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Full text of "A short but comprehensive system of the geography of the world: by way of question and answer. Principally designed for children and common schools; rev., cor. and improved"

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bHORT BUT COMPREHKNMVe 

SYSTIiM 

or THt 

G E O G R A P II Y 

01 THE 

WORLD: 

3r WAY OF ^rESrrON and AXSSVEIr, 

rRINCIPALLT DESIGNED FOR 

•CHILDREN AKD COMMON SCHOOLS. 



wmtm 



By NATHANIEL D WIGHT. 

I ' ■ 

THE srXTH EDITION. 



n - 



*•* Geography and Chronology arc the two Eyes of Hi (lory ." 

LoRi) CUESTERFIELB. 

" Geography informs ydu where events happened, and Chronol- 
*' ogy, at what time. Without thefe helps your rending would be 
" a confufcd maft,'Without order, light, or pcrfpicwity" 

Bennbt. 



J^ubliiljeii according to sa of OTongi-ers:. 



y y -— »■ 



BOSTON: 
J - Printed by Manning ^ Loring, 
T«Ji WEST er GREENLEAF, No, 56, C^v^\^\vv. 



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'S 



PREFACE to the Firft Edition. 



T\ VRING an employment of federal years in fchool keep- 
ingf I obferved that the fclence of Geography was hut 
iittb attended to in the early years of childhood. There are 
variotts reafons for this inattention to fo important a branch 
wf education. One of theje is the great expenfe of procuring 
hooks proper for it : another isy the plan of books 'which have 
" lem intended for that pur pofe is fuch as cannot Ij cq/i/y c-jm^ 
.^ pretended by childrenj or remembered by them. I ihink that 
.. kith thefe ohjedlons are obviated in this treatife. The ax ' 
.. pcnfi of this book is fo fmall that it may he eafily afforded^ 
[ mid the form of a catechifm admits of its being much more 
iomprehen/ivey and more eafily und^rflooJ by cliUrcn, than 
«jry of the fmall geographies %. which hive ^va h.rttofore de* 
figntdfor themm It will enable them uf fully to improve ma^ 
ny hours of their early years y which j for want of fomething 
wfthis lind^ are entirely lojl :'^And Jhould the firfi edition 
weH with fuitable encouragement^ the future editions will ba 
\td and amended^ as the author finds means and thno' 
for tiepurpofe. 






Haktford, May 12, 1795. 



I 



TTT^ t^« fil>rjilScrs L.U'C iMrrufcd ^^ J JLort but com" 
' * prehtnfroe Syjhm of the Geography of tie Witrldy 
h "J'jy cf ^tfiiott and Ahftutr ; prtncipnliy drfigruJ for 
i.i/iiJfin and common Schnohy by NjITH.imfl 2)/r:Gt!Tt**^^ 
;iikI are of opioion, tJiat the ccmpihitinn is judicious, and 
better c.ilculatcd to iniprds the fadls which it contains oa 
the ni'nds of children, than any other heretofore pul^lifhed.. 
'We with pleafure recommend it to the ufc of inlhudtorsp 
as being wcrll calcuhued to leffen their own lal>our!i, and- 
to fiiciJitrtie tl:c means <}f improvement in thcminJs of their: 
young pupils. 

TOHN TRUMDULL, 
NATHAN STRONG,' . 
AHKL FLINT, 
CliAUNCEV. C.OODUTOH., 
JOMNPORrER, 



ANi:KliW KiNO^PiURY^ v.. 
JON A IMA N DRACK, / -4 
TAPiMNG RJ-tVE, 
JOHN ALLbN, 



Letter to lie Editor, of the Edition printed in Bofltuu^ 

RoxfiURY, December 4, i7{>5*,-ij 

X."J AVING fittcntivcly prrurciT Mr. TiwiniiT's " Sjfit 
1 /.'w of the Cfff^raphy of ihr IV or! J ;" and alfo cdnV; 
fidercd moll of the* Works cf this klo-i uhoydy extant : I 
cannot but view it, for method, (K'K^, pcrfpicuity* indi 
plainnefs cf csprLiHon, as one jf ihc \yJ\ pcrtbriiuncci tfj 
the kind that i h:.ve ever ^(.-rn. Indeed, thepkn of iiu||j 
pj;ing tlic fubjcvll by ^juciiicn and anf.ver, U'lJcb inodern. 
experience has fullicienily evinced to be mofl ufcful and 
imprefltvc up'jn the young acd tender nnr.d, gives it a de- 
cided prtfcrcncc in my o]»in«.on to evjiy other. I wifii. 
you fucccfs in the pubiiL«aion of it ; and ^f^ure you, I fhalL 
chce: fully ^;ivc it all th«^ aid in my pov.tr, to its introd\:c«> 
tion into the ftverul lVhoi)is 'v\ tins tov.n, and its vicinitv. 

Your:, .^c. THOMAS CLARKK, ' 

Mi\ David mj. 4 



A SHORT BUT COMPREHENSIVE 



SYSTEM 



OF THE 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD. 



£ W HAT is Geography ? 
y^ ^ A. Geography, in its moft general fenfe, is the fclcnce 
^bCthe earth (confiding of land and water) and r.s pro- 
' iftions. . 
C^How great a proportion of the earth is covered 
^' Wth water ? 
*; A- About three fifths of the whole. 

Q. What number of fquare milts does the earth con- 
tainT 

A.' It is computed to contaiD one hundred nr.d nincu 
.nine milliony five hundred and eleven thoufand, five hur.* 
^Tcd jand ninety-five fquare miles. 

Q^ How many fquare miles are there of fea, and or 
;t unkoowD ? 

A. . One hundred and (ixty million, five hundred and 
twenty-two thoufand, and twenty-fix . 

Q, How many fquare miles are there of the habitable 
world. 

A. Thirtyeight miiilon, nine hundred and niuety-thou- 
fandy five hundred and fixty-r.lnc. 

Q^What are the natural divifions of the earth ? 
Ar The natural divifloos of the earth are land and 
water*. 

Q^ How is the land divided ? 

A- Into two great continents, crJIed the; ^uSj^x'^ "w:.^ 
weftcrn continents. 

Of How Arc thcfe continents divided ^. 



». . 



6 GEOGRAPHY 

A. The eaftern is divided into Europei Afia and Africa <. 
The weflern is divided into North and South America. 

Q^ Are not thefe continents divided in a different 
manner ? 

A. They are all divided into diftinft governments.. 

Q^ What are the governments ? 

A. They are called by different names, as Empires*, 
Kingdoms, Repubjics, Sec, 

Q^ What is an Empire ? 

A. Any government is fo called which is governed b)p- 
an Emperor or an Emprefs, as the Ruffian and GerQian« 
Empires^ Otherwife it diifcrs not from a Monarchy or- 
Kingdom. 

Q\_ What are Monaichles ^ 

A. They arc of two kinds, either abfolute or mixedL 
An abfolute monarchy is that government which is fway«- 
«d by one perfon, v/hcther he is called King or Emperorp, '1 
whofe will is the only law of the nation. A mixed nioa«:;> 
archy is that which is fwayed by one perfon, as principals,.^ 
in connexion with others, who hold a part of the govern«-.^i 
ment in their hands, and tliereby have a check upon the. 
King or Emperor.. Thefe mixed Monarchies may be ei- 
ther compofed of the three branches of monarchy, ariftoc- 
racy, and democracy, or they confif^ in a monarchy and. 
ariAocracy, or a monarchy and democracy.. 

Q^ What is a Republic ? 

A. It is either an ariflocracy, democracy, or a miKt. 
turc of both. 

C)^ What is an Arlflocracy ? . j 

AT It. is a government vetted in the hand* o£ noble8«/« 
as in Genoa and Venice. 

(^ What is a Democracy ? 

A. It is a government which Is vetted in the hands of 
pcifoos whi ace elected by the people for their reprefenta-. 
tives, iis in France. 

qI^ What is aii.Ailttocratlcal Democracy ? 

A. It is H ijovcrnmcnt compofed of both an arittocracy 
and dL-mocracy, a?, is the cafe in fome of the Cantons in 
iSwitzcrUnd.. 

U. Is ihcre any fuch government as an Oligarchy ? 

AT Ves. Holland is governed by fuch an one, and it. 
c-iiUls in .-i ii'.iill iiunib;r of noUes, vj'ao WAd U\<i govern- ' 
H'h: iff th^ ccuntry. But ihla \§-Oti^ Viiii^l w\^w.i%K.>i.. 



OF THE WORLIK 

CK^ What IS a Continent ? 

AT a contincat is a large body of land not divLled by 
neater. 

Q^ Arc there not other bodies of land ^ 
A. Yes. There are bodies of land furroundcd by 
water, and thefe are called iilacds.. 
Q^ What are the divifions of water ? 
A. The water is divided into oceans, feas, bays, gu!ph3|. 
mersj. brooks y fprings and lakes.. 
Qj^ What is an Ocean ? 
-A.* An ocean is the largeft divifion of water. 
Q^ How many oceans are there ? 
A. There are three which are ufually called oceans : 
▼iz. the Atlantic,, the Pacific Ocean or South Sea, and 
- .^tbe Indian Ocean. 

Q^ What is the Ctuation of thefe feveral oceans ? 
^:, A. The Atlantic lies between Europe and America,, 
fe" and divides the two oreat continents, the eaftern and welf- 
•^ r ern. The Pacific lies welt of the continent of America,. 
''•r' and divides it from Afia.. The Indian Ocean lies eaft-. 
.ward of Africa, and fouihward of Afia. 
Q^ How wide is the Atlantic Ocean ? 
A. About three thoufand miles. 
Q. How wide is the Pacific Ocean ? 
A. About ten thoufand miles. 
Qj^ How wide is the Indian Ocean ? 
A. About three thoufand miles, 
Q^ What is a Sea ? 
y, A. A fca is a fraaller body of water, and is the largcft 
m- braoch of an- oceans 

(^ What is a Bay ? 

A. A Bay is a (lill fnialler divifion of an ocean, partly 
ixiclofed by the land. 
Q^ Wiiat is a Gulph > 
A. A gulph is a large biy. 

Qj^ What is th:it narrow part of water called whi(ii» 
• coanecls two large bodies of water ? 
A- A ftiait, or founds 
Q. What is a lake ? 

A. Ic is a large body of water furrounded by land, as 
X^ke Champlain.^ 

• Pond, hv^r, hrook^ ^5. arc fg' £arx'.i\\w ^i».\. \ xVoxX >^ w«i^ 
Jb6 to dcfcribt: them, 



8- Q:E G.R A.P'H Yr 

(^ What IS a Peninfula ? • 

A. "A pcninfulii is a tmdl of Jan d entirely furroun/jed :• 
by water, except ont; neck, by which it is joined TO a 
"^ neighbouring continent, and then that neck is called an 
Ifthmus. 

Q^ What is a Promontory ? * 

A. It is a hill or point of land ftretching into the fea^ 
and the end of it is uiually called a Cape. 

Qj^ Is there any rcfcmblance between the diyifipns of . 
land and water ? . 

A. There is a very ftriklpg refemblance : A contioient ■ 
reremble» an ocean ; a peninfula an ifland, fea or gulph :- . 
the iflhnius, which joins a peninfula and ,a continent, re- 
iembles a ftrait : a pi-omontory refemblcs a bay, and aa i 
ifland a lake. .. ^ 

Q:_ By what is the fituation of any place known ? . ? 

A. By its latitude and longitude. . Ki 

Q^ What is Latitude ? ■ ■ 'fi 

A. Latitude is any diftance from the equator^ either i-.A^ 
porth or fouth. . ' 

Q. What is the- Equjitor ? ^ 

A. It if an imaginary line in the middle of the earth '^ 
(that is, half, way between the north ;^d fouth points or. ,• 
poles) running from eall to weft around the cartli. 
* Q. How do you reckon latitude ? 

A • By degrees and minutes. 

Q^ What are Degrees and Minutes ? : 

A. A degree is a diflance of (ixty geographic miled, or < - 
about (ixty-nine miles and an h^lf of the ufual meafure. . , 
A minute is a geographic mile, fo that (ixty minutes roa]|x. : 
a. degree. 

Q. Where do you begin to reckon latitude ? 

A. At the equator. 

Q. How many degrees of jatitude are there ? ; 

Av Ninety. 

Q^What is Longitude ? : 

A. Longitude is a diQance either eaft or weft from any .- 
aoeridian. 

C^ What is a Meiidian ? * 

A. It is a line (Irawn from the.noith to the fouth pcic . 
through any particular place. 

i^ How many decrees ^f longjitade VLt l\\ftc« i . 
J^s Ciie/iufldrcdajad eighty, , 



OF EUROPE. 

Q>^ Why are there not as many degree* of latitude as 
q£ longitude ? 

A. Becaufc longitude is reckoned, from the meridian, 
half round the earth ; whereas latitude is reckoned only 
Cirom the equator to the poles. 

Q^ What arc Parallels of latitude ? 

A. Circles running from eaft to weft, Uke the equator^ 
•quite round tbt globe. 

Q. Wherein do the degrees of latitude dixFt-r from 
thofe of longitude ?. 

A. The degrees of latitu«f e are every where nearly 
equal, but the degrees of longitude leifcn from the equator 
to the poles, fo that in fixty degrees of Iftitude a degree 
of longitude extends but half fo far a<i the equator.* 

Q^ From wh:it meridian ;s longitude uftially comp-.:»ecl ' 

A. From the meridian ot London : fo tiiat any place 
t lying any number of degrees eaft or weft from LoiKion, is 
-' f^id to be in fo many degrees of eaft or weft longitude. 
[ ' Q. Can two places be in the fame latitude and longi- 
tude? 

A. They may be in the fame latitude or longitude, but 
they cannot be in the fame latitude and longitude. 

Q« What is meant by a place being in the fame latitude 
with another ? 

A. It is meant that.it lies.at the fame diftance from the 
equator either north or fouth. 

Q. What is meant hy two pkces lying in the fame loa- 
gitude i 
^ A. That they H« at aa equal dlftante from the meridi- 
^ in of IfOndon, alth;nigh one place -may he in notth and 
«hQ other in fouth latitude. 



Of E U R O P E. 

vi^ WHAT is the length and bteadih :.t that part of ■ 
the eaftern continent called Kurone ? 



• To UJuArate this by a familiar ■«xampl'? ; tike- an apple and rnt 
it into equal parts from the Ikcm to tkc op^'olLtc cr.d c^vvi -M^vvvvk^ 
t^c apple. Yf'i: will readily fcc that tiic x«ix\.s uvd\\.\it vj\^0\\ '\x^ 

middle, and ccntradt as thty in.:iinc towM:»Vi cv\h«c ca!^ 'VV*x.'^ 

/{ud the cafe^ with tit'j dcgrcts of lon|;i* udi;. 



lo GEOGRAPHY 

A. It is three thoufand miles Iong» and two thoufani[ 
and &7C hundred broad. 

Q^ What is its latitude and longitude ? 
. A. It lies between the tenth degree wcfl and fixty-fiftk 
degree of eaft longitude, and between the 36th and 7 2d 
degree of north latitude. 

Q^ How is Europe bounded i 

A. It is bounded on the north by the Frozen Ocean p 
on the eaft by Afia ; on the fouth by the Mediterranean 
Sea> which divides it from Africa $ and on the weft, bj 
the Atlantic Ocean. 

Q^ Into how many countries is Europe divided i 
A. It is divided into feventecn, but there aK mtLOf: 
fmaller diviCons, which will be noticed in their order. '^^^ 
Qj_ What are the names of thofe I'cventeen countries intt* i; 
which Europe is divided ? y^^ 

A Norway, Flanders, -'■ ' 

Denmark^ Hungary, 

Sweden, Turkey in Europe,. 

Ruflia,. Switzerliicd, 

Poland, ^^ Iwly, 

Fruilfia, France, 

Germany^ Spain, 

Bohemia, Portugal* 

Holland, 
Q^ What are the great Iflands belonging to Europe ?' 
A. Great-Britain, Ireland, Iceland, and E. Greenland*. 



Of the King of Denmark's Dominions* 

Q^ What territories belong to the Eling of Denmark ?' 

A. In Europe, Denmark Proper ; 2d« Norway ; 5d. hie* 
German territories ; 4th. Eaii-Greenland, Iceland and 
{bme other iflands in the Atlantic. In America, Weft* 
Greenland, and a few fmall iflands in the Wefl-lndies. 

Q^ What is the length and breadth of Denmark Proper } 

A. It is two hundred and forty miles long, and one: 
hundred and fourteen broad*. 

Q. \\^hat is its latitude and longitude ? 

A. It is between 54 and ^% degrees of north latitude^, 
and between 8 and 1 1 eafl longitude* \ 

Q^ How is Denmark bounded ? 

A, It is £>ounded by the Scagn^r^c Stai^Qv entrance in«- 
to the Baltic on tJie north i on x\\<i c^\j^\Vv^^^>av\v^!^ 



4 



/ ' or EUROPE. II 

the (buth by Gerroaoy and the Baltic ; and od the weft by 
the German Sea. 

Q«^ What conftitutes Denmark Proper ? 
A. It is conflituted by the Peninfula of Jutland, and 
fcven Illands in the entrance into the Baltic. 

Q. What are the iflands in the Baltic belonging to Den* 
mark ? 

A. They are Zealand, Funin, Falfter and Langland» 
Pemeren, Alfcn, Mona, and Bornholm. 
Q^ What is the climate ? 

A. It is for the moft part very cold, though more tem- 
perate than fome of the more northern countries, and from 
iht fudden changes from fummer to winter, and winter to 
,.: lliimmer^ Q^ring and autumn are very little known* 
J-"; _ Q^ What is the face of the country ? 
'Ah. A. The iflands are rather low land. The peninfula of 
cs<'.' Jutland confifts of hills and valleys. 
ii-' ^^ What is the number of inhabitants in Denmark 
|J/ Proper ? 

A. It contains two million> feventeen thoufand and 
;. twenty-feven. 

* Q^ What is the capital city ? 

A. Copenhagen, which ftands on the ifland of Zealand, 
and contains i86 flreets, 19 churches, and 100,000 in- 
habitants. The houfes in the principal (Ireets are built of 
't brick, and in the others, of wood. It is a flrongly forti- 

* fied and well regulated town. 

i Q^ What is the government of Denmark Proper ? 

■^ A. It is an abfolnte monarchy ; the crown is hereditary. 
^P "Qt What is the religion of Denmark ? 
A. Lntheranifm. 

Q^ How is Denmark fituated with relpedl to the other 
countries of Europe ? 

A* It ftands fouth of Norway, fouthweft of Sweden, 
weft of Rullia, northweft of Pruffia, Poland, Hungary, 
Bohemia, Italy, and Turkey in Europe ; north of Ger^ 
many, Switzerland, Holland, Netherlands, and France ; 
northeaft of Spain, Portugal, England, and Ireland ( and 
eaft of Scotland.^ 

* 111 all the anfwers, in which is mentioned the dirc^ion the fev« 
Cral European couniries ftand in, relative to each o\\tct \\ >a»ttT«A 
thxmght It aeccffary to be minutely partVculai , \ Yvac^e^xVitx Aoic , tsss^ 
mcBthiKd, wgencrsdj their rdativc bcax'«i|i% « xbwxVs-vitot^^ 



tz G E O G R A P H T 

NORWAY. 

Q. What is the fituation and extent ©f Norway ' 
A. It is fcven hundred and fifty miles long, and enehiifh- 
idred and ferenty broad ; and extends from the mouth of the 
Baltic Sea, on tlie fouth^to the northerpm'of^ part of Europe* 
• Q. How is it bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by the northern Ocean, 
An the eaft by the Swedtfh mountains, on the fouth by the 
Scaggerac Sea, and by the Atlantic Ocean on the waft. 
Q^ What is the latitude and longitude of Nornfay ? 
A. ' It expends from the entrance of this Baltic Sea in 
about 5 7i degrees north latitude, to the northern extrtm^ 
ity or Europe in about 72 degrees. Its breadtii is Ids 
coniiderable, lying between the 5th and i5tU demes af . 
eafl: longitude. 

Q^ What is the climate of Norway ? * 

A. It is various. In the fouthweitern part it is mode^ "" 
Tate ; but in the inland and northern parts very (everc^ /| 
from the middle of 06^ober until the middle of April ; yet '■] 
the air is pure and healthful. 

Q^ What is the face of the country ? 

A. It is very mountainous, and in fome places barren -; 
but produces large quantities of timber. 

Q. Are there any metals and minerals in Norway ? 

A. There are goid,iilver, iron, lead and fulphur mines ^ 
quarries of marble, the ioadftone, and feveral kinds -of 
precious ftones. 

Q;_ What rivers are tliere ? 

A. None very large, yet fome of them are navigable a j 
fmall diflance for fliips, and are well furniihed with fiih. 

Q. Are there any lakes ? 

A. Yes ; fome of which contain floating iflands on 
which grow herbs and trees. 

Q^ What animals are there in Norway ? 

A. Of wild hearts, there are elks, rein-deer, bears, 
wolves, foxe?, hares> rabbits> gluttons, lemings, ermines, 
martins and beavers. 

Q. What birds are there in Nor\vay ? 

A. No country furnifhcs a greater variety ; among 
which are the Cock of the Wood, the largeft of all eatable 

country lies iiortAwcilerly, I have put \t iiOt\.\ivit^> ?K. NdxSuvM. A- 
(cnijniflff to sJcertzin the prccii'c dirc^tou* 



OFEUROPE. 13 



TairdSf and two kinds of eagles, the land and fea eagle, the 
former of M'hich has been known to carry off children two 
years old ^ and the latter fometimes fattens his talons into 
vflies fb large, that he is dragged under water and drowned. 

Q^ What reroai kable curiofltics arc there in Norway ? 

A. On the weftern fhore thert: is a remaikiible whirl- 
pool, caQed by failors the Navei 9/ the Seaj into which 
ihipsy and even whales, are fometimes driven, and they are 
imfDedifftely drsrwn to the bottom and daflied to pieces. 

Q^ What is the nuniber of inhabitants i 

A. It is unknown. 

Qj^ What is the capital city ? 

A. Bergen, which lies five hundred and forty miles 
flOrtb of London, on the weilern fhore of Norway* 
'» i^_ What is the religion of Norway ? 

.A. Lutheran ifm. 
. <^ What is the government ? 

[ .A. It is. governed by a viceroy or governor from Den« , 
L, uho, like his matter, is abfolute. 
^ How doe^ Norway lie from the other countries in 
JEurope? 

A. Ir lies W. of Sweden and RufTia ; N. of Denmark, 
floUand, Netherlands, France, Switzerland, and Germa* 
xiy ; N. E. from Spain, Portugal, England, Ireland and 
Scotland ; N. W. from Italy, Turkey in Europe, Bohe- 
mia, Huqgary, Polatid and Pruifia. 

SPITBERGEN, or EAST-GREENLAND. 
|, -Q^ What is the lituatiori ? 

^- A. It lies between 76 and 81 d^ees of north latitude, 
and beti^eea' 9 and 20 leaft longitude^^ 

Q. What is kfiown of this Ittand ? 

A. Very' little. It is fuppofed to be a continuation of 
Weft- Greenland. It is a barren, rugged country, and con- 
tains biit few inhabitants, who live priicipaljy upon (ea- 
lions. The RulEans and Dutch filh on the coaft. 



WEST-GREENLAND. 

Q^ What i§, the fituation of Weft-Greenland? 

A. It lies between the meridian of London, and 50 
degrees of weft longitude, and betwecQ 60 sa^*^^ ^^^tn^ 
9i$l€ftb Jbutttde, 



T4 GEOGRAPHY 



Q. Give a dcfcription of this ifland ? 

A. It is very mucli like Eafl-Greenland, being colli 
and dreary. There may be fevcn thoufand inhabitants in 
this ifland. They rcfemble the Efkimaux Indians of 
North America, in their look, nianncrs and drefs. They 
employ their time in hunting and fifliing, in which they 
are very expert. They live principally upon feals and 
iifhy rein- deer being. now fcarce among them : their drink 
is water. They are a friendly people, but ratlicr melan- 
choly in their tempers, though good -humourcdj The men 
hunt and filh, and leave their prey to be di efll^ by the wo- 
men, who do all their work both as mechanics and houic- 
wives. 

Q. Is there any fiftiery on the coaft ? 

A. There is a very profitable whale iifliery carried oa 
by the Dutch and Englilh. 



O? ICELAND. 

.C^. What is the fituation and extent of Iceland I 

a/ It is fituated between 63 and 67 degrees of north 
latitude, and l)etween 11 and 27 degrees of we{( longi* 
tilde. It is Tour hundred miles long, and one hundred 
and ilxtv broad. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants does it contain ? 

A. It is faid to contain about fjxty thoufand. 

Q^ "What are their cuftoms and manners ? 

A. Very fimilar to tliofe in Greenland. The people 
are fobcr and religions, ace very much attached to their 
country, and think they could be no where clfc fo happy. ; 

Q^. What is the relij^n of Iceland ? Ji 

A. The Lutheran is tlie efhblifh^d religion in Iceland. 

Q^ What is the language of Iceland i 

A. It is tlie iame with that formerly fpokcn in Swe- 
den, and is preferved very pure. 

■C^. ,What is the ftate of learning ? 

A. After the introduction of Chriilianity until the 
middle of tlic twelfth century, learning fiourilhcd, an4l 
was held in high efiimation, but fince that time it has been 
kfs regarded. 

(>^. What mountains are tliere in Iceland ? 
■' A/ Several; moil of. which are volcanoes. Mount 
Ilcckh, which (lands in tliC fo\i\.V\eTu \>w\. o^ \V«. \(Lind, is 
l^^-H knowa CO 15. It 'w, fiv; x\YOvkw\ k«i\.Vvj^w \\:i»GkX>M. 



o r EUR OPE. rr 



fea,- and is a volcano. Several of the fnov/y mounlains 
alfo have gradually become volcanoes. 

Q^ Have they any uncommon {j)rings in Iceland ?, 

A. There are many. The large ft is called Gcyfer, 
■which fpouts water into the air an hundred feet. In foma 
others the people boil their vi«5i-ua;s by putting it into a 
pot and hanging the pot in the ipring. 

Q. Are there any animals in Iceland ? 

A. There arc very few, if any, peculiar to Icelanxi. 
They have horfes, cattle, and ihecp. Wohcs fometimea 
come to Iceland on the floating ficldu of ice : foxea |urc 
alfo found in Iceland. 

Q^ Have they any commerce ? 

A. Their commerce is fmalli and is monopolized by 
Denmark.- 

Q^ What are the produftions by land ? 
■ ' A. There is no wood which grows fuccefsfully berey- 
;: although it formerly did. Cabb^csy parfley, turnips, peas 
and beans, are found in four or five gardens, the only ones 
, which there are in the iiland. 

Q^ What is the military ftrength of Iceland ? 

A. It furnifhes no foldiers, and therefore depends - 
wholly upon the King of Denmark for protection. 

Of LAPLAND. 
Q^ What is the fituation and extent of Lspiand ? 
A. It extends from the North Cape in Norway, in the 
' Iktitude of 7 1 deg. 30 m. to the White Sea under the 
j^ ArAic Circle. 
•'\ Q^To what States does LapUind belong ? 
. ^ A. It belongs to three ; viz.' to Denmark, to Ru/lia, 
and Sweden ; the laft of which being fo much better 
known than the others, and there being fuch a fimilarity 
in all of them, I fhali confine myfelf to the defcription of 
that only, ' 

Q. What is the length and breadth of Swedifli Lap- 
land? 

A. The length and treadtH are not known, but it is faid 
to contain between feventy and eighty thoufandfquare miles. 
Q^ What is the climate ? 

A- In winter it is very cold, and \l ^tcc^M^itvlVj \\v^\^tA^- 
ihat,. whea people aflcmble to driak^ iVvotVi^ it^^x^-^-^ 



i6 G E O G R A FH Y 

^ Q^ Arc tliere any mountamsy riyers, lakes and Ar 

: in LapUod ? 

^. A. The conntpy is very mouDtakoos and woody^ s 

^ ihcrt are many lakes in the valleys which hsM'e fome be 

i tiful iflanJs in Uiem. There ape no rivers with which- 

rare acqiuintcd. 
Q^ Arc there any metals and nrioerals in Lapland I 
A. Some gold, iilver^ iron, copper and lead mines h 
been difcovtrtd and wrought' in Lapbnd. Cryftals : 
a varieiy of polifhcd flooes are found aifo, and fone jici 
are found ia their ilreams, but none in the feas. 
Q. WL-^it animals are there in Lapland ? 

{A. The only anijinl peculiar to Laplund^ which- 
4now, is the ZiMin, It is highly valued ibr its ^in. 
: far the moil ufeful animal in La|)]and is the Rein-J}^ 

>:' The other animals are common to all tliofe northern co 

•tries. It is obfcrvable tluit all the animals which 
wild in thofe countries change their colour with dw i 
fen, and in winter turn white* 

* Q^ What is the Ante of learning io Lapland i 

A. They have no letters. They tranfaft all their 
, .uncfi'by hieroglyphics. 

4 C^. What is their religion 2 

x\. Although there are fome Chriflian feminaties th 
;- yci the greater part of the people are Pagans, and very 

; ptrftitious. 

Q. What is the number of inh.ibitants in Lapland I 
\ A7 The number is not afccriHined : .it is thought s 

•f* .i mount to aluiut Hxfy thouHind. 

'. ^^ Wiiat is the maiMr of .living of the Lapiaadcta 

^'■ A. They are divid«;n into tWDclafll'Si calM LopJ 

i liimrs, and Luphnd Mountaineers. The former ui 

• u'^ndning vagrant life, and employ thcmfclves in firni 
ill lllhing, and in winter they remove into the cowii 

1 he latter arc hcrdfmen, and rich, when compared = to 
{.aplaod Fifhcf'^. Tbey liavc many of them feveral Y 
viicds of rein-d«rcr> although they cannot count oae ' 
■ tiat numter. 

Q. What are the employments of the men and worn 
I A. The men take care of thtir flocks and do the w 

«i/ the kitchen, 1*he women make tittt (or fiHiiDg, 
cure their Sfh mf%€t the men brin^ thttw lo W^, 
<i_ XVAac kind of IiouAis do i\\c^ \\Nc\\il 



O F E U.k<S PE. 17 

jK. The people of Lapland, GreenliAnd and TceLtnd, 
dll live in houfcs refemUing the wigwams of the North. 
American Indians. 

Q^ What is thciF drcfs ? 

A. They dreft in furs and untanoed flcins principally ; 
ttfiog no linen in their clothing. 

(^ Do you know Any dung of their marriages ? 

A. When a I^aplander wiflies to marry a lady, he courts 
her father with brandyr of which tJiey are all ^ery (bnd» 
ami after ibme years (pent in this manner, he is married by 
the prtefty aod then.ferves Iier fathsr three years' before bo 
takes bis wife away.* 

Of SWEDEN. 

-Q^ What is the lituation and extent of Sweden ? 

A. It is eight hundred miles long, and five hundred' 

broad. It lies between 56 and 69 degrees of north lati- 

ztadc, and between 10 and 30 degrees of eail longitude. 

Q^ How is Sweden bounded ? 

A. ;£t is bounded by the Baltic on che South, fay the- 
Norwegian mountains on the wtl\, by Danifh Laplaod on 
the north, and-bv Kulfia on the ea(h 

Q^ How is Sweden divided I 

A. Into feven parts, id. Sweden Proper^; 2d. Goch- 
iand ; 3d. Livonia ; 4th. Ingria ; 5th. Koland ; 6th. 
Swedifh Lapland ; 7th. SwediHi lilands-^-containing 
jzzB^yis fquare miles. 

Q^ What is the face of the couatry .^ 
•A. It is limilar to all thofe oorthcrn countries, only it 
iias fopie navigable rivers. "A Cfinfiderablc pirt is covered 
with water. Befides Jakcs, the gulphs of tir.land and of 
Bothnia extend far into the country, and cover a great 
^art of ir. 

Q^ WJiat are the cb'mate and feafons in Swe«Jen ^ 

A. In this refjjeiS, they are y^ry much like the coun- 
tries .above mentioned,- being in g<;neral very (evere, and 
changing* vecy fuddcniy from fummer to winter, and from 
winter to fummer, fo that fpring and autumn arc hardly 
known. It is, iikewife, fometimes, fo very hot in fummer, 
that the fun fcts fore(ls on lire. 

q^ What is the' foil of Sweden \ 



i3 GEO a R-A P H Y 



A. Moft of it Is poor, £hcuglv in fonie valleys the lano 
13 very proda<5kive. 

Q^ What are the vegetable produiflions of Sweden ? " 

A. Agricuhure has been of late encouraged, and it has 

proved fuccefsful, fo that now they raife grain enough al- 

mod to fupport the natives. They likewifc raife feme 

' (liawberries, rafpberries, currants and melons, Sx^ich arc 

brought to tolerable perfedfcion. 

Q. What are the mineral productions of Sweden ? 

A. There are fome gold and filver mines, but the moil 
important mineral m Sweden is iron, which is the chief 
fource of wcahh in the country, and employs 450 forges, 
hammering mills and fmelting houfcs. 

Q^ What are the folfils ? 

A. Cryflals, amethyfts, topazes, lapiHazuli, agatCj cor- 
nelian and marble. 

Q^ What feas are there in Sweden ? 

A. The Baltic is .the only fca in Sweden, and ths. 
Gulphs of Finland and Bothnia are arms of the Baltic. 
Thtfe febS'have no tide, and a current fets conihndy out 
fif the Baltic into the Atlantic. 

Qj^ What are the curioHtics of the country ? 

A. There is a cataraft. under which is an unfathomable 
vorttrx. There is alfo a lake which tinges every thing 
which is waited in it of a yellow colour. 

(^ What are the animals, birds and fiihes of Sweden t 

A. They are like thofc of Norway and. Denmark, only 
^K horfes of Sweden. are better than thofe of Denmark fos 
War. Vaft quantities of pikes, are taken in their waters. 

Q^ What are the inhtbitants» manners and cuftoms of 
Sweet n ? 

A. The chara^cr cf the Swedes is very divcrfe, and 
has chunged at diifcrent times. The prefent inhabitants 
ot Svredcn arc a, hardy, pcricverirg, unambitious people : 
the women are not fond oF marrying their daughters when 
your.^. Tiiey do all the. common drudgery of life, and 
uf>: in ihe piaco of the men in other countries. 

(^ Wliat is the rehgiou of Sweden ? 

A. The Chriflian religion was introduced there in the 

ninth ccn'ury : the prevailing denomination is Lutheran. 

The Swedes have an utter avcrfion to Popery. They 

are very foud of ihcir OWP ckr^^, >nV\o \\'<ch^ ^vi v^tK^wv.1 



O F E U R a P E. 



'9 



■ Q. tVha'c 13 the language of Sweden ? 

A. It is a dialedt of the Teutonic^ and is like thfit of* 
■ Denniark. f ■ "• - - * 

Q^ What is the flate of learning in Sweden ? 

A. The SwediHi nobilitv are more learned thaa tho(fi' 
in fome of the neighbpnring couiatries. and the fine arts 
are lately encouraged- 

Q*^ Have the Swedes any'univerffties ? 

A. They have two, and a free fchool in every dioccfsk 
The prindpul univcHity is at Upfal, in which ijv^d ttu- 
dents are educatecl ; the other is at Abo in Finland. 

■ Q^- Haite 'the Swedes anydbriimdrcb'abd manufii^o* 
riesT 

■ A-- They have conddcrable commerce and fome man*- 
-ufaiflon^s of cloth ; but chiefly of hard-ware. 

- . Q^' Whau is the capital city of Sk'eden ? 

A. Stockholm is the capital. It f hinds feven -Ihindrtfd 
and!"- fikly mile» north-ealt of London ; it is Htuated on 
leveral fmall iflarnds ; is built oh piles, and contsKoa abou& 
-150,000 inhabitants* 
. " Q;^ What is the government of Sw^dcir T* ■' , 

Ar. An abfolute monarchy, and the crown is-her^itary. 

Q^ What is the military ibength of Sweden ? 

A, There is no (landing- army in the country ; their 
dependence is therefore upon a regulatec^ ^ilitia^ who arc 
•quartered upon^ and maintained by thie inhabitants. ^ Their 
•Bumber may be forty thoufand. 

Q^ How is Sweden fituated with reljjeifl to the other 
countries of Europe I ' , '-"^ 

'4l. -Eaft.of Norway.; wcfl»«f RuiUa ; north-eafterly 

-from Denmark ; n4rtn of Germany, PruiTia and Poland, 

-Hungary and Bot\emia ; north-ead of Scotland, England, 

Ireland, the Netherlands, France, Spain and Portugal ; 

■orth of Italy, Switzerland and 'i'urkey in Europe, 

Of RUSSIA. 
Q^ Wliat is the (ituation and extent of Ruffia ? 

■ A. It is T500 miles long, and -iioo broad. It lies 
•between 23 and 65 degrees of eafb longitude, and between 
•47 and 72 degrees of north latitude. 

Q^ How is Ruifia boanded \ 

Am Jt is hounded on .the north b^ ^'AiwVa. wv^ ^^ 
Frozca OcesLB } oa thecsift by Kawv^fcYv^ixk'^wAx^c^A'' 



ao e E G G R A P H,^ 



cilio Occin ; iiy flic 47th eje^trcc of north latitude on x\\& 
fouch ; and by the Jkltic Sva ami Sweden on the Wcfl ;; 
comprehenduig ainioiV alt th& northern parts «^£ Europe 
and Afia^ 

<^ What is tfis climate and foil of Ruflia T 
, A. This country is fo' cxtenfifc that both are very vj^ 
rious. In the fouthem part it is temperate ; but in the 
northern fo excciHvely coIcU that men when riding on 
loaded carriages, are ottcn found fkx>zen to death.; and 
boiling water thrpuMi into tlic-.air haa Allen i^ecf^^ly con-- 
gealed into ice;. 

Q^ How do tbe RuiTKins ftcujre ibemftlves igaioft the- 
Itverity of the feafon in their houfes .^ 

A. By (loves fo oon^dcdyfthat a finall jquanirty oS 
wood burnt In tliem> will render their hotifes vcny con*- 
fortable, the fmol&e being conveyed through every tpart^ 
aaent fay funnels*- 

Q^ What arc the vegetable produ^ions of Rdfia ?' 

.A* The ibuthem part of this country- i^ fertiley tadi 
wxxluces grain plentifully^- Tho other produdions are.' 
Jikc tbofe of Denmark- and .SMwden,* exGe|)t that Ruffiat 
froduMi oak and ilr trees, together with rhubarb and> 
large quavtities- of honey, made by the peafaots into fiio-^ 
thi'giin, their common drink.* 

Q^ What ire the iBioeral prodiidlions of RiiiBa ? 

A. They are finnhr to thofe of Scandinavia, there be-*^ 
ing rich beds of iron ore in many provinces, and Some iH^ 
Ter and copper mines 4>ear Sibeiia, 

Q. What is die faco of the countty ? 

A. It k in general "w^^^ery level country, there Seiisg' 
only the Zemnopian mountains in -the . north', the CaiU- 
pathian mountains on the fbuth, and Mount Caucafus bo>- 
tween the Black and Cafpian Seas. 

Q^ What are the principal rivers in RufEa ?^ 

A. The Wuiga, which runs about three thoufand milcr 
and empties kito the Cafpian Sva by more than ft'venty 
mouths ; the Tanais^. or Don, whicli runs between Rulfia- 
in Kurope and Aiia« and empties itielf into the fea of 
Afo)^ t the Dnieper, which tails into the Euxine Sea ; 
and tlie two Dwirtas, one of which empties into theBai^ 
tjc, and the other into the White Sea. 
Q^ What arc tiie animal piqduCtvom o^ VjaSKttkT 
•A. They arc very finilitf \o tVioSftol \\>ft<s\>siw 



OFEUROPE. 21 



em countries except the Lynx, which is a natt\x of this 
country. They have alfo black foxes and ermines. 
Their beads of burden are a fmall breed of borfcs. 

Q^ What fifh are found in Ruilia ? 

A. BeOdes thofe found in Sweden and Denmark, there 
are f:i]n>on, ilurgeon and cod. 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants in RufTia ? 

A. The Ruffian empire, in Europe and Al?li, is fup- 
pofed to contain about twenty-four million. 

Q^ Whdt are the general chaructcrittics of die Ruflians ? 

A. They are in (izc about middling ; are robulK hardy 
-ood courageous : patient of fatigue, and excellerit foidiers* 
Their complexions are much like thofe of the Englifh,. 
fKily the ladies injure theirs by adding artificLd redy of 
* which they are %'ery fond. intoxication is, however^ 
•'preTaknt among all ranks in Ruilii ; and even ][/riefls and 
ladies are not ailiamed of it on. holidays. 

Q. Are there any peculiarities in their weddings ? 

A. Yes : Their nuptial ceremonies xre peculiar to 
cSiemfeUea ; The pareats agree on the matclv ahhamh. 
the parties have never ieen each other, and on the tm-^ 
ding day the intended bride is crowned with a garJ^ndTof 
iwormwood, and after die pried has married thi^j^y the 
fexton throws an handful of hops on her head, '^iihing 
•her to be as fruitful as the hop vine. 

jQ^ What are their funeral ce reman ict;j& 

A. They are fingular.: The priefi .|ffti}rs, and fprinkks 
the corpfe for ciglit or ten days ; ivh then burieil with a 
pafTpoFt to heaven, (igned by thchifhop and another cler- 
whic^s put between .^|^iingr:rs of the deceafed> 



anl^th^.ihe people retjpti'td miniouTe whence they wcnt» 
acnd drown thnHrfinrrdw in intoxication. This they com- 
VROfily do for aoout forty days, during which time tlie 
..pried "lays prayers over liie grave. 

Q^ What punifliments are ufed in Ruflia ? 

A. Their principal punilhmcnts are very fcvere, and 
Ipre infli^ed wiih very little iuiminity. Boring and cut- 
ting out the tongue ; ;i!;'o the uoi.ble and fingle knout are 
freiiU'.Ttly uHjii in Rv.lFia. In the double knout the hands 
'^oftli^ criminal are bound behind his back, fixed to a pvd- 
iiy, by wliich he is railod from the ground with thc<iv£<v 
•€ZUon of his AoiiiJcrSy aiid in th'w '?iWraL\:«'t '» -^sews^^ 
iSp^ijfeJ vir/j ;i whtp niadc of caw .hvdfi. 



22 G E O G R A PHY 



(V^ In what manner do they travel in ku/Tia •? 

A. They travel both in Rufiia and Scandinav'a ax 
fledges drawn by rein-deer (and fomctimcs by horfcs) and 
frequently perform a journey of four hundred miles in 
three dxiys and nights. The empreG of lluffia travels in a 
houfe which is fixed on a fledge drawn by twcnty-fcur 
horfcs. The houfe contains furniture for four people. 

C^ What arc the manners and cuitoms of^ the inhabit- 
ants f 

A. They dlfTcr in the different nations which inljabit 
the country. Many of the tribes IWi in fixed habitations 
and carry on commerce. Others referable the Lapland- 
ers, removing from place to place, and employ themfelves 
k) tending their flocks and in hunting. 

(^ What is the religion of RuiHa ? 

A, It is that of the Greek church. There art alfa 
many Mahometans and Pagans in the empire. 

Q^ What is the langup-jre of Ruflia ? 

A. ^A, mixture of Polilh and Sdavonian ; but the cler- 
|y and men of fcience fncak what is called l^odern Greek. 
They have thirty-fix letters in their alphabet. 

(X^What is the ftatc of fcience in Rufiia ? 

Am- Jx IB (HIl in' its infancy, but is lately much cnCour- 
agecTty the government. 

Q. Have the RuHians any iiniverdties ? 

A, Tn the tity of Mofcow there are four, |)efides a dif- 
pcpfary. There is alfo an unLverfity at Peterfburgh, and' 
a military academy. 

(.>. What didinguUhed cities are there in RuOta ? 

A. There are two niv* Peterfburgh and Mofcow. 

(^ Can you give a OTTCriptioQ of. Peterfburgh ? 

A. It is the capital of Ruffia ; Wtf built Vy Peter the 
Great in the heoinning of iJic eiohtcenth century, on low, 
marfhy j^reunds, once fornied into nine fniall iHand?. It 
lies on the river Neva, in the 6oth degree of latitude, is 
adorned with many magnificent buildings ; has much com- 
merce, and contains 400,000 inhabitants. It is 1140 
miles north-eafl from Ijondon. 

(^. Can you dclcri!>* Mofcow ? 

A. It lies on the river Mofcow, in lat. 55 de;j. 45 m. 
1^14 miles north-cafl of London ; is neither regular nor 
eompHi% but wks formerly very m«i^Yvv^\ccYv\. 'L'hcie are 
in tins city 1600 churches and coTiNCt\t*> ^v^^ ^\\i\^\<^ 



OF E U R O P E. 23 



•Cqiiares. In the exchange are 6coo fine fliops. There 
is a foundling hofpital akb for 8coo foundlings. Tlie 
whole city is iiKteen miles in circumference, contains 
40,000 houfes> and about 50O9OO0 inhabitants. The 
houfes in general are mean, low, and built of uood. 

Q. What curiofities are tliv^re in Ruilia ? 

A, There are but few, principally artificial. The moft 
remarkable one is a bell at lyiofcow, which is nineteen feet 
hi^h, twenty- three foct in di«imcter, and wei£lvs 443,772 
pounds. j^ 

Q^ What is the ftate of the Ruffian commerce*? 

A. It is flourilhing, ^nd confifh of raw and n>anufai5lu- 
•red materials of the country. The empire gains by it a- 
bout one miUion of rubles. The Ruffians trade withr all 
;tl\e European and Afiatic nations, and with the Americans. 

Ql What is th^ Ruffian navy ? 

J^ It confifts of thirty-fix men pf war ; twenty-five 
irigates ; one hundred galleys — and employs fii'teen iliuu- 
iaod failors. 

Q^ What is the government of Ruffia ? 

A. The fovereign of the RufCan empire is abfolute ot$g 
•the lives and fortunes of , the fubjcds ; and both noUes as- 
well as peafants are -fubjcd to the caprice of the fbvqj^go 
and the minifters ; and, without any trial for offqneeli' are 
liable to be fent to Siberia to labour for lilie. 

Q^ What is the yearly amount of tlie rftvMues ? 
^ A. Six millions ftcrling. •/..:,-'" 

Q^ How does Rufiia lie with relpcA to the other £u- 
jTopeaa countries? 

A. It lies £. of Scotland, ^wedetf; Denmark, and Nor- 
way ;^ N. E. of GermanyytHcHhlirir Netherlands, France, 
Spain^ Pdttuga]) 3witzcnand, Bohemia, Ejigland, Ireland 
and Pruffia ; N. of Hungary, Poland, Italy and Turkey 
in Europe. 

Of SCOTLAND and its ISLANDS. . 
Q^ What iflands are ufually called the ScoLtiih IfLwds ? 
A. The Shetland llles, the Orkneys, and the Hebrides. 
Ql, What i»-tlie fituation of the Shetland lOands ? 
, A. They lie north-eaft of Scotland, between Go and 
61 degrees of north latitude. 

Qj^ What is tlic iltuatioa ot' ilic Oi\uie?^ii '<^Y 



GEOGRAPHY 



A. They lie north of Scotland, between gg and 60 
dej^recs of north latitude. 

C^ What is the fituation of the Hebrides ? 

A. Tliey lie weft of Scotland, between ^§ and 59 de- 
grees of north latitude. 

Q^ What is the climate of the Scottilh Iflands ? 

A. There is very little difference in the climate of tkefe 
three clufters. It is very foggy through a great part of 
the year ; at midnight, in the months of June and July, 
the people can fee to read in the Shetland Iflands and in 
the Orkneys. The air is very keen and healthy. 

Q^ What is tlie chara^cr of the ii'lvibitants of thefe 
iflands ^ 

A. Thofe of the Shetland and Orkney iflands rcferoblff 
the Lowland ers in Scotland. They arc very temperate 
and induftrious. The ])eopIe of the Hebrides referable 
the Scotch Highlanders in their manners, perfons, conAi- 
tutions and prejudices ; and the ancient ufages of the Celcfe» 
or ancient Gauls, are preferred here in their purity. 
Their favourite mufic is the bagpipe, and their chief is com- 
monly attended, when he appears abroad, by his muficians. 
Tlic houfes of the common people are not much better 
than .thofe of the Norwegians or Laplanders, although the 
people' live on much better food. They are very fond of 
poetry, and their bards or poets are held in high eftimaiion. 

Q. What it their religion ? 

A. The reli«ipn profcflcd by the people of thefe and 
the other iflands bcmging to Scotland, is the fame as in 
tScoiland, although there are many fujKrftiiiout pra<5lices 
amono them. 

Q. What is the f;icrtWd*fcil- of thefe iflands i 

A. The face of the ground is tare |Uld unpleafanty and 
the foil, in general, unfruitful. * 

(^ Have they any mines in thefe iflands ? 

A. There arc fume illver, lead and tin mines, and fev- 
cral quarries of flate and marble. 

Q. What arc their vegetable produ«5lions ? 

A. The people raife a little corn, and the conmon 

garden vegetables in fome cultivated grounds, in iul!ioicnt 

quantities* for the inhabitants. They' have good watcr^ 

and their hikes abound with excellent trout. 

Q- What is the ft«te of trade ani f(\^'n\x('dLCX>\T«« in thefe 

i/faDus ? 



O F E U R O P E. 25 



A. Both are in their infancy. . The I'lincipal article oi 
f fade is herrings, of which {jrent qimiititics are taken jeur- 
ly : they alfo export live cattle to Scotland. 
. Q^ Are there any animals peculiar to thefc iflands ? 

A. In general they are fimilar to thofe of the nonherr. 
countries before dcfcribcd ; but there is in the Shetland 
Illands a fnial! breed of hoifes which are very a»5live. 
flrong and hardy. 

Q^ What antiquities arrd curiufuies are found in ihcfe 
iflands ? 

A. Many works of the Druids, the nioft ancient priefts 
of Britain, remain in almofl all parts of thcfe illands. 
There is a famous hermitage at Hoy, one of the wcftern 
illands, which is cut out of a ilone called the Dwarf Stone, 
Its entrance is ^. fqnare hole about two feet high, and fhut 
with a ftone of the fame fl/.e : ^vithin is the refemblance 
flf a bed and a pillar large enough for two perfons : at the 
«nd is a couch, and in the middle is a hearth, and a hole 
cut through, for a chimney. At Tona, one of the He- 
brides, learning was encouraged when tlie continent of 
SUiropc was over-run with barbarifm. 



•Of SCOTLAND. 
'Q^ What is the fituation and extent of ScotLind ? « 

A. It iftiituated lietween 54 and yj degrees of nofth 
latitude, and between i and 6 degrees of well longitude ; 
iit is 300 milei long, and ryo broad. 
K^ How is Scotland bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north, eaft and weft, by the 
Adandc Ocean ; and on the fouth by>£ngland ; and con- 
•titos 27,794 ^q^i^^ miles. 

Q^'How is Scotland divided ? 

A. It was formerly divided into the counties on the 
north, and the counties fouth, or the Frith or Forth. It 
has alfo been divided into the Highlands and I^owlands, 
■and contains fifteen northern, and eighteen foathcrn coun- 
lies- 

Q. What is the air of Scotland ? 

A, It is in general cold for about nine months in the 
■year ; but near the fea it is more temperate than in the inte- 
rior parts of ihe country, bein^ warmed by the fea breezes. 

'Ql What 13 the foil of Scotland ? 

C 



25 GEOGRAPHY 



A. Ir is not fo fcitilc as Er.glanJ, nor fo v.fll adapted 

■ • ;■. 'ulturc ; tliouj>h fomc puiis arc very prod'i<?iive. 
^ "^ \V'i\.iX is the face of* the countiy ? 

A. It Is diveiTitleJ with hilb and vallcySj and coiife- 
ciit^ntly thtrc is a \aricty of foil ; fome parts wiiich arc 
unfit ibr corn,. producing very good pafturc. 

Q^ Is the water in Scotland ^ood ? 

A. It is'faid to be bcttt;r than in mod other count: ics. 

Q^ What are the moun-ains of Scfuland ? 

A. The piipclpal arc the Grampian Hills, which run 
from eaft to \vc(i aimrill th.c whole breadth cf the kino- 
dom 5 the Pcntluad Hills ; the I^aninier Muxr, and tl)p 
Cheviot Hills. 

Q^ "What arc the rivers ? 

A. The hir^ieft is the Icitli, which empties into the 
fta on the caih-n fiiore. The next is the Tay, on the 
fame fhore, a little north of the Forih. The Spey, the 
Dee, the Don, tUe IVcod, and the Clyde, arc idfo rivers 
of Scotland. 

(^ Arc there any lakes in Scotland i 

t\. There, are many, wiiich the inhabitants call Lochsj 
well fuppiied with iifli ; .hut two are very remarkable:: 
One near Lochnofs is .on the top of a hill alnioll tv.o 
miles high. This lake is fmall, but ii lias never been 
founded, nor does it ever free/.e. About feventecn mile$ 
diihint is another lake v/hich is frozen all the year. 

(^. What arc the mineial and fofill produiftions of 
x^cotland ? 

A. Lead and iron. Ccal iwincs al^ourd in Scotland. 
La]:i{lazula and allum are Jound in Lanerk and BamfF- 
(hirv.'?. 

<^ What iL- the fiate of agiicttlture in Scotland ? 

A. In fomc parts of the country it is well attended to 
and undcifiood ; ii others, the country is left almofl in ;i 
IhiLc of n;ii.urc. 

■ Q^ What are tisc vegciablc produ«5tions of the country ? 
A. Wheat, rye, oafs, barley, heruj), flax nnd gnU's. In 

the fouihern parts mai.y j;ood Jruiis, iuch as ]*cawhes, apri- 
cots, and neiftarines, are culrivittd. 
. Q^ What fifli are found in Scotland ? 
A. The fame with ihofc of the ifiands, and frJinon in 
thr livers. 
Q: W.'.at animals docs, Scoilar.! ;\f.0T^'l 



OF EURO? i:. 2; 

A. Such as are com'-iun to other nuJurn coun-iv,s. 
The deer an J the roeb;i:k '.irj tound in thi Highlands, 
together wi-h plenty of fnul! f:\r.:.'. 

Q. Whit is the nu'T\b:r cr*iri'r;i!)!t.intj ? 

A. Aboui a mir.ion ;ind a hnli". 

Q^ What.a'C the perf^ns and c!vi'.a.5>':r3 (^f t^v: .Sc'>ts i 

A. Tbfy are gcncially loin, raw-!).^ned, anil have hi/J: 
cheek-bone*?, which is a chir.idtcrilLcal f-iturc. T.ivV 
very patiendy endatc fari;ue, and .ire vc-'y failhtul to caul: 
other. 

Q^ Wh It arc the cuflonis of Soots ? 

A. A peculiar one is, contributin;^ at the weddings of 
jfcople of inferior rank, and afli Kng the young married 
conple to bepjn the world. Their fnnjnils are decent : 
When an inhabitant dies, the parifh beadle goes round, 
tfid jiroclaims the name of the peifon dcceafed, and the 
time of barlal, and invites his countrymen to cunie and 
alfift at his inte^^ment. In the hfgh-ands the corple is pre- 
ceded by muficians, who, with their bag-p'pes, \Mv dirges 
tlrhich are very folcmn. In the LowlanJs the muhc is not 
lifed at their funerals. 

Q^ What are the divgrfions of th? Scots ? 

A. They are all of the vigorous athletic kind ; fiich a? 
dancing. ^n/f-AuA curling, 'The goff is 1 fpecies of ball- 
playing performed with a bit and a ball, the cxTc:niiy or 
the bat b . in^i; loaded wi.h lead, and.the p.irty whioli \\\ ikes 
the ball witii feweft ftrokcs iato a hole prepare«l for the 
{tarpofe wins th? game. Curling is a ''vinicr recreation 
upon the ice ; the company affejiiblc at a common (Ution, 
from whence tliey heave large flat Itoncs, as heavy as they 
can wield towards a oiark drawn at a certain dillance, and 

whoever comes ncarcft 10 the mark is vi^or. In dancini^ 

« 

they are very dexterous, bat not graceful : they are very 
fond.of nuftc (which is very nne) and of poetry. 

Q^ V/hat is the drds of the Scots ? 

A. In the Highlands thcT drefs is a PAvl and /iZ/jmadc 
fil plaid ov tartan. The women's dreis is a petticoat and 
jirkin, mad? of the fame fluff, with tight llccvcs. In the 
Lowlands they drcfs like the Eng'ifli. 

Qj_ What is the language of the Scots ? 

A It is origin;iliy Celtic ; but the lLn^-^^y.\^ ^^OAJ^- 
goa^c of the I J V \;*.'a nds. 
(^ What are the j^ariifliniems ufci ^ScoOAtk^"*-- 



28 c i: '.:- G R A P H Y 



A. They are iil:c thofc in En^-aoJ. The puniflimcnt- 
of bchcndin^ is pci formed by an infirument called ihe 

Q^ What is the rcligioD of Sc c-and ? 
A. The crtabliilitd religion of :>cotl.ind is Pi'efbytefian 
Calvinifni. ChriiliiariiLy was inirot'.ujed into this country 
very early, and for foiiic tini'^ it \y;'s independent of thi 
l\jpc, initii the t:fth century : it i-iei. became fubjct^t to tlic ■ 
P(/,j'.', iind continued un-ler l;is fupcrintcndencc until the 
tinu* of jNIarj', Qujen of Scotav •.o\.'jiTds-tKc clofe of the. 
llx:ecrith century, whon tho rctorini.tiftn W£« introduced. . 
Q^^ \\:!i:it is the flatc.of litjramrc in Scotland ? 
A. It is in a very flour iiliia^ fl«ite, and has been for a 
lon-i time, Ti.ero l:ave ?ieen very ;^reat improvement*; 
made in Cv.ry branch oi'fcicnce ; and Seot'unJ has prQ»- 
di:ocd n^nic of the Ix'i'l v/rii<'r:s in tlic wc-rld. 

C^ Vviut uiiiveriitieaare tJverc in Scotknd ? , 

A. Tiiere are four ; that of St. A ndrev/g, that of Glafn 
30W, tliat of Aberdeen, and tliat of Edinburgh, 
Q^What cities are there In Scotland ? 
A. The prirxipal are Edinburgh, Leith, Glafgo\v,.andl ; 
Aberdeen. 

Q. Which is tie capital of S:.otland ? 
A. Edinburgh.. 

Q^ Give a dcfcrlp.ion of die capital 1 1 

A. It flands on the Frith of Forth, on the cailern fliorc - 
of the ifland and iii the foirhern psat of the kini^doni. 
The principal ftreet ru'is from eaft to weft ; it is not Itrong- ■ 
ly fortllied ; the houfes are fevcn ftoiies hi^h ; but there 
is vei y little care taken to keep the flrcets 01 houfts clean. 
Tl:e city is well paved, and is fuj)plied. with water brought. 
frcmi the iliftance of four miles in leaJcn pipts. 
(J^ What is the lituaiion of Abcrdc«n ? 
A. It I'es on- ihc fame fliore with Edinbnrnh, butfar- 
tl'.er north. It is the capital of the nortli divifion of ihi- 
tlnidoin, an Edinburgh is of the ii)Uth. 

O. Aic cl.ere any antiquities and cuiioGties in Scot- 

lan^r? 

A. Tl'.crr arc mnryy both natural and artificial. There 
arc ]n different paits of the country, remuins otthc Druid- 
•nil m/litutiovin. Many Rotivau cavw^^s A\e llUl 10 be fx'.i 
In the foixthcin piirts of ihc Cvi\v\\\.v\ \ ;v*o vWv^ \\\^ >9i^^ 
•■ I'iJi ihcy built to fccurc Oawac:/,';^. .v-.vuVX ^^^ ^.'^.'ix-A 



d F E U R O ? E. 29 



InhLibiLints. Among the natural curloli ics are nK?nt.ione«l 
a petrii'y ing cave in -iVberdecnihire, und oyilcr faells which 
arc found on a mountain in Rofslhircy twenty nii.cs iVoni 
the fca. 

Q^ What is the commerce ? 

A. They have a confiderable foreign commerce, and 
are improving it very much. It conli is principally of man- 
afadures ot-ihcir own, and commonly affords a balance in • 
favor of the country. ■ 

Q^ What are tlieir nianufa^fluref; i ' 
iV Linen and cotton goods, thread, wool) en cloths arrcl 
carpets, iron and poitec's ware, ghii's and paper. Thefc 
Bianufa£hires arc dady improviag. . 

Q^ What are tlie laws and government of Scotland ? 
A4 The laws arc much the fame with thofe in England ; 
and the government is U^c fame iiace. the union. 
Q/ Are there anv orders of Knighthood ? 
A.. There is the '" Order of the TiiifUe," inilituted 
by Achaius, and con fills of the fovercign and twelve com- 
panions, called knighis of the thilt'e. 

Q^ How docs Scotland lie, with refpe^^ to the other 
£kiropean countries ? 

A. .It lies S. W. from Norway and Sweden j \V. of 
Denmark and Rulfia \ N. W. of Holland, Netherlands, 
Germany, ijohemia, Hungary, Pruilia, Poland, Turkey, 
Ifculy and Switzerland ; N. of Portugal, Spain, France 
and England, and N. E.. of IreLind. . 

Of. ENGLAND.. 

(^ Wliat are- the fituatioa and extent of England ? 

A. It is fi-tnatcd betw<:ea-5o and ^6 degrees of north . 
latitude, and betv^een 2.deg. ead and 6 deg. and 2c min- 
utes of we(t longitude ;. it is 380 miles long, and 300 
miles broad, jCiintaining 49,450 fquare miles. 

Q^ How is England bounded ? 

A. . It is bounded on the north by Scotland, and on the 
caft by the Gei man Ocean ; on the fouth by iht Englifh 
channel, which feparatc? it from France ; and on tiie we(l 
by St. George's channel, which fcparatesit from Ireland, 

Q^ How is England divided ? 

At^Iato fix circuits, and thefe circuits ate Wo^vN\^t^ 
»to foTty counties. Waies, the welkiti" if3ixx. <it \2>QM>ix^ 



30. • G E a G K A P H Y 



Briutln, and here confid:red as a part of England, is divid- 
ed intJ fjur circuits, and f'ubdivided into twelve counties. 

Q^ What are the air wnd foil ot' England ? 

A. The air near the Ihore is generally foggy, but In the 
inter"or parts of the illani the feiifons arc. more ferene. 
The foil'of England i> natiiraliy fruitful, and has liecn ren 
djred much more fo by ait and cultivation. 

Q^ What is the face of tlie country ? 

-rV. It -s ueitherllat nor mountainous, but beautifully in- 
tcrf|'crft.d v/itli rifing grounds and valeys, \*hich prefcni 
to rhe eye many delightful profpedls. 

Q^ What are the feafons in England.? 

A. They are very unite idy ; fpring fomctimes beg'n-!-- 
n'ng in Feb uary and foniccimes in May. In few coun-- 
tfics in the world are they more variabit*. 

Q^ What is the quality of ihc water ? 

A. Ine water of England is generally vc»-y wholc- 
fcme. There a-c alfo maiiy mineral waters and others, 
much cc'kbrated for healing and rcdorative 4ualitie-. The • 
moil celebrated are uie hct weds of Bath and BrKlol, in, .^ 
oomeifctihire, and of Buxton and Matlock, in Derby-' = 
fliire. The mineral waters of Epfom, Tnnhridge, Har- .1 
rowgate and Scarborough, are alf^ known to moft foreign- 
counir!e3« 

Q. Wh:!.t is tl>e climate of England ? m 

A Nt.it.her very warm nor very coIj, but temperate by 
means o! tlie breezes from the ocean, which furrounds it. 

