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Tappan Presbuterlan flssoclatlon | 


; iPresenUi by HON. D. BETHUNE DUfOELD. : 

From Library of Rev. Geo. Ouffield, 0.0. 




* * 




,*.♦• 4 

















Neqiiis U^tur tanquam parva fiastidiat Orammaticea elonenta. 
Perveniri ad Mimma, nisi ex principiia, non poteBt— Qiunt. 

** Qai diseh, et lex ei {est) in poflseasionem, 

Et non diacit fUndamenta Grammatices, neque intelligit, 

(£«0 fieat arator ; qui agit boves ; 

iSt maniu ejus iut) tine baculo aut stimulo.*' 


THOMAS DESILVft, Jun. ^o. Ul, lA.VSCKL*l£-«S\:Vi:s:^' 





EasUrnDisMdqf Penntylvania, to yirii', 

•**»*{ BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the foorteenth day of *iily, in the 
•L. S.» fifty-fourth year of the independence of the United Statea of America 
S[«*f«« A. D. 18^, Thoius Desilver, Jun. of the said district, hath deposited 

in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in 

Uie words following, to wit: 

**A short, plain, comprehensive, practical Latin Grammar, comprisins all the 
Roles and Observations necessary to an accurate knowledge of the Latin 
Classics, having the Signs. of Quantity affixed to certain SyUables, to show 
their right^pronunciation. With an Alphabetical Vocabulary. The ninth 
edi^QBflreiased and improved. By James Ross, LL. D. Professor of the Latin 
■iid.6reek langiyiges, Iforth Fourth Street,Philadelphia. 

ffsquia ikitur tanquun parva fastidiat Orammatices elementa. 
" Pervenin ad snmma, nisi ex priucipiis, non potest.— Qituit. 

** Qui discit, et lex ei (e«t) in possessionem, 
i Et non discit fondamenta Grammatices, neque intelliglti 

(JBst) sleut arator ; qui asit boves ; 
St manus cijtts {est) sine baculo aut stimulo.*' 

In confbnnity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, *< An 
Act finr the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, 
and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies, during the timee 
timrein mentioned.** And also to the Act entitled, " An Act supplementary to 
an Act, entitled * An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the 
eopiee of MiapB, Charts, and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such copiei, • 
daring the times therein mentioned,* and extending the benefits thereof to the arte 
of ditigning, engnving, and etching, historical aid other Prints.** 

D. CALDWELL, aerkf^tlie 

Eoitem Distnct qf Penans^VMaKte. 


In the .six preceding editions of this Latin Grammar, -the 
author has attempted to show the absolute necessity of stu- 
dents laying a firm and durable foundation in classic literature; 
bf being instructed in the knowledge of first principles; of 
being inured to habits of diligence and accuracy ; and of doing 
every thing according to rule. He has likewise striven to 
show, that nothing is gained by a precipitate, superficial pror 
gress ; * that youth should never proceed to any part of study, 
without a distinct knowledge of what should go before ; and 
SA .that such is the effect of a sound foundation, that one, even of" 
S! moderate parts, carefully and well instructed, will acquire more 
h real benefit in one year, than another of superior abilities, but 
"^ who is hurried superficially through his studies, can in the 
^ course of two, or even three years ; for, " How may boys learn 
i the quickest ?" By making them perfect in the rudiments of 
I the language at the very first, and never suffering them to go a 
^ step farther till this is effected. 

^ Prompted by an earnest desire to contribute his assistance 
in the education of the youth, whom he wishes to be instruct* 
ed in the best manner, by paying the strictest attention to 
FiHST FRiNcrpLEs, and firmly adhering to these, the result of 
long observation, and very considerable .experience, he now 
commits the seventh edition of his work to the public, trust- 
ing that it will be favored with the approbation of those gen- 
tlemen with whom he has long had the honor of being ac- 
; quainted, and who kindly recommended the former editionsy 
as well as of all others, who have introduced his Grammar 
into their Schools, Academies, Colleges, and Universities. * 
He can, indeed, assure them, that, deeply concerned for the 

* ^ When the Grammar is learned inaccurately, all the other juvenilo 
■tadies, if prosecuted at all, will be prosecuted inaccurately; and Che 
result will be, imperfect and ^superficial improvement. The enetcU^ <SiC 
mind, and the strength of mind ac(\\uied ixv cox^ano^Tvc^ q?L '^^oa^ «isst£>ai^^ 
are 8ome of the most valuaWe eflfects o£ ii a\ivc\.^ u.Vstv^^1^xv^ ^'^^ws^i 
ttudjr of Grammar learning, at the i»\i»rii<a ttJiSia.'*^'^ .^ vsmsviw%*J^«^ 


( iv ) 

success of classical learning in our country, and through an 
earnest desire to deserve well both of it and his kind patrons, 
to whom he owes so much, he has been particularly careful in 
preparing this edition, that it may merit not only their approba- 
tion, but also that of every judicious critic. He has been dil- 
igent in his researches to discover what might be helpful, and 
believes he shall evince to those who are true judges of the 
subject, that he has spent his time to good purpose. 

He would now indulge the pleasing hope, that the improt>e» 
ment he has made in tMs and former editions of his Grammar, 
may meet the wishes and approbation of all true patrons of 
classical learning ; and that it may justly be considered as ex- 
plaining not only the first principles of the Latin Grammar, but 
also those of the English ; — the analogy of both these languages 
being so great, that he who understands the elements of the 
one, cannot but discern and be able to explain those of the 

For the use of those who have not previously acquired a cor- 
rect knowledge of the rudiments of the English language, he 
has inserted in this work some of the most remarkable peculiar- 
ities of it, so that the student, in reading, speaking, and writ' 
ingi may be led to notice and regard them, and, on the whole, 
may be able to parse English* with the greatest precision and 

I' To parse English* As the Latin student, in every lesson he recites, 
in every sentence he construes, has a continual recurrence to EngEsh 
rules, he ought to be able to parse English well : yet very few are able 
to arrive at such accurate knowledge of English Syntax^ previously to 
the study of Latin. Such knowledge is perfectly attained by the medium 
of rules in the Latin. The English derive their rules for the division of 
nUables^ and certain other idioms of the language, from the Lati^^ ; and 
the Latins,, we have reason to conclude, derived theirs from the Greeks. 

^ The learning of the Latin and Greek languages advances every facul- 
ty of the mind which renders men eminent. It improves the memory 
more than any other study, depending so immediately on it ; committing 
grammar rules, ami incessantly exerting the memory to retain the mean- 
ing of strange words, give it incredible strength. Every boy who has 
been two or three weeks at the grammar school, will bear testimony to 
the truth of this. 

^ Latin and Oreek are tfie only Praxis of Grammar; every sentence, 
and almost every word in a sentence, require the strictest scrutiny, must 
be examined by grammar rules before it can be understood, and few 
sentences can bo read without the application of some fundamental rule 
in Grammar. By these means, grammar is familiarized to the linguist ; 
it grows into his nature, and ceases only with his existence. 

"Attend to fact All useful character have learned the Latin and 
Greek languages. But it is often urged, by \]\ie etvenviBft o^ \«vnfi3i<^^^^ 
mtuue might be better spent in leaming EnagUsYv. T\sMi mwj \*% v:^!^ 

( ' ) 

He, who has been taught the Latin in a proper manner, can- 
not but understand English grammatically. According to the 
sentiments of some of the most learned and elegant scholars, 
Latin Grammar is not only the best, but the only complete in- 
troduction to a critical and accurate knowledge rf the English 
Grammar and language. Nor is this all : he, who has learned 
tiie Latin Grammar perfectly, will be well prepared to com- 
mence the study of the Greek and Hebrew languages; but he 
who does not understand Latin so well as to be able to write 
and parse it tolerably well, is not fit to enter on the study of 

<' The Grammar should be daily and hourly studied." 

VicEsiMvs Knox. 

The Latin Granunar, the essential book for sound instruc* 
tion in classical learning, has been, indeed, the common source, 
from which all the modern tongues have borrowed ; and a cor- 
rect knowledge of it, because it comprises the principles of 
Universal Grammar, enables the student to learn any of the 
modern languages in a short time ; but let no one commence 
the study of the French, or any of the modern languages, until 
he has read with accuracy the Greek and Latin classics, uhder 
the tuition of a skilful and careful teacher, which can be done 
in a little more than four years. The study of the French pre- 
maturely,^ of which many are so fond, must always prove adr 
verse to the study of the Greek and Latin languages. 

•cable to the case of those beginning the study of them at an advanced 
age : but supposing the Latin and Greek useless, a boy can learn thoiii 
at an age incapable of severe study — at a time he can learn nothing else ; . 
and, certainly, the mind is better employed than idle. Exercise, both of 
body and mind, is as necessary to the health and life of boys as food."-^ 

^ The study of Grammar is so agreeable to the constitution of the hu- 
man mind, and so universally important to human life, that, whether the 
language, which specially engages our attention, is acquired or not, we 
make a real proficiency ; and, whatever degree of rationality we naturally 
possessed, we avow that elevating property of our nature with additional 
propriety. Besides this general improvefnent, the exercise of distinguish- 
ing and applying rules, will habituate the student to thorough investiga- 
tion and rational determination. For those who learn Latin, not only 
acquire a language, but, by the necessary observance of method, improve 
their intellectual faculties, and make a real acquisition to their stock of 
science : and for this reason, amongst some others, the study of languages 
is a good introduction to logic, and a general substratum to metaphysical 
knowledge." :— Rev. William Duke. 

* " One year passed in thU ialviary exercise ©f iVuu&v^'ai& ' QrTWwsiMvr 
^orreetfy, will he found to cultivate the WmAH ?afc\ii!iafi» TCkw^k ^Gosaj. «?«'»'" 
^pent in pnttlmg that French which Vb Iftax^^ V| xo\«^-— ^^^^*=^^ 

( vi ) 

But in the mean time, whilst the author ardently desires to 
raise classical learning in our country from its present de- 
graded ^ate to the rank it once held, he is sorry to find his ef- 
forts counteracted by a new course of Latin books, established 
for the use of schools by national authority in France, and 
patronised by numerous Professors, Presidents of Colleges, 
and other eminent Teachers, in our country. This course re- 
linquishes entirely the use of some of the - best idementary 
• hodes,^ most of which have obtained a place for centuries in 
the Schools, Academies, and Universities of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and, it is most likely, from time immemorial, in the 
'Seminaries of this country. 

Those, who are fond of this new mode of acquiring a clas- 
flical education, speak highly of it ; and there is no doubt, that, 
ardently pursuing it, they believe they can make good scholars, 
in as short, or even shorter time than is required by the old : 
yet it does not appear, that those scholars or graduates, who 
have been taught. according to their course, display, hitherto, 
any superior marks of sound learning. 

The Reverend Dr. Francis Alison, whose ability and faith- 
fulness in teaching the Greek and Latin languages, have erect- 
ed to his memory a monument more durable than brass, said, 
" There is little gained by hurrying boys along before they un- 
derstand the rudiments of the Latin tongue — that no part of 
a school-boy's time is better spent, than what is employed in 
laying a good foundation ; and it will be ever found, that such 
become exact scholars, in as short a time as those boys who 
are hurried into Virgil or Cicero in seven or eight months." — 
Introduction to WhittenhalVs Latin Grammar, third edition, 
Philadelphia, 1773. 

That the memory of the learner might not be burdened, the 
author has endeavored throughout to comprise the whole in 
the fewest words possible ; every line is full of useful instruc- 
tion ; and there is hardly a word in it which has not its signi- 
fication plainly stated. The examples to the rules are more 
copiotts than in any other Grammar whatever. He has care- 

* Latin Vocabulary — Sententia PuerUes — Catd's DisticJis — Cordery*t 
' Colloquiet—JEsop^s Fables — Select Colloquies of Erasmus — Selectee i Ve- 
teri Testamento Historice, one of the best books that can be put into the 
hands of a scholar — Selectee e Profanis Historic^ being a selection from 
some of the best books in the Latin tongue. Instead of these^ in the new 
couise, are taught, if I do not mistake, Epitome Sacra Historiee, Philadel- 
phia, 1813. — Firis Illustribus Romaic Philadelphia, 1813. — J^arrationes 
Excerpt(B, Philadelphia, 1820. — Auctoritate C. F. L^Homond, in Univer' 
siiiUe Parinmsi, Professore Emerito. — These books, they Bay, are superior 
^ an^ olAer elementaty books in use in this country. 

( vii ) 

fully avoided the extremes of brevity and prolixity, knowing 
that so much as is here set down will enable the student to ar- 
rive at a more minute investigation, and fuller improvement. 
The learner will find that every part is well adapted to aid 
.^ him in acquiring a good knowledge of the Latin tongue, and 
in a comparatively short time. The Prosody in this edition is 
consideraby improved. Experience has convinced us, that 
Latin .rules, though not quite so easy at first, are better than 
English — ^that the firsts once learned by heart, and understood, 
are not readily, or ever, forgotten— -that the latter, being easily 
learned, are as easily forgotten. On the whole, we may be- 
lieve, ** Latin rules are the most sure guides." For this, an 
appeal may be made to all who have knowledge of the subject* 
However, for the acconunodation of all, the general ndes are 
given both in EngUsk and Latin. 

May the inhabitants of these United States, our dearly be* 
loved country, living under a Constitution framed by patriotic 
freemen, never lose sight of their true interest and superior 
rank. May we ever love sound learning, justice, and temper- 
ance; may we abstain from avarice, pnde, and luxury; and, 
whatever other nations do, let us be found truly learned, wise, 
just, and temperate. 

Aug. 28, 1823. 

Vlll ) 

In the course of the former editions, the author was favored 
with tbue 


The Rev. Dr. Henry Muhlenberg, President of Franklin 
College, and Pastor of the Lutheran Church, Borough of Lan- 
caster, second edition, August — 1802. 

The Rev. Dr. C. Becker, Pastor of the German Presbyterian 
Church, in the Borough of Lancaster, second edition, August-— 

The Rev. Dr. Ashbel Green, Senior Pastor of the Second 
Presbyterian Church, in Arch Street, first, July 28 — 1808, and 
again, August 1 — 1811. 

The Hon. W. Tilghman, LL. D. Chief Justice of the State 
of Pennsylvania, August 17, 1811. 

The Rev. Dr. James P. Wilson, Pastor of the first Presbyte- 
rian Congregation, in Market Street, September 4, 1811. 

Mr. James Ross, 

Dear Sir, 

I have carefully examined your fifth edition of the Latin 
Grammar, and most of the proof-sheets of the sixth, now in the 
press ; and, as the best evidence of my approbation of the pres* 
ent edition, assure you, that I shall hereafter adopt it in the 
department of this Institution, over which I have the honor to 

The attention which you have paid to quantity and accent 
throughout the whole, your Compendium ProsodUBy and your 
VoaiAulary thereto annexed, exemplifying the rules for genders 
of nouns, will greatly contribute to the aid of the pupil : and 
notwithstanding the popular objection to Latin rutes^ I cannot 
but believe them to be the most durable guides. 

Very respectfully, yours, 


tJniTersity of Pennsylvania, Grammar SchooL 
March 7, 1818. 



GRAMMAR is the science of letters, the art of writing and 
speaking any language properly ; as, Greeks Lattn^ English. 

Latin Grammar is the art of writing and speaking the LaHn 

There are four parts in Grammar — 
Orthografht, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. 
Orthography teaches the true forms, names, and powers of 

the letters. 
A Letter is a mark or character representing an uncom^ 

pounded sound. 


J- J* 

1. THERE are twenty-five Latin letter 

Y Z. 

2. There are six vowels^ a, e, i, o, u, y ; but y is found only' 
in words originally Greek. 

3. There can be no syllable without a vowel. 

4. The vowels make full and perfect sounds of themselves. 
This ' set over a vowel shows that the syllable is long. 
This ' set over a vowel shows that the syllable is sh6rt. 

5. There are nineteen consonants^ b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, 1, m, 
n, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, z. 

6. The consonants make no sound without vowels. 

7. A Syllable is any one complete sound. 

8. A Diphthong is the united sound of two vowels in on^ 
syllable ; as, au in aura^ ob in caelum^ ui in cui^ huic. 

9. There are eight diphthongs, ae, oe, au, ei, eu, which are 
Latin diphthongs ; but ai, oi, ui, (or yi) are Greek. -^ 

10. Ai, au, ei, eu, oi, ui, are proper diphthongs, because 
the sound of both vowels is heard, aioj auldy queiSy eugi, 
Troidy Harpuid, [Harpyia.'] 

IL Ae and oe are improper diphthongs, having only the 
long sound of a single 6/ as stellae, coelum, are pronounced . 
stelle, celum. 

12. Proper names, patrial, ot gjetvXivVe Tkcsvwv*^ ^Tsssjwa^^ 
fiords, lines in poetry, the first ^woid «i\ftx ^^xvA^^sv^ ^^ ^ 


( 8 ) 

names of the Deity, should, in writing or pnnting, begin with 


1. The Latin a is pronounced short like d in man^ or long like d in 

2. The Latin e is pronounced short like B in men, or long like i in 

8. The Latin i is pronounced short like i in KgUy or long like i in 
auiii, andimos. 

4» Q always (both in English and Latin) requires a u immediately 
after it. 

5. Uot y^t tti, tio, and ua are not accounted diphthongs after g, as Zt'fi- 
quam, linquta^ quibtu^ qu6nam^ anttquHu, 

6. Ua^ ue, ui^ teo, and uv^ after g in some words, are sounded separately 
as,'&rig{^d, indfgHr&re^ indigHb-iy ixigiii^y ixigU-fis. 

7. Ua and ue^ immediately following «, are dissolved from their native 
sound, and pronounced like improper diphthongs; as sudvis^ suiseo, 
tuj/fii, which are pronounced swavis, swescon iwHta; but in su-as^tu-^, 
9U-U, fO-dJ, the u retains its natural sound. 

I 8. C before a, o, u, is pronounced like k; as, cado^ condr, cudo* 

9. C before e, i, y, and the diphthongs ae and oe, is pro- 
nounced like 8; as, acSr^ dbuSj cymbd, CtBsar, catus, 

\ 10. Ti, when a vowel follows, sounds lilte shi; as gratia, qudtUs^petiU, 
,. fudtio, impertiuntHY : but to this there are four exceptions. 

(I.) Ti in the beginning of a word, followed by a vowel, as tiara, is 
sounded like ti in iigris, 

(II.) Ti, when z or s goes immediately before, is sounded like ti in 
eanticum; as istius, qwEstio, mixtio. 

(III.) Ti in infinitives ending in er by tiparagOgi; as mittUr, sounds like 
ti in mittimus. 

(IV.) Ti in words derived from the Greek : as, pohHd, sounds like ti in 

11. G before a, o, u, is pronounced like the English g in 
^P> got, gust ; as, ganeo, GargOnis, gustus, 

12. G before e, i, y, », oe, (and even before gwhen e follows,) 
sounds like j ; as, gemma, gigno^ gyrus, tdgcB, tragadid, agg&r^ 
pronounced jemma, jigno, jyhis, tqj<B, trajcBdia, adjer. 

13. Ch in the beginning and middle of words sounds like k ; as, chartd, 
■ MekhisSdec, AchillSs, mdehind, pulchtr, pulchra, pulehrHm. 

14. K, y, and z, are found only in words derived from the Greek. 

15* X in the beginning of words sounds like z ; but in the middle and 
end of words it sounds like ks ; as, Xerx6t, [Zerkses."] 

16. Because z has the sound of ks, the s is seldom written afler z ; as 
exiqudr, exilio. 

17. Latin words in e final, and some others, are not dividea like Eng- 
lish words ; as, Ptneld-pe^ ma-nt, da-r6, md^i, drndto-ti, sB-^ti-U, a-ge. 

For the lighi division o£ Latin words into syllables^ see the Proiody. 
J8. An Anglicised pronunciation of Latin Vb to \>e ca.\x\io\x%Vj viox^^". 
£r£das for grddtts ; nitio for natio* 


( 3 ) 

13. The following proper names are commonly thus ab- 
breviated : A. Aulus. C. Caius. D. Decius, D. Didfmus. 1». 
Lucius. M. Marcus. N. Numerius, P. Publius. Q. Q^inti^8. T 
Titus. Ap. JLppiti*. Cn. CruBus. Sp. Spurius. T. THbeiius. Mam* 
Mamercus. Sex. Sextus. Ser. Servlus. Tul. TW^ttf. 

14. P. C. Patris conscripti. P. R. POpiHus Rdmarms. R. P. 
Respublica. S. C. Sinaius consuUum. A. U. C. Anno tirto con- 
£2tto. S. Salut&n. S. P. D. Salutem plurimam dicU. S. P. Q. R. 
SinaiMS Piypidusque Romdnus. D. D. D. <to, <2{cd^, didlcat. D. 
D. Cl Q. ^tco^, dedicdi^ consecratque. H. S. Sesterffum. Imp. 
hnp&ratOr. Impp. ImpSrdtores. Cos. Constd. Coss. CkmsidiM. 
Aug. Augustus. Augg. Augusti. A. M. iinno muiic^i. A. D. ilnno 

19. The following are thof abbreviated by modem writen: e. ff. er- 
einp/i gratia, for example, or, for example's sake; i. e. «{ e#/, that is; q. 
d. grudfi £2ied/, as if he would say ; q. 1. quantnan libit, as much m you 
please; q. s. quarUtan nffleUt a sufficient quantity; v. g. ver6z graHh^ 
for example; viz. vidilieet, that is to say; 4e, e/, andj &c. e/ eatird, and 

20. Sentences^ that we may rightly understand their meaning, are divided 
by these points : a comma (,) at which we ought to pause aa long as wa 
can count otie; a semicolon (;) — one^ two; a colon (:) — one, two^ thru; 
a PERIOD (.) — one, two, three, four. 

21. A NOTE OF INTERROGATION (?) and ADMIRATION (!) may oqual th« 
pause of a semiedhn, colon, or period. 

22. A PARENTHESIS (which should be read with a lower voice) is a 
short sentence, inserted to explain more fhlly the meanina ; but to under* 
stand the right construction, it may be entirely omitted In -reading the 


ETYMOLOGY teaches the true origin^ derieation, sigmfica^ 
Hon, and variation of every word. . 

2. A Word is one or more syllables joined together, which 
men have agreed upon to signify something. 

3. Words are commonly reduced to eight classes, called 
parts of speech, 

4. Noun, Pnoirouir, Verb, Pasticiple, which are declina- 

5. Adverb, Preposition, Interjxctiok, CowjuirCTloir, 
which are indeclinable. * 

6. The declinable parts of speech are so called^ becamib \!bffit^ Sa ^wst&s^ 
change made upon them, especially in theVi lasX «7'^^Lai;AA%\iraX ^^da >aL^s^ 
Oinaple parts of speech continue mraiisbly \lb^ ««xd». 



A NOUN is either substantive or adjective. 

A Noun Substantive is the name of any person, being, or 
thingy which has been, is, may, or can be ; as, 

A king, a man, liberty, the sky, the revenue, a shadow. 
Rex, hOmd, libertds, j^her, vectigdl, et umbra* 

A Noun Substantive makes sense by itself without another 

A Noun Adjective expresses the quality of any person, being 
or thing; as, 

Happy, fearless, sweet, 6lear, light, high. 
Fdix, impavidus, dtdcis, liquidus, levis, altus. 

A Noun Adjective cannot make full sense till it is joined to 
a Noun Substantive* 

^^^1l Noun Substantive is divided into proper and appellative* 

A Proper Substantive expresses a particular person or thing 
individually; as, 

Virgil, Phcebe, Ganges, Rome, India, " Delos. 
Virgdms, Phcsbe Ganges, Roma, India, Dehs. 

An Appellative Substantive is a Noun common to a whole 
kind of things ; as, 

A. man, a woman, a river, a city, a country, an island. 
Vir, mulier, fluvius-que, iirbs, et r€gU), insHd, [Delds.] 

Of the English Articles. 

The Article is a word put before Nouns Substantive, to mark 
them out, and to show how far their signification extends. 

The English has two articles, a and the : a is called the In^ 
d^nite, and the is called the D^nite Article. 

Xn is used before a vowel, or h mute; as, an estate, an 

A signifies one or any, as a king, that is, one king, or any 

The sonifies that which is specified and known, and gene- 
rally gives a peculiar and emphatical signification to the word 
before which it is placed ; as, the city, which signifies that par* 
^u^u/arctiy which ia, or has been, ^poketi o£. 

( 5 ) 

The Declension of Latin Kouns. 

Latin Nouns are declined with Genders, Cases, and Nuith 

Declension is the variation of a Noun. 

There sue Jive Declensions of Nouns Substantive* 

All the Declensions are known by the ending of the (rem^ive 

Gender, in a natural sense, is the distinction of sex, or the 
difference between nude nnd female; 

But Gender, in a grammatical sense, is the fitness of a Noun 
Substantive for the various terminations of a Noun Adjective* 

There are three Genders, the mascidine or male. Hie feminine 
OT female, and the neuter. 

Besides the three principal Genders, there are reckoned also 
other three less principal, the common to iux), the common to 
three, and the doubtful Gender. 

In declining Nouns, to distinguish the Gender, and for the 
sake of brevity, the Pronoun hie, hose, hoc, (by some called the 
article) is thus used ; hie denotes the masculine, Jubc the femi- 
nine, and Jioc the neuter Gender. Hie et Jubc denotes the com- 
mon to two ; hie, hcBc, hoc, the common to three ; and hie vel 
hoe, and sometimes hie vel hoc, denotes the doubtful Gender. 

Cases are certain changes made on the termination of Nouns, 
to express the relation of one thing to another. 

There are six cases, the Nominative, the Cfenitive, the Da* 
tive, the Accusative, the Vocative, and the Ablative. 

Number is the distinction of one from many. 

There are two Numbers, the singular and the plural. 

The Singular Number denotes only one; as hOmo, a man* 
The plural denotes more than one ; as, hGmlnes, men. 

Cf English Nouns. 

The plural Nomber is generally formed by adding f to the singular ; as 
aitar, stars; except, 

1. English nouns endings in -^h, '^h, -«i, and -x, have es added to their * 
flingrular ; as, ckurch-es^ hrush-es^ vniness-es, box-es. • 

2. Manxmen; die^ dice; foot, feet; tooth, teeth; a sheep, sheep; leaf, leaves, 
9tqff, staves; cay, calves, &c. but hoof^ roof, grief, mucKltf, ^^naTS^ >jJts*w^^ 
scarf, mi^, form the plural by adding 8. . , 

S. The termination y also, in the nn^«x^\Bicv<M!OL^ OMaL^V^s^«^ V** ^ 
tboiflural ; as, cFterry, cherries ; city, cities 

( 6 ) 

An Engliah Noon, for the use of Students both m the Latin and Igngtu* 

tongues, may be thus declmed. 




a city, 




of a city, 


of cities. 


to, or for, a city. 


to, or for, cities. 


a city. 




O city. 




with, from, in, by, a city. 


with, from, in, by, cities. 


For the Declension of Nouns. 

1. NOUNS of the Neuter Gender have the Nominative, 
Accusative, and Vocative alike. 

2. The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative plural of 
Neuters end always in a, 

3. The Nominative and Vocative plural are still the same. 

4. The Dative and Ablative plural are also the same. 

5. Proper names for the most part want the plural. 
Except several of the same name are spoken of; as, C€BsdrSSj 

DMH^ Drusiy FaMiy Gracchi^ CatoneSf C&hegi. 


THE first declension is known by the Genitive singular in s 
diphthong, and has one Iiotin termination, namely a, as stilld ; 
and three Greek terminations, d^, €s, €j as JEneaSf Anchtses^ 

Ride for the (render^ 
Most Nouns of the first are females in a: 
Hoc pascha hio vel bleo talpoy dama* 

SteUdj a star, fem« 

Nom. stellse, starsi 

Gen. stellarQm, of stars, 
Dat. stellis, to, or for, stars, 
Ace. Stellas, stara, 

Voc. stellae, O stars, 

Abl. stellis, with, &c. stars. 


Nom. haec stell& a star, 

Gen. stellse, of a star, 
Dat. stellae, to, or for, a star, 

Ace. stell&m, a star, 

Voc. Stella, O star, 

Abl. Stella, with, 6cc. a star. 


Charta, myrica., tdga^ atque cathedray ac janua, cellar 
Musa^ cdrona^ crumina^figura^ catena^ pudldy 
CurUj qtSrela^ ndta, anchSra^ noxa, carinaj saliva^ 
Formica^ ac tuUla^ cicfitoque, machinay sylva. 
But these have both -is and -abus in the Dative and Ablative plwaL 
Xi^er^, ac dtdma, et famuLd.^ .ac e^ud, jilia, noto 
Hanus-ts trihnent tibi, (credos) crebrius-dlma* 

( 7 ) 

Greek Nouns in d«, is, i, are thus declined : 

Sing hie. 
N. ^neas, 
G. iEneae, 
D. iSnes, 
A. Mn6&m, 

vel ^nd&n, 
V. ^nea, 
A. iEnea. 








Sing. hie. 
N. Anehiste, 
G. AnehlssB, 
D. AnehlscB, 
A. Anchls^n, 
V. Anehisd, 
A. Anchlse, 
A. Anchlsa. 







Atndds, Patronymie. 

Tydides, Patronymie. 

Sing. hsBc. 
N. Peneldpd, 
G. PenelOpta, 
D. PenelOpd, 
A. PenelOpdn, 

vel PenelOpdm, 
V. Peneldpd, 
A. Peneldpd. 







Norlne, Patronymic 

] All Patronymickfl in tUs are declined like Anchlsda. 
All Patronymicks in nS are declined like Pendldpe. 

There are some Greek Nouns in a of the first declension, which ha^d 
the Accusative in an or am ; as, iGglna, Medda, Oss& ; JSgin&n, MddMiif 
Oss&n, vel Oss&m. 


THE Second Declension, known by the Genitive singular in 
ij has seven terminations, er, tr, t^r, u«, urn, os, on; as, Vir, 
satur, etpuir, dngilus, drvum, PeliM, Andrds. 

Rule for the Crender. 

The second has males in -tr, -er, and -u«, 
As wr, puer, ager, hic dominus* 

Puer, a boy, m. 


Nom. pueri, 
Gen. pueroriim, 
Dat. puens, 
Ace. puer OS, 
Voc. pudri, 
Abl. pu^risr 


Nom. hic pu^r. 

Gen. piiari, 

Dat. puero, 

Ace. pudrum, 

Voc. pudr, 

Abl. pudro. 

Mulcib^r, Vulcan, 
lucifer, the morning 

gdner, a son4n-iatD, 
sOcer, afather'in4aw, 
presbyter, an elder* 

Liber, Bacchus, with a few others, retain e before r, like puer* 

Vir, vM, a man, and the compo\m!^l^r^4uum\^x^^:f=^»«M^^^ 
gtdnquUvfy', d^cemvir^ retain i be%e t% 

( 8 ) 

Other Nouns of the Second Declension lose e before r, thus : 

Ag^r, ajiddy m. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. hie agSr, Nom. agri, 

Gen. agri, Gen. agrorum, 

Dat. agro, Dat. agris, 
A.CC. agrum, Ace. agros, 

Voc. agSr, Voc. agri, 

Abl. agro. Abl. 


culter, a knife. 
libdr, a book. 
ma^stdr, a matter. 
minister, a servant. 
f^ber, a wrigJU. 
aust^r th^ south wind. 

Ddnunus, a master^ m. 

Nom. dOmini, 
Gen. dominorum, 
Dat. ddminis, 
Ace. ddnunos, 
Voc. dOmini, 
Abl. ddminis. 

All Nouns with Neuters place, that end in tim. 
Except such proper names as Glycer*um. 

Donum, a gift^ n. 

N. hie dOminus, 
Gen. dOmini, 
Dat. dOmino, 
Ace. dOminum, 
Voc. ddminS, 
Abl. dOmino. 

ang^lus, an angel. 
cal&mus, a quUl. 
pdpulus, the people. 
populus, a poplar. 
fungus, a mushroom. 
vicus, a street. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. hoc doniim, N. don^, 
Gen. doni, G. donorum, 
Dat. dono, D. donis. 
Ace. donum, A. don^, 
Voc. donum, V. donft, 
Abl. dono. A. donis. 

&rvum, afield. 
essedum, a chariot. 
consilium, advice. 
concilium, an assembly. 
canticum, a song. 
tergum, the back. 

The J^ominative and Vocative singalar is the same in all the Declensunu; 
but in the teeond, the Nominative in tu makes the Vocative in e, as domintis, 


1. Vulgus^ pdptUtts, chorus^ and flimtu, make both e and tu in the Voc 

2. Proper names in ius make their Vocative by casting away tu from 
the Nominative, thus, 7W/ifi«, TW/i, VtrgHins^ VirgUt. 

3. Filitu and genius have also/Ui and gini in the Voc. singular. 

4. DEUS makes DEUS in the Voc. singular; Nom. and Voc. plural dUf 
JDative and Ablative plural, diis, Genitive, deorum^ Ace. deos. 

Saiur, full, is the only Noun in ur of the second Declension. 

Gbeek Nouns of the Second Declension ending in ds^ are 

thus declined : 

Sing, hoc 


N. Delds, 


6. Deli, 

AbydOR, m. 


D. Delo, 


A» Deldn, i 


K Delif, I 


' VeJo. 1 








( 9 ) 

1. Greek Nouns in ds^ frequently change o» into u$, as, 
Alpheds^ AlpTieuSf Elios^ EUus^ Epias, Epeus. 

2. Greek Nouns sometimes change on into um in the Ac- 
cusative ; as, Ddum for Del6n; IWm for iZidn. 

3. Latin Nouns in U8 have sometimes on in the Accusative, 
like the Greek ; as, Tdephdn, Erimanthdnj for TelepTwm^ 6cc 

Greek Nouns in 08 and 6n are thus declined : 





N. AndrOgMs, 


N. lUdn, 


G. AndrOggf, 


G. Ilii, 


— AndrOgdO, 


D. nio. 


D. AndiOgdO, 


A. niOn, 


A. Andrdgdon, 


V. Tlimi, 


— AndrOgdO, 

of this 

A. nio, 


V. Andrdgdos, 

form 00- 



A. AndrOgdO. 




Note I. Aireus, Orpheus^ and other Greek Nouns in fUf, 
are of the third declension mostly, and rarely of the second : 
so that OrpM'Us^ Orph^-i, OrphS-Oy OrphB'Umy OrphB-on, and 
OrpTiS-iy are seldom found. 

II. Achilleiy Orenta, and Ulyssei, are found in the Genitive, 
though their Nominatives end in es. 

III. GUeuSy ErechtkeuSy and TereuSy have their Genitive 
sometimes of the second declension, CHleiy Erechtheii Tireif 
though their Nominatives are of the third. 


THE third declension, known by the Genitive singular 
has eleven final letters, a, Cy o, Cy dy Z, n, r, Sy ty x; as, 

Stemmdy Uoy lac, atque tribunaly lisy tndrSy nomeny 
Ddvidy et caputy ocdputy et lexy sindputy aer» 

Rides for the Crender. 

The third has males in -^, -dr, -oSy -ft, -o, 
Most Nouns are feminine in -^o and -go/ 
Verbals in -to hjbc likewise procure, 
ILfio -09, *au8y -esy -i^, 'X, and -s impure. 

L^o, a liony m. 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom,hicllo, N. leones. 
Gen. l^Onis, G. leonum, 
Dat. leoni, D. leonibus, 
Ace. leonem, A. leones, 
Voc. Jdo, V. leones, 


Pater, a father. 
m6nit6r, an adviser. 
cupido, desire. 

, . . ,, \ imago, an xmage. Vc««:<v«..J^'«^^ 

Abh l^ooey A. leonibus. \natio, a nalwa* \\5»iwe»>a\j«oa^' 

Jupmr atque AmO, Cter&n, POl^^nwWWyPn Kt^^«- 

laus, praise. 
rupes, a rock. 
vailis.^ a 'QaJle%* 

( 10 ) 

Rule for Ihe Gender. 

Nouns in -c, -a, -Z, -«, 4, 'Ur^ -menj -ur, -t^. 
May to the Neuter kind be placed by us. 

S^dile, a seat^ n. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. hoc s^dile, N. sedilii, 
Gen. sedilis, G. sedilium, 
sedili, D. sedilibus, 
sSdild, A. sedilii, 
sedile, V. sedilia, 
sedlli. A. sedilibus. 





in dZ, dr, ^, 





Sing. Plur. 

N.hocn^mus, N. nemOrft, 
Gen. ndm6ris,G. nemdrum, 
Dat. nemOri, D. nemOribus, 
Ace. n^mus, A. nemOra, 
Voc. nemus, V. nemOrft, 
Abl. n^mOre.A. ndmOribus. 

N^mus, a grove, n. 

in c, a, t, 
mSn, ur, us, 
are like 

Animal, animal. 
vectig^l, tax. 
calc^r, a spur. 
laqudar, a ceilings 
monile, a necklacCm 
hastlle, a pike. 

Lac, milk. 
diadem^, a crown. 
c&put, the head. 
flumen, a river. 
murmur, noise. 
corpus, a body. 

*■ Note I. That letter or syllable, which comes before is in the 

Genitive, mostly runs through the other cases ; as, Jlos, floris, 

f6ri,JUir&n,Jlor€,Jlores, &c. n&nus, nemdris, n&ndri, nemdre. 
2. The Nominative plural of masculines and feminines is 

always formed from the Genitive singular, by changing i^ into 

€s; as, leonis, leones. 

8. The Dative plural is formed from the Dative singular, by 

adding has; as, leoni, leonibus; sedili, sedilibus. 
I 4. AH Nouns in a of the third declension are originally 

Greek, and always have an m before the a; as, stemmd, dogmd^ 

jfo&nd; except paschd, paschdtis. 

5. Lac and halic are the only nouns in c of the third de- 

6. Caput, and its compounds, occipict, oc&ipUis, the hind^ 
head, and sincipiU, sindpUU, the fore-head, are the only 
nouns in t. 

Rides for Masculines and Feminines of the Third 



Masculines and feminines have their Accusative singular in 
Mfiy as, ledn€m. 

^hese nouns have both em and im in the Accusative aingular. 
. A^tfd/is, c/avis, cutis, restis, strigUis, /<Bbns, puppls, 'pecllte^ 
ff^>ss^ amniSf lerUis, aviSf securiSj pelvis, turns, mtfis* 

( 11 ) 

These Noans have fm only in the Accusative sin^rular. 

2. Cannabis^ sUis<, vu, amUssis, ctteHmis^ bUrU, ravu^ tiusu, 

\ These names of rivers have both im and in in the Accusative sing* 
' 3. TandU, TibrU, BatU, TigrU, Ar&rU^ Ads^ PhasU, AlbU. 

RULE 11. 

Masculines and feminines have their Ablative singular in e, 
as, leonS. 


f 1. Nouns which have im and im in the Accusative, have e and t in the 
I Ablative; as, Aqudlisy clavUt Slc, 

' 2. Ignis, unguis {rus) and imber, have both e and i in the Ablative iixi- 
I gular. 

3. Nouns which have im only in the Accusative, have i in the Ablative; 
as, eanndbis, sUis, &>c, 

4. Candlis, veeiis, biptnnU^ have also their Ablative singular in i only. 


The Genitive plural of masculines and feminines ends in 
um; as, leonurn. 


1. Nouns of one syllable in as, is, and s with a consonant before it, have 
their Grenitive plural in ium; as, as, assfum, lis, litiUm, urbs, urblium, 

2. .Nouns in €s and is, not increasing the Genitive singular, make the 
Genitive plural in ium ; as, vallis, valliumr, riipSs, rupfum ; but pdnis, ednii, 
vdiis, and vdliieris, have um in the Genitive plural. 

3. Caro, [cor,] cos, dos, miis, nix, nox, lintir, sal, 6s, (jossis) have ttnti^ is 
the Genitive plural. 

4. Nouns which have i only, or e and t, in the Ablative, make turn ia 
the Genitive plural ; as, imbrium. 

Rules for JYeuters of the Third Declension. 

I. Neuters in ^, dZ, ar^ have i in the Ablative singular 
But far, jubdr, nectar ^ hepdry bdcchdry par, sal, have ۥ 
C(Bre, PrcmestS, RedtS, SorddS, have c in the Ablative, not t. 

II. Neuters, which have e only in the Ablative, make their 
Genitive plural in um. 

III. Neuters, which have t only in the Ablative, make their 
Genitive plural in mm. 

IV. Neuters, which have e in the Ablative, have a in the 
Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative plural ; but 

V. Neuters, which make i in the Ablative, have ia in the 
Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative plural. 

* As, camium, eordium^ cUtium^ ddtlum, muYVwo^teWtoJW^ wkt^Vsw^vV* 
/rium, idiium, ouium. 

( 12 ) 

Of Greek Nouns of the Third Declension. 

To avoid the mistakes frequently made in declining Gteek 
Nouns of the Third Declension, the following remarks, with 
the examples annexed, will, it is expected, fully suffice. 

1. Greek Nouns, expressing proper names, appellatives^ pa- 
tronymickSy gentiles, and names of poems, ending in is, and as, 
and increasing their Genitive with a d, have alone their Geni- 
tive singular in is, sometimes in Cs impure, according to the fol- 
lowing examples. 

Sing, hie 
N. Daphnis, 

Sing, hsc 

Sing. hflBC 


N. Belis, 

N. Trofts, 

N. Tro&dds, 

G. Daphnidis, 

6. Belldis, 

G. Trolldis, 

G. Troftdnm, 

& DaphnidOs, 

&. Belldds, 

&. Tro&dds, 

&. Tro&don, 

D. Daphnid!, 

D. Belidi, 

D. Troftdi, 

D. Troftdlbfls, 

A* Daphnim, 

A. Belid€m, 

A. Tro&dSm, 

A. Tro&d&s, 

& Daphnin, 

Sl Bel!d&, 

& Troftda, 

V. Tro&des, 

V. Daphni, 

V. Bell, 

V. Trofts, 

A. TroBdibtls, 

A. Daphnide. 

A. Belidd. 

I A. Tro&de. 

A. Tro&ain. 





Arc&s, (m.) 





EUs, AiiUs, 







PallAfl, 4Ldi8, 







^gis, CecrOpis, 












Thetis, &c. 

Pleifts, &c 

^h^annis, Slc, 

Many of the above feminines inis Bie declined in the plural 
like Troas. 

Mascnlines have sometimes -dim in the Accusative sing., but never -dd. 
Feminines have also (though very seldom) im and in in the Ace. sing. 
Greek Nouns frequently throw away s in their Vocative ; as, 
Daphni, Belt, h<Br€si, Orpheu, Qalcha, AchUU, UlyssS, Tiphy. 

II. Greek Nouns in is, or ys, have their Genitive sometimes 

in ios, and yos pure, and are thus declined : 

N. Tiphjs, 
G. TiphjfdB, 
D. Tiphyi, 
A. Tiph^m, 
— Tiphj^, 
V. Tiphy, 
A. Tiph-g-y.* 
Atj^s. IlyB. 

Sing, hec 
N. nsrSsis, 






G. hsrSsis, 




— heBrfisids, 

— • 



— - hierSsSos, 




D. her6si, 




A. her^sim, 
— hsrdsin, 




V. hBBrSsi, 




A. hsr6si. 




* Greek Novma in ys, have also their AblaUve in 2; \>7 «a Apo<^t ; v^s 
TIphjrfor Tjrpbye. 

( 13 ) 

III. Greek nouns in etis are mostly of the third declenrioot 

and have their Genitive singular always in os pure, and aio 

thus declined : 

N. nic Oipheufl, 
6. Orphd-08, -Ce, 
D. Orph«i-dO, 
A. Orphd-ft, 
V. Orpheu, 
A. Orphdo. 

I. Greek Nouns in ahs^ aXy dn^ ar^ as^ ax, en, er, es, in, ts, 0fi, 
ops, Cr, OS, us, yn, ynx, yx, have their Genitive in i^, and never 
in dSf (except Pdni^, StrymOnds, Sphyngds,) and are thus d^ 
clined : 






















N. hie Arabs, 
G. Ar&bis, 
D. Ar&bi, 
A* Ar&bdoi, et 

V« Arabs, 
A. Ar&bd, 

N. Ar&bSs, 
G. Ar&bflm, et 

D. Ar&bibfis, 
A. Ar&b&s, 
V. Arabia, 
A. Ar&bibtls, 

\ Titan-anis, 







Lynx, lyncls, 






There are many Greek adjective Nouns of the Third Declension ; af, 
PeUds, Pelasgids^ JfysHs., hminis, PaclolU ; but they are scarcely foimd 
in any other Gender than the feminine, and are declined like Troat and 

Greek nouns have generally tern, sometimes dn, and very seldom tian, in 
their Grenitive plural ; as, epigrammdlon^ hasrision. 

Greek nouns in md of the third declension, have sometimes U, instead 
ofibusj in their Dative and Ablative plural ; as, pd&ndtis^ for pd6matibtl0. 

Bdt has b6um^ not bovum ; and bdhut or bubus, not bihkbus. 


THE Fourth Declension, known by the Genitive singular in 
us, has two terminations, us and u; as, fructus, comu. 

Rule for the Gender. 
Nouns of the fourth in -us are masculine; 
But those in -u, as neuter we decline. 

Fructus, yrwif, m. 

8itag. Plur. 

N. hie fructds, N. fructus, 
Gen. fructus, G. fructu&m, 
Dat. fructui, D. fructibils, 
Ace* fructmn,A. fructus, 
Foe fructus, V. fructus, 
Abfl. fructu. A. fructibu*. 


CoetOs, a meeting* 
cursus, a race* 
gradiis, a step* 
gOsttis^ iht (oste. 
YqocQlb^ riot. 

qussttiis, gain> 
rlttls, a rite* 

( 14 ) 

Nouns in 4usy •suSy -on^, derived from supines, are of the 
fourth declension, tactusy msus^ nexus, 

Cornu, a homy n. 

N. cornua, 
G. cornuum, 
D. cornibus, 
A. cornui, 
V. comM, 
A. cornibus. 


The Dative and Ablative plural of the fourth declension end 
in ibtis; as, fructibus, cornibus. 


hoc cornu, 











G^luy frosty 
genu, the kneCy 
tonitru, thundery 
veru, a spit. 

Omnibus sed non-i^u^ est Dativis, 
Est 4ibus quiesdam pariter Dativis, 
Sunt quibus saepe eBt-ubus ac-ihusquey 
Dant-ui^t^ solum locus atque partus; 
DanUuhus solum spScuSy altus arcus; 
Dant-u5ti^ quercusy tribusy ac acus; sed 
Haec 'UbuSy portus-qne veru ^^nt^-que 

Dant'^hus inde. 

Artus, ajointy 
l^cus, a Idkey 
specus, a cavCy 
quercus, an oaky 
partus, a birthy 
arcus, a hoWy 
tribus, a tribCy 
&CUS, a needlCy 
portus, a harbor. 

The blessed name lESUS, and dOmus, a housey are the only 
Greek Nouns in us, of the fourth declension ; 

N. lESUS, 
G. lESU, 
D. lESU, 
V. lESU, 
A. lESU. 

N. heec ddmtLs, 
G. ddmOfl, vel ddml, 
D. ddrnfll, vel ddmo, 
A. ddmtim, 
V. ddmtis, 
A. dOmo. 

N. ddmas, 

G. ddmOrOm, vel ddmtltim, 
D. ddmibils, 
A. dOmOs, vel ddmtls, 
y. dOmOs, 
A. ddmibos. 

Greek Nouns of the 4th in o are feminine. The Latin form. 

N. Dido, 
G. Didtks, 
D. Dido, 
A. Dido, 
V. Dido, 
A. Dido. 













Dido is also 
found decli- 
ned after the 
Latin form 
like lio, of the 
3d declension. 

N. Dido, 
G. Didonis, 
D. Didoni, 
A. DidonSm, 
V. Dido, 
A. Didond. 


THE fifth declension, known bj^tbe Genitive singular in ei, 
has only one termination, nnmelyjJBaif as, res, a thing. 

Rule for th»' Gender. 
ThQ fifth has feminin€i8 wliich end in iSy 
Except the masculine mirtd^Sy 
HIC vel HJEG dies the singular's decVrn'^L, 
But mascvlitiSb^ oalj the plural we ^niL 

( 15 ) 

Res, a things fern. 



Nom. hsBC res, 



All nouns of 

Gen. re-i, 



the fifth end 

Dat. re-i, 



in Us : these 

Ace. rem, 



three except 

Voc. res. 



res, spes, and 

Abl. re. 



fidis, faith. 

Acies, an edge* 
glacies, ice. 
pemicies, ruin, 
rabies, rage, 
species, a sight. 
dlclcs, a face* 

All nouns in -ies are of the fifth declension, except AbUs, arils. Partis, 
quiis, which are of the third. 

Most Nouns of the fifth declension want the Genitwe, Dative, and AblO" 
five plurid, and some of them want the plural altogether : they are said not 
to exceed fifty. 

General Remarks on all the Declensions. 

1. The Grenitive plural of the first, second, third, and fourth declensioiif 
is sometimes contracted by poets ; as, ctBlicdhan for ctUiedldrum, deum for 
deorum, mensum for mensium, currum for currHuau 
\ 2. When the Grenitive of the second declension ends in ii, the last i is 
t sometimes taken away by the poets ; as, pgeUli for peeiUii : Auldi is used 
for aii/(E, the Grenitive of Uie first ; — curru for carrui in the fourth, KnAffdi 
for JidH in the fifth. 

3. When the Genitive plural ends in turn, the Accusative plural luw 
sometimes %s instead of Bs; as, omnls for omrUs; partis for partis. 


ALL Adjectives are of the first, and second, or third 
sion — ^there are none of the fourth and fifth. 

1. Adjectives of the first and second declensions, 
three terminations, are thus declined — 

I. Bdntis, bOni, bdnum, good. 

Sing. m. f. n. 

N. bonus, bdn&, b6num, 

G. h6ni, bdnse, bdni, 

D. b6nd, b6n8B, bdno, 

A. bdniim, b6n^Un, bdnum, 

V. bdnd, bdnft, bdnum, 

A. bdno, bdna, bdno. 

Plur. m. f. 

N. bdni, bdnsB, 
G. bdn-orum, -ariun, 

D. bdnis, bdnis, 

A. bdnos, bdnas, 

V. bdni, bdnae, 

A. bdnis, bdnis. 




Dignus, hetus, grdtus, parvus, magnus, amicus^ 
Siccus, perfidus, antiquus^e dScorus, dpdcus, 
Sohrius, atque diuHnvts, impiUs, arctuSf opimus, 
Matutinus, dvdrus, barbarOs, atque p&riius, 
Vicinus, pSrSgrinHs, amcEnus^ caarus^ QxnJboA^ 
PrddigiLSy igndrHs^ pr^BSOgus^ wpt^j^^ ^gpaua. 
Infidusy posticus J crdstinltS) ^Xjopa ^pv^ax^w^^ 

( 19 ) 

IL Tener, t^nSri, t^n^riim, tender* 

Sing. m. 
N. tendr, 
G. tSneri, 
D. t^ndro, 

tenSra, t^n^rum, 
tenerse, tSn^ri, 
t^nSne, tSnerd, 
A. t^nSrOm^ tdner&m, t^nerum, 
V. t6ner, tSn^rft, tSn^rum, 

Plur. m. y. n. 

N. teneri, ten^rse, tdn^ri, 
G. tener-orum, -arum, -drum, 
D. ten^ris, ^tdndris, tdnSris, 

ten^ras, tendrft, 
tdn^rsB, tdndra, 
tSn^ris, tdn^ris. 

A. t^n^ros, 
V. teneri, 

A« t^n^ro, t^n^ra, tdn^ro. |A. teneris, 

jCi6^, mif^, a^er^ laeer. and all compounds 'infer, and ger; as, Qfprf> 
fir, biUigSr, retain tlie e like tenir; but iniiger, mdcer, glaber, pHUAir, 
vdfir, rHibtr, tBter, dexter, sinUitr, ater, nigir, piger, impfgert nAittr, and 
vtttir, lose the e, as, Nom. irUegtr, irUigra, iniegrtun. 

All adjectives in us and ^ are declined like b6nQs and tSn^r. 


The following, which have their Gen. in ius and Dat. in t* 

Unus et Uitusqae, aliusqu^ scilusy 
Ullus et mdlus, 'lib& ac ita alter^ 
NeOiir et 4ervis, iUir ac u^^ue, 

AltMUir sic. 

The compounds Utdrvls, Utdrlibet, make also -tut and -t. 


Sing. m. 
N. felix, 
G. felicis, 
D. felici, 
A. felicdm, 
V. felix, 
A. felici. 

Of one Termination. Felix, happy. 

/. « 

felix, felix, 

felicis, felicis, 

felici, felici, 

felicem, felix, 

felix, felix, 

vel felici. 

Plur. m. f. n. 

N. felices, felices, fellcQl, 

G. felicium, lum, -ium, 

D. felicibus, felicibus, -bus, 

A. felices, felices, felicift, 

V. felices, felices, feliciftf 

A. felicibOfly felicibus, -bus. 

BUix, trUix, p&mlx, audaxyfirdx, sders, vecons^ anceps^ 
Stemaxy imans, ddcens, tegens, audiens, amena^ prudefu* 

Of two Terminations. Lenis, mild. 

Sing. m. 
N. lenis, 
G. lenis, 
D. leni, 
A. lenem, 
V. lenis, 
A. leni. 














Plur. m. 
N. lenes, 
G. lenium, 
D. lenibtis, 
A. lenes, 
V. lenes, 
A. lenibus. 

lenes, lenift, 
lenium, leniOm, 
Icnibus, lenibus, 
lenes, lenift, 
lenes, lenift, 
lenibtbs, lenibte. 

l^is, i^viSy agilis, miHSj dmlis^ extlis, Tiosttlis, cnidelU) 
S!^ni/is,puerilis^juv€n%liSy iTirili^, Mldw, lews, &ran\a* 

( 17 ) 


Of two Terminations. Ldni6r, (the comparative,) mUder. 

Sing. m. f* n. 

N. lenidr, lenidr, lenius, 
G. lenioris, lenioris, lenioris, 
D. leniori, leniori, leniori, 
A. leni-orem, -orem, -us, 
V. lenidr, lenidr, lenius, 

Plur. m. f. ru 

N. leniori, leniores, lenlorft, 
G. lenior-iim, -um, -Cim, 
D. lenidri-bAiy -bCks, -bus, 
A. leniordSy lenidrds, lenlOrft, 
V. leniori, lenidr^, len!dr&, 
A. lenlori-bus, -bOs, -bus. 

A. leniore, vil Jeniori. 

1. Melior, teneri6r, felici6r, senidr, acri6r, minor, 

2. Levior^ lemoTj mittor, civUior, AgUiory like Unifar. 

Of three terminations. Acer, sharp. 



Sing. 771. 

N. acer, vSl acris, acris, acre, 
G. acris, acris, acris, 

D. acri, acri, acri, 

A. acr^m, acrem, acr6, 

v. acer, vd acris, acris, acrd, 


Plur. m. 

N. acres, 

G. acrium, 

D. acribus, 

A. acres, 

V. acres, 

A. acribus, acribus, acribus. 

/. n. 

acres, acri&, 

acrium, acrium, 

acribus, acribus, 

acres, acrid, 

acres, acrid, 

A. acri, acri, 

Campester, vdlucSr, cSUh&r^ dUr^ atqu^ adlohery 
Sylvesterque p^distSr, SqiUster, junge, polluter ^ 
aldcSr^ are alone declined like acer ; but cd&' retains e before r. 

Ruhsfor Adjectives of the Tliird Declension. 

1. Adjectives of the Third Declension have e or i in the 
Ablative singular. 

2. But if the Neuter be in e, the Ablative has i only, 

3. The Genitive plural ends in iumy and the Neuter of the 
Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative plural ends in ia. 

4. Except Comparatives, which require -«m and -a. 

EXCEPTIONS to the above Rules. 

1. Divis, jUtD&Us,, sinex, kospBs; digin^^ sQperatet^ paupir^ tospit^ 
With eompds^ impds^ consors, lA&r; vigils supplex^ inops, piltbtr^ 

have e in the Ablative singular, and um in the Genitive plaral. 

2. Compounds in -eeps^ -fex^ -«£«, and 'C&rp&r^ have e in the Ablative 
singular, and um in the Genitive plural* 

Examples. PrincSps^ dr/iqud, fexqne^ iricepsque &^««qu3, tricorp&r* 

3. Dea68, hebis, risis, perpis^ prcepCt^ ter€t^ have e in the Ablative, and 
wn in the Genitive plural. 

4. BiciOdr, cdncdliir^ dUeb\fyr^ 9er<1e&lor^\ivre em^Doft ^^k'a!6N^>^av^^w^^ 
ihe Genitire plural. 


( 18 ) 

5. Mimdr has mBmdri in the Ablative, and memdrijim in the Genitive pi 
Par has pari only in the Ablative ; but the compounds compdr, dispar, 

impar^ have both e and i in the Ablative. 

6. IjdcUplSs has IdcupletB only in the Ablative singular, but l6e1ipUt1um 
in the Grenitive plural. 

[,^11 the foregoing hace rarely the Neuter singular^ and never almost the 
Jfeuter in the Nominative^ Accusative^ and Vocative pluraW] 

7. VBtiis has vHird in the Nominative, Accosative, and Vocative plural, 
and vitihrum in the Genitive plural. 

8. Plus wants the Masculine and Feminine in the singular. 

9. Plus has pluri in the Ablative singular. Plur. Nom. pliirBs^ plfiris^ 
plUrd, Kudpluridy Genitive ji/ftrium. Sec. 

10. Adjectives, put substantively, have frequently e in the Ablative ; as, 
qffinis^familidris^ rivdlis, sdddlis, 

' So pdr, pdris^ n. a match, has pdr6 in the Ablative singular. 


The principal kinds ofJVumerai Adjectives are four, 

1. The Cardinal numbers answering to the question Q^ot 7 

how many ? 































Viglnti anils, 

Viginti duo, Ac 


Triginta tlntls, 


Quadraginta Onus. 









a hundred. 

Cardinal numbers from quatuor to centum^ are indeclinable ; 
and from centum to milU are declined like the plural of bonus* 

SingtHari cftrfit. Plur. 
N. dtlcdntl, dilc6ntoe, -&, 
Trficenti, -ee, -a, 

Quadringent-i, -ee, -&, 
Quinc6nt-I, -sb, -ft, 
Sexc6nt-i, -CB, -ft, 
Septingent-i, -bbj -ft. 


Singtilari c&r6t. Plur. 

Octingent-I, -ee, -ft, 800 

NongentI, -8B, -a, 90f 

Mille, l,Of 

Duo miUia, 2,0 

D^cem millia, lOX] 

Viginti millia, 20,C 

Mzlig, the subst&ntive, is thus declined : I^om. Ace. mille, KXi\,m\\ll. 
Vom, Ace. mi/Ha; Dat, and Abl. mtUibus; as, duo m\\i\ft.\i<iiQ!LTv\^^ 

( 19 ) 

But MiUe^ the Adjective, wants the singular, and is indeclinable in the 
plural ; as, Milld mta SictUis trrarU in mdntibut agna, Virg. 

Unus has the plural only when it agrees with a Noun which wants the 
singular, as, unee litdre, one letter; una moenia, one wall; uni sex dies, one 
space of six day$ ; or when several particulars are considered complexly, 
as making one compound; as, Qna vestimentA, one rait of clothes* 

Duo and Tres are thus declined : 

Singulari caret. Plur. 
m. f» n. 

N. duo, du8B, duo, 

G. du-orum, -arum, orum, 

D. duobus, duabus, duobus, 
A. duos, V. duo, duas, duo, 

V. duo, du8B, duo, 

A. duobus, duabus, duobus. 



N. tres, 

G. trium, 

D. tribus, 

A. tres, 

V. tres, 

A. tribiis. 










tria, . 

Ambo, hoth^ is declined like duo. 

II. Ordinal iojmbehs, answering to the question QuUus? 
what particular one ? are all declined like bonus. 

[To transcribe and commit to memory the Ordinal and Distributive 

numbers^ with a translation annexed, will be a useful Exercise for the 

in, f iU 
Primtis,- &, -tlm, Unddclmus, Vigesimus primus, Trecentdsimus, 

SecOndus, Dudddcimus, TrlgGsimus, Quadringentdsimus 

Tertius, Dficimus tertius, Quadr&geslmtLs, Quingentdsimus, 

Quartus, DScimus quartus, Quinquag6simus, Sexcentdsimus, 

Quintus, Ddclmus quintus, Sexagdsimus, Septingentesimus, 

Sextus, D6clmu8 sextus, Septuagdsimus, 

Septimus, DScimus septimus,OctOg6simus, 

Octavus, DSclmus octavus, Nonagdsimus, 

Nonus, DScimus nonus, Centdsimus, 

D6cimus, Vigesimus, Dilcentesimas, 

Bis milldslmus, 
Decies millesimus. 

III. Distributive Numbers, answering to the question Qud^^i, to 
what number? want the singular number, and are declined like the plural 
of frdniitf. 

Quinquids centfini, 
Sexi€s centeni, 
Septids centdni, 
Octlfis centdni, 
Ndvies centeni, 
Bis milleni. 

IV. Multiplicative Numbers answer tQ the question QvjotHi^Ux f how 
many fold ? as, simplex^ single, duplex^ do\M<e^tT^ltx^>3!caA^\^^>«V^*^S'^^ 
fourfold, quintHplex^ fSvefold, f€X(uplex,*VxJo\^5«*. ^>j5i&!^^^\s^"w»^ 
declined like felix* 

Singdli, 8B, a. 

Unddni, Viceni slngtQi, 


Duodeni, Tricdni, 


Trfideni, temi deni, Quadragfini, 


Quatemi ddni, Quinquageni, 


Quindeni, Sexagini, 


Seni deni, Septa&gdni, 


Septeni deni, Octogeni, 


Octoni deni, Nonageni, 


Ndveni deni, Centeni, 


Viceni, Dttceni, 

( 20 ) 


THOSE Adjectives only, which are capable of having their 
ifnification increased, or diminished, can be compared. 

There are three degrees of comparison, the Positive^ Com- 
*iaratim, and Superlative, 

The Positive simply declares a quality ; as, longus, long, 
lenis, mild; felix, happy. 

The Comparative heightens or lessens the quality of the Pos- 
itive ; as, longldr, longer^ more long; lenior, milder ^ more mild; 
felicior, happier y more happy* 

The Superlative heightens or lessens the quality of the Posi- 
tive to a very high, or very low degree ; as, longissimus, longest^ 
most long, very long; lenissimus, mildest, most mUd, very mild; 
felicissimus, happiest^ most happy, very happy* 

Which, fully compared, stand in this manner : 

Po«. Comp. Super. Pot. Comp* • Super* 

Longus, longior, lon^ssimus; lenis, lenior, lenissimus. 

Durus, hard, durior, durissimus ; feliz, felicior, felicissimus. 

The formation of the Degrees* 

The Positive is the theme and foundation. 

