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[ARS 




TMi @iST i 




^•♦••*"*"*- 



for the Study of Foreign Languages 

published by 

FRANZ THIMM, 

Foreign Bookseller and Publisher, 
3 Brook Slreet, Grosvenor Square, London W. 

Qerman Iianguage. 

The Child's German Book, by Halm. 5th Ed. 12mo. Cloth 
S c h m i d, Ch., One Hundred German Tales,by Mathias. IthEd. 
H a h n's Interlinear German Reading Book (Hamiltonian Syst.) 
G ei s 1 e r, the first book of German Poetry. Time. Cloth . . 
L e s s i ng's Fabeln, with cnghsh Notes by Hill. l2mo. boards 

II. Fop the Class Room. 

Julius German Writing Copies : "the best published" 3rd Ed. 
T hi mm's German Copy Book "Julius's System" 4to . . .0 
Hahn's German Tales and Stories, with eiii^lish Notes, Cloth 
C ar o V e'sMilrQlien ohne Ende.Notes by ^lathias. 16mo. Cloth 
Schmid's German Scliool Plays with Notes by Hill, Cloth 
Kotzebue's Deutsche Kleinstildter, notes by Meissner . 
„ Pagenstreiche, ditto. . 

T hi mm's History of German Literature 12mo. Cloth. 2nd Ed. 
Meissner's German Exercise Book, Svo. Cloth .... 

„ Key to ditto Svo 

Geissler's The Most beautiful German Ballads and Poems 
Franck's Deutscher Bricfsteller (German Letter Writer) 
Schiller's Wilhelm Tell, english Notes by Meissner . . 

„ Neife als Oiikel,with euglish Notes by Meissner 

Goethe's EgmoBt, english Notes by 0. von Wegnern . . 



s. d. 

3 

2 

2 6 

2 6 

1 6 



1 6 
I 6 
3 6 



2 
5 
2 
2 
5 
2 








6 



2 
5 



3 
9 



6 




French Iianguage. 

Child's French Book by Hahn. 12mo. Cloth . . . 

Ahn's French Class Book. 4th Ed. Cloth 

Poesies de I'Enfance par Francois Louis. 12mo. boards 

Ahn's French Reader, with english Notes. Svo. Cloth . 

— French Grammar. Sth Ed. Svo. Cloth .... 

Moli^re, Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, with english Notes 

by Dudevant 



3 
1 
2 
I 
3 




6 

6 
6 



1 6 



FRANZ TPHMM'S French Self-taught, a new System on the most 

simple principles. Svo. sewed, "one Shilling." 
German Self-taught — "one Shilling.'* 
Italian Self-taught — "one Shilling." 
Spanish Self-taught — "one Shilling." 



?» 



>» 



FRANZ THIMM, 

3 Broolc Street, Qrosvenor Square, Ltondon. 






■■i-f"«"«-!-4->+ 

•^}r^:rft^■■^-^■^■l- 



ost t s. 1 

. I 
3th 4 



■-^' 



1 1 



FRANZ THIMM'S 



SERIES 



OP 



EUROPEM GEAMARS 



AFTER AN 



EASY AND PRACTICAL METHOD. 



PART XI. 

THE ICELANDIC LANOUAOE. 



FRANZ THIMM, 

FOREIGN BOOKSELLER AND PUBLISHER. 
3 BBOOK BTBBBT, OBOSTBNOB SQUARE W. 

1868. 



A SHORT 
PRACTICAL AND EASY METHOD 

OF LEiKNIKQ THE 

OLD NORSK TONGUE 



ICELANDIC LANGUAGE 

AFTER THE DANISH 

op 

E. BASK 



WITH All ICELANDIC EEADEE 

a AcconsT of the kobsk poetey urn the saqas 

A5D A MODERB ICELAmiC VOCABBUEY FOR TRAVELLERS 



H. LTITD. 



L O ISr 33 O li^: 

FRANZ T HTMM , 
BOOKSBU.EK AND P0BL18HXR 



^OS-/. 2-2-. 



PREFACE. 



The Old Norsk or Icelandic and the Anglo-Saxon may 
be termed the parents of the English Language, and their 
Knowledge is not only highly useful but absolutely necessary 
to every educated Englishman who looks upon his language with 
the eye of a historian and philosopher. Nothing is more interest- 
ing than to look back to these two sources from whence the 
english tongue is derived, and a thorough knowledge of Eng- 
lish is only possible by being acquainted with its origin. 

These languages together with Anglo-Norman, early Ger- 
man, ancient, mediaeval and modern English, ought to be 
regularly studied. 

By adapting Rask's abridgement we have indicated a simple 
method of learning Icelandic, which we hope will be found 
^generally useful. 

The Editor. 



INDEX. 



PART I. 

Page 

I. The Pronunciation 1 

II. Modification of Vowels 6 

Inflection of Words & 

I. The Noun. Ist. Declension 8 

Ilnd. - 9 

Illrd. - , . . 14 

Declension of Nouns with the Article IS 

II. Adjectives 2(> 

The Comparison of Adjectives. 26 

III. Pronouns 28 

Numerals 3^ 

IV. The Verb 34 

Auxiliary Verbs 4^ 

V. Particles 51 

The Formation of Words 52 

Syntax 54 

Prepositions 5& 

Prosody 56 

PART II. 

The Old Norsk Poetry and the Sagas 58 -7a 

PART III. 
Icelandic Reader 74 — 101 

PART IV. 

Modern Icelandic for Travellers 102-121 



PART I. 



The Pronunciation. 



The Alphabet. 

The Icelandic Alphabet is composed of the following letters 



Pronunciation 



a 
b 
d 
e 
f 

g 
h 



A 
B 
D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
I i 

K k 
L 1 
M m 
N n 

Pp 



ah 

bay 

day 

a 

eff 

ghay 

hah 

e 

yod 

kah 

el 

em 

en 



pay 



Pronunciation 

R r err 

S s s 

T t tay 

U u 00 

V V vay 
X X iks 

Y y ue 
Z z zet 
I^ }) th 
B 8 dh 
M X ae 

(E OB oe (Danish o, Ger- 
man 0) 
() oe (German Q) 



1. The Old Norsk order of the vowels was the following 
Vowels D^hthongs 




e 
1 



u 

y 

Icelandic Grammar. 



au 



6 



86 

ey 

ei 

1 

oe 



- 1 



2. d always open, as in the danish words: Ddren^ Idnne. 

3. e, the same as in the danish : bedre, Hest. Before the 
open e (e) an j is often added in the pronunciation, which 
generally receives the accent (') as: let iljet) lod, agreeing 
with the Danish sjette from seks, jeg from iyd. It is uncer- 
tain how far hack into past ages this pronunciation may be 
traced. 

4. I, as in the danish vis^ til, it comes near to the danish 
e in leve, and is both long and short. When it goes over into 
i, it sounds like the danish in Pil^ vis, fire. 

5. 0, always open, as the danish a, it is both long and 
short, as in: Bogen, os, komme; whilst 6 sounds like the danish 
in Os, Stol, stor, perhaps a little broader. 

6. u as in the danish words Bud, Hul, kun, long and 
short, in its transition to u it sounds like the danish Hils, 
Hul, brun. That this pronunciation of the u and i4 is the ge- 
nuine old norsk, is proved not only by all the northern lan- 
guages, but also by the Ferroe dialect, in which the correct 
sound has been maintainted to this day, f. i. 

oldnorsk-ferroe danish 

kunna kunne 

kiiga kiia hie. 

7. y as in the danish Byg, hyppe; it approaches a little to 
the danish e and is both long and short; changed into f it 
sounds like the danish Bly, Syre, flyde. That y was really dis- 
tinguished from t, is proved partly by the languages of the 
northern conlinent (Fastlands sprogene) partly by the Icelandic 
pronunciation of the day, which pronounces y in kyrr short, 
but the letter f long: but more particularly by the circumstance, 
that the poets (skaldene) form a half-rhyme with t, as Fms. 6, 35. 

Hersttilis {)arf ek hylW, 
hdlf eru void und Kdlfi 

8. d like the danish av in Havre, greek, latin and itaUan 
au in aura with a clear a (not hke the german au). 

9. w almost like aj, so that the sound of a approaches 
the danish ce, and the sound of j somewhat resembles e (noe- 
sten cejei. 

10. au, as the danish 6u) or ow, which is still the pro- 
nunciation of the northern au, it is very much like the german 
au: Auga, Auge, the eye. 



11. ey^ as written, somewhat like 6j, on northern monu- 
ments (Mindesmaerker) it was often written ey, resembling the 
german eti. That it was distinguished from et is partly seen 
from the Ferroe in which ey is changed into oj, ei into aj, 
but more particularly from the old verses, in which ey with et 
form a half-rhyme as: Fms. 7, 13. 

hvern I^eirra kvaS haerra 
(hjaldr-bliks) en sik miklu 
(bet'8 ofmikit eydir 
^ngr) makligra at h^nga. 

12. et like a broad i, in conjunction with i (or /) the 
e loses its open sound and adopts the close one, in which 
the sound of y is but Uttle heard, on this account this diph- 
thong has sometimes been written i (not the german et). 

i and 6 (see 4 et 5). 

13. oe (a) like a broad danish as pronounced by the 
people — i Te — ; the j sound becomes faint and ends al- 
most with e (as in eje). 

In many good and ancient icelandic manuscripts this sound 
is blended (foreblandet) with w, and in the modern icelandic 
language ob (oe) has regularly changed into ob (ae) ; in Ferroe 
it has changed into e, as: soekja (sekja) ferroe: sokja, soje. 

'U and y (see 6 et 7j. 

14. The simple vowels, a, d, 0, u are hard e, i, y, soft 
after g, k; the diphthongs formed with v are hard, as: d, au, 
6, ii; those formed with j, are soft; as: ce, ey, et, t, a?, y. 
f. i. kann, kottr, koma, kunna; aIso:kdl, kaup, kol, 
kuga; but: kenni, kirkja, kyrki; and: ksert, keypt, 
keipr, kff, kosli, k^r. 

15. The order of the Consonants is the following: 
1) soundless (silent) Consonants: 

Labial letter lingpual letter palatal letter 

hard p, f, t, {>, k, h, 

soft b, V, d, 8, g, j; 



2) liquids: 

3) mixed: 



m, n, 1, r, s, z. 