Q^. Wh t rivers are there in Eiij-land ? 

A. The Thames (on which L'.ir.don is fituated) which, 
runs in an radcrn diredion, em; tics into the ocean at. 
Gravefcnd ; tic Medway, the Severn, and the IVent : 
and feveral others, which furnilh a convenient navigatioa- 
to*nioli of tlie great towns in Ergland. 

Q. Are there any l.tkes in England ? 

A. There are none wortijy of notice. 

Q^ What metallic and mineial produdions aie found 
in England ? 

A. .\ little fdver an.l vail quantities of tin ; tO'.elVer 
with lead, cj: a:riesof mirule. andinexhault:blel>eds o: •:.<;•.], 

Q. V^b : . le t!}e vegc a!)!': jirodudHo .^ of Enjiiand ? 

.-. A;;!iruruve has be*. :. carried to a high ihnt cf j-r- 

fc(f>:'^n ,'jD JKro/and, a-^i? by \\\e gTcaLl\>;v"\w^ v<l\ich have ix.cii 

taken, aiwoR cy^rv vegetable v.'\ud\ gto^^Vii >i[ii Tittv\JaR.\>i 



OF E U R OPE, 31 



dlirj.itcs lias been brought to perfe'5ic-n-, to^^cther with fev- 
eral procu icins ot'wi'.iPicr regions. 

Q^ Whi^t iire the animals of England ?" 

A. The y.nMilh c;itfic are verv rine, iind their horfes 
are fiid to be the bcft in vhe world, boili U,t beuuty and, 
foccd. The En<;lifli facep i'.rc (.f two kiml?, one ytry 
val'-rtbi'-* fwT their iljlii and ihe other for their llccces.. 
'I'hoir wool is not lb line as the opi;niih The En..liih 
multiits iind bull do^^isaio the fierceit and itrongcft of any 
in the world. Bcil-lts theie, Engla:iJ abounds in the 
other ininials, botli wild and tarns:, which aie common to 
mjft other cov.n rics in thi farae latitude.. 

Q^ What hlh are theie i-i England ? 

A. The ii .tS fuiroiinding England are well (locked with 
,}od ar>d m'.io';'rji, haddock, whiting, herrings, pilchaids, 
ikate, fohs, joh:i-do y. and mullet. Their fliell-liih are 
oyflers and lublicis. 

Q^ \V\v<it is the number of inhab-tants in England ? 

A. About feven mil'ioio. 

Q^ What: are thj perfons of thi Engli\h : 

A. The Eng -lii are of a good Iktiire, (h.-pc, and com- 
] lexion ;. the women arc hAnulome and graceful in their 
appearance, beyond tiH>fc of ahnofl: any country. 

(y What are the chara6leii(tlcs,and iuuhner of living ot'. 
the Englilli > 

A. They are 1 '..ferv ed in their mav"ners and profeiTions, 
mild and humane ih their difpoitiont ; and it is obrcrv\-d 
that they of'-eiier peiforni more than tliey promife, thin 
fall ftioit of it. Ti:<i'\r manner of iivi'ig is fnag and inde- 
pendent, above want, i..nd without Iplendor ; but the 
wenlt^y ?re not a ii.Uc addivfted to ilicw and luxury. 

Q. What -lie tiu r Cuniroms and divei lions ? 

A. Ti;e f'ivciT.o'; •■ '»f the Env>lifh, which were formerly ' 
ailiietic and m.mlv, ar-j now laid to be much more of tlie 
eiK'.minaie. c?.(l., and difcov«.r a Ivixurious aiid dilHpated. 
cbaradlcT. Thc'r ncb-Uiy J* •- g'.ctiy are. generally ad- 
dikU'Li to h'jvi'Z r;>cin>;, -.^.iiir ,- ,.amlr>g and cock-fighting. 
A very innic-r tl *-''. •■>,•' t;featly crgrofFcs tiieirtime ; brolh- 
eh ?boi:na ; U'p-ry .prevails, a.id. votes aie bought and. 

Q^ W.: '.L :., -.. En^lifh drefis ?' 

A. Tii- a: f. nfih'j hi^i;i>ti^ ranks ii\ "E.tv^^tiA^OYv^'ax- 
t'eu/di cccafions, is very rich and fj>kn4id.v ^iSi^vici^ o^^x'Kt 



) 



3-2 GEOGRAPHY 



ranks drfjfs proportioniiMy ; but on. other occufiofts thdr' 
drci's is YHi.it ;LiKi bccommjj. 

Q^ Wh;Lt i« the religion of England ? '' 
A.. The eflabliHwd religion of England is Protcftant-- 
ifni, and the government of the church cplfcoixi!. It is " 
m)t certain at whiit time ChrifHanity was iirit taught in ' 
England, Init It was early, and as fome aiTcrt, by the apof- - 
tics themfelves. . A II ChrilHan fedh are tolerated in Eng- • 
land by law, and dire<^ pcrlecution ib baniiked from the • 
Enj>lilh nation.- 

Q^ What is the Iafri»uage of England ? ' 
-rt. . The fame which is fpoken in this country. It is 2 1 
compound of mofl of the other languages fpoken in Eu-- 
rope, and is more energetic, copious and expreflivei than i 
any other living language. 

Q.- What is the date of learning in England ? * 
A. All the arts and fcienccs have been more encoura- 
ged, and cai ried to greater perfei^ion by the EngliOi, than • 
by any nation, ancient or niodeim' 

Q^ How many univerfities are there iri England ? 
A. Two; thofe of Cambridge and Oxford. That at' 
Cambridge confifts of twelve colleges, and feur halls ; * 
that at Oxford of twenty colleges, and five halls ; and both i 
have obtainedthe higheft reputation.. B&lidos tbefe there - 
arc many academies. . 

Q/ Are there any curiofiti^s in England ? 
A. There are mJiny, both natural ard artificial. The." 
artitlcial arc either Britiih, Norman, Saxon, or DaniQi and ! 
Anglo-Normanic. The Stonehenge, in Wiltfliire, a reli- 
gious and Druidical (lru<5ture, is the n)oib remarkable of a- 
ny of the- britiih antiquities. It is a monument compofed 
of iloncs^ raifed within the compafs of a ditch, conhfUng 
oi'two circles and two oval?. The upright fton es arc three 
feet and a half afandtr, and their tops are connected by 
o^rcrthWart iloncs fitted with tenons and mortices.- Some 
c<^ thefe (tones arc of great fize, viz. fix feet broad, tliree 
in thicknefs, and tweut)-one feet in height.. The outer . 
ciicle is one hundred and eighty feet in diameter, the fpace- 
between which and the next circle forms a walk of thiee 
hundred feet in circumference, whofe appearance is awfully 
fubiime. SiiTuJur monamcnts ate found in various parts? 
o^'thc kinodoni. 
(i- Wlmt SLtt the Roman ati\.\^>ivvKt^V 



OF EUROPE: 53- 



A, They are principally the remains of their camps and 
military ways ;, and of the walls built by Agricola and Se- 
verus, in the north of England. 

Q^ What are. the Saxon antiquities ? 

A. They conilll principally of religious edifices andT* 
jjlaces of Ibength. 

Q^ What are the natural curioHties of England ? 

A. Mcdicioal fpriogs of various kinds: the Mother 
Tower in Derby Hiirj, wJu-h is conllantly mouldering away, 
but never diminiihes ; Elden-Hole, which has not been, 
fiithomed 5. Poole's-Holc, and feveral other remarLible 
caverns.. 

Q^ What oth^r artiticial curioCtics are tKereL? 

A. Many works of architcdlure. both ancient and mod* 
ern. The church of St. P;;ul's inXiOndon, which was be- 
^un and linilhed by Sir Cliiillopher Wren in twenty-feveti. 
years, is the greateft woi k ever accompliihed by one man. . 
It is built, of ftone in tlie form of a crofs, and is the largeft 
Protertant church in the worhi, being five hundred feet 
long, and three luindred and forty high. It occupies fix. 
acres of ground; Other refpedlable edifices are London^. 
Weftminllcr, aiid Blackfriar's Bridges ; Wcflminfler Ab- 
l>cy, the church of St. Stephen's Walbrook, Wcftminfter 
Hall, and.- the. monument built in comnK^moration of the 
me which happened in 1666, with many others. 

Q^ What is the capital-city of England ?. 

A. London, (landing on both fides of the river Thames, 
about iixty milts from (he fea ihOre, towards the fouth. 
part of the ifland. It is in 51 degices and 3 1 minutes of 
north latitude, an J on the (i\{\ mcridiiin, as the Englifli. 
geographers reckon longitude.* 

Q^ Give \ concife d€fcri])tion of London ? 

A. London is regularly, built, contuins iibout one mil-r 
lion of inhabitants, and inchiding Wcltminfler and South- 
wark, is -iibout cij^hteen miles in circumfcjronce. There 
are three hundred and five nlace.s dcvoud to rclie'ious wor- 
fhip in London, befides Mcthodill: tabcrnn. :js, and exclu- 
fivc of iwe»ty-onc out-parllhes. TJierc Jirc alfo one hun-- 
drcd alms-houfer^ twenty hc;fp»tals and i'-ifirnvaiies, three- 
ooilcgcs, ten public priforr, r\ftceR ikdi nvurktts, one for. 
Jive cattle, two fui herbs, and t\\ enVj-iViXCv: o>\\vi\%^l*^ ^^lw^s^^-, 






>iOU.. 



34' G E OG R A P H Y* 



coals, hay, &c. fifteen inns of conn, twenty- foven publfc " 
fquarcs, three bndgts,foity-iMDe hdlls, eight public fchools,. 
one h'mdred and ihlrty-one charity fchools, two hnndrcd 
and r^'ven inns, four hundred and forty-f«ven taverns, five 
hundred and fifty-one cOfFee-houfL-s, hve thou(:ind and fev- 
enty-five ale-houfcs, one thoiifand hackney coaches,, four'" 
hundred chairs, fcvfUi thoufand flrcotSj aod one hundred 
and fifty thoufiind dwelling houfe3, "^There are no elegant 
royal p.ilaces in Eiiglandv V/Indfor Callle is the bell. 
(^ What othiir cities of Import'artC€ are tlvere in England : 
A. There are many ; plniculxirly Briltol,in the fouth- 
weil past of the kingdom* containing nlrecn thoufand hou- 
fis, and ni^ty-dve thoufand inhabitants ; York, Exeter, 
•Gloucefter, • Litchfield, -Che fter. Warwick, Coventry,- 
Salifbury, Bath, and many otJiers. Many of thcfe cities • 
are diminifhiflg, whiHl London is increafing. 

Q^ What is the prefcnt fUtc of the Englifh <:ommerce- 
ftnd raanufa«5>urc8 ^■ 

'A. They have a very cAcnfive commerce, and have ' > 
excelled in almofl all kinds of manufaft'jrcs. 

Q^ Arc there any public trading companies in England? . 

A. There are three which are tjenerallv known. The 
P.afc-India Company, the South ika and Hudfon's Bay. 
Com]);inie.'». 

Q^ Wh^it Is tlic govcinmciJt of England ? 

A. A llmiLc:d Monarchy. 

Q; What ail- \h(*. ftatc end amount of the EngUfli reve- 
nues I 

A. Their rc\cnucs nrife from taxes on almoll crcry 
thin^i ufed by the inhabitants, and although their taxes iire 
v^ry uppuliiv;;^ yjt ihc amount nf them is not fufficicntto 
d'.'Iiny the r. itiona! rxpcnfes, and p-\y th*: in^crcft of their 
naii'T.al utbt. The iimoaiit of t-v.-ir revc.ue is alx)ut fif- 
»..'.'n millions ftcilin^^, and of their cyp-in'.lrtv.res aKiut (ix- 
i.*(.n millions p.;,d an i^.alf in tinie of peace. 

O. What II, tiKnillit.iryandnK.rincf^rcngthof Englarifl? 

/\. IScfj'-it.T, the mi!i;i.t, t:»c hmd forces of Enoland, in 
iill thciii do:v«nni»u.?, amount to r.bciit foi*cy thoufand men 
in tln:e of j;eace. TiiC miiiiiiC fhcngth is about five hun- 
dred fiiips of dliaront fr/«.s. 

O. A re there any ordcTs of Kni;^hthood in England ? 

A. 7V;jrc ar^' three ; km^\\is oV \\\t C«w\A:t\ i- ntnhts- 
ofiJ)^' I}u^h, :ind Kni^Uis of vV\ii 'Vnu^O.c. ' W. ^wX- ^ xs^Ci 



D F E U R O P E. 35 

: titles of the Ennllfh nobillly are in the following ordtr ; 
D«.:kes, Marquifes. Earls, Vifcounts, and Lords or Barons. 
,(^ How does England He with refpctSt to the other 
European countries ? 

A. It lies fouth of Scotland, ead nf Ireland, fourh-weft 

of Norway, Sweden, Denmark a'id RnlTia; wtft cfPrulFia, 

Poland, Germany and Holland ; north -vcfr of Hungary, 

Bohemia, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, and Switzerland j 

/north of France and S])ain ; and noith-eaft of Portugal. 

Of wales. 

Q^ What arc the fituation and extent of Wales ? 

A. It is (Ituated between 51 and 54 degrees of north 
latitude, and between 2 degrees 41 minu'-cs and four de- 
grees and ^6 minutes of weft longitude. It is one hundred 
and thirty miles long, and ninety-fix brosid ; and contains 
701 1 fquare miles. - 

Q^ Where does Wales lie ? 

A. On the weft fide of the illand of Great- Britain. 

Q^ What is the language fpoken in Wales ? 

A. It is the ancient Britifti languav^e, and is remarkable 
for its pathetic and defcriptive powers. 

Q^ .'.-low is Wales bounded ? 

A. By the river Dec on the north, by England on the 
-cart, by Briftol chancxil on the fouth, and by St. George-'s 
channel on the weft. 

Q^ What is "the cllmiite of Wale*? ? 

A. It is much lil:e that of England ; but being a more 
•hilly countr)', the air ic rather colder. 

Q^ What is thc'foil and fa:e of the country ? 

A. The face of Wales is mountainous, iind the fv^ll 
.lefs fruitful tlian tjiat of England. 

Q^ What are the principal mountains ? 

A. .Knowdon and Plinlimmon. 

Q^ What arc the produilions of Wales ? 

A. The vegetable production? are like thofe of Eog- 
•land, and the animals differ only in Hze from diofe in Eng- 
land ; thofe of Wales bein^ fmalkr and lefs vahipble. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants is there in WiJes ? 

A. There are about three hundred thoufand. 

Q^ What are the cuftoms and manners of the Welch ? 

A. They are a very jealous people, bM^ e^?vVj Y^csSxt^^ 
.aid yery Cncere in their friendflilps. TV^e^^ -w^ ioxi^ ^ 



tracing back tlieir pedigrees, and are very 'much attnclio<l 
to the manners of their Forefathers. Some of the Welch 
;fentlemen, however, are fond of imiuting the EnoliJk 
:modes of living. 

•Q^ Wlrrtt Is the eftabliihtjd religion of Wales ? 
A. That of the churcli of England ; but thereare ma- 
ny Roman Catholics and IVoteftant Di/Tentcis in Walts. 
Q. What is the prefent flate of literature in Wales ? 
A. Wales formerly produced fome eminent literary 
men, and at prefent many of their clergy are fcientifical 
men ; and it is proved that the Anglo-Saxons derived 
their alphabet from the Welch. 
'Q^ What arc the j»rincipal towns of Wales ? 
A. Beaumaris, which ftands.on the ifland of Anglefea, 
Brecknock, Cardigan, Cacrmarthan and Pembroke, are 
the moft important towns in the principality, dl of which 
have confiderable commerce. 

Q^ Vv^'lixit are the artificial curiofities of Wales '? 
A. Hemains of Roman and Britifli architt<5lure and 
fortifications, together withfome remains -of tlic DruidioU 
flruftures. 

Q^ What are the natural curiofities ? 
A. The mofl: fin^lar one is afpring in Newton, which 
ebbs and flows in a manner contrary to the fca. 
Q. What is the (late of the Welch commeice ? 
A. It h fo intimately conncftcd with England as notto 
rcQuIre n dlftin«5l dcfcription. 

<^ What is the government of Wales ? 
A. Wales is a pri ncipality,and from it is derived the title 
of the Kino's cldefl fon. The Welch particij>atc in the 
Eti^lifli government, and fend members to parliament. 

Of IRELAND and the other contiguous BRIT- 
ISH ISLANDS. 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of Ireland ? 

A. It is*iituated between 51 and 56 degrees of north 
latitude, and 5 and 10 degrees of weft longitude. It is 
280 m'les Inn" from north to fouth, and 160 from eaf^ to 
weft. It contains 27,457 fquare miles. It lies weft from 
Great- Britain. 

Q. How is Ireland divided ? 

A. It is divided Into four ;= reat provinces, viz. Leinfter, 
IMer, Connaught and MunlW. \3 Vftw , in the iiurth, U 



O F E U K O P E, 37 



'Subdivided into nine counties ; Cbnnaught,fouth-weft of it* 
'into ^YC counties ; Leinfter, fouth-eail of Connaught, into 
tNvelve counties ; andMunfter,in the fouth, into fix counties. 
^Q^ What is the climate of Ireland ? 

A. It is much like England, but more moi(^, and the 
Teafons are nmch wetter than in £ngland> 

Q^ What is the -foil of Ireland ? 

A. The foil is very fruitful, and excellent for pafturing, 
ploughiag arid mowing ; but there are many bogs. 

(^ What are the principal rrvers of Ireland ? 

A. The Shannon, the Ban, the Boyne, the LifTey, the 
Barrow, the Nore, and the Suir. 

Q. What bays are there in Ireland ? 

A. There are many in every part of the ifland, and 
'they form exc^Icrit harbors for veflTels of every (ize. 

Q^ Does Ireland contain any- lakes ? 

A. It contains more than mod other countries, and ma- 
•xiy of them abound with fifh. Neagh, one of the brgeft 
«in the ifland, is remarkable for the petrifying quality of it« 
v^aters. 

Q^ Is tti€re any inland navigation in Ireland ? 

A. There are feveral canals in the ifland, and one, whicb 
"joins the rivers Shannon and Liffey at Dublin, is carried 
"through^ bog of twenty- four miles. Its whole length is 
^xty miles, 

C^ What mountains are there in Ireland ? 

A. The principal are the Mourne and Iveah, in the 

'county of Down ^ the Slieu-l>€nard, which has been cal- 

•culated 4t a perpendicular height of one thoufand and fiftyw 

(ix yards. Ireland has many rifing grounds, yet it is nqf 

mountainous. 

Q. What forefh are there in Ireland ? 

A. There arc feveral large forefts in Ireland : yet the 
.people in want of wood for fuel, burn turf. 

Q^ What metals and minerals does Ireland contain i 

A. Silver in fmall quantities, lead, iron, copper, marble» 
-tnd flafte { and coal minic^ are found in Various parts of Ire« 
land. 

Q^ What are tht Vegetable produ&ions of Ireland ? 

A. There is no material difference l^weeo them and 
thtyfc of England. 

€^ What are the anifflal prodm&iotks o( It^^ccAX 



38 CEOGRAPHY 



•mammm 



A. They are Hkcwife (Imilar to thofi: of England. Ij: 
furniihes tiw numbers of cattle, hogs and .(heep. Rabbits 
are more frequent in Ireland than in England. There is 
no ferpent nor venomous animal. 

Q^ How many inhabitants does Icdand contain ? 

A. It is fuppofed Ko contain two mrtlions and an half. 

Q«^ What are the charafteriflics of the Iri(h \ 

A. They are impatient of injuries^ implacable in their 
refentments, .and vehement in all their ane^ions. They 
are of quick ^pprehenfion ; courteous to (Iratigersy and pa- 
tient of fatigue. The higher claflcs» and fome of the lower, 
are well educated, and as rei^ed^abJe as their neighbours in 
the like circumftanccs. 

Q^ What arc the cuftoms and diverfions of tlie IriHi ? 

A. There are a few cuftojns exiiHng in Ireland peculiar 
to this country. Thefe are their funccal bowlings and pre- 
senting their corpfcs in the ftreas to excite tlie charity of 
Grangers, their convivial meetings on Sunday, and dancing 
to bag-pipes, which are ufually attended with quarreling. 
They are attached to the muGc of the bag-pipe, and their 
tunes '.ire plaintive and melancholy. 

jQ^ In what manner do the people of Ireland live ? 

A. The people in the commercial towns live in a niaa« 
ner (imilar to what is found in the neighbouring countries ( 
but the inhabitants in the interior parts of the country live 
in a wretched Aate of poverty. Their huts are mu^ like 
the Indian wigwams, and one of the principal differences in 
their modes of living is, that the Indian is free, but the 
Irifhman is a /lave to his landlord. 

Q^ What is the religion of Ireland ? 

A. The cdabliflied religion is the fame as in England ; 
but far the greatefl ptrt of the Irifh are Roman Catholics. 
There nre alfo oiher feds in Ireland* 

1^. How many Arch-Biihoprics and Bishoprics are 
there in Ireland ? 

A. There are four Arch- BiAioprics and eighteen Bifli» 
oprics. 

Q^ What is the language of Ireland \ 

A. It is a diale<5l of the Celtic, being the fanie which was 
fpoken formerly in botli England and Scotland ; and cveo 
rtoWf the Welch, Scotch-HigViUridttS) ^kcvdi \\\fti^ can uo* 
dcrflstnd each other very eafily* 
Qz ^^^SLt is the ft ate of Vaw^Liut^ '\u liAwv^ \ 



OF E U R O P E. 39 

A. liearning fl'oari(Hed very' early in Ireland, and lately 
!C has produced fci^ral' eminent fcholars; 

Q^ How many uni^erfities are there in Ireland ?' 

A. There is but one, which ir called Trinity CoUegCi 

Q. What natural* curtofitter are to- be met with in Ire* 
Jknd.. 

A. The greateff natural' curibfity is the Giant's C^ufe- 
wayi a furpriiing colled^ion of< natural ftone pillars clofely 
imitcdv in the county of Antrim^ near Colerain- It extends 
vato the Tea farther than has ever been difcoveredi and it is 
Ibppofed that it runs acrofs to Scotland* 

Q*- What b the capital of Ireland I 

Av Dublin; 

Ql^ What \s the fituatibn of Dublin ? 

A. It is fituated in 53 degrees and 21 minutes north 
fttitude; and 6 degreer 1 minute weA longitude. It (lands 
im a bay of the fame name on th^ eaft part of the ifland, in 
ttie circuit of Leiuiter. It is the fbcond city in the Britifh 
dbminionSi containing 22O1CXPO inhabitants.- It is built 
AQch^ after th^ manner of London,- having its old flreets 
itarrow and inconvenient, but its new ones are broad, and 
tHe ttoufes in them regular and handfome.- It contains 
manj handlbnie public buildings; The barracks, in which 
the city guards are lodged^ are hrge enough to contain three 
choufand horfb and one thoufand foot. It alfo contains a 
Jkrge hall, a depofit for linens which are brought to market, 
and feveral handfome walks for the recreation of the citi- 
2iens.- There are in Dublin* 18 pari(h churches, 8 chapels, 
3: churches- for French^ and one for Dutch proteilanis, 7 
Pi-eft) yterian meeting-houfesj one for Methodifts, 2 for Qua- 
kers, and 16 for Homan Catholics; There are two theatres, 
one royal hofpital,one foundling hofpital, a bofpital for luna- 
tic^^ and' a magnificent parliament houfe. The government 
of Dublin i^like thar of London, veiled in a lord mayor, &c. 

Q^ What other large towns are there in Ireland ?• 

A. Cork, the f^cond'city in Ireland, (lands fouth-wed 
ffom DbbVm, and contains eight thoufand and five hundred 
houfcs; Befides thefe, Kinfale, Waterford, Limerick, Bei- 
fa(l, Downpatrick)Carrickfergus,and Londonderry, are the 
moft refpe^lable in Ireland, both for commerce and popuU- 
tion. 
C2i Wbdt is the ftate of commtTc^Au'lxAwAi^ 



4^ CEOGRAFHY 

A. The exports confift of lineiQ clpth.and thrcadi cattlt». 
beef, pork, butter and herrings,. 

Q. What is the government of Irelsgid ?: 

A^ The government of Ireland is the fam^. as in Eng* 
land. The Irifh have a parliament of their own, and thir. 
Lord-Lieutenant, who is. a yic€;iroy. fronts England, pre*. 
Iide> in the place of a Kipg. 

CV^ What, is the yeaily amount of the IrlfK. revenues i 

A*. About half a million flerling. 

Q^ What is the military ^fbrengtb of Ireland ? 

A. There is a confiderable body of land forcics kept ia> 
cunilant. pay in Ireland, bfefides^^^oluntary aiTociations. 

Q^ What orders of Knighthood are there in Ireland ? 

A,. There is but one :. the otdeoof St. Pattick> the tu-. 
tjclar faint of Ii eland. 

Q^ Whut other iflands are there belonging to the BLing^ 
of Gi cat- Britain ? * 

A. The Ifles of Man and Wjght, Anglcfea, the Scilly.. 
IQes, Jerfcy, Guerofcy, Aldcrney and Svk,all lying roundj . 
about £ln^Und. 

Q. Give a general dtfcription o/thefe Ifles?. 

A. The Ifle ot Man lies between England and Irelar.d. 
It contains fcvcnicen parifhes, and four towns on the fca 
coaft. Caftic town is tiie capital. Ti)e religion is the 
lame as in England. It is a Bilhopric, and the bi(hcp has 
all the piiv>legts of an Englidi bifhop, only he does sot fit. 
in parliament. The language is the fame as in Ireland. 
The produ«5liQps of "this illand are much like thufe iix Irc- 

Q^. What do y.ou fay of the IQc of Wight ? 

ii. It lies oppolite the coaft of Hanipfhirc. It is about ■ 
:..i.nty miks in length from call to weft,.and about thirteen 
lu bi^adJi Irom north to fouth. It is very fruitful, thou|^h 
TLt cK:uate is very various. It is divided into thirty-eight 
|.aiithcs, cor.tairiing in all about eighteen thoufand inhabit- 
ants. Newpuit is the curj^tal town of the in4nd. 

Q^ What arc the Scilly iflands ? 

A. They arc a clufter of rocks ( 140 In number) King 
about thitty miles £rom land* Some of them have good 
haibors, and are well inhabited. 

(^ What do you fay o£ lUc '\JVarvd o^. 'itx^viN; \ 
A. It lies in the EngVifti C\\AV\t\M\ r.Loj \.o^\^^^. \v. 
.'i very healthy and fruitful, a:\d \va^ \ot\^\i•i^'^ UTs\^M\Sa\ 



OFEUROPE. << 

« 

it^ cxceilent cyder. It is about twelve miles long, and is 
divided into twelve paridies, containing about twenty thou- 
fatid inhabitants. The principal town is Hilary, contaiotDg 
400 houfes, and is the reGdence of a governor. 

<^ What do you -fiy of Guernfey, Alderncy and Sark ^ 

A. Guernfey is about thirteen miles long, and twelve 
broad ; and has ten p^rifhes. • It is notfo fruitful as Jer- 
fey, nor fo populous.- 

Alderney is eight mrle« in circumference, and is neareft 
to the coail of France.- The inhabitants all fpcalc French. 

Sark is a fmall ifland depeodent on Guernfey, comaining . 
about three huodred inhabiiants.* The whole number of 
inhabitants on all the three J<^fl mentioned iflands is about 
t\Venty thoufand.^* 

Q^.How does Ireland lie\vlth re^efl to the other coun- - 
tncs of liufope ? 
, Aw It lies fouth-wcft of Scotland, Norway, Sweden,, 
Denmark and Ruflia ; well of England, Holland, Ger- 
niany, Pruffia and Poland ; north-we(t of France, Switzer- 
Wnd, Bohemia, Hungary, Italy and Turkey ; and north of 
Sp»in and Portugal. 

Of FRANCE. 

CQ, What is the fituation and extent of France ? 
• , A*- It is fituated between 4^ and 51 degrees of north, 
latitude, and between 5 degrees weft and 8 degrees of eait- 
^<ingitude. It is fi!s hundred miles long, and five hundred • 
Woad. 

(^ How is France bounded ? 

Ar^ It is bounded by the Englilh Channel and the Neth- 
^rtands on the north ; by Germany, Switzerland and Italy 
^^ the eaft ; by the- Mediterranean, and the Pyrennian* 
fountains, fouth ; and by the Bay of Bifcay, weft. 

(^ How is France divided ? 

^ A;- Into twenty-one provinces former!^, and lately into 
^*ghty-three de^partments^ 
... Q^ F-rom what is the name of France derived ? 

A, It is derived from a German word fignifying^« men, 

(^ What is the climate of France ? • 

A. lo general tlie climate of France is very mild and' 
liullhy, 

D a 






4i8 G E O G H A P H Y 

Q^ What is the foil of France ? 

/v. It b excellenty and produces alinoS etery ficccflary 
and luxury of life, 

Q^ What is the quality of the waters in France ? 

A. Befide many mineral waters, th^ waters of this cotin« 
try are excellent fx>r all the common ufes of iife# 

Q^ What are the principal moantains in France ? 

A. The Pyrenees in the fouth ; the Alp»in<he eaft 
Jura, between France ami Switzerland i- Autergne, in the- 
province of that name, and the CevenneS) in Languedoc. 

Q^ What are the principal rivers of France I 

A. Thit IrfOire, which runs north-weft about fire huth^ 
dred miles, and empties into the A^bntic oceaa ; the 
Kiione, which runs a foutli-weft and iRnith courfe^ and fidii- 
into the Mediterranean ; the Seine, which runs north-weft, 
and difcharges itfelf into the Englifh Channel at Havre-de- 
Grace. Befide thefe, there are al(b the Soane, tlie Rhioe^ 
the Somme, the Var, the Adour^'tbe Chatente and the-* 
Garonne, all of which are large and navigable riversr 

Q^ Is there any inland navigation in France ^ 

A. Perhaps no country in Europe can furnifh betear^ 
The canal of Langued.oc is carried through mountains and 
over hills and valleys for the diftance of loo miles, betweenp 
the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. That of 
Calais is of great advantage to the country, as is likewife' 
that of Orleans, and various others. 

Q^ What lakes are there in France ? 

A. There are but few. On« on the top of an bill is 
Alegre is faid to be unfathomable : there i> one in Au- 
vcrgne ; and one in La Beffc, into which if you drop a ftone 
it caufcs a noife like thunder. 

Q^ What mineral waters are there in France ? 

A. The principal are thofe of Bagners, Bareges, and 
Bagucus, which are near to the Pyrenees ; Sultzbach id 
A'lface, Forges in Normandy, and Aigne in Auvcrgne. 
At Auvergne is a fpring which makes a noife like Wiiter 
thrown on unflacked lime, and is fo poifonous that nothing 
lives after drinking of the water. 

Q^'What metals and minerals arc there in France ? 

A. Ther-c are gold and filver mines in Langucdoc ; and 
jb other parts of the country iheve we manY mines of cop- 
per, tin, iron, Jead, and coal. Yiee ^ov\t^i\^ icvwVSs."^ 
^Dd alio in nioft p.irts of France, '\:Vi^x^\^ ^^^w^ ^ 



O F EUROPE. 



43 



mine of oktti and at LaTardaa is a mine of chaik.r Tur* 
^uoifes are found in LaiigULdoc. 

Q^ What are the vegetable pioo'u.';ions of France / 
A. France produces almort aii i- i:.'d:: '^f vegetabJes, espe- 
cially faUads io great plenty^ It j»ioJuc«,s cxcelknt wines ; 
almo^ ail kinds of timbery and fruits of <rvtiy kind. 
Q^ What arc the animal productions or Fiance ^ 
A^ They are finftilar to thofe of England ;• only that 
they are not in general fo gocd^ non having fo much pains 
taken to render them e.Kcellent« Their fait and frefh wa- 
' ter fi(h are the fame as in England^ There is one land ani- 
mal which is not to be found in England, which is the wolf; 
and the ohamois goat is greatly preferable to thofe in Eng- 
-kind. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants are there in France ? 
A. It is faid to contain about twenty-five millions. 
Q2_ What are the cbaraderilHcs of the French ^ 
A. They are generally inferior to the Englifh in (lature, 
complexion and beauty i their difpofition is gay and lively, 
and diilinguifted by quicknefs and violence of pailxon. 
They are very fond of drefs and gallantry, and arc inferior 
to no nation in courage or a^ivity : arc polite and complai- 
fant to Grangers. Their ladies, fenfible and handfomc, are 
fingutarly eafy in their behaviour, and diihnguifhed by wit 
and fpiightlinefs* 

C^ What are the diverCons of the French ? 
A. They confid of dancing, hunting, fencing and riding, 
in whidi they excel all their neighbours in ikill and gracc- 
iulnefs* 
- Q^ What is the drefs of the French ? 

A. It was formerly very various, changing almoftas of- 
Icb as the moon^ No objeft more wholly engrolfed the 
thoughts of the French than fdihions and ceremony. But 
fince the revolution, they are as remarkable for plniiinefs, as 
before for tinfeh 

Q^ What is the eftablifhed religion in France ? 
A. The Roman Catholic religion was tor a long time 
fhe e(tabhihed religion in that kingdom, and the French 
King^ were io conltant in it, that the pope conferred on 
theavtbe title of _** Moft Chriilian," and ftylcd ihi^ xtx'^vtv^ 
Kooarch the " EJdcft Son of the CJhurcb,'* ^vwct \>\vi t^\- 
tduiion uJJ denominations arc, in a fenfc^ tfA^T^X.^^. *W^* 
ftoftAto wof/hij) God under the tilk^i oi xY\^ ^u^x^t^^"^ 



44 G E O G R- A' P-'ir Y^' 



tngy'andpay a kind of public homage ta certain viVtiiei»y'puty'' 
lie opinion, liberty, equality, &c. 

Q1_ How many Arch-lS^^lioprics and Bifhoprici aire 
there in France ? 

A. Before the revolution there were 1 7 Arch-Biftwp- 
rics, and 1 1 3 Biihoprics ; but Gnce that time, thofc, with ' 
all other ecclefiaiiics, have been done away. There were 
before that time 770 abbey3 for 'men, 9J 7^for women, and 
250 conimanderies of the ordeH* of M«rtta, containing in all ' 
about 200,000 tccleiiafiius, who arc no>v difperfed. 

(^ What is the language of France ? 

A. It is radically Latin, and mixed with many German ^ 
wonis. It is one of the moll univerfal of the living Ian*" 
guugcs, and ib calculated rather to exprcfs familiar fenti«' 
inenis ilun fubliilie ones, 

O^ What is the (late of learning in France ? ' 

A. The despotic nature of the old government of France •' 
tended very r.iuch to fupprei's genius, but France has, not- 
withllanding, produced many eminent fcholars. Though ' 
the arts, fciences and niaDufa<5lure8,in general, have not been ' 
cairicd to fo great perfc^Elion as in Kngland, yet in fome 
ihey have exctJied even the KngUih, particularly in fortifi* * 
cations and the (ilk manufa«5lures ; and in many others they.- 
are but liti!c behind them. - In general, however, the pea- 
fantiy of Fiance are very ignorant. France has produced 
fomc excellent paintCFS, and in architefbure and {hip build- - 
ing they aie not outdone by any nation in Europe. 

O. Are there any univt rfiti'-s in France ? 

A. There are twonty-.^ight. There art likewife iii Paris 
eight academies ;• three liicrsry ones ; the French acad^ 
ciny ; the acadtmy of irifcriptions ; tliat of the fcicn- • 
CCS : one of painting and fculptuie ; one of archite^urei 
and three for riding the G:cav llo-.fe and other military- 
as^hicveme'.its. 

Q. What antiquities are there in France ? 

A. There are iiliinyremaining.monunients of the Rbmaa • 
grandeur, particulaily the triumphal arches cre^cd by their' 
generals in the time of the Roman republic, fume of whicfh* 
art alniod tniire. There are alfo remains of the Celts dill • 
ru be fccn in fome parts of France. Amphitheatres and- 
bri(Ij,es whith were creftcd b^ l\k^ ^Qm^^%^\^\^\2ft.TDC)i: 
Mr/'r/j itil oyer tb< country. 



^ F F ir R O P E. 4S 



Q^ What natural and artificitl'ouriorsties are therein. 
Trance ? 

A. The natural curioflties are, Dfft', a fdiintain near Gren* 
oble, which emit»a flame which will burn paper, iUawy Sio. 
but will not bum gun powder. Within about eight- leagues 
ot'the fame place is an inacccflibk: mountain in The form of 
a pyramid. re verfedi AtiTremoular is a rivulet laid to be 
inll^mmable. 

Q^ What other artificiaPcuriofities are there in France ? 

A. Bcftde the canals and l>rtdges already nientionedy 
there are, among others^ the following : at AiJej is an obe^ 
Hfk of oriental granite fifty-two feet high, andlcvcn teet in 
dlMncic*- at the bafe, and all of one entiie (lone. A p^f* 
luge cut through the middle of a rock in D^uphiny, fuppc**'- 
ed to be done by the Romans* In- 1 665 there was found in 
the l^lione a round buckler of (ilver, twenty inches in di- 
ameter, and weighing twenty-one pounds, on which is en- 
graved the ftory of Scipio's continence. Near Foi^iicrs is 
a ilon^ of a very large (ize, fupported by four pillars, but it. 
is not known for what it was eredled. 

Q^ Whdt is the cajutal city of France ?• 

A. Paris, which is firuated-on the river Seine, upwards: 
ct one hundred miles from the fea. It (lands in 48 degrees 
^nd 57 minute? ofrwrth latitude, and 25 minutes ea(t lon- 
gitii"!t , about iv.o hundred miles fouth eali from London. 
Ti is fiiuatcd on both fides of the Sein?,. Ijs fbeets are 
narrow, net p;»vc<l at the fides, and rather dirty, 'i'he. 
houfts in ti>e principal Ihects arc built ol Itcne, ard many, 
of them feven llories hi^h. It is fitucn miles in ciicuniier- 
cnce, containing many fupeib palaces, and about 700,000 
inhabitans. I'hc j^olice or government of the city uled *.o 
be execllent. The marliets are vtiy good, and pruvificns 
"very clKap^ The countiy feats around Pdriti arc elegant, 
and aftord a beautiful profpedl. 

Q^ What other, import^int citic? are there in France ? 

A. Liflc, in French Flanders, is a hanclomc city, and is 
'the moft jcgular and (trongly fortified city in liurope. Be- 
Ardt thefe, there are many popujous and fortilivd towns in 
France. "1 he mo(l important ports in the country are, 
Hiivrcde- Grace, on the north ; Br#;ll, Nantes, L*Orient 
ryid BourdcjiUX, on the Wtft •, MdTk^VW^ A-Vv^i ^?i^ii^<^^^^^>'^'^ 



4(? GEOGRAPHY' 

Q^ Wliat isihe Aare o( the commerce and macufadbres** 
of France at the prcfent time ? 

A.. The trade of France, both iforeign and dbmeflic, is 
very valUabJc. The commerce of this country is extcQded' 
•all over the world, and id in a flourifhing.ftat^.. Their man-- 
ufadl urea con fid of filks of allkindS) woollens^ lawnfs cam- 
bricks, embroidery, filver ihiffs, and almoft every other kind 
of commodity,, ufcful or ornamental.. 

Q^ What ia the conftitution and government of France T 

A.. UntiJthe late revolution it was anabfblute monarchy,, 
but at prefeot the goverament is republican. Monarcbjy. 
together with all the orders^ of nobility, are abolifhed, and 
liberty and equality are profcfledly. eftaUifliedon the roios^ 
of defpotifm and ariftocracy.* 

Q. How is France fituated as it re(pe^ the other couii*- 
tries m Europe ? 

A.. It lies north and' north eaft of Spain and PortOgal,- 
fouth and fouth-v:<i{l of Enpjand^ Ireland, Scotl:ind and ibe 
United Netherlands ; louth we/V of Germany, Conitmia». 
Hungary, Frufiia,. Poland j. Dermaik, Sweden, Norway 
and Ru^ia ^ well from SwitzciLtnd, Italy and Turkey.- 

Of the NliTIlLRLANDS. 

(^ What part oF Europe is generally known bj the 
name of Netherlands ? 

A. Thofc provinces which He on the fhore of the cooti*- 
ncnt dirt:<nly eu'l of England. 

(^ How many arc there of thcfe provinces ?• 

A. o'jventecn. 

Q; l>o thofc fcventcen provinces all belong tO one gOT-- 
criimci.t ? 

A. 'i'hcy do not. The feven norihern ones form oftc 
g'lVcrrmtriT, and arc ufually called the United Nether UzkIs>j 
aiiU fotticriitics Holland. 

* 'I'ht <;ovcrnincntt of France, Hulland, Vtmce, Genoa, Switccr-- 
Und suid Rome, or the Pupal Donniilon, as vrcll ai the othrr Italian' 
5tut<-s, Juvlii^ uU betn rcvoluiloniscd, and cnminuing ftUl in »rciM>* 
lu'Unirjf ftatj, I ha^e thought it bed to continue the defcription of 
th:ni :l^ thf*y nt prcfent (laud in the Geography; and for (hir rca-' 
kn — A rhfv j,v: yet unfittlcdj it is very uncertain' what will be 
/>'/.' fnrnin i 'I frovci nmKtii rrfpcdiTtly the next month or the next 
• '/. " (»itli:i^nninfr it may have a p3Ltv\c\A^T Aevf*tv\\tv«xw^\W».- 

' ' ". 1 .' -ccmic Ic^iUd in the iwta^ i\mc, v\vv* »\v.\v^ti^^^flt^ 



OT i: XJ U O P E. 47 



'X^ 'What is the lituation, extent and boundaries of the 
XJnited Netherlands ? 

A. They are fituated between 5 1 and 54 degrees of 
north latitude, and between 2 and 7 degrees of eafl longi- 
tude. They are about one hundred and fifty miles fqyare, 
and are bounded by ;the GferftiJin fea on the north, by Ger- 
many eaft ; by the Auftrian >ktherlands fouth, and by the 
Britifh ocean wed. 

Q^ What is the air of Holland ? 

A. During the fummer it is foggy and grofs, but In au* 
tumn it is puriiied by the eafl wind. 

Q^ What is the face of the country ? 

A. It is low and marfliy^' (b low, that thefe provinces 
have been emphatically called the Low Countries or Ncth- 
^lands. It is drained by a vaft number of canals, and de- 
fended againfl inundations from the Tea by innumerable 
dykes. It is adapted principally to commerce. 

(^ Wliat are the rivers of Holland .? 

A. The Rhine, the Maefe, the Scheldt and the Vecht. 

Qj^ What are the vegetable .produ<Slions of Holland ? 

A. When the laud is fufHciently drained, it yields hay 
^d paflure ; and feveral other vegetable produtSlions. 

(^ What are the animal produfiions ? 

A. Neat cattle and (heep, and horfes which are Ycry 
«fge and fcryiceable. There are a few bears and wolves 
JO Holland. The fifh iu the rivers are much like thofe in 
England, but the fea €fli are larger. They have a plenty 
ofoyf^ers lodged about the Texel. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants are there in Holland ? 

A. Holland contains about tworaillioqfiofinhabitants,be<* 
ing more thickly inhabited than any other4>art of the world, 
"olland contains i C3 cities and towns, and 1400 villages. 

Q^ What is thq charader of the Dutch ? 

A. The Dutch are generally cold and phlegmatic in their 
"''fpcfitions ; perpetually putfuing their inter eft, very in duf- 
triour, and in many inftances unibciui)!e. Smoking tobac- 
^ « a Ciiftom which prevails throughout every clafs among 
^"£01, and they make a very free ufe of ^irituous liquors. 

Q^ What is the drefs of the Dutch ? 

A. It is rather clumfy and ungracefu}, |NUticularly a- 
*teg the lower clafs of both fexes. 

Q« What is the religion of Holland I 



jfi GEOGRAPHY 



A. All perfons are allowed to worfhip according to ^e 
didlates of their own confciences. 

Q^ What is the -language of Holland ? 

A. It is Low Dutch, Xcirg a copruptcd dialc{l of the 
German. ■ / 

•Qj_ What is the ftate of learning in Holland ? y 

A. There .is conGderable encouragement given to learn- 
ing in Holland, and it has produced fomc of the greateft 
phyficians and divines. Jn other (ciences the Dutch have 
madeJefe proiicienoy. 

Qj_ What curioflties are there in Holland '? 

A. The dykes which defend the country againft thefea 
arc a very great curiofity. A ftone quarry which is wrought 
into a fubterranean palace, the roof being fupported on pil- 
lars twenty feet high. The Stadthouie of Amfterdam is 
the iindl building of that kind in the world. It (lands on 
thirteen thoufand (ix hundred and lifty-nine large piles. ' 

Q^ What is the capital city of Holland i 

A. AmRcrdam, dtuated in 52 degrees and 22 minutes 
north latitude, and 4 degrees 4^ minutes eafl longitude. 

Q^ Give a defcription of Amderdam ? 

A. Ainfterdam is built wholly on piles driven into the 
ground ; it is fuppofed to be the fccond commercial city in 
the world, ao<l contains two hundred and forty-one thou« 
fand inhabitants, and many handfonie jmbUc buildings. 
There are many canals running through Amfterdam, on the. 
(jdcs of which are handfome walks pJaiUed with trees. The 
houfcs are remarkably dca-n and neat within. The inhab- 
itants are obliged to ufe rain water, which they catch in re- 
fervoir cifterns, as they cannot have wells •of frefti water. 

(^ What othv confiderable cities -are there In Holland ? 

A- Rotterdanv, Utrecht and Lcyden. The Hague, 
which is the feat of government, is called a village^ but 
cofitains 40»ooo inhabitants 

CJ^ How many univerdties arc there in Holland ? 

A. Five ; one at Leyden, one at Utrecht, one at Cro* 
nin^en, one at Harderwiche, and one at Franckcr. 
: Q^ What is the (late of the Dutch commerce ? 

A. It is very Hourifhing, and extenfive as the world, for 
they trade with all the nations of the earth. They carry 
on fuccefsfulW every kind of manufadure, and their induw 
try is dimoil beyond concepiiou. 



•0 F E U R O P E. 49 

^Q^ Are there any public companies in Holland ? 

A. There are two ; the Eaft- India company, which lias 
heretofore been very profperous, and the bank, which is 
thought to be almou inexhauflibly rich. 

qT^ What is the government of Holland :' 

A. It is republican, like that of France. 

Q. What is the amount of the revenues of Holland : 

Af About two millions and an half ftcrling. 

Q. What is the military and marine flrength of Hol- 
landT 

A. In time of peace their land forces are about forty 
thoufand. They have had a Formidable navy, but for fome 
years paft appear to have neglected it. 

Q^ Are* there any orders of Knighthood ? 

A. There is the Teutonic order, which is divided into 
two claiTesf ; one for protefiants, and the other for papifts. 
2t is one of the mofl ancient and powerful orders in Europe. 

Q^ How does Holland lie with refpeft to the other Eu» 
vopean countries? 

A. It lies north of France and the NethcrUnds ; north- 
eafi of Spain and Portugal ; eail of England and Ireland ; 
fouth-eaft of Scotland ; fouth of Denmark and Norway $ 
fouth-weft of Sweden, Rftflia and Pruffia ; weft of Germa- 
ny and Poland ; and north-weft of Hungary, Bohemia, It- 
aly, Turkey, and Switzerland. 

Of thf Austrian and French NETHERLANDS. 

■Q^ What is the (jtuation and extent of this country ? 

A. It is fituated between 49 and 52 degrees of north 
latitude, and between 2 and 7 eaft longitude. It is two 
hundred miles. long, and as nifiny broad » 

Q. How is this country bounc*ed ? 

A. By the Low Countries on the north ; by Germany 
on the eaft $ by France on the fouth > and by the Englifh 
lea on the weft. 

Q^ To what Jwwers do thcfe provinces belong ? 

A. They did belong to the Auftrians, French and Dutch, 
but the Auftrian power is dirainifhed by the late revolution. 

Q^ What part belonged to each of thefe powers ? 

A. Brabant, Limburg and Luxemburg did belong to the 
butch and Auftrians ; Antwerp, Malines and Namur trcre. 
fiifajea to Auftria; Cambrifis tnd Att^w \>«\ot^ Vi n^c^^ 

£ 



50 GEOGRAPHY 



French ; Hainault to the Auftiians and French» and Flan- 
ders to the Dutch, Auftnans and French. The French have 
lately taken moil of the Dutch and Auilrian Netherlands. 

Qj^What other territory is there included in thisLcountry? 

A. There Is the upper GuelderJand, which belongs to 
the Auftrians, Dutch and PruiHans. ThI Lower Guelder- 
land belongs wholly to Holland. 

Q^ What is the air of the Auftrian Netherlands ? 

A. It is very healthy and pleaiant in the interior part of 
the country ; but near the Tea it is lefs fo, though not un- 
healthy. 

Q^ What is the foil and face of the country ? 

A. The foil is by nature very produdlive of almofl all the 
kinds of vegetables common in the temperate zone. The 
face of the country is very flat, having no mountains, but is 
interfperfed with a variety of pleafant rifing grounds and 
▼alleys. 

Q. What rivers are there in tliis country ? 

A. The Scheldt, the Maefe, and the Lis, arc the moft 
confiderable. . Befide thefe there are feveral fmaller rivers 
which intcriperfe the country, and afiPdrd water carriage to 
almoft every part of it. 

Q^ Are there any canals in this country ? 

A. There are three principal ones : Thofc of Bruflelsf 
Ghent and Oftend. 

Q^ Are there any mines in this country ? 

A. There are mines of iron, lead, copper, brimftonC} and 
coal. 

Q^ W^hat number of inhabitants does this country con- 
tain ? ^ ^ 

A. Atout two millions. ^ 

Q^ What are the chara^eriftics of thefe inhabitants ? 

A. The inhabitants who are called Flemings being con- 
ne^cd with the French, the Dutch and the Germans, have 
united in themfclves, as a people, the charadleriftics of all 
the three nations. They are induflrious and fond of reli- 
gious (hows and pageantry. 

Q. Wliat is the language of the Flemings ? 

A. The French language is fpokco in fome of the pror- 
inccsy and the Dutch in others* 

Q^ What is their drefs ? 

A. Thej Jikewifc ufc the Foocb and Dutch modet ia 
tAdr dreA. 



OFEUROPE. 55 

Q^ What is the religion of Flan Jers ? 

A. The eftablilhcd religioa was Roman Catholic, but 
Proteftants were tolerated. 

Q^ Had they any Arch-Bilhoprics and Bifhoprics ? 

A. There were three Arch- Bifhoprics ; thofe of Can»- 
brav, Malines, and Mecklin. There are nine Bifhoprics. 

Q. What is the ftate of learning in Flanders ? 

A. The Flemings formerly made confidcrable advances^ 
in fcience and fine arts, but at prefent they make no conild* 
•rable figure. 

Q^ What imirerfities are there in Flanders ? 

A. There are four, viz. Louvain, Douay, Tournay, and 
St. Omers. 

Q^ What anttquities are there in Flanders i 

A. There are but few, and thofe are principally reroaia- 
iDg works of the ancient Ronuns. 

Q^ What cities are there in Flanders ? 

A.- There were formerly many flourifhing cities in this 
country, but they are much reduced in their wealth and 
tommerce. Bruflels is the capital. It i« fxtvated in 50 
degrees and 5 1 minutes north latitude, and 4 degrees and 
26 minutes eafl longitude. It is a populous azhi llvejy city ^ 
has a confiderable number of maauhidlories, and is the refi- 
dence of the governor. 

Q^ What is the commerce of this country ? 

A. It confifls principally in linens and laces, in the man- 
ufadure of which they excel all other countries, particularly 
their cambrics, which derive their name from the city Canv- 
bray^ the principal manufadory of them. 

Q^ What is the government of this country ? 

A. As it was fubje^ to three powers, it partook tbf the 
government of the countries to which it belonged. It h 
fiow republican:. 

Q^ Wbat is the amount of their revenues ? 

A. The revenues of that part belonging to Auflria are 
thought not to defray the expenfes of the government, but 
France and Holland reap confiderable profit from their 
tcTTitory, / 

Q-_ What is the military and marine ftrength of thi? 
country ? 

A. Formerly there ufed to be kept iti t\ve ^^riv^ovv^ <i>^ 

the Aa/him Nethcrhnds about 4.0,000 Co\A\«s V^ vvkvr: < 

/eacr, audio v^r lo^ooo more ; bm*&t\cp- \V- d^amc^^^^ 



5x GEOGRAPHY 



of thofe garrLfons, the number is u:icertain. Their marine 
(Irength is not mentioned, and coofequcntly cannot be great. 

Q^ How do the Auilrian Netherlands lie relative to the 
©tlier i-uropean countries ? 

A. ' They lie N. of France ; N. E. of Spain and Portu- 
gal ; S. £. of England, Ireland and Scotland ; S*. of Den- 
mark and Norway ; S. W. of Sweden, Ruffia, Pruftia and 
Poland ; W. of Germany, and N^ W. of Hungary, BohG« 

niia, Turkey, Italy and Switzerland. 

w _ 

Or GERMANY. 

Q^ Wliat is the utuation and extent of Germany ? 

A. It is fituatcd between 45 and ^^ degrees of north lat- 
itude, and between 5 and ir; degrees of eaft longiiude. U 
is 6co miles long and 52Q broad. 

Q^ How is Germany bounded \ 

A. It is bounded by the German Ocean, Denmarkj and 
the Baltic, on the north ; by Poland and Hungary on the 
eafl ; by Switzerland and the Alps on the foudi ; and by 
France and the Netherlands on the weft, 

Q^ What are the consents of Germany in fquare miles ? 

A. It contains 190,000 fquare nsilcs. 

C^ How is Giirniany divided ? 

A. Into n'ne ^;rcat divilions calitd Circles ; which are 
r-ibuiviJcd into nearly three hundred ioparatc governmenrs, 
m which t!ie governurs arc more dcTpotic in their condud> 
than more powerful fovereigns \ tuL they are ail \u fome 
dt't»rce fuhjc^ to the Emperor of Gernii.ny. 

Q^. V/hat are the names and Gtuailons o»'the great CIr» 
vi'.s uj' Germany ? 

A. In the i.orth are WcOphiilia, Lower Saxony, Upi»cr 
i'jixony ; in the middle, Lower Rhine, Upper Rhine, and 
Fr.mconia ; and in the foutli, Swabia, Bavaiia aud Auitria. 

C^ What is the c!ini«te of Germany ? 

A. It varies according to the part of the country. In the 
nurih it is fevcre ; in the middle ic is not fo cold as at the 
norih p.tit, but more uniform, and in the fouth, at fiyne 
i;i ll.tn cc fiom tlie Alps it is qui:c mild. The climate varies 
-ifo according to tlie improvement of the fjil. 

(^. Wh'Ai is zhv f.A\ of Gcrmat\^ ? 
-/i. Ic is like the cllinaie, VftT\o\;'i. \\\ ^o'ctvt "•^^TV«»\v\^ 
k'cry fruitful, and in others it is b;\\T^:\. \\. \si Wv vw^^V 
fi'tft/y cuhiraud and fuU of foi^lV*. 



OFEUROPE. 53 



Q^ Wlut mountains are there in Germany ? 

A. The Alps on the foath difide Germany from Italyi 
and there ia a range of mountains which feparate Saxony, 
Bavaria and Moravia from Bohemiay and inclofc the latter 
on three (ides. 

Q^ What arc .the rivers of Germany ? 

A. The largefl: is the Danube* It has a very rapid cur- 
reht, and there are fev'eral fniaJl cataradh in it, which greatly 
hurt the navigation. It runs a courfe of a'jout one thou- 
fand fix hundred and twenty miles, and falls into the Black 
Sea on the weflera fide. The other principal rivers are 
the Rhine, Oder^ Elbe, Wefer, ai>d MoLlk^ 

Q^ Are there any l:rkes in Gerrariny ? 

A. There are many, and the principal are indfi: of Con- 
ftance and Brenentz, TlitV*; are befides tbcfe the b.ke of 
Bavaria, and the Zirnltzirfee, whofc waters frecjucnily run 
off and return again in an extraordinary manner. 

(^. Are there any mraeral waters in Germany ? 

A. Yes. Germany contains more than all Europe be- 
«{des. The moil famous are thofe of Spa, Pyrniont, and 
Aix-la-Chapclle. A great variety of oti-iers arc icattered 
through the country, which arc laid to be c!lIcac!ou3 in al- 
moft every difeafe. The mlnciTil fpring? iit Wilduno jn are 
faid to intoxicate as foon as vvi.i.*, aiul for that rciifoii ihcy 
are inelofcd. 

Q^.What metals and minerals arc found in Germany ? 

A. Tlicre are in feveral of ihc CIrj^;i2 of Germany, inines 
of filver, copper, tin, iron, lead, filjhur, nitre and \itnoI ; 
and precious ftones and fullers* cailh?. with cotl mines, arc 
found in many, parts of the country. Germany contains (Inc- 
Bficirbie and exceilent frce-ftone. 

Q. What are the vegetable proJu^iosis of Gcrniany? 

A. They differ very little from ih^fc of *he Nctherland:;, 
only m-ich more numerous xn their ■:lnds p.ad abundant ii: 
their qaantitics : the country, v^here It is iVaitfcrl, is fo pro- 
du»flive, that provifions arc cheaper there :han in perhaps any 
country in Europe ; and iheir RheniOi and Mofclle winei 
ar^ celebrated throughout Europe. 

Q^ What arc thfe auirual prodalHons ? 

A". They have a great number of horfe*?, ^eerj and o^^^^ 
thou^ they are not fo good as thole otHri^W.A, TS^^v^.;:. 
the wiIdMOTmak cgrimon to moft T*/itc^n*:,^4 iOvVUwV*i^>^-» 

£ 2 



5+ r; L o G R A P H y 

r.i iry iV.n/i. --. :\.-.- wild boar and the glutton^ the laff aS 
v/hi:h 1. h'j i^oT: voracious creature in the world. There* 
ii ill G : ..1 .i;y .i variety of birds alfo, though none very re-' 

(.r ' Vl: t r.nii.h'ir of inhabitants db«s Germany contain l 

A.. It cnntcLT's about tweuty-ohe miiHons. 

Q ^'vilr•.t i;l- --iii chat afteriftics^ the Germans ? 

A.> I i:ey are a vCiy grave ar«d honcli people in all their 
tU^jlir.j s ; tr.cy h^ve been faid, but very unjuflly, to be oT 
.r.crtl^.a \A^A ci.ig and mechanical chara(51er ; the genius of 
♦.'iC C'^ nv.tiib is Liot inferior to that of their i.ei^bours. The 
•..V .iii< .i . r g: cat «,v.ns and of gun-powdtr isg^nerally afcri- 
^:d -0 :ii'. :.i, iuid xn ine mechanical arts they particularly 
t\j i. I :i' y .i. c jc id ot Ihew and parade in their diefs and 
appeal aiuc. All ihc lOiis of noblemen inherit the titles of 
thtir f«itlK'i3. 

Q^ What are their culloms and ditverGons ? 

A. Smokiiig tobacco is pradifed by people o£a]l rank» 
and degrees^ both men and womeA- At their tables the mi^ 
trefs of the family has n» preemineDce^ Their diverfions 
are cardo, dice, ^ncing, &c« 

Q^ What is the drefs of the Germans ? 

A. Thofe in high ranks drefs richly and gaily>.and many 
of them fantailically, but the peafantry, as in other countiies^ 
Jrefs according to their circumdances and employmeots. 

Qj W^hat is the religion in Germanv I 

A. In fome of the States proteftantiim prevails : in oth- 
«rs papacy. Betide Latheranifm and Calviniira, there are 
many fchemes of religion, and the number of proteftants 
and papifls is thought ta be about equal. 

Qj What number of Arch-Bi(hoprics and Bifliopriee is 
there in Germany ? 

A. rhere are in Germany ieven ArchrBillloprici aiMfc 
twenty-eight Bifhoprics. 

Q. What is the language of Germany i 

A/ The High Dutch or Tencooic. 

Q^ What is the prefent fiaie of learnSfig in Germany i 

A. It is greatly encouraged aad very flourifiiing,—- 
Germany has produced feme of the beft writers on almofli 
every fcience^ and hkewife feT^ral good ps&stcrs and exceU 
Jej7t muficinna. 
<^ How man J umKrfilacs «ie tVm\A Ottmuv^ t 



-« < 



O F E U R O F E- ss 

(^ What h the capital of Geiinir»y ? 

A. Vienna. 

^ Defcribe it ? 

A, It is iituated in the circle of Auftridy an the river 
Danube, in north ktitade 48 degrees. and 20 minutes^ and 
«afl longitude 16 degrees and 20 minutesr It has ta the 
city and fuburbs niany hand&me palaces and other public 
kuiidingSy and eontair>s about three hundred thoufand in- 
habitants. It is much frequented by all nations. The 
city is irregularly buih i its (Ireets are narrow and dirty» 
and the private houfes are net proportioned to the magnili* 
cence of the palaces* It is the reddcnce of tlie Emperor* 

Q. What other confiderable cities are there in Germany ? 

A. There are many populous and fortified cities ; but 
the moft confiderable are Berlin, Dreiden, Leipfic, Bre- 
men, Bredaw, Frankfort, Munich, Potfdam, Aug{burg,and 
Hamburgh, the lead populous^ of which contains thirty thou- 
fand inhabitaotSr 

Q. What are the antiquities and curlofities of Germany ? 

A. They confiit principally in buildings and fortifica- 
...tioosy lakes, fprings, GaTes,&c- as in other countries. There 
is al Heidelburgh a yat called the Tun^ which contains 
eight hundred hogiheads, and is always kept full of Rhenifh 
wine ; flrangers are frequently invited to it> aod are feldon 
fuftred to retire without taking it. 

Q^ What is the (late of the German commerce and man* 
ufaAures ^ 

A. I'he commerce is tolerably ffourifhing, and confifh 
cbieflv of their manufa^ores, which are very numerous and 
excelleDt in their kinds. / 

(^ What is the goveroment o( Germany ? 

A. It is governed by the Emperor, who is derive, and 
nnder him hy about three hundred petty princesy who are all 
abfolute in their dominions. The Emperor is ele^ed by 
nine eIe£lors. The perlbn who, in the life time of the 
£ roperor,is chofeu king of the Roma ns, immed iately fucceeds 
to the imperial throne on the death of the Em(^eror. 

Q^ What is the amount of the Emperor's revenue ? 

A%. The Emperor's revenue, as fuch, is but abo^ fix 
thoufand pounds flerling ; but the Auitrian revenues ^fifing 
from the countries belonging to the Hout^ ^^ Ns&xv^^ ^V 
wjiieh family the Emperor is the e\dt\\ \siWiO^V >x^ ''^^ 
£r€a miUioas /fcrling anaualiy. 



56 Cx E O G R A P H V 



Q^ What Is the military (h-crtgth of Germany ? 

A. it is luppodd that, on n moderate conlput^tion, tl.iV- 
empire c«n briu^ into the field about four hundred and fifty 
thoDfiind men. 

Q^ Are there any orders of Knrghtliood in Germany : 

A. There are no lefs than iwclve of them, viz. Tjie or- 
ders of the Go'dcn Fleece*, IV iitonic order, of Ihc Red ISa- 
rk, of the Nobk Paflion, of Mincer iry, of the Deaths Head. 
'jf the Ci.jtce, of St. Herbert, of St. Rupert, of St. George 
civ^'.nder o: the immaculate conception, of the Golden Li- 
on, and of Mciit. 