The Comparative is formed from the first case of the Positive 
in «, by adding to it or; thus, G. longi, longior, D. leni, lenior, 
D. felici, felici&r* 

The Superlative is also formed from the first case of the Pos- 
itive in i, by adding thereto -ssimus; as, longi, longtsstmOs 
leni, lenissimus; felici, felicissimiis* 

But facUis, fadllimUs ; diffictlis, difficillimus ; humilis, hu- 
millimOs ; simtlis, simillvmus ; dissimilis, disstmillimHs. 

If the Positive ends in er, the Superlative is formed by 
adding -rimiis to the Nominative ; thus, tSnir, tenerrimus; deer, 
€u:errimus. * 

Vitus, vetSris, from the old vitir, make vet&rior, veterrimus. 

If the Positive ends in us with a vowel before it, the Com- 
parative is sometimes made by mdgis ; and the Superlative by 
valde, maxime, admddUm, perquam or apprimi put before the 
Positive ; thus, ardims, mdgis arduus, maxime ardHiis* 

But ardims, pius, impius, strenuus, vdcuus^ are also regular ; 
as, arduus, arduior, arduissimus. 

The Superlative is also sometimes expressed by per and prm; 
as, permagn03f very greats prsediyes, very ric7^« 

( 21 ) 

Irregular Comparisons. 

1. Bdnus, melior, 6ptimus, good^ better y best. 
Malus, pejdr, pessimus, bad^ worse^ worst. 
Magntis, inaj6r, maximus, greats greater j greatest. 
Parvus, inin6r, minimus, IMej less, (lesser) least. 
Multus, plus, n. plurimus, muchy morey most. 
D%v€Sy ditidry ditissimusy rich, richer, richest. 
SSnex, sBnlSTy mdnfynus natUy old, elder, eldest. 
JuveniSy junUH'y mifHmus ndtUy young, younger, youngest. 


ft. Nfiqa&m, nfiquidr, nequiMimuB, idle^ idler, idUtt. — natigfiijf. 

Cltr&, citdrior, ciUmtLs, on this side, hither^ hithermost, 
I Infra, inftrior, inflmtls, et Imus, beneath, lower, lowest. 

Intra, interior, mtirofis, within, inner, inmost, inward, 
I Extra, eztSrior, eztremtls, et eztlmtba, without, outer, outmost. 

Supra, superior, supr6mu8, et silmmiis, above, higher, highest* 

Postdrtls, posterior, postremtls, et posthtUnus, last, latest. 

Ultra, ultfirior, ultimtUi, beyond, farther, farthest. 

Prdpd, prdplor, proximtls, near, nearer, nearest, next. 

Pridfim, pridr, prlmtls, late, former, Jirft, best, ehief. 

5. Compounds in dicus,ficus, Idquus, and vOlus, have entior, and eriimmus. 
Malddictls, malddicfintior, malddicdntisslmus, railing. 
Beadfictls, benfificdntior, bendficdntissimtls, kind. 
Magnild-quus, -qu6nt!or, magnildqudntisshnus, boasting. 
MaldvOltis, maldyOlentlor, miJdydlentissimus, ill-natured. 


Ahntls, gracious. 
Fatilis, weak. 
Tnclj^us, famotis. 
Ingens, great. 
Sacer, futly. 
Fidus, faithful, 
Naper, lately. 
NOvtls, new. 

Defective Comparisons. 
Comparative. Superlative. 


Ocyor, swifter. 
deterior, worse. 









These Comparisons are remarkable, and rare. 

Cato, CatOnior, i. e. sevfirior Catone, more strict than Cato. 
Nero, NerOnior, i. e. SBBvior NerOn3, more cruel than J^ero. 
Ipse, ipsissimus ; tuus, tuissimus ; multas, multisslmus. 

6. There are hundreds of Adjectives, capable of Comparison, which }'et are 
not compared ; some of these are^ 

Magnanimus, mlriu, ciaudfts^ salvUs^ TnXmfiT> dbla'to^ 
Dilirfu, rUdis, et rttigorU, calvHa^ Iglsi^dA. 


( 22 ) 

A PRONOUN is a part of speech used instead of a Noun 

A Pronoun is a short way of repeating the preceding Noun ; 

Marcus Tidlius amamt cives^ et illi amaverunt ilium. 

Mtirk Tully loved the citizens^ and they loved him* 

There are ninet^n simple Pronouns : Ego^ tu^ sui, ilUy ipsi, 
vtlCy hicj is^ quis, qui, meus^ tuus^ sutts^ noster^ vester^ nostras, 
vestrcLSj c6jdSy and cujus. 

Ego, iu, Sid, are Substantives, the other sixteen are Adjec- 


I. Singtdariter* 
N. Ego, /, my self y 
G. mei, of me, of myself 
D. mihi, to me, myself 
A. me, me, myself, 

N. nos, toe, ourselves, 
G. nostrum, v. nostri, of us^ 
D. nobis, to us, to ourselves, 
A. nos, us, ourselves, 

A. me, toUh, from, in, by, me. lA. nobis, with us, ourselves. 


II. Singulariter. 
N. tu, tJiou, you, yourself, 
G. tin, of thee, you, yourself, 
D. tibi, to thee, you, yourself, 
A. te, thee, you, yourself, 
V. tu, O thou, you, 
A. te, toith thee, you, yourself 

N. vos, ye, you, yourselves, 
G. vestrum, v. vestri, of you, 
D. vobis, to you, yourselves, 
A. vos, you, yourselves, 

V. vos, O ye, you, 

A. vobis, with you, yourselves. 

Thou^ thee, and ye, are used for you, whei) we are speaking in a particular 
or emphatical manner ; as, thou art the man, for tou art the tnan ; I saw 
ihee, for I saw you ; ye shall ask me, for you shall ask me. 

Sui, of himself, of herself, of itself 

III. Singulariter. 


G. sui, of himself of herself, &c. 
D. sibi, to himself, herself, &c. 
A. se, himself, herself, itself, 


A. se, trnth himself, herself, &c. 



G. sui, of themselves, 
D. sibi, to themselves, 
A. se, themselves, 

A. se, with themselves. 

EgomH, the compound, is declined like Ego ; met is not varied. 
2it/if, the compound, is declined like te; but te ia not 'vaxvodi. 

O,mu0uif P. sibi, sibi, A.fl»A V. A.«6a6. 

rV. Singulariter. 

N. ill^, ill&, illud, he, she, that, it, 
G. illius,illius,illius,q/7^tm,Aer, 
D. illl, illi, illi, to him, her, it, 
A. ilium, ill&m, illud, hvm, her, 
V. iUe, ilia, illud, O that. 

A. illo, ilia, illo, with him, her* 

( 23 ) 

m» fm n» 
N. illl, illae, illft, they, those^ 
G. ill -drum, -arum, -drum, 
D. illis, illis, illis, to those, 
A. illds, illas, ilia, those, 
V. illl, illae, ilia, O those. 

A. illis, illis, illis, hy those. 

lets, lata, IflttLd, he, she, thai, is declined like ille. 

Ipsd, Ipsk, ipstim, A«m»e(/*, herself, itself is also declined like ille; but 
ipse makes ipsum, not fpstld, in the Nom. Ace. and Voc. ging. Neuter. 

y. Singidartter 
m* J* n» 
N. hie, haec, hoc, this, 
G. hujus, hujus, hujus, of this, 
D. hulc, huic, huic, to this, 
A. hunc, hanc, hoc, this, 
V. hie, haec, hoc (vix occurrit) 
A. hoc, hac, hoc, toith this, 

VI. Singtdariter, 
N. is, ea, id, he, she, that, it, 
G. ejus, ejus, ejOs, of him, her, 
D. ei, ei, ei, to him, her, it, 
A. dum, earn, id, him, her, it, 

V : 

A. eo, ea, eo, with him, her, it. 


N. hi, bae hffic these, 
G. h-6rum, -arui.\ orum, 
D. his, his, his, to these, 
A. hos, has, hsec, these, 
V. hi, hfife, haec. 

A. his, his, his, wilh these. 

N. ii, 6m, ea, they, those, 
G, eoriim, earOm, eorum, 
D. lis, V, ^is, to them, those, 
A. ^ds, das, M, them, those, 


A. lis, vel eis, with them. 

Quis, quaa, quod, vel quid, who 7 which 7 what 7 (interrog.) 
VII. Singulariter, i Pluraliter, 

N. quis, quae, quod, vel quid ? 
G. cujus, cujus, cujus, whose 7 
D. cui, cui, cui, to whom 7 
A. quem, quam, quod, v. quid ? 


A. qu6, qua, quo, with whom 7 

N. qui, quae, quae, who 7 
G. quorum, quarum, quorum, 
D. queis, v. quibus, to whom 7 
A. quos, quas, quae, whom 7 

V . 

A. quels, v, quibus, hy whom f 

Qius, qu», quod, v. quid, indtfinite, any one, is declined like quis (interrogii) 
Qui, quae, quod, who, which, that, (relative.) 

VIII. Singulariter. 
N. qui, quae, quod, who 7 
G. cujus, cujus, cujus, of whom, 
D. cui, cui, cui, to whom, 
A. qu^m, quam, qudd, whom, 

N. qui, quae, quae, who, 
G. quorum, quarum, quorum, 
D. queis, vel quibus, to whom, 
A. quoa^ c^uas^ q^^s&^m^Vjuia.^ 

A. quo, qua, quo, qui, qui, qul.W* c^\xe\a, -oel q^^>\^>>>^ -^^woto.* 
Qai the RelaUre htm also qui in th» A\A, m iSL ^BwA«t% «o.e^T«»x^s«««^ 

( 24 ) 

IX. Meus, 5. tMs, c, and suus, d. are declined like bdn&s* 

X. Noster, e. and vest^r,/. are declined like hn€r, 

XI. Tuus, 8UUS, and vester, want the Vocative : and 

All nouns and pronouns, which we cannot call on, Or addreas 
ourselves to, have no Vocative. 

XII. Noster and meus have the Vocative ; thus : V. nostSr, 
nostra, nostrum, V. mi, meus, me^, meum. 

XIII. Nostras, g« vestras, h, cuias, i. and all gentiles m as; 
as, Arpinas, are declined like fehx. 

XIV. Nom. cujus, k, cuj^, cujum ; Ace. Sing, cuj&m, Ace. 
plur. cuj&. 

b. my or mine, c, thy or thine, d. his own, her own, its own, 
their own, e. our, or ours, jT. your, or yours, g. of our country, 
A. of your country, i. of what or which country, fe. whose, as, 
Cujum, pecus, whose flock ? Virg. 

The Declension of Compound Pronouns. 

Ego ipse, J mytdf, 

8mg. Nom. ego ipsd, G. mdi ipsius, D. mihi ipsi, A. mfi ipstim, V. IpeS. 

%^-Iste and hie N. isthic, isthsc, isthoc, v. isthuc, thaU 

Ace. iat-hunc, -hanc, -hoc, v. -hue, A. iat-hoc, ist-hac, ist-hoc. 

Nom. plural neuter isthsec, Accusative plural neuter isthsBC. 

3. — Idem^ the tame^ compounded of is and dem, is thus declined : 

Nom. Idgm, e&dem, iddm, 
Gen. ejosdbm, ejosddm, ejtksddm, 
Dat. eidSm, eid6m, elddm, 
Ace. eUndSm, eandSm, ld6m, 
Voc. Iddm, e&dem, iddm, 
Abl. eoddm, eadem, eodem. 

N. ildem, Sedem, S&dSm, 
G. eortkn-dem, eartkndem, -dem, 
D. 6isd€m, vel iisd^m, 
A. SOsddm, ^asddm, 6&ddm, 
V. iidSm, dsddm, 6&dem, 
A. disddm, vd ilsdSm. 

4. Q^is, compounded with -Tiam, 'piam, -quam, -que, -quis, 

N. Quisnam, qusnam, quodnam, vel quidnam ; G. cujOsnam, &c. toko? 
N. Quispiam, quspiam, quodpiam, vef quidpiam; cujtuipiam, &c. any one- 
N. Quisquam, quasquam, quodquam, vd quidquam, cujUsquam, &c. any one^ 
N. Quisque, qusque, quodque, vd quidque ; eujQsque, &e. every one, 
N. Quisquis, quidquid, vel quicquid ; cujuscujus, cuicui, whoever* 

Accusative qiddquid^ vel quicquid^ Vocative — , Abl. qudquo^ qudqtu^ 
quOqra, Nom. Ace. plur. neut. quteqtuB, Dat. and Abl. plur. quibusquibus. 

Quisquam has also quicquam vel quidquam; Ace. quenquam vel quent' 
piam without the feminine. The plural is scarcely used. 

5. Quis, compounded with all — ec — si — ne — num. 
N. Aliquis, aliqua, aliquOd, vel aliquid ; G. ftlicajfls, &e. some* 

N, Ecquls, ecqua v. ecqum, ecqudd, vel ecquid; eceujtbs, &e. who? 
nr' ^ ^"^^' ** ^'"^ ^^ qu6d, vd si quid •, ev cvslVSa^ &Ai. au-y otit. 

^' S^ ^"^^! ^^ 9"*» *^® qu6d, V, ne quid; ive c\ii\iaiav&"i.Uil ttu\| w\fc* 

-*▼• Nam qaisj num qua, num quod, v. num quid; nuni cuyto, ftt^e. is tKcr* an.-jj* 

( 25 ) 

ACquIfl, ecquis, siquls, noquls, numquis, have qua in tlie Nom. Sing, iem- ^ 
inine, and in the Nominative and Accusative plural neuter. 

Note. Siquis, ndquis, nOmquis, are frequently read separately ; and are 
found thus, si quis, nA quls, nOm quis. 

0. — Qtii compounded with -cunqut—^m — UbH — v\9. 
N. Quicunque, quecunque, quodcunque ; G. cojOscQnque, whoever, 
N. Quid&m, queed&m, quodd&m, v. quidd&m ; cdjusdam, some. 
N. QuiUMt, quellbit, quodlibdt, v. quidliMt ; cHjtlslibdt, any one* 
N. Quivis, qusBVls, quodvis, vel quidvis ; ctljtlsvls, any cue, any. 

Nom. unosqulsqud, un&quequd, unumquodque, vel Onumquldque. 
Nom. quOt-usquisque, -&quequ8e, -umquodque, vel -umquldque. 

Note 1. All these compounds of quit and ^i, want the vocative; ex- 
c^t quUque^ aliquie^ quiRb^t^ Unusquieqtiei and peihaps some others. 

2. ^uidam has quendam^ quondam^ quoddam^ vel ^uiddam^ in the Aoe. 
singular; and qudrHndamy qtidrSindamt qudrUndam, in the Gen. plural; 
n being put instead of m, for the better sound. 

Quod^ aMqu6d, quodvU^ quoddam^ &c. are used when they agree with a 
substantive in the same case. 

Quid^ attquid^ quidvis^ quiddam, either have no eubstantive expressed, or, 
like nouns eubstaniive^ govern one in the genitive. 

3. These syllabic adjectioUs mXt^ -/?, -c^, -p/?, dtn?, make the significa- 
tion more pointed and emphatical, and sometimes supply the measure of 
poets ; as, ilgom^lt ttun^tj tuti^ ndem^U vbemiU hujaeei^ me&ptH, hiecinif. 

i 4. Of cum^ and these ablatives, m£, te, s^, ndbie, v6bU, qui^ or quo^ and 
quibiis^ are compounded meeum, tSeuniy seeiim^ nAbieeum, vdbiecUm^ quieum^ 
and qudeum^ fa%b€t»eunu 


1. In the Nominative we use /, thou^ you^ he, she, toe, ye, 
they, and voho; but in the other cases we use me, thee, you, hm, 
her, us, you, them, and wJiom. 

2. When we speak of a person, we use who and whom; as, 
I love the man, who loves his country. The boy, whom learning 
delights, will gain love. 

3. When we speak of a thing, we use which; as, the book, 
which you gave me, is lost. The grass, which grows in the 
field, withers. 

4. That is frequently used for who, whom, and which; as, 
the man that loves his country. The boy that learning de- 
lights. The book that you gave me. The grass that grows in 
the field. 

5. What is often used for the thing which; or that which; 
asy what you said is true; instead of, tJie thing whkh you said 
is true ; or, tJiat which you said is true. 

6. Whom, whichf and that^ are oiletv \ei\. wi\.\ ^a^^^tkksslX 
saw, for the man whom I saw. The booVi ^ow ^^e^ Ta»^ Vix ^ 
book tohieh you gave me ; or, tVxQ book, tkot ^ow \^n^ \ft»* 


(.26 ) 

7. Whose and its are Genitives, instead of, of whom, of it. 

8. The following 'phrases are ungrammatical — Who did you 
sup with ? Who did you give it to ? WAo did you live with 1 
Who do you follow ? Who did you get it from ? TFAo did he 
send by 1 Who did he buy it for ? That is the man who I men- 
tioned. In all these, who should be whom* 

9. We should never use its for it is; but if we abbreviate it is, 
we should write His, 

10. Them is never used in the Nominative, or in any other 
case, like an cuijective, but always like a noun stibstantive by 
itself; we cannot, therefore, say, them are good apples. Teach 
them boys. Hand them papers. In all which, and similar forms 
of speech, we should utter and write, these, or tJiose. 

11. This in the plural makes these, and that makes tJiose. 

12. This respects the nearest, and that the farthest off. 


A VERB is a part of speech which signifies to be 
to do^ or to suffer. Or, 

A verb is that part of speech which expresses an 
affirmation of persons and things. 

Any word that makes complete sense with a mmn, or pro- 
noun, is a verb; as, the sun shines; 1 love. It is called a verb 
or WORD, because it is the chief word in every sentence. 

The principal kinds of verbs are the active, passive, neu- 
ter, and deponent. 

■• 1. An Active verb affirms action of its Nominative, or per- 
son before it ; as, vinco, / conquer. 

An Active verb is also called Transitive, when the action 
passes over to the object, and has an effect on it; as vinco irdm, 
I conquer anger ; vinco host&n, I conquer the enemy. 

Transitive is only another name for Active. 

An Active verb can always admit after it, with good sense, 
whom ? or what ? as, whom do you conquer ? tohat do you con- 

2. A Passive verb affirms the suffering, passion, or reception 
of an action; as, vincor, lam conquered. 

3. A Neuter verb properly affirms neither action nor paS' 
sion; but simply expresses the being, state, or condition of 
things; as, dormio, to sleep, sid^o, to sit, sto^ to stand, vinlo, to 

come, duro, to persevere ^ mdnSo, to stay, clamo, tf^l^xsX.^ quV^^c^. 
to rest. ^ 

( 27 ) 

A Neuter verb has frequently a passive signification; as, 
vapulo, to be whipped, ^a^o, to be inflamed, ycru^o, to be hot. 

Neuter verbs cannot, with good sense, admit wJumi or lohat 
after them ; as, whom do I sleep ? 

4. A Deponent verb has a passive termination, but an €ictive 
or neuter signification ,* as, IdqtUyr^ to speak, mdridr, to die. 

There are also nevteb-fassive, FREavENTATivE, inceptive, 


1. A J^euter-PoBsive verb is htdfActute and half Passive in its lermina- 
tion, but its signification is either wholly passive; SM^fio^ to be made ; or 
wholly active^ or neuter^ as audXoy to aare, gaiid^o, to rejoice, mareo, to 
be sad. 

2. Frequentative verbs signify frequency of action^ and are all of the 
first conjugation. 

Frequentatives, derived from the first conjugation, are formed from the 
/as/ supine^ by changing alu into xto; as, elamitOy to Bhoui frequently^ from 

But other frequentative verbs are formed from the last supine of verbs 
of the second, thirds laid fourth conjugations, by changing u into o; curso, 
to run often, from curro ; sallo^ to leap often, from salio. 

These form other frequentalives, as, eurso^ eursito ; piUso, pulstlo ; sallo^ 

3. Inceptive verbs signify that a thing is begun, and tending to perfec- 
tion ; as, calisco, to begin to grow warm. 

Inceptive verbs are formed by adding -co to the second person singular 
of the Indicative active of their primitives ; as, eal^o, ealis^ calesco* Incep- 
tives are all of the third conjugation. 

4. Desiderative verbs signify a desire of action; as, ccena/uno, desire to 

Desideratives are all formed from the last supine, by adding to it -rio; 
as, esurto, to desire to eat ; or to be hungry. 

5. A Common verb has a passive termination, but an active or passive 
signification, as, crtmtrwr^ I accuse, or I am accused. 

6. Substantive verbs signify simply the affirmation of being, or exist- 
ence, as, sum^fto^forhn^ existo. 

VERBS are varied or declined by voices^ moods^ 
tenses, numbers, and persons ; there are two voices, 
the Active and Passive. 

1. VOICE expresses the different circumstances in which we 
consider an object, whether as acting, or being acted on. 

2. The Active voice signifies action ; as, amo^ I love ; duco^ 
I lead. 

3. The Passive voice signifies suffering, or being the object ! 
of an action ; as, amor^ I am loved, ducCr^ I am led. 

'4. MOODS are the various manrk/er^ oi e^^\fe^^vei%^^ i^s^sv 
Beatjon of a verb : there are four mood^^ V\\e lnd\.cal\»e, ^x^- 
Junctive, Imp^^aive^ and Injimlim. 

( 28 ) 

5. Hie Indicative mood declares, or affirms positively ; as, 
dnti^, I love ; dmaMnij I did love ; amdr^ I am loved. 

6. The Subjunctive mood, which is branched out intctlie 
Potential and Optative, is generally joined to another word, and 
cannot make a full meaning by Itself; as. Si me dmetiSy mid 
servate prcBceptd, if ye love me, keep my conmiandments. 

7. Tlfd Imperative mood commands, exhorts, or entreats ; as, 
dmd, love thou. The Imperative mood always wants the first 
person, both singular and pluxal. 

8. The Infinitive mood expresses the signification of the 
verb, without limiting it to any number or person, having the 
sign TO commonly prefixed ; as, amare, to love. 

The Ir^nOioe mood is put sometimes for a noun substantive. 

9. TENSES express the time when any person or thing is 
suppo^ to be, to uct, or to suffer: there are ftve tenses, or 
imies, the Pre^nt, the Preter-imperfect, the Preter-perfeet, the 
Preter-pluperfecty and the Future* 

10. The Present tense speaks qf the time present ; as, seribo, I write, 
or, I do write ; i, e. I am writing. 

11. The Impetfecl toDBe speaks of an action now doing, but not fully 
4one ; as, ecriiibam, I wrote, or did write; t. e. I was writing. 

12. The Preler-perfeet tense shows that an action is fuUy finished ; as, 
serLpsi, I have written ; i. ^ I have finished writing. 

IS. The Preter-plnpafect tense refers to some time, more than perfectly 
past, and imports that the action was done a/, or before, that time ; as, 
scripBcram ^pisto^m, I fuid written a letter ; i, e. before that time. 

14. The Future tense speaks of an action that will be done hereafter; 
as, scribam, I shall or will write. 

[There is also a Future-perfect tense which refers to some time yet to 
come, and imports that a thing as yet future shall be past and Jini^ied at, 
or be/ore that time ; as, cum scripsero, tu leges, when I shall hitve written, 
you shall read.] 

15. NUMBER marks how many we suppose to be, to act, or to suffer. 

16. There are two mmbers, the Singular, and the Plural. 

17. PERSON shows to what the meaning of the verb is applied : there 
are three Persons in each number. 

18. Theirs/ person speaks; the second person is spoken to; and the 
third person is spoken of. 

19. Ego is the ^rs/.peroon sing. 7\i is the second person singular. 
£0* JVbs is thejhwi person plur. Vos is the second person plural. 

£I» ///^ is the third person sing. lUi is the lliird ip«si%o^ ^\\»«X, 

( 29 ) 

Of Conjugation* 

22. Conjugation is the classing, or joining together all the 
parts of a verb, according to voicCj niood^ tense^ number^ and 

23. There blxq four conjugations of regular verbs, which are 
known bj the following marks, or characters. 

24. The first conjugation has a long before -r^, of the Infini* 
tive ; as, dmdrSj to love. 

25. The second conjugation has e long before -r^, of the In- 
fmitive ; as, ddcerS^ to teach. 

26. The third conjugation haa e short before -r^, of the Infin- 
itive ; as, tigSrS, to cover. 

27. The fourth conjugation has $ long before -rf » of the In- 
finitive ; as, audirSy to hear. 

28. Bni'do^ dar^, d^di^ daium^ to pve^ and these ibur of ite eompounds, 
have a short before -r^, of the Infinitiye ; as, 

CircUm^i -dar^^ cireUmdMi^ circflmdatum^ to clasp Hund. 
Pessiindo^pesiUndar^y pestitnd^di^ petsfiridaturny to ruin. 
V^SnUndo^ venftndar^, venUndMi^ venUndatum^ to sell. 
SatUdo^ satisdar^^ tatUd^di, satUdatunh to satisfy. 

— T 



The Principal Parts. 

IndicaHve PrcBS, Infinitive. Perfect. Supine. 

Amo, &mare, &niavi, &matum, to love 


Present Tense. 

^ ^ 1 Ego amo, Ilovey or do love^ 

.g < 2 Tu Umas, Thou lovest, or dost love^ or you lovcj 

^ ( 3 Ille &m&t. He loves^ he lovethi or doth love. 

• ^ 1 Nos amamus. We love, or do love^ 

^ < 2 Vos fimatis, Ye or you love, ot ^<(> Vyoe^ 

^ (3 IJJi &jmnt, They lot5e* ox do lwe% 


( 80 ) 

The Imperfect Tense. 

1 Ego &mab&in, I loved, or did love, 

2 Tu amabas, You loved, or did love, 

3 Ille kmahki. He loved, or did love. 

1 Nos ftmabamus, We loved, or did love, 

2 Yds ^mabatis, Ye loved, or did love, 

3 Illi ^unabant, They loved, or did love* 

The Perfect Tense. 

1 Ego ftmavi, / have laved, 

2 Tu ftmavisti, You have loved, 
S Ille &mavit, Jffe hath, or has hved. 

1 Nos ^mavimus. We have loved, 

2 Vos Smavistis, Ye have loved, 

3 Illi ftmav-erunt, v- -er6, T/i€y have Zbvecl. 

The Pluperfect Tense. 

1 Ego flmarer&m, / had loved, 

2 Tu ftiHdveras, You had loved, 

3 Ille amaverat, JETe had loved. 

1 Nos ftmaveramus, We had Zovee2, 

2 Vos amaveratis, Ye had Zov6<^, 

3 Illi amaverant, They had Zovecl. 

The Future Tense. 

; C 1 Ego Umabo, / shall or will love, 

.g^ < 2 Tu ^Unabis, You shall or will love, 

% f 3 Hid ftmabit, He shall or will love. 

1 Nos amabunus, We shall or will love. 

,2 Vos ^Unabitis, Fe shall or will love, 

^ f 3 Illi amabunt, They shall or will love. 

Thou precedes -ihee^ -est, -dost, -edst, -idtt, -thalt, -^oiU, -mayst, -eantt 
•art, -wert* 

l^ou is scarcely ever used, but in the Scripture style, and when we ad- 
dress ourselves to Almighty God. 

The termination eth is used in solemn language, but es in common. 

**?%< careful tectcher loill often ask the LaHn of these. 

Homo, a man. Via, a man. 

The man loves — ^men love — ^men do lov& — ^good men do love. 
The man loved — ^men loved — ^men did love — happy men loved. 
The man has loved — ^men have loved — ^mild men have loved. 
The man had loved — ^men had loved — ^milder men had loved. 
Tbe man will lore — ^men will love— eharp metuNvViWoNQ, 

( 31 ) 


The Present Tense. 

ftm^m, /may or can love, let me love, may I love, 

Ames, You may or can love, may you love, 

&met, He may or can love, let him love, may Ae love* 

ftmemus. We may or can love, let u« Z(we, may we love, 

&metis. Ye may or can love, may you love, 

iment, TTiey may or can love, let <^6m love, may fA^y Zove. 

. C ftmar^m, 
.S^ < &mares, 
^ { &maret, 
^ ^&maremus, 
nS <&maretis, 
^ f imarent. 

. C ftmaverim, 
^^ < imav^ris, 
'^ { ^mav^rit, 
^ I amaverimus, 
i^ < dmavSritis, 
** f &maverint. 

. ^SmavissSm, 
,&^ < imavisses, 
^ f fimaviss^t, 

^ C &mayissemus, 
.iS < imavissetis, 
^ f &mavissent. 

The Imperfect Tense. 

/might, could, should, or would love, 
You might, could, should, or would love. 
He might, could, should, or would love. 
We might, could, would, or should love, 
Ye might, could, would, or should love. 
They might, could, would, or should love. 

The Perfect Tense. 

/ may, or might have loved. 

You may, or might have hyved. 

He may, or might have loved. 

We may, or might have hved, * # 

Ye may, or might have lomedj 

They may, or might have hmed. 

The Pluperfect Tense. 




' might, 

^or had 


Pbtbus, Peter. Pybamvs et Thisbb. 

He has loved, he loved, he did love, Pyrftmtbi did love. 

He had loved, Peter had loved, Thisbfi did love. 

I will love, Peter will love, good men will love, mild men will love. 

I may love, I can love, may I love? let me love, let good men love. 

Let Pyr&mtUi love, may Pyr&mtbs love, let Peter love. 

Let us love, let Pyr&mits and Thisbd love, we might have loved. 

I might love, I could love, I would love, I should love. 

Pyr&miis and Thisbb— —should love^ vre a\iO\]\dL\A:<9^Vss«^. 

He ndght bttve or had loved, Pyi&mQB isoi^^xl \v«.^« Vsri^^* 

The man might have or had loved, the men toi^tVw^'Vo'^^* 


( 82 ) 

The Future Tense. 

^ C &m&9ii^Oy / shall have loved, 

,^ < ftiiiivdris, Thou shalt have lovedj 

^ f amav^rit, He shall have loved* 


^ ^ dmavenmus, We shall have loved^ 

S < amav^ritis. Ye shall have loved, 

^ ( amavennt, They shall have Zovecf. 


Present Tense. 

go i lima, veil amato tu, love thou, or do ifAou love, 

'^ i &mato ille, let him love; let a man love, 

^ \ Ornate, v. amatotd vos, /oi^ ^6, or do ye love, 

S| ( imanto illi, let them love ; let men love. 


Present Tense, fimarS, to love. 

Perfect Smfivisse, to have, or had loved. 

Future ftmaturum esse v. fuisse, to be about to love. 

Example* I believe that good boys love good boys. What is the Latin? 


ThQ Participle of the Present, Smans, loving. 

The Participle of the Future, amatu-rus, -ra, -rum, about to lave. 


N. dmandum, loving, 

G. ^mandi, of loving, 

D. amando, to loving, 

A. &mandum, loving, 

A. &niando, wiih,from, in, or by loving. 


The first supine, amatum, to love. 

The last supine, fimatu, to love, or to be loved. 


Amdr, fimari, ^matus sum, to be loved. 
Present Tense. 
Amdr, I am loved. 

,^< amans, vil Sxasix^^ Thou art l<y^ed^ 

^ fsmatur^ He ia lao«d> 

( 88 ) 

^ C &iiiam(ir, We are loved, 

»S < ftmamini, Ye are loved, 

^ f amantur, Tliey are hved. 

The Imperfect Tense. 

. C kmah&r, I was ^ed, 

.^ < amabaris, v. amabarS, You were loved, 

^ ^ ftmabatur, He was /ovecf. 

t: I ftmabamOr, We were Zoirec^, 

^ < amabamini, Fe were loved, 

^ ( ftmabantur, 7%ey were loved. 

The Perfect Tense. 

• C &matus sum, vel fui, / have been loved, 

.g < Smatus ds, v^Z fuisti, Thou hast been Zoved, 

^ ( &matus est, veZ fuit. He hath been Zoved. 

i: C Smati sumiis, veZ fulmiis. We have been Zove^, 
^ < &mati estis, vel fuistis. Ye have been loved, 

^ f &mati sunt, fuerunt, v, fuer^, 7!^ have been loved- 

The Pluperfect Tense. 

^ C fimatus ^r&m, vil fuer^m, / had been loved, 

,g < amatus eras, vil fudras. Thou hadst been loved, 

% ( amatus ^r&t, v^Z fuSr&t, He had been Zovecf . 

i: C &mati eramus, v£Z fu^ramus. We had been ZovecZ, 

^ < amati eratis, vil fueratifs. Ye had been loved, 

^ ( &mati erant, v^Z fuerant, JTiey had been ZovecZ. 

The Future Tense. 

imabdr, /shall, or will be loved, 

imabMs, V, amaberd. Thou shalt, or wilt be loved, 
&mabitur. He shall, or will be loved. 

amabimur. We shall, or will be loved, 

fimabimini. Ye shall, or will be loved, 

^mabuntur. They shall, or will be loved. 


The Present Tense. 

. C timer, / may, or can be loved, may I be lovedfr 

.g < fimeris, v, &mer^. You may, or can be loved, may you be loved, 
^ ( imetur. He may, or can be loved, let him be loved. 

ViR, a man^ Femina, a tDoman, Donum, a gift. 

The man ia loved, the man has been loved, the gift is loved. 
The men are loved, the men have been loved, guts have been loved. 
The woman is loved, the woman haft beenlo^^A^VSaft ^^\k3M^\««aAsyi^^ 
7%0 women are ioved, the women llave\>een.\o'^^^^m<ft ^iS\»\s»9:^^ * 



( 84 ) 

C dmemiir, We may, or can be loved, may ti>e be laoed, 
fS < ^Unemini, Ye may, or can be loved, may you be loved^ 
^ f &mentur, 77^2^ may, or can be loved, let ifAem be loved. 

The Imperfect Tense. 
^Unarer, / might, could, would, should be loved, 

&mareris, v. ftmarere, You might, ■ be loved, 

amaretur. He might, ■ be loved, 

&maremur, We might, ■ be loved, 

llmaremini, Ye might, ■ ' be loveif^ 

amarentur, Thep might, — — — — . be loved* 

The Perfect Tense. 
§,matus aim, vd fuerim, / may have been lovedy 
amatus sis, vd fii^riSy TTiou mayst have been lovBd^ 

amatiis sit, vH fuerit, He may have been loved* 

dmati simds, v, fuerimus, We may have been loved, 
imati sltis, v. fu^ritis. Ye may have been loved, 

imatl sint, v, fuerint, JTiey may have been loved. 

The Pluperfect Tense. 

. . C &matus essem, v. fuissSm, / C might, 

,g^ < ftmatus esses, vel fuisses. You could, 

^ ( dmatus esset, v€l fuisset. He would, 

1^ C amati essemus, v. fuissemus. We ' should, 

^ < §jnati essetis, vil fulssetis. Ye have, or 

^ f Smati essent, vd fuissent. They L had been 

The Future Tense. 

. C &matus fuero, I shall have been loved, 

S^ < amatus fueris. Thou shalt have been loved* 

^ f Amatus fuerit. He shall have been loved. 

C i amati fuerimus. We shall have Been loved^ 

S < llmati fueritis. Ye shall have been loved, 

^ \ S,mati fuerint. They shall have been lotisd. 


Present Tense. 
^ ( fimare, v, amat5r tu, be thou loved, 
{g I amator ille, let him be loiied. 

g i amamini vos, be ye loved, 

SJ ( dmantOr illi, . let them be loved. 


Present Tense, Smari, 1. to be loved. 

Perfect Tense, amatum esse, v. fuisse, 2. to have, or had been — 

Future Tense, amatum iri, 3. to he about to be loved. 


1. The Present of the infinitive Passive is never varied. But 

5. The Perfect of the Infinitive Passive is varied according to the gender^ 

Hunger, and case of the noun going before. 

5: The Jf^iure of the Infinitive Passive is never ^m©^. 



( 85 ) 


The Participle of the Perfect, ftma-tus, -t&, -turn, loved. 

The Participle of the Future, aman-dus, -d&, -dum, to be loved* 

The Partieiple of the Future in 'dus imports necessity, duty, 
or obligation, more than it doea fiUurity, 

A good boy is to be loved, a good girl is to be loved. 

Good boys are to be loved, good girls are to be loved. 

A good gift is to be loved, good ^fts are to be loved. 

I believe that good boys are loved. 

I believe that good boys have been loved. 

I believe that good giils have been loved. 

I beliftve that many gifts have been loved. 



Ddc^o, ddcer^, ddcui, doctum, to teach. 


Singtdariter. Pluraliter. 

Pres. Ddgeo, ddces, dficet, ddcemus, ddcetis, ddcent. 
Imp. docebam, ddcebas, ddceb&t, ddceba-mus, -tis, docebant. 
Perf. ddcm, docuisti, ddcd-it, -imus, -istis, -erunt, v. ddcuer^. 
Plup. ddcueram, docueras, ddcue-rat, -ramus, -ratis, -r&nt, 
Fi4t. ddcebo, ddcebis, ddc-ebit, ebimus, -ebitis, ddcebunt. 


Pres. Ddceam, doceas, doc-edt, -^amus, >^atis, ddceant. 
Imp. ddcerem, ddceres, ddc-eret, -eremus, -eretis, -docerent. 
Perf. ddcuerim, docfleris, docu-erit, -Srimus, -iritis, -6rint. 
Plup. ddcuiss^m, doculsses, docuiss-^t, -emus, -etis, docuissent. 
Fut. ddcuero, ddcueris, ddcu-erit, -erimus, -eritis, docuermt. 

Prea. Ddce, ddce-to, tu, -to ille ; ddc-ete, -etOtd vos, docento illi. 

J'ref. DdcerS, Perf. dOcuissd, Put. doctaitov, ^«a^,*«a* ^^«^' 

( 36 ) 


Pres» DOcens ; 

Fut. docturus, 


N. ddcendum, 

G. ddcendi, 

D. dOcendo, 

A. dOcen-dum, -do. 


1. supine J 
doc turn; 

2. supinCf 


DdceOr, ddceri, doctus sum, to be taught. 


Singulariter. Pluraliter. 

Pres. D6ce6r, ddceris, vel d6ce-re, -tur, -mur, -mini, -ntur. 
Lnp. ddceb-ar, aris, vel -are, -atur, -amur, -amini, -antur. 
Perf. doctus sum, vel fui, doctus es, vel fuisti, <Jv. 
PZfijp. doctus er&m, vel fuer&m, doctus eras, vel fueras, <^. 
Fut. ddce-bdr, -beris, vel -bere, -bitur, -bimur, -bimini, -buntur 


Pres. DOcear, docea-ris, v. -re, -tur, -mur, -mini, ddceantur. 
hnp. dOcerer, docere-ris, v. -re, -tur, -mur, -mini, -ntur. 
Perf. doctus sim, t?. fuerim, doctus sis, v. fueris, 4^. 
Plup. doctus ess^m, v. fuissem, doctus esses, v. fuisses, 4*c. 
Fut. doctus fuero, doctus fuSris, doctus fuerit, <J<c. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Dficere, v. d6ce-t6r, tu, -tOr ille ; -mini vos, ddcentor illi. 

Pres. Ddceri, Perf. doctum edse, v. fuisse, Fut. doctum iri. 


The Participle of the Perfect, doc-tus, -ta, -tCim. 
The Participle of the Future, docen-dus, -da, -dum. 

Sedtdusy puer, a careful boy, sapiens^ wise, Joannes^ John. 

A careful boy is taught, careful boys are taught, John is taught. 
A careful boy has been taught, have been taught. 
Let careful boys be taught, may careful boys be taught. 
We are glad that careful, wise, boys are taught. 
We are glad that careful boys have been taught. 
fVe are glad that careful boys wiU be taught) WiaX. ^wisfcXicyj^ — . 
The girl is to be taught. Good, wise, ^\8 at© lo \jfe \a.\x^\. 

( 37; 



T^gd, t^g^re, texi, tectum, to cover^ to hide. 


Singtdariter. Pluraliter. 

Pres. T^go, tSgis, tegit, tdgimus, tegitis, t^gunt. 
Imp. tggebkm^ t^gebas, tege-b&t, -b^mus, -batis, t^gebant. 
Perf. texi, texisti, texit, teximus, texistis, texerunt, v. texere* 
Plup. texdram, texeras, texe-r&t, -ramus, -ratis, texerant. 
Fut. teg&m, tegeSy teget, tegemus, tegeUs, tdgent. 


Pres. Teg&m, t^gas, teg&t, tegamus, tegatis, tegant. 
Imp. tegerdm, t^geres, tege-ret, -remus, -retis, t€g€rent. 
Perf. texerim, texeris, texe-rit, -rimus, -ritis, texSrint. 
Plup. texissdm, texisses, texiss-et, -emus, -etifs, texissent. 
Fut. texero, texeris, texe-rit, -rimus, -ritis, texerint. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Tege, tegito tu, tdgito ille ; tgg-ite, -itote vos, tegunto illi. 


Pres. Teg5r€, Perf. texisse, Fut. tecturum, essd, v. fuisse. 


Pres. T^gens, 
Fut. tecturus,* 


N. tegendum, 

G. tegendi, 

D. tegendo, 

A. tegen-dum, -do. 


1. supine^ 

2. supine^ 

* Love is to cover, i. e. about to cover, faults. 

The judicious Teacher vnll often put these and the like sen- 
tences to the Student^ to he turned into Latin. 

Active verbs govern the Accusative. 

Amdr, -oris, love, culpa, a fault. 

Love covers faults, let love cover faults. 
Love will cover faults, love shall cover faults. 
We hear that love covers faults. 
We hear that love has covered faults. 
We hear ihat love will covet fa\ii\B. 
We beheye that love do«B cqnqi ^^\kVl«« 

( 38 ) 


Teg6r, tegi, tectus sum, to be covered. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. T^gOr, tfige-ris, v. -re, teg-Ttiir, -imur, -!inini, teguntiir. 
Imp. tegeb^, t^geba-ris, vel -re, -tur, -mur, -mini, -ntur. 
*" Perf. tectus sum, vel fui, tectus es, vel fuisti, A^. 
Plup. tectus er&m, vd fueram, tectus ^ras, vel meras, S^. 
JFW. t§g^, teg-eris, v. -ere, -etur, -emur, -emini, tegentur. 


Pres. Tegir, teg-aris, v. teg-are, -atur, -amur, -^unini, -antur. 
Imp. tegereiy teger-eris, v. -ere, -etur, -emur, emini, -entur. 
- Perf. tectus sim, v. fuerim, tectus sis, v. fueris, Src. 
Plup. tectiis essem, v. fuissem, tectus esses, v. fuisses, ^. 
Fut. tectus fuero, tectus fueris, tectus fuerit, tecti, ^. 


Pres. Teg^re, teg-itor tu, -it6r ille ; -imini vos, t^guntdr illi. 

Pres. T^gif Perf. tectum esse, v. fuisse, ¥%xt. tectum iri. 


The Participle of the Perfect, tectus, tectH, tectum. 
The Participle of the Future, tegendus, tegend-S,, -um. 
The fault is not, t. e. ought not, to be covered. 



Audio, audire, audivi, auditum, to hear. 

Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Audio, audis, audit, audimus, auditis, audiunt. 
Imp. audieb&m, audiebas, audieb-it, -amus, -atis, audiebant 
Perf. audivi, audiv-isti, -it, -imus, -istis, -erunt, v. audiver^. 
Plup. audiver^mi, audiv-eras, -erat, -dramus, -eratis, -erant. 
Fut. audi&m, audies, audiet, audi-emus, -etis, audient. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Audiim, audias, audidt, audi-amus, -atis, -ant. 

Sdo^ I know. Culpa, a fault. Crimen, a fault* 
The fault is covered, faults are covered, faults will be covered. 

I know, ihai the fault is covered, that faults are covered. 

I know, ihai the fault had been covered, that {a\]iV\a\ivi«>)«csxi <:x3is«t«6L« 
J know, ihai the fault will be covered, that faxiVtB \iSS\)oe ^iONct^^, 

( 39 ) 

Imp* audirem, audires, audi-ret, -remus, -retis, audirent. 
Perf. audiverim, audiveris, audiv-erit, -erimus, -iritis, -Sriht. 
PZup.audivissem, audivisses, audiviss-et, -emus, -etis, -ent. 
Fut. audivero, audiveris, audiv^-rit, -rimtis, -ritis, -rint. 


Pres. Audi, aud-ito tu, -ito ille ; aud-ite, -itotd Yos, -lunto iUi. 

Pres. Audire, Perf. audivisse, Fut. auditurum esse, v. fui80& 

Pres* Audiens, 
FuU audlturus, 


N. Audiendum, 
G. audiendi, 
D. audiendo, 
A. audiend-um, -o. 


1. aupiney 
auditum ; 

2. supine^ 

Audidr, audiri, auditus sum, to he heard. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Audidr, aud-iris, v. -ire, -itur, -imur, -imini, audiuntOr. 
Imp. audiebar, audieb-aris, v. -are, -atur, -amur, -amini, -aDtOr. 
Perf. auditus sum, vel fui, auditus es, vel fuisli, ^. 
Plup. auditus eram, v. fueram, auditus eras, v. fueras, Ai:. 
Fut. . audiar, audi-eris, v. -ere, -etur, -emur, -emini, audientiir. 


Pres. Audi§,r, audi-aris, v. audi-are, -atur, -amur, -amini, -antOr. 
Imp. audirer, audire-ris, v. -re, -tur, -mur, -mini, audirentur. 
Perf. auditus sim, v. fuerim, auditiis sis, v. fu^ris, ifv. 
Plup. auditus essdm, v. fuissem, auditus esses, v. fuisses, 4^. 
Fut. auditus f^dro, auditus fuens, auditus fu^iit, 4^. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Audiri, aud-it6r tu, aud-itdr ille, -immi yds, -luntOr illi. 

Pres. Audiri, Perf. aud-itum esse, v. fuissS, Fut. -itdm iri. 

The Students shoiMhe ready to turn these into Latin. 

I have heard — ^I may hear, let me hear — ^let them be heard. 
You might hear, you could hear — ^you might be heard. 
I may hear, I can hoar, I should hear — ^I shall have been heardt 
I shidl have heard — hear ye — do ye hear — are you heard? 
I know that ye hear, that ye do heax^ that ^oml ^^\i«^^« 
- J know, that you are ready to heai, i. e. about Xo'V^ax* 

( 40 ) 


The Participle of the Perfect, audi-tus, -ta, -turn. 
The Participle of the Future, audien-dus, -da, -diiin. 

PraBco, a crier^ prsecones, criers. 

The crier is heard, criers are heard — were heard. 

The crier has been heard, criers have been heard. 

The crier will be heard, criers will be heard. 

I wish that {utxnam) the crier may be heard — ^might be heard. 

O that (uttnam) criers could be heard — would be heard. 

You know, that the crier is heard — ^ye know that the criers are heard. 

You know, that the crier has been heard — that criers have been heard. 

You know, that the crier will be heard — that criers will be heard. 


Note 1. AU verbs of the second conjugation end in eo. 

2. All verbs of the fourth conjugation end in io, except vinto^ to be 

3. These^ with their compounds, are the ordy verbs of the third conju- 
gation, which end in io : 

H(BC capio^ fand^Jactoy (Jacxd, sp^cto olim) • 
Ac/^dtd, ftigtd, euptd, rapio^ sapidque^ 
.^. "Btparid, qtiati6, c6mpdstaq}i6, tertYa poscit. 

4. Verbs of the third conjugation in to retain i 
before -wn/, "Unto^ -ibam^ -tfm, -e/w, -endUs, "endS^ 

The formation from each of the principal parts. 





1. Aho, om^rn, subj. 




2. DocEO, is fbrmed 




docedm^ subj. 




3. Tego, tilgam^ indie. 




tegam^ subj. 



esse Y, fui$Mti 

4. Audio, is formed 




audiam^ indie. 


audiam, subj. 


n. The Present of the Infinitive Passive of the firsts second^ and fourth 
conjugations, is formed from the Infinitive Active, by changing ^ into i; 
as, antdr^, amdri ; ^cSr^,^cSri; audir^,atidirt; but 

III. The Present of the Infinitive Passive of the third conjugation, ii 
formed by changing or into i; as, /^gdr, tiSgi, tectus sum; or, o into t; as, 
t^go^ tegi, 

rV. The Infinitive Present of deponent verbs in tor of the third conju- 
gation, is formed by throwing away or: thus, gradwr^gradi — aggrH' 
dior^ aggredi, — marior^ m^rl, — imorior^ «mofi, — oriSr, orl< — ea^rtdr^ ex6ri% 
— potior^ pati-t — p6rp^ti6r^ pSrp^U^ — compatior, tfompoiK. 

y. The Infinitive Passive of verbs in to of the third conjugatiozi, may 
Ae formed by throwing away or : thus, captor^ coqpvr-^aciAT^iSutitr-^dM& 
J^or, d£ctpi, — reftctor, r^tci. 

( 41 ) 

Are the regular verba of the preceding four Conjugation$ always Eng' 
lished as in the above examples? They are not always so Englisfied; for, 

1. When continuation of a thine is signified, the tenses of the Active . 
Toice may be Englished otherwise man in the foregoing examples; thus, 

The ACTIVE VOICE^ Indicative Mood, Present Tense. 

1. Sing. Ego amo, I am loving, for, / love, or, do love. Sec. 

2. Sing. Ego doc^o, I am teaching, for, / teach, or, do teach, ice. 

3. Sing. Ego t^go, I am covering, for, / cover, or, do cover, See. 
^ _ 4. Sing. Ego audio, I am hearing, for, / hear, or, do hear, icc^ 

Certain parts also of the Passive voice, when conCtntuxtion of a thing is 
signified, are thus rendered in English: 

The PASSIVE VOICE, Indicative Mood, Present Tense. 

Domus csdificdtur, the house is building, not tfie houss is buUt; opus 
perftcitttr, the work is finishing, not is finished* 

n. The Perfect <$? the Indicative is oflen Englished as the Imperfect, as, 
numquam amavi hunc hominem, 1 never loved this man. Juv. 

^^ ni. The Perfect of the Indicative is very often Englished by HAD, after 
ant^quam, postqudm, u&t, or ut for postquam; as, ubi sicuit eong^riem^ 
when he Aoii cut the mass. Ut salutavit me, after he had saluted me. 

[IV. WILL, the. sign of the Future Active and Passive, is often express- 
ed by volo; as, volo audire te, I will hear you. Visne saltUari sicut S^'anus? 
will you, t. e. do you wish to be saluted like Sejanus? Juv. Will not^ is 
often expressed by nolo; as, nolo audire te, I will not hear you. 

''. V. MAY, CAN, MIGHT, COULD, WOULD, SHOULD, the mgna of 
the Present and Imperfect of the Subjunctive, are sometimes rendered in 
Latin by Itcet, possum, v6lo, dibeo, d^cet, oport^t, and the Infinitive, espe- 
cially when the sense is emphatical ; as, licetne mihi exire, may I go out — 
is it lawful for me to go out? Nu possum die^re quare, neither can I saj 
why ; Mart. LtcBrei tibi per me, you might for me. Ut quivis facile pos- 
sit credere, that any one cotUd readily believe. Certe velles ire mecumf 
surely you would go with me. Oportet Catonem esse fortem^ Cato should 

^be brave, Cato ot^ht to be brave.] 

^ VI. The Present of the Subjunctive, after cum, eur, dum, quam, fuod^ 
si, sin, nisi, etsi, etiamsi, quandoquidem, and ut, for quamvis, is often 
EngUshed like the Present of the Indicative ; as, cum &^am, when I go 
away. Scio causam cur dAcas ltd, I know the cause why you say so. See 
Syntax 76. 

Vn. The Present of the Subjunctive, after quasi, tanquam, is sometimes 
EngUshed as the Imperfect ; as, quasi intelMgarU, as if they understood. 

*^ VIIL The Subjunctive Present is often Englished by WOULD; as. In 
faeinus jurasse putis, you would think that they had sworn to eommit 
wickedness. Ov. JVt faciat, except he would do it Quid facias, what 
would you do ? Juv. Si cSdat ira mdi^, if the rage of the sea would • 
cease. Ov. With many other examples, which are to be found among the 
Latin poets. 

'DL The Subjunctive Present is {reqxienlfXy '£A!^\^<e^^ V5 ^CSVSVX^n <««.-. 

QuiM^-tempiretalaehrimis? Who could T©ft«Att?TOTi\\»^T%X Vxx^-,^^ 

fiadtm imu9 noetis, qui* fUnXra /ando expUc^t ? N^^*^ <i<*>»^ xwsSs^^ ^ 



( 42 ) 

slaughter of that night? Id. Non illud opus tenuUsima atamXna Dtufon/, 
the iinest threads could not exceed that work. Ot. Rector Olympi non 
agai ho§ curriis, the governor of Olympus could not drive this chariot. Ov. 

X. The Subjunctive Present is also Englished by SHOULD; as, Quid 
bdla surgerUia dicam ? Why should I mention the rising wars ? Viro. 
Quid tempeatdtea autiimni dicam? Why ahould I enumerate the storms of 
autumn ? Vitiia queia ignoacaa, foibles, which you ahould forgive. Cur 
ttri^r? Why ahould I endeavor? 

XI. The Future of the Indicative, and the Future of the Subjunctive, 
are very frequently used promiscuously ; as, Juvero aut conailio aut re, I 
will assist you either with counsel, or with money, dix^irit forUuae aliquia^ 
some one will perhaps say. 

XII. SHALL HAVE, the proper Engliah of the Subjunctive Future, 
are oflen both omitted, especially after conjunctions ; as, Si vic^ria coro* 

^ ndb^ria, if you conquer, you will be crowned. Si negaverit, if he denies it. 

Xm. The Future of the Indicative is also Englished like the Imperative; 
aa, ibia et r^/SrSa, go and tell. Virg. 

XIV. The Future of the Subjunctive is sometimes also used for the Im- 
perative ; as, T\t vid^ria, see you to it JV^ dixeria, do not say it. 

The ienaea of the SUBJUNCTIVE mood, with some conjunction, ad- 
verb, indefinite, or relative going before, are generally Engliahed like the ' 
same tenses of the Indicative. 

^ ' XV. TO, the sign of the Infinitive, ia moatly left out, when an Aeeuaative 

goes immediately before, and then the Infinitive is Englished according to 

the following examplea, THAT being put before it, but often underst^xU 

See the fourth Rule of Syntax, here fully exemplified. 

** Certain Verba require an Aceuaative Caae before the Infinitive Mood.** 

Petrua dictt te l^g^re, 
Petrua dixit te ligire, 
Petrua dicit te legiaae, 
Petrua dixit te legiaae, 
Petrua dint te lectarum eaae, 
Petrua dixit te lecturum eaae, 
Petrua dicit te lectUrum fuiaae, 
Petrua dixit voa lutams fuiaae. 

Peter says that you are reading. 
Peter said that you were reading. 
Peter says that you did read. 
Peter said that you had read. 
Peter says that you unll read. 
Peter said you would read. 
Peter savs you would have read. 
Peter said you would have road. 

2. Examplea of the verb Sum, esse, ftiissS, filttutbg. 

Dicit Comeliam eaae heatam, 
Dicit omnea viroa eaae heatoa, 
Dicit omnea pueUaa eaae beataa, 
Dicit puellaa fuiaae beataa, 
Dicit puellaa futuraa eaae beataa. 

he says that Cornelia ia happy, 
he says theU all men are happy, 
he says all girls are happy, 
he says th/xt girls have been happy, 
he says that girls will be happy. 

3. Examplea of the Infinitive Paaaive> 

Scio lulum amari, I know that lulus ia loved. 

Sdo lahim amatum eaae y. fuiaae, I know lulus haa been loved. 

SHo Eltaam amatum eaae v. fuiaae, I know Eliza haa been loved. 

Scio fratrea amatoa eaae y, fuiaae, I know brothers have been loved. 

Sdo a6rdrea amataa eaae v. fuiaae, I know sisters have been loved. 

S!eio/ratres amatum iri, I know that brethren wiU be loved 
45fcft? Mfn^es amatum iri^ 1 know that »B\«t% vnUUVjpwA. 

( 43 ) 


The Irregular Verbs are SUM, EO, QUEO, VOLO, 
NOLO, MALO, FERO, and FIO, with their compounds. 

SUM, ESSE, FVi, FUTURVs, to be. 

Ikdicativi Praesens. 

Ego sum, / am, 
tu 6s, thou art, you are, 
ille est, he is, 
nos sumus, we are, 
vos estis, ye are, 
illi sunt, they are. 

Sing* Imperfectum. 

Ego eram, I was, 

tu eras, thmi wast, you were, 

ille dr^t, he was, 

nos eramus, we were, 

vos Gratis, ye were, 

illi erant, tJiey were. 

Sing, Perfectum. 
Ego fui, I have been, 
tu fuisti, thou hast been, 
ille fuit, he has been, he was, 
nos fuimus, we have been, 
vos fuistis, ye have been, 
illi fu-erunt, v, -ere, they — 

Sing, Plusquamperfectum. 
Ego fuerdm, / had been, 
tu fueras, thou hadst been, 
ille fuerUt, he had been, 
nos fueramus, we had been, 
vos fueratis, ye had been, 
illi fuerant, they had been. 

Sing. Futurum. 
Ero, / shall, or will be, 
6ris, thou shalt, or wilt be, 
6rit, he shall, or will be, 
6rimus, we shall, or will be, 
Sritia, ye shall, or wM he, 
^runt, they sJuUl^ or will be. 

SuBJUWcnvi Praesens. 

Sim, I may or can be, let me be 
sis, you may or can be, may you be, 
sit, he may or can be, let him be, 
simus, we may or can be, let us be, 
sitis, ye may or can be, may you be, 
sint, they may or can be, let them be. 

Sing. Imperfectum. 

Essem, / might, could, 

esses, you might, could, 

essdt, he might, could, 

essemus, we might, could^ — 

essetis, ye might, could, 

essent, they might, could, - 

Sing, Perfectum. 
Fuetim, I may have been, 
fueris, you may have been, 
fuerit, he may have been, 
fuerimus, we may have been, 
fueritls, ye may have been, 
fuerint, they may have been. 

Sing, Plusquamperfectiun. 




' might. 












have, or had 




Sing. Futurum. 
Fuero, / shall have been, 
fudris, thou shalt have been, 
fuerit, he shall have been. 

Cu^nnt, they «UfliXl ^ww)e \>«nv^ 

( 44 ) 

Imferativi Praesens. 
Es, V. esto tu, he thou^ he you, 
esto ille, let him he* 
este, vel estote vos, he ye, 
sunto illi, let them he* 

IiTFiiriTivi Prsssens. 

Pres, Esse, to he, 
Perf. fuiss6, to have, or Jiadheen, 
Fut. futurum esse, vel fuissd, 
to he ahout to he* 

PARTicipnyM Jvturi. 

Futu-rus, -ra, -rum, ahout to he. 

The compounds of sum are ahsum, adsum, desumy inUrsum, 
ohsum, prosum, possum, suhsum, supersum; and inSum, which 
■ wants the preterites. 

Prosum, to he profitable, to profit, has a d before those parts 
* of sum which begin with an e; thus, prosum, prodSs, and not 

Possum, compounded of p6tis, able, and sum, is thus conju- 
gated : 

POSSUM, posse, pdtui, to he ahle, to can. 


Sing, Plur. 

Pres* Possum, pdtes, p5test, possumus, pdtestis, possunt. 
Imp. pdteram, pot-eras, -erat, -eramus, -eratis, -^rant. 
Perf, p6tui, pCtuistI, pCtuit, p6tu-imus, -istis, -erunt, v, -erd. 
PZwp. pOtueram, pdtueras, p6tuer-at, -amus, -atis, -ant. 
Fut. p6tero, pCteris, pCterit, p6ter-imus, -itis, -tint. 


Pres, Possim, possis, possit, posslmus, possitis, possint. 
^ Imp. possem, posses, posset, possemus, possetis, possent. 
Perf, pCtuerim, pCtueris, p6tue-rit, -rimus, -ritis, -rint. 
Plup. pCtuissem, p5tuisses, p6tuiss-^t, -emus, -etis, -eat. 
Fut. pdtuero, pdtu^ris, p6tudr-it, -imtis, -itis, -int. 


Pres. Posse, Perf. pdtuisse — Catera desunt. 


Eo, ire, ivi, itiim, to go. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres.Eo, is, it, imus, itis, eunt. 

^p. ib&iB, ibas, ibat, ibamus, i\wLl\s, \>mliv\., 

P^f^ IrJ, ivistif ivity ivimus, Iviatis, \\-^T>m\.^'»,-«i^, 

< 45 ) 

Sing. Plur, 

Plup. iveram, iv^ras, iv^r&t, iveramiis, iv^ratis* iv^rant. 
Fut. ib5, ibis, ibit, ibimus, ibMs, ibimt. 


Pres. E&m, eoB^ e&t, eamus, ^tis, gant. 

Imp. irem, ires, iret, iremus, iretis, irent. 

Perf. iverim, ivSris, iverit, iveriraus, ivSritis, iverint. 

Plup. ivissem, ivisses, ivisset, ivissemus, ivissetis, ivissent. 

Fut. Ivero, iv^ris, iverit, iverimiis, ivSritis, iverint. 

Pres. I, ito tu, ito ille ; ite, vd itote vos, ^unto illi. 

Pres. Ire, Petf. iviss^, Fut. iturum esse, v. fuisse. 

Pret. iens, G. ^untis, 
Fut. itu-riis, -r&, -rum. 



eun-di, -do, -dum. 


1. itum, 

2. itu. 

The compounds of £0 are &d8o, adire, adivi, adYtom, to go to. 

AbSo, ezeo, 5b$o, r^dSo, siib^, p^o, depSrSo, dispSreo, coSo, InSo, 
intSrSo, intro^o, anteto, prodSo, pnetSrto, transSo, circtLto; &diens, ade- 
untis, adeunduixL, Sec. but ambto, ambire, axnblvi, ambltttm, to surround^ \a 
a regular verb of the fourth conjugation. 

QUEO, quire, qulvi, quYttUn, to be able^ to ean^ is conjugated like EO. 

NEQUEO, nSquIrS, nSquIvi, nSquttOm, to cannot^ is conjugated like EO. 

QUEO and NEQUEO want the Imperative^ Participle*^ and Gerund*. 


VdLO, yell^ ydlui, to he trillings to will. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Vdlo, vis, vult, vdlumiis, vultis, vdlunt 
hnp. ydleb&m, vdlebas, vdlebat, vdleb-amus, -atis, -ant. 
Petf. vdlui, voluisti, vdlut-it, -imus, -istis, -enint, v. ere. 
Plup. y51ugr&m, vdlueras, voluc-rat, -ramus, -ratis, -rant. 
Fut. ydl&m, vdles, vdlet, vdlemus, vdletlfs, v6lent. 


Pres. Vglun, y^lis, yglit, v^limiis, y€Ul\ti, nI^VvqX., 
Jb|p. rellimy relies^ yell^t, veUemui, ^^\\e^AA^ n€>\«i3lV. 


( 46 ) 

Perf. v61uerfm, v6lueris, vfiluerit, v6luer-imus, -itis, -int. 
Plwp. vdluissem, voluisses, voluiss-et, -emus, -etis, -ent. 
P%a. voluero, vdluerls, vdluerit, vdluer-imus, -Itis, -int. 

Pres* Velle, Perf* y5luisse. Part* Pr<BS. vdlens. Catera desunt. 