X (z) 
Of their pronunciation is to be remarked: 

16. / has a double sound, namely 1) like f in the be- 

1* 



ginning and when il is donbled, as in: fara, fr^, vaff. 2) 
like a hard v in all other cases, as: haf, nafn, hofn, 
stefni, as seen in the Ferroe: Navn, Hdvn, stevni^ stevndi, 
stevnt, 

11, P {th) sounds hke the english th in thitik, thought. 
\l is only found at the beginning of a word, and is therefore 
never doubled. 9 {dh) sounds almost like the d in the danish 
words: med^ Bad) Rad, most like the english th in: bathe, 
father; it is heard more strongly rolling than other Consonants 
as in: aSrir, oSlast, feSrum, riSnir, fa8mar. It does 
not appear at the beginning of words and never doubles, but 
it changes indo dd, as: gleS = gladdi, ryS = ruddi. 
The Ancients often wrote j) for 5, if the sense expressed its 
meaning, but they never wrote d for 5 before the 14"* Century. 

18. k has 1) the hard sound as in the danish kan, 2) 
the soft sound fkj) as in kcert (14) but never aspirated as in 
the Swedish kdnner; nor has sk the aspirated sound as in the 
Swedish skdr or in the german word Scheere, but it is pronoun- 
ced like the danish skaere. 

19. g has 1) the hard sound as in gdr; 2) the soft (gj) 
as in the danish Gcer (14); 3) an aspirated sound after vow- 
els or at the end of words or syllables, as the danish g in 
Sag, Reg etc. We recognise this from the fact that the Ancients 
always wrote in such cases gh^ as: lOgh, vegh. But it never 
sounded like j\ not even when followed by i, this is visible in 
the old verses, in which otherwise tlie half-rhyme would have 
either been corrupted or vanished altogether, as: Fms. 6, 23. 88. 

eig-i gaztu li8skost Idg-an . . . 
S'ig ek or sOltum ceg-i . . . 

20. h is sounded at the beginning of words, also before 
j. V, I, r, w, as: hjarta, hvat, hle8, bring, hno9a. 

21. nn, has a very peculiar hard sound after diphthongs, 
hke dn, as: steinn (steidn) frdnn, koenn, hiinn; but not 
if nn is joined to diphthongs as a compound, as: d-nni, 
ku-uni, in such a case and after single vowels nn is pro- 
nounced as usual. 

22. // iias a similar hard pronunciation after all vowels 
and diphthongs, and sounds hke dl, as: kail, dll, ill, fill, 
full, full; but it loses a great deal of its hardness when 
followed by t, d, s, as: allt, felldi, fulls. 



23. m sounds very hard and short, ahnost like dn or 
more correctly hke rdn, as: barn, bOrn, horn, it is there- 
fore often found in defective modern manuscripts or books 
steim, seim for steinn, seinn. rl sounds likewise hard and 
short, almost like dl or more correctly like rdl; on this account 
one oflen finds jarl and jail, karl and kail, kerlingand 
kelling. 

24. s is always hard, like the Danish or like the german 
5 (s«), never soft like the german f. 

25. z always sounds like s and is only used as an ety- 
mological sign for s, when a t, d^ or 9 has dropped as: veiz- 
la for veitsla^ fslenzkr for islendskr, gerzkr for gerlSskr. 
In old manuscripts they made use of z sometimes as an abbre- 
viation of 8S, sometimes of st, about in the same manner 
in which the greek C stood for adj in modern and good edi- 
tions the use has been restricted, to specify distinctly the two 
pronunciations and derivations. 

26. 0? always sounds hard, like ks or gs with a hard g 
and s, as: lax, sex, Ox, uxi, (never like gz as in the french 
word exact). 

27. The old Norsk pronunciation was altogether broad, 
rich in sound (klangfuld) logical and precise. A vowel before 
a simple consonant is rather long, whether the consonant be 
hard or soft, as: ek (1. sek) or eg (1. aeg), set (1. sset), las 
(1. las) to express the short sound, the consonant is doubled, 
as: egg, sett, hlass. 

Even vowels are shortened in the pronunciation if a con- 
sonant is added, as: 

hOf-u8 has a long — hOf8i a short and sharp one. 
ber, sldr - - - e — berja, Dat. barSi, has a short one. 
vil - - - i — vilja, vildi . - - 

28. To the syllable belong all consonants which follow a 
vowel, as: ask-a, sett-u, hOf5-in-u, vild-i, marg-ir, 
hest-ar. According to this rule the words are abbreviated at 
the end of a line. 

29. Exceptions are / and v , which belong to the vowel 
following these letters, as: legg-jum, hOgg-va, the letter r, 
also never attaches itself to the preceding vowel, except, when 
it becomes altogether blended with the vowel as: steinn, 
grsenn, haell, full, it is generally read with the next vowel, 



as: ve8-rit, ve8-f, al-f, set-f ; such an r will always in 
future be thus accented r. 

30. The principal accent is constantly on the first syllable 
of the word as: ver-ald-ar-inn-ar; the secondary accent, 
lies on the penultimate in words of three or four syllables as: 
Upp-lend-ing-ar, vin-4tta, svaraSi, not on ihe last syl- 
lable, except in composed words, ending in a monosyllabic: 
koniingson. 

II. 

Modification of Vowels. 

The Modification of vowels plays an important part in the 
declension and derivation of the Old Norsk Language. It is 
of a double kind. 

31. a) a into in the principle syllable of a word if it 
ends in u, as: aska, Osku. Sometimes even if u is dropped 
as: blaS, Plural blo8, leaves. Jafn, jofn. Reversed: 

32. 6 into a, if the termination be a, as: Ogn, agnar, 
sometimes before tr or with shortened terminations in compounds 
or derivations, as: agnir, jardvegr, jarSneskr. 

33. b) Before endings in i, /, or r, even if these letters 
are left out: 

a into e: land, lendi — nafn, nefhi; 

(J — e: grOf, gef — sOk, sekr; 
ja — t; bjart, birti — djarft, dirfist; 
jd — i; hjOrS, hir8ir — bjOrn, birni; 

e — f : regn, rignir — hverfi, hvirfiU; 

d — ce: r^9, raeSf — nd. nae; 
au — ey: raun, reyni — draup, dreypi; 

— y: son, synir — of, yfir; 

u — y: gu8, gySja — full, fylli; 

ti — J; hiis, hj^si — priitt, prj8i; 
jd — ^: bj68a, bj9r — hlj68, hljSi; 
7ti — J : fljiiga, fljgf — djiipt, d Jpra ; 

6 — (B (cb): kl6, kloer — b6t, boeti. 

sometimes, although rarely into e, as: 

hnot, hnetr — tro8a, treSr; 
koma, kemr — of, efra, efst. 



34. In the oldest norsk language there were long and 
single vowels before ng, nk, these changed according to the 
above rule, as: langt, lOngu, lengi, in latter times these 
vowels were modified into diphthongs and changed thus: Hngt, 
laungu, leingi. 

35. Sometimes there is no modification even if t follows, 
nor if even the vowel on other occasions is changed in its 
root, as: land, Dative laudi; 

nafn, - nafni, and {)dnki, thought 
kappi, fighter, although: ek ))einki, / think, ek keppist, 
/ fight are sayd« The reason of this appears to be that in 
such cases the vowel of the termination was not t but e, as 
we frequently find it in manuscripts thus : lande, nafne, panke, 
kappe. 

36. In the same way o is often found in terminations 
instead of u, particularly, so it appears, if the chief syllable 
received no modification of this kind, as: ero, varo, J)fn- 
gom etc. But according to rule, there is a difference in 
such endings between e and t, o and u. 

37. There are many kinds of modification in the conju- 
gation of tlie verbs, which will be mentioned in the proper place. 

38. Amongst the consonants change : 

ndt into tt as: batt, bandt; satt, mndi. 
ngk — kk — sprakk, sprang; ekkja, Enke. 

39. nr into nn as: sleinn, steinr; seinn, seinr; seinna, 
seitMra. 

Ir into II, as: h6ll for hdlr, saslli for scelri. 

40. V is dropped at the beginning of words before o, u, 
y and r, as: verS, var5, urdu, yrSi, orSit; as also: hverf, 
hvarf, hurfu, hyrfi, horfit, rangt, vrangt, reiSi, Vrede. 
But we find that the Ancients frequently did not drop the v, 
as: vurSu, vyrSi, vorSit. 



8 



Inflection of Words. 

1. The Noun, 

41. Nouns are divided into two orders, the open and the 
dosed; the one is more simple in its inflection, the other more 
complex. 

The first has but one declension, the second has two. 
Each has three genders. The Neuter is the most simple. 



•pen 


•rder. 




42. First Declension. 




the eye t 


he sunbeam 


the tongue 


N. 


M. 


F. 


Sing. Norn, auga, 


geisli, 


tilnga 


Gen. Dot. Ace. auga, 


geisla. 


ttingu (o) 


Plural Nom. augu (o). 


geislar. 


tiingur (or). 


Gen. augu (o), 


geisla, 


tQngur (or). 


Dat. augum (om), 


geislum (om). 


t(!ingum (om), 


Ace. augua 


geisla 


ti!ingna. 



43. Nouns, whose chief letter is a, change a into d be- 
fore the terminations in u (31): 

hjarta, Plural, D. hjOrtum, (the heart) 

kappi - - kOppum, (the champion) 

saga, G. D. A. sOgu - - s5gur, sOgum, (the saga) 

on the other hand a changes into u in the following syllables, 
as: harpari, hdrpurum; leikari, leikurum. 

44. Some masculine substantives ending in ingi^ take a 
j in all other cases, as: 

hOf3fngi, hOitKngja, hOfSingjar — the captain; 
illvirki, illvirkja — the illdoer; 
vili, vilja — will. 

45. Masculines ending in andi form their plural irregularly, 
f. i. buandi, which word is at the same time contracted, as: 

Sing. Nom. biiandi {the yeoman) bondi. 

Gen. Dat. Ace. bdauda b6nda, 

Plur. Nom. Gen. biiendr, boendf* baendr, 

Dat. bilOndum, endum, b6ndum, bsendum, 

Ace. btianda, enda b6nda, baenda. 



46. The words herra and sir a (germ. Herr, english Sire, 
father) which were used before the christian Dames of Priests 
and Provosts, are the only masculines ending in a, they only 
differ from geisli in the Nominative. 