Q. HoV/ docs Germany lie, reJirtive to the other Euro- 
pean rountrits ? 

A. It li«.s caft of the Anftrian Netherhmds, Holland,^ 
}i^nj;l.ind and Ireland ; foiith-wcil of Scotland, Denmark 
and Norway ; fouth of Sw^^rden and Ruflia ; fouth-wcft of 
FrulTi.i and Poland ; weft of Hungary and Bwrhemia ; 
north-\ve*^ of Turkey, Italy and Switzerland ; nor:h of 
F^an^:'J ; and north -caft of Spain and Portugal 

Of PRUSSIA. 

Q. What is the fituaiion and cxicnt of Pruflia ? 

A. It is (i-uatid between 52 and 56 degrees of nortA 
L.:itudc, and between ifinnd 23 degrees of eafUongiiudCr 
Tlrf. country, including Dircal and Royal Ptuffia, is aboT^t 
t<vo hundred and fcvcnty miles lonj^, and One hundred an J 
fifty bro'id, contivi-r.irj^ ^^h^^o fcpare miles. 

Q. How is it bc'undcd ? 

A. It IS bour.dcd on the north by Samogitra and the 
Baltic ; on ;hc fouth by Warfovii!, Polachia and Great 
Poiaiui ; on the eaft by Litliuania ; and on the v/cft by 
ITpT'Ci Saxony. 

Q^ What is the air of Pruffia ? 

A. It is rather fcvcrc, but healthy. 

Q^ What is the fo:\ ? 

A. The foil is fruitful in corn ami (y.hcr commodrtftf, 
and much like the foil in Germany. 

Q. What nrc its animal productions ? 

A. They are horfcs, fhccp, deer, game, wild boar an^ 
fcxes ; differing little from thofe in Germany. 

(J. Whit arc its vcgctablt ^roduftions ? 
a7 OenenUy tht fame w'\i\\ iV\ol^ o^ Gwt^^x^J. ^>wi. 
fer Is found 00 the coaft of t^^ "Baiuc \ti Y\>;S&a- 



OFEUROPE. 57 

_ What are the principal rivers in Pruffia I 

A. They are the Viftula, the Pregel, Memel, Paflkrgc^ 
tml tiie Elbey which are \* zW furnifhed with fifli. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants docs Pruilia contain ? 

A. This part of PrufEa which I now mention contains 
about 1,700,000 inhabitants, but there are in all the Pruf- 
£an dominions about (ix milhons of inhabiunts. 

Q^Whit other dominions befide Royal Pruflia and 
Duciil- Pruffia, are fubje(fl to the King of PrufEa ? 

A. They are * uated in Poland, Saxony, Bohemia, 
Weilphalia, the Jrf^ethcrlands and Switzerland ;. beGde 
wliich, the foimcrly -..ee cities of Dantzic and Thorn arc 
propciJy confidered as a part of the Pruflian territory, as 
they are fubjcdl to the control of the King. 

Q^ What are the manners and cuitoms of the Pruffians ? 

A. They ate vsry fmiilar to thofe of Germany. 

Q^What is the eftablifhcd religion of Pruffia ? 

A. It is Lutheranifm and Culvinifiti ; but almoA all oth- 
.er feels of Chriftians are tolerated. 

Q^ What is the ftate of fcience in Pruffia ? 

A. There h lately confkierable encouragement given to 
the promotion of learning. There is an univerfity at Ko- 
■ingfberg, and fchools are generally cflabliflied throughout 
the country^ 

Q^ What is the capital city of Pruffia ? 

A. Konlngfberg. 

(^ Defcribe lloninprDcrg ? 

A. it is lituateti in 54 dtgiccs and 54 minutes north !atl- 
tiide, and in 21 degrees and 35 minutes cdl\ longitude. It 
(lands on tlie river Pregt-1, acrofs which there are fcven 
bridges. It has a good harbour, ievcral magnificent palace.-; 
and other public buildings. It contains three thouland 
eight hundred houfcs, and fixty thoufand inhabitants, and 
is a place of confiderable commerce. 

Q\_ What are the antiquities and curiofities of Pruffia I 
. A. They are like thofe of Germany ? 

Q^ What is the llate of the commerce of Pruffia ? 

A. It is not very flouriftiing, owing to the dcfpotic na- 
ture of the government. 

Q^ What is the goyernmcrit of Pruffia ? 

A- The government is monarcYucaX, Vv<ix^'a\v\t^> ^4»^ 
Mb/bIote> 
C^ What are the revenues of PruffvaL I 



GEOGRAPHY 



A. They are not koow&i but are lo a very fl^ourittoog 
fituation. 

(^ \y\):{t is the miHury fti'^rgth of tbc PraOian King ? 

A. In time of peace it amuuDts to i8o,cco nieriy and 
in war it has been ;iugmeuted to 300,000) well trained and 
dilcipliDtd troops. 

C^. Are there any orders of Knighthood in Fruffia ? 

A. There arc four r Uie orders ot^Concord, of Gencro£> 
ity, of the Black Eagle, and the order of Merit. 

^ How is PruiEa lltuated relative to the other Euro- 
pean countries ? 

A. It is fouih-eaft of Norway and Dcnmatk ;• ibutii of 
Sweden ; fouth-wef^ of Kuflia ; noith-wefb of Poknd^ 
Hungary and Turkey 5 north-eaft of Bohemia, Germany^ 
Italy, Switzerland, France, Spain, Portugal, NetberlaDds^ 
Holland ; and caft of England, Ireland and Scotland* 

Of BOHEMIA. 

Q^ What is the fituation and extent of Bohemia f 

A. It is 478 miles long, and 322 broad. It lies between 
48 and 52 degrees of north latitude, and between 12 and 
19 degrees of eaft longituuc. 

()^ How is it boun'.kd I 

A. It is bounded by Saxony and BrandcRberg op the 
porth ; by Poland and Hun«jary on the eaft ; by Auflria 
and Bavaria on tlie iouth ', and by the palatinate of Bavaria 
on the weft. 

C)j What are fhe foil and air of Bohemia. ? 

A. They arc like thofe of Germany in the fame climate. 

Q^ Arc tht-rt; any mountains in Bohemia ' 

A. Tiicre are none of noie^ though the country is almoft 
fciToundcd by them. 

Q^ What rivers are there in Bohemia ? 

A. The chief rivers are tltc Elbe, tlie Muldaw, and tbc 

C^ Does Bohemia contain any minerals or ores ? 

A. There are mines of fdver* copper, iron, lead, quick- 
filvcr, fulphur and falt-petre. 

Qj Wiiat number of inhabitants does Bohemia contain ? 

A. It contains about two millions and one hundred 
t))oi:f;infK 

CI: ^^'^w^ arc the habii8» tv\w\ivMV^n\ ca^xts^^^ ^kt 



O F E U R O P E. sr 



A. They refemble thofe of the Germans. There is, 
however, no middle rank of people, every lord being a fove- 
reign, and every peafant a flave. 

C^ What 18 the reJigion of Bohemia ? 

A. Popery is the eftabliihtd religion, but ih:re arc many 
protedants in the country uho are tolerated. 

Q. Are theie any Arch-Biftioprics and Bilhoprics in 
Bohemia ? 

A. There is one Arch-Bifhopric, and three Bifhoprics. 
The Arch-Bilhopric i^ Prague, the Bifhoprics are Ko- 
ningfgrats, BrelldW and Olmutz. 

Q. What language is fpoken in Bohemia ? 

A. Although the proper language of Bohemia is a dialect 
of the Sclavonian, yet they generally fpeak High- Dutch, 

Q^ Are there any univerlities in Bohemia ? 

A. There is only one, which is at* Prague. 

Q^ What is the capital city of Bohemia ? 

A. l^rague. 

Q^ Give a defer ipti on of it ? 

A. It is iituated in 50 degrees and 4 minutes north lat- 
itude, and in 14 degrees and 50 minutes eafl longitude. It 
(lands 00 tlie river Muldaw. It contains 92 chapels and 
churches, and 40 cloiflers. It is a magnificent city, con- 
taining 70,000 Chridians, and 13,000 Jews. 

Q^ Are there any other cities of diftin<Stion in Bohemia ? 

A. There are none in Bohemia proper, either for 
ftrength or commerce. Olmutz is the capital of Moravia, 
and has fome manuHuSlures. Breiiaw is the capital of Sile- 
fia, and belongs to the King of PruiEa. 

Qj^ What is the ftate of commerce in Bohemia ? 

A. The articles of commerce, like the produce of the 
foil, lire much like thofe of Germany, only in a lefs prof- 
perous (late ? 

(^ What is the government of Bohemia ? 

A. This country is fubjed to the Houfe o( Auftria, and 
the fovereign is abfolute. It is an hereditary monarchy. 

Q^ What is the amount of the Bohemian revenues ? 

A. It is fuppofed to be not Icfs than half a million Aer- 
ling. • 

Q^ How is Bohemia (Ituated relative to the other Euro- 
pean countries ? 

A. It lies eafterly of Germanvi Neth^tV^vd^^ ^0^-^^^ 
Enghutd and Irelstad ; S. £» of Denm^TVi ^^^xVm^^ v^I 



«o GEOGRAPHY 



% 



Norway ; fquthwcfterly of PruiEa, Poland ar: i "^ HI : S. 

«f Sweden ; northweftcrly of Hungary an.! 

of Italy ; N. E. of Switzcdandj France, Sm::: ^. = ".r* 

tugal. 

Of HUNGARY. 

Q^What is the fituation and extent of Hungary ? 

A. It is 300 nr<iles long, and 2co broad. It is fi.uated 
between 17 and 23 degrees of cafl longitude, and between 
45 and 49 decrees of fiorth latitude. It contains 36,060 
fquarc miles. 

Q^ Howjs Hungary bounded ? 

A. It is boundc(( by Puland on die nortli ; by Tranfyl- 
vania and Wallachia on the cad ; by Scbvunia iouth^ and 
by Au(hi;i and Moravia welK 

(). Wl'.at is the sur of Hungary ? 

A. It is rather unhealthy, particularly in the fouthern 
r>art of the kingdom,. owing to the niarihcs and llagnar.t 
lakes, which At a very numerous. 

Q. How is Hungary divided ? ., 

A. It is divided into Upper Hungary^ which lies north 
of tlic river Danube ; and Lower Hungary, whicii lies 
ft/utli of the fame river. 

(^. Wiiat is the foil ? 

A. The foil is very fruitful, except in the northern partSp 
where it is mountainous and barren. 

Q. TCIiat are the principal rivers in Hungary ? 

A. The Danube, the Dravc, Save, Tcyfic, Merifh and 
Tomes. 

Q. Are there any lakes in Hungary ? 

A. There are four of confiderable extent among the 
Carpathian mountains, which are well fupplied with lilh. 

Qj. Arc there any mineral waters in Hungary ? 

A. There are many, which are faid to be very efiicncioiiSy 
more fo th.ui any in Europe befide. Thofe of Bud^i, in 
Lower Hungary, arc the mod celtbnttcd of any in the 
country. 

Qj What mountains are there in Hungary ? 

A. The largeft mountains in Hungary arc tlie Carpa- 
thian, which divide this country from Poland on the north. 
There are other d' tiched mountains found in other parts of 
.the L'oumryf but none of notoriety. 
Q. What metals and lininoTaU «it &wv4 vc^ Huxv^tir^' ? 



OF EUROPE. 

A* Goldi fiIver,<ceT>per, tioi iron» lead> Titriol, orpimentp 
i^uick-fiUer, chryfbcollay and terra figillita« The mines are 
«iot however niuoh ii^proved. 

Q^ What are the vegetable proda^Hons of Hungary ^ 

A. In Hungary they have a wine called Tokay ^ which 
IS preferred to any other in Europe. The other vegetable 
|)rodudtions are like thofe of other countries in the fame 
climate. 

Q^ What are the animal produftions in Hungary ? 

A- Thcfe are like thofe in Germany, except that they 
liave a large breed of horfcs, which are conmionly mcufc- 
%oloured> and are much efleemed by military officers. 
There it alfo a remarkable large breed of rams in Hungary. 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants in Hungary ? 

A. Hungary contains three millions and fix hundred 
thoufand inhabitants. 

Q^ What are the chara^leiiftlcs of the Hungarians ? 

A. They are large, well made, able bodied men, of a 
liaughty difpofition, and more addr^ed to arms than arts ; 
they are ^ood foidiersy but are cruel and iniolcnt when 
' Ti^orious. 

Q^»What is their drefs ? 

A. It has a marpal appearRnce. They wear cl..fe coats 

flrded with a iafh, which buckles under the arm. Oii the 
ead they wear a fur cajs and prcferve their whificers on 
the upper lip. Many of the citizens drefs in furs, both men 
and women. 

<^ What are the diveifons of the Hungarians ? 
A. They are of die warlik<r and athletic kind ; the peo- 
ple have too little indudry to engr^ge in commercial puifuits, 
which they leave to the Greeks and ftrangcrs. 

Q. What province has lately been incor|)orated witk 
Hungary ? 

A. The province of Temefwar, which lies on the fouth- 
* eall. 

Q^ Crve a defcrlptioB of Temefwar ? 
A. Temefwar contains about 450,000 inhabitants. -« 
There are in this province many of the faraons or gypfies, 
fiippofed to be dtfcendants of the Egyptians : it is certain 
tliatthey refemble them in their features and propenfitics^ 
•ad that they retain many of their cuftonu. \tk o^tx \%» 

F 



e* GEOGRAPHV 



fpefls this province difTers^Httle from the nciglibotu-ing cotlti* 
tries. 

Q^ What is the reh'gion of Hungary ? 
* A. The eftabh'fhed religion is the Roman Cathoiicy but 
the greater part of the inhabitants are Proteftants, and they 
enjoy the free exercifc of their opinions. 

Q. How many Arch-Bifhoprics and Blfhoprics are 
there in Hungary ? 

A. There are three of the former and five of the latter. 
Q. What is the language of Hungary ? 
A. There are various dialers fpoken in Hungary ; but 
the greater part of the Hungarians fpeak Latin. 
q1_ Are diere any univerfities in Hungary ? 
A. There are four, but as they are not well regulated, 
and have Jefuits for prcf^ffbrs, the Prottftant inhabitants 
fend their children to foreign univeffiries. 
Q. What are the curiofitics of Hungary ? 
A. The artificial curiofities of Hungary coiifift in its 
b'inges and mines. There is one bridge over the Danube 
called the EfTeck bridge, which is five miles long. The 
only natural curiofity we know of, is a cr.ve in a mountain 
near Sztlitze : it is very fpacious, extending into the folid 
rock, of which its fides are formed, farther than has hith- 
er to been dilcovered, 

Q. What is the capital of Ilun^'^ary ? 
A. The capital is Prefhurg. It is r?tuated in Upper 
ilungpry, eight hundred mik-s eafl from I^ondon, and con- 
tains 3 jjCCJO inhabitants. It (lands on the river Danubet 
litlow Vienna, in 17 degrees 30 minutes ofenft longitude^ 
and 4S dcgrc'ts and 20 minutes of north latitude ; is ftrongly 
fortif'jd, and is the royal refidence. 

Q^ What other cities are there in Hungary ? 
A. In Upper Hungary are, alfoj Tokay, fumous for itJ 
^^•inc^ Tort und Offen, r.ich of which contains 30,000 in- 
habitants. In Lower Hungrry is Buda, formerly the r.sp- 
it«l, and Tcn-tfwar, the caj>ital of the province of that name, 
Btfide thcfc are Pefl, Raab, Gran an<l Comoiia, all of 
tlicm ftrongly fortified, 

Q^. What' is the ftatc of the Hungarian commerce ? 
A. Ir is but little attended to. Their principal exports 
ccr.ftl of metals, drug^ ai^d to. 
Q. Wlvdt is the gr,vernTT\eut ot H.Miv^y'j'^. 
-A. It h a monarchv, and b^ ^>^t cotv"^:\XM<^c>^^^ At5>^v^e 
^»''f is confined to the ilovifc o^ i^.w^n^ 'Y>ft^ \\>xt^^^>a''' 



OF EUROPE. 



63 



are fo averfe to the titie of Qoeen, tint they call a fcmals 
fovereign King. The King is not wholly abfo.'ate. 

Q^ What is ihe military ftreogth of Hungary ? 

A. The King can bring into the field 50,000 mzn, but 
rarely docs more than ten thoufand. The light hoifc are 
called hufTiirs, and their infantry hcydukcs. 

Q^ How is Hungary fituated with refpe^t to the other 
liluro]>oan countries ? 

A. It lies N. of Turkey ; N. E. of Italy, Spain and 
Porttrgdl ; £. of Fraacc and Switzerland ;. S. E. of Ger- 
many, Netherhna,, Holland, England, Ireland, Scotland* 
Dw-n.Tiark and Norway ; S. of Sweden, PrulFii and PoUud i 
and S- W. of Ruiua. 






Of TRANSYLVANIA. 
Q^ What is the (itaation and extent of Tranfylvania ? 
A. It is iituated bi^tween 45 and 48 degrees of north lat* 
itud?, and between 2 z and 25 degrees of eafl longitudj." I^ 
is 1 80 miles long, and 1 20 broad. 
Q^ How is Tranfylvania bounded ? 
A. It is bounded oa the north by the Carpathian moun- 
tains,on the eafl by Moldavia and Wallachia, on the fouth 
by WallachTa, and on the weft by Hungary. 

Q^ What are the foil and climate of Tranfylvania ? 
A. They are very fimilar to thofe of H'jng iry, only the 
climate is rather more healthy. 
Q^ What are its productions ? 

A. Thefe vary not either in kind or quantity from thofe 
of Hungary, except that th^ir gold and filver mines are 
more valu ible and produdlive than tnofe o^ Hungarj^, and 
their wines are not fo good. 

Q. Is Tranfylvania an independent fovereignty ? 
A. It is fubjeiSt to the Houfe of Auftria, and its governor 
is ftyled the Way wode of Tranfylvania. 
Q^ What is the eftablifhed religion of Tranfylvania ? 
A. The Roman Cathplic, but Lutherans, Calvinillsy 
Socimans, Arians, Greeks and Mahometans all enjoy the 
free cxercifc of their own tenets. 
Q. What is the number of inhabitants in Tranfvlvania ? 
A, It contains about one million. 
Q^ Arc there any mountains in TtaufY^vwiwX . 
A. It is ahnoli furroun Jed by triO'dCkl'A\ti^» Ww'^^V^^^ 
^coaatry very imperfa^ly. 



64 GEOGRAPHT 

« 

Q^ What is the (late of commerce' in this country ? 

A. It is not flourifhing nor extenfive. It confifts prin- 
cipally in their metals and fait which they export to Hun- 
gary ; and adds little or nothing to the Aufl'rian revenue. 

Q^ What are the charaderidics of the Tranfylvanians I 

A. Tliey are brave and independent in their difpofitionsj 
aie warlike and very jealous of their liberties. 

(^ What is the militaiy flrength of Tranfylvania ? 

A. Its (landing force amounts to about nine thoufand 
iTien and the fovercign can bring into the field about thirt) 
tl'.oufand. 

Q^ What cities are there in Tranfylvania ? 

A. Hcnnanfiadt is the capital. It is a large, populous 
c ity, and is flronj^ly fortified. It is the feat of guvernment 
Crnnfl.idt, CUufenburg and WifTemburg are alfo large and 
ftrongly foitified cities. 

qT What is the ftate of fcience in this country i 

A. It is very little attended to or encouraged, and w< 
know of no academies or unrverficies in the country. 

Of SCLAVONIA. 

Q^ What is the fituation and extent of Scbvonia ? 

A. It is fttuatcd between 45 and 47 degrees of norti 
latitude, and between 16 and 23 degrees of eall longitude 
it is two hundred miles long and fixty broad j and contain: 
ten thoufand fquare miles.. 

Q^ How is it bounded ? 

A. It is bounded by the Dravc on the north ; by du 
Danube on the cafk ; by the Save on the fouth, and by : 
part of AuQria on the wefi It lies fouth of Hungary, am 
Ibuth-eaft of Germany. 

Q^ What is the face of this province, and its produAions 

A. It is in every refpt^t much like Tranfylvania am 
ITung.iry ; and is equal in beauty and fertility to either. 

Q^ What are the chara(5lerilHc!< of the inhabitants ? 

A. They refenible in every rcfpetfk the Tranfylvaniaoi 

Q^ What is the capital city of Sciavonia ? 

A. Poft'^a is the capital, fiefide that, there arc fevcn 

large and (tron^ly tbititied towns. Such are Zagral), £i 

ftck, W aradcn, and Peterwaradcn. The laft is faid to coB 

ifiin one hundred and twenty-five thoufand inhabitaDii* 

Q^ What it the rtU^ion^. 

A. TkQ Roman CaiUoUc, bviv A\ lc5^^ ^\^v^^ ^\«« ^ 



F E U R O P E. €f 



ions5xnmolcfted. There are two BKhoprics only m Sola* 
vonia. 

Q. What is the government of Sclavouia ? 

A. It is r»bte^ to Hungary> and to the fame form of 
government. 

Of CkoATrAy Dalmatia, KIorlachia, &c. 

Q^ What is the (ituation and extent of Croatia ? 

A. Croatia is fituated between 1 5 and 1 7 degrees of eaff 
longitude, and between 4; and 47 degrees of north latitude. 
It is eighty miles long and fcventy broad. 

Q^ What do you obferve of die inhabitants of Croatia ? 

A. They are very tall, being generally about fix, ftcp 
high'. In other refpe(5h they refemble the Hungarians. 

Q^ What is the capital of Croatia ? 

A. Carlefladt is the Capital, and Zagrab is a Bifhop's 
Ibe. 

(^ What is the fltuation of Auflxian Dalmatia and Mor- 
lochia i- 

A. They fie on the upper part of the Adriatic fea, a lit- 
tle weft of fouth from Hungary, as does Croatia. 

Q^ Wliaf arc the principal towns in thefe provinces ? 

A. Signa is the capital. It ftands near the fea.' Ottof^ 
efaatz is a frontier town, (landing on the river Gatzkar It 
k built principally on piles. 

Q. What is- the produce of thefe provmces T 

A. It diiSers not in quantity or (quality from thofe laiS 
meotioned'. 

Q^ To what government are thefe provinces fubjed ? 

A. They are fubjc(Jtto the emperor of Germany ; they 
are liowevet very little under his control, as he linds it for 
kis intereft to leave them quietly to enjoy their libtrties. 

Q^ Does the emperor poflefs any other territory in this 
part of £uro])e ? 

A.. HepoiTefTes Galiciay Lodomiria, a part of Little Fo- 
kad^ and Podolia, with fiockowtne which was lately takes 
feom tbe Tttrks> 

Q. What number of inhabitants are there in the eight 
kft mentioned provinces ? 

A. There are faid to be four miHions one hundred and 
ferenty five thoufaod, of many nations tmv.^^^d x.o'^^^^x* 

{^ What is the fail of the lad mcDUouc^ v\ w»r.^* 

Fa 



66 GEOGRAPHY 



A. It is variousi being moantainou^ in fume parts- and 
level in others. The mountainous parts afford goud paflur- 
age» but tlie plains are Tandy and barren. Thfsxc are many 
forcfls in thclc countries^ and fomericti mines are found a^ 
in the ucighhouring countries. 

Q^._ "\Vh.ii curiofitits are there in thcfj countries f 

A. The fcih works at Wiclitika are very large. TJic 
mines have been wrought ever llncc the year 17.37.-— They 
contain churches and villages, and in them are many people- 
v/lio were born thcrc,and' who pa(s their lives underground. 
In one of ihefc mines is a confiderable river. 

(^ What is the religion of thefe countries ? 

A. The Roman Catholic is the prevailing religion, thougli 
the inh.ibitants do not trouble themfelves much about any^i 
and learning is equally negledled. 

Q. What is the (ituation of Wallachia ? 

A. It lies fouth-eafl from Hungary. 

Q^ To what power does it belong ? 

A. It is partly owned by the Auftrians and partly by 
the Turks. 

Q. What have you to fay concerning it ? 

A. Its extent is not known. The face of the country 
and its produ(^ions are much like tkufc of Hungary. 

(^ What arc its principal towns ? 

A. Fre"onitz, Bucharefl and Severin. 



Of POLAND amd LITHUANIA. 
Q. What are the filiation and extent of Poland incL- 
ding Lithuania ? 

A. It is fevciT hundred miles long and fix hundred and 
eighty broad. It is Ctuatcd between 16 and 34 degrees o^ 
cafl longitude, and 46 and 57 degrees north latitude. 
Q^ How is Poland bounded ? 

A. It is bounded by I-.Ivonia,Murcovy and the Baltic on 
the north 5 by Mufcovy on the curt ; by Hungary, Turkey 
and Little Taitary on the fouth, and by Germany on Uic 
wefl. 

C^ \Mhat i? the climate of Pokind ? 

A; it i:i not uniform. In the northern pans it is cold, 

and the Carpathian ntounuins between Poland ai.d IIurig;t.ry 

iirc uli/ays c()Vv\cl{ with fnow, vjh'icU fomc times fiiils m 

June. The cJiniate however \^ on iVvt NiVviV vtTvx-^wW 

tyjc forcHs and nioraflcs render U Wi!C\i^ic uuVi^"A'<Xv^, 



O F P: U R O P E. 67 



{^ What is the full and lace of ihe counii y ? 

A. The country is geuefally level, and tUi Lil is very 
2' uiital in corn and patTura^e. 

Q, What are the met ail jc an i m.neiai produiftions of 
Poland ? ' 

A. There arc niin^s of filver, copper, iron, fait and coais. 
la l^itliuania th-rv; are iron, iigate, oclirc, levjTrtl fp-jcies oi 
copjHir and iron pyrites ; red . .id gray granite, with pre- 
cious iiones and marine pctrifailions. 

Q^ Wiiat are the rivers- of Poland ? 

A. The principal rivers are the Villula, the Nciiler, the- 
Kciper, the Bog and the I>wlna. 

Q^ Wiiut lakfcs are thtoe in Poland ? 

A, The princip.d lakes are the Gopto in Byzofly, and 
a lake called the Birals, \khich is faid to dje thofe who 
v.itlh in it of a fwarthy coniiilcxion. 

Qj Whjt peculiaritv is tiicrc attending liie waters In Po- 
land ? 

A. There is in the Palatinate of Cracow a fpring which 
i»icreafes and decreafes with the moon. There are fcveral 
fjjt fprings in Poland. ^ 

Q^ Whtt are the vegetable produv5llons of Poland i 

A- la addition to thofe which are canmon in Germany,- 
Poland produces yellow araber, a kind of mi'Dna which tjie 
people gather into fieves from the dew, in the months of 
juiie and July. It furnifhes great quanti^ivs of iior.c}', and 
in tfie rarions kinds of corn, Poland is very fruitful, as well 
as in paAurage* 

Q-_ What are the animal produfiion^^f Poland ? 

A. Buffaloes, horfes, wolv=rs, boars, gluttons, lynxes ard . 
deer are very plenty in the Polifh forells. B^fide ihcfe 
there is the elk, which is faid to be dcllroved in the winter 
by fiies who get into his ears and live upon his brain ; and 
the bohac, which burrows in Ov5t»iber and does not come 
out until April. Thefe animals h.ivc feparjtc apartments • 
for their provifions, lodgings and dcid ; ten or twelve of- 
them live together. In their ap^'carance they refemble the 
Guinea-pig. 

Q^ What is the nuavber of inhabirnnts in Poland ? 

A. There are about eight millions and live huodrcd- 
thottland. 

Q^ What are the manners of tbe Pv>U^\ 



68 G E O G R A P H Y 



A. They are very courteous to ftrangers,^ afikbic aad 
fy in their addrefs. 

Q^ What are thetr cuftoms T 

A. They are a little fingular^ They are jealous of theft 
privileges. They are divkied into different ranks of nobil*. 
tty^but they efleen) it the mod- honorable to be ftylcd Polifb 
gentlemen. All the nobiiity call each* other brother. At 
their entertainments they lay neither knives nor fpoonSy but 
thofe who arc invited bring them. When they (ft down to • 
their moaIs» the doors are ihut, and' are continued fhut du-- 
f\x\g the time- they are at table; It is often the cafe that 
thefe of the nobility who are poor, wut on the rich ; bur 
are treated with much civility, each having a pcafant boy te> 
a^ttcnd hinn, who is maintained by the mafter of the family. 
They have mufic at (4K:ir meals* 

Q. What is the appearance of the Poles ?' 

A. They make a manly appearance, are tall and gener- 
ally handfonie. Their ladies are handfome and very fub- 
mifTive to their hufbands- l^hey are fond of gaiety and- 
ftpw. The higher claiTes ride on horfeback though the 
diftancc be ever fo fmall, and whenever they travel, they 
are accompanied by a large train, and are very expend ve in- 
their equipage. The pcafant ry are very ignorant, and much> 
oppreffed by their landlords, who have the power of lif&- 
and death over them. 

Q. What is the drefi of the Poles ? 

A. It is in a degree finguhr, but makeis a majeftic ap^ 
pearancc. They cut their hair fliort,and fliave their bearcb^ 
Luving only their whilkers. Their fiift girmentis a vefl^ 
which extends down to the middle of th<; leg : owr that 
they have a gown girded with a fafh : their bieeches and* 
ftockings are of but one piece. They commonly go armed' 
vith a fabre, or fome other weapon. Inftead oi'fhoes they 
wear boots, and moft of the clothes of the peoj/Je of 
every clafs are either made wholly of fur or fkins, or lined' 
with them ; and many of the gentry have fifty fi.its,which- 
defccnd from ftther to fon. The women's habit relemblea 
that of the men. 

Q^ What accommodations does a traveller find in Poland ? 

A. Very indifferent. He is obliged to carry his own 
prov'ifion and bed along with him, as thcit hre none in the* 
inns, Mhich are mifcrabkkonUml\k^\xVWi^>*vft^v>>«\,^<L 

£JLd With rennin* 



OFEUROPE. 69 

Q^ What is the religion in Poland ? 

A. There are many Froteftants in Poland , but the great* 
cr part of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics. 

Q. What number of Arch-Bifhoprics and Bifhoprics are 
there in Poland ? 

A. There are two Arch-Bi(hoprics, of one of which the 
head is always a cardinal^ and during an interregiiusn he is 
prince regents The number of Bilhoprics is not afc^rtain- 
ed, but all the higher clergy have great powers, which they 
do not fail to excrcife. 

Q^ What is the language of' the Poles ? 

A. It is a dialers of the Sciavonian, and in many of their 
words there are no vowels, which makes the l.inguage un- 
Larroonious. In fbmc of tlfe provinces the Laii-n is a living; 
language, though fpoken incorrectly. 

Q^ What is the (late of learning in Poland ? 

A. Poland makes very little figure in the learned world, 
though fevcral eminent men were natives of Poland. At 
prcfent there is but little attention paid to learning* 

Q^^ Are there any univerfhies in Poland ? 

A. There are three ; thofe of Cracow, Wilna acd I^fna* 

Q^ What cwriofitics are there in Poland ? 

A. Near to Kiow there are fcveral groitos in which ho- 
iDan bodies have been found prcf^rvcd entire ; although 
they have lain there a great number of years ; fuppofcd to 
l>e owing to a petrifying quality in tht fjil. The fait mines 
rn Poland are very fpacious, and in them are found four 
different kinds of fah. On one fide of one of them is % 
ftre^.m of ficih water^and on the other lide a (Iream of fait 
water* 

(^ What IS the capitaf cfty in Poland ? 

A. Warkw is the capital. It lies on the river Viflula, 
Bear the ctntreofthe kingdom. It •xhibits a flrong con- 
Ciaft of opulence and poverty, having many magnificent pal- 
aces and other buildings, and m^ny private houfes which 
m ke a wretched appearance. It contains about feventy 
thouLnd inhabitants, but has very little commerce* The 
iame obfervatiors are applicable to Cracow and Grodno as 
to their apjwarance and con»merce. In Poiiih Prulfi.i are 
the great and coninvvcial cities Dantzic, Thorn and I'Jbing, 
They were formeily free independent cities ; tWtl^J b«.W^«^ 
ed fo the HunicAtic league, carried cri at\ ri^Vctv^.w^i v ^^'j 
aad wert very populous and wea\iV\y v \>wx. X^W'iA'!} "^^^ ^^ 



9 aE O G R AP H Y 



of PtufTu lus fcizcd on tliem and cooneiHcd them to kis 
poflUTions. . 

Q^ W'lut are the comruercc and manufacfurds of Po- 
laad ? ^ 

A. There Jire few wiaoufadlures ; their commerce is 
coniJdcrable, but is confined to Dantzic and the other 
tov^T.s on the \'i(lula and the Baltic. 

Q. What is the government of Pohod ? 

A. It is now dividtd between the cnipicfsof RufHaand 
th. kir" of Prufila. 

v^ Wliai is the amount of the Polifli revenues ? 

A. Tiie annual revenue of PoLnd is about 4^0,000!. 

Q^ WLit is the mllllary ftrcuf^ih of PoLmd ? 

r\. WAumi and Lithuania can raife one hundred and 
ftvcjity thoufand men, who always appear on horf^bpck. 

Q^ Are there any or.icrs of knighthood in Poland ? 

A, There are two, viz. the order of the White Eagle, 
and the order of Stanifiaus. 

Q^ How is Poland lituited relative to the other Euro- 
pean countries ? 

A. It lies nofih of Ki:npary and Turkey; nojih ca/1 cf 
P- lomia, Italy, Sv/itzoln'C, France, Spain, Poirugal ar.d 
G .rmany : cafl of Irclan-I, I'^ngland, Nctherlard? and Ilcil- 
li-.nd ; fouth call of Scotland, Denmark, No"way auwl 
Pii.flla; fouth of c)\VLd«'ii ; auvi fojih-Wv.fl of Ruliia. 



Of SWliZERLAriD. 

Q^ Whnt are the nri»at;on and lxil'.-i; of SwifzeJand ? 

/v. It i> fiiu..'.-.w bit V.' J 11 4j a:ul j^ degrees of north 
li'iui 'e, and between 6 ik\ i i of laft lonp.iludc ; it is iwo 
hi.i.d't 1 and uxty niilcs it»ng, and cne hundred broaJ, u.nd 
CO r. I..- . '2,000 ikjUi.rc miles. 

K^. 1 ic .V- is It bjjnt.»Ld 1 

A. it is boupi'jd c».i I'lVj north and i^Ci by Germany, ce 
the IvHiili [jy Jtdlv, .mil 0:1 t!ic Wdil by rr^ncc. 

(;. lirAv ib o.^iiztiLnd divided? 

A. '.nto il^t- tliirt-tn Cuntors Kdlowinjj ; Z.irich, Bern, 
■ EiJii, .■>x:'jatfl. uivn, I/azcrn, Piiburg, Soicur, cl'.vliz, U:i^ 
Vndci'.' ..\Iv.n, /lu^',, Gluiis and Appcnztl. 

Q. Wi.t d J mju obitive ofihcie fevciJ cantons? 
A, TJiit Lticli .itihv,\\\ h;LS a cayiul of the fame n^me of 




OP EUROPE. 

lien, theeapfUls of which are, of Uii» Altorf, afiJof Un- 
fJerwalden, Stantz. 

(^ Are there any independent ilates in alliance with the 
Swils ? 

A. There arc. 

Q^ What are 'their names ? 

A. The republics of the Grifons* Valais, G^ney^iy St* 
Gallen, Tockenburg, Neufchatel, Mulhaufen, the Abbey of 
8t. Gallcfl, and the diitri^s of Chiavannay Bornico and 
Valtaline, wht«h three la*l are fubjefl to the Grifons. 

Q^ Are there any other diflridls befide thofe before- 
mentioned, which are admitted into the concerns of the 
oovernment ? 

A. The following diflrifts are admitted into the Swifs 
covenant, not as allies, but as fubjetSls ; viz. Daden, Brem- 
garten, Meliingen, Rheinthall, Thurgau, Lugano, Locar- 
no, Mendiis and Maggia. The capital towns of Rheint- 
hall and Thurgau, are Rhcineck and Frowanfield ; the 
other capitals are of the iame names with tj^eir refpe^vx 
diftri^s. 

Q^ What is 'the air of Switzerland ? 

A. The air, foil, and climate, all vary ; the country be- 
ing uneven, and moil: of it very mountainous. On the high 
grounds the air is cold, but pure and healthy 5 the climate 
fcvertt, and the foil naturally barren ; although the Swi/s 
by perfevering induflry have made many parts of their 
country fruitful. The valleys are fertil?, and the -air and 
dtniate mild and temperate. 

Q^ What are the (eufons of Switzerland ? 

A. They vary according to the face of the country ; for 
on the tops of fome of the high mountains there is a }>erpet- 
ua! winter ; further down theife. is every appearance of 
^ring ; and in the valleys below^ fufnnier -appears in its 
utmoft pcrfe^ftion. 

Q^ What is the face of the country ? 

A. It is very mountainous and rocky, interfperfed with 
beautiful valleys and fine lakes. 

Q^ What rivers and lakes are there in Switzerland ? 

A. The principal rivers ar€ the Rhine, the Aar^ the Re* 
oTsy the -Teiin, the Oglio» and the Rhone. The lake« v^ 
thofe of Gthtya, Con/hnce, Thun, 'L\icwti^X>Kviti,'^v«N'* 
^d Bienne. 

<2l WbH are ehe m^talUc aad tmtttT«\ y^MOMk^"^- 



72 GEO G Jl APH Y 



A. Mines of iron, cryftal* and (u^rfinr are found in tlie 
mountains. 

Q. What are the anixna! produaions of Switzerland ? 

A. Bcfide horfes, iheept apd neat cattle, there are fome 
wild animals peculiar to this country. Tbeie are the bo- 
<|uetin, the chamois, the white hare atid the white fox. 
Other game is found in plenty. 

Q^ What are the vegetable produAions ? 

A. There is, in moft of the cantons, t great plenty of 
timber, and the fields produce wheat, rye, oats, barley, flax, 
and hemp. The country alfo produces wine, and in that 
part of it adjoining Italy, there are peaches, almOnds, figst 
citrons, and pomegranates, in abundance. 

Q^ How many inhatntants are there in Switzerland ? 

A. About three millions. 

Q^ What are the chara^erifticsand manners of the Swift? 

A. They are an honefl, brave, hardy and induftrious 
people, remarkable for their fidelity and attachifient to their 
country. They are trained alike to war and agricultural 
purfuits. They are fimple, frank, open and unaffected in 
their manners, and are condant guardians of the liberty of 
their country. They exceed all other nations in Europe 
in their attention to neatnefs and cleanlinefs ; and iumptu- 
ary laws are made to regul<ite their drefs and diverfions, that 
they may not become too luxurious and dilfipated. 

Q^ What is the ilate of commerce and manufactures io 
Switzerland ? 

A Their commerce is very much confined, and their 
manufa^ures, which are very good, are chitily confumed. 
by themfelves. 

Q. What is the capital city of Switzerfand ? 

A. Bern is the capital. It flands on the river Aar. It 
is (liongly fortified, and is the place of refort for the repre- 
fentativcs of the feveral cantons in all matters of unportance. 

Q^ What do you obferve particularly of Banl ? 

A. It is a ftror.gly fortified city, fituated on both fides 
of the Rhine. It is celebrated for being the place where 
paper was firll made, and is remarkable for all the clocks in 
it beir.g])ut forward one hour beyond the true time, in com- 
memoration of a confpiracy againfl its liberties, whic4i was 
difconcened by fctting the clocks one hour too faft. The 
con/jn'rutors by this were decewed, \hoM^\. ^iwt^ V-^d out- 
/taid the appelated houfi atid Vepa.t Atd. 



OFEUROPE. 73 

-Q^ tVhat do you obferve of Genera ? 
A. It is the capital of the republic of Geneva. It ftands 
en a lake of the fume name, v/hich lake is about 60 miles 
long, and 12 broad. This city contains about 24,000 in- 
habitants, and it is in this city that the art of watch and clock 
making has been carried to the highefl perfeAion. 
Q^ What are the diverfions of the Swifs ? 
A . They are of the warlike kind ; for as no dancing is 
allowed of, except on particular occafions, and all games of 
chance are prohibited by tneir fumptuary regulations, the 
j[Oung people employ their hours of relaxation in fitting 
thcmfelves to protect their liberties, or in improving their 
4111 nds by reading. 

Q^ What is the religion of Switzerland ? 
A. CvJvinifm and Popery. 
'Q^ What is the language of Switzerland ? 
A. The German, French and Latin languages are fpo- 
ken, but the German is raoft prevalent. 

Q^ What is the ftate of learning in Switzerland ? 
A. Learning is greatly encouraged, and the peafantry of 
this country are more enlightened and better informed dian 
■tliofe of any other country on the European continent. 
Q^ Are there any univerfities in Switzerland ? 
A. There are five, viz. thofe of Berne, Bazil, Laufanne^ 
Zurich and Geneva. 

Q^ What natural curiofities are there in Switzerland ? 
A. Eefide their mineral waters, and the marcafites and 
diiaraonds which are found here, there is a fpring near to 
Kofiniere, which rifes in a large natural bafon ; and its force 
is lb great that it cafts a large column of water nearly a foot 
above the furface of the water in the bafon, and its bottom 
has never yet been found. 

Q^ What aitificial curiofities are here ? 
A. There are feveral remains of Roman antiquities, and 
fcveral valuable manufcripts in Switzerland. There is alfo 
a hermitage near to Friburgh, which contains a chapel, a 
^lour, a cabinet, a kitchen, ancj a cellar, and other apart- 
ments ; and benchear, an altar, flooring and ceiling, all cut 
out of one folid rock, and all the work of one man,, who. was 
living in 1707. There is uhb a place in one of \JL\c c^viVci^'5. 
where the public road is carried throug^x a W\d \oc>^ \Vit ^\5^- 
txaceof^/feet : the aperture is 26 feet Vi\^V\^;«ka i^ n;\^ 

G 



74 GEOGRAPHT 

Q^ What is the government of Switzerland i 

A. £arh of the cantons has a republican goyernment of 
its own ; and they all differ from each other in their form : 
but they are all fonfaderated, and form one great and pow- 
erful republic : and its allies are admitted info the general 
council in cafes which affe^ the interefl of the whole. 

Q^ What is the amount of their revenues ? 

A. It is difHcuIt to determine^ but they always <exceed 
the expenfes of government. 

Q^ What is the military ftrength of Switzerland ? 

A. Its (landing force is 13,400 men ; but the Swifsf 
on a cafe of emergency, can raife 300,000 men. All the 
Swifs are foldicrs, as they are all enlifted on the roll of their 
country at the age of fixteen years, tnd are in the higheft 
^ate of difcipUnc. 

Q. How h Switzerland Ctuated relative to the other 
J^uropean countries ? 

A. It lies north- weft of Italy and Turlcey ; caft of 
France ; north-caft of Spain and Portugal ; fouth-eaft of 
England, Ireland, Scotland, Netherlands and Holland.; 
fouth of Denmark, Norway and Germany ; fouth-weft of 
Bohemia, Poland, Pruffia, Sweden and Kuflia ; and weft of 
Hungary. 

Of SPAIN. 
Q^ What are the Ctuation and extent x)f Spain ? 
A. It is fituated between 36 and 44 degrees of north 
latitude, and between 10 degrees weft and 3 of eaft loih 
gitudc. It 13 700 miles long and 500 broad, and contain 
150,000 fquare miles. 
Q. How is ii bourided ? 

A. It is bounded on tlie north by the bay of Bifcay «ii 
France, cmAe leaft by the Mediterranean ; on the fouth by 
tne ftraits and fea of Gibraltar ; and on the weft by Portu- 
gal and the Atlantic Ocean. It lies fouth of France ; ii 
the fouthernmoft part of Europe ; and is feparated from 
France by a high range lof nxuntuins called tlie Pyrenees; 
and is divided into fourteen dii^cids ; befides the iflandshc* 
longing to it in the Mediteriiican. 
Q. What is the climate ot Spain ? 
A. It is very hot in lV\e ^ovilVvwtv "^^wwi^:^^ wid in ih* 
tiorthern it is mild and tetupersLie. Otv>i!£i^v:\^^w»^'^^ 
-s very cold in wintor. 



OFEUROPE. 7T 



Q^ What is the foil of Spain ? 

A. It is very fruitful by nature^ but is very imperfedllj 
sultivated by the inhabitants. 

Q^ Are there any mineral waters in Spain ? 

A. There are many, which are not inferior to thofe of 
any tountry in Europe. Thofe moft- in repute are at Gra- 
aada, Seville and Cordova. 

Q^What is the face of the country ? 

A, It is a very uneven country, containing many moun- 
tains, and a great variety of rifmg grounds. 

Q^ What mountains does Spain contain ? 

A. It contains many ; the principal of which are the 
]|^yreuees, the Cantabriaa mountains, and Montferrat* 
Montferrat is a curiofity. It fbnds alone on a plain, in the 
fjronnct of Catalonia. It h fixteen miles in circumference » 
and is inhabited by a great number of monks^ who retire to 
it for devotion, and live in hermitages. 

Q^ What rivers are there in Spain ? 

A. The Duero, the Tajo, the Guadiana and the Gua- 
dalq^uivir ; all of which run in a weftem dire^on and emp<- 
ty into the Atlantic Ocean. Befides thofe there are the 
rivers Tinto and £bro, both of which empty into the Med- 
iterranean. The river Tinto is fo named fiora its tinging, 
every thing which falls into its waters of a yellow colour^. 
Its water is yellow and it hardens the fand aJmofl to a (late 
of petrefadioR. No fiHi will live in it, and no cattle except 
goats will drink- of it ; wherever its waters flow they deftroy 
all vegetation. 

Qj^ Are there afly lakes in Spain .^' 

A. There are fevcral, which abound with fiih.- The wa«« 
ler of one at Antic^uera) is turned into fait by the heat of 
the fun. 

Q^ What are the principal bays of Spain I 

A. The chief are thofe of Bifcay, Ferrol, Corunna, Vigo, 
Cadiz, Gibraltar, CarthHgena,.Alicant^Altea,, Valencia and 
Rofes. 

Q. What are the mineral produiftions ? 

A^ Spain has many of all the kinds) and in greater plen- 
ty than any other country in Europe. Almofi every kind 
#jf precious flone is found in Spain. 

Q-_ What are the animal produ6t\oi\9 ot S^^atvI 

A. Spain is faid to produce the ^neft ViotCe^ vu'^'^xQiV 
mditfurmlhes large quantities of cau\e ?Lnd fti^^^* ^ ^ 



?6 GEOGRAPHY 



are the only beafls of prey : there is a great plenty of game 
of the fame kind which is to be found in the neighbouring 
kingdoms ; and the Spanifh feas fupply the people with fift 
of mod kinds in great plenty, particularly anchories, which 
the Spaniards cure in the greatcft perfection. 

Q^ What are the vegetable produdtions of Spain ? 

A. The foil of Spain is by nature very fruitful in almoft 
every fpecies of vegetables. It produces oranges, lemons, 
prunes, citroThs, almonds, raifins and iigs, all of which grow 
aimoil without cultivation. The Spanifh Sack and Sherry 
wints are very good, and arc in grout plenty. Spain alfo 
produces fugar-canes and filk, together with other things 
common to the fcuth of Europe- The produdtions of Spain 
would be much more plentiful, were it not for the loculb 
which are fometimes fo thick as to cloud the air, and they 
dcftroy every thing of the vegetable kind which falls ia 
their way. 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants in Spain ? 

A. Spain is not thickly inhabitated ; it has about ten 
millions and five hundred thoufand inhabitants. 

Q^ What arc the charadteriftics of the Spaniards ? 

A. In their perfons they are generally tall, with fwarthy 
complexions, but their countenances are very expreffive^ 
They are grave, proud, jealous nnd indolent, but lennblei 
brave, faithful, and po/leffcd of a high fenfc of honour. 
The Spanilh ladies are celebrated for their wit and vivacity. 
The Spanifh fadlors have ever been remarkably faithful lo 
liic foitigncrs who have employed them. 

(^. What are the cufloms of the Spanifh ? 

A. 1'he ladies paint themfelves very much. Both fexes 
]i\e very temperately, drinking but little wine. They ufii- 
.i!ly drink coffee and chocolate, morning and evening, and 
Kat tlcfii at noon. Both men and women commonly Uccj) 
:u:cr eating. 

C^. What arc their dlverfions ? 

A. They confifl chiefly in dancing, ferenading and bull- 
baiting, which laft is a very barbarous practice. 

Qj What is the religion of Spain ? 

A. The efiabliflied religion is Roman Catholic, and no 
other fedls are tolerated . The kings of Spain have been fo 
uniform in their profellion of this religion that they are Ily* 
Jed « Moll Catholic." 



(JFEUROPE. T! 

^^ What number of Arch-Bifhoprics and Blflioprict 
are there in Spain ? 

A. There are eight Archbifliopncs and forty-fix Bish- 
oprics. 

Q^ What is the language of Spain ? 

A. It is a majeflic and expreifive language, and the foun- 
dation of it is Latin. 

Q^ What is the (late of learning in Spain ? 

A. There is very little encouragement gi\*cn to educa- 
tion, and conlequently very little attention paid to learning 
in Sp^in. The defpotifni ot" thc:ir government damps all 
ufcf'ul improvement. 

Q^ What number of uni verities are there in Spain ? 

A. There are twenty-four in number. The chief of 
them is at Salam inca, to which the fons of noblemen are 
fent for their education. 
* Q^ What antiquities are there in Spain ? 

A. There arc many remains both of tlie Roman and 
Moorilli antiquities ; fuch as theatres, cathednds, palaces^ 
camps, highways and aquedudls ; all of wliich (hew the great 
ingenuity and tafte of thofe nations, who lived there two 
thoufand years ago : many of them are great curiolities. 

Q^ Wiiat is the capital city of Spain ? • 

A. Madrid. 

Q. Give a dcfcription of Madrid ? 

A. It is (ituated on both fides of the river Tajo or Ta- 
gus, in latitude 40 degrees and 30 minutes north, and in 4 
ue.^rces and 15 minutes weft longitude. It Hands in the 
province of Ncw-Cafllo, and is furroundcd by high moun- 
tains. It is principjiliy built of brick. Its Greets are paved 
and lighted. It contains many fuperb palaces, and three 
hundred thoufand inhabitants. There are no taverns nor 
cotfoc-houfcs in the city : it is furrounded by a mud-wall. 

Q^ What other cities are there in Spain ? 

A. Next to Madrid is Cadiz, which fhnds in the fouth 
part of Spain, on a bay of that name, without the ftraits of 
Gibraltar. It is a large city, and the mofl commercial one 
in Spain. Befidcs this, in the fouth and eafl of Spain are 
Seville, Gianada, Malaga, Carthagena, Murcia, Valencia, 
and Barcelona, all of them large cities. \tv \Vv^ ^^v^x^.^i^^x 
are Corunna, FerroJ, St, Jago de Com^oft.c^\A<» '^'^^-v\ 
Ovicdo, Fitmpcluaj, and Leoa. ¥Mt!h<it vvixVvc <i^\x\Vv^ <i ^ 

G 2 



78 G E Q G R A P H Y 



f Burgosi Saragofiky Toledo, and B^dos, all of tliem Ikrgr 
and populous cities. Biiboa is (6 fituated that its ftreecs^ 
m»y all be wafhed erery day with water* conveyed into the 
ftreets by art. It is one of the ncateft citie» in Europe- 

Q. What is the commerce of Sjmn i 

A. In proportion to the (ize and natural riches of Spaia^ 
its commerce is very incoDfiderable. It centers principally 
at Cadiz. Its mannfadhires are principally of filk, woof, 
copper and hard-ware. Its exports are wine and fruits of 
its own productions^ and gold and Giver which it receiver 
from its provinces. 

Q. What is the government of Spain ? 

A. It is an abfolute hereditary monarchy. 

Q^ What are the annual revenues of Spain I 

A. Thofe raifed in Spain amount to abjut five millions 
fterling. Befides thefe, immenfe fums are drawn from A* 
merica. 

Q^ What is the military ftrength of Spain ? 

A. In time of peace it always amounts to 70,000 men^ 
and Id time of war they are eaiily increafed to 110,000. 

Q^ What is the marine flrength of Spain ? 

A. It has more than feventy fhips of the line, and its oth* 
er (hips of war make up the number more than two hundred. 

Q. What orders of knighthood are there in Spain ? 

A. They are feven in number, viz. the orders of the- 
Golden Fleece, of St. James, Calatrava, of Alcantara, of 
the Lady of Mercy, of Montefa and of Charks the thinL 

Q^ How does Spain lie with refpedt to the other Euro 
pean countries ? 

A. It lies E. of Portugal ; S. W. of France, Nether- 
fends, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Ruflia, Prn^ 
fia, Poland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, and Switzer- 
land ; W. of Italy and Turkey ; and S. oi England^ Scot* 

knd and Ireland. 

Op PORTUGAL. 

Q. What are the fituation and extent cf Portugal ? 

A. It is fUuated between 37 and 42 degrees of north laf- 
itude, and between 7 and 10 degrees of well longitude. Il 
is threi hundred miles long, and one hundred broad. It 
<:onuiDs thirty-two thoufand f(\uaT^ miles. 

Q^ How i» Portugal bounded ^. 
A. It is bounded on tl\e nonVi ^t\d eaSH.>3^ ^^i>^\ 
« the fouth and wcA by ih« Axlauuc 0<;t^^- 



OFEUROPE- 79 

Q^ How is Portugal dividtd ? 

A. Into eight provinces. 

C^ What IS the (bii of Portugal ? 

A. It i» not In gener^AJ fo fruittui as that of Spain. The 
fitce of the couarry i& much Uke th;it of Spain, only more 
rough. 

(>. What are the air and climate of Portugal ? 

A. Much like the air and climate of Spain in the fame 
latitudes. 

(^ What are it* TCgctabie produ^ons ? 

A. They are in kinds likt the Spaniih, hut the fruits of 
Portug-il are not lo highly favored as thofe of Spain. 

O. What are the •niniJ and mineral proJuctiuiiS of Por« 
tcgal ? 

A- If: animals are of jhc fame kinds with the Spmifh, 
but inferior. It has mines of the yariods kinds found in 
Spain, but they are not wrought. 

Q^ Are there any mountains in Portugal ? 

A. 'i'here arc fcveral. The Jsrbeft of which are thofc 
which divide Aigarva from ^^entejo, Traios, Mootes»aiid 
•he rock of Lifjon. 

Q^ What rivers are there in Portujjal ? 

A. The Tagtts or Tajo is the chie.S and bo h this and 
the others are mentioned in the defcription of Spain. 

Q. Are th-jre any lakes in Porrugkl ? 

A. There are f'veral : and many of its fprings are 
medicin.?!. 

Q. What are the chief bays of Portugal ? 

A. They are thofe uf Cadoan and Lagos. 

Q^ Wha? is the number of inhabitants ? 

A. About two milli'jn three hundred thoufand. 

Q^V/hat are the chaiaftenftics of the Port-iguefe ? 

A. TJiey are reported to be treacherous and unfaithi'al ; 
19 o;her refpeAs they rcfemole the Spaniards in rhcir char- 
a^er, manners and cuftoms. The drefs of the PortiiCucfe 
is t:>e fnme with that of the Spaniards, only more gay and 
fplendiJ. 

Q^ Wliat is the religioa of Portugal ? 

A. The Roman Cath(>iTt ; and tnc inquifition is dill in 
force both there and in Spain, 

(^ WiiAt number of Arch«Ty\iVkOTj\\Q.^ ^sv^ \i\^CiKs^vA 
are there in Po jtugui ? 
A» TiVej-e are ilirce Arch-I^ftio^^vw ^jcv^ v«^ssw\a? 



7.8 G E Q G R A P H Y 



Burgosy Saragoflky Toledo, and Bajados, all of them large 
and populous cities. Bilboa is (6 fituated that its ftreets^ 
may all be wafhed erery day with water, conveyed into the 
ftreets by art. It is one of the ncateft citiea in Europe^ 

Q. What is the commerce of Sjiain ? 

A. In proportion to the (ize and natural riches of Spaia,. 
its commerce is very inconfiderable. It centers principally 
at Cadiz. Its manufadhures are principally of mk, woof» 
copper and hard-ware. Its exports are wine and fruits of 
its own productions, and gold and Giver which it recetvesi 
from its provinces* 

Q. What is the government of Spain ? 

A. It is an abfolute hereditary monarchy. 

Q^ What are the annual revenues of Spain ? 

A. Thofe raifed in Spain amount to abjut five millions 
fterling. Befides thefe, immeofe fums are drawn from A* 
merica. 

Q^ What is the miKtary fireogth of Spain ? 

A. In time of peace it always amounts to 70,000 men, 
and in time of war they are eafily iqcreafed to iio,ooo« 

Q^ What is the marine flrength of Spain ? 

A. It has more than feventy fhips of the line, and its oth* 
er fliips of war make up the number more than two hundred. 

Q^ What orders of knighthood are there in Spain ? 

A. They are fevcn in number, viz. the orders of the- 
Golden Fleece, of St. James, Calatrava, of Alcantara, of 
the Lady of Mercy, of Montefa and of Charles the third* 

Q. How does Spam lie with refpeft to the other Euro 
pean countries ? 

A. It lies E. of Portugal ; S. W. of France, Nether- 
hnds, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Ruffia, PrnC- 
lia, Poland,. Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, and Switzer- 
land ; W. of luly and Turkey ; and S. of England^ Scot* 
knd and Ireland. __ 

Op PORTUGAL. 

Q. What are the fituation and extent of Portugal ? 

A. It is (ttuated between 37 and 42 degrees of north laf- 
itude, and between 7 and 10 degrees of well longitude. Ii 
is three hundred miles long, and one hundred broad. It 
<an tains thirty'two thoufand fquare miles. 
Q. How is Portugal bounded ^. 

A. It is bounded on the norO\ ^nd ea&>DPj ^^i^-, 9»^ 
a the fouth and weft by iVk^ A.\lm\<i Q^t^^- 



OFEUROPE. 79 



Q^ How IS Portugal dividfd ? 

A. Into eight provinces. 

C^ What is the foil of Portugal ? 

A. It i» not in genenil fo fruitt'ul as that of Spain. The 
face of the country is. much like that of Spain, only more 
rough • 

Q^ What arc the arr and climate of Portugal ? 

A. Much like the air and climate of Spain in th« fame 
latitudes. 

(^ What are it* vegetable productions ? 

A. They are in kinds like the Spaniih, but the fruits of 
Portugal are not lb highly flavored as thofe of Spain. 

Q. What are the Ammul and mineral produdiobs of Por- 
tugal? 

A. Its animals are off he fame kinds with the Spmifh, 
but inferior. It has mines of the various kinds found in 
Spain, but they are not wrought. 

Q^ Are there any mountains in Portugal ? 

A. "i'here are feveraL The lar^eft of which are thofc 
which divide Algarva from Alentejo, Tralos, Montes, and 
the rock of Lifbon. 

Q^ What rivers are there in Portugal ? 

A. The Tagtts or Taj o is the chief, and both this and 
the others are mentioned in the defcription of Spain. 

Q. Are there any lakes in Portugal ? 

A. There are feveral : and many of its fpriogs are 
Dedicin<i!. 

Q. What are the chief bays of Portugal ? 

A* They are thofe of Cadoan and Lagos, 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants I 

A. About two million three hundred thoufand". 

Q^What are the chaia<n:enftics of the Portuguefe ? 

A- I^hey are reported to be treacherous and unfaithful? 
iv oifaer refpe^ they refemble the Spaniards in their char- 
after, nunners and cuftoms. The drefs of the Portuguefe 
is the faoK with that of the Spaniards, only more gay and 
fplendid. 

Q^ Wliat is the religioa of Portugal ? 

A. The Roman CathoR- ; and the inquifition is dill in 
fcrce both there and in Spain. 

Q^ What number of Arch-B\{Woi^\\c^ ^tv^ l!>\^«cf^\v:.'\ 
Me there in Portugal ? • 

\4r There sure three Arch-]^£hopm* «5v^ vw^sJc^-"^ 



Bo G E O G ft A P H Y 



Biihoprics. The Arcb-Di(hop of Lifl)l:>a is generally af 
cardinal. 

Q. What is the language of Portugal' ? 

A. It differs but very little from the Spanifn. 

Q^ What is the ftate of learning in Portugal ? 

A. It is very low, there being lefs attention paid to 16 
than in any other country, alilK>{ly< in Europe. 

Q^ Are there any univcrikies in Portugal ? 

A. There are three ; one at Coimbra, one at Ei^oraf 
and one for educating the young nobility, at Lifbon. 

Q. What antic^uititis and curioGties are there in PortU" 
gal? 

A. There are many remains of the Roman and Moori/b 
antiquities to be fccn in various parts of the country : There 
are lakes into which a (lone being caft, caufes a rumbling 
like the noife of an earthquake. The king of Portugal haS 
the larged diamond in the world, which was found in BrsN 
til. 

Q^ What is the capital city of Portugal \ 

A. Lifbon. 

O^ Give a dcfcription of Lifbon ? 

A. It (lands in 8 degrees and 53 minutes of weft longi-* 
fude, and 38 degrees and 42 minutes of north latitude.r 
It (lands near the mouth of the river Tagus, and rifes fronn 
it in tlie form of a half moon. It is the greateft port, ex- 
cept IfOndon and Amflerdam, of any in Europe, and it 
contains about 2co,ooo inhabitants. It has feveral times 
been jrreatly damaged by earthquakes. Its ftreets are reg- 
ular, and us houfes, which are chiefly built of white ftone, 
are very fuperb* 

Q^ What other cities are there in Portugal \ 

A. The next to Li (ban is Oporto, from which is brought 
the port wine* It (iands north of Li(bon, and contains 
30,000 inliabitants. There are befide thcfc, Miranda^ 
Coimbra, St. Ubes, Evora, Portalegre, La{»os and Tavora^ 
Q^ What is the ftatc of commerce in Portugal \ 
A. The Portuguefe hating foreign eftabliihments in Af- 
rica, in the Eaft and Wcft-indics, and in South America, 
C'lrry on a very cxtenfive comm»*rce, bu^ it is not fo profita-* 
ble to tlicm as might be expected. Their commerce is, 
however, /greatly improved wii>.\n a f':w ^tars. 

C^ Wivdt is the Itate of mAuAVnO.:-.-^ V^ Vot\.\^^A\ 
^» They are few in number, ^.vi '^ix^iAftw^tLN. \a ^iowBi 



O F E U R O P E, 8r 

quaKty. The Portuguefe, however, excel greatly in their 
preferves and fweet- meats. 

Q^ What is the government of Pbrtngal ? 

A. It is an abfolute monarchy. The crown defcends 
hereditarily. The Cortes, or PaTiiament, confi(h, like th:2t 
of Spain, of clergy, nobility, and com.nons ; but they retain 
very few privileges beiide that of giving their affent to any 
new reguliition refpecling the defcent of the crown. 

Q^ VVhat is the amount of the revenue ? 

A. Above three millions and an half f^crlintr. 

Q_. What is the military and marine ihength of Por- 
tugal ? 

A. Their land forces amount to about fifteen thoufand 
men, whlolv arc badly difclpliucd. They have alfo about 
forty fliips of war. 

Q^ How many orders of koighthood are there in Por-^ 

tugal* 

A. There are three only, viz. thofe of Avis, of St. James 
and of Chrift. 

Q^ How is Portugal fituated, with refpe<5l to the other 
European countries ? 

A. It lies fouth of England, Ireland and Scotland ^ 
fbuthwefl of France, Netherlands, Holland, Germany>- 
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Rullia, Pruilia, Poland, Bo- 
hemia, Hungary and Switzerland ; and well of Turkey^ 
July and Spain.. 

Of ITALY. 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of Italy ? 

A. It is fituated between 38 and 47 degrees of north lat- 
itude, and between 7 and 19 of eafl longitudtv It is 500 
miles long, and 400 broad, containing 759056 fquare miles. 