NoLo,"^ nolle, nolm, to be unwilling^ to will not* 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Nolo, non tis, non vult, nolumils, non vultis, nOlunt. 
Imp. nolebam, nolebas, n^le-bat, -bamus, -batis, -bant. 
Perf. nolui, noluisti, noluit, nolu-imus, -istis, -erunt, v, -er3. 
Plup, n6luerS,m, nolueras, noluerat, noluer-amus, -atis, -ant. 
Fut.' udlam, noles, nolet, nOlemus, noletis, nolent. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres, Nolim, nolis, nolit, nolimiis, nolitis, nolint. 
Imp. noUem, noUes, nollet, noUemus, nolletis, nollent. 
Perf. noluerim, nolueris, noliierit, nolue-rimus, -ritis, noluerint 
' Plup. noluissem, noluisses, noluiss-et, -emus, -etis, noluissent 
Flit, noluero, nolueris, noliierit, nolue-rimus, -rltis, noluerint. 

Pres. Noli, nolito tu : nolite, nolitote vos. 

Pres.^ Kolle, Perf. noluisse, Part. Pres. nolens. Catera desunt. 


MALOit malle, maliii, to he more tnUing, to rather. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Malo, mavis, mavult, maliimus, mavultis, malunt. 
Imp. maleb&m, malebas, malebat, maleba-mus, -tis, -nt. 

* .Ydo IB compounded of non «&d tAlo 
t Malo is compounded of ma^t va^iftVi. 

( 47 ) 

Perf* malui, maluisti, malii-l't, -imus, -istis, -erunt, v. ere. 
P/t/p. malueram, malueras, malue-r^t, -ramus, -ratis, -rant« 
Fut, mal^m, males, malet, malemus, maletis, malent. 


Pres. Malim, mails, malTt, mallmus, malltis, malint. 
Imp. mallem, malles, mallet, mallemus, malle-tis, -nt. 
Perf. maluerim, malueris, maluerit, maluer-imus, -itis, -int. 
PZt/p. maluissem, malui sses, maluiss-et, -emus, -etis, -ent. 
FuU maluero, malueris, maluerit, maluer-imiis, -itis, -int. 

Pre9* Malle, Ptrf, maluisse. Catera demnt. 



Feso, ferr^, tuli, latum, to bring, to hear. 


Sing. Plur. 

Pres. Fero, fers, fert, ferimiis, fertis, ierunt. 
Imp. fereb^m, ferebas, ferebat, ferebamiis, fere-batis, -bant. 
Perf. tuli, tulisti, tulit, tulimus, tulistis, tiilerunt, v. tulere. 
Plup. tuleram, tiileras, tulerat, tuleramus, tuleratis, tulerant. ^ 
Fut. fer^m, feres, feret, feremus, feretis, ferent, 


Pres. Feram, feras, ferat, feramiis, feratis, ferant. 
Imp. ferrem, ferres, ferret, ferremus, ferretis, ferrent. 
Perf. tulerim, tuleris, tulerit, tulerimus, tuleritis, tulerint. 
Plup. tulissem, tulisses, tulisset, tulissemus, tulissetis, tdlitgent. 
Put. tulerOy tuleris, tulerit, tulerimus, tuleritis, tulerint. 


Prei. Fer,* ferto tu, ferto ille ; ferte, v. fertote vos, ferunto illi. 

Prei. Ftoe, Perf. tulisse, Fut. latiiriim ess^, v. fuisse. 

Pres. Ferens, 
Fut. latu-rus, -ra, -riim, 


feren-di, -do, -dum. 

1. latum. 
2- \al^ 

♦ Tb9 Laapentirea die^ tffte, /Sc, flu «« ^»«^ ^^^ *»*^ *^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

( 48 ) 


Febob, ferri, latus sum, vd fui, to he brought. 


Sing. " Plur. 

Pres. Feror, ferns, v. ferre, fer-tur, -imur, -immi, -untur. 
Imp. ferebar, fere-bans, v. -bare, -batur, -bamur, -bamini, -bantiir. 
Perf. latus sum, v, fui, latiis es, v. fuisti, <^. 
Plup. latus, eram, v. fuerILm, latus eras, v. fueras, <^. 
FuL fsrar, fe-reris, ». -rere, fe-retur, -remur, -remmi, -rentur. 


Pres, Ferar, fe-raris, v. -rare, -ratur, -ramiir, -rammi, -rantur. 
Imp. ferrer, fer-reris, v. -rere, -retur, -remiir, -remini, -rentur. 
Perf. latus sim, v. fuerim, latus sis, v. fueris, <^. 
Plup. latus essem, v. fuissem, latus esses, vel fuisses, 4*^. 
Fut. latus fuero, latus fueris, latiis fuerit, lati, d^G. 


Pres. Ferre, fertSr tu, fertSr ille ; ferimmi vos, feruntdr illi. 


Pres. Ferri, Perf. latum esse, vd fuisse, Fut. latum iri. 


Participle of the Perfect Tense, latus, lata, latum. 
Participle of the Future Tense, feren-diis, -da, -dum. 

These Compounds of febo are thus conjugated. 

AffSro, affdrre, attiili, allattLm, of ad and fero, to hring to, 
AtkfSro, auferrg, absttUi, ablatiim, of aba and f Sro, to take from, 
Differo, differre, disttUi, dilatiim, of dia and fSro, to put off. 
Conf i$ro, confen^, conttUi, collattim, of con and f ^o, to compare. 
Eff Sro, off drre, extiUi, elatiim, of ex and f 8ro, to exprcBs* 
InfSro, infsrrS, intttli, illattLm, of in and fSro, to bring in, 
OffSro, offerrS, obtiili, oblatiim, of ob and f Sro, to offer. 
The rest of the compounds, as, perf Sro, to endure^ antSf&o, cirettmfSro, 
praefero, profSro, transfSro, are regular. 
^ ■ . „ ■ 


Fio, fieri, factiis siim, v. fui, to he madcy to hecome. 

Sing. Plur. 

Pres, Fio, fis, fit, fimus, fitis, fjiint 

Imp. fieb&m, fiebas, fiebat, fie-bamiis, -batis, -bant 
Perf. factus sum, vd fui, factus es, vd fuisti, 4*^. 

'^'jffo is the Paamre of/aeio^ to makcy instead of factor^ which is not nted^ 
Aat all the componnda offSeto^ which c\iaxi|^ a mXA v^ro t^.^ax; a«i 
4^*^i^t qfftH^ cffe€tu9 mm, j»erf?c%or, perficl, perf «ctu» turn. 

( 49 ) 

Plup, factus eram, v. ftier&in, factus eras, v. fueras, 4*c. 
'Fut. fiam, fies, fiet, fiemus, fletis, fient. 

Pres, fiam, fias, fiat, Tamils, fiatis, fiant. 
Imp. fier«m, fieres, fieret, fieremiis, fieretis, fierent. 
Perf. factus sim, vel fuerim, factus sis, vel fueris, <J«. 
Plup, factus essem, vel fuissem, factus esses, vel fuisses, ^* 
Fut. factus fiierd, factus fueris, factus fuerit, facti, 4*^. 


Pres* Fi, v. fito tu, fito ille, fite, v. fitote vos, fiunto illi. 

Pres. Fieri, Petf. factum esse, w. fuisse, Fut. factum iri. 


Participle of the Perfect, fac-tus, -tS, -tiim. 

Participle of the Future, facien-dus, -da, -dum. 

To Fio, may properly be subjoined these 

SSleo, sbldrS, sdlttus sum, to uae^ to be accustom^, 
AvDEo, audere, austls sum, to dare, to adventure. 
Gaudeo, gauddre, gavisils, sum, to rgoice, to be glad. 
FiDo, fiderS, f Idi, flsus sum, to trust, to confide in. 
DiFFiDO, diffid^rS, diffldl, diffisils sum, to distrust. 
CoNFlDO, conf iderS, conf idi, conf Isils sum, to trust in. 
MoiREO, moerdrS, mcestiis sum, to be sad, to mourn. 


1. ABOLEO, duro, mdn^o, sisto, sapio, are sometimes nei^ 
ter^ sometimes active; as, mem6ria aboleverat, the remembrance 
had been lost ; abolere mem^riam, to blot out the remembrance ; 
supplicium manet te; punishment awaits you; siste s5rdrem, 
call my sister. Vibg. 

2. Common verbs. — Crimtndr, aspemdr^ cdmttdr^ ddmindr^ 
digndTy sectdr, stipiildr, fat^ory adtpiscdr^ under a passive ter* 
mination, have an active, or passive signification; as, cnminor, 
I accuse, or, I am accused. Ego meam rem s&pio, / understand 
my business. Plaut. 

^ 3. Verbs, redundant in termination, with different forms to 
express the same sense, are, — Assent^o, assenttor, — pdpulo^ 
pdpulor, — purgo, pUrgdri—fabrico, fabricdr^^-com'gM^>, cow^ 
pMifTi — partio, partidr,-~'4mperi%o^ impcrt\6rv--^a«ryfnw>^ W?nj- 
mOr, — mifr^o, m^r^drj-^^fnuni^ro^ muvXrw^ — ^nv>^ •jwc^ti— 

iwaiHOf luxurior. 

( 50 ) 


4. The following verbs are redundant in canjugatian. 













orens, on, 















6riris, 5riri, 















tueris, tueri, 















tueris, till. 

citum, to move. 

citum, to mote. 

5. EDO, to eat, is redundant, being like esse and those parts 
of sum which begin with e ; thus, 

IND. Pres. Edo, es, est, Plur. ^vos estis. 

SUB. Imp. Essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent. 

IMP. Pres. Es, vel esto, Plur. este, v. estote, Inf. Pres. ess& 

But ^do is also regularly conjugated like t^go, third conj. 
IND. Pres, Ed6, edis, edit, Plur. edimus, editis, edunt. 


I. A 10, 1 say, INQUAM, I say, FOREM, I might he, AUSIM, 
lean dare, FAXIM, I may, or, might have done it, AVE, haUl 
SALVE, hail! [your servant] CEDO, give me, tdl me, QUiSSO, 
I pray. 


Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

Aio, ais, ait, — ^Illi aiunt, Imp. aieb-am, -as, -^t, -amus, -atis, -ant. 
Per/. — tu aisti, ille ait. Sub. Pres. tu aias, aiat, — aiatis, aiant. 
Impes. ai tu, do you say. Part, of the Pres. aiens, saying. 


Sing. Plur. 

Ego inqu&m, inquis, inquit, inquimus, inquitis, inquYunt. 
J^jf. — illc inquieh&t, — illi inquiebant. Perf. inquisti, ille in- 
quit. I\it. inquiea, inquiet. Ihp«&. inc^ue, Vu^^Xo \m^ to^ KWm^ 
do /Aou say. Pamt. Pres. inquiens, saving* 

( 51 ) 

SUBJUNCTIVE, Imperfect, and Plupetfect. 

Sing* Plur. 

Ego fbr^m, fSres, fdret, fbremiis, f^retis, fbrent. 
Ego afR^rem, ajQfdres, afibret, aflTdremiis, afibretis, ajSbrent. 

IinriN. Fut. fiSre, to be, to be about to be, the same as fuiurum 

Infin. Fut, afifbre, to be, or, to be about to be, the same as fu- 
turum esse, 

Sing. Sing. Plur. 

Ego ausim, ausis, ausTt, Perf. faxim, faxis, faxTt, — ^faxint. 
Put. faxo, faxis, faxit, — yos faxltis, illi faxint. 
Note. Faxim, and faxo, are used for fecMm, and fec^ro. 


Sing. Plur. 

Ave, a veto tu, Svete, avetote vos, hail ye, Avere, to hail. 
Salve, salveto tu, salvete, salvetote vos, hail ye. Salvere, to hail. 

IMPER. Sing, cedo tu, tell thou, Plur. cedite vos, tell ye. 
INDIC. Pres. Ego quaeso, / pray, Plur. Nos quaesumus, ice 

II. ODI, MEMINI, CCEPI, are called Preteritive verbs, 
because they have only the Preterite tense, and those which are 
formed from it ; 

1. Odi, oderam, oderim, odissem, odero, odisse, to hate. 

2. Memin-i, -^ram, -erim, -issem, -ero, -isse, to remember. 

3. Coepi, coepe-ram, coepe-rim, coepissem, coepero, coepiss^, 
to begin. 

4. Nov-i, nov-eram, -erim, novissem, -ero, novisse, to know. 
Though novi comes from nosco, noscere, novi, notum, to know. 

But under these they also comprehend the signification of the 
other tenses ; as, m^mtnt, 1 remember, or, 1 have remembered ; 
odi, I hate, or, I have hated ; novi, I know, or, 1 have known ; 
c(Bpi, I have begun, but not ccepi, I begin. 

Part. perosOs, having greatly hated, exosHs, hating, hated. 

Ihper. Sing, memento tu; Plur. mementote vos, remem- 
ber ye. 

III. IND. Pres. Ddns^ and Farts, &re used ; but dSr and for are not. 
SUB. Pres. D&ns v. dire; fins y.f&ri seldom; d^r and fiir are never 


The compounds (iff6r, and ^r, are rare; addor Bnd redder are com- 

IV. Other Defective Verbs are but single "wot^*^ %xi^ vyia^. w^^V^^^ 
PoetB! at, Infit, he begins, deftt, if U wonting ; %1b^ iox iS. ^\^^\S >l«^ ^**^^ 

mltXatforu vultts, if ye wiU; aodds, for a\ aud^^il v*^ dott. 

( 68 ) 


ARE so called because the wwrd or Nominative^ which is either imdw> 
stood or expressed, before them, cannot be a person^ but a thing, 

1. Impersonal verbs are mostly used in that which is called the tftsrtf 
person singular., to which it, instead of he, is applied ; as, delect&t, i( itr 
lights^ dScgt, it heeomeSi conUngit, it happens^ expgdit, it prqfits. 

Impersonal verbs are also used, but rarelj, in the third person plural ; 
as, Parvumy parva decent* Hor. 






Pres. Delectat, 
Imp. delectabat, 
Perf. delectavit, 
Plup. delectaver&t, 
Fut. delectabit. 

















Pres. Delectet, 
Imp. delectaret, 
Perf. delectaverit, 
Plup. delectavisset, 
Fut. delectaverit. 

















Pres. Delectare, 
Perf. deleetavisse. 




Stat, prsstEt, 
* Vac&t, 


















2. Most Passive verbs may he used impersonally in the passive voice ; as, 
turbattlr, there is a disturbance, Viro. responddtiir, it is answered; creditor, 
it is believed; impSditttr, it is hindered; but more especially those which 
otherwise have no passive voice; thus. 


I. II. 

B is fought. It is provided. 
Pr. Pugnatur, Cavetur, 

Im. pugnabatur, cavebatur, 
/^ pugmtum eat^ cautiim est, 
/% pugnatiim erat, cautiim erit, 
^^pugnabitur. cavebitur. 


It is run. 
cursum est, 


Bis come* 

ventum est, 

( 5S ) 


Pr, Pugnetiir, C&veatur, Curratur, V^niatiir, 

/m. pugnaretur, caveretur, curreretur, veniretur, 

P. pugnatum sit, cautum sit, cursum sit, vcntum sit, 

PL pugnatum esset,' cautum esset, cursum, dz;c. ventum, 6ui. 

jFIu. pugnatum fuerit, cautum, &;c. cursum, 6£c. ventumy dec. 


Pr, Pugnari, Caveri, Curri, Veniri, 

P. pugnatum esse, cautum esse, cursum esse, ventum esse, 
jFIu. pugnatum iri. cautum iri. cursum iri. ventum iri. 

Turbatur, sedctur, surgitiir, servitiir, 

Erratur, Ridetur, Ambigitiir, Soevltur. 

Impersonal verbs have seldom the Imperative Mood. 


ARE sometimes Englished like Passive verbs ; thus, 
; I. Conjugation, Indic. Pres. iEgroto, / am sick, aegrotas, 
} thou art nek, aegrotat, he is sick. So exulo, to he banished , 

flagro, to be inflamed ; vapulo, to be whipt ; but otherwise are 

construed duro, to endure ; sto, to stand, dec. 

II. Conjugation, Indic. Pres. Valeo, / am able, vales, you 
are able, valet, he is able, &;c. So albeo, to be white, ferveo, to 
he hoif palleo, to be pale, ardeo, to be warm ; but otherwise are 
construed sed^, to sit, maneo, to stay, placeo, to please, dec. 

III. Conjugation, Indic. Pres. S^tugo, I am busy, satligis, 
you are busy, d^c. So assuesco, to be accustomed, calesco, to 
begin to be warm ; but otherwise are curro, to run, quiesco, to 
rest, vivo, to live, dec. 

IV. Conjugation, Indic Pres. SaevTo, I am cruel, ssevis, 
thou art cruel, dec. So insanio, to be mad. CaecutTo, to be hlind^ 
dec.; but otherwise are gcstio, to rejoice greatly; venio, to 
come, dec. 

Neuter verbs have commonly two participles ; the one in -ns, 
and the other in -riis ; as, veniens, coming, venturus, about to 

ARE Englished like Active verbs, and are of all conjuga- 
tions; thus, 

I. Indicative Pres. Ego opinor, / think, or do thihk^ tu 
5pinaris, dec. like dmdr. 

II. Indicative Pres. Ego fateSr, I confess, or do confess^ 
tu fateris, dec. like ddc^dr. 

III. Indicative Pres. Ego sequ6r, IfoUow, or do foll<no^ 
tu sequeris, dec. like t^gdr. 

IV. Indicative Pres. Ego laigl^T, I bellow^ ot d» "be^to^ 
m hargiria, 4&c. like amdUir. 


( M ) 

1. Dep6nent and eomnum Terbs haye generally four paiiiciples ; as, lar- 
l^ns, hutowing^ lar^turtts, about to hettow^ largittLs, having hetiowtdy or 
whjo have hestotoed^ largtendiis, to be bestowed ; dignans, vouchMcfing^ dig- 
natortis, about to vouchsafe^ dignattis, Aavin^ vouefisafed^ or who have voucA^ 
safed^ dignandil8,'/o be vouchsafed. 

2. Depdnent verbs have mostly gerunds and supines; as, N. largTfindliixi, 
bestowing^ 6. largiendi, of bestowing^ D. largiendo, &c. 

The supines, 1. largltilm, to bestow,, 2. largltu, to be bestowed, 

3. In some Deponent verbs, the Participle of the perfect hath both an 
Active and Passive signification, though that of the verb itself is only ac- 
tive ; as, testatus, having testified^ or being testified; so ezpertiis, meditatOs, 
mentitils, mddiUatQs, obllttis, veneratiis. 


A Participle is a part of speech derived from a 
verb, and always imports time. 

% All Participles with respect to declension are adjectives. 

% Participles in -n«, as, &m&ns, dttcfins, t^gens, audiens, are declined 
like felix. 

4. Participles, losing their signification of time^ become participial ad' 
jectiveSySLad admit of the degrees of comparison; as, amans, amantior, aman- 

5. Participles of the Perfect in -tus^ 'Sus^ 'xus, and the only one in "Uus^ 
mortuiis, are declined like J^niis, 

6. Participles of the Future, in -rus, -dus^ are declined like bonus, 

7. Participles in •duts, import necessity^ duty, or obligation, rather than 

8. It is essential to a participle, to come immediately from a verb. 

A participle generally includes time : therefore ignarus, ignorant, HUf* 
gans, neat, circumspectus, circumspect, /a/9u«, false, /7r^u«u8, prodigal, are 
not participles, because they do not signify time; and tunicatiis, coated, 
larvdtus, masked, and such like, are not participles, because they come 
from nouns, and not from verbs. 

9. The English of the Perfect Participle ends mostly in -rf, -t, or -n; 
as, loved, taught, seen; and consists of only one word, though being is some" 
times added to it ; as, amdtiis, being loved. 

10. A PARTICIPLE and a noun, without the addition of another word^ 
cannot make complete sense either in English or Latin ; as, I written, ego 
scriptiis, / seen, ego i^stts. 


AN ADVERB is a part of speech, joined in the 
construction^ to a noun^ adjective, verb, parttcipfe^ or 
^Aer advetb^ to express some circumstoifaie^ c^ua\\l>J^ 

( M ) 

or manner of their si^ification; as, splendYde, men- 
daz, commendably feme — nunc frondent sylvae, now 
the woods are green — b^nS, notdm, well known — baud 
ultro — not designedly. Hor. 

I. The following adverbs of quality, quantity, time, order, 
manner^ ^. occur frequently in the course of reading. 

ADEO, 80, 80 much, 
Admbdiim, very^ very much, 
AgS, come; come on; welly well. 
Alia, another way^ some other way, 
Altas, ont while^ at other times, 
Altbi, elsewhere^ in another place, 
Altter, otherwise^ after another way. 
Amplitb, nwrcy longer^ sooner. 
Bis, twice^ two ways^ two times, 
CflBtSriim, buty in all other respects, 
Ceu, as, even as^ like as, as it were, 
Ciio, suddenly, quickly, 
Claacttltiin, privily, secretly, 
CoeltttlB, from heaven, 
Comtniiii, nigh, at handy hand to hand, 
Consulto, purposely^ deliberately, 
Conttntlo, of course^ immediately, 
Cras, to-morrowy in time to come. 
Cor, why, whereforey for what cause, 
Dentqu^ Jinallyy lastlyy in short, 
Denuo, of newy anewy afresh, 
Dtn, diutius, longy a long time, 
Divinttiis, divinely y from God, 
Duntax&t, onlyy at least, to wit, 
Ecc^ to, beholdy see ! 
En, lOy secy behold ! 
Emtniis,yar offy at a distance, 
£o, to thatplaccy thith/:ry to such a pass. 
EodSm, to the sameplaccy to the same. 
ESqutdSm, indeedy trulyy verily, 
Ett&m, eUsOy even aSy yeSy yeay further. 
IRjtemplo, forthwithy instantly, 
Fermd, fSre, ahnosty nearly, 
F5rls, abroad, Fbras, out of doors. 
Ton, forte, perhapsy by chance, 
Fors&n, forsttUn, perhaps, 
Fortass^, fortassis, perhaps, 
Frostra, inc&sstbn, in vain, amiss, 
FundYttis, from the groundy utterly, 
Hac, this wayy by this wayy this place, 
Hactfintts, hitherto, thus far, 
Haud, not, in no wise, Non, not, 
Hiirl, yesterday, hie, here, illic, there, 
HddU, to^ajfy hue, hitker. 

IdentidSm, now and then, 

InjQria, wrongfully, 

Intdrdiim, S,ltquando, sometimes, 

Tnt($roa, in the meantime. 

Interim, in the meantime, 

Itertim, agairiy repeatedly. 

Intro, withiny intus, within. 

Jam, nowy already y immediately. 

Jam, by and byy hereafter, 

Latine, in Latin, 

LoDg6, at a distancey by far, 

Maxime, chieflyy mosty yes, 

M ddius fidiils. Mecastor. 

Mehercle. Pol. ^dSpol. 

Min'ime, leasty not at ally no way. 

M5do, onlyy providedyjust now 

Mox, immediatelyy by and by, 

Ne, whether? [interrog.] 

N6, noty [forbidding] as, ne timS. 

Nd — quidem, not eveiiy not so much as, 

[These two never stand together."] 
Nffi, verilyy trulyy yes. 
NempS, that t», surelyy namely, 
N6 dum, mucli less. 
Ndquaqu&m, not at all. 
Nimis, too muchy nam iiim, too much 
Nirairtlm, namelyy indeed, 
Nondiira, not yety not as yet. 
Nonntlnquam, sometimes. 
Nunqu&m, 7ieo^,nunquam non, ever* 
Obviam, to meet, in the way. 
Glim, at present, 
iOIim, in time past, formerly, 
'Glim, in time to come, hereafter, 
Omnino, whollyy yeSy altogether, 
Par'itgr, equally y alsOy in like manner, 
Partim, partly y in part. 
Pariim, littUy ill, not well, 
TAullsper, a little while, paulo, a littU 
PdnS, almosty nearly. 
PSntttts, entirelyy altogether, 
Perqu&m, very much, 
[Potto, moTtorer^ f \iT\>vCTTft»n.. 
PcteltldlCk^tHe dan ^^^' 

HmoMBttUs, as befaUs men, oi men tw JPfttm» ipJC^iaVinxxm^ toXV^tx tVvt^S 

( 56 ) 

Pnesdrftn, eapeeialli/, chiefly* 
Pnesto, here^ on the spot. 
Pridie, the day before^ pridem, lately, 
Primo, primiiiB, JirsU 
Prbcul, far off^ far from, 
Prbfccto, truly^ indeed^ certainly, 
Prttpe, near^ almost^ nearly, 
PropgmSdiim, almost^ nearly, 
Prorsiis, quite^ altogether^ wholly, 
Puta, suppose^ to wit, 
Quando, when ? at what time ? 
Quarto, quartiim, fourthly. 
Quasi, a£ if as it were^ like, 
Quater, four times, 
Quemadhibdum, after what manner. 
Qui, how? quid, why? quoad, tUl, 
Quidcm, indeed^ truly. 
Quo? whither^ to what place? 
QuOd, that^ because, 
QuOminiis, that^ from^ not-that. 
QuOmbdo ? how ? after what manner? 
Qubties, Aow o/ifen.? Interrog. 
Qu5ti6s, as often as. Indef. 
Recens, newly ^ freshly^ lately.' 
Rursiim, again^ on the contrary, 
Rursiis, again^ a second time, 
SeBpe, sBBpitts, ssepissime, often. 

S&t, s&tt8, enough^ sufficient^. 
Scilic)$t, namely^ that is to say. 
SScundo, sectmdtim, secondly. 
S^mel, once, never but once, 
Senaim, perceptibly^ by degrees. 
Seorsum, apart^ separately, 
Simtil, together^ also, as soon as, 
Soliim, only, Solummbdo, only, 
Speci&tim, especially,, particularly, 
Sursum, upwards^ up, above, 
Tanquam, as if as well as, 
Tantum, only, so much, 
TantOmmbdo, only, 
Ter, thrice, three times, 
Temere, temeriter, rashly, readily, 
Tbties, so often. 
Tunc, turn, then, at that time, 
Ubi? where? in what place? 
Ubique, every where, 
Una, together, along with. 
Unquam, ever, at any time. 
Usque, till, always, even, as long as, 
Vespere, vesperi, in the evening, 
Vicissim, by turns, alternately, 
Viritim, man by man, separately, 
Vix, scarcely, hardly, with difficulty. 
Vulgo, commonly, publicly 

II. Derivative Adverbs compared somewhat like their prim* 

Acriter, acrtiis, ac6rrtm6, sharply, earnestly, 
JEgTQ, BBgriiis, BBgerrime, feebly, hardly, with difficulty, 
f. Audacter, audacitls, audacissime, boldly, daringly. 

Bene, meriiis, optime, well, rightly, luckily, 
Celeriler, ceJeritts, celerrime, quickly, hastily, 
Cito, citiiis, citissime, suddenly, quickly, swiftly. 
Diligenter, diligentiiis, diligentissimfi, diligently, carefully, 
D'lO, diafitis, diatissime, a long time, a very long time. 
Facile, facilitts, f acillime, easily, readily, without much tido, 
Feliciter, felicius, felicissimS, happily, luckily, fortunately, 
Forlitgr, fortitts, fortissim©, bravely, courageously, 
JticOnde, jiicundiiis, jacundissime, pleasantly, merrily, gladly, 
Leniter, leniiis, lenissime, mildly, gently, patiently, 
LSviter, ISviiis, levissime, lightly, carelessly, slightly* 
Libenter, libentius, libentissime, willingly. 
Magnified, magnificenttus, magnificentissime, grandly, 
Magntim, magis, maxtmS, greatly, more, chiefly. 
Mais, pejtts, pessim6, badly, improperly, unfortunately. 
MultUm, plus, plurimtim, much, more, mjost, very much, 
Pridgm, pritls, prlmtim, lately, some while since. 
Partim, mintts, minimfi, little, but a little, too little, ill, 
Pr5pg, prbpttls, proximfi, nearly, near at hand, hard by, 
SaJabritSr, salabriiis, salftbgrrim©, htalihfxdly^ safely, 
Ten&citSr, tenacitis, tSnacisstmfe, firmly., relentioely. 
l/tTlXt^r, txtilifis, atilisstme, prqfitahly., usefuUt). 

( 67 ) 

1. Adverbfl ezpreis compendiously in one word, what must otherwise 
h&Te required two or more : as, hie, for hoc loco ; semper, for omni tern* 
pori, L&tine, in Latin, for Latina lingua, in the Latin tongue, 

2. Hine, abhinc, inde, unde, are sometimes used for adjective*, and rela- 
tives; as, hinc, for ab his, — inde, for ^us, — unde, for cujuSi — quo, — ^tit- 
hus, — quorum, &c. 

3* Certain nouns and verbs are sometimes accounted adverbs; as, nU, 
nihil, ricins, puta, — nihU ille deos, nil camnna curat, Virg. SUi ricins 
orto — quomodo, i, e, (quo modo) quamohrem — ob quam rem ; sciticet — scire 
Hcei — ^illico — in loco; magnopiri; — magno opM ; videlicet — vidire licet; 
iUicet — Ire Ucet ; nimirum — ni [est] mirum ; quari — qua ri, &c. 

4. Interrogative Adverbs of time and place, doubled, or compounded 
with the adjection cuNauE, soever, are thus Englished, iibiubi, or vincun- 
que, wheresoever : and the same construction holds also in certain other 
words; as, quisquis, or quicunque, whosoever; quantiis quantiis, or quan' 
tuscUnque, how great soever ; iilut for uteunque, however. 


A PREPOSITION is an indeclinable part of 
speech, set before a noun; as, aptus ad amicitiam^ 
fit for friendship; omnibus in terris^ in all the coun- 

Prepositions are so called, because they are generally placed 
before the noun to which they are joined. 

Prepos^Uions joined with no noun, become adverbs; as, ante, 
formerly, post, afterwards, contra, on the contrary. 

These twenty-eight Pkefositioxs are set before the Accusative 


I. Ad, to, according to. 
Apttd, at, near, aynong. 
Ants, before, since, ago, 
Advdrsiis, against, towards, 
AdvdrftLm, against, towards. 
Contra, against, contrary to, 
Cis, citra, on this side, unth^mt. 
Circa, circtLm, about, round, 
Erga, towards, opposite to. 
Extra, ufithout, beyond. 
IntSr, between, among, in time. 
Intra, vsithin, on this side. 
Infra, beneath, below, 
JuxUkt according to^ near i 

Juxta, nigh to, near, 

Juxta, by, [hard by."] 

Ob, for, on account of. 

Propter, for, on account of. 

Per, by, through, during, among, 

PrstSr, besides, except, contrary to, 

PSnSs, in the power of. 

Post, after, behind, since, 

PonS, after, behind, 

SSctis, by, nigh to, 

SocOndtUn, according to, near. 

Supra, abwe, before, 

TranB, betioud^ wer^ wrt t\wt «*^«» ^^^ 

TJltn^ /artKer > IteyoinA. 




These fifteen Prepositions are set before the Ablative. 

De, concerning^ after, 

E, rf^from, out of. 

Ex, oftfrom^ out of 

'PTC>yfor, instead of, 

PraB, before, in comparison of, 

Palam, vjith the knowledge of. 

Sin^, without, 

Tentbs, up to, as far as. 

II. A, from, 6y, after. 
Ah, from, by, after, 
Abs, /ro?n, by, after. 
Absque, without, \butfor,'\ 
Ciim, with, along with. 
Clam, without the knowledge of. 
Coram, before, before the face, 
Dd, of, about, respecting. 

III. These four are set sometimes before thB Acctuative, and sometimes 
before the Ablative case. 

— In, in, among, into, towards, against, SUb, under, stiper, ahove, sub- 
t&T, beneath. 

Versus, towards, also governs the Accusative, ad being understood. 

IV. These are called Inseparable Prepositions, being never found but in 
compound words ; am, round, dl, asunder, dis, asunder, r^, again, siy aside, 
ton, together. 


Ambto, to surround, 
Divdllo, to pull asunder, 
Distraho, to draw asunder. 

Rglggo, to read again, 
Sepono, to lay aside, 
Concrdsco, to grow together* 

Prepositions, in composition, frequently retain their original significa- 
tion; as, adeo, I go to; abeo, / go away, I go from; ingrSdlor, / erUer, 1 
go into ; yet 

1. In, in composition, frequently expresses negation; as, impr^bo, to 
disapprove ; iniquus, unjust ; Insequalis, inequal ; inaudax, cowardly ; but 

2. In, in composition, sometimes increases the signification ; as, infrac- 
tUs, greatly broken ; incantis, very grey ; incurvtis, very crooked, 

3. Per often signifies very ; as, permagntls, very great, much. 

Per sometimes deprives; as, perfidtb, /rcacAcroiM; perjXloc^, perfured, 
'^ 4. Pra also sometimes signifies very; as, praedlves, very rich; prseval^ 
to be very strong, 

5. Sub, commonly lessens, in composition, signifying little ; as, subtris- 
tts, a little sad; subridSo, to laugh a little, to smile, 

6. Ob, has sometimes the signification of malS, bad; as, obnuncio, to teU 
bad news ; to give unfavorahle reports, 

7. De frequently has the signification of deorsum, doum ; as, dectdo, to 
fall down; descendo, to go down. 

8. De sometimes signifies ^rea%, or much; as, de&iao, to love greatly ; 
ddmlrSr, to admire much. But . 

9. De sometimes changes a word to an opposite sense, and signifies pri- 
vation ; as, ddmens, mad ; ddcQlbr, discolored, 

10. Ex sometimes increases the signification ; as, exclamo, to call aloud; 

11. Ex also signifies /?maf ion; fUi,ezB9sigVLiBt without blood; eic&nlmo, 
to discourage, to dishearten, 

12. Prepositions in composition frequently change^ lose^ or 
assume some letter, or letters ; as, trdjtcio, for transjido^ prd^ 

d^^se^ for proesse; r^d^o^ for r^eo ; indig^o, for inHgeo ; pM^ 
^0, for perlucio; occtdOy for obeido ; comburo^ (ot oowiMro; 
^^ forprdlavo,' occtdoy for obcido. 

( 59 ) 


AN INTERJECTION is an indeclinable part of 
speef % thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to 
express a sudden and irregular passion^ or affection ; 

Some Interjections express 

1. Grief; as, Ah ! hei ! heu ! eheu ! ah! alas! ah ! oA/ ahah! 
% Wonder; as, Papae ! O strange ! Ehem ! hah ! proh ! oh ! 01 

3. Praise ; as, Euge ! well done I O brave / 

4. Exclaiming; as, Ah! pro! proh! OI Eja! away/ 

5. Imprecation; as, Vsb! wo/ alas/ alack/ 

6. Laughter; as, Ha/ ha/ he/ 

7. Aversion; as, apage, azcay/ begone/ 

8. Rejoicing; as, lo! huzza/ evax! ho/ brave/ 

9. Calling; as, heus! so/ ho/ soho/ do you hear/ 

These nouns and verbs are also used as interjections. 

Q^<Bso/ malum/ sodes/ ac turpe/ et dmdbo/ n^fdsqne. 

Some Interjections are natural sounds, and common to all 
languages ; as, oh / ah / O/ 

Interjections sometimes express a whole sentence in one 


A CONJUNCTION is an indeclinable part of 
speech, which joins sentences together, and therebyli^ 
shows their dependence on one another. 

Some Conjunctions are called 

1. Copulative ; as, et, ac, atque, and; etiam, quSque, item, 
also; cum, tum, both, and. Nee, neque, neu, neve, neither, 
nor. Et, both, et, and. 

2. Disjunctive ; as, aut, ve, vel, seu, sive, either, or. 

3. Concessive; as, etsi, etiam^i, tametsi, licet, quanquiim, 
quamvis, though. 

4. Adversative; as, sed, veriim, autem, &t, ast, atqui, 
but; tamen, attamen, verumtamen, yet, nevertheless, notvnth- 

5. Causal ; as, nam, namque, emm, for; qui^, quippe, qud« 
niam, because; qu5d, that, because. 

6. iLLATri'E ; as, ergo, igitur, ideo, idcirco, it^que^ therefore , 
prolnde, therefore; cum, quiim, seeing, when ; c^^\i^&ojj».^«»^ 
seeing that, since, forasmuch as, 

7. Final ; as^ ut, uti, that^ to ilie end tKot^ «o tVA* 

( 60 ) 

8. Conditional ; as, si, if, sin, but if; dummSffo, promded, 
upon condition that ; siquidem, if indeed. 

9. Suspensive, or Dubitative ; as, an, anne, whethery niiin, 
whether, anne, whether, not ; necne, or not. 

10. Exceptive, or Restrictive ; as, ni, nisi, unless, except. 

11. Diminutive ; as, saltern, at least, certe, at least, surely. 

12. Expletive ; as, autem, vero, but, truly; quldem, equldem, 

13. Ordinative ; as, deinde, thereafter; denique, fnaUy; 
insiiper, moreover; caeteriim, but. 

14. Declarative ; as, videlicet, silicet, nempe, namely. 

15. These conjunctions, que — ve — ne — and, or, whether, 
never stand alone. They are called Enclitics, because they 
throw back the accent upon the foregoing syllable, if it be 
long, as, 

Indoctusque pilcB, disctve, trdchive, qutiscit. HoR. 

But the Enclitics qu^, v^, ne, joined to a s?u>rt vowel, do not 
affect its pronunciation ; it still remains short, as, 
Arbut^os fatus, montdndqiie frdgd Ugebdnt. Ov 
Tantdne, vos gin^ris t^nuU fiducia vestri. Virg. 
Signdque sex fdribus dextrls totidemque sinistris. Ov. 

Note 1. The same words, as they are taken in different views, are both 
adverbs and conjunctions ; as, an, anne^ num, are suspensive conjunction0» 
and interrogative adverbs ; but as they are both indeclinable, we need not 
be very exact in distinguishing them. ^ 

2. Other parts of speech compounded^ supply the place of conjunctions, 
or adverbs ; as, post^a, afterwards ; praeterea, besides ; nihilominiis, newr- 
theless; qvLomm^, that, from ; t6\6t&, in reality, indeed. 

3. These conjunctions, according to their natural order, stand first in a 
sentence ; Ac, atque, avt^ vH^ <ioe, ai^ sM, verum, nam, qwmdoquxd^m, 
quocirca, quare^ sin, slquidem, prasttrquam. Sec. 

4. These conjunctions and adverbs, ^nim, aut^m, viro, quoque, qutdtm, 
contrary to their natural order, always stand the second words in a sen- 

( 61 ) 


THE Genders of Nouns are known by their significcUion, or 

Rules to know the Gender by the signification. 

What Nouns denote a HE, are masculine, 
But every SHE cis female, we decline. 


BuHriSy Ajdx, CcBsdr, Phorhds, Didmedis. Rex, consul. 
PenthSsUea, sdror. Dido, Sirenque Thalia. Ux6r, mulier. 

But 6pera, a man-slave, copiae, forces; vigiliaB, watchmen; 
sie feminine; and mancipiiim, scortum, prostibulum, servUiumy 
are neuter, deriving their gender from their termination. 


Months^ rivers^ winds^ and mountains^ pass for hes, 
Trees^ countries^ cities^ ships^ and isles^ are shes. 


Martms HIC Hebrus, Zephyrus, pariterque, CUhcBron. 
Popidus, JSm^nia, et Roma, HMC Centauries, dt Andrds. 

Are all the names oi months, rivers, winds, and mountains. 

masculine ? No. 

Rhdddpe, Matrdnd, ^ 
JEtnd, Lethe, Sina. 


What hills or rivers end in e, or a. 
Are mostly yemaZe*, except Crim&rd. m. 

Some names of mountains and rivers derive their gender from 
their termination; as, Peli'dn-i, n. (also m.) Soract-i-is, n. Ismar 
droriim, Dindym-d-orum, n. <Sf*c. HMC Styx, Stygts. But Ardr 
Nor, and Adrid, the names of rivers, are masculine. 

Are all the names of trees feminine ? No. 

Call Rhamnus, Spinus males, and Trees in -st^r. 
Trees neuter end in -wr, and some in -^r. 

HOC Acer, Rolmr, Siler, atque SubSr, 
HIC vel HMC Lotus, •Cytisus, Ciiprissus, 
HIC vel HiEC Dumus, Rubtts et Ldrix; sed 

HIC Oleaster. 

By thete rules, well committed to memoiy w^^ \mA!Bts^ali^^^^ %\xy^«cN. 
hjra a. solid fbund^tion ; Without whkihi uo onft C9iXi\^ ^^jwd^^^^. «kJwJ«^* 

( «« ). 

Are all the names of countries feminine ? No. 
PontuSy a country of the Lesser Asid^ alone is masculine. 

Are all the names of cities feminine? No. 

1. Cities in i, and 6, and AgrdgdSj 

Are males ; -^, -Z, -wr, -wm, for neuter pass. 

Ut CrdMl, Sulm6y C<BrS, HispdJ, Tihur, Aqutniim. 

Give other examples of cities in — i » u m. 

2. Delphi, Feif , JRu^t, jPrw^tno, LugdunUm, EbordcHm, 
CarUdlum, Edinhurgum, Londinum, Oxonmrn, Tusdilim, 
AnxUr, a city of the Volsci, is both nuiscidine and neuter. 

Are all other names of cities feminine ? No. 

Cities in -usy making -untis in the Genitive, are masculine. 

3. HIC Amdthus, et Opt/«, C^rd^u^que, Tun^^que, Cdnopus, 

4. Totrn^ in i singular and a plural, are neuter; 
As nether decline Gadir, Argds, and Tuder. 
IllUurgi, Artdxaid, Bactrd, Ecbdtdnd, Hierdsdlymd. 

5. AhyddSj the name of a city, is both masculine and feminine* 
Are all names of islands of the feminine gender ? No. 

6. Sdson, Sasonis, the name of an island, is alone mo^euZtne. 


. Rules to know the Gender by the termination, or, ending. 

V\\aivDk feminH generis sunt nomin^ primcB; 
Sed dubil talpa ac ddmd; neutrum pdschd requirit. 
f Sin fuerintve ndtentve, m^res, tu mdsculd dices; 
Biblidpold, prdphetd, scribd, scurrd, pdetd ; 
Adrid mas aequor, pariterque cOmetd, pldneta. 


1. HI mares, — as, — €s Lycidas, Achates. 
FeminaB HM multse, ut DsmkequS Lachne; 
Candac^ mitts; MeiQequS dives, 


2> iBneas, Anchises, Archytas, PythagOras, Hylas, Amjmtaa. 
B6r€as, Leucates, Lycftbas, Polites, Philoctetes, larbas* 

S* Patronfmica in -des, ut Atridts maacuVaL «>\mlo 
PatroDymlctL in -ne ut iVerin€ mu\V€V>i\a svmto^ 

. ( 68 ) 


1. The second has males in -ir^ -cr, and -us ; 
As^ vir, puer, ager, HIC dominus. 

\ Feminina excepta, 

Alvus H^C, vannus, ddmus, ac ^remus, 
Carbasus, nardus, diametrus, ArctOs, 
Ficus, €t byssus, syn6dus, p&pyrus 

RiU diphthongus, di&Iectus, balus, 
RUi crystallus, methddus^z/^, ndta 
I Ex Odos ; costus, pharus, dc h^aniaque 

HMC siH qiuBTunt, 

Dubia excepta. 

HIC vel HMC dondnt ^tdmus, c&melusy 
Barbitus, grossus, cdlus et ph&selus, 
HIC vel H^C dondt balanus cdpUlis 

Pr€ssd vinustis, 

Neutrd exceptd, 

HOC melos, virus pelagus, ch^os dant; 

Valgus at HIC, HOC. 

IL All nouns with netMrs place, that end in -um, 
Except such prefer names as Glycer*um. 

To this Declension do belong, Lesbds, Naxds, 

Greek terminations -ds^ -dn, -os; Alpheds, Eleds. 

On is neuter; as, IliOn^ Alln6n, harhUdn. 

But masculine are -d^, and -o^. AndrdgSds, AtJtos, 


1. The third has m^tks in -cr, -or^ -o^, -w, -o, 
Most nouns axe feminine in -rfo, and -go. 

ImhBr^ dZorque Idhos^ HIC ren^ leoy imdgo, cupido, 

Exceptd Neutrd in -^, dr, -as* 

Gingiber, laser, pip^r, dtque tuber, 
Spinth^r, et cicer, lav^r et cadaver, 
Verbdre HOC sequOr, sis^r aiqtU maxmot) 
/ Vb6reic6rt ver, it€r, Oe, &d6rque« 

O.S9U6 papaveT. 

( «4 ) 

Fimirdnd et neutra in -oTj -os^ -n, -o. 

Arbdr, HMC arbos, c^rd, dantque cos, dos, 
Alcyon, sindon, et aedon, icon. 
Pollen, HOC unguen ddbU aique gluten, 

HOC simul inguen. 

Masculind in -<2o, -go, 

HIC daMnt cudo, ligo, tendo et ordo, 
HIC dabunt mkrgo, fSrus et Cupldo, 
HIC dahU mango ^mtd aique cardo ; 

Grando sed HiEC dat. 

11. Verbals in -io HjEC likewise procure^ 

HjEC, -as, -aus, -es, -is, -x, and -s impure. 

Lectio^ libertds, laus, rupes, vallis et arx, mens. 

Mascullna in -io. 

Ast in 'io^ num&rum aut corpus signdntid ddnt HIC. 

Terni6, pugio, gobio, it histrio, centurio^MC. 
Artdcreas neutrum; sic vas, vasisqueyw^iirMm/ 
ChrcRca di in as, -knils fiicientid masculd sunto, 
Ut Phorbas, AtMmas, elephas, adamas^z^^ gigas^ue. 

Vas vddis, mas HIC simid as ^Stlssis. 
Assis et partes putd bessis, jnoybint; 
HIC triens, sextans, stmul dtqui quadrans, 
HIC deunx, quincunx, pdrUerque dodrans ; 

Uncia dt HMC est. 

Neutra in Ss. 

iEs, SBiis, neutrum; neutra Jubc in -es haud vdrtantur, 
Hippdmanes, panaces, nepenthes, cum cacdethes. 

' Masculina in -es, 'is, -x, -«. 

Rex, Phoenix, bombyx, chalybs, varix, 
Grex, vortex, sorex, volvox, calix, 
] Gryps, cespes, hylax, limes, ensis, 
Glis, fomes, torns, gurges, mensis, 
5. Dis, Phaeax, vepres, vermis, vertex, 
Bes, callis, caulis, fustis, vervex, 
Mons, spadix, rudens, vectls, foUiSy 
Pons, term^, axis, t&]^, colUs^ 
N&talis, fornix, l^bes, QAufifi, 
10. Satell^s, verresy irldena, poWex, 

{ 66 ) 

Lienis, auspex, sentis, apex, 
Dens, orbis, codex, remex, l^tex, 
Pes, palmes, popl^s, stipes, tram^Sy 
Phryx, p&ries, caudex, tudes, am^s. 
t 15. Seps, unguis, magnes, sanguis, pulex, 
Thrax, frutex, miirex, hydrops, culex, 
Acinaces, postis, piscis, fascis, ' ^ 

Fens, coccyx, lapis, cJmex, cassTs, 
, r All nouns in -nis ; aSy panis, igniSy 
20. Cucumis, natrix, vomis^ thorax, 
And auceps, merops, torrens, ramex. 

IIL JVouns in -c, -a, -Z, -c, -/, -ar, -men, -wr, -«*, 
May with the neuter kind be class'd by us. 


LdCj dtddemay animal^ mdrSj sinciput, hspar, et agmen* 
Murmur^ ^hury n^tts, et thusj jungito neutris* 

I Masculina, in -7, -ar, -us, -men. 

Conafil HIC mugil salar, atquS furfur, 
j Turtur it vultuis lepiis, atquS sol, mus, 
Pus^u^, composta HIC tribuent ; l&gopus 

£L£C p^ii ttsque^ 

Sal is masculine and neSter ; Flamen and Hymen are fMiscU' 
line; halec (a kind of pickle) is found ^/emtmne and neider* 

Femintna in -us, 

H^C ddbunt tellus, pecus, et juventus, 
Servitus, incus, ddbit H^C senectus ; 
H^C s§,lus, virtus, palus * atque subscus 

H^C simul optant. *Hor* 

HIC vel UMC. 

The poets these for males or females take, 
Just as it serves their turn for verse^s sake. 

Lynx, bubo, perdix, amnis, finis, 
Calx, limax, obex, torquTs, cinis, 
Scrobs, pulvlts, clunis, pumex, sandix, 
C&nalisy corMs, ftdeps, imbrex, 
I Sdipfl, gnu, et nlex, angvita, cotVax^ 
Pftlumbisy seipeiiB, lint&C) Vni^Vi* 

( 66 ) 

TJiese are common, HIC et HiEC. 

Some nouns there are a general sense that have^ 
Denote each sex, and so both genders crave. 

Conjux dtquS parens, infans, p&triielis et hseres, 
Affinis, vindex, judex, dtix, miles, ^t hostis, 
Augur ^t antistes, jiivenis, conviva, sacerdos, 
^_ Muni^u^ceps, vates, &d5lescens, civis ^t auctor. 
Gustos, nemo, c5mes, testis, sus, bos^t^^, canis^e, 
Interpres^M^ cliens, princeps, prses, martyr, it obses, 
Praesiil, homo, praeses^ue dpifex, ales^t^^'-sddaljs. 

These nouns are reckoned common in signification, but 

not in construction. 

Advena, ruric5la atque senex, juvenis^ue lanista, 
Exlex, fur^t^ pedes, cocles, rabula atqui hdmiciday 
Agricdla, auriga, index, praesul, transfuga^ lixa, 
Pincerna, assecla, dc opifex, eques, hospes, it obses, 
Interpres, princeps, conviva, pu^l,.vigil, exul, 
Inc51a, Trojugena dc prses, Indigena dtqui Latinus, 


JS'ouns of the fourth in -m are masctdine, 
But those in -w as neuter we decline. 

Feminina excepta. 

Querciis, ^nUaqui tribus, s5criis, H-^C nuriis, HiE simiil idus. 
Porticus HiEC, d5mus, et manus, ILEC acus diqtii r^ulrutU. 

Femtnind secundae et quartse. 

Ficus €t pinus, (cSliis it cupressus, 
HIC vel HiEC) laurus, ddmus atqui cornus, 
Flexiris quarta pdrtter secunda, et 
HiEC tiM donant. 

Peniis and specus are m.f. or n. and of the second^ thirdy and 
fourth declensions. Nom. Hic, ks:c, hoc penus, G. peni, 
penus, et pen5ris — declined like ddminiis, fructus, and nemus. 



Plurim& femmei generis sunt nomlni quintse ; 
His at dempt^ videbia nempe m^riqueiit^ HIC : 
HIC aut HJEC numgro ptiino ; isX 131 tvXfe «&«»&» 

( 67 ) 


Nomin^ quae v&riant, vel deficiunt, superantve 
Casibus, aut §,lias ; isthsec heteroclita sunto. 


1. Dindymus, Taygetus, Tandrus ^ are masculine in the sing. 
McmdlOsy PangcBuSj Ismdrus, > but neuter in the plural, 
Masstciis^ AvernOs, Tartarus ^ J To these add Gargdrus, / 

2. Fraenum and Idcus, wiih rastrum and jdcus, hi, el kmc. 
Have fraeni and loci, with rastri and joci, hi, et hjec. 
And fraena and loca, tcitk rastra and joca, hi, et hmc. 


Hoc sunt Neutrd singular! ; masciila et femtnind plurali. 

3. Argds HOC ccelum, elysium^u^ ddnt HI, 
Balneum frigens epulum H^ r^quirunt 
(Balnea at neutra Juv^nalis inquit) 

Delicium^ue. ^y 

4. CarbdsHs vero H^C p^riter sUpellex^ 
Pergdmus quondam Prtdmi pdtentis ; 
Pergdmd at Tnmm numero diiali 

Neutrd leguntur. 


D€clindt^idn^f g^n&ri^ numero et cctsu dicta sunt. 


QuaXid sunt semis^^ smapi it Moly^u^ gummi, 
Et p^^grina ; Ut Hebron, Eliezer, Machir, Abijam, 
LU^{B; dt Alpha — fru^, nequam, tot, qu5t, 6puaque, 


Inquies, expes, potis, inci-tas, -ta, * 

Compede,* ambage, inficias, €t astu, 
Fauc^ cum pondo ; v^^o^que sexto, 

" Illtus ergo." 

Dicis, ^ nauci — ndmfyi^d quarttB, 
Jussu ^ injussu, simul et relatu, 
Et diu, noctu, admdnitu^u^ promptu, 

JungUo natu. 


( 68 ) 


Hsec mddd ddnt casus diid hir, vdlupe atqu^ nScesse, 

Inst^r ^ /stu,* vespere vesper, tt impete, spdnte, 

Impetis, ^ spontis, etc verbere verberTs,f 6ptat» 

Jugeris ordt jugere, fors it forte riquirit. 


Dot tabi, tabo, repetundarum, repetundis, 
Siippetise ddnt suppetias, chaos dtqui cMo dot, 
InferiaB ddnt Tnferias, paulum ddtd paulo, 
Tantundem format tantldem, mille^t^e milli. 

5. DIPTOTA, quae Genitivo plurali carent. 
Rufa, fores, maria, ora, ambages, aera^t^^ doles. 

6. DIPTOTA non variantia. 

I Pd^que nifds^ ip6sy atque milosy Tsmpe cacdethes; 
iV«?, nihil et gratis, cete nunquam ^rSriantur. 
Instar, adorqu^ necessum — ^plura his forte videbis. 


Dot sordis, sdrdem, sorde ; dtqui viciaqui, vicemque* 

Et vice, ddtqui preci^w^ precem^rtt^ prece ; et di-c^ -cam -caau 

Dot mactus, macte et macti ; dc opis dc ope, opem ddt, 

, 8. TRIPTOTA, GHiiivo, DativOy Ablativo plur. viduS. 

Cassibus spectes viduata trinis 

Rus metus, mel, thus, it hyems, simiil far : 

Nomina et quintce, nisi res dies^ue, 

Q^(B diid servant, 

9. NOMINA quae Gen. plur. c&rent. 

Fax^ti^ vicis, labes, lux, proles, ffex, 86h6lesqiief 
AiquS necis : sol, solum ; os, orum, non im^nda* 

10. NOMINATIVI i>bsdl€H. 
Frux, peciis, HMC ditio, nex, daps, vix InvirMnlMr. 

^ Sing, N. Hoo ABftiiy Ace asta nomen urbis. 

fiur. N. rerbMj 6. verb&ttm, D. VQr\)^\>^MK''«c\:^£a^%Mu 

( ©9 ) 

Haec niiineris netUrd binls sed cass& vTdentur. 

Deg^ner et puber, vil pubes, pauper, ^ uber. 
Disc5]5r atqu^ memorqu^, tricorpor, compds ^ impos, 
JEt dives, Idcuples, sospeaqu^j bipes^u^ silperstes, 
Perpes, praepes, hebes, deses, reses, €t teres, ales ; 
Junge vigil) supplex, sons, insons, comis, inops^t^e, 
Intercus^^, redux, impubis, seminecis<2'U6. . 
Carter at 6bs6lU — H^C victrix, altnx, stmul HOC plus. 

NOUNS, which mostly want the plural: 

All proper names (1), and times of life (2), 
With vices (3), which have caused much strife, 
Herbs (4), metals (5), liquors (6), nouns abstract (7), 
Grain (8), virtues fair (9), and terms of art (10), 
Things weighed (11), or measured (12), want the plural^ 
Though of such nouns admit not sure all. ' 


(1) JEneaSy Anna^ &c. except they be plural only; as, 
Gracchi, the Gracchi; (2) juventiis, youth, senectus, old age; 
(3) avaritia, covetousness, ebrietas, drunkenness; (4) apium, 
parsley, algS, sea-weed; (5) aurum, gold; plumbum, lead; (6) 
oleum, oU, saliv^, spittle ; (7) magnitude, greatness, longitudo, 
length ; (8) ad6r, wheat, piper, pepper ; (9) justiti^, justice, 
temperantia, temperance; (10) m^dicin^, physic, the515gi&, 
divinity; (11) gluten, glue, cera, wax; (12) arenIL, sand, sal, 

Nouns, which cannot, with good sense, admit of the plural 
number, generally want it ; as, sanguis, blood, aer, the air, &c. 
yet the poets frequently, for the sake of the measure, use the 
plural instead of the singular* 

Distributive numbers, as singiili, bint, temi, want the sing. 

PUrtqu^ and pauci, the plural, are often used ; but plerus- 
que and paucUs, the singulars, are rarely found. 

MtisdUd sunt tdntum h(Bc niim^rd c^ntentd s^cundo 

' Furfures, manes, lemures, et artus, 
Aique majores, superi^ue cani, 
Inferi, fines, pr6ceTesque vcpres, 
Codicilli, antes, Luceres^tie sentes, 

Atque Penates. 

Ccelites, fsLScesquS f5rl, mmores, 
Posteri, fastus, ^miil dc Quirites, 
Liberi, luSiqu^ sliles, &moTea, 
Atgn^ iiatales, partt^qu^ caaaeE, 


7" a. o < i 

( 70 ) 

H(Bc suntfemin^i g^nSrts num^riqui «^cuii<K. 

Literse, partes, phalerse^u^ bigae, 
Et facilitates, tenebrse, plagsB^ue, 
Nundinse, nugae, induciae, salinae^ 


Feriae et nonae, salebrae, calendae, 
Et minae, dirae, dc apinaegu^ valvae, 
Cyclades, thermae, exuviae atqu^ cunaSy 


Sic d^pes, fruges, Dry&des^^ gerrse, 
Ac fores, idus, decimae dtqu^ scalae, 
Nuptiae ac aedes, scatebrse, qu&drigae, 


AiquS fortunae, excubiaB^t^^ lactes, 
SicquS Chelae, Alpes, Charites^u^ Gades, 
Ac 5pes, tricae, insidiae^e vires, 


Atque Cumae (urbes) Ulubrae^'tt^, Thebad, 
Sic Mycenae alia, liquidae^t^^ Baiae, 
Elt graves Cannae, ceUhres Athenae ; 


Sic et Minturnaegt^^ Fidenae, Acerrae, 
Formiae, Nursae, Capuae, Calesque, 
Parcae it Antennae, Str5phades^t«e dirae, 


Eumenides, furiae^ue fUcetiae &. induviaegt^e, 
Primitiae, iGsquiliaegue Hyades, nc munditiae^tie. 

Rarius Jubc primo, pluralt neutrd Uguntur. 

Lautia, principia ei b5n^, ^icqui crepundia, scruta, 
Compita et intestina, juga et lament^^u^ tesqua, 
Castra ac hyberna dc, aestiv^^t/^ rnuni^, flabra, 
JEY praecordia, lustra, ^ serta ac drgi&, justa, 
I Anna, exacta, ac rostr^, Ceraunia, mMtitia atquet 
Biblia et aulaea, ac c6nchyli&, pasciiHy sacra ; 
Bellaria atque repotia, «ic cunabtila et exta* 
ComUi-a, -drum, an assembly of ihe whole Roman peoph. 

At vix hoc primd plUrali neutrd Ug&ntwr* 

Mcenii, tompdrfi, sic sponsali^, viflcei^SL^ junge 
f/fdr&gr br^?ra, aiju^ magalia, U ''\m (Mrir ^pA. 

( 70 ) 

H<Bc suntfemtnH g^nSrts num^riqu^ s^cundU 

Literae, partes, ph&lerse^u^ bigae, 
Et facilitates, tenebrse, plagsB^ua, 
Nundinse, nugse, inducise, sallnsB) 


Feriae €t nonse, salebne, calendse, 
Et minse, dirse, dc apinsegu^ valvsB, 
Cyclades, thermae, exuviae atqu^ cunaSy 


Sic dapes, fruges, Dry&des^^ genrsB, 
Ac fdres, idus, decimae dtquS scalae, 
Nuptiae ac aedes, scatebrse, quadr^ae, 


AiquS fortunae, excubiaB^t^^ lactes, 
SicquS Chelae, Alpes, Charites^u^ Gades, 
Ac 5pes, tricae, insidiae^jt^ vires, 


Atque Ctimae (urbes) Ulubrae^ti^, ThebaB, 
Sic Mycenae mUBj liquTdae^u^ Baiae, 
Et gravis Cannae, c^Uhris Athenae ; 


Sic et Mintumaegt^^ Flfdenae, Acerrae, 
Formtae, Nursae, Capiiae, C^lesque, 
Parcae ^t Antennae, Strdphades^ue dirae, 


Eumenides, furiae^ue fUcettae H induviaegtie, 
Primitiae, iGsquiliae^t^ Hy^des, nc mmi^iiiBque* 

Rarius Jubc primd, pluralt neutrd UgurUur* 

Lautia, pnncipia et b5n^, Hcqu^ crepundia, scruta, 
Compita et intestina, juga it lamenta^u^ tesqua, 
Castra ac hyberna dc, aestiv^^^ inuni^, flabra, 
Et praecordia, lustra, ^ serta dc drgi&, justa, 
[ Arma, exacta, dc rostr^, Cerauni^, mMtitia atque^ 
Biblia it aulaea, dc c6nchj^li&, pasciilly sacra ; 
Bellaria dtqui rep6tia» sic cunabiila & exta* 
Comiti-&y -drum, an assembly of the whole Roman people. 

At vix Jubc ptimd pUarali nefOrii UgSmXur. 
Mceni&f tempdr^, sic sponaaliS., viecer& ; junge 

( 71 ) 

HaBC ndmin& eandem slgnificationem plurali, saepius &pud 
pdetdSf quam singulari, sibi arrdgant. 


Alt&, c6m8B, currus, cervices, inguin&, rictus, 
Et tedae, thalami^t/^, t5ri, jejunia vultus, 
Orft, jiibse^^ ignes, Hymensei, teinp5r&, mores, 
~ PectcJrS, keu/ 6dia; atquS cr^puscula, r6b5r&, terga 
Exilia, dc irse, €t connubi^, nummS, eolla, 
Gaudii., hjBtdy aundqui sTlenti^, llmina, H orae, 
Littora, ephippi^^ue otia, corpora, guttura, cnmis, 
Regna, r5gl, perjuri^ ; tsedi^, prsemift, corda. 

"^ REDUNDANTIA Nominativo. 

H(Bc quasi luxurtdnt vdrtds imttdnttd, fbnnds* 

Dot baculus baculum, clypeus clypeum^ti^ c5metes, 
Atqu^ comets, tiara, tiaras, materies^ue 
Materia, dc elephas elephantus, barbitus atqtte 
Barbitds, dtque ltd barbitdn, et cinis dtquH ciner dot. 
Fdrmdt hdnos &> honor, labdr, dtqu^ l^bOs^t^ r^quiritj 
^ Panthera dc panther, vomis ddt vomer ^ uncus, 
DatquS propheta prophetes, it cuciimis, cucumer ddt, 
Tignum et tignus, ddos 5d5r et, crater^^u^ crater. 
Arb5r et arbos, ^Ether, ^Ethera dc usqu^ r^qtnrunL 
Teucrus *^»irTeucer, M eleagrus sic M eleager. 
Delphin, delphinusque lienque lienis h^bebit. 

