimapi, some one. 

In the same manner indefinite adverbs are formed ; w^ kadd^ When ? 
'W^(lf^Hkaddchit, WfJ^R kaddchana^ once ; 9 kva^ Where 1 if TBpP^ na kvdpi, 
not anywhere. 

Sometimes the relative pronoun is prefixed to the interrogative, to render 
it indefinite : iK m yaJ^ kaJ^^ whosoever ; i|^ 'is^ yasya kasya, whosesoever. 
Likewise it: vf^Sff^yai^ kaichit, whosoever, or in litl yd^ kaScha, or in ^l^if 
yai^ kaichana. 

The relative pronoun, if doubled, assumes an indefinite or rather distributive 
meaning: ift in, in iVT, inr^, yo yah, yd yd, yad yad, whosoever. Occasionally 
the relative and demonstrative pronouns are combined for the same purpose : 
iVH^ yattad^ whatsoever. 

§ a78- 



Pronominal Adjectives. 

^ 278. Under the name of SarvaTidmany which has been freely translated 
by Pronoun^ but which really means a class of words beginning with sarva, 
native grammarians have included, besides the real pronouns mentioned 
before, the following words which share in common with the real pronouns 
certain peculiarities of declension. They may be called Pronominal Adjectives, 
and it is to be remembered that they 'are affected by these peculiarities of 
declension only if they are used in certain senses. 

I. ;irt sarva, all; 2n fnv viSva, all; 3. "9^ ubha^ two; 4. ^^nr ubhaya, 
both; 5. w^ anyuy other; 6. ^sc^nrt anyaiara, either; 7. jKK.iiara, other; 
8. n tva, other (some add iWl^ tvai, other) ; 9. words formed by the suffixes 
T7R tara and wm tama, such as 9. innc kaiara, Which of two? 10. 'WIR katama, 
Which of many? lo. TR sama, all ; 11. ftnr simoj whole ; 12,^ nema, half 
13. ^^ eAa, one; 14. '^ pilrva^ east or prior; 15. '^tpafUy subsequent 
16. vqt avara, west or posterior ; 17. ^^^ dakshiiia, south or right 
1 8. 7f9t uttara, north or subsequent ; 19. w^ apara, other or inferior 
20. ^N^ adhara^ west or inferior ; %i. t^ sva^ own ; 2z. thnc anta/ra^ outer, 
(except WilTT ^ antard pili^y suburb,) or lower (scil. garment). 

If TR sama means equal or even, it is not a pronominal adjective ; nor ^ft|lV 
dakshi'^, if it means clever ; nor ^ sva, if it means kinsman or wealth ; nor 
WKt, arUara, if it means interval, &;c.; nor any of the seven from "^p^rva to 
^N^ adhara^ unless they imply a relation in time or space. Hence ^[flpn Tnnn 
dakshind gdthakdl^y clever minstrels; Tiru: ^f^: uttardf^ kuravai^, the northern 
Kurus, (a proper name); ir^[jn: 'wnprabhittd^ wdfy^ great treasures (K&s. 1. 1,35); 


C ^WW gramayor m 

fUare vasatt, he lives 

between the two vii 






^t sdrvafk* 

^^ sdrvau 

^n sdrve 


^ sdrvam 

Wn sdrvau 

Wl«t^ sdrvdn 


M^m sdrvei^ 

^ifr^ sdrvdbkydm 

^S^l sdrvail^ 



wTWrf sdrvdbkydm 

?l$^t sdrvebkyafb 


. ^^MH^sdrvasmdt 

^rtrwrf sdrvdbkydm 

"Wm^ sdrvebkyah 



n%M\l sdrvayoft 
WMli sdrvayofi 

^HM »drve*hdni 
^Crfj sdrvesku 


^l^(y^^ sdrvasmtn 


^ sdrva 

'win sdrvau 

^ sdrve 






W^ sdrve 

^flJ sdrvdf^ 


^nX sdrvdm 

^ sdrve 

^tIt: sdrvdk 

♦ Accent, P&ij. vi. 1, 191. 




I. 94^ sdrvayd 

Ab. flf^M'l* sdrvasydl^ 
G. ^rfwn sdrvasydf^ 


^rtT>^ sdrvdbhyi 
^BWWt sdrvdbhyi 
^Af^ sdrvdbhyi 
V!^pftt sdrvayoft 
irflft; sdrvayoh 


^ilf^ sdrvdbh 
^T^MJ sdrvdbk 
imW sdrvdbk 
"II^IIll sdrvdsdn 
«^i^ sdrvdsu 


N.A.V. ^s^frvom 
The rest like the masculine. 

^ 279. ^piT anya^ ^mnfT anyatara, '^JR itarOf ^nrc kaiara^ ^inr kcUama, 
take If / in the Nom. AccYoc. Sing, of the neuter : 
Nom. Sing. ^Pin anjra^, masc. ; wsiVT an^^, fern. ; W^onya^^ neut. 

j r%8o. "W^ ubha is used in the Dual only : 
Masc. N. A. V. "wiubhaUf I. D. Ab. tht^ ubhdbhydm, O. L« ^TH^ ubhayoi: 
W ttAA«, N, A. V. fern, and neut 
{ 281. Tinn ttdAaya^9 ^^-yf, ^ -yam^ is never used in the Dual, but only 
in the Sing, and Plur. Haradatta admits the Dual. 




N. 'THIT: ubhaydf^ 
A. tnni vhhayam 
I« ^Oni^ nhhaym 
D. ^TOUw ubhaya 

^^Al vbhayaiik 
^tSfia^* ubhayeb 

$ 38a. The nine words from ^^piSroa to -inKantara (14 to 33)» though used in their 
pronominal senses^ may take in the Nom. Plur. ^t or V* ah: in the Abl. Sing. ^IIIIoti^ 
or ^m^o/; in the Loc. Sing. f^1^<mtf» or ^t. 

N. ^[^ pitrvafk 

A. YJ^pHrvam 

I. ^jtaptfrpc^a 

D. ^[4^ pdrvasmai 

Ab. }^WH^pitrv(umdi 

G. ^i^mpHrvasya 



^K^Twrf pdrvdbhydm 
^V^ pUrvdbhydm 
^^iHI pdrvdbhydm 

^pdrve or ^[tlJ pdrvdft 


^^^ pdrvebhyah 
^M pdrveshdm 

kvasmin or ^pdrve ^H\lpdrvayoh 

$ 383. The following words may likewise take Ht o^ or ^ t in the Nom. Plur. masc. 
(PA9. 1. 1, 33.) 

inpn prathama^f first, H^PlT /»raMama«x IHR prathame or inPfH prathamdh; fem. 

iiM«ii prathamd. 
mm charamahf last, ^T^JT cAaramatf, ^Tln chrome or ^IDRT! cAoram^. 
flnnn dcUayal^f two-fold, fem. Pan^l dvitayi, and similar words in IHV tayaj T^nRt tritayah, 

three-fold : f?Til% tritaye or fclfl^U tritaydk. 


yiR doayaftf two-fold, fern. W^ dvayi, and similar words m^Btyaj IPC trayaf^. 
W^* a^af^j few, ^V^ alpe or W9nt alpdlt. 
^: ori^Aa^, half, ^ ardhe or H^: ort^A^a. 
^Hi^h; katipayah^ some, ^iflnra katipaye or ^iOmiJIt katipaydh, 
nT! iMmaj^, half, nf neme or ^SfTS nemdh. 
In aU other cases these words are regular, like ^ihn kdntafi. 

§ 384. %lrt^! dvitiyah and other words in ifhl /^ya are declined like ^iflf kib^ta^ hut in 
the Dat. Abl. and Loc. Sing, they may follow ^ sarva. 



N. fkfll^* dviiiyafi fMNi c?of%a» 1^1^ 111: dmtiydh 

A, (ki^M dntiyam fMiH^dntiyau Unffm^dinHydii 

I. (tlffl4^ dviHyena fk lA^nMlt doittydbhydm ffffXHtdmHyaih 

D. fMHm doiHydya or fJTlfN^ doitiyatmai fW^t^X^dcittydbhydm ftak'^*dwtiyd)hyaik 
Ab. (ll a1 I|! I^drt/fy^ or Dl rf)l4 Wl fl^<lDt%a«m^ fl |A4||M|| dviiiydbhyAn fMtH^^dvitiyebhyafi 

G. Ojlillll^l dviHyasya Otiif\H^l doiHyayo^ Pi ill IIh! dmHydndm 

L. f\nrt^c{i»<fy« or rknlHRfi«\c?9t%a«mt» f^Allllltt doitiyayoli f^lfii^doiHyeshu 

At the end of Bahuviihi compounds the SarvanAmans are treated like ordinary words : 
Dat. Sing. iipit^n[^priyob%aydyay to him to whom both are dear (PA9. 1. 1, 39). The same 
at the end of compounds such as IHI^l^ rndsapHrvait, a month earlier ; Dat. l||^^9ll| 
mdnqfUrvdya (P&p. 1. 1, 30). Likewise in Dvandvas; ^^ I MiHOf p4irvdpard(fdm, of former and 
later persons (P&9. 1. 1, 31), though in theNom. Plur. these Dvandvas may take \ij ^KJlnJ^ 
pdrvd^are or ^IMUJ pdrvdpardfi. Only in compounds expressive of points of the compas s, 
such as '9Wt^ uttara-pUrva, north-east, the last element may throughout take the pro- 
nominal terminations (P&9. !• i, 38). 

Adverbial Decktmon* 

4 385. In addition to the regular case-terminations by which the declension of nouns 
is efifected, the Sanskrit language possesses other suffixes which differ from the ordinary 
terminations chiefly by being restricted in their use to certain words, and particularly to 
pronominal bases. The ordinary case-terminations, too, are frequently used in an adverbial 
sense. Thus 

* Aco. f%C eMram, a long time. 

Instr. (^MH ohire^f in a long time. 
Dat. r^MS chirdyay for a long time* 
AbL f^rn^cfttr^, long ago. 
Gen. fWf.t« chirasya, a long time* 
Loc. f^ cMre, long. 

Other adverbial terminations are, 

I* ?n tahf with an ablative meaning, becoming generally local* 
3. ?T tra, with a locative meaning. 

3. ^dd, with a temporal meaning ; also raised to T^TSff ddnim. 
4« im^ tdt, with a locative meaning. 


5. ^ thd, with a meaning of modality; likewise ^ tham and ^tha. 

6. Tni^«^« expressive of e£Pect. 

7. W ^ and WlH^ ^t, local. 

8. f^ rhi, temporal and causaL 

9. V^ tar, local. 
10. ^ ha, local. 

See also the terminations for forming numeral adverhs (§ 260). 

I. Itt taft, with an ablative meaning. 
Win tatah, thence. ^IKl yatah, whence. ^IH Hah, hence ; (cf. ^flT Ui, thus, ^ iva, as.) 
WW* atah, hence, ^if! hutal^, Whence ? WfiTt amutaft, thence. ^nH ma^^a^, from me. 
IRTIWt tumatiaik, from us. H^^HfR bhavatta^, from jour Honour. y^^A* p^rvatajj^ 
before (in a general local or temporal sense). ^R^t sarvatal^, always. WQW? agrataftf 
before* like ^m ogre* wfWin abhUaf^, around, near. V^nnH ubhayataf^ on both sides, 
^fini paritah, all round. QHUn grdntatah, from the village. V^IHff* ajiUkiaia^, 
from ignorance. 

d. 9 <ra, locative; originally ^ ^r^ as in ^ 1^ M^ I purushatrd, amongst men. 
inf tatra, there, ^f^ ya/ra, where, ^f^ kutra. Where ? ^[9 atra, here. v«|Ci omtt^a, 
there, in the next world. <«««i ekatra, at one place, together. ^?n satrd, with, 
and ^I^T satram, with (see ^H^ saAa). 

3. ^ cZtf, temporal. 

in^ tadd, then, and IRpTv^f taddnim. WfJ yadd, when. V?^ hadd, ? 1I«M^I anyadd, 
another time. ^Tfl^ sarvadd, always, at all times. ^flR^ eAcKltf, at one time. 
^1^ sadd, always. 1^ idd, in the Veda, later ^(|[[tff iddnim, now. 

4. WTIf ^^9 local. 
TnW^^prdktdt, in front. 

Frequently after a base in ^«.* 
^gQISSUf^purastdt, before. WiU I ^ adharastdt, below. HKmi^parastdt, afterwards. 
WVi^n^ai^Aasf^, below. '^^ftSTHupari8h(dt, above. 

5. V thd, modal. 

THW ter*tf, thus. 'HIT yathd, as. ¥t^ sarvathd, in every way. ^PTTOT ubhayathd, in 
both ways. V^<niT anyathd, in another way. V^^ilim anyatarathd, in one of two 
ways. ^WCTf itarathd, in the other way. ^[^ vfithd, vwnly(?). Or '^ tham, in 
Wi katham. How ? fT^ if ^Aom, thus. Or ^ tha, in IR atha, thus. 

6. TTTV ^» efPSective. 

TCXW^Tnr4}asdt, (tnjPt'^ifH r^rtfo *(2ftfoam, dependent on ^e king.) HkH^i^bhasmasdt, 
reduced to ashes. ^O^mf{^affnisdt, reduced to fire. 

7. Wr ^ and wRs dhi, local. 

l^ftfQnf)[ dakshindhi, in the South, or ^ftpiFT dakshifd. ^HilP^ Mardhi, in the North, 
or "^TiRT irf/ar^ ^ITO antard (or °t -ram, or °t -re, or ^tlB -r^tw), between. fTI 
purd, in the East, in front, formerly, (or ^pura^ and xpysS[TH^purastdt, before.) 
VnJpaichd, behind, (or ^^^9^JfaichA.) 

Adverbs such as ^j[HT mudhd, in vain, ^piT iiifif^, falsely, are instrumental cases of 
obsolete nouns ending in consonants. 


-f 387. CONJUGATION, 137 

8. f( rkif temponJ and c&iual. 

imft etarhi, at thia time, (WUson.) ^ft karM, At what time? 1|fi| yarhi, wherefore. 
irf^ tarhi, therefore^ at that time, (Wilson.) 

9. 11^ tavt local. 

mn\.prdtar, evtlj, in the morning. V<JAi. sanutar^ in concealment. 
10. ^ ka, locative. 

lyt kukOy Where ? 1^ iha^ here. ^ saha^ with. 



$ 286. Sanskrit verbs are conjugated in the Active and the Passive. 
Ex. lAvfll bddhatif he knows; ^ii|^ budhydtCy he is known. 

§ 287. The Active has two forms : 

1. The Parasmai-pada, i.e. transitive, (from ^^t^ parawnai, Dat. Sing, of 

^tpara^ another, i.e. a verb the action of which refers to another.) 
Ex. i^^jfif daddti, he gives. 

2. The Atmane-paday i. e. intransitive, (from WTHI^ dtmane^ Dat. Sing, of 

y/rn^ dtman, self, i. e. a verb the action of which refers to the agent.) 
Ex. in!^ ddatte, he takes. 

Note — ^The distinction. between the Parasnudpada and Atmanepada is fixed bj usage 
rather than by rule. Certain verbs in Sanskrit are used in the Parasmaipada only, others 
in the Atmanepada only; others in both voices. Those which are used in the ParasAudpada 
only, are verbs the action of which was originally conceived as transitive ; e. g. ^fH iHrfk 
bkibnim manthati, he shakes the earth; irfll ^ll^ffir nUbhsam khddati, he eats meat; fTnTlrfk 
grdmam atoHy he goes to or approaches the village. Those which are used in the Atmanepada 
only, were originally verbs expressive of states rather than of actions; e.g. ^MV edhate, he 
grows; ^^n gpandate, he trembles; •ilqil modate, he rejoices; ^ ie/e, he lies down. 
Such roots are marked in the Dh&tup4tha as n-it or anuddtta-4i (P&9. i. 3, la). 

In the language of the best authors, however, many verbs which we should consider 
intransitive, are conjugated in the Parasmaipada, while others which govern an accusative, 
are always conjugated in the Atmanepada. ^Hfir hasati, he laughs, is always Parasmatpadin, 
whether used as transitive or neuter (Colebr. p. 397) : it is so even when reciprocity of action 
is indicated, in which case verbs in Sanskrit mostly take the Atmanepada; e. g. ^Or^JDr 
vyatihasanti, they laugh at each other (P&9. 1.3, 15, v&rt. i , 3). But ^Plnanayate, he smiles, 
is restricted by grammarians to the Atmanepada; and verbs like ^fpin trdyate^ he protects, 
are Atmanepadin (i. e. used in the Atmanepada), though they govern an acxnisative ; e. g. 
?rprar if trdyawa mdm, Protect me 1 These correspond to the Latin deponents. 

Verbs which are used both in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada, take the one or the 
other form according as the action of the verb is conceived to be either transitive or reflective; 


138 CONJUQATIOK. § 288-*- 

e.g. V^mfiX pachaii, he cooks; H^npachate, he cooks for himself; ^(Hfif yajati, he aacrifioes; 
,V[Wn yajatCy he sacrifices for himself. The same applies to Causals (Pftn. i. 3, 74). 

These distinctions, however, rest in many cases, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, on 
peculiar conceptions which it is difficult to analyse or to realize; and in Sanskrit as well as 
in Greek, the right use of the active and middle voices is best learnt by practice. Thus 
'^ntf to lead, is used as Parasmaipada in such expressions as vftK ^nn^ngai^m vinttyaH*^ 
he carries o£F a swelling ; but as Atmanepada, in IkN fqn^ffl krodham vinayate, he turns 
away or dismisses wrath; a subtle distinction which it is possible to appreciate when stated, 
but difficult to bring under any general rules. 

Again, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, some verbs are middle in certain tenses only, but 
active or middle in others; e. g. Atm. ^V^ vardhate, he grows, nevex^^fKvardhatij but Aor. 
^^^(^avfidhat, Par., or ^Wf8¥ avardhishfa, Atm. he grew. (PA^. i. 3, 91.) 

Others take the Parasmaipada or Atmanepada according as they are compounded with 
certain prepositions ; e. g. OlvOl vUati, he enters ; but f^lf^n^ ni-vUate, he enters in. 
(P&n. I. 3, 17.) 

§ a88. Causal verbs are conjugated both in the Parasmaipada and Atmane- 
pada. Desideratives generally follow the Pada of the simple root (Pai^. i. 3, 62). 
Denominatives ending in im dya have both forms (P&n. i. 3, 90). The 
intensives hare two forms : one in ^ ya^ which is always Atmanepada ; the 
other without ^ ya^ which is always Parasmaipada. 

j 289. The passive takes the terminations of the Atmanepada, and prefixes 
Hydixi them in the four special or modified tenses. In the other tenses the 
forms of the passive are, with a few exceptions^ the same as those of the 

j ^^90. There are in Sanskrit thirteen different forms, corresponding to the 
tenses and moods of Greek and Latin. 

I. Formed from the Special or Modified Base. 

Parasmaipada. Atmanepada. 

I. The Present (Lat) M'^Tftf bhdvwmi ^k bhdve 

7,. The Imperfect (Lan) ^Pf^ dbhavam ws^ dbhave 

3. The Optative (Lin) ^ ^ H^ bhdveyam H^ bhdveya 

4. The Imperative (Lot) H^Tf«T bhdvani H% bhdvai 


n. Formed from the Cfeneral or Unmodified Base. 

Parasmaipada. Atmanbpada. 

5. TheReduplicated Perfect (lit) ^^ boAhiiva w^ babhUvi 

6. The Periphrastic Perfect (Lit) ^ftVH'W^choraydmbabhilva ^ftrjn^choraydmc) 

7. The First Aorist (Lun) inftM dbodhisham iMfff^ dbhavishi 

8. The Second Aorist (Lun) v^ dbhUvam vftl^ dskhe 

9. The Future (Lrit) Hfinqiftl bhavishydmi hPt^ bhavishyi 

* Cf. Siddh&nta-Kaumudt, ed. TIbrftnfttha, vol. n. p. 950. Colebrooke, Grammar, p. 337. 

^§ 291. CONJUOATIOK. 189 

10. The Conditional (Liin) wfvul dbhavishyam wftr^ dbhavishye 

11. llie Periphrastic Futiire(Lut) Hftrvrf^ bhaviidsmi ^rfVin^ bhamtdhe 

12. The Benedictive (Asir lin) ^fjwi bkdydsaim HftnAif bhamshiyd 

13. The Subjunctive (Let) occurs in the Veda only. 

Bign^icaHon of the Temet and Moods. 

^291. I. 2. The Present and Imperfect require no explanation. The 
Imperfect takes the Augment {§ 300), which has always the accent. 

3. The principal senses of the Optative are, 

a. Command ;. e. g. }t gpT ^^Hit: tvam gr&mam gachchheby thou mayest go, Le. 

go thou to the village. 

b. Wish ; e. g. H^nf^finftw bhavdn ihdsUOf Let your honour sit here! 

c. Inquiring; e. g. ^^«nlNN VT ll%R4hfN vedam adhiytya, uta tarkam 

adhiyiya. Shall I study the Veda or shall I study logic t 

d. Supposition {sambhdvana) ; e. g. )9^^[^ ^^MK'h Hll^Ui^l^ bhaved asau 

vedapdrago brdhmanatvat, he probably is a student of the Veda, because 
he is a Brfihman. 

e. Condition ; e. g. ^?^ )I^1J^ f^nn^^ft?IT: mtn dandaS chen na bhavel 

lake vinaSyeyur imdb prajdf^y if there were not punishment in the world, 
the people would perish, in ij^ B ^n^ini(^ yaf^ pathet sa dpnuydt, he 
who studies, will obtain, inr^ft^ Hlli^Wll^lll^^Wi: yad yad rocheta 
vyfrebkyoi tat tad dadydd amatsaraby whatever pleases the Brfthmans 
let one give that to them not niggardly. 
/. It is used in relative dependent sentences ; e. g. iTV 71^ ^^ if ia(^ yaeh 
cha tvam evam kuryd na Sraddadhe, I believed not that thou couldst 
act thus. 4||ii^)|i: ^li fH^TVra^ yat tddriidb kfishnam ninderann 
dicharyam, that such persons should revile Krishna, is wonderful 

4. The Imperative requires no explanation, as far as the second person is 

concerned ; e. g. ^ tuda, Strike ! The first and third persons are used 
in many cases in place of the Optative ; e» g. l^mftf H'^T^^^ ichchhdmi 
bhavdn bkuiikidm, I wish your honour may eat. 

5. The Reduplicated Perfect d^iotes something absolutely past 

6. Certain verbs which are not allowed to form the reduplicated perfect, form 

their perfect periphrastically, i e. by means of an auxiliary verb. 

7. 8. The First and Second Aorists refer generally to time past, and are the 

common historical tenses in narration. They take the Augment {§ 300). 
9. The Future, also called the Indefinite Future ; e.g. ^Mdlft^lOl VRr^TtCOPK 
devai ched varskishyati dhdnyam vapsydmab, if it rain, we shall sow 
rice. ifT^sftavf^ ^^l^irfff udvqf-jivam annam ddsyati, as long as life 

T 2 


lasts, he will give food. Under certain circumstances this Future 
may be used optionally with the Periphrastic Future ; e. g. ii^ HhlT 
kadd bhoktd or ^to^l^ bhokshyate^ When will he eati 

10. The Conditional is used, instead of the Optative, if things are spoken of 

that might have, but have not happened (Pft^. m. 3, 139) ; e, g. 
^^r g ^^Hftl f l<;i ^fn H wft M i9( suvfishtii ched abhavishyai tadd subhiksham 
abhavishyat, if there had been abundant rain, there would have been 
plenty. The Conditional takes the Augment {§ 300). 

11. The Periphrastic or Definite Future ; e. g. vflvrf W* HHnnftr ayodhydm 

ivab. praycUdsi, thou wilt to-morrow proceed to Ayodhyl 
I a. The Benedictive is used for expressing not only a blessing, but also a 

wish in general; e. g. 'vd^nw^fprn^ Mmdn bMydt^ May he be happy! 

f^ ^f):^i^VH^chiram jivydt^ May he live long ! 
13. The Subjunctive occurs in the Veda only. 

j 2^2. The Sanskrit verb has in each tense and mood three numbers. 
Singular, Dual, and Plural, with three persons in each. 



^ (293. Sanskrit grammarians have divided all verbs into ten classes, 
according to certain modifications which their roots undergo before the 
terminations of the Present, the Imperfect, the Optative, and Imperative. 
This division is very usefiil, and will be retained with some slight alterations. 
One and the same root may belong to difierent classes. Thus ^iT9^ bkrai^ 
^[Tl^ M/oi, ^ bhram, n^kram, jfR klam, ?r^ tras, ^ truf, J^huh belong 
to the Bhii and Div classes ; «n^ bhrdSate or VIT^in^ bhrdiyate, &c. (Pfti^. in. 
1, 70). Again, T^sku, w^stambh^ ^inistufnbh, '^sb^skambh^ ^f^skumbh belong 
to the Su and Kri classes; ^^pillir skunoti or "^s^skuruUi (P&9. iii. i, So). 

j 294. The four tenses and moods which require this modification of the 
root wiU be called the Special or Modified Tenses ; the rest the Qeneral or 
Unmodified Tenses, Thus the root fv chi is changed in the Present, 
Imperfect, Optative, and Imperative into fir^ cM-wa. Hence f^[^^chiH%nHfndb^ 
we search; irfVr^ (fcAt-ntt-mo, we searched. But the Past Participle ftnn 
chUdbf searched, or the Reduplicated Perfect f^^ chichy-ub, they have 
searched, without the ^ nu . We call fv chi, the root, fir^ c/dnu, the base 
of the special tenses. 


^ ^^95. Verbal bafies are first divided into two divisions : 
I. Bases which in the modified tenses end in v a. 
II. Bases which in the modified tenses end in any letter but v a. 

This second division is subdivided into^ 
n a. Bases which insert ^ nu, '9u, or ifi ntf between the root and the 

II b. Bases which take the terminations without any intermediate element. 

I. Firsi Division. 
§ 296. The first division comprises four classes : 

1. The Bhii class (the first with native grammarians, and called by them 

v^rfi; bkvddij because the first verb in their lists is ^ bhd^ to be). 

a. V a is added to the last letter of the root. 

b. The vowel of the root takes Gui^a, where possible (i. e, long or short i , «, p, 

if final ; short i, u^ ji, ft, if followed by one consonant). 
Ex. "^budh, to know; ^vWfk bddh-^-H, he knows. ^bM^ to be; mrfk bhdtMi'ti, 
he is. 

Note — The accent in verbs of the Bhil class (as we know from the ancient Vedic 
language) rests on the radical vowel, except where it is drawn on the augment. 

Many derivative verbs, — such as causatives, Hi^iMOf bhdodyati, he causes to be; 
des^ideratives, ^^ff^ IMkdtihati, he wishes to be, from ^hM^ intensives in the Atmaoe- 
pada, 4fHllfl bebhiJydte, he cuts much ; and denominatives, n^it^Pn namoiydti, he worships, 
c^ff ANPiI lohitdydti, he grows red, — ^follow this class. 

2. The Tud class (the sixth with native grammarians, and called by them 

g^rf?; tudddi, because the first root in their lists is m iud, to strike). 

a. V a is added to the last letter of the root. 

b. Before this V a, final ^ i and ^^ are changed to ^iy» 

Vttand^iJ to "V^ttt;. 

^fi to f^rty. 

^ri to^^tr (Jiio). 

Ex. mtud^ to strike; 5^ tud-d-H. ftri, to go; fbrfk rty-d-ii. \nil^ to 

praise; g^ nuv-d-ti. ^ mp, to die; ftrUT^ fiiny-c£-/c. vAff, to 

scatter; ftltfir Wr-rf-/t. 

Note — ^The accent in verbs of the Tud class rests on the intermediate ^a; hence never 
Gu^a of the radical vowel. 

3. The Div class (the fourth with native grammarians, and called by them 

fi^^rfi^ divddif because the first root in their lists is fs(^div^ to play). 
a. nya is added to the last letter of the root. 
Ex. i^nah, to bind; J^^ndh-ya-tu '^budhy to awake; ^^aik bidhrya-te. 

Note — ^The accent in verbs of the Div class rests on the radical vowel ; though there are 
traces to show that some verbs of this class had the accent originally on ^ ya. 


4. The Chur class (the tenth with native grammarians^ and called by 
them ^p^rfil^ churddiy because the first root in their lists is ^ chuVj to 

a. ^nr (xya is added to the last letter of the root. 

b. If the root ends in a simple consonant^ preceded by « a^ V a is 

lengthened to wr d* 

Ex. ^ daly to cut ; ^Ic9^ ddl^ya-H, (many exceptions.) 

c. If the root ends in a simple consonant, preceded by ^j, w, 19 fi, ic/s, 

these vowels take Ouna, while ^rt becomes ft,ir. 

Ex. fs^ ilish, to embrace ; ^^irfff ilesh-dya-ti. ^ ckur, to steal ; ^At^ 
chor-dya-tu ^ mfi8\ to endure ; ii4in^ tnarsh-dya^e* "n kftt, to 
praise ; ^A^^rfir kirt-dya-tu 

d. Final ^t^ %f, '9Uf '^ilj'^fiy &iid ^ft, take Yriddhi. 

Ex. fw/riytogrowold; wt^^fifjrdy'dya'tu iftmj^towalk; ^T^^hfmdy-dya'4u 
^ dhrij to hold; i|TC^ dhdr-dya-ti. ^/T^, to fill ; Tfp[?i^ pdr^ya-tu 

Note — Many, if not all roots amnged nnder this class by native grammarians, are 
secondary roots, and identical in form with caueatives, denominatives, &c. This class differs 

' from other classes, inasmuch as verbs belonging to it, keep their modificatory syllable '^P^aya 
throughout, in the unmodified as well as in the modified tenses, except in the Benedictive 

' Par. and the Reduplicated Aorist. The accent rests on the first V a of ^PTifya. 

II. Second Division. 

^ 297* The second division comprises all verbs which do not^ in the 
special tenses, end in w a before the terminations. 

It is a distinguishing feature of this second division that, before 
certain terminations, all verbs belonging to it require strengthening of their 
radical vowel, or if they take g «m, ir «, ^ ni, strengthening of the vowels 
. of these syllables. This strengthening generally takes place by means of 
Guna, but ^^ni is raiaed to 'mna in the Kri^ and \n to i{na in the Rudh 

We shall call the terminations which require strengthening^ of the 
inflective base, the weak terminations, and the base before them, the 
strong base; and vice versd, the terminations which do not require 
strengthening of the base, the strong terminations, and the base before 
them, the weak base. 

, As a rule, the accent falls on the first vowel of strong terminations, or, if 
the terminations are weak, on the strong base, thus establishing throughout 
an equilib^um between base and termination. 

**$ ^99* ^^^ ^HE TEN CLASSES OF VEBBS. 143 

11 a. Bases which take "^nu, '9u,'9ft nL 
§ 298. This first subdivision comprises three classes : 
I. The Su class (the fifth class with native grammarians^ and called by 
them ^trfl^ wddi, because the first root in their lists is ^ 9u), 
^ m« is added to the last letter of the root^ before strong terminations^ 
tit no before weak terminations. 
Ex. ^ ^ to squeeze out; ^^: sti-^m-mdi^, ist pers, plur. Pres. 

ij;^9w-nd-mi, ist pers. sing. Pres. 

%• The Tan class (the eighth class with native grammarians, and called by 
them iRTfl^ tanddi, because the first root in their lists is in^ ian), 
ir tt is added to the last letter of the root, before strong terminations, 
ift o before weak terminations. 
Ex. K^itan, to stretch ; ir^ ian-dHndi^, ist pers. plur. Pres. 

IrM^ tan-d-mi, ist pers. sing. Pres. 
Note — ^All verbs belonging to this dan end in «i(i», except one, ^ Jbft, VUf^ karond, I do. 

3. The Kri class (the ninth with native grammarians^ and called by them 
IPftfll^kryddi, because the first root in their lists is nft ^0* 
'9f\nt is added to the last letter of the root^ before strong terminations^ 
ii(\nd before weak terminations, 
«(n before strong terminations beginning with vowels. 

Ex. ift Mf to buy ; nihlrt'V: kri-nl-md^, ist pers. plur. Pres. 

iflnnAl kri-^nd-mi, ist pers. sing. Pres. 
nfiuKh kri-fi-dntiy 3rd pers. plur. Pres. 

II £• Bases to which the terminations are joined immediately. 
§ 299. The second division comprises three classes : 
I. The Ad class (the second class with native grammarians, and called by them 
^f^tf^ adddiy because the first root in their lists is iv^aeif, to eat). 

a. The terminations are added immediately to the last letter of the base ; 

and in the contact of vowels with vowels, vowels with consonants, 
consonants with vowels, and consonants with consonants, the phonetic 
rules explained above {§ 107-145) must be carefully observed. 

b. The strong base before the weak terminations takes Guna where 

possible {§ 296, I. &). 
Ex. fc9? lihy to lick : fcTV: lih-mdJ^^ we lick ; Hfft Uh-miy I lick ; ^ft| Uk-shiy 
thou lickest ($127); c^ lUhd^ you lick (^ 1 128) ; ti^ dlet^ thou lickedst 
($ ia8). 

The accent is on the first vowel of the terminations, except in case of 
weak terminations, when the accent falls on the radical vowel. 



2. The Hu class (the third class with native grammarians^ and called by 

them i|f)imn; juhoiyddi, because the first root in their lists is v hu, 
ipitfiX Juhdti). 

a. The terminations are added as in the Ad class. 

b. The strong base before the weak terminations takes Guna, where possible. 

c. The root takes reduplication. (Rules of Reduplication^ ^ 30^.) 

Ex. J Atty to sacrifice : Jj^, Ju-kurmdi^, we sacrifice ; ^Jlftftr Ju-hd-mi, I 

sacrifice. (P&9. vi. i, 19a.) 

The intensive verbs, conjugated in the Parasmaipada^ foUow this class. 

The accent is on the first syllable of the verb, if the terminations are weak, likewise if 
the terminations are strong, but begin with a vowel. Ex. ^f^^ftfH dddhdti ^ ^^[^^ dddhoH 
(P4n. VI. 1, 189—190). Whether this rule extends to the Optative Atmanepada is doubtful. 
We find in the Rig-veda both dddhUa and dadhttd. Prof. Benfey, who at first accentuated 
dadhitd, now places the accent on the first syllable, like BoehtHngk and Bopp. The Agama 
sijuf is, no doubt, avidyam&navat svaravidhau (P&p.iii. 1,3, v&rt. 2); but the question is 
whether Ua is to be treated as ij&di, beginning with a vowel, or whether the termination 
is ta with Agama I. I adopt the former view, and see it confirmed by the Pratyud&hara^a 
given in vi. i, 189. For if ydt of dad^dt is no longer tjidi, then Ua in ddd-Ua must be 
8J4di on the same ground. The reduphcated verbs bkt, hH, bhfi, hu, mad, jan, dhan, daridrd^ 
jdfffi have the Uditta on the syllable preceding the terminations, if the terminations are 
weak. Ex. OlHfS hibhdrtiy but f^^rfv b(bhrati (Pft^. vi. i, 192). 

3. The Rudh class (the seventh class with native grammarians, and called 

by them ^^nfi^ rudihddi^ because the first root in their lists is ^ rudh^ 
'^^/f^ rui^tdddhi, to obstruct). 

a. The terminations are added as in the Ad class. 

b. Between the radical vowel and the final consonant ?(n is inserted, which 

in the strong base before weak terminations is raised to it na. 

Ex. ^ytv, to join : ^pn yu^-J-md^, we join ; ^^tAr yt^nd-j-miy I join. 

The accent falls on ^ na^ wherever it appear^, unless it is attracted by the 

First Division. 

Bhii class, with native grammarians, Bhv&di, I class. 
Tud class, — — Tud&di, VI class. 

Div class, — — Divddi^ IV class. 

Chur class, — — Chur&di, X class. 

Second Division, 

Su class, with native grammarians, Sv&di, V class. 

Tan class, — — Tan&di, VIII class. 

Kri class, — — Kryidi, IX class. 

Ad class, — — Ad&di, II class. 

Hu class, — — Juhotyfidi, III class. 

Rudh class, — — Rudh&di, VII class. 





^ 300. Before we can leave the subject which occupies us at present, ^. 
the preparation of the root previous to its assuming the terminations, we 
have to consider two processes, the Augment and the Reduplication, 
modifications of the root with which we are familiar in Greek, and which in 
Sanskrit as well as in Greek form the distinguishing features of certain 
tenses (Imperfect, Aorist, Conditional, and Perfect) in evoy verb. 

§ 301. Roots beginning with consonants take short w a as their initial 
augment. This wa has the accent* Thus fiom ^^ctftt, Present '^^'Nlfil 
bddhdmi ; Imperfect WwH dbodham. 

Boots beginning with vowds always take Vfiddfai, the irregular 
result of the combination of the augment with the inidal vowels. 
(P&9, VI. I, 90.) * 

ma with wa, or W(l, = ^<2. 

m a with fi, \1,lte, or ^ ai, =% ai. 

W a with 7 11, ^ t{, who, or ^ au, = Wl au. 

ma with ^ri, or ^rt = tn^<Jr. 

From m^archf %Af^ ar chatty he praises, mA^drchai^ he praised. 
From f^iksh, \^ ikshatey he sees, ^Ifir aikshcUa^ he saw. 
From ^ undy T^ifw unatti, he wets, mt^adnai, he wetted. 
From ^r», ^ms!^ lichchhati, he goes, xrx^in^drcAchhat, he went. 

In the more ancient Sanskrit, as in the more ancient Greek, the augment 
is frequently absent. In the later Sanskrit, too, it has to be dropt after the 
negative particle wr md (Pin. vi. 4, 74). m vms^ mtit^inA bhavdn kdrshit. 
Let not your Honour do this ! or in 9r li^ma #ma kmrot. May he not do it ! 


§ 302. Reduplication takes place in Sanskrit not only in the reduplicated 
perfect, but likewise in all verbs of the Hu class. Most of the rules of 
reduplication are the same in forming the base of the perfect of all verbs, 
and in forming the special base of the verbs of the Ha dass. These will be 
stated first ; afterwards those that are peculiar either to the redupUcatioB 
of the perfect or to that of the verbs of the Hu dass. 

The reduplication in intensive and desiderative verbs and in one form 
of the aorist will have to be treated separately. 



General Bides of Beduplication. 
§ 303. The first syllable of a root (i. e. that portion of it which ends 
with a vowel) is repeated, 
w iudh=:wnbubudh. ^bhit is exceptional in forming ^^babh4. (Pi?. 
VII. 4, 73.) 
j 304. Aspirated letters are represented in reduplication by their cor- 
responding unaspirated letters. 

ff(E bhid, to cut, = ft[fil^ bibhid. 
\dhil, to shake^ rs^dudhil. 
§ 305. Gutturals are represented in reduplication by their corresponding 
palatals ; ^ A by 1^/ (Pft^u vii. 4, 62.) 

ff^ kuty to sever, = ^|^ chukuf. 
W{^ khaUf to dig, =5 ^^ chakhan. 
''^ff^f'^y to go, = Wf\Jogam. 
f^ Aa», to laugh, = Wf^Jahas. 
^ 306. If a root begins with more than one consonant, the first only is 


^Arui, to shout, =^)|ircAtfATtti. 

Hif^kshipy to throw, = ffftf^ cAiA^A^. 

§ 307. If a root begins with a sibilant followed by a tenuis or aspirated 
tenuis, the tenuis only is reduplicated. 

1^ $tUf to praise, = ^ iushfu {§ 103, i). 
W«^ Stan, to sound, = msH^ tastan. 
PT^ spardh, to strive, :=:t(^Bt^pa8pardh, 
Wt sthd, to stand, = ir^m iasthd. 
1^ ichyut, to drop, = ^l^ chuichyut. 
But ^ smriy to pine, = 9W sasmfi. 

§ 308. If the radical vowel, whether final or medial, is long, it is 
shortened in the reduplicative syllable. 

HT| ffdh, to enter, = inTT| jagak. 
Hft hiy to buy, = ffijf chikrL 
^ 9ild, to strike, = ^^ suskdd. 
§ 309. If the radical (not final) vowel is ^ e or ^ at, it becomes ][ f ; if it 
113 wt o or W^ otf, it becomes 7 tf • 

it^ $ev, to worship, = ftn^ sishev. 

vK(r ^aui, to approach, = jtK^ 4u4hauk. 

' §310. Roots with final ^e, %a», ^0, are treated like roots ending in 
«1 a, taking w a in the reduplicative syllable. 

^ dhe, to feed^s^ dadhau. 

ft gat, to sing, ssip^jaffau. 

"fft ioy to sharpen, = ^^ ic^au. 




^ 311. The following roots are slightly irregular on account of the 
semivowels which they contain^ and which are liable to be changed into 
vowels. (This change is caUed SamprasdriOfia.) P&9. vi. i, 17. 

Boot. First Pbks. Sing. Bbdupl. Pbaf. 

^y«/ = ipiR»y<!6«, to sacrifice, (for im^yaydja.) f9(^ ij\ 

^^vach = 'Vin^ uvacha, to speak. 

^ vad=s ^nri^ uvdduy to say. 

^t;qp=7mi uvdpa^ to sow. 

tfffjvaS = ^^nr uvditty to wish. 

TO vof = ^nnr uv(isa, to dwell. 

« vah = ^ifni ttt^<2Aa, to carry. 

?F^ t;ay it: =s TVHT uvdya, to weave. 

iq^vyacA = f^fiini vivydcha, to surround. 

i|^vy£M/A=:f)mvvit;y<^Aa^ to strike. 

^■ftrt^a^Asftrir^ vivyathi (P&n. vii. 4^ 68). 

^n(.n^^ = ^*^m 9ii8hvdpa, to sleep. 

{Vviri=:mn tfiUdva^ to swell^. 

^ vye=:fnTi| vivyaya, to cover. 

iin jy4 = ftmf^ y vV ^<«j to grow old. 

3^ hve=:ipir^juhdvay to call (Pftn. vi. i, 33). 

Vfmjn/dy =s i^pipySyto grow fat (P&n. vi. i, 29). 

m grah^.'^^^jcigrahaf to take. 

in^t^raicA = ^nre ^arrcC^cAo, to cut (P&9. vi. i, 1 7) 

yf^prachh:=:'^tr9,paprdchchhay to ask. 

«l^ Mri{{^' =^vrsr babhrdjja, to fiy. 

In the last three verbs the weak form in the reduplicated perfect is pro- 
tected against Samprasfirana by the final double consonant. (P&ii. i. 2^ 5.} 

Roots beginning with ^ vOy but ending in double consonants, do not 
change ^ va to 7 tt. Ex. t|^ vavjiti; ^r|^ vavridhi. 

^312. Boots beginning with short w a, and ending in a single consonant^ 
contract v a + V a into w\d. 

ir|[ ad^ to eat, =:WP?4J. 

* The weak forms appear in all persoiiB of the reduplicated perfect where neither Vfiddhi. 
nor Giina is required. 

t The weakest forms of these verbs do not belong to the reduplicated perfect, but have 
been added as useful hereafter for the formation of the past participle, the benedictive, the 
passive, &c. 

X '^^oy is a substitute for ^ve, in the reduplicated perfect (P&n. 11. 4, 41). If that sub- 
stitution does not take place, then ^ ve forms ^Ni vavau, ^I vavuh (Pftn. vi. i, 40). 

II P&p. VI. 1, 38, 39. f Or f^rvnV Mhdya (PA9. vi. i, 30); 

U 2 

WsAK Form *. 









(wntgt.) . 







'mf{ily or W{iiv\\, 













ftpft vivi. 

(^ »r.) 



(I M) 




(^ srih,) 

^^ vavfiich. 

{J^^ vfiSeh.) 

WWm babhrqjj. (^^ **nff •) 


§ 313, Roots beguming with short wa, and ending with more than one 
consonant, prefix ^n«^<2n. (P&n. vii. 4^ 71.) 
W^ arch = Wif^ dndrch. (Also ws^ ai (Su), mr^ dnaie.) P&gi, vii. 4, 7a. 

{314. The root if fi forms the base of the reduplicated perfect as ^n^ dr. 
Other roots beginning with 19 fi prefix wts^dn. (Pa^. vii. 4, 71.) 

^^JV, to obtain, =c ^n^ an-fy . ^ ridft, to thrive, = ^>n^ dwfuft. 
These roots are treated in fiict as if they were ^1^ arch^ w^ordA, &c. 

§ 315. Boots beginning with ^ t or '9'tf (not prosodially long), contract l{ + 1( 
i + i and Tf + Tfu + u into ^ ( and ^ 4 ; but if the radical ^ i or "V u take 
Gu^a or Yriddhi, i^y and ^v are inserted between the reduplicative syllable 
and the base. (Pfin. vi. 4, 78.) 

^t«A = ^q:|: Uh-dtufyy they two have gone. 
= 1[^ iy-Ssh-a (Gu^a), I have gone. 
V^tiM='9nir|: dkh-^u^^ they two have withered. 
^TrfMuinSkh-a (Guna), I have withered. 
As to roots which cannot be reduplicated or are otherwise irregular, see the 
rules given for the formation of the Reduplicated and Periphrastic Perfect. 

' Special Rules of Reduplication. 
§ii6. So far the process of reduplication would be the same, whether applied 
to the bases of the Reduplicated Perfect or to those of the Hu class. Butther« 
are some points on which these two classes of reduplicated bases differ; viz. 

1. In the Reduplicated Perfect, radical ^fi, ^r^> whether final or medial, 

are represented in reduplication by w a. 

2. In the bases of the Hu class, final if ft and ^ft (they do not occur as 

medial) are represented in reduplication by ^ <• 

Rbduplicatsd PftarscT. Hu Class. Prbsknt, &c. 

)| Mft, to bear^ = 'iprTC babhdra* 1} 6^ n^if^nft Hbhartu 

^m, to go, = ^rtr: 'flw^ra. ^^r^^sf^nrfff stsariu 

9 hfi, to take, = in[rcjahdra. ^ Af i = fSiffft jiharti. 

TTie root Hfi, to go, forms ^prfS ty-arti; \prii to fill, f^mfiipiparti. 

§ 317. The three verbs 'Rl^nff, f^^m^*, and 1%^ vt5& of the Hu class take Guna 
in ihe reduplicated syllahle. (Pft?. vii. 4, 75.) 

ftfl^ nij, to wash, nnftR ninekti, nf^fm neniktej ftfl tij, to separate, ^qfW v^ekH; 
ftr^cwA, to pervade, ^4(k v^nhfi. 

§ 318. The two verbs m md, to measure, and 1^ hd, to go, of the Hu class take ^i m 
the reduplicative syllable. (P&n. vii. 4, 76.) 

TT tnd, ftpftn mimUi; lf\ hd^ ?n4!^njihUi, « 

§ 319. Certain roots change their initial consonant if they are reduplicated. 
^«^ Anil, to kill, ^f^^THjaglma, Likewise in the desiderative f^ M ( 41 Ol jighdmsati^ and the 

intensive '^kw^ jakglianydte. (P&9. vii. 3, 55.) 
fi| At, to send (Su), ftrePTii^Wya. Likewise in the desiderative Dtl Ml mHi jigkishati^ and 
the intensive ^^t^ jegUgdit. (P&9. vii. 3, 56.) 


ftl/t, to conquer, f^nWfjigdya, Likewise in the desiderative Pvi'Dii Hi jigUhati: but not 
in the intensive, which is always ^^^ j^dte, (Pftp. vii. 3, 57.) 

f% chi, to gather, has optionally f^nnV chichdya or f^*l^ chikiya. The same option 
applies to the desiderative, but in the intensive we have ^^HTr chechiydte only. 
(P49. VII. 3, 58.) 


^ 320, After having explained how the verbal roots are modified in ten 
difierent ways before they receive the terminations of the four special tenses^ 
the Present, Imperfect, Optative, and Imperative, we give a table of the 
terminations for these so-called special or modified tenses and moods. 

j 321. The terminations for the modified tenses, though on the whole the 
same for all verbs, are subject to certain variations, according as the verbal bases 
take w a (First Division), or ^ 9iu, "V «, ^ ni (Second Division, A.), or nothing 
(Second Division, B.) between themselves and the terminations. Instead of 
giving the table of terminations according to the system of native gramma- 
rians, or according to that of comparative philologists, and explaining the 
' real or &ncifid changes which they are supposed to have undergone in the 
difierent classes of verbs, it will be more useful to give them in that form 
in which they may mechanically be attached to each verbal base. The 
beginner should commit to memory the actual paradigms rather than the 
difierent sets of terminations. Instead of taking wt^dthe as the termination 
of the 2nd pers. dual Atm., and learning that the wr a of mP^ dike is changed 
to ^i afl;er bases in wa (Pan. vii. 2, 81), it is simpler to take ^ ithe as 
the termination in the First Division ; but still simpler to commit to memory 
such forms as "^h^ bodhethe, f^mA dvi$hdit^y fMt^ mimdihey without asking 
at first any questions as to how they came to be what they are. 

First Division. 
BMy Tudy Div, and Chur Classes. 
Parasmaipada. Atmanbpada. 

P^sent. Imperf. Optative. Imperat. Present. Imperfect. Optative. Imperative. 

i.Ufkomt ^m ^iyam^t^ani l^i ^t l^iya ^e 

a.ftrW lit ^lih — ♦ i^se "mithdh ^miithdh ^ sva 

Z.fKH H^t ^it 3*w* ^te Ifta ^ita id tdm 

i.^[m avafi ^[^ ava f[mva ^n ova ^ST^ aoahe ^nf^avahi If^ft ivahi ^T^avahai 

2,'^thah iktam ^itam litam ^ ithe ^^ ithdm ^ 4|| HI ( iydthdm 1^ ithdm 

3. in ^oA irt tdm Ipri itdm, irf tdm, ^ iU H^ itdm J^^JfH iydtdm ^ it An 

I. WHamo^ Wfama ^»ma ^Hama 'WkH\amahe ^H^lamahi %f\ti^imaki IVf^ amahai 

2.'^tha Kta f[WtVa Kta ^k dhve ^i dkvam l^idhvam vi dhvam 

3.ftrnft 5^» ^^Uyult '^ntu "Rtnie ^ nta ^pl^iran '^Hintdm 

. * In the second and third persons Klfitdt may be used as termination after all verbs, if 
the sense is benedictive. 




Second Division. 
8u, Tan, Kri, Ad, Eny and Rudh Classes. 


Imperfect Optative. 



Imperatiye. F^resent. 

Imperfect. Optative. 








^ntydft 1 



T^* mfl^ydt 




1ft a 


I. m vo^ 

I. ft ma^ 

H tarn 
Iff tdm 


^BfTKydtam ^tam 
lindydtdm Ititdm 



wikdte Wnndtdm ^Jlfr/H iydtdm Wlkidtdm 

Vl^^ dimhai 


l^ffuihe ^f^mahi InOg imahi Wt^^dmakai 

V ta V(W ydta V ta 

3. tifif anrt2 ini^a,|8 y yjjj ^ antu^ VIC ate VIC 

id dhve Iff (2Avam ^Iff idkvam l4 dAvam 
a^e VICafa ^^Iran Wlfi atdm 

The terminationB enclosed in squares are the weak^ i e. unaccented 
terminations which require strengthening of the base. 

Note I — When f^ hi is added immediately to the final consonant of a 
root (in the Ad^ Rudh, or Hu classes), it is changed to ^dhi (Pai;^. vi. 4, loi. 
See No. 162). The verb J hu, though ending in a vowel, takes ^dhi instead 
of flf hi, for the sake of euphony. (P&9. vi« 4, loi.) 

Kri verbs ending in consonants form the 2nd pers. sing. imp. in VR ana. 
(See No. 155, Pan. iii. i, 83.) 

In the 2nd pers. sing. imp. Parasm. verbs of the Su and Tan classes take 
no termination, except when Tfuia preceded by a conjunct consonant. (See 
No. 177.) 

Note 2 — In the 3rd pers. plur. pres. and imper. Parasm. verbs of the Hu 
class and Wff^ abhyasta, i. e. redupUcated bases, take wfic ati and vg aiu. 

Note 3 — ^In the 3rd pers, plur. imp. Parasm. verbs of the Hu class, redu- 
plicated bases, and f^ vid, to know, take 7: u^, before which, verbs ending 
in a vowel, require Gui^a. 7: tf^ is used optionally after verbs in wr a, and 
after fig^dvish, to hate. (P&9. iii. 4, 109— 112.) 

$ Saa. By means of these terminations the student is able to form the 
Present, Imperfect, Optative, and Imperative in the Parasmaipada and 
Atmanepade of all regular verbs in Sanskrit ; and any one who has clearly 
understood how the verbal bases are prepared in ten different ways for 
receiving their terminations, and who will attach to these verbal bases the 
terminations as given above, according to the rules of Sandhi, will have no 
difficulty in writing out for himself the paradigms of any Sanskrit verb in 
four of the most important tenses and moods, both in the Parasmaipada and 
Atmanepada. Some verbs, however, are irregular in the formation of their 
base ; these must be learnt jGrom the Dhatup&tha. 
















St JB § 







S ..•§ 


;l hi I'M 



ft "O &««« 






11 e! Mil 







5.<i 1^1 <ri t!^l 






II |l 

hi El 



1 » 


S K ^ 






11 Pi 





* f I %% 1 g 

^ £3i 

till 111- 
iv»8 H^ HlJ; 1i< 







iPl rl 


:i r^ 8^1 jri 

IPS riiii r's 















I 322. 






• • 
























L± 'S' .♦ •^^ 










S^l isl 








g?i pi I* r-s ri.ri 

r*? Ii!» li 




»*l |g:l 1^1 S^l 

lr»i irlHiB ^"l i*,J l!^1 

# SW- 









little II 


-lid ill 

I i 

i e S 

I I -S 

I 5 'll f "I 
















I rl l} fl 



^' 1 









1:1 tS> 







B?i Plli n \Sit^ 

«*i is:i <ri t^l 

i^s riiiiB r'§ 1.*,^ IT 






$ SW- 

















= ^ 


























11 mill Mil 








^ ^ ^ "^ s 




















B?i irllf r"§ (4-i5^i 

!(6| isl ^4 \r 


mi titi r's 













X 2 













:S .1 




















s Ul 



I Ti ri ?i 

f ^ ft I 




?i isl<EII 


B?i rl^:! r-i mJi^l 



saI isI ^I t^l 

irs irliiiH ^'n ^$ 
















• c i?* -fc ^^ 


7 .^ 

.1- "« 

-S Tir'^ 


c §^ 1 :§. 


5f p^ 1.^ M 














5I islWl 






g?i rifi ri ^tri 







i^s riiiS n ««4 ri 






«*l 1^1 <PI t^l 

I J 


















w»n iriii:i r-g 


-§ 3^6- 





§323, In the tenses which remain, the Reduplicated Perfect, the Peri- 
phrastic Perfect, the First and Second Aorist, the Future, the Conditional, 
the Periphrastic Future, and Benedictive, the distinction of the ten classes 
vanishes. All verbs are treated alike, to whatever class they belong in the 
modified tenses; and the distinguishing features, the inserted ^ nu, 711, yiffni, 
&c., are removed again firom the roots to which they had been attached in 
the Present, the Imperfect, the Optative^ and Imperative. Only the verbs 
of the Chur class preserve their w^ dya throughout, except in the Aorist 

and Benedictive. 

Reduplicated PerfecL 

^ 324. The root in its primitive state is reduplicated. The rules of 
reduplication have been given above* {§ 302— 319*) 

^ 325. The Reduplicated Perfect can be formed of all verbs, except 
I. Monosyllabic roots which begin with any vowel prosodially long but 
H a or HT a: such as fwi4f to praise ; ^v edh, to grow ; ^indh^ to light ; 
T^iinrf, to wet. 
%. Polysyllabic roots, such as ^WT^chakda^ to be bright* 
3. Verbs of the Chur class and derivative verbs, such as Causatives, 
Desideratives, Intensives, Denominatives. 
J 3atS. Verbs which cannot form the Perfect by reduplication, form the 
Periphrastic Perfect by means of composition. {§ 340.) 

So do likewise ^ rfay, to pity, &c., w ay, to go, mt^^ ds^ to sit down 
(P&n, III. 1, 37), in^*d«, to cough (Pdn. iii. i, 35); also w^^kdi, to shine 
(S&r.); optionally ijti ush^ to bum, (lihlf oahdm), f^ vid, to know, (ftf^ viddm\ 
"^t^Jdffri, to wake, {"fmjijdgardm, P&9. iii. i, 38); and, after taking redupli- 
cation, Hf^ bhi {f^^bibhaydm^-^hri (f^rpAjihraydm), ij bhri (flwtf bibhardm), 
and J hu (j9j^ juhavdm^ P&n. iii. i, 39). 

The verb "^l^ drnu, to cover, although polysyllabic, allows only of 'S^^fTT 
dmundva as its Perfect. 

"^nfichh^ to fail, although its base in the Perfect ends in two consonants, 
forms only WH^dnarchchha. It is treated, in fact, as if^f^archchh, ($3I3«) 

Tertninationa of the Reduplicated Perfect. 





|[^ ishe 




^^ ivahe 

WT^ dthe 



^ tva 


^T^ aihui. 


^: atui^ 


^ ima 


V a 


^ ut 


^ idhve or ^ i^At;^ 
^ ire 

These terminations are here given, without any regard to the systems of 
native or comparative grammarians, in that form in which they may be 
mechanically added to the reduplicated roots. The rules on the omisdon of 
the initial ^t of certain terminations will be given below. 

^ 327. The accent falls on the terminations in the Parasmaipada and 
Atmanepada, except in the three persons singular Parasmaipada, In these 
the accent falls on the root, which therefore is strengthened according to the 
following rules : 

1. Vowels capable of Guj^a, take Guna throughout the aingular, if followed 

by one consonant. 

fW^ bhid^ f^^ bibhid-a^ fv^HlfV bibhSd^itha, fs^ bibhid^, 
'^^budh^ '^pftH bubddh^f '^pft^n bubifdh'-itha, "^^^ btbb6dh-a. 
But '^((^jtvy a long medial vowel not being Uable to Guna, forms ftnfhr 
jijiv-a, fil «() Ol VI jyiv-itha, f^ptlm jijiv^a. 

2. Final vowels take Vriddhi or Guijia in the first, Gu^ in the second, 

Ypddhi only in the third person singular. 
'^niy f9[^J^nindy-a or Phh^ nimdy-Oy fVf^ mnitha or fiPTftni nindy-ithay 
f«fr|nY nindf/'a, 

3. V a if followed by a single consonant, takes Ypddhi or Gu^a in the first, 

Gu^a in the second, Yriddhi only in the third person, singular, 

f^ hcm,'9[ViPiiJaghan^a or w^jaghdn-^i, '^r^^if^jaghdn-itha, ^tf^mjaghan-<k 

Note — If the second person singular Parasmaipada is formed bj 'mha^ the aocent falls on 
the root ; if with ^ tVAa, the accent may feJl on any syllable, but generally it is on the 
termination. In this case the radical vowel may, in certain verbs, be without Gupa, 
fifi^ri;, ft%8f ©tc^fl, but ftftftlVI vivijitha, (Pkn. i. 2, 2 ; 3.) 

§ 328. As there is a tendency to strengthen the base in the three persons 

singular Parasmaipada, so there is a tendency to weaken the base, under 

certain circumstances, before the other terminations of the Perfect, Parasmai 

and Atmanepada. Here the following rules must be observed : 

I • Roots like Tn{^pat, i. e. roots in which ^ a is preceded and followed by a 

single consonant, and w^hich in their reduplicated syllable repeat the 

initial consonant without any change (this excludes roots beginning 

with aspirates and with gutturals; roots beginning with ^v, and 


l|ra[ i^* and ?^ dad are likewise excepted), contract such forms as 
iRI^jvopo^ into ^H^pet, beibre the accented terminations, (including 
^itha, Pft^. Yi. 4, I20, 121.) 

^^pach, vmw^ pig^dktha, but ^l^^pechiihd, ^|^^pechimd, ^l^.peckii^. 

1li^ tan, iKVtq teniihdf ^f^ tenimd^ Thp tenu^. 

2. Roots mentioned in ^ 311 take their weak form. 

^ vahf iHTf uvdhaj isrf\[W Hhimd. T^ vocA, V^rv mdeha, ^: Hchui^. 

Note— The roots 1[ M, l|<^jpAa/, Hl^ftA^i;, ?n,<rap, Yl^iiratA (Pft?. vi. 4, laa), and 
XV^rddk, in the sense of 'killing' (123), fonn their Reduplicated Perfect like ^paf. The 
roots ^Jt^, V^&Arom, and ^f^^tras (134) may do so optionally; and like^nse ^Vi^^jiAa^, 
TlH^r4y, W^bhr4jf WfJ^ftAr^/, ^Jpi^JfhW, ^Ql^syam, ^R(«oaii. 

3. The roots ^ffam, fjfihan, in^yon, Wlkhan, 'W^^ghas drop their radical 

voweL (Pft?. VI. 4, 98.) 
Vl\ffam, irvf^ jagmdtuh. f9( Aai», img: jaghndtuh* 1P( ^Aan, ^«^ eAaA:A- 
ndtuh. ^ ^A^> ^VWS^ jdk$hdtuh> 
4* Roots ending in more than one consonant, particularly in consonants 
preceded by a nasal (P&9. i. 2, 5), such as w^manihi ^:^Jsrafk8^ &c., do 
not drop their nasal in the weakening forms. Ex. 3rd pers, dual; 
^^mi^l babhrajjdtuh ; ^f^A^^ mamanihdtuh ; Wgk 9a9ra'ik86. 
5. The verbs ih^iran/A, V[\9^^'^f^9 ^ dambh, Bnd'm[^^sva^f\ however, may be 
weakened, and form ^Nj: trethdtui, d^ grethdtuf^j ^^ debhdtuk^ TOi^ 
sa$vaj( (loss of nasal and e, cf. Pft^. i. %, 6, v&rt). But according to some 
grammarians the forms ^iniiTS: iairanthdtul^ &c. are more correct 
§ 329. Roots ending in^nd, and many roots ending in diphthongs, drop 
their final vowel before all terminations beginning with a vowel (P&9. vi. 4, 64). 
In the general tenses, verbs ending in diphthongs are treated like verbs 
ending in ^ d. 

The same roots take ift au for the termination of the first and third 
persons singular Parasmaipada. 
^ d(i, ^ dad-ad, ^flpv dadrivd, "^^^ dad-dthu^, r(ff^ dadAr6. 
% nUai, wgi mand'^, *ri)pr mamlrivd, 'HTS^ maml-dthuhi ^f^t mamlrM. 
Except "Skvyty T^hve^ &c.; see j 311. 

j 330. Roots ending in ^ t , ^ f, if n> ^^ preceded by one consonant, change 
their vowels, before terminations beginning with vowels, into ^y, ^ r. 

If preceded by more than one consonant, they change their vowels into 
^*y, ^fl^-t. ($ aai.) 

^rf%!^^^rf^ ^nr ^nwrftrftr 

the Prasl^a (p. 17 b) decides for both, l|ra[ia« and ^l^io/. 
t ^ n forms the perf. ^VR dra^ 3rd pers. dual W 
HMJI dtkdrehchka^ 3rd pers. dual VMAjS dnarchckhdtuti* 

162 THE INTEBKEDIATE ^ t. $ 331-^ 

Roots ending in 7 tt, 'mil, change these vowels always into ^ur. 

Most roots ending in ^r<, change the vowel to ^ or (PAn. vii. 4, 11). 

^ »<, ftrftw niny^d, we two have led. ftr iri, %ftrf^ 6iSriy-ivdy we 
two have gone. Tf kri, ^CW^* chakr-dthufty you two have done. ^ sifi, 
irarc^ taatar^thuf^^ you two have spread. ^ yu^ ]|3^^ yuyuthdthu^, you 
two have joined. ^ stu, ffT^ tushfuv-dthu^y you two have praised. V Arl^ 
^TIR^ chakar-dthul^f you two have scattered. 




\ 331. Before we can proceed to form the paradigms of the Reduplicated 
Perfect hy means of joining the terminations with the root, it is necessary 
to consider the intermediate \ i, which in the Reduplicated Perfect and in 
the other unmodified tenses has to be inserted between the verbal base and 
the terminations, originally beginning with consonants. The rules which 
require^ allow^ or prohibit the insertion of this ^ t form one of the most 
difficult chapters of Sanskrit grammar, and it is the object of the following 
paragraphs to simplify these rules as much as possible. 

The general tendency, and, so far, the general rule, is that the terminations 
of the unmodified or general tenses, originally beginning with consonants, 
insert the vowel ^ t between base and termination ; and fi'om an historical 
point of view it would no doubt be more correct to speak of the rules which 
require the addition of an intermediate ^ i than (as has been done in ^ 326) 
to represent the ^ t as an integral part of the terminations, and to give the 
rules which require its omission. But as the intermediate ^ i has prevailed 
in the vast majority of verbs, it will be easier, for practical purposes, to 
state the exceptions, i. e. the cases in which the ^ i is not employed, instead 
of defining the cases in which it must or may be inserted. 

One termination only, that of the 3rd pers. plur. Perf. Atm., ^ire, keeps the 
intermediate ^ t under all circumstances. In the Yeda, however, this ^ iy too, 
has not yet become fixed, and is occasionally omitted; e.g. ^^ duduh-rS. 

* In W^> \ dfi, and ^pfit^ further shortening may take place; ^^liQ* iaiardtuf^ 
being shortened to ypK^* dairtUufi, &o« (P&9.V11. 4, la.) 


— ^ 332. THE INTSBMEDIATE ^ t. 16^ 

Let it be remembered then^ that there are three points to be considered : 
I. When is it necessary to omit the ^iP 
7,. When is it optumcU t6 insert or to omit the ^iP 
3. When is it necessary t6 insert the j(iF 

For the purposes of reading Sanskrit, all that a student is obliged to know 
isy When it is necessary to omit the ^ t. Even for writing Sanskrit this 
knowledge would be sufficient, for in all cases except those in which the 
omission is necessary, the ^ t may safely be inserted, although^ according 
to views of native granunarians, it may be equally right t6 omit it, A 
student therefore, and particularly a beginner, is safe if he only knows the 
cases in which ^ t is necessarily omitted, nor will anything but extensive 
reading enable him to know the verbs in which the insertion is either 
optional or necessary. Native grammarians have indeed laid down a number 
of rules, but both before and afler Pftnini the language of India has 
changed, and even native grammarians are obliged to admit that on the 
optional insertion of ^t authorities differ; that is to say, that the literary 
language of India differed so much in different parts of that enormous 
country, and at different periods of its long history, that no rules, however 
minute, would suffice to register all its freaks and fencies. 

§ 332. Taking as the starting-point the general axiom (P&9. vii. a, 35) that eveiy 
termination beginning originally with a consonant (except ^ y) takes the ^ i, which we 
represent as a portion of the termination, we proceed to state the exceptions^ i. e. the cases 
in which the ^t must on no account be inserted, or, as we should say, must be cut off from 
^e beginning of the termination. 

The following verbs, which have been carefully collected by native grammarians (Pft?. 
VII. 3, 10), are not allowed to take the intermediate ^ • in the so-called general or unmodified 
tenses, before terminations or afSj[es beginning originally with a consonant (except \y)* 
(Note — ^The reduplicated perfect and its participle in ^l^ea« are not affected by these rules; 
see 4 334.) 

I. All monosyllabic roots ending in HT ^. 
' 9. All monosyllabic roots ending in ^ t, except f^irt, to attend (21, 31)*; HV ^ to grow 
(23,41). (Note^f^Mnt, to laugh, must take ^f in the Desiderative. Pft^. vii. 

3> 74.) 

3. All monosyllabic roots ending in ^l', except ^ 4^, to fly (22, 72 ; 26, 26, anuddtta), and 

"^^f to rest (24, 22). 

4. All monosyllabic roots ending in T«, except ^yu, to mix (24, 23; not 31,9); ^ni, 

to sound (24, 24) ; ^ ntt, to praise (24, 26 ; 28, 104 ?) ; ^ kshu, to sound (24, 27) ; 
WQ kshi^, to sharpen (24, 28). ^ mv, to flow (24, 29), takes ^f in Parasmaipada 
(PIL9. VII. 2, 36). (Note — ^ stu, to praise, and ^ su, to pour, take ^ • in the First 
Aorist Parasmaipada. PII9. vii. 2, 72.) 

* These figures refer to the Dh&tup&tha inWestergaard's Radices Linguss Sanscritce, z84i« 

Y 2 

164 THE INTEBMSDIATE \i. § 332- 

5. All monoBjUabic roots ending in ^ft, except ^pji, to choose (31, 38). 

Important exception : in the Fat. and Cond. in ^ sya, all verbs in ^ ft take ^ t (P&9. 

vii. 2, 70). 
^ svfi, to sound, may take ^ i (P&9. vii. 3, 44). 1J bhfi^ to cany, may take ^ • in the 

Desider. (Pin. vii. a, 49). '^dji, to regard, >| dhfi, to hold, and ^ ft, to go, take 

^ • in the Desider. (PIL9. vii. 2, 74, 75). 
In the Benedictive and First Aorist Atmanepada verbs ending in ^ ft aild beginning 

with a coigunct consonant may take ^ t (P&9. vii. 2, 43). 