Q^ How is Italy bounded I 

A. Italy is a peninfula extending fouth-eaft into the Med- 
iterranean.. It is bounded on the north-we'l by the Alps, 
on the north -eafl and eafl by the Adriatic, on the iouth-weft 
and fouth by the Mediterranean. 

Q^ What are the divifions of Italy ? 

A* It is divided into the dominions of the king of Sar- 
dkiiotthe dominions of the Pope, the dominions of the king. 
of Naples, and a number of fnuil wde^^dcwv^Vax^'ik'^xv^'t^- 

q. What is the foil of Italj I 



dx G E O G R A P H Y 

A. It is friendly to all the produdHons which' are itnea- 
tioncd in Spain, and yitlds thtm in great plenty. 

Q^ What is the air of Italy ? 

A. It is generally temperate svd healthy :- where it is 
unhealthy it is owing more to the indolence of the inhahi- 
tants than to nature. In the countries near the Alps and 
the Appenines, the air is. rather cold, efpecially in winter. 

<^ What mountains are there in Italy ? 

A. The Alps on the north ; the Appenines, which run 
aimofl through its whole length, and the famous volcano,- 
Mount Vefuvius, near the .city of Naples. 

Q^ What rivers are there in Italy ? 

A. The Poi the Var^ tho Adige, the Trehia, the Arno»r 
and the Tiber. 

Q^ Are there any lakes in Italy > 

A. The Maggiore» Lugano« Como Ifco, and Garda, ia 
the north ; and the Tharfimeie, Braciana^^ Terni^ and C^ 
lano, in the middle. 

(^ Are there any bays in Italy ?' 

A. There are a great numher, all' of which form excel* 
knt harbors, and render Italy better fituated for commerce 
than almo(i any country in the world. 

Q. What are the mineral and foflil productions of Italy i 
^. They are the fame, except g^Id andiilver, with thofe 
in Sj)ain. The Italian marble is celebrated throughout 
Europe. Italy contains a variety of mineral fprings of va- 
rious (]ualities. 

Q^ What are the vegetable produflions of Italy ? 

A. In addition to the fruits mentioned in Spain, all of 
which grow here in plenty, Italy produces plu^s, cherries^ 
&c. in the greatell plenty. 

Q. What are the animal productions of Italy ? 

A. ,Thcy are much tlie fame with thofe of France and 
Germany. 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants In Italy ? 

A. In all the Itahan- territory tliere ar« about twenty ^ 
Bliliions. 

Q. What arc the charaCleriHics of the Italians ? 

A. They are rather tailor than the middle iize, and have 

very exprellive countenances. They are generally wtll* 

built, and handibmcly proportioned. In tlieir difpofitiont- 

thcy are fobcTy fpccious,fu>^«lV\uo\3L^^\i\'5p«.^wv'^i»c^n^ 



OPEUROPE. 88 

fdh They Are more attentive to the fine arts, than the 
(ciences. , 

Q^ What are their cuftoms ? 

A, They live in a great meafure upon vegetables. They 
drefs not fo gaily as the French, nor lo gravely as the Span- 
iards. Many cufloms which in other countries are deemed 
criroinaly are tolerated in Italy ; and mod of the Jadies of 
quality, although married, have their gallants, who attend 
on them both at home and abroad. 

Q^ What are the diverfions of the Italians ? 

A. They are mafquerading, gaming, horfe-racing, and 
aflemblies. Befide thefe, they have many religious exhibi- 
tions, in which they diiplay more pomp than any other na- 
tion. 

Q^ What is the religion of Italy r? 

A. The Roman Catholic. 

Q^ What number of Arch-Bifhoprics are there in Itaily "^ 

A. There are thirty-eight. The Bifhoprics are indefi- 
nitely numerous ; the Pope varies them at his plcafure* 

Q. W^at is the Italian language :? 

A. It is a harmonious language ; the foundation of it is 
jLiatin, but almoft every flate has a different dialcdt. 

Q^ What is the fcate of learning in Italy ? 

A. Italy has produced a great number of the firft char- 
li^bers in the literary world.; but ic modern times the people 
«re much more attentive to arc^iiteicliire, fculptunc, painting, 
^and mudc, in which they excel arU other nations in the num- 
ber and charadler of their performances. In the fciences 
athey do not make a very confpicuous figure. 

(^ What number of univerfities are there in Italy ? 

A. Sixteen, 

Q^ What.are t^he artificial curiofities in Italy ? 

A. They are very numerous. The amphitheatres, the- 
■fitres, triumphal arches, &c. which have ftood, fome of 
:thcm, more than two thoufand years, (hew the boldefl and 
Hioft perfeft models of architecture in tlie worlds In almoft 
every city in Italy there are noble buildings of various kinds* 
the moft finifhed fj>ecimens of painting and fculpture, to- 
other with ancient medals and coins, which are very curi- 
<m and in(lru6tive. 

Q. What are the natural curiofiut^ ^. 

A/ The various eruptions of MoMi\t MtSwwxs Vast ^^ 
linycd ferenl cities which have been deW^^^d.^VOc^^'^^*'* 



84 GEOGRAPHr 



feme have been difcovered within a few years which have 
jbeen biiried feveral centuries. The Grotto deJ Cani has 
poifonous (leams ifTuing from it which kill animals that enter 
it. The vaft bodic« oi ice called the Glaciers on the Alps, 
which run feveral leagues iii length, are a grand and fingu* 
lar curiofity. There arc five of them, and they all termi- 
nate in one at that part of the Alps called Mont Blanc* 
which is the hi^hefl mountain in Europe. 

Q^ What is the government of Italy ? 

A. It varies in the different countries or dtvifions : Ibine 
ftatcs are republics, and fome are governed by princes, al- 
though two only are kingdoms. 

Q. What are tlie republican goverjHnents ? 

A. They are ariftocratical, being governed by nobles« 
and the prcHdcnt is called the Doge. The republics arc 
Venice, Genoa, Lucca and St. Marino. The duchies are 
Tufcany, Parma, MafFa, Modeiaa, Piombino, and Monaco; 
all of which aie governed by their rcfpedive princes. The 
monarchies are Sardinia including Piedmont, and Naples 
including Sicily. The monarchs of thefe, -together with 
4 he Pope and other foverei^ns, are all abfolute in their owt 
territories. 

Q. What i« the capital city of Italy i 

A. Rome is the capital. It ftands on the river Tiber, 
and contains about i8o,coo inhabitants. It lies in 41 de- 
grees and 54 minutes north latitude, and 12 degrees and 
45 minutes eaft longitude. It is the refidence of the Pope, 
and in it is the largell church in tlie world, viz. St. Peter's. 

Q. What other cities are there in Italy ? 

A. Genoa, the capital of the republic of the fame name, 
is a large city. It contains 150,000 inhabitants. Venice, 
the capital of that republic:, contains 200,000 inhabitants. 
Milan, Turin, Naples, and Florence, are the largeft after 
thofe already mentioned, but there are a great number oi 
large, populous and commercial cities in Italy, which in al- 
moi\ any other country would make a confpicuous figure. 
Such arc Loretto, Muniua, Parma, Leghorn, Lucca, Mo- 
dcna, Bologna, Mirandola, Maifa, Pifa, &c. 

Q. Are there any orders of knighthood in Italy ? 

A. There are in Italy ten orders of knighthood, v\z. 

The ordtiTs of St. Januarius, of Annunciation, of St. Laza- 

fMSj of St* MsLuricCf of St. Mark, o{ St. G^w^«.» ^^ fe. Ste- 



OrEURdl^E. S5 



fhen, of the H0I7 Ghoft, of Jefus Chrift, of the Golden 
>pury and of Pius. 
Qj^ What ii1.inds arc there in the feas around It-ily ? 
A. Majorca) Ivica, and Minorca, which belong to 8pHir * 
DorlTca, which lately belonged to France, but haa b.cf 
:onquered by England ; Sardinia, with leveral fmall sflancts, 
which belong to the king of Sardinia. The capital of Sar- 
dinia is Cagitari. Sicily, witli feveral fmall iflands lying 
round it, belongs to the king of Naples. The c«pn*il of »:>i- 
cily is Palermo, which contains 120.000 inh.ibitants. I'he 
whole iiland, wliich is very fruitful, contains 1,200,000. 
The famous volcano. Mount Etna, ttands on this ifland, 
which is one of the moil wonderful mountains in the world. 
Q^ What is the extent of Sicily ? 
A. It is 210 miles long, and 130 broad. 
Q. What are its produftions ? 

A. They are much the fame with thofe of Italy. Near 
Syracafe,the ancient capital, there are forty dlffcTtnt kinds 
of wine made. 
Q^ What other iflands are there ? 
A. There is the ifland of Malta, which is a rocky and 
barren place by nature. It belongs to the knights of St. 
John, who have made it aYni'tful country. 
Q^ Arc there any iflands in the Adriatic Sea ? 
A. There are the Great and Little Cephalonia, Corfu^ 
Zante, St. Maura, with fome fmalkr ones, all of which be- 
long to the Venetians. 

Q. How does Italy lie, with refpe<5t to the otl^r Euro- 
{>ean countries ? 

A. It lies cail of Spain and Portugal; fouth-eafl of Swit- 
2erlandy France, Netherlands, Holland, England, Irchnd, 
ind Scotland ; fouth of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and 
Germany; fouth-eaft ofiiohemia, Hungary, Poland, Pnif- 
£a and Ruffia ; ai>d wefl of Turkey. 



Of turkey. 
Q. What countries are comprehended under the name 
6f Turkey ? 
A. Turkey in EuropCi Turkey in Ada, and Turkey in 



Africa. 



Q-_What is thefituatlon and extent o{lL>\\Vt^W^MXc«^\ 
A. Jf if £tuated between 56 aud l<^ ^^^^^"^ ^ xss^!^ 

H 



OFEUROPE. 87 



other kingdoms in Europe ; and the Turkifh maiblc is 
d to be the iinefl in the world. 
Q^ What are the itiimal produdlions ? 
A. They are of the various kiuds which are found in 
iher European countiies, and not exceeded by any in the 
orld. 

Q^ What curiofities are there in Turkey in Europe ? 

A. There are more of them than in any other country 
Q Europe. Many of the ancient Grecian cities arc (lill to 
»e feen in ruins, and in aimofl every one of them are the 
uoil (Iriking monuments of Grecian fuperflition and.gran- 
leur. They are too numerous to be mentiontd. 

^ What is the capital city of Turkey io Europe ? 

A. Condantinople. 

Q^ Give a defcription of it ? 

A. It was built by the Roman emperor Conflantlne the 
Great, and Hands 00 the European fide of the Bofphorus, 
on the fpot where flood the arcicnt city Byzantium. It is 
fituated in 41 degrees of north latitude, and 29 degrees of 
^ longitude, and is a walled city with nine gates : one of 
which being called the ** Sublime Porte," gives the name of 
the Porte to the Ottoman Court. It contains a feraglio, 
with a number of handfome buildings both public and pri- 
vate, and is one of the largeft cities in Europe, containing 
between eight and nine hundred thoufand inhabitaqts. 
About two thirds of the inhabitants of Condantinople are 
Gretks and Armenians. All foreign ambafFadors and 
grangers refide in a fmall town called Pera, which is oppo ^ 
■tcthe Porte, and which is confidcred as one of the fuburbs 
rf the city. For the other parts of the Turkifli geography, 
^ they are alike in Europe and Afia, they will be mention* 
^ in Afia all under one head. 
Q^ Are there any inlands belonging to the Turks in the 

wditerruiean ? 
A. There are a large number ; all the iflands belonging 

j^ uicient Greece now form a part of the Turkifh domin- 

^9 >nd are called the Archijielago. 
(^What are the principal iflands? 
A. Negropont, Lcmnos, Tenedus, Scyros, Le(bo9| Chi- 

% Saoibs, Patmos, the clufler called the Cyciades, Paros, 
.'^^go» Santorin, Rhodes, and Candia, v/hicWv^ t:.J.'Aiv;.\\A. 
I wf itt hundred cities. It is two hwudie-^i tcav-i^ \viiv>^» "W^^ 
' *«r bmd. Cyprus lies in the L^-^axit Ica \ \x ^a ^^ 



88 GEOGRAPHY 



hundred and fifty miles long and feventy broad. It is He- 
uuteJ at about an equal diili^nce from Europe and Africa : 
Nicofia is the capital. Th;:fe iilands are generally very 
fruiiiui, and are much celebrated in ancient hidory. The 
prtfent inhabitants are the defccnd.ints of the ancient Greeks^ 
but much degenjiattd from the chiirit^er of their anccilors. 

Q^ Ho'.v docs Turkey lie, with rcfped to the other Eu- 
ropean conntries ? 

A. It lies E. of Italy, Si)ain and Portugal ; S. E. of 
Hungary, Boheiuii, Getmaiiy, Netherlands, Flulland> 
Engldiul, IrcLn.:, Scotland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden^ 
PrulUa aad Puland ; and i'uuth of Rufiia. 



Or ASIA. 

Q^ WHAT is tho liLuation of Afia ? 

A. Afn, the Uigeil divilion of the eaftcrn continent, is 
iitu..icd between the equator and 80 degrees of north Lti- 
tudc, and l>etwct-n 25 and i8o degrees of eaft longitude. 
It is 4>7fo miles long, and 4,3^0 bro&d» containing 
10,768,823 Iquare miits. 

O. How i.s Alia bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the nortii by the Frozen Oceaa ; 
on the cait by the Pacific Ocean ; on the fouth by the Tn- 
K.'i.^i. Ocean ; ar.d on tho well by Europe, the ilthmus of 
buez, and the KlU oea. 

Of TURKKY in ASIA. 

O- Wiutare the lit., icion .ir-d extur.t of Tuikcy in Afis** 

A. Il is fnuatcd bctv.ce:i 28 and 45 dcgiets of north 
latitude, and b«utWLen 27 and 46 dcy/ees ot" call longitu^*' 
It .s 1,000 iuIIls long and buo broad, ^.ontiiiuingjzOjfc*-^^ 
fiju irc miles. 

O. iioVJ is it bounded ? 

aT it i:i l3uuiui;'i by CircalTn .ind ilie BUch Sea on ^^^ 
noitii ; by i\:\u 0.1 the (.ail, by Avalvia and Levant ^*^^ 
0:1 I J ivui. J ; .i;ul i.y ihe Archiucla^'», the Hclltfpont, ^**^ 
ti;o I'lopiJiiLi.-. un the weit. 

Q^ Wn.it snouir. ;ias are thtre in Tuikey in Afia ? 

j^i (J«}njj»ds, Taurus, Aiui- Tauriis, Caucalus, Ar*'^ 
Lcbuiio 'f. and Hcrmou, .ivc iW i^ut\cv>^A* 
(^ Whit rivers are iV.^;tv: ^, 



O F A S I A. 89 

A. The Euphrates^ Tigris^ Orontesi Meander, Sarabatj 
Kara, and Jordan. 

Q^ What is the air ? 

A. It is generally very pure and healthy, but in fbmc 
places it is infedted with peflilentiai difeafes, more efpcc* 
iaily the plague. 

Q^ What is the climate ? 

A. There is no country in the world which enjoys a 
finer climate than Turkey in Afia. . 

(^ What is the foil ? 

A. It is very fruitful by nature, but it is very little cul- 
tivated. 

Q^ What are the produiftions of Turkey In Afia ? 

A. Almoft every vegetable produdlion, which is found 
in any other country in the world, is here produced in abun- 
dance ; whether for food, medicine, or apparel. The 
Turkifh fruits are equal to any in the world, and almoft 
of every kind, 

Q^What are the animal produtSlions ? 

A. They confift of the various kinds, both tame and 
wild, which are found in other kingdoms of the fame lati- 
tude, and are generally excellent in their kind. Camels 
y^ there moft ufeful animal, aj:Kl their borfes are the beft 
in the world. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants is there in Turkey ? 

A, In all the Turkifh dominions there are about forty- 
uinc millions of inhabitanis. 

Qj^ What are the chara<5leriftics of the Turks ? 

A. They ar-? generally well made and handfome when 
pung» but appear old at thirty years of age. The Turks 
^ indolent and fuperfritious, but commonly temperate. 
They are, heavy, morofe, treacherous, furioufly pallionate,, 
*nfocial, and unfriendly to people of all other nations. The 
Turks of Afia are however, of a better character than thofe 
^f Earope, and there are not wanting among them men of 
^T and relpe<5lable charadters. 

^What are their culloms ? 

A* They commonly fit crofs-legged in company, and 
7^ much of their time with their women ; drink coffee, 
**oSte tobacco, or chew opium. They falute each other by 
JJJ^ing the head and laying the rl^hl.V\;kt\A.OTi^^V^a&«- 

a 2 



9e GEOGRAPHT 

The lower fort afualtv Ure on riet f and tbeir meat it a^ 
way^ boiled or roafted to rafft . 

O. What are their diTcrfions ? 

A. Thefe arctihiiig darts^ or (hooting, at tbe mark, aod? 
{bmetimes hunting : but tbeir comiuon diverfion is playing: 
at chefs, at which they never bet any moDey.^ 

Qj^ What b the Turkilb dreS > 

A. The Turks (hare their htadsy leaving only a fmall 
bunch of hair on the top } but wear their beards long. Theyr 
wear a turban inftead of a hat, and never take it off", except 
when they (hep. They wear a cloak fafteoed with a fa(h,. 
and their breeches form but one piece with their (lockings^ 
On their feer they wear (Kppers inilead of (hoes, which they 
always put off when they enter their mofques^ The wo- 
men drefs much like tie menrbut they wear veils when they 
go abroad. Mo(k of them ufe a yellow paint on their hands^ 
and the men aHb rub it over their beards. 

Q^ What do you fay of the Turkiih marriages b 

A. When partie» are asrced, tbe bridegroom pays afum* 
of money, and having obtamed a licenfe from the Cadi, they 
are married. Their religion allows themtonly four wives f 
but as many concubines as theypleafe. The women negociate 
the match, tlie men troubling thcmfelves. very little. about it.. 

Q^ What peculiarity is there in their funerals ? 

A. They are very decent, but the wife^-at certain days,, 
ipreads flowers over the tomb of her hu (band i the corpfe is 
commonly buried firft in a mofque, and then carried into a^ 
burying-yard, at which time the priefl- delivers a iermoBb 
The mourner leaves off all (ioery for twelve months-. 

Q^ Wliat is the language of Turkey ? 

A. Tlyere are feveral languages fpoken in the country^ 
among which is the modern Gr-eel& and Arabic. 

Q^ What is the flate of learning : 

A, The Tnrks pay no attention to- it, and have no uni- 
verfities. Some of tliem learn to read the ELuran, to write 
a letter, and to make verfcs. 

Q. Wh*t antiquities are there in Turkey in A(ia > 

A. There are more than in any other country in the 

world, as it includes feveral coamries mod celebrated both 

in facred and profane hiftory* It contains many antiqui- 

ties of tbe Jews, Grc«ks, Romans, and feveral other nations. 

A. great number of tbe ancierA cvufi^o^ K^^^a^^vll (lond- 

^'Jg, but a/moft in ruinsand exKv\a:\\.vVvc\sv^^WvV\sv^^avw«%r 

»^iw* of antiquity ii^ the Nirot\A* 



O F A S I Ar 91 

_ What h the capitaf chy of Turkey in Affa ? 

A. Though there are » great number of cities in this 
country^ they are not very confi<%rable9 having very little 
trade or mandiii^res. AleppCy^owever, is a large city,. 
and is the mod re^eiUbie in Turkey In- Afta. It has 
335*000 iDhabitantSy coBtaicwa large number of mofques, 
iMgnioSy &c. The manner of buildmg is fimilar through^- 
•ut Turkey, viz. the koufes have a dead wall to the (Weet> 
fiirrounded with a piazzas and commonly pavetl with marble. 

Q^ What other cities are there in Turkey in Ada f 

A. Bagdad* the capital of ancient Chaldea, (lands oir 
the river Tigris. Curdilkn is the capital of ancient AfTyria ;, 
k is near the ancient Nineveh. Tefti» is the capital of 
Georgia^ which*, has revolted fronv Turkey, and is inhabited 
by Chriftiaas. £drffa is the capital of Mefoputamia. The* 
cities of Danrafctis and Jerttfalemaredill- (landing, but Tyre 
and Sidon are in ruins.- Befide thefe and nuny more once 
celebrated cities- 9f asti^ty^ are Mecca and Medina in< 
Arabia : the former of them is the birth-place of Mahom^ 
eft and in^ the other he- was- buriedl 

Q^ What is the late of commerce in Turkey ^ 

A.. Though Turkey is- happily fituated by nature for ex^- 
tenfive commerde^ and though the produ^ions of the foil^ 
•re very favourable to it, yet 5ie Turks pay very little atten- 
tion to commerce, and it is confequctntly very much confined. 

Q^ What are tlfe manufa<flures of Turkey ? 

A. They do very litde at manufa^uring ; and only at*" 
tBad to thoie of leather, cotton, carpets and foap^ 

Q^ Wh^t is the government of Turkey ? 

A.- The government of Turkey is abfoJute : the emperor 
i% Ayled ♦* Grand Seignor^" whois eledted, and mod com* 
monly by the Janizaries* What is fingular in Turkey js,. 
that rhe firft officers of dare are the mod unfortimatc men in 
the empire ^ as their lives are wholly dependent on the ca- 
price of the emperor, who frequently cuts them off when it 
fiiits his intered« 

Q^What is the amount of the revenues of Turkey ? 

A. Tliey are fuppofed to amount annually to 20,000,000 

fterUagr 

C^.What is the military force of Turkey ? 
. -A* The land force of Turkey, includii\^mVV\x\^,^taw«^a^ 
to alwBt 400,000 men. The horfc atid ?oo\. %>»x^'i, ck\ 
i^pfthu^ aad /aiulahes, are the duef 4c\«tv^vi«. ^^ ^ 



92 GEOGRAPHY 



government. Their navy confifts of 76 YtGkk of war, and 
there are 50,000 eDrolled Tailors. 



art*ft««ii*i 



Of TARTARY ih ASIA. 

Q^What are the fituation and extent of Tartary in Afia ? 

A. It is 4000 miles l0ng» and 2»400 broad. It is fit- 
uated between 30 and 72 degrees of north latitude, and be- 
tween 50 and 150 degrees of eaft longitude. 

Q^ How is Tartary bounded I 

A. It Is bounded on the north by the Frozen Ocean ; 
on the ead by the Pacific Ocean ; on the fouth by China^ 
India, Perfia, and the Cafpian Sea ; and on the weft by 
Mufcovy ; comprehending all the north part of Afia, from 
the European boundary on the weft, to the Pacific Ocean 
on the eaft, and being but very imperfedly known to Eiu 
fopcan nations ; not even to tlie empreis of Ruilia» to 
whom it is fubje<f^. 

Q^ What are the countries contained within the conntrj 
called Great Tartary ? 

A. In the north-eaft divifion are Kamfchatka and Jakutf* 
koi ; in the fouth-eaft are Bratfkoi, Thibet, and Mog\iI 
Tartary ; on the north-weft are Samoiedaand Oftiack ; on 
the fouth-weft are CircaiHa and Aftracan ; and in the mid- 
dlc divifion are Siberia, Kalniuc, andUfbeck Tartary ; all 
of which are but imperic(5lly known, though they are all 
large countries. 

Q^ What mountains are there in Tartary ? 

A. The principal are Caucafus, Taurus, Ararat and 
Stolp. 

Q^ What are the fcas of Great Tartary ? 

A. Tliere ore the Frozen Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and 
the Cafpian Sea. 

Q^Whiit are tlif chief rivers ? 

A. The Wolga, the Cby, the Tabol, the Irtis, the Gcu- 
ife or Jcnlka, the Burrumpooter, the Lena and the Argun. 

Q^ WJ)iU is tiiC air : 

A. It is various ; in fume parts it is very healthy and 
ferene, and in others it is quiw the levcrfe. 

Q^ What is the climate ? 

A. That, like the air, is very different ; being in fome 
pfirts cold and fcvjie, in fome mild and temjierate, and in 
others very hot arjd unheakh^. 
Q^ V^'h'^i arc tlie pvoduvl'ious o^ \Vit lvi^\ 



O F A S I A. 95 



A. They are ditTerent in different parts of the country. 
The ^orth parts in Nova Zenibia and RuiHan L.ipland pro- 
duce little or nothing, it being winter there for nine niontlis 
in the year. Siberia produces rye, oats, barley, radilhes, 
cucumbers, cabbages and turnips, with currants and ftraw- 
berries ; but fruit trees will not fiourilh. Alhacan, and .he 
foutlicrn parts of Tartary, produce fruits of rilmoll every 
kind ; and its grapes are the largeit in the world. Many 
modiciPi.I plants grow in various parts of the country, with 
nuny other vegetable piodudions. 

Q^ What are the metallic and mineral productions ? 

A. In Siberia arc mines of gold, Giver, copper, Sec, with 
the vaiious kinds of precious ilones nientioned in fume of 
the European kir.gdoms. 

Q£^ What are the ar.imal productions ? 

A. They are camv.ls, dromeuaries, wild boars, wolves, 
and the other animals which are common in the ooith of 
I^urcpe, both land animals and amphibious. There is a bird 
near Ailracan called the Bala, which Iras a large pouch un- 
der the bdl, into which it puts its food, [t walks on the 
£de of the ihores, and when it difcovers fmall (ifh, it flaps 
its wings and drives them into (hoal water, and then catcli« 
es them. The Tartars have excellent horLs, and black fox- 
es, fables and ermines are caught in the Siberian forcds. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants arc there in Great 
Tartiry ? 

A. i'he number is not known, yet it is probably very 
large, fioni the txtent or the couiitiy which they inhabit. 

Q^ \Vi:Ht are their niaiiners ? 

A. They vary exs:tc:JIiii;y. Some of the nati.?r.3, cfpe- ' 
cially toward the louth, uvc hum.ine and faithful to thofe . 
who put their conlidencc in them ; and arc capable of gen- ; 
cious and ekvated ftntiments. Others are nicre favages. 

C^V/hat is their niar.ner of lile ? 

A. They live a wandering life, frequently removing froFa 
one place to another with tkeii little ones and their ilocks, 
in companies of eight or ten thoufand in a body. After 
they have lived in one pLce uiuiJ th-y have confumed the 
means of fullenance, they rcm«)ve, in a body, to another, and .' 
from place to pl.ioo, having no li.sLcd h.ibit.iiicn. 

Ql. What are their cuftums ? 

a; Tiio/e of CircuilJa fell their da\\n\AUT*.\.o\\\?:'^>a^^-» 
Had educate them to be (jitcd for iVx ^v:x;\.^vo> ^i5v;^'^ ^'^ 



94 GEOGRAPHY 



miy cnfdrc a iarge price to the parent. Tiieir women are 
faid to be the handfoniclt in the w.»rld. The Tarwrs in 
gener.ll puifue tiic dufc, «ire inured to horiemanfliip, and 
Icrupuloiiily avoiil i.ihour, except tending tlicir flocks. 

Q^ What i3 their appearance ? 

A. They arc generally flout men, with broad face!:, flat 
nofes, black bi:ir and eyss ; their eyes ai e \ery Im ill. Tl.ey 
pluck out tKcir beards by the routs, which ni.ike& them look 
as if ilicy h.;d never \\jni any. 

Q^Whai is their diefs ? 

A. They ufually drel's in dec^fltins with the fur outwards ; 
thiir drcfs is veiy li^^ht, that it may not iiicuniher ii)em. 

(^ /Ire the mann'.'rs at^d cuitoms of all Lhe inliubitJOts 
of Tartary fimilar ? 

A. No ; fume of them live in {\s.%.\\ h.i'.ii rations which re- 
femble the wigwams of t{|e Anieiican Indians, and it is laid 
thai ihey have communicaiions ur Ir ground with each oth- 
er, to which tl)ey arc prompted by ih-,ii .lnpolliion for r<»ci- 
aliuv. All of them eat huifj fleih, ai.d picicr it when a lit- 
tle tainted. They purch.ife their wives Aviih cattH:, iind af- 
ter one wife becomes advanceJ in yeir?, flic is turned by to 
ferve the younger, who are miitrtfs knd lervani in their turn. 

C^ What is the religion ? 

A, Moft of ih^m are heathens ; feme of then) are Ma- 
hometans ; and feme of them are Chriftia'.s. By far the 
gicateft part, however, art- idol.tcis. In the kinf^dom of 
ThilKt, the Grand Lama i^ worlhippcd, andieVvral other 
tf the Tartar nations are fubje«5l to him. 

CX WWa^is the {late of learning ? 

A. At preilH^ there is no art fiction paid to it ; but for- 
merly, wh.n rameil.ine and Jenghis Khan reigned iheie, it 
was ilourifliiiig in Tartary. 

(V Wliat euriofiiies are there in Tartary ? 

A. They eoi.nfl in the ri:mains of ancient cities which 
were built in the reigii^ of J^mj^his Khan, TamerlaDe, and 
their fucc: iT«)ie-, in whi'.h there are fpcciniens of the mofl 
ele;.;ant Hrchitechnv, tade, and fancy, which would do kon- 
our to the enlightened countries of Gwece and Rome. 

(/. Wiut ti).vns and cities of impoitancc are there in 
Tartary ? 

A. 'i'he principal cities which we know of arc Tobolflu^ 
Ci^w, Altrncdn, and KiacUu. ToV^Afld cotiuuw about 



O F A S I A. 95 

25,000 inhabitanlsy and Aftracan about 70^0009 and ar€ 
both places of commerce. 

Q^ What is the ftate of commerce ? 

A. There is very little attent^n paid to it, and confe- 
quently it is fmall, being C0Dfuie^rincipii,!Iy to the peltry 
trade and a few medicines. 

Of the empire of CHINA. 
Q^ What are the fituation and extent of China ? 
A. It is (ituated between 20 and 42 degrees of north lat- 
itudcy and between 98 and 123 degrees of eaft iongitude» 
being one thoufand four hundred and fifty miles^long» and 
ooe thoufand two hundred and (ixty broad. It contains 
one million one hundred and five thoufand fquare miles, and 
Chinefe Tartary contains fix hundred and forty-four thou- 
fand, fo that in the whole territory are one million feven 
hundred and forty-nine thoufand (quart miles. 
Q^ How is China bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by Tartary, and a wuH 
fifteen hundred miles in length ; on the cad by the Pacific 
Ocean ; on the fouth by the Chinefian Sea ; and on the 
Weft by Tonquin, Thibet, and Ruflia. 

Q^ How is the empire of China divided ? 
A. It is divided into (iKtecn great provinces. 
Q^What is the face of the country? 
A. It is, except in the north, a very level countrj^, and 
contains no mountains which we know of« 
Q^ What rivers are there in China ? 
A. The Tamour, the Argun, the Wharaboo, the Kiam, 
and the Tay. 

Q^ Are thefe any large bays ? 
A. Thofe of Nankin and Canton are the chief. 
Q^ What is their internal navigation ? 
A. There are many canalt in China, fome of them arc 
a thoufand miles long, and walled on the infide with hewn 
ftone ; they are deep enough for large veffels to float in ; 
and the veffels being (6 conllru^led as to make it convenient 
for people to live in them, there are thought to be as many 
people who live in them and fpend their lives on the water, 
as there are on the land. They lendcr the appearance of 
the country very pleafant. 

Q-_ Are there any forefts in C\vmat^. 

A* There are none j" all the wood is c>3^X tior^tk^ vA^ 



55 GEOGRAPHY 

grournd improved j except that which is neceflarily devoted 
to wood for ufc, which grows on the fides of the mountains. 

Q^ AVliat is the air ? 

A. In the north it is ^d, in Uie middle mild, and in the 
fouth hot. 

Q. What is the foil ? 

A. The foil is as fruitful, both by nature and art, as anjr 
in the world. 

Q^ What are its vegetable produftions ? 

A. Thofe peculiar to China, are the tallow tree, which 
produces a fruit which anf <vers ail the purpofes of tallow. 
There is a tree which produces a kind of flour ; fonie pro- 
duce poifonous gums, fome a fpice much like pepper ; but 
the tea plant is pcculim- to China, and is one with which 
we are bell: acquainted. Tt produces all the different kinds 
of tea, which vary only by the difference in the lime of 
gathering, and in the mode of curing. Bcfide thefe which 
are peculiar to China, it furnifhes moft of the other produc- 
tions which are found in other parts of the world ; though 
their fruits in many inflances are not fo good as thofe of 
the fame kinds in America, becaufe lefs perteAiy cultivated* 

Q. What are the mineral produdlions ? 

A. China is faid to abound with all kinds of minerals 
which arc found in the other kingdoms of the world, and 
white copper is peculiar to this empire. The mines are 
very little wrought. 

O. What number of inhabitants are there in China ? 

A. Some have computed them at two hundred mill- 
ions ; the number is immenie a&d the country is overpeo- 

pTed. 

i). What is the appearance of the Chinefe ? 

A. They are froall of ftature, with broad faces, fniall 
black eyes, and fliort nofrs. Their complexion in the 
north is fair, but in the fonrh it is tawny. They cut their 
hair like the Turks, leaving only a Jock on the top of their 
heads, and pull out their beards, leaving a few Scattering 

hairs only. 

Q. What are the manners and cijftoms of the Chinefe ? 

A. We havft but very imperfect information refpe^ing 

them ; we know, however, th vt they are ufually fnid to be 

Anavf/h. In nicdern times, they in fome refpe(5ts imitate 

the Tartars in their Mafiticev 'i\\^^ we \tx^ \ti^>A.nQu« k 



O F A S I A. . 97 



^Qt (b mach attached to ancient cuilomsi tliat they difdain 
to make any improvements. 

Q^.What is their <lrefs i 

A. It varies in the different cla/Tcs ; and that of both 
men and women is much a1ike« 

Q^ What is the manner of the Chine fe marriages ? 

A. The match is made by the parents without the par- 
ties ever feeing each other* 

Q^ What is the manner of their funerals ? 

A. People commonly have their coffins made in their 
life time, and all perfons are buried without the walls of 
the city. There is a peculiar cuftom prevailing among them f 
every man keeps a table, on which arc written the names of 
his Either, grandfather, and great gr^indfaiher ; and when 
the father of a family dies, the great -grandfcUher's name is 
crafed, and his own inferted, by his children. 

Q. What is there remarkable in the Chinefe language i 

A. It contains only three hundred and tliirty-Ax words, 
all of them fnonofyllables. They write in arbitrary charaC" 
ters, of which they have about eight thoufand. 

Q^ What is the genius and learning of the Chinefe ? 

A. Their genius is rather imitative than inventive, and 
they make but very few improvements in inventions of any 
kind. They have not any tafle for ^ne writing, but in lay- 
ing out their gardens and pleafure grounds they exhibit a 
Bioft fubHme tafle. There is every encouragement given to 
the cultivation of fcience, yet they make but a' very indif- 
ferent figure in it. Among their inventionsv.hey claim that 
of gun-powder, and among their difcoveries the magnetic 
ooedle. 

Q^ What are the curiofties In China ? 

A, There are but few natural curiofities in China, and 
what there are coniKl in peculiar lakes and volcanoes ; but 
^ their artificial curiodties are, in fume rcTpc'ds, fuperior to 
thofe of any other nation. They condll in bridges, tri- 
umphal arches, buildings, walls, &c. The great wall may 
I' give afpecimen of their labour and perfevcrance. It is about 
i fifteen hundred miles long, and feparates China from Tartary 
on the north. It has flood nearly two thoufand years ; it 
is about twenty feet high, and broad eaow^ lLc»t vVvx^^ 
'. boilcs to go abreutt on its top. 

Q^ What are the principal cities ot Cfr^tWL ^. 

f 



9^ GEOGRAPHY 

A. There are faid to be four thoufand and four hundred 
^valled towns inChinay the largeft of which are PekiD> Nan* 
kin, and Canton. Pekia, the capital, is fituated in an open 
plain, is a regular fquare,aod exclufive of the fuburbs is eigh- 
teen miles in circumference. It is faid to contain about two 
sniilions of inhabitants. Its walls are fix^y cubits high and 
very thick. It fhinds eight thoufand and (ixty-two miles 
fouth-eailerly of London. Canton (lands on the month of 
the river Tay, on a bay which gives thfft city its name. It 
contains about one million and two hundred thoufand inhab- 
itants. Of the other cities of China we know little^ as Eu- 
ropeans are rarely fuffered to viGt them. In the houfcs of 
the Chincfe cities, they have no windows toward the ftrcct 
nor toward their neighbours, fuch is their privacy. 

Q. What is the ftate of commerce in China ? 

A* Almoft every nation trades with this country^ bitt 
the Chinefe export little in their own veflcJs. 

Q^ "What is the ftate of its manufaftures ? 

A. The Chinefe mAr.ufa^ure all kinds of filks and cot- 
ton ; the China ware is known among all civilized nations 
on earth. The true nankeens arc a Chinefe manufa^ure» 
as Is alfo a peculiar kind of ink for drawing. 

Q^ What is the government of China ? 

A. It is monarchical, and the emperor is abfolute tod 
much reverenced by his fubjetSs, who are all taught from in- 
fancy to pay veneration to their parents, and to the emperor 
as the great father of the empire. 

O. What is the religion ? 

A. Chriftianity was once introduced into China, but it 
made fmall progrcfs. The Chinefe are generally idolaters. 

Q^ What is the amount of their revenues ? 

A. They are faid to amount to forty millions ftcrling. 

Q^ What is the military force of China ? 

A. It amounts to feven hundred thoufand regular troops 
8nd (.ight hundred thoufand militia. Its marine ftrengthit 
very fmall, confifting of a few fmall vcflels and coafters* 

Of COREA. 
Q^ What arc the fituation and extent of Corea i 
A. It is fituated betv/een t^^ ^tvd s^i degrees of Doni 
/afjfudc, and het\^cen \Z2 3LT\d ii<) ^^^t^^^^I ^\%.VMit^ 
t tide. It is fix hundred rcxWe^ \oi\^ ^x^m t^ct^ ViSsw^N 
aod three hundred btoai trw^ ^A vo ^t.^\\Y^^^«*^ 



O F A S I A» 99 

eaft from China. It is a penlofulay and ib tributary to the 
emperor of China. 

Q^ What do you obfenre of the manners, cuftoms> and 
kabits of the inhabiunts of Corea ? 

A. They refemblc the Chinefe in all of them. In this 
refped only they are faid to differ from them, that they 
keep their decea£:d friends for three years before they bury 
thera. 

Q^What are the feil and face of the country ? 

A« The country if mountainous^ but the foil is very fruit* 
lul. ^ The people trade in moft of the articles in which the 
Chinefe trade» and they trafHc fliU more in furs. 

Q^ What is the capital city I 

A. Kingkitao. 

Q^ How is this kingdom governed ? 

A. It is governed by a king who is abfohitc, though he' 
is tributirry to the emp«ror of China. In other j^articulars* 
Corea does not difier from China ; except £0 tar as the 
dimate differ^. 

Q^ Are there any iflands belonging to China ? 

A. In the Chinelian Sea there are feveral ; the krgeft are 
Macao, Formofa^ Hainan, Sancian, with the Lieou Kieou* 
•f which there are thirty-fix, aU of them larg.e and fruitful.* 

Op INDIA I » GENERAL.-! 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of {ndia i 

A. It is fituated between i and 40 degrees of north lat- 
kudct and between 66 and 109 degrees of eafMongitude.- 
It includes three great divifions, which are, ift. the pcnin- 
fcla beyond the river Ganges ; 2d. the Mogul's empire y 
3d. the peniofula within, or or this> fide the river Ganges. 

Qj^ How is it bounded ?' 

A. It is bounded on the north by Uibeck Tartary and 
Thibet ; on the eall by China and the Chinefian Sea ; on 
ihe Ibutk be the Indian Ocean ; and on the weft by Feriia^. 
ttd the Indiaa.Oceanh 

Q^ What are the two laft divifions called ? 

A, They are ufually denominated Indoftan. 

Q^Is India thickly populated ? 

A It \Sf being fuppofed to contain abo^xl otk^ V>^Si^\^vi 
Md tea miMioDs of inbabltanta. 

a What is the complexion of iht IkSaxv^smo'^* ox o\\iN»: 
Wa4ifiwt5 of IndisL. i «Xfe^*^^^^ 



1 



too GEOGRAPHY 

A. It is Mack > 

Q^ What are the prevailing charadberiftics ? 

A. They, like tbc Cbinefe, are very avariciousi but more- 
honefh In their manners and cuftoros they refemble the 
Chinefe rery much, as well as in then: encouragement ol 
public buildings, &c. 

Qj^ What is their religion ? 

A. The learned believe in one God, but the common 
people arc generally heathens and idolaters. Their great 
laint is Brumma. They belieye in fitture rewards and pun^ 
ifhments, and the tranfniigratioD of the fouK They think 
that BrHnima is inferior ooly to God himlclf. Their priells 
are called Bramins. 

Qj^ What is their government ? 

A. The various provinces are goterned by men who are 
tributary to the Great Mogul, and are tyrants in their owo 
dominions^ Tl^y oppren the inhabitants exceedingly to 
aggrandize themfelves ; fo thiit in Tome inilances kirge num* 
bers of people have perifhed for want of food. The crown 
of Indo^an is faid to be hereditary, and the emperor is heir 
to the eflates of his lords. 

Of the Peninsula beyond thb Gamoe^. 

O. What are the fituation and extent of India beyocd 
the Gauges ? 

A. It is fituated between i and 30 degrees of north lat- 
itude, and between 92 and 109 degrees of eaft longitudCf 
It is two thoufand miles long, and one tbottfaad broadt. 

Q. How is it bounded ? 

A. It is bounded by I'hibet and China on the north ; 
by China and the Chinefi^in Sea on the cjlW ; by the Chioe- 
(ian Sen and the Straits nf Malacca 00 tl>e fouth ; and by 
tlie bay of Bengal and tl'.e hither India on the weft. 

Q. What are the grand divifiors of the fartlicr India f 

A. It is divided into the ki»gdonis of Achan, Ava^ aod^ 
Aracan on tlie north-weft ; Pegu, Martaban, Siam and Ma- j 
lacca on the fouth weft s Tonquin and Laos on the north- 
eaft ; and Cochin-China, Cambodia and Chiampa 00 the 
foiith-eaft. 

Q. What gives India ua liarat \ 
A. The river Indus. 
Q^ What is the air o£ th^ fajvVvw \ii^\^X 



F A S I A. lot 

A. Id the fouthern parts it is hot and dry, 
northern it is moift, and in both uiihealthy. 

Q^ What is the climate ? 

A. It is fubje^ to frequent hurricanes and tempers, and- 
the country is very fubjeCt to inundations^ 

Q^ What is the face of the country ? 

A. There are fonie mountains which run from north t-o 
Ibuth, but near the fea the land is- low and flat. 

Q. What are the rivers of the farther India ? 

A. They are the Bumimpooter, Domeay- MecoU) Mar:» 
an> and Ava* 

Q^ What arc the chief ba5rs and ftraits in farther India ?" 

A. The bays are thofc of Siam, Bengal, and Cochin- 
Cbina : th^ Araits are thok of Malacca and Sincapora. 

Q^ What is the foil ? 

A. It is very fruitful> yielding moft of the vegetables 
found in that climate^ 

Qr_ What are the other pTodu«5liions of the farther India T 

Av The animal produdlions are elephantSr and all the 
oilier wild and tame animals which arc found in the fouthern* 
kingdoms of AOa^ The metallic and mineral prod\i<5Hons 
are gold, illvcr, diamonds, with the other different kinds of 
precious Aones which are found in otherparts of the world. 
Tonquin, which is faid to be ih^ mod: healthy of any of tiie 
provinces, produces very little corn or wine; 

Q^ What are the chara<5kriftic3 of the inhabitants? 

A. There is not an entn>e uniformicy in all- the nations^ 
of the dif&rent countries.- The Tonquincfe are faid to be 
generally honefl and fair dealers v but the Malays arctreach* 
erous and cruell They ar-e ibnd of dog's iieih and vermin f 
are very ignorant, and much oppreflcd by their kings and 
Bobles, and are a^l veryfond of Hiow.- 

Q^What GufloniB prevail among them ?' 

A. They have a plurality of wives and concubines.- 
When a perfon is lick and it is thought be will not recov- 
^) he is expofed on tl)9 bank of a river, where he isufualJy 
tither drawned or devoured by the birds. 

Q. What is the language ? 

A. Periian is fpoken in fome pans, b»l vVi^ c^tcvxiqs^^ 
■Dguage is Muhynn, 

(t WJm is tijt /Lte of learning Vu lii4\3^*.\ 



io< GEOGRAPHY 

A. It is very low. Akhough greatly encouraged , thtre 
is very little attentioo paid to it. 

Q^ What is the Aate of conunerce and manofafbires ? 

A. The commerce is courted by all the nations in the 
world who carry on any foreign commerce. The Malays, 
are Tailors, but the other natives do not go much abroad ; 
their Imports and exports are made in the fhips of other na- 
tioQs. In their manufadures they exceed every other peo^ 
pie, both for elegance and ingenuity. The Indian linens^ 
Siks aDd embroidered works exceed every thing of the kind.. 

Q^ What is the government of the farther India ? 

A. The different provinces are fomje of them governed 
by kings who are independent of any other power, and 
fome are governed by viceroys. They are all, howeveF^ 
defpotic in their own dominions, and opprefs their fubje^s. 
The Dutch pofleTs the pemnfula of Malacca, and own the 
capital of the fame name, which is a place of large trade 
with all the Afiatic nations. All their kings are very rich,, 
and fhowy in their habitations, as they monopolize the be(b 
of the produfHons of their countries, which are very nume- 
rous and very valuable, both of the vegetable and minciak 
kind. ««...«__ 

Or Indqstan or the Mogitl's Emmri.. 
Q. What are the fituation and extent of Indoftan ? 
A. It is (ituated bstween 7 and 40 degrees of nor th, lair- 
itude, and between 66 and 92 degrees of tA(\ longitude. 1^ 
is two thou&nd miles long and iii'tecn hundred broad.. 
Q^ How is it bounded ? 

A. It is bounded by Ufbcck Tartary and Thibet on the 
north ; by Thibet and the bay of Bengal on the eafr ; by 
the Indian Ocean on the (ouch ; amd by the Indian Ocean 
and Perfia on the weft. 

Q. Into how many provinces is Indoftan divided 2 
A. Twenty-Cx, 

Q. What is the air of Indoftan ? 
A. It is generally unhealthy. 
O. What are the feffons in Indoftan ^ 
A. Fn fame part of the year it is very hot. Tl^c winds 
J a IndolUn Wow for fix mon»Jhs \u a wonVw ^tvdC\% months 
io a fouth direction. Thefe v*\nd% w^ c^\it^\\aixlr^^\A. 
rae country h muCh Ciibjca tQ V^xicm^V ^^. >^ ^^^'^^ 

* the Afnn/nnn*!^ 



O F A S I A. 103 

Q^ Are there any mountains in Indodan ? 

A. There are feveral ; the naoft remarkable of which 
are Caucafus, Naugracut, and the Balegaut. 

Q^ What rivers are there in Indoftan ^ 

A. The largeft are the Indus, arul the Ganges. — There 
are alfo many more which water various parts oi die country. 

Q^ What are the principal bays i 

A. Thofe of Bengal and Cam bay a* 

Q^ What ftraits are there in Indoftan ? 

A. The, ftraits of Ramanakod* 

Q^ What capes are there ? 

A. Cape Commorin and ca^^e Dice» 

Q^ What number of inhabitiats are there in Indoltan I 

A. About Hxty niillioos. 

Q^ What are the charadterillics of the Hindoos ? 

A. They are nuich like the other Ailatics which I have 
mentioned befoce» 

Q^ What are their cuftoms ^ 

A. Many of them aflPeft great aufterlty in their mode of 
living. They hunt, play at cards, and have a great foodi- 
fiefs for /hows and for muGr of every kind.. 

Q^ What is their religion ? 

A. The common people are generally idolaters ; the 
Perfees wonliip fire. The Periees are niiore induftrioufi 
tWn the Perfiahs from whom they defcended. There are 
about eight hundred thoufand fakirs or Mahometan -beg* 
gars, who live a very auftere life. There is another fet of 
vagabonds which are much more numerous, which are call- 
ed Joghis : t{iey are indolaters. There are about ten 
niillion Mahometans. 

Q^ What is the commerce #f Indoftan ^ 

ifTlt is in much the fame ftate with that of the reft of 
India, only the Maliometan merchants Ciury on an ialand 
^mmcrce with the Arabians, which is very pro^table. 

Q^ What is the capital city of Indoftan i 

A. Delhi, the capital of the province of that name is al- 
io the capital of Induftan. Delhi is a large and handfome 
city, where the Great Mogul or Emperor keeps his court, 
%luch is adorned with aU the magnificence of thie. E.aLC\.« 

Q^Arc there any other ci tie's of dUYvn^xou vti \^^^^'a«x^'^'. 
A, There is a great number, of v/VucU vi<i Va^"« ^^^ 
Mukmore thsia their names $ only tbiit \Vi^^ -jiXYiVi^ "^ 
^ifcvMnce ofgregt wealth. 
J- 



10+ GEOGRAPHr 



Q^ What IS the government of Indoftan ? 

A. It is monarchical ; but a very confiderable parr of the 
country is fubje^l to thu companies eftabliHicd in various 
kingdoms in Europe. The largeft of the Engltlh pofTeilions 
in IndoiUn b the province of Bengal, the capital of which 
is Calcutta, a large manufa^ring city. The fcveral prov- 
inces are governed bj their refj)eftivc Suhans, or nabobs^ 
who are abfolute in tiicir r(;i)>rAive dominions ;. but trib* 
urary to ihc Great Mogul; 

Of TiiF. Peninsula WITHIN tre GAKaEs. 

O. What are the fituation and extent of India withlo 
the Uanges, or the hitlier India ? 

A. It lies between 6 and 13 degrees of north latitude^ 
and between 72 and 90 degrees of eaft longitude. It is » 
peninfula 1^'ing between the bay of Bengtl on the ead', and 
the Indian Ocean on the weft.- 

Q^ What riveps arc there in tlw hither India. 

A. The CattAcic, the 3oanCy the Narbudda».the Puddcfr 
the Kiftna, or Kriftna*. 

Q^ What arc the feafoirs in this peninfula ? 

A. There is a long, range of mountains running from- 
north to foutli the whole length of the country ; and ^c 
•ne fide of the mountain it is winter or the rainy feafon,- 
while it is f^mmer, or the dry fcafbn on the othrr ; rhc 
fcufons hare a- re^ilar change frohi one fide of the moun*- 
tain to t4ie otlier, as the monfbons (which are periodical 
winds) change their direction. 

(^ What is the ftate of the air f 

A. It is naturally hot; during twelve houts it is refreHiecf 
by the fea breezes ; during the other twelve, it is extremely 
!irj comfortable, while the wind blows from the landl 

Q. What are its produ«5Liorfs ? 

A. ItsprcduvSlions both by land and fea are fuch as arr 
R)und in ether parts of India. Rice, cotton, fdk and fu^ 
gar aoound here. 

Q. What do you obferve of the inhabiiunta o£ this pe^ 
ninfula ^ 

A. They differ in complexion only. They arc muchr 
darker in their complex\ona l\\-Oitk tW \x\VvJi\VMkti of ihc 
J^rthcr India. 
C^ U ii.it is the go^crnmeiit o^ \\\\^ cck\\t\vi'^ \ 
J^^ It is nominiilly a yart o? x\\t \»\o^vV^ ^QT««i«»Ti 



O F A S I A. X05 

though maoy of the foabahs, or goyemors, are rnde^>cndent 
of him, and abfolute in their own governments. A great 
part of this country, however^ belongs to the European 
Eaft-India compantes. 

Q^ How do Europeans commonly divide this country 
ID their account of it ? 

A. Into the coafts of Malabar and Coromandel ; the 
fermcr of which lies on the wed, and the latter on the 
eafl fide of the peninfula. 

Q^ What iflands do the Britifh poflcis in the fiias near 
the we(^ern coaA of India ^ 

A. * Bombay, which has a good harbovr ; and feveral 
fmaller ones near to it ; on one of which is a wonderful 
artificial curioiity, confiding of the figure of an elephant cut 
out of a flooe, and a cliurch which is very ftu|)cndou^ cut 
likewifo out of a coarfe kind of flone. In it are three fig- 
ures which are gigantic in fize. The church is ninety feet 
long, and its roof is fupported^y long rows of pilkrs ; but 
it has not any appearance of being a work of the Hindoos. 

Q^ Are there any other ifiands in thofe feas which do 
not belong to the Engliih ? 

A. The illand of Goa belongs to the Portuguefe. It 
has a capital oi the fame name, which is a large city. The 
ifland is about twenty-fcTen miles in circumference, which> 
together with the other Portugucfe territories, is governed 
by a viceroy, who redoes at Goa, and has a very Ipleodid 
court. 

Or PERSIA. 

Q. What are the fituation and extent of Perfia ? 

A. It is lltuated between 25 and 44 degrees of north 
latitude, and between 44 and 70 degrees of e-ifl longitude. 
It i^ I930C miles long, and 1,100 broad, containing 8oo,cxx> 
fituare nnlcs. It lies wefl from tl^ Mogul's empire, and 
fouth of Great Tartary. 

(^ How is Perlia bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by the Cafpian Sea ; on 
the eaft by India ; on the fouth by the Indian Ocean, the 
Gulphs of Perfia and Ormus ; and on the wert by Arabia 
and Turkey in Afia ; and is divided into fo\itXR.«^>^\WiVw^^^« 

Q^ Whit is the air of PctfvA 1 

A, In the northern parts, viVucVi yiVcx ovw >J^^ 'wvosssx^* 
it is cold, but healthy ; in iVic imdAX^i ^^^'^^Vvi^ft^'^^ 



-■—' ^- i^^M^ 



io6 GEOGRAPHy 

p6rate» bu« pure ; m the fottliern partSf it is hot) aad bt- 

^uently caufes epidemic difeafes. 

Q^ What is the foil o^ Perfia I 

A. It varies like the air. In the north it is not ftuitful ; 
in the middle and forae of the ibtttheFO parts it is very pro* 
dudlive. 

Q^ What arc the produ^ioDf of the foil i 

A. It produces alt the fruits aod TCgetables which arc 
found in Italy and Turkey ; and befide them it produces 
large quantities of medicinal plants^ But they are indebted 
to nature more than to cultivation for all of thenk 

Q^ What ar« the mountains of Perfia I 

A. Caucafus, Ararat^ and Taurusi which laft run quite 
through the country to India. 

Q^ Are there any navigable rivers in Ferfia i 

A. There are very few ; the principal are the Kur, the 
AraS| and the Oxus. The Indus, the Tigris, and the £u» 
phrateS) alfo wafh the borders of Perfia. 

Q. What are the metallic and mineral produdions^ of 
Pel fia ? 

A. Copper, iron, lead, turquoife ftones, fulphur-^ fait- 
pctre, and red, white, and black marble 

Q^ What number of inhabitants are there in Perfia ?• 

A. The number is thought to be very great, though Ft 
is not well known» 

Q^ What is the ap|)earan€e o&the PerCans i 

A. Both the Perfian men and women are generally hand- 
£Dme. Their complexions in the fouthern parts are rather 
i'jvarthy. 

Q^ What is the Perfian dre& ? 

A. On their heads tlicy wear turbans. They let tl^fir 
beards grow long and as high as their temples.- They drefs 
in furs, iilks, muflins, cottons, and other cx}H:nfive materi- 
als, and embroider them with gold and (jivcr. Their ihirts 
arc made of calico : over the ftiirt they wear a vtft, which 
reaches below the knee ; and over that a loofe robe which 
is (horter than the veil. The drefs oi tlic women is mucK 
like tlut of the men. 

Q^ What are their cuftoms ? 

A, At their ineals they ufe neither knives nor fpoons> 
both being forbidden by tudr leW^votv \ \Vv^^ ^A c\^iW\ft^- 
fcd on the £oort and eat very Sa\. 1^\\^^ ^^^^"^ t^'S»^ 
«i«^ tobsfcco, and talte opiuui, tV\ou^\v Ocvu^ ^^ q^axa' 



. O F A S I A. 107 

perate in the ufe of fpirituous liquors. They are honefl, 
courteous, and hofpitable to (hangers, pay great refpeifl to 
age, even in poor men, and are very ceremonious to their 
Aiperiors. They write from the right hand to the left, and 
vith uncommon neatnefs, but are iVrangers to the art of 
printing. They are allowed to marry cither for life, or for 
a ftated time only, 

Q^ What are their direriions and amufemcnts ? 
A. They are fond of mu(ic and poetry, of jugglers, rope- 
dancers, and other exhibitions of the like nature. They,like 
the other Aiiatics, are alfo fond of ^ghting wild beads, and 
play privately at games of chance. 
Q^ What is tlie religion of Perfia ? 
A. It is Mahometan, and the Perfians are very fuperfti- 
tious. There is a fed: in Perfia who are called Gucbres, 
who worfliip fire, and they and the Mahometans are declar- 
ed enemies. 

Q^ What is the language of Perfia ? 
A. Various dialers are fpoken in Perfia, but the Perfian 
language is fpoken in its purity only in the fouthern parts* 
Q^ What is the ftate of learning in Perfia ? 
A. At prefent it is at a very low ebb, although it dnce 
Jouriflied greafly. 

Q^ What are the curiofitles in Perfia ? 
A. The artificial curlofities confift in the ruins of ancient 
monuments and buildingf, which are very expenfive, but not 
elegant. The natural curiofities confift in their mineral 
fprings, and a burning plain in the north part of Perfia^ 
where the Guebres hold their devotions. 

Q^ What is the Perfian manner of building ' 
A. It is much like that of the Turks and other eaflern 
people ;>their houfes being only one ftory high, with flat 
roofs, having no chimney, and the kitchen being built fcp- 
arate from the houfe. 

Q^ What is the capital citjr of Perfia ? 
A. Ifpahao. 

Q. Give a defcription of Ifpahan ? 
A. It fiands 2,460 miles eaft of London ; it is a large 
City about fixteen miles in circumference, (landing near the 
river Zenderhend, and- has man^ Vv^Tvdfcvcvft. \'^'ijyi.'?.* \\- 
edotsuns 460 mofques^ i ,800 carav^ivfeu^^^^^ 1.^ Y^> 
hatha, Jtt number of inhabitaxvi* \4 fVQ\V.t\wj^* ^'^.'^'^^ 
Ovam 9ud Gambrooa are alfo coa^iLet&A^ OvAs^^ va. -a 



lol GEOGRAPHY 



which) and in Ifpshan, the ftreets are narrow and crookc4« 

Q. What is the (late of manufa^ures in Perfia ? 

A. In their mamifaAures of £lky woollen, mohmir* car> 
pets and leather, they are unequalled by almoft any other 
nation, but in many other manufadhires they are mere 
bunglers. 

Q^ What is the ftate of commerce in Perfia i 

A. They have bat Kttle commerce, foreign or domefUc 

Q^ What IS the government of Peiiia i 

A . It is an abfolute monarchy* 

Q^ What is the amount of the Perfian revenue ? 

A. It mud be very great, as every thing is taxed, and the 
king claims a third of the cattle, corOifiruitSi filksandco^ 
tons of the country. 

Q^What is the military ftrength ? 

A. The ftandin| force amounts to about fixty thouiand 
men, but in time of war it is greatly increafed. 

Of ARABIA. 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of Arabia ? 

A. It is fituatcd between 1 2 and 30 degrees of north lat^ 
itude, and between 35 and 60 degrees of eaft longitude. It 
is i»300 miles long, and 1,200 broad, conmining 700,000 " 
fquare miles. 

Q^ How is Arabia bounJcd ? 

A. It is bounded on the noi tij by Turkey ; on the eaft 
by the Oulphs of Perda and Ormus ; on the fouth by the 
Indian Ocean ; and on the weft by the Red Sea, which 
fcparaicR it from Africa. 

Q. riow is Arabia divided ? 

A. It is divided into Arabia PctFxa on the north-weft ; 
Arabia Dcfcrta in the middle ; and Arabia Felix on the 
Tuuth-eaft. 

Q. What mountains are there in Arabia i 

A. Sinai, Horeb, and Gabel-ei-Ared, 

Q^ What rivers are there in Arabia ? 

A. There arc very few ftreams of water in Arabia of any 
Cie. The river Euphrates runs on the rorlh-eall part of 
the country. 

Qs What is the air and climate of Arabia ? 
A. It is ve^jj' hot, and g^eneraWY >Mvv*V\o\<L^om^» 
Q. Whzr i$ the face of the co\Mitt'5 \ 
A . Jfc tome placet it ie a barttn and WtiO^ (itS«i^'wiMA 



OF ASIA. lo^ 

there is nothing but fcattered rocks and imnu-nfc fields of 
■land. In the fouih-caftern part, called Aiabia Felix, there 
•is> in fomc fpots, a fine foil, and luxuriant vegetation. 

Q^ What are the productions of the foil ? 

A. They are cofFte, balm of Gilea<i, manna, Tn)'Trh, 
caifia, aloes, frankincenfe, fpikenard, and various other 
fruits which grow in Italy and Turkey. There is very 
little timber in Arabia of any kind. 

Q^ What are the animal prbdu^ions ? 

A. The camel and the dromedary are common in Ara- 
bia, and the Arabian horfes are excellent. Few other aiii- 
mals are found in Arabia. 

Q^ What are the characlerlflics of .tlic Arabians ? 

A. They are of a middle ftitture ; have L. .^k h:iir and 
black eyes ; L.'.eir conij)]exi(>n is fwarthy. They are lively 
and martial in a(51 ion, excellent hoifenien and '^006 marki- 
men. The word ylral ligniiies rpbber ; and they anfwcr 
perfc^ly to the name. 

(^ In what manner do the Arabs live ? 

A. They live a wantleiing Hfe, and plund(?r all thoft 
who come in their Wiiy. They eat all kinds of fltfh but 
jfwinc's ; and when rich, dicfs in the Miihomctan manner 5 
' and like other M.■.h(»nJ^.tan?, drink no flrong liquors. 

Q. What is the religion of Arabia ? 

A. The M;ihonietdn, 

Q^ What is the (late of learning in -\iv.bia ? • 

A. In mod places it is not cukivuLed at all, and tlie 
;pcople are invoked in ignorance ; but we arc ih fr.bted to 
the ancient Arabians for our numeiical figures, and for much 
knowledge in natural hiftory and medicine. 

Q^ What is the language of Arabia ? 
• A. It is a corrupt diak^it of the Ancient Arabic. 

Qj. What are tlie curiofities of Arabia ? 

A. I'he mofques, or Miihomttan houfes of prayer, form 
the principal curiofities of Arabia. The one at Mecca, 
• where Mahomet was born, is the moft magnificent of any in 
tht Mahometan ccurtiies. Jt is very large ; its roof is 
coveied with ^^old ; it has an hundred gates, over each of 
which i«! a wi*dow. In the infide it is hung wi:h tapeftry, 
I" and ornamented witl« elegant gildings; and it is vifited by 
▼aft numbers of pilgrims evej y year. Ax lAt'^\i\\,NaW\\xA 
KMhomtt ficd to /roDj Mecca, is a^ioth^c \erj vc^-iL'^v'^vc^iTNy. 
^o^tfft Ib it ihcre are three huudred Ki\« \*w..\.'s. ^^i^- 

K 



ito GEOGRAPHIC 



flantly burning. In this mofque is the cofHa of Mahomet^ 
covered with a cloth of gold. In Arabia the children of If- 
rael encamped in the, wildemefs forty years, after they 
came out of Egypt. There it to be leen the rock of 
Meribah and many infcriptions on other rocks. 