REDUNDANTIA cdsihus dbliquis. 

Calcha-s, -ae, et Calchantis, Gang-es, -se, et Gangis. 
Euphra-tes, -tee, et -tis, Mulci-ber, -beri, ^t Mulciberis. 
Angipor-tus, -tl, et -tus, vas (vasis) plur. v&s^, vasorum. 
Juge-rum, -ri, et jugeris, AbL jugere, plur, juge-ra, -rum. 
Ti-gris, -gris, ^ tigridis ; requi-es, -etis. Ace. requiem. 
Pe-niis. -ni, -nus, -jidris ; specus, specl, specus, specdris. . 

Sufficiant pueris hsec, si discantur ad unguem ; 
Cum multis quae jam prisci meminere Poetae. 

( 72 ) 



JlVI prcetSrtto ddhit ATUM pnmd sUpino. 

VERBS of the first conjugation form their perfect tense in 
•am, and supine in -atum; as, 

Amo, ^mare, amavi, ILmatiim, to love. 


Sper5, fatigS, noto, castigo, vindico, euro. 
-^stimS, velo, fugo, laudo, v6cd, vulnerS, muto. 
Placo, patro, celo, improhd, vito, litigo, sedo. 
Et rogo, velo, puto, invoco, pulso, nego, p^r6, mando. 
ImpetrS, concito, devoro, sublevo, vendico, colo. 
Denego, c6nv5c6, comparS, denotd, praBgravd, fundo. 
Colligo, derogo, comprobd, H indico, dono, trucido. 
Commuto, appello, educo, H efiero, kt dbser5, lego. 
Aggero, delego, alqu^^ revelo, supputo, privo, 
Et 16cd, collocd, destino, culpo, coronS, laboro. 
Commodd, despero^u^ saluto, milito, nudo. 
Formido ac elimino, dedecSro atque decoro. 
Irrito, fortuno, inspico, verbero, luxo. 
Instigo, extrico, profligo, devoro, sano. • 

Commigro, demigro, mitigo, sibilo, copulo, navo. 
Persevere, perseverare, perseve-ravi, -ratum, to hold on, 


Do, dare, dedi, datum. Compounds sal%8'Circum-'pe8sun-''o^«um* 
Cubo, ciibare, cubiii, ciibitum, to lie doum, to go to bed. 
accubd, deciibS, incubo, occubd, procubS. C. recubo, to recline. 
SoUQ, sdnare, sonui, sonitum, to sound, to ring. C. ad. con. in. 
assQn5, consono, insdno, persono, resono, desono, circumsono. 
Ton6, tonare, tonui, tonitiim, to thunder, to roar, C. ad-circum. 
att6n6,circumtono, intono: retdn-o, -are, -ui, 'itum,to sound again. 
D5mo, domare, domui, domitum, to tame, to conquer, C. e-per. 
perddmo, perdom-are, -ui, perdomitum, to subdue entirely. 
Veto, vetare, vetui, vetitum, to forbid, to hinder: C. none. 
Crepo, crepare, crepui, crepitum, to crack, to make a noise. 
discrepo, discrepare, discrepavi, et discr^p-ui, -itum, to differ. 
increpd, increpare, increpavi, et increp-ui, -itum, to chide* 
Mico, micare, micui, — to shine, to glitter, C. inter-pro- but 
emicd, emicaref emicui, emicatum, to leap out. Viso. 
^unico, dfmicaref dimicavi, dtimicatum, to Jvght, to slnriiMiV. 

( 73 ) 

Sto, stare, steti, statiiin, to stand, C. — stiti, -stitum et -statum. 
obsto, obstare, obstiti, obstitum et obstatum, to hinder, C. ad-con- 
Jiivo, juvare, juvi, jutum, [juvatum] to help, C. adjuvo. 
L^vo, lILvare, lavi, lotum, lautum et lavatum, to wash, C. of the 3d. 
diliio, dlluere, dilui, dilutum, to wash, temper, mix, C. pro-e-di. 
FrTco, fricare, fricui, frictum, to rub, C. defrico, r^frico-in. 
Plico, — ^plicare, to fold, to knit together, C. du-tn-multi-re-sup. 
duplico, triplico, multiplico, replico, supplic-o, Jiave avi-atum. 
applico, complico, implico, have -ui, -itum, and -avi, -atum. 
explico, explicare, explicui, explicitum, to spread out, unfold. 
explico, explicare, explicavi, explicatum, to explain, interpret, 
Seco, secare, seciii, sectum, to cut. C. con-de-dis-cx-re-se-inter. 
Neco, necare, necui, necavi, necatum, to kill, to slay, C. e-inter. 
eneco, enecare, enecavi, et enecui, enectum, enecatum, to slay, 
interne-co,-care,-cavi,-ciii,-ctuni,-catum, to put all to the srcord, 
Poto, potare, potavi, potatum, et potum, potus sum, to drink, 
Labo, labare, — 4o waver, tofaU, decay, Nexo, nexare, — to knit. 

Sicut AMdnflictis hoc deponent la prima. 

Asperndr, scrutor, ven6r, furor, l^cvXorque, 
Ac epiilor, mddulor, versor, contemplor, 6pinor, 

^'Assentor, meditor, causor, palor, medicari, 
Ampullor, Isetor^ua adversor, scitdr, &dulor. 
" 5. Sic op^rOr, solor, mordr, dtior, ac miseror vos! 
Lamentor, jocor, it poplalor, luctor, peregrinor, 
Rusticor, insidior, rixor, modulor, minor, hosti, 

^ Mirdr, §.qu6r, stomachor, vag6r, aemuldr, aucupor, efibr. 
Grassor, abominor, et veneror, precor, usqu^ reluctor. 

^ 10. CcJmminor,^* commissor, prsestolor^t^e peculor. 
Crimmor aJbqii^ lucror, tutor^t*^ negotldr, hortor. 
Sciscitor it cunctor, percontor, morigeror nam, 
Prssdor, et arbitror, amplexor, domindr^t^ recordor. 

^ Conspicor it nugor convivor, convitior non, 

15. Gratulor et stipiilor, grator, mercor^t^^ refragor. 

_ SuspiccJr dc imitor, conor, rimor, spatior nunc. 
Auspic5r, it testor, diversor, machinor artes. 
Gloridr, it conflictcJr, it imprecdr, auxilior^ue / 
Sermdcindr, famulor^ue, interpreter ore serind, 

20. Halliicindr, frustror, scurror, plscor, speculor nunc, 
Bacchdr, consilior, juvenor, ratiocinor apte, 

^ Jurgdr, feridr, execr5r, indignor^u^ supindr. 
Suayfor dtqu^ c&lumni5r : aversor, stipiilor jam* 
Mutiior. Hisplura augurdr Inv^mencUi mdelAa* 

( »4 ) 


AUird prcdinto ddt UI, dclt ITUM-qui slipind. 


MONEO| m5nere, m^nui, m^nitum, to warn, to inform* 
admdneo, comm5neo, subm6neo. Prsemdneo, tojorewarru 
Praebeo, praebere, praebui, praebitum, to afford, to give. 
IVIereo, merere, merui, meritum, to deserve, to merit, C. con. 
commereo, demereo, emereo, prsBinereo. Promereo, to oblige. 
Debeo, debere, debui, debitum, to owe, to be in debt, to be due. 
Terreo, terrere, terrui, territum, to affright, C. abs-de-con-per. 
Habeo, habere, habui, habitum, to have, C. change a into i. 
adhibeo, adhibere, adhibui, adhibitum, to apply, to use, C. con. 
cohibeo, cohibere, cohibui, cohibitum, to curb, refrain, keep. 
exhibeo, exhibere, exhibui, exhibitum, to show, to exhibit. 
inhibeo, inhibere, inhibui, inhibitum, to hold in, to restrain. 
perhibeo, perbibere, perhibui, perhibitum, to affirm, to say. 
prohibeo, prohibere, prohibui, prohibitum, to forbid, debar. 
rddhibeo, redhibere, redhibiii, redhibitum, to take back, but 
posth&beo, posthabere, posth&bui, posthabitum, to postpone. 


Jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussuin, to bid, to command, to order. 
Sorbeo, sorbere, sorbui, sorptum, to sup, to swallow, C. ab. 
absorbeo, absorbere, absorbui, absorptum, [ex-re want suptne»»'\ 
Doceo, docere, d5cui, doctum, to teach, C. ad-con-de-e-per-siib. 
perdoceo, perddcere, perdScui, perdoctum, to teach perfectly. 
Arceo, arcere, arcui, — to drive, C. con-ex, turn a into e. 
coerceo, coercere, coercui, coercitum, to restrain, to cotfine. 
exerceo, exercere, exercui, exercitum, to exercise, to practise. 
Miaceo, -ere, -ui, mistum, mixtum, to mix, Q. ad-com-in-inter. 
r^mis-ceo, -cere, -ciii, remistum et remixtum, to mix again. 
Torreo, torrere, torriii, tostum, to roast, C. extorreo, to dry. 


Teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum, to hold, C. change e into a. 
retin-eo, -ere, -ui, retentum, to retain, C. con-de-dis-ab-sud, sub. 
attmeo, pertineo : abstin-eo, -ere, -ui, to abstain, want the sup. 
Foveo, fbvere, fovi, fotiim, to cherish, C. con-re-foveo. 
Mdveo, mdvere, movi, motiim, to move, C. di-e-prd-per-rMoHM* 
Vfiveo, v6vere, vovi, votum, to vow, or wish, C. dev6veo« 
PJeo is obsolete; C. expleo, explere, explevi, expletum, tofiL 
sup'pleOf -plere, -plevi, -pletum, to 8upplt|) C. ^om-^^Axsir^ii^'^ 


( 75 ) 

These Verbs in DEO double the perfect of the Simples, but not 

of the Compounds. 

Mordeo, mordere, m5m6rdi, morsum, to bite, Ck ad-de. 
remordeo, remordere, remordi, remorsum, to bite back. 
Pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensum, to hang, C. de-im-pro. 
dependeo, dependere, dependi, depensum, to Jiang on, depend* 
Spondeo, spondere, spospondi, sponsum, to promise, C. de-re. 
respondeo, respondere, respond!, r.esponsum, to answer, 
Tondeo, tondere, tdtondi, tonsum, to clip, C. at-circum-de* 
detondeo, detondere, detondi, detonsum, to clip off. 


Mulgeo, mulgere, mulsi, mulsum, mulctmn, to inilk,C e-im. 
Urgeo, urgere, ursi, — to urge, C. ad-ex-per-sub. 
Mulceo, mulcere, mulsi, mulsum, to stroke, C. de-per-re. 
Torqueo, torquere, torsi, tortum, to twist, C. dis-ex-re. 
Tergeo, tergere, tersi, tersum, to wipe, C. abs-de-ex-per. 
CTeo, ciere, civi, citum, to move, to stir up, C ac-con-ex. 
excieo, exciere, exclvi, excitum, to excite, to summon, 
Augeo, augere, auxi, auctum, to increase, C. ad-ex. 
Lugeo, lugere, luxi, luctum, to lament, C. e-pro-sub. 

-" DEO— MEO— LEO. 

Video, vTdere, vidi, visum, to see, C. in-per-prae-pro-re. 
Timeo, timere, timui, — to fear, C. per-sub-ex. 
Deleo, delere, delevi, deletum, to blot out, deface, expunge* 
Sileo, silere, silui, — to be sUent, to be calm. Active and neuter 

^TEO— CEO. Active and neuter. 

L&t^o, latere, latui, latitiim, to lie hid, C, all want the sup* 
deliteo, delitere, delitui, — to be hid from, to lie hid from. 
interlat-eo,-ere, -ui, — ^perlat-eo, -ere, -ui, — sublat-eo, -ere,-ui,— 
Taceo, tScere, tacui, taciturn, to be silent, C. turn & into i. 
contic-eo, ere-ui, obtTc-eo, -ere-ili, -retyc-eo, -ere-m, without sup 

^ VEO— CEO— REO— DEO— GEO. Transitive. 

C&v^o, cSvere, cavi, cautilm, to beware, C. praecaveo. 
Faveo, favere, favi, fautum, to favor, to be propitious. 
Ndceo, ndcere, nocui, ndcitum, to hurt, to injure, 
Pareo, parere, parui, paritum, to obey, to be subject to, C. ap-com* 
Pl&ceo, placere, placui, pl&citum, to please, C, com-per ; but 
dispUceo, displicere, displi-ciii, -citum, to displease, turns d into T. 

Sti^eO) studere, studui to study, to desire eamestl^^dxjfM^^ 

8uad^, suadere, suasi, suasum, to admse, C ^x^-'^x^nsa.^^^* 
ladulg&o, ittdalgere, indulsi, indu\tum,to indulge^ t« caTW«- 


( 76 ) 

Neuteb Vebbs in LEO— REO— CEO. 

Doleo, d5lere, dolui, ddlitum, to he grieved, C. con-in-per. 
conddleo, conddlere, condolui, condolitum, to sympathize with^ 
perdoleo, -ere, -ui, -itum, to be much grieved, C. eon-in. 
Careo, carere, c^rui, caritum, cassum, (cassus sum) to want. 
Liceo, licere, licui, licitum, to he valued, (a singular verb.) 
JS,ceo, jacere, j^cui, [jacitum] to lie, C. ad-inter-prae-sub. 
Exdleo, exdlere, exolevi, exoletum, to grow out of use, to fade* 
inoleo, inolere, inolevi, inol-Uum, et -etum, to grow into use* 
Obs51eo, obsolere, obs51evi, obsoletum, to fade, to be^qfut of use. 

Neuter Verbs in LEO — ^NEO. 

01^0, olere, olui, olitum, to smell, C. ob-re-sub. 
5boleo, obdlere, obolui, obolitum, to smell strong of 
reddleo, redolere, red51ui, redolitum, to send forth a smell. 
siibdleo, subolere, subolui, subolitum, to smell a little. 
Ab51eo, abolere, abolevi, Obolitum, to aholish, to destroy. 
Ad51eo, adolere, adolevi, adultum, to grow up, (to bum.) 
Co&leo, coalere, cdalui, coalitum, to grow together, coalesce. 
VSleo, valere, valui, valitum, to be strong, C. aequi-con-in-prae. 
Fleo, flere, flevi, fletum, to weep, C. afleo, adfleo, defleo. 
Neo, nere, nevi, netum, to spin. Neuter, and also Active. 
Maneo, manere, mansi, mansum, to stay, C. e-per-re. 

Neuter Verbs in DEO— REO— SEO. 

Rideo, ridere, risi, risum, to laugh, C. ar-de-ir-sub-rideo. 
Hsereo, hserere, hsesi, hsesum, to stick, to stay, C. ad-co-in. 
Ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsum, to burn, C. exardeo, inardeo. 
Censeo, censere, censui, censum, to think, to show an opinion. 
suc-cen-seo-sere-censuIrpensum,to5ean^2// C. accenseo, to ode?* 
recens-eo, -ere, recensui, recensum, to rehearse, to survey. 

Neuter Verbs in DEO— GEO— CEO. 

Sedeo, sedere, sedi, sessum, to sit, C. of sedeo, change ^ into X. 

C. as-sideo, con-dis-in-ob-pos- ^br potis, prae-re-sub-per-sideo. 

circum-sideo, [vel circumsedeo] -sedi-sessum, to besiege. 

Super-sideo, [vel supersedeo] sidere-sedi-sessum, to forbear. 

Prandeo, prandere, prandi, pransum, [pransus sum] to dine. 

Fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi, — to glitter, to shine, C. af-ef-pwe-rS-intcr. 

Algeo, algere, alsi, — to be cold, to catch cold, to be starved. Juv» 
FrigSo, frigeref frixi, — to be cold^ C. perfrigeo^ refrigeo* 
Turj^^o, turgercy tursi, — to «ioe2Z, to be puffed up, to "be <viveni« 
Xf, jQcere, luxi, — to shine^ to give UgHt, C* ^4i^-^\A-^«^* 

( ri ) 

Neitteb Vesbs which want the Supines. 

o-ere, albui, to he white. M arce-o-re, marcui, to he feeble* 
-ere, arui, to be toithered. Nigr-eo-ere, nigrui, to be black* 

$o-ere-ui, to be hard, know. 
o-ere-ui, to be warm. 
-eo-ere-ui, to be red hot* 
kS-ere-ui, to be grey* 
^o-ere-ui, to be famous. 
>-ere, egui, to need, want. 
-eo-ere-ui, to be needy. 
•eo-ere-iii, to be eminent* 
eo-ere-ui, to be afraid. 
eo-ere, ferbui, to be hot. 
i-eo-ere-ui, to bear leaves. 
30-ere, florui, to flourish. 
-ueo-uere-iii, to be faint. 
•eo-ere, licui, to be melted. 
BO-ere, madui, to be wet. 

Nit-e6-ere, nitui, to be bright. 
Pall-eo-ere, pallui, to be pale, 
Pat-eo-ere, patiii, to be open. 
Pute-o-re, putui, to be nauseous. 
Putre-o-re, putrui, to be putrid. 
Rig-eo-ere, rigui, to be stiff. 
Rub-eo-ere, riibui, to be red. 
Sil-eo-ere, silui, to be silent. 
Splend-eo-ere, -ui, to be clear. 
Stup-eo-ere-ui, to be amazed. 
Tep-eo-ere, tepui, to be warm. 
Torp-eo-ere-iii, to be dull. 
Tiime-o-re, tumui, to be swelled. 
Vir-eo-ere, viriii, to be green. 
Vig-eo-ere, vigiii, to be lively. 

TER Verbs which want both the Perfects and the Supines. 

, avere, to be eager. 
o, calvere, to be bald, 
y, cevere, to fawn on. 
§0, densere, to thicken. 
o, flaverc, to be yellow. 
le-o-re, to gnash the teeth. 
eo, glabrere, to be bald. 
o, hebere, to be dull. 
io, humere, to be moist. 
!0, lactere, to stick milk. 

Liveo, livere, to be black ^ blue. 
Nideo, nidere, to glitter. Obs. 
Promin-eo-ere, to stand out. 
Polleo, pollere, to be mighty* 
Renid-eo-ere, to shine* 
Scateo, scatere, to be full* 
Sordeo, sordere, to be mean* 
Squal-eo-ere, to be nasty* 
Strideo, stiidere, to roar, crack* 
Uveo, uvere, to be moist. 


Deponent Verbs of the second conjugation. 

>r, fateri, fassus sum, to confess, Comp. turn a into i. 
teoT, confiteri, confessus sum, to confess, C. con. 
)or, difiiteri, difiessus sum, to deny, disown, C. dis. 
eor, profTteri, prdfessus sum, to profess, declare, own. 
►r, liccri, licitus sum, to value, to offer a price, to bidfor* 
or, mederi, medicatus sum, to cure, to heal, to remedy* 
)r, mereri, meritus sum, to deserve, C de-com-e. 
eor, misereri, misertus sum, to pity, to have mercy on. 
;Sor, polliceri, pollicitus sum, to promise voluntarily* 
reri, ratus sum, to suppose, to judge. Deriv. irritus. 
', tueri, tuitus sum, to defend, to behold. Q. \\!^!s^^\^ 
T, v^reri, verituB sum, to fear. C. lleN«t^Qt, wiXsn'est^vst. 
r, videriy visua sum, to ^eem, to appear. 

( 78 ) 


PrcBtSntifdrmOsqng Supini has tertiA posdt. 


F^cio, flcere, feci, factum, to do^ to make, C. turn a into i shorL 
perficio, perf icere, perfeci, perfectum, to finish, C. af-con-in. 
afiicio, afflfcere, affeci, affectum, to affect, to influence, C. con-pro. 
ofHcio, oflficere, offeci, — to hurt, C. re-ef-inter-de-prae-suf- 
arefacio, calefacio, madefacio, tepefacio, benefacio, exper- 
gefacio, satisfacio, malefacio, olfacio, patefacio, retain a. 
Jacio, jacere, jeci, jactum, to cast, to throw, C. change a into i. 
rejicio, rejicere, rejeci, rejectum, to reject, C. ab-ad-con-de. 
Lacio is obsolete, but the Comp. ad-per turn a into i short. 
allicio, allicere, allexi, allectum, to allure, to attract, draw on. 
pellicio, pellicere, pellexi, pellectum, to wheedle, to deceive* 
elicio, elicere, elicui, elicitum, to coax out, to entice, draw out* 
Specie is obsolete, but the C. turn e into i. C. ad-sus-sub-as-re. 
inspicio, inspicere, inspexi, inspectum, to inspect, C. con-de-sub* 


Fodio, fSdere, fodi, fossum, to dig, C. con-ef-re-suf-trans, 
Fugio,'fugere, fugT, fugitum, to shun, C. ad-dif-ef-suf-re. 
Capio, capere, cepi, captum, to take, C. change a into i. C. ad* 
accTpio, accipere, accepi, acceptum, to receive, C. ob-re. 
occipio, occTpere, occepi, occeptum, to begin, to enter on. 
r^ipio, recipere, recepi, receptum, to receive, C. in-con ; but 
antecapio, antec^pere, antecepi, antecaptum, to take before. 
Rapio, rapere, rapui, raptum, to snatch, C. change a into i. 
eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptum, to snatch from, C. ab-ar-cor. 
Sapio, sapere, sapui, — to be wise, to taste, C. change a into i. 
desipio, desipere, desipui, — to play the fool, to dote. 
resipio, resfpere, resipui, — to be toise again, to taste. 
Ciipio, cupere, cupivi, cupitum, to desire, C con-dis-per. 


Pario, parere, pepSri, partum, to bring forth young, to produce. 
C. of pario are aU of the fourth conjugation, and turn a into e. 
aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum, to open, to disclose, C. ad. 
^erio, dperire, ftperui, 6pertum, to shut up, to hide, C. ob. 
comperio, comperire, com-peri-pertum, to know certainly, C. con. 
reperio, reperire, reperi, repertum, to find out, to discover, C. re* 
Quitio, quatere, quassi, quassum, to shake^ C. cast away a. 
diacutio, discutere^ discussi, diecuaauxat to discuss^ sift^ C. de* 

( 79 ) 

Argilo, argiiere, argui, argutum, to reprove, C; co-redargiio. 
Aciio, aciiere, aciii, acutum, to sharpen, C. exacuo. 
Exiio, exuere, exiii, exutum, to strip off clothes, to strip* 
Indiio, induere, indui, indutum, to put on clothes, to put on* 
Imbiio, imbuere, imbiii, imbutum, to wet, to tincture, stain. 
Tribuo, tribuere, tribui, tributum, to give, assign, C. at-con-re. 
Liio, liiere, liii, luitum, to pay, expiate, atone, C. ab-al-col- 
poUuo, polliiere, polliii, pollutum, to defile, to pollute, violate* 
Minuo, minuere, mmui, minutum, to lessen, C. com-de-di-im. 
St^tuo, statuere, statui, statutum, to appoint, C. change a into i. 
Bub-sti-tuo-tuere-tui-tutum, to represent, C. con-de-in-pro-prae- 
Suo, suere, siii, sutum, to sew, C. assuo, consuo, resiio, insuo. 


Fliio, fluere, fluxi, iluxum, to flow, C. af-con-de-dif-of-re-ef. 
Striio, struere, struxi, structum, to build, C. con-de-ex-super. 
Ruo, riiere, rui, ruitum, to fall, C. have riitum, not ruitum. 
diruo, diruere, dlrui, dirutum, to overthrow, demolish. 
obruo, obruere, obrui, obrntiim, to overwhelm, drown, C con 

corriio, corruere, corrui, , ifruo, irruere, irriii, C. in. 

Metiio, metiiere, metui, , to dread, praemetuo, C. prae. 

Pluo, pluere, plui, , to rain, shower down, C im-per-com* 

GRUO— NUO— PUO. Compounds. 

Congruo, congruere, congrui, — to agree, to suit, Gruo is ohso* 

Ingriio, ingruere, ingriii, to fall on violently, to invade. 

Annuo, annuere, annui, — q/*ad and nuo, to nod, to assent, C. ad. 

reniio, reniiere, renui, , to nod back, refuse, deny, C. re. 

abniio, abniiere, abniii, , to nod from, to refuse, C. ab. 

inniio, innuere, innui, , to nod, beckon toith the head, C. in. 

Spuo, spiiere, spiii, sputum, to spit, C. exspuo or expiio ; 
respuo, respuere, respiii, — , to spit back, to reject, want the sup. 


Bibo, Dibere, bibi, bibitum, to drink, C. combibo, ebibo, im. 
Scabo, scabere, scabi, — , to scratch. Lamb-o-ere-bi, — , to lick 
Cumbo is obsolete, C. ac-recumbo, oc-re-suc-cumbo lose the m* 
Accumbo, accumbere, accubui, accubitum, to sit at table* 
Scribe, scribere, scripsi, scriptum, to write, C. ad-con-de. 
eon-scribo, -scribere, -scripsi, -scriptum, to enroll to enZist« 
Nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptum, nupta s\im>to be marned* 

( 80 ) 
^O— XI— CI— VI— CTUM. 

Dico, dicere, dixi, dictum, to stay^ tell, C. ad-contra-e-pne. 
Duco, ducere, duxi, ductum, to lead, C. ab-ad-con-de-tra. 
Vinco, vincere, vici, victum, to conquer, C. con-de-per-e-re. 
Ico, icere, ici, ictum, to strike, smite, C. " Reice capellas." Viro 
Parco, parcere, peperci, parcitum, et parsi, parsum, to spare, 
Cresco, crescere, crevi, cretum, to grow, C. con-de-ex-re ; but 
accresco, in-per-pro-suc-super-cresco, want the supines. 
Disco, discere, didici, — , to learn, C. de-con-de-e-per-prae-ad- 
edisco, ediscere, edidici, — , to learn well, to learn by heart, 
Dedis-co, -cere, dedidici, to unlearn, to forget what we learn, 


Nosco, noscere, novi, notum, to know, C. dig-inter-ig-per. 
digno-sco-scere, dignovi, dignotum, to discern ; but three C. 
agnosco, cognosco, recognosco, have nitum in their supines, 
Quiesco, quiescere, quievi, quietum, to rest, C, ac-con-re. 
Scisco, sciscere, scivi, scltum, to inquire, C, conscisco, re. 
ascisco, asciscere, ascivi, ascitum, to adopt, to ordain, 
conscisco, consciscere, conscivi, conscitum, to procure, to vote, 
Suesco, suescere, suevi, suetum, suetus, to accustom, C, as-con. 
Pasco, pascere, pavi, pastum, to feed, C. dep-asco-avi-astum. 
compesco, compescere, compescui, — , to curb, to check, 
dispesco, dispescere, dispescui, to separate, to divide, 
Innotesco, innotescere, innotui, — , to be made knovm, Neut. 
Posco, poscere, poposci, — , to demand, C. ap-de-ex-reposco. 
repo^co, reposcere, rep^posci, — , to demand back, to redemand, 
Fatisco, fatiscere, — , — , to gape, to chink, gli-sco, -scere — to rage, 
Hisco, hiscere, — , — , to mutter, to gape, to open the mouth, 

Inceptives in SCO borrow the Perfect Tense. 
Calesco, calescere, calui, — , to begin to be warm, from cdleo, 
Tremisco, tremiscere, tremiii, — , to begin to tremble, from tr^mo, 
Obdonnis-co, -cere, obdormivi, to begin to sleep, from dormto, 
Resipisco, resipiscere, resipiii, — , to begin to be wise, from sapto, 
Horresco, horrescere, horrui, to begin to be afraid, from horreo, 
£xpaves-co, -cere, expavi, to begin to dread, from expaveo, 

^DO— Dl— SUM. 

Cudo, cudere, cudi, cusum, to forge, C. ex-in-per-pro. 
Mando, mandere, mandi, mansum, to chew, C. prse-re. 
Scando, scandere, scandi, scansum, to climb, C. turn a into e. 
ascendo, ascendere, ascendi, ascensum, to climb to, C. con-de 
Prehendo, prehendere, prehendi^ prehensum, to take, C. ap- 
Prendo, prendere, prendi, prensum, to take, to lay hold of, 
Cando is obsolete, but its C. turn a into e ; a^, 
Accendo, acceDdere, accendi, accensum, to kindle, C. in-suc# 
incendo, Incendere, incendi, incensum, to set on jire, lo hum, 
euccendoy succendere^ succendi, succenawm^to IcVn^e^ \ujlcwft»* 

( 81 ) - 

Fendo is obsolete ; the C. of fendo are thus conjugated : 
defendo, defendere, defend!, defensum, to defend^ to guard* 
offendo, ofiendere, offendi, offensum, to offend, to stumble. 
Fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum, to pour out, C. af-con-dif-ef-suf-in. 
Scindo, scindere, scidi, scissum, to cut, to rend, destroy. 
Findo, findere, fidi, fissum, to cleave, to split, to plow. 


Pando, pandere, pandi, passum, et pansum, to open, C. ex- 
pandor, pandi, passus sum, to be opened, [passis capillis] Virg. 
Edo, edere, edi, esum, to eat, C. ad-amb-ex-per-sub-con. 
cdm^o, c5medere, c5medi, comesum, et comestum, to eat. 
Stndo, stridere, stridi, — , to creak, to crash, to make a noise. 
Rudo, rudere, nidi, — to bray like an ass. Side, sidere, — to sink. 
C. qfsido borrow their preterite and supine ^rom sedi, sessum. 
consido, consTdere, consedi, consessum, to sit down, C. as-de. 
obsido, obsidere, obsedi, obsessum, to block up, C. in-per-re-sub. 

/ Simple Vebbs in DO — ^DI — SUM — that double. 

Tundo, tundere, tutudi, tunsum, to pound, C. have -tudi-tusuni. 
contun-do, -dere, contudi, contusum, to bruise, C. ex-ob-per-re. 
Cado, cadere, cecidi, casum, to fall, C. change a short into \. 
accido, in-con-de-inter-pro-suc-cido-cidi, want the supines ; but 
occido, occidere, occidi, occasum, to fall, set, die, to go down. 
recido, recidere, recidi, recasum, to fall back, have the supines. 
Caedo, csedere, cecidi, csesum, to kill, beat, C. turn ae into i. ob. 
Occido, occidere, occidi, occisum, to kill, C. ex-con-circum, re, 
decide, excido, incido, -inter-re-suc-cido, -cidere-cidi-cisum. 
"^ Tendo, tendere, tetendi, tensum, et tentum, to stretch, to bend. 
portendo, portendere, portendi, portentum, to presage, portend. 
contendo, contendere, contendi, contentum, to contend, to stretch. 
Pendo, pendere, pependi, pensum, to weigh, to pay, to esteem. 
rependo, rependere, rependi, repensum, to repay, C. im-sus-ap. 
impendo, impendere, impendi, impensum, to spend money. 

C. of DO, DARE, DEDI, DATUM, make didi—ditum, as, 

Abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditum, to hide, to conceal, C. ad-con-dido, 
addo, addere, addidi, additum, to add, C. superaddo. 
dido, didere, dididi, diditum, to distribute, to digest, spread out. 
reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditum, to return, give back, restore. 
edo, edere, edidi, editum, to publish, to tell, to edit, C. transdo. 
prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditum, to discover, to betray. 
dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditum, to surrender, to submit, give up. 
perdo, perdere, perdidi, perditum, to lose^ to <ie«trot|^G% itk'i^^* 
deperdo, di£;per-do-dere-d;di-ditum, to murder, C. \^^wA^- 
erSdo, credere^ credidi, creditum, to bcliew, tnji«l,Cr**veA»* 

■*»••■ J 

( 08 ) 

Fendo, vendere, vendidi, venditum, to sell, to set to sale. 
subdo, subdere, subdidi, subditum, to put under, to subdue ; but 
abscondo, abscondere, abscondi, absconditum, to hidefronim 


Vado, vadere, [vasi, vasum] to go, C. e-in-per-super-vado. 
Rado, radere, rasi, rasum, to shave, C. ab-cor-de-e-prae-sub. 
Lsedo, laedere, laesi, laesum, to hurt, C. change ae into i ; as, 
allido, allidere, allisi, alllsum, to dash against, C. col-il-e-lido^ 
Ludo, ludere, lusi, lusum, to play, C. al-col-de-e-il-inter, 
Divido, dividere, divisi, divisum, to divide, distribute, 
Trudo, trudere, trusi, trusum, to thrust, C.abs-con-in-re. 
Claudo, claudere, clausi, clausum, to shut, C. reject a, ex-oc-ob. 
excludoy excludere, exclusi, exclusum, to shut out, C. con-in-re. 
Plaudo, plaudere, plausi, plausum, to clap hands for joy* 
applaudo, applaudere, applausi, applausum, to applaud* 
circumplaudo, circum-plaudere, -plausi, -plausum ; but 
complodo, displodo, explodo, supplodo, C. change au into o. 
Rodo, rodere, rosi, rosum, to gnaw, C. ab-ar-cor-e-ob-pras. 
Cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum, to give place, to yield, C. abs-ante-ac. 
accedo, accedere, access!, accessum, to be added to, to come* 
C. con-de-dis-ex-in-inter-prae-pro-re-retro-se-suo-abs-cedo. 


Cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctum, to gird, C. ac-dis-in-re-suc. 
af-fli|fo, -fligere, -flixi, -flictum, to afflict, C. con-in-pro-fligo, 
confligo, confligere, conflixi, conflictum, to engage, encounter, 
Jungo, jungere, junxi, junctum, to join, C. ab-de-con-se-in-sulx 
Ungo, ungere, unxi, unctum, to anoint, smear, perfume* 
Lingo, lingere, linxi, linctum, to lick, C. delingo, delinxi, — , 
Mi;ngo, mungere, munxi, munctum, to clean the nose, C. e— ' 
Plango, plangere, planxi, plane turn, to beat the breast, lament* 
Rego, regere, rexi, rectum, to govern, C. turn e into i shwrt* 
erigo, erigere, erexi, erectum, to raise up, C. ar-por-sur-sub. 
subrigo, subrigere, subrexi, subrectum, to raise, to lift high* 
porrigo, porrigere, porrexi, porrectum, to hand out, to stretch* 

^O— XI— CTUM. 

Tcgo, tegere, texi, tectum, to cover, C. con-de-ob-pro-re. 
Tingo, tingere, tinxi, tinctum, to dip, to die, to stain, C* con-in. 
Surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectum, to rise, C. as-in-con-de-re. 
insurgo, insurgere, insurrexi, insurrectum, to rise against* 
Pergo, pergere, perrexi, perrectum, to go forward, to go on. 
Stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictum, to bind, C* a-con-dis. 
Fingo, Gngere, £nxi, fictum, tqfeigri^ C. «£-coik-t^-dif-8uf. 
Piago, piDgere, pinzi, pictuui) to painty C% w^^e-^Vei^* 

« -• 

( « y.V: 


Frango, frangere, fregi, fractum, ta hredky C. turn & into i. 
perfringo, perfringere, perfregi, perfractum^ to break through. 
suf-fringo-fringere-fregi-fractum, to break under, C. dif-ef-in-re. 
Ago, agere, egi, actum, to do, to drive, turn a into i, short. 
^bigo, abigere, abegi, abactum, to drive away, C. adigo, to drive. 
transadigo, transadigere, transadegi, translidactum, to pierce. 
siibigo, subigere, siibegi, subactum, to subdue, C. trans, 
transigo, transigere, transegi, transactum, to transact, run thro^. 
exigo, exTgere, exegi, exactum, to require, C. redigo, 
redigo, redigere, redegi, redactum, to reduce; but these 
circumago, circum-agere, -egi, -actum, to drive round. 
perago, peragere, peregi, peractum, to perform, to finish. 
sat-ago, -agere, sategi, — , to be busy about, turn not & into ?. 
prodigo, prodigere, prodegi, — , to lavish, to squander. 
dego, degere, degi, — , C. of de and ago, to live, to dwell. 
cogo, cogere, coegi, cdactum, to force, C. of con and Sgo. 

ambigo, ambigere, , to surround, C. of am and ago. 

Vergo, vergere, , to look towards, to decline, to sink. 


Tango, tangere, tetigi, tactum, to touch, C. turn a into \, 
contingo, contingere, contigi, contactum, to touch, reach. 
attingo, attingere, attigi, attactum, to arrive at, to reach to. 
pertingo, pertingere, pertigi, pertactum, to reach along. 
Lego, legere, legi, leciuniyto read, to gather, C. allego, perlego, 
sublego, sublegere, sublegi, sublectum, to steal, purloin. Vir. 
praelego, relego, are conjugated like lego, but the Compounds 
colligo, recoi-e-se-de-Iigo-ligere-Iegi-lectum, turn e into i. 
diligo, diligere, dilexi, dilectum, to love dearly, C. di-lTgo, 
negligo, negligere, neglexi, neglectum, to neglect, C. nec-lego. 
intell-igo-igere-exi-ectum, to understand, to know, C. inter-lego» 

^O— GI— CTUM. 

Pungo, pungere, pupugi, punctum, to sting, C. make punxi, 
compungo, compungere, compunxi, compunctum, dis ; but 
repun-go, -gere, repupilgi, et repunxi, repunctum, to vex again. 
pango, pangere, panxi, et pepigi, pactum, to drive in, to compose. 
Pango, pangere, pepigi, pactum, to bargain, to covenant. 
Pango, pangere pegi, pactum, to fix, C. change e into i ; con- 
compingo, com-pingere, -pegi, -l[>act\im, to Joluto^eSiWr^^^ ^s^- 
impingo, impijig^ere, impegi, impsuclum to dosK agoicMA.^^^^^ 

( 84 ) 

Spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsum, to spread, C. turn a into e. 
aspergo, conspergo, inspergo, dispergo, dispersi, dispersum. 
Mergo, mergere, mersi, mersum, to dip, C. -e-de-im-sub. 
Tergo, tergere, tersi, tersum, to vnpej C. abs-de-ex-per. 
Figo, figere, fixi, fixum, to fix, C. af-con-re-suf-in, prae- 
Ango^ angere, anxi, anctum, to strangle, to choke. 
Mingo, mingere, minxi, mictum, to make water* 
Stinguo is obsolete; the following are its Compounds, 
Distinguo, distinguere, distinxi, distinctum, to mark, divide. 
Extinguo, extinguere, extinxi, extinctum, to quench, appease. 
Restinguo, restinguere, restinxi, restinctum, to allay, put out. 


Traho, trahere, traxi, tractum, to draw, C. abstraho, at, re 
contraho, con-trahere, -traxi, -tractum, to draw together. 
distraho, distrahere, distraxi, distraetUm, to draw asunder. 
Veho, vehere, vexi, vectum, to carry, C. aveho, ad-con-pro. 
inveho, invehere, invexi, invectum, to bring in, re-trans. 
C51o, cdlere, c51ui, cultum, to till, toorship, inhabit, C. ac. 
excolo, excolere, excdlui, excultum, to cultivate, improve. 
occiilo, occulere, occului, occultum, to hide, cultivate, cover. 
Consulo, consulere, consului, consultum, to devise, consult. 
Alo, alere, aliii, alitum, et (per syncopin) altum, to nourish. 
Cello is obsolete; the C. ante-ex-prae, want the supines, 
ante-cello, ex-prae-cello, praecellere, praecellui, — , to excel. 
percello, percellere, perculi, perculsum, to overthrow, strike. 

LO— LI— SUM. ' 

Pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsum, to drive, C. ap-de-re-dis-in. 
compello, compellere, compuli, compulsum, to compel. 
pro-pello-pellere-puli-pulsum, to pu^h forward, C. re-per-dis-ex. 
Fallo, fallere, fefelli, falsum, to deceive, C. turns a into e. 
refello, refellere, refelli, — , to refute, to disprove, to confute. 
Velio, vellere, velli, v. vulsi, vulsum, to pull, C. a-con-e-inter. 
prae-re-velli, vel vulsi-vulsum. C. de-di-per-velli-vulsum. 
Psallo, psallere, psalli, — , to sing, or, play on an instrument. 
Tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum, to lift, to take away. 
sufiero, sufierre, sustuli, sublatum, to suffer, endure. 
attoUo, attoUere, — , , to take up, to raise, C. ad-de. 


Fremo, fremere, fremui, fremitum, to rage, C. ad-con. 
affremo, conffemo, infremo, perfrem-o, -ere, -ui, -itum. 
Gemo, gemere, gemui, gemitum, to groan, C. aggemo. 
TBgemo, regemere, regem-ui, -itum, C. congemo, ingemo. 
Tremo, tremere, tremui, tremitum, to tremble, C ^^xk-vck* 
Demo, demere^ dempsi, demptum, to take a'w>tt'y,leweu% 

( 85 ) 

Promo, prOmere, prompsi, promptum, to bring out, C. de* 
Expromo, expromere, exprompsi, expromptum, to draw out. 
Sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptum, to take, C. ab-as^on-re-in* 
Como, comere, compsi, comptum, to deck, to dress hair, C. none* 


£mo, emere, emi, emptum, to buy, C. change e into i. ad. 
adimo, Hdimere, ademi, ademptum, to take away, takefromn 
dirimo, dirimere, diremi, diremptum, to decide, to part, 
eximo, eximere, exemi, exemptum, to take out, to exempt, 
interimo, interimere, interemi, interemptum, to kill, consume. 
perimo, penmere, peremi, peremptum, to kill, destroy, ruin, C. re. 
redimo, redimere, redemi, redemptum, to redeem, buy back ; but 
cdemo, cSemere, coemi, cdemptum, to buy up, turns not ^ into i, 
Premo, premere, pressi, pressum, to press, urge, C. turn e into i. 
opprimo, comprimo, deprimo, exprimo, imprimo, reprimo, 
supprim -o, -ere, suppressi, suppressum, to keep under, suppress, 
Vdmo, vomere, vomui, vomitum, to throw upfront the stomach, 
evomo, evdmere, evdmui, ev6mitum, to throw off the stomach, 


Pono, ponere, posiii, poslitum, to put, to place, C. ante-re-se. 
appono, apponere, appdsui, appositum, to add, join, C. com-de. 
impono, imponere, impdsui, impositum, to lay on, C. dis-op. 
Gigno, gignere, genui, genitum, to beget, C. con-in-e-pro. 
C^no, canere, cecini, cantum, to sing, C. give -cmui-centum. 
accino, accinere, accmiii, accentum, to sing in concert, C. in-con. 
recino, recinere, recinui, recentum, to sing again, C. prse-suc- 
Temno, temnere, tempsi, temptum, to despise, to slight, 
Contemno, contemnere, contempsi, contemptum, to contemn, 

^NO— VI— TUM. 

Sperno, speraere, sprevi, spretum, to' slight, scorn, C. d^-in-pro 
Sterno, sternere, stravi, stratum, to lay flat, to prostrate. 
Smo, sinere, sivi, situm, to permit, to let, to suffer, to allow. 
desmo, desmere, desivi, et desii, desitum, to end, todeave off. 
Lino, linere, lini, livi, levi, litum, to anoint, X). al-circum-lino, 
illino, illmere, illini, illivi, illitum, to smear on, C ob-re-sub. 
oblino, oblinere, oblini, oblivi, oblitum, to daub, to defame. 
Cemo, cernere, [crevi, cretum] to see, to decree, to behold, C. 
decerno, decernere, decrevi, decretum, to determine, purpose. 
discerno, discernere, discrevi, discretum, to distinguish, 
Incerno, incemere, increvi, incretum, to sift, to mix. Hob. 


Carpo, carpere, carpsi, carptum, to plucky C% turu ^ xtAo ^* 
decerpOf decerperCf decerpsi, decerptuia, to pluck ojJ^Cr* ^^^ 

( 86 ) . 

ClepOf clepere, clepsi, cleptum, to steed, pilfer, to cover 
Repo, repere, repsi, reptum, to creep, C. cor-e-ir-ob-sub. 
Scalpo, scalpere, scalpsi, scalptum, to scratch, to scrape* 
Sculpo, sculpere, sculpsi, sculptum, to carve, to engrave, 
Strepo, strepere, strepiii, strepitum, to make a noise, C. ad-in. 
Rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptum, to break, C. ab-cor-e-ir-per. 


C6quo, coquere, coxi, coctum, to boil, to bake, C. con-de-in. 
decoquo, decSquere, decoxi, decoctum, to boil away, ruin. 
Linquo, linquere, liqui, — , to leave, to forsake, C. de-re-linquo. 
dellnquo, delinquere, deliqui, delictum, to offend, fail in duty. 
relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum, to leave behind. 
dere-linquo, -linquere, -liqui, -lie turn, to leave altogether. 


Quaere, quserere, qusesivi, quaesitum, to seek, C. turn ae into I. 
acquire, acquirere, acquisivi, acquisitum, to acquire, C. in-dis. 
Tero, terere, trivi, tritum, to wear, rub, bruise, C. de-con-in-pro. 
detero, deterere, detrivi, detritum, to rub out, lessen, wear out. 
Verro, verrere, verri, versum, to sweep, brush, C. a-con-e-per. 
Ure, urere, ussi, ustum, to burn, C. amburo, comburo, ad-in. 
Curro, currere, cucurrij cursum, to run, to fly, to flow as a river. 
C. ac-con-de-dis-ex-in-oc-per-prae-pro-cucurri et -curri, -cursum 
C. circumcurro,-re-suc-trans-curro, have mostly -curri, -cursum. 
Gere, gerere, gessi, gestum, to carry, C. ag-con-digero,-in-gero. 
egere, egerere, egessi, egestum, to throw out, cast out, C. sug- 
regero, regerere, regessi, regestum, to retort, cast back. Hor. 
Fere, ferre, tiili, latum, to bring, C. praefere, pro-de-per-prae. 
sufiero, sufTerre, — , — , to bear, abide, suffer : seldom used. 


Sero, serere, sevi, satum, to sow, plant, C. have -sevi, -situm. 
assere, asserere, assevi, assitum, to sow, plant, plant near. 
conserp, conserere, consevi, consitum, to plant together. 
insero, inserere, insevi, insitum, to implant, to plant in, C. ob-sub. 
obsero, obserere, obsevi, obsitum, to plant, to set, to sow about. 


Sero, serere, serui, sertum, to plait, wreathe, to join. 
assero, asserere, asserui, assertum, to claim, to assert, 
consero, conserere, conserui, consertum, to tack together, 
insero, inserere, inserm, insertum, to fut in, to insert, 
desero, deserere, deserui, desertum, to leatc ojf , to JoT«dke, 
dJssero, disserere, disseriii, dissettum, to treat oj, to reasou, 
"^^to, edissererey edisserui, edisaeilum, to declare. N\fta, 
^xerere, exerui, exertum, to thrust c««t,to exert, C- fe^«ic 

( 87 ) 

Accerso, accersere, accersivi, accersitum, to send far, 
Arcesso, arcessere, arcessivi, arcessitum, to send for. 
C&pesso, capessere, capessivi, capessitum, to take in hand. 
F^cesso, facessere, facessivi, facessitum, to accopfiplish^ to do. 
Llicesso, lacessere, lacessivi, lacessitum, to provoke. 
Viso, visere, visi, — , to go to see, to visit, C. in-re-viso- 
Incesso, incessere, incessi, — , to assatdt, to attack, to vex. 
Pins-o, -ere, -ui, pinsitum, et pinsi, pinsum, pistum, to bake* 

-TO— UI— XI— XUM. 

Flecto, flectere, flexi, flexum, to bend, C. de-in-re-flecto. 
Plecto, plectere, plexui et plexi, plexum, to plait, C. im. 
Necto, nectere, nexui et nexi, nexum, to tie, C. an-con-in. 
Pecto, pectere, pexui, pexi, pexum, to comb, to dress, C. de-re* 
Meto, metere, messui, messum, to reap, to mow, C. de-prae. 
Demeto, demetere, demessui, demessum, to reap, to cut off. 
Peto, petere, petivi, petitum, to seek, C. appeto, compete, im- 
expeto, expetere, expetivi, expetitum, to desire much, C. re. 
repeto, repetere, repetivi, repetitum, to repeat, to ask back. 
oppet-o, -ere, -ivi, -itum, to undergo death, to die, suffer, C. sub. 
Suppeto, suppetere, suppe-tivi, -titum, to help, to supply, to be. 
Mitto, mittere, misi, missum, to send, C. a-com-im-pro-e-sum. 
amitto, amittere, amisi, amissum, to lose, C. di-dis-re-prse-ob. 
dmitto, 6mittere, dmisi, omissiim, to omit, to lay aside, C. sub- 
promitto, promittere, promisi, promissum, to promise, engage. 


Vcrto, vertere, verti, versum, to turn, change, C. animad. 
&niinadver-to-tere-ti-sum, to observe, perceive, to punish, C in* 
averto, avertere, averti, aversum, to turn from, avert, remove. 
Sterto, stertere, stertui, — , to snore, to snort, C. destert-o-ere-ui, 
Sisto, sistere, stiti, statum, to stop, introduce, to summon. Act. 
Sisto, sistere, steti, statum, to stand stUl. Neut. C. stiti, stitum. 
assisto, asslstere, astiti, astitum, to stand by, to assist, C. de. 
desisto, desistere, destiti, destitum, to leave off, to desist, C. ob« 
obsisto, obsistere, obstiti, obstitum, to stop^ to oppose, hinder • 
resisto, resistere, restiti, restitum, to resisty halt, to stay, oppose. 
subsisto, subsistere, substiti, substitum, to stop^ to stand stiU. 

-VO— XI— VI— TUM. 

Vivo, vivere, vixi, victum, to live^ C. cotv-t^-wx^t-'<y^^» 
Solve, solvere, soJvi, sdlutum, to loose, C» ^SaA'a-x^-^^^^* 
Volvo, volvere, volvi, v61utum, to roll,C ^A-cowA^-^^^^^ 
Texo, texere, texui, textum, to toeme^ C ^-c^oti-x^-*^^^^ 

( 88 ) 

Deponent Verbs in — SCOR, of the third Conjugatiotu 

Adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum, to get, obtain. 
Comminiscor, commmisci, commentus sum, to devise, invent* 
defetiscor, defetlsci, defessus sum, to be weary, from fdtiscdr* 
Depascor, depasci, depastus sum, to eat, to feed upon. 
Expergiscor, exper^sci, experrectus sum, to awake. 
Irascor, irasci, iratus sum, to be angry, to be displeased. 
Nanclscdr, nancisci, nactus sum, to get, to obtain. 
Nasc6r, nasci, natus sum, to be born, C. ad-e-re-sub. 
Obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum, to forget, to omit, pass by. 
Pacisc5r, paclsci, pactus sum, to agree, to bargain, covenant. 
Proficiscor, pr5ficisci, prdfectus sum, to go, to go a journey. 
Reminiscdr, reminisci, recordatus sum, to remember. 
Ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum, to revenge, to take revenge for. 
Vescor, vesci, pastus sum, to eat, to be fed; from pascor. 


Amplector, amplecti, amplexus sum, to embrace, surrounds 
Complector, complectl, complexus sum, to comprise. 
Divertor, diverti, diversus sum, to lodge, to lodge at an inn. 
Niter, niti, nisus, et nixus sum, to endeavor, C an-con-nitdr.^ 
enitor, eniti, enJsus sum, to endeavor, to climb, strain hard. 
enitor, eniti, enixa sum, to bring forth, to travail in birth. 
Friior, frui, fructus et fruitus sum, to enjoy, to take the profit of. 
Fungor, fungi, functus sum, to discharge an office, C. de. 
Labor, labi, lapsus sum, to slip, run down, C. allabor-col-re-il-e. 
Liquor, ITqui, Itquefactus sum, to melt, to be melted, to drop. 
Ldquor, loqui, Idcutus sum, to speak, C. al-col-e-ldquor. 
Queror, queri, questus sum, to complain, C. inter-prse-con. 
Praevertor, praeverti, — , to get before, outstrip, anticipate. Hor. 
Revertor, reverti, reversus sum, to return, to come back. 
S^qudr, sequi, secutus sum, to follow, C. as-con-ex-in-ob-sequor. 
Utor, uti, usiis sum, to use, C. ab-utor, -uti, -usus sum, to abuse. 


Gradior, grUdi, gressus sum, to go, C. turn a into e. C. ad. 
aggredior, aggredi, aggressus sum, to attack, C. ad-con. 
egredior, egredi, egressus sum, to go out, of e and grddtar. 
egredior, egredi, egressus sum, to go beyond, C. extra. Caes* 
ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum, to enter, to go in. 
M5rior, mdri^, mortuus sum, to die, C. com-e-m5rior. 
Orior, oreris, v. 6riris, (seldom 6n,) 6nn, ostus sum, to rise. 
Pitldr, p^tij paaaus sma^ to suffer^ C comi^<Si, ^r^etidr. 

( 89 ) 

Quartd dStt IVI Pmtgnto Oc ITUM-quS SUpmo. 

Audio, audire, audivl, auditum, to hear* 


Ambio, ambire, ambivi, ambitum, to courts to go round. 
Obedio, obedire, obedivi, obeditum, to obey, C. of ob-audio. 
Cio, cire, civi, citum, to move^ C. accio-con-in-ex-per-cio. 
excio, excire, excivi, excitum, to excite, to rouse, to quicken, 
Condio, condire, condivi, conditum, to season meat, to pickle* 
Custodio, custodire, custodivi, custoditum, to guard. 
Erudio, erudire, erudivi, eruditum, to instruct, to teach, 
Expedio, expedire, expedivi, expeditum, to show, extricate, 
Impedio, impedire, impedivi, impeditum, to hinder, entangle. 
Irretio, irretire, irretivi, irretitum, to catch (as ivith a net.) 
Finio, finite, finivi, finitum, to finish, to end, conclude, C. de. 
Fastidio, fastidire, fastldivi, fastiditum, to disdain, to scorn, 
Lenio, lenire, lenivi, lenitum, to ea^e, mitigate, <ippease, C. de. 
Mollio, mollire, mollivi, mollitum, to soften, mollify, effeminate, 
Mutio, miitire, mutivi, mutitum, to mutter, to speak s^tly, 
Prsesagio, praesagire, praesagivi, praesagitum, to guess, foresee. 


Munio, munire, munivi, munitum, to fortify, to strengthen, 
Nescio, nescire, nescivi, nescitum, to know not, to he ignorant. 
Nutrio, nutrire, nutrivi, nutritum, to nourish, to nurse, 
Partio, partire, partivi, partitum, to divide, C. im-dis-pertio. 
P61io, p6lire, polivi, politum, to polish, to trim, to embellish, 
Punio, punire, punivi, punitum, to punishr-to chastise, 
Redimio, redimire, redimivi, redimitum, to crown. Vie. 
Soio, scire, scivi, scitum, to know, to understand, be skilful in* 
S^lio, salire, salivi, salitum, to salt, to season with salt. 
Servio, servire, servivi, servitum, to seme, to obey. 
Sitio, sitire, sitivi, sititum, to thirst, to desire earnestly, covet. 
Sopio, sopire, sopivi, sopitum, to lull, to put to sleep. 
Vestio, vestire, vestivi, vestitum, to clothe, to array. 


ixxi) to sol 

Singi^tio, singujtire, singultivi, singuVtuxxi) to sob* 
Sepeljo, sipelivi, sepelire, sepultum^to Imry^to itoer* 
Vmcio, vmcire, vimi, vinctum,to l>iTid,totic,wra'5,^* 
£f»ncro, aaacire, sanxi, sanctum, to c«taUi«K to rolxj^ 


( 90 ) 

AmicTo, ILmicire, amicui, et amixi, ^mictum, to clothe^ 
Salio, salire, saliii, et salii, saltum, to leap, C. turn §, into i ; as^ 
assilio, assilire, assilui, et assilii, assultum, to leap against. 
Con-dis-de-ex-in-re-sub-super, C. have the supines ; but 
absilio, circumsilio, prosTlio, want the supines. 
Sepio, sepire, SQpsi, septum, to hedge, C. circum-dis-ob-prae. 
Haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum, to draw, C. de-exhaurio. 
Sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum, to think, C. as-con-dis-prse. 
Sarcio, sarcire, sarsi, sartum, to patch, to mend, repair, C* re. 
Farcio, farcire, farsi, fartum, to stuff, C. change a into e. 
confercio, confercire, confersi, confertum, to stuff, confertus. 
refercio, refercire, refers!, refertum, to stuff. Part, refertus. 


Fulcio, fulcire, fulsi, fultum, to prop, to support, C. con-ef. 
Ferio, ferire, percussi, percussum, (from perciitio) to strike. 
Veneo, venire, venivi, venii, venum, venditus sum, to he sold. 
Venio, venire, veni, ventum, to come, C. ad-ante-con-de* 
invenio, invenire, inveni, inventum, to find, to invent. 

Desiderative Verbs, as coenatii-ri^, -rire, to desire to sup, want 
the Perfect, and the Supines ; except 

Partiirio, parturire, parturivi, — , to he in labor, to hring forth. 

Nupturio, nupturire, nuptiirivi, — , to desire to marry. 

Esurio, esurire, esurivi, to desire to eat, he hungry, have Perfects. 

Deponent Verbs of the fourth Conjugation. 

Assentior, assentiri, assensus sum, to agree, to assent. 
Blandior, blandiri, bland! tus sum, to flatter, to compliment. 
Experior, experiri, expertus sum, to try, to experience. 
Largior, largiri, largitus sum, to bestow, C. elargior. 
Mentior, mentiri, mentitus sum, to tell a lie, C. ad. 
Metior, metiri, mensus sum, to measure, C. di-e-con. 


Molior, moliri, mdlitus sum, to project, to plot, C. re-de. 
Ordior, ordiri, orsus, et orditiis sum, to begin regularly, to write. 
exordior, exordiri, exorsus sum, to make an introduction. 
Orior, oriri, seldom 6ri, ortus sum, to rise up, rise as the sun. 
adorior, adoriri, adortus sum, to attack, to attempt, accost, 
codribr, cooriri, coortus sum, to arise like a storm, C. con. 
exSrior, exoriri, exortus sum, to rise out, to spring u-p^C.^ ^V 
OppSrior, opperiri, oppertus sum, to loait Jor,lo sla-y Jw. 
^'^tiar, pdtiris, et p5teris, p5tiri, BfMwts. p6W, v^^^-ws ^>Msv,to ^ 
^rtior, sortiri, sortitus sum, to obtain by lot, to costlcAs- 

( 91 ) 

Neuter Vbbbs of the fourth Conjugation. 

Balbutio, balbutire, — , — , to stammer, to lisp, 
Csecutio, caBcutire, — , — , to he dim-sighted, to he hlind* 
Ineptio, ineptire, — , — , to talk foolishly, to trifle* 
Effutio, effutire, — , to babble, or blab out. 
Gestio, gestire, gestivi, to leap for joy, to rejoice greatly, 
Saevio, saBvire, ssevivi, et saevii, saevitum, to be cruel. 
Siiperbio, siiperbire, superbivi, superbitum, to be proud. 

Verba hand Simplicia hcec ; composta di scepS videmus, 

Ce\\6, niio, stinguo, fcndo, grii5, sider5, cando, 
Et mm^o, specie, futo, dud, sagio, pilo, 
Frag5r, ttim, perior, pedTo, bu6, niveo, mingo, 
Ac rudio, clino, lacio, pago, tamino, fligo, 
Staur5, leo, rito, pleo, nideo, stigd, fatiscor, 
£^ stin5, futio, retid, cumbo, pello ft apiscor, 
Chim patuns dJtis qtuB jam non dicSrS promptum. 


COMPOUND VERBS mostly follow the form and quantity 
of their respective simples; as, dddmo of dmo; eddceo of ddcSo ; 
dit^go of t^go; dbedio of audio; occldo of ccedo ; occido of 
cddo ; 

But some Compounds change, or, add— oihera lose certain 
letters of their simples ; this will be shown by the following 


I. Damno, lactS, s^cro, fallo, arceo, tracto ; fatiscor, 
Partid, carpo, patro, scando, spargo, parTo^e, change a into e. 

f^. con-de-con-re-ex, (but retracto) de-de-im-de-in-ad-re-com- 

II. Nata habeo, lS.ted, salio, statud, cadd, laedo, 
Pango sinud pegi, cand, quaero, caedo, cecidi, 

Tango, egeo, teneo, taceo, s^pio, mpioque, turn a, m, ^, into f. 
C. ex-de-in-con-re-il-com-oc-re-in-con-ind-de-re-de-di. 

C. Posthabeo, to esteem less, does not change the first vowel. 

C. Deliteo, to lie hid, to be hid, alone turns d into u 

C. Interlateo, perlateo, sublateo, neoer do change S, into i. 

III. H<BC facio^ue, rego, sedeo^e em!5^da'nt^%^^S:nxi^^ 

Et c&pjo, mcio, iacio, specio, piemo, '^^iig.o^ cKoage V>\fc ^'•^^ 
vowel of the Present, hut not of tKe PeifecX^eiTisfe^ vpS^"^- 

Cad, af, di, con, ex, re, r«d, ad, ei, «c, t^,^V V^xA:^©.^^ 
But circum&go, per&go, s&^go, ncDer cluinge ^\tao ^- 

( 92 ; 

IV. Calco, salto— cAan^e a into u in their Compounds ; as, 
Concul-co,— care,— cavi,— conculcatum, to tread upon, ruin. 
insulto, insultare, insultavi, insultatum, to insult, to domineer. 

V. Claudo, quatio, lavo, lose a in the C. ex-per-di-pro-e-in. 

VI. C. q/*Plaudo, change au into o ; com-dis-ex-sup-plodo. 
But applaudo, circumplaudo, do not ever change au into o. 

Praeteritum Activae et Passivae vocis habent haec. 

Jur-o-are-avi f^m^re-atum; juratus swoa judicio,to swear in court. 
Pran-deo-dere-di jam nunc -sum ; pransus sum dudum, to dine. 
Coen-o-are-avi, coenatus sum, to sup, coenatus, having supped. 
Pot-o-are-avi-atum, potum, potus sum, to drink, potus, drunken. 
Titubo, titub-are-avi-atum-atus sum, to stumble, titubatus. 
Ca-reo-rere-rui-ssus sum, ca-ssum et -ritum ; cassus, empty. 
Placeo, pla-cere-cui-citus sum, to please, placitus, pleasing. 
Suesc-o-ere, sue-vi-tus sum, to accustom, to be accustomed. 
Fi-do-dere-di, f isus sum, to trust, C. conf l-do-dere-di-sus sum. 

Impersonal Verbs having two Perfects. 

Haec t<Bdet(\yxe, licet, Ub^t, ac pOd^, et ptg^t usque, 
£t labit, en ! spectat6 duas, imitantia, formas. 

LTc-et-ebat-uit-itum est v. fuit-uerat-itum erat v. fuerat-ebit. 
Mis-eret-erebat-eriiit-ertum est v. fuit, miser-tum erat-ebit. 
Taedet, taediiit, pertsesum est vel fuit, taedere, to be wearied. 
Libet, libiiit, libitum est v. fuit, libere, to have a mind, please. 
Pudet, piiduit, piiditum est v^l fuit, pudere, to be ashamed. 
Piget, piguit, pigitum est v^l fuit, pigere, to be grieved. 
Placet, placebat, placuit, placitum est, placere, to be pleased. 

Verbs differing in conjugation, quantity, and signification. 