6. All monosyllabic roots ending in ^ e, < at, 11^ 0. 

Therefore, with few exceptions, as mentioned above, all monosyllabic roots ending in 
vowels, except the vowels 9 4 and ^ f<, must not take ^ t . 

7. Of roots ending in 1^ *, :;i^ hk, to be able (a6, 78; 27, 15). 

8. Of roots ending in ^cA, Vl^^pach, to cook (23, 27); ^l^cacA, to speak (24, 55); ^|^ 

much, to loose (28, 136); ftr^mcA, to sprinkle (28, 140) ; fl^^ricA, to leave (29, 4) ; 
ftr^otcA, to separate (29, 5). 

9. Of roots ending in ^ c&A, Jf^^prachh, to ask (28, 120). It must take ^f in the Desider. 

(PAfl. VII. 2, 75). 

10. Of roots ending in Hj, ^hr«oafl[/, to embrace (23, 7); JlT^tyaj, to leave (23, 17); ^W 

taHj, to adhere (23, 18); H9(bhajy to worship (23, 29); X^raHj, to colour (23, 30; 
^^9 58); '^(^yaj, to sacrifice (23, 33) ; "ftfl^^nv, to clean (25, 11); ftf^^wj, to separate 
(^5) 13 ; not 28, 9, or 29, 23) ; [Kdls. ^[^mjij]; ^^ytff, to meditate (26, 68), to join 
(^9) 7)> ^^^9 ^ 1^ oft (26, 69; 28, 121); WB(^bhrajj, to bake (28, 4, except 
Desider.); 'fn^majj^ to dip (28, 122); '^^ruj, to break (28, 123); ^^&Ai(f, to bend 
(28, 124), to protect (29, 17); ^HlbhaHj, to break (29, 16). 

1 1. Of roots ending in ^ d, ^ had^ to evacuate (23, 8) ; ^il^ skand, to step (23, 10) ; ^ ad, 

to eat (24, i) ; Vl^pad, to go (26, 60) ; fll^itAtd, to be distressed, &c. (26, 61 ; 28, 142 ; 
29, 12) ; ft^vid, to be (26, 62); fi^^mc^, to sweat (26, 79); J^^, to strike (28, 
i) ; ^ ^f^f to push (28, 2 ; 28, 132); ?r^ sad, to droop (28, 133) ; 1(1^ iad, to perish 
(28, 134); ftt^vid, to find (28, 138? 29, 13; not 24, 56); fil^&Ati, to cut (29, 2); 
f^ chhid, to divide (29, 3) ; ^R kshudf to pound (29, 6). 

12. Of roots ending in ^<2A,'g^6tu^A, to know-(26, 63); ^y«(fA,tofight(26,64); ^^^rtidk, 

with ^3 ^****» *® 1^^® (3^» ^5)> ^ ^®®P o^ (29> ^)» tlV r^A, to grow (26, 71 ; 27, 16); 
^^(^vyadh, to strike (26, 72); ^p^^krudh, to be angry (26, 80) $ ^^AtAftcKA, to be 
hungry (26, 81), except Part. IjAlV kshudhita and Ger. ^^[ftliWT k»hudhitvd (P&9. 
VII. 2, 52); ^^^u^A, to clean (26, 82); f^P^sidk, to succeed {26, 83); ^1^<^^, to 
achieve (27, 16) ; ^^^bandh, to bind (31, 37). 

13. Of roots ending in f^n, l|«^Aafi, to kill (24, 2), except the Fut. and Cond. (P&9. vii. 2, 

70) ; likewise its substitute M^badh: vn^maii, to think (26, 67). 

14. Of roots ending in ^J>, fit^tip, to pour (10, i ?) ; ^|'R,«nP> ^ go (^3* '4) » ^^^^P* to heat 

(23, 16; 26, 50); TJ^iiap, to swear (23, 31 5 26, 59); ^rap, to sow (23, 34); W^, 
svtyp, to sleep (24, 60) ; ^n^4P* ^ reach (27, 14) ; ftf^AsAtp, to throw (28, 5) ; ^^'{fi^, 
to cut (a8, 137) ; f9r((^/^, to anoint (28, 139) ; ^j^cAAiip, to touch (28, 125). (Note — 
^pi^fftp and T^4ip, which are generally included, may take ^ i, according to Pft^. 
VII. 2, 45.) 
zg. Of roots ending in ^bh, V^rabh, to desire (23, 5) ; W(labh, to take (23, 6) ; TH^yabh, 

coin (33f ii)* 

-^ 333* THB IKTEBHEDIATS ^ i. ' 165 

z6. Of roots ending in IT m, X^ram, to play (ao, 33) ; ^(^^namy to incline (23, la) ; ^yom, 
to cease (33, 15). But these three take ^ • in Aor. Par. (Pft?. vii. 2, 73). ^^ffom, to 
go (23> 13), but it takes ^f before ^« of Put., CJond., and Deuder. Par. (PA9. vii. 2, 
58). Also IV^ibram, to step (13, 31)^ in Atm. (Pft^. vii. 2, 36). 

17. Of roots ending in 1^/, ^d^ibW, to shout (20, 26) ; ^l^i^, to see (23, 19) ; ^^eUuhi^ 
to bite (23, 20); ftn^^K/^ to be sniall {26, 70; 28, 127); fln^c^^ to show (28, 3); 
^^I^rtti, to hart (28, 126) ; ftl^rt^, to hurt (28, 126); Wi^$pfiiy to touch (28, 128) ; 
fin^^vi^, to enter (28, 130); ^fS^^mfU, to rub (28^ 131). 

i8. Of roots ending in ^sA, ^p^AfisA> to draw (23, 21 ; 28, 6); fi^tvish, to shine (23> 32); 
fk^c^owA, to hate (24> 3) ; ftn^vwA, to pervade (25, 13), to separate (31 9 54; not 17, 
47) 5 5^iww*> to nourish {26, 73 ; not 17, 50) ; ^ii«*, to dry (26, 74) ; f^tesA, to 
please {26, 75) ; ^cAmA^ to spoil (26, 76) ; fs^^A, to embrace (26, 77) ; f^P^^A, 
to distinguish (29^ 14) ; fti^pMA» to pound (29, 15). 

19. Of roots ending in ^s, ^V(», to dwell (23^ ^6), except Part. Vf^R* ushiia^ and €rer. 

9^m\u$kUvd (P49. VII. 2, 52) } '^^^ghas, to eat (17, 65, as substitute for HV <u{). 

20. Of roots ending in ^ A^ ^ ruh, to grow (20, 29) ; 1^ dah, to bum (23^ 22) ; m^ msA, 

to sprinkle (23, 23); iff vah, to cany (23, 35); J^ doA, to milk (24, 4; not 17, 87); 
f^ dih, to smear (24, 5); ft^ Uh, to lick (24, 6); 11^ noA, to bind (26, 57). 

4 333* Other roots there are, which must not take ^ f in certain only of the general 

A. In the future (formed by ITT id), the future and conditional (formed by ^ sya), the 

desiderative, and the participle in W to (Pft^. vii. 2, 15; 44), the verb ^pij^fip must not 
take ^ f, if used in the Parasmaipada. (P&9. vii. 2, 60.) 
Tf^iUpy to shape, Fut.H^RTAa^^^, ¥ut.W9^nfit kaJpsyati, Cond. VH i^4m(akalp9yatj 
Desid. f^jmrn cMklipsati; Part. JfWl kliptafi. 

B. In the future and conditional (formed by ^ iya), the desiderative base, and the 

participle in W ta, the following four verbs must not take ^ i, if used in the Parasmai- 
pada. (P49. Yii. 2, 59.) 

^ofi^, to exist, Put. HMtt^vartsyaH, Cond. V^rf) 9iavart9yatj Desid. ft^Wfif vwfitsaH; 

Part. ^|W! vfi^^oA. (Pft^. vii. 2, 15; 56.) 
^VficZA, to grow, ¥vLt,^l9^flfvartsyaH, CoTid.W^mh(avartsyatj Desid. ftl^pfrfk vivfitsatij 

Part. ^Vt vriddkaft, 
Wi^Mffond, to drop, Fnt, '^^i^fltfB syanttyati, Cond. ^^MkHjuffontsyatj Desid. (Vl^fnOl 

fisyanUati; Part* ^OWt syannaf^. 
H^ ifidhf to hurt. Put. ^pSflr iartsyati, Cond. HUrf^^ aiartsyat; Desid. (^I^wflf 

iUfitsatij Taxt.^Xl iriddha^, 

C. In the desiderative bases, and in the participle in W ta, monosyllabic roots ending in 

7 », 9 tf, ^ft, ^rl, and U^ grah, to take, and ^ guk, to hide, do not take ^ ». 

(Pft^.vii. 2, 12.) 
^bhU, to be, '^^^Vflr bubkOshaHj Pftrt. ^ bh4tafi. 

V%ffrah, ftf^lffir j^AfiA^Aa^; Part. ^JlfhrtpftAl^oA (long i by special rule, cf. P4n. vii. 2, 37). 
^yuA, 1|l| HI Hi jughukshaH; Part, 'j^ gH^kaft (cf* P^* ^"* ^» 44)* 
(Verbs ending in ^fi and ^opi are liable to exceptions. See § 337. P&9. vii. 2, 38-41.) 

D. Participial formations. 

I. Roots which may be ^hout the ^ t in any one of the general tenses, must be without 
it in the participle in W ta. 

166 THE INTEBMEDIATS ^ t. § 333-s> 

(Remark that the participle in W ta is most opposed^ as the reduplicated perfect is most 

disposed to the admission of ^ t .) 
Monosyllabic roots ending in T«, ^91^, ^ft, ^f^, do not take \i before the participle 

in W ta, nor before other terminations which tend to weaken a verbal base* 

(Pft^.vii. a^ II.) 

5 y*» *^ i^^f W^ yn-tah, ^nmn^yu'taodn, ^W yu-ivd, (P&9. vii. a, 11.) 

€j[ A2, to cut, ^r«T: U-nd(^, cj^«l*H«f^ Ui-4ua>dn, T^Wl 14-tv/L (Except ^ptf, § 335^ II. 6.) 

^ vfi, to cover, 'JlfS vfi-ta^f ^imy^vji-tavdn, ^W vfi-tvd. 

^Tf^^^, to enter, may form (Pft?. vii. 2, 44) the future as Hlff^A} gdh-i-td or ^^ITSXgd^hdi 

hence its participle TRT! gdfha^ only, 
^^^ttp, to protect, may form (P&^.vii. a, 44) the future •Ji^nigop-t-td or WhlT^op-^^^* 

hence its participle ^^pH ^Pup^oA only. 
a. Roots which by native grammarians are marked with technical W ^ or ^1 do not take 
^ f in the participle in W to. (P&^ vii. a, 14, 16.) * 
f^f^ rnjtd, to sweat (marked as ftlf^^l ISmAo«2^; f^HT mnndh, 
91^ 2a;, to be ashamed (marked as ^IfcVlft olaj()i co^Hi lagnaft. 

List qf Participles in W ta or «T na loAtcA /or special reasons and in special senses 

do not take ^ i. 

fsr in, to go ; ftnn ^*i^a^, fWAT ^'fptf. (Pli^. ni. a, 11.) See 4 33a, a. 

f^ ivf, to swell ; !f^ iitirta^. (PA?, vii. a, 14.) See $ 33a, a. 

1|H iUAtt&A, to shake; "^V: kskubdhaft, if it means the chuming-stick. (PH^. vii.a, 18.) 

See i 33a, 15. 
^r«( svan, to sound ; ^orflf • svdntaft, if it means the mind. 
V^ dhvan, to sound ; Ufhfl dhvdntaftf if it means darkness. 
Tl*^ 2a^, to be near; ^P^t lagnah, if it means attached. 
^^ m/«cAcAA, to speak indistinctiy ; fjrfS mlishfa^, if it means indistinct. 
f^ll^vtre^A, to sound ; MV*ii viribdhaf^, if it refers to a note, 
in pAaf», to prepare ; lilTt phd^aft, if it means without an effort. 
^(tW vdhy to labour ; ^Tt^ vd4ha^, if it means excessive. 
ip^ dkfish, to be confident ; ^V! dhfishfa^, if it means bold. (P&9. vii. 3, 19.) 
ft^l^ vi^aSj to praise ; ftRR^ viiastdfk, if it means arrogant. 
7f (fft'A, to grow ; T7t dfiifhalt, if it means strong. (PIL9. vii. a, ao.) 
mIV^f parivjih, to grow ; mDl^^* paricfi^hdft, if it means lord. (Plb^. vii. a, ai.) 
in^ibcuA, to try ; Wt* kashfah^ if it means difficult or impervious. (P&9- 'Vii« 3, aa.) 
^if ^^imA, to manifest ; ^S ghushfafi, if it does not mean proclaimed. (P&9. vii. a, 33.) 
W^ard, with the prepos. ^ sam, fH nt, f% m, Irat ar^^^y ^Pw ^amorn^^i^ plagued. (Pl9* 

VII. a, 34.) 
^R^ ard, with the prepos. V59 ahhi; VMIJ: abhyarnf^, if it means near. (P&^ vii. a, 35.) 
^tTftV (as causative), ^|W! vfittah, if it means read. 

* ft^mtd, to be soft, though having a technical UTtf, may, in certain senses, form.ito 
participle as m^ medUa^ or finT mtnfio^ (P&9. vii. a, 17). The same applies to all verba 
marked by technical HT d. 

-^ 335. THE IKTBEMEDIATE f i. 167 

Intermediate ^ i m the Reduplicated Petrfeet, 

$ 334. The preceding niles> prohibiting in a number of roots the ^ i for all or most 
general tenses, do not affect the reduplicated perfect. Most of the verbs just enumerated 
which must omit ^ t in all other general tenses, do not omit it in the perfect. So general, 
in fact, has the use of the ^» become in the perfect, that eight roots only are absolutelj 
prohibited from taking it. These are (PIL9. vii. 3, 13), 

z. ^ kfi, to do, (unless it is changed to ^ ii^), ist pers. dual ^^ ehakti-vaz but 

^hrerf^ sa^haskarwaj and pers. sing. d^lJlfV^ sa^haekaritha. 
a. ^ jft, to go, ^8^ sa9fi-va» 
3. >| bhriy to bear, Wf^ babhfi-va. 

.4, ^vfi (^tfiff and ^tT*^*), to choose. Par. ^^vorrt-vafy Atm..l^|4% vovp-oole* 
^^ vavfi-she, 

5. ^ stu, to praise, f{^ tuih(iM9a. %W\V tuekfO'tha, 

6. ^ dm, to run, ^n dudnM>a. {^{ft^ dudro-tha. 

7. ^ sm, to flow, ^1^ eutrU'Va. ^oV^ euero'tha. 

8. ^ ir», to hear, V^^ ^tf^m-va. Jjnit^ iuirO'tha, 

§ 335* I^ ^^0 second person singular of the reduplicated perfect Par. the ^ • before 
Vtha must necessarily be left out, 

z. In the eight roots, enumerated before. (The fbrm W^ vavar'thaf howerer, being 
restricted to the Veda^ l^^tft^vavaritha is considered the right form. See No. 14a, in 
the DhUtupft^.) - 

a. In roots ending in vowels, which are necessarily without ^ t in the fiiture (IIT M), P49. 
VII. a, 61. See § 33a, where these roots are given. 

^ ytf, to go ; Put. inWT ydtdj Hm^ yayd-tha. 
fVcH to gather; ¥vi,WW\ ehetd; ^n^ Mehe-tha. 

3. In roots ending in consonants and having an V a for their radical vowel, which are 
necessarily ^hout ^ t in the future (IIT td), Th^, vii. a, 62. See $ 33a, where these 
roots are given. 

^l^pacA, to cook ; Vut.VnR paktd; V^W^ papak-tha. 

But ipvflf kfithati, he drags ; Put. Wtl karshfdj 1*rft'*l chakarsh'i-tha. 

(Bharadvija requires the omission of ^t after roots with ^ ft only, which are necessarily 
wxAout ^ f in the periphrastic future (PIL9. vii. a, 63), except root ^ ft itself. Hence he 
allows Mfin pechithaf besides V!^fW^ papaktkaj J^^tf^ iyajUhay besides ^1(W iyashtha: 
also M^^ yayUha, P^^^H chichayitha, &c.) 

4. An other verbs ending in consonants with any other radical vowel but V a, require \i, 
and so do all verbs with which ^ t is either optional or indispensable in the future 


* ^tT»*» (37, 8) TO& varatfe, Su. ^»n*J» (34> 8) UTTO^ doaraig^, Chur. ^ vrin, 
(3i> 3^) ^t^^ sambkaktau, Krt. 

t The form mftff vavariva, which Westergaard mentions, may be derived from another 
roQjb \ vfi, the rule of Pli^ini being restricted by the commentator to ^opff and ^or»»« 

168 THE INTEBlfBDIATE ^ i. § 336- 

Ezoeptions : 

X. Id ^^^* and '^^^^dfii, the omiflsion is optionaL 
^^^', '^BW sasrashtha, at W^l^n aasjrijitha, 

2. The verbs nftl atti, irfS arti, ^priifvyayati must take \i. § 338, 7. 
^f^ad, Wtff^ dd'i'tha^ (exception to No. 3.) 
^ft, ^l^iM dr-i'tha, (exception to No. 2.) 
^i?ye, ni'^pM^ vivyay-i'tha, (exception to No. 2.) 

Tables showing the cases in which the intermediate ^ i must be omitted between the Unmodified 
Root and the Terminations of the so-caUed General Tenses, originaUy beginning with m 
Consonant, except ^7. 

§ 336. In these tables IT to stands for the Past Participle; lR(«aii stands for the Desidem* 
tiye; Wsya for the Future and Conditional; Ifttd for the Periphrastio Future; ftl^stcA 
for the First Aorist ; f^ffT^ lin for the Benedictive. 

I. For all General Tenses, except the Reduplicated Perfect^ 
OmU ^i, 
z. Before IT ta, ^«a», 9 sya, ITT td, ftl^sicA, f^ M : 
In the verbs enumerated § 332. 

2. Before IT ta, W{^san, Wsya, IfT td: 

In ^P^hlip, if Parasmaipada. § 333, A. 

3. Before IT ta, WS{^san, ^ sya : 

In ^on^ ^fr*<^> ^^ syand, IfSfjfyidh, if Parasmupada. § 333, B. 

4. Before IT ta, WS{^san : 

In monosyllabic verbs ending in 7^ 9», ^, ^ ji, jn grah, and ^ guh. % 333, C« 

5. Before ir to.* 

a. All verbs which by native grammarians are marked with "Wld, \i, or H tf ^. 

b. The verb ftl 4r% and others eniunerated in a general list^ ^ 333, D. 

II. For the Reduplicated Perfect, 
Omit ^1, 

1. Before all terminations, except ^ ire : 

In eight verbs, mentioned § 334. 

2. Before ^tha, 2nd pen. sing. : 

All verbs of § 332 ending in vowels 1 if without ^ i in the 

All verbs of § 332 ending in consonants unth Va as radical vowel /periphrastic future. 

Optional insertion of l^i, 

§ 337* ^o' practical purposes, as was stated before, it is sufficient to know when H 
would be wrong to use the intermediate ^t^- for in all other oases, whatever the views of 
difPerent grammarians, or the usage of difforent writers, it is safe to insert the ^ t • 

As native grammarians, however, have been at much pains to collect the cases in which ^ t 
must or may be inserted, a short abstract of their rules may here follow, which the early 
student may safely pass by. 

* The technical H tf shows that in the other general tenses the ^ t is optional. ^ 337, 1. 2. 

-f 337. THE INTERMEDIATE ^ i. 169 

^ i may or nuiy not be inierted : 

I. Before any drdkadhdtuka (i. e. an affix of the genenl tenses not requiring the modified 
verbal base) beginning with consonants, except \y, 

I. In the ydrbs ^wfi^- Per. Fut. VrftlH svar-i-td, or ^Snlsvartdf &c. (P4i^. vii. a, 44.) 

(Except future in ^ sya, ^ftl^Vflr nariskyati only. P&9. vii. a, 70.) 
^«tf (as Ad and Div, not as Tud), ^f^fHT^av-i-f^, or '^SfVKlsotd, &c. 
\dM (not as Tud), vftlfll dhav-utd, or vVVT dAo/^, &c. (Except aorist Pkiasmaipada, 

which must take ^ i. PA^. vii. a, 7a.) 
a. In all verbs having a technical 'W^H (P&9. vii. 2, 44). TTf p^> Per. Fut. Wlffffl gdh-i-td^ 

0TVJ^gd4hd. (See $ 333, D. x.) 
But ^Vl^^a^j (though marked #i|ail/tf) muti take ^ t in the first aorist. (P&i^. vii. a, 7 1 .) 

wfflf^ d^huft. 

3. In the eight verbs beginning with V\radh. (P&9. vii. a, 45.) 
(a6, 84) T^roiA, to perish, XfifWl reM^utd, or TUT raddhd. 

(26, 85) ^VBna^, to vanish, nHiini nai-^td^ or IIVT na^iuAf^. 

(a6, 86) ^'r*/'> to delight, irFQlfT tarp-i-td, ot KWttarptd, or ?nn traptd. 

(a6, 87) ^^cfft/), to be proud, ^fVWT darp'i-tdf or ?^ darptd, or ^pIT draptd. 

(26^ 88) "^ druA, to hate, "^ftf^lH droh-i-td, or "^jft^ drogdhd^ or ^|^^ dro^hd. 

(a6, 89) n miiA, to be bewildered, ifH^lfT moA-t-^^^, or iftnfT mogSkd, or 'uVT moifhd. 

(a6, 5K>) ^f <"«A, to vomity iM^HT tnoA-t-^^ or iFtniT snogdkd, or lltTT tho^lUL 

{26 J 91) f^ miA, to love, %f^Tn tnehri'td^ or ^TVT snegdkd, or ^OTT tnt^hd. 

Aooording to some this option extends to the reduplicated perfect; but this is properly 
denied by others. 

4. In the verb ^|f^iiwA (Chur dass), preceded by f«l^ntr/ but here ^t ii necessary in 

the participle with W ta, (PA9. Vix. a, 46 ; 47.) 

^ i may or may mot be inserted: 

II. Before certain drdhadhdtukai only : 

I. Before drdhadhdtukai beginning with Hj : 

In the verbs Wish (Tud only), ^ sak, "^hibK "^ruik, ft^m*. (PII9. vii. a, 
48.) The participles in IT fa or ^ na are treated separately under No. 7. Hence 
\tl i$hfa^ only, but either ^fX iskfvd or l^f^f^T Mitvd. 
a. Before drdkadhdtukas beginning with ^^a, but not in the aorist 1 

In the verbs ^f\krii, to cut; '^H^cApV, to kill; "If^cAAfW, to play; ^frW, to 
strike ; ^TI^npY, to dance. (P&9. vii. a, 57.) 

3. Before the termination of the desiderative base (^en^san) : 

In the verb ^ vp, and all verbs ending in ^K* {P^9* '^''' ^» 4iO 

In the verbs ending in ^w, and in ^^fiilA, '^3[^bhrasi, ^damAA, fW/rt, ^ wri, 

^yth ^tff^tf, ^ bhri (BhA class), V^^JHapy ^san^ also TTf^ten, VPHjpat, ^[ftST 

daridrd. (P&9. vii. a, 49.) 

4. Before the terminations of the benedictive (ft5t^ lih) and first aorist (fis^wcA) in the 

Atmanepada : 
In the verb ^ rp, and all verbs ending, in ^ f< (P&n. vii. 2, 42). The ^ r^ ifl 

changed into ^<r or 'QF^ dr. 
In verbs ending in ^ft and beginning with a conjunct consonant. (P&n. vii. a, 43.) 


J. 70 THE INTERMEDIATE ^ f. § 338-^ 

5. Before the gerundial termination i^ tvd .- 

In verbs having a technical 7 u. (Pftn. vii. a, 56.) 
Vm^^om (^ /(trattf), 'Iffitm ^amitvd or ^ffi?T idntvd. 

6. Before the gerondial termination i^ to^ and the participle in W ta : 

In the verb %S^ibtf^, (P&9. vn. a, 50.) 

f^fifFtX kUHtvd or f^q^ kliskfvdj f||rfl|nn klifitdfL or f^: klishfidi. 
In the verb ^[jitf. (Pftn. vii. a, 51.) 

MPlff^llMioffp^ or ^^i^to^, T^PSTKl pavitaft or ^[fft j)i2/aA. It must take l^t in 
the desiderative (P&gu vii. 2, 74). 

7. Before the partidpial terminations IT ta or vTna^' (see also § 333, D. 3, note) : 

In the rerb* ^^dam, to tame, ?(fin (to^ail or isfid^ damUah, (P&n. vii. 3^ 37.) 
9*^ ^0"^ to qniet, ^^Z idnia^ ot ^if^lffS ^amt^o^. 
^|i^, to fill, ^t p<&tuiil or ^fV** p^tai* 
^^das, to perish, ^[^ datta^ or ^Tftm: ddaUaf^* 
^mjspai, to touch, ^RV: tpashfafi or ^if^At tpdiiidft. 
K^ ehhady to cover, i[WS cAAofina^ or f^lQ^AS chhdditah. 
W(j^f to inform, QIH JKopfo^ or frf^S j^Iajn^a^. 
^i(^rM&, to hurt, ^f: rwAfo^ or ^ftnn nwAtVoA. (P&9. vii. s, 38.) 
W^am, to go, vfm dntc^ or vf^iAt omtVo/^ 
{^ ioar, to hasten, 1|^: A^-^ojl or HlfXil* tvaritaf, 
^r^raii-^Aitf^ to shout, ^^^Vt sanffhttshfa^ or ^^ftwt ^on^ftitfAt^aA. (See § 333, 

D. 3.) 
^n^l«((CnMm, to sound, VIHtil* dwdntah or Uraf^nn ^amVa|^. (See $ 333, 

D. 3.) 
^ ArttA, to rcgoioe, l[9l hfiihtah or |{ftnR Afi^AtTa^, if applied to horripilation. 

(P&9. VII. 3, 39.) 
W^fif «pa-cAt, to honour, HUf^il* apackitafi or VQ^TTMiTt opoeA^fitaJk *• 

8. Before the participle of the reduplicated perfect in ^^vm ; 

In the verbs V^gamy to go, l| D ^ ^ [^agmwdn or *i « i •^ i^JoffOfwdn %, 
^«^toi, to kill, i| i)l 4 U{jagknwdn or i| M«^ l^jaghmvdn* 
f^ vtd^ to know, W^f^^ll*^ vwidivdn or fM^HTT*^ viMvdn. 
f^Jlt^vU, to enter» (^f^f^l^P^^ vivUivdn or fllftrW^ ©twA?Ai. 
^1^<^, to qee, ^^t^^K dadjriihdn or ^f mi^^deu^fi^^. 

Necessary msertion of^u 

i 33^* ^ • m^ist be inserted in all verbs in which, as stated before, it is neither prohibited, 
nor only opIaonaUy allowed (Pftn. vii. 2, 35). Besides these, the following special cases may 
be mentioned : 
I* Before ^^va«, participle of reduplicated perfect : 

In the verbs ending inWXd (Pft^. vii. 3, 67). VI pd, '^f^^mt^pcg^wdn. 

In the verbs reduced to a single syllable in the reduplica^d perfect (P&n. vii. 2, 67). 

^Wr a^, to eat, Vrfi(m^ ddvodn. 
In the verb ^^ghas^ to eat, l| (\|| 4 \^iakshw4n. 
Other verbs reject it. 

* Pftn. vii. 3, 30. t PA?. VII. 3, 68. 

^§ 341. THE IKTEBMSDIATE J^u 171 

2. Before 9 #ya of the future and conditioiial : 

In all verbs ending in ^ft, and in ^ han (P&9. vii. a, 70). In '^^^gamf if uaed in 
tlie Paraamaipada (Pft^. vii. 2, 58). 

3. Before the terminations of the first aorist (f^T^ nek) : 

In the verbs ^ ttu, ^ su, \dM in the Parasmaipada (P&9. vii. 2, 7a). Thos from 
^ stu, to pnuse,' First Aonst (First Form), WMlf^4 astMsham: but in the 
Atmanepada, VUtOl astoihi^ 

4. Before the terminations of the desiderative (1R( san) : 

In the verbs V £;<, ^^, \ dfi, ^ i&rt, and lf^^prackh (PA9. vii. 3^ 75); and in 

^H^gam, if used in the Parasmaipada (PAi^. vii. 2, 58). 
In the verbs ftR smi, ^[jrtl, ^ ft, W1^ a%*, and Hl^ €i/. (Pft^. vii. 3, 74.) 
g. Before the gerundial rfT AhI and the participial termination IT ta. (P&9. vii. a, 53-54.) 
Intheverbs^^viw, to dwell; ^^ifrsAiu2A» to hunger; ^i^aSeA, to worship; ^^MA, 

to confound (Dh&tup4fha 38, 33). 

6. Before TIT tvtf only : 

In ^JT^j to grow old ; "ff^^vra^ch, to cut. (Phs^, vii. 2, 55.) 

7. Before ^tha, 3nd pers. sing, reduplicated perfect ; 

In W^ad, to eat ; ^n» to go ; ^ vye, to cover. Wfl{^ diUihay against f 335, 3; 
Wl^^driika, § 335, 3, note; ft^lftl^ ffkyoffitha, 

§ 339. The vowel ^ i thus insoied is never liable to Gu^a or 


Insertion of the long \ t. 

j 340. Long ^ t may be substituted for the short when subjoined to a 

verb ending in ^ ff, also to i| v^i, except in the reduplicated perfect^ the 

aoiist Fkrasmaipada, and the benedictive. (P&(i. vii. a, 38—40.) 

\trl; Per. Fut. infhiT taritd or iri^ iaritd^ &c«; but Per£ 2nd pers. sing. 

iHbl teritha; I. Aor. Par. 3rd pers. plur. ^nrrftnj: atdrUkuiJ^; Bened. 

3rd pers. sing, nfbrtv iarishtshfa *. 

^vri; Per. Fut* ^rfhCT varitd or ^ftlTT varUd; but Per£ ^nflc^ vavaritha; 

Aor. Par. W^rftlj: avdri$kui ; Bened. ^Miw varUhUhfa^ 

§ 341. In the desiderative and in the aorist Atm. and benedictive Atm. these verbs may 
or may not have ^ t (PA9. vxi. 3, 41—43), which, if used* is liable to be changed to ^ ij not^ 
however, as far as I can judge, in the benedictive Atmanepada. 

\tfi: Des. Iliwft^fir titarishaH: ftrifONfil HtofUhOi: flnfnflr tiHrskatij Aor. Itm. 
mfffty atarishtOf ^fTnAv (ttarUhfa, and Wifiw aHrshtaj Bened. irftl^tV twritkUhtOf 
• lft4t9 HrshUhta* 
^ «fi/ Des. PliilVMfl 9war%$hatej f^THfhVn vwarUhatez ^]^4a vuv4rshatej Aor. Atm. 
^nfty aoari$h{a, ^l^^lV warUkfay and H^ ooft^a; Bened. q(V«rt» variBkUhfa, 
^pftV Vfishiikfa, 
The verb ?T^ praA, too, takes the long 1^ i, except in the reduplicated perfect, the 
desiderative, and cerfadn tenses of the passive. (P&9. vii. 3, 37.) 
Jf^grahj Per. Fut. Q^hlY ^roAiftf ; Inf. Ulflj grakUtm: hvAVed.^nf^jagjihmia. ' 

* The forms given in the Calcutta edition of PlL^ini vii. 3, 43, ^O^f variaMikfa, 
WO^V itarishUhfa, are wrong. (See P&9. vii. 2, 39.) 

z 2 


PeriphrasHc Perfect. 

§ 342* Verbs which, according to ^325, cannot form a reduplicated perfect, 
form their perfect hj affixing laH ark (an accusative termination of a feminine 
abstract noun in in a) to the verbal base, and adding to thi» the reduplicated 
perfisct of ^ krij to do, ^bM, to be, or ^ asy to be* 
'i^und, to wet, j^i^4iK, ir^, fVTV, undamchakdray babkdva^ Asa. 
^fWX^cluikas^ to shine, <^i|ii^HilK^ if^, WRT, chakdsdjhchakdray babhdvtiy dsa. 
^it^n bodhaya^ to make known, 4^i|^N4K^ W^> ^VT9> bodhayamchakdrc^ 
babMvay dsa. 
After verbs which are used in the Atmanepada^ the auxiliary verb ^ kfi 
is conjugated as Atmanepada, but wt^^ as and ^ bhU in the Parasmaipada. 
Hence from ^vi^ edhate, he grows, 

^vN^ edh-amchakre-f but w^ babMva and fVTV dsa* 
In the passive all three auxiliary verbs follow the Atmanepada. 

§ 343. Intensive bases which oan take Gu^ take it before ^ dmj desiderative bases 
never admit of Guna. ($ 339.) 

^ft^bobh4y frequentative base of %bh4, ^ft^^Pl[hmTK bobhavdihehakdra. 
But ^'ftftri^ bvbodhish, desiderative base of ^^iirfA, J^f\m[^4|K &c. bvbodhiikd^ 
ehdkdra &c. 

Paradigms of the BedupUcated Perfect. 

I. Verbal bases in ^H d, requiring intermediate ^ t. 

MfTJA4( to place. 
Parasmaipada. Itmanbpada. 


dadhwd dadhimd dadM dadhivdhe dadhimdhe 

(^m^dadkdthaox ^[H^ ^ l^ftA ^Vl^ ^ftld 

X^^^dadhitha* dadhdthuh dadhd dadhishi dadhdthe dadhidhv^ 

3. ^dadhad ^VJt y(^. f^ ^pHT^ ^ftft 

dadhdtui dadhdh dadhi dadhdte dadhiri 

2. Verbal bases in ^ t and \iy preceded by one consonant, and requiring intermediate ^ t. 

^ni, to lead. 



fnn«i nindya ninyivd ninyimd mny4 ninyivdhe ninyimdhe 

fftnhrwn^Aaor ^H^^l ftw ftff^ ftn^T^ ftrft'ld or ^ (§ 105) 

{.Inn (Vm ninayitha * ninydthult ninyd ninyish^ ninyathe ninyidhvi or -^hvi 

3. ftwfm fiifi/ya ftrni: ftry ftr^ ftrmi^ ftfft^t 

ninydtufi ninyu^ niny^ ninyate ninyirS 

* § 335. 2, and § 335. 3. 

VWWn chikrdfa Oft m\mW l^iAiW WnW T^nHnW? i^THnW^ 


3. Veibal bases in ^n, preceded by om oonsonAnt^ and reqairiBg intennediate ^ t. 

^dhfi, to hold. 

{^fintdadhdraox <?ftW . ^^fw ^ ^ftW^ i^flpii 

iJp^ dadhdra dadhrwd dadhrimd dadhri dadhrwdke dadhrimdhe 

2. ^dadkdrtha* ^pi^ ^ ^^ ^[Kt^ ^fhdor^^ 

dadhrdthu^ dadkrd dadhrisk4 dadkrathe dadhridkvi ot '^ho€ 

3. '^9TK,dad:hira ^Vj: fS^* ^ "^vik ^fft 

dadhrdtu^ dadhrvf^ dadhri dadhrite dadhriri 

4* Verbal bases in ^ft, preceded by one consonant, not admitting intermediate ^ t, 

7 Afty to do. 

^4< ckakdra chakfwd chakfimd chakr4 chakfiodhe ehakfimdhe 

2. ^^^ehakdrtha ^HS^. ^H ^^ ^W^ ^^ 

chakrdthvh ekakrd chakjishi ehahrdthe chakfri4hv4 

ehakrdtuit choMi^ chakri chakraie chakrirf 

5. Verbal bases in ^t or %if preceded by two consonants* and requiring intermediate ^ t. 

Hft kri, to buy. 

li^nf( chikrdya cMkriyiod eMkriyimd ehikriyi ehikriyivdke cMkriyimdhe 

{^^Htnehikr^haoir {^filM^l f^fiw f^fftlftr^ f^ftOTI^ ftrfilfiwor*^ 

'\^:WPn chikrayitha chikriydthuik chikriyd chikriyishi ekikriydtke chikriyidkv^ or -f^^ 

3. ^W^ekikrdya f^rftlWj: Nftig: f%ftl^ firftFITTl' fwftlftft 

cMkriydtuh chikriy4h ehikriy( chikriyaie cMkriyiri 

6. Verbal bases in 7u or H tf, preceded by one or two consonants, and requiring intermediate ^t , 

^ yu, to join. 

I'^giBC^ ywydoa yuywwd yuywimd yuyvffi yuytmvdhe yuyycimdhe 

2. ipuN^ yuyaoithaf 13^ 33^ 33^ 33^ 33^^*^'^ 

ynyuvdthff^ yuyuvd yMyuciM yuywdtke yuyuvidhvi ov "4^^ 

3. ^^myuydva 33^ 333: 33^ 33^ 33ftft 

yuyuvdtui yuyuodh yuyuvi yuyuvdte yuytwiri 

7. Verbal bases \n'9u, preceded by one or two consonants, and not admitting tbe intermediate ^f . 

^ »iu, to praise. 

i'^rr^ tu8h{dva or 3|^ 351! 35^ 3f^ 31^ 

I'^in tushfdva tushfuvd ttuhfumd ttah^voi tushfuvdhe tuehpaadke 

2. -^pusM^tkaX fp^: 35^ 33^ 31^ 3ft 

tushtuvdthufk tuskluvd tushfushi tushfwdthe tushtu4hv^ 

3. jrr^tusktdva 35^ 333: 33^ 35^ 35^ 

tushfuvdtuh tushfuvdf^ tuskpivi tush^vdte tushfimri 

* § 335» a» ^^ § 335» 3- ^ 

t If 3 ^ is taken from Dh&tup4tba 31, 9, it may form ^[^yuydtha. (See i 335, 2, and 

Westergaard, Radices, p. 46, note.) 

X Bbaradvija might allow 3Vf%^ tushfavitha even against Plln. vii. 2, 13. 


8. Verbal bases in ^ft» preceded by two consonants, and requiring intermediate ^i. 

H ttri, to spread. 

[ J(WK tastdra or irerfts IWftjf ireT TWjft^ II%|(Vh^ 

iJf^Stt tastdra tastarwd tastarimd tastari toitarwdke tastarimdke 

tastardthu^ tattard iattariM ttutardtke tagtofidhoi at ^^ko^ 

3. K^SJK^iastira IRETCyt TRJ^t TOR nvivi) AWOlX 

tastardtuf^ iastari^ tastari tastardte tastarird 


9. Verbal bases in ^ji, requiring intermediate ^ t. 

Mkfifiio scatter. 

^fCchakdra chakarwd chakarimd ekakard ckakarivdhe chakarimdke 

ckakardtkttfi chakard chakarishS chakardthe ckakaridMcfr^^kod 

3. ^^WTtchakdra ^WPCJt ^*5i ^Iw^ ^*Un ^ITTO 

ehakardtufi chakardfL ehakard ehakarite ehakarkrd 

10. Verbal bases in consonants, requbing intermediate ^ u 

l^tec^ to strike. 

I. ^^tutdda B5^ Wfij*^ 1^ W^'T"^ W^^P*^ 

tuhtdhd ttUudimd tutudd tutudwdke 'hUudimdhe 

a. If^tSl^^ tutoditha If^ fj^f Ijfij^ WT^ W^?^ 

tutuddthiifi tutudd tutudUkd tutudithe tutudidkod 

'3. jft^tutdda 53^: 355: f^ 99^ 95^ 

ttUwidtu^ tutuddfk tutude HOudiu tutudM 

1 1. Verbal bases in consonants, having ^ e, and requiring intermediate ^ u 

It^ttm, to stretch. 

intm tatdna on 
* iKK^tatdna 











3. Wff^ tenitha 












3. inn«l tatdna 











la. Verbal bases in consonants, having Samprasftra^av and requiring ^t. 


to sacrifice. 

^ft(^ iydja or 









( ^19 iydshfha at 
'ipif^ iyajUha 











3. ^imr iydja 











-f 344- 



13. Verbal Iwses in conaonants, Tequuing contraction, and intermediate ^ t. 

^ Ann, to kill. 

I'^nf^jaghdna Jaghnwd jaghmmd jaghnS jaghnwdke jaghnmdhe 

{Wi^jaghdntkaat WK^ IW 'iftl^ HRl^ IVf^d 

* \ ^ N Ph ^jaghanitha jaghndthMf^ Jaghnd jaghnishi jaghnitke joghnidkei 

3. ^^\^jag^ina HHj: . w^ ni HHri^ iftR 

jagkndtu^ jaghm^ Jaghni jaghnite jaghnM 
14. Verbal base ^bM (irregular). 

babkMod babhMmd habMioi hahkModhe bahh4ovmdhe 
babhiOvdtkulL babMod babh4insM babhihdthe babh(hidMoT'4kvi 
babhOodt^ babkMih babkM babMvdte babMoiri 



{ 344. It may be useful, without entering into minute details, to dis- 
tinguish between two sets of general tenses, moods^ and verbal derivatiyes, 
which differ from each other by a tendency either to strengthen or to weaken 
their base. The strengthening takes place chiefly by Ghii^a, but, under 
special circumstances, Ukewise by Yriddhi, by lengthening of the vowel, 
or by nasalization. The weakening takes place by shortening, by changing 
^ r^ to l^iTi or, before consonants, to ^ ^r, by Sampras&rana, or by 
dropping of a nasal« There are many roots, however, which either cannot 
be strengthened or cannot be weakened, and which therefore are liable 
to change in one only of these sets* Some resist both strengthening and 
T^eakening, as, for instance, all derivative bases, causatives, desideratives,, 
and intensives (in the Atm.), which generally have been strengthened, as 
far as their bases will allow, previously to their taking the conjugational 




The base ig^ if possible, 
strengthened in : 

1. The Future. 

2. The Conditional 

3. The Periphrastic Future. 

4. The Benedictive Atmanepada. 

(Except bases endioff in conson. 
or ^ ff, and not taking interm. 
^t. P&n.i.a,ii; la. Yii. 3,42.) 

5. The First Aorist, 1. 11.^ 

(Except First Aor. II. Xxm.' of 
verbs ending in conson., ^ ft> or 

^^- §350-352.) 

The base is not strengthened^ and, if 
possible, weakened in : 

I. The Participle in w to (unless it takes 

intermediate ^ t). 
a. The Gerund in j^ tvd (unless it takes 

intermediate ^ i). 
3. The Passive. 
4* The Benedictive Ptousmaipada. 

5. The First Aorist, IV. 

6. The Second Aorist. 

(Except verbs in ^ ft, &o. § 364.) 





Per. Fut. 

Ben. Atm. 




(Except bases ending in 
ooDB. not taking interm. ^ i.) 







^WftW Atm. 













































































^nnftn^or wwrsftn^ 







dtanit or a/M^ 





















































f ' 
















ehikirsh chiktrshishydti dchiHrshishyat ckikirshitd chiHrskuMihtd dchiHrthU 





chekriyishydte dchekrfyishyai 

^a chekriyitd chekriyishUhid dchekriyishfa 

-f 345- 



II. Root. 


Part. W to. 

Ger.i^to^ Passive. 

Ben. Par. 

Second Aor. 

First Aor.IV. 

notitrengthened. without ^1. 

without |(<. 

and Sec. Aor. 



bh4tvd hHydte 




3fn fair 






Itt^W tudydte 





J^A\ ifttw 






iWrW iWryiftc 




l^.dyiUd^ ^tf^dy^vd ^((^dioydte 

^ ^fNni(<^%/f 

\ '^push ^lpu8htdl^^pu8k(vdj^puihy(Uejm^fu$hydtW^[^l{dpu$hat 




(^fttftwr) (^'ft^) 




(choray) (choritdit) 

{ehorayitvd) {chorydie) 






iwr fjn^ 





sutvd ndydte 





TliWT^ TTSTn* 




tan & ta 


tatvd tanydte 











MW kriydte 





fwfx fk^ 






doish(vd dvUhydte 






JWT fin^ 





ikiitvtf Atfy^fte 


nutt nuM ruddhdh 


^ Caus.«ai^<^ ^iftjlt 

kfi kdray kdritd^ 

^ Des. f^nft^ f^virfWhi: 

^ Int. 'Wml*^ ^Hftftwt 

Art ehekfiy chekriyitdlt 

ruddhvd rudhydte 

kdrayitvd kdrydte 

PfiiTT^mT nnanw 
chikirthUvd chikinkydti 


rudhydt drudhat druddka 

ifc^^i^ dchfkarat 


i 345. Certain roots which strengthen their hase in a peculiar manner, by Vfiddhi, 
like ^^ nifty, by lengthening, like ^^Aj by transposition, like f^^'» by changing ^t 
into WXd, like fk mt, by nasalization, like 'H^na£, drop all these marks of strengthening, 
in the weak forms. 

I. Root. Base 


Conditional. Per. Put. Ben.ltm. First Aorist. 


^ m^^ Hi^$flr 


mfH mdrj mdrkshydti 


or mnSuni 










§ M3- 

2 Or IfftWT tanitvd. 

* Or WTBft %rf*c (§ 391)' 

^ P&]^. vii. a, 114. 
A a 



or If^'lm 



gHhitd githishUhfd 


bandh bandh bhantiydti 

II. Root. Base Part. W to, Ger.rafT^t^ Passive. 

not strengthened, without ^i. without ?<. 

fH ^ ^ 


mdtd mdgishid 






9rajhsishydte dsrammhyaia sramsitd sramsishishtd 

dbhantsyat banddkd 

Ben. Par. SecAor. 




no/ nai 

bandh badh 

fiift«A^(i2^ fHfish^d mrijydte 

w*^ w® ^I^ 











baddhvd badhydte badhydt 



nafydt dnaiat 

grasydt dsrasat 


First Aor;. IV. 
and II. Atm, 


1 PA?. VI. 4, 89. 2 p4^^ yj^ i^ gg^ 8 pi^, VI. 1, 50. ^ PAi^. vii, I, 60. 

* PA^. VI. 4, 34. * But with \i, ^fX^t^mdrjitvd^ not nf^t^marjUtd, 

^ As to the long 9tf, see § ia8. ^ Or 3|f^ffT^»^^, § ^7, 1, a. ^ Or '^[flnarhshitd, 
^^ Roots which may thus drop their nasalj are written in the DhlLtupft|iha with their nasal, 
^(^ or B^srams: while others which retain their nasal throughout, are written without the 
nasal, hut with an indicatory ^ t ; «Tf^ nod, &c. (PII9. vi. 4, 34 ; vii. i, 58). Two verbs thus 
marked by ^ t, (VfH lag and irf^ kap^ may, however, drop their nasal, the general rule not- 
withstanding, if used in certain meanings, HIcIOm vUagitam, burnt ; f^lrf^H vikapitam, 
deformed (PIL9.VI.4, 34, vftrt. i, a). ^[f)f vfvA,^^flf vruMafi, drops its nasal before terminationa 
beginning with a vowel, but not before the intermediate ^t; C|^4|rA varhayati, but^f^m 
vfiihkiUi, ti^ raftj, to tinge, may drop its nasal, even in the causative (i.e. before a vowd), 
if it means to sport; <«iMrfi rqfayaH(Fk]^,\i, 4, 34, v&rt.3, 4). The same root, like some others, 
drops its nasal before sdrvadhdtuka affixes ; C^fir rajati, &c. (PA9. vi. 4, 36). ^V^aiScA, if it 
means to worship, must retain its nasal (PA9. vi. 4, 30) and take the intermediate ^ i (P&9. vii. 
3> 53) : ^tPm aHehita^, worshipped ; otherwise ^flC aktafi or ^P^n: aHchitaf^, bent. 
^^ Or IJ PHi^ 1 8raihsUvd, 

-J 347. A0BI8T. 179 

Note— The verbs beginning with ^ hut (DhlLtupAlha a8^ 73-108) do not strengthen 
their base, except before terminations which are marked by ^fl or ^9; ^ huf, to be 
bent, Fut. ffinrtr kufishydH, Per. Put. ^fTVT ku^itd. First Aor. m^[ih(dku((t (P&9. x. 2, i). 
fHl^ vff, to fear, never takes Gu^a before intermediate ^ t^ Per. Fut. ftftlllT fn)W(P&9* '• 
2» a). ""^ ^n^tt* to cover, may do so optionally ; ^H^ftniT Hn^uvitd or wtPinl Unymitd 
(PA9. 1, a, 3). 



§ 346. We can distmguish in Sanskrit^ as in Greeks between two kinds of 
Aorists, one formed by means of a sibilant inserted between root and termi- 
nation, — this we call the First, — ^another, formed by adding the terminations 
to the base, this we call the Second Aorist, 

Both Aorists take the Augment, which always has the Ud&tta, and^ with 
some modifications, the terminations of the Imperfect. 

^ 347. The First Aorist is formed in four different ways. 

Terminations of the First Aorist 

1. First Form. 
Pabasmaipada. Atmanbpada. 

^Mam l^ishva ^^iahima J^iihi ^•«r(V iikodhi ^^^^UhmM 

%i^ jyishlam Jl^ishta JWJlishihdi^ \^V^\uhdthdm J^or^idhvamoi%4^am 

In this first set of terminations the intermediate ^ i stands as part of the 
terminations, because all the verbs that take this form are verbs liable to 
take the intermediate ^ »• The first and second forms of the First Aorist 
differ^ in fact, by this only, that the former is peculiar to verbs which take, 
the latter to verbs which reject intermediate ^ t • (See § 332, 4, note.) 

2. Second Form. 
Pabasmaipada. Atmanbpada. 

^ sam ^ na ^sma f^ si Wf^svaki wt^smaki 

«A« -T f^*'®« iWsta {wHsthdfL t ^,^ \vidhvam 

[orlltam [orWto [or^sK^Ao^ lor ^qkvam 

Htnsd { ,^^^ W*suft l « JXniisdtdm W($ata 

^ lOTKJtdm * [orWto 

A a 2 

180 AOKIST. § 348- 

3. Third Form. 

There are some verbs which add ^ « to the end of the root before 

taking the terminations of the Aorist, and which after this ^^^ employ the 

usual terminations with ^ t, viz. ^ isham, &c. They are conjugated in the 

Parasmaipada only. 


ftr^ s-i'Sham (Vi-q s-ishva ftPVT s-ishma 

^ s-ifi (for f^tm si8k(a)h) fwn s^hfam fwn s-ishfa 

^it^s4t (for flenBn^«wA(a)/) f^VT s-ishfdm fw^l a-ishul^ 

4* Fourth Form. 

Lastly, there are some few verbs, ending in 9^ i, ^^sh, ^ h, preceded 
^7 ^h ^^^ ^r^j which take the following terminations^ without an inter- 
mediate ^ f {ksa). 

Parasmaipada. Atmanbpada. 

Usarn Wm sdva ^m adma ftr« \ ^_^ W!Hf^8dmahi 

[ or «rT? vaht 

I'^l^ ,^^^ i^J^dhvam 
[or ^qn tka^ [ or W dhvam 

^Rtsat WXisatdm Wlf^san < ^nAadtdm WK santa 

[ or n /a 

9t 80^ ?nV stttam mf 9ata 

Special Rules /or the First Form of the First Aorist. 

§ 348. For final vowel, Yriddhi in Parasmaipada*. ^/t2, to cut, Vcdlf^M 
dldvisham (Pan. vii* 2, i). 

For final vowel, Gui^ia in Atmanepada. cJP lii, Wf^r^Hl dluvishi. 

For medial or initial vowel, Gui^a (if possible) both in Par. and Atm. 
^ budhj to know ; Par. ^ntftrt dbodhisham ; Atm. ^niMvf^ dbodhishi. 

The vowel V a, followed by a single final consonant, may or may not take 
Yriddhi in Par* if the verb begins with a consonant t. WiSkan, to sound, wmt" 
ftri dka^iishan^ or W^lftpf dkaigAsham (P&9. vii* 2, 7) ; Atm. v^Kflofk dkaniskL 


)r may not takeVpddhi; '«n ^q1 1\^ aunfuvtt, or 
W4 1^1^ aurr^dvtt, or whi^h^ a«fvm?<* (Pftp. vii. a, 6). 

t Roots ending in ^Ic^aZ or ^l^ar always take Vfiddhi in tlfe Parasmaipada ; ^f^P^jvah 
to bmm, ^nfttit^jifjvdUt (Plii^. vzi. 2, a). Likewise ^^vad, to speak, and JC^vraj, to go 
(Pftn. VII. 2, 3). Roots ending inWh, '^i>»,^y, the roots '^^kshai^f to hurt, '^V^ivas, to breathe, 
and verbs of the Chur class, roots with technical ^ e, do not take Vpddbi (P&9. vii. 2, 5). 
Vt^ffrah, to take, ^Ui\\^^oMtj ^IP^syam, to sound, V I^MHI H^ dsyamU 2 ^T^vyoy, to 
throw, "WVf^f^dnyayit: ^l^kshafi^ to hurt, W^IQ^l^ ifii:<&at^^^- ysn^has, to breathe, 
inrall^cC^a^; bi«i^i{fiay, to minisb, W^nfiT^^atwiay/Zy ^**fl^, to suspect, WOfll^^c^ayft. 
9|^^ <fttfA<, to shine, q^ vefA, to desire, and qR^^i daridrd, to be poor, drop their final 
vowels, according to the rules on intermediate ^ t^- ^T^^i daridrd, ^V^ft^liff^ddaridrU. \ 

-J 356. AORIST. 181 

§ 349* ^o Gu^a takes place in desiderative bases. "^^im^A^* Desid. ^^r^6tf6o<iAMAy 
Aor. WJwHvf^ dbubodhishisham. 

Intensives in l^y, if preceded bj a consonant, must, certain denominatives in ^7 may, 
drop their final ^jf. If the intensive ^y is preceded by a vowel, ^y is left between the 
final vowel and the intermediate \i. fiv^ bhid, to cut ; Int. base MCnv^^b^hidy ; Aor. Atm. 
^AM^f^ dbebhidishi, ^bM, to be; Int. base ^^{bobkdy; Aor. Atm. VJ^)jjpE[ft (^60- 
bhiiyishi. Den om . base vflF^^fiamiuy , to worship ; Aor. ^nnR^i dnamasy'isham or liwftl4 

Special Bules/or the Second Farm of the First Aorist. 

§ 350. Yriddhi in Parasmaipada. f^f^kshipy W^H^ dkshaipsam; f^ H, 
^l|^ dSaisham (Psl^. vii. 2, i) ; Vl^pach, ^nvnfh^4P<!2^«A^^ (P^« vii. 2» 3). 

Gu^a in Atmanepada, if the verb ends in 1(9 ^ ^9 '7, H S (not in if ft, 
Pft^. I. 2, 12); otherwise no change of vowel, f^ H, IT^K^ dieshi; but 
f^^^^kship, iirfi^f^ dkshipH; if kfi^ Wff^ dkrishi. Final "^jt becomes f[^ tr, 

^351. Terminations beginning with ^«/ or ^sth drop their ^« if the 
base ends in a short vowel or in a consonant, except nasals. Ex. 2. p. dual 
^I^ dkshaip-tamy 3. p. dual vf|irf dkshaip^tdm^ 2,, p. jflur. w^dkshaip-tOj of 
tnf^kship ; 2. p . sing. Atm. ^Tf^n: dkfithdi^, 3. p. sing, lat^dkrita, of ^kfi, Atm, 
But from w^ mdnyate^ ^nhST dmamsta* 

^ 2^2. The roots vm sthd^ to stand, ^ dd^ to give^ VT dhd^ to place, ^dCyto 
pity, ^ dhCy to feed, ^ do^ to cut, change their final vowels into ^ i before the 
terminations of the Atmanepada (P&9. t. 2, 17). "Wltsthd, 7mf^inrt{j9(foMi-/a ; 
^MlfVflMldi updsthi'Shatam, In the Parasmaipada they take the Second Aorist* 

($ 368.) 

§ 353* The roots ^mi {mtndti), to hurt, 'Rtiiu {minoti), to throw, and ^di, Atm., to 
decay, instead of taking Gn^a, change their final vowels into WXdm the Atmanepada; and 
^ H, to stick, does so optionally (Pft^. vi. i, 50-51)*. Thus firom ^mi and fil wi, ^PITW 
amdsta; from ^ di, v^i«r addstaj from c9ft II, tT^TCif a2tf«^a or ^^T aleshfa. In the 
Parasmaipada these verhs take the Third Form. 

§ 354* ^^n> to kiU, drops its nasal in the Atmanepada (Pftp. i. a, 14); ^f^ ahata, 
HfJIIIili ahasdtdm, &c. 

§ 355' 'H^^^'m, to go, drops its nasal in the Atmanepada optionally (P^. i. 2, 13); 
WIN a^a/a or ^'i^i agamsta. The same rule applies to the henedictive Atmanepada ; 
Vf^tf gasishfa or «WI^ ganuishfa, 

§ 356. ^ yam drops its nasal, necessarily or optionally, according to its various 
meanings; ^f^^9 udayata, he divulged (Pft?. x. 2, 15); V^nni tfp^a/a, he espoused, or 
9Ml4U updyamsta (PII9. i. 2, i6). 

* Prof. Weher (Kuhn's Beitnlge, vol. vi. p. loa) hlames Dr. Kellner for having admitted 
^1 1 (Vi ^•^ amdnsham and similar forms, and denies that these forms are authorised hy 
P&^ini. Dr. Kellner, however, was right, as will be seen from the commentary to P&9. vi. t, 
50. The substitution ofWtd takes place wherever there would otherwise have been 1![^tfcA, 
excepting in Sit forms. 

182 AOBIST. § 357- 

Special Bulesfor the Third Form of the Firri Aorist. 

§ 357» Most verbs taking this form of the Aorist end in ^ d, or in 
diphthongs which take wt d as their substitute. This wt d remains 
unchanged. In the Atmanepada these verbs take the Second Form. 

§ 358- The verbs vft mi^ to hurt, fk mi, to throw, and jHU,to stick, in taking this form, 
change likewise their final vowels into W[ d, Ex. WnfM amdnskem, I threw, and I hurt ; 
VfSrfM aldsisham (or W?i4 alaishatn), § 353. 

i 3^* Three roots ending in ^m take this form ; IH^yam, to hold, Tli^ram, to rejoice, 
«nT «am, to bend, Aor. v4ftR ayaihnsham^ &c. (Pft?. vii. 2, 73.) 

Special Bules for the Fourth Form of the First Aorist. 

§ 360. The roots which take this form must end in i^i (as to ^^<^i> to 
see, cf. Pan. iii. i, 47), n*A, ^*, i| A, preceded by any vowel but % irr a. 
They must be verbs which reject the intermediate ^ i; j 332I1 i7-*ao; 
(P&9. III. I, 45.) Their radical vowel remains unchanged. 

( 361. The root tw^^ilish takes this form only if it means to embrace (PA9. iii. i, 46) ; 
V fv HI fl ailikihaU Other verbs, such as ^ push and vn iusk^ are speciaUy excepted. 

(§ 366.) 

§ 363. The roots J[^<f«A, to milk, fl![^dtA, to anoint, fc9^/tA, to lick, ^^A, to hide 
(P^p. VII. 3, 73), may take in the Atmanepada 

^X tkdlt instead of ^ff^t satkd^. '^ft vahi instead of ^is(V sdoahi. 

Jf ta — W( sata. ^ dhvam — ^M sadhvam. 

They thus approach to the Second Form of the first aorist in most, but not in all persons. 
Ex. n duhj 3. p. sing. Atm. ^Rjnin adugdhdfi or VIU V|M|i: adhnkshathdlt. 
3. p. sing. Atm. HJ'^ adugdha or t|IJll|R adkukshata. 
I. p. dual Atm. V^JlDl adukvahi or ^J^i^T^ adkukshdoahu 
3. p. plur. Atm. ^i^'Vf adhugdhvam or vj«|«4 adkvkshadkvam. 

First Aobist. 

First Form, 
with intermediate ^ t. 

a. Verbs ending in a vowel; ^ Id, to cut. 
Vfiddhi in Parasmaipada, Gu^a in Atmanepada. 


I. HcftlOl^ dUh^ham Htflftim dldo^hoa Vc6lf^^ dUko-iihrna 

3. Vc4l4l! dUk'H^ V?9Tfrt dUh^hfam VUlftf dUhi'Shfa 

3. HW^i'Hjdldo'U H^lf^si dldv-ishtdm K^lOlJt dldvi-shu^ 


I. ^nvftrPf dUw'ishi WcVfti^f^ dlav-ishvahi ^Rc^ftRlf^E dlav'ishmaki 

3. VcdOlVU dlav'ishtkdt^ V^f^m^t dlav^hdthdm WtS^^i dlav-idhvam or °^ -^kvam 

3. VcftOlf dlav-ishfa 1H^(^NIIlt dlav'ishdtdm Vfdf^MA dlat^ishata 

-§ 3^«- 



b. Verbs ending in consonants; ^^budh, to know. 
Gu^ in Parasm^pada and Atmanepada. 
dh-Asham HWtf^n^ abodk-ishva 

%-IA wftfvV abodh^ishfam 

dh-St v41(Vl8f abodk'ishtdm 

H^fMwini ab<ydh-^hv 
WftftRHlf ahodh-^Bhd 
WiftAranrf abodh-ishk 





Second Form, 

without intermediate ^ t . 

a. Verbs ending in consonants ; ft|i(^ kship, to throw. 
Vpddhi in Parasmaipada, no change in Atmanepada.^ 


V^'li aksha^'tam (§ 351) 

wf^fR akshw'ta 

HH^U^I^ akship'Svah 

HfHlHIMt dkMp-tdtdt. 

^ir%Vr akshaip'ta 

I. '•in 4 aftoMAam 
3. ^I%4h^ anaMM^ 

6. Verbs ending in vowels (^^ ^ {*, 7, 'Oi ii) ; «rt nl, to lead. 
Vfiddhi in Parasmaipada, Guna in Atmanepada. 
^n*^ anaishva 
xinE anaishfam 
mkti anaishtdm 

Wn^ anaUhia 
Wmi anaiskuh 

1. wPm aneslti 

2. W*fWTl aneshthdh 

3. ^RT aneahfa 


VnMI'Vi aneshdthdm 
HHMIAf aneshdtdm 

^n«iii ane^Aa/a 

c. Verbs ending in ^ n; ^ Afj, to do. 
Vpddhi in Paraamaipadai no change in Atmanepada. 

I. Wni akdrsham IHSR^ akdrshva V%l4 oAr^jAma 


: oA^rMIA 

3. W1Vnfll1^aA4r«AI/ 

WiRTTT akdrshtdm 

V4li akdrshfa 
IRCrf t akdrshvft 


1. ^^Pr akfishi 

2. W^fUjn akrithdlh 

3. ^7 n akrita 


J 362. 

^<ffc*ir< akrishvahi 
Ij^mvjl akfishdthdm 
Vf MIAI akfishdtdm 

lif ^r^ akrishmahi 
isnfmi akfiskata 

a. vR^m: adUhdh 
3. VR(4 a<itVa 

rf. Verbs ending in ^ <i; ^ d<2^ to give. 
Atmanepada only ; WT <^ changed into ^ t. 
Hff^^^f^ adiskvahi nfl^^f^ adishmahi 

"•in^mvif adishdthdm ^^f^ adifhvam 

^n^Mlill adishdtdm WfipTiT adishata 

e. Verbs ending in n^ r? ; w */r<, to stretch. 
Vriddhi in Parasmaipada, with intermediate l(t. 
In Atmanepada the insertion of ^ « is optional. (See § 337, 11. 4. Pftn. vji. 3, 42.) 
If ^f is inserted, the^Guna (§ 348) and optionally lengthening of ^t. (§ 341.) 
If ^ t is not inserted, then ^K changed to fl^lr. (§ 350.) 

^rerrW astdrisham, &c., like First Form. 
First Fornhf Atmanepada. 

With?t. BIMGULAR. 

1. ^rarftft or V^dOOl astarishi or astarishi 

2. ^«i(Vvii or WWOVU astarishfhdli, or astarishthdh 

3. ^rerftf or VUlDv (utarishta or astartshta 

Second FonUy 
without ^ f . 

irsfffi astirski 

%^i\l asHrshthdh 

^tt^tm asHrshfa 


1. ^•Wftwflf or ^TOTh^ astarishvahi or astarishvaki 

2. ^WftWWt or HWOm^f astarishdthdm or astarishdthdm 

3. 114x1 (Xmffi or HWOmdi astarishdtdm or astarishdtdm 

VcAwnrf astirshdthdm 
inA^nii astirshdtdm 

nWl^flRS asHrshmdhi 


1. HWfT!^fflE or VlriO^nK astarishmahi or (u^arlffAtiuzAt 

2. ^^ TmII ^^or ll4xf 0^ ^a«/artc?A9am -^vam or (Ufor((ftoam-^ram ^Wl^ agHn/hvam 

3. ^«i(V"in or ll%tlOHA a«^amAa<a or astarUhata ^Wl^if asHrshata 

2. HiJf^li asrdkshU 

3. n^rnifti^ flwr^^Ai 

1. H^Alf <uftit«A« 

2. V^VK (Ufishthd^ 

3. v^c atiishfa 

/, Verbs with penultimate 'f ft / ^ *ri/> ^ ^^^ off* 
Peculiar Vfiddhi in Parasmaipada, no change in Atmanepada. 


Vi^W aardkshva 

mmi asrdshta«, 

H^TTVi asrdshfdm 


V^JflnHg asfikshvahi 

Vljmi^i asjrikshdthdm 

W^^nA asjrikgWdm 

H9TV asrdshta 

HVn* asriddhvam 
W8^^ atjfikshata 




1. W M iHf adhdksham 

2. ininil^: adkdkshih 

3. ^tVlX^^H^adhdkshtt 

1. WPlll adkakski 

2. H^nnt adagdhd^ 

3. V^iU adqgdhof 

Verbs ending in f A; ^ daA, to burn. 
HVTV adhdkikva 

1^1*4 addgdham 
^V^FVf addgdhdm 

^MHSf^ adkakshvahi 

UMHfl^l adhakshdthdm 

VNHIIAI adhdkshdtdm 

I. VinfM aydsUham 

3. ^mnrtn^ay^/ 

I. Wtflrt atuzmmAam 
3. V«ifl1 i^anaml/ 

1. ^Vf^nf adikikam 

2. W(((Q|: adikshafi 

3. lli)[V|l^a(i»ib«Aa/ 

1. Vfl^Pvif adikshi 

2. ll(^H|lin adikshathdh 

3. vR^mil adikshaia 

First Aorist. 
TAtrrf Fom. 


^y4, to go, 

W(li\|M| aydsishva 
^MiPtir aydmhtam 
Winftfff aydgishfdm 

T^nam, to bend. 
V^rftn? anai^msAva 

^nPtist anaahsishtdm 

First Aorist. 

Fourth Farm. 

ft^ ^ii^ to show. 
ll(^H|l^ adikshdva 
vR^tlfl adikshatam 
Vn^Hl^f adik^hatdm 

nf^UfPrf^ adikshdvahi 
Wflpifnrf adikshdthdm 
vRipifniT adikshdtdm 

^IVm? adhdkshma 
V^MV addgdha 
^9VT^ adhdkshtth 

HW'uf adhagdhvam 
VH^Iff adkakshata 

H^llftl^ aydsishma 
VlllP^IV aydsishfa 
Wnftlj: aydiishvik 

WfftW anamsUh^a 

llO(V|IH adikthdma 
vR^tlfl adikshaia 

llf^mi<f\( adikshdmaki 
vf^VI^ adikshadhvam 

a. WJHIII aghuktkd^ 
3. W^Q|l(^(i^AttA«Aa/ 

i|fyttAy to hide* 
1I^H|I^ aghukshdoa 
WJHIA a^Atfib<Aa/am 
V^tlfli aghukshatdm 

WrafW aghukshata 




V(c9H|IH alikshdma 
^r<9Q|n alikshata 
uPc^Bft^ alikshan 


1. wflf aghukshi ^TJ^T^f^ aghukshdoahi or inpff^a^uAvaAi ^gmitiT^ aghukshdmahi 

2. H ^ H| m • aghukshathdik or V^|3T* ag^idhd^ fitful V|i aghukshdihdm ^V^^^orW^^ 

3. W91!(?r aghukshata or V|^ agHdha V J HI f A I aghukshdtdm W^[9^ aghukshanta 

It may also follow the First Form, ^Pff^ agHhisliam aad injf^ agHMshi. 

($ 337j I- !•) 

ffiR; /lA, to smear. 


1. Vf^Bf aliksham WftS^T^ aUkshdva 

2. Wfc9^ alikshal^ ^VtA^ii alikshatam 

3. vfV61lf<^a/»ib«Aa/ V(t6VfA( alikshatdm 


1. ^rfcffftf o/iib^f VPcft'lll^r^ alikshdoahi or UPcdJlf^ a/t^a&t ^rfc<^^VTRfi| a/t'A^A^ItoiaAf 

2. ^Vfc9«fm: a/a<Aa^A<^ or WcShm a^i&i£$ ^rfl91^ a/tib«A42^A^ lrfc9^ or WfSt^ ^ 

3. ^n<d«fiia/ti(<Aa^a or WcAv al^ha VPcftOIMi alikshdtdm nfc^Hlff alikshanta 

n rf«A, to milk. 