Q^ What cities are there in Arabia ? 

A. The commercial cities are Mocho, Aden, Mnfcat, 
Suez, Jidola. A very great trade is atfo ctirried on at 
Mecca. 

Qj. What is the government of Arabia ? 

A. It is governed by Imaos, or Imams, who are petty 
princes, and who a6l both as priefts and kings. The offices . 
are hereditary. The north part of Arabia is fubje<S to the 
Grand Seignor^ and his governors as well as otliers are abfo* 

iutC. r 

Ot THE ORlENTiAL ISLANDS. 

Qj What are the principal iflands in the Indian Seas ? 

A. The Japan Iflands, which lie in a chain from the 30th 
10 the 41ft degree of north latitude about 150 miles eaft from 
China. They extend from the I3cth to the 147th degree 
cf ead longitude, and conflitute the empire of Japan. 

Q^ What are the foil and produdlious of Japan ? 

A. The fame with tho^e of China. 

Q. What is the capital city of Japan ? 

A. Jeddo, which ilands in the 141ft degree of ea(} lon- 
gitude, and the 36th of north latitude. 

Q. What is the face of tiicfe iflands ? 

A. Thty are rocky, and there arc fomc Tokanoes ift 
ihtm : they are fubjed to temptfls. 

Q^ What do yoa obferve of the inhabitants ? 

A. In their ajjpearance they refcmble the ChincG:. 

Q. In what manner do they live ^ 

A. They live in fixed habitations ; their houfes are com- 
monly two ilorics high, without chimneys or any faMUturc<» 
except mats, en which they fit, and a board raifed juft 
ikbove the lloor, on which rhey eat. 

Q. What do you fay of their difpofirions ? 

A. They ane jealous, but courteous to Grangers. They 

are idolaiei's, and very I'upcrfliticus. Th^y lute the Chiii- 

tJaifs, and hold no intercourfe with any Europeans, befidc 

rj2t' Dutch. Tiiev are obedient to ^^^xttiv^ -iud to govern* 

Q: WliSLt'is their overnm^txi ^, 



O F A S I A. Ill 

A. Tt is an abfolute monarchy. 

Q^ What ftate of impiovement are they in ? 

A. They are more improvec!. than the Hindoos, but not 
fo much fo as the Chinefe. Learning is hardly kno\^ by 
name among them, but io their manufadures they ^re pro- 
ficients, and greatly excel in their Japan ware. They have 
feveral laws againft crimes, but punilhrnent is feldom in- 
Aided. 

Qj^ What is their drefs ? 

A. It is yery fimple, confifting only in one or more 
, loofe-gowns, which are faftened round the waifl with a 
faih. Men and women drefs much alike ; and they ufe 
fans both in their houfes and abroad. 



LADRONES. 

Q^ What it the fituation of the Ladrone Iflands ? 

A. They are iituatcd in 140 decrees of ea(l; loogitudc* 
and 14 of north latitude. 

Q^ Give a defcription of them ? 

A. Their number is twelve ; the capital town is Guam. 
The inhabitants are difhoned and pilferers. 

Q^ What is the fituation of Formosa ? 

A. It is fituated eafl of China, and partly belongs to the 
Emperor. It is divided by a mountain, and its inhabitants 
rcfemble thfi Chinefe. ^veral other iflands belong to the 
Chinefe, of which we know little more than the names ; 
as Ainan, which is faid to be feventy leagues long, and 
fixty broad. 

Q^ What is the fituation of the Phillippines ? 

A. There are eleven hundred of them. They lie in the 
Pacific Ocean, about three hundred miles fouth-eafl of Chi- 
na. The capital idand is Manilh, which is 400 miles 
long and 300 broad. 

Q. To what nation do the Phillippines belong ? 

A. They belong to the Spaniards. 

Q^ What do you fay of their produ<5lions ? 

A. They produce ail the necefTaries of life in plenty, 
both of the animal and vegetable kind. Among other ani- 
mals there is an uncommonly large kind of monkeys. 
Q^ What do you obferve of the inhabitants ? 
A. They confift of Chinefe, Ethvoi^Mv^,'lAAv5^^^'"^«s!fc- 
4ardi,Portugue/e, Pintadoes,oT ^faArvitd'^^o^V^^sv^V^^*^^^ 



ri2 GEOGRAPHY 

Or a mixed breed ; and partake of their different cuftonifr 
and hdnvs. 

Q^ What is the capital city ?. 

A. Manilla, which contains about 3,000 inhabitantSb 

Q^ What is the fituation of the Moluccas ? 

A. They He between one degree of fouth and two de- 
grees of north latitude, and in 125 degrees of eaft longitude. 
'I'hey lie fouth of the Phillijpines, and near to each other. 
There are five of them. 

CX_ What is the produce of the Molucca Iflands ? 

A. Their principal produ»flions are cloves, nutmegs and 
mace, which they yield in great abundance ; inlbmuch that 
they are called the fpice iflands. They are owned by the 
Dutch, who monopolize the trade to themfelvcs. Tcrnatc 
is the largeft of them. 

Q^ What is the fituation of the Banda IsLANnv ? 

A. They are fituated between 4 and 5 degrees of fouth: 
latitude, and 127 and 128 of eafl longitude. Thefe are 
called the nutmeg-idandsyand they are owr.ed by the Dutch. 
They are five in number, and the chief of them is Lantory. 
whole capital is of the fame name 

Q^ What is the fituation of Ambovna ? 

A. It is fituated between 3 and 4 degrees of foutli lati* 
tude, and 120 leagues eaftward of Batavia. It is feventy 
milts in circumference : it belongs to the Dutch. It is al- 
io :: Ipicc ifland. 

Q^ What is the fituation of the Celebes Island ? 

A. It is fituated under the equator, between Borneo ancf 
the fpice iflands. It is 900 miles long, and aoo broad» 
The Dutch own a part of this ifland, but there are tlircc 
kingdoms on it independent of any other government ; the 
cHici oF one of which refides in a town called Macalfdr. 
The inhabitants are hofpi table and faithful. They build 
on l;irge pofb, and enter their houles with ladders, which 
they pull up after them, to fccurc themfelves againit veo* 
vnious animals. 

(^ What other iflands do the Dutch poffcfs in thofe feas ? 

A. GjIoIo and Cerarrij which are fpice ifliods alfo. 
(.). What is the fituation of the Sunua Islands ? 
A. They are fttuated in the Indian Ocean, between 93 
and f 70 degrees of eaft longitude, and between 8 degrees 
north and 8 of fouth latitude •, ■aiv\o'c\^>nVv\c.Vv ^Te the iflands 
ot BorncOf Java^ and Sumatra, '^'\\.\\ x\^a\i^ q>>[\r.w 



O F A S I A. 113 

Q^ What are the dimenfions of Borneo ? 
A. It is 800 miles long, and 7C0 broad. Its land is 
marlhy, and the inhabitants Jive in towns built on floats. 
They are Mahometans. The country produces generally 
the lame things as India ; and the Oran-outang is a native 
of Borneo. The greatefl port of Borneo is bcnjar-Mttf- 
leen, to which all nations may tnade. 
(^ What is the (ituation of Sumatra ? 
A. It has Malacca on the north, Borneo on the eafl, and 
Java on the fouth-eaft^ It is i,oco miles long, and 100 
broad. It is divided by the equator, about half lying fouth- 
caft of it, and the other half on the north- wcft. It produces. 
fb much goldi that it has been thought to be the Ophir of 
the fcrijuures ; but erroneoufly. 

Q^ What are the feafons in Sumatra ? 
A^. They are vei^ dry, as very iittle rain ever falls ia. 
the idand;. 

Q^ What do you obfcrve of the inhabitants ? 
A. Thofe in the interior part of the illand are very little 
known to Europeans. They are idolaters, and always at 
variance with each other ; are totally uncivilized, and live 
independently of any government. Tiiofc who inhabit the 
coallare Malays, and Mahometans.- It is faid that the in- 
habitants, by reafon of the water which tliey drink, have 
Jarge fwellings in their throatsj. 

About ninety miles from Sumatra is the iilnnd ofJUt/jrart' 
ho. It is furiounded by a rocky (bore, and Europeans 
know but little more about it, than that its inhabitants are 
naked, fpeak a dlfTcrent language from that of any other 
people of the Eull, and al;.ays appear armed.. 
Q^ What is the fitu ition of Java ^ 
A. It lies fouih of Sumatra, oeing feparaied frcni it by 
the ftrails of Sunda. It belongs principally to the Dutch ; 
whofe capital is Batavia, a large, ilrong, beautiful and pop- 
ulous city. 

Q^ What are the inhabitants of Java ? 
A» They are a mixture of various nations. There arc 
one hundred thoufand Chinefe refiding in this ifland — That 
part which is not fubje<ft to the Dutch is governed by three 
tovereigns, who are called the Emperor, the Maflay, and 
the Sultan. 
Q. WAat are ihe prodviftiOTi^ o? rXu^HSur^^"^* 



114 GEOGRAPHY 

A. In general tiiey are like thofc of the other iflaiids in 
tlie neighbourhood, but the Bobon Upas^ a poifon tree, is 
faiil t(f grow here, which is {\i very noxious that nothing 
can live witliin fome miles of it. 

Q^ What is the fituation of Ceylon ? 

A. It is fituated in the Indian Ocean, near the coaA of 
Coromandcl. It is two hundred and fifty miles long and 
TWO hundred broad. It is thought to be the moft valuable 
iil.uul in the woiid. It produces cinnamon, and all the 
oiht-r giants arxd animals which are found in the other eaft- 
ein iliinds, in the greateft plenty. It belongs to the Dutch. 

Qj. What o«hc:r iilands are there in the eaflern leas \ 

A. Thcic arc nuny. Of fonie of them we know notK- 
ing, and of others little more than die name. The Mai' 
dives lie near Capo Comorin in the neighbourhood of Cey- 
lon. They are rocky, and they bcloirg to the Dutch, ifn- 
damar and Nicolcr lie in the b^iy of Bengal. The KwriU 
IJlands are about twenty in number and are rocky ; fome of 
rhcm are inhabited. They lie between Kamtfchatka and 
Japan. They are inhabited by a harmlcfs people, who are 
idolaters. They are humane and honed, pay great refpect 
to age in any perfon, and refemble, in many refpeds, the 
Japanefe. I'hcy are employed in hunting and iifhir«g. 

Q^ What is tl>e language in thefe eadcrn iilands \ 

A. Aitiiod every one lias a dialed of its own ; but the 
language of the Malays is the woft extenfivc. 



Of AFRICA. 

(>^ WHAT are the fituation and extent of Africa ? 
A. It is fituated between 37 degrees of north and 34 
degrees 7 minutes of fouth latitude ; and between 17 de- 
grees and 20 vilnutcs we[l, and 51 degrees zc minutes of 
cail longitude. It is 4>300 miles long, and 3,500 broad, 
cootaiuing 9,654>)>o7 fquare miles. 
Q^ How is Africa bounded ? 

A. It is buaii Jed by the Mediterranean Sea on the north ; 
by the lifhmus of Suez, the Red Sea and ilij Indian Ocean 
on tht en II ; by the Souihctn Oct^iiv ow Uxc (ouih ; and by 
the AthiitiC Ocean onibe v<cv\. lx.\vi»^'^>i\\\vi'v\-««^^ 
*'ci/ oiAlui^ and euii ot iimwc^u 



O F A F R I C A- 115 



■r* 



Of EGYPT. 

Q^ What are the fiiuation and extent of Eg>1>t ? 

A, It is fituated between 20 and 32 degrees of north 
latitude, and between 28 and 36 degrees of eaA longitude. 
It is (ix hundrtd miles long and two hundred and ilfty 
broad, containing 140,700 fquare miles. 

Q^ How is Hgypt bounded ? 

A. It is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the north; 
by the Red Sea ead ; by Abyflinia on the fouth; and by the 
Defert of Barca and unkno^vn parts of Africa on the we(h 

Q^ How is I^gypt divided ? 

A. Into norcIiL'in ur lower Egypt ; aini into fouthera 
or upper Egypt. 

Q^ What is the air of Egypt ? « 

A. In April and May the air is hot and unhealthy, but 
when the Nile (a large river in Egypt) overflows its banks9 
it purifies the air. 

Q^ What is the foil of Egypt ? 

A. It is very fertile^and produdlive in the country over- 
.flowed by the Nile, in other parts it is wholly barren. 

Q. What axe the vegetable productions. 

A. They are very numerous, confilHng of all thofe 
kinds which are found in Italy or Turkey. 

(^ What aie the animal pi eductions ? 

A. There is a great plenty of thofe tame animkls which 
are found in other warm couniriei> ; and beiidc thefe, there 
are the hlppopotiiniu*:., tyger, hycnu, antelope, ape, ichuen- 
mon, camelion, and crocodile. 

Q^ What birds are tiieie in Egypt ? 

A. Both land and water fowl are in plenty in Egypt, 
and one bird called ihe Ibis, which ufed to be worfhipped 
becaufe.it deftroycd vipers, is a native of Egypt. Thtre 
is a plenty of oftrichcs alfo in Egypt. 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants in Egypt ? 

A. It is faid to contain four niillioos, who inhabit two 
thoufand three hundred towns and villages. A coniidcr* 
able part of the iuhabitaotfi are wandering Arabs. 

Q^ What is the appearance of the Egyptians ? 

A. They are ill made and have fwcuthy complexions. 

Q. What are the manners and cuiionas of the Egyptians I 

A. Thofe of the Turks in Egypt al^lisVifc V^vcv^ -aa. W^>«« 
ke/i thofe of th^ Arabs lik« thofe vavktAAa^N ^^^"^^^ 






ii6 GEOGRAPHY 



of the Egyptians are partly copied from both, and partly 
originalv being peculiar to themfelves* 

Q^ What is tlicir dreft ? 

A. It is light and airy. It conHfts of a light linen gar- 
ment, commonly of a blue colour. 

Q^ What are their diverdons ? 

A. They are fortune telling, juggling and Oeight of hand 
tricks, with others of a low nature. Their exercifes are 
the fame as thofe of Perfia. 

Q^ What is the religion of EgyjU ? 

A. There Ire in Egypt, Mahometans, Chriftians, JewSy 
and Heathens;- 

Q^ What is the language of Egypt ? 

A. The Arabic, Coptic or Egyptian, and Greeks are 
%!! fpoken in Egypt- 

.C^ What is the prefent (late of learning ? 

A. They know arithmetic, writing, and keeping ac- 
counts, but are generally ignorant of other fciences. 

Q_ What^ are the curiofities of Egypt ? 

A. The p)Taniids of Egypt are great curiofities. The 
larpeft is five hun<hed.fcet high. It ftands on eleven acres- 
«f ground. ]>cfide thcfc, aie mentioned, as curiofities, the 
mummy pits, in which they ufcd to put the dead after they 
wore cmbiiimcd ; tht Iabyvinth,-and Pompey's pillar, befi ie 
fevcial nalnral curiofities, fuch as mineral fprings,- lakes, 
ffaves, &c. of which there are many. 

Q. What is the capital city ot Egypt ?. 

A.. Grand Cairo.. 

C;^ Give ;^ dJcrlption of Grand Cairo? 

A. It fl-ands on xht: cA\ fide of the Nile, is about two 
triourand two liundrcd and twenty-four miles fouthcafl from. 
London.. It is a dirty refldence, and often infe*5led by the 
pi.'iguc. Its fh'.'jts are narrow, and it contains about llfiy 
rlu'ufand inhabitants. 

Q, What orl.er citic? are thtre ? 

A. Alexandria, R.fchid, D^miottn, Thebes, Suez, 
Faoua, Girga and Allbuan. I).;mietta is the handfomell 
as well as tl'ic mod populous city in Hgypt. It lies noth* 
eily from Grand Cairo, nt.*ar one of tho mouths or the Nile, 
and contains 8o>oco inhabitants. 
(^. What is the ftate of coTvxvwcTct \vv E^vpt ? 
A. -It is rather more flouT'vft\\t\^\.Vv^T\\uT'aV^^>-Kw^.V^^'^ 
^avc ioinc foreign cojnmcT%(u 



OF AFRICA.. rir 



■••' 



Ql^ Wliat k the ftate of manufjclurcs ? 

A. There is but little attention paid to them, 

Q. What is the government of Egypt ? 

A. It is an union of feveral liates under the proteftion of 
the Grand Seignor. He appoints the Pacha and twenty- 
four Beys who are under the Pacha, but arc abfolute in their 
own dominions ; fo that the government is dcfpotic. 

Q^ What is the amount of the revenues ? 

A. They are thought to amount to no more thanxi mil- 
lion fterling, which is a finall fum when compared to the- 
richnefs and extent of the country. 

Q^ W4iat h the military ftrength of Fgypt ? 

A. Every governor has a body of troops of his owb^. 
vhofe number is unknown.. 



Or THE STATES of BARBARY. 

Q^ What are called the States of Barbary ? 

A, The States of Barbary include the kingdoms of Mo- 
liocco, Fez, Tunis, Algiers, Tripoli including Barca. 

Q^ How is Morocco bounded ^ 

A. Morocco, including Fez, is hounded on the north by 
die Mediterranean Sea ; on tlie fouth by Tafilet ; on the 
eaft by SegelmefTa and x^Igiers ; and on the weft by the 
Atlantic. It is ilve hundred miles long and four hundred 
and eighty broad-. 

Q. How is Fer bounded ? 

A. It is bounded by the Mediterranean on the north ; 
by Algiers on the end ; by Morocco fouth ; and by the 
Atlantic on. the weft, being about one hundred and twen- 
ty-five miles fquare- 

Q^ How is Algiers bounded ? 

A. It is bounded by the Mediterranean on the north ; 
by Mount Atlas fouth ; by Tunis eail ; and by Morocco 
and Tafilct on the weft. It is about fowr hundred and 
eighty miles long> and from, forty ta one hundred broad^ 
lying on the Tea coaft. 

Q^ How is Tunis bounded .^' 

A. It is bounded by the M-sditerranean on the north ; 
by the fame eaft ; by Tripoli and Biledulg'.'rld fouth ; and 
by Algiers weft ; being about two hundred and twenty 
miles long from north to fouth, and one hundred and feven- 
ty broad from caft to weft. 

Q^ How is TripoJi bounded. I 



■^-"k^- ■ -^ 



iiS GEOGRAPHY 



ff 

A. Including Barca it is bounded by the Mediterranean 
Sea on the north ; by the country of the Bcriberics fouth ; 
by Tunisy Biledul^^jrid, and Gadamis on the we/l ; and by 
Egypt on the eafl ; being about eleven hundred miles long 
on the coad of the Mediterranean, and from one to three 
hundred milet broad from north to fouth. 

Q^ Is there any material difference in the foil, climutc, 
manners and cudoms of thefc countries which are called 
the States of Barbary ? 

A. Ail the difference is a jirovincial one, tor which rea- 
fon they are treated of under the fingle name of the Statti 
of Barbary ; and confidered as one country in thofe refpe<5lS| 
t.:\d in what follows. 

Q^ What is the air in Barbary ? 
A. It is mild and pleaiant, except in July and Auguftf 
when it is very hot. 

Qj^ What is the foil of Barbary ? 
A. It is naturally very ftrtile, though now impcrfeAly 
cultivated. 

Q. What are its vcgcuble produ»5Hons ? 
A. They confiitof all the tropical fruits,winc8, &c. which 
grow in Spain, Italj', or Turkey ; us well as all kinds oi 
grains and garden vegetables, which grow in thofe countries; 
and they are found in Barbary in great plenty. 
C)^ What are the animal produdiions ? 
A. Their wild animals are t ygcrs, lions, leopards, hyenas 
bears, porcupines, apes, foxes, and tl^c fnulicr animals which 
are found in the interior parts of Europe. Its tame animals 
are camels, dromtdatics, .ifT.s, muUs, kunnahs, horfcs, ox* 
en, goats, and fhee]>. Moft klnJc of fmallcr animal", rcp» 
tiles, 6cc. are common in Barbary* 

Q^ What do )uu obfcrve of liic birds i.nd firti in that 
country ? 

A. Thev have molt kinds of filh in their fer.s which arc 
eaten in other countries, and there is a great plenty of giimc 
and wild fowl in the coun:i\ ; and paitieuUrly there is a 
bird cailed the Capiii-Sparrow, wireh is f<:id to be the mod 
muiical bird in ihe world, bs. it will n(:t l.vc out of its owu 
cliiuaic. 

Q. What number of inh.ib!ian*s a.c there in tlie ditftr- 
ent States in Barbary ? 
^\. Thi* r.ariiber ib lay^o^^A \.o o^ uy".*^'^' ^vf ilx millioQS- 
O. W'iiut iS the vluuwlV;. oi v\xc\\.V*^u\\.va^-> 




OF AFRICA- 

A. They are a hardy, warlike, piratical race of people. 
The people of Tunis are, however, faid to be much poiifhed, 
and are undoubtedly more fo than thofe of the other States. 
Q^ What is their appearance ? 

A, They are handfomely built, with regular features, ' 
and fwarthy complexions. The women are very hand- 
fome, and often have fine complexions. 

Q^ What are their rhanners, cuftoms and diverfions ? 
A. They are in many refpefts, fimilar to thofe of the 
Egyptians. 

ii^ What is their drefs ? 

A. It is a light loofe drefs, comrrionlv made of linen or 
(ilk ; their arms and legs are bare, but on their ftct they 
wear flippers, which they put off during; religious fjrvice. 
Their turbans they keep :^« vays on their heads. 
Q^ What is their manner of living ? 
A. They have no furniture in their houfes, but a few 
imats on which they fit. They alwavs cook their meat til! 
it will fall to pieces, and then eat it with their hands, hav- 
ing neither knives, forks nor fpoons an^ong tliem. 
Q^ What is their religion : 
A. The Mahometuii. 
Q^ What is the language of Bdroary •? 
A. It is a mixture of various languages, and is call«d 
the I.tKgun Franc iu 

Q^ What are the curiofities of Biiibary ? 
A. The remains of the ancient cities of Africa are ftill 
to be feen, but in a moft deplorable fiate of dtvailation. 
Among them arc the ruins of Carthage, Utica, Julia, 
Cefarea, and fome others. The natural curiofities are the 
hot fprings which will boil flefh in a quarter of an hour. 
Q^What cities are there in Barbary \ 
A. Each of the States has a capital of the {-Am^ name. 
The capital of Algiers contains 120,000 inhabitants, 1^,000 
houfcs, and 107 mofques. It is lurrounded by a wall twelve 
feet thick ; it (lands one thoufand miles fouth of London. 
The other confiderable towns in Algiers are Fremecen, 
Conftantlna, and Oran. Tunis is a large and manufa<5luring 
tity. It ftands withinHhirty miles of ancient Carthage, 
about one thoufand miles fouth of London. Fez coiUains 
three hundred and fifty thoufand vc\V\a.V)\\.A.Tv\.^, ^x\^\?»*v-4iA\a 
be the hrgtli city in Baibary . Vieiide^o^^ vsX^^-iA^ tor.^- 
tioaed^re thechia of Tripoli, Motocco^^^W^^^^^^^^'^ 



ni>o . GEOGRAPHY 



Tangier, Ceuta, Tetuan and Mogodor, which are all faiA 
to be ftrong and populous cities. 

Q^ What are their manufadures ? 

A. They are but few in number. They mitke mats, 
carpets, and- wl^t is called Morocco leather ; and the 
Jews among them manufacture filk and linea (lufTs for th.ir 
clothing, and they alfo carry on the greatcfl part of the 
commerce among thorn. 

Q^ What is the form of government in the Sutes of 
Barbary ? 

A. It is like a monarchy, and the Dey is elc<5five, muck 
in the fame manner as the emperor of Turkey, by the fol- 
dicrs. Any perfon is caj)Hblc of being ele*5led, and when 
ele(Jtjd he i& a pcrfeA dcfpot. This is the cafe in all the 
diflcrcnt States. The governor. And in his abfence evci^ 
milit-iry oiliccr, ponVni-s the ])ower of life and death over his 
rubjt<5rs, and a&s as jpdge and executioner. All the States 
are fubjwift, nominally, to the em|>eror of Turkey. 

Q^ What is ihe military ftrength ? 

A. The emperor of Morocco can bring into the field one 
Jiundicd thwufand men, eighty thoufand of whom arc nc- 
j;tck-s, who fci vt him on hoilcliuLk as his fi'..\cs, and guar^^. 
It is ■.jiTceiui:) wliiit nun-.iv.r of forces the <»:]ier States CAr, 
brin;; into action, nor is it known what number of armed 
fliips tlicy have, ihoii(;h \i is ccrcuip that thcii murine is lioi 
very large or powerful. 

Of BII.KDIILG.ERIO. 

Q. What kic the situation and extent of Bil'jdulgcrid ? 

A. It is fituatcd bctvten Barb.irv on tho noiti; ; Zaar^ 

fouth ; Egyi>t Citik ; and the Atlantic Occnn wcii. 1: is 

two thoulimd five hundveJ miles Ion" horn eafl to welt i 

and tlire«. hundied and Oily broad iioni nonli to lbi::h. 

Q^ What arc the air, cliniiite, foil and pioduce of 13;ie- 
dulgerid : 

A. 'I he ?.\x is hot ; the climi;tc, though ilry, is healthy ; 
the loii is f ruitti.1 ; and it produces barley, oats, fii^iir canes, 
&c. and it has iion and copper mines. — The animJs are 
much the f.me wi'h tholt: meriiljiied in Baibtiry. 
Q^. W'.iat are k\\?i inhabitants ? 

-A . Ti . e V a re , i I : :\ l '^lOn , M aUoxwv: laws and T^ga n s ; and 
are fuul to ^k- l.uij'italilt 'a\A i/KwtW'*^'. *^\\\:n ^iX cjck\s!\!\ 
fk'fli and milky and l.-v in vnikV^. 



OP A T R I C A, 121 

<Q^ What is the capital city ? 

A. Dara, which (Panels one thoufaml fve hundred find 
"fixty five miles fouth of London. 

Q^ What is the government ? 

A. It is governed by its own king ; though foflicprar* 
inces are tributary to the States of Barbary. 

Of ZAARA. 

"Q^ What are the fituation and extent 6^ Zaara ? 

A. It is fituated between Biledulgerid on the north ; 
Negroland fouth ; Nubia, Egypt, and unknown parts esd ; 
and the Atlantic ocean wcfl. It is nine hundred miles lon(! 
from north tofouth^ and fix hundred and fixty broad from 
icaft to weft. 

Q^ Give a conciTe account of it ? 

A. It is but impcrfedly known. It is, hcwCver, fald 
to be a barren, fandy defert ; but thinly inhabited by Ma* 
hometans and Pagans. Wi)d beafts are frequent in it. 
li'rom Auguft till winter it rains almoft perpetually, which 
makes a little grafs grow in that leafon Its chief town is 
TegefTe, which lies two nhouiand and one hundred miles 
iouth of London. 



»*alki 



Of NUBIA, 
• Q^ What are the fituation and extent of Nulrfa ? 

A. It is fituated between Egypt on the north ; AbyfEnia 
Ibuth ; the Red Sea and Abex eaft \ and Tagua, Gaoga, 
«nd the defcrts of Gorham on the weft. It is about nine 
liundred miles long from vorth to Ibuihy cmd fix hundred 
^road from eaft to weft. 

(^ What is tiie capital cky ? 

A. Nubia, which ftands about twoHiodfatid antl (even 
liundred miles fouth eaft' Hy ef London. 

<^ How is Nubia divided ? 

A. It is divided into N^rth and South Nubian 

Q^ What is the air and (Climate of Nubia ?• 

A. The air of Nubia, like that in other countries with- 
in the tropics, is generally veiy hot. The climate, fcrr a 
confiderable part of the year, is unhealthy, and fubjedt to 
feveral diieaies pcculi<i1r to the interior parts of Africa, but 
^ixx the rainy leiifons have ceafed« (oc foK\!t xlvcci^^ ^^ ^\* 
t^Mr bfiea&Dt and he;iithy, 

L 



T»i GEOGRAPHY 

Q^ What IS the Toil of Nubia ? 

A. North N^bia is almofl wholly a barren, (andy deferli 
but South Nubia, which is called Sennaar, is, io many 
parts oFk, very fruitful. It is partly compofed of tfaeiil- 
and of Mcroe, which lies betv/een the wcilernmoft branch 
of the Nile, or the white river, and the river Tacazze, or 
the caftcrnmoft branch but one. The eaftern branch is 
called Mareb. 

Q. What arc the vegetable, animal, and mineral pro- 
dudlions of Nubia ? 

A. They are in all refpefts very much like thofe of 
Abyflinia, neither of thefe countries producing any gold but 
what is waihed from the various mountains, by the riven 
which run through them. If the inhabitants have any other 
it is brought from the interior parts of the African contincDt* 

Q^ What do you obfcive of the inhabitants ? 

A. They are a woolly race of negroes, who are divided 
into various tribes, and called Funge, Shangalla, Galla or 
Troglodytes ; and by Arabs, or a mixture of thefe natioDSi 

QT^ What is the liate of focitty in this country ? 

A. It is unimproved and very barbarous. 

Q^ Whit arc the charaficiiftics of thefe inhabitants ? 

A. The Arabs are very faithkfs, like thofe of Arabia. 
They are Mahometans in religion. The Galla, or Troglo- 
dytes, are heathens of the mod barbarous kind conceivable. 
They are all Very ignorant, but the Galla are more fo, if 
poll&ble, than the Arabs. This country, notwithflandiog 
its prt:i'ent (late of ignorance, u'^s once the feat of learniogi 
and where fcicnce probably originated. It is probable thit 
thefe inhabitints were defcerded fiom Phut, were called 
ihcpherds, both poweiful and pohfhed, and once the com 
tjucrors of Egypt. 

Of ABYSSINIA. 
Q^ What arc the fituation and extent of Abyflinia i 
A. It lies between Nubia on the north ; AKha aod 
Omozaide fouth ; the Red Sea and Abex ea(l ; Gorbam 
and Gingiro weft* It is nine hundred miles long and 
eight hundred broad. 
CV^ What are the foil and face of the country ? 
A, The foil is remarkably fr\utful where it is not de(er|t 
a /Fording t Jirte barvefts annviaW^ . T\i^ t^xitcvrj \\^ v^ ub» 



«F AFRICA. 12^ 



o- 



even, interfperfed with high mountains,finall rifing ground?, 
deep fruitful valleys, and defert Tandy pkins. 

Q^ What are the feafons ? 

A. They are rather divided into wet and dry, than into 
fiiramer and winter as ours are. 

Q. What is the air in Abyffinia ? 

A. In fome parts of tlic coui:lry it is vory hot and un- 
healthy, while on the high grounds it is pure, ferene and 
temperate. 

Q^ What are the animal produflions ? 

A- The animals differ very little from thof? in ^^gypt. 
There are lionsj hyenas, wild boars, and miiny other raven- 
ous beads. The tame animnls are, horfes, horced cattle, 
mules, a/Tes, &e. There are but few fifti, and thofe not ve- 
ry good. A great variety of birds are met with in this 
country, both beautiful and roufical. 

Q^ What are the vegetable produ<5lion« ? 

A. They are very numerous, confifting in wheat, barley, 
tocufTo, telf and feveral ether kinds of grain, many kinds of 
garden vegetables, with trees of almoii evory kind, as the 
caper, fycamor«, the palm tree, &c. iomc producing leaves,- 
Uoffoms ^nd fruit together during the whole year ; and 
others grow in large forefts, afForoirg (helter for the nuni- 
berlefs beads of prey which inhabit this country. Grafs 
of feveral kinds grows in plenty here, and very high, par- 
ticularly clover. 

Q^ What mo-untains are there inth'is country ? 

A. The moft remark-able are the Taranta, and Lama!* 
non, with the Mountains of the Moor. Others, with 
craggy, wild and frightful appearances, are fituated in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, 

Q^ What rivers are there ? 

A. The Nile, which is the largeft in this quarter of the 
globe, rifes in Abyfunia on the top of a mountain, about 
two miles above the level of the fca, in the.provinceof Sa- 
cala in the kingdom of Goiama. It rifes from two {jprings a 
fmall diflance from each other, which are about two feet 

r _ 

diameter where they rife out of the ground. One of them' 
maybe two feet and an half deep ; the other has not bucn 
founded to the bottom. This river receives niany others 
as it paiTes along over feveral catarads iu \t.^ ^t3r«[&. x^q\>Jcv.- 
yard, towsird the Mediterranean t\\TCM^x\\\^ ^^s>a.XiX\^* . 



i>i|. a £ 0> G K: A P> H. r 

m 

{^ What 18 the capital town ? 

A. Goodar^ which lies three thoufiind threo hundred 
and thirty-fix miles fouth-eaft from London, conuins about 
10,000 inhabitants. Its houfes are moftly built of roud» 
with conic roofs made of thatch, which is the ufual manner 
of building in AbyiEnia, except a few houfes whick are. 
built of (lone, and lime mortar. 

Q^ What do you obferve of the inhabitants I 
A. Their complexions are rather fwarthy^ almoft in^a* 
ibite of nature, Tery treacherous, favage and barbarous id 
their manners and cuftoms> and much opprefled by their 
defpotic rulers, infomuch, that notwithftanding the fruitful 
Defi> of the foil, they live very miferably* 
Q^ What is their religion ? 

A. It is a mixture of Mahometanifm^ Judaifin and 
Chriftianity. 

Q^ What is their drefs I 

A. It is fomething in the Turkifh fafliioo among the nO" 
bility ; confiiiing of a piece of cotton cloth ci their own- 
man ufa^ure which they wc.ir around their Woifts. The reft 
of their bodies are generklly uncovered, except their feetr 
on which they wear landals, and Ibmetinies turbans on ihcir 
heads. The poorer people cover ikemfelves with tlie Ikiai 
of animals. 

Q^ Wliat is the ftate of fciencc among them ? 
A. There is very^ little attention paid to it« Some o£ 
them read the Koran, and feme of them have a fli^bt 
knowledge of the Old Tcftamcnt. 
Q^ What is the government I 

A. The country is divided into f<:veral kingJoms and 
provinces, which are governed by kiiigi and govemors, who 
are abfolute, but who arc all fubordi:iatc to the king ct 
Abyflinia. He is abfolute, and his -jk: wn i,* tlLvTiivc. H: 
I w fides at Gocdar. 



Of ABLX. 

Q. Give a defcription of Abcx ? 

A. It is bounded by I^gypt on the north $ by Ajft j 

fouth ; by the Red Sea caft ; and by AbylHoia and Nubia i 

wed. It is about £vc hundred and forty miles longi and J 

one hundred and thin^ broad. It is a dry, faridy, barrui 1 

cfe/crt countiy ; deftiiuie ot viAXti^ -^lv^^ ^Lwwq^ ^C ittbabii- 1 

dnts. It is partly fub'itO. ^o \Xi^ "^ vi't^A ■ccsi^ hs^isv \v^^N 



O F A F R I C A. T2S 

4uces wild beads and ebony wood. Th« Turkiih Beglep- 
beg reHdes at Suakem, which lies on the weft fide of the 
Red Sea, and has a good harbour. The fouth part is call* 
ed Doncala from the name of the capital, which lies about 
three thoofand miles fouth-eaflerly from London. It is 
governed by its own king. 

Of AJAN. 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of A jan ? 

A. It is fituated between 40 and 50 degrees of eaft loiNr 
gitude, and between the equator and 10 degrees of north- 
latitude. It is 900 miles long, and 300 broad. 

Q^ How is it bounded ?. 

A. It i» bounded by the Red Sea and the Straits of 
*Babelmandeb on the north ; by Zanguebar on the fouth f. 
by the Indian Oceait eaft ; and by AbyiUnia weft. 

Q. How is- it divided; ?- 

A. It is divided into A}an, Magadoxa, and Adel. 

Q^ What are the air and foil of thefe countries ? 

A. The air is hot, but healthy ; and the country being; 
watered by feveral rivers, is very fruitful in wheat, millet^ 
frankincenfe and pepper^ Here are ilieep whofe tails weighr. 
more than twenty pounds each* 

Q. What do you fay of the inhabitants ? 

A. Thofe of Magado.-».i and Adel are Mahometans ;• 
thofc of Ajan, which is (ubje(ft to the Portuguefe, are Pa. 
gans, with fome few Chriftians. 

Q^ What, are the capitals of thefe kingdoms ? 

A- Brava is the capital of Ajan, which ftands about 
4,000 miles fouth-eafterly from London. Magadoxa is 
the capital of that kingdom, which has a good haibour, 
Zebia is tlie capital of Adel. 

Q^ What is the government of thefe kingdoms ? 

A. Ajan is fubjed to the Portuguefe ; the two othecQ 
are governed by their own independent kings. 

Of NEG ROLAND.. 
Q^ What are the fituation and extent of NegroIanJ ? 
A. It lies on the weftem fhore of Africa, being bound- 
ed on the north by Zaara ; on the fouth by Guinea^ whidr. 

■ _ 

L.. & , 



126 GEOGRAPHY 



is feparated from it by the long ridge of mountains called: 
bierra Leona ; on the eall by Abyifinia and Nubia ; and 
on the weft by the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 2,200 - 
miles long, and 8co broad. 

Qj^ What are tlie air and foil of Negroland ? 

A. The iDteiior jmrts are not known ; but along the- 
rlver Niger, winch ovtrfiows the country, it is very fertile,, 
ihoiigh thvi air is e xceflively hot. 

(^ What are the produdlions ? 

A. It producer Indian and Guinea corn, rice, millet, . 
tobacco, tamarinds, cotton, indigo, muHirooms, cattle, and. 
various kinds of fruits,. There are two curious trees in 
this country,.which ate called, one the baobab,kOr calabafh,. 
and ihe other the mangrove. The baobab grows about fix- 
ty feet high, and its body is frequently feventy feet in cir- 
cumference. The mangrove grows by the fide of rivers. 
where the tide flows> to about fifty feet high, and its 
branches bend down into the water, and form roots, on- 
which oyflcrs grow. The animals, birds and fifh-js are the- 
fame as in Egypt. There are various kinds of infedls. 
which arc peculiar to the country, and fome of them are 
very troublefome. It is faid that the grafs in this country. 
grows to tile height of twelve feet. 

Q^What are the inhabitants ? 

A. They arc moftly Mahometans and Pagans, and ioi 
tiic inland countries they have no religion at all* 

Q^ What is the capital town ? 

A. Madinga, which. flands about 2,850 miles fouth of.' 
London. 

C^ Wlxat is the commerce ? 

A. It is carried on by Europeans, and confifts in oflrich'i 
feathers, gums, amber, gold duft, ivory, and the fhameful! 
tr?ffic of negro f}aves-. 

Q^ What is thi government ? 

A. it is troverned by a number of king?, who go perpet* 
xiiiliy to war with eAch other, ajod fcJl thwir prifbners flavcs. 
iO tJie European*.. 

Of GUINEA. 
O- What are the fituation and extent of Guinea? 
A. it.i.s fituated between \ -ic^A \o dtn^rccs of north lati-- 
tvdc, aad bttween 15 do^xeta v^^ ^v\\\> at^^ \^ ^^^^^-^^it. 



O F A F R I C A. W7 



Q^How is Guinea bounded? 

A. It is Bounded on the north by Negroland ; on the 
-m&il by unknown lands ; on the fouth by th>; Atlantic Ocean ;. 
and on ihe weft by the f«irae ocean.. 

Q^ How is it divided ? 

A. It is divided into the Grain Coaftithe Tooth CoaH",. 
the Gold Coall, and the Slave Coait ; all of which take 
their names from the articles. of commerce which they fur- 
niili. It lies along the Gulph of Guinea ; the Grain Coaft 
lirft to the weftwaM, the ne:a eart is the Tooth Coafl, 
next the Gold Coaft, and lall the Slave CoAL 

Qi. What is the face of the country ? 

A. A part of Sierra Leona is high ground, but iir gen-* 
eral, as far as it is known, it is a flat levci country, and in 
a part of Sierra Leona is low and marlhy, iatcrleikd witli 
fmall creeks.. 

Q^ What is the foil ? 

A. In fome places it is very dry and barren ; in others. 
it is very fruitful. 

Q^ What are the air and climate ? 

A. The climate is faid.not to be unnealthy, though the- 
air is very hot and dry. 

Q_ What are the produ«5Vions of Guinea ? 

A. Some provinces produce almoil all kinds of grain* 
and tropical fruits, while others are dreary, fandy deferts. 
The animals are the fame with thofe already mentioned in 
other parts of Africa, conCfting of elephants, lions, tygers. 
Jackals, wild boars, buffaloes, deer, (heep, neat cattle, moi>- 
keys, &c. with all the reptiles which infeft the interior 
parts of Africa ; and fome of which are peculiar to thofe 
parts ; among which is the tennee, which is near twenty- 
feet long, and which will kill leopards, tygers, deer, &c. 
and fwallow them. While iron and the Joad-ftone are- 
found in Sierra Leona, with many produ^ions which are 
common to European countries, and wiiich furniih a profit* 
able commerce. 

Q^ What do you obferve of the inhabitants ? 

A. They are cliictJy pagans and idolaters, though there 
ane fome Chridians among them< In different countries. 
dilTerent cuftoms prevail. Whydah was once a populous, 
rich* and, in fome meafure, civilized CQ\ivvVi>^^W\.v^Tv<y« 
Sink In ignoratics, fupeiititlon and V>;vT\i.\V V05 • . Xti"^-^^- 
where the pcoph are governed b'j ^ YKxn^hjW >a ij^^x wJ 



1^8 GEOGRAPHY 

lute> when they are tired of hiniy a deputation waits on kini 
and informs him that it is fatiguing for him to bear the bur* 
den of government any loiiger, advifing him to take a li^ 
tie reft. He thanks them,, and retires to his apartment as 
if to deep, and diredls his womaa to. ftrangle him ; and af* 
tcr he expires they deftroy all things which belonged to 
him, or to thcmfelvesy and then kill one another. His fo» 
fucceeds to the government, and on the f^me. teims* 

Q. What rivers, are there in Guinea ? 

A. The principal are th«i Rionocnas,.the RiopangoeSf. 
Dcnibia, Barrer.ia> Rifley, and the Sierra Leona, in whicb 
is the ifland Gambia, whcse the French. hav£ a fa&ory. 

Q. What is the capital town ?. 

A. The capihil of tl^e kingdom of Dahomy is- Abomy^ 
which is an irregular town, containing about twenty-four. 
thoufand inhabitants. Benin, which is the capital of % 
kingdom of the fame name, is the principal city in Guinea*. 
It Itands near the riyer Formofa, and. is a place of confide 
erable commerce. 

Qj^ What is the commerce of this country i 

A* The whole coaft belongs to the £ngli(h, Dutch^ 
French, Danes and PrufTians, who have eftabli(hed forts, 
and fadlories, where they trade in gold-duft} ivory, and va* 
xious other commodities, befide flaves, of which there are 
about thirty- eight thoufand exported in Englifh veflels an- 
Dually. The principal ports for flaves are. Bonny and Ca^ 
laban 

Q^ What is the goveinment ?. 

A. Some of the kingdoms are governed, by kings, who* 
are abfolute.. The Mahees are a warlike people, and are 
formed into an independent republic. The. interior parta. 
of Guinea arc unknuwji to the Europeans, except their 
names, but the inhabitants of thofe parts which are known». 
are generally difhonefl and irr(.ligious, though the inhabit*^ 
apts of Sherbro are. {aid to be very indullrious both iai 
trade and agriculture^ 

Gf. CONGO. 
Q^ Whkit are the fituation and extent of Congo ?' 
A. It is fituated between the equator and the i8th dc-- 
grec offoutb latitude, and between lo and 20 degrees of 
ca/^ longitudS' It is divided iulo ^ovx Vvxv^^iwsft^ whcfe. 




OF APR! C Av i'X9 

ipiii} and-Benguela. Loango is 400 miles long»,and.joo 
broad. Congo is 500 miles long, and 400 broad. An« 
gola is 350 miles long, and 250 broad. Benguela 19-430 
miles Ipng, and 1 80 broadb' 

Q^ How is the country bounded ? 

A« It is bounded by Benin on the north ; th^ 
parts of Africa on the eaft '^ Matamon .ind CafTraril 
fouth ; and by the Atlantic Ocean on the wefh 

Q^ What are the air and foil of this country ? 

A. In Loango the air ift hot, but the foil is fruitful: In 
Congo the air is very hot, and the foil is generally fandy 
and barren, except along the fhore, where it is more fer- 
tile. Anglo ^s alfo- fruitfkl. and hot. The produdts of 
Benguela are unknown. ^ 

Ql^ What are the produdls and commerce of thi^couoR 
try ? 

A. In- thofe parts of the country where it- is friutful, the 
produ^s, both animal and vegetable, are the fame as are al- 
ready mentioned in other fruitful countiies in Africa, with 
this difference only, that in feme parts cf the country the 
palm tree grows, out of which, by tapping it> they draw 
palm wine.. The commerce is carried on by the Porta- 
guefe, who own the greatefl part of the country. It COO- 
(ids in elcphanis' ttcih, copper,. tin, iron, and flaves. 

Q^ What do y9u obferve of the inhabitants ? 

A. They ar^ in general very ignorant, and are the groff- 
«ft idolaters, though the Portu^ucfe have converted fome of 
them to Chriilianity. The inhabitants of Angola are lazy, 
but are the mildeft in thtir manners, and the mofl expert 
•f any of the Africans in^iechanical arts. 

O. What towns are theie in thia country ? 

A. J^he capital town of Loango is Loango^ which 19 
3,^co miiiis iouth ftom Loisdon. The dpitaj of Congo is 
St. Salvki^lor, 4000 milts ibutli from London. The prin- 
cipal town in Angola is I-cundo, 4»300 miles fouth troni 
Londorn* Thi capital of JBenguela is St. Philip de I3en- 
gujla, which is 4}'5CO miles fouth from London. 

Q^ What rivers are there in this country ? 

A. Wc know only tlie Zaire, in which are crocodiles, 
lea-horfe?, Ac. It divides Congo from Lpango. 

Q^Give a concife defcription of the Cia^es and Anu'a^L^^ 
_• A. Thc-fivd inhabit a part of tW Cotx'yi ^vidSv. \ '^^-^Na.v 
ter livn ia tht Macaco, w UcU \s bt.Vvvad \.\k^>kvc\«i^^^^'^ 



ityy e E O G R A P H Y^ 

ango. The people are cannibals. They kill and e.it their 
firli-born children ; and their fViends who die aie f;.itcn Iff 
their relations. The king of Mucico retides in Monfol, 
where there is a market in which human fl«*lh is fold, al- 
though other meat exifh in plenty. They cileem it a luxr 
uryi and it is faid that an hundred prifoners or (laves are 
daily killed for the king's table. 

Of MONLMLXJI. 
Q^ Wliat are the fituaiion aod extent of Monemugi ? 
A. Itis bounded on the north<by Abyllinia ; on the foutir 
by Monomotapa ; on the cafi by Zunguebar $ and on the 
wed by Congo. . It is 900 miles long, and 650 broad. 
Qj^ Whiit is the (kpir^l city ? 

A. Chicovj, which is 49930 miles fouth from London- 
er What more do we know of Mcnemugi ? 
A. But very little. The Portuguefe made an incurfion 
into it, and erc(fted a fort on the river "Zambece, which runs 
through this country, and through Zangucbar. In the mid- 
dle of the country is the large Lke of Marave, orZambre. 
The people are tall and well made, and are generally idol- 
aters. The principal produ^Slions are gold, lilver, copper* 
and elephants' teeth. * 

Or ZANGUEBAR. 

Q. What are the iitaation and extent ofZanguebar? 

A. It lies on the caller j Ihore cF Air ica toward the In- 
dian Ocean, between 5 J^:r»if.'cs north una 1 6 fouih latitude,, 
b'-ing ), 400 miles luj;g, :ind 350 broad.. 

O. How is Zangucbar bounded ? 

A, It is bounded on the noith by Ajan ; on the fouth by 
Monomotapa and Sabia ; on the eafl by the Indian Ocean ;. 
on the weft by Monemugi, Manca, aud unknown parts of. 
u\iVica. 

C^. How is it. divided ? 

i\. Into jVIumbaza, Melinda, Oj^iiolii, Tcrrc Je Raphael,. 

Mozauibi^iie, and Sofala, ?il of which h.ave capitals of the 

fune name witli the countries, except Terrc de l^phacl, 

whole capital is Mor.tagnet. The largell town in this 

touniry is ^' "nda, which {lands on the river CJuilma^ci^ 

about ^^ooo Jiiiles iouth-eallerlY of London. It contains 

2o^',CLQ iohabitanis. T\\e Povu^^vit^t Wn^W^^v ^^\<l\i-- 

ti^.n chiH::Us cind nine coxyvciii^ "vi^ aK\^ ^^^^vi. 'rw:>\ ?^ 



^ r AFRICA. 131 

vays keep a garrifon in it, and in all the other capitals* 
The towns have all of them good harbours. 

Q^ What are the products of Zanguebar ? 

A. All that we know of them is, that in general they 
are like thofe of other countries in Africa. The Portu- 
guefe trade with the negroes for oftrich featherSf gefd* 
ivory, (laves, rice, fugar, wax and drugs. 

Q. What do you obferve of the inhabitants of Zangue- 
bar ? 

A. They are all» except thofe whom the Portuguefe 
have converted to Chriilianityy eithe^ idolaters or Mahom- 
etans. 



Op MONOMOT4IPA. 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of Monomotapa ? 

A. It is (ituated on the fea-fliore in the fouthern part of 
Africa, between 15 and 23 degrees of fouth latitude. It 
b about 900 miles long, and 600 broad « 

Q^ How is it bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by Monemugi and Zan- 
^ebar ; on the eafl by the Eadern Ocean, and on the fouth 
and weft by unknown parts of Africa. 

Q^What is the capital tov/n ? 

A* It is Monomotapa, which is built with wood, cover- 
ed with plaifter. It ilands about 5,200 miles fouth-eafterljr 
from London. 

Q^ What are the air and foil of Monomotapa ? 

A. The air is temperate, and the foil is very fertile in 
rice and fugar- canes, which grow fj^jntaneoully- 

Q^ What are its produ<5tions ? 

A. The fame as thofe of Zanguebar. 

Q^ What do you obferve of the inhabitants ? 

A. They are negroes, and in religion are idolaters, 
.; though they are faid to believe in one God» who made the 
Vorld. 



Of CAFFRARIA. 
■Q. What are the fituation and extent of Caffraria ? 
AT It is fituated between the tropic of Capricorn and tkd 
34^ degree of fouth latitude. It is feven hundred and 
eighty miles long, and iix hundred and el^Vvv^ bi^-aA* \x 
i« tiie mod fouthern part of A^t\c;i, ^t\d \.Vv^ Wi'ORftx^^:^^^ 
jfoiit of it is the Cape of GoodHoj>t, N4Yi\o\i\i^QJ^^ ^^ "^ 



13« ' tS E O G R A P H Y 

Dutch. There the Dutch 'have built a handfome towo 
caJIed Capetown ; and although the territory round it it 
naturally barren, they h^tve by induftry and cultivation Ten- 
■dered it very fruitful. Capetown (lands 6,000 miles fouth 
from London, where almoft all the India (hips put in for 
rcfrefhment 

Q^ What do you obfcnre of the air and foil in Qfflfraria*? 

A. In fumnier the tir 'n hot, and commonly dry, as it 
hardly ever rains there. Where there are rivers it is very 
(fruitful ; but ehewii^ it it a -barren, ifandy defert, inhib- 
ited only by wild beafh and reptiles. 

Q. Whkit are the produAions of this country ? 

A. Bciid'.' thufe already mentioned in the other coun- 
tries in Africa, this<*country contains a variety of produc- 
tions both arimal and vegetable. Among the animals are 
antelopes, cameleopards, and -the gnus, which refembles the 
horft , the o\ and anttlope. 1'he cnmeleopttrd is higher be- 
fore than bf:!iind, being fifteen ft •♦ from his fore-hoof to 
the end of his horn. The leif'u.U 6\, which refembles a 
withered leaf eaten by a caterpili.jr, is a native of this coun- 
trtr. ''I 'he torpedo, a iifh, which if touched only with t 
ftfck will make the arm feel numb, is found in the livers, 
oefide a grtit variety of oihers which live only in Africa, 

C). What curiofitics are th -re of the vegctiibic kind ' 

A. Silver- trees, fo called from thciiMrolour. A tree 
producing gum ar«ibic, ebony trees, camphor-trees a fpccieo 
of aloe, which is called the qi.ivcr-tree ftom its ufe. It 
grows about twenty fett h'gh, with a trunk t\^elve feet in 
circumference, md its branches are faid tofpread around it^ 
from yi e fit^e to the other, a d'\l}jLnc(: of fuur hundred feet. 
The mimof^ is alio a (jn^»u!aiity, from its guni, which is 
deemed a luxury by the natives, as well as for th** '*• 
which are built on it by a peculiar kind of biuis, 
fide nxuuentJy eight hundred or a thouf^nH of then 
cr, like oees in a hive. Many poifotiu:is }»Unts a 
in C».ft\ri'i, the moft noxious of v/l.ich is the cup' 

(^ vVhat rivers aic there in (Jatfraiiit ? 

A. 'i'j.erc . .e fevera! ; the laig-jit of which is 
phants, 01 C-M'^tlib rive?. Inhere are feverai 
fyrlnp^a^ .thi i./n:o hot baths in ih^* country. 

A. 7 here are n^tny "iw Ovv, v;av \A Mucsu *\ 
rcmrirk.'.lAt: uTi: the l\oodci*uvi v...o^:.v\vmvv^,\W'ah* 



O r A F R 1 C A. IJ3 

inh&bited by the Bolhmen» the Snow mountains, the Table 
mountain, the Devil's Head, Lion's Head, and Lion's Tail. 

Q^ What do you obfen'e of the inhabitants ? 

A. All this countiy which is not po/TefTcd by the Dutch, 
is inhabited by Hottentots, Cafi^rcs, and wild bcaftSf which 
are in great numbers. 

Q^ What are the charaAeriflics of the Hottentots ? 

A. They are the mo(t abjedl of all the human racTc. 
They have little beHde the fliapes and features of men, to 
defignate that they belong to the human fpecies. — They 
bcfmear their bodies with foot and greafe. Jive upon carri- 
on, old leather, flroes, and every thing of the moft loath- 
fome kind ; drefs thcmfelves in /heep's fkins untanncd, 
turning the wool to their flefli in the winter^ and the otJicr 
itde in the fumnier. In (hort it is hardly poflible to con- 
ceive of any diing too filthy for them. Their drcfs fervcs 
them for a bed at night, for a covering by day, and I'or a 
winding-fhcet when they die. 

Q^ What are the charadleriftics of the Cairres ? 

A. They are a flout, well-made, and courageous ])Cople ; 
faid to be hofpitable and courteous. They ;ire jc;iIous of 
the Dutch and of all other flraqgers. They have a j-jt black 
complexion, witii white teeth and large eyes. Tliey are 
not ijuitc fa favage as the Hottentots ; are very fond of dog s^ 
and they teach their cattle to come at the call of a whiitle. 
They have their princes or governors among them, who 
Iteep their sentinels at night while they lleep. 

(^ What are their employments ? 

A. They fpcnd their time in hunting, dancing, fighting, 
and tendinjj i::;!.tlc^ and the women cultivate corn, tobacco, 
watcrmeloiiy U-'ai'^s, :ind hemp, and manula«^.aro mats and 
baskets. 



Of the AFRICAN ISLANDS. 

Q^ "Where arc the Afiican Ifl:mds Ctuated ? 

A. Sonic are iitui.ted in the AJaniic, and iomc in tJie 
lutlian Ocean. 

(^ Vx hat is the fituation of the jfzoKff ? 

A. Ti^'.'y arc fiiuatcd at an equul difljkhce from Europe, 
Africa and America, in the Atlantic (%ean, about nine 
hundred miles w;;{l of Portugal. They are bctwtwn ZK and 

M 



■^ EOGRAPHY 

3; ecgrees of U'eft longitude, and between 3; and dOtf 
Bonh latitude ; and ate mne in numhei-, 

Q^ Wliat are their narne! ? 

A. St. Mary, St. Micliael, Tcrcwn, St. George, On. 
ciola, Tayal, Pico, Flores, and Corvo. The air of ibe 
Azures is pure, acd no nosious animal wlU live in thenu 
St. Michael is llie largeft, coi.tains fifty thoufand irbabi- 
tants, and is one hundred miles in circumference. 

Q. What is the fituatkra oFthe Mad>nrat ? 

A. They are (ituaied ir lantic Ocean', betwtei 

iS and 20 degrees of wsfl juc, aud between 33 >nd 

33 degrees of north laiitiKi-- 

Q^ What do you obferve ( Madeira^ f - 

A. They have an exec) ^ oatc, and vtry fiuirfiJ 

foil, [iroditeing fome cf thi ks in the worlJ. M»-J 

deira, the latgeft, is about;-., ve miles long, and fisTJf 

inroad. The capital town ii lal. Thefc, as wcU a 

the Azores, belong to the Portugu.;fe. 

Q^ What ia the fitustion of the Canarlei ? 

A. They are fuuated in the Atlantic Ocean, beiweeo 
12 and 19 degrees df well longitude, and between Z7 an4 
29 degrees of north latitude. They are feven in number, 
and have a fine clioiate, pure air, and fruitfiU foil, yieldiif 
(WO harvetts in a leafon, aod producing wine of the moft de- 
licious ft.ivor. 'J'he two larjjeft are the Grand Canary, ad- 
Tcntriffe. Grand Canary is 150 miles in circumference,: 
and ifs cajiiLal town is Canary. Te'neriffe is 110 mile* it; 
circumference, and its capital is Si. Chri(toval-<)e-Ia-La|BT 
na. On this ifLnd is one of the liigheil mountains inthc 
world, called the Peak of Tencriffe, which is 2 toIom. 
The Canaries are owned by Spain. 

Q. What is the fitu.ii!on «f tiie Capt J, T'crd IJlani, ? 

A." They are (iiuaied in the Ailantic Ocean betweer 2J 
and 16 degrees of weif longitude ; and between 14 and iS 
degrees of nortl) latitude ; about joo miles weji of CifC 
Verd in Africa^ ..TtKy are about twenty in number,!/ 
- which SirJiB) ft^u Jargcf^. It » 150 milo id dim- 
ference, antn^jftvl N St. Domingo. Ferego* the DOB 

Ch What aill-th^ir, climate and produaioas oF tk& 
iflands* , ' 

A, TAe^>i/is'geneTa\A'y \\ot«.Tt& Ti«V«A'dK). ^nwi-tf. 
'Ac /i7^iiAafi barren and loOt^ \ o^iwxtM^tw^fe^ite* 



OF A F R r C Ac 1J3- 

the tropical produdionS) and abound in the'dom^flic ani- 
mals, which are common in other warm countries, belide a 
ibrt of green monkeys with black faces. In the Illand of 
Mayo the fun incrufb the fea-water with fait, and fv:veral 
cargoes of afles are fliipped from it every year. The Cyp;: 
Verd Iflands belong to the Portugucfc. 

Qj^ What iflands are there in the Guiph of Guinea ? 

A. The fmall iiiands of St. Thomas, Annabona, Prin- 
ces Iflacd» and Fernando Po> are all iituated there ; and 
they {uj)ply vcflcls with water and provifionsw They are 
owned by the Spaniards. In i degree and 30 minutes of 
ibuth latitude, and 6 degrees and i minute of wed longi- 
tude, lies the ifland St. Matthew,- and in 7 degrees and 40 
minutes is the ifland Afcenfion, both of which arc unin- 
habited. India (hips often (lop at them to procure turtlcr» 
which abound in them^ and weigh from 80 to 100 pounds 
weight. 

Q^What is the fltuation of St. Helena ? 

A. It is fituated in the Atlantic Ocean, in 6 degrees and 4 
minutes welb longitude, and in 16 degrees of fouth latitude. 

Qj^ Give an account of St. Helena ? 

A. It is about twenty-eight miles in circumference ; is 
a high deep rock, and aeccHil^le only at one place. It is in- 
habited by about two hundred families, who are defcended 
from EngH(h parents. It is well cultivated, and its pro- 
duAions, both animal and vegetable, arc much like thofo of 
the Cape Verd iflands, except wines, which are not produ- 
ced in St. Plelena^ Its air is pure, and its climate is very 
healthy. 

Q^ What is the fituation of Macla^afcar ; 

A. It is fituated in the Indian Ocean, between 43 and 
51 degrees of eait longitude, and between 10 and 26 de- 
grees fouth Idtitiide. It is i,cco miles long, and 280 broad. 

Q. What account do you give of Madagafcar ? 

AT It is a pleafant and fertile ifland, \yaiercd with feve- 
ral rivers, which are flocked with excellent filh. Mada- 
gafcar produces corn, fugar, honey, a variety of fine fruits, 
gums, precious (tones, iron, lllver, copper, tin, and an a- 
bundance of cattle. The inhabitants are fome white and 
fomc ■ black ; fome Mahometans and fome Pagans. It ia 
governed by feyeral independent i^uivc^% oS. ^«. tv^vc^^'^. 

Q^ Whkt IB the fituation o£ 0:i^ \BLwA oS. "\Aj»»v:.^v 
Maunuus P 



fSG C E O G R A P H Y 

A. It is fituatcd in 56 degrees of ea(t longitude, and 2» 
degrees of fouth latitude, in the Indian Ocean. It is 15c/ 
miles in circumference^ and lies 40omiks eaftof Madagafcart 
Q^ What further account do you give of this ifland ? 
A. It is a fine fruitful ifland, producing ebony, with ftv- 
eral other kinds of valuable v/ood, tobacco, rice, various, 
kinds of fruits, and latterly fpices have been cultivated here. 
Its rivers are well fupplicd with ii(h ; and its mountainf are- 
fo high tliiit their tops are covered with perpetual fnows^ 
lis c«ipif;d is of the fame nnme with ihc ifland. 

Q^ Whiit is the Htuation of Bourlon ? 

A. It lies in the Indian Ocean, in 54 degrees of cafth>iu 
gitude, and 2 1 degrees of fouth latitude. It is ninety milet 
in circumference. 

Q^ What further account do you give of this ifland ? 

A. It liits a fine healthy air and climate, and is fo friut-- 
ful in the vj'iious proclui^ions of the Euft, that it is emphati- 
cally called the Teirellrial Panidife. Its trees are covered 
with a perpetual green ; its rivers are well ftocked with uPny 
and it affords e\:ery thing which can make life delightiul. 
There is a volcano on the fouth end of the ifland, and it is 
faid to be liable to viglent hurricanes. 

Q^ Give an account of the Comora IJlamls ? 

A. They are fituated between 10 and 14 degrees o£ 
fouth JhtituiJe, and between 41 and 46 clt'grees of talHon-. 
gitude. The larg^lt is Joanna, which h about thirty miles 
long, and fifteen broad. It has a c-tj)!!;!! of the fame name. 
The inhabitants are negroes of the Mahometan reliyon.. 
They fuj'ply the India fiiips with proviliuns. 

Q^ Give an account of Baltlmandtib P 

A. It is fituated in 12 degrees of north latitude, and 441 
degrees and 30 minutes of tad longitude. It is a barren 
iiland of aboi.t jive miles in circumference, giving name to, 
and commanding the entrance into the Red Sea, where it 
lies. 

0. Give an account of Zocotra, cr Socotra P 

A. It is fituated in 12 degrees of noiih latitude, and 55 
of eafl longitude. It is eighty miles long, and fifty-fouf 
broad. The capital is Calanfia. It is a prof parous and 
huitfid ifland, producing frankinccnlc, gum tragicanih and 
^locs. Its inhabitants are originally i\rabians, iind like 
them are Mahometans \ aud tu%t^vi\ \>\c>\SSvw.ri tvi lodi^ 
iSfcZ/'S wiiich flop tJier^^ 



F A ME R rc A. f57 

Of AMERICA. 