Dico, dicare, dicavi, dicatum, to dedicate, to consecrate. 
Dico, dicere, dixi, dictum, to tell, to say, to call. 
prsedico, praedicare, prsedicayi, prsedicatum, to declare. 
praedico, praedicere, praedixi, praedictum, to foretell. 
Occido, occidere, occidi, occisum, to kill, to murder 
Occido, occidere, occidi, occasum, to fall, to set. 
Edo, edere, edidi, editum, to publish, to tell, to utter. 
Edo, edere, edi, esum, raro estum, to eat, to consume. 
Contingo, contingerey continxi, contliiclwm^lo atunTil. 
ContingOj contingerey contigi, contactwm, to touclv. 
^Ai, colore, coiavi, colatum, to strain, purge, fejitie. 
^oJo, cdJere, cdiui, cultum, to tilh to ti>or«Hip, ipaij court to- 

( 98 ) 

Ediico, educare, educavi, educatum, to train up, to educate, 
Educo, educere, edQxi, eductum, to lead out, to bring out* 
Lego, legare, legavi, legatum, to appoint, to bequeath. 
Lego, legere, legi, lee turn, to read, to gather, to steal., vadare, vadan, yadatum, to wade, to wade over. 
Vado, vadere, vasi, vasum, to go, to march, to move, to ford. 

Yebbs having the same present, hut a different conjugation. 

Aggero, aggerare, aggeravi, aggeratum, to heap up. 
Aggero, aggerere, aggessi, aggestum, to bring together. 
Appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatum, to call, address. 
Appello, appellere, appuli, appulsum, to land, to bring to land. 
Compello, compellare, compellavi, compellatum, to address. 
Compello, compellere, compuli, compulsum, to force. 
Colligo, colligare, colligavi, colligatum, to bind, to tie. 
Colligo, cSUig^re, collegi, collectum, to gather together. 
Conster-no-nare-navi-natum, to astonish, to affright. 
Consterno, consternere, constravi, constratum, to strew, pave. 
Eflfero, eff^rare, efferavi, efferatum, to enrage, make wild. 
Efiero, efferre, extuli, elatum, to express, bring out. 
Fundo, fundare, fundavi, fundatum, to found, establish. 
Fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum, to pour out, to spill. 
Mando, mandare, mandavi, mandatum, to command. 
Mando, mandere, mandi, mansum, to chew, to eat. 
Ohsero, ohserare, ohseravi, ohseratum, to lock, bar, bolt. 
Ohsero, ohserere, ohsevi, obsitum, to plant, to set. 
Volo, v61are, volavi, v51atum, to fly, to go quickly. 
V6lo, velle, voliii, — , to be willing, to wilt, desire, wish. 

Yebbs which have the same Perfect, are 

Fulgeo, — ^fulsi; fulcio, — ^fulsi; liiceo, — luxi; lugeo, — ^luxi. 

Cresco,— crevi ; cerno,— crevi ; paveo, — pavi ; pasco, — ^pavi. 

Pendeo, — ^pependi, to depend ; pendo, — pependi, to esteem, 

Aceo, — aciii, to be sour; acuo, — acui, to whet. 

Vbbbs which have the same Supines, are 

Cresco,— cretum, to grow; cerno, [cretum] to behold. 

Sto, — statum, to stand; sisto, — statum, to stop. 

Teneo, — ^tentum, to hold ; tendo, — tentum, to stretch. 

Verto, — versum, to turn ; verro, — versum, to brush. 

Vinco, — victum, to conquer; vivo, — ^victum, to live. 

The following Verbs in— EO — ^10, are of the flrst conjugation. 

HdBc bed, commed, da creo, calce6, nauseo, prinuB, 
Amp] id, concilio, brevio, crucio, lUnid^ue 
Luxurio, furio, rlldio, sdcio, vitio sic. 
&omm6f BtLueih^ rappudio, §]levidqHS i^oque 
NuBcid, cum Fiirid, spdlio, s&tio, dotd pHma* 


( 94 ) 


Containing Grammatical Definitions or Explications of Terms 
used in the preceding and subsequent parts of this Work. 

ALL words whatsoever, are either simple or compound. 

1. A SIMPLE word is that which was never more than one ; a8,yiMtu«, 

2. A COMPOUND word is that which is made up of two or more 
words ; as, injustus, perl^go, der^linquo, 

3. All words whatever, are either primitive or derivative. 

4. A PRIMITIVE word is that which comes &om no other word ; as, 

*tl8tu8f Ugo. 

5. A DERIVATIVE word is that which comes from another word ; as, 
justitta^ lectio. 

6. A COLLECTIVE noun signifies many in* the singular number; as, 
piopulus^ the people, muHititdo, a multitude, turha, a crowd. 

7. INTERROGATIVES are used m asking a question ; as, quts? who? 
qudlis? what kind? quantus? how great? quot? how many? but 

8. INDEFINITES never ask a question; as, quis, any one; quoRs^ 
such as ; quantus, as great ; quot, as many. 

9. PATRONYMIC nouns signify pedigree^ or extraction ; as, Atndts-, 
the son of Atreus; JferHs^ the daughter (Sjfer^us; Minf/eias^ the daugh- 
ter of Minyds. 

Patronymics in dSs and nS are of the first declension, Atridis^ JVerin^. 
Patronymics in is and as are of the third declension, JV^^«. 
Some Patronymics end in -tu«, -xa; as, Satumxus^ the son of Saturn; 
SatumiOi the daughter of Saturn. 

10. PATRIAL,or GENTILE nouns denote countries; as, Afer,Amiin- 
cdnu8, Atheniensis^ Arpinds, Coldmbidnus, Scotiis. 

11. POSSESSIVES are adjectives derived from substantives either 
proper^ or appellative, signifying possession, or property; as, Hereul^us, 
Persicus, Phxladelphxcus, patemus^ henlts, fcemtn^Hs, C(Blestxs; from 
Hercules, Persicus, pat^r, herus, fxmXna, codum, of, or belonging to, 
Hercules, Sec. 

12. PRIMITIVE, or personal pronoun?, are ^go, tii, «ui, nos, vds, [alitls.] 

13. POSSESSIVE pronouns are meiis, tuiis, suus, n68t^r,ve8t^r, [alientis.] 
[TUUS always follows the singular ; as, tu negligis tuam lectidniim, you 

neglect your lesson ; VESTER always follows me plural ; as, vds tuemini 
vi^stram patriam, defend ye your country.] 

14. DIMINUTIVE nouns import a lessening of the signification ; as, 
Rbellus, a little book, from IXber, a book ; chartula, a little paper, from 
charia; opUsculiim, a little work, from opus, a work; paUtdiliis, a little 
pale, from pallidus, pale. 

Diminutives end in lus-la-lum, and are generally of the same gender as 
their primitives. 

75. VERBALS are substanUve, or ad^ec^Ne iLOuns^ derived from verbs ; 
£a, v^sto, a version, from verto, to turn. 

16. PARTITIVES or partitive nouns, svgnSSy a ipwl of maii-a^w tw»ift 
severaiiy, and, as it were, one bar one ; aB, vtt«ia. wvj-, witt=«U.,itfWA\ fei.>»^ 
erer^ one. 

( »5 ) 

1. ABBREVIATIONS, or abbreviated words, always ought to have a 
period after them ; as, M. Marcus^ T. Thllius^ i. e. id est. 

2. ACCENT is the rising of the voice on certain syllables in a word. 

3. ANAPHORA, (Repetition^) is a figure, which gracefully repeats the 
same word, or the same meaning in different words ; as, 

Et ntUic Oranis ag6r, nOnc Omnis p&rtiirit arbOs. Fir. 

4. ANTECEDENT, is the word going before— that which goes before 
the Relative. 

5. ASYNDETON is the omission of a conjunction ; as, Deus Optlmtts 
Maximtbs, /or Deus Optimiis, et Maximtbs. 

6. CADENCE is the falling of the voice on one or more words in a sen- 

7. POLYSYNDETON is the redundancy of a Copulative Conjunction ; 


Una EurUsqu^ JfotHsqu^ ruUnt cr6herqu^ procSUis. 

8. ARTIFICIAL ORDER is when the words are so ranged as to render 
them most agreeable to the ear : all the ancient Greek and Latin classics 
are so arranged. But 

9. NATURAL ORDER is when the words of a sentence naturally flow 
one after another, in the same order with the Qoooeptions t>f our minds. 

10. EMPHASIS is the elevation of the voice upon a certain word or words. 

EMPHATICAL words are those which have an elevation of the voice 
in a sentence. 

11. EN ALL AGE is the changing of one ^oun for another ; as, Oratttr, 
for Cicgro ; or, of one Mood for another ; or, of one Tense for another, as,— • 
Tu die, mdciim quo pigndrS cdrtes. Vir. JDo you say ^ for what wager you 
would contend with me ? — Certes, to suit the verse, is put for certares. 

12. ELLIPSIS is the want of a word to supply the regular construction. *• 

13. HENDIADYS is when that which is properly but one thing, is so 
expressed as if there were two ; as, Pateris llbamtis et auro, Virg./or llba- 
mds aureis pateris, we drink out of golden bowls. 

14. HYPALLAGE changes tJu order of construction in a sentence ; as, 

In nova fdrt ^ntmiis matatas dic^re fbrmas. Ov. 

For Animus fert (me) dicere cOrpdrS. motata In nbvas formas. 

15. HYPERBATON is that figure^ by which the proper and regular 
order of words is inverted. 

16. IMPURE. A syllable is said to be impure^ when on^ consonant goes 
immediately before another ; as, mons, urbs, 

17. PURE. A syllable is said to be pure^ when one vowel goes immedi- 
ately before another ; as, assxduus anxxiis, 

18. PLEONASMUS uses more words than are strictly necessary ; as, 
vidx illtim his BctUis, / saw him with these eyes. 

19. SYNECDOCHE puts the part for the whole ; as, the roof, of a hotue^ 
! for a house ; or the singular for the plural ; as, multo miltt^^ for mulHs 
, milittbOs ; or the plural for the singular ; as, DM% txln ldtiss%ma regna 
\ Lycurgi^ for Idtisstmum regnum. Ovid. 

20. TERMINATION. By termination \a xmeLCwJ^ft^^XU^. wj\ «i^ mqw^v 

SI. ZEUGMA is when an Adjective ot ^NeTVi^Vvafe^ \» ^^^J^"^ ^ 
stantiveB, is expressed to the nearest) and \xTi^wc%\.wA Vo^«v ^^ii ^N 
ratio, et eonsiJtum est in •«m6tt«. Cic. Caper t\U tobovA *t weo. • 

( 96 ) 


Est quasvis Unimi c6gitatii5^ constat et ipsa 
Voctbus out trtnis^ Sententi^, nvS dudbus. 

SYNTAX is the principal part of Grammar ; for the great 
end of speech being to convey our thoughts to others, it will 
be of little use to us to have a store of words, and to know 
what changes may be made on them, unless we can also apply 
them to practice, and make them answer the purposes for which 
they were intended ; accordingly, 
'^ . Syntax teaches us the proper arrangement of words in 

There are two parts in Syntax, Concord and Crovemment. 

Concord is when one word agrees with another. 

Government is when a word governs a certain case. 

Of Concord. 

CoHcord is fourfold : 

1. Of an Adjective with a Substanfive* 

2. Of a Verb with a Nominative. 

3. Of a Relative with an Antecedent* 

4. Of a Substantive with a Substantive* 


Every speech or sentence consists of a noun and 
a verb, expressed or understood. 

1. Every adjective agrees with a substantive^ ex- 
pressed or understood. 

2. Every finite verb hath a Nominative before it, 
expressed or understood. 

3. Every relative hath an antecedent expressed or 

4. Every JYominative is before some verb express- 
ed or understood. 

^ RULE 1. 

AN adjective agrees with a substantive in gender, 
number, mid case ; as^ 

Bdnus puer amatur, a good boy is loved* 
MagnS, Stella ]ucet, a large star shines. • 
Mite pdmum carpitiir, a melloiD apple is ^^led« 
/. 71»e eubsiantive^ with which the aidAecVwe «bgwe»,\* 'tatf^wn \s^ S2bA 
oemtion WHO or WHAT ; a8« Who good? o boji. ^Ys*X\w^>. a iftwt 
^•imeUow? an apple. • "^ * 

( 07 ) 


1. The substantives homo and JwmxntSt ni^gdtium and nUgdtia^ are fre- 
quently understood, i. e. not expressed; as, s^pYens {homo) a wise man; 
decorum (negotium) a glorious thing ; sapientes {hominis) wise men ; de- 
cora (negotia) glorious things, 

3. Adjectives sometimes agree with adjectives^ as if they were substan- 
tives^ the real substantives being understood ; as, fortunatus insipiens {homo) 
a fortunate fool ; bbna ferina {caro) good venison; summum b6num {ne- 
gotium) the chief good ; onmia prseclara {negdtia) sunt rara, all excellent 
things are scarce. 

Participles are used by the poets in the place of nouns substantives ; as, 
ctlpidus amans, a fond lover, for ctlpidtls &mat5r. 

4. Substantives sometimes usurp the place of adjectives; as, pbpttlilm 
latd rdgem, a people ruling extensively, for late regnantem. 

5. The same word is sometimes a substantive, and sometimes an adjec- 
tive ; as, amicus, a friend, and amicus, friendly; juvSnis, a young maru 
and jiiv^is, young; s^ndx, an old man, and senex, old; stultus, a fool, and 
stulttis, /oo/is^ ; s6cttisij a companion, and sbcius, confederate; malum, 
wickedness, and malus, wicked ; al@s, a bird, and al^ swift. 

6. An adjective sometimes agrees with a whdie sentence; as, pro p&- 
tria mdri est decOriim, to die for our country is glorious* 

SurgSre dilactilo est sS.luberrimum, to rise early is very wholesome. 

7. An adjective sometimes agrees with an Infinitive mood ; as, tiittm 
scire, your knowledge^ for tua scientia ; amarS est dtirtim, to love i9 hard,^ 


Amoenus flos, a pleasant flower. Bonus arbor, a good tree, 

Pulcher femina, a fair woman. Bonus exemplum, a good example* 

^ RULE 2. 

A VERB agrees with the Nominative, that stands 
before it^ in number and person ; as, 

Ego amo, tu amas, ille amat, puer amat, ilia amat. 
Nos amamiis, vos amatis, illi amant, pueri amant. 

1. The Kominative to the verb is known by the question who or what ? 
as. Who loves ? Ego amo, / love, &c. 

2. The Nominative to the verb generally stands before the verb. 

3. But sometimes the Nominative stands after the verb ; as, SrEt nox, it 
was night ; est mens, it is the mind, 

4. When a question is asked, the J^ominative in English stands mostly 
after the verb ; as, ttbi est tiitts fratSr ? where is your brother ? 

5. Ego, tu, nos, and vos, are seldom expressed in Latin. 

6. \ verb has sometimes a whole sentence for its Jfominative; as, fugSrS 
Tittum est virtos, to shun vice is virtue, 

7. A verb has sometimes an Infiniti'ot JVtoodiot \V&'^wsbs«5c£:^^\ "^^n^s*^- 
T&rH est bdmtnis, to err belongs to man. 

/ The word tbere, coming before lYie IlngWRYi ot \Jaft \«^ «aT^^^.% "t^^^ 

,pre99edin Latin; but the Nominative to ram \b ^\«j&^^ a.Jtct xt. •, ^^^ 

/««vr i» a man— ^rat vir, «^ef« was a mwu &Mi. \5mo\sl!^ ^2^ '^^'^ ^^ 
. tense$ of 9um. 

( ee ) 

^ RULE 3. 

Substantive vcrhs^ verbs of naming and gesture, 
have a Nominative both before awe? after them; as, 

Ego ero discTpiilus, / will he a scholar* 
Tu eris doctiis, you will he learned* 
Veritas est magna, the truth is great. 
Nulla potentia est longa, no power is long. 
Principiiiin est difficile, the heginning is hard. 

1. Substantive verbs (that is definite) are aum^fiOjfor^m, existo. 

S. Verbs of naming are appellor -ari, dieor, vocor,, nomiTior, nuneup^r, 

— cens^OTt designor^ cr^or^ constituor^ cognascor, agnoscovj invinwr^ rti- 

w • .\j \j l_^T^ ^f-^v v/tK/\.# 


p^rior^ exisiimor^ habeor, salutor^ videor. 

3« Verbs of gesture are eo, incido^ v^nio, ciibo^ sto, jac^o^ s^d^o, sapio^ 
evddo^fugio^ insequor^ dormiOy somhiOj man^o. 

Have no other verbs but substantive verbs, verbs of naming, a Nomina- 
tive before and afler them ? 

4. Any verb may have after it a Jfominative^ when it belongs to the 
same thing with the Nominative before it ; as, Sic fatur lachrymans, thtts^ 
he speaks weeping, Virg. Defendi rempublicam jtivenls, / defended the 
ttatewhen I was a young man^ non deseram, sSnex, IwUl not desert it be- 
ing old, Cic. 

When substantive verbs, verbs of naming — are placed between two J^ont' 
inatives of different numbers, the verb may agree with either of them ; as, 
omnia ponius erant. Amantium irx est amoris redintegratio. 


J am a scholar. Paul was an apostle. Dionysius was a tyrant. 

You are a good boy. Cicero was made Consul. Aristides was called just. 

George is my dear friend. Mutius sits quiet. John always comes late* 

The citizens are honest {candidus.) Boys are cunning {calfidus,) 

Virgil wsLS saluted poet. Old men are cautious. The bad may be good. 

Good men are happy. Bad men are miserable. We all might be better. 

^ RULE 4. 

Certain verbs require an Accusative case before the 
Infinitive mood ; as. 

Audio PraBsidem venire, / Jiear that the President is coming. 
Gaudeo te redivisse, / am glad that you have returned. 
Credo bdnos amatum iri, / helieve good men will he loved. 

1. The same sentence, Audio Prasidiim venire, may also be rendered 
/a Latin by quod, or ut; thas, .^udio ^od Pr<B«^« vintt, or lit PrasH 

. 2. Tbat, in Engli^ \b the sign of ihft Accusative cm»\«$«» Via» I*^ 
^svemoodin Laiin. 

3. The ^eeusaiive ease before'lhe IvfiaiXkot mo^A tiw«3% ^«^WBa» « 
^Oie other verb going before* • 

( 99 ) 

Which are the verbs that mostly require an Accustxtive ease 
before the Infinitive mood ? A. The following : 

Audto^ inteUtgo^ sentio^ percipio^ anxmadverto^ eogn68co, dUeo, vidXo^ 
eensiio, deprehendo, jiidtco^ existimo, puto^ opinor^ siupicor^ 8Cio, niseiOj 
erido, exp^novj compertum hab^o, cogXto, mimxni^ r^cordor, obtivUcor,^ 
lator^ gaudSo^ dolSo^ atgre firo^ spiro, confidoy rfico, aio^ perhtb^o, fertuu 
fama est, fero, refiiro^ nuneto, affirmo^ acribo, ostindo, demdnttro^ pr&bo^ 
permitto, poUic^or^ spondio^ voviOf miror, See, 

2. y^lo, nolo^ malOj oro, exdro^pHo^ poatulo, poseo^flagxto^ quaro^ obaicro, 
preeor^ depr^cor^ quaso^ rogOj opto, exopto, are mostly followed by xU or n^, 
and the Subjunctive Mood. 

3. Caveo^ is followed by ne, and the Subjunctiye Mood ; as, Cave ni 
titubesjt take care lest you stumble. JVe is often omitted before cav^o. 

4. Cogo, impello, urgeo, paro^ dicimo, statiio^ corutxtuo^ facxo^ stiid^o^ 
Icet^ diicet — aquum est, par est^ cerium est, fas est, nifds est, have after them 
an Accusative case before the Ir^nitive ; but sometimes ut and the Bub- 
jonctive Mood. 

5. The Accusative case before the Infinitive is sometimes understood ; 
as, reddire., (se) posse n^gdbat^ he denied that he could give it. Virg. 

^ RULE 5. 

Esse, fuisse, fl^ri, fore, [and the Infinitives of 
verbs of naming and gesture] have the same case 
after them, which they have before them ; as, 

Hie ames dici pater, here you may lote to be called father* 
Petriis ciipit esse doctiis vir, Peter desires to be a learned man. 
Scio Petrum esse doctiim, / know that Peter is learned* 
Audio Praesidem venisse tutum, / Jiear the President came safe, 
Scio te esse rediturum, I know that you are about to return. 
Credo pios, fore felices, / believe that good men will be happy. 
Non licet tibi esse negligenti, it is not lawful for you to be idle. 

(, Note 1. Ess^ a.nd fuiss^ in this rule frequently are not expressed. 

2. We can also say, non Ixcet tibi (te) ess^ niigtxgintem. 

Have esse, fuisse, always the same case after them, which they 

have before them ? No. 

3. For if the Genitive case goes before esse, the case following mast be 
the Accusative; as, est s^ptentis («e) esse contenttLtn sua soiti^^itiA iTsa. 
part of a xnise man to be content with his lot. InX&tfe^X. cvNvasck. V3i€>^ «e»fc.'^Sf*»- 
r08, it is the interest of the citizens to be Jtcc. 

4. TAe Accusative, especially h^m%n2m,*\B o^Tix3aA«w\»^^^^^ 
CTic, goad breeding forbids a man to be proud ogaiusl >wU o»»<>«^ 

( 100 ) 

5. The poets sometimes use the J^ominative instead of the Aeeusative, 
as, Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis, for nescis te esse uzorem invicti JotIs, 
You dorCt know that you are the wife of the invincible Jove. 


I know that you are a scholar, ^that you are a learned man. 

I know that you will be learned, that good men are happy. 

I have heard that no power is long, that good women are happy 

I think that the beginning is hard, ^that boys are negligent. 

I hear that Aristides was called just, that riches are dangerous. 

Aristides is said to have been just. I know that gifts have been loved. 
We believe that the righteous will be happy, ^that none is perfect. 

RULE 6. 

When no JYomdnative comes between the Relative 
qui, quiE, quoD, and the verb; the Relative is the 
Nominative to the verb, and agrees with the Antece- 
dent m gender and number; as, 

Vir, qui miratur divitias, est miser, the man, who admires 

riches, is miserable, 
Fuge vdluptatem, quae est pestis, avoid pleasure, which is a 

Parce temp5ri, quod nunquam redit, spare time, which never 


Note 1. The Antecedent is a substantive noun that goes before the 
Relative, and is again understood to the Relative ; the above examples, at 
full length, will then stand thus : 

Vir, qui vtr, miratur divitias, est miser, tJie man, which man 

admires riches, is miserable, 
Fuge voluptatem, quae vdlupids est pestis, beware of pleasure, 

which pleasure is a plague, 
Parce tempori, quod tempus nunquam redit, spare time, which 
\ time never returns. 

The antecedent is sometimes not expressed ; as, sunt quYbus, scil. hxh 
mtnes, there are persons to whom. Hor. 

2. The antecedent is sometimes understood ; but afterwards expressed in 
the same case with the relative ; as, Urb^m quam ttatuo est vestra, Viro. 
for Urbs^ quam urbem statuo, est vestra. 
S. An adjective also m&j be an antecedent to the relative ; as, ille, quem 
- Xmaa, aBgrot&t, he, tehom you love, is sick; Wt tSueii \!l[i« «Qba\Aai\i^« hatno^ 
yyr,puer, &,c. is understood. 

4. 5p&e Relative agrees likewise "with the XnteccActiX. m pertwv; «a^ ^"^piS 
«»<r«5t ^2 /dct, ViRQ^ I am pr€9ent^ who did it. 1\x, ^xji 1axv^1aiAs\v 
«6r »*i<? /tfve, are loved. Stel&L que Itlcet, iKc stor, loKUH «lt\nA», 

( 101 ) 

5* When the Relative retpecti a whol0 sentence, it ii pat in the Kenttr 
l^ender ; as, metis c&rtts amlctls morttttts est, quttd est mthi summo dSlflii, 
my dear friend %$ dead, vhieh %$ a very great grief to me. 


The pious father, who corrects his wicked son, has delivered himself. 
The men, t. e. which men, who fear the Lord, are blessed. 
The girl, i. e. which girl, who obeys her teacher, will be loved. 

/ RULE 7. 

But if a JVominaiive comes between the Relative 
and the Verb, the relative is governed by the follow- 
ing verb or noun, and agrees with the antecedent in 
gender and number; as, 

Deus, quern pii c6lunt, 6W, whom good men worship^ 

Cujus munere vivunt, hy whose gift they live, 

Cujus sunt cupTdi, of whom they are desirous , 

Cui parent, et placent, whom they obey and please. 

Quo fruentur, est oeternus, whom they shall enjoy, is eternal* 


The man, whom God helps, will be indeed safe. 
Virtue, which all good men admire, is neglected. 
The poor, whom we pity, are not always grateful. 

RULE 8. 

Two or more nouns singular require the verb, ad' 
jective, or relative to be in the plural number; as, 

Cddrus et Brutus, qui, &mayenint p&triam, fuerunt, fortes, 
Codrus and Brutus, who loved their country, were brave* 

1. When the tuhstantives are of different gendere, and signify jBcrtoiM, 
the masculine gender is more worthy than the feminine or neuter; as, 

Frat^r et sorttr sunt &mandi, a brother and titter are to be loved. 
■' 2. But if the SM^ititainiintM signify things uitfiotU life, the adjective or 
relative plural must be put in the neuter gender; as, 

Hbn5r et laus sunt esttm&nd&, honor and praite are to be esteemed. 

3. If all the substantives without life, were of the masculine, and non« 
of them of the neuter gender, the Adjective or Relative wUl Vm^ \sl ^ia 
Center gender; as, 

Arcfls et cSlXmM, gu<B frfig^sti, the ho%D9 and arroua uWoK ywfc Vt«iS». 
1 ^I^^' ^'^^ substantives of differew* peraowa^^Cftft jwf*. V"^^'' 
'^^J: '*'*'/? "*® ■econd, and the second Wox^ VJel^ ^aM3A^ ^\ ^,.«- 

-*Oirnisrertmjjtfrfy^ ^ou, Peter, and JoUn,ne|;Uet yiuT *«*•«•• 

( 102 ) 

5. The adjective^ or verb, freqaentlj agrees with the substantive that it 
(T nearest to4miii, and is understood to the rest; as, 

PatSr est &mandiis, et matSr, a father and mother is to he loved, £t 
ego in culpa sum et tu, or, et ggo, et ta jiMn culpa, both I and you are in 
the fault* Nihil hie dedst nisi carmina, there is nothing wanting here but 
eJiarms, or, nthil hie ntst carmina desunt. 

This construction is generally used, when the different words signify one 
and the same thing, or much to the same purpose, and is commoiSj called 
Zeugma, or joining; as, mens, rlltto, et consilium in senlbus est, under" 
standing, reason, and prudence, is in old men, 
j '6. Collective nouns have sometimes the adjective or verb in the plural 
nomher; as, 

• PbptUiis convenerant, the people had met; turha rUlUit, the crowd rush; 
• magni, pars occisi sunt, a great part were slain, 

RULE 9. 


Adjectives and Relative nouns sometimes agree 

with the primitive pronoun^ that is understood in the 

possessive; as, 

Cum mea nemo scripta leget vulgd recitare timentis, whereas 
no one will read my writings^ who am afraid to recite them pub' 
licly, Mea the possessive, being put before met the primitiye- 


All began to praise my fortune, who had a son endued with such good 

His exploits alone ranked Hercules among the heathen divinities. 

Your example living ill, does more hurt than my persuasions preaching, 
can do good. 

My one's fortune is better than your two's counsel. 

RULE 10. 

Substantives signifying the same thing, being put 
in apposition with each other, agree in case ; as, 

Pastor Corydon ardebat Alexin delicias. 

The shepherd Corydon fondly loved Alexis the darling. 

i. This agreement of a substantive with a substantive, is commooly 
called apposition, 

2. Adjectives are sometimes pra in apposition toith substantives; as, 
Pompdiiis magntis, Pompey the Great, 

3. Substantives are sometimes put in apposition with a^eetives; ai» 
. JUknpiktiitt hlUm custOdSm ostii, Jtfarc placed him keeper of ws door* 

4. JiSf ieingt for^ like^ are sometunes signa o£ oEppoaUvnw 

PBA.:iLlB. _ 

^Brndmat Waabington. The city PbLi\ado\pb\a.. Km«cw». wa wasted 
9o meniMMS0 « Mrvant, a token, m a tokoii,i©T a^^i«a oti«« to«id*l% 

( 103 ) 

Of Government. 

Chnemment is threefold : 

1. Of Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 

2. Of Verbs Personal and Impersonal, 

3. Of Words indeclinable, 


RULE 11. 

ONE substantive governs another [of a differerU 
• signification] in the Genitive ; as, 

Verbum Ddmini est purum, the word of the Lord is pure. 
Salus pdpuli est magna, the. safety of the people is important. 
Consilium sdpientts est saniim, the advice of a wise man is good. 

1. O/, or '«, with apostrdphus, is the rwtal sign of this Genitive. 

2. This Genitive is sometimes changed^ or can be changed, into an dk^- 
jeetive possessive ; as, diTlntU am&r, divine love, for amor jDei. 

3^ The first substantive is not always expressed ; as, Angusta vxarum^ 
■for angusta Ibca vidriim. Acuta belli, for. acuta pSrIctUa belli. 

4. Sometimes the Genitive after a substantive is changed into the Da- 
tive ; as, tu deciis omnS tuis, for tuorum, you are an entire credit to yout 
friends^ or, of your friends, dSlttr oltimS matri, O / last grief to thy mo- 
ther, or, of thy mother. 
T" 5. The poets frequently use the Dative for the Genitive ; as, cui corptiB 
porrtgttur, for cQjtls corptLs porrigitiir, whose body is extended. 

6. Mihi^ tibi, sibi, are sometimes used to supply the measure of the 
poets, or they are put for meus, tuus, suus. 

7. The Genitive also of Adjectives is governed by substantivu ; as, nor« 
ma v^tSriim, the rule of the ancients ; via sapientis, the way of the wise ; 
but then homims and hJominum are understood. 

8. Ejus, illius, istius, [his, her, its,] are governed as if they were rab- 
stantives ; as, Scio'6jils maniim, / know his hand, hie Illtus arm&, here were 
her arms, 

9. E&rum, illorum, istdrum, [their] are governed as substantives; as, 
b&ntnds non vident eorum hjrpbcrisin, men do not see their hypocrisy. 


The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom* 

The soul's loss is the loss of losses. The face of things is changed. 

The cares of this world have blinded the eyes of men. 

^^ULE 12. 

If the last of two substantives has an adjective of 
jpraise or dispraise joined with it, then it may be put 
in the Genitive or •Ablative ; as, 

N^& fuit vir magnae piudentie^) Numtf' uoa o. nwwc cs^ ^^>^ 

lUe fuit puer alta mente, he was a 1k)1| of a -projouwa. lavt^- 
The Brat of the two BubatantWea \» noX. ^^^1^ ^^^^"^ 
BB, 08to (vir) forti animo, he {a marC) of gooA courag^e- 

( 104 ) 


^ RULE 13, 

An adjective of the nmtef gmder without a sub- 
stantive to agree with, governs the Genitive; as, 

Multum auri sestimatur, much gold is esteemed* 
Quid rei tractatur ? what subject is handling ? 
Almd mercedis dabitur, another reward wUl he given. 

1. Mvltum auri, and quid r^i, are more elegant than multum aiirtfMii 
qwB res, 

2. Plus and quid never agree in case with any substantive. 

3. JViAiZ and niZ, for nullum, frequently govern the Genitive. 

4. Quid, aliquid, quicquam, hoc, illiid, td, govern the Grenitive. 

\ 5. Neuter Adjectives, which govern the Genitive, generally denote 
i quantity, nuUum, tantum, quarUum, muUum, plus, plurtmiim, paululwnu 


As much money as any one has, so much credit will he also have. 
Where there is most study there is least noise. Much praise is due. 


RULE 14. 

Verbal adjectives, adjectives of desire.^ ignorance^ 

knowUdge^ remembrance^ and the like, govern t|ie 

Genitive; as, 

H^ratius fuit cupidus pacis, Horojce W€is desirous of peace. 
C&to fiiU tenax propositi, Cato wa^firm to his purpose* 
- Cicero fiiit amans pStriae, Cicero was a lover of his country, 
Csesar fuYt peritus literarum, C<Bsar was skilled in learning. 
Petrus est memor beneficiorum', Peter is mindful of favors. 

What adjectives govern the Genitive, agreeably to this rule? 

1. Verbal adjectives in -ax; os, cdpaXi ^daXj fSrax^ fugax^ 
perttnax, t^nax, vdrax, &c. govern the Genitive. 

2. Participials in -ns ; as, amans, appHens, cuptHns, exp^nens, nUgtU 
gens, dUxgens, mHutns, observans, patXens, {servantissimus) timSns, /ft- 
giens^ siti&M, Slc. doctus, eriiditus, expSrius, consultiis, 6lc. govern the. 

.. Genitive. 

[1. The difference in signification between the participle and the par^ 
tittpial, is this ; the participle signifies a temporary or single act, at a cer- 
tain time.; as, Ceesar fuit amans patri&m, Caisar was (at some time') a lover 
^ hig country; but the participial, without regard to any particular tim^ 
denotea a Aakit; rb, Ckero fuYt )&m&nB p&liiiB^ Cicero was a {steadjf^ imi- 
yortn) iover of his country* 
S, I^atiins frigua, is one who is wyfering cold,\iovi \ui%>)\«i ^^'^^ 
may be to suffer it. PatXinB /rte8rii, \b oue ^\io >» ^\»\o iMf «t wAA^ 

^^»^ie of suffering cold. 

( 105 ) 

3. Doetu9 mftsieiiit denotes one who has been taught mime, whetbtr 
he understands it or not. Doctus mUateis, denotes one who is BkilUd in 
mu9ie — a connoisseur in fiHM»c»] 

3. Cupidiis, timidus^ ambUidsus, avdrus, eAndsu«, govern the Grenitive; 
but eridvdus and fidus govern the Dative. 
"T" 4, P^rt/u«, imp^rttus; gnariis, prUdens^ caltidtis^prdvidus^ doetut, dontiSt 
prcBsnuSi prcuagiis, certiis, m^mor, immSmor, expertus, eonsultiis^ eonvictus^ 
iruditus, govern the Genitive. 

5. Ignarus^ riklts^ niscius, inscius,, diihius, incirtus^ consctiis, int^g^r^ 
pUriiSy anxiusj sollicituSy r^us^ manifistus^ govern the Genitive. 

6. JEmulus^parcus, prddtgus, profUsus^ s^cUrus, mUnifxcus^ftlix^ govern 
the Genitive ; as, fdliz &ntnil, happy in mind* 


We have heard that Catiline was able to bear cold, and hunger. 
I am sorry to see that tender body bearing the most bitter cold. 
YT^BQ men are not desirous of much wealth, fields, and money. 

RULE 15, 

Partitives, interrogatives, indefinites, numerals, 
comparatives, and superlatives, govern the Genitive 
plural; as, ^. 

» Hie phildsophonim errat, this one of the philosophers errs. 
Uterque nostrum dicet partem, ecich of us toill say a part* 
Quis vestrum ignor^t ? what one of you is ignorant ? Interro. 
Quis nostrum ignorat, any one of us is ignorant* Indefinite. 
Una sdroriim fuit pulchra, one of the sisters was fair, 
Petrus est seni6r fratrum, Peter is the elder of the brothers, 
Cicero fuit optimus consilium, Cicero was the best of consuls. 

Can this Genitive he turned into another ease? 

1. This Genitive can be turned into int^r with the Accusative^ or into 
</*, d, exy with the Ablative ; thus, aliqats phtlosophorum — aHquvs iniir 
philosophos, or, dfc, c, exj philosophise 

2. Words placed partitively^ whether nouns substantive^ adjectives^ or 
participles^ govern also the Genitive plural; as, valgus Atheniensium, the 
generality of the Athenians, Nemo mortalium, no one of mortals. SanctS 
deOrum, O thou holy one of the Gods I Lecti jiiv^niim, the choice of the 

3. Partitives govern the Genitive singular of collective nouns^ and do not 
necessarily agree with them in gender ; as, vir, prsBstantlsstmiis nostra 
cXvttatis, tfu best man of our state* 

^ 4. Partitives^ interrogativeSt are put in the same gender as the substan 
tives they govern; as, aliquis philosophorum^ is at full length, oKquXs 
ph%lo$iiphfis phil6s6phdrum; but there are some examples to tlu& «/(SGflcx«r^« 


ne wtaeaH of the Philosophers ia BOTne>irr\eB Ts\Vft\a^««w 
Miodenu was by far the most loamed oC t3aB Ot^«^%« . 

o^trtmiuM, the eighth of the wise men, was «. »Vo\* ^^taSSo^o^^^- 

( IW ) 

RULE 16. 

Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit^ Ukeness or 
unUkeness^ govern the Dative ; as, 

Poeta est utilis urbi, a poet is tisefid to the community. 
Hie puer est sTmTlis suo patri, this hoy is like his father. 
Lex est gravis reipublicsB, the law is hurtful to the state 
Hector ivit obvius hosti, Hector went to meet the enemy. 
Censura est facilis cuivis, censure is easy to any one. 

1. But amicus^ tmmi«u«, t^eXus^ ttdnus^ par, aqudtis, similis, dissx" 
mXlis, abstmtHM, eognatus, auperstHs, propriu8, goyem both the Dative and 

2. CommiintM seldom governs the Genitive, bat frequently the Dative; 
thus, hoc est commUnS mihi teciim, this is common, to me and you. 

3. AliBnus imrnUniB, admit of the following construction : StipfirbYa est 
alidn& dignttatts, dignttati, vel a dignttatS, j7ru2e i« inconatstent vfith dig-* 
fifty; nemo est immtlnlfs vttii, vel, a vitio, no one w free from vice. 

4. Promptus, proclivi8, v^lox, e^li^r, tardus, pig^r, eommodu8,ineommH' 
dua, aptus, ineptus, habitlis, govern the Accusative of the thing, with the 
preposition ad, rather than the Dative; as, omnes sunt proni &d vYttunif 
all men are prone to vice, 

5. UtiRs, infUiHs, aptiis, iniptus, govern the Dative, or Accusative with 
ad; as, vtr tltilts bello, vd, S,d belliim. ^^^ 

6. All adjectives of acquisition govern the Dativeju^, eonscius slthp-^it 
f^us-f-socxis— pauper amieis — div^s sibi — henxgnus omnibus — communis 
•—CB^tttif — xntquus—bonus—felix tuis—jtutus, injustus — gratus, ingrdtu»» 


Wicked men are prone to mischief. Fooli are tntt to laugh, promts* 
Tou cannot imagine how unjust he is to himself. Hor, 
CSoirection is necessarj for boys. A Christian is kind to all. 
Death is common to every age. Death is common to thee and mo. 
A prince is slow to punishment. A good man is hurtful to none. 
A prince is swift to reward. A heathen is kind to his friend. 
Death is common to good and bad men. George was kind to all men. 

RULE 17. 

Verbals in -bitis and -dtis^ govern the Dative of a 
person whose sign is by ; as, 

* Amdr non est m^icabilis herbis, love is nd to he cured 
hy herbs. 
Via lethi est calcand& s^m^ omnibus, the way ofdeaA it 
io be trod once hy all. 

Do yerbals in "bXUa and -due govern only tbeT>^\ri« ot %P«r«m1 

/. Verbals in -btlts and -due some^mee gpvem «1bo m A\Afl«»ft ^1^ 
"Ww tu, pUdlcmtL art rSptrtblKs iwinii aacU, choetil^^ V» l»e ve^eteK 

( wi ) 

bjf tw art, Ovid. Dlfftcult&tds sunt sttpgrande stiidto et labori$, diffieul' 
tie$ are to be overcome by ttudy and lahor* 

2* Participles of the perfect tense, also govern a Dative^ whose sign is 
hy^ but oftener an Ablative with a or ab ; as, Maecenas, dIctS mihl, O Jtfice- 
cenaa^ celebrated by me. Mors Laurentts est ddfl6t& multis, vil a multls« 
^ the death of Laurens teas bewailed by many. 


We must love all men. All men are to be loved by us. 
We must write -our versions. Our versions are to be written by nt. 
We must read good books. Grood books are to be read by us. 
We must love our enemies. Our enemies are to be loved by us. 
We must shtm every vice. Every vice is to be shunned by us. 

RULE 18. 

Adjectives signifying dimension^ govern the Accu-' 
stxtive of Measure ; as, 

Haec c61umna est viginti pedes alt^, this pillar is ttoenty 
feet high. 

Do Adjeeiives of dimension always govern the Accusative? 

1. Adjectives^ and even verbs of dimension^ also govern the Ablative^ as 
well as the Accusative of measure^ but rarely the Genitive ; as, fos8& s^ 
cubitls altS,, a trench six cubits deep, Patet tres ulnas, it extends tKne 
eUs, VentSr eju« extS,t sesqulp^g. Persius. NSc longiords duodenum 
pSdum, and not two feet longer. 

Which are the Adjectives of Dimension ? 
Adjectifw of Dimension are 

2. Altus^ bighi or deep ; crassus or dehsus^ thick ; latus^ broad ; longiU^ 
long; prSfundiis^ deep ; which govern the Accusative, and sometimes the 
Ablative of measure. 

Which are the words of Measure ? 
The words of Measure are 

3. Cubxtus^ a cubit, a fftbt and a half; dXg%tu9^ an inch; palmus^ a 
hand-breadth; pis^ a foot; pSssus, a pace ; miUidrium^ a mile ; stadium^ a 
furlong ;t1u/na, an ell. 

^ Praxis. 

Oor house, in this city, is 30 feet lon$V'ui<l ^8 ^^t wide. 
My book is two inches thick. This room is 20 fedt long. 
The circulax church is 90 feet in diameter; The board is 4 inches broad. 

t • 

^ RULE 19. 

The Comparative Degree g^ein^ tiv^ AW«^x^^^ 
whose sign is than ; as, " ^ 

8apreDti& est meli6r gemmis, wisdom Vb««^T ^^^ira ^^««;9j*^ 
NUtn est dulcrus libertatS, notMng i« «i6^t \lwxtv.A^tow.- 

( 108 ) 

1. This Ahlative after the compaxative degree, is frequently resolved by 
gtiam; thus, 

JWiil est dulcius quam libirtas (est) S&ptentt& est melittr quam gem- 
me (sunt) 

2. Quam, after ampKus^ plus^ wXnus^ is elegantly left out ; as, non am' 
pKus noctiim fcUl^^ counterieit his form not longer than one night. 

Dote the Comparative Degree govern no other Abkttive, than that whose 

sign is than? 

3. The comparative degree governs also anotfier Ablative of the measure 
of excess; as, tu Ss nihilo m^i5r alio, you are in nothing better than 
another, Quanto stipdrbtor Ss, tanto vili&r (es,) the prouder you are^ the 
meaner (you are.) 

4. Jfihil is elegantly used for nfimo, or nulltis ; as, nihil fUlt fllctlndlib 
CicSrOnS, none was more eloquent than Cicero* 


King Solomon was wiser than all men. Peace is much better than war. 
The leader is greater than the soldier. Solon was wiser than Crcesus. 
Nothing is swifter than time. Cicero was more honest than-Osesar. 
The more learned you are, be the more humble. You are richer than I. 

X RULE 20, 

Di^ds, indignds, contenttis, prseditils, capitis and 
fretiis ; (dso natiis, prognatiis, sMus, ortiis, editus, gfi- 
nltus, prog^nltus, and the Uke^ govern the jlblative; as, 

Hie piier est dignus laude, this hoy is worthy of praise* 
Quis est cdrdentus sua sorte ? toho is content with his lot ? 
Vir est pradtttis virtute, the man is endued with courage* 
Stultus est cdptus mente, a fool is destitute of understanding* 
JEneks fuit natus Anchls^, JEneas was bom of Anchises* 

Mints, chdrus, viindlis, vi/is, laUus, supSrbus, also govern the Ablative; 
as, h5mo silperbUs sapidntia est stultissimUs, a man proud of his knowledge^ 
K is a very great fool. 

The wise always trust in God. Pyrrhus was descended from Achillas. 
Ascanius was bom of a noble family. We were bom of good parents. 

RULE 21. 

Adjectives of plenty or want govern the Genitive 

or Ablative; as, 

Omnia sunt plena Dei, aU things are full of God* 
Homo est compds mentis, man is endued with reason* 
Siimus prddigi nostri tempdns, we are prodigal of our time* 
Nemo est vacuus mdlestia, there is no one void of trouble* 

Benigniis, expers^ impos, liberalise mUniftcus, parens, truneus, vacuus, 
/ffiodi£^, indtgiis^ pauper, divlis^ particips^ mostly govem the Genitive. 
jffAi/uSf if^&tus, muttlus, tumtdiit, turgtdiu^ orlius^ grocis, govem the 
'^6/attve only, 
Ol^aS, signifying need* eovems the .Ablative o? \3cvfj VSQ:m^^^^«A\ ^s^^ 
S^^fJ^P^ efft F«rf>£? ufhM need %• there of uordt? USUS jN» ^wtam 
^e Ablative ; a«, nunc turtis Ce»t) viribttB, now there U tutd oj ttrciHE^ 

^ ( 109 ) 


RULE 22. 

Sum, when it signifies possession^ property^ or duty^ 
governs the Genitive ; as, 

Terr& est Ddmmi, the earth is the Lord's — belongs to the Lord* 

Eat hdminis errare, it is the way [the weakness] of man to err* 

Est prsBceptorum curare, it is the duty of masters to take care. 

This Genitive^ which is said to be governed by e«/, is governed by nor 
fftro, mbs^ ingimum^ pr^priHas^ infirmitas^ inMcium^ luStOy n^gotium^ 
i^eium^ oput; mUnus^ r^s, or some other words, underttood, and some* 
times expressed; as, quicquid (est) consptctlum est rfis fisci. Juv. whatever 
it excellent is the property of the treasury. Hic Itbdr est mSi fratrts, this 
hook belongs to my brother^ or fully, hic ItbSr est (liber) mei fratris. 


It is lAe pari of all men to love both their enemies, and friends. 
It is the duty of the President to provide for {consulo) the People. 
It is the privilege of all good citizens to contend for their just rights. 

RULE 23. 

Does SUM al#*ys govern the Genitive, wheQ it signifies j)0#- 
session, property, or duty ? No. 

The possessives, mSUs^ tv/Hs^ sUiis^ nostSr^ vestir^ 
are put in the- JVcwwno/tW after sum^ &rc.; buc the 
Primitive Genitives mSi^ tui^ svi^ nostril vestri^ never 
• &re f 8.S9 

Hic liber est meus, not m^, this hook is mine, or, this hook he* 

longs to me* 
Hsec tdga er^t tu^, not tui, this gown was yours, or, this goum 

belonged to you. 
Est tuum incipere, not tin, it is your part to hegin, or, to hegin 

is your part, 
Scto hunc librum ess^ meum, not mei, I know that this hook he* 

longs to me, or, that this hook is mine ; also, 
HumanUm, 5e//utnum, regium^ Romanugih ^t^^ oiher possessives^ may bo 
used in the J^omiruUive, as, est humdnum err&r^ for est hominis errarS. 

•_ » 

RULE 24. 
MlsSrSOr, mlsSresco, and s&t&go, govern the Gen- 
itive; as, 

Mfs^rere tudrum civTum, do pity your countrymen, 

S&t&git suarum rerum, he is busy about his otou af a\T%* 

Do an/ other yerha than mxsMor^ mX8)^re«co> «xi^ iSjLa;g^N^^'^^^'^'^^^ 

Verbg that signify an affection of the mvnA wTaeMxaaa ^w«r«vV£v^ 
tf re in imitation of the OrccU; as, pl^rMo aiCtrnV A'^^^^'^^ o»>.v'««^ 


( 110 ) 

RULE 25. 

Est, used for habeo^ to have^ governs the Dative of 
K person; as, 

Liber est mibi, I have a hook, or, liber, a book, est, is, mihi, to 

me, for ego babeo librum. 
Libri sunt mibi, I have books, or, libri books, sunt are, mihi, to 

me; for ego babeo libros. 

1. Supp^tit is also used Hke est, for habeo, and governs the Dative ; as, 
Pauper enim nOn est cui rdrOm sapp^tit Qstis, for he U not poor, who hot 
the use of riches, Hor. 

2. In the construction of est for habeo, the word that seemg to be the 
.Nominative, is the Dative, and the word which would have been the AecU' 
sative with haheo, is the J^ominative with est ; as, liber est mihi, which is 
accounted more elegant than habeo librum, 

3. Optls, need, is especially joined with est, but seldom with habeo ; as, 
ttpus est mihi, / have need--^eed is to me; but we rarely say habeo opiis, 
I have need, which is not so elegant, 

4. Disum is elegantly used for careo ; as, libri desunt mihi, books are 
wanting to me, instead of ear^o libris, I want books, desunt tibi libri, ^ 


Tou have a book, you have books. He has a book, he has books. 
We have a book, we have books. Ye have a book, ye have books. 
They have a book, they have books. You all have not good books. 

I know that good men have good books that Peter wants books. 

We have had books. We had had books. You and I will have books. 
I know that you have books ^that you had books you had no books. 

RULE 26. 

Sum used for qff^ro^ to brings governs two Datives; 
the one of a. person^ and the other of a thing; as, 

Hoc est voluptati mihi, this is (brings) a pleasure to me, for 
Hoc affert voluptatem mibi, this brings a pleasure to me. 

The Dative of the person after sum, for aff^ro, is sometimes under- 

Do, dono, verto, daco, tribuo, hab^o, relinquo, v^nio, mitto, also govern 
two Datives; as, hoc dattlr tibi laudi, this is given you, or, to you, for a 

RULE 27. 

All verbs or participles of acquisition govern the 

Dative; as, 

Seges creacit lidminibus, com grows for men* 
Lau8 dehetur yirtuil, praise m dMt to mrtue. 
Ijiberi Jaborant sibi, free men labor fox thcmscliics. 
'^"'Vcepta dantur tibi, instrudiijons are gwcn -you. 

!7 and FOJi, the signs of acquMlitiox^ we no* olwajis expTe%%tA« 

( "1 ) 


We are not bom^r ounelTes. Now I fleem to mjself to be going. 

He said to me. You have returned for another. Hear this lesson for me 

Neither, O ye Greeks, need my brave actions be mentioned to you. 

thou, who art matched to a worthy man ! I do not sleep for alL 

1 was not at home for you. My gi& are mean to you, O Alexis. 

The fair Naiad cropping for you. And minds not to go away for the late 
night ViRG. 


But as many verbs govern the Dative^ which seldom have 
tOy or for, after them /n the English construction ; they are 
here inserted under tire following heads. 

1. Verbs signifying to PROFIT, or HURT, govern the 
Dative; as, commMo, proftcto^ placed, consiilo, to consult for, 
[to provide for,l ndc^o, offtcto, incommddo, displic^Oy instdidr, 
d6U6 ; but Z^d^ and off^ndo govern the Accusative. 

^ 2. ^TO T'AVOR, to HELP, and their contraries, govern 

the Dative ; as, fdveo, annuo, arrldio, assenttdr, adst%pul&r 

gratuldr, gfOtdr, grattftcdr, ignbsco indulgHo, parco, ddoldf 

plaudoy hJandtdr, linddndr, palpor, assentdr, stiid^o, suppltco, — 
Auxiltdr, admtniculdr, subv^mo, succurro, patrdctndr, mM^dr 
midicdr, dpituldr, dSrdgo, detrdho, Invid^o, cemuldr; but jiivi 

^ governs the Accusative. 


govern the Dative; as, imp^ro, prcecipio, mando, ddmindr 
mdd^rdr, (to check) pdr^o, auscutto, ohidio, obs^qudr, ohtempSrOj 
moremg^ro, mongirdr, obs^cundo; fdmulor, servio, inseroioj 
ministro, pugno, r^pugno, certo, obsto, rSluctor, obsisto, r^mtdr, 
r^sisto, adversdr, exprdbro, rScldmo, r^frdgdr; hut jiibSo governs 
thi^ A.of*iisdtive 


as, mindr, commindr, indigndr, irdscdr, sitccinsSoj convitidry 
govern the Dative, 

5, ^To TRUST ; as, fidoj confldo, crido, fid^m, hoMo, 

difftdoy despiro, govern the Dative. 

6. ^To SHOW, to TELL, govern the Dative ; as, tndtco, 

aio, dico, Interdico, respondSo, rSnuncto, cedo, excello, JubtSo, 
nuboy pr^BStoior, suad^o, persuad^o, r^cipto, permiito, 

7.— Verbs compounded with S^TIS, BENE, and MALE, 
govern the Dative ; as, sdtisfdciOy satisdo, bintfddoy bSn^dico, 
mal^facioy malMicOi 


The tyrant threatened the city with chains. 'He threatens me wth stripei. 

I will not be angry vntk you. I could trust an hotiA«l tcvvc^. 

"So man can put trust in a bad man. Do not ^\i\. \x\yBX\sL 'q^t&mcl* 

/ telJ thee, O grandson of JESLcub, that thfi Romana c»sl coTssjast. \>x«fc. 
SAe married the freedman of Pompe^. X>o wp«^^ l^^a '^^^^^"-saA 
JP^aade you to adhere to malice. Wiaft mfixi ^o xitA. «eri^ ^^'Sf^ 
/ w^ W««r ttow that Megs thee. 1 ^ria cutme VS^^ow^ SJasX c«x»» 


( lis ) 

8. ^The compounds of SUM, (except possum^) gfoyem the 

Dative ; as, absum, adsum^ prdnfm, chsum^ prtewm, 

9. Verbs, and participles compounded' with these ten 

PREPOSITIONS, dd, arU^, con, fn, int^, ob, post, pr<B^ 9ub, 
and siip^rj govern the Dative; as, aapiro, antSfiro, cottudo, 
impdno, immtnSo, suffido, interviinio, ohrepo, postpomOf post' 
JM^o, prtutOy succedo, 9up€rslo^ nipervSmo. But 

Pr<Bid^ prav^nio, prcBcido, pracurro, prcBvertOj ant^verto, 
pnBveridr^ govern the Acctisative only. And there are several 
verbs compounded with these ten prei^ositions, which do not 
govern the Dative* 

Interdico, to forbid strictly, governs the Dative and Ablative; 
as, interdico tibi ddmo mea, I forbid thee mj house. Lrv, 

1. Some verbs vary both their signification and eorunrueiion ; as, HnUfo, 
m^tuo, formido; as, timSo tibi, ttmeo de te, timSo pro \ / am afraid for 
you, i. e. for your safety; but ttmeo to, or, timeo a te, Ift9.r you as I do om 

2. Consttlo tibi, / provide for your safety; but constLlo *e, / ask your 
advice; emill&ri S.licul, to envy any one; eemfiltri altquem, to imitate any 

3. Eo^ r^deo, vado, prop^ro, curro, festino^ pcrgo, fupo, tnttio, o^to, 
priificisciir, verbs of motion to a place, govern the Ace. with ad or in, 

Voco, prdvoco, invito, Iiort6r, traho, allXcio, ptiticio, attineo, paiXnes, 
eonformo, lacesso, slimiilo, kc* govern the Accusative with ad, or in. 

4. The poets use sometime the Dative instead of the Accusative, tSUt 
verbs of motion ; as, PhylHda mitt^ mVii, V irg. for mittS Phyllida ad me. 


Bojs set aside their studies for play. We should -do good to all men. 
Let not parents provoke their children to anger. This belongs to me. 
I will go to the city. Fly, do fly to your strong city. He fled to the altar. 

RULE 28. 

Active verbs, and verbs signifying activity, govern 
the Accusative ; as, 

Pn amant Deum et omnes, good men love Chd and all men : 
lUi non a vent sordidas divitias, they do not covet sordid riches; 
Et odere superbT&m et luxum, and hale pride and luxury* 

Deponent verbs of an active signification, also govern the Aocusative ; as, 
sttperbtS, c6mttatttr httnOrds, prtde accompanies honon. 

This Accusative is discovered by asking the question tohom, or vhatf to 
the verb ; as, tr^om do good men love ? 

All Active verbs, and verbs of an active signification, to complete tha 
aauie, require after them an AccvJSoXivt^ expressed or understood. 

A whole sentence fi^quently tuppliea the \Aa£e ci^ V)i[i« Accu%a£.vc«^^«L 
D t/^eiiv€ rerb* 

( 113 ) 

1. J^euter verbs govern the Accusative, when the JVbttn after them hM 
a signification similar to its own ; as, vivunt vltftm, they live a life ; vivunt 
Bacchanalia, they Uve like Baechanaliana. Insanire insaniam, to be mad 
of madness, GauderS gaudium, to rejoice for joy; ftirSrS furorem. 

2. Neuter verbs taken in a metaphorical or active sense, also govern the 
Accusative^ as, C^rj^don ardebat Alexlm, Corydon passionately loved ,^ lexis* 
Rufillus 51et pastilles, Rt^fiUus smells of perfuming hoMs. Hor. CalldbS,t 
artSm, hs understood the art. Erasmus. 

3. Several verbs are used both in an active and neuter sense ; as, ab- 
liOrrdrS famam^ to dread infamy; abhorrere a lltibus, to be averse from laW' 
suits; abhorrdt &b uxOrS dQcenda, /ie is averse from marrying — a m^Is 
mOribtb abhOrrSt, it is inconsistent with my manner, — Cic. 

4. Ad5l6r8 pSnates, to bum incense^ to sacr^ce to the household gods, 
ViRG. declinar^ ictilm, to avoid the stroke ; ddcUnare Ibco, to go from the 

5. Acifis inclin^t, the army gives way^ vUl Hcifis incllnatiir, the army is 
giving way; labOrare arma, to forge arms; a morbo Idbdrdr^, to be ill of a 

6. MSrarl YtSr, to stop his march; m5rarl in urb^, to stay in the city; hoc 
nihil m5r5r, / do not mind this, 

7. The poets frequently use the Accusative of neuters adverbially ; as, 
mSns Isetatiir turbidtim for turbide, Hor. my mind is confusedly glad, 
MultlL g@m6ns, for multikn gemfins. 

8. Sometimes the prepositions circa or yropter are understood before hoc^ 
%dt quid^ aliquid, quiequid^ (Propter) quicqutd delirant rdges plectilntiir 
Achlvl. HoR. the Greeks are punished for the errors of their kings. 

9. Participles in -<a», -sus^ -xus^ are frequently followed by an Accusa- 
tive case, governed by quodd^ or secundum ; as, milSs fractils membra, i, e, 
qu5ad membra, the soldier having his limhs broken, 

10. Passive and Neuter verbs also govern the Accusative among the po- 
ets ; as, ebrius f Sr6 rttbSt, {qu^M) faciSm, a drunkard is mostly red in the 
face, VulnSratiir (qad&d) capiit, he is wounded in the head. 


We are leaving our lands and the pleasant fields of our native country. 
Truth gets hatred. Virtue will get praise. Confess ye your faults. 
Who does not admire Aristldes f Good men love peace. 

RULE 29. 

Rec5rd5r mgmini, rgmtniscOr, and oblivisc6r, gov- 
ern the Accusative or Genitive ; as, 

Recorder lectionis vel lectionem, I remember the lesson. 
Obliviscdr injuriaSy vel iojuriam, I forget an injury. 

1, JiiKmXnlt (to make mention o/,) govexnB >i3iDkft C3[«m&s^^^^'^^ ^^Jsje&c^^ 

with d^/ as, cojtis supra mSiiilntm.\iB, toKicK "we me-nitwaeii oboxt \ o^^^ife ^j^s^' 

mipra mSmltaimiiB. <c -< 

A Venttmihi in mentem, (I remcwiber^^ %.^m\\a ^^ '^?^^''^^W-' 

nP# ventt mthi tn mdat^m. 11. Vftnit nifibi'tQ. m«kTs«5CCLlv'^:i>»* "^^^^ 

mlbi tn mentem de hAe r$. 

( "4 ) 
AcnvE Verbs governing another case besides'^the Accusative 

RULE 30. 

Verbs of accusing, condemning, warning, and ac- 
quitting, govern the Accusative of the person, cmd 
Genitive of the crime or thing; as, 

Cicero accusavit Verrem furti, Cicero accused Verres of thefts 
Postiilavit Milonem majestatis, he accused Milo of treason* 
Damnavit illiim sceleris, he condemned him of vnckedness* 
Absolverat vos crlminis, he had acquitted you of the crime* 
Morbus m6net nos mortis, sickness warns us of death. 

1. V erbs of ACCUSING are aecuso, ago^ appiUo^ areesso^ arguo^ 
tdHgo, astrtngo, def^ro, incUso, insitnulo, postulo, See, 

2. Of CONDEMNING are damno^ condemnor convineo, nota* 

3. Of WARNING are mSn^o., admon^o^ commonifacio, 

4. Of ACQUITTING are solvo, absolvo, libero.purgo, 

1. This Genitive, after ^^ Verbs of ticcusing^''* can be changed into the 
Ablative, either wUh or without the preposition de; as, accusavit Verrem 
furto, or^ de furto. 

2. This Genitive, after verbs of accusing, is not really governed by the 
verb; but hj pcRna^ erimtn^, actione, eausd^ Sec. understood. 

RULE 31. 

Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring, and takings 
away, govern the Dative with the Accusative; as, 

Comparo Virgilium H6mero, / compare Virgil to Homer. 
Dedit h6mini sublime os, he gave the man a lofty countenance. 
Dico tibi totam rem, / tell you the whole matter* 
Eripuit me tristi morti, he rescued me from a cruel death. 
Ignosce mihi banc unam culpam, pardon me this one favU. 
Mmatur mihi mortem, he threatens me with death. 

Repeat the Verbs of Comparing, 

1. Verbs of COMPARING are comparo, compono, confiro^ 
<Bquo, csquipdro ; also ant^pono, ant^firo^ prcspono, 'prcbfirOi— 

- postpone, posthdbSo, postf^ro. 

Repeat the Verbs of Giving, 

2. Verbs of GIVING are do, trthtio, . largtor, prcBhSo, ml- 
nistro, sugg^ro, suppHtto, — reddo—^estituo, rUrtlmo, rependo^ 
rim^tior—qtuBro, acquire, pdro, pdrto, — promitto, pollic^or, 
r^cipio, spond^o, deMo, solvo, assure, vincRco, mitto, rdinquo^ 

cum multis siJiis. 

Repeat the Kerbs of Declanng. 
S. Verbs of DECLARING ate narro, dxco,'in»itt»To^\^SqH3&T> 
nuncio, r^firoj — dedaro, dpM.o^ cxpono, expUco, w.gnllfU50^>»i- 
f^^o, momtroy ostendoy — ntgo^ iwficCor, Jot^w, ^.' 

( 116 ) 

Repeat the Vei-bs of tMng away, 

4. Verbs of TAKING AWAY are aufiro^ adimo^ ertpio^ dimoy surripto, 
ditrahoy exciitio^ extorquXo^ &c* From is the sign of the Dative after verbs 
of taking awaj. 

6. Verbs of TAKING AWAY frequently change the Dative into the 
Ablative^ with the prepositions a, a6, ^, or ear, as, erip&it me a mort@. 

