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2.T- 3. 3.104. b"" Bound 



Sarbatb College l-ibrarg 



Santali -English 











~ A 


'' . . 





>HE Santali language is Spoken by almost a million and a half of people, 
who are mainly found distributed over a strip of Bengal extending for 
about 350 miles from the Ganges to the Baitami, bisected by the meridian 
of Bhagalpur, or ST" east longitude, and comprising the following districts : — 
Bhagalpur, Monghyr, the Santal Pargannas, Birbhum, Bankura, Hazaribagh, 
Manbhum, Midnapur, Singhbbum, Mayurbhanj and Balasore. 

Santali belongs to the Mun^a or Eolarian &mily of languages, and has 
reached a much higher stage of development than any other language or dia- 
lect of the family to which it belongs. It is spoken with little variation in 
pronunciation or idiom over the greater part of the above-mentioned area. 

Northern Santali, or that spoken in Bhagalpur, Monghyr, the Santal 
Pargannas, Birbhum, Bankura, Hazaribagh and Manbhum, is the lan- 
guage of an overwhelming majority of the tribe, and is more polished, than 
Southern Santali. The former is, therefore, regarded as the Standard, and 
Southern Santali, or that spoken in the remaining districts, as a dialect, 
or, possibly, a group of dialects of it. 

There being at present no Dictionary of the Santali language, while 
many Government Officers, Missionaries and Planters feel the want of one, 
there would seem to be a need for the present work, even although it be 
very imperfect. Puxley's Vocabulary, which was a useful help to the 
knowledge of Santali, has been long out of print. 

Most Dictionaries indicate what parts of speech the words are, but in 
Santali it is impossible to do this in the case of the great bulk of the words. 
Consequently, in the few instances in which it might have been done, it has 
not been thought worth while doing so in this Dictionary. The form in which 
the words appear is the Root, and only the Root idea is, in most instances, 
given. A slight knowledge of the Grammar of Santali will enable those 
I consulting the Dictionary to deduce the meanings of the different forms in 

^ which the root appears, whether noun, adjective, verb, adverb, &c. Greater 

fulness of detail could have been given only in a very bulky volume, and, as 
Santali is regular in its method of dealing with the Root, no real advantage 
would have been gained. 

( ii ) 

The Examples given are intended to shew the more common use of the 
words, and have been selected with great care. A few of them illustrate 
the use of words in proverbs, saws, maxims, &c. These have been given, 
as affording some insight into the mental characteristics of the Santals, 
and it is hoped that, by their means, students of Santali may become better 
acquainted with the people whose language they are studying. In some 
instances, rather lengthy references to customs, festivals, &c., have been 
made, but, as the work was intended as a help, not merely to a knowledge of 
the language, . but also to a knowledge of the people, such references were 
unavoidable. In the case of particles, in which Santali is very rich, and 
which often baffle translation, it is hoped that the illustrative examples 
will be appreciated. 

In the present work no attempt has been made to distinguish between 
words of Kolarian origin and those adopted from other sources. With our 
present knowledge of the non- Aryan languages of India, living or dead, 
which have influenced the present Santali vocabulary, any such attempt 
would have been mere guess work, and would have served no practical 
purpose. The source of words of Aryan origin might have been indicated, 
but uniformity forbad it. All words, whencesoever derived, that are in 
common use among Santals, have been, as far as possible, included. 

Santali has been affected more or less by all the languages with which 
it has come into contact, and possesses a remarkable power of naturalising 
words of foreign origin. Next to the Bihari dialects, Bengali has of late 
years had most influence upon it. So strongly, indeed, do Bihari and 
Bengali affect Santali at present that there is produced a slight dia- 
lectic difference between the Santali of Bihari and the SantaU of Bengali 
districts. Words with the short inherent vowel, adopted by Santali from 
Bihari, retain the short a sound, those adopted from Bengali retain the 
short o sound. This dialectic difference accounts for the different ways 
of spelling the same word which often occur. 

Santali not possessing an alphabet of its own, the Roman character has 
been adapted to it. This, with signs over, or under, certain letters, to denote 
sounds differing from those which these letters have in English, suits the 
language extremely well. There are two different modes of representing 
two sounds which are current in Santali printed books, and, as users of the 
Dictionary may read books of both kinds, an explanation seems necessary. 
These two sounds are represented in the present work by H and (f. They 
are otherwise represented by ', and : . Thus ama]c=ama\ and amid = ami:. 
For the sounds of the letters used in Romanised Santali, Skrefsrud's San- 
tali Grammar may be consulted. It may, however, be noted that c is 
soft as ch in change. 

( Hi ) 

The order of the letters in the English Alphabet has been adhered to 
in this Dictionary. To avoid confusion, no distinction, so far as order is 
concerned, has been made between lettei*s having signs under or over them, 
and the corresponding unmarked letters. The letter n is, however, an 
exception to this rule. It is regarded as equivalent to ng, and always 
occupies the same place in the sequence of letters as 7i^ in an English 

This work does not profess to contain a complete list of the words used 
in Santali, but it is believed that the most of them have been recorded. 

Thanks are due to the Government of Bengal, which, through the Direc- 
tor of Public Instruction, has assisted the publication of this Dictionary 
by a generous grant towards the expense of printing. 

The Compiler gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance rendered 
in the work of preparing the Dictionary by the following gentlemen — his 
colleagues in the Free Church of Scotland Santal Mission — Dr. J. A. Dyer, 
Dr. J. M. Macphail, and the Rev. W. E. White. The time and labour 
devoted to the work by Mr. White, (who, besides help given all through, 
placed a lai*ge quantity of valuable MSS. at the disposal of the compiler,) 
demand special recognition and thanks, which are hereby heartily accorded. 


M. Masculine. 

F. Feminine. 

Cor. Corruption. 

Met. Metaphorically. 





A. A privative prefix much used in 
Santali, signifying not, without. 

A-dhorom, a-lekha 

A. A pi*efix with causative significa- 

A-/ia, a-jo, a-Ben. 

A, Yes. 

A a. Qrunt of buffalo. 

Abad. Cultivation, harvest. 

Abaci dare. Tree yielding produce. 

Abar. To cry peevishly for some thing, 
as a child. 

Ce£6 abafkeda? What does he want? 

Abe tabe. Just at the time of 

Abe tabe simratt. Just about oook-orow 
Abe tabeakanae. He is at the point of death. 

Aben. You two. 

There is also a curious use of the dual, when 
only one person is in question. A man and his 
wife use the dual to their respective fathers-in- 
law, mothers-in-law, elder brothers-inlaw, and 
sisters-in-law, and vice versa, e.g. A man will say 
to his father-in-law Calais ben, instead of Calal- 
me. Cf . abo for curious use of the plural. 

Aber. Out of season, late, behind hand. 
Abga. Almost all, the greater part, 
with few exceptions. 

NunaKi/i kainike^rehS abga peted o^ohena. Al- 
though I have laboured so much little else 
than chaff is the result. 

Noa eaole do abga dhufigea. This rioe is near- 
ly all dust. 

Noko hof abga komb^o kanako. The majority 
<^ them are thieves. 

Abga taka menaMtaea. He has more rupees 
(than pice). 

Abga hof g^ menatfkoa. flantals are in the ma- 
jority (in this Tillage). 

Abge. (1) Sacred to the males of the 
household. (2) Stingy, selfish. 

Abge bohga. One of the Santal family deities, 
-virtually the deity of the males of the family, 
as they only can partake of what has been 
offered to it in sacrifice. 

Nui bhet^ali abgeakadea. I have set this ram 
apart as a sacrifice for the males of the house- 

Amem jom ab^keda. You ate most of it your- 
seli, (as if it had been an abge offering.) 

Abgun. To injure oneself by over- 

Jom abgunenae. He injured himself by eating 
too much. 

Abhagia. Unfortunate, unlucky. 
Abher. A moment of time. 

Mi£ abhepiii oalao liogoia. I wiU go for a 

Abhra. A natural pond or tank. 

Abhran. An ornament, jewelry, to be 
decked with jewelry, &c. 

Abhu cabhu. Perplexed, confused, not 
knowing what to do. 

Abjos. XJntortunate, unlucky, ill for- 
tune, bad luck. 

Abjos alo bafe hoyoftma, jos bare hoyoKma. 
Abjos do alom h^a, jos bafe hfrme. 

Ablakha. Spotted. 

Abo, abon. We, including person ad- 
dressed, I and you, we and you. 
opp. to ale — I and they. 

There is also a curious use of the plural ^ when 
only one person is in question. Fathers-in-law 
and mothers-in-law use the plural to each other, 
though addressing onhr one i>erson. 
e. g. The husband's father says to wife's father 

oalaXale, instead of caJattali, and calak'pe in- 
stead of calak'me, also calakale^ or calalabo, al- 
though only the speaker is going away. This 
usage is also obserred among certain relations 
of the parents-in-law. 

Abod. Young, ignorant. 
Abol. Weak, without strength. 
Abola. Dumb, unable to speak for one- 
self, as a child. 

Abosta. To waste, to be injured, or 

HorobeleSna, sam^ao hodkhanem, oho abostalena. 
The dhan is ripe if you house it quickly it will 
not be injured. 

Abot. Not broken to work, untamed. 
Abuk, (abukoU)Ho wash hands and feet, 
AbuQ, (abuiioM)/also hands and mouth 

after eating. 

Abiilc cabttk 

[ 2 ] 


Distingiiish between — 

Ap (abok') to wash whole face. 

Aoak (abakoK) to wash hands and feet, 

Ti jahga abnkokme. Wash your hands and feet. 

Bin abnk tite. With onwashen hands. 

AbuK cabuK. Here and there. 
Abun. Cf. abuk. 
A6. himselt 

Aoal, ajaK, &jft^i a^ren. His own. 

A6 kathae. Namely, that is, as they say. 

Akoge ao kathae khnb akilan lekako ba^ftoola. 

They are wise in their own conceits. 

A3 kathaeye d^f god leka. As if he were to flee. 

Ac. Heat, flame, stiflincf heat. 

Bhatha reak* ao do eyae dobof dahhgao jn- 
tijpe. Increase the heat of the furnace 
seyen times. 

Aoalme. Increase the heat (by stirring the fire, 
or patting on more fuel.) 

Noa ofalre a^i hofko tanSlenkhan Sc bako 
sahaoa. If men are crowded into this house, 
they will be stifled with the heat. 

Acar. Usage, customs, rites. 
Acarolc. To make rules of conduct for 

oneself regarding defilement in 

Acar beohar. Customs, usages, conduct. 

Bohgal^ hop a^ ut^f acar beohar menaltakoa. 

Acarbicar. To institute customs, rules 
of conduct, &c., to legislate, to 

Abo ge tho bh^i nunalbo acarke£ bicarkeda, noa 

reah sat oekatebo iSela P 
W& hafve passed all these laws how shall we know 

that they have the divine sanction ? 

Acbic. To despise, to loathe (on ac- 
count of ceremonial, or other defile- 

Cele h5 babo aobicakoa. We regard none as 
unclean (ceremonially.) 

A6 bole. Cf. ad kathae. 

Acel'pacelWf^^^'^^^^^^^' ^^' 

\ ^ § dour. 


Khnbe kisajra, acel pacel jomat menaltaea. He 
is very rich, and has abundance of food. 

Acet. Unconscious. 

Achal gailjal. To rain heavily, to pour. 

TehelS do achal gafijale data^bona. It rained 
very heayily to-day. 

Achar. A heavy shower of rain. 

Mi€ achate dalkeda. There was one good 
shower of rain. 

Achia. Opening on top ofchulha for pot. 

Mi^ achia. Ohuma with onejopening. 
Bar achia. Two openings. 

Achim. To sneeze. 

Achimkedae. He sneezed. 

Acir pacir. 1 A large homestead sur- 
Acer pacer. J rounded by a wall. 

Acir pacir opal menaltacia. He has a large 
homesteiMi surrounded by a waU. 

AchoL Unclean feeding, low, eating 

Achok ]^t kanae. He is of lenpr oavte. 

Achra. To sow rice for transplanting 
in low moist land, which has been 
ploughed and harrowed. 

Achfa aphor — is seed sown thick on. madac% 

after haying been steeped till it germinates. 
Dhuri i^ibor — is aeedaown <m hifh liuids, which 

haye been ploughed, but not harrowed. 
The seedlings when in the ground are called 

aphor, when pulled up for transplanting 


Acka \ Suddenly, without warn- 

Ackamar J ing. 
' Acok. Suddenly, without warning: 
keli bonga. A spirit supposed to 
preside over the interests of the 

parents of a married woman. If she surrep- 
titiously carries away any thing from t&B 
house oc her parents to her own home the 
AoraeU boiiga aooompanies the goods, what- 
ey^ ihej may be, and makes his presenoe 


and displeasure felt by bringmg* 

death, Ac. upon the household. *& '^- .^ 

him and induce him. ta return to his omn 

domain is a work of some difficully, inyoly- 
ing, at times, rather oostly saciifloes. 

Acu. To hire, to engage, to employ. 

Aon hof. One hired 
Alcu hof. An employer. 

Acnkoad. I wiU hire them. 

Acur. To turn, to return, to turn rounds 
to go round, to revolve. 

Me€ acurol lekaii ^ikfneda. TfbeT duty. 
A^i acar hor. A yerjr winding paiJi. 
AcuroM dinte. This time next year. 
Acurol Budh. Next Wednesday. 

Acur bihur. Backwards and forwards, 
hither and thither, over and over 

Koakore acur bihur bafaekanae. He is wander- 
ing about here. 

Acur bihure rofeda ina kathage. He is al<^ 
WMTS coming oyer the sama snbjoot. 

Ad. C£ adh. 

Admarua half-^ead. 

^td. The begiiming. 

4d c^li. Original customs. 

Ad. YTo give shelter, protection, to 
04. /take refuge. 

Adol lagi£e fkxt oflkuioena. He ran for shelter. 
Diuhe a^kate aguime — ^protecting it from wind. 
Sate a^re. Under shelter of the eayes. 
Sisir o4re* Shelter from the dew. 

Ada. 1 Undried ginger, {Zingiber officii 
Adhe.J nale &8coe. 


[ 3 1 



Ada. To season, especially with salt, 
diffuse throughout, impregnate 
with suflScientfy, to suffice. 

XJtnre bulnii adaakapa sebaii? Is the relish 

properlT salted. 
Soliin bah aoalena. The salt did not snffice, 
(was not in soffioient qnanti^.) 

Snnnm bah adalentilia. There was not enough 
oil for my purpose. 

3^0* darhare haf bah adalente hako bako arma- 
raolena. This pool has not been sufficient- 
ly poiscmed, and so the fish were not over- 

A^ To take cattle to mid-day resting 
place, the place where cattle rest 
at mid-day, a group, a herd. 

A^ t^^i. The plaoe were the a^a is situated, 
generally a level piece of ground outside of 
the village where shelter from the sun can 
1)0 obtained. 

A^akoali. I will take them -to the resting 

Mi£ a^ako dukana. They went in one detach- 

A4ftkateko oalak'a. They will go as one herd. 

A^a. Tassar silkworms. 
A^a a4i. Not on speaking terms, at 

A^a ^iakanakin. They are not on speaking 

A^abari. The place where Tassar silk 
worms (Anthercea mylitta) arere- 
ared, generally a grove of AtnaK 
%rees{T€rrainaliatomeiito8a Linn.) 

Ada bafire menaea. 

A4a ba|iedae. He is tending tassar sOk worms. 

Adagathia. A common grass, Fanv- 
cum repens, Linn. 

j^dai badaL To be proud, arrogant, 

A^^i b^^iefkanae. He is ^ fastidious, (will not 
take what is offered him.) 

^d&i, (1) To give back, repay, to re- 
(2) To collect money &c due, to exact. 

(1) Uniat rin XakAti ^daikaltaea. I discharged 

my debt to him. 

(2) Bin taka uni then khon ili ^daia. I will 
realise from him the money lent. 

Adalot, (adalat). Court, kacahari. 

Marah adalot. Hi|h court (Hae kot) 
Dewani „ Civil court. 
Faddari „ Criminal court. 

Adar, (adar ^a^^)- A Brahmini bull, a 
bull kept for breeding purposes, 
and not put to work. 

Adar odor. Fat and naked, overgrown, 

Adaf odofe calaoena. Ho waddled away. 

Adar udur. Cf. adar odor, 

Adatl Under age, imfit for work, ani- 

UdatJ mals not begun to lose their 

milk teeth. 
Adauri. A preparation made from pulse 

and condiments. 
Adawa. Cf adwa. 
Adepase. Neighbourhood, near. 

A^epase renko. Neighbours. 

Ader. To put in, to bring in, to intro- 

Ka4a aderkom. House the buffaloes. 
Eatiiaye aderadea. He introduoed the subject 

A(Je tola. Neighbourhood, vicinage. 

A4e tolarenko. Neighbours. 

Adger. To go off, to disappear, to keep 
out of sight, to keep out of the way. 

Okate coe a^gerakana. He has disappeared 

Sen a^gerakanako kami hof do, bako aktaol- 

kana. The workmen have cleared off, they 

are not in a hurry. 

Adh. \ A prefix, used largely in Santali 
Ad. J signifying half 

Adh b^isu. Of middle age. 
Adh marwa. Half-dead. 

Adha. Half 

Adha adhi. Half and half 

Kami adha 9<lhilenkhan. When the work is half 

Adha ^dhiko rohoeakada. They have got half 

through with their planting. 

Adha pckdha. Unfinished, to scamp 

Adha padhape kamiakada. You have not done 
the work thoroughly. 

^idhaia. Two and a half 
Adhar. Fodder, food, (seldom used of 
man) ; to be satisfied. 

Adhar banultakoa. They (animals) have no 

Uni hof unale jomefrehO, bae adharolkana. 
The man although he eats so much is not satisfied 

Adhe. Cf ada. 
Adhek. Cf adha. 
Adhela. A half pice. 

Barea adhelare mit* poesa hoyola. Two half 
pice make one pice. 

Adher. Past prime, getting old. 

B^ adhef entaea, nui gfido. This cow is get- 
ting old. 
Adher kicri6. Old cloth. 

4dhi. To lessen, to shorten, to reduce. 

j^dhike€leae. He lessened our numbers. 
Dul ^dhime. ^ Pour out half. 
Meromko goo ^dhientaea. Many of his goats 
have med. 


[ 4 1 


Adhkhecra. Imperfect, carelessly per- 
formed, scamped. 

Adhorom. Umighteous, unholy, impure. 

Adhon mfl^hon. To sell at a sacrifice, 
below value, for anything. 

Sesre a4hoh maglhon ill akrili gi^ikeda. At last 
I sold it for what I oould get. 

-^dhuli. An 8 anna piece. 

^^di (ari, udi, adi utar, aema, adi a(Ji, 
adi oko6), much, many, very, a long 

4<}i1iofko. Many men. 

A4 i ho^o . Mnoh rice. 

44i m^ila. Very dirty. 

A^ireye oalaoena. He went away a long while ago 

A<}idinreye oalaoena. He went away many 

days ago. 
A^i eetal.'e. Very early in the morning. 
A4i gh^iri enei, Only after a very long time. 

Ad Kisku. A sub-sept of the sept 

Adin. Out of season, out of date, late. 

4^din din rem metadida. Ton -spoke to me ont 
of season. 

Adkar. One half 
Adnakha. One half 
Ado. Moreover, and, so, then. 
Aijo. To urinate. 

Adoli. To disregard an order, to slight 
a command. 

Hnkum adolikedae. He disregarded the order. 

Adom. Some, some... others. 

Adom doko oalaoena, ar adom doko taheena. 
Some went away, and others stayed. 

Adop. To be contumacious, to be recal- 
citrant, to be recusant, 

T7ni doA dallederehoe adopet! kana, arh5 iamrged 
dalea. Although I haye beaten him, he is 
still oontumaoions, I shall certainly beat 
him again. 

Adopia. Contumacious, recalcitrant, 
imsubmissive, recusant, blustering. 

Ador. Pride ; to sulk. 

Uni do kisaf i^te ^ adoroKgeae. He is prond 

because he is rich. 
T7ni giir^ bali hewekante adorol^kanae. The 

child is snlking because I do not take it up. 

Adorok. To put oflF, to put off under 
vain pretences, to procrastinate, to 
be unsatisfied, as one who refuses 
to work for a certain wage. 

Adpakolia. Weak, feeble, fusionless, of 
premature birth. 

Adpakoliageae, kamire bae dheja. He is feeble 
and can't do his work. 

Adrao, (arrao). To bellow. 

Ka4a a ako ar^raoa. 

Adwa. To husk without boiling, husked 
without being previously boiled, 
not tattooed. 

Adwa hof o. 

Adwa caole. 

Adwa hor. Not tattooed. 

Nui hof doe adwagea This ma^ is not tattoued. 

Adwati. HI will, enmity. 
Ae. Measure; to calculate. 

Beaeteye jomeda. He eats without stint. 

Daft ^i haraena, ninaft ae menafta, ^an^^ate 
hotoftte. The water has risen greatly, it 
reaches to the waist and to the neck. 

A6 1 Unaccustomed, raw, stupid, 
AebahaJ unpractised, untrained, un- 
inured, sensitive to touch. 

Cele nut aebahaya ; th^ri aguiii metaekaA khan, 
chipiye aguatSkan. What a stupid he is f If 
I tell him to bring a plate, be brings me a 

Aedari. Cf aidari. 

• • • 

Aedhon. Not full grown, as bullock, 
cow, &c., promising profit, in- 
creasing in value. 

Nui do aedhon mal kanae. This is property that 
will increase in value. 

Aedhor. A system of cultivation in 
which the cultivator supplies only 
the labour, and receives one third 
share of the produce. 

Aedhori. The person who cultivates 
on the aedhor system. 

Aege. An exclamationof surprise, fear, 
or pain. 

Aege I bejae ul joakana. O ! what a quantity 
of mangoes (on the tree.) 

Aege ! »'Ji atted riurena. Dear -me ! I have fall- 
en heavily. 

Aekom. Inefficient, inexperienced. 
Aelo gaelo. To keep out of the way, 
to hide, 

K»mi botorte aelo gaelo bayaeae. He hides here 
and there to avoid w(»>k. 

Aema. many. 

Aenom. Lamp black applied to the 

Aenom kajar. Box and aenom 
Kajraoti. Box for holding aen&m. 

Aesan. 1 To attempt (often with reitera- 
Aisan. {tion of verb.) 

On<Jeri sen sen aesankada. I repeatedly attemp- 
ted to go there. 

Get ce€ aesankadafi, bad ce€ dafeada. I repeat- 
edly tried to learn, but could not. 

Laga Ifi^ aesankadeail. I tried to drive him off. 


[ 5 ] 


Aet (ayat). Verse. 

Agai. To whine, as a whelp. 

Ae upai. Result, gain. 

TlnaKem ae ap«ie£kan, ona leka khorocme. 
Spend aoeording to your moome. 

Aga. To exaggerate, to magnify, to 
over colour. 

Alom agawaiia, bankhan tayomtell luhe^k^na. 
Bo not exaggerate to me, or else I shaU soold 
yon afterwards. 

Agad. To add to, change the size, 
increase the size. 

Sim^e agadkhan kn^ite po paromae. If he 
enlarges the bomidary, he will hoe across 
(the old line.) 

T&i>gftafirB^marah dog^geae ku^amkate. He will 
beat the axe out a little larger. 

Noa ohnri agad ocoeme. Make this knife higgler. 

Elhetko agiuLa. They will enlarge the field. 

t^^"^: ] Future. 

Agamgar. Given up for the nonce to 

feasting and merriment. 

Teheil dole agamg^rakana. We are given np for 
the nonce to feasting and merriment. 

Agardigar. To violate, set at naught, 

Tayom daram alope agar (^igartabona. Do not 
violate this (arrangement) in the future. 

Agar ogor. Fat and short, dumpy. 

Uni snkri agar ogore d^f a. 

Agast The month August. 


To delay, to put off, to tem- 
porise, to postpone, to de- 
fer, to dally, to be stub- 
born, to be obstinate. 

Alom agdhaoKa, calaokaie agu hodme. 
Don't (Uilly. go and bring it at once. 
Mahajon ^k^ko aghraoKa, bako emota. 
The mone^ lenders keep putting you off, they 
won't g^iTe. 

Ager. 1 One row of thatch round the 
Agre. j roof. 

Aofhak. To be satiated, to be satisfied. 
Aghjr. The eighth Hindu month, 

Aghan, November — December. 
Aghi. Interest in kind, generally paid 

in Aghan. Cf. Agh:lr. 

Hof o belelenkhan mof § p^ila ^ghi emaliam. 
When the dhan ripens you will g^ve me five 
pailas of dhan as interest. 

Aghomi. A pool of water, a deep pool 
at a bend in a river, or stream. 

Aghrao. Ct. agdhao. 

j^Lgil. To load heavily in front, heavy 
in the fore quarters. 

j^gil bh^kri sadom. A horse high in the withers. 

Aglagwa banduk. Gun fired by a fuse. 
Aglaha. A leader, one who goes before. 
Agni manda. Indigestion. 
-4gnisar. A variety of the rice plant. 
Agotar. Rent, or pay given in advance. 
Agra. Blighted, as an ear of dhan. 

Nui do hoir ren agfa kanae. He is the off- 
scouring of mankind. 

Hofo reaK agf a. Blighted dhan. 

Agre. Cf. ager, 

Agu. To bring, exact, charge, deprive. 

(very common in conjunction with other verbs, 

gniving idea of motion, up to a certain time or 

Pea takati agnkelkoa. I charged them three 

Jiwiko agukeftaea. They murdered him. ^ 
Manjhi nonka aguief tahSkanae. The manjhi 

used to act thus up to that time. 
Bal raKte ro^ agukedae. He came on crying 

and speaking. 

Aguadar. A forerunner, those who 
precede a marriage party to the 
bride s village. 

Agyo. A common plant, (Spidagathis 
cristata, Willd.) 

The ashes of the plant are applied to heal sores 
of the disease agyo. 

Agyo. A skin disease, generally appear- 
ing on the legs, at first like blis- 
ters, then becoming sores. 

Ah ^ 

Ahah Vlnterjection of pleasure. 


Aha. Alas. 

Aha. To bewitch by looking at one 
while eating, cast evil spell on, 
ahak'. to be bewitched. 

lA ahakedeall, bae hajama. I looked at him while 
eating, be will not digest his food. 

Ahan. To brenk a prolonged fast. 

Nete ut^rgeli ahahoKkana. 

A hap cahap. (Quickly, hurriedly. 

Henda ja, 9^i ahap oahapili lielefme do. 
Soho ! I see you'r in a hurry. 

Ahar. Dhan land made by damming 

up a water courae, a small pond, 
Aher. Prey ; to lie in wait for prey. 

Ahh uhh. Cry of pain. 

Jahgare ba*aoente a<liye ahh uhhkeda. 

Ahibahi. Busy, busy season. 

j^ bahi dinre pefa hofoK alope oalaHa. 
Do not go a visiting in the busy season. 



^il m^hil 

[ 6 1 


Ahil mahil. To delay, to put oflf time. 

^hirkuhirl To stare all round intently 
^LTitkurifi J looking for something, 

to fix the eyes upon, to stare one 

in the face. 

Cedat onka ^hirkuhir dom beiige^ae k&na ? Why 
do you stare so at him ! Unal ^hirkohir id 
beiige€keda, menek bail iiamleiea. I looked 
very intently bat did not find him. 

AhkaoK. To pant through thirst. 

^hl^ Emanation, presence, radiation, 

Hante ber ^hl^ lielolkana. An emanation 
from the inn appears over there^ i. e. son- 

Ihbtreaft^hl^ hoe agaie£te 44i rftbah kana. 
An emanation from the water, (or rain) 
being brought by the wind makes it very 

Sehgel ^hl^te ^i Ant iielolkana, sahgidte. 
Throngh the emanation from the fire (light) 
it appears very dark in the distance. 

Ale ato do bnru ^hl^te liut gfodoka. It g^ets 
rery soon dark in onr Tillage owing to the 
presence of the hills. 

Bum %hl^ i^te ape then do j4«ti ot lolokkana. 
Owing to the radiation from the hills the 
BoU witii yon gets hotter (than with us.) 

Bom ^kbl^te ^i reaf kana. The presence of 
the hiUs makes it rery oold. 

Hoedat jalapnri af e seo ^hl^ gi^ike^koa. The 
storm stranded them on the sea shore. 

^'hla. *) A small sheaf of grain, 

^^hla bin^a.) &c. 

Ahlun, Sad, low-spirited, weak from 

Ahnaolc, To go bad, of meat. ' 

Jel ahnaoena. The meat has gone bad. 

Ahra. An edible root. 

Ahra. A reservoir for collecting rain 

Ahri. A silk worm charm-doctor. 
Ahrom pahrom. Humedly, quickly. 
Ahum tahum.\To eat greedily, to eat 
Harum tarum j too fast. 

Ahup cahup (ahap cahap). hurriedly, 

to look round. 
Ahur tahur. To gobble. 

4idari. Inheritance, authority, posses- 

ITniak ^id^rire menaHkoa. They are nnder his 

Nnige ^t^id^riic do, delabon ^oj4^. 
This is the heir, come let ns kill him. 

4igu. An interjection of annoyance* 
used by women only. 

4ika. But, only, but certainly, with 
this proviso. 

4^k^ gegerae dina haralenkhan. Only it will 
bite, when it grows up, (though it does not 
bite now.) 

Ma sabeme, 9ik^ gegerae — only It wUl bite. 

j^ikau. To feel, to perceive, to be sen- 
sible o£ 

Cha( chate 9ik^aeda He feels very thirsty. 
AkilEtn leka htA j^k^nledea. I did not tak* 
him to be a wise man. 

j^imai A woman. 

Afnthao. 1 To twist tightly, bring pres- 
4^1 thau. ) sure to bear on. fish. 

Af s. A bad smell, as that of the scales of 
Alsamol. ^ Forbidden food, to a sick 
As amoL ) person, or dyspeptic. 
Aisan. C£ aesan. [ous. 

Aftaha. Bitter, acrid, surly, acrimoni- 

^it^u. To sift lice, &c. in a peculiar 
way with ha^lc. 

Gnm jokhed Eit^u todpe dhiri do. 

Xi\S.\i p&itilu. A game played by child- 
Aitha. Vessel one has eaten or drunk 

from, leavings of food, 
AHli^ii' C£ ainthao. 
Aja. Grand-father. 

Ajako pitako. 

Aja purkh^. Ancestors. 

Ajak. Cf. a6. 

AjaKkedae. He claimed it as his own. 

Ajak 1 To importune, to beseech, 

Ajalc aialc. J to beg hard, to clamour for. 

Uni kitab lagi€ ajaK ajagoK kanae. He impor* 
tunes for the book. 

Ajalc bujak. Irregular, without system, 

here and there. 
Ajan. Ignorant, without knowledge. 
Ajan. A powder applied to the eyelids 

for ophthalmia, &c. 
Aiante. By mistake. 
Ajar. Trouble, bother ; heavy. 
Ajare. To visit, go about gossipping. 

Maejiuko ajareako. i¥omen go about gossipping. 

Ajare senot . To go out for a chat with a neigh- 

Ajauri 1 Empty, unoccupied, unem- 
Ajwari J ployed. 

Bail aj^u^. I am not at leisure. 

Ajbaj. Cf ajbuj. 
^JJ^j^^jlnvolved. entangled. 

Noan^iriteli ajbajhaoena. lam entangled with 

this creeper. 
Kamireli aJMkjhaoakana. 


[ 7 ] 


jA'^ VTruthful, just. 

Ajbuj ) Unintelligent, ravelled, 
Ajbaj.J topsy-turvy. 

Ajbu] ko rofa. What they say is unintelligible. 

Ajgar. Improper, impertinent, insult- 

Uni do ^i ajgargeje rorofa sahao Uion h5 bah* 
regetaea. He speaks so impertinently as 

beyond endnranoe. 

^i ajgargem rof go€keda, alo se nonka dom 
rofa, rastete do bam rofaP 

Ajgar. Strait, pinch, burden, great,vast. 

'A^i ajgafred paraoena. I am in a great strait 
Ajgaf dare. A nnge tree. 

Ajgut. Used to express surprise at any 
thing, or any one, as unusual or 

Ajgut hor kanae, rabafi hS bae bataoa. He is a 
wonderful man, he does not heed the cold. 

Ajgut molij iieloi kanae. 1 bow beautiful she 

Ajgut rehS bae heoakana nit h5. Dear me, even 

now he has not oome. 
Ajgut bae he^lena. Itis strange he has not oome. 

Ajhal pajhall Ample, more than ^ en- 
XJjhal pajhalj ough, unlimited. 

U jhal pajhale }om oooke€koa. He gave them 
more than enough to eat. 

Ajhal pajhale dalkeda. It poured like a deluge. 

AjhSf. Violence, force; loudly, stren- 
uously, diligently, difficult. 

Jiwijakte ajha^olpe. Strire with might and 

Ajhnar. Wife's elder sisters. 
jjLJL Grand-mother. 
jJLjia. Sisters. 

Unkin do ^ji^^kin iahSkana. They were sisters. 

Ajib. True, just. 

Ajij. To entreat, to beseech, to implore. 

44i ajijoK kanae. He earnestly entreats. 

Ajim. Thy] 
Ajid. My \ Elder sister. 
Ajit. His J 

Ajlatia. Aimlessly, purposelessly, with- 
out any valid reason. 

Ajl^ti^ge non4em he<Jakana. You have come 
here without any ralid reason. 

Ajlot. Very many, very much. 

Ajlot ut%r hof ko jaoratena. Very many peo- 
ple assembled. 

Aimas. r''^^ examine, to test ; inured. 
Ajo. To teed another, put to his mouth. 

Aotegeye joma, alom ajoaea. 
Kulhure ^ko ajoeda. 

4jua. The Bishop's weed, Canim cop^ 
ticum, Benth. An annual umbel- 
liferous plant the seeds of which 
form an ingredient in the prepara- 
tion known as pan. 

Ajwari. Cf ajauri. 

Ai. Sugar cane, {Sacchamm ojffici' 
narum, Linn,) 

^. A figure, a numeral. 

AK. A bow. 

Atsar. Bow and arrows 
Lit^ at. Bainbow.. 

Aka. To hang, to suspend. 
Akabaka. Very quickly, rapidly. 
Aka baka\Distressed, restless from 
Ak bak j heat, perplexed. 
Akaj. Useless. 
Akal ^ 

Akal pakal. VFamine, dearth, scarcity, 
Akal sukal.j 

Nes do bae akala. There will be no soaroitj 
this year. 

Akalia. Greedy, fieimishing, glutton- 
ous, one who is always famishing 
let him eat ever so much. 

Akal pakal. Cf. akal. 

Akal sakal. Restless. 

Akal sakale ru^ftkana. His fever h^ so high "km 
cannot rest. 

Akal sukaL Cf. akal. 

Akaona. A shrub, Calotropis gigantea, 

Akar. Free, ex^npt, scot free, 

Akare af affeda. He g^iyes it free. 

Akar baha. A plant found in moist 
situations, LimnophUa Roxhwr-^ 
ghiana, (7. Don, 

Akardhak. Quickly, excessive, more 
than is right. 

Akaf dhakiA he^ena. I oame hurriedly. 
Akafdhakko bojhaaka€a. They hjw^e loaded 

too heavilr. 
CedaX nonkagftkaydhakpe-kamikimft? Why do yon^ 

work so hard? 

Akar kukar. Troubled in mind, &tigued 

in body. 
Akaf okor. Said oi a child tumbling 


Akaf okof barae kanaej nui gidrs do. The 
child tumbles about (in its ^orts to walk). 

AkasoK. Met. to bring to an end, to 

conclude, to go to heaven. 
Akat Dense, primeval. 

Akat bir. I>en8e forest. 


[ 8 ] 

Akut bakut 

Ak bak. Cf. aka baka. 
Akbakao. Confused, put out, troubled. 
Akel. Cf. akil. 

Akhaini. Hooked bamboo used as a 
pitch fork. 

Akh^inite hof oko hotaga. They turn over the 
dhan with a pitch fork. 

Akhaji. To contend, to bet, to agree 

to a forfeit, to vow. 
Akham dukham. Distressed, anxious, 

perplexed, through trouble or 

Akhar bakhar. At random, without 

thought. ' 

Akhaf baJchafe ro^reda. He speaks withoat 

Akhat. To dispute, to bear ill-will, to 
be at daggers drawn. 

Akhat bakhatTTo speak as one who is 

Bhasa bharra j delirious, or insane ; 
at random, carelessly. 

Akhir. Elnd, finally, in clauses to ex- 
press courage and independence. 

Ahkir dama. At last. 

Akhirge bah akhir. Happen what may. 

Akhirge bahe rahe6akadmge, menkhan in dale* 

gea. He has actually abused me, but I will 

beat him yet. 

Akhor. A letter of the alphabet. 

Saheb rof reak akhorko. The English alphabet. 

Akhor. A verse of a song ; a short song. 

Mi6 akhor serel^me. Sing a stansa. 

Akhra (akhor). One of a course, a 
dancing stance ; the place where 
an ojha sit^ with his pupils. 

Bar akhfako eneakeda. They danced two 

Akhf ako laga, ar on^e pak donko ceda. Ther 
' wiU smootii the akhra^ and there they will 

learn the war dance. 

Akhriti. G£ akrid. 

Akhrot. The walnut, fruit of Juglana 

regidy Linn. 
jlkil. Wisdom, wise. 

Akilam kana/i . I am making you wise (teaching 
you wisdom.) 

Akin. They two, they themselves. 

Akinren, akinat, akin real, akin rean. Theirs, 

Khub aKJak silpid do sidkam, pase kombiroko 

bolo jahanok. Shut the door securely, 
perhaps thieves may enter. 

Aklaha. Greedy, gluttonous. 

Ako. They, they themselves. 

Akoren, akoak, akoreaS, akoreah. Theirs, their. 

Akoakoak ofalteko oalaoenge. They went to 
their several homes. 

Akoda. Undisturbed, as soil 

Ako(]la hasa. Virgin soil. 

Okod / J^competent, memcient. 

Ako kathae. As they themselves say, 

or think. 
Akorma. Dunce, blockhead ; worthless. 

Akorma kat. Worthless timber. 

Akot 1 To obstruct, to hinder, to im- 
Atkao j- pede, to delay, to prevent, to 
Atok J stop. 

Akot akotteye nijulkana. He is often being 

stepped on his way. 
Kami akotlenkhan bud todok'a. Necessity is 

the mother of inyention. 

Akrid. To sell, to dispose of. 

Aksak \I11 at ease, uncomfortable, 

Aksakao / flustered. 

Bu% ehobot jokhen aksakili bnjh^neda. I feel 
ill at ease when fever is beginning. 

Aksakao is employed to describe the feeling at 
the beginning of an attack of fever, and 
akal sakal when the fever is at its height. 

4Jtta akti. To persist, to insist, to be 

j^ktau. To be in a hurry, to be im- 
patient, to fret. 

Calak lagi£e aktaukkana. He is impatient to 

Aktobor. The English month October^ 
Akul bakul. Confounded, perplexed, 

confused, distressed. 
Akul bakul. An uneasy feeling in the 

stomach, generally followed by 

vomiting. (Scottice, rumvXgump- 


Lao aktd bakulokkana. An uneasy feeling in 
the stomach. 

Akulan^ Insufficient, inadequate, not 
OkulanV fully provided with, incom- 
J plete. 

Noa boohor do jomakteko akulangrea. ^ They 
have an insufficient supply of food this year. 

Akut. \ To be in a hurry, to be 

Akut jahut J impatient ; urgency. 

Alope harepharea, ce£ akut? Do not hurry, 

where is the urgency. 
Jom la^i£ akutolkanae. He is impatient to 

begm to eat. 

Akut bakut 

Winding to avoid obstruc- 
tions, crooked, disor- 

Akut bakut hor. A winding path. 

Akiit bir 

[ 9 ] 


Akut bir. Dense, primeval forest. 
Akut jahut. Cf. akut. 

Ala.\To half roast peas &c. before re- 

Ata./ moving the husk to make dal. 

Ata is to fully roast ^rain for food. 

Alakatoko d^. They roast the peas, and then 

make dal. 
Atta ofaoo. Tlie earthen vesael in which grain 

is roasted over the fire. 

Ala ali. Tired, wearied, run down men- 
tally and physically. • 

Alacar. Helpless. 
A lad 0I06. Stupid. 

Alae. To give up, to hand over, to 

Aotegre jiwiye alaeke£taea. He gaye np his life. 
Sanamale alaeadiila. He eutrostod all to my 

Alae phulae.\To meddle, to trifle, to 
Iri6 ciki6. j fritter away time, to 
dilly dally. 

Alae plralaete din do alom khemaoa. menek siil 
satup^ kiuni johme. Bo not fritter away 
your tmie, but work the whole day. 

Alag. Friendless, separated. 

Alag nt^enae. He is altogether friendless. 

Alag balag. Straggling, wide apart, 

Ma£ do alag balag darela. The bamboo grows 

with straggling branches. 
Phalb%|i%ro aJag balag baha menalta. There 

are many kinds of flowers in the erarden. 

Alagjari. Two parasitic plants have 
this name, Cwscuta chinensis, 
Lamk., and Cassytha fiZiformis, 

Alajhala. Distress, agony. 

Alak balak. At random, aimlessly. 

Alak balake dafa bafa johkana. He wanders 
aimlessly abont. 

Alak chotak. Half and half, imperfect- 
ly, to leave out part. 

Alak chotak kathae metadilia. He did not give 
me a full aocoont. 

Alak didi Purposeless, without aim, 

Alak jhalak. Conceited, dandified, put- 
ting on airs to attract the notice of 
the other sex, lascivious, lecherous. 

Alam galam. \ Indistinctly, to catch a 

Galam galam. J glimpse of, at random, 

without (Uscrimination; to mumble. 

Alam galam llntili oalaoena. I went as night 

Alan. We two, you and I, including 
person addressed. Used in threats 
although only one pei-son speaks. 

For enrions use of dnal see aben. 
Nelmealah. I shall see yon, (make you pay for 

Alan. The tongue. 

Alan obor. Tongue tied, dumb. 

Alan pholan \ Aimlessly, without valid 
Alan poleli j- reason, to wander about 
Olon pholon j aimlessly. 

Alah pholah bafaekanae. He goes wandering 
aimlessly about. 

Alan potak. An unhealthy condition of 
the tongue, raw, fissured, or furred. 

Alao. \To give in, to be beaten, to 
Ala ali f have enough, to be wearied, 
to be tired. 

Jom jomteii alaoena. I am tired eating, (have 

had Buffioiont.) 
Iliill alaokedea. I wearied him out. 

AlS^ndha. Cf al^undha. 

Alap alap. \To be &tigued, to be ex- 
Alaji halap. j hausted, to be worn out, 

Setohre dairan daf anted alap ala|> ut^rena. 

I am completely exhausted by walking in the sun. 

Alarok. To wish to be fondled, or petted. 

Gidr^ alarol^kanae. The child wishes to be 

Alski bakafj Bewildered, confused, silly, 
Ala< olol /dull witted. 

Ala£ olo6e behge£ ba f aea . He looks bewildered. 
Uni kofa doe ala6 olo{gea. That lad is dull 

Alatoka. Poor, to become reduced in 

Alatokalenae, bae dafelena. He had become 
poor, and was unable to do it, (meet some 

Alaundha. The sensation of intense 
darkness after leaving a lamp, &c. 
till the eyes become accustomed 
to the change. 

Diuhe if iMenkhan al^undh^Kalaii. If the lamp 
goes out we will be in utter darkness. 

Albakaha. Dull-witted, stupid, unin- 
telligent, inept, raw, unaccustomed, 

lii doli albakahagea, onate okate h5 sahgi/ite 
dafan do bad oalala. I am not inured, 
therefore I do not walk far. 

Albat salbat 

[ 10 ] 


Albat salbat Contradictory, confused. 

Alba^ salbatili kukmuleda. I had a oonfused 

Albudaha. Senseless, puerile, simple, 

Aldhundha. Awkward, incompetent, 

stupid, blundering. 

Nni hof do aldhnndh^geae, ce€ hS bae kami 
dafeala. This man ia stapid, he can do 

Aldhom.'iTo suppress the truth, tell 
Aldom. /only half. 

Ale. We, they and I, excluding the 
person addressed. 

Ale ren, aleaR, ale reaft, ale reaii. Ours, our. 
Aleio. Our one (animate). 

ll:t}To -old. 

Khnb lekse alet^kedilia . He scolded me severely 

Ale6 tase6.\Spilling, scattering; to was- 
Ase<5 tased./ te through having too 

much, superabundance, more than 

can be taken care of. 

Ase6 taseoe daKkeda. It rained «o as to flood 

the country 
Ased tase^ cas hoeSntaea. He has a larger 

crop than be can look after, (it will spoil 

before be can gather it all in.) 

Alekha. Without number, that cannot 

be numbered. 
Alel C£ alei. 

Alga. 1 Easy, simple, soft, loose. 

Alga saiga. J light. 

Algate. Easily. 

Alga. \To assist, to make lighter for 
Algao. /another, to raise, to think 
lightly of. 

Algaoatime. Assist me, i. e. make it lighter 

for me. 
Isor alope algaoea. Do not trifle with Gk>d. 
Bhan^ar algao. Prolapsus ani. 

Alga saiga. Cf alga. 

Algasi. Contemptuously, disrespect- 
fully, superfluous. 

Tu^ firidr^ alg^ikateko rofekana. 

Tfaey speak contemptuously to the orphan child. 

Algel. Strange, alien, exceeding the 
estimate, unexpected, not of the 
family, company, &c., disinterested. 

Noa kathi do algel hof thenbo kuli bujh^u joiia. 

We will consult some disinterested person 

on this matter, 
Ehible dakale6rehS bale antaolena, ente ^her 

algel hofko heilena. Although we cooked 

a large quantity of rice, it did cot suffice as 

many unexpected guests came. 

41hua. Ignorant, stupid, blundering, 

-^lid. We two, he and I, excluding the 

person addressed. 
Alkatra sunum. Woodtar, coaltiur. 

^Ikau. To bother, to annoy, to disturb. 

Cedaft ghane gbanem ^k^uedi/ia? Why do yoa 
keep bothering me erery minute. 

^Imal. Confused, at a loss to know 
wh^t to do, without order, uncer- 
tain, from all directions. 

Alm%le hoeeda. It blows from all directions. 
Ku^tele alm^lena. Our household is in disor- 
der through ferer. 

Aln5. InsuflSciently salted, idle, spirit- 

Alo, (alo alo, aloge, alote€, alo bare.) 
Not, in prohibitions, final clauses, 
and unfulfilled conditions. 

Hijukte aloli galmaraoakokhan k%i oho tahe- 
lentakoa. If I had not come and sp«ken unto 
them they had not had sin. 

Alo a£lenkhan. If only it is not lost. 

AI06 paloi. Wearied, worn out, exhaus- 

Alok bakolc. To speak as an insane 
pei-son, to gabble. 

Alpalua. (1). Phaaeolus aconitifoliuB, 
Jacq,y a garden crop sown along 
with cotton. (2) Slightly. 

(2) Togod alp^lu^kateko nda jel do, bail \%\M 
i%te. They slightly masticate the me^t, 
and then bolt it, because it ia tough. 

Alpin. (pin.) Hairpin. 

Also. To leave, finish. Used only in 
combination with other verba 

AmaK it^ alsele jomtama. We wiU eat your 

leavings (of food.) 
Ape dope (uao alsekedida. You have left all the 

burden to me. 
Bhagete ruhef idsekedi^iae. He orercame me 

by scolding. 


Alua basua. 

Dunce, ignoramus, sim- 
pleton, greenhorn, ; stu- 
pid, blundering. 
41ua b%8uageae. He is a dunce. 

Am. Thou. 

Amren, amai, amreat, amab. Thine. 


Amla. j- Authority, office, title. 


Ape joto hor amlape liawana, alili oka amla h5 
bam emafc'Iilla. You have all received ofiBces, 
but you have not given us any office what- 



[ 11 ] 


Amanot. To deposit money in court, to 
give in trust, to set aside fqr future 
use ; existent, unspent, unused. 

Khajna dole amanotakada. We have deposi- 
ted onr rent in oonrt. 

Amanotgea, bari khorocaka£a. It is still lying 
past, I have not spent it. 

Amar. C£ tuar. 

Amar omor. Diligently, attempting 

again and again, as a child trying 

to walk. , 

4^iye obntf oakana, amaf omof . 

Amba. A veiled name for feet, used at 
marriages and other ceremonies. 

H5f§ moka amba ba^baoena. Onr feet have 
grown five cubits. 

Ambabasia, C£ amba& 

Ambaitar bid, A large poisonous snake. 

AmbaU omboK, To go hither and thi- 
ther aimlessly, to go from one side 
to another. 

Jel ambak ombokko liir bafaekana, sendra bor 
botorte. Tbe deer are running bitber and 
ttkither througb fear of tbe hunters. 

Ambaro. \The Roselle plant (Hibiscus 
Bambaro. j Sahdarifa, Linn.) 

Ambar ombor. \To take up anything 
Amar omor. / Ijring about, as a child 
does, to busy about ; diligently. 

Amaf omof bafaeddae tula mente. 

Ambaa The conjunction of the sun and 
moon, the first day of the first quar- 
ter on which the moon is invisible, 
the last day of the dark fortnight. 

Ambas iiind^. The night on whioh there is 
no moon. 

Amber. A tree so called. 
Amda "> To be in possession, to have 
Amdani J right, title, claim to; posses- 
sion, property ; within one s own 

TinaX habic amda menaktaea? How much does 
he lay claim to ? 

Amdani J^^'^ ^^7* very much, much. 

Amda saset otreti bhulij^uef kan do. I suffer 

much in this world. 
Amd^niye jomkeda. He ate very much . 

Amdaj. To guess, to conjecture, to 
make a rough calculation ; meas- 
ure, degree ; approximately. 

Amdajte. By guess, approximately. 
AmdajaX khonb^ftiye jomkeda. He ate beyond 

A^dajaka^aii. I have made a guess. 

Amdani C£ amda. 

Amela. Abundant, unlimited, great in 
quantity, or number. 

Sedaere do cor5( amela tah^antalea. In the 
olden time we had abundant pasture for 
our cattle. 

Amet 1 To betray trust, to retain what 
Hamef J has been given for distribu- 
tion to others. 

Sanam bofal kana, oedatem ameta? It belongs 
to aU, why do you retain it? 

Amid. Separately, one by one, from 
all sides. 

Amiliko d^kfkeda. They fled In all directions. 

Amid. To sift, to separate. 

Gum amili. To sift with thehatat (q. y.) 

Amin. A land surveyor, or measurer. 

Amin. Amen, so let it be. 

Amka. M. *> The veiled name by which 
^.mki. F. J a child is referred to 

in the Chatiar (cleansing after 

child-birth) ceremony. 

Amla. The writers in the court of a 
magistrate, or the office (kachahari) 
of a zemindar. Cf amali. 

Amla mosodi. The writers and messengers. 
These latter (mosodi) carry messages bet- 
ween the zemindar in his priyato office 

and the writers in the outer 


Amla kapla. The writers, piadas, and other 
hangers-on at a zemindar s kachahari. 

Amol. (1) Time. (2) Acidity of stomach, 
dyspepsia, to eructate through a- 
cidity of stomach. (3) Possession. 

^s amol. Forbidden food, unclean food. 

(1) Car baia amolre. At four o' clock. 

(2) Amolakanae. He is suffering from acid- 

ity of stomach. 

(3) Pe senna khon iii amolaka^a. I have been 

in possession three years. 

^3 amol bako joma bbog^ot hoj do. Persona 
who aspire to sanotily do not eat forbidden 
(or unclean) food, (flesh or fish.) 

Amot Hard hearted, thick skinned, 
unwieldy, corpulent, sluggish. 

Amo( hof kanae, He is a corpulent person. 

Ampa ompo. Humedly, fussily, excit- 

Amra. The Hog plum, Spondias man- 
gifera, Pers. 

Amrud\The guava, Psidimn Guyava. 
Amrut J Raddi, 


[ 12 ] 

AndaK tawaU 

Amsam. (1) A crystal. (2) Chronic 

The Ameam orystala are of three colonrs, clear, 
reidish. and greenish, •'The ftrat is g:iYen 
for sal (q. y.) the fieoond for amsam 
(q. T.,) and the third when the patient's 
ev loaations resemble the colour of the stone. 

The method of administering the Amsam is to 
rub it on a stone in water. The water, 
which contains small particles of the crys- 
til, is then drunk by the patient, and what 
remains of the crystal after havixig been 
rubbed on the stone is tied round his waist 
• by a string. 

Amsi. A method of preserving unripe 
mangoes by drying in the sun. 

Amsophori ") The bullock's heart fruity 
Saphriam. J Anona reticulata, L. 

Amtha. A method of preserving man- 
goes, malhan, (q. v.) and ramfa 
(q. v.). 

An. A law, an enactment. 

An ^ri. Laws and ceremonies. 
An t^riente. Being under the law. 

An. An affix indicating possession. 

Apatan. Haying a father. 

Tarwairean hof . A man having a sword. 

A^ saranko. Those having bows and arrows, 
^awanko. Those who have found. 

An. A pi'ivative prefix equivalent to 
the Enelish in, and un. 

An-cin. An-hoe. 

An 1 

Anaj f-Qrain, wheat, rice, -fee,. 

On j 

OnjoloK. To partake of food. 

Noi dlsomre on a^i menaSgea. There is much 
grain in this country, 

Ana. An anna, the sixteenth of a rupee. 

Ana is used to denote l-16th, thus a man who 

has a l-4th shore in anything is said to 

have a 4 anna share, and so on. 
Solo ana. 20 shillings to the pound. aU, the whole. 
Ato ren solo anako jaoralena. All the villagers 


Anacur. Winding, tortuous, round a- 

bout. From acur (q. v.) 

k. This is 

a very wm- 

Noa hor do odi anacurgrea 
ding path. 

Ana gona. Coming and going. . 
Anaj. Cf an. 

Teheli ut^rili anajolkana. This is the first day 
after a long time that I have had a meal of 

Anak. ") A bamboo suspended horizon- 

Anaka. j tally on which clothes are 

hung when not* in use. From aka 

(q V.) 

Anakup. Confiised, mixed up, involved, 

Anaphana. 1 n> 

Anak phanak. ) ^<*' *^PP^'' ™*'°^y- 

Tor ftoal onolgeae. The squirrel ia striped. 

Ananaa "I The pme appla {AnaTUxssa 
Anaras. J saliva, Lvan,) 

Anar. The pomegranate, Punica Ora- 
natum, Linn. 

Anaras. C£ ananas. 

Anargo. A descent, a declivity, an 
incline. From ftrgo (q. v.) 

Anari. Strange, unknown, new,inex. 
perienced, raw. 

4&9-rige^ lieUedea. I saw that he was a stranger. 
An^ri hof. A stranger. 

Anas. Cf. smsa. 

A tl 1 i Unconscious, stupified. 

Hudis hudiste ^thulenae. He ia stupified by 

Anbid. Immeasurable, very many. 

Teheli do ^nbid horko he<&ena. Very many people 
have come to^y. 

Aticar. Edge of cloth breadth-wise, 
opp. to mace, edge of cloth length- 

P^fl^k. Coloured border running leng^-wise. 
Sohor, that running breadth-wise. 

Anchal. Cf aticar. 

Ancin. Unknown, strange, new. 

Ancot Suddenly, unannounced. 

Anoote he^ go£ena. He appeared suddenly. 

Andak. A method of cooking by roast- 

Matkom (q. v.) and rioe are sometimes prepared 
in this way. To prepare matitom it is first 
well washed in water, and then roasted in 
an earthen vessel. The water in which it 
was washed is boiled down till of the consis- 
tence of gur. The roasted ma^om is mixed 
with this sugary residuum, and then eaten. 

Andak. Without reason, or cause. 
Andakal. Loudly, noisily, strongly. 

Andakalko raffkeda. They wept loudly. 
Andakal so kana. It smells steongly. 

AndaU tawaK. Troubled, hopeless, ex- 
cited ; seriously, quickly, hurriedly. 

Ehgattef ilel aCkedeto gidr^^ do andalc ta^i^S 
baraekanae. The oluld is troubled bc^canse 
it has lost sight of its mother. 

Anda uianda 

[ 13 ] 


Anda man<}a. To go about aimlessly, 
to wander about, to be confused, 
to be perplexed. 

An^miui^ bafaekanae. He wanders about 
without any thing to do. 

Andakul. 1 Loud,noisy,uproarious,deaf- 
Andkul J ening. 

Andakole raleda. He weeps loudly. 

Andap. Without reason, or cause. 

Anda^tageye raSeda. He ones before he is hurt. 

Andar on<)or. To stare with wide open 
eyes, as in convulsions, to stare 

B^itean^ar on^ore beiiffeMkana. ffia stare 
is fixed by reason of uie oonmlsion. 

Andare pandaf e. At random, any where 
out of doors, about the door out- 
side, in the court-yard, scattered 

Andare pandayegi^ikatwe. Throw it away any 

Hof ma ndg^r din do andafe panda reko giti<^kota . 
People sleep out of doors in the hot weather. 

Angela. Rich, wealthy, great. 

Ona atore mi£ go^ a^ marah an^ela Deko 
menaea. In that village there is a very 
wealthy Hindn. 

Andel mangel. \ In large numbers, fil- 
An^er manner./ ling a large space, 
very many. 

Hor anger manjlerko jaoraakana. The people 
are assembled in large numbers. 

Ande sala To be distressed, anxious, 
solicitous, astonished. 

Bin lilted senlena, 9^i^ ande saleke£pea. By 
leaving withont informing yon, I caused 
yon to be anxious. 

Andge. Testicle. 

Andha. To deceive, to gull, to be mis- 
taken, to blunder ; by mistake, 
through ignorance. 

Ill doii andhalena. I was mistaken. 

Ta(ok do lioiielkoat me€ko andhae€takoa. The 
conjurers deceive the ^es of the spec- 

Andha potam. The blind-folded decoy dove. 

Andha dhimd. Exceedingly, immoder- 
ately, furiously, severely, with all 
one's force. This word possesses 
intensifying force. 

Andha dhonde duicedea. He beat him severely. 
Cet bah se, nni hof do andha dhnnde daf idike- 

da. That man ran away with' all his 

Andha dhnnde hoed6kana. It is blowing a^gale. 

Andhakul. Cf andkul. 

Andhar. Darkness. 

M^ci andharena. Night has fallen. 

Andhar^and. 1 t> • it, 

Andhftr|ar )P«"°«*l ''^'^- 

Andharia bata. Bamboos tied one 
above and one below the rafters, 
along the middle of the sloping 
side of the roof 

Andhe mandha 
Andhe muddhe. 

At random, anyhow, 
without caring for the 

Andhe mnndhe^e dalkedea. He etmok him 
without oarmg where the blows feU. 

Andhe pathauii. Unintelligible, mixed, 
confused, at random, carelessly, 

Andhe path%n|iye rofeda. He si>eakB at ran- 

Andhe path^nfiye dalkedea. He stmok him not 
oanng were the blows fell. 

Andher. Unjustly, wrongfully, ille- 
gally ; to do injustice. 

Andhergeko bio^rkeda. They decided unjustly. 

Andhe£ dundhel ' Imperfect vision ; to 
see imperfectly, half-blind, able to 
see in the day but not in the 
night, night-blind. 

Andhet dundhe£gem /^etielte bam parhao dafe* 
ala, se cetaP Is it because you do not see 
well that you cannot read, or what is it? 

4Lndhi caindhi. To be flustered, flur- 
ried, excited, overwhelmed ; hur- 
riedly, quickly. 

Buhd! ^n(Uii c^ndhikediiiae. He flurried me 
by scolding. 

Calal jokhe J ^dhi c^ndhilenae. He was flur- 
ried at the time of leaving. 

4Lndhi daU. A storm of wind and raiuv 
4n dhidrik. Lawless, unsubmissive to 
law, or custom, not recognisiug 
law or custom as binding. 

Andhkup. To incommode, to incon- 

Andhra. M.^ Blind. Employed only mc- 
^ndhri. F. V taphorically when scol- 
J ding, &c. 

^dhug. (rat-kana.) Night-blind, half- 
blind, nearly blind. 

Nui hor do kara hof doe bah kana, «.ndhu% hof 
kanae. This is not a blind man, he is 

^indhup. Bewildered, confused, flus- 
tered, distressed in mind. 


C 14 ] 

Angap angap 

^n4ia. Male, of animals, birds, and 
trees. Met. rich. 

^<]li maran ^n'jli^ kanae, He is very rioh. 

4>ndia dhurup aralc. A wild pot-herb, 
Leiica8 cephalotes, Spreng. 

^<jli^ To deceive, to lead astray, to 
dupe, to victimize. 

Uni hof doe ^n^iokediiia. That man deceived 

^Jwjir kun^ir. To stare, to gaze in- 
tently. * 

Cele ooe lielakadete nonka ^n4ir kun^ir doe 
beii^^aekambP What has he seen to make 
him stare so at itP 

Andka andki A strong smell, either 
pleasant, or unpleasant. 

Andka andki. To make a noise, to create 
a disturbance, make a row, a din. 

Afisgeko andka ^ndkie£kana. They are making 
a distressing din. 

Andkao. To be permeated, to be full 
of, to be scented. 

€k>taorat ba^i^ sote andkaoena. The whole 
honse is permeated with a loathsome smeU, 

Andkul. C£ andakul. 

Andkul. \Tobecome a tiger, or 

Andkul ban^kul. /leopard. 

The Santals beliere that certain human beings 
possess the power of becoming tigers at will. 

Andmand. "j To be perplexed, tobe con- 
Andmandao. Vfused, to be at a loss, to 

J be at one's wits* end 
. through the multiplicity of things 
requiring to be attended to. 
Andor ondor. Ct. andar ondor. 

• • • • 

Andor. To make a noise, an uproar, 
a tumult, a row, a disturbance. 

Tehe/i do mi£ liind% doh enet^teko andofkeda. 
Thej kept up a distnrbanoe daring the whole of 
last night by dancing the Dong dance. 

Andra. Not effectually castrated. 

An4ra6 ondro6. The noise made by a 
buffalo when excited ; also that 
made by the bird known to the 
Santals as artagovi. 

Anorak. Hydrocele, or tumour of tes- 

Androk san^rolc. Hither and thither, 
here and there, every where. 

An^rol san^rote dirbafaekana. He is ronning 
hither and thither. 

An4u. In original state or condition, 

Annate ^ki<S rohoekeda, begor jawate. 
Annate hofoii aphorkeda, bin loho€te. 

An4ntell benaolata^ arEr. I made the yoke 
from a whole piece of wood (Mritiiont split- 
ting it.) 

An^n kat. Sapwood, as opposed to maiSj kat 

AnduU candulc. Disconsolate, forlorn, 
gloomy, sad. 

Anduk manduk. To be perplexed, con- 
fused, bewildered. 

An4un. To plead an excuse, to exten- 
uate, to palliate, to vindicate one- 

Nni doe an^nfakeda, m^lkanali mente. He 
excused himself by saying he has fever. 

Anijiur mandur. To stand idling about, 

to loa£ 
Anijur pan^ur. To stand idling about, 

to loaf. 

An(Jwar. Udder. 

Dndh^kri. A cow with a large adder. 
Camt%hi. „ „ smaU. „ 

Anedx». Injustice, unjust. 

Ane6. An intensive particle, unless, 
not until. 

HS baba, noa do l^pfilen oepeClen ane6bo bapa- 
4aea. Yes sir, not nntu we speak and hear 
can we know (about each other.) 

Ane6 dhanei. Exceedingly, abounding, 
a wealth of, rich, wealthy. 

Onko ane^ dhaneo jomaft menaKtakoa. They 
possess a wealth of food. 

An. Understanding, mind, strength. 

Ahlagaokate kamipe. Apply yonr mind to your 

Ahga. Dawn. 

Behge£ aiiTakedad. I kept awake tiU morning. 
Ahga h^til^enae. He has seen the day dawn 
(did not die daring the night.) 

Ahga hatiiilen n^hl iti calala. I mast first see 
tiie morning, and then I wiU go. (I mast sar- 
yive the night before I can go.) 

Hopno do bl ahgaetape, non^e. Pass the night 

Anga. A long quilted coat, having 
points instead of buttons. 

Anga angi. Each his own, what be- 
longs to each. 

Ahga ^giko hataokeda. Each took his own. 

Angap. Cf. ango]^. 

Angap angapl At the point of death ; 
Letej^ letep. J to gasp as when dying. 


[ 15 ] 


Angao. To keep for a purpose, to set 
aside for a cei-tain use, to design, 

Nai merom id angaoakadea. I haye set thia 
fi^oat aside for a certain porpose. 

Angari. A disease which affects the 
Tassar silk worm ; also applied to 
human beings when the colour 
darkens through disease. 

Ange. \To take, to keep a portion 
4^Qge£. J for one selt 

SanamaKpe sihge oabaeda, iA do sao mahajon 
cefteli halakoa? Tou are taking all, with 
what shaU I repay the money lender? 

Angen^ To disappear, to be spirited 
'away by water sprites. 

l^pa pokhrireye aiigenena. He was spirited 
away while in tlus tank. 

Ange£. C£ anga 

jjingikar. To a^ee, to accept, to take 

Aiigikarakadam, ^ign hoyoltama. Yon took 
the responsibility, so yon must- bring it. 

jjtngir. To elope. 

^gra. A male who has eloped. 

Ahgri. A female „ . 

Angrn^ ^grienakin. They are a pair who have 

Angirakadeae. He ran away with her (eloped.) 

Angoc To admit, confess, acknowledge, 
give assent to. 

m h9 nnili ahgoceaifi ren sermare menae apud 
samahre. I idso will confess him belore 
my father who is in heaven. 

Angom. Generally, at random, roughly 
speaking ; to call to a person whose 
name you know, but may have for- 
got, as if he were a stranger. 

Aiigomge mhe€ef kanae. She scolds without 
naming any one. 

Bir birte ahgomgeli he^kana. I oame at ran- 
dom through the jungle. 

Angop. To yawn. 

To€ go(ena ahgop. A yawn escaped me. 

Angot bahgotl Anyhow, aimlessly, 
Angot pangot (carelessly, at random. 

Aftgot bfl&gote rof eda. He speaks at random. 

Anra/ I ^ '^^® ^^' embers. 
An^L i" ^^^> service, utility. 

Noi hof do bae k^mia, eken jom ahrageae. 
This man does not work, eating is aU ne is good 

Ce6 ahra ren hSm bah kana. You are of no use 

Ce£ hd bae ahgraea ku|phi^ mara hof. 

Angra. M.^l 

^ngri. F. I Flirtation, gallantry, coquet- 

Jhalka. M. | ry. 

Jhalki. F. I 

Mgraadgri. Cf, angir. 

AngrajL The English language. 

Anrau. To undertake, to contract, to 
accept, to profess. 

Cakem ahr^^oakawana, bam k^mi dafeal khan f 
If yon can't do the work, why did you under* 
take it? 

Angrcj. The English p^ple. 
Angrop. A jacket with long sleeves. 
Angur. A vine, a grape. 
Angur birhi. A insect found in tanks. 

Anffur birhi. 1 * , ..| 

A • V. \iu- t A whitlow. 
Angur budhi.j 

Angwar. A method of cultivation 
in which a man who has no bul> 
locks ploughs two days for another 
in return for the loan of his bul- 
locks for one day. 

^^''^ I Lazy. slothfuL 
Asancua J -^ 

Anhos. Unconscioua 



Anht&(ha.j opposmg. 

AnhQ.the calaKkana. He takes his own way in 
spite of all. 

Cef bah ^ah^tha dom rote^kanaP S%rige iiS do 
nuitS lielakadea. Why do you still say the 
opposite P I certainly have seen h£n. 

^Lni. Cf. hani. 

.^nijoli. To wish for, to desire, to be 
attracted to, to attract. 

Am l^ite ^nijotkana. He wishes to attract 

Anja. Grain. 

Anjan. An ointment applied to the 

eyelashes with a view to blacken 

and improve them. 

Adjel To dry up, to run dry, to die. 

]>ak aiije^na, noa ga^are. The water in this 

river is dried ma. 
Uniye alijef ena. His spark of life is quenched. 

Adjhlun. Forlorn, dejected, depressed, 

.^jir. The pear shaped guava. {Psi- 

diura Ghiyava, MaddL, Far. py* 

riferum Linn,) 

Independent, self-willed^ 
opinionative, to persist ia 


[ 16 ] 



Anjir. A fig, Ficus carica, 

Anjle. To join the hands together so 

as to receive and retain something ; 

as much as can be held by putting 

the hands together. Scottice, gou- 


Babar anilele emakoa. We wiU give them two 

handfnla each. 
Ma Be anjleme, tabeniii emama. Come, put your 

hands togetiier, andTU give 70a parched 


Adjom. To hear, to give heed to, to 

Ape alijomre. In your hearing. 

Aii jom hapekadae. He listened in silence. 

Pherem adjomadilia. You told me of many 

At\]om mstaeme. Listen attentively. 

Adjom gclore. To answer when an- 
other is called. 

Adjom gaof eenaii, balS adjom ^hildeda. ^ I an- 
swered when I was not called, I did not 
hear distinctly. 

A nkarwa.l Unable to control,or restrain 
Ankaura. J the temper, passionate, short 

tempered, irascible ; to give way to 

temper, &c. 

Ankarwaenae. He got angry (gave way to his 

Ankarwate edreenae. 

Ankatha anbetha.\ Misleading, unintel- 
Ankotha anbetha./ ligible, inaccurate, 

Ankatha anbethalon rof a. They wiU speak 

Ankha ankhL 1 Overcome, faint, dis- 
Jaljalaok. J tressed, impatient, dis- 
turbed in mind. 

lA do dal tetahteli ahkha ^khiena. I am dis- 
tressed through thirst. 

Ankher. To play truant, to absent 
oneself, to be out of sight. Of adger. 

Okate bae sen ahkherakana. Where can he have 
gone to out of sight. 

Ank oraK. ^ Marks cut in wood to mark 
Ak oraU. J time, the notches represen- 
ting weights on a balance. 

Ankotha anbetha. C£ ankatha an- 

Ankur. To germinate, to sprout. 

Aiikus. A hook, an elephant goad ; to 
be willing, to agree to, to be per- 
suaded, to consent. 

' Bam afakusoka ? WiU you not be persuaded P 
Hathi adi dayean kanrehSe, enren5e ahkusoka. 
Althougn the elephant is very powerful he can 

be persuaded (by the application of the 


Ankut bankut Zigzag, various. Cf. 
akut bakut 

• « ■ 

Amnan. Guess, inference, appraise- 
ment, measure, estimation ; taking 
careiiil notice. 

Anman behgetaXme, pese jahan khaii4& hoe- 
kange. Measure it with ^our eye, perhaps 
it will make some asefal implement. 

OpaX du^r anman behge^atakope. Take a 

careful survey of their belongings. 
Nui hof anman Deko lekae llelolrkiuia. To aU 

appearances (taking a good look at him) he 

resembles a Hindu. 
Anmane AeHelkana. He is having a good look 

(taking it aU in.) 

Anman. \ Temporarily, for the pres- 
Anmanao. J ent, meanwhile; to pause 
to forget, (used with verbs imply- 
ing diversion, solace, refreshmtot, 

DaXili lin hataya anmaa reiige6edi/ikana. I 

wUl drink water in the meantime as I am 

Terel tarop jomte anman menaegea. He is 

pacified for the time being by eating terel 

and taro{>. 
Taben emaemo, in^tege anmanao hatafoKae. 

Give him some paroned rioe, that will oooupy 

his attention for the present. 

Anola ") A 1 • 
^nolL jAxlepm. 

Ansa. \ To make a noise, create a 
Ansa ansi. Y disturbance; to worry, trou- 
Ansao. J ble, annoy. 

Nui gridr^ ma asokaete iSindfgeye ansaoa, thirge 
bae thiroka. This child creates a disturbance 
particularly at night, he will not keep quiet. 

K^kmi k^miteii ansaena. I am worried with 

Antaa To suffice, to be sufficient. 

Noa dakate okoe h5 ohoko an^aolena. This food 

wiU not su£Bce for any one. 
Antaok leka emolme. (Hve as much as wiU 


Anthan. Out of place, anywhere, with- 
out care ; friendless, homeless. 

Anthafigeve tahenteye gooena. He died be- 
cause ne had no one to befriend him. 

Th%ri lota anth^fi do alom doho ba|raea. Do 
not throw the tharis and lotaa down any- 
where (put them in their proper place.) 

j^inthul. Cf anbhul. 

^til. A pimch used to make holes in 

-^du. To cause to drink by putting to 
the mouth, to give to drink, to 
water cattle. 

Nunu. To suckle, to give the breast. 


[ 17 ] 


4k.du. To gild, to overlay with the pre- 
cious metals. 

Bnpfjbeko ^linakafo. They have gilded it with 

Ann anu. Of many kinds, diverse, 

4^a 9nu hof menattkoa . There are many kinds 

of men. 
^u fna o^U disomre menatf a. There are di> 

yerae onotoms in the oountry. 

* AoaL Best, principal; 1st class. 

Aoal jmni. First class dhan land. 

Ao fto. The croak of the bull frog (ba- 
rudan,) cry of tiger, &c. 

Kal doe io aoa. The tiger calls So So. 

Aodhan. To pay attention to, to be 
ready, to be prepared, to be disen- 

Bae aodhan hodolkana, nit do. He is not being 
disengaged qniokly, i. e. he is not ready. 

Aoda. To design, to purpose, to intend, 
to claim, to appropiiate, toagree to, 
to take responsibility, to take pos- 
session o£ 

CalaKlaxi aoda joh kana. We intend to go. 
Jormot rn%re lagi^ ko aodalala. They intended 

to tAm him oaok by force. 
Noa baf g^ doA aodaaka£a. I am in possession 

of tms garden. 

Aodfto. To perplex. 

Aolao. C£ aulau. 

Aonda Sundi. Every where, all round. 

londa anndi gotali liam bafakedea, okare h5 
baii* Aamfedea. I searched for him all 
round, bat nowhere found him. 

Aora baa Girlhood. 

Aosa bS,osa. \ 

Aos bftos. I Descendants, posterity. 

Aunsa baunsa.| 

Bos. j . 

Pilchn hafam ren Sosa bSosa kangeabo. 
We are the descendants of Pilchn hafam. 

Aosan. Relief, respite, ease ; to lighten, 
to give relief, &c. 

Aosankediliae. He afforded me relief. 

Noa bir do matf aosanme. Clear this jnnglo and 

give relief (from wild animals.) 
K%niirt aosanakaf a. I have lightened the work, 

i. e* done a part of it. 

Aotan. Place of safety, refuge, shelter, 
retreat, den, lair, hiding place, cov- 

Noajhnfdo knl real aotan kana. This low 
jangle is the lair of tigers. 

Ao^ha. A ring worn on the great toe. 

Ao war. ") After-birth, placenta, of ani- 
Awftr. ) mals. 

Ap. To alight as a bird, on tree, house> 

Bo apwadeako. Flies alighted on him. 

Kofii do nl darereye a|)ena. The vnltore alight- 
ed on the mango tree. 

P%rre apkalime. Place me on a hranch, i. e. find 
a home and husband for me. 

Apa. Father. 

^ipuil. My father. 

I^pum. Thy father. 

Apat. His father. 

Apa hon. Father and child. 

Apabare. A woman's father and brothers. 

Ehgaapa. Parents. 

Apa b^a. I Irregular, out of line, inac- 
Aprar. ) curate, aberrant, rough, 
badly matched; to sepai*ate, to 
miss on road, not uniform. 

Mifte oalaff toluo apa b^^i^enako. 

Apa b%fi%pe rof leda, bah pantelontapea. 

You spoke inaccurately, your stones did not 

Okarelah apraflena? Where did we miss each 

other P (Where were we out of line with each 


Apai. Fault, transgression, sin. 

Apaj. To concede precedence, to con- 
tend as to who will not have to do 
anything, to urge each other to do 
a thing, and thus waste time. 

Apajtegepe tahena. (Ton won't do the work) 
you are each telling the other to do it. 

Apalhet Indistinctly, dimly, faint, low* 
indefinite ; by glimpses. 

Apalhe^ apalhe^ill iiel iiottledea. I only 

caught a glimpse of him. 

rhOrorme, apr \ 
it again, I heard indistinctly. 

Mase arh9 rofme, apalhef geti alijomleda. Say 

Apnao. To come to oneself, to cool 
down after a fit of SpUger, to submit 
to the inevitable. 

Apan apin. Severally, mutually, to take 
each his own way, to separate ; of, or 
relating to self 

Apan ^^pinko calaoena. They took each his 
own way, i. e. dispersed to their several 

Apan ^pinatko halahkeda. Each took up his 

Apangir aralc. A pot herb so called. 
Apangir. Cf adgir. 
AparaU. Cf. aralc. 


[ 18 ] 

Arae oroe 


Apare6. Cf. arei. 

Aparek. To be sepamte, away from 
each other. 

UnkingatedotisrehSbakinapareXkana. Theso 
two oompanions are neyer separate from 
each other. 

Apari. Iron arrow head. 

HesaK sakam ap^rittkana. The bads of the 
Hesatf tree (q. y.) are beooming pointed 
(like an iron arrow head.) 

Apal Cf. al 
Apat. His fether. 

Apat teil. The father. 
Eiigat apat. Parenta. 

Apasuir Cf. asuL 

Apoo. Waste, fault, accident. 

A^apookedae. He committed a great faulty 

(was the means of agreat aooidmit.) 
Noa apoo do ce^ lag:if ? Wherefore titiis waste P 

Ape. Ye, you. 

^phil. The English legal term appeal. 

^phim. Opium. 

Aphor. To sow seed in beds for trans- 
plantation, used more particularly 
of rice. 

Achfa aphor. Cf. aohfa. 
Dhnfi aphor. Cf . achfa. 

Aphoti. Calamity, distress; to raise 
objections, to lay claim to. 

Noa darere aphotiedae. He lays claim to this 

Noa atore aphoti hoeakana. A calamity has be- 
fallen this Tillage. 

qP '> Leisure, opportunity. 

^pil. Cf. aphil. 

4^pir. Sideways, obliquely ; to squint, to 
ascend and descend as some birds 
do while fljring, to incline gradually 

4pir ^ire betee^edii. He looks sanintingly. 
Cere ^pir rakap godolfkanajco.. The birds rise 

with a swoop. 
Apir me^ do^ bam itel ItamedaP Do not yoci see 

it, you great sqnintP 

Aple. To shin up a tree, to climb by 
claspii^ with the arms and knees. 

Hafuf) snmuiiaK darereii apleKkana. lam climb- 
ing a tree whi<^ I can encircle with my 

Apna apni. Cf. apan apia 
Apnar. Self, oneself; own. 

Apnar lekad dul^f koa. I will lore them as mytfstf . 

Aprilr. Cf apa baria. 

Apr6. I, the speaker, myself, ourselves, 

Uni hof aprS lekangeae. He is like myself. 
B%hape fieJledea? He, apfe leka goae. Did you 
see the bride ? Yes, she is jost like ourselves. 

Aprel. The Elnglish month April. 

j^prug. (1) Rare, unique, choice, excel- 
lent, incomparable, unequalled, of 
rare value. 

(2) You, yourself, your Honour, your 

(1) 4pnig dhon menattaea. bae emoffa. His 

wealth is of rare yalue, ne will fiot part with 

(2) Aprugre amge herel do menama, disomre 
b^uVkoa? Ls your honour the only man, are 
there no others in the country f 

Aptha ap(lu. To dispute, wrangle, al- 

Noa bafge l^giil ^ikin ap^ha %pthiakana. 
They wrangle fiercely oyer this garden. 

Ap^hao. To chidlenge, to contend, to 
dispute, to contest, to compete, 
to wager. 

Onka onka tinaff gh^fi cohkin apthaoeaa. They 
disputed thus for some time. 

4puni. Thy fetther. 

^Lpud. My figither. 

j^pus. Relations, kindred. 

Ar. And, also, other, more, last. 

Ararko tahSkana, There were others also. 
Ar bochor. Last year. 

4r. The whine of a child from ill tem- 
per, or peevishness. 

Nui gidr^ do nit! fa^bi6e ^rakaf gea. This child 
mis whined tiU now. 

Apa. Met. fruit of Eugenia ji^mbo^ 

lana, Larak, 
Ara. A flock, an army, a crowd, a 

detachment. C£ a^a. 

Ara. A measure of 2^ seers. 
Ai-a. A pit saw. 
Ara. Spoke of wheel. 

Mulara. Spokes of greatest thickness. 

Demi ara. *) 
MaAjhla ara. ) »» 
Gaj ara. ,, 

Ameoroe. Scalding, burning. The sen- 
sation produced by eating or drink- 
ing anything too hot, as chillies,. 

hot tea, &c. 

Afae Of oeenali m%ric jomte. My mouth bnma 


through eating pepper. 
Lolo ca arae ofoeii nakeda. 
mouth by drinking hot tea. 

I scalded my 


[ 19 ] 


Arak. Red, scarlet. 

Jo aratftkana. The fmit haa begun to ripen. 

(is becoming reddish). 
Aral^ pon4 behgef. To look daggers. 

AraU. To loose, to set free, to let go, to 
allow, to give way, to make way ifor. 

Uni marah ho^ ba^aekate horill a|tkftadea. 

Knowing hun to be a great man I made way 

for him. 
Tikm apaf aXa. The^^ will nnolaep handa. 
Afagolako. They will be set free. 

j^^f; . ] Pot herbs, vegetables. 
Arak saKam.) ^ 

Aral telkeko. Honse wires. 

Arakjhftwar. UtricvZaria bifida Linn. 

Found in moist sitnations, and used as a medicine. 

Ara^ kudrum. The Roselle plant, Hi- 
biscus Sabdariffa, Linn, 

Cnltiyated as an article of food, and also for Its 

Arak jhar. Hsematuria. 

Aralc oroH. To stare vacantly about. 

Azat oroKe beiige£eda. He stares yaoantly 
about him. 

Arak pordhoL IBlood from womb pas- 
Arak pordoL J sages. 
Arak sakam. Plants and leaves, cul- 
tivated and wild, used as pot-herbs. 
Arak sul. Bloody dysentery. 

Aral koral. To be stupified through 
inhaling smoke, smoking ganja,&c., 
to be stupified, perplexed, confoun- 
ded; the eyes to nip with smoke. 

NnnaX atte galijae orleda, ce^ bah se, mif dhao 
orregeve aral koral ut^r^ma. He pulled so 
strongly at the ffanja, that with one puU he 
was quite stupified. 

Aran. Voice, cry. 

Arafilafi alijom ^hike^taea. We recognise his 

Khange serma khon mi^ %9^ afah he^ena. Then 

a Yoice came from heayen. 

Aranga. Large, enormous. 

Noa do %4i afaiiga kat kana. This is an enor- 
mous log. 

Arani dan. A measuring rod. 

Arao. To clothe, to put on the person. 

Mi€ goteo mala uni kufiaX hotoMreSo arao 

Arap. 1 Slightly, to glance off, to miss 
Arop. J by a hair's breadth, to shave, 
to graze. 

Tuliledeali, arop goCkedead. I shot at him, 

but only gfrazed him. 
Kote do afopgeye daKkeda. There was only 

slight rain here. 
Tbofali afopkedea. I just grazed him (with 

my arrow.) 

Arar. A yoke, to accept responsibility. 

Mi£ arSjr ^ah^ft* A yoke of oxen. 

Uri^ araf . Cattle. 

Bae ari^lena. He declined the responsibility. 

IllaX araf lade johpe. Take my yoke upon you . 

Arar. The Yoke constellation, being 
the thi'ee stars in Orion's belt. 

Arir ipilko rakaftakana. The Yoke constella- 
tion has risen. 

Araraok, (1) Ripening, melloMdng as 
fruit (2) Officioua 

(1) BeleX l%gi{ ar%raotf kana. The fruit is ri- 

(2) Uni do $4iye ararao bafaekana. He is 
acting very officiously. 

Aras. A pole placed on the top of a 
cart loaded with sheaves, and tied 
down to keep load from shifting. 

jiV^rasi pa^asL C£ aposi parosi. 

Arba. \ Indian Scaly ant-eater, Manis 

Harba. / pentadactyla. 

The Santais oeueye tbat gundii (a. v.) sown by a 
person wearing a ring made from a scale of 
the Harba wilTnot be attacked by flies. The 

riug must be cut by a flint, if iron is used it 
loses its yirtue. 

Arda In a state oi nature, fallow, un- 
broken to work, iminured. 

Arda bir. Primcral forest. 
Arda kufi. A virgin. 

Arda 4ahra. An ox unaccustomed to the yoke. 
Arda jel. A deer that has not been shot (a hun- 
ting term.) 
Arda ot. Land that has nerer been onltiTated. 

Ardas. To complain, to lay a charge 
against, to accuse. 

TJnithen duk suk reaK dobo ardas dafeaXa. 

We can lay our grievances before him. 
Ardasadillae. He complained against me. 

Ardhangi. Hemiplegia. 

Ar^u. \ Of enormous size, applied 

Silodha. j only to tigers. 

Are. Nme. 

Are. Edge, margin, side. 

Hor afere. By the side of the road. 
Gkb^ft apo afeteko calaKkana. They are mar- 
ching along the river bank. 

Are. To dam up, to erect a dam ; rid- 
ges round nee fields to prevent the 
water running off. 

Ga4ftle areaka£a. We hare thrown a dam 

across the stream. 
Are laK. To trim the ridges round the rice 


Are6. To bale out water, to throw 
water at. 

Area aiijedme. Bale it dry. 
DaU bhageteko arei johkana. Thev are throw* 
ing water on each other (with the hands.) 

Are6 gareA 

[ 20 ] 

Arir kuiir 

Are6 gafe6. Easy, simple, of no im- 

Afeo gareo albm bajh^na. Do not regard it as 

Noalcatha afei^ gareoem bnjhanedaP Do you 

think this a thing to be trifled with? 

Aregel. Ninety. 
Arel. Hail ; to hail. 

Arelte t^ti goakedoae, niti toyo do. This 
jaokal was killed by hail stones hitting him. 

Argarha. Difficulty, entanglement, 

Argat. Proper time, fevourable mo- 
ment, in good time, morning, early. 

J&fgatre bape heolonte bape liamlaMa. Ton 
did not oome at the proper time, and so 

^ did not receive. 

Afgatrem setorena^ dabaaka^ale. Yon have 
arrived at the right time, we hare done the 

Argo. 1 To descend, to lower, to be 
Argon. J with young. 

ifgo hodoKme. Come down qnickly. 

Co( khonko apgokedea. They lowered him 

down from above. 
Nni g^i do afgoakadae. Thi? oow is in caif . 

Argon. Cf. argo. 

Argodgar. To obfuscate, to lead away 
from the scent, to confuse by dis- 
putation, uO mislead, to defittud 
justice, to prove that black is white. 

J&fgohgafe knliea. He wiU ask misleading 

Arharo barharo. ^^^ Old man and wife, 
A^haro budharo. J old bachelor, or 

old maid. 

Afharo barharo menaXkinge. The old couple 
are still alive. 

Argom. A clod crusher, a harrow 
without teeth ; to harrow. 

if g^m bhuK. The hole into which the shaft, 
to which the cattle are yoked, is inserted 
into the harrow. 

Argom. A constellation so named. It 
is part of the constellation Scorpio, 
and is composed of 4 stars, three 
of which are in line, and the other 
at the apex of the triangle. The 
star at the apex is Antares, or cor 
scorpii, a star of 1st. magnitude. 

Argom laga. To decide without full 
investigation, to ride rough shod 

if gompe lagaeda, bah thikpe bic^reda« 

Arhaia. (1) Two and a half. (2) Cho- 
lera, also scouring in cattle, which 
terminates fatally in two days and 
a half. (3) Rice that ripens in two 
months and a half from being sown. 
(4) A weight or measure of 2^ 

Arh5. Again, more. 

Ari. ') To implore, to beseech, to beg 
Jan. J earnestly. 

An. A hand saw. 

Ari. A law, a rule, an institution. 

i^ ^. Laws and ceremonies. 

-^11. A measure. 

4ri bandhi To look carefully, to con- 
sider carefully, to examine care- 
fully, to note carefully. 

^ri b^ndhile lielkeda, bodoltepe emalekaaa. 

We noted her oaref oUy, yon are giving us 

another in exchange. 
Sikiom bahako $ri b^ndhipe, oefloka haral- 

kana. Consider the lilhes how they grow. 

^rii. Much, many. 

Arli. T (1) To pour off li(|uid so as to 

Arii. J retain the solid particles. 

(2) To persecute, to defraud. 

^fliS daK man^i. Bice water that has been 
poured off after the rice has been boiled. 

(1) DaK man<jliko aflja. They ponr off the rioe 

water (from tne boiled rice.) 

(2) Kisaf do ^i'lje %ri6edilikana. The master 

persecntcls me very much. 

Mahajon do 9<^iye arI(Skedilla. The money len- 
der defrauded me (bled me.) ^ 

Ari dhgiri. Carelessly, thoughtlessly, 

^fi 4h4kfitem calaoena, onatem bajaoena. Yon 
struck against it because you went care- 

Arik parik. Clean, spotless, unsoiled, 

^rik p^rik qibuhottme. Wash your hands very 

Arika. Rice beer. 

Aril kuril. To stare, as when smoke 
nips the eyes. 

Arir kurir. \ 

Kirir kirir. J- Loudly, noisily. 

Karur barur.J 

Uni gidr^ ma qirir kurire raraXkana. That child 
yells while crying. 

K^rur bqirure hohoadea. He called loudly to 


[ 21 ] 


\ To trouble, worry, annoy, 
.^ns. bore, bother, disquiet, 

j^risi. disturb, plague, bad- 

^jis pa^is. ^er ; disgusting, shock- 

J mg. 

Alom 4kfisa. Do not umoy. 

Kfmire bako ^fiaoXa. Thdy do not find work 
» burden. 

^nsigOTe lleloXkana. He is diBgoBting (dis- 
gusts one to see him.) 

.^risia. Easily annoyed, or troubled. 

Nni do $|isi^ hof kanae. This is a person who 
is easily annoyed. 

.^ria paris. C£ aris. 
4jit To see, to look. 

J^M iiamkedesJti. '6el liamkedeall. I looked 
and foand him. 

Ari£ kuril To stare round about, to 
look intently, to look carefully. 

Go^a mela t^n<jlire ^i knri€ \A behge€ke€reh5 
ball Hel liamledea. Although I looked 
oarefolly through aU the fair ground I did 
not find him. 

Arjan« A bufiSedo goad tipped with 
iron ; to incite, to goad. 

Arjanem. Incite him. 

Arjao. To gain, acquire, earn ; to ob- 
tain a good harvest, or crop. 

. Nes ge khubko arjaoaka€a. They hare had a 
good harvest this year. 
Bale arjaoleda. We had a oad harrest. 

Arja arji Bequest^ excuse, plaint, pe- 

Arjha arjhL Ravelled. 

Arjh^u. To ravel, entangle, hinder, 

Baber ak>m afjb^ oooea. Do not rarel the 

Arjo. To put oil in the ear. 


Arjon birjoa 

Arjonia. A producer, one on whom 
one trusts or relies. Employed 
generally by a mother when com- 
mending or rebuking a daughter. 

Nni do arioni^ kantiiiae. She is the one on 

whom I rely. 
Arjoniqi kanae. She is one to be relied on 



A^rkati - A cooly recruiter. 


Agricultural produce, 
crops. • 

Arkha ") To covet, long for what 

Arkha arkhi J another has. 

Arkhao. To disappoint, to deceive, to 
break word, promise, &ith. 

ArkL Perhaps. 

Oholi men dafelea, arid bako idiakafkoa. I 
cannot say, perhaps they haye not taken 
them away. 

Aj-kud. The amoimt of oil obtained 
from one full press. 

Tin arkud menaKtapea? How often haye you 
filled the oil press (and drawn off the oU P) 

Armarao. To struggle in the death 
throes, or through suffocation, to 
be overpowered, flustered. 

Uni gu]uX l^nt armaraoK kanae. He is strug- 
gling in the throes of death. 

i^xmu. Bv/rsera aerrata, Colebr, A 
large forest tree, yielding valuable 

Ama. In a state of nature, primeval^ 
wild, untamed, unbroken, barbar- 
ous, uncivilized. 

Ama bir. Primeyal forest. 

Ama ka^a. Wild buifalo. 

Ama hof. A barbarian, a mis-anthrope 

Aro. To cook, to prepare food. 

Ifatkom aroabonme. Cook some matkom (q. t.) 
for ourselyes. 

Isin aro. To cook. 

Isin arodna. It is oooked. 

Aro. In composition has the same 
meaning as r6 in English, repeti- 
tion, again. 

Benao aro. To re-make. 
Dal aro. To beat again. 

Jut aro. To repair. 

Isin aro. To cook oyer again. 

Knli aro. To re-question, re-examine. 

Aroj. Bequest, petition, plaint, ez-> 

Aroj joh kanali. I am petitioning. 

Aroj menatttiiia. I haye a request to make. 

Aront A warrant. 

Aront j%ri. To execute a warrant. 

Arop. C£ arap. 

Arosi parosi. ^^^ Neighbours ; neighbour* 
Arasi parasi. J ing. 

Ar&t Dense. 

ArOt bir. Dense forest. 

Arok Meaning, (Bengali ortho.) 


[ 22 ] 


Ar5t. (1) Hard, unsympathetic, con- 
fidQnt, fearless, regardless of con- 

(2) Disgusting, filthy, dirty. 

(1.) Uni do a^i ft^ot hof kanae. He is a yery 

nnaympathetio man. 
(2) Ce£lekaii ar5t hor kanae, tiarehSbae nmola. 

What a filthy fellow he is, he nerer bathos. 

Arpa. A fathom; the distance be- 
tween the tips of the fingers when 
both arms are stretched to full 

ArpcL To gather together by littles, 
to collect perquisites, as daughters 
do while at home. 

It arpa. A aheof given daily during harvest to 
labourers — men or women — who are hired 
by the year. 

Unkln do mSfd serma habi^ on<lekin tahena, ar 
ku|i doe airpa joha. Thev remain there five 
years, and the girl ooUeois her perquisites. 

.^JT. Used to attract attention when 
the person 8 name is unknown. 

Arr! OkarenkanamP Hey I where do you be- 
long top 
^jrradifiae. He oalWd out frr to me. 

Arra arrL \ Short-tempered ; to be exci- 
A<Jra awjri. -ted, as buffaloes when they 
A^rao. J scent blood, &c., to bellow, 
to howl, to growl. 

Me^ todoK leka hasokedea, f^i b^fioe arfa 
I ^rfiena, kul do. 

Arrao. To bellow. 

An-ao. To fix a ban^hy load, to make 
the banghy andlosid ready for car- 

Bh^ri^ arraome. Get the banghy and load 

Kan^a arraome sikuarre. Put the pot in the 

sling (of the banghy.) 

Arsa. Excuse, plea, pretence, ground 
or reason assigneJl ; to fret to get 

Ce£e arsae6kanaP WhAt excuse does he plead P 
Matkom andaK afsateko dohokediiia. They de- 
tained me on the plea of giving me matkom 
andaK (q. v.) 

Arsa arsi. To plead an excuse, to 
throw the onus on each other, to 
contend as to who shall not do 
anything that is to be done. 

Dakae l9gi£kin afsa ^rsi^lnuia. They are oon- 
' tendmg as to who shall not cook the rioe. 

Arsal. A temporary light. 

CefS arsal. To throw a Ught for an instant on 
a bird at night for the purpose of ofttohing 

Arsalkate liamme. Light something and look for 
it (and then exting^sh the light.) 

4rs9 pith^ A kind of sweet bread 
made from rice flour and raw sugar. 
Arse. C£ it^l 

Afsed tofsed.l Uncomfortable feeling 

Ersed torsed.J of a person after having 

eaten too much, or of a person 

suffering from dropsy ; to be unable 

to rest at night owing to the heat. 

Arse t2h&. Certainly, truly» of a truth, 
in fact. 

Arse tahi, setohte dhipfuakana. Of a truth 
it is heated by the sun's rays. 

^rsL A mirror, a looking glass. 

4rsid barsid. \A day or two, a short 
Musid barsid. / period. 

^Lrsiil barsid l«gi€ non^ebo he^akaaa. We are 
here only for a short time (in this world). 

Arta. A red pigment applied to the 
feet by women at a marrige ; to 
apply arta to the feet. 

Artagom. A large migratory bird, 
which passes over Santalia in a 
south-^ast direction at the begin- 
ning of the cold weather. 

Ar 1 

Artei r^^^®» ^ addition to. 

^rti. To help a second time to food, 
or liquor. 

^jpxi tarud. To c^o smash at a thing, 
to smash dash ; impetuously, head- 

Kui do ^fVL^ t^r^^A k»mikana. He snubshes 
at his work. 

^ruK dharuk. Here and there, every- 
where ; to bully, to dragoon. 

Soetan apiK dh^r^Ke oalatfkana. The devil 
roams every where. 

Arud parud. To sulk, to be in the 
dumps, doldrums, sulks, to be in 
bad humour, glum, sulky. 

CedaKe ^rud p^rud bafaekana P Why is he in 
the doldrums ? 

^m^. To cleanse, to wash off stains, &c. 

4rup napae. To cleanse thoroughly. 

Arwaidha. 1 m ^ i, 
Ai^irhaidha. ) ^^ '""°''' e^^^essive. 

A{'w9>idham ladeakawadea. You have loaded 
him too heavily (laid too much on him.) 

As. Proper quantity, just as much as 
is good for one, a little. 

As lekad emadea. I gave him just as mndi aa 

was good for him. 
Askedean. I gave him a Uttle food. 


[ 23 ] 



As bhorsa. j-To hope, expect, trust, to 

Asm. J rely on. 

Am ohnt^. To lose hope, to despair. 
Unial aa lielkateH mokoliena. I am tired wait- 
ing for him. 

Okoe asrare non^epe he^akanaP Tmstiiig in 
whom hare yon come here P 

' laorre as bhorsa dohoakan tahenpe. Continue 
trusting in Gk>d. 
K^mi liamili asoMkaoa. lam h<^ing to get 

jr > Aim ; to take aim. 

Bail thikem aslaSa, onatem c^fi Aedea. Yon 

missed him beoanse yon did not take a 

pnroer aim. 
Bejae thikem asIaXa, linrh^ nt^rkedeam. Yon 

aimed splendidly, and bronght him right 


j^ Scales of fish. 

A8a6 usud. ^ 

Asa^ asu6. I To weep, to sob and cry, 
As^i usfll I to weep for a lengthen- 
Ks^i kusfitj ed time* 

Mitf iynd» asK ns&ee ralkeda. He sobbed and 
cried the whole night. 

Asfte. Eggs of the green fly which 
become maggots. 

Boko aaaeaka^ The green flies have deposited 
eggs on it. 

AslLe saWi^. Good fortune, object of 
desire, aim, opportunity, oppor- 
tune moment, first opportunity, 
first time, after a long time. 

Oholi emleina, asSe sawae neXe nt^ili iiam- 
akawana. I cannot give yon any, now only 
has.fartone favonred me. 

Asaha dusaha. Of evil om^i,. ill 

Noa oaKem roreda. asaha dnsaha? Why do yon 
say this of evil omen? (to the sick man.) 

Asa jawa. Coming and going. 

4Ls amol. Food forbidden to a sick 
person, or to one aspiring to sanc- 
tity aflber Hindu ideas. Cf. amel. 

Asambher. Abundant, beyond mea- 
sure, unlimited, beyond endurance. 

Isoral! daya do asambhergetaea. God's mercy 

is innnite. 
Asambher kathae metadea. He spoke words 

to him that were beyond endurance. 

Asami. A tenant, a defendant, an 
accused, a debtor, a client. 

ITni doe asami kana, noa mamblare. He is de- 
fendant in this case. 

Asam usum. Half-awake, drowzy, 

Asam QBume bere^akana. He has risen before 
being properly awake. 

Asam usum. Leisurely, without fear, 
said of the laiger wild nocturnal 

Bana asam nsnme calaKkana. The bear is 
walking leisurely along. 

Asania. Lazy, procrastinating, slothfiil. 

Asan mandao. (1) To sit tailor-wise 
for a long time, to sit about with 
nothing to do ; lazy. (2) To lie 
down, as an animal in its lair. 

(1) Asan man^aoakanae, hoKrhokan leka. He 
has taken np his position, as if he were a 

Asaii po<jUL \Lazy, strong but useless^ 
Sawan po^a. J fusionless. 

AsaA USU1&. C£ asam usum. 

As8q)ati hormo. To be enciente. 

Asap^ti hof moenae She is wieimUe, 

Asar. The fourth Hindu month, June- 

Asaria. Belonging to the month of 

Nni bar asf fi^ ren damkom kanae. This steer 
is in its second year, (calved in Asaf ). 

Asaria. A climbing plant so called. 

Bnm ae^fi^. Cappans horrxda, Linn, 

AsarphL A gold coin, known only by 
report to the Santals. 

oSt! }^^^«^' ^*'^^' 

Asat osot. Lazily, leisurely. 

CedaK onka asat osot dom k^mucana P Why do 
you work so leisurely P 

Asftt 065t. Bulky, unwieldy, ftill ; to 
waddle through fatness or obesity. 

Asot [ ^^^^» untrue, unreliable. 

Nni do as^thi hof kanae. He is an mireliable 

Asa£ usu6. Cf asa4^ usu6. 
AsflJ ustil Cf asa6 usu6. 

Asbasao. \ Tired, wearied, confused, 
Elsto besto.J perplexed. 

Dnrui> duruntetl asbasaoena, Saheb bae o^lokof 
kana. 1 am wearied with sitting (waiting), 
the Saheb does not oome out. 
Darere de<^ mad de^en, oka lekateti af gona as- 
get! ^k^ueda. I have got np the tree 
rnt, but am perplesed as to how I shaU 


Pi^hqibeli jom asbasaoena. 

Ased tased 

[ 24 ] 


Ase6 tased.^ Abounding, a wealth of, 
Ale6 tase6. y rich, possessed of so much 
Tarn tase. J as to be careless of it ; to 
scatter, to squander. 

Hofo oaole aset^ taseS menaKtakoa. They hare 

a wealth of dhan and rioe. 
Aoal dhone aseo taseo oabakeda. He has sqnan- 

dered his wealth. 

j^^^ } Very large, enomous. 

Aaed marah ka( kana. It is an enonmoas log. 

Ased marah daK hqalkana. A heaTj shower 
is iH;»proaohing. 

Asen. To lead about, to carry about, 
to conduct, to tend. 

€Kdrf alom asen baraeSa. Do not take the 
child aboat. 

Ased tased. Spread out, lying about, 
scattered here and there. 

Aseil tasefijTO menaXa, do h^ sam^aokate agni- 
kam. The (things) are lying^ about, go and 
gather them together and bnng thein here. 

Asepase. C£ a^epase. 

^ ghur ghur. *) A call to cattle, or oxen 
As gur gur. J at the plough to cause 
them to turn. 

^siftr* To inconvenience, to encum- 
ber, to plague. 

Asi^r hofmo. To bo pregnant. 

Bad ^i^fkoa. I will not inoonyenienoe them. 

Noi ^si^x oaoha menaea, nni i^gell asi^pakuia. 

He is a noisanoe, and I am plagued on his 


^Lsin. The seventh Hindu month, 
September — October. 

^intara. Belonging to the month 

^intafa kat. Timber cat in Asin. 
Asintafa go^a bi^ha. High lands plonghed in 

Asintara. It i. 

Asintaran. j Large, huge. 

Asintaf a kol. A hnge tiger. 

^Lsirbad. Blessing, to bless. 

Asirbadaleme. Bless us. 

Asis. To curse. 

i^isadkanfte. Hois cnrsing'me. 

j^i£. To unstring a bow. • 

AK asi^kalme. Unstring the bow. 

^Lsil A running knot ; to tie a running 
knot, to tie with double loops, so 
that by pulling one end the knot 
will come loose. 

^il To die down, as plants in winter, 
to be exhausted, to unwind. 

JomaKte fsiienale. Onr food is exhaneted. 

Setoh dinre naf I fsidoka. Climbing plants die 

down in the hot weather. 
Asitoiae. He has lost his wealth. 

Askal. A jungle bird. 

AskandnL F. 1 Peevish, crying for 
Askandnu. M. J little, fretful. 

€Kdr« f^i askaadnigeae.) The girl criet for 

4skandu^ Fever that begins with- 
out premonitorjr symptoms, and 
lasts only a short tima 

Asket, To be lazy, indolent, sluggish, 
languid after over exertion. 

Alom asketoKaw k^mitalahme. Do not be lasj, 
do the work for ns. 

Asketia. \Lazy, sluggish, slothful, in- 
Askotia. J dolent, do-nothinc^. 

Noi do f^i asketia hor kaaae. This is a r%rj 
lasy man. 

As man<jlao. 1 To squat, to sit in one 
Asan man<}aaj posture without change, 
to sit about a long time. 

Dnpi^as man^aoakanae. He has seated him- 
self as if he neyer intended to get up. 

Asolc fayolc. \To wander, to go about 
AyoK tayok. J aimlessly. 

AsoX tftyoX bafaekanae. He goes wandering 

Asokaete. Particularly, especially, as 
a rule, generally, most certainly, 

AsoL Chief, fundamental, real, true, 
. genuine. 

Asol katha. The matter of fact. 
Asol sona. Genoine gold. 
Asol iinis. The real thing. 
MesalaK kansrea, asolaK do bah kana. It is a 
mixture, not the genuine article. 

Asor. To cease raining, to clear up 
after ram. 

Asof kedae. It has ceased raining. 

DaK ill asof ocoaKa, enkha^teii calaKa. I wUl 
let it clear, then I shaU go. 

Asor tambor. Tottering, weak on the 
legs, as a fat child learning to walk. 

Asorphe. Cf. asarphi. 

Asot. C£ asat. 

Aspas. Neighbourhood. 

Asra. Cf. as. 


[ 25 ] 


Asrae. Refuge, shelter. 

OnA oraireli aeraelena. I took shelter in th&t 

^rftt Old and lai-ge, corpulent, 
wealthy, great. 

Kui biii do ^ie ^aritgea. This is a rery large 

Nni do ^^i 9n^% hor kaaae. This is a rery 

weal^y man. 

Astabal. A stable. 

4sta]&. Unfortunate, lazy, inoapable, 

not equal to. 
^tin. A sleeve. 

4suk. Uncomfortable in mind or body. 

4lsu1. To support, to maintain, to 
nourish, to supply the necessaries 
of life, to domesticate. 

.^snl Janwar. A domestioated animal, 
^snl ba4ha Adopted. 
Asnl harakedeall. I brought him i|p. 
Potamili >suledekai\a. I am keeping a wild 

4^ur. Greedy, gluttonous. 

As us. • To move uneasily while asleep> 
to reply sullenly, as a person awat- 
ing from sleep, 

Aswar. Bidii^ on any thing, as a 
horse, a paiki, &c. 

Aswari.1 The act of riding on anjrthing. 

Aswaria. (1) A palki. (2) A rider. 

Aswfii^teye calaXkana. He is travelling by 

ElhuD asw^ri% kanae. He is a good rider. 

Al To lose. 

Ael td. To lose sight of. 
A€ apa€. The very image 
A£ to£. To make mistakes, 
Sai» a€. To lose hold of. 

At. The edible root of a common 
climbinjz plant, Zehneria v/mheL- 
lata, Tkw. The plant itself is 
called Eundri. 

At. 1 Opportunity, expedient, op- 

^i ghat. \ ening, smtable time, fa- 
vouraole opportunity. 

Sasap $t b%li iiameda. I can't get a chance to 

Oka ^t hS bah calaKkantalea. No expedient is 

possible for us. 
Atreli iSammea, tobeti metama. I shaU find vou 

at a suitable time, and shall then speak to 


At. Zealous, vehement, forcible, strong, 
intense, vigorous, loud, difficult, 
fest ; to insist, to incite, to persist. 

Nun^K it<9 hohokeda. He called so loudly. 
A4i &t araiite. V^ith a loud Yoioe. 

JL^tere dalkedea. He struck him with gn^eat 

Ata. A raised platform from which 
wild animals are shot, an ambush. 

Sukrire atako duru^Mt. They shoot pigs from a 

raised ambush. 
Atako dupi|>lena, menkhan t^mf> bae Srgolena. 
They sat m the raised ambush, but the toopard 

did not appear. 

Ata. Flour, meal. 

Ata. To roast grain over fire in a 

peculiar way, generally in sand ; 

to fire. 

Ata oho6. The potsherd in which the grain is 

Jon^ra ata. Boasted Indian com. 
But <^ta. Boasted gram. 
Ohaataeme. Firetiie tea (in manufacturing.) 

A^ §ktL To dispute, to wrangle, to 
contend, quarrel. 

Nukin dokin atS atigea, delabon phan^aokata- 
kina. These two are wranglmg, come we 
will settle the matter for tiiem. 

Ata carei. A few stalks of grass or 
split bamboos about a foot in 
length tied together with which 
the grain is moved about when 
being roasted on the ata system. 

Atak utuK. 1 r«r A A ji X JL 
Atadutui. |C£Ata^utu^. 

Atal. A layer, story ; row upon row. 

A^l a(alteko duruJMbkana. They are sitting in 
rows (one benind the other.) 

Atal baha. A flower so named. 

Atal eon<Jal. A large assortment of 
cloth of various ages, qualities 
and colours. 

A(al gonial kiorid menaltaea. He is rich in cloth 
of aU kinds. 

Atal phuruk. A cup made with double 

Atan. To receive, to take, to hold out 
the hand to receive anything, to 
spread out to receive, to set the 
head as a homed animal when 
about to gore, or butt. 

Atah da1(. Water caught in a yessel. 

Phalte sarili atah darama. I will receire the 

arrow on my shield. 
Bogeil l^fe atahediHa. He sets his head to 

butt me. 
IliaK romal atahaka^kli. I have spread out my 

handkerchief (to receiye it). 

AtajS jarap 

[ 26 ] 


Atap jarajf). Parched with thirst or 

Atap utup. To be raised up as a car- 
pet, &c, by something under it. 

Honyako atap u^up bay aeeda, maya phntkate- 
ye d^fkeda. HaUoo! rats are moving 
about (under the straw), look out ! he has 
darted out and escaped. 

Ata^ utu^. 1 A rumbling sound ; wind 
Utu6 utu^.j on the stomach. 

LaiT atap utuboKkana. Wind rising in the 

Atar. In composition, used mainly by 
women, like " dapor" which see. 

Sen ataroKmae. Let him take himself off. 
D^r atarke£geae. He has run away (and a good 

Eulhd bao jom atarekan. The tiger even does 

not devour him. 

Atar. To set fire to ; to bum. 

' Orattko atarke£taea. Tliey set fire to his house. 
Ataredid leka hasoedili kana. It pains me as if 

it were burning. 
Sehgelte mocae atartaea. He applies fire to his 

Noa birko atar potaKkeda. They have set fire 

to and burned up this jungle. 

Ata sata. Food, victuals. 

Atasata oei!h5 b^nutfantaea. He has no food 

Ata sata. Cf. atha satha. 

• ■ • • 

Ata talsa. Food, such as taben (q. v.) 
khajari, (q. v.). satu (q. v.) &c. 

Atasi patasi. A spell used by mothere 
when their children are slightly 
hurt and cry. 

A child hurts its finger, for instance, and runs 
crying to its mother, who after examining 
the finger says " at^si pat^^i" and blows 
upon it. 

Aten. Combretum decandrum Roxb, 


A gregarious scandent shrub, the twigs of which 
are used to make baskets. 

Aten. To listen, to eaves-drop. 

Aten babf akanae. He is eaves-dropping. 

Atel To spread ; a bed. 

Ate^te oalaKme. Go to bed. 

Noa do oyon l4igi€, ar noa do ated l^kgif . This 
is for a covering, and this to spread (under- 
neath you at night.) 

Aiei sil \ To fore-ordain ; pre- 

Olsii atet* sil J arranged. 

Isor do nui hof gujuX real^e olsi£ ateCsi^akafa. 
God has onmined this man's death. 

Atgate. Strait, narrow, contracted, 
small in space, cramped. 

BejSe noa do atgate hor kana. This is a very 

narrow path. 
Am do beJM atga^eregem dufup^ana. Yon 

are sitting in Yerv small spaoe (i. e. yon have 

crushed yourself in.) 

Deep, great, very, enor- 
mously, unfethom- 
able, bottomless. 

He has an 

feel no stren- 
I feel a Uttie 





Athan thar. 


Athan marah h^thi menaetaea 

enormously large elephuit. 
Athaha daK. Very deep water (unfathomable.) 

Atha satha. Stren^h, energy. 

Ili do atha satha bif li qiikaueda. I fe< 

gth (or energy.) 
Atha sathali qiik%u lloKeda. 


Ath cala. A house having the veran- 
dah roof lower than that of the 

Athe athon. "I Very close together, 
Athe athwan. / thick, very many. 

Athe athwahe ghaoakana. He is covered with 

Athel. A jungle bush, Murraya exo- 
tica, Wiltd 

Atho sithp. Pithless, weak, vainly. 

Bahem tnl dafeaKkhan atho sitho .oedaKem 
tutulkana ? 

AthrS. To lean against, to rest on, to 
prop, to put in wedge, to place 
under for purpose of raising. 

Dhirire bohoKe atbf eeda. He pillows his head 

on a stone. 
Silpifi jhi^kate athpSkam, alo sillotta mente. 

Open the door and place something against 

it to prevent it closing. 

4ti. A bundle, a small sheaf. 

G^chi 4itia>^£&ko. They have bound the seed- 
lings into smaU^ bundles. 

Atid. To graze, to browse, to feed, to 
spread as a sore, or skin disease, &c. 

Lumamko qitiii idiaka£a. The caterpillers have 

eaten all up. 
Gaiko ^till johkana. The cows are grazing. 

^tis kutis. Innumerable, very many, 
very often. 

Atit. 1 To leave home and family as a 
Utit. J wandering jogi, or phakir ; an 
ascetic, a devotee. 

Atit jugi. An ascetic who has left houne and 

Atit lekae calaoena. He has gone off like a 

phakir (without saying where he was going 


Atkao.lTo prevent, hinder, check, ob- 
Atok. J obstruct. 

Calaif jli atkaoea. I will prevent him going. 


[ 27 ] 


Atkar. To feel, to think, to be conscious 
of; to impress one. 

QujuK lek&iS atkoreda. I feel like dying. 
Hape nahaKIan atkar ooomea. Wait a little, I 

shfJl make yon feel. 
Bah Xhik atkaroKkana. It does not impress 

one as being right. 
Attatkaratf . The conscience. 
Marah i^ a^karoMgea. Being large it will be 

noticed, (or felt.) 

j^tkir. Smikix ovalifolia, Roxb, 

A common jangle climbing plant. 

4^tkir. To snatch away, to run away 
with, to steal. 

Bine ^tkira. He will nm away without pay- 
ing his debts. 

Atkur^. Childless, barren, without 
an heir bom of his own body. 

Owaris bah to€lenkhan ba^ha hoponge atknf ^ 
dhonko hataoa. Failing an heir adopted 
sons inherit the unclaimed wealth. 

Atkura. A forest tree, Wrightia to- 

mentoaa, R. &, 8, 
Atkura aralc. The fresh leaves of 

• • • • 

Wrightia tomeTitosa used as a 
pot herb. 

j^Ltkuti. Argemone Mexicana, Linn, 

A prickly annual the seeds of which yield an 

Atnak. A large forest tree, Terraina- 
lia toinentosa, W. and A. 

The tassar silk worm {Antherma mylitta) is 
reared almost entirely on this tree in the 
Santal country. 

At na satl Unintelligible, confiised, 
4Lt sat. J weak, unintelligently, 

4t T^^ s^tom galxnaraokana. You speak unintel- 

At s^tili ^iK^ueda, ce€ sat hS bah. I feel yery 

weak, no strength whateyer. 

Ato. In composition like "oto" which see. 

B^gi atoadeae. He left him altog:ether. 
Em atoadeae. He gaye it up to him. 
D^ndhire oko atokate ofaKte calaoenae. Hay- 
ing hidden it in a bush he went home. 

Ato. A village. 

Bir maK t^4ikatele atoaka€a. We olcMred the 

jungle and haye made a yillage. 
Ato malijhi. The yillage chief. 
Ato hofko. The yillagers. 

Atok. Cf atkao. 

Atom. \In order, one after the 

Miti atomte. j other, all, every one. 

Ona atorenko mi£ atomteko hecena. All the 
people from that yillage haye come. 

Mi€ atomteko calaoena, o^aKre okoeh5 b^nuX- 
koa. They haye all gone, there is no one at 

Atpa etpe. Skin rough from pimples, 
or from lying on anything, iis a 
charpae, which leaves marks on 
the body. 
4t pat. IFlustered, without resource. 
At patao.J perplexed, troubled, dis- 
tressed, restless. 

Behge:^te ^tP^tle ^ikqiueda. We are greatly 

distress^ through poyerty. 
Alo sem at patao bairaea, thirkoKme. Do not 

be so restless, remain still. ^ 

Atra. Half; to &il, to come sho^, to 
fall short, to miss. 

Atea dhi. } Hal^-^ay- 

Isoratt mohimako atraakada. They haye oome 
short of the glory of God. 

Atra matra."! Imperfectly ; imperfect 
Atra patra. [ work ; to half do a thing, 
Adhapadha. j to leave some out, to 
Tara tapra. J pass over some, to scamp 

Atra patra. Cf. atra matra. 

2Ltre. After a lapse of, after, period, 

Mii din b^rsitl a^e. After a day or two. 
Pepe cando atre. Quarterly. 

Atre. To plough a field in sections. 
Scottice, a double rig. 

Atrom. To miss, to pass over, to ex- 

CaKem atromkaekona ? Why do you pass him 
oyer (giye to the others and not to him ?) 

Atrom atrom. Half, incompletely. 

Hana mun<}u do atrom atromgeko jhof akeda. 
They only half beat that jungle. 

^.trud. Depressed, ailing, sad, faint, 
dejected, sulky, disinclined, dis- 
pleased, disgusted, lazy. 

Atrullill atkareda. I feel depressed (in mind.) 
Jon^ra daka jom jomtell ^truilena. I am 

disgusted with always eating boiled Indian 

Onate mon ^trulientitia. Therefore my heart 

failed me. 

At sat. Contradictory, confused, care- 
lessly, at random. 

ki tol Without certainty, at random, 
overlooked, mislaid. 

A€ to€le hedena. We came i^ random. 
A{ to€aK halah jaoraeme. rick up what has 
been orerlooked. 

^tu. To flow, to glide, to run, to 
shed, to float. 

Datf ^tu cabaena. The water has aU nm away. 
Atu go€kam. Float it away (tiirow it in to the 
water and let it float away.) 

Atuk jharulc 

t 28 ] 



-^tuk jharuK. Dense, thick, as a 
jungle with undergrowth. 

4tur. To hang down, to trail, to hang 
over, to lag behind. 

Parbomre dupi^ate kiori6 ^torkedae. He eat 
on the bed-stead, and allowed his oloth to 
hang down over tne edge. 

Eantha^ jo ^tnrakana. The jaok frnit hangs 
down (£rom the branoh,) 

Atuf. Manj, very numerous, in crowds. 

^t^t horko jarwaakana. The people are assem* 
bled in crowds. 

-^tut bir. Dense, primeval forest. 
Atwasi patwasi. Famishing, hungry. 

Au. Of inferior quality, worthlesa 

Noa bomre do eken $a ka^ menaXa, Sarjom do 
b%nQXan. There is oiily timber of an in- 
ferior quality on this hill, there is no 


Au. An interjection of surprize, used 
only by women among themselves. 

An I nun din khon bae gidr$ jonkana. 

Au^papa. C£ awapapa. 

^u au. Cf. ao ao. 

Auda. Cf. aoda. 

. • ^^ 

i^ujhar. To entangle, to hinder, to 
ravel ; busy, occupied. 

Snt^m ^n^h^fukana. The thread is ravelled. 
Sutim %a]h$roKa. The thread wiU ravel. 

4-ukhau. Dangerous, as an infected 
village, or a jungle infested with 
wild animals, helpless through 
want of food. 

Ona bir do ^i ^ukh^oa, ^i kale caiikeakana. 
That jnn«rle is very dangerons, a tiger lies 
in wait there. 

Aula auli. 

Aula kauli Disordered, confused, per- 

Aula saula. plexed. 

^ula sauli. 

Anlqi ^nlikecudae. He oonfosed me. 
^ul9 ^aliye hoedda. It blows from all direc- 

^ulau. To bewilder, to confuse, to 

muddle, to perplex, to mix up. 
Aunsa baunsa. Cf. S.osa bSLosa. 
4^tlntauk. Commotion in the stomach. 

La6 ^ftnt^olkantilia. 

^- auri. }^^^y> thoughtlessly. 
A-uri. Not yet, before ; until. 

4>nrive hijutfre. Before he oomes. 

Atirikore. Before they come. 

Aori lio^khan. If she, or he, is not ready yet. 


^oriti hijoS dh^bii. Until I oome.^ 

AurL ^ 


False, in vain, carelessly, 
indefinitely^ ordinary, un- 
qualified, unfixed, un- 
specified, ineffective. 

Aurigeli emadea^ tin%tt ooii tin^tf . I gave him 
without taking note, and oan't say how 

Anrii«oIa. Will become ineffective* 

Isoraf kathape ^r^lkeda. Ye trifled with 
God's word. 

Etwar cha^akate ^ofi din hiloX caole bah lia- 
moXa. Rice can only be had on Sunday (the 
fixed dav) and not on other days. 

Auri hor. An onqoalified person. 

Aufi din. A day not fixed. 

4.uri. \Straw fi*om which the grain has 
4r. J been thrashed by beating it 
against a piece of wood. 

Bnsnii is straw the grain from which has been 

trodden out by oxen. 
CKiohi is bnsnfi so drawn out as to lay the straw 

lengthwise, and then tied op in bimdles for 

thatching, Sbo, 

^uiriak. Cf au^. 
4-urinak. Cf. au^i. 

^uri pqith^uyL\Thoughtles8lv, in vain, 
^uri sauri J irreverently, need- 
lessly, serving no purpose. 

Probhn am ren Isor real fSntom ^nfi p^th^ufi 
alom linmtaea. Thon shalt not take the 
name of the Lord thy God in vain. 

^.usan. C£ aosan. 

^uta Suti. Pain in the stomach, 
^utan. Cf aotan. 

^titauk. C£ atlnt^ulc. 
4vii. C£ ^wil. 

Awa. A potter's kiln. 

Gelbar awa bhitri khon thnki^ b%ji» baohao 
tofkedam. Yon selected it out of twelve 
kilns, by tapping and sounding it (com- 
paring the choosmg of a bride to the selec- 
tion of an earthen pot.) 

Awa. 1 The string which holds the 
AwalLj spokes of a charkha (spin- 
ning wheel) in order. 

This string goes ronnd the extremities of each 
radios of each side alternately. 

Awaj. Sound, noise, report; 

B%ndak reaM awajifi alijonueda. I heard the 
report of a gon 

Awal. Good, large, 1st class dhan land. 

Awali. Cf awa. 

Awansacua. Lazy, idle, slothful. 

Awapapa. Piteously, bitterly, vehe- 

Awar. Cf aowar. 


[ 29 ] 


ail. 1 
ail. I 

'• I 

•Yarieties of oobraa distmguisli- 
ed by Santals. 

Awasi. An heir. 

Awatapa Destitute, friendless, dis- 
tressed, confounded. 

Awa^patf ma^o. Let them be oottfomided. 

Awil.lTo raise the arm, to stretch out 
Avil. J the arms, to dart out the 
head, as a snake when it strikea 

Awil tio|rme, Stretch the ami and reach it. 
Ayaii bill %wil bafaekanae. The cobra darts 

its head to strike. 
Oidr^ doe %wiloKkaiia, ma heoeme. The child 

stretches oat its arms, take it np. 

Aya. Really, truly, without mistake> 
of a truth. 

Aya, Ufa kombfokedeali ; enrehS bae go^ao 
oooaKa. Of a troth I saw him steal, still 
he will not admit it. 

Ayak oyoK. ^ 

Ayak ujniK. I Bewildered, at a loss, en- 
AyoK tayoK. j grossed, overcome, with- 
AyiiK tayuK.J out resource. 

Ayan bid. The cobra. 

Dndhi^ ayaii. 
Kif a ayah. 
JereA ayaii 
Jola ayaii. 
Hende ayaii. 
Kabra ayaii. ^ 

Ayan oyoA. To stoop down and peer 

Do se, ayaii oyoh beiige€ bafaeme, iiel liamam. 

Ayat. A verse, a sentence. 

Ayo. Mother, much used in interjec- 

^^•|DearmeIoh mother! 

Ayo lekan sohag do okareli iiamkoa? Where 
can 1 find Iotc such as my mother's was. 

AyoU tayoK. C£ ayak oyok. 

Ayuguh. An interjection of surprize, 
sorrow, or pain. 

Ayuk tayuk. Cf. ayak oyok. 

Aya^. Evening, night&U. 

Nonijleko ^ynboKa. They will spend the even- 
ing here. 

4yup snmuh. Fnlly eyening. 

Dai ^ynbkedae. It rained till evening. 

SetaK khonle ^ynpkeda. We remamed from 
morning tiU evening. 

Ayu^ payar. Eventide. 
Aj^r. To lead, to conduct. 

AKynri6. A leader. 

J^nnm sen alom qiynrkoa. Do not lead them 
towards the thorns (into difficultieB.) 




Bale calaMa. We will not go. 

Bab. A cess imposed by Zemindars 
on their ryots. 

Bab. To demand, to exact, to ask for, 
to request, to impose a contribu- 

Onkae bab bafaakoa. In that way he makes 

his demand. 
Malijhitoae babakoa. The Tillage chief exacts 

milk from them. 
T»ka emoK l^€e babakawafleft. He has asked 

ns to give money. 

Baba. (1) Father ; (2) A term of respect 
appUed to elders, a term of endear- 
ment applied to infisints. 

Babare. ) An interjection implying pain or 

Baba go. > sorrow. 

£ baba. Bespectfnl address. 

Henda baba. Bespectfnlly calling attention. 

Babac. C£ bac. 

Babad. Cf. bad. 
Babaj. Cf baj. 

Babaji. A class of Hindu fakirs, a 

Hindu sadhu. 
Babak. C£ bak. 
Babar. Cf. bar. 

Babar go^en eiigatkin tahenkhan k%kit eiigat 
do bar (aka ir^l anae llama. If there are 
two mothers the step mother, (or co-wife) 
receives two rapees eight annas. 

Babat. To itch. 

A^i kalkal babatedilikana. It is painfnlly 

Babatedeteye gfduroKkana. He scratches him- 
self beouise he feels itchy. 

Baber. Twine, string, principally that 
made from backom. (q. v.) 

JoKkha baber. A line for sonnding. 
Sosoh baber. A string used as a measuring 
• chain. 

Babilon^. To be scattered to the winds, 
to be utterly lost, ruined, or des- 

7nn(}i bnm dhasaoen, 
Disom do b^bilonden, 
Knin^ mimeraXleda, 
Disom do ropha mq^ren. 

Babla. The name of a tree. Acacia 
arahica, WiUd, 

This tree yields the gam arabic of commerce. 


[ 30 ] 


Babotre. On account of, regarding, 
respecting, about, in the matter 
of, in behalf of. 

Am babotro un^K ill haronlena. I was pnt to 
so maoh trouble on yonr account. 

Babra. C£ bara. 

• • 

Noako joto do hohgB. hofgeko llam babra>kana. 
After all these things do the heathen seek. 

Babrao. Cf bhabrao. 

Babrg. A Brahman. 

Babr^ii. The best man at a marriage, 
who remains with the bridegroom 
until all the ceremonies and fes- 
tivities connected with the mar- 
riage are over. 

Babjid. The Intensive form ofbajid 

B^bfioio. One who injures, &o. 

Babu. A boy, a son ; used in addressing 
a boy of inferior age, or position. 

Used always bj an elder sister when addressing 

a young^er sister's husband. 
B^bu se mflii? Is it a boy or a girl? 
Babutte£. His son, or the son. 
B^bure. Dear me I 

Babu jadffa narl. A climbing plant so 
called from the resemblance the 
leaf bears to the human foot. 

Babur. A tree, Acacia arahicay 

Babu rae. The young lord, or chief, 
used banteringly to a peevish boy. 

B^bu rae do bona noae hufsokaua. The young 
chief must have this and that. 

Bac. To separate, to pick out, to refuse, 
to reject, to leave out nothing, to 
pass over nothing, to deliver. 

Cet h5 bae baoa. He rejects nothing. 
SanamaKgeye joma, oet hS bae baoa. He eats 
aU, and leaves nothing. 

Baca. To decide upon, to prove, to 
receive an answer from a witch 
doctor, to find out. 

Oe£pe baoa agukedaP Hoe hisi^le baoakeda. 
What have you found? We have found 
that the witcn is an outsider. 

Bacao. To choose, to select, to reject, 
to refuse. 

Bacha. A bull calf, a term of endear- 
ment applied to a child, or younger 

Baoha dhontiii. My little treaaure (to a child.) 

Bachao. To choose, to pick out, to select 
to single out. 

Bachao gi(^i. Toreject. 

Bachao oei. To select. 

Baohao to6. To pick out, to choose oat of mMiy . 

Bachao bH. To select carefuUy. 

Bachao joh. To choose for oneself. 

Bachao flam. To find. 

Bachi. A female calf. 
Bachra. Half grown, young. 

Bachfa sadom. A colt. 

Bachfa dare. A sapling. 

Bachfa kofa. A lad, a hobbledehoy. 

Bachfi bachrL Yearly, annually, every 

Backar. A prostitute, a harlot. 
Backo. Cf. bhacko. 
Backom. A jungle grass, Pollinia 

eriopoda, Haiice. 

A useful grass from which twine and paper are 

Backom baber. Twine made from hackom 


Baclao. To preserve, to save, to escape, 
to depend on. 

Noa kioriote rabahifi baolaoena. By moMis 
of this cloth I escaped the cold. 

Bacol. Escape, salvation, rest, respite ; 
to be saved, to remain. 

Bacol banutt tiiia. There is no escape for me. 
Eken sahe6go bacolakan tahSkantakina. Only 
their breath remained to them. 

Bacon. C£ bacol. 

Bad. To name, to guess, to accuse, to 
suspect, to accuse from ill will, or 
a desire to injure. 

Alm^rire ce£ monaMaP Kicrioid badeda. What 
is in the almirah ? I guess it is cloth. 

Panko badkoa. They accuse them of being 

Bad badkadea, menkhan bako sap da^eadea. 
They often aoousod (or suspec&d) him, but 
have not been able to catch Um. 

Badteko metadkana. They accuse me through 
ill will. 

Bad. To separate, to subti-act, to omit, 
to reject. 

Khoroc badkate. Subtracting the payments. 
Noa hisab badkalhno. Omit this bill. 

Bad. 3rd class rice land, which is high 
and only enjoys a precarious supply 
of water. 

B^i hof o. Bice grown on third class land. 
B^lras. A yariefcy of rice grown on third class 

Bad. (1) To multiply, to increase. 
" (2) A flood. 

(1) A^iko b^'^lolfa. They will increase gpreatly. 

(2) B^'^ airgonkana, noa ga^are. This riyer is 

coming down in flood. 


[ 31 ] 


Bada. A loan of seed given at sow- 
ing time for which a double quan- 
tity is returned at harvest. 

Noa ita badateli ^guakafa: 

BadabadL To accuse each other, to be 
at enmity, to contend, to emulate ; 
enmity, rivalry. 

Badab^enako. They are at enniitj with eaob 

Bada6 budu6. To bubble, as boiling 
water, bubbles rising to the sur- 
fiswe of water. 

Badae. To know, to be cognizant of, 
to have knowledge of, to recognize. 

Baclae thik. To know of a certainty. 
Ba4ae orom. To reoognise. 

Badagiri. To be conceited, arrogant, 
rude in presence of superiors, 
swagger, give oneself airs. 

Bf ^agirie&anae. He is ^ving himself airs. 

Badai. ") To be proud, to be vain- 
Adai badai ) glorious, to bo bumptious, 

to be fastidious,to play the fine 


Miye b^^ a^ kathae tinaMe ba^ae leka. 

Badak. ^ Coarse, overgrown, big and 
BadgaU. J- unsightly, stout and coai-se 
Badgoi j featured. 

AfiBge lielottkana, ht^goi, 

Badak. *) Broken up into holes, as a 
Budak. J mud floor, or courtyard. 

ApeaX raca beb^rio ba<}4kKakantapea. Yonr 
courtyard is all broken into holes. 

Ba^ak ba^ak. Unseemly, vigourously. 

Ba4aM ba4aXe egerkedida. 

Ba^ak buduk. ") To move the lips as if 
Bu5uk buduk. J speaking. 

Lntiye ba^aX bn^nlfeda. 

Badalte. On suspicion, on account of, 
with a desire to injure, through 

Badalte doko metalikana. They accuse me 
through iU*wiU. 

Badao. To choose, to appoint to be told 

Chunks Pargana do 8arkar se^e badaoakana. 

Chunka Fargana has been appointed by the 

UnaK s^lis hopko badaoakana P How many ar^ 

bitrators haye been appointed P 

Bad^. Ill-will, hatred, strife, variance. 

BadSo gekin tahSkana. They were at strife with 

eaon other. 
Uni tulu 3ko ba daolena. They bore him ill-will. 
Mon bad2o. Admirable, exciting admiration, 

captivating the senses. 
Mon badaokateli dalkedea. I beat him to my 

heart*s content. 

Badar. Very dense low jungle, a 

Sarjom badafre. In a thicket of Sarjom trees. 

Badar. A receptacle in which the Pa- 
harias of the Rajmahal hills stote 
Indian corn. 

Badar bu(Jur. To rattle, a rattling 

Ba^ar bnijtur llurena, charra do. The shot 
rattled as it fell (into the gun.) 

Badaria. *) Froud, festidious, dainty, 
Ba^garia. J particular. 

Am do ii^im b^^qiri^ kana, am l^zi€ okare daka 
utuli llama ? You are very dainty, where 
can I get rice and relish for you. 

Badarot. Enmity. 

Badar runda. A species of wild cat. 

Badar selep. The buck of the ravine 
deer, OazeUa Bennett ii. 

Bad bad. Cf. bhad bhad. 

Bade. The heddles of a weaver's loom, 
which alternately raise or depress 
the thread of the warp. 

Badgae bodgoe. Stout, plump ; stou t 
and coarse, applied only to girls. 

Ba<leae bo<^goe kupko haraakana. The girls 
have grown stout. 

Badgak. Cf badak. 
Badgak. 1 The sharp painful 

Badgak badgak. / sensation produ- 
ced by a prick with a pin or the 
bite of an insect. 

Ba^gatt marte ofmosko gerkedida. 

Badgarak. Litter lying about the door, 

or in the court yard. 
Badgaria. Proud, fastidious, dainty, 

Badgocak. Hairy-faced, bristly hair 

on face. 
Badgocak. A common fern, Lygodium 

flexnositm. Siv. 
Badgok badgok. 1 Unequal in thickneaa 
Badgot badgot*. j as a thread ; rough, 
as a sculpture ; heavy, broad featured, 

Ba^gol Cf badak. 
Badha. Wooden sandals. 

i?3i*- ui,««*: ] The toe post of the sandal. 

Badha khunti. ) 
Sadom khdra badha. 
Mundr^ badha. 
Dh^pi badha. 
Khunti badha 
Pachilqi khur$ badha.- 

Varieties of wooden 


[ 32 ] 


Ba^ha. To adopt, to pick up what 
has been left, to appropriate, to 
do odd jobs for a living. 

Aflol ba^lia. To ^opt. 

Beage<& ore6 hof doko ba^lha ^tsulotta. Poor 
people piok np a living any where. 

"Behgei oreoko do kh$r%ire liin6 paairaltko ba4- 
na joiia. Poor people appropriate what 
has been left on the tnreahmg floor. 

Badha. Obstacle, hindrance, drag. 

Chin^qtn do bam mene^kana, badhagem lagaoeda. 
Yon do not wish a settlement, you are 
throwing obstaoles in the way. 

Badha. \ Occult adverse influ- 

Badha bidhi. J ence, hindrance, inter- 
ruption of a supernatural kind. 

Badha bidhi lagaoadea, gajnSko eho|>ena. 

Badha ba4hi. To increase, to get hot- 
ter, as a quarrel 

Katha kathate ba^ha b$(^hienakin. Their quar- 
rel got worse as they talked. 

Badha bidhi Cf. badha. 

Badhao. To increase, to multiply, to 
enlarge, to grow, to advance, to 

Din bafnaoena. An adranoed date has been 

Nni hop do mihS. merom besko bafhaoakantaea. 
This man's cattle have increased weU. 

Badhi. To bandage, to splice, to join 
by successive rolls of a ligature, 
to ligature. 

B^dhi. A ligature made by catting the coooon 
of the tassar silk worm into along narrow 

Badhi. To rive, or take a large quan- 
tity, to heap up ; a pile, a heap. 

l>aka b9<}hime. dive a large quantity of noe. 
Mi€ b^^hi daka. A heaped plate of rice. 

Badhi. A caste who work both in iron 
and wood. 

Badhia. A castrated bear, a hog. 
Badhoe. A carpenter, a worker in wood. 

Badhor. A species of fish with many 

Badhor. \ Crooked, cross grained, 
Badhoria. J knotty, useless, incapable, 


Noa kat do qi^i badhofa. This wood is cross 

Badhofiqi hof ce£e k^miamaP An incapable 

man, what work will he do for you P 

Badhoria. Expert in working in wood. 
Badi. Enmity, ill-will, hostility, ani- 
mosity, malevolence. 

Nui up^rre b^ye lagaoeda. He has iU-wiU 
against him. 

B^. Plaintiff, accuser, complainant, 

Pr%tib^. Defendant, aoouaed. 

Badisti. Enmity, ill-will, hostility, ani- 
mosity, malevolence, dislike. 

A4i h^T^i badisti lagaoakawadea. He is the 
object of much ill-will. 

Bad kolma. A variety of the rice plant 

Badla. ^ Exchange, recompence, reven- 
Bodla. J ffe, requital 

Badla alom halaea. Do not take rerenge. 
Kalomreh5 satomrehS ona badlaA %oura. 

Badli. A substitute ; to exchange, to 
substitute ; instead of, in exchange. 

Ba^ohi. A worker in wood, a village 

Ba^ohi. To gossip, to exaggerate, 
to yam, to deceive by verbosity ; 

E[atha ba^ohi hof. A story monger, a fluent 

Nui do katha 9^e ba<jlohia. He spins yams. 

Bador satok. Short neck and projec- 
ting chin, ugly, disgusting. 

Badosti. C£ badisti. 

Badot. To be at enmity, to bear a 
grudge against one, to bear ill- 
will towards one. 

Nukin $<^ikin badotakana. These two are at 
great enmity with each other. 

Badra. C£ bada^. 

Badra. To refuse, to leave untouched, 
to cast aside, to use what is second 
hand, to waste in using, to waste, 
to pass over ; refuse, residuum. 

B^r% sunum. Oil extracted from refuse. 
Nuig^^do noa ghSse b^r^ka^a. This oow 
has wasted this grass (refused to eat it.) 

Badrak. With great foi-ce, or momen- 

BadpaM marteye bind^ena. He feU to the 

BadfaK xnarteye tawaM go€kadea. He dashed 

ground with g^reat force. 
raK marteye tawaM go^ 
nim down with great foroe. 

Ba^i'ak badrak. At random, though- 
lessly, nonsensically. 

Badrak badrak. 1 The sound made by a 

Bardak bardak. J buffalo, or other 

heavy animal running on moist 

soil, or by a herd of cattle feeding. 

Badras. A variety of rice grown on 
high lands. 




L 33 ] 


Bae. To store, to lay by, to keep shut 
up, to put in a safe place. 

Bolo baieakanae. He is hiding inside. 

g*?- JNot-he. 
Baii-e. j 

Bae roplala. He did not apeak. 
Baiie hataoleda. He did not take. 

^t} ™'. I-*- 

Baelao. To wander about, to drive 
cattle to their grazing ground from 
ada (q. v.) to conduct water for 

Baena. Earnest money, advance, han- 

Dor damakadeali,menkhan t<^ka b%na]ttiAte 
mi£ XaikA baenali em o^akawadea. I have 
settled the prioe, bat as I have no money 
just now I liave given him one rupee aa ear- 
nest money. 

Baephol. A small common plant, Des- 
modium, polycarpum V, C, 

Bag. A bridle, bit for a horse. 

Bag aenom. A variety of the rice 

Bagahi. Dangerous, infested with wild 

J^i bag^hiakana, noa bir do. Thia jungle is 

damgerons (through being infested with wild 

Noa ato do ba^rt^hi^, gu^i rogte ^^iko gujuK- 

kana. Thia village is cLangeroua, many 

people are dying of email pox. 

Bagan. A garden, a grove of planted 

T>^^/* 'Mixed, impure, confused. 

Noa it% bagargea. Thia seed is mixed. 

Noa mamla bagpag^a. Thia oaae is confuaed. 

Bagar gathia. 1 Undersized, of j u venile 
Bajar gafhi^ / appearance, not look- 
ing one's age. 

Bagdao. To destroy, to go wrong, to 
be spoiled, to rout. 

Gh^ bag^aoena. The watoh ia wrong. 

Bagdao. To lose, to miss, to be lost. 

Dhobi mi{ t^n kiori6e bagdaokeda. The wash- 
erman loat a cloth. 

Non^ed bagdao otokadea. It waa here I loat 

Jqitri akoaX horko bagdaotakoa. The pilgrims 
will miaa their way. 

Bag dhinuk. A large bow which is set 
in the path of large wild animals. 

Baghel. C£ bagahi. 

Bagher. Dangerous through being 
infested with wild animals. 

Baghin janum. > 

A common thorny 
Baghin jhaWa. / climbing shrub, 

Mezoneurum cucullatum, TT. & A. 

Baghler. Cf bagher. 

Bagi. A tumtum, a light bamboo cart. 

Bagi. To leave, to abandon, to forsake, 
to dismiss, to quit. 

BqijiK do bako b^gia. They will not quit aum- 

Bagi oto. To leave outright. 
iNir b^giadeae. He ran and left him. 
B^gi b^gite. By fits and starts. 

A garden, a tea garden, a 
grove of planted trees, a 
mango grove. 

By mistake, unintention- 



Baglo£teil idikeda. I took it without intend- 
ing it 

Bagluca. A very troublesome annual, 
Martynia diandray Oloxin, 

An oil is extracted from the seeds by a method 
of distillation. 

Bag parijar. A variety of the rice plant. 

Bagra. Fibre extracted trom the leaf 
of the Palmyra palm. 

Bagra. Cf. bagar. 

Bagrum. Fat, corpulent. 

Bagwan. C£ bagica. 

in bagwan. A grove of mango trees. 

Bah. To encourage, to incite ; help, 
resource, opportunity. 

BSh bad dam oafeaKkana. I cannot get an 

Isore bahabona. €k>d will help us. 
Ma, ma, seta bahaeme. Incite the dog. 

R h h li f ^^^^^ ' ^^^^ ^^^® ' 
Bah I am do ce£lekan hof . 

Baha. A flower ; to flower. 

Baha. The monthly " courses" of wo- 
f men, the menses, the placenta. 

Baha. To deck with flowers, put flow- 
ers in the hair. 

Bahakalime. Put a flower in my hair. 
Kufiko bahaakana. The girls are decked with 


Baha bahi 

[ 34 1 


Baha bahi Heaped, piled up, a pile, 
running over, a heap. 

Baha b^hi^e emadida. He filled it up for me. 

Baha bahi. C£ ahi bahi. 

• • • 

Bahal. To engage, to appoint to an 
office, to begin, to allow too much 
liberty to a child or young person. 

EtaM sahebe bahalakana. Another gentleman 

has got the appointment. 
Bahalem a^aXakawadea. Yon gaye him too 

much liberty. 

Bahal, 1 Happy, contented, light 
Bahali. J hearted. 

Bahala. 1 Barren, as an animal, some- 
Bahla. J times applied in anger to 
women by women. 

Noi b^h^l^ do bae gidr^ johkana. 

Bahalao. To ease, to lighten, to com- 
fort, to soothe, to make happv. 

Hon bahalaoMa. The heart wiU be made happy. 

Bahali. An office, a position, an ap- 
. pointment 

Bahali khonili chnt^n ooomea. I shall cause 
you to be dismisBed foom your appointment. 

Bahali. Arrogant, impertinent, presum- 
ing upon one's office, presumptuous. 

Hape, thiroKme, ^im bah^liakana, ](ielmealaii. 
Be silent, yon are very arrogant, I shaU do 
for yon yet. 

Bahao. To exist, to live. 

Noi hor do ^iye bahaoakana. This man has 
liyed a long time. 

Baha porob. The flower festival of the 
Santals, observed about the middle 
of Phagun, or the end of February. 

Bahar 1 Out side, without, beyond ; to 
Bahre J eject. 

Baha s^rohS,. A ceremony legalising an 
irregular marriage. 

Baha saonakakinabo. 

Bah bah. Free, at . liberty, without 

Kopa knriko bah bah bapaekana. 

Bahbahia. Left to the freedom of one's 
own will, too much liberty allow- 
ed to a child, or a young person ; 
independent, unrestrained, wealthy. 

Bahb^hife ilamakafte nonka bandhej kttiae. 
He has beoome so mischievous through liav- 
ing too muoh of his own way. 

Kof a kufi bah b^hi^ alope af alakoa. Do not 
leaye the young men and maidens unres- 

Bah b^hi^ko kisSf akana. They are so wealthy 
as to be independent. 

B§;hc^ *) To hire bullocks or buffaloes 
Caro. J for agricultural purposes by 
the year. 

OroKko b^ho^ko liam daf eakoa. They can hire 
plough cattle by the year. 