47. Some Feminines take in the plural not na but only 
a, as in the Nom. Sing, as: lina, kanna, skepna, lilja, 
gySja, vara. 

48. The subst. kona (Queen), troman, changes in the plural 
into kvenna (wife); the word kvinna remains sometimes in 
this case unchanged by ancient writers, the moderns always use 
kvenna. 

Closed Order. 

49. This Order embraces not only the words ending in 
Consonants, but also those ending in t and u. Ten mascu- 
line substantives ending in t of the first Declension, ought to 
end in e. 

This order is divided in two declensions, to the first be- 
long the words ending in Consonants and in i, to the second 
belong those ending in a pure sounding u. 



50. Second Declension. 



Sing, 



Plur. 



Nom, land (Ian 


,d) 


brandr (brand) 


ft)r (journey) 


Gen. land 




brand 


fi)r 


Dat. landi(e) 




brandi (e) 


Ibr 


Ace. lands 




brands 


farar 


Nom. lOnd 




brafndar 


farir (ar) 


Gm. lOnd 




branda 


farir (ar) 


Dat. lOndum 




brOndum 


fbrum 


Ace. landa 




branda 


fara. 



51. When there in neither a nor d, no modification oc- 
curs, as: skip (ship), skipum — koniingf (king), koni!in- 
gum — eign (property), eign, eignar, eignir, eignum. 
only one word has two forms, namely: 

Sing, dagf (the day) Dat. degri, 
Plur. dagar - dogum. 

52. The letter r dissolves when n or Z precede, into nn and 
U, as in stein n (the stone) (instead of steinrj, haell (heel) 
instead of haelr) and in longer words as: drottinn (master). 



10 

lykill (key). Sometimes the t of the Dative drops in the 
words ending in U as: 

hael, h6l for hsBli, h6li. 

In the last radical letters r and s the use fluctuates be- 
tween r and rr, s and ss t^6rr, herr, hauss, jss, 6ss, 
is often found because of Uttle consequence. 

Both kinds of words, if they are monosyllabic in the Nom. 
lose the t in the Dative, as: her, is, for heri, isi. 

The r is altogether dropped after n and I when it comes 
into collision with other consonants as in: vagn, hrafn, 
fugl, karl (Nom. and Gen.) also after s and ss, as in hdls, 
kross (in the Nom. Gen. and Dat.). 

53. Words in two Syllables are contracted when the pro- 
nunciation allows it, as: 

Neut. sumar (summer), sumri — Plur. sumur sumrum, sumra, 

hOfuS (head), hOfSum, hOfSa. 
Masc hamri, hamrar, hamra, hOmrum. 

drottni, drottnar — lykU, lyklar etc. 
Some words reserve an uncommon vowel in the contracted 
forms, as: 

me gin, mighu power; magni, megins. PL megin or mOgn 

(as: goSmOgn), mOgnum, magna. 
g. m. ketill (kettle)^ katU, Plur. katlar, katla, kotlum. 

g. f. alin(^Aee{/-mea^re) dinar, - alnir, alnum, dlna. 

54. To the contrated belong the Mascul jofurr, fjot- 
urr, they keep 6 throughout jOfri, fjOtri Plur. jofrar, 
fjotrar. 

The others of this class of all three genders have only 
an f by the Ancient writers (not ur or urr), they must not 
therefore be looked upon as contracted, as: 
Mas. silff (silver), silfri, 

akf (acre), akri, Plur. akrar. 
Fern. Qo8r (feather), IjaSrar, Plur. QaSrir (ar) fjoSrum, fjaSra. 

55. The polysyllabic Neuters ending in -aS, -an or the Fern. 
ending in an are not contracted, as: 

Sing. Nom. Gen. mannlikan (human being) skipan (order)y 

Dat. viannlikani skipan 

Ace, mannlikans skipanar (onar) 

Plur. Nom. Gen. mannlfkun (on) skipanir, 

Dat. mannlikunum skipunum (onom) 

Ace. mannlikan a skipana. 



11 

56. Some words of this declension allow a j or t? to creep 
in before terminations which begin with a vowel, not however 
j before i, rarely v before u. This seems to be a remnant of 
terminations in t or u which was originally in these words. 

57. The inserted letter v requires a preceding 6 (or au) 
before they change into a or a (see § 32) if it terminates in a 
and has therefore the same effect as u. In the Plural of the 
Fern, the inserted t; takes the old termination in or 

Sing. Nom. froe (frae) saungr Qr 

Gen. froe saung Or 

Dot. froevi saungvi Oru 

Ace. froes saungns Orvar 

Plural Nom. froe saungvar Orvar 

Gen. froe saugva Orvar 

• Dat. froevum (om) saungum (om) Orum (om) 

Ace. froeva; saungva; Orva. 

58. The inserted letter/ requires the Mas. to drop the entire 
termination (;V) in the Sing. Dat. and to take in the plural ir 
G. i. but the feminine always takes the ar^ so that it terminates 
in jar^ as ; 
Sing. Nom. nes {neck of land) 

Gen. nesi 
Dot. nesi 
Ace. ness 
Plural Nom. nes 
Gen. nes 
Dat. nesjum 
Ace. nesja; 

59. But there are a number of Mascul. with simple vowels 
or consonants before r, which also drop the t in the Sing. Dat. 
who take in the Nom. and Gen. Plur. ir, and t without insert- 
ing j — equally a number of Fem. ending in -ingy -ung or 
in r (or t) which take ar in the plural without the insertion 
of either v or j as: [hunt) 
Sing, Nom. dalf {dale) drottnlng (j^een) vei8f (veiSi) (chase. 



dreingr 


ben {wound) 


dreing 


ben 


dreing 


ben 


dreings 


benjar 


dreingir 


benjar 


dreingi 


benjar 


dreingjum 


benjum 


dreinja ; 


benja. 



Gen. dal 


drottnlng 


veiSi 


Dat. dal 


drottnlngu 


veiSi 


Ace. dais 


drottningar 


veiSar 


Plur. Nom. dalir 


drottnlngar 


veiSar 


Gen. dali 


drottningar 


veiSar 


Dat. dolum 


drottningum 


veiSum 


Ace. dala; 


drottnlnga ; 


vei8a. 



12 

But dali is sometimes found in the Dat. (f. i. HarbarSsl. 
18) even in the Plur. Herdalar (Hk. 2, 8) likewise the Swedish: 
brtiSr has in the Plural brii9ir. 

60. Some words resemble the third declension as they ler- 
minate in the Sing. Ace. in ar, otherwise they are dechned like 
brandr, dreingr or dalf. To the former belong: hattr, 
kraptr (kraftr) grautf, sk6gf, vindr in the language of 
the old bards vegr. To the latter belong: belgf, mergr, 
leggf, hryggf, verkf, reykr, laekf, drykkf and boer, 
therefore : boejar, boejum, boeja with inserted j\ which 
is strictly observed by all good ancient authors; of the latter 
kind are mostly found: staSr, sau9r, bragr, vegr (some- 
times in the Dat. vegu), r^ttf, vinf (or vin) hugf, hlulr, 
munr (difference) and all those ending in -nair {-nuir) and 
-skapr^ which occur however rarely in the plural. 

61. The Neuter terminating in -t, and the masc. terminat- 
ing in -ir, drop the t before the terminations: -um, Hir, -a, 
except those having g or k before them, these change t into j. 

The fem. ending in a pure t remains unchanged in the 
Sing, but takes ir in the Plural: 



Sing. Norn, kvaeffi 


merki 


Iseknir 


seti 


Gm. Dat. kvjeSi 


merki 


laskni 


sefi 


Ace. kvaeSis 


merkis 


laeknis 


aefi 


Plur. Nom. kvaeSi 


merki 


laekn-ar 


sBflr 


Gen. kvaeSi 


merki 


laekn-a 


aefir 


Dat. kvaeS-um 


merkjum 


laekn-um 


3ef-um 


Ace. kvaeS-a; 


merkja ; 


Isekn-a; 


aef-a. 


Eyrir (Danish: en 


Ore) an ear, forms the 


plural in 


aurar 










aura 


but ( 


eyri a low beach, has in the 


aurum 


Dat. 


and Plural 


eyrar. 





aura 

belgi, holiness, holy-4ay^ Sunday, forms Dat. and Plur. helgar. 
62. Others again from all three Genders have many irre- 
gularities. Thus the Nom. laeti, sound, forms Dat. Plur. la- 
tum. Ace. lata. Some Neuters become Feminine in the Plur., as: 
Sing.: Plural: 

lim, brushwood limar, branches, 

tal, fraud talar, frauds, 

eing (Dan. en Eng.) meadow eingjar, meadows, 
mund, tim^ mundir, times, 

|) u s u n d (Dan. Tusende) thousand [) ti s u n d i r , thousands. 



13 

The word froedi, knowledge, is in the Sing. fem. and re- 
mains unchanged, like sefi; but in the Plur. it is Neut. and is 
declined like kvseSi. 

63. Some Neuters are found in the Norn, and Gen. with 
and without the termination in -t, as: eing and eingi; 
fullting (Dan. Hjselp) help; and fulltingi, sinn, and 
sinni, the longer form belongs to the modern icelandic 
language, but often appears in modern copies of old manu- 
scripts. 

64. The Masc. gu8, which (Irops the r in the Nom. and 
forms the Plur. in gu9ir, is distinguished from the Nom. go8 
(heathen image) Plur. go 5. Many words ending in t and r 
form the Plur. in -ar, as: 

kaerleikf, kaerleik, or kaeTleiki, ka3rleika; 
Plural kaerleikar. 

sannleikr, sannleiki; Plural sannleikar. 

The forms -leiki are common in the modern language. The 
new. form often gives a new signification as: 

oddr, a point, oddi — a neck of land; 
munnr (Dan. Mund) mouth — munni, mouth of river; 
karl, an old man — Rarli, male name ,,Charles*'. 
Some differ altogeliier: 

bragr (= slraSr, 60) a poem — Bragi, Male name; 

hugr, will — hugi, sense, thought and male name Hugo; 

hlutr, an onnce^ thing — hluti, a part. 
It happens sometimes that words are similar to these termina- 
tions, without being related together, as: 

bolr (*= dalr) block — boli, bull; 

hagr, condition — hagi, garden. 
It is rare that the Neut. of this declension changes into the 
masc. of the former, by taking the termination of t; as: 

6mak and 6maki (Gylfaginning 12) fainting fit; 
mal, speech — formali, tale; 
verk, work — verki, writing, poem, 

with the exception of those who lose at the same time their 
entire signification, as: 

land, land — 1 a n di , countryman ; 

hd (Dan. Bo), furniture — bui, neighbour; 

hofu8 (Dan. Hoved) head — h5f8i. Cape; 

nor9r (Dan. Norden) north — Nor8ri, name of a dwarf. 



uiann 


nngr 


manni 


fingri 


luanns 


tingfs 


menn 


fingr 


menn 


fing' 


mOnnum 


fingrum 


manna ; 


fingra. 