The rule, "VERBS OF COMPARING," is very general; for any ac- 
tive verb may govern the Dative with the Accusative^ when together with 
the thing done, is also signified the person TO or FOR whom it is done ; 
as, fidiica hunc puSrtLm mihi, bring up this child for me» R^cita mthi 
sentdnttam, repeat the sentence to me. D6c& pUerOs mihi, teach the boy» 
for me. 

The rule "VERBS OF COMPARING" is compounded of "all verbs 
of acquisition.,''^ and " ttctive verbs govern the Accusative." 

Many of the verbs compounded with the " ten prepositions,*^ ad, ante^ 
cori', &c. govern the Dative ^iih the Accusative; as, preefdcit Sextiim 
classi, fie appointed Sextus over the fleet. 

MUTO and COMMUTO govern the Accusative of the thing changed^ 
and the Ablative of that for which it is charged ; as, gloriOstim est irUm 
mtltarS &mlcitia, it is glorious to change anger for friendship. 

COMPARO, CONFERO, COMPONO, frequenUy govern the Ablative 
with cum; as, comparo FtrgtKum cum Homero, for eomparo Virgilium 

Some verbs have various constructions; as, miscuit vlnthn aque, lie 
mixed the wine with water; or, mlsctdt vlnum aqua, or cum Hqua. 


It is dishonorable to prefer life to modesty. None can promise himself 
another day. Grod has procured us this ease. We oflen compare small 
thin^ with great. The fates will only show him to the world. Wise men 
prefer virtue to riches. I set aside my serious business for their sport* 
Kestore me to my own. I will say nothing to you. Courage concealed 
differs little from cowardice. 

RULE 32. 

Verbs o/* asking anc? teaching, govern two Accusa- 
tives, the one of a person, and the other of a thing ; as, 

Pacem te poscimus omnes, we all beg peace of you. Virg. 
Egestas docet nos temperantiam, want teaches us temperance* 

Repeat the Verbs of asking. 
Rdgo, oroy exorOj ohsScro, pr^cor, poscoy r^pdsco,flagitOy la* 
cessoy are verbs of asking. 

Repeat the Verbs of teaching, 
DdcSo, iddc^Oy diddc^o, irudio, institiio, are verbs of teaching. 

1. CELO governs also two Accusatives, the one of the thing 
and the other of the person, as, Cela hanc rem servos, hide this 
thing from the servants. 

From is a sign of the Accusative case after the verb celo. 

2. IN DUO also governs two Accusatives ; as, indiitt ae cal- 
ce6Sf he puts on him his shoes. "We c«ii ^^ ^^^ycl^SsX^S^^ 
calceos, or, iDdiiit se calc^is. 

tf\» M 

( 116 ) 

3. MONEO governs also two Aceusatives ; as, m5nSo \A offtcittm, I put 
you in mind of your duty. But we also say,*m5neo td officii, or^ m5nSo 
t6 officio, or^ mttneo t6 de officio. 

Are not verbs of teachings and askings otherwise construed ? 

1. Instruo^ inatituOf formo^ informo^ imhuo, verbs of teachings govern the 
Ablative of the thing without a preposition ; as, instittLS hunc puSnim 
Gnecis Uteris, instruct this hoy in the Greek laiiguage* 

2. Verbs of asking often change the Accusative of the person^ into the 
Ablative^ with a or ah; as, omnis posctmus pac^m a te» Rogato vitam-et 
salut^m a D^d, 


They asked assistance of the Romans. Neither do I crave the gods/br 
more. You cannot conceal your wickedness from God. He clad hun- 
self in linen clothes. I warn you of this affair — about this affair. 

RULE 33, 

The passives o/" active verhs^ governing two cases, 
still retain the last case ; as, 

Verres accusabatur furti, Verres was accused of theft, 
Virgilius comparatur Homero, Virgil is compared to Homer. 
Ego eripior tristi morti, I am rescued from a cruel death. 
Deus rogatur sanitatem, Crod is entreated for health. 
Nos docemur temperantiam, we are taught temperance. 
Hoc celatur servos, this thing is hid from the servants. 
Seepe monemiir mortis, we are often warned of death. 

RULE 34. 
The price of a thing is governed in the Ablative 
by any verb ; as, 

Emi librum tribiis s61idis, I bought a hook for three shillings. 
Hie vendidit pS,triilm auro, this man sold his country for gold. 
Demosthenes docuit talento, Demosthenes taught for a talent. 

This Ablative of the Price is properly governed by pro un- 
derstood, which is sometimes, though rarely, expressed. 

RULE 35. 

But tanti, quantt, pluris, minorXs, expressing the 

price^ are governed in the Genitive^ and not in the 

Ablative; as, ' 

lUajuvant quse pluris emuntur, tTiose things 'glease which are 

doughtjhr more. 

Nulla res constat patri mtnoris^ nothing costs tTic JalVr \es** 

Vendiim lihnim tanti quanti v&let, I vAtt «€» iKe \K)ok jw <m 

, ^mscA a^it is worth, 

( 117 ) 

But when the substantiYea are expressed, TANTI, QUANTI, PLURIS, 
MINORIS, are changed into the Ablative according to Rule 34. ^The 
price of a thing" — as, llbrum SmS,m tanto prStio, quantd v&lSt, / will buy 
the book for as much as it is worth* 

Yet tnagno^ parvd^ pauliild^ mtmmo, plunmS, are found without the 
substantives in the Ablative. 

VALEO, to be worthy governs also the Accusative ; as, vend&m llbrttm 
tanti quantum vkVSi. 

RULE 36. 
Verbs o{ valuing govern the Accusative of the thing 
valued^ and these Genitives of the rate ; magni, parvi, 
nlhili, minoris, minimi, tanti, quanti, plurls, majorls, 
pluriml, maximi, nauci, flocci, pili, assis, t^runcli, 
hujtis; as. 

Sapiens aestimat vdluptatem parvi, a wise man values pleasure 
at a low rate. 
We can also say, sapiens sestimat ydluptatem parvo pretio* 

Repeat the verbs of valuing, 

^stimo^ duco^facto^ hdbl^o^ pendo, piito^ taxo; are verbs of valuing. 

1. Sum and ^' only govern the Genitive of the value; as, virtos est 
plurts omnYbtLs, virtue is higher than all things; fidds fit parvi, honesty ta 
esteemed at a low rate* 

2. ,^qui and boni^ are especially governed by facio and consiilo ; as, 
lacio td eequi, / esteem you kindly ; constilo ttium m5nitiim b5nl, / take your 
advice in good part, 

3. ^^stirno sometimes governs these Ablatives of the rate ; magno^ per- 
magno^ parvo^ (supple prHto,) nthilo. We can also say, (BStimo te pro 
n%h\l&^ for cMtimo ti nihXli, 

RULE 37. 

Verbs of plenty or scarceness, of loading, un- 
loading, filling, emptying ; divesting, depriving, gov' 
em the Ablative ; as, 

Crassus libundab^t divitiis, Crassus abounded in riches, 
Natura tantum eget paucis, Nature only wants few things. 

Verbs of plenty and scarceness govern also the Genitive; as, 
Insanus eget custodis, a madman needs a keeper. 
Alter {h6m6) indiget alterius, one man needs another. 
Implentur veteris Bacchi, they are filed witK old mtv&« 

Which art ikt verbs o/ looAxng^ e 

Verba of loadings are, »n«ro, c\km\Siio^ v^c^m^, ^Wt^^^i^f?^;;^^ 
loading; ISvo, ex^ero, at, levabo te Yioc otkQTe> N\^<a-— v>5 v»^ •«► 
IlbHrOf UxOf d^. 

( 118 ) 

RULE 38. 

Utor, abator, friior, fungOr, p6tior, vesc6r, govern 
the Ablative ; as, 

Debemus uti dlligentia, we ought to use diligence, 
Non debemus S.buti tempore, we ought not to abuse time* 
Qu6d fruimur brevi tempdre, because we enjoy a short time* 
Ego fungar vice cotis, / will act the part of a whetstone, 

1. "Rxxi potior sometimes governs the Genitive; as, ptttiri rertLm, to have 
t^e chief rule; p&tXri hosttum, to get fits enemies into his power » 

'2. J^itor, gaud^o^ tissuesco^ mfUo, d&no^ mUn^ro^ commUmco^ victito, &^o, 
con/ido, impertio^ impertxor^ ncLScor^ cr^or^ afficto^ consto, prosequor, also 
govern the Ablative ; as, prOsSqu&r td amOrS, / tr^ you with affectioru 

Dignor governs the Accusative of the person, and the Ablative of the 
thing; as, 

Nee me tali dignSr hSnOr^ neither do I think myself worthy of such 
honor. ViRG. 

MSreor with 6^n^, mo/^, melius, pijus, opttmi, frequently governs the 
Ablative with de ; as, Greorgtus mSrttus est b^n^ de patria. 


RULE 39. 

An impersonal verb governs the Dative ; as, 

Contigit mihi esse illic, I happened to be there, 
Expedit reipublicae, it is profitable for the state. 
Licet nemini peccare, no man is allowed to sin, 
Libet mihi expatiari, I have a mind to go abroad, 

1. Impersonal verbs have frequently J^ominatives before them. 

2. 72/udf, istiid, id, qu8d, &c. are often Nominatives to impersonal verbs ; 
as, id licet tibi, that is lawful for you ; but 

3. Fulgurate fulminate ningtt, pluit<, tormt, denoting actions out of the 
reach of human power, apparently have no JSTominative before them. 

4. The Infinitive Mood, or a whole sentence, or any noun substantive^ not 
a person^ may supply the Nominatives to impersonal verbs ; as, ptld5r dScSt 
Or&, modesty becomes the face, Ov. Parviim, parva dSc6nt. HoR. 

5. Atlinkt, pertXn^t, spectat, govern the Accusative with the prepositioii 
cut; as, pertinSt ad td tac€ire, // belongs to you to be silent. 

RULE 40. 

Excep. 1. Refert and Interest require the Genitive; 

Refert militiim, it concerns the military (defender^ civeEu) 
Interest omnium, it is the interest of tdl (consulere p&trne.) 

Do Refert and Interest ever admit o£ «u Kommali'ot\i«S«t^ \\AfBv? 
/. Htfert and IntHrist have frequently \hea»'SoTDMi'^^^x^<M^lwKi^>XVaA^\^ 
fftd, ^d, nthxl, before them; but «ucH Xomiuatt»et «a» itfA. 'p«ri(w», 
2. Mtfert and Interest axe often \oVned vv\Vii t«n«i, q[u«i«i,w««:i*^V» 

( 119 ) 

RULE 41. 

Excep. 2. Me&, tu&, sua, nostra, vestra and cuja, 
instead of the Genitive singular, are put in the ^C" 
cusative plural, after refert and intSrest ; as, 

Cuja refert, whom does it concern 7 (consulere patriae.) 
Refert mea, tua, sua, nostrH, vestrS., it concerns me, thee^ <kem- 
selves, lis, you ; but not refert mei, — (consulere patriae.) 

RULE 42. 

Excep. 3. Misgrgt, poenlt^t, pttdSt, tsedgt, plgSt, 
govern the Accusative of a person with the Genitive 
of a thing ; as, 

Miseret me pauperiim civiiim, I pity the poor citizens, 
Pcenitet bonos peccatoriim, good men repent of their sins. 
Non pudet malos superbiae, bad men are not ashamed of pride* 
Taedet nos cito nostri officii, we are soon tired of our duty, 
Piget infelices durae sort is, the unhappy regret their hard lot. 

The Accusative of the Person after Mts^ret, poRnitH, is some- 
times understood ; as, scelerum si pcenitet bene [nos.] 

1. The Infinitive frequentlj supplies the place of this Genitive; as* 
pcenitet bonos peccass^y for poRnitet bonds pecedti, 

2. The jiccusative of the person is frequently understood afler misMt^ 
panXtUt, pudeti tcRd^t., ptg^t. 

RULE 43. 

Excep. 4. DSc6t, delect&t, jiiv&t, 5portet, govern 
the Accusative of a person^ with the Infinitive ; as^ 

Decet te esse aequum, it becomes you to be just. 
Delectat pueros ludere, boys delight to play. 
Juvat te m^nere domi, you love to stay at home. 
Oportet nos studere diligenter, we ought to study diligently. 

1 OportH elegantly also governs the Subjunctive mood, vt being under- 
stoofl ; as, 5pOrtet faci&s, you must do it, for 5portSt td facSre, it behovfi^ 
you to do it* 

2. Imperaonah in tur, govern th© X\A«l\x^^ o^ «. \»««*^'^^"*''^^^^^^ 
. as, stdtur a me, statur a te^ statur ab illo^ e\ft%wsfit^ ^xa»^ '^^^ w^^vo.'e 
' stand, in sUa, you standi Ule MX^ Ke staTids. StcA^t o. "^^^^ ^^^^ 

««^, s/dtUr ad iUis, Nott ttUia6s^ we itoaak^^*^ v^»xv^^ 

9t»ntj they stand. 

( 120 ) 

Passive verbs govern a Dative of the agents whose sign is 
by ; as, non audtdr uUiy I am not heard by any. 

Passive verbs govern likewise an Ablative of the agents with 
a or ab ; as, culpatur ab his, laudatur ab illis, be is blamed by 
the former y he is praised by the latter* 

3. In impersonid verbs the word that aeems to be the Nominative t« aiteh 
eoBe as the impersonal verb governs, as, licet mihi, / may^ lib^t mlhi, / 
have a mind^ poenitet me, / repent — delectat me, / delight, refert m^ lam 
concerned — bportSt te, you must — jiivat te, you love. 


I am walking, you are walking, he is walking, we are walking, ye are 
walking, they are walking. The boys are standing. The girls are sitting. 
We will be standing. Lazy boys sleep. The worid is governed by God. 
Virtue is praised by all men. Justice is disregarded by tyrants. 



RULE 44. 

The Infinitive mood is governed by a verb; as, 

Pecunia nescit mutare natur^m, money Icruows not how to change 

1. The Infinitive mood is sometimes governed hj participles ; 
as, vldi hostem tentantem fiigere, / saw the enemy attempting 
to flee. 

2. The Infinitive is sometimes governed by adjectives; as, 
i]le est cupidus scire causam, h^ is desirotis to know the cause. 

3. The Infinitive mood is sometimes governed by substantives^ 
especially among the poets ; as, nunc tempus est abire, instead 
of tempus, abeundi, the time of going away. Sign^ dedi 
venisse deum, I gave signs that a god had come. Tempus equum 
fiimantia solvere coUa. Virg. 

4. CoKpit and ecepirunti are sometimes understood to govern the Iffini* 
tive mood, especially among the poets ; as, Omnds inviddre mlhi, [supplA 
capirunt] ail began to envy me. 

5. Par est, fas est, aquum est, diiciit, are sometimes understood to govern 
t&e Iri^nitive mood; as, mdnS incepto (par est, d^e^t) desistSre ? 

ff. Esa^ and fuisse are often undenlood after \);i<b '^^siya&Y^V^ oCtbe Per- 

fee/ and /f\aure ia -rus, 

^ 7, ,4/^rmo^ puto^ 9ptro^ suspxeor^ and avic\i'v«c\MKVWfift^^ |6T€^<« ^iS»i» 
rum essg, followed by ut and the Sixbjunctioe Mood; «*n«p%TO, S*»\^1i 
«e^% rgi jfosnttaU^ I hope it will bo tbaX ^f ou m«u^ W5««A 's*^ Vte»^i»BD%. 

( 121 ) 

8. When the English of the Infinitive active can be resolved by to the 
end that — and the Subjunctive mood, it may be resolved into Latin these 
several ways : 

Hdmtnes venetuni pasc^re oves, [this is the lowest form.] 
The men have come to feed sheep. 
!• Homines venenmt ut pasoerent oves, 

TTie men have come that they might feed sheep* 

2. Homines venenint qui pascerent 6ves, 
The men are come who might feed sheep* 

3. Homines venere causa pascendi oves, 

The men are come for the purpose of feeding sheep* 

4. Hdmmes venere causa pascendarum ovium, 

The men are come for the purpose of feeding sheep* 

5. Homines venerunt pasturi 5ves, 

The men are come in order to feed sheep. 

6. Homines venerunt pastum 6ves, 
Tlie men are come to feed sheep* 

7» Homines venere ad pascendum oves, 

The men have come to feed sheep* 
8. Homines venere ad pascendas oves, 

The men have come to feed sheep* 


Many desire to be loved. We see all desiring to be loved. We know 
that good scholars are worthy to be loved. Now is the time to awake from 
sleep. The poor man (began) to cry for help. I am going to bring water. 
God sent his Son to redeem the world. 

RULE 45. 

Participles govern the same case which their verbs 
govern; as, 

Nauta, tenens gubemaculiim, regit navim, tTie saUor, holding ' 

the helmy steers the ship* ' > 

Exercitus sequens hostem, pugnat sagittis, an army pursuing 

the enemy, fights with darts* 
Mors est anteponenda ded^ori, death is to he preferred to diS' 

Pii sunt fruituri setema vita m coelis, the righteous are to enjoy 

eternal life in heaven* 

1. The participials, ex6»ii$, perdsHs, pertatue, having on active significa 
lion, govern the Accusative; as, exOsiis s8BvttiS,m, hating cruelty • 

2* But exosus, pertcesus, perosiis, having a passive significatioQ.> ^QyecBL 
the Dative of a penon ; as, exOstts mUUa, Hated by bod mwu ^J 

^4. Verbab in BUNDV8 govern the caa© o? ^iiwa owEiN«i«ai\^^^e* 
tiUd^andUs patricB* JvBT* fltdbiindus G«A\xab'^Q>8^>am*^^^* 

< 122 ) 


RULE 46. 

The Gerund in -dum of the Nominative case, with 
the verb est^ governs the Dative ; as, 

Vivendiim est mihi illic, u e, necessitas vivendi illic est mThi, 
/ must live there^ that is, the necessity of living there is to me. 

1. The Gerund m dum of the Nominative case is thus clearly stated, 
n^6ssttas the necessity, Vivendi of living, ilUc there, est is, mihi to me. 

2. In the Gerund in dum with est, fuit, the word that seems to be the 
Nominative in English, is turned into the Dative in Latin, 

3. The Gerund in dum of the Nominative, always imports necessity, and 
the Dative after it is the person on whom the necessity lies. 

4. The Dative after the Gerund in dum, is frequently not expressed. 

5. The Gerund in dum of neuter verbs is thus put impersonally with est, 
fuit ; as, ambulandum est mihi, I must walk, eundv,m — abeundiim — sM^nr 

dum — standum — tihi, illi — nblns — vobis — iUls ; but 

6. When necessity or obligation is to be expressed by an active verb, then 
the word that seems to be the Accusative is the Nominative, and that which 
seems to be the J^ominative is the Dative ; as, panis est Smdndtis mihi, / 
must buy bread, or, bread is to be bought by me. 

7. That which was the Gerund in dum of the Nominative with est,fuitj 
becomeft thQ Accusative with esse; as, scto vlvdndtUn esse mihi illic, / know 
that I must live there, i. e. scio n§c6ssitatSm vivendi illic esse mihi. 

Can the Gerund in -dum of the Nominative be otherwise resolved^ 

8. The Gerund in Dum with est can also be resolved by oportet, or ne- 
eesse est ; as, nScessS est mihi vivSre illic, or, n^ssttas vivendi illic e^jt 

^ RULE 47. 

\ The Gerund in -cK is governed by substantives or 
adjectives; as, 

CoQSuetudo disputandl est impia, the practice of disputing is 

Omnes sunt cupidi vivendi beate, all are desirous of living 


1. The substantives that gavem the Grerund in -di, are such as, ant&r-t 
^ausa, gratia, studtum, tempiis, occasio, ars^ faciUtas, otXum, Hbirtds^ 
volUntds, consuetudo, cupido, 

2. The adjectives that govern the Gerund in -di, are most of them found 
in Rule 14. " Verbal Adjectives.**" 

3L The Gerund in -di, is oflen changed into the Ir^nitive mood by the 
poets, as, tempus est abire, for temptts est cibeundi. 


Tlie art of reading is increased by xoadmg. WbaX. was» «o ^SN»^ '^oa^ 
»^ s»tf lioine f The time of study mg IB oCUtaYoiX. Ykft\«AX5a»^aN.^ 

( 123 ) . 

RULE 48. 

The Gerund in -db of the Dative case, is gov- 
erned by adjectives signifying usefuhiess or fit- 
ness; as, 

Charta est utilis scribendo, paper is useful for writing. 

1. The adjective o^ fitness is often understood ; as, non est solvendo, ht 
is not able to pay, [suppU aptds or par.] 

Is the Gerund in -do of the Dative case always governed by adjectives ? 

2. The Gerund in -do is sometimes governed by a verb ; as, EptdYctim 
quffirdndo 5pSrS,m d&bo, / will endeavor to find out Epidicus, 

Tomlis aptat ensem habendo, 7\imus fits his sword for using, 

RULE 49. 

The Gerund in -dum of the Accusative case, is gov- 
erned by the prepositions ad, or inter, ante, or ob; as, 

Tu es promptiis Sd audiendum, you are ready to hear. 
Ille est attentus int^r ddcendum, he is attentive in time ofieach* 

Promptus, proclivus^ v^lox<, tardus, cHlUr, dptus, tniptiis, mostly precede 
the Gerund in -dum with the preposition ad. 

RULE 50. 

The Gerund in -do of the Ablative case is gov- 
erned by the prepositions a, abs, de, ex or in ; as, 

Poena absterret a peccando, punishment frightens from sinning. 


The Gerund in -do of the Ablative case, is gov- 
erned as the Ablative of the manner, or cause ; as, 

Memdri^ augetiir exc5lendo, the memory is improved by exer 

cising it. 
Defessiis sum ambulando, I am weary with walking'. 

This Gerund in -rfo is govetned \\\l^ ^ tvowtl ^\5fe.^\»ssNx>^^'»««'^ 
nifying the manner and cause, in lYie k\A»X-\N^» 

M^mdrii augetiir exc«lendo,/or m^^ta^xm ^^^^^^.^^"^^T 
DefesBua sum ambOlando, /or deie&aus «am tmci:^v\^'^^^^ 

( 124 ) 

RULE 52. 

Crerunds, that govern the Accusative, are ele- 
gantly changed into Gerundives, which agree with 
the word they formerly governed, in gender, num- 
ber, and case ; thus, 

TTie Gerund* The Gerundive* 

Agindum est tibi rem, for Res est agenda tibi* 

Tempus est^ agendi rem, for Tempus est agendas rei. 

JEs aptiis dd S,gendum rem, for Es dptus ad agendam rem. 

Es aptiis SLgendo rem, for Es aptus agendas rei. 

Gaudebis agendo rem, for GaudiMs agenda re. 

1. The Gerunds of Utor^ abutor^friior^ fungor^ potior j though they g07» 
em the Ablative^ are also changed into Gerundives, 

2. All those participles in -dus called Gerundives^ have the signification 
of the participle of the Present tense* 

irj" As ago is an active verb, to resolve " agendum est tihi fem^'* accord- 
ing to the/our/^ note of page 122, may, at first sight, appear not so easy; 
but it can be easily resolved in this manner, necessitas agendi rem est tibi% 
there is a necessity of managing the business to you. 

RULE 53. 

The Supine in -um, is governed by a verb, or a 
participle of motion; as, 

Non ibo servitum Graiis matribus, / tDill not go to wait on the 

Grecian dames, 
Venientes spectatiim ciipiunt spectari, coming to see^ they tnsh 

to be seen* 

Is the supine in -um put after no other verbs or participles than those of 


The supine in -um is put after other verbs besides verbs of motion ; as, 
Pater d^dvtflKam nuptum* DHius revocatus est defensum patriam. 

The supine in um is elegantly used after eo, when we would show that 
one sets himself about the doing of a thing ; as cur Is te perdtttim ? whg 
are you going to ruin yourself? 


The shepherds came to feed their flocks by night. I will go to visit my 
dear parents. I came to see my friends. Are you going to advance your 
reputation at the hazard of my life ? The father gave his daughter to be 
married. Decius was called to defend his country. 


RULE 54. 

The Supine in -w is governed by an adjective 
noun; as, 

£rac est mirahile dictu, this is tDondcrfuX to "be t6ld% 

jPaet/ts, difictltSj mtrabxUs^ darus^ vxA svwiV ^^Y!^>c«^'&^ ^^• 
9rn the supine in u ; and . 

These nouns «ub8tantive,yo«, fOf/ot, »p^ A^'i*^'^ '^ ^^waa\X»iW¥« 
»y aajfcu^ vei n^fas dictu. 

( 125 ) 


Comprehends, — 1st. The cause or reason WHX 
any thing is done. 2d. The way or manner HOW 
it is done. 3d. The instrument or thing WITH 
WHICH it is done. 4th. The place WHERE, and 
5th. The time WHEN it is done. 

RULE 55. 

The cause, manner, and instrument, &*c. are gov- 
erned in the Ablative, after verhs^ participles^ or ad- 
jectives ; as, 

Juvenes saltabant gaudio, the young men leaped for joy. 

Fecit hoc suo more, he did this, after his own way* 

Ille est pallidiis metu, he is pale for fear» 

Homo cfipitur voluptate, man is caught with pleasure. 

Georgius scribit penna, George writes with a pen. 

Laus est paranda virtute, praise is to he procured by virtue. 

Mons est candidus nive, the mountain is white with snow. 

Are not the cauBe, manner, and instrument sometimes also governed bj 

Prepositions ? 

1. K preposition is frequently expressed with the cause and manner; as, 
pr® gsiudio, for joy ; propter amorem, /or love; ob culpam, /or a /auA ; 
per dedectis, with disgrace* j^grotat animo. 

2. But the preposition cum is seldom or never added to the instrument, 
as, Georgius scribit pinna ; ingressus est glad^, he entered with a sword, 
t. e. in a hostile manner. 

3. Yet the Ablative of concomitance has cum usually expressed ; as, Ivi 
cum fratrS in agros, / went tnth my brother into the Jiclds ; ibo tecum, / 
will go with you. Cum summo lUborS, with the utmost labor. 

Ingressfis est cum gladio, he entered with a sword, or, having a tword 
with him, or about him. 

4. The stuff of which any thing is made, is put in the Ablative ; but 
mostly with a preposition ; as, cly^us fabricatiis sre, or ex sere, a shield 
made of brass. 


Boys are the worse of liberty. He walks with a friend. He lost many 
things for hope. May we love our dear countrjr with sincere love. 


The nam^ of a town is put in the Genitive^ ^\nk^ 
the question is UBI ? FFHERE? ^'^^ 

Quid Romae fUctam 1 Juv. What can I do odt "Romet 
^ /ft urbe or in onpXdo is understood bofox© Vhft T».m© ^"^ ^N«rfi^ ^ 
Gemtire; thoB, Quid (in urbe^ Romn C«ckBm> 

M ' 


( 126 ) 

Are no other w>rd$ except n^nifli of towns put in the Genitive when the 

question i* made by ubi, where? 

^ Humij domii beUi^ milititB^ are also put in the OetvUive, when the ques- 
tion is ubi ? where ? as, j&cSt htLml, he lies on the ground. Belli d5miquS 
&gttabatiir, wao managed both in peace and war. 

But when at signifies cUfovt^ or near a place, the preposition ad is used ; 
as, BelltLm qu5d ad Trojam gessSrUt, the war she had carried on near TVoy. 



The learned Charles Nisbet, of Montrose, was Principal at Carlisle. 
Dr. Franklin was bom in Boston, and died in Philadelphia. 


But if the name of the toum, answering to the 
question UBL? WHERE? be of the third declen- 
sion, or of the plural number, wanting the singular^ 
it is put in the Ablative ; as, 

Hdratms vixit Tlbure et Athenis, Horace lived at Tibur and 

Cicero studied many years at Rome and at Athens. The oracle of 
Apollo was given at Delphos. A very good house is purchased at Frti- 
sino. JuY. 


The rmme of a town is put in the Accusative with- 
out a preposition; when the question is QUO.? 

Regulus redut Carthaginem, Regulus returned to Carthage* 

The preposition is sometimes joined to names of towns in 
the Accusative; as, venit ad Romam; but mostly venit Ro- 

The name of a toum is put in the Ablative with- 
out a preposition, when the question is UNDE ? 
PLACE? as, 

Regulus redut Carthagine, Regulus returned from Carthage. 
Venit AberdoniSLy he came from Aberdeen. 
Fecit Iter Philadelphia, he morcKed Witow^ \irom\ PhilO' 
The preposition is someUmea added lo n^nie^ q^ X-^-Mita \n. 
toe Ablative ; as, venit a Roma; Imt TOosaij,N«DL\\.^«^in^ 


( 127 ) 


Domus and Bus follow the same construction that 
the names of towns do; as, 

Quid fuciam ddml ? What can Ido ni home ? 
H5ratius vixit rure vel ruri, Horace lived in tJie country. 
Regiilus non redut domum, Regulus did not return heme. 
Petrus abiit rus nuper, Peter went away to t?ie country lately. 
Non ibo domo paterna, I will not go from my father* s house. 
Non ibo rure vel ruri, / toill not go from the country. 

We can say, vivit in d6m6 p&terna, he lives in his Jather^s 
house; but 

We cannot say, vivit paternae d5im, he lives at his father*s 
house ; 

But we can say, vivit meae, — tuae, — suae, — ^nostrae, — ^vestrae,— 
alienas domi. 


I will stay at home. I wiH go home. I returned from home. 1 say 
that those who live in the country are happy. Will you go to the country 
with me ? When did your brother live at his father's house ? He staid at 
my house. He returned to his home. 

RULE 61. 

But names of countries^ provinces^ islands^ and all 
other places, except cities and toums^ have the prepo- 
sitions generally added ; thus, 

UBI fiiit vir natiis ? Natiis fuit fn Italia, in Latio, %n urb§. 
QUO abivit? Abivit tn Italiam, in L&tium, in, vel, ad, urbSm. 
UNDE redivTt ? Redivit ab Italia, a Latio, ex, vel, ab, urbS. 
QUA transivit? Transivit per Itftli&m, p^r Latium, per urbem. 

** " " ™ ■■■■■■■ P » 11 ■■■ ■ Ml ■ — ■ ■ ■ ■ I ■— ^— ^— — MM^B^— ^^W^^^^— — ^iM^Hi 

RULE 62. 

The distance between phces^ is put in the Accu- 
sative, or Ablative; as, 

ThlLllLmip61is distS^t quYnquaginta milliaril RbQt^^% 
Chamhershurg is distant fifty miles from YwV* 
Non discedam pedem a te, I unll tiot go a fool Jtoto. -^^^^ _ 
Phnadelphm fere distit centum miWmtWixy^ ^ "N«^o ^^^"^ 
Philadelphia is nearly 100 mile« distaia Jr<ym. H^e^c-^^ 

( 128 ) 

RULE 63. 

When the question is made by QUANDO? 
When? time is put in the Ablative ; as, 

Convenimiis secunda hora, we meet at two o^ clock, 
Convenimiis certa hora, we meet at the proper hour. 
Saturnus regnabat aurea setate, Saturn reigned in the golden 
The precise term of time is put in the Ablative. 

^ Pbaxts. 

The old lady obliged her maids to rise at the dawning of the day. JGsop. 

RULE 64. 
When the question is made by QU AMDIU? HO W 
LOJVG ? time is put in the Accusative, or Ablative, 
but oftener in the Accusative ; as, 

Mansit triduum Romae, he staid three days at Rome, 
Abfuit sex mensibus, he was absent sk months. 

The continuance of time is put in the Accusative or Ahla- 


Boys neglect their studies whole days and nights. Would you stay with 
me one ni^t ? Tet you will be able to lodge with me this night. 


RULE 65. 
A noun, virhose case depends on no other word, 
is put absolutely with ^.participle in the Ablative ; as, 

Deo v6lente, omnia cedent bene, God willing^ all things will 

succeed welL 
Opere peracto, ludemus, our work being finished^ we will play* 

A whole sentence may also be put absolutely with a participle ; as, oti- 
dUo Prasidem rediviss^^ it being heard that the President had returned; 
t. e. rSditQ Prsesidis audtto. 

1. This Ablative is called ahaoluU or independent, because it is not di' 
reefed or governed by any other words ; for if the Substantive has a word 
before which should govern t/, or, a verb coming after, to which it should 
be the Kominative, then this rule does not take place. 

2. HAVING, BEING, or a word ending m ING, are the usual signs of 
the ^diative absolute / yet, 

3. The word coming afler the participle pcrfccl o£ «i. depvaeat ibet\»^TKn5S^ 
he j'n^ the ^ccusaiive, and very rarely in tbe ^blatvce absolute ; «&^^^\:2i^^ 

^e&/us hoc, abiitj JPaui, having spoken ibis, departed. 
Pr^bHa poUtcXtiU mdrc«d^ dalt, o good man,\ia.'Wi% ^totx3m»^^t««» 

^''^^S^'ves it. 

( 129 ) 

4. But the word^ coming after the participles perfect of a passive verft, 
must be put in the Ablative absolute with it ; as, 
Paulds hoc distd abiit, Pavl^ having spoken this^ departed* 
Prbbtis, promtssd mercede, dat, a good maut having promised a reconqtensSi 
gives it, 

[We can, therefore, say, polKcXtus mercidem; but seldom, or never, 
polHcita merced^.'] 
1^ 5. When<tiie participle is expressed, existentiS, or existentibus (being) is 
understood ; as, t€ (existentS) dueii, M, Tullio et C. Antdnxo (existentibus) 

6. The Ablative absolute may be resolved otherwise by si, eum^ dUrn^ 
postquam^ and the verb ; thus. Si Detis vdlit, for DeO v5l6ntS. Cttm 5piii 
pSractiim fiiSrit, /or 5p&^ p^racto. Tua vocS audita, your voice being heard, 
or, having heard your voice, postquam tua vox audita est. 


The sun rising — ^the birds singing — ^the house being built — ^the year 
being past — the war being finished — ^these things being done— which being 
said — ^many being wounded — many coming — others flying. 


RULE 66. 
Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern 
the Genitive; as, 

Venit pridie illlus diei, he came the day before that day. 
Deus laudatur iibique gentium, Crod is praised every where, 
Catilina habiiit s^tis el6quentue, Catiline had enough of eh' 

Instdrj and ergd, for causa, govern also the Genitive; as, 
instdr montis, as large as a mountain. 

En and icc^ govern the Nominative or Accusative; as, en 
hominem, see the man ! % 

RULE 67. 
Some derivative adverbs govern the same case which 
the adjectives^ whence they are derived, govern ; as, 

Cicero dixit optime omnium, Cicero spoke the best of alL 
Poets Sgit utiliter urbi, the poet acts profitably for the community. 
Poets Sgit inutiliter sibi, the poet acts unpr^Uably for himself 
Hect5r exivit obvi&m hosti, Hector went out to meet the enemy. 
LaudSt merces pleniiis aequo, he praises his goods more than he 

Nemo dicitur Idcutus (fuisse) distinctius Demosthene, 
No one is said to Tupoe spoken more distinctly tKatiDem^>sf^Vc^'c«ft»- 

Derivative adverbs also govern that cawe o€ VJtwivt ipT\ta\l\»e.% Nsv ^^"^"^ 
sition, which tbeygoremed out of V.; ii«,"»\]a\oii ^^^ ^^^^^S*^ ^"^ 
taasg, HoK, I would wish to 9ee no play aooner tVan tHi»- r\^^ \\wb 
kordgi omntbiiM gAounls, / wnM rather Ka»c a «t«^ ^^ t>a.T«» 

( 130 ) 

RULE 68. 
The Prepositions ad, apud, ahte, &rc. govern the 
Accusative; as, 

Meiis pater venit ad templum, my father came to the church* 
These twenty-eight Prepositions govern the Accusative* 
^ Ad, penes, adversum, cIs, citra, adversus ^t extra, 

j Ultra, post, praeter, juxta, per, pone, secundum. 

' _ — ___ — — — - — .... 

PrepositioiM^ of all other words in the Latin ton^e, admit of a greater 
number and variety of sigr^fications. The following are only a few of many 
more, that might be added. See AdanCa Latin Dictionary, Edinburgh. 

Ante, denotes above, beyond, as, ante omnta, above all things* 


1. Ad signifies at; ii3,ad prcestXtutum Mem, at the appointed day. 

2. Ad signifies abovt ; as, ad d^c^m millia hamXnum, about 10,000 men. 

3. Ad signifies according to; as, ad cursum lUncR, according to the course 
of the moon. 

4. Ad denotes near; as, ad veterls fagos, near the old beech-treesii 

5. Ad denotes after; as, dliquaiUd ad r^m dvtdtor, somewhat too greedy 
after money. 

6. Ad denotes /or; as, omnibus tidprofectionemparatis, all things being 
ready /or their march. 

7. Ad denotes on; as, ad ripam Rhodani, on the banks of the Rhone. 

8. Ad denotes against; as, ad dolor^m, against pain, ad tela, against 
the darts. 

9. Ad denotes in comparison of; as, nihU ad tuum ^quitdtum, nothing 
in comparison of your cavalry. 

' P^nes denotes in possession of; as, ^s penes ts? are you in possession 
of your right mind ? 

as, CITRA. 
CUra signifies without ; as, cUra n^cessitat^m, without necessity. 

Advirsus 'denotes towards ; as, pittas adversum Deum, piety towards 

Advirsus signifies to ; as, tenia adversus impiSria fiUrunt auris, their 
Mifs were deaf to the orders. 

Extra denotes besides, except; as, extra Hmum stvem^ besides one 

Ultra denotes beyond, sxid is also used adverbially; nB,ut nihil possit 
(esse) ultra, that nothing can exceed it, that nothing can go beyond it 

Post denotes sinee; as, p6st memoriam hihntnum, sines the memoiy oi 
men, Pdnif signiBeB after^ behind, on the hack pott; as, pdnX n6s, after us. 


J'raier denotes beyond, above; as, prcEter •pem»'bej|wd «sewiX»S^ss^\ <|Mm 

sumo prmter omnes, whom I love ahwt all. , 

'^rmter denotea contrary to, sm^ pnAtr wfiOim ^ wn««W *•**'«* ' 
V juMt and reasonable. 

( 131 ) 

I "RrgSi, apud, ante, secus, trans, supra, (versus) ft infra. 
Sic propter, contra, circum, circa, inter, 6b, intra. 

Prater denotes before; as, prceter oculos^ before my eyes, pnxter host 
before the enemy. 

Prceter denotes contrary/ to; 3s,prcEier rationUm, contrary to reason. 


Per denotes /or, during; as, per annum, for a year. 

Per denotes along; as, currendo per viam. 

Per denotes during ; as, mansit per triduum, he staid during three days. 

Per denotes of; as, per Be dabat tellua, the earth yielded of itself. 

Per denotes by reason of; as, per a:tdt^m, by reason of age. 

Per denotes in ; as, per Ittdiim et jocum, in sport and jest. 

Juro is oflen understood before per, by, the object of swearing, JuroibfU 
mihi per Jundn^m, you swore to me by Juno. 

Secundum denotes along; as, s^cundiim littus, along the shore. 
Secundum denotes near, or, hard by; as, secundum fifunina, hard by the 
streams, secundum aurem, near the ear. 

Secundum denotes also in; as, dixit siScfindum m^as aurCs, he whispered 
in my ears. 


Erga denotes before, opposite to; as, habitat erga ndstram dSmum^ he 
dwells before our house, opposite our house, opposite to our house. 


^pud denotes at, or, near ; as, apud forum, at the forum ; apUd mi, at 
my house ; apiid te, at your house ; ap^ ms, at your house ; apud eo«, at 
their house. 

Apud denotes among; as, '•'•Apud Sequanos,^^ among the SSqu&nL 

Apiid denotes in ; as, ap^ Carl^Mum, in Carlisle. 

SUprd denotes above, or before, and is oflen used adverbially ; tLB,%d est 
quod sUprd m^mordvi, that is what I mentioned above, before^ 


Contra denotes opposite, opposite to ; u, homo qui stat contra mi, the 
man who stands opposite to me. 

Contra denotes for; as, Cortex Peruvianlis est efftcaz contra febrtm^ 
the Peruvian bark is good for the fever. 

IntUr denotes at, or, in time of; as, int^r canam, at, or, in time of sup- 

Int^r, with a pronoun substantive, denotes mutually, one another; as, 
int^r se amdnt, they love one another; quasi ndn noverimus int^r nos; as if 
we did not know one atwiher. 

Ob denotes before; a^s, ob 6culds hoe virsatur, this is done btfore my 

Ob denotes for, on account of; as, ^b amdr^m, for, on account rf, love 

Intr& denotes on this side; as, .^ntlAcKua rt^^wi^ vnXta t«>»po*^'«^ 
ffOm lesseas and diminishes In tKesc VaB\.awift%\ vMxa «^'^'^*^^^Sw 
the glory, intra famam^ Uw than tbe cto^VV., iiAra •po.^xft'^* d.^V«« 
few dnym. «*«o»'*^'' 

* f*^ to«^a^dl^ i. put aftet iU cwie-, »»> ^•.«.'^V«toJ«o^^** 
Mtafy, ad b«mg oadentood. 

( 182 ) 

RULE 69. 

The prepositions a, ab, abs, &cc. govern the M- 

lative; as, 

Meus pater venit a templo, my father came from the church* 

These fifteen Prepositions govern the Ablative. 
H<B sextum qiuBrunt, a, cum, teniis, abs, ab, ^ absque, 
Atque palam, pro, prae, clam, deque ex, e, sine, coram. 


Ah denotes h/ reason of; as, vir ab innoctntxd cUmentissimus^ a man, 
by reason of his innocence, very mild. 

Ah denotes as to ; as, ab ing^ntd improhus, wicked as to his disposition. 

Ab denotes in; as, ictus ab Ickvo latir^, wounded in the left side. 

Ab denotes on^ or, in; as, ab omni part^, on everj side ; in every respect 

A denotes with ; as, a te meum principium, my beginning is toith you. 

A denotes after ; as, a caiia ibo domum, after supper I will go home. 

A denotes for ; as, a m^tU inf amice, for fear of infamy. 

Abs denotes toithout ; as, non abs ri, not without reason. 

Absque denotes but for, had it not been for; as, absquX b^n^fte^ D^i, 
hut for the kindness of God. 

A is used before consonants, but ah before vowels. 

Ciim denotes with, in company with ; as, ibam cum fratr^ %n agrde^ I 
went toith my brother into the fields ; ibo tecum, I will go with you. 
' Ciim denotes at ; as, cum prima luce, at break of day, uoith the first light 
Cum denotes in; as, dum esses cum imp^rio, whilst you were in autiio- 

Tenus, as far as, governs the Ablative singular ; as, t<inus quodSm^ us 
far as, i. e. a certain length ; but 

Tinus governs the Genitive plural when the noun wants the singular^ 
as, tinus Cumarum, as far as Cuma, or, when things of which we have 
naturally but two, are spoken of; as, tenus cruriim* 


ProR denotes in comparison of; as, hoc est merits lUsus pros his quoi (XUr 
iRe*, this is mere sport in comparison of the things which you will hear. 

\ De denotes according to ; as, de me a sententia, according to my opinion. 
De denotes after; as, non bonus est somniis de prandtd, sleep is not 
good after dinner. 

De improvisd, unawares, unexpectedly, as, de intigrd, newly, anew* 
De industria, on purpose ; as, de transversd, crosswise, athwart 
De denotes at; as, de m^o, at my expanse ; de me, as for me, rsspeOing 

E, EX. 
JE', and Ex, denote according to; as, e ndtfird^ according to nature, ex con 
su£/iUitn^, according to custom, € pocto, accox^n^ \.o ^^»cta«ix\. 
^ar denotes by; aa, ex cotwiZid patrum, by VVie ^l^lVig^ oi VJaa ««i»toK». 
.^Er denotes since; as, ex i6 die, since tViai d^L^, ex quo ^,v^m^Qi^>^ %\»r* 
^ denotes among^ of; as, ex muMs litdu, amotig^of inaxi^ ^vnsnMm 
^ it put before consonants, ex before vov^eU lisi^ toi»oi»Bto* 


( 13a ) 

RULE 70. 

The Prepositions m, sub^ super, and subter, govern 
the Accusative when motion to ^ place is signified; 

Puer ambulat in templum, the hoy walks INTO the church* 
Ille ambulavit sub scalas, he walked under the stairs. 
Turns incidit super agmma, the tower fell upon the troops, 

Subter, below, governs the Accusative only ; as, subter ter- 
ram, below the earth ; subter terra, is found only among the 

1. /n, signifying into, always governs the Accusative ; as, in scholanu 

2. In, upon, governs the Accusative ; as, in 8u6a pMia, upon his feet. 

3* In for contra, against, governs the Accusative ; as, in te, against you. 

4. In for per, during^ every, governs the Accusative ; as, in diem, for a 
day, in dies, every day, in horam, for an hour, in horas, every hour. 

5. In for erga, and super, governs the Accusative ; as, in te, towards 
you — in sttOs gregfis, over their flocks. 

6. In for ad, for, governs the Accusative ; as, in coenam, for supper. 

RULE 71. 

But if motion or riest in a place is signified, in and 
sub govern the Ablative, super governs either the jlo- 
cusative or Ablative ; as, 

Piier ambulat in templo, the boy walks IN the church. 
Daphnis consedit sub ilTce, Daphnis sat down under an oak* 
Aves sup^r arbSre sidunt, the birds perch on the tree. 
Super amnem Meandrum, upon (near) the river Meander. 

2. In, signifying existence in a place, governs the Ablative; as, in sch(U&, 
in the school. 

2. In is oflen understood before loco, mari, terra, domo, calo, libro, memf 
hris, tempore, &-c. 

3. In for inter governs the Ablative ; as, amicitia est solum in bonis, 
friendship is only among good men. 

4. Sub, for paulo ante, a little before, governs the Accusative; as, sub 
noctem, a little before night. 

5. Super for de* governs the Ablative ; as, super hac re, about this thing. 
Super laude, for praise. Virg. 

6. Super for ultra governs the Accusative; as, super GaramantEs et 
Indos, beyond the Garamantes and Indies. 

RULE 72. 
A Preposition often governs the same case in 
composition which it governs out of it ; aa^ 

Ad^mUs templumf let us go to the cTiurch, C* oi ^^ <w^ ^^* 
Ex&uaus templOf let us go out of the church, C ^i ^^ ^"'^ '^'^ 

(184 ) 

This rule only takes place, when the preposition can be dis 
joined from the verb, and put before the noun by itself; as, 
idmus ad Urnplum, ^dmus ex Umplo^ and even then, the prepo- 
sition is often repeated ; as, esnr^ ifimbiis suls, Cses. 


RULE 73. 

The Interjections O ! andhenl govern the Vocative 
and sometimes the Accusatives but rarely the JVomi" 
native; as, 

O crudelis Alexi, O 7iard»7iearted Alexis, Virg. 
Heu ! miserande piier, alas / youth to be pitied. Id. 
O prsBclarum diem, O glorious day ! O festus dies. Cic. 
The Interjection O, is not necessarily added to the Vocative. 

The Interjection heu ! is frequently used without a case ; as, 
Heu ! ubi pacta fides, ubi connubialia jura. Ovid. 

Proh governs the Nominative and Accusative ; as, Proh I vtr. Oh ! tnan: 
proh ! fidSm, Ah ! the honesty of the times. 
Ah I governs the Vocative; as, ah ! virgo infelix, ah! unhappy lady, ViRO. 

RULE 74. 

The Interjections Hei and Vae govern the Dative; 

Hei miser o mihi. Tee. Ah ! miserable me I 
Vae mlllis et saevis, wo to toicked and cruel men. 


RULE 75. 

The Conjunctions ^/, 5c, atguS^ nScj nSquS, aw/, t??, 
vSl, couple Uke cases and moods; as, 

H6nora patrem et matrem, honor thy father and mother. 
Hie nee legit nee canit, this man neither reads nor sings. 

1. Quam^ nisi^ prcsterqudm, an, also couple like cases anci 

2. Sidy ni, msi, cum, (both) tum (and) following each other, 
videlicet, scilicet, also couple like cases and moods, 

3. Ceu, tam, (as) quam, (as) quasi, tdnqudm ita, %U, (as) v^Zut, 
uti, sic, ttim, (though they are adverbs) couple like cases and 

4. Siv^, Cwhether) followed by sw^, (ot^ c,a\i^'es% >SMk Gosnt 
tUMd moods. 

[5. Ad^d, tt&y sicy (so) are foWowed \>^ ut»\\»X\ %a,oa3ft»"iA 
o t/jat, ztd ia.sicut^oi ncut.'l 

( 185 ) 

RULE 76. 

Ut, quo, licet, govern the Subjunctive mood ; as, 

Lego librum iit discam, I read the hook that I may learn. 
Juva me quo f aciam hoc, help me that / may do this thing* 
LicU minetur mihi mortem, though he threatens me with death. 

Mddd,dummddo, govern the Subjunctive mood; as,m^{2o jubeant 
te, provided they order you. Dummddo redeas mature, provided 
you return in time. 

Uttndm, I wish, Osi,0 that, quomtniis, from, govern the 
Subjunctive ; a9, Uttndm Tibur sit sedes, / wish Ttbur may he 
my residence. Hob. O si mihi prseteritos Jupiter referat annos. 
Ohstds mihi quo minOs agam, you hinder me from doing it. 


1. Quo, when it governs the subjunctive, signifies, that — to the end that 
— whereby — in what way, i. e. [modo] quo, or, quo modo faciam. 

2. Quipp^ for nam always governs the Indicative ; as, quipp^ v^torfdtU* 

3. Quasi, ceu, tanquam, (as if, though) p^rinde ac si, haud 8^cu8 ac <i, 
govern the Subjunctive mood. 

4. Inierrogatives, quanttis, qualis, qu5tus, uter, quis, quo, ubi, &c. when 
used i^ejinitely, mostly govern the Subjunctive mood; as, dtlbito qus sit 
causa, / doubt what the cause is* Ndscio ubi tiiiis pater sit, I know not 
wheie your father is; but, 

5. Interrogatives commonly govern the Indicative mood; as, quts 
dedtt tibi pScQniUm? who gave you money? Quts tibi dixit? ir^ told 

6. Ne, lest, lest that, for fear, governs the Subjunctive mood, 

7. Ne, the adverb of forbidding, governs the Imperative or Subjunctive f 
as, ne time, or, ne ttmSas, do not fear. 

8. JVe afler cav^o, is frequently left out in Latin ; as, cav^ sttt&sfdmam, 
beware lest you thirst aftcft' fame. 

9. Noli, nolite (emphatically used for ne when it forbids) govern the /n- 
finitive ; as, noli vel noIitS ttmerS, do not fear, i. e. be unwilling to fear, 

10. Quoo, that, denotes the efficient cause, and governs the Indicative; 
as, gaudSo quod interpellavi te, lam glad that / interrupted you* But, 

11. Ut, that, so that, to the end thett, denoting the final cause, governs the 
Subjunctive ; as, veni tit spectarSm, / came that / might see* 

( l^ Ut (that) is often understood ; as, non slntt eum (ut) incYpi&t, he 
i does not suffer him to begin* 

13. Ut, though^ for licet, or quamvts, governs the Subjunctive* But, 

14. Ut, as, governs the Indicative; as, res est iit diid, the thing m as 7 

15. Ut for postquam, governs the Indicative; as, ut sSciiit congSrYSm, 
after he had cut the mass* Ovid. 

16. Ut is elegantly suppressed aft«T i)<5to, nftlo^ malo^ t€|,o , Yf^cfet ^ tww«»- 
suadifo, Reet, Spdrtit, niclM^ kc* also a^\jOT tlno^ jat^ fo£xVt « ^^ ^ 

n* Cum, dum, quam,quod^{fi^9!C\ tV, sVa^ nV ^«^^ *\J>^^'V^!J^ 
9*Mm, HmiU, ac^ govern both the Indicative wA ^^^ S-uXj^^i.-i^*^^^- 

( 136 ) 


The First Principles^ or, the true and most necessary rules of 
construction^ to which all the rest may be reduced. 

I. Every sentence in speech consists of a noun and a verb. 

II. Every Nominative hath its own verb expressed or under- 

III. Every definite verb hath its own Nominative expressed 
or understood. 

IV. Every Adjective hath its own Substantive expressed or 


I. Every verb of the definite Moods^ expressed or understood, 
agrees with its Nominative^ expressed or understood, in Number 
and Person; as, 

Boni pueri d5centur et amantur, good boys are taught and loved. 

[I Hi] aiunt, they say. 
Roman! [cceperunt] festinare, the Romans made haste. 

II. Every Genitive is governed by a Noun Substantive, or 
Adjective^ expressed or understood ; as, 

Hie est Iiber mei Patris, this is the book of my Father y at non 

[est Iiber] mei fratris, but not of my brother. 
Terra est [dominium] Domini, the earth belongs to the Lord. 
Mali sunt ciipidT litis, bad men are desirous of contention. 

III. The Dative of Acquisition^ t. c. for which any thing is 
acquired, ox for which, or whom it is given, or done, is govern- 
ed by any verb or noun expressed or understood ; as, 

Non nati siimus nobis, we were not born for ourselves. 
Emo illis, I buy for them. Dormio mihi, I sleep for myself. 
B^ni sunt benigni omnibus, hostibiis, et amicis, good men are 

kind to all ; friends and foes. 
Honestus vult; sed non est ^ptus] solvendo, an honest man 

is ynlling, but [he is] not able to pay. 

IV. The Accusative is governed by an active verb or a Prep' 
osition expressed or understood ; as, 

Boni amant Deum et patriam. Good men love God, and [love] 

their country. 
PraBses nunquam venit dd nostram scholam ; sed prdfectus est 
Philadelphiam, The President never came to ourschoolybut 
went to Philadelphia. Or, 
The Accusative case is put before the Infinitive Mood, ex- 
pressed or understood ; as, 

Novimus hdnos amari. We know th<xt good men are loved* 
Licet omnibus esse bonos. All fM,n are allowed to "be g<ood« 
V, Every Vocative case is placed \ivde^xvdeTi>\^ oi «n;:^ ^^\i^^ 
^e Interjection O being sometimes added-, a^, 
^rascept6r, didici lection^m, Ma«tcr, I Iwitjc learned m-ale^ws^ 

( 187 ) 

VI. Every AhlaHve is governed by a Verb, Participle, Ad- 
jective, or Preposition, expressed or understood ; as, 
Georgius scripsit b6na penna, George wrote tcith a good pen. 
Exemplar scriptum penna, a copy written with a pen. 
Novi Cipitolinum a puero, I knew Cdpitdlinus from a boy. 
Hostis fuit pallidas metu, the enemy was pale for fear. 
Pdpulua saltabant (prae) gaudio, the people leaped for joy . 


I. Every Adjective agrees with a Substantive, expressed or 
understood, in gender, number, and case ; as. 

Bonus (homd) a good man. Femina casta, a chaste woman. 
TristS (negotium) narratur, a sorrowful thing is told. 

II. Substantives signifying the same thing, agree in case ; as, 
Paulus Apostdlus, Paul the Apostle. 

III. Every Infinitive is governed by a verb, noun adjective, 
or noun substantive, expressed or understood ; as, 

Boni amant benefacere alns, good men love to do good to others. 
B6ni sunt digni amari, good men are worthy to be loved. 
Fuge, dum prase ipi tare potestas. Fly, whilst you have the power 

to fly. ViRG. 
Populus (cGepit) mirari, the people wondered, i. e. began to 


J^ote, Under Kerbs, are also comprised Participles, because they have 
in them the general signification of Kerbs. 


All construction is either true or apparent. TVue construction is 
founded on the essential properties of words, and is almost the same in 
all languages. Apparent construction entirely depends on custom, which, 
either for elegance or despatch, leaves out a great many words, otherwise 
necessary to make a sentence perfectly full and grammatical. 


To RULE n. Num. 24, are reduced supple sat, (separated from the verb, 
and occupying the place of a Noun Substantive.) sup. 2. dB causa, NUM. 
29. sup. verba, notttxam, m^mortdm NUM. 35 and 36. sup. pro re, vel 
pretxo asris. NUM. 40. sup. inter n^gotia, or resfert s^ ad n^goixa, NUM. 
42. sup. ris, nSgotium, commissio, NUM. 60. sup in (tdtbus, NUM. 66, 
sup. proi die— 66, omnibus oris, TO RULE III. is reduced NUM. 74. 
supple malum est ; or, Hei and vob are used as Nouns Substantives. To 
RULE IV. belong NUM. 18 and 62. sup. ad NUM. 33. sup. quJSd ad. 
NUM. 41. i. e. est int^r rhUa negotta, Rdfdrt sd ad m^ nSgOtt&, for res 
fert, ad m^a n^goixa. NUM. 68. sup. ad vel in, 64. sup. per, NUM. 73. 
sup. sentio, ItLgeo, 6lc, 

TO RULE VI. belong NUM. \ft.wx^. ^ ex, cXiim., Ut;. ^>^Vw.^a.'«« 
»r«. NUM. 20. «up. di, «, ear, c«Lm, &c. lS\i^- 1\- %>^^* a^a\i^^i>»»0 
i^UM. 37 38. inip. a, abs, di, «, ex, «tc. ^\i^. ^^-^;?;^ tX'^^ 
^er. NUM. 57. .ap in. NUM. 69. mnp. a, Sb, e,«c. ^>5y^-'^^ '^^ 
ffUM. 64. np. rn or pgr. NUM. 65. ««P. «i«m «*% •> **• 


( 188 ) 

Prosody should be taught the Student pntctically all along 
from his first entrance into grammar; the Teacher pronouncing 
before him every syllable according to just quantity ; because 
the habits of a bad pronunciation are not easily removed ; and, 
besides, the true signification of certtdn words in the Latin 
tonguCy is discovered only by the quantity. 


Legitimumque s5num digitis callemus et aure ; Hoe. 
Quem qui non tenet, errans, nescius atque vagatur 

PROSODY teaches the pronunciation of words 
according to proper quantity and accent^ with the art 
of making verse. 

2. The quantity of a syllable is the time we take in pro- 
nouncing it. 

3. A long syllable is marked thus -, and requires twic6 as 
long time as a short syllable, in the pronunciation of it ; as, 
tdem^ idem, ducere, ducere. 

4. A short syllable is marked thus ^ , and requires half the 
time of a long syllable ; as, ducere, ducere, idem, idem. 

5. A common syllable, in poetry, is sometimes long, and 
sometimes short ; as, t^nebrce, t^n^br<B ; mihi, mihl. 

6. Common syllables are mostly pronounced short in prose*. 

7. The quantity of all syllables is known by the following 
RULES, or the AUTHORITY of the Latin and Greek poets- 

8. The quantity of all la^t syllables, also of some^r^^, mid- 
die, and penult syllables, is ascertained by rules alone ; the pe- 
nult syllable {pen^ ultima) is the last but one. 

9. Authority is a proof of the quantity (or length) of a sylla- 
He taken from Ovid, Virgil, Horace, Juvenal, Persius, and 
other reputable poets, who all agree in the pronunciation of 
the Latin tongue. 

So uniformly attentive were the Latin poets, to the quantity 
of syllables, that, 'tis said, JEZbracc, one of the greatest of them, 
having differed only in the pronunciation of the us in pedus, 
pronouncing it palus instead of palus, suffered much in his 
reputation, as not one of the poets, during a series of twelve 
hundred years, had pronounced it, as he did, short, but on the 
contrary, long. 

Of the Division of Letters iuto StjUoAfes, 

To discover the right pronunciation ot ^o\^a,^^ Tss>MX-»\a. 
JA© ifost place, understand the rigKt dimsion oi xJcvoti SjcXsj 

( 189 ) 

syllables; and what morp just claim any syllable, which under- 
goes a division, has to certain letters in the word divided, than 
it has to others. 

A syllable is the sound of one or more letters uttered in one 
breath ,* as, a, ah, abs, &;c. but it rarely exceeds eighU 

Rules for the right division of letters into syllables. 

I. A consonant between two votoels is joined to the latter, as, 
a-mo, te-go, do-mi-nus. 

Exceptions. Words, formed, derived, and compounded, arc 
divided into their original, primitive, and simple forms; as, 
chlr-agra, pod-agra, macer-o, in-ter-e-a, inter-im, iit-i. 

II. The prepositions ad, ah, ante, in, co, pSr, prater, sub^ 
int^r, r^, dh, rM, trans, dm, de, dl, dis, se, cdn, are not to be 
disjoined; as, Ad-6ro, ab-eo, ad-eo, in-eo, co-eo, co-utor, per-eo, 
siib-eo, sub-iffo, re-lego, inter-eo, red-eo, ab-eram. 

III. Two consonants in the' middle of a word, not proper to 
begin a word, must be divided ; as, il-le, an-niis, ter-ra, ar-dens, 
par-tes, tan-tus, &c. 

IV. Two or more consonants in the middle of a word, prop- 
er to begin a word, must not be divided ; as, pu-blT-ciis, libri, 
Le-sb6s, pi-scJs, syl-ve-strem. 

For those consonants that begin a word, and ought not to be divided ; 
see Ruddiman's Latin Grammar, page 104. Edition 7. Edinburgh. 

V. Two vowels not making a diphthong are divided; as, 
va^U'Os, prd'iit, di-ci-^r, cd-pi-o, cd-pi-dm, cd-pi-es, dd-c^'O, 
cr^'ds, cr^-^t, m^'li-Hs, In^u-o, in-dU'ts, in^dU'es, in-du-ds. 

Of a vowel before a vowel 

I. Vocalem breviant, alia stibeuntS Latin.. 
•1 vowel before a vowel is short in Latin, 


Alltis, indOo, nihil, tr^ho, h is not accounted a letter. 

Omnia qiuB vdcuds t^niilssent cdrmtnd m€ntes» 

O crudilis Alext, nihil m^d cdrmind curds. Vikg. 


Ni capit Rfio produc : et nomma QuintcB. 

E servant longum, si praesit I, ceu sp^ciei ; 

Vero E corripmnt/irf^que, *p^que r^ique. 

Anceps lUS erit patrio ; sed protrahe dliiis. 

Altirtits brevia tantum ; commune sit Ohe ; 

Didndm varia longa der dlus^ et elieu, 

Etpatrium Prim(B, cum seae soVvW. \ti -al* -k»\^%» 

Hie Grsdci variant nee ceita lege leneuVxa* 

Alt^r in alterius jactantes lumtn4 nISLXatov. On\x>- | 

( 140 ) 

Greek nouns whose first of the two vowels is long* 


Darius, Clio, Amphion, Glilatea, ThS,lia9 
Medea, Ixion, Alpheus, Laddamia, 
PenthesTlea, M^chaon, Iphigenia, ^ Echidn. 
Atque ele^a ^ Achaia, Alexandria, Lycaon, 
Eleus^ue Achelous, Oreades, dtqu^ Geloi, 
Sperchius^MC aer, Didymaon, dc Cytherea, 
Pompei, Cai produc ; conformia jungens. 
Noxia Alexandria, d61is aptissima tellus. 

Greek nouns whose first of the two vowels is short. 


Deucalion, Sim5is, Danae, symphonia discors» 
Alcinous, Danaus^u^ Thoas, Hyades^u^ Caicus, 
Calliope, Othriades, Niobe, Hermione, Boreas^t^, 
Pasiphae, Cyathus, Ber6e, Astyanax, GyBHoaque, 
Autonoe, Cyane, Tanais, Dryope^^MC Cayster. 