Baher. 1 Out side, beyond, out-lying ; 
Bahre. J to put outside, to eject. 

Baher baf ge. An out-lying barge (q. y.) 
Baher ohajan. Housenola utensils that re- 
main outside of the house. 

Baher. Broken, defiled by out-siders. 

T^ • 1 V I An account book. 

Bahi. A heap, a pile, large quantity. 

ifif b%hi dakae emaoitia. He gaye me a pUe 
of rice. 

BahL ") Flowing, running, as opposed 
Buhi J to stagnant. 

B^hi daK sanam m9il% atu idia. Bnnmng water 
carries away all impurity. 

B§lhl. The upper arm, the elbow. 

Bibhl duar.^ Names mentioned in the 
B^ih duar.) traditions of the Santals. 

The Bahi door is probably an opening in some 
mountain range through which the Santals 
passed to their present habitat in Cho(a 

Bahlj. A method of catching fish. 
Bahila. Of bahla. 

• • • • 

Bahir baL Convulsions during whi(^ 
the patient loses the power of 
hearing ; deafiiesa' 

Bahkao. To stray, to wander away, to 
deceive, to tempt, to allure, to de- 
lude, cause to stray, to drive cattle. 

Oka Be6 con uni g^ doe bahkaoena. The cow 

has strayed somewhere. 
Tin^lt menaKkotama, non^e khon bahkao idi- 
' kom. Driye aU you haye (cattle) away 

from here. 
Bide bahkaokediiStegili jomkeda. The serpent 

tempted me and I ate. 

Bahla. Barren, of animals only, though 
sometimes applied in anger to 

Bahna. To name, to nickname, to 

Mul liutum bag^kate etat liutumko bahnaaka- 
dea. They haye dropped his real name, 
and giyen him a nickname. 

Bahni. (1) A whirl pool. (2) A large 
roimd jar. 

B^hni ga^a. A riyer the bed of which is full of 
pools caused by the swirling of the water. 


[ 35 ] 


B&hiS Ic i "^^ encourage, to comfort. 

Bahojiihar. Brother-in-law. 

Baholiharto^. His brother-in-law. 
Bahoiihariii. Mv brother-in-law. 
Baholiharme. Thy brother-in-law. 

Bahra. Deaf, dull of hearing. 
Bahra Elxtemal, outward, out side, 

beyond, outlying ; to eject, to put 

out, to exclude. 

Lekha khon bahre. Innumerable. 
Sahao khon bahre. Bejond endnranoe. 
Bnjh^Q khon bahre. Beyond understanding. 
Bahre ffotkaeme. Eject him. 
Bahrela. Will be exclnded. 

Bahu. A bride, a wife. 

B^oXii. The bride (abont to be.) 

B^hn joii. To take to oneself a wife. 

B%ha agn. To bring a bride from her father's 

B%hni^. A wedded bride. 
B^hn jaw&e. Bride and bridegfroom. 
B%hnadeali. I got him a wife. (I wifed him.) 
B^hnani^. A married man. 

Bahumut. Diabetes. 

Baihu tu^uri. A small plant, common 
about villages, Vemonica cinerea, 

Bahware. Bravo, well done, excellent- 
ly well played. 

Bahware! be^ye d^r dafeaXa. Bravo! he 
mns weU. 

Bai A fit, convulsions, spasms, the 
falling sickness, epilepsy, deliri- 
um, insanity, madness, uncon- 

HaiTAm b^i. A form of insftnitr. 

B%i karon sat>a k adea. He has been seised with 

Menkhanko bnihankeda, hapam b»iakanae 

mente. Bat they thought he had gone mad. 

Bai mara. Involuntary twitching of 

Bai bai. Slowly, gradually, low, noise- 

B9ib9itek%mime. Work slowly. 
B^ib^te haraXa. It wiU grow gradually. 
B^ibfite rorme. Bpeak low. 
B^ibiite oalalme. Go noiselessly. 

BaibL Miscellaneous expenses. 

Baida. A doctor who follows the na- 
tive Indian system of medicine. 

B§kih|. A ceremony of brotherhood 
observed at a marriage by a mem- 
ber of the bridegroom's party and 
the Jog Madjhi (q. v.) of tne bride's 
village, solatium, present. 

BSihS. An ornament worn on the 
left arm by women. 

Baihar. 1st Class rice land, low, moist 
fields with a good supply of water. 

Baih duar. C£ bahl duar. 
Baini gai Up country cows, cows 
having curved horns. 

The oow of flantalia has straight horns, the 
bfini g%i has a ** crumpled horn." 

Bairi. Enemy, enmity, illwill, ani- 
mosity, hostility. 

Bene b^iri. An enemy. 

JahSe tolu^ bfiri alom dohoea. Bear ill wiU to 
no one. 

Am tnlu6e bfiriXa. He will become your ene- 

Baisak. The first solar month of the 
Hindus, April-May. 

Baisau. To establish, to settle, to 
found, to fix, to let out on hire, to 
put out to usury, to lend, to be 
accustomed to, to fit in, to fit. 

B^is%u dhiri. Pavement. 

B^is^u h^n^i. Liquor ffiyen at the establish- 
ment of a homestead. 

Lebe^ b^is^ukedali. I tramped it down. 

Khapre bail b^s^uXkana. It does not fit into 
the notch, i. e. is not to the point. 

Tftkali b%is%uaka{a. I have lent money cm in- 

Ti 9uri b^ie^uXtida. My hand has not yet 
become accustomed. 

Ot ill b^is^uakafa. I haye let out land. 

Toleko b^is^uakaf a. They have laid the founda- 

Eurt^ hormore bail b^is^uXkana. The coat 
does not fit the person. 

Baisi. A panchayat, a meeting for the 
discussion and settlement of mat- 
ters, a council. 

B^isiren mukhi^. President of the council. 

Lo bir b^dsi. A meeting convened at the an- 
nual hunt. - This hunt takes place after the 
underfifrowth of the jungle has been burnt 
up, hence the name lo bir eendra." (q. v.) 

G^urfsi b^isi. A conference of near neigh- 

Malijhi bfisi. A meeting oaUedbythe village 

B^si kutum. 7 A conference of relatives 

Eutum b^isi. ) on family matters. 

Baj. To interlace, to cross, to plait, to 
entangle, to set a fish trap; a 
trap, difficulty ; ravelled, confused. 

Jahgae bajkeda. He crossed his legs. 

Hako bajreko jh^efkoa. They catch fish in a 

Tikin bajakafa. They have linked their arms. 

Baja. Straw, or fibre of the Palmyra 
palm cut into short lengths, and 
mixed with clay for plastering 
. purposes. 



[ 36 ] 


Baja*. A musical instrument. 

Baja. To sound, to strike as a clock. 

Dob bajaena/ It has etrnck ten. 

Id hijutf te garo bajaena. It struok eleven aa 

I oame. 
Atlibajakate bis minit paromena. 8-20. o'clock. 
Panoh bajaX l%gi€ dos mini^ b^ki menaMa. 

4-50. o'clock. 

Baja. The fibre of the pericarp of the 
fi'uit of the cocoanut and palmy- 
ra palms ; stringy, as a fruit. 

N6a nl do bajagfea. This mango is stringy. 

BajaL A variety of the rice plant. 

Bajao. To strike against, to knock, to 
hit, to impinge, to impress upon. 

Mare ghaoreve bajaokedida. He knocked me 

on an old sore. 
Sar bajaoadea. The arrow hit him. 

Bajar. A market, the portion of a 
town where the shops are located. 

Bajar kufi din. AU day long, the whole day. 

Bajar gathia. Undersized, of juvenile 
appearance, not looking one's age. 

Baje. Some... others, sometimes. 

Bajeko ba^aea, ar bajeko do bail. Some know, 
and others don't. 

Ba^e birla. Sometimes, now and again. 
Ba^ek birl^. In some parts, in some places. 
Ba]ek birl^ sawEeaka€a. There has been a 
good haryest in some parts. 

Bajek. '\ 

Bajek khane. I Sometimes, at times 

Bajek khanek. j only. 

Bajek sajek. J 

Bajek khaneli jofao bapaea. I yoke him at 

Bajhao. To ensnare, to inveigle, to 
entrap, to decoy, to seduce, to en- 
tangle, to be over head and ears, 
to bear tales. 

Baljhao hop. A tale bearing man. 

Bajha bajhi. To contend, to be entang- 
led, to get into difficulties. 

Bajha b^jhienakin, akintegekin liapamena. 

BajhanL A tale bearer, a sower of 

J^^i bajh^ni hop kanae. She is a great sower 
of discord. 

Bajhar. Crooked, involved, mixed, 

Noa katha do 9^i bajhapgea. This story is 
very mixed. 

Bajia. To sound. 

'fhnid^ b^ji^kate baohao tofkedam. You 
chose it by tapping and sounding (as an 
earthen vessel.) 

Bajhua. To hamper, to hinder, to im- 
pede, to inc(Hnmode, to entangle, 
to involve. 

B%jhu9akadiliae. He put me in a difficulty. 
Nni gidr^ i^teii b^jhn^kana. I am hampered 
by this chUd. 

BajL To turn a summer-sault, to 
turn head over heels. 

B^jiM do bako b«gia. They wiU not qnit 

Thu b^jikedeakin. Thej shot and knocked 

him over. 
Phakab^ji gofkediliae. He knocked me head 

over heels. 

Baji. A wager, to bet. 

Ma bajibon lagaoa, tinaXbo d^f dapeaHa. 
Come, let ns lay a wager as to who wUl 
run fastest. 

Bajna. To beat a drum, to make a 
noise by striking one thing against 
another, drum music, musical ins- 
truments that are played by beat- 
ing, as a drum, cymbals &c. 

Tj y^ }A drummer, a musician. 
x>ajma. J 

Bajnia. A tale bearer, a gossipping 

No! maejin katha b^jni^ kanae. This woman 
is a tale bearer. 

Bajondar. A drummer, a musician. 

Bajra. A grain, Sorghv/m wXgare, 

Bajpa loboM. Flour made from '* bajpa." 
Bajpa ata. Boasted ** bajpa." 

Bajra bajri. To stagger, to sway to 
and fro as a drunken man. 

BajrahLl Slovenly, slatternly, grimy, 
BejrahiJ dirty. 

Baju. An armlet worn above the el- 

The b^jn worn by men differs from that worn 
by women. 

Bak. To hook on, to hang on a hook, 
to catch on a thorn, &c. 

J^nnmte baKenae. He is caught bv a thorn. 
Menem bagoka. Look ont, you'll be caught 
(by a thorn.) 

Bak. The white paddy bird. 

Loboe bak. ") 

Bitkil bak. > Yarietiefl of the white paddy 

Cauri^ bak. ) bird distinguished by Simtalfl. 


[ 3T ] 


B&k. An (uiklet worn by womea and 

Klul% bik. A * bak * with a joint. 

Crooked, twisted, bent, 

Baka. 1 
Bftka. J 

Bakao. To beguile, to mislead, to in- 
spire, to be spirited away, to speak 
as an insane person. 

Vniye bakaokedilia. He misled me. 

Bakama. Fit to be weaned. 

Baka£ bakal 1 To move here and 

Baka£ bukut J there, as maggots; 

to keep turning from one side 

to another, to tell what should 

have been kept secret. 

Ce{ bail bakai! bnkuCpe rof eda P 

Bakbak. Without meaning, nonsensical. 

Bakbak rop. To chatter, to prate, to jabber, 
,to talk at randon, to talk idly. 

Bakbakaot. To chatter, to prate, to 
gabble, to talk idly, talk at ran- 

Bakbakur. The noise made by pi- 
geons ; to coo, as a pigeon. 

Bakea. A trumpet. 
Bakoma. Vp.^ ^ ^ ^^^^^ 
Bakron. J 

BalLbheQkor.p Crooked, zigzag, winding, 
mixed, unintelligible. 

Balbheiikofe ropeda. He talks nnintelHgibly. 

Bakdulu. A species of dragon fly. 

Bakhad. Or else, otherwise. 
Bakha. \ 

Bhakha. j- To boast, to brag. 
Bhakka. j 

BhakbaeC kanam, pase baoom dapeaX. Yon are 
boasting, perhaps yon may not be able. 

Bakhar. To wrangle, to dispute. 

Bakharia. Wrangling, disputatious. 

Bakhara. 1 A report, boasting, bragg- 
^hakhara./ ing, talk. 

Ona bakharateko .senlena. They went on the 

strength of that report. 
Eken bakharatae, k^mi do bae k^mi daf eala. 

He only boasts, he oan't work. 

Bakhen. Cf. bakhSr. 




A homestead, a collection 
of houses belonging to one 

^Bese bakheraka^. He has made a fine home- 

Bakh6r. To invoke, to pray, to beg, 
to petition.' 

A4i rnhef kateko bakhSpa. They severely soold 
(their gods) in their prayers. 

Bakhera. Wrangling, vain disputa* 
tion, a war of words, a row, brag- 
ging, boasting, quarrelling. 

Cei bakherape lagaoef kana P What yain dis* 
pntation are you engaged in ? 

Bakhna bakhnL To prate, to jabber^ 

to talk idly. 
Bakhnao. To talk idly, to prate, to 

babble, to jaw. 

j^nfial^gebo bakhnaoKkana. We are wasting 

Bokhol. Cf bakher. 

Bakhor An instrument, with which 

tiWr cocoons are cut into narrow 

strips (badhi) for splicing purposes; 

teeth of a comb. 

Bakhor. 1 To altercate, to dis- 

Bakhpa bakhrL J pute angrily. 

Bakhra. Share, portion ; to apportion, 
to share, to divide. 

BSt bakhra. Portion of inheritance. 

K^mi bakhraaleme. Give as each our set work . 

Bakhri. Cf bakher. 

Okate senakanae P B^khrite senakanae. Where 
has he gone P He has g^one to the bakhri 
(his employer's* honse.) 

Baki 1 An insect pest which injures 
Buki. J the young rice plant. 

Baki. Balance, deficiency, arrears. 

Okoe h5 bako b^kia. There is no one remain* 

De, raebarii, b^ki bekoea oeCko legoar 
menaffa P r 

Baki dhike. 1 d i _ 
Bikidhiki I Balance, arrears. 

B^ki dhike sanam cabaentida. My arrears are 
all cleared off. 

Bakjunu. The firefly. 
Baklalc. The bark of. a tree, rind of 
certain fruits. 

Kalndi baklaK. The rind of the nnripe fmit 

of the * Matkom.' (a. y.) 
Terel baklaff . The rind of the unripe fmit of 

the*Terel.' (q. V.) 

Bakoli. A poetical name for the white 

paddy bird. 
Bakre. Bind of kuIndL (q. v.) 

Bakra. To thin out dhau that has 
been sown where it has come up 
too thickly. 


[ 38 1 


^^* I A male lamb. 

Bakri A ewe lamb. 
Bakron. C£ bakoma. 

5®'^®^ J- An agricultural implement. 

Baksis. A gratuity, a prize. 

B^kuK* A whorl in an animal's horn, 
a crook, a buckle, clasp of belt. 

B^kutf kam. Clasp it. 

Catom ^kaKte batare^ balakafa. I haye 

hooked the umbrella on the hata by the 

orook (of the handle.) 

Bal. To bore a hole, or to puncture, 
with a red hot iron. 

Ojo baltiiime. Pnnotore the boil forme miiAi 

a red hot needle. 
TirioA balkeda. I bored the finger holes in my 

fiute with a red hot iron. 

Bala. \The relationship between the 

Balaea. J respective parents, uncles 

and aunts of a married couple. 

Nil bala herel. The fiathers-in-law. 
Kij bala era. The mothers-in-law. 
Kaka bala herel. "} 
CK)iiflro bala herel. f tt««14.- 
Manio bala herel. ( ^»«1««- 
Knm^ bala herel. J 
Kaka bala era. 'X 
GcAgo bala era. f j^ ^ 
Mamo bala era. f 
Kam^ bala era. J 
Balaii. My hala, 
Balam. T^y bala. 
Balat. His bala, 

Balaeaffako. Their relationriup totoohowtf 
wiU be that of hala, 

B^lai Abundant, so very much as to 
cause surprize; wonderful, sur- 

B^l^i oi] mena1H»ea. He is rery wealthy. 
B^l^igeye rofkef do. He spoke a great deal. 
B^ilii jome jomkeda fie ate an atnaaiTig quaa* 


B^l^ikedae, nit hZ bae hijnlkana. 

Balam. Cf. bala. 
Balad. Cf. bala. 
Balat. Cf. bala. 

Balbal. Perspiration, sweat. 

Balbal bhnmbnri. llie rash of priokly heftt. 
Balbal jiri jiri jorotfkana. The sweat trickles 

Balbal dale. Perspiration, sweat. 

XJniaK balbal daX ao otrd joroKkan mayam 
(hopko leka hoedntaea. His sweat became 
as it were drops of blood falling upon the 

Balbalao. To perspire, to sweat, 

Balbalaolkanae. He is perspiring. 

Bale. Toung, tender, fresh. 

Bale belted. A tender infant. 

Bale be(ke6. An infant. 

Bale gidr^. A ^onng child. 

Bale mok>K. The new moon. 

Bale d%bi. The ridges of the scapula, or shoul* 

der blade. 
Mi£ bale be(fk«^ khon. From earliest childhood. 
Bale moloKre senakanae. He went at the time 

of the new moon. 

B^ile. }Not-we. 

Bale calala. Wa wiU not go. 

B^gada. Sand carried down by a 
flow of water. 

Saname bf Igadakeftalea. Onr (field) has all 
been coTered with sand. 

Balgar. Strong, vigorous, mighty. 
Bali. Iron stone sand, iron ore. 

The Kol iron smelters wash the ore from i}m 
sand in the riyer beds. 

Qitil^ur } Crystalized 

Balis. A pillow. 

Balkati. The fee paid to the officiating 
priest who oners his own blood, 
uf. bul mayam. 

The fee generally amounts to one rupee four 

raw sugar. 

Balok. Young, immature. 

Balti. A bucket. 
Balut dare. The oak tree. 
Bam. Shaft of a carriage. 
Bambal. C£ bomal. 
Bambaro. C£ ambafo. 
Bamber. A torch. 
B^mbL An eel. 

Bambkaa 1 To bubble as boiHng water, 
Bamkao. j to flare up, as a name, to 
increase, to pervade, to spread. 

Seiigel ^i bamkaoena. The fire has increas- 
ed neatly. 
So bamkaoena. A smell perrades the place. 

BambkoL A pump. 
Ban. Sorcery. 

Ban p^thri. An. affection said to be produced 
hr sorcery, in which the exudation of the* 
sain becomes like sand. * 

Ban. A flood. 



Bana hofkin calaoena. They both went away. 
Banar do tkikgea. Both are correct. 

Bana. The black bear, Ursus labia* 

Parkombftna. The Indian badger, KelUwn 



Bana c^^^ 

[ 39 ] 


Bana c(fr6. A bird so named. 

Bana etka. A common plant, Ipomcea 
turpethv/ra, R, Br, 

Bana hataK. A small tree with seed 
pods like swoixl blades, Oroocylon 
indicum, Benth. 

Banak. A hook, (from baM, q. v.) 

BAD&tt 4&^« A pole with » hook on one end 
used to pnll down fruit, dry branohes, Ao, 
from treea. 

Bana koram. A variety of the rice 

Banal. To appoint, to choose. 

L^ko l%gi£ko banaikedea. They appointed 

him to teaoh them. 
Jahi|^em banalakadea P H8, noi hofid l^iadea. 

Hare yon appointed any one ? Yea, I told 

this man. 

Banam. A fiddle, to play the fiddle. 

Hnk^ banam. A fiddle made from the shell of 

a ooooannt, with one string. 
Kindiri banam. Made of wood, has sereral 

strings, and wire underneath the strings. 
Kat banam. A fiddle made of wood. 
AK. A fiddle bow. 
Tat. Fiddle string. 
Tar. Brass strixig stretched nndemeath the 

gnt stoing. The brass string sounds in 

nnison wiw the gnt string whioh is played 


Banan. To spell. 

Jnd^ lekate bananoKa. It is differently spelt. 

Banao. 1 To make, to fSsishion, to prepare> 
Benao. J to agree, to live in harmony. 

Bail banaoK. To disagree, to be at rarianoe 

with each other. 
Besko banaoKkana. They liye in harmony. 

Banar. Both. Cf. bana. 

Banbasi. 1 A flood, to be carried 

Banbhasi. J away by a flood. 

Banb^sikefkoa. The flood carried them awa;;r. 
Ga^are banbasi dak oalaXkana. The river is 
in flood. 

Badcao.^ To save, to keep alive, to es- 
Baclao. J- cape, to recover, to remain 
J unexpended. 

Qo6 balioaoenae. He recovered from a severe 

TeheH liind^bo god balioaolengegapabooalaifa. 

If we are permitted to see the morning we 

will go. 
BalicaoH ooe oe€ ooe. He may recover. 
BalioaoM ooe bail ooii. His recovery is donbt- 


Band. A tank, a water reservoir, an 

Bandme. Excavate a tank. 

Banda. To disgrace. 

^ntom sanamebandakeftilla. He bronght dis- 
grace on me. 

Banda. Farasiticjal plants, air plants. 

Dare banda. Parasiticai plants maimy belong- 
ing to the Natural Orders Loranthacefi 
and OrohidacesB which grow on trees. The 
names of the * bandas' are taken from the 
trees on which they are foond. 

Ul banda. Found on the mango tree. 
Sanom banda. Found on a Sarjom tree (q. v.) 
Matkom banda. Found on a Matkom tree (q. v. 
Terel banda. Foimd on a Terel tree (q. v.) 
J^um banda. Found on a Janum tree (q. v.) 

Ban<Ja. M. 1 Docked, part of the tail cut 
Ban^L F. J oflf, stumpy. 

i$utum ban^akeftiiia. fie beUttled me. 

Bancjia. *) A young man. 
Bandi. J A youn^ woman. 

Ban<}a b^n^iain caStlkana. The lad and lass 
are going together. 

Ban<Ja bandi. Stumpy, short. 

Hofo do %4i ban4a b^n^i geledna. The oars of 
the rice are short. 

Banda pon. Presents ofmoney given by 
the guests at a wedding for the 

Banda ponko em jaoralata, nekS ni^gili kiriil« 
keoa. I have boui^ this with the money 
contributed by the wedding g^uests. 

Bande. To dress, of women binding 
round waist. 

HoroK bandenaX. Clothing in general, of men 

and women. 
Putli bande. 7 A girl who only wears a piece of 
Sidup bande. > cloth round the loins ; a girl from 

3 to 6 vears of age. 
P^iSci bande. A girl who wears a piece of cloth 

round the loins, one end of which is caried 

over the shoulder; a girl from 6 to 12 

vears of age. 
Bentar bande. A method of wearing the sari 

which is wound several times round the 

waist, and then carried over the left shoulder. 

Kaso bande. 7 Several pleats are made in the 
Kh%n4i bande. ) portion bound round the waist 
at the front, and the end thrown over tiie 
right shoulder from behind falls over ther 
breast, and the edges are tucked in on ei- 
ther side into the portion round the middle. 
Pafhan bande. 7 A piece of cloth of the usual 
Parhan^ bande. ) width is bound roimd the 

Gogott. A niece of cloth thrown over the shoul- 
der, ana falling over the breast, the com- 
plement of Parhan hands, 
Kantha bande. Kantha cloth (q. v.) is bound 
round the waist, and the dress is completed 
bv a piece c^ doth (gogoX) thrown over the 
shoulaer and covering the breast. 

LebdagogoK.7The cloth is bound round the 
Lebda raaap. y waist as in Kaso bafids^ but 
instead of being brought over the shoulder 
from behind, is passed over the left shoulder 
in front, and the end hangs down the back. 
CK)goK japaR. The action of oringing the cloth 
over the shoulder from behind and tucking 
it, on both sides, into the portion round tho 


[ 40 ] 


Bandh. An iron band round the nave 
of a cart wheel to prevent it from 

Bandhao. To establish, to fix, to ar- 

NSwS atoko bandhaoa. They will establish a 
new village. 

Sohkate jamako bandhaoeda, nahaX do. Now- 
a-days they fix rents after measurement. 

Bandhar. Tied up. 

Bandhar sadom. A horse kept in the stall, and 
not turned loose when not in use. 

Ban<jihej. Mischievous, self willed, fid- 

Nui gidra ^/^ye ban^heja. This child is rery 

Bandhe6. Expedient, means, appli- 
ance, contrivance, device, strata- 

Kion6 b^nuKanah, ma bandhej joiime liama 
mente. There is no oloth, hit upon some 
expedient to get it 

Bandhi. A cog placed before a cart 
wheel to prevent its moving, a 

Cak b^indhiena. The wheel has met with an 
obstaole, (a hitch has occurred in the arran- 

01 bandhi. To mark out the pattern before 
beginning to tatoo. 

Bandhok. To pledge, to pawn, to mort- 
gag;e, to contract ; security, pledge. 

Noa jinis bandhokid dohoeda. I pleage this 

Th^rili bandhok otolaKa. I pledged my brass 

Sudh bandhok. Usufruct in lieu of interest. 

Bandhoki. Pledged, pawned, mortga- 

Bandhoki jaegad hataokeda. I leased mortga- 
ged Is^d. 

Bandhon. To exorcise, to charm, to tie, 
to bind ; a bond, a contract. 

Nui hofili bandhonakadea. I have got this 
man under a contract. 

HoroK cikhn^ mi£ lekan bandhon. Betrothal 
is a kind of contract. 

Bandi. A method of storing grain, &c. in 
straw, bound tightly round with 
straw ropes. 

Dos baro ka^katelo b^ndia. We put ten or 
twelve Icata (q. v.) in one b^ndi. 

Ban^i. A female animal with a docked 

Bandia. ") A male animal with a docked 
Ban^a. J tail, to cut oflf a piece. 

Ona matt b^4i4^1edatt bheja hS banar ku^r^ 
hSko idi toraea. They take with them both 
pieces of the target which has been out in 

Bandki. Mortgage. 

Sud bandki. Money lent on the security of 
land, the usufruct of which pays the in- 

Bandkia. A person with a gun. 
Bandna. A Hindu festival, observed 
in Eartik. 

Bando. The fruit of a lar^e jungle 
climbing plant called Cihtlt (q. v.) 
Spathotobua Boxburghii, Benth. 

The seeds yield a valuable oil. 

Ban<JoM. 1 Big headed, and big 

Bandok satolf. ) eyed. 

Bandor bad. Convulsions, during which 
the patient grinds his teeth, rest- 
lessness, St. Vitus dance, spasmo- 
dic contraction of muscles. 

Bandor galL Cancrum oris, cancer of 

Baydor jhuti. 
Bandor KokhL 

Bandor laun. 

The fruit of the 
tula J Linn.t 
is caiUed the 

A medicinal herb. 

The monkey's shillalah. 

Indian labumam, Cassia Fis^ 

which resembles a short stick 

monkey's l^nri (q. v.), or shill- 

Bandphora bid. A spotted snake 
which damages embankments by 
boring into them. 

Bandra. Notched, rough, pock-pit- 

Noa kat bandragea. This wood is rough. 

Ban<Ju6 bandu6. Having the upper 
part of the body unclothed. 

Okatem mohn^aena b^4a6 bqm^u^ P 

Banduk. A gun. 

Bar n^U banduk. A double barreUed gun. 
Tota b^knduk. A breech-loading gun. 
Aglagwa b^duk. Gun fired by a fuse. 
C^ku b^mdnk. A weapon with a pistol at one 

end, and a knife at the other. 
Thehga banduk. A fuse gun resembling a 

walking stick, used to make a noise, not to 

Barcha banduk. Gun with bayonet. 

Ban. Not, no (asserting); to deny, 
to refuse. 

Hijultme, alom baha. Come, don*t sav no. 
Ce£em dis^katSa, ropam aem bah ? Won't you 

tell what you remember P 
Cedatt bam e<uenkan P Why are you angrry ? 
He khan hege, baxikhan bahge. If yes, yes, if 

no, no. (it is aU the same.) 

Baa baa 

[ 41 1 


6a6 ban. Wide, gaping ; a rent, a wide 

Bah bane oaha{)akana. He gajg^B widely. 
Bah bah ofe^lcana. It is torn into a large hole. 

Ban do. . .ban do. Whether. . .or. 

Bah do noa katha ente, bah do etagatf . Whether 

this story or another. 
Bah doe calaoena, bah do menaea, ball badaea. 

I can't say whether he has gone, or is here. 
Bah do mpen, bah do bah. 

Bangam. To finish, to do for, to make 
an end of, to become soft. 

Jel bahgamena, se bah ? Is the meat all eaten 

or not? 
TJnile bahgamkedea. We did for him. 
Dal bahgamkedUlae . He struck an d floored me . 
Bafigam s^tena. It is settled effectually. 

Bangaura. The seed of the cotton 

Bangorae, 1 Black; broad faced and 
Bangcouk. J black. 

Ban-hone6. Had . . . would not. 

Bail hone6 Habil lekae bhagekotta ? 
Amem senlenkhan bah hone6 id senkotta ? If 
you had gone would not I also have gone. 

Bankhan do. 

Or else, if not, otherwise, 
except, certainly, of 

oekaea. I will go, if 

Calalall bahkhan oefili 
not what wiU I do. 

Bante bahkha^ phari^K realt ^t b^nuKanah. 
Without medioine there is no chuice of 

Mi€ gh^ri bahkhade hijuKa. 

Bu^f , bahkhan do oe€ ill cekaea ? I shall cer- 
tainly return. 

Banki. An anklet worn by women 
and ^Is. 

Dare b^hki. An orchid, Vanda Roaburghii, the 
leaf of wMoh resembles in shape the anklet, 
and is split up the middle and worn by girls 
as an anklet. 

Banma. Employed in comp. to intro- 
duce a statement, that, that is to 
say, namely. 

On^egeko metaea, bahma, sadom hoponko b^- 

Knkmue l^iadea, bahma, mi£(en dak nifili 

Knlikedeae, cekalkanam bifi mente, bahma, 

bah tbikiil ^ik^ueda. 

Banse.l Is it not so, assuredly, actually. 
Base. J really. 

Ce^ bahse b^bn, horeo dale dalkedilia. Actually 
he struck me as you thresh gn^ain. 

A4i dinben b^ gi^ia^lea, base P Is it not so, 
that yon lukve left us for a long time? 

Bansid. A medicinal herb, Artemisia 
parvijlora, Roxb, 

Bante£. An emphatic form of ban 
(q. v.), certainly not, by no means. 

Bahtergeti calaHa. I shall certainly not ^o. 
Bahtc€ie alom baha, rebenme ba^e. Do not 
refuse out right, agree. 

Bania potole. A small pannier, a small 
round bundle, anything of the shape 
of a small pannier. 

Banij. To trade, to obtain with some 
trouble, to search for, to person- 
ally invite a daughter, or sister ; 
to personally call one to attend a 

Bani. Payment for services made in 
kind to oilmen, goldsmiths, &c. 

Banij bepar. To buy goods at one 
place to sell at another, to trade. 

Ado b^nij bepar ko do phalnako kanako. 

Bjdjht" ¥.' } ^"■^''' childless. 

Banki. Match, fellow, counterpai*t ; 
Scottice, 'marrow, 

Uni b^nkili uduMapea, niki leka. I will shew 
you her fellow (whom she resembles in age), 
she is like this one. 

Banot. ^ To agree, to be of one mind, 
Bonot. J to be friendly. 

Unituluodo katha bah banotoKkantUia.? I do 
not agree with him. 

Banu. 1 Not to be, not to exist, no- 
BanuK. J thing. 

B^nuKkoa. They are not. 

Isor b^nugea. €K>d is not, (there is no God.) 

B^nuttaufdi. There is none. 

B^nugella hof do. I am done for. 

B^nugioan non^e do. He is not here. 

Banua. Unsocial, solitary, hermit like. 

Banwar. A tree rat. 

Banwaa To go out of the way, to 
disappear, to be lost, to be spirit- 
ed away, separated from one s fa- 
mily, to live in the forest. 

Okate coe banwasenaP Where can he have 
gone to? 

o : 1-To relapse into jungle. 
Bao. Wind, breath, cholera. 

Bao bah calaXkantaea. He does not pass wind. 

Bao. Calamity, distress, fear. 

Bao basat. Calamity, trouble, anxiety. 
K9ti<3 gidr^ do oe€ bao basat h5 bah lagaoakoa. 

Little children have no anxiety. 
Bao basat boloakana. A calamity has befaUen. 


[ 42 ] 


Dwarf, small of stature. 

Baora. M.V 
Baurl. F. j 

Baorg. C£ baurl. 

Baosa. Cf. aosa baosa. 

Baosao. 1 To persuade, coax, wheedle, 

Bhaosao.J cajole. 

Bap. 1 

Bapa. VFather. 

Bapu.. J 

Bap dhon. A form of address to elders or supe- 


NoKoe bap dhon, gooen, gorenale. 
Bapoti dnon. Paternal estate, patrimony, heri- 
Bap dada. Forefathers, ancestors, progenitors. 
Bapa purkh^. Ancestors. 

Bapadae. The reciprocal form of ba- 
dae. (q. v.) 

Bapag. The reciprocal form of bagi 
(q. v.); to separate as a husband 
and wife, to cfivorce. 

Bapagenakin. They are separated. 

Bapha. Advantage, fi'uit, return, be- 

Arjaoefreh5le baphage bahlo iSameda. Al- 
though we get good crops we are not bene- 
fited ( it aU goes to the money lender.) 

Baphao. To steam, to cook by steam- 
Bapla. Marriage, wedlock ; to marry. 

Bapla bih%. Marriage. 

Onkoko baplaMkan, arko goiie£ko tahekana. 
They were marrying, and giving in marri- 

Atoregeye baplaena. His bride was of his own 

Forms of Marriage. 

KirilS b^hu bapla. 

Itu€ bapla. 

Apahgirko reatf bapla. 

Kofa Kuri knn^el Aapamkato bapla. 

l^irboloK bapla. 

Jawae kiridoU bapla. 
Hirom oetan bapla. 
Tuiiki dipil bapla. 

Dare bapla ") A marriage ceremony performed 
Band bapla ) by the person who planted the tree, 
or dug the tank. 

Bapo. Father, an exclamation of sur- 
prize, used deprecatingly. 

Bapo bah doe calaoen, bah do menaegea, bapo. 
Hao bapo. An exclamation of sorrow ; alas ! 
B^li oalatf a bapo. 

Bapoti dhon. Patrimony, paternal in- 
heritance, heritage. 

T^ P ? * ITo baptize ; baptism. 

Bapuri6. Poor, miserable, modest, 
submissive, good natured. 

Bapu thakm\ God my father, an ad- 
dress in prayer. 

Bar ^1. Twenty. 
Bar isi. Forty. 
Bar jiwi. Pregnant. 

Mi£ moca khon bar mocaena. It is no longer a 

Bar. To fast, to refrain from taking 
food, applied generally with re- 
gard to dogs. 

Up^ barakafae. 

Bara. In comp. expresses frequency, 
continuance, habit. 

Nur bapae kanae. He runs about. 

Dara bapa dareattae. He is able to go about. 

Apepe men bapaeeda. Ton are in the habit of 

Aoe liel bapatfa, arsire. He will look at himself 

in the mirror. 

Bara. A pigsty. 

Sukri b&ra. Ringworm. 

Barabar. lEven, level, equal, regular, 
Barabari. j invariably, without change, 
always, incessantly, continually. 

Barab^riko hijutfkana. They come oontinually. 
Barabar got'kam. Level it down. 
Barabarigeako. They are equal. 
Jiwi barabari tahentaea. His mind wUl beat 

Ba^bar.^ j'''^ gabble, to chatter. 

Barabari Cf. bai-abar. 

Barad buinid. To rise in bubbles, to 
sparkle, as when the sun shines 
on water ; here and there. 

Barad burud. To go about, to run 
here and there, to go in and out, 
from place to place, to scatter ; 

E9'mi botorteye bafa6 burui^ bafaekana. He 
goes about from place to place through fear 
of having to work. 

Apan 9pin bara^ buru^ko calaoena. They scat- 
tered each his own way. 

Barae. \ To know, to be cognizant of, 
Badae. j to estimate. 

i:j« «t ) To know for oert»n. 

Barae daram. To foreknow, to fore see. 
Ba4aekate bae b^ri^leda. He did not waste it 


[ 43 ] 


Barag. Like, resembling. 

JA do kakali orattre guti baragili khataolena. 

I worked like a servant in my nnole's house. 
Noa daX do toa barag deloKkana. This water 

looks like milk. 

Barahi. A thick rope. 

Baran baran. \ Brilliant, refulgent, as 
Baran burun./ the sun's light before 
he appears above the horizon ; pale 
yellow, like the colour of a China- 

Baran burun. Gently, to sob, to draw 
long breaths when weeping, to 

Barangi. Tang of arrow head, spear- 
head, &c. mserted into the shafb. 

Barangom. Two plants receive this 
name, one Vemonia cineriay 
Less., the other Olossogyne pin- 
natifida^ D. C, 

Barao. To fast, to slake, or decom- 
pose, as hot lime ; to foil down, as 
earth in water. 

Naekeye baraoakaCa. The priest is fasting. 
Can baraoSa. The lime will slake. 
Bonomliasa loho€lenkhan barao godoKa. 

Bara pathol. A rather uncommon an- 
nual plant, Vemonia divergens, 

Baras baris. \Now and again, at inter- 
Baris ba^. j vals. 

Barat. *) With great force, heavily, to 
Baral J pelt, as large rain drops. 

Barat menteye dalkedea. He struck him a 

heavy blow. 
Barat barate daltkeda. The rain simply pelted. 

Baraudha. Gleanings of fish. 

After the water has been baled out the fish 
caught are divided equally among those 
eoncemed, after which each catches at his 
own hand. The fish thus caught are *b^ 
r^u^ha' fish. 

Barbar. Cf. bara bara. 

• • • • 

Barbar. Said to a buffalo to make it 

• ■ 

lie down. 

Barchi A spear. 

Bardak. With great force, or momen- 

Bapdak menteye liur go€ena. He f eU with great 

Bardak bardak. Cf. badrak badrak. 

Barduyfld. A bat. 

K^hu bardar?l<$. The flying fox, the large fox 
bat, Pteropus Edwardsi, 



Bare. May, oh that ! please, do. 

Emadme baf e. Do nve it please. 

Ma oaf e oalaKme. Do please go. 

A]f> ba!f e hovoKma. May it not be. 

Uni baf eye hijutf . Oh ! that he would come. 

Bare. Cf. bare dare. 

Barea. Two. 

Bare ba^waralf. 1 A common grass, 
Bari ba^waK. J Panicum colon- 
urriy Linn, 

Bare baha. A flowering plant found 
in the gardens ot the S^ntals, 
Pentapetes phcenicea, Linn, 

Bare bare. Often, time after time, 

Bare bare afisedilikanae. He is continually 
annoying me. 

Bare dare. The Banyan tree, Ficus 
beTtgcdensis, Roxb. 

Barem. Thy brother. 
Bared. My brother. 

Baret. His brother. 

Apa bare. A woman's father and brothers. 
Apuli bareli. My father and brothers. 

Baretok. To be one of the party to ac- 
company a bride to her new home. 

Bargao. To suborn, to egg on, to set 
on, to put out of the way, as a wit- 
ness, or stolen property; to put 
one on the alert, to give a hint 
on the quiet. 

Bargao goiHcadeae. He put him on the alert. 
Nui sip^hi bargaoakawadeae, uni hofre. He 
has this sipahi on the track of that man. 

Barge. A garden, a field. 

OfaK ba^ge. The gfarden or field in which the 

cultivator's house stands. 
Bahor baf ge. An out-lying garden, or field. 
Bafge potam. Cf . potam. 

. 6\* I The Mahrattas. 

Burgi bir9>j. Mahratta raiders. 

Barhao. To increase. Cf. badhao. 

Barhet, A name of Abge bonga, (q. v.) 

Barhiao. ^ To increase, to multiply, to 
Badhiao J grow. 

Bin 4her barhiaoen. The debt has greatly in- 


[ 44 ] 


Barhon. Well grown, well developed, 
fiill grown. 

Barhonta. Growth. 

Barhonta khnb hoyoXkantaea. He is grrowing 

Barhontar. Well grown, fully devel- 
oped, good conditioned. 

Onko Ichab bafhontarako. They are well grown. 

an. I JJQ^g^^ household. 

Bari badwaK ^A common grass, Pa- 
Bare badwaraU. J nicitm ColonuTTiy Ln.' 

The Spain ia eaten in times of famine and scar- 

Birla. The Bania caste, a shopkeeper 
or pedlar who sells salt, spices, to- 
bacco, &c. 

Baria. With difficulty, with very 
great difficulty, with extreme dif- 

B^fi^reko bohalena. They'got work with dif- 

Baria kandhum. A small bush, PhyU 
lanthvs lanceolarivs, Mull-Arg. 

So called from the resemblance the f mit bears 
« to the pads pedlars pat on their heads under the 
baskets tiiey carry. 

B|rla kohnda. A species of pumpkin. 

Bariao. Rich, affluent, well-to-do. 

Bariat. Marriage procession from the 
bridegroom^s house to that of the 

B^ri^tko. Those who compose the marriage 

Bariau. Rich, great, powerful, arro- 

Bari6. Bad, wicked, ruined, destroyed, 
wasted ; to commit evil, to ruin 
destroy, waste. 

AmaKIe baficaka£a. 

B%ridena. It is ruined. 

Men b^pjeali. 

A4i b^pd. Very bad, very, extremely. 

Adi biri<5. Very many, very numerous. 

i4i biiri<^ joakana. There is much fruit. 

Barid. Almost, possibly. 

Dal b^fiokedeaii. I almost struck him. 
Sen b^rijoKali. I may possibly go. 

Bari6. An adjective or adverb pos- 
sessing intensifying force. 

B^fi6 da^ menatfa, noa puknrire do. There is 
much water in this tank. 

Baf i6em dafedna. Ton are very strong. 
B^fio merom kh^ menalHEoa ga4a paromre. 

There are very many goats on toe other 

side of the river. 

Baris baris. Now and again, at inter- 
vals, either longer or shorter. 

T> ^3 * [Crowded, populous. 

Noa atore ^ barjao menaMkoa. 
Noa a to do ^i bujaoa. 

^^ ^^ * > A bet, a wager, a forfeit. 

De b^itbon laffaoa. Come let as lay a forfeit. 

Barka<i. Wittingly, knowingly, of set 
purpose, pretence ; to test, to prove, 
to feign. 

Barkacte bad l^£mea. I did not teU you on 

Bu^rkate bapka^te^e ra^Kkan tahSkaaa. She 
returned and feigned illness. 

Barkao. To hatch, as eggs of insects 
and reptiles. 

Tejo barkaoKa bele khon. Caterpillars hatch 
from eggs. 

Barket. \ Blessing, to be blessed, to in- 
Borket. J crease, or succeed through 
being blessed. 

Non^ebon dakaea, non^e khnb barketoVa. We 
will cook here, there wiU be a blessing. 

Noam k^milekhan am^K barket khnb hoyoKa. 
If you do this your blessing (profit) will 
be great. 

Barkhas. To dismiss. 

Nui gutid barkhaskedea. I dismissed this 

Barkhet. C£ barket. 

Barki. A shawl or wrap made by sew- 
ing two widths of cotton cloth to- 

Barki. ^ The firat, or chief wife when 
Batki. J there are two or more. 

Barlanga ma£. A species of bamboo. 

The nodes are far apart, and the hollow with- 
in the bamboo large. It is used to make 

Barlar mala. A double necklace of 

Barmaiigao. To desire, to determine, 
to set one's heart on a thing, to 
call, or send for a person, to pro- 
cure any thing by means of ano- 

OalaK l^kgifili barmafigaoakawana. I intend 

to go. 
Uni horid barmahgaoakawadea, jahan lisindi/l 

liamlekhanili god ntfre. 


[ 45 ] 


Barmon. Double-minded, fickle. 
B^muli }^ double-barrelled gun. 

B^mon 1 '^^ ^^PJ^> ^ r^'^^- 

Bamao. To recognize, to examine, to 

Uni hor MJnaoem, oks karon kmataea. 
Exajnine the man, and see what disease he is 

suffering from. 
Bali liel bai^aoledea. I did not reoogniie him. 

Bami 1 A gregarious shrub growing to 
VamL J a height of 3 or 4 feet, Cle- 
rodendron infortunaiv/nij Linn. 

B^mi gajar. A thicket of ' B^mi' boshes. 

Bami ghat 1 A ford on the Damuda 
Telkupi ghat J river in Manbhum 
district, of Chutia Na^ur, where 
there are extensive rums attribu- 
ted to the Jains. 

It is the onstom of the Santals to take the * jaii 
baha* (q. y.) of those who in life haye been 
characterised by a fondness for mnsic and 
joUity, to the Damnda at ' B%mi firhaf and 
there consign them to a watery graye. 

Bami mela. "^ A largely attended year- 
Barni porob. J ly fair or mela held 
at Bami gha(. 

Baro bakhan. \ To nag, to abuse, to 
Baro hunar. J- call names, to vili- 
Bisbakhan. J fy ; endlessly, '-by 

the dozen," all kinda 

Baro bakhane egerkedilla. He gaye me all 
kinds of abuse. 

Baromas. The whole twelve months, 
used to signify continuance, al- 

Baromas daK tahena, noa pnkhrire. V^ater 
remains aU the year ronnd in this tank. 

Baromasia. All the year round. Cf. 

Baromasia. The Green Bulbul, Phyt- 
lomie Jerdoni, 

Its call is said to resemole those of twelye differ- 
ent kinds of birds. 

Baron. To forbid, to taboo. 

HijoX id baronakadea. I forbad him to come. 

Baro sotro. Lit. twelve and seventeen, 
at random, thoughtlessly, uncon- 

Baro sotro alom rofu. Do not speak like twel- 
ye and seyenteen. ^12 and 17 agree only so 
far as they can be diyided by one.) 

Barph^. Profit, gain, benefit. 

Noa k^nire bee barph^i menatf a. There is good 
profit in this work. 

Barphara sakom. A double bracelet. 

Barsa pakor. 1 * . i i . 

Ba^ap^ko. } A rather. common plant, 

Grrevria Campbellii, Watt 

B&irsL A fish hook ; to catch fish with 
a hook and bait. 

Barsid orsid. For the present. 

Bartan. Hideous, repulsive, ill-favour- 
ed, ill proportioned, monstrous. 

Bartan. A plate. 

Barte. To fix or aeree to the date 
and place of a hunt, fishing ex- 
pedition, mushroom collecting ex- 
cursion, &c. 

Noa bir sendra l^giCko barteakafa. 

Barti. *) More, exceeding ; to do more, to 
B&rtL J exceed. 

Ape ceJfpe b^fiiedaP What do ye more (than 

Baru. A large tree, Schleichera tri- 
juga^ WiUd. 

The seeds yield an oil osefal for cntaneons 

B mi I Gunpowder, blasting powder. 

Baruijian. A large bullfrog. 

Baruj. Cf. barud. 

Bas. Smell, odour, scent ; to smell, to 

Basaeme. Giye him a smell of it. 

Bhoj basteye hedakana. He has scented out 

the feast. 
Base^kana. I smell it. 

Bas. Age, the female breast. 

Bas. Dwelling place ; to place, to settle 

Noaatoreko basakaCa. They haye settled in 

Basa. Lodging, residence. 
Basalt. To heat water. 

Basaii daK. Hot water. 
Susnm daK. V^arm water. 
Basaii goi. Water become cold after haying 
been boUed. 

Basb^. Said to a dog to make it lie 

Base. Cf. banse. 


[ 46 ] 


Basgadi, To fix bamboos upright in 
the ground for uhe purpose of giv- 
ing possession of, or attaching 
land in pursuance of a decree of 
the civil court. 

B&8 gq^iadUiako. They pnt me in possession. 

BasgadL To settle permanently, to 
take up one's residence. 

Non<^ele basga^iakana- We have taken up our 
residence nere. 

Basi Stale, fusty. 

Basia. Dirty, as a pot in which rice 
has been boiled, not cleaned till 
next time it is used ; unimpregna- 
ted, as a Tassar silk moth. 

Tnkud alo b^i^ dope dohoea, p^tniko b^^lE- 
kana. Donotleayeyour cookingrpots dirty, 
the Tassar silk moths are not pairing. 

Basiam. Ten o'clock in the morning, 
when a light refreshment is par- 
taken of. 

Khara b^^m. Half past ten, or eleven, when 

hunger begins to be felt. 
The name of this morning refreshment is from 

b^si, (q. V.)' Very o^n rice left from the 

previous day is partaken of. 

Baskari. To play a flute well. 

A^i baak^riXkanam. Tou are becoming a good 
flute player. 

Baskaria. An adept at the flute. 

Okoe bask^riako oroh idiefkana? Who are the 
flute players who play as they go P 

Baske. Left over fi'om the previous 
meal, fusty, stale, unfinished. 

BaskeaX ber. 9 a. m. 

Baske daka. Bice left over from the previous 

Baske dakare loK hop. A modest confession 

of ignorance. 
Baske mara hof . A person who dies just as he 

is about to enjoy the fruits of his labour. 
Ado noKoe baske mara do bahpe doholef lea. 
Baske man^a. A banner placed at a Hindu 

K^mipe baskekeda. You have left your work 

Baske. One of the twelve Santal tribes 
or septs. 

Baske hop. A person belonging to the Baske 

It is said that the progenitors of the Baske 
tribe when out on a hunting expedition 
cooked along with their supper sufficient 
for next morning's meal, and on account 
of their eating stale rice, they wore called 
Baske hoF) ** the men of stale rice." 

Baskhapao. Past middle age, used of 
women only. 


To settle permanently in 
a place; an inhabitant. 

Mare boskoti^ hop 

kanae. He is an old resi- 

Basla. A small adze, a species offish. 
Basmati. A variety of the rice plant. 
Basna. A cup. 

Basna daM. A cup of water ; met. hope'of receiv- 
ing some benefit or another. 

Bii£ basna daK reaK asre. In hope of getting a 
cup of water, (some benefit or other.) 

Basndi. -[. „„ ., 

BusndL ) A small fly, a midge. 

Basti. A village, a Faharia village, 

B^sti ato. A populous village. 

B%8i b^eti. Wealthy and populous (as a village.) 

Basut. To think well of, to respect, 
to like, to approve of one, to care 
for, to take to, to bear love to, to 
attract, to obey. 

Bako b^utadilia. They did not take to me. 
A^iye bfsutaekana. He thinks well of him. 

Basut. Property. 

Bat. Rheumatism. 

G^t^9 bat. Rheumatism of the joints. 
Sir bat. Muscular rheumatism. 
Tan bat. Sciatica. 

Bat. To share, to divide ; share, por- 

B&t bakhra. Share, particularly of ancestral 
property, or patrimony. 

Guli bat. To cast lots. 

Khicfi bat. A method of dividing the lands of 
a villsLge in which no person gets two con- 
tiguous fields. 

Bat A road, time. 

Bat ^el- To look for, to expect. 
Dob^tift* Where two roads meet. 
Baton berena. It is late. 
Uniatf batili ^el hore£kana. I am looking for 
his coming. 

Bata. 1 Exchange, discount, commis- 
Batta J sion. 

Bata lagaoMa. Discount wiU be charged. 

Bata. A bamboo lath, a thin slip of 
bamboo, a piece of bamboo, &c. 
tied or nailed across to strength- 
en ; lattice work, interlacing. 

Andh^ri^ bata. A bamboo tied leng^wise 
half wav between the eaves and ridge, to 
strengthen the rafters. 


[ 4.7 ] 

Batur satur 

Bata. A musical instrument of bell 
metal played by being struck 
with a small stick. 

Bata. A quail. 

DaM bata. A snipe. 

Bata. To blab, to blunder, to throw 
a stone in one's own garden, to 
put one's foot in it. 

A loin rora, thirkoKme. jahanaMom ror bata 

tanak joxia. 
Bata lekan katha kana. 
Amtogem ror bataante kombfoem hoeena, 

baiikhan hutkam ohoko menlema. If you 

had not blabbed you would not have been 

called a thief. 

Batalc. To be at . the last gasp, to 
breathe heavily, as a pei^son at 
the point of death. 

BataK bataffoKkanae. He is breathing his last. 
Batal^ bataitt lorao oabalenae. 

Eatan batan. "> To snap at, to reply 
Becer becer. J testily. 
Batao. To respect, to give heed to, to 
obey, to be effective, to heed. 

Dalkedereb5 bae bataolaSa. Although he beat 

him he did not obey. 
Uni n^bi menteko bataiokedea. They respected 

him as a prophet. 

Batar. Season, the proper time, state 
or condition ; seasonable. 

Batarro. In season. 

Tak batar delte. Watching for a favonrable 
time (for sowing.) 

Bebatar. Unseasonable, nnfayourable condit- 

Batar. *) Unwholesome, inducing ill- 
' Batara. J ness, injurious, sowing 
discord, brewing dissension. 

Batata katha. Talk fitted to cause dissension. 
Bhe^a jel am 1^€ batafagea. Bam*B flesh is 
injnrioas to yon. 

Batarii. Immature ; match, fellow, 
■p* " > Court-yard of a house. 

Ale batere alom hare£a. Do not enter our 
conrt-yard, i. e. ao not come near us. 

Bathan. A temporary enclosure for 
cattle when taken to a distance 
to graze, a sheep fold. 

Bati. A metal cup or basin. 

Bati. A lamp wick, a lamp of Euro- 
pean manu&cture. 

BaJ)il. Excess, surplus, overplus, to 
exceed present need, not required 
for present use. 

Noa nahel b^tilgetamkhan den ill em%^me. If 
this i^lough is not required for present use 
lend it to me. 

Daiicara. § a "i^j-a 'i. '^.t. 
Batkhara. | ^ ^«^g^' ^ ^^'S'' ^^*^- 
Bat katao. To mislead, to mistify by 
much speaking. 

Batkati. 1 Obstinate, self willed, fluent 
Batkatua. J in speech, talkative. 

Marah batkatu^ nor kanae. He is a very 
obstinate man. 

Batkhara. Cf. batkara. 


a. J 

The first wife. 

Batkia. The first wife > t#^«i-*«« 
ChutW. The second wife, j ^' ^^^^ ^'^' 
Bg-tW^. The first wife ") 
Minjhli. The second wife. > If three. 
Chutki. The third wife. ) 

Batkunda. One who exaggerates, or 
draws the long bow, one who 
spins yams. 

Marah batkunda hof kanae. He exaggerates 

Batlao. To shew, to point out, to in- 

K^mi batlaoalime. Shew me my work. 

Batol. *) Susceptible to injury from 
Bator. J eating certain foods, un- 
wholesome, inducing illness, or 

Am l^gi£ .^i batofgea. It is very unwhole- 
some for you. 
Am 1^€ bah batopa. It wiU not injure yon. 

j^. ' • [Cystic tumour. 
Batra. The pea. 

Batra dal. Split peas. 

Batrao. To germinate, to germinate 

Bah batraolena, aphor do. The seed dhan did 
not germinate well. 

BatrL A ornament worn by women 
on the second toe. 

Tliisi. The guard of the * b^tri.' 

Batu. *) A small bag used to carry 
Batua. J small articles in, such as 
money, tobacco, &c. 

B^t^^ T I Wanton, unchaste. 

B^tii% b^twikin calaoena. 

Baturi. Cystic tumour. 
Batur satur. l Food left by others, re- 
Saiur gatur. |- fuse from a feast, dirty ; 
Satur batur.J incomplete, as a narra- 

B^tiur B^%Jit alom joma. Do not eat leaTing^. 


[ 48 ] 


Batwi C£ batua. 

• • • ■ ■ 

Bau. Used by children when playing 
the game of hide and seek, also 
by women to women to call atten- 
tion, also used in some instances, 
by a ' bala era' (q. v.) when saluting 
her ' bala herel. 

Bauha, To be in season, said of ani- 

G^iye b^oh^ttkana. 

Bauhari. In season, of animals ; wan- 

Baula. The toe peg of a * badha '(q. v.) 
Baula bauli. Insane, off one s head, 

Baulaha. M. 1 Mad, insane, cracked 
Baulahi. F. J pate, crazy. 

Noi maejin b^al^hiente emanteaK baro sotroe 
ror nalaiieda. This woman talks all kinds 

of nonsense because she is crasy. 

Baulau. Insane, mad, cracked, crazy. 
Bauli. To deceive, to blind, to pretend. 

B^nli calaoenae. 
B^olikateye oalaoena. 

Baundi. The second day of the Sakrat 
porob (q. v.) ; a crayfish. 

BaHmha. } ^^'^'^^ ^*"P^^' ignorant. 

Baurl. To wind thread, as on the 
thumb and fore finger, in the form 
of the figure 8. 

Baurl. Cf. baora. A female dwarf. 

Bauri. A caste of semi-Hinduised a- 

Bayaban. A flood, a deluge ; to be lost, 
to disappear. 

Bayabanenae. He has disappeared. 

Bayan. To explain, to relate. 

Bayan. A jungle climbing plant, the 
root of which is eaten. 

Bayar. A male buffalo kept for breed- 
ing purposes, a rogue buffalo ; to 

Bayar sandi. A cock kept for breeding 

Baya£ buyul To let out a secret, to 
let the cat out of the bag, to blab, 
to peach. 
BayaC baya€e ror bafaeeda. He is blabbing. 

Bayoli. Cf bau, To be seized with 

Bayul. ] 

Bayul ba)rul. J-Long, sweeping. 

Soyol boyol. J 

B^ynl marteye donkeda, knl do. The tiger 

made a lonr spring. 
B^ynl marte uQ^uenae, pinoar maraK do. The 

peacock flew sweeping away. 
B^ynl b^ynle don idikeda, knl do. The tiger 

took a series of long jumps. 

Bazar. Cf. bajar. 

Be. A privative particle denoting, 
without, not. 

Be-basnt, be-batar, be-bhorsa. 

Beabron. ") Stripped, disgraced, asham- 
Beabruk. J ed, modesty outraged. 

Beabmk katha. Disparagmg words. 

Kisar doe beabmkakana. The wealthy man is 

stripped of all his wealth. 
Beabrukkedeako. They treated him shamefully. 

Be-a4. Refugeless. without shelter, 

Be-ae. Without measure, or stint. 

Beaj. Interest. 

Beakul. Agitated in mind, perplexed. 

Beamda. Without any one to look to, 
or apply to. 

Bean. To explain, to narrate, to relate. 

Be-an. Without law. Cf an. 

Be-as. Without hope, hopeless. C£ as. 

Be-at. Without opportunity. Cf at. 

Bebak. All, the whole, wholly, with 
out exception. 

Beb^ri6. Many, much ; an adjective 
or an adverb with intensifying 

Beb^rio hofko jarwalena. Many people were 

Beb^jioe dalkedea. He beat him seyerely. 
Beb^f i6 daK calaXkana. Much water is flowing.. 
Beb^fice edrelena. He was very angry. 
Bebifioe raKkeda. He wept bitterly. 
Beb^'Fi^o d^rkeda. He ran yeryswiftly. 
Bebiri<& noa ka( malSjana. This log has a 

large amount of heart wood. 
Beb^ridko tapamlena. They foughi fiercely. 
Beb^ridkin gaKtea. They are fast friends. 
Beb^ri^ takako emkeda. They gave a vast sum 

of mon^. 
Beb^f Ide kisafa. He is enormously rich. 
Beb^fitSe reiigedena. He is extremely poor. 
Beb^rioko ^an^omkedea. They fined him 

Beb^rice se^^ocla* It is excessively hot. 
Beb^fi^e da^i^^k^u^- ^^ prices it very high. 


[ 49 ] 


Be-basui To be displeased with, to 
disapprove, to reject, to dislike ; 

Bebe. To croak, as a frog in the rains. 

Be-batar. Unseasonable, out of season. 

B^be ro^. A species of frog. 

Be-batao. To disregard, to disobey. 

Bebha. C£ bembha. 

Be-bhagan. Unfortunate, unlucky. 

Bebhaok. To bleat. 

Bebhar. To disgrace, to cause shame. 

Pefako ^^piadidae, bebharkedillae. He brou- 
ght foiends to me, and disgraced me (as I 
had no food to give them.) 

Bebhorom. To outrage one's modesty, 

Be-bhorsa» Disappointed, hopeless. 

Bebosa. To divide, to share, to appor- 

Ma daka bebosaepe. Come, divide the rice. 

Be-bostor. Without clothing, scantily 
clad, clothing worn out. 

Bebrel Cf. berel 

Be-buj. Without understanding, fool- 
ish, simple. 

Be6, To vomit, to be sick, used main- 
ly of children. 

Toa beokedae. He yomited milk. 

Becara. Poor, unfortunate ; to be pitied. 

Be-cas. Landless, having no land to 

Be6be<Jre6. ") * • r x !• i 

Be6be4re«. ;^ ^^^'^^ ^^ ^^*^^ f^^^' 

Beibedrei. ") Small, of no inportance, 
Bedbedrel J insignificant. 

Noko be<Sbe<[re($ hof oe6ko oeka dareaXaP What 
can these insignificant people do ? 

Becer becef. Cf. batan batad. 

Bed. The Vedas, the Hindu sacred 

Bed. Adverse influence or hindrance 
of a supernatural kind. 

Bed lagaoena. A supernatural adverse influ- 
ence is at work. 
Bed ka^ao. *> To remove the adverse influence, 
Bed gr^c^u. > or hindrance. 

Bed bidhi C£ bed. 

Becja. Level ground along the bank of 
a river, lower than the suiTOun- 
ding country. 

Beda. To deceive, to mislead, to pre- 
^ tend. 

Hor bedae ror bar&e^a* He speaks deceiving 

Bedan. To travail in child birth. 

Bed bede. Broad faced. 

Bedea. The name given to those San- 
tals who refused to accompany 
the rest of the tribe when they 
fled from Campa through fear of 
Madho Sid. 

Bede6 bedei. Cf bidi6 bidi6. 

• • • _^^ • 

Bedha. Cross grained. 

Bedhao. To wrap round, as a girdle, 
or a bandage. 

Bedharak. An adjective or an adverb 
possessing intensifying force. 

Badhafak hofko jarwalena. There was a vast 

concourse of people. 
Bddhafake arelkeda. A fierce hail storm. 
Bedhaf a k joakana. Heavily laden with fruit. 

Be-dhob. Shapeless, ugly, inartistic. 

Bedhof. BLUotty, crossgrained, unso- 
cial, unsympathetic, hard, tedious, 

Bedhof hor kanae, etatt hof saote bae gateXa. 
He is an unsocial person, he makes friends 
with none. 

Noa kat do bedhof gea. This log if cross- 

Bedin. Heathen. 

Bedna. Pain, grief. 

Bedo6. To make a slip, to mistake, 
to overlook. 

Bof bedo<^kedaii. I made a slip of the tongue. 
Oka then con bedo6 hoedn, teheli do oele h<5 
babon go61e£koa. 

Be-dokhol. To dispossess, to evict. 

Bedokholkediliam. Tou have dispossessed me. 

Bedon. Pain, grief, distress. 

Beared. Small, insignificant. 

Beg. A bag, a portmanteau. 

Beg. To stretch foi-ward the body or 
arm, to lean upon. 

Begkate tiogme. Stratch out and reach it. 

Be-gadnao. To show disrespect to 
elders or superiors. Cf gadnao. 


[ 50 ] 


Begar. Separate, different ; to separate, 
to divide the paternal inheritance, 
after which the sons set up on 
their own account. 

Begaren&le. We have separated. (We kave 

no longer things in common.) 
Begarge lleloMkana. It looks different. 

Begar. ^ Forced labour without pay 
Beeari. V exacted by the Zemindars 
Bitni. J from their ryots. 

Beg^riye kqimi oooeftoa. He comi)els them to 
work without pay. 

Bi^hiko senakana. 

Mi6 kos calaK begare sapmekhan. If he com- 
pels yon to go one kos. 

Begbege. Wide apart. 

Begbegre tehgoakanae. He is standing with 

his feet far apart. 
Mooa or begbegetaeme. Poll his month wide. 

(said to one who speaks too much.) 

Begor. Without, except, besides, in- 
dependent of. 

Begor sikate. Without ploughing. 
Ill oegor oe£ h5bi4>e ceka diqreaKa. Without 
me ye can do nothing. 




Expressive of wonder, or as- 
tonishment ; much, astonish- 

mg, amazing. 

A^iA haharaifkana, behaj bam tiel oromakade. 
Beha j nuaiban hof kanall oele. 

Be-hal. To be ruined, destroyed, dis- 
tressed, unfortunate, to become 
poor, to lose all one's property; 
unserviceable, damaged, worn out, 
used up. 

Behal. Cf. behaj. 

Be-hephajot. To neglect, not to take 
care of; uncared for. 

Nui gidr^ do behephajotenae. This child is on- 
oared for. 

Be-hirla. To have no one to trust, or 
look to for help. 

Behirlalenako. They nad no one to whom they 
could look for help. 

Behod. Dull, slow, thick-headed. 
Behoj. Cf behaj. 

Behojkef dom t 

Be-hok. Unjust, partial. 
Behol. C£ behaj. 
Behor. Hard, diflScult. 

Ar okoekoatt p^rsi ^n^r^ cir behof gea, onko then 
do bah, onkoak p^rsi do ente ohom bujh^u 

Be-hor. Unmarried, without a wife. 

Behofan hof kanae. He has not got a wife. 

Be-hor. Pathless, a tedious, difficult 

Bi-hus I Unconscious, forgetful. 

Be-hudis. Thoughtlessly, carelessly. 

Behurmat. 1 To outrage one's modesty, 
Bemui'wat. J to treat one shame- 
fully, to disgrace. 

Behurmatkedete eken tiko laga gofkadea. 
They shamefully treated him and sent him 
away emp^-handed. 

Be-hus. C£ Dehoa 

Be-husnaL Ugly, unadorned, plain. 
Be-hlit. 1 Submissive, gentle, unasser- 
Behtlth. J tive, obedient, oppressive. 

BejSle. An adjective or an adverb pos- 
sessing intensifying force ; very, 
excessive, exceedingly, &c. &a 

Bejae thonok ar ^i molij sa4e goCena. It 

sounded sweetly and harmoniously. 
Bejae &t®£kanae. He strives vigorously. 

Be-jaega. To evict one from his land, 
or house, to take one's land from 
him, to be landless. 

Jaega khon bejaegakedillae. He evicted mo 
from my farm. 

Be-jan. Without knowing, ignorantly, 
imintentionally, accidentally. 

Bejanili tul) ledea. I shot him accidentally. 

Bejar. To suffer from an attack of 
fever, to be ill 

Bejarenae. He has fever. 

B^e beje. Loquacious, garrulous. 

Beje.bu4hi. A garrulous old woman. 

Bejek bejek. Foul, as a suppurating 
sore ; liquid filth. 

Bejelgalc. Disgusting, unpleasant to 
the sight, as a sore. 

Bejha. Target, mark to shoot at ; to 
shoot at a target. 

Ma bejhaepe. Shoot at the target. 
Bejha tulSpe. Shoot at the target. 

Bejha. To put another forward, to lay 
the blame on another, to shield 
oneself at the expense of another, 
to blame. 

Sanam hoftele galmarao mi^keda, iA geko 
bejhakediila. We all agreed to it, and they 
Jliave put aU the blame on me. 

Be-juri. "| Odd, unequal, not in unison, 
Be-juri. J as two flutes. 


[ 51 ] 


Be«kam. Useless, inefficient. 

Bekar. Uncomfortable, malodorous, 

Beke beke. 1 Said of children quarrel- 
Tere tere, . J ling, to squabble. 

Beker bendan. Swollen, puffed up, 
bursting, as a seed begun to ger- 

Bel. To establish, to place a bed, stool, 
&c. for use, to spread a mat, &c. 

Parkom belme. Place uie bed on its feet. 
F^ti^^o belafkoa. They spread mats for them. 

BeL Level 

Bel ot. Lerel ground. 

Bela. Time, the sun. 

Knbelaena. It is late. 

Bela bela. Time after time, oontinoally , often. 

Bel&odja. A common weed, Ccesulia 

axiUaria, Roxb. 
Belaur. The onyx. 
Beldar. A semi-Hinduized caste of 

earth diggers, a navvy. 

Bele. An egg ; to lay e^es ; testicles. 

Ghorao bele. Egg tnmed wi£ sitting. 
PhokoK bele. An addled egg. 
Belebus^K. To hatch. 

Potam bele. Two small stars rerv close to eaeh 
other, near Vega, in oonsteliation Lyra. 

Bele. T^* .^'pen. 

Bele Jail, '^tpe grain. 

QeleK beIeK din. Harvest drawing 

Bele lahaena. 


Bele lambaoena. >OTer ripe, so as to be useless. 
Bele boramena. j 

Qoao bele. 7 To ripen after having been pluck- 
Boreabele> ed. 

Bela To gather, as an abscess, to sup- 
purate, to mortify, to fester ; pus, 
matter, discharge. 

Toabele. Snppnratftig breas^ milk abscess. 
BalkeCkhan bele to€ena. When it had been 

punctured the matter escaped. 
Bele kombroiii. The egg stealer, a star so 

called, probably Vega. 

Bele botke. The yolk of an egg ; met. 
a small, youngs insignificant crea- 

Bele botke ce^ l^iamaP What can this child 

say to you ? 
Bele botke dom aguakadea. You have brought 

a small insignificant thing, (as a very small 

chicken for sacrifice). 

Beled beled ? Skin tender in appearance 
and soft to touch. 

Be-lete6. Impossible. 

Belkei. Strong, healthy, lusty, applied 
to in&nts. 

Khub belkeo gidr^ kanae. He is a very heal- 
thy child. 

Belkei5. Young, fresh, as leaves ; an in- 

Belna. To roll dough into thin cakes. 

Belok. To separate ; different. 

Belokbeloke sirj^uke^koa. He created them 
species by species. 

Belted. A child of a month or six 
week's old, callow, unfledged. 

Bale belteli. An infant. 

Bemal. Useless, spoilt, ruined. 

Mai dom bemalkedetaea. You have ruined his 
propwty (bullo<^). 

Beman. "^ To shew disrespect to, to re- 
Bemani. J proach. 

Alem bemanetlea. You show disrespect to us. 

Be-manot. Disrespect, dishonour. 

Bemar. Without relatives, without 

Bembha. A simpleton, a muff. 

Bemblaha. A fool, an ignoramus. 

Bemurad. Without relatives, without 

Bemurwad, To disgrace, to outrage 

one's modesty. 
Bena. A common grass found near tanks 

and other moist situations, Andro- 

pogon mv/ricatua. 

Benahak.^ Uselessly, causelessly, fruit- 
Benohok. }- lessly, vainly, for no 
Benhak. J purpose. 

Benahakiii he<Sakana . I ha ve come in vain. 

Benao. To make, to prepare, to fully 
develop, to be of good behaviour. 
Cf, banao. 

.Gidr» bae benaolena. The child has not deve* 
loped weU (in body or mind). 

Benaphul. A variety of the rice plant. 
Bed bed. Peevishly ; to blubber. 

Gidr^ do bed bederaKeda. 

Bedc. A bench, a form. 

Bendlao. To destroy, to waste, to kill 
to die, to depart this life. 

Ben^aoenae. He is dead. 
Katem maK ben^aokeda. You have out and 
wasted the log. 


[ 52 ] 


Bended. To fasten garment round 
waist of children. 

Bendeli kamali. I will fasten yonr oloth ronnd 
yonr waiet. 

Bender. Not completely husked, not 
well cleaned, as rice of husk. 

Bender. To slightly abrade but with- 
out fetching blood. 

Tali bexK^orakadeaii, nui kul^i do. I shot at 
and abraded the skin of this hare. 

Bendrei, Cf. betret'. 
Bendrel Small, insignificant. 

Bendre{ mara gidr^. Bothersome little thing. 

Benea. I ^ ^^^^7 5 *o be at enmity. 

Bene b^iri. An enemy, enemies. 

Benet*. A stopper, a lid, the accrescent 
calyx of certain fruits as that of 
Diospyros tomentoaa, the terel. 
From hei (q. v.) 

BeAgar. The Egg plant, or brinjal 
Solanum Melongena, Linn, 

Hende behear. '\ 

Pon4 <lhnpk^ beiigar I 

Soela beiigar. f Varieties of the Egg 

Koroe bengaf . I plant. 

K^jri bengar. ^ 

Bengar betaheti. A wild plant resem- 
bling the Egg plant, Solanuum 
stramonitolium, Jacq. 

BeAgei To open the eyes, to awake, 
to gaze, to look, to stare. 

Alom beiige£akoa. Don't look at them. 
Bipi£ j9pi€e bexige£eda. He blinks. 
Mi€ behgefge menalla. I have not oloeed my 


BeAgo n^rL A common climbing 
plant, Dioscorea bulbifera, Linn, 

The roots and aerial tubers of this plant are 
eaten as a food, especially in times of 

BeAparsL To desert one side for an- 
other, to run with the hare and 
hunt with the hounds ; a turncoat. 

Benp^rsi go£enae. He changed sides. 

Benhok. Cf. benahak. 

Belijalc. Small, unimportant, insig- 
nificant ; a small piece, a scrap. 

Mif beiijaK ifi emadea. I gave him a scrap. 
Belljatt mara hor. An insignificant person. 
Beil]aK seraK ^Idr^ 94i teS te^Kkanae. 
Belljak serot' gidra ce£ non^e dom liamkana P 

BeiijaU. Rheum from the eyes. 

Bedjan bidiid. Neither one thing nor 
the other, confused, a jumble. 

BeiSjah bi/ijidko ruieda. What they are play- 
mg on the drum is a mere jumble. 

BeAjah biiljilie l^iadilSa. baH bujh»ule£taea. 

She jumbled it up so in telling me I oould not 
make out her meaning. 

Bedjlad. Small, unimportant, insigni- 
ficant. Cf bedjak. 

Bentar. A method of wearing the sari. 
Cf bande. 

Bgocao. To displease, to cause to sulk. 

Beohar. Usage, practice, custom, con- 
duct, behaviour ; to comport one- 
self, to behave, to conduct one- 
self; to use. 

Beora. A hitch, mishap, calamity, 
accidental delay, press ot business, 

Noa beorareii pa^aoena. This hitch has ocour- 

red to me. 
Ceii beofa kantapeaP Narta (q. r.) What are 

youe^agedin! A christening. 

Bepar. To trade, to traffic, to buy 
and sell. 

Pher bepar. Buying and selling. 

Be^ria } ^ "»^«5bant, a trader. 

Be-phaeda. Unprofitable, useless, pro- 

Noa k»mi do bephaedagetapea. This work 
wiU bring you no profit. 

Beporbhae. Fearless, obstinate, self- 

Beporloe. An adjective or sm adverb 
possessing intensifying force ; many, 
a large number, &c. 

Beporloe hor menaSkoa. A large number of 

Beporloeye daKkeda. ^ poured a deluge. 
Beporloe joakana. Heavilv laden with fruit. 
Beporloeye dalkedea . He beat him mercilessly. 
Beporloe oas hoeakana . A bountiful harvest. 

Ber. Time, the sun, opportunity, the 
distance between the sun and 
the horizon. 

Ber lioKkate. When the morning advances 
a little. 

Bimil i»te ber bam llel tiamea. Ton wiU not 
see the sun for clouds. 

Ber h^snrenae. The sun has set. 

Ber ma hgnaege. The sun has not yet set. 

Bar rakap se^. The East. 

Mi6 4ah berreko seterena. They arrived when 
the sun was one dang's length from the hori- 
zon (4ah a pole. 10 or 12 feet long.) 


[ 53 ] 


Ber. Some occult adverse influence, 
super-natural hindrance. 

Bef lagaoena. Some ooonlt adyerse infloenoe 

is at work. 
Ber kafaome. Cause the adyerse influence to 

be remoyed, (by charm or spell.) 

Ber. A method of catching fish by 
throwing nets from all sides, or 
surrounding them by stake nets. 

A4i iit^f hakoko bef ke£koa. They netted yery 
many fish. 

Ber. Distance between the thumb and 
little finger when stretched. 

Bound timber is measured by the bef . 

Bera. Cf. bela. 

Bera bin. Round about, in all direc- 

Bera bin beiige6 bafaeddae. He is looking 
round about, (as a startled deer.) 

Beraji. ^ Displeased, unkind, not well 
Beroj. J afiected towards another, 

Beran. Colourless. 
Be-rar. Out of time, out of tune, as 

a musical instrument. 

Berbad. Thrown away, destroyed, laid 
waste, ruined, squandered. 

Sanamatt berbadena. All is thrown away. 
CaJtem berbadke€tilia P Why did you destroy 
my (work, &o.)P 

BSrbak. Incorrect, mispronounced, un- 
idiomatic, &ulty, mis-used. 

Berband. To seize cattle, or other 
property to pay debt, or money due. 
Berband. A saddle girth. 

Berdor. ^ A small bush, Combretum 
Bhursa. J nana. 

B6r6 b6r6. Out of tune, tune incorrect- 
ly sung, or played ; shrill. 

Alom befS bepSKa. Don't sine out of tune. 
Noko do sili s^t^i) b§r§bSfeko kaph%ri^uK- 

Berel. Raw, unripe, uncooked, fresh, 

Berel daK. Cold water. 

Ghao bereloKkana. The wound is becoming raw. 

Berel ghao. A raw sore. 

Cabake^aK kathaarhSko berel m^fkeda. They 

opened up the subject afresh. 
Eicri6ko berel dagtakoa. They wash their 

clothes in cold water. 
Berel dagottid calaKkana. I am going to bathe. 

Berel. To dwell, to take up abode. 

Berel thao. Dwelling: place. 
De, alethen bfireloKpe. Come, take up your 
residence in our yillage. 

BereiSjo. A hedge plant, Thevitia 
neriifolia, Juas, 

Bered phul. A pretty flowering plant, 
Cyathocline lyrata, Cass, 

Berel To rise, or stand up, to arise 
from sleep, to get up, to raise any- 
thing to an upright position. 

Berefme. Qet up. 

T^mbu beredme. Pitch the tent. 

Jiwe£ beredoK. The resurrection. 

B6r6 tirio. A kind of bamboo flute. 

Berga. Small of stature, under-sized, 
as an ox &c. 

Berga 4ahra okaenae. Where is the under- 
sized ox? 

Berhae. 1 Round about, all round ; to 
Berhaete. J encircle. 

Berhaeteko dEf& acurkeda. They went all 
round it. 

Berhon. Daily wages paid in kind to 
agricultural labourers. 

Berkeil. Lounging, loafing, standing 
about without any thing to do. 

Bef kelie teiigoakana. He is standing looking 
idly on. 

Bembak. C£ b^rbalc. 
Berod. Out of temper, sulky. 

Uni gidr^ doe berodgea. That child is sulky. 

Beroj. Cf. beraji. 

Beron. Unseasoned, without season- 
ing, or condiments, as food. 

Utu do berohgfea. There is no seasoning in the 
relish (utu, q. y.) 

Be-ron. Colourless. 

Beros. Vexed, displeased, indisposed, 
not of one mind. 

Uni tuluo berosgeae. He is displeased with 

Tehell do berosg^li atkareda hofmore. I feel 

indisposed in body to-day. 

Ber5t duk. Any disease, or illness the 
name of which is not known; 

Ber5ti. Cramp in the stomach, gener- 
ally said of domesticated animals. 

Bertha. Vainly, fruitlessly, futile, 
bootless, unprofitable, to no pur- 

Bali berthalena. I was not baffled. 

Bertha do ball calaSa. I wiU not go on a fool's 

Bertha do alom af aga. Don't Are until you are 
certain of your aim. 


[ 54 ] 


Be-rup. To change, or alter appearance* 
or form ; to disfigure ; shapeless. 

Bes. Good, well ; to improve, to reco- 
ver from illness, to heal, to cure. 

BesoVgfefi liftinkana. v Ijwiah to get weU. 
Boskama^. I will onre yon. 

Bes do bail metama. I will not commend yon. 

Bes okoote. Efficiently, eifectiyely, thoronghly. 

Bes bafaka£koale. We healed their diyiaionfl. 

Be-sabab. Without a reason. 

Be-sagun. Ill-omened, an evil omen. 

Besaha. To traflSc, to sell, to dispose 

Tnfi besahae senakana. Ho has gpone to seU 
mnstard seed. 

Be-sajon. 1 Ugly, unadorned, unfinish- 
Be-sajonta.j ed, unsuitable. 

Be-sak. Cf. be-sok. 

Besao. 1 To mimic, to mock, to follow 
Bhesao. J suit. 

BesSk. Displeased. 

Be-sok. \ Assuredly, without doubt, 
Be-sak. J certainly. 

Besok iA oalaKa. I shall most certainly go. 

Besra. One of the twelve tribes or 
septs into which the Santals are 

Basra bayar. Of. bayar. The Besra hare the 
reputation of haying been at one time very 
licentious. Tradition has it that they were 
separated from the others owing to uie im- 
moral behaviour of their eponym, who was 
called Besra, the licentious one. Besra 
bayar is apparently a gloss on the original 

Besrora. Stubborn, self-willed, disobe- 

Oele besrom kan coe rof aK h5 bae adjoma. 

Bestolc. To importune, to entreat, to 
clamour for. 

Bethaon. 1 
Bethon. J 

Bethoiiili calaKkana, jolha ofattte. I am going 
to wind bobbins at the weayer's house. 

Beth begar. Forced labour. 

Bethikan. Without certainty, unlimit- 

Besumar. Countless, unlimited, that 
cannot be described. 

Besumare d^f keda. He ran like the wind. 

To wind bobbins. 

Bel To blind fold, to cover the eyes, 
to put on a lid, or cover ; to cover. 

Kioridteye be^ ese^ena. He has oovered his 

eyes with his cloth. 
Tite bedoSme. Piityonr hand oyer your ejea, 
Tnku6reko beda. Tney ooyer up (the article) 

in the pot. 
Tnkude befka^ge. He closed the opening of 

the pot, i. e. put on the Ud. 

B^. A cane, a rattan, CcUamtLS Ro- 
tang, Linn ; to flog with a cane, 
stroke of a cana 

BarisibSte ^wana. He reoeiyed 40 strokes 

with a cane. 
BStkedeako. They flogged him with a oane. 

Beta. Son, an affecticmate form of 

JawEe be|a. A bridegroom. 

Be-tabe. Free, independent. 

Be£ bet A game played by children. 

Betha. Inflamation of limgs, or mem- 
branes thereof 

Betha. Pain; to pain one in body, 
or mind. 

Be^thL; } ^^^y ^^^P' bo^^naless- 

Bethar. To sit; employed generally 
in conjunction with durup (q. v.) 

Celate c^ti^to dufupen bethifen. 

Bethaura. To watch, to superintend. 

Used mainly of a person who has made oyer 
thread to a weayer to be made into cloth, 
and who sits beside him until the cloth is 
woyen, to see that his thread is} not made 
away with. 

Be-thik. \Incorrect, &ulty, uncomfor- 
Ban thik. J table. 
Be-thir. Restless; unrest. 
Betiar. Drawn up, unstretched. 

Betkei. Weak, tender, young, callow. 

Bale betke^. An Infant. 

Nui betke^e ^fisakaCa. This infant is annoying. 

Beton. Pay, wages. 
Betret Small, insignificant. 

Betref mara gidr%. A bothersome, insignifi- 
cant child. 

Beyakaran. Grammar. 

Beyan. 1 Explanation, relation; to ex- 
Bean. J plain, to relate. 

Bhab. Friendship, love, sorrow, anxiety. 

Unkin do ♦(Ji bhabtakin. They are very friendly. 
BhaboMkanakin. They are enjoying ea<^ other's 

Uni do «4i bhab boloadea. He had yery great 



[ 55 ] 


Bhabi. To grieve, sorrow. 

Ooni bh^hitt. To grieve over, to sorrow orer, 

to brood over. 
Konka gunibh^bi ganibh^biteye laha idiexift. 

Bhabna. To sorrow, to grieve ; sorrow, 

Beb«ri<&ili bhabnaena. I am exceedingly sor- 

Mae}iadoffidi% jobrebhabnamenaMtaea. A wo- 
man wnen in trarail hath sorrow. 

Bhabrao. To induce, to instigate, to 
lead away by false pretences, to 

Uniatt ohabraoteil senena. I went at his ins- 

Bhabrao idikedilSae, tf^hali emama. He be- 
goiled me by offering me money. 

HofalE bhabraotelS he^ena. 

Bhabri. A small bush, Embelia 
Tobusta, Road), 

Bhacam bhucum. Idle, lazy. 

Bhaoam bhnonmem di^a bafaekana. Yon go 
loafing about. 

Bhacan bhuouo. Restless, always on 
the move, unable to i*emain still. 

Bhac bhac. To chatter, to prate, to 

Bhacbhaoe rofeda. He chatters. 

Bhac bhacao. \To chatter, to prate, 
Bhoc bhocao. j to gabble, to speak 
at random ; loquacious. 

Bhac bhua To so here and there, to 
keep out of the way. 

Bhac bhoc ba^Mkanae. She goes about gossip- 

Bhackao. To chatter, to prate, to talk 
nonsense, to speak at random, to 
speak as an insane person. 

Bhackia bhacki. Tot alk idly, or obscene- 
ly, as an insane person. 

Bhaoka bh^okiye rof a. 

Bhacko. Talkative, glib, used mainly 
of ffirls and young women. 

Marah bhacko kanae. She is a grreat talker. 

Bhad. ") To make a pattering noise, 

Bhad bhad. J as a shower of firuit from 

a tree ; to patter, as hail stones ; to 


Bhad bhadldn d^rl^eda. They ran pattering 

Bhad bhade arelkeda. The hail pattered. 
Bhad mente liurena. It fell pattering. * 

Bhad bhui \To fell with a thud, to 
Bhadbhud. J thud. 

Bhad bhud tiuroMkana. They fall with a thud. 

Bhades. To be haughty, or supercil- 
ious, to spurn, to depreciate, to 
look down on, to revile. 

TuQbr gidra alom bhades koa. 
K^mi reaXe bhadesedilikana. 
Bhades katiiae roradiiia. He reviled me. 
Hof ko samahre ^ire bhadeskediAa. He revil- 
ed me before aU the people. 

Bha^et bhadel Enock-kneed, to 
walk as one weak in the knees. 

Nui hor do bha4e€ bha4e<!e tarame£kana. This 
man knocks his knees when be walks. 

Bha^ial. Enock-kneed. 

Bha^i^l bha4i^le oalatt kana. 

Bhado. C£ bhador. 
Bhadoe hoyo. Rice that ripens in the 
month Bhador, Augst-Sept. 

Bhador. The fifth solar month, August- 

Bhador khoroc. A veiled name for a wild 
pigeon, or a quail. 

Bhador jhapni. A very small sensitive 
plant, common during the rains, 
^iophitum sensitivum. 

Bhadra. Loquacious, talkative, tongue 

never at rest. 
Bhadra. Crops ripening in Bhador 

(q. V.) 
Bhadu. A forest tree, Vitex alata, 

Bhadu. A idol made by the Hindus 

in the month of Bhador (q. v.) 

Bhag. To divide, to share, to appor- 
tion ; a share, a portion. 

Bhaffkoali. I will divide them into parties. 
Mi{ bhag ematime. Give me one share. 

Bhag. Fate, fortune, chance. 

Bh^gte. By chance, scarcelv, no sooner than. 
Amak bh^gte nui gidr^ doe hoeakana. 
Oka bh9gi^ calatta. What chance have I to go. 
Sehgel oka bhM>e if 16 dafeaKa ? What chance 

nave you of putting the fire out P 
Bh^gteye jomkeda, adoe calao go£ena. 

Rh I -l^^^^®^* fortunate, lucky. 

7>ayaKko geko bh^gan, ente onko do dayaakoa. 
Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive 

Bhagao. To overcome, to conquer, to 
gain victory. 

BhagaokedealS, I conquered him. 
Dafeenaii, uniye bha^aoena. 

Bhagao. To divide, to divide into 
shares, or pieces. 

Nui merombon bhagaoea. We will divide this 
goat into pieces (for convenience of sale.) 



[ 56 ] 


Bhagat. A vegetarian. 
Bhage. Good, well. 

Bhagre hof. A good man. 
Bhagegeye rorlatta. He said well. 

Bhagete. An adverbor an adjective pos- 
sessing intensifying force. 

Bhageteve dalkedea.^ He beat him severely. 
Bhagetekin k^ph^ri^aena. They quarrelled 

Bhageteye egerkedea. He abused him violently. 

Bhage sahltte. Carefully, well, dili- 
gently, effectually, minutely, give 
one's mind to. 

Bha|re s^hitte dis^ dohoeme. Treasure it up 
in yoor mind. 

Bhainari. ") * i . 

Bhaiidar. / ^ ^^^^^' * P^^^^' 

Bhag jat. A system of cultivation in 
which the cultivator supplies the 
cattle, implements and labour, and 
receives one half of the produce. 

Bhagin. Niece. 

Deo bh^gin. A man's sisters and their children. 

Bhagna. Sisters' children, nephews 
or niecea 

Bh^gn%li. My nephew, or niece. 

Bh%gnf^fi kora. My nephew. 
Bhq^i^ ^^' My niece. 
Bh^gnim. Thy nephew, or niece. 

Bh4^^ ^'oii' My niece. 

I. Thy nepl 
Bh^gn^m kofa. Thy nephew. 

Bh^gn^m knfi. Thy niece. 

Bh^gnat, bh^gn^ttet. His nephew, or niece. 

Bh^gn^t kof a. His nephew . 

Bhign^t kufi. His niece. 

Bh^gnid. Mv niece. 

Bh%gnim. Tny niece. 

Bhignitte€. His niece. 

Bhagni. To be overcome, to withdraw. 

Bhagnienae. He is overcome. 

Bhagwa. A narrow strip of cloth pas- 
sed between the thighs, and tuck- 
ed into a waist string (dora q. v.) 
before and behind, to conceal the 
privy parts ; a piece of male attire. 

Bhai. (1) Brother. (2) Or, whether. 

OalaKam, ki bh^iem tahenreh5. 

Bhaiadi. Brothers, near relatives. 
Bhaica. Elder brother's children, ne- 
phews, or nieces. 

Bh^icaliko. My elder brother's chidren. 
Bh^ic^d kofa. Mv nephew. 

., knfi. My niece. 
Bh^ic^m. Thy nephew, or niece. 
Bh^ioamko. Thy nephews, or nieces. 
Bh^o^m kora. Thy nephew. 

J, kufi. Thyneice. 

Bh^ic^tko. His nephews, or nieces. 
Bh^io%t kof a. His nephew. 
„ kufi. His niece. 

BhUisa. A rather imcommon plant 
only found at hi^h elevations, 
Colebrookia opposttitolia, Linn. 

Bhajan. A pot, a basket, a vessel. 

Enhk^ bhajan. Earthenware, pottery. 
Bfahle bhajan. Basket ware, bamboo ware. 

Bhft * F I I^^*cious, talkative. 

44i bh^jri maejin kanae. She is a very talka- 
tive woman. 

Bhak. ^ To bubble, as a spring 

Bhakar bhakar. I of water or as boil- 
Bhakar bhukur. V ing water ; to issue 
Bhak bhak. I in pu£G9, as steam ; 
Bhukur bhukur. J to spurt, as blood 

from an artery ; to rise as a smell, 

to issue forth. 

Bhak marte so raka{> goi!ena. 

Bhak bhak dha% todottkana. The smoke issues 

in pnffs. 
Bhaknr bhnknir he^ejoMkaaa. The water boils 

and bubbles. 

Bhaka. Language, dialect, speech. 

Bhakhae€kanae, menkhan bae dafelena. He 
boasts, but cannot do it. 

Bhakara. 1 A report, a rumour, a 
Bhakhara. J false report, boasting; 

J^hndiko talare bhakaraakana tehen dh^bioge. 
And this report continneth to this day among 
the Jews. 

Bhakar bhakar. Cf, bhak. 

Bhakar bhukur. Cf, bhak. 

Bhak bhak. Cf, bhak. 

Bhaknao. To chatter. 

Bhalc bholc. To speak nonsensically, 
as a drunken man. 

Bhakcu. Stupid, witless. 
Bhakha. Speech, language. 

£ken bhakhate£ge taharesei! bae kf mi daf eaKa. 

Bhakha. To boast. Cf. bhaka. 

Bhakhara. Cf, bhakara. 

Bhakti. Religious, pious. 

Bhakh bhakao. To issue freely, to 
spring, as water. 

Bhakhna bhakhni. Idle, obscene talk. 

Oe^ko CO bhakhna bh^khniye rof leda. 

Bhakn^ao. To stray, to err, to be 


[ 57 ] 


Short-necked, stout 
and short necked. 

Bhakum bhaU. 
Bhakur bhaM. 

Bh^kwau. C£ bhutau. 

Bhal. Qood, respectable. 

Bhala. Well, good, well then., you 
don't say so, let me see then, it 
does not signify, it matters little. 

Jom gelaali bhala, oe€l6ka sebela. I will try 

it and see how it tastes. 
Bhalali, llolmea. Gk>od, I shall oatoh you yet. 

Bh^IaL Benefit, service, gain, profit, 

Bh«>% oookoad. I will benafit them. 

Bhal bhal. Great, good, rich. 

Bhal bhal hofko dSt rahgaoVkana, ar am do 
nni sohffem IflwaoXkanaP (Better men than 
yon cairt do it). 

Bhale bhale. Good, rich, wealthy, great, 

Bhale bhale hof . Bich men, gentlemen. 
Bhale m^nns. A respectable man, a gentleman, 
a oonrteoos humane person. 

Bhalki rua. Fever beginning with 
violent ague, but of short duration. 

BhaloM. Mad, suffering fi:om rabies, 
violent, frenzied. 

Bhalol seta. A mad dog. 

Seta doe bhalogotta. The dog will become 

BhaloSenae. He is mad. (said of a violent man.) 

Bhalua. A swallow, a sand martin. 

Bh%lua kapi. A battle axe, so named from its 
resemblance to a swallow with outstretched 

Bhalwa. Used by blacksmiths when 
punching holes in iron. 

The punch passes through the iron into a hole 
in the bhahoa, 

Bhan4. The vessel into which cows 
are milked. 

Cuk%V bhan^. A small milking pot. 

Bhand. 1 To defile, to corrupt, to defile 
Bhon^. J ceremonially, to break a 
holy day. 

Bhan4. M. \ Adulterer,adultress, those 
Bhandin. F. V who marry within the 
Bhundin. J prohibited relationships, 

Bhanda bhandi. A man and woman 
coming together without the sanct- 
ion of the Santal laws, 

Bhanda bh^n^ienakin. 


Bhan^an. Ceremonies afber the last 
rites for the dead have been per- 

Nai khonm^fkateko bhan^anoXa. The Bhan- 
^an ceremonies are observed after return- 
ing from the Damnda river (where the jah 
bana (q. r.) of the deceased has been deposi- 

Bhandan dahri. A cloth passed across 
the forehead and tied behind. 

Bhandan bhundun. To decimate, play 
havoc, diminish. 

Bhan<}ah bhun^nhko gocena. Death has played 

havoc with them. 
Netarle bhan^ah bhun^uxien i^te bale sendraeda. 
Through our being at present greatly di- 
minished in number we do not hunt. 

Sanam ptffkom bhan<^ah bhun<^uh topaKena. 

Bhandao. To defile, to deflower. 

Noi hof do saname bhan^aoe£koa. 

Bhandar. A granary, a store. 

Bhan^ar. The anus. 

Bhandar algao. Prolapsus ani. 

Bhandari A house steward. 

Bhand disom. The portion of the San- 
tal par^nnas north and east of 
the Adjoe river. 

fihan^u dare. A large forest tree, so 

Bhan^ur. To become worthless, fruit- 
less, to render ineffective. 

Noa k^mi bhan<}urena. This work is fruitless. 

L^ndur bh^ngur dinko khemaoeda. They go 
through life lazily (never exerting them- 

Tin^K k^mi bh^n^Iurentilia. How much of my 
work has been rendered fruitlesB. 

Bhandur. To change clothes, of wo- 
men ; clothes of women to become 
disarranged so as to be immodest. 

Noa kicrid bh^nduf gi^ikam, bah bes tieloK- 
kana. Change tnis garment it does not 
look well. 

Bhan. Hemp. 

Bhandao. To destroy, to lead astray, 
to pervert ; to stray. 

Bhanga. To break, tamper with, per- 
vert, spoil, mar, undo, to be dis- 
contented, to break harmony. 

B%huko bhahgaSkantakoa, ce£lekate? Kff chu- 
te la'ireko maKe£koa. How is it that the 
sons' wives are becoming discontented? 
They are striking them on their stomachs 
with the ladle (don't give them sufficient 

JiwihS hul^ bhahgaentakina. 


[ 58 ] 


Bhangabhat. To break, to destroy. 

G^i sanam bhabgabhatena. The owrt is all 
broken to pieoes. 

Bhanga muri. Half a bigha. 

Bhaofi^ao. To break, to open up, to 
change money, to spend, to tamper 
with, pervert, to break up, disperse. 

Bbed bhaiigao. To explain. 

Bhif bbahgaoena. The crowd has dispersed 

(the assembly has broken op.) 
Gohf^o bhahgaokeCkotiiia. They tampered 

with my witnesses. 
Nawi otko bhaiigaoa. They will break up new 

Taka poesa bhahg^ko. Money changers. 

Bhanga puj^. Religious ceremonies 
performed after the tassar silk 
worms (Antheraea mylitta) have 
all spun their cocoons. 
Bhanga suli. 1 To become poor, to lose 
Bhanga sulia. j wealth and position, 
broken in fortune. 

Bhahga snli^ ato. A deoayed village. 

Bhangat To destroy, to be destroyed, or 
broken, to become a water course, 
generally applied to the ridges 
round rice nelds when broken or 
carried away by a rush of water. 

Bhaiigaf af erne. Bepairthe breaches in the rid- 
ges of the rice nelds. 

Bhangor. To go to ruin, to become de- 
solate and forsaken. 

Bhantao. To destroy, to lead astray, 
to pervert ; to stray, to be broken 
in estate. 

Mela ren hof em bhahfaoetkoa. Yon are perver- 
ting the people of the fair. 

Bhahtaoenale nes do. We are broken this year 

Bhangua. Idle, lazy, slothful. 
Bhanka bhakur. Cloth worn thin and 

at the point of tearing. 
Bhankur. The sound emitted by any 

thing struck when drawn tight ; a 

string, &c. drawn tight, knocked 

off the straight. 
Bhanlabhat. To destroy, to break 

down ; dilapidated, in disrepair. 
Bhadj. To enquire into, clear up, to 


Katha ban bhaiijlekhan ofge noa reaK bah oa- 

Bhailjao. To exercise, as an athlete ; 
to be inured to, to spend time, to 
cash a cheque, or currency note,&c. 

Lot bhalljao ^gnime. Get the note cashed. 
K^mi bhall jaoKme. Accnstom yourself to work. 

Bhadj dhiri. A stone with which an 
athlete pi'actices. 

Bhao. Bate, price. 

Thik bhao ar ojonte. Correot rate and weight. 

Bhao. To prophesy, to explain, to 
divine, to speak as a person posses- 
sed with a spirit of divination. 

Mase bhaoaleme. Prophesy nnto ns. 

BhtXoar. To exercise, as an athlete ; to 
practice, to train, to break in, to 
accustom ; expert, skilled, smart. 

Dal bhioar. To beat into diape. 

Nui 4ahra do bae bhioarakana. ThisboUock 

is unbroken. 
BhSoar hof kanae. He is an expert. 

Bh^?fr} '^° dis»Ppear, to be lost. 

Q^ okate coh bhaon^aoentiiia. My oow is lost 

BhSLora. Of the male sex, a veiled term. 

Ado one bako mena, abo do herel bhEora. 

BhdK)ra. Small round opening in a 
wall to admit light, a receptacle 
in a wall. 

Bhiora bhngaK, or bhnX. A window opening. 

Bh9ora. A boring instrument resem- 
bling a brace, 

Bhaorao. Cf bhaon^ao. 

Bhaori. Vertigo, a dizziness to which 
cattle are subject. 

BhAoria. One who peddles salt, tobacco, 
spices, &c, and carries his wares 
in a basket on his head. 

BhSlori mala. A kind of necklace. 

Bhftosfto. To coax, to persuade, to pre- 
vail upon by entreatv. 

Uniye bhiosao m^fena. She has been persuad- 
ed to retnm. 

BhSLotia. A species of antelope. 

Bhaowar. Cf. bhaoar. 
Bhaph. Steam, vapour. 

Bhaphao. To steam, to cook by steam- 

Bhar. Load, weight, charge, responsi- 
bility ; diflScmt. 

Bhar do noare pa^aoakana. The weight rests 

on this. 
A4i bhabna, bnjh^ bhargeli a^kareda. 

Bhara. Bent, fiu^ ; to hire, to rent. 

Bhafa o^aX. A hired house. 
Bel bhafa. Bailway fare. 


[ 59 ] 

Bhasa bhai ra 

^ ^^ 

Bharabhat To destroy, to waste, to 

spend, to squander. 

^%kmB bluursbhatked*. He squandered the 

Jemon oe€ hS alo bharabhatoK. So that no- 

thinir may be wasted. 

Bhara bhuru. Easily powdered, loose, 
as earth ; soft, as roasted grain in 
the rains. 

On^enaX hasa bhara bhara i^teko dhaaao go6- 

Bharan bhuruiL To sob. 

Bharaii bhamiie raXeda. He is sobbini^ . 

Bharao. To swell, to puflf out, to be- 
come distended, to be inspired, to 
be possessed with a spirit of divi- 
nation; dropsical swelling. 

j^L^i ^of jahgaVo bnaraotta. The feefc of many 

people swell. 
BamoKl^e bharaoXa. 
Janko bharaoKa. 
Jan bharaokedeae. 

Bharaa To be frightened, startled. 

Bharar. 1 Continuously, with- 

Bharar bhara;:. J out hitch, or halt ; 

Noi hof bharaf bharaf kacah^rire prohae gpjr^n- 
keda. This man ffave his evidenoe in the 
coart without a hitoh. 

^harat^ Cf. bhorat 

Bharaf bharaf. Cf bhar bhar. 

Bharar bharaf. Cf bharar. 

Bhar bhaf . *! To issue uninterrup- 

Bharar bharaf . J tedly, to come a- 

way continuously, to unwind easily. 

UHdaX setetioKkana bharar bharaf. Saliva 

flows oontinoally. 
Saturn bhar bhaf rafattkana. The thread reels 

oif oninterrnptedly. 

Bhar bhaf. ") Softened, easily pow- 
Bhara bhuru. J dered, loose. 

Bat ataere bhara bhara otejoKa. 

Bhar bharao. To revolve, to spin 
round, to whirl. 

BharbharL Two plants go under this 
name, Ocimum basuicum, Linn. 
and Ocimum canum, Sims, 

Bhar bhuf. A crashing noise. 

Bhari. To load ; a burden, a load ; heavy, 

Sa^freko bh^ria. They load it on a cart. 
Hajarbh^ bee hasa. A thoasand loads of 

fTood soil. * 

Bh^ri hofmo. Pregnant, endente, 

Bhari. Cf bhori. 

Bharia. A stick with slings at either 
end, in which any thing to be car- 
ried is placed, carried over one 

Bh^ri^ idie€ tahSkanae. 

Bhar juan. Arrived at maturity. 
Bharkhar. In full swing, excessive. 

Netar ale sen bharkharko roXhoekana. Plan- 
ting is in fall swing over oar way jast now. 

Bhama. The name given to the woof 
by weavers. 

Otor bhama. Warp and weft. 

Bhama. To give property in repay- 
ment of a debt. 

Pahral) bhamakedea, mahajon thei. I gave a 
bnllook in payment of my debt to the money 

Bhamdo. A whirlwind. 
Bharo. To be astonished, amazed, 
to wonder. 

Bhafoenaii. I am amazed. 

Bharor bharor. C£ bharar bharar. 

• • • • 

Bharosa. Hope, expectation. 
Bharotborsa. India, Hindusthan. 

Bharsa. Hope, exepectation, reliance. 

Bharsak. Full force, or ability. 

Bharta. A method of cooking fish, 
mushrooms, and vegetables by 
wrapping up in leaves and roasting 
in ashes. 

Bharti To enlist, to be enrolled ; to 
engage, to recruit. 

Iskalre l>b9rtikom. Enrol them as scholars. 

Bharti hopno. Pregnant. 

Bharua. Large caterpillars, principally 
those of Attacua (itlaa, and Atta- 
CU8 Selene] an insignificant person. 

Bh^rna kanae, oet h5 bael ba^aea. He is a 
caterpillar and knows nothing. 

Bharur. \To untwist, to open out again 
Bhartlr. J as twine, to recover flesh and 
strength after an illness. 

Baber bh^rafena. The twine has antwisted. 

Bhas. Ejiowledge, ability. 

NniaX lar bhas b^naXtaea. He has no know* 

Bhasa. Language, speech. 

Baj bhasa. The imperial langaage, English. 

Bhasa. A variety of the rice plant. 

Bhasa bharra. At random, though- 
lessly,io rave as an insane persont. 

Bhasa bharfae rof eda. H speaks at random. 


[ 60 ] 

Bhejer bhejer 

Bhasam. To reduce to ashes by fire^ 

Sanam aeiigelte bhasamena. It is aU reduoed 
to ashes. 

Bhasan. To launch, to set afloat, to 
throw into water. 

Bhasankoako dibiko. They throw the idols 
into water. 

Bhasao. To be carried away by water, 
or a flood. 

Ona mtm^hat do bhasao oalaoena. The log 
has been carried away by a flood. 

Bhas bhus. Suddenly, unexpectedly ; 
excitedly ; in all directions, one 
this way and another that. 

Bhasi. Nature, custom, habit, dispos- 

Jonom bhaaite. By natnre, naturally. 
Bh^sige onkajitaea. His nature is snoh. 

Bhaskao. "|^ To burst out, to burst open, 
Bhoskao. J to burst and the contents 
to scatter, to collapse. 

Bhat. A religious beggar, Hindu or 
Mohammedan ; to beg. 

BhatoKili dnkana. I went a begging. 

Bhata. A furnace, a kiln. 

Bhatan bhutud. Naked, scantily clad. 

Bhatao. To fill up, to level up. 

Noa ga^a bhataome. Fill np this pit. 

Bhatau. To go about, to go here and 

there, as a dog in heat. 
Bhatha. A kiln, a furnace. 

It4 bhafha. A briok kiln. 

Bhathi. A still, a boiler, a copper. 

Paura bh^t^i. A liqnor still. 

Dhobi bhattii. A washerman's boiler. 

Jhuli bb^thi. A trench in the ground used as 

a fireplace when cooking has to be done for 

a large number of people. 

Bhati. The kernel of certain fruits 

when half ripe. 
Bhati. A veiled name for paura. (q. v.) 

Bhati6. "j Of course, to be sure, now 
Bhatked. V that I remember, how stu- 
Bhatkoi.J pid of me. 

Bhatid am h5m metadiii tahSkangea. Of course, 

you did teU me. 
Dnrh^l^ 1 bhatid ill idUefge. Dear me ! of course, 

I did take it. 
H§; bh^tked uniye metadiii tahekana. Tes; 

of course, he did tell me. 
Bh^tked iii h5li tahekangea. Of course, I was 

also there. 
Unrege bh^tkedem roflekhan jutkeall honaii. 

Had you spoken then, of course, I should 

have put it right. 
Ho bh^tkod id ifellefme tahekangea. Tes ; 

of course, I did see you. 

Bhatija. Nephew. 

Bhatkei. C£ bhatii. 

Bhatko6. C£ bhatid. 

Bhatkura. Fat, corpulent, said of men. 

BhatoK. C£ bhaj. 

Bhator sukri. A huge wild boar with 
large tusks, 

Bhatua araU. A wild pot herb, Cheno- 
podium (dbum, iioq. 

Bh|iuti6. A leaf cup, a cup made of 
leaves pinned together. 

Bhear. To test by comparison, to exam- 

P^il^le bheapa tin%X sahoiM. We will test the 
measure to see how much it holds. 

Bhebhao. To bleat, as a goat or sheep. 

Bh^ bh€. To bleat, as a sheep. 

Bhed. Interpretation, me€ining, occu- 

Bhed alom bhahgaoaea. Do not tell the inters 

pretation to him. 
K^mi bhedre ba^^e tahenme. Keep up at your 


Bheda. A ram. 

Bheda dereiS. "Ram's horn," a common 
annual. Cassia Tora, Linn., the 
leaves of which are eaten as a pot 

Bheda hako. A species of fish. 

Bhede bhed. Accurately, in detail 

Bhede bhed kuliem. Question him in detail. 

Bheder bheder. To talk at random, 
to chatter, to prate. 

CedaKem bheder bhederoMkana ? Why are you 
chattering ? 

Bhedwa. A wild plant. Hibiscus 
cancellatus, Roscoe., var. fusi- 
formisj WiUd. 

Bheja. To send. 

BhejakediAae. He sent me. 

Bheja. Additional assessment on rent. 

Baj bheja. Tribute. 

Bhejao. To send. 

Bhejao go£kakome. Send them to me. 

Bhejer bhejer. To prattle, to prate, to 
jabber, to Chatter. 

Bhejer bhejerko galmaraokana. They are chat- 


[ 61 ] 

Bhi4i janatefi 

BheH. To cut off the head of a goat, 
\ised by children or when address- 
ing children; the cry of a goat 
whose neck has not been severed 
at the first blow. 

BheM bhetfko maKkedea. They did not out 
off the head at one blow. 

Bhek bhek. To talk idly, to gabble, 
to persist in speaking after being 
told to be quiet. 

Bhek bhek. To bleat, as a goat when 

Bhek bhekao. To speak much and 

loudly, to continue speaking loud- 

Bheltbhok. ISaid of a drunken man 
Bhak bhok </ who has lost control of 
his mental and bodily £9u;ulties. 

Bhekua. The petiole of a lea£ 
BhelaundL Goat's droppings. 
Bhelgu^a. A game. 

Bhelwa tap tap. 1 A eanxe played by 
Bhelwa tu^ tup, J cnildren. 

Bhembha. M. ") Foolish, stupid, igno- 
Bhembhi. F. ) rant. 

Bhen bhen. "^ To whirl whizzing 

Bhen bhenao. J round, to spin round 

with a noise, to be attacked by a fit. 

P^thri bhen bhenaokedeako, nuihof . 

Bhedjan. To mix, to adulterate, to 

Ha{'ha£ sisir bhetijaaakan dak rasa. Wine 
mineled with g^aJl. 

Snnnm gfherko bheiijana. Oil is oftenest adul- 

Bhenta. A word, or phrase with a 
double hidden meaning. 

Bheona. A vision, an apparition. 

itel bheonaenad. I saw an apparition. 

BhSt A visit paid by women to a 
house where a member of the 
family has died ; a visit of condol- 
ence, an interview, a meeting. 

BhStra. Mourning, lamentation. 

Bherbher. To whirl round, to revolve, 
to rotate. 

Eunkal oak bherbher %curoMa. The potter's 
wheel goes whirling round. 

Enah khon bher bhere sioKkana, baskeaX h5 
bape idiaekana. He has been ploughing 
round and round since morning and you are 
not even taking him his breakfast. 

Bherbherao. . To whirl, to revolve. 

Me{ blrorbherao %ouroK lekalS 9ik^ueda. I feel 

Bh^rcak. \To flinch, to shy. Scottice, 
Bh^rcok. J .tojouk 

Kul9i bhef caM ru^f enae. The hare doubled. 

Bherot Stiff necked, stubborn, fro- 

ward, self-willed. 
Bhem^a. A common hedge plant 

Jatropha curcua, Linn, 

Bhertan. To whirl round, to turn 
sharp round. 

Bherwan. To turn round, as a shuttle- 
cock in falling ; to wheel round. 

Bhes. Form, appearance. 

Diku lekae bhesena. Disguised himself as a 

Bit! bheste he^lenae. He oame in the form of 

a serpent. 
Bhes sap. To assume a form. 

Bhesa bhisi. To mimic each other, one 
to do what the other does. 

Bhesao. To mock, to mimic, to follow 

BheMsao eneo. A danoe in which the dancers 
mimic certain phases of Bantal yUlage life, 
as the bride ^ing to her new home, Ac, 
peculiarities m gait &c. of Tillage oelebri- 
ties, &c., Ac. 

Bhetro. Blunted, accustomed to, famili- 
arized with. 

Bhase sombat alijom bhetroenae. He is gospel 

Nel bhefroakan hof . A man accustomed to the 

sight (of blood, &o.) 

Bhetuak. An ornamental band for 

the hair. 
Bhidata. The Hindu deity Brahma, 

Bhidi. A sheep, a ewe. 

Bhi^ihopon. A lamb. 

Bhidi. To keep secret, to keep one's 
own counsel, to spy, to pry into, 
to reconnoitre, to search for a clue, 
to act secretly. 

Bhidikate jahanaXe hataoa. He wiU buy some- 
thing to enable him to spy. 

Bhidia. A spy. 

Bhi^i achim. A common cold weather 
plaiit,Centi/ida orbicvZari8,Lov/r. 

Bhidi janatel Two plants are known 
by this name : — 

Mota bhi<li janatef. Urena ainuatOy Linn, 
Nanha bhi^ jana^. ^Triun^tta rhombo%d0a, 


^ [ 62 ] 


Bhiduk. A spy, a pretender. 

Bhidnkkateye heo^ia. He came as a spy. 

Bhijau. To steep, to saturate, to soak 
in, to impress, to operate, to affect. 

Otre majam bhij^aena. Tho blood soaked into 

the gn^oond. 
Botor bhi)%aa£koa. Fear took hold of them. 

Bhikhari. A beggar. 

BHIki. To be startled, afraid. 

^el bhilkienafi. The sight frightened me. 

Bhili The distance between two fur- 
rows, about a cubit, in which 
sugarcane, and root crops are 

Bhili guf. A large lump of raw sugar. 

Bhim. A cor. of beam. 

Bhina. 1 To separate, to disagree, 

Bhina bhini J to divide. 

Bhind. A bale, a &ggot, a mass, a lump 
of anything. 

Bhinda. A lump, applied specially to 
the mass of iron taken from the 
smelting furnace. 

Bhindar. To foil down, to knock down, 
to collapse. 

Bhin^ia. A faggot, a bundle of any- 

Bhindia. The finishing thatch put on 
the ridge of a roof 

Bhindrah. To fall to the ground, to 
knock down. 

Bhingau. To separate, to be separa- 
ted, to be scattered. 

BhiS|or JTo break up, to cancel. 

Ontenak katha bhihgof ena. The negotiations 
over there have come to an end. 

Bhingora. A deceiver. 

Bhingrau. To pervert, to lead astray, 
to cause to err, cause to break up, 
as an assembly. 

Bhir. A crowd, an assembly. 

Bhipege memUia. I am engaged along with 

Bhif bhahgaoenako. The assembly has dis- 

Bhir. To be busy, fully occupied, with- 
out leisure. 

A^ili bhif akana, ohoA ali^mletama. I am rery 
busy and so cannot listen to yon. 

Bhifau. To go close to, to press close, 
to put close to. 

(>anra bako bhir^n dafeattkana. The bnllooks 

cannot go close to edffe. 
Lnt'ire ^nrill bhifana. I have not yet pnt any 

thing to my hps, i. e. hare not broken my 


Bhirik. Loathsome, disgusting. 

J^^ bhirik ^ik^nXkana. Sensible of a loath- 
some feeling. 
Bhirikge iieloXkana. It is disgusting. 

Bhirka bhirkhi. To be scared or ter- 

Bhirka ene6. A children's game. 

Bhirkai bhirkal A game played by 

Bhirkau. To be frightened, scared. 

Bhirobhoro. To crack, to burst, to 
open ; under-baked, as an earthen 

Bhirsaha. Suffering from indigestion, 
to suffer from indigestion from 
over eating. 

Nni hof jomto bhirs^haakanae. 

Bhirsau. To suffer from indigestion 
from over eating. 

Jom bhirs^nakanae. 

Bhiso bhoso. Slack, carelessly tied or 

Okoe bhiso bhoeoko b%ndiaka£aP Who has 
bound np the b^ndi (q. v.) so loosely P 

Bhisor. A mistake, an eiTor, a fault, an 
omission of duty. 

Bhnl bhisorto bali hetSlena. I did not come 
owing to a mistake. 

Bhit. A wall, to build a wall. 

Non^e bhitkam. Erect a wall hei«. 

Bhitha. An outlpng piece of culti- 
vated high land. 

Bhitar. The inner apartment of a 
Santal house. 

OfaX bhit^rtoye bolo baeakana. He is hiding 

in the inner apartment. 
Bhitar bahar hof. Belatires (who hare access 

to the inner apartment) and acquaintances 

(who have not.) 

Bhitar. 1 Inside, within, in doors, to ba 
Bhitri. J inside, to put inside, to 

Bhitri mone hof kanae. He is a reserved man. 

Marah bhitar gig^i^ hof kanae. He is a very 
reserved person . 

Noa do bhitnXa. This will be included. 

Bhitar.bahar hof . A person whose duties in- 
clude work within, and without doors. 


[ 63 ] 


Bhitara. To separate the threads of 
the warp when they adhere to- 
gether on the peg while being 

Bhitkur. Fat, corpulent, applied to 

Bhiw" } '^^^ p«*^«'« °^ » '*'*^- 

Bh5bh5! The sound of a trumpet or 
like instrument, to trumpet. 

BhdbhSe raKeda. 

Bhocbhoc. To chatter, to prate, to jab- 
ber ; talkative, loquacious. 

Bhocbhocao. To chatter, to prate, 
to speak at random. 

Bhocbhocao. Liberally, plentifully. 

Bhoobhocaoe emailea. He gave us a large 

Bhoco. Stupid, foolish, ignorant. 

Bhooo mara hof . A consummate fool. 

Bhocor bhocor. To gabble, to prate, to 
talk nonsense, l^e a person drunk. 

Bh5da. Fat, corpulent, unwieldy, large ; 
thickheaded, dull witteA 

BbS^La k^ha. The Bow Billed corby, CorvnB 

LeyaUlantii, Less. 
BbSda minx. A large paroquet. 
Bh54a Icisni. The lar^^ starling, Qraeula reli' 


Bhodor. To fell into disrepair, to be 
abandoned, to be pulled down, to 
to be refuted, to be unsubstan- 
tiated, to be rejected. 

Ona of aV bbodorena. That house is abandoned. 
Uni do rajkoe bhodoretkoa, ar etaKkoe raje6koa. 
He deposes kings and raises others to thrones. 

Bhodor bhodor. Without meaning, 
continuously, without intermission. 

Afisge bhodor bhodore rofe£kana. He annoys 
by oontinuaUy speaking. 

Bhodran. Worthy, virtuous, respec- 

Bhodran hof. A worthy, respectable man. 
Bhodranko. Worthy, respectable men. 

Bhodro. Respectable, worthy. 
Bhoe. Fear. 

Bhoe bujh^uttkana. To be afraid. 

Bhoelo.M. ") Slightly clothed, scantily 
Bhuili.F. / cUd; a girl not yet wear- 
ing clothea 

Bhoelo. Loosely, loosely twisted. 

Baber bhoeloakana. The twine is loosely 

Bhog. The centre, the middle. 

Bhogte€re ubpe. Empty it in the centre. 

Bhog. To enjoy, to feel pleasure, to 
bear, to suffer, to endure. 

Nui hof do ^her dine suk bhogkeda. This man 
has enjoyed life for many years. 

Bhoga kaskom. Oosaypium neglect- 
UTTi, Tod,, a cotton plant exten- 
sively cultivated. 

Bhogao. To be corpulent, fat, un- 

Bhogaoenae. He has become corpulent. 

Bhogdo. Fat, rich. 

Bhogjira. A medicinal root sold in the 

Bhogot. A vegetarian, a man who as- 
pires to sanctity after Hindu ideas, 
and denies himself flesh and fish. 

Bhoj. A feast, to give a feast. 

Bara dinreko bhojkeda. They had a feast on 
Christmas day. 

Bhojokoto. Troublesome, difficult. 

Bhojoko^ b^fi^re seteroKkanift. He reached 
with the utmost difficulty. 

Bhojpuria. Gluttonous, greedy, one 
who eats much at a feast, (bhoj) ; 
belonging to Bhojpur. 

Bhotc. To bark, as a d(^. 

Cele lielteye bhotf keda ? What does be see to 
bark at P 

Bhok bhok. To gurgle. 
Bhokbhokao. To gurgle. 
Bhokrao. To low, to bellow. 

Bhokrao ^gukedae, mihH uih^rte. 

Bhokta. "J The deity in whose 

Bhokta bonga. J honour the pata, or 

hook swinging festival is observed. 

Bhokto. Cf. bhogot. 

Bh5nda. To pollute ceremonially, to 
cause to oe ceremonially unclean, 
to violate ; unclean, polluted, defil- 

BhSnd. Cf. bh5da. 

Bhondol. To labour heavily, as in 

Bhondol bhondole d^f e£kana. 

Bhondor. Cf. bonder. 

Bhondra. To wear away and become 
wide, ^ a bush on which an axle 


[ 64 ] 

Bhot bali 

BhoQ. To explain, to decipher, to in- 
terpret, to give the gist of. 

Bhed bhoiiafime. Interpret the meaning to me. 

Bhongar. To be torn, as flesh by a 
thorn, a deep scratch or cut, to 
have the skin rubbed oflf. 

Bhon4or.\To scratch, to knock, or nib 
Bhen^er.J off the skin, to graze, to 
slightly wound. 

NasenaMem bhon^orkedea. Ton jnat knocked 

off a little skin. 
Bajao bhon^orenali. I have had a little skin 

mbbed off by ooming against something. 

Bhor. In comp. full, all, whole, up to, 
as much as, a far as. 

Din bbor. All day. 

Dare bhor. Whole strencfth. 

Whole life time. 

Jiwe€ bhor. 

Jonom bhor. 

Tnii4^ bhor. 

Tahen bhor. Whole time of residence. 

Tahen daf eatt bhor. As long as he ooold remain. 


Bhor. *) T,i 

Bor. I Blessing. 

Bhor saote bid^lem. Dismiss as with a blessing. 
Am do borem emale n^hi tho. 

BhS} To fill in, to put in. 

K^dreko bhoraokedea. They put him in jail. 
Bhoratkedae. He filled it up. 

Bhori.\ One tola, or the weight of one 
Bhari./ sicca rupee. 

Bhorkond. A large forest tree, Hy- 
menodictyon excelsum, Wall. 

The bark yields a useful febrifuge. 

Bhorma. ") Secretly, without dis- 

Bhorma bhormi J play, privily. 

Bhorma bhormate \ Secretly, quietly, 
Bhorme bhormete. J without any de- 
monstration, delicately, privily, 

Bhorme bhormete emkatilime. Giye it to me pri- 

Bhorme bhormete bagiye I^gi€e moneana. He 
was minded to put her privily away. 

Bhorma bhormi. C£ bhorma. 

Bhorna. C£ bharna. 



Boela c6rg. 

A small forest bird. Cf. 

Bhorok. Apprehensive of danger, 
terror, fear. 

Bhorok he6adifiteii calao gofena. 
Kel bhofokenaii. 

Bhorom. Shame, the parts of the 
body which modesty requires to 
be concealed. 

Bhorom bhahgaoentida. I was put to shame. 

Ar one bhoromko dapal hataf kae kioritS or ooog- 
taesL ar ona bodol matkom.4h^ur^Kte bhoro- 
me dapalkadege. 

Ehgam apum real bhorom bam doholaKs. 
Ton did not mantaiTi the honour of your 

Bhorosa.1 Hope, dependence, expecta- 
Bhorsit. J uion, confidence, trust, &ith. 

Thehga sajikaXkhan bhorsa bujhauKa. You 
feel confidence when you grasp a black 

Calem bhorsa idiallkana P Why do you continue 
to cause me to hope? 

Noa thehga do bhfi bhorosa kantida. 

Bud bhorsa. Encouragement, confidence. 

Bhorsak. ") With all one's strength, or 
Bharsak. J ability. 

Bhos bhos. ■> Thriftlessly, recklessly, 
BhSs bh5s. J thoughtlessly. 

Bhos bhos b^diko bogoja. They recklessly 
open their bandi (q. v.), i. e. use up their 
store of grain. 

Bhosa. To pierce through, to stab. 

Aotegeye bhosa gooena. He stabbed himself 
to death. 

Pota I ^^ ^™^ stomach. 

Bhoskao. "> To open, to rip up, to make 
Bhaskao. J a nole in, to burst, to 

Bhosko potam. A species of wild pi- 
geon, C£ potam. 

Bhosn4o. Sl(^enly, dirty, slatternly. 

Bhoso. Dusty, dirty, no idea of clean- 
liness, dusty, as a miller. 

Bhosor. A fault, a mistake, an omis- 
sion of duty, an error. 

Bhosto.l To destroy, reject, to be ruin- 
Bosto. J ed or destroyed; to defile, 
to profane. 

Bhot. Rejected, thrown overboard, 
destroyed, disproved. 

Judi iliaK katham bhot dafeatiil khan. 

Bhota. To besmear oneself with ashes 
as some Hindu ascetics do ; dusty, 
as children playing among ashes. 

Bhot bali. Iron stone, nodules of iron 

Bhot bhot 

[ 65 ] 


't bhot. 1 T> xj. • J 

d bhad.r ***^"°8 ^"°**- 

Bhot bhot 

Bhot bhot sa^okana, arel do ootre. The hail 
patters on the roof. 

Bhotko. 1 To blunt, to lose its edge, as 
Bhotro. J a knife ; to lose appetite, 

to be wearied 
Bhoto. Stupidly ignorant, dunder- 

Bho^M. Ready to expand, as a flower 
bud or a mushroom. 

Ona ^^rre do bhotoMkate bahaena. 

Bhotro. C£ bhotko. 

Bhoyon. Fear, firightfol, fearful, dread- 

^i bhoyone lieloMkana. He looks friffhtfnl. 
44i bhojonili atkareda. I am very muoh afraid. 

Bhua. Idle, false. 

Noakathabhn^ntama. Tour story is falsified. 

Bhubhau.1 To spill, to splash, or spill 
Bubhau. J over the side of a vessel, 
as water. 

Noatoa bhubh^u hiridena. 

BhubhuK. Cf. bhuk. 

Bhua 1 Stupid, ignorant, foolish ; stu- 
Bhucun.J pidity, ignorance ; an igno- 
ramus, a fool. 

Marah bhao kanae. He is a neat ignoramus. 
Bhncte kat dhiriko ^oboXaKkana. They bow 
down to idols through ignorance. 

Bhucampa. An earthquake. 

Bhucar. *) * i. x u 

Bhuc bhucL Pride, obduracy, contum- 
acy, dogged resolution, headstrong 

CalaK reaM bhuc bhncili maraotama. 

Bhucer. ") m , 

Bhuter. / ^^ ^^'^^ ^^^^ "^^^'^- 

^a bhuoerakanae. Hehasdmnkto excess. 

Bhucun. Ignorant, stupid, loafing 

Bhuffak. 1 A i_ 1 

Bhuk ' I ' *^ opemng, a cave. 

Bhaora bhug^K. A window opening, an open- 
ing to admit light. 

Bhuger. Plump, fet, large. 

Gidr^ toa llullute bhagepakanae. The child has 
grown plump through drinking milk. 

Lxun^mko bhugerakana. Said of tassar silk 
worms when they have passed their fourth 
moult, and grow rapidly. 


Bhugol. Geography. 

Bhui cal. An sarthquake, a tremor in 
the earth. 

Bhuicampa. A kind of fire works. 

Bhtii(Jol. 1 

Bhucampa. j-An eskrthquake. 

Ot laraok. J 

Bhuila. Having body of one breadth 
from head to feet, without a dora, 
(q. V.) 

Bhuili. C£ bhoelo. 

Bhulphoir. A chasm, a large rent in 
the earth's surface. 

Bhujali. A large stabbing knife. 

Bhuk. Cf. bhugak. 

Bhuk duk. Distress, sorrow, affiction. 

Bhuku. A species of termite, the white 
ant that real's the ant hills so 
common in the Santal country. 

Bhukur bhukur. To bubble up, as 
water in a spring. 

Bhukur bhukur. Cf bhak. 

Bhul. 1 To make a mistake, to 

forget, to over look any- 
thing, to neglect, to 
commit a fault. 

A4i bhulre menattkoa. They are greatly mis- 
Bhnlili sapkeftaea. I saw the mistake be made. 
Bhul cuk ik^katilime. 

Bhulania. Deceptive, misleading, false. 
Bhulau. To deceive, to cozen. 

Bhul^ukateko koekefkoa. 

Bhulauni. Deceptive, causing error, 
misleading, erroneous. 

Bhul cuk. Cf bhul. 

Bhulkau. To gush out, to flow out, to 
rise up, to spring, as water. 

Datt otkhon bhulkau todottkana. Water rises 

up from the earth. 
Datt do %4i at bhulkau raka{)kan tahSkana. 

The water was rising rapidly. 

Bhumbri. Small pimples. 

Balbal bhumbri. The rash of prickly heat. 

Bhumbuk. To issue, as water in a 
fountain ; to bubble up, as water. 

DaX bhumbukoXkana. Water springs up. 
Jaejug jiwe€ dh%bic bhumbukott daK re^ mi£ 

teo jhama. A weU of water springing up 

unto eternal Ufe. 

Bhul cuk. 
Bhul bhisor.^ 


[ 66 ] 


Bhumcampa. An earthquake. 

Bhumi. Land. 

Bhudcampa. A spinning top. 

Bhunija. Fat, large, corpulent. 

Bhunda jel. The flesh lying along 
both sides of the back bone. 

Bhundi kolma. A variety of the rice 

Bhundin. A lazy, good for nothing, fat 
young woman. 

Bhudgar. A piece, a piece cut off. 

Mi€ bnahg^r kat emalime. Giye me a piece of 

Bhungrau. To cut through, as a piece 
of wood with an axe. 

Bhudjau. To live, to spend time, to 
suffer, endure, enjoy. 

Pher dinkin bhuiij^aakaf a. .They hare liyed a 

long time. 
Nukin bahu jawae tirejugekin bhuHj^aa, sekin 

bapajroIaP Will this bride and bridegroom 
always toffe ' 
Amda saset otreii bhuiiji^ae£kan do.' 

live iJwajs together, or will they separate P 

BhuraK. To fill in, to dip a vessel in 
water to fill it. 

Bhnrak odokkedako. 
£an^age oaii bhuragoSkan. 

Bhurbhurau. ") To bubble ; to rise, as 
Bhurbhurau. J bubbles to the surface 
of water. 

BhurbhurL To rain sparks, as from 
certain kinds of fire works, or when 
a blacksmith draws red hot iron 
from the fire. 

Bhuri. To take off clothes that are fas- 
tened round the waist, said of wo- 
men ; to untwist, to uncoiL 

Bhurka. Venus, as the morning star, 

Snk^r. Venus as the evening star. 

Bhurkak. To raise up earth, as earth- 
worms or beetles do. 

Otko bhurk^ga, len^ef do. 

Bhumi. Socket in which a native door 
(silpiiS, q. V.) works in opening and 

Bhumi khun^i. Post on which door swings. 

Bhurti. To fill up, to be satisfied. 
Bhurti. Whole. 

Bhurti ga^a datt calattkana, The whole rirer 
is filled with water. 

Bhflrtii. ") To strip off clothes firom 
Bhuru6. J the waist, to divest one* 

self of clothes fastened from the 

waist, said of men. 

P^hil palat ^uriye bh%f%6 giijli khongeko or 
bhuf ujea. Before he divests himself of the 
first garment, they try to pull it off him. 

Bhus. The bandicoot rat, Mus Mala- 
baricus, Shaw, Mua giganteus, 

Bh un I Suddenly, unexpectedly. 

Bhus marte o^okenae. He darted out, 
Bhusuh marte tq^rujie to£ go^lena, gajaip khon. 
The leopard rushed out of the uiioket. 

Bhusa. . Chaff. 

Bhuska. A species of termite, or white- 

Bhuska. M. ^ Greedy, always thinking 
Bhuski. F. J of his or her belly. 

Bhusku. To stir up, to disturb, to shake 
up, as grain on a threshing floor. 

Bhuskulekhanem gegergeae. If you disturb it 
it wiU bite. 

Bhflsndi A small fly ; applied tp girls 
when scolding, or finding fault. 

Bhtlsri. Applied to girls when scolding. 
Cf. bhtisndL 

Nui bhtisfi do non^ege ^our baf aekanae, k%mi- 

te bae calaSa. 
Bae daka hoda nui bhflsfi do. 

Bhusun. Cf bhus. 

Bhut. A demon, a^host, a goblin. 

Bhut oapafi6. One possessed. 

Bhutaha. Haunted, occupied by, or 
the residence of, a bhut. (q. v.) 

Noa do bhutaha dare kana, alope maga. This 
tree is the residence of a bnut, So not cut 
it down. 

Bhutan. To be angry, beside onself, 
with anger. 

Bhutel. Fat, corpulent. 

Bhutelakanae. He has become fat. 

Bhutel. 1 T -1 J J 

x>r . hLdke a demon, demomac. 

Nu bhutelakanae, sen oooaepe. 

Bhutela. Cf bhutaha. 
Bhutela. Rich, wealthy. 

A4i bhutela hof kanae. He is a very rich man. 

Bhuter. To excess, over much. 
Bhutia. Fat, big bellied. 


t 67 ] 


Bhutka. 1 Small of stature, stunted, 
Bhutki. J dwarfish. 

Bhutra. Dumpy. 

Bhutun bhutun. Empty-handed, naked. 

Bi "^ 

BiK f To be satisfied, to be satiated. 

Bae bilena. He was not satisfied. 
Jombi enae. He is satisfied. 
Jom bi ocokedeaH. I {gave bim snffioient to eat. 
InaKte do bae biKa. ^Diat will not be snffioient 
for him. 

Bian. \ Birth, act of parturition, to 
Bihar J be delivered of young, of 
brute animals only ; productive. 

Tin^K bi^n g^i kaoae P How manj times has the 

oow oalyed P 
Bar bihar g^i. A oow that has oalved twioe. 
Hofo bah bilena, nes. The tice was not 

prodnotiye this year. 

Bibad. Enmity, ill will, dispute ; to 
wrangle, to quarrel, to litigate, 
to dispute. 

Nnkin dokin bib^gea. These two are at vari- 
anoe with each other. 

Bibhorom. To disgrace, to outrage 
one's modesty. 

Bibi Anything living that frightens 
or hurts, said to and by children 

Onto alom caJaKa bibi menaea. 

Bibi era. A Mem saheb. 

Bicar. To judge, to consider, to reflect, 
to comtemplate, to deliberate, to 
ponder, to devote the mind, thoug 
hts, or attention to. 

BlSo^o. A jndge. 
Bic^rkatalem. Judge between ns. 

Bichia. A ring worn on the second 
toe by women. 

Attached to the ring is a smaU hoUow ball of 
bell metal with two or three small pieces of 
the same metal inside, which rattle as the 
wearer walks. 

Bichnau. To recognize, to distinguish, 
to discern. 

Bichnau biohn^ntell iSelkeda. 

Jemon boge bafi6ill bichn^n da^eaK. So that 
I may distinguish good and eyil. 

Bichri. Bird-limed twigs. 

Bichri. To split, to separate, split 
into pieces, like straws. 

JonoS l%gi€ ma€ko biohrieda. They split bun- 
boos to make brooms. 

Bickau. To sprain. 

Bickom. Rather, but, but rather. 

Marsal khon bickom iSntko dnl^fkeda. Loved 
darkness rather than light. 

Biclau. To sprain, as an ankle. 

Jaiigae biol^nakana. His foot is sprained. 

Bida. To give one permission to de- 
• part, to dismiss, to say, or bid 
adieu, to bid farewell. 

Bhor saote bid^lem. Dismiss as with a 

Bidal. Generation, time. 

Pilatns bid^lrenko. The contemporaries of 

Noako jotoge noa bid^lren hofkore pa^aoXa. 
All these things shaU come upon this gen- 

Bidaraha.\ Wandered, strayed, lost, as 
Bidraha. J a sheep from the flock. 

Bi^lraha g^i kanae. She is a strayed cow. 

Bidas. ') Foreign, belonging to another 
Bides. J country, or dbistrict. 

Bi^au. To test, to tempt, to examine, 
to prove. 

Onko biK^^ni^ oalaff kana. I go to prove tiiem. 
Soetanthen bi^^nS l^fl. To be tempted of 
the devil. 

Bides. C£ bidas. 

Bidesia. Foreign, belonging to another 
country, or district, a foreigner. 

Bidgoe bodgoe. Fat, corpulent, im- 
wieldy, applied to women. 

Bidha.1 r\ j. j 

Bidhi' f ^^^*^^» usage, manner, mode. 

Bidhanta. A large forest climbing 
plant, common on the Rajmahsu 
hills, Entada scandens, Benth. 

Bidhanta.^ u, , 
Bidhon. j F**«- 

XJniaK bidhanta oet lekatae ooh. 

Bidhaura. To delay, to hinder, to im- 
pede, to put an obstacle in the 

Alom bi^h^nralia. Do not hinder me. 

Nni gfidr^k i^te ball k^mi dapeaMkana, bi^hanr^* 

enali. I can get no work done on account 

of this chUdt I am hindered. 

Bidhua. IBom out of wedlock, abas- 
Bidhwa./ tard. 

Nni gidr^ bidhu^'tem janamkedea. Ton gave 
birth to this child out of wedlock. 

Bidia. To turn a somersault. 

H^yt.} Knowledge. 


[ 68 ] 


Bidia. ^Hindrance, adverse influ- 
Bed bidia jence of a supernatural order. 
Bi^ii bidid. To ferment, to rise in 
bubbles, as anything fermenting, 
to keep moving, as a mass of mag- 
gots. Scottice, hotching, 

Tejo beb^fioko bi^i^ bi^ijoKkana. 

Bidid bidid. Without stint, more than 

Bi^io bi^i^e jomeda. He eats without stint. 
lA i^te bi4i<& bi^i^etn jomeda P 

Bidir bi^ir. Well cooked rice, each 
grain intact, not boiled into a pulp. 

Bidlai. To be scattered in all direc- 


tions, all at once, without inter- 
vening interval. 

Bidlai marteko barkao gofena. They aU hat- 
ched at one time. 

Gele bidl^iena. Borst into ear at the same time. 

Onte note n{> do bidlai bidl9iottkantakoa. Their 
hair is all flying loose. 

Bidnalc. Instantaneously, all at once, 
with a jerk. 

Bidn^tt menteye tehgo go€ena. He came to a 
stand still all at once. 

Bidot. To cause suflfering or shame, 
to suffer, suffering, 

Alan dolaii bidotena, bill i^te. We suffer 
through the serpent. 

Bidra bidri. 1 Not to come together as 
Bidrau. J husband and wife, the 

husband not to bring home his 


Bidf 9aaka€meae, amaK a^M gunte. He has left 
you at ycnir father's house on account of 
your conduct. 

Bidra bidri. Streaming gaily along. 

Bii^ra bi^ri lieliel t^^n^iko oalaKkana. 

They stream gaiyly along on their way to the fair 

Bidrau. To be frightened, to be start- 
led, scared. 

Cele lielte con g^iko bi^r^uenaP What has. 

frightened the cows P 
Campa ga]r khon Madho SilSe bi^r^ukefbona. 
Madno Sing scared us away from fort Champa. 

Bidya. Knowledge, learning. 

Bigaboge. Fat, plump. 

Bigha. A measure of land, which var- 
ies from i to I of an acre. 
Bighin. Sickness. 

Bog bighin. Disease and sickness. 

Bigobogo. Fat and unwieldy, corpulent, 
lazy, because fat. 

Nui bigobogoe k^midafealfaP Can this * fatty' 

Bigra bigri. \To cause misunderstand- 
Bigrau. J ing between Mends, to 

set friends at variance, to lead 

astray, to pervert. 

Bihar. Cf. bian. 

Bihet bihet*. Used by herdsmen to call 
their cattle. 

Bihri. ") To apportion to each his share 
Biuri. J in a sum of money to be 
raised conjointly. 

Tin tiri£kateko bihri joxia P How much will they 

apportion to eaohP 
Lkateko u^h^ua. Tney appor 
his share, and then collect the money. 

BihriKateko u^h^ua. They apportion to each 

Bihri bata. 1 Over and above the am- 
Biuri bata. / ount settled to be paid 
by each. C£ bihri 

Bihur. To revolve, come round again, 
as the seasons. Cf acur bihur. 

Des ooh bihuren ja g^osae gntru€ doe saheda. 

Bijau. ■) To be steeped, to be saturat- 
Bhijau. J ed, to be drunk in ; to 
strongly impress one, to recognize 
the force of an argument, to be 

JomaK hofmore bail bij^uKkantaea. He does 

not assimilate his food. 
Noa katha bij^uadilia. I feel the force of this 


BijhauK. To travail in birth. 

Bijir bijir. To be separated into very 
small particles, to fly as sparks from 
an anvil, to scatter, as rain drops 
falling on a hard sur&ce ; to 
separate into small globules, as 
mercury ; very fine, as spray. 

Bijir bijir p^iroXkana. It is scattering in spray. 

Bijli. Lightning, wildfire. 

Bili€ mente bijlikeoae. The lightning flashed 

Bijo bojo. ■) Slovenly, carelessly, scan- 
Bijo6 bojo6. J tily. 

Bijo6 bojo^e dhutiakana. He wears his dhuti 
in a slovenly manner. 

Bikau. To be named, to be called, to 
be current. 

As chut^u Hutumteye bik^uttkana. He goes by 
the name of " Despond.'' 

Bikau. To be sold, or disposed of for 
a price. 

Tinqtttte bik^uSa P For how much will it be 


[ 69 ] 


Bikhar. To be angry, to be at enmi- 
ty, not to be on speaking terms, 
to be scattered. 

Ale dole bikh^f akana, nni songe bale rof joii- 

Bikir bikir. ") A wriggling mass, as'mag- 
Biki^ bikil J gots. Scottice, hoicking. 

Biki£ bikii!ko tejokedea, are gix^ena. 

Bikla bikli. *> To be disturbed, to be 
^iklau. J uneasy, to be agitated, 
to be restless. 

OraXte calaK l9gi€ bikl9 bikli baf aekanae. He 
is impatient to go home.. 

Bikol. ■> To be restless, uneasy, troub- 
Bikoli. J led, imeasy, disturbed, grieved. 

Mon bikoliSa. The mind will be troubled. 

Bikol bokol. "> Unfit for use, as water; 
Bokol bokol. / watery and therefore 

unpalatable, as utu (q. v.) 
Bikor bokor. To be pulled out, as a 

coiled up rope ; to run out, as an 

anchor chain. 

Bil. A bill, an account. 

Qnmkoatt tolope bila. He draws up a bill for 
the teachers* salaries. 

Bilan. A wide expanse, a plain. 

Biland.l * j i • 

g.| \ • 5- A wide expanse, a plam. 

Bilan^ t9n4i- An extensive plain. 
Bil^t daX. A wide expanse of water. 

Bilat. To advance money or grain 
on the security of crops, to lend 
on interest. 

Hof oli bil^takada go^a t^n^i. I have adyan- 
ced money on the dhan all round. 

Bilat. England. 

Bilati. English, belonging to England, 

Bilbilau. ") To be seized with panic, to 
Chilbilau. J be in terror, to be frighten- 
ed, to be startled ; to be excited 
through fear or joy. 

Hofkoko bilbilau cabaena. The people are 
panic stricken. 

Bilbilau. \Soft, as a ripe fruit ; spongy, 
Liblibau,/ as wet soil. 

Ot liblib^uena daKte. The soil is spongy owing 
to the rain. 

Bilhau. On all sides, round about, 

Bilhau. To hand round, distribute, to 
serve out. 

Daka bilh^ume. Serve out the food. 

Bilia biti6. Heads and tails, in a jumble^ 
one above another, in heaps. 

Noa hofo do sanam billet bitio gnrena hoete. 
Thjjs doan is *' laid* in all directions. 

Bilik balan. \ To glisten, to flash, to 
Bili^ balan. J sparkle, to swagger; res- 

Bilit balaii daf a bafaekanae. He g^oes swagger- 
ing about. 

Hakobilii! baJahoMako. The fishes flash (in 

the sun light.) 

Tarwaipe bili€ bala& jhalkaoXkana. The sword 

Bilil ■) To flash, to sparkle, to 
Bili6 bilit*. J twinkle, to swagger, to 
put on airs. 

Bilit menteli lielkedea. I caught a glimpse 
of him. 

Bili£ bili£ bijUkedae. A bright flash of light- 

Bili€ bili£kin oalaXkana, alafi lekan kufi banuK- 
koa. They pro about giving themselves 
such airs, as if there were no girls to com- 
pare with them. 

Bilif balan. Cf. bilik balan. 

Bilom. To delay, to put oflf time, to 
tarry, to loiter, to saunter. 

Alom biloma, ru^r bed godoKme. Do not delay, 
but return immediately. 

Biltau. To disappear, to go oflf secret- 
ly, to stray, to be lost, to be mis- 

Okate coe bilt^uena, mi€ %9^ mihfL do. A calf 
has strayed somewhere. 

Bin. ■) In comp. without, devoid of, 
Bina. J exclusive of, except, save, 

Bin ba<3laete. Without knowing. 
Bin llelte. Without seeing. 
Bin^k hukumte. Without orders. 

Bid. A snake. 

Bina. Cf. bin. 

Bid c6r6. A small bird. 

Bid kadcur. The slough of a snake. 

Bid kidid. Snakes and scorpions. 

Bid ol Poisonous mushrooms. 

Bind. A pin of wood, used instead of 
a nail. 

Bind b^iiki. A anklet with a joint and fastened 

with a pin of wood. 
Bmd bak. Cf . khU^ bak. 
Bind sakom. A bracelet fastened with a pin of 


Binda.* A sheaf, a bundle ; to make 
into sheaves, or bundlea 

Mi£ bin4^ hofo. A sheaf of dhan. 