I • V^f^ a(iAtt^«Af VJ^imP^ adAttJtfA^raAi or VJJff^ aduhvahi ^R^^IT^rf^ adhukshdmahi 
2. ^^^miadhukshathdli or ^l^nfTI adugdhdfi H ^H| I H| ladhukshdthdm ^P^^^k or WVmj ^ 
3* VJUfA adkukshata or ^'^ adugdha H^HIIfll adhukshdtdm W^lfff adhukshanta 

f^ rfiA^ to anoint. 

Vf^Hf adhiksham, &c. 

1|(\|II|I^(\e or ^(^4^ "* 
Vf^Himi adhikshdthdm 
HfVuildl adhikshdtdm 

2. lirVHim* or nfi^'W * 

3. HfVlUfff or wfipV '^ 

uRwJIhI^ adhikshdmahi 
^•nnfli or nftfli * 
HftlHlfl adhikshanta 

Second Aorist. 
Jir«/ Form. 
$ 3^3- Verbs adopting this form take the augment, and attach the 
terminations (First Division) of the imperfect to a verbal base ending 
in w a, like those of the Tud form. 

^ aghukskadhvam or ogM^hcam. 
' adhmkikadkown or adhugdkvam. 
^ adhikskaihdli or adigdkd^. 
^ adhikshata or adigdha. 

^ alikshadhvam or a/l^gttvam. 

^ adhikshdvahi or adihvM. 

^ adkikshadkoatn or adkigdkoafn. 

-§ 367. 



f?r^«icA^ to sprinkle. 

I. -viPti^ a9icham 
a. wAeW asichah 


1. vP^I^ asiche 

2. vftpnrn aslchathdh 

3. vfVl^A (uichata 

Pres. flv^tVTflr iifichdm; 

1lftl^|t| anchdva 
nfVl'^ifl (uichatam 
^rfirWJKi asiehatdm 

W(Vl^iq(^ asichdvaki 
nftl^1|( asichethdm 
^mf^Ani asichetdm 

Impf. ^vfisKv arincham. 

%On\H anehdma 
^Ryi^i anchata 

uHl^lilf^ asichSmahi 


3. IQfV oAva/ 


I. ^I3| aAve 

a. ^Qpin ahvaihd^ 

3. VJIA aih^a/a 


IQfM akoadkoam 

;finfiv hvaydmi ; Impf. ^1^ aAvay 

V^l^ffe ahvdoahi 
vj|^t ahvethdm 
Vdjni ahvetdm 


^ 364. Roots ending in ^ (i, ^ e^ ^ i, drop these vowels^ and substitute 
a base ending in v a : ^ Av^ substitutes S| hva, Aor. ^l^ ahvam ; ^ ivi 
substitutes iff ha, Aor. mff oAvam. Roots ending in if ft, and the root 
^9(rfn^> to see, take Gupa (Pfti^.vii. 4, 16), and then form a base ending 
in short va: ^9ri^ to go, "WPCH^asarat ; "^^dfii^ to see, ^'^;^adafriaL 

^ 365. Roots with penultimate nasal, drop it: lia^kand^io step^mifi^ a^^odam. 

^ 366. Irregular forms are, VJH avocham, I spoke, from ^w t;acA (according 
to Bopp a contracted reduplicated aorist, § 370, for ^RT^r avavacham) ; ynu 
apaptaniy I flew, from VMpat (possibly a contracted reduplicated aorist for 
Vinrt apapatam) ; w)^ aneiam, I perished, Kkd, on P&n. vi. 4, 120 (possibly 
for Winrir ananaSam) ; ^ffifi oHsham, I ordered, from ^n^ tds; ^m^ dstham, 
I threw, from ii^a#. (P&p.vii. 4, 17.) 

§ 367. Roots which take this form are, 

V^M, to throw (V1^ dstham), ^B(^vach, to speak (IR^^ avocftam), WHihyd, to speak 

{W^ akhyam), if the agent is implied. (Pft?. ill. i^ 52.) 
ffS^^lip, to paint> ftl^McA, to sprinkle, 7 hve, to call (irregularly ^Tf ahvam), in Par., 

and optionally in Atm. (Pip. in, i, 53, 54). Par.^rf«WH^a%a/, Atm. mt^nnaKpata 

or vCmn alipta. 
The verhs classed as "^^T^ puskddi, beginning with ^ptcfi (Dh. P. 26, 73-136), ^Im^ 

dyutddi, beginning with ^<2yu^ (Dh. P. 18), and those marked by a technical "(Ef 2s 

in the Parasmaipada. (PAq. hi. i, 55.) 

B b 2 

188 AORIST. § 368- 

The verbs ^ «r», to go, ^rn^^(2«, to order, and ^ n» to go (int dram), in Par. and Atm. 

(Pi^. III. 1, 56.) 
Optionally, verbs technically marked by ^ tr, but in the Parasmaipada only (P&9. iii. 

I, 57). ^jfi^CT oftAida/ or ^B^f^Ftff^abhaitsit. 
Optionally, \jrij to fail, W^stambh,iiO stiffen {^f^3PTf[^astabhat or xtvin\f{^astambhit), 
^^^mruch, to go (^t^^amruchat or ^f^^tt^tHamrochtt), T^^mlitchy to go, ^^gruch, 
to steal, »g^5f/ttcil, to steal, 'T^^^gluHch, to go (Wng^a^ZitcAff^ or '^i-rj^li^ 
aghtftcMt), ftl irt, to grow (irregularly ^T^H^ahat), but in the Parasmaipada only. 
(Pin. III. 1,58.) 
§ 368. There are a few verbs, ending in WT ^, ^ 6, ^ 0, which take this form of the 
second aorist in the Parasmaipada; also ^bM, to be. They retain throughout the long 
final vowel, except before the ^ uh of the 3rd pers. plur., before which the final WT ^ is 
rejected. In the Atmanepada these verbs in W ^ take the Second Form of the imt aorist, 
and change W ^ to 1( t. 

^ddfto give. Pres. ^jl^fk daddmij Impf. -^iq^l adaddm, 


1. m[f addm W^T^ addoa ^<i«i addma 

2. W^ addk ^ V^lft addtam ^qia o<ii!^/a 

3. V^TW a<i^ V^lili addtdm ^* odtiA 

)J[,6At2, to be. Pres. H^ltf^ bhavdmij Impf. ^BHY? o^ilavam. 


1. ^^ abkdvam* ^^^ o^Ai^va ^^^ abhuma 

2. ^ir^: o^AflA ^^^ abhUtam ^fjif a6Ai2/a 

3. ^r^o^A^/ ^r^lff a&A<(^^m ll^[}1«^ a6Ai2ran 

Verbs which take this form are, 
^ yd, to go $ ^ c2tf, to give ; ^ dA^, to place ; Vi[ pd, to drink ; ^9n sthd, to stand ; '^ de, 

to guard; ^do, to cut; ^6Ai2, to be. (P&]>. 11. 4, 77.) 
Optionally, ITT ghrd, to smell ; V dhe, to drink ; ^ ib, to sharpen ; ^ chho, to cut ; ^ so, 

to destroy. (Pin. 11. 4, 78.) 

§ 369. The nine roots of the Tan class ending in t^n or ^n may form the and and 3rd 
pers. sing. Atm. in >7Tt thd^ and Ifta, before which the final nasal is rejected. iTv^ton, to 
stretch; Aor. WirfffV aianishfa or Wilir atataj ^riPHSK atanUhthdfi or WiHTT: atathdfi 
(Pi^. II. 4, 79). These forms might be considered as iiregular Atmanepada forms of the 
second aorist, or of the first aorist II, with loss of initial ^«. 

Second or Reduplicated Form of the Second Aorist. 

J 370. A few primitive verbs, and the very numerous class of the Chur 
roots, the denominatives and causatives in m^ ay, reduplicate their 
base in the second aorist, taking the augment as before, and the usual 
terminations of the imperfect. 

* Irregular in the ist pers. sing., dual, and plur., and in the 3rd pers. plur. 

-$374- AORIST. 189 

§ 371. The primitive verbs which take this form are, 
'^iri, to go, ^dru, to run, Ig 9ru, to flow, 'W^^kam, to love (PAp. iii. i, 48), if expressing 

the agent. Ex. ^rf^fVftpn^a/iVWyaf. 
Optionally, f^ hi, to grow, ^ dhe, to suck (Pii^. iii. i, 49), if expressing the agent. 
Ex. ^V^^^adtuihat, § 364, (or WJXf^adkdt or Wjr^ftf[adhd8tt.) 
Their reduplicative syUable, as far as consonants are concerned, is formed like that of the 
reduplicated perfect. 

H 0(1 fvi 4| ^ (UUriyctt, he went, ^g gs i|^ adudruvat, he ran. w^^^i^aMMrvva^, he flowed. 
W^mmtachaJ^amat, he loved. ^V^y^adadhat, he sucked. V Q(| Pm It A aiihiyat, he 
grew; also Sec. Aor. Wl^oivaf and First Aor. WWftH^ahayit (P&9. iii. i, 49). 
% Ave, to call, forms its Aor. Caus. -^^^t^ajUhavat (P&9. vi. i, 33). 

J 37a. The verbs in in^ay drop ^BP^ay, and (with certain exceptions*) 
reduce their Gu^a and Vriddhi vowels to the simple base vowels : WT a to w a ; 
^eto^i; Vtoto7f«; ^,^ar,to^ri; ^<r to if ft. (P&9.vii.4,7.) 
Thus IT^irfTr madayati would become n^ mady (Aor. ^nifN^ amimadam,) 
^?pif}r bhedayati — — fil^ bhtd^ (Aor. ir4K)l^ abibhidam,) 
lft^^fn nwdayati — — ^mudy {Aor. xtffg^ amiimudam.) 

§ 373. In the exceptional roots, which do not admit this shortening process^ 
vr a, ^ ^, ^ e, ^ ai, "mily^o^^au are represented in the reduplicative syllable by 
W&, \ty ^1, ^t, TfiiyTfUy Tfiif. 

^Tr^ithf mcUayatiy YCtmx^ amamdlam* ^AlPqfir fikayaii, ^fiHi afitikam. 

c^^^Pil lokayatiy W^tftW aiuhkam. 

§ 374* In the vast majority of roots, however, the shortening takes place^ thus 
leaving bases with short ^a,^iy'9u,^fi. Here the tendency is to make the 
reduplicated bade, with the augment^ either yj — yj or yjyj^. Hence all roots in 
which the shortened vowel is not long by position, lengthen the vowel of the 
reduplicative syllable {amiimudat). Those in which the vowel is long by 
position, leave the vowel of the reduplicative syllable short (ararakshat). 

Where^ as in roots beginning with double consonants^ the vowel of the 
reduplicative syllable is necessarily long by position^ it is not changed into the 

* These exceptional verfis are (PA?* vii. 4, a, 3), 
Certain denominatives : From mTSl mdld, a garland, is formed the denominative ^RT<nfll 

tndlayati, Red. Aor. ^HH I t6(\amamdlat j ^U^^ ^ds, Caus. ^iitiMPn idsayati, he punishes. 

Red. Aor. V ^1 ^11 ^ i\aiaidsaU 
Those with technical '^ ft: ^V^hddh, to hurt; Caus. '^PI^^ hddhayati ; Aor. ^BRWIVil 

^SX^^bhrdj, to shine, "^^^^hhdSi to shine, ^^T^hhdshf to speak, ^^cf^, to lighten, 4l^ilD, to 

live, ^tt^mU, to meet, ^^(^piit to vex, shorten their vowel optionally. Ex. >9X^hhrdj: 

^ ^ tH N ((ababkrdjat or V filM «t ^abibhrajat (§ 374). 
t ^t^^veshfay, to surround, ME^cheshtay, to move, take either ^ i or Wa in the 
reduplicative syllable ; ^mHU^avaveshfat or ^ f^^ ft i\avivesh(aL WtK^dyotay, to lighten, 
takes \i; m Pt^^ii r[^adidyutat. 

190 AOKIST. § 375- 

long vowel {ackuchyuiat, not achdchyutat). In roots beginning and ending in 
two consonants, this metrical rhythm is necessarily broken (achaskandat). 
§ 375. In the roots which do not resist the shortening process, 

W a, l?», ^«, ^r* are represented in the reduplicative syllable by 
Waori^i, l(i^ 7f«, ^i; and all lengthened, where necessary. 

Second or Reduplicated Form of the Second Aorist, 

I. \J — \J n 

Vl^^pach, to cook, rvi^^fwpdchdyati ; m4iH%\dpip€ic?Mt *. 
i^bhidf to cut, ^^^^^hf bheddyati] Jsr^tfk^dbibhidat. 
^mud, to rejoice^ ^t^^vfnmoddydti; Wfffp^dmilmfAdat. 
^Vfit, to exist, '^ii^fiK vartdyati ; ^T^t^K^dvivfiiat. 
ip^mry, to cleanse, ^rk^fif fndrjdyati ; ^rfttjpn{^dmimtijat. 
wnkrit, to praise, '^ItfMX kirtdyati ; ^(^li^pR^^dcMkfitatf. 

The lengthening becomes superfluous before roots beginning with two conso- 
nants, because the two consonants make the short vowel heavy {guru). 

nn^ tyqf\ to leave, nn^nriw iydjdyati ; mfjm^rn^dtityqfat. 

WtH^bhrdj, to shine, >gXW^fjf bhrdjdyati ; ^tfn^awn^dbibhrajat. 

f'^p^kshipf to throw, '^^f^fJ( kshepdyati ; vPqfv| M 1^ dchiksUpat, 

'^pi^chyuty to fall, ^ftn^fix ckyotdyati ; w^g^9n{^dchuchyuiat. 

'^svriy to sound, 7^[TtJlfif svdrdyati ; ^^^[W^dsisvarat, 

2» sj yj — • 

xys^raksh, to protect, v^[^fH rakshdyaii ; ^eax^^drarakshait^ 
fk^^bhiksh, to beg, f^T^^hf bhikshdyati ; ^vP^f^'ndhibhikshat. 

§ 376. If the root .begins and ends with double consonants, this rhythmical law is 

W^prachh, to ask, Vi^S^(fff prachchhdyatij V W^Hdpaprachchkat. 
^ffi^ akand, to step, ^S^^rfk skanddyati; V ^ ^^^ dchaskandat, 
§ 377. Roots with radical ^n or ^H, followed by a consonant, may optionally take 
the \j — \j or \j \j — forms. 

♦ VI^S^^ gandy and VP^ kathdy take ^ < or W a optionally ; ^lft»nn'i(^4;fy«?''' o' 
'NII'I^U^ djagai^t. 

t The following verbs take ^ a instead of 1(t or \i in the reduplicative syllable of the 
aorist in the causative : 

^ «iir», ^rffi, Wl^ tcar^ V^prathy ^ mrad, ^ stH, W^tpad, 

"^^smfis Cwx%, W^KJ^ smdrdyati : Aor. ^^W^^^<&a««flra^ 
The same verbs which, as will be shown hereafter (§ 474), reduplicate ^R^av, (the Gu^a of 
7, "S «,) in the desiderative by 7«, take 7tt instead of l(« in the reduplicated aorist: 
'^nu; Caus. H 1'^ ^ Pil ndvdyati; Des.'^H 1 4 0^ M fil tdndvayishatij Aor, of Caus.^ •in «i dnHnavam* 
X Radical V a is reduplicated by W a if the root ends in a double consonant. 

-§ 38o. 



^iJUvjit, to be, ^w^lfir vartdyatij W4l^ff II dchofitat or V^^fl fidoavartat. (PItn. vii. 4, 7.) 
ramft;, to cleanse, Tm^rfk mdrjdyati: H*fl*|H <|^ dmUmfijat or VHH 1 4 fl dmanUhjat, 
WKkfit, to praise, ^An^lflr ktrtdyatij H ^ f A 1^ dckikfitat or H f^ ifl fi 11 dchikirtat. 

j 378. Roots beginning with a vowel have the same internal reduplication^ 
which will be described hereafter in the desiderative bases. 
Thus W|^ ai forms the Cans* Wffm&idy. This after throwing off ysm ay, 
and shortening the vowel, becomes ^i^oi; this reduplicated^ wif^jiai-ii; 
and lastly, with augment and termination, VTf)(l4 dS-ii^am. 
In the same manner, ^nf^ archichamf vH^% au^ifam, &c. (^ 476.) 

§ 379. Are slightly irregular : 
1|T pd, to drink, which forms its causal aorist as infhm^ dpipyat (instead of VMflMMfl 

dpipayai), P&n. vii. 4, 4. 
?QT Bthdi to stand, Which forms its causal aorist as Vfkf^in^ dtishfkipat (instead of 

Wr ffhrd, to smell, which forms its causal aorist as nftlftlMl^ dfigkripat or vOflim^ 

Reduplicated AoBisf . 
Vfltr^nrnt a^iraydrm Vf^^VPYPV afiiraydma 

"vif^l^Mn oHirayatam nf^l^^A ailSrayata 

vOiI^iIaI aiiirayatdm v(V^M«^ cMrayan 

1. Vf^fl4 diUrayam 

2. Vf^^^I oHiraycLfi 

3. 11(^11^^ aMrayal 


I. ^if^f^R ahiraye vf^lVMI'Mf^ aHiraydoahi Vt^Vl^llirf aiiiraydmdki 

a. vt^l^^^K (Uiirayathdh irf^TBR^ aiiirayethdm ll(^fim4 adiirayadkvam 

3. irf^TBRif aiiirayata VP^milrti a^Urayetdm vf^|9|4ll tMrayanta 

§ 380. In the preceding ^^ occasional rules have been given as to the 
particular forms of the aorist which certain verbs or classes of verbs adopt. 
As in Ghreek, so in Sanskrit, too, practice only can effectually teach which 
forms do actually occur of each verb; and the rules of grammarians, 
however minute and complicated, are not unfirequently contradicted by the 
usage of Sanskrit authors. 

However, the general rule is that verbs follow the first aorist, unless this 
is specially prohibited, and that they take the first form of the first aorist, 
unless they are barred by general rules firom the employment of the interme- 
diate ^ u Verbs, thus barred, take the second form of the first aorist. 

The number of verbs which take the third form of the first aoiist is very 
limited, three roots ending in ir m, and roots ending in ^ ^. 

The fourth form of the first aorist is likewise of very limited use ; see ^ 360. 

As to the second aorist, the roots which must or may follow it are 

192 FUTURE. § 381- 

indicated in § 367, and so are the roots which take the reduplicated form of 
the second aorist in ^371. 

Roots which follow the second aorist optionally, or in the Parasmaipada 
only, are allowed to be conjugated in the first aorist, subject to the general 




§ 381. Terminations. 



1. ^■nf'V ishyami ^^■QT^I ishydva^ ^^llPn iihydmah 

2. ^Vlftr ishydsi ^^TOt ishydtha^ ^^Pf^ ishydtha 

3. ^^^ ishydti ^«int iskydtaft l^viflv ishydnti 


I. ^[1^ iihyd ^«ii«i^ ishyavahe ^^^T^V^ ishyimahe 

3. ^iRIfr iskydse ^^m ishy4the ^^>M ishyddhve 

^,^^ishydte ^^ ishy^te ^^ ishydnte 

The cases in which the ^ t of ^i^r^ ishydmi &c. must be or may be omitted 
have been stated in chapter XI, $ 331 seq. For the cases in which |( i is 
changed to ^ ^, see ^ 340. On the change of ^ aha and ^ «a, see $ 100 seq. 
On the strengthening of the radical vowel, see chapter XII, ^ 344 seq. 

^ 382. The changes which the base undergoes before the terminations of 
the strengthening tenses, the two ftitures, the conditional, and the benedictive 
Atm. are regulated by one general principle, that of giving weight to the base, 
though their application varies according to the peculiarities of certain verbs. 
See illustrations in ^ 344 {bJiamshydmi) and ^ 345 {mdrkshydmi). These 
peculiarities must be learnt by practice, but a few general rules may here be 
repeated : 

1. Final ^ e, ^ at, lit are changed to ^ ^; 9^ ffai, to sing, nr^lTf^ 

ffdsydmiy &c. 

2. Final ^i and ^ ^, 7 tf, TR t2, ^fj and 1^ rt, take Gu^a ; fttjif to conquer, 

^(W^jeshyami; ^bkd, Hf^mAr bhavUhydmi; m Art, ^vfrBrrfiT karishyami; 
w drt, to tear, ^[fbVTftr darishydmi or l^^SNlfH darUhyami, There are the 
usual exceptions, ^ Artt, to sound, ^ftr^irrfiT kuvishyami. {§ 345, note.) 

3. Penultimate ^t^ 7tf, iffi, prosodially short, take Ou^a; y^rt becomes 

i^ir; ^ budh, i|1l\imR| bodhishydmi ; fW^ bhid, ^^RrfiT bhetsydti. 

-$ 383- 


1. '^fVimfH bodhishydmi 

2. '^ftfw^ri^ bodhishydsi 

3. ^"^ Pm ^ Pfl bodhishydti 

1. "^t^A bodkishy^ 

2. iHiVm^ bodhishydse 

3. '4)rimA bodhishydte 

1. I! Ill Hi eshydmi 

2. l(V|fVl eshydsi 

3. imDl eshydti 

1. ^iVetfily^ 

2. 4(^lt eskydse 

3. I!V|^ eshydte 


"J^ ^£fAy to know^ 

with intennediate ^t. 



^fV|*ll*|J bodhUhyivafL 
■ft Phi 'Ml bodhishydthat^ 
Wtftnmn bodhiskydtdhk 

WHV^IT^ bodhiskydvahe 
^\(H^^ bodhishy^the 
Wtf^raW bodhishydte 

^ «, to go, 

without intennediate ^ «'. 

inVT^ eshyavafk 
\l eshydtafk 

^m^ eshyavahe 

7^^ eshyithe 

K^in eshydte 



IllVlllWl bodhishyimah 
^tfVr«nf bodhishydtha 
^tftnofV bodhishydnti 

Wi^^\H\ bodhishydfnahe 
^hfinWt bodhishyddkve 
"W^ftrafn bodhishydnte 

W^ffm eshydmaft. 
I!*|V| eshydtha 

lilW^ eshyamahe 
^VM eshyddhve 
K^n eshydnte 

§ 383. The future is changed into the conditional by the same process 
by which a present of the Tud class is changed into an imperfect. 

ip^ budh, to know, 

inth intennediate ^ t . 





1. V tfl (\| ij dbodhUhyam 

2. W^ftfV^ abodhishyafk 

3. V ^ Pm Vl II abodhUhyat 

1. V^*^Pvv| dbodhishye 

2. iNtftnOf^ abodhishyathdlt 

3. V^r^VId dbodhishyata 

1. |l« o&iyam 

2. %^ ttishya^ 

3. ^■IH^aisAya* 

WiftftrsjT^ abodhishydva 
^innfv^QfT ahodhishyatam 
^^HV^QHf ahodhishyatdn 

V^r^miPtS abodhishydi 
Wftfisi^t^ obodhishyetMi 
vftfVwilf abodhishyetdn 

without intennediate ^t. 

F^TT^ aishydoa 

%vnii aishyatdm 
C C 

VWtPMm^ abodhishydma 
HWIPM^IA ahodhishyata 
wftfV^Q^ abodhishyan 

^ ift Ph mH Pig abodhishydmahi 
V^PUWI abodhishyadhoam 

^vrni aishydma 
H^A aishyata 
ry^ aishyan 



J 384- 

1. ^^ ahhye 

2. K^W* aishyathdd^ 

3. H*IA aishyata 

^m^fiE aishydoaki 
F^nf aishyethdm 
K^M aishyetdm 

^milP^ aishydmahi 
KWi aishyadhvam 
$^ir oMhyanta 

Periphrastic Future. 

^ 384. The terminations are» 

^mW itdsvah 

1. ^AliVl itism 

2. ^AlfVl itdsi 

3. l^i^ 

1[in^n itisthah 



1. ^Alf itdhe 

2. ^WTmitase 

3. ^JKXitd 


I^AI^^ itdsvahe 
f[KtwA itasdthe 
\HW itarau 

These terminations are clearly compounded of in td (base f tfi)^ the common 
suffix for forming nomina affentis, and the auxiliary verb H^o^^ to be. There 
is^ however, with regard to TIT tdy no distinction of number and gender in the 
ist and 2nd persons, and no distinction of gender in the 3rd person. 

On the retention or omission of intermediate ^ i or ^ ^^ see j 331 seq. 
On the strengthening of the radical vowel, see § 382. 

ira budh, to knoW; 

with intermediate ^ t . 


^(Vfll^jll bodhitagoafi 
WtfVAlW bodhitdsthah 
WtftfilTu hodhitdr 


1. ^ f^ fl I (\m bodhitdsmi 

2. ifHVllTftr bodhitdsi 

3. ^ftf^f^ bodhitd 

1. Wi (V A I ( bodhitdhe 

2. ^llVflld bodhitdse 

3. ''ft^ffn bodhUd 


1. rKjfm etdsnU 

2. 4>AlfVl etdsi 

3. Jnnetd 

^AfWira^ bodkitdsvahe 

^tftnrnn^ bodkitdsdthe 

^JHhITFu bodhitdrau 

without intermediate ^ t . 

^irm: etdsthaft 



WtftrnW bodhitdunah 
•ftftiJIIW bodkudsiha 
wH^HfRt bodhitdraf^ 

^tfkWJmi% bodhitdstnahe 
yftfy^mk bodkUddkve 
^(VlfllU bodhitdrafk 

Criimt etdsmaf^ 
WKTWf etdstha 
^UTT! etdrah 

-{ 3^8. BENEDICTIVE. 195 


I. WKtf^etdke innwiw etdsoahe W^fUWW etasmahB 

3. ^Wrir etdae WfXlwiv etisdthe ^ITM etddhve 

3. ^ilT eti Filro etdrau ^HTC eldrafL 

$. 385. The 80-caIled benedictive is formed in close analogy to the 
optative. It differs from the optative by not admitting the Ml modified verbal 
base, and, secondly^ by the insertion of an ^« before the personal termina- 
tions. In the Parasmaipada this ^« stands between the ^ yd of the optative 
and the actual signs of the parsons, being lost, however, in the and and 
3rd pers. sing. Thus, instead of 

Opt. ^, ^, ^ft\» ^rw> ^^9 'mit, ^iw, ^niT, ^, 

ydm, ydh, ydt, ydva, ydiam, ydidm, ydma^ ydta, yM, we have 

Ben. urt, mif w^^9 in^, in#, ^TOit, irw, ^nw* ti^t* 

ydsam, ydfi, ydty ydsva, ydatam, ydstdm, ydsma, ydgta, ydsuh. 
As the optative is a verbal compound of the modified base with an ancient second iorist 
of the root ^ yd^ the benedictive seems a similar compound of the unmodified base with an 
ancient first aorist of ^ yd. In ^^ydh and WKydt we have contractions of ^n^^ydss 
and ^TT^y^/. In the Veda the 3rd pers. sing, is 'mi yd^. (See Bollensen, Zeitschrift 
der D. M. G., vol. xxii. p. 594; and Pan. viii. 2, 73—74.) 

In the Atmanepada the ^« stands before the terminations of the optative, 
e. g. iSm siya instead of ^ iya. Besides this, the personal terminations originally 
beginning with 1^/ or ^^A take an additional ^«. Cf.^351. Thus, instead of 

Opt. pt, ^^m, fjKf t^, pf^9 ti'mrf, ^nftr, ^9 t^» 

iyd, Uhd(^ Ud, Mhi, iydthdm, iydtdm, imdhi, idhvdm, irdn, we have 

Ben. ^rfhr, TUmij >rfhf, Tft^fV> iftTIWf, Vl^llidf} TrtufVf ^'IW, ^v^» 

Hydy aUh^kdhy tUhfd, sivdki, stydsthdm, tfydstdm, strndhi, Mhvdm, Hrdn, 

The benedictive in the Atmanepada is reallj an optative of the first aorist. Thus fW>m 
^bkdy Aor. iwfiffti abhavUhit Ben. ^ffWh? bhucisMyaj from ^ stu. Opt. Atm. t^«i1n 
stuvUa^ Aor. ^t^hiWastoshfa, Ben. ^sWv stosMshfaj from t6M, Opt. Atm. jMiU^krintran, 
Aor. ^ mnn akreshatOy Ben. ^ifl i«|^ kreshiran. 

§ 386. Verbal bases ending in V^ay (Chur, Cans. Denom. &c.) drop W^ay before the 
terminations of the benedictive Par.: ^JtncAoray, Ben, ^fArti chorydsam j but in Atm. 
WIv^JIm chorayishiyd. Denominative bases in^y drop ^y in the Ben. Par. : jdl^^/wMy, 
Ben. ^ptimvi putriydsamj but in Atm. J^Omlll putriyisMyd, 

§ 387. The benedictive Parasmaipada belongs to the weakenings the 
benedictive Atmanepada to the strengthening forms {§ 344)« Hence from 
fwi^cAi/, Par. fVnonf chityasam, Atm» ^fWhl chetishiyd, 

§ 388, The benedictive Parasmaipada never takes intermediate l( u The 
benedictive Atmanepada generally takes intermediate ^ i. Exceptions are 
provided for by the rules (331 seq. 

c c z 

196 BENBDICTIVE. § 389- 

Weakening of the Base before Terminations beginning with ^ y. 

§ 389. Some of the rules regulating the weakening of the base, which is required in the 
benedictive Parasmaipada, may here be stated together with the rules that apply to the 
weakening of the base in the passive and intensive. 

§ 390. While, generally speaking, the terminations of the benedictive, passive, and 
intensive exercise a weakening influence on the verbal base, there is one important, though 
only apparent, exception to this rule with regard to verbs ending in 1( t, 7 u, ^ ft. Fmal 
^t and 7«, before the ^y of the terminations of benedictive, passive, and intensive* are 
lengthened (Pft^. vii. 4, 35), but not strengthened by Guna. 

f^ cAt, to gather ; Ben. ^^hmi cAly/t / VMS.^^ft^kchiydie: Int. ^^Mn chechiydte. 
Final ^ r» is changed to ft r». (Pftn. vii. 4, a8.) 
^*ri, to do; Ben. fiCTTW *riy//; Pass, flw* Jtrtyrfife. (The Intensive has ^wiImw 
chekriydte, P&i[i. vii. 4, 27.) 
In roots, however, beginning with conjunct consonants, final ^ fi is actual^ strengthened 
by Gu^ay and appears as ^ or, (Pft?. vii. 4, 39.). 
^^nift, to remember; BeD,^ATf(smary(itj Pass. Wn^smarydte; Int. ^iwMn sdsmarydte. 
Also in ^ ft, to go ; Ben. ^fktl(^ary(it j Pass. wW arydtej Int. ^wrtn ardrydte. 
Final ^f^ is changed to f|^ ir, and, after labials, to 'WS^itr. 
^stfi, to stretch ; Ben. wAn{jittrydt j Pass, ^Wfl^ stirydtej Int. toMw testtrydte. 
\PT^> to fill; Ben. '^tHi^piirydtj Pass, ^ikptlrydtej Int. '^tfifk popHrydte. 
Exceptions : ^^ is changed to Ifn^ay, 
^ A, to lie down ; (Ben. "^ffWTfiiayydt does not occur, because the verb is Atmanepadin); 
Ptos. "^vn^ Sayyd^e: Int. '^fft^f^i^ id£ayy(Ue. (P&9. vn. 4, 22.) 
^t, after prepositions, does not lengthen the final ^i in the benedictive. 
\h to go; Ben. \^B^^yit; but ^HftlHTi^^samty/if. (PAn. vii. 4, 24.) 
^R^ Hhj to understand, after prepositions, is shortened to "^T «A. (P&n. vii. 4, 23.) 
Ben. ^Hm^tfAy/zy VdAS.WS^Hhydte, 
Ben. Ti^ V I f^samuhyat; Pass. ^i^|9Vn samahydte. 

§ 391. The following roots may or may not drop their final «(n, and then lengthen the 
preceding vowel. (P&n. vi. 4, 43.) 

f^yan, to beget ; Ben. Wl^lXfiJdydt or "^^^^IHiJanyit ; Pass. ^HT^ftjdydte or W^janydte; 

Int. UTifnrt jdjdydte or ITiP'In Jailjany dt e. 
^«a»,to obtain; Ben. '^imVU^sdydt or "W^nHjtanydt; Pass. Hl^fl sdydte or ^*hH sanydtej 

Int. Iffnrnnf sdsdydte or ^TRYn samsanydte, 
^^^hhany to dig; Ben. Itnni^itMy// or 'WC^lt^khanydt ; Pass. ^ihH khdydte or ^•Mii 

khanydtej Int. 'mfIN) chdkhdydte or 'ilS'^Irt chankhanydte. 
In the passive only, K^tan, to stretch; Ben. 'W^nf(^tanydt ; Pass. ni««n tdydte or «*hH 

tanydtej Int. flff«<IA tantanydte, 

§ 392. According to a general rule, roots ending in < at and w o change their final 
diphthong in the general tenses into WT d: ^ dhyai^ VIHTir dhydydte. Roots ending in 
W^ retain it: Vpd, Tff^ji pdydte, he is protected. But the following roots change their 
final vowel into ^lin the passive and intensive ; into ^ e in the benedictive Par.; and keep 
it unchanged before gerundial '^ ya. (P&9. vi. 4, 66, 61, 69.) 

-$ 395. BBKBDICTIVB. 197 

The six verbs called ^S'Ak*, and the following verbs : 

Passivb. Imtsnbivx. Bbnbdictivb f. Gbrxtnd. 

l!ldd, to give ^f^ cUydte \^W dedtydte \^^^deydt W^ praddya 

«IT md, to measure •fl^n miydte ^^t^i memiydte ^^HW meyit HRFT pramdya 

^n 8thdf to stand WIha sthiydie wlhl^ teshfMydte '^k^Tn8theydt H^THT prasthiya 

v^^ot^tosing •\\^giydte Vft^k jeffiydte ^hni^^ey/t WTP^pragiya 

^p^, to drink Tlnitptydte MmImA pepiydte ^mt^peydt V^Hlprapdya 

9 A4, to leave flu^ Mydte W^^jeMydte ^VU^heydt Tt^prahdya 

^«o, to finish ^^hs(ydte ^ifl^M seshfydte ^mjjf seydt J[Wmpra$dya 

§ 393. The following verbs take SamprasHra^a in the benediotive (P&9. ill. 4, 104), 
passive, participle, and gerund. (P&9. vi. i, 15.) 
^racA, to speak; ^'(.wapj ||, to sleep; ^vo/ (PUp. vi. i, 20), to wish; and the 

^■iilq yajddi, i. e. those foUowing ^l|l^ yq;. 
Ben. 9M\\wihydt: Ft»9.'9'^ uehydte; Fait. TWH uktdh : Ger.'9W uktvd. 
The M«nR^ are, (23, 33-41) ^ya;, to sacrifice; ^rop, to sow ; ^ vah, to cany ; ^f^vas, 
to dweD; %w, to weave; ^ryc||,to cover; ^ibv^H, *o <»U; f^tJoJ, to speak; 
f^ irt||, togrow. 

§ 394. The I following verbs take SamprasAra^a in the benedictive, passive, participle, 
gerund, and intensive. (Pft^. vi. i, 16.) 
JX^grah, to take; l^fjydy to ftul; W^vyadh, to pierce; ^T^vyocA, to sonound; IH^ 
vra^ch, to cut; H^pracM, to ask ; WH^ hhrajj^ to fry. As to 9^^oap, ^IHT ^yom, 
and ^vye, see § 393, note ||. 
Q^^aA; Ben. ^fni|[^^Ay/iry Pass. ^JIW gjihydtes Part, 'pihn gtihUdta Ger. ^l^lrVT 
giihUvd; Int. lO'jfIA jarigxikydte, 

§ 395* ^(n^ /<^, to rule, substitutes 6(1^ ^A in the benedictive, passive, participle, 
gerund, intensive, also in the second aorist. (P&9. vi. 4, 34.) 
Ben. f^r^rH^Hshyii J Pass, f^vjw iiskydte; Part, f^t Ush^dh; Ger. f^fT Ushfvd: 
Aor. Wf^MJ^i^Aaf. 
Roots ending in consonants preceded by a nasal (which is really written as belonging to 


the root) lose that nasal before weakening terminations (Kit, Nit, P&i^. vi. 4, 34). Thus 

* This term comprises the six roots ^pn^> ^^> ^» ^^> 3f^^> ^^^ ^* ^ varieties of 
the radicals ^ dd and VT dhd; but not ^T^and ^^, i. e. ^fTfif ddti, he cuts, and ^nrfv ddyaii, 
he cleans (P&n. 1. 1, 20). Hence (jl^ln diyate, it is given; but ^inn ddyate, it is cleaned. 

t In other roots, ending in VT ^ or diphthongs, and beginning with more than one con- 
sonant, the change into ^e in the benedictive Par. is optional (P&9. vi. 4, 68). fl glai, to 
wither; fplVH^gleydt or J!IVIin{jgldydt. WTAAy<^,tocaU; fU I III ((khydydt or IW ^ I ((khyeydt. 

X '^Tl^svdp, to send to sleep, takes Samprasftrana in the reduplicated aorist (P&9. vi. 
i> 18). H^m^ atdshupat. 

II I^T^ nap, to sleep, ^IH^ tyamy to sound, and ^ vye, take Sampras&rana in the 
intensive also (Pft?. vi. i, 19); iftjUlfl soshupydte, «ftnwin sesimydte, *tNlMfl veviydte. 
fHlibt takes Samprasdrana optionally in the intensive (Pftn. vi. i, 30); ^JV^^^Tn ioHiydte 
or $m1^ii ieMydte. ^ hve forms Int. "ift^lk joMydie (PIk?. vi. i, 33). In the intensive 
VT^cA(fy forms ^<?fhn^ cheHydie (P&9. vi. i, 2 1) ; W^ pydy, ^f(t^ pepiydte (P&Q. vi. i , 29). 




from ^woww. Part. 0W srastdh. Pass. B^ srasydte, Ben. H^^ srasydt, Ger. tin^i 
srasivd. Int. ^«fifl4jl|) satnUrasydte, Aor.'^fB^dsrasatj from ti^rafT;, Ben. vsqiil^ ro/y^/, 
Pass. Tilrir ra;V(f<e, Part. t»: rdfe^cif , Ger. TW roArW (or tw rahktvd, P&n. vi. 4, 32). 

§ 396. With regard to the benedictive Atm. see the general rules as to 
the strengthening of the base, § 344, and particularly § 348 seq. Remember, 
that if the benedictive Atm. does not take intermediate ^ t, penultimate ^ t, 
7 ti, If rj are left unchanged, whereas in other strengthening tenses they take 
Guiia (f 344). Final ^ fi, too, remains unchanged, and y^ri becomes fj <r, 
or, after labials, 151^ dr. f^kship, to throw, ftp^ kshipsiyd; -^pri, to fill. 




U ^[VnH budhydsam 
s. ^UIU budhydf^ 
3. ^pWl^^^klAy^f 

^piira budhydsva 
^vn^ budhydstam 
^jmr^ budhydstdm 


I. ^Wrfrf bodhisMyd 
3. ^tVuflg bodhishishtd 

^tVHl*lfi bodhishivdhi 
^tf^f^iVTWIfi bodhishtydsthdm 
'^rtWNrert bodhishiydstdm 

^MIIW budhydsma 
^piira' budhydsta 
^vn^ budhydsut^ 

Wtf^^fhff^ bodhishimdki 
lf)fVl/1l9 bodhishidhvdm 
^tP^fWtXj^^ bodhishirdn 



^ 397. The passive takes the terminations of the Atmanepada. 

Special Tenses of the Passive, 
^ 398. The present, imperfect, optative, and imperative of the passive are 
formed by adding ir ya to the root. This ir ya is added in the same manner 
as it is in the Div verbs, so that the Atmanepada of Div verbs is in all 
respects (except in the accent) identical with the passive. 

Atm. fltn^ ndhyate, he binds ; Pass, iftn^ nahydte^ he is bound. 

§ 399. Bases in 1R^ ay (Chur, Cans. Denom. &c.) drop 1R^ ay before ^ ya of the 

^iVP{bodhdyy to make one know; ^U|n bodh-ydte, he is made to know. 
^)T^ chordyt to steal ; ^V^4n chor-ydte, he is stolen. 

Intensive bases ending in ^y retain their ^y, to which the ^ya of the passive is added 
without any intermediate voweL 

jSttgJlllokiy, to cut much ; 9^^'UIM lohlyydte, he is cut much. 

-$ 40I- 



InteoBive bases ending in ^y> preceded by a consonant, drop their ^y. 
^i^nfbebkidy, to sever; ^iSnn bebhidydte, it is severed. 

?fN^ didhi, to shine, ^^ vevt, to yearn, ^fi^^i daridrd, to be poor, drop their final vowel, 
as usual. 

?^Mt didhi, ^(hllV dtdhydte, it is lightened, i. e. it lightens. 

§ 400. As to the weakening of the base^ see the rules given for the 

benedictive, § 389 seq. 





Pres. ^bMyS 
Impf. V^ dbh4ye 
Opt. ^{3^ bhUy^a 
Imp. ^ bMyai 

Pres. ^f^Pl^bhdyivahe 
Impf. ^i^fpj^lffl dbkHydoahi 
Opt. ^^ff ^Al/y^aAt 
Imp. ^j!7Tra% bkdyivahai 

Pres. ^i?nil^ bMyatnahe 
Impf. ^EI^pnHf^ <^My^^At 
Opt. ^j^ff^ bkHyimahi 
Imp. ^^H^ bkAyimdhai 

W^TTOn dbUyatMt^ 
V^m". bUyithdt^ 
^pi^ bhdydsva 


^V)J3^^ dbMyethdm 
^^tVr^ bMy^ydthdm 
^^(^ bMyithdm 


^nqii^ bUyddhve 
^V^|1|1S| dbMyadhvam 
^gl^ bkdy^dhwtm 
^im bUyddkoam 

^i^|inr dbh4yata 
^P^ bMyita 
^}init bMydtdm 

W^j3^ dbhdyetdm 
^^1*1 bhdyiyiUlm 
^l^ni bMyitdm 

^f0 bhdydnie 
^^J^ dbhdyania 
^^^ bMyiran 

Qeneral Tenses of the Passive. 
§ 401. In the general tenses of the passive, if yd is dropt, so that, with 
certain exceptions to be mentioned hereafter, there is no distinction between 
the general tenses of the passive and those of the Atmanepada. The ifya of 
the passive is treated, in £eu^ like one of the conjugational class-marks 
{vikaranas), which are retained in the special tenses only, and it differs 
thereby from the derivative syllables of causative, desiderative, and intensive 
verbs, which, with certain exceptions, remain throughout both in the special 
and in the general tenses. 

Beduplicated Perfect. 
The reduplicated perfect is the same as in the Atmanepada. 

Periphrastic Perfect. 
The periphrastic perfect is the same as in the Atmanepada, but the 
auxiliary verbs ^r^ as and ^ bhil must be conjugated in the Atmanepada, 
as well as ^ kfi. (^ 342.) 





^ 402. Verbs may be conjugated in the three forms of the first aorist 
which admit of Atmanepada, and without differing fix)m the paradigms given 
above, except in the third person singular. 

The second aorist Atmanepada is not to be used in a purely passive sense *. 

^ 403. In the third person singular a peculiar form has been fixed in the 
passive, ending in i( i, and requiring Yriddhi of final, and Gu^a of medial 
vowels (but ma is lengthened), followed by one consonant. 

Thus, instead of nn^ftv dhvishfa, we find iVc9Tf% dldv-i, 1 

Wfkftv abodhishfa^ 
WBpf akritay 
wf^ adita^ 
"W^f^ asttrshfaj 
%f^ adaffdha, 
^vfirHTir adikshata, 
W^J^ aghukshatOf 
nfMHIill alikshataf 
v^iqir adhukshata, 
^rftnrw adhikshata, 

witNaiodh-i. J 
m'^lf^ akshep^, 
HfUHv andy-i. 
^mf^ akdr-i, 
^I^tAt addy-i, 
^rarft (utdrA, 
W^ff^ asarj-i, 
H^^rf^ addh-i. 
^i^fig adeiA. 
tPT% agilh-i. 
unf^ aleh'4, 
m^tf^ adoh-L 
wnf^ adeh-i. 

First Form. 

" Second Form. 

Fourth Form. 

§ 404. Verbs ending in W ^ or diphthongs, take '^y before the passive l( t. 
^ dd, ^I^tAt addyiy instead of Wf^ adita, 

§ 405. Verbs ending in ^V^ay (Chur, Cans. Denom. &c.) drop ^Ray before the passive 
If t, though in the general tenses, after the dropping of the passive ^ya, the original VVoy 
may reappear, i.e. the Atm. may be used as passive. 

'^P^hodkay, ^rrtftf ofcocttty 'InTI'^cAoray, ^^tftachori: Tlinir^'cy, ^HTlftf ari^ff. 

In the other persons these verbs may either drop ^V^oy or retain it, being coi^ugated in 
either case after the first form of the first aorist. 

IfPI^&A^ay/ ySP^^^X^^ abhdmshii VHlHllfi; abhdoisk^hdhy ^^^tf^ ahhM: or HMI^Dlh 
nhhdoayuM, ^HI^DlVU abhdtayishfhdlt, m^^[\f^ abhdoi. 
§ 406. Intensive bases in ^y add the passive l( t, without Gu^a. 
Int. ^t^J^bobMif, H^^fll abobh^. 
Intensive bases ending in ^y, preceded by a consonant, drop \y, and xefuae Gu^a. 

Int. ^ftW 6«ftAirfy; Aor. Hf (W(^ abebhidi. 
Desiderative bases, likewise, refuse Gupa. 

Des. ^|Wtftl^&i(&o(iAtsA^' Aor. VVVtAlftt abidfodhishi. 

* This would follow if kartari extends to P&9. iii. i, 54, 56. 

-J 4"- PASSIVE. 201 

( 407. Thfl following are a hw irregular formations of the 3rd pers* aing. aorist passive ; 

X?^ rabh, to desire, forms irtfif arambki, (Pft^. vii. z, 63.) See § 345, ^^ 

T^ radk, to kill, — infll arandhi. (Pft^. vii. i, 6z.) 

W\Jabht to yawn, — WPfftv ajambki, (Pft^. vii. i, 61.) 

4l^ bkoHj, to break, — Wfflf abJMJi or ^Hllftr a&il^ft. (P&V* vi. 4, 33.) 

IfP^IoftA, totake, — ^^ftk^alambki or ^K^StSlf aldbki. (P&9. vii. i, 69.) 

With prepositions W^ labh always forms HHi^ aktm^ilt. 
in(/mi, to beget, — Vliril ajani, (PA9. vii. 3, 35.) 
^ftoiU, to strike, — WWflf oftodlib'. (P&n. vii. 3, 35.) 

( 408. Roots ending in H^am, which admit of intermediate H t (§ 33a, 16), do not lengthen 
their radical vowel. (Pft^. vii. 3, 34.) 

IP^iaiii, ^l||fll aiami; l^^oni, WW^ atanUj bat 1|l^yaiii, IRlftV aifdnU. 
P&^ini excepts VT^^Aom, to rinse, which forms ^H^lfll dekdmu Others add H^Aom, 
V^ vam, ^ nam (PA^. vii. 3, 34, vArt.). 

§ 409. Thus the paradig;ms given in the Aimanepada may be used in the 
passive of the aorist^ with the exception of the 3rd pen. sing. (See p. i8a.) 

^raftrf^ ttlaviihi ^raAp^rf^ ahmUkoaki VMlV^ff alavUkmahi 

Vd^DlVi: alaviikthd^ Hc^Himilf alaoishdthdm V^Olul or ^ alavidkoam or -^vom 

^nrftr oZtfvfl V^Pmini aktrw^^ mvfm alavi$hata 

The TuH) FkUures^ the ChndUianal, and the Benedictioe Passive. 

^ 410. These fonnations are identically the same in the passive as in the 
Atmanepada. Hence 

Fut. iftflH^ bodhishyS, I shall be known. 
Cond. VtWl^ dbodhishySf I should be known. 
Periphr. Fut iMWint bodkudhe, I shall be known. 
Bened. ijWr(hl bodhishtyd^ May I be known ! 

Secondary Form of the Aorist ^ the Two Futures^ the Conditional, and 

Benedictive of Verbs ending in Vowels. 

§ 411. All verbs ending in vowels, in V^ay, and likewise ^han, to 
strikci ^1^ driif to see, gf ffrcA, to take, may form a secondary base (really 
denominative), being identical with the peculiar third person singular of the 
aorist passive, described before. Thus from 1^14 we have MTsAalctvi, and 
firom this, by treating the final f t as the intermediate ^ i, we form. 

Sing, I. pers. VMll^lDl aldvi-shi, by the side of iTRFftrf^ alam-shi. 

%• Hc^lHlli: aldvi'Shfhdi, — — Vdf^Vi; alam-skthAh. 

3. ^iwiftfaMw, — — invrftra/A^. 


202 PASSIVE. $ 41 1 - 

Dual J. pers. V^lPml^ aldoi-shvahi, by the side of ^RSfpi^ alavi-shvahi, 
%• WM I fi m ^ i aldvishathdm^ ^— — WeSf^mvit aldvi-shaiham* 

3. Vc9l(V|Uldli aldvishdidm^ — — ^BRyftRTWf aldvi-shdidm. 

Plur. I. pers. ^V^^rf^^f^ aldvi-shmahif by the side of WcftPv^ng aldvishmahi. 

2. w^slPw aldvi'dhvam or ^'4^vam — wnss^^aldm-dhvam or ^. 

3. VMlHiMrt aldvi-shata^ — — v^HmA aldm-shata. 
Fut. ?9Tftr^ Idm-shyej by the side of cVfn^ Idvi-^hye. 

Cond. VcdlHlvi aldvi-shye^ — — ^BWftl^ aldvi^kye* 

Per. Fut ^rftnni l&m^tdhe^ — — ^f^nn^ lavi'tdhe. 

Ben. ^ir^iflil Idvt-shtyaj — — cVftrifhT IdvisMya. 

From ff chi, to gather, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. ^V^rfir achdyi; hence 
Aor. V^TniHl achdyishiy besides iB^fir acheshi, &c. 
Fut. ^^rftri^ chdyishye^ — ^^ cheshye. 
Cond. v^lOlv) achdyishye^ — iff^W acheshye. 
Per. Fut. ^vrf^nn^ cMyitdhe, — ^Jhn^ chetdhe. 
Ben. ^lOliflil chdyishtyaj — ^^ cheshiya. 

From Wfghrdf to smell, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. VRift aghrdyi; hence 
Aor. fiHiniPil agkrdyishi^ besides WTf^ aghrdsi. 
Fut. lirfin^ ghrdyishye^ — "WB^ ghrdsye. 
Cond. wurftr^ aghrdyishye, — WTP^ aghrdsye. 
Per. Fut. nrf^nn^ ghrdyitdhe^ — Wnnl ghrdtdhe. 
Ben. inftr^hl ghrdyishiya^ — 'Vnrhl ghrdaiya. 

From if dhvri^ to hurt, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. V«nft a^Avdri; hence 

Aor. W9Tftf^ adhvdrishiy besides VS|fW adhvrishi or WiqftfiT adhvdrishi. 
Fut vnfc^ dhvarishyCy — sufic*^ dhvdrishye. 

Per. Fut. svrfbn^ dhvdritdhe^ — I9%T^ dhv&rtdhe. 

Ben.S9Tft:^ dhvdrishiya^ — ^lJi(^dhvri8hiy a or %SffK!^dhvdrishty a*. 

From fi^ haUy to kill, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. V^tAt aghdni; hence 

Aor. worftrf^ aghdnishiy besides (w^Mkavadhishi). P&n.yi.4,62t* 
Fut. "^rftn^ ghdnishyej — 1[fip^ hanishye. 
Per. Fut ^rftnn^ ghdnitdhe, — ^TTT^ hantdhe. 

Ben. inftrtN ffhdnishiya, — (^fWhr vadhishiya). 

From wm driS, to see, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. ^I^l(t adarii; hence 
Aor. v^n^Hl adarHshiy besides W^ftf adfikshi. 
Fut. ^flj^ darHshye^ — ipaj^ drakshye. 

Per. Fut. ^fi^irr^ darSitdhey — T^ drash(dhe. 
Ben. ^flfhfhr dariishtya, — 7^ drikshiya, 

♦ See § 332, 5. 

t Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11, p. 270, seems to allow V^fn ahasi. 


From jff^ffrahy to take^ 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. ^RfHl agroM; hence 
Aor. MiJUif^Dl affrdhishif besides Vil^fM agrahUhu 
Fut. JXtf^ grdhishyey — Ji^^t^ grahUhye. 

Per. Fut. ilir^fll^ ffrdhitdhe^ — Jf^hcik ff^^Mtdhe. 
Ben. ijif^iflii ffrdhishiya, — IT^ifhl grahishiya. 
From T«n^ ramay^ to delight, Caus. of n ram, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. 
vd^T or ami or ^TCrfiT ardmi; hence 

Aor. irrfilft aramishi or ^mfivft ardmishi^ besides fKHpilfVi aramayishi. 

§ 413. Certain verbs of an iutransitive meaning take the passive ^t in the 3rd pen. sing. 
Aor. Atm. Thus ^iMWn utpadyate (3rd pers. sing, present of the Atmanepada of a Div 
verb), he arises, becomes Q^SMlf^ udapddi^ he arose, he sprang up ; but it is regular in the 
other persons, 9<JUWIril udapatsdtdm, they two arose, &c. (P&9. iii. i, 60.) 

§ 4 1 3. Other verbs of an intransitive character take the same form optionally ( P&9. iii. 1,61): 
^h(^J^ (^1u|H dtpyate, he burns, Div, Atm.), V^lf^ oJIjm or WfliMS adipiihfa. 
^H^jan {mMnjdyate, he is bom, he is, Div, Atm.; it cannot be formed from Wfjau 

(Hu, Par.), to beget), Hiir«f (njani or V¥ir«if ajanishfa, 
^biidh {^^^ budkyate, he is conscious, Div, Atm.), ^Tftf^ abodhi or ^HJV abuddha, 
^Kp^ {^pthf p4rayati, he fills, Chur.), ^^ft ap^ri or ^^fiL» apHrish^a, 
lCX^idy (irniW tdyate, he spreads, Bhii, Atm.; really Div form of Tan), WITrf^ atdyi or 

Vflir^llf atdyishfa, 
^*f(^^pydy (yiU^ pydyate, he grows), ^huPh apydyi or W^mftlF apydyishfa. 



^414. The participle of the present Parasmaipada retains the Vikara^as 
of the ten classes. It is most easily formed by taking the 3rd pers. plur. of 
the present, and dropping the final ^ t. This gives us the Aiiga base, from 
which the Pada and Bha base can be easily deduced according to general 
rules (^ 182). The accent remains in the participle on the same syllable 
where it was in the 3rd pers. plur. If the accent falls on the last syllable 
of the participle, and if that participle does not take a nasal, then all Bha 
cases and the feminine suffix receive the accent. (Pa][^. vi. i, 173.) Thus 





Ace. H^IT 

Instr. H^ilT &c. 




















^O'Nni &c. 




D d 











Wt^pfflr Intens. 

^it^H Nbm. 8. ^ftw^ Ace. 'ftuli Instr. ^*ti.l|fll &c. 

cAorcfyoiU eAorcfyaii ehordyantam ehordyatd 














































^f^^f^TT (§ 184) 

j 415. The participle of the future is formed on the same principle. 

6ilaowAyi6i<t ftAovwAyc^ bhanshydn hhaviskydntam hhaoishyaU 

j 416. The participle of the reduplicated perfect may best be formed by 
taking the 3rd pers. plur. of that tense. This corresponds, both in form and 
accent, with the Bha base of the participle, only that the ^«, as it is always 
followed by a vowel, is changed to ^«A. Having the Bha base, it is easy to 
form the Anga and Pada bases, according to ^ 204. In forming the Anga 
and Pada bases, it must be remembered, 
I. That roots ending in a vowel, restore that vowel, which, before ^ «^, 

had been naturally changed into a semivowel. 
%. That, according to the rules on intermediate l( t, all verbs which, without 
counting the T. «(, are monosyllabic in the 3rd pers. plur., insert ^ t. 
(See Necessary f t, J 338, i ; Optional ^ t, J 337, 8.) 

3rd P. Plur. 




Instr. Sing. 

Nom. Sing. 

Ace. Sing. 

Instr. Plur. 










fljflj^n'lrt 143) firfi;^ 

didwdn didwifhsam 

1 "^ _ft-L M— "^ «* • • 





choraydmdsd^ ckoraydmdsdskd ekorayd/ndshdn ehoraydmdsivdihsam choraydmddoddbhift 

-§ 419- 



3rd P. Plur. 






Instr. Sing. 

Norn. Sing. 

Ace. Sing. 














Inatr. Plur. 


n *^_n_- 


( 417. In flye verbs, where the insertion of ^t before ^vm is optional (§ 337, 8), we 
get the following forms ; 




3rd P. Plur. Instr. Sing. Nom. Sing. 

Aoc. Sing. 

Instr. Plur.' 







jaffmivdn orjaganndn 

jaghndthd Jaghnivdn OTJaghanvan jaghnivaihSi 

^ ^ £^^^^^^^ £^J^^^^^^ X^^^^^M 

nii^jm w^wnn or TWT^nf^m i^niyni 

vwidoin or vividivan vividvdihsam 

^k^^^^^^ ^^^^£^^^^^ £^m^^!g» 


ffwiwdn or vwiswdn vprinmiduoM 

jagmivdih$am jagmwddbhili 



dadfi^hd dadfUvdn, or dadfUhdn 



dadfihiduam dadfihddbhi^ 

j 418. The participle of the reduplicated perfect Atmanepada is formed 
by dropping f)c ire, the terminatioii of the 3rd pers. plur. Atm., and 
substituting WH dna. 

wq[fft babhUvirS — Wfffm babkdvdnd^ 
^9fi<t^ chakrirS — ^nm chakrdnu^ 
ffp^ dadiri — ^^nn daddnd^ 
£ 419. The participle present Atmanepada has two terminations, — ifHI 
mdna for verbs of the First Division (§ 295)9 imi dna for verbs of the Second 

In the First Division we may again take the 3rd pers* plur* present Atm., 
drop the termination 1^ nte^ and replace it by ifT^i: mdnai* 

In the Second Division we may likewise take the 3rd pers. plur. present 
Atm., drop the temunation in) ate, and replace it by mtm dna^. 

* The ssme optional forms run through all the Pads and Bha cases. 




Second Diviaion. 
^9^ aunv-dte — ^^r^TfTI wmr-AwfJ 
"mjl^dpnuv^e — ^[T^V[^.dpnuv-dn6i> 
iT^ ianv-dte — flt^M; tanv-^nd^ 
lit^ krtn-dte — nfhlTR: krtn-dnd^ 
^^ ad-dte — W^x ad-dndi 
ispir^ juhv-ate — '^j^rmjuhv-dna^ 
rundh'dte — ^vr: rundh-dnd^ 

First Division. 
bhdvornte — H'^itr: bhdva-mdnai 
g^ tudd-nte — j^HM* tudd-mdnalf, 
. ^Wil divya-^e — ^1«M«IM* divya^mdnai^ 
^it^Si chordya-rUe — ^^frt'WTO: chordycMndiiah 
Pass.^vi^ tudyd-nie — ^^[IPTR: ttidyd-mdnaJ^ 
Caus.tfni^ bhdvdya-nte — m«|i|HM: bhdvdya-mdnah 
Des. "^^ff^bubhUsha-^e — '^f^^f^mibubhiUha'mdnah 
Int, '^t^fick bodkdyd-nte — f^^MHHI bobhUyd-mdnab 

^ 40,0, The participle of the future in the Atmanepada is formed by adding 
ifTfT: mdnaljk in the same manner. 

Hfnoi^ bhavishyd-nte — HDliMm^u; bliavishyd-mdna^ 
iiyik neshyd-nte — ^^'Vliinir: neshyd-^mdnai 
ift9^ totsyd-nte — if^iljJHH: totsyd-mdnah 
^f\|iqi^ edhishyd-nte — ^fv^qviFH: edhishyd-md'oah 

^421. The participles of the present and future passive are formed by 
adding «!T9Tt mdnah in the same manner. 

qnqiJ bhdyd-nte — >|3WR: bhdyd-mdnai. 
^wft budhyd-^e — 'JuiifT'r: budhyd-mdnaf^ 
^^ stuyd-nie — ^{J^HM: stdyd-mdnai^ 
ftlAk kriydrfUe — ^flim«mr: kriyd-mdnak 
HT^ bhdvyd-^e — HT«niFT: bhdvyd-mdna^ 

bhdmshyd-nte — bhdvtshyd-mdi^i 

ndyishyd-nte — ndyishyd-mdnai 
Or like the Part. Fut. Atm. 

The Past Participle Passive tn in t^Iji and the Qerund in WT tvL 

^ 422. The past participle passive is formed by adding ir: tdft or it: nd^ 
to the root. ^ *rf, ipn kfitd^, done, masc, ; ^ kfitd, fem. ; ^ kritdmj 
neut. ^ m, TgHl Mndfj^^ cut. 

This termination ir ia is, as we saw, most opposed to the insertion of inter- 
mediate l[ if so much so that verbs which may form any one general tense 
with or without i( i^ always form their past participle .without it. The number 
of verbs which must insert ^ i before K ta is very small. (^ 332, D.) 

Besides being averse to the insertion of intermediate i( t, the participial 
termination n ia, having always the Ud&tta, is one of those which have a 
tendency to weaken verbal bases. (See ^ 344.) 

^ 423. The gerund of simple verbs is formed by adding pit tvd to the 
root. ^ ^9 ipWT kfitvd, having done. ^ pd, yg^piltva or, from "^JJ^pdii, 
V^mpavitva, having piirified. 

The rules as to the insertion of the intermediate ^ i before pit tvd have 
been given before. With regard to the strengthening or weakening of the 


base^ the general rule is that T^ tvd without intermediate i[ t weakens, with 
intermediate ^ i strengthens the root (Pan. i. 2, 18). It always has the 
Udatta. In giving a few more special rules on this point, it will be con- 
venient to take the terminations 7 ta and m tvd together, as they agree to 
a great extent, though not altogether. 

I. in td^ and nT tv&, with intermediate ^ i. 

§ 434. If TR toft takes intermediate ^ t, it may in certain verbs produce Gu^a. In this 
case the Gul[^t before iWT tvd is regular. 

^ ii^, to lie down, ^ffinrt ^ayitd(t (P&i;l. i. 2, 19) ; ^iftlf^ iayitvi. 

f^^ md, to sweat, ^§K?^! neditd^ or f^nii svinndfi,: ^f^[7VT moeditvi. 

ftr^ midy to be soft, mfy^\ meditdfL : HfljT^ meditvi. 

ftp^ kshvid, to drip, ^^R^ffS kshveditdhj I^Rji^l kshveditva. 

^ dhfisk, to dare, vf^ dkarshitdt^j vA^T dharskitvd. 

^[^jnfish, to bear, Tf^Wt marshitdh (patient), (P&9. i. 2, 30) ; H(Mif I marshitvd. 

^J9il,. to purify, IfftnR pavitdfi (P&a. z. 3, 33) ; V^(fWt pamtvd, from ^jp^ii. See No. 156. 

§ 435. Verbs with penultimate 7 u may or may not take Guna before If ta with inter- 
mediate ^ t, if they are used impersonally. 
l^dy«/, to shine, ^fiifi dyiUitdm or ^ftfici dyotitdmj it has been shining. (P&9. i. 3, 3i.) 

§ 436. If nr tvd takes intermediate ^t, it requires, as a general rule, Gui[ia (P&p. i. 3, 
id), or at aU events does not produce any weakening of the base. ^vrtV, to exist, qfiir^ii 
vartUvd. ^ii^^sranu, to ftdl, lif^ttm sraihsitvd (P&n. i. 3, 33). ^ pd (i. e. ^J^pdn), to 
purify, vfi^n^X pavitvd (PkQ.. i. 3, 33). 

Verbs, however, beginning with consonants, and ending in any single consonant except 
^y or ^o, preceded by l(, ^t or 7, "9 u, take Gu^a optionally (P^^. i. 2, 26) : l^l^dytif, to 
shine, CnfilKII dyotitva or ^Ofrm dyutitvi. The same option applies to jp^tjrish, to thirst ; 
Ip^mmA, to bear; ^S^ibri/, to attenuate (P&n. i. 3, 35) ; fOvni trishitva or llfw^ larshitvi, 

§ 437. Though taking intermediate ^ i, W\ tvd does not produce Gu^a, but, if possible, 
weakens the base, in ^ rud, to cry, ^R(i4l ruditvd(Pkn. i. 3, 8) ; fl^ vid, to know, Dlf^im 
viditvi: ^\mu8h, to steal, >|f9?n mushitvdj Vfffrak, to take, "^ptfiWl gfihitvd j l{Vmfii, 
to delight, ^^SFH mriditvd (Pftn. i. 3, 7); ^ mric?, to rub, •[(qm mriditvdj ^if^gudk, to 
cover, '^Ijl^Ft^ ffudhitvd ; fff9(^klU, to hurt, tftifigF^ kliiitvd : ^vad, to speak, tRjRT 
uditvd; ^r^vof, to dwell, Vf^IRT ushitvd, 

§ 438. Roots ending in '^th or ^j^A, preceded by a nasal, may or may not drop the 
nasal before WT tvd (P&9. i. 3, 33) ; ilf^ifl granthitvd or nftlWT grathitvd, having twisted. 
The same applies to the roots ^^vaiich, to cheat, and ^X^luflch, to pluck (Pftn. i. 3, 34); 
JHmi vaHehitvd or ^fwiT vachitod. 

II. in t^b f^^ 1^ tv4, without intermediate ^ i. 

§ 439. Roots ending in nasals lengthen their vowel before VS tafi and RT ^0^ (P&n. vi. 4, 
15)* ^^^am, to rest, l^lfin ddntdh, ^ifr^l idntvd, 

llf\^kram, to step, may or may not lengthen its vowel before riT tvd (P&n. vi. 4, 18). 
Hl^ kram, nhd krdntdh, aIi^I krdntvd or 4v^ krantvi; also Wflfrm kramitvd. 

§ 430. The following roote, ending in nasals, drop them before Wt /aA and nT ^^. (P&9. 
VI. 4, 37-) 


ip[yam, to check, inR yatd^, liWT yaivd*; X^^ram, to sport, TSU ratdft, TSWX ratvdj 1*^ nam, 
to bendy IflH natd^, "^^naivas ^ han, to kill» ipfl haidf^^ l^ilt haJtoi: f^^aniy to 
go, TIR ^o/iA, ^f^gatvaj ^9^^man, to think, TIR matd^, ^i(fW\matvdj ^F^voHy to 
ask ; in(fan, to stretch, HIH tatdfi, HUT toWy and the other yorbs of the Tan class, 
ending in 9(«. 

Note — Of the same verbs those ending in 9(fi drop the nasal before the gerundial ^ya 
and insert 1^^; Jf^npramdtya (Pftj^. vi. 4, 38) : those ending in ^m may or may not drop 
the nasal before the gemndial Vya; TPtn pragdtya or TPTf^ pragdmya* 

$ 431. The following verbs drop final ^U9 and lengthen the vowel. 
l|9(ya», to bear, IfHRi^o^, mAXjdtvd: IP^foii, to obtain, iniR#^ajl, ^XS^fdMl: 
^S( khan, to dig, WTIH khdtafky WH^ khdivd. 
I. Roots ending in ^ ohh, or ^9, substitute 9^/ and ^4. (Pft^. vi. 4, 19.) 
V^praehh, to ask, ^^pfishfaf^ ($ 135X ^[f^pn^hfvd; t^cliv, to play, l^«n dj^ibut^ 
a. Roots ending in "^ rehh^ or ^ro, drop their final consonant. (P&9. vi. 4, 3i.) 
f^m«rcAA, to funt, ^^ mdrta^j f^ (uro, to strike, l||k tdn^. 
$ 432. The following verbs diange their ^9 with the preceding or following vowel into 
Btf. (P4n. VI, 4, 20.) 
W^jvoTf to ail, ^I^Jtirna^, ^^hj4rtvdj J^ Ivor, to hasten, ^k ftfr^oA, "^tf tdrtvd: 
%^ mD, to dzy, ^W! nUtaft, ^VT sfiUvdj V^ oo, to protect, ^Rf : Itta^, IKWT ilM^ 
1^mat7, to bind, ^fJH mUtah, ^^^mdivd. 
$ 433. Roots ending in % at substitute IH dj «( (Myat, to meditate, «iifii dkydtaft^ 
vnTVT dhydtvd: or ^ l«* *( ^at, to sing, ^ftin ^o^, 'ftiVT ^f^tf. Final It e and W\ 4 too, 
are changed to %i; ^pd, to drink, ^ItKlpUaft, ^fitWlpUvdj ^dhe^ to suck, ^HwidkUal^ 

f 434. The following roots change their final vowel into l( t . 
?ft do, to cut, f^in ditah, fi^ dUvd (Pft^. vii. 4, 40); ift <o, to finish, f^iR tUah, ftnWf 
titvdj Wlmd, to measure, flunnit^aA, ^fffHrnUvdj Wtttthd, to stand, (VVflt<lii/fl^, 
f^mr sthUvdj VT dM, to place, f^pin i&tfa^ flErVT Ativtf (P&9* viz. 4, 43); ^ A^ to 
leave (ift^ Jdnaf), f^TVT Aifv^ (P&n. vii. 4, 43). 
$ 435* ^ ^0, to sharpen, and ^ cAAo, to cut, substitute ^ t , or take the regular IH d. 
Ifft ioy f^nn Htd^ or ^mR idtd^^ f^RVT it/v^ or IRRT idivd (Pft^. vii. 4, 41). 