Greek nouns whose first of the two vowels is doubtful. 


Orion, canSpeum ; M^lea, dtque Geryon, 

Ohe, dncips, platea dtqu^ chorea, Diana et loque. 

II. Vocalis, longa est si consOna bin& sequatur : 
^ vowel is long, if two consonants or a double follows* 
Mobtlis iEsOntde, verna ac incertiOr aura. 
Formosum pastor COrydon ardebat Alexin. 

Exam. Mons, curro, gaza, nix. X, Z, are double consonants. 

At nobis. Pax alma, veni spicamque teneto. 
Atque a fine trahens titulum, mem5ratur horizon. 

It is not necessary that both consonants are in the same 
word ; they may be, and very often are, in different words, that 
is, when the first word ends^ and the next begins with a conso- 
nant; thus. 

Me tdm^n urit amor; quis ^nim mddus adsit amori. ViRO. 
Laudo tdmen vdcuis sedem quod figure Cumis. Jxrv. 
Imp^rdt aut servit collectd p^cumd cuique, HoR. 
NU dgtt exemplum, litem quod litS r^solvit. Idem. 

Sunt 1, r, UqmdcB^ quels raro junglmOs, n. m. 

But a vowel before a mute^ and a liquid m \he ««s!ie s^U'ftblQ ^fbsr a short 
vowel in poetry, ia sometimes Umg^ and Boni6\inieB shxnt ; «A^agt\» C>)c\^^%^ 
tf4argrra, volticris; but the vwiod Y>efoTe aucYv confioiA3;i\& \& \XQXLQ>as&R»^ 
hort in prose ; thus, pharHrth volucrit^ ten^bra, 

-Bt prima, similis vdliicri, mox 'v^ixa n^\\ibto. O^* 

( 141 ) 

ni. Diphthongus l6nga est in Graecis atqug L&tinis. 
A Diphthong is hng in Greek and Latin words. 

In Grsecis semper, sed, prcB composta sequente 
Vocali brevia, veliiti pr<mt atque prseustus. 
Quis coelum non misceat, et mare coelo. Juv» 
Ex quo Deucalion nimbis tollentibus aequor. Jwo. 
Mannas Gr^corum malis implere catervas. jHbr. 
At reg^na gravi jamdudum saucia cura. Virg, 

Vocalem efficiet semper contracttO lOngam. 


Mato for mdgts volo, %Mm for isd^m^ alius for dliiiis, judico for 
jusdico, refert (it concerns) for resfert^ ndlo for non vdlo, cogd 
for cddgOj sid^ctm for sexd^cem, Uhic^n for tibHen^ it proiity 
scilicet for scire Itc^ty vide lic^t for vidirS licet. 

IV. DerivatS. tenent mensuram primOg^norum. 
Derivatives retain the quantity of their primitives. 


Victoria from victorts, virgin^iis from virginis, milito from 
miVUiSy amicus from dmoy Ugdm from l^go---legerdm, legMm, 
legiss^m, leg^ro, legisse from legi, ratio from rdtus. 

Semper ^gd auditor tdntum, nunqudmn^ reponam ? Juv. 

PrcBcipitant ; pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis. Virc. 

Fulminat Euphratem bello, victorque volentes. Id. 

Regia soils erat sublimibiis alta columnis. Ovid. 

Momento cita mors venit aut victoria laeta. Hob. 

But the first syllable of the following is long. 
Jumentum, fomes, suspicio, regiila, sedes, 
Secius humanus, penuriS, mobilis, humor, 
Junior, et vomer, laterna, et tegula, deni, 
Macero, item nonus, primam produc^re gaudent. 

These derivatives have the^r*< syllable short, 

Ast odium^2i6, sopor^MC, dicax, et arista, lucirnay 
Atque {ssigorque, sagax, ditio^i^e, fidesque, quasillus, 
Atque vadum, geniii, posui^Me ducTs fragilisg^MC, 
Et vitium^TMc curalis, primam duc^re nolunt. 

V. Simplicium servant legem composts stiorum. 

VCcalem llcSt, aut diphthongum syllaba mutet. 

Compounds retain the quantity of their ^m^Zes« 

EXE.MPlak- ^ 

Imgtiusy of tBquuSy irritus of riHus^ dct«lo oS. ^^^^][5^^ 
prUmo, occ^Ldo of eddo, repuli ot ^€TP«l\, «Jc^tt»K«w ^ w»^* 
Oimcino of eUno, itiquHfo M mUiM'O, xrOSi^^ *#^- 

( 142 ) 


1. But AgmtuSfCogmtuSi r^cognttus^ of notus have the penult 

2. Fatidtcus^mdlidtcus, causidtcus, of dico, ha\e their penult 

3. Pronuhd, innuhd^ of nubo^ mMZum, of hilum, have their 
penult short. 

4. Connubium has 'Uu common, u e. sometimes long and 
sometimes short. 

5. Dej^roj pij^roy of jurOj have their penult short. 

6. Sdj in sdpitiis, of sopdr^ has the first syllable «Aorf. 

7. Bi in am^tifio, ambitus, ambition, from ttum, is short; but 

8. ^i in am^^u^, am5l/a, ambitum, surrounded, is long. 

VI. De Prcepositionum quantitate. 
Se produc et di, praeter dlrtmo atqu^ disertus. 

Si fbr^t hoc nostrum fdtd dUatus in <Bvum. Hoe. 
Omnem crid^ dtem tibi diluxiss^ siipremum. Id. 

Sit R^ breve ; at Refert a res producttO semper. 

Scspe r^cognoscds tibi lectd animoque r^volvas. Lilius. 

1. PRO is short in Greek compounds ; as, prdpheta prdldgus. 

2. PRO is long in Latin compounds ; as, provdco; yet 

3. PRO, when it is compounded with the following words, is 
short — ^Neptis item — ^fiigio — ^fundus — fiteorque — ^neposque — 

Et — ^festus — fari — cella et fecto^^MC — ^ficiscor. 

Atque fiigus^f^e — ^pero — ^tervus — fanus^ue propago. 
PRO compounded with these is common. 
— Pago^^Me rerftwm— curro— e< serpina — ^fundo^ue pello. 

Propago, signifying descent, has pro short ; but propago, a 
vine-shoot, has pro long. 

VII. De quantitate A, E, I, O, U, Y, in compositis. 
Of the quantity of a, e, i, o, u, y, in compounds. 
Produc A semper^ compostl parts prtdre. 

Q^drS, qudtSnus, quapropter, quacunqu^, quatibet. 
\. Am edd^m is still short; but ead^m the Ablative is long. 
2. E, in the Jirst or second part of the compound, is short. 
Ut n^qu^O, tr^d^dmqae ^quidemqae n^fdsque trScinti. 
JVequidqudm, produc n^^udndo ; vSnepicd n€qi<am. 
JVegudquamy niquts, sdciosque, v^ldsUclH. add5«. 

Of words compounded -wilYvoul «l Prepowtwiu 
Pars 81 componens fini pri6r 1 veV O donal 
Ck^rripito; Omntpi^nM et Tlmdtligas xDaj3aie«X»»X.- 

( 143 ) 

EXCEPTIONS of i and d in compounds. 

1. In quibus i flexu mutatur jungit5 longis. 

2. Quseque queunt sensu salvo divellier, addens. 

3. De quibus aut Crdsts ^liquid vel Syncdpd toUit. 

4. Idem masculeum produc et iilnque et ibidem. 

5. Hulc dein aggl6nierans turbse composta diii. 

6. Quaeque per 6 magnum scribuntur nominii Gratis. 

7. His Intro, ritro, contro, qudndoque creata. 

8. Qttdnddquidem excepto, bene junxeris atque dlioquin* 

1. Quidam, 2. Ludimagtst^r. 3. Triga. 4. id^» 5. hu 
diium m^ridies. 6. lagopus, 7. introduco. 8. dlioquu 

9. O, the first part of a compound, is long ; as, introducOy 
quandoque, retrocedoj controversia. 

Dicite quandSquTdem in molli consedimus herbi. Virg. 

10. But Chreek compounds in dmicron, as, Argdnautd, phu 
Idsdphiis, with hddte, qu6qu^, duddScimy have the o short. 

Saecula Carpophorum, Caesar, si prisca tiilissent. MarU 
Ambubaidrum colligid phdrmdcdpOlcB. Hor* 

11. 6rre6A: compounds in om^gd, are long; as, Minotaurus. 
Mtnotaurus tnest V^n^rls mdnumintd n^fdndcB, Virg. 

12. In Greek words, u and y, the Jirst or second part of a 
compound, are short ; as, 

Trqjug^na et quddriipes, Polydorus curta videbis. 

VIII. De Praeteritis Dissyllabis. 

PraeterttivS. t^nent primam dissyllS.b& longam. 
AU perfect tenses of two syllables have the first long. 
Toll^ bibit, scKdit, atqu^, ftdit, tOlit ortSlque do, st6. 

Ah/ Cdrydon, Cdrydon, qucB te deminttd cepit. Virg. 
Dixit ^t drdentes dvido bibit ori favUlds. Mart. 

IX. De Supinis Dissyllabis. 
Cunct& Siipina tenent primam dissyllabSl longam. 
All supines of two syllables have the first long. 

Corrlpg nata sgro cl^o lin6, sto, stnO ststo. 
Do, rii6, cum quSO, sic, ratOs, at staturtis Sbundat 

8&tumy citum, Wtiim, sMm, atUum, ^^V\j.m^T5iNa.^^ 
The Participles sdius, cttiw, slotiw, ViSfs^s ^^^^ ^T^^ 
formed from their respective a\wpvaftB,\iaN^ ^Cafcv^ ^^*^^ ^ 

( 144 ) 

X. Of perfect tenses which reduplicate. 
Prcet^rztum gSmznans primam brSviabit utramque. 
That perfect tense, which doubles thejirst syllable 
shortens both that and the following syllable. 


Ut c^ctdij tMgi, p^p&i, dtdici, p^pull, c^oinf que. 

Non audet, nisi qui didicit dare, quod medicorum est. Hob. 


Longat ast c(Bdd proprie s^cunddm. Caedo, cecidi. 
Credidi credo trahit usque primam. Credo, credidi. 
FSfelli, p^pendij mdmordi, tUendi^ tdtondi, have the second 
syllable of the Perfect long ; spospondiy has both long. 

XI. SUPINES above two syllables^ in -d^um, -etumy 'Uum, 


PraB-/wm vocalem p5lysyll§,b& cunct^ Siipina 
Producent -atum quibiis — etum, finis et -utum. 
hi proeterito v^niens sOciabis et itum. 
Ceetera cOrripies in -itum quaecunqu^ residunt. 


Amaiilm, deletum, minutiim, pHitum, auditiim, IdcessUum* 
Cubitum, monitum, abditiim, credttum, m^ritumy appUcitum. 

XII. De Participiis futuri in -riis. 
In -rw^, PartKcipi semper penultim^ longa est. 
The Penult of the Participle in -rus is^ always hng. 


Amaturus, docturus, tecturus, audJturuS; futurus, iturus. 

— - - I - ^ 


The Increase of Nouns is the number of syllables that ex- 
ceeds the Nominative ; but the last syllable of these is never 
accounted the Increase. 

Xin. CREMENTUM secunda declinationis. 
Nomina in -zrque -Sr flexS,, secundae curt^ vldebis 
Caslbtis obliquis ; tSm^n -er productt Iberi. 

Adjective and Substantive nouns of the second de- 
clension, increase short, as, asper-aspSri ; vir^ virt. 


d!&0mvtr, d^cemv^riy tAuflwir^ trtumwri, pi^, ipiaftri* 
A.nna vTimnque c&no Tro}» qai ^tvinfia ^^^ ^^- N\t%% 
fhrtOnrnque dies h&btuLt s&tia alleia Vacem* OVA. 

( 146 ) 
A CREMENTUM terti®. 

XIV. Nomlnls A crescens quOd flectit terttd Idngum. 
JVouns of the third declension increasing by A are long 


Pt&ds, pi^tatis ; caJcdr, calcaris ; pax, pacts ; anXmal, ani» 
maJis; TUdn, Titdnis ; Ajax, Ajdcts ; vds, vasts; McBcinds^ 
Otis; sdly soils; velox, velocts; victdry victdris ; flos, floris ; 
custoSj custodis, 
Concitat iratus validos Titanas in arma. Vibo. 

EXCEPTIONES in A brevi. 

Nomina ver6 sequentia semper curta legentur. 
Masciila in dr curtabis, CcBsdr et AnnihdJy ac sdL 
Par, impar, compar, dispar, nectar^^M^, jubar^ue. 
Fax it anas, bacchar, mas, Ldr et vas, vadis, hepar. 

Genitivi, CcBsdris — Anmhalis — sdlts — parts — impdris 

comparts dispdrts nectdris — -jubdrts ^facis andt^ 

bacchdris — mdris — Ldrts hepdtis — diddemdtis PdJlddts. 

Vela dabant laeti et spumas salis aere riiebant. Virg. 
Graeca in -ma ut diddem-a, 'dtis, dogmd, -atis, brMantur. 
Arabs ^ Ardbis; Lceldps, Icddpts ; trdbs, trdbts, increase shortm 

O CREMENTUM tertise. 

XV. O crescens niimero producimiis usquS priore. 
JVouns of the third declension increased by O are long. 

EXEMPLA -on-6nis longa. 

!• Amphitryon, Sidon, Hettcon, Chiron, Stcyonque, 
2. Sic Damon, Cdrydon, Babylon, JBgon-ts, Orion. 
8. Aut Alconis babes laudes, aut membra Glyconis. 

EXCEPTIONES -6n-6nis breves. 

1. Memnbn, Actceon, Agdmemnon atque PdlcBmon. 

2. Et Jason et Amdzdn, JBson, adde Philemon. 

3. Crorgdnis et Crorgon, Alcdnar, sic Didymdon. 

1. Bosqui, tripus(\}iQ, m&ndr, Upiis, drbdr^ compds et impos^ 
increase short, 

2. The compounds of pus; as, Mdampus, trtpus, increase 
short ; as, MddmpddXs, tripddts. 

3. All Neuter Genitives in oris ; ^!a^uftmu«^\Cb^J5ff\«^^>:«Sw^ 
fimdris, addr, csqudr, marmi^,, incxE«JBfc ^VmstI* ^\sX.% ^ 

4. Osy oris, and all comparattt5e«^«a^lewJWiT^tlwa^w^^»fc^^ 

&V/ as, JenioriB, majOrts. . __^ j^ 

&. Proper names in dr, as, Ag^vidr^ Hec«W^vwst«»» 

( 1« ) 

6. Nouns in ohsi as, scrobs, scrdJUs^ scobs^ scdhis^ increase 

7. Nouns in ops; as, tndps, tndpiSj Miropsy Mer6p%Sy in« 
cireases short* 

8. Cicrops, Cecrdpis ; Ddlopsy Ddldpts ; Alldhrox^ AUd* 
brdgts, Cappddox, Cappdddcis, increase short; but, 

9. Cercops, Cercopis, Cyclops^ Cyclopis ; hydrops^ hydro- 
p%Sj increase long. 

Tela r^ponuntur mamhus fabricdtd Cyclopum. Virg. 
Hie Doldpum mdnuSi hie savus tendebat Achilles. Virg. 

E CREMENTUM tertiae. 
XVI. E crescens niimero breviabit tertl^ primo. 
JVouns of the tfurd declension increasing by E are short* 


Grex, gregis, senex, senis, degener, degeneris, pauper, pau- 
peris, uber, uberis, pubes et puber, . puberis, hebes, heb^tis, 
proBpes, praepetis, teres, teretis, career, carceris, muniis, mune- 
ris, latus, lateris, piper, piperis, it^r, itineris, pes, pedis, &c. 


Excipe Iber, Siren, splen, ren, (rape Hymen) sirmU halec. 
Ver, mansues, lociiples, haeres, merces^M^, quies^ue. 
Gr<Bcd lehcsque tapes, magnes, crater^M^ Thales^MC. 
Lex, rex, plebs, vervex, seps, et p^r^grina ; ut, Uriel. 


I. Iberis Sirenis — splems renis — (Hymenis) halecis, 

(Anio, Aniems, Nerio, Nenems) — mansuetis — locupletis — 

ruBredts — mercedis quietis — legis r^gis — plebis — vervicif 

— septs — Urielis — Danielis — Ubetts — tdpetls — magnSttS'—crd' 
teris — (aer, aeris, aether, getheris.) 

I CREMENTUM tertiae. 
XVII. I crescens r^piet numeris sic tertiSL binis. 
JVouns of the third declension increasing by I are short. 


Homo, hdminis, imago, imaginis, grando, grandinis, anindo, 
arundinis, ciipido, cupidinis, formido, formidinis, lapis, lapidis, 
caput, capitis, libido, libidinis, margo, marginis, ordo, ordinis, 
nomen, nominis, cespes, cespitis, trames, tramitis, &c« 


Silimia, Sai^minis, Delphin, Delphiaia, Samius, Sanmitis, 
Memphis, Memphitis, Dis,Bit\8,T^ma,'5\*m^^,^jsBs^^^ss^^^ 
Quina, quintia, lis, litis, glis, gUtla, nWj^x^ nt^sms,^* 

( 147 ) 

XVIII. Y crescensrapKetntimSrisqu0quS/cr/?d[bini8. 
JVouns of the third declension increasing by Y are short. 

Chalybs, chalybis, chlamys, -^dis, Capys, Capyis, martyr, 

JSTouns of the third declension increasing by IX and YX^ 
are long. 

XIX. IX ac YX produc, felix, Bombycts &i Oryx. 

EXEMPLA in IX-icis, long. 

PhoBnix, Phcenicis, perdix, perdicis, coturnix, coturnicis, 
pernix, pernicis, lodix, lodicis, bilix, bilicis, trilix, trilicis, felix,. 

EXCEPTIONES in IX-icis, short. 

Coxendix, Choenix, Cilix, natrix^t^e, calix^u^. 
Phryx^^MC, Larix et onyx, pix, nlx^ue salix^we, filix^ue. 
Varix, Styx, lapyx, histrix, fornix et 'Erixque. 

XX. U brevlat crescens Genitivo flectiO terna. 

JVouns of the third declension increasing by U are short. 
Exem. Murmur, murmiiris, furfur, furfuris, turtur, turtiiris, 
Dux, ducis, redux, reducis, Ligus, Liguris, p^cus, peciidis. 
Intercus, intercutis, praesiil, prajsulis, consul, consiilis. 

EXCEPTIONS— virtus, virtutis, &c. 
Virtus atque palus, tellus, incusquCy salus^z^e. 
Servi^wetus, subscusfM^ jiiventus, dtqu^ senectus. 
Jus, juris, criis, criiris, thus, mus, rus, ddto ruris. 
Fur, furis, lux, lucis, Pollux, Pollucis, frux, frugis, increase long. 

XXI. Pliiralis casus si crescit protrShlt A, E ; 
Atque O ; corripies I, U ; tu tSmen excipe bubiis. 


Stelldrum d^abiis^ ririim, rehiis, vtrorum, ddminorum, ddrwrtmt^ 
L^omhiisj s^dilibus^ n^mdrthiis, fructthus, cormbus, acuhiis. 
Immemor herbarum, quos est mirata juvenca. Vibg. 
Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas. Virg. 
Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines. HoB« 
Regia soils crat sublimibiis alta columnis. Ov. 
Pars in frusta secant verubusque trementia figunt. Visa. 
Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta. Vibg. 
Omnibus m terris quae sunt a Gadibiis usque. Juv. 

De Cremenlo \ etV^oxvim* 

Crementum verbi est cum aViqyia ^«t^ ^ifass^ ^^'^'^^^^^^^ 
Bdnam singulaLrem pisBsentia lndv».\iV\ KOiy«^ ^-^^aCo^-^^^®** 
pJuMus excedit. 

(148 ) 

In verbis depihiintihus Hngend^ est y6x Activd; ut, mlro, miroi, 
mirdbas, mirahdmus, mirahdmini, mlrar&ninu 
Ultima syllabi nunq^am ducitur incrementum. 

XXII. A in the increase of verbs is long. 

A verbum crescens auctu prdducit In omni ; 
Exctp^ cremento d&r^ primo quOd br^v6 poscit 


Amamus, dmahamiis, ddc^dmiis, t^gdmiis, t^gdits, avdidmus* 

But the first increase of a (not the second) is short in d(^ 
ddrS, and pessundo, v^nundoy circumdo, sdtlsdo. 
His lachrymis vitam damns et miserescimus ultro.. Vnto. 

XXIII. E in the increase of verbs is hng. 
E verbum crescens auctu, producitiir omni. 

Docemus, amemus, tegemus, essemus, iremus, texissemus. 

Semper E corrfpz^wr j»rcB-ram-rim-r6yw? Idcatum. 

Tex^rdm, texMm, t^x^ro, fu^rdm,fu^rim,fu^ro, ^ro* 
E ante -REM, et -RER, tertia conjugatione corripitur ; ut 
T^gir^m, t^g^res, t^g^r^t, tig^remiis ; t^ger^r, t^g^reris. 
E ante -ERIS, -ERE, praesentis Indicativi et Imperativi 
tertiae, ut t^g^ris vel tigire ; tSg^re, (t^gttor,) breviatur ; sed 

E ante -erts vel -er^, Futuro Indicatim Passives ; tertia con- 
jugatione ut, t^geris vel t^gere, semper producitiir. 

RerS sit et reris longum, -bSrzs at -bSrff curtum. 

E in -erunt, -er^, Indicdtim Perfecto est longum. 
Amdverunt, dmdver^; docuerunt, docuer^; texerunt^ tex€r^» 
Consedere duces ; et vulgi stante c6rona. Ovid. 
E penultimam in stet^runty ded^runt, tuUrunt^ aliquando 

XXIV. / in the increase of verbs is short. 
Corripit I crescens verbum; sed demS v^Umus^ 
JVoRmus simus^ quaeque his sStS. caeterS, jungens 
Ivi praeteritum, prima incrementSqu^ quartae. 
Praet^rito curtabis -imus t^m^n undiqu^ ; vates 
Ad libltiim v Sir i ant, — rLmus-ritis^a& fiituro. 


AmahtmuSy ddcibttur^ UgimuSy cupxtls, grodXTnur^ dmd^Mfry 
^^tnddtmtni^ docebimtni^ aiidt€bdmim. 
Jmusy penuitim& omnibus vetbomiii ^T«;let\Vi% c^siiVi^Xxa* 
Amavimus, ddcuimus^ legivms^ audwtiiwU, V»iiw», Jvlitwrt* 
w in futuro Subjunctiyi nunc conipitiii> wi»R ^vAnRAX>a* 

( 149 ) 

XXV, O dt U crementa verborum. 

O incrSiilentum produc, sSd U cOrrlpS semper. 

Verbs increasing by O are long; by U they are short. 
Amdtot^f ddcitotS, UgttMy auditdt^, itot^, estoU* 
SumuSj possiimusy vdlumus, maliimus^ naiumiis. 


XXVI. Jl in the end of words is long. 
A finita. dSlto lOngis ; 7n6n6symbd quaeque. 
Caslbiis A flexum brevja ; sed protrahe sextum, 
Produc JEnea^ Calcha^ simtlesqu^ v5candi. 
Caslbtis baud flexum produc. ltd cum quiS^ et eja. 
Curtantur contra ac ultra ; qu6quS -ginta errata; 
Et piUd^ (non verbum) curta v^rls haUeqiieluja. 


Ama, ddy a, stelld, hdnd, anted, int^r^d, trtgintd, 
Stella, dona, s^diltd, n^mdrd, cornud, t^nSrd, hdnd. 
lUi inter sese magna vi brachia tollunt. Virg. 
Principiis obsta, sero medicina paratur. Ov. 
Hos successiis alit, possunt quia posse videntur. Virg. 

XXVII. E in the end of words is short. 

E brviag ; Primae QuintaequS vOcabiilS. produc : 
Atque Ohe^ cete^ tempe^ fermeque, Jireqne^ 
Atque fdmeq\x& doce^ simile et, mOnosylla.b8. longa. 
EncUticas ac sylldhicas br^via, ac mSLlS jungas 
Et bSnS. Produces Adverbid cunctS. s^cOndae. 


Nat^, fug^, l€g^, l^g^, ddmtn^, pin^, leon^, dmdt^, 
CalUdpe, AncMsiddi, die, qudre, hodti, se, de, me, ti. 
Cdve, vale, vide, respond^ aliquando breviantur. 
Encliticae qu^, v^, n^. Syllabicae -pt^-c^-t^-tuapt^, hisce, tute, 
end in e short. B^nlgne, longi, pldcide, mtmme. 

XXVIII. / in the end of ivords is long. 

I longum ponas nisi c^m quasi Gra>xaq\ie ciincta. 
Jur^ mihi v^rlarS tibique sibique solemus. 
Sed m^ge corripies ibi; vero wi?, cut^ qu5qu€ nectes. 
Si&vUi sed brevlant cum necubi^ sicubt Vatea* 

ExEM. Clas8i,f^n, uti, (iiti, is shcyrt) M^TCvif\, T5al^^^AJt^- 
GrsBciDcUim, et Vocdtim, in 1 bTe^\aTi\.wx •, xxX-T^kk^-*'^^^^ 
Tu,mibi, seu magni superaa jam sax.4 \\mw\. "Vwi^; 
Vaphai, quid antlquos 8igadr-um ausp\^ia cjcVaa* "^^ 


( 150 ) J 

XXIX. O in the end of words is common. 
O commune l6ces, Grceca et mOn6syUabdi longa* 
Ergo pro causa ; temum sextumq\i& sgcundae ; 
Atque ddeo ac zdSo atque Adverbid nomine nata. 

EXAMPLES in O common. 
Quandoj sermo, amo, ddc^o, l^go, audio, ndto, vigilando. 

EXCEPTIONS in O long. 
Certo et ^o, paul6,faJsOy m^ritdque ddeoque. 
Idclrcoque ciiro, manifesto, crc5raque longa. 

EXCEPTIONS in O dmhtful 
Amho, quomodd, dummddd, postmodd sic hdmo, ^gdqxie* 
Et cito corripies m^c^^que et sctd, nescio et imo. 
Et du6 ; fit varium sero et conjunctio vero. 
Mutuo, postremo, varia cum denied, sero. 

EXCEPTIONS in O long. 
Monosyllaba omnia in o, ut do, iu), flo, sto, longantur. 
Datim et Ablatim in o sunt longa, ut pu^ro, Ddmtno, donO. 
Graeca ut Dido, Alecto, Clothb, Clio, Androg^o, sunt longa. 
Adverbia derivata ab Adjectivis ut falso, merito sunt longa. 

XXX. U et Y in fine. 
Uin the end of words is long; but Y in the end is short. 
U semper longa ; sed y raptis jung^re oportet 


In u finlta sunt longa ut vultu, cornu, Panthu, moly. 

Quo res siunma Idco Panthu, quam, prendimus arcemi Yirg. 

Quid tibi cum patria navita, Tiphy, mea ? Ovid. 

XXXI. Words ending in jB, JD, T, are short. 
Quae voces sunt in B, D, T, corripS semper. 

T breve semper erit ; nisi quondam syncopa tardat. 

Ab, ad, amdt, dmdbdt, dmamt, dmdv^rdt, dmdbit, dmdvertL 


Magnus civis obit, et formidatiis Athani. Juv. 6bit pro dbnt. 

XXXII. C in the end of words is hng. 
C longa est ; v^rium Hie pronomen ; cOrrlpe donsc. 
Et nec^fac^ parlter malunt brgviare POetae. 

Sic oculos, sic ille mantis, sic ora-ferebat. Virg. 
Classibus hie lociis, hic acies certare sdlebant. Id. 

XXXIII. L in tfte end of ojoorcfs is short. 
L breve sit. Cum soU sal, nil \ow^^w\Xa ^€«t^'?u 

Trtbundl, vtffU, m, s^wM, pr5cul, comul, AuwCbSl, C«fc«a- 
Ifebima finita in EL, ut Samuel, DatvUl> GabrUlA^ti^v^. 
8«o semel est imbutH recens se^aXAt 6^oxem- 

( 161 ) 

XXXIV. Min the end of words is short. 
M vOrat Ecjipsis, prisci brSvlarS sOlebant. 

Circiima^ ; quendam volo visere non tibi notum. Hor. 

XXXV. JV in the end of words is long. 

N longum pariter Greeds p^rtterqu^ Ldtinis. 

En br^via quod format -inis brSv^ ; Grcecci s^cundee. 

Junglmus, et qmrtum^ si sit brSvis ultima recti. 

Forsitdn^ in^forsan^ tdmSn^ Sn, viden^ addltO curtis. 

Ren^ ^Urij sin, Sirin, Titan, Saldminque PdlcBmon. 
JEnedn, Anchisin, Pen^ldpen, Epigrdmmdton, 
ExcipS -^n-inia ; nont^n^ nominis., GrsBca in a Maian brfivtato. 
Pylon, Ilion, Arcton, Alexin, Ibm, Chelyn, ThHin, brSvia sunto. 

XXXVI. R in the end of words is short. 
R breve; sed longantur/Sr/^arnataqu^; Lar^JVar. 
Cur^ fdr^ cum Grcecis queis patrlGs eris; et ^ther^ 
J3Ler^ ver^ et Iber mSge cdr brSve ; CeltibSr anceps. 

ExEM. C(E8ar, sSmp^r, pr^cor, Hictor, m^mor, Decemvir, amor, 
PrOdacito, cUr, far, par, compdr, dispdr, impdr, crater* 
Semper honos, nomenque tiium, laudesque manebunt. Virg. 
Nee gemere aeria cessabit tiirtur ab ulmo. Virg. 

XXXVII. 'US in the end of words is short. 

US br^v^ ponatur, prOduc mondsyUSha cum Genitivis 
Flexus et quartan; produc ndmerique secundi 
In quartet primum, quartum, quintumque : et "in-Uris; 
Dumye-utis patrius, vel in-udts et-4lnttS'^isye est. 
Aut quintus fit In U ; longus tum rectOs, habetur. 
Ergo produces venerabile nom^n lESUS. 


Dominus, nemus, peldgus, fructus, leonihus, fnictibus. 
M5n5syllaba in -us, ut griJLS, plus, thus, rUs, mus, sus, sunt longa* 
Nom. SaluS'tellUs-palUs s^nectits ; JuventUs-servitUs-incus-virtfu, 
Gen. frtictQs ; Nom. Ace. Voc. plural /ourt^ declension in -iw, end long. 
Amathfts-unttS'CerasUs-untis-Opus, -untis. M^lampUs, M^ldmpo^xs* 
Quid furtim lachrymas ? Ilium venerande, Melampu. Stat. 

XXXVIII. AS in the end of words is long. 
As produc, Quartum GrsBcOrum tertta casum 
Corrlpit ,• et rectum, p^r -cfcSw si patrWs exit. 

^n^ds, Pallas, PmanOs, fds, n^Jog, ^ma&.,U§,^.^?^^4 
GrmcS, in ^as, quorum Gemtivus exit Va-^fiLdXa x^^-^PQ^^^^^^'^^^^^^stfe 
Accusativi pluraJes Grecoioxa m cU^ut TtttttvaA^cTCl^»to»^^^^- 

( 152 ) 

XXXIX. ES in the end of words is hng. 
Es d&bitur longis; brSvlat sea tertlft rectum, 
Cum patrli brSvis est crescens penultim^ ; Pes hinc 
Excipitur, paries QrUs, dbiesquS CSresque. 
Corripito i^s a sum pSngs et neutralla Graeca. 


Ames, dmdres ; voces, l^gis, l^bis, tap€s, aiideris* 
DcBmdn^s, Arcades, et tales Gr(Bci plurales in es breviantur. 
JEqu^Sy pkd^s, dlv^s, mil^s, r^s^s, pr€Bs^s, cdm^s, 
Mll^s, sosp^s, des^s, hosp^s, palm^s, p&pUs, trdm^Sy 
Hippdmdn^s, panders, nepenthes cum cdcdetMs brevia. 

XL. IS and YS in the end of words is short. 
Corripies IS ^t YS plurales excipe casus. 
GRs^ sis^ VIS verbum ac nomen nolisque vSUsque. 
Audls ac socios quorum et G^nittvus in "ims. 
Entis ve aut — ttis longum ex -is prOducitO semper. 


Apis, inquis, l^gts, Ugitis, Th&Xs, TipTiys, Itys, Cdpys. 

Dativi plQralds et Ablativi in is ut dominis, stellis longantur. 
Audis ac omnes secundas personas singtilares Indicativi quartsB loDga. 
Genitivi in -Is -in is, ut Salamis^ Salaminis, fine sunt longa. 
Siniois Simbdntis, Samn%8 Samnitis, lis, lUxs, sunt longa. 

XLI. OS in the end of words is long. 
OS produc ; pS.trius br^vis est, et c5mp^s et Impos. 
O^que ossis praebens : rectos br^viatO s^cundae. 
Os recti produc, quOties tibi patritts O dat. 


Nom. AgrdS'hdnoS'VoS'noS'Vds-custdS'n^pds, ddmtnos. 
Gen. DaphmddS'BeliddS' Troddds- OrpMds- Ttphyds, 
Arctos-os, ortS'AtkdS'MindS'HeroS'Athos, AndrdgSos* 

XLII. YS in the end of words is short. 

YS junges br^vibus; Tethys r^peritiir at anceps. 


Phorcys, Trachys, Trachyn. Capys, cJielys, chJamys. 
Desinentia in yn ; ut, Phorc^, Phorc^os, Trach^, Trach^nSs, longa. 

SjJJSba cujusvis erlt ultimS. carmtnis anceps. 

TAe last syllable of every line in poelrj \^ ^e,<iQV3L0\fc^\Qti%% 
J&u: tdm^n Jidc mecum pdUrxs rlquvt^ctrl w>cle. NV\^% 
J7/e ggd qui quondam grcunli mftdulcdtus dxjt'no^ \^« 
Ultrml cajtisvla m/llaba vor»08, fOy^ sit ^c6^i«.^Vi^ Tfe^^\«^^^»« 

( 153 ) 

Of the jlccent of Syllables. 

The €u;cent is the tone of voice with which a syllable is pro- 
nounced ; or, it points out to us when we must raise, or lower 
the voice in pronouncing certain syllables of a word. 

In every word of two or more syllables, one of them is pro- 
nounced higher than the rest, to prevent a monotony, or uni 
formity of sound, which is disagreeable. There are three ao 
cents, the grave, the acute and the circumflex. 

I. The grave depresses or sinks the voice ; as, dode. 

II. The a^mte raises the voice, and is used only in the ante-' 
penult and penult. The antepenult is the last syllable but two; 
as, do in ddminus. 

IIL The circumflex first raises and then sinks the voice in 
some degree on the same syllable. It is used only in the first 
and last syllable ; and is never applied to any but long sylla- 
bles, as, amdre, Romdnos. 

Accentus tres sunt. Gravis, Acutiis, Circumflixus. 

Grams, in ultxmdm tan turn cadens, deprlmit vocem ; lit s^dU^, 
steUd, pH^riim, Uo, leonls, Uon^, docti, civibus 

Acutiis, mpenultimdm vel dnt^pemditmdm cadens, toUtt voc^m; 
ut popiUus, pdpuliis, dominus, ddcutmus. 

CircumflexUs, in idttmdm vel p^nvMmdm cadens, prodHcti 
vocem, lit Romdniis, imago, ddmino, imdgtnif 


Quid agis? 

Repeto mecum 

Quid repetis ? 

Pensum quod 
prflBceptor prsB 
scripsit nobis 

Tenesne memo- 

Sic opinor. 

Repetamus una 
sic uterque 

nostrum pro- 

Qutd agYs ? 

R^pSt5 m6cttm. 


PSnsiim quSd 

prsceptdr prsB- 
scripsit nobis 

TSnSsnS mSm5- 

Sic 5pIn2Sr. 

RSpStamus tma 
sic iitdrque 

n&strCUn pro- 

nunciabit rec- 

Incipe tu igitur, 

qui provocasti 

Age esto atten- 

tus, ne sinas me 

Ego simi promp- 

tior ad audien- 

dum quam tu 

[es] ad pronun- 


nOnciabit rec- 

IncipS tQ tgtttlr, 

qui provScastl 

AgS esto atten- 

ttis, nd sinas md 

Eg5 stun pr6mp- 

ttSr S,d audldn- 

dtlm qu&m ta 

[Ss] Hd prontkn- 


Omnes quae voces s61uta oratione possunt sic scandi ; 

"Quid Sgis?" Tribrdchys, «Repet5" Tnhrdchys, "mecuok" 

"Incipe'' nactplusy "igitui^ TrilwocTv^*'* "^^». ^^ ^-V?^ 
dceus. ^"^ 

Bm tmm St gylMHB r^atis »t atustftv^tdte A^X. V«*«^«^^^'**^'*^' 

( 154 ) 


1. Aocdntiis vdct« ettjusqu^ a QuantttatS maximd pdndSt; tLt agU: 'gig 
autem syllaba antg consSnam est longa apiid pbdtas, tLt, 

ArreptaquS mana, quxd agU^ dtdcissimS rerum. Hor. 

2. Voces disayllabas longse Acc&ntum Inftgttnt priori, Crtdunt^ plUreSj 
tdngunt^ drmas^ nolunt^ mdlunt^ ponunt, cogunU poaaunU 

3. DissylldbcR autem, quarilm prior fist br^via^ Accdnttim ImpOnunt 
posteriori, ut legSnt, cadSnU volUnt, fUrtni, docent, amdnU 

4. Tr%8syllab(B, si diisB, prioris ftierint braves, imponuni accentum po- 
gt^riori, ut Domini, radiant, dominos, Ug^rent, tuUrint, 

5. Sin quatuor s^U&bse braves cOncQrrant; Iinp5ndiidils dst Acctntus an- 
tSpdntlltimse ; Docuimus, monuerdm, mu/tere. 

6. Si tree s^'Uabse braves simiil adsOnt, prima arrSgat sibi AccSntiiiD, Ut 
D5mine, facer6, premSre, sinere, ftirere, cblerS, 


In reading Latin poetry, the tone of the voice ought to be chiefly regu- 
lated by the sense. All the syllables should be pronounced according to 
just quantity, and, at the end of every line, where there is no comma^ noi 
any other stop, we should make a small pause, equal to that of half a com- 
ma ; frequently pronouncing the last syllable short. 

The ancient Romans, (it is said,) in reading verse, paid a particular at- 
tention to its melody: they observed the quantity and accent of the several 
syllables, and also the different pauses and stops, which the particular turn 
of verse required. 

In reading Latin verse, we should be governed by the quantity and ac- 
cent, and especially attend to the ctzsural pauses. 

The pauses of the Comma, Semicolon, Colon, and Period, Pttrenth^sis, 
Interrogation, and Admiration, should be as attentively observed by us, 
and read with the same time, as they are by good readers of the English 
tongue. As a specimen of this, let us read, with proper attention to the 
measure and ccRSural pauses, the first twenty lines of the second book of 
the ^neid, 

Conticuere omnes intentique ora tenebant, 

In de t6ro pater iEneas sic orsiis ab alto, &c. 

Afoot is a certain number of syllables of a definite quantity: 
the^c< mostly used in the verse of the Latin and Greek poets, 
are the nine following : 

I. Dactylds efFicItur longa brevibusque ddabus. 

A Dactylus is one long, and two short syllables, as, scribimiis. 
D. D. S. S. D. S. 

In n5va-fert ^ni-mus-mu-tatas-dicere-for-mas. Ovid. 

The Dactylus derives its name from the Greek Dactuhs, a finger, the 
number and length of its syllables agreeing with the number and length of 
the joints of the fore finger. 

II. Spondaeus longis vOlOit constarg diiabus. 

A SpondsBua consists of two long syllables, as, formas. 

D. D. S. 8. T>. ^. 

Anna vi-rumque ca-no Tto-^bb c^ui-^iiioMa %)a-wv%» ^Taa* 

The SpondcRus takes its name from t\ie Ot^eV. Sp^ynAt^«t ^Tvs^-^aSso&si; 

^rmse hymns, abounding wOh aiAch grcwe and majtrtic I«*^^«V^^ 

^^ occasions. SpondiLi U alw«uy» V^^e l«* /«* '^^ wk^«»«fc«^ 

( 155 ) 

ni. At gSmiQls fertur br^vibus longaque An&paratus. 

Anapaestus consists of two short and one long syUMe ; of, 
The Anapaxtui derives its name from the Qrttk word aiuxpaio^ to inyert, 
to strike back, because iJt is a Dactylus inverted. 

'Fluvwrum rex Eriddnus camposque per omnes. Virg. 

IV. Pyrrichlus g^minis br^vibus velOcit^r instat 

Pyrrichius consists of two syllables which are both shorty aSj 
Pyrriehius has its name from Pyrrike^ a dance of armed men, moving 
mth a rapid motioni invented by Pyrrhus^ the son of Achilles. 

V. Syllaba. longa br^vi subjects. v6cattir Iambus. 

Iambus ha^ the first syllable shorty and tht second long^ as^ 

The Iambus was invented by Arch!l5chtts, a poet of the Island P&r6s. 
Suis et ipsa Roma viribiis ruit. Hor. 
Iambic verse is scanned thus : 

Siiis Iambus et i- Iamb, psa Ro- Iamb, ma vi- Iamb, ribus 
Iamb, ruit Iamb. 

VI. Quod si longabr^vemprsBcessSritestoTrOchsBUS. 

Trochaeus ha^ the first long and the second shorty as, tangit* 
The Th-ochaus is so called from trechHn^ to run, because it terminatet 
quickly : it is also called Choraus, from Chorus, a company of dincers. 

VII. Longa duaeque breves et longa creant Choriambum. 
Choriambus consists of four syllables — tJie first and last are 

long — both the middle are short, as, nobilitas. 
The Choriambus is a foot compounded of ChSrceus and Iambus, 

VIII. BacchWs at curta gaudet longisqu^ diiabus. 
Bacchius has three syllables, the first is short, the other two 

are long, as, pudicos. 
The Bacchius is so called from being often used in the hymns of Bacehns. 

IX. Vult Proceleusmalicus brevibus constare quaterais. 
Proceleusmaticus consists of four short syllables, as, teniiia. 

ProcSleusmaticus derives its name from k^eusma, clamor adhortatS" 
fiiis nautdrum. It is contracted by the poets into three syllables : 
Thus, cUnet^, abjete, ariHi^ aijSte, teniita, tenvta. 


A VERSE is a certain number of feet disposed in regular order, and is 
so called from veriere, to turn, because when we come to the end of a line 
we turn to the beginning of the next ; a whole poem is denominated CoT' 
men ; but ver«e« constitute its parts or lines. 

Of the different kinds of Latin verse used in scanning. 

Hex&metrum carmen sex pedlbwa <iOTW^iJ^\.«» ^ovms^. 
DactfluB eat quintCis ; sextaia aWv toVXt^&^^'o^'^^ 
Spdodeiw: reliqiiisque alt utetVib^t \vSxvkssi« 

( 156 ) 
Homer is said to be the inventor of Heroic verse. 

Res gestae regumque diicuinque, et tristia bella. 

Quo scribi possunt numero, monstravit Humerus. Hor. 

^uinJto etiam tidmisit rerum gravitas Spondceum ; 

Cara Deum soboles magnum Jovis Incrementum ! Virg. 
Margiue terra-rum por-rexerat Amphi-tri-te. Ov, 

It is not known who first invented Elegiac verse. 

PentametrOm scandens pes primus, sive secundus, 
Dactylus aut SpondcBus erit ; Ccesurd siibibit 
Longa ; locos reliquos gemtnus mox Ddctylus implet. 
Hanc tua Pene-lo-pe len-to tibi mittit, U-lysse, 
Nil mihi-rescri-bas-attamen ipse ve-ni. Ovid. 

In hoc SpondiBus fit primus, Dactyliis alter ; 
Syllaba longd subit ; post Ddctylus ordine duplex. 

Spond. Dact. Ccbs, Dact. Dad. 

Maece ^nas, ata vis. c dite. regibus. 

AsclepiadcBum sic quoque scandi potest. 
Spond. Choriam, Choriam. Pyrrh. 
Maece nas, atavis— — — edite re ^gibus. Hor. 

SapphTca plectra m5vens tribiias loca primd TrdchcBO : 
Spdnd(Bd cedant 15ca prdanmd ; tertms esto 
Dactyliis ; hunc subeat duplex in fine TrSchaeus. 

Troch. Spond. Dact. Troch. Troch. 

1. Jam sa tis ter ^ris nivis alque— — dirae, 

2. Grandi ^nis mi sit pater — et ru ^bente, 

3. Dext^ ra s a eras jacu flatus arces. 

DacU Spond, 

Terruit urbem. Hor. 

V. VERSUS GLYCONICUS. Dicolosdistrdphos. 

Spond. Choriam. Pyrrh. 

Sic te— — diva p5tens Cypri. 

Spond. Choriamb. Choriamb. Pyrrh. 
Sicfra tres Helenae lucida si dera. Hor. 

jPrimap^dis quatuor aut Dactyli avt Syondc^i aunt, treajinalis Troehai. 
Dact, Dact. Spond* Dact. TrocV TtocV Trocft. 
/. Solvitur-acria hjr-ems grar-ta ^fic^i — Netv^r-^\.^^ — -^^^iv 
^ Jamd. Iamb. C<bs. Tro- Tro. Tr^* 
^ Tr&hmit^}i6 sic cas Bacba — 1» ^^ — =«»»5^ »* 

( iw ) 

VII. ASCLEPIADiEUS. Tric6l6a tetrastr^phds. 

Spond. Choriamb. Choriamb, Pyrrh. 
!• Quis mul — ^ta gracilis — ^te puSr in — rfisa. 

Spond. Chor, Chor. Pyrrh. 

2. Perfu — sus liquidls — urget 6d6 ribus* 

Spond. Dact. Spond. 
3* Grato— Pyrrha, siib — antro. 

Spond. Choriamb. Pyrrh. 
4. Cui fla — vam religas— c6mam. Hor. 

VIIL ASCLEPIAD c< GLYCONIC. Dicdlds distrdphds. 

Spond. Choriamb. Choriamb. Pyrrh. 

Victor MaB^nii— carminis a lite. 

Scribe lis V2.ri6 ^fortis et ho— stium. Hor. 

IX. HEROICUM HEXAMETRUM. Dicdlds Distrdphds. 

Spond. Dad, Spond. Dad, Dad. Spond. 

Lauda — bunt all — ^1 cla — ram Rhodon — aut Myte — ^lenen. 
Dad. Dad. Dad, Spond. 

Aut Ephe — sum bima — risve Co— rinthi. 

X. CARMEN METRI SINGULARIS. Dtcdlds distrdphds 

Choriamb. Baxichius. 

Lydia, die ^per omnes. 

Troch. Spond, Choriamb, Choriamb. Bacchi. 
Te de os 6— ro, Sybarin— ciir properas amando. 

XI. CARMEN HORATIANUM. Dicolos tetrdstrdphos. 
The poet Horace, it has been said, invented this verse. 

Iamb. Iamb. Ccbs. Dad. Dad. 

1. Vides — lit al ta — stet nive— candid um 

2. Sorac — ^te ; nee — jam — sustine — ant 5niis. 
Spond. Iamb, Spond. Iamb. CcBsurd. 

3. Sylvae labo— rantes gelu q ue. 

Dact, Dad. Troch. Troch. 

4. Flumina— constite ^rint a— — cuto. 


Spond. Choriamb. Choriamb. Chdridmb. Pyrrh. 
Tu ne — quaesieris — scire (nefas)— quem mihl Qj\ft.\ac— ^Sk^* 

CARMimS ANACRE.O^'^KX^^^e*^^"®^ 

V616 e6n&t& Atridaa, \ T«»s«> «itwfe^^^^ 
V6I6 BdnarS Cidmfim. \ "»*Xvb*- ^n.>2W»^« 

( 158 ) 


Mdnde^ds est ubi est unum versuiim genus. 

Dicdlds est iibi duo sunt genera versiium. 

Trtcdlds est ubi tria sunt genera versiium. 

Distrdphds est cum post secundum pedem reditur ad prlmum. 

Tristrdphds est cum post tertiiim pedem reditur ad primunu 

Tetrastrdphds est cum post quartum pedem reditur ad primunu 


SYLLABA quse ex dictione caeditur, ac post quemvis p& 
dem relinquitiir, vulgo Ccesurd dicitiir ; cujus tanta vis est, ut 
ejiis beneficio syllaba brevis producatur; est enim quoddam, 
m ipsa divisione verboriim, latens tempils, nam diim mdrdmiir; 
atque ad dliiid transimiis, intervallum unum spatiumque lucrO" 
mur* Alvabus. 

1. The CcBSttra, from c(Edo, to cut, is the syllable which is cut from the 
preceding word, and remains after a foot is finished, and always forms the 
Jirst syllable of the next foot. • 

Cum fliie-ret lutiilentus e-rat quod toUere velles. JBTor. 
Fas et ju-ra si-nunt: rl-vos deducere nulla 
Relligi-6 vetu-it sege-ti prsetendere sepem. Virg* 

S. The Ccesurd always requires a pause^ tohich makes the syllable, 
which is naturally shorty to be long ; as, 

Desine plura, pu-^r, et quod nunc instat agamus. Virg. 
Ipse ubi tempus e-rit, onanes in fonte' lavabo. Id» 
Omnia vincit a-mor, et nos cedamus amorl. Id, 
Emicat Eurya-ZM5, et munere victor amici. Id* 

3. The CcRSUra^ with which the third foot begins, is of all others the 
most graceful and frequent : there are comparatively few Hexameter lines 
which begin the Jirst syllable of the third foot without it. 

Tityre, tu, patii-Z^ recu-bans sub tegmine fagi, 

Sylvestrem tenii-i musam meditaris avena : 

Nos patriae fi-nes, et dulcia linquimiis arva, 

Nos patriam fugi-mw* ; tu, Tityre, lentils in umbra. 

Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida sylvas. Virg. 

4. Lines tmtkout the CcBsura run stiff — see the two following: 

Romas mwnia, terriiit impiger Annibal armis. 
Nuper quidam doctOs coepit 8cn\)ei^ ^^xsvsa* 

7!^ Caesura is hardly di«c<n)ered in th^e slofUs^loiowa'Vw^* 
^ofltur-baban-tur C6n-sta.nti-iiop6\iAa»a. 

( 159 ) 

5. To neglect the CcuurcU pauses^ in reading Latin Terse, diyeflts it of 
poetic melody, and renders it less pleasing to the ear, than even harmonious 
prose ; for a proof of this, read the foUowing linea without the Cctiural 
pauses, and they will sound like mere prose; but read them with the 
CeB8ural pauses, and their beauty is immediately discovered. 

O M^liboee, Deus ndbis hasc oti& fecit. Virg. 

Namque erit ille mihi semper Deus illius aram. Id^ 

Spem gr^gis, ah ! silice in nuda connixll rellquit. Id^ 

Me famiilam flimiiloque Heleno transml<»it habendam. Zi. 

Polli5 S.mat nostram, quamvis est rusticu, rnusam. Id. 

Laud5 tamen vacuis sedem quod figcre Cumis. Juv. 

Musa 15qui, prseter laudem nulllus ILvaris. Ho^ 

Nos numerus sumus, et frugcs consumere nati. Id* 

Sed dum tota domus rheda componitur una. Juv. 

Stratus nunc ^d aquae lene caput scleras. Hor, 

Per nostrum patimur sceliis. Id. 

PulvTs et umbra sumus. Id. 

Oderit curare : et llmara lento. Id. 

Justum, et tenacem propositi virum. Id. 

Non civium ardor prava jubentium, 

Non vultus instantis tyranni 

Mente quatit solida, neque Auster, 

Dux inquieti turbidus Adriae, 

Nee fulmmantis magna J5vis manus, 

Si fractus illabatur orbis, 

ImplLvidum ferient riiinss. Id. 

De figuris quibusdam Poetarum. 

,. ECfilPSIS. 
I. M. vOrat Ecftpsts quOties vOcalibtis &dsit. 

Ecfipsts cuts off dm, ^m, ^m, um, in the end of words, when 
the next word begins with a vowel, or, with h; ^s, 

Extremum hunc, ArethusS, mihi concede 18.borem. Virg. 
Monstrt^m Aorrendt^m, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptuin* 
PraecTpue cum Jam hic trabibus contextiis S,cernis. Virg. 

n. Vocalemgrw? s^ciita alia SyndkspM rSsOrbet. 

SynSlcRpha cuts off a, c, t, o, t«, when tba tkAiA.'^^^^ \swsgs«k 
with a vowel, or h ; as, 

Tend antique pdtens araaa atqjae ^<^to ^^Wfc* X\t%» 
Quidve mdror, H omnea uno oxdine lv«^^^ Vc^v^^^- 
O sola infandos Tr6j8d laiaStat^ \«a«st^^ 1^* 

( 160 ) 

Bat O, H£U, AH, HEI, are not blended with the preceding Towel, or 
iIi!>hthong, by Si/ndUKpha: in some other words, also, the Synalaepha^ ^y 
itUural or poetic necessity, has no place ; as, 

O utinam tunc, cum Lacedsemona classe petebat. Ovid* 
O pater, O hdminum, divumque aetern^ potestas. Virg* 
Fulmine, et excussit subjecto Peli5 Ossam. Omd, 
Credimiis ? an qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunt ? Virg. 
Quem non incusdvi, amens h^minumque deorum. Id. 
Ut vidi ! ut peril ! tit me malus abstulit error. Id. 
Et bis l6 Arethusa, l6 Arethusa, vocavit. Omd. 


ni. Conftcit ex binis contracta Synser^sls uDaiiL 

SyruBT^sts is the contraction of two syllables into one ; as, d$ 
for diu 

SyruxrHis has place i^ alvearia^ eadem, eodem, aureia^ deirut deiruUt iiden(f 
iisdetn, dii, diis, deincepa, dehinc ; deest^ decreet^ deerant, deenint, 

Seu lento fiierint alvearia vimme texta. Virg. 
Unius, 5b noxam et furias Ajacis Oilei. Id. 


IV. SystOla corripit extenditqu^ DlastOla tempus. 

Systdla shortens a syllable that is 7on^ — Diastdla lengthens 9l '" 
syllable that is short. 

Obstupiii, steteruntque comoB, et vox faucibus haesit. Virg. 
Atque hie Priamiden laniatum corpore toto. Id. 


V. Prosthesis apponit cSpiti, sed AphsBreris aufert 

Prosthesis adds to the beginning ; but ApTuBresis takes from it. 

As, gnavus for ndvus, ddtiram for dxiram — cdnia for ciconxa — jvdn^ for 
dipOne — temriire for coniemnere — p^to for eapHo. 

Arboribus stragemgu^ satis, ruet omnia late— ^or eruet. Vir. 
Eduramque pirum, et spinos jam pruna ferentes— ^/br duram. 


VI. SyncOpa de medio toUit, s^d Epenthests addit. 

Syncopa takes from the middle ; but the Epenthesis adds to it 

As, Ftneium for vinculum^ amaxti for amavUti^ pHxit for petlvity Maoor% 
/br JIfarSf alituum for aHtum^ r£liig%o foi r^Kgxo^ T(&ttulVt int TUuiCt^ immo 
for imo, THmolus for Thidlus. 

Oeseris, beu ! tantis nequicquam eie^le ^exwXi^. T\t^* 
y^as rellTquia^ DSn&um atqiie imm\tia Kc\!S5^«i\« ^*'ti 
bdrtas terria, municS, lamn®— lanMa»l^^^^»^^^^* ™^* 

( 161 ) 


VII. Abstrahlt ApOcOpe fini, sed dat PSrSgOge. 

Ap^dpi takes away from the end ; but Pdrdgdge adSs to it. 

As, pifenH for pecfUti, tuguri for t^gilrti, eurdrier for eUr&rlf dinUr for 
Hei^ mUtxir for mim, diHuRiir for diHuti, 

Pauperis et tuguri, cdngestum ces^Tte culmen. Virg* 
Euryalus, confestim al^cres admittier orant. Id. 


VIII. Constringit Crasis, distracts Diaeresis effert. 

Crdsis contracts tiDO syllables into one ; Diarists divides one 
syllable into two* 

As, prendo for pr^hSndo^ v^hment for v^h^m€n$, ivdluam for iv&lvam^ 
ivoluiase for evolviase^ persoluenda for p&rsdhenda^ aulai for atUm^ aural 
for aurcR^ BiltuB for si/oce. 

^dificant, sectaque intexunt oM^^ costas. Virg* 
Atddi in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. Id* 


IX. LitSr& si l^gltur transpostS. M^tathSsts exit 

Metathesis transposes the letter of a syllable- 
As, Pistn^ for Prw/is, Thymhr^ for Thymhifr, Meleagr^ for M^iUc^Hr^ 
Teucr^ for Tettc^r<, Leandre for Leander, M^andre for MHander. 

^ Nam tibi, Thymbre, caput Evandrius abstulit ensis. Tirg* 
Tu quoque cognosces in me, Meleagre, sSrorem. Ov. 

X. lAt&r^ virtut^ Antithesis miitattir, tit 6lli, 

A letter is changed by virtue of the AntxtMsts. 
Olli coeruleus supra caput astitit imber. Virg. 


XL Tmesis cOmpOsttam conatur scindSrS vocem. 

Ttnisis attempts to divide a compounded word. 

As, septem aubjeeta trtdni, for septemtri&ni ; inquii Kgatus for llHgH" 
ttu; qui t6 cdnquX for quicQnque ii; sup^r tlbi ifUnt for 9upMriint 

Et Scythias regio siptim subjecta irwni* Virg* 

XII. Post^rius sed primum pOnit Anastr5!3hS.vetbuMQL. 

Anastrdphd puts the v70TdXa8l,^^Hs^ JtA» 
75sr cdnd^ m cdOd dare hracWi cixcxwxi (^^^ cVrcu.t«a0»^>l 
Carthago, ItaJiam c^ntray Tibeiiii4c^\ieAQti%^- ^Vr%- 

( 162 ) 

1. A correct knowledge of Prosody b absolutely necessary; for it wiJ 
enable the scholar to point out the errors and mistakes that are not unfre- 
quently made in the works and writings of others ; and, being the orna- 
ment and perfection of Grammar, it will, occasionally, lend its aid to clear 
the difficulties that occur in the other parts of speech. 

% Great care should be taken in reading according to quatitily, for there 
are many who understand the Latin and Greek languages tolerably well, 
and who can scan and parse very well, and yet read very ill. 

3. It is by the scanning the verses^ and marking the mea,sure and author- 
ity of the best Latin poets, that a true knowledge of quantity^ that the 
a^icent and ri^ht pronunciation of every syllable^ in prose or verse^ can be 
correctly known : all attempts to acquire this knowledge by any oth4,r vrtLf 
or means^ mttst certainly prove vain and ridiculous. 

Ought all words and syllables to be pronounced, in prose, as they are 
pronounced in verse. ^ No. 

4. Words ending in (, d, I, r, f, m, and frequently in n, are pronounced 
short in prose ; but in poetry, coming before consonants, they are pronounced 
long; and all CcesUras, except those in Sapphic verse, are Umg; as, 

Tale tu-um car-men nobis, divine poeta, 

Quale sd-por fessis in gramine quale per sestum, 

Dulcis aquae saliente si-tim restinguere rivo. Virg* 

Me tamen urit a-mor quis e-nim modus adsit amori ? Id* 

Ipse iibi tempiis e-rit, omnes in fonte lavabo. Id* 

Phoebe sylvarum-que potens Diana. Hor, 

Jussa pars muta-re lares et urbem. Id* 

5. In prose, certain compound and simple words, rarely disjoined in the 
construction, are pronounce'd as if they were in verse; aliquamdtU, qudmdxu, 
eircUnuB, satisdo — uterHbit, iUSrvis, att^riit^r, solummodo, tantUmmiSdo, 
ijOsmodi, quomtniis, nihtlominus, verUmtam^n, interdum, inUrsiim, suptT' 
siim, Interv^nit, sup6rv^n%t, drcUmdatum* 

This Prosody is well adapted to the capacity of all students: 

1. It contains rules for the right division of letters into 

2. It marks, for the most part, the quantity of each syllable 
in the line that is to be scanned, — a great help to students. 

3. It gives numerous practiced examples of correct scanning 

Authors consulted— Z>e*paM<cr, Alvarus, Wait, Rttddiman, 
Christie, Adam, Nixon; and Carey, who has investigated the 
subject with uncommon diligence and accuracy. 

ZdCctio veto frequens^ oc tisus multa docebuid^ 
Auadlioque I^ei nos omnia possumiu om'ne*. 

( 163 ) 



VOCALIS ante vocalem est brHu,-- 
Vocalis ante duas consonas est longd,- 

Diphthong! omnes sunt longcB, 

Derivata Diphthongis longd,- 

e. g* redeo 



SyllabaB contractae sunt longce, 

MSnosyllaba finita vocali sunt longd,- 
Voces encliticsB sunt braves,- 

— ^idem. 

-ft, se, de* 

Finita in b, d, 1, r, t, hrMa sunt,- 
Omnia m m, finita br^mdntiir,- 



Finita m c, n, as, es, os, sunt longd, ac, non, pietas, doces, fids. 

Casus omnes in a sunt br^vis, regul&. 

Ablativi autem omnes in a sunt longi, ^regiila. 

Finita in e vocabula br^via sunt,- 
Penultima Praeteriti dissyllabi est longd,- 
Penultima Supini dissyllabi est longa, — 

Finita m is pluralia longd sunt, 

Finita in o singularia longd sunt, 

A crementum tertuB longum, 

E crementum terticB curtum, ' 

I crementum terti^B brev^,- 

-leone, lege, dSmine. 

— dond. 

-calcar, calcaris. 
-later, lateris. 

O crementum tertuB longum,- 
U crementum tertuB curtum,- 

-homo, hominis. 
■leo, leonis. 

turtur, turturis. 

Y crementum tertice longum, coccyx, coccygis, bombyx, ycis 
y crementum tertuB etiam br^vS Phrygis, chalybis, chlamydis. 

A crementum plurale prinuB, longum, ^tellarum, natabus. 

E crementum plurale quinUB longum, rerum, rebiis. 

^-Kionorum, duobus. 







crementum plurale secundcB longum,- 

1 crementum plurale Dativis curtum 

U crementum plurale Dativis curtum, — 

Crementa a, e, o, in verbis longd, 

Crementum i in verbis est breve— 

Crementum u in verbis est brSvS,- 
E ante-ram-rim-ro est br^ve,- 

E ante-ris et-re praesens est brivS, — 
E ante-ris et-re futuriim est longum,- 

E ante-runt et-re est longum, 

Finita in i, et u, sunt longd,- 

Composita ex brevibus sunt brHid,- 
Composite, ex longis sunt longd^- 



-texerunt, texere. 

agri, fructu. 