[ 70 ] 


Bindar. To fiall down, to collapse. 

Hofo bind^f ena. The dhan haa fallen to the 

Bindhar. To fix in a horizontal position, 
as the bars of a gate or railing ; a 
fence or railing made of wooden 

Gofako bindh9faka£a. They have fenoedthe 

cow shed with horiional bars. 
Mi€ten ma€le bindh^flaMa. We fixed a bamboo 


Bindi. A spider. 

Kul bindi. A large poisonous spider. 
Bindi ganaK. A spider's web. 

Bin^i. A straw stand for earthen pots, 
the rim round the bottom of any 
vessel to make it stand steadily. 

Bin^i lota. A lo^a (q. t.) with a rim on which 
to stand. 

Bin4i mutha. A common warden weed* 
FiTTihriatylia monostacnya, Haaak, 

The root of this plant is used medicinally by the 
Santal ojhas. 

Bindran. To fell, or tumble down back- 
wards from a standing or sitting 

Dal bindraii go£kedeae, He felled him to the 

Bindu6. To sneer, to thrust out the 
under lip mockingly. 

Bin4udaeako They will tiirust out the under 
lip mockingly at him. 

Bin(Ju6 satx)U. To pout, to frown, to 
scowl, to mock. 

Bin4a6 satoKe iieloXkana. She is scowling. 

Binhak ^ Falsely, illegally, without 
Binhakte. J cause. 

Binhakte d^kbrikediliae. 

Bini. A bamboo fen which takes 
the place of bellows in a Santal 

Sehgel binite ewerme. Fan the fire with the 

Binthi. A curved knife for household 

The binthi is held in position by the foot and the 
material to be cut is pressed against the 

Binti. To proclaim, to discuss, preach, 
relate, exhort ; teaching, exhorta- 

Bintika raj. The "uncrowned king," 
i. e. the Pargana (q. v.) 

This is an aUusion to an ancient custom which 
once existed in Chutia Nagpur and ad- 
loining districts. The king acknowledged 
the accession of a feudatory prince by put- 

ting a mark on his forehead with the great 
toe of his li^ht foot, which had been smeared 
with Termihon. The title which exists up tiU 
the present, was that of Tikfit. The Santal 
chief of a district has the authority, al* 
though he has neyer received the tika. 

Bipod. \ Misfortune, trouble, distress, 
Bipot. J suffering. 

Bir. \ Jungle, forest ; wild, undo- 

Bir pakar. J mesticated. 

A4i birakana, saltatabo. There is much jungle, 
we wiU dear it and give relief from mid 

Umi bir* I ^^®'^*®» pnmeral forest. 

Atot hir. ") 

A^ut bir. > Large, dense forest. 

Akat bir. J 

Bir janwar. Wild animals. 

Biraj. To be frightened, to be worried ; 
to harass. 

Bohgae birajkefkoa, d^r^edako. Theboiiga 
frightened them and they fied. 

Bir alpalua. The wild form of Phaaeo- 
lu8 dconitifoliua, Jacq, C£ al- 
Birampat.")To keep looking back as 
Birampat J one flees, to flee away at 
full speed. 

Biramp^te d^fkeda. He fied looking badk 
every now and again as he ran. 

Biran. S Foreign, distant place or 
Birana. J country. 

Bir^n ren hof doe hih kana. He is not a stran- 

Bir^a ren hof kanae. He belongs to a distant 

Birasali. To sulk, to be discontented, 

Bir»e»liakanae tehed do. He is sulking to-day. 

Birbanta. A giant, a mighty man of 

Birbao. A hurricane, a cyclone ; like a 


Birbao bofe hoeSna. He is a hurricane-like 
man. (The idea preralent is that persons 
exceptionaUy strong in bod^ or mmd first 
saw the light during a humoane, and so 
are namecfhurrioane men.) 

BirbhUi. The district of Birbhum, the 
first syllable bir, Santali, mean- 
ing forest, and the second bhfli, 
Sanscrit, and meaning land, i e. 
" forest land". 

Bir but A plant common in the jungles, 
Merriingia corigesta, Linn. 

The name * wild gram"* is given because the fruit, 
which is also eaten, resembles that of the 
cultiyated but or gram. 

Bir disom 

[ 71 ] 

Bir sim 

Bir disom. The forest country. The 
name given by the Santals to the 
country lying between the Ganges 
and the Adjoe River. C£ birbhtlL 

Bir ghangra. A common jungle plant, 
a broad leaved form of Vigna 
vexiUata, Benth. 

Birhau. To take root, to begin to grow, 
as a plant that has been transplan- 
ted ; to settle down, 

OeHekam Hel 9gakeda, bif h^aakana se ball ? 
HS, birh^uakaJuk. How did you find it P has it 
begpin to grow P Tea, it is growing. 

Birhi-angur. C£ ^ngur birhi. 

Bir hor. " Jimgle man." A small Dra- 
vidian tribe, mainly located in 
Chu^ia Nagpur, who live in the 
jungles, and eke out a scanty sub- 
sistence by hunting and selling 
jungle produce, especially the bark 
of iBauhinia Vahlii, which they 
make into ropes, sikuars (q. v.), &c. 

Bir hored. A common jungle plant, 
Atylosia scarabcecUns, Benth, 

Biri. A fetter ; to fetter. 

H^^ bifi. Manacles and fetters. 

Bip hof . A fettered person, a prisoner. 

Birij birij. To harass, to worry. 

Bini binjkedeae, bae thir ocoaekana. He 
harassed him, would not leave him alone. 

Birid. " Bearing," unstamped, as a 

Bind birid. Watery substance oozing 

from a mass ; to rim as a sore. 

Birill biriii dalte^ hi^ji€ gi^ime. 
Birid birili daka. Boiled rioe from which wa- 
ter oozes out. 

Birid bind. 1 To continue weeping 
Burun burun. j and sobbing for a long 
time ; the eyes to fill with tears. 

Bind birilie raKedia. 

Birit. Trade, calling, profession. 

Birjhunka. A common wild plant, 
Crotalaryi calycima, Shrank. 

Bir kana arak. A common plant dur- 
ing the rains, Commelyna salici- 
folia, Linn. 

Birkau. 1 To be frightened, to be start- 
Bhirkau./ led, to be scared. 

KolreaKraX adpomte g^iko bifk^uena. The 
cows were frightened by hearing the tiger 

Birki. To be frightened, scared ; night- 

Bir kubet. A common wild plant. An* 
drographis echioides, Neea, 

Birla. ") Some, here and there, some 
Birlg. birli. J . . .other. 

Baje birl^. Here and there. 

Birl9> birli sawEekedae, birl^ birli da bah, In 

some places there is a good crop and not in 


Birlan. "> To keep a sharp look 

Birlan birlid. J out on all sides, to be 

on the alert against enemies from 

any quarter, to prick up the ears, 

to smell danger. 

Birlah birlidko behgeda, jel do. The deer keep 

a sharp look ont on all sides. 
Sadom birl^h birlilloXkanae, botoroK leka. 

The horse pricks np his ears as if be were 


Bir lopon aralc. A wild pot herb, Ver- 
nonia cinerea. Less, 

Bir malhan. A climbing plant found 
in the jungles, AtyUoaia Tnollis^Bth. 

Bimaha. Wild, undomesticated ; of 
solitary habits, strange. 

Bir narcha. A common wajrside plant, 
Gorchorua, nov, sp. 

Birnju.lA small forest teee, Bauhinia 
Bunju.J retuaa, 

Birod. Out of temper, sulky. 

Birodakanae. He is sulking. 

Birodhi. Angry, at variance. 

Birot At variance, at enmity with each 

Biro^akanakin. They are at yarianoe with each 

Birpaksur. Cf. bir. 

Birsan. A common wild plant, Phaseo- 
lu8 mungo, var. radiatua, Linn. 

Bir miru baha, Sida carpinifolia, a 
common wild plant which yields 
a good fibre. 

Birsaha. "> Suflfering from indigestion 
Bhirsaha./ or overeating. 

Birsau. •) To suflfer from indigestion 
Bhirsau. J or over eating. 

Bir s^uraj. A jungle plant. 

Bir sim. The jungle fowl, Oallus 


[ 72 ] 


Birsindi6. A species of monkey, or 

Bir sukri. The wild pig, Sua indicus. 

Bir suraj mukhi The wild sun flower, 
lonidium auffiruticosum, Ging, 

Bir suT^jsALaggera fiava, BentL, a 
Bir tun. J pltuit with yellow flowers 
common during the cold season, 

Birtant. Tidings, rumom*, intelligence, 

Birti Cf. birit. 

BiruA Opposition, contrariety ; against. 

Am bimdre. In opposition to thee. 

Birtui^. Heels uppermost, feet in the 
air ; head down, 

Biftuli biftaliko unnmoKkana. They are diving 
in the water heels in the air. 

Biryon boryon. To wriggle as a snake 
when moving ; to move as a snake. 

Bifyoh bofyohe oalaKkana. 

Bis. Poison, 

Bisan. Poisonons. 

^. ' j- Twenty seers weight. 

Bisaha. Poisonous, as a snake ; easily 

Bisal. Poisoned, as an arrow. 

Bis^l ap%p. A poisoned arrow. 

Bisbakhan. To abuse, to vilify, to say 
all sorts of things against one in 
his hearing, literally, "poisonous 

Bisbakhane egerkedida. 

Bisbiswas. Certainly, without doubt, 
without fail, 

Bisbisw^ks bare hijuKme. Come without fail. 
Bisbisw%8ili dalea. I shaU certainly beat him. 

^ ' I* More, to increase. 

Khajna bisiakana. The rent is increased. 
Bisi emol hoyoKtama. Ton must give more. 

Bisi Jan. The spine, the back bone. 

Bisi mutL Diligently. 

Bisi sutu6. ") Carefully, diligently, un- 

Bisi6 sutud J remittingly 

Bisi^ sniuoili liam baf akeda. I sought care- 
fully for it. 

Bisoe. Regarding, concerning. 
Bisor. A mistake 

Bhul bisor. Mistakes, errors, faults. 

Bijhotka. } ^^"^' ^^- 

Bispitaha. Elasily angered, short tem- 

Bistor. Many, much. 

Bistor hof ko jaoraakana. Many people have 

Bistorko jomkeda. Theyate a large quantity. 

Bistur. To waste, to destroy, to spend, 
to harm. 

Daka alom bistur gi^ia. Do not waste the 

Nia khon do oet h5 bae bistnrkeda. He did 

no more harm than this. 

Biswas. Faith, belief. 

Nitili bisw^ena. Now I believe. 

Bit. To plant, to fix upright in the 
ground, to set in a hole, to cock 
the ears. 

Lutur bi€. To listen attentively. 
Lutur bifk'ateye d^pkeda, kulfd do. The hare 
fled with its ears raised. 

Bita. A span ; the distance between 
the tips of the thumb and little 
finger when stretched out ; to mea- 
sure by spanning. 

Bit^ime. Measure it by spanning. 

Bitau. To pass, to elapse, as time. 

Mi€ hapta bit^uena. A week has passed. 

Bit biko6. Looking round about, swing- 
ing arms, as a person in high 

Bi€ biko6 oet bail daM lom oalaKkan ruhe€ 

Bit dflrfli. To limp by walking on 
the toes with the knee joint flex- 

Bit d!lf tl6e tafamefkana. 

Bitha. High cultivated land. 
Bithak. As soon as, whenever. 

He^ bith^kge dakae jomkeda. He took his 
food as soon as be arrived. 

Bithaf I ^^ ^^^^ as,immediately after. 

He6 bith^kge dakae jomkeda. 
Uni do tuli bith^g godkoae. 

Bithi. Forced labour. 

Bithiko senakana, raj oraKte. They have g^one 
to do forced labour at the raja's house. 

Bithiahi like forced labour, half 

Bithi^pe k^mikana, ah lagaokate k^mipe. 
You are working as if you were forced to 
it, put some vigour into your work. 


[ 73 ] 


Biti. Daughter, an affectionate form 
of address to young women and 

Bitkil. A female buffalo. 

Mir bitkil. A good milking baffalo oow. 

Bitkil (jihdn^. A large snake so called. 
Bitla bitU. To be impatient, to fret. 

Nuidn do babkin bitl« bitiilkaiuk These two 
are not impatient. 

Bitlaha.") To out-caste, out-casted, os- 
Biioi. J tracised. 

Bitolkedeako. They ont-oasted him. 
Onkan hof jiwe€ ianam l^fle bitl^hakoa. We 
out-caste snoh people for life. 

Bitl^u. • To be impatient, to chafe, as 
at delay. 

Tin^I bam bitl^nttkana, oalalgeale. 

Bitol. C£ bitlaha. 

Bitol Murmu. A sub division of the 

Murmu tribe or sept of the San- 


Biton bitod. Separate, distinct, be- 
longing todifferentcastes, or loca- 

Bitoii bitoh hofko jarwalena. People from 
many different localities were assembled. 

Biuri. C£ bihri. 

Biyol boyoLTLong, tall, sweeping, with 
Boyol boyol. J grand display. 

B^bnttko do biyol boyolko dhutiXa. The ba- 

boos wear fine flowing dhntis. 
Qidr^ko khnb boyol boyolko hara goCena. The 

children hayS g^rown tall. 

Boak. A huge big headed tiger or 
tomcat ; broad full faced. 

Boal ais^e lieloMkana. He looks like a huge 
big headed tomcat. 

Boar. A species of fish. 

'^' . ^ ' }- Varieties of the rice plant. 

Boas. The cry of a certain species of 
wild cat. 

Boas runda. The large wild cat whose 
cry is " boas boas." 

Bobe. To stutter, to stammer. 

Bo6. To take off garment, or shoes ; to 
draw, from sheath, as a sword ; to 
unsheath, to extract, as teeth ; to 
pull off, to slip off. 

Hako k«n^ri i«te bahko bojoMa. The fish do 
not slip off owing to the barb on the hook. 


Boc. A medicinal root sold in the baz- 
Bochor. A year. 

Bochorke bochor. AnnnaUy, yearly. 

Bod. Bad, evil. , 

Marah bod hof kanae. He is a very bad man. 

Boda. A ram, the male of certain 
erammivoi-ou3 animals, as goats, 
deer &c. 

Boda jel. A stag. 
Boda merom. A he-goat. 

Boda bid. A brown rock snake. 

Bo4a ghangra. A garden crop, a variety 
of Vigna catiang, EncU, 

Bode. Muddy, thick, turbid, dirty. 

Bo^e daM alom lioia. Do not drink muddy 

Bo4ea sodea. An inferior kind of han- 
(Ji (q. V.) Cf. bod 06 melsu 

Bodfi;al£ bodgalc. Deep, as a blow with 
a noe in earth, or with an axe in wood. 

BodgaK bodgaK hasae ntk^n idikeda, kol do. 
The tiger made deep holes in the earUi 
(with his feet). 

BodgaX bodgatt mi^gme se. Cnt deeply. 

Bodffatt bodgaXe jome£ do. He uiroi 

handf nls of food into his month. 

Bodgoe. A fat, plump woman. 

Bodgoe mara bndhiye a^ise^ona. This fat old 
wife annoys us. 

Bodh. An inoculator, or vaccinator. 

Bodh johpe. Send for a vaccinator. 
Bodh tik^. Inoculation mark. 

Bodhao. To soothe, pcwify. 

Bodhao otokaea mentefi sen dogoSa. I shaU 
go for a little to soothe it. 

Bod khasi. A goat not effectually 

Bodla.l To change, to exchange, to sub- 
BodoLj stitute, to recompense; in- 
stead of, in exchange, in room and 

Uni bodolte. Instead of him. 
Bodlall halaea. I wiU be rerenged. 
Me6 bodol me€. An eye for an eye. 

Bodla budli. In turns. 

Bodla budlilah k^mia. We wiU work by turns. 

Bodlar nari. ■) A common jtmgle clim- 
Bod nkri, / ber, VitiB adnata,Eoocb. 

Bodmas. A rascal, a scoundrel. 

Bodnam. To disgrace, to give a bad- 
name to. 

Nui hof do 9diyc bodnamkeflea. This man 
brought great disgrace upon us. 


[ 74 ] 


Bodo. Stupid, and unable to speak 

Bodo mara hof. A stattering, stammering fool. 

Bodo6. To rinse out, to squeeze or 
* wring out. 

Bodo6 handi. Liquor obtained by 
pouring water on the malted grain 
and squeezing it. It is of infe- 
rior quality. 

Bodod mela. ") The liquor obtained by 
Bodo6 sodod. J squeezing the malted 

grain, and being refuse is of an 


BodoL Cf. bodla. 

Bodor bo^or. Muddy, dirty, as water. 

Bo^or bo^or lleloKkana, datt do. The water 
looks dirty. 

Bodre, Old, and careless in attire. 
Bodro, Stuttering, stammering. 

Nui bodf o mara hof oka h^ bail bnjh^uMtaea. 

Boe, Used in addressing girls and 
young women when scolding, or 
&ult finding. 

Obinaboe, ee£ l^gi€em calaKkana? Fie, yon 
hnzzy, what are jon going for f 

Boe is also employed in addressing the yilla>ge 
priest at a certain stage of the ceremonies 
obseryed daring the ^aha porob (q. y.\ 
as he is snppos^ to be possessed by Jaher 
era. the Goddess of the Sarjom grove. 
(Janerthan, q. y.) 

Boeha. Brother, or sister, near relative. 

Tin^tt boehaKapeP How many brothers and 

sisters are there of you P 
Boeha misera. Brothers and sisters. 

Boela. Long, talL 

Boela c6r6. The Hombill Cf. camacako. 

Bo6to boyol. Very long, as a long rail- 
way train, or a peacock's tail. 

Bogda. A large stabbing knife, a shi- 
kari knife. 

Boge. Good, well ; to heal, to do good, 
to do well. 

Joto lekan rog biflrhine boge1ce€takoa. He heal- 
ed aU kinds of diseases among them. 

Boge juda. News, health and condition. 

Notenatt sanam boge jud^k besgea. All the 

news of this plaoe is good. 
Boge juda reaK ko knpnlia. They will ask each 

other regarding their health and condition. 

Bogete. A word possessing intensify- 
ing force. 

Bogeteye d^fkeda. H^ ran like the wind. 

Bogeteye daMkeda. It poored a deluge. 
Bogeteye jomkeda. He ate an immense qtian- 

Bogeteye ralkeda. He wept bitterly. 
Bogeteye lahg^aena. He was tired out. 
Bogeteye k^mikana. He works very hard. 

Bogod. To make a hole in, to open, 
to slit. 

B^diko bogoja. They open the b^ndi (q. v.) 

Bogot. C£ bhogot. 

Boha casa. A non-resident cultivator. 

Halboha. A ploughman. 

BohaL 1st Class rice land in which 
there is always. a sufficiency of 

Bohao. To be floated away ; to blow, as 
wind ; to run, as the king's writ 

Hoe bohaoKkana, okaseo khon? From what 
point blows the wind ? 

Bohao. To carry on the shoulder ; to 

Pakwalla ci^hiye bohaoeda. 

Bohi Flowing, 

Bohi daK. Bunning water. 

Bohoe. To swill clothes in water, to 
wash off, to rinse. 

Noa kiori^ bohoeme. Binse this doth. 

Bohok. Head. 

BohoK pafagoM leka hasoedilikaDa. I have a 

sphttmg headache. 
Tin^R bohok menaXkotapea, ka^a bitkilP How 

many head have yon counting buffaloes and 

buffalo cows P 
BohoK bohoK ren kora kufi. Boys and girls 

of the same family stock. 

Bohok. To accuse, to lay blame on, 
to throw responsibility upon. 

Bohogead. I wiU accuse him. 

Boehako ren bolhoXi^. The accuser of the 

L^f haire h5 ill ^eA bohoXena. The respon6ib« 

ihty of fighting was also laid on me. 

B6h5k. Portrait, shape, representation, 
dim outline. 

Nui do okoe b(Kh5ke iSeloKkana? Whose por- 
trait is this P 

Mi€ b5h5k gekin lieloKa. They look very much 

Bohol bohol. In ever widening circles, 
as caused by a stone thrown into 

B^ibaite bohol bohol calaoena. It mored away 
slowly in ever widening circles. 

Bohon. Broken in, accustomed to, in- 
ured to work, second hand. 

Nui hof fa^mire bae bohonakana. This man is 
not accustomed to work. 

Bohor bohor 

[ 75 ] 


Bohor bohor. Rippling sound of water. 

DaK bohor bohor sajiekana. 

Bohor bohor. Muddy, thick, as water. 

Darha reaK daX leo^ate bohor bohorena. The 
water in the pool is muddy through haying 
been stirred up. 

Bohor bohor.^l 

Lohor bohor. I Sticky, mixed into a 

Leber bohor. j soft mass. 

Leper leper. J 

IJeher bohor lo8o€akana. 

Leper lepere daK m^n^ia. She boils the rice 
into a sticky mass. 

Boi bindi. A common small thorny 
tree, Bandia dumetorum, LarnJc. 

Boi bindi jel. A mjrthical deer. 

Boj. Load, burden* 

Bojao. To load, to load or charge a 
gun or hole for blasting. 

Bfnduk (bojao dohokam. Load the g^in to be 

Bojge. Slovenly in dress, shameless 
in attire. 

x» -i.' ?• A burden, a load. 
Bojha. / 

Hamal bojhako toleda, ar hof ko reaK tarenreko 
ladea. They bind heavy burdens and lay 
them on men's shoulders. 

Bojhao. To load, to pile up, to put in. 

Bojra. M. \Carelessly dressed, cloth 
Bujri. F. J round waist too low down, 

Bojrae dhutiakana. 
Bujriye bandeakana. 

B6k. The pedicle of the cocoon of 
the tassar silk worm. 

Lum^m reaK b5k. 
Handoli bSkalhne. 

Boka. Foolish, stupid, ignorant, raw. 

Boka Saotar. Unsophisticated Santals. 

BokaU. A ladle made of a pumkin 
split into two up the middle 

Bokao. "> To jabber, to talk nonsense, 
Bakao. J to prate, to rave. 

Bokboko. To stretch, as twine from a 

Or bokbokokedae sut^^m do. He pulled and stret- 
ched out the Uiread. 

Bokhar. A sheath, of sword, &c» 
Boko. The lungs. 

Bokobhond. To disgi'ace, to bring con- 
tumely upon. 

Bokobhon^ cabakefleae. He has completely 
disgraced us. 

Boko boeha. "> Brothers, elder and 
Boko bokoeha. / younger. 

Bokol bokol. Muddy, dirty, bad as 
stagnant water in the hot weather. 

Bokom. Thy younger brother or sister. 

Bokom kofa. Thy younger brother 
Bokom kufi. Thy younger sister. 

Bokom baha. An ornamental tree, the 
Persian lilac, Mdia Azadarach, 

Bokod. My younger brother or sister 

Bokoli kofa. My younger brother. 
Bokoli kufi. My younger sister. 

Bokos. A witch. 

P^ngeam; bokosgeam. Ton are a witch, and a 

Bokot. ^His younger brother or 
Bokottel J sister. 

Bokot kofa. His younger brother. 
Bokot kuri. His younger sister. 

Bokof bokol To chatter, to jabber, al- 
ways speaking, to scold. 

Boko£ bokodoKkanae. He is chattering. 

Bokram. *> To apply medicine of the 
Bokran. J consistence of paste exter- 
nally to the body. 

Bokro. To tickle. 

J^^iA bokfoMgea. I am very tickly. 
Gutlukedeaii, 9^iye bokfoena. 

Bokro. Short weight, short measure, 
mean, hard, stingy, scanty. 

BokfogBje emoMkana. He is giving short mea- 
Bokfoge lieloMkana. It looks scanty-. 

Thofag^e emadilla, bokroKkanae. He gave 
me a yer^ little, he is becoming stingy. 

Bokfoge bujh^ultkana. It seems sho^ mea- 

Boksa. A warlock. 

Nui do boksa kanae. He is a warlock. 

BoktaoK. To chatter, to say off a rig- 
marole of prayers, to speak a gi'eat 

£oejohre do slope boktaoRa, bedin hofko leka. 
Do not say off a rigmarole of prayers like 
the heathen. 

B lo I "^^ enter, to go in. 

OfaKte bolme. Enter the house. 

OfaXte alom boloKa. Do not enter the house. 

B%hue bola€lea. 


[ 76 ] 

Bonga barchi 

Bol. Strength, might. 

Bolaeme. Help him, enooorage him. 

Bol baJi Hameda. I am not regaining strength. 

Bolao. To stir up, to interfere with, 
to train animals or birds. 

Uni bill alom bolaoea. Do not stir np the 

Khub bolao 4ahra kanae. He is a well train- 
ed ox. 

Bole. So they say, people say. 

Aledobolele oalaKa. 
Cetko l^t bolepe he^akanaP 
Bu^Kkante bole senakanae. 
Bahma boleko go^akana. 

Bolahat.|^ call, a summons, an invita- 
Bolhat. - . . ' 


Bolahai hoeakantilia, ce{ l^git oon. I have 
been palled, but why I oan^t say 




Strong, well grown, well 
- developed, strong and heal- 
thy, fertile, as Soil. 

Be'se boifi^^ kana. He is a strong man. 

Bolhat Cf. bolahat 

Boli. Language, speech, dialect. 

Bolidan. A sacrifice, an offering. 

Bolidanko carhaoa. They offer saorifioes. 

Bolman. Strong, well developed, well 
grown, strong and vigorous, strong 
and healthy, fertile, as soil. 

Bolman hasa. Feritile soil. 
Bolman gidr^. A strong healthy child. 
Khnb bolman dareakana. It is a strong yigor- 
rons tree. 

Bolo. To enter, to go in. 

OfaXreko bolo baekoKa. They keep within 

the honse. 
Dhasao boloena. It feU inwards. 
Bohoe boloaKabo. We wiU fill np yaoanoies. 
AboaK horteko bolotta. They wiU adopt our 

Kir bolott bapla. A form of marriage. Cf . liir 


Bolom. A spear. 

Bom. A bomb, used for fireworks. 

Bom. Carriage shafts. 

BoQial. A clue, part or whole of sto- 
len property. 

Bomal ogokena. Part (or whole) of the stolen 
property has been found. 

Bombo. Stupid, ignorant, unsophisti- 

Bombo Saotar. Applied oontemptnonsly to 
Santals by their Hinda neighbours. 

Bombon. To go about from house to 
house, as a dog in search of food. 

Seta lekae bomboii baf aekana. He goes from 
house to house like a dog. 

Bomboryol Small mouthed, keeping 
the mouth open a littla 

Bonbayar. A species of waterfowl. 

Bodbod. At full length, extended to 
full length ; long. 

Bodbol^ giti^akanae. He Ues at fall Imigfii. 

Boliboli tidakanae^ biii do. The snake is ex- 
tended to its full length. 

Boiiboli katid malakaCa. I haye out a long 
pieoe of wood. 

Bond. To shut up, to incarcerate, to 
be stopped, to be closed, to eease. 

Gh%ri bondena. The clock has stopped. 
Sahed bondoKa. The breath wiU cease. 

Bondheteye efekedida khabher bad ba^aelala. 

Bondis. Cf. bundis. 

Bon^o. Foolish, stupid, naked. 

Bondobos. ") To organize, to regulate, 
Bondobosto. J to arrange, to settle ; a 

lease, or settlement of land, affairs, 


Uni hof rcaff of al duar bes bondobos calaMkan- 
taea . That'man* s' household affairs are weU 
regul&ted, (or he is well off.) 

Bondobostoakuia. Arrangements hare been 

Bondor. 1 To be peeled or rubbed 
Bhon^or. J off, as the upper cuticle. 

Harta bon^lorakana. The skiif has been rubbed 
off, (but no blood came.) 

Bone badarel Every where, all rounds 
Tanfji tikur. / bon-hbadra(q.v.) 

Ale sei 06 bone badaf e omonakana. Our way 

muslurooms are springing up ererywhere. 
Bone badafe daf kedM. It rained all orer. 

Bonbon. C£ banbad. 

Bonga. The name given by Santals to 
the spirits whom they worship, a 
demon ; to sacrifice to a " bonga." 

Bohga capaf . Possessed with a demon. 
Bohgako decakawaftoa. They are inspired by 

Simko bohgakedea. They sacrificed a fowl. 
Boiiga buralkanaa. 
Of aff boiiga. A wife. 

OraM boiiga menaetaea, se baiiaP Is he married 
SiH boiiga. The sun. [or not ? 

Bonga. A lunar month, a month. 

Bhador boiiga. The month of Bhador (q. v.) 

Bonga betha. Intercostal neuralgia 

Boiiga barchi ^A common annual 
Dare ^hompo. V plant, used medi- 
Janum dhompo. j cinally, Leonatea 
nepetcBfolia, B. Br. 

Bonga care6 

[ 77 ] 


Bonga care6. A common grass on ri- 
ver banks, Pogmatherum sacch- 
araideum, Beauv. 

Bonga ghanti. A plant only foOnd at 
considerable elevations, Clematis 
fiutans, Boyle. 

Bonga khoda. A sore which occurs on 
the fingers, and aflfects the arm 

ap to the shoulder. Owinff to the seyerity 
of the pain it is attribntecT to snpemataral 
agenoy. Of. khoda. 

Bonga kora. M. "> Boneas or spirits 
Bonga kuri. F. J which take the form 

of young men or young w<Mnen for the pur- 
pose of visiting at nignt human bcdngs of 
the opposite sex. The result of this oon- 
neotion is that the young man or young 
woman flails into ill health^ and the visitB 
of his or her 'bonga' loyer can only be pre- 
yented by charms and spells. 

Boi&ga del C£ bonga sobol^. 

Bon^ saranjam. *) The materials of 
Bo^a soromjam. j sacrifice and oflfer- 

Bonga sarjom. A common scandent 
shrub, VentiUtgo caZyciUata, 

The bark yields a strong fibre, and the seeds an 
oil used for cooking purposes. 

Bonga sobok. "> A disease which afiects 
Bonga del!. J cattle. 

Bonga taeni. " The boAga's walking 
cane," Tacca piriTicUifida, Linn., 
a common juugle plant. 

Bonkapsi. A plant with a large brilliant 
yellow flower, Thespasia Lampds, 
• Daly. & Chibs. 

Bonkhura. The supernumerary di- 
gits of the horse, cow, &c. 

Bonkor. Cess levied for the use of 
forest products. 

Bonot.*) Ti I. 

Banat. I "®*^^' harmony, agreement. 

Bah bonotoKtakina. They do not agree. 

BanJrat j'^° ^^^^^ into jungle. 

Tan4ilena, arh8 bonwa^ena. It was cleared, 
but has again relapsed into jungle. 

Bonwat To be lost sight of, to dis- 
appear ; restless. 

Okate ooe sen bonwa^ena. 
44i bonwat gidr% kanae. . 

Bontobotoi. A long line or strip, long, 
extending in one direction. 

44i b^fi^em bontobotodkei!koa, tinrem samtao- 
kotama? You hare extended them (your 
cattle) into a long line, when will you bring 
them together again P 

Stor. }^^^' ^^ 


Bor bbtor ar muhim khon badoaolem. 

us from fear and distress. 
Alom bora, (boroMa.) (botoroKa). Do not fear. 
Borge botor hoege rabah. Fear is fear, and 

the wind is cold. 

Bor. Thick straw rope, used principally' 

to bind rice b^dis. (q. v.) 
XTA bor. ^ 

Pate6 bof. f Bopes made by different me- 
Lebel; bof . l thods. 
Ckdahbor. J 
Sikol. A thin straw rope. 

Bora. A bag. 
Boram. Over ripe. 

Bele boramena. It is oyer ripe. 

Borao. To dry up, to wither, to lose 
vitality ; said of fi'uits that dry up 
and &11 fix>m the tree. 

Noa jo do boraoena. This fruit is dried up. 
Borco. 1 />ii» 1 

BorcoA. I C£ boron. 

Borga. A rafter. 

Borkao. To firighten, to startle. 

Borkaolae. He wiU be startled. 
IdhSben bofkao ocokedi&a. You haye also 
frightened me. 

Borket. 1 Blessing, good fortune, pro- 
Barket. j spenty, increase, abun- 
dance, plenty. CC barket. 

Borketatttaleme. Bless it to us. 

Borlom. A spear. 

Bomon. To erolain, to relate, to recite. 

Bomonaleme. Explain it to us. 

Boro. To fear, to be afraid. C£ botor. 
Boro. The heart. 

Boro6. Withered, paralyzed, arrested 

Ti boroientaisa. His hand is withered. 

Boro^an. Over satiety, torpid through 
over eating. 

Jom boro^ahenan. I haye eaten too much. 
Jomkate boro^ahe giti&akana. He is lying 
torpid after a meal. 

Boro hofo. A variety of the rice plant 
Boron. Colour. 

Oka boron, hende se ponf P What colour, black 
or white P 



t 78 ] 


.. I 


Boronco. i j^^j^ y^^^ y^^^ rather. 
Boron con. j * ' 

Bor con. J 
Borop. Ice, frost. 

Boror. Having a soft oily feeling to 
the touch, as soap stone; possessing 
cleansing properties, as soap, cer- 
tain kinds of earth, ashes, &c. 

Noa toro6 94i borofa. These ashes deanse 

44i borof hasa. Earth possessizig oleansizig 

properties in a high degree. 

BororiiS. The common Indian Tree-pie, 
Dendrocitta rufa, (Scop.) 

Boroi borol White, clean, tidy, shining. 

Borof boro^ sajakanae. He is clean and tidy. 
Nipilko n^apen, borofl horot. The stars rose 

B5s. Children, descendants, race, stock, 

B5s bnda. Genealogr. 

Pilon Haf am ren b5s kanabo. We are the des- 
cendants of Pilon Hafam (q. v.) 

Bos. Power, command, guidance, di- 
rection, authority. 

Ehga apa reatt bosre bako hijnKa. They do not 
snbmit themselves to the authority of their 

B5s buda. Genealogy. 

Bosertak. Incapable, incapacitated or 
unequal to ; bungling, clumsy, in- 

Bosertak lekam sieda, silisatnpem etomeda. 

Bosertak lekam k^mikana. 

Bosertak lekan hor kanam. 

Bosertak lekae oalaKkana nni 4ahra do dafe 

henalHaea se bah ? 
Bosertakko bic^le€tama. 
Bosertak lekam mattedekana, i/i khan mi£ maX- 

re^ii topattkea. 
Bosertak ill calaXa holage, bohoX haso janam- 

adUite ball sen daf elena. 
Bosertak mnmkoXtilia ti do, tiregeli ghaoakan- 

khan bhala. 

Boskao. To break, to give way, the 
bottom to fetll out of a vessel, to 

B^ndi boekaoena. The b^ndi (q. y.) has bnrst. 

Boskot. '\ Habitation, dwelling place ; 
Boskoti. - to take up one's residence, 
Boskotia. j to inhabit. 

Jodha^ihre bar isi serma khon iliaK boskot 

BosoM. To become detached, easily 
separated, to come away in hana- 

BosoX marte ^nrena, man^a hofo -do. Grain 
on the threshing floor separated easily (from 
the straw.) 

BosoX bosott nh linroXkana. The hair oomea 
oat in handrols. 

Bosonto. Cholera ; a disease attacking 
cattle in which the intestines be- 
come ulcerated. 

Bosfi. A prostitute. 

Bosta. A sack, a bag. 

Bosti. Populous, large. 

Khnb bosti ato kana. It ieaTery popolova 
(or large) village. 

Bosto. ") To destroy, to injure, to ruin, 
Bhosto. J to reject, to defile, to pro- 

AmaX liutom tahen (haoko bostokeda. They 
haye defiled the place where thy name 

Bostor. Clothes, clothing. 

Bebostorenae. He is badly off in the matter of 

Bot. Mire, deep mud. 

Botaria. C£ hal botana. 

Bote. Certainly, correct, true, as you 

Bo(e rangea. It is tme. 

Bote6. In comp. perhaps, lest, or else. 

ThirkoXme, dal boteolcemaii. 

Botke. Yolk of an egg, young. 

Bele botke hS thamakhnrko joma. Childrem 
also chew tobacco. 

K^hn botke. A common hedgfe plant, Bryo* 
nia l<icino$af Linn, 

Botko6. A low hill, a large mound. 

Bum bo^o^. Mountains and hills. 

Boto6. End of turban, or any part of 
cloth hanging down behind, re- 
sembling a tan. 

Boto^ko atur oooea. They cause the end to 
hang loosely behind. 

Botor. Fearful ; to be frightened, fear- 
some, terrible, frightftiL 

Botor ooo. To cause to fear, to frighten. 
Botorge AeloXkanae. He is frightful. 

Alom botorakoa. Do not fear them. 
Botor bao. A panic. 

Boyo bana. A species of bear smaller 
than Ursv^ labiatus. 

Boyol boyoL C£ biyol boyoL 

Buad. A musical instrument ; to play 
on the buan. 

Buan mf 

[ 79 ] 


Buad rai*. The air or tune to which 
the buan songs are sung. Cf. buan 

The bn^ is made by futeiuiifir * thin bamboo 
(4%ii4iQ aboat three feet long on the half 
of a hollow «rard. The open end of the 
goord is held to the stomach and the string 
stmolc with a small stick. The note is 
raried l^ pressing the gourd to, or raising 
H from uie person. 

The strings are made from the sinews of cattle. 

Buad sered. A class of songs sung to 
a peculiar air known as Buad rar. 

The Bnf 11 songs are snng during the Dasae 

(q. ▼.), generally to the accompaniment of 

the bnfl (q. v.) 
Hae hae, tokare do ho. Gam ho, hoto€ janam- 

Oum ho, tolcare do ho. Gum ho, 4^n4i€ bnsSf • 

Hae hae, gori^ mandere, Gnm ho, hoto€ janam- 

Gnm ho, kanun bnt^re, Gnm ho, 4^4i€ bn- 

sSf len. Ba%li song. 

Bubhau. To spill, to pour, as liquid. 
Scottice, to jaup. 

DaKem bnbhfn ocokeda. Yon spiUed the 

Ehub leka dnl bnbhfnaeme. Poor a good 

qnantily of water over him. 

'^elekate bnbmm kanae. She has laid egrgs 
and is now sitting on them. 

Bubu. A scratch, a hurt, or an)rthing 
that hurts, said to or by children 

Buca. M. ■> To nick off a part, to crop 
BucL F. J the ears, crop-eared. 

Lntorko bnefke£taea, ar can^bolko ban^ake€- 
taea. They oropped his ears, and docked 
his tail 

Bnci seta. A orop-eared slnt. 

Bug dare. A small forest tree, Cor- 
dia Myxa, Linn. 

Bui bu6. Nimbly, quickly. 

ICatkom bnd bn^^ halaiieda. He picks np the 
matkom (q. v.) yery nimbly. 

Bucbucu. Sharp pointed, peaked, 

Ojo bnobnonakana. 

Budk } Wisdom. 

Bud^ Stock, root, clump, stalk. 

W£ bnd^ khonbo he^akana. We aU come from 
tiie one stock. 

Buda. Grandfather. 

Bud^ baba. (Grandfather. 

on eggs. 

Budalc. To break up ground with the 
plough, to be broken up, as a mud 
or pakka floor into holes. 

Bali bud^Xlekhan ceflekateti ^oloKaP If I do 
not plough how can I live ? 

Baranda ot bud^Kena. The floor of the ver- 
andah is broken in places. 

Budakil. Understanding. 

Budan. Vise. 

Budau. ") To spend, to squander, to 
Burau. j waste. 

Sanam tij dnribe bud^ukeCtaea. 
He squandered all his property. 

Budbhorsa. Advice, encouragement. 

Budgaria. Wise, clever. 

Budha. An old man. 

Biid hara. Perplexed, at one's wits' end. 

Hi dod bndharaena. I am at my wits* end. 

Budhi. Wisdom. 

Bndhiabonme oe£lekatebo ^oloKa. Suggest 
some wav in which we can get a living. 

Budhi bam khataolekhan ohom asuUena. If 
you do not use your wits you will not get a 

Bu^hi. . An old woman. 
Budhia. Mother. 

Bu^hi^ hop. Mother. 

Buclhi ayo. Grandmother. 

Budhi ghasii. Two plants go by this 
name, Pavetta Indica, L., var. 
tomentosa, Roxb., and Callicarpa 
raacrophylla, VahL 

Budhi kaskom. A species of the cotton 
plant, Ooasypium arboreuTa, 

Bud hiloK, Wednesday, the fourth 
day of the week. 

Bu^hi parkom ipil. The four chief stars 
in the body of the " Great Bear." 

Budhi tilai A common shrub, Pavetta 
indica, Linn,, var, tomentosa, 

Bu^i. Old, aged, applied to women. 

Budi ayo. Grandmother. 
Bu4i era. A old woman. 

Budrag. 1 Unrestrained, left to the 
Budrak. J freedom of one's own will, 
arrogant, self-willed. 

Jom budr^kenae. He has waxed fat and kicks. 

OkoeaM umuktenonkadom bndr^gkanaP Whom 
do you rely on that you have become so ar- 



[ 80 ] 


Bu(jU*u6. To linse out the mouth, to 
squirt out of the mouth. 

DaX ba^ro^ ip^iako. They squirt the wftter 
oat of their months. 

Bu4u6 bu4u6. To bubble up, as water 

Budur. To rot off, to eject the stone of a 
firuit from the mouth. 

Papita reaX jahtefko ba^ur gi^ftaXa. They 

ejeot the stone of the pi^ita from the 

Har^Jel sea bn^nrlenkhan eken jah tahena. 

When the skin and flesh rot off only the 

bones remain. 

Bugi. C£ boge. 

Bugli. A small bag, a purse. 

Bugur bugur.lSofk, as earth or quick 
Bagar bugur. J sand into which the 
feet sink. 

Bngor bngrnr jahga boloXa. 

Bugur bueur. The sound produced by 
the blowing of a blacksmith's bel- 

BuheL To flow, to float away. 

Qtdk n^te Sid sadom torae bnhelen do, Sofa 
samudte ho, ^iii sadom. 

Buhi. A book not stitched at the side 
but at the end, an account book, 
a register, a ledger. 

Buhi dak. Running water. 

Buhi khet. A rice field through which 
there is a flow of water. 

BuhnL The first sale of the day which 
must be a cash ona 

^nrid bnhnia dharte ohod emlema. I have not 
made my first sale yet, so cannot give yon 

Bflihar. Benevolence, good- will, kind- 

OkoeaX b&ih%rte kfmi dom liamkedaP Throngh 
whose g<H>d offices did you obtain work ? 

Buj. ") Wisdom, understanding, 
Buj suj. J sense ; to understand. 

Okaffe bae bnj snja. He understands nothing. 
Oka h5 bnj snjkate bae ropa. He speaks without 

Buj bujhau. To understand what is 
right and what is wrong. 

Bujhantar. Wise, clever, sharp. 

Bujha bujhi. To consult together, 
to take counsel together. 

OpaXrele bujh^ bujhilenge jahataXle kh^tuuna. 
We wiU flrst consult those at home, then we 
will say something deflnite. 

Bujhau. To understand, to consult, to 
take counsel with, to explain, to 
cause to understand, to convince, 
to satisfy, to persuade. 

Bnjhfu bharenali. I am unable to understand. 
Monereged bujhfu bafalege. I must first 

think it oyer. 
Car pawa monere bnjh^u thikkate rormAnia. 

Make up your mind on the mattw and then 
^ speak. 
L%i bujhf uaeme. Explain it to him. 

Bujri. F. 1 Slovenly in dress, cloth round 
Bojra. M.J waist too low down, un- 
shapel V in waist. 

Bujrialom bandeXa. Wear your sffi higher 
up your waist. 

Bujuk bujuk.l In crowds, in swarms, 
Bujuk buiuk. / numerous. 

Bujuk buiuk hop menaXkoa. There are orowds 
of people. 

Bujur. To spill, as grain out of a hole 
in a bag, basket, &c. 

Ce^ leka bam gbSt^kaC bujuroX kana f How 
haye you tied it up (grain)? It is running out. 

Buk. To encourage, to assist, to give 

Isore bukakawa€koa. God gave them courage. 
Buk bandhaoaeme. Encourage him. 

Buk^ The navel, the unfertilized pyt 
on the top of a cob of Indian com, 
a peaked baff in a fish or hare net 
into which the fish or game di-op. 

Bukf topa. Birthplace. 
Ona ato do buk^ topa ato kantilia. That viUage 
is my birthplace. 

Buka bharHr. Umbilical hernia. 

Buk^i cur cutu6. A child's game. 

Bukacurrud. A child's game. 

Buka seresere. Ulcerated navel of 

Buka sobok bid. A large green and 
yellow snake. 

Buki. A worm that destrojrs the roots 
of the young dhan plant. * 

Buktan. "> Hard to pull, as a hooka ; 

Buktana. J not to sound as a flute 
when blown into; to speak from the 
throat, close, reserved, bourse. 

Buktangeye ro^eda, okoe ba4Ae ballcaoX eoe 
baco. He speaks from his throat, his reoovery is 

Noa tirio do bukfangea, bah 8a4ea. 

Buku. A white ant. 

Bukur Bukur 

[ 81 ] 


Bukur bukur. To bubble, to rise in 

Bakuf bukur daM aetelioMkana. The water 

bubbles out from the earth. 
Bukup bukur he^ejoKkana, daK do. The water 

boils and bubbles. 

Buku^ bukul The motion of maggots 
in foul sores, or that of earth 
worms or moles raising up earth 
from underneath by jerks. 

Bukuf buku€ len<^e£e oijlokoKkana. 
Patwako buku€ bukudoKkana. 

BuL To be intoxicated, to be drunk, 
stupified by a narcotic, or drug ; to 

44ipe ^u bulotta. You often drink till you 

are drunk. 
Bolenae. He is drunk, (or stupified by the use 

of a drut^.) 
Em bulkedeali. I administered chloroform to 


Bulahat. Summons, calling, bidding, 

IliaK bulahat hoeSna. I have been summoned. 

Bulau. To deceive, to lead astray, to 
practice deception, to divert, to 

UniaK kathatege non^e doli bulau hedakana. 

I came here through being deoeiyed by his 

Gidr^ jahanaK emkate bul^uem. Give the child 

something to divert hi^. 

Bulau. A method of exorcism. 

This method of exorcism is applied in three 
ways : — 

Ut. — After a corpse has been placed on the fun- 
eral pyre a man takes a fowl in his^ left 
hand and holding it aloft goes three times 
round the pyre, moving to the left. Having 
completed tiie circuit thrice he nails the fowl 
through the neck to one of the four posts 
(torf e khunti) fixed one at each comer of 

^nd. — When it is desired to exorcise an evil 
spirit out of a sick man a fowl is taken and 
ita biU held close to a few grains of rice on a 
sarjom (q. v.) leaf, and when it picks a little 
the exorcist takes it in his right hand and 
holding it out at arm's lenp^ brings it round 
with a sweep and passes it underneath the 
left thigh to the left hand. With a similar 
movement of the left hand it is passed un- 
derneath the right thigh, to the right hand 
and again carried with a sweep of the right 
hand underneath the left thigh to the left 
hand and brought in front where it is sized 
with both hands. This completes the oper- 
ation which is repeated three times, sGEtor 
which the fowl is made to pick a few grains 
of rice off the sick man's nand as a proof 
that tiie spirit has been driven out. 

3rd. — When the person to be operated on has 
had the evil eye cast on him while eating, a 
piece of a broom (jonoS), the stone' of a 
fruit of Semicarpus anacardi'wm (soso jah) 

and a piece of a pod of Bauhinia VdhUi 
(lamatf here) are wrapped up in a sarjom 
(q. V.) leaf. The operation now resembles 
that described above the parcel takuig the 
place of the fowl. 

Buli. Language, speech, dialect. 

Bui mayam. An oflfering of human 

The method is as foUows: — 

A puncture is made with a thorn and then pres- 
sed till blood issues. A grain of husked 
rice is then applied and when discoloured 
with the blood it is presented as an offering 
to the deity who is to be appeased. The 
number of parts of the human body from, 
which blood is extracted varies from four 
or five to thirty three. 

B^lk^ti* The fee paid to the officiating priest 
who offers his own blood. This generally 
amounts to one rupe four annas. 

T»v 1 * >■ A form of emphatic denial. 

Bolte h5 taka b^nutf tiila. I have not a single 
rupee, (i. e. even if I were drunk I could 
not say I had any money.) 

I^ do noa katha bhulte h5 ba^ rofaka^a. I 
never said any such thing, (i. e., even by 
mistake, or when unconscious.) 

Bulu. The thigh. 
Bulud. To salt ; salt. 

Ni^tele buluhoKa. We will procure salt with 

BoluhaKme. Salt it. 

BumbaL Bombay. 

Bumbu6 hako. A species of fish. 

Bumbuiyul Cf. bomboryofi. 

Bud campa. A kind of spinning top. 

Bund. A drop. 


• • • 


Fee paid to a jan, dikli, (q. v.) 
or witch finder. 

To put the red mark on the 
bride's forehead at marriage, which 
is done by the bridegroom. 

M5fS ti^^K sindurteko bundi kedea. 

Bundis. To think, to meditate, to 
turn a thing over in the mind, to 

Noae bundiske^te arte^geye bhabnaena. Think- 
ing of this increased his sorrow. 

Buniad. Origin, foundation. 

Ale do bnni^dUion menaKlea. We are here 
since the foundation (of the viUage.) 

Buniadi. Original., first, aboriginal. 

Buniadi hof ko. Founders (of a village), descen- 
dants of the founder or founders (of a 
village;) original residents, aborigines. 



[ 82 3 

Buru katkom care6 

rha. M. 1 ^Mj j 
rhi. F. I OW. aged. 

Bunum. A white ant hill. 

Bannm eriga. The qaeen white ant. 

Bunum bararid. A species of wasp 
which haunts the shops of sweet- 
meat sellers during the hot 

Bunuipi ol An edible mushroom found 
growing on, or near, white ant hills. 

Bupujhau. Reciprocal form of bujhau 

(q. V.) 
Burau. To waste, to squander, to 


Nun9^ t^'kali bnf^ukeda. I squandered so much 

Burbudlulj. Many at a time, all at 
one time, simultaneously. 

Borbndlntt omonakana. Germinated simol- 

Burbu^ud To bubble, air bubbles to 
rise to the surface of water when 
some creature is breathing below. 

Burgi. The Mahrattas. 

Bnrgi bir^j. Mahratta raiders, applied also to 
those who are feared as the Mahrattas were. 


• • 


Burhia. An old woman. 
Burhu. To wind twine into a hank 
so as to be easily pulled off. 

Baber buf huime. Make the twine into a hank. 

Bursi. Part of a broken earthenware 
vessel when put to the following 
uses: — 

Sim bursi. A hen*8 nest. 

Seh^l bursi. A fire pan. Cf. sohgel bursi. 

Bursi sehgel leka jiwi loltkantilia. 

Burti. Cf. barti. 

• ■ • 

Buru. A mountain. 

Buru kun^mi. Full moon, the sun being on the 
horizon, and the moon appearing over the 
hill tops. 

Marah burn. Pareshnath, the highest moun- 
tain in the Santal oounlsry. 

Buru. A spirit, an object of worship. 
Cf bodga. 

The primary meaning of hum is the same as 
tnat of omtga (q. v.). The two words are 
often joined together, as bohga bum, honga 
being a gloss on buru. The modem word 
boh^ has so entirely superseded the more 
ancient buru, that the present generation 
of Santals are ig^iorant of its reaS signifioa- 

Maraxi buru. The chief of the bums, or boiigas. 

Marah buru, or mount Pareshnath is often con- 
founded with the Marah bum of the Santal 
traditions and worship. 

Buru ^ahra. The jambfo or python. 

Buru. A religious festival and fedr of 
the semi-Hinduized Bhulyas. 

One of these Bum fairs is held vearly, in 
December, at a small village in the District 
of Hazaribagh named Ganqe. and is caUed 
Gan4e buru, anotiier is held at Lalgaf h, 
just across the boundary, in the District 
of the Santal Pargannas, and is known as 
Lalgafh bum. 

Buru bere£ Kisku. A sub. sept of the 
sept Kisku (q. v.). 

Buru herei Mamdi A sub. sept of 
the sept Marndi (q. v.) 

Buru berefS porob. A festival observed 
by a sub. sept of the sept Kisku 
(q. v.), and also by a sub. sept of 
the sept Mamdi (q. v.) 

Buru bhalua. A swallow that frequents 
hills and builds its nest on a 

Burud. To slip through the fingers, 
as a fish ; to slip out of, to slip off, 
as a fish from a hook ; to slip from 
under, as a bullock from under 
the yoke ; to withdraw, to desert 
comrades, to go about here and 

Burudkedali. I have aUowed it to slip out, (or 
faU out.) 

CedaMpe bupijottkana, onte note ? Why do you 
go about here and there (and don*t attend 
to your work ?) 

Buru6 buru6. To rise as small bubbles 
in water ; many, numerous. 

Bum6 bum^ko oalattkana, mu6 do. The ants 
are swarming. 

DaK bum6 bumjoKkana. The water is boiling. 

Buru ekasira narl. A plant found at 
high elevations, Flevfiingia con- 
gesta, Moxb. type form. 

Burui burui. To drizzle. 

Burui bumiye dalfeda It is drizzling. 

Burui buruL Soft, moist, free, as earth 
in a good condition for ploughing, 
or digging. 

Buradj] ^ *«^«''- 

Buru katkom care6. Equisetum debUe, 
Moxb., a common plant. 


[ 83 ] 


Burum. To lie down, of animals in 

Babromsim. A hen sitting on eggs. 

Bum mackunda. A forest tree, 

Wrigktia tomentosa, R. & S. 
Bunidj. A tower. 
Bum pajhar. Cf pajhar. 

Bum raher. A cultivated leguminous 
plant, Cyanwpsia paoralioideSy 

R a 

Bum sim. A white cock offered to 
Maran bum (q. v.) 

There are no restriotions as to who shall partake 
of the flesh of the bum sim. 

Bum tiron. Cf tiron. 
Buryun. To slip out of a hole, as a 
snake, or a fish. 

Borynh marte tot go€enae. 

Busak. To produce young, of animals ; 
to hatch as eggs of fowls, and 

Bus^ffenae mih?! do. 
Bns^Kkedae. Qn,re birth to it. 
Bns^goKkana. Is being bom, or given birth to. 
Sim bele khon bns^gola. Fowls are produced 

from eggs. 
Tanatt bae^l. Very many, numerous. 
TanaK busaf ko gooena. They have died in 

large numbers. 

Busar.l To be bom, to be brougM into 
BusSr.J the world. 

Boete amki do hoe bnsaflen. 
Hae hae, busayakanakin, 
Hae hae, nukinmanewa. 

Buska. A species of termite which is 
very destructive to the rice plant 
where there is an insufficiency of 

Busku. To rouse, to exasperate. 

Susurbah alope buskukoa. Do not rouse the 

wasps. ^ 
Durre ! bejae marah ^sintaf a kulya tefSjhaKe 

giti^akana, aloyape buskuea, ger bote6ke- 


Busndi. A small fly resembling a 

mosquito, a midge. 
Busup. Straw, the grain of which has 

been trodden out by cattle. 

Janhg busup. The straw of janhS (q. ▼.) 

Busur busur. 1 Soft, as earth or roas- 

Bhusur bhusur. J ted grain ; applied to 

describe scratching or scraping 

when the substance is soft or loose. 

But. Ghana, gram, Cicer arietinum, 

• } 

A child. 

Buta. The trunk of a tree up to 
where the branches begin, the 
area covered by the branches of 
a tree ; origin, root, beginning. 

Dare butarele dufupakan tahSkana. We were 

eitting under a tree. 
Noa katha reaK but« oka (ben kana P Where 

is the beginning of this matter ? * 

Butel. Power, effort, by means of. 

Am butelte oho hoelena. 

Butlak.") Power, ability, effort, by 
Butlek. J means of. 

Am bntl^kte ohom idi dafelea, unaK dafe 

Butra. M.l Short in stature, dumpy, 
Butri. F. J dwarfish. 


Gid^r butur. Children. 

Butu6. ") Short, applied to the 

Butu6 butu6. J eai-s of rice, oats, 
wheat, &c. 

Butuo butuo geleena. The ears are short. 

Butud butud. To throb, as an abscess 
when gathering. 

Bntuti bntali hasoedidkana. It throbs pain- 

Buya. The female organ. 

Buyol boyol. Cf boyo boyol. 

Buyu£ buyul To prick, to pain, to 

Buyu€ buyu£ hasodkana. 

Buyu^ mente. To blab, to let out a 

Buyu€ menteye lai go£keda, bae jiwi dafeada. 
He let out the secret, he oould not restrain 




Ca dare. The tea plant, Camellia theifera, 

Ca daK. Decoction of th^ leaves ; tea prepared 

for drinking. 

C^balSSoaJ A tea garden. 

Caba. To finish, to complete, to die ; 
all, the whole. 

"fi^l oabake£koaii. I have seen them all. 
Hatao oabakefae. He has taJcen the whole. 
K^mi cabakate ofaSteye senena. He finished 

the work and went home. 
Noa katha abore oabatta. This matter wUl end 

with us (is prirate.) 
Cabaenae. He is dead. 

Ciibac ciibuc 

[ 84 ] 


Caba6 cubu6. Pricking or tingling 

Cabao cnbnd p^tfti^* It pricks. 

Cabac cabn6 nasolikana. I feel a pricking pain. 

Cabhar cabhur. Rushing, swishing or 
splashing sound of water. 

Cabhar c^bhnr daUreli adjomkeda. I heard a 
sound of splashing in the water. 

Mucu daKre cabhar oabhorko ota idia. They 
press the fish trap swishing into the water. 

Cabhruli. At once, instantly, without 

. C^bhruK marteye donkeda. 

Cabhur. Splashing, plumping into 

C^bhnr marteye donkeda. 

Cablau. To bite, to fix the teeth into, 
to eat, to tear, as a tiger does an 
animal when eating it. 

pher okooe oabl^u go£kedea. He tore him 

Cabuk'. To dip into ; to dip the tips of 
the fingers into and transfer what 
adheres to them on to something 

C^bugme alo se hirijott If^gii. Dip something in 
to prevent it (the pot) boiling over. 

Sunum c^bngme. Dip your fingers into the 
oil (and transfer what adheres to them to the 
palm of the other hand, preparatory to an- 
ointing the person.) 

DaK c^bagme. Dip yonr fingers into water, 
(and transfer what adheres to them to the 
lime in your hand.) 

CacaK. Broken, tattered, pierced all 
over, wormeaten. 

Lum^mko jom cacatf keda, sakam do. The silk 

worms have eaton the leaves to tatters. 
Sakam cacagoka. The leaves will be torn. 

Cacao. To force payment on one in 
advance so as to secure his servi- 
ces, or a bargain. 

Caoaokate nniyo agu otoadi^a, am t^en ohoii 
senlena. He pressed wages on me in ad- 
vance, I cannot go to you. 

Cacarhal Rough, dirty, scaly and 
ugly, as a lizai-d, or a person suffer- 
ing from a skin disease. 

Uni h5 bae umotfa, afisge cacarhafe lielolfa. 
He will not even bathe, he looks disgust- 
ingly dirty. 

Cacki. To cozen, wile, beguile, per- 
suade, lure. 

Onko doko caokikeflea, motafleako, non<^e 
codaK ro^gectepe tahena P They cozened us, 
they said to us, Why do you remain here 
famishing ? 

Caco. To toddle, the first walking of 
a child. 

Caco gidrf . A child just able to walk alone. 
Caco Ketad gidr^. A child able to walk well. 

Caco 4idi. To accustom a child to stand or 
walk alone. 

Caco chatiar. C£ chatiar. 

• ■ • • • • 

Cacur macur. 1 Hurriedly, carelessly, 
Kacurmacur. j imperfectly, irregu- 
larly, anyhow. 

Noa jaega cacur m^oufko siaka^a. They have 
ploughed this part very carelessly. 

Noa afaK do cacuf m^ufko isinaka^a. They 
have imperfectly cooked these greens. 

Cadak cuduk.l Noise of plumping into 
CaduK caduk. f water. 

Ca^aK cu^uK dattre sa^ea dhiri capa€lekhan. 
If a stone be thrown into water it sounds plump. 

Cader. A cotton cloth worn as a shawl, 
or covering ; a sheet. 

Cadi. A goat for sacrifice, rice and li- 
quor given by the bridegroom to 
the bnde's party. 

C^'ili merom. '^ A goat, rice and liquor given by 
Ca^i caole. > the bridegroom to the oridde's 
C^'jih^n^i. ) party. 

Cado. To put into water, to immerse, 
to plunge. 

DaKttpye don ca^oena. He plunged into the 

DaK m^u^ire roe oa<^o goCena. The fly fell into 

the rice water. 

Cador bador. 1 A puppet worked with 
Cador badomi. j the fingers. 

Cadra. Bald on the crown of the head, 
applied only to males. 

Cadra. Galvanized corrugated iron 

Cadra. A cotton cloth worn agi a shawl, 
a sheet. 

Cadri. Bald on the crown of the head, 
of females only. 

Caduk caduk. Sound of a body plum- 
ping into water. 

Cae. Hard, scrimpy, miserly, niggardly, 

A<(li cae hof kanae, bae emoKa. He is a great 
niggard, he won't give. 

C^e. Quari'elsome. 

Cele cae j^t kanako ! tin dhaoem hijutf a, un 
dhao doko kaphfri^uKa. What a quarrel- 
some set they are, whenever yon come they 


[ 85 ] 


Cae. "J A name mentioned in the 

Cae disom. J ti-aditionsoftheSantais. 

Cfte. A caste so called. 

Cae campa. Two names, Chae and 
Champa, mentioned in the Santal 
traditions, and often joined to- 

Cae capor.|(.f ^^^^ 

Car capor. J ° 

Cae colon. Conduct, behaviour, charac- 
ter, life and conversation. 

Caecor. A tribe of gypsies given to 

The popular belief with regard to this tribe is 
tnat thev are so expert as to be able to 
possess themselves of any article they may 
covet by simply looking at it. 

Cft6 ctl6. Still, quiet. 

Caj oUeko thirena. They were perfectly still. 
Pef a^o heolena, caS c!l6ke£leako, jomaK b^nnK- 

Cae ctd. The sound produced when a 
cow is milked into a pail. 

Cae disom. Cf. cae. 

Caego. Flippant, pert, said of little 

Nni caego do okoe sohge h5 bae an%fia. This 
pert little thing feels strange with no one. 

C^hip.* F.' } ^^ mouthed, gaping. 

Caeko6. \Shrivelled, scantily supplied 
Caikup. j with raiment, as a beggar 
in hard times. 

Bohof oaekopakana. It is shriveUed by drying. 

Cagae. | Quickly; loud voiced, 

Cagae cagae. j stentorian. 

Cagae cagae nni doe rofeda. This person 
speaks very londly. 

Cagae cagoe. Unpleasant feeling caus- 
ed by sand, nusk, or some such 
foreign substance in food, grating. 

Cagae darae. Loudly, loud and harsh, 

Bog^ete cagae da^aeye egerkediiia. She scolded 
me in a loud voice. 

Cagam cugum. To move slowly and 

Kombfoko he<$ena, cigam ongnmiti al11omle€- 
koa. Thieves have come, I heard them 
moving stealthily. 

Cagar. To break off, to detach, to 
tear oflF. 

Or cagar . To detach by pulling. 

Bal cagaf. To detach by striking. 

Adomko do dareko khon ^hanr^Kko dal cagaf- 

keda. Some broke off branches by striking 

them (with sticks.) 

Caga£. To detach, to split, to tear 
or break off. Cf. cagar. 

Cag caga. To straddle, to open out, 
as a pair of compasses. 

Jahga cag cagakedae. He straddled. 
Gag cagae tehgoakana. He is standing with his 
feet wide apart. 

Cagoe cagoe. Grating, the feeling 
when nusk or sand is in the rice 
when being eaten. 

Cagoe cagoeli |omkeda, na parok. 

Caha. A snipe. 

Cahal cahal. Quickly, hurriedly. 

Okate calaKkanae cahal cahal ? Where is he 
going in such a hurry P 

Cahao. To desire, to wish. 

Cele oefkom cahaokana P What is it you want P 

Cahap. To open the mouth, to open 
as the mouth ; to gape. 

^4i hapraM cahaboKtakoa. llieir mouths open 

very wide. 
Bah bahko cahapakada, to^o^&h leka. They 

open their mouths as wide as a fish trap. 
Unialt moca cahabtaete mil! (ed t^^kam ^ama. 

When you open its mouth you wiU find a 


Cahap catur. Flustered, excited, bewil- 

Oka khon cahap c^t^i^em hedena P From where 
have you come in such a flustered conditionP 

Cahar cahar. 1 /-\ • 1 1 i • -n 
Lahar cahar. j Q"^^''^^' ^umedly. 

Cahar cahare taf ameda. He is walking quickly. 

CaHatao.l m l . 

Cahtao I approach, to come near, 

Cahtao." j *« ^''^'' 

Kul do bae cahtao d^feafta. The tiger will not 

come near (to the village through fear.) 
Cahtao h5 bae cahtaoKa. He will not even come 

Baj gape emon hof do ohom (Shtaolena. A 

person like you could not enter a king's 


Cahe. Perhaps. 

Cahe. . .cahe. Whether. . .or. 

Cahem calaK, cahem tahen. Whether you go 

or stav. 
Cahem doholl cahe bam dohoii. Whether you 

keep me or not. 

Caher. Shadow, reflected image, ap- 

Uniatt caher ^rsire iSeloffa. His image will 
appear in the mirror. 


[ 86 ] 


greater proncienoy. 

I* , .' [ Necessary, nee Jful, wanted. 

Caher. Adroitness, proficiency, skill. 

Uni do oahere nduKa^bona, abo ho uni khon 
bisi caherbon ndutfaea. He shewed us his 
profioienoy (in dancing,) we will shew him 
greater proficiency. 


Note daK c9hi%. Water is wanted here. 

Cahiye. Necessary, proper, right* 

Cahtao. Cf. cahatao. 

Cai cai. \Used when driving an 

Cai dha£ dhal j elephant. 
Caini. A ladder. 

Cak. A wheel. 

Kuiik^l oak. A potter's wheel. 

Oak dahp. A big turban resembling a wheel 
in shape. 

Oak b^ndhi. A cog put before awheel to pre- 
vent it moving. 

Sagaf oak. A caxt wheel. 

p 1 * [To take aim, as with a gun. 

A<^i (hikem oak dafeaKa. You oan aim well. 

Cak. A representation of a flower, or 
some other design, made with rice 
flour on the ground near the 
mandwa khunti (q. v.) at a mar- 

09k pur^nni. A present given to the girl who 
makes the c^k to induce her to finisn it. 

C^k khunti. A post fixed in the centre of a 
. tank when the ceremony of marrying the 
tank is performed. The mandwa kminti 
(q. V.) is sometimes called c9k khun(i. 

CaK. Why, wherefore. 

Oatfom laikeda? Why did you tell. 

Cakaoda. A common armual met with 
about villages, Cassia Tora, Linn, 

Oakaoda afalf . The fresh leaves of Cassia Tora 
raed as a pot-herb. * 

Cakap cakap.^l Noise made when eat- 
Cakup cakup. [ing with gusto ; smack- 
Cakap cukup. J ing the lips. 

Oakap cukupko jomeoa. They smack the lips 
while eating. 

Cakar. To exercise a horse by mak- 
ing it run round in a circle 

Cak bandhi. A cog put before a wheel 
to prevent it moving, an obstacle, 
a hitch. 

Oak bandhi ma la^aoaK me. Put a cog before 

the weel. 
Oe£re cak bfrndhiena. What hitch has occurred. 

CaK caK. ^ Guzzling or gobbling 
Chak chalc. J sound, as by a pig when 

Cake. A rick ; to pile up one thing 
above another in order. 

Horo cake. A rick of dhan. 
Busnj) cake. A rick of straw. 
Sarako benaoa, nirdhSkko cakea. They make 
the funeral pyre piling up (the firewood.) 

Cakendar. Broad. 

Nui hof aK 4eke cakendar osargetaoa. 

Cakha. To taste. 

Ma oakhaeme, buluh adaakana se bah. Taste 
it and see if it is properly salted or not. 

Caki. A flat cake of anything, to cut 
into thin slices. 

O^ki guf . A flat cake of raw sugar. 

Caki. The patella or knee cap. 

Cakla coklo. Dodging through fear 
or shame, shy, keeping out of sight 
as much as possible through shy- 

Lajaote cakla coklo bafaekanae. She is dod- 
ging here and Mi ore through shame. 

Cakmak. ") Shining, admirable, excit- 
Chakmak. J ing admiration, beautiful. 

Bhitcakmakko cikira- 

Chakmakao. To shine, to rejoice, to 
be in high spirits. 

$.<^i chakmakaoenae. 

Cakoji. A bite, a mouthful. 

Mi£ oakoj) hoyoKa. it wiU only be a mouthful. 

Cako^ cakop. The sound of guzzling 
or gobbling when eating, as a pig 

Oakop cakope jomeda sukri do. The pig is 
gobbling its food. 

Cakor. A servant, other than agri- 

Nokor cakor. Servants in general. 
A<yli nokor cakor menaKkotaea. He has many 
servants of all kinds. 

Cakra. A eunuch. 

Cakrao. To possess oneself of,- to in- 
crease at other's expense, to enlarge. 

Hasa oakraome. Increase your field (by taking 
apiece from some one else.) 

CakrL Service, other than Agricul- 
Cakrighum. ") Dizzy, confounded, 
Cakri ghumao. j head to swim, con- 
fused and unable to comprehend or 

O^kfi ghum geli a^kara. 

Kami kamite c^k^ri ghum^tiKtalea. 

Cakta. Large and flat, as a flagstone 
or plank. 

Dhiri oakta. A large flat stone. 


[ 87 ] 


Cakti. Small and flat, a thin slice, a 

Cf kti gnf. ' A oake of raw sugar. 
Pisk^ c^ktikateko tekea. They slice the pisk^ 
(q. y.) and then oook it. 

Caku. A kind of clasp knife, with han- 
dle resembling that of a razor. 

C^kn b^dnk. A weapon, one end of whioh is 
a pistol, and the other a knife. 

Cal. A roof 

Jeteleli oal. The front and baok ^rtions of a 

Khupi cal. The roof of the end portions. 

Cal. To put into the hand, to give. 

1*ak96 oaladea. I gave the money into nis hand. 

Cal. \Conduct, behaviour, life and 

Cal colon./ conversation, character. 

L^ calaK. Tradition. 

Cal bah bestaea. His oonduot is not good. 

L9i oal katha, ar areo r:i\ daK haKsogea. Slan- 
derous tales and wa ^ >.r thrown on one canses 

Cala. A sieve ; to sift. 

Cala. 1 To go, to move, to walk, to 
Calais. / pass away. 

Jiwi calaKkantaea. He is dying. 

Cala cula. Occupied with preparations 

for a journey, al >< )ut to set out on a 

Cala cula. To divide what is left over 

after a share has been given to 


Ma ni^kore cala onl^ go£kaKme. 

Calak. Clever, expert, deceitful, frau- 
dulent, over reaching. 

Khnb oalak hof kanae. He is arery clever man. 

Calaki. Fraud, trick, deception, knav- 

Alom oaJ^kia. Do not be gnilty of knayery. 
Calaki kantaea. It is his mckery. 

Calan. Cleai*ance, remittance, an an- 
nouncement of despatch, a pass, 
an invoice ; to send to prison, to 
send up for trial ; a batch, consign- 

Daroga doe calanke^kina. The daroga sent 

them up for trial. 
Ale do p^hu calantele he<Jena. We came with 

the first batch. 

Calao. (1) To set in motion, set agoing. 

(2) To impel, drive, direct, urge. 

(3) To cohduct, manage, admin- 


(4) To forwaiti, advance, hasten, 


(5) To prosecute, carry on. 

(6) To meet a demand, pay. 

(1) Kol calao ocoeme. Set the machine in motion- 

(2) Ma 4aiira calaokinme. Driye on the bul. 


(3) Bisom caKlaoio. The goyemor, or admin- 

istrator of a country or proyinoe. 

Baj caKlaoio, Dewan or Prime minister of a 

(4) G^i calao liogme. Hasten the cart a little. 

(5) Am nparro mokordomad calaoa. I shaU 

prosecnte, or bring a suit against yon. 

(6) Barea merom ^brilikate khajnali oalaokeda. 
I sold two goats and met the demand for 
rent. / 

Ti calao. To lay hands on. 
Em calao. To help by giying. 
Tarwaf e calao. To use a sword. 

Gnrio calao. To manure ; to take manure to 

the fields. 
Am bam le calaoeditia. I am not dependent on 

OkoehSbabonlecalaoefkoa. We giye to no one. 

Calao. The 4th ploughing of a field. 

Calao guti. A game played by chil- 

Calcalwa. Perplexed, occupied, dis- 
traught, occupied with preparations 
for a journey. 

Calcalwa jokhe:em eho|>keda, oho alijomlen- 
tama. You haye raised this matter when 
other matters are occupying the attention, 
it can't be listened to. 

Calcolon. Way of life, conduct, habits, 

NuiaK calcolon ceflekantaea? What is his way 

Onkado alom calcolona. Do not oonduot your- 
self in that way. 

Calcul. Separating, breaking up, as an 

C^loul somoe hoeena. The time to separate has 

Call. Custom, wont, usage. 

Ar aiaK c^li leka arhS j l^i oe€a£koa. And as he 
was wont !:» taught them again. 

Calia. A game flayed by children. 
Calit. Customaiy, ordinary, current. 

Noa pf il^ c^litgea. This measure is current. 

Calka. A species of fish inhabiting 

Cama. "jThe Black and white 

Camacakar Hombill, and the Grey 

Camacako. - Hombill. (For scien- 

Camar. tific names see Dhan^- 

Camkar. j sar.) 

Camac. A spoon. 


[ 88 ] 

Cand bagar 

p f r-^ strap or strip of raw hide. 

Camar. A Hindu caste who deal in 
hides, and make shoes. 

Camar. Cf. cama. 

Cam cam. ") i-w • 1 1 i • ji 
Cham Cham )<3"'*''''y'^""^«^^y- 

Camda. 1 A booth, a temporary erect- 
Chamda. / ion to accommodate guests, 
or for any other purpose. 

Pe^ako heoena, ma camcjla doKakome. The guests 
have oome erect a little shelter for them. 

To float on the surfiace. 


Sanam ka^ c^m^nlena All the timber is floating. 

Uta ^herpe o^m^ulkeda. Yon have put too 
much water in the utu (you have drowned 
the miller.) 

P^ 4ub9 o^m^nl ba^aekanae. The p^ni ^uh^ 
(q. y.) is floating about on the water. 

Camek bai. ^ Spasms with uncon- 
Comok bai. J sciousness, convulsive 

Uni do oomok b^i Hamkedea. He has been seiz- 
ed with spasms. (Said to young people 
when scolding.) 

Camkao. To flash, gleam, shine, glitter ; 
to be startled, to start from fear 
or surprize. 

Camkao bere€enae. He rose with a start. 

Camkar. Cf cama. 
Camkau. Cf camkao. ^ 

Camke. To lie in wait, as a beast of 
prey; to be infested with wild 
beasts. Cf canke. 

Camki. ") mu x- i 

i^ • 1 > The cow tick. 
Camokan. J 

Cam pa. A name mentioned in the tra- 
ditions of the Santals. 

Campa baha. A common perennial 
small shrub having large yellow 
or red flowers, Ochna aquarosa, 

Camphel. 1 Level and broad, as a stretch 
Campel J of ground on the bank 

of a river; smooth, unruffled, as 

shallow water. 

Campta. A strap, or strip of raw hide- 
Camptahi. Having an insufficient sup- 
ply of milk for her offspring. 

Campur. Made up, concocted ; yarn- 
ing, joking. 

Campur katha alom rofa. Do not tell a con- 
cocted story. 

^^i campur hof kanae. He is a great yarning 
fellow (or a great joker.) 

Camfij^. A skin disease, in which the 

cuticle peels off. 
Camta. A strap of raw hide. 
Camuk. A whip, a scourge. 
Cadcir. The Titlark, Corrydalla 


Ga4a c^licir. The wagtail, MotcLcilla luzon' 

Cand. Necessary, urgent, hurriedly, 
quickly, firmly. 

^^i oan^akawadilia. It was very necessary to 

^^i can4 k^mi lagaoadiiia. I have a pieoe of 

very urgent work on hand. 
A4i can^teye oalaoena. He left very hurriedly. 
Tehgo can^oKme, alom p^ooMa. Keep your 

ground, do not give way. 
J^^i can^oK kanae. He is hnrrving. 
Lebe£ can<^ Aogme. Put your foot down a little 

more flrmly. 

Can cun. 1 To complete, to exhaust ; 
Chad chun. / completely, altogether. 

Cah cuhko thir go£ena. They became com- 
pletely still. 

La4u do can cuhko jomkeda. They eat up all 
the sweetmeats. 

Cah cuhkedale. We finished it completely. 

Canda. A subscription, a contribution. 

Cauda u^h^u. To collect subscriptions. 

Canda can(Ji. To hurry, to expedite ; 
hurriedly, quickly, flustered. 

Can^a c^n^i hodme. Be quick, be expeditions. 
A^i can^a c^n^i menaKlea. We are m a great 

Candaki. To be in a hurry, to haste ; 

auickly, hurriedly, rapidly, expe- 

^^i can^^kire menaKlea. We are in a great 

Caudal. Vicious, licentious, wicked, 

A^ caudal hof kanae. He is a very vicious 

A<^i can<^al gidr^ kanae. He is a very mischiev- 
ous child. 

Candan.l Sandal wood; the heart wood 
Condon./ of a small evergreen tree, 
Santcdum album, Linn., in use all 
over India for religious purposes. 

Candar gahi A variety of the rice 

Cand bagar. Many coloured, variegated. 

Bogeteko sindurkedea, cand bagaf . 



[ 89 ] 

Capae cupui 

Can^lom. J 

Candbol ipil. A oomet. 

Candi The forehead. 

Can^i^'U. To tether an animal, fix a 
word in writing, lodge a complaint' 
give information to a police officer; 
to tether, to tie. 

Nni g^ darere o^^i^nkaeme. Tether this cow 
to the tree. 

Candkilom. The tail of a pig or goat 
given to the herd boy ; pice given 
to the herd boy in lieu of the tail. 

Beaokodte cn^pikom can^kilomle emama. 

C^ndla. M.l Having a white spot on 
CandlL F. J forehead, as a cow, horse, 

Candlom. A tail. 

Candni. A cultivated pot-herb. 

Candoro. "> Licentious, flirting, applied 
Candro. / only to women. 

Cando. The sun or moon ; a month. 

8>ii cando. The ean. 

iNmdf oando. The moon. 

Cando gahnaKkanae. There is an eclipse of the 

sun in process. 
Bar oando tayom. Two moons hence, or two 

months hence. 

Can4u6. *> Quickly, instantly, 

Can4u6 candu6. J hurriedly, rapidly ; 

Cfn^ivi c«n4n<^ okatepe calaKkanaP Where are 

Tou going so hnmedly. 
Cfn$a<^ menteye donkeda. He sprang up. 

Can. Why, wherefore. Cf. cak*. 

Can caA. Wide apart, straddling, wide, 
as an open door. 

Calk oahe (on^aaka^a. He is sta>nding with his 
feet wide apart. 

CsSmi p ^^^^» branching off, bifur- 

Hot do ona Diku ato (hen caiigaakana. The 
road bifnroates at that Hindn village. 

Ona katha do 94i cangatttalea. That matter 
win lead to many others. 

Caiiere (henem jir^aKa. Ton can rest at the 
fork (of the tree.) 

Canga can^. Forked, branching off. 

€aiiga c%iis^edape, noa katha do. 
Caiiga o^hgi kathako rofe^gia. 

Cai^gra. M.lHaving more than the us- 
Cangri. F. J ual number of fingers. 


Canke.\To raven, lying in wait for prey, 

Canke./ as a tiger; infested with 

wild beasts, as a jungle ; always 

on the alert for prey, as a tig^ ; 

ravenous, fierce, furious. 

Eol do oankeakanae. The tiger is on the alert 

for prey. 
Ona atote alope oalaKa, dak oaiikeakana. Do 

not go to that village, disease is prevalent. 

Canmangao. Impatient, restless, ex- 
cite ; on pins and needles, fid- 

Cstoao. To ferment. 

H^n^i cSoEotfa, hofmohS cSoaoKgea. 

Caoar. The long hairs in the tail of 
a horse or cow. 

Nni sadom do khube caoarana. This horse has 

a very long tail. 
E^pU g^A cEoar. A fly flisk. 

Candher. Luxuriantly ; to grow lux- 
uriantly, as grass, grain, &c. 

Ghas candhefakana, onte do. The grass is 

luxuriant there. 
Bes oandhefakana. Has grown luxuriantly. 

Candro. Wanton, applied to young 

Caole. Husked grain of several kinds, 
but more particularly that of rice ' 
to husk grain. 

Hofo caole. Husked rice. 
Bajra caole. 
Janne caole. 

Jon^ra caole. 
Gundli caole. 
Iri caole. 



bajfa (q. v.) 

janhe (q. v.) 

Indian com. 

in^ndli (q. V.) 

ifi (q. V.) 

erba (q. v.) 

layo (q. v.) 



seed of the bamboo.- 

A species of fish. 

Erba caole. 
Layo caole. 
Jao caole. 
€U>hum caole. 
Ma€ caole. 

Caole ghure. 
Caole ghuraea. 
Caole ghura. 

Caomarao. To spread quickly, as news. 

Caomaraoena, oho oko dafelena. The new 
has spread it can't be hushed up. 

Cao marte. \ Quickly in very short 
Cao mente. j time. 

Cao marte pasnaoena. The news spread at once. 

Caowar. The long hairs of the tail of 
the cow or horse. 

Capae cupuL Pressing the feet down 
alternately, as when working a 

Capakia ba^e 

[ 90 ] 

Cara danra 

Capatia bare. A species of fig tree, 
Ficu8 tomentosa, mentioned in 
the traditions of the Santals. 

Oipal. Reciprocal form of cal (q. v.) 

Capao, To place one thing above an- 
other, to pile up, to increase, to 
encroach upon. 

Bar ta^ko oapaoaflea. They inoreased the 

demand on us by two mpees. 
^j^ sahgUite sim^ii oapao aderkeda. I advan- 

oed my boundary to a great distance 

Capar. To be possessed, as by a spirit. 

Bohga oapaf . To be possessed of a devil. 

B^ oapar. To be seized with oonynlsions, to be 

Pit capar. To be angry. 

CapadoU 1 To throw; to be thrown. 

Capa<! dam. To hit by throwing something. 
Poesae capa£adi]la. He threw pice to me. 
Jangati capa€ rapn^kedea. I threw (a stone) 

and broke his leg. 
Dhiriteli capat liamkedeft. I threw a stone and 

hit him. 

Capcapa. Wide spreading, extended. 

Deren capcapagetakoa. 

Capchamda. 1 A booth, a temporary 
Chapcham^a. J shelter. 

Cap cup. Quiet, lulled, still. 

Cape. 1 To float, to flood, to over- 
Caple. J whelm. 

l^torted oapeSna. I am oyerwhelmed by fear. 

Ch^Xpe.}s««^«*'y' quietly. 

Cape oupekoKpe. Be secret (do not blab.) 

Capel. ") To rise and fall, as water 
Cepel. J without breaking into wa- 
ves ; moving, as a large expanse of 

Caple. To float on the surfistce. 

Snnnm datt oetanre oapleKa. Oil floats on the 
surface of water. 

Capo. To lay the hand on, to touch, to 
lean on the hand. 

Johae capoakana. He rests his cheek on his 

Gidr^e oapoke£koa. He laid his hands on the 


Capo capo. To move by using the 
hands as a support. 

Capo capote o^okoKkanae. He comes out as> 
ing his hands as a 8npi>ort, (on all fours.) 

Capo capo. Cry of tBe HapuK, or Night 
jar, CapnmvXgua monticolus. 

Capo joro. An extra share given to 
the person who kills an animal at 
a himt, which he gives to those 
of his own village who were de- 
tained at home, or a share given to 
one who comes up when the animal 
is being cut up. 

Capos capos. Unpalatable, badly cooked. 

Capos oi^os atkaroKkana. It is unpalatable. 

Capos capos. Sound of bellows when 
being blown. 

Capos capos sa^ekana. 

Capol To seize prey by sprineing on 
it, as a tiger ; to seize and devour. 

Knl doe capo^kedea. The tiger sprang upon 
and seized him. 

CapofS. A small jungle plant so named. 

Capot capot 1 The sound produced by 

Capoi capol j- the left hand stroke 

CopoJ copot;. j on a drum, which is 

softer than that produced by the 

right ; alternately soft and loud. 

Capot! sins. A large forest timber tree, 
Dalbergia lanceolaria, Linn. 

Capra. Flat, broad. 
Capra. A cockroach. 
Capras. A badge. 

CaprasL A person wearing a copras, 
a messenger, a peon. 

Capri. A small beetle. 

Capua. Bellows used by blacksmiths 
^d iron smelters. 

Car. Time. 

Ki€ carko ^ora, mi€ gidr%khan. 

Car. A custom, customary, use and 
wont ; to institute. 

Mosae carakaf leka amatt sapha real samahme. 
Offer for thy cleansing according as Moses 

Car. Four, employed to signify all, 
the whole. 

C^r pirthimi. The whole ronnd earth. 

Cara. A young plant, a seedling. 

Ca cara. A seedling of the tea pla&t. 

Ca^ I •^^^'^®> fodder, food, bait. 

Cara danra. I Cattle taken to a distance 
Can gaL ) to graze and not brought 
home at night. 

Caraj^ catw^ 

[ 91 ] 



Stinging, smarting, aggra- 
vating, exasperating, in- 
sulting, violentw 

Cara]^ ca^a]^ To reply testily or snap- 
pishly, to speak back. 

0»f^ OA^AiM rofeoa. He is spealdng back. 

Garaf. 1 Sound of snapping, or 

Carai carat J slapping. 

Jote oarat oaimtkin topaM go€keda. They broke 

the yoke thoiur with a enaip, 
Cara( mentepe da&edea. 

Carat cara^ 1 Scorching, burning, 
Cara€ capa£. J smarting. 

44i setohkana, oara€ oapa6. The Bim*8 rays are 

Carcao. To go and investigate, to en- 
qtiire into, to spread, as a rumour 
or news. 

Caroao ^onrakadaHl. I went and investigated 

it all round. 
Anritege oaroao ^onrkedae. He spread the mm- 

our without cause. 

Carcapar. "^ 
Cay cay. 

Caf oafe setoheda. The heat lis tmbearable. 
Caf oaye rof eda. He speaks aggravatingly. 

Carcar. "k Noise of scratching, as by 
Car carao. j a pen on paper ; tearing 
of cloth, rending of a branch, &c. 

CarcarL A scourge. 

This scourge is made of baokom (q. t.) and is 
emploj^ to driye the spirit out of one who 
has been possessed for divining purposes. 
A blow is grrem. on each wrist, and if that 
does not suAoe he is struck again heavily 
on each ankle. 

Cafdak bufdak. In patches, here and 
there, some parts thick and others 
thin, as grain unequally germina- 
ted ; rough, uneven, 

Ck^a hofinore oardaK buf dal ghao menaKtaea. 

He has sores here and there aU over his body. 
Cafdal bupdaK t^^ti ga^aaka€a, arel do. The 

hail hais dented the ground here and there. 

Cared. A pin of wood, or a thorn, with 
which leaves are pinned together 
to make plates, cups, &c., any piece 
of wood resembling a pin ; a tooth 

Ataoare6. \f*f ._ 
Alta oarej. f ^' ***• 

Cared pete6kedale. We brought the marriage 
n^otiations to an end. 

Care6 susurban. A species of wasp. 

Care IdsnL The pied starling, Stumo- 

pastor contra. 
Cqtrfi^injUa. A kind of fishing net 
Carha. More. 

Carha carhi. Increasingly, to get hotter 
or more bitter as a quarrel. 

Oafha o^rhikin ropofkana. Their quarrel is 
getting hotter. 

Carhao. To irritate, vex, stir up, ex- 

Sohraere ^ahra khun^^nkateko carhaokoa, ro- 
roKa mente. During the Sohrae (q. v.) 
they tie buUocks to posts, and then irritate 
them to make them charge. 

Carhao. To raise, to advance, to cock, 
as a gun ; to brace, as a drum ; to 
make an offering, or sacrifice. 

AI oarhaome. String the bow. 

Setohre oarhaokattme tcunak do. Hraoe the 

drum by putting it in the sun. 
Alom jote€ ba^aea, noa b^duk doko oaf hao- 

akata. Do not handle the gun it is cocked. 
Horre carhao go€kaeme. Put him on the right 

Earam dahare^i hopko carhaoa. Very many 

eiople present offerings at Karam da h a (a 
indn shrine). 
Caphaote laga acurem. 

Botor carhaoaf koa. Fear took hold of them. 
Bis carhao go€ena. The poison spread (thro* 
the body) at once. 

Carhaficorhol ')To shuffle, to drag 
Cirho^ corhol J the feet ; sound of 

Carha{ corho^m taf ameda. Tou go shuffling 

Carhi. A mane. 

Carhi To twist a third strand into a 

Baberko c%rhia. They twist a third strand into 
the rope. 

C hi }To abound, to increase ; mora 

Okare kfi oafhiena, on^ege s^h^i asambhefge 
4herena. Where sin abounded, there did 
grace abound more exceedingly. 

Cayhiau. To incite, instigate, set on, 
egg on, hound on. 

Lfi c^fhi^uakadeako, ruhe^ oooli lagifl. 

Can. 1 Cattle taken to a distance to 
Cara. J graze, and not brought home 
at night. Cf. cara danra. 

Okoe ren o^ri g%iko hedakana. 

Can. Food, fodder, bait. 

CerSko c^rikoa. They lay bait for birds . 
Ill eskar geko c^ri otoakadi/la. They have left 
me here alone (as if bait for a tiger. 

Can. A " lean to" roof, a verandah, a 
small house made by restmg the 
roof on the wall of another house ; 
a temporary shelter when engaged 
watchmg crops. 

XJniye o^riakata mi€ cal. 


[ 92 ] 


Cariau. \To incite, instigate, egg on, 
Carhiau.j set on, hound on. 

Cari6. ITo graze, to shave, to 

iri6. . y 
Eiri6cari6. ) 

• • • • ^ 


glance off. 

C^riokedeaii. I just ^azed it. 
O^n^ capoteH tuli namkedea. I shot at but 
just grazed it (with an arrow.) 

The four quarters of the 
heavens; all round, 

Cario dig. 
Cario kon. 
Cario koncj. 
Cario k5r. 

« • 

Carkha. A spinning wheel. 

, Carkha lekan sikf id. A mosquito like a spin- 
ning whee]. 
AmaK oarkha sunumatam. Oil your own spin- 
ning wheel (mind your own business.) 

Carkhi. A machine used to separate 
the seeds from the cotton. 

Camao. To floff, to whip, to lash. 

Camao ol. A wale. 

UuiaK camao oltegepe bogeSna. By his stripes 
ye are healed. 

Caro. A system of hiring cattle for ag- 
ricultural purposes by the year. 

Oarote 4aiirali hataoakadea. I have hired a 
bullock for the (agricultural) year. 
. Caroko b^is^ukoa. They let them on hire 
(plough cattle) by the year. 

Carorid. A red and black beetle which 

eats flowers. 
Carat ] 

Corat. [Pasture for cattle. 
Cor5t. J 

Sedaere amela cajr5t tahSkantalea. In the olden 
times we had abundant pasture for our 

Car sira. A large forest tree. 

CaruK caruk. Sound of plumping in- 
to water. 

Bote c9'rutf o^f utfko dona. 

Carwahi. Pay of a shepherd. 

p ; j-Cultivation ; growing crops. 

Casedale. We cultivate (for a liying.) 
Oas b^ri. A farm, an agricultural holding. 
Cacasio. A husbandman. 

Casa. A husbandman, a farmer. 

Cat. "^The twelfth Hindu month. 
Chat. J March- April. 

Cata. A bamboo mat, used as a cov- 
ering for a cart, also spread on 
the bottom of cart when manure 
is being carted to the fields. 

C^tai. A panchayat, a meeting. 

Barpe c^^aireli dufuplena. 

Catak. *) A measure, both liquid and 
Coiak. ) dry, about two ounces. 

Oa an. | ^ massive flat stone or rock. 
Uatam. J 

Catak mente. Quickly, instantly. 

Catao. To lick, to eat. 

Bam k^milekhan, cetem cataoa P If you do not 

work what will you eat? 
He^akanam nit do, oeilem cataoa P You have 

only now come, what will you get to eat? 

Cat cat. Dry, parched, as the lips of 
a person sufiering from fever; 

Sunum bah ojoSlekhan do hofmo cat oat 

Cat catao. Cracking or wrenching 
sound, as when a branch is being 

Catia. A disciple, a pupil. 

Catiar. Cf. chatiar. 

« • • • • • 

Cati6. To scale off, to come off in 
flakes; to open as the pods of 
leguminous plants when ripe and 
the seed fall out. 

Catiau. To imitate, to have authority 
over, to discipline, to accustom, 
as bullocks to carry a load; to 
break in. 

Boxigakoii c^ti^ukoa. 

Pahrad c^^i^ukoa. I wiU break in the buUooks 
to carry a load. 

Catkan. \ 

Catkani. iQuick, industrious, hard 

Chatkan. j working. 

Chatkani I 

Oatk^nite B^mime. Work fast. 

Khub c^tl^ani menaea. He is very industrious. 

Catkao. To break half through, to 
crack, to splinter. 

G^iii dalledete (hehga catkaoentilia. My sliok 
is cracked by striking the cow. 

Catki. A kind of sandal. 

C^tki pan^hi. Slippers. 

Cat marte. Instantly, immediately, 

Catna. M. ") Living at the expense of 
Catni. F. J others,. going about from 
house to house in search of food. 

Cele catna kanam. 


[ 93 ] 



Cafo. To be startled, stunned, fiunt, 

^olte oato iioMenae. He was Bomewhat Btart- 

led by the sif ht. 
Hofmo catoentina botorte. 

Catolt catoK. Sound as of a dog lap- 

Catom. A bamboo umbrella, an um- 

Catom ofaX. A hoaee with a pavilion roof, 
whioh resembles a chatom in outline. 

Catom araU. A small plant common 
everywhere, Marailia quadrito- 
lia, Linn. 

The leayes of this plant are used as a pot herb. 

Catpat;. Quickly, withqjit delay. 

Ca(pat isin hodme. Get the cooldng done 

Catpatao. ^To be restless, fidgetty, 
Chatpatao. J agitated, flustered; to 

Ente noa ioloM sehffelreli oatpataoXkana. For 
I am tormented in this fliune. 

Catra, M. ") Horns projecting at a right 
Catri. F. J angle from the head. 

Catti. A stage on a road where there 
is a bazaar, where travellers pass 
Catua. ^ the night. 

Por cata. 
Por catua. 
Por catui. 

Por cata hof kanae. He is always dining out. 

Catur. Clever, shrewd, scheming. 
Catur. The whole, all, all round. 

C^tuff Bim%. The whole boundary. 
Gftur dig. In aU directions. 

Cauchal. A babbler. 
Cauchalia. Acrimonious, caustic, ven- 
omous, malicious. 

Nni do ^i o^uch^li^ rof a. This person speaks 

Caudal. A kind of palankin, or sedan 

^i moiij c%u49l leka dareakana. It has grown 
yery prettily, in shape like a c^u^%l. 

Caudal. To outcaste for social delin- 

• • • 

quencies ; a mock * caudal ' with 
two leaves pinned into peculiar 
shapes representing a bride and 
bridegroom ctwriea in procession 
to notify that certain persons have 
been outcasted. 

Living at the expense of 

Sohrae cau^fl. An ornamental mimic roof 
resembling that of a * c^u^al* (q. y.) placed 
on the top of the post to which a bullock is 
tied at a certain stage of the celebration of 
the Sohrae (q. y.) festiyal. 

Cauhari. The cheek. 

• • • 

C^uh^ri b^is^uentaea. He has. lockjaw. 

Cauka. A measure of earthwork. 

The *c^uk%* is generally a square containing 
one hundred cubic feet. 

Caukan. A plain, a maidan. 
Caukatha. A door or window frame. 

Caukau. Terrified off, frightened away, 
to stray, to wander. 

Oka birte coh uni g^i doe c%uk%uena. The cow 
has strayed away to some jungle or ano> 

Caulia. A common flowering plant, 
Ruellia miffruticosa, Roxb. 

The root of this plant is one of the ingredients 
employed to cause fermentation in the 
manufacture of han^i (q. y.) or rice beer. 

Caupala. A kind of palankin. 
Caupohor. The four watches. 

C^upohor din. All day, the liye long day. 
Caupohor rat. aU nignt, the whole night. 

Jt .* p * Having the long hairs in the 
p: . ' tail more or less white. 

Cauri g^ kanae. The cow has white hairs in 

its tail. 
Gaura ^aiira kanae. The ox has white hairs in 

its tail. 

Cauria bak. A species of paddy bird. 
Cauria hon. A species of field rat. 

This species of rat has long white hairs on the 
ena of the tail like a cow. 

Cauri6. 1 A plait of the long hairs from 
Cauri6. J the tail of the horse or cow 

C§turi<i aralc. A common plant. Lobelia 
trigcma, Roxb, 

The leayes of this plant are used as a pot-herb. 

Cauthol. Level, even. 

Cawftok. To ferment, to be distressed, 
to froth. 

P^ur^ cSwSoena. The liquor has fermented. 

NahaK do disom ren hor reiigedteko cawSoena. 
At present the people of the Umd are distres- 
sed through want of food. 

Cftwar. Hairy, hirsute. 

^^i cawar hor kanae. He is a yery hairy man. 

Caya. A stinking, flying bug, said to 
leave a smell on grain on which 
it may alight. 

Bisom da cayaen hutiena, alope daf ana. £yil 
is abroad, do not go about. 


[ 94 ] 


C€6. Squeal of some animals, or call 
of some kinds of birds. 

C6c5. Squeaking, of animals, birds, or 

CedaK nitoK do gidr%pe 6S 08 oooedekanaP 

Cecha. A torch, employed principally 
to catch birds or fish at night. 

9^^?:' 1 Disobedient, unruly, mis- 
^J'^^- f chievous, tricky. 

C6 c5. Squeaking, of both children 
and young animals. 

Cedak. To do, used generally when 

fault finding. 
Oeiem oedaXkan tahSkanaP What were 

doing P Dakaii jojoznkan tabekana. 

B yon 

„ .OjO] 

were yon doing P 1 was eating my rioe. 

Cedak. Why, wherefore. 

CedaKpe het^akanaP Why have yon oomeP 

CedaKje. Because, for. 

Ba^aegeali, oedaKje nni ofafteii senlena. I 
know beoanse I went to his honse. 

Cede. \ 

Ce^ea. Bald on the crown of the head, 

Ce^ga. of men. 

Ce<Jra. J 

Cedre. To turn up, as the edge of a 

knife made of soft steel, or as the 

end of a walking stick. 

Bama oedreXa. The naU (of the toe) wiU be 
reflexed (by ooming in contact with some- 

Binthi oedfeSna. The edge of the knife has tur- 
ned back. 

Cedro bedro. 
Cedro cedro. 
Cedro pedro. J 

Noa ghas oedroena. This grass is of nneqnal 
height (having been nneqnally eaten by 

Cedro oedrove hoyoena. He has not been 
flayed clean. 

Cehao. To warn, to be conscious, to 
be circumspect, to be cautious, to 
be on the alert. 

Knkmnte Isor (bene oehaoente. Being warned 
of God in a dream. 

Cehel cepel. Flovdng in full flood, a 
large expanse of flowing water ; 
brimful, overflowing. 

Ceher bedei. \Noise made when sift- 
Ceher pete6. j ing with the hataK (q. v.) 

C^her pete6 oaoleko rel o^oka. 

Rough, uneven, in tufbs. 

Cehra.\ Countenance, expression of 
Cehera j face, good healthy looking, heal- 
thy body or mind, as indicated by 
the expression of the fetce. 

Cehra b^nnlctaea, mnlinenae. He has lost his 

good looks, he is sad. 
Cehra do bae fielolkana. He is not looking weU. 

(he may be suffering in mind or body.) 

C6lc. 1 Squeal of some animals, or call 
C66. J of some kinds of birds. 

Ceka. What to do, what to happen. 

Cei!em cekalia P What will yon do to meP 
Cetid oekalaP What will happen to meP 
CekaXkan ooe. What is ailing him. 
Cei h5 bako oekaea. They wm do nothing. 
Cele oekaKkanae P What is happening to some 

Okoeye oekaKkanaP What is happening to 


Ceka leka. Like what, like how, in 
what way. 

Ceka lekali oohko. I do not know what they 
may do to me. 

Cekan. What sort. 

Cekan disom ooh. 
Cekange 00x1. 

Cekan lekan. Of what sort, like what. 

C!ekan lekan hof kan ooe. I do not know what 
kind of a man he is. 

Cekate. How, in what manner, why. 

Cekate nnkin manwaUd ^snlkina P How shaU 
we supply the necessaries of life to these 
two human beinffs P 

Cekate hale bah ologroKaP Why wiU it not 
write (or be writtcmP ) 

Cela. A disciple, a pupiL 

Celakefkoad. I made them disciples. 

CelaA. An earthen cooking pot, 

Tukuo oelah. Pots and pans. 

Celcekedl Shallow, nat; land formed 

Celcetei. I by silt. 

Cele. Who, what (animate) ; perhaps, 

possibly; I presume (asking a 

question), is it so ? 

CeleaeaP Who is heP What is his nameP 

Cele kanae P Eul. What is it P A tiger. 

CelCj arh5 pase tayom daram botor menal P Is 

it so, perhaps there is fear for the future P 
lii do in%X dinge cele ser tahSkantirta. Possibly 

food was allotted to me for that number of 

days, (duration of life fixed.) 
Cele, daka utuhoeSna, se baiiP Is the food 

cooked, or is it not yet (cooked) P 
CeleU benaokoa? What beings shaU I make pen 
Cele cekatem cekaena? How did what hapP 

to you P 
Celel coe hapen bah ba^aeoSkana. It is not 

known what it may turn out (whether a^ 

cock or a hen.) 

Cele6. Who, what. 

U oelei^ hor me€rege bail sahoplena onatili go 6- 
ena. I could not be oontieuned in the eyea 
of some one, and so I died. 


I 95 ] 

Cerka bherka 

Celhe. To cast longing eyes on, to 
look at covetingly. 

Men. hnn^^e oelheeCpea. Look ont, the wolf 
DBLS ma eye upon yoa. 

Celko melko. Wanton, flirting, smart, 
putting on airs to attract the at- 
tention of the opposite sex ; ap- 
lied only to females. 

Kni kofi do cedale oelko melko bafaekanaeP 
Why does this girl go flirting about P 

Cemai To be proficient, to master 
anything, such as carpentery, dan- 
cing, &C. 

Ehnb oemalakafoe. He has mastered it (dan- 
^ oing) yery weU. 

Cemcerem. Full, brimful. 

Datt do gofa pnkhri oemoerem pere^ ppofena. 
The tank was at onoe fiUed to the bnm with 

Cemded. C£ censed. 
Cemed. A mongoose. 
Cemer cemer. Quickly. 
Cemkei. Tidy, clean, trim, preposses- 
sing, of young women only. 

Cemoy. ") Applied to timbers that 
Cimor. j do not readily split ; hard, 

Noa kat ^i oemofa. This timber is difficult 
to split. 

Cempot A miser, a hoarder. 

Marah oempo^ kanae. He is a great miser. 

Cedced. Over salted. 

Ce^ka bape ntakefp b^fi^^pe oeiloelike^ do. 

How haye ^rou oooked the utaP (q. y.) yon 

haye made it yery salt. 
JahSkhonili hijnKa, adoe eger daramida cell oeli . 

Come from where I may she meets one with 

her oyer salted tongue. 

CedcedaoM. C£ chedchedaok. 

Cen^akora. A lad about fifteen or six- 
teen years of age, a hobbledehoy. 

Cended. Bare, as a foot path, or as 
barren soil on which nothing grows. 
Cen baL 1 

Cenge bai. 

Cenghi bai. Colic. 
Chei^ha bai. 1 
Chenghe bai. J 

Cenga patha. Colicky pain in the 

Cengef.')C£ dam cetgei, and dum 
CengotS. J cenge£. 
Ceodeo. Cf, cered. 

Cepa. A piece of turf. 
Cepe. Flat, flattened. 

Cepe mu. Flat-nosed. 

Cepe6. 1 To suck, as one does an or- 
Copo6. J ange. 

Gidr^ oepe^adea. I gaye it to the child to 

Chnohi (l^eiigare ffntnkateye oei>e6adea. He 

pnt it on a reea and put it to his lips. 

Ceperei. C£ cere6. 

Cepra. "j 

Cepre. VFlat, flattened. 

Ceprot. J 

I'en oepreSna. It is crashed flat. 
LaK oepraeme. Cut it flat. 

Cepre. A kind of earring. 
Cepre. Flat-nosed, flat flattened. 
Cepre6, Pug-nosed, flat-nosed. 
Cepre mud. A species of ant. 
Ceprot. Flat, flattened. 

Ceprot m!i. Png-nosed. 

Cera cera. Hard, firm, in large masses. 

Jon^ra cefa oefako dakaea. They cook the In- 
dian corn into Inmps. 

CeiX5a. Undersized, stunted, small 

Cercet;e6. Sparks to fly, as when thorus 
.are burning, or when iron at 
white heat is hammered. 

Terel sahan tihgilekhan ceroeteioKa. If terel 
(q. y.) is pot on the fire sparks will fly out. 

Cercetei. A lizard. 

Cerda ce^xla. Hard, firm, in large 

Enil^ cerda cerda tioroKkana. The coal falls 
down in large masses (haying been nnder- 

C6r6.. A bird. 

CSrS oiprn^. Birds in general. 

Cere6. To amuse a child. 

CerejoK kanae. He is amnsing himself. 

Cerem cerem. Brimful 

Cered. ") Shrill, discordant scor- 

Cered cered. J ching, as the sun's rays. 

Bered (q. y .) cered cerelie raKeda. The oaJi of 

the rered is shrill. 
Oered cerede setoheda. The son's rays are 


Cerka bherka. Idling, not attending 
to one's duty (appUed to children) ; 

Ce^em cerka bherka baraekana P What are yon 
doing when yon shoald be minding yonr 


[ 96 ] 


I } 

To dress the hair. 


N^kio oS^kotenaa. She has dressed her hair by 

Cerko^ cerkol The call of the Kokor, 
Ephialtes pennatus, the Scops 

Cero. Sun grass, Imperata arun- 
dinacea, Cyr. 

Cerobero. To twitter, as birds ; applied 
also to the chatter of children. 

Cerobero kisniko raga. 

Certha.\Refreshed, to be in good con- 
Cetha. J dition physically ; convales- 

Pahra doe cethaena. The ox has reooyered his 

Cesta. ■) To attempt, endeavour, apply 
Testa. / oneself to, search, seek. 

Cet h5 bam oestaabon kana, jomaK b^nuKanah. 
Yon are making no endeayonrs for us, there 
is no food. 

Cel To learn, to teach. 

Cepe£. To consult together. 

Cel What. 

Ce£ h5 bah. Nothing at all. 
Ce£ ce£. V\rhether or. 

Citar. 1 ^^'^^V' niggardly. 
CetaK. To slap. 

Ge^Kmeaii nahaM. I shall giye yon a slap 

Cetame, What, how. 

Cetame emolae, b^nntf taekhan ? What will he 
giye yon if he has nothing? 

Cetan. Upper, above, on, concerning. 

Cetan lintnm. A nickname, a by name. 

Noa katha oetanregre menaKtakoa. They are al> 

ways speaking about this matter. 
Daka oetanreA asulkedea. I brought him up 

plentifully supplying all his wants, (he was 

reared on the top of boiled rice, i. e. he 

had not to seek it.) 
Taka poesa oetanreko senakana. They haye 

gone to where money can oe had. 

Cetao. To warn, to regain conscious- 

Unkinkin oetaoenkhan lah^a lah^ii^ oromente 
' a4i lajaokin ^ik^ukeda. When they regain- 
ed consciousness and knew that they were 
naked they were greatly ashamed. 

Cetaona. Warning. 
Citar.J^^^^'^y' hard, niggardly. 

4^1 oetargeae, bae emoKa. He is yery miserly 
he won't giye. 

p . . * > What thing, something. 

Ceta€e liamkana, nm doe Jiumh tiumhoKkan ? 
Oeta6 h5 bah. Nothing at all, beneath one's 

notioe. -^ 

Noa kami ceta£ h5 bah kana. This work is not 

Ceta£ hS bah ju(^nadilia. I got nothing at all. 

Get cerei ceprel Call of the black 

partridge, Mundha^ citri2(q. v.) 

Get cet Sound of cracking, or rend- 

Get cetaKkana. It is cracking. 

Cete cete. *) Talkative, always put^g 
Ete cete, J in one's word. 

Alo sem ce^e eete baf aea. Do not keep putting 
in your word. 

Cete. Sparks, as from thorns when 
* burning. 

Ge^e cete oXe6 p^iro%kana, terel sahan do. 
Sparks fly about from terel (q. y.) firewood. 

Cete. A lizard. 

Ceter. A thunder bolt. 


Ge^er dhiri. An aerolite. 

Dare but^re aJope umuloKa, ce^ere dura. Do 

not take shelter underneath a tree, it may 

be struck by lightning. 

Cethre6. A rag. 

Cefleka. How, as, in what manner. 

79n4i real sikiom baha aribandhipe, cefleka 
haraKkana. Gonsider the lillies of the field 

how they grow, 


Kul ce{ lekae dafeana, hof onka do bah. 
haye not the strength of tigers. 

Ce^ lekan. What kind ; what sort. 

Nui do ce^lekan hof kan ooe, ona do ohod men 
daf elea. I cannot say what sort of a man 
this is. 

Ge£ lekan it^ coe ^gnadid, erkedad, ado bah 
omonlena. I can't say what sort of seed 
he brought, I sowed it, and it did not germin- 

Ce^ lekate. How, in what manner. 

GeClekatem paromena, ma se l^ad me. Tell 

me how you crossed. 
Id do bad bujh^u dafeaKkana, ce€ lekate com 


CewaK. To chop or break, to cut 
through by chopping. 

GewaK goilkam. Ghop it off. 

Cewak. 1 To do, used when finding 
Cedak. J feiult. 

Ge£em cewaKkana ? What are you doing ? 
Okarem cewaXkan tahekana? Where, and in 
what mischief were you P 


[ 97 ] 


Cewei. To break, to snap. 

Par oewe6 gof ena. The branch snapped. 
Kathako ceweokeda. They put an end to the 

Cha. Tea. Cf. ca. 
Chaba. To print, to stamp. 
Chabha. A small earthen ware pot. 
Chabi. A picture, a likeness. 

ChachaK.\To break, tear ; to tear into 
Chackak./shreds, or tattei-s. 

Noa dare reaK sakam ohachaK oabaena. The 
leares of this tree are in tatters. 

Sakam (a^i chaohaMkedae arelte. The hail 
struck and broke the leaves into pieces. 

Kiorioem ohaohaKeda. Ton are tearing the 
• cloth. 

Cha^. ^ Allowable, permissable, not for- 
Char. / bidden, free, exempt. 

£n^ekhan hoponko doko oha^gea. Then are 

the children exempt. 
OnkoaK chaijl ho cabaena. Their license also 

has expired. 
Bo^Kre oha^gea. There is an exemptioxi 

daring iUness. 

Chada, ^Exempting, omitting, be- 
Chadakate.f side. 

Noako joto cha4a. Beside all these. 
Elak cha^a. Free, exempt. 

Ghada cha^i. To separate, as a hus- 
band and wife. 

Oh^n^. A hnsband separated from his wife. 
Ch^dwi. A wife separated from her husband. 

Chadakate. Exempting, omitting, be- 

Chada mela. Sometimes, at times, 
by fits and starts, now and then. 

Cha^a melali pafhaotfa. I go sometimes to 

Chadao. To deliver, set free, let go, 
separate, remove. 

ChaK^ao dam. A ransom. 
Bae cha^aotf a. He wiU not let go (will not be 
shaken off.) 

ChadaodL Solatium, or damages paid 
by the party in fault to the other 
on a divorce. 

Chadbid. Sometimes, at times, now 
and then. 

Gha^bi^iti jofaoea. I yoke him now and 

Chadi6. Instead of, in place of 

Jahga ch^ic rehe£e gerakafo. Instead of the 
foot he has bitten the root. 

Chadua. "> A husband separated from 
Chadwa. J his wife. 

Chadui.\A wife separated from her 
Chadwi./ husband. 



Chae marte a2ije{ gofena. It dried up quickly 

Chae.l A place mentioned in the tra- 
Cae. J oitions of the Santals. 

Chae. Bad luck, unlucky, ill-starred. 

Chae paraoadea. He is iU-starred. 

Un^Ke jome€reh5 bae motaKkana chaege pa- 
faoaeicana. Although he eats so much he 
does not get fat, he puts it into an ill skin. 

Chae. Mischievous, tricky. 

Chae mara gidr^. An imp of mischief. 

Chae balae. 1 njr. n 

Chai balal j Miscellaneous. 

Sar^om do ball maga, chae balaeili maga. 
I wiU not cut * sarjom' trees, I will cut of aU 
other kinds. 

Chae chae.|Hissing sound, as of escap- 
Sae sae. J ing steam ; to sing, as a 
kettle before boiling. 

Chae chae. Quickly, rapidly. Cf chae. 

Ohie chae alije6go£ena. It dried up quickly. 

Chaela juan. A strong, well grown, 
healthy youth. 

Salo M^djhi, Sale M^dihi, kaesana m^nus, 
Salo M^fihi, Salo M^lijhi chaela ju^n. 

p, • .' \ Not ; a scornftil negative, 

Ch^iledali ^elledall. I did not see it. 

Chaila. Cf chalia. 

• • • • 

ChailaU. A chip of wood, or shaving. 

Baondae jokheo ch^ilQkK cha4%uKa. VHien one 
planes the shavings fly. 

Chaili. A small tree, Morindaiinc- 
toria, RoQcb,, the roots of which 
yield a red dye. 
Chakacun. *) To shatter to pieces, to 
Chakacur. J shiver to atoms, to pul- 
verise, to break. 

Lebe€ chakacunke€taeako. They trampled it 

to pieces. 
Bapu€ chakacunena, noa b^-ti do. This ba^i 

(q. V.) is broken into fragments. 
Dal chakacunkedae. He shiyered it to atoms. 

Chaka chun. ") In pieces, shivers, atoms; 
Chiki chun. J to pulverise, to reduce 
to powder. Cf chakacun. 

Dal chakachunkedae. He shivered it to at- 
Chaka chunena. It is pulverised. 

Chakao. To separate by straining, or 

Ape kSya »?yurko do sikrii^ chakao giK<?iko, 
menkhan ?i^ hotfiigorko. Ye blind pruides 
which strain out a gfnat, but swallow a 

ChaS chak 

I 98 ] 


ChaU chaK. Guzzling, or gobbling 
sound, as of a pig when eating. 

Chakmak. 1 a flnt 
Chakmaki. J 

Chakmakia. Spruce, well developed 
in person, and good looking ; pre- 

Chakop. \ The noise made by smacking 
Cakop. / the lips. 

Chal. Skin, bark ; to skin. 

Chala. Panniers. 

Paiirako ohalaakoa. They put panniers on 

Chala badla. A pack bullock. 
Chalak chalak. Quickly, industriously. 

Chalak ohalake oalaKkana. 
Chalak chalake k^mikana. 

Chalak chandori. A lascivious woman. ; 
employing artifices to attract the 
notice of the male sex. 

Chalak chandori ba^aekanae. 

Chalchalao. To be parted, as water by 
the prow of a ship ; to skim along 
the surface to, sweep on, as a river 
in flood ; to go about without 
purpose ; to cut through the water, 
as fish. 

Chalchalia. Strong, plump, healthy 
looking child. 

Gidi>9khnb ohalch^liae lieloXa. The ohild looks 
fine and healthy. 

Chale. Scum lising to the surface of 
any liquid. 

Toa ohale. Cream. 

Chale. Cataract ; also applied to blind- 
ness from corneal opacity. 

Chale b^isfnakawadea. He nas cataract. 

Chalia. A game played by children. 

Th^ri daKre chalchalao chalkao oalaSa. The 
brass plate cuts the water as it skims along. 

Noa darhare bako chal chalao ba^affako. 

Tin^K daK? A^i chalchalao caiaKkana. How 
much water ? There is a flood. 

Noi hof doe chalchalao bafaea. This man goes 
wandering about. 

Chalkao. To pare, to skim ; oblicjuely. 

Chalkaokateti dalea. I will strike him ob- 

DaK cetanre th^ri chalkao calao godoSa. The 
tb^ri (q. Y.) wiU skim along the water. 

Chamak. 1 To shew off, to 

Charaak chamak. J attract notice. 

Chamak. Tinkle, sound made by toe 
rings when the wearer walks. 

Chamak chamak khub sa4ea. 

Chamar. A semi- Aboriginal caste who 
deal in hides and make shoes. 

Cham cham. Sound produced by toe 
rings when the wearer walks. 

Cham cham. Quickly, industriously. 

Cham ohame k^mikana. He works weU. 

Chamda. A temporary erection made 
to accommodate guests. 

Chan. To va,nish, to disappear. 

Unkin (hen khone ohan go£ena. He vanished 
out of their sight. 

Chanchan. ") Burning, stinging. 
Chan chanao. / smarting, as pain. 

Ghao ohanchanaolkantaea. His wound smarts. 
Chan ohan haso. A stinging, or burning pain. 

Chanda. To hobble a horse or cow. 

Sadom laha jahgako ohandakoa. They hobble 
the fore legs of horses. 

Chanda baber. A hobble. 
Chan. A large sized cymbal. 

Eortal. A small cymbal. 

Chan chan. Tinkling ; to tinkle. 

Chah ohaiiolkan kortal lekaakanali. I am as 
a tinkling cymbal. 

Chani. To strain out, to intercept by 

Gnrte£ do ph^ti^ttre ch%ni tahena. The gur 
will be mteroepted and remain in the sieve. 

Kicrieteli oh^niketkoa, hako do. I caught the 
fish with cloth (the water strained through 
and left the fish.) 

Cha^ }to print, to seal. 

Chapar dale. Saline water, of which 
cattle are fond. 

Chapar daM. Liquor, of which the Santals are 

Chapilman. To flow, to overflow, to 
flood, inundate. 

G^ gota oh»pilmanako. The oows wiU spread 

all over {the field.) 
Ch^pilmanke^lea. Attacked us all (ferer, Ae.) 

Chapkao. To crouch, to keep out of 

Chapkaote. Seeretly, stealthily. 
Kule chapkaoakana. The tiger is crouching. 
Oka se6 luion coh chapkao chapkaoteye he^ena. 
He oame orouohing from somewhere. 

Chaplau. To overflow, to flood, to in- 

Pohoko oh%pl%u ^gueda. The locusts are flood- 
ing (the count^.) 


[ 99 ] 


Chapri. A hut, a roo£ 
Char. Suddenly, at once. 

Char mente ge€enali. I was out instantly. 

Char. A cattle pen, a sheep fold. 

Mirni^ Ro^e^ko ohaf a |r^ dohoko l%gi€. They 

tor the oattle. 

Ch^ I ^'-'®*^®> license, a peipnit. 

Sener mif l^gifko oh^faflea. They gaye us a 
permit to out rafters. 

Chara. C£ cha^a. 

Cbarao. To spread, to increase, to 
grow larger. 

D^ gota hof more oharaoena. The skin disease 
has spread over all the body. 

Charkat;. To waste, to squander. C£ 

Chaqra. Shot for gun. 
Chat A Hindu ^tival observed in 

Ch&t To separate, to pare, clip, lop. 
Chat. A roof. 

Chat. \ 

Chat chat. [Quickly, suddenly, easily. 

Chat marte.J 

Noa ohnrite chat ohat gedolkana. It outs easily 
with this kmfe. 

Chata. A honey comb. 

Cha^ To separate, to wander or leave 
home under the influence of a spir- 
it or demon, to be influenced by 
a spirit or demon. 

Nni b^nJaha cha|a oalaoenae, okate ooh. 
Birre pongel mfih&e oha^a ooolkan tahSkana. 

Chata. A Hindu festival observed on 
the last day of Bhador (q. v.) said 
to have been originated by Eamars 
(q. v.), and observed by some 
Chatak.|^A measure, both liquid and 
Chotak, J dry, about two ounces. 

Chatao. To prune, plane, pare, level. 

P^r ohatao gi^ikam. Prone away the branches. 

Chatar. An umbrella. 

ChatSjr. A framework attached to the 
rafters on which the thatch is 

Chat chat C£ chat 

• • • 

Chat chat *> Suffering greatly, parched; 
Chat pat J diligent. 

Chat ohat dal tetafiedirtkana. 
Chat chat ^kf olkana. 

Chati. The breast. 

Chatiar. A cel-emony observed as a 
cleansing^ from ceremonial defile- 

Janam oh^ti^i^' A ceremony by which the 
members of a Tillage and house in which a 
child has been bom are rendered cere- 
monially clean. In the case of a male child 
it is observed five days after birth, and ol 
a female three davs. The child is named 
and admitted to the priyileges of the society 
of its relatiyes. 

Caoo ch9ti%i'* A ceremony which is observed 
any time before marriage. It seems to be 
the admission of the child to full privileges 
as a member of the Santal oonununily. At 
the same time there is ^e idea of purifica- 
tion connected with it. At the close of the 
ceremony the following formula is repeated* 
**We appeal to you five men, we were 
black like crows, now we are white as tiie 
white paddy birds, you five men are our 
witnesses." Marriage cannot take place 
before the observance of this ceremony, 
and any one dying before its observance is 
not accorded the privilege of having his 
** jah baha " taken to the Damuda river. 

Chf ^^ h^n^i. Bice beer given by the Jog 
M%lijhi (q. v.) to the villagers at the close 
of the Sohrae (q. v.) feeti'^d. This is a sign 
that the license allowed to the young men 
and maidens during the festival has termi- 
nated, and that any ceremonial defilement 
they may have contracted is removed. 

Chatik. Of all kinds. 

Is^i hof do cb^tik j%t jote€ reaSko joma. The 
Christians eat what all castes have touched 

Chatka. \Door from the court yard 

Cha|JLa duar. j into the street. 

Chatkan. \ Quick, industrious, hard 
Chatkani./ working. 

Chatna.l Top, highest point, pinnacle, 
Chatni. / used most frequently of trees. 

Bum ch^tnire. On the highest point of the. 

Ma€ ch^tnire. On the top of the bamboo. 

Chatni A timber tree, AUtonia 
echolaria, R, Br. 

Chatpat;. Restless ; quickly. 

« A^ chatpat gidr^ kanae. He is a restless child 
(always getting into mischief.) 
A4ijd us^raea chatpat. 

Chatpatao. To be restless, toss about, 
writhe, to be disquieted. 

Nui do rehge^te chatpataoffkanae. He is rest- 
less through hunger. 

Kidiiikatkome torkedeteye chatpataol kana. 
He is writhing through having been stung 
by a soorpion. 

Chatpatia. Restless ; always in mischief 
ChatrL A caste of Hindus. 


t 100 ] 


Chatri. A caste. 

Is^iko hecakana, mi£ oh^tribon I^gif. The 
Christians have oome to make na aJl of tlie 
same oaste. 

Chau chau. In crowds, numerous, much, 
many, a great deal; a confused 
noise as when many people are 

Gh^n oh^n hof menaKkoa. They are in crowds. 
Onte note khnbko rofkedilSa, ch^u oh^u. They 

badgered me from aU sides. 
Oh^n oh^nko afisakada. 

Chauni. Encampment, resting place 
when on a journey, lodgings, a tent, 
a roof. 

Ched be6. To the fiiU, to satiety. 

Che6 bedko jomkeda. They ate to satiety. 

Checha. A torch. Cf. cecha. 

Chechor.l t\- r j* . i x • i 

Cechor' l-^isobedient, unruly, tncky, 

p •' j mischievous. 

Ched. The fii-st day of the Hindu fes- 
tival Das^ on which bufiGedoes 
are sacrificed. 

Chedam. One fourth of a pice. 

ChSk. Smarting, burning, nipping. 

Ohek marte lo go^enali. 

Unal^ atteye rof kedilia chSk marteli ^ik^akeda. 

Chedchao. To flog, chastise. 

Alom halbaloKa, ohelichaomeali nahatf. Do 
not be naughty, I shall flog yon presently. 

Cheiiched. Hissing sound produced 
by dipping hot iron in water ; tink- 
ling sound, as that of cracked 
cymbals, or steel struck by steel. 

Cheii chenabK.1 To scold in a high shrill 
Cericenaok. j voice, said only of 

Oedaffem chelichetiaoKkana? 

Chenc^hao. *) m j. 

Chin|au. I To separate. 

Cheo. To slice, to graze, to scotch, to 
wound, to bruise. 

MaK oheo otokalia. They out and wound me. 
Chcpko. \ 

Chepra. j^Low, small of stature, defici- 
Ccpre. j ent in height. 
Ceprot. j 

Chopra kumb^. A low booth. 

Ba^r dom chepko lioKkeda. Ypn haye made 

the door a little low. 
Noncic ohopkogea, onje usulgea. It is low here, 

and high there 

Cher. To melt. 

N^inlL oherteko |^toma. By melting bntter 
they make gh%, 

Chi ■) Shame ! fie ! indicates scorn, 
Chi chi J disgust, disapprobation, 
shock, reprehension, scandalized. 

Chi ohi ! lajao h5 bam ^ik^ae€, kuf i hopon h5 
darekorem ooga baraekan. Fie! fle! are 
^ou not ashamed? girls also are climbing 
mto trees. 

Chia^tiliae daka do. 

Chia. *) Ough ! ugh ! indicates loathing* 
Chiare. J abomination, nausea. 

Chi^ ehla ! noa do alom joteda. 
Chiare I X^ui gidr^ i6 sene <»laXkana. 

Chialc. Low, mean, despicable, contemp- 

Uni do ohi^Kgeye metakoa. He despises them. 

Chi ban. To deny, to feel disgust, or 
contempt for. 

lAiA chibahkedea. I feel oomtempt for her. 

(I haye denied her.) 
A6e chi bahoKma. Let him deny himself. 

Chik chok. Bright, plump, looking 
glossy as the skin of a well fed 
and well groomed horse. 

Chik chok motaakanae, sadom do. The borsa 

is fat and glossyskinned. 
Chik chok serma. The bright heavens. 

Chikican.'jTo break into pieces, to 
Chikicun. |- scatter ; to be strewn a- 
Chitican. J bout. 

Botol do ohikicunena. The bottle is shiyered 
to pieces. 

Chilbilau. To, rush hither and thither, 
to be excited ; panic struck. 

Hako botorteko chilbil^aena. The fish dart 

about through fright. 
Arhoko ai5jomko£teko chilbil^n go^ena. When 

they again heard it they became excited. 

Chilkau. To spill, splash, wash over. 

Pheoko l^nk^re chilk^a boloKkana. The 
waves are washing over into the boat. 

Chimbri, Applied to the unripe pods 
of hore<5 (q. v.), ghangra (q. v.) and 

mnhg (q. V.) which do not shed their seeds 
under the flail ; to the pieces, called cloves, 
into which a bulb of garlic separates ; to 
pieces of the foUowing vegetables when cut 
up lengthwise : behgaf (q. v.), kundri (q. v.), 
karla (q. v.) taher (q. v.) and kohn^a 
(q. V.) ; to the pieces of the rind of the 
knii^i (q. V.) when out up for cooking ; also to 
individual fruits of the muiifa (q. v.) (muh- 
ga su(i) tree ; one of a bunch or cluster, as 
one fruit of a bunch of plantains, or one 
pod of a cluster of pods. 

Chin. China. 

Chin disom. The country of China. 
Chin sim' Guinea fowl. 


[ 101 ] 


Chin. Appearance, shape, form, bodily 
representation, disguise, semblance, 

Manwa ohinedi^. He has the form of a man. 

(He ia in human form.) 
Hof ohinteye heolena. He oame in the likeness 

of a man. 

Chinar. A harlot, a prostitute. 

Ado noK5e mal do ape satate leaf &K coh, khor- 
hal ooh, dfriX coh, chin^roX ooii, ona do 

Chinci punci.l All, everything, every 
Cinci punci. J vestige, in pieces. 

Chinm pnnoi iSam iSamtejre idi oabakeda. He 
carried away every thing. 

Chindau. To unravel, arbitrate, judge, 

Khapkhap ohin^^utakome. Judge them right- 

Chindel. "} To pass over, to leave un- 
Cindel. J touched, to scamp work; 
carelesslv, inefficiently. 

Tuff m^lid ohinjelaepe. Leave a few ears for the 

Jom chindel liedeako. They gave him nothing 

to eat while they ate themselves. 
Ir chinijLelkedako, They have reaped all round 

and left this. 
Chindel ohin^elteko kamikeda. They have 

scamped the work. 

Chingau. To separate, td stray, to 
wander, to be lost. 

Mi€ gotece ohing^nlenkhan. If one be lost. 
Ching^uanakin. They have strayed. 

Chiagi bai. Cf. cen bai. 

Chini. A cold chisel. 

Chio choko. Slowly, deliberately. 

Ohio chokoe calaSkana. He goes slowly. ' 

Chip. Highest point, top pinnacle, as 
of a tree or steeple. 

Chipi. A shallow brass dish. 

Chirchatur. To scatter. 

Chirha chirhi. Increasing ; violently. 

Chir hako. Small fish, small fty. 

Chif hakole go6ke€koa. Wo caught small fry. 

Chiriau. To disperse, to scatter. 

G^i ^iko chiri^nena. The cows are widely 

Chiri biri \Into small pieces, to split 
Ciri biti. /into thin slips. 

Chiri biri afaKko geda. The^ cut greens into 
small pieces (before oookmg.) _ 

Chit Spotted, variegatedf, coloured, 

Chitkiorid'. Chintz. 

Chitau. To spread sheaves on the 
threshing floor for the grain to be 
trodden out by cattle. 

Chi tho. To feel disgust or scorn. 

Onko ofaXid ohi thoaka£a. 

Chitia bitia. To scatter, to strew, to 
throw about. 

Chitiau. To scatter, to strew, to mpread. 

m tulud bah sasamtaoid doe chiti^oa. He that 
gathereth not with me soattereth. 

Chits chan. To pulverise, break to 
pieces, shiver to atoms. 

Chitir bitir. To be scattered, strewn 
about, dispersed. 

Hof ko chitir bitirena. The people are scattered. 

Chitkau. To sprinkle. 

Chut me^aoa mente holoh daffko ohitkauakoa, 
nartare. For the purpose of cleansing they 
sprinkle floar and water on the people 
when observing the narta (q. v.) 

Chikisa. Careful attendance or nurs- 

Chikisaem tobe khane balicaoXa. Nurse him 
oarefuUy and he will recover. 

Chi|;klri6. A switch. 

Chitra phutau. To break into pieces, 
to smash up, to clear, as forest. 

"fUtjn iiamtege birko chitr^ phu^^ukeda. They 

have cleared all the jungle. 
Sanam chitr^ phu^^uena. It is broken to 


]$am fiamte Dikuko dobo chitr% phut^ukoa. We 
will sweep the Hindus from off the face of 
the earth (said by the Santals in the rebel- 

Chitta. Shot fpr gun. 

Ch5c. To smear, daub, to plaster. 

Gurid is to smear ?nth the hand, and ohSo is to 
do so bv means of a wisp of straw or piece 
of cloth. 

Ch5c gobor. To smear vrith cow dung. 

Chole I Fraud, deception, knave- 

Choi kopot. j ^' ^'^^^^ subterfuge. 

' Choleteko sapkedea. The caught him by artifice. 

Chonda. A boy. 

Chondatia. A boy of fi*om 12 to 14 
years of age. 

Chon4 kora. M. ^ A boy of from 10 to 
Chond kuri F. J 

8 to 10. 

12, a girl of fiom 

Chondro. ") A lad, stripling, fix>m 14 to 
Chan(j[ru. / 16 years of age. 

Chod goijio go^o 

t 102 ] 


Chon godo go^o. Sound of frizzling, 

Ch5nt Band to bind a sheaf. 

Chontal. To fly off, to spring back, to 
rebound, to leave. 

Ch%il^I pharalrte ohontal go6exia. The ohips 
flew to a distance. 

Aotege chontal goieoA, She (yoiing wife) left 

(her husband's house) of her own free wiU. 

Chorkate. Excepting, omitting, beside. 
Chorkot To spend, waste, squander. 

Sanam cii b^utem ohorko^keda. You 8qaan> 
dered all your property. 

Chorwad. To pain, to cause mental 
pain, to hurt one's feelings by 
bitter, spiteful words. (Used 
mainly by women.) 

Efiror chorwaheali. 

Chot. Time. 

Mi£ chot. Once. 
Bar ohot. Twice. 
Pe oho(. Thrice. 

Ch5t Bands to bind sheaves when 

Chotak. A chittak, one sixteenth of 
a seer. 

Chotor. A cloth umbrella. 
Chtic. A needle. 

Chu6. To bum, burning, piping hot ; 
to smart, as firom the sting of a 

Sehgelteye ohuokedilia. 
Cha^ mente. Pricking. 

Chuchandar. Hancre ; specific sore. 

Chuchkar. To speak kindly to to al- 
lay fear or suspicion, to coax. C£ 

Gidra h5ko chnchk^koa. They coax children 

Chuchuku£. Used as a kind of spell 
when children choke through some- 
thing going down the wrong way. 

If a boy the mother pats him on the head and 
savs " ohaohnku€, sendra t^giyepe*' (oha> 
onKuf, wait to take him to the hunt) ; and 
if a girlj while patting her on the head she 
says " chachaka£, af aK si£ tahgiye^ (chn- 
chnknf , wait for her to go pot herb pickLng), 
or *' daK lo tah^yepe*' (or wait for her to go 
to bring water.) 

Chuci. A reed, a bobbin made from a 
reed on which thread is wound for 
the weaver. 

Chu<}a. 1 To beat, or drive game in the 
Chuijar. I direction of an ambush, or 
Chular. j where the sportsmen are 
Churar. J waiting. 

Nni knl chnl^ idiepe, b^ndki^ sen. Drive this 
tiger towards the man with the gun. 

Chuk chuk. Bright, glossy, clean, 
smooth, beautiful. 

Nni sadom chnk ohuke cikSpa. This horse is 

smooth and glossy. 
Bill real bhni do chnk chnk oikifa. Th» 

snake's hole is (worn) smooth. 

Chular. Cf chu<}%r. 
ChundL A girl. 

ChupL A large hat made of leaves 

Einned together, to protect the 
ead and shoulders during rain. 

Chur. To choke, C£ chuchukufi. 

When anything goes down the wrong way they 
say, some one is either scolding me, or say- 
ing something against me. 

Chur. A track in the jungle, as of 
wild animals or cattle. 

Churar. C£ chucjL^. 
Churi. A knife. 

Churu6. ■) To put down or give in small 
Curu6. J quantity. 

Chut. Ceremonial uncleanness. 

Ghnt paf aoadilia. . I have become nndean. 

Chut metao. To cleanse ceremonially. 

AmaX dhorom mondirko chntaka€a. They 

have defiled thy holy temple. 
Chnt mnkntenale. We are clean from oeremo* 

nial defilement. 

Chuta. Free, disengaged, unemployed, 
superfluous, not in use, unbetro- 

Nni knfi doe chnt9gea. This girl is not betro- 
Nni hor dpe chnt^gea, k^mi bfnnXtaea. 

Chuta chuti. Separated, divorced. 

Ohut^ chntienakin. They are divorced. 

Chutau. To escape, to be let loose, ta 
begin, leave, cease ; to get loose, to 
be dismissed, to be lost, to be ex- 

As chnt^n. To despair, to lose hope. 
Bn^ chut^nentaea. His fever has left him. 
Dadale ohntanena. He began to strike. 
Disom hof do Parganako chut^ukedea. Th» 

people of the country (Santals) dismissed 

ihePargana(q. v.) 

Ka4a okare cole chutau ocokedea. We have 

lost the buffalo somewhere. 
K^mire ^iye ohutlkuX a. He is an expert (or 

hard) worker. 


I lOS ] 


Chuti. Leave, permission, dismissal. 

Iskid fn<^^oe ohati^ef koa. He dismlBsed the 

school children. 
L^i ohatien&li. I have had my say (and am not 

now responsible.) 
Ce6ko katha menaKtama, ma l^i ohntil^me. 

Make a clean breast of what yon have to 

L^ chutialime, tvl^x Johali. Tell me to go and 

I shall retnm. 

Chutki, A second wife. 

B^tiid* The first, or chief wife. 
ChutHakawanae. He has married a second 

Cia. To spy, to search for. 

ifiel fld^om, menaMkoa, seko baiui. Go and 

spy and see if there are any. 
Oi% ^giilekome. Go find them and come and 

tell OS. 

a&p ciap. Cheeping of chickens, 

Cicuri cipi curi. Call of the Uri6 (q. 
V.) and certain other small birds. 

Cidir. Diarrhoea, pur^g. 

Bee ci^ir. Vomiting and purging. 

Ciga cage. Straddling. 

Giga oageye dafankana. He goes straddling. 

Cigari. To mock. 

(Sg^riadeako. They mocked him. 

Cigi. To be impaled through the fun- 
dament, to force up the funda- 

Don go€kedae, cigi godenae. 

Cigi Tudu. A sub-sept of the Santal 
sept Tudu (q. v.) 

The origin of the Sub^ept Chigi is said to hare 
been as follows : — Two brothers worked in 
the fields and their two sisters brought them 
tiieir mid-day meal. On the way home the 
girls were in the habit of diresting them- 
selves of their clothes and jumping into a 
tank to bathe. The brothers were so scan- 
dalised that they fixed stakes in the water, 
and when the next day the girls jumped in 
as usual, they were impaled on the stakes. 

Ciguri. An apparatus for raising heavy 
beams, when beyond the height 
to which men can reach, consist- 
ing of two poles crossed at the top 
and securely tied ; used also as a 
support for beams. 

Ciharao. Cf. cihr^u. 

Cihau. C£ cehao. 

Cihik. To start suddenly. 

Cihik cihike cihk^Kkana. He strarts now 
and again. 

Cihik bai. ^ Nervous spasms, twitch- 
Cihki bai. j ing, starting suddenly, 

Cihirau. To be startled, to wince, to 
start through fear. 

Cihiri 4an. A pole used to propel a 

Cihkau. To be startled, to wince, to 
start through fear, to start from 

sleep scared. 

Oihk^ Ic^redenae. He started up. 

Cihrau. To shudder, to start, one's 
hair to stand on end through fear, 
to feel disgust. Scottice, scunner. 

Cihri lamak. A variety of the large 
jungle climber, BavJivaia Vahhi, A. 

Oihri lamal is the smaQ seeded yariety. 
Phaika lamatt the large seeded variety. 

Cij. Agricultural produce, things in 

Oil basut. Agricultural produce and property. 
Ehubili cijaka£a. I have had a good harrest. 
Oij b^sutaift. I wiU acquire property. 

Cikan. "^Smooth, glossy, shiny. C£ 
Cokon. / cikar. 

Cikar. *) Oily, greasy, polished, glazed, 
Cikon. J shiny, slimy, silky, smooth , 
clean, perfect. 

Hof t^en cik&r cikafe rofa. He is silvery 

Bhit jolom cikafaka^te. He has plastered the 

waU smooth. 
OikEf cikaf ko joma. They live on the best. 
Hofmo do oikaf getakoa. Their bodies are glossy. 
4^mi> oikifenae. He is washed dean. 

Cikhna. A sign, a mark, a remem- 
brance, a memento. 

HoroM cikhn^. To betroth. Of. horot. 
Oikhn^walbne. Mark if. 
Uni hof do noa khan^a cikhnae doho otoadilia. 
He left this thing with me as a memento. 

Ciki6. Backwards, to turn back, to 
come into contact with something 

Oikid laha gofena. I missed by stroke and 

struck aoead (through my elbow coming in 

contact with something.) 
Oikio bind^fkedeae. 
Oikid ru^fenae. He turned suddenly and fied 

back the way he came. 
Oikidte liurena. He fell back in a sitting 


Cikisa. Careful attendance, or nursing. 

Cikkur. A warning call to barndoor 
fowls when a hawk or vulture is 

The fowls know the caU and run for shelter 
immediately on hearing it. 


[ 104 ] 


Cikno. The flax plant, Linum usi- 
tatissiraum, Linn, 

The flax plant does not in India vield fibre, it 
is cnitiYated purely for the oil it yields. 

Cikon. Cf. cikftr. 

Cikon cokon. Sprig, spruce, dressed 
up, prepossessing, good looking. 
Scottice, weel faur^a, 

Cil bindha. A sub-sept of the Santal 
sept HSbsdak. 

Cilim. (1) The bowl of the huka in 
which the fire and tobacco are 
placed. (2) A pig's snout. 

The cilim is often BmoKed without being placed 
in the huka. 

Cima ca^ Hobbling, raising the whole 
side with each step when walking, 
as a tortoise. 

Cimor. Cf cemo|r. 

Cimro. Cf cemor. 

Cimta. Pincers ; to seize with pincera 

Ciiicii. Just forming, as fruit ; appear- 
ing above ground, as a mushroom. 

Gilicidakana. Thenroit is just beginning to form. 

Cindal. ") A little here and a lit- 

Cindal cindal. J tie there, careless- 
ly, imperfectly ; to overlook. 

Em cintj^l. To give a little here and there. 
Er cindal. To sow a little here and there. 
Cin^^l 'oin<l%le k^mikana. He is doing his 
work imperfectly. 

Cindar candar. Artifice to attract the 
notice of the male sex ; long, sweep- 

Cinder candare calaKkana. She goes about 

giving herself airs. 
Cinder candare bandeakana. She is wearing 

her * sari' down to her feet to attract notice. 

Cindel. To pass over, to do a thing im- 
perfectly, to scamp; carelessly, 

Ir oin^el bafakedako. They haye left some 
when reaping, they have scamped the 

TuKm^lko l9gi£ko oin^el idikeda. They haye 
left some for the gleaners. 

Cindka. A small area of jungle sur- 
rounded by open country. 

Gin4k% liok birre senkateye okoena. 

Cidgul. A variety of the rice plant. 
Cinha. Cf. cikhna. 

Vestige, proof- 


Cinhi^. [To recognize, to discriminate. 


Cinha munda.' 

• • • 

Cinhe munhe. 
Cin mund. 
Cin man. 

A portion, a horn, a hoof, Ac, of an animal, 
which has been deyonred by wild boasts 
rescued and shewn to the owner as proof 

Cinman h5 bah damoXkana. Not a yestige 
eyen is forthcoming (to shew that the 
animal has been deyonred by wild beasts.) 

Cinparco. To establish relationship 
by declaring name and lineage. 

Cinoa. Thought, anxiety, concern. 

Cipa bata. The lath by which each 
row of thatch is fastened to the 
framework of the roof 

Cipa cape. *>To walk gingerly with 
Cipo copo. J short steps. 

H^ni tora calaoenae, cip9 cape. 

Cipciri^. \A common annual found in 
Cipiril J waste ground near villa- 
ges, Achyranthea aapera, Linn. 

Cipciryo]^. \ Said by a female to a 
Cipcirvu]^. I younger person when re- 
Ciryop. j turning his or her saluta- 
Ciryu]^. J tion. 

Cipoi copo6. Getting old, advanced in 

Cir. A flag. 

Cir4ah. A flagstaff . 

Cira ") 

Ciro I "^^ ^^^^' rend, split ; a strip. 

W£ oir^ barge emalime. Giye me a strip of 

garden firroond. 
Ehnr^ cir^g^etakoa. They haye cloyen hoofs. 
Barab^rite ciro go^kam. Tear it equally. 

Cir caudal A caudal (q. v.) with a 
tassel at each comer. 

Cirgal. Cautious, timid, wary, watch- 

Seta do ^ cirg^lko giti^a. 

Cirha cirhi. Violently, exasperatingly. 

Cif h% drhikin roporena. 

Cirhau. To scoflFat, deride, to provoke; 
to exasperate, to irritate, to mock. 

Uni m^fea mente adom doko oirh^nkedea. 
Some scoffed at him to indnce him to 

Girhod corhol! 

[ 105 ] 


Cirhoecorhot Shuffling, dragging feet 
in walking* 

Cirho€ oorhofe oalaXka&a.He goes shuffling 

Ciri bin. ") Into small pieces, to atoms ; 
Ciri biti J to mince ; thin, scattered; 
spread out, split into thin strips. 

AfaK oiri biriko geda. They out the greens in- 
to small pieces. 

Ciri6 ciri6. Chirp of sparrow. 
Ci h5 h5. Neighing of horses, also the 
cry of the Bengal kite, 

Ciri c\mthi.\To tear, or rend, as a tiger 
Ciri huri. /or vulture, its prey ; scram- 
bling and pulling. 

Oi|i hnfiKo repe^kana. 

Ciri huri. C£ ciri cunthL 

• • • 

Cifi hnfiko idi gofkeda. They qniokly snatohed 
it all away. 

Cirion cirion. Chirp of birds. 

Noi cef § doe oirioh cinoheda. This bird calls 
'oirioh cirioh.' 

Cirkau. To split, to crack. 

Bhit cirk^uena. The wall is cracked. 

Cirit Narrow, strait, difficult. 

Cirii! dn^rte boloKpe. Enter in at the strait gate. 
Ar ceflekali ciridottkana. ona %ari mu<^ott 

h^bio ; And how am I straitened till it be 


CirmoK* 1 Sad, depressed, down heart- 
Jirmolc. J ed, disconsolate. 

BhabnaKte cirmoKe dofapakana. 