$ 436. Exceptional forms : 
^ (24 to give, forms !(1R daitaftf, ^W dattvd (P&9. vii. 4, 46). 
9V^ «pA^» to grow, forms FlEhn ipMaft (P&9. vi. i, 33). 
^slyot, to caU (with Vpra), forms mrhn proMtUait (PA9. vi. i, 33) and VnA^t proiUma^ 

(PA9. viii. 3, 54). 
^^ot, to curdle, forms )|ft^ iitM^, and ^fhnil/a^, cold; but d^^l^l* samiydnaf^, rolled 

up (PA^. VI. I, 34, 35). 
^(V^pydy, to grow, forms iftlRiiliiaA^* but ^fftHtpydnaf^ after certain prepositions (Pft^. 
VI. I, 38). 
( 437. The verbs which take Sampraslbrauoa before Kl to^ and i^ tvd have been mentioned 

* See verbs without intermediate ^ t. (§ 333, 13, and 16.) 

t After prepositions ending in vowels, ^ da may be dropt, and the final ^ t and IT 11 of a 
preposition lengthened. l^piR pradaitat^t mn pratta^ ; ^^ ndattdt^^ ^9X Mtah. 



^ § 393' ^ undergoing the same change in the benedictive and passive, ^^nvach, to 
speaks "9%^ uktafi, "^W uktvd, &c. 

§ 438. Roots which can lose their nasal (§ 345, ^^) lose it before IH tafk and t^tod, W^^ 
troths, to tear, €R7! Mrastah, cnm srasttd. 

But ^K^fAam?, to stride^ forms its gerund ^fS^skantvd, and ^4^«yaiuf, to flow, ^4rWT 
syantvd (P&n. vi. 4> 31), although their f^it is otherwise liable to be lost. Part. ^ORT skannah, 
^m syannaft, 

'H^^nad, to perish, and roots ending in l^y, otherwise liable to nasalization, retain the 
nasal optionally before nT tvd (P&9. vi. 4, 33). 1f^ naihshfvd or vffT nashpod (but only 
'^^.nash^ai); VIRranktvd ot XMXraktvd (but only XXraktaft); H^majj, to dive, iHff 
manktvd or VfW maktvd (P&9. vzi. i, 60). 

^ 439. Causal verbs form the participle after rejecting mr aya ; iimOf 
kdrayaii, iirfbn kdritah, but ^hKDlHIl karayitm. 

$ 440* Desiderative verbs form the participle and gerund regularly; 
f'rtKWr chikirshati, fw^itfftm chikirshital^, f^^AflpfT chikirshitvd. 

§ 441. Intensive verbs Atm. of roots ending in vowels form the participle 
and gerund regularly ; %ivhn^ chekrh/ate, ^nlOmi; chekrtyiiait, ^ftlRfHIl 
chekriyiivd. After roots ending in consonants the intensive ^ y is dropt ; 
'^fWvir bebhidyaiey iHWf^ bebhiditaJ^, ^l^fllKII bebhiditvd. 

Intensive verbs Par. form the participle and gerund regularly; ^f%fl 
charkarti, ^tf^tm charkrita^, ^%ft7IT charkaritvd. 

ft: na^ instead of m talji tn /A« Po^^ Participle. 

§ 442. Certain verbs take Tf: n^f^ instead of 1R tdijk in the past participle 
passive^ provided they do not take the intermediate l( t. 

1. Twenty-one verbs of the Kri class, beginning with ^ Id, to cut^ tgHl 

Idnai (Dhfitup&tha 31, 13 ; P&n. viii. 2, 44). The most important are, 
i{3T: dkdnah^ shaken ; irt^ jtnai, decayed. Some of them come under 
the next rule. 

2. Twelve verbs of the Div class, beginning with ^sd (Dh&tup&tha 26, ^3—35 ; 

Pan. VIII. 2, 45)* The most important are, ^l ddnai^, pained; jftm 
difuif^y wasted ; irhir: prinaiky loved. 

3. Verbs ending in ^r', which is changed into f[^ir or 'm^dr, Wstft^ 

wiP^. stirnahy spread ; "^^X itrna^, injured ; i(Ai din^i^, torn ; ifhft: 
jlrnaljk^ decayed. 

4. Verbs ending m'^d; f^bhid, f^.bhifinal^y broken; f^chhid, fv^t 

chhimu^y cut. But 11^ mad, ^W• mattaj^, intoxicated. In ^ mud, to 
push, f^ vid, to find, and ^ und, to wet, the substitution is optional 
(P&n. VIII. 2, 56) ; gw# nufmafi, or gw: nuttal^. 

5. Verbs which native grammarians have marked in the Dh&tup&tha with 

E e 


an indicatory ^o; ^^bh^i {ti^ bhujOf DMtupfttlia 289 124), to bend, 
^7^ bhugnal^. 

6. Verbs beginning with a double consonant, one of them being a semivowel, 
and ending in ^ <:{, or ^ e, ^ at, ^ 0, changeable to VT <J (Pc^ii* viii. a, 
43) 9 ^ ^^^^ W^* gldnajjk^ faded. Except %!( dhyai^ to meditate, vnin 
dhydtai^ {Pk^. viii. 2, 57) ; WT khyd^ to proclaim, firnn khydtai. In 
^/rat, to protect, i[\ghrd, to smell, the substitution is optional ; ?inn 
/r4na^ or WIK /rd/a^J (P&9. viii. a, 56.) 

7« Miscellaneous participles in tf: na^ : ^^ p4rnaby only if derived from 
^|?dr, and then with an optional form ^[ftin pAriial^ (P&n. vii. 2, 27); 
while the participle of ^pfi is said to be ^ pitrta^ (P&n.yiii. 2, 57) ; 
1l|hin kshinajjky from ftf ^M», to waste ; vsft dydnai, from f^ ifit'^ to 
play, (not to gamble, where it is ^w: dydtai)*; WW* lagna^y from csv^ 
&i^, to be in contact with (Pav.vii, 2, 18); also from '^X^^lajy to be 
ashamed ^ ^fhn ^Jnai^ and 71TR: iydnafk^ coagulated, but ^pftiH if/a$, cold; 
l^hin hrina^ or iftv: hrUah^ ashamed (P&i^. viii. 2, 56). 

§ 443. Native grammarians enumerate certain words as participles which, though by 
their meaning they may take the place of participles, are by their formation to be 
elassed as adjectives or substantives rather than as participles. Thus ^TRS pakvd(t, ripe ; 
^^littshkafk, dry (P& i^ 306); "^[VfilkshdmdhfWe&k; '^f^flkrisdhfihin; U^'\hI prasiimd^, 
crowded; Tg^lphulldh, expanded; 'isflm ksMvdh, drunk, &c. 

§ 444* By adding the possessive suffix "^vat (§ 187) to the participles 
ia jf ta and «T na, a new participle of very common occurrence is formed, 
being in fact a participle perfect active. Thus ^flC. kritdi, done, becomes 
^mn^ kfitdvdn^ one who has done, but generally used as a definite verb, n 
^ ^nm^ sa kaiam kfitavdn, he has made the mat ; or in the feminine ^ 
^in?/^ sd kfitavati, and in the neuter in^K^tat kritavat. They are regularly 
declined throughout like adjectives in "^vat. 

Oerund in ij ya. 

^ 445. Compound verbs, but not verbs preceded by the negative particle 
W a, take ir ya (without the accent), instead of W\ tvd. Thus, instead of 
^fJWtbhdtvdy we find '^St^sambhuya; but wftfiin ajitvd, not having conquered. 

§ 446. Yerbs ending in a short vowel take m tya instead of ^ ya* ftr ji, 
to conquer^ ff(mjitva, having conquered; but f^rf^ra vijitya. '^ bhfi, to 
carry, ijm bkritvd; but wspn sambhritya^ having collected. Except ft| ksM, 
which forms Tf^lffriprakshtya, having destroyed (P&n. vi. 4, 59). 

* Pftn. VIII. 2, 49, allows 1|«T dyHna in all senses of the root 1^ div, except in that of 
gambling; see Dh&tupatha 36, i. ^^ dyiina and m(V.«^ paridyHna, pained, come from 
a different root, fi^clt9> to pain^ Dhfttup&tha 33, 51. 



§ 447. Causative bases with short penultimate vowel, keep the causative suffix 1R^ ay 
before ITya (P&n. vi. 4, 56) : ^^^^fiX sangamdyati, H^lPn sanffomdyya, having caused to 
assemble. Otherwise the causative suffix is, as usual, dropt : n 14.44 fn tdrdyati, THnApratarya, 
having caused to advance. ITHnifif prdpdyati forms im prdpya and HHI^ prdpdyya, 
having caused to reach (Pft^. vi. 4, 57). 

i 448. The verbs called ^ ghu (§ 393 *), ^ md, to measure, ^HT Mthd, to stand, TT gd, to 
sing or to go, ^|i^, to drink or to protect, fT hd, to leave, ^ to, to finish, take W d, not 
^ i (PA^ VI. 4, 6^), 1^ do, to cut, IWJR avaddya ; FIT sthd, U^JM prasthdya. But VJpd, 
to driqk, may form hhim prapdya or Vl^f\li prapiya (SAr.). 

§ 449. Verbs ending in ^ m, which do not admit of intermediate l( i, may or may not 
drop their 'Tm. Ex. "^f^nam, to bow, Vflf^ prandmya or Hmnprcu^tyaj V^gam, to go, 
WRTV^T dgdmya or VMIM dgdtya. Other verbs ending in nasals, not admitting of intermediate 
^t, or belonging to the Tan class, always drop their final nasal. Ex. ^«(Aan, H^nprahdtyaj 
HH tan, Hnn pratdtyaf, ^R{^khan and ^^jan form ^Rl hhdnya or WHT khdya, W^jdnya 
or ^T^jdya, 

§ 450. Verbs ending in ^fl change it to i|t ir, and, after labials, into '9(^4r. Ex. 1%iAm 
vUiryOj having crossed; V||[l sampdrya, having filled. 

§ 451. Certain verbs are irregular in not taking SamprasAra^a. Thus % ve, to weave, 
forms Hms pravdyaj mjjyd, to fail, fMvlf R vpajydya; ^vye, to cover, mPlpravydya, 
but after Vtftpari optionally Vf'fyi^ parivydyn or h?k^\m parimya (PA9. vi. i, 41—44). 

§ 453. Some verbs change final ^ t and \i into WJ d. Thus ^i mi, ^Hif^ mindti, he 
destroys, and fk mi, ftf«ftflT mindti, he throws, form f«RPT nimdya; ^ di, to destroy, T^^HI 
vpaddya; ^ li, to melt, optionally t^^X^vildya or f^ti\^t3il%ya (PAn. vi. i, 50-51). 



Verbal Adjectives in inq: tavyah (or tavySh), ^V^fhc aniya^, and 1K yafe 

(or y5h and yah). 

^ 453. These verbal adjectives (called Kritya) correspond in meaning to the 
Latin participles in nduSy conveying the idea that the action expressed by the 
verbs ought to be done or will be done. ^vS«n kartavyah, in?ir)in karantya^y 
^smh kdryaff. %, iaciendus. Ex. ii^^iRT W^: dharmas tvayd kartavyai^ right 
is to be done by thee. 

t Versus memorialis of these verhs : <ft3ft*fHl ^ftrCg^jniT ffWftf; I W^ ^BTO ftplf 

^^♦^ ^ "fg ?^ T^ " 

X Another suffix for forming verbal adjectives is liPrW: eUma^, which is, however, of 
rare occurrence; Vl^pach, to cook, ^ftWT m^ll packelimd mdshdf^, beans fit to cook; 
fn^fcOT; hhidelvnah, brickie, fragile. (P&n. iii. i, 96, vftrt.) 

£ e 21 




§ 454. In order to form the adjective in m: tavyal^, take the periphrastic 
future, and instead of WT td put mt tavya^. 

Thus ^ (2tf, to give 
M^ai, to sing 
ftf j», to conquer 
^bh4, to be 
^ Aft, to do 
^jr<, to grow old 

flff^ kshvid, to 


^f^AfwA, to draw 

Jf[nn ddtd 
Hftnn hhavitd 


^[TmS ddtdvyah ^fHl^ ddnfyah \m dfya^ 

«iin^t gdtavyah VT^ftm gdaniydh ^Nb ^«ya^ 

^rfrW^: ^AaWf ooyo^ H^«11^ bkmantyai, H^6Aaoya$ 

"^iW^: ikar/avya^ 4ilUl^« kara^iya^ WThI kdryaf^ 

^ fXri <M: jaritavyali WfJthUljarai^iyah W^^jdryalt 

kshveditavyafL kshvedaniya^ kshvedyafi 

wtf^nn bodhiid ih fM A m hodhitaoya^ ^ ^ hI ^ • bodhaniyah '^ft^mbodkyaft 

WVTor'flRT^ ^ii^orllSf^^ ^Q^lfl ^« karsha^yah '^f^kfiskyah* 

9 '^ Am cA^ytosqueeze ^(^in kuchitd ^f^A^i; kuchitavyah ^^tO^t ^ucAanlyaA ^piftihtci^a^^ 

fH^im A, to sprinkle ^?n mc^ 
Tl^^^ram, to go itiTT ^aii<^ 

"flF (H^^ to see 

ifs^ (^973/, to bite 

Cans. HT^ftWipay, to 
cause to be 

l>eB.^^f!!{bubhdsh, to 
wish to be 

Int. ^t^^bobMy 



'fWX drashfd 
^frr damshfd 






J|<I*|I gantavyah 
7J|[f^ drashtavyc^ 
^S^* damshfavyafi 


'T^vftin mehaniyah ^Ht meAy o^ 
<i«i«flM« gamaniyafk ^T^mgamyah 
^[^fiftm darsaniyafi '^^If! driiyah 
^91 vO M: dam^afUyaJlk '^^pCdantfyaf^ 





















$ 455' I>^ order to form the adjective in ^nfhn aniyab^ it is generally 
sufficient to take the root as it appears before ipq: tavyaj^^ omitting, however, 
intermediate !^ t, and putting X[^(tm aniyaJ^ instead. Guna-vowels before 
^Bn^)in aniyaik have, of course, the semivowel for their final element, and 
there can be no occasion for the intermediate ^ t. The V^ ay of the 
causative and the 11 ^ after consonants of intensives and other derivative 
verbs are, as usual, rejected, '^budh, iftmrfk bodhayati^ ^^^^X bodhani- 
yaf^ ; f^ bhidy iH^nn^ bebhidyate, itfk^9(tm bebhidaniyaJ^ 

§ 456* In order to form the adjective in in ya^ {WH^wat^ &c.) it is 

^ karshfd or krashtd, ^ karshfavyah or krctshfavyali, ' § 456, 3. 

^ Never takes Gu^a (§ 345, note), except before terminations which have ^ tI or ^ ». 
This termination is ^PT ^lya/. 

-$ 45<5. VBKBAL ADJECTIVES. 213 

generally sufficient to take the adjective in mftin aniyah and to cut off W^ 
ant Thus Wf^ft^X bhav-ani-^faj^ becomes H«|: bhavyai; ^^infhv: chet-ani-yal^, 
^trni chetyah; ^ipfhK vay-anUyaJ^, nm veyaj^; ^wtv^Ain bodh-ant-yahy wtui: 
bodkyaj^, A few more special rules, however, have here to be mentioned : 

1. Final iTT a, ;^ e, ^ ai^ ift Oy become ^ e. ^ dd^ to give, ^ deyaJ^; 

fiffai, to sing, himgeyai^. (P4^. in. i, 98; VI.4, 65.) 

2. Final ^i and f^t take Gupa, as before wn(\iiantya; f9i Jiy ^Ijeya^, to 

be conquered, different from i|vn Jayyctik, conquerable ; ft| kahi^ to 
destroy, i|i|: ksheyaf^^ different from '^uc kahayyaik^ destructible (P&9. 
VI. I, 81). Final V u and 9 i2, under the same circumstances, are 
changed to w^ av, or, after ^R^ avaiya, when a high degree of 
necessity is expressed, to w^ dv; H^v: bhavyai^ or VCf^ilMlvi: avaiya^ 
bhdvyaJ^ ; ft^ ^S^^^*^ ^^^ viprena hichind bhdvyam^ a Br&hman must 
be pure. Final T t« if it appears as 'nuv before V?^ aniya^ appears 
as ^tf before ^ya; ^igu, to sound, r^jif^i^ guvanlyay ^gUya. 

3. Final ^ fi and ^fl before in ydfki hut not before W^rtin aniyai^, take 

Yriddhi instead of Guna. wAl kdryai^ ; vAi pdryaJ^, (P6n. in. i, 
lao, 124.) 

4. Penultimate ^ fi, which takes Gupa before WPffm aniyal^, does not take 

Guna before in ya^, with few exceptions ; ^w: vfidhyai, ^^^ dfUyaf^ 
(Pan. III. I, no). But ^^jf, to do, forms W^ht kalpyah; ^|f^ckf%t, to 
kill, ^: chartyai {Pk^. in. i, no) ; tp^t^-t^A, to sprinkle, ^: vrishya^ 
or ^n4: varshyai^ (P&n. in. i^ 120). Penultimate ^ff becomes ^ Jr; 
ifT^ krtt, iA#: ktrtyah* 

5. Penultimate ^t and w take 6u9a before in ya^, as before mAin antyai; 

f^ vid, ^v: vedyai^ ; ^ it<«A, ^fN: ioshyai. 

6. Penultimate iv a, prosodially short, before in yal^, but not before mftin 

aniyaJ^y is lengthened, unless the final consonant is a labial (P&p. in. 
I, 98; 124); ^has, to laugh, "fmi hdsyai; '^^vah, nm: vdhyal^. 
But ^^op, to curse, ^(pilt iapyah; isvf^labh, W^l labhyaJ^, The m a 
remains likewise short in ^[R9: iakyai^ from ira iak, to be able ; in 
^Hn^aAya/l, from m^ah, to bear (P&n. in. i, 99), and some other verbs*. 
^(^khan forms Win kheyah (Pft?. in. i, in), which, however, may be 
derived from ^ khai^ to dig ; f^han^ ^vn vadhyal^ or ^QTTV: ffhdtyai. 

* P&nini (iii. i, 100) mentions only iW^fl^^i ^ f^ad, ^^char, iWyam, if used without 
preposition. The S&rasvatt (in. 7, 7) includes among the S^ak&di verbs, ^1^ iak, W^ sahj 
Vi^gad, ^^mad, ^t^char, IWyom, IHi/aiir, l[|^/a«, ^PH^chat, in^^yfl/, Hl^pa/, IP^jcm, 


§ 457. The following are a few derivatives in m yafi, formed against the general nilea: 
^ guhy to hide, may form ^^Iguhyak or WVn: gohyd^ (P&n* m* I9 109, K^ik&); ^W/ufA, 
to cherish, ^^iiuAya^; JX^gTaK to take> ^TVI gftkyahy alter Vfll j^rafi and vfw 
api; '^vad, to speak, TVt mdyatLt in composition (Pit?, iii. i, 106; 114. TIVtVT 
Mm hrahmodyd kathd, a story told hy a Br&hman); ^bM, to he, ^bMiya, in 
composition (P&9. iii. i, 107. MH^ TVt brahmabh4yamyatafL,9!myed at Brahmahood); 
'^^n^/(E29, to role, f)(r>n ashy all, pupil. 

We find 1^ t inserted before ^ yah, in analogy to the gerunds in '^ ya, in the following 

verbs : 
^ t, to go, ^?n ityafi; ^ stu, to praise, ^m* stutyahj ^[^vrt, to choose, ^TH vfityah; 
^ dfi, to regard, ^^ djityahj 1} 6Af-i, to bear, l|W: bhrityaftj ^ kri, to do, ^fVR 
krityaft. But many of these forms are only used in certain senses, and must not be 
considered as supplanting the regular verbal adjectives. Thus ^JVI guhydfi and 
Wt^ gohyafi, both occur; ^H. duhyaft and ?(l!fn dohyaft, &c. 

§ 458* Verbs ending in ^ cA or ^ j change their final consonant into V ib or >? ^ if the 
following ^ ya {i^yat) requires the lengthening of the vowel. Vi^pach^ ^^ pdkyamj ^11 
bhuj, to enjoy, hM bhogyam, but ^Jtilf bhqjyam, what is to be eaten (Pft^. vii. 3, 69), 

There are, however, several exceptions. Verbs beginning with a guttural do not admit 
the substitution of gutturals. Likewise the following verbs : V{^yaj, VlP^^ydeh, ^^ruch, 
W^ pracaeh, ^l^n'cA, W^tyaj, Y^P^J^ f^^i> Jt^^vraj9 'ii^^vaflch (to go). Thus 
W^^^yH^yam, ^^^ydchyoMy ^^nrochyam, Um^pra9dchyam,W^arehyatn, mtn ty^jyam, 
^^p^'yam (P)«kriylL«Kaumadt, p. 55 b), 

If^nitive in ^ turn. 

§ 459. Hie infiDitive is formed by adding 4 turn, which hsB no accent. 
The base has the same form as before the WT ta of the periphrastic fixture^ or 
before the imn idvyai of the verbal adjective. ^ budhf ^tfi^ bifdhitum. 
(See § 454.) Ex. ^ni ^ mrfv kfUhistam drashfuin vrafati, he goes to see 
Kriahpa; )jt^ ^iTcR bhoktum kdla^, it is time to eat 

Verbal Adverb, 

§ 460. By means of the unaccentuated sub£x if am^ which, as a general 
rule, is added to that form which the verb assumes before the passive ^ i 
(3rd pers. sing. aor. pass., ^ 403), a verbal adverb is formed. From ^ bhiff, 
to eat, (jhi bkdjam ; firom ^ pd^ to drink, vm payam. Ex. n^ )dir inrAr 
agre bhojam vrajati, having first eaten, he goes. This verbal adverb is most 
. j^quently used twice over. Ex. h^ ijtif inrf^ bhdfam bhojam vrajati, having 
eaten and eaten, he goes (Pa^, iii. 4, 22). It is likewise used at the end of 
compounds; IhNnt ^t;au2AaAA:(2ram, having divided ; 9€;4ill uchchaij^kdram, 

-§ 4^2. CAUSATIVE VERBS. 215 



^ 461. Simple roots are changed into causal bases by Guna or Yriddhi 
of their radical vowel, and by the addition of a final l^ t. The root is then 
treated as following the Bh4 class, so that j^i appears in the special tenses as 
mn ay a. Thus ^bhil becomes KTfll bhdvi and Hmflr bhdvdyath he causes to 
be ; iji^ budh becomes wtfW bodhi and ^fhfivflr bodhdyati, he causes to know. 
The accent is on the d of dya. 

§ 462. The rales according to which the vowel takes either Guna or Vjiddhi are as 
follows : 

1. Final ^t and ^1, V« and 9tf, ^ p and ^ff take Vriddhi. 
Thus f^ 9fni, to laugh, WPHthf smdyayatif he makes laugh. 

f|ft ni, to lead, niH^rn ndyayati, he causes to lead. 
TXplu, to swim, H I ^ l| fff pldvayaii, he makes swim. 
^6M, to be, HT^nrfir bhdvayatiy he causes to be. 
^ kfi, to make, WTt^Vflf kdrayati, he causes to make. 
V kfi, to scatter, lIK^lOl kdrayati^ he causes to scatter. 

2. Medial ^i, V«, ^fif'^li, followed by a single consonant, take Qu^a; ^ri becomes 

Thus f^ffid, to know, Mf^^dt vedayati, he makes know. 

W^6im2A, to know, WtV^OfiT bodhayati, he makes know. 
^11 Ap/, to cut, linllOl kartayati, he causes to cut. 
f(kfip, to be able, 4<!M4f)l kalpayati^ he renders fit. 

3. Medial V a followed bj a single consonant is lengthened, but there are many exceptions. 

^ sad, to sit, ^i^^iPn sddayati, he sets. 
V\pat, to M, ^nnAf pdtayaH, he fells. 

Exceptions : 
I. Most verbs ending in W^om do not lengthen their vowel : 
f^^ram, to go, ^•t^fn ffomayatij he makes go. 
W^kram, to stride, TPHVflf kramayati, he causes to stride. 

Verbs in IPl^am which do lengthen the vowel are, 
V^itom, to desire, Wt^mi kdmayate, he desires; Cans. WV^fif Mnoya/t, he makes 

^PVam, to move, WlPdl amati, he moves ; Cans. HW^lPil dmayati, he makes move. 
"^cAom, to eat, ^^mflf ehamatiy he eats ; Cans. ^IH^Ol chdmayaU, he makes eat. 
I|n/aiii, if it means to see, IHMlHl ddmyoH, he sees ; Cans. l^W^Al ddmayoH, he shows ; 

but ^nnifViamayafi, he quiets. 
'^yam, unless it means to eat, '^^ifiKyaehchhati; Caus. MmH^n ydmayati, he extends; 

but ll'Rifif yamayati, he feeds. 




V{^nam, to bend, optionally lengthens its vowel if it is used without a preposition; 

nmHPn ndmayati or nnMOi namayati, he bends. If preceded hj a preposition, the 

vowel always ought to remain short (Dh. P. 19, 67). 
^^vam, to vomit, optionally lengthens its vowel if it is used without a preposition; 

mnnin vdmayaH or i^i^ifli vamayatiy he makes vomit. If preceded by a preposition, 

the vowel always ought to remain short (Dh. P. 19, 67) *» 
II. A class of verbs collected by native grammarians, and beginning with ^ gha^ (Dh. P. 

19, i), do not lengthen their vowel. The same verbs may optionally retain their short 

vowel in the 3rd pers. sing, aorist of the causative passive (§ 405)* The following list 

contains the more important among these verbs ; 


1. ^^gha(f to strive 

2. ^n|[ vyathy to fear 

3. TC^prath, to be famous 

4. ^ mrad, to rub 

5. W{hrap, to pity 

3rd Pers. Sing. Pres. Pfer. 3rd Pers. Sing. Aor. Passive. 

xrnriw ghatayati 
'nnrfir vyatkayatt 
inwflf prathayati 
^^^rfll mradayati 
HWrfH krapayati 
r^nrftl tvarayati 

6. iW^ tvati to hurry 

7. W^i^ar, to bum with fever WOrfll jvarayati 

8. vl? nof, to dance «17^rfif nafayati 

9. in^iiraM, tokill 
10. ^Plf^van, to act t 
zi. Wc^y^a/, to shine t 
13. ^ wiri, to regret 

^ITRfir haikayaH 
H^nMfif pravanayati 
Hiicl^UI prajvaktyati 
vi^mIii smarayati 

13. ^ dri, to respect, (not to tear) ^X?lfTf darayati 

14. W M, to boil Wnrfk hapayati 

15. ^jMy to slay, to please, to %^hh^ jliapayati 

sharpen (?), to perceive 

16. ^IH chal, to tremble "^coHfn chalayati 

1 7. IV^ mad, to rejoice, &c. Hq^fh madayati 
18. 19^ dAran, to sound, to ring SIpnTfll dhvanayaii 

19. |[c^ dalf to cut 

30. ^TT^ valy to cover 

31. Wft^skhal, to drop 

33. W^trap, to be ashamed 
33. ^ kshai, to wane 

W^ft or WUrfir aghafi 
tH'^lftr or H'Mlftl ttvyatki 
VII P(| or Vnrftf aprathi 
HVf^ or VWf^ amradi 
Wnf^ or Vnrftl aibr^M 
Wfft or in^rft a/rart 
V^iVft or m^lf^ o/vori 
Wiff? or W«nf7 anafi 
W^fftl or IWnftl aprathi 
inwftr or HPnftf pr^om 
Hl'Ufci or UmittA pr^^vaU 
UWftlor Umifi oMfiart 
V^IV or "viqitV. aclart 
tnjft? or WIlfM ah-api 
Vffff^ or V^jJlPM tnjfiapi 

W^ffty or H^llVft acAa/t 
Wffif or VHlD^ amitft 
mC|f«T or VS^rfH adhvemi 
W^f^ or V^rf^ adaU 
"w^fco or V^lPcft flci/t 

^fft'^Ol dalayati (optional) 

«ico*ifil valayati (optional) 

HMfi^Ql skhalayati (optional) VWfcV or Vlill(c4 askhaU 

^IMMPh trapayati V?lft or ^c^iPh aM/» 

"Bpnifll kshapayati V^ftl or W^tft? akalupi 

* Dhfttupfttha 19, 67. HW 3|W 1R5 "iWf V«}M4l'll8l (fNl^) 
^4P<iM4(l||l|inV^III UUKmyiUl). It seems indeed that the verbs without prepositions 
only, are optionally nUt (i.e. short-voweled), while with prepositions they are mil, and 
nothing else. See, however, Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, p. 317, note. 

t Without a preposition, and optionally with a preposition. See note '*'. 

-$4^3' CAUSATIVE VEKBS. 217 

24. 'fFf^jan (Div), nasci W^r^janayati ^niftf otW^tfH ajini 

^5* \JJi (P^^)> *o ff^^ old m?fflljarttyati 'Wift Of ^WltVflrfori 

26. tl^roiiy (Bh^),to hunt, to dye* TSPlfil orX^ rajayati or ratija- WCftf or WOf^araji 

^7' JP y^t or flfflai, to fiide J^'lflf or JJ^Rft g^ayati '■JjIV or ^•JfTPj ojrKipt 

a8. HT «i4 1, to waah imfll or WnPlfll sruqfoyati ^Wlftl or HHlfVl (UN^pi 

39. ^ rant, to cherish ^^Hlfll or ^M^PlI vanayati ^nf^ or Wnftf avani 

30. in^pAof^, to go 'QRRfilor MIIQ 4 ni(?)pAa(iaya<f WiAf or V mRu c^MOfi 

Note — Some of these yerhs are to be considered as mt7, i. e. as having a short vowel in 
the causative, if employed in the sense given above; while if they occur again in other 
sections of the DhAtup&t^^a and with different meanings^ they may be conjugated likewise as 
ordinary verbs. 

§ 463. Some verbs form their causative base anomalously : 

I. Nearly all verbs ending inwjd^ and most ending in ^e, ^ai, ^o, change- 

able to ^mdf insert \p before the causal termination, (Pftn. vii. 3^ 36.) 
Thus ^ddj to ffye, ^^rfk daddti, he gives ; ^nPlflr ddpayati^ he causes 
to give. 
'^ de^ to pity, ^1^ day ate ^ he pities ; ^HRflr ddpayati, he causes pity. 
?^ do, to cut^ ^rfir ddti or vfir dyaii, he cuts ; ^nPlflr ddpayati, he 

causes cutting. 
^ dai, to purify^ ^J^hf ddyati, he purifies ; ^T^irftr ddpayatiy he causes 
to purify. 

II. Other irregular causatives are given in the following list. Their irregu- 

larity consists chiefly in taking \p with Qnr^B, or Vriddhi of the radical 
vowel ; sometimes in lengthening the vowel instead of raising it to Gu^a ; 
and firequently in substituting a new base. 

1. I( «9 to go, in ^r^ adhlte, he reads ; Cans, mimnvflr adhydpayati, he 

teaches {. {Fin. vi. i, 48.) 

2. '^tiyU>go,'^^imfkrichchhati; Cans. v^^aTT^firya/t^he places. (P&9,vii.3y36.) 

3. jf^{knily,iow)\mdyjgf}fi(knilndti; Caus.iJt^^Avu^paya/tyhecausestosound. 

4. nft kri, to buy, nftarflr krif^i; Cans. jfVP^ krdpayati, he causes to buy. 
5* ^rr^ kshmdyy to tremble, T^rniT^ k^hmdyate ; Caus. ^gn^nflf kshmdpayati, 

he causes to tremble. (P&n. vii. 3, 36.) 

* If the causative means to hunt, the «^ » is rejected; ill ^ Hi ^TTv^ rajayati ffifigdn, 
he hunts deer; iirnfir ^^l(Vl rafijayoH vastrdi^i, he dies clothes. We may also form 
trtftf flrait/t, but W?:tftf ardHJi is wrong, Wlil^'^M^MIHl^tl ^^lllll): (iH® %> i» ^|). 

t With a preposition, but optionally without a preposition. The usage of the best 
writers varies, and Indian grammarians vary in their interpretation of Dhlltup&tha 19, 67-68. 
See note (on preceding page). 

X wa + ^prati-^ifto approach, forms its causal regularly when it means to make a person 
understand, HrnHH^prcOydyayati, Otherwise the causative of l(t is formed from l^^^am. 



6, f^ chif to collecty finfrfk chinoti; Caus. ^vninfir cAdpayati, or regularly 

ifT^^Tfir chdyayati, he causes to collect. (Pin. vi. i, 54.) 
7. 1^ chho, to cut, 'Wthf chhyati ; Caus. KPRfk chhdyayaii^ he causes to cut* 
8. W^jdgri^ to be awake, HfUtf^jdgarti; Caus. mtlK^i'iijdffarayati^ he rouses. 
9- f^Jiy to conquer, "Wffi^jayati; Caus. ^^T^^jdpayatiy he causes to conquer* 

10. (^fic^T daridrd, to be poor, ^frjrfir daridrdti ; Caus. ^flcjf'rfiC daridrayatiy 

he makes poor. 

11. ^M^irfA^, to shine, ^hfll^€?£{/AI/«; Caus.?fh|iTfff^t^Aaya/t,he causes to shine. 
17,. ^lH^dttsh^ to sin, ^v|f^ dushyati ; Caus. {[V^fir ddshayati, he causes to sin ; 

also ^hnrftr doahayati, he demoralizes. (PUn. vi. 4, 91.) 

13. \dhHy to shake, >{«ftfv dhdnoii; Caus. ^«Hfif dMnayati, he causes to shake. 

14. ^j9<!^, to drink, frwflK pibati ; Cbms. Jippifff pdyayatiy he causes to drink; 

also %pai, VX^ pdyatiy to be dry. 

15. v^ pdy to protect, V[\f^ pdti; Caus. 'qicV^fv jt^d/aya^i, he protects. 

16. ittpri, to love, ifhonfw/Tr J(id^2 ; Caus. lAnRftr/TrJnaya/f, he delights. 

17. vr^Mrajt;, to roast, ipffv bhrijjati; Caus. WRfw bhrqjjayati, he makes 

roast, or Hllilfir bharjjayatiy from vp^ dAry. 

18. )A Mf, to fear, f^iHfir bibheti; Caus. tvnnn^ bhdpayate or Whnii^ bhtshaytUe^ 

he frightens; also regularly ^THRflf bhdyayatu (Pan. vi. i, 56.) 

19. fir miy to throw, finftfir minotiy and lift mf, to destroy, rHHlHl mindtiy form 

their Caus. like HT md. 
aa T!t rf, to flow, or to go, iflini riyate; Caus.\iniffT repayati, he makes flow, 
ai. ^ ruhy to grow, O^fd rohati; Caus. ^firfir rohayati, t^Rfir ropayati^ 

he causes to grow, (P&n. vii. 3, 43.) 

22. r^/^, to adhere, fc!nnf)r/ini/t and c^tir?^%a/e; Cau8.cA^fi|fiT/fmiya/t,c9nRflI 

Idpayatij and cVHRfir Idyayati; and, if the root takes the form cST /^, also 
cAlceiiffl ldlayati{J?&x)..v\i. 3,39). The meaning varies;,48;5i. 

23. ^t'^i, to blow, ^rfirt^d/i; Caus. ^T«nrfk va/aya^i, if it means he shakes. 

24. ^ vf, to obtain, ^fk ve^t ; Caus. ^qirfw vdpayati or ^T^nvfir vdyayaii, if it 

means to make conceive. (P&n. vi. i, 55.) 

25. ^ve, to weave, '^f^fnvayati; Caus. ^nnrfwvdyaya/i, he causes to wea^e. 

26. ^wiveviy to conceive, ^^fft vevtie; Caus. ^^iffir vevayati. 

27. 'ft rye, to cover, iqirflwyaya/i; Caus. ^Pitimhfvydyayatiy he causes to cover. 

28. ^ r/^, to choose, f^pirfH v/ind/i; Caus. ^^nvfir vlepayati, he causes to choose. 

29. ^ Jorf, to fiJl, ^{fhnr iiyate; Caus. ^rnnrAl idtayati, he fells ; but not, if 

it means to move. (P&n. vii. 3, 42.) 

30. ^io, to sharpen, 'pififiyati; Caus. ^rnrafir jdyaya/t, he causes to sharpen. 

31. few sidh, to succeed, f^rvrfw sidhyati; Caus. ?nv^rfir addhayaiiy he performs ; 

but ^Virflf sedhayaii, he performs sacred acts. 

32. Bt sOy to destroy, ^qfir ^a/i ; Caus. ^nnriii sdyayati, he causes to destroy. 

^§4^6. CAUSATIVE VBHBS. 219. 

33'^^9phur, to sparkle^ ^^fdif sphurati ; Caus. fiWiiiPA sphdrayati and 
^CM(ii aphorayati, he makes sparkle. 

34. ^^Bif^spMyt to grow, cqnv aphayate; Caus. micfiiPff sphdvayatif he causes 

to grow. 

35. f^smi, to smile, w^smayate; Caus. 9inni^ smdpayate, he astonishes; 

also wuniht atndyayatiy he causes a smile by something. (P& i, 57.) 

36. ^ hriy to be ashamed, ftf^ Jihreti ; Caus. ^vmfH hrepayati, he makes 

ashamed. (P&i;i« vii. 3, 36.) 

37. % hvBy to call, spirfk hvayati; Caus. SfPHTflr hvdyayatiy he causes to call. 

38. ^Aan, to kiU, fflKhanti; Caus. ^nnyflr^Ad/aya/i, he causes to kill. 

§ 464. As causative verbs are conjugated exactly like verbs of the Chur 
class, there is no necessity for giving here a complete paradigm. Like Chur 
verbs they retain v^^ ay throughout, except in the reduplicated aorist and 
the benedictive Parasmaipada ; and they form the perfect periphrastically. 
The only difficulty in causative verbs is the formation of their bases, and the 
formation of the aorist. Thus ^ Aft, as causative^ forma Pres. Par. and Atm. 
HKirfir, ^, kdrayati, -te; Impf. ^trsnXTn^, °W, akdrayaty -ta; Opt. ^vn^, % 
kdrayet, -ta ; Imp. 4iKi(^, °ilt, kdrayatu, -idm ; Red. Perf. WPTvN^iTCy ^^^, 
kdraydnchakdray -chakre ($ 34:^) ; Aor. W^lWi.!^, °W> achikarat, -ta ; Fut 
^Kni^uOl, °T^, kdrayUhyati, -te; Cond. WBnxAnm^, % akdrayishyat, -ia; 
Per.Fut.WTTf'mkdrayiid; Ben. wAl^kdrydt ; <»l J^Hl f kdrayishUhfa. 

^ 465. If a causative verb has to be used in the passive, ^TQ ay is dropt (^ 399)9 
but the root remains the same as it would have been with ^P^ay . Hence Pres. 
iiT$i^ kdryatey he is made to do ; ^xq^ ropy ate, from ^ ruh, he is made to 
grow. The imperfect, optative, and imperative are formed regularly. The 
per&ct is periphrastic with the auxiliary verbs in the Atmanepada. 

^ 466. In the general tenses, however, where the ^ ya of the passive 
disappears (^ 401), the causative iffi^ ay may or may not reappear, and we 
thus get two forms throughout (see Colebrooke, p. 198, note): 

Fut. ^T^f^n^ bhdvayishye or HffW bhdviskye. 
Cond. ^(^i([^!hA abhdvayishye or ^i^iv^ff^abhdvishye* 
Per. Fut. ^ImDiiIIC bhdvayitdhe or HT^nn^ bhdviidAe. 
Ben. HN(^4)M bhdvayishiya or HlfVmli^ bhdvishiya. 
First Aor. 1. 1. p* wrrsifirf^ abhdvayishi or ^mrf^lfil abhavishi. 

2. p. ^nrrd^rvr: abhdvayishfhdi^ or ^raif^: abhdvishfhd^. 
3* p. ^nnff abhdvu 

F fa 




§ 467. Deslderative bases are formed by reduplication, the pecidiarities 
of which will have to be treated separately, and by adding ^« to the root. 
Thus firom ^bM^ to be, '^gff^liibhilsh, to wish to be. Hie accent is on the 
reduplicative syllable. 

j 468. These new bases are conjugated like Tud roots. 'J^[]m1^ bubhd^ 
$hamiy "J^ITlftl btsbhUshasi, ^[^wfir bubhUshatiy '^iJPm buAhdshdvaiy &c. 

j 469. The roots which take the intermediate ^ i have been given before 
($ 33i> 340), as well as those which take intermediate %i. Thus firom fti^vuf, 
to know, fq Pi n^ 1^ vividishy to wish to know; from Ittri, to cross, fwKfK^titarish 
or finrd^^titartshy to wish to cross. 

§ 470. As a general rule, though liable to exceptions, it may be stated that bases ending 
in one consonant may be strengthened by Gupa, if they take the intermediate ^ t. Thus 
^diiJA forms yftf^^fil bubodhishatij f^div, Rj^ftHPlI dideviskati: also W kri, f^wft^lfil 
chikarishaH: "^dfi, fij^fblfk didarishati. But f^^ bhid, Des. f^riWnrfir bibhitsati (P&9. i. 
^f ^o)i ^ 9^^f ^S^^' jughukshati (Pftii.vii. 3, 13). In fttct, no Gupa without inter- 
mediate ^t. 

§ 471. But there are important exceptions. In many cases the base of the desiderative 
is neither strengthened nor weakened ; ^ rod, ^^r^^fn rurudiskati. Other bases may 
be strengthened optionally; ^^dyui, (^^Pimn didyutiskate or f^vHlT^ didyotiskaie. 
Certain bases which do not take intermediate l(t are actually weakened ; ^n(,wap, ^jmOi 

I. Verbs which do not take Gu^a, though they have intermediate ^ t. 
^riMi, to cry, ^5^fijwfll rurudiskatij "fll^ wrf, to know, flfftlflj^fil vwidiskaiij ^JW mu$ky 
to steal, If^nmril mumuskiskati, (Plii^. i. 2, 8.) 

3. Verbs which may or may not take Guna, though they have intermediate ^ t. 
Verbs beginning with consonants, and ending in any single consonant, except ^y or ^ v, 
and having ^ t or T ti for their vowel. (Plk^. i. 2, 26,) 

^H^dyut, n^^Pn^n didyutiskate or l^flJtflRn didyotiskate. 
But fl^ div, f^l^Oliini dideviskati or, without ^ t, Jt^Ol dudyiUkati (P^^. vii. 3, 49) ; 
^©fit, f^^fnin vivartiskate or ftpjwfif vtOfitstUi, 

3. Verbs ending in ^t or Tfu, not taking intermediate ^ t, lengthen their vowel; final ^p 
and ^fl become ^^r, and, after labials, ^IR l2r. (Pk^, vi. 4, 16.) 
ft|j», to conquer, ftpft^ftf ii^rfeAort,' ^ yu, to mix, ^^jrfll yuyiiskati. 
TJ ifcfi, to do, f^RMfil ckikirskatij ^ ^, to cross, finrWll titirskati, 
i| mp, to die, •I'j^ffl mum^rskatij ^pri, to fill, ^^(ffi pup4rskati. 
If, however, they take intermediate ^ t, they likewise take Gui;ia. 
ftff smi, to smile, ftimftlMfl sismayiskatej ^|H^, to purify, ftnPWW pipaviskate; 'I ^rt to 
swallow, Oil 'I di^ Ol jigariskati ; ^cfp, to respect, Q{^(V.Hfl didariskate. 



4. ^gam, to go, as a substitute for ^t, to go, and V^han, to kUl, lengthen their vowel 

before the ^« of the desideratiye. (PA9. vi. 4, 16.) 

nf[ffam, ^M^*i\n^ aihijigdmsate, he wishes to read; but ft l ilftnO l jigamtMhaH, he 
wishes to go. 

^Aan, fkl I1I4I Hi jighdmsatiy he wishes to kill. 

5. K^ tan, to stretch, lengthens its yowel optionally. (Pip. v. 4, 17.) 

K^ tan, rnnttiPn titdihsati or fMlrfir titam$atij but also ftnrfVnflr titanishati. (Pk^. 
VII. 3, 49, vArt.) 

6. JR^san, to obtain, drops its ^^n and lengthens the vowel before the \s of the desiderative. 

(Pin. VI. 4, 43.) 

^*(i«, f^m^ifttsishdsatij but ftrafHlff manwAa/t. 

7- V%ffrah, to take, l^.'^^'P, to sleep, and in| p-acAA, to ask, shorten their bases by 
Samprasftra^a. (Pin. i. 2, 8.) 

V^ grah, fU ^ m Qi jighfikshati. JST^nap, If^rf^T muhmptati. 

^{prachh, ni^r^Hfi piprichchhishaH. 

8. The following verbs shorten their vowel to\i before the ^s of the desiderative, inscri 

l{^t (Pin. VII. 4, 54), and reject the reduplication. 

•ft mi (^HSnnUndti, to destroy, and flnfrfk mtno/t, to throw), Des. f^fWfH mitsati. 
>IT md (iflfw mdti, to measure^ (Wik mimite, to measure, IPI^ mayate, to change), Des. 
nnvflf mitsati, fHWw mitsate, 

^ dd {^^ daddti, to give, cI^Jl, Dh. P. 35, 9, <2<f^, Dh. P. 33, 33 ; irfTT dgati, to cut, 
ifo, Dh. P. 36, 39 ; but not ^Tflf cWft, to cut, i2^, Dh. P. 34, 51, because it is not ghu, 
cf» § 392; ^'^ day ate, to pity, <fc», Dh. P. 33, 66\ Des. fipirflrdf^Mlt, fljTVi^ dilMle. 

VT dAi/ (^pnfw dadhdti, to place, Mlrflr dAaya<», to drink), Des. fWnrfir ifAt/solt. 

9. Other desideratives formed without reduplication : 
X^rabh, to begin (V^rabhate), Des. r<.md ripsate, 
W^labh, to take (I^Wff /a5^/e), Des. fl^HIA lipsate. 

^1^ /oA;, to be able (^lltOlia^o^t, Id'WVfir /a^a/t), Des. f^Ufflr ^'ib«Aa/t. 

^^pat, to fall (^l?ilflrpfltah), Des. ftmrfk/yi^satt. 

^|ia(f, to go (^Umpodyate), Des. f'iKWk pitsate, 

^■F^^, to obtain iyfvitht dpnoti), Des. f[^erf)r l|p«ah'. 

IT^ j^flji, to command (yf^'Bfyt j^payati), Des. IjINrfkyillpsa/t. 

^I^^fidtft, to grow (^iftfk fidhnoti), Des. ^I#f)r lr^«ah'. 

I^e2am6ft, to deceive {^fitf^dabhnoti), Des. W^^rfktfMpMft or 6mrf)f JAtpMh'. 

^^^nmch, to free (^^fif mttfEcAa/»)> ^^' ^'VV^^ moibsAa/e or ^p|^(W miiiii«Jb«Aa/tf , he wishes 
for spiritual freedom. 

TT^r^A, to finish (m^hPii rddhyati), Des. H Hi (VlV Hi prati-ritsati, in the sense of injuring 

(Pii?. VII. 4, 54, virt.), otherwise ftjJwHt rirdtsaii (not (XlXjUni riritsati). 

§ 473. Certain verbs which are commonly considered to belong to the Bhti dass are 
really desiderative bases. 

ni^Ari^, r^h«Rin chikitsate^ he cures. ^^ gtg^y ^J|Hlfl Jugvpsate, he despises. 
tV^/y, flffir^^ tUikshate, he bears. TR^ mdn, Hlnt^fl mimdmsate, he investigates. 


W^ badh, ^Hmd hibhatsate, he loathes. ^^^ ddn^ ^^¥ik diddmsate, he straightenB. 
^rr«(i!^, ^1^1 (<in Hidmsate, he sharpens. 

Reduplication in Desideratives. 
§ 473. Besides the general rules of reduplication given in § 302-'3i9*^ 
the following special rules with regard to the vowel of the reduplicative 
syllable are to be observed in forming the desiderative base : 

Radical m a and irT a are represented by ^ « in the reduplicative syllable 
(Pan. VII. 4, 79). 

^^pach, HmUfOl pipakshati ; Tmsthd^ OlVKinr tishthdsati, 

§ 474. ^R^ov and ^Vr^<^> standing as Gui^a or Vfiddhi of radical Tu or Hi 4, are 
represented by ^ t in the reduplicative syllable, provided they be preceded by \py ^ph, 
\b, ^^bh, \fn, \y, ^r, T^Z, ^u, ^j (Pftn. vii. 4, 80). 

^ptf, ftlM 1 4 Hv M Pa pipdvayishati, (Red. Aor. V m1 M^ 4^ apipavat) See § 375. 
^bkH, f^Hl^rwPd bibhdvayishatiy (Red. Aor. ^VWf^^^^iH^abibhavat.) 
^ yu, f^HiHnfn yiyavishati, and Cans. Desid. ffpmf^mfif yiydvayishoH. 
^jv, f^ l| I ^ n^ H Of jijdvayishati, (Red. Aor. V^l! 1| M (^ ajijavat.) 
But ^ flitt, «}«i I ^ (^ H Pit nundvayishati, (Red. Aor. V «|H^ 11 on^naro/.) See § 375 1* 
§ 475. Roots ^snc, to flow, ^^f to hear, Ve^ru, to run, ^pru, to approach, ^pluy to 
swim, ^ cAy«, to fall, may under similar circumstances optionally take ^ t or 7 « in the 
reduplicative syUable. 

^sru, P^I^IMP^hPhi sisrdvayishati or ^ti m P^ N Ph susrdDayishati j but the simple desidera- 
tive ^^^[5^ susrHshati only. 
Wir^ndpay, the Cans, of W^^svttp, forms ^l^vniftniflf sushv^ayishaH, 

j 476. Roots beginning with a vowel have a peculiar kind of internal 
reduplication^ to which allusion was made in § 378. Thus (P4]Ql. vi. i, 2) 
im ai forms iri^9l + ^^ oHi + ishati. 
W^ of forms wft^ + ^^ a^f ^ + ishati, 
WS{^ aksh forms wf^ra^+ ^^ achiksk + ishati. 
^v ttcAcAA forms vf^R^ + ^^ uchichchh + ishati. 

§ 477. If the root ends in a double consonant, the first letter of which is «^f», ^<i, or ^r» 
then the second letter is reduplicated. 

H^arcA, ^Hfiftwft arehich'ishati. ^ und, ^R^P^HPfl undtd-ishati, 

"^^ubjy Trf^fftf^fil ubjij -ishati. 
In ^^lr«Ay the last consonant is reduphcated. 

t]i^l'r«Ay, ^f^OmPlI irshyiy-ishati or ^PftPMMPd irshyish-iskati, (P&9. vi. i, 3, v&rt.) 
In the verbs beginning with Wf^f^ kai^yati (§ 498) the final ^^ is reduplicated. 

ikf^kan^Oy, ^fpHftlMPjl ka^yiy -ishati. 

* Exceptional reduplication occurs in (^^HhPa chikishati, besides fVnA^ill chicMshati, 
from f"f chi (P&n. vii. 3, 58) ; in (^^H^i jighishati from f^ At (PA?, vii. 3, 56), &c. 

^§ 481. INTENSIYB VERBS. 223 



j 478. Intensive^ or, as they are sometimes called, frequentative bases 
are meant to convey an intenseness or frequent repetition of the action 
expressed by the simple verb. Simple verbs, expressive of motion, some- 
times receive the idea of tortuous motion, if used as intensives. Some 
intensive bases convey the idea of reproach or disgrace, &c. 

§ 479. Only bases beginning with a consonant, and consisting of one 
syllable, are liable to be turned into intensive bases. Verbs of the Chur 
class cannot be changed into intensive verbs. There are, however, some 
exceptions. Thus w^ afy to go, though beginning with a vowel, forms 
^VTTBjp) afdtyate, he wanders about ; WS{^ aiy to eat, Vljll^il) aidiyate ; ^ fi, 
to go, W^T^ ardryate and mjF9 ararti (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 2 1 6) ; ^s^ Urnu^ 
to cover, wift|4|) ilrnowdyate (P&v. iii. i, 2%). 

J 480. There are two ways of forming intensive verbs : 
I. By a peculiar reduplication and adding ^ yd at the end. This yd has 

the accent. 
a,. By the same peculiar reduplication without any modification in the final 
portion of the base. The latter form occurs less frequently. It has 
the accent on the reduplicative syllable. 
Bases formed in the former way admit of Atmanepada only. 

Ex. ^IMy Wt^in^ bobhUydte. 
Bases formed in the latter way admit of Parasmaipada only, though^ according 
to some grammarians, the Atmanepada also may be formed. 
Ex. ^iAt2, «itHifiril bdbhaviti or wt^ltfk bdbhotu 
The Atmanepada would be wt^ bobhUte, 

Roots ending in vowels retain the ir ya of the intensive base in the general 

tenses ; roots ending in consonants drop it. Hence ^t^f^nn bobk&yitdy 

but fTt^f^ill sostichitd* (P&;)i. vi. 4, 49.) 

j 481. When J^ya is added, the effect on the base is generally the same 

as in the passive and benedictive Par. (^ 389)- Thus final vowels are 

lengthened: ff chi, to gather, ^NN^ chechiyaie; ^ im, to hear, l(fh{ini 

ioirUyate. irT (i is changed to ^ T- VT dhd, to place, ^^hlir dedhlyate. "^ r' 

becomes ^<r, or, afler labials, '9xAr: \tri, to cross, iCfdi^tetlryate; ^/>r*, 

to fill, ^ft^[^ popHryate. Final ^ r», however, when following a simple 

consonant, is changed to tS r?, not to ft: ri ; ^ kriy to do, ^nifhni chekriyate. 

When following a double consonant it is changed to V^ar: T^smifij to 

224 INTENSIVE VERBS. § 482- 

remember, ^9r9T4lt sdsmaryaie* These intensive bases are conjugated like 
bases of the Div class in the Atmanepada. It should be observed, however, 
that in the general tenses roots ending in vowels retain ^ y before the 
intermediate ^ «, while roots ending in consonants throw off the ^ ya of 
the special tenses altogether. Thus from ^lA^ bobkdya^ wt^jfviCT bobki-y-Ud ; 
from ^fWv bebhidya, ^(Nfl;«i bebhiditd, 

§ 482. When ^ ya is not added, the intensive bases are treated like bases 
of the Hu class. The rules of reduplication are the same. Observe, however, 
that verbs with final or penultimate ^ ri have peculiar fonns of their own 
(§ 489^ 490)9 and verbs in ^f*f start from a base in ^it ar, and therefore have 
^md in the reduplicative syllable. Iftri, if^tar, WTvA tdtamd; 3rd pers. plur. 
ViOhJOi tdtiraiL 

§ 483. According to the rules of the Hu dass, the weak terminations require 
Guna {§ 297). Hence from ^P^bobudhy ^ft^itf^ bobodhmi; but ^ftjvn b(H 
budhmdf^. From ^t^ bobkd^ iJWH^ bobhomi, ^ipif^fts^ bobhav&m ; but ifl^?i: 
bobhdmah* Remark, however, that in f • %. 3. p. sing. Pres., 2. 3* p. sing. 
Impf., 3. p. sing. Imp. ^ t may be optionally inserted : 

wH^fbr bobodhmi or W^^[4H^ bobudhimi; lA^AAf bobhonU or ^A^^t^ bobhavimL 
And remark fiirther, that before this intermediate ^ <, and likewise before 
weak terminations beginning with a vowel, intensive bases ending in con- 
sonanter do not take Guna (Pft^. vii. 3, 87). Hence ift|pAftr bobudhimi, 
^ JMiPh bobudhdnif wit^ abobtulham. From t^vid^ 

PmssBMT. Impbrfbct. Impbkatiyb. 

^inw or ^n^nfmi vini^ ttm^iin 

vevedmi or vevidinU avevidam veviddni 

NmOu or ^ftn^tftt w^^ or 'V^fVi^: ^ftr% 

vevetri or vevidtshi avevet or avevidik veviddhi 

449fi or ^ftn^Jflr iwT^ or v^Piefli^ ^^ or ^ftn^ 

vevetii or vevidiU avevet or avevidit vevettu or veviditu 

^fty: vevidvai^y &c. H^flV avevidva ^f^l^ veviddva 

Rules 0/ Beduplication/or Iniensives. 
§ 484. The simplest way to form the peculiar reduplication of intensives, is 
to take the base used in the general tenses, to change it into a passive base 
by adding ir ya, then to reduplicate, according to the general rules of redupli- 
cation, and lastly, to raise, where possible, the vowel of the reduplicative 
syllable by Guna (P&n. vii. 4, 8a), and iv a to in i (Pft^i. vii. 4, 83). 
f^ chif to gather, iftn chtya, ^^4hn^ chechtyaie; ^^flr chechetu 
^Arui, to abuse, '^p^kruiya^ ^ft^^ chokruiyate ; "^ftlbf^ chokrosAfi. 
W^ trauk, to approach, iffim trdukya, ft^tmk totraukyate ; lh?fH^ totraukH. 


-^4^9* INTENSIVE VERBS. 225 

\w rei, to suspect, "^ rekya^ '^mk rerekyate ; ^fti rerekii. 

^ kriy to do, ftm kriya, ^nfNl^ chekrlyate (Pin. vii, 4, ^7); ^rirfS charkarH. 

^ A:r^, to scatter, iA^ Mrya, "^lA^ll chekiryate ; ^nnfll chdkarH. (§ 482.) 

^/^, to fill, "^pHryay ^^t^ln popHryate ; ^mf^pdpariu 

19^ smri, to remember, 9T$ imarya^ irrertlir sdsmaryate ; ^S^Aft ^armiaWt '^. 

1^ di, to give, ^ ctfya, ^i^Nli dedtyate ; i^n^ ddddti. 

if hvCy to call, |rir Atfya, "^t^iRijohilyate ; ij^lftfiryoAo^i. 

§ 485. The roots ^^vaJScA, ^i^^srafh9, ur^^dhvams, ^i^^bhrams^ W^kas, VH^paiy ^pod, 
'^b^ shandy place vft nl between the reduplicative syllable and the root. (P&9. vix. 4» 84.) 

^i^ralCcA, to go round, ^ffN^RW va nl vachyatej ^ffl^^ni vantvaHcMH. 

^l!^^sram8, to tear, tinltitMn sa nt sratyate; WSft^T^Hfw sanitraiktUi. 

ti^^d/ujamiy to fall, ^«fi<«it54n da ni dhvasyate; ^^lui^HOl ii<mldArafh«lff. 

^N^ftikram, to fall, ^«04^fl ba iU bhrasyate; "W^fi^Mflt boMhrmhtiti, 

V^ kaSf to go, '^t(1«atjHil cha ni kasyatej ^tftmltfif chanHkaaUi, 

V^paty to fly, MniHnn/'a ntpatyatej M •A M a1 Pfl panipattH. 

^i^pad, to go, HvOnun |>a nipadyatej H tfl HffI Pa panipaditi, 

^^ skand, to step, ^V«ft^Rln cAa nl skadyate: ^HllA^Rf cAanMafuftH. 
§ 486. Roots ending in a nasal, preceded by V a, repeat the nasal in the reduplicatiye 
syllable (P&i;!. vii. 4, 85). The repeated nasal is treated like ^m, and the vowel, being long 
by position, is not lengthened. 

I^f ^om, to go, 4 « i#«i ft jahgamyate : ij J|lA Hi jaikgamUi. 

¥RI bhram, to roam, ^•sn bambkramyatej ihi'OOl ftom^AramCK. 

^«^ Aan, to kill, it N "^ A jakghanyaU: «i ^ «A Hi jangkanUL 
§ 487. The roots fl.yap, to recite, ip^ya&A, to yawn, ^ dak, to bum, i^daM, to 
bite, 4l^5Aai(;» to break, ^po/, to bind, insert a nasal in the reduplicative syllable. 
(P&9. VII. 4, 86.) 

IRjop, ^«i^n JaHjapyate; ^ «i 4) Pn jafijaptH, 

?^daiM» ^q^Mn dathdaiyate; l^^|flPff dathdoAH. 
§ 488. The roots ^ cAar and ll^/iAa/ form their intensives as, 

^^ntW ekaiick^ryate and ^^flPfl cAaflcAurl^ or ^^^flT ckafiek4rti, 

Vl'y^^ pampkulyate and M l}c4l rttpampkuliti or Mi|PnA pampkulH, (Pin. viii. 4, 87.) 
§ 489. Roots with penultimate ^ ft insert ^ rl in their reduplicative syllable. (Pi?* 


VII. 4, 90.) 

^rpt, ^rthjWn va ri vfityatej Tfl^lftflf va ri vfitUi. 
In the Parasmaipada these roots allow of six formations. (P&9* vii. 4) P'O 
^^iHPn va r VfitiH, 'WW varvarti, 

^ft^iftftf ca n viUiii, ^^iM(n varwarti, 

•lO'jnltW 170 rl vjrititi, *lO*lfn varivarti, 

* This form follows from Pii;i. vii. 4, 93, and is supported by the Mftdhavtya-dh&tuvritti. 
Other grammarians give ^ETT^rf^ sdsmarti. 

226 INTENSIVE VEEBS. § 490- 

§ 490. The same applies to roots ending in ^ rt, if used in the Parasmaipada. (Pft?. 
VII. 4, 92.) 

^ kjij ^iOni cha r kartti. '^•ffi charkarti, 

^(V^OPdl cAa ft iflrl/i. '^(V.««ffi cAonitflrrt. 

^flRfhrttfir cAa rl AarC^t. ^<.l*(n eharikarti. 

§ 491. A few frequentative bases are peculiar in the formation of their base *. 
^Ti^svap, to sleep, ^^j^n soshupyatej but ^i^Pn sdsvapH. (P&9. vi. i, 19.) 
^9nV syam, to sound, hDhmiH sesimyate; but TT^Tfif sanuyanti. 
^ vye, to cover, %^ftTW veviyate; but ^milfil vdvydti; or (§ 483) ^i^Oi v&oyeti. 
^9f voi, to desire, ^N^^N vdvahjaie; CH^Ol vdvashti. (P&n. vi. i, 30.) 
^m^cAtfy, to regard, ^*l^fl chekiyate; ^%flf cheketi. (P&n. vi. i, 21.) 
'n^py^j to grow, ^Tft^i^q^lyflftf; ^ntlfilp^Py^'*' (P^« VI. I, 29.) 
f^ M, to swell, l)[fh||5^ ioidyaU or |lv1^A ieMyate; ^^tfk ieiveti. (Pi^. vi. i, 30.) 
^5^ Aan, to kill, ^ hI 4| fl jeghniyate ; ^^^n jahghanti. (P4n. vii. 4, 30, vftrt.) 
Vghrd, to smell, ^ 111 ^ ri jeyhriyatej mU\iii jdghrdtL (PlLn. vii. 4, 31.) 
vrr cfAmif, to blow, ^vrhnr dedhmiyate; (JIUUHl dddhmdti, (P&n. vii. 4, 31.) 
'T yrt to swallow, If (*! «^ n jegilyate; ^fprfS itf^ar/i. (P&n. viii. a, 20.) 
f^ ^', to lie down, T(n^l«n^ idiayyate; ^1^ /^/efi. (P&n. vii. 4, 22.) 
^ 492. From derivative verbs new derivatives may be formed, most of 
which, however, are rather the creation of grammarians^ than the property 
of the spoken language. Thus from ^n^irfir bhdvayati^ the causal of ^ bkdj 
he causes to be, a new desiderative is derived, fvHT^ftniflr bibhdvayishati, he 
wishes to cause existence. So from the intensive ^^|inr bobMiyate, he 
exists really, is formed wt^ifinfir bobhiiyishati, he wishes to exist really ; 
then a new causative may be formed, ^t^ftrnrflT bobhUyiahayatiy he causes a 
wish to exist really ; and again a new desiderative, wt^j^HlfWir bobhUyisha-- 
yishatif he wishes to excite the desire of real existence. 

* The formation and conjugation of the Intensive in the Parasmaipada, or the so-called 
Charkartta, have given rise to a great deal of discussion among native grammarians. 
According to their theory ^T^ yan, the sign of the Intensive Atmanepada, has to be sup- 
pressed by ^^ luk. By this suppression the changes produced in the verbal base by ^T^yan 
would cease (P&n. 1. 1, 63), except certain changes which are considered as AnaAgak&iya, 
changes not affecting the base, such as reduplication. Changes of the root that are to take 
place not only in the Intens. Atm., but also in the Intens. Par., are distinctly mentioned by 
P&nini, vii. 4, 82-92. About other changes, not directly extended to the Intens. Par., 
grammarians differ. Thus the Prakriy&-Kaumudt forms lihctfTT soshopti, because P&n. Vi. 
1,19, prescribes ti^g'Mn soshupyatej other authorities form only ^Trarftf sdsvapti or ^HT^nrtfif 
sdsvapiti, Colebrooke allows ^wfif cheketi (p. 332), because P&n. vi. i, 2 1 , prescribes ^WhUI 
chekiyate, and the commentary argues in favour of ^Htrflf cheketi. But Colebrooke (p. 321) 
declines to form ^f^n sesinte, because it is in the Atm. only that P&n. vi. i, 19, allows 
MUi*^fl sesimyate. Whether the Perfect should be periphrastic or reduplicated is likewise 
a moot point among grammarians ; some forming ^TtHTT^nVK bobhavdHchakdrOy others 
^^ bobhUva, others ^HN bobhdva. 





J 493. Hiere are many verbs in Sanskrit which are clearly derived from 
nominal bases*^ and which generally have the meaning of behaving Uke, or 
treating some one like, or wishing for or doing whatever is expressed by the 
noun. Thus from 9^ iyena^ hawk, we have ^^RPnl iyendydtey he behaves 
like a hawk; from '^putra^ son, Jj^ilDl puMydtiy he treats some one like 
a son, or he wishes for a son. Some denominatives are formed without any 
derivative syllable. Thus from ^1Q| kfishndy ^furfir krishndti, he behaves like 
Krishna ; Scorn f^^pitfiy father, f^wrfif pitdrati, he behaves like a father. 

These denominative verbs, however, cannot be formed at pleasure; and many 
even of those which would be sanctioned by the rules of native grammarians, 
are of rare occurrence in the national literature of India, lliese verbs should 
therefore be looked for in the dictionary rather than in a grammar. A few 
rules, however, on their formation and general meaning, may here be given. 

Denominatives in if ji, Parasmaipada, 

^ 494* By adding ir ya to the base of a noun, denominatives are formed 
expressing a wish. From nt go^ cow, TpqfH gavyati, he wishes for cows. 
These verbs might be called nominal desideratives, and they never govern a 
new accusative. 

j 495. By adding the same ^ya, denominatives are formed expressing one's 
looking upon or treating something like the subject expressed by the noun. 
Thus from ^putra, son, ^?fhrf)T fi^puirtyati iiskyam^ he treats the pupil like 
a son. By a similar process uiHi^^rAprdsadtyati^ from wmx^prdsdday palace, 
means to behave as if one were in a palace ; IcniT^ft^irfir ^f^iff fW^ prdsddiyati 
kutydm bhikshuh^ the beggar lives in his hut as if it were a palace. 

§ 496. Before this ^ ya, 

I. Final V a and VT tf are changed to \i; ^pTT sutd, daughter, ^^tTt^flT sutiyati, he wishes 

for a daughter f. 
a. ^ » and T ti are lengthened ; ^fftfpati, master, Hn\ H?n patiyati, he treats like a master ; 

'^if^ kavi, poet, V^T^^rfff kaviyati, he wishes to be a poet. 

* They are called in Sanskrit f<7^ lidhu, from Tc^ Unga, it is said, a crude sound, and 
^ dhu, for VTJ dhdiu, root. (Carey, Grammar, p. 543.) 

t Minute distinctions are made between Iff^ vfhvflf asaniyati, he wishes to eat at the proper 
time, and VI )M Nfii a^andyatiy he is ravenously hungry; between 9 <^ 41 4 Pi! udakiyati, he wishes 
for water, and 9 <{ ^^ Hi ndanyati, he starves and craves for water; between M^TPrfir dhandyati, he 
is greedy for wealth, and V«fNf?r dhaniyati, he asks for some money. •(P&i^. vii. 4, 34.) 