Q^ WHAT is the traft of country called America ? 

A. It is a large continent, which is feparated from £u« 
pope and Africa by the Atlantic Ocean on the eaft fide,, 
and from Afia by the Paciiic Ocean on the weft. 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of America ? 

A. It is fituated between 80 degrees of north latitude 
and ^6 degrees of fouth latitude ; and between the 35th' 
and 156th degrees of wed longitnde. It is about nine 
thoufand miles long, and,. where it is wideft, three thoufand 
leven hundred miks broad, though at the n^trrowed part at 
the Ifthmus of Daricn, it is not more than iixty miles wide. 

Q^ How is America divided ? 

A» It is divided into two great continents ; the upper 
one is called North Ameiica ; and ilie lower cne is called. 
South America. 



Of north AMERIC.V. 

Q^ What are the fltuation and extent ot Ncrth America. 

A- It is lituated between 8 and to degrees of north lat- 
itude, and between 54and 131 decrees of weit lungitudc;. 
It- is about 5.000 miles long, Irom north to fouth, and from 
100 to 3,700 miles broad, from citV to wtih 

Q^ How is North America bounded ? 

A. It Is boundcxi on the north bv the Northern Ocean ; . 
oiXitbe eaft by tl>e Atlantic Ocean ; on the fouth by Soiitlr-. 
America ; and on the weft by the Pacific Ocean. 

Q^ What provinces does it contain r 

A. It contains New-Dritain,Upp-."rand Lower Canada^ 
Nova Scotia, New-Brunfwick, the United States, E;iit and. 
W-eft Dorida, Louifiana, .New Mexico, and Old Mexico.. 



Of NEW-BillTAIN. 

Q^ Give a general account of New- Britain ? 

A. New-Britain is the name given tcTthat country '\\ hlclr- 
Ees north of Canada, commonly called the country of th*» 
£ikiauiux, and is about; 850 miles long, and 750 broad. 
It is a mountainous, frozen, barren country, interfperfc J to 
an uncommon degree with lakes, rivers, and buys. Tljefc 
•bound with fifti ;. and the country futtv\(\\e^ tl ^^^cv.x'^^xo.v 
offurf, W'A/c/j are the principal atUc\c^ o? i^TriTEvs.\cAx ^'^"- 



T33 GEOGRAPHY 



thinly inhabited by a people wHb rcfcmble the Laplanders ia 
Europe. The trade of the country is veiled in a company 
confifiing of a few perfons, called the Hudfon^ bay com- 
pany. Their profit* are not known. -^ .-.^ 

Of CANADA. 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of Canada ? 

A. It is fituated between 45 and 52 degrees of north lat- 
itude, and between 61 and 81 of wcU longitude* It is 6oc- 
miles long» and 200 broad. . 

Q^ How is Canada bounded ? 

A. It is bounded en the north by New- Britain ; on the 
eafl by the Bay of St. Lawrence ', on the fbuth by Nova^ 
Scotia and the United States ; and 00 the weft by uoknowoi 
knds. j 

Q. What rivers are there in Canada ? 

A. The principal are the St. Lawrence, the OuttauuSii 
St. John's, Saguina, Defpraires, and Trois Rivieres. St» 
Lawrence is the I'argell, and all the others empty tTictn- 
feives ii^to it, and where that empties in^o the Atlantic its- 
mouth is ninety miles- broad. 

Q. What are the principal towns in Canada ? 

A. Qu^;bcc is the capital. It llands about 320 miles; 
from the ocean, en the weft bank of the St. Lhwrence. It. 
is built on a rock« and is divided into ^he upper and lower 
town. It being built on a lide hill, the former ovtrlooks- 
the latter. In the year 17S4 it contained 6,472 inhabit 
tants;. About one hundred and fcvcnty miles further up- 
the St. Lawrence [hnds Moptreal, on^^n ifland in the river- 
St. Lawrence. It is nearly as large as Quebec. 

Q. What number of inhabiunts are there in Canada^ 

A. The inhabitants in Upper and Lower Canada* may 
amount to 130,000, of Englifh and French. 

O. What is the government of Canada ? 

AT Canada is a Britifh province, and its go^•ernment i» 
veiled in a povernor and legiiLtive council. The governor 
b p.>)i»ointcd l)y the king, r.nd the council is cho(en frcm a»- 
moijg the inhabiiAr.ts. The gcivcmor of Lower C<>nada is. 
f nvcrncr-generat of all the northern BritiHipTOs -nccs, which. 
Ij:ivc h'eutcnant governors appointed by the king. 
Q. Wbiit is the llaic of cotv^mMicc vcv Ciiuada I 

' Thcli" aw iwo dil'.'iii^ ^ic\\»tc^ 



OF A M E R I C .V. 131; 

A. It is flourifliing, and confjils in furs and peltry, wheat, 
dour, flax-feed, pot-alli, iifh, oil, gioieng, and fome othe^* 
medicinal roots. 



Of nova SCOTIA. 

Q^ What are the fituation and extent of Nova Scotia ? 

A. It is 350 mil^s long,, and ?50 broad. It is fituated 
between 43 and 49 degrees of norUi latitude, and between 
60 and 67 degrees of well Icirgitude from London. 

Q. How is Nova Scotia bounded ? 

A. It is botinded by th^ river St. Lawrence on the 
north ; by the Gulph of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic 
Ocean on the ead and fouth ;: and by the eallern boundary 
of the United States on tlie wefl. It lies ;ilong on the 

P^pall of the Atlantic, about ninety leagues. It was divided 
bto three govcriimejits in 1 784, viz. Nova Scotia, New- 
Brunfwick, and St. John's in the Gul::h of St. Lawrence. 
Q^ What are the principal rivers in Neva Scotia ? 
A. They are the Rifgouche and Nipill4uir, which run 
from weft to eaft, and empty into the Bsy of St. Law- 
lence ; St. John's, PaiTamaquiidi and St. Croix, which ruQ 
from north to fouth,. and empty ioto th>2 Bay of Fundy. 

Q. What bi^ys are there in Nova Scotia ? 
. A There are many which form good harbours, but the 
Bay of Fundy is much the largciJ. It extends iifty leagues 
into the country, and in It the tide rifc:s from forty-five to 
fixty feet. 
Q. What is the clinnate of Nova Scotia ^ 
A. A confiderable part of the year it is very foggy and 
inheaithy ;. and for about nve montlis it is very cold. The 
i iummer is Jhoit, but very hot. 
\ Qi What is the foil of Nova Scotia ? 

A. It is ge/ieraliy a. thin barren foil. Oin the banks df 
4e rivers it is, however, pretty fruitful. M/oft of the coun- 
ty is dill, covered with fore(ts. 
Q^ What are the productions of Nova Scotia ? 
i A» The pro(3u«Slions of the foil are few. The animals 
*%tt'inach the fame with thofe in Canada and ether north- 
^ countries in Europe and America, affording furs and 
fiuDs. The prill c^>ai article of commerce is £ih, which are 
caught along the coaft, around the iflands of Ca\^ B^^v^sw 
•nd Ncivfoux)di;ir,d, in great (Yx^iiUUW*. 'fc^^^^ ^ii^s.l^aV 



r40 



GEOGRAPHY 



co.il» grind ftoncs and plaAcr are exported from fonK par» 
of the province.. 

Q. What is the number of inhabitants in Nora Scotia? 

A. There may be one l^indred thoufand. 

Q. What is the chief town in Nova Scotia ? 

A. Halifax, which flands on the wefl fi^lfi of Chebudo 
Bay. It has a good harbour, and is conveniently Atuated 
for carrying on the fifhery. The town is defended toward 
the fea by heavy artillery, and has a commodious dockyard* 

Q. What other towns are there in Nova Scotia ? 

A. St. John^s is the capital of Ncw*Briinrwick ; Shel- 
burn, and Dorchefterat Port Rofcway ; Birchtown, inhab- 
ited by about fourteen hundred negroes ; St. Andrew's on 
the river St. Croix, and on the river St. John's, Frederick 
town. Annapolis is (ituated on the eaftfide of the Bay o£^ 
Fundy, and has one of the belt hubours in the world. ^ 

Q^ What is the government of Nova Scotia ? 

A. It is a l^iitlfh province, and governed by a lieutenant 
governor, council, and houfe of reprefcnt.uives. New 
Brnnfwick and St. John's are governed in the fame manner. 

Of the united STATES of AMERICA. 
<\ What ai e the (Ituiition and extent of tlie United States ?■ 
A. The United States of America are fiturated between 
^1 and 46 degrees of north latitude, and between 66 and 
105 dtgrets of weft longitude. This country is 1,250 
miles loniT, and 1^040 bioad, containing^about one million 
of. ftjuare miles. 

Q^ How are the United Stales divided ?" 
A. They are divided iato the fixtecn ftiites ; New- 
Hampfhire, Maflachufcrts, Rhcde-Kland, Connc^icut, Ver- 
mont, New- York, New-JeiTey, Pennfylvanin, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, Geor- 
gia, Kentucky and TeniniTcc ; be'ide a luroe trad of un- 
divided land Ijing to the wcflv/ard of thefe (tares, within- 
their territory, inhnbited by the native favat^cs. 
Q; How are the United States bounded ? 
A . 1'hcy are bounded on the north and north-eafl by the 
Britirti provinces of Lower Canada and'New-Brunfwick^ 
on ii»c tiafl by the Atlantic Ocean ;on the louth by the 
SpHniih provinces of Eall and Weft Florida ; on the weft' 
by the MiffHippi river ; and orv x\\<i xionV^c^^ V^^ >Jcvj^.''^\ 



O F A M E R I C A. ro^ 

Q^ What do you obferve of the United States as a gov- 
trnfncnt ? 

A, Though this country is divided into fo many different 
ftates, yet they are, for their mutuai intercft, united into one 
great confederated republici fornidied with the huppieft gov- 
ernment, and the bert coniHtution in the world. It is h^ivc 
that freedom has found an afylum, and hero it will proba- 
bly reiide, as long as v'utue fliall be tiie ruling princij)le of 
the nation. 



Of NEW-ENGLAND. 

Q^ What are the Htiution and extent of New -England ? 

A. Kew-England is fituated between 41 and 46 degrees 
of north-iatluidf, and between 67 and 74 dtgrets of weft 
longitude. It is five hundred and fifty miles long, and two 
hundred broad, containing eighty-feven thoufand fquarc 
miles. 

Q^ How. is it bounded ? 

A. On the north by Canada ; cafl by New-Brurjfwi^ • 
and the Ailnntic ; fouth by the Atkntic and Long-lfland 
Sound ; and wed by the (late of New-York. 

Qj^ What are the civiJpdivirions of New-England ? 

A. Jt is dividtd into the five irutcs of New-Hampfhirc,. 
Miifl'.'Chi fctts, Rhcde-IIlaiid, Connecticut and Vermont j 
thcle ihttos are fubdivided inio coanties, and the counties, 
kito to v;r.il^ i]»s. 

Q^ If Ncvz-England io divided iiito iivc didindlgOTeni- 
merits, why is it mentioned under one general head ? 

A. Bcc.iuu: many things ielatir^ to it are common to all 
ihe partici:lar ftates, and therefore to avoid repetition it is 
convenient to i-nention them together, and in thofe things 
whei cin they difa^ree to defci ibc tlicni fcpsratcly afterwards* 

(^ Whtt is the fcce of Ncw-Engfand ? 

A. It is in general an uneven country : In fomc places 

the land rifcs into mountains, in fome, in'.-j Uuh f-i h fio.'lLr 

fite, and between the hills run many rivers; ot vk'o'j.- (izej, 

.along the {ides of which aie Ibme of the n-t-'l i.uiiiu! and 

^leafant Vailics in the world. 

: Q^ What raountairjs are there in New-Erigl.md ? 

A. There are feveral principJ lar.rcs running nearly 
from north-eaii: to fouth- wcit thioug^h New-EwJ-^v^d \ ^^\^ 
between ths Hudfoa and Coi\rveci\eviV Vvifi.\^\ •j.tvvi^^v^^. ^^ 



t49 GEOGRAPHY. 



diflant from it ; a third begins near Stofiington in Coiinec* 
ticut, and e.^ends into New-Hampfhirc. The mountains 
of Vermont, N€>w-Hampniire and Maine, are the raoft nit- 
nierous and lofty in New-England^ 

Q^ What are the principal rivers in New-England ? 

A. Connedicut river is the largelt. It rifes in the high- 
Innds between New-England and Canada, and takes a 
foutliern and crooked courfe, and after running about thrrj 
hundred miles^and forming aiich meadow through almoil 
the whole length of it, it empties into Long-lfland Sound 
between Saybrook and Lyme. It abounds with fzih» par- 
ticulkily fliad and falmon, the latter of which, though 
cuught ia thu river, have aotbceii found to the weilward o£ 
it. This.river, like the Nile in Egypt, commonly over- 
flows its banks in the ^rtng :ind falh «^ 

Q^ Is this liver navigable fOr any diftance ? 11 

A. It is navigable for vciTcls of eighty or an hundred- 
tons burthen^ to the city of Hartford about fifty miles from- 
its mouth. Above Hartford there are fcveral rapids m the 
river, which are^impa/Table even by flat bottomed boats, but 
by a cartage round them whicii in all occupies a diibnce of 
fifteen miles ; the river is navigable for boats about three 
liundrcd miles.. 

Q^ What is the natural growth of the foil ? 

A. Among the various trees are the walnut, chefnut, 
oak, maple, birch, afh, cedar, hemlock, the white, pitch and 
yellow pine, tl^ fpruce, b.iech, with many others which 
j;row plentifully in almoll every part of New-England.— 
lieljde thefe, there is a great variety of fhrubs producing 
/lowers and fruits of differ'jiit kindi-, which render the 
woods very pl:iaiing throu;;h the fcafon. Among the na- 
tive fruitu ;irc grapes of diiVcrcnt kinds and (izes, ilrawber- 
fies, wild cLcriics, wild good^erric?, red and white mulber- 
rier-, cranbci ritr, wahiUts, burternu'.s, ha'/Jenuts, beechnuts, 
ui!<i pluTiS rjid p2rtr5!,.r:ifpberries, bilberries, v/hortleberries- 
and biaclKcrrics in 3ro.1t plenty. 

<^. Wliat are the produdions ox^ this coiuitry in cODfe-- 
quence of cultivation ?; 

A. The foil of New-England yields wheat, rye, lindian 

corn, barlc}', oats, hemp, ilax, buck-wheat, peas, beans. 

Sec, It is alio an exccUewt g^ra'Mn^; country, and produces 

fruits of /brclgn originul, a^^ijAw, ^vc^> '^ViL\W4> y^v:^«i.. 

chfiiic:^ qniciccSf aprlco'.s, ticditi\ae^,cMu^iv\.'^>'Wi^^«i^tf«*^ 



O F A M E R I C A. 143 

W many cUlTcrent kinds, in high perfcflion and in the great- 
«ft plenty. All the garden vegetables alfo flourifli here. 
Q^ What are the anin>al produftions of New-England ? 
A. The doraeftic animals of New-England are horfes, 
mules, cattlcy (heep, goats and fwine. The beads of prey 
are bears, wolves, foxes, wild cdts, and fome few cata- 
mounts, or cats of the mountain. In the northern parts of 
New-England there are deer, hares and rabbits, martinst 
weazles, and fkunks, with a variety of fquirrels, which are 
in great plenty, and in the rivers are found otters, beavers, 
minks, and muflcrats. 

Q^ What iifli are there in New-England ? 
A. The fait water fifli, which are caught in great plenty 
on the eaftern and fouthern coafts of New-England, are 
halibut, cod« Jjaddock, pollock, mackarel, blackfiih, flieepf- 
iiead, bafs, fea-pcarch, eels in vad numbers, Sec. &c. and the 
xivers and brooks abound with falmon, iliad, ilurgeon, cop- 
perhead, dace, fuckers, trout, alewives, &c. &c. 
Q^ What birds are found in New-Engl;ind ? 
A. A variety of hawks, crows, owls of fcveral kinds, ea- 
gles, pigeons, partridges, turkeys, heath-hens, wood-cocks, 
quails, wild geefc, brant, different kinds of wild ducks* 
cranes, lapwings, martins, three kinds of fwallows, robbins, 
blackbirds, bluebirds, wood-peck"ers,fnipcs, mourning doves, 
and many more kinds, which fill the woods and orchards 
with mulic ; particularly the mocking-bird, thrulh, catbird, 
and bob-of-Lincoln. 

Q^\Vhat are the general char^deriflics of the people of 
New^ngland ? 

A. They are an induftrious and orderly people ; econo- 
mical in their livings, and frugal in their expenfts, but very 
liberal when called on for valuable pui pofes, or by brethren 
in didrefs. They are well informed in general ; fond of 
reading ; punAual in their obfervance of the laws ; fociablc 
and hofpitdble to each other, and to Grangers ; jealous and 
watchful over their liberties ; almoft cvury individual pur- 
fuing fome gainful and uf-ful cnlling. They arc humane 
and friendly, wilhing v/cll to the human rJce. They are 
plain and fimple in their manners, and on the whole, they 
form perhaps the mod pleafing and happy fociety in the 
world. 
Q^ What is the temper of the "Ncvf-"ET\5\AXv^ ^^o^V.\ 
Am Thej are frank and opervj, nox c^^^\\\Vv'3kX^^>^'^'^^' 



144 GEOGRAPHY 

Ely pacified. They are at the fame time hold and cnlcN 
prifing. The women are educated to houfewifciy, excel- 
lent companions and houfc-kecpers ; fpcnding their leifure 
time in reading books of ufeful information, and rendering 
themfelves not only ufeful, but amiable and pleafiog. 

Q^ What are the occupations of the people in general ? 

A. Husbandry, manufa^ures and merchandize. 

(^ What are their diyerHons ? 

A. Dancing is a favourite one of both fcxes.' Sleigh- 
riding in winter, and fkating, playing ball (of which tlicrc 
are fcveral different games) gunning and fiffiing, are the 
principal ; gambling and horfe-jockeying are pradifed by 
none but worthlefs people, who are defpifed by all pcrfons 
t)f refpe6lability, and confidercd as nuifancet in fociety. 

Q. "W Utt are their religious cufloms ? 

A. They keep a day ef fafting, commonly in Aprili And 
a day of thankfgiving in November, and attend divine fer- 
vice on the fabbath. Their funerals are commonly attend- 
'cd by a clergyman, who nuikcs a prayer or preaches a fer- 
mon at the houfc of the dcceafed, and the corpfe is rdpeft- 
fully convtyed by the neighbours of the deceafed to the 
buryin^i gro»:nd, where a \hort addrefs is fometimes made 
by the c!:i;;yman at the grave ; but different fe(5ls have dif- 
fticni nocies. 

Q. Whut is the ufual llHli'.re of the people ? 
* A. The HKn arc from Jive feet and five inches to fix feet 
and four inclij'j. but the nicdluni is about five feet eight or 
nine inchfs. The wcmjn i^re well formed, comely* deli- 
•Ctite, and oficn l>eauufi'.!. 

Q. What :s the llrttc of fcience in New- England ? 

A. Jt IS greatiy cuhiv i.cd, af.d more generally diifultd 
ampr.g the inhabiunts i^dH i:^. any other part of the 
world. Evjry town Ims or oii^ht to huvc a ichool in it, 
v.h-jc the jiiildren are "trly taught reading, writing and 
arithn:ctie Fror*.! having imbibed a habit cf reading in ear- 
ly l'.fe> and frcm the ycm number of news-paiKrrs whicli 
are pubiillKSl vvery where in the country, ulnioll every indi* 
Tidua! h well iuforincd. 



Of NEVvM-lAxMrMnRli:. 
Q. "Wijat aic the lituaiion and exteiit cf New-Hanip- 

A. It is fituatcd bciwccv* a^i dc^tct^ s- • '■ v.^^>^^;.%^s^v5^' 



OF AMERICA. 145 



degrees of north latitude, and between 70 and 73 degrees 
•of weft longitude. It is one hundred and eighty milet 
-long, and fixty broad. 

Q. How is New-Hampfliire bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by the Bnti(h proyince 
of Lower Canada ; north-eafl by the diflri<5b of Maine; 
fouth-^aft by the Atlantic Ocean ; fouth by Maflachufetts ; 
weft and north -weft by Conoedlicut river, which feparates k 
from Vermont. 

Q^ What is the fhape of New-Hampfhire? 

A. It refembles a fan fpread open ; it being only (ixteek 
miles acrofs the eaftcrn end of it, and on the weftern the 
river runs in a circular form nearly tv/o hundred miJes. 

Q^ Fnto how many counties is New-Hampfhire divided ? 

A. Into the five following ; viz. Rockingham, Straf- 
ford, Hiltfl>orough, Che'fhire, and Grafton. 

Q^ What arc the fliire-towns ? 

A. Portfmouih and Exeter in Rockingham ; Dovdr 
and Durham in Strafford ; Amherft in Hillfoorough ■; 
Keene and Charlcftown in Chef^ire ; Haverhill and Ply- 
mouth in Grafton. 

Q^ What is the fca-port tov/n in New-Hampfhire ? 

A. Portfmouth, which ftands on the fouth-w^ft fide of 
the Pifcataqua river, containing between fix and feven hun- 
-drcd houfcs, and about five thoufind inhabitants. The 
houfes are chiefly of wood, tliough fame are of brick. 
There are three churches for Congregationalifts, one for 
Epifcopalians, and a court houfe in this town. It is about 
two miles from the fca, has a fine harbour for fhips, and 
carries on the fifhing bufinefs, with fome foreign trade. 

Q^ What other towns of confcqusnce are there in New- 
THampfhire ? 

A. Exeter and Dovcr/l>oth ftandingon the Pifcataqua, 
arc picafant and commercial towns. Concord, Charief- 
town, Keene, Amherft, Plymouth and Haverhill are large 
and populous towns. The other towns in Ncw-Ha«ip» 
fliire are generally healthy and flourifhingi 

Q^ What rivers are there in New-Hampfliire ? 

A. The Pifcataqua and the Merrimack ; the former U 
Sbrmcd by the jun^icR of four jirincipal ttreams, and the 
^^r by two. 

"Q^ What fcayiF rtre there in Nev:-ll:LXtv?j^uO. 

N 



«46 GEO«RAPHY 

A. A great inland bay formed by the Pifcataqua ; the 
only one of confequence. 

Q^ Are there any lakes in New-Hampthtre ? 

A. In the north-eafl corner of the Aate is Umbagog ; m 
the interior part is Winipifeogee^ which is tuenty miles long, 
and from three to eight broad, befide which there are ma- 
ny ponds. 

Q^ What moufkains are there in New-HampAire ? 

A. The White-hills, €o called from the fnew and ice 
which co\er them almofl all the year. They ftand about 
feventy miles from the (liorc, and are about nine thoufiuid 
feet above the level of the lea. They are without excep- 
tion, thetaigheft mountains in New-England. In the coun- 
ty of Chcfliire is the Monadnik alfo, a high mountain ; in 
Grafton the Moofetielock, and many more. 

Q. What is the climate of NeW'Harapfhire ? . 
A. It is healtl^y, cold in winter, and hot in the fummer* 
as other parts of Nev'-En^jland. 

Q. What are tlie foil and productions of Ncw-Hamp- 

Oiir^. ? 

A. TIic foil is very fruitfiil, producing Indian corn and 
other kinds of grain in plenty, together with excellent 
mowing and padurage. A conliHcrable part of the ilate is 
ftill covered with larj^e timber, pine, oak, fir, cedar, chef- 
nut, walnut, 8c c« of which the people mnkc a profitable ufe 
in their commerce, and home confumption. 

Q^What is the ilate of manufadurcs in Ncw-Hamp- 
fhire? 

A. They are chiefly domcftic ; (liip buiKIing is the em- 
ployment of a number of the inhabitants, for which the for- 
efts furnilh the materials in abundance. 

Q^ What is the flate of trade in New-Hampfliire ? 

A. Portfmottth carries on fomc trade, and it ig not con- 
fined to any one channel, but the pe<iple export the produce 
of their country in their own vefTeis to any part of the world 
which furnifhes the bcfl market. 

Q. What number"* of inhabitants «rc there in New- 
IlanipOiire. 

A. In the year 1791, when the cenfus was taken of aH 



• The number ftf inhabitants In all thr flates mentioned in th« 
compcnd is according to tht tcIv\:i\ vr.^^r \.«i \ViR SccTctio'** ^'^^ 



OF AMERICA. 147 

ihc United States, there was 141,885, and are greatly ic* 
creating every, y^ar.. The character of the inhabitants hat; 
been mentioned in Nev/ Enghind. 

Q^ What is the governniervt of New-Hanipftiire ? 

A. It is a republic^ and has three branches in its legifla^ 
ture. The governor, the ftnate and the houfe of reprefe?. 
tatives. The governor and council arc the executive. 

Q^ Are there any univerfiiies in New-Iiiinipfliire ? 

A. At Hanover in t^»^ weftcrn part of the flate is an uni- 
vcrfity called Dartmouth College, wlwch-is well" endowed 
and flouriihing. ||to 

Of MASSACHUSETTS. 

Q^ What are the lituation and extent of MufTachufctts ? 

A. It is one hundred and fifty miles long and fi:^Jj)(.|^ 
broad. It is between 41 degrees and 30 minufl^ and /&"'- 
degrees of north latitude, and between 6§ and 7^ degrecV 
ef weft longitude. *^ 

Qj^ How is it bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by Ncw-Hampfhire and. : 
Vermont ; on the eafl by the Atlantic Ocean ; on the fouth " 
l>y Conne<5licut) Rhode- Ifland, and the Atkmtid Ocean-; 
and on the weft by New- York. 

Q^ What are the rivers of Maflachufctt? ? 

A» Conne<5licut, Merrimack, Charles, Taunton, Con* 
cord, Myftic, Ipf\\ich, Wellficld, ChicVapex;, Deerfieldt 
and Green Rivers, all of which are considerable ftreams ; 
befide which there are innumerable milUftrcams in alaioft 
every part of the ftate. 

(j^ What capes are there in this ftate ? • 

A. Cape Ann on the north, and Cape Cod on ihe fouth 
fide of MaAachufctts Bay i bciides many in tl^ diftrid ol 
Maine. 

Qj^ What Ifiands are there on the coafi of MafTachufcttf ? 

A. The moft conliderable are Nantucket, Martha**. 
Vineyard, Elizabeth's lilandtt, Plumb Ifland, beGdes which 
are many fmaller. 

Q^ What is the religion of MafTachufetts ? 

A. It contains various fc<5ls of protefUntSi aft- of which 
worihip according to the didlates of their own confcleiicc%<» 
and choofe and pay their own teachtw. Hl^i^ Q.otv^^'^vtfs^- 
aMs are much the moft numeroua. T\v«^\^ ^s^i^ ^<«^^^ 
fftioa ofRomsLn Catliolics, in 'KoI^qti. 



14S GEOGRAPHY 

Q^ Into how many counties is tlie (late divided ^ 

A. Into the following : Suffolk, Norfolk, Effex, Mid- 
dlefexy Hampfhire, Plymouth, fiarnftable, Dukes, Nan- 
tucket,. Briftol,. York, Worcefier, Berkfhire, Cumbcrlandx 
Lincoln,. Wafhington and Hancock. 

Q^Wbat are. their (hire-towns ? 

A* /In the county of Suffolk, Bo(h)n ; Norfolk, Ded- 
ham ; Effex, Salem ;, Middlefex, Cambridge ; Hampflure^ 
Northampton i Pivmouth, Plymouth ; Barn(bible, Barn- 
ftable ;. Dukes, Edgar town ; Na^ucket, Sherburne ; Brif- 
tol, TaunH)n j York, York ; Wofceftcr, Worccfter j Cum- 
berlandj^rtland ; Lincoln, Pownalborough ; Berkfhire, 
Lcnox|PWa[hington and Hancock, are cocnedled with 
Liucolnt 

Q. What number of inhabitants are there in MnSieh\iT. 
fetts? , 

A. Vhree hundred atsd feyenty-four thoufand, feven hun* 
dred aifti eighty- five, cxclufire of the Province of Maine.. 

Q. fcre there any flaves ?. 

A. NONE.. 

Q. What is the chara^er of the people of Ma(rachu(etts ? 

A. It has been mentiooed in the defcriprion of New-Eng- 
kiid. 

Q^ Arc there any univcrfities in Mafl<ichufetts ? 

A. There are three, bcfide fevcral ?.c;idemies. Harvard 
College is the bdl endowed of any in New-England, and h 
very llourlfhing.. Williams-College is an infant ioftitution, 
and there is another in the diAriift of Maine. 

Q. What is the capital oF Muliichufetts ? 

A. Bodon, which is alfo the principal tov/n in New-Eng- 
hiud. 

tJ^Give a dcfcrlption of Bofton ? 

A, It (lands on a pcninfulii, and is iiinioti inc]o(ed by 
water. It contains about 2,goo houfcs, and fifteen thou(and 
inhnbitants. There arc in Bollon fevcntv-ninc iciecis, 
thirty-tight lanes, and twenty-one alleys, bcfide fcvciiil 
f^uares. Tlvcre arc fi:;teen houfes for public vvorfliip 5 nine 
ior Congregationaliils ; three for Epifcopaliiins ; two for 
Baptids ; one for Univerfalifls ; and one for Qiiakcrs ; 
Leftde one lately occupied by Roman Catholics. Tl\e pub* 
Jic houfss in Bollon are the Staie-hoi.fc, C'ourt-hiiufe, Van- 
cuil'h'Alf an alms-houfc aiid a \vo\VAvovA^. The long* 



OF A M E R I C A. 14$ 



on one fide is a range of above 70 warehoufcs, while the 
other is open for the Jading and unlading of veflcls. Boflon 
harbour is fafe and large enough to contain five hundred 
fhips. In Bodon there arc feven free fchools, befidc many 
others : The education of children being v/el! regulated. 

O^ What other towns of importance are there in Maffa- 
chufetts ? 

A. Salem is the next after Boflon, is fifteen miles eaft of 
ity and is a place of confiderable trade. . It contains about 
feven hundred houfcs and- feven thoufand inhabitants. It 
has feven houfes for public worfhip. Forty-five miles eaft 
of Boflon is Newbury])ort, which llands on MeriJixiack riv- 
efi about two miles from the fea. It contains about five 
hundred dwcllin'r houfes, aad between four and five thou- > 
fand inhabitants. Beverly, M^trblehead and Gloucefler are. 
fifhing tov/ns : Worcefler, Charieflown, Springfield and* 
Northampton, with feveral others on Conaedtlcut river, are 
very flourifhing and healthy. IMymouth and Nev/-Bedford ' 
are fcaports. 

Q. \ .at is the conflitulion of Ma{fiiciiufttts ? 

A. It is a republic ; the Icgidaturc hac thi-ee britr^ches^., 
viz. the governor, fenate, «nd the houfc of riprcfentativco. 
The cxecuti\-c is a. PoverhfT and council 

Q^ What is tht italc cr commorcc in i»4?»fuc]Tufotts ? 

A. It is ilouiifnir.a, and conlith piificipaljv in the pro- 
duce of the country, whicii is exported in its own vcffcls to 
every part of the world v/heru they an find a market. 

Q^ What is the ih.v: of manutaclurcs in Mairachufetts ? 

A. The manufa<fturcs cf pot iiud pearl aihes, linfecd oil, 
bar and caft iron, cannon, cordage, fpermacsti oil and can- 
dies, duck, nails, glafs, wool cards, and many other articles 
are confidcrably advanced, and improving conflantly. 

Q. What are the mintral produ(5Vions of MafTachufutts ? 

A. There are numerous mines of iron^ fome of copper 
asd lead found in the ilate^ but tiie people have not fought 
for mines, and it is probable that others remain yet undii- 
CQvered. 



Of the DISTRICT of MAINE, . 
Q.* What are the lituation and extent of the DiftcUx ti^ 
Uaine ? 
A' Ji is -iiw- hundred miles loxva *^^ ^"^^ \lW^^^^ *« 



I 



150 GEOGRAPHY 

twenty broad. It 15 between 4.3 ami 46 degrees of noithi 
latitude, and between 67 and- 74 degrees of weft longitude. 
Q^ How is it bounded? 

A. It is bounded by the high lands on the north ; by- 
the river St. Croix and Nova Scotia on the eaft ; by the - 
Atlantic Ocean on the fouth ; and by Ncw-Hampfliire ob: 
the weft. 

Q^Whataie the civil divifions of this province.? 
j A. It is divided into the five counties of York, Lincoln » 
; Cumberland, Hancock and Wafhington, which are fubdi-. 
vided into towns^' 

Q^ Whftt are the riv-crs of this provifice ?" 

A. St. Croixt Penobfcot, Kennebeck, and Saco rivers 

I are all large, and- furnilh ^e;. inlets into the country* by 

!. means of which, vaft quajitities of lumber are tranlported 

I to all parts of the country. BeQde thefe there are nuny 

fmaller rivers, which fo.rn[i harbours all along the fhore for 

three hundred nrilesv 

■ m 

Q^ What arc the principal bays in the province ? 

A. The largeft' are Padamaquaddf, Penobfcot, Broad, 
bay, Sagadahok, Cafco and Wells bay. BeHde thefe there 
are many others, whic^ forra convenient harbours all along 
the fea coaft.. 

Q^ What capes are tbere in this province ? 

A. On the weft fide of Broad bay is Cape Pemaquid ; on 
^he weft ikle of Caico bay is Cape Elizabeth, and on the 
^tlier is. Cape Small Pdint ; on one fide of Wells bay 19 , 
Cape Neddie k^ ob the other is Cape Porpoife. 

Q^ Are there any lakes in this province ? 

A. There are feveral large ponds, but none which de- 
fer ve to. be called lakes^. 

Q^ Wh^t moonjuins are there in the province ? 

A. Mount Agamemticus is in the town of York, about 
eight miles from the fea> and is a land mark- for feameo. 
There are alfo. high; mountains near Penobfcot river. 

0. What is the capital town of thie province ? 

A. Portland., It i^ a neat growing town, and has fome . 
commerce. There are alfo the towns of Kittery, York* . 
Wells, Berwick, Arundel, Biddeford and Scarborough, 
ThomsAoOj Pcnobfcotr Machias and Pownalborough. 
Q^ Whskt is the climate of 0^\s ipTON\tvce ? 
A' It 'S nry hot io Wte^^^^ '^^^ tc^^^?^^^ c<i\Vv\^v*w. . 



O^F" AMERICA. icr 



H-is ht>weYer very healthy, though very fubjedl to R'^s iVoni 
tb« fca. 

(^ What is the face of th^ country ? " 

A. It has in it many fwjmps and rif«ng. grounds,, and d 
number of pine pIjiinE* . 

Q^ What is the ftate of the foil ? 

A. Thcica-coafl is rocky, the interior parts aTC fertile in . 
many kinds of vegetable proc[u(5lions, fuch as grails, Indian 
corn, rye, oats, barley, |)c;is, and fine potatoes. A great . 
part of it is cohered with large and ufeful timber of various . 
kinds, among which i& the iir tree, which produces the baU 
lini of fir, a very ellifcacious mfdicirie lov wounds. 

Q^ What is the Hate of trade and man ufaftu res ? 

Aa Their trade con fifts principally in lumber, of which 
large quantities are annually exported to various parts of 
the Udited States, and to foreign countries. The princi- 
pal manufadlure^ are (hip-building and lime-burning. 

CX Are there any minerals in the province ? 

A. Iron, copperas and fulphur are found in fome parts 
of if.-. 

Q^.What are thfe animal productions of this- province ? 

A^ Deer, moofe, otters, beavers, fables, fquirrels, rabbits, . 
bears> wolves, catamounts, hedge-.hogs, and generally the 
fame kinds which are found in Canada, and Nova-Scotia.«-« 
There are partridges, wild-geefe, and ducks, with moft otlj- . 
cr kinds of water-fowl, in great plenty. 

Q. What number of . inhabitants are there in theprOTf. 
iacer 

A. Ninety-fix thoufand five hufulred and forty.?. 

Q^ What is their character ? 

A. Though many of them are well .educated, yet thfc • 
want of fchook is more evident here than in any other part 
of NeW'Enghmd.. They are hardy, indudrious. and hu- . 
mane. Their religion is the fame with that of Ncw-£ng^- 
Und.in gieneral. 

Or RHODE ISLAND/ 
(^ What lire the fituation and extent of Rhode-Iiland ? ^ 
A. It is ihuated between 4 1 and 42 degrees of north < 
btkadcy and between 70 degrees and 51 minutes, and 71 
Agrees and 5 1 minutes of weft lon^vtad^. Vv^ ^'^ tgS«.%. 
Wq^ gad 40 broad. 
<'^ How is Rhode- Iflaad. bounded I 



<^' 



O E G R A P H Y 



A. It is bouiidcii by Maifachufetts on the north a&d 
tkd ; by the Atlantic Cfcean on the fouth ; and bv Coo- 
nttfUcut on the wclK 

Q^ What arc the civil divifions of Rhode-innnd ? 

A. It is divided into the five folio win;» couri:x'»s : New- 
port, WHil.ington, Kent, Provid-rnce, IJiiflol, which are 
rui)*lividcd iiito t\/u'nty-ninj tov/niliips. 

Q^ Are there any bays in RlnKle-Ifl ir.d ? 

A. Narraganfct bay is the only one, which contains fcv- 
-rai fruitful illands, the largeft ot" which are Rhodc-Iihnd,. 
v/hioh gives name to the flate, Canonnicut, Prudence, Pa- 
:ience, Hope, Dyer's and Hog iflands- Block ifland be- 
longs alfo to this rtate ; it is forty-three miles fouth-wcft 
iVoni Newport. A.11 the iHands are fruitfiil and hjalthy. 

(). What arc the rivers of Rhode- Tfland ? 

A. Providcn:e, Pafjcket and Patuxct rivers are the 
«r.ily c^nfiJcrablc ones. Providence riyer is navigable to 
;j.o tov/n cf Pro idenco> ti^rty roiles from the fca. 

O. Wl'.af Is \'.\'. c.'i.xatf. of Rhods,-Illintl ? 

A. \i 1l vry '.L.illiy. The v/inttrr; nrc mlJ.ier and tl'.« 
«ni:iici' i,o: J'* hc'. .1 •« iii ;r,ii-y v.arts oi N\-v/-£r.g!a!;d. 

(.} \\ : ;. J.-. t.iJ I'-i: t-r Rliuic;-]l"!.tiJ r 

.\T' I; is .•::/ fri.it:\.:. 

O. V\'h.i: c'T-j i^s j>.< .'..c'dor.s r 

AT" I: *■ (,r.e oi'O-j ]',:. .1 'nav.ir:; fiatrr ia New-rn'l.-.ni ; 
..ri'.i ir ;■:.;•'. .c:i fv..:), »;■, ojts, Lirj^y, iir.x, ar.i niary 
ot^Lr -'W ct.l its i;^ ;.iv: :-. 

O. \\].,.\ ':: t.'.c i:it'. >.** co-.'.vik rcj :.i Rho.ic-riand ? 

/\. I: i: C!:: :■.■! '.r. '^ t-'.c \'Vi'J i:..«:i:ier as in liic (I'.hc: 
n-. !."; c'' Nv-\v-L*\'''.;:\i. ^r.i'.i copriif'-s rr.L:ch the fanic arti- 
v,l«.r. I* ;.. ♦. -i'.-:-. Ivy ik-wiirnir.c;, ahlvjuoji it was laucii in- 



j-.. 1 I V ::.(. i-v: u 



n. \r-- •::.•.. ^•..v r. ;ur,rr.in£ in Kh(>J;--lfiand ? 

A . ?^. "c ■%. !. -i": d'.'krv'j Ltu Tit ion, i)i:: nMny roeky hills. 

* ). Wi.r.; .: ■■ . ■ ■^.'.^:^ town ti KlH;d«.'-l!und r 

A. I\«_v. ) 0: if. i:- r-'.r.iiiy 'li'ct nT.rd the cnpital, though i*. 
!<. n(.r x'j \\ i-il.hiii^- ur 'Aciitiiy <»- ri./>i..i«rncf . Jt contain* 
'ihw.i ' *.- : -i-'uiard hcufv*.. r.r. 1 rctwccii fivj and fjx ihoM- 
' i.'.d i; i;".». :..:.:•.. 'i'iic houftr arc clii-.tly Iv^ljt. of wood. 
it !.r.- • »••.. '. i i:.«. f.Tj.il r-a.'Scurj. i;^ \ht wo; Id. I: has nine 



O F A M E R I C A. 153, 

hr Moravians} and a Jewiih fynagoguc. The other public- 
gildings are a (late-houfe and a library. 
Q^ Give a defcription of Providence ? 
A. It is (ituatcd about thirty miles north-weft of Ne\r-» 
port, on both fides of Providence river ; h contains be- 
tween feven and eight hundred houfes, and about five thou.- 
fand inhabitants. It is a very fiourifhing town, and carries 
on an extenflve foreign commerce. Its public buildings, 
are a college, a church for Baptifls, and two for Congrega-. 
tionalids, befide others for other denominations of Chrif-^ 
tiana. 

Q^ What is the religion of Rhode-Ifland ? 
A. Tbc Baptifts are the moll numerous clafs of Chrifi 
tians, but all are allowed to worfliip according to the dic>*^ 
tales of their own confciences. 

Q^ What is the ftatc of literature in- Rhode-Ifland ? 
A. Though there are rien of fcience in all parts of the 
ftate, yet there is net that general difiuTion of knowledge!, 
vhich is found in other parts of New^ England. 
Q^ Are there any colleges in Rhodes I (land ? 
A. There is one at Providence, which is well endowed*, 
and in a Bourifhing flate. There is aHb. a flourifhing acad« 
tmy at Newport- 
Q^ Are there any curiodties in Rhode-IflanJ ? 
A. Patuckct falls may be efteemed a ciu-iofity ; the wa- 
fer falls about fifty feet, not perpeadicularlyi but in a roan- 
■er uncommonly pieaHng, and is con-veyed to various mills. 
Q^ What is thj government of Khode-lfland ? 
A.-Itis mucblike that in the other New-England ftates ; 
4 republic under the adminiftntion of a governor, licuten- 
ant.go\''ernor,. houfe of allUlants, and houfe of reprefenta* 
^vcs, all of which are cKofcn by the people. The reprefen- 
, Olives, like thofe in Connc<5licut, are chofen twic2 In a year ; 
>nd the legiflature fits alfb twice in a year/ They did not 
'^ge their conflitution during die late rt volution. 



Of CONNECTICUT. 

^^ What are the lltuation and extent of Connecticut ^ 

A. It is fituatcd between 41 and 42 deg. and 2 min. 

■<^th latitude, and between 72 dcg. 49 rnin. and 74 dcg, 

^-^Diin. of weft longitude. It is 82 miles long and 57 

Q. Hour IS Conne^flicut bout\A.;:d.^ 



' O G R A P H Y 

A. It is bounded on the oordi by Ma^T^iEkulcUs i n 
the evil by Khodclfland ;. on ihe Couth by I,ong^(l«>d 
Sound j ar.d- on the weD by the lUce of New-York, k 
aonuiDS 41674 r^uare miles. 

Q^ Whjt rtvcrs are there in Connefticut ? 

A. ConiKflicm river, which runs between New-Hunp- 
fljireaiid \'cr;Hgut,throaghM^(rachuretts,and tliroughCcw* 
neaiciit, has been defcribed. The otbeTs are the Hou&iob- 
ic and the Thames ; with many others which are fiiullf 
er, and are interfjwifed ihrough the fUte, affording exrd* 
lent ficuations for mills ol' every kiod, &nd muay other cot> 
-veniencu to the inhabi»nls. The Hojfitonic rifw in 
-Berkilure. Mafikchuftm, and' empties into Long-Illinit 
iioiiiid, between StratTord and Miiford. It is iiavigftbleU 
Del by, jib^mt twenty milc5 from ilic nioutb. Bctwem 
^diifbury aad CanaiLu there is a fitU in ihis rtver of zbrntt 
Cxty feet perpendicuUr defcent. The Thame* rttiM t^ 
Norwich, and empiiea into Long-liland Sotind at Ne»- 
London, It is novigabie to the ciiy of Nonvicli, about 

tJ^What are the mofl important Iiirbours ofCooncAi- 

A. New-London and New-Haven. Btfide thefeihere 
.are cocvenietit hatbouts for fmall vefTe!; at the dilUnce of 
,a fevv niilci froro each other, tbrough-ihe whole length at' 
the coaft. 

(^ What is ;Iie climate of Cooneaicat ? 

A. It is like that of the otiier New- England dates, fsb- 
jcft to the cxttcn".i;s of heat and cold, yei m is very heilch^ I 

Q^ Wliat do yoii obferve of the foil of Conaeaicut I 

A. It is a very fruitful &il, better adapted to grafttliH 
to plojgl-.ing, fhotigh in many parrs of the Aate it prodneci- 
p,ri.'at crops of wheat, rye, ilax, oats, barley, hemp, IndiSB 
corn, &:c. '1 iie gardens in Conne^fcicut are alfb frc^iieatly 
ticcllcnt. prfHlocing moll ufcf'^ vegetables- for food Um'. 
for ornumeiK-, 

Q^What ii the £ioe of the ftate ? " - 

A. It is ingeneriduoevengirouDd. Along CoDBeQicMi 
Titer is a beautiful valley, leveral jniUs in breadth on c*4« 
fide : the whole couotiy is very agreeably divcHified wiA« 
bills and vsjlcy;, ]it:dDs, wood« aod.^u.cK.^'Sqttli&ciDaBf r 
f/nlightfal iandfcapci, «nd cx\>j\ji)ini^w^ '^n&A%'£MfaMi[& 



OF AMERICA. 155 

<^What is the fiatc of trade in Conne<!licut ? 
A. Tt 18 flonrifhing, being carried on in their own Tef- 
elsy and is chiefly formed of the^produce and manufa^urts 
»f the ftate. The people of ConneAicut trade principally 
irith the-Weft-Indies. 

Q^ What is the fUte of manvfa^ures in Connedicut ? 
* A. They are, when compared to fome others of the 
Pnited States* confiderably advanced* and are ilili im- 
proving. Mod families make the greater part of their own 
wearing apparel, and there are feverai confiderable manufac- 
tories for cloths in various parts of the (late ; glifs, fever- 
ai forts of iron ware, paper, powder, cottoi and wool cards* 
and feverai other important and ufeful articles, are manu- 
factured for exportation. 

Q^ What arc the civil divifions of Connecticut ? 
A. It is divided into the eigiit following counties, viz. 
Hartford, New Haven, New-London, Windham, Fairiield* 
Xjitchfield, Middlefcx, and Tollund, all of which, except 
Middlefex, have fhire towns of the iliine n-rtirtc \/ith the 
county. The (hire town of Middlefcx is Midolctown. 
Q^ What is the population of this {l\t : ? 
A. It is more populous than any i)*h\T (utc in the un- 
ion, and contains 237,496 inhabitants, being upv/.irds d 
'fifty to a fquare mile. 

Q^ What are the cuftoms and manners of the inhahitantsi' 
A. They are much likethofc of the other ft^itcs of New- 
England. 

i^ What is the religion of Connedlicut ? 
A. All denominations of Chriilians are privileged aliki* 
ms in the other parts of New-Kngland. 

Q^What are the chief towns in Conncrcicut ? 
A. Hartford, New-Haven (which are the feats of gcv- 
»ernmcnt) New-London, Norwich and Middletown, ail of 
which are incorporated cities. 

Q. Give a dcfcription of Hartford ? 
A- It (lands on the weft iide of Conncclicut river, fifty 
guiles from its mouth, at tlic head of (hlj> navigation, and 
contains near 500 houfcs, icveral of wiiich are handfomcU 
built of brick, three ftories high. It contains a fiate-hodfe, 
two churches for Congregationalifts, and one for Enifco^ 
palians ; and is the mult Hourifhing commercial town ir. 
.'the ftate. 

(J^ Give a defcripti«n of 'Nc'w-ttwtWL^. 



156 GEOGRAPHY 



A. It is about forty miles fouth-wefl from Hartford, If 
4ng on a large bay which extends about four miles from the 
fhorc. It contains between four and five hundred houfe?, 
five houfcs for public worfliip, three for Congregationalitls. 
one for Epifcopalians, two colleges, and a handforhe ftate- 
houfe. The houfcs are generr.lly built with wood, but in 
general are handfome, and feveral are elegant. The (Greets 
of this city all crofe each other at right angles. It is the 
moft regular city in New-England. The number of its in- 
habitants is about four thoufand. It is (ituated on a hand* 
fome plain, bounded on three fides by monntains, and is a 
place of conildcrablc trade. 

Q^. Defcribe New- London ? 
'* A. It ftands on the weft fide of the river Thamesi near 
the mouth, and contains two churches forCongrcgationaliils, 
and one for E)>ifcopah'anr, and about three hundred dwel- 
ling houfe?. Tt has the beft harbour in Conne^icut, and 
one of the L.tril in ti.c United States, and carries on a llour- 
iihin'j tt-mmcrcc v. i;h the Weft-Indies. It is well fortifi* 
cd l>v t^yj f-iV.^ Trumbull and Grifwold, one on each Ix-f 
cii llic I'-.Mr 'ri.:in-.:^. 

(). Dt-lv. :"'•._• tl-.v ci'.y of ?>i*r\vlch ? 

j\. ]'. ll'-.r J? .i*. '.i.e l-.eaJ of navl«;;ui()n on the Thsrr.Cv 
v.W.v.i fir.rt:.:' r./Jor nonli of New-London, and is a cor:- 
r.urci^l, :••>. •voj] i\*=> n rri'dv.wfrRur'w^ city. It contains ri'.r 
f've iiiin'ir^'d (lv.>-l;inp i'.ovifcs, two churclics for Cor.f;: ••::• 
tioririlill:. an J (-pv tor lv;ilcnpali:ins, and a couii-!;;.;'..-. 
M'iiCrc is a li'uviiiiin;; acinicniy in one part of th.c ci'.v.s'i 
n free Ichool f uiaio' by Doctor D.iniel Lathioj* in .,n. ■.!■»'• 
The c'M'.rts arc Jicl-! I".«.re anJ at Xevv'-LondtMi rtltern:-it'. " 

1). Dif: I ;'■■'; tl-- r;?v or Mi(UlI(if.v;n ? 

A. It n;'.!"iii:; ; ioa* r.ftO'.n miic*: f-uih of H.^rtf-irJ, (•"■ 
tlie v.ci'l h:n': of C'orn'.rtirut livr, on n hcririir':.' rf i\: 
prt)i;iul, :'.:Tv;:\*ir;» a hand;<, r.-j profjitt'K It r<»n»a:n- j-.i- ■" ' 
three l,un('rtd (iv.Jiin;; lioufj?, a court-houlo, 0'f» clvjri!- 
for Conj;jr?f.:.iu»r.a!:ltr., one for K]>ireoj>ali?i«5, i-ni] one J •> 
j^aiiiri;-.. T'iih citv alh; carries on a eonl'ilLi.'!:!': far^; • 
^he \\'f{Kli.d:i. ;. Wethcrrfield, I'arn-.ir.^ton, i^i'dii'-" I. 
U'indl')r, Sinitt'ord, l\iii field an«i f(.ntc otlicrs, are j«!t..i'.." 
•"inii flouriiiiiniT tcjwns. 

(J. Air there aiiv n;\n'.Ta\ c\\a\o'C\\\va \v\ Cc^v^tn' n.\v-.vv\ -' 
^L AhcAst two iuiV:s f\o\^\ ys^.v<-V\.A\;.T\, cnt\ \Vv.\vn>^ ^f v 




OF A M E R I C A. 

afld' Whallcy, rcfidcd ftveraf years. 'TnPomfret is a cave 
into which General PutDam deicended and killed a wolf, 
and was then dragged out by his h6eh»* bringing the wolf 
lit his hand. In Letocket Tnountain^^in* Bran ford, is i<;e 
joft beneath the furfice all the year. 
• Q^ What literary infHtutions arc'thWe iff Connefticat ? 

A. In the city of New-Haven is an -univeriity, called 
Yale-Cbllege ;* it is well endowed><nd has prodaced many 
charaders who have made a conspicuous ^gure in the lit- 
erary world. At Stratford, GreenEeld, Norwalk, Plain- 
field, Norwich, Windham, and New-Milford, "are ac^rde- 
mies which are flouriihing. Befide thefe, there are feveral 
fchools eftabKflied in every'town throughout the (late. 

Q^ Are there any medicinal waters in Cbnnefticut ? 

A . At Stafford and at Guilford are ^rings of medicinal 
'^palitieSf which are found beneficial in various difeafes. 
' Q^ What is the government of Connedicut ? 

A. It is much like thofe of the 6ther New- England dates': 
ihc governor, lieutenant-governor, and members of the 
council, are chofen annually*; and the rcprefentatives are 
chofen in the fpring and autunln. ^Courts of juAice are 
efbbliihed in this ftate as in the otliers of New-England, 
differing little except in fame forms of procefs. This 
ftate did not change its conftitution in confeqoence ofthc 
•American - revolc^ion. 



UA. 



Of VERMONT. 

Q. What are the fituation and extent of Vertnbnt ? 

A. Tt is" fituated between 42 degrees 50 minutes and 
45 degrees of north latitude, and between 72 degrees 9 
minutes and 75 degrees 39 minutes of weft longitude. It 
is 155 miles long, and 60 broad. 

Q^ How is Vermont bounded ? 

A. It rs bounded on-tlie north by Canada ; ofi'the eafl 
hy Connecticut river-; on the (buth by MafTachufetts ; and . 
on the weft by the ftate of New-York.^ 

C^ Whrtt are the civil divifions of Vermont ? 

A. It is divided into the eleven following counties, ^izi 
Bennington, Windham, Rutland, Windfbr, Ortnge, Ad- 
difbn, Chittendon, Caledonia, Franklin, Orleans, Ed^T.^ 
Thefe counties are fubdivided mto lo^'tk^'^, "*nV\Ocv -^i^ 
^cRenUfy Gx miles /a uare. 




CEOURAPHY 



» Q. \V) lit fivers arc there in Vermont ? 
I .^. On the eail fide of the mountain are Oatipenkiao^ 
€jutchy» Welds, WhiK ud Bdack liversy and op Ok weft 
We aic Onion River and Olur Creak. 

Q^ What mountains are there in Vermont J 
A. About the middle of the ftaie is a chain of" high mem- 
tiins, running from noith to fouth through the whde lenjtli 
of thu ilatc, and giving name tvn^lAtt, -/'crvnonl, hata 
in Englifh Greea MounSam. 

Q^ What ia tlio fiice of tlils Oaie I 
A. It is uocTCDi though not rocky. In it aie nuDf 
fruiiiiil valleys, lying itlQDgoa the many nrul(:U,wlticb in- 
ter tiie interior part .(^f the ftaie. 

Q^ What .are iLe fc»l and produiUoiw of Vermont I 
A. The foil is getierally very good; aitd wli«re cultivi- 
ted| iiroiftiees gr^fij \vhcat, rye,,(Mt», barley, &c- raucbil 
the lame manner as Mafiafhufetts and ConnefUcni. Tb< 
country is Hilt inagreat nvi'^ifuTe new and uiicultivafcdi ind 
is cuvered witli. lii^4yy tipiber of the various kinds wtuck 
£[ow in the other N.ew-England ilates, 
Q^ Whiiis the climate of Vermnnt^ 
A. It is very healthy. Winter begins ahout the midJIt 
. of Noveniber, anil is gon^ about thi middle of April, «4 
is veryjTeguhr ^vliiie it Ults, though it is fevcre. Tbt 
fummcr tlien graoually approaches, and cootinues very uu> 
form uniil again fiiCL-eeded by the winter. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants are there ia Vermont f 
A. Eighty-five thoufand. 
Q. What is tlie charaflcr of the inhabitants ? 
A. They are generully emigrima from CoBneaieuv»o4 
l^f jirachuTetts, and in theii manners, caroms and religiUr 
refcmble thofe of the afore men lioncd dates. 
tj^ Are there any curioiatieB in Verraonl ? 
A. In Tinmouth is a cave dafcending about two hun- 
dred feet) in which it a large room with the niigteaianM 
of benches and chaiis formed by nature around the lldn 
of the room, and at the end is a boiling fpiing which '^ 
fenibles the boiling of a pot. 

, L^ What is the government of Vermont t 
'. A. I: isJike ihatof ConneQicut. 

O^ What is the ptiac'i^ii (.o^miin Vwcmioi t 
-^- JJi^nfli/Jgton is tlic \ai£t&Ao'*ivi,'iMi'*si^'fta(S«rfit^ 
f'>e fcgt of £OvenimeM» 



or A MTE R I C A. 159 

Of NEW.YORK. • 

Cj^ what' are the fituation and extent of New- York ? 

A. It is fituated between 40 and 46 degrees x>f north 
Uititudey and between 73 degrees 39 minutes and 80 de- 
grees 9 minutes of weft' longitude. It is three hundred 
ftnd fifty miles long and three huivdred broad, containing, 
forty-four thoufand fq^iare miles. 

Q^ How is it bounded ? 

A. It is bounded ott the north by Canada ; eaft by Ver- 
^^tiont, MafTachufetts and Connedicut ; fouth and fouthwed' 
by New-Terfey and Pennfylrania ; and wcfhdy and north- 
xfrtlhrly oj the river St. Lawrence and the lakes Erie and 
Ontario. 

Q^ What are the rivers in New- York ?' 

A. The Hiidfon, St. Lawrence, Onondago, Mohawk, 
Delaware, Sufquehannah, Tioga, Seneca, ChcnnelTe, and 
the north-eaft branch of the Allegany river, are the prin- 
cipali and are all confiderable rivers. The river Hudfon 
is one of the fineft in the United States. It rifci between 
the lakes Ontario and- ChamplaiA -; its banks are corri'Tior- 
ly rocky. Its courfe is about vxv hundred and litiy mile: 
in a fouthern diredtion. Jt forms a part of New-York har- 
bour, and is navigable for fhips to the city of Iludfon, ao J 
for fmall veflels to Albany. 

Q^ What bays are there in New-York ? 

A. The bay of New- York, which is formed by the c^-^n- 
fiftiencc of the eaft and north rivers ; arid fouth bay which 
19 on the fouth part of lake Champlain. 

Q^ Are there any lakes in this fbic ? 

A. Lakes Champlain, Oneida, Salt lake, Oifer^OjCiini- 
aderago, and Chaloquc lakes, arc all within the limits of 
this ftate, and are moft of them well furniflici with fifh. 

Q^ What is the- face of the country ? 

A. . It is generally an uneven country, and the hills run 
chiefly in a north-eaftern dirc<5lion, between which are ma- 
ny fruitful valleys. Within the bounds of this ftate there 
ii a confiderable quantity of low jtround which is marftiy. 

Q^ What are the produ^ions of the foil ? 

A. They are much the fame as In New-England. Front 
♦he rock-maple large quantities of fugar are made annually* 

Q^ What are the civil diviiiona o? t.\\t VV^xs. X 

Jl* It is divided ijoto fi/cnty-nVw^ coratwUt^ ^sA V^^"^ 



lU G E O G RA.P H Y\ 

ded into towns ; the names oF'^'tber counties are S 
Queen's xoupty. King's county^ Richmond* New 
WeftKChcfter, Rocklar.d, .Ocang|p, UKler, Dutche 
lumbia, Ranfelaery , fitcohariey , Albany* Wafhington 
toji» Saratoga, Montgomeryi Oneida, HerkermeCf 
ware* Otfego, Qicnango,, Tioga, ^Onondagq, Stcub 
Ontario. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants is rheyein.NeW' 
A. Three hun4re4and.i0rty thpufand ooe huodi 
twenty,. 

Qj^ What is their cliaradler ? •. 
A. The inhabitants are of various origin« but pr 
ly compofcd of Englifti and Dutch Thougti the 
manners and cu[lom» flill: e:uA in fomeparts of th 
yet the manners of tbs Engliih^ or rather of th« 
Englandcrsy are prevailing throughout the. Hate, ar 
ticularly in the norihrweltern parts, . wiuch . are in] 
principally by ernigraots from New-England- Thi 
lifh and Dutch Iaag,uages are bpth fpokcn, but the ] 
is increaiing while the Dutch is decrcafing. 
V^ What is the caj.ital city of this flate ?. 
A. The city of New-York* 
Q^ Give a dcfciiption of it ?• 
A. It flands on a point of land whlqlv is formed 
^undtion of the north and call rivers, in the fined (i 
ior commerce in the United States.. There are twci 
houfcs for public worfhip in isew-Ycik, viz;, th; 
-Dutch Calvinifls, four for Prcfbyttrians,. four for '. 
palians, two for Germans. (Lutherans and Calviui^! 
for Roman Catholics, one for Quakeis, two for 1^ 
one for Moravians, one for MetTiodifls, a fynago] 
Jews, and a French Proteftant church. The city hn 
elegant huiWing, and there arc feveral other public 
;n^»?. 'I'hc ciiy contains upwards of four thouland 
«nd about forty thouiand inhabitants.. Its (Irec^s 
rcpular, but they art generally well p:»ved, und it is 
nicxtenfivc commerce. 
Q, What other cities are there in the fhtc ? 
A. Albany and Hudfon. Albany is inhabited 
pally by defccndants from the Dutch ; and contain 
lis ijundrcd houfcs and five ihoufand i.ihabi rants. 
j^iace of.confidcrabk corauKic^. U Wvx;'^.^ viTv\.\\<i..^ 



O F A M E R I C A. i6i 



•f the nverHudfon,about one hundred and fixty miles above 
New-York. Hudfon flands on the eaft fide of the fame 
river, about one hundred and thirty miles from New- York ; . 
is a place of confiderable trade, and is faft increafinw. It 
is chiefly fettled by emigrants from Rhode- Ifland ana Nan- 
tucket. Several other towms along the fame river arc very 
pleafant, and growing rapidly in wealth and population. 

Q. What is the flate of agriculture and roanufadlures in 
this Uate I 

A. In agriculturci the people in this flate are far behind* 
their neighbours in improvement; and in manufa^ures 
they, as a body, are alfo not fo far advanced as iafome other 
ftates, though in the citie».and iarge towns tliey are perhaps- 
not outdone by tliofe of any town or (late in the union. 
Q^ What is the ftate of commerce in New- York ? 
A. It is very flourifhing and extended over the world ;^ 
and die inhabitanta^ are diflinguifhcd by. their induftrious 
attention to bufmefs. 

Q^ Wliat uiounfrains are. there in this ftate ? 
A; At the place called Kats-KiJl, begin the Allegany, 
mountains, which are there called the Kats- Kill mountains. . 
They nm in various branches through .this ftatc in afouth- 
weft diredlion, 

Q^ Are thsre any mineral fprings in this Aate ? 
A. There are three which are celebrated, viz. Thofe o^ 
Saratoga, BallJiown and New-Lebanon, to all of which* 
.people refort in t!>e warm feifon in great numbers, and re-- 
ceive much benefit in various difer.fcs. 

Q^ What minerals arc there in ihii llate ? ' 
A. At Philipfburgh is a filvcr mine. Iron, Jead, copper, 
eiyftals, ifingglafs and aibellos, are found in various parts^ 
ot the Ihte in plenty. . 
Q^ What is the ftate of literature in this /late ? 
A. . Literature in this ftate is lefs afliduoufly cultivated: 
- than in fome of the New- England ftates. In tliofe. parts 
"Where the New-England habirs-prevail, fcience is more gen- 
erally diflTufed, and is faft increafing throughout the ftate* 
Q. What colleges and academies . are there in New* 
York ? 