Giro. To tear, rend, split, divide. Cf 

Cirod ciro<5. ' 
Ciro6 COT06. 
Coro6 coro6. 

Dripping, dribbling, water 
issuing in small jets, 
or drops ; sound of drip- 

ing or falling water. 

Ciro6 cirooe d^f keda. 

Ciro6 coro6. Cf. ciro6 ciro6. 
Cit. Paste, gum. 

Cioitaf . The gnm brash. 

Git oridena. The paste sticks fast. 

Citar. Miserly, niggardly. 

Citar kabar. Spotted, variegated. 

Citef catel The joints of the ankles 
or knees to crack when walking, 
the clicking sound made by wood- 
en sandals when walking. 

Ci\et patet To cross the feet when 

Citi bid. A species of spotted snake. 
Cithi, A letter, an epistle. 

Cito. Unripe, said of leguminous fruits, 
and of the fruit of the Matkom 
tree. (q. v.) 

Citar kathL 1 A plant largely used me- 
Jog ka^hi. J dicinally, Plumbago 
Zelanica, Linn. 

Citol. A species of fish. 

Citri. The grey partridge, Tipon torod> 
Ortygomia jPonticerrianua. 

Mon^h^t citri. Thd black partridge, i^an- 
colinu8 vulgaris, 

Cia|;}^'^ of birds. 

Su6 cef S hopon oiaj> cinpko raga. The young 
of the Su6 bird (q. v.) cry ciup oiup. 

Citlti. An ant. 

CilLti pipri- Ants and butterflies, insects in 

CiwaU cawaK. Spilling, as a vessel 
fiill of water if carried carelessly. 

Oe£lekam idiedaP ciwaK cawagoKkana. How 
are you carrying it P it is spilling. 

Co. ") Perhaps, expresses doubt or un- 
Con. J certainty ; used to emphasise 
an affirmative statement. Cf. con. 

CoaK. To break, to snap, to break into 
two, to break oflf, to break a part ofif. 

Kan^a reaX kankha coaffena. The rim of the 
water pot is broken off. 

Jon^ra do coaXena phe^re. The stalk of In- 
dian com is broken near the root. 

Coar. ") Rascally, disobedient, ill-con- 
Coaria. J ditioned. 

Am do coar mara hof. You are a rascal. 

Coatia- Not having sufficient milk for 
her offspring, having a small udder. 

C66 c56. Squeaking of young rats or 

C6c5. Squeaking of rats. 

Cocongol ■) To sit on the heels, to 
Cucungul J hunker. 

Cocraha. Rough. 

Cocraha kat kana. It is a rough log. 
Alom dejoKa. ^i cocrahagea. Do not climb 
(the tree), it is very rough. 

Coda hako. A species of fish. 


To separate, to detach, to 
pick oflf, to peel off 



Jon^ra co^aome. Detach the grains of Indian 
com &om the cob. 



[ 106 ] 


Codgoi. A species of fish found in riv- 
ers and tanks. 

Codo codo. ■) Sound of water fall- 
Co4o6 codoi. / ing in a stream. 

Sate datt co<^o co^o l^urolCkana. The rain faUs 
splashing from the eaves. 

Coder. To pour out a libation. 

Marah burn ar M^tijhi hafame oo^orakina. 
He offers a libation to Maraii burn (q. v.), and 
to the deceased village chief. 

Coe. Part of femalq private member. 
Coenda. Ill-natured, passionate, easily 
angered, bad tempered. 

A4i ooendageae. He is very iU-natored. 

cS: } Sharp, pointed 

Latf ooelokedaii. I ent it to appoint. 
Jom ooeloenae. He has eaten to satiety. 

Coga. To climb up, into, or on any- 

Okoe bae setaK llind^reye cogaena. Some one 
has been np (in the tree) before dawn. 

Cogor. \Quickly,fast, active, flu- 

Cogorcogor. J ent. 

Cogof oogof e tafameda. He walks qniokly. 
Cogof cogof e rofeda. He speaks fast. 

Cohok. Prepossessing, pleasant looking, 
beautiful, graceful, well. 

Kn^riko bes oohoko enedkana. The girls are 

dancing gracofuUy. 
Dibi *Qli cohokko bonaokoa. They deck the 

idols, or make the idols beantifol. 

Sadom 9<^i coh5tte calaMkana. The horse g^es 

Bi8w%<^ih Mai^jhi cohoke HeloKkana. The 

Manjhi of Bisw^dih looks weU. 

Cohol bohol. Flowing, overflowing, a 
large quantity. 

Cohol bohol utum duladilia. Yon have given 

me a large quantity of utu. 
Khnb cohol boholo da^taflea, ale do. 

Cohot. Pressing, urgent. 

Netar do kami agfi oohdtakana. At present 
work is very pressing. 

Cojkha. } ^^^^V' ^^' niggai^Jy- 

Adi cojaha hof kanae. He is very miserly. 

Cole. To kiss. 

CopoK. To kiss each other. 

Jawae (^^thfikateye coKaea. After binding the 

turban on the bridegroom's head he kisses 


Cok. A division or part of a village. 

Cokak. 1 A shell, scale, skin or rind 
Coklak. j of fruit. 

Bokoo cokatf. A snail's sheU. 

Cokak. Irritating, insulting. 

Nui ^im^i ookatf ^eye rof goda. This woman 
speaks irritatingly. 

Cokak baklak. Irritating, vexing, in- 

Cokao. To become speechless, through 
fright &c. ; to be benumbed with 
fear, &c. 

UniaK rof adjomte ookao ut^renad. I became 
speechless through hearing what he said. 

Cokcanda. To steal firom, to relieve 
one of property. 

Okoe coko cokcandakedida. Some one has 
stolen from me. 

Cokhlao. To pare, to break the skin or 

Getan cetante cokhlao go£kam. Pare it near 
the surface, (take off a thin paring.) 

Cokhna. To bring up old errors, to bear 
tales, to upbraid. 

Napam pichem cokhnawalikana. Every time 
we meet you upbraid me. - 

Cokkati. A division of a village. 

Ookkati ato. A village made by dividing an- 
otheir into two or more parts. 

Coklak. Rind, shell 

Cokmaki. Flint. 

Coko. The female organ. 

Coko. To hide, to crouch, as a tiger 
lying in wait for prey. 

Coko6. 1 To pull the beard as an 

Cokod cokoi. J insult, to strike the 
mouth with the fist, as an insult ; 
to wash clothes, by striking gent- 
ly on a stone or board. 

Noa thotnatem rof eda, cokoSmeali. This is the 
mouth you speak with, I wiU hit you on it. 

Cokorhal A small cup made from a 
single leaf pinned with its own 

Cola. Body, life. 

Cola cabaentaea. He is dead. 

Cola tahen bhor k^mi j^mrtabona. Yfe must 
work so long as we remain in the body. 

Colit. \ 

Colon. J-Custom, wont, use, current. 


Bes colon p^i. An honest measure. 
Bah colon ojon. An unfair weight. 

Colkhao. Obliquely, slantingly ; to pare. 

Mak colkhao go£kedeali. I out him (with a 
sword) slantingly. 

Coloe boloe 

t 1^7 ] 


Coloe boloe. Wander about as a vag- 

Coloe boloeye da^a baf aea. He goes about like 
a Tagrant. 

Colon. C£ colit. 
ColontL G£ colit. 

Colon ti. Clever, expert, fluent, efficient, 

A^iyo colontia. He ia yery fluent. 

Combe. Point. 

Co( oombereje dupipakana, c^f e. The bird is 
Bitting on the highest point. 

Com corolc. To sit on the hind legs, as 
a monkey on a branch, 

Camk^' 1 "^^ ^^ startled, to flash. 

Bijli oamkao go6enteli oomkao go£ena. I was 
startled by the lightning flash. 

Comkoroi. Slightly acid. 

Noa ntu do comkoroo jojogea. This relish is 
slightly acid. 

Comol comol. 
Camal comol. 

Apprehensive of dan- 
ger, in a state of 

Noa bir horte calatfre 9^i oomol comol a^karoKa. 
When passing along this jungle road one 
is in a state of great trepidation. 

Comol maraoentilla. I was all in a tremble. 

Codcol. Fickle, restless, excited, dis- 
turbed in mind, impatient. 

CalaS reaSill co^colgea. 

Cond. \Pattern, sample, form, like- 
Chond./ ness;like. 

Koa cond banaome. Make it like this. 

Conda. To pile up, to put on fire to 
boil, as a pot. 

fukuc do oulhareko oondaea. They put the 
pot on the fire. 

Conda pore. -» q^^ ^^^^^ ^^^j^^^ 
Condoporo. J 

Conda porekaKme. 

Pile them up one above 

Conda taka. The price paid for a 

Condho. A form of abuse, scoimdrel. 

Condho mara hof . Scoundrel. 

Condka. Anything put up as a sign 
of prohibition or interdict. 

The method usually employed is, if the object 
to be interdicted admits of it, as a tree for 
instance, to fix a small bunch of dried grass 
to it in a conspicuous position, and if other- 
wise, as land for instance, the grass is tied 
to a pole and fixed in the ground. 

Con^kan tolaka^-ul darere. I have tied a sign 
of prohibition on the mango tree (so that no 
one may touch the fruit.) 

Bandre con^kad bi€aka£a. I have fixed a sign 
of prohibition in the tank (to warn all 
against fishing.) 

Cond kopot. Stingy, miserly, hard, 

Condo. To pile up one above another, 

as rupees. Cf. cond pore. 
Condole. To stand on tiptoe, to be 


Conqol^ tiogme. Stand on tiptoe and reach it. 

Condon. Cf candon. 
Con. \ Perhaps, expresses doubt or 
Co. J uncertainty, also emphasises 
an affirmative statement. 

Okoe coe idike€. Some one has taken it away. 
Ce€ coiiko k^mikan. What may they be doings 

(they are doing ^>mething but I do not 

know what it is.) 
CalaK coe bail coe. I cannot say- whether he 

will go or not. 
NuK ni coh ? Is not this he ? 
Amge coiiem idike€. ) It was you surely who 
Amge com idikei!. > took it away. 
Okoe ba^ae coh. V^Tho knows, who can say, it 

is uncertain. 

Con bai. Short-tempered, passionate, 

Mi£ gh^fitegeye coii b^ioKa. He gets angry at 

Conga. A bamboo pipe, or tube ; a 
bamboo bottle filler. 

Conthao. To peck, tear, grab at. 

Upe-conthao go£kedea. He pulled his hair. 

Contha cunthi. To pull each other's 
hair; met. to quarrel, to altercate. 

Baream eraana, bakin contha cunthimea P Yon 
have two wives, will they not puU out your 

Contha cunthienako teheli onko do. They had 
a violent quarrel to-day. 

Copa. *) Shrivelled, blasted, diseased, 
Copra. J unfilled, as ears of grain ; 

Copa ren gun4% kanae. He is the ofitscourings 
of aU that is base. 

Copa cupi. Some small and others 
shrivelled, as ears of grain. 

Dare ma darelen, menek copa cupigea. It 
has grown well, but some of the grrain is 
small and some shrivelled. 

Copa kuta. Disobedient, deceitful; 
rascally, scoundrelly. 

Copaku^^ ho^r jahatinaKem metaerehcH bah haso- 
ea. Whatever you may say to a scoun- 
drel he never feels it. 

Copao. Addicted, accustomed to. 

Mimi6 hor khub h^n(^i p^nrare copao menal^- 
koa. They are all greatly addicted to beer 
and spirits. 


t 108 ] 


• Am m » — : 

Copia. Lean, small in the hind quarters, 

as a bullock. 
Copiar Murmu. A sub. sept of the 

Santal sept Murmu. 

Cepe oope Copier eyae oatom boiigatako. 

Copo6. To suck, as one -does an or- 
Copol Low, hollow. 

Uenl oopo£. Up and down. 
Mi£ke mi€ bum ar bo^kod eopodoKa. Erery 
mountain and MU shaU be brought low. 

Copof londoi. High and low, rutty, 
as a road ; fallen in, a part lower 
than the surrounding surfeca 

Copra. Cf. copa. 

Copsa. Gathering sores that multi- 
ply themselves. 

Copsaha. Flabby ; unpalatable, as pot 
herbs that are too mature. 

Coran. To overflow, to be turned a- 
side by coming into contact with 
some obstacle, to glance off. 

Dor dor do bam sindurlatfa, ti do cof aii go£en- 
tama. Tou did not apply the eindnr down 
the oentro, vour hand went to one side. 

B^ndukteil (bukedea, ado cofah ffo€ena. 

I fired at him with a gun, but the buUet was 
turned aside. 

Cof ah paromkefte, noX5e phof ke^tama. 

By oYerflowing, you see it burst your embank- 

Gah n^i do pereoen, Sofa n^i do cof ahen. The 
Gang river is full, and Sofa river overflow- 

Coran. Chonis to a song. 

Coranti. To increase, to rise, as prices. 

Corco. A common forest tree, Casi- 
area tomentosa, Linn, 

This tree yields medicine, and also a fish in- 

Corcota. \ Passionate, cruel, short 
Corcotaha./ tempered. 

Oorootaha hof kanae a^ren gidx^ hSe dalefkoa. 
He is an ill-tempered man, he beats even 
his own children. 

Corcotan. Anger, passion, ill-temper ; 
to speak angnly or gruflSy; to 

JahanaKko metakore oorootahaf ko rofa. 
Whatever they mav say to tiiem they receive an 
ill-natured reply. 

C5rdan. lOt irregular, un- 

C5rdan mtirdan. J even surface; 

some parts high and others low, 
applied especially to rice fields. 

Koa khct do cufoafigea, daK bfuuXanaii. 
This field is not level, there is no water in it. 

C6p6. One of the twelve septs into 
which the Santals are divided. 

C5r6 cacarha^^. A nickname given to 
the Santal sept C5f5. 

Corhol To drag the feet when walk- 
. in, to shuffle, to step lightly to 
avoid making a noise. 

Corho^ oorho^ye tafameda. He shufiiesas 
he walks. 

Cor kheda. "j 

Cor khedwa. |-The planet Jupiter. 

Rat calawa. J 

The rising of this pltnet warns thieves that 
the night is almost past and dawn at hand. 

Coro6 coro<S. Sound of dripping wa- 
ter, jpattering, dropping. Cf ciro<S 

Core coro. Sound of pouring, or run- 
ning of water, as from a pipe. 

Coro coro daft /iuroKkana. Water is falling in 
a oontinnous stream. 

Coro6 mokoi. Stingy, niggardly, mis- 

Coro^ moko^ emolkanae. He c^ves stingily. 

Coroetho. Blasted, blighted, shrivel- 
led, puny, stunted. 

CofoK coroK. To move by leaps and 
bounds, as a squirrel, a frog, a hare. 

Coromoko6. The fresh leaves of AraH 
kudrum. Hibiscus, Sabdariffa, L., 
used as a pot-herb. 

Corontho. C£ coroetho. 
CorSt Pasture. 

Corpot Corrupt, rascally, scound- 

Corpot mara hof . A oonsummate scoundrel. 

Cortha. M. \Bad behaved,, disobedient, 
Curthi. F. j bad, cruel. 

Akinrencortnaourthi g^dr^i^tekin mondnkena. 
They grieved on account of their ill-behaved 

Cot Above, high ; the firmament. 

Cot ar ot. Earth and sky. 

Cot ut^ri(S. The highest one. 

Cot ar phed bujb^u hof kanale. We are men 

of high intelligence. 
Cotte u<^auKtenko. Birds. 
Cot dhoj. The top of a tree. 

Cotaha. Unlucky, ill-fated, ill-omened. 

Ona aito cotahagea. That village is unlucky 
(many have oied in it.) 

Pokhnri^ p^hil do cotahage tahSkana, The 
village of Pokhuria was at one time un- 
lucky (the people aU died.) 


t 109 ] 


Cotalf . To peel oflf, to be rubbed oflF, 
to be splintered, to become detached. 

CotaK or. To peel off (the skin.) 
S^fim co^Xena. The thatoh of the roof has 
bemi blown off. 

Cothra. "j Puny, ill-conditioned, 

Cothra potra. }- half-starved, shrivel- 
Cothro. j led; exhausted, un- 

fertile soil. 

Koa dare cothroena. This tree is stunted. 

Goto. A small field mouse. 
Goto jel. The calf of the leg. 

p • |,' >► So(m, quickly, immediately. 

Co^okge laiiga godoKae. He gets soon tired. 

CJotok. To dress up, to embellish, 

Horhntko cotokkefkoa. They embellished the 

Goto lutur. A common climbing plant, 
a weed of garden cultivation, /- 
poTTwea pes-tigridis, Linn., (the 
tiger's foot bindweed,) chHdren 
eat the seeds of this plant. 

Goto mud. A species of ant. 

GowaK. To break, to snap, a piece to 
be broken oflf. 

Pa^ cowaKentaea. Sis teeth are broken. 

Gua. To distil. 

Cn^ daK . Distilled water. 
Oko okote p^nr^o ca^ia. They^distil liquor 

GuS. A spring. 

Gubalc. To have a mote in the eye. 

Alom koyoK baraea, cnb^goKam. Do not look 

np, Ton will get something in yonr eye. 
Cnb^Kakanaii. I have a mote in my eye. 

Gubui. To prick, as with a thorn or 

Chuca I '^ *®"^ ^^ disparagement. 

Cfli cfli ISqueakmg of young rats or 
GoicSdJ '^^^^• 

Cumcumba. A game played by child- 

Cuchundar ghao. Ghancre; specific 

Cucuk.}'^''^ ^^""^'^ ^^g^ 

Gucungul To sit on the heels, to hun- 

CucuK. The female organ. 

Cudi Used mainly by women when 
giving abuse, or disparaging. 

Cudi. To go backwards, to keep to 
the side, squeezing into as little 
space as possible ; as if ashamed ; 

Okare bam ondien, sodorre do bam hijoKaP 
Where are yon sidling to, won't yon oome 
in view? 

Cudru6. To pour out a little, as from 
a cup, or a ladle ; to pour out a 

Gidr^k dalfreye nnnmea, babkhane on^moaea. 

She either drowns the child in water, or 

else pours a cupful over him. 
DaK m^n^i ou^rucaeme. Give him a little 

rice water with a ladle. 

Cudru6 cudru6. Call of the striped 
squirrel, Tor (Sciuma pcUmarvmi.) 

Cu4u cuiju. Sound of pouring or drip- 
ping of water. 

Cuduk kod. A common jungle fruit 
tree, Eugenia, sp. 

Cuijur. To pour a little out of a cup, 
leaf, &c. C£ cudru6. 

Eati<& kati^ cu^uraeme. Pour him out a little. 

Cugli. To tell tales, to inform, to back- 

CuKfflii6. A tell-tale, informer, tale bearer, 

Cuglia. Tale-bearing, backbiting, in- 

Ougli% hof kanae. He is a tale bearing person. 

CfiiaK. Scales of fisL 

CuicuL Pointed, tapering to a point, 
in form of a cone. 

Banumko rakaba. cui ouL The ants raise their 
hiU in the form of a cone. 

Ctii ctlL Feeling of a superstitious 
person as when passing a grave 
yard, &c. at night. Scottice, E*erie. 

c?rcfl6.l^^^^*'^'^s ^^ y^^^ ^^ ^^ 

C5<i C66.J ^^ 

Cuihor. \ To sharpen, to put a point 
Cuihur. J on anything, as a stake, 
peg, &c. 

LaX cuihurkedae. He pointed it with an axe. 
Nui cuihur mara hor kanae. 


[ 110 ] 


Cuiku^. *) Shrivelled shrunk, rolled up, 
Cuikul J said of leaves ; emaciated. 

Sakam rohof ouikafena. The leaf is roUed up 
by drying. 

Cuila. Sharp, pointed. Cf, coelo. 
Cuk. An error, inadvertency, blunder, 
mistake. ^ 

Bhul cuk. Errors, mistakes, omissions. 

Cukalc. A small earthen vessel, used 
mainly to hold oil. 

Cukau. To have finished or completed. 

Cukau. To blunder, fail, commit a 

Eatharell onk^nena. 

Cukrtl6. A folded leaf used a spoon, 
drinking cup, &c. 


Culha. A fire-place. 

Mi£ ^chi^ onlh^. A fire-plaoe with one opening. 
Bar ^ohi^ cnlb^. Afire-plaoe with two openings. 
Culha jaraoni. A present given to those who 

do the cooking for the guests at a marriage 


Culud. \A small piece, or quan- 

Katid culun.j tity. 

Culud. ") At once, without delay, 

Culun culud. / instantly, heartily. 

Culuh mente bere£ calao go£enae. He instantly 

rose and went away. 
Culuh culuh daK lo ^guedae. She brings water 

from the well without delaying. 

Culud bhutud. *| Restless, to wander 
Culur bhutur. J about, to go aim- 

Onte note culuh bhutuh baf aekanae. He goes 
wandering about from place to place. 

Cumaura. A ceremony observed at 
marriage, at the Sohrae festival 
(q. V.) and sometimes on the first 
day of rice transplanting. 

Cumdid. An ill-natured, quarrelsome, 
abusive woman. 

A^i cumfjiliae, a(Ji ett gerkana. She is very iU- 
natured, she scolds fearfully. 

Cumkalc. To assemble, to be gathered 

• CumkaK ato. A compact village. 
Cnmk^U dare. A clump of trees. 
Teheli do kulhibon duf upa, sebon cumk^tt Ao- 

goKa. To-day we shaU meet in council, or 

we shall assemble together. 
Alope cumkagol^a. Do not crowd together. 

Cun. Lime. 

G^ti^ cun. Lime prepared from nodular lime- 

Jhinuk cun. Lime made from shells, used to 
chew along with tobacco. 

On cun. Farm produce, agricultural property. 

Cunaiti. A small round brass box to 

hold lime. 
Cudci. Pap, dug, nipple. 
Cund. The musk i-at, Sorex ccertdesceTis. 
Cundu6. A small wooden ladle or spoon. 

Cnn4u(5tege utuko loea. They lift the relish by 
means of a wooden ladle. 

Cundud. Quickly, instantly, without 

Cunguh menteye reben go£ena. He agreed at 

E beta, cun^uh mente oalao godoSme. Oh my 

son, go without^arleying. 

Cuni. Small, stunted, smaller than 
others, said of fruit, grain, &c. 

Cuni cuni joakana. The fruit is smaU. 

Cunka. A pinch given by the seller 

to the buyer over and above the 

weight or measure. 
Cun thodga. A piece of hollow bamboo 

used to carry lime to chew along 

with tobacco. 
Cun thuiaK. A small brass box to hold 

lime, closed with a lid. 

Cudgur mudgur. To be restless, moving 
here and there ; never still. 

Gadel hof ko ouhgur muhgur bafaeako. The 
crowd sways to and fro. 

Cunu munu. Dainty, trigj neat and 

A4i moiij ounu mnnue benaoakafa. He haa 
made it very neat and pretty. 

Cupi. Tail of bird or fish. 

Cupul The fist, to close the fist, to 
receive as much as can be held in 
the hand when closed ; to close the 
hand upon. 

Mi£ cupu£. A handful. 
Cupu£ pasarme. Open your hand. 
Ghuse oupu£aka£a. He has been bribed, 
Isor cupu€ khon bae pasarlekhan dh^rti do oho 

Cupu£ khon bah pasarol^kantilla. I have not 
' got the means to do it. 

Cura. A pinnacle, spire, crest. 

Curau. To flog, to chastise, discipline, 

Curau pon^peafi. I shall chastise ypu severely. 
Moca bah curauakantama. Tom: mouth is not 

discipline<^ (you have not caught the proper 

pronounciation . ) 
K^mire khube our^uena. He is weU disciplined. 

Curcutud. Stunted, under-sized. 

Noa dare curcutudena. This tree is stunted. 
Nui 4ahi^a doe poroutudgea. This ox is under- 

Cure mare 

[ 111 ] 


> Quickly, diligently, fast. 

Cure mare. 
Curmar. - 

Cnrmarkedead. I hurried him up. 
Core mareye kamikeda. He worked fast. 

CurL A bracelet, a bangle. 

CuriaK. A small earthen vessel. 

Curin. The ghost of a woman who has 
' died pregnant. 

Curku6 bhurku6. Ig+^j^^iy 
Curku6 burku6. J ^^' 

Gurknd burknde emoKkana. He giyea stingilj. 

Curmar. Quickly, fest. C£ cure mare. 
Curti To increase, to develope, as a 
disease ; much, very much, 

Ba% ^i on]rtiakantaea. His fever has gpreatly 

Curu buru. Brimful, full. 

Cum bumko dal peredaka^a. They haye fiUed 

it to oyerflowing^. 
Khnbko diila|rkediiia otura bumko emadilia. 

Thej received me weU, they gave me aU 

tiiat was nice. 

Curu6. To give, or put down in small 
quantity, or quantities, anything, 
excepting liquids ; to give in pick- 

Ponon kon^re khonti khnntiko onm^al^a. They 
drop a small quantity at the post at each of 
the four comers. 

Coruo caole. Contributions of rice levied on 
each household in a village, on the occasion 
of a festival. The rice thus collected is 
cooked and eaten along with the flesh of the 
sacrificed animal, as a part of the religious 

Guru curu. A call to peaforol. 
Cuthar. "^A carpenter, a .Hindu 
Chuthar. J caste. 

Cut cut Craving, longing for, impa- 
tient, ravenous, greedy. 

Cut cut ^^i b^fid jojom sanaedea. He is craving 

for food. 
P^ur^ ^u hewahof bae iiulekhan cut o^te ^i- 

k^ua. A person accustomed to drink Uquor 

if he does not drink feels craving for it. 
CalaK If^gife cut outoK kana. He is impatient 

to go, 

CutL A cigar, cigarette, cheroot. 

Cntiko ^uieda. They smoke cigars. 
Cutiako. They make cigars. 

Cutia. A mouse. 

Cuti^ bardur^6. A species of smaU bat. 

Cutia candbol. A common, but not 
easily noticed, small flowering 
plant, Iphegenia indica, E. Br. 

Cuwa. To distil. 


Da. Bulb, root tuber. 

DaXa hapen. Tubers will form yet. 

Dab. An accident, misfortune, mis- 
hap, jeopardy, danger. 

A^ marah d^b calaoentilia. I escaped a severe 
accident (or a great misfortune.) 

A4i marah dab Huradilia. A great misfortune 
befell me. 

Paba6 4ubu6. To sink and rise again 
and again. 

Daba dubu. Noise made with feet 
and hands when swimming. 

Paba 4«bu dalhreko paeratf a. 

Dabae dundrai. To demand with 
bluster and threats. 

Dabak dubulc. To shake the head or 
body, as an old man through weak- 

PabaK <lubule calaSkana. He goes shaking 

his head, 
pabatf <lubul hop iSamill senlena. I went to 

find men who shake the head, (rumoKko.) 

(q. V.) 

Dabal poesa. A double pice. 

Daba mara. To halt, to rest, to en- 

Kulhi muc^Ureko ^aba maraXa. They oaU a 
halt at the entrance to the village street. 

Moulbirele (Jaba maraKa. We wiU halt for a 
little at Moulbi village. 

Dabao. To press down, to snub, chide, 
keep under, check, curb, restrain. 

Seta dabaoetam aloe gegerma. Chide your dog 
so that he may not bite. 

Dabao. To keep, as one does a dog, 
horse, &c. to be covered, to be 
obscured, to spread. 

Similte sermae 4abaoaka£a. The sky is ob- 
scured with clouds. 
. Biste gota hofmoe 4abaoakadea. The poison 
has pervaded his whole body. 

Bu^te nui doe ^abaokedea. He is hot aU over 

from fever. 
Bar era nui do bese ^abaoakaf kina. He keeps 

two wives in comfort. 
Setad ^abaokoa. I will keep dogs. 

Dabar. A large, moist rice field. 

Dabdaba. l-r, j j 
Pabdaba. jBroad, wide. 

Dabdabape benaokeda. You have made it broad. 

Dabdabao. The eyes to fill with tears. 

Mef daK glab4abaoKkantae. His eyes are fill- 
ing with tears. 


t 112 ] 


pab^ub. To sink at once, as of a 
boat's crew, or a number of per- 

pab^nbko nnumena. They tank to rise no 

Dabe. ") Large horns, with a sweep- 
Pabea. J ing upward curve, applied 
to buffaloes. 

Paber. A large, moist rice field. 

pabha. A pummelo. 

Dabi. The scapula, or shoulder blade. 

Bale d^bi. The ridges of the 8oi4piila> or ahonl- 
der blade. 

DabL A claim; to claim, to lay a 
claim for damages, or dues. 

More t^kae d^bieda. He makes a claim for 

five rupees. 
D^bioeako. They wiU claim from him. 

Dabi bebelc. Abscess over the scapula. 

Dabkao. To crouch down, to lie in 
wait for prey, to be awed; to 
sculk, to lurk. 

Noa porre knle dabkaoakaaa. The tiger is 

oronohing in this bush. 
Hape thbroKme, adoe dabkaoena. Be quiet, 

and he gave in. 

Pabkao. To be at the boiling point, 
to boil. 

DaX 4abkaof kana, ma caole khadlepe. The 
water is boiling, put in the rice. 

Dabla. M.\Ugly, ill-formed, mis-shap- 
DablL F. J en, unprepossessing ; worn 
out 01 shape. 

B^bl^ mara herel. An ugly man. 

D^bU mara ^imfi. An unprepossesang wo- 

D^bl^ ku^i' An iU-shaped hoe, a hoe worn out 
of shape. 

Pabot To restrain, to forbid, to keep 
under; to interdict. 

M^kdjhi do porja bae 4abote€kotaea. The head 
man does not keep his tenants in hand. 

Noa ul dfure ^Abotme. Forbid this tree, i. e. 
aUow no one to take the fruit. 

Dabla kutam. 1 The Hoopoe, JJpupa 
Kutam dabla. J epops. 

Pabra. - A pool of water, a dub. 

Noa bhataome baiikhan daS ^cthraKa. FiU up 
this (hollow), else water wiU collect. 

Horre d&it ^abraakana. There is a pool of 
water on the road. 

Pabra. A large, moist rice field, 
pabra. To splash about in water. 

Delabo ctabr^lCbo calal^a. Come, we wiU have 
a splash in the water. 

Dabrao. To stoop, to crotlch, to lie in 
wait, to hide. 

On^e kule dabfaoakana. The tiger is orouch« 
ing over there. 

Dabri. To despise, threaten, keep 
under, check, scold, oppress. 

Okoe h5 alom d^kbfikoa. Do not act harshly 

towards any one. 
Uni hof do sanamkogeye d^bfi mafigalefkoa* 

That man despises every one. 

Pabri. A small earthenware dish, used 

as a lid. 
Dab?Ti6, To put down, to quiet, to 


D^bftiienae nitoK do. He is oorwed now. 

Pabu. A iron spoon, used sometimes 
to cook small quantities of vege- 
tables, &c. 

Pabua, Grown to stem and leaves, 
no fruit. 

P^bu^uena. The plant has all grow to Istom, 
branches and leayes, and has no fruit. 

Pabun 4abun. To shake or nod the 
head when walking. 

P^uh 44kbuBe calaKkana h^kthi do. The ele- 
phant shakes his head as he goes. 

Pa6 du6. Small, young. 

Pa6 du6. To fine, to impose a penalty ; 
to leave one without anything. 

pa(§ 4n(SkedifSako. They fined me. 

Pefako ^ao ^nokedilia. My friends left me 

without anything (ate up all I had.) 
Mahajone ^a6 ^^^^^^clea. The moneylender 

took all he had. (sucked him dry.) 

Dad. Ringworm, certain skin diseas- 
es that do not break out into sores. 

Dacan dacan. Quickly, flying from 
place to place ; ubiquitous. 

Dacah dacaxie calaXa uni hop do. That man 
moves about very rapidly. 

Dada. Elder brother. 

Dadat. His elder brother. 

Dadam. Thy 

Dadali. My 

Dadatte€. The 

Sa^^. JLumbago, pain in loins. 
Dadha dumbar. Personal eflFects, be- 

• • • • f 

longings, chattels, impediTnenta, 

TinaM noa ga^ha 4nmb9rem asen bafaea P 

Dadhil Milk adherinfr to the side of 
the vessel in which it has been 

P9<jlhi^te€ huri€akome. 



I 113 ] 


Dadahu& Still, motionless, and look- 
ing larger than in reality. 

Dadahu£e durupakana bana do. The bear is 
sitting still. 

Dadahu£ duduhut*. Still, motionless, 
the plui'al of dadahui (q. v.) 

Gidi dadahnil dudnhufko dufupakana. The 
the Toltures are sitting motionless (after 
haying gorged themselves with food.) 

Pa^i. A spring of water, a natural 

Dadni. ") An advance of money, as 
Dadon. J pay, or part of contract 

Pa<j[u. A flattish wooden spoon, used to 
stir with when cooking ; an oar. 

P^a ghant^. To pull an oar. 

X)a4u^. To touch or hit slightly un- 

P^nb tioKkedeae. ) He toaohed him slightly 
p94np iiamkedeae. ) (with a stick.) 

D^duf. Much, many, a large quan- 

Dfdufgem lUmkana. Yon want a large qnan- 

Daa l Misfortune, cause, responsi- 
Daeta J bility ;, on account of 

K^kmi daeteye nme^kedida. He scolded me 

on aoeonnt of my work. 
Dae pafaoadilia. A misfortune has befallen 

Dae khalasenftli. I am free from responsi- 


Dae dae. To proclaim, to make pub- 
lic, to call ont. 

L9i bafaeSdae ^a^9A. He proolafans it from 

the house top. 
^nfiiitem ^ae 4aekeda. Ton cried before yon 

were hnrt. 

Die dae. Rising above the surround- 
ing surface, prominent, protuber- 

Dae daeH jom biakana. 

Die dftele rakapa. We will raise it high abore 
the surrounding surface. 

Daela. Tall, as a man ; long, as a horn, 

Dae mudoe. Plaintiff and defendant. 

DaeyoK daevoK. Taking long steps 
and lifting the feet high, as a cam- 
el does when walking. 

DieyoK d&eyoMe tafama. He takes long steps 
and Ufts his feet high. 

Dag. To cremate, to bum the dead, 
used generally of the completed 

Nolde nonc^ele dagkedea. It was here we ore- 
mated him. 

Dag. To mark, stain, brand, cauterize ; 
a blemish, spot, stigma, mark. 

Pahrae dagea. He will brand the ox. 
Get dag kfuitama P Phera dag. What is yonr 
mark? A hand' spindle. 

Daga. A misfortune, mishap, hindrance; 
to deceive,to impose upon, to disap- 

Dagaii ilamkeda, onate bati senlena. I met 

with a mishap, and so did not go. 
Dagakedidae. He imposed upon me. 

r\ 1. • • Traitorous, deceitful, knav- 
Dagabaji.[ ., 

Daffaboj. j ^^' 

J^i dagabaj hof kanae. He is a great knave. 

Dagaii dagaK. By jerks, by twitched. 

Dagaii dagaK orme. Pull by jerks. 

Dagao. To bespeak, to arrange for. 

Noa jinis mi£ hof e dagao dohoaka€a. Some one 
has bespoken this article. 

Dagar. ") Quickly and with force* 

Dagar dagar. J to tug, used generally 
with ' or * to pull. 

Dagar marteye or go£koda. He gave it a tug. 

liOhar dagar dagar bh^thiye oreda. The black* 
smith pulls quickly and strongly at the bel- 

Dagar dugur. Toddling, said of a 
child learning to walk. 

Gidrako ^t^rar ^^g^i^ ^^ ba^aeako. 
Bes 4agar ^tigure tapam dafea&a. 

Dagar dugur. \ Flickering, appearing 
Dugur dugur. / for a second and then 
disappearing, as a light. 

Bohga joloKkanae, dagar dugur. 

Dag dag. Well, luxuriantly, flourishing, 

Dare do 4ag 4ag faaraKkana. The tree is grow- 
ing luxuriantly. 

Sill cando rakapkana ^ag <^ag ^i setoHediiia, 
]!}ind^ cando rakapkana pirio pirid ^i xtAiait' 

Pag 4agao. To grow well, to grow 
luxuriantly, to flourish. 

Pagdor. A medical practitioner, a 

Dagi. Spotted, stained, marked, ble- 
mished, branded, blemished in 
character or reputation. 

D^akanae. His reputation is blemished. 


Dagi mara 

[ 114 ] 


Koa p^hOre jahstiBe d^ jahinakaaa? Has 
there been any blemish on his character 
preyions to tms f 

Dagi mara. To be blemished in charac- 
ter or reputation. 

D^ maraenae. 

Pagmagao. To shake, to confuse ; to 
be dizzy. 

Ba^te ^agnuigaoenae. He is saifering from 

Dagni. An iron with which an owner 

brands his mark upon his cattle. 
Dagor. Large. 
Dagrin. A mid-wife. 

DagumcaU. Hairy, shaggy, tufts or 
patches of grass, or weeds in a field 
that has been ploughed. 

Bana d^gumo^Mko npana. Bears have shaggy 

Dah. Enmity, ill-will, envy. 

Pahtsye metalSkana. %He says (this) about me 
throagh envy. 

Daha. The tazia of the Mohamedans. 

Teheli dahako bhasana. To-day they wiU bory 
(or throw into water) the taida. 

Daha. 1 * j i • 

jx 1 V A deep pool m a nver. 

Karam daha. The pool with the Karam (q. v.) 
tree growing on the bank. 

DahSid duhtl6. Walking feebly, or care- 

Dahad dnh^oe oaooXkana. He toddles. 

DahadahL To flow, to saturate, to 
spread abroad. 

Daha d^hi mayam ^tnentaea. Blood streamed 
from him. 

Dahades. All roundabout, to be scat- 
tered, in the villages and country ; 
no one knows where. 

Dahades onte noteko senakana. 

P§»h9. d6h6. ") KjQotty, having knots or 
Daha doho. J excrescences. 

t>aha 4oho dare. A tree having excrescences on 
its surface. 

Dahal. A species of wild dog differing 
from Cucni rutUaTis. 

Dahalao. 1 To wet, to saturate, tobe- 
Dahlao. J come waterlogged, to soften, 

to persuade, to make way ; to boil, 

as water. 

Dahal seta. A large hound. 

'pahao. To bum up, scorch ; to be hot 
or feverish. 

OfaK ^ahaoentakoa. Their house is bomt 

Hofmo do i^ahaoKa, m^te, ar setoxite h5. The 
body is heated by fever, and scorched by 
the sun's rays. 

Sanam cas ^ahaoentilia. My crops are aU burn- 
ed up. 

Pahao. To test, to prove. 

Sonako ^fthaoa. They test gold. 
Jan hdko ^ahaokoa. They also test witch* 

Daha]^ dahajj. Heavy thudding sound, 
of heavy footsteps. 

Dahap dahapko taf ama. They walk good heel 
and toe. 

Dahar. A cart track, a road made by 

Dahar dahar. 
Dahar dehor. 
Duhur duhur. 

Quickly, with long 
steps, applied to large 
heavy-bodied subjects. 

Dajiaf dahaf e calattkana .He is walking qoiokly. 

Pahar ene6. A dance danced by girls 
and women. 

Dahar rar. The tune or air to which 

« « • 

the Pahar Sered (q. v.) are sung. 

Pahar sered. A class of songs sung 
when dancing the Pahar dance. 

B^ t^n^^ire kuin^i mim, jhao Jhao, 
Gnpi kopa tirioteko lebdalede, ]hao jhao. 

pahar seretf. 

Pah^ahao. Hot, feverish. 

Hofmo ^ah^ahaoKkantaea. His body is hot. 
^<^i ote dahalaokeda. The soil is saturated 

and soft. 
Enkan kathate bae dahalao hodoXa. He will 

not be readily persuaded with arguments 

like these. 
Nui kuf i do mii aohaf dal^te bae dahalaoKa. 

One shower of rain will not wet thiu girl. 

(one telling wiU not suffice) 

Dahe. Curds, curded milk. 

Jofan emkate dahe jamaoka. 

Dahgi. Race, tribe, family, stock. 

Onko dahgi kanae. He is of their stock. 

Pahgoria. Revengeful, vindictive, 

Jahae ^ahgori^ hope nonkaakaila. Some re- 
vengeful person has done this. 

Pahi. Ashes of anything burnt on the 
ground for manure. 

Dahi. Responsibility, liability. 

Jawab d^hi. '^ The responsibility of reply, or o£ 
Jobab dihi. > giving account. 
Jobab dahi. j 

Dahin. The right hand, to pass over. 

Onae d^hinkeda. He left it on his right. 

Dahin. To accede to request, to help,to 
assist ; to be pleased, to be friendly. 


[ 115 ] 


Bako d^hinotf a. They do not accede to a re- 
quest for help. 

B^hmakan tahenpe. Bemain friendly. 

Bh^ki^ko besge aahinre monaKkoa. The rela- 
tiyes are on friendly terms with each other 
(or liye at peace with each other.) 

Dahin. A row of oxen tied together 
treading out grain. 

Ag d^hin. The leading ox on the outside of 
the circle. 

Meh 4a^u«. The ox on the inside, or the pivot 
on which the row of bullocks turns. 
Dogs. The rope bv which the bullocks 
in a row or *' d^&un are tied together. 

Dahinau. To leave to the right hand. 
Dahinau. Cf. dahnao. 

• • • 

Dahlao. To agitate, to moisten; to 
become water logged, to cause one 
to exert oneselt 

Nes do ot 9uri dahlaoSa. 

Bae dahlao dafeaekana. 

ISii bar kathate bae dahlaoKa. 

I>ahna. ") A small quantity** of 

Arpa dahna. J grain given daily to 

an agricidtural labourer during 

harvest, over and above his wages. 

Dahnao. To pray, to honour, to wor- 
ship, to appease, to propitiate. 

D^khnao ket9<^kotam. Propitiate your (deities.) 
Bhit%r ren baher reniJi d^hnaokoa, bonga do. 

Dahnga dahngi. Blazing, flaring. 

Dahiiga dQkhhgi jolpe. Make it (the fire) blaze. 

Dahngao. To blaze, to flare up ; to 

A^i jol dahiigao godme. Make it blaze quickly 
Bantals when tendinf^ tassar silk worms use 
*dahiigao* instead of 'jol* (q. v.) when they 
have in any way to refer to lighting a fire. 
To use 'jol' is considered unlucky. 

Pahok. Envy, spite, malice. 

PalioK i^ahoKte h5 laialime. 

PahoK 4&hoKtehd hirikaleme. Suppressing 

your anger for the time being, pay us a 

PahoX ^aholHie h5 poesal) emaege. I wiU give 

him the money gnmdgingly. 

Dahon. To bum a corpse, to be burnt 

Pahonkedeale. We cremated him. 

Pahrao. To walk, to move, to take 
the road. Cf. dahar. 

Delabon 4ahraottpe. Come, let us take the road. 

Dahri. A turban. 

Cak d^hfi. A large round wheeMiko turban. 

PahiL A large forest tree, Artocarpu8 
Lakoocha, Roxb, 

The flowers and fruit of this tree are eaten. 

Dahur bulau. To fix a date and give 
invitations to join a hunting party, 
fishing meet,'&c. 

Bako hakolenkhaoko mena, ^^ufiaXko 4%litir 
bul^kukeda. If they do not get ^sh they say 
they inyited us in vain. 

Dai. Elder sister. 

Dai teliail. My elder sister and her husband. 
Dii is used more especially when calling atten- 

Dale. Water, rain, climate ; to rain. 

DaK mandi. Bice water, a modest expression 

for boiled rice, or food in general. 
Ni^ sahantele dal( m^4i jona. We wiU cook 

our food with this fuel. 
DbH dulio. 7 a *j •* 
BaKduduHi. |^°»i<i-^«- 
Thili daK. A girl who can canr a small water 

pot full of water on her head. 
Marah daX lo ber. About 4 p. m. 
Hu^jUd daK lo ber. About 5 p. m. 
Noa khet bail daX akana. There is not sufficient 

water in this field (to plant rice.) 
DaK bodoloKa mente. For a change of air. 

Dale. To string a bow, to tighten up 
the mattress of woven twine of a 
bed ; to tighten, or make taut. 

Sendra ehoboXre aKko daga, ar sendra mokotl* 
kateko ^da. They string their bows when 
they begin to hunt, and when they stop 
hunting they un8trin|r them. 

Ma parkom daMkam ^hilakana. Tighten up 
the mattress, it has become slack. 

Dak. Heat. 

A4i dak pafaoSkana. The sun's rays are yery 

Dak. Call, summons. 

Aleal^ i^akte ohoe healena. He will not come 
at our summons. 

Dak. A post for the conveyance of 
letters, also relays of horses or palki 

Pak oraK. Post office. 
PakwaUa. A post runner, 
pak c^uki. A stage on a road where trayellera 
rest or change horses. 

Dak. A species of crane. 


Dakh. }A vme. 




Dak bagfwan. A yineyard. 
Dak nari. A yine. 
Dak kakmani6. A yine dresser. 
Dak thopa. A cluster of grapes. 

Paka. Boiled or cooked caole (q. v.), 
more especially boiled rice ; to cook 
husked rice, Indian corn, and all 
other grains which are husked 
•before cooking. 


[ 116 ] 


Ho]ro daka. Boiled rioe. 

Jondra ,, „ Indian oom. 

JanhS ,, „ janhS (q. y.) 

Gondii „ „ gandli (q. v.) 

Kode „ „ Kode (q;Y.) 

iri „ „ iri (q. ▼•) ^ 

£rba „ „ erba (q. v.) 

Bajra „ „ bajra(q. V.) 

Len^ha „ „ len^ba (q. y.) 

Layo „ „ layo (q. v.) 

Ma€ oaole ,, „ seed of the bamboo. 

Mao daka. The chrysalids of certain ants 
which resemble grains of cooked rioe. (The 
ohr jsalids of Chatoli ma6 are eaten by the 

Paka daU. A wooden trough used for 
feeding pigs, watering cattle, and 
at times for bathing. 

Paka ^aki. "j To push, first to one 
Dhaka dhaki. |- side and then to ano- 
Phaka (^hakL J ther, as a person clear- 
ing a way for himself in a crowd. 

Dakal dakal. To move the body, as 
Santal girls do when dancing ; to 
shake, as when sitting in a fast 
train; to move, as the adipose 
tissue on the bodies of some fat 

Dakal dakal lagf eko ene^kaaa. 

Pakao. To invoke, to call upon, to call 
or send for, to summon. 

EnhUotf h5 boh^ko ^akaokoa. On that day 
also they inyoke the deities. 

Pakar (Jukur. 1 To shake, to jolt, to 
Dakar dukur. J waddle. 

Dakar dnkufe oalalkana. He waddles along. 

Dak batta. The Greenshanks, Totanus 

Dale cita. A species of snake. 

Dale dale. 1 A very distant relative, 
Dale dale pe?^. j very remotely related 

to ; to treat one as a very remote 


▲solpera doko bah kana, daKdaK pefa kanako. 
They are not near relatives (wno pvo you a 
good meal,) bat only distant relatives (or 

acquaintances) (who giye you only water 
to drink.) 

DaX daKko pefakedilia. They were not yery 

Dale daka. Food and water ; susten- 

Datt dakae b^giaka^a. He has ceased to t^e 
sustenance. * 

Pokdoko! } ^^^' *^"' ^^^^ projecting. 
Dak daleram c0r6. The swallow. 

Dale dak'rama^. Thatching grass. 

Pake^ak. To pass anything on from 
stage to stage, or from village to 

Pakedakekolle€ tahekana. He had sent from 
yillage to yillage (on to its destination.) 

Dakhil. To pay, to arrive, to enter ; 
on the threshhold ; about ta 

GujuK dakhil. About to die. 
D^khilenae. He has arriyed. 
Hafam d^khilenae. He is on the threshhold of 

old age. 
Ehajnad d^khilkeda. I paid down my rent. 

Dakhila. A receipt for money paid. 

Pharkati. A receipt in full, a quittanoe. 

Dakhilau. To arrive, to deliver. 

D%khi]9u o^kate ru^f hijuM me. DeUyer it 
and return. 

Dale icak. A small plant found in 
moist situations, Jussicea suffrnti- 
cosa, Linn, 

Dale kudur. A plant common during 
the rains, Sopvibia delphinifolia, 
0. Don, 

Dakhnahi From the south, southerly^ . 

Dale horo. A tortoise that lives in 

Dale mancji ot A species of mushroom. 

Pakra. The poison put on an arrow 
when set m the path of some wild 

Pakrao. To invoke, to call upon. 

Hakrao 4akraoe£peale. We are oaUing upon 

Dale sadom. The Hippopotamus. 

Dak sim. The little Coimorant, Ora- 
dilua Javanicus, 

Dale sosro6. An insect resembling a 
grasshopper that lives in water. 

Dak tar. A medical practitioner who 
follows the European system of 

Paku. A robber, a highwayman. 

Dah To split into two or more pieces, 
applied generally to dicotyledon- 
ous fruits, when the cotyledons 
are separated, and more especially 
to the fruit oif leguminous plants, 
as split peas, &c., used as food. 


[ 117 ] 


Baherd^l. Split fruit of Cajaaus Indioiifi, 

Hii:bd»l. „ Phaseolua Mviigo Tar. 

Max, L. 
Hofei d^kl. „ Doliohoa biflorus, L. 

Bamrad^, i, Phaseolns Mnngo rar. 

radiatns, L. 
Ghaiira d«L „ Vigna Catiang. Endl. 
Diaomhof^d^ „ GlyoineSoja, Siebr,A 

H^sri d^ „ Brvnm Imm, L. 

Eesari d^ „ LathymB aatiTTis. L, 

Alpahrad^l „ Phaseolas aoontifoliiis, 

Bat d%l ,» Cioer arietmnm, L. 

Maihan d%l ,; Doliohos Lablab. L. 

Bora raher dfl „ Cyamopsis psorlahoi- 

IBtodfl „ Phaseolns oaloaratoa. 

Mator d%L Split paas, Pianin arrenae, L. 
KlUdi d%L Split kemals of the fruit of the Mat- 

lom tree (q. v.) 
Koa kat do pon d9i hoefoa. Una log haa been 
out into fourplanka. 

DaL Deep mud, a quagmire. 
DaL wad rice. 

DaL To strike, to tlxresh grain with 
a flail. 

Dal olkedead. I hit and waled him. 

Dai iiigulkedeall. I atruok him slightly with 

my open hand. 
^aiMdadalilioalalEkaoA. I am going to thresh 

janhS (q. t.) 
Ce£ bail ae b^kbu, ianh2{ dale dalkedifla. Would 

you beUeye it, he struek me as one does 

janhS with a flaU. 
Dalgahkedeae. He struok him, and caused a 

oontuaed wound. 

Pala. A large basket. 

Dalae dalae. Shaking, hair flying 
about one's shoulders. 

Noa dare dalae dalae hil^^uttkana. 
Dalae dalaeye rumoKkana. 

Dalahi A marsh, a quagmire. 

Dalak dalak. Cf. dakal dakal, 

Dalai. A broker, a tout. 

Dalali Brokerage, commission. 

Palad dulun. To toddle, to walk as a 
very little child. 

Palah <lalaii patiia bafaedid kanae. He tod- 
dleia here and there after me. 

Dalao. To issue or promulgate an 
order, to make over to, to commit to. 

Hukume ^alaokeda. He issued an order. 
Am ill (^alaoa^mea. I hare committed tiiia mat- 
ter to you. 

Dalcaii. M.l Slovenly, with dishevelled 
Dulcun. F. J hair. 

Duloute deloKkana. She looks slovenly. 

Daldalahi A marsh, a quagmire. 

Daldaiao. To shake, to quiver, to be 
panic stricken. 

Gota ato hojrko daldalaoena. The people of the 
whole Tillage are panic stricken. 

^dhite ofaM deildalaoena. The house shook 
with the storm. 

Daldaiao. To grow luxuriantly. 

Horo bhage bhage daldalaofina, The dhan has 
grown lu^Santly. 

DaleL Documentary proo£ 
DalhL A marsh, a quagmire. 
Pali6. A small, flat, round basket. 
DaUdar. A glattoxi 

Pali ^haurak. A method of trial by 

Two branches, one for each pariar to tiie dispute, 
are placed upright in a tai^ and allowed to 
remain in that position over night. The 
peraon^ whoae branch withers, is adjudged 
the guilty party. 

Dalil. A document, any legal instru- 
ment, documentary proof. 

Dalil. Extra work, as punishment, 
(a tea garden term.) 

D^lilkedeako. They punished Urn by giving 
him extra work. 

Palim. The fruit of the Pomegranate, 
Puniea Oranatum, Linn. 

P^liphulL A method of trial b7 or- 

Two small parcels of rice, one for each party to 
the duBMite, are buried overnight in an ant 
hill. Tne person whose parcel has been 
attacked by the white ants during the night 
is condemned as guilty. 

D^lis. A bond. 

Dalkao. To shake, to quiver, to be 

Dh^rti dalkaoft. An earthquake. 
Ofatf dalkaoena. The house shook. 

Dallali. ") t* i • • 

^ y > Brokerage, commissMm. 

Dalmal. 1 To shake, to reverberate, to 
Dalmalao.J excite or agitate, to dis- 

Gota disomko dalmalaokeda. They agitated 
the whole country. 

Daloe daloe. Cf dalae dalae. 

Dalop. To put <MQ thatch without ty- 
ing it down to the roof frame ; to 
cover, to obscure. 

BimiHe serraae dalop oabaakafk. The sky is all 
obscured with clouds. 

Dalpan. Clothed with a garment short- 
er than that usually worn. 



[ 118 ] 


• • 

C£ dima. 

Dalpun. A short quilted cloth worn 
round the loins, worn sometimes 
by women. 

PalwalL A large flat basket. 

Palwat Scales of a balance, generally 
of bamboo. 

Dam. Price, rate, wages, value. 

Bar annae damkeda. He priced it at two annas. 

Tin^Kem damkoajP Wliat price do you pat on 

• them. 
Damanai dhiri. A preoious stone. 

.Dama. Asthma. 

Dama. 1 

Akhir dama./ 

Pamadol. Distressed, disorganized, a- 

K^mi b^knuKteJea, ^anoa^olenale. We are oat 

of emplirjrinent and are in great distress. 
Noa ato do ^ama^olena. 

Dama domo. Very much swollen, as a 
person suflfering from dropsy ; big, 

Dama domo jahga moen1»6a. His foot is yery 

much swollen. 
Dal dama domokedeae. He beat him till he 

swelled. (He strack him and prodnced 

mach swelling.) 

"Damae dundrai. To ask for with blus- 
ter and threata 

Pambrao. To obscure, to cover, to in- 
crease, to pervade. 

.TamdaKe i^ambraoakaCa. He has covered the 

dram (pat leather on the open ends.) 
Ba^k ^ambraoakantaea. His fever has increased. 

Dambrao. To become less, to decline 
in intensity. 

Ba^ dambfaoakantaea, His fever has declined. 
Edre dambf aoakantaea. His wrath has cooled. 

DambrL One eighth of a pice. 
Damcalc. Stunted, undersized, 

' DamcaKena. It is stanted. 

Damcak. M. "> Dishevelled, untidy, un- 
DamcL F. J kempt. 

DamoaX kof a. A lad with ankempt hair. 
D^moi kafi. A girl with ankempt locks. 

Pamdahe. To proclaim, to spread 
abroad, to be notorious. 

€h>(a disomre aniat ^aoi^ahedna. His fame 
went abroad into all the coantry. 

Damdam. Thick, as a clump of bam- 
boos, or head of hair. 

Damdam ap. Thick, coarse head of hair. 
Damdam dareakan ma£ dandhi. The clamp 
of bamboos has grown very thick. 

Dam dS; l"^" ^ * P"''®' ^ ^^^^ 

On^eko dam dafieda. They are bargainin^^ 
over there. 

Damgi. A mound, a hillock. 

Pamka ^umka. Big and little, unequaL 

pamka damk% joakana nes. This year the frait 
is of oneqaal sixe. 

Pamka <j[ura. Big and little, unequal, 
applied to root tubers and fruits. 

Pamka 4ar9 daakana. The tabers are of on- 
eqaal size. '< 

Damkam. Dues, out-stahdings. 

Damkamirt adai lagiC. I (am oome) for the 
parpose of collecting my daes. 

Damkam menaf tilia, ona sidi l%gi€ili calaffkana. 
I have pat-standings which I am going to 

Damkom. A bull cal£ 

Dampol dampol. Sound produced by 
one end of the dhinki striking the 
ground. C£ dhampol dhampoL 

Damra. M. 1 A steer. 
Damri. F. J A heifer. 

Damn. The eighth part of a paesa or 

Damsao. *) To shake, to relapse, as an 
Dhamsao. J illness. 

Ph^ri^len tahSkanae, are k^mikeCte ma arh5 
damsao ra^fentaea. He got well and by 
going to work saffered a relapse. 

Noni^em daUekhan onte damsaoXa. If yon strike 
here it shakes over there. 

Damul. To transport convicts. 

D^malkedeako. They transported him. 

Dan. To gift; a gift, largess; freely, 

Danpan. To obtain merit by giving. 
Danponalekanae. He is very free with his 

gifts to as, (as if be were laying ap a store 

of merit.) 
Dantegepe liamkeda, dantege emoKpe. Fieely 

ye have received, freely give. 

Pan. A witch ; witchcraft. 

Kai do ^^nece^eda. She is learning witchcraft. 

Dana. Grain, food, gram. 

Dana p^ni. Food and drink, sastenance. 
Jaharege danap^ni liamoK, on^egeii tahena. 

I wiU remain wherever I can get a living. 
Danap^ni par^aentaea. His aUotment of 

food is exhaasted, (his end has come.) 

Danai To judge, to consider, t^ decide; 
fate, fortune. 

Dan^ikatilime. Judge for me. 
Jageiiiatt d^n^ire hoyotf. Wl^atever may be 
my fate. 


[ 119 ] 


Danan. To conceal, to hide, to disappear, 
to depart this life ; to trust to, to 

Bare dananre mens ea. He is hidden by the tree. 
Danaiienae. He has passed from yiew, i. e. is 

Danah pef a. Hidden friends, i. e. the bongas 

(q. V.) 

Danapal. Three pieces of wood placed 
above a corpse on the funeral pile 
to keep it in position; a covering. 

l!)ana pani. Food and water; sustenance. 

Dand. V To take thought, to be anx- 
DandLj ious. 

Onate gai>a lagi€ alope dandoXa. Therefore 

take no thought for the morrow. 
Ape motore okoe hof dandkate a^aK din mi{ 

fhnri pr&ne ba4hao daf ekea ? Which of you 
y being anxious can prolong his life by 
one hour P 

Pand. Part of a tank at each of the 
embankment where it is prolonged 
into a narrow channel, often leading 
to the overflow channel 

Gel taka ^a^^ko ^gukedilia. They fined me 

ten rupees. 
Pan^omedi/i kanako. They are fining me. 

Panda. The loins, waist. 

Pan4a 4ora. A cord worn by males round the 
loins and by gitla before being invested 
with a garment. 

DandagirL To consider ; thought, anx- 
iety, diligence, forethougnt, pains. 

44i dandagirite noko mihfi merom doe jumao- 
aka£koa. It has been with great pains 
that he has gathered all these cattle. 

Dandanao. Quickly, furiously, rushing 

Paliil 1^6 dandanao heoenae. He rushed at 

me to strike me. 
Dandanao ^uroK. To reyolve rapidly. 

Dander. A cave, a den. 

Knl dander, tiger's den. 
Bana dander. A bear*s den. 

Dandha. To consider, to think, to be 
in anxiety, to search for anxiously, 
to laboiu* ; anxiety, care. 

Dandha baf a joi&kanae. He is seeking anxiously 

Pandha dandhi. C£ olan^hao. 

Dandha mandha. Uncertain, vaguely, 
doubtfully, ambiguously ; perhaps. 

Dandha mandhae rofkeda, calaX ooe bah ooh. 
He spoke doubtfully, whether he will go or 
not (X can't say.) 

Dan^hao. ) To grow luxuriantly, 

andhi. j 

Dandha (Jandhi. / as dhan, &c. 

Pao^haoakana. It has grown luxuriantly, 
pan^ha ^^n^hi dareakana. It has grown luxu- 

DandhL A clump. 

Janum dandhi. A clump of thorns. 
Ma6 dandhi. A dump of bamboos. 
Cero dandhi. A clump of sun grass. 

Pandi. A stalk. 

Ak <i^4i> A stalk of sugarcane. 

Dandi. Cf. dand. 
Pandi. Boundary. 

Pih 4^n^i. Hamlets and boundaries. 
Sim^ Cl^n^i ren bohga. The spirit of the boun- 

Pan(Ji6. The arm of a balance. 
Pandif. Line, stem, handle, shaft. 

Tula 49n4i£. The arm of a balance. 
Argom <l9n4i^. The shaft of a clod crusher. 
Catom ^i^n^if. The shank of an umbrella. 

O^ 49n4i€te€. The stem of a mushroom. 

... ^ 

Dandle. Hair hanging loose, hair un- 
fastened and unkempt. 

Up dandlegetaea. Her hair is flying loose. 

Pan^oli. A string worn round the 
waist (dora, q. v.) with a large 
tassel att€Uihed to it. 

Pan^om. To impose a fine ; a fine. 

Pandom. A handle, shaft. 

Ku^i ^an^om. A hoe handle. 
Tehgo6 4an4om. An axe handle. 
TamaK ^anjom. A drum stick. 
Burn ^An^om. End of a hill. 

Burn 4ctn4omrepe 0|raKaka£a. Yon hare built 
your house at the end of the hiU. 

Dandra dandri. "> Anxiously, though- 
Dandra dandri. J . fully, diligently. 

Apnm ar ill do dandfa d^ndfilili liambafaefme 
tahSkana. Thy father and I sought tiiee 

Dandrau. To look for anxiously. 

Gidi^ ehgat l%gi6 dandrau bafaekanae. The 
chUd is looking anxiously for its mother. 

Dane sane. Glutted, gorged with food 

Dane sane^e jom biena. He has gorged him- 
self with food. 

Dane sane gitio bafae kanae. He is lying 
torpid an;er having gorged himself. 

Pan. A pole. 

Banatt ^an. A pole with a hook at one end used 
to pull down dried branches or fruit from 

Pah (helaakoako. They wiU blame others. 


[ 120 ] 


P^n. A heap, a pile ; to pile up, to 

Non^epe he6 i^^iiakBiia. You haye crowds 
together here. 

Danga. 1 To fi^ht, or strike each 
Mar danga. J other ; a free fight ; 

to assault. 
Paiiga. Highland unsuitable for rice 

Pangal. High lands unsuitable for 

rice cultivation. 

Paiigal oookedam khet do. You have allowed 
the rioe field to become high land, (aUowed 
it to be tilted up with sand.) 

Dangaura. A rubbish heap, a heap of 

Dangi. A part of the slope of a hill. 

Bum dhasna. The foot of the hill. 

Bnm be^a. The part higher up than the 

Bumdfngi. Above tiie *<be4a.*' 

D*^ t^ [Humorous, jocular. 

Daiigot mara hof . 

P^gu^ Ummarried, bachelorhoods 
spinsterhood ; barren, as a tree ; 
unfertilized, as Indian com. 

Ding^^fiigu^. Unmarried, baohelorhood or 

Paftgn^ kora. A bachelor. 
Pihgu% kufi. A spinster. 

Panra. Aii ox, a bullock. 

Mtm^r^ ^siirA, A polled ox ; a tigorr. 
Bahgi^ ^ahra. A red ox ; fire ; a tiger 

Panra janum. A rather uncommon 
plant, one of the very few pricklv 
thistles found in Santalia, Ech^' 
nopa echinattts, D. G, 

Panra sea. A common bush, Premna 

latifolia, var cuneata, Roxb. 
Panri Cattle in general ; a cow. 

Danpun. C£ dan. 
Danta. A thick stick, a club, 
panta ene6. A dance by men, danced 
during the Sohrae. (q. v. ) 

Pantao. To rebuke, to chide. 

Bes oko6te ^antaokotape. Bebuke them 

CedaKpe ^antaoedekana P Whj do j<m chide 


Pantha dontho. Warty, knotty, having 
knobs or excrescences, as a tree ; 
in lumps, or clusters. 

Noa kanthaf do a4i ^an^ha 4ontho ioakana. 
This jack tree has many elusiers of fmil 

DSU>. Opportunity, a hole in the luMiiess. 

Dao hoein khan. When a oomrenient season 

DiU) dfto. Noise produced by the spin- 
ing wheel (carkha), and by a well 
braced farriaJc (q. v.), or by a pair 
of tumdaJcs (a. v.) 

Tumdal besko jutakaiSa dao dlo sa^^kana. 

D&o d^. In crowds, in swarms ;. buz- 

Dio dioko hijula. They come bnsiing ia 

Dao ghaS! } Opportunity,a good chance. 

Dio ^haoid tiamkef ted bhagaokedea. I took 

hun at a disadyantage and so oonqnwed 

Dao ghaoili Aamkeda, onate ^her dofid kirid- 

keda. I got a good chance and so botight a 

considerable quantity. 

"Db,^, To cover, to thatch. 

OrnUd dab l^gif. I am aboM fo tfafttoh my 

TumdaK dabme. Cover the drum, (the open 

ends with skfai.) 

Dapa dapL Threatening to aawoli 
each other when quarrelling* 

Bapa d$piko kiq>h^ri%ufkana. They are quar- 
relling and seem as if about to proceed to 
• blows. 

Dapal. To cover, to conceaL 

Babahedekana, ma dapalkaeme. He is oold, 
cover him up. 

Dapal. To strike each other, to fight* 
C£ dal. 

Dapsl siro soroakanakin. lliey have fought 
and wounded each other, to the effusion of 

Dapan dapan. Wearing the sari very 
short, above the knees. 

Netar hofo rohoere dapah dapahko bandeKa 
lo8o€ botorte. At this time of the year 
when planting rice many wear the sari 
very short for fear of the mud. 

Dapat'. "I Dirty, disccdoured, tub 

Dapa^ dapal J food burnt in cooking. 

Jon^ra daka dapail dapaf roiigoakana. The 
boiled Indian com is burnt to disoolour- 

Dap dapa. Very wide, broad. 

44A dap dapsm dehokeda dufr do. Ton have 
made the door very wide. 

Dap du6. 1 To tilt up, to alternately 
Dip ^ap. J rise and descend, a& ih^ 
arm of a balance. 

Miitegebon gi4ima, baftkhanbo 4a^ ^upkola. 
Let us all throw at once ^ae it may tilt 
up and give us a knock. 

Dap du]^ 

t 121 ] 


Dapor. ' 



Pa^ inp. Sound produced by light 
objects falling in succession. 

Jo do gAP^up^QT go€ena. Thdfmit fell patter- 
ing aown. 

Dapkao. To boil, to cook. 

Datt ^apkaome. Boil tome water. 
Caole ^apkaome. Cook the rice. 

Dapkao. To forbid, to subdue, to set 

Bulled daplcaohedeae. He toolded and put him 

Dapkao. To crouch down, lying in 
wait foi* prey. 

In comp. gives the idea of in- 
difiference, outright, there is 
an end of it, end it, be done 
with it, in the end, eventually. 

Go^ dapofoKmae. Let him die (it is a matter 

of no moment to me). 
Adoe jaha dapofoXge noare do^ nirdosieea. 

YHiat ever may eyentoallj become of him 

I am without blame. 
Dumor lielkope bhala, gota rabah dinko dnfnp 

dapof joiikana. Look at the honey bees, 

they remain idle the winter through. 
*Be8 daporkoia. It might ereatually be beet. 
Em dapof aeme. Give to her and get done with 

NaseaXiii oapaflede doe go^ dapof go€en. I 

only struck him lightly (with a stone) and 

he died oniright. 
Doho dapof kam. tin^X bam tulkaX ? Put it 

down (don't trouble yourself further witii 

it), how long will youhold it up ? 

Dapram. To meet. Cf. daram. 

Oka thenpe dapramenaF Barakarre. Where 
did you meet each other P At the Barakar. 

Dapthu. Large, biff. 

P^p^u bohoK. A big nead. 

Dar. Inflamed, area of inflammation of 
a boil. 

Nin^ffte darakana. The inflammation extends 
thus far. 

OJo leka darenako. They have an inflamed area 
like a b<»l. (Said of an upstart who has 
a groat idea of his own importance.) 

Dar. A fissure, a rent, a trench. 

Darga^a. Excavation lor a foundation, or for 

a ** deadset ** hedge. 
Mi6 kudi darte laeme. Dig the trench the 

breadth of one kudaH. 

D^y. To run, to flee, to change resi- 

D^kr tapkedae. He ran off. 
VtaX atoteko d^fkeda. They flitted to soother 

Par. A branch of a tree. 

Uni darateli llamkeda. I got it throvgh him. 


Darft. To walk, to go. 

Daf S dSf ateii laiigaena. I am tired with walk- 

DSf a oaf ealae. He is able to walk. 
DSfi ^^I^' '^^ ^^11^ about. 

Dara. To come. 

Darakin kana. They two are coming. 
Hanko darakokana. They are coming. 
Agn dara. To bring along with. 
Bolodara. To ente^ on the way coming. 
Nel dara. To view on the way coming. 
Bap dara. To bring along with. 
Jom dara. To eat and come. 
Hoho dara. To call one when coming. 
Dal dara. To beat coming. 
Laga dara. To bring driying. 

Dara. Cf. darao. 

Dara6 duru6. Of imequal height, great 

and small 
Dara dar. Instantly, immediately, 

Dara d^rko padjakedea. They followed her 

Dafft durtl. So made as not to stand 
steadily, or upright ; to sway. 

Dafa dufiim kirili ^gvSei. Ton haye bought 
a thmg that won't stand steadily. 

Darae darae. Sound of thumping, 
slamming, clanking. 

Silpili sadekana daf ae dafae. The door is being 

Jog M^djhi do bhagete dafae dafae silpilie so- 


Darae dhampae.l Busy, many things 
Darae dhapae. J requiring attention ; 
diligently, hastily, without delay. 

Dafae dhampae l^ele lagi€e calaKkana. He is 
hurrying to see him. 

Darahara. IFine, large, substantial, 
Dharahai*a. /applied to houses. 

Darahara ofaK. A splendid mansion. 

Darak darak. Frequently, oft^i, with- 
out ceasing. 

DaraK daraM tinaXem hiju'kana. How long 

will you keep coming. 
DaraK daralfiii hohokeda, enhS bam heolena. I 

called several times, stiU you did not come. 

Daram. To meet, to oppose ; to show 

Bes okocteye daramkeCkoa. He entertained 

them hospitably. 
BuhelS daramkediHae. He met ne with angry 

Idi daram. To take to one coming. 
Ba^ae daram. To know beforenand, to fore« 

Kel daramem, bafikha6 daram ^guem. Look 

out for him, or else go to meet him and bring 

Peraii daramkefkoa. I went to meet my 

friends, or I entertained my friends. 
Bar hofe daramkefkina. He met two men. 
Atah daram. To welcome, to shew hospitality, 

to reeeive, to hold out to meet, as the hands. 
Phalre sarili atah darama. I win intercept the 

arrows witii my shield. 

Daram dale 

[ 122 1 

Dare dhatuak 

Daram dale. A ceremony observed at 

The bridegroom and his party halt at the 
entrance to the bride's Tillage and the per- 
son who negotiated the marriage goes for- 
ward and informs them of the arrii?ibl of the 
bridegroom. The Jog M^djhi of tiie bride's 
Tillage carrying a brass lota, and the Tillage 
messenger (C^et) carrying a waterpot 
full of water ^o to meet them, saying, 
** Here friends is water to drink." 

Daran. To walk, to journey, to travel. 

Eneo eneote knlhiko darana. They go about the 

street dancinv^ 
Dh^rti dafanre. During the earthly pilgrimage 

or joumeT. 
j^lai reaM c 

Is^i i^tri reaM dairan* The Christian Pilgrim's 

Daran. Steep, precipitous. 

Daf ah. A break in the line of a precipice, a 

oaTC in the face of a precipice. 
Ekalte sidup daf ah. Almost perpendicular. 

Daran. 1 White hot, blazing hot, 

Daran daran. J glowing. 

HSfh§6 darah darah dhip^uakana. The iron is 

heated to a white heat. 
Oh darahme. Blow it (fire) into a glow. 

Daran durud. Dowdy, out of sorts, 
seedy, not fully awake, applied also 
to the condition of one suffering 
from coryza or low fever. 

Darao. 1 To prove, to bring evidence, 
Dara. J to disprove, to traverse, to 

Noa katha amem darao dafeattaP Oan you dis- 
proTe tbia statement? 
. Ado daraoae portonkateko menkeda. And they 
began to accuse him saying. 
AbenaK katha daraott lekanatt kangea. Tour 
statement is like one that can be proTOd. 

jy ^' > Metal, excluding iron. 

Darasoro.") Q,. , ., 
Doro soro. j © y* 

Dara soroe rn^Xkana. He has slight fcTcr. 

Darau. 1 Loudly, at the top of 

Darau darau. J one's voice, loud 

• • • • • • ^r J 


Buhefedae d^f ^u dap^u. She scolds at the top 
of her Toico. 

Darban. A door keeper. 

Darbar. ") A conclave, a meeting for the 
Dorbar. J discussion and settlement of 

Dardaha. A glutton, gluttonous. 

Dardarao. To split, to crack, as a wall 
or an embankment. 

Ahar are do dardaraoXkana ma hasawaXme. 
The embankment of the ahar (q. t.) is crack- 
ing, put earth on it. 

Dar dhup. To run hither and thither, 
to work or labour hard ; toil and 

A^ile d^r dhupkeda bae ^k%uleda. We did aU 
that we could (went here and there for 
' medicine and doctors) but he did not puU 

Dare. A tree, a plant ; to grow, to 
grow well. 

Bah darelena. It did not grow weU. 
Toa dare. Mother, the support of life. 

Dare* Strength, power, might, ability ; 
to over-come, to vanquish, to con- 

Dare hor. An able bodied man. 

Um tuluo bae dafelena. He was no match for 

Amem dapeena. You conquered. 
Bako dafeaea. They can't Tanquish him. 
Ghas ni^ge dafetako. Grass is their strength. 

Parkomre otadafekate bere£me. Strengthen 
Tourself bT pressing (your hands) on the 
bed and get up. 

Dafe bhor. Full strength. 

Dafegell ^el otoledea. I left him strengthened 

Dafe durentida. I haTe become old, or poor, 

or weak. 

Darff. A sacrifice, a victim ; to devote to 
sacrificial purposes. 

IHLfS samah. To offer sacrifice. 

Oholi ^kkrililekoa noko do bohga dafe kanako. 

1 cannot seU them, they are dcToted to the 

Marah Bum daf Sko samahaea. They offer 

sacrifice to Marang Burn. (q. t.) 

Noko dSfeii samahkoa hapen. I wiU offer these 
Tictims in the future. 

Daf S tehgen. To scTcr the head from an animal 
when sacrificing it by pressing the neck 
against a sharp blade. 

Dare banki. A very common orchid, 
Vanda Roxburghii, R. Br, C£ 



Dare dhatuaK. 1 Not to put forth one's 
Dare dhatuat'. J strength, not to exert 
one's self; slothful, lazy. 

Nui do dare dh^tuaM kanae,baJikhannoajae^a- 
reye ^sulkola. He is slothful, otherwise 
he could get a liTing out of this land. 

Dape dh^tuatf khanem jomaP If you reserre your 
strength (if you do not exert yourself) wiU 
you get f ood P 

Dapepe dh^tuada. Ton did not spend your 


[ 123 ] 



Dare ijhompo. An annual plant grow- 
ing to a height of eight or ten 
feet, found near villages, Leonatis 
Tiepetcefolia, 22. Br. Cf. bonga bar- 

Dare huter. A oommon plant, Indi- 
gofera pulcheUa, Roxb. 

Dare japak. A large jungle climbing 
plant, Scindapsus ojfficinalis, 

Dare kudrum. Cultivated for its fibre. 
Hibiscus cannabinuSy Linn. 

Dare orsa. A small plant common during 
the rains, ComTnelyna sufft^t- 
icosa, Bl. 

Dilrga. A precipice. 

Harah ntar aarga menaKa. Tberd is an immensd 
precipice (there.) 

Dargu dargu. Large, big. 

D^rg^i^ d^rsr^i joakana. The miit is yery larg^. 

Darha. A pool or deep place in a river. 

Dal darhaaluifae. The water has scooped out 
a pool. 


A4i maraii dafhap bohoK. An immensely large 

Dari. A small cotton carpet or floor 
cloth ; a cotton rug for sleeping 

-p.- .' ,. !■ A prostitute. 
Jj^ii chinar. j ^ 

Daria. Thick, obstinate, sluggish, thick 
skinned, impervious. 

A4i d^^k montae bae grhamaoXa. He is yery 

sln^gish; he won't flre up. 
^4i d^n^pe erkeda. Yon haye sown the seed 

yery thickly. 

Daria^. To investigate, to enquire 
into, to consider. 

• Oele, monere dom d^ri^kpkeda ? Haye yon oon- 
Dfri9i>tabonpe. Inyestigate for ns. 

Dariau. 1 The sea, ocean, large river, 
Dorecbo. J like an inland sea. 

D^lidarem taj)enaP Haye yon emerged a glnttonP 

Darja., Property, house and stock. 

Khub darja menaMtaea. He is yery will-to^o. 

Darja. Degree, rank, station. 
DarjL A tailor. 

^- JLarge, big. 

Darka. A species of fish. Cf. (Jandka. 

Darka dale. With dishevelled hair. 
Said of women who throw their 
hair loose, as a sign of sorrow, 
shame, or anger, or to excite pity 
or compassion. 

Darka daleye raff eda. She weeps with her hair 
loose and in disorder. 

Darkak dorkolc. Rough and imeven, 
as a road ; to jolt over a rough 
road. C£ dharkak dhorkolc. 

Darkal markal. 1 With dishevelled hair, 
Darkul markuLj applied to men as 

" darkadale " (q. v.) is applied to 


Darkao. To crack, to break. 

Bhit darkaoena. The wall is cracked. 

Darkhas. A petition, a plaint. 
Darkul markul Cf. darkal markal. 

Darmaha. Wages, pay. 

DarmaL To go bail, to become surety; 
respectable, well-to-do. 

D^rmflakanam, ma h^jirem. Ton went bail 
for him, make him appear. 

Nni doe d^rmalakadea. He made him his snrety . 

Dermal hof kanae. He is a weU-to-do, res- 
pectable man. 

Darman. Bullet-headed. 

Haraii dapnaiie haraakana. 

Darmot Obstinate, thick-skinned, 
stout, sturdv, wealthy. 

Khub darmot hop kanae. He is a stent feUow. 

Darnga. Steep. 

Darpot. T Applied to the tumdaK (q. v.) 
Dorpot J drum when the lacquer or 
varnish is worn oflf the ends by 
beating ; flawed, blemished, defec- 

Noakhun^i do darpot^ea^ oal^pe lagaokedaP 
This post has a flaw in it why did yon pnt it 

Darrao. To slip, as by treading on 
something slippery; to stumble, 
as by treading on something that 
rolls from underneath the feet. 

Mntknri dhirirem lebe€lekhan darpao gofkoff- 
am. If yon tread on a ronnd stone it will 
roU from under yonr feet and yon will 

Darrao. To roll, to husk, as by grinding 
with a curry stone. 

Darfao d^I. D^l made by grinding with a 
onrry stone. 

Daraftr > 

I 124 ] 


Kr.} Slope of a hill. 

Darsaii. To look to, to hope in, to 
claim protection or justice. 

44iin d^rs^uedekana, baeK&noRa. You tmst 
greatly in him, he is a broken reed. 

Daru. Large, big. 

D^r^i bohol. A big head. 

D^f a ol. A mango tree that bears fniit of a 

large size. 
D^ra a^ni joakana, nes. This year it has 

borne large fmit. 

Daru. Gunpowder. 
Daru. Distilled liquor, fix)in matkom 
(q. V.) flowers. 

DaruK dacuK. Quickly, untidy, stained 
with travel or work. 

i^L^i d^mX d^ouKem he6 goi^n do. Ton hare 

come in great haste. 
NitoK do k^mi khon d^rutt d^ontfe hijuttkana. 

DarumdhaK. Very much, greatly. 

applied to swellings. 
D^romdhaKe mp»kan». He is yery 'rnnok 

Darum sarum. Very hairy, shaggy. 

Bana d%mm sammko npana. Bear^ have shag- 
gy hair. 

Darun. Conceminff. 

Cet damnteko giripdarkedea? For what rQftqon 
did they apprenend himp 

Darun. Painful, excruciating. 

Darwan. A door keeper. 

Darya dapak . ") Used by a wife when 
Darya rapatc. J scolding her husband. 

■p. * > Condition, state, luck. 

UiaK dasa linrentiiia. My condition has fallen 
(I have become poor or wretched.) 

Unial^ dasa onkangetaea. That is just his Inok. 

Dasae. The month Asin, September- 

Dasae porob. A festiYal obserred in the month 
of I)a8ae (q. t.). 

Dasao. ") To fall, to crumble down, to 
Dhasao. J collapse, as a wall. 

Bhit da^apena. The wall has collapsed^ 

Dasaona. A small ladle used to lift oil. 

Mi£ dasaona snnum. A smaU ladlefuU of oU. 

Pasi. A fringe. 

DasL A female servant, a maid servant. 

Qntlko d%siko. Male and female servants. 


Dastur. Custom, usage. 

D^tur leka. According to custom. 

Dasturi. Discount, commission, bro- 
D^t. A tooth. 

Df t. A pick, a mattock. 

Pata. A tooth, the teeth. 

Togo^ (^|a. To gnash the teeth. 

Pata ^afi. To rebuke both parties to 
a quarrel. 

Pata 49vil^2^opo> aloko nonk^ bafae. 

a am. » ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^ tooth 
Datauni* I l>r^li J *« <^lean the teeth. 

Anrid d^t^uniffa. I have not yet cleaned my 
teeth, i. e. I haye not yet broken my fast. 
Switals as a rule do not eat before ckaning 
their teeth in the morning. 

Datela. A large wild boar with huge 

Patha duthu. Adult, grown up. 

Eken 4atha 4nthu horko tahSkana. There 
were only grown up people there. 

Patha ^uthu. Having no family. 

Pa|hi 1 The petioles and mid-ribs of a 

Dati. ■ compound leaf after the leaf- 

PhathiJ lets have been plucked off, 

stalks of certain plants, as Indian 

com, after the gredn has been taken 


Mung^afalt <[%tl^. Petioles and mid-ribs of 
tiie leaves of Moringa pterygo$perma, 
Oxrtn.f after the leaves have been plucked 
off for cooking. 

Phathi. Pattern, sample. 

Kia <lh%thi benaome. Make it like this pattetn. 

P^t^hL Importunate, clamant. 

Nni do %4ie 4%thia. He is very importunate. 

Pathu. \ 

Datkap. J-Big headed, bullet headed. 

Datu. J 

• • • < 

Marah 4atka|> kul. A tiger with a very large 

S^'oi}^ ^^"^^^ ^ cookroo«L 
Datli. C£ datri. 

Patmot Stout, strong, robust, stout 
and vigoroua 

Elhub c^atmot kofa kanae. He is a strong 
vigorous young man. 

Pato. The claws or pincers (chelea) of 
crabs, &c. 

Patom. *) To seize with the claws or pin- 
Ditom. J cers, as crabs, scorpions, &c. 

Katkom ^itomkediiiae. 
with its pincers. 

The crab seized me 


[ 125 ] 

pebe ^ebe 


Datra. 7 Two plants eo by this name 
Dhatra. ) DhatvA^a alba, and Dhatura 

Datre. A small sickle. 

DatrLlUsed sometimes by one wo- 

Datli J man when scolding another. 

Jolottem Aelolkana d%tri do. 

Datii. Rice and kode (q. v.) flour cook- 
ed together. I 

Datrisa. Bleeding from the gums. 
Datrom. A toothed sickle. 

Laii^ dattom. A edokle without a handle. 

Sambhe datrom. A sickle with a ferrule, or 
iron ring on the handle where the tang 
enters to keep it from splittinfif. 

Datu. Cf. 4athi 

Da^lS ' ""^ } '•'^ ''''^ ""P ^ "^^^^ 

Ma hakopako daula d^ulipe. Come, <mt |ip 
the c%rcase quickly. 

Daulat. Wealth, property. 
Daul^tan. Wealthy, possessed of pro- 
Daulau. Ci dauladauli. 

Daura. A large round shallow flat- 
bottomed basket. 

Bahu d»ur«. A specially large basket in which 
a bride is raised shoulder high at the time 
the bridegroom applies the red paint to 
her forehead. 

Daur^ dauri. Quickly, in haste. 

D^af 9 dauriye calao goiSena. He left in hasto. 

D^ur^ha. A village runner, guide or 

Daura soprot Punishment in which 

the criminal is moved from place 

to place. 
Daurau. To go quickly. 

Ma d^uf 9ume. GK> quickly. 

Dauri6. A round shallow flat bottomed 
basket, smaller than a ' dqnr(f (q- v.) 
Dawa. To lay claim to, to insist. 

Dawa dokhol b^nuKtaea. He has no right 

CalaK l9gi€em dawaedaP Tou insist on going? 

Dawahi Importunate, clamorous. 

A^ dawahi hop kanae. He is a very importunate 

Dawan dawan.l Suspended, depending, 
Pian dian. J hanging, dangling. 

^9h 4i^e sapalcala. He holds it suspended 
from his hand. 

CeC 4i»D 4i9iiem asen bafaedekana? vvhy do 
you take Mm about dangling after youP (a 
mother taking her ohild about with heir.) 

K*"™*-) An ink bottle. 
Dowat. J 

Daya. Mercy, pity;- piteously, plain- 
tively ; to shew mercy or pity. 

Daya maya. Pity and sympatiiy. 

Daya b^nuKtakoa. They are merciless. 

Dayawadegeae. He had pity on him. 

Bid oefedaya^eye raga. The Bichi bird (Ctrcu* 

Bwainsonii) caUs plaintively. 
Dayaffeli Helekana. I feelpity for him. 
Dayal lekae emoKkana. He gives grudgingly. 
Bae dayawadea. He did not spare nim. 
Daya liathea raraSkanae. He weeps piteously. 

Dayalc dayak. Wearisome, tedious, 
disheartening, as a large extent of 
bare uninhabited country ot a 
large forest to a traveller, 

Dayatf oayatt noa t^n^i do ^i maraha. This 

is a liurge wearisome plain. 
Dayatt dayaK mun^lu* A wearisome jungle. 

Dayik. Responsible, liable to, in dan- 
ger of. 
De. An interjection of entreaty. 

De hljuttme. Do oome. 
De ematime. Do give to me. 
De alijomkatilime. Do listen to my prayer. 
Debon k^mi hoda. Come, let us work hard. 
De na usara hodme. Now my girl, do be quick. 
De ja d^f hodme. Come my boy, mn fast. 
De se aiijomtilSme. Do listen to me. 
Dege bic^rkatilime. Do please decide it for 

Dea. The back ; to turn the back to. 

Dea gi^ikediliae. He forgot me, or refused to 

hcdp me. 
Dea gigiafmeati. I neglected thee, or thrust 

thee aside. 
Dea dea midotf ben. Stand back to back* 

Deao. To become surety for a loan, 
or goods supplied on credit. 

Uniye deaoaflea. He became surety for the 
loan given to us. 

Mahajon then khon deaoaeme. Get the money- 
lender to give him a loan and become secur- 
ity for the repayment of it. 

Deaoki. Surety for goods or money 
given to another. 

Deaoki tehgoakanae. He has become surety. 

Deasi, The Hindu priest in charge 
of a shrine at which " hook swing- 
ing " used to be observed. 





Pebe deba Small, tiny, short, tripping 
short steps, applied to children 
and dwarfe. 

Pebe 4ebe caooMkanae. He teddies taking 

short stops. 
Pebe<|ebe<leloXkanae. Heis^niceUttle ''tot.'* 

An idol. 

pcbe debe 

[ 126 ] 

Pelem delem 

Debe 4ebe. Applied to the swimming 
of one who is over fktigued. 

Pebe ^ehe paeraKkanae, laiigaenae. 

Debe ^ehe. A * rattat ' played on the 
drum at a hunt. 

Debedebe. To stagger, as one canying 
a very heavy load, to waddle. 

Deble "> Small, little, tiny and 

Peble (Jeble. J neat, applied to very 
small girls. 

Nin maraii 4eble. A * tot ' so big. 
Peble 4eble lieloXkanae. She is a pret^ little 

De6. To mount, to climb, to embark, 
to enter a carriage, railway train, 
&c., to increase. 

De^keditia. He pat me up. 

Sen ato de6 dare. The future cannot be 

Bahako deja. Thev climb for flowers. 
De6 gelafali. I will mount and try him. 

De6. The second ploughing of a field 
which is across the first. 

ParaK. The first ploughing. 
Deo. The second „ 
Uth^u. The third „ 

Pe6 de6. Blazing. 

Pe6 4e6 jololkana. It is biasing. 
Alope ^eo <jleja. Do not make it blaze. 

Pedhaore.\The tree which yields the 

Didhauri. J jujubes or Chinese dates, 
Zizyphus jujiiha, Lamk. 

Pedger. A small drum, beaten with 
the hands. 

Pedhel With much entreaty, impor- 
tunity or pleading. 

Mot m%ri^ ^e4ne€ idikedea. 
Ma kurumutukate 4e4hei! ^flmipe. 
Pe4he£bateil %guakaf|a. 

Pegha. "jA place outside the 

Degha ga^i. f tnreshing floor where 

Degha kharai. j the grain carts stand 

when unloading. It is smoothed 

so that the grain which &lls can 

easily be swept up. 

Deh. The body. 

4iiire dehre. 

P6h6. "^ A lump, or swelling ; any pro- 
Jo. J tuberant deformity. 

Peh§k dehSk. A * rattat' played on the 
drum by Pom drummers. 

Peh§£ 4undun. To put off time, to 

Me delabon, ce£ ^ehd£ ^i^i^^uh ba]raekanaeP 

Pehe£ (Jun^hei Begging, praying, en- 

Peke. The hip. 

Pekel To loosen by shaking, as a 
post fixed in the ground. 

Khun^ ^ekedme bah todoKkana. The post 
can't be pulled up, loosen it by shaking it. 

PekeC ^el^e^* Trembling, vibrating, 

Khun(i bah urioa, ^eket 4okedolk4ns. The 
post is not firm, it oscillates* 

Tin^Kem daf can 4eke£ ^ekef. 
Nuipe gupi ocoaekana 4eke€ 4oke£. 

Dekhaols. To be seen, to appear, to 
come into view. 

Dekhense. Let me see. 

Dekhesell iieltama. 
DekhenseH jom legaXtama. 

Dekhit. Deliberatelv, with eyes open. 

Met dekhit geje gurolkana. He faUs with 
his eyes open. 

Dekja. *) An exlamation of surprize, 
Dekhja. J or admiration. 

Dekja lielepe ! ahftre tolakaCa 

Deko. A Hindu 

Deko pusi. A Hindu cat ; a term of 
contempt applied to Hindua 

Deko pera. A courteous term applied 
to Hindua 

Deko pera j^um jhanti rorolgea. A Hindu 
and a thorn fence prick. 

Deko sindur. A medicinal herb, Buett- 
neria herbdcea, Boxb, 

Dela. To invite to accomptuiy, come. 

Dela dara. To bring along with. 
Uniye delaakawaClea. He brought us. 
Dela iSoMadeaii. I gave him a little encourage- 
Delabon calaKa. Come, we will go. 

Dela dili. Just before, on the point o£ 

Bakaj) dela dili. Just before ascending. 
Tikin dela dili. Just before mid-day. 
ChijuK dela diH. Just before dying. 

Delao. Cf. deao. 

Pel del. Stockstill, a dead calm. 

Nui maejiu <jlel ^ele tehgoakana. This woman 

stands stockstiU. 
Khange onakin do thirena^ ar nijhum 46l4olena. 

Aud they ceased and there was a great 


Pelem delem. 1 y jj^^i ^^ ^^ 

Puum <Julum.V ^^.,j^^; ^f 
Dulun duluQ. j 

Pelem 4elem cacoM gidr^. 


[ 12V ] 

Dera diri 



Demaria. Inconsiderately, without 
reason, unreasonably. 

Dem%ri9e rohe^kedUia. He scolded me without 

Dem^^ oalal laea€e. 

Dem^^ko dalkedea. They beat him unreason- 

P^emba. Half ripe, harvested before 
properly ripe, flat, as beer. 

t>emba jon^ra. Indian com that has been 

harvested before being fnlly ripe. 
JE>emba h^n^i. Flat rice beer. 

Pembe. Half ripe, as grain or fruit. 

Demcok. Erect, applied to persons of 
shoi-t stature. 

Pemcole tehgoakana. He is standing ereot. 
Hopon hopon 4emcoKe ileloikana. 

Demda. Under-sized. 

Pem4a hof kanae. He is short of stature. 

Dem dem. Stockstill, stcmding idle. 
Said of females. 

9em ^eme tehgoakana. She is standing stock- 

Demer demer. Quickly, hastily. 

Demer demere he6 gofena. H« came yery 

Demer potom. Cf dever potom. 

Pemka. Qi*een, unripe, as fruit. 

Pemka. The leaf of the palmyra palm. 

Demkhem. Idling, hesitating, said 
of girls. 

Ce€em demkhem ba]raekanaP Why are you 
idling about? 

Pemkok. The leaf of the Palmyra 
palm, and also the fruit when 

Den. Give, give to me, or to us ; used 
with all inanimate objects, and 
animate when in the dual or plural. 

Ce€eip den denoIkanaP Why are you continuaUy 

Den daK. Give me water. 
Den 9guime. Bring to me. 
Denya. Used by males of equal a^ when asking 

any inanimate object to be given. 

Denya theiiga. Qive me the stick. 
Denya thamakhur. Give me some tobacco. 
Denho. Bespectful form of request, please 
give to me or to us. 

Denho dal. Please give me water. 
Den se. Entreating form of request, do give to 
me or to us. 

Den se mil! kecaM. Give me a piece. 

Den na. Give to me, or to us ; used when asking 
any thing from a female younger than the 
speaker, but never employed when address- 
ing a niece. 

Den ^. A respectful form of request : Mother, 
give to me, or to us, used when aeking any- 
thing from one's mother, also when the per- 
son addressed, bemg a female, is much 
older than the speaker, or when she ia a 

Den ^ sen^l. Please give me fire. 

Den ia. Give to me, or to us ; used when ad- 
dressing males younger than the speaker. 

Pen^e. Tailless, as a fowl ; in need of 

Nui sim sapkate ^en^ekaeme. Catch this fowl 
and pull out her tail feathers (or clip the 
the wingrs and tail. 

Pen4e cabaenale. We are almost naked. 

Pen^ka. A variety of the barndoor 
fowl with scanty feathers. 

Pen^kel Tailless, as a fowl. 

Dene banar. Both. 

Dene banar dharana. Two edged. 
Dene banar mocaanae. Has a mouth at both 
ends (said of a species of snake.) 

Pe^ga. To put on clothes, said of men. 

Rhagwa ^lehga. C^. bhagwa. 

Pathe 4ehfira. To bind round waist, or loins. 

Dhuti 4exiga. To put on the dhoti. 

Sedae re pa^he 4^?t^ tahl>kana, dhuti <jlehga 
bah tflkhSkana. In the olden time g^ments 
fastened round the loins were worn, the 
dhuti was not worn. 

Pedgha ga(jli. 
Dengha kharai.^ 

Denya. Give, used by boys of equal age 
to each other, and by older to 
younger men. 

Deo bhagin. Nephews and nieces, chil- 
dren of a sister. 

Deona diuni To sulk, to be in the 

Ce^m deona diuni bafaekana. Why are you 
sulking about. Said of girls. 

Pep ^^j^- Wind on the stomach, tight 
feeling after a full meal. 

Pe|> ^epili ^%ueda. 

Deper. Cf. der. 

Der. To copulate, to have sexual inter- 

Der. To stretch oneself, as one who 
has sat in one position for a long 

'Pera. A camp, a lodging. 

PeraK. To encamp. 

Dera diri. To put off time, saunter 
to delay, to be late. 

^i dera dirietkanae. He is very late. 

Cf. ^egha. 

pgrtf depe 

t m ) 


P6r6 ^epe. Cf. <Jh5r6 ^hepe. . 

Dere dere. Angrily. 

Dere<^ dere6. To shiver, as on the ap- 
proach of an attack of fever. 

Deree dereo iH aikanedft. 

Dered. A horn. 

Dere^anko. Creatorea hftying horns. 

Dered kokor. Collared Scops owl. 
Scops bakkamoena. 

Perel Small, little. 

Derel A small bird so called. 

T)QT^i d6p0£. Worn to skin and bone, 
lean, emaciated. 

Uni ho]r do ka^le^ leka 4^r^ ^SpS^e osolakana. 
That man has become as lean as a switch. 

Derhi |Oneftndahal£ 

Perhi snd. Fifty per cent, interest. 

Des. Country, native country. 

Des M^tijhi. Am orer-ohief . 

Desapati raj. The king of the country, 

a great king. 
Des biaes. One country after another. 

Dese. Conveys the idea of entreaty. 

Dese alijom til^me. Bo listen to me, or grant 
my reqnest. 

Despoda. A wanderer, a vagrant, one 
who does not work, but spends his 
time visiting friends and living 
on them. 

Nni do oele despoda ooh. 

Pefdel!. Small. 

(>e{ deii6 f^^r^' A ^^^T nnaU child. 
^t 4e€ kicri^e emiskdiila. He gave me a very 
smaU piece of cloth. 

Dever potom. 1 Child by a former hus- 
Demer potom. J band. 

ewa. I rp^ worship, to serve. 

Dewa sewa. J ^' 

Probha amren Isorem sewawae, ar nni eskarem 
dewawae. Thou shalt worship the Lord 
thy God and him only shalt thou serve. 

Dewan. Prime minister, manager, fisuj- 

Baj ren dewan. The king's manager. 
Kacah^ri ren dewan. The Head clerk of the 

Pewan. ") rp^ ^j^^^^ 

Pewet' ^ewet J 

Khuntiye 4ewe£keda. He shook the post. 
Beta do can^bole ^ewet ^^wefeda. 

DewanL Civil, as opposed to criminal. 

Dewani adalot. Civil court. 
Dewaoi mokotdomft. A Civil suit. 

Dewer potom. Child by a former kus*^ 

pewet Cf. ^e^^'^n- 
Dhab. A hollow, a large moist rice 

Phab then dal 4abraakana. Water has ool- 

lected in the hoUow. 
Non^em 4hab ocokeda, bam mi£ sSolaKa. You 

have not levelled it, you have made a hoUow 

Phab 4habe calaoOTia. He followed up the 


Phaba. A verandah, the eaves of a 
house with a large pix)jection. 

Phabaakafali. I have added a verandah (to 
my house.) 

Phaba lumam. Good, 1st Class uni- 

voltine tassar cocoons. 
Phabao. To put away a vessel after 

having eaten from it without first 

having cleaned it. 

Cedalem ctoho dhabaoaka6bP Why did you 
put it away dirty. 

Dhabaf dhubuf. Plump, big. 
Dhabi6. Till, until, as fiu* as, as long a& 

Jiwe€iil tahen dh^bi6. As longaS I live: 
Ato dh^bi^le pailja idikedea. We tracked hia 
up to the village. 

Dhabra. ") Broad footed, clay adhering 

Dhabre. / to feet. 

Dhabre genga. A method of wearing 

the bbagwa (q. v.) 
Dhablu. Broad. 

Dh%blu jahga. Broad feet. 

Dh^bfu. Broad and thick. 

Dh^fu ku4i* A broad hoe. 

Phabun. A pit or hollow full of water. 

Noa then ^habuhgea. There is a water hole 

Phabuskak. Large heavy bodied. 

Marah dhabuskal ka<la kanae. It is %■ large 
heavy bodied buffalo. 

Phabuskut'. The swishing sound made 
when raising water for irrigation. 

phabusku^ 4habu8Ku€ daSko aMre^kana. 

Dhaca. A way of dressing the hair in 
which a few inches are allowed to 
stand up or hang down behind. 

This was the universal custom among Santals 
till within recent years, when hwpina of 
local manufacture have come into use an»ong 
women. The ' dhaca ' of the men was na- 
tural, but that of the women was artificial 
made from the long hairs taken from the 
tails of cows. Cf . cf urii. 

Toyik dhaoa. A plume made from the feathers 
ol the blue jay <toyaX and worn by girls 
stuck in their back hair on gala days. 

Dhacd dbacal 

t 120 1 

Dhakar pakar 

Dhacal dhacal. Cf. dhacal dbitcul. 

Dhacal dhucul. \To shake, to bob up 
Dbucnl dhucal.J and down, or back- 
wards and lorwards. 

• Dhacrar. Self-willed, restive, as an 
imperfectly broken-in bullock. 

Dh^ri. A forelock, hair hanging down 
over the brow. 

Dh^eri kal. A lion. 

Phachuis. Bravado, pretence, ostenta- 
tion, bunkum. 

Pha^Tiaaedae, ph^ rajfJIali. She is onlj pre- 
tending to h/mg nerself . 

Phados. ■) Brave, plucky, fearless, 
Phadosia. ) sturdy, cheerfiiL 

Bes ^Uia^os hor kanae. He is » fine plucky 

Pba^osali balS naiigoaa. I wiU be plucky and 
* won't malinger. 

Dhadra. Worn out, old. 

Dhadra batatt. A worn out hatalt, (q v.) 
Mooa dhadraentaea. His month is worn out, 

(Said of those who let the rice foU out of 

their month while eating.) 

Dhadra. A skeleton. 

Dhadra. M.] 

phadri. F. J-Lean, worn to a skeleton. 


Netar do nm <^94ri cabaenae. At present she 
is a perfect skeleton. 

Dhadra. M. "> Slovenly, slatternly, hair 
Dh^dri. F. J in disorder, used only 
when quarrelling. 

Dhadrao. ' 1 To drag along the 
Dhar dharao. J jeround. 

Bhadraokedillae. He dragged me along. 
Or dhar dharaokedeako. They dragged him 
roughly along. 

DhSi. A common plant during the 

The leayes are eaten as a pot herb, and the 
stalks raw. The stalks are first peeled 
and then well rubbed with sand, sfter 
which they are eaten. 

Dhai \ 


•A mid-wife. 

pfaae ^uikin dspalkana. They strike each 

otiier thuihp tiinmp. 
Phae mente aratt godkedae b^nduk do. He let 

died in Iftrge numb^Bs. 


year they 

phae. State, proclivity, bent of mind. 

Ni%4hae ge calaltaea. He will continue in 

this condition. 
Am bam adjomkhan ni^ ^haege calaXtama. If 

you do not obey you will always be in this 


Dhfte kh&e. Over- weighted with care, 
filled with anxiety ; exceedingly. 

Dhae khae baraekanae. He is attendin([ to one 
matter after another without intermission. 

Dhae khae reiige^kana. A thne of great scar- 
city (and of much anziely.) 

Dhak. A kind of kettle drum played 
with one thick drum stick and onsh 
thin, to vary the note. 

Dhftk. Heat, flame of fire. 

Dhftk. Quickly, immediately, instantly, 
at once. 

Dhakem liamkanaP You want it instantly. 

(scddinff an impatient man.) 
A^i uhakiil he^ena. I came Tery quickly. 
A^im dhSkoMkana. Ton are yery impatient. 
Cet dhEk kantamaP <)edattem calafta? WhatiS 

pressing youP Why should you go? 

Dhak. Cf. dhak dhak. 

Dhak. Interest, concern, necessity, 

Amalt dhakgell calalaP ShaU I go to suit yonr 

ph^kl^u toil go€kaame. Thrust him out at 

Dhaka dhaki To push again and again, 
to jostle, as in a crowd ; to push 
so as to clear a way in a crowd ; 
shoving and jostling. 

Phaka (Jlisiki. To push each other 
again knd again during a quarrel. 
C£ dhaka (Uiaki 

Dhaka dkoko. \ Jostling, pushing, as 
Phaka 4hoko. J in a crowd to clear fe 
way for onesell 

Phakaa. To cover, to obscure. 

QiA oando rimilte ^Uiakaokedeae. The sun is 
obscured by clouds. 

phakar dhokor. 'X To wobble, to roll or 
Pakar 4okor. / heave when walk- 
ing, to lift up the whole side 
with foot. 

Hvihiko calala phakar <Uu4R>r. K^hants Ml 
when walking. 

Dhakar paka^. Hurriedly, hastily,.to 
bc^ startled. 

]$n godkedaii dhakar pakar. I drahk it off. 



[ 130 ] 


Dhakcakao. To be paralyzed with fear. 

J^ije dhakoakaolena. He was terribly fright- 
Dhftk oakaokediliam. Tou stftrtled me. 

To palpitate, go pita- 
pat, flutter, throb, 
to be in trouble. 

Dhak dhak. 
Dhak dhakao. 
Dhak dhakok. 
Dhuk dhuk. 

Bum mako hereiiet eken ^a&ge. 
Taben mako jomkefeken potomge. 
Haere ! bapre ! noa jiwili do. 
Koramili, koramidge dhak dhakaolkaa. 

Phaki A large basket. 

Dh9.k jib^ At random, without taking 
aim; without certainty, on the 
chance of. 

DhEk jib^li dalkedea. I stmok him at random 
(stmok on the ohanoe of hitting him.) 

Dhik ]ib%le rohoekeda. We planted it but have 
smaU hope (of a crop.) 

Dhakla dhakli To push again and 
again, to jostle, as in a crowd. 

Dh^klau. To push, to thrust, C£ dha- 

Phakna. An earthenware lid for a 
tuku6, (q. V.) 

Phakni. *) An earthenware lid for a 
Phakni6. J kan^a (q. v.) smaller than 
a ' phakna ' (q. v.) 

Dhtir^ ^b^kni^. A smaU earthenware Teasel 
in iHiioh odoriferona resin is burned as 

phakor 4hakor. The sound produced by 
shaking anything, as a door, &c. ; 

pher dhaoe i^hakor 4hako]rkeda. Herattled- 
many timea. 

Dhaku6. To have sexual intercourse 
witU, to copulate ; to shake the 

phal A shield, a buckler ; to obtain 
goods on credit in the name of 
€uiother and keep them oneself 

Kokhro ^hal. A targe of hide studded with 
brass nails. 

Phal sikria. An attendant who carries a sports- 
man's gun. 

Ilie ^halkediiia. He obtained goods in my 

Phalkate hoxoe idikeda. He got dhan on credit 

by sayine it was for anouier person whom 

he named. 

Dhala6 db^lu6. Big and little, of all 

Dhalgum. 1 Shag^, long 

Dhalfi^um dhalgum. J haired. 

Ph^^m bana. A shaggy bear. 
Dhilgnm dh^lgumko d^r^^. They flee with hair 

Phalka. Broad. 

Phalka sakam. A broad leaf, 
phalka lutnr. Broad ears. 

Dhalpa. Broad. 

Dhalpa pal. A broad ploughshare. 

Ph^l sikaria. An armour bearer, an 
attendant who carries a gun for 
a sportsman. 

Dhalu6 dhakud. Walking as one with 
a stiff hip joint. 

Bh^a^ dh%ka6e calattkana. 

Dhalui dhaluL To shake, as anything 
hanging, or suspended ; to dangle. 

Besoko^te bh^rime, dh^lni dh^lnite alo Anrol-^ 
ma. Load (the sheaves on the oart) oare- 
foUy, that (tiie grain) may not f aU tnrongh 
(tibe ears) dangling down. 

Dham. *) Noise, tumult ; hollow 

Dham dhum. J sound. 

Dham dham safekana. Emits a hoUow sound. 

Dhamae dhurai. To threaten, to bluster. 

Dhamae dhnr^ikateye hataokeda. He took it 
by threats. 

Dhama dhura. Cf, dham dhur. 

Dhaman phucia. Gf dhamon phucia. 

Dhamas. finfluence, power exerted 
Dhamaste. \ on men or things, force, 

forcefulness, impression produced, 

influence exerted. 

Ho]rko real grnjnM dhamaste on^ekhonle d%r 

johkana. Influenced by the people dying 

we are leaying that place. 
Knl reak arpaoK dhamaste^ hofomo do oa- 

tola. The roar of the tiger startles one. 
Hanm hof real dhamaste disom hof ko botor 

loha. Owing to the impression produced 

bj the English the people of the country 

are afraid. 
Ojo reak dhamaste ru% rabaiigeil ^ik^ueda. 

Owing to the influence exerted by ^e boU 

I feel feyerish. 
Bimil real sa^e dhamaste of al reaS bhit h5 

paf aKena. By the force of the thunder 

clap even the wall of the house. is cracked. 
Uniak dhamas atijomlekhanko botor godoKa. 

If they he^ of his forcefulness they will 

at once take alarm. 
Nonrenal dhamaste sar sip%hi bako jaejulum 

daf eaXa. Owing to the influence exerted 

by this place the raja*s underlings cannot 

oppress the people. 

D&l'dh^c«l. } staking' JoJ*^- 

Dh^moul dh^numle d^fa. 


[ 131 ] 

DhaAgal sadgal 

Dhamdhaser. Quickly, diligently, all 

Dhamdlukaerle Anaa ba^akeda. 

Dham dhur. ") To demand with thre- 
Dhama dhura./ ate, to demand with 

Dhamdhusar. Corpulent. 
Dhame dhure. Cf. dham dhur. 
Dhamka dhamki To rebuke, to chide ; 


Dhamka dh^mkikakiimie. Bebnke them. 
Dhamka dhamkiye k^mikana. He is working 

Dhamkao. ^ To rebuke, to chide, to set 
Dhomkao. J down. 

Dhamkau. Diligently, sedulously. 

44i dhfmk^ne k^mikana. He works Tery 
sedoloasly, he has no spare time. 

Phampa dhompo. "1 Knotty, gnarled, 
Thampa thompo. J pimpled, covered 

with excrescences. 
Dhampa dhure. Diligently, sedulously, 


Dhampa dhnfe g^ko iiam bapakedea. 

Dhampol. To jolt, to bump, as a cart 
over stones. 

Dhampol linr golenae sagarkhon. He was 
jolted off the cart. 

Dhampur dhampur. The sound pro- 
duced by the 4henki (q. v.) wnen 
worked rapidly. 

Dh%mim]r dh%mpa]rko hnf nheda. 

Dhamn. A maid servant. 

E^mrlko dh^mriko. 

Dhamonphucia.") Thicker or wider at 
Dhamanphucia. J one end than the 

other ; heavy in the forequartera, 

as a tiger, or an ox, &c, 

Noa dhamonphuoi% thehga okarem iSamlaKaP 

Dhamrokot. To toil, to labour, to 
labour and toil. 

Dhamrokotkateti oraM du%raka^a. With mnoh 
labour I haye become possessed of pro- 

Dhamsao. To walk, to go. 

Befhaete dhamsao ^nrenale, bale iian^edea. 

Dhamsao. To be influenced, to be 
aflfected, to be acted upon. Cf. 

Hamal kahili gottletC i%te ro% do arh(!f dhamsao. 
marentiti^. Owing to my having carried 
a heavy log of timber my fever ha^ again, 
attacked me. 
"SeB calaoen dinre dh%rti lafaoente gota t^n^i 
real ot do dham^aoena. The whole conn- 
try felt the effects of last year's earthquake. 

DhamsaoentLda. I hare suffered a relapse. ' 
Nonrenal dhamsaote sar sip^ do bako jae* 
jolnma. Owing to the inflnence of *M^ 
place the raja's underlings do not oppress 
the people. 

Dhamuk b^.\ A convulsive fit in which 
Dhanuk bai. J the patient draws up 

his limbs. 
Dhandha. C£ dandha. 

Dhandha. To blaze ; flaming, blazing. 

Sehgel ^i dh andh a e n a. The fire biases fiercely. 

Ma dhandhaeme. Make it blaze. 

Dhandha cabalenkhan jon^rako rapaga. When 
the flames bum themselves out they roast 
Indian com (on the glowing embers.) 

Phandhanao. To buzz round about, 
as a fly ; applied also to those 
who go here and there to pick up 
a living ; a tramp. 

Am dom ^hanjhanao baraekana ar setam ^sul- 
koa? You a tramp keep dogs P 

Phan^hania. Penniless, destitute, 

Phan^h^ageae, ofalre cell h3 b^nultaea. 
He is utterly destitute, there is nothing in 
his house. 

Phandka. ^ ^ Stalks of certain crops left 
Phandkak. ■ in the ground at time of 
Parkak. J reaping ; stubble, a stalk. 
Phandka. A species of fish. C£ 

Dhandra dhundra. To search every 


44i dhandra dhund]r% bafakedeali, bad liam- 
ledea. I sought him every where but did 
not find him. 

Dhandrau. To seek, to search or look 

Dh^dri Lean, worn to a skeleton, 

with elfiin locks ; said of females. 

Phad. To be obstructed, impeded, to 
meet with, an obstacle, to stick, 
to be aground, to be entangled. 

Jahaj oat^nire 4hahena. The ahip strack, and 

remained fast on a rook. 
Thengadarere ^hahena. The stick sljiokin 

the tree. 

DhaAdhaser. To destroy, or ruin, to 
be over thrown. 

Mondiriii dhahdhasera. I will overthrow the 

Marah 4h9hgi fim^i kanae. She is a big tall 

Phahga ho]r. A tall man. 

Dhangal sangal. Cf. dhingal singal. 


[ 132 1 


Dhangla dhaAgli. To cut or dig quickly 
or hastily. 

DhaiiglA dh^iigliko likttda. Tb^ dug with aU 

their might. 
Dhaiigla dhfifiglilco get idikeda. They hMtUy 

ont it up and oafried it away. 

Dhangladha.s. Fallen into disrepair, 
dilapidated ; broken, ruined. 

Nnial ofal do dha&gladhasmitaea. This man's 

house has fallen into disrepair. 
Dhahgladhaskedako. They mined it. 

Dhanglao. To cut deeply into, to cut 
large pieces. 

Mil dhiSmae dhazig^aokeda. He out off a large 

Bhaiiglaokateye idikeda. He out and carried 

awar a large piece. 
Ote la dhaikglaokeda. He dug deeply into the 


Dhanghar. ^ 

Dhanghari. j-Rich, wealthy. 


Khnb dhanghar box kaoae. He is a yery rich 

Dhani. A interjection of surprize; 
rich, precious ; a term of endear- 

Dh^ye sen dar^aKaP What ! can he go? 
Dh^ni hor kanae. He is a rich man. 
Henda, Qh»ni, okatem calalkanaP Where are 
you going to, dearie ? 

Dhania. Coriander seed f(7orian(fo*u^m 

sativum, L.) 
Phanman. \To totter, to stagger, to 
Phanmanao. J sway to and fro; feeble, 


Behge6te 4^anmanaoena. He is enfeebled 

throuffh want. 
Bnlkate dhanmanao baf ae kaaae. He is dmnk 

and staggermg. 

phanman. \ Togo buzzing here and 

Pbanmanao. j there, as a fly ; also 
applied to those whom hunger 
forces to go from place to place ; 
a tramp. 

Dhans.\To go here and there in search 

Dhas. J of, to search for. 

Gotaii dhaslaKa, ball liamlaXa. I searched 

every where bnt did not fiiid. 
Ck>taii abas %cnrleda. I searched all round 


Dhanuk baL Opisthotonos. 

Dhanuk batta. The snipe, Oallinago 

Dhao. Time. 

Mii^dhao. Once. 
Bar dhao. Twice. 
. Pe dhao. Thrice. 
Adi dhao. Many times, very often. 
P$hil dhao. Ist time. 
Dosar dhao. 2nd timet* 

Dh&oa. \ A ffariand of plaited stalks of 

Dhawa. I dhan which with certain 

Dhaoa. j cattle are adorned at the 

Dhawa. J Sohrae (q. v.) festiyaL 

DhSoabindy. A sheaf of dhui taken from the 
threshing floor from which the stalks are 
taken to make garlands for the cattle. 
What remains of the i^ieaf after sufficient 
to make the garlands has been extracted is 
taken to tiie house of the Jog M^lijhi (q. r.) 
As eadii household obserres the ceremony 
a considerable quanti^ of rice is thus col- 
lected. It is cooked and divided among the 

DhUo dhdo. Buzzing, as mosquitoes do. 

Sikri^ko ud^uKkana S&o dhSo. Mosquitoes 
fly buzzing about. 

Dh9^ra dhSurL Anxiously, diligently, 
quickly, without loss of time. 

Dhaof a dh&ufile liambarakedea. 
DhSora dbaurildn liir raka^ gofena. They rao 
up quickly. 

Dhaosa dhSusi To search for eagerly 
or anxiously. C£ dhaora dhfturi. 

Dhaosa dhausUe ilam barakeda. We sought 
for it anxiously. 

Phapa 4hopo. Heaps, mounds ; hillocky, 
uneven. Scottice, hecKs an* how's. 

Dhap dha]^. ") To stamp the foot, sound 
Dhapdhu]^. J of tramp tramp, or the 

thud on the groimd of a blind 

man's stick. 

B«ib9«tecalalmealomdhai>dha^. Oo quietly, 
do not stamp your feet. 

When netting hares at night the hunters drive 
them in tiie direction of the nets by simply 
stamping on the ground with the leet. 

Pha^ dha]^. Sound of flapping, or 
clapping of wines. 

Phaf) dhap sadetakoa phak]ral do. They az« 
clipping tibeir wings. 

Pha]^ dhu^. Sound of knocking or 
rapping on the ground. 

in iluroikana dha|> dhuf). The mangoes faXi 
witii a thud. 

Dhapey. Hurriedly, quickly ; to hurry. 

A4i dhf4)efok hoyotttapea, bahkhanohope seter- 
lena. You must hun^, or eke you will not 
arrive (in time.) 

j^L^i dhapefle hedena. We came veiy quickly. 

Dhapi. The part of a flute from where 
the finger holes cease to the end. 

Dh%pi badha. A kind of wooden sandal. Cf . 

Dhapka. Lazy, shirking work, as a 
bullock that lies down at the plough. 

Dhapkao. To put down, to set down. 

Lo birre bako dhapkao dafealea. At the burnt 
jungle they iml not be able to silence us. 


[ 188 3 

Dhare dhure 

Dhapua. Deformed, unshapely. 

Dh^pui mara hof. . 

Dhar. Edge, line. 

Chnri dEarana. A knife Has an edge. 
Dene bcuiar dharana. Tvo edged. 
Dhar bhotfoena. The edge is Dlonted. 

Dhar. To buy on credit, to run up a 

Dfaarteye 9gnkeda. He bought it on credit. 
Bin dharkate. Borrowing and getting on credit. 

Dhara. The side, £rom the armpit to 
the thigh, the lower side oi the 

Dhara. A measure of 10 seers; 10 
seers in weight or in measure. 

Dhara. Section. 

OksdharatebioarhoeSna? Under what aeotion 
was he tried? 

Dhara. To collect outstandings, to 

JDharae iMitoi he^enaP Have jon come to 
dun OS r 

Dhara bandha. Against one's will, for- 
cibly, 7U)len8 volens. 

Dhaxa foandhako sai> idikedilia. Hiey seised 
and took me away against my wiU. 

Dhara dharL \Neighbourhood, vicinity, 
Dhara dhure./ edge. 

Ki% dhara db9rikore b^nuKan. There is none 
in this neighbourhood. 

Dhara dhari. Quickly. 

A^i dhara dh%rile k^mikeda, tuvbakedale. We 
worked very quickly, we have finished it. 

Dhara dhari. To pull, to offer violence. 

^j^ dhara dh%rikediliae, mahajon do. The 
money lender knocked me about. 

Dharae. "1 Thudding, bumping, or 
Dharas. J thumping sound. 

Dhaf ae mente sa^e go^ena. It sonnded thnd. 
Dhafas mente llurena. It feU with a thud. 

Dharae dhapae. Quickly, hastily, hur- 

Dhafse dhapaeye oalao gofena. He left hastily. 

Dharahara. Fine, laree, substantial; 
splendid mansion-like bouse. 

Dharahara menaKtakoa oatom opatt. They 
possess a fine pavilion-roofed house. 

Dharahi. Steep-roofed, slope of roof 
at a high angle. 

Dharak dhoroK. Tender in the feet : 
to step gingerly owing to feet 
being tender. 

Jahga ^ dharal dhofoKentaea. His feet are 

Dhar^ dhoi^Xe tafaina, Hq steps gingerly. 

Pharad ijiharad. Ding dong of a bell. 

Dharan dhurud. "> Applied to the so- 
Phurud dburud. J und produced 
when two bells of different tones 
are struck one after the other. 

Phaf ah ^hnfnh sa^ekana. They sound ding dong, 
ding dong. 

Dharao. To owe, to be in debt. 

Id ren kisfr i^^ft^ tin^Xem dharaotaeaP How 
much owest thou my master ? 

Pharao. To reside. 

Okarepe 41i^aolenaP VHiere did you reside? 
Okare ^nutpakuipe^liaraolatta? Where do you 

pharao, '^ To pour, to pour into a 

Phar^hairao. J mould. 

Sona reaK sakomili 4haraoa. 

Me€ daX <jlhar<jlharoentaea. His tears flowed. 

Dharaj^ A trap ; to be caught as by 
a trap falling on one. 

Katte dhafapenae. A piece of timber fell on 
him (ana crushed hmi.) 

Dharay. "1 Sound of creaking, or 

Dharar dharar. J of cracking. 

Dharar dharaf jhijolkana silpili do. The door 
creaks when being opened, 

Dharar dharaf maf pafagottkana. The bam- 
boos split with a crack. 

Dharas. Cf. dharae 

Dhaf as mente r^puCena. It broke with a otack. 

Phar 4har. Streaming, trickling, eyes 
to fill with tears. 

Phar ^hsa met daM jorolkana. Tears trickle 

Dhardhar. 1 To slide or roll down a 
Dhardharao. J steep place, to roll down, 
as a stone. 

Dhardhafao Sfgonkanae. He o<Hnes sliding 

DhardharL ") A slope, an incline ; 
Dhardharia. J slopmg, steep. 

Dhafdh%]ri9 hor kana. It is a steep road. 

Dhar dhur. Quickly, 
phar 4hur. To conciliate, to influence 
by importunity. 

Ma no85e bogetepe ruaXkana, ado noko boh^p^ 
4 bar dhurkope. See how your family is 
suffering from fever, offer a libation to the 

Dhar dhur. At the edge, on the outside. 

Dhar dhurili liamkeda. I got (fields) on the 
out side. 

Dhar dhur. Noise of rushing footsteps 

Dhaf dhure d^fkeda. 

Dhare dhure. Neighbouring, near, on 
the margin. 


[. 134 1 




Dharen. A beam which supports the 
ridge pole of a house. 

Dhargoi. ") To fall into disrepair, roin- 
Jhargo6. ) ous. 

DharguK. ") To jolt or stumble 

Dharguk dharguk. J owing to hollows 
in the road. 

Ehet pin^he (henem dh^rgngoKa, Aindfre. 

Dh^rgu dhargu. Large, big. 
Dhargu sa^gu. Large, big. 

Bh^rcra B^rga joakanft. The fruit iaof hurge 

Pin^a dh^ri. The edge of the yerandha. 
KiOTid reaM dh^. The edge of the oloth. 

Dhari6. Until, up to, so long as. 

Nondele tahen dh^rii. So long as we remain 

Onjnl dh«ri^. Until death. 

DhaykaK dhorkoK.\Rough and uneven, 
Dharkak dhorkok.j as a road crossed 
by many unbridged water courses ; 
full of holes, over which a cart jolts; 
to descend with a jolt, as one step- 
ping into a hollow unwittingly. 

Koa horte babo oalala, ^i dharkal dhorkoK- 
gea. We will not go this way as it is full 
of hollows. 

G^i ^i dhafkaK dhorkogola. The cart wiU 
go into the hoUows with a fearfnl jolt. 

DharkaK dhorkoK ^i haronteli oalaoena. I 
went with rery great diffioolty climbing up 
and going down. 

Dharkao. To finish, to complete, to 

Car pane moniil dhaf kaoakafa. I baye finished 

f onr or fiye mannds (of seed.) 
K^mi doil dharkaoakaCa. I haye completed 

the work. 

Pharkao. To take water out of one 
vessel by tipping it up and al- 
lowing it to run mto another 

Pherena dal, ma ^ha^kao ^dhime. There is too 
mach water (in the pot), lessen it by tipping 
it up and allowing some to run ont. 

Dharkat Quarrelsome, violent, oppres- 
sive, disobedient. 

Marah dharkat ho]r kanae. 

Dharkau. To impress, as into service ; 
to force. 

Begarko dh^k%akedea. They impressed him 

to work. 
Ma dh^rk^n idiem. Force him to go. 

Dliarku6. To jerk, to jolt, to bump. 

DhaykuE. C£ dharguK. 

Dharkul markul. Hair on end, or loose 
and flying about. 

Okate ho mamo dh%ikal m^rknlem df f kanaf 

Dharle. I 

Dharlege. Certainly, doubtless. 


Dharlege non^* menaea. He is certainly here. 

Dharma korma. "1 Without assurance, 
Dhorma korma. J without much hope 
or expectation, on chance. 

Dhorma korma montell senlena. I went with 
little eiq>ectation. 

Dharmus. ") An instrument used to 
Dhurmua J beat down earth. 

Dhama. A mode of extorting pavment 
of a debt or compliance with any 
demand by makmg the person srt 
in the sun, or in any other way 
making him uncomfortable ; to sit 
till prayer is granted. 

Dhamakedeako. They made him sit in the son 
till he acceded to weir demand. 

Dhama ahgakediliae. He kept me a prisoner 
the whole night. 

pharos. Firmness of mind, encourafip^ 
ment, bravery, presence of mind. 

Bae pharos da^eada. He could not braye it. - 

Dharra. M."! Under side of the body 
Dharri. F. J more or less white, the 

rest black ; applied to goats and 


Dharfa boda. A black and white he-goat. 
Dharri ehga. A black and white she-goat. 
Kabra dhurfa. Speckled, spotted wi^ white. 

Dharsftf. Steep, as an incline. 

Dh^i. The world, the universe. 

Dharua. A debtor, a borrower ; to be 
in debt. 

j^L^iye dh%ra^ena. He is deeply indebted. 

Dharuk dhacuM. Hair loose and hang- 
ing down; to search for with 
labour or diligence. 

Dharuk dharuK. To limp or walk as 

• • • • X 

a man with a crutch. 

Dhafumdhak. Very much, greatly, ap- 
plied to swellings. 

Dh^ftundhale moakana. He is yery oradi 

Dh^run. To cease, to clear up after 

rain ; dry weather. 
DhfnmakaCae. It has ceased* raining. 


i 135 1 



PharwaK. 1 A small branch with the 
PhauraM. J leaves on ; a twig of the 
Sarjom (q. v.) tree with the leaves 
on sent firom village to village 
advertising a hunt or any other 
gatheiing; the Santal "Fiery 

ICatkom ^Ui^or^. A small branch of the 
Matkom (a. t.) tree. 

Sazjom ^^uril. A small branch of the Saijom 
(q. ▼.) tree. 

Ado onto note aedra <[h^ar^I ato atoe kola, arko 
knlikoa, **Oka reaX^hanr^ttbabaP'' Adoe 
Ifiakoa, "KnbriBirreiS," "TisboboloIaP 
Bod hilol." He sends the branch adTcrti- 
sing the hnnt to the yillages round about, 
and they ask, Ac. 

Dhfts. To go in search of, to search for. 

Gotall dhfis ^orlaMa. enh5 ball liamlaia. I 
searched mil ronnd, still I did not find. 


Dhasao. To collapse, as a wall; to 
&11 in, as a river bank undermined 
by the water ; to slip down, as a 

Bnni dhasaoena. There has been a landslip 
on the hill. 

Dhaskao. To fall down, to collapse, 
to tumble down. 

Bora dhaskaoena. There has been a landslip 

Dhasna. The part nearest the foot of 
the slope of a hill, or other incline. 

Dhat. Ab exclamation of vexation. 

Dhat. 1 A • 1 J. 1 

Dhatu. /^"^^^^'^"^^^ 
Phdt Likeness, resemblance. 

Vm 4h9tge1i fielkedea. I saw he bore a resem- 
blance to him. 

Dhat. The pulse at the wrists. 

Mase dh^ atkartaeme. Feel his pnlse. 

Dhat dhat. Cf, cai dhat dhat. 

• • ■ • • • 

Phatha (JuJhu. Huge, adult, grown up. 

Eken ^B,tih& ^n^hn ho]r menaMkoa. There are 
only adults. 

Ph^^hi Hereditary qualities or dis- 

Apai reatt ^h^^higeje sa{>aka€a. He has 
inherited his father's disposition 

Phathi Persistent, inexorable. 
Phathi The stubble or stumps of 

certain crops left in the ground at 

reaping time. 
Dhatka. To deny, to repudiate, to 

unsay, to disavow. 
Dhatkaha. A deliverer, a saviour. 

DhatiA. To beat 

Dh%ti/i mealeah nahaM. I shaU be»t jon pre- 

DhatidtiA. A rattat played on the 
drum to ^ther the dancers. 

Oteko dh%ti]itiiikeda. listen, they hare 
beaten the '*dh»tiiitifi** i^ttat. 

Dh^tif. To strike, to hit, to slap. 

Dhftifeme. GKye him a slap. 

Dhatpat. Quickly, without delay. 

Dhatu. A mineral, a metal. 

Dhatuak. C£ da^e dhatuaM. 

Dhawa dhawi. Separated only by a 
little distance or time, on the 
heels o£ 

Dhawa dhawiko padjakedilia. They foUowed 

at my neels. 
Dhawa dhawiko he^ena. They came one closely 

following another. 

Dh^u. *) Blazing, flaming, bright- 

Dhau dhau. J ly. 

Dh%ii dhfu sehgel jololkana. The fire biases. 

Phaur^^. Cf, 4I^^jrwalc. 
Dha^ }Cf,dhaoa. 

Dhean. To &st, to stop feeding, as 
caterpillars do before moulting. 

Lum^mko dheanakana nrol Ifgidolkanako. 
The sift worms have stopped feeding, they 
are about to slough. 

Pbeba. M. \ 

Phiba. ■) M. VShort of stature. 

phibi. ;f.J 

Pheb 4hebe. M. 1 Bi^.u^n:^ 
Phibahibi, F. J^'fif*^"'^ 

Phecolc. To limp, as a man with legs 
of unequal length. 

Phecok dhecok. Lompiii^. 

Phecott ^hecole calaXkana. He goes limping. 

Phgore! \'^^ lounge, to loaf about. 

Ho]rVo the^ do^her bafaekanae. ^e lounges 
about other people's houses. ' 

dS^ f' l^****^' **^ stature. 

Ona atoren kof a kupko do sanam dhebra dhi- 
brigeako. Th«.* young men and maids of 
that villa^ are aU short in stature. 

Phebra 4hibn dareakana. The plants are aU 

Phe^rS. To lounge or loaf about, Cf. 


[ 186 ] 


Dhedre. .IWorn out, disreput- 

Dhedre dhedre. J able looking, dis- 
graceful, dilapidated. 

Bheore dhedre ofaltae. His hooae i« a dila- 
pidated hoTel. 
Dheore mara ^im%i. A slattern. 

Dhej. To succeed, to etccomplish, able 
to do ; stamina, ability. 

Oka dhej h5 bae k^mikana. 

Dhej 4ho6. \Improper, the reverse 
Dhejna ^hoA./ of what ought to be. 

Dhejna jhohem lieloKkana. Ton do not look 

Dhejna ^hoh tilokakanae. 

Dhejraha. M,\ Slovenly, slatternly, 
DhejrahL F. J dirty in habits. 

Phekar. To belch. 

oSoro }^ «P^i^ of water fowl. 

Phela. A common forest tree, Alan- 
giv/m Lamarckiiy Thws^ 

A4i ^ern^U kanam. Ton are very careless. 

phena. A disease affecting cattle. 


Phena gidr^. A small ohild. 
Phena oSfS. A small bird. 

PhedcaU dhedcali Limpingly, limping. 

Phelioatt ^elioaMe oalattkana. He is limping. 

Phedcol^. To limp, to go lame. 

Pheliool ^helSooKe CfuaKkana. He is limping. 

Phen^ra. Having thin scanty hair, 

bare, as a tree. 
Phenka. A species of crane. 

Phefika. Tall, long shanked. 

^leiika tofliroA. A speoies of grasskopper. 

Phenha. C£ dhena. 
PhSore. Cf. dedher. 
pheo. A wave. 

Ga4ft Sfgonkhan 4keoIa. II the river be- 
comes flooded waves wiH be formed. 

Phe^ dhe^. Sound produced by 

phei> <lhe^ ^hekareda. 

Pher. Many, much, excessive, the 

majority; to increase, to become 

Bin <lkerenti2ia. My debt has become Uirge. 

Dhera. A hand spindle. 

Ph6r6 dh6^6. Buzzing, to go here and 
there, as a fly. 

Jd baste ro ^hSpS 4h6r^ko n^^n b^aekana. 
The smeU of the flesh brings the fliea bnszing 

KahaK do akoge ro lekako (Ihef? 4bSfd bafae- 
kana. Ther themselyes now go bossing 
about like mes (seeking food. Said of those 
who were arrogant when rich, bnt who 
becoming poor go abont seeking something 
to eat.) 

Phere dhere. Whirring, as a fly wheel 
off the perpendicular. 

Oarkha ^here dhere sa^eKkana. The spinning 
wheel whirra. 

phere ^here. Lazy and disinclined 
to move through having eaten too 

Jom 4here ^hereenae. He has eaten so mnoh 
that he Objects to more. 

phere dhere. Eyes fixed, staring as 
when dying, or dead. 

Phere ^bereye behge^ oridkeda. 

Ph^gpete. Lean, emaciated, worn to 
a shadow. 

Pherkaete. Especially, as a rule, gen- 
Ph6s. To make excuse ; excuse. 

PhSs alom lagaoa. Do not make an excntf*. 

PhSsa dhlsi. To excuse oneself and 

blame another. 
Dhia puta. The entire fitmily. 

Joto dhi^ pnt^ko oalaoena. The entire family 
is gone. 

Phibri F. "^ Having a voracious appe-<; 
Dhebra M. J tite and a big round 

belly, applied to children ; small of 

Pl^bri jon^ta. A stunted variety of 

Indian com which ripens earlier 

than the common variety. 

Phibu^. A pice. 

Dhi damad. Daughter and her hus- 

Dhidhi An exclamation of venation 
or displeasure. 

Dhidrik. Bold, fearless. 

Dhiko dhoro. CC <).hi0O <Jhoro. 
Dhikur. Sound of thumping, ad' that 
I made by tbe dU^dki (q. v.) 


[ 18? ) 


PML Careless, slack ; to neglect, to lose 
heart, as a person in sickness. 

Bu^^lulkui. Slacken the rope. 
Hopnoe dhilaVafa. He has lost neart, or giTen 
way to hia illnesB. 

Philau. To neglect, to slacken atten- 

Philfa go^kedeali . I killed him by neglect. 
Alope ^Qiilfmea. Do not neglect hirn. 

Phil 4hoko6. Loose, slack. 

miil 4koko^ko biiSaka£a. Th^ have not fixed 

the post firmly 
{%il ^hoko6ko tolakaf a.*«They have bound (the 

bundle of firewood) loosely. 

Phili silL Careless, lazy ; to be care- 
less or lazy. 

fSiili sill hof^ kwne.'^He ia a la«y fellow. 
Alom 4hili silia. Do not pnt off your time. 

PhiloA 4hoIo]&. Loosely, slack, the 
opposite of firmly or tightly. 

Philon clholoh okadoko joraokoa. Sometimes 
they ^oke them (the buffaloes) slaokly. 

Sanam 4hiloii dholoiiena, ofatt haftunente. 
Eyery thing has become slack owingto the 
house being old. 

Dhilpur. Cf. dhirpur. 

Philua. A bamboo or piece of wood 
on which men swing at the DasSe 
(q. V.) festival 

Dhilwan. To hang suspended by the 
hands, or as bats by their claws. 

Dhima. Mild, good tempered. 
Phimalia. Cf. 4h^i^^- 

Phimsi Slightly, opposite of tight. 

Dhimai punsil Untidy, scattered ab- 
Dhunsi punsi./ out, higgledy piggledy, 

Samfaoalpe SiinuA pnnsikeda. Ton haye 
scattered what had been put tosether. 

OraM B%|im do saAam dhhasi pnnsirertako sim 
do. T^ fowls baTQ aisanranged the 
thateh on the roof. 

Dhimsi pnnsikedae., . 

Dhin^il After-part of the day^, after- 
noon, later on in the afternoon. 

Phingur. Span between the thumb 
ai^ fore finger. 

Bil9. Span betwa^ the thumb ai^d little An- 

Ber- Span betwoan ike timmb and Mttle fin- 

Phiiikki Wooden machine for hudung 
and cleaning grain. 


Dhinki^ A crack shot with a bow 
and arrow. 

Phinku. To tilt up; met. to harm 

Bof ^hihknanae. He was convicted ont.of his 

own mouth. 
Nondeli otaJekhan han^e ^hihkuKa. If I press 

down here the otibier end will tilt up. 

Phi&kuf . Sound of thumping, as that 
made when the 4^^^^ ^ being 

Dhinwar. A jingle with dhlrfl (q. v.) 

Phip. Coast, shore, valley, bank of 
river ; an island. 

Barakar ^hip. The vaUey of the Barakar rirer. 
Dafah 4hip. A precipice. 

Dhipau. To heat solids; to be hot, 
as in fever ; to be zealous, to be 

Hopmo dhip^uakantaea. His body is hot. 
Mef hfiiS dhip^ukateko pit^ua. They heat the 
iron and then hammer it. 

Phipcui. The King Crow, Dicruma 

Phipi ") A mark where boundaries of 
Phipu. J three villages meet, 


Dhit I "^ exclamation of vexation. 

Dhir^ dhiri Quarrelling and threat- 
ening each other. 

Dhir^ dhiri kin kaphMifuIkaaa. 

Dhir^u. To threaten future harm or 

Dhir^u dohokedidae, llelmealaft nahal. 

Dhire suste. Slpwly, by degrees, grad- 

Dhire susteteA emkatama. I diall pay yarn 

DbiraaK. An exclamation of vexation, 
or annoyance. 

Dhirhal I bape k»mikana. 

Dhiri A stone. . 

Dhiri ot. Stoney ground. 

Dhiri katkom. A species of orab which is often 

found under stones. 
Dhiri banda. Orchids which £rrow on rocks« 

Dhirijapa^. A small flowering plant, 
i^onia picta, 8m. • 

Dhirik. \Loathsome, nauseating, dis- 
Bhirik. f gusting, sickening. 

Jiwi dhirikentilla. I am nausearad. 


[ 138 ] 


Dhirja. Y Self-denial, contentment, 
Dhiriau. J temperance, patience, self- 

Dhirj% do bfnaltuiut? H*Te 7011 no self- 

Dhirkara. 1 An exclamation of vexa- 
DhirkarahaM. J tion, or annoyance. 

Dhirondhorofi|jj j^j^ worn out, 
Dhoron poron. J ^ 

Dhiroii soroiiilimandalkanft. lun mpreMiit- 

i^le from a oold. 
Dhiroii soroii go^a pe sf k^iakaCa. 

Dhirpur. To be contented, to be 

Efe rorte bae dhirpnrlanteye dib go€eiia. 
Kot being satisfi^a with a ue h« must needs 
swear to it. 

DhiftL To brii^ forth yoong, said of 
a cow. C£ dhinwar. 

Dhifti fffi. A cow with a calf. 

Phismis.lCor. of the English legal 
Pismis. / term " dismiss.' 

Phiso^horo. 1 Bowels loose, slight diarr- 
Phikodhoro.j hoea. 

phiso^horo lioKakanad. I have a slight attack 

of diarrhcBa. 

Phiso^ihorod atkareda. I feel a tonch of 


phiso dhoro. Dirty, unwashed, un- 

Phlt Forward, froward, wilful, obs- 
tinate, impudent. 

Dhit An interjection of annoyance. 

Dhit ! alom onkawalia. 
Dhi( ! iH hiri^keda. 

PhltiU). IQuarrelsome, seeking oppor- 
PhlthSU)./ tunity to pick a ouarrel. 

Siil sa(nj» ^blthaogere iSamkana. He is always 
on the look out for an opportonil^ to pick 
a qnarrel. 

SS"} Certainty. 

Katha real dhitho b^nltaea. 

PhiusL 1 Tacked on, slightly attached 
Phimsi. J to, flimsily tied. 

Tolre nasenaXgeii dhinsiakada. I did not tie it 

with a strong thread. 
Sadom do khontire 4hiasiakadeae. He has not 

tied the horse seoorely to the post. 
B^rsid ganem ^hinsi lloKlena. Ton cmly stayed 

a few days. 

Phoao. To carry. 

Am do nia katha 4hoao otoaeme. I/i do pholl 
4hoao daf elea. Garry this message to him. 
I cannot carry it. 

Nnn^ do ohod ^hoao dafelea. I will not be 
able to carry so much. 

Phob. Form, shape, pattern ; comely, 
artistic, elaborate, as a carving. 

Noa do t4i 4hobko benaoakafa. This is hea«ti- 
fnlly made. 

Phob 4bobo. *) Big bellied, like a snake 
Pob 4obo. J that has just swal- 
lowed a meal. 

Phobea. ") Applied to a person wasted 
Pobea. J by illness who has a protu- 
berant stomach, as one suffering 
firom enlarged spleen. 

Phobeaenae m^te. 

Phobolf. C£ 4hombak. 

Dhocol dhoool. G£ dhucul dhucul. 

Dhocor. Proud, froward, self-willed. 

^di dhooorae. He is yerr self-willed. 

A^ dhocor lekae oalala. He wiU go his own way. 

Phodhia saurL \ A tall hill grass used 
Phu^hia s^uiri. !- for thatching pur- 
Phu^hi sauii. J poses ApUfda cms- 
tata, Linn. 

phobia.*) A withered leaf of the 
Phoia. J Palmyra palm. 

Dhodlo.'^^Wide, loosely fitting, as a 
Dhodo. J garment; corpulent. 

Phodo 4ho4o. Sound of drumming* 

Pholko mia ^ho^o ^ho^o. 

Dhodor dhodor. Sound produced by a 
cracked drum. 

Gherako mia dhodor dhodor. 

Dhodor podor.^ In disrepair, dilapi- 
Dhodor pador. V dated, filthy, clum- 
Dhoron poron. j sily executed. 

Dhoroh poroii jh^^ko eteUka£a. Thefesoe 
has been dnmsily pat up. 

Dhodro. Worn out, worn into holes, 

Dhodro khacl^l. A basket with holes in th« 

Dhodjra. M. ") Fault-finding, scolding, 
Dhodvo. F. J complaining. 

Dho^lya mara haf am. A complaining old fellow. 
Dhodyo mara bndhi. An old scold. 

Pho4yo. Hollow, as a pipe, etc. 

Phoena daU, Water which has been 
allowed to stand in a cooking pot 
over night. 

Phoena dal hS ohom iliamlea. Yon wiU not eT«m 
get the water which has been in the 
cooking pot orer night. 


[ 139 1 


Phoia. Cf. 4ho<jiia. 

Dhoj. HiglvBst point of a tree. 

Dhok. y Weariness, fatigue. 

DhSkbo maraoa. We will rest 

NirdhSk. Unweariedlj, MTwe, exoMMTe. 

Dhok. Convenience, call. 

Amal dhoktegeH oalalaP Shall Igoto rait 
your oonTenianoe P 

Dh5k. The asthma ; phthisis. 

K^dhSk. Bronohitis. 

Dokha I ^^ doubt, to deceive. 

Ce^lfgi^emdkokalenaP Wherefore didst thou 
doubt P 

Dhok 4bok. , 'X Gulpincf sound, or that 
Phok ^bokao. / maiie by water poured 

out of a bottle, or by a bear when 

it charges. 

phok 4hokao gofkedae bana do. 

Phok 4hokiii dukeda. I grdped it down. 

Phott dhoM. Gurgling sound, as water 

Soured out of a bottle. Cf. ^bok 

DaXko doleda ^hoX ^hoX. The water gargles 
as they ponr it out. 

Dhok Uba. At random, on chance, in 
sneer despair. 

Dare bail fik^ueda dhok Jibuti k^mikana. 

Dhokha. To doubt, to deceive, to make 

Phokok ijihokok. The sound produced 

when water is shaken in a bottle, 

or a rotten egg held to the ear 

and shaken. 

Dhokm! ( ^^' ^^^* ^ scornful negative. 

Dhokor B^tir bam calaolen. 

Dhokor bae he61enkhan babon k^ml dafeai^. 

DhokorlaKae ^gnlakae. 

Phokor pokore jomkeda. He took his food in 

a hurry. 
KirilS go€kedali dhokor pokor. I made my 

purchases hnrriedly. 

Dhokra Pom. 1 A section of the semi- 
Dhapra Pom. J Hinduised caste of 

Dhokran. ^How provoking; how 
Dhok^ana^. y annoying ; used main- 
Dhokranid. J ly by women. 

' Dfaokranatge^^illni^tkaaa. How provoking, 
I have token strong f erer. 

Dhokranalgeli hifid otokada. How proYoking, 
I have forgotten it. (Jiett it behind.) 

Dhokfani^ bae senlena. How proToknig, she 
has not gone. 

Dhokre. ") Crooked, bent, curled up; 

Dhokrel J to jerk the hip when 

walking as one with a stiff hip 


Panahi dhokre€entiiia. ICy shoes are worn 

away on one side. 
Noa (hehga dhokfetgea. This walking stick 

is crooked. 

Phol. A drum beaten on one end by a 
stick and on the other by the 

Pholkata. \ 

Pomkata. !- A species of waterfowl. 

Pomtunki. J 

Dholma. A large piece of raw meat^ 
generally without bones. 

Mif dholmako emadirfa. They gaye me a Iftrge 
pieoe of raw meat. 

Pholo. Fat and lazy, applied to women: 

Dholomolo. Out of sorts, depressed, 
. looking or feeling seedy, sickly or 
drowsy looking. 