G g a 


3. ^ ft becomes Xiri,^o becomes W^cw, W au becomes ^VT^do: f^pUfi, fittber, 

fM^l ^Ol pitriyaH, be treats like a fatber; •n nau, ship, ni^ffl ndoyati, be wisbes 
for a sbip. 

4. Final «^n is dropt, and otber final consonants remain micbanged; M«i«\r4^'<m, king, 

^Illl^Of rdjiyati, be treats a man Uke a king ; ^^fVPBf^payas, milk, Hst^^Pn payasyati, 
be wisbes for milk ; ^fl^o^A, speecb, TRRflr vdchyati (P&9. i. 4> 15); vpl^ namaSf 
worsbip, «nV9Vf)f namasyati, be worsbips (P4n. iii. i, 19). 

Denominatives in iv ya^ Atfnanepada. 

^ 497. A second class of denominatives, formed by adding ly yd^ has 

the meaning of behaving like^ or becoming like, or actually doing what is 

expressed by the noun. They differ from the preceding class by generally 

following the Atmanepada*, and by a difference in the modification of the 

final letters of the nominal base. Thus 

!• Final w a is lengthened ; ^(^ iyena, hawk, s|i)hii|) fyendyate^ he behaves 

like a hawk ; ^ro^ iabda, sounds ^R^ni^ iabddyate^ he makes a sound, 

he sounds; )J9 bhriia, much, ^f^fn^ bhriSdyate^ he becomes much; 

'WW kashfa, mischief, ^wrqi)' kashtdyate, he plots ; tM^ romaniha, 

ruminating, ^^iR^rnn^ romanihdyate, he ruminates. The final f I of 

feminine bases is generally dropt, and the masculine base taken 

instead; ^ilT^ kumdri^ girl, 9«1K|I|)) kumdrdyate, he behaves like a 

girl. (P4n. VI. 3, 36-41.) 

2 and 3. Final ^ i and 7 ti, iQf n^ ^ 0, Wl a« are treated as in ^ 496 ; vft 

inchi^ pure, iNtir^ iuchiyate, he becomes pure. 
4« I^al «^n is dropt, and the preceding vowel is lengthened; tni«( rdfan, 
king, TTUnn^ rdjdyaie, he behaves like a king; ^"^li^ tuhman, heat, 
TSr^wik ushmdyate, it sends out heat. 
Some nominal bases in ^« and j^^t may, others must (P&n. iii. i, 11) be 
treated like nominal bases in w a« Hence from fHw^^ vidvas^ wise, fty^q^ 
vidvfuyate or ftvrqi^ vidvayatCy he behaves like a wise man ; firom ^^^payas, 
milk, ^TXWi)' payasyate or inn^ paydyate, it becomes milk ; from W^R^ 
apsaraSy umu^) apsardyate, she behaves like an Apsaras ; firom ^mnbiihai, 
great, ^ffpik brihdyate^ he becomes great. (Pap. iii. i, 12.) 

§ 498. Some verbs are classed together by native grammarians as Kai;)dvftdi's, i. e. 
beginning vnWi Kandd. Tbey take ^ ya, both in Parasmaipada and Atmanepada^ and keep 
it through tbe general tenses under tbe restrictions applying to otber denominatives in ^ya 
(§ 501)* Nouns ending in W a drop it before IV ya. Thus from Wl^ agada, free from 

* Those that may take both Parasmaipada and Atmanepada are said to be formed by 
W^ kyushy tbe rest by "¥1^ hyah. Thus from Htftpf lohita, red, cStfljiTnfftf or ^ lohitdyaH 
or "te^ be becomes red? (PAp. in. i, 13.) 


illness, ^BPIlffir agadyati, he is free from illness ; from ^^T sukha, pleasure, ^wOf sukhyaii, 
be gives pleasure ; from lir^iba^^^, scratching, ip^Pn or °T ka^^yati or -te, he scratches. 

Denominatwes in ^ sja. 
§ 499. Certain denominatiye verbs, which express a wish, take ^ iya instead of '^ ya. 
Thus from ^1^ kshira, milk, H|1<4M0|I ksMrasyati, the child longs for milk ; from m?f 
lava^y salt, ^CHU^^Ol lava^^asyati, he desires salt. Likewise ^mtmin cJvtisyati, the mare 
longs for the horse ; ^Nflinif Vfighasyati, the cow longs for the bull (PAi;). vii. i, 53). Some 
authorities admit 9 sya and 1V9 a^<K, in the sense of extreme desire, after all nominal 
bases. Thus from T^ madhu, honey, T^t^i Tit madhtuyati or l|l99Tflf madkvasyati, he longs 
for honey. 

Denomin<Uive9 in «ai«^ kftmja. 

§ 500. It is usual to form desiderative verbs by compounding a nominal base with 
WT^ kdmya, a denominative from WtH kdma, love. Thus ^d «« i*^ Of putrakdmyati^ he has 
the wish for a son ; Fut. ^«i «■ 1 r#<i n 1 putrakdmyitd. Here the ^y, it is said, u not liable 
to be dropt. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 333.) 

§ 501. The denominatives in TV ya are conjugated like verbs of the Bhii 
class in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. Pres. ^^i4lfl| putrtydmi^ Impf. 
ivg?fH aputriyam. Imp. y^lMlfVl putriydni^ Opt. ^^ft^ putriyeyam* Pres. 
:|^RT^ Syendye, Impf. ^«n|^in^ aSyendye, Imp. i|^^ iyendyai, Opt. ^ihrnHv 
h/endyeya. In the general tenses the base is ^[ffi^putriy or ^^9rni[ iyendy; 
but when the denominative ^ y is preceded bj a consonant^ 1^ y may or 
may not be dropt in the general tenses (Pi^. vi. 4, 50). Hence, Per. Perf. 
pf^inrnn putrtydmdsa (§325, 3), Aor. vi|^ini4N aputrtyishatn, Put. f^fKViinOr 
putriyishydmi, Per. Fut. ^^Riffi putrtyitd, Ben« ^S^ifnt puiriydsam. 

From ^^[^mn^ Syendyate, Per. Perf. ^^^rnimm iyendydmdaa, Aor. ivi^Tnftvf^ 

aiyendyishi, Fut. SI^HlPilii) Syendyishye^ &c. 
From ^rOr^ samidh, fuel, irAmf)! samidhyati^ he wishes for fuel ; Per. Fut. 

^rfllftinrT samidhyitd or ^rMVlTT samidhiid^ &c. (Pfi^. vi. 4, 50). 

Denominatives in ^TT aja. 

§ 503. Some denominative yerbs are formed by adding W^aya to certain nommal bases. 
They generally express the act impUed by the nominal base. They may be looked upon as 
verbs of the Chur class. They are conjugated in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada, some 
in the Atmanepada only. They retain ^Hl ay in the general tenses under the limitations 
that apply to verbs of the Chur class and causatives (viz. benedictive Par., reduplicated 
aorist, &c.), and their radical vowels are modified according to the rules applying to the 
verbs of the Chur class (§ 396, 4). 

Thus from VT^pd^a, fetter, fMVT^Rfir vipd^ayati, he unties; from "^A^^varman, armour, 
^W«*rn safkoarmayatif he arms, (the final «^n being dropt); from ^munda, shaven, 
•ISMPn mw^yati, he shaves ; from ^P^ ^abda, sound, ^I^^Pa iabdayati, he makes 
a sound (Dhfttup&tha 33, 40) ; from f<T^ mUra, mixed, flTBRflf miirayati, he mixes 
(P&V- "I* i> 31; 35). 


Some of these verbs are always Atmanepada. Thus from ^^puehchha, tail^ 

utpnchchhayate, he lifts up the tail (P&9. iii. i, 3o). 
If ^naya b to be added to nouns formed by the secondaiy affixes W^matf ^ff{vat, ^(9(min^ 

ft«( vtji, these affixes must be dropt. From tlO^f^ sraffvin, having garlands^ 

tf^iMPn srajayati. 
If ^TT aya is added to feminine bases, thej are generally replaced bj the CMresponding 

masculine base. From ^«)«i1 ^en( (§ 247), white» ^^n^fPn iyetayatiy he makes her 

white (P&i^. VI. 3, 36). 
Certain adjectives which change their base before ^ uhflui of the superlative, do the 

same before ^TT aya, ^ mfidu, soft, M^llHl mradayaH, he softens ; {^ eUra, fkr, 

. ^^T^flf davayati, he removes. 
Some nominal bases take WM^ dpaya. Thus from Hm satya, true, ^iMIM^Ol satydpayatif 

he speaks trulj; from W4 artha, sense, HMm^Pri artkdpayati^ he explains. 

Denominatives without any Affix, 

§ 503. According to some authorities every nominal base may be turned into a 
denominative verb by adding the ordinary verbal terminations of the First Division, and 
treating the base like a verbal base of the Bhd class. W a is added to the base, except 
where it exists already as the final of the nominal base ; other final and medial vowels take 
Gu^a, where possible, as in the Bhil class. 

Thus from ^ran kfishi^, f UllOl ibf»A^/», he behaves like Kfishna; from H\W mUd^ 
garland, lUcilOl mdldtiy it is like a garland, Impf. ^H\iS\H^amdldt, Aor. VHIMrall^ 
amdldsttj from 'Wf^ kavi, poet, 'V^RfW kavayatiy he behaves like a poet ; from f^ of, 
bird, ^nifk vayati, he flies like a bird ; from fV|^ pitr^» father, f^WKfft pitarati, he is 
like a father; from TTW«^ r^an, king, MvunPn rdjdnati, he is like a king (PA9. vi. 
4, 15)- 



^ 504. The following prepositions may be joined with verbs, and are then 
called Upasarga in Sanskrit (P&9. i. 4^ 58—61 f ^ 148). 
nflr ati^ beyond. irfVi adhi^ over (sometimes fti dh%), WJ anu, after. 
apa, off. nftl ajAy upon (sometimes f)| pi), ^rik abhiy towards. 
ova, down (sometimes ^t;a). W[ d, near to. ^ ud, up. Tt| upa, 
next, below, j: duJ^, ill. f^ fdy into^ downwards, f^ nil^, without 
'^KX pardy back^ away, nftj^ari, around. Upra, before, vfifpraii, 
back, flf vi, apart. H sam, together. ^ su, well. They all have the 
tuldtta on the first syllable except v^ abh(, 

§ 505. Certain adverbs, called Oati in Sanskrit, a term applicable also to the 
Upasargas (Pfin. i* 4, 60), may be prefixed, like prepositions, to certain verbs, 
particularly to ^bhd, to be, ira^ as, to be, ^ kri, to do, and rff^ffam, to go. 


dchchha ; e. g. WSttn achchhagatya, having approached (^ 445) ; 
achchhodyay having addressed. ^Bi^ aJa^; e. g. ^:^ ada^kfiiyOf 
having done it thus, ^tfttantar; e.g. wnfkn antaritya^ having passed 
between. %ri alam; e. g. m?^^ alaUkfiiyay having ornamented. 
mm astatn ; e. g. ir^mQ astaftgatya^ having gone to rest^ having 
set. ^nft: dvih; e. g. HlWJj dvirbhUya, having appeared, firt: Hrai; 
e. g. ^K^i^ HrobMya, having disappeared, ^l pural^; e.g. ^T^flil 
puraskfiiya^ having placed before (^ 89^ II. i). Wgiprddui^; e.g. Hl^^ 
prddurbMya^ having become manifest* teh^ sat and ^rai^ asaty when 
expressing regard or contempt ; e. g. Vin^TI asatlqitya^ having dis- 
regarded, ^rnin^ sdkshdt; e. g. Hl^lrf M saksMtkritya, having made 
known. Words like nft hckli, in ^jldf M iuklikritya, having made white. 
(Here the final w a otwrfniukla is changed to ^ f. Sometimes, but rarely, 
final w a or w d is changed to Wl d. Final ^ i and "Wu are lengthened ; 
^ n is changed to Uri; final i|f( an and W^^as are changed to f^i; 
e. g. <l^fiW rdjikrityay having made king.) Words like ^Rfl^ ilri, in 
wff^ drtkritya, having assented. Words like WH^khat^ imitative of 
sound; e.g. ^TTT^ khdtkfitya^ having made khdt, the sound produced 
in clearing one^s throat. 
§ 506. Several of the prepositions mentioned in § 503 are also used with 
nouns, and are then said to govern certain cases. They are then called Kar^ 
mapravachantya^ and they frequently follow the noun which is governed by 
them (Pftn. i. 4, 83). 

The accusative is governed by ^rfira^t, beyond; ml^abhi^ towards; ^|f)c 
pari^ aroimd; vthi prati, against; WJ antt, after; imupa, upon. Ex. Tftf^- 
^prflT %^^ govindam ati neivara^, Isvara is not beyond Govinda; ^ mfk 
'^cSl^ci haram prati halahalam, venom was for Hara; nicgH««|«Qfl visknu- 
manvarchyatey he is worshipped after Vishnu; wg ^^: anu harith surdi^, 
the gods are less than Hari. 

The ablative is governed by Tffji prati, "qft pari, wqapa, wd. Ex. nfe 
irm^ bhakieh praty amritam, immortality in return for faith; wi ipft: d 
mfityol^, until death; ^in? ftpnfwft ^ ^: apa trigartebhyo vfishfo deva^, it 
has rained away fipom Trigarta, or ^ %n?n!«r: pari trigartebhyah, round 
Trigarta, without touching Trigarta. 

The locative is governed by '^upa and ^rfv adhu Ex. Ti| ftpalr ^VT^T^ upa 
nishke kdrshdpanam^ a K&rshfipa^a is more than a Nishka; ^rfil ^rvi^inr^ 
adhi panchdleshu brahmadattab^ Brahmadatta governs over the Panchalas. 

J 507. There are many other adverbs in Sanskrit, some of which may 
here be mentioned. 
I. The accusative of adjectives in the neuter may be used as an adverb. 


ThuB from if^ manda^, slow, ihf ^ mandam mandam, slowly^ slowly ; 
'^fti iighram, quickly ; ^ dhruvam, truly. 

2. CSertain compounds, ending like accusatives of neuters, are used adver- 

bially, such as 4|vj|^ir^ yathdiakti, according to one's power. For 
these see the rules on composition. 

3. Adverbs of place : 

^irt antaVy within, with loc« and gen. ; between, with ace. ^IRT antardj 
between, with ace. wjfbsr antarevia^ between, with ace; without, with 
ace* ^rmi(^ drcUy far off, with abl. ^rfip vahil^, outside, with abl. ^RHIT 
samaydj near, witli ace. f^HPn fdkasha^ near, with ace. T^ft upari^ 
above, over, with ace. and gen. 7%: uchchaiji, high, or loud, ^t)^ 
nichaiiky low. ^R^ adhaJj^, below, with gen. and abl. ^R^ ava^, below, 
with gen. firt: tiraik^ across, with ace. or loc. !([; ihoy here. ^ purdy 
' before, wv^samakshamy VJ^jnsdkshdt, in the presence. H9k\^i\f(8akdidty 
firom. ^ puraJ^, before, with gen» jsm amdy w^ sachdy mw sdkamy 
TfmJ samdy "m^sdrdhatny together, with instr. "vfkm abhitai, on all sides, 
with ace. ^9Hinn ubhaycUdf^^ on both sides, with ace. Wffll^ samantdi^ 
from all sides. J[t dUramy far, with ace, abl., and gen. wfiNr aniikamy 
near, with ace, abl., and gen. ^V^ fidhaky ^n prithaky apart 

4. Adverbs of time : 

HTUT prdtoTy early, ^mt sdyanty at eve. f^ rfira, by day. ^VJFT^ ahndya^ 
by day. ^^m doshdy by night. «rR naktamy by night* wm ttshd, early, 
^innr yugapady at the same time, ^sir adyay to-day. wt hyahy yesterday. 
^1^: pilrvedyu^y yesterday. "^ iva^y to-morrow. 'qtvfV paredyaviy 
to-morrow, iift^ jyoky long, f^ chiramy fv^ chirenay fmpi chirdyay 
f^tT\chirdt, f^t^C chirasya, long. TRT sand, ^RTI^ «and/, Tg^sanaty 
perpetually. ^ aratn^ quickly. ^1%: ianaO^, slowly. WBl sadyaf^y at 
once, wafn sampratiy now. "^p^punar, ^: mtiAtc$, ^[in bMyai^y ^R 
vdram, again. TT^ sakrity once. ^ /wr<J, formerly. ^ pHrvamy 
before. 'V^ Urdhvamy after, ^nif^ sapadiy immediately. VW^^paSchdty 
after, with abl. Wf^jdiUy once upon a time, ever. ^V^«n adhundy now. 
^^ItfT iddninty now. ^^ «a£{(!^ ?linf santatam, nfff^ aniiam, always, 
^nv a2am, enough, with dat. or instr. 

5* Adverbs of circumstance : 
^ mrishdy fNmr mithydy falsely, mm^ mandk, fm^ &Aa/, a little. 1[S^ 
tilski^imy quietly. ^ vrithdy ^ mudhd, in vain, ^nftl *(Jmt, half. 
V4hWli1^ akasmdt, imexpectedly. T^vt^ updmiUy in a whisper, ftwt 
mithahy together, imn prdyahy frequently, almost. Vifhr a^^t^a, exceed- 
ingly, nrw kdmamy ^fW JosAam, gladly. ^9^:|4 avaiyam, certainly. 

<r*j 51a COMPOTJND WOBD& 233 

Anv kila, indeed, n^ kJialUf certainly, finn vind^ without, with aec, 
instr.5 or abl. ^ fite^ without^ with ace. or abl. tTRT ndnd, variously. 
^ sushthu, well. ^ dushthuy badly, fipm dishtyd, luckily. ITffk 
prabhfiti^ et cetera, and the rest, with abl. '^I^ffi kuvit, really 1 
ilftn^ kachchitf really 1 v«r kaiham^ how 1 ^ t /t, ^ itiham, thus. 
|[^ tt?a^ as ; ^frft^ A^r iVa^ like Hari. ^va/, enchtic; ^f^i^AarJt;aJ, 
like Hari. 

Conjunctions and other Particles, 
§ 508. wt| atlia^ w^ athOy now then. ^ iti, thus. '^ yatft, when* 
vmf^ yadyapiy although, inrrf^ tathdpi^ yet. ^ cA«/^ if. iT 9MI> ''ft ^^9 
not. ^ cAa^ and^ always enclitic, like que. f^ kitkcha^ and. m «9i4 or 
IT W wkJ «»«, not, prohibitively, m vd, or. ^ t;d— ^ t?4, either— or. ^nm 
athavdy or. l^ tfra^ even, very ; {^W^sa eva^ the same.) ^ evam, thus. 
^ ntJ^iam, doubtlessly. i|T^ ydvat-irx^ tdvat, as much— as. vm yaikd-^ 
iniT /a/A4, as -so. ^ yena—i(H iena, iTf yad-^K^ tad^ and other correlatives, 
because— therefore, tnnf^ tathdhi^ thus^ for. 9 ^, ^ param^ ft] 
Arin/u, but. fifi^ cAi/, "W^ chana, subjoined to the interrogative pronoun 
tm kim, any, some ; as ilftn^ kaiehit, some one ; ^rqw^r kathafichana, any- 
how. f^ kiy for, because. W «f/a, VWTf^ «/dAo, or. iTnT n4ma, namely. 
ir^ pratyuiOy on the contrary. "^ ntc, perhaps. ^ nanu, Is it not 1 
f%t^ spit, Mf^n^ Atmm^, perhaps, ^sf^ opi, also, even, ^vftf ^ apt cha^ 
again. 1^ ndnam, certainly. 

§ 509. ^ he, ^ bho, vocative particles. %|^ aye, ^ haye. Ah ! fk|i^ dhik, 
t re, ^ are^ Pie ! 



^510. The power of forming two or more words into one, which belongs 
to all Aryan languages, has been so largely developed in Sanskrit that a few 
of the more general rules of composition claim a place even in an elementary 

As a general rule^ all words which form a compound drop their 
inflectional terminations, except the last. They appear in that form which 
is called their base, and when they have more than one, in their Pada base 
{§ 180). Hence ^iRpf^ deva-ddsab^ a servant of god; UH^^H* r^jopvarusha^ 
a king's man ; HAJiJii: pratyagmukha^y facing west. 


234 COMPOUND WORDS. $511- 

§ 511. Sometimes the sign of the feminine gender in the prior elements of a compound 
may be retiuned. This is chiefly the case when the feminine is treated as an appellative, 
and would lose its distinctive meaning by losing the feminine suffix: 4|^|4u1l4lffl 
kalydnimdtd, the mother of a beautiful daughter (P&n. vi. 3, 34) ; ^Hl9: kalMbhdryahj 
having a Ka^ht for one's wife (P&n. vi. 3> 41). If the feminine forms a mere predicate, 
it generally loses its feminine suffix ; ^i\«fH*fi4S iobhanabhdrydhy having a beautiful wife 
(P&n. VI. 3, 34 ; 43). 

The phonetic rules to be observed are those of external Sandhi with certain modifications, 
as explained in § 34 seq.* 

$ 512. Compound words might have been divided into substantival^* 
adjectival^ and adverbial. Thus words Uke WrJ?^: tatpurushal^, his man, 
'•Ac4^iMi4 nttotpalam^ blue lotus, ft^'^ dvigavamy two oxen, nO^T^ agni' 
dhdmau, fire and smoke, might have been classed as substantival ; qjrfin^: 
bahuvrihihi possessing much rice, as an adjectival; and ^(im^ifii yathdiakti, 
according to one^s strength, as an adverbial compound. 

Native grammarians, however, have adopted a different principle of divi- 
sion, classing all compounds under six different heads, under the names of 
Tatpurushaf Karmadhdraya, DvigUy Dvandva, Bahuvrthi^ and Avyayibhava. 
I« TatpurtLsha is a compound in which the last word is determined by the 
preceding words, for instance, Vi^gp^ tat-purtishaJ^y his man, or UHg^m 
rdja-pumshah, king's man. 

As a general term the Tatpurtisha compound comprehends the two 
subdivisions of Karmadhdraya (I b) and Dvigu (I c). The Karmadhd- 
raya is in fact a Tatpurusha compound, in which the last word is 
determined by a preceding adjective, e. g. '^fh^tncV nilotpalam, blue lotus. 
The component words, if dissolved, would stand in the same case, 
whereas in other Tatpurushas the preceding word is governed by the 
last, the man of the king, or fire-wood, i. e. wood for fire. 

The Dvigu again may be called a subdivision of the Karmadharaya, 
being a compound in which the first word is not an adjective in general, 
but always a numeral : fgn^ dvigavam, two oxen, or f|r^: dviffuft, bought 
for two oxen. 

* Occasionally bases ending in a long vowel shorten it, and bases ending in a short 
vowel lengthen it in the middle of a compound; '^^udaka, water, VJ^pdda, foot, ^^ 
hfidaya, heart, frequently substitute the bases ^n[«^tti£an (i.e. ^ uda), Vl^pad, and ^ hjrid. 
^^«ii hjidrogahf heart-disease, or ^^MCiTt hfidayarogah, (P&p. vi. 3, 51—60.) 

The particle ^ Aru, which is intended to express contempt, as ^Hlfl^I kubrdhmanah, 
a bad Brfthman, substitutes "^l^ kad in a determinative compound before words beginning 
with consonants : qijs* kadushfrah, a bad camel. The same takes place before r^ ratha^ 
^ vada, and "^ trina : ^^^ kadrathah, a bad carriage ; 4^1(1 kattrii^m, a bad kind of 
grass. The same particle is changed to Wl kd before Vlhf^pathin and mf akska .* ^innn 
kdpathali, and optionally before ^^^purusha* (P&i?. vi. 3, 101-107.) 

-§ S^3' COMPOUND WORDS. 235 

These three classes of compounds may be comprehended under the 
general name o{ Determinative Compounds, while the Karmadh&raya (I b) 
may be distinguished as oppositional determinatives, the Dvigu (I c) as 
numeral determinatives. 

II. The next class^ called Dvandva, consists of compounds in which two words I 

are simply joined together^ the compound taking either the terminations ! 
of the dual or plural^ according to the number of compounded nouns, 
or the terminations of the singular, being treated as a collective term : 
^vfnr^ agni'dhdmauy fire and smoke ; ^IVfV^^IVI* iaia-kuiorpaldidh^ 
nom. plur. masc. three kinds of plants, or HllfVMcftl^t iaia-kuSa-paldiam, 
nom. sing, neut They will be called Collective Compounds. 

III. The next class, called Bahuvrihi by native grammarians, comprises com- 

pounds which are used as adjectives. The notion expressed by the last 
word, and which may be variously determined, forms the predicate of some 
other subject They may be called Possessive Compounds, Thus ^iJlAf^: 
haJiU-vrihihi possessed of much rice, scil. ^^ deiah, country ; ^^MMIII^t 
rUpavad'bhdryaf^, possessing a handsome wife, scil. ttut rdj&y king. 

Determinative compounds may be turned into possessive compounds, 
sometimes without any change, except that of accent, sometimes by 
slight changes in the last word. 

The gender of possessive compounds, like that of adjectives, conforms 
to the gender of the substantives to which they belong. 

IV. The last class, called Avyayibhdva, is formed by joining an indeclinable 

particle with another word. The resulting compound, in which the 
indeclinable particle always forms the first element, is again indeclinable, 
and generally ends, like adverbs, in the ordinary terminations of the 
nom. or ace. neut.: irfWf^ adhi-stri, for woman, as in wfvf^ >|C4l4lfVr 
adhistri gjihakdrydniy household duties are for women. They may 
be called Adverbial Compounds. 

I. Determinative Compounds. 

§ 5^3* Thh class (Tatpurusha) comprehends compounds in which generally 
the last word governs the preceding one. The last word may be a substantive 
or a participle or an adjective, if capable of governing a noun. 

I. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Accusative: 
^UlinNfi: Jqriski(Ujt-6ritah, m. f. n. gone to Krishna, dependent on Kfishpa, 
instead of "Sfvi fmn kfishiyam iritai. ^IWlftni dubkha-atttai^, m. f. n. 
having overcome pain, instead of .^tirtnAir: dubkham atitab^ '^C^^itrm 
varsha^bhogyabf m. f. n. to be enjoyed a year long. ?TPninr: grdma^ 
prdptabi m. f. n. having reached the village, instead of utr UTR: grdmum 

H h 2 

286 COMPOUND WORDS. § 513- 

prapiab: it is more usual, howerer, to say UlHiflH: prdptagrdma^ 
(Pan. II. 2, 4). Similarly are formed determinatives by means of 
adverbs or prepositions, such as vGrPilfl. aiigiri, past the hill, used as 
an adverb, or as an adjective, ^Hfkfhf^ atigirif^^ ultramontane ; irfi|^?r 
abhimukham, facing, &c. 
%. Compounds in Ti-hich the first noun would be in the Instrumental : 

MFVf^ dhdnya-arthai, m. wealth (arihaii) (acquired) by grain (dhdnyena). 
^%m4v, ia^kuld'khafufa^y m. a piece (khaiiufai^) (cut) by nippers {ianku-- 
Idbkii). i^mP4m ddira'Chchkinnai^, m. £ n. cut {chhitmaii) by a knife 
{ddtrena). fflGSTTin hari^rdtai^^ m. f. n. protected (irdta^) by Hari, ^^q[^: 
iieva'dattaiky given {dattaht) by the gods {devaihk)^ or as a proper name with 
the supposed auspicious sense, may the gods give him {Bieu*do7m£). 
f^f[mx pitri-^samal^j m. f. n. like the father, i. e. pitrd samai^. "HWffH^m 
nakha-nirbhinnafy^ m. £ n. cut asunder (nirbhinnaiJL) by the nails (nakkaiiL), 
ftHhm^M: vUva-updsyahi m. £ n. to be worshipped by alL ^ra^in 
svayam-krita^, m. £ n. done by oneself. 
3* Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Dative : 

i{ii|^T^ ydpa-ddrUy n. wood (ddru) for a sacrificial stake {yUpdya). ntf^ go- 
hitahy m. £ n, good {hitah) for cows (ffobhyai). f^rWT^ dvija-^artha^, m. £ n. 
object {artha), i. e. intended for Brahmans. Determinative compounds, 
when treated as possessive, take the terminations of the masc, fem., and 
neut. ; e. g. f|nin% ^(^P|* dvijdrthd yavdgA^, fem. gruel for Brfihmans. 

4. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Ablative : 

^ftert chora-bhayam, n. fear {bhayam) arising from thieves {chorebhya^. 
^r^NAnn svarga-patitaJ^^ m. £ n. fallen from heaven. iRin'n apa-grdma^f 
m. £ n. gone firom the village. 

5. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Genitive : 

HTj;^ tat-purushah, m. his man, instead of tasya^ of \x\m^puru8hab^ the man*. 
^Hy^m rdja-purushaby m. the king^s man, instead of rajna^y of the king, 
purusha}^^ the man. TTiT^^ rdja-sakhaf^y m. the king^s friend. In these 
compounds sakhi, friend, is changed to sakhah. ^f^mt: kumbha-kdra^y a 
maker {kdrah) of pots [kumbMnam) . vf^^^o- ia/am, a hundred of cows. 

6. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Locative : 
illl|$U: aksha'iaun4ai^, m. £ n. devoted to dice. T^^in uro-jab^ m. f. n. 

produced on the breast. 

* MoBt words ending in ^ /p or ^ ha are not allowed to form compounds of this kind. 
Hence WZ^ WnT kafasya kartd, maker of a mat, not ^IT'rtT kafakartdj ^d ntIT purdm 
bhettdt breaker of towns. There are, however, many exceptions, such as ^^^«i«a» deva* 
pUjakah, worshipper of the gods, &c. 


§ 514. Certain TaApurusha compounds retain the case-terminationa in the governed 
ti^tii^n: sahasd-kjitafi, done suddenly (P&9. vi. 3, 3). VIHftlimi: dttnand'Shashthal^, the 
sbcth with oneself (P&9. vi. 3, 6). m.%NM<| parasmai-padam, a word for the sake of 
another, i. e. the transitive form of verbs (P&9. vi. 3, 7, 8). f ^((IHIJf k^chchhrdl^ 
tabdham, obtidned with difficulty. If^tlJ^: namh-putrafi, sister's son (P&n. vi. 3, 
33). fi^^T^flii divas-paUh, brd of heaven. ^T^F^fflR vdchas-patih, lord of speech* 
^^prtftnt devdndm^priyah, beloved of the gods, a goat, an ignorant person. 
n^^rflnrt gehe-paifditaf^, learned at home, i.e. where no one can contradict him. 
V^C kkeckaraliy moving in the air. ^Rjf^mt $ar(m*jahy bom in a pond, water-lily. 
^R(4^9^ hridi'Sprii, touching the heart. ^[fVffvC ifudkishfhirah, firm in battle^ 
a proper name (P&n. vi. 3, 9). 

§ 515. To this class a number of compounds are referred in which the governing 
element is supposed to take the first place. Ex. ^9«ii|4<i pdrva-Myaft^ the fore-part of the 
body, i. e. the fore-body ; ^^^i^» pHrva^rdtrahy the first part of the night, i. e. the fore- 
night ; U«l4fl« rdjadanta^, the king of teeth, lit. the king-teeth, i. e. the fore-teeth (P&9. 11. 
2, i). They would better be looked upon as Karmadh&rayas ; cf. § 517. 

$ 516. If the second part of a determinative compoimd is a verbal base, no change takes 
place in bases ending in consonants or long vowels, except that diphthongs, as usual, are 
changed toWld. Hence ^w^-^ jalamuck, water-dropping, i. e. a cloud ; ^h^HIT Boma-pd, 
Soma- drinking, nom. sing. tTi^Hii Bomapdli (§ 339). 

Bases ending in short vowels generally take a final 1^^; Oim f^ livihajity all-conquering, 
from ftfis, to conquer. Other suffixes used for the same purpose are W a, ^tn, &c. 

I b. Apposiiional Determinative Compounds. 

^ 517. These compounds (Karmadhfiraya) fonn a subdivision of the deteis 
minative compounds (Tatpurusha). In them the first portion stands as the 
predicate of the second portion, such as in blacks-beetle^ sky-blue, &c. 

The following are some instances of appositional compounds : 
^IcJtf^A ntla-utpalamy neut. the blue lotus. tliHlMI parama-dtmd^ masc. the 
supreme spirit. yiWlO^^: idka-pdrthivabf masc. a S^&ka-king, explained 
as a king such as the S^&kas would like, not as the king of the 8^&kas. 
^r^TTin sarvorrdtrab, masc. the whole night, firom sarva^ whole, and 
rdtribi night. Bdtribi fern., is changed to rdtra; cf. "^^X^. pdrva-rdtrab, 
masc the fore-night; iWl^l^ madhya-rdtraby masc. midnight; ^jmrnv: 
punyorrdtraby masc. a holy night. ftTJM dvi^dtram^ neut a space of 
two nights, is a numeral compound (Dvigu). iffTTJli: mahdrrdjaby masc* 
a great king. In these compounds mp(^mahat, great, always becomes 
n^mahd (PAn. VI. 3, 46), and TXW^rdJany king, xxw.rdjab; as ^l^junir: 
paramorrdjaby a supreme king : but ^|IT1IT tu-^djdy a good king, fv^ifT 
kimrdjd, a bad king (P&n. v. 4, 69, 70). finviR priya-eakhaby masc. 
a dear friend. 11% sakhi is changed to Kir: sakhab. V[K!KTfl parama-aAaby 
masc. the lughest day. In these compounds Hl^ ahan, day, becomes 

238 COMPOUND WORDS. $ 5i8— 

111^ aha; c£ ^9inn^ uttamdhai^^ the last day. Sometimes ^tj[ ahna is 
substituted for Hi^ ahan; ^\^* pArvakiiaf^, the fore-noon. ^fS^^^ 
ku'pwrushab^ mase. a bad man^ or ^iT]|p^: kdpurashaj^. in^T% pra- 
dchdryaik, masc. a hereditary teacher, i. e. one who has been a teacher 
(dchdrya) before or formerly (pra). VMivm; a-brahmanai^ masc. a non- 
Brahman, i.e. not a Brfihman. w^^l an-aiva^, masc. a non-horse, Le. not 
a horse. MH^^I^: ghana-tyama^^ m.f.n. cloud-black, from ghana^ cloudy 
and iydmay black* ^mM'M* ishat-piiigalai, m. f. n. a little brown, 
firom ishai, a little, and pi^gaia, brown. Hlfilf 4: sdmi-kritai, m. £ n. 
half-done, from sdmi^ half, and kritOy done. 

§ 518. In some appositional compounds, the qualifying word is placed last. Oni'ii^; 
viprapauralk, a white Br&hman; <ini^«i* rdjddhamah, the lowest king; H^iirwH bharata- 
ireshfhdhy the hest Bharata ; ^^^«mii* purusha-vydghrdfi, a tiger-like man, a great man ; 
^fMl^TOir* govrinddrakah, a prime cow. 

I c. Numeral Determinative Compounds. 

j 519. Determinative compounds, the first portion of which is a numeral, 
are called Dvigu. The numeral is always the predicate of the noun which 
follows. They are generally neuters, or feminines, and are meant to express 
aggregates, but they may also form adjectives, thus becoming possessive 
compounds, with or without secondary suffixes. 

If an aggregate compound is formed, final w a is changed to ^ ^, fern., or in 
•some cases to m amy neut. Final Ht^an and w a are changed to ^t or ^ am. 
vm^ pancha-gavamy neut. an aggregate of five cows, from pafichany five, 
and gOy cow. Ttftgo (in an aggregate compound) is changed to Trr^gava 
(Pfin. II. I, 23), and ^ nau to ifT^ ndta. ^f^^ pancha-gul^, as an 
adjective, worth five cows (P&n. v. 4, 92). f|R^: dvinauhy bought for 
two ships. V^ dvy-afigulam, neut. what has the measure of two 
fingers, firom dviy two, and afiguliJ^, finger; final i being changed to a. 
Vl[: dvy-ahaJ^y masc. a space of two days ; ahan changed to aha^ (P^« n- 
I, 23). li^WlcS: pancha-kapdlai^y m. f. n. an ofiering (puroddiai) 
made in a dish with five compartments, fix>m panchan, five, and 
kapdlamy neut. (PSi?. 11. i, 51, 52; iv. i, 88). f^n^fMt tri^loki, fern, 
the three worlds : here the Dvigu compound takes the fem. termination 
to express an aggregate (Pin. iv. i, 21). Pd^iffj tri-bhuvanamy neut. the 
three worlds : here the Dvigu compound takes the neuter termination. 
^Vf^l'O daia-kumdriy fem. an assemblage of ten youths. ^VJ^ chatur^ 
yugam, neut. the four ages. 

§ 530. The following rules apply to the changes of the final syllables in determinative 
compounds. Very few of them are general as requiring a change without any regard to the 

-}5^0. COMPOUND WOBDS. 239 

preceding words in the compound. The general rules are given first, afterwards the more 
special, while rules for the formation of one single compound are left out, such compounds 
being within the sphere of a dictionary rather than of a grammar. 

1. ^^ficA, verse, ^pur, town, W^^op, water, ^ iAiir, charge, nh^patMn, path, add 

final Wa (PILq. v. 4, 74); "w^-^i ardharckah, a half- verse. This is optional with 
Vl^t^pathin after the negative Wa; HMtl apatham or ^rt^TH apanthdh. 

2. TX^K^ rdjan, king, "w^f^ ahan, day, ^1^ sakhi, friend, become THT rdja, Wf aAa, ml 

sakhaj 'V^KTf • mahdr^aii. (PHei. v. 4, 91.) 

3. 7^ uras, if it means chief, becomes 7^ urasaj HHHi^ adcorasam, an excellent 

horse (P&9. v. 4, 93). Likewise after HfiV/^ra^t, if the locative is expressed; P[IJT4 
pratyurasarn, on the chest (P&n. v. 4, 82). 
4^ nftf akshi, eye, becomes inif aksha, if it ceases to mean eye. <iqiq|! ffovdkshah, a 
window ; but flltn 1111011 brdhma^idkski, the eye of a Brfthman. (P&n. v. 4, 76.) 

5. ^nV^ anas, cart, ^V^T^ ahuin, stone, ^BR^ ayag, iron, ^T^ saras, lake, take final W a 

if the compound expresses a kind or forms a name. «m(014|« kdldyasam, black-iron; 
but n^Mi sadayah, a piece of good iron. (Pftigi. v. 4, 94.) 

6. Illlf( dra&mafi becomes TV brahma, if preceded by the name of a country ; ^<l|Rilt 

surdskprabrahmaitt a Br&hman of Surlishtra (P&n. v. 4, 104). After ^ ku and 1^ 
mahd that substitution is optional (P&9. v. 4, 105). 

7. 'K^'^tdkshan takes final W a after VJ^grdma and ^KT? kautaj i|IHAII(* grdmatakshaft^ 

village carpenter. (P&n.v. 4, 95.) 

8. ^P^ ^an, dog, takes final W a after vfk ah, and after certain words, not the names of 

animals, with which it is compared ; lll%lmt dkarshahali, a dog of a die, a bad 
throw (?). (P&n. v. 4, 97.) 

9. W|t^ adhvan becomes Wl| adhva after prepositions ; IHW prddhvaft, (P&ijl. v. 4, 85.) 

10. «i«i«|^ sdman, hymn, and fi^H*^ loman, hair, become inT ^ma and W^ Uma after Hfk 

prafi, V^ anu, and ^1^ ova; ^•jcol'iJ anulomaf, regular; ^gcoi«i anulomam, adv. 
with the hair or grain, i. e. regularly. (P&n. v. 4, 75.) 

11. ini^ tamas becomes J(^^ tamasa after ^1^ ava, ^ sam, and Wl andha ; MHMH andha^ 

tamasam, blind darkness. (P&n. V. 4, 79.) 
13. T^^ rahas becomes T!^ rahasa after V^ ante, W^ ava^ and W taptaj M^^^l 
anurahasah, solitary. (Pft?. v. 4, 81.) 

13. ^^^oarcAa«, becomes ^"4^ varchaga after TV ftraAma and ^^hasti; fin^-^ J brahma- 

varchasam, the power of a Br&hman. (P&9. v. 4, 78.) 

14. ntgo becomes ^mgava, except at the end of an adjectival Dvigu. ^"^'i^ palichagavam, 

five cows ; but J"^«j; pailchaguh, bought for five cows. (P&igi. v. 4> 93.) 

15. «n fiatf, ship, becomes vTl^ ndoa, if it forms a numerical aggregate ; 4-^ ni ^ paflehandoamf 

five ships : not when it forms a numerical adjective ; 4"^«ilj paiiehanault, worth five 
ships. (P&n. V. 4, 99.) 

16. «1T nau, ship, after ^V^ ardha, becomes vTr^ ndoaj "^^ni^ ardhandvam, half a ship. 

(PAn. V. 4, 100.) 

17. ^lOibA^r^, a measure of grain, becomes ^9R AiA^^a as an aggregate; fb ^ 1 v dmkhdram : 

also after ^r4 ardha; VMIMK ardhakhdram. (P&n. v. 4, loi.) 

18. ^irfc9 afijali, a handful, after fw dvi or f^ ^ri, may, as an aggregate, take final ^H a: 

Shlc^ dvyaiijalam or id^fci dvyailjali, two handfuls. (P&n. v. 4, 102.) 

wo COMPOUND WORDS. § 521- 

19. ^^jff9 anguliy finger, after numenJa and indeclinables, becomes ^^m angula: s^c» 

doyaligulamy a length of two fingers. (P&igi. v. 4, 86.) 
30. ^fw saJb^At, thigh, becomes ^RFQ saibMa after ^nK^uttara, ipT flifjjra, and ^|»<{nMi^ 

\||^^9^4 pibvaaaktham. (Pftn. v. 4, 98.) 
ai. i.i(Vl rdtrit night, after ^ sarva, after partitive words, after ti^Hin samkhydiay ^piT 

puny a, likewise after numerals and indeclinables, becomes T!l^ rdtra; n^Ki^i sarva^ 

rdtraf^t the whole night; ^9 il A I pHrvardtraftf the fore-night; fk vici dvirdtram^ two 

nights. (Pftn. V. 4, 87.) 
22. V^aAan, day, under the same circumstances, becomes H]| ahna; «si%p; «an7<£&iiii^s 

the whole day: but not after a numeral when it expresses an aggregate ; V^tc^oyoAo^ 

two dajs.. Except also ^^m^ punydham, a good daj, and ^«kiI1 ekdham^ n. and m, 

a single day. (P&igi. v. 4, 88-90.) 

11. Collective Compounds, 

^ 521. Collectiye compounds (Dvandva) are divided into two classes. The 
first class (called ^iJXiliC itaretara) comprises compounds in which two or more 
words^ that would naturally be connected bj and, are united, the last, taking 
the terminations either of the dual or the plural, according to the number 
of words forming the compound. The second class (called 'mj^pt^samdhdra) 
comprises the same kind of compounds but formed into neuter nouns in the 
singular, ^^iinv^ kasiy-aivauy an elephant and a horse, is an instance of the 
former, ^^THgI hcLstyaivam, the elephants and horses (in an army), an instance 
of the latter class. Likewise Mf UlH iukla-krishnau^ white and black ; ^m^ 
ffovdivam, a cow and a horse. 

If instead of a horse and an elephant, f^iip^ hastyaivaUy the intention 
is to express horses and elephants, the compound takes the terminations of 
the plural, if^iinirr: hastyaivd^. 

§ 522. Some rules are given as to which words should stand first in a Dvandva com- 
pound. Words with fewer syllables should stand first : fi(nnln(r^ Hva-ke^avau, Siva and 
Kes'ava; not W^Plf^Pli kescmaiivau. Words beginning with a vowel and ending in W a should 
stand first : ^^i^viif Ua-kfish^u^ tsa and Krishna. Words ending in ^ t (gen. Jtt eh) and 
7 tt (gen. Wh of) should stand first : ^ft^Ci hari-harau, Hari and Hara ; also m^i^ftnir 
bhoktfi'bhogyau, the enjoyer and the enjoyed. Lastly, words of greater importance should 
have precedence : ^^f^m deva'daityau, the god and the demon ; l||f|iUH|()9l|r brdhmwftt" 
kshatriyaUf a Brfthman and a Kshatriya ; fUnfinru mdtd-pitarcat, mother and Aither, but 
m earlier Sanskrit 1^ H^IXH I A < I pitard-rndtard, father and mother. (PII9. vi. 3, 33.) 

§ 523. Words ending in ^ ri, expresuve of relationship, or sacred titles, forming the 
first member of a compound, and being followed by another word ending in ^r*» or by 
TgS putra, son, change their ^ n into Wl d (PAn. vi. 3, 25). 1TJ mdtri-\'f^ pitfi form 
•1 1 n I r^ n Ci mdtdpitarau, father and mother; ^^ pitri-^-^g^ putra form fM rt'l ^(0 pitdputrauj 
;i[Vf ilo/fi-h^fk^ potji form ^dlt(tAIU hotdpotdrau^ the Hotri and Potri priests. 

§ 524. When the names of certain deities are compounded, the first sometimes lengthens 
its final vowel (P&n. vi. 3, 26). Thus OlUNI^IlJT miirdoarunau^ Mitra and Varu^a; 
^••iT«M«it agnUhomau, Agni and Soma. Similar irregularities appear in words like 

-$538. COMPOUND WOBDS. 241 

mm^rW^i dydnd-jtfithwyau, beaven and earth ; Vm^TPnJi fuhdid-naktam, dawn and night 
(Pan. VI. 3, 39-31). 

§ 525. If the compound takes the termination of the singular, then final ^ cA, ^ cAA, 
IT y, 15 jh, ?r rf, \9h, and ^ h take an additional W a. ^^TT^tJ^cA+iWW tvach form ^nW^ 
vdJctvachamy speech and skin (P&n. v. 4, 106). W^ aAan, day (see § 90, 196), and kS^ 
rdtri, night, form the compound v^^idi ahordtrafi, a day and night, a wx^rffupw 
(P&9. V. 4, 87). 

§ 536. Wni^ bhrdtarau may be used in the sense of brother and sister; ^J^putrau in 
the sense of son and daughter; Vkni^ pitarau in the sense of fiather and mother; m^M 
hahrau in the sense of father and mother-in-law. Man and wife may be expressed by 
yi\^\mi\ jdyd-pati, ^i^Kth iampati, or i{Mrfl dampati, 

III. Possessive Compounds. 

§ 527. Possessive compounds (Bahuvrihi) are always predicates referring 
to some subject or other. A determinative may be used as a possessive 
compound by a mere change of termination or accent. Thus iftcSttm^ nilor 
uipakmij a blue lotus, is a determinative compound (Tatpurusha, subdivision 
Karmadharaya) ; but in HlcJtrMcii ^ETt: nthtpalam sarahy a blue lotus lake, 
nilotpalam is an adjective and as such a predicative or possessive com- 
pound; (see P&n. 11. 2, 24, com.) In the same manner w^fv: anaival^y 
not-a-horse, is a determinative, W«f^ T^ anaivo rathal^, a cart without a 
horse^ a horseless cart, a possessive compound. 

Examples : uiH^^iit IHH: prdpta^udako ffrdmaJ^, a water-reached village, a 
village reached by water. '^RfT^s'Tyi'^ Hiha-ratho 'na4vdn, a bull by 
whom a cart (raihai) is drawn (il4ha). W^^n^^^ ^: upahrita-^aiA 
rudrai^, Rudra to whom cattle {paSuh) is offered (upahrUa), ^ftlri^ 
fft: pita-ambaro JiariJ^y Hari possessing yellow garments. OTil: pror 
pan^al^y leafless, i. e. a tree from which the leaves are fallen off. 
W^l Orputral^f sonless. f'<RV^ chiira-ffu^, possessed of a brindled cow. 
4M4il9« rdpavad'bhdryai^, possessed of a beautiful wife. f^T^t dvi^ 
mUrdhal^y two-headed : here mUrdha stands for mUrdhan. ft^j^dm-pdd^ 
two-le^ed : here p&d stands for pdda, ^^ su-hfid, having a good 
heart, a friend. ^PutdlNHli: bhakshitarbhikshaf^^ one who has eaten his 
alms. Hl<A^iSI<4My* nila-ujjvala-vapuJ^j having a blue resplendent body. 

§ 538. Bahuvrthi compounds frequently take suffixes. The following rules apply to the 
changes of the final syllables in possessive compounds : 

1. ti(V^ sakthi, thigh, and ^Puf akshi, eye, if they mean really thigh and eye, take final 

^aj Wft^lSr^l kamaldkshdfi, lotus-eyed. (P&n. v. 4, 113.) 

2. ifgffe anguli, finger, substitutes final W a if it refers to wood ; if^pV ?^ dvyahgulam 

ddru, a piece of wood with two prongs*. (P&n. v. 4, 114.) 

♦ ^*jfa^^y i <<M<i VranfijfriMWTlf , PraknyA-Kaumudt. 

I 1 

242 COMPOUND WORDS. § 529— 

3. ^fi[^fn4rdhan, head, substitutes final W a after % dvi and fiff tri; f^Pf^ dnmdrdkali, 

having two heads. (P&n. v. 4, 115.) 

4. col«i«\ toman, hair, substitutes final W a after IVIf^aii/ar and ^Vf^! vahiftj WW^THl antar" 

lomaf^j having the hairy part inside. (Pfiiji. v. 4, 117.) 

5. 'Hjfw^ ndsikd, nose, becomes «nT na«a, if it stands at the end of a name ; *ii«itii gonasafi, 

cow-nosed, i. e. a snake ; but not after ^5? sthUlaj ^H«fTflra: sth(Ua-n4sika^, 
large-nosed, i. e. a hog. The same change takes place after prepositions ; 9Wt 
unnasaji, with a prominent nose. (P&i[i. v. 4, 118, 119.) 

6. After Wa, j: dvit, or ^m, ^f<9 hali, furrow, and '^IfW^ sakthi, thigh, may substitute 

final W ay V^cd* ahalah or W?{f?^I ahalifi. (P^* v. 4, I3i.) 

7. After the same particles, Tndprajd, progeny, and ^VTm^cJA^, mind, are treated like 

nouns ending in IV^o^y S^^^ durmedkd^, (P&9* v. 4, 123.) 

8. Vmdharma, law, preceded by one word, is treated like a noun ending in Ht^on ; ^l^fWnwT 

kalyd^dharmd, (P&9. v. 4, 134.) 

9. 'm^jambhd, jaw, after certain words, becomes ^^^^ambhan; ^WT sujambhd, 

10. W^jrffw*, knee, after Upra and ^ *ain, becomes I5J**' JP^prajHulk (Pll^. v. 4, 129). 

This is optional after "WlA^rdhva (P&9. v. 4, 130). 

11. WSn(^Udha8, udder, becomes "ira^f^efAafi; ^^^hA ibu^^iAnl. (Plli(i. v. 4, 131.) 

13. H^^rfAantw, bow, becomes V^^f^dhanDanj ^ <H ir«4| | pushpadhanvd, having a bow of 
flowers (P&ii. V. 4, 133). In names this is optional. 

13. Wmijdyd, wife, becomes ^IHlP^jdnij ^pnnftft iubhajdmfi. (Pki^. v. 4, 134.) 

14. 'TO gandha, smell, substitutes 'tf^ ^aniAt after certain words j ^^iftK sugandhifi, (Pftn- 

V. 4. 135-137-) 

15. m^pdda, foot, becomes X[(^pdd after certain words ; WHMI^ vydghrapdd. (PA^. v. 4» 

t6. ^ danttty tooth, becomes !fV c^a^ after many words; fw^^dvidan, having two teeth, 

(sign of a certain age) ; fem. %i^ll^ dvidati, (P&n. v. 4, 141— 145.) 
1 7* ^^^ kakuda, hump, becomes «K^ JbaArvd after certain words and in certain senses ; 

WlTHnS^ ajdtdkakud^ a young bull before his humps have grown. (P&i^. v. 4> 


18. 7^ was and other words belonging to the same class add final «i ka: ^9iTW 

vyH^koraskah, broad-chested. (P&9. v. 4, 151.) 

19. Words in ^tn add final «iJba in the feminine; WJ ^ I ft 41 bahusvdmikd, having many 

masters, from <aiRi«i,^^inm, master. (P&9. v. 4, 153.) 

20. Feminine words in \i, like ff!^ nad(, and words in ^ pi, add final ^ ka; ^j^^iiOAk 

bahukumdrikah, having many maidens; WJHJ*! 5aAtf&Aar/rtAa&, having many 
husbands. (Pftn. y. 4, 153.) 

21. Most other words may or may not add final «lita; W^fTc^fllK bahumdlakafi or^j«ii<oi^ 

bahumdldkafL or MHIcSS bahumdlafi, (P^* ^* 4» 154O 

IV. Adverbial Compounds, 
J 51x9. Adverbial or indeclinable compounds (Avyayibh&va) are formed by 
joining an indeclinable particle with another word. The resulting com- 
pounds, in which the indeclinable particle forms always the first element, 
are again indeclinable, and generally end, like adverbs, in the ordinary 
terminations of the nom. or ace. neut. 

-$ 53^- COMPOUND W0BD8. 248 

Examples : ^vAlfflc adhi-hari, upon Hari, instead of ivAf fu adhi harau, 
loc. sing. v^Hviig anu-mA^ti, after Vishnu^ instead of w^ ftn^ anu 
vis/n^umy ace. sing. T^^pol upa-krishnam, near to Krishna. f^4(\l|4 
nhr-makshikamy free from flies, flylessly. ^vfilf^ atuhimam, past the 
winter, after the winter, instead of ^rfk ffjR ati hitnam, ace. sing. 
n^fHpif pradakshinamy to the right. VJIS^ anu-rilpamy after the form, 
i.e. accordingly, instead of w^ ^ anu rilpam, ace. sing. imi^Pfb yathor- 
iakti, according to one's ability, instead of ^llVlAm iaktir yathd, ^i^ 
8a»tfiiiam with the grass; Hf^UHTw satriiiam attiy he eats (everything) 
even the grass, instead of ^%^ ;||f trinena saha, with the grass. 4||C|^4 
ydvach'Chhlokam, at every verse, m^f^ dmukii, until final delivery. 
Kf^im anu-ffohffam, near the Gang&« ^f^^lTll^ upa-iaradam, near the 
autumn ; firom ^R^ iarad, autumn (P&n. v. 4, 107). Tinit^ upa-Jarasamy 
at the approach of old age ; from wc^Jaras, old age {§ 167). TV^ffNl^t^^o- 
sarnU or lr^^M upa-samidhamy near the fire-wood; frt)m ^fri^T^samidhy 
fire-wood. "W^tpi npa-^djamy near the king; from TT^rdjany king. 

§ 530. There are some Avyaytbh&vas the first element of which is not an indeclinable 
particle. Ex. PnsQ tishthad-ffu, at the time when the cows stand to be milked ; s'^'W 
paHcka-gangam, at the place where the five Gafigfts meet, (near the Mildhav-rlU) gh&t ftt 
Benares); km*wn pratyag-grdmam, west of the village. 

§ 531. The following rules apply to the changes of the final syllables in adverbial 
compounds : 

1. Words ending in mutes {k, kh, g, ghy ch, chh,j, jh, fy fh, 4» (^» ^ '^> ^9 ^^9 P> P^j ^> ^^) 

may or may not take final ^aj 9 M ^ Pi 4 upasamidham or ^Mti tn ^ upasamit, near 
the fire-wood. (P&n. v. 4, j 1 1 .) 

2. Words ending in IH^ cm substitute final ^aj HVITfR adhydtnuxm, with regard to one- 

self. (P&n. V. 4, 108.) 

3. But neuters in in^an may or may not ; Vipdi upachartnam or ^fT^ upacharma, near 

the skin. (Pft^. v. 4, 109.) 

4. W^\ nad(y MilS^I4ll paun^mdsi, Vli|(|4|4u1 dgrahdyaj^iy and ftftpm may or may not 

take final ^aj '9V[^f^ upanacU or W^^ i^anadoffiy near the river. (P&n. v. 4, iio^ 
and 113.) 

5. Words belonging to the class beginning with IJR]^ darad take final V a; ^h^v^ 

upadaradamy about autumn. (P&i^. v. 4, 107.) 




Esoplanation of some of the Verbal Armbandhas or Indicatory Letters, 

W a is put at the end of roots ending in a consonant in order to fiicilitate 
their pronunciation. 

Accent* — ^The last letter of a root is accented with the acute, the grave, or 
circumflex accent^ in order to show that the verb follows the Parasmai- 
pada, the Atmanepada, or both forms. 

The roots themselves are divided into uddtta^ acutely accented, and anuddtta, 
gravely accented, the former admitting, the latter rejecting the inter- 
mediate ^ i. 

W d prohibits the use of the intermediate ^ i in the formation of the Nishth&s 
{§ 333, D. a), Pan. vii. a, i6. Ex. i^ phullak from fH^^ iUphald. 

j^i requires the insertion of a nasal afl^er the last radical vowel, which nasal 
is not to be omitted where a nasal that is actually written would be 
omitted (f 345,^^), Pan. vii. i, 58 ; vi. 4, 34. Ex. H^ nandati from ^ffif 
nadi, Pass, ifini nandyate; but from iv^ or ir?^ manth, Pres. ihlflr 
manthati. Pass, ifvqir mathyate. 

^ ir shows that a verb may take the first or second aorist in the Parasmai- 
pada (f 367), Pa^. iii. i, 57. Ex. ^r^^c^achyutat or m^tMlhi^achyotU 
fit>m ^^f^chyutir. 

^ i prohibits the use of the intermediate ^ t in the formation of the Nishth&s 

(§ 333* !*• ^)» P^^* ^"- ^9 ^4- ^^' "^'^ unnal^ from "ii^t undi. 

7 u renders the admission of the intermediate \i optional before the genmdial 
WT tvd (§ 337, II. 5), Pan. vii. a, 56; and therefore inadmissible in the 
past participle (Pan. vii. a, 15). Ex. ^rfNi^n iamitvd or ^|T?VT idntvd from 
^ iamu; but ^7: Sdntaf^. 

9 4 renders the admission of the intermediate ^ i optional in the general 
tenses before all consonants but \y {§ 337, I* a), P&n. vii. a, 44; and 
therefore inadmissible in the past participle (Psln. vii. a, 15). Ex. ^^T 
seddM or ^S^smsedhiia from fm^sidhd; but f^: siddhah^ 

^ ri prevents the substitution of the short for the long vowel in the redupU- 
cated aorist of causals (f 37a*), Pfi^. vii. 4, a. Ex. Vc}cft^«i^ alulokat 
from titsf lokri. 


H fi shows that the verb takes the second aorist in the Parasmaipada {§ 367), 

P4n. III. X, 55. Ex. w^fffi^agamat firom ifj} gamli. 
IT e forbids Vriddhi in the first aorist {§ 348 *), P&i?. vii. 2, 5. Ex. WH^fh^ama- 

thit from IT^ mathe. 
W\ indicates that the participle is formed iaiina instead o( Kta(§ 442, 5), 

P&^. vjii. 2, 45. Ex. yftm pinah from vliqnft opydyt. 
l^n shows that the verb follows the Atmanepada (PaQ. i. 3, 12). 
H n shows that the verb follows both the Atmanepada and Parafimaipada, 

the former if the act reverts to the subject (P&n. i. 3^ 72)* 
f^ m shows that the past participle has the power of the present (Pa9. iii. 

2, 187). Ex. -^.phullai^, blown, from f^(l!m8ST niphald. 
^m shows that the vowel is not lengthened in the causative {§ 462, note), 

Pfin. VI. 4, 92; and that the vowel is optionally lengthened in the aorist 

of the passive (P^^. vi. 4, 93). 

BM Class {Bhvddiy I Class). 

I. Parasmaipada Verbs. 

I. ^IM, to be. 
Parasmaipada : P. i. H^rrfti hhdvdmi, 2. ¥Rftr bhdyasi, 3. H^ Ihdvati, 
4. WRt Ihdvdvahy 5. il^W bhdvathal^y 6. WTIH hMvataf^, 7. H^rnn bhdvdmat^, 
8. H^^ hhdvathay 9. H^^ hhdvanti, I. i. im^ dbhavam, 2. inrr: dbhavak, 
3. ^W^rfJAaro^, 4. ^ra^n dbhavdva, 5. ^V^TTIT dbhavcUam, 6, ^WWfff dbhavatdm^ 
7. ^EM^nr dbhavdma, 8. ^M^ dbhavata, 9. ^hdt^ atAovan, O. i. H^ bhdveyam, 

2. ^ bhdvehy 3. )|%i|[^i/iat;e/9 4. H^ hhdveva^ 5. ^^ bhdveiam^ 6, *l^ bhdvetdm, 
7. H^&A(ft;ema, 8. HTTr 5A(£t;e/a, 9.^^: bhdveyuhy l.i.^^'^ff^bhdvdni^ 2,>inbhdvctj 

3. H^ bhdvcUUy 4. ^^nr bMvdva, 5. H^ bhdvatam^ 6. H^ bhdvaidm^ 7. H^THI 
bhdvdmay 8. *TOr bhdvata, 9. >rt3 bhdvantu w Pf. i. ^^rq[jf babhuvaf (see p. 175), 
a. W*jftnr *«**^^*'^, 3. ^T babhuva^ 4. ^^[J^ babhUvivdy 5. W>J!T^: babhttvatkutk, 
6. W^S^g: babkdvdtuf^y 7. ^?^jNh babhilvimd, 8. ^^ babhUvd^ 9. W)j[j: babMvuJ^y 
II A. I. ir^ dbMvam (see p. 188), 3. ^ar^: rfJAdiJ, 3. iff^jj^^d JArf/, 4. w^rfftArfm, 

van, F. I. Nf^illDl bhaviskydmiy 2. HfV^oAl bhavishydsiy 3. ^rf^T^fw bhavishydii, 
4. Hfr^irv: bhavishydvai^y' 5. nfinvnn bhavishydthaJjt, 6. )lf^mr: bhavishydtal^j 
7. Hfrmft bhavishydmaJj^f 8. wf^nv^ bhavishydthay 9. Hfnoflf bhavishydnti, 
C. I. ^mfr*! dbhavishyam, 3. mrf^: dbhavishyai^ 3. ^mftvn^ dbhavishyat, 
4. ^emf^nm? dbhavishydva^ 5. ^BOrf^nmr dbhavishyatam^ 6. ^MfrmiT dbhavishyatAn, 
7. ^cnTfnQT>V dbhaviahydma^ 8. ^nrfnw dbhavishyaia, 9. ^ilHf^fvv9( dbkamshyan^ 

t The reduplicative syllable ^ 6a is irregular, instead of ^ 6tt. The base, too, is irregular 
(P&n. I. 3, 6) ; the regular form would have been ^JHI^ bvbhdva. 


P. F. i.Hf^ifT^ bhamtdsmi^ a. ^vf^inf^ bhavitdsi, 3. >lftin bhavitd, 4. HftiWTW: 
bhavitdsvabj 5. Hftuwr: bhamtasthab^ 6. HfV|irr& bhavitdrau^ 7. Hf^nn^: bhavi- 
tMnab, 8. >iflnmw bhavUasiha, 9. vrfinfTC bhavitdrab, B. i. giro bhUydsam, 
a. >Jin: AA%4*, 3. >J?nnM%(^, 4. >§[?n^ bMydsva, 5. ^in# bMydstam, 6. ^^qrai 
bhUydstdm^ 7. ^[^n^T bhUydsma, 8. ^i^rRcT bhUydsta^ 9. ^in^: bhdydsub H Part. 
Pres. VRf^ bhdvan, Perf. Y^^TT!^ babhUvduj Put. Hf^rq^^ bhavishydn, Ger. qj^ 
bMtvd or °^ 'bhdya. Adj. )|f%ipq: bhavitdvyaby K^^^ bhavardyaby WV. 
bhavyab {§ 456). 

Atmanepada* : P. i. ^ iMt?«, a. H^ bhdvaae, 3. wir bhdvate, 4, H^n^ 
bhdvdvahcy 5. H^ bhdvethe, 6. vr^ bhdvete, 7. H^iH^ bhdvdmahey 8. H^ AM- 
vadhve, 9. H^ bhdvante, I. i. ^m% dbhave^ a. ^nr^^rn dbhavaihdb, 3. ^DOnr 
dbhavaia, 4. m^nf^ (£iAat;af;aAi9 5. ^m^^ dbhavethdm, 6. ^M^ dbhavetdm, 
7. ^BWInf^ dbhavdmahi, 8. ^mw dbhavadhvam^ 9. ^r^nir dbhavanta, O. i. ¥r^ 
bhdveya, a. H^^t bhdveihdbt 3« ^'^ bhdveta^ 4. ^i^^rf^ AA<£t;«;aAi, 5. H^irnif 
bhdveydthdm, 6, H%in?rf bhdveydtdmy 7. H^nff bhdvemahi, 8. H^ bhdvedhvam^ 
g.^iATj^bhdveran, I.i.vf^ bhdvaif 2.>f(^^bhdvasva, ^.v{^ bhdvatdm, 4.H^nrt 
bhdvdvahai, 5. )IT^ bhdvethdm, 6. tl^nf bhdvetdm, 7. K^inf bhdvdmahaiy 8. )?^ 
bhdvadhvam, 9. H^tirf bhdvanidm 11 Pf. i.'W^ babhdvi (see note t* page 2(45)9 
a. ^iiq[f^ babhUvisMy 3. i|»j^% babhdviy 4. ^T^jfn^ babMvivdhe, 5. W^fJIT^ babhit- 
vdthe, 6. Wf}^ Idbhdvdte, 7. W^jf^ babMvimdhe, 8. ^f^ or "^ lalMvidhvi 
or -^to^ (see $ 105), 9. "W^jflft: babMviri^ I A. i. ^mfTf<r c^AamAi^ a. ^WlftnrK 
dbhavishfhdby 3. Wlf^ dbhavishfa, 4. iraftrvqrf^ dbhavishvahi, 5. ^^^rff^r^ <i5Aa- 
vishdthdm^ 6. ^nifrmirf dbhavishdtdm, 7. ^nif^PRf^ dbhamshmahi, 8. imfw or ^ 
dhhavidhvam or -4^vam, 9. ^mftriTTr dbhavishata, F. Hf^ Ihavishyi Sec, 
C. ^wf^ dbhamshye &c., P. F. i. Hftnn^ Ihavitdhe, a. >?ftrm% Ihavitdsey 
3. >lftin bhavitd, 4. ^rftnira^ bhaviidsvahe, 5. ^fftmnrr^ IhavUasdthe, 6. Hftnn^ 
bhavii^au, 7. Hf9Bra% Ihavitdsmahe^ 8. Hfmid hfiavitddhve, 9. ^rftrmx:: AAavt- 
Mra^y B, i. hMHt bhavisMyd^ a. HfWwT: hhavishishfhdb, 3. HfWlF 5Aaw- 
shUhfd, 4. H(V|iflc|f^ hhavisMvdhiy 5. ^lOml^dijiif hhavishiydstkdmy 6. ^fWhrnSBrf 
bhavishiydstdm, 7. ^vfinrt^ bhavishimdhi, 8. Hf%4M or ""^ bhavishldhvdm or 
-^hvdm, 9. Hftr4)T5( 6AamAfrrf» u Part. Pres. )nilT^ ^Acfvamana^, Perf. ^^[^HT: 
bdbhUvdndby Fut. ^fV«i|Hl4U* bhavishydmdiiab' 

Passive : P. i. ^ 6A%^t> 2. gnro bMydse^ 3. ^^"n^ IhHydte, 4. ^iH^ 6Ad- 
ydvahe^ ^.^^^bhUySthe^ e.^^bhUy^tCj 7. ^im^ bhUydmahe, S.^j^ bkdyddhve^ 
9. ^i?^ bhdydntey I. iv^^ (iM%e &c., O. ^1^ bhdyiya &c., I. ^ dA%a( &c. ii 

* ^6^^ may be used in the Atmanepada after certain prepositions. Even by itself it is 

used in tbe sense of obtaining : 9 ftnv H^ «a iriyam bhavate, he obtains happiness. (S&r. 

P- 4» 1- 3O 

t ^6A<I with W^ anu means to perceive, and may yield a passive. 


P£ "VS^ babhUvi &c., like Atmanepada, I A. i. imf^ or innftrftv dbhaviskiy 
2. ^wftffx: or ^nnftrVT: dbhavish(hdi^, 3. vmftr dbhdvij 4. ^mf^miff dbhdvishvahi 
&C.9 like Atmanepada, F. hAt^ or mfnit bhavishyi &c., C. imfV<^ or iMTftr^ 
dbhavishye &c., P. F. ^Tf^fWI^ or mftnnf bhcmtdhe &c., B. hMHt or ^nf^riA^ 
bMvishiyd &c. ll Part Pres. ^gjmXH: bkdydmdnab^ Fut. MftlHW bhavishyd- 
mdnab^ Past ^ bhUtdb* 

Causative, Farasmaipada : P. HT^infl! bhdvdydmiy I. imnr^ dbhdvayam, 
O. HT^^ bhdvdyeyatn, I. MnnrrfW 6Mvrfyam 11 Pf. m^nrhnm: bhdvaydnchakara^ 
II A. Wir)H^ dbibhavam, F. Ml^lOilvilOl bhdvayishyamiy C. imnAn^ (i5Mt;a^i- 
shyam^ P. F. Hl^fVflirm bhdvayitdsmiy B. m^ire bhdvyaaam. 