14 

65. The other irregular Masc. are: 

Sing. Norn. sk6r {shoe) dOrr {spear) ma8r {man) fingr (finger) 

Gen, sk6 dOr 

Dat, sk6 dOr 

Ace. sk6s dors 

Plur. Norn, skilar derir 

Gen. skua deri 

Dat. skom dOrum 

Ace. ski^a; darra; 

Thr moderns contract skor in the Plural into Nom. sk6r, 
Gen. sko, Dat. skoa. 

66. Irregular feminines are: 

sal, the souly Dat. salu — Plural salir, Ace. salna, 

also in the Xcc. Sing, salu, particularly found in compounds, 
as: sdluhjalp. 

grein forms the Plural in greinir and sometimes greinar, 
ey, island, Dat. eyju or ey, Plur. eyjar — but is gene- 
rally used in Iceland *eya after the 1. Declension. Monosyllables 
ending in d, which come in contact with an a or te following, 
generally supplant them by 4 as: br^, eyebrow, Ace. br^r, 
Plur. hvAVj Dat. bram. Ace. bra. Some derivatives with 
these endings remain unaltered in the Sing, by the ancients 
as: asja, care. 

Third Declension. 

67. This declension embraces all those words ending in 
u or «, which are however frequently dropped or in some other 
manner obscured. There are but few Neuters all of which end 
in e (for cv), the Masc. end in the Sing, in -ar, Plur -tr, those 
of the Sing, in Hir, or -f, form the Plural in -r: 

N. ' M. F. [{wood) 

Sing. Nom. tre {tree) vollur {field) fjOr8ur(6ay) r6i{root) mOrk 



Gen. tre 


vOU 


Q0r8 


r6t 


mOrk 


Dat. tre 


velli 


fir8i 


r6t 


mOrk 


Ace. tres 


vallar 


Qar8ar 


r6tar 


merkf 


Plur. Nom. tre 


vellir 


fir8ir 


rcetr 


merkr 


Gen. tre 


voUu 


fjOr8u 


roetf 


merkr 


Dat. trjam 


vOUum 


f)0r6um 


r6tum 


mOrkum 


Ace. trj^; 


valla; 


fjar8a; 


r6ta; 


marka. 



15 



68. Like tre are declined kne; two words hie andspe 
do not occur in the Plural. It was only in the fifteenth Cen- 
tury that the Icelanders hegan to pronounce the e in these 
words like je (instead of ce) wherefore we meet in good editions 
ot old works the reading tr^, tr^s etc. Plur. DaL and Ace. 
contracted for trjavum, trjava. 

The word Fe, cattle, goods, money ^ is irregular in the Dat. 
Sing.; we find fjar instead of fjavar; but ve, sanctuary, 
tempk (from which Odinsve, Odense) is declined, like land 
or skip after the 2"^ Decl. 

69. The Masculines we find sometimes only written with 
r (instead of tir), it not being observed that the termination 
in u was the reason for writing (J, as in the Dat. Plural. 

Therefore h valr with a, because the r is only distinguished 
by an * from the root. 

But kjolur with &, because the ending contains u. The 
Genitive Plural of all these words has a double form, partly 
ending in i, agreeing with the Nom. Plural as: velli, firSi, 
partly ending in -u, agreeing with the Dative Plural, and 
this form is the old genuine one. .Several kinds of modi- 
fications are jlo be noticed, although some words do not modify 
by reason of their nature. 

Sing, Nom sonur (son) dr^ttur (drawing) vi8ur (wood, forest) 





Gen, son 


dratt 




vi8 




Dat, syni 


draetti 




viSi 




Ace, sonar 


drattar 




viSar 


Plur. 


Nom, synir 


draBltir 




viSir 




Gen. (syni) 


(drsetti) 




(vidi) 




— sonu 


drattu 




viSu 


• 


Dat. sonum 


drattum 




vi8um 




Ace, sona; 


dratta ; 




viSa. 




Irregu 


lar are 


these 


two: 


Sing, 


Nom, fotur 


(foot) 


vetf (for vetr-ur) (wvi 




Gen, f6t. 




vetf 


(for vetr-u) 




Dat. foeti 




vetri 






Ace. f6tar 




vetrar 


Plur, 


Nom. Gen, fo^U* 




vetf 


(for vetr-f) 




Dat, f6tum 




vetrum 




Ace, f6ta; 




vetra 


I 



16 

70. The feminines of this declension have also several 
kinds of modification of vowels; some cannot be modified, 
some have a doubled form of declension after this or the for- 
mer specimen, as: 

Present Declension: Former Declension: [stodc) 

Sing. Nom. Gen, hnoi (nut) staung mork [wood) slaimglstake, 

Dat, hnot staung mOrku staung 

Ace. hnotar steingr markar stangar 

Plur. Nom. Gen. hnetr steingr markir stangir 

Dat. hnotum staungum mOrkum staungum 

Ace. hnota; stdnga; marka; stanga. 

The modification in staung, steingr is in reality the 
same, as in mOrk, merkr' (67) as it is merely a mechanical 
consequence of ng, the d changes into au and e into ei, we 
also often find stOng, stangar, stengr (34). 

The words which are decUned in two ways like mOrk 
and staung are chiefly the following: 

&ir 6 nd (strand), r6nd (edge), spaung, taung, haunk. 

A difference of signification is only accidental, as: 

Ond, Plur. endr the duck — Ond, andir, a spirit, ghost 
(dan.: en and, Plur. Aender, duck, — en aand, Plur. 
aander, spirit. 

StrOnd, rOnd, Ond receive in the Ace. Sing» always stran- 
dar, randar, andar; so that Ond, spirit, differs only in 
one case in the singular, and two cases in the Plural from 
Ond, du>ck, Dat. Sing. Ondu, Nom. and Gen. Plur. andir. 

71. Some accented monosyllables deviate by contraction, 
if the final syllable begins with a vowel, so that d absorbs 
a, u but 6, It, absorbs only the ii; as: 

ta, ten, 4.tar (for taar) — Plur. taer, D. tam (for taum) 
klo, daw, A. kloar — Plur. kloer, kl6m, kl6a 
a, sheep (hunfar), A. xr — Plur, aer. 
kii, cow, A, kyr — Plur. kjr. 

These forms aer and k]fr we find in the modem language given 
to the Sing. Nom. ; so that both these words are in the Sing. Nom. 
and Plur. Nom. and Gen. the same. 

Otliers blend the r of the Plural with the final letter, 
as briin, Plur. br^nn (Egiiss. S. 306 and in the Edda Hel- 
gakv. Haddsk. 19) now we say br^n, or br^r; mus forms 
the Plur. m mfss orm^s; dyrr ordyr, door, is only found 



17 

in the Plural and forms the Dat. and ilcc. durum, dura or 
dyrum, dyra. Sometimes br^n and dyrr lean in the Plu- 
ral to n. 

Tlie following are still more irregular: 

Sing. Norn. Gen. hond (hand) natt or nott (night) 

Dat. hendi natt n6ttu 

Ace. bandar nattar nsetr (noetr) 

Plur. Norn. Gen. hendr naetr (noetr) 

Dat. hOndum nattum nottum 

Ace. banda; natta; n6tta. 

72. Some of the names of relations ending in -tr, would 
require a separate declension, if there were not so few, namely: 

father brother daughter sister 

Sing. Nom. faSir br65ir d6ttir systir 

Gen. Dat. Ace. it)8ur br68ur dottur systur 

Plur. Nom. Gen. feSr broeSr doetr systr 

Dat. fedrum broe^rum doetrum systrum 

Ace. feSra; broedra; doetra; systra. 

Like br65ir is declined moSir, mother. 
We find in the Ancients the Plur. of fa Sir, fe8f, of 
broSir, broeSf. 

73. We also find in the Ancient language some peculiar 
names of relatives with different terminations, which embrace 
two and more persons in one name, and which occur there- 
fore only in the plural; if the two persons are of different 
genders, they are in the Neuter: 

hj6n, man and woman; 

systkin, brother and sister; 

h j u , youth and girl or man and woman] 

feSgin, father and daughter; 

moeSgin, mother and son; 

fe5gar, father and son; 

moeBgur, mother and daughter. 

To tliese belongs also bOrn, the only one which also occurs 
in the Singular, barn ("»land); only feSgar is masc. and 
moedgur, fem. («»tungur) Sing, moefigna. 



Icelandic Grammar. 



18 



Declension of Nouns with the Article. 

74. In the declension of the noun with the article hit^ 
hinn, hin, both retain their endings unaltered, so that both 
combined have a double declension. The article is thus declined : 



Sing. Norn, hit 


hinn 


hin 


Gen. hit 


hinn^ 


hina 


Dot. hinu 


hinum 


hinni 


Ace. bins 


bins 


hinnar 


Plur. Norn, hin 


hinir 


hinar 


Gen. hin 


hina 


binar 


Dot. 


hinum 




Ace. 


hinna. 





The A is continually dropped when the article is com- 
pounded with a substantive ending in a short vowel, a, i, u 
or t; also the -t, is dropped after every polysyllabic word end- 
ing in -r. 

75. The Substantives when compounded drop the m of the 
Dative Plural, they end therefore in tc, whilst the Article drops -hi. 





First Order. 




Sing. Norn, bjarta-t (heart) 


andi-nn (spirit) 


gata-n (road) 


Gen. bjarta-t 




anda-nn 


gotu-na 


Dat. hjarta-nu 




anda-num 


gSitu-nni 


Ace. hjarta-ns 




anda-ns 


gotu-nnar 


Plur. Norn, hjortu-n 




andar-nir 


gOtur-nar 


Gen. hjortu-n 




anda-na 


gotur-nar 


Dat. hjOrtu-num 




Ondu-nuui 


gOtu-num 


Ace. bjartna-nna; 




anda-nna ; 


gatna-nna. 