Pholomolom deloXkana. Yon look depressed. 

Dhoma. A lump, a large piece, genera 
ally of meat. 

Mi£ dhoma jele oha^ao dohoke^tvii lekali %ik9n- 
keda. I felt as if he had to^ away a Inmp 
of my -flesh, 

PhomboK. \ 

Phumbatc. J-To be curled up. 

PhoboK. j 

Dhomkao. To rebuke, to chide, to 
set down. 

Phomkao gofkefkoae. He rebnked them sharply 

Dhomok. Arrogsaice> haughtiness, 

Dhomok comok. Threat. 

Dhomok oomok ndnlakome. Threaten them. 

Dhomokia. Haughty, arrogant, proud, 

Dhomos. ■) Influence, effect, prestige ; 
Dhomoste. } by force of, by means 
of, through. Of. dhamas. 

Knl taras reaX dhomos alijom teko bind^rena. 

Hoe dhomostege oral dalkaoena. 

Bohott haso dhomoste go^ hofino haaoedina. 

Bnhe£ dhomosteko thirena. 

Bijli reaX dhomostbtl dalkao gotfena. 

DaX dhomoste o^aK jarkaoena. 


t 140 1 


Phompo. Lump, knot, mound. 

Girt phompo. The Imoti tied on » ttring to 

keep aoooimts with. 
Dare phompo. A oommon animal plant found 

abontTillagefl, JAonatU nepetafoUat B. Br, 

Ot phompo. Lepidctgathis oristata, Wittd.,^ a 
plant fonnd on elevated dry eitaations, with 
mflorescenoe reeembUng a ball. 

Non^eseii are dhompo lioga. I shall raiae a 
ridge (or an embankment) here. 

PhomsoL Fat and unwieldy, bulky, 
over-stout, applied only to women. 

Am do dhomeol mara fim^ 

Dhoit Wealth, goods, property. 

Dhon dnrib. Ck)oda and ohattlee. 

Dhona. A term of endeeurment applied 
to children ; my treasure, my sweet, 
my precious one. 

Phon4. A species of snake found in 

^^K^n'^IVarietieaofthe "dhona" di«. 
^hdh^d.) tingniahedbySantol.. 

Pfaon^ra phufxilf . A large leaf cap. 

phon^ra khalaU. A large leaf cup. 

PhoA. Ugly, ill lookine, used generally 
in fault finding. C£ dhej 4ho^ 

Phohe lielbXkana. She is not good looking. 

PhoAga. A dugout, a boat made from 
a hollowed out tree, a wooden 

DhoAgol phosol. Carelessly, anyhow, 
taking no interest in the WOTk one 

Dhohgol phosolko sioXkana. lliey are plough- 
ing carelesslj. 

Dh5nj. Necessity, pressure of business, 

Cet dhSni lagaoamkanaP What urgency is 
impelling you P 

Dhonto^ [a knot, an excrescence. 

Dare reaM ghonto. An excrescence on a tree. 

Pho]^ 4bo^. Sound of rapping or 
knocking ; to knock. 

Phob dhoi>pe ado jhi6ai>ea. Knock and it shaU 
be opened nnto yon. 

X^hop ijiho]^. Sound emitted by a 
drum with a hole in it, or one that 
requires lacing. 

Phopo. A hillock. 

Bnnnm (^hopo. An ant hill. 
Hane hande dhopo AeloKkan. Look, there is 
a moond over there. 

} Suffering slightly 
from cEropsy, body 

Phopsa. M. 
Phopsaha. M. 
Phupsi. F. 

Dhopyo. Old and weak. 

Dhopyo mara hor. An old dry stick. 

Dhom bat I Cert««Jy. ^^ely, of a 
Dhorage. j '"^^y- 

Hn^oredae, dhoraffe Siindj^ daga. It is than 
dering, it will certainly rain 



Dhora bandha. Forcibly, to take no 

AmaK knsi leka, dhora bandha oholi idilema. 

As yon please, I wiU not take yon forcibly. 
Dhora bandhako jom oookedea. Th^ insisted 

on his eating. 

Dhora dhori. Blusteringly, threaten- 

ingly, forcibly. 


Dhora dhoriko idikedea. They took him away 
with a certain amount of force. 

Dhorao. To seize, to emply force. 

Dhorao idikedeako. They seised and took him 

Dhorao. To begin, to set to, engage in. 
C£ dhurau. 

Ma seiigel dhoraome, daK m^difthon. 
E%mireA dhoraolenkhan oholi m^lena. 
Dakare dhoraoakanae, ohoe oekidena nni gidr^ 

Dhorat. \ A premium cm a loan of 
Dhora^ J money or graio. 

The amount of premium given is generally one 
anna in the rupee, and is returned to the 
money lender, out of the amount given on 
loan, at the tune the loan is made. 

Mi€ taka emartme, mi€ ana dhorati^ emama. 
Give me one rupee, I shaU return you one 
anna as premium. 

Ph(»r(Jhosaha. Without sufficient 
cause or reason ; feignedly, preten- 

phordhosaha nonde khone calaoena^ atra dhur 
hS th^ti^ bae senlena. He feigned going 
away, but he did not evengo haS-war. 
vdhoMhae kokoekana. ae hega without 


reason (as he has plenty.) 
phordhosahae ral baraeda. 

out cause. 

He cries with- 

Dhorma korma. Without assurance, 
with little expectation, on chance. 

Phoro 4horo. To gaze intently, to 

Dhoro dhoso. Untidy, en d^habill^, 
dirty, messy. 

DhoroM. To limp ; lame. 

PhoyoK dhoyoM^ oataf kana. He is limping. 


C 1*1 1 

Dhuku cuku 

Dhorom. Truth, justice ; right, holy ; 
religion ; to consecrate, to sanctify. 

Dhorom Korom. Bepatatioxi. 

Dhorom korom bfnnltaea. He has no repnta- 

Neo dhorom. Ceremonial saaotifioation. 
Naeke doe dhoromola. The priest sanctifieB 


Dhoroii poroi^. ") Out of sorts, indis- 
Dhorofi sorofL. J posed, filthy, dila- 

ICatidate dhoroh soroiiili atkareda. lamyerr 
nnoomfortable owing to a oold in the head. 

Dhorori. *) A small horn made of brass 

Dhoruyi J or copper. 

Dhoroi dhopot. 1 Applied to the sound 

Dhoroli dhorol / emitted by the tum- 
dak (q, v.) drum when the yamish 
has been worn oflf. C£ dhorolS 

Dhoro£ dhorol Worn and cracked, as 
feet with much walking; much 
worn, aa a shoe ; cracked, as a 
plank, earthenware yessel, drum, 
&C. ; footsore. 

Tamak dhoro€ dhoro€ sa^ekana. The tamak 
(dnun) emits a cracked sound. 

Jf trikoftX jahga senoX senoXte dhorof dhoro- 
doXkantakoa. The pilgrims with oontinoed 
walking are beoommg footsore. 

Dhorpo. C£ dhopyo. 

Dhorsa. Applied to both species of 
the Efombill (Hydrociasa cor- 
oncUa, and Meniceros bicornia) 
found in the Santal country when 
speaking of them in the presence 
of women, chamachako (q. v.) being 

Dhorso^ morsel XJgly, unpreposses- 
eing and dirty. 

Phosma <j[husmi. Going fiN>m house 
to house. 

Ona ofaX noa ofaX dhosmA ^hnsmi baf aeae. 
He keeps going from one house to another. 

Dhoaodhoro. Dirty, unkempt. 

Dhowa bhowa.1 Doubtful, uncertain, he- 
Dowa bowa. / sitating. 

Dhowa bhowae atkareda ; oalaX coe bail oo. 
He is nnoertam ; he may not go. 

Dhoyo^ dhopofc ") With &ltering steps, 
Dhoyo^ dhoyol J slowly, as an old 

Kofae metaekana, bahnuL hafam hor leka 
dhoyo€ dhpyo^em ealaXkana. He says to 
the young man, yon move with faltering 
steps like an old man. 

Dhuft. Smoke ; to smoke. 

DhnSkos. A steam ship. 

Dhuft rata. To place in smoke, to 
smoke, as hams are smoked. 

DhnS ratalenkhan hnti bako joma. H it is 

smoked insects will not eat it. 
DhnS rata baraadiliako. They roasted it for me 

(Indian com.) 

Dhubi A caste of EUndus, many of 
whom are washermen, 

Dhubi To wash clothes. 

K^nke^ dhnbike€. 

Dhubi ghfta A common grass, Cynodon 
Lactylon, Fere. 

Dhubi tasak. The name by which 
Cynodon Daciylon Pers. 
(dhubi ghfta q. y.) is referred to 
when employed in the ceremony 
known as cum^uriEt. (q. y.) 

Dhucul dhucul. Shaking the body. 

Dhnonl dhnonle oalaXkana. He walks shaking 
his body. 

Dhu^hua. A small edrthenware pot, 
the dried scrotum of a bull, i£9ed 
to cany oil in. 

Dhui. A boundary mark. 

Phui marte. ) With a thud, or thump, 

Phui mente./ as a fruit fklls from a 
palmyra tree. 

Phoi mento liorenae. Fell with a thnd. 
Phni marte dalkedeae. He thumped him. 

Dhuka. Hot ; to be hot. 

Dhoki din. The hot weather. 

Dhuka dhuki. To altercate, to dispute 

A4i dhnk% dhnkikin kaph^ri^nlena. They had 
an angry altercation. 

Dhuk dhuk. ") To pant, to palpitate, 
Dhuk dhukao. J go pita-pat, to throb, 

to flutter, to be frightened. C£ 

dhak dhak. 
Dhukau. To blow bellows. 
Phukid. An unmarried woman who 

enters the house of the man of 

her choice, and thus compels him 

to marry her. 
Dhukri. A beggar's wallet. 
Dhuku cuku. ") To be uncertain, to be 
Dhuku puku. J in a quandary, to be 

unable to decide as to what to do 

or say. Scottice, sv/ither. 

CalaX l%gi£ dhuka xmkoXkanae. He cannot 
make up his mind to go. 


[ 142 1 

Dhunsi punsi 

P.hulki. A kind of drum beaten with 

the fingers. 
Phulki Fat, stout, applied to girls. 
Phul^ An erection on which grain is 


Tlie method of oonatmoting the ' * dhal% " is m 
foUowB: — ^PoBts— twoor more — are fixed in 
thegroimdat interralB in s straight line. 
Fixed on the top of each poBt horizontaJly 
la a piece of wood about two feet long with a 
notch on the upper surface at each ex^mity. 
A piece of wood running the whole length 
ia placed in tiie notches on either aide. ^ On 
the top of this, which is about two feet high, 
the handis (q. ▼.) containing the grain are 

Phul^ khun^. The centre poata. 

Vhul^pirhi. The horiaontal bars. 

Phul^ paron. The two pieces of wood running 
the whole length. 

DhuluA dhupu6. 1 The head and body 
Dhuluk dhupuk. / to shake, as of 
very old people when walking. 

Dhulu6 dhupu6. Of all sizes, big and 

Dhului dhupuiko haraakana. They are of aU 

aizes. . . 

Dhulu6 dhupui geleakana. The earn (of grain) 

are not equal. 

Dhuluk dhupuk. C£ dhulu6 dhupu6. 

Dhum. 1 To bluster, to threaten ; 

Dhum dham. J tumult, tamasha. 

Dhum dhamke^leae. He forced ua by hia blua- 

Dhuma. M.^Stout, fat, corpulent ; lazy 
Dhumi. F. J because &t. 

Phumb^k. A ball, a clump ; to hud- 
dle together, to collect in lumps. 

Sire or ^humb^Mke^tilia. I had cramp. 

Sai> 4humb%Mkedeali. I aeized and held him 

Tol dhumb^Mka^koaii. I tied their handa and 

teet together. 
Sadomiii or ^humb^Mkedea. I reined the horae 

in tightly. 

Dhum dharkat \Dilapidated. untidy, 
Dhum dharkanij. J neglected. 

Dhum dhapot Litter blown in by 
the wind. 

44i dhum dhapotke€leae hoete. Our oourt<>yard 
waa littered by the wind, (blew in a^wa, 
leavea, Ac.) 

Dhum dharkar. Littered, dirty and 
untidy, as a house that has not 
been swept ; disorderly, dili4)ida- 

Noa ofaK dhum dharkar lielotkana. Thia 
houae looka very untidy (as if no one lired 
in it.) 


Dhuna dhunL To butt each other, as 
cattle ; to quarrel. 

Dhunau. To strike by jerking up the 
head, to lift the head ; to bump 
with the nose, to push ; to effect. 

Uni g^i doe dhun^ukedea. The cow jerked up 

her head and atruck hi^. 
MihS. do %^i S^ko dhun%ua nunure. CalTea 

when auckmg bump (the udder) with their 

noaea with great force. 
Cefem ^un^uaP What can you effect t 

Dhund. Dim, indistinctly. 

Dhundgeli beiigeda. I see indiatinotly. 
44i dhunda. Yezy thick dark (foreat.) 
Laf dhundte:^e ^t tar aderkedea. He ran with 
into 9 thicket of la^. (q. y.) 

Dhundha. M. ") Foolish, awkward, igno- 
DhundhL F. ) rant. 
DhundhaghantL^A large bell tied 
Dunda ghanti. 3 round the neck of a 

cow, or bullock. 
Dhundharbhe£. A rat tat played on 

the drum always when beginning 

to dance the Lagr6 dances; to 

begin, to start. 

NoX5eko dhundh^rbhefkeda. Now th^y hare 

Dhundra dhundri. To search for here 
and there. 

PhuQ 4hun. Sound produced by strik- 
ing anything hollow; ringing, 
as metal when struck. 

DhuDffia. Smoke, smoky. 

^4i dbuiigif kana* There ia much amoke. 
44i^uiigi%Ka loho€ aahan. Damp firewood 
amokea much. 

Dhungra dhungri. To revile <m* call 
names when ouarrelling, to quar- 
rel fiercely with each otner. 

Dhudgi*au. To scold, rebuke, speak 
angrily, to put down. 

Dhuhgr^u aukkedead. 

Dhunia. Semi-Mahomedanized aborigi- 
nes who card cotton ; a Jolha, or 
Mahomedan weaver. 

Jolha ofaX, Dhuni^ ofaX. 

Dhunin. Rich, wealthy. 

Khub dhunin hop kanae. He ia a rery wealthy 

Dhunsi punsi Ruffled, disordered, 

Hoe do atinam of aXe dhunai punai o^okada. 
The wind haa diaordered all the (tluktch) on 
the houae. 



[ 143 ] 

Dhururi dhururi 

Dhup. A kind of rapier, a two edged 

Dhup. Incense ; to bum incense. 

BhSS^SSS!- } To offer ino.«e. 
Dhadhnp. To bom inoenae. 
Dhap dui. Inoenae holder. 

Dhup. Sunshine. 

Dhap oral. Withering honae. (a tea garden . 

Bohgako dhnp dhnm%nakoa. They bnm in- 
oenae to uiegoda. 

Phup marte. \ 

Phup mente. V A rapping sound 

Phup 4hup J 

Phnp ihxxp aajekana. There is ft aoond of 

Dhupu6. 'J Fear, to be firightened, to 
Dhupuiolc J dread. 

.^L^iil dSbapnjoIkana. I am greatly alarmed. 

Dhupuc ■) Fear, to be firightened, to 
Dhupucot. J dread. 
Dhupuc dhupucoK. To be in fear ; to 
lose one's breath through fear. 

Dhur. Draught cattle, either oxen or 

Dhnr menalkotaea, ae bah? Haa he got plough 
cattle or not P 

Dhtlrft. Bezin. 

Dh%r^ dhnp. A small earthen ware veaael in 

whioh reain is bnmed aa inoenae. 
Bhtir& dhnpkedae. 

Dhurau. To begin, to set to, to engage 

E^mi dhnr^nenae. He engaged in work. 
Jo]ome dhnr^nena. He set to to eat. 
Kymiko dhnrankedea. They set him to work. 

Dhuraha. Ill-conditioned, worthless, 

Dhurbaj. A rascal, rascally. 

Dhur dhur. Begone, get you gone, off 

with you. 
DhurhaK.l An exclamation of annoy- 
Durh^k. ) ance or vexation. 

Dhnrh^X hiri^edati. . 

DhurL Dust. 

Phfiri 4igl^n fgnedae. He raiaea adondof 
dnat aa he oomea. •• 

Dhuna. 1 Individuals of the tassar silk 
Dhuriali r moth that are uni-voltine. 

Dhiijri^ Inm^m. Firat olasa taaaar ooooona. 
Theae ooooona contain mnoh moi^e ailk 
than the molti-yoltine. 

Dhu|*iali lumam. The tassar silk worms 
that hatch in June and July. Cf. 

Dhu|iau. A method of curing sores 
infested by maggots in cattle, 
also of rendering the poison of 
snakes harmless. 

Inoantations are employed and a little dnat 
thrown at the aore, or at the anako. 

Dhuy jharaoni. Ct jhayaoni. 

Dhurkara. An exclamation of annoy- 
ance or vexation. . 

Dhurpau. *) Mid-harvest, busiest season^ 
Dhuru^. / abounding, in full swing, 

at the greatest height, as work in 


Cha aakam dhnrp^nakana. Tea leaf plncking 

is in fall swing. 
Matkom dharp%aakanai It is mid-harreet of 

the matkom (q. t.) 

Dhurmar. ") To drive away, to keep at a 
Durmar, J distance, to put down, to 
set down. 

Dhnrm^rkedi&ako bako ror oooadiiia. They 
pat me down, woald not allow me to apeak. 

DhurrL A kind of trumpet. 
Dhursau. To sinire the hair off an 

animal befoi flaying by placing 

it on a fire. 

Dhuru6. Stunted, as grain; under- 
sized, or puny, as a child. 

Sanam janhe dharn^entUia. My janhe (q. ▼.) ia 

Dhurumjak. A rat tat played on the 
drum at the end of the village 
street at certain stages of the 
proceedings during the celebration 
of the Sohrae (q. v.) festival. 

Kalhi mac9€reko dhoromjaga. They beat the 
dhnramjai rattat on the dram at the end of 
the atreet. 

Dhuru]^. C£ dhurpau. 

H^ti^ dhara|iakaxia. The market ia in fall 

Dhurup arak. Two plants have this 
name: — 

4Ln4i* dhornp afal. LeueoB e«pkaloie$, Sprm^ii, 

Ehga dharnQ afaX. Leucae Olarkei^ Hook. 

Both planta are eaten aa pot-herba, bat 
Lenoaa cephalotea only in times of aoarcity 

Dhururi. A kind of trumpet. 

Dhururi dhururi. Sound produced by 
the " dhururi. " (q. v.) 


[ 144 1 


Dhus. 1 A kind of woolen cloth used 
Dhu89. J for cold weather wrappers. 

Dhus^u. ") To depreciate, to desparage, 
Dus^u. J to nnd £stult with, to pick 

holes in, to blame, to censure, to 

be unjust to. 

Koako diiaf ake^tilSa. They dlsparftged these 
thingfl of mine. 

DhutL A cloth worn round the waist 
passing betwen the legs and fas- 
tened behind ; to put on the dhutL 

Herel doko dhntiXa. Men wear dhotie. 

Dhusat,! A caste of semi-Hinduized 
Dusat. / aborigines ; the Dosads. 

Dhuf. An exclamation of annoyance 
or vexation. 

Dhnt! b^ri^kedam. 

Dhusra. The pestle of a dhinki (q. v.) 

without the iron ring. 
PL \ 

Pih. VA village, a hamlet. 
pih 4an4i. The whole area within the 

Village boundary, 

Piad di^^ Hanging down, suspended, 
depending. C£ <jiawa& dawai^. 

Dhuthfik* An exclamation of annoy- 

Diara, A lamp stand. 

Di^ s^aL Lucifer matches. 

Dib. To take an oath, to swear. 

Dib oco. To administer an oath. 
Dibte^ge alom diboXa. Swear not at all. 

DibL A Hindu idol, particularly Eali 
or Durg9^ 

Di6. To choke. 

Jaliteje diilena. Hewaeokoked with a bone. 
Kathareii dii gciem. I ohoked oyer a word 

(something which conld not be told with 


Pidia. To stand, applied when speak- 
ing to male children just learning 
to walk. 

Ma 4i4^Ki^o> Come, stand np. 

Pi^i. To stand, said to, girls who are 
learning to stand alone. 

Ma bi^, ^i^i^BO- Gome my daughter, stand 

Pi^h^uri* The tree which yields the 
jujubes or Chinese dates, Zizyphus 

Piijihi. To be indisposed. 

Jomreye 4i4hiena. He is indisposed til^ongh 

haying eaten too mnch. 
Hofpored ^^hiakana^ ohoA senlena, I aqt 

indisposed in body, and so oan't go. 
Hofmo do 4i4hientirta. 

Pi4hi. Cf. 4i4hi b^fUu. 
Pi4hi>. }^°® ^*^ '"'>^- 

Pi^hiatf hataoa snd do. I will charge interest 

at 50 per cent. 
Kiori6 4i4hikate bandelme. 
Ek ohinw% alom bandea, di^hikate bandelmew 
Do not wear the cloth single, fold a part of It 


Pi4hi ba4hi Unmatched, unequal; 
to disagree, to altercate, 

JahSe tnln^em ^4hi ba^hienaP Had yons 
quarrel with any ene r 

pig 4ig- Bright, resplendent, to run 

V^g <Ug terde^. Very bright moonlight. 
Vig digko marsala b^. They make a bright 
light with the lamp. 

Pig <Jig^uU. To shine, to flash. 

Jol 4ig ^ig^uena. It has burned up brightly*. 
Pig ^igf u baf aekana. 

Laga<Uffdig9ukedeakoiieledo. The bees chased 
(and he fled like a flash.) 

Piga ened ") * ^^^ 

D^K. }^ J®^'^' jerkingly. 

Digf X menteye orkeda. He pulled by jerks. 
Kathako dig%k floXaka£a. 
Pig^X menteye tehgo gofena. He stopped aU 
at once. 

Dig^if. To be in doubt; doubtful^ 

UniaX monere dig^ hoeadea. A doubt ente^ 

his mind. 
4^ horko digfgoXkana Is«i dhoromre. Many 

people are suspicious as regards the Chri^ 

tian religion. 
Dig^Xgeli bujh^ueda. I feel doubtful. 

DigaK digaK. \ 

DagaM dagaic. VBy jerks, jerkingly. 

Dagar dagar.* J 

ozea. I wHl rein in the 

Sadom dic^H 

horse by jerks. 
Dig^K dig^le roreda. He speaks hesitatingly 

(does not tell his story rurht off.) 
N%ri hijuKkana dig^X digai. ^e pulse ia 


Pigau. To &il, to be rendered in- 

AmaK bukiun oho <Ug«ulen*. Thy oobunuid 

shall not ba superseded. 
Amem menjohkanaK oho ^ig^ulena. Thy wiU 

' shaU not be frustrated. 


[ 146 ] 


Digdha. Doul}t, suspicion, uncertainty. 

IMgdh^ ffo^enae. He beoame donbtfal. 
Plgdhf ao;b9iinMui. There is no doabt aboat it. 

Digi6. To misgive, to doubt, to bode 
ill, to suspect ; to offend. 

Toyo en^aX ffo^keditia onatelS cdgij nif ro^^a. 
A jackal crossed my path, and for that 
reason I felt misflnYings and returned. 

I am donbtf 1 
Alom digi|oXa. Harbonr no sospioioin. 
Gege6re gufpzidre, dolen digiMn, sahaokaX 

Pigi migL Jubilant; pomp, state, 

NitoX dope^ift migigo^ena. Now yon hare 

become Jnbilant. 
H^tiii h9ko sajakadeA, 4icfi m^S^* They have 

put showy trappings on the elephant. 

Id dod menkeda 4igi migiko hijnXa, Bi^an 
bajanteko nidilia. I thought they wiU oome 
with much pomp, and toke me away with 
drums beating axid colours flying. 

X>igir. "l Very fine, small, dust, 
PigirijUgii'J ashes. 

Pigir ^gir lo cabaena. It is burnt to ashes. 
Pigir^i^ dhuri otahoXkana. The dust is 

earned before the wind. 
XMgir digirkedae. He made it into dust. 
Pigir 9igir ot lieloSkana. The floor is dustv. 
Disom do lo ^igiren. The country is ruined. 

Dirir dirir. Quickly, rapidly. 

^^ digir digir calaXkanae. The elephant 
moYcs rapidly. 

Digla dig. Quickly, rapidly, with a 
cloud of du9t. 

fl9 ^ig iiir hijuKkaaae. He oomee racing. 
Ugl^ ^igko d^fa. Horses run quickly. 

Piglau. To grind, to make into dust, 
to become dust, to be carried away 
as dust ; to chase. 

Gahga paromtele laga ^igl^nkoa hapen. We 
will drive them across the (Ganges yet. 

Hoe jokhe^ dhufi <Ligl^utta. Dust is driven 
before the wind. 

Dhufiye 4igl^ao^kana. He raises a cloud of 
dost as he eomes. 

Digo dogo. Lazy, slothful ; a sluggard. 

Digo dogo nit h<5 bam phamao hodoR Kana ? 
You sluggard, are you not yet fully awake P 

Digo dogo. Skaky, 

^unti ligo 4ogoko bi£aka6a. They have not 
fixed uie poet flrmly. 

PigrL Cor. of the English legal term 

^%riadi]iae. He grft^o * decree in my favour. 
iJEal bare <Ugrikatiiime. Peeide in my favour. 

Digwar. Rural police maintidned by 
those Zemindars who hold Qhkt- 
wali or Service tenures. 


Digw^ Of, or belonging to " digwar" 
(q. V.) 

Pigwfriare ofliaoeda. He does the work of a 
rural polioeman. 

Pih. A hamlet. 

Pih ^fn^i. Hamlet and boundaries. 

Pih^. 1 The small villages or country 
Dihat. J surroimding a populous village 
or city; the hamlet or hamlets 
within the village boundary. 

Ona dihf ttetl senlena. I went to that smaU 

Dih^t ren hop kanae. He belongs to the country. 

Dihil dihil. Quivering, trembling as 
a swamp, or as the fiesh of a &t 
animal when walking. 

DihrL The Superintendent of an an- 
nual himt (lo bir sendra, q. v.), 
and President of the Supreme 
court of the Santals of the district 
(lo bir baisi, q. v.) for the settle- 
ment of social matters. 

The hills aud forests in the Santal country are 
divided into Sections for hunting purposeB. 
Each section is in charge of a Dihri whose 
duty it is to offer sacrifices to the Hunting 
and local deities to ensure success and to 
ward off harm from the hunters. He is 
also President of the Supreme oourt of 
the Saatalfl which assembles in the even- 
ing, to hear appeals from the Lower courts, 
az^ to ctocide such questions as can only 
be flnaUy adjudicated upon by the Supreme 

Dik. 1 Annoyance, trouble, bother ; 

Dikdik. > to annoy, to trouble, to 
Dik dikau j bother. 

Dik dik^nadilikanae. He is bothering me. 

Dika dake.1 Unstable, shaky, loose; 
Piko doko. I tossing, staggering. 

Pik^ dalcem tarameda. Tou are staggering. 
Khun ti do 4ik^ ^akeX kana. The post is snaking. 
Oka bah uri6a ona do ^ik^ <lake. 

Dikhitte. With eyes open, knowingly, 
before one's eyes ; in a vision. 

Me£ dikhittom gurottkana. Tou are faOing 
with your eyes open. 
Dikhitte amem ere go^kedilia. Yon deceived 
me before my eyes. 

Dikiau. To tease^ trouble, annoy, pes- 
ter, worry, torment. 

Uni kofa do diki^kato on^ekbone iruf jpena^ 
The young man returned from there an- 

Dikli. A witch finder. 

A dikli is supposed to be able to point out 
wHohes, and also the evil spirit tiiroilgh 
whose influence a person may be ill, or his 
cattle dying, or his housdiold suffering. 


r M6 ] 

Plngi dai&gaa 

Diksik. To annoy, trouble, bother. 

Diksikkediliae. He gare me annoyanoe. 

Dil. Courage, pluck, teavery, to be 

S lucky, brava 
an tanenpe. Be oonrageoiui. 
Dile liamkeda. He reociyed'eiiooazafi^eiiieii^ 
DUle^Kali. IwiUriskit. 

DildaL Rock about, sway, waddle, body 
to tremble with &tness when mov- 
ing, as a fistt ox. 

Dil dak motaakana. His mdea shake with 

DUdale oalalkana. He sways as he walks. 

Dil dil. \ Concussion, reverberation ; 
Dil dilau.j to reverberate, to shake, 
to sound loudly. 

Ehab dildil^nedako {funak. They cause the 
drum to sonnd loudly. 

Dil^a.}^^^^' ^*^' ^^^^^' plucky. 
PiL A lar^ basket in which grain 

is stor^ 
Dilmaa Bcave, plucky. 

Dima. Implies a future probability. 

Gapa dim^ti oalaKa. I may go to-morrow. 
On^e ball sokena menkhan ^khir dim^red liam 

ra^ia. If I do not snoceed there, 1 will 

reneire it(]sAd)baok a^^ain. 

DiSaki Y^^^' «»^W. dull. 

pimH A protuberance on anvthing 
fixed into a handle or a shaft to 
prevent the tang going further in- 
to the handle than is necessary. 

Pimbu baha. A plant in great repute ^ 
among Santals, Ocimti/m BaaUi' 
cv/rriy van ihryeijlorum, Linn, 

DimcL A crupper. 

PimkL A large basket in which grain 
is stored. 

Dimsi punsi C£ dhimsipunsL 

Din kalom. I<ast year. 
Pin bhor. The whole day. 
Dintare pe oho(kate. Thrice daily. 
Dinke dm. Day hj day. 

Din. Religion. 

Be-dili. Heathen. 

Djna. *) Implies a future possibility; 
Dine. J by and by. 

Am on^em berel tMrlenkhan din^ mi€ din doli 
senamgea. If yon remain residrat tlMore 
I shaU one day visityoa. 

Hape se din» haraoooam, arlielmejoBasebaii. 
w'ait and allow it to grow and see if It will 
bear frait or not. 

Nondem tahenkhan mi£ din do din^m kisafola. 
If YOQ remain hero yon wOl one day become 

Kni gidrf do cU^^ sfoilankhan do khnbe hur 
si^roXa. Wnen this boy grows np be wiU 
be very clever. 

Nni kofa do din« hafamoK |oklie6 do oboe kob- 
jolana. lids boy will not stoop nheat be 

Noa nl do din« haralwikhan Ichnbjota. When 
thismao^o tree grows it will bearmutih 

Uiili go61enkhan din^ nni doe snkola, When 
I am dead be wflget vdieC 

Dinam. \ Daily, every day, contin- 
Dinamffe*/ uously. 

Dinfm hiloX. Every day. 

Pin4^ Site of a house. 

Eken 4u^4tte{ menatttaea. He owns oiily the 
sTonnd on which his hottse stands. 

Pin4^ paHjathikme. Select a good site for yonr 

Pid 49bur. To moisten, soak, saturate, 
stream down. 

Merom mallekhan mavam ^lii ^t^bnr atnXa. 
When a goat's head is sianck off the blood 
i^treama (and dyes all aronnd.) 

Pid^awalL To suspend. 

Adtegeye ph^ 4i^4swaMena. He hanged him- 

Oka leka nni do ^id^awaXe tnl^edaP How doei0 
this man hold the balance ? 

Apnar bela pai bncbncnVana, hamar bela tol^ 
4ill^waK. VHien it is his own time (baling) 
he heaps np the measnre, bat when it is my 
time (selling) lie weighs it. 

Pin^i. Pod of the cotton plant ; a co- 

LnmMn mi€ bar <lin4iko tololkana. A few 
suk worms are spinning cocoons. 

Dindir sil Untidy^ slatternly, careless 
of attire, hair in disorder. 

Dindir si{ nj> menaXtaea. fier hair is in disor- 

Nih^ din& si€^ 6eloXXaiiae. She looks ex- 
tremely nntidy. 

Pinga (jl^gua M. *) Bachelorhood. 
Pii^gi 4^ngu^ F. J Spinsterhood. 

Pihgi ^f iignfrcye b9gia€lea. She died unmar- 

Pingar.\Poor, weak, miserable, disre- 
PiQgra.| putable, low, lazy. . 

44^7^ 4iigrf wa. He is a very bad oharaoter. 

Pidgi 4&i^gua. Spinsterhood. 


[ 147 ) 


Dini IQiye, give to me or to us^ ueed 
Dani j with animate objects only. 

^initale lxit^le» diaitide €hil^. Oiye tone 
our daughter, givQto us our dear one. 

SS'SSi.} '"»«»«*'<•*»»•• 

Dini tho ^gniem i^g^A hapete. Oiye him to 
me tiien, 1 will qmet him. 
. Dini thor ill then 9ffaiem. Then bring her to me. 
Dfoi se ^gnieaiL Bring him to me. 
Dhii a JO m geli heoea. Give him tome, mother, 
I wiU bold him (ohUd.) 

TK 'dar fQ^i^^rouBy liberal. 

4di dini hor kanae. He ie a liberal man;. 
^$i diniae. He gives generously. 

The end of the agricultural 
ir, the month o£ Maghy (Jan. 
'eb.), when engagements termin- 
ate, and acoeimta- ave loade upi 

Dipil. To carry on the head, ta under- 
take responsibility. 

Nawapeya he6akawa£lea. Gele kanaeP Dil- 
pili^. We have had a new arrival. What 
18 it? A carrier on the head, (a female. 
Dipilalime. Lift it on to my head. 

Piptud. The King: Crow C£ dhip- 

Pipu. A depot for emigrant coolies. 
Dir. To remain firm. 

Diytakan d^hinakan tahenpe. 

Dipa mun^te.l Heartily, earnestly, with 
Dire munjite. \ heart and soul, firm- 
Dire mur. } ly. 

IHf ^ mnn^te mi{ h5 bae k^mikana. He does 
no work heartily. 

Dir dir. \Rushmg, quickly, as a per- 
Dir dirau./ son acts when in a rage. 

Dir dire lagakedeae. He mahed at him and 
ohaaed him away. 

Dirhel To take up one's quarters. 

Okatom sen di^hefeiia. 

Pirfii. One and a halt Cf. (Jerhi. 

Pirhi barhL Of unequal length, to 
disagree, as two reports of the same 

Dirho. Strong, substantial ; to estab- 
lish, to strengthen. 

Bes difho ofaKkan. It is a. good substantial 
honse. - 

Din. To be late, behind time ; to defay, 
to put off time, to be detained. 

Alom mria hed godoRne. Do not' delay, come 
qnickly. / 

E^al kathateJi dkiena. I was detained by some- 
thing else. 

Dirida^. Swollen, as a colpse; pot- 
bellied, lethargic through having 
eaten too much^r 

Difidahe ffitiiakana. He lies with a hxTL 

Jom diyidafienae. He is lethargic through 

having eaten too moolu 

DiriS'^dijim. }^^g»°g. thudding, 

B^dnk difim mente sa^MEa. The gon goes oif 
with a bang. 

Dir dira^ir.|Quickly, rapidly, as a person 
Diri dirL / acts when angry, 

Dirdir^u bapae kanae. He rushes about. 

Dipid. \A large bamboo basket in 
Pifmi. /which grain, &c is stored. 

Disa. To renumber, to have in mind, 
to be conscious of, to be aware o£ 

Cef dfs^ hudis baft tahentalea. We shall be 

Dis^ he^adea. He remembered. 
Dis^: dohokattme. Keep it in mind till required. 
Eombfoko bololena, menkhan bale dis^e^koa.. 

Thieves entered, but we were not aware of 

Bae dlB^adida. He did not remind me. 

Disi. Native, of the country. 

Di^ kicri6. Country cloth. Of home mano^ 
facture as opposed to foreign. 

Dismis. \Cor. of the English legal 
Dismis. / tenn " dismiss." 

Disom. A country, particularly the- 
country or district in- which the 
Santals live. 

Disom hor; The Santals of the country-side. 

Disom gipiti6 sendra. Annual hunt which lasts 
a part of two days, when the hunters pass 
the night in camp together. 

Dfeom horei. A common cultivated 
leguminons plant, Giycine soja, 
L%eh and Zmcc, 

Dista. 1 

Dit dit j-A quire of paper. 

Jiata. J 

Pi^m. The claws or pincers (chelae) 
of crabs, &c., to grip by pressing 

Diuhe. A lamp. 

B%ti. Wick. 

M^. Earthenware vessel ias. holding* the oif. 

Diuhe jeredme. light the Isonp. 

Do. A very common particle giving 
emphasis or clearness. 

Ona reak bhed do noa kana. The purport of 
that is thi§. 


t 148 1 


Tayom at^rte do jswae kotako ologeA, At the 

very last thev anomt tne briaogroom. 
In^kate do bana nof bati daXkin saba. After 

that they both take bold of a braM Tessel 

of water. 
Uni do bah, nni kangeae. It is not he, but thiB 


Do. An emphatic or persuasive par- 
ticle, used with the Inperative. 

Do oalakme. Qo, 

"Do agnitalahme. Ck> bring ours. 

Do nahaK hijoKme. Come in a little. 

X)oal To invite, to call, to say ' come*. 

Doai! delaa£peako. They invited yon to oome. 
Doafkoako. They will invite them, or call them 
to oome. 

Doal. A sari striped red and white. 
Doasla. -Mixed. 
jDorasa. J 

Doasala kicriǤ. Cloth made of silk and ootton. 

Ooat. An ink stand. 

Dob. 1 To prohibit, to lay an embar- 
Dobon. J cfo on, interdict. 

DobkaXme janfte aloko jom. Prohibit any one 

eating them, (frint.) 
Dob hoeSna. It is interdicted. 

Dobatia. Cross roads, the junction of 
two roads. 

pobdobo. The feeling after a rather 
full meal. 

Jom ^ob^oboenali. 

Pobol poesa. A double pice. 

Pobhak. ^ A pool of water, a puddle, to 
Poblak. J collect, as water in a hollow. 

DaM do bah 4obhaIlena. The water did not 

Pobka.*) A basket used to lift water 
Popka. J for irrigation. 

Pobka. The pattern made by Mahlis (q. ▼.) 
SefS. „ ,, Doms. (q. ▼. 

PoblaK. C£ dobhaK. 

Pobo. Big, large. 

Pobok, To bow, to salute by bowing 
down, to worship. 

PoboXa^eae. He bowed down to him. 

Dobon. To subdue, to check. 0£ dob. 

Dobone^o kanakin. 

Dpbof. Double, fold. 

MSfS dobor. Five fold. 

Dobo? dand. Twice over. 

Dobor 4anf arh5 emol hoyoltiila. I will have 

to pay it over again. ' 
Dobor dsA^a ^gokedilla. He charged me twioe 

for it. 

Dobra. Fold. 

Bar dobira l^tm&kate. Fold it twiee^ 

Do6 miru. A species of parakeet, 
Pakeomia torquatus. 

D5d. Intense internal pain. 

Docol Comb of a cock, &a 

Poda mu6. \ A species of large black 
Ponda mu6. J ant. 

Dodao. To deny, to repudiate, to 
disavow, to unsay. 

Kathage dodao ba^aeSdae. He repudiates his 

Po<}e. To ccJl, to invite to accompany. 

Ale h5 4o4e idilepe. Callus so that we may 

accompany you. 
Po4e agukom se. Bring them along wiiii you. 
Onko gok^la caiaKme. Go and tell thdn to 

po4e torakedeale. We called to him to aooom- 

pany us as we were passing. 

Dodhari. A common fern, Adi(i'>itum> 
lunulatum. Burm, 

Nanha dodhari. ChsilantKvs tenuifoUaf 8w^ 

Po^hiMi miru-U gpecies of Parrakeet. 
Poghana miru I ^ 

Palceorms Aleocandri. 

Poijhio. ■) Hollow, and therefore unser- 
Phodro. J vioeaJble, as an old tree ; 
worn out, old. 

Po^hio mara bu4hi. 7 An old worn out hag. 
Pho4romarabu4hi. > (Apiplied sometimes by 

a graceless dau^ter-m-law to her old 


Poijo. M. 1 Old, worn out, dried up, 

Pha^rL F. J applied to the ripe fruits 

of certain species of Cucurbitaceae 

which are succulent when green, 

but a mass of fibre when ripe. 

Noa jhihga 4o<[oena. This jhiiig^ (q. v.) is a 

mass ox fibre. 
Po<lo mara hapam. An old dry stick. 

Podom (Jodom. A rat tat played on 
the drum by Pom drummers. 

Dodormo6. C£ donno6. 

D^S.j^^^?P^' ^^^ ^' ^^' "*' 
Dodroflo./ P'^U^down. 

Dodroeo iSdoXkanae. He looks indisposed. 

Nui^aftrado dod<»oso l&elolkanae, alope lo- 
raoea. This buDock looks ill, do not yoke 

- Tehelidodoroaoroii atkareda, gitiAakanart. I 
feel out of sorts to day, and am lying down. 


[ 149 ] 



Poelao. To apprehend, to seize, goods or 
cattle for debt, &c. ; to throw into 

Sipi^hiko ^oelaoke£koako. The polioe appre- 
hended and took them away. 

Okareko rapaXkedeaP Poelaokedeako. Where 
did they bom his body P They threw it into 
the rirer. 

Doema 4nimi. Q(Hng about firom place 
to place. 

Am do ^oerna ^uimi bafae kanam. Yon go 
wandering about from place to plaoe. 

Doemo^. Ill-shaped forehead, ugly, 
having a sore between the eyes. 

Doemoh bohoK. An ill-shaped head, 
Doemoii c9ndi. All ill-shaped forehead. 
Onrente noXSe doemohenae. He has a woond 
on his forehead throngh falling. 

|>og. A leaf bud, point of a twig, 
stalk of sugar-cane, &c., C£ dhoj. 

Mih!i bes^^ogko lieloSkantaea. His cattle look 

Poga. ") A cutting of sugar cane for 
PugL J planting. 
Dogdog. 1 A feeling of want of elasti- 
Dogdogo. J city in the body, languid, 
inert, as one go^ed with food. 

Dogdogo bafaekanae. He is lonn^g about. 
Dogdogoli a^kareda. I feel langmd. 

Pogdogao. To grow luxuriantly, to 

Onte idikope ghas khnb ^og^ograoakana. Take 
them (cattle) over that way the pasture is 
luznriant there. 

Dogdogo. Heavy, indisposed to move, 
as one who has gorged himself 
with food. 

Dogdogo atkaroKa j^ti jel jomlekhan. After 
being gorged with flemi an indisposition to 
more is felt. 

Dogdogo. C£ dogdog. 

Dogodhon. "> To be worried, troubled, 

Dokodhon. J pestered, 

Oalpe dogodhonelikanaP Why do you pester 

Pogor. Likelihood, i^pearanee, pro- 

Koa reaK ^ogor do oetieka ^ikanVkana, ale sen- 
ko digria se bail P What do you think pro- 
bable, will we get a decree in our favour, or 

Pogorre balS bujhf u Hameda. 

Doha boha. Cf. dhowa bhowa. 
Dohae. To cry out for justice, to appeal 
for justice; a plaint. 

Bohae ! dohae ! Kump^ni realf dohae. A cry for 
lustioe to the ddhinot Honourable East 
IncHa Company, who is stiU regarded by the 
oemrmon people as controlling their destiny. 

Kaesarem dohaeakawadea, Kaeear thengem 
calaKa. Thou hast appealed to Cesar, to 
Cesar shalt thou go. 

Dohar. Double cloth. 

Dohara. A stout, well-grown young 

Hormo ar usulte bes dohaf a. Stoiit and tall. 

Dohleu). To break out afresh, as a fire 
that was apparently extinguished, 
or a sore that has been healed ; to 
relapse after partial recovery, as 
in illnes& 

Bog dohlaoena. The disease has broken out 

Dohmot. To felsely accuse, to slander. 

Dohmotadiliako. They slandered me. 

Doho. To put down, to place, keep, 

Holail he6 dohoakana. I came yesterday and 

stayed on. 
M9^ jhi then l9i dohokalfme. Inform the village 

Chief, (the information to be made use of 

afterwards if neoessary.) 
Chutki b^^kiye dohoaka^kina. He has married 

two wives. 
H^ndi dohoepe, nin^H« do girf bo tola. 

OraKreye doho baeakafa. He has treasured it 
up, or he has concealed it in his house. 

Eicric doho hatafkatUlme. Keep my cloth 
for me for the present. 

Nui g^i doe dohoakada alope siaea. This cow 
is in calf, do not plough with her. 

NuiaM bhorombo dohoakafa. We have savd her 

Am do ehran %pum reatt bhorombam doholata. 

You did not preserve the honour of your 


Disom hof a];)etheniii jof hatolf kana, dohokaJipe. 
Ado disom horgeco dohokaea. O ooun^- 
men I I beseech you to pardon me. And 
the oountry>men will pardon him. 

Poho. A tumour, wart, excr^cence, 
a camel's hump. 

Non^e ^ohogea. There are excrescences here. 

Dohra. To double, to do a second time 
or over again. 

Jon^lrako dohfaeda. lliey are hoeing the In- 
dian com a second time. 

K^mi dohraepe. Do the work over again. 

Bar dohfale pokeda. We hoed it tinoe after 
the first time. 

DaK dohra doh^ate hijuttkana. The rain comes 
time after time. 

Dohfa dohfae kokoekana. He asks over and 
over again. 

Dohta. Having two houses in different 
places ; a town and country r^sid*- 

Nui doe ^ohtftftka^. He. has built himself 
anotiier house in a different village (and has 
BOW two houses.) 


E 150 I 

Doloe dbloe* 


Doja- Second growth, second brew. 

Doja. A second growth of rioe after the first 

has been reaped. 
Doja g[ha8. An after math. 
Doja jon^ra. A seoond growth of Indian oom 

from the stnnms of the fint crop. 
DoJa kofa. A widower or divorced nan. 
Doia knfi. A widow or divorced woman. 
Doja han^i. A second t)rew of rioe beer from 

the same grain. 

Dojna)). Unmatched, irrregular, long 
and short. 

Dojnaptell l^^nrnkeda kicri6 do. I did not fold 

the doth evenly. 
K%taj> dojnapgrea. The fingers are not all of 

Dojnapgeakin, ohokin jnrilena. They are of 


the same lenfftii. 
napgeakin, onok 
unequal height, they will not mate 

Dojok. The belly, livelihood^ the 
necessaries of life. 

Oe€leka calaKkantakoa dojok doP How are they 
off for the necessaries of life P 

Dok. To shelter, save, protect, rescue, 
preserve, shield. 

Oholi doKlebena. I will not stand between yon 

(and your punishment.) 
Uniye rof doSkedida. He spoke on my behalf 

and saved me. 
B^fi^ khon doXlem. Deliver us from evU. 

Poka. A small deciduous forest tree, 

Odina Wodier, Roxb, 
Dokan. A shop. 

DoMkani^. A shopkeeper. 

Dokandar. A shopkeeper. 
Dok^oko. Loncfy projecting, 

Pok^okoe gotfakatb. He carries it projecting 
over his shoulder. 

Dokha. 1 Doubt, hesitation, uncertain- 
Dhokha. J ty, deceit, disappointment. 

Dokhafi bujh^ue^ bail doli calaM, bail do bah. 

I feel uncertain as to whether I shall gro or 

Dokhakediliae. He deceived me. 

Dok c6r6. The Painted Snipe, jRos- 
tratvla capenaia, 

Dokhol. To occupy, or be in posses- 
sion ; occupancy, possession. 

Guh n^i on parom no parom dokhol tahSkan- 

talea. We were in possession of both 
■ banks of the Gkuig river. 
M^lijhi do noa jaegae dokholakawadilia. The 

village chief put me in possession of this 

Noa barge iA dokholre menala. This garden 

is in my possession. 

Dokpi. A coin of the value of one 

fourth of a pice. 
Dol. A company, party, detachment, 

group, band, sect. 

Hi£ dolko calattkana. They are going in a 

Bar dol menallea. There are two parties of us. 

l&oL > A Hindu festival observai 

XM gunijEu } on the Mth Fliidigun. 

Pol. An iron bucket for drawing- 
water fiom. & well. 

Dol..') A long trailing grass found' in- 
Dal. / the beds of taj\ka and other 

moist situations, Panicum stag*' 

ninv/m, Linn. 

Dola. A kind of palki;. 

Dolan. A large house built of brick 
or Intone having a flat terraced 

polao. Damp, limp^ lean, poor, lost 

Noado^olaoffea^bapetaaelaKto.. This is datnpC' 
isb, you did not spread it in the sun. 

Nuisadomdoe ^olaoena. "niis horse has be- 
come lean. 

Nes do uni hof u^ie ^olaoakana. That man is 
very hard up. this year. 

Dol doli. 1 A swamp. Scottice, moss 
Dal dali. / hagg. 

DoldoL A lullaby sung to babies by 
Santal mothers. 

Dole. Ta bob up and down on the 
sur&ce of the water, to sway from 
side to side, as a lighly laden boat. 

DoleLlA document, any legal instm^ 
Dalil. ) ment, documentary proof. 

Dolkha. A large leaf cup or basin. 

Polmolao. > To shake, to harass, to be 
Tdmolao. J in straits. 

Behgeiteko ^olmolaoena. They are in straits 

for want of food. 
Ot ^olmolaoena. The earth diook. 

Polo4ad. \ The small, poisonlesS) greeo 
Horhoran./ grass-snake. 

Dolodolo. Slowly, gently, carefidly. 

Ce^lekam hijuKkana doiodolo! itte hijuibQe. 
How slowly you are coming ! Come quickly. 

Dolomolo. \SaA looking, dejeetod, 
Dholomolo. J depressed, untidy. 

Beref tora dholo mologe atkaroXa. On first 

getting up one feels dased. 
Ce£leka dholomolom lieloXkatta. How dejected 

you look. 

Doloe doloe. Shaking gently, swaying, 
nodding, dangling. 

Doloe doloeemdipil^lfuedahoro do. The dhan 

dangles as you brmg it on your head. 
Doloe doloe hilinlfkana. It sways gently. 

Dolo^ doiofk 

[ 151 ] 

Dondbo mondho 

X>olo]^ doloj^. Thick, crowded, dense. 

Dolo^ dolop rimile rafc>|>a k afa. Deitte <olQada 

JMi^ dolo|> sakamakaoa d«re do. The tree Is 

!Dolof» dolopko bahaakanft kofi do. The girla 

miTe large bnnches of flowwa in their hair. 

Solo^ doIa6. Swaying^ shaking. 

Doloi» dolopko emeia. They sway to and fro as 
tbey diuice. 

Pom. A seuu-Hindulsed caste of 
aborigrines, Humy of whom are 

{HmatekD calala. They go with a hand of 
Pom mnBJoians. 

Dom. To delay. 

Domkeditiako. They delayed me. 

Dom. *) To rest, to be invig<»a- 

Dom maro. j ted. 

Jir^n dogolkanae dom maraoa mente. He is 
reetingto overcome his weariness. 

Domao. To ^trike^ to beat. 

Domaomeall nahaK. I shall heat yon presently. 

Pomba ^ombe. 1 Uneven, knotty, hav- 
Pombe. / mg knobs, or «x- 

(srescences on the stirfiM)e. 

Bobdr domheakana. The twine is knotted. 

Domb^ii}wi»eedling. deceiving. 

4di dombaj hor kanae. He is an arch deceiver. 

Pombal ^ombol. ") Rising and falling, 
Pombol 4oniboL J as a boat on the 

Mondhe^ d<»>^bol pombol ftnXkana. The log 

rises and ftUls as it floats. 
(Vmibol dombol bafaekana. It goes on rising 

and falling. 

Pombe. A knot^ an excrescence on a 

Baberpe tol dombeaktffa. Yon have tied the 
twme into knots. 

Pombohok. The Pom's head, a rat tat 

played by drummers accompanying 

a marriage party for the purpose 

of keeping the various groups in 

touch with each other, 

Pombok. Little balls of bread, gene- 
rally made at harvest time from 
the flour of imw rice. 

Pombol aomboL Heaving up and down 
as a boat on a rough sea. 

D6mbrao.\To set down, to subdue, to 
Dambrao. j prevent, to over coiAe. 

Dale don^«NiedilSa bahkhan ili rohoe caba- 
hea. Tne rain prevented me or I shonld 
have ftxttshed planting.. . . . 

Domcok. *! A u i_ J \ 

Domoo«. / Ahump, peak, mound. 

Utko domoolana. Camels have humps. 
DomcoS bum. A hill, or large mound stand- 
ing in a plain. 

Domedom. Out of breath, to breathe 
heavily; repeatedly, heavily. 

Adi domedomili atkareda. I feel out of breath. 
Adi domedome dalkedea. He struck him repeat- 
^medome sahe^eda. He breathes heavily. 

Pom ene6. A kind of dance. 

Domge. A small mound or hillock. 
Cf. d^mgi 

Domkao. To become less, to declin*e, 
to cease, to be still, to rebuke, 
to chide. 

Bu^ domkaoentaea. His fever has declined. 
BotortekodomkaoMa. They will lie low through 

Dal hSe domkaokeda. The rain has ceased, or 

has passed over. 

Pomko4oko6. A tree so named. 

PomkoL Floating and stationary, as 
a buoy. 

Domoa C£ dhamas. 

Pom tuiUd. A species of waterfowl. 

Domuhani. The junction of two rivers. 

Don. To leap, to jump, to frisk. 

Don baraekanae. He is frisking about. 
Katha dom don par<»nkeCti6a. Ton did not 

obey me. 
P!^ don. A dance danced by men only. 

Doa. A wooden trough. C£ ^s^ka^^i^* 

Pon^ffoi Having the head shaved, a 

Dondha. A mass, a mass of foam, a 
collection of foam, sticks, leaves, 
&c. gathered together in the 
eddy of a river. 

Mooa dondhaentae sukri do. The pig*s mouth 

is a mass of foam. 
Hako^o dondhaakuia. The fish are aU in one 

HuJKo dondhaakana. The Mits are massed 


Dondho. Cloudy, haz^. 

Kuhr%te dondhoakafa. It is hasy owing to 

Bimilte dondhoakafae*. It is cloudy. 

Dondho mimdho. Indisposed, out of 

Dondho mondhoe lieldlkana tehe^. He looks 
out of sorts to-day. 


[ W2 1 

Dora daga.' 

Pondhor. A hole, a hollow. 

Daro ^on^hor. A hollow in a tre«. 
Dhiri ^on^hor. A hole in a stone, a oave. 
Pon4hor oe^em soXeda? Why are joa throflting 
your hand into the hole P 

Pondloi^. To shave the head. 

A<li se menaXkotaea 4on<llohkaeme. 

Pon^o. Polled, as an ox or buflfalo. 

Dondorco« | pixed, still. 
Dunduircnt. J 

Dondorco^e dafaftakaiia. He aits as if he were 

a nxtnre. 
Dondof oo{ bnm. An inunoyable mountain. 

Dondor puli.\Used by women when 
Dordor puli. J scolding girls. 

pondroU. Cloudy, dull 

Teheti do ^lon^rottakadae. To-day ia olondy. 

Donga^a. A small pit or hole; any 
water course, etc. that cannot be 
stepped over, but must be jumped. 
Cf. don, and gada. 

Noa horte ^i don ga^A menaKa, etaX hortebon 
oalaMa. There are many places that ro- 
qnire to be jumped on this way, we will 
go another way. 

Dongam. Cf. engam dongam. 
Pon^od. Erect, applied to tall persons. 

Poh^oii non^leye tehgoakanae. He stands ereot 

Don ene6. A certain kind of dance. 
Pongalc. To be carried, as a bride to 
ner home. 

Boikga oooXe iSamkana ! Does she wish to be 
carried? (Said of a bride who is reluctant 
to go to her husband's house.) 

DoAger. A dance by men only on the 
evening of the first day of an 
annual himt. 

Don r^r. The time beaten on the 
drums and the air sung when the 
don dance (q. v.) is being danced. 

Don sereli. The songs sung during 
the dancing of tne cUyA dance 
(q. V.) 

S^?«^^-, . |lnpufrs,puffiing. 
Dongoe dongoe. J ^ > r --o 

Doh^ dohgoe dhuaXkana. The smoke issues 

in puffs. 
Dohfiroe marte dhua go€ena. The smoke rose 

m a puff. 
Doii^roe dohgoe dhua o^lokoXkana. The smoke 

issues in puffs. 

Doiigol. Company, detachment, party, 

group, crowd, sect. 
Barpe dohfolko oaUoena. Two or three ptivties 
haye gone. 

DotigoL A large house, a palace. 

Dongol phosol. 1 Carelesslv 
Dhongofphosol. J^^^essiy. 

Dohgol pnosole k^mikana. He is doing his 
work carelessly. 

ponka. *) To publish slanderous state- 
Ponkao. J ments, to out-caste. 

Disomre katfaae 4ohkao gof keda. He spread 
slanderous statemente over the country. 

Eulhi duru|>reko ^oh]»kedea. They out-^aeted 
him at a meeting of SantaLs. 

pontho. A knot. 

Dopca. *> Badly executed, as a piece 
Dopcaha. ) of work ; flawed, as an 
earthenware pot, agricultural im- 
plement, &c., unserviceable. 

Churi do dopoages. 

Po]^ ^0^. Cloudy. 
Doph3.r. Layer above layer. 

Dophaf dophaf e m^il^uikana. There is layer 

upon layer of dirt on him. 
Dophaf dophSpe dohoaka6a. He has put them 

one above the other. 

Popka. A basket with which water is 
raised for irrigating purposes. 

Popo. A very small mound or hillock. 

Popot Hollow, flaw, as in ah earthen 
pot ; the shell can be pressed in be- 
cause hollow, as an india rubb^ 

Gull 4opo€ 4opodoKkaiia. The ball can be 

depressed because it is hoUow» 
T«ku<^<lopo€<lopoi[gea. The pot has a flaw in it. 
Alope kinda ^opoCgea. Do not buy it, there ia 

a flaw in it. 

Poptho. Bones projecting at the joints 
like knobs, a knob or excrescence 
on a tree, &c. 


Dor bhao. 
Dor dam. 

A^iyo dordamkeda. He priced it yery high. 

Pora. A string roimd the waist with 
which ever Santal child is provided 
immediately after birth. 

Pora bohoM . A red flowering plant 
found abundantly in the jungles 
durii^ the cold weather, Vemo^ 
nia Moxburgkii, Lesa. 

Dora da^ Misfortime, anything that 
hinders, as illness, &c. 

I>era(&gali liamkeda oiiate bad arjao da^eada. 
I met with a misfortune (bullooks died,) 
and oould not therefore got a good Inrrest. 

Rate, price. 

Porae ^orae 

[ -168 ] 


Jj^ 4^^-} A call to goats. 

Dorao.lTo prove, to call evidence. Cf. 
Da;rao./ daraa 

Dorasa. Mixed. 

Dorasa. SlightFy. 
Ce€lekae m^itKaiiii ? Dorasae maKkana, khab 
doba&. HowishiB fererP Slight, not at 
all sereitt. 

Dorbar. An ass^nbly, a meeting, a 

Dorbaria. One in the habit of attending 

Dorbhao. Ct dor. 

Dordag. 1 Misfortune, anything that 
Dordaga. J hinders. Cf doradaga. 

Dordam. Price, rate. Cf dor. 

Dordar. To bargain, to agree to a price. 

Dordar ofokatele hedena. We fixed the price 
and oame awaj. 

Dordor. A long straight sindur mark ; 
long and straight. 

Boiiga ohiri dordorko sindnrala. They put 
red lines npon the spirits' stones. 

Dordore sindarakana. She has a kmg sindnr 
niark on her. 

Doidor tae mh. She has a long straisht nose. 

B%hn do dordore mllana. The bride baa a long 
straight nose. 

Dorho. Strong. 

Dorloe. Famine, scarcity, distress. 

44^ doirloe oalaoena. A great soarcity has pas- 

^i dorloe oala^kana. The present is a time 
of great scarcity. 

Dal dormadikedeako. They beat and hnrt him. 

Dormoi. HI, ailing, out-of-sorts, any 
thing wrong with any part of the 
body ; pain&L 

Swr dormojenae. He f^ anid hnrt hunsell. 

Sir dormojentaea. 

Dal dormoSakadeako. They bea4 and disabled 

Tiie doCTiCMSakanaa Hit hand is paiafol. 

Dormod. Cf. dormo6. 
Dorob. Metal, excluding iron. 
Doroboa All the necessaries of life 

Dorobos tahen tnln6 kaoharteko senena. They 

hay^ gone to.Cachar althongh they wantoa 

ftas nothing. 
Dorobos sanamalf menatttaea, enhS b^e l^hena. 

She has every tBing she needs; bqU she will 

not stay. 


Dorobotolo. Full to overflowing. 

Sora n^i do dorobotolo. The river Sofa is fall 
to overflowing. 

Doro doro. Quickly, without delay. 

Doro doro idi gofaeme. Take it to him withont 

Doroga. A Head constable. 

DoroK. \In comp. be done with it,- 
Dorogok./ have it over, let it take its 
way, it can't be helped. 

Dayakate alijom doroX tilime. Kindly heat 
what I have to say and have it over. 

Dakajom dolroKkaKme. Bat np the rice and 

be done with it (do not be fastidioos.) 
Sahao doroXkaXmd. Bear it, it can't be helped. 

Dorok doyoK. \j ,• -^^ 
DhoroK dhoroK./^^P^«f- 

DoroX doroXe tafameda. He is limping;. 

Porokia. Fearful, timid, afraid. 

Dorom. To set on eictA, to set up verti- 

PiH leka hopnobo doyonuk. . 
Ean^a do^omkam. Set the water pot np 

Doro]^. Metal, excluding iron. 

Dorosoro. Ailing, out-of-*sorts, indis- 

Dordor pull Cf. d(Midor puli. 

Dorpha dorpha. In rows, one after 

Dorpha dorphakagoi^ia. Thcydiedone after tiie 

D5rse6. To tilt up, to upset, to tilt 
over to one side ; to die. 

Dal dSrse^kaeme. Exiock him ofver, 
D5f se^enae. He is dead. 
Khon^i d^fsedakanftk The poet is off the per- 

Dorson. To see, to look, to visit a sac- 
red shrine, to see a vision. 

Okatem senlenaP Dorsonili senlena. Where 
did yon go P I went to vis^ a sacred shrine, 
i. e. the liqnor skiop. 

Cefem dorsone^ tahSkaasP What were yon 
looking at ? 

Dos. Council, panchayat. 

Dosili jarwakoa. IwiH eall the panehayat 

Hon^e dosko dnrapokna. The .ooandl is 

sitting here. 

Dos. Crime, fault. 

CeCem doakedaP WbiA taalt did yon commit P 

Dosa. Condition, state, welfare, well- 


[ 154r ] 

Pubu^ ijubnlc 

Dosar. \ 

Dosra. J-Second, next, another. 


Dosar hilol. Next day. 
Dbfira hop. Another man. 

Dosima. Boundary between two villa- 
ges, or two estates. 

Dosim^re alom oraga. Do not build yonr house 
on the boonoan^ line. 

Doskhot. ") Signature; to adhibit 
Dostokhot. J one's signature or mark. 

Dowal. C£ doal. 

Poya dapa Tired, worn out with 
labour or travel ; staggering like a 
tired or drunk person. 

Poya 4&pe daf ankanae. He is staggering. 
Poya 4apednae. His strength is completely 

Doyo. Slightly. 

Knl^ doyoasanae. 

Koa dare do nasenaffge doyoakanft. 

Phalna hop then nui doe doyo epeskana. 

DoyoK. To loathe food, stomach to 
turn, to retch ; vomiting, 

DoyoK doyoltili atVareda. 

Doyol doyol. Rising and falling, ascend- 
ing and descending, heaving. 

Mnn<^ha€ daXre <Ioyo1 ^oyol ^tuKkana. The 
log rises and falls as it floats on the water. 

Poyofi dopol 
Poyofi 4oyofi. 

Used up, worn out with 
travel or hard work ; 
knocked up. 

Si ^oyo^kedeae. He ploughed with it until he 
Imooked it up. 

Dru dni, 1 * n i. 
Pruh ^ruh.)^ ^ ^ P'«^ 

Pruhe£ druhei A call to sheep 
Prui 4rui A call to buffaloes. 

Duar. An opening for ingress and 

Silpin. A door. 
C^ukatha. A door frame. 
Kapa(. A wooden door. 

Duara. A house th rough which acces 
is had fix>m the street to the court- 
yard of a house. 

Duarsini. A malignant spirit, so 

Pubmarte. }s^**'^'^f"=»'^'^^ 

pub marte unum go^enae. He sank aad never 
rose again. 

Pub^ To flood, to engulph, to cover 
with water ; a flood. 

Pab^^'di?:} A flood of water. 

Ahar reaK horo daIHe ^ub^iakafa. The dhaa 
in the ahar (a. v.) is under water. 

^uri daK 4nb^ heikate sanamkoe jha^^nko 
dh%bi^. Until the flood came and carried 
thera all away. 

Pub^ c5r6.\A common waterfowl, the 
Pani 4uba. j Coot, the Diver. 

Pubau. To flood, to engulph, to cover 
with water, to be Tost, as a debt 
not paid. 

Aourkatamaii ohoii Jom <jlub%uietama. I wiU 
return it, I will not defraud you. 

Dubdhan.")To give a piece of duh 
Dub ghas. 3 grass, (Cynodon Dacty- 

lon), as a proof that a bargain has 

been completed. 

Dub dhan epemenakin. The hare each giren 
the other a piece of dub grass. 

Pubdubi. ^Swollen or tight feeling 
Dub dubia. f in the stomach, costive. 

Begor jomte la6 ^ubdubiaKkantilia. Although I 
have not eaten I feel a tightness across the 

Pubcjubu, C£ dubdubi. 

Dub gh&3. A very common fodder 
grass, Cynodon Dactylon, Pera, 

Pubha. A large metal bowl without 
a rim. 

Pubhau. To spring, to issue, as water 
from a spring. 

^ X- f A small brass bowl. 

PubhL The hipjoint. 

Dubraj. A variety of the rice plant. 

Pubu6. 1 To pop the head under 

Dubud dubu6. !■ water, head to go 
Udui dubu6. J under water again 
and again, as a person drowning. 

Pubu^ 4abu6e unumoxkana. He is sinking 
and rising to the Burfaoe of the watw again 
and again. 

Pubu ^ubu. A rat tat played on the 

drum at a h\mt. 
Pubu dubu. Big bellied, feeling of 

full stomach. 

Pubuk ^ubuK. To nod the head, to 
bow the head, as when making 

Pttbu6 dubua 

[ 166 ] 

Duk duk. 

Pubun dubun. Shaking the head, as 
an old man through weakness. 

Pubnii ^nbune nalafkaiia. His head ahakes 
as he walks. 

Puddud. }^"^'^^*^*^ 

Pno mara gidra. A little imp. 

PoA hot do 94iko bhakhaea. littto folfeB speak 

Pa£ 4nce lieloKkana. He looks small. 

Duci. Tufk of feathers on head of bird, 

Pa6 kikir. The common king-fisher, 


Puda. To publish slanderous reports, 
to spread from one to another. 

pa^^naona kathado. That story is now 
public properly. 

Duda. Shoi-t. 

• • • 

Sate <Jad^edape. Yoa hare oat the eayes too 

Dudhia ayan. A species of snake 
thought by the Santals ta be a 
variety of the cobra. Cf. ayan.^ 

Dudhia boda. A Species of snake. 

This snake is said to attaok oows by coiling 
itself round their legs, and then sucking 
their milk. It is believed that cows thus 
treated by ^s snake give large quantities 

tioat Reason is 

of milk,^ and the snake 
neyer Idlled. 


Dudhi lota. A common jungle clim- 
bing plant, IchnocarpuA frutes- 
cenSy R. Br, 

JjJ^^^-JFat, roUing in fat and lazy. 

Paxrra khub dhum9 motaakanae. The bullock 
is as fat as a butter ball. 

Pudhwa. C£ dhudhwa. 

Dud katua. Not reared on its mother's 

• • ■ 

milk, and as a consequence weak 
and puny. 

Dud k^tu^enae nui gidr^ do. This child has 
lost its mother's milk. 

To deny, to prevaricate, to lay 
the blame on another, to 
shield oneself at the expense 
of another. 

Acgeye b^fioakafa ar at^geye dudrikana. He 
committed the fault lumself and he blames 

Dudrum. Drowsy, sleepy. 

44i dudfumediAkana. I am very drowsy. 

Duduhu^. Still, motionless. 

' Hani hanije bana do dudohupe duf u|)akana; 
Look over there the bear is sittiiig still. 




DudumdhukaK. *) An earthenware ves- 

PumdhukaK. J sel which before 

the introduction of the glass bottle 

.wa3 employed to hold or carry 

liquor ; round, globular. 

Dudurgud To draw oneself together 
through being cold. 

DaK ^udurga^ke€koa. The rain (being cold) 
made them draw themselvea together. 

DugL The young shoe^ of the to- 
bacco plant. 

Pugi (uhg^u. To prune the tobacco plant. 
Pagi tohg^ukedae. He nipped off fiie young 
shoots of the tobacco. 

Dugur dugur. Tripping, taking short 
steps, as a child, or a dwarf 

Qidr» do f^gur ^gurko Airbaraea. Children 
Eun tripping about. 

Dugur dugur. Brightly, flaring. 

Dugur dugur joloXkana. It blazes bnghtly; 
Hani hange bohgae joloMkana dugur -dugur. 

Duhau. To milk. 

G^iko duhaukoa. They milk cows. 

J^lu^k The milking pot. 

Khubko dnh^u l^bi^kedea. They milked him 
flaccid, (they cozened him out of aU ho 
possessed, and left him like an empty 

Duhli. liquor made from matkom, 
the flower of Bmia la4;ifolia, 
without distillation. 

Duhmot, To accuse folsely. Cf. doh- 


iri. 1 

A kind of basket. 

Duhp. Double, two plies. 

Duhupduhup. Cry of a common forest 
bird called Mahkal, the Indian 
crow pheasant, Centroptbs rufi- 

Duhu]^ duhu]5. Heavy thumping soimd 

Duhuri A kind of basket. 


Duk^n. Togo. Is only found in Santali 
in the past tenses. 

OpaK seiilS dnk^na. I went home. 

Ontell duk^nte noltSe noali liamkeda. B^ going 

there I receivd this. 
Hatiatet! duk^n tahekana. I (^ad gone to 

the market. 
Melatele duk^nlena. We went to the fair. 

Duk duk. ■> To go pit-a-pat, to throb. 
Dukdukau. J Cf. dhuk dhuk. 


( 136 ] 


Puke. Hip. 
Dukh. Trouble, sorrow. 
Dukhali. SuflFering. 
Dukhi. Suflfering people. 

B%iL4i dnkhi. Widows and poor people. 

Dukhri. A small bag, a beggar's 
wallet, a pocket. 

Puki. Wooden oil measures of one 
. quarter seer and less. 

Puknti6. A pinch, a very small piece 

or quantity. 

Mi£ 4a^tlde ema4i^a. He gave me just a 

Mi^ 4akn%i dakale emama, bam k^mikana. 
We wiU only give yon a very smaU qnatily 
of boiled rioe, yon are not working. 

Dul. To pour, to cast metal in a mould. 

Dnl merhdt. Oaat iron. 
Noa gaga jalapnrire dnl midola. This river 
nowB into the sea. 

Dular. To caress, to fondle, to love. 

Dnpnl^rpe. Love one another. 
jQK^ye dol^foKkana nni aeta do. The dog 
fawna npon one. 

Dulari. F.\ g J ^ J 
Dularini. J^eloved, dear. 

Dularia. Loved, beloved. 
Dularo. C£ dular. 

■ • • • 

Pulau. To lop, to prime, to squander. 

Hana dare ^nl^nkam. Lop the top off that 

Pul^ul. Globular, in form like an air 
bubble, globular and hollow ; swim 
of fish. 

9nl4^o ojookana. He ia aoffering from large 

roond boils. 
Hako reaX ^nl^nl. The swim of a fish. 

Duldul. ") Sound of far oflF thunder, 
Duldulau. J or the roar of a tiger ; 
to reverberate, to rumble, 

Bimil dnldnl^nlkana. Thnnder ia rambling. 
Daldnle€kanae. The thnnder mmblea. 
44i ^1^ dnldnl^nkedae. The tiger roared Hke 

PuU. A primitive kind of palki. 

Dulu6 dupu6. Stunted, small, short, 

Dnln? dnpn6 geleakantiila. ICy crop is short in 
the ears. 
• Dolnd dnln^le tiamkeda. What we got was of 
inferior qnalitgf . 

I To be with child. 

Pulun <}ulud. To toddle, walk as a 
little child. 

Pnlnii ^nlnh paUja barakedeae. I^e toddled af • 
ter him here and there. 

Dulu]^ dulu|^. To flafih, flicker, rise 
and Ml, to flap. 

Dnlnpdnlnpe bijlie€kana. The lightening i^ 

Dnlnj^dnlnp irgo rakapa b%tido. The lamp 

Hoe ghnri noa oraff dnlnp dnlnboMa. When it 

blows (the thatch on) this koQse flaps op 

and down. 

Pum (jlum 

Pnmakanae. She is enceinte, 

DumcaU. *) A cliunp, in cl umps, 

DumcaK dumcalc. J mounds, or tuffcs. 

Baokom dnmo^^K dnmc%M tahena. Baokom 
(q. V.) grows in tofts. 

Dumchi. A crupper. 
Pumdum. Cf 4^m. 

Dnmerae mota akana e. He is as fat as he can be. 

Dumhei. To heap, to collect together, 
to assemble. 

J^^ hofko dnmheakana. Many people are 

B^bnrae do non^epe dnmheakana, sanam 
khondpe iom oooeda. Yon yonng ohiefs are 
assemblea here and the crops are being 
eaten aU ronnd. (to cow herds loond negle<»- 
ing their dnty.) 

Pumil. The black patch pf feathers 
on the throat of the female quail, 
(gundri q. V.) 

Pumka. Round, globular. 

Adorn do 4umk%ge ]oKa. Some hare ronnd 

Pumka. Small, stunted. 
Pumku6 4iiinku6. Small. 

Pnmkuo ^nmknoge joakana. The fruit is smaU. 

Dumur. A species of wild honey bee. 
Duna. Two fold. 

Dinkalom khon nee do dnn^ boeakana. This 
year's crop is donble that of last year. 

Punda. To out the hair as short aa 

Pnna% gofkedeae. He eropped his kair. 

Pun^aU. The length of a furrow. 


[ 157 1 


Punijia The pieces of flesh of an 
animal killed in the chase given 
to the Mai&jhi (q. v.) and Paranik 
(q. V.) 

H9<ijhi 4an^e. The M^iSjhi'B piece. 
Paranik 4nn4e. The Par^ik's piece. 

Pundra. Cropped bare, short haired. 

Mai don^g^kedako dare do. They have lopped 
all the branches off the tree. 

Punijlgui. To shave the head. 

"Bxsjo ^mi^ffntkedeae. He ohaTed his head. 

Dundh^ A bell attached to a cow's neck 
to denote her whereabouts. 

SUSdhi ¥.' } ^^^' ignorant. 

Pun^ha. \ 

Qhor ^undha >To search a house under 

Qhor ^un^hi j a search warrant, 

^ Pun^hau. To seek, to search for. 

Pundi. 1 

?un41a. VBald, or shaven head, 

Dundlau. To tease, to spread, to shake 

Koa katha alope dundlaa ocoaXa. Do not allow 

this story to spread. 
Kele alope dtmdl^akoa totof ako. Do not tease 

the bees they will sting. 
Mft tolam dondli^nme. Tease oat the cotton. 
Bosni) anndlankaKpe rohof oKa. Shake ont the 

sbraw it will dxj. 

Pundrau. To speak back, to scold, to 

Dnndr%a daram goCkediliae. He beean to scold 
me as I arrived, (he met me witn scolding.) 

Dundu. An owl. 

Pundu. To shave the head 

Punduk.'lTo wave a fire brand to 
punduk. J give light. 

Seiigel tha^hkafteko 4ui<lnka arsalamente. 
They take a fire brand from the fire and 
waye it to give a temporary light. 

Pun^ukil A small tree common in 

the jungles, Oardeon,ia turgida^ 

PuMuii baha. A fevourite flower 

with Santal girls, Oomphrena 

globosa, Linn. 

Dundun. With bristles or haii* on end, 
as wild boar or bear ; pufled out, 

as a peacock with tail expanded 
and feathers on end ; large, loom- 
ing large in the distance or dark- 

H^thiko teiiffokoSa dnndnn. 
MaraX do ue dondonaka^. The peacock has 
spread ont his tail feathers. 

Dundun. To rise and iall, like waves ; 
to be piled up. 

Dnndnn b^ Ergonkana. The flood sweeps on 
like a waU. 

Dundur. Unsubmissive, recusant, 
obstinate, strong-headed, self- 

Dundurcut. To sit on the haunches. 

Dnndnfcn^e dnfniiekaaa. 

Dundur muhS. Given to denying, 
never admitting having been in 

Dundur musak. Quiet, reserved, sel- 
dom speaking, even when spoken 

Dnndnr mnsaX hor bae rof hoda. He is a very 
qniet man, he seldom speaks. 

Pun ^nt. Hollow soimdinc^ as a drum. 

Pnh inh sa4ekana. It aonnda hoUow. 

Phnh dhnh. 

Phnh 4huii sa^^^^uub- 

DuiigeL 1 In vast numbers, in crowds; 
Dunger. / a party, a group. 

44i dnhgef hof . A yast crowd of people. 

Dunger. A dance danced at the place 
where the nic^ht is spent when 
out at one of the annual himts. 

Dungi. A small boat. 

Dungi dhiri A stone trough. 

Duneu£ dungul In crowds, in swarms. 

Mlieko, mUfSko make dnjignf duhgndoK, 
Kayo, Capaki% bafe la& ^%rreko duhgnil 

PunrL A knoll, a small hilL 

Duni. A trough lever for lifting water 
for irrigation. 

Dunia. Country, the world. 

Dnni^ reaK nottOe Ul bioi^redat a|toaX cal bah 


for yon P 

- - ___ -^ ^ — ^_ „ . — ■ - — ■ ■ 

bicar daf eatapea P I jndge for the whole 
conntiy, and wnerefore can I not jndge 

Dunul. The junction of two rivers or 
streams. Cf. dul. 

Dupai. 1 To tremble, to shaken 

Dupai dup^L ) to be in a tremor. 

Dnp^i dnpq^ botoroKkana. I am trembling 
with fear. 


[ 158 I 

Purya araU 

Pupkai. A small, isolated patch of 

Pupk^re kal%i boloakanae. The hare has gone 
into that little patoh of jangle. 

Dupul. The Reciprocal form of " dul" 

(q. V.) 
Dupular. The Reciprocal form of 

" dular " (q. v.) 
Dupufu^. The Reciprocal form of 

" durup " (q. v.) 
Dur. S AvauntI Begone! Get you 
Durdur. J gone ! 

Dur. 1 To put from one, to reject, 
Dur dur. J drive oflf, to warn ofl^ to 

put to a distance. 

Katna doe dorkeda. He rejected the proposal. 
Setad dnrdurkedea. I drove off the dog. 

Duraha. Tell-tale, fomenting quarrels, 
causing dissention. 

DuraiL \ To sing, to praise in 

SereA dura d. J song. 

Duranta. Distant, far oflF. 

Jjj^i diLr%nta atotepe senena. Yon have gone 
to a, very distuit Tillage. 

Pura san. A wild edible root. 
Durathan. To destroy, to spoil, 

Lebei! dnrathankedako. They triEunped oyer it 
and spoiled it. 

Durbin. Any optical instrument. 
Durdosa. Adversity, misfortime, evil 

Purdur. A call to pigs. 
Durdurau. To blaze brightly. 
Dure. The scrotum of a boar. 
Dure. ■) An exclamation of surprise, 
Durre. / grief &c. 

Dnrre P ohofi senlena. Alas I I cannot go. 
Durre ! ased marah kale parom calaoena. 

Halloo ! an immense tiger has passed this 

Dnrre ! %4i bipot hoeakantida. Woe is me ! 

I have fallen on evil days. 

DurhaK. An exclamation of grief or 

DnrhaK ! Am do ce£lekan hof kan bam; 
DurhaK ! Alom onka bapaelia. 

Purhefi durhel A cry to sheep. 

DtirT. A species of fish resembling 
an eel, and very slippery. 

D^ri hako leka lell jera. As slippery as an eel. 

Puria. A tassel, a fringe, a bunch of 
silk or cotton worn like a chignon 
by young women. 

P^au. To take along with. 

Gid%r pid^re ^an%n idikefkoa. He took the 
whole family along with him. 

Durib. Property, a^cultural produce. 

Bese dnribaka£a. He is yery weU off. 

Dhon durib. We^th, in money and property. 

DurkarahaU. How foolish I dear me \ 

Dnrkarahatt ! rearaK oaKpe jomedaP How fool- 
ish of you, Ynij do yon eat it cold? 

Durmar. Quickly, violently, to drive 
away, to keep at a distance ; to 
put or set down. 

Dnrmarkediliako, bako ror oooadilia. Tliey 
pnt me down and did not allow me to 

Durmarko lagakedea. They drove him away 
with feelings of aversion. 

Dursut. "^To finish, to complete, to 
Durusut. J put in order. 

SanamaK dorsntena, ma hijuMpe. All is ready, 
now come. 

Durubus. C£ dorobos. 
Durtl6. To be upset and contents to 
s^ill, to die. 

Dur^oenae, %4i bhage hore tahekana. He 
is dead, he was a very srood man. 

Nukinem, asnl dnffl^lekin nian noa cij b^entem 
liama. ^ If yon take care of ti^ese two till 
they die lul this property wiU become 

DaKhiritS cabaena, okoe noa doe duftickedaP 
The water is aU spilled, who upset it? 
(the water pot.) 

Purukia. Frightened, suspicious, ti- 

4^i 4nruki^ hof kanae. He is a very timid 

Durum durum. In crowds, in large 

Hof durum durumko jaoraakana. The people 
are assembled in large numbers. 

Duru^. To sit down, to be idle. 

Duf upatf . A seat. 

Kulhi dufui). A conncU. 

Dufub sam^Kpe. Sit close together. 

Bam kamilekhan ckoe duf Qf>kato iomaXko em- 

amaP If you do not work who wiU feed 

you sitting idle ? 
On^ e/i dukana, duf np tehgon hS bako metadida. 

I went there but was not welcomed. 
Dufup din tioffentaea. The time of her 

confinement has arrived. 
Tin marah gidr^ kanae F neMe durufia. 

Durusuru. Cf dorosoro. 

Durust. C£ dursut. 

Durya. An interjection of annoyance ; 

Get out ! 
Purya araK. A plant the fresh leaves 

of which are used as a pot herb, 

Vemonia cinerea, Less. 


[ 159 1 


Dusad. A semi-Hinduised caste of 
aborigines, the Dosads. 

Dusau. "i To blame, to find fault with, 
Dhu^au. J depreciate, to belittla 

Onkako doMMikoa. Th^y thus find fault with 

Dusi. Blameworthy, guilty; applied 
to a bullock with a white spot on 
its forehead. 

Ce€bam kiriiikedea, dusiffeae. Why did yoa 
boy her, she has a white spot on ner fore> 
head (and l^erefore uninoky) 

Dusko. Distress, trouble, affliction. 

OroKko go^entillte ^^i^ dostoena. lam in 
fpreat distrees owing to the death of my 
plough cattle. 

44i dnakore menaea. He is sorely afflicted. 

Dusman. A enemy, an ill wisher. 

Dustama. Hatred, wickedness, evil. 

Dustur. C£ dastur. 

Dut du^. ■) An exlamation of annoy- 
Dhu£ dhul J ance or vexation. 

Dnt dnt, bail kana. 

Si^^ kul 1 ^^^^ ^^^^' ^^^^ parties. 

Doynkul real kathako al^Joma. They hear 
what both parties have to say. 

Puyun duyuo. To follow, to go after, 
one to follow the other. 

Paynii ^oynhe asen bafaeedekana. She takes 
it about with her following at her heels. 


E. A vocative particle. 

Ebaba. Oh! father. 
E go. Oh I mother. 

E. The abbreviated form of the 3rd 
Personal pronoun, he, she, him, 

Ea. Used in addressing inferiors, or 
when rebuking. 

Eae. Seven. 

Eae gel. Seventy. 

Gel eae. Seventeen. 

Eae khon gel. Seventeen. 

Eae dobof. Seven fold. 

Eae dhao. Seven times. 

Eae dhao eae gel. Seventy times seven. 

Ead. To remember, to commit to 
memorv ; to punish. 

Bali eadakaca. I have not committed it to 

Hape, eadmealan nahAt. Hold, I shall puni^ 

you presently. 

Ebe tebe. 1 More than sufficient, used 
Ebe tube, j always with * jom ' to eat. 

Ebe tebeye pojomkana. He is eating more tlian 
he requires. 

Ebhen. To awake from sleep. 

Gitio ebhenenae. He slept, but is now awake. 
Anriye ebhenoKa. He is not awake yet. 
Ebhen ocokedeali. I awoke him. 

E6. To take glowinc; embers from 
the fire and put them in a vessel, 
to carry away glowinc embers in 
a vessel, or to place them under- 
neath the bed on which some one 
is lying, to bring or cause trouble 
or misfortune. 

Parkom latarreko e& joha. The^r fti'O in the 

habit of putting pots filled with glowing 

ambers undemeaui their beds. 
Dukbon eeakawana. We have brought this 

distress upon ourselves. 
Okoe bah noa duk doe e^waditi ? VHio can have 

sent this distress on me P 

E6 66 1 ^^ ^^ * y^^^ buflfalo. 

EcepSce. To twist and turn, as one 
trying to get out of a difficulty 
or an uncomfortable position ; 
to put on the screw, to put one 
in a strait or difficulty ; obstreper- 
oua Cf. EcpSce. 

filAkSd. Beyond one's means. 

Eok56ko teukedea. Thoy fined him heavily 

(beyond his power to pav conveniently.) 
EokSoe %ikaukeaa. It was beyond his means. 

fe656. Indistinctly, inarticulately, as 
a child learning to speak. 

B(SSde roreda, oka h5 bah bnjh%ulkantaea. 
He speaks indistinctly, nothing (that he 
says) can be understood. 

Ecp6c. To twist and turn as one trying 
to get out of a difficult or an 
uncomfortable position, to put on 
the screw, to put one in a strait 
or difficulty ; obstreperous. 

^diko eoplkskediha. They put me in a great 
strait, (or applied the screw on me.) 

Nui sadom do 4^i Sop^ bafaekanae. This 
horse is very obstreperous, (keeps twisting 

and turning himself about.) 
":o q^i 5<jp5o bj " 
Tliis bulook keeps twisting his 

Nui ^ahra do ^i ScpSc baraekanae, arar bae 

goga. Tins bulook keeps twisting his 
ead about, he wiU not allow the yoke to 

be on his neck. 

Edebede. Intricate, involved, com- 
plicated, thick, indistinctly. 

Edebedeye rofeda. He speaks indistinctly. 
Noa hatha do ^i edeb^e bujh^uKkana. This 
case seems very intricate. 


[ 160 ] 


Edede. To watch, applied ofbenest 
to children who hang about where 
cooking, &c„ is going on, (used by 

E4e^e bafaeksnain, grnpi tanaX hS bam oalala. 
Ton are watohmg aboat here, jovl won't 
even go to herd. 

Edel. The cotton tree, Borribax maZa- 
baricv/m, D. 0. 

Ede thompe. Clump, cluster, bunch ; 
applied to fruits that grow im- 
mediately on 4;he trunk, thicker 
branches, or aerial roots of trees, 
as the jack fruit, papaya or papita 
and certain figs. 

E^e thompe joakan. The firnit la in olnsters. 

"E^he. To sit on the ground with the 
knees drawn up to the the chesu. 

iiBa& khonili ^elekaaa, on^ege e4heakanae. 
I have seen him for eometime, he is sitting 
there stiU. 

Edhe bedb^. > Intricate, complicated^ 
Ede bede. j involved. 

Noa katha edhebedheSna, bah chind%iilena. 

This matter has beoome oomplioated, it is 

not settled. 
Edhebedheye tolaka^a, bah rafa hodoXkana. 

He has tied it intrioatelj, it wiU not 

readily loose. 
Edhebedhe tolkate ado k^mite je calaoena. She 

tied (the door) intricately, and then went 

to her wor^. 

E^e j^nuxn. The small bu^ form of 
Zizyphus Jwfuba, Lam. 

The fruit of IMs althoagh mnoh inferior to that 
of the other form nOedhaofi janum^ q. v.) 
is also eaten. The bash is used largely for 
fencing growing orops, &c. 

E4be ra]!kgaini. A common thorny 
plant, Solarmm xanthocarpum, 
aohrad et WendL 

Edhor bedhor. CSroas grained, as wood 
or a man. G£ bedhor. 

^ • 

Edre. To be angry; anger, spite. 

Alom edie sahgitiana. Do no t pnt me away 

from yon in anger. 
Nniedrete setae dal godkedetaea. He killed 

his dog because he was angry with him (ihe 

dog's master «) 
Edre oookedi<lae. He made me aajgry^ 
Edren is sometimes nsed for edrel in the future 

and the special incomplete present tenses. 
Tis h5 bae emsena. Hanefergste angry. 
Ik^kaepe edrenkanae. LeaYe it alo— it is 

getting anc^ry (as a wounded tiger.) 

te. To groan; the sound emitted by 

one when groaning ; a groan* 

BkenSSedaa,rorgdbaazora. He ob1(|! gioans 
he won'tspaak^ 

Egar. To begin, to put one's hand ikx 
a thing, to undertake. 

Egarkated tegaraka£a. I imt my haitd to it 
but brought loss upon myself (trying to 
make it better I made it worse.) 
figarakawanad. I haye pnt my hand to it. 

Eger. To scold, to abuse; used by 
women always, and by men only 
when referring to women. 

Ettger %i]nfi. A scold. 

Epeger. To recriminate (women.) 

A^iye egerkedilia. Ho (or she) ao^ed me 
seyerely, (the speaker a woman.) 

Eh, An interjection of surprise, Oj 
what; indeed I really! 

Ek I a& eskargeye jomkedaP What ! ate it aU 

Ehe. Such as this, like this ; the idea 
is conveyed by signs. 

Ehe mutf k. A club as thiok as this (the qMaker 
here oonyeys an idea of the thickness of the 
dub by pretending not to be able to 
encircle it with both hands.) 

Ehe mutfkanteye lajgakeOea. He chaaedus 
with a club as thick as this (the thickness 
is shewn by signs.) 

Ehe marah. So big. 

Ehe. Hist ! Hey ! look here ! halloo ; 
used to call attention. 

Ehe I iielefmead. Halloo ! I see von. 
Ehe ! alom dalea. Hey you ! don t hit him. 

Ehe ! onte do okatem calaXkanaP Look here ! 
where are you going to in that direction ? 

Eheya I cefem oekaedaP Hey yon! what are 
you up to P 

Ehe ehe. So much, so large a quanti- 
ty ; the idea being completed by 

Ehe eheko emaflea. Th^ ga^e us «o large a 
quanti^ of food (shews by signs how large 
the quantity was.) 

Ehe ge. Used in calling attention 

Ehe get oe€cm cekaedaP Ho! my girl, what 
are you doing P 

Ehek. Whine of a peevish child. 

Ce{ bam ehel ehcKkan P hapeXme. 

Ehel betkei. An infant three or four 
months old, be£[»re it is able to 
turn itself 

E^l ehel Fat, plump, in prime con^ 


Ehel ehel homo debltkantaea. He loeksiin 
prime condition. 

Ehem. To cough, to ahem. 


[ 16i ] 


Ehend gubend. To dirty, to disarrange, 
to spoil. 

EheD4 flrohen^Lko «ralijaokeda. The^ have tram- 
pled on andlpoiled (the growing grain.)^ 

£h6n4 flrnhen^ko eneokana. Thej are dancing 
andcoyermg themselyea with dust. 

Ak> beta, kiorioem ehen<^ gnheni^tilia. Don't 
mj 8on,Uyou will dirty my oloth. 

Eher. To sit on the ground with the 
knees up to the breast. ' 

Ce^em eherakana P k^mite oalaKme. Why are 

you sitting? go to your work.' 
Dal eher eo^kedeako. They straok him and 

made him plnmp down on the ground in a 

sitting posture. 
Eher jiki. So move while in a sitting posture 

without raising the person from the gfround. 
Eher jiki dufup bafaekanae. He moTes about 

f^hJie sitting by draggling himself along the 


Ehe re. Used when calling attention 
to boys ; Hey ! hey you I 

Ehe ro^ ! ce6kom halbalkana ? Hey ! what mis- 
chief are you up to ? 

Ehe talan. So much, so large, so thick. 
The full idea is conveyed by signs. 

Ehe talaii buln motataea. His thigh is so tniok 

(the speaker completes the description by 

Ehe talaii dakako emadilia. They gave me so 

much boiled rice (the quantity is shewn by 


Ehe to. So, thus. 

Ehe tom tieleilkangea, oe^ili emamaP You see 
me thus (how I am), what wiU I give you ? 

Ehop. To begin. 

Etohop. The beginning. 

Bu^ eiioi>kedea, hola. He had an attack of 
fevBT yesterday, (or the feyer began yester- 

Etohopre kathate£e tahekana. In the beginning 
was the word. 

EL Employed to call attention. 

Ei, ei, non^e hljuKme. 

Ejahar. A statement made before a 
magistrate, police officer, or a 
panchayat; evidence, deposition 
of a witness. 

Koa mamblare amaK ejaharko hataoa. They 
will take your evidence in this case. 

j'\ ' > A court of justice. 

Ejlasre texigon hoyoktama. Yon must appear 

before the court. 
Ejlasre tehgokateye rorkeda^ He stood up in 

the court and spoke. 
Oka ejlasre 4i?rini damakafaP In what court 

did you get a decree ? 

Ejmali. Conjointly, belonging to two 
or more shareholders. 

Noa do ejm*li ato kana. This village is owned 
conjointly (by two or more persons.) 

Eka. One, alone. 

Eka gh^ri^. One housoh(}ld. 

Eka ghg.ri$geatl ohoi) senleua. I bavo no neigh- 
bours, I will not bo able to go, i. e. there 
is4io one in whose charge 1 could leave my 

Eka jiwi. 7 ai^_^ 

Eka/ib*. 5^<>"®- 

Eka jiwid paromena, noa bir. I crossed this 
jungle alone. 

Eka china. One, alone, single, singly. 

Nui do eka chin^re ofaKaka£ae. This -person 
has built his house by itself (has no neigh- 

Eka chin^ go£enae. 

Eka chin^enteko ^ookedea. They killed him 
through his being alone. 

Eka ohin^teye bandeakana. She is wearing her 
cloth single. 

Eka duka. One or two ; a few. 

Eka duka noa horte alope calaKa, bagahigea. 
Do not ^o that way as there are omy a few 
of you, it is dangerous. 

Eka eki. One by one. 

Eka ekiko calaoena. They left one by one. 

Eka guria. A one-legged demon who 

is said to devour human beings. 
Ekaha. Alone, odd, without a mate.^ 

Ekahageae. He is alone. 

Eka haria.7^ , « 

Ek hari^' i^'*^ y"^^ «^^^^°' *'°*'®- 

Eka h^ria a^gom. A clod crusher drawn by 

one jroke of oxen. 
Eka han^ tolkeda. Ho put it once round. 

(a rope) and then tied it. 

Eka jiba. Having no relatives, no 
one to care for but oneself, alone. 

Am do ceilem dandoHa eka jib^ hof. 

Ekalte. At once, instantly, completely. 

Ekalteye ror gofkeda. He spoke out instantiy. 

Ekalteye jobabadea. He instantiy dismissed 

Ekalteye jom cabakeda. He ate it up com- 

Ekam dukam. One, two ; one or two. 

Ekam duk^m hop onte alope calaka, bagahi^ea. 
One or two people do not go that way, it is 
infested witn wild beasts. 

Ekamoe. United, of one mind. 

Ekamoeenako. They are all united. 

E kaput. Only child. 
Ekarha. Alone, odd, mateless. 

E kafhage jolena. It bore only one fruit. 
Ekarhage merome bus^ttkedea. The goat had 
only one kid. 

Ekasira. Hydrocele ; having only one 

Ek5t fPi^^^^^ly* alone. 

Ekatrell l^iama, hop samaiire do ball. I shall 
tell you when we are alone, not before others. 



[ 162 ] 


Ekbaenar. Cf. eknar. 

Ekbar. 1 All at onc^, completely, en- 

Ekbam. J tirely. 

Ekbhakia. Only one word, no *parley. 

Ek bh^ki^geae, afgo rakap do bae oa^aea. 

He has only one price, ne never raises or 

rednces his prices. 
Elc bh^ki^ oalaioena. He did not parley bnt 

went right away. 
Batl atijomleiltaea, ek bh^kia he6 idienad. 

I did not listen to him, I came straight 


Eki.}^* '''''^' instantly. 

Ekdame calaoena. He left instantly. 

Ekdhar. One side, aside ; edge. 

Ekdhare oalao paromena. He passed by on 
one side. 

Ekdhara. An adverb possessing inten- 
sifying force ; unusual, peculiar. 

Ekdharae motaakana. He is immensely fat. 
Ekdharae deloKkana. He looks peculiar. 
Ekdharae sereHe^kana. He sings with great 

Ekdharae oalattkana. He walks rapidly. 
Ekdharae ruhe€keda. He scolded fiercely. 
Ekdharae d^r^oda. He fied swiftly. 
Ekdhara joakana. Laden with fruit. 

Eke. Ho! used in calling attention 
to girls. 

£ke, hape thiroKpa. Ho, be quiet. 

Eke eke. One by one, singly. 

Eke ekeko oalao idiena. They left one by one, 

(or thev went singly.) 
Eke ekebo he^ena, ekeekebo oalaKa. We came 

singly and we will go singly. 
Eke eketebo joma. We will eat one after the 


Ekel sekel. Getting into mischief. 

Ekel sekel bafaekanae, nui gidr^ do. This 
child is up to mischief. 

Eken. Empty, only. 

Eken hofmo. Naked. 

Eken oraKitl sen iiamkeda. I found an empty 

house when I went. 
EkenaK geA he^ena. I have come empty handed. 
Eken tiye he^lena, eken tiye calaoena. He 

came but got nothing. 
Eken dakako emadida. They only gave me 

boiled rice. 
Eken Diku ona atore menaKkoa. There are 

only Hindus in that viUage. 

Eke^ seke6. Enthusiastically ; eagerly, 
quickly, without delay. 

•Ekep8eke{>ko ene^kana, setoh h5 bako bataoeda. 

They are dancing enthusiaatioally, they do 

not mind even the heat. 
Okate ekep Bekei>em he^akanaP Where have 

you come so quickly? 

Ek ghatia. One swing round the head, 
as one about to strike with a stick. 

Ekgh^ti^ doe dalkedilia. He gave his stick 
one swing and then strucK me, i. e. he 
struck without warning. 

EkluuL Liquor as it comes from tine 
still, overproof. C£ phali. 

Ekhan g^i. A cow that gives a small quantity 
of mUk. ^ 

Ek jiba. Fearless. 

B^6 ek lib^ bof kanaa. He does not know 
what fear is. 

Ek jiba. Having no relatives, only 
oneself to care for; unsympathetic. 

Ekjontor« Of a like disposition, or 
nature, alike, astonishing, wonder- 

Ek jontor ofalko bencu>akata. They have boilt 
a i wonderful house. 

Ekl U I -^^^^^ ) ^ become alone. 

Aloi|e calaKa, baiikhanili eklaKa. Do not go, 

if you do I shaU be alone. 
Eklageye tahSkana. He was alone. 

Eklaeek. Equal, even, on a par, neck 
and neck. 

Eklaedkko liiralkana. They are running neck 

and neck. 
Eklaedkko kis&ra. They are equally wealthy. 

Eknar. 'J To yoke cattle with unequal 
Ekbaenar./ length of yoke; alone. 

Eknarkedeako. They aU went against him. 
Mui 4^hra do ekbaenar te siaeme bae dafeaK 

kana. Plough with this bnUock so that the 

G^reater part of the weight may be on the 

other, he is weak. 
Sanam hofteko eknafkedea. They aU avoided 

him, or all sided against him. 

Ek5t. Privately, alone, solitary. 

Uni hoj do ekStre menaea. That man is in 

Ekrar. To promise, to agree to, to 

Ekrar nama. A written ajg^eement or promise. 
Ekrajrenae. He has promised. 
Ekrar ocokediiSae. He caused me to come to 
the agreement. 

Ek sath. 1 TT -i. J r -J 

Ek satha. J^'"*^' ^^ «°« '°^°*'- 

Ek sathaenako gota atoren hor . All the people 
of the viUage are of one mind (or, are 
united on some point.) 

Ek sirri. Self-willed, obstinate. 

44i ek sirfi hor kanae. He is a very obstinate 

Ek sirtal. At the edge or side, out of 
the way ; to out-caste. 

Ek sirtf Ire dohokam. Put it down at one side. 
Am ek sirtalre tahenme. Stay you to one side. 
Ek sirt^lkedeako. They out-oasted him. 

Ek taria.. Quickly, hastily, 

Ek tariae jomkeda, onate rua go£enae. He ate 
his rood hastily, and so took ill. 


[ 183 } 


These two are of 

£ktiar. "> Authority, choice ; obstinate, 
Ektiari. / self-willed, determined. 
Ek torphi. Ex-parte. 

Ekiorphiko^ligriaCkoa. They got anex-pMie 

Ek turia. Of eqaal age. 

Kukxn do ek tnri^ tnnakJTi. ' 
equal age. 

Elaka. Province. 

Elak cha^a.'J Free, free from responsi- 

Elek chada./ bility. 

£lak eha^aenali e^aK hojr tire A jim^keda. I am 
free from reaponaibility I gave it into tiie 
eharge of another man. 

Elan. Heat, flame. 

Se&gel elaiiilikana. I feel the heat of the fire. 

Elao. To give in, be beaten, to have 
enough, to be wearied or tired. 

Eleka. Cf. elaka. 

Elek diada. C£ elak cha<jia. 

Elelgolc. * Cf. enghigui 

Elelgon. C£ enSlnfful 

EUem celem. Watcning for an oppor- 
tunity, waiting till the coast is 
clear ; used generally of children 
watching for an opportunity to 
take something, ana at times of 
wild amimals, such as jackals, 
waiting for a £stvourable oppor- 
tuiiity to seize something. 

TafaKkanae elem celem. He is lymg in wait 
watching for a fayonrable opportnnity. 

Elei& beke6. \An in£smt about 3 or 4 

Eteti beke6. j months old. 

Elbe celhe. To watch for an oppor- 
tunity to surreptitiously possess 
oneself of anything, to cast longing 
eyes on, to covet. 

Elbe oelhe bayaekanae. He is on the look ont 
for an opportunity (to seiie the fowl, as a 

Elm. Weak form of ' am' thou. 

Am-em calalkana. Yon are going. 

Em. To give. 

Em 8oho€. To help bj giring. 

Em hala. To repay. 

Em oha^ao. To redeem. 

Em lifcbal. To gire to seonre the affections, or 

to appease, or win fayoor. 
Em lega. To offer. 
Em ^ga. To oontinne giying from the past to 

the present. 
Em doho. To lend. 

Em hatar. To lend, to gire for the present. 
Em capai. To borrow and lend (reciprocal.) 
Em calao. To assist by giving or lending. 
Em idi. To continue giving, to go on giving. 
Epem. The reciprocal form of ' em*. 

Eman. Sundry, such like. 

UniaX edre eman do b^nXtaea. 

Ale then Dikn eman do he^ge bahko hijnla. 

Bu^ emanoXidian mnskilgea. 

Joien emanem. Take every care of him. 

Sen emanlenamP 

Cithi eman do bako emadilia. 

Emantea^. Various, all manner or 
sorts of, many kinds of, et ccetera ; 
applied to inanimate objects only. 

Behged hor do emanteaK a^aK sakamko joma. 

Poor people eat many kinds of pot herbs. 
Birre emanteaX hon^rko calaKa maejioko do. 

Women go to the jangle to coUect various 

kinds of things. 
Pirthimlre emant^tX linis menaXa. AU manner 

of things are in the world. 
Uni do emanteaXe egerkedida. 
Uni do emanteaX seretle ba4ft6a. He knowa 

many kinds of songs. 

Elmanten. Vaiious, diverse, all mann^ 
or sorts of, many kinds of, et ccetera; 
applied to animate objects only. 

DaXre hako emantenkoko tahena. Fishes and 

varions other kinds of living creatures live 

in water. 
Dh^rtire do emanten j^t menaXkoa. There are 

manv varions castes of people in the world. 
Birre knl emanten janwar ko tahena. Tigers 

and all sorts of animals live in the jnngle. 
A4i okodle sendra go^ke€koa, s^ saram, knl^i- 

ko, tofko, cSinSko. emantionko. We kiUed 

mnoh ffame in the chase, deer, hares, 

squirrels, birds, Ao, Ac. 

Emne semne. 
Emne temne. 


C£ emon semon. 

Emon. So, such, like, such as, such like. 

Baj gapre emon hof do ohom cahtadena. A 
person like you could not enter a king's 

Emon ruhe£id mhefledea thir ut%renae. I gave 
him such a scolding that he utterly col- 

Emonlaii dalmea se nahaX atkar ut^ram. I 
shaU give you such a beating presentiy as 
to make you feel it. 

Emon hor do ohoe behgedlema. He would, not 
look at a person such as you. 

Emon dalili dalkedea jaiiga rapuiTgo^entaea. 
I struck such a blow that I broke hia leg. 

Emon semon. 1 Indifferently, so and so, 
Emon temon. J such like, having any 
particular failing or fraijty. 

Emon temon hor doe bafikana. He is not like 

the average run of men. 
Emon temon nor alom ba^aeda. Do not th|nk 

him a person who would do that. 

En. That, that particular. 

En serma. That particular year, tised only of 

past years. 
En sermali dukan tahSkana. 
En serma khonle m^Xkana. 
En sermaren marah naekeye tah^ana. He 

was high priest that year. 
En hiloX. That day, that particular day. 


[ 164 ] 


■^— ^t^ 

En. To transfer dust, &c. from the 
person to a cloth, &c., by lying or 
treading on it. 

Kioniem en j^ukeftilia. Ton have dirtied 
my oloth. 

En. To thresh grain. 

pabrateko en jaha. > They thresh out the 
l^hada. ) 

Pahrateko en 

grain by means of 

Enan. ") A little while ago, a previous 
Enan. J part of the same day. 

Enahreli lieUedea. I saw him a little while 

Enaiireye oalaoena. He left some time ago. 

Enbend. Intricately, complicated. 

Endbende tolkeda. He knotted it intricately. 

En betar. Then, at that time. 
Encar man^o. Half-threshed, as gi-ain. 

Encar mandokate b^giaXpe, gapabon en l^hu£ 
nt^kaXa. Half thresh it and leave it, we 
will thresh it oat tomorrow. 

Elnd. The male organ of generation. 
Elndalc. To cross in front of. 

Bof eni^ffkediliae. 

Toyoe en<^aKke£lea. A jackal crossed in front 
c^ ns. 

If a jackal crosses in front of a party on their 
way to "view a bride" it is considered as 
an om^i presaging evil. The party immed- 
iately returns nome and negotiations are at 
an end. 

En^e. There, in that place. 

En^e bare tah0 hataf oj^me. Remain there for 

the present. 
Henda na, en^e eskargem gurii barakcdaP 

Ho my gfirl, have you only smoared that 

place P 

Ende. Then. 

IfSid senoK, en^e ut^re hijutf . 

Ende bapo. Then only. 

lAiA nehorente en^e bapoe afaKkade. I beseech- 
ed, then only did ho release him. 

Alele rui en^e bapoko ene6. 

Biti reaK boholfko gejerke€taete, ent^e bapoe 
gujuM. They pounded the head of the 
snake, not till then did he die. 

Ende ene6. Then. 

BaoakoH jog, endeene^ daXiti ftguia. When I 
have swept the courtyard then I will bring 

Ende kha6.)m, 

Unim dallekhan endekhaniti I^Hsama. If you 
beat him then I shaU complain against you. 

Endel. Not to give to another who is 
present, when eating or drinking, 
to pass over. 

Jom eniitolkediliako. The^ at^ themselves but 
did not give ine anythihg. 

Ende nahl. Then. 

D.aKlen^hi en^enahim arjao joiia. It most 
first rain, tjien you will secure good crops. 

Ende nahl to. Then, not till then. 

OalaKpe, en^e nahi toko emapea. Go, not tiU 

then wiU they eive to you. 
Banaepe, en^e nihl toe besoSa. Give him 
" medicine, not till then will he recover. 

Ende pende.) Here and there, unreli- 
End pend. ) able, slippery. 

Alom ende pende baf alea. 
Ende pendeye kamikana. 
Endpend hor kanae. He is a slippery feUow. 

Encjerege. It was thought^ it was 
said, it Was understood. 

Uni mae l^iet en^erege apd sen do bae daKleda. 

He says it was thought there was no rain 

with ycu. 
Bam maen^eregeye go^en. It was thought that 

Ham was dead. 

Enderema. Then, in that case. . 

Bape ranaekhan cn^eremae grujuK. If you do 

not give him medicine then he will die, 

(or may die.) 
Bafakar bam parom dafeaXkhan enderemam 

rn^ense. If you cannot cross the Barakaf 

river, then you will return. 

En4e reset'. Then. 

lA thene calaKa, ende resetitl emaea. He wiU 
come to me, then I shall give it to him. 

Arjao johme, ende resetem jom snk jozia. Get 
good crops then you will live in comfort. 

Kurumutute k^mime, en^e reset poesako 
emama. Work diligently then they wiU 
give you money. 

Endete. Then. 

Duruplenme, en^etem oalaXf^. Sit down first 

and then you can go. 
Nonde Ian jir^uange, endetelah ehoboXa. We 

will rest here a little then we will begin. 

Enijete ene6. Then onls. 

Khub loka calaffmo, endete eneoem tioga. Gk> 
quickly then you will arrive in time. 

Bacakoli jog, endete ene6 daKiii aguia. When 
I have swept the oour^Tard then I wiU 
bring water. 

Endrae. Three days hence. 

Pher endrae. Four days hence. 

Endre. To shew the thumb, a scornful 
way of saying no. 

Endre. To be an^y. C£ edre. 

A^iye endre oookediiia. He made mo very 

EIne. Now. 

Enem thirena. Now you are still. 
Eneko calakkana. Now they are going. 

Ene6. Not until. 

Tikin enooe heoena. He did not arrive till noon. 
DaK lober eno6o jomlaM a. He had no food before 



[ 165 ] 


E2ne6. To dance, to play a game, to 
play, to diill, to danale, to pacify, 
to fondle. 

Bid eXene^io. A snake ohann€r. 

^ie ened. To run aboat and play. 

EJnejekanaii. I am dandling him. 

Pare^ene^. Parade, drill. 

Lsgr^ 6ne6. The Lagr§ danoe, the most e<un- 

mon danoe of all. 
Doii ene^. The Dong dance, a marriage danoe. 
pahar ene^. The Dahar dance, a sequel to tiie 

Lagfd dance. 
Golwan ene6. The Qolwari dance, like tiie 

Dahar dance it follows the LagrS -danoe. 

Binj^ eneo. The Binia danoe, danoed at the 

Earam (q. y.) festiyal. 
Sohrae ene6. The Sohrae danoe, danoed at the 

Solurae (q. y.) or Haryest festiyal. 
Baha ene^. The Flower dance, danced at the 

Raha (q. y.) or Flower festi^. 
6alij%r en^. The Gunjar dance, danced da- 

rmg the Sohrae or Harrest festiyal. 
Matwar ene^. The Matwar danoe, a Haryest 

festiyal dance. 
Jhika ene^. The Jhika dance, danced on all 

Bhinsar enei^. The Bhinsar dance, is a Ear am 

(q. y.) festiyal dance. 
Doiigeir ene6. The Danger danoe, is performed 

by men only when pcissing the night in 

camp daring an animal hant. 
Jale eneo. 1%« Jale dance, is danoed on the 

last day of the Sohrae (q. y.) festiyal. 

Loboe ene^. The Loboe danoe, danoed by men 
only at the Dasse festiyal. , 

Tfini ene6. The Walking stick dance, all the 
performers of which carry a stick. They 
form a circle and beat time with their 

pom ene^. The Dom dance, is a marriage 

Pak don ene^. The Sword and Shield danoe. 
The performers nsed to carry swords and 
shielos, bat since they haye been disarmed 
a stoat stick has taken the place of the 

En§lngol. \To transfer dust, &c. from 
EJnSlngul j the person to a cloth, &c., 
by l)ang or treading on it. 

SaniMn kiorioem enSbigafkeda. Yon haye made 
all the doth dxiaty (by lying or treading 
on it.) 

Enetefi. A partition. C£ etet'. 

Tala enete6. A partition across the centre. 

Enga. Female, mother. 

Eiiga hopon. Mother and child, or children. 
Ehgahon. Mother and child. 
En^ hopon. Mother and yoong (uiim^ls.) 
Gti^a ehgat ho|p. A mother, (employed nsaally 

to ronghly indicate age.) 
Ehga k%tiip- The thamb, or big toe. 

Ehga katapi^ ndaXadea. I shewed him my 

thnmb, i. e. I defied him. 

Ehga khet. A prodaotiye rioe field« 

Eiiga sadom. > . ^_^ 

Ei&ga Cross lin^ running from comet 
to comer in the woven mattress of 
a parkom, or bed. 

Ehgatef alom pho]raoa. Do not separate ' the 
twine of the ehga. 

Enga itat*. Cloth given to bride^s 
mother by bridegroom 

Eaga jopor. Grown to the size of the 
mother, applied to animals and 

Eiiga joporenakin. They are as big as their 

Engam. Thy mother. 

Engam. '\ 

Engam dongam. I A term of abuse, an 
Engame. | expletive. 

Engate, J 

EdgatL My mother. 

Engal His mother. 

Engaftel The mother. 

Hoponte^ ma menaege, eixga^tefe go^ena. The 
child is a liye, the mother is dead. 

Eiigel pengel. Perplexed, conftised; 
the feeling of on<B tired with many 
things stul to do. 

K^mi k^miteli ehgel pehffelena. I am tired 
and perplexed with continned working. 

Engol To stoop. 

Engo^kateko poea. They stoop to hoe. 

En^^[ran. A term of abusa 

Enhilolc. That day, the same day. 

Enh5. Never-the-less. 

Enka. *) Thus, in such a way, like that» 
Ekikan. J as that. 

Enkageye tahgkana. He was in the same condi- 

Ale enka h5e dattatiea. It rained like that 
with OS. 

Ape seiS oefleka enkag^ ale se6 h9. It was the 
same with as as with yon. 

Enka baf e tah§ ocoam. Ijet it remain as it is 
(Let it remain thas.) 

Enka lekaeme. Do like that. 

Onko doko enkangea. They are like that. 

Enka enka. A little, trifling. 

Enka enkae daXa£lea. We had a yery littie 

Enka enkate. By degrees, by that 
way, in that direction, in that way, 

Enkaenkateko s^dikeda. Little by little they 

became farioas. 
Enka enkate daX calaoena. '^e rain passed 

in that direction. 


[ 166 ] 


Enkathae. Used to introduce a state- 
ment, that is to say, namely, as 
they say, that ia 

Enkha6. ] 

Enkhadte. -Then. 

Enkhan. J 

Pef ako jomlege enlcbante am dom joma. let 
the strangers first eat, then jou will eat. 

TJniye hedlenkhan enkhante am dom oalala. 
When heioomes then yen can go. 

Enko. These, those. 

Enkoge sapkom. Seize hold of these. 

Elnparom. On the other side, on that 
side, on the far side. 

Ne parom. On this side, 

Enreh6. Never-the-less, although, still. 

Emadeali enrehS bae biKkana. I gave to him, 

still ho is not satisfied. 
JahatinaMko metam, enrebS alom rebena. 

Whatever they may say to yon, still don't 

you assent. 

Ente. For, because. 

Ente. In that way, in that direction. 

Ente liogoKme. Moye a little over that way. 
Enteye calaoena. He went in that direction. 

Entere. In that place, there, over there. 

EntereA AeUedea. I saw him over there. 
Entere h5 besoKges. 

Eora. The length of thread spun at 
one time, as long as the arm can 


TAit bar eofaii takoekeda. I spnn two or three 
lengths of thread. 

Epel. To raise or lift up to strike, as 
a stick ; to brandish threateningly. 

Theitgae epeladiJia. He raised a stick to me. 

Eper hende. 1 To be at variance, to 
Eper hendei. j habour ill feeling, to 

dispute as to who should do a 

thing first. 

Eperhen^eKkanakin. They bear ill-feeling 
towards each other, or, each nrges the 
other to do it first. 

Epre. Out of line, cross-wise, uneven, 

' Eatha do epfedntakoa. Their statements do 
not agree. 

To SOW, to scatter; to be 
sown or scattered. 


EroU. ^ 

fir hofo 

Dhan that has not been transplanted. 
Hofofco erakoa sim do. They 3catter ohan for 

the fowls. 
Eroltid do eroKe o^oh calaoena. A sowdr went 

forth to sow. 
Otre it^ erogola. Seed is sown in the earth. 
Irolte^ do jug reaX mnc9€, ar iroKko do serma 

ren dutko. The harrest is the end of the 

world, and the reapers are the angels. 

Era. \Wife; female, apj^ed to women 
Erat. j only, and generally as a mark 
of respect. 

Era hopon. A man's family. 
Sahebera. The wife of an Eneliahman. 
M^lijhi era. The Tillage chief's wife. 
Paranik era. „ „ Paranik's „ (q. y.) 
Kaeke era „ „ Priest's „ 
Go4e{ era. „ ,, Messenger's wife. 
Jog Malijhi era. ,, Jog Mali jhi's „ (q^r.) 
Jaher era. The goddess of the Sal grore. 
C^ae era>. A female Santal dei^. 
Eisar era. The master'a wife. 
Bn^ era. An old woman, (respectf ol.) 
Era um. A wife. 

N^bi era. A prophetess. 
Dilra, era. A Hindn woman. 

EIra irL To be at enmity with each 

Era iriakanakin. They are at enmity with each 

Tikhi erak. } ^ '^**^^ ^^ midday. 

Ei'an. To turn aside, to parry, to avoid, 
to dodge, to give the go by to. 

Eran^om dare. The castor oil tree, 
Ricimis commfinis, Linn. 

Eran^om snnnm. Castor oil. 

Erao. To withhold food for some time 
as a punishment, to children. 

Hape la&, ef aomea. Wait a bit I shaU delaf 
giying yon food. 

Elrba. A cultivated grain, Setaria 
Italica, Kunth, used metaphori^ 
cally for girls. 

Tin^M iri (q. ▼.) ar tin^ll erbaP How many boya 
and how maiiy girls ? 

Erce perce. To twist and twine, fid- 
getty, restive. 

Ciricre menaea ar on^s Ichon o^okoH l9gi€ a^iye 
ef oe pef ce bapaekana. He is in a strait 
and to get out of it he is twisting and twin- 
ing in all directions. 

A^i^ ofce pefoe lega£a, bali dareada. I tried 
eyery way but was not snocessf ul. 

^^i boj menalte dahra do ^^ikin efoe pef oe 
baraekana, Owin|f to the heavy load the 
bullocks are twistmg about (fidgetting to 
rid themselves of the yoke.) 

Ere. A species of bird, a wood pecker 

BhSda ere. The large Wood pecker, Picus 

Eabra ere. The striped Wood pecker, Braehyp^ 

temus aurcMtius. 

Ere. To deceive, to lie, to pretend. 

Ere efekin ktohari^nlkana. They are chaff* 
i^ each other. 
Ere mol^. ) To deceiye, to^nt off for the present 
Efe snk. > with a promise, to pacify. 

Eret etei 

[ 167 ] 


. Eltfe hof. A deoeiyer. 
Meromei^e efeko doh^uea. They pretend to 

ndlk the goat. 
Ef eli rof lekhan kale jomellma. If I lie may a 
tiger eat me. 

Eye6 erei. ") To smart, to scorch, to 
Ere6 pered J bum ; smarting or burn- 
ing sensation. 

Ef e6 pHBred haeoedi^kana. I feel a smarting 

Seton paraocJEkhan ef e^ efejola ghao. If the 

8im*8 rays beat on the sore it wiU smart. 

Ere eyete. Pretendingly, not in ear- 

Efe ereteye dalekana. He is pretending to 

strike him. 
Ere efeteye m%Xkana. He pretends to be ill. 

Ere kisni. The Pied starling, Stumo- 
pastor contra, 

E 1"^^^ ("^^ deceive, to take one in. 

£f e liputtkefmeali, I have taken you in. 

Ere moi&j. To deceive, to take one in. 

Erer. To turn aside, to parry, to avoid, 
to dodge, to give the go by to. 

Eathae ererkeda, bae linr oooada. He parried 

the statement preyenting it haying effeot. 
Eref baf akediHae. He dodged me. 

Ere suk. To take one in, to put off with 
a promise. 

Ere surud. To take one in, to cheat, 
as at a game. 

Efe snfnSke^meaA. I haye taken yon in. 

Erga. ■) Contrarious, counter, con- 

£rga 6rga. J trary. 

BnjhanKkana nni do Sf ga mara hop kanae. 
Oka leka S^gtk ^jt^m rofeda, oka h5 bah ba- 

Brga ergako bio^rkeda. 

Brgaltege tahenkanae. 

Ergejatc. To slight, to trample on, to 
put upon, to pass over, to des- 

Sanam hoftegeko ef gejaXakadea. They haye 

all slighted him. 
Sanamko arjaoana, ilS gel! ergejalena. They 

haye all had good crops while I haye been 

passed oyer, or slighteid. 
EfgeiaKke^meako. They all left yon seyerely 


Erfo I "^ species of field rat. 

Brgo sesa. The track or road of the Epgo. 

Erka. To pretend not to know or to 
deny having known a person, to 

]^el erkaenae. 

Erka mara hor kanae. 

BejaeSm erkaKkan do ho. 

Ero. *) To tantalise, as a child holding 
If u. / out a piece of sweetmeat to 
another, and when he puts out 
his hand to take it, puts it in his 
own mouth. Always used with 
" jom," to eat. 

Jom efokedeae. He held ont a (cherry) to him 
and when he pat oat his hand to take it, 
instead of giymg it to him he pat it into his 
own month and langhed at him. 

Elron. You yourself, you yourselves, 
just so, exactly so, oh account of. 

Am efohem agakedifia, ado nitoK dom jobabaii 

kana. Yon ^oorself broaght me, and now 

yon are .dismissing me. 
Ape ef ohpe nonkaaka£a. Yon yoorselyes haye 

done this, 
Ona eroh amem rof ooolkana. On acoonnt of 

that yon are being foond faolt with. 

Erph^r. To exchange, to alternate. 

Kicrii^kin erpherkeda. They exchanged cloths. 

Erse A torsed. ") To tumble or roll about 
ElrscA torsed. J when lying down. 

EfseA to^seli baf aekanae. He is rolling frbih 
one aide to another. 

Erwel. In-law, as sister-in-law. 

Erwelili kofa. My brother-in-law, my wife's 

yoan^er brother. 
Erwelili auri. My sister-in-law, my wife's 

yonnger sister. 
BrWelme Kofa. Thy brother in-law, \hj wife' s 

yonnger brother. 
Erwelme xafi. Thy sister-in-law,, thy wife's 

yoanger sister. 

Esel. Fair, light coloured. 

Esel kafi. A fair girl. 

Eser. To shake, to shake previous to 
being possessed, to be possessed 
or inspired. 

Bohga eserakade leka . He shook as if a bohga 
(q. y.) had possessed him. 

Bn^ eseridkana. I haye an attack of agne. 

Eser ofaf . An abandoned hoose taken possess- 
ion of by another family. 

Elsef. To block the way, to hinder, to 

Ese£ aoar. To snrroond. 

£pese£. To meet each other in argument. 

Eskar. Alone, only, except. 

Eskarre. Priyately. 

Eskar janam. Only begotten. 

Eskar toskar. Alone, one or two, a few. 

Eskar toskar alope dafana. Don't go abont in 
ones and twos. 


[ 18S ] 


£sk56. Reluctantly, with aversion, 
disinclination, with difficulty' 

Esk5a hamalatf e dipil idieda. He relaota^tly oar- 
riea the heavy weight. 
Jomkate eskSsifi ^ikauoda. Having eaten I am 

disinclined to moye. 
^^i eneo eak5se rofkeda. After a long time he 
reluctantly spoke. 

Eeto besta To be wearied, perplexed. 

Ihifu^ dnrnpte esto bestoenaA. I am wearied 

with sitnng. 
Esto besto atkaredaA. I feel perplexed. 

EtaK. Another. 

itft«l[K* } -^^^^^^^^t >^ ^^^^ (inanimate.) 
Etan. Thin, sparse., scarce, slight. 

A4i etafageako. The population is verv sparse. 
jon4ra w^ eta/k omonakana. The Indian oom 
has germinated very sparsely. 

Etbar. Trustworthiness. 

Amatt etbar banulanali. Ton are not trust- 

Ete. There, listen,hark. 

Ete ! adjommese. There ! Esten. 

Ete! oSferaKedae. Hark I the bird singfl. 

Ete ! egerefibonae. Hark ! she is scolding us. 

Etei. To begin, to put one's hand to, 
make an attempt^ to try. 

Ahariii e^e^akawana. I have begun to make 

an ahar (q. y.) 
Nui hojT do b%hue etedakadea. This man is 

trymg to get a wife. 
B^hue ete6akawa€lea. Our (son) has set his 

heart on a bride. 

Ete cete. *) To attempt, to do one's best, 
Ete cote, j to make a show, to show 

Etefi. To make a fence, to fence, to en- 
close with a fence of branches. 

Jhantite et^dme. Fenoe it with branches. 
E^£ ^curattat tahekana. It was fenced all 

Etete. 1 Uncomfortable feeling in 
Jom et ete./ stomach after having eat- 
en too much, 

JometetednalS. I have eaten too much and 
feel uncomfortable. 

Ethem. To cough to call attention, to 

Ethem sa4o^dae. He is coughing, as a signal 
of his approach. 

Ether pother. Tired, uncomfortable, 
wearied, used generally with *du- 
rujji * to sit. 

Burni) dupiptell ether po^herena. I am tired 
with sitting so long. 

Etke6. A common plant. Euphorbia 
antiquorum, Linn, 

Etke torg. 1 Insufficient space, as for 
Etke toro6. r two persons sitting on one 
stool, lying in one bed, &c. 

A4i et^e tofSge atkaroMkana. 

Etko hasa. The burned clay from the 
inside of the cuiha (q. v.), used as 
a medicine. 

Eto. To break in, to accustom to work. 

Nesili etoea nui 4anra. I will break in this 
bullock to the plough this year. 

Eto. So much, so, such. 

lA do etoge lelham iiamkedida ? Did you find 
me so stupid P 

Bto boro. So large, such a great. 

Eto bopo matwarem hoeena? Have you become 

flueh a great manP 
Eto boro gorobia am \ You, such a high and 

mighty one ! 

Eto6 potod. Heavily, severely, 

£to6 poto<&ko ^an<lomkedea. They fined him 

Eto<^ potooko dalkedea. They beat him severely. 

Etoho^. Beginning. From eho^ (q. v.) 

Etoh<^ khon do bad tahikatia. I was not pre- 
sent from the beginning. 

Etom. The right, as opposed to the 
left ; to pass over or by, to miss. 

Etom ti. The right hand. 

Etom sene calao paromena. He passed to tiie 

right side. 
Etom nakhareve duynpakaua. He is sitting 

to the right. 
Aboe etomkefbona dal do. The rain passed 

by us. 
Alom etom o^okalea. Do not pass us by, 

(visit us.) 
Etom etorako sikeda, oka then babo rdhioe? 

They have missed much in ploughing, where 

can we plant the seedlings ? 

Etran. *) To speak airily, to get 

Etran etran. J angry, 

^<liye etrah etraiioSa. 

Birah etraiie rofkeda. He -spoke angrily. 

Etwar. Sunday, the first day of the 

Ewer. To fan. 

Hofoko ewera hataKte. They fan the rioe with 

a ha^aS (q. v.) (to separate the good grain 

on the threshing floor.) 
ISezigelko ewera binite. They fan the fire with 

a bamboo fan. 
Udg^lenrekoewerola. They fan thems^ves 

when it is hot. 

Eya. Use to call attention to males 
younger than the speaker. 

Eya ! berecme. Hey ! get up. 
Eya ! beta, calao godolTme. 

Eyad. ") To commit to memory, to 
Ead. J remember, to punish. 

Monere eyad dohoeme. Keep this in mind. 
Hape ! nahaK laii eyadmea. Hold, I shaU punish 
you presently. 

Eyae. C£ eae. 


[ 169 ]. 


Ga. A village. 

Jahaleka gS gon^lape dtifKDA, 

Gabad. To get mixed up with, to join, 
to stray. 

Okoe palrenEo tahioe gaba4 calaoona. She has 

got mixed with and gone with some person's 
Abo thene gabaijlens. It has joined our herd. 
Gaba4 calaoenako g^iko. The cows have ^t 
mixed up with another herd and gone with 

Gaban. To plant rice in vacancies ; to 
interlace horizontally ; horizontal 

Do oalalpe gabMi bafftaj^e etah lloKgea. Go 

and plantyrioe plants in the vaoancies, it is 

a little thin. 
Ma dari^ gaban lagaoaXme jh^nti e(efre. Pot 

in a thiok horizontal interlacing in the 

jh%nti (q. v.) fence. 

GabaOi To stain, to colour, to immerse 
in colouring matter during the 
process of dyeing ; to fill, to take 
up space. 

BaberKo gabaoa, rail nth^na mente. They bury 
the twine in clay to bring out the oolonr. 

Gabar. Mixed. 

Mi€ it^ll erleda, gabafena. I sowed one kind 
of seed, it has got mixed. 

O&fgaij}^"'' °'*'^' ^*"''^°°«- 

^nfiaftko gabar gndjaka^a. They have created 
a distorbance without cause. 

Gabdha gabdhi Bringing forth dead 

Sanamko gabdha gab^hientiiia. They all 
brought forth dead (or prematurely bom) 

Gabdhao. To bring forth dead offspring, 
applied to animals only. 

€hkb4haoenae gai do. The calf was bom dead. 
Dal gab<?haokedeako. They struck her with 

the result that her calf was bom dead. 
(Jab^hao oalaoenae gai do. The cow has gone 

with another herd. 

Gab4i A game played by childrea 

Gabdulan. Fat, big and very fat, heavy 
with child, said only of females. 

Karaii gab^ulah maejiu kanae. okaren kan coe P 
She is a tremendously fat woman, where 
does she belong toP . 

G^b^uy^i^ Fat, stout, great with child. 

Nui ff%b4uy%ie do bae isin hoda. This *' fatty " 
ooes not oook quickly. 

Qabe. The pulp of fruit. 

Jo real gabetefko joma. The pulp of fruit is 

Gab gab. Deeply, to sink deeply, to 

insert deeply. 

Noko do gab gabko jomanii. These eat much 

and i^ood food, 
Onkoaff lahga bolotfa gab gab. Their feet sink 

pahra gabgab jaxiga bolottkantakoa. The feet 

of the bullocks sink deeply (in the mud.) 

Gabha. The middle, the centre. 

Pukhri reatt gabhate£rege c^-k khuntiko bif^- 
akafa. They have fixed the 'cak' post 
in the centre of the tank. 

Gabhand. The ear formed within the 
sheath, and beginning to protrude, 
applied to all graminess. 

Gabhin. With young, pregnant ; of 
animals only. 

Gabhin gai kanae. It is a cow with young. 

Gabhri. A fool, a term of abuse. 

Gabis. Colouring matter put on water 

pots by potters before putting 

them into the kiln. 

Gabla. \To tuck up dress so as to form 

Gablao. J a bag, to hold in the lap, as 

children do flowers. 

Khaj^fili eablaakawana. I haye a lapfnl of 
parched rice. 

Gabla. The gum arabic tree, Acacix 
arabicay Willd. 

Gabo6. To take for oneself, to keep to 
oneself what should have been 
divided with others. 

A^. eskargeye gabo^ai^a. . He took it all for 

Gabod ^abo6. Long, having a super- 
fluity of clothing. 

Qabo<$ gabo^e dhutiakana. He wears a long 

Gabo6 gabooe lieloKkana. He is a heavy swell. 

Gabre. To take stealthily, to help 
oneself, as a person in charge of 
another's property. 

(Hbf e jofikanae. He is helping himself stealth- 

Dis^epe bahkhane ^bfe idia. Keep your eye 
on him, otherwise he will help himself. 

A^ge saname gab^eakawaaa, bae hati^e^kaoa. 
He kas kept it all to himself, ne does not 
divide it. 

Gabu6 sabud. To confuse, to mix up. 

Sanampe gabu<^ e^buckeda okataK bujh^uliS 
ban llamoKkana. You have confused the 
whole matter, there is no understanding it. 

Gabur. A common sweet scented Mi- 
mosa tree, Acacia Famesiana, 

The root of this tree is a valuable aintiseptio. 



[ no ] 



) ti,. 

Gocao. To a^ree, to confess, promise, 

CedaXemgaoaoftkaw»iiaP Why did you Agree 
to itP ^ "* 

Gachao. To acknowledge, to admit. 

JN'oa katha do ba^ gaohaoe^kana. He does not 
admit the stat^ent. 

Qachi. A seedling' after it has been 
pulled up for transplantation. 

Gachiau. To remove dhan plants that 
have been sown, where they have 
come up too thick to where the 
plants are thinner. 

Er horoko g^hiaua 1obo£ salal^ ku(^ite. 

Gad. The receptacle into which the 
rice to be husked by the dhenki 
is placed. 

Bugitell rin galena. I am deep in debt. 
A4i ut^riiS galena. My debt is very heavy. 

Gad, Crowd. 

Hof g%d. A crowd of people. 

Gad. "I Deeply, deep, as a cut made 

Gad marte,/ with an axe. 

Gad marteli matt go€keda. I made a deep cnt. 

Gad. The scum which rises to the 
top of sugar cane juice when being 

Gada. A heap ; to make into a heap. 

Ma sahan gadaeme. Pat the firewood into a 

It^ ffada. A heap of seed. 
Soela gada. * A heap of ooals. 
Dhiri g^ada. A heap of stones, a oaim. 
E!icri6 gada. A pile of cloth. 
Aema (henko gr^bdaakafa. They hare made 

heaps in many places. 

Gada. A depression or hollow, a git, a 
trench, a hole, a river, a stream. 

Isabel ga^a. A fnrrow. 

Kh n nti ga^a. A hole in the gronnd in which 

to fix a fost. 
Kolhe gra4a. A hoUow in the jungle in which 

Kols (q, T.) have bnmed cliarcoal. 

C^li ga^a. An iron stone mine, a pit from 

which iron stone is dug. 
Koela ga4a. An open oo^ mine. 
Dhiri gt^A. A quarry. 
Dar ga^a. A trench m which to fix a fence of 

branches, or that intended for the fonnda- 

tion of a nouse. 

Duni gagla. The channel from which water is 

raised t>y a * duni' (q. v.) 
TeAolt ga^a. The pit in which a weaver works 

the treddles of his loom. 
K^li ga^a. A water channel, a drain. 
Kabar ga^a. A grave. 

Bisi ^a4a . The depression running along each 

side of the mpine. 
Totka ga^a. The hollow below the skuU at 

the back of the head. 
Lebe€ ga^a. A foot mark. 
Don ga4a. A fissure or stream that can't be 

stepped over but must be jumped over. 
Gambr* ga<la. The hoUow in whwh the fire i« 

placed when boiling the juice of the sugar 

Jhili ga^a. A trench in the ground used as a 

fire place when oooking haa to be done for 

a large number. 
Marat gaija. The belly, which is never full. 
Khajdjo ga^a. A pit into which one may fall. 

Ga4a biii. A river snake. 

Gaijacadcir. The Wagtsdi, MotaciUa 

Gadae gudui. Long flowing garments, 

superfluity of cloth; as in the 

raiment of a Kubuli. 

Gadae guduiye bandeakana. She is wearing 

her safi very long. 
Nni maejin do gadae guduie k^mikana. This 

woman is working with her clothes about 

her feet. 

Gada gad. In crowds, numerous. 

Gada g^d hof menattkoa. There are crowds of 

Gada godo. A species of water rat. 

Gada gud. \ Very many, in large num- 
Gad gu4. J bers. 

Ga4 gu^ko jaoraena. They are assembled in 

large numbers. 
TumdaK ga4 ipru^ sa<lekana. The drums are 

sounding trom aU sides. 

Gada hund baha. A small bush, Jaami- 
nwm arborescens. 

Gada kalha. \ A plant found flowering 
Hama pakor.j in shady places during 

the cold weather, otrobilanthus 

auriculatvs, Neea. 

Gada khasi ghfts. ") A species of grass 
Ga^a kasi ghas. J found on river 

Gadao. To press down, to ram down. 

Khunti gadao urijme. Bam the earth round 

the post to fix it tightly. 

B%ndakre b^ud gadaome gajto. Bam the 

Sowder into the gun with the ramrod. 
aXdaoaff. A rammer, a ramrod. 

Gadao. To make impression on the 
mind, to lose. 

Noa katha iiiaM monere ga^aoena. I feel the 

force of this argum^it. 
Mon bah ga4aolentina. It did not recommend 

itself to me (I was not pleased with it.) 
Me€ ga^laoadea iliatt jinis nelto. A fit of oovet- 

ousness came ov«r him when he s^w my 


Ga4a pacwani 

[ 171 ] 


CedaX noa katham ga4*o dohokedaP Why did 
Toa keep thin matter to yoiirself P 

Ci^hi ga^aoena okare coil. The letter has gone 
a^ray somewhere. 

Sanam rin ga^aoenti^. All my debts are ir- 

Qa4a pacwani A common flowering 
plant, Blumea lacera, D, C. 

Ga^a pa^jon. A small tree found near 

Gadap gudup. Sound of thumping. 

Gft4af> gv^up^o k^P^^^oz^* They thumped 
each other. 

Ga^a poijlo. A species of fig tree found 
on the banks of rivers. 

Gadar. Nearly ripe, applied to agricul- 
tural crops. 

Gadar. ^Children, mainly used 

Gidar gadar. J by " balaeako " (q. v.) 

Gadar gudui*. Small, as children and 
dwarfs ; small and smaller. 

Noko do i^trege ga(}ar gu^or in tiri€geako. 
no bigger than that. 

They belong to a race of dwarfs, tiiey are 

Gadar gudur. Sound produced by 
bellows, or when milking into a 

Gada sigrik. A small bush found in 
the beds of rivers, Salix tetras- 
perma, Roxb. 

Ga^a terel. A small tree, Dioapyros 
Toontana, Roxb. 

Gadbad. "> Confused, mixed; to be 
Gadba^ao. J confused, in disorder. 

Ona ato do ga^ba^akana. That Tillage is in 
great disorder. 

Ga<Jbe sadbe. To muddle. 

Datt ga^be sa^beko bo^ekeda. They have 

mnddled and dirtied the water. 
Noa katha dope gra^be sa^bekeda. Yonhaye 

mnddled this business. 

Gadea gudia. Holding each other by 
the hand or clothes, in a band. 

G^ea gr^^i^ baf aekanako. They have joined 

Gidr^do g^e^ gn^i^ko iSir hijntfkana. The 

children come numing in a band. 

Gadea gu^ia. *) Said of children fewn- 
Gudia guijiia. / ing to get something. 

Gadel. A crowd, a flock, crowded, nu- 

Hof gadel. A crowd of people. 
G^i gadel. A large drove of oows. 
Gadel ato. A populous Tillage. 
A^ gadel jaeg^ menaltaea. He has a very 
large farm. 

Non^e gadel dare menala. The trees are yery 

close together here. 
A^i gadel hako menaMkoa. The fish are Tcry 

plentiful, i. e. a shoal of fish. 

Gad gad. Many, in crowds. 

Noa norte gad gad hofko calaoena. Crowds of 
people liaTe passed this way. 

Gad gad. Sound of falling water, as 
over a waterfall. 

Gad gad daM ^tuttkana. 
Gad gad daXko duleda. 

Ga4 ga4. Frizzling, hissing, as when 
a piece of hot iron is put into waten 

Ga4 ga^ko pi^h^eda.. 

Gad ga^. Miry. 

Oi^ ga4 lo8o€ena. It is very miry. 

Gad gadao. To crowd together. 

He6 gadgadaoenako. They haTS eome in 

Gad gadao. Noise of water flowing or 
rushing, to laugh. 

Ale sen ^ gad gadao calaoena dal ga(jla mun- 

Gad gadaoKkanako. They are laughing and 

Qa4 ga^ao. To frizzle, to hiss. C£ ga4 

KhoK ga^ ga^aoKkantilia kofam bhitrire. 

Qad gud. Sound of milk streaming 

into the pail during the process 

of milking. 
BitkUko duh^uefkoa gad gud. 

Gadha. A donkey, a he-ass. 

Ga^ha godho. Uneven, rough,as ground 

or a road broken up by pits and 

water courses. 

Gadha godho. Heavy, clumsy, as a 
piece of joiner work. 

Gadha sot. *) Ravines and hollows ; to 
Qarha sot. / be lost. 

Ga^ha sot tolkatele khetaka6a. By damming 
up raTines and hollows we haTO made rice- 

Gki^ha sotenako merom do. The goats are lost. 

Gadhi. A she-ass. 

Gadhnao. To honour, to pay respect 

Bae gadhnaoledilia. He did not honour me.. 

Gadhra. Thick, as rice water ; thick 
and unwholesome, as some waters. 
C£ gadra. 

Ga^i. A cart, a carnage, anything 
that runs on wheels; a wheel. 

Bit g^i. A chariot. 

Bel g^i. A railway train. 


[ 172 I 

Qadrum sadrum 

QadL Lair of certain animals, as 
* of a haie, pig, &c. 

Bir sukriko fffl^Ia, kul%i h3ko g9^uk. Wild 
piM have lairs, so also have hares. 

Gw iSion snkrie tot go€ena. The pig rushed 
oat from its lair. 

Gadi. Marks or lines in a children's 

Ene6 gaijiko benaoa. They make lines for the 

Gadi. Populous, as a village. 

Gadi Tiia^i- The capital of Tundi. 
G*di Sirampur. The capital of Serampore. 

Gadi. A cushion ; a shop. 

Hathi reaK gadi. An elephant cushion. 
Baj g*di. A king's cushion, a throne. 

RSJg^^^e djxxu^T^' He has been installed 

Gadia. A small reservoir in which 
water does not remain all the year. 

Ga^ia. JReserved, close. 

Bhitar ga^ia.j „ . 

Marah bhit*r g»<3li» tor kanae. He la a very 
reserved man. 

G^diau. To sink, to bury, to fix one's 
' residence, to settle down, as ship 
on a sand bank. 

IiOSo6re g^i^uakanae. He has sunk in the 

Horo lo8o£re g^i»u tahenae. The tortoise 

lives buried in the mud. . . ,. 

G»4i g»<3li*ulCa losofre, gitilre. A cart sinks 

in mud and sand. -, a jl 

Huti aloko jomtilia mente tbehga losotren 

g^i^ua. I shall bury my stick in mud 

so that insects may not eat it. 
Taho ga^i^uenae, bae ru»yoKkana. He is 

fixed tiiere, he does not return. 
Mon g^i%u. To please. 

Gadiau. To carry a sword, &c. to be 
armed with a sword, &c. 

Tarwaye g»diauakawanae. He is carrying a 

The sword is usually carried under the left arm. 

Gadighao. An ulcer on the front of 
the leg between the knee and the 

Gadjal. A species of fish. 

Gadjal.lThe three or four quick strokes 

Gojol. J which follow the striking of 
the hour on the gonff. 

Gadialko dalkeda. After striking the hour on 
the gon^ they gave a few blows in quick 

Gadla. Thick and muddy, as water. 

Noa dak do gadlagea, babon lluia. This water 
is thick and muddy, we wiU not drink it. 

GadlaK. A hole or pit in the ground, 
a ravine. 

HSs ga<}laX. The pit from which olay has been 
£ig to build or plaster a house or houses. 

Qa^lak godloK. Rough, uneven, having 
holes or hollows here and there. 

Noa hor do 94i ga^l»K go^llolgea. This road 
is very rough (full of pits and hollows.) 

Gadle. A garment worn round the 
waist reaching to below the knees 
made up of pieces of old cloth 
sewn together; tattered, shaggy. 
Cf. kantha 

adle mara bu^hi. The old wife in a paiohwork 

Gadle bhi^i. A fleecy sheep. 

Gadoe. A ceremony observed at the 

Sohrae festival by the youth of 

the village. 
On the forenoon of the second day of the Sohrae 
(q. V ) festival young men ^ and boys with 
drums and various musical instruments pay 
a visit to each house in the village. Some 
of the party go as phakirs, ocners may 
have straw monkeys which they make per- 
form, others pretend to be pedlars and 
offer to seU bits of straw, or wood, &o., 
the object being to amuse. At every house 
they receive some rice which they leave 
with the Jog manihi. Afterwards it is 
cooked along with tne Dhaoa bin^^ (q. ▼*) 
and the JaJe rice. 

Gador. Disobedient obstinate. 

4^1 ga<Jor hof kanae mii h5 bae niijoma. He 
IS very obstinate, he will listen to nothing 
Nui ga^or mara hor. This mule of a man. 

Gador bhidL An up-country sheep. 
Gadra. 1 Thick, as the first milk of an 
Gadhra./ animal after having given 

birth to young ; thick and unwhol- 

some, as water. 

Dak m^4i ph^riagea. se gadfagea? Is the rice 
water clear or thick P Gadh];ugea. It is thick. 

Gadro6. Tom, tattered. 