Causative, Atmanepada : P. nn^ bhavdye, I. wm^ dbhavaye^ O. m^^ 
bhdvdyeya, I. HT^ bhdvdyai 11 Pf. HT^irNlk bMvaydnchakre^ II A. v4hl^ 
dbibhave, F. Hnftr^ bhavayishyi^ C. Winftnv dbhdvayishye^ P. F. KRftnn^ 
bhdvayitoAe, B. trr^rANhr bhdvayishiyd. 

Causative, Passive.: P. m^ bhdvyS, I. imt^ dbhdvye, O. m^ bhdvyiya, 
•I. W^ bhdvyai \\ Pf. Hl^ilNltiy °^l>iL^, °1IT^, bh&vayanchakre, -babhilve, -die, 
I A. iRHFrftrf^ dbhdvayishi or Vimf^ dbhdvishi^ F. HPrftn^ bhdvayishyi or 
vnf^^ bhdvishySj C. ^mnftn^ dbhdvayishye or ^nnfn^ dbhdvishye, P. F. 
Ml^rilffl^ bhdvayitahe or HlfTin^ bhdvitdhe^ B. ^iT^ftnfN bhdvayishiyd or 
^nf^nfhi bhdvishiyd. 

Desiderative, Farasmaipada : P. w^gnqiftf bibhiishdmiy I. ^r^4 (fZ^Ati- 
«Aai7», O. ^^ bubhUsheyam, L ^^RTftr bubhUshdni w Pf. ^^irt^qiR bvhhUshdh- 
chakdra, I A. wj^jfrt dbubhUshisham^ F. ^DlviirH bubhUshishydmi, C. H^^tfM 
dhubhUshishyam^ P. F. ^f^nnf^T bttbhilshitasmi, B. "^J^ji^qT^ bubhUshyasam, 

Desiderative, Atmanepada : P. ^1^ bubhushe^ I. ir^^aJ^Au^A^, O. ^^^ 
bubhilsheyaf I. ^) bubhiishai \\ Pf. ^|^[7lHTii bubhushdnchakre, I A. i. ir^ftrfv 
dbubhtishishi, 2, Hg^rmi: dhuhhushishthdb, 3. V^[^[f^ dbtibhushishfa^ F-^^d^ 
bubhUshishyS, C. ^nj^f^ dbubhushishye, P. F. "J^f^nn^ bubhushitdhcj B. 
^)|;f^|i(hr bubhushiahtyd. 

Desiderative, Fassive : P.'y|i^6w6Aw*Ay^, I. ^1^^ dbubhushye, O. 'J^p^ 
bubhushy^ya^ l.^^fi^bubhiishyaiw Pt'^^jpA^lhbubhiishdnchakrey I A. i. VJ^f^f^ 
dbubhtishishij 2. vj^fMin: dbubhiishishihaJ^y 3. W^f^ cf&u&Ati^Ai (see ^ 406), 
F. ^f^ bubhAshishyi^ C. ^V^f«n^ dbubhilshishye, P. F. ^{^[f^nn^ bubhUtshiidhej 
B. ^J)j[f^riAiT bubhushiahiyd. 

Intensive, Atmanepada : P. i. 'i^'^JoJAMy^, a. wtq^l^toiMydi^, 3. ^^^I^it^li^ 
bobhUydte^ 4. wt^f?n^ bobhuydvahe, 5. "^^>J3W bobhdyithe^ 6. ^t*^ bobhuyfte, 
7. wt^illH^ bobhuydmahe, 8. wt^iT«9&o&My(£(2At769 p.^wt^^Jl^^otA^efn/e^I. i.V^ft^ 
dbobhUye, 2, ^nft^jpnni dbobhdyathdJ^j 3. vlW^^fTTH dbobhUyatUj 4. VVt^jL^RP^ rf6o- 
bhUyavahi^ 5. Vih^^i dhobhdyethdm^ 6. ^rft»|[^M dbobhUyetdnii 7. ^nrt^j?n*rff 
dhobhUydmahif 8. ^pft^fTIM dbobhiyadhvam^ 9. V^^4a dbobhdyanta^ O. Wt^fj^^ 

248 bh6 glass, pabashaipada verbs. 

lohhdySya &c., 1. 1. 'i^gi^ lohMyai, a. wtfJW lobhUydsvay 3. ^W lobMydtdm, 
4. ^fhjTqnl bobMydvahai, 5. yft^t^ bobhUydhom^ 6. wt^J^ bdbMyit&m^ 

7. WtijnVT'lt bobhUydmahai^ 8. 'w't)|im bobhAyddhvatn^ 9. W^i[?hrt bobMydnidm i 
Pf. <ft ^4 f |f| fli bobhUydrkchakre^ I A. i. ^^^^l^ft dbobhUytshi, 2. ^nft^jftur. dbobhU- 
yishthdh, 3. Hift^f^g dbobhUyishfa, 4. Wl^^nmr^ dbobMyishvahi, ^,%rft^gpm^ 
dbobhUyishdthdm, 6. H^'^^ftlMiHI dbobhUyiahatdm, 7. mft^PniMn? dbobMyishmahi, 

8. ^rwt^ftw or °^ dbobhdyidhvam or -(f^vaniy 9. «^*1^f^H4 dbobhiiyishata, 
F. -wt^fqi^ bobhUyishySy C. W^Phjfin^ dbobhUyishye, P. P. wt^df^nn^ bobhAyiidhe, 
B. wt^tj^r^fhr bobkiSyishtyd. 

Intensive, Pa«rasmaipada : P. i. wWVflf bdbhomi or ifrrrtfil bdbhavtmi, 
2. ifMWl bdbhoshi or ^fbrtWl bdbhavishi, 3. iWWt MMo/i or tft>l^ffir bdbhaviti, 

4. WtijJ^ bobhUvdh, 5. ^^ft^t^ bobhithdh, 6. ift^: bobhUtdh, 7. *^: bobMmdb, 
S.'^t^ bobhiithd, ^.ift^gmflKbdbhuvati, 1. 1. iff^tw d AoiAat^om, 2. ^NWt: <f Ao*A«i 
or VVt^: dbobhavify, 3. ^VWtH^^ dbobhot or fnft*le^^<^^ dbobhavtt, 4. ^w'tf? <fft<^- 
6At2t?a, 5. ^H^A^ dbobMtam, 6. ^N^HT dbobhUtdm, 7. wf^ dbobhdma^ 8. ^BPf^ 
dbobMlOy 9. Wift^ dbobhavul^y O. Wt^J?rf bobMydmy 1. 1. "^ft^T^lftr bdbhavdfd, 
2, "Wt^ft bobhdMy 3. ^vMtg bdbhotu or Y^T^ bdbhavUuy 4. ^ift^rin bdbhavdva^ 

5. ^ft^ bobkiUdm, 6. '^ft^ bobhUtdrriy 7. ij^^rm bSbhavdma^ 8. wtqjff bobhUtd, 
P'^rt^^ bdbhuvaiu w Pf. lII^H^N^K bobhavdmchakdray 4. iflH«lNf 1 bobha^ 
vdmchakrivay 7. whT^t^Rpr bobhavdmchakrima ; also i. whin bobhava or 'ft^ 
bobhuvOy 2, Wt^jfro bobhuvitkay 3. wblT^ bobhdva or Wt^jC^ bobhuva, 4, '^ft^gpn 
bobhdvivd^y 5. ^t^jr^ bobMvdthuhy 6. 'ft^fjrjJ bobMvdtuhy 7. ^"fhffini bobMvimdy 
8. 'ftij? bobhdvdy 9. W^: bobMvdhy II A. i. HWt^ dbobhUvamy 2. ^f^Ug: dbobhdi 
or ^N^^ dbobMvihy 3. ^N^^ dbobhUt or Uift<jj|1< ( ^ dhobMvity 4. WW^ ifJo- 
bhitvOy 5. ^nft^ dbobMtamy 6. ^pft^Jjrf dhobhUtdm, 7. ^nft^ dbobhilfna, 8. W^t^^ 
dbobMta, 9, tnf^: dbobhivuh (not Vrt^^ dbobhdvan), I A. i.t ^Pfl^rfW 
dbobhdvisham, 4. ^nhmft^ dhohhdmshvay 7. ^nf^HTf^^ dbobhdvishmay F. 
^Inf^mDl bobhamshyami^ C. tnftHfW dhobhavishyaniy P. F. if^^f^nnf^ bobhO' 
viidsmi, B. wt^ivm bobMydsam. 

Note — Grammarians who allow the inteneive without ^ya to form an Atmanepada, give 
the following forms : Pres. 'ft^pJ' hobhUti, Impf. ^r^t>j3f dhohhiUa, Opt. ^^4)fl bdbhuvita, 
Imp. Wt^Jjrf bobhOtdm, Per. Perf. W^^^tNw bobhavdmchakre, Aor. inft^fillf dbobhavishlay 
Fut. *n*lfNlR bobhavishydte, Cond. ^W^HfM*lrt dbobhavishyata. Per. Put. W^wPtJIT bobha- 
vitd, Ben. ti\HO(ifllf bobhavishUhtd. (See Colebrooke, p. 194.) 

* The form WT^nTT 6o6A«fnva is not sanctioned by any rule of P^ni. 

t The first aorist is the usual form for intensives, but in ^dAt2 it is superseded by the 
second aorist, this being enjoined for the simple verb. Some grammarians, however, admit 
the first aorist optionally for ^&Al^ (Colebr. p. 193). The conflicting opinions of native 
grammarians on the conjugation of intensives are fiilly stated by Colebrooke, p. 191 seq. 


2. f^cAtV, to think, (f%?ft.) 
The Annbandha ^1 shows that the participle in IH tah takes no intermediate ^ t. 

5. f^frnry, 6. fufncj:, 7. f^F^ifin?, s.ftffrnr, 9. W^t, I A. i.w^fW, 2. "w^efli, 

3. V^irtl^, 4. H^OlUf^ 5. n^flr?, 6. fi^ftnf, 7. U^fif^, 8. ^^fifF, 9. ^^ftijs, 

F.^^finqfir, C.^^rftn^rn^, P.F.^flnn, B.ftiwT?(^H Pt.fwin, fwf^n^, Ger.^firwr 
or fiffwi^, ""^wm, Adj, ^flnw:, ^inrHr:, ^ 11 Pass, ftwr^, Aor. ^B^, Caus. 
wifufif, Aor. ^nftffifn^, Des. N^nilOl or ftrfifflRflf, Int. ^rf^Wn, ^^tV. 

3. ^^chyuty to sprinkle^ (^finj-) 
The Anubandha !(^tr shows that the verb may take the first and second aorist. 

P. wtwfw, !• ic^Rtirn, ^' '^^'''l^ ^' ^"ft^ M Pf« I. 'IJ'"'^* ^- ^'ftflrT, 4. •^'gfns, 
I A. i.w^aj^finl, a. ^r^ifWI:, 3. WRWh^, 9. ^rBftfiry, or II A. i.^^w, a. "w^do 
3. i^in^, 9. ^ngin^, F. ^"Vfinofw^ C. ^v^'Vfinqir, P. F, ^qWinrT, B. ^Aiii^ h Pt. 
^jfinr: or ^"Vfinr^ ^^h^K, Ger. ^"Vfrrr^ or tgftn'rr. Adj. «ftnni*i: u Pass, ^m^, 
Caus. iq^mrfir, Aor. ^v^^^^ni^^ Des. ^fMira^ft or ^<i|n i Mf> i , Int. ^ft^gwi^, '^I'Rliftr. 

4* 'W^ichyut, to flow, (l^[f)ll^.) 

P.^itirfir, I.wvjhn^j^Th^^, I.^ftwjiiPf.i.^whr, 9.^'i5j:,IA. i.inritfW, 
a. vvnfll;, or II A. I. ^v^if, F, vvHk^fir, C. ^rvftflrai^, P. F. vftfinn, B. 

Note — ^This verb is sometimes written Vif. 

5* n^manih, to shake. 

P. ihifir u Pf. I. mi^, a. irtftnr, 3. inhr, 7. ^mfm, 8. hh^: (P&n. i. a, 5) or, less 
correctly, nwvr%: {§ 328, 4), I A. ^HiNftir, F. itftrnflr, P. F. liftnfT, B. vmr\ 
i§ 3459 ^®) " Pt. iftnr, ^ir^ or ^fwi?^ (cf. $ 395, note), Ger. nf^tm or irfiim 
(Pai^. I. a, 23; f 428),«'^ar, Adj.iffinra:, iHnfhi:, «N: h Pass.inan^, Caus.iNirfIr, 
Des. fMfiRfir, Int. «nii«n^, imfti or irnHMir, Impf. 3. 'wnifs^- 

Note — Roots ending in consonants preceded by a nasal, lose the nasal before weakening (kit, 
nit) terminations (P&n. vi. 4, a4) ; but not roots written with Anubandha ^. The terminations 
of the reduplicated perfect in the dual and plural are weakening (kit), except after roots ending 
in double consonants (P&i^. i. 2, 5). According to some, however, the weakening is allowed 
even after double consonants : %f^fi{fir I HwWt^iTjftniTO^: I ITHT ^ ll'ftMi^M^lIjA I 
^^ftflfff^ ftnn I TTfJt << 11 Roots, however, which thus drop the penultimate 
nasal in the perfect, need not take ^ instead of reduplication : *cft\(V«ft ^flf %fm^ ^ff^l I 
Prakriy&--Kaumudt, p. 7 b. 

Native grammarians admit a verb inrf)r' (mathe), and another H^lfh, which supply a 
variety of verbal derivatives. 

6, il^ kunth^ to strike, (^f^.) 

Roots marked in the Dh&tupfttha by technical final ^t keep their penultimate nasal throughout. 

This root can take no Gu^a, on account of its final conjunct consonant. 

P.f^, l.vf^, O.^f^, l.f^ II Pf. i.^f^, a.^fftni, p-tIy* -'^-^' 



^ff^T^, 9. ^nJF^** ^- %^^wfw, P. F. ^ftnrr, B. ipqii^> (HP^fwiln^, § 99, not 
with lingual K^, as Carey gives it) 11 Pt. ^fftnr:, ^^T'l* ®®'* TIF^^'^* **^W, 
Adj. ^rvrii«q: H Pass.'^sni^ Cans. ■y'Jnrfw, Des. ^^ftRfir, Int. ^ibjanr, ^ft^ftr. 

7. ftn^ sidh, to go (ft^), and ftn^ sidh, to command (ftiv). 

P. ^>ifir (ftf^vftr *), I. ira^n^ 11 Pf. i. fti^, 2. ftr^fim, 9. ftrftrv:, I A. ^vihAi^, 
F. nPiiiiRf) P. F. 4i(Viiii9 B. Ojuik^. 

In the sense of commanding or ordaining, this root is marked by technical 
9 (ft^), and hence the intermediate ^ may be omitted. Thus Pf. a. f^V^ 

or ftni¥, 4. ftrfiiftw or ftrfVM &c., F. ^ftnirfw or ^fw, P. F. ^ftnn or inr, 

I A. V^ulljl^ (as before), or i. ^rew, a. H^HRIm 3. ^TOW^, 4. ^ShS, 5. ^W^, 

6.^iilif, 7. "vfh^, 8. ir%i, 9. ^rtij: u Pt. ftnr, Ger. irfWnnr or fti^, °ftiiii, Adj. 
^finw: or ^ir^in 11 Pass, fmxiky Cans, ^^qfk, Des. f^irfv^ or ftif^mrfir {§ 103), 
Int. irf^runr, ^^Ri. 

8. m khad^ to be steady, to kill, to eat 

P. n^fiii 11 Pf. f . ^WT^ (a), a. 'ifrftf^, 3. ^^rernr, 4. ^wift^, 5. ^^1^5*, 6. ^'wr^, 

7. ^Wfi^, 8. ^W?, 9. ^^:, I A. HWT^ or WS^id), (P&o. vii. 2,7;§ 348), 

F. ^f^sifii, p. F. ^rf?^, B. ?nni(^ u Pt. wftfir:, ^fisi«(^, Ger. irfl^v^, ^ww, Adj. 

wf^ir^: 11 Pass, miw, Caus. 91^^ fit, Des. Pwffipiflr, Int. ^ifiVA, ^^wflff. 

9. IT7 gad, to speak. 

P. 1^ (iiRuii^Oi), I. ^BR^ (niwn^), 0. 11^ I. »nf5 m Pf. i. vinf (fi), 
3. ifirfipi, 9. vij:, I A. ^nrnfln^or ^nr^(a), (Pftn. vii. a, 7; $ 348), F. irf^i^irfiry 

C. imfi^vn^, p. F. nfipn, B. ivn^ 11 Caus. in^nfw, Des. f«|iin;i|Qi, Int. UTtVl^, 

10. r^ rad, to trace, to scratch. 
P. TJ^ H Pf. I. TTP? (a), 3.>fij^, 9."^:, I A. ^RT3Rflnor ^R^(a), ($ 348.) 

II. i^nad, to hum, (^0^.) 
P. 'f^ (iWI^, uftR^) H Pf- 1. 'RT^ (a), 2. %f^, 9. ^, I A. mmfh^ or 

12. ^ orrf, to go, to ask, to pain. 

P. ^v^, L WT^ u Pf. I. ^iT«!^, a. ^ffHTf^, 9. w^i^, I A. ^snfft^^, F. irff^rfv n 

Pt. irf^, not in%:, Bee also p. 166 H Caus. ^V^irtir, wrf^^, Des. wfffipifir. 

13. ^ ind, to govern, (^fij.) 

P. ^i^fir, I-"^^, O. ^^, 1. 1^ II Pf. ^^N*K {§ 325) or ^^rnm or ^^[fw^, 

* The change of ^ into 1^ is forbidden by P&nini VIII.3, 113, when f^H^ means to go. 
It is admitted by the S&r. The Anubandha 7 is sometimes added to fri^ to go, but is 
explained to be for the sake of pronunciation only. Colebrooke marks it as erroneous. 
Its proper meaning would be that intermediate ^ is optional in the gerund, and forbidden 
in the past participle (§ 337^ 11. 5). The forms without intermediate ^ belong properly only 
to fiT^ to command. This verb must change its initial Rafter prepositions ; fn^ufn. 



lA. I. ^flf^, 2. w(fitf F. ^njiiOn^ C. ^flpifn^, P. F.^^fijHT, B, ^vn^ u Pt. i^flpn^ Perf. 

4^t^9^l*i °^ ''^J^^ °' iil(Vl^l«|^9 Perf. Pass. i^^NniiV! or ^f^j^TT or wn8T«n. 

14. fVf^ nind, to blame, (ftrfif.) 

P. fthfflr (nfif^ or ivflih^y § 98, 8, 2) H Pf. fifftrf, I A. vfHOl^y ^' WJf'iflr, 
P. F. r^R(fli> B. ftfvn^. 

P. ftn^flf (niVinffify not nfsnifiry } 98, 8, 2) 11 Pf, fVrf)nff I A. nfHUilj^y 

1 5, 'WWf^ukhj to go. 

P. iihfffir (TBtuflf, § 43), I- ^rnn II Pf. I. "^nftif {§ 3i4)> 2. 9^fViti, 3. ^tf^, 
7. ^rf^n?) I A. wffli^9 F. vtftfivflr^ C. iDrfiiffly P. F. iftftfirr^ B. 9fi|ii^ 11 
Pass. 'WWnf^ Caus. in^ilOly Des. wkftlftnifif. 

17. ^H^ oncA, to go, to worship, (m^ and irfv.) 

The Anubandha 7 u ot^S^aHchu allows the option of intermediate ^ t in the gerund, W%?VT 
aiichUvd or VW aktvd^ and its nasal remains, except before weakening forms (see manM, 
No. 5); but the Anubandha \% of V rV achi requires the nasal throughout (Dhfttup&^hay, 6). 

P. ^Mk II Pf. I. ^mpr (J 3i3)» 9. Wf^: (but see No. 5, note), I A. wNh^, 
F. ^H^rilflr, C. vlffVim^, P. F. ^K^irTy B. ^Nin^ (may he worship), mUTI^ 
(may he go), f 345, ^^ 

Pass* W9nr and ^iNnr, Caus. it^iifii, Des. ^f^f^NPil. 

Distinguish between llPlffl worshipped, Ger. vf^i^l having worshipped, and VH? 
moved (P&9. vil. 2, 53 ; vi. 4, 30) ; ^T^ never seems to lose its nasal when it means to 
honour : Pass. ^Nl? he is honoured, W9|7 he is moved. The two roots, however, are 
not alwa^ kept distinct. 

18. ^sii^^dnchh^ to stretch, (wrftp.) 

P. iriirfif « Pf. uRtif or niit (J 313)) I A. ^vhsrh^, F. nin^virii il Caus. 

niiK^ni, Des. vir^OiiLMrii. 

19. -^mruch, to go, (^.) 
^Wfir II This and other verbs enumerated ^ 367 take optionally the first 
or second aorist ; ^rW^ or ^r^^ H Pt. ^IK, Perf. ^^^T^? Ger. ^P^WT, 
llH^ViilT (P&n. I. 2, 26), or ^pp. 

20. ^ hurchhj to be crooked, (^%r.) 

P. f*fk {§ 143) II Pf. ^1*, I A. wpflH II Pt. ffthr: or |iS: {§ 431, 2). 

21. ^^vajf to go. 
P. ^ilOl n Pf. I. ^^TRf (a)> 2. >wftfT (J 3^8), I A. vnih^ or V<TrW)<^, 

. <lii|<*lln« 

22. W^ t?rq;, to go. 

P.mrfif II Pf. i.Tmif(^), 2.Tniftrv, I A. inmrti^^ ($348*) w Pt^rftni; u 

Caus. iiii|4|0i, Des. fVnftrrfk^ Int. ^iflaiiir, TraftR. 

K k 2 

252 bh6 glass, pabasmaipaba vbrbs. 

^3* ^^ Vy *^ S^9 ^ throw. 
P. ^nrf^y I. ^mn^ ll ^ must be substituted in the general tenses before 
terminations beginning with vowels. Before all consonants except i^ (Pap. 
II. 4, ^6, v&rt.) this substitution is optional, i. e. both W^ and ^ may be used li 

P£ I. "Pttr (a), a. fiRHj or ftRftnr {§ 335j 3)9 [^wftf^], 3. "flnni, 4. fliftw 
(§ 334)5 [^ftwj 5- f^'W^j ^' ^^wjt, 7. ftrftw [wrftw], 8. ftw, 9. fli^, I A. 
n^fl?!^ [iiiHi!li(^], 9. v^Jm F. ^^?flr (J 332, 3), C. m^^n^, P. F. ^ht, B. ^rt^m^ 
[F. ^rftrafv, C. nrftrm^, P. F. ^Bftnn] 11 Pt. iftwt [ifftnn], Perf. fWN^ 
[^infinn?^], Ger. ^ftwr [nftn*?], *^^fhr, A^. kicmt [wftnw:], ^rofN:, wm n 

Pass, ^fhn^, Caus. ^iii^fff^ Des. f^^nflr [wftlfti'^lfil], Int. ^4hi^ {^^kfw is not 
sanctioned by P4nini). 

24. f^ Ar^Af, to wane, tran». to diminish, (Colebrooke.) 

P. '^^fff II Pf. I. 'PfqT^ (a), 2. ftrif^ or f^qOivf, 9, f^ft|||:, I A. ^«j4li^9 
F. %«rfir, B. 'sfhm^^ (§ 390) 11 Pt. ft^: or i|hir: 11 Pass, '^fhli^, Caus. i^nnrfk; 
Des. ffT^Wir, Int. ^^hVTT, ^%f)r. The Caus. Tfqirfk belongs to "^ (f 46a, 

n. 23) *. 

25. V^ kaU to rain, to encompass, {y£t) 
The Anubandha ^ e prevents the lengthening of the vowel in the aorist. 
P. iliTflr 11 Pf. ^RTTT, I A. ^wrth^(no Vriddhi, J 3481). 

26. T^gup, to protect, (»j^.) 

The verbs J^gvp, to guard, ^JJ(,rf^<(p» to warm, ftp^ rtcAA, to go, ^W^pflni, to traffic, ^/wm, 
to praise, take ^n^ dya in the special tenses, and take it optionally in the rest. 
(P&9. III. I, 28; 31.) 

P. WV^inrfiT, I. wftmnn^, O. nVm^, i. ift^nrj u Pf. jnu i ^h4K ($ 325, 3) 
or ^pft^, I A. wftmifti^, viWh^, or wift^(f 337, 1. 2), 6.imhit, F. if > M i ri|iMn i , 
»frfW4r, or liNqflr, P. F. iftrrrftmr, »ftftwT, or iflm, B. vft^mn^ or T^m\ n 
Pt. ifrqrftnn or rpn^ Ger. ntqrftviirTf ntftwT, or j^T, Adj. nt^nftnnirrf nWnw:, 
or irhin M Caus. iftquflr or ifhinnrfir, Des. ^^Wk, ^gfinflr, ipiMWk, or 
^'ftMiniMfif, Int. iftg^, iiWHti. 

27. ^ dkdp^ to warm. 
P> ^Jjirvfw U Pf. YMii|N%K or ^^ (no Gu^a, because the vowel is long), 
I A. viUMiiili^ or WUT^. 

28. nm^tapi to bum, (J 332, 14.) 

P. iRfir M Pf. I. mrn? (^), a, wirwr or i^ftnj (f 335, 3), 3. wirrv, 1 A. 1. mrra^ 
3. 'wr^:, 3. ^nn^T^, 6. mmit (f 351), F. Ti^wfir, P. F. inn, B. rm\ « Pt inn, 

* The causative cannot have short a, and though both Westergaard and Boehtlingk- 
Roth give the short a, they produce no authority for it. The participle t|ftnn is equally 
impossible, and should always be changed into ^Hini. 


lifVi^, Ger. ITJT, Adj. innq:, IW: (short, because it ends in ^, f 456, 6) n 
Pass. J[^9 Cans, irmfv? Des. fkff^rfWf Int. VTV^f TfTWftr. 

Note — With certain prepoBitions K^^ takes the Atmanepada (PAp. i. 3, 27) ; 9flMfl» 
f^nnij^ it shines. It has an active sense in the passive (i.e. Div Atm.), if it refers to 
iro austere devotion; IPOn IIHidlMil* the devotee performs austere devotion. In the 
sense of regretting .(^ing burnt) it forms the Aor. Villi ; VfTniW himH «rA<ui he was 
distressed by a sinful act. (Colebr.) 

29. ^Vicham, to eat, (^.) 

The following verbs lengthen their vowel in the special tenses (P&n. vii. 3, 75» 76) : ^ cham, 
if preceded by VT ^, to rinse, Vl^wOl dchdmati ;. ff^skthiv, to spit, fl^Hl Bh^hivaH 
(see No. 35) ; 113^ kram, to stride, mmPfi krdmati (see No. 30) ; HP^ittom, to tire, ^ifvrfv 
kldmati. ^ guh, to hide, ^15 fn gHkati, follows a different rule, lengthening its vowel 
throughout, instead of taking Gupa, when a vowel follows. (P&9. vi. 4, 89.) 

P. ^nrftr, but after the prep. VT, m^Tlflr li Pf. i. "^^IPf (a), 7. ^tfk^ &c., I A. 

w^ir^ {§ 348*) H Pt. ^: {§ 429), Ger. 'wtwr or ^fliiVT, Adj. ^fifinmy ^m«n 

(P&^i. III. 1, 126) H Caus. ^m^ {§ 462). 

30. TfR kram, to stride, (HEf .) 
H^ kram, to stride, Vrn| hhrdi, to shine, }g(^ bhUU^ to shine, ^ bhramf to roam, IVJ klam, 
to fail, ?Rrt ^ra«, to tremble, ^ ^ruf, to cut, ^^Jash^ to desire, nuiy take ^ ya in the 
special tenses. Hence VTITlTflT bhrdmyati or ^PTflT bhramatL (Pli^. iii. i, 70.) 

P. unrfk or urnifir) I- vnim^^ or haimii^^ ii Pf, "wnspr, I A. vniAi^ (§ 348*), 
F. nftfufir, P. F. nftnn, B. umin^ u 

IR lengthens its vowel in the general tenses (Hi) of the Parasmaipada 
(Pftn. VII. 3, 76). Hence IKTHflr, but imi^. It takes no intermediate ^ in 
the Aim.; Fut. lJS9n^, P.F. limy Aon^nJRV; but some grammarians admit 
intermediate ^. 

Pt. mhr:, Perf. wnnms^, Ger. ilfWT {&) or nfiVf^ {§ 429), Adj. nsftnnq: 11 Pass. 
HERH^, Caus. urniffir, $ 461, (after prep, also ntnT^rfir), Des. fvnAndir or fmim^, 
Int. ^UMiff, ^Mil. 

Note — It has been doubted whether HP^in the Div class also lengthens its vowel. It is 
not one of the eight ?am verbs (P&n. vii. 3, 74) ; and in P&9. vii. 3, 76, ^yan is no longer 
valid. The Pras&da gives ISRVfir ; but adds, ^Rl^ Q ^T^Vf^ ^^ HSmnftfw I The 
S&rasvatt decides for fUMlOl, giving the general rule (11. i, 145) ^iHI((lH[i ^^ H^flT ^HIR 
^1 and enumerating as ^RTf^f; V^^^V'^^iP^lP^'i^* But Jlf[ia not a S^amidi at all, 
and instead of 1li>^we ought to read fpf, T4r&n&tha in the Dh&turiipadarsa gives HHrfir, 
lUg&r&mas&strt supports HHTllfir. 

31. vn yam, to stop. 

The roots ft'^gam, to go, ^H^yam, to cease, and ^i^A, to wish, substitute Wchchha for 

their final in the special tenses. (Pi^. vii. 3, 77.) 

P. TRrtr, I. winw^ii Pf. i.^wm (fi), 2. irt^ or ^ftnr, 9. ^:, I A. ^btoi^($ 359), 
F. iMirf P. F. liwT, B. vnrn^ « Pt. mr:, ^ftnn^, Ger. n;^, ^in^ or <^inir, Adj. 


^inmu 'l^'H (ftntw?:) H Pass, imkj Caus. nmrfw (a), (§ 461), II A. iffiAiRn^, 

Des. Anhrfir, Int. im^^ or iWfir. 


Note — 'V^ may be used ia the Atm. with the prep. ^, if it is either intransitive, 
V|l|^A IT^ the tree spreads, or governs as its object a member of the agent's body ; 
VN^ff HiUu he puts forth his hand. Likewise with the prep. ISIT, 9, ^, if it is used 
reflectively ; ^^TSXH *fl^l«^ he heaps together his own rice. Likewise after TV, when it 
means to espouse ; THft <nni«|mM4d R&ma married SiiA: here the Aor. may also be T^nnr; 
like T^nnr he divulged another's &ults. (§ 356.) 

3 a. «f»^ warn, to bow, (?ffil.) 

P. HhOi 11 Pf. I. ffffW (a), a. •TT'l or ^Anr, 9. ^t, I A. irNftl^ {§ 359)9 F« 
^h^rfWy P* F. iflfT, B. TTV^ni^&c., like i|ir. On the Causative, see § 461. 

Note — ^^may be cox^ugated in the Atmanepada. (P&n. iii. i, 89.) 
. The Anubandha 7 given to it by some grammarians is declared wrong by others. 

33. 7T9f^gam^ to go, (jq.) 

P. thkAi 11 Pf. I. iPTR (d), 2. iprfini or wi^9 3. 'snrpf, 4. ifrfn (§ 3^8, 3), 

5. unfy &c., II A. wnf(f( (§ 367), F. nftr«iifir (J 338, a), P. F, if?n, B. iiriin^ 11 
Pt. mrtj Perf. iifliw«^ or 9|ii«^r«f^, Gen itw, °»wi or **JTFr, Adj. ^nrm^ n^n w 

Pass. 'WIT, Caus. vunifir) Aor. WsfbRnr^ Des. ftpiftnifir. Int. ^J|M|ri or «i«i(ii* 

Note — ^With prep. « it follows the Atm., if intransitive. The Caus. too, with the prep. 

ygt, may follow the Atm., if it means to have patience ; "«iim«im« ITT^ wait a little. In 

the Atm. the final ^T may be dropt in the Aor. and Ben. ; ti«i«in or ^inniiT, ^'l^flVortiMtO^. 

(See § 355.) 

34. iffi^ phalf to burst, (ftnic5T.) 

P. ii<9fir 11 Pf. I. MWc* {&)9 2, ^Pc^vi {§ 3369 II- 2)9 3. imnVf 4. ^rfcW» 

I A. wirarh^ {§ 348 *)> F. lif^nrflr u Pt. "5^: (P&n. vm. 2, 55), Ger. yBfiimt u 
Pass. H^, Caus. HHT^y Aor. ^nihicn^, Des. rMHifaHfl f , Int. ij^jl^n^, ^4^^^* 
(PAn. VII. 4, 87-89.) 

35. ftr^ shfhivj to spit, (flr^.) 

P. iWJr 11 Pf. flfi^ or fti^, I A. Wft^^, F. ^firoflr 11 Pt. 1^: 11 Pass. 
ft^vk (J 143), Caus. ^^irfff) Des. fJlslOmni or ff^^lflr (P«^n. vii. 2, 49), Int. 
^'^Nqi^. No Intensive Parasmaipada. 

Vowel lengthened in special tenses (see No. 39). Initial sibilant unchangeable (§ 103). 

36. ftf y«, to excel. 

P.^nrfif H Pf. i.ftnTnr(i), a.ftni^ orftnifinr, 3.ftnTnr, 4.ftrfiTi^j s-ftf*^^* 

6. (V|i4ig:, 7. fVrfhiir, 8. ftpir, 9. fir^:, I A. w^irt^^ (f 350)? F. ^^rflr, P. F. ^wt, 

B. iflill^ u Pt. ftnrt, Perf. f^D|<||«^, Ger. fifi^, Adj. inrvf^ Tnfhn^ n^> and 
if«n ($ 456, a), ftrw: only with ffti: (P^n. III. I, 117) II Pass, ifhl?^, Aor. 
^nnftr» Caus. HmilOr, Aor. *vl«fl^MI(^9 Des. ftffHfiT, Int. iMhTn, ififfil- It 
follows the Atmanepada with the prepositions iTCT and f%. 

The change of IT into ^^in the reduplicated perfect is anomalous (§319). It does not 


take place in UTT to wither (nnTTilT), although the rule of P&^ini might seem to comprehend 
that root after it has taken Sampras&nu^a. w^ forms its reduplicated perfect ftfi^i. 

37. Vfl^ akshj to obtain, (wi|.) 
VH^oitsA follows also the Su class, WfUKnOl akthtioti &c. 

P. w^fir M Pf. I. ^iFTw* 2. ^BRf^nr or vnnr, 3. wrsnij 4. vitfOum or wnnr, 
5. WMmij!, 6. vi«mj[t9 7. vMrunii or vih^iH) s. ^rr^Rfj 9. vivi^:, I A. i. vrf^ 
or wnil, 2. ^nrfh, 3. wm^, 4. vi(\i|ui or vw, 5. nrftiT or ibw, 6. ^nftfvf or 

in¥f, 7. vifiiivH or wi^9 8. wft^? or ^»nf, 9. ^iTftfJt or WT^, F. vPhiviOi or 

^V^^, P. F. YlfinfT or "m N Pt. ^Bir, Ger. HfjT or iRfl^T!^ 11 Pass, m^, 

Caus. Wl^trfw, Aor. viiP^mi^^, Des. wrftfftf^fif (J 476)* 

ir^, to hew, follows WS^ throughout, also in the optional forms of the 

Su class, 

38. ^ krishy to drag along, to furrow. 

P. ^Sflr 11 Pf. I. ^nrt, 2, 'TifS^, 3. ^^j 4. ^ftw {§ 335, 3), I A. i. wrif, 
2. HNumfT:, 3. umuifTi^, 4. ^snrt^, 5. ^Wv, 6. w^vrvr, 7. viin^, 8. innt, 9. wr^; 

or VflSTf &c., or I A. 4. iPfsf &c. If used in the Atmanepada, the two 
forms would be, 

I A. 2. 1. Wpf^j, 2. ^^vi., 3. W^9 

I A. 4. 1, id. 2 

I A. 2. 4. vf mP^, 5 

I A. 4, 4. HfmNPi?, 5 

I A. 2. 7. Hf HHOJ) 8 

I A, 4. 7. ^mviff , 8 

n^rapn:, 3. ^f^^9 

VfH||V|f, 6. ^Tf IK(Tflf, 

id. 6. id. 

^^, 9. ^WiT, 

^Tj^pff, 9. iPfslir. 

P. H^rfw or iraftfir, P. F. hit or ^ n Pt. ^r, Ger. ^ 11 Pass, ipiqi^, Caus. 
'^Eist^vfiri Aor, vw^c^ or Vift^^, Des. f^lffir. Int. ^O'fVfJly ^rfhlft or 

The peculiar Guiia and Vriddhi of ^, viz. ^ and TT, instead of W^ and WR, take place 
necessarily in ^i^, to emit, and '^S{, to see (Pft^. vi. i, 58) ; ^r?T, ^pFT, V^ltflll, and 
VIJ[m|lH : optionally in verbs with penultimate ^, which reject intermediate ^ (P&n. vi. i, 
59) i 71 ^ rejoice, T^ffH or ITRt, Aor. ^ni-JTf^^ W^T^rh^^ or ^qni^. 

39. ^rt^A, to kiU. 

P.^hcfirii Pf. I. ^dir, 2. ^OPhvi, 9. ^^, I A.^nd^, F.dftnrtr, P. F. ^ 
or Ttftmr {§ 337, II- i). 

40. 77 ush, to bum, 

P. ^iWir, I. wTn^ II Pf. I. ^iW^wc or ^^i^w {§ 326), 2, ^"sftflnr, 3. wt^, 
4. -mf^ &c., I A. w^, F. wtf^iifir, P. F. ^tttfkmy B. ^rm\ 11 Pt. ^f^ or 
^ittfkr. {§ 425) II Des. fiirMPn«<frf. 

41, fiff mihj to sprinkle, 

P. wffn n Pf. I. fii^, 2. ftRi^, I A. ^wftrwn (J 3^°)' ^- ^^^' ^- ^'^ ^ " 


Pt. iftffN Perf. i|)^T^(fifOld|T!()9 Qer. irt;jT » Caus. ^f^, wftfiv^l^y Des. f^vftn^y 
Int. ^fiv^9 ^^fr, (^ftrftr, Westerg.) 

42. 1^ dahj to bum. 
P. ^ffir II Pf. I. ^(^(a), 2. ^1^11 or ?j^nf, F. v^iflr (J 118), P. F. f[iv, B. 

ijirn^, I A. I. VMnif» a. wn^^ 3« ivinfln^j 4. wvwif, 5. h^hv, 6. ^Rfinif, 7. ^nn^y 

8. ^l^mr, 9. WHT^: (see p. 185) 11 Pt. ipv: 11 Caus. ^TfiriT) Aor. H^^^fl^y Des. 

ff^MttOr, Int. ^^;;inf 9 ?j^1Hr. 

43- 'HT glai^ to droop ; also ^ mlai^ to fade. 

P. ic^NOr, O. Tc9i^ M Pf. I. Vc^ ($ 329), a. irfrcTO or ITcSinr, 3. wn^j 
4.''ifrcOT, s^Tnary, 6.if'7^r, 7. iifrcW, 8.n'cy> 9. ir^j I A. i.^riHifW (f 357)> 

a. VMIH1:, 3. VJc4l^l<^9 4. VMllVlUf, 5. VMlHH^y 6. VMlfilsf, 7. VMlfXlVt 

8. WcirftiF, 9. luwftrj:, F. THPwftr, P. F. t«ottt, B. Tnpni^or ifiuiii^ (J 392 1) n 

Pt T75Tif:, Ger. Tc5T?n, ^nsypT, Adj. »m?W:, MHI^C , '^ n Pass, (impers.) 
7Hnn^9 Caus. T^nnifif or Jg q u ilf (Dh. P. 19, 68), Des. fVfMI^Ol, Int. in- 

44. s^^at, to sing; also^rai, to bark, %r Arat, to croak. 

P. nnrfiT II Pf. irft, I A. wm?r^, F. irrwfir, P. F. imtr, B. 5t^ (J 392). 

Mark the difference between ^ and rf^ in the Bened. 11 Pt. tj^:, Ger. Tf^^ 
°in^, Adj. TTira:, It^fHn, Jnn 11 Pass, ifhn^, Aor. virftr, Caus. Tirqirfir, Aor. 

wifhnn^, Des. r^iii'^Of, Int. ^vrtivir, iinnflf. 

45. wshfyaif to sound, to gather; also ^styai^ the same. {§ 103.) 

P. unirfir {§ 103), I. ^BTPipn^ 11 P£ wtd, I A. wrra^* F. mr^ivfr, P. F. wnrr* 
B. vipvn^ or i^mi^ II Pt. wrsCi nirtw:, niftH: ($ 443). 

Note — ^With regard to the initial lingual sibilant, the Pras&da quotes the VArttika to 
P&9. VI. I, 64, as 4J«ii9H*«i»«r«qI ^i^riMV: I A marginal note sa^, ^JH^fv^UlUl- 

w^yi I iprfhiprf vif^ inn 3rfMi^iS«iirM^^ii<liiKin;(H<<H|Sifiv 11 

46. ^ daij to cleanse, (^-) 

This verb is distingruished by a mute ^ p from other verbs, like ^ dd &c. It is therefore 
not comprised under the ^ ghu verbs (§ 393 *) ; it takes the first aorist (3rd form), 
and does not substitute ^1 or ^ e for WT d, 

P. ^nrfir II Pf. ^, I A. I. n^ifW, 2. w^i &c., F. i^r^vfir, P. F. i^nn, B. 
f[TOT^ II Pt. ^: n Pass. ^Tuir, Caus. ^nRflr^ Des. f);^Tirfir, Int. ^i^Pii^, ^r^. 

47. ^ £/Ae, to drink, (^.) 

This verb is one of the six so-called ^ghu roots (§ 392), roots which in the general tenses 

have for their base ^ <2tf or VT dhd. 

P. wfir II Pf. i.^, 2. ^ftRor ^VT% 3. ^, 4. ^yftf^r, 5. ^vy> 6. ^^:, 7. ^fiw, 
8-^> 9.^- It admits I A. 3. (J 357), II A. (j 368), and Red. II A. ($371): 



I. inrf, 2. ^mij 9. wy, 

I. ^K^9 2. ^r^yjf 9. ^■^H'^- 

F. vnsnfir, P. F. vnn, B. ^^ u Pt. iftw:, Ger. irtwr, «wt h Pass, iftin^, Caus. 

vnnifir (Atm. ^^ to swallow), Aor. v^lniii^, Des. fWnvfiry Int. ^^jhn^9 ^nnfir, 

or, with the always optional ^ ^l^flr. 

48. ^ driij to see, ("jflff^.) 
This root Bubstitutes 'Wpfpaiya in the special teDses. 

V. inprfir, I. iropn^, O. ^[^, I. iry^j « Pf. i. ^, 2. i?^;f^ or ^^ ($ 335), 

3. ?^, 4. ^ifftiR, 5. ^fV!3*9 6. Tf^rg:, 7. ^15%^, 8. ^^, 9. T^?** I -^* i- ^5i»4» 

2. ^BTJ^r^l^:, 3. Wjnjfh^, 4. Wpi^, 5. W^[T^, 6. ^r5[TFt> 7. ^"TJIB!!, 8. W^TF, 9. v^i^* 

(J 360, 364); or 11 A. I. ^f^, 9. ^v^^9 F. "f^^flf^ p. F. "jpn, B. i^T^ni^^ W Pt. 
"I^:, Ger. "jfr, ^^^f^T, Adj. "jn^^' ^^^^> '^T'* » I^^^s- '??''^» ^- ^?fifr"n^ ^^ 
7;i;i9if (j 41 i)j P. F, ^f^irr or "jfi, B. ^[fi^iftv or *^«|f^, Aor. ^l^, Caus. ^^ifflT) 
Aor. V^l^^ll^ or ^i^^^f Des. fif^;^ (Atm.), Int. ^rftppnr, ^?^. 

*^ and ^1^ take ^ and TT9 instead of v^ and ^n^, as their Gui^ia and 
Yriddhi before consonantal terminations (P&^.vi. i, 58). See No. 38. 

Other verbs which substitute different bases in the special tenses (P4n. yii. 

3> 7^)' ^ forms ^f^acfir; ^jVWffw; ^j nft^ (Atm.); ^, ^^Hf; ^jfinflr; 

49. ^ rij to go. 

P. ^paKflr ("^iniflr, $ 44), I. ^^ih^^ 11 Pf. i. mt, 2. ^nfici ($ 338, 7), 3. ^w, 

4. ^nfwj 5. ^nr^, 6. HI 14:, 7. HilViH, 8. VK, 9. wr^, I A. i. irfl, 2. Hrtft, 

3. ^rtftr, 9. HT^: ; the Second Aor. Wit is generally referred to the ^ of the 
Hu class, nnffi; F. wftimfir ($ 338, 2), C. WTftm^, P. F. ^, B. w^ ($ 390) 11 
Pt. ^fm or t^J^r:, Ger. ^p^, ^i^w u Pass. H^, Caus. v4^, Des. nf<r<qfl l , 
Int. Wtl^, Wlf^9 wflcrfSj WTXjMir, wfbnftflf (exceptional intensive, f 479, with 
the sense of moving tortuously). 

50. ^ ^, to go. 

P. ifRfflr always means to run, while "mfiK is used likewise in the sense of 
going II Pf. I. ^WTC(a), 2. TWi {§ 335, 3), 3, ^TOR, 4. ^a^, 5. ^r^, 6. V^*9 
7.^^, 8.11^, 9. ^^9 I A. I. H^TM, 2. w^rpfft, 3. H4ll»ffll ; the Second Aor. 
V^ is generally referred to the ^ of the Hu class ; F. ^ifb^fW^ P. F. ?a^, 
B. ftpqrn^ {§ 390) II R. npn 11 Caus. mij^, Des. fMHlfir, Int. il^INi^, ^Irfft 

{§ 490)- 

51. ^ Sadf to wither, (^.) 

The special tenses take the AtmaDepada. 

P. lH^j I. V^ImA, O. ^^, I. jflKlH II Pf. I. '^Ifmn^ (a), 2. ^I^lr'il or $f^, 



9. ^, n A. ^BH^, F. ^jfwnr, P. F. ijriT, B. ifn^ 11 Caus. ^itK^fk (^n^^ he 
drives), Des. f^l^lwOl, Int. ^(IT^nn^, ^TT^ftr. 

52. ^ sadj to perish, (nj.) 

P. tftqHi (PHifl^ni) 11 Pf. I, iRn?^ (a), 2. irf^ or ^ERf^iT, 9. iijj, II A. vnn 
(tsiw^jH^, ^* ''wfir, p. F. TniT, B. ^rerri^ ii Pt. ^rwt ii Pass, ^ranr, Aor. ^nrrfl;, 

Caus. ^if^iiRf, Aor. ^nrt^^, Des. ftRi^fw, Int. ^mni^y ^TRfftr. 

53. ^pd, to drink. 

P. ftprflr n Pf. i. im^, a. Tifini or inrnr, 9. ^:, II A. vm^, P. ^n^rfir, P. F. 
^fnn, B. ^nr^ {§ 39a) u Pt. rftfti, Ger. tftwT, oijpT, Adj. impq:, ^irthK, ^» n 

Pass, ifhn^, Aor. ^nnftr, Caus. 'qpnrflT (or °T^ to swallow), Aor. ^nfhm^ (P^. 

VII. 4, 4), Des. f^nrafir, Int ^^A^, wmftt. 

54. "VT p'Ari!^, to smell, to perceive odour. 

P. ftmAr, I. ^jflre^^j O. ftrwi^, I. ftfuj ^' ^* '• ^^9 2- ^fft^ or vrvniy 9. ^rjj» 
II A. ^nm^, or I A. wwr^ {§ 368, 357), P. w^irflr, P. P. mm, B. "wnnn or 

^'TH^ (§ 39^ t) H Pt. "mn: or "flw:, Ger. 'ffWT II Pass. JmHtf Aor. vmf^^ Caus. 
Wrrfir> undHMH^or liri|i\im^(Pslii. VII. 4, 6), Des. fVlHRlfk, Int. ^llhn^, iVT9Tfir, 

55* VKl dhmd^ to blow. 

P. vrflr II Pf.^, lA.wvrnili^, F. wnwflr, B.winm^^or i^im^ii Pt.vnir: 11 

Pass, vmkj Aor, wunftr, Caus. vinnrfir, Aor. wf^^um^, Des. f^iHI4lQl, Int 

56. FT? sthd^ to stand, (tt.) 
P. flrrtf H Pf. Ww (ufwffTn), II A. W^qn^ (^"Wl^), 9. ^f^9 F. ^TP^rfk) B. 

^^inT(^(f 392) II Pt. f^inn, fismm, ^^rni, Adj. ^imn^:, wTtihi:, ^^: 11 Pass. ^4)^9 

Aor. ^Bl^infiTy Caus. liiflM^Ol, Aor. ^rfkftnn^, Des. firfTHflr, Int. wtfNny ITWTflf. 

Note — ^Affcer ^, IR, IT, and ik, ^RTT is used in the Aim. ; also after W, if it means to affinn ; 
with ^, if it means to strive, not to rise ; or with ^^^ if it means to worship, Sec : Plres. 
fffvii; Red. Perf. TT^, Aor. wflWff, 9. ^P^w^n, Fut. WTFTw, Ben. WT^Hf. 

57. W fnnd, to study. 

P. 'Hffk II Pf. I. 'w, 3. fftni or iv^nr, 9. 'i^, I A.^Tjrraftn^, B. ^n^ni^or il^ii^ ti 

Pt WWt H Pass, irnnr, Caus. ^mnfir, Aor. iriNiRi^^, Des. f^f^mfk, Int. in^n^9 

58. ^ddj to give, (^T^.) 

p. ^mflf * (nftnracfir) ii Pf. n^j II A. ^r[th^, b. ^in^^ {§ 392) 11 Pt. ^, Ger. 
CTiT (see No. aoo, P&ii. vii. 4, 46), «n^, Adj. ^TiT^:, ^mT^:? 

TqT^nr, int. ^qPTn, ^T^fTTir. 

59. 7 Am, to bend. 


* After the preposition ^ it may be used in the Atmanepada. 


9- ^4h^9 I ^' ^■3|r*X> 9* ^3|Tf:, P. jfficuflr ($ 338), P. P. ^, B. 31^ 
{§ 390) 11 Ft. ^:, Ger. s|i^9 "^^9 Adj. ifkm:, 41.^^9 W^* ^ ^^b- 3|^» 
Caus. JlKilOly Des. ^SJ^fk^ Int. insf^y viOjlffl. 

60. ^is^ shandy to approach, (^iifl^-) 
P. ^fe^ (^(VtA^r?! or ^riuk^Of, P&n. VIII. 3, 73, 74) II Pf. I. ^^9 a.^nsf?pV 

or ^raRf^, 9. ^^: or ^^r^: (see ir^, No. 5), I A. nHilnfli^, 6. ^ffisNif, 
9.i»^«n^; or nA.^^, P.^iaorfir, P.F.^hrr, B.^imn($345»^^) " Pt-^c 

(J 103, 5), Qer. ^im ($ 438) 11 Pass. HEvi^, Caus. ^i^iiflry Aor. w^rORp^ 
(J 374), Des* f^ijifMOly Lit ^hI^m) ($ 485)9 ^•fl^Ol. 

61. W ^r^9 to cross. 

P. Tf^ II Pfc I. infR (a)j a. ^Ift.!!, 3. vvTC) 4. ^ftff, I A. incpAi^^ F. vft^iflr 

or Wt^vvflr (J 340), p. p. irftlT or irrhTT, B. H^^. In the Atmanepada 
we generally find the verb used as Tud&di, P. fird^, Pf. il^, Aor. mrtf 
or ^inrfT:^ or vinchi, F. wftw^ («)» B. wftc^tv or ift^tw II Pt. iM:, Ger. vt?^, 
<*lM H Pass. lAfi^, Aor. wurfty Caus. WTrvfry I'cs. flnrft^flr or QiiiOhQi or 

nifli>iin9 Int. mrnnry wnuv. 

62. ti^ ran/, to tinge. 
This verb and l^iam/, to bite, "i^^saiij, to stick, and ^tl^^oaff;, to embrace (Pftp. vi. 
4, 35, 26), drop the penultimate nasal in the special tenses (§ 345, ^^) and in the weakening 
forms (§ 344, 395. note). 

P. vtfiHj I. ^JtifT^^, O. t^9 1* nfj M Pf. I. Tin, 3. ttftnr or ttw, 3. xjm^ 

4. TtftfW, 9. Tiljt» I A. mf^fh^, p. TVQifiry P. P. tw, B. <9iliq« Also used 
in the Atmanepada : P. Tili^, Pf. i. ti^, 3. Tiftr^, I A. 3. wtl8, 9. ^itwv II 
Pt T^, Ger. t:w or t«r (P4n. vi. 4, 31, J 438) II Pass, tsqi^ (PA?, iii. i, 90), 
Caus. tiprfir or tunrfk to hunt (f 46a, a6), Aor. W^Qon^ or nxtifl^^, Des. 
fi:t^(flr9 Int. i.l4jii|]), TTtftl. 

63. f^ Ht^ to cure, (fiiir.) 

This and some other verbs which are referred to the Bh^i class always take the desiderative 
terminations, if used in certain senses, f^il^^/, if it means to dwell, belongs to the 
Chur dass, or, according to Vopadeva, it may be regularly coi^ugated as a Bhtl verb ; 
but if it means to cure, it is P^ftawPn chihitsati, 

P. fcfftnnflr, !• ^rfM^iwn^ ^* '' ^' f^ftiWi^fiii, I A. vf^OiwI^, F. f^- 
miHmin, -t • ^ . rfnimnfT. 

In the same way are conjugated {§ 47 a) : 

1. ^(to conceal), ^^{^ he despises. 

2. flfi^ (to sharpen), firfk^ he endures. 

3. m^ (to revere), «fNher^ he investigates. 

4. ^ (to bind), '^Ihi^ he loathes. 

5. ^ (to cut), l|f)?;hlf)r he straightens. 

6. ^n^ (to sharpen), ^[f^^rNrfk he sharpens. 

L 1 2 


64. ^patj to fall, (^.) 

P- ^nrfir (irftRiffir) 11 Pf. x. ^toit, 9. %, II A. w^^ {§ 366), P. ^flnqfk 11 

Pt« ^rfinn H Pass. ^VTV^y Aor. ^rerflf) Caus. iflil'iinv, Des. (ViMfimni or fVnnfir 

{§ 337^ n. 3). 

65. yf^vaSf to dwell. 

P. ^rerflr 11 Pf. i. i^^ro («)? a. Twflro or ^^m, 3. mr^^ 4. 'irf^, 5. vni:, 
6. "VRfj:, 7. "^rf^, 8. w^, 9. "^ly, I A. I, vfTT^ (§ 132), 3. vciifin*9 3. n^iwl^^y 
6. trcnrf {§ 351), F. ^wifir, P. F. trerr, B. tito^^ h Pt. •^finr:, Ger. irftwr, 

**^ri| 11 Pass. ^, Aor. ^nrftr^ Caus. ^TIRfir, Aor. vrt^FI^, Des. ftmRfir, 

Int. ^I^^^n, cimfVl- 

66. ^ vad^ to speak. 

P. ^I^ II Pf. i.TTIT^ (a), a. T^fif^r, 9.^:, I A. W^^T^, P. ^flfuflr, B, 

ysm\ w Pt. "Tfinn, Ger. Tfl^ U Pass, ^w^j Aor. imrf^y Caus. ^l^^, Aor. 
IRT^^, Lies. I^m^mn, Int. timiln, ^FnW. 

67. f^ivi^ to swell, (TWtfti.) 

P. "iTOflr II Pf. I. jpm (S) or fipivnT (a), 3. ^iirflnr or fitraftnr, 3- ^jp'w 

or fip^rnr, 4. ^pgft^ or fijlfttftW, 5. ^J^^. or f^if^V^, 9. 15^ or fifrf^, 
I A. vm^l^, II A. WWI^ or nfStlfVu^i^ and V9||(I4A9 F. Hfrimffl, P. F. ^P^mi, 

B. ^gVJ^^ II Pt. ^: II Pass, ij^j Caus. "Vnnrfiry Aor. ^vf^r^PIl^, Des. f^raf^W* 
Int. $H(|i|fl or ^j\9|i|ff. 

II. Atmanepada Verbs. 

68. w^^edh, to grow. 

P. w^, I. ^, 0. 1^, 1. wirf II Pf. wwm*, F. irfVuT^, C. ^ftnw, P. F. 
vftiflTj I A. I, ^ftrfW, 3. irf^fT:, 3. %ftiF, 4. $fli**ffig, 5. ^fMwnrf, 6. ^ftwnrf, 
7. %ftfwf^, 8. ^flff or °s4, 9. ^ftrw, B. ^Mtw II Pt. ^ftnr: 11 Pass, mvkf Aor. 

^, Caus. Pres. WV^j ^9 Perf, WHTW, F. ^vftraflr, ^, Cond. ^vftm^y 

% P. P. wftim, II A. $fi^, % B. wftnftf , Des. ^fijflr^. 

69. ^ fAr^A, to see. 

P. ^0779 I« ^W> O- ^'B^* I» ^[^ffft II Pf. ^HfNff) I A. %f^9 F. ^ftfOVy 

C. ^ft^w, P. F. ^ftjin, B. tfsi*v II Pt. ff^n: 11 Caus. ^Jpiflr, Aor. ^Pru^^, 
Des. ^f^rftpiw. 

70. T^ dad^ to give. 

P. ^!»w, I. V^^ll, O. ^^, 1. 15;^ II Pf. 3, ^^ (} 328, i), 6. ^?J^> 9. ^^?fij^ 

(Pfiv. VI. 4, 126), I A. ^j?[ft;¥, F. ^^flf^n^, P. F. ^f^, B. ^fipftr 11 Pt. ^[fljw: 11 

Pass, ^(wkj Aor. ^R^, Caus. ^Rpifir, Aor. ^1^*1^^, Des. fl;^[fi^, Int. iipf^Vi^, 

— — - - ' ■ 

* WV9 and Y^ are used in the Pamsmaipada, ^i^ in the Atmanepada. It is only in 
the passive that IXm and ^1^ take Atmanepada terminations. 

bhA glass, Itmakepada verbs. 261 

71. "^BO^shvashk, to go. 
p. ufUiAy I. Vii^uiH II Pf. w*f^9 I A. iiviruify p. Hl^^n, p. p. Vlf^illl, 
B. wi^i*flif. 

Note — ^The initial \ib not liable to become ^. (See No 45 ; P&n. vi. 1, 64, i. Colebrooke, 
p. 319.) 

7a. ^fH^ ry, to go, to gain, &c. 
P. ^rtn, I- ^STnW M Pf. ^BT^^j I A. ^ttAtv, F. vO^ilfl, P. P. vf^KUT, B. wflj- 
iftl II Pass. iQsiCA (lin^)» Caus. v^^filfy Aor. ^nftwif 9 Dee. vH^Him). 

73. tIN^ wanj, to embrace. 
^^^dami, ^C^saHj, WWisvaf^ drop their nasal in the special tenses (Pi?, vi. 4, 95). See No. 62. 

P. w^9 I- ^»^rini II Pf. ^nari^ or ^^ (Pa^. i. 2, 6, vftrt.), I A. i. ^r^KWy 

2. ll4J4<m*, 3. V^Hb, 4. ^I^Nnf^, 5. V^HIIVli, 6. HW^fTHf, 7. llljllHr^9 8- ^TO^j 
9. ^whfW, F. ^hoiT, B. ^h(^ H Pass, ^BTSlTn, Caus. ^flilPlI, Des. fnN|n, 
Int. Illl!l9l|n, ^EIT#%« 

74. Jgr^trapf to be ashamed, (?f^*) 
P. 1^, I. ^iznw II Pf. 3. ?rt (P&9. VI. 4, 1^2), 6. ^^, 9. ?|fift, I A. I. 
watVrW or ^cflW, 2. V^rMfi: or w^pitn:, 3. ^•Wftf or ^tJXUj F. ^rfWit or V(^f^9 
B. isif^nlf or 9^Rv. 

75» flni^ '(;> to forbear. 
. iHillHfn II Iri. lAlffOfl^lH, 1 A. VIIHillH|IP, r . TTITinEpmr, Jo. lfllAlf|mS N 
Caus* T^nifk. 

Note — See No. 63. The simple verb is said to form F1|W he sharpens. 

76. "^rnpan, to praise. 
P. 'qionji^y I. W^nrnnr ll Pf. M^UnN^ or ^ (without wn^). Thus likewise 
Aor. wqnnDlIf or wiT%V» F. mu i Hlli lornftpqi^, B. MHIirnMlt or ^ft^Y 11 Caus. 
ifinniflr, Aor. unfhrai^, Des. (ViiiOimii, Int. ifirao^. 

Note — ^This verb (see No. 26) takes Wt^, but, as it is mentioned by PA^ini iii. i, 28, 
together with V^, with which it shares but the meaning of to praise, it is argued that it does 
not take WPT, unless it means to praise. It is likewise argued that 'q^, if it takes ^BT^* 
43oes not follow the Atmanepada, because the Anubandha, requiring the Atmanepada, applies 
only to the simple verb, ^^^^ ^HOV he traffics. Other grammarians, however, allow both 
the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. The suffix 1BT7 may be kept in the general tenses. 
(Pft^. III. I, 31.) 

77. V^ kamj to love, (w^.) 

P. ironic, I. v^ipnnr ii Pf. iuHiiNi)i or ^v^, I A. n^^lnnfl or (without w^ 
^nnnnr (P&n. m. i, 48, vftrt.), F. ^if^nqi^ oncnvftnoi^, B. ^iftNlv or 4ii4ri|i(lf 11 

Pass. 'W^^k (5), Aor. ^TcrfH (P&9. vii. 3, 34, v&rt.), Caus. mimflr, Des. fl^iftr^ 

or f^PBiff^niW, Int. ^4M|rf. 

Note — ^This verb in the special tenses takes ^W, like a verb of the Chur class, and Vfiddhi 
(PA9. III. 1, 30). In the general tenses W9 is optional. Or, if we admit two roots, the one 
^f'^ would be defective in the special tenses, while the other ^ITR^is conjugated all through. 

^62 BH^ CLASS, Itmanepada yebbs. 

78. Vi^ ay, to go, 

P.^niTy I. wmn II Pfi inihii% (P^. m* ij 37)> I-^* i. ^nftift, a. mr^si:, 
3. viDis, 4. wrftcvrf^y g. mOimiriy 6. vinmiAiy 7. wifinfflf, 8. ^vrftnv or *^, 
9. nrftnnr, F. ^rfViWir, B. irf^nAv 11 Caus. ^mnifir, Dea. nOiOm)). 

With lin it forms ^I^KPl^ he flees (P&9. viii. 2, 19), Ger. ^IHHV; with II9 JH^it ; and 

with nft:, irann^. 

79. ^ ihf to aim. 

P. ^[^, I. ^Tf II Pf, ^fNiiky I A, ^f^9 F. ff^^9 B. ff^iftv II CauB. ^jForfWy 
Aor. ^f)|^9 Des. ^fVff^ii^. 

80. 1^9^ kdi, to shine, (^nj.) 

P. m^ II Pf. ^nr^ or ^nniirH^ {§ 326)^ I A. ^nrfio^, F. iiifl(nqir 11 Caus. 

^i^Hpff, Aor. innir^5 Des, f^mfifTviry Int. ^W^Mfl, ^141 ft. 

81. HT^ kds, to cough, (^n^.) 

p. nwn^ II Pf. ^^nirf^ {§ 326) II Caus. ^nimflr, Aor. n^ran^ (§ 37a*). 

82. ftl^ siv^ to serve, (^.) 

P. iNi^ (^fl^Kn^) II Pf. fti^, I A. ivirftn, F. ^flnoi^ 11 Caus. iNirfir, Aon 

, vftra^, Des. fudOiilfl, Int. iwi|^. 

83. m ^4, to go, (nnf .) 

P. 3. vrkj 6. iin^, 9. mk^ ist pers. sing. St, I. imrf, iBt pers. sing. St, O. 5hr, 

I. wMfl II Pf. 3. int, 6. innit, 9. ^ifWr? I A. i, vnf^, 3. wnwn, 3. wiiw &C.5 

F. m^j B. iinrtv II Pass. ifNlt, Aor. ^Vinf^, Caus. ^innriir, Aor. ViflJIMI^, Des. 

ftprraw, Int. ibit^Tk. 

84. ^ rt«, to go, to kill (?), to speak, (^.) 
P. ^"W II Pf. 3. ^^^9 6. ^^Mlil, 9. ^^^fWt, I A. n^Pnr II Caus. TlPprflr, Aor. 
%fej^(§ 474 and § 375 1). 

85. \ d€j to protect, (^.) 
P. ^'IW II Pf. X. flp^ (PAn. VII. 4, 9),;&i|^, 3, flp), I A. I. ^vfl^, 2. ^lfijinJ» 
3. ^Bflfffji. F. ^TFTn, B. ^\h\w II Pt. ^1K II Pass. ^|)^, Caus. ^FPriWy Des. n^WA, 
Int. ^^1 MB, 

Note — It is one of the "J verhs ; ^ , to protect, fonns ^Pln in the present, hut foUowB ^ 
in the general tenses. 

86. ^pi^dyuti to shine, (ijK.) 

P. rfhnr II Pf. f^ (PA9. VII. 4, 67), IA.invtfirv or i»^pn^^ (J 367 : P4n. i. 

3, 91 ; III. I, 55), F. vMnqit, B, vtfMhr 11 Caus. wtlRflr, Aor. id?|[^in^, Dea. 
l^^limn or i^«iin«in, int. l^ipnt » qWW. 

Note-p-The verhs beginning with ^i^ optionally admit the II Aor. Parasmaipada (§ 367). 

87. ^ Vfit, to be, (^.) 
P.'^M Pf. ^^, I A. ^Rf^ or n^in^, F. irfftiq?^ or ^qr?^, B.^iifNlf 11 Caus. 

BHt GLASS, Itmanepada yebbs. 263 

^[t^, Aor. I9tft«pn^ or ^n^fti^ (PA9. vii. 4, 7), Des. f^nfS^ or fti^Tfffir, Int. 

Note — ^The verbs beginning with^, i.e. ^, ^, 3|^, m^,ip^, are optionally Parasmai- 

pada in the aorist, future, conditional, desiderative (P&9. 1. 3, 91—93). The same verbs do 

not take ^ in their Parasmaipada tenses (PA?, vii. 2, 59) ; as to |p^ see P&9. vii. 2, 6oy 

and 1. 3, 93. 

88. ^i^ syand^ to sprinkle or drop, (^>^-) 

P.^iftfl^ H Pf. i.tM^, 3. H^fij^ or ^i^vi^, 4. H^n^H^ or ^ll^4l^, IA,3,ir^qflnfj 

6. n^R^Niiit ; or w#ir (6. ^rwwnrf), or n A. irer^ (not W^^), F. ^qfif«ri> 

or ^Qi^ or ^qURfir (PAp. vii. a, 59; see No. 87), B.^qfl^ or uhlfhr u Pt. 

isqin, Ger.^qft[WT or ^ihwT (P&^. VI.4, 31) 11 Cans, ^i^piflr, Des. fti^R ' Mli or 

ill4MNIn or (««4raln. 

89. ^^ kfip^ to be able, (^0 

P. ^c^n) II Pf . ^^Jm, I A. 3, n^iHiNf or v;gnr, 6. wjimmt, 9. ^Qji^vir, or II Aor. 
Par. wj^, P. nf^PRi^ or iv^^n^ or ii5Wfir, P. F. 3. nfenn^ or iRind or 
imrf^, B. ^rf^ii^hP or ^niftv U Pt. jtrj 11 Caua. i|^OTflT> Dea. (^^Osm) or 
r^jjimni, Int. ^cdYjiuiA or ^fc94^n or ^^T^S^ifV. 

90. «qi^ vyath^ to fear, to suffer pain. 

P. «ir^ n P£ ftfur^ (PAn. VII. 4, 68), I A. ^rmftre, F. ^qftrni^ 11 Pass, tnwn^, 
Aor. WHftr (S), (J 462), Caus. ^iRRftr, Des. "Pr^fro^, Int. iTRpqi^, imftr. 

91. T>^ ram, to sport, (t^.) 

P. vfk; with fr, W, ^, ^n, optionally Parasmaipada; itiriffW (P&n. i. 
3, 83) H Pf.\i^, I A. ^itw, after prepositions «qhrh^, F. twi^ n Pt. rir:, Qer. 
TjV, «>^0B| or "Xn II Caus. TW^rfHy Aor. ^nfihOT^, Des. (VlnH, Int. tCiRH^, toftflr. 