76. It must be borne in mind with respect to the Genitive 
and Dat. of the 2""^ Order where the t in the Dat. of masc. 
subst. is wanting, they do not like to take the i of the Article 
either, as: 
dreingr-inn, dreingnum; dalrinn, dalnum. 

But those which can take an t keep it, as: fsinum, better 
than fsnum; st61inum (Snorr-Edda 114) better than 
st61num. 



19 



77, Second Order. 

N. M. F. 

Sing. Norn, skip-it {ship) koniingr-inn (king) eign-in (property) 



Gen. skip-it 
Dot. skipi-nu 
Ace. skips-ins 
Plur. Norn, skip-in 
Gen. skip-in 
Dat. skipu-num 
Ace. skipa-nna; 



eign-ma 

eign-inni 

eignar-innar. 

eignir-nar 

eignir-nar 

eignu-num 

eigna-nna. 



koni)ng-in 

kontingi-num 

konilngs-ins 

kontingar-nir 

kontinga-na 

kontmgu-num 

konilnga-nna ; 

78. The r before a vowel is read over with it and loses 
its half sound, as: silf-rit, malm-rinn, fjo8-rin. 

79. All the contracted and irregular forms remain as they 
are, as: 

degi-num, katlinum, salu-nni, dlnar-innar; 

retains its half-sound before n, as: boendr-nir, fingr-na. 
Only ma8f (65) adds in the Nom. Plur. -ir. and in the Gen. 
-t, therefore: mennir-nir (rarely menninnir) menni-na. 

80. The monosyllabic feminine often expels the hi of the 
Article in the Gen. Sing, as: 

fOr-na, instead of fOr-ina, grOfna inst. of grOf-ina 
(Snorra-Edda, S. 138); rei8-na for rei8-ina; hiiSna 
for htiSina (Snorra-Edda 144). 

81. In case the substantive be a monosyllable, ending in 
a long vowel or double sound (Tvelyd) the i of the article is 
retained if the word remains monosyllabic, but it is leit out 
if the word becomes trisyllabic as: 

skrd-in, skrd-na, skr^-nni; 

ey-in, ey-na, ey-nni (thus also eyju-nni 66). 



82. 


Third Order. 




N. 


M. 


F. 


Sing. Nom. kne-tt (knee) 


kjolr-inn (keel) 


b6k-in (book) 


Gen. kne-lft 


kjol-inn 


b6k-ina 


Dat. kne-nu 


kili-num 


b6k-inni 


Ace. knes-in$ 


kjalar-ins 


b6kar-innar 


Plur. Nom. kne-Yn 


kihr-nir 


boekr-nar 


Gen. kne-Yn 


kjolu-na 


boekr-nar 


Dat. knjd-num 


kjolu-num 


b6ku-num 


Ace. knja-nna; 


kjala-nna; 


boka-nna. 
2* 



20 

83. The more modern form tr^.5 for treYt is yet found 
m good manuscripts. 

84. On the whole the irregularities before the article re- 
main as in the second Order, as: m^snar, dyrnar, or in 
the Gen. Nom. dyrrin; but one says brj^nnar, with two, 
not three n (Snorra-Edda 50). 



II. A^Jeetifes. 

85. The Adjective agrees much with the noun, but by no 
means in so perfect an order as in Greek or latin. 

Joined to the Article, which precedes the adjective, it 
makes an imperfect declension, which is termed the ,y definite 
form^^, resembling the first order of the noun, only that its 
plural is much simpler as it always ends in u, leaving to the 
article its further definition. Without an article the adjective 
has quite a different and perfect declension, which is termed 
the ^,indefinite form*'*' resembling the closed form of the noun in 
its second declension. For there is no Adj. in which the Plur. 
n. g. ends in •-«, or the m. g. Gen. Plur. in -t«, or the f. g. 
Plur. in r. This is the more primitive form and has therefore 
the precedent. 

Both forms distinguish three genders, and they resemble 
therefore the six classes of the declension of the Noun. 

86. As a complete Paradigm may serve spakt: 

Indefinite Form. 

N. M. F. 

Sing, Nom, spak-t {wise) spak-f spOk 

Gen, spak-t spak-an spak-a 

Dot. spok-u spOk-um spak-ri 

Ace. spaks spak-rar 

Plur, Nom. spOk spak-ir spak-ar 

Gen. spOk spak-a spak-ar 

Dot. spOkum 

Ace. spakra. 



21 

Definite Form. 

Sing. Norn, spaka spaki spaka 

Gen. Dat. Ace. spaka spaka sp5ku 

Plur. Nom. Gen. spoku 

Dat. spOku or spOkum 

Ace. spOku. 

87. Although the Adjective has but one declension there 
are several varieties to be observed which occur through the 
joining of the final syllable with the root. 

If the last radical letter be 8 preceded by a vowel or 
a diphthong, it absorbs in the n. g. with ^ to ^^ as: 

glatt, glaSf, gld9 — glossy, bright; 
breitt, breiSr, brei8 — broad; 

in one case, the accent is lost, namely in 
gott, g68r, g68 (good). 

If a Consonant precedes, the 8 is altogether dropped: 

hart, har8f, h6r8 (hard) — sagt, sagSf, ^6gi (said) 
haft, hafSr, hOf8 {dever). 

The same in dissyllabic words, if a vowel precedes: 

kallat, kallaSr, kollu8; 

lagit, lagi8r, lagi8 (for kalla8t, lagi8t). 

Also d behind a consonant as: 

vant, van8/, vOnd (difficult) — selt, sel8f, seld; 
geymt, geymSr, geymd. 

gladt, gladdr, glodd (glad) — breidt, breiddf, 
breidd (broad[) — moedt, moeddr, moedd (tired). 

If the word ends in ttj no further t is added in the n. g. but 
the form becomes similar to the feminine, as: 

sett, settr, sett — meet, moettf, moett. 

In weaker consonants the gender may part as: latt, lattf, 
l()tty nor can it be distinguished in the n. g. from a similar 
word with single t, as: 

latt, latr, lot (lazy) — hvatt, hvattr, hvdtt and 
hvatt, hvatr, hvOt (hasty). 

88. The Adjectives, the root of which end in an accented 
vowel, deviate in so far that they double the -t in the n. g., 
the -r in the f. g. in the terminations -ri and -^ar^ the -ra 
in the Ace. Plur., and often the -s in n. and m. g. AccSing. as: 



22 

J)rdtt, ])rdr, ))r^, j^r^ss, {)rdssar, {)r^rra; 

auSsselt, auSsa^r, auSsae {dear). 

mj6tt, inj6r, mj6 (delicate, narrow) — trlitt, trtir, 

tru (true), 
nytt, nyr, ny, nyss etc. (new). 

Those with -d are sometimes contracted if followed by a or Uy 
which are swallowed up by d, as: 

bid for bHu — blan for bHan — bldm for blaum. 

Likewise in the definite form, as: 

hinn grdi, Gen. hinn grd, Da^ hinum grd, ilcc, bins 
grd. The contracted forms belong to the modern Icelandic 
and are scarcely written in old Manuscripts. The ancient lan- 
guage therefore sometimes inserts f (or v) to escape the con- 
traction, as: 

hdtt, hdr, hA(hight) — m. g. Gen. hdfan, Dot. hdfun, 
hdfom (or hdm); def. form hdfa, hdfi, hdfa, hifu. 
mjofa, mjofan, mj6fum; def. form mjofa, mj6fi etc. 

The word nytt inserts y before all vowels, with the exception 

of i, ^s: nyju, nyjan. 

89. Some Adjectives insert j or v behind the last conso- 
nant, without altering the declension, these resemble the 
nouns in 57 and 58, as: 

d5kkt (d5kt) dokkf, dOkk (dark); 
Plur. d5kk, dOkkvir (dOcqvir) dokkvar; 
Def. form: dokkva, dokkvi, dokkva. * 

The only Adjective which inserts j correctly is : 
mitt, mi8r, miS — therefore: 
miSjan, mi5ja, midju, mi9jum, mi5ri. 

The Bat. Plur. scarcely happens in the n. g. where it would be 
mi8, miSir, miSjar; in the other cases it is: 
mi8, miSja, miSjar, miSjum, miSra; the definite 

form is wanting. 

In some words the last radical letter of which is g or kj 

an j is sometimes inserted before a or ti, as: 

fraegt, fraegr, fraeg; Gen. fraegan or frsegjan; Dat. 
frsBgum or fraegjum. 
sekr, sekan or sekjan. 

90. Monosyllables ending in r after a long vowel or diph* 
thong are regular, as: 

bert, her-r, foer-t, foer-r, foer. 



23 

The masculine termination -r is dropped in modern icelandic, 
as the pronunciation has changed and the m. g. and f. g. 
have become the same in the Nom. 

Those words whose vowels are short, and have therefore 
a double r, drop one r in the n. g., before -t and before the 
termination to satisfy the orthography as three r's ought not to 
appear; but such words retain the double r in the n. g. Nom.; 
as otherwise the vowels would be long and the root deformed. 
As: |)urt, J)urr, |)urr {dry)\ kyrt, kyrr, kyrr (sfiS). 
Those ending in s/agree with this rule, as: laust, lauss, 
la us (free)\ particularly as a diphthong precedes; but hvast, 
favass, hvOss (not hvOs) because the vowel is short. 

In one word with a double s the vowel is accented in the 
n. g. as: vfst, viss, viss. 

91. If a Consonant precedes the last radical letter r, it 
changes before -t and s into r (halfsoundj, never into ur ; but 
into r before a vowel and the terminations in -ri, rar, ra, one 
of the r is dropped, as a double r behind a consonant cannot 
be pronounced. The following example will prove the force 
of these observations: 

Sing. Nom. fagft fagr fogi (for fogr-u) 

Gen. fagrt fagran fagra 

Dot. fOgru f5grum fagri {for fagrri) 

Ace. fagrs fagrar (for fagrrar) 

Plur. Nom. ftJgf fagrir fagrar 

Gen. fOgf fagra fagrar 

Dot. fogrum 

Ace. fagra (for fagrra) 

Definite Form. 

Nom. fagra fagri fagra 

Gen. fagra; fagra; fbgru. 