Sanam gadroo cabaentilla kicrio dk>. My 
clothes are all in tatters. 

Gadro6 sadro6. Dirty and ragged. 

GadroS sadro6e lieloKkana. He looks ragged 
and dirty. 

Gadrum. Torn, tattered, ragged, hairy, 
rough, as a sheep ; dirt, filth. 

Gadrum kicri^ caXem ladeakawana P besaX bare 
horogme. Why are you wearing tattered 
clothes P put on good ones. 

Bhi^i harta do g^^irumgea. A aheep^s skin is 

Gadrum sadrum. Hirsute, shaggy, 
rough ; litter, rubbish ; dirty as a 
ploughed field in which the grass 


t 173 ] 


tmd weeds have not been buried 
by the plough. 

G^drom s^dnunko n^ana. Th^ are Tory hairy 

or shaggy. 
Gfdnun B^(h*iun ghSsge lieloXkana. The grass 

has not been onried by the plongh. 

O^drom sadmmge lieloKkana, ma jott gi^ikam. 
It looks a tangle (oobwebs on the roof) 
sweep them away. 

Qadud. To touch one to call attention, 
to scratch, as a bear, tiger, &c. ; 
to scrape towards oneself. 

Ma g^njem. Tonch him to call his attention. 
Banae g%dn^akadea. The bear scratched him. 
Knl do d^f jokheo g^dn^ tioKkedeae. The tiger 
clawed hun as he fled. 

Gadur. To scratch, to scrape with the 
claws or nails. 

ICa deare g%dnriiime. Come, scratch me on 

Banae g^nr baraaka£a non4d< A bear has 

been scratching here. 

Gadut. Disobedient, self-willed, obsti- 
nate, lazy. 

0%dat hofko bako aliiom hoda. Obstinate 
people do not obey at once. 

Gaegam: Sensation produced by some- 
thing touching tne skin; to scratch. 

Ce£te oo&ul gaegamena. Something has tonch- 

Oele ooe gaegamkedilia. Some living creature 

touched me. 

Gaela gaela. Indistinct, as speech. 

Gaela gaelae rof ef kana. He speaks indistinct- 

Gaelogaelo. Muffled up, wrapt up in 

Gaelo saelo. To disarrange, to con- 
fuse, to disorder. 

Kathape gaelo saelokeda. Ton confused the 

Hoete sanam gaelo saelokedae. The wind has 

^dsordered all (the thatch.) 

Gaemae. Gentle, quiet, peaceable. 

Kui do ^i gaemae hof kanae. This is a Tery 
peaceable man. 

Gae makhao. To accept responsibility, 
to take upon oneself. 

Uniye gae makhaoena. He has taken the res- 
ponsibility upon himself. 

XJnial jaega nuiye gaemakhaoakawana. This 
man makes himself responsible for that 
man*s rent. 

Gaenaha. A good singer, one who 
«ing8 well and knows a large num- 
ber of songs and tunes. 

Gagoj. Desire, necessity. 

AcaV lao peKre^e gagojoKkan tahlfkana. He 
would fain have filled his beUy. 

Gh^ } A brass water pot. 

Mi^ ghagra takae topaaka6a. He has buried 
(for safety) a brass water pot fuU of rupees. 

GSgti. Speaking through the nose 
and very indistinctly. 

Kui do gagfte rof a. 

Gah. A disease which attacks chil* 

Qidr^ko gahoKa. Children are subject to the 

disease known as * gah *. 
Gah sapakadea. He is suffering from * gah '. 

Gahaga^. *) Crowded, teeming, popu- 
Gahagu^. J lous, thick. 

Gahagu^ rimile raka|>akada, ^i liuta. Dense 
clouds have arisen, it is very dark. 

Gahagu^ko ene^kana. There are a large num- 
ber of parties dancing. 

(Hhagudko tapamkana. 

(Jahappiqlko ruieda. Drums sounding on all 

Hantelah calaKa, non<le gahagrn<lte bah alijo- 

mottkana. We will go over there, here on 

account of the crowd and turmoil nothing 

can be heard. 

Gahagoho. Wrapt up in cloth so as to 
appear large. 

K^mi )okhe6 gi^iagoho bafaekanae. He is 
working wrapt up in his cloth. 

Gahak. 1 

Qahak. I A would-be-purchaser, a 

Gahki. j buyer. 


Gohrakko lagaolenkhan uni <lahrali akriliea. 
If I found a buyer I would seU that ox. 

Gahamgad. In crowds. 

Gahamg^^Iko jaoraakana. They are assembled 
in crowds. 

Gahana. An eclipse of either sun or 

After an eclipse of the sun a nephew goes to 
his maternal uncle and says to him, I hare 
come to release the ** gahana" The uncle 
makes him a present of anything from a 
fowl to a cow. After an eclipse of uie moon 
the uncle goes to his nephew and is presen- 
ted with something of a like nature by him. 

Qahan^i. Flock, herd, crowd, family, 

Qahan guhun. Cf gahar gtlhflr. 



Goharak. A purchaser, a buyer. 



A<ii gaharakko hijuXkana iliaX dokante. Very 
many purchasers come to my shop. 

Gahftr gfthflr 

[ m ] 


Gahar gtihtlr. In low tones, low, nsed 
generally with " ror " to speak. 

Gahar g^flfko rofeda. They are speaking in 
a low tone. 

Qah&f geh^i. Slow speaking, seldom 
speaking, slow in movement. 

Gahac geh3{ bafaekanae. 

Gaha£ guhtll C£ gahat geh^t 

Gahda. ") Moist dhan land in which 
Gahra. J there is always a suflSciency, 

of water. 


Gahi A decoy, a leader; to attract, 
to decoy. 

Potam g%hi. A deooy doye. 
Gnn^ri ^^hi. A decoy qnail. 
G»hi l^^f!iii ^snlea. I will keep it for a decoy. 
A^i faorko g^hiena. Many people have been 
decoyed away. 

Gahia. Cf. gahi 

Gahir. Deep. 

G^hir kui. A deep well. 
G^hir katha. A deep word. 

Gahki. A purchaser, a buyer. 
Gahla. Pitched on a low key. 

Noatiriodo gahlj^a, sahgidte do sa4e bah 
calaXkana. This flute baa a low pitch, the 
sound does not go far 

Gahna. "1 An eclipse of either sun or 
Gahana. J moon. C£ gahana. 

Cando gahoaXkanae. There is an eclipse in 

Gahndi.. A herd, a flock, family, com- 

G^i g%hn4iteli senlena. I went to the herd of 

Ale g^hn^iren kanae. He belongs to' our com- 

Gahnju. Pendulous belly. 

Gahri. Long continued and severe, as 
fever, clonic, difficult. 

Bu^ do a<Ji g^hfientaea. His fever has assum- 
ed a very dangerous form. 

Noa katha do ^^i g^hfigea. This is a very 
difficult matter. 

Gahul. To delay, press of work or 

Eaj do a<li g^hulena. The business is greatly 

A4i g^hulre menada. I have a press of work 

on hand. 

Gai. A cow. 

G^i 4aiura. Cattle. 

G^i pal. A herd of cattle. 

Pal ^i. A cow with calf. 

K»pil g%i. The yak, Bos gmnndens. 

Gai caAcir. A small bird. 

Gai ghura. A small common plant, 
folygala chinensis, Lvan. 

Gai uri6. Cattle, the cattle of a village 
which are, as a rule, numerous. 

G»i urio lekako o^okena jel do. The deer 
^ came out (numerous) as cattle. 

G»i uri6 leka hoyko pasnaoena. The people 
spread bke cattle. 

G^ urio leka menaKkoa. They are (as numer- 
ous) as oatUe. 

Gaj.. A measuring rod of two cubits, 
a foot rule. 

B^duk ^j. Bamrod of a grun. 
Huk» gaj, A thin rod for cleaning the huka 
stem. ^^ 

Gaja guju. Numerous, in crowds. 

C^aj• gujuko jaoraakana. They have assembled 
in crowds. 

Gajal. \K species of fish found in 
Gadjal./ "jhils". 

Gajar. Dense, close together. 

Cb,jair moca. A Musahnan, one having beard 

whiskers, and moustache. 
Noa bir do ^^i gajargea. This jungle is very 


Gajar. Noise, turmoil, tumult, din. 

A^iko gajayakafa, hapett metakom. They are 
making a great din, tell them to be quiet. 

Gajer. Dense, close together. C£ 

Gajgajao. To crowd together. 

Taka gajgajaoKkantaea, enreh5 bae emola. He 
has piles of monev still he won't give. 

Kacahari hiloK ^i Eoy heS ga jgajaokolaka. 
Un court day very many people come and 
crowd together. 

Gaji A narrow piece of cloth about 
one cubit in breadth, and any 

It used to be customary to make " sapis " of 
Wo strips sewn together. This was caUed 

Gajilal. A traditional hero, applied 

Bahware Gajilal ! Kule soboKakadea. Bravo f 
Gajilal, he has stabbed a tiger. 

Gajlak marte. ^ Piercing deeply, as an 
Gajlalc mente. j arrow or a spear. 

GajlaK maraokedeall. I pierced him deeply 

(with an arrow.) 
GajlaK marteli soboKkedea. I pierced him 

deeply (with a spear.) 

Gajwak. To ffo bad, as cooked rice if 
kept too long ; to be over cooked. 

Sanampe crajwaM ocokeda. You have allowed 

sU the nee to go bad. 
Sea gajwaM. To putrify. 


t "5 ] 

Qalo^ salo^ 

Quit, To stretch twine, thread, fee. 
from one point to another. 

Bindi ganaX. A spider's web. 

Bindi etit^mko ^[aga. Spiders stretch threads 

from one point to another. 
Kathageye gaX bcMraedda. He weayes tales. 

Gakhnr. Clever, proficient, eflScient, 
well trained, as a bullock to the 

K^mire g^khu^akanae. He is profloient in his 

Bes g^khnr ^^^^^ kanae. He is a weU trained 


Gal. To boast, to brag, to mpeak. 

Ekengaltaein^^baedafeaXa. He only boasts, 

he can't do it. 
Ma se, galme. Come, speak ont. 
Mase, galtam, dnktc^ oeflekantama. Come, 

tell what sort of troubles you haye. 

Gala. Voice. 

Qala pheraoentaea. Hia voice has changed 

(from a child's to a man's.) 
Bee gida kantaea, bese sereli dareaXkaaa. His 

Toioe is good, he can sing well. 

Galae. 1 Small, diminutive, as in- 

Galae galae. t sects. 

Galae galaeko barkaoena. 
CkJae galaeko lleloXkana. They look yery 

Qalak galaK. "l Dirty, ill-looking, appU- 
Galat galal J ed to large sores. 

ITni gala^ galaf e ghaoakana. He has ofCensiye 



Galak salal£.\ Stupid, dull-witted, un- 
Gala£ soIa£. J intelligible. 

Lelha doX hof galal salaXko metakoa. 
Oka lekam rof etkana galaf sola£. 

Galam galam i&nt ode h5 bahko iSel damoXa. 

It is yery dark no Hying creature will be 

CkJam marte kulid i&elledea. I caught a glimpse 

of the ti^er. 
CedaM. noa limd^ galam galamem dSf a bafa^ 

kana ? Why are you going about to-night in 

the dark? 

Cralan. To plait, to braid. 

Up galah. To braid the hair. 
Baha gutu galali. To weaye a garland. 
C%%ri6 galaii. To plait a ribbon for the hair. 
Baber g^iab. To twist strands into twine. 
JonoK galah. To plait (grass for a) broom. - 
Bof gauiii. To plait straw into a rope. 
Kathako gntu galaiikeda. They haye oonoooted 
the matter. 

Galan gulun. Slowly, deliberately. 

Galaii guluiie oalaXkana. He moyes along 

Galao. To melt, to decompose. 

Ona kathate baii ealaoXkana. I am not being 
aifected by uiat story (it has no force 
with me.) 

Phul% kh9si9tem galaoediiikana. You are oyer* 

coming me with humour. 
Galao godena. It aU melted. 

Galasan. Unconscious. 

Kui hof do galasahe gitidakana. This ikian is 
^ in a heayy sleep. 

Mi &to ruaXkana, galasahe giti^akana. He is 
yery ill with feyer, he is lying in an uncon- 
scious state. 

Gala€ solati Stupid, dull witted ; dull 
heavy looking. C£ galaU salalc. 

Qal bajofia. A great talker, a wind- 
bag, one who prefers talking to 

Maraii gal bajofi^ kftnae. He is a great wind- 

Qalbajri. Pert, talkative, loquacioua 

GaSk. 1 ^^' ^^"'"^^ '^^^ murmui- 
Gal|ul. J i«g>asofacrowd. 

j94^ko galgalaXa oet h5 bam alijom dareaXa. 
They make such a din, you can hear nothing. 

Qal galao. To be moist, damp, to nm, 
as a sora 

oi i:fe h"» «««■ 

Gal gul. Speaking, row, din, noise. 

Cdeko gal gvdei tahgfaina P Who were making 

a noise P 
Okoe hop ooii galgulko ror idikeda. Some people 

passed speaiong loudly. 

Qali. A loop, a method of tying. 

Sukri g^li. A method employed to tie the feet 
of a pig when it is desired to carry it on a 
pole Dctween two men when aliye. 

Jofa g%li. A knot on one end and a loop on 
the other, used to tie cattle, goats, Ac. 

Ph^ g%li. A running noose. 

Qalid. Mash, mush, mashy, mushy. 

DakM>e isin g^lidkedape. Tou haye oooked 
the rioe into a mash. 

Qalkatua. Boasting, bragging ; a boas- 
ter, a braggart. 

Maraii galk^t^qThof kanae. He is a great boas- 

Galmarao. To converse, to speak. 

CUJmaraoe€ tahSkanalili. We were conyersing 

Ona kathae galmaraoadi/iae. He told me that 


Qaloi c6r6. The Hawk cuckoo, Hiero- 
coccyx variua. 

Galo6 saloi. Higgledy piggledy, in 
confusion. Scottice, heeds an* 

Hof o sanam galo^ salo^ena. The dhan is all 
lying different ways. 


t ite ] 



Galsal. To consult, to converse, to 
speak ; to keep company, to ac- 

Ajup n&haKle galsala. We will oonfiult in the 

Qalsalkedape, oaXpe thirenaP Ton talked it 

over and settled it, why are yon inactiyeP 
Alope galsala tiiirte k^mipe. Do not conyerse, 

work qnietly. 
Qalsal bar hoflah tahena. We two will keep 

each other company. 

Galta golal Dull, vacancy of mind, 
stolidity, want of intelligence. 

A6 eskar galta gola€e dlft bafaekana. 
Adomko bnabnateko galta goladotta. 

Galti. A slip, a fault. 

Bofreli galtikeda. I made a slip in speaking, 

Galua. A boaster, a bragg^art, a deceiver. 

i^ui do a4i R^ln^ kanae, a^i ho|re galaokoa. 
This is a great boaster, he tiukea many 
people in. 

Galua cSrg. "^ The Hawk cuckoo, Hi- 
Galo6 cSr6, j erococcyx varius. 
Gam. A story, a folk tale ; folk lore. 

Gktm sered. A iMurt of a story whioh is snng. 

Gamao. To recognize, to diagnose, to 

Ball gamao thikledea. I did not recognise him. 
Sen mali sen hei^akui, ball gamaoakafa. I have 

gone and come, but I do not remember it 

(the road.) 

Gambhir. Serious, sedate, good natur- 
ed, quiet, without* vice, as a- horse 
or bullock. 

Gambhra ga^a. The pit in which the fire 
is placed when boiling gur (q. v.) 

Gamcha. A piece of cloth from 1 J to 
to 2 yards in length, used mainly 
to put on when bathing to keep 
the ordinary garment dry. It is 
often worn round the neck when 
not in use. 

Gamcha hasa. A kind of earth with 
which cloth is dyed a light reddish 
brown colour. This is the Hindu 
and Buddhist sacred colour. 

n^^ ^^' f To be sultry, close. 
Gam gamao. J ^ ' 

QamgamaoMkana daX hijoX coil oei cob. It is 

yery sultry, wiU it rain or not. 
44^ gamgam a^karottkana. It feels yery sultry. 

Gamgondar. ") Muttering in a low tone 
Gamgondor. / of voice, 

Cei!i>e gam gondoreda P What are you mutter- 
ing away at there. 

Gam gum. Stillness, perfect quietness; 

Qam gomko thirena. They became perfectly 
Gamgum baf akoXpe. Be still, or bo quiet. 

Gam gum. Cf. gum. 

Nia gamgum baf sSam. Sift this. 

Gam ffundur. Quiet, reserved. 

ManSgamgundurhorkaAae. He is a yery re- 

seryed person. 
Oamgnnduran horkoedre goddXa. Beeenred 

people easily take offenoe. 

GamhajiijL Cf. gabhlL^. 
Gampatak. \To near when called to 
Gampatao. / but not to reply, as one 
wishing to shirk duty. 

DaM jokha gupi ndrako gampataSa. In the 
rains the herd boys pretend not to hear 
when caUed to, (turning out being uncom- 

Gampatao, To sulk, to be in the dol- 
drums, to feign death, as some in- 
sects do. 

Gampataoakanae. She is sulking. 
Ghimpataoenae urn do. The beetle is feigning 

Gampis. To talk privately. 

Cei^pe gampis johkan tahekana. VThat were 
you speaking about priyately. 

Gan. About, jiearly. 

Tikin gan. About mid-day. 

In^V gan. About as much as that. 

Nin%R gan. About as much as this. 

Thof a gan. A small quantity, a few. 

Nunal gan. About as much as %hia. 

UnaK gan. About as much as that. 

HunaMgan. So much as that. 

UnaX gan safagilire. At about that distance. 

MSfS moka gan. About fiye cubits. 

Bele ganena se bail P Is it about ripe, or not. 

Gan. Properly, fully, suitable. 

Aurid oei gana. I haye not yet kamed it pro- 

ArhSil cef ganlege. 

£mol ohoko ganlena. lliey wiU not agree to 

"Mase, gan oookom. Make them agree to it. 

Auri hara ganotfae. She has not yet grown 

Bah ganoKaXem ^ran oooleda. You are making 
proper what is improper. 

Bah ganoMaXgeye rofeda. He is saying what 
he ought not to say. 

BCon bah ganaflea. We were not pleased. 

K%mi ganme. Do a Uttle more, or a little bet- 
ter work. 

Bah ganoKaK. An impropriety. 

Oho gaalentama. It will not suooeed. (It wiU 
not become what you wish.) 

Oho k%mi ganlena tehed do. It is not suitable 
for this work to day. 

Ganao. To respect, honour. 

Ehgam apum ganaokinme. Honour thy father 

and thy mother, 
Disom hofke do parganako bako ganaoe€ko 

netur do. The people of the countiy do 

not respect the pargannas. 


t m 1 



Ganade. Bars running cross-wise in 
opposition to those running length- 
wise (jeled, q. v.) ; the cross bars 
at the two ends of a bed : the 
short opposite ends of a paral- 

Ganak. "> A spider's web, from 

£indi ganak, J gaU (q. v.) 

Ganao. To respect, to honour, to heed, 
pay attention to, obey. 

Ato nor do m^lijhi bako ganao«dekaiia. 
The Till^s^n do not pay resi>eot to the head 

GanarL A small fishing net with a 
handle like a butterfly net. 

Gand A cross ridge, or embank- 
ment, a division crosswise. 

Barpe gan^em afelekhan in^tem besola. 
If yon throw two or three embankments 
across it wiU be well. 

Gand. A swelling in the groin or in 
the armpit which sometimes ga- 
thers ; enlarged gland. 

Ganda. A set of four. 

Bar gan<}a poesa. Two annas. 
Pon gan4a aphor menaKa. There ^re^lS bunch- 
es of rice seedlings. 

Ganda6 gundui.^l 

Forgetful, as old peo- 
ple sometimes are. 

or as one very busy 
or in deep sorrow. 

Lumpy, large and 

Ganda6 gusui. 
Gadalc gasuk. 
Gandud gasu6. 
Gandulc sanduk 
Ganduk gasulc. 
Ganda6 guncjud. 
small lumps. 

Jon^r% daka gan^ai^ gnn^ndgea. 

Ganda gunda. To be broken into pieces 
or fragments ; to be ground into 
powder; fragments. 

Gan^a gnn^aena bnsnjp do. The straw is re- 
duced to very small pieoes. 
6an4a gnn^^ko joma. They eat the fragments. 

Gan^a guti To divide, to make up 
an account. 

lii do oholi gan^a gn^i daf elea. I cannot divide 

Oan^a gutikedale. We divided it. 

The oystem of "gan^a gn^i'* is to i>ut down a 
pebble, or any other smaU obiect, as the 
name of each person entitled to share is 
mentioned. Then a share is placed alongside 
of oaoh pebble, or whatever else was laid 

Gandar. liarvae of certain beetles. 

Kat gandar. Found in wood. 

Guriti: gandar. Found in middens of cow dung. 

Dhiri gandar; Said to feed on stones. 

Gandar c€lr6. A species of waterfowl. 

Gandar gimdur. Muttering, speaking 
in low tones. 

Gandar gundur oet ooe rofefkan. He is mut- 
tering something to himself. 

Gandax gundurkin galmaraokana. They are 
conversing in low tones. 

Gand^ura. Rubbish, rubbish in a heap. 

Gandbhur. A wooden water pipe ; a 
hollow piece of wood used as a 
water pipe. 

Gande. To place at a right angles to 
something else, cross, transverse. 

Bide gan^o esefkeditia. A snake was stretched 
across my path. 

Gande mun^e. An adverb possessing 
intensifying force. 

Gan^e mun^eko dalkedea. They beat him 

Gan<^e mun^eye jomkeda. He ate amazingly. 
Gan^e mundeko agukedilia. They fined me (or 

charged me) heavily. 
(}an<le mun^e joakana. A very large quantity 

of fruit (on the tree.) 

Gandet bi6. A species of poisonous 

Gan4 gan^. Across, at right angles, 


Gan<l gan4 af erne. Throw embankments aorosa 
at seveial places. 

Gand garur. The Rhinoceros. 

Gandha gandhl Strong, applied to 

A^i bes gandha gandhi so kana. This a strong 

pleasant smell. 
A^i h^T^ gandha sr^ndhi so kana. A strong 

unpleasant smell. 

Gandhak. Sulphur, brimstone. 

Gandh^ araK. A cultivated pot-herb, 
Amarantus gangeticus, var, an- 
gtbstifolia, Linn. 

Ganijhbhur. A wooden water pipe, a 
hollow piece of wood used as a 
water pipe. 

Gandhefi. Lazy, sluggish. 

Maran gan^he6 hor kanae. He is a very slug- 
ffish man. 

Gan^hef mundhel Naked, scrimply 

Kiori6 banultaea gan^heH mun<lhe6e dSfS ba- 
faekana. He has no clones, he is going 
about nearly naked. 

Kui (jLahra do a^i^e g^n^hi^wa. This bullock 
is very bluggish. 



ff 178 ] 


Gan^hua. Listless. 

Gandi. 1 A tenii of abuse or depreci- 
Gandii. J ation, used by women onjy. 

Nni hafam g^n^ire ball kusiMa. 

Gandiari. A kind of grass found 

mostly in rice fields. 
Gandke. *) A term of abuse, used 

Gandke rapalc. J by women only. 
Gandke. A log of wood. 

Khub marab gandke on^e menala, tfel 
aka€ali. There U a big log over there, I 
have seen it. 

Sarjom gandke. A log of sarjom wood. 

Tale gandke. A log of the Palmyra palm. 

Ul gandke. A log of mango wood. 

Qando. A small piece of wood from 6 
to 12 inches long and 3 or 4 high, 
used as a stool to sit on. 

(Hn^o belakome. Set stools for them. 

Gan^o guru. One of the lesser deities 
of the Santal pantheon. 

Gandon. To think, to ponder, to con- 

(Hn^on baf ale^e, tobeli l^iama. I must first 
think over it, then I shaU tell jon. 

Ma noa gan^onpe, thika, se baha. Think oyer 
this as to whether it is right or wrong. 

Gandra IFuU of nicks or notches, to 
Gandrao. / be nicked, or notched. 
Gandra gundra. To cut or break into 

pieces, lying loose, not tied into 

bunches ( jhomble.) 

Gandra gondi^bo jom hata^a. We wUl for 
the present eat the loose oobs (of Indian 
com, and not those tied into bnxMi^s afid 
put past.) 

Gandrao. Chapped, notched ciucked, 
eaten or rotted away^ 

Gandrao iSuroK. To rot off, as the toes or 

fingers of a person enffering from leprosy. 
Noa kat do jom gandraoaka€ako. This pieee of 

wood h^s been eaten through. 
Jahga katup latarre daK jokha gandraoKa. 

Cracks appear underneath the toes daring 

the rainy season. 
Oka do gai cn^oi hS gandraoKa. Sometimes 

cows dags become chapped. 

GajiduK sandulc. Slovenly, slatternly, 
careless of appearance through' 
9(>rrow, garments soiled, tarnished 
or disordered with working. 

K^oni k%mitele gr%nduM s^mdoXena. Our gar- 
ments ^e s^ed and tarnished witili work- 

Gandut gapur. Very scrimply clad. 

kicri^tetfo g^ndnr g^pnroS^. Th^ are. in want 

of clothes. 
€^ndnr gs^pnre bandeakana. She is scantily 

clad, (and what she has is old kA tattered.) 

Gane,g^ib. 1 

Gani gurib, |Very poor people. 

Guni gurib. j 

Kni r^ do gnni gurib fdiye haronsCkoa. Tlua 
king (or Zemindar) is -?ery hard -on poor 

Gad. A contused wound ; to cause a 
contused wound ; a blind boil. 

Dal gaiikedea. He struck him aad fun nod a 
contused wonnd. 

Gangan. Populous and prosperous^ 

Noa ato a^i irangan tahSkana. This wm a 
populous and prosperous Tillage. 

A^i gangan atkaroXkan^. It feels very heart- 
-some. (Santals being remarkably grogar- 
ions this is their idea of feUcity.) 

Qanganao. Tq crowd, to be numerous. 

Hedi gangwiaoenako. They haye ooatinQed to 
come till they are now crowding. 

Ganganea. Rich, well-to-do. 
Gangania. Numerous and prosperous, 
prosperous, well-to-do. 

NuiaX oraK ^ gangania ^ik^uKkana. This 
man's house seems very prosperous. 

Kui do mihUte, meromte, hofte, djte 94t 
gang^ni^ aik^ulkanae. This man in cattle^ 
goats, people and proi>erfy seems to be very 

Gangante. Carefiilly, vigilantly, pru- 
dently, deliberately, havmg all 
one's wits about one. 

Gangante calalme. Gto carefully. 
Gangante k^mime. Bo your work oarefuUy. 
Gangante boloXme. i'eel your wi^ in. 
Gangante bujh»ume. Think it oyer bit by bit. 

Gaugai The river Ganges. 
Ganga gaya. To perform the last rites 
for the dead. 

Gahffa gayakedeale. We performed all th^ 
last rites for him. 

Gadga tulsi A eommon plant with a 
pleasant smell, Hyptia iuaveolens, 

Ganghar. Sore, applied to the throat, 

Ho^ott gahgharentirla, daX hS ball u€ dareatt- 
l^ana. If y throat is 8ore» I am not aSl« to 
swaUow eyen water. 

Ganghar gonghor. Full of holes. 

Alope umuloMa nonde gahghar gonghor ^hen. Do 
not take shelter here, a pUee where there 
are so many holes, (from which seorpions 
and snakes may emerge.) 

Gangit Nodular limestona 
Ga^gufi. Having an impediment m 
speech, dumb. 

GaAg^geye rora. He speaks indistiaotly ftas 
an impediment in his 8peech.> 

Qa6 n^i 

[ 179 ] 



Gaii n^ The Ganges river, mentioned 
in the oldest traditions of the 
Santals, ^ 

Qani gurib. Very poor people;. 

Gani s^i. Forgetful, flustered. 

Oekange bad g^ni s^zii. 
fiaimuli doli- dadawade* 

Oa^ja. Qanja, the Hemp plant, Cati- 
wjhvms aativa. 

Ga^ja galiji. Crowded, to crowd"; over- 
crowded.. Cf. gJiaAja ghadjL 

Ga^jagadJL To mix up, to break up 
and mix. 

* Haflako galija g^jikeda« 
Kathako gradja g^iijikeda. They have mixed 

ap the matter (oonfnsed it. 
^4iko gadja g^jikedida. ^hey badgered me 

tembly.. . 

Chdja guAji^ To throw, or place things 
any where, or anyhow.. 

Doboaka^ae, gadja fifadji. He baa pnt tbe 

things down any where* 
Gadja ^idjiko dohoaka€a. They bare laid. 

them down anyhow. 

Gadjan.! To annoy, to render life miser- 
Ga&jon.^ able;, trouble, annoyance, 

^i gadjonre menada. I am in a great worr^. 
Nonlan c^adjonreko gohkedida. They married 

me into misery like this. 
Non^enko ^iko gadjonedidkana. The people 

here make my life miserable. 
Nni gidr^ doe gat^onkedida. This child eaosed 

m» endleea misery. 

Gia&jao. Ta mix up, to disarrange and 
break into pieces* 

Sipi gadjao. To mix, to knead, as dongh. 

Lebe€ gadjao. To break and mix tip by tread- 
- Bal gadjao. To break and mix np by beating. 

Paiirart^o gadjaokeda. They trod it out by 
means of bn] looks. 

4k baf geko gadjaokeda. They have ploughed 
andmixed mv the soil in ttis sngar cane 

Gadjer.. >Thick, close together, dense. 
GaAjber./ Cf. gajar. 
Gafijeri. Addicted to gadja. 
Xxanjha ganjhi^ Trampled, disordered. 

Oa^jher. A large forest tree, StercvZia 

vUloea, Roxb, 
Gaiijhu. A Hindu caste* 

Oadjia. A netted purse carried tied 

round the loins. 
GalSijon. To slight, to ill-treat, to render 

life miserable. 

Ei bait jntko gadjookedida. Tbey treated me 
▼ery badly. 

Ganthar. The inner skin of fruits, the 
film underneath the diell ofc 
an egg^ the placenta of animals ; 
an inner wrapper of a filmy nature. 

Ganti. To count. 

G^tiabonme. Coant them tot tii . 

Qaoali.. Belonging to»a village, or the. 

Gftore. . ■) Indistinctly, to keep out 

Qaore gaope. J of the way. 

Sen gaofefina*;. He keeps out of the way* 
XjorngSoreShad.. L heard indistinotly. 

GSLose. C£ gh^ose; 
G^owHo. To lose, to injure. 

Actege jiwiye gaowaokeftaea. He lost his life 
by his own act. 

G&owar. Foolish, stupid, raw. 

Qaowar mara hof. A stnpid feUow. 

Gaowari bulii Tbe dialect of the Bihari, 
language spoken in villages. 

Gap. Talking; verbiage, prolixity, story 

Gaptegem n<?9iQeda. Ybor are obecnring the 
point by mere talk. 

Gapa. To-morrow. 
Tehed gapa. Now-a-days, about the ptesent 

Gapa meahkotele calaffa. We wiU go within 

the next two or three days. 

Gapanok. To-moiTow. 

GapanoKlah oalaMa. V^e wiU go to-morrow. 

Gaphlat. Carelessness, negligence, in- 
advertency, neglect, fault. 

Ida! gaphlat kana. It is my f anlt. 

Gaphlati. Carelessly, negligently. 

A^ gaphl^tim k%mi1am»^ Yon are workhig 
Tery carelessly. 

Gaphil. Negligent, indolent, impru- 
dent, careless, oflF one's guard, 

Alope g%phi1tabana. Do not be neglig^it. 

GapL A great talker, one who tries by 
much speaking to obscure th^ 
point at issue. 

Marah g9pi kanae. He is a great talker. 

Gapud. ■) Slanting inwards, or under- 
Garpud. J neath, as a dog's tail when 
he puts it between his legs ; slan- 

G%pn6kateye calaoena. He wort off with his 

tail between his legs. 
LaK g%pn^edam. xou haare out it with ft 
shuit underneath. 


[ 180 ] 


(h.T. A forfc, a palace. 

Oar. DiflSculty, strait, danger. 

G^ muhim. Danger and dia tress. 

Oarte. Time; forcibly, loudly, heavily. 

Dosar gafte. A seoond time. ^ 
E^al^ garte. Again, another time. 
Rahaj garteye (mXkeda. It rained heavily. 
4Ai garte hohokeda. He oalled out lustily. 
441 garteye raKkeda. He wept loudly. 

Qara. *) Clay made into the consistence 
Garah. J of and used instead of mortar. 

Gara. Responsibility, trouble, danger. 

A?n ball garakede, nitoli do haronilikanae. 

Noa gara do bati dohoea. I will not accept this 

IlStege ^ra/1 ladeana. I hare assumed respon- 

Glra. Shoot springing from root of 

a plant. 
Garad. Prison, cor. of the Elnglish 

" guard," 

Ghurad of atf teve boloena. He has been put into 

the guard house. 
Qaradkedeako. They put him into prison. 

Garad. \Over head and ears in 
Rin garad. j debt ; swamped in debt. 

Bin garadenae. He is over hesbd and ears in 
debt. , 

Garaj.l Interest, concern, necessity, 
Goroj. ) occasion, want, need. 

KiKrill hofe garojlenkhan attlcriiiko^.liko da- 
ma. If a thing is urgently required by the 
purchaser the price asked by the seller is 

Goro] b^nuVtil^khan oatfiA hataoa ? I have no 
need for it, why should I take it ? 

Kon<}e ce£kantama goroj doP What interest 
have you here P 

Gara jala. Black and heavy, as clouds ; 
difficulty, strait. 

Bimil garajala so bele leka un^ukedae. 
A^i garajidare/1 pafaoena. I am in a g^at 

GaraU garalc.) Continuously, time after 
Gorolc goroU. [ time. 

GaraK garaUe ^fisedilikana. He keeps annoy- 
ing me time after time. 

ApB go garatf garaKe hohoe6kana. He annoys 
by continually calling out. 

Garal garal. Red, raw, applied to sores. 

Ghaoakanae garal garal. 

GaraA daK. Discharge from a sore, 

other than pus. 
Garao. To wither and die, melt away, 

to rot oflF, as the toes and fingers 

of a leper. 

Cot khon garao cabaena. It has withered and 

died from the top. 
A^i ut^rle aphorle£re h5, sanam garaoena. We 

sowed much seed, but it has aU withered 

and dropt off. 

Garbar. Higgledy piggledy, confused. 

Garbarao. To confuse, to mix, to put 
into disorder. Of. ga^badao. 

Garbha gojha. A small forest tree» 
Canthium didymum, Roxb. 

Garcha. To string hanks of thread 
on two pieces of twine previous 
to dyeing. 

Snt^mko g^iurchaea. 

Garda. Rubbish, dust. 

Cot khon garda duroKkana. Dust is falling^ 
from above. 

Garda gardi. Forcibly, putting the 
hand on the back of the neck and 

Garda g%rdikin idikedoft. 

Garda gurda. Scrambling, rolling on 
the ground one above the other. 

Gafda guf d^kin tapamkana. They are fightinsT 
on the ground, one now aboye, and then 
the other. 

Gardan.lThe neck, the back of the 
Gordon. J neck. 

Gardani 1 To seize by the back of the 
Gardao. J neck and push. 

Sip^ kombfoko^ gardani icUkoa. The polico 
take awav thieves by seizing them by the 
back of the neck and pushing them forwsurd. 

Gtared. To trifle with, to despise, to 
make light o£ 

Alope buih^ua, je noa gaf e6 katha kana. Do 

not think this a matter to be trifle^ with. 
Isor alope ga^ejea. Do not trifle with God. 

GargadL *) Job's tears, Coix lachryma, 
JargadL J a grass the fruit of which 

is strung into necklaces, &c. 
Gargadi. A kind of blister which be^ 

comes a sore. 
GargadlaU. Thick, thickly, abundant. 

Matkom gargadlaff liurena, bako halaheda. 
The matkom (q. t.) has fallen very thickly, 
they are not picking it up. 

Gargar. Sound of gurgling or bub- 

Huka Am jokheS gaf gafko 8a<}e ocoeda. Wher 
tney smoke the huk% they make a babbling 

Gargar. C£ gargarao. 

Gargarak. A huka (q. v.) with a lon^ 
flexible tube. 

Gargarao. To cause a gurgling bub- 
bling sound ; to gargle. 

KoyoKkate daK gaf gafaome. 
1^1 ir%4i gargarao calaKkana. The railwA^ 
train goes rumbling along. 


[ 181 1 



Qaigarao. To roll, as a ball ; to trundle, 
to revolve, aa a cart wheel in 

€ktrg»rao if gonkana. It oomes rolling down. 

Oargarao.1 To hiss, as oil poured into a 
Gargar. J hot iron vessel ; to rumble, 
as thunder or as a river in flood. 

Kni gidr^ %ri8?e gargare raXeda. 
Dhip^n gargaraoena. 
Dhip^a gargaraope. 

Gbrgarao. To take a deep hold of the 
earth, as in deep ploughing. 

Cedatt ota gargaraoabin kanam P 

Gargat Causing itchiness, irritating, 
stinging, burning, bitter, of the 

S%m jomlere garga€ atkaroKa. When the s^m 

(q. Y.) is eaten it irritates the throat. 
Berel nl mnndhni real rasa geag&t&. 

Gar ghuri. Emergency, time of diffi- 

Q^r ghniiye ^ofoadida. He helped me in my 
tune of difficnlty. 

KhSorJSo'"^^ of purring. 

Pnsiko ^^gorko sa^e oooea. Cats make a 
pnmng sonnd. 

Gar gurh^. 1 ,p^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ securely. 
Gar gurhe, ) "^ 

Gaf gnfh^ pon k5n<jiteko eseda. They fence it se- 
onrely on tiie four sides (aU round.) 

Garh. A fort ; residence of a Zemindar. 

Garha. A hole, a pit, a hollow, bed of 
a water course, 

Garha.Uy . 

Siy^hi a^i gafhaVa setohte. The ink becomes 
thiok owing to the heat. 

Garha gurhe. To roll up, or gather 
together, as twine, cloth, &c. 

. Gafha gnfhe sam^aome. BoU it up into a 
round ball. 

Ga^ha gorho. Full of holes or pits, 
Scottice, heichs an* howes, 

Noa hor do gaf ha gofhogea. This road is fuU of 
ups and downs. 

Garhao. To make, to fashion, to carve ; 
to take sh£4)e ; as the foetus in 
the womb, or a bird &c. in the egg 
with incubation. 

Onko murhut base gafhaoaka^koa. He has 

fashioned the idols very well. 
Kuhkal bhajanko gaf haoa. Potters make yes- 

Bele bhitrire hoponko gaiphaoena. The ohioks 

haye taken shape within the egg. 

Ghnrhaoena bele do. The ohiok has begun, to 

take shape within this egg. 
Dhorom Jiu hoteteye gafhaolen. 

Qarhani. Chronic dysentery, 
gjj) A monkey. 

Sakam gSf i. A smaU species of monkey. 

Gari. To push from or towards, as a 
fish net with a handle, to draw 
towards, as with a raka 

Hako g^rikom. Catoh fish by mctfms of a net 
with a handle. 

C^KriaK. A rake or any implement similarly 

Garia. In comp. possessed of; doer 
or agent. 

Badg^ri^. Wise. 
Bal-garii. Strong. 

Pahgari^. Enyions. 

Bojgrari^. One who proyidea for daUy wants. 

Garib. Poor. 

Guni g%rib, Poor people. 

Garib mara. 1 To cheat, to kill the 
Gurib mara. J poor, oppress. 

Porja g^b marae£koae nui manjni do. This , 
head man oppresses the ryots. 

Bafiako a^i hofko g^rib marae£koa. Baniaa 
cheat people yery much. 

Mahajanh5ko c^rib marae£koa. Money len- 
ders take adyantage of people. 

Gaija barja. To call for assistance 
while howling through pain or 

Nonkate garja barjae raK idikeda. 
Ghkrja barjaateye iiir hedena. He came run- 
ning calling out for help. 

Garja garji. To howl. 

Garja g^rjie ratf idikeda. He went away 

Garjao. To growl, to howl, to weep. 

Kul f^iye ganaoe£ tahekana. The tiger was 
growling fiercely. 

Dal garjao ocokedea. They struck and made 
him howl. 

Garke. Cf. gandke. 

Garkugar. Strait, difficulty, emergency. 

A^i g%rkug^rreli pafaoena. 1 am in a difficult 
position at present. 

Garlae. Fair, with a tinge of red, not 
unlike the hue of a Chinaman. 

Onko doko garlae gea. 

Garlan gurlun. Dirty, untidy. 

Garlah gurlnhe iieloXkana. He looks dirty. 

Garlun. Dirty, insufficiently dad and 

Nui garluti mara ^im^i. This dirty drab. 


C 1«2 I 



QarmaK garmaK. 

Diflference in dia- 
lect, in pronoun- 
ciation, accent &c. 

Koles, Mahlis, Kotjfaff, Bfrhofs, Kamars, &c. 
speak a dialeot of Santali and their mode 
of speaking, with differenoes-in girammatioal 
oonstrnotion, pronoanotation, and acoent 
are termed by the Santala ** garmal. ** 
. Eolheko do gapmaK ^arodaKko rofa. The 
Koles speak Santali vdth a twang. 

Garma garmi. To became heated, to 
perspire through exertion. 

44i garma g^rmaka k9mikana. They are per- 
spiring greatly at their work. 

Garmao. To become heated, to per- 
spire, to warm to one's work, to 
exert oneself, to wake up, aa a 
lazy man to work. 

Nitle garmaoakadea. Now we ha;vB waked him 

np to his work. 
. Baii garmao daf eaekana. I oa&'^t make him 

exert himself. 
MerhSi^ setohte garmaolfa. IronbeoomeaheflEt- 

ed with the sun's rays. 

Garmi. Gonorrhoea, or any urethral 

Gar murmu. A sub sept of the San- 

tal sept Murmu (q. v.) 
Garo. Eleven. 

Garo6 gapo6. 1 Scantily dad in old 
Garoi saro6. j tattered garments. 

Nni do garo6 gapo6e he^akana. Sbe has oome 
soantily clad in old tattered dothes. 

Garosti. Household, family. 

Mi£ garosti hor kanako. They belong to the 
same honsenold. 

Garpa6 gurpud. To dodge about, to 
hang about at a little distance 
through shame. 

Lajaote gafpa^ gan>n<^ baf aekana. She is 
keeping at a little distance through riiame. 

Garpu6. Of. gapu6. 

iS% h5ko g^rpii^K^ft* 
Ha^garko g^rpucgea. 

Garra gorro. Hoarse, as when the 
throat becomes dry through fear. 

Garfa gorfoe hohoe£kana. He is calling hoar- 

Garsa gale. To become tarnished, 
draggled, smirched, soiled ; dowdy; 
careless aa to propriety. 

BaK raKteti gfarsa ^leena. I am become tar- 

nished by continued weeping. 
Qarsa galeye gfitidakana. 

Garsande. A stand for water pots. 
Goreor } Emergency, diflSiCulty. 

Nni 4ahra do g^rs^re khnlauHa. This buUook 
will see us through an emergencj. 

Jahaeye g^rs^rkhan^ nniye emaea. Should any 
(me be in difficulty he will help him. 

Gfrs^r dohokatiiime. See me through my diffi- 
culty . 

Garsilom. Dirty, impure, as water ; 
scum^ as on water ; indistinctlyi 

Noa dais dor g%rtilom lieloXkana bAbo& liuia. 

This water looks impure we will not dri&k 

G^rsilom geye behgeda. He sees indistinctly. 
G^rsilom g^rsilomge lieiielkana ^rsi bf^fidente. 


'Sh» image is indistinctly seen owii^g to thd 
mirror being injured. 
G^rsUom ideloKkanae. He looks dir t y . 

Garsusar. DiflBculty, enrergency, neces- 

oalao. '^ To render a 

diffi4)ulty or 

Garsusar oalao. > To render assistance in a 
G%rsu89T doho. > 

time of 
Kui do g9raus^re calaoef titla nin din do. This 
man has up tiU now seen me theough my 

Qarui tapui. Hangings down in tatters 
or shreds. 

G^rui (9ptiiye bandeakana. The lower edge 

of her cloth is ragged. 
A4i jh<^kana gyrui t4^ui. The soot iabangin^t 

in stn^^ling masses. 

G^rtindi oraU. A common plant found 
plentifully in rice fields, Acter- 
momtkera aeasUia^ iJ. Br. 

Garur. The Adjutant birdi, Ardea 

Flotes are made from the bones of the lower 
part of the leg of tibo garur. The featiiere 
of the Adjatant- are consiaereda> powerful 
remedy in the cure of snake bite. The name- 
of the- bird uttered aa a (diarm and the 
waving^OTer the patient of one of its fea<- 
thers iff also resorted to- in snake bite. 

The Adjutant being one of the greatest efoemy 
ies that snakes have to fear has giren rise 
to the idea that its name and featiiers are 
potent in the cure of snaka bite. 

phe&ka garuf. A speoiesr d stork smaUet 
than the garuf. 

Gasa6 gusud. Solitary, of solitary 
habits, reserved, silent 

Gasa^ gfusu^geae. He is reserved and of 8oH> 
tary habits. 

Qh^: } To rub. to 8crub. 

Gasao sapbsakadeae. He haa eorubbed hfitt 

Nonkateye gssao idikediiSa. He rubbed pas^ 

me Bi toia way. 

Gasen. "> a -j x x 

Ghasen.; Amidst, amongst 

A^i hor gasen nui hof do bae aahaoa. Tfaia matt 
can*t bear the presence of many people. 

Hcf gasenra tahenge besa. It is Mst to five 
along with other people. 


[ 183 ] 


Qasgas. Many, very many, applied 
generally to di?minutive creatures. 

VSiinko busaKakana gaagas. Many ohiokenB 

liaTO hatohod. 
Gasgas gidr^ko jaoraakana. Many children are 


Gaai6, To make or pass wind. 

Gaske. The wrapping, in which the 
material, from which oil is to press- 
ed, is wrapt up, previous to being 
put in the oil press; a scrubber 
for buflfaloes. 

The " gftske" is made of baokom (q, t.) or the 
leA of the palmjrra palm cut Into very thin 
strii^B. The material to be pressed is wrapt 
np in this and bonnd tightly round with 


Gasmangao. 7 To bruise, to break into 
Gh^mandao.) small pieces, to disorder 
or break into small pieces by tram- 
pling, rolling, or sitting on. 

NoK5e non^eko dupiMena not8e non^eko gas- 
man^aoakafa. They sat here, here tney 
have left their mark. 

Lebeil gasmandao. To mix up or disorder by 

Durup gasmangao. To disorder by sitting on. 

Bal gasmangao. To beat into small pieoes. 

Gasrao. ^To draff or push along the 
Ghasrao.) ground, to rub against any- 

Jahga gaerao idiedae. He draga his feet along 

the ground, 
Bhitre gasrao potaKonae. He has got himself 

chafed by rubbing against the waU. 
jupkate gasrao calaKako. They <~ 
smyes along in a sitting posture. 

Gat A knot, a nob, a node. 

Tol i^tlradae, bah rara godoKkana. He has 
knotted it, it does not easily loooe. 

Gat. Branchings from the root of 
sasan. Curcuma tonga^ Roicb., 
Turmeric or Haldi. 

Pe gat sasah emakom. Give them three br^- 
ches of the root of turmeric. 

Gata. A small stream or watercourse, 

Gataa > An itching or irritating 

Gatac gatae. J sensation in the throat, 
or month. 

KhoKte gatae gatae atkaredatS . When I cough 
I feel an irritating sensation in the throw. 

Gatagam. Perfectly still, hushed 

Gata^amko thirena. They were hushed into 

Gatagamenako. They are perfectiy stiU. 

Gatao.l To begin, to start, to deliver, 
Gotao. J or make over to, to accept, to 

Ni^ k%nid gotaoena. I have begun this work. 

Uni hor theue gataoena. He has begun to worl^ 

for tiiat mau. 
(Htaokadeako. They have made her oyer to 


Gatao. 1 To plait, to set bricks o?" 
Gathao.j stones in mortar to accept, 
to take. 

Olonte gathaoaka£ bhit. A wall built with the 
aid of a plummet. 

Iti do gota ato ren g^i gupi ill gataoakawana. 
I have taken the work of srrazinfir all the 
oowa of the Tillage. 

16 do noa k^miji gatao johkana. *I wish to get 
this work. 

Manoak^mi do jahae then gathaokam. Ai^ 
range with some one to do this work. 

Aotegenoa kathao gathaoakawana. He took 
"^ tke matter hp on his own responsibility. 

B^hu jor bojorko gataoadea. They compelled 
hun to marry. 

Gate» A companion, a fiiend, to keep 
company, to be friendly, 

Bako gateledmea. They did not make a oom- 
panion of you (did not take you with them.) 

Gate idilem. Take us with yon. 

Kukin 9^ikin gateka. These two are dose com- 

Gate kofa. Boy companion, boy companions. 
Gate kufi. Girl companion, girl companions. 

Gate ora uri. In company, along with 

Okoe badae dhej coe bacoe, gate ora urive 
calaoena. Who knows whether he will be 
able or not, he has gone off with his com- 
panions (to seek work.) 

Gathia. \Short of stature and of 

Bajar ga^hia./ youthful appearance. 

Gathia I ^^**y> ^ ^ T^iQce of wood. 

A^igathi^geanoakatdo. This log iafuU of 

Gati. Nodular limestone. 

Ga^ ciln. Lime made from nodulac 

Gawao. To lose. Cf. khuau. 

Adte|re jiwiye gawaoke^taea. He took his own 

Gawao. To know, to be familiar with, 

Ki^kore aboko sanambo gSwaoakaf^a. We are 
familiar with all round about here. 

A^im giwargea am do. Ton are yery stupid. 

Gawar gawar.lTangled, hanging in a 
Giwer gawar. j tangle, trailing, htmging. 

Qawi6. To beckon by drawing the 
points of the fingers to oneself. 

Gawi^adeae. He beckoned to him. 

Gawi6 fi^odak 

t 184 ] 

Gejei geje6 

Gawid godaK. To nudge or touch ano- 
ther ; to playfully touch each other. 

Gawi6 go<iatt baf aekanae. He is nudging the 
others aU round. 

Gaya. A capon. 

Gaya ganga. To perform the last rites 
for the dead. 

Gayam gayam. Sensation caused by an 
insect, &c. crawling on the person ; 
irritating sensation in the throat. 

Ckkjamga/am %ik^nKa. I feel an irritating 
sensation in the throat. 

Gayan guyun. Restless, slinking here 
and there, as a dog putting its 
nose into every thing. 

Seta gs^ah gnynh baf aekana. The dog goes 
sniffing about. 

Gayar guyur. One after the other, 
one to follow another. 

Hanko iora o<lok calaoenako eiiga hopon gayar 
gruyur. Yonder they have set out, the mo- 
wer and the children following one after 
the other. 

Gayeghore. Within ourselves, among 
the villagers, privately. 

Gaye ghorebon oabalekhan beskola. If we 
settle this among ourselves it wiU be weU. 

Gayo gapo. Feckless, fusionless, list- 

Balea do gayo gapo bafaegeae. 

Gayulc. To touch with the point, as 
of a sword. 

G%yuK tiyoKkedillam, neMe mayam. Tou touch- 
ed me, see the blood. 

G^yaKkedeam. Tou touched him, (with the 
point of your sword.) 

Gayum. To finish, all, the whole, 
stump and rump. 

G^yume jomkeda. He ate it all up. 
G^yum oabakedae. He finished the whole. 

Gayur gapur. Poor, badly clad, clad 
in rags. Cf gandur gapur. 

Gayur tapur. Hanging in tatters or 
shreds, as ragged cloth, or as 
thatch from the roof. Cf. garui 

p . * {• In com p. emphatic. 

Onko do bah nokoge. Not they but these. 

CalaKgeaA. 1 shall certainly go. 

Unig^ye dalkedea. It was he who struck him. 

Unige tho. It was even he. 

CalaKge bah sanaedekana. He does not wish 

to ffO. 

Bologe oae boloKa. He will not go in. 
He ge. It is even so, certainly. 
He ge coh P Is it not so P 

Ge6. To scrape out, to scrape oflF. 

Ged ge^tel^ jomkeda. I scraped it ofl and ate 
as I did so. 

Ged gayum. Scrapings and all, the 
whole, every particle. 

Ged g^yume idikeda. It (water) carried away 
every particle (of the embankment.) 

Ge6 g^yume jomkeda. He ate eveiy thing, 
scrapings and all. 

Ge6 gayu]^. Cf. ge6 gayum. 

Ge6 guild. To smear the floor, orv a 
spot of groimd with cow dung. 

OraM ge6 guri^kateko bohgaXa. They smear 
the floor with oow dung, and then oiTer 

Gai F (Short, stunted, undersized. 

(SWa (jlaiira. An undersized ox. 
Geda hop. A little man. 
Gi^i ^im%i. A little woman. 

Gede. A duck. 

GW^ p'JSmall of stature. 

Nui gi4n mara %im^i ^i eKgerae. 

Geijolc. Short, imdersized. 

Ge^oM mara hof . 

Gege tereii. A species of insect that 
moves in crowds. 

GegraA. C£ geran. 
Geh6£ geh6£. Hoarsely, speaking from 
the throat. 

GehS6 gehS6e rofa. He speaks hoarsely. 

GehSl ") Slow of speech, slow 

Gehfif gehef. J and mild of speech, 
and reserved. 

SenadiiSae, ^i gehe6 hof kanae. He came to 
me, he is very reserved, and slow and mild 
in speech. 

Geh6f gundur. Speaking continually. 

GehS6 gnndure eKgerkana. She keeps nagging 
the whole day. 

Geje pete. Heads and tails, topsy 
turvey, as fish in a basket; crammed 

Aema geje petem sambaoakafkoa. Tou hare 

filled them in topsy turvey. 
Sanamko mi€ o^aKre menaKlea geie pe^, hof, 

ka^a, mihfi merom. We are all in the same 

house, people, buifaloes and cattle topsy 


JegedSS } ^«'' ^^™P' '°<*^^*- 

Balbalte geje<^ gejo^ atkarottkana. It feels damp 

owing to perspiration. 
Of aK gejei gojoi iarkaoeutalea. Our house is 

damp through the soU being water-logged. 


[ 185 1 

Qene6 gene* 

Qejer. To break, crush, or smash into 

Gejer oabaena. It is ornshed to pieoes. 

Dal gejer. To break into piooes by striking. 

Lebe€ gejer. To trample to pieces. 

l^nr gejer. To break into pieces by falling. 
Capat ^jer. To thow at and break into pieces, 
fa^i gejer. To break to pieces, as by hallatones. 
Sobott gejer. To break to pieces bv a throst. 
Ku^m gejer. To break to pieces by blows, as 

from a hammer. 
Tlli gejer. To break to pieces by throwing 

^nes at. 

Gejet. Cor. of Gazette ; a newspaper. 
Gel. Ten. 

Oel mi€. Eleven. 
Gel barea. Twelye. 
Gel pea. Thirteen. 
Gel ponea. Fonrteen. 
Gel mSfe. Fifteen. 
Gel taroi. Sixteen. 
Gel eyae. Seventeen. 
Gel ir^l. Eighteen. 
Gel are. Nineteen. 
Pe gel. Thirty. 
Pon gel. Forty. 
MSregel. Ftfty. 
Tnrui gel. Sixty. 
Eyae gel. Seventy. 
Ir^l gel. Eighty. 
Are gel. Kinety. 
Gel khon pea. Thirteen. 

Gela. To try, to attempt. 

Jom gelatf. To taste by eating. 

Deo gelaff. To try to mount, or climb. 

Capai! gelaM. To try to hit by throwing at. 

S^n geMft. To go and try. 

I^am gelaK. To try to find, to search for. 

Don gelalt. To trv to jump across. 

Koe gelaM. To ask to see if it can be had. 

^u gelatt. To taste by drinking. 

Ehn gelatt. To offer. 

Sereli gelatt. To try to sing a tnne. 

Co6 gelal^. To try to learn. 

Gele. An ear of grain, as of rice, wheat 
&c ; to form, as ear of grain ; to 
flower, applied only to Indian com 
and the Matkom tree (4 v.) 

Gele belett. To ripen. 

Hofo gele. An ear of rice. 

Gohom gele. An ear of wheat. 

Bar gele gidr% eiigat. Mother of two children . 

Nes do matkom bah gelelena. The matkom 

(q. V.) did not flower this year. 
Hof o gele liwe€ena. The ears of rice are bent. 
Hofo nette geletta. The rice is about to shoot 

into ear. 

Gele bale. Eipe grain, children. 

Nukin do gele bale banuttkotakina. These 

two have no children. 
Qele bale tioXena, ohod senlena. I cannot go 

as the grain is ripe. 

Gele6. To scratch in earth, as a bear, 
&c, &c.; to excavate, as a tank. 

Geled bhugatt. To scratch a hole. 
Gelee ga^la. To scratch out a hollow. 
Set* doe gelei ga<laaka€a. A dog has soratched 
out we hollow. 

GemeA gemefi. Softly, gently, steadily. 

DaX ^tuK kana gemeli gemed . The water flows 

Gemer. To carry, to take away. 

Men, besokoote Ba^akarparomottpe, baiikhane 
gemerpea. Cross the Barakar river with 
caution, or else you may be carried away 
by it. 

Gemerkedeako. They took him away. 

Guric ko gemera . They carry away the manure 
(to the field.) 

Non^e sahauill doholeda^ okoe o6hko gemerkef- 
tif^a. I placed firewood here some one has 
taken it away. 

Gend. A ball. 

Gendher. To move while in a sitting 
posture the hands being employed 
to propel the body; to run, to 
scuttle, applied to birds of weak 
flight, as the peacock, partridge, 
quail, &c. that after a short flight 
run ; to change residence. 

Gendher gendhertegeye calattkana. He is 
moving along in a sitting posture propell- 
ing himself with his hands. 

Gendherte a'jiisaiigiliteyed^fkedacitrido. The 
partridge ran a long way after its flight. 

Nonde khon hanteye gendher ocoKena. He has 
moved his house from here to over thmre. 

Gendlan, A species of small fish. 
Gendlan. Small. 

Gendlah sim. A chicken. 

Nui gendlah do cefpe asen bafaedekana? Why 

are you carrying this little child about 

with you P 

Gendralc. A rag ; cloth. 

Hapele gendpatt baf alenge. Wait tiU we make 
(or procure) some cloth. 

Gendralc cethrak. Rags, tattered gar- 

Gendred. A rag, a piece of old cloth. 

Gendre6 em dapopaeme. Give her a piece of 
old cloth and let her go. 

Uen^uar. I Ogling for throwing stones. 
Gmguar. J ° 

Gened gene6. Natty, neat, trim, pretty 
and little. 

Noko merom hoponko lielottkana fiene& geneo. 

These kids are pretty little things. 
A<^i besem oleda geneo gene6 lleloKkana. Ton 

write very well, it looks neat. 

Gene6 gene6. Numerous, applied to 
children, and the young of goats, 
sheep, &c.; applied also to the 
movement of insects having many 
feet, as centipedes, &c. 

Gened genei merom hopon menatfkoa. 
Gegeteielk gant^ geneako oalatta. 


dene gene 

I 186 ] 


Qene gene. ^ With a nasal twang, 
Qhene ghene. / through the noee, us- 
ed only with " ror" to speak. 

Oene gvneye ropa. H« speaka through his noie 
(with a nasal twang.) 

Oengahi. To turn towards the right, 
to pass round at a distance. 

Geiigahitsye paromen%. 

Daf geiiii^ahite paromena hinbatege. The rain 

passed oyer in that direotion. 
(}ehgahite ^nrottme. Tom to the right. 

Gedjlan. Small. C£ gendlan. 
Oe6jor. Small, young. 

"Eken ge/ijorko he6akana, onko sohge do oeCem 
gsklmaraoa? Only yoong people have come, 
what talk ean yon have with them? 

C«6lekankom sapkelkoa P eken ge£ jof ho. What 
kind have yon canghtP they are only small 

Oenthe. Knotty. 

Ctonthegea oho hoelena. It is knotty (wood) it 
wiH not do. 

Geper. Reciprocal form of ger (q. v.) 

Ape do sid s%tap gepertegepe tahena. Ton 
keep biting each other the whole day (qnar- 

Ger. To bite. 
^ bitf ' } '^^ **^® • ^^ ^^^ ^'^^ *^® *®®*^- 

Ger bifenae, bae cha^aoKkana. He has taken 
so firm a hold with his teeth that he can't be 
made to let go. 

Oer go^kedeae. He bit and killed him. 

iier oreo. To tear with the teeth. 

<3er mayamkedeae. Ho bit him and drew blood. 

Geran. To groan. 

Ctorahedae. He groans. 

Geran hurud.\To /jroan, moan, bewail ; 
Geran harun. J piteously. 

Geraii hnrnii m% bafaf kanale, ohole kami 
dapelea. We are suffering grieyonsly from 
fever, we will not be able to do our work. 

<}erah hnruhe raKeda. He is groaning and 

Gere6 gerei. Unfolding, as a leaf from 
the bud, applied generally to lea- 
ves which are used as pot-herbs, 

Sid araM gere<^ gereo sagenoKkana. The leaves 
of the Sill afaM (q. v.) are unfolding from 
the bud. 

Gefeyom.lSmooth, to smooth down, 
Geryom. J as the hair. 

Up do nakii ge|^eyomme. Comb your hair 

. .Qereyom delolkantaes. 
Jal ge^eyomkedeae. She licked it smooth (a 

oow her calf.) 

Oersan girsin. To keep out of the way, 
to loaf about where there is no 
fear of getting any work to do. 

K^mi botoHe gersaii girsiii bafaekanae. 

Gerwel. A ring round the underside 
of the neck, said of birds such 
as the Ring dore, the Quail, &a 

Gun^ri doko gerwelana. Quails have a ring 
round the neck. 

Geser geser. Quickly, rapidly. 

Geser mente. | ^.^^ ^^ 
Geser marte. J 

Sukri geser marte he^ go^nae. Th6 boar 
came with a rush. 

GestahL Slovenly, of dirty habits. 

Nni gestahi mara hof datt h5 bah jut^uaea. 

Gel To cut. 

Qei kutr%. To out into pieces. 

Oe£ ^i. To cut off. 

Suknko gedekana. They are cutting up th9 

carcase of a pig. 
Noa h5 gedoKa. Tnis will also be out. 
Tolop khon barea t^tkako go£ke£tilia. Two 

rupees were cut from my nay. 
Up get gi^ikataeme. Gut off his hair. 
Qege€att bfnuKanaii. There is no cutting 


Getgete. In a line. 

(Jetgeteko tengoakana. They are standing in a 

C^etgeteko panteakana. They are in a line on 

one side. 

Gethia. C£ gathia. 

n i' 1 [To squirm, as leeches. 
Gewel gewol. j ^ 

Qewel marte/^ Ael gofkedea. I caught a glimpse 
of him. 

Ghac ghacao. To drag, to force to go. 

Or ghacghacaokedeako. They dragged him 

Ghac ghacaokedeaho. They dragged him alon^. 
Bohoe ghacghaoaokedae. He has finished his 

(rice) planting. 

r!u r Close together, thick. 

Ghacpacao. J ^ ' 

Ghacpacaokedako hofo do. They planted the 
dnan thickly. 

SK: iS^r. }« 8l>»i «"»'■ 
Ghag. Centre of a river or tank. 

gra- I j^ brass water pot. 
Ghagor. Shrewd, smart, scheming. 

Uni do ^ ghagor ho|r kanae. He is a very 
scheming person. 

Ohai. Opportunity, convenient time 
or place, at a disadvantage. 

Gh^irem tafaXlenkhan onte note sukri ar knlko 
hdko argona. If yon lie in ambush at a 
oonyenient place pigs and tigers also wiU 
come from all sides. 

Qhl^i ghfti 

[ 187 I 


Ghfti gh&i. 

Ohio gh&o. VTo snarl, as a dog, 

Ohfte ghfte. j 

Ofaii ghSiyofkaiMO-, seta- do. The dog is snar- 

Ohal. To wound, to subdue* 

Ghalghalao. To mortify, to spread as 
a malignant sore^ to waste, as 

Cei baior ooe |omki€ mthS ghaX ffhalAoentMa. 
What haa he eaten that has disagreed with 
faim, to make hie sore increttfie P 

BUtri imboro ghal ghalaoentaea. W» lunga 
hvr^ WMted away. 

GhaloK. A visit, exclusive of the first, 
a " re- visit." 

Ki» ghaloKte doe pe tekharkeda. Thia is his 
diird Tiait to rae. 

Ghama ghami. P^^iring, sweating. 

Ohama ghfmili k^mikana. I am working in 

Ghamand. Worry, multiplicity of 
things to attend to. 

^4i ghaman^re menaMkoa. They are in a state 

of worry. 
44i ghaman^red pafaoakana. I have many 

things to attend to. 

Ghamao. To exert oneself; to cause 
to exert oneself; to stir (me up. 

BnhederehS bae ghamaola. Although yon 
seold him be won't exert himself. 

Mi£ bar kathate bae ghamaola. A word or two 
makes no impression on him. 

Abo ohobon ghftnao darele^. We cannot cause 
him to exert himself. 

Nuidoe ghamao godoKa. This one is easily 
induced to exert himself. 

Ghamaota. Labour, exertion, toil. 

A6ak ghamaotateye cijakaCa. He has become 
' possessed of property by his own labour. 

Ghamrokot.l To toil, to labour, to labour 
Dhamrokot. J and toil. 

A4i ghamrokotte noa jaegati baaaoaka^a. I 
reclaimed this land with great labour. 

Ghane ghane. Repeatedly, time after 
time ; every now and again. 

Ghane ghane dakae khojkana. He is always 

aaldng for food. 
Ghane ghane ili (henem hijuKkana. Yon come 

to me time after time. 

Qhan ghuu. Indistinct in speech, 
nasal twang. C£ gadgun. 

Ghaii ghune reseda, nak^a hof do. 
Ghane doe serelia, ghane doe raga. She sings 
and weeps alternately. 

Ghadra. A cultivated leguminous plant, 
Vig'iia Catiang. 

Bb<ia ghaiira. \ 

Pan ghaiira. > Varietieaof Vigna CaUaih^ 

Cihfi ghahra. ) 

Ghanri. A variety of Vigna Catiang^ 
C£ gliai&ra. 

This yariety ripens in August-September. . 

Ghangri. A loosely woven doth, thinv 
as cloth. 

Ghangri. A skirt wont by little girFs. 

Ghani. The amount of rice put into 
the dhenki at one time; the 
anKKint of raw material put at 
one time into an oil press; the 
amount of grain put on the fire at 
one time to roast. 

Ghani. An oil press as used by Hindu 

Ghania. Perversely silent, pervei-se. 

Uni do ghfnif hof kanae. He is a perverse 

QhaAja ghadji. ") Crowded, to be crow- 
Ghadja ghu6ju) ded, over ci'owded. 

Pher merom aderlelio khanko ghalim gh^llji'- 
ako. If too many goats are kept in one 
house there will be over crowding. 

^^ko ghalija gh^lijigea, ohoboti bolo darelena. 
We will not be able to enter, the crowd is 
so dense. 

Ghai&jer. Of. gaAjef. 

GhaAjlon. ") To bag in the centre, aa 

Ghadjua. J a woven mattress ; to 

hang loosely as the wrappings of a 

bandi (q. v.) when the grain has 

been abstracted. 

Jom ghalijlobkedale noa b^ndi do. We haye 
eaten the bandi loose. 

Parkom reaK uphan^ dhillenkhanparkom ghali- 
jnt^Ka. If the bracing of the mattress be- 
comes loose the mattoess wiU bag In th3 

Ghanta. An hour, a large bell. 
Ghanta. To stir ; to row with an oar. 

OgoKa, j^hautae me. It wiU stick to the pot, 

stir lb. 
Ghanta algaome. Mix it by stirring (the heavy 

part with the liquid.) 

Ghanta ghanti. To stir about, to swirl, 
as water. 

Bae saph^kieda, ghanta gh%ntie€bona. He does 
not settle it, he keeps us going and oominjgf. 

Ghanti. A small bell. 

Boi^ga ghfnti. A small bell tied round the 
sk of a bullock. 





[ 188 ] 


Qbao. A wound, a sore ; to become a 

Qh^oKa. 1 " 'ill ''"»' ^^ » «>"• 

Bal ghaokedeao. He etruok and wounded him. 

Ghao. A cut or stroke with the 
broad sword or cudgel of which 
there are twelve. 

Behof ghao. A difficult siaroke. 
Dao ghao. Opportunity. 

Ghao ghao. To snarl, as a dog. 
Ghao jogao. To protect oneself, as, 

with a shield. 
Qhaose. To coax, to induce, to cajole, 

to entice, to persuade. 

Ghaose oalaoenae. He was cajoled into going. 
Nui do okakore ooiie ghaose llawana. 

Ghaose idikedeako. They coaxed him away. 

Ghawar. ) To fence, as crops, 

Paean ghawar. ) &c. ; to fence in 

Ghawapakme. Fence it. 

Faoan ghawap. A fence erected to prevent 

hares escaping when being driven to the 

Delabon paoan ghawafa. 

Ghar. Strait, difficulty ; a vital spot ; 
at a disadvantage. 

Gh^rrell llammea. I shall get yon at a disadvan- 
tage sometime. 

Khub gbarreil tuliledea, I shot it in a very 
vital spot. 

Ghar?! gharl. Sickening, strong and 
offensive, used only of smells. 

Ghafa ghaf i soKkana. It emits a sickening 

Gharaia. Belonging to one household 

or family. 
Gharana. Household; members of the* 


Gharanako besgeako, sebaii? Are the members 

of the household well, or nob? 
Bhage gharana ren hopon kauao. She is a 

member of a well-to-do (or good) family. 

Ghardidi. A small Tailor bird, Ortlto- 
tormLS siUoriics. 

Ghardi jawae.l A son-in-law who goes 
Gharjawac. J at his marriage to 
live in his father-in-law's house. 

Ghargharaia. ^ To unite two 

Ghar gharaia jorao. J families by 


Okakore gh^r gharaia menaKtapeaP Where 
are the families with which you are united 
by marriage ? 

>JinaK ko^a niualt kofi ghi^r gharaiali jorao- 

Ghargharao. To roll, as a ball; to 
revolve, as a wheel, or as a spindle ; 
to whir. 

Gharfiko ghaffi^afaoa. 

Ghar ghari. A pulley wheel. 

Ghar gharia. A very steep incline, 
steep ; slipping, rolling. 

Sagar ga^lido ghaf ghafif the? beaokodtepa- 
rompe. Take the oarfc carefully down the 

Ghar gustL Household, family; all 
the members of the household or 

Ghar gus(iko gosena. The family has died (with 

one or two exceptions.) 
Ghargustiko ru^Kkana. The whole family is ill . 

Ghari. A space of time ; a time piece . 

MH ghafi. A moment, a very short space of 

time, a little while. 
Mi6 gh^fite. Instantly, in a moment, witbont 

Iti gh^ri. This moment, instantly. 
Jeb gh^ri. A watch. 

Dhorom ghafi. A clock that strikes the hours. 
Hape, mi£ ghaf i. Wait a minute. 
Mic ghafiteyo he^ena. He came in a very 

short time. 
Iti gh^f ite hante idiepe. Take him over there 


Gharii. Cf. ghari. 
Gharmao. C£ garmao. 

Gharna. Mistress of the house, a wife. 

Ghamai A raft supported on empty 
earthenware waterpots. 

p. A'- > Household, femily. 

Gharra. An instrument for borinof used 
principally to bore holes in arrow 
shafts to admit the arrow heads ; to 
bore holes. 

Gharf ateko bhug^Kkeda. It was bored by means 

of a" gharfa. " 
Seiigel gharf ateko toda. They produce fire by 


Gharri. A machine for twisting twine. 

Toung men do not make the boles in the machine 
in which the spindles work, as it ia thought 
thoy will thereafter be subject to dizsi- 
noBS. Old men do the work. 

Gharwa. The sparrow, Passer Indi- 


Ghfls. Grass, all the smaller species 
of Cyperacece, as well as nearly all 
Graminece arer called "ghas." 

Dhobi ghas. 
S%ufi ghas. 
Sama ghas. 

Qhasa ghasi 

[ 189 ] 


"'-* '•'* ''■"'' ■ ■>■"' ■■-' 

Ghasa ghasi. Rubbing one against the 
otner, as people in a crowd. 

Ghasao. To rub, to scrape. 

Th^ ghasao saphaepe. Scrub the **th^'' 

Cot ootte tnl parompe, alope ghasao oooea. 

Lift it well over the top, do not let it rub 

against it (in passing over.) 

unasar. I rp^ ^^j^ ^^ scrape. 

Ghasar gfaasar.J ^ 

Ghasar ghasare g^nroKkana. Heisscrstohing 
himself with considerable force. 

Ghasar ghasar soQekana. There is a scraping 
(or scratching) sound. 

Ghasen. Among, in the midst of. Cf. 

Ghaser. 1 Anything and ever)rthing, 
Harghaser. J all kinds of people or 
things, indiscriminately. 

H^r ghasere jomkeda onateye ru^ena. He was 

not itareful as to what he ate, and so took 

Paiira afalSkato h^r ghaaerko atilla. When 

the ballooks are loosed from the yoke they 

eat eyerything. 
H^r ghasere idike^koa. Ho took away all 

kinds (of people.) 

Ghasi. A caste of Hindu shoemakers 
and hide curers. 

Ghasiara. A grass cutter. 
Ghasic. To break wind. 


Ghasghasao. To rub or slide along in 
a sitting posture, as down a steep 
rock, or as the wheels of a break 
van when the break is put on. 

Ghasghasao af goenae. He filid down is a sitting 

Ghaskao. To push or move along the 
ground, to drag along the groimA 

GhaskaoKae. He will push himself along the 

Ghaskao. To skulk off, from work, etc. 

Ghasmandao. Cf. gasmandao. 

Gharao, To drag or push along the 
' ground. 

Ghat. A way down to a river, tan k 
or spring of water ; a ford, a ferry ; 
a difficult pass through hills ; a 
narrow way of access from one 
place to another; opportunity, 
way of exit. 

Phohga ghat. I^he place whore the dhoziga (a 
dug-out) plies to ferry passengers across 
the river. 

DaK lo ghat. The way by which water is broughi 
up from a river, tank or spring. 

Laha gha^re jelko paromoKa, on<^e tSfaKpe. 
The deer wiU cross at the crossing far<£er 
ahead, lie in wait there. 

M5f S ghat khonle sap %g[uaka6mea. 

Ghate dam bafaeda. He is looking fbrUrn oppor- 
tunity (or way.) 

Ghat b^nuKtiiia. I have no resource. 

Ghat. Fault, crime, sin. 

Amatt iJl gh^t^^kaCa. I have sinned against' 

Gh^t ffun^. Faults, short-comings, crimes. 

Ghatad ghutu6.\ Many ascents and 
Ghata ghutu. j descents, as at un- 
bridged rivers, &c. 

Ghatal barhal. Decrease and increase, 
more or less, 

Ghatal saAj. Food exhausted, emer- 
gency, as when food is done and 
more can't be bought till the 
market day. 

Ghatal sa^jle ho^akana. We have come when 

there is no food. 
Ghatal sa/ijre k%mi ema. It wiU be of use in 

an emergency. 

Ghatamar. Furiously, a highwayman. 

Ghatamf rkin tapamkana. They are fighting 

Ghatao. To diminish, to become 
less, to lessen, to decrease. 

Ghatao Aind^. 1 a. m. 

Kulko ghatao idiltkana. Tigers are decreasing 

in number. 
Bare ghataoentaea. His strength ia diminished. 

Ghatdar. A person in charge of a toll, 
or a way by which timber, &c. 
are taken from a forest. 

Ghate ghat. At each pass, or way of 

Ghate ghat hof menalf koa. There are men at 

each pass. 
Kombfoko ghate ghatko ese£koa. They 

close aU the passes against the robbers. 

Ghatghatao. To aim, design; to be 
ready, as raising a stick ready to 

Ghat ghut. Rough; with many unbridg- 
ed rivers. 

Qhati. A fault, a shortcoming; to 
commit a fault, or sin. 

AmaKiii ghatiakai!a. I am guilty of a fault 

against thee. 
Gh^ti hof. A person who has committed a 


Ghati. Wily. 

44i gh^tie ba<ilaea. He is very wily. 


[ 190 ] 

Qhi ku&r 

Ghati. Deficiency, diminution, abate- 
ment, loss, decrease. 

^4i gh^tiko emottkana. Thej giro short (weight 

or measure.) 
Alom gh%^ ilia, em iiolalime. Do not gire me 

leas, give me a little mere. 

Ghati. The cross bars which keep a 
fish trap in position. 

Ghati barhi. Decrease and increase, 
more or less. 

Ghatra. From the side, sidewajrs, ob- 
liquely, to one side ; slanting. 

Ghatrateli dal liamkedea. I hit him by a side 

Dai do ghatra ghatr% hante oalaoena. The 

rain hifts passed over to one side. 
Pin^he ghatra idike^tiHae daX do. The water 

oarnedawaymy embankment beginning at 

one end. 

Gha^waL 1 A section of the large semi- 

Ghatwar. J Hinduised aboriginal caste 

of the Bhtiia, who in some places 

are the hereditary guardians of the 


Gh^uda. Many, as people; thick, as 
fridt on a tree. 

Oh%ud% then capa€ go^kaf me. Throw (your 
stick) where the fruit is thiokest. 

^4^ ghf uda ghf uda joakana. The fruit is rery 
thick on the tree. 

GhSulija ghauliJL 1^ Thick, as fruit on 
Ghau^jau. J a tree; to mud- 

dle or mix up ; muddled, as a state- 

Qh^utH^ gfafuUji khnb joakaat. The tree is 
laden with fruit. 

Gbf uHjf gfaaudjikedako katha do. They mud- 
dled the matter. 

A^i ghauli jf gbaull jige bujhf ulkana. It seems 
very mnoh mixed up. 

Ghece ghece. To drag, or pull when 
one holds back or is unwilling to go. 

Gheoe gheoeko or idikedea. They puUed him 
away (he holding back all the time.) 

Gheje beje. Without symmetry, any- 

Ki{ thc6 gheje bejeko durufiakan». They are 

sitting together anvhow. 
Gheje bejeko dohoakata. They have put them 

down anyhow (without order.) 

Gh6j mej. To confuse, to mix. 

Kathako ghejmejkeda. They confused Hhe 

Ghetij me6j. To confuse, to mix up. 

Kathape ghelij meiijkeda. You have confused 
the matter. 

Ghe6na[ l^P^^'^^'^S through the nose, 

Ghedne./ '^^' 

Gbeola. Movement of the waves on 
the sea shore ; ebb and flow, as of 
the tide ; to carry aloi^ with when 
receding, as the tide; to cause 
movement in water. 

Af erem tahenkhan am hSe gheola adennea. If 

you remain at the edge you wiU be carried 

away with the receding tidEe, 
AtuK daK do gitil h5 ffl^Ia idia. Flowing 

water carries sand also alone with it. 
DaK alope gheola bafaea, ale dalle lolege. Do 

not cause a morement in the wates until 

we draw our water. 

Gheora. A swiri in the Jiair on the 
body of an animal or on the crown 
of the head of a human being; 

DaK gheora ^ouzoKkana. The water is swirling 

Ghera. A rude kind of tambourine. 

This kind of tambourine is played only during 
the cold weather. 

Gherao. To encircle, to surround, to 
hem in. 

Ph^ko i^herao fcurkeda. The army surroun- 
ded it. 

Bimil gherao «curaka£a. The douds hare en- 
circled it. 

DaK do gotae p^wraoakaCa. The water has 
surrounded it. 

Gherao eseH. To close the ayenues of exit all 

Edreteko gheraoena. They were filled with 

He^ihesa. } Friendly, familiar. 

Amem heja ghesaakana onko tultt6. Ton are 
on fnenoly terms with them. 

Ghesrok ghesrolf. To move fi>rwarrf 
when in a sitting position on the 
ground. C£ gendher. 

Ghestaha, Cf. gestahi. 

Gh^t To tie up anj^hing in a cloth ; 
a knot on a string, &c. 

Taka poesa ghStkjate bale heoakana. We haye 
not come with money tied up in our 

Ghigrid. A species of lizard. 
Ghigya. \ 

Ghigya ghigyl VTo importune, to dun. 
Ghigyau. J 

Ona l^-gi^e ghigy^uKkana. For that reason 

he is dunning. 
Ohigy^ ghigyi baraekanae. He is importnninfr. 

Ghi kuar. A species of cactus Mrith a 
variegated leaf, Ytucca gloriaaa. 


[ 191 1 



I'll ^' 

Ohin gfain fik%nlk»iia. It ia dUgaBting. 

Ghiri^ With a swing of the arm, with 
the arm stretched out, to swing 
round, as one does a sling. 

Ohiri^tell dal damkedea. I hit him by stretoh- 

ing out my arm. 
Giii^ufr ghiii^kateko oapada. They swing 

the almg ronnd and round, and then throw 

the stone. 

Ghirn^. Disgust 

Gi^"" 1 ^^^®' ^^^ house-wife. 

Ghimi menaetaea, se bah? Has he a wife or not ? 

Ghiro ghoco. To push or pull a person 
who is unwilling to go. 

Ghiro ghoookediiiako. They poshed and pnUed 
me along. 

Ghitli. Short in stature, little, applied 
to females only. 

Ghiu chimbri. A common jungle clim- 
bing plant. 

Ghetma. M. ^ Short in stature, under- 
Gheimi. F. J sized. 

4^i do bae osnla, ghetmageae. 

Ghoce. Awry, wry, oflf the straight. 

Ghooe hotol. Wry neok. 
Ghoce ghooem roHtketdo. Ton hare made the 
hole off the straight. 

Ghogo. Big, strong voiced, applied to 

Ghogo gho. The note of a big loud- 
voiced cock. 

Gholao. To be cloudy, sun obscured 
by clouds. 

^4i din khone gholaoakaf a. There have been 
clouds about for many days. 

Gholta. To lie down in the dust, as 
one earnestly entreating another ; 
to roll in the dust. 

GholtaKkanae, ikakaeme. ni^ dhaobo dohoea. 
He has laid himself, m the dust, forgire 
him, we wiU oyerlo<^ his fault this time. 

Gholta ghulti. To roll in the dust, as 
children do. 

Noko gidr» do gholta ghulti bafsekanako. 
These children are roUing about in the 

Gholtao. To roll or tumble about on 
the ground, as a child, 

Sadom ghoItaoKako otre. Horses roll them- 
selyes on the ground. 

Qhonghor. A hole in the ground, in a 
rock, in a tree, &c. 

Ghonrao. To mix by stirring; to 
disintegrate ; to break down, as 
by flowing water. 

Pin<^he ghohrao idi oabakedae, daKte. The 
water ^sintegrated and carried away the 
whole of the embankment. 

Quf ko ghohraoa. They stir the raw sugar. 

Ghor. Butter milk, milk from which 
butter has been taken. 

Gh5ra. To carry a person sitting a- 
stride on the shoulder. 

Ma ffhSf aem. Come, carry him on your shoul- 

Gidr%d ^hOf &kedea. I carried the chUd sittiag 
astnde my shoulder. 

Ghoira lidi. A jungle climbing plant 
resembling a vine, Vitis tomen- 
tosa, Heyne. 

Ghoi*ao. To mix, to mix by stirring. 

Ghorao mH. To mingle. 

Ghorao. The change. produced in an 
egg by incubation. 

Ghorao bele. An egg which has undergone the 
change produced by incubation. 

Ghor bagi. A gig or any wheeled 
conveyance drawn by a horse. 

Gh5rce. Crooked, bent. 

Ghor cutia. 1 One who stays in the 

Ghor ghusia. J house, an idler. 

Ghor duar. Cf. oraK duar. 

Ghore ghore. Among themselves, our- 

Ghore fi^reko l^rh^i kana. They ave fighting 
among themselves. 

Ghori. Time. 

Mii! ghori tayomte. After a little whUe. 

Ghorkoma. Goods, property, chattels. 

Nun^K hoyottkantaerehQ enrehd bae ghorkoma 
daf eaka. Although he gets so much still 
he ean't collect any property. 

Ghoymucau. Cf ghurmuc^u. 

Ghoima.\A fence ; to erect a fence, to 
Ghoma.J fence in argument. 

A^i ghofnam lagaoe^kana. Ton are fencing 
(in argument.) 

Ghorna berna. A fence, to fence round. 

Besteye ghopia bernaaka€a. He has put up 
a good fence all round. 

Ghotao. To be fulfilled, to be proved, 
ta be accused. 

Unotna. 1 ^ event, an occurrence. 
Ghotona. J 

Bhf^ ghotona menatta, ar b%ri^ ghotona hS 
menata. There are pleasant eyents and 
unpleasant eyents also. 

Ghotret' jel 

[ 192 ] 



Ghotref jel. The hind of the Indian 
razelle, or ravine deer, OazeUa 
Beiinettii. Cf. badarsele^. 

Ghugra. Morris bells, a band of small 
bells tied round the ankles when 

Ghugri. A kind of insect. 

Ghugri ghao. A sore with a sinus. 

Gh ul ghul. 1 Close, oppressively close, 
Ghul ghulau. J air or breeze excluded ; 
to suffer for want of air. 

Koncle cedaKpe dohoakadea flrhQlghnlf uK kanaeP 
Why have you pnt him here, be is suffering 
from the closeness of the plaoe. 

Ohul ghul atkaroMkana. It feels yery hot and 

Potomlekhan jel h5 ghul ghul^ulta. If flesh 
meat be wrapped up it will sufC^r from want 
of air. 

Ghumghor. To be in a deep sleep. 

Ghumghorlenafi bati a^jomleda. I was in a 
heavy sleep and did not hear. 

Ghflra. A bow string made of hemp, 
&c. ; a piece of wood fixed on the 
neck of a young bullock to accus- 
tom him before the yoke is- put on. 

P5rcha. A bow string made of bamboo. 
AMko ghtifawatfa. They put a string on a bow. 

Ghura. The female of the " gundri " 
or quail, Tutmix Sykesii. 

Ghura ghuri. Going here and there, 
coming and going, wandering about. 

Ghur9 ghuri bafaekanae. He is going about 
here and there. 

Ghurai ultai. To bring up again, again 
and again, over and over again. 

TinaKem ^ela ghur%i ult^i P How often would 

you see it P 
Caba katha nui hof do ghurai ult^iy^e rofeda. 

This man keeps bringing up a matter that 

has been settled. 

Ghurant Circuitous. 

Noa hor do ^^i ghnran^a. This way is circuitous. 

Ghuraulc. Call of the gundri (q. v.) or 
quail, and the noise made by the 

Gun^riye ghurauKkana onte do. The quail is 

calling OTer there. 
Ayati biiiko ghur^uKa. 
It is belieyed by the Santals that the cobra 

imitates the or^ of the quail to attract it 

to its destruction. 

GhoS }to coil lip, to curl up. 

Baber ghurciena. The rope is coiled up. 
Sukri can(][bol do ghufoigea. A pig*s tail is 

Ghur ghur. A call to cattle to cause 
them to turn at the plough. 

Ghur ghurau. To stir, to swing round, 
to whirr, to revolve ; to cause to 
whirr or revolve. 

Ghanta ghurghuraume. Stir it round-and round . 

Hurl% ghurghur^uedae. He is swinging it 
round and round with his arm at full 

Ghuri. The next, returning. 

Ghuri bochor. Next year. 
Ghuri hapta. Next week. 
Ghuri ha^. Next market day. 

Ghuri Time. 


Iti ghufi. Instantly. 

fah. ghupte. In a moment. 

Mi€ ghuf i. A moment, a short time. 

In% ghufite. At that moment. 

Sanam ghufi. Always. 

Tah ghufi. The present time. 

Calatt ghufi. Time of setting out. 

Thopa ghuri. A little while. 

Ba^r ghufi. Time of returning. 

Behged ghufi. Time when hunger is felt. 

Ghuria. Again, next. 

Ado ^huria aJom hijuKa. Do not come again . 
Ghnria din. This time next year. 

Ghuria ghuria. Again and again, time 
after time. 

Ghuria ghuriie khojkana. He asks time after 

Ghuria kaete. Again, 

Ghuri ghuri. Time after time. 

Ghufi ghufim hijukkana. You keep always 

Ghurikaete. Again, another time. 

GhurikiMte hijuk hoyoM tama. Ton mustoome 

Ghuri phiri. To go and come again 
and again, to repeat, again and 

Ghuri phiri non^e ^cur baf ae kaaae. He keeps 
coming and going here. 

Ghuritek. A little, a little while. 

Ghupt<»k thiroKme. Be still for a little. 

Ghurkaete. Again. 

Ghurmucau. \ To seize by the neck 
Ghormucau.. j and shake, to seize an 

ox by the mouth and twist round 

his head to his shoulder. 

Ghurmuo%ukedeae. He seized it by the nottrila 
and turned its head round. 

An insect which lives 
in water.' 

This inseot keeps whirling round oontiniioiia^, 
and it is said that when it wants to rest it 
has to hold on to something witii its month. 

DaU ghumi 



[193 ] 


Ghumi. A whirlpool. 
Ghurni. Incubated, as an egg. 
Ghurni dano bonga. Name of a certain 
malignant spirit. 

Ghurpftk. To raise again a matter 
that has been settled, to swing 
round, to twist. 

Ghua A bribe. 

Ghnse jomedft. He takes bribes. 

Ghusa. To prod with the thumb passed 
between the fore and middle fin- 

Ghus^ghusi. To prod with the thumb 

Sassed between the fore and mid- 
le fingers. 

Gliii8% gliQBifredeae. He prodded him. 
Gbnsa gbnaienakin. They prodded each other. 

Ghusau. 1 To go out of the way ; to 
Gusau. J hide with a wish to shun or 
shirk work, &c.; to pass, as time. 

Bof ghnB^n. To make a slip in speaking. 

Dao ghnsau. To miss an opportunity. 

Okate coe ghns%aena. He nas gone sox^ewhere 

oat of the way. 
K%mld ghosankeda. I haye missed my chanoe 

to work (to day.) 
DaS ghns^nena, note bah he6lena. The rain 

has passed by, it did not come this way. 

.Ghus ghus. Internally. 

GhoB ghnse m^Kkana. He has ferer intemaUy. 

Ghus ghusau. ITo go here and there 
Ghus ghas. j in anger, 

Ghus ghns^n bafaekanae. 
Ghus ghnsan ^ouroKkanae. 
Ghus ghas bajrae kanae. 

Ghusiau. To enter humbly. 

Bolo ghosi^nenae abo the6. She crept into the 
hoose and keeps quiet. 

Ghusud ^husuQ. Quietly, without 

atS marte. }^'^'''^^y' ^i*»» * '^- 

Ohosnit marte o4ok gotenae. He mshed oat. 

Ghlit. 1 . 

Bes thik gh^t oraMko benaoakafa. They haye 

built a good ayerage house. 
Ghflt dare. An ayerage sized plant. 

Ghut ghut. Restless, to trip, as a child 
or dwarf 

Oiha% ghut ^^ ke^ gidr^. 

Ghut ghut. Middle-sized. 

Ghuir P [^'^^^ ^ stature, a dwarf 


Ghut mutia. Of middle size and stout. 

Khub ghut niuti^ juan. A well built, stordj, 
middle sised young man. 

Ghutni. A dal (g. v.) masher. 

Utuko ghutnia. They apply the * ghutni ' to 
the d%l ( to mash it. ) 

Ghutu. A mound, rising ground, bank 
Gi. Cf. ge. [of river. 

Giain. Knowledge. 

Gicho rani Queen Gicho, a name 
given to the earthworm who accor*- 
oing to the traditions of the Santals 
raised the earth above the water. 

Gid^ bandar. ' 

Children, little children. 

Gidar butur. 

Gidar gadar. 

Gidar pidar. 

Gidra pidta. J [angry. 

Gidgidau. To move quickly as one 

Gid^d^u he^enae. He came striding up. 

Gidi. A vulture. 

Sehgel gidi. The Indian King-Vulture, Olo- 

Sone gidi. Gf . sehgel gidi. 

B^ila gidi. The female of Ologyps caivuB. 

Gidi. To throw away, to cast off, to 

Jeref gi^i. To bum to get rid off. 

Ca^o gidi. To throw into water to get rid off. 

Areo gidi. To bale out to get rid of. 

U|> gigi. To throw, or pour away. 

Mafka g^di. To cleanse the hair. 

Bohoe gi4i. To rinse off. 

Jom ^)i. To waste by eating, or to eat to get 

rid of. 
Go6 gidi. To kill to get out of the way, to 

kin and throw away. 
Ti jahgare gidi^. To tlirow oneself at another's 

feet ; to beseech. 

Gi^i ore. Rejected, laid aside as un- 
serviceable, as cloth ; neglected, m 

De gidi ore emalipe, ladejohali. Do g^iye me a 
piece of old cloth, I will wear it. 

Nui gidi ore tahSkanae, ill geti joton saohS- 
kedea, b^pup^ ! This child was neglected, 
I took hiia in and oared for him, poor little 
^ thing! 

Gidi tol Thrown away as useless, to 
lay anything aside as imservice- 

Gidra. A child. 

Gidi^ joii. To be^t a child, or children. 
Gidrfko benaokedili«. They did not resi>eot me 

(treated me as if I were a child.) 
A4i dinren gidr% kanae. This child is older 

than he looks (said of backward children.) 

Gidri. Short, little, dwarfish, applied 
to females only. 



[ 194 ] 


-Ghf ^td,}^ species of lizard 

Gijgij. Close, oppressively close, hot 
and steamy, sweltering ; moist, 
wet body, perspiring and dirty. 

Udg»rte Rijgij «tkaroIl»n^. It feels dose 
owing to the heat. 

l)are but^re tahente besoKa, noa oraK do gru- 
gij ^Ik^uKa. It would be better to live 
under a tree, this hoose feels so damp. 

Gijri. Curdled, sour, as milk. 

Gijyi toa. Curdled mil^. 

Noa toa gij^iena. This milk is curdled. 

Gila. M oist, damp, iiumid, mushy. 

Daka gil»f a isin lahalenkhan. The rice wiU 
become mushy if over oooked. 

Oilapdar. Cf. giriptar. 

<lilas. A brass drinking vessel in shape 

of a tumWer ; a tumbler. 
Gilthi. A swelling in the groin. 

Gindra. A piece; to cut or break 
into piecea 

Mtki gin^i^ime. Cut the bamboo into lengths. 

Gin^uar bate. The jack snipe. 
<3in4war. A sling for throwing stones. 
Gidghyi. A lizard, C£ ghigri4 

Ma se gintikom. Come, count them. 

Gipiti6. The reciprocal form of gitid 
(q. V.) 

Qipitio sendra. A hunt which lasts a part of . 

two days in which vthe hunters camp and; 

^asB the night together in the open from 

which fact the hunt gets its name. 
Gipitiid ^hen. The place where the hunters 

pass thenight together. Of. gipitio sendra. 

Gira. A knot. 

Bapla gix^. The marriage knots, or the Santal 
method of intimating dlite of a marriage. 

Beyen or eight days be^re the date fixed for 
the marriage, seven, or eight as the case 
may be, knots are tied on a large number 
of strings, one of which, is sent to each 
family who is invited to be present at tbe 
jnamage. One knot is loosed each night, 
•and when all have been loosed the timo for 
tbe marriage has arrived. 

Knots on a stnng are also employed to keep 
accounts, each knot represontmg so much. 

Gira basi. To settle down. 

• • 

Koa disomrele p;ir^ b^iakana. We havasettled 

down in this country. 
B^u doe gir^ bf siena. The young wile has 

settled down (she no longer runs away.) 

Girgirau. To go round about, to move 
quickly, as one angry. 

Girgir^uateye he^ena. He oame rushing up. 
Hakoko girgirau bafaekana. Th fish are swim- 
ming round about. 

Gir-giran. To roll along the ground. 

Gif girf a calaWkana. It goes rolling along. 

Girhar. Trust, guidance, benevolence. 

Okoe girh^fte non^e dom berelakana? Under 
whose wing have you settled down here ? 

Giri. To cut through, as with an axe, 
saw, &c. 

Barabfirite f^ri goilkalhne. Out it equally. 
Giriaka£ko leka mit geko delottkanaj sipahiko 
do. The soldiers look all alike (m height), 

i'ust as if they had been out (to the same 

Giria. Obliquely, from the side. C£ 

Giri^teli maKkedea. I cut him down with • 
side stroke (fromthe left or ri^t.) 




Giriptarkateko idikede*. Th^y arrMtedand 

took him away. 
Giriptarolae. He will he arrested. 

Girja. To join in a religioug service, 
to xx>nauct a religious service. 

Girj^ oraK. A church. 

Teheiile girjf'Ka. W« wiU to-day 3oin in a reli- 

gious service, or we will obseive public 

Urn doe girj^bona. He wiU condnot tbe 

service'for us. 

Gmnit Cor. of " agreement " « tea gar- 
den term. 

Ale dole girmitena. We are under an agreement 
for a certaan number of years. 

Gimi. Wtfe, mistress of the house. 

To arrest, to apprehend, as 
by legal waiTant. 

Giroe goroe. 
Giyor goyor. 
Goroe goroe. 
Goyor goyor. ^ 

Following each other in 
a line, trailing, hang- 
ing masses, haziging 
down or over, as a piece 
of twine, &c. 

Mi€tege giroe |reroeko oalaXkana. They are 

going in a Ime one following the other. 
CKroe goroe '^turakana babor (k>. The string 

is hanging down. 
Goyor go^rorko padja idiedekana. They are 

following her in a long line. 
Dakre .giroe goroe seadom menaXa. There are 

long trailing lines of eealom (q. v.) in the 


Girosto. 1 A cultivator, a well-to-do £»- 
GiristL J mer. 

NiteK do girostoenam ado nonkam b^4^i bafa- 
eda. You have become weU-to-do now, and 
you are putting on airs. 

KitoK dom g^ostoen khan ^im dabaoe6ko« 
Now that you are well-to-do you are op- 
pressing them. 



[ 195 1 


Oiru. A kind of red ochre. 

Qiru. dhiri. A red ktone from whioh the 'grim' 
ifl prodaoed by mbbinff- Houses are de- 
corated with thifl oohre for the Dasae (q.T.) 
The fruit of the Mini baha (q.v.) is employed 
as a block to stamp figures on the walls. 

Gisii gisi6. Always, continually. 

GisitS gisi^e g^aroKkana. He is contmnally 

soratohing himself. 
Qin6 gisic^ roroftege tahenae. He is always 


Oiaii* mail* ^ 

Geser marte.; ® * ^ 

Geser martehe6 go^enae. He came quickly. 
Geeer geser bafae kanae \%i^9k do, The buifblo 
goes- stamping about.. 

Gita. A variety of the rice plant. 

Gita. C£ gitak. 

GitaH. A thin film believed to be on 
the tongue, generally on the 
under side, of a child at birth, 
which if not removed affects his 
power of speaking; an impedi- 
ment in the speeeh. 

Git^K^ dope dohokaKkana bapo- cabaeda^ Ton 
are leaving a part of the subject in obs- 

Git%M git%Kgeye sereda. He does not enunciate 
his wor& when singing. 

Uni gidra reaK git^tt oha^aokataeme. Bemoye 
Sie Am (git%X) from that child's tongue. 

Git git. Itchy, irritating sensation. 

<Ht git %ikauttkana. An itching sensation. 

Gitii. To lie down, to sleep. 

Dal gitij. To knock down by a blow, as with 
a stick. 

Cspaii gitio. To knock down by throwing some- 
thing at. 

Gitii bere€. To rise from sleep. 
Gitio thir.^ To Ue still, or quietly. 

2-« A J!r£* I Time when aU hare retired for the 

Alom gitijea. Do not lay it (child) dowiK 
]ii€ then gitiikatele tioga. We will pass one 

night on the way. 
Non<lele gitii^ ahgata. We wiU pass the night 

Gitie sarasftili. When aU hare retired for the 


Gitil. Sand. 

Ckt^a gitU. Biyer sand. 

Dhuri gitil. Mixture of dust and sand. 

Lemeii gitil. Fine sand. 

B ali gitil. ) Grains of magnetic iron resembling 

GitU b%U. > sand. 

GitiL To scour with sand, ashes, &c. 

Th^ lota gitiltabonme. Scour our brat a 
plates and cups. 

Gitil. An invisible insect said to burrow 
into the ^n under the toes during 
the rains. 

Gitil arak. A wild pot-herb, LeucoLB 
Tnollisaima, Bth. 

Gitil garl. An insect that burrows in 
the sand in river beds. 

Gitil ran. A common plant, Aniao^ 
ohilua camoaus, WaU, 

Gitlaha. Sandy. 

Giti^ha ot. Sandy soiT. 

Giwar gawar. Tangled, hanging in* a^ 
tangle, trailing. 

Men^ kicrid giw^r gawarem oref do. Look 
out, you are trailing the doth along. 

Giw^r gawar saalom. Trailing- tangled sea^ 

Go. M otfter, woman. 

Maraiii^ go. Wife's-elder brother or brothets. 
Jawao go. Son-in-law. 

GoalaJl The Hindu caste Goala j a cow 
Goar. y keeper, a cowherd. 

G5a5. To lose. Cf; gaofto; 

Adattiiwiye gSaSlekhan eef porho hoyol^taeaP 
What shall it profit him (if he gain the 
whole world) ana lose his own soul P 

Gobol. To subject, to be subject to. 

Eikga apa (hen bako goboloMa. They are not 

subject to their parents. 
A6 gobolke^koae. He brought them undisr 

subjection to himself. 
Okoe h5 bako gobol dafeakoa. No one is ablo 

to bring them to subjection. 

Goboria. Stout, but effeminate, well fed 
and pampered. 

Ch>boria hoj kanae. He is stout, but soft. 

Gobor mati. To finish, to destroy, to 
obliterate by smearing with cow 

Teheti knon gobor m^fikedabon, teheti khon 
alo{>e rof bafaea. From to-day we haye 
buried it, from to-day do not mention it. 

Gobrao. To manure, especially with 
cattle manure 


lAel go6. To see die or killed. 

Dal go6. To kiU by striking wi€h a stick, Ac. 

Ten go<^. To crush to death. 

Tuii go6. To kiU by shooting an arrow. 
Ku'tatn go^. To kill by a blow or blawa with 
a hammer, Ac. 

Phasi go6. To kill by hanging. 
]0^urgod. TokiUorbemedb^afaU. 
Matt go^. To kiU by shwhing with a sword, 
axe Sdo. 

tJnnm go^. To drown. 

Pe|er go^, To kill by twisting the neck. 

L'n goc. To strangle. 

Jom goi. To kiU and deyour. 


[ 19B ] 




€(er gt6. To kill by bitmgr, an a sijake.- 

Lo go6. To be burned to death. 

Capa€ goo. To kill by throwing something at. 

Ata go6. To be drowned, carried away by a 

stream and drowned. 
€k>po6. To kill eaoh other. 
Gogo6 hof. A killer, a murderer. 
Goo go6teA balioaoena. I waa at death's door. 
Qo6 balioaoepali. I was rerv nearly dead. 
Goo b^gia^leae. He died and left us. 
Goo gur. To die. 
Goi^ 8are5. To snrriye. 
Gq6 oalao. To depart this life. 
Qo6 ^dhi. To lessen by death. 

Gocha. To hold in the lap, as a child 
carries flowers in its pinnafore by 
makin£f it a bag. 

Gooha pereclenkhan kh^l^Kreko sambao hor- 
aea. When the lap is fnll tiiey pnt them 
(leaves from the tea bushes) into a basket. 

Gocha jaoraeme. Collect them in yoor pinna- 

Qoeo. A beard; the pistils of the 
flowers of Indian com, Zea rruiys. 

Baebar goco. A go-between » a negotiator of 

a marriage. 
Mooa goco. The hair on the upper lip. 
Kewa goco. A beard, hair on coin. 
Jon^ra goooena. The flower pistils of the In- 

dian com are protruding. 
Hako goco. Hairs on the mouth of a fish. 
Merom goco. A goat's beard. 
Sakwa leka goco haraentalea. We are greatly 


Qod. A climbing plant. 

S^j g<^'. } Varieties of the God plant. 

Qo^a. A piece of cultivated high land 
at a distance from the house. 

Goda. Elephantiasis ; swollen, sluggish. 

Goda ^odage iSeloMkana. It looks olnmsy, 

(said of the leg of a bedstead that has not 

been turned in a lath.) 
BejSe godae atkarof kana, hohoal h5 bae ali- 

joma. He is very sluggish, he won't answer 

when called to. 

Go<}a horo. Highland rice, a variety 
of the rice plant which is grown 
on high lands. 

OocjiaU. To touch one to call his 
Okoe go^aKkediliae. Who touched me ? 

Godao. To confess, acknowledge, ad- 

P^il doe godaokeda, nit do bae go^ao ocoaff- 

kaoa. He acknowledged it at first, but 

will not admit it now. 
IXdid lielledea, men khan nit do bae godao 

ocoaffkana. Isawiiim take it away, but 

now he will not admit it. 
Nunfk horkp talareye ]x>rkeda, menkhan nit do 

bae godao oeoaKkana. He said it among so 

man^ people, but wiU not now admit tkiat 

he did so. 

Qodel One of the officials of a San- 

tal village. 
Godetar. A call to oxen at the plough 

when it is required that they 

should turn in small space. 
God god, Sound of water falling or 

being poured from a height into 

Goijhe. To fondle the legs or feet of a 

person, as children and dogs do ; 

to beseech. 

Nui setajahgareye godhelkana. This dog H 

fawning on my feet. 
Am do otem b^gikeda, nitoK dom godhe baf ae- 

kana. Tou relinquished the land and now 

you are begging to get it back. 

Godhra. Thick, dull, listless. 

Bhale hope tahekana, naihatt do cekate ooe 
godhraena. He was a good man once, he 
now for some reason or another has beoome 

Nokohor reaM mon do godhfaentakoa. This 
people's heart is waxed gross. 

Godhro. Cf. godhra. 
Godo. A species of rat. 

Bhusgodo. The bandicoot rat. C?f. bhua. 
Mump godo. A small light grey coloured 

field rat. 
Dander go4o. ") This rat frequents the rice 
Khet godo. > fields and before the crop is 
T%ndi go<lo. J reaped lays up a store for 

himself in some conyenient hole. A maund 

of rice has at times been dug out of his 


Go<Jo go4o. Sound of water falling 
from a height into water ; a splash- 
ing sound. 
Go^oe godae. 1 At the heels of, follow- 
Gocjoe godoe. J ing closely. 

Gk>4oe godce pad ja baraedekanae. He is foUow- 
ing at her heels. 

Godoe godoe. Cf gadae gudui. 

Go(Jo]J> goijo^. Rhythmical, measured, 
as the sound produced when danc- 
ing to music ; or as the beating of 
a drum. 

Go^ot godo|)ko ene^kana. 
Godop go4o|>ko ruieda. 

Godor. ILong, flowing, applied 

Godor godor. [• to a beard and whis- 
Godro. J kers. 

Godroe |lelofkana, okoe ren merom boda coh. 
He has a very long beard, whose billy-goat 


Godor godor goco menaKtaea. He has a very 
long beard. 

Godor godor gocoe haraakafa. He has grown 
a long beard. 

Eken godor goko hataokeda. Only long bear- 
ded men have taken tiiem. 

GcMJl p^ri 

I 197 ] 




Qoi pari. To beseech, to entreat, to 
throw oneself down at another's 
feet to excite his pity. 

Am (hen go4 y^lt do ba& oalaXa. I will not 
go to throw myself down at your feet. 

Go^ p%rikateii %gakedea. I beseeched him to 
oome with me. 

Godro. Cf. godor. 
GSetha. Dried cow dung. 
G5etha lipi. The Ashy-crowned Finch 
Lark, Pyrrhvlavda griaea. 

G5ethasar. A variety of the rice plant. 
Goga. To spread a rumour. 

AufiaMteko gogakeda. They spread a false 

Gota disom ffogalena. The romonr spread orer 

the whole oonntry. 

QogoK. To wear a piece of cloth hanging 
from the shoulder covering the 
breast, by women. C£ bande. 

QogoM japaK. To wear the s^ orer the shoulder 

and hanging down in front. 
Auriye gogol japagoKa. She does not as yet 

wear a piece of cloth over her breast, i. e. is 

of tender years. 

Gogok. C£ goU. 

Goha. A witness ; to bear witness. 

0<^Kairan. '>jj, testify, to bear witne««, to 

Ce6 lagifem heiUkana? Gohalill heealcana. 
Whv haye you oome? I have come to give 

Qohako bhaiigaokefkotilla. They have tam- 
pered with my witnesses. 

Ck>hako pur^ukeda. They have given their 

Goha emoK bako tehgona. They do not agree 
to give evidence. 

Gohal puja. The Byre or Cow-house 
worship. It is observed on the 
second day of the Sohrae (q. v.) 
festival, and seems to be an ac- 
knowledgement of the services 
rendered by the cattle during the 
year's cultivation. 

Goher. Cf guher. 

Gohla guhU. Breaking out in one 
pU^e after another; as an epide- 
mic ; on all sides. 

Ale 4ih do 94i gohla gnhliye dalkeda. It 
rained in our village from all sides. 

Noakorege rog gohla gubli aour bajpaekana. 
Disease is breaking out in all directions 
round about here. 

Qohlao. To obscure, to spread, difficult, 

Ale then duk do gohlaoakana. Sickness is all 

round us. 
Noa katha do 9<ii gohlao bujhf uKkana. This 

matter is obscure. 

^ >Quiet, 


Gohle gohle. ^ 

Oohlehof do <lher do bako rofa. Beserved 

people do not speak much. 
Nui maejiu ^ohlegeye rora. This woman speaks 

very qmetly. 

Gohnao. ) To follow, to trace, to 

Gohna ghuhni | track. 

Eule gohnao barae^koa. The tiger is following 

Bugi ocoX l^gif uniko gohnaoedekan tahSkana. 

They were following him to be healed of 

their diseases. 
Gk)hnao idiedekan tahSkanako, sabea mente. 

They were tracking him to catch him. 
Sordar kuliko gohnao idikoa. The sardar 

foUows up the ooolies. 

Goho goho. Wmpt up so as to appear 
large, bulky. 

Goho goho oyoakanae. 

^4i marah goho g^ho oSfSkanae. 

Qohor. To drag, to draw along the 

pahrakokatkogohoridia. Bullocks drag timber 
(&om the forest.) 

Goja. A mixture, such as a Santal 
marrying a Kol, or Indian corn 
and rice cooked together, &c. 

Diku ar ho^kin gojaena. 

Goja. A stick sharpened at one end 
with which holes are made in the 
ground, striking the sharp end into 
the ground. 

Ooja goikedeae. He stabbed and killed him. 

Goja. To insert or push into intertices, 
as when loading a cart with tim- 
bed, smaller pieces being thrust 
into the spaces between the lar- 
ger pieces. 

Gojra. Sleepy-headed, obdurate. 

liaraii gojf a hop kanae. He is a great sleepy 

l^ui gojra mara hof . This consummate slug- 


GoK. To carry on the shoulder; to 

GoK idi. To carry away on the shoulder. 
GoX ^gu. To bring oarirying on the shoulder. 
Orattteko goX ^gwedea. They brought him 
home on tiieir shoulders. 


[ 198 1 


iraK. J 

A store-house. 

Gokhla. To speak against one. Cf. 

Cet anioK dbm gokhlaet tahSkana? What were 
yoa saying against him P 

Qokhla janum. ") A plant furnished 

Gokhula janum, J with spines, Jffy- 

grophila apinosa, T. Anders. 

Gokhna. To give a by-name to, give 
a name to, make fun o£ 

Gtokhnakedeako. They have given him a nick- 
Hapf amko ce6lekak6 gokhnakefbona. 

Goksahan. A veiled tenn meaning to 
bum a coipse. 

Dehibon ho goK sahan Hafmae go^akaoa. Come 
to assist at the cremation, Hai^ma is dead. 

Gol. Round, spherical. 
Gol. To whistle. 
Gol, Cf. got 

He^ golonae. He came at once. 

Bor golakome. Speak to them plainly. 

Gola oralc, 

Gola. M.l Brown, reddish brown, applied 
GulL F. / only to cattle and goat& 

Gola boda. A brown he-goat. 
Gnli merom. A brown she-goat. 

Gola. The neck, the throat. 
Gola. Employer, master, owner. 

Mai 4&hra ren gola okoe kanae? Who is the 

owner of this bollock P 
lii ren gola kantiiiae. He is my employer. 

Gola gamcha. To assume a humble 
attitude of entreaty or submisson. 

Gola, the neck and gamcha, a piece of cloth two 
or three yards long. The doth is put 
ronnd the neck and the suppliant holds it 
in front between his hands jomed in suppli- 

Gola jambra. To explode^ an explosion 

Gola kanta. Malignant sore throat or 
swollen throat, a disease which 
affects cattle ; tonsillitis, &c. 

G^iko ^la kantatfa. Cows are subject to 
malignant sore throat. 

GolaK solak. C£ gala£ solal 
Gola orak. A store house. 

Golftt ■> An exchange of daught- 

GolUt bapla. / ers for marriage to sons. 

Golati. A kind of marriage. 

Two families each haying a marriageable son 
and daughter, each marries his daughter to 
the other's son. This is a conyenient form 
of marriage as, as a rale, presents are 
dispensed with. 

Golki marie. Cf. gol mario. 

Golmal. ■) Disturbance, tumult, con- 
Gulmal. J fusion ; to make a distur- 
bance, tumult, &c. 

A^i golmalaka^ako. They haye made great con- 

Kathako golmalkeda. They confused the 

Ona atote alope calaKa adi golmalakana, ^ 
horko gujuXkana. Bo not go to that yiUage 
things are out of the usual, many people 
are dying. 

Gol marie. 1 t>i i. j 

Golki m^c. j ^^"""^ *"• ™"°^ P^PP*- 

The pepper-yine, which yields gol m^ric -Pmmt 
nigrum, is largely cultiyatea in South In^. 

Golokpuri poesa. "> Gorakhpur pice, a 
Golopuri poesa. J dumpy pice. 

This is the old Indian pice which is simply a 
piece of copper a certain weight but of any 

Golpo. A story, prattle, tattle, chit 
chat, small talk. 

Hor horte calaK tulu6ko golpo iohkana. They 
indulge in smaU talk as they wa^ ^ong 
the road. 

GolwarL A kind of dance. 

Golwari rar. The air sung when danc- 
ing the Golwari dance. 

Golwari sered. The songs sung when 
dancing the Golwari dance. 

Gom. A cultivated fruit tree, the 
Bullock's heart, ATuma retictdata 

The fruit which resembles a bullock*s heart in 
shape ripens during the latter part of the 
rainy season. It is eaten by the natiyes, 
but rarely by Europeans. 

Gomao. C£ gamao. 

Go medak. ^ A gem or precious stone 
brought from the Himmalayas. 

Gromke. 1 A wife, mistress of the 
Gomket. J house. 

JawSe gomket. Son-in-law. 
OraX gomket. Wife, mistress of the the house. 
Nui do okoe hoyoXae P Id gomked kanae. Who 
is this P She is my wife. 

Gk>mosta. An agent. 
Gon^a. A set of 4. 

Bar gon4a poesa. Two annas. 

Gongla. Out-lving hamlets of a village, 
suburbs of a town ; out-lying fiekls 
of a village. 

G& gondape dafana. You yisit yillagee and 
their out-lymg hamleto. 


[ 1»» 1 

Oopal bbog 

Gonial. C£ ataljjondal. 
Gon^ogol. Din, tumult, disturbance, 

Oon4ogolko lagaokeda. They are making a din. 
Kathako gon(Jogolkeda. ThBj haTe oonf used 
the matfter. 

Gondhok. Sulphur, brimstone. 
Gondor gondor. To mutter, to speak 

in low tones ; low growling, as of a 


Gondor gondore eKgerkana. She is scolding 

nnder her breath. ^ 

Gondor gondoroKkanako oTalf bhitnre. They 

are talking inside the hovBe. (Sound heard 

but not the words.) 

Gondrao. To growl ^r snarl, as a tiger, 
leopard, dog or cat. 

Snlko, t^rupko, setako ar pnsiko gondraotako. 
Tigers, leopards, dogs and cats snarl. 

Qon. To answer wben called to. 

HohoadeaA, bae gohledilSa. I called to him, ^e 

did not answer. 
Goiikedeaii. I answered him. 

Qon. To give a daughter in marriage. 

Gohkedeale Ma^jhi opa^e. We gave her in 
marriage to a member of the Malijhi's 

Bale knsUente bale gohledea. We were not 
satisfied and therefore did not give her in 

Onkoko baplaKkan arko gohe^ko tahekana. 
They were marrying and giving in marriage. 

Gk>nga. Dumb. 

Qongha. The shell of a water snail, a 
water snaiL 

Tan^li goiigha. A dry land snaol. 

Qonghor. A hole, a cavity. 

Bhog^l^. A small hole. 
Ghonghor. Larger than bhng^V. 
Dander. Larger than all, a cave, a den. 

Gongo. Father's ^Ider brother or bro- 
thers ; younger brother's or bro- 
thers' children. 

Gohgofi thenid oalatfa. I will go to my father's 

elder brother's honse. 
Hoako gohgoli tekoii idiakokana. I am taking 

these to my yonnger brother's children. 

Son of 

Gtohgoli kof a. 

OJ. W&VWUV.K w w....i». w— . 

my yotinger brother or 

GohgoA kuri. Daughter of my yonnger bro- 
ther or sister. 

Goigot koya. Sen of hisyounger brother or 

Goiigot kufi. Daughter of his younger bro- 
ther or sister. 

Goiigom koja. Son of thy younger brother 
or sister. 

Gohgom kuri. Daughter of thy younger bro- 
ther or sister. 

Gofigo salaka. A deal (q. v.) cloth 

Siven by the bridegroom to the 
ride's (aunt) gongo (q. v.) 

Gongrol Hoarse ; to become hoarse. 

Serel^ serelSteli ^oh^n^ofena. I have become 
hoarse with singing. 

QoAja gudji. Cf. ga6ja guAji. 

GoAjao. C£ galijao. 

QoAjao. To lay past, to store up, to 

Doho go^jao. To hoard. 
Bebe{ goiijao. To stick into someihing, as 
thatch, to keep safely. 

Bolo gotijao. To hide inside. 

Bae goiijao. To put past. 

Topa goftjao. To bury for safety (treasure.) 

Sen golUao. To go and remain. 

Okarem iiamleda P Doho golijaole^ tab^kanad. ' 
Where did you get it? I had laid it past. 

No)a^eli bae goiijaolef tahSkana okoe coe idike£. 
I laid it past here, some one has taken it 

S%fimre rebef golijaokalhne. Stick it into the 
(thatch of the) roof to keep it safely. 

Sen goUjaoakanae. He has gone and is staying 
viere (as if he had been put in store.) 

Gonok. A piece of cloth thrown over 
the shoulder and falling down 
over the breast and tucked in on 
both sides to a piece round the 
waist. Worn by women. From 
goK (q. v.). C£ gogok under bande. 

Gonok. An astronomer, an astrologer. 

Gonon. 1 r^j^^ • ^ -^ f^^ ^ y^^^^ 

Gononpon.J *^ ^ 

The amount paid ae gonoh varies from three 
rupees to twelve rupees, the higher sum, 
however, being ver^ seldom given. Betum 
presents are made in proportion to the sum 
paid as gonoh. 

Gonon toraoni. Return presents made 
by the bride's father to the bride- 
groom's party. 

These presents vary in value according to the 
price paid for the bride (gfonoh, q. v.) but 
when the lowest rate of gonoh, tiiree rupees 
is paid no return presents are given by 
the bride's father to the bridegroom's 

Gonto goto. \ 

Gonto gotor. I One after the other, in 

Gonto goyo. J Indian file. 

Gonto goyor j 

Calaoenako gfonto goto. They have gone off 
in Indian file. 

Gopal. A variety of the rice plant. 

Gopal bhog. A variety of the rice 


[ 200] 



Qopca. A method of carrying small 
articles tied up in a clotb and 
swung over the shoulder. 

The artioles to be carried, whioh are generally 
sacli as wUl be required on a short journey 
or food when out on a hunting expedition, 
are tied up in one end of a oloth, which is 
thrown over the left shoulder hanging down 
behind. l*he other end of the cloth is pas* 
Bed under the left arm, over the bundle, to 
keep it in position, and brought round under 
the right arm to the front and tied there. 

Qopha of. A species of edible mush- 
Qopon. Reciprocal form of goA (q. v.) 
Ooporo. Reciprocal form of goro (q. v.) 
Gor. DiflSculty, strait. 

Gorred pa|raoaluuia. I am in a difficulty. 

Gom palton. } ^ European soldier. 

Qora. The refuse of matkom (q. v.) 
from which liquor has been custil- 

€k>rako gi^iakafa, ka<la emako 1^€ ^guime. 

Gora. A cow-shed, a cattle-shed. 

G%i go^a. A cow-shed. 

Goras. To receive and supply what is 
necessary to one in want or in 
distress ; to coax. 

Qoras saohikom. Beoeive and care for them. 
GK>rase€koae. She thinks of and provides for 

Do goras ^guiepe. Go and coax her to come. 

Gordon. Cf. gardan. 

Gordon. Thick-necked. 

G5r6. A pannier, a bag slung across 

a bullock's back, one on either 

G5r6. A common forest tree, Stephe- 

gyne parvifolia, Korth, 

Gorhon. To carve, to engrave on wood 
or metal. 

Gofhon mutban. A grayen image. 

Bese gof honaxafa. He has canred it well. 

Gorhoni Chronic dysentery. . 

Gorkha guli. Ball or pellet of dried 
or burnt clay about the size of a 
marble, to discharge from a bow. 

Gorkha aX. The bow by which the gorkha 
(pellets) are propelled. 

Gorla setae he^ bafala. A striped dog comes 

sometimes. ~ 
Gurli merom. A striped or streaked she-goat. 

Gormi. Gonorrhoea, or any otbek* 
urethral discharge. 

QoTo, To assist, to accompany. 

Kami gofo. To assist in work. 
Tnl gopo. To assist to lift. 
Em gofo. To assist by ikying. 
Gitic goro. To sleep m company with. 

Goro gojo sohgeaeme. Qo along with him. 
Jom goroalime. Eat along with me. 
Khube kami go^oadil^a. He assisted m« great- 
ly in my work. 

Gorob. Proud, conceited, &istidiou& 

Nui do %4iye goroba. He is very proud. 

Am dom g^oroboKkana. You are becoming 

Jom gorobenae. He has no desire to eat (baTin^ 

bisA a surfeit) Seottioe, He is Btawed. 

Gorobia. Proud, conceited, fieistidious. 

A^ gorobia hor kanae. He is a yery conceited 

Gorob. The foetus. 

Ck>robe gi^ikeda. She miscarried. 

Gorob homo. Pregnant. 

Gorob hofmo menaea. She is pregnant. 

Goroeya. The divinity who is supposed 
to preside over the cattle shed. 

On the second day of the Sohrae (q. y.) festiyal 
oftering*s are presented to Gtoroeya in the 
cow-shed by each family. 

Goroj. Need, occasion, want, necessity, 
wish, intention, interest. 

Ogoroj. Haying no want or necessity. 

AmaK goroj menaKkhan calaKme. If yonr 

neoessify requires you to go. go. 
Jom reaK goroj b^nuxtilia. I haye no desire 

to eat. 
Ce{ goroj h5 bail lagaoaekana. It is no intereat 

of his. 
Iili6 sae %zkA reat goroj menaltilia. I haya 

need of one hundred rupees. 

Goro goro. Cf goro. 
Gorolc gorok. Incessantly. 

GoroK goroKe hohoallkana. He keeps oontinn- 
aUy calling to me. 

Gopom. Grand, as in grandfiither, 
grandmother ; grandson, a name- 

Gofom ayo. Grandmother. 
Gof om kora. Grandson. 
Gofom kuii. Granddaughter. 
Goromte€ haram. The grandfather. 
Gofomtef bu^hi. The gfrandmother. 

Goromiii. My "grand" (either son or dau- 
Gofomill kora. My grandson. 
Goromiii knfi. My grinddaof^itter. 

Gorom. Warm, hot. 

A^i gotfoma. It is yery hot (the weaUier.) 

Qorolij gotoA) 

[ 201 ] 



Goroi^ gon>AJ* Ii^tense, applieid to dense 
dark clouds, and also to the bright 
afterglow of sunset and the efful- 
gence of sunrise. 

GoroiSj grorotij daffe nnSnakafa. 
Gorolii gorodj aral rimilerakapakata. Inten- 
sely bright donds liaye risen. 

Gorsor. Emergency, diffictflty. Of. gar 

Qortor56. To add to, to introduce 
extraneous subjects into a discus- 

KathaalopegortorOJa. Do not introdnoe ex- 
traneooa subjeotB into the disoossion. 

GosEe. A religious sect of Hindus. 
Gosfte. A general name given to "boA- 
gas " (q. V.) 

Teheli id goeae gosSeolkana. I am engaged in 

•acriiloing to-day. 
Jngi Goeae. A oaste of Hindus who make and 

aeU donu (q. y.). The doraa are of tassar 

silk thread. 

GosSe era. The goddess of the Sal 

Gose6. To pick vermin from the head. 

Qoposej. To perform the serrioe for each 

Goso. To wither, to dry. 

Kaen4eatf gotiekhan goso beleako. If they 
plnok nnripe fruit they keep them tiU they 

Goso noroX. To wither and fall off. 

Nni doe gosoena. He has beoome withered. 

Gosoi. Of dirty habits, dirty, slovenly. 

Nni goso^ marSho|r hofmo h5 bae hehgata. This 
dirty rasoal wUl not clean his person. 

Goeo isin. To cook over a slow fire. 

Goso iainme. Cook it oyer a slow fire. 

OrdgosoA.} To Mow after. 

Cet lagifem p)9oh, baraedekaaaP Why do yon 
follow after him P 

CjiOsre I 

Ghosre./^^^' sluggish, careless. 

Marsh gosfe hofkanae. He is a great alnggard. 

Gosf e. Of dirty habits, slovenly. 
Ooi. To gather or pluck fruit. 

Ghfthgra godme. PlncK ghahgrs (q. ▼.) 

Ul goi %gnime. Plnok and bring some mangoes. 

Q^ > Instantly, quickly suddenly. 

He6 godoKme. Come without dday. 
Sen go€enae. He went at onoe. 

Got. 1 Another name for the Soh- 

Got puja. J rae festival (q. v.) 

Got oaole. Contributions of rioe ooUeoted from 
eaoh family in ft village for the purpose of 
manufacturing rioe beer with which to cel- 
ebrate the got puja or Sokrae. (q. ▼.) It is 
drunk on w day on which they bathe. 

€k>t gfi. On the first day of the got pnja or 
Sohrae (q. y.) in the evoning all the cattle 
of the "Village are driven over an egg and 
the animal which treads on it or smelLs it is 
called the got g%i. 

Oct h%ndi. Bice beer manufactured from got 
oaole (q. v.) and consumed on the first of 
the got puja or Sohrae (q. v.) festival. 

Gotsim. Fowls ooUected from the villagers 
one from eaoh family for sacrifice at the 
got puja <» Sohrae (a. v.) festival. These 
are sacrificed on the Ist day of the festival. 

Got. The place where cattle are 
collected at mid-day. Cf. ada. 

Gota. The whole. 


Gota ofatf . The whole house. 

Gota atoren hof. The people of the whole 

Gota talako boloena. They went in to the 

very centre. 

Gota. To decide, to settle, to prove. 

Bale gota dafeaMa. We cannot come to a 

GotaK leka do bah ^ik^Mkana. It does not 
seem as if it could be proved. 

Gota guti. Principal, adult, full grown. 

Gota guti katha olakana. The principal facta 

are recorded. 

Gidi^ko do alope emakoa, gofa guti hofko 
joma, onkoko p^^luKa. Do not give to 
children, gfrown up people wiU eat it, they 
(the children) will become grey haired. 

Gotanalc. A whole one. 

€k>tanaKe idikeda. He took away a whole one. 

Gotan.^l Used with numerals, also with 
Gote6. y 2, 3, and 4, when 
Goten.j reduplicated. 

Mi{ gotahe emamrta. He gave me one. 

M5rS gote6 hofko tahSkana. There were five 

Babar gotah. Two each. 
Pepe gotah. Three eaoh. 
Popon gotah. Four each. 

Gel goten do bape saphalenaf are go%e6 doko 
okaena P V^Tere there not ten of you cleans- 
ed P where are the nine P 

Gotao. To thread, to string, to put 
into, as a sword into a sheath ; to 
insert, as an axle into a wheel ; 
to thrust into, as the tang of an 
arrow head into the shaft. 

Suire sut%mko gotaoa. They tiiread needles. 
Tarwaf e bokharre gotaotun. Put up thy 
sword into its sheath. 

Churi reaX bar^gi (Jan^omreko gotaoa. They 
insert the tah of the knife into the handle. 

Gotao.\To begin, to start, to engage 

GataoJ in. 

U&i •M>teii gotaoakaiift. I am engaged along 



[ 202 ] 



Gotao. 1 To collect cattle at mid-day 
Qothao.J resting place. C£ goth, and 


d^iye gotaoaka€koa. He has oolleoted the 
oatue into their mid-day resting plaoe. . 

Gothao jarwaenako. They are oolleoted at the 
mid"di^ resting plaoe (oattle.) 

GotaraK.}^^^^®' unsplit, as a pea, &c. 

D^l do b^nulon, gotafatt menala. There are no 
split peas, there are whole ones. 

Gota tandi. Every where, all round 

Qota tan^iye doKkanrehS enrehS bae ^sbIoK- 
kana. Although he ploughs aU round 
about Btill he does not make a living. 

Goto. Wry, out of line, as holes made 
'from two sides not meeting exactly 
in the centre. 

OekaJtaA? Hoca gotela. What will happen 
to me P Tour mouth will become wry. 

OeCleka bam roKkefP gotegea. How have you 
bored it P It is wry. 

Gote. A gregarious bush or small tree, 
Croton oblongifolius, RoxK 

Gote. "^ To twist the mouth and 

Gote gore. J turn awaj? the feoe in 
sulky ill-humour. 

ClaKem gote ba^ae kana? Why do you turn 
your face away sulkily P 

Goth. The place where the village 
cattle rest at mid-day. Cf. ada. 

Ooth («n<}i. Of. a<la t^n<}i. 

Gothao. To collect cattle together 
for their mid-day rest. Cf. goth, 
and gotao. 

Gotle. Wry, oblique. 

Noa oraK do go'tleena. This house is off the 

Gotlegem katkeda. Tou havo built the waU 


Goto. Past. 

Ck)to bochor. Last year. 

Gotod. To add to, to increase in length, 
as a rope. 

Noa katha dope goto^af do. Tou have added 
to this matter. 

Gotom. Clarified butter, gr/a. 
Gotor. To spread, applied to fire. 

Men, sehgelpe gotor oooea. Look out, you wiU 

allow the fire to spread. 
BirloK jokheo seiigel gotor oalaXa. When a 

forest is on fire the circle of it widens. 

Goyalc. To be daubed with soot, soot 
on the face or clothes when hand- 
ling cooking pots. 

Oeka goyaXen bae ? How has she got those 
black daubs of soot on her face? 

Goyon. A ti'ac^ made by rats; a track. 

Can^bolko or idia, ar onate goyonoKa dhurire. 
They drag their tails on the ground and so 
make a track in the dust (rate.) 

AmaX goyonteko he^ idiena. They haTe 
foUowed in jour tracks. 

^y''^ . Ito follow after. 
Goyon goyoij. J 

Tayom tavomte goyoh patlja bafaedekanae. 
He follows her wnereeyer she goes (a child 
its mother.) 

Grostali. Household, family. 
Gua. The Areca nut, or Betel Palm, 
Areca catechu, Linn, 

Gua Hembrom. A sub-sept of the 
Santal sept Hembrom 

Gua C5r6. A sub-sept of the Santal 

sept CSpe. 
Gua guli. A small forest tree, Erio- 

loena Hookeriana, Boxb. 

GubE A small bag, a beggar's wallet. 

Gubri. The contents of the stomach 
of a sheep or goat. 

Gubud gubu(J. Soimd of beating of 

Oubud gubu^ko lagaoakada. 
Gubu4 gubu4 sa^ekana. 

Gucau. To finish, to dispel, to destroy. 

K%mi guc^u gofkaffme. Finish ofiF the work. 
DakaH jom guo^ukeda. I have eaten aU the 

Saname guc^uke£tabona. He brought it aU 

to an end. 
Bine guc^ukeda. He cleared off the debt. 
Guc^ukedeako nitotf do ohobon danUea. They 

haTe put him out of the way, we wiU not 

find him now. 
Binul guMc^u oaado. The cloud dispelling 


Guchl Straw from which the grain 
has been trodden out by cattle, 
and afterwards so drawn out as to 
lay it lengthwise. It is then 
tied up into small bundles; a 
small bundle. 

Mi€ guchi sakam. A small bundle of leayes. 

Guda gudi. To strike each other with 
the heel of the fist. 

Ou^^ gu<}i enakin. 

Gudau. To strike with the heel of 
the fist, to thump. 

B^ndiko gud^na gxi^ii^te. They thump the 
b^hdis (q. t.) with a gu^na or club. 

Gudau. To hop, used in the children's 

game of katL 
K^ ene^reko gu4^ukoa. 

Gu4au cne6 

[ 203 ] 


Gu^au ene& A game played by chil- 

Gudgui ")To rumble, as distsmt 
Gu^ gudau. J thunder or as a rail- 
way train in motion, roaring oi a 

Bel'g94^i gvL^ gQ/^. 8a<lelcaiia. The railway 

tram makes a nunbluig noise. 
Bimil ga4 gn^^xiltkaiia. Thander is nunbling. 

Gud gud. \The noise made by a 
Gud gudauk. / strong wind, the roar- 
ing of a tempest. 

Hoe ffnd gnd^nlHiaiia. The wind is roaring. 
Oral&a ^d gadan boloena. The wind came 
roanng into uie house. 

Gu^i* A kite. 

Gu^ia gudyi Together, in company, 
with fun and frolic. 

Ga4i% gn^Lyiko calalkana. They are going in 

Obf ooh noko go^tia gn^yiko calalkana ? Why 

are they going together. 
Kokin do ga^^ gn^yui lieUeindna. I saw these 

two going t^e^tber. 

Gu^ia kapi. A battle axe with a broad 
cuttmg &ee. 

Ghidia tengo6. An axe with a long 
and broad cutting face. 

GudiauK . To fondle, to fawn, as chil- 
dren do by touching and rolling 
cm one whom they know. 

Idreko cn^^i^ena. They are fondling me. 

Gu^i (MraK. A house without gables, 
and the roof sloping all round. 

Gudmud gudmu6 Bound, spherical 

and small. 
Ul £ru4inn6 gn^nm^ joakana. The mangoe»are 
ranaU and ronnd. 

Gudna. A club with which rice bavdis 
(q. V.) are beaten when tightening 
the ropes with which they are 

aSd2' F * } ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ' * ^^^^- 

On^r^ gn^ri imnite raebar |hikkei!. He made 
a very goodmatch of two pigmies together. 

Gudrau. To roll along the ground. 

Bes oko^te lekhaeme, gn^r^a af ocoeam. Connt 
(the money) carefmlv, yon will aUow some 
to r(^ away and be loc^. 

Gudrau. To pass, as time ; to happen. 

Horte eeiiko gndr^natpeaP What happened to 

you on the way P 
Sara din dom gndrf nakafa ar oet h5bam k^mi- 

aiaXm. xon have passed the whole day 

and haye not done any work. 

Gudri. A house m which goats, sheep, 
or calves are kept. 

Noko do alom tolkoa. gndpte aderkom. Do 
not tie up these (tor iiie night) put them 
into the goats' house. 

Gudri. Short in stature, a dwarf; 
applied to females only. Cf. gu^ra. 

Gudru6 guqlru6. C£ gudur gu(Jur. 

Gudru ghum^ Cf. gudur ghum. 

Qudu6. Trippingly, with short steps, 
as a child or pigmy. 

Gu4u6 gu4ude liir hiJi^Kkana. She comes trip- 

Gudui gudui. Long, shaggy, loose, 
baggy, as clothes. 

Bhi^ flTudui gnduiko u{>ana. Sheep have long 

Sd^gudu^. } Sound of tkomping. 

Qudu]^ marterf kuh^ukedea. I hit him thump 
with my fist. 

Gudur ghum.YThe Imperial Pigeon, 

Gudru ghum. j Garpophaga aylvatica. 

Gudur gudur. The roaring sound 

produced by a blast furnace. 

Oudur gudurko dhuk^ua. 

Gudur gudur. *) Applied to the mo- 
Gudru6 gudru6. J tion of anything 
small, as a wheel, kid, &c. 

Saear gu^ur gu<tur gn#r^uKa. 
Gidra gu4ur gudurko liir baraekana. 

Gugri. Cf. ghugri. 

Gugu. To cariT on the back. 

(3Kdr^ ^"gxk idie^kana. He is carrying the 

child on his back. 
Lade gugu. To load on the- back, t& place one 

above anothra*. 
TeheH do ^i ^ukle giti6ena lade gugu. We. 

slept very uncomfortably last night one 

above the oUier(i. e. over crowded j 

Guhar. ") A shout for help, or to give 
Guher. / an alarm. 

C!ef. real guher kana. What is the caU P (for 

help or is it am alarm P) 
Guher guher guher rehi. The call for help. 

Guhi. Chronic. 

Nui doe guhiena. It haa become chronic with 

Bu9te <}her dine guhiena. His fever is chronic. 

Guhma. A variety of the rice plant. 

Guhria. A rat tat played on the drum, 
as an alarm or as an intimation of 
an accident at a hunt. 

Guhria tamak. Drum beaten as an alarm. 
Guhri^ko ruigea. They beat the alarm rat tat 
on the drum. 


[ 204 ] 

Gulu mulu 

Quhum. Wheat, TrUicwn sativum, 

Guhur guhur. ") Sound of voices but 
Ouhtly guhfly. ) words inaudiUa 

Qiihnr gnhurko rofedft. Tlia sound oftbair 
Toioes is heard. 

Quipha rangl A variety of the rice 

Guja. A wedge. Of. gujL 

Guj^ One of two brothers, Kftrft and 
Guja, whose names occur in the 
early tradition^ of the Santala 

Gujar. Livelihood, means of sub- 
sistence ; to pass one's tima 

Csfleka giii|^ oalalkantakoaP Ako moto do 
besge oalalkantakoa. How are they off for 
the neoessaries of life P Tuey have ample 
for themselyea. 

Noa k^mite dinko graj»re£k«iift. They gain a 
living by this work. 

Guj guj. Crowded. 

Gnj groj atkarolkana. It feels crowded. 

Gujhi. A small space partitioned off in 
which to keep goats, sheep, or 
calves at night. The gujhi is verv 
often in the verandah of the dwel- 
ling house. 

Qajhiakadako merom dohoko If gill. The;^ have 

Eartitioned off a smaU space in wmoh to 
eep the goats. 

Gujhi. Cf kulkhi. 
Guji. *) A wedge, a piece of wood driven 
Guja. J into a jack fruit and left for 
a day to cause it to ripen quickly. 

Mo^akat kana, gnji lagao idiattkhan algate 
pay a^Ka. It is a thick log, if wedges are 
used it wiU split easily. 

Guji ku(Ji A kodali or hoe worked 
by taking hold of both ends of the 

Gujr^u. To pass, as time ; to pass the 
time, to exist. 

Jahare dinko gnjr%aa, ado jom okte ofaKteko 
hijaXa. They spend tiie day anywhere and 
oome home at meal times. 

A^i phaiette dinle gnjraaeda, matkom, sarjom 
]omicatel6 gujnnied^. We are passing the 
time with great oiiBOomfort, we are sub- 
sisting on matkom (q. t.) and tiie fmit of 
the ssj tree. 

Goha gnjrfa. To giye CTidenoe, to depose. 

On^ntt n^pjt. Nearly dead. 

Gn]aX n^pitid deUedeaea, baHoaoX ooe ba coe. 

GnjoX napite dalkediHa. He beat me tfll I was 

nearly dead. 
ChijuK n%pitiil ^ik^neda. I feel nearly dead. 
Chijnl ms^aeye m^Kkana. He is at the point 

of death with feyer. 
Ghiinl d^khilakanae^ abe tabe. He is on the 

point of death, it may oome any time. 

Gojur gujur. One after the other. 

Qtgnr gnjorko calaff kana. They are going one 

sfter the otiie* (in Indian file.) 
Hon gnjnr gojnr. A game played by dhildren. 

Qukhla janum. A plant common in 
moist situations, Hygrophila 
spinoBa, T. Andres. 

Gul. To make a noise, tumult, din, 

OedaK nn^tpe goledaP Why do you make snoh 

Gulam. A slave. 

Guland. Bound, spherical. 

Gulalij baha. A common ornamental 
flowering shrub, Plumeria acuti- 
folia, Poiret. 

Gul gulia. A wandering non-Arian 
tribe, who live by huntmg, teaching 
monkeys to dance, selling indi- 
genous drugs, begging, and petty 

Gull A ball. 

Goli ran. A pill. 

Guli. Brown, reddish brown. C£ gola. 

GnH g^i. A brown cow. 

Gnli merom. A brown she-goat. 

Gulibd.t. A method of casting lota 

The method of golibSt is as follows t The 
property to be diyiaed is made np into the 

8 roper nmnber of sliares. Each sharer 
tien inakes a ball, inside of which he puts 
something by which to recognise it when 
it is broKen up. The balls are then 
mixed mp together and one laid beside each 
share. They are then broken and each 
person takes the share opposite to which 
flis baU was laid. 

Gulmal. Disturbance, tumult, con- 
fusion; to make a disturbance, 
tumult, din, confusion, &c. C£ 

Gulu mulu. To make into a ball by 
rubbing between the palms of the 
hands ; round, spherical. 

NitoK kathale gnlnmnlnkeda. Now we haye 

got the matter into shape. 
Qnlnmolne golieda. He is making it into a baU 

by mbbing it between the palms of his 



[ 205 1 

Qundli araU 

Gum. To sift by means of the hatak 
(q. V.) 

Gun beg«r. To sift by means of tke h.%UiXt (q. t.) 

GumauU. To heat, as anything stored 

Iioho^al alope oakea ernm^ut^. Do not stack 
wet (straw) it will heat. 

Qum^ta. An agent. 

Guman. To ponder, to think over. 

8ane gnmfn. 7 To ponder OTor as mie does an 
Bene gam%n. ) affliction, los s, & c. 
Oti coe sane gnm^nakata P Wh%t is it he is 
pondering over. 

Gumur gumur. Painful and itchy, as 
a gathering boil, &c. 

Gnmor gomni hasoedekana ojo. 

Gum baL Flatulence. 

Gumur. ) Pleasant sensation, as 

Gumur gumur. J when an iching 

place, such as a sore, is rubbed or 


J^i gnmor gnmnr ^ik^nlkana. 

Gun. Quality, merit, virtue, magic 

Gnn manao. 7 To acknowledge gratefully, to 

Gnn doho. y requite. 

Nnn gnn manao. To requite, to acknowledge 

Cet n5 bae gunadida. He did not requite me, 

or he shewed no gratitude. 
Koa ran bah gunlaKa. This medicine had no 


Guna. Fold. 

Bar gunf . Two fold, twice. 
Pon arunf . Four fold. 

Moft Khon bar ^un% marahgea. It is twice as 
large as this. 

G una. Fault, crime, sin. 

Gh^t giui%* Fault, faults ; to commit a fault. 
Cetoaghft gnnfkeda? What fault did you 

oommit P 
Cet hS bae goix^ltt tahekana. He was guilty 

of no fault whatever. 

Gunagar. Crime, the penalty of crime, 
loss, penalty. 

Gun^garili emkedia. I paid a fine. 
Gnn^g^r lagaoctdilia. I was mulcted. 
Gunagar paf a oaea. He will meet with a loss 
(sell for less than he bought for.) 

Gunak. Merit, demerit, desert, virtue, 

Amak c^li fpm^lttem reharejolkaaa. Your 

poverty is the result of your conduct. 
Amatt ror ffun^Rtem ruhe6 oooena. You were 

scoldea as the desert of your speech. 
AmaK moca gun^Mtem ^an^om ocoena. You 

were fined owing to the demerit of your 

Hasa ^nalte arjaoedae. He secures crops 

owing to the virtue of the soil. 
Jom ^unf Kte motaakanae. He is fat owing to 

the virtue of his food. 

Gunan. To multiply! 

Gunan. To ponder, to think over, to 
mourn over. 

44i gun^nedae. He is thinking deeply. 

Gun(J. Trunk of bodv without head, 
applied principallv to the bodies 
of animals which have been killed 
in sacrifice by beheading. 

Gun(J. To ponder, to think over, to 
grieve over. 

Oe^ reah coe gun^le^kanaP What is it he is 
thinking about, or grieving over P 

Gun^^. To make small, to make into 
small pieces ; to grind. 

Lebef gun^%. To trample to pieces. 
Dal gund%. To beat into pieces. 
Hafuh gun^^. To pound fine. 
Bi£gun^^. To grind fine. 

Dufu^ gun^^. To make into dust, or break by 
sitting on. 

Gunqla gun<}i. \ To make into small 
Gan^a guncja. j pieces, to make small 
crumbs, broken pieces. 

Bal gun^^ i^^^* ^^ ^^^ ^^^ small pieces. 
En gun^a ^funQi. To trample by oxen into 

small pieces on the threshing floor. 
Gun49 gun4ite€ gumpe. I^t the small partio- 

les (or dust of the threshing floor.) 

Qunclhi bandhi. ICows broken in to 
Gunclhi man^hi. ) the plough. 

Gun^hi b^ndhile siolkana. We are ploughing 
with cows. 

Gundi. * ■) Cow broken to the 
Gandagun^i J plough. 