A. In the city of New- York-is Columbia College, which • 
** Well endowed and in a flourifhing ftatc at prefent. .^•c,-^*^ 
^'•es are eredted ia difierent pan^ o( \\v^ ft^'t^i vc^Wsi 

O a. 



iCi GEOGRAPHY 

arc in a Aourilhing condition. The mod celebrated are at 
Flktbulh and Eafl-Hampton on Lcng-Ifland; in the city 
of New- York, at Albany, ScheneiSad^, at Goflien, and ai 
Kingfjbn. 

Q1^ what is the religion of New- York ? 

A. All religions are alike prote<5ted and privileged fts in 
ConncdHcut, but the Presbyterians are the mofl numerous^ 
though the Dutch Reformed, the Lutherans, the Baptifls, 
tlie Epifcopalians and the Quakers are numerous. 

Qjj_ What is the government of this flate ? 

A. The legiflature of this ftate is cdmpofed 6f two hou- 
fesy the fenate and reproentatives. The -firfl is neVer to 
exceed one hundred in number, and the Jaft three hundred. 
The executive power is lodged in the governor. He is 
chofcn once in three years* The government is in fome 
things different from thofe of the New-England flates, but 
is like ihcm a free and independent repClblic. 

Op NEW-JERSEY. 

Q^ What are the fituation and exient of New-Jerfey ? 

A. It is fStuated between 39 and 41 degrees and 24 min- 
utes of north latitude, and between 74 and 76 degrees of 
wefi longitude. It is one hundred and Hxty miles long, 
and fifty-two broad ; containing about ten thouland Square 
miles. 

Q. How is New-Jerfey bcundtd ? 

A. It is bounded north by a line drawn from the mouth. 
ofMahabkamak river 10 Hudfon's river in about 41 degrees 
of north latitude ; eaft by Hudfon's river and the Atlantic 
Ocean ; fouth by the Ocean ; and wc(l \^ the livcr acd. 
bay of Delaware. 

Q^ Arc there any bays iii New-Jerfey ? 

A. There are Newark- Bay ard Lon^ Bay. 

Q. Are there any lakes in New-JerRy ? • 

A. In Morris county is a fniall lake nbout three miles 
long, and near half as wide, from which runs a conlLnt 
ttrcani. 

O. What arc the rivers of Ncwjeif:jy ? 

A. They are fmall but numerous. IlackinfatJ- , Rarir 
Km, Pulaik, MuUicas, Maurice and Alloway rivers aie the 
pjfncipaL 
Q^ Wlr^t arc the cWW ti'w'Aotx'^ o^ W>«-V.\C"\;n ? 
A. It is divided into ihc tVvux.v;^:u li^Wvjv^wv^ ^cwi.vxvv.'s 



O F A M E R I C A. 1^3 



»iz. Cape May, Cumberland, Salem, Gloireftcr, Burling- 
10 n, Hunterdon, SulTo:, Bergen, ElR-x, iviiddkfox, Mon- 
mouth, Somcrlet and Morris. 

Q^ What are the fliire-towns ? 

A. Cape May has no ilrre-tawn. The (hire- town of 
Cumberland, is "Brid^Tetov/n ; of Sulem, Salem ; of (xiouce- 
fter, Gloucoflcr ; of Burlington, IkirlingMn ; of Hunter- 
don,-^ Trenton ; of Sulfcx, Newton ;• of Bergen, Hackin- 
fack ; of Efll-x, Newark ; cf Middlefex, Aniboy ; of 
Monmouth, FreeliolJ ; of Somerfet, Boundbrook ; of 
Morris, MorrKiown. 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants in Newjerfey ? 
• A. One handred and eighty-four thcufand one hundred 
and eighty-nine. 

Q^ What is. the face of the country ? 

A. In fome parts it is mountainous, in others it is varie* 
floated with valleys and rifing grounds, and on the fea-coalt 
k is flat, level and Tandy. 

Q. What is the foil of New-Jei Tey ? 

A. It is various ; a confiderable proportion of it Is Ijarren. 
In paffing from the fouth-eaff and foulh to the north-we(t 
and fArth, a traveller prog re/Tcs through every degree of 
ibil from barren fand to the higheft degree of fertility. 

Q^ What are the prcduftions ? 

A. The produdcions or this ft;ite, botii animal and vege- 
table, arc much like thofc of New- York. The cyder made 
in fome parts of the flate, particularly Newark, is remarka- 
bly Cu.c 

Q^ What is the ftate of commerce in New-Jcrfcy ? 

A. It is formed of the produce of the (Kite, and is prin- 
cipally carried on through New-York and Philadelphia 5 
confequently it is not Co profitable as it might be, if the j)CO- 
ple improved then* natural advantages. 

Q^ W^hat is the lUte of manufa<5tures and agriculture in 
New- Jerfey ? 

A. The manufa(5iures of various articles are in a profper- 
•os condition, and they are improving every year, particu- 
larly thofe of iron ware, nails and leathef. Thtre is a 
iarge cotton manufadlory lately cftabjilhid-at Patterfon, 
which promifes fucccfs.. The agricultiiC<; is alfo in fonie 
parts improving. 

Q^ What niinci dods this ftax« ^to4vA«'.l 



r^4 O 2 G R A P H^Y 

A. It fumlihes gre;it cjujintities of iron, and there Zi 
fev oral copper mints in diCarent p^irts ofihc /late. 

Q^ Are there any medicinal fpring^in New-Jerfey ? 

A. In Morris county is one, and in Hunterdon county 
:s another, botliofthem are cold, impregnated with iron. — 
In Cape-May couaty is a fpriryg of frcih v/at'ir, which boils 
up in the middle of a fait creeV. /it /looii tide it is ft:ve> 
raJ feet under water, but ai ebb tide it is bare. 

Qj^What is the character oft he iwhibitantsofNew-Jerfey ? 

A. New-Jcrfey isinhabiied by peoj^le of various nations 
and dtfcriptions, and their clwraclcr is confcqucntly vari- 
ous. They arc not. To generally informed as in New-Eng- 
land, though there are men cf fcieiice in many parts of the 
ftate. The inhabitants are frugal and induSrious, though 
many of them diftowcr very little taftc for learning, 

Q^ What is -the religion ^f this llate.? 

A. The cpoflitution recognizes no national religion.-— 
The Prefbyterians and the Friends are Loth numerous, and 
there arc fome of almoft every other clafs of Chriftians in 
New-Jcrfey, who all worfhip according to the didlatcs ot" 
their own confciences*. 

Q^ What feminaries of learning are there in New-Jerfey ? 

A. There aie twi3 colleges, one at. Princeton and anoih--. 
cr at Brunfwick. The CtvA is caliisd NafEtu Hall, and the 
other Queen.*5 College. . There are fcveral academies and 
grammar ichools in various parts of the ftate, fonic of 
which are in a. very fioarilhiog condition^ ^ is alfo the col- 
lege at Princeton. 

Q; What is the eapltal of Ncw-^Jerfey ? 

A. Trenton. It is the feat of government and the larg- . 
eft town in. tbeilaie^ though it does not contain more than^ 
two hundjed houfes. . It is very pjeafant, is-haDdfomcly 
built, and has a conHderable inland .trade. . 

Q^ What other towns of note ar^ there in New-Jerfey ? 

A. There arc ftvcral nearly of the fize of Trenton, viz. 
Burlington city, lying.on the X)elawarc twenty miles above. 
Philadelphia ; Amboy city, IvLng in Eaft-Jerfey between 
Raritat) and ArthurkuU .found. It has ;in excellent har- 
bour. Brun.^^ck city isiituatedon.tiie fouth-weft fide of 
Raritan river tjvclve miles .above Amboy ; Elizabethtowa.. 
iV iiitcen raile* irom New.-rYork, in a fertile and pleafant fit*- 

axk nine mll^s froin.N*^^.-^^^^ V .^^w^nn^w^^ ^^>^\ W -kAl 



erF A m;e R; I c a. 145^ 

tHIfty^ miles from; New- York, and Middletown adjoining to 
Shre\vfbury,.are all . pleafant towns, lying in commodious, 
iituations for foreign or inland comnKrce, though from* 
their neighbourhood to New- York. and Philadelphia none, 
of them has a very flouriihing. or extend ire trade.. 

Q^ What is the government of New-Jerfey ? 

A. It is^vefted'in a governor, legjflative. council, and' 
houfe of reprefcntatJYfiS*. The gQvernoF is chofcn amiually - 
hy the couocil.and aiTembly ; xhe. council lis chofcn annuf 
ally by. the people, and confj/U of one member from each> 
county ; the houfe of ailcmbly. is chofcn in like roamier^^ 
aod.coDflfls of three memb!srsfron>: each county. 

Of PENNSYLVANIA. 

r* What are the lliuation and extent of Pennfylvaniai? 

j^. It is fituated between 59 degrees 43 minutes tind 42 
degrees of. north latitude,.and between 74 and S 1 degrees- 
of weft longitude.. It is two hundred and eighty-eight' 
miles long, and one hundrcdaod. fifty-Hx. broad,. contaioiog. 
44^00 fquare. miles. 

Q^ How is Pennfylvania bounded V 
y A. It is bounded on the north by the 42 d degree of 
aorth latitude, eaft by. the Delaware river, fouth by a line 
drawn parallel with the 43d minute of the 39th degree of 
W>rth latitude, aud weft by Virginia^^the Coune^icut lands- 
and the W<:ftern Territory. 

Q^ What, arc the mineral productions- of the ftatc ? 

A. In the eafternpart.of the ftate is a vafl quantity of 
iron mine?> while. in the v/eftern no iron is met with ; but 
coal mines are fuund in abuudaoce. Lead is alfo found In 
fomc parts of the ftate.. 

Q. What are the civil. diviCons of Pennfylvania ? 

A. Itisdividtdinto the twej;^ty- five following counties, viz.. 
Philadelphia, Delaware, Chelter, Lancafter, Montgomery^ 
Bucks,. Beiks, Dauphin x- Northampton, Wayne, Lnzxrne, 
York, Cumbeilund,.X"ranklin, Nbrthumbcrl.artd, Lycoming, 
"Mifflin, Bedford >. Soafjerfcti Huntingdon, Weftmoreland,. 
Allegany, Walhington, Green and. Fayette, 

QT What are the. fhirc-tttwr*s in thefe c;ji:nties ?' 

A. In the county of Piiiladclphia, the city is the capl- 
tjd, and is likewife a county ofitfelf. In Chefter county,. 
Weft Chefter; Bucks, 14e\v\o\\ \ l^Citk\^wNvt.v^^ ^^^^^- 



x6^ O E OG R'A PHY 



Reading} Northampton, Eafton ; Luzerne, WilkCwfougfif;- 
York, York; Cumberland, Carliflc ; Northumberland, 
Sunbury ; Franklin, Chamberflown ; Bedford, Bedford ; 
Huntingdon, Huntingdon; Weftmorcland, Greenfburg;- 
Fayette, Union ;• Wafliington, Wafhington ; Allegany^ - 
Pittfburg.. 

Q^ What arc the principal rivers of this ftate ? 

A. There are Hx principal rivers in this -(^ate, and a 
great number of fmaller ones, which water almoft every part 
of Pcnnfylvania* Thofe fix are, the Delaware, the Schuyl- 
kill, the Suf^uehannahj the Yohogany, the MoaohgaheUy 
and Allegany. . 

Q^ What mouBtaios are there in P^nnfylvania ? 

A. About one third part of the ftate is mountainous. 
The names of the principal ridges are Kittatinny, i^ten, 
Tufcorora and Nefcopek mountains on the caft fide of the 
Suff^uehiinnah; Sherman^s hilh, Sideling hills. Ragged, 
Great- warriors,!Evit8 and Wilis mountains on the wciMidc 
of the Sufquchannah ; then is the Allegany ridge ; weft of 
the Allegany are the Laurel ^nd Chefnut ridges ; and -be- 
tween Juniata and the weft branch of the SufqaeluDnah, 
are the Jacks, Tryfis, Netting, and Bald Eagle mountains^ 

Q^ Wh^t is the face of the country ? 

A; That part of the ftate which is occupied by the 
mountains already mentioned, which run obliquely through 
the ftate, covering a bre.idth of from twenty to fifty miles 
in width, is uneven, the r;ft is a level country. 

C)^"\Vhat is the foil of the ftate ? 

A. The foil is variov.s, but a Urge proportion of it is very 
good, and many of the mountains will admit of culiivatien 
almoft to the ton. 

Q^ What are the productions of the foil ? 

A. Thcfe as well ar the animal prod I'^flions are generally 
♦he famewith i!ic/-"w of Ncw-Yo:k and Nv.-.v-Terfev. Wheat 
i^ the ftaple co.niiiocli* y cf tl'.e ftiitc, of v/hich large quan- 
^ic'^^ arc iMiitd. 

<^ Wh;it i:. the climpte of this {\?Ai: ? 

A. It is much th^ fame as in Conr.Cvticut, oflly with this 

dittt:ic:icc, th-^t tH© fcafons irk Penfif^lvaniti are more uniform 

than in Connecticut. In that ?>;rt of the^ft.ite which lies 

weft of the Allegany, the ie^^'^u^ *\ie more regular than id 

that eart" of the Allegany. 

Q^ What is the numbei oi vuWuYX^xa^^Kt^ Vc^tvV^^^ 



© F A M E R I C A, 167 



A. Four hundred and eighty-four tbouTiind three hun- 
«tired and feventy-t^j^o. *^ 

Q^ What is the chara(5ter of the Pennfylvanians ? 
A. Pennfylvania is inhabited by a great variety of pco- 
.plc. The Germans, Quakers, £ogli£ £ij}ifcopalian8» and 
Scotch and Irifli Prefbyterians, are the moft numerous claff- 
cs. They are of very different chara<flers. They how- 
ever generally agree in being temperate, plain, induflrious 
^nd frugal. Many of the yeomanry, in fome parts of thii 
,ftatc, differ greatly from the New-Englanders, for the for- 
mei are impatient of good government, order,, and regular- 
ity, and the latter are orderly, regular and loyal. 
Q. What is the religion of Pennfylvania f 
A. No preference is given by government to any denom- 
/Ination, but the Quakers are the moft numerous. Prefby- 
terians are the next clafs in numbers ; the Lutherans are 
.tlie third, and after them there are various denominations, 
.fHiK>ng which are the Moravians. 

Q^ Are there any colleges in Pennfylvania r 
A. There are four, viz. The college at Philadelphia, 
the univerfity at Pliiladelphia, Dickenibn colkge at Car- 
liQiQf and Franklin college at Lancafler. 

Q^ What academies are there in Pennfylvania ? 
A. In Pbiladelfhia are four ; at Yorktown is one ; at 
.jGermantown is one ; at Pittfburg is one ; and there is one 
at Wafhington. At Bethleiiem and Nazareth ar^ the cel- 
ebrated Moravian fchools for young ladies. 
Q. What is the capital city in Pennfylvania ? 
A. Philadelphia ; which is alfo the largefl city in the 
XJnited States : and it v,a3 the feat of government until 
A. D. 1800. But Wafhington, in Virginia, is now the 
permanent feat of the government of the United States. 
Q^ Give a defcription of Philadelphia ? 
A. It fiauds on the weft bank of the Delaware^ on a 
level fjtuation, about one htindred and eighteen miles from 
the fea. It is a regular city, all the flreets crofling each 
iOthcr at right angles. Its public religious buildings are, five 
churches for Quakers, fix for Prefbyterians, three for Epif- 
.copalians, two for German Lutherans, one for German 
Calvini.Qs, three for Catholics, one for Swcdifh Lutherans, 
one for Moravians, one for Baptifls, one for univecfal Ba%- 
tifts, one for Method ifts, and a fyi\^^o^Mt. V.'?* ofOt^v^g^ 
Jic build'wff are, a ilate-houfe aikd o&c^^, ^ <ivo| ^ovxxvSaNS 



i68 GEOGRAPHY 

•a county court- houfe, a carpenter's hall, a hall for the PIin 
'lofophical Society, a difpenfary, a hoipital and offices, aa 
alms-houfe, a houfe of corrciflion, a public linen and cotton 
£i6lory, a public obfervatory, three brick market- houfes, and 
a public gaol, bedde the college and academies before men- 
tioned ; there are near fix thoufand dwdling-houfes, and 
fixty thoufand inhabitants from almofl all the diflferent na* 
tions on earth. Philadelphia extends about three miles 
along the bank of the 'Delaware, and is from half a mileto 
a mile in width. 

Q. Are there any other important towns io Pennfyira* 
nia ? 

A. Laocafler, (landing on Coneftogo 'creek, about fixty- 
fix miles north-weft from Philadelphia, is the largefl inland 
town in America. It contains a handfome court-houfe, a 
number of churches* about one thoufand houfes, and five 
thoufand inhabitants. Its college has been mentioned. 
Carlifle is one hundred and twenty miles weft of PhiladeK 
phia. It contains between three and four hundred ftone 
houft-s, and fifteen hundred inhabitants* Its public build«* 
ings arc, a court-houfe, a college, and three churchet. 
Pittfburgh is lituated on the weft fide of the Allegany, be*. 
tween the Allegany and Monongahela rivers, about three 
liundred and twenty miles weft from Philadelphia. It is a 
crowing town, and in a very pleafant fituation. In 1787 
jt contained one hundred and forty houfes and feven hun* 
drcd inhabitants. 

Q^ What is the ftate of commerce in Pennfylvania ? 

A. It is very flourifhing and extenGve. It is formed 
chiefly of the produce and nianufaiflures of the llate. The 
centre of trade in the ftaie is Philadelphia. 

Q. What is the ftate of manufa^ures in PennWvanta i 

A. They are confiderably improved in the city of Phila- 
delphia, and confift of thofc articles which are manufav^ur* 
trd in the northern ftates* 

Q. What is the ftate of agriculture in Pennfylvania ? 

A. It is, as in all new countries, in an imperfecl ftate, 
but the inhr.bitants of the oldeft fettienients are making int- 
provcments ir it every year. About two thirds of the in- 
iidbiunts are hi ibandmen. 

Q. What natural cuno&uta :!iTt \\\^^^ \a Pennfylvania f 
A. There is a creek \t\ iV\«i uot5.\v\|^t\.^^ ^^^%^^^]t ^:3&&RiL 
'^i^creek^ on whoft v^aier ilo^Lts wi ov\ ^wiftx va '^w.'^wii^fc^ 



OF AMERICA. i6o 



• doe'i tar, and feveral gaUons may be gathered in a day. 
Tliere are three caves in this ftate faid to be remarkable, 
but of two. we have no defcription. One of them is near 
to Carlifle, one in the town of Durham, and one in thi 
eaft bank of the Swetara river about two miles above its 
mouth. The iaft is formed in a body of lime-ftone through 
which the water continually oozes, and has formed nearly 
a dozen folid bodies which reach from the top to the bottom 
of the cave, and look like pillars to fupport the roof. In 
the centre of the roof is a folid msfs which hangs like a bell. 
Q^ Are there any remains of antiquity in Pennfylvania ? 
A. There are the renmins of two ancient fortifications, 
the form of which is circular ; but the Indiims cannot tell 
■by whom they were ere<^ed, nor for what purpofe. One is 
near Tioga river, the other is at IJnadilla. 
-Qj What is the government of Pcnnfylvania? 
A. It is republican. The fuprcme executive power of 
^the flate is vcfted in the governor, who is chofcn for three 
ycAfs, b%it cannot by the coniHtution hold his office more 
•than nine years in twelve. T4ie legillativc power is com- 
mitted to two houfes, the fen ate ynd the houfc of reprcfenta- 
tives. The fenators are chofcn fcr four .years, the repre- 
■fentatlves for only one. The governor is not elected by a 
majority, but by a plurality of votes. The fcnators are di- 
"vided into four dafles. The term of one clal's expires eve- 
ry year, and their places are filled by an cletSlion of the 
iAme number. 

Q. Hov/ are the fcmators ^nd rcprcfcntatives "chofen ? 
A. They are both chofen by the people : but the fena- 
tors are chofen in diilrhSls formed by the legiflature ; the 
rcprefentatr'.es arc chofcn by each county fcparatdy. 
Q. Is 'the number of each fixed ? 
A. It 45 fjx*ed by a -term, but v?.ries according to Ihe 
number oi the inh(d)itants, which is to be ti'ken once in 
Ceven years. TheVe may never be lefs than fixty rcpreftn- 
tatives, nor more than one hundred. The ienate may 
Dcrer'have more than one thiid, nor lefs than o?ie fourth, 
the number of the houfe of reprefentatives. The day of 
'eledlion is on the fecond Tuefday of Qdbber. 
Q^ What arc the regulations of the legiflature ? 
A. It meets on the iirft Tuefda^ o^ '\itttvc\\ie^ tlww^J^-^^ 
vrileA coaveaed ifooner fey the gavtit\OT^ ^ vcv^Y^^w^ ^^ 
««c6 boufc makc9 a. quorum ; and ^ \^^^ ivvvctOoex 'wivi -^ 

P 



I70 GEOGRAPHY 



journ from time to time and compel the other members to 
attend. £ach houfe choofes its fpeaker and other officers» 
judges the qualifications of its members* and regulates its 
own proceedings. The members of both houfes are free 
from arreft while attending upon the public bufinefs, except 
in cafes of treafon, felony and breach of the peace. 

Q^ What is the method of enabling laws ? 

A. Bills for raifing a revenue muft originate in the houfe 
^f reprefentatives, but all others may originate in either 
houfe. When airbill has pafTed both houfes it muft be hand- 
ed to the governor to fign, if he approves ; and if no^ to re- 
turn it to the houfe where it originated, within ten days^ 
v.ith hh reafons for not ^gning it. After that it cannot be 
jjali'ed imo a law without having the votes of two thirds of 
both houfea. The fenate may objeft to the bills for raifing 
i\ r. venue. The governor is commander in chief of the 
Tiiilitia. 

(^ What is the judicial power vefted in ? 

A. In a fuprcme and inferior courti the judges of which 
Ai\d the jufticcs of the peace are appointed by the governor 
dining good behaviour, but arc removeable on the petition 
of both houfes. The other officers of the ftate are ap- 
]i(»inicd, fome by iho governor, fome by the afiembly, and 
ibme by the people. 

C^. What are the legal qualifications for a governor, fen- 
dtor, reprefcntative and voter ? 

A. Before a man can be governor, he muft be thirty 
vcai J old, and have lived ia the ftate fcven years. A fena- 
.or muft be twenty-five years old, and have lived in the ftate 
lour. A rcprel'entative muft be twenty- one years old, and 
have lived in the ftate thixc years. A voter muft be twenty- 
one years of af;c, and have Jived in the ftate two years, and 
have paid taxes. The voters arc free from arreft in civil 
anions while attending cledlions. The governor can hold 
iio other office ; a fenator or reprefcntative none but attor- 
ney at law, and in the militia. No perfonjiolding an office 
under the United States, and receiving a falary, can hold an 
oflice under this ftate. Ail the officers of the ftate muft 
take the oath of allegiance, and are liable to impeachment. 

Q. Are there any crimes punifliable with death ? 

A. Murder, arfon, and a Vc>m o\.V\w^^\^,Wll^3Lrdlrijor 
^or a term, or for lifci is x\\e \»W\^mtTiX^w xon?^^ '^ca 
<n'/ncs which in other ftatc^ ^le^wvii^^^^'v^^^^J^- 



O F A M E R I C A. J7t 



Of DELAWARE. 

Q^ Wliat are the fituation and extent of the ftate of Del* 
aware ? 

A. It is ninety-two miles long and fifteen broad. It 
is (ituated between 38 degrees 20 minutes, and 39 degrees 
44 minutes of north latitude, and between 75 degrees and 
9 minutes, and 76 degrees 54 minutes of well longitude. 
It contains 1,400 fquare miles. 

Q^ How is Delaware bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by Pennfylvania ; eaft by 
the Delaware river and bay ; and fouth and wei^ by Mary- 
land. 

Q^ What is the climate of Delaware I 

A. It is in many places unhealthy, the land being f\^t, 
the waters of courie llagnating, and producing intermittent 
fevers. 

Q^ What are the civil divifions of Delaware ? 

A. It is divided into the three following counties : New- 
caflle, Kent and SufTex ; and thefe arc fubdivided into 
towns. 

Q^ What arc the (hire-towns of the counties ? 

A, The (hire-town of Newcaftlc is Newcaflle 5 of Ken;^ 
Dover \ of SuiTex, Lewiftown. 

Q. What rivers are there in Delaware ? 

A. Choptanky Nanticock, and Pocomoke rivers all rife 
in Delaware, run weflward, and fall into the Ched.peak 
bay. They are navigable feveral miles for (loops. Thei;; 
are no large rivers on the eadem fide of the iUte eiiCwp* 
the Delaware, which is its eaflern boundary. 

Q^ What is the foil of Delaware ? 

A. A confiderable part of the land in tl:.: fouth .-'n p.irt 
ef the (late is flat, and fome of it barren. Some of it pro- 
duces Indian corn in large quantities. The northern part 
Is fertile, and yields wheat, and all the other kinds of grain 
which grow in New-England. A large pan of the ftate is 
covered with foreds of pine and cedar, which are very 
profitable to the inhabitants. Wheat is the (bple commod* 
ity of this flate. 

Q^ Are there^ny mountains in Delaware ? 

A. Tliere are none except one called Thund;:rHill, in 
tbe weftero part of the ftate. 

Q^ What is the capital toviiv ^ 

A- Hortr is the feat oi gavcttiTA^xin^ \^«i^;x ^^-v wsx "^ 



17* & E O G R A P-^H^Y 

largeft town in tlie ftate. It (hnds on Jones Creek, aod- 
contains an hundred houfes, principallf of (lone. 
Q. What is the fituation of NewcaRle ? 
A. It (lands on the weft- bank' of the Delaware, forty 
miics below Philadelphia, b contains about fixty boufest 
which are apparently in a decaying condition. It is the old- 
ell town in the fUtc^ and was firfl fettled by the Swedes. 

Q^ What is the fituation of WiljningtorK^' 

A. It ilan.d8 a mile and a half weft of the- Delaware, on 
Chriiiiana Creek, twenty-eight miles fuulhward of Phila- 
deljihia. It is the largeft town- in the ftate, containing 
about four hundred houfes. It is built on a fifing ^rouad> 
and contains an acadfiniy. 

Q^ What is the fituation ofMilford-f 

A. It is in SuiTcfX. county, fifteen miles from the Dda* 
ware, and f;ivcnty from Philadelphia. It contains slIbw: 
eighty houfes, biiilt principally fkicc th« revolution. It i& 
inhabited by (^Uiikeis, Methodifh, and Epifcopalians. 

Qj^ What is the flate of trade in^ Dckiware ? 

A. The trade is principally confined to Philadelphia .and < 
Bal:in:ore. The tF«ide of Wilmington extends to Europe ; . 
but lis fituation will, never admit of extcnfive commerce. 

O. What is ihc religion of Delaware ? 

a7 All religions arc privileged alike, but ihe Prcibyte*. 
ilci ^ cTC the moff numerous. Other fcch .ue found il ihis- 
iljrc, as in the cuIkt flares of America. 

Q, What is iIk* number of inhabit inf i i Delaware ? 

A. i'li'ty-r-irie 'liai.frtnd and nijicrvfw.ii'. 

O. What is.thuir character? 

A. There is no ^icrc^vablc dlfi'cjicncc between them and- 
ihc Pcnpfylvanians. 

(^ What is the government of Drlawr.re ^ 

A. It is a reni.blic. The leolfi.iturc i*; divided inta-twu 
hranrhc? ; fiifl, the houfj of rcprcfcntr.tives, chofcti annu- 
„liy by the frccrucn,. confifiinp, of nine nivnibeis frc.m each 
-louiuy ; and, fcct>ndi7^ the council conliiiing of three men- 
b'.TS from each county, cljof;.'.! annually by the freemen alio, 
'i'he Piclidcnt is chufcn by I'lc ballot cr. both, h.cjuli.?, ar.u 
holds his oillce for three ycars^ from the cxpiia'ion ot 
which term, ho is ineligible for the nv^ct three yens. A 
jotuiion of members m i\\e co\iT\c;\\ \^ ^xv>^\i't^:d ^ the x^'Xi^ 
vnl of cr.Ki nii:p.ib«;r iV. '-:Ad\ w\vvv: <.\.Ci-^x^V] . 



OF A M E R 1 CA. 173 

Of MARYLAND. 

^l^What are the (ituation and extent of Maryland ? 

A. It is fituated between 37 degrees 56 n>inutes, and 39 
degrees and f4 minutes oF north latitude^ and between 75 
and 79 degrees of well longitude. It is 134 miles long, 
and 1 10 broad, and contains 14,000 fquare miles. 

("). How 15 Maryland bounded ? • 

A. It is bounded on the north by Pennfylvania ; on the 
eait by the Ocean and Delaware ftate ; foath by the Fd- 
tomack and Virginia ; and wail by Virgini;^, 

(^. What are the civil diviiions of Maryland ? 

A. Maryland is divided into twenty counties ; St. Mi- 
r>-'s, Somerfct, Culvert, Montgon^.ery, Wafliington, Queen 
Ann's, Caroline, Kent, Charles, Talbot, Dorcheller, jjj. 
tiniore, Baliimore-town and precin<fls,Ann^ Arundel, Wor- 
cefter, Hartford, Cecil, Frederuk, Trirrce Geonrc, and AJ- 
Icgany. Eight of tiicfe counties arc on tiie en ft, and twelve 
on the welt liJe of the Chefai»eak imv. 

Q^ Which of the counties lie on tlie oail fide ? 
•A. Somerfet, Qiieen Ann's, CarJi-^t, Kent, '{\.ij.t, 
Dorchclter, Worceller and Cecil. « 

Q^ What is ihe clinatc of Maryland ? 

A. It is much li-ke that uf DoiAV/trv.- uv.d V^nrSvlvr.uu : 
that is, near the lea and in the tint i^ii.ds it is rather i . 
beakhy, but in the interior parts of :iu liare it is hcili'iv 
and pieafact** 

Q^ Arc there any bays in My ry land ? 

A. Chefapciik bay, which is the lirgefc in= the Unit.d 
States, divides this (Lite into v/hat ar- C/*l!v.J tJie E.«!l<i 
and Wellern lSIioics. Into it empty a nun)l,c:r cf tU^ 
largefl rivers in ilie I'nited Stares. 

i^ W^lmt a.c the riTcrs of ^FaryMnd■? 

A. The l^jp^td arc the Potomac k and the ^.cSc]::-. •.:.:.. 
oah ; the frfiiilljr ones aie Poconioke, Choj.raiik, Civiih:- 
Hlkf Petapfico^ »Severn, and l^-tuxenr liveis. 

Q. Wlwt is^tlie- face of the c-'^untry ? 

A. Eaft of the blue riilpe of mountains which rii-.s ^ .:r.;. 
the weftcrn pan of the ihue, du land is ilat and fir-Lly, bi.; 
weiiward of the mountain it is hilly. 

Q^ What is the foil of this llarc ? 

A. It is much like that of DiVawMt, 'aVis\\\^ ^xwNw ^\'^^^A 
arc JikewidStmlhT to tiiofe oC \^c\a.w;\^ *■: . cs.':mx^'^ v^iX v^ ** 

P :! 



t:4 geography 



CO is much more cultivated in this (late. Wheat and to- 
bacco are the ftaplc commodities of Maryland. As ther: 
arc large fordls in Maryland which afford great quantitiei- 
of o;ik, fwine are left here to run wild in the woods, and 
after they have become fat, the inhabitants hunt them a< 
otlier wild game. 

Q^ What number of inhabitants is there in Maryland ? 

A. Three hundred and nineteen thoufand fevcn hundred 
and twenty-eight. 

Q. What is the character of the inhabitants ? 

A. The inhabitants of Maryland are compofed of people 
from different nations^ and therefore few general charadttr- 
iilics can be applied to them. The people in the large 
towns are very different from the country people ; the latter 
are generally planters* holding large numbers of (laves. An 
almoft neccffary coniequence of flave-kceping is to render 
the flave-holder haughty and imperious ; but the people of 
Maryland are hofpitable to (bangers. • 

C^ What is the capital town in Maryland ? 

A. Annapolis is the feat of government, but Baltimore 
IS much the larged town. 

Q^ What is the (ituation of Annapolis ? 

A. It (lands thirty miles fouth from Baltimore« on the 
mouth of the river Severn. It contains about two hundred 
and (ixty houfes, mofl of them large and elegant. It is ^■ 
wealthy town, though it carries on very little trade. The 
form of it was intended to be an exa6t circle with the 
Stadthoufe in the centre, and many of its buildings are e- 
rcAed on that plan. The Stadthoufe is the handfomefi is 
the United States. 

Q^ Give a defcription of Baltimore ? 

A. It lies on the north fide of Petapiko river, and is di- 
vided by a creek into the town and Fell's Point. It has a 
good harbour, an extenfive commerce, and has had the moft 
rapid growth of any town in America. The number of 
houfes may be twenty-five hundred, and the inhabitants fif- 
teen thouiand, who are derived from different nations. In 
the town are n^'ne churches, which belong to people of vari- 
ous denominations, though very few of them attend public 
wurihip. Many parts ot iKe town arc handfomely built, 
and fonie ofthc ir.hab'aams'dTe^^oYwt^ii^Vv^^^VjjQV^^Oxou^h 
in general 'the V «i'e not diiVmj^Miftv^A ^oi W\i^i\\\\>j* 
Q. Whjt other towns oi tkot^ ^^ \:ut\^ "\\^ Vk:«Nj\«^> 



OF AMERICA. 175 

A. Fredericktown is an inland town, containing about 
chree hundred houfes, chiefly built of ilonc, and contains 
lour houfes for public worfliip ; one for Pre&yterians, two 
for Dutch Lutherans and Calvinifts, and one for Baptifls,. 
beHde a brick meeting-houi'e and a public gaol, liagarf- 
town is nearly as large as Fredericktown ; and the Head of 
Elk, which (lands on the river Elk at the head of Chefa- 
peak bay, and is a flouriihing commercial town. 

Q^ What are the mineral produdtions of Maryland ^ 

A. Iron is the only one^ and die vrorking of that is the 
only manufa(5h]re in the (fate, except the making of flour. 

Q^ What is the ftate of commerce in Maryland ? 

A. It is flounfliing, and is principally carried on at BaU 
feimore, with Europe and the Wefl-Indies. It is formed in 
a great meafure of tobacco, though many other produ^ions 
of the foil conflitute a patt of the exportations. 

Q^ What is the religion of Maryland ? 

A. Though all the different religious fe^s of Cbridians 
inhabit Maryland, yet the Roman Catholics form the moft 
oumerous clafs. 

Q^ What feminaries of learning are therein Maryland ? 

A. There are four colleges and one academy, viz. At 
Cheftertown is Wa/hington College ; at Annapolis is St. 
John's College ; at Georgetown is a Roman Catholic Col* 
kge ; at Abingdon is a Methodifl College, called Cokef*- 
hary College ; and in Somerfet coui)ty is Wafhington acad- 
emy. Few private fchools are eflablifhed in Maryland. 

Q^ What is the government of Maryland ? 

A. It is a republican government. Its legidatu^'e con- 
fills of a fenate and houfe of reprefentatives. The fenators 
are cholen every five years, by eledors appointed for the 
porpofe. The fenate eonfids of fifteen menoibers, nine from 
the weftern and (ix from the eaftern fhore. The houfe of 
fcprefentatives are chofen annually by the people, and con- 
fifts of four members from each county ; two from the city 
«f Annapolis, and two from Baltimore. The fenate cboofe 
Iheir preildent by ballot. 

Op VIRGINIA. 
C^What are the iltuation and extent of Vlrg^inia ? 
A. It is 758 miles long and 22/^ViTo?^. \\ \^\«.v«^^x 
f6i aad 40 degrees of nmh kuxxidfi) ^^^\a^v«^^^ "W "^"^^^ 



"EOGRA^PHT 
\ 

»9 degrees of weftlougitude. It contsins 111,515 i^oKC 

Q^ Haw is Virginia liiMn Jed ?■ 

A. It is bounded on the norik by PCTuifyiyania and the 
rirerOhio ;-oa ^eeift by the Atliitncj. loath by NotiIk 
Carolina, and weft bv KeUusky. 

Q^ What arc x.h» rivets >of Virgi-Hs .' 

A. They^ire Uw Kear.pke.-Jwnes river,. Eiiiabech rivcv 
Nanfemond riter, j'a^jn crccki Ciiicii^liomiay, AifMiTtlU 
toK, Rivinna, Pianjtiitank, Kipuabaoook, I'owmacJt, She- 
namtu^h, Rnd tlie great and Jittie Kanhaway, which, wiA 
many fnwllei' rivers, Juruilh* nflYigjtionip.all parts of ll«i 
ftite. W 

Q^WKat are tlie ramin tains of Virginia ? ' 

A. The Anegany-roountaitisiun through VirpAii, tii4. 
are (he highefHand lying. between ttieAtlauttoaDdtho Pa- 
cific Oceana j .tlii riiijjcs on tJ)eeii(ern £iic of tli«Mart4tw- 
BKie ridge, tlii; Nordi niotnt-airy and JiicklbH'i mouauin ^1 
on- die wedtiO'liile isthe l_.aurel rit^e- 

tj^ Whiii iiiturrf! curioGlies uri ihere in Virginia?" 

A. Arocdg .i!iele« il*e aricadc in Jackfon'a river, whew 
it is dbout 'Afteen Ttet v^ide ; the wai^r falls over ic about ~ 
two hui^dred t^et'- S<veral' caves are fmind in-tlie mouutaiiut 
forae of which are very fjipdous ; -bat tke- n>oft estraordr- 
nary cimoJiiy is'tbc Blawing Cave, from whid> iffues a cur- 
rent of -air conffandy, i}FOiig.«naugb ta bend-weeds twentT 
yatdi from its mftulb. - In Rackbnilgf county is a naiural 
bridge orer Cedar creek, where the valley is about ninety 
feel wide at the lop, though narrower Mtilk«lKi(tonw Iti>' 
ID the form ofan arch, from the raidiilt of which tt> thebotk 
toDv af. th«^ channel,- is-al lealt-^ 105. feet, and the Qmm 
which TuiK WKk-rfleaik is largeVnough .for atiull Areuik ' 
Tbs bridge furr>iJhe»« cogvcnieot jiaffiije where tb«K wc«ii ' 
he DO road wiihuut it,^ awif itfoFBied- of w -fitikL'TMk oC< 
lime-flooe. , * . _.. 

<^ A'lliai are. the miMrd^aiMt fialCi-pn)dH^UaM-oF-V»- 
ginia ? 

A. Lead, iron, black lead, copper, coal* SB^«hrU*i> 
.ire found in various, pjuis of tbe ltaM,>aBdCHMo(tbaBi»' 

(^. Are there any in«^c\na\{^ap'\k-NMAiL.V .^ 
A/ There are fevcial, hai thft pwA vAMiyc^ab*. 



OF" A M E R I C A. tr 



and'the " Warm Spring."' There are alfo two fprings-in - 
this Aate which, if touched with a candle, kindle and burn 
like fpirits. One of them is faid to be the property of the . 
Prefident of tlie Uolied States ; the other is near Sunday 
river, 

Qj^ What is the jx)pulatiott of Virginia ?■ 

A. Seven hundred and forty-feven thoufand GlU hundred- 
aiftl terv but a great part of thefe are flaves. 

Qj^ What is the^ character of the Virginians ? 

A. They are fociable and hofpitabkv attached {lron«iIy 
to pleafure and diHipation, and highly jealoiK of perfonal 
independence* The holders af^fIdves have the fame cl<ar- 
adler in all countries^ 

Q^ AVhat is the climate of Virginia ? 

A. It is not uniform, though agreeable. The fumnxirs- 
are hot, but the winters are mild. It is much colder in 
fummer and winter nea,r the AUe^any^ than either on the. 
fea coalV, or on th<i MilTifijipi. . 

Q^ What is the capital town of Virginia ? 

A. lliclimoiid is the fsat of government, thouph Nor- 
folk is the largc'rt tov/n in the- (Kite. There arc properly no* 
townfli'ps in Virginia ; the Hate is divided into ninety coun- 
ties, and thefe counties into viila^'s^nd plantaticos» IMor- 
folk, which (lands on James river, conuius about 6,000 in- 
habltantR. On the fame river lUnd Porifmouth, Hamp- 
ton, Suffolk, Smithiield, William (burg, Pcterfburgh, Ricl^- 
monu, M,ia.hci[lwr, ChariGiitevilio, and New-Lofidon. On 
York river arc, Yoik, Ncwciiii/o and H-anovcr. 0« Rap- 
pah innok arc, Urbanna, Port-ruyrtl, TiederickHDurgh, and. 
f dlmoatn. On Potoraiick are, DiuirihVii.?, GolchelU'r, Alex-- 
aadri.i, V/inclxIier, and Sta.mton. Some of the abovc:- 
mcntioRcd to*vi»s have <^e, fome two, and none, except; 
Xoifolk, raoie th-m three hundred houks. 

(^. What is iho capitaJ.of the United States.?. 

A. v/asiiix(;ton. 

CJ^ What is its (itKatioit : 

A. It (tands on ti« Potomack riv'er, near, ^^6up.t Ver*. 
Jton, the feat of the llluftrious American Hero, who has. 
given his name to th^ United States feat ot" govcrnmcntv, 
it is fituated in 58 degrees- 5 3 minutes north latitude. 

i^ WiJJ.you give a dcfcripikni o^\N?i^\v\\'<fVo\\\ 

A. Some years fince a tr.iC:\.ot U.-x^i, c\^ax \\Ae.i ^^k^^^^ 
yin^ ujjoo riie Pataxnack, Wds ccd^A. x.o \\ui^O.^^^'^^'^'^ 



17S GEOGRAPHY 



by Maryland and Virginia legiilatures ; and on this ten 
ry the city of Wafhington is built. It contains the c 
tal for Congrefs ; buildings for the various public oific 
a houfe for the Prefident, and an elegant hotel. Tho 
the city has increafed rapidly iince its foundation, yet 
number of lioufcs, at prefent> is not large. In A. D. i{ 
in Novembery Congrefs. began its (irll fcfEon in the cit; 
Wadiington. It is 876 miles dtflant from PaiTamaquoc 
in Maine, and 794 from Sayannah, in Georgia* 

Q-^ Are there any colleges in Virginia ? 

A. The college of William and Mary at William/bi 
is the only one. There are feveral academies in Virgin 
one is at Prince Edward county, one at Alexandria, or 
Norfolk, and one at Hanover ; and others are eftablii 
in fome other places. 

Q^ "Whiit is the religion of Virginia ? 

A. Like Maryland, it contains fome of almoft c 
fc(5l ; but the Prefbyterians and Epifcopalians^re the f 
numerous. TJie Methodifts arc incrcaung. 

C>^ What is the government of Virginia ? 

A. The legiflature confifts of a houfe of delejgfttet 
a fenate. The former confifls of two members from f 
county, chofen annually ; the latter of twenty-four n 
hers, for the choice of which, once in four years, the i 
is divided into twenty-four diflridls. Tlie esecutive ( 
iiils in a governor, chofen annually, and a council of e 
members. The povcrnor may not hold his ofHce 
than three years in fcvcn» 

Of NORTH-CAROLINA. 
Q^ What arc the fituation ar.d extent of North-Caroli 
A. It is (itiiatcd btiween 3^ an.) 361 degrees of n< 
Uiiiudc, and between 76 and 91 of wc(i longitude. 1 
758 miles lopfT, and 1 10 broad. 
Q^ How is it bounded .'' 

A. It is bounc'ed on the noitli by Virpjnia ; eaft by 
Atl.iiUTc ; Ibuth hy South-Oarolina and Georgia ; and ' 
by ti.e Mi^ilippl. 

Q. V/hat arc the livers of North-Carolioa ? 
A. Chawan, Ro«inokc, Cufhai, Pamlicot Neus 
Trent f arc tJte Iavj[,e\\. T\\t ^m^\ \V*ct^ -wt. Fafc^etJ 
Pcrc|iiimin3, l-.iitlc met, A\\\^a\ot^C«^-^^^x ^'wtXi' 
fon, Huiilcin, Noley CWcVej, ^^^4 It^is^ ww \ 



OF AMERICA. 179 

which, with many fmaller ones, furnifti navigation to almoft 
every part of the ftate. 

Qj^ What are the remarkable Capes of North-Carolina ? 

A. Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and Cape Fear. 

Q^ What arc the civil divifions of North- Carolina ? 

A. It is firft divided into eight diftri6ts, which are fub«- 
divided into fifty-eight counties. The names of the feveral 
diflri^s, and their number of countiss, are as follow : £d- 
cntoo has nine ; Wilmington eight ; Newbern eight ; Da- 
vidfon two ; Halifax feven ; Hilliborough nine ; Salifbury 
eight, and Morgan feven. 

Q^ What is the capital town of North-Carolina ? 

A. At prefent there is no ftated feat of government ; but 
Newbein is the larged town. It contains about 400 houfes. 
It ftands between the river Neus and Trent, on a low fandy 
foundation. It is principally built of wood. Edenton 
ftaods on the north fide of Albermarle found, is indiffer- 
ently built, containing about one hundred and fifty houfes 
of wood. Wilmington (lands on Cape-Fear river, about 
thirty-four miles from the fea. It contains about one hun- 
dred and eighty houfesi Thefe, with Wafhington, Fay- 
vtteville, Tarborough and Hillfborough, are the moft popu- 
lous towns in the (Tate ; but this (late, like Virginia^ is di« 
^ed into villages and plantations. 

Q^ What is the face of the country ? 

A. From the fea (hore about flxty miles the land isTfiat ; 
Atad a large proportion of it is covered with pine and cedar 
Twamps. From about iixty miles the mountains, or rather 
liGog grounds, extend a few miles, and then begins a cham- 
paign country, extending about five hundred miles in length, 
*nd through the whole width of the ftate. 

Q^ What is the foil of North-Carolina ? 

A. In the flat land towards the fea it is very fandy, but 

Vfeft of the mountain the foil is of a different kind. Tijough 

*11 the ftate, where it is cultivated, produces corn plentifully, 

yet in the wcftem part wheat and rye grow, with barley, 

oats and flax. Cotton alfo grows in this ftate, rice in fmall 

^amities, tobacco, fweet potatoes and ground fKias. The 

• timber, which is very large, is of the fame kind wiih that 

. ^hich grows in Virginia. 

Q.^ Whit do you obferve of iViC commwc^ ^^ ^t^iV^* 

A. It co/ifi/Js.of tobacco, krob5T>t>it^,^^*^^^^^^^*^^' 



:,lb GEOGRAPHY 



cotton, Indian corn, wheat, rye, &c. and is principally ctftt^ 
figned to the noithern dates and the Weft-Jndies. It t« 
Aouriihing. 

Q^ What is the climate of North-Carolt.ia ? 

A. Toward the fca it is unhealthy, efpecially^to north- 
em people, but in the interior part of the country it is moK 
temperate and healthy. The fummers are very hot, and 
the winters very mild throughout the (late. 

Q. What is the religion of this ftate ? 

A. It contains people of all denominations, but the Pref* 
'byterians are fuppofed to be the mod numerous clafs. 

Q. What is the number of inhabitants in North -Carob'na-? 

A. Three hundred andoinety^three thoufand feven huo- 
dred and lifty-ene. 

Q^ What is the chara&er of the North-Carolinians ? 

A. The people in thi« fltftelrve fcattered in their plants^ 
tlon!?, and in chara^erare much like the Virginians. 

(;^ What is the government of North-Carolina.^ 

A. The legiflature conflfls of two houfes ; xft. of the 
fcnatc, which coi^ds of a member from each county, cho« 
{i:n annually by oallot ; 2d. the houfe of -commons, which 
conlills of two members frem each county, -chofcn aifo by 
ballot, with *i reprelentative from each of the towns of Ed- 
enton, Ncwbcrn,Wihiiington, Salilbury^Halitax and Hillf- 
boi ough. The twohoufcs, when convened, choofe the gar- 
ernor for one year, and who may not hold his ofTice more 
'than three years in i'lK, To aflifl him in his executive de- 
partment he has a council of feven porfons choicn at tliC 
iame time, and in the fame manner, and are to icne for one 

'/car* ^.^m>mm^^m^.m 

Of •WU rH-CAROLlKA. . 
Q. What arc the fituation and extent of South- CaroIIua ? 
A. It is fituaititl between 32 and ^5 deforces of nortK 
latitude, and between 79 and M5 elegit es of wei't longiuidc* 
•II is 200 miles long, and 125 broad. 
Q^. .How is South-Carolina bounded ? 
A. It is bounded on the north bv jVorth Carolina, eaft 
by the Atlantic; foutli and foutl>weit and weft by Georgia- 
Q. What is the climate of i>outh -Carolina ? 
A. It is fimiUr to the climate of North- Carolina, except 
tli^t it is a little hotior vu iutv\rc\>ix , W\. \tv \i\^ hioh lands it »• 
much jiJcafantcr than "in iVifc \o^ c.Ci\aLWUN> ^-^ w'Yi 5iSa '^ 
^^^rt/i- Carolina. 



•:Ji 



OF AMERICA. i6t 



I 



<^ What are the rivers in South-Carolina ? 
A. The largeft are the Santee and Pcdce rivers ; and 
the fmaller ones are Caafaw, Conibahee, WakkamiiW, Afh- 
Jey, Cooper, and Black rivers. Many inlets, which are 
csdled rivers, are only arms of the fca^ and run but a few 
miles into the country. 

Q^ What are the mountains in Sou t^- Carolina ? 
A. 'Ei'yon and Hogback mountains lie two hundred 
and twenty miles north-weft from Charlefton, and are three 
thoufand eight hundred and forty feet high ; and the moun- 
tains which lie weft and north-weft rife much higher. 
Qji_ What are the civil divifions of South-Carolina ? 
A- The ftate is divided into feven diftri6ls, 'i'hich arc 
ilibdivided into thiity-five counties, as follow : Beaufort 
diftrid contains one ; Cambden diftri6l contains feven ; 
Ninety-fix diftiidl contains eight ; Cheraws dilhift contains 
one ; Georgetown three ; Orangeburg two, and Charlefton 
thirteen. 

Q. What is the chief town in South-Carolina ? 
A. Charl'jilon, which ftiinds between Aihity and Coo^v- 
rivers, about feven miles from the fea, in latitude 32 d.- 
grees 45 minutes north. Its fituatinn is fiat and low, an/. 
the water is brackifli. Moft of the ibctts are narrow, but 
the houfes in general are well built, and fume of them are 
elegant. It contains nearly two thoufand houfes, and twcnt v 
thoufand inhabitants. Its public buildings are an exchkne". 
ftate houfe, armory, poor-houfe, two churches for Ivi'f- . 
palians, two for Congreg>tionalifts, one for Scotch Prci-.: ; 
terians, one for Baptifts, one for Gti^nan Luthcrr.r.r. ■ r.-. 
for Methodilts, one for French Proteftants, two fyn?^ .: uor 
for Jews, a Quaker meeting houfe, and a Jloman (^l'.•. .•' . 
chapel. 
Q^ What other towns are there in South Cn: .l-i.^ 
A. There arc none very large, as ihr» ;)• . ^ ' j ji . .■ ::V:-. "; 
Qn plantations. Be.iufort and Get.. •/♦.•..:! :.:. .h:-: 
capitals of the dlihidls whofe name './.-.y ;^..i. ;.. .•.;: ■. - 
ftands on a fmall ifl.ind called PoriJljv'.K tort;'.!:...:^; i:y , 
Of eighty houfes, Georgetown h::; oi v ):i.': vii.J r.: .1 t-^y 
In the diftrid of Ninety Six is a fniill *.;;wn .::,ii...i Cxiii* 
vridge, containing forty houfes. 
Q^ What is the face of the country : 
^' From the /ea coaft to ubout v.V,.V..7 v.il.-. \t.v "^. 



iS2 GEOGRAPHY 



country the land is low and fla;t. From thence \0 about 
Stxiy miles farther the land is very Tandy though uneven ; 
then begin the high lands, or what is called the ridge, and 
beyond that is a tradt of land very niuch refembling the 
rorthcrn ftates. The firft tra<5t produces rice, the fccond 
very little but corn and fweet potatoesi the third good |)a(lur- 
^«c, and the fourth every kind of vegetable which is found 
in the fame climate, and all in tlic higheft perfedion. 

Q^ What are the productions of this (late ? 

A. A coniiderable part of the htnd U covered with heavy 
timber, like that in North-Carolina. Indian corn and pota- 
toes arc cultivated for food for the flaves, cottony indigo and 
rice for e:q)ortation ; of which great quantities are annually 
raifed. Farther back m the ftate the productions have 
been mentioned. 

Q^ What is the ilatc of manufadures and agriculture in 
Suut4i- Carolina? 

A. In this Aate, as well as in North-Carolina and Geor- 
gia, thcfc articles are in a ftate of infancy- 

Q. What is the ftate of literature in South-Carolina ? 

A. It is at a low ebb> though there is more attention paid 
to it within a few years than formerly. There are t few 
academies in the ftate, bih none are very fiourifliing. 

(^. What is the religion of this ftate ? 

A. It is much like ^7o^th-Carolina in this refpcft. 

(). What is the number of inhabitants in South Carolina? 

A. Two hundred ami forty thoufand. 

C)^ ANThat is their chara^^cr ? 

A. It is finiilar to lliat of their nci;;hboi:rs in North-Car- 
ciina, except th;it they crc jiencrr.lly r^ore jioliilied. 

(^ Whiit is the ftate of cmisiiercj in Sou rli. Carolina? 

A.' This is floiirilliing. Their rxpoits conllft of the pro- 
fliice of the foil, and they Inijiort rVoiv. the Ull markets fuch 
tilings as they want to ufV an^or.;; tiieml^ivci. 

Q. Wliat is their cnnflitwiioii ' 

AT Tlic le^tiflature confjirs^ot" \v o ''o\:iL-% the fcnate and 
hcufe oi' rc]>r'wfcntatl^e!s, who arc choil'n once in two years. 
They chcoic a I'ovcrnor and licuti'nant-g')Vv;inor, by ballot. 
They both hold their ofiHC two ycArs only in fix. The ^ 
two houfes aifo choofe a privy council, to confift of the lieu- 1 
fenant- governor anil eif^ht other ^icrfons. Both the fcna- ; 
r.oi r. and privy council m^ft W o? vV.^ ^x«i\^^%.Tv\.\^U^ion, and 



F A M E R I C A. 183 

bers of the privy council £ve years before they are eligible to 
rhe ofiices which t!iey rcrpe<ftively hold. 

Of GEORGIA. 

Q. What are the iituation and extent of Georgia ? 

A. It is between 31 aBd.3> degrees of north latitude!, 
and between 80 and 96 degress of weft longitude. It is 
^00 miles long, and 250 broad. 

Q^ How is Georgia bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by South-Carolina and 
knds ceded to the United Sutes ; eaft by the Atlanticr 
Ocean ; fouth by the Eaft and Weft Floridas ; and weft by 
the Mifliiippi river. 

Q^ What are' the civil dififioas of Georgia ? 

A. The fettled part ij divided into twenty-two counties, 
viz. Chatham, Bryan, Liberty, M'lntoJh, Glynn, Canib- 
den, Effingham, Wafhingtan» Montgomery, Scriven, Barke, 
Richmond, JefFerfori, Warren, ColunTbia, Hancock, Wilkes, 
Green, Elbert,. Oglethrope^ Jackfon and Franklin. 

Q^ What ar& the fhire-towns ixt Georgia ? 

'A. The (hir|e-to\7D of Chatham is Savannah, in l^tade 
jr^ dflg|i$<£i jf qda&tes ^ of Effingham, Ebenezer ; of Burke, 
W^yrfeftorovijh I of Richmond, Augufta; of Wilkes, Wafh- 
boigtQEi^;; of Liberty, Sunbury ; of Gtynn, Briinfwick ; of 
Cambden, St. l^tiry's' ; of Wafhington, Golphinton ; of 
Greea, Greenfborpugh ; and of Franklin, C^irnsfnlle. 

(JK What are the rivers in Georgia ? 

'A, The principal are the Savannah, Ogechee, and Alta- 
mahac^ Turtle river, Great and Little SttLHa, Crooked river, 
aod St. Mary's ; all of which empty into the Atlantic. 
Thofe of the middle' and weftern parts of the ftate are, Ap- 
alachicola, Moible, Pafcagoalaand Pearl rivers, which em]w 
ty into the gulph of Mexico. 

Q^ What is the capital town of Georgia ? 

A. The prefentieat of government is Augufta, in Intitude 
33 degrees 30 minutes* It is fituated on the fouih-weft 
bank of Savannah river, about one hundred and thirty-four 
miks from the fea, and about one hundred and twenty 
aorth-weft from Savannah. It contains about two hundred 
and fifty houfes and near twelve hundred inhabitants. U?!» 
Staation is pleafant, and the fo'\\ and c\\miCL^ -ax^ ^^^^ ^^^'J 
uovmd it. It is an incorporated c\\^ uxidtiY Ocv^ ^vc^^va'^' 
M mayor gad aldermen. 



f84 G E a G K A P H T 

Q^ What other towns of confequence are there in G 
gia ? 

A. Savannah was the hrgeft town in the flate till w; 
a few years, and was alfo the capital. It (lands on the ( 
bank of the riTer of that name, about fevenieen miles . 
the fca. It contains an Epifcopal church, a German 
thcran church, a Prefbyterian church, a Jewiih fynagog 
court-houfe, and two hundred and forty dwelling-ho' 
The number of white inhabitants is about nine hund 
iSunbury, BrDofwick, Frederica, and Louifviile, an 
imall towns, but well fituatied for navigation, and pro 
to be flour ifhing and populous towns hereafter. Liouii 
is intended for the future capital of the (late. 

Q. \\'hat is the climate 6f Georgia ? 

A. The climate of Georgia is much like tliat cf Sc 
Carolina ? 

(^ WI;at ts the face of the ftatc ? 

A. It is very Gmil^r to that of South-Carolina, beim 
toward the fea, and high in the weftern part of the ll 
where the Allegany mountains terminate* 

Q^ What is the foil of Georgia ? 

A. It ditfcrs very little from that of South Carolina, b 
very fruitful in rice, indigo and cotton toward the iea» 
producing corn and p.ulur.ig*; farther in the country. 
produdions of this ilate are much like thofe of the c 
iGuthern dates, aii.l in as great perfciflion. A fmall 
only of the Ihite is yet under cultivation. 

Q^. Are there any miiieiMl fprings in Georgia ? 

/\, Near tht vjwn of Wafhington is a remarkable fpr 
which rifes from a hollow tree, emits a nitrous fublta 
■and is faid to bt uft ful in rmnj difeafes. 

(^. Whit curioiitics are their in Georgia ? 

A. Abc^at uintty miles irom the fca, is a Urge ban 
oyllcr-fht'lls thrown up in three diikindt ridrcS; wLichrun 
allcl with ♦.h': ica coalt, and tht Ihtils arc uncommonly ii 

i). VViut IS the ftate of commerce in (zcorgia I 

A. It is flouriihing in a coniiderable degree, though 

ftate is conij)ar.itivcly but an infant fcttlemcnt. It is pri 

pally carried on from the port of Savannah, and conliii 

the produ<5lions of the foil. Its manufa*ftures arc iinall 

iinpcrfc6kt but th^y, a% we!W •JkS \.Vv^ ^f^Lxcvxlture of the i 

arc improving. 

(^ What is tht n^Jirci\>cx o^ v.-.WVJvx-wvx.^ \^ C«wi\«3: 



I O f A M E R I C A. X85 

A. Eighty- two thoufand five hundred and forty-eight. 

Q. What is the character of the inhabitants ? 

A. No material difference is difcoverable between the 
Georgians and Carolinians ; the flaves do the labor and the 
foil is very produ<flive. The inhabitants are chiefly emi- 
grants from Europe and the middle dates. 

Q^ What is the religion of Georgia ? 

A. The confHtution recognizes no preference. There 
are Chriftians of every denomination, but the Baptiils and 
Method ills are the mod numerous. 

(^ What is the government of the ftate ? 

A. The conftitution of Georgia has been lately revifed, 
and very much refembles that of the United States. The 
conftitution of Georgia pays particular attention to the lite- 
rature of the flnte, and has contemplated it on a large and 
liberal fcale, wliich promifes the happiefl confequenccs. 

Of KENT'JCKY. 

Q^ What a^e the fituation and extent of Kentucky ? 

Ai It It fituated between 36 degrees 30 minutes and 39 
degrees 30 minutes of north latitude, and between 83 and 
90 degrees of weft longitude. It is 250 miles long, and 
200 broad. 

Q. How is Kentucky bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north- weft by the river Ohio ; 
weft by the Miffifippi 5 fouth by North Carolina, and eift 
by Virginia. 

Q^ What are the civil divifions of Kentucky ? 

A. It is divided into twenty-fix, viz. Madifon, Ll.icoln, 
Garrard, Mercer, Wafhington, Franklin, Nelfon, iJhelby, 
Jeffcrfon, Bullet, Hardin, Green, Logan, Chri/Ji.in, War- 
ren, Mafon, Fleming, Bracken, Cambell, Harrifon, Bour- 
bon, Fayette, Woodford, Scott, Clarke, and Montgomery. 

Q^ What are the principal towns in thcfe counties ? 

A. Of the county of Jefferfon the (hire-town is Louif- 
Tille ; of Fayette, Lexington ; of Mercer, HarrodftowD ; 
ef Nelfon, Bardftown ; of Frankiir., Frankfort. 

Q^ What are the rivers of Kentucky ? 

A. The moft con/Iderable are the Ohio, Sandy, Lick- 
ing, Kentucky, Salt, Green and Cumberland rivers. Befide 
thefe, there are numerous fmalicr u^cit^n^iVvvOcw ^'^\!^\ '^vv: 
towatry very picntifully iti every y^y\ o£ \U 



i86 GEOGRAPHY 

Q^ What Yt the climate of Kentucky ? 
. A. The climate is health y^ the fumiuers being neither 
very hot, nor the winters Ycry colcL 

Q»^ What is the.&ce of die ftate I 

A* Great part of it is coveFed with largfr timber | it coa* 
tains very few fwarops, and is uneves^ -though not mountain- 
ous. A bed of iime-flone, lying fix or eight feet below die 
furfacei extends all over Kentucky. 

Q^ What is the foil of Kentucky i 

A. It is of various kinds, and ^^enerally very {ruitfiil in 
all thofe produdions which are found in Virginia^ 

Q«^ W hat is the chief tow-n in Keutneky i 

A. Frankfort, (ituate in Franklin county on the north 
bank of Kentucky River. It has a ftate^boufe built of 
Aone, and contains many good houfes. 

Q^ What other towns are there of confequence ^ 

A. Kentucky is a newly fettled ftate, and none of its 
towns arc yet large : Lexrngton Aands on Elk river, twen- 
ty-four miles eaft of Frankfort ; it contains two ibou&nd 
inhabitants and is rapidly increafina. Louifvilley. fitnated 
on the Ohio at the falls, is a fine ftand for trade ; fefcral 
others are beginning to be fettled in the form of towns, and 
promifc in future to be of confequence to that part of th< 
United States., 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants in Keatacky ^ 

A. By the cenfus in 1 790 they were efttnnud at ieveii.- 
ty>threc thou&nd fix hundred and feventy-feven ; but i( is. 
fuppofcd that they are now doable that number. 

Q^ What is their charsAer I 

A. This ftate is fettled principaNy by peopte from didRsp- 
ent parts of America, and they retain the manners, cuftomi, 
habits and religions of the parts from which they originally 
came. The Baptifts are the moft numerous fefl in Ken- 
tucky ? 
. Q^ Wlut is the ftafc of literature ia Kentucky ? 