92. Words whose characteristic letter (Rjenderbogstav) is 
I behind a double vowel, or, if dissyllabic, stands after any 
vowel, change it in the termination of r into U (39) as: 

heilt, heill, heil and in f. g. Dot. heilli, Ace. heil- 

lar, Plur. Ace. heilla; 

gamalt, gamall, g5mul, Do^. gamalli, ice. gamallar 

Plur. Ace. gamalla; thus also: 

t>agalt or t)Ogult, t)5gull, ))Ogul etc. 



24 

Before terminatioDS, beginning with a vowel, contractions occur 
as: gamlan, gaoila, gOmlu, gOmlum. Def. Form garni b^ 
gamli etc., but: heimilt or heimult does not contract* 
Folt, folr, fol, does not contract its Ir into U, being a 
monosyllable with a simple vowel. 

93. In two words the / is dropped in the Neuter before 
the characteristic letters t, 5, except in a different declension in 
the m. g. Gen.; it is declined 

liti5, litill, litil, Gm. m. g. litinn (for litiln) f. g. 
litla, Dot. litlu, litlum, litilli etc. 

It will be observed that the vowel loses its accent, as soon as 
a concussion of consonants occurs. Writing lit id for lit it 
is for euphony's sake , which occurs in the best manuscripts ; 
namely the changing of this t into 9, as soon as the word re- 
ceives t in the beginning, therefore ritaS, but bakat etc. 
The second word is mikit, mikill, mikil, Gen. mikit^ 
mikinn, mikla, Dat. miklu etc» 

94. Those whose characteristic letter is n after a diph- 
thong, or dissyllables, followed by a vowel, contract the n with 
r into nn (39) as: 

,vsent, vaenn, vsen. Gen, vsent, vaenan, vsena; Dat. 
vgenu, vaenum, vsenni and in f. g. Ace. vaennar, Plur. 
Ace. vaenn a. 

Dissyllables deviate besides in m. g. Gen. by contraction 
if the termination begins with a vowel, as: 

Singular Norn. hei9it heiSinn heiSin 

Gen. hei5it hei9inn heiSna 

Dat. heiSnu heiSnum heiSinni 

Ace. heiSins heidinnar 

Plural Norn. heiSin heiSnir heiSnar 

Gen. heiSin heidna heiSnar 



Dat. heidnum 

Ace. heiSinna 

Def. Form Norn. heiSna; heiSni; heiSna etc. 

95. In this manner are declined all regular participles of 
the closed Order of Verbs (which remain monosyllabic in the 
Dat.) as: r^9it, r^Sin, ra9in; gefit, gefinn, gefin; 
tekit, tekinn, tekin etc.; also several of the 3*^*^ order of 
the first chief Class (with modification of vowel) barit, bar- 



25 

inn, barin. But these terminations stand in reality for -it, 
-Hr, t8 a' change of pronunciation in accordance with the 
oldest danish language; they shorten with the radical letter 
so that t is dropped and 5 is hardened into d or t, in words 
the characteristic letter of which is a hard Consonant as: 

hart, barSf, bOrd; tamt, tamdr, tOmd; vakt, 

vaktr, vOkt. 

In this manner we find in some of these words a double 
or triple form, of which the contracted one is the oldest ; those 
in tY, innj in are modern Icelandic. — The words of double 
form receive the general mixed declension after the euphony, as^ 

Sing, Nom. vakit {wakened) vakinn vakin 

Gen. vakit vakinn vakta 

Dot. vOktu voktura vakinni 

Ace. vakins vakinnar 

Plural Nam. vakin vaktir vaktar 

Gen. vakin vakta vaktar 

Dot. vOktum 

Ace. vakinna 

Def. Form Nom. vakta vakti vakta etc. 

As a proof of the real use of contractions by the ancients, 
we cite: 
kraft (Fms. 4,122 and 176) l)aktr (Fms. 2,305; but, 
])aki8r, Grimnism. 9) dult, (Islflndingas. 2,243); 
huldr (Snorra-Edda S. 136), ski It (Fms. 6,220). 

The modern forms are: 

krafit, ])akinn, dulit, hulinn, skilit. 

96. There is another kind of words which contracts as: 

auSigt, rig-t, Plur. auSug, auSgir, au8gar; 

m^lugr, malgir; Oflugr, Oflgir etc., but it is rare and 
not irregular. Heilagt, -lagr, -log contracts in the short- 
ened forms ei into 6, P/ur.* heilOg, helgir, helgar, def. 
Form he If a, helgi, helga. The root iU is accented in the 
n. g. illt, illr, ill, and sann contracts nn with t into tt: 
satt, sannr, sOnn; allt, allr, Oil wants the def. form, 
because it is definite in itself. 

97. Compound Adjectives in a are not declinable as: 
einskipa (Fms. 7,123), sundrskila (Fms. 11,131). But 
there are some, in which the gender is distinguished by the 



26 

ancients in the Nom. In the m. g. in -t, f. g. in -a as: sam- 

moeBri (Fms. 6,50), forvitri, forvitra (Fms. 6,56) also: 

orviti (Fms. 7,158), m^l68i (Faereyjlngas S. 218), fulltiJi 
(Egilss. S. 185.) 

The Camparison of AiUectires. 

98. The Comparative is formed in Icelandic by: 
-ara (neut), art (masc), art (fen).), (kalda-ra, colder; har- 
8a -r a, harder); which takes the place of the a in the definite 
form. The form Sing, and all genders of the Plur. retain t 
everywhere (rarely Dat. in -urn) as: spaka, Comparative: 
spakara 

• Neut. Masc. Fern. 

Sing. Nom. spakara spakari spakari 

Gen. Dot. Ace. spakara spakara spakari 

Plur. Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. spakari 

99. The Superlative is formed by adding to the root 
-ast, astr, ust, and is thus decUned: 

Neut. 
Indef. form Nom. spakast 

Gen. spakast 
Def. form Nom. spakasta 

Gen. spakasta 

Those which shorten in the Posit., also do so in the other 
degrees, if the same cause exists, namely: that the termination 
begins vfiih a vowel, as: 

au8gara, auSgari, auSgast, auSgastr, au5gustetc. 

100. There is however in many cases a shorter manner of 
formation for these degrees, namely by dropping the final -a 
and adding for the Comparative nra, -ri, -ri, and for the Super- 
lative -stj "Str, '8t. The modification of vowels which requires 
-r takes place (see 33. 34). ^ 

hit fagra fegra -ri fegfst fegfstf fe^t 

— Uga laegra -ri Isegst laegslf laegst, lowest 

— l^nga leingra -ri leingst leingstr leingst, longest 
or langa lengra -ri lengst lengstf lengst 

hit |)raungva J)reingra -ri J)reingst -stf -st, closest 
or })rOngva prengra -ri ^rengst -str -st, narrowest 



Masc. 


Fem. 


spakastr 
spakastan 
spakasti 
spakasta 


spOkust 
spakasta etc. 
spakasta 
spokustu etc. 



27 



hit st6ra 


stoerra 


-ri 


stoerst 


-stf 


-St greatest 


— linga 

— {>unna 

— djilpa 

— dyra 


yngra 
{)yunra 
dypra 
d^rra 


-ri 
-ri 
-ri 
-ri 


yngst 
{)ynnst 
dypst 
dyrst 


-str 
-stf 
-stf 
-stf 


-St youngest 
-St thinnest 
-St deepest 
-St dearest 


— vaena; 


vaBnna 


-ri; 


Ysenst 


-stf 


'SL prettied. 



The word n)j6tt, mj6r, mj6, smaU, hit mj6fa does not 
modify the vowel, although it takes the shorter termination 
inj6rray mj6st. 

101. Some form their degrees in both manners, thus we 
meet with: 

djtipara, djtipari, djupast, -astf, -ust 

the shorter form almost always belongs to the old language. 

Several take the shorter form in the Comparative and the 
longer one in the Superlative, as: 

seint, seinna, seinast, 
sselt, ssella, sasllast; 
nytt, nfrra, nyjast. 

102. The following are quite irregidar: 



g68a, gott, hit g6da 

illt — ilia 

vAnt — v^nda 

mikit — mikla 

litis ^ — Hda 

mart (margf, mOrg) 

gamalt; . — gamla; 



} 



betra 
verra 

meira 
minna 
fleira 
r ellra 



bezt-a best 
verst-a worst 

mest-a greatest 
minnst-a least 
flest*) most 
ellst-a 
elzt-a ; 



eldest; 



eldra ; 

103. Some Compar. and superl. are formed from adverbs, 
prepos. and subst and have therefore no positive, as: 



(norSf) 


nyrSra 


nordast, nyrSst, 


northmost 


(austf) 


eystra 


austast 


eastmost 


(su8f) 


sy8ra 


sy8st (synnst) 


southmost 


(vestf) 


vestra 


vestast 


westmost 


(fram) 


fremra 


fremst 


foremost 


<aplf) 


eptra 


aptast, epzt 


aftermost 


(til) 


ytra 


yzt 


outmost 


(inn) 


innra 


innst 


inmost 



*) This is not used definitely except in the plural: hin mdrgu, 
hinir fleiri, hinar flestu mostly used by the moderns. 



28 



efzt 


highest 


neSst 


nethermost 


fyrst 


first 


siSast 


latest 


helzt 


ratherest 


se9st 


erst 


first 


farthest 


naest 


nearest. 



(of) efra 

(niif) neSra 

(for) fyrra 

(sl5) sldara 

(heldf) heldra 

(aSr) ieSra 

(fjarri) ifirr) 

(nd-) (najr, naerr) 

Fremra and si9ara, have a regular positive, with different 
significations : 

framt, framr, frdm, excellent, valiant (poetically); 
sitt, sl9f, si9, shallow, flat. 

104. Adjectives which have no positive, receive no corn-- 
parisons, as allt (96) and those ending in -i, or -a (97) as 
well as the Pres. part. pass, in -andi. But these words can 
yet be increased or decreased by means of the adverbs: 

meir, mest, or heldf, helzt, or: minnf (miSf )^ 
minnst (minzt), si9f, sizt. 



111. Pronouns. 



105. The first two personal 
is commonly used as the plural, 
in the high style. 

Sing. 1. person 2. 