Gan4a gun^iteH siotf kana, bithi oholi senlena. 
I am nloughing with cows, I can not go to 
forced labour. 

Hindus, with the exception of some of the semi- 
Hinduised aborigines, wiU not plough with 
cows, but Santals have no such scruples. 

Qundi. 1 To cast about in one's 

Nandi gimdi. Y mind, to consider, to 
Nundi khundi j think deeply over, to 
reason in one's mind. 

tJni reaiko n^ndi gundiXkan tahgkana. They 
reasoned concerning him in their minds. 

Gundiari mu6. A species of ant. 

Gundli. A cultivated millet, Panicum 

Layo gundli. A cultivated millet, Panicunt 
antidotale, Retz, 

Qundli aralc. A plant common during 
the rains, AneileTtia nana, Benth, 

This plsnt is used as a pot-herb. 


[ 206 ] 

Gupti khan4a 

Gunijbra. To culTinto pieces, to make 
fine or small. 

Est cnm^r^kam . Cat the log into pieoee. 
HubfK gim4r9 gim4r%kaM sarftko benaoo. 

They oat (tiie wood) into pieces and nmke 

the niaeral pyre. 

Gundrau. Cf. gulijr^u. 

GuiKjlri. The Quail, Tumix Sykeaii, 

Qun^ri kurse. A leguminous plant so 

Gun^ri mei sar. A kind of grass the 
culms of which are used as arrow 

Gun4u6. Excreta passed in small 

Sim enui^u^* Excreta of fowls. 

Gundud gu8u6.' 

Gandak gasulc. Feckless, listless, lazy, 
Gandu6gasu6. fusionlesa 
Gandad gasu6. j 

Oe€kom oekaeda g^ndoi g%sa6, as^rs hodme ? 

Gundu6 gundud. C£ gandud gimdud. 

Gundur gundur. Sound of voices but 
words inaudible. 

Gondar gandarko galmaraoeda. 

Gundur musalf. listless, silent, me- 

Gondar maa^Xe tf eloKkana. He looks melan- 

I F. / 



Gudga. M. 

Gui&gu. A covering for the head and 
pack of leaves pinned togther, 
worn principally by women when 
plantinc^ rice. 

Hero rohoe jokhedko gnhgaXa. 

Gudgul To cover, with cloth, with 
the wings, with the body. 

Sim ehga a6ren hopone granffn£aka£koa. The 

hen has covered her chickens with her 

Knl doe gahgn^ede tahgkana. The tiger had 

covered the man with his body. 
ThirkoKme, neKS ill gahga£ke6ne. Be stiU, 

see I have covered yoa with my cloth. 

GungwQoic. Low pitched, as a fiddle, 
flute, &c. ; an echo. 

Bhitrilrege gnhgw^Kkana. 

Gunh^ Fault, crime, sin. 
Ouni Sorcery. 

Guni bhabil^. To be anxious, careful, 

Alope gitni UiabiXa. Be not over aoxioiia. 

Gunidar. A sorcerer. 

Q\xA\, Darkness preceding a storm. 

Dat gallj hijaX kana. The darkness preoed- 
ing a storm is ooming on. 

Gudjar ened. A kind of dance danced 
during the Sohrae (q. v.), and 
Karam festivals Classes for the 
teaching of this dance are held 
during September and a part of 

Galij^r n^f. The air to which the Gadjar songa 
(gad w sereli, q. v.) are sang» and beaten 
on the drams when the gonjfr dance is 
being danced. 
Gndjar sereli. A song sang daring the dancing 
of the Galij%r dance. 
H^ri h^ Bnn raja ho Galljl^ri. 
Katha ]o kahabo a%ia ho Gimj^rire tpuA]. 
Chatki saetini bole, d^ia ho, hamanore one- 

B%fki saetini bole, d^ho, hamariore paras. 

Gadjf r Song. 

Gudjrau. To roar, growl, as a tiger, &c. 

Hantere kal galijr^al^iil alljomledea. I heard 
the tiger roar over there. 

Gunpalan. Panniers and pannier sad- 
dle cloth. 

Gunsi. A chain of silver or other 
metal worn as an ornament round 
the waist or on the head. 

Gunthi The knee. 

Jahga ganthi. The knee. 
€hmthiganthikinsa^aoaka^. They (are sitting) 
with their knees toaohing. 

GuntL To count, to number. 

Mase gr^ntibonme. Gome, coant as. 

Gunu gunu. Used in calling a cat. 

Qup^ll To conceal, to hide, put out of 
Gupetj sight. 

Sen gap%£enae. He has gone oat of si^ht. 
Kale jom gap^^kedea. The tiger ate him, and 

pat him oat of sight. 
Goi gapf^enae. He is dead and lost to sight. 

Gupi. To tend cattle, sheep, goats, &c. 

Gapii6. A tender of cattle, sheep, Xc. 

Bhidi gapii6. A shepherd. 

Gnpi kora. A herd boy, bat applied to all who 

tend cattle, whether yonng or old. 
Gnpi kari. A girl tender of cattle, applied to 

old and yoong alike. 
Snkri gapiye kolKedea. He sent him to feed 


Gupti To conceal, to hide, to keep 

Noa hatha ko gaptikeda. They concealed this 

Gupti khan<Ja. Cf. gupti thenga. 

Qupti mar 

[ 207 ] 


Gupti mar, ^ -rr ^.i • 

Gufti marte. I ^'ja^*'^. secretly, in 

Gupti mar. \ "^"""^ <^*^ ^^ ^' 
GuptimMteJ P™^ 

Chipti m^rteko sa|> go6kedea. They seized him 
before he was aware. [in mj absence. 

Gupti marko ^^i^^omkedilla. They fined me 

Gupti thenga. A sword stick, a stick 

with a sword concealed within it. 
Gu^ The produce of the first inspis- 

sation of the juice of the sugar 

cane, molasses, treacle. 
Gur. To &11 from a standino^, sitting, 

or kneeling position, to me. 

Go6 gui. To die. 

Pal gar. To knock down. 

Ota gnr. To press down to the ground. 

phaka gnr. To push and canse to fall to the 

Toho£ gnr. To stnmble and fall. 
Hoete gorena dare do. The tree was blown 

down bv the wind. 
BareaK janhe gorolkana netar do. The well 

grown janhe (q. v,) at this season is falling 

to thec^onnd. 
Hofo daKte gorakana. The dhan is laid by 

the rain. [hilled. 

Posaokoko gnrakana. The fatted animalB are 

GurakhuL I Tobacco mixed with gur 
Gurakhur) fq. v.) to be smoked in the 
huka (q. v.) 

GufdM.}"^^ P^^*' ^^^ ^'^^«- 

A4iko gurd^nkedida. They pushed me viol- 

ently along. 
Bae calaikhan gurd^ idiepe. If he does not 

go push him along. 

Gufd^ gurdi Scrambling, or tumbling 
on the ground one above the other. 
Cf. ga|tla gurd^ 

Gurd% gurdikin tapambuia. Ther are fighting 
Uie ground rolling over each other. 


Gurdalc. To feed a bride and bridegroom 
with raw sugar. 

Qurgau. To roll. C£ gudrau. 

Gurgu. A round stone with which 
curry stu£Es are ground on another 
stone; a stone with which the 
seminal ducts of quadrupeds are 
ruptured instead of castration. 

gJJI^u.1 '5> restrain to intercept, to 
G urffur ' i ^®P^^® ^^® ^^ "^^ freedom, 
GuiureuJ ^ '*'*"' ** * *'«^'- 

^Sc^ff^ffor^ukedeako. They seised and prevent- 
ed him leaving. 

jy^if^b guf gur^ukefkoako. They caused them 
to sit down and would not allow ihem to 

Gurguf^u. To roll on the ground. 

Ot otteiS gur gur^ukedea. I rolled him along 
on the ground. 

Gur gufi. A huka (q. v.) with a long 

stem. [boys. 

Gurguri, A game played by men and 
Gurha^. To be costive, the bowels. 
Gufhak. To become a chrysalia 

Lum^m tolkateye guph^Xa. After spinning 
its cocoon a silk worm becomes a chrys- 

Gurhe. To roll up, as a roll of parch- 
ment ; to wind, as a ball of twine. 

Noa baber gufheme. Wind up this twine. 

Gurib. Poor. [dung. 

Guri6. Cow-dung, to smear with cow- 

Gurio mande. A midden, a dunghill. 

Gurji. A boundary pillar. 

Gurji tehara. A boundary pillar mark- 
ing the spot where the boimdaries 
of three villages meet. 

Qurkau. To roll on the ground. 

Notegegurk^u hijuXkana. It comes rolling 
this wa^. 

Gurla gurli. Swirling. 

Gnrlf gurli onte note khon hoedtkaaae. The 
wind is swirling from all sides. 

Gurlau. To swirl. 

Hoe gurlauKkana. The wind is swirling. 
OfaKte hoe gnri^u boloena. The wind swirled 

into the nouse. 
La^re gurlauX kantaea. There is a commotion 

in his stomach. QootHo^ Rumal gumption, 

Gur lotom. The side on which an 
animal, which is killed during the 
" Bhandan" (q. v.) ceremonies falls. 

The animal, which mav be an ox, a cow, a pig. 
or even a fowl, is feUed to the ground and 
the side on which it falls is the portion of 
him who provided it, the upper side being the 
portion of the villagers. 

Gurmuria. Bound, spherical 

Tol gupnuriakedeae motra do. He tied lus 
bundle into a round. 

Gurpa. A variety of the rice plant. 

Gurpana. Sugar cane juice mixed 
with water in the proportion of 
one of sugar cane juice to four of 

Quf tawak. A game played by children. 

Gflrtu6. To twist or twirl any thing 
in the ear, as a quill, &c. to clean it. 

Lutur gUrtujtam Ute. Twirl a feather round 

in your ear. 
Lutur reaX daX gUftu^ o<lokena. Water in the 

ear has been e:q>elled by twirling something 

in it. 

Guru. A teacher, a leader. 

Quru bachur 

[ 208 ] 

QuyuQ marte 

Quru bachur. Cows and calres, ca;fctle 

in general. 
Gurum. Calm, silent, stilL 

Koa katha gnfamakana. This matter is in 

Teheli do bae hoeaka£a ^pimi^ana. Tbere is 

no wind blowing to day, it is calm. 

Qusa. C£ ghusa. 
Ousau. Cf. ghusau. 
Gusti Family, tribe. 

Noko do i^tiko <}^ngea. The whole family 
are witoheB» 

Gusu6. 1 To push oneself in between, 
Ghusu6. J to force a way in, to msdke 

a way for oneself by pushing into 

or aside. 

Hone gusud boloena bnstipre. The rat made a 
way for himself into the als'aw (went in amongst 

the straw.) 
Hor g«Mlre gasnd boloenae. He forced his way 

into the crowd of people. 

Gusui^ gusuQ. Alone and silent. 

Gnsah gasnhe oalaKkana. He goes along quietly 
by himself. 

Gusur gusur. C£ gusuA gusun. 
Gut. Total. 

Lekha gntenabo. We are totalled ap. 
Gut (ftka. The total money. 

Gutek. ") An adjective or an adverb 


Gutke. J possessing intensifying force, 
very much, many, &c. 

Qutek horko gocena nes. Vwy many people 

have died this year. 
Gnteke dattkeda. It rained heayily. 
Gntekko <^an(^omkedea. They imposed a heavy 

fine on him. [great^ increased. 

Gntekkoba^haoentaeag^ikodo. His cows have 
Nes gutek khil^e tahgena. This year much 

(land) remains faJlow, 
Nes gntek hoeakanaP This year there haye 

been bumper oroi>8. [disclosed. 

Gutek katha llam toCena. Manr things were 
Gutek joakana. There is much fruit, [flood. 
Gutek daK oalaKkana ga^are. The riyer is in 
Gutekko dalkedea. They beat him aeyerely. 

Gutek utar. An immense number, 
very much, very many. 

Gutek utar t^kaii khorookeda. I spent a large 
sum of money. 

GuthlL F j'^'^^^*' ^ stature, a dwar£ 

Guti. An agricultural male servant' 

a &rm labours. 
Guti C£ ganda guji. 
Guti. \Small pox, the pustules of 
Qoti rog. J small pox. 

Guti rakapakawadea. SmaU pox pustules haye 
^ broken out on him. 

Gutia. Belonging to the same sub- 
sept or " khon^." 

Pera guti^. Friends. 

Gutia pera. Belonging to the same smb-aep^ 

or **khon4." 
Pan4utelili gutia bhai kanalili, mii khond ren 

pa bindha Hasdaff. 
Guti% naya. Belonging to the same sub-sept. 

Gutig-u. To keep to oneself, to arrange 
in order. 

Guti%ukedae, a6 moto. He kept it aU to him- 
self (did not share it.) 

Gutiau idikedae. He took it aU and went away 
with it. 

Gu^e guti^uana. He kept a large proporttoo 

to himself. 
Bapoti dhon aigeye arutiankeda. He kept aU 

the paternal wealth to himself. 

Guti dare. A tree or trees on which 
tassar silk worms (Antheraea mi- 
lytta) are reared, generally Termi^ 
nalia Uymentose^ 

Guti ened. A game played mostly by 
herd boys. 

Guti the^ga. A forked stick with 
which tassar silk worms are put 
on to high trees. 

Tho worms are ooUeoted on a branch preyionaly 
broken off, and this branch is stuck into 
the fork of the stick and by means of it 
hung on the tree. 

Gutik. State, condition. 

Gutik oeflekantaea, bes se bapi? What is his 
condition, is it good or bad. P 

Gutke. Cf. gutek. 
Gutlu. To tickle. 

Gutitdd khanem ^iA bokrola. 

Gu^ F. J ^^^^ ^ Stature, little. 

Nui gntri mara aim%i a4tye eMgera. This wret- 
ched little hussy is a great scold. 

Gutri. Family, stock. 
Gutrut'. Fit to be taken from the 
mother, as a puppy. 

Seta hoponid tielakadea, beso giitnl6akaiia. 
I haye seen the puppy, he is well grown. 

Gutrui A deer that has lost his horns. 

Gutru€ saramle go^akadea. We haye kiUed a 
saram (q. y.) that had shed his horm. 

Gutru6. The name given to two 
species of Barbets or Woodpeck- 
ers, Megalaima caniceps, and 
Xantholcema Indica, 

Gutu. To insert, to push in, to thready 
as a needle ; to string, as beads. 

Malako gutuia. They string beads. 
Suire sut^m gutnime. Thread the needle. 

GuyuDL marte. \ Without warning, 
Guyu6 mente./ unexpectedly. 

Guyuh mente berei! go^nae. He sprang up. 
Guyuii marteye o^oh gotena. He rushed out. 


[ 209 ] 

Hadam hudum 


Habadia. A glutton ; to eat greedily, 
applied to a person or animal who 
eats well but is neTer in good 

Noi daom bAbAdiMM. This bnllo^k puts Mb 
food into an ill skin. 

Haba duba. To rebuke, to reprove, 
to threaten, to firi^hten. 

Haba dnb% bafakedeali. I rebuked bim. 

Habak. To take aim with a bow and 
arrow, as at something that re- 
quires a frequent change of posi- 
tion ; to offer, to aim at. 

AI sarte babalaeme. Aim at it with a bow 

and arrow. 
Habal mako babal doKadiligea. ado ball 

t^iigilaXa. The^r did indeed offer me food 

and I did not wait for it. 

Eabalf cubak. Disconnectedly, indis- 
tinctly, carelessly. 

Habal oubi|Iem roireda. Tom ipeak diaoonneot- 

Habatt oab%f em k%mikana. Ton are leavinff 

one piece of work before yon have finiahed 

it azid taking np another. 

Habak <}abak. To rise and fSeill, like 
the waves of the sea ; to heave, as 
the water of a river in flood, to 
swell, as the sea ; applied also to a 
crowd moving gleefally along with 
drums beating. 

Habak 4abak daX oalaXkana. There is a BweU 
on the water. 

Habela. Very lar^e, big and stout. 

Habela oral menaXtakoa. Their house is very 

Habela ju^. A big, stout young man. 

Habhab. ") Heartily, gleefully, with 
Habhabao. ) zest. 

Qfiko biena menkhan habhabaoko calaXa. 

VHien the oows are satisfied they move 

.DaXkedae menkhan habhabaoko sioXa. When 

rain f iJls they plough with lest. 

Habi6. Till, until, up to, as £eu: as. 

Tis h^hy^ ? Till when? (not to-day,) tiU what 

Tin h^i^ ? TUl when? (to^lay,) till what hour ? 
Kin h^i^. As much as this. 

Nun habie. As muoh as this. 
Baiikhan nontjle h^Hd ohod seferlena. 

Other wide I should not hare reached to here 

(this plaoe.) 
Uni do nit h^bi^ h5 bae aosanakana. Up till 

now he has not obtained relief. 

Aurikin paromol h9bi6 . Until they had crossed 

over, or untU ^ey oross oyer, 
pan^a h^bi<S daX tahdkana. The water was 

up to the waist. 
Tis h»bi6 tahen hoyoXtiliaP Till when shall I 

have to stay? 

Habka. A young sal (q. v.) tree about 
12 to 18 inches in circumference at 
the root, cut as a rafter. 

Habka dubka. 1 To dragoon, to fnght- 
Hamka dumka. J en by threats, &;c. 

Alom habka dubk^ea. Do not dragoon him. 
Hamka dumk^kakome. Threaten them with 

Habka dubka. Applied to the sound 
produced by a swimmer striking 
the water with his hands and feet. 

Kui gidr% do habka dubk^ paeralkana. 

Habrao. To come near, to come up 
to, to reach, to anive ; to cause 
to come near, &c ; to escort. 

Habrsoge bae habfaolena. He would not even 

oome near. 
Monomukhle habfaolen tahSkana. We had 

reached Monomukh. 

HabruU. To suck softisb food into the 
mouth with a noise. 

Daka jom jokhe^ utuko h^bruga. 

Habuk dabuk. Applied to the sound 
produced by a mtigued swimmer. 

Uni set» h^buk ^^buKe paeralkana. 

Hacar hacar. Hurriedly, quickly. 

Haoarhacare oalaXkana. He is hurrying along. 

Ha6hu6. Quietly, without saying any- 

Hacpacao. To huny, to dragoon, to 
harass, to ill-use. 

Had. A wine press. 
Had. Extraonunary, unusual, strange, 

Had katha. A strange story. 
Hadgeli atkareda. It seems to me to be axtra- 

Had. A bone. 

Ha^ad hu4u& To walk as if lame or 

Ha4a6 hu<}ui&e ta^ftmeda. He is limping. 

Hadae hadae. Noise made by a mod- 
erately strong wind. 

Hadae hudui Rustling of clothes, 
when the wearer walks. Cf. ha- 
dui haduL 


Hadam hudum. ESarly in the morning, 
before day light, before sun rise. 



t 210 ] 

Haelai liaela6 

Qada]^. To take peas, &c. out of the 
pod, or grain out of the husk with 
the teeth ; to nibble. 

Honko do 8npi6 bolokate go^ako ht^t^^ftda 
kheder beder. 

Hadar ha^ar. Bustling or grating 
sound, as that produced bj drag- 
ging a dry hide, or Palmyra palm 
feaf along the ground. 

Ce6 ^Qjifiro ha^ar ha^aremorefkanaP 

Hadar hadar. Sound produced by a 
sti£f gale. 

Hadar hadaf e hoeMa. 

Ha^ar thapar. Rustling sound as when 
a dry nide is being carried, to rattle. 

Hadar hadar. Sound of scratching, 
as by a rat. 

Hadbad. ") Knocking, or smashing 
Hadba^ao. J sound, to rattle. 

Ga^ mon^a ha^ba^e oalaKa. He goes smash- 
ing through stream and jangle. 

H^der. To throng, to crowd together, 
to have one's mind s^t on a thing. 

Senol lagiiSe haderoMkaaa. He is very anxious 

to go. 
Uni thenkohaderolkantahSkana. They were 

thronging him. 

Hader katha. A mild oath. 
Hadgar. The striped hyena. Hyaena 

H9*<}gur. Sound produced by stirring 
in an earthenware vessel. 

H^gnr h^^gore ghantaeda. 

Had had. ") Sound of rushing or fall- 
Had hadao. J ing water, boisterous 

Jhama leka hadhad daX %ta toCena. Water 

gashed oat as from a spring. 
Khange tho datt had hadao o^oh goCena. Then 

the water gashed oat. 

Ha<} hamua Anaemia, a large pro- 
portion of white corpuscles in the 
blood, pain in the bone9. 

Ha^ hu^. Rumbling sound, as of 

Teheli do rimil ha^ hn<le€kana. The thunder 
is rambling to day. 

Had hud. Rustling, as of clothes when 
the wearer walks, or of wind. 

Ha4i A caste of semi-Hinduized abo- 

HadL An accumulation of drift wood, 
&c., carried by a river in flood. 

Ha^i. Aching pains in the neck or 

H%4iakanaJi. I have an aching pain in the 

Ha4 jora. A perennial scandent shrub, 
Ciasua qua^/rangvXaria, Willd,o{ 
supposed efficacy in fractarea 

Ha^kur. Relatives on father's side. 

Mamkuf . Belatiyes on mother's side. 

Hadoa Anxiety, solicitude, sorrow; 
to be in anxiety, &c. 

Nes do horo go^entakote ^<]Uko hadosolkana. 
They are in ^reat anxiety owing to tfaobr 
rioe having died this year. 

Hadra hadri. The skin or bark to be 
abraded or rubbed oflF, to strip off 

SL-ain jfrom the stalk by the hand. 
£ hadrao. 
Hadrao. The skin or bark to be abra- 
ded or rubbed off; to strip off, as 
grain from the stalk hy the Imnd. 

Hadjrao ^tofenad. i got the skm scraped oif . 
Onko gidr% do rahepko hadrao cabake£a. 

These children haye stripped off all tiie 

rahef (q. v.) 

Hadui haduL Shaggy, bushy, as hair. 

Toyo can^tbol h^dui hfduigetakoa. Jackals 
have bushy tails. 

Hadui hadui. Rustling sound, as of 
clothes when the wearer walks. 

Hadur hadur. Scraping, or scratching 
sound, roaring of wUd beast. 

H^dur h^durko geleja. 

Hae. '^Ajol exclamation of sorrow 
Hae hae. / or pain, alas ! 

Hae! oe^m oekakedaP Alas! what have you 

Oh hae ! sanam hopo gooentiiia. Alas ! all my 

rice has died. 

Haeco^. To lament, bewail, mourn. 

A^iye haeooXena. He mourns deeply. 
A^iye haeooKeda. He is bitterly bewailing 

Hae (Jhae. To bewail, mourn, lament. 

Unido sill B^uf> hae ^haegeye tahena. He 
bewails the whole day. 

Hae hae. An exclamation of sorrow, 
pain, or commiseration, alas ! dear 
me ! oh dear ! Cf. hae. 

Hae hiatili. To lament, bewail, mourn 
over, weep for, bemoan, grieve. 

A^iye hae hi%tinoKkana hopone go^entae i^te. 
She is mourning because her son is dead. 

Haelad haelad. To mourn, bewail, 
bemoan ; to be anxious. 

Jom reatt tin^JE haelai haela^em bhabnaXkaaaP 

Hae moe 

[ 211 ] 



Hae moe. To be sorrowful or amazed. 

Haemoeka(L Paralysed through sudden 
fear or dread of impending evil, 
speechless, uimerved^ astoniea. 

HaemoekatenM'iomaK b^noMte. He is nimerTed 
throngn his hATing no food. 

Haenisas. Hopeless, despainng, disap- 

Hm nis^kated Tu^entk^ I retamed di«ap- 

Hae phoe. Ta be m contiguous 
mourning, continuously groaniDg 
owing to poverty or distress. 

Hae phoe. As. if under a curse, malison, 

or ban. 
H9e phoetege o^bofkaim. His being Mown 
away as bj ••oane.. 

Maere^ i ^ exclamation of sor- 

Haerehae Y row, alas ! woe is me ! 
Haere haere. J ' 

Haere n^sibtill, haere kopal, Ilialf jiwi do ande- 

Haeeoe. To pity oneself, to mourn. 
Haeta co6 joeta con. Without knowing 
what the result may be. 

Nol5e ill oaJafkana bseta oo& foeta ooii. I am 
going bnt I do not know whether my er- 
rand wiU be snooesBf ol or not. 

Haeti^boeto atkaronana. To feel lonely.^ 

HagaeaM. Immodestly. 
Hagae hugui. Bustlmg of clothes, as 
when the w^^rer walks. 

Hagae hugoiko he^ena^ They oame mstling 
in their garments^ 

ELagal gandia. A term of abuse, dirty, 

offensively dirty. 
Hagao. Threatening to cause another 

to be punished or fined, 

MSfS ^kaA hagaomea. I shall cause yon to ' 
be fined fire rupees. 

Hfthft. Stop, Stop i hold, dont ; an ex- 
clamaticm of prohibitiwi. 

Hthi, alope dapala. Hold ! don't fight. 
Ale dole hahakeda. We caUed out hahS 
(stop, stop.) 

Hahadan. Big, tall, pot-bellied. 

Hahadane hara go6ena. He haa shot up very 

Jom hahadafienae. He has eaten till his belly 

bulges out. 

Haha haha^ Boisteroudy, heartily, of 

Haha hihae landaea. He laughs heartily. 

H&hftk. Beware t take care! have a 
care f look out ! 

GuroK jokhe6ko h&hEKakoa. When one stum- 
bles they call out '* hare a oare I" 

DaK ar sehgel hahak do bae alijoma. Fire and 
flbod don't obey ** take oare !" 

H&h&kar. Consternation, lamentation, 
wilderness, desert. 

Ar pon gBl maha bahatarreye tahSkana. And 
he was forty days in the wilderness. 

Hahalpali. Shrunken stomach through 
want of food, emaciated. 

Hahaljpa<!e ffitiSakana rehgeite. He is lying 
with a shrunken stomftch through not imk7» 
^ ing had any food; 
Lai do hahalpatgetakoa. Their stomaohs are 

Hahar. To reap, used by old people 
(almost obsolete.) 

Khet khon oaska hahar rakaba. 

Hahar. Cf. har. 

Noa kurtf do ^ii hahara. This, jacket chaf^ 
me badly. 

Hahara. To wonder, to be astonished ; 
wonderful, astonishing. 

Nelkateko hahafaena. They saw it and won- 

Hahafa k^mi. A. wonderful work, amiraole. 

Hahas. To hurt, to pain. Cf. baso^ 

4'jti hahasa. It is very painful. 

Hahe<L To cool, as hot food. 

Hape, hape, hahei oooakme. Wait, wait, lei 

it 0QOl» 

Hahi dudi. To overreach or impose 
upon one, to cheat, to oppress. 

H^hi dudikefleae, bale daf elena. He over* 

reached us^ wa were no nntoh for him. 
H^ dudikedinae. He imposed upon me. 

Hfthi dodikateye paromea. fie wiU impose 

upon hun and eheai hitar. 
A^i h^hi dudigeae. He is very OTerreachihg, 

Hahut. A glutton. 

Marah h^hut aanae. He is a great glutton. 

Hai Won't you, yes, used also- to calf 

H^i, note aiilomme, han^bok^mia. Ho, -listen 

here, we will work over there. 
CaUXain, h^iP H^, oalaKkanali. You wiU go» 

won^t youP Yes, I am going. 

Haiai*. A pointed piece of wood or 
bamboo, used to dig up roota 
tubers, &c. 

Haike bote. Certainly, without doubt. 

H%ike bo^ thikko k^mikeda. They certainly 
did their work oorreotly. 

H^muikat« Unnerved, speechless, 
aatonied* C£ haemoekat^ 

Haja hojo 

( 212 I 

H^ku^ e^up 

Haja hojo. To hanpf about, to loaf or 
lounge about ; sluggish, feckless. 

Oet noakore haja hojo ba^aekaiuuii ? Why mee 
yon loafing about here P 

Hajam. To digest, to defiraud, not to 
repay money, or grain, &c. which 
has been borrowed. 

Uni do bese hajamleda, haso h9 bah hasoledea. 

He digested it well, he was in no wfty 

KhMok do mahajon real t^kae hajamke6taea. 

The debtor did not repay the money 

lender his money. 

Hajir. ■) To be present, to be in atten- 
HajiroU. J dance, to give, to deliver. 

6ae h^jirlente mokordoma kh^rijentaea. 

Through his non-appearance his suit was 

Nni do idikate Malijhi (hen h^jirem.^ Take 

him and deliyer him to the Tillage ohief . 
<Hpa h^jiroXpe. Appear (or be in attendance) 


Hajot. Imprisonment pending enquiry 
or trial, to put in prison, 

Hajotenae. He is in prison pending trial. 

Hajrao. 1 To confront, to bring face 
Hala hajrao j to face. 

Hala hajraokate kulikinpe. Bring them face 
to face and question them. 

HajrL Attendance. 

H^jri b^hi. An attendance register, a muster 

Hajur. 1 A respectful form of address, 

Hujur. / Sir. 

Hajur. To be present, to be in atten- 
dance, to deliver, make over to. Cf. 

g- T^ f Just, right, true ; equity, right. 

gak katha. A true statement. 

Nam reatf hak menaMtaea. He has a right to 

reoeiye it. 
Haki^ geye meneda. He speaks justly. 

Hak. Surety, security, to guarantee. 

Jahae hake em goClekhan uniko afaKkaea. If 
any one wiU become guarantee they wiU 
set him at liberty. 

Hdk. To call to cattle when driving 

Haka caka. To be surprized, taken 

aback, troubled. 

Haka oaka go€enad. I was taken aback. 
Haka oakaeuleako khajna babotre. They are 
bothering us about our rent. 

Haka haki. To bid against each 
other, as at an auction, to shout 
at and threaten each other while 

Haka h^kikin k^ph^ri^uttkana. They are quar- 
relling and thveatening eadi otiier. 

Hftkao. To boast, to challenge. 

H&kaokateye menkeda, ma okoe herel gp^ 
dareketiae P He challenged them and said. 
Who is the man that can kiU me P 

Hakao. To call or shout out, to bid 
at an auction; to apprise, as 
dacoits are said sometimes to do 
those whom they intend robbing ; 

Hakaokateko heden% ^^ku do. The dacoits 

sent intimation and came. 
Hakaokateye idikeda. He took it openly. 

Hakar hakar. Applied to a peculiar 
sound made by the panah dog 
when chasing anything. 

Seta hakar hakare knud%u idikedea. 

H&kftr hd.kftr. Applied to the call of 
the leopard at a certain season of 
the year, also to the wheezing of a 
person suflfering from bronchitis. 

Htkar hakaroKako potea t^mp. 
Hakar hakare saheteda. He wheeses. 

Hakar fokar. To call to each other 
when watching crops, &c. at night. 

Hakar tokar baf aepe. Keep shouting to eaok 

HaU haK. To laugh, to guffaw. 

HaK hale landaeda. He guffaws. 

Hu^loi } Tidings, intelligei 

Boge hukigof. The Gbspel. 

Hakim. A magistrate. 
Hak nahak. Without cause or reasoDi 

Hak nahake ruhefkediJla. He scolded ma 

without reason. 
Hak nahakgeye bodnamedekana. He gires 

him a bad name groundlessly. 

Hako. A fish. 
Hakopako. Quickly. 

NitoMe hakopakoeda. Now he is exerting 

Hakopakoe tapameda. He walks quickly. 

Hakopako. The call of the Kirl bir4, 

(q. V.) 
Hako phare. Quickly, expeditiously. 
Hakrao. \To invoke, or call upon 

Hakrao dakiuo. J a deity. 

Hakup caku]^. Quickly, to bother, 
to dun, to insist on getting it 

H9ku{> caku{>iii jomkeda. I ate quickly. 

Sao mahajon %<liyeh%kup c^ku{)edilikana. Th« 

money lender keeps dunning me. 
Mahajone h%kup cakui>kedeteye d^r^e^* He 

left owing to the money lender giving him 
. no peaoe. 

jnce, newQ. 

Hftkur hftkur 

[ 218 ] 


Hftkur hikur. Applied to the call of 
tigers at the rutting season. 

Onto fSope oalala t^mj) h&kar bikoredae. 

hSSu:}^"^' faU-feced, chubby. 
HaL Moisture, sap. 

Noa ja«gare hal bae or hoda. The moiatnre in 

this place does not soon dry up. 
Ha^ye a^kareda. He is not hungry. 

Hal. Condition, circumstances, case, 
posture of one's affairs, state. 

Ce£ nalenae? What are his oironmstanoes P 
Oka lek%n habeye paraoakanar What has 
happened to himP 

Hal. The tire of a wheel. 

Hala. To repay, to return anything 
borrowed, as money, grain &c ; to 
return, as blow for blow, &c. 

Badla hala. S 

Bodla hala. > To take revenge. 
Palija hala. 3 

Dal hala. To retnm a blow. 
Bahe£ hala. To soold in retnm. 
£m hala. To repay, to retnm. 
Jom hala. To give a meal in retnm for a meal. 
Kes do ball hala daf eatama. I cannot repay 
yon this year. 

H^9- C£ halla. 

Halae halae. Sound produced by a 
strong wind blowing. 

Halae halaere hoedda. 

Halae halae. Bain accompanied 

with wind from the east. 
Hala hajrao. C£ hajraa 
Hala hali. Ek]ual, equalized. 

Hala h^li hoedn£abena, besena. Ton are now 
equalised, aU is well. 

Hala hali In exchange for ; to recom- 
pense ; a recompense, retribution. 

Hala h^liko Hama, ako, bahkhan gidr^pidr^ko. 
They wiU receive a recompense, eiuier they 
or their children. 

Halak. To be ruined, to be destitute, 
to be in want of the necessaries 
of life ; destruction, ruin, diflSculty. 

A^i halakenae. He is very destitute. 
Kit hdko halakakana. They are even now desti' 
tnte of the neoessaries of life. 

Eiori^teko halakoKa. Thev also get into a bad 

case throngh want of clothing. 
Halak oabaenaico. They are ruined. 

Halak dalak. ") Shaking, swaying, rol- 
Hilak dalak. J ling along. 

Kui maejiu do okate halSc dalake oaJaKkana P 

Halaa. To pick or lift up, to amass. 

. JSophalaii. To say all kind of things when 
Homor halan. To wail and come over again 
and again the good qualities of the person 
being mourned for. 

Halan sarL A kind of sari with an 
elaborate pattern at each end inred. 
Hala lifllak. To wander about, as one 

a ap. I j^ oath, solemn affirmation. 

Halap oooea^. I wiH put him on his oath. 

Halat. Condition, state, circumstances, 

posture of one's affitirs. 
Halat halal \Slightly, indistinctly, 
^alalc iSalalf. f pai-tially. 

Hala€ hala€ ili alliomaKa€a. Iheardindistinotl^. 
HaJa6 hala£iii ba$aea. I know a little about it. 

Halbal. Restless, fid^etty, mischioY* 
ous, applied to children. 

Alom halbaJa. Do not be restless. 

Halbal bafaea. He is fidgetty. 

Alo sem halbala nitoM do, non^eko galmarao- 

kana. Do not be restless now, i^ey are 

oonyersing here. 

Halbali^ Restless, fidgetty, mischiey- 
ous. Cf. halbal. 

Hal batoria. A system of cultivation 
in which a man gives his services 
for two days as ploughman in re- 
turn for the bullocks and plough 
for one day for his own use. 

Hal boha. A ploughman. 

Hal cal. News, intelligence. 

Hale. It this state, under the cir- 
cumstances, thus. 

Cedal hale bam duf ufiaP Wherefore wiU you 
not 8it down P [you do not belieye P 

Cekate hale bape p^tiauKkanaP How is it that 
Cedatt hale ball oisameteP Wherefore should 

I not remember touP 
Ce€ halom lielte P What would you seeP 
Okoe hale nonkake^P Who could have done 
this P [lovely. 

Oe£ haJe ^^i molijiti tielkeda. It was perfecuy 

Hale bha6. Call to a dog when hound- 
ing it on. 

Hale <Jale. To be destitute, to be in 
want, to be needy, necessitous, 
pinched, straitened, perplexed. 

Nes nofo godentakote hof do ^^i o^fi^ko hale 
4aleena. Owing to the rice having died 
this year the people are in very straitened 

Hale Jan. Cf. hale ^ale. 

Haler. To ruin or destroy, applied 
mainly to the destruction of crops, 
&c. by animals ^^razing on them. 

Sanam baha meromko ]om buerkeda. The 

foats ate and destroyed all the^owers. 
aleroMkana, jom < ~ ' 
typ) is being destroys 
(cattle) to graca on it. 

j^^haleroMkaxia, jom ocoedako. (The growing 
orop) is being destroyed, they are sQloTfiag 


t 214 ] 


Halhal. Urgent, pressing, as agricul- 
tural operations at certain seasons 
of the year; actively. 

Hftlhal k^mi joklie6 noi do daribaimelottae, tis 
adoe VamiaP He goes about when work n 
urgent,' then when wiU he worK P 

Halhalao. To press, to be urgent, to 

Halhalao idikediliae. He hurried me away with 

Hal hawal State, condition, circum- 
stance. Cf. hal. 

Hali. \Modem, new, recent, present, 
HalibalLj now. 

Mia h^lire. At the present time, just now. 
Hqli reaK ghotona kangea. It is a recent 

H^li khoroo. Current expenses. 

Hali. A set of four. C£ ganija. 

Halim. Cress, Lepidium sativum, 
Linn., cultivated mainly for its 
medicinal properties. 

Hali sali A short time ago, a few days 

Jiwi h^U sf U f tkir hodabon. 

Halka. Slight, of little weight ; to 
disdain, to dis-esteem, to think 
lightly o£ 

Halka. An iron ring and hook con- 
nected by a lii^ used to yoke 
cattle to a karha (q. v.) 

Hal kahiL To subdue, to overcome, 
to convict. 

Kacah%rireko hal kf hilkoa. They subdue them 
at the oonrt (oonviot them.) 

Halkal. To subdue, to overcome. 

H^lkVlke^kinae. He subdued them. 

Halkhao. ") To covet, to long for what 
Harkhao. J another has, applied 
mainly to children. 

Halla bhai }^^*^^ ' ^^^^ ^^^® ' ^^* ' 

H^uV bh%i, jit^uakanam. Brayo ! you have 

H^lmal. Confused, conflicting, from all 
directions, Cf. ^Im^. 

Halo. To lift with a swoop, as a hawk 
its prey ; to scoop out with the 
hand or some implement fish out 
of water, &c. 

Kufif doe halo go^kedea. Theyulture OMrried 
it (chickei^ off with a swoop. 

Haio s— afile dukana, cetan renkole halo bafa^ 
ke£koa. We went to catch fish, we scooped 
with the hand those on the surface of the 

Halobakx *) To keep moving the arms 
Halobato. J about, to touch everything 
as a restless child. C£ halbal. 

Halo bate baimekanae uo^oll l%si^> He is 
moving hie arms (a child) ta go to some one 
else's arms. 

Hal sal. Within the year, the present 

Hal salgeye ha&ena. He came during tiie 
present year. 

H^lu^ haran.. In evil case, hard pushed, 
distressed, harassed. 

Hi doli haluf haranena mokordoma ball caba 
hodoXkana. I am harassed through the delay 
(of the court) in deciding my law suit. 

Beiige^tele hf lu4 haranena. We are distressed 
through hunger. 

Halwae. A Hindu caste, a sweet- 
meat seller. 

id^^^cador,} Cloth of extra width. 

Halwani. With the purpose of caiia- 
ing annoyance or trouble. 

Kba do halw^nipe metalikana, noa dboA letej- 
lea. You are iicUing me to do this for the 
pmrpose of annosring me, X atn not equal 

Hama homo. To rebuke, to frighten. 

Hama homoem.' Bebuke him« 

Kul^i to6 go€enae hama bomokedeako. A hare 

was raised, and they frightened him (to 

make him run into the net.) 

Hamal. *) Heavy, ponderous, burden- 
Hambal. J some. 

Sen hamaloK. To be reeponsiblei^ to bear the 

Hamal katha. A serious, or important matter. 
CalaK reaX hamalgeli atkareda. I feel goin^r 

to be very burdensome (or distastefulj 

Am do ente calalem hamala£ khao ba&khanem 
Aamkea. You considered it a burden to 
go, otherwise you would hare got it. 

Hamal khun.! 
Hemal khun.) 

To cause abortion. 

Hamal khunkedae. He caused abortion* 

Hamar. A granary, a store house for 

Hambud. *) To draw an arrow to 
TiaK hambu6. J the head. 

Bad tif K h%mbui^ dafeafkana. loannot^dr^w 
the arrow to its head. 

Lips% aKte sar ti%l h^mbujolfa. With a yield- 
ing bow the alTOw can be drawn to ita 


t 216 1 

H^n^rai^ h^4rud 

Hambur. To bite with the front teeth. 

Gidz^ ko hapambufa. Childi>e& bite each other. 
BapaK jon^rako hambura. They bite off (or 

detech) roasted ladian oom (nom the oob) 

with the front teeth. 

HambutS. 1 To lie down with the arms 
Hamul / round, to nestle, as a 
child in its mother's bosom ; ap- 
plied also to a ti^er, &c., cover- 
ring its victim with its body. 

HapambndoK. > To lie in eaoh othera arms, 
Hapam bnndel. > aa two ohildren, 
H^mbudedekanae. She is lying down with 
(the child) him in her bosom. 

Hamer. A granary, a store house. 

Hamet To take all, to keep, to keep to 
oneself what belongs to others. 

A6geye hametana. He kept it to himself. 
Ona hamet joh IfgiH ilxraXpe. Bon to seonre it. 

Hamor. A granary, a grain store 

Hamram. Abundant, copious, lacking 

Hamram sawae serma. A year of plenty. 
Hamram bes oko6teko beoharadiiia. There 

was nothing lacking in their treatment of 

Hamrame of aXakawana. He has bnilt himself 

a honse complete in erenr detail. 
Hamram Johako. They will enjoy themselres 

to the fnU (nothing wanting.) 
Hamramko atah daramkedea. Their reception 

of him left nothing to be desired. 

Hamtuk. C£ humtak. 
Hamus. Anaemia. 
Hamul C£ hambui 

XT _ "V 

Hani f'^^^^^^* iiy'iiT> deficiency, harm. 

iW^JtaJ There wiU be 10-.. 

^iii hf.nena. I haye met with a great loss, 
or injnry. 

Hfn darama mdnte. For tiie purpose of provid- 
ing against a casualty. 

Hana. Beyond, other, that. 

Hana^aK. The one beyond. 

Hana puzi. The other world. 

Hana sa. The other side. 

Hana darere. In that tree oyer there. 

Hana^alre dohoeme. Plaoe it in the oub jonder. 

HanaM. li? -i 

HanaK gujuK. j^P^^PV- 

Uni do dnk henaltaea hanal gujuff . He is 
suffering from epilepsy. 

Hana nha. This and that. 

Hana nha oraVte alope uo%f bapUEa. Do not 

go from honse to house. 
Ce€lekam ro^eda, hana nhaP mi6 leka bare rof- 

me. How are you speaking, this thing and 

that thing P Say one thing. 

Hanam. Old. Of. haram. 

Hanao. To cause loss, injury or defici* 
ency to another, to thwart. 

Hanaokedead. I thwarted him. 
Alom hSsi hanaokoa. Bo not pain them by 

Hanaj^^juk. Cf. hanak. 

Hanar hanar. Sound produced by 

morris bells attached to a band 

round the ankles. 

Hanar jhanar. Sound produced by 
morris bells attached to an anklet 
pae/igan (q. y.) 


HasoaV hanasaV uri^ke norom keam. 
Alom hSai hanaskoa. Do not cause them pain 
by mocking. 

Handa There, yonder. 

H^ han^eye burumakana. He is lying down 
oyer there. 

Han^e calalhne. Go there. 

Hane han^c henala. It is away oyer yonder. 

Handha. A large earthenware jar. 
HandL The Santal national liquor pre- 
pared from rice, &c. 

Tah n^n4i. The lic^uor first drawn off. 
Dojah^n4i. The hcjuor obtained by putting 

water a second time on the malted grain. 
Bo4o6 h^4i* The liquor obtained by a third 

api>hcation of water to the malted grain 

which is SQueesed. 
nor eii 

first eyening of we Sohrae (q. V.), also to 

the young people after the brido has left for 

I issqu 
8isir h^4i* liquor giyen by l^e M%li}hi on tlA 
I young I 
her husband's house. 
Poooeh^n^i. Pachwae, the rice beer manu- 
factured by Hindus and sold in the (]K>yem« 
ment licensed liquor shops. 
H^4i dohoe. To manufacture rice beer. 

Handi kun<j[i. A common plant, Phys^ 

alis minima, Linn, 
Handkao. To annoy. 
Handkur. ITo stir rapidly, 

Handkur han^kur. J call of the leopard. 

C£ h^^ur haggur. 

H^4kur han^kure ghantaeda. He is stirring 
it rapidly. 

... f 

Handrutc. A wooden rat trap. 

Hfn^rul marte iSurtna. It (the Ud) f eU with a 

Handrun han^run. Soimd of stirring 
in an estrthenware vessel with an 
iron ladle or spoon. 

H^n^ruh hfn^ruii dakako ghan(aea. 

Handrui^ handruii 

[ 216 1 


HandruQ handruA. Applied to the call 
of leopards at a certain season of 
the year. 

Potea t^a^ do b^n^niii bf n^raiiko raga. 

Handrun. A hollow, gap, fissure. 

Marah nt^re atn h%nclraiiie&. The water has 
worn a great gap. 

Hane. There, yonder, away over there. 

Hane.\Los8, injury, harm, deficiency. 
Hani. J Cf. han. 

Handua. An article of food prepared 
ifrom the young shoots (helta q. v.) 
of the bamboo. 

When the shoots of the bamboo are a foot or so 
above the ground they are gathered and 
taken home. They are then out into thin 
sUoes and g^onnd in the dhehki (q. v.} into 
a kind of flonr. This flonr is put into a 
pot and the air exolnded, and allowed to 
stand for three days. It is then taken out 
and q;>read upon a flat stone and dried. It 
is then h^nga^, and is used to make ntn 
(relish) and bh^rt% (ohutni.) 

Hane mar. ITo oppress, to act cru- 

Hane mare. J elly or unfeelingly towards 

Cedatf gidr%m hanemare£koaP Why do you 
treat the children cruelly P 

Han. Short of, short, not to the full, 
employed in comp. with verbs. 

LebeC h^henae. He missed his footing. 
Jom h^enae. He has not eaten to satisfaction. 
• ISn h^henae. He has not quenched his tiiirst. 

Hafigam. j^o rfot. to rebel. 
Hangama.j ' 

Hangam. C£ bangam. 

Hange. To take. CC hatao. 

hS^.}^J^^»^«^"^^' to jingle. 
Hanhanao. To neigh, as a horse. 

Bikzi^ sadom mfiye hanhanaottkana. 

Hanhar. Wife's mother. 

Hanharid. My wife's mother. 
Hanhonse. Thy wife's mother. 

Hanharea. Mother-in-law and da- 

HanL Loss, injury, harm, deficiency. 
C£ h^. 

HaStaK.}''^*^^* ^''^ (animate.) 

Hfni daraekana. Yonder he oomes. 
H^nitatf daleme. Strike that one. 
Ma lieleme, h^ han^eve burumakana. Look 
at him, he is lying down orer yonder. 

Hankate ^cnrofme. Go round that way. 
Hanka nankako galmaraokanft. They oonyerae 
about this and that. 

Hankin. The two over there, or yonder. 
Hanko. Those over there, or yonder. 

Hanko tora enedko helaoena. 

Hantao. To rebuke, to chide, to put 
one down. 

Hantao ru^rkediliako. They put me down 
(would not listen to me.) 

Hantao. To annoy, to bother. 

Nui gidr^ silis^tupo hantaoedid kana. This 
cnild bothers me continually. 

g^ }• There, over there, yonder. 

HanteXme. Move along a little. 
Haute liogeme. Cause him to move along a 

Hao. A species of large red ant. 

Hao potom. A nest of red ants. 
These ants are eaten by the Santals. 

Haobhao. Harmony, friendship, good- 
Haora. Distress, scarcity, famine. 

Noa haorarebo ba^oaolen n%hl, tobe n^hlbon 
oasa. We must first suryiye this famine 
then we will raise crops. 

Haofa. Obstinate, rebellious, stupid. 
Hap. To eat, to take a bite, to eat a 

little, to pick, as a person without 


Haf) ingul. To pretend to eat. 

AmaX it^{ arse jomale habale. We will eat 

thr leavings of food (said after a food 

Ha^ legaadeali bae jomlaXa. I put ittolua 

mouth, but he did not eat. 
Ha|> bafaledatf, bae ^tidlaXa. She (oow) 

nipped the top off, she did not grace on it. 

Hapa. A light staff, or walking stick. 
Hapa6 hupu6. Quietly, without a word, 

Hapa<^ hupudkin beref calaoena. They rose 
and left without a word. 

Hapali hapali *) Shrunken or empty 
Hapalc hupuk. J stomach, weak 
through hunger. 

HapaM huDutf la6 BeloXkantaea. BEis belly 
looks shrunken. 

Hapambudok. \-n . , ^ c 

HafammundoK./ hambu6(q.y.) 
Hapamun. *) Of full growth or 

Hara hapamun. J age, mature, ap- 
plied to females only. 

Hara hapamunenae. She is of full age. 


[ 217 ] 


Haparao. To contest, to strive for 

^ir haparao. To rnn a raoe. 
Tapam haparao. To compete in wrestling. 
EnM haparao. To compete in dancinff. 
E^mi haparao. To work against each other. 

Haparu]^. Reciprocal form of haru]^ 

(q. V.) 
Hapatid. Reciprocal form of hati]& 

(q- ▼•) 

Hapca. ^ 

Hapca h^pci VTo pursue and seize 

Hapcao. J hold o£ 

Hapoao tioK go^kedeae. He pureued and 

cau|^t it. 
Hapca h^pci lagakedeae. He ran after it and 

bit it now and again (aa a dog chasing a 

Hapcao goikedeae. He pursued and oanght it. 

H^^k' f ^^ ^^ silent, to be hushed. 

HapekoKpe. Hash, be silent. 
Hape thirkoXpe. Be still and silent. 
A6]om hapekedali. I listened and made no 

Hapen. By and by, in the future. 

Suiam hof bon g^njaXa hapen. We most all die 

sooner or later. 
BeleKa hapen. It will ripen by and by. 
SaboKae hi^>en. He wiU be caught yet. 

HStphni. Panting after exertion, or 
through disease. 

H&phni sahe1»edae. 

Hapho.l To pant, to breathe heavily as 
S€ph5. /one breathless with exertion. 

Ha]^ ikrum. To bite the under lip 
when in a temper. 

Hapka dupka. To frighten by threats, 

to dragoon. 
Hapka dupn^ barake€koali. I frightened them 
with tnreats. 

Hapo. To be silent, to be hushed. 

Hapo thiroKpe. Be silent. 
Hapote tahenpe. Bemain silent. 
Hapoenail. I am silent. 

Hapra^. Large, big, great. 

j^^i hapfaVgea. It is very large. 
HapfagoKa. It will become big. 

Happimko. Ancestors, forbears. 

Mace hapfamko. The ancients. 

HapsL To joke, to ridicule. 

. H^psiedirt kanako. They are ridiculing me. 

Hapsi duk. The asthma. 
Hapta. A week, a week's wages. 

Hapta atahe senakana. He has gone to get 
hie week's waged. 

Hap^. To contend as to who shall 
win, to compete. 

Uni tuluo %^ifl haptaoakana. 

Hapulc. The Ifight-jar, Caprimulgua 

Hapuk hara. 1 g^^ thick, protrud- 
Mapuk mocsL h • fi ^ 

H^pul moca mara hof . A thick-lipped rascal. 

Har. The " haur ", bhil, marsh. 

Har. To overcome, to throw animals 
by pulling their legs from under- 
neath them. 

Hare l^gi€. To OTercome him. 

Dh^rtili h^akafo. I have overcome the world. 

Jaiiga h^rexne. Seize and puU his legs from 

under him. 
H%r giti^kedea^. I tiirew him by pulling his 

legs from under him. 
Har kun^llaii. To throw down, to yanquish. 

Har. To draw towards oneself by the 
hand or any implement, to collect 
together, to lift and take awav. 

Hf r saoha. To care for, aa for an orphan or 

destitute person. 
H^ sam^ao. To gather together. 
H»r giiji. To collect and throw away. 
Har ^gu- To collect and bring. 
H%r im. To ffather up and take away. 
Nutum h^r joii. To make a reputation for 

oneself, whether good or bad. 

Har. ITie name by which all fish in- 

toxicants are known. 
Har. To rub or chafe, as tight, coarse, 

or wet clothes ; rough or rasping 

feeling as when the band is licked 

by a calf 

Kurt^teii harena. My jacket has chafed me. 

Hara. To grow, to increase. 

Hara buruV. To grow to maturity. 

Hara larjo. *\ 

Haraihaka. f Of fuU aee, an adult, either 

Hara ]huku. i male or female. 


Hara fu^n. FuU grown youth, male or female. 

Hara rata. "\ . 

Hara s%t. f Arrired at full growth, either 

Harathul. I male or female. 

Harathur. } 

Harahapamun. Female arriyed at full growth. 

Hara mora. Anything that nas died a natural 
death, applied to animals and crops alike. 

Hara morai^ do ball joma. I will not eat the 
flesh of animals that hxve died of them- 

Bum leka jiwi haraena, sakwa leka goco hara- 
entalea. Our spirits have risen aa high aa 
ahiU, our moustaches have grown like 
ram's horns, i. e. we are greatly elated. 

Hara. A hill. 

Hara latar latarte calaRkanae. He is going 

along the foot of the hiU. 
MaraKkoko hSyokeda burure, mana, harare. 



[ 21S ] 


Hckradata. Name of a place found in 
the oldest traditions of the Ssmtals. 

Khojkamanreii kbojlen, 
Haradatareii haralen. 
I was sought for in Khojkaman, 
I grew up m Haradata. Old song. 

Hara han. Competition, rivalry, jea- 
lousy ; to compete, to rival 

Hara harikin k^mikana. Th«7 are working in 

Harak. To trip, to stumble. 

HaraK gorenae. He tripped and fell. 
Janga hafagoXkantakoa. They are tripping. 


Harkat. I-Loss, delay, injury. 

Harket. j 

Bam he6 hotlente kami harkatentiiia. My 
work has gnfferea through your delay in 

Hara latar. To overtop, to outgrow. 

Ifipe' hara latarkedii&a. You have out grown me, 
yon are taller than I am. 

HaraK patak.*) To cross the legs when 
Hare£ pate£. ) walking through weak- 
ness, or a heavy load. 

HaraK pa(ale calaMkana. 

Haram. Old, to become old. 

Hiramko. S ^ 
Haram horko. ) ^ 

Hfifam bnahi. Man and wife no longer young. 
Haram ^ahra. AnoldbnUoek. 
Haram dare. An old tree. [couple. 

. ■ Dherkin haram budhiena. They are a very old 
Haram jokhe6. Old age. 
Haramena. It has become old. 
Hafam okare menaea? Where is the old man? 

Haran. ") Confusion or distress of mind, 
Haron. J trouble, annoyance, bother. 

Haran ohuch^. Unmitigated trouble. 

Agn haranenaJi. I brought it with great trouble. 

Haran. 1 Disagreeable taste in 

Haran h^hran. } the throat and mouth 
when suffering from a cold, unpal- 

Mooare harah harahiil a^kareda. I feel a dis- 
agreeable tavte in my mouth. 

Isin lahawatt gur harah aik^utfa. Over-boiled 
sugar cane juice has a disagreeable taste. 

Matkom gur harahgea. The sugar extracted 
from matkom (q. y.) is unpalatable. 

Hafad burun. Quickly, hastily as a 
person enraged. 

Edre ente, harsh huruhe oalaogofena. He be- 
came angry and rushed away. 

Harao. To conquer, to defeat, to beat, 
to weary, tire out. 

Haraoenae. He is beaten. 
Haraokedeam. You conquered him. 

Hara]&. ") To be accomplished, efficient, 
Harra]^. J capable. 

OloK parhaoKreye harapakana. He ia efficient 
in reading and writing. 

Harar. To slip on, over, or through, as 
a ring on the finger, beads on a 
sting, &c., to pierce, as with an ar- 
row ; to transfix. 

Oan^g^rur do dereliteye harar idikedea. The 
rbinooeroa carried him away transfixed om 
his horn. 

Sarteli tuli harar go6kedea. I shot and trans- 
fixed him with an arrow. 

BUf Xen 4hena cSxb mif harare jela. 

Haras. ^ Sound of cracking, as of 

Haras haras. I a branch ; of rumb- 
Hafas menta j ling, as of thunder ; 
Haras mai*te. J bang, crash ; suddenly^ 
in a clap. 

Haras marteye go6ena. He died suddenly. 
Haras mente iinrena. It fell with a thud. 
Biinil haras harts sa^ekana. The thunder 

Haratal. To become of full age, adult. 

Harati^lenako. They are fuU grown. 

Harba. The Indian Scaly Ant-eater, 
Mania pentadactyla, 

Harbafi harbun.l To move in a straight 
Harbun h%rbun. j line, to go straight 

Harban hurbaii. To move in a zigzag, 
to wriggle along, as a snake; crock- 
ed, bent. 

Harbah hurbah bidko lel^ola. Snakes wrig- 
gle along. 

Harca£ horcol Rough, uneven, ups 
and downs. 

Harca£ hereof hor. An uneven pathway. 

Hardund. ^ Self-willed>head-strong,in- 
Hai*dundi. - dependent, over-bearing, 
Hardundia. J violent, oppressive. 

Nui do h^rdundkate hataokeftilSae. He took 

it from me by violence. 
j^4i h%rdnnd hor kan^. He is very OTorbear- 

Porja alom h^rdundikoa. Do not oppress the 

A^i h^rdundi^ hor kanae. He acts oppressiTely. 

Harea garea. To loiter, cringe, loaf 
about; bashful^ shame-faced, a- 

Lajaote harea garea barae kanae. She ia 

loitering through bashfulness. 
Okoe k%mi b^nulHiaea uni h5 harea garea bara- 

ea. A person out of work goes loitering 


Harek. Every one, all. 

Harek rokom menaXa. There are aU kinds of 

Harephare. Quickly, rapidly, without 

Harephare saprao hodolfpe. Get ready quickly. 

Hare£ pate£ 

[ 219 ] 


Ha^ef pa|el CrossiDg the feet when 
walking. C£ harak patalc. 

HargharL Always, incessantly. 

Harghaser. Anything and everything, 
every sort and variety of people 
or things, indiscriminately. 

H*r gbaaere jomeda. He ei^ anything «nd 

Har hamos. Anaemia. Cf. had hamns. 

■ • • • 

Harhao. To covet, to long for, to be 
tantalized at seeing something one 
can't get. 

EtaX hofSR jinis iSelte alom barhaola. Do not 
ooret wnat yon see other people hare. 

Harhar. Sound produced by a moder- 
ately strong wind. 

Harhare hoeSda. 

Harhar. "> To rumble or roll, as thun- 
Harharao. ) der, railway train, cart ; 
to roar, as a tempest. 

Bimil bafharaoXkana. The thunder rolls. 
Bnmre harhafaoKa ^ndhi jokhe6. During a 

storm the hills resoond with the roar of 

the tempest. 
Hafhar sa^ekana hoe do. The wind roars. 

H h d k' I ^^*^^» ^ become bitter. 

Harha£ sisir. Qall. [ing. 

Harhe. To break, to destroy by break- 

P^rko Bakamko sanamko hafhe oabakeda. 
They broke all the branohea and leaves. 

Harhnr. Thudding sound, as when a 
tree £5tlls, or a house collapses. 

Harhur. Whizzing sound, as that pro- 
duced by a body moving rapidly 
through the air. 

Hari. Fetters. 

* * 

H^fi bifi. Fetters and manacles. 
H^fi bin hof . A prisoner. 

Hari. To cross a thread, rope, &c, when 
tying or plaiting; two or more 
pieces of rope or twine crossing 
each other at right angles. 

Baberko hffiaka^a. Tney have crossed the 

Barafai hafikateko b%ndia. They lay ropes cross- 
wise on the ground before beginning to 
put rice in the b^di. (q. y.) 

Haii tol. 1 A method of fixing feathers 

Sikri tol.J on arrows. 

Hari. 1 

Hari jui. VHunting calls. 

Hari joe. J 

When an animal has been wounded the person 
who wounded it and the members of his 
Tillage present shout the name of their tH- 
lage to wMch hart is added, thus, ** Ghosal- 
^ih hari, Gosal^ih h^ri, ** so that all may 

know that the animsl belong to an inhabi- 
tant of Ghosaldih. H^ri is also used to 
ooUeot the members of a viUaffe at the break 
up of a hunt, thus the vilUgers of Gho- 
sal^ih caU <^ GhosaliTih bin Ghosaldih 
hari, " as a warning to all belonging to that 
rillarge to gather tcipether for the homeward 
H^n jui, and h^ri joe are used in the same sense 
as h^. 

Hari6 f^"^^^* when driving away a dog. 

Haria. *> One fold of cloth, or once 

He haria. J round as in tying a rope, 

&c., a harrow or clod crusher drawn 

by one pair of oxen or buffaloes; C£ 



Do h^ria. A harrow or clod crusher drawn by 

two pairs of oxen or buffaloes. 
Ek h^ri^te tolme. Tie it by putting the rope 

once round. 

Hari§i busia. Ashamed after defeat, 
silent and sullen after defeat. 

H%rif busied dufupakana. He sits ashamed 
after his defeat. 

Ha^ia g^ri^.. Cf. ha^ea garea. 

HariaK.lA shout to buffaloes when 
Hariolf./ driving them. 
Hariar. ^ Green. ^ 

H%ri%foKa hapen. It will become green. 

Hariar sim. A festival observed after 
the rice has been planted. Fowls 
are sacrificed to all the tribal and 
village gods and godlets, and 

Erayers offered for a bounteous 
Hari bhari. To give property of vari- 
ous kinds in payment of a debt. 

Hari bh%ri emoKme, bahkhan oholi bagilema. 
Give property in payment of your dero, if not, 
I will not leare you alone. 

Hari bhon. In comprehensible, inexpli- 
cable, stupid. 

Noko hof reaX do h%ri bhoii^ ^^ula. These 
people are incomprehennble. 

Haribol. A shout given at a marriage 
when the red lead (sindur, q. v.) 
has been applied by the bride- 
groom to the bride's forehead. 

Baplareko haribola. They shout ** haribol *' 
at marriages. 

Hari6. Until, up till, Up to. Cf. dhari6. 

Harit. To be wearied out, vanquished > 

^Bof roftem h^ritkoKs ai^jom ge bae al^joma. 
You win be wearied out telling him, he will 
not obey. 

Harjak harjak 

[ 220 1 



Harig-k harjak. A call to buffaloes. 
Harka. A large bamboo basket or 
hamper with a lid, 

Harka harki. At cross purposes, at 
variance with each other, quarrel- 
ling, altercating. 

K'. }«• ■--" 

Harkha harkhi. To tantalize, to irritate. 

Nni doe harkha harkhi bafaekaaa. He wishes 

to tantalize. 
Harkha hQkrkhi l^piem »gtiaka€a. Tou have 

brooght it jnsx to tantalize. 

Harkhao. To covet, to wish for what 
another is seen to have, to dis- 
appoint, to refuse to fulfil a pro- 

Harkhet. Trouble, misery, hardship, 

Harkhet saset. Trouble and afiOiotion. 
A4i b^rioil^ harkhetottkana. I am in great 

Harkhetia. Miserable, afflicted, troubl- 
ed, wretched. 

Ohae, iA harkhetif hof do. Oh! wretched 
man that I am. 

Harmad. "j 

Harmadia. vScoundrelly, rascally, base. 

Harmand. J 

Harmar. ") Hastily, quickly, rapidly, 
Hurmur. J industriously. 

Am do hqkfm^fem k^mikana onatem bajaoena. 
' You struck yourself because you are work- 
ing hastily. 

Sanam t^n^i h^pii^n*^ ^F» ftgukeda. I walk- 
ed over the whole ground quiokly. 

Harna. A deer. 

Harna. To fail, to be conquered. 

Hama bai. Convulsions of a peculiar 

nature to which human beings and 

animals are subject. 
Harna bhama. To give property of 

various kinds in payment of a debt. 

Hama bhamatele em oabaadea. We paid him 
all by giving him goods (or stock.) 

Harna moma. To die, to die a natural 

Harop. A letter of the alphabet. 

H&rop. To fit into, to join closely, as 
one piece of wood into another ; to 
fit into, as one cog wheel into an- 
other ; to place in or on anything 
forked ; to vanquish, to overcome. 

Par khub hifoiiakana. The beams an fitted 
closely. [other. 

Hafo|>akana. Of two wheels fitting into each 

Cahgare h&foi> kam. Best it on, or in the fork. 

Uni hof doko hafo^kedea. They have van* 
quished that man. 

Haro]^. Time, used of time from sunset 
to nearly midnight. 

Kedott ]om h£u*op. Suppertime, about 10 p. mw 
Q%i ader harof). Time to house the cows, 

about 6-80 p. m. 
Ea4a ader harof). Time to house the bafEaloes, 

about 10 p. m. 
KisSf kedoK jom harof). The rich man's supper 

time, about 11 p. m. 

Hama hilol moma hiloi. 7 Day of death, time 

Kama moma hilol^. > of dying. 

Hama monia bae Joma uni do. He will not eat 

l^e flesh of animals which have died a 
natural death. 

Haron. Confusion or distress of mind, 
trouble, annoyance, distress. Gf 

Harpat harpat. 
Harpat marte. ^ 

Sound of an animal 
running, as ahorse, 
deer, &c., trampling. 

Luturtele ailjomledea harpat hafpa^e d^rkeda. 

We heard him go trotting past. 
Harpat marte tot go^enae. It rushed out and 

Sadom m^rpat hafpatko dara- Horses make a 

trampling noise when running. 

Harra]^. *) Fraudulent, overreaching, as 
Hadrap. ) a dishonest money lender 

cheating his debtors ; overbearing, 


Nui mahajon do f^ijQ hapr^Mk. This monej 
lender is very over reaching. 

HarrajS. To be accomplished, efficient, 

capable. Cf harap. 
Harsur. To become low, as a fire, to 

become reduced in circumstances. 

Sehgel harsufoKkana. The fire is burning low. 
Kambtfe harsurena, sedaere khub ganganeae ta- 

hSkana. He is reduced now, in the olden. 

days he was very weU-to-do. 

Harta. Skin, leather, a hide. 

Ka^a harta. A buff aloe hide. 

Pahra harta. An ox hide. 

Harta mooa. 7 A mouth or lips of skin, not to be 

Harta luti. } depended on to speak the trutbu 

Harta luti reatt (hik b^nuKanah. . Word of 

mouth is not to be depended on. 
Harta pal, jah nahel. A pig's snout. 
Hofmo harta bes okoSte tohenkhan. If the 

bodv is in health. 
Jiwi jati hofmo harta boge baragetabonaP Are 

we aU well in every respect? 

Harta. ") To serve out food, to place 
Hartao. j food before one. 

Bakako hartaakoa. They place cooked rioe 
before them. 


[ 221 ] 

Haa gadlak 

HartaakaimdealS bae jomleda. I plaoed food 

before him, bnt he did not eat. 
Hartaapealko bafe jompe. Eat what is set 

before yoa. 

H§krtL The Langur or Hanuman mon- 
key of Bengal and Central India, 
Presbytia enteUua, 

Harum tarum. •) „ ^., .,, 

A^ h^fnm t^f nme lagae£koa. He is driTincr 

them (cattle) very quickly. 
H^rnm t^rumko Joma. Thej eat hastily. 

HaruQ. 1 To be in a sorry plight, 

Geran harun. J to be in a condition 

in which mourning and weeping 

are natural, to weep and groan, 

to moan and weep. 

Oeraii h^miiko raM. They weep and moan. 
A41 g^^h b^rniue m^Kkana. We are in a 

sorrr plight through feyer. 
Jao hiloR gerahge h^ruiige. Every day distress 

and weeping. 

Harun patun. Quickly, hastily, ap- 
plied to the movements of tall 

Harnii patufte oalaoena. He (some tall person) 
left hastily. 

Harup. To cover, as food with a dish 
cover, or fowl under a basket, &c. 

Daka h^rupkalhne. Put a oover over the rice. 
Pusi kh^IaKteko h^rupkadea. They put a 

basket over the oat. 
Ar diuhe jerefkate kh^^aXte do bako h%ruba. 

Neither do men light a candle and put it 

under a bushel. 

Harup. To embrace, to throw the 
arms round, to encircle with the 

H^rujp tombfeakanae. His arms are folded 

tightly across his breast. 
Dare of go pof goti h^f up baf akeda. menek baiS 

h^np sumuii dajr eada. I tried my best to 

encircle the tree with my arms but I could 

not encircle it all. 
Hapaf up. To clasp each other in the arms. 

Harur. Refi'actory, perverse, stubborn, 
self-willed; languid, apathetic ; to 

CalaKe harufoXkana. He refuses to go. 
Jojome haruf oKkanae. She is refractory. 
K^kmiye h^ruroKkana. He shirks his work. 

Harwaha. A ploughman, a person who 

Harwani \Troublesome, causing trou- 
Harwania. J ble, annoyance or distress ; 

causing defeat or £sdlare. 

Harwani lekae k%mi oooe€lea. He causes us 
to work so as to distress us, (or to cause us 
to fail.) 

Harya garya. Cf. harea garea. 

Has. Earth, soil, land. Cf hasa. 

Has ga^laK. A pit from which earth has been 

Has. Pleasure, delight, ioy, glee. 

H^ge iSeloKkana. It looks beautiful. 
Okoeko hataoaP JahEe h^an hofko. Who 

wiU take (or buv) them ? any person who 

is pleased with them. 
NuiaM h^^ din do calaoentaea. His day of 

pleasure is past, «. 6. he is old. 

hS' jaA. } '^^ '^'^ ^^^- 

H^ A neck ornament of brass or 

H9,s. A goose. 

Hasa. ■) Earth, soil, land, to bury, to be 
Has. J destroyed, to become soil. 

Hasa hopmo. Mortal body. 

ISj hJT* } ^^^ ^®^^ ^y ***® Zemindar. 

Sebel hasa. Qood, fertile soil. 

Qitil hasa. Sandy soil. 

Arel hasa. White silt mixed with the water 

from melted hailstones, and supposed to 

possess medicinal properties. 
Beh^a hasa. Stiff, clayey soil. 
Bunum hasa. Earth from an ant bill, used for 

plastering purposes as it is very fine and 

nee from grit. 
Dhiri hasa. Stoney soU. 
Jatah hasa. Bed ola^. 
Pond hasa. White silt, used as whitewash for 

Tirom hasa. A kind of extremely friable soil, 

which produces nothing. It receives its 

name from bein||f the kind of soil in which a 

species of Martm ((irom) burrows to make 

its nest. 

Qamoha hasa. A kind of soil sometimes used 

to give cloth a reddish clour. 
Kahkaf hasa. Earth mixed with nodules of 

limestone, jrravelly soil. 
Hende hasa. filack soil. 
AraH hasa. Bed soil. 
Lipindi<i hasa. Soil mixed with decomposed 

Bali hasa. Earth containing iron stone sand. 
Pakhasa. Silt. 
Nafkan hasa. A kind of f uUer's earth used to 

wash the hair with. 
Hasa of!. A kind of edible mushroom. 
Hasaadeako. They buried him. 
Guri6 has. Soil manured with cattle dung. 

H^lsae khelae. Fun, frolic*; gleeful. ; 

Hasae khelaeko k^mia. They do their work 

Hasae khelaeko joma. They eat with glee. 

Hasae khelae hof obon ira. We reap the rice 

Hasae khelae menattkoa. They are in high spir- 

H9,sdalc. One of the twelve tribes or 
septs into which the Santals are 

Has ga^lak. A pit from which earth 
has been dug. 



[ 2J2 .] 

Hat bacha 

Has hSsil. I Two mythical birds, a male 

Hfts hasin. ) and a female, who, accor- 
ding to Santal tradition, were the 
progenitors of the human race, the 
first man and woman being pro- 
duced from theii* eggs. 

Hasi. ] 

Hisi hSsi [Fun, frolic, jesting, jok- 

Hasi tamasa. j ing. 

Hasi thatha. I 

• * * ^ 

J^VLjiskHtiti metadea, hSsi hiai, are a^rikeda. 1 
said to him jestingly, and lie took it in 

Hasi hanao. To be in an evil state, to 
meet with loss, injury, damage, &c. 

Uni hasi hanaoena. An injury has beflulen him 
(got a bad name, Ao.) 

Unijre hasi hanaokecbona. He has oansed in- 
jury' to us. 

Hasi khelae. Fun, frolic. 

Hasi khelaeteye dinedft. He spends the day in 
making fun. 

Hasil. Produce ; to get, to come into 

Sossession of. 
bail hoelena. There was no crop. 

Hasi tamasa. Fun, frolic, joking. 
Hasi thatha. Joking, fun, jesting. 
Has Jan. The collar bone. Cf. jan baha. 

Hasli. A metal ornament worn round 
the neck. 

Hasli ghao. A sore on the neck or 
collar bone resembling the hftsli 
neck ornament (q. v.) in shape and 
contour; suppurating glands of 
the neck. 

Hasna. To joke, to make fun with. 

Hasnak. Cf. husnak. 

• • 

Hasnua. To joke, to poke fun, to 
make fun with. 

Haso. Pain, bodily or mental. 

Bohotf haso. Head ache. 

La^ haso. BeUy aohe, any bowel complaint. 

4^i haso. It is very painful. 

Hasur. To set, as the heavenly bodies. 

Ber hasurenae. The sun has set. 
Ghosn'agarre here h%8ura£lea. The sun set 
when we were at Ghosnagar. 

Hat. ") A moveable market, a market 
Hatia. J held at intervals, generally 
of a week. 

Kaerako ha(a. They offer plantains for sale at 

the market. 
ITni koejoiie hatott kana. He has gone to the 

market to beg. 
Hat bafa mokoilkateli mar joftkana. Haying 

finished marketing I am returning home. 

Hatbajar, Market and bazaar with 


Hat To lay hands on, to arrest. 

Ha^kedeteko hajotkedea. They laid hold of 
him and put him in prison. 

Hata. Hair on the pubes. 
Hata. A compound, a piece of ground 
surrounded by a ditch. 

Hata badi To vie, to contend, to con- 
test; rivalry. 

Unkin dokin hata b^iakana. They are 
competing against each other. 

Hata baji. Cf. hata badi. 
Ha^a ba^i. C£ hata b^di. 
Hatahut. One beyond another,clustered. 

Hatahutko dufupakana. They are sitting 

clustered together. 
Hatahut burn menaka. There are hills b^ond 


HataK . A winnowing sieve, used also 
for sifting grain. 

The hatak' is oblong in shape, and has a raised 
rim round three sides. 

Hatam hutum. To waddle like a fat 

Hatai^. The brain. 

Hathao \^^ take, to receive, to accept. 

Ke, hatsbope. Here, take it. 
Bhaee bhageatte hataoana. He has taken the 

Hatao. To push back or away, to over- 
Hataori. A hammer. 

Hatar. Meanwhile, for the present, 
used only in combination with 
other verba 

Taka banuK hataftiiia. I am at present with- 
out money. 

Dakall jom hatafa. I shaU meanwhile eat my 

Unie sen hatafena. He has gone on ahead. 

Jiwi hatapne. Have patience. 

Non^e tahe hataroXme. Stay here for the 

MenaK hatafgea. Not yet exhausted, there ia 
some still. 

Hatar. To scrape the tongue to cleaa 

Alah hatarokme, dataoni oir^kate. Hatarenali.. 
Sblit the twig tooth brush and scrape and 
clean your tongue. I hare cleaned my 

Hatar. To reap, to cut off. 

Ir rakap hatar rakap. 

Hat badia. To select, to choose. 

Amgebafe hat baohakate hataome. Do jou. 
select for yourself. 

Hat bat 

[ 223 ] 


Hat bat To buy at a market. 

Hilt bftim dakan*. I went to do my marketiiig. 

Hat capra. To acknowledge acceptance 
of a gift by placing the hand on it. 

Used ffenerallj witii regard to preeents of live 
Animals giren in oonnection witn marriages. 

tt\ ^** Active, energetic, skilful, 

Hat chu^. • «°^' ^^^'^ ^ "^^^^- 
Tj ^ .• ment. 

Hat cuti. ) 

Hat cut! hor kanae. He is an aotiye man. 

Ha|4aW. ) The Milky-way. 
Panjar dahar. J j j 

Hate. Hear, listen. 

Hate, tale linren. Hear, a fruit of the Palmyra 
palm has fallen. 

Ha^ea. A moveable market. C£ hat. 
Hatear. C£ hathiar. 

TT^.i P^ t f ^^ * short time, at once. 

Hatkepat caba gofkalpe. Finish it at once. 

Hatha. A large eiuthenware cup 
with a handle, used to lift guf from 
the boiling pan. 

Haf ha badi. To vie, contend, compete, 

Hatha baji. To vie, contend, compete. 

Hathao. Cf. hatao. 

Hathaari. A hammer. 

Hath chutL *) Active, energetic, skilful. 

Hath cutL J smart, quick in move* 

ment, especialktr of the hands. 

Hath oa|i hof kanae. He is an aotiTe man. 

Em dapofa^me daya hathea doe ropeda. Ijet it 
be given to him, he pleads piteonsly, 

HathL An elephant. 

Hathi sonda. An elephant's iusic, irory. 
Hathi san4. A ele{>hant*s trunk. 
Hathi leka porob d^i na o^ok oalaoen. 

HathL Importunate, clam(»'ous, per- 
sistent, self-willed headstrong. 

Nniffidr^do ^^i h^tl^geae, denkhon j^arom 
do bae mens. This ohild is very impor- 
tunate, he never gets beyond saying " give. ' ' 

Jadopati^ do ^iko h^t^iu^* Ck)njurer8 are rery 

Hathia japul Seasonable, as rain. 
Hathia kakira. A spieces of Hzard. 

Hathiar. An instrument, implement, 
arms, also draught cattle, oxen, 

buffaloes, &c. 

Hathi^rge bfnuttkottiia. I hSTe no plough 

Hathiau. Cf hatiau. 

Hathi ol A verv large mushroom 

which onlv old people eat. 
Hathi uri6. A small bird. 

Hathua. A large earthen pot or jar in 
which ffV/f IS kept. 

Hati. To importune, clamour for, to 

persist in begging. 
Hatia. Cf hat. 

• • • • 

Hatiar chucha. 1 p-xr i 
Hatear chucha. J 

Hatiare. To beseech humbly and pres- 
singly; pitiously, pitifully. Cf 
daya hatiare. 

Hatiau. 1 To take, to lay hands on, to 
Hathiau./ help oneself to. 

Bhage jaegaT^ h^i^uaka^a. I hare taken 

some good land. 
Gutek ^ele h^ti^naka^a. He laid his hands on 

a big piece of meat. 
Khube h%ti%uana. He has helped himself well. 

Hatid. To share, to divide ; a division, 
a chapter. 

Hatiiienale. We are divided into companies. 
H^iili hor kanae. She is a widow, or ne is % 

Qo6 h^ti^. ) To be separated by death, as 
Go^ hap^ti^* > husbana and wife. 
Aurilah god hapatilloK habid. Until we are 

separated by death. 
Kuidobae baiicaoKa, sahe€ h^t^ioKkantaea. 

He will not reooyer, he is bireathing at lonir 

Beta h^til^tiiime. Share it with my son. 

Hatkan. A common plant during the 
rains, Leea macrophyUa. 

puri% hqktVan. Leea hirta. 

Hatkao. To be repulsed, to be driven 
back, to retire, to be defeated.' 

Oka lekatehS bae hatkaoVkan tahSkana. He 
would in no respect give way. 

JlT iSr^ f '^^ lessen, to hinder. * 

Alope ha&aoiiia, sen oooadpe. Do not hinder 

me, let me go. 
BanilS jomke^ktian hatkao pro^^dae. I took 

memcine and was immediately relieved. 

Hatkari. Handcuffii, manacles. 

Hatkhari. A method of divination 
resorted to during illness, or when 
there has been a theft, or cattle, 
&a strayed. 

When the question is whether a sick person 
will recover or die the diviner^ sittuig on 
the nound marks three circles in the sand, 
one for recovery, one for a fatal termination, 
and one for a protracted recovery. Then 


E 224 J 



Suddenly, without warn- 
ing, quickly, imme- 

taking a piece of wood about the sise of a 
lead pencil in his hand he holds it' perpendi- 
cnlarly and strikes it gently on the ground, 
at the same time inyoking supernatural 
direction. His hand is believed to be direc- 
ted bj the deity or deities whose aid has 
been sought^ and the circle to which it 
moves supplies the answer. 
Noko cei!ko ceraeda? Hatkhariedako. What 
are tiie^ doing ? They are divining by means 
of a stick. 

HatM. Imi,^^^^ -x 



Hatok marte. 
Hatok mente. 

Hatokgeye eo& gof ena. He died suddenly. 

Haiokgeye he6 gof ena. He came without warn- 

All jom tora hatok marte o^ok goCena. As soon 
as he heard it he rushed out. 

Ill ren munis do hatok mente kathftge bae ati- 
joma. My servant does not immediately 
attend to my orders. 

Hatok. To ffo to the market. Cf. hat. 

Koejoh lagi£e natoMkana. He is going to the 
market to beg. 

Hatokkite. I Without circumspection, 
Hatokkarte. | .^ekssly, without con- 
HatokkuriteJ^^'^®'**'**"' ** once.easily. 

Hatokkaete alom emoKa. Do not give without 

Hatokkarte alom soroXa bana then. Do not go 

carelessly near the bear. 

Hatok kuria. Cf. hatokaete. 

• • • 

Hatom. Aunt, father's sister. 

, Hatomitf . My aunt. 
Hatomme. Thy aunt. 

Hatpat Sound of rustling, or of the 
feet of some one passing ; quickly, 

, Ha^patili alijomledea. I heard him passing 
(making a sound resembling hatpat.) 

Hatra h^tri. ^Searching with the hands, 
Hatra hutra./ groping or feeling here 
and there to find something. 

. Hatra h%tri t^m^ao bafaedae. He is groping 
here and there. 

Hatrao. ") To grope, to feel for, to search 
Hatrau. J for with the hands. 

Hakokoo hatfaoe6koa. He is groping for ^fish. 

Scottioe. OvddUn, 
The]ifl[]i hatrao liamleda. I groped for my 

stick but did not find it. 

Hat sudga. An insect so called. 

Hatwa. To lay hold of, catch, grasp any 
moving object. 

Hatwa godeme se. Lay hold of him. 

Hatwa. A piece of wood used as a 

handle for the carkha (q. v.) and 

carkhi (q. v.) 
Hatwa hatwi. To ^rasp repeatedly at 

any moving object. 
Hatwek. A person who exposes goods 

for sale in a hat (q. v.) or market. 

Hatya. Weak, emaciated, restless, 

Hatya seta kaikf iye garjaoeda. The lean dog 

Hatyar. C£ hathiar. 

Hau hau. To make a noise, or din ; 
noise of a crowd when heard at a 
distance, bark of dog, bow-wow. 

Hau hfuko ruheda. 

Agipe h^uh^ulkana. You are making a greet 

Haula. Belonging to the Saatal rebel- 
lion. Cfhul. 

H9ul%bapla. A marriage contracted during 
the reoellion. 

H^ul^ b^hu. A womftn married during the 

The idea was current during the pacification of 
the oountry that married people would not 
be deported by the British Government, 
and as a result marriages of convenience 
were very popular. 

Haulat. A loan, an advance without 

H^ul^t takali hataoa. I will take a loan of 

Haundi To defraud, to oppress. 
Haur^u. To make a disturbance, din, 

A4ih%urfu adjomoKkana. There is a great din. 
Alosepe h%ur^ua. Do not make a din. 

Hawa duk. Cholera. 

Hawal "iNews, condition, state. 

Hal hawal. J Cf. hal. 

MotenaM hal hawal ce^eka. P What is the newa 

of this part P 
AleaK hal hiwal l^kome. TeU them how wa 


Hawal muruuL A species of snake. 

Hawan. The flank. 

Hawarf wa. To make a noise or din. 

Onte cef ko hq^w^r^w^eda ? What din are they 
making over there. 

Hawel To dry, to dry up. 

Jof haweil. To wipe, to d&y, as by a towBl, 
Hatf wef aK kagat. Blotting paper. 
Hawedo&a nahaM. It will d^ presently^ 

Haya. To feel a desire for, to long for. 

A^ diniii b^giakata, 9^ili havaafcuia. I have 
left it off for many days, and amjnow longing 
for it. 

Bar hapta khonid hayaakana. I have wished 
for it during two weeks. 


[ 225 ] 


Hayam, 1 Indistinctly, partially, 

Ebyam hayam, j under salted. 

Biiln& jati^aMpe na^am adaakana. Put in a 

« little more salt, it ia only partially salted. 
Hayam hayamill aii jomkeda. 1 heard partially 

(or indistinctly.} 
Uta hayam fik^dUnuia. The relish is imder- 
H6. Yes ; to admit, to agree, to as- 
sent; true. 

H5ente. Tea, of course. 

HS ee ooh. Tes^ sorely. 

HS Vanffea. It is a fact. 

HSffme bare. Do agree to it. 

HSlkedae. He admitted it. 

Ei khan do h9 ge, bah khan do bah ge. 

Heben. Unpalatable, as some kinds of 
wild pot herbs. 

jT" !» [To come, to approach, 

He6 hijnipe. Gome c[mokly. 

Perako heoadea. Friends visited him. 

Diaa heoadea. He remembered, 

Nel hejeape. Yon will see him come. 

SiO^ hed ocoaepe. Wait till the saheb oomes. 


He*. To pluck leaves. 

3«-Tr«^m hed ^gnipe. Plnok and bring leaves. 
Sakamleheja. We will plnok leaves. 
Tejo alope salaMkoa, sakam sakam hejpe. Po 
not inolnde caterpillars plnok leaf by leaf. 

Hedei. ") To boil, to bubble, as boil- 
Hedejolf. j ing water. 

Bhakar bhakar h^ejoKkana. It ifl bolting and 

Jiwi he^ejolkantiaa. I am in high spirits. 
Bat he4eo oooeme. Boil some water. 

Hede gode. One after another, on the 
heels of each other, together, in a 

He^e go<leko jom linkeda. They ate Qn« after 
the other. ^ , ^ 

▲pe do nonde fae^e go^e han^ipe Anieda. Ton 
are collected here drinking bear. 

Hedel guda. \ A game played by chil- 

Hedel gudiaj dren. 

He4er heder. Sound produced by the 

carkha or spinning wheel when 


Carkha he^or bei^r ai^ea. 

Hedet heder. To come again and a- 
gain, to keep coming, as a cow 
whose young calf is tied up at 

Heder hedere hijnKkana. He persists in coming. 

He^ok.1 A cry to goats, pigs, &c. when 
He4ok.J driving them. 

Hedi^ Tattered and holed, rj^ed. 

Hedre^ hedreie bandeakana. She ia dresaed in 

rairged cloth. 
Hedreo mars m^jin. A slnt. 

H6h6. Yes, yea 

Hg hS, in%ge rorme. Tes, yes, say no more. 

HeheL \To wear away ; to wash or 

Hehelois.j float away, as dirt, dust, 

froth, &c. on, or mixed with water. 

Hon menatfkoa, neMS non^eko hebelakafa. 
There are rats here, see they have worn 
this plaoe smooth. 

DaKte m^ila hehel oalatfkana. The dirt ia 

being carried away by the water. 
Toro^ ddUt nelS h^el oalatfkana. 

H6ha. A large jungle scandent plant, 
MUlettia duricvZata, Baker. 

H6ho. Used to call attention, look 
here, hey. 

Heho. Used to call attention, hey; 

Heho, note adjome. Hey ! listen here. 

H6h5. Yes, exactly so. 

HShS m hSd iielledea. Exactly so, I also saw 

Heholok. 1 To stcmd idly about, to idle, 
Heholot J sad, down hearted. 

Oe^pe cekaeda P heholof baraekanape. What are 
von np to P Ton are idling when yon 9hP«14 
be working. 

Heholotf ko dnrnpakaiM. The are sitting and 
looking sad. 

H6htL To express assent, to hum and 

Ma noa do hSkal hftkaK, alope gni%ntabona. 
H6h1Lpe. Express your assent by saying h§hU . 

Hej. Disrespectfully, tauntingly, de- 
tractingly;, disparagingly. 

Uni hot do hejge ropae. He speaks disrespect- 

Heje beje. Indistinctly, 
rieje b^Jeye roredft. He speaka indtstinotly. 

Heje peje. Wet, slushy. 

Behda hasa (ben daite hor heje peje lelijeC %i- 

Hejer. ITq roll the skin back from off 
Hujur.J the prepuce. 
Hejer. To cut off, aa the head of a 
goat, to pull off leaves. 

MaXhejer gofnteme. Behead him. 

HeJ heje. M.) To stand with the fee^ 
Hij hiji. F. ) apart, to straddle. 

Hi] hijiye tehgoaUfta, 8h« US 9l»j)dmg inth her 
feet wide apart. 

Hejle6. Dirty, untidy. 

Oral hejleige lleloXkantakoa. Their honse 

looks nntidy. 
NBi he^lei mara gidrf . This dirtr Mamp o^ a 




t 226 1 


H6k. 1 To cut the wind or breath 

H6k mente.. >• from one, bs by a blow 
H^kmarte. J between lihe shoulders. 

Kun^V itteve rorkeda hSIcmenteti d^karkeda. 
He epoke so loud as to quite take away my 

Heke. Right, just. 

Koa do heke kangea. liamgeae. This is just, he 
will get it. 

H6ko. To brag, to boast, to chatter. 

A4iye hSkoefkana. He is yery boastful. 

Hekoc baL A fit of belching. 

H6koh6ko. To sob as a child after a 
fit of crying. 

Hel. Time. 

Ki% helili hijuMkaaa, ar do bad hijuXa. I am 
ooming this onoe, but won't come again. 

Mi^ lagaete bar hele he6ena. Counting tUs 
time he has oome twioe. 

Ar mit hel doii delgea. I will try it onoe more. 

Hela. To neglect; negligently, care- 

'; l^^miye helakeda. He neglected his work. 

Hela. A large area covered thickly 
with cut brushwood ; abundant. 

Hela sahanko mtm, 'They will out a very large 

quantity of firewood. 
Qela sahan lekako goike^kea. They kiUed 

them like brushwood. (walena. 

Burudisom reil tabe ka na, hela sahanteli he- 
T^n^i disomtem nf gukedM. I was in a hilly 

country, where I was accustomed to 

abundant firewood, You brought me to a 

country cleared «f wood. 

Hela hili. To neglect, to slur over, to 
be remiss. 

Cedal nonkape hela hiliefkoaP Why do you 
neglect them (cattle) Hke tills P 

Helao. To move on, to drive in. 

Okatepe helaoenaP "Wliere are you off top 
Eneoko helaoena. They have begun to danpe. 
K^mireye helaoaka^koa. He has put them to 

Ona khetrege 4«hrae helaokeCkoa. He droye 

the cattle in^ that field. 

Hetta. JGareleesly. 

Ce^ lekai 

ipeffapiahelapelaP QMBly. 

Helapelako K%mikana. They are working care- 

Hele6. To cut through or off with a 
stroke, to snip off end. 

Merom hele6 gofkaeme. Gut off the goat's head. 

Helem. 1 A bad taste in the 

Helem helem. ) mouth, as of one in 

Mooa helem helemid a^kare^. There is a bad 
taste in my mouth. 

Helmel. Frigidly, affectionate. 

44i helmel menalkina. lliey are rery friendly 
with each other. 

Helta. A young bamboo Bhoot.* Cf, 

• • • 

Koa do helta do bah kana, ma^ena. This is not 
a bamboo shoot, it has become a bamboo 
■(become hardO 

Helta. A clod. 

Hasa reaK hel^a. A clod of earth. 

Hemal. Damp, moist, as soil, cloth, &c. 

Hemal khtLn. Ta cause abortion. 

Hembrom, \Oneof the twelve 

Hembrom Etlar. ) tribes or septs 

into which the Santals are divided. 

C£ hemrom. 
Heme. Poor, indigent. 

Ban4i era heme era. Widows and poor women. 

Hemeryt^K. "1 Disappointed, sad, 
HemermeySlc. J downcast. 

Hemer j5Ke ruff calaoena. He went away disap- 

HemSpneySKili dupupakiuia, ce€h5bahko pu- 
chf uedilia. I am sitting downcast no one 
takes any notice of me. 

Hemhem. Unpalatable, as some kinds 

of wiW pot herba 
Hemkhem. To delay, to loiter, to 

waste time. 

Ce^pe hemkhem bafaekanaP hakopako k%mi 
nodpe. What are you wasting tone forP 
do tite work at once. 

Hemrom. 1 One of the twelve 

Hembrom Etlar. / tribes or septs 
into which the Santals are divid- 
ed. Cf. hembrom. 
Hena. Doubtless, more than likely, a 
moral certaint^^ 

Do se llelepe jomkedae teut. Go and see hha 

he has most likely had his food. 
Uni saram doe gurena hena, ente khub thud 

Jhuakadea. That deer has most Ukely 
alien, for I shot himefleotlTely. 

H6na. *) To exist, be in enstenoe, to 
H^nali. J be. C£ mena. 

OfaXre knenaeaP H8; hSnaegea. Is he at 
homeP Yes ; he is at home. 

Hena. Hark ! an address to females. 

Henat. Im 

HenaK. T*' ""P"^ *'°«- 

Monre hena£adifSa. I felt the force of it. 
Noa kathad henaK iioXada. I partly beliere 

Henda. 1 Used to call attention, hark ! 
Hendaho.j look here ! hey ! 

Henda ho! gidrape lielkedetiliaP Look here! 
did you see my ohildP 

Hend hindi 

[ 227 1 


Henda hindi To concede precedence, 
to urge each other to do anj^hing, 
to transfer ren>onsibility or prece- 
dence to another. 

Henda bindi bafaekanako. Therf are eaoh 
idling the otiher to do (something.) 

Hende. Black. ' 

Kale nato hende knri Injer lekae delol, Bare 
nato talat^ko nioiedelEui. 

Hende bengaf. A variety of the egg 
plant, Solanum, rtieUmgena, 
Linn., baying a black fruit. 

Hende6. ")Not fiilly taught, 

Hende6 pendei. J learnings inefficient. 

Oidrf lekahendei penMe k^mikanft. Ha is 

bangHng at hia work like a child.. 
Uni gidr^ hende6 pende^ kfmi bafaeds. 

Hende pende. Putting off time. 

Hende pende bafaekanae, bae k%nrikana. He la 
putting off hia time and not working. 

Hender. Worn bare, hare, smooth. 

Dniiip hen^erkedako noa luunbra. Thia 
bumket has been worn bare (all the nap 
worn off) by people aitting on it. 

Noa gfaSa doko hen4erakafa. They have wpm 
away this grass. 

Hender hender. Parts smooth and 
parts rough, parta bare and parts 
with grass, &c. 

Hender hender hor. A road parta of which are 
smooth and parts rough. 

Hende ritha. Dirty, filthy. 

Hende ri^h^ kiorii menaltaea. She has dirty 

Hendo. Lounging about. 

Hen^o baraekanae noakore. He la lounging 
abont nere. 

Hen^or hendor. Sound produced by 
spinning wheel. 

Hen^ra. Worn bare, threadbare, as 
cloth ; bare, smooth. 

He6 hen^ra oabaentaea. He h^ loat hia eye 

Hendra.M.1 Hair fallen off and left the 
HuKjirL F. J skin bare or only thinly 

^nr hen^raentaea. Hia hair haa fallen from his 

Hen^ron hen4ron. Sound produced by 
wooden axle working in a wide 

Sagar do sa^ea hen^roh hen^roh. 

Henem. Sweet. C£ herem. 

Heneo. In arms, as an infemt. Cf. heo. 

Heneogidrf A child in arms. 

Hene phene. Weeping and speaking at 

the same tima 
Hene£. C£ henat. 

Noa hatha do monere ba&henefa^oa. This 
statement had no loree with them. 

Henla. Poor, ignorant. 

Heiila mara hof. A benighted creature. 

HeiitjetS. To dry up, to become empty, 
to run dry. 

Jom helije tfa kad e alKK They have eaten him 

Are^ heiije^kedako. They have baled it dry. 

HeAje£ he6je£. Numerous, in crowds. 

HeAjet heiije^ko hijulkana. They are coming 
m crowds. 

HeiSjlan peAjIan. Dirty, imperfectly 
cleaned, half-washed, slovenly. 

Noath^rihedjlaii pedilahko ntilakaila. They 
hare scoured this brass plate very imper- 

Dal m^D^i hel&Jlah pelS jlahkp emadilia. Th^y 
gave me food in a yery sloTenly manner. 

Henosta. To tail at, to despise, to 
contemn, to scout, to scoff at. 

A4i h^ostae rora. He speaks contemptuously. 

Henra. *) M. *) Bare, or thin as an ani- 
Hinri >T. / mal* or person whose 

hair has fallen out. 
Hensta. C£ henosta. 
Hente. There, over there. 

Hente dogoKme. Moye away a little. 

HenteSnae. He is dead. 

Heute tondi calaKa* I WiU go fromi there^ 

Hentere. Over there. 

Hentere dufufiakanae. He is sitting over there. 

Heo. To carry astride the hip, as is cus- 
tomary in India to carry children* 

Heheoi6. A nurse. 

Heojoh. To beget children. 

Bae heoakawana. She has had no difldren. 

H6o h6o. Call of peafowl. 
Heo(}a. To stir, to mix up, as water in 
a tank or pool. 

Oetanre dhip^uakana dai do, heo^akate duime. 
The water is hot on the surface, mix it up 
before drinking. 

Heola. To disturb, to mix by stirring, 
of liquids. 

Heolaleenei mil^uKa. It must be stirred before 

it will mix. 
Heola milf oako. They mix it by stirring. 

Hepajot. To take care of, to nurse. 

Nui do bape hepajotledea. Tou did not take 
of him. 


Hepel hepel 

Hepeiko mit ae6 maejinko mii aei. Hen on 
one ^e women on the other. 


A man, men. 


[ 228 1 



Heper hen^e. To hang abont. 

NoKo do heperhen^e baj^ae hsaiako. TImso people 
are himging about. 

Hei". To wear away, to trim, pnine. 

Ohnri alom hof\i6m, vo not wear away (the 

edge of) my knife. 
Kn^i do her khatoena. The hoe has worn short. 
P^ herme. Lop the brandiet. 

Hera ghesa. To be intimate, femiliar 
with, on terms of intimagr, 

Uni teHd do «<li hera grhesalili tahdkana. He 
and I were on terms of close intimacy. 

Heralf . Brown, applied to fowls only. 

Hef aK sim. A brown nen. 
HeraK kalo^. A brown pnllet. 

Heran. An exclamation of surprise, 
' surprisingly, extremely, intensely. 

Heran mt h5 bae he^akana. It is sarprising 

that he h as not yet come. 
Hera& marahgea. It is snrprisingly great. 

Herad petad. Perfunctorily, care- 
lessly, imperfectly, 

Herah petaiie jomkeda. He let food fall while 

eating. (fnnotorily. 

Heraii petahe ampbarakeda. He waafaed it per- 

Herca*M.\Havingastiff thigh or knee 
Hifci. F. J joint, to walk a« one suffering 
from talipes equinua? 

Hercad. \Applied to the gait of 

Hercan hercad. / one with a stiff thigh 
or knee joint. 

Here. Husk after removal from grain. 

Horo here. The hnsks of ri'^e. 
■ Horo here leka ^aka menatttakoa. Mcmey is as 
plentiful with them as rice hnsks. 

Here6 ture6. One aft^r the other. 

Ce^lekape hijnikana here<^ tnre6P How are 
yon coming one after tiie other P 

Here gese. Continually, always. 

Mon<|e here gese dnrnp baraekana. He is oon- 
tinuall;^ sitting abont here (expecting to get 

Here jiat. Wife's grandmother. 

Here ji^t ki<»ii. A doth given to the bride's 
grandmother at a marriage. 

Herel. A man, a husband. 

Ale herel hen^re. Among ns men. 

Herel hopon. A male. 

Herel doe gofientaea. Her hnsbaod is dead. 

Hepem. Sweet, delicious. 

Herep. Used only in combination 
with other verlls, a little, a little 

Giti<S herej) gofakanae. He has jnst fallen 

Jom herep godoKkano tah5kana. Ho was jnst 

beginning to his food (when he had to 

leave it.) 

^el here^ go(!kede»li. I Jnst caught a glimpse 
of hun for a moment. 

Here phere, 1 Time after time, fre- 
Qhuri phiri. J quently, always, 

Non4e here pheseye ^nr baraekana. He is 
always loafing ronnd here. 

Hergoe hergoe. Constantly, every 

Hergoe hereoe partja bafaea. Beoonstantly 

follows her about. 
Hergoe hergoe hijnXkanae. He comes every 


Herhec. To weed, to pull up weeds. 

Herhe€ t^n^ipe. Weed it dean. 
Herh96a)f besge dareSa. Weeded oropa 
grow weU. 

HerhiiSjad.|The trunk of a high tree 
Hirhi6jafi./ which has no branches 

till near the top, as a palmyra 

palm, &;c. 
Hermel To put or hold under the 


Kitfkpe herme^akaila. He has the book nnder 
his arm. 

Herpat'. To sit for a long time in one 

Konge nnn ghfrun herpafakanaP Have yon 
been sitting here all this time P 

HMi, hisi. Each telling the other to 
to do something. 

Hesak. The Pipal tree, a species of 
fig which grows to a very large 
size, Ficu8 rdigioans, Willd. 

The petioles of the leaves of the HesaX are 
very Icmg and slender, whence the constant 
trembling of the leaves arising from the 
most gentle air of wind as in the aspen tree 
(FopuUts tremula.J 

Adorn adorn horhesaMsakamlekangeako. Some 
men are Hke the leaves of thenesaS tree. 

I9 ho, bare jom hesaX jomkhon mar heJena kin. 
Hark ! the two who eloped (and have lived 
on the fmit of the Banyan and Hpeil trees) 
have come back. 

Hese. To cut through, to snip off, to 

Sahanko hese iinrh^iako. They cnt off (branches) 
for firewood. 

6rgako hesepea. Those who aS^ hnman eao- 
rifioes wiU cnt off yonr head. 

Hese6 sekre6. To be merry, to enjoy 
oneself; merrily, gleefully, with 

A4i hese6 sekretS casko samtaoa. They gather 

in the harvest gleefully. 
Jomtobon hesec sekrejoKma. Let ns eat »^ 

make merry. 

Hesel. A common forest tree, Ano- 
geiaaus latifolia, Wall. 


[ 229 ] 

Bi^an tbapad 




H^sraa To F^t, to breathe heavily, 
ae one sunering from bronchitia 

H6t To overcome, to vanquish, to 

Unili hetakadea, iti nohge kamird ohoo daf elena. 

I haye beaten hhii,ne cannot work along 

with me. 
tJni do dadatte£e hS^kedes. He did better 

than his elder brolJier. 

H6t. Skill, aptitude. 

Het banoKtaea. He has no skiU. 

Hgt Loy, low down, lower. 

He( knlM. The lower street, down the street. 

Hetao. To heed, to regard, to pay 
attention to, to obey. 

IroK lokhod gele cha^a oei h5 bako hetaoa. At 
the time of harrest they will pay regard to 
nothing save oars of ^ain. 

11^ aR raK hetaoatiiime. Fay attention to my 

H6tao. To over come, to vanquish. 
* Cf. h6t 

Heter. \To cut through, or off, by a 
Hetrao./ stroke with a sword, &C. 

IfaK hetef gofkam. Slash it off. 

Alom oalaKa, hetef tanaXkomako. Do not go, 

they may ont off your head. 
Hetef go£ kiteme. Behead him. 

Hetet \To provoke, annoy, irritate; 
Hethefc j means of provoking, &c. 

He(e€ geye liam babafakana, hor afereye sioK- 
kana. He is seeking a means of provocation 
ploughing so near me road. 

Ho^et leka thelaoKtegeye tahena. He is oontin- 
nally trying to proToke. 

He^£ geye liamkan tahSkana. Se was seeking 
a means of provocation. 

Ho to. 


Am do hita hof kanam, mase o^okalime. You 
are a known person, get a loan for me. 

Hetrao. To cut through or off by a 
stroke of a sword, &c. Cf. heter. 

Hewa. To accustom, to practice, to 
break in cattle, to inure, to ha- 
bituate, to season, to &miliarize. 

piei hewaenae. He is aocnstomed to the sight. 

Kami hewa. To accustom to work. 

Daf S hewa. To accustom to walk. 

Jom hewa. „ eat. 

Nn hewa. „ drink. 

Td hewa. „ to being tied up. 

Hewa gi^i. To be confirmed, inveterate. 

Komfo komfote hewag^iakanae. By contin- 
ued stealing he has become a confirmed 

Sahao hewa hof kanae. He is a man accustom' 
ed to fast. 

Paura alom i^u howaKa. Do not accustom your- 
self to drink liquor. 

a meauB oi pro vucauuu. 


^' !• Familiar, acquainted, known. 

Hiewa baiitaaa, onate bae jir^u daf eaXa, pha|k 
kargi^iedae. He hasnotbeen accnstomea 
to i^ and f«r that reason he cannot retain 
it on his stomach, he vomits it. 

Hewelbekel. Muddy, thick and dirty, 
as water ; rippling, as Water. 

Hewel bekel daK kana. It is dirty water. 
Hewel bekel daK ma^^iko liu ba|^aeda. They 

drink rice water which is just muddy like 

water (very thin.) 
Hewel bekel liMreli atkareda. There is a ripply 

in my stomach, (commotion.) 
Hewel bekel enale tehell do. Wehad only thin 

rice water for food to-day. 

Hewer. Over-salted. 

Hewer hafha(!. Bitter, as some unripe fruits. 

H6yo. Call of peacock. 

Hia. Love, solicitude, fondness, liking, 
' longing. 

Hia iala^e maya jala. 
Okakore com dafa baf ae. 

Hia khalas. Unreservedly, keeping 
back nothing. 

Hia khalas bafe rofme. Speak out freely. 
Hi% khalaste tahenme. Keep your mind easy. 

Hiati6. To sigh for, to mourn, to lament. 

Hana disomko hiatiliakkana. They are bighing 
for that other country. 

Hlcha. Wish, desire, lust. 
Hickau. To fear, to dread. 

Kacaharite calaK do hickangele a(karedia. We 

are afraid to go to court. . 
Bale oekamea, caRem hickautfkanaP We will 

not harm you, why are yon afraid P 
Hickau hiokanteged paromena. I was in dread 

all the time while passing. 

Hicki. Hiccup. 

Hioki 8ai>gofkedoa. 

Hicki bai. Convulsions beginning wit h 

Hicki bai sai>ledea. 

Hico hoco. To jerk the body up and 
down. Scottice, hotch. 

Koa dafahro bhariako hico hocoko rakapkana. 
On this ascent the banghywaUas jerk them- 
selves all the way up. 

CedaK noncjle hioohocom%curbafaekanaP Why 

are yon hoiking about hereP 
£iigo€kate hico hooo ene6 ene^teko calaXa. 

Bending down they go dancing jerking 

their bodies as they go, 

Hida hade. Walking with the feet 
wide apart and swaying the body, 

Hani tora calaoenae hi^> hage. 

Hii^lan thapan. 1 Emaciated and weak, 
Hin^an thapa6. j tottering, weary with 

Hi^aii t^paii tin%Kem oalaXaf Hdw far caa 
you go emaciated and weak as you areP 

Hi4a6 UtapaAt 

t 880 ] 


To stand with the feet wide 

Hi<j[aa thapaA. Thin, sparse, in patches, 
as badly germinated seed. 

Hi4a& tbapali janam^Mn. It has oome up 
yery epjftciie^wed.) 

Hejheie. ^ 

Hijhiji teiiproakanae. He is standing with his 
feet wide apart. 

Hidi6 dikir. Uneven, ups and downs, 
swaying, quickly. 

Hidio dikirko ene^kana. They are swaying to 

and fro while dancing. 
Hidid dikirko oalalUEana. They are going Tery 

Noa hor do hidi& dikifgea. This road is very 

much broken np (by riyer beds, &o.) 
Gotae Air baraekana hidi6 dikir. She is going 

here ana there swaying. 

Hi4ir hidir. Copiously, often, time 
after time, to trickle or flow, as 
tears, or blood from a wound. 

Hi^ir hi4ir ^tnkkana mayam do. The blood 

trickles down. 
Hi^ir mente me€ daX joroenttoa. The tears 

ran down her face. 

Hidir hidir. To come again and again, 
applied mainly to a cow whose 
calf is tied up at home. 

^4i hidir hidire hijnikana. He oomes time 
alter time, 

Hido hodo. All over, in many places. 

Hi4o ho4o siEoiam pafal oabaena. It is cracked 

(or split) all oyer. 
Kicn6 ^i orejottkantiiia hi^o ho^o. My cloth 

is tearing in many places. 

Hidra gisra. Dirty, imtidy, slatternly, 
applied to women only. 

Hidr% gisr^geae. She is untidy. 

Higa hage. With feet wide apart, to 

Hig^hageye calaKkana. He is walking with 
his feet wide aparf. 

Hlhl^u. To neigh, as a horse. 

Hihi koko. Flirting, laughing and 
speaking with men. 

Ce£ bah am dom hihi koko bafaekan. 
Hilii kokote din do calattkantama. You spend 
yonr days in friyolity. 

Hihiri Pipiri. ") The traditional home 
Hihihri Pipihri J of the Santals 

where the first man and woman 


u^^-% I A call to cattle when driving 

fi^ haje. 1 To straddle, to walk flli^t* 
Hiji hiji. J ly bent owing to inability 

to move the hip joints without 

HijhyL Cf. hi<}hi4i« 
Hike. Right, just, equitable. 

Hike do bako bicfra. They do not judge justly. 

Hikmat. Wisdom, knowledge, clever- 
ness, skill. 
Hilak dalak. ISwajdng, shaking. C£ 
Halak dalak. ) dalak dalak. 

Huf nhedae hil%k dalak. 

Hilau. To move, to shake, to tremble, 
to sway. 

Babahte hilanKkanae. He is shaking with oold. 
Bne^ jokfae^ko hilf ola. They sway while dan- 
pfr do alom hil^na. Do not shake the brttnoh. 

Hili. Elder brother's wife 

Hilili. IM^ elder broti&er's wife« 
Hilim. Thy „ „ „ 

HiUi His „ „ „ 

Hilia. "I Relation borne to an elder 
Hili h^lL J brother's wife by a broth- 
er or sister. 

Hili^k kanakin. 7 They are sisters-in-la'W, or 
Hili h^ kanakin. > brother and sister-in-law. 

Hilmil. Friendly, affectionate, on good 
terms with each oth^. C£ hebnel. 
HiloK. Day. 

En hilol. That day. 
Jao hiloff . 7 -ni , ,, , , a_^ 


Mafander hiloR. The day before yesterday. 
On mahnder hiloK. Three days ago. 
Sombar hiloK. Monday. 
Gnjol hUoI. Day of death. 

Hilwel Unpalatable, as certain unripe 
leguminous fruits, malhan (q. v.), 
hore6 (q. v.) &c., also as nuik at 
times; sour. 

Hilwe£ ge ^k^uXkami. It is unpalatable. 
Noa toa do hilwefgea. This milk is sonr. 

Him. Snow. 

HimaD. To confess, to admit. Cf hu- 

Hin. Low, deficient, weak, abated, 

UniaM dare hinentaea. His strength has be- 
come less. 

Nni sadom do tayom sen doe hingea. This 
horse is low in the hind (quarters. 

Mon do hingetaea. He is dejected. 

Noa kat do noX5e non^e hingea. This log is 
deficient in this part. 


X 281 ] 

Hirkha parkha 


Hindai^ thapan. Emaciated and weak, 
tottering, weak and tired- with 
ezertioo. C£ hi^an thapaii. 

Hindo. To hang about, as a child 
where work is going oh, or where 
there is something to be seen. 

Hin^ol. A kin4 of " Merry-go-roimd " 
or revolving swing. 

The Hindn hindolia proTided with wooden hor- 
see or elephants on which the riders sit, that 
of the JBantals with stools in which people sit 
and are whirled round with great Telocity. 
This sport is indulged in on the last day of 
the Saikrat (q. y.) festival. 

Hindron hon(Jro6. Sound produced 
by a wooden axle workmg in a 
worn wooden wheel; worn wide, 
as the hole in which an axle works 

Sagaf hin^roh hon^roh %oaroMkana. 

Hingu. Colouring produced bom the 

lac insect. 
Hiifihau« 1 

fiinhinau. VNeighof horses. 
Hfiheyai). J 
Hiiiiil Ihr, empty, of liquids. 

Dal dnl hidiSSkedae. He ponred all the water 

ont (snd left the yessel empty.) 
Ata hilSjidotta. It will run di^. 
Are6 hiliji£. To ponr ojf aU the liquid. 
Bohor hiiijidoS. To dry up. 

Hidjor. A large forest tree, Barring- 
Umia (ictUaifigtUa, 

Hidjrau. To mourn, to lament, to sor- 
row over. 

Nni do hidir^oitege tahenae. She n^ouma 

Hink^te ^onroime. Go xoimd by that way. 

Hinrihl6. F. "I Tall, as a human being; 
Birhi]6jan M. J long as the trunk of a 

high tree with branches only near 

the top. 
Hipif hipir Trembling, tremulous. 

ttee^X sakam hipir hipif. 

Bare sakam USh^r liShor. 

The trembling leayes of the Pipal tree. 

The glossy leayes of the Bamran tree. 

Hipiska. Reciprocal form of hiska 

(q- V.) 

Hir, Rice land reclaimed by throwing 
a dam across a stream or a nalla. 

Hira. A diamond, a term of endear- 
ment, a veiled term for a yoimg 
marriageable girl. 

HiraK hiralc. ") Scattered, disunited, 
Hirak harak. / separated. 

K%miako hif^M ha^idEena, jomkao do bail. 
The work people are scattered, they are not 
all in one place. 

Hir^os. Sulphate of iron. 

Hirad petan. *> Untidy, dirty slovenly, 
Heradpetaou J inefficiently. 

Nui gidr^ do dakae jomeda herah petah. This 
child eats his food in a sloyenly manner, 
(lets a part of it fall.) 

Hirair garer. ") Dirty, soiled, as by liquid 
Hiriy garir. ) trickling down from 

something being carried on the 


Hirir gtflif joroamkana, h^fU gem Helottkana. 
It is ronning down and soiling yon, yon 
look disgusting. 

Hirdani Sorrow, grief, mourning. 


Hiidau. J-To sorrow, to grieve, to mourn. 


^m hird^ulkana. 1 am yery sorrowful. 

Hirhai Exhausted, as soil, soured. 

Noa go4» do hifha^ena, ce€ hSbah hoyotta. 
This field is exhausted it produces notiiing. 

Hirhidjan.\Trunk of a high tree with 
Hirhir. J branches only near the 
top ; tall, as a man. 

Hirhilljaii dazeakana. The tree has grown high. 

Hirhir. Steep, as a hill side. 
Hiri. To visit, to make a call on. 

Hiri torakedead. I looked in on him as I waa 

Jahatis bare hirikaleme. Fftyusayiait some- 

Hiri6. To spill, to run over. 

He<le6 hiri^ena. It has boiled oyer. 

Hhrio p^siroia. It wiU spiU and be scattered. 

Hl|l6. A spasm of pain. 

Hlfli mente naso goCkediiia. 

Hiri6 parid.*) To spill and scatter as 
Hirid pasir. J water, grain, &c. 

Hlrlhli C£ hirhidjan. 

HiriiL To forget. 

Hifitikedali. I forgot. 

Hi|rili saekedeae. He utterly forgot him. 

Hirir garir. C£ hirar garer. 

Hirkha. 1 To hate, to abhor, to have 
Hirkhau. j an aversion to, to dispise. 

Hirkha parkha. ') Abhorrent, disgust- 
Hirkha pirkha. ) inff, despicable. ; . 

Hirkh% parkhae egerkedi&. She scolded me 
in a disgusting manner. 


( 232 ] 


Hirla. To trust in or to, to rely on, to 
confide in, to look to for protection 
and cherishing. 

UaSaX hirl^reli taheiia. I will remain traating 

in him. 
Hirl^kaiime. Put me in a position to haye 

some one to look to for protection and 


Hoponeraliko sanamili liid^ oabake€koa. I 

have married all my dauffhters. 
T7ni theniii hirli^Va. I will rely on him. 

Hirom. Co-wife, the second wife, 

Hiromadiiiae. He gaye me a co-wife. 

K%ph^ri%n bam alijomakafkhan hirom era 
ioiime. If yon have never heard qnarrel- 
ISng take to yourself a seoond wife. 

Hirom b^^. Solatium given to a finit wife 
when a «eoond is brought home. 

Hiromea. Co-wives. 

Nukin ^o hiromea kanakin. These two are oo- 

His. Shai'e, portion jpart, division. 

, Mit his nui doe l^ma. fite will get one share. 

Hisa. Part, portion, division, share. 
'C£ his. 

Hisab. Account, calculation, estimate. 

Behis^b. Without stint, very muoh. 
Hisabte. In accordance with. 

His^lia. Revengeful, envious, mischiev- 

Hoi hisalia hof do bae liel sahaoa. ^ This 
enyions man could not bear to aee it (an- 
other's welfare.) 

Hisi cgr6. The Weaver hird, Plocevs 

Hisi raj . The weaver bird, so named in eong on 
aoconmt of its beautiful nest. 

Hisir. *) Crystal, a white trans*- 

Dhiri hisir. J parent pebble. 

Dhiri hisir nialla. A necklace of crystal beads. 

Hisir hisir. Alwajrs, continually. 

Hisil Cf hoe hisil 

Hisif hiait. Gently, applied to the 

Hisi€ hisife hoeSda. There is a gentie breese 

Hiska. Envy. 

Hiska huluii. Envy. 

Hit. . 1 Friendship, love, affection. 

Hit pirit. > pleasure, friendly, affect- 
Hit mitar. J ionate. 

Hit pirit menaXkoa. They are on affectionate 
terms wiih each other. 

Hitan jharan. Sparse, scattered. 

44i hitaiL jfaaraii janamakana. It hae germin- 
ated very sparsely. 

Hitau. Familiar with, accustomed to. 

Kami hitau hof. A man accustomed to work. 
Noail hitauakafa. I am inured to this. 
- Noa disomreye hitauaka€a. He has become 

Hithitau« To sniper, to laugh, 
Hitihiii. To laugh. 

Alom hiti hitil^a. Do not laugh. 

Bill sattip hiti hi^ land getae. kamire bae kaja- 

koKa. He is laufi^ung the whole day, ne 

wiU never be a good workman. 

Hit mitar.l A friend, a visitor, to whom 
Hit mitor.J uncooked food is given. 
Hit pirit. C£ hit. 
Hitu, Familiar, acquainted, known. 

C£ heto. 
Ho. Used in calling attention. 
H8. Applied to the sound of the man- 

danbhe4 (q. v.) . 
H5. Also, even, too, besides. 

m hod oalaKa . I also will go. 

Cet h9 bah. It is nothing. 

Sor h5 bae soroKa. He will not eyen come near. 

H5ban. . .h5ban. Neither. . .nor. 

Hoboii hobon. Going here and there 

Tinal hoboii hobohem daf ana. 
Okate ooh hoboh hoboiie dafana. 
Kui g%i do hoboh hobobe liir bafaea. 

Hobor. Bosom, emlnrace. 

Gidra doe hoborakadea. She has the child in 

her bosom. 
T7ni hoborre menaea. He is in her arms. 
Hobor gofkedeae. He threw his arms round 


H56 h56. The call of a certain owL 

Hoclo. To be near, well nigh, all bub 

Kamibo hocloaka^a. We have nearly finished 

the work. 
Bin hoclo iioKakantalea. Hie day (some day 

fixed) is now near. 
Hodoenae. He is near. 

Hod. DiflScult, unintelligible. 

Noko hof sohge hodgell aikaueda. It ir diffi- 
cult to understand these people (or to deal 
with tbun.) 

Hodgo. Hairy, shaggy. 

Marah utar hodgo seta. Ayery large shaggy 

Hodgo hodgo can^bolanako. They haye very 

shaggy tails. 
Turuklekako hodgoXkana. Growing beards 

like Turks. 

Ho4gor. A piece of wood attached 
to an ajiimal's neck and trailing 
among its feet to prevent it run* 
ning away. 

Hodgor tolaeme a^iye darkana. Tie a log to his 
neck, he is giyen to ivnning away. 

Hodo hodo 

[ 233 1 


Hodo hodo. Of. hodgo. 

Hodo dodo. Quickly and indistinctly, 
applied to speaking. 

4^ hodo dodoe rofa. He speaks fast and 

Hodor hodor. Sound produced by a 
large volume of running water. 

Bafakar sa^ea hodor hodof . 

Hodor hodor. \ Sound produced by 
Hodgor. J dragging a piece of 

wood, &c. along the ground, to 


Tkehga no4or ho^ore or idieda. He drags his 
stiok with a grating sound along the ground. 

Hodor hodor. Sound of gulping. 

P%ara hodor hodofe Unkeda, He gulped down 

the liquor. 
Nui pituk do hodor hodore hohgorkeda, ar non- 

ie laser lasere gahnaraoa. 

Hoe. "1 1. To be, to become ; 2. to 
HoyoK. ■ be bom, to come into exis- 
Ho3ruK. J tence ; 3. to suflBce ; 4. to be 

fell, to happen ; to come to pass ; 

5. to be over, to come to an end, to 


1. Marahe hoyoKa. He will be great. 

2. Horo rohoe jokhe^e hoelena. He was bom 
at tiie time of the rice planting. 

3. Gel mokateli hoyoSa. Ten onbits (of oloth) 
wlU suffice for me. 

Pe ser caolete beJe ho^oKksna. Three seers of 
rioe are not sufficient for us. 

4. Ball emamkhan ce€ hoyoXa ? If I do not 
giye to you what will happen P 

HoelenaK. What has happened in the past. 
HoyoiaK. What wiU happen in the future. 

5. Eacahari do hoeena. The court is oyer 

Hoekedape ? HS : hoekedale. Have you finish- 
ed the (work) P Yes ; we have finished it. 

Sedae khon hoe hijuttkaiia. It has been thus 
from olden times. 

Hoe. Wind, air, climate. 

Hoee£kftnae. The wind is blowing. 
Hoe duk. Cholera. 

Hoe hoe. Thick- waist. 

Hoe daK. Storm, of wind and rain. 

Hoe datt un%ukeda. A storm is coming on. 

Hoe duk. Cholera. 

Hoe hisil The spell of the evil eye. 

Hioe hisii/ lagaoakawafmea. Yon are under 
the spell of the eyil eye. 

Hoe hoe. Immodestly, without train- 

Oe€lekae duru|Mtkana nui do hoe hoe. 

l^ui do k^mi bae ba4<Ma hoe hoeye haraakana. 

He does not know how to work, he has 

grown up untrained. 

Hoe. . .hoe. Either. . .or. 

Hoja beta, am h5 calaKme. 

Hoe ke bote. Yes, certainly, right, 

Hoele hoe. Instantly, hurriedly. 

Hoele hoegeye JiamkanA. He wants it in- 

Hoeto . . .hoeto. Either . . .or ; perhaps. 

Hoeto amem saboSa, hoeto id geli saboK. Either 

you or I wiU be caught. 
Hoeto hijuKae, hoeto bae hi]uSa. Perhaps he 

may come and perhaps he may not come. 

Hohae. An exclamation of surprise, 
used by women. 

HohaU. Ignorant, unlearned. 

Nui doe hohaKgea^ oe€ hSbaeba^Uea. He is 
ignorant, and Knows nothing at aU. 

Hoho. To call, to shout. 

Hoho ^guiem. CaU him to come. 

Onkoe hoho sorkeilkoa. He caUed them near. 

KQruf barur bohotegeye tah$ena. He contui* 
ued to shout loudly. 

Hohot C£ hoi 

Hoi" hoi } Will you, won't you. 

HijuKme nahal, hoiP Come in a little, will youp 

Hoi, hoi. Yes. 

Hoi, hoi, ona geli kuUke^mea. Yes, yes ; I 
asked you about that. 

Hoja. Hey! Boy! Cf. hoeja. 
Hojahoja. A shout in a boys' game. 
Hojo hojo. To move quickly, as when 
carrying a heavy weight. 

Baih d%f dafeaXkana, hojo hoiom dare^ana. 
You can't run, you run as if your feet were 

^ire hojore calaXkanae. He is hurrying. 
Nire hojoreli he^ rn%fena. I have returned 

Hok. Just, right, true ; justice, right, 

Hokao. Gnmt of a pig when enraged 

or fiightened. 

Hokhok. Gnmt of a pig. C£ hokao. 
Hokigol News, intelligence. 
Hoknak. Causelessly, without reason. 

Hoknake metalikana. He blames me without 

H5k5r h5k5r. Cry of leopard (pot;ea 

Hol8L Yesterday. 



[ 234 i 

Hon hon 


HolonolL Yesterday. 
Holal A razor. 

Holed. To snip off with the fingers, as 
an ear of grain, &c. 

Holkalom. Two years ago, the year 

before last. 
Hole. Cf. hale. 
Hole hole. Constantly, repeatedly, 

every day. 

Hole holeje hijnKkacna. Ha keeps ooming. 

Holo holo. Constantly, repeatedly, 

every day, alwaya 
Holo holo ntii aoe hijnRsna. He eomee otm- 

Holon. Flour, meal ; to grind into 
flour or meal ; to grind to powder. 

Gohnrnko halefta. llwy nake -ivlieat mto floor. 

Holon lopon. To reduce to powder. 

Holoii lopoii ipejer eabawift. It is wnaihed to 

Holoii lopohkedUiako. Thciy handled me se- 
verely • 

Holop. An oath. 

Holop emaeme. Admimateir an oafh tolum. 
Holop oooem. Caxise him to take <»th. 
Holop jem. To iftke eatfa. 

Homba homba.1 Applied to the sound 
Hombe hombe./ produced by Indian 

cattle which differs from the lowing | 

of European cattle. 

Q^ko homba homifoaea. 

Homba To hide, to esconce. 

Kooare homboaksnae. He is esoonoed in the 
comer of the koca (q. v.) 

Homon. Elder brother's children. 

Homonid. Mj nephew. 

Homod goroiL Sulking and refusing 
to speak, dissatisfied. 

CedaXem homoll goroli bafaekanaP Whj are 
you sulking. 

Homor. To moura^to mourn and speak, 
to wail. 

Homor halafi. To wail aaA sctote the good 
qnalities of the person mourned for. 

Otre nomor tfpilioMkanae. She is wuling and 
throwing neEself on ■tiie ground. 

Hon. A rat. 

nii& hon ^ 

Ofatt hon. J 

C9uri9'non. The Indian Jerboa-znl^ OerhiUui 

Hon barduf!L6. A species of bat. 

Hon. A son, achild,i)he young of any 

Apa hon. Father and cliild. 

Ehga hon. Mother and ddld, dam and yimofg, 

Hon hopon. Children.. 

Hott ren hopon. Posterity. 

Hon kimin. Son sad danghter-in-law. 

Honan. Used in conditional sentences 
in which the protasis (condition) 
is supposed not to have been real- 
ised, and, therefore, the apodosis 
(consequent) has not taken place. 
Cf. hutkam. 


Alo tahenkhanifi l^ikepea hanah. If it wore 

not BO I would have told you. 
Non4em tahelenkhan bareli oho honafae goolen. 

If thonhadst been hare my hnothar had 

not died. 

&on<lals. A method of cooking vege- 
tables or mushrooms. 

They are first washed in water and then pnt 
over the fire in a dry earthen pot. Salt %nA 
oU are then added and the whole oovered up 
for a time to steam : after whith they are 
stirred until properly oeoked. %noes ac« 
also added to mushrooms. 

Hon^ftiL To stir meat or v^;6table8 
when cooking. 

Hon^eaL To throw one side forward 
when walking, to look to one side 
when walking or running, crooked. 

Honjeal hon^Qi^e di^refkaoa. 

Hondoi^ ■) To carry away, as a 
Hondoryod. J tiger a goat. 

Hondofyohkedeae merom do. 
Hondofyohkedeae, noKSe iiehne cinhf te€. 

Hon^rok. Noise made by a pig; to 

Hondron. Noise made by a wooden 
axle working in a wide bole, also 
of any heavy body falling into a 
well ; wide, as a hole in which an 
axle works. 

BpS honj^rohkedftm. Tpu ganged o«t the h«fe 
too wide. 

HondwaA. To injure^ to cause much 

Saname %tu hondwa&keda. The water oarriefl 
it aU away ssid damaged it Tety muoih. 

Hon^. That^ that one. 
Hone6. Cf honad. 
Ho6 hod. Wide 

Heft h(A phof i4ikedae pin^he do. The water 
burst the embankment and made a wide gap. 

Hoh hoh landuf ena, bhit do. A large piooe of 
the waU has fallen. 


C a^ 3 


HoQ hoA. Immodestly. 

CeHelaupe dapapakana ho^ ho&? 
Kiorio ore^entaea hoii hoik. 

Ho6gor. To drink, to drink to excess, 
to swallow liquor. 

P^or^te alope hoiigor bnlola. Do not get 

^luik by driBkinir liquor. 
Sokof sokof 6 ho&goreda. He is galping, 

Hon gujw. A game played by ohil- 

HoAjao. To meet with hurt, iiyury, 

or disaster. 

ttor hoiijaitenae. He f^ and hnrt himself. 

PI - [There, over there, yonder. 

Honte bare idiyetam. Take your Qionje) over 

Hopa A forest taree, Cdehlosperma 
gosaypium. D. C 

Hopoho. Of. hoho. 

Hopon. Child, young', offspring, to bring 
forth young, to Dreed, to beget. 

Kofa hopon. A son, a male. 

Knfi hopon. Adaq^hter, a-female. 

Hopon era. A danghter. 

Era hopon. Family. 

Hor hopon. A Sant&t. 

Herel hopon. A male. 

Bana hopon. A yoong bear. 

Sim hopon. A ohicken. 

Manwa hopon. Mankind, the Son of Man. 

Dikn hopon. A Hindn. 

Hopon ofaK. A small honse. 

Hopon hopon dhiri. A very small stone. 

Hon. do bhng^Ireko hoponkoa. Bats bring 

forth yonnff in holea. 
Noa l^ffifiii hoponle£meaP Did I give yon 

birth for this. 

Hc^yo. The Reciprocal form of hoyo 
(q. v.) ; to shave each other. 

Hopyo. The hair on the portion of 
the head which some men shave 

Hopyo liaraentaea. The hair on the portion of 
the head which he nsnally shayes has grown. 

Hor. A man, a human being, a San- 
tal, a wife. 

Hor ror. The Santal language. 

Disom nor. The Santals of the oonntry side. 

Siin^m hoftele k%mia. We will aU work. 

Ho( hara. ) To grow, to increase in family 
Hof harta. y or estate. 

HoponmemhoradeaP Have yon got yonr son 

HojoK ooe bail ooit. His recovery is donbtfnl. 

Mit hor ^'^^ lielledea, bah doe Hof kan, bah 
doe Dikn kan. I saw one man, but I can't 
say whether he was a Santal or a Hindn. 

Tin^f Kbr dh9rtire menalfbona sanam do Pilon 
har<uii c^' Pilcn bn^hiren bSs kanabo. All 

the people in the world are the desoendantu 
of Adam and Eve. 
Tn^r amar alope posfakoa, pass mi£ ^alreko 
hor kange. Do not despise the orphan and 
destitute, i>erhaps one day they may be- 
come weli-to*do. 

Hor. A path, a way,, a road. 

Khato hor. A short ont. 

Hor araKadme. Make way for me. 

Noa hor Ton^ite senakana. This road leads 

to Toondee. 
Ebr idipe. Make a road a,8 yon go. 

Hora. A line, a section. 

Noa birle sendrakeda, hori^ borate. We hunted 

this jungle in sections. 
Hora borate. In sections, grtdu^y, oonseoi- 


HJora. To finish^ to make a clean 

G^iko jom hovakeda. The cows ate it aU up. 
Alom 4fi^ oooalfa, gi<ti horaeme. Do not allow 

it to accumulate, throw it all away. 
Banili jom bor^keda. I took sJl the medicine. 

Horase. 7 Parting of hair down tho. 
HorasL y middle, of fepiales. 

Hor beda. To deceive, to pretend, to 
throw dust in the eyes. 

Hor beda barae€koae, menkhan menaXgetaea^ 
He is pret jnding (that he has nothing) bnv 
he has, 

Hor bedae hijulkaaa. His coming is only a 

Here. An exclamation of surprisa 

Hore! nonkakaolaP Dear me! do they write 

like that? 
Hore ! nonkako menaP Dear me ! do they say 


Hqred. A leguminous plant largely 
cultivated, Dolichoe h%flom8y Lmn. 

Hore6 gadar. A veiled nai^e for a 

Nui ho| do bored gadar iSeliel lek hor kangeae. 
This man ia worthy al death. 

Hore6 gadar. A worm found in the 
stomachs of cattle, an insect that 
sucks the moisture from the bpdiear 
of young tassar silk-worms. 

Hore hore. Gradually. 

Em jarwaeali horehorete. I wiU repagr it 

Hore horeten emama. I will pay yon gradually. 

Hor gad. A crowd, of people, a mul- 

Hofgosmarte. C£ hargusmarte. 

Hor hara. To grow, to increase in fam- 
ily an4 estate. 

m ^henem hor haraena* ar nonkam metalSkana P 
Ton have inoreaseq in familv and estate in 
ifoj servioe and do yon speak thus to me P 


Hor ho]<ad 

[ 23d ] 


Hor horan. The grass snake, not poi- 

Hor harta. To grow, to increase in 
family and estate. 

Sanam lekateli hof hartaena. My family and 
estate have inoreased in every way. 

Horho. To watch, to guard. 

Koko gidrako horho jaiigekoam. Watoh 
over and nroteot these children. 

Horho beskeaeale. We nursed him back to 

Hofole horhoeda. We are guarding oar dhan. 

Hori5r. *> To trickle down the cheeks, 
HoriySr. J the side of a vessel, a beam, 
&c. ; to glide over the surfece. 

Horidf irgozikana me£ daX do. The tears trickle 

Oet leka bam dnleii horiySf ocoedam. How 

are von ponring it F You are allowing it to 

trickle down the side. 
Nahelem horiydp baf ae€ do. Yon are ploughing 

on the surface. 

Horjad. "> To limp, as with a 

Horjad horjan. / badly set fractured 

Horjah horJa2ie oalaXkana. 

Horjad hurjan. From side to side. 

Bid horjah hnjrjahko calaffa. Snakes move 
from side to side when progressing. 

Sar horjah hnfjah calaoena. The arrow swer- 
ved from side to side. 

Horlo lolo. A lullaby sung by Santal 
mothers to their children, to sway 
as a mother hushing a child. 

Horlo lolo, horlo lolo, beta doe japit talea. 
Tirio orohme se horlo lolo. Sway yourself when 
playing the flute. 

Hormo. Body, to be pregnant. 

Hofmo h^ti^' The members of the body, limbs. 
Khubo hormoana. He is well grown. 
Ho]rmoakanae. She is 0nc9inte, 
Hopno algao. Prolapsus uteri, 
Hofmo algaoentaea. She is suffering from 
prolapstts uteri. 

Hormo ol. To lie down for the night. 

Horo. The rice plant, Oryza eativa, 
Linn., unhusked rice. 

Hofo caole. Husked rice. 
Uri horo. Wild rice. 

Nes do bah hofolena. There was not much 
grrain in the ears of rice this year. 

Horo. A tortoise. 

DaK horo.^ 

T»ii4i „ 

Burn „ 1 Varieties of the tortoise destin- 

I^pra ,, f guished by Santals. 

Tnkuii „ I 

ToklaK,, ; 

Horo horo. To carry food, &c., holding 
it to the stomach; carefully. 

Uni hor do horo horo dakae hobor idieda. 

Horo horo. Man by man, each maiL 

Horo hofo sadom menaKkotakoa. Each man 

has horses. 

Hofo hofoko faataoaaa. Each man has taken. 

Horolc. To sink or become hollow, as 
the eyes. 

Me€ horokentaea. His eyes have become 

HoroK. "i To pay a visit friends, 

Pera horoK. J to visit. 

Pefa horoK khonill ruareiia. I have returned 

from a visit to friends. 
Bes oko<Stel6 pera hofoKlena. We wdre wel- 

oomed and treated hospitably. 
Pera horoMid calaMkana. I am going on a Tiait 

to friends. 
Pera hor. A visitor. 

HoroK. To put on the person, as a 
coat, ring, earrings, bracelets, a 
hat, &c. &c. 

HoroK oikhn%. Betrothal ceremony. 
Horotf bandenaX. "> m j.v . , 

HoroK aeAganaie. j ^^^^ ^ general. 
Tupriko horoKadea. They put a hat on his head, 
Hor ^uri bank b^-hkiko horoga. Bantal girls 

wear anklets. 
Nui kuri do a^i molij kurtae horoKakawana. 

This girl has on a very pretty jacket. 

Hor podo. A forest fruit tree, Ficua 
cunia, Buck. 

Hor putka. A species of edible mush- 

Horsed. 1 Obliquely, to one side, 

Horsei horsei. j sideways. 

Horsed horse6e beiigeda. He is looking side- 

Hos. Consciousness, sense. 

Be-hos. Unconscious. 

Hos b^ultaea. He has no sense. 

HoseA. To get out of the way, to re- 
move, to sift. 

Hoseo liogolfme. Move a little out of the way. 
Hose6 tocbne. Sift it out. 

Hoshosao. To slip down, as with arms 
round a tree ; to run out, as rice, 
&c. from a bandi (q. v.) with a hole 
near the bottom. 

No a dare khon hoshosao ^urenae. 
Hoshosao SrsToenae dare khon. He slid down 
the tree (with his arms round it.) 

Hosor. To slip gradually. 

Jin hosor durena. The saddle slipt and feU. 

Hosor gidi. To miscarry. 

Hosor Hurh^na. Slipt and fell down. 

Hosol To move while sitting on the 
ground without rising up. 

Hoso€ liogoffme. Move along a little with- 
out getting up. 


[ 23T 1 


Hot To strip off by running the hand 
up the stalk. 

Sakam hot gi^ime. Strip off the leaves. 
Horo geleA hoda. I wiU strip off the grain 
from the ears ol rioe. 

Hot In comp. implies suddenly, in- 
stantly, quickly, without delay. 

Dal hodeme. Hit him at once. 
Hed ru%r hodolme. Eetum quioUy. 
Dal h5 bae'dal hoho^a. He does not strike read- 
ily (is not given to striking.) 

'HotaK. To stir up, to toss up, as hay ; 
to remove by means of a stick, 
&c., as something one does not 
wish to touch ; to rip, with the 
tusks, as a wild boar. 

Han^are horoko hotaga. They toss np, (or turn 
over) Uie dhan on the threshing floor. 

Kni do bir snkri ^ene hotatt ofei ocoakana. 
This man has been ripped by a wild boar. 

HoXt&K 4aii. A bamboo nsed to torn the.straw 
on the threshing flooor. Of. akh^ini. 

Hotali kho^raK. Shakings, as of a bag 
which has contained grain, scrap- 
ings, sweepings. 

Hotal Kho^ratt id liam bapakeda. I searched 

for the shakings of the bags, and scrapings 

and sweepings. 
HotaK kho<iraK sanam s^iUe emata. Shakings, 

scrapings, sweepings, we gave. all to the 

money lender. 

HotaK picak. Everything, all kinds, 
everjrwhere, the whole ; fast. 

SotaK pio»I ko jomkeda. They ate np every- 

Hofole sohadea hotaX pio^K cet h5 bah sa- 
railena. We measured out all the dhan to 
him (money lender) nothing was left over. 

HotaK picfJKo k%mikana. He is working fast. 

Hot hoto. Very long, of great height, 

Hot hoto benaoaka^ae oral do. He has made 

the house very long, 
j^^ijelelia hot hoto rel gq4i do. The railway 

train is very long. 

Hot husil For ever, altogether, com- 

Tehelikhondoluturilipeterkeda, ado ho€ hn- 
si€ili b^gi ut^ra. I have twisted my ear 
and from to-day I will give it up entbely and 
for ever. 

Hotkor. To pull or take out of fire, 
water, &c., by means of a stick, &c. 

Sehgel khon jel hotkor o<lokme . Fish the meat 

out of the fire (with a stick.) 
Mase ^aiite hotkor o^okem, lieleabo. Fish it 

ont (of the water) with a stick, we will see 

what it la. 

Hoto budhi. Foolish, senseless. 

Nui do hoto budhi hof kanae. This is a fooI« 
ish man. 

HotoK. The neck. 

HotoK limbo€. To throttle. 



Hotok kuri. 

Without circumspection, 

without consideration, 

carelessly, at once, easily. 

Cf. hatokaete. 

Hotor. To pick, to pick out, to push 

out, to poke out, with a stick, &c. 

Pata hoKtoraR . A tooth pick, 
jojom met iii hotor todtapea. I will probe 
out your right eyes. 

Hotel A species of pumpkin, Cu-^ 

ciirbita lagenaria. 
Hoyam. 1 Indistinctly, parti- 

Hoyam hovam. J ally. 

]^el hoyamkedeali. I saw him indistinctly. 
Alijom hoyamkedati. I heard indistinctly. 

Hoyan. ") OflF the straight, at an 

Hoyadhoyan.) angle, glancing off, 

twirling in the air, as a fisiUing leaf. 

EtaKte hoy^hena. It went off at an angle, 
n hoyaxi hoyahte iiuroKkana. The feather i^ 
twirling round in falling. 

g^y^- |to shave. * 

Hoyo mun^r^kedeako. They shaved his head. 

Hoyod. Breeze, wind, air, draught. 

HoyoiioKa mentele o^okona. We have come 

out to get the air. 
Delabon hoyohte, 94i udp^r kana. Gome, let us 

fo out to the air, it is very hot. 
e hoyohge boloKkana. It is hero where 
the drau^t comes in. 
Non^e ^i hoyoh gea, a4oKabo. There is much 
wind here, we wUl take shelter. 

iHa hSe }^^^ ""^ ^^^ J^^^^- 
Huan. To injure, to damage, to cause 
detriment, scath, or havoc. 

Dal hu^h. To cause injury by striking. 

MaK hu^. To cause injury by a cut with 
sword, &c. 

Takio hu^h. To be injured by coming in con- 
tact with something. 

Bae tiottledea, bahkbane matt Jhuahkea. He 
did not reach it, or else he would have injur- 
ed it severely with a blow (with his axe.) 

Huak. To eat. 

. Jomale, hu^gale. We will est, we will eat. 

Hub. Pleasure, enjoyment, freedom 
from care. 

Nes do hub b^nutf anah. There is no freedom 

from care this year. 
Ene^ l^gi€ ^i hubaekana. He greatly enjoys 

Nes do hub bhahgaena. This year our freedom 

&om care has been broken (we are down 



[ 238 ] 

Hudu Im4u6 


H^bai 1 "^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^' ^^^^' ^^^' 

Hnb^Kaeme mit dhao. Qive him one slash. 
Hnb^i gcM&kedeako. They slashed and killed 

Sahan hnb^Haff me. Chop firewood. 

Huc^k. 'To break oflF, to snip ofE 

Mone hnoaKentaea. He is disappointed, or 

Pfr hnoatt f^o^am. Break off the branch. 
Horo 94i htto^K iluroKkana. The ears of dhan 
are snapping and falling- down. 

Hu6 bir. A small bird, the Indian Pitta, 
Pitta brachyura, 

Huce6, To cull, to break off, to snip 

off, to break off, as an engageix^nt ; 

to be disappointed, as a |iope or 

Hud hn6. Quickly, again and again, 

often and quickly. 

Ha4 ha6 datte loeda. She draws water quickly. 

Huchucu. Lofty, high. 

. Bora hnohncu lleloMkana. The hiU appears 

Huchucu. To sit on the heels. 

Huchaoue dnfujmkana. He is sitting on his 

Hucku cukur. Bestless, going here 
and there, wavering, doubting. 

Hnokn onknr baraekanae, mif then do bae ta- 
hena. He is going here and there, he will 
not remain in one place. 

Alope hncku cukur monoKa. And be not of 
doubtful mind. 

Hu6marte. \ Quickly, without warning, 
Hudmente.r in a moment, suddenly. 

Huo marte ^tkir go£kedea kuf i6 do. The vul- 
ture suddenhr snatched and carried it away. 

Hu6 mente berec calaoenae. He rose and left 
without saying anything. 

Hucuk. Necessity, compulsion. 

Hucuk lagaoakawadea. Necessity was laid upon 

Hucuk lekae calaoena. He left as if under com- 
' Hucuk he6adea. He was constrained. 

Huda. A title, a cognomen, oiEce, class. 

Hud^ hud^ rakapena He rose step by step. 
Hof hud^re gidr^ko emoKkana parhaoM lagi€. 
Santals send their children to be educated. 
Hud^wan ho|r. A titled person. 

Huda. To forwaird anything to its des* 
tination by passing in on from 
village to ^lage. 

Hud%te kolgo£kam. Send it to its destination 

by haying it passsd on from village to viUage. 

Hud% he^akawadea. Something has come to 

him which he has to pass on to another 


Httd^. Shaft of a c«rt« 
Huipr! } To stir, to agitate. 

DalF alom hu^g^ra. Do not atir the water. 
Hu^ffVr hn^g^i^teko loeautudo. They stir up 
the relish before taking it out of the pot. 

Hudgu dugur. To annoy, to trouble. 