A. Schools are eftabliflied in v:irious parts of the ftate, 
and ar^much aitcnded to. Pioviiion is made for a colle^ 
in Kentticky ? 

Q. What is the government of Kentucky ? 

A' Similar to that of Virgini«L ? 

OF THE NOR^r H-W EJ&T¥.\V^ T^^^VtOi^Y . 
^- What is the Giualiibn o? \.V\^ \^o\x\\.\l^^wvi '^ wv 
*ory / 



6 F A ME RICA. 187 



A. It lies between 37 and 50 degrees of north latitude, 
U nine huodred miles in leogthj and feven hundred in 
breadth* 

Q^ What is tlie general dcfcriptian «f the North- Weft- 
crn Xerritory^ 

A« It includes all the lands belonging to the United Stc^tes 
lying porth-weft of the ri?er Ohio ; it was, in iSoo, by 
Congrefs, divided into two diftindt government^, and the 
new government is denominated the " iNDIAHA TIJR- 
BLITOKY," and h bounded oa the nofth by the lakes <if 
Cimada ; eaft by P^npfylvania .; foiith by the Ohio ; and 
well by the Miilidppi river. It contains fQur bundr^id 
and ekven th^u&nd /^UfH-e mites, and is watted by a 
number of the iinefl rivers in America. l^ is in |i 
fmaU p»rt inhabii.ed by emigrants from every part of the 
IJaited States, md by fome from France and Ireland* A 

treat many tdbes of hoftile Indiana are icattered oyer it. 
n this Kxt^ik of country aire wildbeaftsof e¥ery kind found 
iq Amtsriot in va(t numbers. I)eer,.bqifdQw, elks, wolw^ 
beairsy catamount^, beav^rsr'^c. are found here as well as ift 
gU tb^ ttaiies wtere tbeJUnds for a confiderable extent are 
ilDiohabited^ From the large teeth atid bones whidh havt 
^ll«a bund in ▼arifiut pane of thia territory, it is fuppofed 
llut the Nbmmoth was ffurmerly an inhabitant of the wiU 
4pmtAa bttt Dooc of them are :now to be feen. Salt fprings^ 
iwn«i «f,cjiMUi:oppcrand lead> with Kme-ftone, fr^.flonet 
4(C hjHre been (omd in feveral places.^ 

Q^Is thei^ finy bovuidary line «(bbliAked between the 
tinnds of the Indians M&d of the United States ? 

A« X<;8« JBy.ih« treaty made in 1795 the boondary 
begins at the moiKh of the Cayahc^a Riv«r, wliich 
€«UsintQ.X4ake £ue and mos up the iametathe poruge bo 
twc^n.thgit river and the Tufcarora branch of the Mufkin* 
gpra I .thence down to Fort J^awreace ; thence wefterly to 
Ike portige between the Miami of the Ohio and the Miami 
%f the Xttake ; thence wefterly to Fort Recovery on a branch 
of the Wabafh i thence fouth-weAeriy in a dired line to 
the Qbio oppofite the mouth of Kentucky River. 

Q^ Have the Indians, by their treaty,, ceded any other 
lands within their boundary to the United States I 

A- Yes ; they have ceded feveral dvftrvO&KX.xick&'^xa^v 

tf the riven and where the forts occ\ip^V«d.b^ >X^ N.ttsMvc^^iiLi 

Hd Bnti(b «re buiJt, and where oi];ier {eui^mUkX%ViaaOa^<i 



i88 G E O O R A P H Y 



luadei with the privilege of paffing the rivers and laki 
making ufe of the harbours on the borders of the la 

Q. For what confideration were thefe cefEons m; 

A. The United States have given them twenty th 
dollars, and have engaged to pay them nine thoular 
lars annually forever. 

Q^ What are the civil dxvifions of the North-V 
Territory ? 

A. The North- Weftern Territory is divided in 
counties, Wafhington, Hamilton, St. CUir, and 
Theie counties are organized with the proper. ci^ 
military officers. 

Q^ What are the principal towns and fettlements 
territory ? 

A. 1. Vincennes on the Wabafh is an old Frencl 
of fifty years (Ending. 2. Detroit on the ilrait abov< 
£ne. 3. Sanduiki near the wefl end of the Lfak 
Michillimakinak on the ftrait between Lake Huro 
Lake Michigan. 5. Mariett.-> at the mouth of the N 
gum. 6. Cincinnati at Fort Wafhingtoo. 

Q^ What are the military pods and forts whiel 
been eflablifhed in this territory ? 

A. I . Fort Wafhington, (ituate on the Ohio,betwi 
gre.it and little Miarais. 2. Fort Hamilton:, tweot} 
miles north of Fort Wafhington on the great Miam 
Fort St. Clair, twenty-three miles north of Hamiitoi 
Fort Jefferfon, twenty-one miles north of St. Clair, c 
Greenville, the cantonment of the army before and 
treaty of 1795* fix miles north-eafl of Fort Jefferfoi 
Fort Recovery, on the battle ground of General Sn 
the 4th of November, 1 791, twenty-nine miles north 
Jefferfon. 7. Fort DeHance, at the confluence of the 
Glaize with the Miami of the Lake. 8. Fort Wa) 
the fcite of the old Miami towns. 9. Fort Knox, a 
cennes, on the Wabafh, 10, Fort Steuben, at the 1 
of the Ohio. li.. The Britilh fort at the Rapids < 
Miami of ilie Lake. 

Q. What is the number of white inhabitants in th 

ritory ? 

A. It is fuppofed not to exceed ten thoufand. 
O. What is the number of Itvdun tribes within tl: 
ritory, and what is iheu popuW\ot\ \ 
A. The number of uibe^i^fc^^tiX^^tk^^iw^^w 



OF AMERICA. 189 



tlon was cftimated In the year 1792, at fixty-iive tkoufand ; 
but th^y are continuaJiy dirainithing. 

Q. What curioiities are found in this territory ? . 

A. Befides the big bones aforementioned there are Ta« 
rious petrifaction s found in or neaV the rivers, and fome are 
•evidently of marine produ(5tion. In many parts of this ter« 
ritory are large mounds of earth ; fome of which are circu- 
lar, ajid upon being opened are found to contain human 
bones ; others are in the form of walls and fortifications. 
I'he trees which were ftanding on th; m when Crll difcov- 
ered, fome ofwhich have been felfed, are known to have 
been more than three hundred years old ; and thef^ are 
judged to be not the firft growth of wood, upon the fpot. 

Qj^ Can any account be given of liiL origin of thefe works ? 

A. The natives have no tradiiiyu c ./ncernlng them, and 
the conjev^ures of others are various, l;ut not fatisfa(5lory, 

Q^ Whnt is the goveramcnt of this territory ? 

A. It has now attained to the number of inhabitants 
which conlritutionaJly entitles it to its own legiilature, and 
to fend one reprefentative to Congiefs. It is now in what 
is called the fecond flage of govemment ; but its governor 
is appointed by ths prefident of the United States. When 
it (hili contain (ixty thoufand inhnbitants, tliey will choofe 
all their iUte ofHcers, and be conilituted an independent 
ftate, under a republican government. 

Providon is alfo nude for dividing the whole territory 
into three diflin^t dates, the boundaries ofwhich are defcri- 
bed in an ordiaance of Congrefs ; but this event is not to 
take place till the population of one of thefe fiates fhaii a- 
mount to Hxty. thoufand. 

Q^ What is the feat of government in the North- Weft- 
cm Territory ? 

A. Chillicoihe, which is Gtuated on the Seloto Rivep. 



INDIANA TiilRlllTORY.. 
^ Q^ How is the Indiana Territory bounded i 

A. By the North -Weftern Territory on the e4.ft ; by 
• Canada on the north ; by the Miililippi River on the well, 
and by the Ohio RiVer on the foutb. 

Q. What do you obferve generally refpecling the Indiana 
Territory ? 

A, It is ao extenfive couulry, cqwuwa^?:^ "j^ ^^^^^^'^^^'^y^ 

of£ae foil. Its animal and veaQVabV^i ^tq^m^x^^'^. -j^^*:. V 

Ar to thofe of the NorthAVeiUvi\Twvx.w^'/ ^"^ q.^^\.-vn 



tgo GEOGRAPHY 

great number of IndiansF who are unci?iH2ed ;- but ai the 
country becomes fettled by white peppier their numbcF di- 
fninifheSk Civilrzatioa ap^ieart to be deiirii^ve tcf their 
purfuttiTy and they eith«r retire before ity to more Femotc 
parts of the wikiernefs ;: or, gpowing difjpirkedy they gud- 
ually drop ^'^^y* and after a few yeardy the country is Izft 
entirely to the white people. 

Q^ What is the governnrem of tfee Indiana Territory ? 

A. It wa»coiiAituced a diitindt government in the fcifion ' 
of Gongrefs r 799 and 1 800. It ha» a governor, fccrctapy, I 
and three judges, who are appointed by the prcfidcnt of 
the United States. 

Q^ What is the feat of government io' the Indiana Ter- 
ritory ? 

A. Saint Vincennes, on the Wabafh Rivcr> is at fnUni , 
the feat of government. 

Of TENNESSEE. j 

Q^ What is the fituatron of Tenn^ee ? 1 

A. It lies between 35 degrees and 36 degrees 30 mhiutrf ■ 
of north latitude, is four hundred miles in length and oat \ 
hundred and four in breadth. 

Q^ What arc the boanJarics of TennefTee ? 

A. It is boundr?H on the nortli by Kentucky ; on the 
eafl by North- Carolina ; on th^ fouth by South -Car oliflt 
and Georgia ; on the weft by the Miiftlippi. 

Q^ What are its civil' divifions ? ; 

A. It is divided into three diftriifls, Waftiington, Ham- 
ilton and Mcro ; thefe diftrijSts contain ten counties, Waft- 
ington, Sullivan, Grctne, Hawkins, KooX| Jeffcrfon, Se* 
vicr, Davidfon, Sumner and TennefTce. 

Q^ What rivci? doth it contain ? 

A. The Miflinppi, Tenncfiee, Cumberland, Holftoflr 
Clinch, WolF, Haichce, Forkcd-dcer, Ouinn and Reclfoot. 

Q^ What mountains Gor.h if contain ? 

A. T!i'.'»vcIL>w, the bald, the iron, and Unka mountains 
r.>rm the calt»jri] bound.'.ry, and feparate it from NorthCar- 
<- in.i. Clinch mountain divides the waters of Holfton and 
T; r.^:!i rivers ; and Cumberland mountain fcparatcs the 
v ifr>(.i p.irt of the Territory from the eaflern part. 

(. » . ''' V; 1 a t a re the pT\nc\p;\\ io\su^ ? 

- VT" !x»j*)xville, the le.\t ot |,o\'tTi\r£\wv\., \^ ^\vwx^ \^^ 
bcuurii.ii ipot on the north Wdc o^ WqWI^ti Vci^w/vt.'^ 



O F A M E R I C A. 291 

lli^^rid of Hamilton. Na/hville on the fouth bank of Cum- 
berland River in the diiirid of Mero. Jonefborough in the 
dittri^ of Waihin^ton. 

Q^ What is the number of inhabitants ? 

A. In 1 79 1 the returned number was* thirty -five thou- 
fand lix hundred and Binety-one, but it is found now to 
contain more than (ixty thoniandy and is confequently en- 
tid^dy according to adt of Congrefs, to all the privileges of 
an independent -ftste» and as fuch has been admitted to the 
Union in 1796. 

Q^ What is its government ? 

A. It has lately adopted a cbnftitu^oal form of gor- 
ernmentof its owD» on republican principlesy fimilar to thote 
of the other Sutcs. 

(^ What ace the vegetable productions of this territory ? 

A. Majeftic red cedan, oaks, hickory, black and white 
walnut, fycamore, locuils, elm, honibeam, mulberry, cherry 
and fugar-maple. In the k>w grounds, cane, fnake-root, 
angelica, crab-apple, pappaw, (weet-anifc, fpikenard, and 
grapes. The glades are covered with wild rye, wild oRts, 
clover, (Irawberries, pea-vines and buffaloe-grafs ; wheat is 
cultivated to great advantage. 

Q^ What animals are found here ? 

A. The bafialoe, deer, elk, bear, beaver, otter, panther, 
wild-cat, mufk-rat, raccoon, fox, wolf, and fquirrel, par- 
tridges, quails,pigeons, wild-turkcysrducks,geeie and fwans. 
The rivers are ftored with trout, perch, cat-iifh, buffaioe^£fh, 
red-horfe, eels, &c. 

Q. What metallic, mineral and foflil produdiODS have 
been difcerered } 

A. It is faid that the Indians know of a fdver mine, but 
^11 not difcover it. The country abounds with iron ore, 
and there are feverml -lead mines. Copperas, alum and ni- 
tre have been found in caves. Salt fprings are very fre- 
quent, and there is lime-done in great plenty. 
Q^ What is the climate ? 

A. Temperate and healthy ; on the weflern fide of Cum- 
berland MouutaiA the fummer Is hotter than on the eaficrn 
fide. North-eafterly ftorms never reach this country. 
Q^ What is the Ihte ofmanufaduresaad commerce ? 
A. Iron and (alt are manufactured, and there is a cot- 
ton manuAdory enaUBhed tiadex \Vv^ fivt^QCwEi t^ N&<s^l.^a^ 
from Europe, The amdcB ot inAft ^t^\as -k^^c^S^a:^^ 



192 GEOGRAPHY 

lead, dcer-fkinSy furs, ginfenz, beef, cattle, horfes, pork and 
flour. This territory is well iituated for the navigation of 
the Miiiiiippiy and a very good road might be opv!i:ed from 
Mafhvilie to New-Orleans. 



Of the NATCHES. 
• Q. What do you obfervc refpo^ing the Natchcs ? 

A. It is bounded north and ead by Georgia ; weft) by 
the Miflifippi River ; and fouth, by Wed-P'lorida. la A. 
D. i8co it was ercded, by Congrefs, into a dilHnLlgov- 
crnmcnty under what is denominated the " Second Stage," 
viz. choofmg its own legiHative and civil officers. It is 
iinely fituated on the Miflifippi river, to carry on commerce; 
and, as the navigation of that river is now free, by the 
treaty with Spain, and as the country is ver}' produAivci 
it bids fair, in a few years, to become a wealthy, power fiil, 
and important part of the United States. 

Of the Unitej> States at large. 
Q^ What do you obferve of the United States at large : 
A. That, all combined, they perform a great political 
republic, though feparately they aie indepeoxlent. 
Q. What is the government ot ihc United States ? 
A. It is H republic, con filling of three branches, viz. a 
pr«fident, fenate, and houfe of rcprefentativ«s. There arc 
two fenators from each ftate, and a reprefentative for every 
thirty thoufand inhabitants. The fenators hold their uiuces 
for (ix years. T!ie executive power is veftcd in the Prcir 
dent of the United States. 

Q^ What is the military ftrcngth of the United States : 

A. No Ihnding force is kept i:p, unlcfs in aftual fcrvicc. 

The country depends lor its defence upon the militia, which 

confiils of every male abovC eighteen years of age that « 

not an invalid. 

Of SPANISH AMERICA. 
Q. What arc the i^prilh pf0\inces in North Americi) 
A. They are Ea(> and Vv'e.l- Florida, LotifiKiia, OU 
and New-Mexico. 

Q. What are the Jltuation and extent of Eail and WeS- 
PJorida ? 
A' They arc V,ct\vcer. i^ ^v.d y degrees of noTh lat«"a 
tudc, and between t^o av.O. ^i <lt^Te^"& vi^ ^^^Wviv^^i-.udc- 1 
They are together 6cQ laW* \oiv|,, ;^\i^ \^o\i\^^^. 1 



O T A M E R I C A. 193 

*l5^How are the Floridas bounded ? 

A. They are bouflded on the north by G^rgia ; eaft 
y the Atlantic Ocean ; Tout h by the Gulph of Mexico ; 
nd wed by the MifSfippi. 

Q, What rivers are there in die Floridas f 

A. St. John's and Indian riversy which run eaft into the 
ik.tlantic ; Seguana, Apalachicola, Catahatchi> £fea'nibia» 
iobile, Pafcogula, and Pearl rivers, which run fouth and 
mpty into the Gulph of Mexico. 

Q^ What is the climate. of the FloHdas ? 

A. VfcVy warm, but allayed by c66l breezes from'the fea. 

Qj, What is the foil of the Floridas.? 

A. It is very fruitful, and the feafons are fb favorable that 
wo crops of corn-are produced in a-yieaf. 

Q. What are the. produdibns of the Floridas ? 

A. l^ey are fimilar to thofe of Georgia, as-is the face 
f the tountf y. 

Q^ What are the feafons of the Floridas ? 

A. The funimers, toward the fea, are extremely ^vlarm, 
Ut farther into the country they af c more mild and pleafant. 
Hie Winters- are vfei-y fhort and very mild. 

Q^ What are the capital towns of the Floridas ? 

A. St. Auguftin is the capital of Elaft-Florida, and Pcn- 
icola of Weft- Florida: They both ftand on the fea-ftlore, 
Tt of an oblong form, and ace places of fome trade. 

Of LOUISIANA. 

Q^ What is the' fituatiob of Lbuifiana ? 

A. It lies wftft of tiiTE Miilifip{)i, befhg bounded oA'the 
iuth by the Gulph of Mexic'o i Gt th6 eaft by the Miffifip- 
i ; on the north by unknown lands!';, ahd on the weft by 
<few- Mexico. 

Qjj_ What rivers ape there in Louifiani ? 

A.. There are feveral, among which are the'^JiatthitbcI^cs 
nd the IvTexicano* rivers. 

(^ What isthe capital df IiOn?flana? 

A. New-Orleans, which ftandaon tlie'eaft bank' of the 
ffifljfi^pi river aboiit one :hun(fre'd^nd five onilcs'ftohi the 
louth. In i7'8) it coYitaihed iioo.h<^u£?8,:mbJ(|f df w^iich 
rtrc burftt in'the t^eginpinj; df'th'c nexit year;' " ffs'/ituatlatv 
kt'cry advantageous;' and it ptotaifc* i8^\i^c^T^5fc.\vs^l>^ ^S 
vctt coiumf rce. 

R 



154 GEOGRAPHY 

Q^ What is the religion of Louifiana ? 

A. It is the Roman Catholic. The people are govern- 
ed by a viceroy from Old Spain. 

C^ What is the climate of Louifiana ? 

A. It varies with tlie latitude. It is, ho we ver, generally 
healthy and pleafant, the feafons being not To variable, nor 
fo fevere, as in fome of the United States. 

Q^ "What are the produ^ions of Louitiana ? 

A. The animal productions are much like thofe found 
in the uncultivated parts of the fouthern flates : and witii 
cultivation it will yield all the various produdions in their 
greateS perfection, which are produced either in the mod 
fdutherly of the United States, or in the Wefl*Indies. Its 
fimber is excellent and abundant. 

Of new MEXICO anp CALIFORNIA. 
<^ What are tlic fituation and extent of New MexicOi 1 
including California ? 

A. It is two thoufand miles long, and fixteen hundred 
.broad ; and is Htuated between 23 and 43 degrees of north 
latitude, and between ninety-four and 126 degrees of w^ 
longitude. 

Q. How is it bounded ? 

A. On the north by unknown lands ; on the eaft by 
Louifiana ; on the fouth by Old Mexico and the South Sea; 
and on the weft by the South Sea, 

Q^ How is it divided ? 

A. Into the four provinces of New-Mexico Prefer is tii€ 
north-ead ; Apachetia in the fouth-eafl ; Sonora in tk 
fouth ; and the Peninfula of California. 

Q^ What is the climate of thefe countries ? 

A. The climate is hcalthjf and pleafant. 

Q. What is the foil > 

A. Frugful. 

Q^ What are the produ^ions of thefe countries ? 

A. They are very valuable, for though we. know vert 
little of the vegetable produ^ions, yet there is a good pel" 
fifhery on the coaft; gold mines are found in the intend 
<:ountry, and large plains of fait lying in a (blid mafs. 

Q. What is the chief town ? 

A., Santa Fee, in \o\ dcgcec^ of weft longitude, afll'* 
5<> of north latjtu^t. ^ 



• - 



6 f A^rERI9'A. 105 



Q, What is the charadlcr of the inhabitants of New 
Mexico and California f 

A. Mofl of the inhabitants are Indians, whom the Span- 
iff) miiHonaries have civilized and taught the arts of railing 
corn and making wine. The Spanifh fettiements are weak» 
and the people jealous and fuipicious. They do not care 
to publifh the natural advantages of thei^coUntry9 left otlfer 
fiatioDS fhould be induced to viHt it. 



Op MEXICO; 

C^ What are the fituation and extent of Mexico ? 

A. It is 2,000 miles long, and 600 broads It is fitua« 
ted between 8 and 30 degrees of north latitude, and between 
83 and 1 10 of weft longkude. 

Q^ How is Mexico bounded ?. 

i% It is bounded o/n tke north by New Mexico j north- 
eaft by the Gulph of Mexico ; fouth eaft by Terra Firma ; 
and foath-wefV by the Pacific Ocean; 

Q. How is it divided ? 

A. Into the following audiences ; viz. Galiciaj M€x:ico 
Proper, and'Gautimala*' 

Q^ What is the climilte of Mexico ? 

A. It is very hot, and on tlie eaflern fliOre unhealthy. 

Q^ What is the foil of Old Mexico ? 

A. It is productive, but more fo of fruits than of grains. 

Q^What are the produftions df Old Mexico? 

A. Gold and (ilver in vaft quantities, Aigdr, indigo, cot- 
ton, cocoa, cochineal, and all kinds of tropical fruits in per- 
fection. The trees are in a conftant (late df verdure, and- 
they bloffom and bear firuit all the yeat. In Mexico is 
fbund the Mangrove, which was mentioned in the account 
of Africa. 

Q^ What is the face of the country ? 

A. Toward the Atlantic it is flat and marfhy, but in- 
knd, and on the South Sea, it is mountainous, pleafant and^ 
kealthy. 

Q2_ What are the animal produ^ionsf 

A. It has all the animals which are fbimd'in'the fouth- 
crn parts of the United States, and fome whrch are pecuHa 
to Mexico. The mod renfarkable ate th6 pecarree, a fmai 
[ Uack animal re(embling a pig in fhape ; «xvd. \K<^ ^^"^ 
•vhich is fo Dstmed from its indoVervct* \\, ta«NaJCi ^ ^^^ 
, ^tb great pain, lives on the lea^c^ aLU^^t>3At -ai'^Vs^^'^ "^^ 
'tmaitiygad when it is to defccndiCgVU€t%\\&\SL'^^'^^'^^'*''' 



196 G E O G R A P H Y 



and falls, to the ground. It is fo many ^^ys traTeUing* from 
one tree to another^ that it frequently grows lean during the. 
journey, and oothing can n^ake it quicken its movements. 
There arc many birds in Mexico, of moll beautiful plumage. 

Q^ What do you obfcrve of^U^e inhabitants of- Mexico f 

A. They are divided into three clafTes, viz» whites, In- 
dians and negroes. The whites are much like the iobabi*- 
tants of Old Spain, only more effeminate and dii&pated.. 
The Indians arc dcjeiflcd and opprei&d ; the negroes areas 
In other countries where flavecy. i« authorized. The Spaa* 
iih clergy, are very numerous. 

Q;. What i* the chief town, of Mexico ? 

A. Mexico, which (lands on aiaiige plain fa rronnd^i by 
high mountains. It contains about one hundred and fifty. 
thoufand inhabitants. The houfes are con venieat, .apd the 
public buildings are magnificent. 

Q^ What commercial cities arc there? 

A. Acapulco, which> (lands on a. bay in the South Sea,- 
two hundred and ten miles fouth-wcA of Mexico, and Lav- 
cr.'i Cruz, on the Gulph oi Mexico. 

Q^ Whivt is the government of Mexico? 

.A. Ir. h governed by a viceroy from Spain, "jvlio, though 
rupeiTcded in tlaree ycars.after his appoiDtuicnt, conamonly 
makes his fortune. 



Of the NORTH-WEiiT COAST qf. AMERICA. 

(^ V/liat is known of tic Nprib-V^e.ft Coaft. of America? 

A. There is a large extent oi cosift.anU iilands from th« 
latitude of .45 degrees to. .60 dpg^ecs n^rth^ ibhab'ted by tho 
native favagcs, but of . hue years; fr^qucut«.d by ndFcn^uTfrt. 
from Europe, India and the Unittd. >St,itcs of Aoier-ica for 
the bcnciil of th'_* fur trade. The furs are purchaftd «f the 
natives and vencied in China, axKi the, trade ha^ proved very 
lucrative. 

C>^ What is the appear^^ncc of the country ami the tem- 
perature ofiljc climate? 

A. The country is mountainous near tb*; fnorftf; but theri 
are many ilne harbours and inlets. The < u..:-.!'; is milder 
than in the fame latitudes on thetaO-.n f« ;• o\ /\:'.»Ti<.;«.or 
in Clii. ;4. Vegetation comes o?- v •.,' Ij/ijg: 

jVk .'. .;.': rU)' . .^ ■. ^ '. ' . ... UiiU-UiC l«;a5.witli cod,Jlirir- 



r A M E R 1 CA. .197 

Q^ What -is the breadth of. tl^e (Irait which feparatts 
America fioni AGa? 

A. Aboift tiiirteen leagues. It is fcozen over in the 
wiotcr, and the iahabi.unts as veil as other anhnals eafily. 
gafs over it; 

Of 50UTH.AJtfEJR:ICA- 

Q^ Wl^t are the /ituatipnan^e^ten^of South- America ? 

A.- It is ^tu^ted betw^^Q x^of north and §6 degrees of 
R>uth latitude, and between 6o an.d Si degrees of weft lon- 
gitude. It is 4j^qo mjlesjongy a^Dd,d»3PP l}^9ad* 

Q^ How is Suuth-Atperica bounded ? 

A. It is bounded 9n tli^ north by the Atlantic Ocean 
9nd'iNoTthfAn)^rica ; on tjie ead by the AUi^ntic Ocean ; 
on. the fouth .by the Straits vf ^(agell49 ;. apd;0;i the well: 
^y the Pacific Ocean. ■ 

Q^ Hjow is So^th-America divided ? 

A- It is divided into the foUqwi,<ig , CiOiuurics^ Ten*! 
Firma, Peru, Amazonia, Paraoua, and Chiliy which belong*: 
to Spain ; Guiana .to the D^tch ;:. Brazil to Portugal, and. 
Patagonia to ihe.nati^es. . 

O? TERJR.A FliaiA- 
Qj^What ar€ the Ctuation and extent .pf Tf^'^a ficmri i 

A. It is 1,400 miles long, and 70P broatd ; fituared b''- 
tween the equator and i a degrees of north U.ti^-^de, and be- 
tween j6o and 82 degrees of we A Longitude. 

Q^ How is Terra Firnja bounded :' 

A. It is bounded on the north by the Atl^Rtic Ocean • 
and Mexico ; ea(l by the AtIant.Lc Occ^m and Surinam ; 
ibuth by Amazoniaand Peru ; and wed: by )J^e Paciiiis Ocean. 

Q^ Hbw is Terra Firma divided ? *' 

A. Into nine provinces ; vfe. Terra Firma Proper, Car- 
tiiagena, St;.Marthi>^ Rio deJa HficUa, Venezuela, Comaiia, 
New AndalviGa, . in the norths and New Grai^ad^ and Po- 
payan, in the fouth. 

Q^ What is ihe cU^natc of Terra Firr.a ? 

A. It lies within the torrid zone, and the covQtry is m^- 
tftm^ly .hot, wet and unhealthy. Dvi^ing thufe months 
which are the winder in ^ore ijor/iicrly countries, it is very 
ftormy.. , . *. . 

Q. WJb^t ia the foil 9f ^^itxx^ Y\\xo»^\ . 



19S GEOGRAPHY 

A. It is various. On the coafi: it is fandy and barren ;■ 
within the country it is very firuitfiil. 

(^ What are the produ^ons of this country ? 

A. rht aniitia] and vegetable productions are much like 
thofe in Old Mexico. Thofe of the vegetable kind peculiar 
to this country are the ^Manzanillo tree, which bears a fruit 
refembling an apple, but highly poifonous ; and the Cartha- 
gena bean, which grows oit a Kind of wild willow, and is ao 
antidote to the bite of the venomous animals, whkh are very 
commpn in this country.. 

Q^ How are thefeafons in. Terra Firma ^ 

A.. The fame as in Old Mexica, 

Q^ What is the chief town of Tisrra Firma ? 

A. Panama, which ftands on a large bay of the fame: 
name, on the fliore of the Padfio Ocean^in which there is a* 
valuable pearl fifbefy ^ and to this port comes all the gold. 
and (liver ; hence k is tranfperted by land to Porto B^lloi 
and Carthagena on the eaftera£de of the continent| to be: 
ihipped for Europe.. 

Q^ What rivers are there in Terra Firma ^ 

A. The Oronoke, Rio Grande, Darien, and Chagre. 

Q^ What mountains arc there in Terra Firma ? 

A- There are many high mountains. A little fouth*^ 
ward of thb country begin the Andes, v/hich are the high*- 
ef^ mountains in the worldL. 

Qv What do you obferve of the inhabitants ? 

A. They confift of the lame clafTes as in Mexico, and: 
the fame chara^er is^ applicable to them* 
. Q^ What is the government of Terra Firma ? 

A. It is like the otlier Sj|;>ani^ provinces, governed by ». 
viceroy from Spaim 

Or PERU; 
Q^ What are arc the fituation and extent of Peru ? 
A. It is 1 ,800 miles long and 500 broad. J t is betweeo-. 
t/t\Q equator and 25 decrees of fouth latitude^ and betweeo. 
.Co and 81 degrees of weft longitude.. 
Q; How is Peru bounded I 

A. It is bounded on the north by Terra Firma ; eftftbyr 
the Andes ; fouth by. Chili; and we(l by the Pacifn: Occao. 
Q. Whit arc the rivers In Peru ? 

A? A krge num^r^ r'vfc \t\ xVv^ KivA^^^ ^w^ \>wv through* 
the country J of ^hich iU^ Ut^^ V^^^« hswcL^^^Qwjwii 



O F A M E R I C A. 199 



ai>^ Gpanada, or Cagdalena and La Plata. Thefe river» 
mjk in theAndes>b«t run eaftward into the Atlantic Ocean. 
The Amazon is the largefl in the world; and itscourfc is. 
about five thoufand miles, its windings included. 

Q^ What is the higheft elevation of the Andes ? 

Q^ Chimborazo, the higheft of the Andes, is 20,280* 
feet above the level- of the Tea r and the height of that 4)art 
ef it which is perpetually covered with fnow is 2,400 feet.. 

Q. How is Peru divided ? 

A. Into the. three audiences of Lima, Qxiito^ and Los. 
Charcosi 

Q. What is the climate of ^fer^ ^ 

A« It is not fo hot as fome other countries lying in the* 
fame latitude ; it is almoft conftantly orerAiadowed by 
clouds, though it never rains in the country of Peru ; t&e- 
dews however fall largely, and fupply the deficiency. 

Q^ What is the foil of Pera f 

A, The coaft is generally fandy and barren^ but on thci 
fides of rivers, and in the interior parts, it ifr very fruitful. 

Q^ What are the produdions of Peru^. 

A. Quick^filver, gold, filver in greater abundance thait. 
tb any other country^ I-ndian corn,, wheat, balfam of Peru>. 
fugar, wine, cotton^ cattle, (keep, deer, lions, bears, mon- 
keys, tlie lama, the vicuoa, poultry, parrots, &c. The^ 
fheep are fo large as to be ufed as bea(b of burden. Befide 
the other beautiful trees in this counti7, there is the Quin- 
quina, which furmfhes the Peruvian bark« fo-ufeful in med»> 
icine* 

Q^ What is the capital of Peru« ^ 

A. Lima, which is alfo the largeft city inh.Sbuth:-Amerr* 
caii It contains (ixty thoufand inhabitants, but it is fubje^ 
to frequent and moft terrible earthquakes. It ftand^ about 
five leagues from the n¥>re of the Pacific Ocean> on the river 
Rimou, and is a place of e^uenfive commerce. 

Q^ What other important towns are there in Peru ? 

A. Quito, Pkyta, GuayaquiU Cufco, Potofi, and PorcQ> 

Q^ Whi>t do you obferve of tho inhabitants ? 

A. They are like thofe of Terra Firnuu 

Q. Wliat is the government ? 

A. The Ctme as in Terra Firma^ 



Or CH\L.\. 



zoo G' E O G R A P H V 



A. It is 1,200 mil^s long, aod 50P broad ; .betWQen z^ 
and 45 degrees of fouih latitude,. and ^0'5 aod 85 of welt 
longitude. 

Qj How is I v< bounded ^ 

A. It is bounded on the Aortli by.Feru ; eaft by La Fla-^ 
la ; fouth by- Patagonia ; anjJ >i£cft>by theP^ci^c Ocean. 

Q^ How is ChUi diyided I 

A. it is divided into two parts- by the Andes ; on the-, 
eafl is Chili Proper, and on the wed tlie pFoyince of Giitio. 

Q* What is the climate of Cluli i 

A-i By enjpying the breezes uf the Pacific Ocean, and 
the airfromthe Andes,, it is npt fa warm as other cpumries 
in the fame latitude. 

Ql What are the fysSims of Chi^ ? ' 

A. Spring begins in^ the month of Aug'-)^ (iimmi^r in 
November, autumn in February, and winter in May. It 
rarely fnows in the ]ow-coi(ntry,.J^ut the Andes .are per<^- 
jl^tually covered with fnow. 

C^ What is the foil x>f Qhiii ? 

A. It is very fertik» jgfid well /vyutered by fmJl ftr^ams- 
^]^ove^ the country, 

Q^ What are tlve vegetable produ^ions of Chili ? 

A. They are apples, pears, plums, peaches, q^ince^, ap-^ 
rlcots,almonds; cpcoa-nuts, plives, grapesj, figs, iirawberries, 
and all forts of grain in. abundance and in grcfit pcrfeiStion. 

Qj^ What arc the animal produ^fcions ? . 

A. There arc no venomous animals or infects in Chili, 
but the wild and tame aiiiniah, which arc common to other 
countries in South- America, are foyod io Chili, and n^at 
cattle are the jlap.le of the country. 

Q^ What are tba mineral produfttons ? 

iV* Gold, filver and lead mines are found in grcAt abun- 
dance in Chili, but the natives conceal their knowledge of 
the richeft. 

Qi What is the number of inhabitants in Chili ? 

A* There arc about twenty- thoufand white and fiicty 
thoufmd Indian?* who are moflly independent. 

Q. What is the cliief town in Chili ? 

A. St. Jago, which Aands on a large plain, is a large and 
handfomc town, and has a good harbour. 

Q. What other conGdctable. towns are there in Chili ? ' 
A.' Jlaidivia, Impcm\, andN Avi:ci\^<cv^\iV\\ci\ with the 



^^r A MTE R I C A aor 



,,#n the eaft fide. The gpycnuneqtis like that of the.o^cr 
Spanifh provinces. 

Of PARAGUA, OR, LA PLATA. 

Q^ Wjhat are the Ctyation and extent of Paragua ?^ 

A. . It.is 1 9500 miles lon^^ and i>Qpo broad. It is (i;a» - 
ated between 12 and 37 degrees of fouth. latitude, and 50 
and 75 degrees of well longitude.. 

Q^ How is Paragua bounded ?'. 

A. It is bounded on the north • by Atuazonia ; eaft hyr 
Brazil ; fouth by Patagonia ; and weft by Peru ^d Chilu 

Q^ How is the country divided ? 

A. It is divided into the provinces of Paragua, Parang,. 
Giiaira, and Ui'agua> qn^die north andeaft ^.s^nd Tucomao- 
and Rioide )a Plata on the foutki 

Q^What rivers a,re th^re ^n Jpfiragua ? 

A. The Rio de la Plata, theP^raaija, Ui'^gua^aad. Pa- 
rana, befide ^any. fmall 0{ks which^tali into ^be Jiiio ^e la 
]?lata. 

Q. What mountains are there inParagua ? 

A, The Andes run on the wc(bcrD. (idc .of th^s country,, 
and give rife to all the rivers* 

Q What is the c^Jimate 9? Paragua* ? 

A. It IS pleaf^nt and healthy. 

Q^Wlut isthefoil? 

A. It is very fruitful, efpecially. alqng;;the rivers, .which 
•verflow their bantsL-eyery year.- 

Q^ What are <he productions. -of Paragua. ? 

, A. it produces evisry kiqci pf vegetable. and animal v/hich. 
is common, to ihe countj;ies,;in.jSouthr America. The cot- 
ton, tobacco, and a pl<nt called Para^ua, flu*ni(hesan e^Lten- 
liye commerce. In, addition to thole valuable produfftions,. 
the country yields con (kUerablc quantities of gold and fi lv?r. 

Q^.What is the cj^pitaJ town of Paraoua ? , 

A. .Buenos Ayfes, ^hich (lands o^ the fouth bank gf the 

jiver La Plata, t\>'0 hundred loilesFron its mc)u:h,.wi)treit 

is twenty miles brPCid. It is ;hc mofc pc^rifiievable of all 

.tbei fea port tow us .*^n-S^yth-|f\oKrica, and CQijl^iiDS 2C,.oco 

ibhabitanrs. 

Q. \V;. ' r.'.\^i\ towns are there ? 

A. .■-. jugo, Aflumpt,!.<)p, S^...iK:ice>CiYi4a.d Real, and- 



yor ' CEO G R AP H'T 



Q^ WHat do you obferve of the infebitait^, religion artd? 
government of Paragua ? 

A. The fame may. be faic! on each of tbefe heads with* 
refpedl to this, as co the other Spanifh countries in South- 
America, only chat the natives inhabit the greatefl part o£ 
Parngua, many of whom liave been civilizitrd andchriiyaB' 
i^ed by the j.clliit8;i 

Op AMAZONIA. 
Q^ What are the fituation and extent of' Amazonia ?' 
A. It is 1,200 miles long and '950 broadi dtuated be- 
tween I and 15 degrees of fouth latitude^ and 50 and 7S' 
of weft longitude. 

Q^ How is Amazonia bounded ^ ' 

A. It is bounded on the north by Terra Ftrnia and- 
Guiana ; cad by the Atlantic Ocean and Brazil ; fouth b]^ 
La Plau ; and wcfl by Peru:- 

Q. What rivers are there in Amazonia V 
A. There are many large rivers, but the largeft of all and" 
the larged in the world, is the river Amazon, which gives- 
name to the country. It has a courfd of five thoufaod miles, 
and at its mouth is one hundred and fifty miles broad. It' 
is forty futhoms deep fifteen hundred miles within the' 
country. Jt receives all tlio Other rivers, of which there 
are nearly two hundred, in the country^ and empties into 
the Athntic Ocean. 

Q^ What is the ch'mate of Arrtazonia ?' 
A. It is liir gonerafly about the folfiices; and ftormy- 
about rhc equiuoxes. The climate is healthy, and fo mild,* 
that the trees are green all the year. • 

Q^ What are the produftions of AmazOriia ? ' 
A. The foil is rich, and produces fruits of all kinds com- 
mon to warm dimates, corn and other grain;- The woods 
are cedar^ Brazil wood, oak', ebony, logwood,' iron wood, ■ 
and various other kinds of dying Wood ;• cocoa, tobacco, 
fugar canes, cotton," the cafTavi root, potatoes, yarns, faria- 
parilla, gums, redns, balfams, pine-apples, guacas, bananas, 
&c. In the forefts are found wild honey, deer, wild fowls 
and parrots. In the numerous rivers and lakes there arc 
many fifh of various kinds, but the country is much infefted 
M'lth alligators and -waiet Cti^tnts'. 
(X W'Jia t d y ou obfo v e o^ i\\'i \rL\\^\\:i.^\.^ ^^ KxwiiAtAa I 
A. It is inhabited ^7 t\\t n^xXxt^^ \i>\^ -w^ \i\OTiR.\5s«k*^ 



OP A M E R I .C A* ^tg 

They are pagans, and are governed by many petty priDces^ 
. who are called Caciques. 

Of GUIANA. 
Q. What are the fkuation and extent of Guiana ? 
A. It is fityat^d between the equator and 8th degree of 
north latitude. It is about 800 mjiles lon^, and 500 broad. 
'Q^ How is Guiana bounded ? 

A. It is bounded on the north by the river Oronoko ; on 
riie eaft by the Atlantic Ocean ; on the fputh by the river 
Amazon ; and on the weft by the unexplored country be- 
tween that and Per«. 

<^. How is thii country divided ? 

A. Into Guiana Proper, Surinam^ and Cayenne. 

<^ What is the climate of Guiana ? 

A. It is. generally unhealthy. The country is low, fiat, 
^nd marfhy, but it is {kid that the interior parts are inter- 
Iperfed with pleafant hills and valleys. 

Q^ What are the produ^ions of Guiana ? 

A. They are in general the fame with thofe of the coun- 
tries bordering upon it ; the torporlfic eel^ when touched 
only with a (lick, gives a perfon a ihock, and then leaves a 
'fiumb fenfation. The laubba is an amphibious animal, about 
<the (ize of a pig, covered with fhort hair. A great variety 
•of fnakes and of birds are found in Guiana. 

Q^ What is thfe capital town ? 

A. Surinam^ which ftands on a river of the fame name. 
It is a place of great commerce. 

Q^ What other towns are there ? 

A. Cayenne, Demerara and EiTequibo. 

Q^ What do you obferve of the inhabitants ? 

A. The whiles confift of Dutch and French. It is 
principally inliabited by the natives, who are friendly to the 
.whites. 

Q;^ To whom does Guiana helong f 

A« To the, Dutch and French, 



*■ ' Op BJIAZIL. 

•Q. What are the fitwation and eittent of BrazS ? 

A. It is 2,500 miles long, and 700 broad, fituated be- 
jtween the equator and 35 degrees of fouth latitude, and ^^ 
Md 60 ditgrtt% of wed longitude^ 
. (^ Hqw is Brazil bounded t 



1D4 G E O G R'A PH t 

A. It ts bounded on the nortfi by the niouth of the rrret 
Amazon, and the Atlantic Ocean ; eafl by the Adanuc; 
fouth by the mouth of the river La Plata ; and weft by a 
chain of mountains, which' divides it from Paragua and llie 
country of the Amazons.' 

Q^ ^yhJit is the air of Brazil ? 

A. It is vcry'hot in the ndrtherri,' and temperate id the 
fouthern parts. 

Q. What is the climate ? . . . 

it It is healthy." 

-Q^ What is the foil ? 

A. As fruitful as that of any country in South-America. 

Q^ What are the produflFions- of Brazil ? . 

A. SiigatS tdbacco, hides, drtigjB, gold and diamorids»an(i 
&n the coaft is a valuable wliale fifhery. 

Q. What do you obfervc of the inhabitants ? 

A. The country is principally inhabited by 'the nativeii 
who are ignorant and nvage. In religion they are pagant. 
The coaft is fettled by Portugucfe, who own the coimtryy 
and are much Tike the Spariifh ii^buth- Americans. 

Q^ What are the principal, places, of trade ? 

A. Pernambu'cco in the north, St. Salvador- in the mid- 
dle, and Rio Janeiro in the fouth. 

• 

Of 'PATAGONIA. 

Q, What are the (ituation and extent of Patagonia ? 

A. It is about i,ico miles long, aiid 350 broad, lying al 
-the fouthern extremity of America, between 35 and 54 de- 
grees of fouth latitude. 

Q. What do you obfcr\'e of the face of the couiitryi fofl 
and climate of Patagonia ? 

A. The country is very mountainous, inland, and the 
climate is cold and ftormy. The foil produces no trees, 
but good pafturage, which feeds vaft numbers of wild horfes 
and cattle. 

Q. What do you oljfcrve of the "inhabitants ? 

A. They are a gigantic, hardy, brave people, with tawny 
complexions. They live in thatched houfes, are clothed 
with flvins, live by hunting and on what tlicir country ipo** 
faneouOy ^roducQ^, 



OF AMERICA. 205 

Op AMERICAN ISLANDS. 

Q. What are the fituation and extent of Newfoundland ? 

A. It is 350 mtles long» and 200 broad. It is between 
46 and 50 degrees of north latitude, and between 53 and 
59 of weft longitude. ^ \ 

<^ What are the foil, and climate of Newfoundland ? 

A. It is a rocky ifland, and the climate is cold and un- 
pleafant. It produces furs and wild fruit. 

O. What towns are there on this illand ? 

A. Bonayrfta» Placentia, and St. John's. 

Q^ For what is this ifland chiefly valuable ? 

A. For the conveniences it furmfhes of drying the vaft 
miantiues of cod-fHh, which are taken on its banks. The 
£riti(h who pofTefs the ifland, poflefs alfo that privilege. 

Q^ Are there any other rflands lying in the heighbour- 
iiood of Newfoundland ? 

A. There are two fmall ones which the French claim, St. 
iPierre and Miquelon. BeHde thefe are Cape Breton and 
the Magdalen Iflands, all of which afford advantages for 
carrying on the (ifhery, and catching Teals and fea-cows. 

•Q. Hj^w many inhabitants are there in Newfoundland ? 

A. There areMettled here about 1,000 families. 

•Q^ What is the length and breadth of Cape Breton ? 

A. It is about no miles long and 50 broad. 

•Qj^ What is the length and breadth of St. John*s ? 

A. It is fixty miles long and twenty-one broad. It lies 
in the Gulph of St. Lawrence, and has about fix thoufapd 
inhabitants. 

-Q^ What are the (it«ation and extent of the Bermudas ? 

A. They are (ituated in 32 degrees of aorth latitude, and 
€5 of weft longitude* They are rocky and of difficult ac- 
cefs. The foil is fruitful, and the climate ferene and heal- 
thy. They lie aboit three hundred miles eaft of Carolina. 
St. George is the capital town, containing about 1000 houfes. 
The Bermudas are owned by the Britifh ; they are inhabited 
bf about 10,000 people, nearly one half of whom are negroes* 

Q. What is the fituation of the Bahamas ? 

A. They lie fouch-eaftward of the Carolinas, between 
tt and s8 degrees of north latitude, and between 73 and 
81 of weft longitude* 

Q. What do you obferve concexi^ui^ xVi^ei \ 

A. "They are io number about 500^TaWK^ ^^^'^^On w 
•wr rocks ; /bme of them axe ootAdti^V^ ^»%^ N "^^^^ 



.o5 S E O O R A P H Y 

all there arc about twelve thoufand iiifaabttants> nearly half 
of them negroes. The climate and produAions of thefe 
iflands are much like thofe of the Carolinas. New-Provi- 
dence is the largeft of the iOanda, and on it b the capital 
town call -tNaffau. The inhabitants of thefe iflands condft 
of Spaniih and Englifli. The Englifh own the Bahamas. 

Q. What are the fituation and extent of die Weft-India 
ifland) ? 

A. They extend from the Floridas almofl as far fouth as 
the mouth of the river Oronoko in South- America. There 
are a great number of them> and they belong chiefly to the 
Englifh and Spaniards* at prefent ; al£hough the French 
formerly were confiderable proprietors* The Dutch own 
a few» and the Danes two or three. 

Q^ What is the climate of the Weft-Indies ? 

A. The climate diffei's but a little in all of them. The 
(eafonsare unifomiiy Warm, but fubjedt to mofi violent hur- 
ricanes. The trade winds which blow from the fea duriag 
the dayt and the land breezes which begin at evening* ren- 
der the fituation more agreeable tlian it otherwife would bci 
tliough at beft the climate is unhealthy to no][them confti* 
tutioDS. 

C>. What are the produftlons of the Weft-Indies i 

A. They produce rum, fugar* molafTes, cotton* cofTeei 
and feveral kinds of fpices, all of which ^re confiderable ar- 
ticles of commerce. All kinds of tropical fruits grow there 
in great abundance. 

Q^ What do you obferve of the inhabitants ? 

A. There are about fix:y thoufand whites in the Eog- 
lidi Weft- Indies, and four hundred and fixty thoufand oe^ 
groes. In the other iflands flavery is encouraged except id 
thofe which ftill belong to the French. The whites are 
generally rich* haughty and cruel* and the negroes are obli- 
ged to cultivate the foil at the expeofe of their lives aod 
happinefs. 

Q. What are tlie names of the moft confidenUe of 
thele iflands? 

A. They are Jamaica* Antigua* St. Chriftophertf 

nada* Nevis* Montferrat, IBarbadocs* Dominica* St. 

centSf Anguilla* Cuba* Domingo* Porto Rico* Trinidadi 

Margarccta* Tortuga* Maiumc^Mt, G\\adaloupe* St. Lucia) 

TobdgOf St. Bartholomevj,MM\^«\wv\.t^\:>^ltaA».>^A^\y»< 



OF AMERICA. sSo?' 

<^ Wliat iflands are there in the fouthero Ocean ? 

A. At the extremity of South- America, oppodte to Pa* 
tagooia, lies Terra del Fuego, feparated from the Continent 
by tiie Straits of Magellan. It is a barren^ rocky ifland) 
fome part of which is a volcano. The fouth end of this id* 
and is Cape Horn, The Falkland Iflands lie north-eaft of 
the Straits of Magellan. The foil and climate are much 
the fame as in Patagonia. They are claimed by the Span- 
lards, who keep a military guard there which is relieved from 
Buenos Ayres. 

Q^ What is the the fituation of Juan Fernandes ? 

A. It lies in the South Sea in 33 degrees of fouth lat- 
itude, and 79 of weft longitii^e, 390 miles weft of Chili in 
South America. Here it was that Alexander Selkirk, a 
Scotchman, landed and lived feveral years alone, until he 
had almoft forgotten his native language. He was taken 
home by captain Woods Rogers, and from an account of his 
life, Mr. Daniel Defoe wrote the celebrated romance of 
Robinfon Crufoe. The Spaniards are in poffeflion of the 
Ifland, and have a governor and a town at Cumberland-bay 
ia the north part of it. 

Q^ Are there not other iflands lying in the fouth Pacific 
Ocean ? 

A- There ape> and moft of them are unknouii, except at 
:he fhores. The largeft of them all, and the largeft ifland 
in the world, is New Holland, on which is a fettlement be* 
gun by the English. It is to this ifland that they exile their 
convi^s. New-Holland is about 20QO miles long, and is 
between 1 1 and 38 degrees of fouth latitude. Moft of the 
ijlands in the South Sea are inhabited. by Indians, who are 
i benevolent and ingenious people. Thefe iflands produce 
U'opical fruits, fowls, hogs and dogs. 

C^. What are the names of the principal iflands ? 

A. Otaheite, Society Iflands, Otaheroa, Friendly Iflands, 
New-Zealand, New- Hebrides, and the Marqaefas* - 

2 r What is the fituation of Otaheite ? 
r It lies between 17 degrees and 28 minutes and 17 
l^gjreet and 53 minutes of fouth latitude^ and .between 149 
icgrces 1 1 minutes, and 149 degrees and 39 minutes of^weft 
UlDgitude. It is inhabited by Indians, and contains nearly 
soQfOOO. Its produdHons are breadfcvilt, '^Wx.^ta^^ ^<(^^^. 
Butf^ potatoes and other roots ; ho^s, (on4\^^ ^.^^ ^o^* 
Q^ What is tb^ fituation ot the &oc\t\^ \&^X 



90S SEOGRAPHY 

A. They lie ta the weftward of Otaheiu, and thcif 
produAioDs are the famei though their feafona are near a 
month ealHier. 

Q^ What is the fituatioa of Otahf roa ? 

A. It is (Ituated in 22 degrees and 27 minutes of (buth 
latitude, and 150 decrees and 47 minutes, of weft longitude. 

(^ What is the htuation of the Fiiendly Iflands ? 

A. They lie in zo degrees of (buth latitude, and 177 
degrees of weft loAgitude. They are £b named, becaufe the 
inhabitants appear remarkably friendly to each other. 

Q. What is the fituation of Ne^-Zealand ? 

A. It coufifts of two large iflands which lie between 34 
and 4& degrees of fouth latiti'^e, and 166 and 1 80 degrees 
of eaft longitude. The inhabitants are large» robuft and 
warlike. 

Q^ What is the fituation of the New- Hebrides ? 

A. They are a clufter of iflands lying between 14 and 
20 degrees of fouth latitude, and 166 and 178 degrees of 
eail longitude. 

C^ What are the dtuation and qurob;:r of the Marqueiia? 

A. They lie between 8 and 10 degrees of fouth latitude 
and between 1 39 and 141 degrees of wlH lopgiiude. Four 
of them wrcre difcovered by the Spaniard?, ore by captain 
Cook, f.rd fcven by captain In^niham and c.iptain Kobsrts, 
both of Bofton, in 1771 an.d 177.^. 

Q^ What is the fou.'.hernraof^ land -jhieh has been die- 
covered ? 

A. A froze.i coivntry in latiiuJe ^o degiccs fouih, ar.il | 
between 20. aad 3c degrees of wcff k;n;;iriiJc, was difco*- i 
•wfed by captain Cook, which is the iluLliLir.nKjH country yet 
known. 

(^. Is iherc .iiiy probability of f.-.vii-i^g a fiJiThern c: .7- 
tincnt ? 

A. No. Capt.iin Cook. pcntiriM'.d the i-.nt.irvlic cijcic 
in three Jitrcrem )-l«ces, v/iiich no r..'vi;;. rr.r i»,id :>..uk'.J- 
'eiiipted ; but lie wiis ii(/pj)ed by in.;.-. :.•. ■ ri;'nj- ice, which 
- forms the utn^gil bo'jHvi.iiy of ij.j»*i^',.."i»ri. 

(^ What do you obfeiv: of the ir.;'*u.- i:; ibe nortkea 
^art of the Pucijic Oceai: r 

A. Belide the Sandwich Iflands iherc is a lar"c number 

O 

of ULinds betwi.cn ibe wc^. eo^l\ vif North-America, zod 
Ki ?;u/char ka. Some of x.\\\:\\\*JLtxt\vL\\'55c;\\.^^V>^ 'Otvvi VvVi.<S:i«i. 
WVic/c at^ fa^mous for h■^^'\I^^ 2Liv.^\i>:.^^^'cv^^ ^S.^.^O*., ^^ 



I 



OF AMERICA* 



209 



and red foxes, with the ikins of which, the inhabitants cany 

00 their traffic. 

Q. What is the fituation of the Sandwich Iflands i 
A. They lie in 20 de||(rees of north latitude, and about 

tjo of weu longitude. It was on Owhyhee, the largieft 

if thefe, that captain Cook was killed by the favages. 



■&Jfr- 









■•» V 



J 

ll 



Vf the AdvANTACIKH anJ iMPROVERtENVS df 

GKQGRAPHl. 



(^ \\ HAT i:j\: Ll:e ad\.inti;2«?s atrending the fiudy 

A. ^.ico<;raj hy i-- a faience highly entertaining and im» 
joiuni. li oj)^.iiS to cui \icv/ n;'jch cf tlit wiiJoni aud 
; ooiJM.i!i of the dcitior, in Ti:akiii;i v^riou? aud buuntiiui. 






}iio\ifion lor his crc?.iu»cs, in iiiipointing them their icli- 
dcnco in diticrent parts Oi the ^iohe, and itJiing their ca- 
j.acil;es to \.\\\\x rcfpcftivc ciicumftinccs. It teaches us. 
that nianLind arc ooe gicat family, though ditFcreot in 
' their comj>iexions, Ctuations and habits. It promotes fc* 
cial inteicourfe and niL;tiiaI hnjipincfs. 

(^ Is Geography a I'ciencc capahlt of improvement ? 

A. It lias been greatly improved, e{]>eciaIJy of late years,, 
by the dilcoveries and obrerv«uions of voyagers and travel-- 
lersy and is capable of much greater improvement by the- 
lame means^ 

Q. What ideas had the ancients of Geography ? 

A. Tli^ Phenicians.and Carthagenians tjiew more of it- 
than any other nations \. but they kept their knowledge con- 
cealed, through mercantile jcaloufy. The Greeks and Kc- 
mans knew lefs, but were more communicative. Several of 
their ])hi]o{bphcrs wrote on tlie fubje<fl^ and their works 
are fiill prefer ved. 

Q. 'I'o how great a part of the globe did tJicir knowi* 
edge extend ? 

A. They were well actjuaintcd with the temperate re* 
gions of Europe and A*ia, and the noi th.crn jurts «>f Afri- 
ca^ and they had /ome knowledge of India. 

O. What {^"^(t cpinions had they of the globe ? 

A. They imagined the torrid and frigid zones to be un*- 
iuhabicablt, and that it was impoflible to pafs from ODe.li£« 
the temperate z.oncs to the other.. \' 

Q. What was the flate of navigation among them ? 

A. 'J'heir veffels were fmall and without decks ; they 

were fit on\\ for coalVrngvcya^es in temperate climates and 

i^vcrMi: /"ciibns, and v/e:c c,<in«iAv\i\i¥^ v\\VyR.^^Y^oacJL 



ImPROVCMEI.TS of GtOGRAPHV. 2 I Ji 



of winter. They never vcntureJ far out: of fight of the 
land ; becaufe in cloudy weather tbty \ud noihing by which 
they could diredl their courfe, though in clear weather 
they could fteer by the fun or flars. 

Q. By what means was navigation improved ? 

A. By the discovery of the magnetic needle or the power 
©f the magnet in ^jointrng to the poles of the earth, 

Q^ Wiien was this difcovery made ? 

A. It was Grft kiown in Europe in the thirteenth cen- 
tury j but the Chin Jc claim the Iwnor of a prior difcovery. 

Q^ What were the confequences of this difcovery ? 

A* It gave the mariner courage to venture farther into 
the ocean and make longer voyages, by wliich mfians new 
iflands were difoovered. 

Q^ What was xh^ boldeft adventure of this kind ? 

A. The difcovery of America by Columbus in the fif- 
teenth century. 

Q. Whed was the Erft circumnavigatioo of the globe 
performed ? 

A. In the fixteenth century about thirty years af^r the 
difcovery of America. It was undertaken by Ferdinaoda 
Magellan^ who died on the pa/Tage ; but the (hip retucno^ 
to Europe. 

Q. Who was the firft English circumnavigator ? 

A. Sir Francis Drake in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Q^ Who was the mofl remarkable of all the circumnavi- 
gators ? 

A. Capt. James Cook, wko after having paiZed round the 
globe twice, and difcovered the eternal bouodaries of navi« 
gation toward the north and fouth poles, was killed,.when oa 
- his third voyage, by the natives of Owhyhee in 1779. 

Q. Have ctrcumnavigatory voyages been more fre^eot 
-. fioce his death ? 

1^' A. Yes, they are much more Irequeot, aod are grown 
familiar to feamen, 

^fl^ For what realbns ? 

^ '^ji: fkrtly by rea&n of the hicratire tfade between the 

'' Molth-Weft Coaft 1^ America and China, which his laA 

i\ voyage qsened ; and partly becauie methods were fuccefs- 

V iiiiily prated by him, to preferve the lives and health of 

fairaeD, which were not in ufe before. 

What f art? of the esirtU llvSl x^Msa. >wi&^^'^<v^V^ 



»•. 



A- 






'A. 

ItiacceiEbk oQ^ccotMut of tbe cokf im^^iatt tiKete are-fttplxK 
Uy more ifla^t^in the! ]&cifiq Qcean^tban havs^t bcea 
difiioivered. The intertoi: jM^ of Africa^ Fa^j^mia an^ 
Amazonia 9:^ andt^ largiK trad; of Nort^i^Amencay cpni' 

Kehand^d l^tw/eofi the waten.oCdie MiiJGE&ppi» Hudfi>«V 
yy aod the nocth.^fic^ Oeain>.jU^ .very utile 'Kninni^iii^ 
any but the natives. If.a]by .f^omnieraj^ adfabtaget were 
(cspeded fhvn the dif^byenr of thoTe ^aces^ it is probable:: 
dut the enurprifiog (pirit offS^rbpeaof ar AwikaoiLittffkl^ 



\ ■ . 







INDEX. 



AiBEX, 


« 


AbyfSnia> 


• 


Africa, 


«. 


African liUnds, , - 




Ajan, % 


- . 


Amazonia^ 


.. 


America, 


•* 


American Iflajidsi 




Arabia> ^ 


•^ 


Afldy 


■ 




B 


Barbary, States of 




Biledulgecidy • 


« 


Bohemiai 


• 


Brazil, 


« 




C 


Caffi-aria». 


«« 


Canada, 


« 


Chili, 


• 


China, empire of * 




Congo, . 


•» 


Conne<Sicut, 


m 


Corea, 




Croatia, DaJixjiitia, Morlachia^ Sec. 


' 


D 


Pelaware, 


* 


. Denmark, 


- 


■ Diftria of Maio€,. 




■ i. 


E 


Egypt, 


« 


f-Jijgland,, 


•*m 


; '>?S!vrope, 


- 


» 1." ■ • • 


F 


'•'•'■ ?rance, 




* J ■ 


G 


Geography of the W^.U, 


- 


Georgia, 


« 


GjsnmnYy ^, 


•« 



Page. 
124 
122 
114 

125 

202 

137 

. • 205 

108 
88 

117 
120 

203 

151 

138 
199 

128 

pS 
171 

JO 

149 

29 

9 
. 4« 



5 
^^•^ 

^ 



■^iT 



t:v:'B' t:x. 



!!laalud.wA' 



C««i, 


f{ 


H-piji 


I 


■J«d»d. - ■ 




ladiauioeld. 




—«. bcyosd die Gugn* 

' within dw GHVMh 


" 


,IirfolUii; 


- 


Ireh*!. 


» - 


Mf. ,- - 






P " 


K»«lj, 


;!• ■ 


I^nd, 






¥" 


^SSi™, '• . 


M«"o, ' 


. 


MoKcmnei, 






n 


Negroland, 




Ntihcrludi, 


' 


■ AiiAnan and I^wncli. 


New-Briuin, 




New-Jet?ey, 

New-Mexico, and Califo 






Dia, 


New-York, 




Nor[li-A<nerira, 




^forth-Carolina, 




North-Weflern Co»(l of America, 


North-Weftern Territory 




Norway, 




Nota Scotia, . 




Nubia, 






O 


Orhml Iflaadt, 


« 



H 
»"1 . 

116 



• 9» 



to*' 



>»5 

m 

■94 
•S' 

J*: 



%. 



INDEX. 315 

PagCm 

T 

ParagiMy or La Flata^ « • 20^ 

Patagonia, . - - 304 

Pennfylvaniay - - - 165 

PerCft, - - - 105 

Peru, . - ^ - 195 

Poland and Lithuania, - • 6$ 

Portugal, • - • 7$ 

Pruffia, - • - 5$ 

R 

Rhodc-Ifland, - - - 15 x 

Ruffia, ... 15^ 

S 

Sclavonia, J* * * ^4 

Scotland, ^ - - 2$ 

Scotland and its IfiaadSf - * - 23 

South-Amenca, . • - - 197 

South-Carolina* - - •* xto 

S{>ain, - - - - 74. 

S|>anifh America,, - • - 192 

Spitzber^n, or Eaft Greenland, • 15 

Sweden, - - - 17 

Switzerland, ♦ * • 7Q 

T 

Tartary, <* -. -, 92 

TennefTee, - - " - 190 

Terra Firmaj • • * 197 

Tranfylvaniai * * - • 63- 

'turkey, ... 85 

Tnrkey, in Afia, * • - 8S 

tJ 

tin ited Statei of America, * - 140 

tlnited Sutes at large, - - 192 

V 

yermoQt» i. ' " '57 

VirgiiiSa, - ^- - 175 

^aici; - - * ^ ay 

fcaara, - - - ' m 

fcanguebar^ • . - • i\a 




r 







/ 



xv^ 



^ 

^ 



. ^^0 



y*- 






I