Norn, ek (eg) 
Gen. mik (mig) 
Dat. uier 
Aec. min 


pronouns 
whilst the 

person 

)ik (l)ig) 

)er 

)ln 


have a 
latter 


[ dual, which 
only occurs 

3. person 

sik (sig) 

ser 

sin 


Dual Plural 

Norn, vit (vi9) ver 
Gen. okkf oss 
Dat. okkf oss 
Ace. okkar v^r; 


Dual Plural 

|)it t)er 
ykkf y9r 
ykkf y9r 
ykkar y9var 


Plural 

sik (sig) 

ser 

sin 



The third person has neither Nom. nor Plural which are replaced 
by the defin. pron. t)at, s^, si^, which is thus dechned: 

Nom, hann hon (htin) 

Gen. hann hana 

Dat. h^num (om) henni 

Ace. bans hennar. 



29 



106. From the Accusative of the personal pronoun, are 
formed seven possessive pronouns: 



1"* person Sing. 


mitt 


minn 


min (mine) 


2 * - 


))itt 


t>in 


})fn (thine) 


S'** . . 


sitt 


sinn 


sin (his) 


1"' - Dual 


okkart 


okkarr 


okkur (your) 


2«* - 


ykkart 


ykkarr 


ykkur 


1"' - Plural 


vArt 


vArr 


vAr 


2"* - 


y8vart 


yJvarr 


y8ur 



The three first are declined like the article (74) only they 
receive a double t in the Neutr. and an accent, when an n 
follows the t, as: mins, mlns, minnar. The four last 
pronouns are decUned like indefinite adjectives, but they only 
take n (instead of an) in the Gen. Masc. as: okkarn (not 
okkran), varn (not varan) etc., but the two syllabic 
ones contract as usual, Dat. okkru, okkrum, okkarri. 

107. The demonstrative Pronoun is irregular: 

J)at, sd, si), that; j^etta, t)essi, ))essi, this; 
hinn, bin, that, the other; declined thus: 



Sing. 


Norn. 


)at 


S^ I 


5li 


)etta 


)essi 


)essi 




Gen. 


)at 


)ann 


>^ 


)etta 


>enna 


)essa 




Dat. l)vi 


)eirii 


)eirri 


)essu 


)essum 


3essi (-arri) 




Ace. t)ess 


)ess 


)eirrar 


)essa 


)essa 


)essar(-arrar) 


Plur. 


Nom. 


)au 


ieir 


)aer 


)essi 


)essir 


)essar 




Gen. 


)au 


)^ 


>aer; 


)essi 


)essa 


)essar. 




Dat. 


[)eiMi 




))essuD 




Ace. 




})eirra 






l)essan 


ra. 



and the article hil, hinn, bin (74) which very frequently 
drops the A and forms in it, inn, in, or even et, enn, en. 
These are all used as dem. pronoun, but the t is doubled in 
the n. g. as hitt, hinn, bin, nor is the h dropped or the 
e added, as its pronunciation sounds purer and more emphati^c. 

108. Relative and interrogative pronouns, are with the 
exception of er and sem, the same, as: 

hvArt (hvort), hvArr, hvftr, which of the two 
hvert, hverr, hver, which of many 
bvilfkt, what like, of what kind 

both decUned as the indef. Adjectiv; only that they take in the 



30 

m. g. Gen. n instead of -an; and hvert inserts/, when the 
ending begins with the vowels a or u, as: 

Gen. hvert, hvern, hverja; 
Dot. hverju, hverjum, hverri. 

The Skalds use in m. g. Gen. hverjan, every one. 
Deckmion of hvort (hvdrt): 

Neut Masc. Fern. Neut Masc, Fern, 

Sing. Norn, hvort hvorr hvor hvert hverr hver 

Ace. hvort hvom hvora hvert hverjan hverja 

Dat. hvoru hvorum hvorri hverja hverjum hverri 

Gen. hvors hvors hvorrar hvers hvers ' hverrar 

Plur. Norn, hvor hvorir hvorar hver hverir hverjjlr 

Ace. hvor hvora hvorar hver hverja hverjar 

Dot. hvorum hvorum hvorum hverjum hverjum hverjum 

Gen. hvorra hvorra hvorra hverra hverra hverra. 

109. There is also m the old norsk language a separate 
form for the interrogative pronoun what; it is thus decUned: 

Neuter g. Common g. 

Sing, hvat hverr (hvarr) 

hvat hvern (hvarn) 

hvi hveim 

hvess hvess ; 

in common speech vhat is only used a as pron. and hvi, as 
an Adjective. 

110. The indefinite Pronoun is partly primitive, partly de- 
rived from other interr. pron. Primitive is: 

eitt, einn, ein, one, each one, alone; sometimes it is 
declined like vsent (94) except that nt in n. g. takes tt, and 
that the Gen. m. g. has a double form as: 

einn and einan. 

111. Annat {aliud, alterum, secundum) the one, the se- 
cond, another, 

has a very irregular declension, thus: 

Sing. Nom. annat annarr onnur 

Gen. annat annan a9ra 

Dat. 08ru 58rum annarri 

Ace. annars annars annarrar 



31 

Plur. Norn. Onnur aSrir aSrar 

Gen. Onnur aira afirar 

Dot. Oonim 

Ace. annarra. 

It wants the definite form, and retains the indefinite ; although 
it stands before the article 

112. BseSi, both, is only used in the Plural: 

Nom. bseSi bdSir bdSar 

Gen. bae8i b^9a b^8ar 

Dot. hAium b^8um baSum 

Ace. beggja beggja beggja. 

113. The most important of the derivatives are: 

hv^rtveggja, hvArrtveggi, hvArtveggja, each one 
oftu)o;boih parts are declined: hv^rt (like 108) and tveggja 
like an adj. in defin. form, therefore in Plural: 

hv^rtveggju, hv^rirtveggju, hv^rartveggju etc. 

Anna|)v^rt, annarrhvArr, Onnurhvdr, one of 
two J one part of many parts j has also a double declension, 
particularly in the Sing. ; in the newer language the last part 
is mixed with hvert^ and is therefore generally met with an 
inserted j\ as : 

oSruhverju for oSruhvAru etc. 

We also find: [other 

hvart (or hvat) annat, hv^rr annan, hv^r aSra, eatA 
and hvert annat, hverr annan, hver aSra 

or in Plur. hvert Onnur, hverr a5ra, hver aSrar 

in this case it is not compounded. 

Hv^rigt, hv^rigr (or hvdrugt etc.), hv^rig {none 
of fhe two, no part of the other) is declined Uke an Adjective 
indefinite form. 

Sitthvat, or sitthv^rt, sinnhvarr, sinhv^r {each 
his own, each one's) is used divided, but sitt stands first. More 
frequently one meets: 

sitthvert, sinnhverr etc. as: })eir lita sinn i vher- 
ja att, each looks to his ovm side. 

114. Without reference to two, is used: 

eitthvat (Germ, etwas) some, or: 
eitthvert, einnhverr, einhver. 



32 

l\5. Nokkut (danish noget) any, is contracted from 
Dak and hvert, hvat or hvart, in which ve or va is con- 
tracted into u; this has many forms, of which we give the old- 
est and most correct one. 

Sing, Norn, nakkvart nakk?arr nOkkur or nokkor 

Gen, nakkvart nakkvaru nakkvara or nokkora 
Dot. nOkkuru nOkkurum nakkvarri 

Ace, nakkvars nakkvarrar 

Phir. Norn, nOkkur nakkvarir nakkvarar 

Gen. nOkkur nakkvara nakkvavar 

' ^ 

Dot, nOkkurum 

Ace, nakkvarra. 

In n. g. also nakkvat, if derived from hvat, Dat. nOkkvi 
Sometimes nOkkut, nOkkurr, nOkkur, 
and often nokkut, nokkurr, nokkur, 

which has been adopted in the modern language. The two 
last forms are also abridged by the moderns as: 

Dat. nokkru, nokkrum, nokkurri 

116. The negative pronoun is a compound of eitt, einn, 
ein and the negative termination -gi, -ki, which also takes 
many irregular forms; the oldest and most correct seem to be: 

Sing. Nom- ekki (for eitki) eingi eingi 

Gen, ekki eingan (eingi) einga 

Dot, eingu (einugi) eingum eingri 

Ace. eingis einkis einskis emgrar 

Plur. Nom, eingi eingir eingar 

Gen, eingi einga eingar 

Dot. eingum 

Ace, eingra 

The syllable eing is often found contracted into eng; 
thus in the Gen.: engan, enga; and this eng changes with 
dng, as: Ongan, Onga; or with an inserted v 

as: Ongvan, Ongva, 
Dat. Ongu, Ongum, Ongri, 
or even: Ongarri, Ace. Dngarrar, it also lengthens into 
aung, as: aungan, aunga, or aungvan, auugva. 

But in n. g. and m. g. Ace. occur the changes of ei, 
or i in the chief syllable, not Onkis, aunskis or others. 



33 



117. NumBrals* 



Cardinal Numbers. 

one eitt, einn, ein; 

two tvau (ivO), tveir, Ivar; 
three J)rji!i, J)rir, {irjar; 
fonr tjOgur, ij6rir, fjorar; 

five fimm; 

6 sex; 

7 sjau (sjO) ; 

8 ^tla; 

9 niu; 

10 tiu; 

11 ellifu; 

12 I6lf; 

13 t^rettan; 

14 tj6rtan; 

15 fimtan; 

16 sextdn; 

17 saiiljin (seyljan); 

18 ^tj^n; 

19 nftjjin; 

20 tutiugu; 

21 tultugu ok eitt etc.; 

30 Kj^t^u; 

40 Ijorutiu; 

50 fimtiu; 

60 sextfu; 

70 sjautiu(sjOlfu); 

80 dllatiu; 

90 niuliu; 
100 hundra9, tiutiu; 
110 hundraS oktiti, ellifuUu; 
120 h. ok tuttugu, st6rt h.; 
200 tvau hundraS etc. 
1000 )><!isund. 

118. The four first of the numeral pron. are declined. 
Eitt (see 110), the others in Ihe Plural thus: 

Plural Nom. tvau tveir tvaer ^v}^ [jrlr |)g5r 
Gen. tvau tvA tvaer jjjrii l)rja ^rjdr 

Dot. tveim (tveimr) ^nm (|)rimr) 

Aec. tveggja. ^nggj^* 

Icelandic Grammar. 3 



Ordinal Numbers. 

the first fyrsta, ^i, -a ; 

- Mcon(2 annat, annarr, Onnur; 

- third ^nija, J)ridi, ^riSja; 
4'** [jorda, -i, -a ; 
5*'' flmta, -i, -a; 
6*''sata, (sjotta); 
7*** sjaunda, sjOnda(sj(Uinda> 
8'** alta (Attunda) ; 
9"* nf unda ; 

10"' liunda; 

ll''»elliaa; 

12"' t6ma; 

13'" ^rettanda; 

14''»lj6rldnda; 

ly^ ilmtinda; 

16'" sexUnda; 

17*" sautjdnda (seytj^nda); 

18"'^ljanda; 

19'" nitj^nda; 

20'" tuttugasta; 

21*' tuttugasta ok fyrsta etc. 