Nui do 9^iye hudgu dngnrkecada. He caased 

me much trouble. 
Gidra doko hudgu dugufkoa. Children annoy 


Hudgu dugur. 1\) blaze, as a firei 

Huagu dugur ioloKkana. It ia biasing. 
Seikgel hudg°> dugurokkana. The fire is biasing. 

Hudbud, Boaring, a^ of a large fire 
or a river in flood. 

Hndhud sa^ftkajm sei^gel dew The fire is roar- 

Hndhnd dal ^tuKa. Tket flood mahea lOMing 

Hudhudau. To roar aa a river in flood, 
or a large fire. 

Hudhudau. To hurry. 

Nui do ojpaff khone hudhudau o^okke^koa. He 
humed them out of the house. 

Iri do khanakha budhud^u ^gnkediliae. He hur- 
ried me here without cause. 

Hudhudau. To roar, as a wild boar 
or bear. 

Hud hudi. A water&ll, a cascade. 

Hud hudi then oalaXpe. Qo to the watc^rfaU. 

HuditL Small, young. 

Hu4i^ hu^ili. Vei7 small. 
Hu^id saheb. Assistant manager. 
Hu4i^ ut^rio. The youngest. 

Hudis. To think, to pondei^ 

Hudis bundis. To think out. 

Hud marte. 1 Suddenly, with a rust^ 
Hud mente./ wth a si;Hlden rustle 
or gust. 

DaK hud m^t^ &rgo goilena. Water oome down 
with a rush. 

Hudra. Steps on a ladder. 

Hudra. A compartment, an apart- 
ment, a room. 

Hudril Scratched, abraded, slightly 

Hudri€ ghao. An abrasion of the skin. 
Qo6 4%rte hudrif gofenall. I was- scratched by 
a dead branch. 

Hudu6 hudu6. Lame, or leg stiff. 

Hu<lud hu^ud tafamedae. He limps. 

Hu(j[u hudu6. A very small quantity 
or piece. 


Httjok huijuk 

( 289 3 

HjoSi marte 

Hu4uk huduk. Loud, the Bound produ- 
ced by beating a dmiB. 

TamdaX tunakha<jlak kn^ixk 8a4ea. 
Tftmak hn^nk hn^ok ailjomoKkuia. 

Hudul raj. 1 The angel of death, the 
Hudur raj. / governor of the nether 

Hudurak. Huge, big, large. 

HndaralelieloKkanakTddo. The tiger looks 

Hudur hu4ur. Rolling of thunder, any 
deep r<dliag sound. 

Hn<^nT na4tir rimU 8a4eh»na. The iiitmder 

Hud^ir hudur. The lowing of a cow in 
quest of her calf; the sound pro- 
duced by a deep toned flute, aeep 
OTowl of tiger. 

CM|i Dfidar faTtdnr dfr hijullcfliiae. The eow 

•cornea miming and lowing. 
Tirio sa^ea hudiqr kxkdiqr. The Ante emits a 

deep tone. 
Enle garjaoS kana hnduf hndof. The Uget 

gTOwlfl hoarsely. 

Hudur marte. With a plump, plumping 
into deep water, a deep sound. 

Hndof mente iinr gofena. It fell with a plnmp. 
Hudnr mente Isa^eena. It sounded plump. 

Hngni hagni hoeedae. A gentle breeze is blow- 
Hogm hvgoi aon^e hoe bololkana. 

Hugui hugui. Befwe daylight. 
fiugui marte. Quickily, instantly, sud- 
Hagni i^arts eaboenae. He le£t suddenly. 

Huhar. The Green pigeon, Orocopvs 

Huh huh. Call of bear when enraged. 
Huhi. A hunting term, to proclaim 

the carcase of an animal Killed in 

the chase public when it cannot 

be proved who killed it. 
Huhk^. To make a noise like a bear 

when enraged. 

Banako hiKhk%iia. 

Geger l%gi£ hnhk^nKkan tahekanae. 

Huhu. An imitative word, weepii:^. 

Huhne raSkeda. 

Btlb<t Iditating crying. 

Ge€ bah hilh]! dom jaralkan ? 

HtlhtL The hooting of the owl. 
Hujat. 1 To opi»ess, trouble, annoy, 
Hi^ut. ) bother. 

IJU-ma real >4iko hajnteillekana. They are 
bothering us about our rent. 

HSjMhnjlaK.}^ ^S« quantity. 

Hujl^i hujl^K mayam joroentaea. He bled 

Hujlali mai*te. *> With great force and 
HujlaU mente. J quickly, in large 
quantity and quickly. 

Hujl^S marte u|»adiitf ae. He poured me out a 

large quantity. 
Hujlal marteli tuHkedea. I shot and wounded 

him seyerely. 

Hujn duria. An ornament worn by 
women and girls attached to the 
coiled hair at the back of the head. 

Hoe piohe hnju 4uri% hil^uJHiii. My 4ihaplai 
waTM with every breath of wind. 

Hujuk hujuk. In crowds, in swarms^ 
from all sides. 

Hujuk hujuk hofko jaoraikana. Orowds of 
pe(^e are assembling. 

HujuT. A term of respect, Sir. 
Hujur. To tcidkle, as grain out of a 
hole in a baj^. 

NoMSe non<iey6 hu]uroKkana. See,iii8 trick- 
ling out here, 

Hujur. Of. hajir. 

-Q^^ j-Pain in the loins, lumbaga 

Jahan hamalal tullekhan hlihSka. 
Hlik leka4(ui^ haspediiikana. 

Huka. The hooka, the bubble bubble. 

Huka bardar. An attendant whose 
duty it is to attend to his master's 
pipe, an attendant or ajssistant who 
accompanies a Fargana when at- 
tending to his official duties. 

Huk^ To SQ^rt, as a bull when exci- 

Sajr hukf paskaeako. Bolls snort andspnni 

the ground. 
Hot hdko hak%ia edrete. People also snort 

when angry. 

Huke huke.\Imitative of the call of 
Hua huke. J a jackal 

Huker gundri. A epecies of qn^^L 
Hukes. A bird so called. 
Htlkblik. Imitative of weeping, bit- 

H%k ralkeda. He wei>t bitterly. 

Hukigol News, intelligence. 

HuK marte. With a dapfang or smack- 
ing sound. 

HuK marteH dalmea nahaX. I shall gire ycox a 
smart slap presMj^tly. 


[ 240 ] 

Hunar kisim 

Hukum. An oixler, a command. 

Ale do haknm banntttalea jahae goje lagif. It 
is not lawfnl for ns to put any one to death. 

Kombfoe reaK hakxun b^nnKanaii. It is un- 
lawful to steal. 

Htlkuf htlkut Sobbing. 

Htilni£ litikn£e raXkeda. He sobbed and wept. 

Hul. To riot, to rebel, to mutiny, 
applied more especially to the 
Santal rebellion of 1853-54. 

Hnhulio. An exciter to riot, or rebellion. 
Hnl bapla. A marnagre contracted at the 
rebellion. Cf. h^nl^. 

Hulak. To break off^ to snip oflf, with 
the fingers. 

Hofo geleko hnl^ga. They snip off the ears 
of rice. 

Hular. "^To lay waste, to destroy, to 
Hular. ) consume. 

Ck>ta disomko hnl^rkeda. They laid waste the 
whole country. 

A4i hul^r oooedape. Yon are aUowing (the cat- 
tle) to destroy (the crops.) 

Hulas. Joy, gladness. 

Hnl^olpe. Bejoioe. 

Hul^ bhanga. The spirits to be depres- 
sed, to be dejected. 

Horo gooentalete mon do hnl^ bhahgaentalea. 
Onr spirits are depressed owing to our rice 
haying died. 

Hule6. To snip or break off with the 

Cha dare real 4oirlco hnleja, They plnok off 

the bnds of the tea bushes. 
Pacr^hgi baha dose mim hnle6 ^gr^ume. 

Huli. \Hue and cry, to send informa- 
Hulia.J tion here and there, mostly 
regarding persons or animals who 
have been lost, or escaped prison- 
ers. \ 

Hulkam. Cf. hutkam. 

Hulkau. To peep, to look and then 
draw back as a person who does 
not wish to be seen; to sneak about. 

Cefem hulk^nS kana P ma o^okolme. Why are 
you peeping P come out. 

Hulmal. Riot, disturbance, mutiny. 

Hulsi6. To sharpen implements by 
heating and hammering, as black- 
smiths do ; used also in threats, to 

Hnlsitikateko uTuda. They sharpen by hammer- 
ing and grinding. 

Hape, nahaXlaii hulsitlmea. Wait a bit, I shaU 
presently hammer yon. 

Hulud hulu6. Again and again, vio^ 
lently, in large quantity. 

Hulu6 huiu^e hijolkana. He is coming again 

and again. 
Hulud hulu6 dh!La o^okoSkana. The smoke 

issues in large yolume. 

Huluk huluk.l Idling, loafing, loung- 
Huluk buluk. j ing about, often, time 
after time. 

Huluk huluk Bid b^^^ non<jlem ^ur bafaekana. 
Ton are always loafing about here. 

HilTh«lu6. } Envy, to envy. 

Sanam hofko hisk^ hulufialikana, ^ili arjao- 
aka£te. All the people are envying me be- 
cause I have had good crops. 

Hulwel C£ hilwel 

Hum. A shout to cattle when plough- 
ing to cause them to stop, wo, stop 

Humalc. To strike, to beat. 

Hum^KkedeaJi. I thrashed him. 

Human. To admit, to confess. 

Cele, noa katha dom hum%nkedaP Do yon 
admit this statement P 

Humcak. To jerk the body, or any part 

Humc^M gof enae. He jerked his body. 

Humcau. To jerk the body, or any part 

Mi€ dhaogeye humc^ulenaj hnmc^u topaIgo6- 
kedae. He ffave one jerk, and broke (the 
rope with which he was tied.) 

Hum^ak. \To disturb,to trouble, 

Humtakhumtak.j as water by fishes, 

&c., to cause a movement in water, 

to splash up. 

Non^e hako menaSkoa, humtaKkedako. There 

are fish here, they caused a' moyement in the 

Hako coh oele coiie humt^Mkeda. A fish or 

some other creature caused a moyement 

in the water. 

Hunak. So much, so many, so much 
as that. 

Hun%M ^kae khoroc oookefbona. He caused 
us to spend so much money. 

Hunar. To search for, as firuits, roots, 
&c. in the forest. 

Heltako hun%r O^n^ia. They gather and brings 

home bamboo shoots. 
Bir khon da hun^r ^guime. Search for and 

bring roots from the jungle. 

Hunar. llndustrious, managing, 

Hunar kisim./ resourceful, applied 
to housewives. 

Hun^r kisim maejiu kanae. She is a managing 


[ 241 ] 


Hunar. Skill, art. 

Hunar. *) Of all kinds, of many 

Nana hunar. J kinds. 

Nana han%r kiorid. Cloth of many kinds. 
Nana him^rko hatakala. AU sorts of merohand- 
ise are for sale in the market. 

Hunaria. Industrious, managing, 
resourceful, applied to femalea 

Nni h9 ^i hnn^ri^ ^im^i ksnae. This is a 
yery indostrions honsewif e. 

Hun4a. To divide a carcase into 
three pai'ts, one of which the 
owner gets, and the other two are 
divided among the villagers or 
people present. 

Hunda. ") To knock down fruit with a 
Hundalf.) pole or long bamboo by 
pressing against it. 

Hima^ tioggpe 4&^te. Beaoh and knock it 
down with a stiok. 

Hunijia. To catch fish with a hun(j[a 
jal (q. V.) 

Hunijia jal. A fishing net resembling 
a'shnmp net. 

Hund^. The Indian wolf, Cania paZ- 

Hun^r^u. To growL 

HuncJruU. To grunt, as a pig. 

Snkrl doko hnn^tmX hnn^raga. 

Hun^ruk. A kind of rat trap. 

Huni That one (animate.) 

Hui&jaQ. To meet with hurt, harm, 
injury, or disaster. 

Atn hnfijahenae. He was carried away by the 

water and got hart. 
Mnrh^ hndjahenae. He fell and got hart. 

Hud mente. Immediately, quickly, 
without warning. 

Holi mente boreC oalaoenae. He rose and left 

Huntak. ■> To raise or agitate 

HuntaK hunt^k. J water from under- 
neath, as a fish. C£ hum(ak. 

Hont^I nuurte rakap go^enae hako do. 

Lu?«rh«p». }Ho11ow behind the ear. 

Lntor hap9 phe^red talikedea. I shot it behind 
tho epr. 

Hupcak. To jerk the body, or a part 

44i gu^ hapo%l go€enae. He jerked his body 

Hupcak. mente.) r\ - \^ /^r u i» 

HuJcaK marte. |Q"»«kly. CC humcak. 

Hupc^tt menteye m^r go€ena. He returned 

Hupka. Trip, voyage. Scottice. Rake. 

"Mii hapk^ ^goime, adorn ohu(igea. Bring one 

trip, fiien yoa are free. 
Bar hapk^ se pe hupk^ ^goime. Bring two or 

thi^ times. • 

Huptid. Small, little ; applied to living 

Hnp^6 hapfaK. Small and great. 

Huput;el To be at variance ; to dis- 
pute, wrangle. 

Pher din Idionkin hnpnto^kana. They have long 
been at yarianoe with each other. 

Hur. ' ) Rubbish or dirt« lying 

Hur gundur. J about a house or court- 

^oa hur fi^u^dar jott gi^ikam. Sweep ap and 

throw awa^ this rabbish. 
Dakako emadida har enuidor cetanreffe. They 

gave me food on the top of rabbiah (did not 

sweep a place for me.) 

Hur^ Damaged, injured, blemished 
in reputation. 

Nni doe har^gea. He is blemished in reputa- 
Kan^a do hur%gea. The water pot is damaged. 

Hura.M. ") Having any deformity of the 
HurL F. J nose, whether natural or 

M!L doe hur^gea. His nose is deformed. 

Hura huri. To go here and there, to 
accuse each other ; quickly. 

Huf^ huf iye bolo goSena. He rushed in* 
Huf 9 hufi bafaekanae. He goes wandering here 
and there. 

Hura huri. Thoughtlessly, carelessly. 

Hur^ hu^iye rof paroma. He sars more wan 
he ought to do through thoughtlessness. 

Hura huri. Pushing and pulling. 

Hur^ huri^e o^okkedina. He pushed me out 

with yiolenoe. 
Hur^ hufiko lagakoa. They drive them with 


Huray. ■) To put on, as a ring, &c., to 
Harar. J thread, to string, 

Baberre hako hur^f kom. String: the fish. 
Ha hur%f aeme, ni% k^toi^M* ^t it on this 
finger (ring.) 

Hurau. To prod, as with a stick. 

Hur%u o4ok ^o£kaeme. Prod him and force 
him out. 

Hurban. To lie with the legs drawn 
up, curled up. 

Non^e hurbahakanae. He lies curled up here. 



t 242 ] 



Hurefc To enter, to push oneself in ; 
used mainly by women when angry 
or annoyed 

Ale ba(ere alom hofefa. Do not oross our 

Hure£. To give the ankle a twist, 

Hure^ patel 1 To bring one foot close 
Hure^ paitu^, J to the heel of the other 
foot when walking, to go straight 
forward disregarding; obstacles. 

Hnf e€ pate£ calaoenae^ 

Hn|-e€ p%tbpe oal&tkana. He BmMliei right 

Huf gtLB marte bolo 9o€exifte. He darted in. 

Hur hur. To whiz, as a stone thrown 
with force* 

HnihoT dhiriko capa^eda. 

Huri. Of. hnra. * 

MH hnri. Having the nose defotmed. 

Hun. To blow the nose, to wipe the 
nose with the fingers. 

WSl harfke€kli«ne k%bale€iaea. When ebe 
wiped her noie she oeaqoered yon* 

Hurii To scrape off. 

Hape, thiroKme, roiigokoli hnriCama. Wait a 
little, I slutll Borape olf for yon some of 
wliAt has stack to the pot in ooeking. 
(Wait^ and have some food.) 

p"^.^ * • I Having a stiff knee joint. 

Huqefi. ■) To have one of the 

tturje^ hupef . J 1^ hurt. 

Huxj^t hufjefe tafameda. He is limping owing 

to one of his legs being hnrt. 
l>are khon Har hur^o^^cknae. He fell from a 

tree and hnrt his leg. 

^^^, ^ V A wooden bar for a door. 

Ha hnrk^r gofkam. Bar the door. 

Hurla.1 To swing round and round with 
Hurlu.j arms, to swing the arms. 

Ti htcnakateye heoena. He eame swinging his 

arms (oame empty handed.) 
Ehan tefcgo6 a^tege ^luuia bafattkana. 

Hur mente. 

Hur marte dhiriko eapada. Thej throw the 
stones with a whiz. 

Hurmur. Quickly. 

IliaK Of aVre hnfmnfe bolo gdena. He darted 

into my honse. 
Hnfmnre t^mi joha. He works qniokly. 

Hurmut Headstrong, selfwilled, with- 
out asking permissioQ* 

} Whizzing. 

Oka katha hS bae allioua^nnmQl^ hor de. Sail- 
willed people do not take ad^ioe. 

AmaK hormnt tegem oalalkaba. Ton aie acting 
in a self willed manner. 

Hnrmntte bolo goCenae. He forced himself in. 

Hui'sa Wiah, desire ; to wish, desire, 
long for, to importune. 

Ehan^iye hnfsokefkhane em dapofadea. When 
he begg«d eamestlT for it shejg&ve it to him. 

TJni doe hnf sokeda^ den go mic go|en %mikki 
koeatime. He begged saying, mother ask 
a ^nhki (q. t.) for me. 

Hurtir. To rtib the teeth with the 

Pa^ khnb leka hnrtar fe*phaeme. Bdbjoor 
teetii weU to olean them. 

n ' * > The rice plant, unhusked rice. 

Huru6 hui:u& Lame. C£ hu^ad 

Htrtl htLrO. To doze. 

H%r^ hUrtlii i^pii! lioga. I will dose a little. 

Hurum durum. "1 To dragoon, to blus- 
Hupim dhurum. j ter, to hound, worry 
by Musier and threats. 

A^iye hnpim dnrnmkedida. He worried me l^ 

blnster and threats. 
SordaroKko %4iko hnrom dnrnmkoa. The 

overseers dragoon tnem. 

Hurum hurum. 1 >^i « - j 
Hurudhurud. ) Glo^g cinders. 

Hnmm hnrom loena. It is burnt to glowing 

Hurum Auram. *> Industriousfy^ dili« 
Urum surum. J gently. 

Ho]rmo h5 bae dayawala, hn^nm snpune k^mia. 

Hurun. To pound in the mortar of 
(jthinki (q. v.), to husk rice by 
pounding it. 

Hufuft huruA. GL hurum hurum. 

Hvmi^ hnmik veiigel jolel kana. flie fii« U iiL 
a glow. 

Huror. To strip off, m Aeeh from bone. 

Jah khoB jel hnmrmew 9trip the flesh off th^ 

£ken jatie hnruf liame«a. He m redaoed ip 

, skin and bone^ 

Hurur hurur. On the out aide. 

Hnruf hnmr sehgel joloKkanft. The fireluMi 
only attaoked the omtaide. 

Hurufi. Stump of tree in ground. 

Hnmf Idmn^nc. Stnmps and roots. 

Hurwau. ") Having the bridge of thf 
Mti hurwad.) nose broken, any de- 
formity of the nose. 

M9. hnrwah oabaentaea. 


[ 248 ] 




Horwa6. To injure, to damage, to euiae 
detriment, to ma^e tms^rviq^- 

T^iki^te hnrwftiieiia kan^* clo. The waterpot is 
daanaoed tluroogb hwdzig been knocked a- 
gainst something. 

M^Sf Consciousqess, sense. 

Bad hnslena. I had not all my wits about me. 

Husi%r. Intelligent, prudent, cautious, 
nttart, sly. 

Tojo do a^o hnslfrfb. ^aokala aee rfrj sif . 
HnntioKme, Axa Doteikolam. "Bfi oa^tfooB, 
yon may fall. 

Husil To pare. 

Huspok. Bemtiftd; to beautify, to 
adorn, to ornament. 

Koako dare do eken hii«i4k. These troesare 
only for ornament. 

^u8u6. Hiding, keeping out of sight. 

Bolo bosniakanae. He & booing inside. 

HUf. \ St^rong-headed, self-willed, in- 

Hfltha. J dependent. 
A4 bli^ o^daoena. He took bis own way. 

Hut hutu. High, lofty. 

Pnitri bnt bnta lielolkana. The bill is bi||^b. 
Kathiko teb^okoBa bnt bntu. Blepbanis ace 
high when they stand. 

Huted. C£ hutkam. 
Hufel Quarrelsome. 

Nni ^nte£ marabof . This (jnarre^Bome rascal. 

Hute£ pai&jar. Stout, sturdy. 

Hn^al paAjar bof kanae. He is a sturdy f eUow. 

Hudhu4u. Lofty, high, tall. 

Hu£ hut Close, oppressive, as a hot 
day with no breeze ; oppressive, as 
a house full of smoke. 

Hn< ^|bI)co dhqfkeda. Hie smoke is annqying. 

HutL A species of larvae that bore in 
timber, alsp a weevil which attacks 
several leguminous seeds, ^ tho^ 
of malhan~(q. v.), raher (q. v.), ho- 
re6 (q. v.), &c. 

Hntikedako. WeevilBliaye eaten it. 

Hutkam.\Used in conditional sentences 
Hutke6. J in which the protasis (con- 
dition)is supposed not to have been 
realised, and, therefore, the apo- 
dosis (cons^uent) has not taken 

Aloli be^len, ar aloti galmarapako khan bnt^fm, 
kai obp tahSl^ntakoa. If I had not come 
and spoken unto t^em they bad not had b^. 

Nen^en^ tahiglenkhaii bntk^Mn bar^ ohoe gof - 
lena. If then hadst been here my brouier 
had not died. 

Amem koelili Idian bntk^m iiS emkema. If yon 
had asked me I would bare given it to you. 

Hutm^ To i^ei^ ^d shake, to jerk^ 
to scold. 

Hutm9 pasirkateli d%f k^da. I shook him ofF 

and ned. 
Hutma bind^pneail. I wfU seize and throw 

J on down, 
^iye butm^Kk^. He is soolding violently. 

Hi^tma hutmi To scold and Nourish 
the a^npaa about, blu^ep 

4L^ye bntm^ hutmikedirta. 

Hutr^ hutfL \ To aearc)i for by grop- 


ing or feeling. 

Hako hi|tr%nkom dhiri latarre. Feel for the fish 

nnder the stones, 
^utra hntri ^am ^raedi^. He is groping to 

Hutuk.') A very large ^ock; huge, 
Hutu]^. J large. 

Hv^op lekae dufu^ aksna. Ha is sitting like % 

Hutu|> leka oraltako. Their boose is like a 

larfferooK. (very big.) 
Hntup leka oaole bf ndi. 
Bad Dogoja baba, bad dakaea. 

Hutum. To rinse out the mouth. 

Mooa botnmoXme. Biase your mouth. 

Hutu]^. Cfl hutuk. 

Hftiya. *) Being, aa unexpected occur- 
Hfliy^te. ^ rence. 

Am do nonkan bof blily^ noam |c^mikeaP Be- 
ing 8n<^ a man as you are ooold you do this 

Am do nonkan bof bUiy^ oedalf nonkadom 

HHiyi ffoflentaete noltSe kule jopikedea. 

H!liy^ noedna, babon diB% daramlatta, nonkae 

Hutur. Bare, bare of leaves, as a tree. 

Sit hutnrkedako. Tb^ have plucked it bare- 

of leaves. 
Hoyo buturebam. Yon are shaved olean» 


I. An exclamation of vexation or an- 

J%. What do you call it, so an^ so, you 
know ; to do. tJsed when the 
speaker does not remember the 
proper word or through delicacy 
omits to use it. 

If kediiSae. He struck me^ or pushed i|ie. 
I^kedamP Have you cfonb itP 


[ 244 ] 

Iko6 Bok66 

la. Employed to call attention. 

1$, hape aiijomlem. I eay, stay an^ listen. 
I^, okatem oalattkaaaP Hey! where are you 

I^ho, hape thirlenme. 

la aika. 1 Employed in warnings, and 
laaikha. f tnreatenings. 

1$ aikh% di8$ime. Be sore you remember. 
I^ ^ikh^ oholi senlena, ^i k^mi menaStUia. I 
cannot possibly go, I have too mnoh work. 

lar jel. A species of deer. 

late. Through, by means of, owinp^ to. 

Am i$te non^tfili dukakana. It is through you 

I am suffering so much. 
A4i daK i%te bail parom daf elena. I oould not 

cross owing to there being much water. 
Amem onkakef i^teli s^j^imea* I will punish you 

because you did thus. 

Ibil. Thick, dense, close together. 

n>il ibilko erkeda. Th^ sowed (&e seed) rery 

44i ibilkedako. They have put them rery close. 
IbiloKa. Will be very dense. 
n>il patijar. Stout, sturdy. 

16. Excrement, dross, slag from a 
smelting furnace, rust ; to rust. 

16 joh. To go to stool. 

l6te6ko oc^oka. They remove the dross. 

Ipil iokedae. The star voided excrement. 

(A shooting star is regarded as the excrement 

of anotner star.) 
IjoMte h5 bae b«rij»* WiU not be harmed 

through rusting. 

IcaU. A prawn, a shrimp. 

Sole ic^l^. A large species of prawn. 

Icalc. A common shrub, Woodfordia 
floribunda, Salib, 

Ic%R baha. The flower of the IcaV tree. It 
contains a large amount of hone^. 

Io%K dare. The Io%K tree. 

lo^M care6. A piece of a thin twig of the leak* 
tree used as a pin when making leaf 
plates, cups, Ac, 

leak bando. A common parasitic plant, 
Loranihua Buddeoides, Wedd. 

leak apak. A wild pot herb, PonzoLzia 

pentandra, Benn. 
leak sarara. A species of deer. 

leak kakittel A species of insect found 
in water. 

I6er. ") A common climbing jungle 
I6ewer. J plant, Vitia latifol%a, R^ch. 

Ici. To shake while holding in the 
mouth, as a dog a rat. 

Setae icikedea. The dog seized it and shook it. 

Icko6. A commom fodder grass, Era- 
grostia tenella, Neea. 

The culms of this grass are made into brooms. 

16 urn. A kind of beetle. 

I4i. The heel. 

Idi. To take away, to continue. 

Jom idikedae. He ate as he went, or he ate aad 

went away. 
Calao idiXkana. It is passing away. 
Ona colonrele he^idiena. ^lis has been our 

unbroken custom. 
Hara idlKa. Will continue to grow. 
Ghatao idiXa. Will continue to beoome lees. 
Hed idiM kana. It is coming nearer. 

Idi dui^li. A game played by children. 

Idu. Possibly, gives the idea of imcer- 

Iduli calas idu bah. Possibly I may go, azkd 
possibly not. 

Idho6 odhod. Waddling gait owing to 

Idhoi odho6e calaSkana. He waddles. 

Idor bidor. Imperfectly executed, 
done so as to require doing over 
a^ain, to do repeatedly. 

' Tin^Ridof bido^i^ k^mia? TahS oooam. How 
often will I do itP Let it alone. 

IL A cry caused by sudden pain or 

cold, oh I 

Ij^ra. A farming lease, a privilege, or 
income of variable amount let for 
a fixed sum. 

Noa ato reaK ij^rati hataoaka€a. I have taken 
a farming lease of the revenues of this village. 

Ijardar. A farmer of land or revenue. 

Ijardari. Farming or contracting for 
rent or revenue. 

Ij^ra patta. A lease, a document under 
which a lease or farm is held. 

Ijahar. 1 A depoedlion, statement or evi- 
Ijhar. J dence given in a court of 

Ijhfre hataoke^tilia. He reo(»ded my state- 

Ik^ To pardon, forgive, let alone, 
pass over, omit. 

Ik$kallme. Pardon me, or let me go. 

Ik^ hatafkaeabo. We wiU pass him ov<9r 

Ik^Ka. WiU be pardoned. 

Ikir sikir. J ^^s*^®^^' playful flirting. 

Iko6 soko6. To shake, to sway up and 
down, to joggle. 

Iko6 soko^ko %gu kedea. 

Beste heweme, alom iko6 sokojeam. 

Ikod sokooe k^mik&na. 


C 245 1 


RoJ. To be assured, to be relieved 
from doubt, fear, or suspicion. 

Bftfd ikotoKkaii4. His mind is not relieved. 
Ikot monte iahenme. Keep your mind easy. 

Ikrar. To promise, to pledge oneself, 
to acpree to. 

IkraroKan. I wiU pledgre myself. 

C%r ana sad ikrafkate t^kad o^oiikeda. I^t 

the money, pledging myself to pay 25 per 

cent, interest. 

Ikrar nama. A written agreement, 
bond, or contract. 

Ikrum. To kneel. 

Hap ikfom. To bite the under lip. 
IkfumoMme. Kneel. 


H A feather. 

Hoff. To become feathered. 

Henae. He has decamped, or become wealthy. 

Ilanko. Feathered oreatnres. 

Soi il. Feathers jnst begnn to grow. 

Taben il. Half grown feathers. 

H sapmm.^ Fnll fledged. 

Lopoteaii il. Down on the body of a newly 

hatched bird. 
Kanso il. The &rst three qnill feathers on the 

wing of a bird. 
H b^nnttilia. I hare not got a gala dress. 

Baj. To punish, to chastise. 

llnihor ^ibon il^jkedea, enhS baebataoeda. 
We hare severely chastised this person, still 
he pays no heed. 

Baka. Province, district, jurisdiction. 

Hak chada. "X Free, umestrained, having 
Elak chada. |- no connection with, not 
Alag chada. j responsible. 

Noa kathare doA i]$k cha^agea. I have no res- 
ponsibility in this matter. 

JY ' [Knowledge, wisdom. 

Ilet To plaster or plug up a hole or 
crack, to apply an ointment to a 

Kan<Ub l^hite Het ese^kaKme. Plug tiie hole in 
the waterpot with lac. 

Ilid ci6. A small, common plant, 01- 
denlandia senegalensia, Hierw. 

Ilsa. The Hilsa fish. 
Im. The liver. 

Im boro. Liver and Inngs. 

Iman. Faithful, trustworthy, consci- 
entious, scrupulous. 

Imangeae. He is faithfnl. 

^^' ^Mine. 
9n. ) 

Imtam. To estimate, to judge, to 

Oelem imtamkedaP Have yon considered itP 
Am imtamre tinal damol^aP How much ought 
the price to be in your estimation P 

Imandar. Faithful, conscientious. 
Imtihan. To examine. 

Imtih^n em. To undergo an examination. 
Intih^kedeako. They examined him. 

Inalc I ^^ much, so many. 

In h^bio. Up tiU then. 

In tiril. So much. 

In marah. So big. 

In k$^i. So small. 

In garte. So many times. 

In gan. About so many. 

Inag. So much, that much, this much. 
Ina. That, this, the same. 

In^ge ^guime. Brin|r that one. 
In^geye l%iadilla. He told me that same. 
Ini ghufi. At that moment. 
Inputs. After that, next, having done that. 
In^ge bon galmaraoa. We will discuss this 
matter no farther. 

li. The 1st personal pronoun I, also 


16. reah. 


Ill ren. 

I!ii6. My {animate) one. 

Ili emartme. Give to me. 

In ane6. Not till then, then only. 
InaK. So much, that much, this much. 

In^Kgeye emadilia. He gave me that much. 
In^Kge bon galmaraoa. We will bring our 

conversation to a close. 
In^K gan soroKme. Come about this much 


Inate. 1 

Ina teron. ^Therefore, for that reason. 

Ina mente. j 

IncL Cor. of the Elnglish word inch, 

1/12 of a foot. 
Indara. A well. 
Ind. One of the words used in testing 

the luck attaching to a bed. 

The spaces between the net work of a bed are 
counted from the foot to the head, begin- 
ning with ind, then cand, then jom. and 
then raja, and so on until tLe end. 

If either cand or raja falls on the last space the 
bed is lucky, and if either ind or jom falls 
on it it is imlucky . 

N ^^ i Formerly, in times past. 

Indarale arjaoe^tahSkangea, nes do bah hoele- 
na. Formerly we had good crops, this year 
we had little. 

Indara dom hijuKkan tahSkana. Ton were in 
the habit of coming. 


t 246 1 





tnde. Here, 

Inde h5 baii^ imde hS bail. Neither here nor 
there, neither np nor down. 

Indi£. To suspect, to blame, to charge 

Indi^kaiMUi. I enspeot him. 
IndidoKae. He wUl aospeot. 

IngaiL 1 Reasonable, judicious, mo- 
£ ^te' I ^^^*®'y' "^^^^ compasa 

Ingange emaeme. Give him a reasonable am- 

Ingante do bae adjom hoda. He wiU not obey 

with a reasonable amonnt of telling. 

Idgul To stoop, 0£ eugol 

InguL To pretend, to make a shew o£ 

• ^m ihgrnl. To make a shew of eating. 
Knhan iiignl. „ „ atriaing wiAh 

the fist. 
Dal ihgnl. To pretend to beat. 
Qer iiignl, „ bite, 

Ini. This one, he or she, him er her. 

Ini h9 emaeme. Qiye to him also. 

{nka. like this, a little^ not too much* 

Inka emaeme, ini h5 inka. 

Inre. 1 rpj^ ^^ ^j^^^ ^j^^^^ 
Im'ege. J ^ 

In utar. Not till then, then only. 
Ipic^K. Cf. repe(S ipic^tK, to dispute, 

to altercate. 
Ipidi The Reciprocal form of idi (q. v.) 
IpiL A star. 

IpikalL The Reciprocal form of ika 

(q. V.) 
Ipindii Reciprocal form of indi£ (q. v.) 

Ipiti6. The Reciprocal ^rm of iti6 

(q. V.) 


IroK din. Harvest. 

Ir arpa. A small sheaf of grain the daily 

perquisite of a yearlf, servant daring 

Jr sam^ao. ") 
Ix ador. > To harvest. 
Ir rakab. J 
Koa h5 iroffoKa hapen. This will>l8o be reaped 

by and by. 
Ixpltko. Beapers. 

Ira. Harsh, spiteful, cutting. 

Kni hof do ^ ir% kathae rofa. Xnis man says 
harsh things. 

Ira iri. Sulky, ill-natured ; to be at 
loggerheads, to be at enmity, to 
be at variance. 

Irf iH xuii hor ^ t^liMiK ol(oe UxM h5 bae 
bonotolra. This man is always at variance 
with some one, he agrees with no one. 

A^ikiB ira irige%. They are ai loggeriieads* 

IraL ESght- 

Irfl geL Eighty, 
Iralisi. Eight soore.^ 
Gkil imX. Eighteen. 

IrcL To Jerk the hand, to enprinkla 

Iroi p^siraedeae. He jerked his ^and and 
released himself from his grasp. 

Seiigelzeye iroi pfsitf ge^kfbdea. He shook |^ 
off his hand mto the fire. 

trci ghftrci. \To curl up, as a piece of 

trci ghtlrchi. r twine which has been 

over-twjsted when slackened. 

whole, every-i 
every kind. 

Irci guyci. 
Irti6 gurtid 
Irtu6 ffu. 

Kes do irtii gnrti6)e k%mikeda. We left no 
part of the work undone thisyeor. 

^tne guftn^kogalmarao^eda. Toey ^Qaeiused 

Ip. A cultivated millet, PanicVtm 
CrusTgaUif Linn. 

Kokor jaiiga ifi. A cultivated miUet, Panicwn^ 
CriM-yaUi, var. /ntmerUocea. 

Irl6. To extinguish, to go out, or be 
put out, as nre. % 

DaX dulaXkhan seiigel ipijola. If water is 
poured on fire it wiU be extin^nushed. 

Edre if iioKkantaea. His anger la being extin-> 
guished, (he is beco^ning pacified.) 

Sehg^ ifl^ena. The fixe is ertingnished. 

Iri6 ciki6. Fond of jollity, junketting, 
revelry, amusement. 

Ape do sob din hiloK irii ciki^geti^e. Toe 
spend all your time junketting. 

Irsa. Harsh, spiteful, cutting. Cf. ir^ 
IriA birid. Unintelligibla 

Get ifiJi biri^kin roreda? bah bujH^ulEt^kiiia. 

Ir£i6 gar6i6. lAll, the whole, every- 
Irtu6^artu6. J thing, of every kiacL 
Ct irci guf ci. 

Iru. To tantalise, to tease or torment 
by presenting something to eat, 
but keeping it out of reach. 
Cf. ero. 


Is. C£ ish. 
Isa. Christ. 

Isai. Christian, to become Christian^ 

Ili ayo Is^igeye tahSkana. My mother was a 

Diflom hof sanamko Is^Ka hapen. AH tha 
people of the oauntry wiU yet become Chris- 


I Stf ] 


Isara. ") A sign, a hint, to make a sign, 

Isaral J to c^ve a hint. 
Isanwaedie. Make a a&gn to him 

Isbis. 1*0 be irritated, provoked, stung, 
galled; irritating, annoying, pro- 
voking, galling, aggravating. 

JaUM Toxaekban isbiageve ^k^ua. If any one 

apeacA to him he feels irritated, 
labia godolae. He will at onoe become irritated. 

Zsh. 1 A CIV caused by sudden pain« or 

la / cold, oh! 

Is ! dal areiadUbte. Oh ! he threw waitetoii ma. 
Is r hasokedilia. Oh ! it hart me. 

IsL A score, twenty. 

Mii isi. A soore. 
HS|6 i^. Fire soore. 
Mis isi gel. Thirty. ~ 

Isi. The plough beam to which the 
yoke 18 attadied. 

Isi^ gan. A full score, may be more 
but no less. 

Tin%I BMnalkomf £ri% gan. How many are 

theref A fnll aoore. 
Jndi ho; bako ba^ae thiklekhan isif gane bnlaa- 

dafeakoa. If people did not know him well, 

he eoQid deoehre tkem the fnU 

Isin. To cook ; to be inflamed, com- 
pletion of fermentation. 

iro. To ooek food. 

aha. Toover^oooic 
Isinabomne. Cook onr food. 
Aoii isiaoXa. It is not yet eooked. 
M9|^ wSMk khamge icutena. In fiToday^ the 
feraMBtatioB was ooraplete. 

Zsif. To griii> to «k«w the teeA, as a 
dog when snarling. 

Setako iaifa. Dogs shaw^ teeth (when anar- 

O^tembdf laif oSkana^ "What sre yon grinning 

faif 8ilko6r To grin, to sniggle, to joke, 
to be humourous, to make fun. 

' fiiH av^a^ Mf flfi(lko6 bafaakanft. To« are 
oontmnaUy making f nn, 

Iskir. To rub the body, mtMoge. 

fio%Kr€^ iskif%oa. Massage is employed on 

those in fever. 
Bn»ra%ii »ik»neda, isViTkatfnvB. Xfeelfef>)»riah, 

rab my limbs. 

Zsko. So,lJiis. 

Isko marah. So big. 

Iskul. Cor. of the English word school. 

Isknl gidr^. Sohool dhildren. 
IskoloXkanae. He c^oea to aohoo). 

Isor. Qod. 
laraolale. V^ wiU j«ver«iee God, or beeome 

Iso£ Osol The gait peculiar to a veiy 
corpulent person. 

Iao€ osote tafameda. He waddles. 

Ispaiij. Cor. of the English word sponge 

Ispat. Steel. 

L^t. A turncoat, changeable. 

iii ispat hoy kanae He is a great tnmooat. 

Isposto. Clear, distinctly. 

lapos^ bae aor«a dafeaia. He oaimot speak 

Isthir. Quiet, still, settled. 

Istihar, Notice, proclamation, adver- 

Istok. All, every. [tisement. 

latok hofko oalaoena. AU the people baT# 

Istopa. To relinquish, renounoe; to 
vacate or resign a situation. 

latopakedae. He remiqniahed (land.) 

Istri. An iron, to iron. 

lAU kiorfA beaokoMe iatrikattdme. Iron my 
oloth weU. 



al J 


1896 aal Iswi. In the aCjidtteen hundred ^nd 
ninety eightti year «f&e Chriatian era. 

Ita. Seed. 

Noa dole Joma. at noa dole it^ia^ We will ^t 

thia, and keep this for seed. 
Itfsliia. Seedgvain. 

Ita. A brick. 

It^j. Food left over on a plate, &c., to 

leave food after having partaken 

of some. 

Itf € daka. Cooked rice left on the plate. 
ItfladUSae. He eat part and gave ute remain* 
der iome. 

Ital Presents or perquisites given at 
time of mcuriage to certain rela- 
tives of the bnde by the bride- 

Ehga it^6. Giren to the bride's mother. 
3oiigaji% 'ML Given to the bride'a father'a 

flere]tfit%€. Qiyen to tiie bride'a maternal 

BttMit^e. QmB to the bride'a eldeat brotiier. 
Hatom it^€. Given to the bride'a aont. 

^^^ I Trustworthiness. 

AmaS itbarili ileltama. I ahall see wkf^^ yon 
are tmstworthy or not. 

Ithulak. 1 A rude fir^lace njade ^f 
UthuiaU.J stones on the top of whi(?h 
the cooking pot. is placed. 

Ithuli^tt lekam dnr^^kima, bahrere. Ton ate 
sittingontHsidelflce an iatpvevised fireplaee. 


I 248 J 


ltd. This, this present ; that, that pre- 

Iti ghante sen godoKme. Go this minute. 
Iti polom m%]rme. Betnm immediately. ^ 
Iti b%rgi k%mi godme . Do the work this minute. 

Iti6. To pinch, to nip. 

Iti6 tnnnm oei h5 banuKtalea. We are absol- 
utely destitute. (We have nothing that 
could be pinched or felt.) 

Iti6 tnnom sanamle cabakedft. We have finish- 
ed everything. 
Iti6 topaK go^kam. Snip it off. 

Itihas. History. 

Sedae reatt itihas. Ancient history. 
Itihas oloKi6. A historian. 

Itil. Fat, rich. 

Katkom itiloKali. I will become moderately 

Jom itil ocokedead. I fattened him. 

Itki6. To rub the eyes, 

Alom itkidoKa. Do not rub your eyes. 

Itoi poto6. An adjective or an adverb 
possessing intensifying force. 

I^ poto^ko dalkedea. They thrashed him 

Itoipo^odko ^gukedea. They fined him heftvily . 
I^ potooko orkedea. They dragged him along 

Ito6 po^le jom iiukeda. We feasted lavishly. 

Itra itri. Going here and there in quest 
' of amusement, as at fairs, me- 
las, &c. 

Itr9 itri bafaekanae. 

Itrau. Given to jollity, or junketting. 

Jom itr^uenae. 

Itu. C£ eto. 

Itul The irregular application of 
sindur (q, v.) to the forehead of a 
marriageable woman by a mao. 

Itai bapla. An irregular marriage, which con- 
. sisDB in a man applying sindur to the fore- 

head of a marriageable woman with, or 
without, her consent. 

ItuC sindur. The lawful application of sindur 
to the forehead of a bride at time of mar- 

. Itai sindur hoeSna. The marriage ceremony 
has been performed. 

lyo. Used to attract attention, see I 
hark ye ! halloo ! soho !; of surprise, 
what ! indeed ! really ! O ! 

lyo 1 alijomme. Halloo ! listen. 

lyo! daletfam. What! would yon strike me. 

lyo ! ce£em cekaea. O ! what will you do ? 

lyo. So, this, as.... as. 

lyomarah. As large as this. 


Ja. Used when addressing a boy, or 
one's younger brother. 

HijuKme ja. Come, my boy. 

Oele kanae P ja. Vvhat is it my boy P 

Jab. When. 

Jabem calal^a, unre noa kstha rofme. When 
you go, then say this. 

Jaba. To cut the throat. 

Merom ar simko jabakoa. They cut the tiiroats 
of goats and fowls. 

Jaba jobo. Slow, slug^h, inactive. 

Jaba jobo bafaekanae. He moves sluggishly 

Jabajuba. To rnend^ to patch up, to 

Nesiii ^aba jub^kaXkanft. I am patching it up 

this year. 
Ni^do ofe^akana, ma jaba jub^ime. This is 

torn, mend it. 

Jobab f -^J^^®^» reply, dismissal. 

Jabab dffai emott. > To give an account of, take 
Jabab dihi emoK. > responsibility. 

Jababadeafi. I dismissed him, or sent him about 
his business. 

Jabar ;jubar. 1 Helping in this and that, 
Jabar jubur. J assisting generally. 

Jabar jub^re k^mi gofoalekana. He helps us 
here and^ere. 

Jabar jubur. Dripping, drenched. 

Lohotenae jabar jubur. He is dripping wet. 

Jalxjialu. Moist, as a field ; wet, as a 

Jab4%hiot. Moist soiL 

Jabdo. To set down, to restrain, to 
snub, to overpower. 

Jabdo kedeako. They gave him a setting down. 

Jabe. To cut the throat. Cf. jaba. 

Jabid. To attach under a warrant, to 
destrain, to sequestrate,to restrain, 
to place an embargo on. 

Jfbidakana, alope matt baraea. The cutting of 
these (iarees) is forbidden. 

Jabid. Close or safe custodv. 

Khah j%bidre dohoeme alo b^njo'- Keep it in 
dose custody, so that it may not be harmed. 
J$bidre menala. It is under strict surveilance. 

Jabin. To overpower, to overcome, 
to render powerless. Cf. j^bun. 


OfaK jab jab a|karoMkana. The house feels 



[ 249 ] 


Jabod. To attach, to sequestrate, to 
restrain, to forbid, to distrain. 

Khaina bae emle^te horoko jftbodke£taea. 
Thev distrained his dhan as he had not 
paid hiB rent, 

Jabod. The third ploughing of a rice 

During the third ploaffhing a certain amonnt 
of water ia retained in the field to kill grass 
and weeds. 

Jabra. Rubbish. 

^i jabra menaKa. There is mnoh rubbish. 

Jabri. To overcome, render helpless ; 
seriously ill. Cf. jabun. 

Bn^te khnbe j^bfiakana. He has been render- 
ed helpless by fever. 

Jabrahi, Handsome figure, tall and 
well knit firame, applied to women 
and cows. 

Jabrao. To spread over, to hang, to 
put on trappings, to caparison, to 
put on ornaments and clothes. 

Noa dare ^ s^hgidte jabrao ese^aka£a. This 

tree has spread (its branches) oyer a large 

Besgeye jabraoakana, gofa hofmo. His whole 

body is decked ont with ornaments and 

H^thi hSko jabraokoa. They also pnt trappings 

on elephants. 
Bephaete kicrioe jabrao %cnraka6a. He has 

curtained it aU round. 

J 1 ^^' (Thickly, close together, blotted. 

Bes beste ohne alom jabye ocoea. Write care- 
fully, do not aUow it to blot. ^ 

Jabu. To cut the throat. C£ jaba. 

Jaburt To overpower, to overcome, to 
render powerless. 

Bn^te j^bonakanae. He is laid np with fever. 

Jacao. To implore, to beg, as for dear 

M5f e hof ko thene jacaoena. 

Jada. More, much, too much. 

Jada^ea. There is too much. 

DaM jadaena. There is too much water. 

Jadam jadam. Night-long, all night, 

Nindare oedal!pe dafana la^am ja^am? Why 
do ^ougo about all night? 

Ja4am]a4ame daXlaKa tehell liind^. It rain- 
ed all last night. 

Ja^am ja^am knlhiko dapana setatf fa$bia. 
They go about the streets all night till 

Ja4am ja^amko ^fisakafa. They have annoy- 
ed us aU ni|^t-long. 

Jadeo. To scratch, to claw, to paw. 

K^e jadgo tioKkedea. The tiger managed 
to claw him. 

Tarn pe jadgokedea. A leopard has clawed her. 
(Bef erfing to a young women who has had her 

forehead marked with sindur in an irregular 

way. Cf itut.) 

Jadhio. 1 

Jadhio kal. vAt any time. 

Jadio. J 

Jadhio alom calaffa ona jaegate. Do not at 
any time go to that place. 

Jadopatia. A caste of Hindus who 
deal in enchantment and profess 
to hold communication with the 
spirits of the dead. 

Jadu. Conjuring, deceiving, enchant- 
ment, witchcraft. 

Jadu henaKtaea. He haa power to enchant. 

JaduL The cocoons of the tassar silk 
worm spun in the cold weather. 

J^J^JjJTo warm oneself at a fire. 

^4i nitoK dom jadw^hitfkana, sahan ^gn bam 
rebenlena. Now you are warming yourself 
over the fire, you who refused to bring fire- 

Jae. Victory. 

Jae bejae. To oppress, to injure, to 

Ce^hSalom jaebejaetakoa. Do not harm any- 
thing belonging to them. 

Kul oele h5 bae jae bejaeakafkoa. The tiger 
has done harm to no one. 

Jae dada. Great-grandfather. 
Jaede. Let it alone, let it go. 

Jaede, bugiena. Let it alone, it is aU right. 

Jaega. *) Place, land, farm ; to place, to 

Jagah. J give land to, to give a girl 

in marriage, to retire for the night. 

Jaegawadea/i. I grave him land. 

Jaegakadeaii. I gave him a place to sleep. 

NitoKbon jaega baraKa. We will now retire for 
the night. 

Teheli jSii^d^ Biswa^ihrele jaegaJena. We pass- 
ed last night in Biswadih. 

Bhale jaega kana. It is a good piece of land. 

Nesbon jaegakaea m%i do. We wiU give our 
daughter in marriage this year. 

Jaejat. Moveable or immovable pro- 
perty given in pledge or mortgage. 

Mi6 wra; ka^ad ia^atakatkina. I have pSd- 

ged a yoke of Du^aloes. 
Jaejatko uduffakoa. They point out what is 

given in pledge. 

Jaejug. For ever, always. 

Jaejug gem hijuttkana. Ton are always coming. 

Jaejug I^gi^ ill em ut^ra^mea. I gave it to you 
out and out. 

Jaejug ohom tahSlena non^o. You cannot re- 
main here for ever. 

Jaeju^lah opola. We wiU always correspond 
with each other. 


Jae jupatiti. 

[ 250 ] 


Jae jupatiA. Edible jungle products 
such as leaves, firuits, roots, nuts, 
gums, &c. 

Jaej mum. Oppression, severity, tyran- 
ny, coercion; to tyrannize, dom- 
ineer, oppress, override. 

Alom jftejulmnkoa. Do not oppress them. 
Disom do jaejnlumte pereiakftiia. The eonntry 
is full of oppression. 

Jaejumdha. Rubbish, rubbish lying 

about a house. 

Jae korar. A great-grand-child. 

Jaesan. *) *„ . , . ^^ 
T > As, lust as. 

Jaesne. J *' 

Jaesangem k^mia, enkas^em iiama. As 70a act 

so will you reoeiTe. 
Jaesan taesan hof alom ba4fteiia. Do not take 

me for such a fool. 
Jaesanko k»mikeda taesanko liamkeda. They 

reoeived aooording to their work. 

Jae tataiL My great-grandfather. 
Jae tatam. Thy great-grandfather. 
Jae tatat. His great-grandfather. 
Jagah. Place, land, farm. Cf. jaega. 

Jagao. To be on the alert, to keep 

Jagaote tahenme. Bemain on the alert. 

Jagao. 1 A nightly serenading of the 
Gai jamo.J cattle by the young men 
of the village during the continu- 
ance of the Sohrae (q. v.) festival 

Eof ako do mit liind^ g^i ka^Ukko jagaokoa, sa- 
nam hof ren. 

Jagarna. To be on the alert, to watch. 

Jagamath. A variety of the rice plant. 

Jage. What, whatever. 

Jagesar. Large in area, as a field. 

Jagron. To be on the alert, to keep 

awake, to watch. 
Jagwar. To be on the alert, to keep 


Jagfwarakan tahenme. Oontinne alert. 

Jah. An exclamation of annoyance. 

Jah ! oetiti cekakeda P Oh dear ! what have I 

Jah^ Any, anything, whatever, where- 

JahSte. Wheresoever. 

Jaha seo. In whatsoever direction. 

Jahatinre. Whenever, whatever time of day. 

JahStisre. Whenever. 

JakStin^ff. How mnoh soever. 

Jaha leVa. In any way, whichever way. 

Jaha lekate. In any way, that, so that. 

Jaha (hen. Any where, wherever. 

Jahire. Wherever. 

Jahfte. Any one, some one. 

Jab&e geye idiaka6i. Some one has taken it 

Jahae bahkhan jah&e. Some one or other. 
Ar jab&effe ifire bae t^kijoM nnigreye bh^nn. 

And blessed is he, whosoever shaU find none 

occasion of stumbling in me. 

JahaetaK. Any one, whomsoever. 
Jaha kahft. Here and there, anyway. 

Jahi kaha menalgea. It is to be found here 
and there. 

Jahaj. A ship. 

Jahaj caKlaoko. The crew of a ship. 
Jahaj kaera. A variety of plantain. 

Jaha joho. Slow, sluggish in move- 

Ce€em jaha joho bafae kana ? VHiat are yon doing 
going about so slug^shly? 

Jahalc. Whatsoever, anjrthing. 

Jahal. A cor. of the English word 

Jahal khana. A prison house. 
Jahal khanareko aderkedea. They put him in 

Jaha. man tahft. Anywhere, at random. 

Jah&man tah&e dupip bar^ea. He sits down 

Jah9.n. At any time, or something else. 

Kalkatatem sen jahSnlena. Have you at any 

time gone to Calcutta P 
Dal jah&nkemako. They many beat yon or 

something else. 

Jahan. Any, some. 

Jahanaf . Any thing, something. 
Jahanii. Any one, some one. 
Jahan jinis ^gnl l^gifko calaXkana. They are 
going to bring goods of some kind. 

Jahtoalc. Any thing, something. 

JahinaK emalime. Give me something. 
JahinaMge emalime. Give me anything. 

Jahftni6. Anyone, some one. 
Jah&nko. Anyones. 
Jahar. Poison. 

Jahar m^hr%. Poison for arrows. 

A poison bearing this name is said to be found 
in the head of the Adjutant bird. It is be- 
lieved to be an infallible cure for snake bite. 

Jah&talc. Whichever, any, any one. 

JahataKem kusiatt, ona hataome. Take wfaioh- 
ever pleases you. 

Jaher. \The Sacred grove of the 

Jaherthan. j Santala There is one 

attached to each village and they 

are principally composed of trees 

of okorea rohustay Qcertn, 

Jaher dareko. The trees that compose the 
Sacred grove. 

Jaher era 

[ 251 ] 


Jaher era. A female deity who has a 
place in the Jaher or Sacred grove. 

Jahir. To publish, to make known, to 

Jahlt. To exert oneself, to take pains, 
to spare no eflFort, to bestir one- 
self, to take trouble. 

J^hltme. Take trouble over it. 

Kui hof i^hitem. Spare no effort (in noreing 

AftJt sakam j%hit ^gnitabonme. Exert your- 
self to provide hb with the neoeasanea of 

Bam j^Itlekhan ohom jomlea. If yon do not 
exert yourself you cannot eat. 

Jahpun. Tired looking, lazily. 

Non4ege i^hpuhe dufupakaAS. He site here 

very tbed looking. 
Ghane ffhane j^hpuhko durupkoKa. Every now 
-and again tiiey ait lasily down. 

Jahre. Alas ! 

Jahre! ce€i]i cekakedaP Alaa! what have I 

Jahurae. Big-bellied, protuberant sto- 

La^ marah ut^rgetaea, jahurae. 

Jaigii*. A rent free tenure, given in 
return for services, &c. 

J^igire jomeda. He enjoya rent free land. 

Jaigir. To be on the alert, to watch, 
to keep awake. 

Hukum otoadeae jaigir l^gi^. He left ordera 

with him to be on the alert. 
Khub jaigir hor kanae. He ia a very light aleeper. 

Jaituk. A gift to a bride by her father. 

Jofa j^tuk. A pair of heifera given to a bride 

bv her father. 
Jaituk tok. A peatle brought by a bride from 

her father 'a houae. 

Jaitun dare. The Olive tree. 
Jaj. To prove, to substantiate ; cor. of 

Noa dom jaj dafeaXa? Can ^ou prove thia P 
Jaj doho. To giYO information. 

JalL To brush slightly against. 

Parom calalkan tahSkanre ja1{ torakedea. He 
bruahed aUghtly againat him aa he waa paaa- 

J&k. To pass stringent orders, to charge 

Jiwi jikte. With might and main. 
Khub jikte k^mipe. Work hard. 
Kat pat ^ko jEkakafa, bako maX oooaMa. 
They have placed a atriot embargo on the tim- 
ber, they will not allow it to be out. 

jj^ \ Heavy, difficult. 

iToa bakaa ill tulre ^i jaka. To my lifting thia 
box ia very heavy. 

Jakham. To wound, a wound. 

A'^iye jakhamkedea. He wounded him aeverely. 
Jahjare jakhamenae. He ia wounded in the 

Jakan jukun. Weak and leaning on a 
staff, as a very old person, enfeebled. 

Bu^fce jakan jukunakanae. He ia greatly 

weakened by fever. 
Bah doe balicaoK, bah doe lahaX, jakan jukun 

cabaenae. It ia impoaaible to aay whether 

he will recover or cue, he ia aa weak aa he 

can posaibly be. 

Jakao. To forbid, to lay an embargo on* 

^Luriko jakao h^bi6 halahpe. CoUeot it until 
they forbid you to do ao. 

Jake jemon. According, in accordance 

Jake jemon hof onka emakom, g^drf do gidr% 
leka, ar aSf^ do aSfS leka. 

J akir 

Jakira ^^ "®^ diligence, to be indus- 

Jakir trious, to be assiduous, to 

Khub j^kirte k^mipe. Work aaaiduoualy. 
Khub j^kiredae. He ia very induatrioua. 

Jak jotei To touch, to be familiar 

E^aX jat reaS jaK jote€ alom joma. Do not eat 
what a peraon of another oaate haa touched. 

Jaknu6. Lean, shrivelled, as an old 

Jal. A net. 

JaJe lagaoartkana. He acouaea me falaely. 
Jal mokordoma kana. Itiaafalae caae. 

Jal. To lick with the tongue. 

Jal jel barawa£leako. They entertained ua. 

Jala. A wide expanse of water, a sea. 

Chthgfa ^nh^lenkhan jalaleka lleloKa. When 
the Ckingea overflowa it looka like a wide aea. 

Jala puri.' 

Jalakhar. A wide expanse of water, a 

Jalaki. sea. 


Jala. Distress, difficulty, afflicti(Hi^ 
adversity, trial. 

Dburko gooente maha jalare menalia. I am in: 
great diatreaa owing to the death of n^ 
plough cattle. 

A'jli jalaailkana. It cauaea me much diatreaa. 

Jala. Solicitude, force, press, anxiety. 

Qidrako reah hoi* hopon do ^i jala menaXtakoa. 

Santala have great anxiety for the welfare 

of their children. 
Jalageii ^ik^uefa. I am aolicitoua. 
Maya jalate. By the force of pity. 
Gidr^ jala do %4i marah jala kana. 


[ 252 ] 


" ^^~ 

Jalai. An iron nail. 

Jalai. A thin film, a thin covering. 

jqi^ite Gsef ena. It is covered by a thin film. 

Jalai. To dam, to baste, to sew slight- 
ly and with long stitches. 

Kicrice jal%i bapaeda. He is darning hia oloth. 
D^rii do kicrise j9l«i batafakaCa. The tailor 
bas basted the oloth. 

Jalakhar.") A large expanse of water, a 
Jalakhi. ) sea. 

Band pereclenkhan jalakhar leka iieloMa. When 
the tank is fall it looks like a sea. 

Jalao. To cremate, to bum, to set fire 
to, to scorch. 

Jalaokedeako. They cremated him. 
Ho^mo jalaotf kantida. My body is burning. 

Jalaphi A large expanse of water, a 

Jalapuri. The sea. 

Jal^l To stick, to adhere, to press 

ErasrekokhiljalaCledea. They nailed him to 

the cross. 
Lntur jalafakantaea. His ears are thrown 

Noa kantha roX jaladme. Sew on this patch. 

Jala£ japal To hang about a house 
in hopeof receiving something, as 
hungry children. 

Jalaf julul To twinkle, sparkle, scin- 
tilate, flash, glimmer, to blink with 
the eyes. 

lAinda jala€ jnlmfko joloffa bakiann. At night 
fire flies emit intermittent flashes of Ught. 

Bee hof h5 oka do jalaf jnlndoRako. At times 
even healtiiy people do not see distinobly. 

Jala£ ialn£iii deiiela. I do not see distinctly. 

Jale. A custom observed on the last 
day of the Sohrae (q. v.) festival, 

when the yonng men and maidens make the 
roond of tiie vUlage and sing, dance and 
beat the dmms at each honse, and in return 
receive presents of rice, which is cooked 
and divided amongst the villagers. 

Jale sereli. Songrs snng when observing the 

onsix>m of jale. (q. v.) 
Jale rn. The time beaten on the drums when 

observing the custom of jale (p. v.) 
Enhilotf khnntiko toda, arko jalea. 

Jale thale. At a loss, hard-pressed, 
without resource. 

Behgedteko jale thale bafaekana. They are 

hard pressed with hunger. 
Jom jomtele jale thale@na. We have eaten till 

we can eat no more. 
Boiiga buru manaotebon jale thaleena. We are 

drifting hopelessly through serving the boii- 


Jali. An early stage in the formation 
of fi^it, a young bamboo shoot. 

J^li 8a|)akana. The fruit has begun to form. 
Ci6ci<& khon tho|ra l^tnlenkhan j^ko metal a. 

Jali khali. Now and again, at times. 

J9li kh^li hijuXae. He comes now and again. 

Jali horo. A variety of the rice plant. 

Jalim. Plucky, intrepid, mettlesome, 
having nerve. 

Sendrare khube j^lima. He is very plucky 

when hunting. 
Ehub jalim setae benaoena. He has grown a 

mettlesome dog. 

Jalim. 1 Something put in the cilim (q. 
Jamin. J v.) to prevent the ashes reach- 
ing the mouth when smoking. 

J^lim lagaoaKme. 

Jalim s^r. Expert in hunting. 

Khub j^lim s^rgeae. He is an expert shikari. 

Jaljalao. To be inflamed, to burn, to 

Edrete jaljalaoKkanae. He is inflamed witii 

Hopno ialjalaoK lekall ||ik$ueda, I feel as if 

my body were burning. 

Jaljalia.> Not closely woven, having in- 
J alj elia. ) tervals between the threads. 

Jalj^li^ kicrice teiiaka£a. He has woven the 
cloth so that it can be seen through. 


EnoM ^anra alom jalkhaxea. Do not muzzle the 

ox that treadeth out the com. 
Setako jalkharkoa aloko gegera mente. They 

muzzle dogs so that they may not bite. 

Jalmal. Moveable property, goods and 

Jalmal sanamko idike£koa. They look away 
all his property. 

Jalo. A species of hawk. 
Jalop. To cover over. 

Jalte hakoko jalop esefkoa. They throw a net 
over fish and prevent them getting away. 

Ma s^uf ikote ni% phikko jalop ese€kam. Cover 
these holes (in the roof) with thatching 

Jalpa. \Slender, slim, spare, attenuated, 
Jalpat./ shrivelled, lean. 

Oka do rehge&te jalpatko iieloKa. Sometimes 
through hunger people look shriveUed. 

Jalpai The Olive tree. 

Shrivelled, lean, slender, slim. 

Cf. jalpa. 

Slender, lean, shrivelled. C£ 


To muzzle. 





[ 258 ] 


Jalua. An earthenware vessel into 

which cows are milked. 
Jam. A fixture. 

Jam leVa horhoakanae. He watches as if he 
were a fixture. 

Jama, Amount of yearly rent, rent. 

Tin^t jamape emeda? What rent do you pay? 

Jama. Applied to flowers or fruit that 
do not become detached from 
the tree when full-blown or ripe ; 
to delay, to linger ; complicated. 

Koko ^i jamagetakoa, bako daka hoda. These 
people are dilatory, they do not oook at 

A4i jama^ea^ bail go^ hodoMkana. There is 
much delay, it is not being decided qnickly . 

Jamadar. K Head constable 
Jamedar. j 

Jama juta. Substantial, well and 
strongly made. 

Koa sagare jama ]nt%aka6k. He has made this 
cart weU and strong. 

Jamani. To become surety, surety. 

Jamani tehgonme. Become surety. 

Ill ren jam^nienae. He has become my surety. 

Jamao. To conceal, to coagulate, to 
curdle, applied to milk. 

Toa jamaoena. The milk is curdled. 

Jamay. 1 Continuously, without inter- 
Jamar.j mission. 

^4i jamaf teko horhoakafa. They have guarded 

it without intermission. 
Nit hof thene iamaroK, ar e%^6e neiighaoe. 

He will hold to the one and despise tiie 


Jambalc jomboK. Wriggling, as fish 
that have been poisoned ; stagger- 

Jambati. A large brass drinking vessel 

Jambe. The jaw bone. 

Jambe ^ata. Grinder teeth. 

Eakf a ^ambe. To become lean. 

Kakpb jambednae. He has become lean. 

Jambhua. Ignorant, foolish. 

Jambhu% mara hof . An ignorant scoundrel. 

Jambir dare. The Citron, GiPma me- 

dica, Linn, 
Jambo. To cook, used mainly by 


Ai Hgite jamboakafa. She has cooked only 
for herself. 

Jambro.\A species of large rock snake, 
Jamro. J a python. 

M^ wll^'amr^ \ Varieties of the jambfo dis- 
DudM?':i^"j tinguishedby^Santlls. 

Jamedar. A Head constable. 

Jami. \ Rice land, land on which rice is 

Jimin. J grown. 

Jami jaega. All kinds of land. 
Bir matt t^n^ikate jamiko o(jokaka£a. They 
have cleared the jungle and made rice fields. 

Jamin. To become surety, to go bail ; 
a surety. 

Jamin emoK hoyol^tama. You must give bail. 
I A jaminenteko afaKkadea. He was released 
through my becoming surety. 

Jamin. A gun wad, anything used as 
a gun wad. 

J$mln lagaome. Put in a wad. 

Jamindar. Surety, bail, a landholder. 

J^mindare tehgoakaua. He has become surety. 

Jamka. Two joined together. 

Jamka nahel. Two ploughs cut from one piece 

of wood. 
Jamka lum^m. Two cocoons joined together. 

Jamka jumki. In company, in knots, in 
a gang, in a party, in a group. 

Jamka jumkile calattkana. We are going in 

Jamkao. To assemble. 

Ene3ko jamkaoakada. They are assembled to 

Khub jamkaoge menaKkoa. They are very 


Jamke. United or grown together, 
as two fruits, fingers, &c. 

Jamki. A plaited band. 

Jamki 4ora. A plaited loin string. Of. 4ora. 
G^i oawar reaK^ galahkatele j^mkia. We plait 

the hairs of a cow's tail and make a band 

to tie up the hair with. 

Jamki banduk. A gun fired by means 

of a fuse. 
Jamro. A species of large rock snake, 

a python. Cf. jambro. 
Jamro hesalc. A variety of the Pipal 

tree, Ficvs rdigioaa, Linn., with 

elongated leaves. 
Jamro matkom. A variety of the 

Mahua tree, Basia latifoLia, R(xcb., 

with elongated flowers. 
Jan. A witch finder. 

Jan guru. A witch finder. 
Jan fhenle cr lalf kana. We are going to consult 
a witch finder. 

Janam. To give birth to, to be bom, 
to originate, to spring, to make an 
appearance, to appear. 

JaKnamio. Author of being. 
Janam data. Author of being, creator. 
Jiwe£ janam. Whole lifetime. 
Ot khon janamoKa. It will spring from the soil. 
Eaph^ri^uko janamkeda. They oegan to quar- 

Janam chut 

t 254 ] 


Janam chut. The ceremonial defile- 
ment consequent on childbirth. 

Janam dara. Natal, natural, as opposed 
to acquired. 

Janam data. A hunting term applied 
to the Hapuk (q. v.) 

Janam data. Giver of life. 

Janao. To inform, to make a state- 
ment, to tell. 

Gof^ ren bofko iliaX dnlcili janaoa{koa. I 
informed the people of Gorga about my 


Janapit. To close the eyes, to sleep. 
Cf. japifi. 

"Rehge^te met bail janapidoXa. I cannot sleep 
through hunger. 

Janapi£aR. Food given to a child to 
induce him to go to sleep. 

Janapi€aK bae efelekhan cedaXe j^pidaP If he 
does not get something to eat why shoold 
he go to sleep P 

Jana suna. Well known by report, ac- 
quaintance with, acquaintance. 

Jana sona ongle menalkotlda. I have aoqnain- 
tanoes there. 

Jana snna katha. A weU known fact from hear- 

Jande mande. 1 Anyhow, at random, 
Jande man tande. yanjrwhere, here and 
Jande tande. J there. 

Jande mandeko oalaoena, k^mi b^nnX ifto. 
They have gone here and there as there is 
no work. 

Jande munde. At random. 

Jande mandeko dalkedea. They struck him 
at random. 

Jane tane. "^Anywhere, here and 

Jane man tane. J there, anyhow, at 

Jane man taneko oalaoena. They have gone here 

and there. 
Jane taneko k^mikana. They are employed 

here and there. 
Ujf a din mih!L merom jane man taneko calaXa. 

When there are no crops on the ground 

oatUe are allowed to go wherever they wish. 

Jan. A bone, the stone of a fruit, the 
fruit of certain leguminous plants ; 
to remove the covering of a ripe 
pod, to shell, as peas, &c. 

Jahena ul do. The stone has formed in the 

Dal jah. To remove the shells of pods by 

Lebe£ jah. To remove the shells of pods by 

grinding under the feet. 

Janajani. Known, to be acquainted 
with, to inform, to make known. 

Joto jana j^ni hop kanabo. We all know, 

and are known to each other. 
Jana j^nia€koamP Did you inform them of itP 

Jan baha. A piece or pieces of bone 
of a cremated person rescued 
firom. the ashes of the funeral 

The piece or pieces of bone thus rescued are 
oonsignea with much ceremony to the 
Damuda river. 

Janga. The foot, the leg. 

Jahga latar. To be submissive. 

Ti jahgare gi^i. To prostrate oneself at aa- 
other's feet. 

Auriye jahgaXa. He cannot walk yet. 

AmaX j&hgtb latarre henalSa. I am submissive 
to you. 

Ti jahzare gidikateye nehorena. He threw him- 
self at his feet and implored. 

Jangai. To inform. 

Ma katha jang^iaeme. Tell him about it. 
Uni dom jang^iakawadeaP Did you teU himP 

Jange. A horizontal bar, as of a fence ; 
to fence with horizontal bars, to 
take care o£ 

Horho jafige. To watch over, take oare of. 

Jah^ khunti. The uprights on which the hor- 
izontal bar of a fence rests. 

Jahge ese6aka£ako. They have fenced it with 
norisontal bars. 

Me n gi d»rko gadarko horhokoam jahgekoam. 
Watch over and take care of the little ones. 

JaAghi. Sciatica, pain along the un- 
der side of the thigh. 

Jan|i?; {Trousers. 

Jan olat. A small forest tree, Orewia 

asiatica, Linn. 
Ja6 sins. A large forest tree, AlJbizzia 

odoratiaaiTna, Benth. 
Jan tirra. A large jungle climber, 

Pueraria tuberosa, D, (7. 

Jan hanijii. Liquor given to the village 
headman and other officials when 
any intimation is given of their 
service being needed, principally 
when a metrriage is about to be 

Janhe. A cultivated millet, PaapaZuTn 
8crobiculaty/m, Linn, 

Janhe hirom. A small plant. Euphor- 
bia scrabrifoliay Kurz, 

Janhe nadjom. A small plant, PoLy- 
carposa corymbosa, Lamk, 

Janid. Perhaps, may be. 

Jani jati. 

[ 255 1 


J^ni jatL Each for himself, severally, 
individually, independently, 

* J%iii j[f ti khajnale emoXkana. Each of as pays 
lua rent himself (to the lemindar, not 
throngh a lessee.) 
J^ni j%tiko olke€koa. The name of eaoh indi- 
yidnal was taken down. 

JadjaL 1 Anxiety, trouble, embarrass- 
JoAjal. ) ment, difficulty, strait, 

fieiige6te %4i jalijaUe •ik^neda. We are in 

grreat anxiety throagh poverty. 
Ce€ Jaiijal lagpaoa6nete noa dom nonkakeda? 

What straits wme yon in to make yon do 

JalijaloKkanae. He is in trouble. 

Janjanaa To pierce, or drive to the 
head, as a nail. 

Tnii janjanao. To pierce with an arrow. 
Knt^m janjanao. To drive to the head, M a 

P^ janjanao. To pieroe deeply, as a thorn 

in the foot. 

Jan janwar. A living creature, an ani- 

Jadje. To stagger, &iat from hunger. 

Jankao. To be firmly embedded, as a 
well driven nail. 

A^i jankaoena^ bahge todoff a. It is very firmly 
fixed, it will not come out. 

Jan pahcan. An acquaintance. 

Jan pahoan on^e menaKkotilia. I have acqnaint- 
anoes there. 

Janmal. Offspring. 

m ren janmal kanae. He is my offspring. 

Jante. A hand grinding mUl. 

Jante dhiri. A mill stone. 
Janterebon rida. We wiU grind it in the hand 

Janthar puj^ Worship accompanied 
with sacrifice, when the ripening 
of the low land rice is acknowled- 
ged, and the first firuits offered to 
the deities. Another name for it 
is Baihar horo nSLw^i. Cf. nflwsLi. 

Janu. The sacred thread worn by 
certain Hindu castes. 

Janum. A thorn, a thorny tree or bush. 

Kafwi^ j^nm. The thorny tree karwaV (q. v.) 
Knjri^nima j^nm. The thorny bnsh known as 
kurit* rama (q. v.) 

Janum. The tree which yields the 
Chinese date, or jujubefZizyphuz 
Jvjiiba, Lam. 

There are two varieties of this, one of which is 

cultivated and the other a wild bash. 
Pe^haofi j%nnm. The cultivated variety. 
Jom j%nnm. The wild bush. 

J^um afalc. A common pot-herb, 
Amarardua spinosa, Wuld. 

Janum 4hompa. A wild medicinal plant, 
Leonatia nepetaefolia, iJ. Br. 

Janwar. An animal. 

Bir janwar. A wild animal. 

Ato janwar. A domesticated animal. 

Jao, Barley, Hordewm wZgare, Linn. 
Jao. Every. 

jSS ^oM. } ®J®^ ^y* always. 

ter day. 
Jao jaote. Eveiy day, alwavs, continually. 
Jaoge jaoge. Bepeatedly, always. 

Jaora. To assemble, to collect, to gar 

Mota jaora. To g^in flesh. 
Hewa jaora. To gain experience, or skill. 
Em ^aora. To give or pay gradually. 
Sen jaora. To assemble ^rftaually, or in parties. 
Jom jaora. To eat graouall^. 
Heo jaora. To come in parties. 
Idi jaora. To take away gradually. 
Alele sen jaoraKa. We wiU do part of the 
journey (go by stages.) 

J^re jaore. Imploringly, earnestly, 
urgently, again and again. 

JSofe jaoreye l%i o^keda. He was most urgent 
in telling it. 

Jaof e jaof eii metamkana, alom bifida. I ear- 
nestly charge you, do not forget. 

Jaofe jEofeve he6uekana. He comes to us on 
urgent business. 

Japa jopo. Leisurely, slow, as if benumb- 
ed with cold ; weak. 

JapaM. To lean against. 

Berel japatt. > To take up one's residence, to 

Heo japaK. j squat. 

Sen japaK. To go to another's house and hang 

Japatf jere€. To lounge here and there. 

Japak. To shut to, as a door. 

Silpili japaXkam. Close the door, draw the 
door to. 

Japan jupun. Tottering, slowly and 
painfully, as an old person. 

Japah jupuh hafam cabaenae. He is so old as 
to totter when he walks. 

Japah lupufae tafameda, m^ berefakftnte. He 
walks very slowly, having just recovered 
from fever. 

Hafam hof leka japah jupuhe tarameda. He 
creeps along like an old man. 

Japaa To die, to be past hope of re- 
covery, to be dangerously ill. 

Bu^teye japaoakana. He is so iU with fever 

as to be past hoj[>e of recovery. 
Japaoenae. He is 

lope of 


t 256 ] 


JapSLr. To stand on the hind legs with 
the fore feet ao^ainst something. 

Darere merome japafukana. The goat stands 
on his hind legs with his fore feet against the 

Jape tope. 1 Slow, dilatory, putting oflf 
Jape thope.J time. 

Ceflekate jape tope bae heoakana? How is it 
he is so dilatory in coming? 

Japil To sleep, to close the eyes. 

Japifkedae, ma jhapfekaeme. He has fallen 

" jnt 
_ai^ili i^pii 

asleep, put a light coverinff over him. 
AhgaK aiigaRili j^pi€leda. I feU asleep towards 

Met bah j^pidoKkantaea. He does not close 

an eye. 
J^pif bah hqnXkana. Sleep does not come. 

J^pua. Lean, shrivelled, as an old 

Japul Applied to the rainy secuson's 
rain, the rainy season. 

J9pn€ din. The rain^ season. 

Jarge j^pniT. The rainy season. 

J%pn£e lagaokeda. The rainy season has set 


Japul To pomice suddenly upon and 
close way of egress, as a bird in a 
nest, &c. 

J9pu(!kedilSako. They came suddenly upon me. 

Jar. Original, veritable, veracious, true, 

J^T j%r katha. An old and tme story. 

Jara. Cf. bele. 

Bele jara. Properly ripe, as a fmit. 

Jara. Applied to the flowers of the 
MatKom (q. v.) tree which do not 
become detached when fall blown, 
but dry on the tree, and then fall. 

Jara matkom. Flowers of the Matkom (q. ▼.) 
tree which hare dried up before falling. 

Koa dare reaX matkom jaraakana. The 
flowers of this matkom tree have dried on 

Jara6 jurud. *) Small and ill-looking, 
Jharai jhuru6. J as starved children. 

Jarad jnmd|ndr% menaff kotaea. He has some 
small ill-loolang children. 

JaraK mente. | At«°<^^. immediately. 

JafaK marte lagaoadea . He gave heed at once. 

Jaral jaral. Flashing, shimmering. 

Jaral jaral setohkana. The sunshine is shim- 

Jaral jarale behgre€adida. He looked at me 
with flashing eyes. 

Knl Jaral jarale behgeda. The tiger*s eyes 

Jaral jurul. Staring, eyes to stand out. 

Behgeote jaral jnmie behge£eda. His eyes are 
staring through hunger. 

Jarao. To become weak or helpless 
through disease, or himger; bed 

JaraiS marte. *) * . . j • . i 

Jaraf mente. / ^* *''^*=«' immediately. 

Japaj) marte herei go^enae. He rose up im- 

JarapL 1 Applied to property inherited 
Jarapia./ from a wife's relatives. 

Jarapi$ dhonem liamakawana P Have you inheri- 
ted property through your wife? 

Jardhe. Clumsy and heavy, as a plough. 
Jafdhe jardhe. Laive clods of earth. 

Jafdhe jafdhe si utk^uMuna. Large clods of 
earth are being turned up by the plough. 

Jare jare. An exclamation of sorrow, 
distress, alas, alas ! woe is me ; to 

Jare Jare t ado oholi iSamlea, 

Jare jare I unaK sud bali ba^aelaVa. 

Jare jare ! oka kSn^ iA dSf&lerehS ohod l^amlea. 

Alas, alas ! I shaU never see him more. 

Alas, alas ! I did not know this would happen, 
not find him. 

Alas, alas ! Go whatsoever way I may I wiU 

Jare£ jarel To hobble when walking. 

JafeC jafe£e calaKkana. He hobbles along. 

Jaigadi. Job's tears, Coix ladiryvfiay 
Linn,, a plant often met with 
about villages. 

Jarge. \ The rainy season, Cf 

Jarge japul J japufi. 

Jarge palat. A change of garments 
for the rainy season. 

Jarge terel. A variety of the terel tree 
(Dioapyros tomentosa, Roxb.) the 
fruit of which ripens during the 

Jargo. To jerk towards oneself 

Jarffo bindafkedeae. He jerked him towards 
nimself and made him fall. 

Jargo. 1 Full grown, applied c^ener- 

Hara jargo. j ally to unmamed per- 
Jarhi. Marsh, swamp. 

Jarhi khe€. A rice field that has always water 
in it. 

Jari. To rain. 

• • 

J^ria£leae. It rained where we were. 
Paiijage goe j^fi metaoke6. The rain obliter- 
ated the footprints. 


t 257 ] 


Jari. To promulgate an order, to serve 
a summons, &c., to put or come 
into force, as a law. 

Samanko j^riadida. They serred a summons 

upon me. 
Baman j^riye calaKkana. He is on his way to 

serve a summons. 
Ona hukum ale se6 $uri j^riXa. That order 

has not been put in force where we reside. 

J^ To be importimate, to clamour, 
to importune, to beg hard. 

Kiorio l^gi€e j^ikana. She begs hard for a 

Gidr^ jahanaK l$gi£ko jaria. Children are im- 

portunate when tfiey want anything. 

JSrl. Applied to certain fibre yield- 
ing plants, fibre after extraction, 
also the stems and branches of the 
plant after the fibre has been ex- 

Sonjifi. The plant. Oof alariajunc«a, Linn. 

aiid its fibre. 
Kudrum jari. The plant, n%b%$etts canna- 

binus, Linn^ and its fibre. 

Aral kudrum jarl. The plant Hibisetis $ah' 
dariffdj Linn,, and its fibre. 

Jariau. To become chronic, or deep- 
seated, as a disease. 

J^fi^uentaea. It has become chronic with 

J9fifuentaea, bako ran hof adea. It has become 

serious, they did not give him medicine in 

Bn^do j^fi^uentaea. His fever has become 


Jari poda. To be burnt, as food in 
cooking, &c. 

Loenkhanko mena j^ri xx>^aenako. 
Jari po^akedako utu do. They have burnt the 
relish in cooking it. 

Jaribana. ^ 

Juribana. vTo impose a fine, a fine. 

Juribona. j 

Jaribanake€koae. He fined them. 
Juribana t<^a^d emkeda. We paid the fine. 

T • . ' VTo measure land, to survey. 

Atoko j^ripkeda. They measured the village. 

Jaro. Worn out, weakened, reduced. 

Bu%te jaroenae. He is weakened by fever. 

Jari butLlMedicinal herbs and roots, 
Jari buti I simples. 

jahan ]^fi buti lagaoaepe. Give him some 
kind of medicine or other. 

Jari janti. Earnestly, urgently, assid- 

J%ri j^ntiko horhokana. They are watching 

Jari jarao. To be burned up, to bum. 

J^ri jaraoenako. They are burnt out of house 

and home. 
Sanam bir j^ri jaraoena. The whole forest has 

been burnt up. 

Jarjar. \ To shiver during an attack 
Jarjarao. j of fever. 

vFarjaraoedilikana. I am shivering from an 
attack of fever. 

Jarkao. To be water-lc^ged, to be 
saturated, as the soil. 

Oir&K jarkaoentalea. The floor of our house 
has become waterlogged. 

Jarkhar. To meet with disaster, ca- 
lamity, adverse fortune, poverty, 
affiction, ruin; to go to rack 
and ruin, to decay, go down in the 
world, to be desolated. 

Koko ho; sanamko jarkharena. These people 

have all died. 
Ona ato sanamko jarkharena. The people of 

that village have all died. 

Jarmak jormok. Forlorn, like a vaga- 
bond, driven from one place to 
another, here and there. 

Adom hofko kami l^t iarmaX jormof ko dSfS 
bafaea. Some people go wandering from 
one place to another in search of work. 

JarmaU tormaU. ") Forlorn, like a vaga- 
JarmalS tormal J bond, aimlessly. 

Am do onte note jarmaK tormaXem difS bafaea. 
Tou will wander about like a vagabond. 

Jar man Roots, tubers, &c., dug up in 
the jungles for food. 

Ce€i>e jomeda? Jomedale jafm^f. VHiatdo 
you live on ? We live on roots, tubers, Ac., 
that we find in the forest. 

Jamaha. Expert in hunting, killing 
much game ; persistent. 

Jamaha seta. A good hunting dog. 
Sendrare ^i jamaha hore tahekana. He was 
an expert hunter. 

Jamdi. A weevil which attacks rice, 
and other grains. 

Jarpa. To hunt, applied to the occasion- 
al hunting parties organized by 
the villagers themselves, and not 
to the great annual district hunts. 

Noa bir tehei^bo jarpaea. We will hunt in this 
jungle toHlay. 

Jam. C£ belejaru. 

Bele j^ru. Properly ripe, as a fruit. 


Jarum dali 

[ 258 ] 


Jarum daK. •> m 
Met dale. / ^^^^• 

Jarur. To require, need, Want, have 
occasion for, not to be able to do 
without ; indispensible, urgent ; 
certainly, without fail. 

Ban i9tu|aekana. He needs me^oine. 

Saheb nm jarur menaKtaea. The maater needs 

J%nif id oalala. I shftU certainly go. 

Jarwa. To assemble, to collect. C£ 

Hoho jarwakefkoae. He called them together. 

Jasti. More, excessive, too much. 

Un^K emlekhan j^stiKa. If yon give so much it 

will be too much. 
J^sti AoJt emaeme. Oiye him a little more. 
Jasti bojham ladeaekana. Ton are patting too 

great a load on him. 

Jasu. A spy, a detective, an informer, 
an accomplice. 

Gnti hS jahatis jahatisko j^utta. Servants 
sometimes become accomplices (of thieves.) 

J^t. Caste, gender, temperament, race, 

Manwa jat. The hmnan race. 

Aj^t. To pnt out of caste. 

J%t i^gn. To break another's oaste. 

Jit (mJaI. To lose caste. 

Jom j^ti. To receive into oaste again. 

Jom jat. To re-admit to caste. 

Jom j^tott. To be re-admitted into oaste. 

Maejiu j^t. ") jf^-^i^^ 

Aiffiftij^t. 5 females. 

Herel }#t. Males. 

K^mite j%t oho oalaMtama. Yod wiU not lose 

caste by working. 
J^trege onkangeako. Their temperament is 


Seta J%t ho; kanako, beb»ri<$ko k%ph»ri«nKa. 
They are like dogs they quarrel fearfully. 

Jfkt. Property made over to a creditor 
till such time as the revenue shall 
have paid off the debt. 

Jat. Heavy. C£ jak. 

Jata. A poi*4ion of hair allowed to 
grow and become matted, as is 
the habit of some ascetics, and 
persons who have made a vow 
not to cut their hair for a certain 

Jata 4anra. A bull with an abnormal growth 
between the shoulders. 

Jata horo. A variety of the rice plant. 
Jatak. At once, immediately. 

Jatalf . To stick to, or adhere, as clay 
to the feet. 

Jatagotf kana. It adheres (to the feet.) 

JatalcjataK. \ Sticky, as birdlime; 
Jatak jatagotc. j to stick to, to adhere. 

Jatatf jataKiti ^ikfueda nmlenenei beeili a(ka« 
ra. My skin feels sticky, when I hiafe 
bathed I will feel comfortable. 

Jatal kotal. Seeking something to eat. 

Ja^al kotale dapa ba^ aeKana. He ia going abimt 
seeking something to eat. 

Jafan. Adhesive, as clay. 

Jatah hasa. Cla^. 

Ona hasa do ^i jatahgea. That soil is very 
stioky, (or clayey.) 

Jate. In whatever way. 

Jate besola, omkaepe. Do whatever wiU be 

Jate jute. With care, carefully, to put 
to rights, to repair. 

Jate j utete sagaf lagaeme. Drive the cart with 

Jate jute samjh^uepe. Explain it to him care- 

Jate pute calalpe. Qo carefully. 

Jate pteddako. They are putting tilings to 

Jg-tgar. "1 A good species, or kind, as 
Jatgaria.*/ a cow that gives much 

Bes i^tg^ri^ kanae. She is of a very good kind. 

Jati. Temperament, nature, natural 
propensity, or quality. 

J^tire onkangeae. His natural propensitiei are 
such, or he is so by nature. 

Jiwi j^ti. General health, of mind and body. 

Jiwi ]ati hofmo harta bes oafageale. Our gen- 
eral health is good. 

Jati. A bamboo mat. 

Jatia. Of or belonging to the oaste. 

j^ti% pera. A ca8te-f<Uk>w. 

Mi€ j^ti^ kanako. They are of the Bmme caiPte. 

Jat jut. 1 To put to rights, to recover 
Jut jat. / oneself after a season of 

distress, to make an amicable 


Baplareattko jat jutkeda. All preliminaries 
of the marriage are arranged. 

Jat )utkedako. They settled the matter ami- 

Jatla. M. "J A peraon who has allowed 
Jatli. F. J a part of his or her hair 
to grow long and matted. 

Jatna. As many, as much aa 

Jatn* meaalpea, ioto hijulf pe. Come aU of you. 
Jatna taka menaXa, sauam den emolpe. Give 
up all the money there is. 

Jatra. To die, to depart this life, to go 
on the long journey. 

Teheii doe jatraena. He died to-day. 


[ 269 ] 

Jehe jobe 

Jatra. A good omen, a sign or omen. 

Jatra bail boelen*. The omsu was affainst me. 
Ohod liamlea, jatra ball hoelena. I will not 
9«i it the owiin was nnf aToorable. 

Jatra. A festival obsei*ved in January. 

Jatra manda. *) Shrine at the place 
Jatra man^alc. J where the jatra fes- 
tival (q. V.) is observed. 

Jatur ened. A dance so called. 

It is danced daring the Sohrae (q. t.) and Baha 
(q. T.) featiTAla. 

J^tuT sere6. Songs and air sung when 
dancing the j^ur (q. v.) dance. 

Jatur ru. The time beaten on the 
drums yrhen the iatur (q. v.) dance 
is being executea 

Jan. To soften, to become soft. 

Daluu isin jaaena. The rioe Ib oooked too soft. 

K^mi k%mitele j^ena. We have become limp 
with oontinaed work. 

Dal j^nkedeako. They beat him to a jeUy. 

Bahe€ j^nkedeae. He put him down bj scol- 
ding him. 

Jauan. A kind of spice. 

Jauhar. ^ To assemble in large num- 
Jauhar. - bers. 

• • • 


• • • y 

Nnn^S hofili j%nharakawana, iA do ohod all- 
jomletapea. I hare engaged ao many 
people, I cannot listen to yon, (cannot leave 

Jauri. More than what is right and 

£r j^rixedape. Yon hare sown too thickly. 
Etaii fiot erpe, alope j^aria. Sow a little more 

thinly, do not make it thick. 
44^ jfnnkedape. You have pat in too nraoh 


JSusa jausi. '^ Ouicklv 
Jhausa jhausi. J ^ ^* 

J^asf j|nei hod^M. Get him to do itqniokl^. 

Jawa. To steep till germination or fer- 
mentation sets in. 

Jawakateko onaia . They stsep it tiU f^nnent- 
ation sets in, then they distil it. 

Matkom bee oko6te bape tase rohoflalhb, jawa- 
ena. Yon did not carefully dry the matkom 
it is fermenting. 

Jawa. Twins. 

Jawa gidrakin hoeakantaea. She thas giren 
birth to twine. 

Jawfte. Husband, bridegroom, to be 
married to a husband. 

JawSe gomke^. Son-in-law. 

Qhar lawle. > A husband who lires in the 

Qh^rdi jawae. > house of his wife's father, 

aad serres for her, instead of paying the 

usual price and taking her to his own home. 


Jawiekedeako. They ^re her in marriage, 
^uriye jawaeolfa. She is not ^ret married. 
Ghardi jawiednae. He is married and has gone 

to his father-in-law's. 
B%hQ jawSe. A game played bylSantal girle, 

whioh takes the place of the doU of English 


Jawfte lacju, A variety of the rice plant. 

Je. "> Whatever, what ; that, in intro- 
Jege. J ^^^^^S* oblique narration. 

Jege menaXa. Whatever there may be. 
Je iadialred paraoena, iA geli ba^aedda. I 
* anoW' my own sorrowa. 

Jeb. A pocket. 

Jeb gh%ri. A watch, 

Jeb doho. To shew pity. 

Jeb dobokate ropne. I^ew pity in wlAt ydt 

Jebe jebe. "J 

Jebei jebe6. -Moist, muddy. 

Jobo jobo. J 

J#be jobe» I>rencbed, dripping. 

W-ilwe';. I Miserable looking, like 

Jewer jewere daf H bapaekana. fie goes about 

in miserable plight. 
Jewef Jewerko andaKakada. They hare oooked 

it till it is doughy. 

Jebkho6. A common grass> Era^groa* 
tia tendla, Nees. 

Jebpe jebf e ol iielolkana. The writing it heikTy. 

Jejewer. J 

Jede bede. Roughly smeared, as a 

Je4er. Sunshine, applied only to that 

of the early morning hours, and 

during the cold season; to sun 


Je^er ke|e^. Time at which the sun's rays 

begin to get hot. 
Je^erre dn{|ujpme. Sit in the sunshine. 
Je^er keteo h%biuili je^erena. I bathed in the 

sunshine until the sun was well risen (tiU 

9 a. m. or so.) 

Jege. Whatever. 

J^e6jagum. Wet, damp, moist, as soil. 

Jege6 j^gum ^(karoKkana. It feels damp. 

Jegei jeged. Wet, damp, moist. 

Jehe jobe. Very wet, or damp, drench- 
ed, dripping. 

Jehe jobe lohofenae. He is drenched. 
Jehe jobe lohofSentalea ofaM do. The floor of 
our house is rery damp. 

Je jemon 

[ 260 ] 

Jenge£ jengeti 


A small forest bird. 

Je jemon. As, in conformity with. 

Je jemon hof onkage emakom, gidr^ do gidr^ 
leka, ar sef ako do sefa leka. In oonformity 
with the individual, bo give them, to a child 
as iH fitting for a child, and to an adalt as 
fitting for an adult. 

Jejewer. 1 
Jed jewer. J 
Jekichu. Whatever 

Jekiohn tahSkantaea, sanam lo cabaena. AU 
he had is burnt up. 

Jekre. As if rooted or anchored, said 
only when finding fault ; adhesive, 

On(^em sen jekfeakanaP You went and anchor- 
ed there P 

Je leka. As. 

Jelekam hnkumkeda, Be lekakedaii. I did as yon 

Jel. A deer. 

Jhaiikar. The buck of the spotted deer, Awia 

Posta. The hind of the spotted deer, Aaeia mcitu- 

Saram. The Sambur deer, Busa i4rt«£ofelt«. 
Murtun. The buck of the Nilgai, Portax pictus, 
Sosam. The hind of the Nilgai, Portax pictus. 
Mufghos. The Bib-faced, or Barking deer, 

CervulVfS aureus. 
Kurmbi selep. 7 The buck of the Bavine deer of 
Badaf selep. ) sportsmen in Bengal, Qanella 


nSlt^J^^' \ The hind of the Eavine deer, Oath 
Ghotra;:) ella Bennettii. 

Jel. Flesh, flesh meat. 

t)aiira jel. 7 ^^f 

Gai jel. i ^^'• 

Bhi(Jijel. Mutton. 

Merom jel. Goat's fiosh. 

Sukri jel. Pork. 

Jel jel. Venison. 

La£ jel. Flesh wrapped in leaves and oooked in 

BapaK jel. Boast meat. 
TeKe jel. Boiled meat. 
Bohof jel. BUtong, flesh cut into strips and 

cmed in the sun. 

J e/sure' 1 ^®** ^^ "°® oooked together. 
Kohra jel. Flesh meat oooked along with spices 

in oil. 
Berel jel. Baw meat. 
Jel daka. Boiled rice and meat. 
Jel utu. A relish of meat. 
JeloKkanae. He is recovering flesh. 
Sukri khubko jela. Pigs yield much flesh. 
Mturahgeye tahekana, menkhan bae jellaXa. It 

was large, but did not yield much meat. 
Ale hSle jelletgea. We also killed meat. 
Jel ioii kanako. Thev are having flesh meat. 
Jel kombfokate horoKaepe. W^ork the flesh on 

her hand to put it on (a bracelet.) 

J^leA. Long, tall. 

JelelioKa. It well become long, or lengthen. 
Onae jelelSkeda. He lengthened it. 
Jeleii can^bol. Cattle. 

Jeteleli. The long way, the length as opposed 
to the breadth. 

Jelej^ jele^. Showing oflF, flashing, as 

Jelej) jelepe dif a bafaekana. He goes about 
shewing himself off. 

Jeljelia. Not closely woven, intervals 
between the threads, as in coarse 

«ieipec. § CI 11 • • •/» A. 

lit' I •^^^"> Hisignincant. 

Jelpe^ mara gidra. A little imp of a child. 

JembetJ. To drink by putting mouth 
to water, to drink from a vessel 
without putting the rim in the 
mouth, to suck, to drink. 

Tamp mayamko iembeda. Leopards drink the 

blood (of their victims.) 
Datt alijlekate jembedme. Lift the water in the 

palms of your hands and drink. 

Jembefi. To fit neatly or exactly, as a 
join in a panel. 

Kat khub jembeCena. The wood is neatlj 

Bahki jembe£akana. The anklets fit nicely. 

emne. ) j^ order that, as, so that. 
Jemon. J 

HusiaroSpe jemon aloe dar. Be careful so that 
he may not run away. 

Jemned. So that, in order that. C£ 

Jemon .... temon. As .... so, according 

Jemonko kamia, temon gem emakoa. Ton will 
give them according as they work. 

Jemon temon. Carelessly, indifierently. 

Jemon temonko kamikeda. They did their work 

Jemthe. \ Joined together, 

Jemthe jemthei. J stuck together ; 
sticky, adhesive. 

NoffSekin jemtheakana. 

Jemthe9na. They are sticking together. 

Jene6. Small, diminutive. 


Applied to the crying 
■ or whining of a cross 

Jenep^eneye raga. She is whining. 

Jenered. The upper levers to which 
the heddles of a loom are attached. 

Jenged jenget'. Bright red, pleasing to 
the senses. 

Jeiige£ jeiige6 lieloKa. It is a bright red. 
Kia bana mai jeiige^ jehgei. 


[ 261 1 



Jedjle. To beg hard, to importune, 
applied mainly to covetous begg- 

Tin^I bam jedjle baraes. You are a terrible 

Horko then Jet^jle bapaeae. He is giren to beg- 
ging &om other poeple. 

Jenkete. Virginity. 

Jeno. So that, in order that. 

Nonka jeno alo hoyol^. So that it may not thus 

Jen the. Sticky, adhesive. 

Jentbe hftsa. Sticky soil, soil that adheres to 
the feet. 

Jepere<. To stick together, to grow 
together as two fruits, two fingei*s, 
two cocoons, Siamese twins, &c. 

Jepere€ mi£akana. They have grown together. 

Jepel Neatly fitted or joined, as a 
piece of woodwork, &c. 

KhnD jepefakana. It is well fitted. 

Jepe thope. Following at a distance, 
unable to keep pace with othera 

Jer. Gum, exudation from certain 

Babla jar. Ghim arabio. 

Jer 8080 jomko senakana. They have gone to 

eat gum along with the soso (q. v.} fruit. 
Noa darere jerakana. Qnm is exuding from 

this tree. 

Jera. To cross question. 

S^khiko jerakoa. They oross question the wit- 

Jera auri hoyoKa. The oross examination has 
not yet taken place. 

Jera janhe. A grass, PavdcuTn flavi- 
dium, Retz., the grain of which is 
sometimes eaten. 

Jerbar. Worn out, reduced, wearied, 

Bu^ ru^ye ierbarena. He is worn out with 
continued fever. 

Jerdhe. Clumsy and heavy. 
Jere bedhe. Stunted, dwarfed. 

Jere be^he bae hara haraKkana. 

Jere jere. To be reduced, as by illness ; 
to be stunted, as a plant growing 
under unfavourable conditions, un- 

Bu^te jerejereenae. He is reduced by fever. 
..^aKte jere jerekedae. The moisture stunted 

(the Indian corn.) 
DaK jere jere tahengrea. The water remains 

unfavourable to plant growth. 

Jere mete. With difficulty. 

Jefe metetele kamikeda nes. We experienoed 
difficulty with our cultivation this year. 

Jered ayan. A species of snake. Cf. 

Jere A aralt.lA wild plant used as a 
Jere£ arak. j pot-herb, Ghlorophitura 
a'TundinaceiiTn, Baker. 

Jerer. To plaster and smooth, to plas- 
ter, to daub. 

Otko jerera. They smooth the floor of the 
house with mud. 

In^kate ado gota ref sindnrte gota molohreve 
jerefwadege. After that he daubs ail tne 
sindur in uie leaf on her forehead. 

Jerel To burn, set fire to, to kindle, 
to be eaten away as the toes and 
fingers of a person suffering from 

Jeref ak me. Set fire to it. 
Jere€ sunum. Burning oil. 
Diuhe jeredme. Light the lamp. 

Jerel To be united, to grow together, 
to stick together. 

Jeref mifakana. The two have grown together. 
Me^ jerefentaea. His eyelids are stickmg to- 

Jerjer. Sticky, as bird lime. 

Jerka. To stick together, to be united. 

Jerka mifena. They are sticking together. 

Jerka. Stunted, short, ill-grown. 

Jerka mara hof. A stunted scoundrel. 

Sedae ren hof usulko tahekana, menkhan netaf- 
ko jerkagea. The ancients were taU men 
but those of the present day are stunted. 

Jerkei. To copulate. 

Jerngaha. Unproductive, applied to 
saline soils. 

Jero. Worn out, weakened. 

Jero cabaenae. He is as weak as he can weU 

JerpSret! As if rooted or anchored. 

Dufup jerpefe^akanae. He sits as if rooted 
to the ground. 

Jerpef . As if rooted to the ground. 

Jerpe^e dufupakana. He sits as if rooted to 
the ground. 




Jesanko k^mia tesanko iiama. As they work 
so wiU they receive. 

Jeteleli. The long way, the long sides 
of a parallelogram. 

Jeteleli p^reaf e. Tne bar running the lon^^ 
way of a bed in opposition to tluit running 
the cross way. 

Kicri6 real( jeteleiS. The long way of the cloth 

Jeth. A month so called. May — June 


[ M2 ] 

Jhaka jhaki 

Jethe. Expectant, hoping to receive 

Dorap jetheskanae. He sits quietly ezpeotiag 
to reoeire something. 

Jether pether. For a lone; time, a long 
stretch of time. C£ jothor pothor. 

Jetho. To tell, to reveal as much as 
is convenient. 

Kathae jethoeda. He is telling his story. 

Jetke. Adhesive, sticky, as wet clay. 

Jetlok. M.1 Miserable looking, depress- 
Jitluk. F.J ed, sad. 

Dupkp jetloKakanae. He looks miserable as he 

Bits tiiere. 
JahSe opal slope j«tlol baraea. Bo not hang 

abont any one's house shewing a miserable 

look, (to exoite charity.) 

Jewen. Sticky, adhesive, as paste, &c. 

Jewer. 1 

Jewer Jewer. >Sticky, adhesive. 

Jewejrjewe^:. J 

Jewer hasa. Stioky aoil that stioks to the feet. 

Jhaba. A hanging shelf, baskets for 
carrying earth slung at each end 
of a bamboo and oarried on the 

Jhabar jhubar.*) Drenched, dripping, 
Jhabar jhubur. J as the clothes of one 

who has just waded through a 


JhabrahL Well knit frame, strong and 
proportionate. Cf. jabrahi. 

Jhabrali. Wide spreading and um- 
brageous, as a tree; well knit firame, 

Jhabrao. To spread over, to hang, to 
curtain, to put on trappings, to 

Eut on ornaments and clothes, to 
e loaded with £ruit, as a tree. GL 
Jhabu. A broad armlet. 

Jhade6 j hade£. Ill-fitting, as garments; 

to wear a garment slovenly and 

Jhadga. Slovenly attired. 

Jhadge. Slovenly attired. 

Jhacve mara ho^. A slovenly attired fellow. 

Jhadgo6. Old, fiiUen into disrepair, 
worn out. 

' Ofal jhadgooentaea. His house has faUen in- 
to disrepair. 

Jhado6 jhado£. Ill-fitting and baggy, 
as a Caballee's garments ; worn in 
a slovenly fashion. 

Jhador pador. Dilapidated, as the roof 
of a house when the thatch has 
become old and worn; rough, 
roughly executed, as work; scrag- 
gy, untrimmed. 

Oraf jhador padorentalea. Our house has be- 
come dilapidated. 

Jhador padorko benaokeda. They hare doae 
the work very roughly. 

Jhae. To feint. 

Mayam deUekhan jhfie godolae, If he sees blood 
he faints right away. 

Jhargae jhuiguL In a band, in a crowd. 

Jhagar sagar. *^ Bad-luck, a j ingle with 
Sagarjha^f. J the word sagar, sag^s^* 

meanmegood fi>rtune, and jhagar 


Sagar jhagar real |hik b^nuKan, okare pase 

Jhagar jhagar. Applied to the sound 
produced when a drum is beaten 
to a certain time. 

Jhagra. A quarrel, to quarrel. 

Jhagra horo. A variety of the rice 

Jhagri horo. A variety of the rice plant. 

Jhagraitha. Quarrelsome, said of 

JhlSahi^ JQuarrelsome, ill tempered. 

4l<^i jhagri hor kanae. He is a rery quar- 
relsome person. 

Jhagwar. A game played by chiidren. 

Jhajharii. A charm doctor, <me who 
cures snake bite, &c. by charms 
and incantations. 

Jhak. Trip, load, expedition. Scottice, 

Mi£ bar jhak daff ^gu otokara. €K>one or two 
teips to bring water. 

Jhaka. 1 Full-grown, applied generally 
Jhakar. J to unmarried women who, 

in the opinion of Santals, are past 

the flower of their age. 

fiara jhakaenae. 

Jhaka jh^kL Jostling and pushing, 
bitter altercation. 

Jhaka jh^kikin kapb%ri%ulkana. ^ ^They tan 

quarrelUng violently. 
Jhaka jh%kikin oporkana. They an puahmg 

and pulling each other. 


[ 263 1 


Jhakan<j[. Past its besi, as a tree shew- 
ing signs of decay. 

Jhakao. To attract, to draw, to sub- 
side, as water. 

Aree jhakaokedako. They hure baled it Arjr. 
Kahaionko jlukkaokeda sanain horo, caole. The 
KahaJonB bare attracted all toe dfaan and 

rioe (bought it all np.) 

C^a dal <lhere jhakaokeda. The water in 
the river has snbadded considerably. 

Jhakat To be exhausted, as a store. 

JhaU jhadur, Bathed in perspiration. 

JhaK jhaK. Pouring sweat, sweat run- 
ning down one, bathed in perspira- 

JhaX jhaK balbalaotkanae, 8we«i ii povring 
from him. 

Jhak jhak. Quickly, driven at work. 

Tin^K jhak jhakid k^rni^? How long will I cod* 
Bent to be driven thns ? 

Jhak jhak. Bright, gleaming, shining. 

Si^ cando real jhak fhakiet. The brightneaB 

of the Ban. 
Jhak jhake i&eloVa. It is bright (vtar). 

Jhakmar. ') Perforce, obligatory, com- 
Jhakmaria. J pulsory. 

Jhakm^ri^ k^miiege hoyoKtama. To oontinae 

to work is obligatory on yon. 
Jhakm^ri^ idi hoyoXtama. Yon are obliged to 

take it. 

Jhak marte. 1 At once, like a flash, with 
Jhak mente./ a flash. 

Jhak mente iiil go^ena. 

Jhak menteye hee go^ena. He otme at once. 

Jhako jhoko. With great difficulty, 

Jhakrao. To attract, to draw, to allure. 

Melate Banam hofko jhakrao calaKkana. All 
the i>eople are being attracted to the fair. 

Jhal. Warm, hot, as Cayenne pepper, 

Jhalge bhij^nadea. He felt it yerv hot. 
Noa do ^i jhal hatha kajia. This is a very 
pungent saying. 

JhaL Long, tall. 

Jh^lte^. The length. 
Jh%l jh^ up. Very long hair. 
Noa horte i&o jh%loKa. Thia road will take 
ns ronnd abont. 

Noa do jh^l lioMena. This a little too long. 
jni^laJt %giiime. Bring a long one. 

Jhala. Hot, applied mainly to the heat 
of the sun. 

Jhala din . The hot weather. 

J^^i jhala kana. It is very hot. 

Sehgel jhala. Heat from a oonflagr^tion. 

Jhalak. Qlimpse, flash. 

Jhalaktefid del doKleiStaea. leanest a glimpse 

of him. 
KaaenaK jhalakid dellaXa. I saw him as a 


Jhala jhali To pnt to rights, mend. 

Jhala jhula. The grain obtained by 
shaking out the wrappings of a 
bandi (q. v.) 

Jhalak malak. Decked out for shew, 
attired to attract attention. 

Jhalak malake dajpE bafaekana. He goes 
about shewing himaelf off. 

Jhala mala. Decked, shining with tin- 
sel and colour. 

Jhalao. To clean out, as a house or a 
well ; to raise again a matter that 
has been settled. 

Noa kathape jhalao m^keda. Tou hare raia* 

ed this question anew. 
Noa kul doKo jhalaokeda. They cleaned out 

thia well. 

Jhal da. A long root tuber. 
Jhali A snare, trap» net ; to snare, trap, 

Jal jhali. Snares and nets. 

Jh^li odao. To set a snare. 

Dal jhali. To beat or drive game into a net. 

Kul, bana hC^o jh%!ikoa. They alao trap tigera 
and bears. 

AkoaK kathategeko jh$liena. They are entrap- 
ped by their own words. 

Jhal jhal To glisten, to glitter. 

Oaiiga gita jhal jhalge HeloXa. The aand of 
the Ganges glistens. 

Jhal jhalao. To complete, to make trim 
or neat. 

Lai jhal jhalaokedako. They have out and 
trimmed (the ridgea of the rioe fields.) 

EJiar^iko laK jhal jhalaokeda. They have 
smothed and trimmed the threshing floor 
(made it shine.) 

Jhalka. A rather objectionable dance 
performed by men when passing 
the night in the jungle during one 
of the annual hunts. 

jST t! } ^^*^^' '^*f"'- 

Jhalkao. To shine, to fla8h,be burnished. 

Ona k^pido adi jhalkaoXkana. That battle 
axe 18 highly burnished. 

Jhalki. Wantoa Cf. jhalka. 
Jhalmal. Resplendent, clean and bright. 

Jhahnalko darakokana . They are ooming clean 

and bright. 
Jhalmal lieu>Mkantakoa ofaX do. Their house 

looks olean and bright. 
Jhalmal b%ri^tko hijuKkana, The marriage 

party look resplendent aa they come. 


[ 264 ] 



Jhalmalao. To be trim, clean ; neatly 
executed. • 

Of aX khub jbalmalaoakantakoa. Tbeir hoaae 
is clean and brig^ht. 

Jhalui jhalui. To shake, to dangla 

Tu 1 • * -u 1 • fTo hang over, or down. 
Jhalun jhalun. j ° ' 

Jhalur. 1 To hang over or down, 

Jhalur jhalur. J baggy, as a Kabuli's 

garments, to sag, as a cloth fixed 

at the comers. 

Jb^lnr jh^larko ^eiigaakana. Their olotbes 

hanff far down. 
Jb^lor jnalurko akaaka€a. Tbev have hung it 

so that ii hangs a long way down. 

Jham. 1 To luttle, as a child's rat- 

Jham jham./ tie, or as certain hollow 

ornaments with small pieces of 

metal or stone inside. 

Jham jham sa^ekana, lipnr. 

Jhama jhum.l All together, in a crowd. 
Jam jhum. J with a rush. 

Jhama ihunko Epgo go6en». They descended 

with a rush. 
Jhama jhumko he6 go€ena. They oame in a 


Jhamar jhomor. Heavily, as i^ain. 

Jhamar jbomore datf keda. It rained heavily. 

Jhamar jhum ur. Applied to the sound 
produced by certain hollow orna- 
ments with small pieces of metal 
or stones inside when shaken; a 
tinkling sound. Cf. jhumurjhu- 

Jhamar jhumure ta^ameda. She goes tinkling 

Jhamat. Full-grown. 

Hara jhamat- Full-grown, of women. 
Hara rata. Full-grown, of men. 

Jhamela. Numerous, in large nunbers. 

^^i jhamelako heoena. They came in very large 

Jham jham. Faint. 

Jham jham id aik^ueda. I feel faint. 
Setohte oka do jham jhamko a'lk^ua. Sometimes 
heat brings on faintness. 

Jham jhum. All together, in a crowd, 

with a rush. 
Jhamka jhakur. In clusters. 

Jhampa. To cover, as a fowl under a 
basket, to cover, as a plant with 
thorns to preserve it. 

Potam jhampa. The part of a pigeon trap that 

falls on the bird. 
Jhampa ese£kom. Coyer them up (under a bps- 


Jhampa jh%like£koae. He caught them by oaoa- 
ing something to faU on the top of them. 

JhSmpa. A children's game. 

Jhanak baL A kind of convulsion. 

Jhanar jhanar.' 

Jhanar marte. Rattling, with a rattle. 

Jhanar mente.J 

Jhanar mente durena. It feU rattling. 
Jhanar marte sa^ekana. It rattles. 

Jhanat;. 1 To rattle, as money &I- 

Jhanat jhanat.J[ ling on the floor. 

^ur gotena taka jhanat mente. The money fell 
rattling (on the floor.) 

Jhanauii. '\ A lapful of parched 

Janauri. > grain brought to a 

Oocha jhanauri. J recent bride from 

her father's house. 

aa. *) A ii 
ii. jAflag. 


• • 

Jhan^aadeako. They put up a flag at his hooBa 
(sign of being out-casted.) 

Jhandel jhandel. Wide, ill-fitting, ap- 
plied to an auklet too wide for the 
Jhanejhapane. *) Be-decked, covered 
Jhanejhapar. J with jewelry; abun- 

Jhane jhapane sajakanae. It is fully caparisoned. 
Jhane jhapane joakana. It is covered with 

Jhanek jhapar. Loaded with jewelry. 

Jhanga. Trousers down to the ankles. 

Jhanka jhakur. In clusters, or fes- 
toons, as flowers or fruit. Cf jham- 
ka jhakur. 

Jhahka jhakur joakana. The fruit is in clna- 

Jhahka jbakurko aka pere6aka€a. The plaoe 

is filled with hanging clusters. 

Jhangae potae. Everything, every one. 

Jhanga jhuta. Broken, in holes, torn, 

Jhanga parwa. A pigeon with feathered 

Jhanga sim. A barndoor fowl with 
feathered legs. 

Jhangrao. To grow luxuriantly, ap- 
plied to certain trailing or climbing 
leguminous plants^ such as the pea, 
when not trained, but allowed to 
intertwine among themselves. 

Hoped khub jhahgraoakana. 


Jhan jhauak 

[ 265 ] 

Jhapni bai 

Jhan jhauaK. Unserviceable. 

Fnl jhaii jh^n^Mena. The bridge ia Tmservioe- 

Bapn£ iha& jhaaalf ana. It is so mnch broken as 

to be unsemoeable. 

Jhankar. The buck of the spotted 
deer, Axis maculatua. 

Posta jel. The hind of the Spotted deer, Axis 

Jhankari sar. A species of tall grass 
the culms of which are used to make 
arrow shafts. 
Jhanker. Cf. jhankar. 

Jhalij. Burning or scorching heat. 

Jhadj din. The hot weather. 
Ketar do a^i jhalija. There is great heat these 


JhaAjhapi. -Emaciated. 

JaA japi. 

Ba^ jhafl jh^pienae. He is emaciated through 

Jhan jhan. Tinkling, crisp, crackling. 

Kort^ jhan jhan sa4ekana. The cymbals tinkle. 
Jhan jhan rohof ana. It is dry and crisp. 

Jhan jhanao. To tinkle, to crackle, as 
a dry leaf 

Jhan jhanao bafaekana. It is crackling. 
Bohor jhan jhanaoena. It has dried crisp. 

Jha]&ihat.1 tv* j. j • j. 

JhaiSjhot. fl^istress, worry and anxiety. 

44i jhalljhatreii pafaoena. I hare g^eat worry 
and anxiety. 

Jhadjhat. To finish, complete ; entirely, 

Noa kat do rohof jhalijha||Bna. This log is com- 
pletely dry. 

Jom ]hal) jhatkedidako. They ate me np stump 
and rump. 

Birko matt jhalijhatkeda. They have entail 
the jungle. 

Jhalijhatena. It is finished. 

JhalStjra. Sieve-like, not closely woven, 
as a piece of cloth through which 
light shines ; lattice work:. 

Jhalijragea. It is sieve-like. 

JhaAiri.! * . 
Jhi6jri. j ^ «^^^«- 

Jhaiijrite chakaome. Strain it through a sieve . 

Jhankar mankar. A children's game. 

Jhante jhare. Bush and brake, every 
bush, taking all in one sweep, as 
beaters a jungle. 

Jhanti. A fence made of branches fixed 
in the ground ; branches or sap- 
lings for use as a fence. 

J^num ]h%itti. A fence of thorns. 


Jhuri jh^n^i. Firewood and fencing materials. 
Noabirrele jhuri jhflttitioda. W^e procure our 

firewood and branches for fencing from this 


Jhanti panti. To erect a fence of 
branches, to fence. 

Jh^n^i p^ntiedako. They are fencing. 

Jhao jhao. Applied to the continued 
barking of dogs. 

Jhaora jhauri. To pester, to worry. 

Jhaorao. To wither, to be scorched 
and wither. 

Setohte jhaorao go€ena. It was scorched by 
the sun ahd withered away. 

Bah rehe£lante jhaorao gofena. It withered 
away because it had not rooted. 

J hap. A part of a loom, the heddles 
which alternately raise or depress 
the threads of the warp. 

J hap. A bribe. 

Jhape jomkeda. He took a bribe. 

Jhap. A challenge. 

lenge among so many people. 

Noa katha real jhap alom ema. Do not oppose 
this matter. 

j$LtuK daVre jhape emkeda. He braved the rush- 
ing flood. 

Jhapat. ■) Bringing up the rear, 

Jhapat jhapat. J unable to keep pace, 
lagging behind. 

JJ^P^J- JTrip, load, ScotUce, rake. 

Mi£ jhapat. One trip. 

Mi6 jhapat daK ^gulem. Bring one trip of water. 

Jhap jhap. Very sleepy, drowsy. 

Jhap jhap me6 j^pidotf kantaea. His eyes are 
heavy with sleep. 

Jhap jhup. All at once, all together. 

Mi€ dhaote ihap jhupko dufupena. They sat 
down all at once. 

Jhap mente hec gofenae. He came quickly. 

Jhapni. Two small plants bear this 
name, Tandi Jhapni, Zornia di- 
phyLla, Pers., Ana Bhador jhapni, 
Biophitum seTisitivum, V. C. 

Jhapni baL Convulsions during which 
the patient closes his eyes, coma. 


[ 266 ] 

Jhargoe jhargoe 


Jhapni. ^ To cover, as with a lid, with 
Jhapon. J a basket, &c. 

Terol jhapni. The persistent oalyx on the fruit 
01 the Terel ia'ee, Diospyros tomentosaf 

Herom hopone ihaponkedea. He put a basket 
over the kid, (or put the kid under a basket.) 

Jhapni. The eye lashes. 

IfiedoK jokhed me£ do jhapni esedoKa. 

Jhapon. To cover, as with a lid ; to co- 
ver anything under a ];)askeb, as 
chickens. Cf. jhapni. 

Jhaporae. Middling, tolerable. 

Jhaporae fleloXkana. It looks only middling. 

Jhapot;. Trip, load. Cf. jhapaf. 
Jhapre. To cover, slightly clothed, a 

modest way of speaking of being 


Gendre^ tana Ite jhaprekaeme. Cover him with 
a piece of old cloth (a sleeping child.) 

Jhapf eakanae gendre<Ste. She is slightly cloth- 
ed with old cloth. 

S*p4 I a booth. 
Jnupn. J 

Jh^priaka€ale. We lire in a booth. 

Jhapri. 1 Hair hanging over the fore- 
Jhupri. J head, hair flying about, Scot- 

tice, towsy tap. 
Jhapru. Hair long and hanging over 

the brow, applied to males only ; 

hanging, as the ears of certain 

dogs; drooping, as the branches 

of a tree. 

Delabon ona ihapfu darerebon nmuloKa. Come, 
let us sneiter under that tree with the 
drooping branches. 

Jhapta jnapti. To pounce upon from 
all sides, to snatch, to scramble for. 

Sendrare jhap^ jh^p^iko repe^a ph^fi seromre. 

At a hunt they scramble for the flesh. 
Jhapta jhap^ye khud^ukedea. 

Jhaptao. To over run, to make a des- 
cent upon, to poimce upon, to 
spring upon, to attack suddenly. 

Go^a bir panteko jhaptao idieda. They hare 
formed line and are sweeping the whole 
jungle before them. 

Jhaptao ^urkedeako. They surrounded him 
suddenly and cut off his retreat. 

Jhaptao tiogem. Pounce upon him. 

Jhar. Liquor which oozes out of the 
malted grain during fermentation, 
deposit of urates or phospates in 

Jliarh^<}i. Liquor which oozes ont of the grain 
during the process of fermentation. 

Dal h%n4i. Liquor produced by pouring water 
oyer the fermented graim. 

Jhar. A bush, clump, tufb, thicket. 

Khub jharakana. It haa growu into alazge 

Jhar. To cure snake bite, &c. by charms 
and incantations. 

Jhajh^ri<^- One who pietextds to cnze snake 
bite by charms. 

Jhara. Sweepings. 

Hop ren jhaf a kaoae. He h the offsooudngs of 

Parwarenjhafa. Sparrows. 

Jhara ihar. In crowds. 

Jhafa jhafko hijuKa. They will oome ia 

Jhara. A variety of the rice plant the 
ripe grain of which readily falls 
from the ear. 

Jhara jhura.1 What is obtained by shak- 
Jhure jhufe.J ing the straw in which 
■grain ha8 been wrapped up. 

Jhar<k jhur%ko oabakeda. They hare finlshad 
CTen to what was obtained by shaking the 
straw in which the grain was wrapped up. 

Jharak. Smoke, heat from flame. 

Oulh^ jharakre akakam. Hang it where it will 
be in the smoke (or heat) of the fireplace. 

Jharak jhuruk. In a band, in a crowd. 
Jha^ao. To reduce, to pare, to strip. 

Ea^ko jharaooda. They are reducing the iiiick- 

ness of the log. 
Nesko jhafaoena. They hare been stripped 

this year. 

Jharao. To trickle, as water out of the 
primitive L^dian filter of three 

Jharaoni. 1 Applied to the present given 

Jharauni. J to the person who cooks 

at a marriage feast and to the food 

given to those who accompanied 

the bridegroom. 

Culh^ jhartuni. A present given to the person 
who cooks at a marriage feaat. 

Dhu]r jhar«uni. Food given on their return to 
those who accompanied the bridegroom to 
the bride's house. 

Jhare patare. Bush and brake 

Jhare patafeko sendrakeda. They beat every 
buah (likely or unlikely) for game. 

Jhaf e pataf e go^ako boloakana. They are hunt- 
ing every foot (of the jungle.) 

Jhargoe jhargoe.\Sound produced by 

Jhargoe jhargoe./ thi^owing a stick to 

knock down fruit from a tree. 

Cele coe d^e£kan jfaaipgoe jhaf goe. 


[ 2«7 1 


as rain. 

Jhargoealc. Tattered, ruffled, rough 
surface, un-trimmed ; hanging 
UQevenly, or in clusters, as fruit 
on a tree. 

OftM do jharsfoealfgetaea. His house is dil- 
apidated (has lost the trimness it had when 

Potam tnk^ do jhargoeaSgeft. A pigeon's nest 
is a rough affair. 

Jhargo pargo. Wet, as bushes after a 
shower of rain. 

JharguaK Hanging, drooping, as the 
oranches of a tree ; bent over, as 
stalks of grain by wind. 

JharhoehaK. Rough, untrimmed, as a 
pigeon's nest. 

Jhari lota. A lota (q. v.) with a spout. 

Jhar jhar. In crowds, in large num- 
bers. ^ 

Jhaf jhafko jarwaSkana. They are assembling 
in crowds. 

Jhar jhare daKeda. It is a pelting rain. 

Jhar jhar. \To issue, as water from a 
Jhar jharao, j spring. 

A4i daR jhar jharao o^okoK kana. Much water 

is issuing forth. 
Jhar jhare dal^keda. It poured a deluge. 
Jhar ]har mayam ^tutf kana. 

Jhar jhur. A thicket, tangled branches. 

Jhar jhufreye boloena. He has entered the 

Jhar j hur. Stripped, as a tree of leaves. 

Jhaf jhuf ena dare do. The tree is stripped of 

its leaves. 
Jhar ihuf liuroKkana sakam. The leaves are 

falling BO that the tree is being stripped. 

Jharka jharki. To lick, as tongues of 
fire; flames. 

Jharka jharki tioRena. The flames reached it. 

Jharkand. Full-grown, past the best. 

Hara ]harkan(^. Past the flower of one's age. 
Jharkan4 dare. A tree beginnig to shew signs 
of decay. 

Jharkao. Singed, or scorched by fire. 

Jharkargl Huge and full grown, old 
and huge as a tree, past its best. 

Jharla jharli. Scorching, as heat of the 
sun or a fire, fierce. 

Jharla jharli setoiile sahaoibka^a. We have 
borne the scorching heat of the sun. 

Jharla jharli rapaXadiliae. He only half roast- 
ed it for me. 

Jhama A spring of water. 

Bum jhama. A mountain spring. 
Jhama dal. Spring water. 

JharoeaK. Rough, untrimmed, scraggy, 
dilapidated, roughly executed. 

Potam tuk^ jharoeaK hatom do. Auntie, a pig- 
eon's nest is a scraggy thing. 

Jharoe jharoe. Sound of branches be- 
ing shaken to make fruit fall. 

Jharpa. ") Wide-spreading and dense 
Jharpun. J foliaged, as a tree ; hang- 
ing or drooping. 

NoiaK up jh^rpnh |^etaea. His hair is thick and 

hanging over his brow. 
Noa cal jh^^^uiiotta khun^ rapuflenkhan. 

This roof wiU droop if the supporting post 


Jharruli parruK. Wet, as bushes af- 
ter rain. 

Jh^rf uK p^rf uK birreko dSfS ba^aea. 

Jharulc jhayuK. To bound, as a deer 
when running. 

Jhata. Branches fixed in the ground 
for climbing plants to climb up, 
pea stakes. 

Malhankoihatakeda. They have fixed branch- 
es in the ground for the malhan (q. v.) to 
climb up. 

Jhata kerketa. A veiled name for mal- 
han (q. v.), one who preserves a 
youthfiil look. 

Jhatas. To be driven by the wind a- 
gainst anything, as rain is driven 
into a varandah or against a wall. 

Bhite jhatasaffkaaia. The rain is being driven 

by the wind against the waU. 
Jhatais daK . Bain water blown in by the wind. 

Jhatia patia. Everything, every one. 

Jh^ti^ p^iiako oalaoena. Every one has left. 

Jhatiau. To sprinkle. 

Ma ofaK jhf tifume. 

Jhatiau. To seize and take away. C£ 

Jhatkao. To lose flesh, to be pulled 

NahaXem jhatkaoena. Ton have lost flesh re- 

Jhatpat Quickly. 
Jhaua. A bush. 

J^num jh^u^. A bush of the ]$num. (q. v.) 

Jhaua. To collect together as leaves, 
straws, sticks, &c., meeting with 
an obstruction when floating down 
a stream. 

lAur ih%u«. To hXi tiU there is a heap. 
Atu ]n%u^. To be obstructed when floating and 
collect into a bunch. 

\ I I II. 


[ 268 ] 


Laga jh^n^. To driye into a heap, as flsh. 

Kata k^tiia^tu ih9aaaka6a. Eubbish which 
haa been brought down by a stream and 
meeting with an obstmotion a heap has 

Jhaua. Vitrified in baking, as pottery, 
or bricks. 

Jhau jhau. In crowds. 

Jh^n jh^nkohijnla. They will oome in crowds. 

Jhau jhau. To bow-wow, to bark. 
Jhausa jhausi. Quickly. 

Jhans^ jb^Qsi hodeme. G^t him to do it quickly. 

Jhausau. To singe by fire, to scorch. 

Setohte jhaus^uena. Scorched by the sun. 
Khakhal p^hilre sukriko jhaasaukoa. They 
singe pigs before flaying them. 

Jhawa jhara. A small plant. Euphor- 
bia dracunculoides, Lam. 

Jhawar. Two plants bear this name, 
one, Trema Am^oinensia, BL,,a, 
small tree, and the other, Tama- 
rix ericoidea, Roth,, a small Tam- 
arisk bush. 

Jhawar khandera. A common small 
plant, Phyllanthua juniperinoi- 
dea, MvXL Arg. 

Jhedge. Worn out. 

Jh6jh6. Applied to the crying of a 
petulant child. 

Onko Of atf reko ^{iskeda jhejhS. 

Jhemthe. To stick together, as two 

Jhedjle. To beg, to importune, to wait 
on expecting to receive alms. Cf. 

Jheijra. A fish trap. Cf. jhidjri. 

Jheijre. Sieve-like, not closely woven, 
as cloth. Cf. jhadjra. 

Jherejhere. Smooth, polished, sleek, 

Sunnm jbef e jhefe o]o]f akawanae. He has an- 
ointed himself with oil until he shines. 

Jeth [ ^^^* born, eldest, elder. 

Jhet beta. First bom son. 

Jhetha. A part of the mechanism of 
a bird trap. Cf kol jhetha. 

Jhi6. To open. 

Bah jLijoKa. It will not open. 
Jhioge tahena. It will remain open. 
Jhioadeae. He opened to him. 

Jhlk. The Indian Porcupine, Hys- 
trix leucura. 

Jhlk. To lighten a rope by twisting 
it with a piece of wood as a lever. 

Jhika ene6. A dance so named. 

Jhika sered. Songs sung when the 
jhika is being danced. 

Jhika rar. The air to which the jhika 
songs are sung. 

Jhika ru. The time beaten on the 
drums during the jhika dance. 

Jhika jhake. With great diflSculty. 

Jhiki. Importunate, to importune, beg 

j^^ jhikiae nui hof do. This man is Tory im- 

Jhiki miki. Resplendent, adorned, 
flashy, grand. 

Jhik jhikau. To worry, to annoy. 

Jhik jhik^nkedeako. They worried him. 

Jhik jhika. Applied to the level rays 
of the sun before setting. 

Ber ihik jhik^Kkanae. The sun is dose to the 

Jhik jhok. To bully, to bluster one in- 
. to doing what is wanted. 

Jhik jhor. *) To bully, to force one to 
Jhik jhorao. J do anything by bully- 
ing him. 

Oka atore khnn hoyolfa on<^eko jhik jhoraokoa. 
Vyiien a murder has been committed in any 
yillaffe the people are bulUed into telling all 
they Know. 

Jhiko jhoko. With great diflSculty, with 

Khan jhiko jhoko jhiko jhokoko sim raKkeda. 
Then they passed the time with difficulty 
till cockcrow. 

J la ["^ shallow marsh or morass. 

Jhile mile. *) Shining, polished, bum- 
Jhilmil. J ished, beautiful Cf. 

Jhili. ") A trench used as a fire- 

Jhili gada. J place when cooking has 

to be done for a large number of 


Jhiliau. To remove the stamens from 


the flowers of the Mahua tree be- 
fore cooking them. 

Jhil jhilia 

[ 269 ] 


o • • • 

Jhil jhilia. Not closely woven, having 
intervals between the threads. Cf. 

Jhil jhol. To shew oflF, to swagger. 

JHL jhole dSfa bafaekana. He goes abont 

Jhilo. To swing, a child's swing. 

Bafe joforeko jhiloXa. They swing on the pen- 
dnlons roots of the Banyan tree. 

Jhilo jholo. To push and pull. 

, A^iko jhilo jhilokeouia. They pushed and pul- 
led me about. 

Jhilon jholon. Hanging down and 

Adom doko bhagwaKa jhiloh jholoh. Some 
wear the hhagwa long and it flaps as they 

Jhimbri. A fish trap made of finely 
split bamboo. 

This trap is baited and set. It has a smaU door 
which a fish can push open to admit of its 
entering, but which cannot be opened to 
afford egress. 

Jhimbria. A large jungle climbing 
plant, Holmakioldia sangiiinea, 

Jhim jhimi. An ear ornament. 

Jhinbaber. A bridle. 

Jhinga. A cultivated food plant, Laffa 
acutangulay Roxb. 

Bam jhihga. The edible Hibiscus, the Indian 
Tegetable known as the Lady's finger, Hib%8' 
CU8 MCulentuSf Linn, 

Jhino^ad potae. The whole family. 

Jhiiigae po^aeko heoena. The whole family 
has come. 

Jhinga phulia. Lazy, applied to one 
who prefers amusement to work. 

Jhihg^ phuli^ hof kanae. 

Jhingor jhibgor. Scattered. 

Koa atorenko ibihgof jhihgof cabaena. The 
people of this village are all scattered far 
and wide. 

Jhingur. A plant the root of which is 
Jhingur. An ear ornament, [edible. 
Jhinta jhakur.\Unequally balanced, as 
Jhinko jhakur.J scales, or weights on 

a banghy. 
J hinka tare. ^Unequally balanced as 
Jhinko toro. / scales, or the loads on 

a banghy pole. 
Jhioko jhokor.lUnequally balanced, as 
Jhinko jhokor.J the weights at each 
end of a banghy pole ; applied also 
to the gait of a person carrying an 
unequally balanced banghy. 

Jhihko jhokof e bhariaka^a. He has loaded his 
banghy unequally. 

Jhinko toro. Unequally balanced as 
the weights of a banghy. 

Jhin jhin. Faint. 

Jhin jhinili a^kareda. I feel faint. 

Jhin jhinau. To faint. 

Jhin jhin%uKkanae. She is fainting. 

Jhijiijhir. A small forest tree, Bauhin* 
ia variegata, Linn, 

Jhiijit A small forest tree, Bauhinia 
retiLsa, Ham, 

Jhin kicrid. Drill cloth. 

Jhinthi pathri. Spells. 

JhinthiaK alo pathri %K alo lagaolE bajaoKma. 
Let no spell be thrown over her. 

Jhinuk. A bi-valve, the shell of a bi- 

Jhinuk j^t. Bi-Talve molluscs. 
Jhinuk iel. The flesh of a bi-yalre. 

Jhinuk pitha. A kind of biscuit, made 
by sticking two small flat cakes of 
dough together with sweets, &c. 
between, and then baking. 

This bread has the appearance of a bi-ralve, 
(jhinuk) whence the name. 

Jhipir j hipir. Continuous drizzle. 
Jhiri hiri. To trickle down. 

Jhiri hiri daK atuKkana. Water trickles down, 

Jhiri jhiri. To trickle. 

Jhiri jhiri atuKkana. It flows trickling down. 

Jhipir j hipir. To sparkle, or flash when 

Jhlt. To irrigate, applied mainly to 
irrigation from wells or tanks where 
the water is raised mechanically. 

Jhitod jhoto6. Slow or feeble and care- 
lessly attired. 

Jhitor jhotor. To swagger about in a 
grand dhotL 

Jh6ea. Small fry, a small fish, a minnow. 

TinaK hakope liamlefkoaP Mif tec jbSea h5 bale 
/iamledea. How many fish did you get P 
We did not eyen get a minnow. 

Jhogor.O To quarrel, to wrangle, to 
Jhogra./ strive. 

Jhogof lagao. To begin a quarrel. 

Am ge jhogorem lagaoeda. It is you who are 

Jhogf aKkanako. They are quarreUing. 

Jhoffrahi. *) r\ i 
Jhoirahia. I Quarrelsome. 

J^tge jhogf ahigeae. He is quarrelsome by dis- 


[ 270 ] 

Jhoto poto 

Jhokao. To attract, to bring anything; 
undesirable upon oneself. 

Mahaionko noako reaK hofo sanamko jhokao- 
aXa^a. The merohanta have boaght up aU 
the dhfui in these parts, or the mercmants 
have attracted to themselyes all the dhsn 
of these parts. 

Amteg^e noa dom jhokaoakawana. You hare 
yourself bront^ht this upon you. 

Baj otili jhokaoakawana. I have brought upon 
myself aU the responsibilities oonneoted 
with leasing land. 

Baj ot jhokao alga do bah kana. It is no light 
thing to take upon oneself the responsibil- 
ity oonneoted with land. 

Jhok jhokao.lTo intimidate, to bully, 
Jh6k jhdkao.J to bluster, to force one 

to do a thing by intimidation or 


Ifahajonkojhok jhokaoedidkanako. The money 
lenders are buUying me. 

Jhol. Anjrthing hanging from the roof, 
such as cobwebs, &c., which has 
become smutted by soot. 

Calre jholakana. 
A^i jhol motkaakana. 

Jhola. To bum with a burning piece 
of wood. 

Jholakedidae. He burnt me with a piece of 

burning wood, or a firebrand. 
JholawaRme . Set fire to it with a burning piece 

of wood. 

Jholand. Thicket, dense brushwood 

Ona jholan(^re hakoko tahena. In that place 
where the roots are numerous fish are to be 

Jhol motka. Smoke, smutty with soot. 

Jholaga. Reaching to the feet, as a 

Jholoo. ■) Reaching to the feet, 

JholoQ jholon. J as a garment. 

Jholoh jholohe <^eiigaakana. His garments are 
down to his feet. 

Jholphol. The radiance emanating from 
the sun before he appears above 
the horizon, after-glow of sun set. 

JholpholoKkana. There is an after-glow, or light 
IS breaking in the East. 

Jhomble. To assemble, to make into 
a bunch. 

Ape do mii thenpe jhombleakana. Ton are 

assembled in one plaoe. 
Mi£ bar jhomble jon4rae emadi^ He gave 

me a bunch or two of Indian oom cobs. 
Tol jhobleme. Tie them into bunohes. 
fdit jhomble jon^ra. Four cobs of Indian corn 

tied together. 

Jhomojho6.\ The Pied Crested Cuckoo, 
Jhorojhoi. J Coccyatia jacohinua. 

Jhomoke jhomok. Well matched pair^ 

Jhompa. To cover, as a fowl under a^ 
basket, or as a plant with thorns 
to preserve it. 

Jhomor jhomor. Continuous, as rain, 

Jhomor jhomore daKeda. It rains continuously. 

Jhon^. A patch of dense jungle with 
much brushwood and under growth. 

Lar phon^. A thicket of laf (q. y.) 

Kufi€ rama jhon^. A thicket of ku^i^ ram» 

(q. V.) 
J^num jhon4. A thicket of jqaium (q. t.) 

Jh5n§a. Weak and emaciated through 

Jhopo tof o. Scrub jungle. 

Jhopro. Dense, thick, as scrub jungle, 

Jhopfo bir. Dense scrub jungle. 

Jhopso. To be cloudy. 

Jhopsoakafae. It is clouded oyer. 
DaR do bae dalfeda eken jhopso. It does not 
rain, it is only olondy. 

Jhora. To drive game, to beat for 

Kul^iko jhofakoa AindaM. They dnr^ haar«» 

at night (into nets.) 
Jhofa tofkefkoako. They drove them (de«r) 

E^ki ayo ofaK khoUe jhopa tofk«£bona. Ov 

step-mother hunted us out of the house, 

(referring to the heat whe& aU sleep out of 


Jhora.> A flat disc woven with the twigs 
Jhuri.J of certain climbing plants, 
used to carry earth. 

One is slung at each end of a bamboo and car- 
ried on the shoulder. 

Jh5r6. Weakened and emaciated 
through illness. 

Jhoroe jhoroe. Sound of wind and rain* 

Jhorojhod. The Pied Crested Cuckoo^ 

Jhorojhod. Drenched, dripping. 

«rhorojho6 loho€enae. He is drenohed. 

Jhoro jhoro. Applied to the sound o€ 
' felUng or dripping water. 

Jhofo jhofo 8a4ekaiua. It sounds drip, drip. 

Jhotea. Lean and big bellied, as one 
suffering from fever and spleen. 

Jhoto poto. Anyhow, hurriedly and 

Cet lekape k^mi baralaXaP Jhoto potoprsle kf- 
mikeaa. How did you do your oulttyation P 
We did it anyhow, (rushed it through.) 


I 271 1 


Jhotor. Indian com cobs plaited to- 
gether loj the sheath coverings. 

Bar nataK joiij.ra mi{ jhotor hoyoffa. 

Jbotra jhntri. To use force, to compel 
either by main fbroe or bullying. 

Jhotra jhutriko idikefkoa. They took them 
away forcibly. 

Jhotra motra. Bundles, impedim^ta. 

-Jhotrao. To take away, or to cause to 
go by 'constraint. 

Jhotrao idikefkoako. They %ook them away 

by force. 
Jhotraoktffkoako. They constrained them 

to go. 

•JhtUc To be courageous^ intrepid, 
plucky, vigorous, impetuous, hot- 

j^'jli jhBi hof . A plucky, or vigrorone fellow. 

Ij%lai ihfikoKpe. Be bold to speak. 

Alope bolaoea ^ijQ jhfikoKa. Do not interfere 

with him he ia very hot blooded. 
K^mire 9'^iye jh^otfa. He works yigorously. 

Jhtlkau. To be irritated, excited, roused, 
inflamed, to set upon, to fly at 

Itireye jhU^a go^ena. He was irritated and 

sprang at me. 
Qeger l^^i banae jhxlkanena. Tke bear was 

Boused to setting npon one. 
Phipom hopon l%gi£ ^ie jh^^utfkana. The 

JECing crow is very excited about its young 

Ka(aha janwar hope ^^iko ^h%k%uKa. Beasts 

of prey fly at numan beings. 

JhtlkeL Courageous, intrepid, plucky, 
vigorous, industrious. 

Ehub }nS.kel hof kanae. He is a very vigorous 


Sendra khabe jhtlkela. He is a plucky hunter. 

Jhukmu6. 1 Shrivelled, as a very old 
Jhuknu6. J person. 

JhuJainda. Sooty, smoked, smutty 
with soot. 

Jhul^indaakana of aff do. The house is sooty. 

Jhulau. To become weak, or emaciated. 

Kamite <^herko jhul^uena. They hare lest con- 
dition by working. 

Dira daf26ele jhul^uena. We hare become lean 
throuffh journeying. 

Buf te jhul^uenae^ He is much reduced by fever. 

Jhuli bhati. A perquisite received by 
the panchayat from the father of 
a youn^ man at the settlement of 
a certain kind of irregular mar- 

Jhulkau. To raise enthusiasm, to in- 
cite, to inspirit, to excite. 

Ene^ jhulk^uakafkoae. He raised their enthm- 
siasm for the dance. 

E^mikhnbe jhulk^uakaCkoa, B^ has incited, 
them to work. 

Kule jhulkauK kana. The tiger is getting 

Jhulun jhulun. Applied to the jog 
trot of the Indian post runner and 
to the tinkling of the rings on the 
stick over which he carries his let- 
ter bag. 

Jhnlah jhulu&e daf idieda. 

Jhuma jhum. Violently, with a rush. 

Jhuma jhumko ruhefkediHa. They scolded me 

Jhum^ jhumko kaph^^uKkana. They are 

quarreling violently. 
Jhuma jhumko hed go£ena.' They ca^ne with a 


Jhum^-u. To nod, as when drowsy. 
Jhumblai mente. In a body, in a co- 
vey, all together, as one. 

Hofko beref gofena jhumblai mente. The peo- 
ple rose up as one man. 

Cef eko af go ^€ena jhumblfi mente. The birds 
aU^ted in a body. 

Jhumur jhumur. Sound of tinkling or 
rattling produced by small stones 
or pellets in hollow ornaments of 
bell metal. 

Jhumur jhumur sa4eKa. It emits a sound of 

Jhuna jhun. Violent, as a quarrel, or 
wangle ; with a rush. 

Jhun^ jhunko kaph^ri%uKkana. They are quar- 
relling violently. 
XJni tuluoko jhuna ihunena. Th^ quarrelled 

Jhund. Dense, as a thicket ; a thicket^ 
flock, herd, crowd. 

Noa bir do ^i jhun^a. This jungle is very 

G^i jhun4. A herd of cattle. 

Jhun jhun. 1 Dry, dry and shrivelled^ 
Jhun j hunau . J absolutely dry, 

Jhun jhun sa^e. To rat^, as a dry fmit in a, 

Bohof jhun jbim%u hodoKa. 

Jhunjhuni. 1 j^ 
Jhun jhuma. J ^' 

Jhunka. Hollow bell-shaped ornaments 
of bell metal having small stones 
or pellets of iron inside, which 
rattle when the wearer walks. 

Jhunk^ jhumur jhumur sa^ekana. 

Jhunki. To become lean, to be pulled 
down as an animal suckling a large 
number of young ones. 

Nunn jhunkikedeako^ She has become lean 

through suckling them. 
Jhunkienae. She has become lean. 

Jhunuk jhupur 

[ 272 ] 


Jhunuk jhupur. Loaded with jeweby. 

Jhup marte. ")With a swoop, swoop- 
Jhup mente. J ingly. 

Jhupri. Hair loose and hanging down, 
applied only to females. 

Jhupri, 1 A shelter made of branches, a 
Jhupri.J booth. 

Jhupur jhupur. Continuous drizzle. 

Jhupur jhnpure daXeda. It drizzles oontina- 

Jhur. A thicket. 


Jhur. To cause to be sickly or unhealthy, 
applied to the effect which too 
much shade has on growing plants. 

Darete jhurkeda. It has been made unhealthy 

by the shade of the tree. 
Noa dare bnt^ reaX hofo jhurena. The rioe 

under tiie shade of this tree is sickly. 

Jhurat. ") To be over-ripe, dry through 
Jhurau. J being over-ripe. 

Gele khon jahte€ jhur^n llurena. The grain 

being over-ripe has fallen out of the ears. 
Bohof jhura^ena. It has ripened