92. 1^ tvar, to hurry, (ftlfiro.) 
The verbs If^^rar, J^tvar, ftr^«ri», ^Bl^or, f^mw, substitute ^i^r, "^^r, ^^'^ 
'94, \mil (P&p. VI. 4, 30) before weakening terminations beginning with consonants, 
except semivowels, and if used as monosyllabic nominal bases. Hence 1|^t jiin^, 
1^1 Hhn^, ^in srCtaft, ^nit 4tah, ^fjfl mdtah, 

P. iTO^ H Pf. Wi^, I A. 3. ^JfiVftV) 8. WRfW or HrVft^, F. RftlVIl^ U Pt. 1^: 

(f 43^) <>r •''ft^ W Caus. rTC^ (J 4^^» H- 6)> -^or. WlfPTO^^ ($ 375 1)> Des. 
nii*l(V.Hfill, Int. fl|ii|4d, lAl|fS. 

93. ^ *aA, to bear, (^f .) 

P.Wfi^M Pf.i|, IA.w^if?¥, F.^Eiflr^, P.F.^rft[inor ^BftOT(f337, II.2) ii 
Pt. ^ft?:. Adj. ir^ (f 456, 6) ii Pass, ^rar^^ Caus. ^errf^, Aor. ^ref^fi^, Caus. 

Des. ftreTff^i^lir, Des. ftreff^. Int. ^rrraw, Trraftftr. 

Note — ^^ and ^ change V into Vt when V would be followed by 7, the result of the 
amalgamation of 7 with a following dental (§ isB). P&9. vi. 3, 113. 

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 
94. tm rdj, to shine, (tn|.) 

P. tfuflr, *ir II Pf. Tinr, tti^ or \i^ (Pdn. vi. 4, 125), I A.^TOif^> irnftrf, 


P. rffiBniifw> ^9 B. TT5iiTn^» Tjftnft? n Caus. tviRfky Aor. ircrnn^) Des. fcrrf^nflTf 
% Int. trcRUT^, nnflr. 

95* ^ khan^ to dig. 

P. iRfir* II Pf.3.^wrFr, 6.^t^:, 9. ^ ($ 3«8, 3),^{a), {§ 348), 
but Atm. ^m(Pn only, F. ^irf^rqfir, B. w^^n^ or iimni^ (§ 391) w Pt, imr:, Ger. 

^m?lT or ^rftfWT, Adj. ?N: ($ 45^, 6) 11 Pass, w^ or ?rnn^ {§ 391), Caus. 
flH^Ol, Aor. il^l€«1(^9 I^cs. f^rarftmflr, °t^, int. ^^rili^ or ^IfllMli {§ 39 ^)> 

96. Y Art, to take, (^O 

P. ?^ H P£ i.'ffTt (a), 2.inr^) 9. "Tg:, I A. ^nfnffn, Atm. ^i^pr {§ 35^)9 
P. ^fbrtr, P. P. ^, B. fgm\ II Pt. ^:, Ger. fwr, Adj. ijrt: 11 Pass, f^, 
Aor. H^lf^, Caus. ^R?>ri^, Des. ftf^Mflr, °n, Int. iil^t^, iffffi &c. 

97- ^ i^» to l^de, (i||.) 

3Jf ^i takes 9 l{ before tenxuDations beginning with vowels that would ordinarilT' 

require Gu^a. 

P. 'ujfir tt Pf. 1.^5^5 3. gi!^^ or ^jftr, 3. ipijf, 4. ijjf^, 5. g'^tj: &c., 

Atm. I. ^^, a. ^J^^ or ^Jjfl^ &c., I Aor. see § 36a, P. '[TfilOl or ^t^fl^rir^ 
P. P.'jf^ or iftir, Ben. Atm. >Tf^ift? or ^|^ {§ 345) 11 Pt ijjr:, Adj. ijiK or 
iftw (J 457) II Pass, ijiri^, Aor. ^V^, Caus. 1^^, Aor. W^JJfl^, Des. ^^W^ 

98. ftv iri, to go, to serve, (f^«) 

P. wifk II Pf. I. f^RTR (o), 2. f^raftr^, 3. fi^ranr, 4. fipfiiftR, g. fijiftnrj:, 
n A. nflirftRrn^ ($ 371), P. ^rftrofir, B. ^fhin^ 11 Pass. fftinJ, Aor. vinf^, Caus. 

^mnrfir, Aor. vf^l^ill^, Des. fi^refW^ or f^lTBftirfir {§ 471, 3; § 337, H. 3), 

Int. ^iftflMn* 

99. iTi^ yaj, to worship. 

P.infflrn Pf. i.l^5m(a), ($311), a.^irf^or^i|?(j335,3), 4.^f^, 5.^1^ 

^« t?''?^ 7- f^^9 8. fif, 9. ^ip, I A. I. ^nin|, 3. ^Ndinth, 3. wrn|h^, 4* i^i'P* 
5. vn¥, 6. vorrf, 7. w^rre??, 8. wnv, 9. 'wn^, I Aor. Atm. i. mvf^, 2. ^nwi:, 
3. vif , 4. viituff, 5. inrHjnrt, 6. wmtrnif, 7. viiish^i 8. ^m^^ (not ^Hiin4), 
9.^nnTir, P. ^reiflr, P. P. im ($ 1^4), B. ^surn^^ {§ 393) 11 Pt. ^:, Ger. ^, 
«^ II Pass, ^1l^^, Caus. ifHRfk, Aor. %i|hnn^, Des. f^nnqfir. Int. ininqi^, 

icx). ^vop, to sow, to weave, (j^.) 
P. .^foflf II Pf. I. TTTR (a), 2. ■9'^ftnJ or ^97^9 9. "^IJt) I A. IW^h^^, Atm* 

^nir, p. ^rt^lflr, P. P. ^ft, B. tsirth^ u Pt. ^h: 11 Pass. ^iqi^. 

* The Atmanepada forms will in future only be given when they have peculiarities of 
their own, or are otherwise difficult. 


loi. ir^ vah^ to cany. 

P. "«iiflr « Pf. 1. ^rwTf (i), a. Ti^l^ or ^dv, 3. ^rwif, 4. vf^, g. "aif^, 
6. 's^r, 7. «r^«i, 8. "Wf , 9. "^:, I A. I. ^Rnr, a. im^^ft:, 3. inrufh^y 4. mrvir, 
5. wftif 6. irftfft, 7. vmnH) s. v<h<s, 9. ^v^n^:, I Aor, Atm. i, nrvftf, a. ^rvtvr:, 
3. ^N^, 4. ^nnirfTy 5' 'i^HirviI, 6. v^^iaI, 7. ^R^retri^^ 8* ^nft^, 9. w^^^ F. 
.^^9rflr, P.T. ijtaT, B, ^nm « Pt. iw:. Adj. ^nr: n Pass, ^nri^, Caus. tnfi|flr> 

Aor. mfNfi^y Des. Pi^mOl, Int. ^nni^^ ^irdfr. 

loa. ^ ve^ to weave, (^.) 

P. ^'ifir M Pf. 3. ^^, 6. '^wf: (or wrg:), 9. ^ (or iijt); or 3. ^r^Pf, 6. w^, 

P' ''S* {§ 3^^)> I -^^ i« ^nitftrf, a. ^RTllh, 3. VmWIl^, Atm. mra*, P. ^VF9Vfll'> 
p. F. "mn, B. "Sim^, Atm. nrsftw U Pt. -m (Pft?. vi. 4^ 2) 11 Pass. "Qiin^ Caus. 

^iM^iHiy Des, OiifiiiDvy Int. irnmTi ^nrfir. 

103. ^ hve^ to emulate^ to call, (sl^.) 

P. ^^Ol U Pf. I. ^?nr (a), a. ^?flni or ijft^i 3. ^ipT, 4. ^^ftn, H A. ^V3(1^ 
{§ 363), Atm. ^RfW, or I A. ^H3|TOr, F. ifmfiif, B. ^im^^ n Pt. ^, Ger. ^ N 
Pass. ^^T>, Aor. ^G|lflv^ Caus. sp^nvfir^ Aor. W|J|^ {§ 371)? Des. ^tf^f^i 
Int. iJVnWj lfh|^» 

Tud Class {Tudddi VI Class). 

I. Faxasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 

104. ^ tud J to strike. 

P- J'jflf J^ Pf» ^w^* P- wtl^rfir, P. F. iftnTi I A. VfliNflif^ Atm. wjw 11 Pt. JWJ> 
Ger. J^ n Pass, pr^, Caus. if^^^rflfj Aor. VTO^i Des. f{ivfir» Int. ift^Vn^ 

105. m^ bhrajj^ to fiy, (WH-) 

¥nS^6Arq{; takes Sampras&rai^a before weakening tenninationB, the same^s XP^srdh, "^Jy^ 
^t^oyf '^'(^vyadhy ^T^va^, ^Kf^vyaeh, W^vra^ch, IP^praehh (PAn. vi. i, i6). The 
terminations of the special tenses of Tud verbs are never strengthening, but weakening^ 
if possible. 

P. ^faifir 11 Pf. I. WW, a. 'TCftV^ or ^^iW, 9. WS^l (PAn. i. 2,5), or W^ 

&c. (Pftv. VI. 4, 47), I A. iranif^^ or m^fftn^, Atm. ^rav or unf , F. m^rflr 
or H#flr, P. F. rswj or ifir, B. ^pipn, Atm. wff or «<fr 11 Pt. yp: 11 Pass, 
ipiin^, Caus. vranvflr^ Aor. «^«l^l^ or vwH^nh^, Des. ftf^nfflr or fm|f)r9 Int 

106. Y^AfMA, to draw a line. (See No. 38.) 

P. 'fnfir II Pf.^i|J|, I A. VWHffl^ or wsn^, Atm. inpiv or iPfV, P. W^Ol 
or TTOflr, P. F. nh or hwt, B. ^p^, Atm. ^fufhr 11 Pt. >ff : 11 Pass, ^nqi^, 
Caus. v4i|f)r> Aor. ^nn^i^ or v^f Nl^, Des. f<l^p(flr, Int. ^Of^n. 

M m 


107. ^ muchf to loosen^ (T9*) 
Certain verbs beginning with ^^ much take a nasal in the speoial tenses. They are, 
^p^mucA, ^^^Mp9 ^ ^^^» ^^ ^*^> to find, f75^ lip^ to paint, HT^ stcA, to sprinkle, 
^l^^ftV, to cut, ftr^ lihid, to pain, ftn^pi/, to form. (PAn. vii. i, 59.) 

P. 5^rftr II Pf. ^»pft^, I A, 'Wf^, Atm, ^i^ {§ 367), Des. ^[ip|f)r or ifl^ 


108. fte virf, to find, (ftlj.) 

Pt. fnr* 

109. f(9^%, to paint, 

P. ffiirfv II Pf, fi^^9 II A. wflann^^(J 367), Atm. II A. vf^vmr or I A. iri^ 


II. Parasmaipada Verba 
1 10. ^^7, to cut, (^nft.) 

P. firfif (see No. 107) 11 Pf. ^it, I A. ^^f?(ft^^, P. ^ifftioflr or li?^ (J 337, 
II. a), P. P. nffiin, B. ^vm^ 11 Pt. ^pr: 11 Pass, ^pqj, Caus. KT^^flr, Aor. V^mftl^ 
or infrfin^, Des. fVnflwflr or f^^i^rfk {§ 337, II. a). Int. ^il^iMi. 

III. 1^ kuf^ to be crooked, to bend. 
Certain verbs beginnmg with ^§^kuf (DhAtupH^ha 28, 73-108) do not admit of Gona or 
Vfiddhi, except in the reduplicated perfect, the causative, and the intensive Parasmai- 
pada. (PAn. I. 2, 1 ; § 345, note.) 

P. ^frftr II Pf. i.^pit^y 2.^5^firv, I A. ^irffiflu^, F.^fr^vfir, P. F. ^jf^ ii Caus. 
^^hnrfk. Int. "^^9^), ^fWrt^. 

1 1 a. J(^^vraichJ to cut, (^ftin|;) 
P- ^Wfir (see No. 105) n Pf. i. 'ra^, 2. 'raf^ or tnw, I A. mr#l(. or 
^'''TB'fH i§ 337> I-^)» F. Trf^onrfir or ^a^iflr, B. ^fvqm^ u Pt. ^w:. 

113. w kri, to scatter. 

P. ftincfir n P£ 3. ^ncK, 6. 'wurj:, 9. ^^inp (Pa?, vn. 4, 1 1), I A. imnftn, F. 

iftiffir or ivlfNifir {§ 340), B. iA^ li Pt. "iM: u Pass. iA^« Caus. HFCirfir, 

Des. f^mft^rfk. 

Note— After ^W and Hfir, "^ takes an initial ^ if it means to cut or to strike : ^HrVsivin 
he cots,' Vinranx ; liniOjKfk he cuts or he strikes (P&i?. vi. i, 140, 141). Also V^ftlRn 
he drops (P49. vi. i, 143). 

1 14. ^^ spjiii to touch. 

P.^^^^fif I' Pf.^W^, lA.irain^or^HWTlffl^or^R^^p^, F. Bi^lfv or H«$fll» 

B. ^?im^ II Pt. ^jr. II Des. flw^pfflr, Int. mO^^^i), iwft^ft. 

115. Jt^^prachhj to ask. 
P.^lKflr (see No. 105) 11 Pf. l.^^w, 2.^niftCT or mit, 9-'^^^^* (§ 3^8), 
lA.%na9fh[^ F.nv^, B.^[«ni^ ii Pt.^: ii Pass.^pcri^, Caus. nw^lflr, De«» 
fll^f^fl^^fir. Int. vO^^HN. 



1 16. ^ srij^ to let off. 

P* ^fnfir II Pf. I. WtAj 2. OTf^ or ^I9v(8ee N0.48), I A* vomPi^f F. ^nsflf II 

117. HH^ »uy/, to gink, (inill) 

Vn^majj and vTl^iiai (Div) insert a nasal before strengthening terminations beginning with 

consonants, except nasals and semivowels. (P&9. vii. i, 60.) 

P. irarfir ii Pf. i. «rw> a. wPai^ or inrfVy I A. 3. wh^ (J 345)9 6. 'whrf, 
s^ ^nrt^, P. «h9ifir» P. F. inn 11 Pt. ww.^ Ger. wm or iw (f 438) u Caus. 

HVmOl, Aor. WlfWII^y Des. Dili Hi Ta^ Int, iTHI^jirRy TffftR . 

118. ip^t^A, to wish, (^.) 

P. ^idir (see No. 31), I. ^wi^ 11 Pf. i. ^^, 2. ^^iftw, 3. ^^, 4. ^W, 5. ^^•^ 

6. ^^, 7. ^flw, 8. ^, 9. ^, I A, ^i<h^, F. ^f^ii^fir, P. F. WT or irfWnT (f 337j 

II. i) n Pt. ^ Ger. ^j\ or ^iVifT n Pass, l^ini, Aor. %flr, Caus. ^inifiry Aor. 

WWT^, Des. ^fVrfVinfir. 

III. Atmanepada Verbs. 

119. ^mft, to die, (^O 

\ mftj to die, though an Atmanepada verb, takes Atmanepada forms only in the special 

tenses, the aorist, and benedictive. (P&9. i. 3» 61.) 

P. ftnw*, I. wftnnf, O. fti^, I. firt u Pf. i. wrc^ 2. irt, 3. innt, 4. •iPw^? 
5. T9^9 1 A. I. ^^[ftry 2. ^wpnj, 3. ^w^, F. iir<iini9 P. F. H^rf^y B. ^iftv 11 Pt. 
fv: II Pass. f%in^, Caus. iimrftTy Des. ^^fily Int. ^lifhiit. 

lao. '^ rfri, to observe, ("y^.) 
P. f^ II Pf. ^, I A. w^, P. ^ftw^, P. F. i5*T, B. -jirtf II Pass, f^j 
Caus. ^nilfir, Des. n^^Omfl (J 332, 5). It is chiefly used with the preposition 
ITT to regard, to consider. 

Div Class {Divddi, IV Class). 

I. Parasmaipada Verbs. 

lai. fij^rfw, to play, (flfj.) 

P.^'ti^fw(f i43)HPf.fl^^,IA.ii^Th(^,F.^fV^ifw P.P.^f^, B.f^^iqn^^H 

Pt.^tf: or ^ (} 44a, 7), Ger.iprf {§ 431, i) or ^^[m 11 Caus. ^^irfir, Des. 

fi{^flwfli or j^Or {§ 474)9 Int. ^^)^. 

122. "^njit, to dance, (^wt*) 
P.^wfii H Pf. 3. •R#, 9. '^^U I A. Wtfiift^, F, ^inivifir or ifii^lfk (J 337, 
II. 2) II Pt. ^|WJ I* Caus. «r8i|f)r, Aor. Htftilff or iHft^jinr 9 Des. ftnfffr^flr or 

* Fmal ^ is changed to ft ($ i lo) in the special tensea of Tad verbs, likewise before the 
1| of the passive and benedictive ( PIL9. vii. 4, 28). Afterwards ft again becomes f^, according 
to P&9. VI. 4, 77. 

M m 2 


1 23- ^yr<» to grow old, (ij^.) 

P. iMflr* II Pf. 3. mnr, 9. mr?: (Gu^a, § 330) or ihp ($ 328, 2), I A. 
wnxfh^or n A. mpcn {§ 367), P. nftiiflr or irtNrflr (J 340), B. iMrn 11 Pt. 

Mt^ II Cans, ift^ (f 46:^, 25), Des. ftnrftnqfir or ftfiMfw {§ 337, II. 3). 

124. ^ io, to sharpen. 

Verbs ending in ^ o drop ^ o before the 1| ya of the Div class (P&9. vii. 3» 71) ; e. g. 

W chhOf to cut, ^UM), to finish, ^do,to cut. 

P. ^nflr, I. v;^, O. ^{^, I. Tfiq 11 Pf. ifnpl {§ 329), I A. ^viirnani^ or II A. 
^tW^9 F. imsrfir, P. F. igmj B. ^imrm (f 392) 11 Pt. ^^mn or fimi: (f 435) n 
Pass. 5Tir>, Cans, ^n^ivfir, Des. fi^^nrfir, Int. ^p^p^. 

125. ^ «o, to finish. 

P. ^iiflr II Pf. ^rar, I A. vuidli^, II A. ^nin^, F. vi^qfir, P. F. VIWT9 B. ihvm 

($ 392) II Pt ftnn, Ger. ®iniT 11 Pass. *qT^ {§ 392), Cans, imnvflr, Des. 

f^ivnrfir, Int. ^i4Nw« 

126. iqv vyadhj to strike. 

P. ftwflf (see No. 105) 11 Pf. 3. ftnqiy (f 311), 9. Pfftl^, I A. i. vqm, 

2. nmnfl?^ 3. vmnfli^, 4. ir«ni^, 5. ^wrti, 6. ^nmvf, 7. fmui^, 8. ^rmvy 
9. ^wn^:, F. vnorflr, P. F. iqir, B. ftrmn^ n Pt. fti; 11 Pass, flunii. Cans, 
ninnifir, Des, fimirfir, Int. ^fViuii). 

127. ig^/rip, to delight. 

P. ^pHfftf II Pf. I. inrt, 3. inif^ or 111^9 or nv^j 3. inrt, 4. ti^^w or n^, 

I A. Winffi^ or ^VirNfl^ {§ 337, I. 3) or v^ern^ (see No. 38) or II A. ^if^, 

F. wf^vffir or irtc^ or ?F9Tfw, P. F. irf^, irftr or ^nn, B. ^pm^ 11 Pt. ^ tt 

Pass, ^^nr, Cans. ir^^, Aor, Vfll^Mif^ or unrif^, Des. ni^HfOl or fllflfQilfll, 

Int. flOfi^A* 

128. ^ muhj to be foolish. 

P. ^isfti II Pf. I. ^^^9 3. ^ifrt^ or ^iftnf or ^iftf , 11 A, ^iq;^ (J 367, ^llflj) t, 
F. ift^^ or iftfignrftr, P. F. iftxvT or ifteT (J 129) or iftf^ 11 Pt. ijni: or ip: 11 
Pass. ipnCj Cans. lililuOl, Des. ^|^[^fir, ^'frt^piftr or y^fy^HOl, Int. ifl^pnTy 'JWtfril 
or ifhfH^. 

* Final ^, changed to ^, and lengthened before ^. 

t The SArasvatt gives besides the second aorist the optional forms of the first aorist 
^■ift^h^or VmUlll^ (§ 337, 1. 3, Wrfij) or ^fJ^Tl^ (§ 360). According to Pfti^. iii. i, 55 
(§ 3^7)} the forms of the first aorist are allowed in the Atmanepada only; but later gram- 
marians frequently admit forms as optional which are opposed to the grammatical system 
of Pftnini. Sometimes the evasion of the strict rules of P&nini may be explained by the 
admission of different roots, as, for instance, in No. 130, where the first aorist Parasmaipada 
V^pftl^, given in the S&rasvatt, which is wrong in the Div class, might be referred to the 
Kri class. 


Div CLASS, Itmanepada yebbs. 269 

129. ^^naS, to perish, (^.) 

P. inpiftr H Pf. 3. ^nmir, 9. ihj:, II A, w?nin^ (f^) or iri^ ($ 366), P. 

iff^HRfiv or iTOfflr (see No. 117) « Pt. iTftj Ger. ^ or ifyr (J 438). 

130. ^m Sam, to cease, (^O 

Eight Div verbs, '^(^Jam^jntam, l^dam, V^^^om, "^S^bhram, "^p^ksham, W{^klom, f^maJ, 

lengthen their vowel in the special tenses. (P&9. vii. 3, 74.) 

P. w^nfif u. P£ 3. ir^rm, 9. i^T' ^^ '^' ^'^P"^,' ^- ^rt^nrtr, P. F. i^ftnrr n 

Pt. ijifif: (J 429), Qer. ^trfr or ^rfNnr 11 Pass, ^p^, Caus. ^ipifir (§ 462) he 
quiets, but ^n**^ or ^fh he sees. (Dh&tup&tha 19, 70.) 

131. f9(^mid, to be wet, (firfti^.) 

ftl^ mid takes Gu^a in the special tenses. (Pi^. vii. 3, 82.) 

P. ^wflr II Pt. ftnn wet, or ^flpr: ($ 333, D. 2*). 

II. Atmanepada Verbs. 

132. "W^jan, to spring up, (ipft.) 

^f\jan substitutes ^jd in the special tenses. (Pi^. vii. 3, 79.) 

P.htoJ n Ff.^ ^ 328, 3), lA.wnfHw or Mnfn (§413), F.^^rfi^ 

iff^niTy B«.iift|ift? II Pt. irnn, Caus, ii«nri)r, Des, ftniffnwj Int. wrimw or 

^33^ ^ P^^y to go. 

P.'qvi^ n Pf.^, IA.3.wq!fi{($4i2), 6. ^rmmrf, 9. ^Rnnif F. ii?^, P. F. ^nm; 

B. ^iiftf II Pt. ^v u Caus. ^T^irfir, Aor. n^fhl^, Des. flnin^ (J 47i> 9), Int 

^'rt^ i§ 485)- 

134. ^ £tMfA, to perceive. 

P» ^piri^ M P£ ^ly^* I A. I. w^fhr, 3. 11311:9 3. wji or nwtftr, 4. ^v^jTiffli, 
5. ii^wnrf* 6. v^i^Tirf, 7. ii^rCRff 9 8. v^, 9. iT^iinr} F. H'tRrV) p. F. iJtVTy B. 

^nr^ II Pt. ^51: II Caus. ^Wqfir, Aor. ^I^^VI^) Des. ^pfFRI^ (3^ of the Div class 
can never take intermediate ^^ see j 332, 12; see also Kuhn, Beitrage, 
vol. VI. p. 104), Int. iftjuii^. 

IIL Farasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 

135. ^ nah^ to bind, (^.) 

P. fHfir or°^ II Pf. i.^THTf) 2. «m(J 130) or %f^9 Atm. ^, I A, i.lHfTWy 

2. nHinnty 3. h«iiw1hj 4. wfTf^5 5. w^rnt) 6. vrorf? 7. iRiw?^ 8.inTO, 9. wiin^f 
Atm. i.^RfV^, 2.iniiT:, 3.^«niv, 4.^1771^, s.^v^fm^, 6. ^nrrirTiif , j.^mmf^^ 

8. IR^, 9. iRfinr, F. ^n^rftr, P. F. thtt 11 Pt. ^Wj Ger. ii^, «>iw 11 Pass, ifinr 
Aor. ViTTf^» Caus. «|lf qfiT, Des. fvlHWAy Int. «IMIIA* 


Chur Class {Churddiy X Class). 

Paxasmaipada Verbs only. 

136. ^ chur J to BteaL 

P. ^^ft^fif H Pf. ''ftiAii^^Kj I A.w^[5tl^» F.^fW^T^lfw, P.F.^fhcftrifT, B. ^^^m 
{§ 386) II Pt. ^Wtw:, Ger. ^ikPwT II Pass, ^ft^, Caus. ^ftrirtTr, Des. ^^Vr^ii^ni. 
No Intensive {§ 479). 

137. f^ cW, to gather, (f^.) 

The changes which roots undergo as causatives, take likewise place if the 
same roots are treated as Chur verbs. Hence according to j 463, IL 6, 
'ftr, as a Chur verb, may form P. ^^iRfir or ^nnifir, the vowel, however, 
remaining short because, as a Chur verb, fv is said to be f^{§ 462, note) 11 
I A. ^NN^ or V^1^MI^9 B« ^^\\ or ^mn^. 

Note — Several Cbur verbs are marked as i^fl^, L e. as not lengthening their vowel, some 
of which were mentioned in § 462, among the causatives. Such are 9^ to know, to make 
known ; ^l^to pound ; ^ to pound ; ^, if it means to feed ; WS to live. 

138. ifEkfitj to praise. 
P. isiftnfK {§ 462, 2) H I A. WflTH^ or ^ifrtt^ {§ 377)- 

Su Class {Svddi, V Class). 

I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 

139- 1 ««, to distil, (g^.) 

P.^^flr, I.3.ig($3«i*) n Pf. TOT» Atm. ^, I A. iwrrh^ ($ 332, 4) ; 

the Sirasvatt allows also ^raHf^ (but against Pan.vii. 2, 7 a), Atm. imtv; 
the Sdr. allows also wsf^ (but see P&n.vii. 2, 72); F. ^jh^fiT, P.F. ^fhn, 
B. ^jni^ II Pass, ^in^, Aor. mrrf^, Caus. ^mfw, Aor. ^^^5^9 Des. ff;|v6r. Int. 

Note — The "^ of ^ may be dropt before terminations beginning with ^ or I?, and not 
"requiring Gu^a ; but this is not the case if "^ is preceded by a consonant. This explains the 
double forms ^q^i and ^'ftj %%^i and ^M!, ll^«|^ and ^f^^j "^T' *°^ ^^^^ » ^^^ 
Atm. ^15^ or ^p^^* ^g«i$ or ^^9 I^^J^rf or H^p^y ^^13^ or ^l^'^lfV. The 
same rule applies to the Tan verbs. 

140. fir cAi, to collect, (f%^-) 

P. frnftfil II Pf. 3. fVlR or f^l^kR) 2. f^l^ or fVi%^ or, according to Bharadv&ja 
{§ 335> 3)9 N^ftnr or fw^ifV^r, 9. fw^. or fv^, Atm. f^ or fri^ (Pap. vii. 
3, 58), IA.^i%^, Atm.'W^, F.^^1^, P.F.^, B.^*^ II Pa88.^<hnr, 
Caus. ^Tipvfir or ^mWir {§ 463, 11. 6, and No. 137), Des. f^^fNfir or f^ra!Nf)r 
(Pap. VII. 3, 58), Int. ^"^hnr. 

141. ^ strij to cover, (ij'f.) 

P. ^ilfWw II Pf. inSTCtj Atm. ir^9 I A. ii4fllNTl^9 Atm. mrftl (not %fW^9 


if ^nflf) or "npf {§ 332, 5, a rule \rhich applies to the Atmanepada onlj), 

P. wftwflr {§ 332, 5), p. F. issh^ B. ^sAuf^f Atm. ^jtfh or wfbAv ($ 332, 5) 11 

Pass, irti^, Caus. WTDVfw, Des. fklfHKk, Int. TM^. 

142. ^ tTJ, to choose, (^.) 

P. ^lulftf II Pf. 1. "wrc (d), 2. '^Rflcr*, 3. ^TTt, 4. "'c^, 5. ^wy, 6. ^mj:, 

7. ^, 8. ^TO, 9. "^, I A. ^WT^ (f 332, 5), Atm. HRfty or H^lftv (f 340) or 

^■T" ($ 337» II- 4)9 ^'^ ^ft'rf^ or ^t^'rtr? P. F.^ftirr or -^dm^ B. ftnnn^, Atm. 

^rWhr (not ^tWIf» P&9. vn. 2, 39) 11 Pass, ftmi^, Aor. V^nft, Caus. ^nt!irf)r, 

Des. OmfXHOTf flrrftirtiT or ^f||lf)f, Int. TTtinr. 

II. Parasmaipada Verbs. 
143. f^ At, to go, to grow. 

P. MMti « Pf- ftrvnr (P&^. vn. 3, 56), I A. ^b|*i^, F. ^^rflr, P. F. %irT, 

B. iJHvn^ II Caus. ^Tinrfw, Aor. Wiflipn^ (Paa. VII. 3, ^6)^ Des. ftnfhlfir, Int. 

■S a^ S 

144. 9^^aA:, to be able, (^.) 

P.^rxMr II Pf.3.^B[^rni, 9. ^:, I A. ^rinin^, F.^rwflr, P.F.^rw n Pt.^r[ii: 11 

Pass. IR^qi^ (i|§ ^mii it can be done)^ Caus. ^fTV^flr, Aor. lll|fl9«l^, Des. 

f^^fir> Int. ipnfpnw* 

145. ^ hrUy to hear. 

This verb is by native grammarians classed with the Bh{i verbs, though as irregular. It 

substitutes 3[ ^' for ^ hu in the special tenses. 

P. 3. If^Wf, 6. IJ^fl:, 9. 9|ipini ; 4. sj^^i or ij^ II P£ i. ^1VT«r (a), a. ^vh^ 
($ 334* 8), 3. ^JW^, 4. ^^, 5. ^^^, 6. ^1^^, 7- '^I^* 8- ^[^» 9- ^5^-> 
I A. mfh(h(^» F. ^fNrfir, P. F. xiftWT, B. t^^ini^ W Pass, ^ijjrir, Aor. vmftTy Caus. 
WWfw, Aor. H^lRH^or irfijre^($ 475)> Des- TJ^ (Pftii. i. 3, Sl\ Int. ^ft^. 

146. ^BTTt, 4p> ^ obtain, (wj.) 

P. 3. viMtPd, 4. WT^i, 9. viijcjni, I. viNl4^» O. vnj^ni^, 1. 3. ^nrftj, a. ^nij% 11, Aor.^n^, F. wt^irftr, P.F.^rnn 11 Pt.^fTH: 11 Pass.mtqrry Caus.^mnrftr, 

Aor.Wfftrnr, Des. ^mOf. 

III. Atmanepada Verba 

147. W5^ ai, to pervade^ (''^O 

P« 3. ^'^i ^« ^^^tn^, 9. ^^'Mfli 4' ^■^[^> I« !• ^TT^ftf, 2. ^n^pin:, 3. iii^fl» 
4.^rf^^> 5. w^^ivii, 6. viq^iiii, v-^TT^'ifif, 8.^ni|i4, 9. vifgcifi, 0.^v^4hr, 
I. I. w(i^, 2. v^M, 3. w^wf, 4. w?nwt, 5. ^r^^nrt, 6. w^^nif, 7. wmi^^, 
§.w^, 9.^1^^ II Pf. i.nR^, a.wpff^ or «^, lA-i.^rrfw, a.^wnr:, 

♦ According to P&n. vii. 2, 13, we might form ^^ ; but Pftn. vn. 2, 63, would sanction 
W^rft!^. The special restriction, however, of ^^ to the Veda in Pftn. vii. 2, 64, is sufficient 
to fix ^prf^ as the proper form in ordinary Sanskrit. 


3.WI¥, 4.Wrerf^9 5.VIII|l^i, 6. VIHIKli, 7. VIHHr^y 8.W^, 9. VlHlff; or i.wrf)[lf^9 

2. iiir^fK> 3. wrfljv, P.F. HIT or wf^nrr, F.m^ra or v(^iiA^ B. ^nftw or vf^iftf n 

Pt ^m II Pass. ^f^^9 Aor. ^nf^, Caus. HT^nrfir, Aor. vrf^n^i^y Des. irfi^fi^in^y 

Tan Class {Tanvddi^ VIII Class). 
All verbs belonging to this class are Parasmaipada and 

Atmanepada Verbs. 

148. 7T^ tan, to stretch, (ir^.) 

P. Tpftflf, I. VA«0<^, O. ir^^vn^y I. TPftj ; Atm, P. 11^9 I. Wl^, O, iP^Aify 

I- n^iA H Pf. 3. inrR, 9. n^u I A. hamIi^ or wnrti^ {§ 348), Atm. 3, mfftn or 
HWK (§ 369), 2. HflHifi: or vinnty F. irf^^fir, P. F, irf«niT, B. irhi^, Atm. itfti- 

fftf II Pt. WiK, Ger. imj or nPffi^i 11 Pass. WTUT^ or innr {§ 391), Caus. wniivflr, 

Aor. vifhrTi^, Des. finrfWk or flnrtafir, Int. viRn^. 

Note — Verbs of the Tan class may raise their peDultimate short vowel by Gui^a j ^^TO 

to go, Hwflr or ^^pnWr. trt^^^wit ^^ ^ fWr, sftr. n. u, 3. 

149. ipi^ ksharif to kill, (^.) 

• P. TfufH^ II Pf. H^rnir, I A. wqpif^ (§ 348*), Atm. 3. WVfflov or W^K, a. 

VI|IVlil! or mfW. 

150. ft|^ kshiny to kill. 

P. ffflnfT or ^fonAr II I A. H^Kllfly Atm« V^TlOS or Hft|?r. 

151. v^san, to obtain, (^.) 

P. ^nftflf II Pf. fRTRj Atm. ^, I A. iraTffh^ (5), Atm. iraf«nf or iranr (Pftn« 

11.4,79; VI. 4, 42). 

15^- f *r»> to do, (fy^.) 

tf kfi before weak terminations becomes li^ kar, but before strong terminations '^ kur. 
Before ^o and ^m, and the ^y of the optative, the Vikara^a 7ti is rejected, but the 
radical 7 « is not lengthened. 

P. I. oiOr*!, 2. in&fti, 3. 11OO19 4« lf%*> 5» "S!^^* 6. "y^iRj 7» ^^*9 8« ^f^» 
9. ^jwfir, I- 1.11*1.4, 2. ^«a0.9 3. inrth^, 4. 11^9 5. ii^^i 6. vji^iii, 7. w^^ 

8. wfi^, 9. ^1%!^, O. I. f%, 9. ^:, 1. 1. vTTiAir, 2. ^, 3. wdj, 4. ''iTsrf, 
g. "9^, 6. f^vf, 7. iww, 8. "^F^, 9. '^fii II Pf. I. ^"nst («)» 2. '^*'5, 3. 'wntf 
4.^f^, s-^ii^> 6. ^Ti5*> T'^^'V' 8. ^n, 9.iry, I A. i.iraR, 2. v^iin, 3.mnff^9 

4.V4l4, 5.V«Mf, 6. VHTTf 7. W% 8. V^ili, 9. W|:, F. IbO^^ini, P. F. llffT, B. 

I. ftww, 2. fnmi^ 3. fiiini^9 4. fVinnff 5. (Vmii^j, 6. Oiiiifrity 7. fiwroij 8. fiiimr» 

9. fiiPn^t • 

Atmanepada : P. i.f^, 2.f^, 3-lP5'^> 4.^^» Sf^j 6.1l%tT^> 7- 1F^> 

8. ^^^5 9. ^^9 1. 1. IJ^flj 2. WJ^5^:, 3. Wfi^, 4. lV^|%f^9 5- If^l'^rtj 6. W5%Tlff> 
7.W^^ftf, 8.1l^p^9 9.1l^f^9 O.i.^J^hl&c, I.i.H^, a.^^Vf, 3.^p^»^ 

5. ^%nrf» 6. "f^iirf, 7. *'<^iii^, 8. "f^iij 9. ^|%iif II Pf. I. ^i%> 2.^^, 3.^nk9 


kb! class, parasmaipaba and Atmanepada Vebbs. 273 

4. ^^«if9 5. ^nsrv, 6. wmtf 7. ^npi^, 8. ^'^j 9- ^ftftj I A. i, ^s^fk, 2. ^Rf^rty 

3. 1R^, 4. Vf ^r^, 5. H^MIIff, . 6. Vf Minfy 7. Vf mff, 8. ^1^9 9. ^I^W> F. 
^fiilriy B. 3. ^r^lTy 8. ^pft^ H 

Pt. ^jnn, Ger. ^fi^r li Pass, filing, Aor. iRinft:, Caus. ^RRilflry Aor. V^ 4111(^9 

Pes. r^4f)9ni, Int. ^hA^9 ^virfft &c., or ^nh^iir &c. (f 490). 

Krt Class {Kryddi, IX Class). 
1. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 

153- ^ *'•'» to l>uy> iV^^) 
P. Ilfhinfif II Pf. I. f%HR (a), a. f^ivftr^ or f^ll^, 3. f^niPTy 4. fHfliftfr, 

5. ftiftiPi^, 6. r^fM^:, 7. fwftisftnTj 8. fwftR, 9. f^finj:) I A. ^ii^^f^, Atm. 11^9 
F. iR«rf)r9 P« F. iarr, B. nfhni^, Atm. ^iift? 11 Pt. nfhr: 11 Pass. lA^y Caus. 

WM^flly Des. r^filiini, Int. ^nliffl. 

154. ift m£, to kiU, (irt'^.) 

The roots ^ mf, f)| mi (Su)» aod ^ df (Div) take final VT ^ whenever their ^ ^ or ^ t would 
be liable to Guna or V|iddhi, and in the gerund in ^ya (§ 45a). Pft^. vi. i, 50. 

P. tflnifk II Pf. I. iwTj 2. iwnr or H?¥m^ 3. irft, 4. ftrftaw, 5. fiiwi^jj 6. ftv^R^y 

7. "ftfftir^, 8. ftiwr, 9. fti'j'' ^ '^' iiiiflu ({ 353)> Atm. inn^ (J 353), F. urerfk, 

P.F. iniTT, B, irt^9 Atm. imAv li Pt. iftir:, Ger. ifliiiT, °*mT 11 Pass, i^^^ 

Caus. Hnnvfir (J 463, II. 19), Des. ftmrfiT (J 471, 8), Int. iMHii^. 

155. ish^^/amJA, to support, (^.) 

The verbs ^M ^fam^A, ^^«^«m6A, TJS^skamhh, l^^skumbh, and ^«ibi may be conjugated 

as Krt or as Su verbs. 

P. Hvrfir or ^ff^ihfir &c., I. ^nsran^^ O. %r^iiii^9 1. i.^raiftT^ a.iwR*, 3.HVT99 

4' WVW, 5. HVMy d.H^lfhrfy 7. fcRIIHy 8. ^cl^ftlT, 9. WVJ II Pf. Tnrf>Tj I A w^eM^or 

II A. ir«m^ ($ 367), F. wfimflr, P. F. #6nn, B. w;^ ii Pt wan, Ger. ^iHhiWT 

or ^jajT II Pass. W^^ Caus. icNirfiT, Des. 01^(^111 Of, Int. iTPSn^. 

156. JipA, to purify, (^.) 

The Kri verbs beginning with ^ jptf shorten their vowel in the special tenses (P&9. vii. 3, 80). 
They stand Dh&tup4(ha 31, la— 33. The more important are, ^/^, to cut, ^^/f^, to 
cover, ^VT^, to choose, ^^k4, to shake, ^jpfi, to fill, ^dfl, to tear, ^ifC, to wither. 

P. jfrflr? Atm. jm^ II Pf. ^in^, Atm. 55^, I A. wnfh^, Atm. imOif, F. 
iif%«ifir9 P- F. "qrftnn 11 Pt, "jm, Ger. -jwr (^iftnr. and iifnwr (J 424) belong to 

5]!^, ^ro^ (BhA dass), see f 333. D) 11 Pass, jr^^ Caus. ^n^irfiry Aor. n^llM^^y 
Des. '^fjtfn (flRfinii^ belongs to ^, wikt BhA class, P&n. vii, a, 74), Int 

* Krt verbs ending in consonants form the and pers. sing, imperative in 1IT«T I § 321, note a. 

N n 


157. ^ grah^ to take. 

This root takes Sampras&nucia in the spe<^al tenses and before other weakening terminations. 

(Pftn. VI. 1, 16.) 

P. ^pGnfil'y Atm, ^lEifH^9 1- VJ|%|ll^» Atm. Vij%|lfl» O. ^!BfNn^> Atm. Jj^ff, 

5- 'T^fT* ^- Mf3pj 7- '^T*^? 8. mj?, 9. ir^:, I A. i. ^m^ ($ 341 and f 348 *), 
2. liicn, 3. ^il<i<^, Atm. I. ^Rnfn^'j 3. Hilf ivi:, 3. ^»irfi¥, Jp.IT^THTF, r*. *. 
mfhlTy B. ^|ini^> Atm. m^hftr \\ Pt. ^pftirty Ger. ^ilfhwr h Pass. ^^{flWy Aor, ^Wlfrff » 
Fut. {|<1m4 or ijlPfilil &c., Caus. ntfifflYy Des. ftl^lffir, Int. ^O'j^liy WUlfiP 
(not HWfr)* 

II. Paxaamaipada Verbs. 

158 . Ultjyd, to grow weak. 

This root takes Sampras&rapa in the special tenses and before other weakening terminations. 

(See No. 157.) 

P- ftpirflf, I. irfVnnn, O. ftnfhnnj I. ftnn5 m P£ i. ftniJT) a. fViifVi|ii or ftfi^t% 
3. fVriiJT, 4. ftffsir^y I A. V3i(iMli^9 F. 9i|i<^rA, B. ifron^ ii Pt. iflif: (irtin as 

participle would be wrong, see P4n. viii. 2, 44 ; but it occurs in the sense 
of old (Am« Kosha, ed. Loisel. p. 135)9 and in the Vedic Sanskrit ; see Kuhn, 
Beitrage, rol. vi. p. 104), Ger. irtRPr, ''^^J^ u Caus. iqmifVr, Des. flifiirmfll, 
Int. iM)i|W« 

159* 9T/^9 to know. 

This verb substitutes ^jd in the special tenses. (P&p. vii. 3, 79.) 

P. wnftr, I. ^«ii«iii^9 O- mnl ^11(^9 1, wnnj ii Pf. ^n^9 1 A. n^nrtir 9 P« ^TOrflfj 
P.F. fmrr, B.9nni^or |hm^ 11 Pt. vnr: u Pass. 9^199 Aor. mnfVy^(a), 

(see § 46a, II. 15), Aor. wftnRI^, Des. ftf9T^, Int. fninnr* 

160. "W^handhj to bind. 

P. 'WMTfif, I. wwiiTi^9 O- wifhnn^9 I- ''nnj 11 Pf. i. w^, 2. T^ftnr or w^i or 
^4^9 lA. i.iwh^, 3. ^mInA:) 3. ymInA(^, 4.^cnitr99 5.wrti9 d.^nfif, 7.iMfi9Vf 
8.^iwf¥, 9- ^whj:, F. 4?9rfll, P. F. "#11, B. nmn^ 11 Pt. ^nr:, Ger. iip u Pass, 
wvnt Caus. ^^irafir, Aor. vi^vi^, Des. f^Hnrfn; Int. "mwvi^, wnKv- 

III. Atmaaepada Verbs. 

161. ^ vriy to cherish, (^.) 

P. ^^fB^y I. ^f^^9 O. ^fiAWj I. ^pifhif 11 Pf. ^ I A. ^fwfKt or w^idiw or wjw, 
P. ^ftui^ or nt(^, P. F. nftjn or ^rftwTy B. ^ifMlv or ^jiftr II Pt. ^ n 

Pass, flro^, Caus. it^rfk (d), Des. f%nif3c^ or fiwchn^, Int. ^f^lhdt, ^*fJI &c. 
Contracted forms of the Des. and Int.^ ff^ ^^^ ^'^^l^* 



Ad Class {Adddi, II Class). 
I. Parasmaipada Verbs. 
i6a. ^ ad, to eat. 
P. I. wfti, -a.ltfte, 3. wf%, 4. 1IVS» B'^^*9 ^'^^*f 7. HIK, 8. IR^, p.H^flri 

Li.vT^, s. unp (P&v. VII.3, 100)*, 3-^n^9 4-^nT9 5. ^■nl, 6. mnrf, 7*imr, 

8. mVy 9. ^iq«\9 O, mm^^ L I. tf^rftr, a. iri^t, 3. w^, 4. w^iWi g. ^bw, 6. ^Rif^ 

7. ^i^, 8. HW, 9. ^Rfj II Pf. I. WVf(f 2. ^n(^ &c., or substituting ^11, i. fnmr (a), 
a. WWftRI, 3. ilMIH, 4. Wf^y 5. fWy, 6. inVS?} 7* "fftP'* 8. Ifff, 9. TJJj II A. 

I. ^r9#, 2. m«:, 3. iriin^9 F- ^nisiflij P. F. init, B. mm^ ii Pt. v^lTf Ger. 

vm, ^'ifnii (P&9. II. 4, 36) n Pass, wnij, Caus. in?;^, Aor. vrfln^^ De*. 

i63« 'm:\psd, to eat 
P.^^ffk, 1. 3.VOT^^, 9.1Wnfl[or^i^ ($3^^t)» O.^lTOHf I*^*^ * Pf.tnir, 

I A. mrrfh^, F. ^rr^oflr, P. F. ^mr, B. '^rrm^ or ^hm^ » Pass. ^iTvi^, Caus. 
^immOi, Dcs. f^miiOi^ Int. MimiiiM. 

164. ITT m&y to measure. 

P. vfrfk) L 3. ^OTTi^9 9. ^ni]F[ or irj:, O. iitivti^9 1. 1^ m Pf. iwt, I A. ^wnrtu, 
F. irmflr, P. F. mwr, B. iNii^ ii Pt flnr:, Ger. flrwr, ^^nm ii Pass, ^t^ky Aor. 

Wirftly Caus. ifT^iffllf Aor. W^HMH, Des. fimrflry Int. ^iftiTWy ifWrfll or in^ftf. 

165. ^ yd, to go. 

P. irflii I- 3. wnn^^, 9. WQF^ or ^ij:, O. irnin^f L ^ ii P£ iw, I A. mii^i^, 

F. Hi^qfk, p. p. imiT, B. ^innn n Pt. imi: « Pass. *i^, Caus, inWHy Aor. 
H^^MI^f Des. ftmrfhy Int. ^ilPTniW. 

166. fVT A:A^a, to proclaim. 
P- ?rt1f> I. ^IWTT^, O. ^qpm^, I. WTJ H Pf. ^w> II A. ^IWI^» F. WK^Hly 

P. F. mrmy B. ^gnn^ or f^im^ ii Pt. wnr: ii Pass, ^nnm^ Aor. nwrAi, Caus. 

WIMMflly Aor. vPmNMI^y Des. f^nrrafw^ Int. ^Wlilff. 

167. ^ vaiy to desire. 

This root takes SamprasArapa before the strong terminations of the special tenses, and in the 

weakening forms generally. 

P. I. ^flpV) a. ^ft(($ 125, im), 3.'WfVj 4. 'W* 6."W5» 6»'^n!'*^ 7«'^> 8. Tf, 
9. 93^01, I. I. ^nti^ 2. ini^9 3. WT^, 4. w^, 5. wf, 6. Wft, 7. wpi, 8. wV, 

9. w^9 0. 9)pni^9 I- 1, w^nftf, 2. ir^, 3. "^^ 4. ^^iw, 5. ^5 6. Tiff, 7. ^r^rw? 

* H^ inserts W before terminations consisting of one consonant, 
t When f^ is added immediatelj to the final consonant of a root, it is changed to nf 
(P&9. vi. 4, loi); § 321, note i. 

II In the tenses where ^K^ b deficient, ^^ is used instead. 

IT This is formed from If^ to eat, a reduplicated form of ^. (PA9. 11. 4) 3^0 

N n ^ 


8. ire, 9. "9^ II Pf. 3. 7?r(r, 9. "9^., I A. iRT|ftn(a), F. ^fiinqfir, P. F. ^rfipr, 

B, TSpni^ll Paas. 7;^, Cau8. m^mfi!, Des. f^nfl(rrfir, Int. ^PT^inr, ^rrtf. 

168. 1^ han, to kill. 

Thia verb drops its final «(fi before the strong terminations of the special tenses, and in the 
weakening forms generally, if the terminations begin \nth any consonants except nasals 
or semivowels (PUn. vi. 4, 37). Before strong terminations beginning with vowels, 
^«(A(m becomes H^ghn (PII9. vii. 3, 54). In the aorist and benedictive W^viufA is sub- 
stituted. The desiderative, intensive, and the aorist passive are derived from ^^gkan, 
the causative from Jnghat, 

P. I. ^ftw, 2. T^p9f 3. iffwj 4. ^"K, 5. "?^j 6. ipn, 7. ?^n, 8. i[^9 9. lifTr, I- 1. 
fT> 2. ^I?'^J 3. ^I?'^J 4« ^f^> 5« ^r?w> 6« v^ni) 7. vt^i, 8. ^vfir, 9. ^i^, 
O. ^•<«if|^, I. I. irtfrfn, a. ifff (P&n. vi. 4, 36), 3. ^, 4. f^TPr, 5. ^, 6. fnf, 

7. ffW, 8.^, 9. K| II Pf. i.WilR(a), (P&9. VII. 3, ^5\ a. inif^ or 1R% 

3» ^im, 4. vif)|ii, 5. iin^«9 6. ire^9 7. ^fti^» 8. nil, 9. if^, I A. mrWh^, F. 

fftpirftf, p. F. ffn, B. ^WIH II Pt. fw:, Ger. fwr, "^ ($ 449) 11 Pass. f«n^, 
Aor. ^mf^ or inftl (§ 407), Caus. 'miRflr, Aor. imlndl^, Des. fir^hrfii) Int. 
ifipri^ or ^"^hn^ (P&9. VII. 4, 30, vfirt., he kills), iNf)r. 

169. ^ yu, to mix. 

Verbs of this class ending in 7 « take, in the special tenses, Vriddhi instead of Gu^a before 
weak terminations beginning with consonants. (P&9. vii. 3, 89.) 

P. I. wH, a.^rfti, 3.^^^, 4.^pn, 5.5^* ^•^''•^ 7'3'^> 8.5^, 9.5^fiT, 1. 1, wirf, 
3. w:, 3. wn^, 4 "v^^, 5-^Pj|7rf, 7. ^igf, 8.11^, 9- ^a^'n.j 0.510^^, 
1. 1, irnftr, 2. gff , 3. iffj, 4. irw, 5. ^w, 6. ^Tif, 7. wm, s. gir, 9. f^ 11 P£ 3. 
gin^, 9. 53^:, I A. ^nirrtT^, F. ^ifturftf, P. F. ijftnrr, B. ^jn^^ 11 Pt. ^w: 11 Pass. 

^, Aor. wnftr, Caus. inWir, Des. gipffif or f^ufciiiffl, Int. ift^, ^fhftfil. 

170. >^ rtty to shout. 

The verbs f fit, >^ r», ^ ^^u may take \i before a// terminations of the special tenses 

beginning with consonants. (P&n. vii. 3, 95.) 

P. I. ^fll or T^^ftfir, a. w^I or T'ftf^, 3. ^ufif or vltfff, 4. ^: or ^<J)c|S, 5. "^tft 
or ^ifhi:, 6. ^iK or ^"^t, 7. ^: or ^'?ftin, 8. ^^ or ^^A^, 9. ^^fli, 1. 1. wrt, 
2, wttl or fnrth, 3. ^ron^or WSftl^, 4. l>^ or IV^^, 5. 11^ or iT^iAw, 6. V^nf 
or v^^lllf, 7. ^BT^ or tr^*^, 8. ^1^ or W^^y 9. ^1^^, O. ^^\H^ or V^l^^lf^, 
1. 1. r^nfftr» 2. ^f^ or ^'tfV, 3. ^ or tflftf, 4. T?tT?, 5. ^ or ^Hii, 6. ?5Hf or 

V'HiTf, 7. ^rw, 8. "^ or ^"^hr, 9. ^^ 11 Pf. 3. ^'iN, 9. ^^J, I A. wrr^^, 

F. TfN^qfir, p. F. tPnn, B. ^ini^ u Pt. ^: 11 Pass. ;cti^, Caus. TPHlflr, Des. 

^^Mfff, Int. 0%^ff. 

Note — ^The SHrasvatt gives WcNftfT , O^ft, and ^ftlT ; but see § 333, 4. It likewise 
extends the use of ^ to ^ to praise. 

171. ^ t, to go. 

P. i.^fl?, 2. ^ft, 3.^^, 4. ^o 5»^»> 6.^:, 7. ff^. 8.^, 9. iff^r, I. i.tnifj 


^« ^> 3. ^> 4' ^> 5« W5 6.^irf, 7. w, 8. CT, 9. wnr^, o. i(iTn^9 1* I. wififtr, 9* ^flf > 
3« ^9 4« ^^'^* 5. jjKf <5. ^, 7. ^nn«r> 8. ^ir, 9. ifj 11 PC i. ^iirii (a), a. ipiflni or 

l[^> 3- V^^9 4«t'^> 5-^^^ ^- 1'!*' 7-t^> ^-t?"^* 9-t5*> ^^ i.wrf (PAv. H. 
4» 45X 2. ^nnJ, 3.wTni^j 4. wm, 5. wnw, 6. ^nmrf, 7. vrw, 8. ^rtw, 9. ^■J* 

(§ 368), F. iwfli, P. F. CTT, B. ^im^^ II Pt. ^:, Ger. ^?^t, °^iq 11 Pass. ^, Aor. 
^Bnrfti' (§ 404), Caus. ifiRfir (Pft^. 11. 4, 46), Des. fnJiOmHr (Pan. n. 4, 47). 
But see § 463, II. i, and ^ 471, 4, with regard to this and cognate verbs if 
preceded by prepositions. 

17a. fVR[ vid, to know, 

P. I. %fti, 2, %fW, 3. ^fti, 4. ftv, 5. PirHi:, 6. fliwj, 7^ ftwj> 8. ftnw, 9. f^^fh, 

1. 1. 11^, a. H^ or ^1^ (pan. viii. 2, 75), 3. ^B^ (§ 13a*), 4. wftw, 5. wfllW, 

6. iBftlnf, 7. llOlfly 8. wftfW, 9. ^rf>l^ or ^iftjo O. 'Areni^y !• I. ^Iftftf (or ft^hltflfTflff 
&c., P4n. III. I, 41), a. friVy 3. ^» 4. ^^, 5. ftw, 6. ftnif, 7. ^1^9 8. "PlW, 
9. ft^ II P£ fln?; or f^^NiiK {§ 326), I A. iif^^)|[^, F. ^R^viOi) P. F. %(^, 
B. Hivii^ II • 

Another form of the Present is, i. ^, 3. ^, 3. ^, 4. ffi, 5. ft^, 6. fv^:, 

7. fll?r, 8. "ftWE, 9. ftlj: II Pt. ftrfl^, Ger. flfl^ II Pass, f^nn^, Aor. ll%flr, Caus. 
^npifir, Aor. H^Wl^, Des, ftlflffipifll (P&n. i. a, 8), Int. ^flV^y ^^ftt* 

^73' ^<w, to be. 

P. I. vfWy a. wfti, 3. nfiST, 4. W, 5. FTJj 6. W, 7. W, 8. W> 9« Hflf, 1. 1. ^TO, 

2. 'viitil*, 3. Wnftn^, 4. WT5I, 5. ITTW, 6. Vlfdi, 7. 'WTOT, 8. ^inW, 9. WWR^, O. I. ^Blrf, 

a. ^^:, 3. Fnn> 4- WW, 5. wiw, 6. wnri, 7. wit, 8. wnr, 9. ^, 1. 1. ^reiftr, 2. irfW, 

3. ^R^ 4. iwmr, 5. ^9 6. ^, 7. wnif, 8. Wf 9. ^ II P£ i. ^n^, a. wrft^ 3.^n^, 

4. ^irf^, 5. ^w^^, 6. ^n^jt, 7. ^i(\i*i, 8. wnt, 9. ^bt^: ; Atm. i. iro, 2, wiftw, 
3. mi^ 4. vifVi^f, 5. uraw, 6. vtbia, 7. ^wftw^, 8. wifw% 9. wiftrct* 

174. ^ fi^liff ^ cleanse, (f^.) 

This verb takes Vriddbi instead of Gu^a (P&9. vii. 3, 114); it maj take Vfiddhi likewise 
before terminations that would not require GuigA, if the terminations begin with a vowel 
(Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 12a). 

P. 1. iitM, a. irftt, 3. mfi (§ 124), 4. ^pny g. ijr:, 6. iff :, 7. nm:, 8. iff, 9, ^lifii 

or iTT^fir, I. i.UHliii 2. VHI^, 3. ^•ii^, 4.^'^pt, g. ^H^> 6. vijsf, 7.Wflf, 8. ^BUff; 

9-''B^^ or wfT^, O.^iirrn^, I. i.irr^Tftf, 2. i|fv, 3.11^? 4. hi^i^, 5«1^» 6.^, 
7. w4h, 8. iff, 9. ^^ or iirilg II Pf. I. iwi^, 2. Tfiftni or innf, 3. hh\% 4. n^ftfi 

or inrfn^, 5. I^W^: or iT<nw^, 6. iViflfj: or imr^j:, 7. Hi|ft|il or iWin^H, 8. W[9( 
or ififi^, 9. I^t or HMii^:, I A. VHUfTi^ or VHlnfTi^, F. HTf^f^ or vfndfh^ P. F. 

Tlf^ or in#T, B. ^mni(^ h Pt. ^JWX, Ger. inf^fifT or ippr, ^'p'T, Adj. iii(Ma^: or 

^^i^^— ^— ^ ■ ^^^^^ — ^■— ■ ■■ ■ 

t The perfect both in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada is chieflj used at the end of 
the periphrastic perfect. 


'nfiK, Mpm: or m^. (Pi^. m. i, 113) « Pas8.^mT^, Aor. W«lf9, Caus, iinhfli^ 
Des. flppiflr or fN^rfn^flr, Int. lO^Hl), •Wlfi. 

175. ^ vach, to speak. 
P. I. ^ifOT, a. ^ftfj 3. ^rfli, 4. ^^, 5. ^PHK, 6. ^flB, 7. ^^^HJf 8. ^HP^f 9. ^^ffw <Mf 

i|^*, 1. 1, ^rri, 3. vn^y 3. irn^, 4. inr«f, 5. wrtfc, 6. mrerfy 7. w^nHf 8. ^nut 
9. irn^*, O. ^Tani^9 !• i« ^r^nftf, a. ^ftv, 3. ^, 4, ii^i^, 5. iri, 6. "^nrf, 7. ^^in 
8.'nR, 9.^* M P£3.^^rf, 9-^, n A. inft^ ($ 366), F. ^ra^flr, P.F.^w, 

B. '9Wn(^ H Pt. ^IB M Pass. 9iqi^9 Aor. ^TOf%, Caus. iinRflr» Aor. ti^ftT^^ 
Des. Dl^tinij Int. (||i|iMl* 

176. ;5^ rud, to cry, (ijfl?^.) 

The verbs ^ rud, W^foop, W^^h?a$, W( on, WWj^jaksh take ^ t before the terminatioiis 
of the special tenses beginning with consonants, except ^y (P&9> vii. 3, 76). Before 
weak terminations consisting of One consonant, ^ f is inserted (P&9. vii. 3, 98) ; or, 
according to others, V a (PAi^i. vii. 3, 99). 

P. I. ^Ifljfi?, 3. ^ftfifftf, 3. On^Pn, 4. ^5fi?^» 9- ^5^flf> I* i.^irfhj, 3.^rd^ or ^vd^^ 

3. ^rttflu or vO^i^, 4. ^^r<^% 9. ^^^, O. ^wf, 1. 1. O^lP*!) 3. ^n^f^y 3. ^tflj^jy 

4. 'd^, 5. '^^f 6. ^^flfilf, 7. O^W, 8. "^fijW* 9- ''^^ M Pf, ^dlfy 1 A. ^Rthfh^ or 
WC^9 F. Ol^^niy P. F. uRjAI) B. '^^Vn^ M Pt. ^f^A{ II Pass. ^Vff^ Aor. ^vdf^i 
Caus. d'^^^) Aor, il^^'((l^, Des. ^^f^flflr or i^OR^hDi^ Int. ^^V^. 

177. Wl^jakshf to eat^ to laugh ||. 

Seven verbs, W^^Jakihi W^jdgri, to wake, ^ift^daridrd, to be poor, ^^K^^chakd$, to shine, 
IJT^iiite, to rule, ^M iftcIAl, to shine, q^ftoeol, to obtain, are called V^mr abhyasta 
(redttplicated). Thej take ivfw ati and W] atu in the 3rd pers. plor. present and 
imperative, and V! nfi instead of W( an in the 3rd pers. plnr. imperfect (§ 331 1)« 

P. 3. ifftiflfy 9. ifnflf» I. niniln or wififi^, o. in^m^) 1. 3. viiiAi^ or wnfi^, 
9. ^m^ {§ 3^1 1) M Pf. iniw> I -A., mnifh^, F. ifft|iqflr. 

178. W^Jdffiif to wake. (P&n. vi. i, 192, accent.) 
P. I. WIW, 3. innffi, 3. Hinfff, 4.Wnpt, S.WT^^, 6.Wpl55 7. ^IPpUf 8.1|T^% 

9. ^•nflfkf !• !• iwil, 3. ^«ii«i«j 3. wifPTt, 4. V4M|^9 5. vni'iriy 6.^nn'pit> 7. win^^ 

8. ^fH!^, 9. WIIMI^ty O. ^i<{<iifl|^9 I. I. lUIUfVlf 3. ifT'ir^^ 3. If'IJj 4. 1|I<K1^9 

5. wrf, 6. iippvfy 7. wnciw, 8. ^fppij 9. TPRi M Pf. 3. ^nnnrt or itTTxt^mt (Piii. 

III. I, 38), 9. inrm^9 I A. vnmilll^ (see preface, p. ix), F. ifpifbofir, P. F. 
ifPlftKTj B. l||i|9n^ II Pt. HT'lfVjl* II Pass, ifprtffj Aor.mnnrft, Caus. ^hjiciiOi^ 
Des. ftwitflcrtr. No Intensive. 

* The 3rd pers. plnr. present of ^T^does not occur (Siddh.«Kaum. vol. ii. p. X3o); accord- 
ing to others the whole plural is wanting ; according to some no 3rd pers. plur. is formed 

II in^to eat, from ^^; 1VV to laugh, from ^. 

AD GLASS, Itmanbpada ybbbs. 279 

179. ^flc^T daridrd^ to be p<KNr. (Pft^* vi. i, 192, accent.) 

In ^ft^ daridrd the final VT tf ia replaced hy\% in the special tenws hefore strong tenni* 
nations heginning with a consonant (P&9. vi. 4, 114). Before strong termin^tiona 
beginning with vowels the W ^ is lost (PA9. vi. 4, 113). 

P. I. ^fij^lfil} a. <(A.{[lfVly 3. ^(V^iPn^ 4. ^fiPj^i, 9. (^fVj^Ol, I. 3. W^IVj^llU 

d.^i^ftfjnrfj 9. v^r<s:9 O. ^ftfjim^) I. i.^ft^ffftfj 2. ^fidf^[f%, 3. ^ftjTj, 4. ^ft{(i7> 

(8iddli.-Kauiii.yoI. 11. p. 125), I A. H^Pcjfll^or ll^fV{[lifl<^(SiddIi.-Kaum. vol. 11. 
p. 126\ F. ^fVjT^virA (Pftn. VI. 4, 114, vfirt.), P. F. ^ftf^ (not ^ftjUT). 

180. "^^idt^ to command, (^TTf.) (P&n. vi. i, 188.) 

IJT^iitfi is changed to fl^iis before weakening terminations begioning with consonants, 

and in the second aorist. (P&9. vi. 4, 34.) 

P. 1. 1IT%I, a. 9Tfw> 3. IRftf, 4« nilMli, 9. ^vfn, I. i. Wllld^ a. ^^H or Vl|ni^» 

3. w|jn^ ($ 132)5 4- ^sfiBW? 5- ^■flp^j <5. vf^vf) 7. ^r^"Sj 8. vf^9 9" ^i^n^> O. 
fiimi^t 1. 1, ^irarftr, a. ^prfti (J 132), 3. 91^ 4. ^itow, 5. fljt, 6. f^inft 7. ^unvi) 
8. "ftjF, 9. 9111J II Pf. 9r9Tv> II -^^ 't'^i'tn^, F. iiiRRvifir, B. f^rmi^ 11 Pt. fljrfj n 
Pass, fnf^j Cans, ^rnnrfir, Des. nn^iiOmni^ Int. ^fiirair. 

II. Atmauepada Verbs. 
1 8 1, ^m^ chaksh, to speak, (^ift(^.) 
P. i.^, a.'^^ 3«^* 4-^'S^> 5. ^^i^, 6. ^^ikf 7.^i^l|; 8.^r^, 9-^V1|i$ 

1. 3. vw, 9. ^RfUTT, O. ^f^fhr, I. ^nrf 11 Pf. ^^•J'. 

The other forms are supplied from fgr or WlfT, the Red. Perf. optionally^ 
(Pin. II. 4, 54, 55) : Pf.^l?ift M IIA.^i«|^or % F. ^qriwflr or °t^, B.^qrHTH 
or l^im^, or Atm. ^TPiftv* 

182. fl^ ii^ to rule. 

The root i^U takes ^t before the and pen. sing, present and impevative (P&9. vii. 3, 77)* 
^J{i(f and ^^F^icm do the same, and likewise insert ^t before the 2nd pers. plur. 
present, [imperfect,] and imperative (Pki}. vii. 2, 78). The commentators, however, 
extend the latter rule to ^9^tf. See notes to P&p. vii. 3, 78. 

P. I. fl^, a. i(f^9 3. ^> 8. ff^[M> 1. 3. ^, 8. ^fifrt or ^^9 O. ^J^, 1. 1. ^, 
8. ^(^^9 3. fit, 8. ff^M or f^ II Pf. ^^iNl^, I A. ^f^. 

183. ^m^ ds, to sit. 

P. ^iTB^, I- Mm, O. ^rr^hr, I. wmi ii Pf. wraNi^ (part, unfhi:, P&n. vn. 

^j 83), I A, Vrf^y F. VlfViUn. 

184. ^#d, to bear, {^.) 
P. ^, I. ^1^, O. ^1^, 1. 1. ^ (P&V. VII. 3, 88), a. ^ly*^ 3. ^, 4. fwnf I 

5> ITT'rt, 6. ^^nif, 7. ^ywitj 8. ^^ 9. f^ M P£ ^^, I A* mf%v or wAv 


{§ 337j !• i)> F. Tifra?^ or ?fNn^9 B* ^rft^Av or ift^ w Pt. ^: (Pft?. vm. a, 
45) II Pass, ^p^, Aor, ^T^rrfT, Caus.-^n^^, Aor. "Vf^^i Des. ^[^[^ (P&!?. 
VIII. 3, 61), Int. ^rhrq). 

185. ^ft it, to lie down, to sleep, (?ft^.) 

The verb Ifl^it takes Guna in the special tenses (P&9. vii. 4, ax), and inserts ^r in the 3rd 

pers. plur. present, imperfect, and imperative. 

P. 1. 51^, a. "^t^^ 3, %T^, 4. $^, 5. 9niT^9 ^. "^f^f 7. ^'^j 8. ^N&, 9. %^ (P&n. 

VII. I, 6), 1. 1, ^i^rf^, 2. ii^iHii:, 3. ^r^, 4. w^Rf^, 5. ^njnirirf, 6. wi(NiitI, 
7. ^H^irf?, 8. ^v$i99 9. ^^^w, O. "^nrhr, 1. 1. 51^, a. "ir^, 3. ^wf, 4. "^nrra^, 5. ^nrnrf, 
6.^nmrt, 7. ^nfwf, 8. th** 9. ^wt « P£f^, I A. ^i^rf^, F. ipftitqi^, B. ^nfhr ii 

Pt. ^rftnn 11 Pass. ^TBl?^ (P^n. vii. 4, aa), Aor. ^R^tAt, Cans. ^iPRfir, Des. 
f^i^^r«mi), Int. ^fl^im), ^$H^« 

186. ^ f , to go, (if^.) (P&v- VI. I, 186, accent.) 
This verb is always used with^rf^ac^At, in the sense of reading. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. ii. p. 1 18.) 