— — — ^3RK^5^^» 

Consdnse muUe sunt b, c, d, g, p, c\^ \.{- 
LiqutdiB consdnsd sunt 1, m, n, i,- 

Omnes syll&hsB finales prdbaW axml rtg>)il>«^^^^ ^^^S 

( 164 ) 



SENECA, Messala, Nacica, Gallita, ScaevSla, Numa, 
Ahala, Mursena, Catillna, Poplicola, AttlGIa, Galba, 
Archias, Archytas, Pythagoras, Midas, Tiresias, larbas, 
B5reas, Epammondas, Lycabas, Pelias, Gyas Amyntas, 
Acestes, Antiphates, Bdotes, Butes, Mcenetes Laertes, 
Leucates, Thyestes, Procrustes, Philoctetes, Achates, dec. 

Patronymica prinuE sicut Anchlses quorum penultima hr^vis, 

^acides, Agenorides, -/Esonides, Actorides, lasides, Prianudes, 
[Belides] Panthoides, Echionides, Thestorides, Ixionides, 
Anchisiades, Abantiades, Laertiades, Naupliades, Mcenetiades, 
Atlantiades, Otriades, Athamantiades, Hippotades, d^. 

GraBca in e sicut Pen^ldpe quorum penultima est br^vis, 

Alcimede, Alcithoe, (Agave, Alcmene,) Andromache. 
Beroe, Candace, Cassiope, Cyftne, Cybele, Tisiphone, 
Cymothoe, Danae, (Daphne, Helle,) Hellene, (Cyrene,) 
Leuconoe, Leucothoe^ (Mitylene, (Enone,) Pasiphae, 6ic» 

Propria in iis secund(B quorum penultima est Tonga. 

Acheloiis, Galesus, Crinisus, Cocytus, Cephisus, 
Pactolus, Amphrysus, Timavus, Pachinus, Admetus, 
Alpheus, Pylorus, Pyropus, Polyphemus, Priapus, 
Quirinus, Homerus, Latinus, Caicus, Cratinus, 
iEsopus, Bolanus, Mausolus, Sardanapalus, Tithonus, 
Darius, Eumelus, Mnasilus, Aristobulus, Henricus, 
Heraclitus, Telesinus, Polydorus, Cethegus, Aratus, &c. 

Propria in iis secundxB quorum penultima est hrivis 

Antilochus, Telephus, lap^tus, Daedalus, Dardanus, 
Assaracus BosphSrus, jEacus, Amycus, Priamus, 
A^chilochus, Pindarus, Helenus, Pyramus, Ornithus, 
AlcTn6us, Tantalus, -^olus, Epaphus, Pegasus, Erebus, 
Aufidus, Eridanus, Caucasus, Rhodanus, Inachus, 
Atticus, Eutrapelus, Telegonus, Herodotus, Sostratus, 
Archem6rus, Euryalus, Italus, Cyllarus, Attains, Carditis^ ^. 

Propria in €s tertuB quorum Accentus notatur. 

Archimedes, Orodes, Tigrane^, Lycomedes, Euclides, 
TiridateSf Cambjses, Mithrldatea, G».Tvyiftfc^«A^ KxvaJCv^^a^ 
Arlstdphanes, Diogenes, DemoatYienea, ^oc,i4\.«a,^^^:ir^^^^i^* 

( 165 ) 



I. Patronymica masculina in -ADES et -IDES penultimam 
habent br^vem : ut JSneddes, Priamides : longa autem femi- 
nina in -INE et -ONE : ut Nerine, Acrtstone! 

Sed Atrides, Pelidis, Tydides, et reliqua a nominibus in 
-eus : Belides, et similia a nominibus in -us penultimam ton' 

II. Derivativa in -OCINIUM corripiunt CI : ut patrdcinium. 

III. Desmentia in -URIUS, -URIA et URIO, tam nomma, 
quam verba meditativa, corripiunt u: ut Mercurius,luxuriaf 
centuriay deciiria, centurio, esiirto, partiirio, ccenatiirio ; V 
autem in penuHa, curia, injuria, est longum* 

IV. Nomina Gratia in -ULUS propter diphthongum a, h&- 
bent u longum: ut Aristdbulus, Thrasyhulus* Sed Jjolina 
habent u breve : ut figulus. 

V. Peregrtna vocabula libera sunt pronunciatione ; attamen 
secundum scriptionem Grcscam,* si quam habent, s51ent indd 

VI. Adjectlva in -INUS: ut ansMnus, asininus, equinus, 
leonlnus, lupinus, matutinus, vespertinus, clandesiinus, vicinus, 
mdrlnus, Alpinus, habent penultimam longam. 

VII. Materialia in -INUS: ut adamantinus, atnygdaltnuSj 
cedrinus, coccmus, croctnus, crystalUnus, cupresstnus, oleo' 
ginus, craMiniis, serotinus, diutinus, pristinus, habent penulti- 
mam br^v^m. 

VIII. Adjectlva in -ACUS, -ICUS, -IDUS, -IMUS; ut 
j^gyptidcus dcBmdmdcus ; academicus, aromdticus ; callidus, 
lepidus ; Jinitimus, legitimus ; superlativi, pulcherrimus, for* 
tissimus, optimus, maximus, prseter imus, et primus, h&bent 
penultimam br^vem. 

Merdcus, opacu^ ; amicus, apricus, pudlcus, mendicus, pos- 
ticus ; fidus, infidus ; opimus, habent penultimam longam, 

IX. Adjectlva in -ALIS, -ANUS, -ARUS, -IVUS, -ORUS, 
-OSUS; ut conjugalis, dotalis ; montdnus, urbdnus ; amdrus, 
avdrus ; (Bstivus, fugitivus ; canorus, decorus ; arenosus, prui' 
nosus, penultimam longant : at barbdrus corripit penultimam. 

X. Adjectlva in -ILIS ut, agtlis, fucilis, fusilisy utilis, Aw- 
mtlis, parilis, simiUs, corripiunt penultimam. 

Derivata a nominibus, ut anilis, cimlis, herilis, exilis, subtUis, 
Aprilis, Quinctilis, SextiUs, fere longant pcnultimam<^ 

XI. Adjectlva, plicatxlis^ versaftlis, x>olaJ6tt.\% ; ^m«a*j®K>» 
saxatHiSj umbraiUis^ habent penu\i\TMMavl>rw>ewi% . ■ 

XIL Finitsi in -OLUS, -OLX, -OlAi^, c.>xtV«^^ ^««^^^^ 

( 166 ) 


Cdssxd^ condS caput, c^piuntur cassihus apri. 
Armus brutorum est, "humerus ration^ fruentum. 
Cedo facit cissi c^cidi cad5, csedo cecidi. 
Est cutis in carne, est detracta e corpore pellis. 
Cominus ense ferit, jaciilo cadit €mtnus ipse. 
Consulo te doctum, ttbt consuld, dum tuS. euro. 
Sanguis mest venis, cruor est de corpSre fusus. 
Fornix est arcus, sed forndx saxa perurit. 
Vir gin^rdt, miilierque pdrit : sed gignit iiterque. 
Gustdt lingua cibum, qui bene cumque sdpit, 
Frontem die capitis, yro/wi^ die arboris esse. 
Deceptura viros pingit maJd femma maids. 
Maid mail maid meruit maid maxim& mundo. 
Maid tamen pulchrum maid decerpere malum, 
Mirx venit nummis, Sperantibus est data merces* 
Diflficilis Idbdr hie, siib cujus pondere lobar. 
Non lic^t asse mihi, qui me non asse licetur, 
Vix notus mihi, ndtiis at auster, ndtiis Amicus. 
OppSrtdr tardos, pannis op^rUur egenus. 
Unguld de brutis, reliquorum dicitur unguis, 
O*, oris loquitiir : sed ds, ossis roditiir ore. 
PindSrS vult Justus, sed non penderi malignus. 
Pro reti et regione pldga est, pro verbere pldga, 
Pdpulus est arbor, pdpulus collectio gentis. 
Corpdre rdbustum, sed dices pectore fortem, 
Ne sit securus, qui non est tutus ab hoste. 
Sunt setate s^nes, v^t^res vixere priores. 
Qu8B non sunt simuld : qusB siint, ea dissimiildntur 
Torres ftdhuc ardens, extinctus tUid fiet. 
Prdrd prior, puppis pars ultima, at ima carina, 
Spondet vds vddts, at vdsis vds contlnSt escam. 
Merx nummis venUy v^ntt hue aliunde prdfectus. 
Qui sculpsit, caldi : servans abscondM celaU 

( 167 ) 


Containing most of the substantive andadjective nouns, 
which occur in this Grammar. 


m. masculine ; f. feminine ; n. neuter ; d. doubtful ; c. common ; N. nam,' 
inative; G. genitive; D. dative; A, accusative; V. vocative; Abl. ahUi' 
tive; indec. indeclinable; ap. aptote; monop. monoptote; trip. triptoU, 
^pUdiptote; \. velvet; Fh plural; aing. singular ; r. participle. 

Abu AM, monop. a man's name' Affinis-is-e, related 

Abydos-i, m. vel. f. a city of Asia 
Abyssus-i, f. a bottomless pit 
Academla,-de, a university 

Academeia,-aB, a famous school 
Ac^r-eris, n. a maple-tree 

Acetum-i, n. vinegar 

Achilles-is, m. the son of Peleus 
Acinaces-is, m. a cimiter 

Aconitum-i, n. toolfs bane 

Ac\is-us, f. a needle 

Ad^mas-ntis, m. a diamond 
Adeps-ipTs, m. vel. f. fatness 
Admonitu, ap. Abl. by warning 
Addlescens-ntis, c. a youth 

Ador-oris, n. sacred wheat 

Adrtd-BB, m. the lake of Adria 
Advena-ae, c. a stranger 

^des-is, f. a temple 

iEdes-iiim, PI. f. a house 

^squi liae-arum, PI. f. JEsquilian 
^ther-eris, m. the sky 

iBstiva-driiin, PI. n. summer 

Aedon-onis, f. a nightingale 
JEmdnia-2d, m. Tkessaly 

^neas-ae, m. the son of An- 

chises and Venus* 
Aer, aens, m. the air 

-^s, aeris, n. brass or copper 
.^nd-SB, f. a mountain of Sicilp^ 
^qu5r-dris. n. a plaiv^ the sea 
AfliQis-is, c. a kinsman 

Agger-erTs, m. a mount, a dam 
Agilis-is-e, nimble, swift 

Agmen-mis, n. a troop 

Agragds-BJit\s,m* a city of Sicily 
Agncdla-ae, c. a farmer 

Ajdx-kcis, m. son of Telamon 
Ajax-kcis, m. son of O'ileus 
Alac-er-ris-ris-re, cheerful 

Albtdn-ii, n. the island Albion 
Alcyon-onis, f. a king-fisher 
Ales-es-alitis, swift, winged 
Ales-itis, c. a bird 

Alexdnd^r-dri, m. a man^s name 
Alexdndrtd-m, f. a city of Syria 
Alius, alia, aliud, G. alius* 
Almus-a-iim, kind, nourishing 
Alpis-tum, f. PI. mxmntains 

between France and Italy. 
Alpha, ind. the first Greek letter 
Alpheiis-i, m. the name of a 

river of Arcadia. 
Alter-era-erum, G, altertus. 
Alter-iiter-utra-utrunn, G* 

Alterutrlus, D. alterutri* 

Altrix-Icis, f. a female nourisher 
Alvus-i, f. the paunch, belly 
Amans-ns*ns, -ntis, P. loving 
Amens, ns,-ns, mad, foolish 
Amdthus-untis, m. a city 

Ambag^, Abl. a shift 

Ames-itis, m. the fork of a net 
Anucus-^-uxsL^ jnKf^"^ 

( 168 ) 

a friend 

a river 



an amour 

A.micus-i, m. 
Amnis-is, d. 
Am5r-oris, m. 
Amores-um, PI. m. 
Amussis-is, f. a mason^s rule 
Amyntds-Bd, name of a shepherd 
Anceps, cipitis, doubtful 

AnchiseS'Sd, m, father ofJEnias 
Anchora-ae, f. an anchor 

Andrdg^os-i, m. sortof Minos 
Andrds-i, f. 4the island Andros 
Angiportiis-uS-i, m. a lane 

Anguis,-uis, d. a serpent 

Anmbdl-dlis, m. a great general 
Anima-ae, f. tJie breath, soul 
Animal-alis, n, living creature 
Anima-ns-ns-ns-ntis, m. f. n. a 

living creature. 
Animiis-i, m. the mind, courage 
Ani'O-enis, m. a river of Italy 
Antennae-arum, PI. f. sail-yards 
Antes-iiim, m. the last rows 
Antidotus-i, f. an antidote 

Antiquus-a-um, ancient 

Arcus-us, m. a bow, an arch 
Arbor et arb6s-5ris, £• a tree 
Arctus, Y. ar^tds, f. the north 
Arduiis-a-um, high, hard 

Argds-i, n. PI. Argi-d-rUm, m. 
Arma-orum, PI. n. arms 

Arpinds-as, of Arplnitm 

Artdxdtd'drum, PI. n. a city 
Artifex-ex-icis, cunning 

Artif-ex-ificis, c. an artist 

Art6cre-as-atis, n. a pasty of 
flesh and bread* 

Antistes-itis, c. 
Anus-US, if. 

a high-priest 
an old woman 

Anxur-Hrts, m. et. n. a city 
Aper, apri, m. a wild boar 

Apex-icis, m. the top, summit 
Apinae-arum, f. foolery 

Apoc6pe-es, f. 

Apollo'ims, m. the god of music 

Apostrophiis-i, m. turning off Auriga-ae, c. 

Apricus-a-um, sunny 

Aquali^-ts, m. a water-pot 

Aquiniim-i, n. a city in Italy 
Ardr-diTis, m. a river of France 
Arbiter- tri, m. a judge 

Arc-as, adis, m. name of a boy 
Archyt-ds, ae, m. a philosopher 
Arctus-a-um, cHose 

Artus-us, m. 

Arviim-i, n. 

Arx, arcis, f. 


Assecla-ae, c. 

As, assis, m. 

Astu, monop. Abl. 

Ater, atra, atriim, 

Athdmds-ntts, m. 

AthemB-w[um,f. PI. 

Athos-i, m. name of a mountain 

Atomus-i, f. an atom 

Atr%des,-dd, m. the son of Atreus 

Auctor-oris, c, an author 

Auceps-ciipis, m. a fowler 

Audax-ax-ax-acTs, bold 

Audiens-ens-enS-ntis, P. hearing 

Augiir-uris, c. a soothsayer 

Aula-ae, f. a hall, a court 

a joint 


a castle 



1 lb. 12 oz. 

by craft 




cutting q^Aulaea-orum, PI. n. a curtain 

Aura-ae, f. 

Auspex-icis, m. 
Autumnus-i, m. 
Auster-tri, m. 

a gentle wind 

a coachman 

a soothsayer 

the autumn 

the south wind 


a bird 

Avis-is, f. 

Avitus-a-iim, left by ancestors, 

Axis-is, m. an axle-tree 

( 169 ) 

a staff 
the name 

a staff 

BACCHAR-ans, n. 

lady^s glove* 
B&culiis-i, m. 
Badrd'Omm, PI. n. 

of a city, 
Baculum-i, n. 

BauB-arum, f. PL city of Baia 
Bal&nus-i, d. stDcet oil 

Balne-se-arum, PL f a hath 

Balneum-i, n. a hath 

Barbarus-a-um, fierce, vnld 
Barbitus-i, d. a lyre 

B£U'bitdn-i, n. a lyre 

Bellaria-orum, PL n, sweetmeats 
Belliger-era-eriim, belligerent 
Belliim-i, n. war, hattle 

Bes, bessis, 8 ounces 

Biblia-oriim, PL ahihle,thebook 
Bibli5p6la-se, m. a hookseller 

the herb Bipes, bipes, bipedis, oftwofeei 
Bicdl-dr-dr-oris, of two colors 
Bigse-arum, PL m* a two horse 

Bilix-ix-ix-iciSy of two plates 
BipennTs-is, f. a pole-axe 

Bombyx-ycis, m. a silk-worm 
B6na-6rum, n. PL goods 

Bos-ovis, c. an ox, bull, or cow 
Bo6t-es-ae, m. a constellation 
Brevia-ium, PL n. the shallows 
Brum^-se, f. winter solstice 

Brutiis-i, m. nams of a man 
Bubo-onTs, d. an owl 

Buris-is, f. a plow-beaih 

Busiris-trtdis, a king of Egypt 
Byssus-i, f. fine flax 

Biithrdtum,-i, n. the name of a 


a quill 

a cup 

a basket 

a spur 

the calends 

CACOETHES, n. indec. an 

evil custom. 

Cadaver-eris, n. a dead body 

CioBr^-rttis, n. the name of a city 

CiBsar-SLiis, m. C<Bsar 

Casdr-es-um, m. PL the CcRsars 

— Caetera, caeterum, the rest 

C^lamus-i, m. 

alix-icis, m. 

Calathus-i, m. 

Calcar-aris, n. 

Calendae-arum, f. 

which were the Jirst day of every 

month ; as, Calend© Januariee, the 

Jirst day of January » The Calends 

were peculiar to the Romans ; the 

Greeks never used them ; hence the 

phrase^ Ad GrsBcas Calendas, at 

the Greek Calends, i. e. never. 

Callis-is, m. a mountain-path 
Calx, calcis, d. the heel 

Calyus,-a-um, bald 

C^melu8-i, d. ' a camel 

Campester-is-e, of a plain field 
Canalis-is, m. a channel 

Canc^-cri, m^ a crab 

Cani-oriim, m. PL grey hairs 
Canis-is, c. a dog, or bitch 

Canopus-i, m. 
Cannabis-is, f. 
Canticum-i, n. 
Carina-se, f. 
Caro, carnis, f. 
Caper-pri, m. 
Capiit-itTs, n. 
Carbasus-i, f. 
Cardo-inis, m. 
CarUdl-Hm-i, n. 
Carm-en-inis, n* 
Cassis-idis, f. 
Cassis-is, m. 

a city in Egypt 

shrill, loud 


a song 

a ked 


a wild goat 

the head 

a sail 

a hinge 


a poem 


a helmet 

a hunter^s net 

Castra-orum, PL n. a camp 
Catena-ae, f. < a chain 

Cathedra-ae-f, a chair 

Caudex-icis, m. a block, stump 
Caulis-is, m. a stalk 

Causa-ae, f. a reason, cause 
Ce\Vk-m, f. a hut, a cellar 

Celeber-bris-bris-bre, famous 

( 170 ) 

Celer-eris-eris-e, swift 

CentauruS'i, f. name of a ship 
Centurio-onis, m. capt. of 100 
CerdsuS'Untis, m. name of a city 
Ceraunia-orum, PI. n. high hills 
Cervix-icis, f. the neck 

Cespes-itis, m. a turf, sod 

Cete, indec. PL n. whales 

C^hBg-i-OTum, PI. the Cethegi 
Chalybs-ybis, m. steel 

Chaos, Abl. chao, n. dipt, chaos 
Charites-um, f. PI. the Graces 
Charitas-tatis, f. charity, love 
Char-ta-tae, f. paper 

Chelae-arum, P. the craVs claws 
Chiron-oms, m. the name of a 

■ Ch6rus-i, m. a company of 

singers, a choir. 
Cibus-i, m. meat 

Cicer-ens, n. a vetch 

Cicuta-ae, f. hemlock 

Cimex-icis, m. a hug 

Cinis-eris, m. ashes 

CtthcBron-dnis, m. a mountain 
Civilis-is-e, civil 

Civis-is, c. a citizen 

Clades-is, f. slaughter 

Claudus-a-um, lame 

Clavis-is, f. a key 

Cliens-ntis, c. a client 

Clunis-is, d. the haunch 

Clym^ne-es, f. mother ofPhceton 
Clypeus,-i, m. a shield 

Compede, Abl. Monop. a chain 
Codrus-i, m. an Athenian king 
Cocles-itis, c. having one eye 
Coccyx-ygis, m. a cuckoo 

Codex-icis, m. a book [letters 
CodiciUi-orum, m. diplomatic 
CcelicSlae-arum, m. pure saints 
Coelites-um, m. saints above 
Coelum-i, n. heaven 

Coetus-us, m. an assembly 

CoJJiS'is, m* a hill 

C6l6nus-i, m. a planter 

Coluber-bn, m. a snake 

Colus-i, vel -lis, d. a distaff 
Calviis-a-um, bald 

Comes-itis, c. ' a companion 
Cometa-ae, m. a comet 

Coma-ae, f. hair 

Comae-arum, PL a head of hair 
Comis-is, affable, mild 

Comp-ar,-ar,-ar,-aris, eqtud 

Compita-orum, PL n. crossway 
Comped-es-um, PL fetters 

Compos-6s-6tis, capable 

Conchylia-orum, PL n. shellfish 
Concilium-i, n. an assembly 
ConsTlium-i, n. advice, counsel 
Concoloi-oloris, of same color 
Congeries-iei, f. a mass 

Conjux-ugis, c. husband or wife 
Consors-rtis, c. a partner 

Consul -ulis, m. an executive 
Roman officer, invested with royal 
authority: his office was to com- 
mand the armies. Two officers 
were elected every year in the Cam- 
pus Martius, called Constdes, a 
constdendo reipubltcse. Q. Junius 
Brutus, and L. Tarquinius CoUa- 
ttnus, were the two first Consuls, 
elected A, (7. C. 244. 



Conviva-ae, c. 

a guest 

Copiae-ariim, PL f. 

Corbis-is, d. 

a basket 

Cor, cordis, n. 

the heart 

Corniis-i, v. -us, f. wild cherry 
Corona-ae, f. a crovm 

Corpus-oris, n. the body 

Cortex-icis, d. the outer bark 
Cos, cotis, f. a whetstone 

Costus-i, f. a spicy herb 

Crastin-us,-S,-iim, of, or be- 

longing to, to-morrow. 
Crater,-eris, a goblet 

Cr^m^rd-a, m. name of a river 
Crepundi^-orum, PL n. a ratUe 

( 171 ) 

Cresy Critis, 
Crumena-se, f. 
Crystallus-i, f. 
Cuciimis-eris, m. 
Cudo-onis, m. a 
which country ? 
Culex-icis, m, 
Cunabula-orum, PI. 
Cunae-arum, f. PI. 
CupidO'ims, m. the 

a Cretan 


a purse 


a cucumber 

leather cap 

of what or 

a gnat 

n. a cradle 

a cradle 

God of love 

DAMA-^, d. a fallow deer, 

buck, or doe. 
Damoet-as-ae, m. name of a 

Danae>es, Danae, the mother 

of Perseus, 
Daphne-e8, f. name of a nymph 
Dapis, G. f. a banquet 

Dapes-um, PI. f. 
DindymuS'i, m. the name of a 

Damd'idis, m. a man's name 
Dea-8e, f. a heathen goddess 
Decemv-ir,-iri, m. a decemvir, 

one of the ten men, having 

the same authority. 
Decimse-arum, f. PI. the tythes 
Dec6rus-a-um, honorable 

Deci-i,'6x\xm, PI. m. the Decii 
Degener-er-eris, degenerate 
DelTcium-ii, n. delight 

Delirus-a-um, doating 

Del6s-i, f. name of an island 
Dens, dentis, m. a tooth 

Delph-i-orum, m. PL the city 

Deses-es-idis, slothful, idle 

Deunx-ncis, m. II oz. 


Dexter-tra-triim, right 

Dic^, Nom. Ac. sing, dicam. 
Dicas, Ace. plur. action at law 

feasts Dignu 

Cupido-inis, f. desire 
Cupressiis-i'US, d* cypress tree 

Cura-8B, f. care, regard 

Curriis-us, m. a wagon 

Custos-odis, c. a keeper 

Ciitis-is, f. the skin 

Cycldd^S'Um, PI. the CycladMs 

Cymba-ae, f. a boat 

Cyprifer-era-um, cypress bear- 

CyttsiiS'i, d. hadder, the Cy- 

tisus tree. 

DiademS.-atTs, n. a crown 

Dialectiis-i, f. a dialect 

Diametriis-i, f. a diameter 

Dicis, Gen. for formes sake 
Dido, Didus, vel Dido-onis 
Dido, the queen of Carthage. 
DTes-iei, d. PI. hi dies, a day 
Diflficilis-Ts-e, difficult 

s-a-um, worthy 

Dindymd-dritm, PI. n. moun- 
DidmedeS'ia, m. a Greek gens- 

Diphthongiis-i, f. a diphthong 
Dirae-arum, f. PI. curses 

Dis, Ditis, Pluto, the god of 

Discdldr-6r-6ris, discolored 

Disp-ar,-ar,-ar,-aris, uneven^ 

Dissimilis-is-e, unlike 

[)istTchdn-i, n. a distich 

J)iutinus-a-iim, long 

Dives-es, divitis, rich 

Divitiae-ariim, f. PI. riches 

Docens-ntis, Part. teaching 
Dodrans-ntis, m. 9 oz, 

Dogma-atis, n. an opinion 

Dos, -dotis, f. a portion 

Drus-i-orum, PI. the Drusi 

Drydd^s-ixm, f. PL teood- 


( 172 ) 

Dumus-i, d* 

a bramble 

EBUR-ORIS, n. ivory 

Ehoracum, n. the city of York 
EcbcUdnd-oruniy n. the name 

of a city, 
JSdinburg'Um-i, n. Edinburgh 
Egenus-a-um, needy 

Elephas-ntis, m. an elephant 
EHezer, indec. m Eliezer 

Elysiiim-ii, d. paradise 

Enceladus-i, m. name (fa giant 
Endromis-idis, f. a great coat 
Ensis-is, m. a sword 

Epigramm-a-tis, n. an epigram 
Epulum-i, n. a feast 

Equa-se, f. a mare 

Eques-itis, c. a horseman 

Equester-tns-tris-tre, of horse 

FABER-BRI, m. a wright 
Fabi'i-orum, PL the Fabii 

Facetiis-a-iim, witty, pleasant 
FacetiaB-arum, PI. f. witticisms 
Facilis-is-e, easy 

Facinus-dris, n. an exploit 

Fas, Nom. Ace. rigJU 

Fastus-uum, PI. m. haughtiness 
Facultates-um, PJ. f. chattels 
Familiaris-is, m. a friend 

Familiaris,-is-e, social 

Famula-ae, f. a maid servant 
Far, farris, n. all kinds of corn 
Fascis-is, m. ^ faggot 

Fasti-oriiin, m. PI. public records 
Fauce, A bl. f. (PI. fauces) the jaw 
Febris,-is, f. a fever, an ague 
Feriae-ariim, f. PI. holy-days 
Ferox-6x-6x-6cis, fierce 

Ficus-i, vel -us, f. a fig-tree 
Fides-ei, f. faith, confidence 
Figura-ae, f. shape, figure 

FilH-ae, f. a daughter 

Filius-ii, m. a son 

FlmS'is, d* an tmd 

Diiumvir-iri, m. one of 2 officers 
Dux, ducis, c. a leader, captain 

Eremus-i, f. tJie wilderness • 

Eryx-ycia, m. a mountain 

Erysipel^s-atis, n. St» An- 

Essediim-i, n. a chariot 

Eum^nid^s-dum, f. the furies 
Eurot-ds-icBf m. name of a river 
Excubiae-aruin, f. a watch 

ExeqtiiaB-arum, f. funeral rites 
Exiguus,-a-um, small 

Exilis-is-e, slender, smaU 

Exlex-egis, c. a lawless person 
Exodus-i, f. a departure 

Exta-orum, n. PL the entrails 
ExuLiilis, c. an exile 

Exuvise-arum, f. clothes put 


Fines-ium, PL m. frontiers 
Flabra-orum, PL n. blaMs of wind 
Flamen-inis, m. anarch-priest 
Flamen-mis, n. a blast of wind 
Flos-oris, m. a flower, blossom 
Flumen-inis, n. a river 

Fluviiis-ii, m. a river 

FollTs-is, m. a pair of bellows- 
Fomes-itis, m. fuel, tinder 

Fons, fontis, m. a fountain 
F6res, PL (caret Gen.) a door 
Fdri-drum, m. a ship^s hatches 
Formica-ae, f. an ant 

Fornix-icis, m. an arch, vauU 
Fortis-is-e, brave 

Fortunse-arum, f. PL an estate. 
Fraus-audis, f* deceit, fraud 
Fraenum-i, n. a bridle 

Fru-ges-gum, f. PL com,frwt 
Frugi, mon. frugal, provident 
Frugis, G. (caret N.) com,fruU 
Frusin-o-nts, m. name of a town 
Frutex-icis, m. a shrub 

Fungiis-i, m* a mushroom 

Fvmus-errs, n. death, a funeral 

( 173 ) 

Fur, furis, c. 
Furfur-uris, m. 
Furfures-um, PI. m. 
the head. 

a thief 


scales of 

Furi8B-arum, f. the furies 

Fustis-Is, m. a dub, a cudgel 

GABII-ORUM, m. a cUy of 

the Volsci. 
Gad^s-tum, PL f. the island of 

Gddir^ indec. n. name of a city 
Ganeo-onis, m. ruffian 

Ganges,'is, m. a river in the 

East Indies. 
Gehenna-ae, f. 
Gemma-aB, f. 
Gener-eri, m. 


a jewel 

a son-in-law 

Genius-ii, m. a spirit, a demon, 
• which, according to the an- 
cients, presided over the birth 
and life of every man, 
Gerrae-arum, PI. f. idle toys 
GTgas-ntis, m. a giant 

Gingiber-eris, n. ginger 

Glaber-ra-um, smooth, bald 
Glis, gliris, m. 
Gluten-inis, n. 

Glycerium-ii, f. name of a too 

a dormouse 

Gobio-o-onis, m. gudgeon (fsh) 
Gorgon-6nis, f. a Gorgon 

Gorgon cs, Gorgonum, the three 
daughters of Phorcas, Me- 
dusa, Stheno, and Euryale. 
Gracch-i-6rum, PI. the Gracchi 
Gradiis-us, m. a step, a degree 
Grando-mis, f. haU 

Grates, f. Nom. Ace. PI. thanks 
GratiS-ae, f. favor, grace 

Gratus-a-ura. thankful 

Grex, gregis, m. flock of sheep 
Grossus-i, d. a green fig 

Grus, gruis, d. a crane 

Grypsj-yphis, m. a griffin 

Gula-ae, f. gluttony 

Gurges-itis, m. a gulf 

Gustus-us, m. the taste 

Gygis-icB, m. a mighty giant 
Gymnasium-ii, n. a college 
Gypsum-i, n. white plaister 
Gyrus-i, m. a circle, a ring 

HALUS-I, f. comfrey 

Haeres-edis, c. an heir 

Heeresis-is, f. heresy 

Halec-ccis, f. & n. a herring 
Harpyia-ae, f. a ravenous bird 
Hastd-BB, f. a spear 

Hostile-is, n. -a spear-staff 

Hebes-es-etis, blockish 

Hebron-6nis,f. the name of a city 
Hebrus-i, m. a river of Thrace 
Hepar, hepatis, n. the liver 
Heraclitiis-i, m, HeraclUus 
Hierdsdlymd-ortan^ n. JerU' 

Hil^ris-is-^, cheerftdj merry 
Hippdman^s, ind. rank poison 
Hispal-&h8, n, a city of Spain 

Histrix-Tcis, d. a porcupine 
Hdmicid&-8e, c* a manslayer 
H6mo-inYs, c. a man, a woman 
Hdnor, V. honds-oris, m. honor 

Hospes-itis, c. 
Hospes-itis, c. 
Hostis-is, c. 
Humus-i, f. 

a landlord 

a guest 


an enemy 


the ground 

Hy^des-dum, PL f. the 7 stars 
Hyberna-orum, winter quarters 
Hyems-18, f. winter 

Hydrops-opis, m. the dropsy 
Hylds-Bd, m, a boy beloved by 

HistriO'ODiB, m. a «toge-pZayer\H§m^n-\T&<B)m« god. oj i»o.wa4 

( 174 ) 

ICON -dn 18, f. an image 

Idus-iiiim, f. tJie ides of a month, 
ike 15th day of March, May, 
July, October; but the l^h 
of any other month, 
lESUS, sent to save^ Savioub 
Ignar-us-^-iim, ignorant 

Ignis-is, m. fre 

IU&-iuin, n. PL the entrails 
nidn-Uj n. (raro fern.) Troy 
Uliturgi, inaec. name of a city 
Imago-inis, f. an image 

Imber-bris, m. a shower 

Imbrex-icis, d. a roof tile 

Imp-ar-ar-ar-aris, uneven 

Impetis, m. 6. Abl. 

Incola-se, c- 
Incus-udis, £• 
Index-icis, c. 
Indigena-8B, c. 





not ripe 

an inhabitant 

an anvU 

an informer 

a native 

Indigetes-iim, m. deified men 




a disposition 

an infant 

nduci8B-arum, f. 
nddles-is, f. 
nfans-ntis, c. 

nferise-arum,Pl. n.fiineral rites 
nferi-orum, m. PL shades bdow 
nficias, Ace. PL a demtd 

nfldus-a-um, unfcdthfid 

the groin 




an island 


v/ y^ sj 

nguen-inis, n. 



nquTes, mon. 

nsidi8B-arum, f. 

nsons, insons, 

nsula-ae, f. 


nterpres-etis, c. an interpreter 

ntercus, intercus, -litis, secrti 

ntestina-orum, PL n entrails 

ra-ae, f. anger 

IsmdrtiS'i, m. a mountain 

Ismd-rd-rorum, PL n. fiumn- 

tains of Thrace, 
Iter-itineris, n. a journey 

JANUA- JE, a gate 

Jub^r-aris, n. a sunbeam 

J6cus-i, m. (P. jdci et j6ca) a joke 
Judex-icis, c. a judge 

Jug^-orum, PL n. mountain-tops 

Jupiter, Jdvts, m. Jupiter 

Justa-orum, PI. n. funeral ritet 
Juvenilis-is-e, youthful 

Juvenis-is, c. a youths young 
Jiiventus-utis, f. youth 

ElalendiB arum, PL (same as Calendae,) thfi Kalends of a numth 

LABOR, et l&bos-oris, m. la- 
Lac, lactis, n. 
Lactes-ium, PL f. 
Lacus-us, m. 

Lagopus-odis, f. a kind of bird 
Lamenta-orum, PL n. lamenta- 
Lanista-8B, c. a fencing-master 
LsBtus-ai-um, joyful 



a tear 

small guts 

a lake 

Lapis-idis, m. a stone 

Laquear-aris, n, arched ceUing 

Larix icis, d. 
Lacer-eris, n. 
Latex-icis, m. 
Laurus-i, us, f. 
Laus, laudTs, f. 

the larch-tree 

a kind of gum 

liquor, wine 

a laurd 


Lautia<6rum, PL n. provisions 

for ambassadors, 
Laver-eris, n. water-parsley 
Lednd^r-dri, m. name of a man 
VLeV^e^-eVA^^ \sv« a ketde 

( iw ) 

L^mures-um, PI. m. hobgoblins 
Lens-ntis, f. a kind of puUe 

Lepus-dris, m. 
Ij€t7i€'es, f. 
Leucates-sd, m. 
Levir-iri, m. 

a hare 

the river Lethe 

a mountain 

a wife's brother 


Levis-is-e, {also laevis) smooth 
Lex, legis, f. a laio 

lAb^r'eri, m. name of Bacchus 
Liber, libri, m. a book, the rind 
Liber-era-erum, jree 

Liberi-oriim, PL m. children 
Libertas-atis, f. 

Liberta-ae, f. a freed maid 

Libertiis-i, m. a freed man 
Lienis, r>el lien-enis, m. the milt 
Ligo-onis, m. a spade 

Limax-acis, d. a snail 

Lingu&-8e, f. a tongue 

Linter-tris, d. a small boat 

Lis, litis, f. contenHon 

LLters-ajrum, PL f. an epistle 
Lixa-se, c. a scullion 

L5cuples-es-etis, rich 

Ldcus-i, m. PL 16ci, et 16c&, a 

LotuS'i, m. tJte late4ree 

Londin-Hm-i, n. London 

Luceres-um, PL m. part of the 

Roman people, 
Ludi-orum, PL m. public games 
liberty Lugdun^Hm-ij n. dty of Lyons 
Lustrum-i, n. space of 5 years 
Lustra-oriim, n. evil haunts 
Luxils-us, m. profuseness 

Lycyd-as-se, n. name of a shep* 


Limes-itis, m. a boundaryiLynx-ycis, d. a spotted beast 

Machina-ae, f. an engine 

McBdndir, m. a crooked river 
Magalia-ium, PL n. Numidian 

Magnes-etis, m. 

Maj6res-um, m. 
Malum-i, n. 
Malum-i, n. 
Malus,-i, f. 
Mango-onis, m. 
Manes-ium, to, 
Maniis-us, f. 
Margo-inis, m. 
Maritus-i, m. 
Marm6r.6ris, n. 
M&re-is, n. 


a loadstone 



an apple 

an apple-tree 

the jaw 

a slave-seller 

a ghost, crime 

the hand 

the edge 

a husband 


the sea 

Martius-\i,m, the month March 
Martyr-yns, a witness 

Mas, m^ris, m. a male, a man 
Matrdn&-ae, f. a wife, a Iddij 

Mel, mellis, n. honey 

Meledg^r-gri, m. a man's name 



a beggar 

the mind 

a month 


Melos, n. indec* 
Memdr-dris, m. 
Mendicus-i, m. 
Mens-ntis, f. 
Mensis-is, m. 
Meridies-iei, m. 
Merops-opis, m. a wood-pecker 
Messald-Bd, m. name of a man 
Meth5dus-i, f. a method 

Metiis-us, m. dread 

Miles-itis, c. a soldier 

M^ndlcds-fB, name of a shepherd 
MinturniB,-drum, PL f. a city 
Minse-arum, f. threats 

Minister-tri, m. a servant 

Minores-iim, PL m. posterity 
Min-6s-ais, m. one of the three 

infernal judges. 
Mirus-IL-tim, wonderfid 

MTser-er^-erum, loreCcAed 

Mairdnd^, f. a river in France^^x^A^iass^^^ ^ 

MatutiDuS'&'Um, the mormn^<xSih:\%^ xi. «^ '«^*'*^ 

M6nit6r-drT8, m. 
Mons-ntis, m. 
Mds, moris, bi. 
M6res,-um, m. 
Morid-onis, m. 
Mugilis-is, m. 
Mula-ae, f. 
Mulciber-eviy m. 

( 176 ) 

an cK2vi«er;Munditi8e-anim, PI. f. neatneu 
a mountain Munia-orum, PI. n. offices 

a ctistomManicepS'icipis^m* a free citizen 

a shdUfisk 

a noise 

a mouse 

a song^ muse 

the city of 

moraZ« Murex-icis, m. 
an icfio^, Murmiir-uris, n. 
a mullet Mu8, muris, m. 
a she-mule Mxia^-Bd, 

Vulcan^ Mycin-cB-aiTum^ f. 
Muli-er-eris, f. a woman^ a wife Agamemnon and Menelaus. 
Multitia-orum, PI. n. taffety Myrica-ae, f. the tamarisk4ree 

NAR, naris, m. 

Nard-us-i, f. 
Nasicd'tBf m. 
Nata-a3, f. 
Natalis-is, m. 

name of a man 
a daughter 
a hirih'day 

Natales-ium, PI. m. parentage 
Natio-onis, f. a nation 

Natrix-icis, m. a water'Sndke 
NavTs-is, f. a ship 

Nectar-iiris, n. the drink of the 

heathen gods. 
Nauci, Gen. 
Nemo-mis, c. 

a river q/*Nix, nivis, f. snow 

Nihilum-i, n. nothing 

Nomen-Tnis, n. a name 

NonsB-ariim, f. the nones of a 
months i. e. the 1th day of March, 
May, July, October; but the fifth 
day of the other months; as, Nona 
Octobres, Ith of October; but Non» 
JanUarise, 5th of January* 
Noster-tra-trum, our^ our ovm 
Nostr-as-as-as, G. nostratis. 
Nota-aB, f. a mark, note 

Noverca-ae, f. a step-mother 
a nut-sheU'N ox, noctis, f. tJie night 

no oweJNoxa-aB, f. mischief, hurt, guiU 

Nepenthes, n, the herb kill-grief iNugud-srum, f. PI. trifles 

Nequam, indec. idle, naughty\N uiliis-di-um, G. nullius, none 
Ner%ne-es,f <Ae c?awgA/erq/'Numerus,-i, m. number 

Neu-ter-tra-trum, G. neutrius 

NundinsB-ariim, f. PI. . a fair 
Nuptiae-arum, a wedding 

Niger, nigra, nigrum, WacA;lNiiriis-us, f. a daughter-indaw 

OBEX-icis, d. a bolt 

Obses-Ydls, c. a host 

Occiput-ltpitis, n. the hind head 
Oledst^r-tri, m. a wild olive 
Olor-oris, m. a swan 

Omn-is-is-e, every, all 

Opacus-a-um, dark, shady 

Opera-ae, f. a man-slave. Hor. 
Opera-ae, f. endeavor, labor 
Opifex-icTs, c. a mechanic 

Opis, G. A. opem, Ab. 6pe, help 
Opes-iim, PI. f. ricJies, wealth 
Opimiis-a-um, rich 

pidum-i, n* 

Opiis-eris, n. a work 

Opus, indec. need, necessity 
Opus, adj. indec. need, needful 
Opus-untis, m. a city of Locris 
Ora-aB, f. a border, coast 

OrbTs-is, m. the world, a circle 
Ordo-inis, m. order 

Orgia-oriim, PI. n. orgies of 

Ornithoboscion-ii, n. a hencoop 
Oryx-ycis, m a toild goat 

Os, oris, n. the mouth 

Os, dssis, n. a bone 

a tot(m\Oxomum-\^Ti. 


( irr ) 

Piper-ens, n. 

PALM £S-Ttis, m. a vine-^jMOtj 

the bough of a tree* 
Palumbes-is, d. a ring-dove 
Palus-udis, f. a marsh, fen 

Paluster-tris-tris-tre, of a marsh 
Panaces, indec. n. herb alUheal 
Pandoch-edn-ei, n. an inn 

Panis-is, m. bread 

Papaver-eris, n. the poppy 

Papyrus-i, f. paper 

Par, par, par, G. pans, equal 
Par, paris, n. a match 

Parens-ntis, c. a parent 

Paries-ietis, m. a wa/ZjPiscis-is, m. 

Pdr-is,-idis, m. the son of Priam Pius-a-um 
Pars, partis, f. a part 

Partes-iiim, PL f, party, faction 
Partus-us, m. a birth 

Pascha-ae, n. Easter, Passover 
Pascha-atis, n. the Passover 
Pascua-orum, n. PI. a pasture 
Pater, patris, m. a father 

Patruelis-Ts, c. a cousin 

Pauper-er-eris, poor 

Peculium-ii, n. private wealth 
Pecudis, G. (peciis, obsol.) cattle 
Pecus-oris, n. cattle 

Pedes-itTs, c. a footman 

Pedester-tris-tris-e, of the foot 
Pelagus-i, n. the sea 

Peltdn-ii, n. raro m. a high hill 
Pelvis-is, f. a basin for feet 
Penates-ium, m. household gods 
Penus.i-us-6ris, m. f. n. food 
PentMstlea-aB, f. a queen^s name 
Penildpe-es, f. ivife of Ulysses 
Perdix-icis, d. a partridge 

Peregrinus-a-um, foreign 



swift, quick 

a foot 

Pergam'US'i, PL a city of JVoy 
PhcBaX'kcis, m. a PTuBocian 
Phalerse-arum, PL f. trappings 
Pharus-i, f. a watch4ower 

Phaselils-i. d. a galley 

Philoctites-CB, a Grecian chief 
Phoenix-icis, m. a Phcenician 
Phorbds-ntts, m. name of a man 
Piger, pigra, pigrum, stiff 

Phryx, Phrygis, m. a Phrygian 
Pincerna-ae, c. a baker 

Pinus-us, et pini, f. a pine4ree 




Pes, pedis, m. 



a fish 
holy, godly 
nets, toils 
a planet 

Plagae-arum, PL f. 
Planeta-se, m. 

Plerique-eeque-aque, G. -orum 
Poema-atis, n. a poem 

Poeta-ae, m. a poet 

Politia, ae, f. polity, citizenship 
Pollen-inis, n. fine fiour 

Pollex-icTs, m. the ihumh 

Pollis-inis, m. fine fiour 

Pdlymestor-oiis, m. a king 

Pondo, AbL m. a pound weight 
Pons, pontis, m. a bridge 

PontuS'i, m. a country of Asia 
Poples-itis, m. tJie ham of the leg 
Popiilus-i, m. the people 

Populus-i, £• a poplar tree 

Porticus, f. a porch 

Portus-us, m. a harbor 

Posteri-orum, PL m. posterity 
P6stis-Ts, m. a post 

PotTs, pdtis, monoptote, able 
Praecordia-orum, PL n. midriff 
Praemium-ii, n, a reward 

Praeneste, -is, n. a city of Italy 
Praes, praedis, c. 
the pZague\PTB&se«-\d\^^ f^. 

bail, a surd:y 

( 178 ) 

a prelate Pudic-us-a-um» 
Piiell-^-8B, f. 

Praesul-ulis, c. 

Presbyter-eri, m. an elder 

Primitiae-arum, f. PI. first fruits 
Princeps-cipis, c. a cAieflPugil-ilis, c 

Princ-eps-ipis, c. first, cAief Pugio-onis, m. 
Principia-orum, PL n. the centre 

of an army, 
Pr6ceres-um, PL m. ike nobles 

Prudens-ns-ns,-ntis, wue 

Prodig-us-a-um, lavish 

Prostibulum-i, n. a prostitute 
Puber, vel pubes-erTs, m. ve/, f. 


a girl 


a boxer 

a dagger 

Pulcher-chra-chrum, fair 

Pulex-icis, m. a flea, a gnat 

Pulvis-eris, d. dust 

tall Pumex-icis, d. a pumice'Stone 

Puppis-is, f. the stem of a ship 

Puteus«i, m. a well 

PythdgdraS'ddyVDi. the name of a 



Q,uadrigse-arum, PL f. a chariot 
Q,uaestio-onis, f. a question 

Quaestus-us, f. gain, profit Quinque 

Quaestor-oris, m. ' a paymaster 
Quercus-us, f. an oak-tree 

Questus-us, m. a complaint 

Querela-8B, a complaint 

Qui-ris-ritis, m* a Roman citi- 
Quincunx-uDc!s, m. 5 oz, 

vir-viri, m. an officer 
Quiris-itTs, m. a Roman 

Quirites-iiin, m. Roman citizens 
Quot, indec. how many 

RABULA-iE} c. a brawler 
Ramex-icis, m. a rupture 

Rastrum-i, n. PL rastra, a rake 
Ravis, is, f. hoarseness 

Reate, is, n. the name of a city 
ttect5r-6rist m. a governor 

Redux-ux-jfeis, returned 

Remex-igis, m. a rower 

Ren, renis, m. the kidney 

RepQt)(&«Orum, PL n. a 


Reses-^s-idis, lazy, at ease 

Res5nus-S.-um, re-echoing 

Respublic^, reipublicse, f. the 

RhamnuS'i, m. white bramble 
Restis-is, f. a rope 

Rex, regis, m. ^ a 

toedding Riibi 

Rltus-us, m. 
Rivalis-is, m. 
Rhdddpe-es, f. 
Robiir-ons, n. 
Rcmd'Sd, f. 
Rostrum-i, n. 

a nte, ceremony 
a rival 
a mountain 
an oak'tree 
a funeral pile 
the city of Rome 
a bill or beak 
R6stra>orum, PL n. a pulpit 
Ruber-bra-brum, red 

i-6rum,m. PL the city Rubi 
RubuS'i, d. a bramble 

Rudens-ntis, m. a cable, rope 
Rudis-is, f. a gladiator*s rod 
Riidis-is-e, ignorant 

Rupes-is, f. a rock 

Ruricdla-ae, c* a liver in country 
Rus, ruris, n* the country 

icus-i, a countryman 

king Rust 

SACERDOS^otis, c. a priest, 

or priestess. 
Bao^r, 8acjr&, sacruniy sacred 

Sacr^-orum, PL n. holy things 
Sal, s&lis, m. and n. saU 

Sal&r, sal&ris, m. a salmon 

( 179 ) 






Sitis-is, f. 
Sdcer-eri, m/- 
Socrus-us, f. 
S5dalis-is, c. 
Sol, solis, m. 

Salebrse-arum, f. PL had roads 

Sales-ium, PI. repartees 

Salina;-arum, PL f. 


SalQs-utis, f. 


Saliva-ae, f. 

Sandix-dicis, m. a kind of red 

Sanguis-uinis, m. blood 

Sapiens-ns-ntis, icise Sorex-icis, m. 

Sason-oms, m. name of an island 

Satelles-itis, m. a life-guard 


Scalae-arum, PL f. 

Scortum-i, n. 

Scriba-3B, m. 

thirsty drought 


a father-in-law 

a mother-in-law 

> a companion 

the sun 


Solus-a-um, 6. sollus, alone 
Sordct^-isy n. name of a city 

a rat 
a sister 
a scarlet color 

a scribe 
Scrobs-obls, d. a ditch 

Scatebrae-arum, PL f. a spring 
Scruta-orum, PI, n. old clothes 

a buffoon 

an axe 

a seat 


an old man 

old age 

Scurra-aB, m. 

Sgcuris-is, f, 

Sedile-is, n, 

6ementis-is, f. 

Senex, senis, c. 

Senectus-utis, f. 

Senatus-us, tJie Roman senate 

Sentis-is, m. a thorn 

Seps, sepis, m. 

Serpen s-ntis, d. 

Serta-orum, PL n. 

Servitium-ii, n. 

Servitus-utis, f. 

Sextans-ntis, m. 


Stler-^rts, n. 

Silex-icis, c. 


Simplex-ex-ex-icis, single 

Sinciput-ipiti9, n. the forehead 

Sindon-dnis, f. fine linen 

Sinister-tra-trum, on the left 

Smiis-us, m. the hosom^ a bay 

Sir-en-enis, f. a mermaid 

Biser-eris, n. a parsnip 

»oror-oris, f. 


full Spadix-icis, m. 

a ladder Speciis-ci-us-6ris, m. f. n. a den 

a harlot Spes, spei, f. hope^ expectation 

Spinther-eris, n. a buckle 

Spiniis-i, n. a black thorn 

Spiritus-us, m. a spirit 

Sponsalia-orum, PL n. espousals 

Sponsus-i, m. a bridegroom 

Spontis, G. Ab. sponte, f. of his 

own accord* 
Stamen-Tnis, n. a thread 

Stemma-atis, n. a crown 

Stern-ax-ax-az-acis, stumbling 
Stipes-itTs, m. a stakcy dub 
Stirps, stirpis, d. a race, stock 
Strigilis-ilis, f. 
Styx-ygis, {, 
Suber-^ris, n. 
Subscus-udis, f. 

a serpent 

a serpent 


a slave 


2oz,or6 part 


an osier 

a flint stone 


stout, brave 


the river Styx 


a cork-tree 

a dove-tail 

Sulmo-oniSyTa, thetofunof Ovid 
Siipellex-ctilis, f. furniture 
Supellectili^-ium, PL n. goods 
Siiperi-orum, PL the gods above 
Sus, silis, c. a sow, swine 

Symbolum,-!, n. a token 

Syn5dus-i, f. an assembly 

Sylva-ae, f, a wood, forest 

Sylvester-triis-tris-trS, of wood 


( 180 ) 

TAPES-etis, m. 
TalplL-ffi, d. 
Tellus-uris, f. 
Tegens-ns-ntis, Part. 
Tempestas-atis, f. 

Tdrns-ig, m. a firebrand 

Totus-^-um, G. -lus, whohy all 

a mole 

the earth 

a storm 
Temp6ra-iim, PI. n. the temples Transfug3.-aB, c. 
Tendo-mis, m. a tendon Tribunal-alis, n. 

Tenebrae-arum, PI. darkness Tribuniis-i, m. 
Teniiis-is-e, fine, slender Tribus-us, f. 

the back 

Trabs-^bis, f. 
Tragoedia-ae, f. 
Trames-itis, m. 

Tergum-i, n. 

Teres-es-etis, round, taper 

Termes-itis, m. bough of a tree 
Ternio-onis, m. the number 3 
Testis-is, c. a witness 

Teter-tra-trum, foul, nasty 
Tesqua-orum, n. PI. roughplaces 
Teuc^r-cri, m. brother of Ajax 
Thalia-m, f. one of the Muses 
ThebcB-drum, f. the city Thebes 
Fhermae-arum, f. warm baths 
Fhorax-acis, m. a breast-plate 
Fhrax-acis, m. a Thracian 

rhus-uris, n. frankincense 

ThydS'dts, f. a certain priestess 
Tiara, tiarae, f. ' ' a crown 

THbur-Uris, n. a town of Italy 
Tigris-dis, v. iigris, a tiger 
Tiro-onis, m. a beginner 

T6ga-aB, f. a gown 

Torquis-is, d. a neck chain 
Torrens-ntis, m. a land-flood 

UBER^r^Sr^, fruUfut 

Uber-ub^iSi,' n. a dug 

UUus-^-um, Gen. ullius, any 
Uncia-ae, f. an ounce 

Unguen-inis, n. ointment 

Unguis-is, m. a marCs nail 

Ungiila-ae, f. hoof of a beast 
Unus-a-um, G. unius, one 

Ull-iis-a-um, G. ullius, Dat. 
ulli, any one 

a beam 

a tragedy 

a cross path 

a deserter 

a tribunal 

a tribune 

a tribe 


TricaB-ariiin, PI. f. 
Tigns-dis, v. Tigris, a river 
Tric6rp5r-dr-6ris, 3 bodied 

Tri-dens-dentis, m. a trident 
Triens-ntis, m. 3 ounces 

Triumvir-iri, m. a triumvir 
Trillx-ix-Ix-icTs, of 3 threads , 
Trcjd-<B, f. the city of Troy 

Trojugena-ae, born in Troy 

Tuber-eris, n. 
Tud^r-^ris, n. 
Tudes-is, m. 
Tullius-u, n. 

a mushroom 
name of a city 
a hammer 
the great Ro' 

man orator, called in full, 
Marcus Tullius Cicero: he 
was one of the best of men. 

Turris-is, f. 
Turtiir-uris, m. 
Tusculum-i, n. 
Tussis-is, f. 
Tutela-ae, f. 

a tower 

a turtle-dove 

a city of Italy 

a cough 


Urbs, urbis, f. a city 

Titer, utra, utrum, whether 7 
Uterlibet u-tralibet-trumlibet, 
Utriuslibet Gen. utrilibet D. 
U-terque, utraque, utrumque, 
Utriusque Gen. utrique D. 
U-tervis -travis- -trumvis, G. 
Utriusvis, D. utrivis 

Util-is-is-je, useful 

Uxor-oris, f. a wife 

VACU-US-H-iim, «mj>fy|Valli8-is, f. 

Vk-fer-fra-fruuif cunning, crqf-l Vannua-i, f. 

a valley 
a corn-fan 

( 181 ) 

Vaa, vadis, m. a surely, hail 
Vas, vasis, n. a vessel 

Vates-is, c. a prophet, poet 

Valvae-arum, PL f. folding doors 
Vecors-rs-rs, vecordis, mad 
Vectigal-alis, n. tax, revenue 
Vectis-is, m. a door-holt 

Vei'i-drum, m. PL the city Veil 
Venenum-i, n. poison 

Vepres-is, m. a hramhle 

Ver, veris, n. the spring 

Verberis, G. A. verbere, n. stripe 
Verbum-i, n. a word 

VermTs-is, m. a worm 

Verres-is, m. a hoar pig 

Vertex-icTs, m. top of the head 
Vervex-ecTs, m. a wether 

Versicol-6r-6r-6ris, changing 

Vester-tra-trum, your own 

Vestras-as-atTs, of your country 
Vetus-us-us-eris, ancient, old 
Vigil, vigilis, c. 
Vigil, vigilis, 
Vigili-ae-arum, PL 


a watchman 



Villicus-i, m. a steward 

Vinculum-i, n. a cJuiin 

Vin-dex-icis, c. a revenger 
Vindex-ex-icis, revenging 

VindtctcB-driim, PL f. revenge 
Vir, viri, m. a man 

Virilis-is-e, of a man, manly 
VirgtltiiS'U, m. the hest epicpoei 
Vis, Ac. vim. Abl. vi, violence^ 

Vires-ium, PL f. 
Virtus-utis, f. 
Virus-i, n. 
Viscera-um, PL n. 
Vitium-11, n. 
Voluptas-atis, f. 
Volvox-ocis, m. 
V olu-cer-cris,-cre, 
Volucris-is, f. 
Vomis-eris, m. a plow-share 
Vortex-icis, m. a whirlpool 
Vulgaris-is-e, common, vulgar 
Vulgus-i, m. and n. the rahhle 
Vultur-uris, m. a vulture 

Vultus-us, m. ike countenance 




the howeU 



a vine-vjorm 

. stcift 

a htrd 

king of Persia* 

a foppish Zephyrus-zephyri, m. the toeH 
wind, * 


Of the first Conjugation, which are conjugated like 

Am6, amare, amavi, amatQin. 

iESTIMO, to esteem 

Aggero, to heap up 
Animo, to encourage, animate 

Appello, to speak to, to call 

Approbo, to approve 

Aro, to plow, till, dig 

ArrdgOy to claim, challenge 







B^o, to blessj to make ^ppi;\CoiiciX\0) 

to chastise 

to hide, to conceal 

to strain 

to rouse^ 

to call together 

to com'qare 

to gawi«»V> c«f«^''* 

I • 

( 182 ) 


































io approve 

to change 

io place together 

to couple 

to blame 

to crovm 

to remove 

to suit 

to take carey regard 

to disgrace 

to decline 

to appoint 

to depart 

to denote 

to lessen^ to derogate 

to intendy design 

to despair 

to devour 

to bestow 

to educate 

to enrage 

to turn out of doors 

to extricate 

to tirCy fatigue 

to prosper 

to dread 

to put to flighty rout 

to found 

to burden 

to burden much 

to burden much 

to honor 

to command 

JudicoiJ*^ ' to judge, determine 


Imp^trp, ' ' to obtain by prayer 

Indico, to selly show 

Inspico, to sharpen 

Instigo, to instigate 

Irnto, to stir up 

Laudo, to commend, praise 

Laboro, to labor 









































to lighten 

to ddegatCy appoint 

to place, locate 

to purify 

to disjoint 

to command 

to soften 

to change 

to change much 

to deny 

to marky note 

to make new, repair 

to change old customs 

to bare, make naked 

to lock 

to unlock 

to commit 

to pacify, appease 

to approve 

to think 

to prune, to cut off 

to ascribe 

to strike, knock 

to rob, deprive 

to rout, put to flight 

to ask, to interrogate 

to bestow 

to strengthen 

to salute 

to salute again 

to cure, to heal 

to hiss, to whistle 

to hope, to expect 

to cover, hide, veil 

to uncover, reveal 

to claim, to challenge 

to revenge, avenge 

to break a command 

to strike, to heat 

to disquiet 

( 188 ) 


Stent amor flectes hax dqHmentia primcB. 
AmOr, amari, amatus sum. 

All these Deponent Verbs are conjugated like Amar^ 

AFFOR, to speak to^ address 
Amplex5r, to embrace 

Ancillor, to serve as a maid 
Aspernor, to despise 

Assentor, to agree 

Aduldr, to flatter 

Adversor, to oppose, thwart 
Ampullor, to swell like a bottle 
Argumentor, to reason, dispute 
Aucupor, to go a fowling 

Auguror, to conjecture 

Arbitror, to think, to judge 
Abominor, to detest, abhor 

^mulor, to rival 

Auspicor, to begin a thing after 

mature deliberation, 
Auxilior, to help, to aid 

Aversor, . ^ to turn from 
Aquor, to water, to fetch water 
Bacchor, to riot, to frolic 

Causor, to excuse, to form ex 

Commmor, to threaten 

Commissor, to riot 

Criminor, to Ojccuse 

Conor, to endeavor, attempt 
Conjflfctor, to engage 

Cunctdr, to stay, to linger 

Concionor, to make a speech 
Conspicor, to behold, to see 
Contemplor, to behold, view 
ConvTvor, to feast, to revel 

Convitior, to taunt, to revile 
Consilior, to give advice 

Calumnior, to slander 

Diversor, to lodge at an inn 

D5minor, to rule over, to domi^ 

Epulor, to feast, to banquet 
Efibr, to speak out, to declare 
Execror, to curse, to execrate 
Famulor, to attend, wait on 
Furor, to steed, to pilfer 

Fcrior, to keep holyday, play 
Graecor, to play the Gre^ 

Gratulor, to congratulate 

Gratificor, to do a good turn 
Grator, to gratulate, wish joy 
Grassor, to march, to enter vio- 

Glorior, to boast, to vaunt 

Hortor, to admonish, to advise 
dehortor, to dissuade 

Halliicinor, to stammer, stagger 
Imagindr, to imagine 

Insidior, to lie in ambush 

Imitor, to imitate, resemMe 
Imprecor, to pray against, tm- 

Indignor, to rage^ to behave 

Intcrpr^tor, to Irtfiulafe, to 

J6cor, to jesty to joke 

Jurgor, to rail, to brawl 

L^mentor, to lament 

Jjo^tor, to rejoice, cheer 

liendcin5r, to entice, to decoy 
Lucror, to make gain, to gain 
Luctor, to struggle, wrestle 
reluctor, to struggle back 

Mddulor, to play a tune 


f •■ 





















( 184 ) 

to huy^xxoTi to quarrel 

to study ^ mec^t^ate'Reluctor, to struggle back,Jighi 

to heal, to cure .Refragor, to refuse, utterly 

to delay, retard RatiocTnor, to reason logically, 

to wait to reckon, to count, 

to pity Scrutor, to search 

to take pity on Scltor, to know, to inquire 

to admire, usonder Sector, to follow 

Solor, to comfort, to console 
Stdmachor, to he displeased, 

to fret. 
Sciscitor, to know by inquiring 
Suspicor, ^ to suspect 

to discourse 
to act the buffoon 

to obey 

to humor 

to contrive 

to borrow 

to threaten 

to ^ArcafenjSermocinor, 
to trade, negotiateiScuvTor, 

to build a ne^^Suavior, 
to trijle Stipulor, 

to think 
to straggle 
to flatter, speak fair 
Percontor, to inquire strictly 
Philosophor, to a^ct the philoso- 
pher, to study, to profess, to 
teach phUoaophy. 
PrcBdor, ^ " to plunder 

PeregrinSr, to go abroad 

PSpiilor, to plunder 

f*f ecor, to pray, to intreat 

eprecor, to pray against 

Pnestolor, to wait 

P&ulor, to cheat the public 
Piscor, to fish, to catch fish 
Rusticpr, to live in the country 
Rimdfy to searchy to pry into 


to salute with a kiss 
to agree, to covenant 
to witness^ to hear wU" 

to beseech humbly 
to defend, to protect 
Vaticinor, to prophesy, to di- 
vine^ to tell. 



Versor, ' 




to hunt, to go to hunt 

to be conversant 

.to be employed 

to he exercised 

to converse 

to converse, to keep 

companf with, he often with, 

Vagor, to wander, to go astray 

Vcneror, to reverence, to respect 

Vulpinor, to play the fox, to 

deceive with crafty wiles.