P. whr, I. 3. wSt((, 6.^mmiii (S&r. 11. 5, 8), 9. ^n^infy O. ^nrhflir, I- i. 
^im^, 2. wiNf, 3. iNtirf, 4. vuiiii^^, 5. ^nftirnrf, 6. w^lhmrf, 7. ^wRwf , 8. inJM, 
9. ^w^hnrt H K. ^rf^nnt (P&n. n. 4, 49), I A. 3. ^vStWy 6. ^iNnrf, 9. ^rftw, or 

3. ^Wifhp (Siddh.-Kaum* vol. II. p. 119), 6. ^wrrtimif, 9.^nffnChnr, F.^iqiqT^, 

Cond. ^rdigir or ^BupfNnr, P. F. ^djn, B. wWt? n Pt. ^aNhr: 11 Pass, irthri^, 

Aor. fmnrfv or ^rvnf^. Cans, ^mnnrfv? Aor. umifVmi^ or vuiiflJiMi^, Des. 

inftftwfir or vrirOfrni^ii. 

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 
187. f)r( dvishf to hate. 

P. i.irPTj a.^ftfj 3.irf^j 4-fiir«^j 9.fWfir, L 1.^1%^, a.^ii^, 3-^w^> 4.^rfir^, 
9. ^rfk^ or nffj: {§ 33it), O. f^ini^, 1. 1. %mf^9 2, %f^, 3. %^, 4. %^rT, 

g. fw, 6. fkffy 7. INIH, 8. fllTF, 9. firi^ H Pf. n^sM, I A. ^R%1l)1^, F. T^^rflTf 

p. F. §1T, B. fk«ni^, Atm. iyil|1v 11 Pt. flre « Pass, fk^y Aor. ^sitftr, Cans. 
y^TiTiry Aor. VI^JiffMl^, iJes. l<$l|ll|lll, Int. ^^Tyvnr, ^ITF. 

i88. Jgf duhj to milk. 
P. I. ^Mw, 3. ^tftf, 3,^tfny, 4.S3p> S-S'^*^ <^. S'^f 7-5'f*> s.jni, 9.jffir9 

I. I. ^R^, a. Wt^, 3. Wt^, 4. ^jaf, O. ^Wl^) I. I. 0^1 fn, 2. jfHl, 3. ^^, 

4.^fi^W, 5-5"** ^•S'^j I'^^^W^, s.jni, 9.5^ II Pf.j^ftf, I A.^r^^&c. (see 
§ 362), F. \^^(fH. 

189. ^ «fii, to praise, (^O 

P. I. isftft or ^cNtftr (see No. 170), 2. W^flf or ^q^, 3. ^Nk or m^, 4.^rrt 
pr ^y^hrt, 9. isjtfir, 1. 1. WsTJ, 2. ^BwJ or ^v^ssnft!, 3. ^Iwl^^ or VU<(1i^, 4. ^V^|7 or 
^Wprt^* 9. ^'WJ^, O. iprn^» Atm. ^qln, I. i, Iri^tirHy 3. ^jf^ or Ig^ftf?, 9. WJ 


or wtt^ II K 3. jfTif, 3. ptv, 6. ij^:, 9. jj^:, I A. v«rn(h^ {§ 338, 3), Atm. 
iwtF, F. wt^ihf, P. F. ^ifhrr, B. ^^m(^, Atm. ^if^^ 11 Pt. nw: 11 Pass. i{]>n^> 

Aor. ^fniHiy Caus, ^MI^^dTy Aor. WJV^, Des. 3{[>lfir9 Int. lfk|^, iftvHVr. 

190. \pm, to speak, ('^^.) 

This verb takes ^ I before weak terminations beginning with consonants in the special tenses 
(PA9. VII. 3, 93). The perfect WT^ dha may be substituted for five of the persons of the 
present (P&n. iii. 4, 84). It is defective in the general tenses, where ^^ach (No. 175) 
is used instead. 

P. I. iRfrfif, 2. irWi or wm^ 3. inrtflf or wi^ 4. ifpu 5. tjjj: or ^nf^,. 6. i|Tn 
or vTfj:, 7. Tjif:, 8. ipr, 9. "f^fir or wij:, 1. 1. winf, a. wmrt:, 3. innln, 4. wnjr, 
5. w^y 6. wifwfy 7. wip^, 8. vifWy 9. ^■'yt'^j O. i[5n^9 1* i« iwrfij, a. '^ftr* 3. inrt^ 

4. ii^i«i, 5. ^, 6. njif, 7. KmHy 8. ijw, 9. ^fii* 

191. "Qift i^r^K^ to cover, ("wJiT.) 

This verb may take Vpddhi instead of Guna before weak terminations beginning with con- 
sonants (PA9. vii. 3, 90, 91), except before those that consist of one consonant only. It 
takes the reduplicated perfect against § 325, and reduplicates the last syllable (P&9. vi. 
1, 8). In the general tenses the final 7 u, before intermediate \if may or may not take 
Guna (P&131. 1. 2, 3). 

P. 3. "^wfif or "^niffir) 9. "^i^^^ftTj I. wNnn^j ^' ''^'''^' ^* 'WJ ^' ^wfj m 

P£ I. «§9!T^ (a), 2. -wl^fft^ or ^l^^f^, 3. ^l^rW» 4. '^^[ft^j 5- ''tTT* 
^' ^«l^lt9 7. ^K^^rciH, 8. ^5^|3^j 9. '''^^l'' ^ ^' wNftn^ or in^^lll^ or ^OTtl^ftl^ 
(P4n. VII. %^ 6), F. qHurn i qn i or ewjfilirfl, B. ^B|jnn^ n Pass. ^1^, Caus. 
^t^ftl^ivflr, Aor. vf4|fi<iii9 Des. qH^ifuni or ^i^«ff^^fw or 9^«j(V|iinr, Int. 

W|i«^ll9 ^WlmiTH. 

Hu Class {Jvhotyddi, III Class). 

I. Parasmaipada Verbs. 

19a. W All, to sacrifice. (Plti^. vi. i, 192, accent.) 

P. ^fHir, I. ^wj?^, O. ^JJ^, I. wjl^ II Pf. ^J?i^ or i{<cih«i< (f 326), 

I A. Hfhrtu^, F. fNfir, P. F. fm^ B. |^m^ ii Pt. jw: u Pass, pi^, Caus. fiwirfir, 

Aor, wi|j(MI(^9 Des. ^i^nOt, Int. ij^^n^, ift^tfw. 

193. >* bht, to fear, (ftwft.) (P&n. vi. i, 19a, accent) 

This verb may shorten the final ^1 before strong terminations beginning with consonants in 

the special tenses. (P&9. vi. 4, 115.) 

P. 3* fti^flr, 6. flwfhft or fM^^ 9. ftwrftf, I. 3. ^rfwi^, 6. ^Bftnflw or 
wflrfiiw, 9. ^rf^wj:, O. finfhnu or fifinnn^, I. ft% n Pf. ftwR or flw- 
^tHrto ($ 326), I A. ^i^irtu^, F. JNflr, P. F. hwt, B. ifhnu^ ii Pt. ^rtir: n Pass. 
Whni, Aor. imftr. Cans, tmnvflr or mim^ or Ht^ini (see J 463, n. 18), Des. 

ftwIifOiV Int. ^W^in^, ^l^flr. 

o o 

282 HU CLASS, Atmakepada verbs. 

194. fjt hrtj to be ashamed. (Psin. vi. i, 192, accent.) 

P. 3. fWj^, 6. ftfi^hn^ 9. ftff^pifif (f no), I. wfti^y O. r9i(1iiii|y I. fiff] n 
PC 3. ftfiw, 6. Cfirc^j:, 9. fW|p|J or ftiprhwrit, I A. irif^fh^, P. i^rfk, P. F. jtin, 

B. Jtm\ II Pt. thn or jftm (P&^. vm. a, 5^ 11 Pass. ifHA, Caus. t^iffir, 
Aor. nftlf^ifi^^, Des. Afffhrfv, Int. ^nfhln* 

195. "^prt, to fill, to guard. 

This verb, and otbers in which final ^fl ia preceded by a labial, changes the vowel into 
^tir, except where the vowel requires Guna or Vfiddhi. (Pftn. vit. i, X02.) 

. I. nniTif, a. nwW, 3. nnnr, 4. IHJ5 :, 5. ni^[in, 0. ntjw:, 7. ni^, 8. imJm, 
J. ftrjcflr, !• I. irf^wt, 3. wftro (or ^rftnro* S&r.), 3. ^rftnn (or iifVmi^)^ 4. ^rf^^^, 
g. hTm^, 6. vfM^Mi^ 7. wfti^, 8. vf^^fl, 9. vrMM^*, O. f^Tj[]Sn^, 1. 1, ftnrofti, 

3.ftt|[f$, 3.ftR5, 4.flrro^, 5. ft^JW* 6.ftl^[]l!T, 7.ftnrOW, 8. ftjW, 9. f^lj^ II Pf. I. 

"'wr(«), 3. ^mOli, 3.''rnt, 4. MMfii, 5. wv^i or Mii^i, d.imq: or ^w{?9 7. ^nrfbi, 

8. iTTC, 9. ^WF* or ny (Pai?. vii. 4, 1 1, la), I A. wxirt^, F. ^fbqfv (f), P- F. 
i^fXill or Vlttm, B. ^[]ln^ 11 Pt. ^: (P&n. vm. 2, 57), ^:, and ffbR are referred 
to f;^ (j 44a, 7), Ger. ^jfc, ^ 11 Pass. ^[IitI^^ Caus. ifRirfir, Aor. iv^Nn^^ Des. 

5^[%ftr or ftnft^fw (t), Int. iflijj^Qff, ^mfw. 

Several optional fonns are derived firom another root ^, with short ^. 

Thus, P. 3. ftnifS, 6. (Vjija:, 9. ftnrfir, 1. 3. nftro, 6. vtM^Af, 9.^rf'TO^, O. ft^pm^ ti 
I A. voT^Ti^, B. flnni^ II Pass, finnk ($ 390), Int. ^ifhinr ($ 481). 

1 96. fT A^{, to leave, (w^lE^.) 

Reduplicated verbs ending iaWld (except the ^ghu verbs, see § 392 *) substitute ^1 for VT^ 
before strong terminations beginning with consonants (P&9. vi. 4, 1 13). The verb ^ hd, 
however, may also substitute ^» (P&9* vi. 4, 116). 

P. I. ^ffifl^ 2. iffiftr, 3. HfiOi, 4. w^^ (f), 5. n^^^K («), 6. if^hr: (?), 7. ii^^K 

(0> 8.11^^ (t), 9. l|f fri, 1. 1. Vllft, 2. 'wncii, 3. WlTfTH^, 4. ^HH^ (?)> 9« ^■ftj** 
O. mnn (P&n. VI. 4, 118), 1. T, irflfW, 2. Hlflff (r) or H^rf); (PAn. VI. 4, 117), 

3. ^f(w% 4- i€i^> 5. "'rtW (t), 6. if^hrf («), 7. iffTif, 8. ^inflw (?), 9. ir^ ii Pf. i. iif^, 

2, i|f^ or «i^i^, 3. Hf^, 4. iif);v, 5. ^iff^, 6. W^:, 7. ^ifflpf, 8. Hf , 9. ilj:, I A. 

^WfTlftT^, F. fT^irfir, P. F. fTHT, B. %inn 11 Pt. l^t^, Ger. f^WT (P&n. vii. 4, 43), 
®^ni II Pass. (l4|i, Caus. ^nnriw, Aor. Vi^(M<(^, Des. ftf^FRfir, Int. ^^hri^. 

197- ^r», togo. 

?• 3- f^> <5. ippn, 9. ^^, 1. 3. ^ (or ^'RH^), 6. ^^, 9. ^iT^, O. ^f|^» 

1. 1, ^^nflir, 2. ^^, 3. iprf, 4. ^ro^, g. ^^, 6. ^^, 7. ^iinH, 8. ^^, 9. ^^ n 
PCi.iwt, 2.infw, IA.^nri^^, 9- ^^T?^ ($ 364), F.irflciifiT> P.F.irir, B.iv^. 

II. Atmanepada Verbs. 
198. I|T mdy to measure, (*nil^*) 

P. I. flw, 2. (ifirtM, 3. fMm, 4. ftnfhi^, 5. ftnn^, 6. Aiito, 7. fH'A'i^, 8. flf*ftd. 


5. Bi*ir^I, 6. ftpvnrty 7. ftniw^, 8. flprtii', 9. ftiinit 11 Pf. i. w, a. •rww, 3. w, 4.1^1^, 
5. iniw, 6. ^^TWy ?• iflw^, 8. iiftid, 9. ifftrt, I A« i. wnftr, a. wnwn» 3. ^btw^ 
4. vHiijit^, 5. iwwrwf, 6. wfTOTifj 7. iMfimf^y 8. iRn*i, 9. vmnr, F, iipnw, 

P. F. mWT, B. i|Rrt¥ n Pt. fifir:, Qer. ftnfr, ^*^TO (not i(N, Pa^. VI. 4, 69) II 
Pass, ^ftmif Aor. Wirftly Caus. HlM^Oly Des. ftlTEiTy Int. ^v^)i|w» 

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 

199. ^1 JAft, to carry, (yp^.) 
P. I. ftwW, a. ftwfS, 3. ftwfW, 4. flfj^, 6' ^''^P^* ^' flriJlU, 7. ftfpit, 8. f^^, 

9. Hi'tfOr, Atm. i.ftrVy a. 'Pri]^, 3. ^^^> 1. 3.^rfw:, 6.vfvi|iffy 9. vPvh^':, Atm. 
3. ^tftpfff, 6. uPv^iaI, 9. vf^vni; O. f^i^fifn^y Atm. ftrelhry 1. 1. ftnroftff, a. Pt^f^, 

3. flwj II Pf. i.ifHTC (a), a.iwt, 3-lPnT, 4. ^''^ (J 334; P^- vn. a, 13) or 

ftird'mirt, I A.^wrffi^, Atm. mp, F. Hflnfir, P. F. ^, B. ftntmi^, Atm. ^f*» ii 

Pt. i|ir: II Pass, fsni, Caus. mpc^, Des. ^{^cMir, or fmftmfir, if it follows the 
Bhii class (Pftn. vii. a, 49), Int. ^Mhri^, wAfK. 

aoo. ^ (fti, to give, (^^T^-) 

The ^ ghu verbs (§ 39a *) drop in d before strong tenmnations, when other reduplicated 
verbs (see No. 196) change VTtf to \(. (P&9. vi. 4, iia, 113.) 

P. I. fj^ifc, a. ?[^lftr, 3. ^^ifil, 4. ^, 5. ^TO, 6. ^, 7. !{in, 8. ^W, 9. ^^, Atm» 
i»^, a. ^, 3.^, 4»^1%7 5'?^> 6.15^, 7. ^?H%, 8.^, 9. ^^9^, 

a. ^i^t, 3. ^^^11^, 4. m^, 5. n^, 6. ii^[irf, 7. infir, 8. in^9 9. w^, Atm. i. iRffly, 

a. ^qm^iy 3*^'^» 4. fH^lPfy 5. V^^mt^ 6. H^^TIlt, 7. ll^?llft[, 8.W^, 9. H^^A, 

O. ^^vn^, Atm. ^!(tir, 1. 1. ?f?Tftf, a.^ (P4^. VI. 4, 119), 3. i^i^tj, 4. ^^, 5. ^, 

6. !jirf, 7. ^5^, 8.!{W, 9. ^^ Atm. I. ^, a. IJr^, 3.^, 4*?^T^> S-^'^T^* <5. ^^[nif, 

7. ^^wf, 8. ^, 9. ^^ II Pfl I. ^, a. ^[fi^ or ^;^J% 3. ^, 4. (Bfflrf, 6- 'F??^* 
<5.?^9 7-?fip'> 8.ipBf, 9.^, Atm. i.|(^, a.^[fl|^, 3.^, 4-^f^^> 6-^i^> 6.^^, 

7. ^fi^9 S« ^fi?'^* 9. ^fl?t, II A. I. ir»f, 9. ^:, Atm. vfi^ (see p. 184), F. ^r^vfir, 
**i^, P. F. ijTIfT, B. $im^, Atm. ?»wftF n Pt. ^ (J 436), Ger. ^w, ^'^m w Pass. 
jfhlit, Aor. ir^lftr, Caus. ^nnifiry Aor. ii^1^i||^, Des, f);T9f)r, Int. ^^Nir^ ?{ITrf^» 

aoi. ^ dhd, to place, (fWH.) 

This verb is conjugated like t^t. It should be remembered, however, that 
the aspiration of the final 1^, if lost, must be thrown forward on the initial ^; 
hence and pers. dual Pres. VPT. &c. (J 118, note). The Pt. is ftpn, Ger. ffW, 



aoa. ftfi^ n(/,.to cleanse, (flirftr^*) 

The verbs f^H^^nt;, ftl^vi/, to separate, and ffWtns^, to embrace, take Gu^a in their 

reduplicative syllable. (P&9. vii. 4, 75.) 
Reduplicated verbs ((dfhyasta, § 331 1) having a short medial vowel do not take Gu^ia before 

weak terminations beginning with vowels in the special tenses. (Pil^. vii. 3, 87.) 

. I. HHIPI, 2. ^*TitI, 3. ntni, 9. nnTWnr, i. i. ^HHii, a. ^wTf, 3. ^«IH^» 

7. n^fffiw, 9. ii^ft?i|:, O. ^Oisiiii^, I- 1. Hftnnftf, a. ^ftrfHi, 3. %^ n Pf. ftr^, 

I A. mh(\l{ or II A. ^vf^fni^, F. ^^5rftr, P. F. ^, B. ftfiim^, Atm. fVnftr 11 
Caus. ^w^Ot, Aor. W^Aftnilf » Des. fifftnffli; Int. ^Tvfiiln, nnfts. 

Rvdh Class {Rudhddi, VII Class). 
I. Para^nnaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 
203. ^ rudh, to shut out, (^Al^O 

P. ^^Qr%9 I- w^iffn^, O. %viTi^, I. ^^m^ 11 Pf. I. ^dv, 2. ^5^rfirv, 3. ^iJlM, 

7. ^^ftw, 9. ^^^j I A. ^rowftll^or II A. ir^¥l^, Atm. IR^, F, ttRfflTy P. F. dlfi, 
B. ^um^, Atm. ^nfhr u Pt. ^rt? 6er. ^i|T, ^'^iil II Pass, i^vfi^y Aor. uttftl* 
Caus. ^hnrflr, Des. ^"^wfWy Int. Of^uin, dOOl. 

II. Paraamaipada Verbs. 

204. fi(R Hshf to distinguish, (f^») 
P. I. f^PfPlf, 2. fl(KfV|, 3. f)(RfV, 4. fi^Wj 5. flfhr, 6. fi[^9 7. "ftjNltj 8. fftWj 

9. fi^^fir, I. i.^r^^Hy 3.^i%w,^R^, 4. nf^fUTy 5.^^691^9 6.^ifl|iff> 7.wfl[Jw, 

8. vRjiv, 9. vn(r>l«^9 O. f)#vni^9 I- i. f^HMlfVj) a. f^fj (or f^flfl?), 3. fijRJ M Pf. 
fip^, II A. ^irfi^m^, P. ^9ftr, P. F. ^fT, B. fiimi^ 11 Pt. fljlfj « Pass. f^HQ^y 
Caus. ^Nirfk, Des. f^fff^fiffk, Int. $0(1 1|), ^^^fk. 

1^05. fl^ hifhs, to strike, (fl|f^.) 

P.flpiftff, 1. 1. vHiH^} 2. vf^^: or v(V*n^9 3'^'rft['Ti^($i3^)> 4.^rt^9 s.^'flW^ 
'6. irf^pwf J 7. vfl^9 8. ^iflpBTj 9. nf^Hf^, O. f)^^iiTi^9 1. 1, fipwrftr, 2. flfftl, 3. f^*!^ M 
Pf. ftcf^fir, I A. vf)(4ili^9 F. n^r^iini, p. F, t^ftniT} B. f^^ni^ H Pt. f)^ftnR 11 

Pass. f^FTn, Caus. f)( 1141019 Aor. nfkiO^^i^) Des. rN(\|Am0l9 Int. ^0^4^) 9 ^flfftff. 

206, 4^^ bhanjj to break^ (^T^.) 

P. iT^, I. twHf 9 O. ^wTf^j I. ^TTf II Pf. wrftr, I A. 'wit^9 F- *a5iflr> 

P. F. ^hSTf B. trson^ 11 Pt. ww. 11 Pass, wiin^, Aor. ^niftr or mnftf (§ 407), 
Caus. )il!iTf79 Des. f^^lfflr. Int. '^^Tiiiv, ^Mftl. 

207. ^« anj, to anoint, i^^) 

P. w<fAi9 1. ^1*1^9 O. wiirn^9 I. ^r^ ii Pf. w^9 I A. vfirti^y F. ^vftnfk 

or ih^9 B. wmT\ II Pt. iniB, Ger. ^vfmWT or ^rm or WW (P«tn. vi. 4, 32 ; 
§ 438)9 ^Viir u Pass, m^j Aor. wfftr, Caus. fNnrflr, Aor. vfft|in(^9 DeB, 


ao8. "fl tfihj to kill, (^.) 

This verb inBerts ^ i^ instead of IT 9a before weak teiminations begiiiDing with consonants. 


I. i.^npirt) a.^fji^^f 3. vfJil^f 4«^nRr' s-^'^j 6.iiij«l, 7.w|jVf 8. wi|V9 9.^1^!^* 

O. ^ini^9 1. 1, fiOflOif 2. ^tj 3, ^^ M Pf. Tni%, I A, nil ^1^ or Wf[^i^9 F, flffiini 
or imSflr^ P. F. irffirT or utr, B. ^im^ n Pt. "j^ n Pass, ^lii, Aor. imfty Caus. 
Hf^, Aor, WWirtl^ or mflffl^i Des, flnifprfil or (kflffiry Int. iO^illlf rtirff • 

III. Atmanepaxla Verbs. 

209. ^ indhf to kindle, (f^r^.) 

P.^ or ^, !.>?¥ or>nf, O.^irtw, 1. 1.^,, 3.^ or ^ u Pf. 
^Hhrik (or ^, P49.I. a, 6), IA.VfW, F.^ftwi, P.F.^, B.^fWhr M 
Pt. ^ II Pass, noii^, Caus. ^^Rflr, Des. ^fl|[fVmr. 


On the Accent in Sanskrit. 

§ I. Although m Sanskrit the accent is marked in works belonging to the Vedio period 
only, yet its importance as giving a clue to many difficult points of grammar is now so 
generally acknowledged that even an elementary grammar would seem imperfect without at 
least the general outlines of the system of Sanskrit accentuation. I determined therefore 
in this new edition of my grammar to mark the accent in all cases where it seemed to be 
practically useful, but in order not to perplex the beginner with the marks of accent, I have 
added them in the transliterated words only, so that a student may still leam his grammar 
and his paradigms in Devan&gaii, unconcerned about the accents, until the accents them- 
selves attract his notice, and enable him at a glance to see cause and effect in grammatical 
operations which otherwise would remain unintelligible. Thus if we look at trdyaf^ tres, 
but tribkQ^ tribus, and tfittya, tertius ; at Smif I go, but imdfi, we go ; at b^dhAni^ I know, 
but tudami, I strike ; at vdktum, to speak, but iiktdh, spoken, we see at once how the position 
of the accent, either on the radical syllable or on the termination, influences the strengthening 
or weakening of the base, and how this strengthening and weakening rested originally on a 
rational and intelligible principle. 

§ a. The accent is called in Sanskrit Svara, i. e. tone, and according to the description 
of native grammarians there can be no doubt that it was really musical. It meant the 
actual rising and fiilling of the voice, produced by the tension, the relaxation, and the >xdde- 
opening of the vocal chords ; it was a musical modulation peculiar to each word, and it 
corresponded to what we call the singing or the cantilena of the speaker, which, though in 
modem languages most perceptible in whole sentences, may also be clearly perceived in 
the utterance of single words. 

Ex. Maria! rf) , "^ ^^5^ * ^^ Mdry! | fc "^ ■ 

Ma vi a Ma ry. 

Whatever the accent became in later times, its very name of pro$odia, accenttu, i. e. by- 
song, shows that in Greek and Latin, too, it was originally musical, that t(mo$ meant pitch, 
oxySf high pitch, barys, low pitch, and that perUpdmenos, drawn round, did not refer origin- 
ally to the sign of the circumflex, but to the voice being drawn up and down in pronouncing 
a ciroumflexed syllable. 

§ 3. For grammatical purposes we have to distinguish in Sanskrit two accents only, the 
uddtta and the svarita. The uddtta is pronounced by raising the voice, the soarita by a 
combined raising and falling of the voice. All vowels which have neither of these accents 
are called anvddtta, i. e. without uddtta, though they might with equal justice be called 
asvaritdt without the narita. The anuddtta^ immediately preceding an uddtta or svarita 
vowel, is sometimes called anuddttatara or sannatara*. (P&9. i. 2, 39-31.) 

' * Bopp, following Professor Roth (Nir. p. lviii), calls this accent sannatatara, as if from 
sannata, depressed; it is, however, derived from sanna, the participle of sad, to sink. 


. In taraDsHterated words I mark the uddtta by the acate> the original svarita hj the 

. Every syllable without either the mark of uddtta or svarita has to be considered as 
grrammatically unaccented ; and an unaccented syllable before an uddtta or original tvaritaf 
as phoneticaUy anuddttatara. If the anuddtta must be marked in transliterated words, it 
can be marked by the gravii. Thus in ti itoardhanta, they grew, ti has the uddtta, d the 
anuddtta. If the two words coalesce into ie 'vardhanta, then e takes the svarita, t9 *vardhanta. 
Similarly, sruehi-^Xva become sruckivaj tr^+hmbakam become trydmbakam, 
§ 4. In Sanskrit the accents are indicated in the following way : 
The uddtta is never indicated at all, but only the svarita, (whether original or dependent,) 
and the anuddttatara (sannatara), i. e. the anuddtta immediately preceding an uddtta 
or svarita syllable. The sign of the svarita is ■^, that of the anuddttatara is ^. 
Whenever we find a syllable marked by _., the sign of the anuddttatara, we know that 
the next syllable, if left without any mark, is uddtta j if marked by — , it is svarita. 
Hence llO*|i is agnih, iPVi is kanyi. 
A monosyllabic word, if uddtta, has no mark at all. Ex. IH ydh, ^ nd, 
A monosyllabic word, if anuddtta, is marked by ^. Ex. ^ va^ W* nafi, 
A monosyllabic word, if svarita, is marked by -^, Ex. ^ svaft. 

§ 5. As a general rule every word has but one syllable either uddtta or svarita, the 
rest of the syllables being anuddtta. Any syllable may have the accent. But if an uddtta 
syllable is followed by an anuddtta syllable, its anuddtta is changed into what is called the 
dependent svarita. Ex. vO^ffl agn^nd. Here IVT ag, originally anuddtta, is pronounced 
and marked as anuddttatara j f«T nt is uddtta, and is therefore without any mark ; cfT nd, 
originally anuddtta, becomes svarita, and is marked accordingly. In transliteration thu 
dependent svarita need not be marked, nor the anuddttatara. Both may be treated as 
anuddtta, i. e. without grammatical accent, while their exact pronunciation in Sanskrit, to be 
described hereafter, is of importance to Vedic scholars only. 

§ 6. If a word standing by itself or at the head of a sentence begins with several anuddtta 
syllables, they have all to be marked by the sign of anuddttatara. Ex. Hl^^l'^i ^«o^6ia^ / 
C^^ul^l hfidayyayd. 

§ 7. By observing these simple rules, no doubt can remain as to the grammatical accent 
of any word in Sanskrit. The following is a list of the principal classes of accented words 
in Sanskrit : 

1. A word consisting of one syllable which has the uddtta, is called uddtta. Ex. m ydfk, 

^ nt^ lk kdm. 

2. A word which has the uddtta on the last syllable, is called antoddtta. Ex. wf^Tf : agn^, 

Hftnn janitd. 

3. A word which has the uddtta on the first syllable, is called ddyuddtta. Ex. 1^ indra^, 

l^tni h6td. 

4. A word which has the uddtta on the middle syllable, is called madhyoddtta, Ex. ^Pnnl 

agnind, ^CnRfc agnCbkHL. 

5. A word consisting of one syllable which has the original svarita, is called svarita^ 

Ex. 9 kva, f!i» sva^, 

6. A word which has the original svarita on the last syllable, is called antasvarita* 

Ex. 1V^ kanyi. 


7. A word which haa the original svarita on the middle sylUble^ is called madkyatvarita, 

Ex. ^^''^ hfidayySyd. 

8. A word which has the original svarita on the first sjllable^ is called ddiwairUa. 

Ex. liilOt! wSn^are, 

9. A word without uddtta or tvariia, is called $arodnuddtia, Ex. ^ vah, vft fui^. 

10. A word with two uddtta syllables, is called dviruddttaj ^fiMOi: hfiha^^i^. Here the 

first syllable is uddtta, and is therefore not marked at all. The second syllable is 
anuddita, and according to rule would become svarita. But as the next syllable is 
uddtta again, the anuddtta becomes anuddttatara, and is marked accordingly. The 
third syllable is uddtta, and the last, originally anuddtta, becomes svarita. 
In mcii^^^ tnitravdrui^au, the first syllable is anuddtta, but becomes anuddttatara, because 
an uddtta follows. The second syllable is uddtta, so is the thbrd, and hence neither 
of them has any mark. The fourth syllable, being anuddtta, becomes svarita, 
because it follows an uddtta. The laat syllable is omMtta and, as nothing follows, 
is left without a mark. 

11. A word with three uddtta syllables, is called triruddttaj i,f\^VMS Mhrdbfihaspdti. 

§ 8. If words come together in a sentence, the same rules apply to them as to single 
words. Thus if a word ending in uddtta is followed by a word beginning with an anuddtta 
syllable, the anuddtta syllable is pronounced as svarita. Thus ^ + ^, i. e. yd^i + clUi, 
become vn ydhhd, where the mark of the dependent svarita on M cha shows that ^ ya 
has the uddtta. 

If a word ending in an anuddtta is followed by a word beginning with an uddtta or 
svarita, the anuddtta becomes anuddttatara. Ex. ^•in^in djanayat + V tdm become 
^4nM^ djanayat tdim> 

If a word ending in a svarita, which replaces an original anuddtta, is followed by another 
word having the uddtta on the first syllable, the general rule requires the svarita, being 
originally an anuddtta, to become anuddttatara, so that we have to write ^TV IHlydi oka tdt. 
Here we see that 'm ydft has the uddtta, because otherwbe, at the beginning of a sentence, 
it would have to be marked with anuddttatara. As ^ eha has the anuddttatara, we see that 
it was originally anuddtta, and became anuddttatara, because the next syllable IRitdt has the 
uddtta, which need not be marked. 

If instead of 'W^dt, which has the uddtta, we put ^* hyah, which has the svarita, we should 
have to write ^TV ih yd4 cha hyah, the sign of the svarita on ik hyah showing first, that 
wt hya^ cannot be uddtta, for in that case it would have no mark, and would require svarita 
on the neirt following syllable; and secondly, that it cannot be anuddtta, for in that case it 
could not be preceded by an anuddttatara. 

If an original svarita follows after a final uddtta, it retains the sign of the svarita, but it 
is then impossible to say whether that sign marks the original or the dependent svarita, 
Ex. ^IJWn ill dtmd+kvU (Rv. 1. 164, 4). Only, if an uddtta followed after iji kva, its svarita 
would renuan (see § 9), while the dependent svarita would become anuddttatara. 

If a word such as V^4II^D4t aruijkaydgbhih, having the uddtta on ydg, stands by itself, it 
must have the anuddttatara sign, not only under ^ fta, which immediately precedes the 
uddtta syllable, but likewise under 1[ a and ^ ru. But if preceded by ^P«iJ affn{(i, which 
has uddtta on the lust, the first syllable takes the svarita, the second requires no mark at all, 
and the third keeps its anuddttatara mark ; vf^lft^lDjfM: affn£r arw^yiigbhiit. 


If initead of lri^«n api^ we put ^ {ndramy which has the dependent svarita on the last* 
uddtta on the first syllable, then we write ^^^^4114^ 04: {ndram arwfayiigbkihf because there 
is no necessity for marking the anuddtta after a syllable which has the dependent svarita. 

(9. If an original svarita is followed by an uddtta or by another original svarita, it would 
be difficult to mark the accent. Thus if m iva, which has the original svarita, is followed 
by V^ tdtra, we could not write either B IHf or 9 1l?t'« In the former case we should lose 
the anuddttatara required before every uddtta and independent svarita; in the latter, the 
sign of the original svarita being dropt, S itva would be taken for an anuddtta syllable. 
To obviate this, the numeral S is inserted, which takes both the svarita and the anuddttatara 
marks *, B^IHI^y &nd thus enables us to indicate what was wanted, viz. that Mt is svarita, and 
td in tdtra is uddtta. Ex. ^ip^if-f ^^ become ^^P^l^^:; ^+^ become ^STjt 
(Rv. 1. 105, 3). 

If the vowel which has the original svarita is long, the numeral ^ is used instead of ^f 
and the anuddttatara is marked both beneath the vowel and the numeral. Thus Rv. i. Z05, 7. 
^ftvil + 'plr: become ^ipift^'plr:. Rv. 1. 157, 6. TwJ + Tjfiffii; = T«m^T!Mftltt« 

Rv. X. 116, 7. ^19; + 1R|% + ^ become "^Tll^^siif^. Here kv8 and *dd^n have the 
svarita, the first is marked by ^ni^^ , the second by ^^iP, 

Rv. X. 144, 4. ^ + W^ become ^^s?^^]!. This sinking of the voice, as here indicated, 
from the highest svarita to the lowest anuddttatara pitch is called kampa^ shaking. 

§ 10. If two vowels at the end and beginning of words coalesce into a new vowel, their 
respective accents are changed according to the following rules : 

1. Uddtta+uddttasri uddtta (PrUt. 197). Ex. ^WOT + ^= ^i||4lj^ti Jushd^+ii^asz 

jushd^a, W^ + ^ = ^*tsii apsd+dsz apsvd. 

2. Uddtta-\'anuddtta=zuddtta. Ex. ^ + 1^ = ^f)^ d+ihi=zShi. See exception 5. 

3. Anuddtta+anuddttaz=anuddtta (PrUt. 198). Ex. '^ + ^^ = 'r^ mddhu+uda" 

kdm = mddMddkam. nfir + W5W^= llil| ^'^prdti-^-adxHran^prdtyadfiiran. 

4. Anuddtta+uddttasiuddtta. Ex. 1^ 4- ^ = ffi indra-\'dss Mtri. ^ + wfttv = 

^IVf^lT dhehi'k'dkshitam = dhekydkshitam. 

5. Svarita + uddtta = uddtta. Ex. 'ai + lp^^=lH^ ib3+// = ib^^ ll^ + lrtif« 

^IV^S^ adydtyi-^-dvase^adydty^'vase (Rv. i. xi3, 24). 

6. Svarita+anuddtta=svarita. Ex. |j|-f f^ = liR *r5-fwa =*»*?«. lji + 5<^i^ = 

ik^ ^J^ kv3-\'iddn<m = kveddnim (Rv. i. 35, 7). • 

There are, however, some exceptions : 

a. If uddtta \ coalesces with anuddtta X, the long i takes svarita (PrUt. 188, 199). Ex. ^|iN + 

^ = m(|f^ srucy+iva^sruchfva. If, however, the first or second i is long, the 
contraction takes uddtta. Ex. i^ + f = T^f M+im = him (Rv. x. 45, 4). 

b. If an uddtta vowel becomes semivowel before an anuddtta vowel, the anuddtta vowel 

becomes svarita (Prftt. 1 88). Ex. ^t^ + g -f ^ = iftlfT ft^ ydja +n4+indra = ydfd 

* Some MSS. write i^^K^. 

t Professor Bopp (Grammatik, § 30, 5) gives this as an instance of a svarita followed by 
anuddttatara and svarita. In this case we should have to write ^flt m«hR^- But the fact 
is that in rdthyebhift the first syllable has the uddtta. 

X The statement of Professor Benfey (Grammar, 2nd ed., p. 11) that the second svarita 
is not marked is against the authority of the MSS. 



nvindra, ^ + 1% + ^^ = ^'^ lliw evd-\'h{-\'asffa=zevd hyasya (Rv. i. 8, 8). 
Also, «T^ nam, plur. tflh nadydh, but gen. sing. HilK nadydfi, because in the former 
the termination is originally anuddtta, in the latter uddtta. 
c. If an uddtta e or o coalesjces with an (elided) anuddtta a, it takes svarita (Prilt. i88). 
Ex. n + W'rJif = llf«^^ t^+avardhanta=iti 'vardhanta. 
According to M&ndiikeya all uddtta vowels coalescing with another anuddtta vowel, 
become svarita. This is also the case in certain Br&hma^as; see Kielhom, Bh4shika- 
siitra, I. 5. 

The accents produced by the coalescence of vowels have the following technical names, 
taken from the name of the Sandhi that gave rise to them : 

1. Pra£U$kfa, the accent of two vowels united into one {samdoe^a, ekibhdva), 

2. Abhinihita, the accent of two vowels of which the second is the elided a, 

3. KshaiprOy the accent of two vowels of which the first has been changed into a semivowel. 
.4. Tairovyafijana, the warita, replacing an anuddtta, if separated by consonants firom the 

preceding uddtta. Ex. ^Dh^A agn^ tie, 

5. Vaivfitta (or pddavritta), the svarita, replacing an anuddtta, if separated by an hiatus 

from the preceding uddtta ^PrUt. 204). Ex. ^ J^ yd indra *, 

6. Jdtya, the svarita in the body of a word, also called nitya, inherent. It is always 

preceded by either y ot v, and points to a period in the history of Sanskrit in which 

lAiese semivowels retuned something of their vowel nature. It may, in fact, be treated 

as medial kshaipra; and it is important that where the peculiar pronunciation of the 

different svaritas is described, that of the Jdtya and the kshaipra is said to be identical 

(Vfij. PriLt. 1. 125). 

§ II. By applying these rules we can with perfect certainty discover which syllable in 

each word has the grammatical accent, whether uddtta or svarita. Unfortunately many 

words lose their accent in a sentence, particularly the verb which, in a direct sentence, is 

considered as a mere enclitic of the noun to which it belongs. Only in relative and 

cfonditional sentences, or when a verb begins a sentence, and under some other restrictions 

which are fully described by native grammarians, does the verb retain its independent accent. 

Vocatives also lose their accent, except at the beginning of a sentence, when they have the 

accent on the first syllable t- With these exceptions, however, every student, by following 

the rules here given, will be able to determine what is the real grammatical accent of any 

* Besides the tairovyafljana and the vaivTritta, which we should call the dependent 
svarita, other subdivisions are mentioned by some authorities. Thus if compound words 
are divided (in the Padap&tha) by the avagrahay the tairovyafljana is called tairopirdma. 
Ex. 'ns^tm gd 'patau. If a word is divided in the Padap&tha, the first half ending in a 
svarita preceded by an uddtta, and the second half beginning with an uddtta, the svarita is 
called tdtkdbhdvya. Ex. ira^*«fMlH. Here ta is uddtta, nd is svarita, then follows the 
avagraha or pause of division, and after th^t na, which is again uddtta. Here a kind of 
kampa takes place, and the svarita is marked accordingly. Though the name tdtkdbhdvya 
is not mentioned in the first Pr&tis&khya, the peculiar accent which it is meant for is fully 
described in Siitra 212. In the commentary on the V^. Pr&t. (120) it would perhaps be 
better to write asaihhitdvat instead of svasatnhitdvat ; Weber, Ind. Stud. vol. iv. p. 137. 

t See BhA8hika-s(^tn^ ed. Kielhom, II. 1-31; Whitney, in Beitrage zur vergleichenden 
Sprachforschung, vol. i. p. 187. 


word oocuning in tbe hymns of the Rig-veda. The system of marking the uddtta and 
svarita in the S^atapatha-Brfthma^a is slightly different, as may be seen f^om ProfiBSsor 
Weber's introductoiy remarks, and particularly trom Dr. Kielhom's learned notes on the 

$ 12. Quite different firom the determination of the grammatical accent is the question 
how the accents should be pronounced or intoned in a sentence, and particularly in the 
hymns and Br&hma^as of the principal Yedas. This question concerns the student of the 
Veda only, and different authorities differ on this point. The following short remarks must 
be sufficient. According to the Rig-veda-PrfttisHkhya (187 seq.), the uddtta is high, the 
anuddtia low ; of the svarita one portion is higher than uddtta, the rest like uddtta^ except 
if an uddtta or svarita follows, in which case the voice sinks down to the anuddtta pitch. 
This sinking down is called kampa, shaking. All anuddtta syllables, following after svarita 
(whether original or dependent) are pronounced with uddtta pitch (195), except the last, which 
is followed again by either uddtta or svarita, and takes the low pitch of anuddtta (196). This 
pronunciation of anuddtta syllables with uddtta pitch is called the Prachaya accent (205). 
We have therefore only three kinds of pitch, (no special anuddttatara pitch being recognized 
in the PrUtis^khya,) which in their relative position may be represented by 


Ki ■ - gJ rj M r-j 

omMtta, udatta, svarita, prachaya. 

Thus in TT^^V^ "^RR mdddyasva svarnare, TT m^ is anuddtta, ^dai» uddtta, nyau svarita, 
^sva\a anuddtta, ^t^svSr is svarita, ^ nare, both anuddtta, but pronounced like uddtta. 

flid dd yS sva soar nare. 

In ^R^anRflV%f«Vt ddabdhapramatir vdsishfha^, W a is uddtta, l[^ dab is svarita, 
Vm dhaprama are anuddtta, but pronounced like uddtta, fw ti is anuddtta, ^ ra is uddtta, 
ft^«i«A is svarita, 7S fkah is anuddtta, but pronounced as uddtta* 

dha pra ma tir vd sish thaJ^ 

Other S^ftkhfts vary in the pronunciation of the accents, as may be seen f^m their respective 
Pr&tisftkhyas. Much confusion has been caused by mixing up these different systems, and, 
in particular, by trying to reconcile the rules of the Rig-veda-Prlltisilkhya with the rules 
of P&QinL According to Pftpini (i. 2, 29 seq.) the uddtta is high, the anuddtta low, but the 
svarita is half high and half low, and the anuddttas following after svarita (original or 
dependent) are pronounced monotonously {ekairuti), while the hust of them, immediately 

* Long after this was written I saw Dr. Hang's description of the accents in the 
Zeitschrift der D. M. G. vol. xvii. p. 799. He gives the intervals much smaller, so that if 
the anuddtta is e, the uddtta would be d, and the svarita would rise to e. This is no doubt 
right, and it will be easy to transcribe my own notation accordingly. I only retain it because 
it is clearer to the eye. What is very important, as confirming my view, is Dr. Haug's 
remark that in listening to the recitation of the Pandits he could not perceive any difference 
between the uddtta and the anuddttas if pronounced ^th prachaya svara, 

P p a 


preceding a new uddtta or voarita, is lower than anuddtta, and hence called 9an$Mtara or, bj 
the commentators^ anvddttatara. This system^ too> though different from the former, gives 
us only three kinds of musical pitch, which may be approximately represented by 



auiidattara, amtdatta, udatta, waritOt tka^rvH, 

Eka^nUi is described as without any definite pitch (traiivary^avdda), and might therefore 
be intended for mere monotonous recUalwe*, 

* It is commonly used as synonymous with prachita; e.g. nddttamayam prwhitam 
thahfUUi parydyah^ VIJ. Prilt. rv. 138. 


Kon — ^Tht fi^rei refer to the §, not to the page. 

akkd, mother, 338. 
^rfiif akshi, eye, 234. 
VP <1l| tl^ agninuUhf fire-kindling, 157. 
Wnn^atichamUf better than an army, 337. 
lini<4t|lA atUakshmi, better than Lakshmt, 

iriiK^atiitrif better than a woman, m.f., 339. 
W^adat, eating, 183. 
'^W^-ciii, 191, 
W^l]^ anadud, ox, 3X0. 
wA'^anarvan, without a foe, 189. 
Wn^f^ anehas^ time, 168. 
V^r^ oiifMicA, following, 181. 
W^^op, water, 3ii. 
Wf%VT ambikd, mother, 338. 
Wlff^^ayds, fire, 149. 
^3«i«\^ aryaman, name of a deity, 301. 
parrot, hone, 189. 
^I^arvon, hmrting, foe, 189. 
avaydj, prieit, 163* 
V avdch, south, 180. 
Wli avif f. not desiring, 335. 
^fi«\a#an, blood, 314. 
V^i^ atfij, blood, 161, 314, 
"*ift« agthi, bone, 334. 
m^ ahany n. day, 196. 
H^ ahan, day, at the end of a compound, 
197, 198, 

^^M^ akarga^y month, 196. 
^W^dtmanj soul, self, 191, 193. 

d^afi, water, 149, 31 1, 
Wff^R^^^, blessing, 173. 
W^l9{^dBan, face, 314* 
M\4M dsya, &oe, 314. 
°^ -w, 303. 
i^^S^^lc^, such, 174. 
^'^ini^ -lyof , 306. 

WW^^ft^^ukthaids, reciter of hymns, 177. 
9^ udaka, water, 314, 
9^tu2acA, upward, northern, 181. 
^tf^udim, water, 314. 
^m unni, leading out, 331. 
QHinw updnah, shoe, 174. 
v^in^fli^aiuM, nom. prop., i6g. 
vfm^ ushu^, a metre, 174. 
"V^^O, strength, i6z. 
^^|fiWl^ n/rv , priest, 161. 
^ V^*l fibhukshiny Indra, 195. 
Wf^ kakubh, region, 157. 
4|fk katif how many, 331. 
WTJf^kirahhd, nail, 331. 
1|Pt kavi, poet, 330. 
^iW kdnta, beloved, 338. 
^ihn kdntd, fern, bebved, J38. 
ftpn^fttya^, How much ? 190. 
fi^ kir, scattering, 164. 
^plt kudhi, m. f. a bad thinker, 331. 
^pfn9 kumdri, m. girlish, 337. 
lA krt, m. f. buying, 330. 
'^l^^kruHch, curlew, 159. 



iftj kroshfu, jackal^ 236. 

^nr khaflj, lame, 163. 

^P^f^^^gariya8, heavier, 206. 

ftlT^r, voice, 164, 

^gup, guardian, 157. 

^ ^*, covering, 174.. 

vft^o, ox, 218. 

iftC^^goraksh, cowherd, 174. 

Jim^grdma^i, leader of a village, 221 

^VfH^^chakds, splendid, 172. 

^nrani^ chakdgat, shining, 184. 

f^v4^cA»Ur«, desirous of acting, 172. 

f^nSffcl^ ehitralikh, painter, 156. 

wm^^Jakshat, eating, 184. 

WVH^jagat, world, 184. 

^«i*<i^ jaganvaSf having gone, 205. 

^ri^^^^^jafffnwas, having gone, 205. 

lf^^f^(^^jaffhanvaSy having killed, 205. 

«i (k ^ ^ jaghnioas, having killed, 205. 

1|U jard, old age, 166. 

Hc^llli jalakri, m, f. a hujer of water, 2 

H c^^^a/atitttcA, doud, 158. ' 

^TVH^jdgrat, waking, 184. 

'l(^^taksh, paring, 174. 

(t^^takshan, carpenter, 191. 

nfll ttOi, so many, 231. 

inst^ tantri, t, Inte, 225. 

Vd tari, f. hoat, 225. 

Ol?^ Hryach, tortuous, i8i. 

^rrerf twdgdh, Indra, 175. 

FT^^ocA, skin, 158. 

fiW^/vMA, splendour, 174* 

^clof, tooth, 214. 

^;^dadat, giving, 184. 

^fv dadhi, curds, 234. 

^W^dadhinsh, hold, 174. 

^ danta, tooth, 214. 

^^^y^^daridratf poor, 184. 

^ ddtri, giver, 235. 

^m^^ddman, rope, fern., 179, 193. 

^JTJl ddrdh, wife, 149. 

fl^tiH^c^te^AaisA, desirous of hurning, 174. 

fl^itv and ^ dyu, sky, 213. 

u![3F d»^, showing, 174. 

fi^cK/, country, 174. 

5^ duh, milking, 174/ 

^r^q duhitfi, daughter, 235. 

Ip^irin^M, thunderholt, 221.. 

ll^^dfii, seeing, 174. 

^^H cfcp^', worshipper, 162. 

t()Ht(^ c^osAan, arm, 214. 

^V^({o«, arm, 172, 214. 

^ dyu and fijf^cKr, sky, 213. 

ift dyo, sky, 219. 

1I| druh, hating, 174. 

yr^ dvdr, door, 164. 

(f^lil) dviddmni, having two ropes, 194. 

fW^dv%8h, hating, 174. 

^fn^ dkanin, rich, 203. 

Vl^ dhdtfi, n. providence, 235. 

^ dhi, m. f. thinking, 220. 

ift dhi, f . intellect, 224. 

ifN^ dhhariy wife of a fisherman, 193. 

U(^^dhvas^ fftUing, 173. 

«n^ nad(, f. river, 225. 

^ naptfi, grandson, 235. 

fTn 1M1/, destroying, 174. 

«T^fu», nose, 214. 

«Tf nah, hinding, 174. 

AW^ndman, name, 191. 

tfrf^irr ndsikd, nose, 2x4. 

fipfN^ nintvas, having led, 205. 

fn^v nirfara, ageless, 167. 

^ fiff, man, 237. 

WHj^fiidf m. f. dancer, 222. 

^ ftotf, ship, 217. 

^n^nyach, low, 181. 

^i^pangu, m., H^pangd, fem. lame, 230. 

Vftipati, lord, 233. 

V^lf^pathin, m. path, 195. 



iV^poJ) foot, ai4. 

^nft papi, m. f. protector, 222, 

^^[^31^ paramaniy m.f. best leader, 321. 

vlftJ(nparwrilS> mendicant, 162. 

^Ay3f^JpaT1^hvas, leaf-shedding, 173. 

HA^^poTvan, joint, 191, 

^ifjp^^K, m. f. n. pale, 230. 

^^VX^ -pdd,{oot, 207. 

VJ^pdda, foot, 214. 

f^imum^pindagras, lump-eater, I70« 

fl?5 pUfi, father, 235. 

f^mW(^pipak8h, desirous of maturing, 174. 

tirtft^^pipafhis, mshing to read, 171. 

^ff^pUu, m. n. a tree and its fruit, 230. 

ifl^plpflw, fet, fem, ^^Opivari, 194* 

^'ST^jMmarbM, re-bom, 221. 

^jnim, man, {purhs\ 212. 

^/}«r, town, 164. 

^^^^^l^^purudgmd€L8, Indra, 168. 

^Cisivl^jniro^, an offering, 176. 

^J^pUshan, name of a deity, 201. 

^prity army, 214. 

^nm pritandy army, 214. 

'^J^^jpfishat, deer, 185. 

M r^ <i t^pecAtva«, having cooked, 205. 

H «i I H Pn prdjdpati, lord of creatures, 233. 

U Ml (<^ s«t^ pratidivan, sporting, 192. 

TPff^pratyach, western, 181. 

Wfipradhi, m.f. thinking eminei^tly, 221. 

WHpradhi, fem., 223. 

H^i^praidnif quieting, 178. 

Jtl^prdch, eastern, 180. 

W^prdchh, asking, 160, 174. 

lA^prdfichy worshipping, 159. 

Wfif badiy dark fortnight, 149. 

«Vi«it|^ bahurdjan, having ma 

^5^«itfl bahu^eyaH, auspicioi 

^^^ baMfj, very strong, 161. 

^p^dttdA, knowing, .157. 

^^6r»^^, great, 185. 


mP^ brahmany creator, 192. 
m^fibhavatf Your Honour, 188. 
w^^bhishaj, physician, 161. 
)ft bhi, f. fear, 224. 
^bM, being, 221. 
^bM^f, earth, 224. 
^ bkilr, atmosphere, 149. 
^JH^ bhfijj, roasting, 162. 
VPi^ bhrdj, shining, 162. 
¥T^ bhrdtjif brother, 235. 
\^bhril, f. brow, 224. 
•f^«i«\ moffhavan, Indra, 200. 
TB^majl/, diving, 161. 

^fH matt, thought, 230. 
irfOf^ ma/Am, chuming-stick, 195. 
T^PdC madhulih, bee, 174. 
°'^«^-lnan, 191. 
^^^mahat, great, 186. 
irf^mi^m, meat, 214. 
ITNt mdthsa, meat, 214. 
ITJ mdtfi, mother, 235. 
m^^mds, month, 214. 
^m«A, confounding, 174. 
^l^fff^mdrdhan, head, 191. 
ipT mrt;, cleaning, 162. 
^ mfultf, m. f. n. soft, 230. 
inF^yaiban, liver, 214. 
Wff{jfakrity liver, 214. 
^n^yq;, sacrificing, 162. 
^^*i yq;i7aii, sacnficer, 192. 
trfifyahVas many, 231. 
^nit yayl, f. road, 222. 
^[^yuvan, young, 199. 
^ y^Aa, pea-soup, 214. 
^^(^yHshan, pea-soup, 214. 
V^r^i, shining, 162. 
TT^^^rdjan, king, 191. 
TF# r^jfii, queen, 193. 
^rwcA, light, 158, 



^^^ru;, disease, i6i. 

^^B^^rurttdv€Uf dying, 304. 

^^nwA, anger, 174. 

T rai, wealth, 217. 

cTQ^ft lakshmif f . goddess of prosperity, 335. 

c^ laghUf m. f. n. light,. 330. 

fcS^ Hh, licking, 174. 

^ M, m. f. cutting, 220, 

M(*a^^vanij, merchant, 161. 

**^-»a/, 187. 

'fp^adM, f. wife, 225. 

**^ -van, 191. 

^kll varshdhf rainy season, 149. 

^HVj^varshdbM, firog, 221. 

^^W^ "Vas, part, perfect, 204. 

"^J^ vdch, speech, 158. 

qinH«i1 vdtaprami, antelope, 222. 

^T^ vdr, water, 164. 

^ift vdriy water, 230. 

^'^fTf -rtfA, carrying, 208. 

n^l^^VM^vo^, knowing, 205. 

^H\9\^vipdS, a river, 174. 

ftig«^!?tprtt«A, drop of water, 174. 

f^^SX^Mhhrdj, resplendent, 162. 

ftr^n^rtoaAr^A, desirous of saying, 174. 

nrPra tntnJb^A, wishing to enter, 174. 

f^n^vi^, entering) 174. 

OiniHi vUvapd, all-preserving, 239. 

(k 'Jii.i *! vihardjt universal monarch, 162. 

fq ni^«^ w^MfV, creator, 162. 

flr^mA, ordure, X74. 

fin^^ oisAvacA, all-pervading, 181. 

^pft^mkBhalU^ tree-hewer, 222. 

'^^Vfiich, cutting, 159. 

^i«iv^ /aAron, ordure, 214. 

^fpflT/a^/, ordure, 214. 

^f^Qlvn Sankhadhmd, shell-blower, 239. 

^\H^4d$at, commanding, 184. 

^f^ iwhiy m. f. n. bright, 230. 

^nA hddkadM, thinking pure things, 221. 

^ppA' iuddhadhiy a pure thinker, 221. 

^^^ iu^ruoas, having heard, 205. 

V^A iushki, 222. 

^ M^ f. happiness, 224. 

^iBv^ivan, dog, 199. 

wRl^ ivetaiodh and ^hV^ hetavas^ 209, 

^r^samoaf, year, 149. 

rX^H sakthi, thigh, 234. 

^91% sakhi, friend, 232. 

?l^[^«q;W, friend, 172. 

ti »« -q^ sadhryachf accompanying, 181. 

ti«i^ samyach, right, 181. 

mrr^ fomr^', sovereign, 162. 

«4^^ sarvaiak, omnipotent, 155. 

W^ sdnu, ridge, 214. 

^nftf sdmiy half, 149. 

(^«nnit sikatdky sand, 149. 

^^ sukhi, wishing for pleasure, 222. 

^<i4i^««^ati, ready reckoner, 154. 

^"^ ^t^ suchakBhuB, having good eyes, 165. 

^W^fn^n^yo/if, well-lighted, 165, 

^11^ suUy wishing for a son, 222. 

^^««<«9, well-sounding, 170. 

^^ sudhi, m. f. having a good mind, 226. 

^ft^rapw, well- walking, 170. 

^^ra^Aril, m. f. having good brows, 226. 

^•i«l t^ramanot, well-minded, 165. 

'^a suM, well^farmg, 221. 

^«fW susakhi, a good friend, 232. 

^f^wAt^Tw, weU-etriking, 172. 

^^;^ guhrid, friendly, 157. 

^p^«rv> creating, 162. 

tTltiHi somapd, Soma drinker, 239. 

^pft 8tri, woman, 228. 

ftf^ snih, loving, 174. 

1J snu, ridge, 214. 

^f snuh, spueing, 174. 

^p(^spri^, touching, 174. 

Tff^^traj, a garland, i6i. 

CT^WM, fWling, 173. 



^^ffficA, ladle^ 158. 

19^ way am, self, 149. 

Wi^svayambh4y aelf-existing, aai. 

^1^ star, heaven, 149. 

ira svasfif sister, 335. 

lf|^«v^, having good water, an. 

f^^Aan, killing, 202. 
fftH^*art7, green, 157. 
^1^ hdhd, 240. 
|{|^ A|^, heart, 214. 
^If^f hridaya, heart, 214. 
jfi hri, f. shame, 224. 


Note— The number refers to the number of each verb in the Appendix. 

mS^^aibsA, to pervade, 37. 

^t^aj, to go, to throw, (^ v(), 23. 

W^aflcA, to go, to worship, 17. 

iJNl af|;, to anoint, 207. 

^ od, to eat, 162. 

Wj^an, to breathe, 176. 

^H ay, to go, 78. 

H^ ardy to go, to pain, 12. 

ire OP, to help, 92. 

W|l 0^, to pervade, 147. 

H^of, to be, 173. 

irt^ dtlchh, to stretch, 18. 

in^tf;>, to obtain, 146. 

m^^, to sit, 183. 

IRTiE dha, to speak, 190. 

^*,togo, 171. 

!^ t, to go ; wH adhi, to read, 186. 

^ ind, to govern, 13. 

j^tnJA, to kindle, 209. 

^M, to wish, 118, 31. 

^V iksh, to see, 6g. 

fjH^i^, to rule, 182. 

^ ik, to aim, 79. 

^^ifibA, to go, 16. 

ini t»A, to bum, 40. 

^9n finjiu, to cover, 191. 

^ r», to go, (^^tfl fichohkati), 4 

^ r», to gOf 197- 

^^erfA, to grow, 68. 
1R7 kafj to rain, to encompass, 25. 
W^^kam, to love, 77. 
WTS^ib^, to shine, 80. 
^KX^^kds, to cough, 81. 
ftn^ibV, to cure, (WVnrtlf cAifciJ 
^R kuf, to bend, in. 
^P^ihmM, to strike, 6. 
^ kfi, to do, 152. 
fll ifcft/, to cut, no, 107. 
"^^kfip, to be able, 89, 87. 
Ip^itfMA, to furrow, 38. 
^^ krish, to trace, 106. 
Q q 



W kri, to scatter, 113. 

■^p^^Arft, to praise, 138. 

W{^kram, to stride, 30, 29. 

^ kri, to buy, 153. 

Wl^klam, to tire, 29, 30, 130. 

^pr ib«Aan, to kill, 149. 

^1*^ ksham, to bear, 130. 

nil' ib^Ai, to wane, to diminish, 24. 

ftf^^«At>, to kill, 150. 

^^Had!^ to eat»8. 

Iff^ khan, to dig, 95. 

fli^ khid, to vex, 107. 

^7T khyd, to proclaim, 166. 

1^ gad, to speak, 9. 

xn? ^ram, to go, 33, 31. 

m gdy to go, 83. 

^^gvp, to protect, 26, 63. 

^pnA, tohide, 97, 29. 

^ gai, to sing, 44. 

Jff^ grah, to take, 157, 105. 

^ glai, to droop, 43. 

^^^tf-class, 46, 47, 200. 

ITT ghrd, to smell, 54. 

^^SV^chakds, to shine, 177. 

^^chaksh, to speak, 181. 

^^^chapy to pound, 137. 

^^T cham, to eat, 29. 

^^ chah, to pound, 137. 

fw cki, to collect, 137, 140. 

f%ir cAt/, to think, 2. 

^1^ chur, to steal, 136. 

^t^^cAyti/, to sprinklcj 3. 

^ chko, to cut, 124. 

If^jaksh, to eat, 177, 176. 

^9f!f^jan, to spring up, 132. 

^(^jdgjit to wake, 178, 177. 

ftf yi, to excel, 36. 

^jti> to grow old, 123, 156. 

Wl^Jf^ap, to know, to make known, 137. 

V^jfid, to know, 159. 

W^jyd, to grow weak, 158, 36, 105. 
^Wtjvar, to suffer, 92. 
1W^ taksh, to hew, 37. 

Tf«^ <an, to stretch, 148. 

Jf^^tap, to bum, 28. 

in^ tarn, to languish, 130. 

flrH^^y, to forbear, (fllfinfktitikshate), 75, 63. 

3 *», to grow, 170. 

55 tud, to strike, 104. 

fR^^nPi to delight, 127, 38. 

^ trih, to kUl, 208. 

WM, to cross, 61, 

Vr{,trap, to be ashamed, 74. 

?f^ ^ra*, to tremble, 30. 

g^ ^ra/, to cut, 30. 

R^ tvar, to hurry, 92. 

^^^^dam^, to bite, 62, 73. 

<?^ rfai, to give, 70. 

^ dflfii, to tame, 130. 

^ftf\ daridrd, to be poor, 179, 177. 

<^ dah, to burn, 42. 

^ <2^, to give, 58. 

^ddytx) give, 200. 

^^ddn, ^fl^flrfw diddfhsoH, to straighten, 63. 

flf^c^tr, to play, 121. 

^ rfl, to decay, 154. 

^Wt c^CiAl*^ to shine, 177, 

^ duh, to milk, 188. 

^ c7f<, to observe, 120. 

'^^^dfUt to see, (i|^p<i^, 48, 38. 

5 dfi, to tear, 156. 

^ de, to protect, 85. 

^ dai, to cleanse, 46. 

^ dai, to protect, 85. 

^(^0, to out, 124. 

^(dyut, to shine, 86. 

iV^ (2&wA, to hate, 187. 

^dhd, to place, 201. 

\dM, to shake, 156. 

y^dMp, to warm, 27. 



V dhcy to drink, 47. 

HIT dhmdy to blow, 55. 

•T^nac?, to hum, 11. 

^I^nam, to bow, 32. 

•TS^ na£, to perish, 1 29, 117. 

•T^ naA, to bind, 135. 

fWv fit^sA, to kiss, 15. 

ftn^ni;, to cleanse, 202. 

Mf^ nindy to blame, 14. 

^JH^npV, to dance, 122. 

'WF />at^, to traffic, 26. 

^Wf pan, to praise, 76. 

^Kf(jpat, to fall, 64. 

^pfl(i, to go, 133. 

V^^paiij to praise, 26, 76. 

^npTpo^a, to see, 48. 

^ p^, to drink, 53. 

fin^pi^, to form, 107. 

\pd, to purify, 156. 

^prt to fill, 195, 156. 

TC^prachhy to ask, 115, 105. 

^TTpstf, to eat, 163. 

lic^ pAa/, to burst, 34. ' 

W>(5aiA, WIhWh bibhaisate, to loathe, 63. 

^T^ bandh, to bind, 160. 

^V 6ttrfA, to perceive, 134. 

TlbrUf to speak, 190. 

n^bhaflj^ to break, 206. 

^ AM, to fear, 193. 

^bhU, to be, I. 

^ &Af», to carry, 199. 

WR(^bhrajj, to fry, 105. 

OT bhram, to roam, 30, 130. 

VrrSF &Ar^, to shine, 30. 

^fTSI^bhlds, to shine, 30. 

1^ majj, to sink, 117. 

W^ mocf, to rejoice, 130. 

T^ mantk, to shake> to chum, 5. 

^^^mav, to bind, 92. 

TT md, to measure, 164. 

TT md, to measure, 198. 
TF^m^n, *fl*lIflH mimdihsate, to search, 63. 
fk mt, to throw, 154. 
f^ mid, to be wet, 131. 
ftrV miA, to sprinkle, 41. 
^ ml, to kill, 154. 
^^much, to loosen, 107. 
^ m«A, to be foolish, 128. 
^mrt, to die, 119. 
qi^wify, to clean, 174. 
VT mndy to study, 57. 
^^mrttc^, to go, 19. 
^nr yaj, to sacrifice, 99. 
^yai», to stop, 31, 58. 
^yfljfi, to feed, 137. 
VI yd, to go, 165. 
^ y», to mix, 169. 
i^ra*!;, to tinge, 62. 
T^ rad, to trace, 10. 
^ram, to sport, 91. 
T]i^r<!(;, to shine, 94. 
^ rtt, to go, to kill, 84. 
^ rte, to shout, 170. 
^nki, tocry, 176. . 
^^ rudh, to shut out, 203. 
^^n»A, to kill, 39. 
<9^/£»A, to desire, 30. 
t^^lip, to punt, 109, 107. 
15^1. ^ttPi to break, J07. 
^ Id, to cut, 156. 
^^vacA, to speak, 175. 
flfra;, to go, 21. 
^ vad, to speak, 66. 
V\vap, to sow, to weave, 100. 
^uay, to go, 105. 
^c^val, to live, 137. 
'nivad, to desire, 167, 105. 
^^va#, to dwell, 65. 
T^ vah, to carry, loi, 93. 
f^rV vichh, to go, 26. 
Q q 2 



ftlT vij, to separate, 202. 

f^ vidj to find, 108, 107. 

ft^ vid, to know, 172. 

f^^riffA, to embrace, 202. 

^ rl, see Wif c;. 

^ vfi, to choose, 142 ; Parasmaipada. 

^ vri, to cherish, 161 ; Atmanepada. 

^»n*> to ^e, 87. 

^ vfidh, to grow, 87. 

^vr^, to choose, 156. 

% vCf to weave, 102. 

iNt vevi, to obtain, 177. 

"•II^ryacA, to surround, 105. 

^n vyath, to fear, to su£Per pain, 90. 

^fir^vyadh, to pierce, 126, 105. 

Wj^wo/, to go, 22. 

Tl^^wadch, to cut, 112, 105. 

9^ ^ak, to be able, 144. 

^ iad, to wither, 51. 

IfjM^am, to cease, 130. 

Ig^^dn, ^fl^ltuni iUdfhaati, to sharpen, 63. 

I(in9^/^, to command, 180, 177. 

f^ll^iwA, to distinguish, 304. 

llfi AfixiMe down, 185. 

1^ ^jridh, to hurt, 87. 

id^ io, to sharpen, 124. 

^H^ichut, to flow, 4. 

^9^hhyut, to flow, 4. 

^P![iram, to tire, 130. 

ftr iri, to go, to serve, 98. 

^ ^, to hear, 145. 

^O^ibof, to breathe, 176. 

f^ M, to swell, 67. 

W shtyai, to sound, 45. 

fk^^shthiv, to spit, 35, 29. 

^^^shvashk, to go, 71. 

^N^Mfiy, to stick, 6^) 73. 

?l^ «a(f, to perish, 52. 

?l«(«aji, to obtain, 151. 
?l^ sak, to bear, 93. 
ft[^«tcA, to sprinkle, 107. 
ftn^ sidh, to go, and ftl^ sidh, to com- 
mand, 7. 
ftl1(^ftp, to serve, 82. 
^ M, to distil, 139. 
^«il, to bear, to bring forth, 184. 
^ ^, to go, 50. 
^|9t <p}', to let off, 116, 38, 48. 
^ 80, to finish, 125, 124. 
IK skand, to approach, 60. 
JSbl^^skambh, to support, 155. 
^ sku, 155. 

^^«Jb(m6A, to hold, 155. 
^P^Hambh, to support, 155. • 
^ 9tUy to praise, 189. 
^ stu, to praise, 170. 
^SP^stumbh, to stop, 155. 
^ stfif to cover, 141. 
W $tfi, to cover, 156. 
?R styaif to soimd, 45. 

^m sthd, to stand, 56. 

^S^jpft^, to touch, 114. 

^4^ tyandy to sprinkle, to drop, 88, 87. 

ftr^mr, to go, to dry, 92. 

^(if stai^it to embrace, 73, 62. 

^D^^vop, to sleep, 176. 

^Aoii, to kill, 168. 

iphdyU} leave, 196. 

f% At, to go, to grow, 143. 

fi|l^Atih«, to kill, 205. 

J Ati, to sacrifice, 192. 

FS huTckh, to be crooked, 20. 

^ Af», to take, 96. 

1^ hriy to be ashamed, 194. 

ar hvfi, to bend, 59. 

^ Ar«> to call, 103.