30'" Jiritugasta ; 

40'" ferlngasta ; 

50'" fimtugasta; 

60'" sextugasta ; 

70'" sjautugasta (sjotugasta) ; 

80'" dttatugasta ; 

90'" nitugadta; 
100'" hundraSasta; 
110'" hundraSasta ok tiunda; 
120'" h. ok tuttugasta; 
200'" tvau hundraSasta ; 
1000'" )>a8undasta. 



34 

Plural Norn. QOgur fj6rir ij6rar 
Gen. fjOgur fi6ra ij6rar 

Dot. fjbrum 

Ace. Qogurra. 

119. Those compounded with -tiu, have often another form 
in -^t^ir^ "tigi as: t)rjdtigir, ^rjatigi, but are not further 
declined, as: t)rj^ligi ok fimm ^rum — Landn. pag. 2, still 
more visible in the noun tigr (tugi^, togr, tOgr), Plur. 
tigir, as: sex tigir, Sverriss. pag. 230 and ^tta tigir, Hk. 
3,357. — HundraS is a regular noun (55). The ancients al- 
most always reckoned by the great hundred (120) so that 
h^lft hundraS counted for 60 etc. I^dsund (j^tishund- 
raS) is irregular (62). 

120. From the ordinal Numbers are formed, those ending^ 
in 'tugt, -tugr, -tug (-togt or t6gt)^ 

and -rfl9«, -^od^r^ -ricS, as: 

the 2"** part: tvitugt, tugr, tug; the 8'^ part: ^ttroett, -roeSf, -roeS ; 



3'* - 


pritugr; 


9ti. 


' niroett; 


4.k . 


fertugt; 


lO'*^ 


- tiroBtt; 


5th _ 


fimtugt; 


l^th 


- ellifura^tt; 


6* - 


sextugl ; 


n^ 


- 6lfroett 


•Jth 


sjautugt (sjdtugt) ; 







The half is expressed by: h^lft, hdlfr, h^lf, as: h^lf- 
))ritugt, halffertogr etc. which points out that 5 has been 
deducted from the last ten, thus: 

halffertogr — 35, h^lf^ttroeSf = 75. 



The Verb. 

121. Verbs are divided like the substantives into two chief 
orders the T* or open^ with the vowel in its termination; 
2"'^ or closed^ with a consonant. 
The first has more than one syllable in the Imperfect, the 
second is monosyllabic. 

The open ofder is subdivided into 3 classes: 
1"^ CI. has three syllables in the Imperfect, with vowel a, 
2'"* CI. has two syllables in the Imperfect, with vowel t, 
3"' CI. has two syllables with change or modification of vowel 



•3S 

(it has in the 1'^ person us, but seems originally to have had 
the vowel u). 

The closed order has two manners of inflection. 

1"^ CI. the one in which the change of vowel takes place 
in the Indicative and Conjunctive of the Imperfect; the Part, 
takes the same vowel of the main syllable as the present tense. 

2"** CI. contains 'the modification of the vowel of the Im- 
perfect in the Part, with some exceptions. 

Each of these two conjugations is subdivided in three 
classes according to the modification of the vowel of the Im- 
perfect. There are therefore altogether 9 Conjugations in which 
every regular and irregular verb is included. 

122. The following table will show the distinctive feature 
of each: 

]. •pen irder. 

1" Form. 

Pres. Indie. Imperfect, Sup. 

V^ Class ek SBtla aetlaSa aeUat 
2"* - - heyri heyrSa heyi't 
S'* - - spyr spuria spurt. 

11. Closed Irder. 

2"'* Form. 

r^ Class ek drep drep drap drepit 
2"** - - rae8 r^8 rhi raSit 

d"* - - dreg drag dr6 dregit. 

S'^ Form. 

r^ Class ek renn rann PI. runnum runnit 
2'*' - - lit leit - litum hti8 

3ra . . byj bauS - bu8um bo8it. 

123. It must be borne in mind, that the Indicative and 
Conjunctive distinguish the Present and Imperfect, the Impe- 
rative is only used in the Present. 

The Infinitive and Participle are only single forms, but 
they are both declined like nouns. 

The Supine is the Participle in n. g. 

The Participles end generally in -st, in the oldest lan- 
guage in sk (an abbreviation of sik). 

3* 



36 



124. 



I** tpen Order. 

/*' Form. 



kalla, to caU; brenna, to bum; telja, to tell. 

i" Class. 2^ Class. 3'* Class. 



Indicative 




Active 


I. 




Pres. Sing. 


1. 


ek kalla 


brenni 


tel 




2. 


))ti kallar 


brennir 


telr 




3. 


hann kallar 


brennir 


telr 


Plur. 


1. 


ver koUum 


brennum 


teljum 




2. 


ler kallit 


brennit 


telit 




3. 


)eir kalla 


brenna 


telja 


Imp. Sing. 


1. 


ck kailaSa (i) 


brenda (i) 


talda (i) 




2. 


))i!i kallaSir 


brendir 


taldir 




3. 


hann kallaSi 


brendi 


taldi 


Plur. 


1. 


ver kolluSum 


brendum 


tOldum 




2. 


)er kolludut 


brendut 


toldut 




3. 


)eir kOUuSu 


brendu 


tOldu 


Conjunctivt 










Pres. Sing. 


1. 


ek kalla (i) 


brenna (i) 


telja (teli) 




2. 


)u kallir 


brennir 


telir 




3. 


lann kalli 


brenni 


teli 


Ph$r. 


1. 


ver kallim 


brennim 


telim 




2. 


>er kallit 


brennit 


telit 




3. 


)eir kalli 


brenni 


teli 


Imp. Sing. 


1. 


ek kallaSi (a) 


brendi (a) 


teldi (a) 




2. 


})i!i kallaSir 


brendir 


teldir 




3. 


hann kallaSi 


brendi 


teldi 


Plur. 


1. 


ver kallaSim 


brendim 


teldim 




2. 


)er kallaSit 


brendit 


teldit 




3. 


)eir kallaSi 


brendi 


teldi 


Imp. Sing. 


2. 


kalla (>8u) 


brenn (-du) 


tel (-du) 


Plur. 


1. 


kollum (ver) 


brennum 


teljum 




2. 


kallit (t)er) 


brennit 


telit 


Infinitive 


at kalla 


brenna 


telja 


Part. 




kallanda, i 


brennanda, ] 


i teljanda, i 


Sup. 




kallat. 


brent 


taht (talt). 



37 



i" Cbus. 



ar* Cktts. 3r* Clou. 



Indicative 


Passive. 




Pres. Sing. 


1. kallast 


brennist 


telst 




2. kallast 


brennist 


telst 




3. kallast 


brennist 


telst 


Plur. 


1. kollumst 


brennumst 


teljumst 




2. kallizt 


brennizt 


telizt 




3. kallast. 


brennast 


teljast. 


Imp, Sing. 


1. kallaSist 


brendist 


taldist 




2. kallaSist 


brendist 


taldist 




3. kallaSist 


brendist 


taldist 


Plur. 


1. kOlluSumst 


brendumst 


toldumst 




2. kOlluSuzt 


brenduzt 


t5lduzt 


1 


3. kOllnSust. 


brendust. 


tOldust. 


Conjunctive 


» 






Pres. Sing. 


1. kailist 


brennist 


telist 


^# 


2. kailist 


brennist 


telist 




3. kailist 


brennist 


telist 


Plur. 


1. kallimst 


brennimst 


telimst 




2. kallizt 


brennizt 


telizt 




3. kailist. 


brennist 


telist. 


Imp, Sing. 


1. kalladist 


brendist 


teldist 




2. kallaSist 


brendist 


teldist 




3. kallaSist 


brendist 


teldist 


Plur. 


1. kallaSimst 


brendimst 


teldimst 




2. kallaSizt 


brendizt 


teldizt 




3. kallaSist. 


brendist 


teldist 


Imp. Smg. 


2. kallast-u 


brend-u 


telst-u 


Plur. 


1 . kollumst (ver) 


brennumst 


teljumst 




2. kallizt ())er). 


brennizt. 


telizt 


Infinitive 


at kallast 


brennast. 


teljast. 


Part. 


(kallandist). 


(brennadist). 


(teljamdist). 


Sup. Pass. 


kallazt. 


brenzt 


talizt (talzt). 



125. Many of the personal terminations are unsettled, we 
have taken as the regular one those which have most claim 
to be called so. The 1"' Person Pres. has sometimes r, and 
becomes alike to the 2°'* and 3'*' Person, as: 
ek kallar, ek brennir, ek telr, 



38 

but the frequent and best use, as well as contractions, show 
the r to be spurious as 

kallag, brennig, telk, for kalla ek etc., 
hyggig, bykk for hygg ek etc. 

126. It is more correct to end the 1'* Pers. of the Im- 
perfect in -a, than in -i, for the preceding part of the verb 
has always those vowels which harmonize with a and not with 
i, except when t in the Present has been substituted by deri- 
vation and runs in every tense through the entire word, as 
brenni, from brann. 

127. The 1*" Pers. of the Conj. Present is also more 
correctly ended in a than i, but both are frequently used, and 
good manuscripts prefer in certain cases the -t. 

Abbreviations like hug5ak (Lodbrkv. 24) munak (Snorra 
E. 35) also prove the termination -a. 

The 1** Person Plural has -«w, in harmony with the other 
termination, and by a general use of the ancients; in the mo- 
dern language this person has been changed into -um as the 
Indicative (kollum, brennum, teljum). 

128. The r' Pers. of the Conj. Imp. has sometimes -a 
instead of t in ancient writers, chiefly used by the Skalds; 
but it is less correct considering the vowel of the chief syllable. 
It is therefore less correct to say vek])a ek than vekti ek 

bse^a ek - bseSi ek 
(Snorra E. 97) except the third person be taken, which could 
perhaps be placed in the T^ pers., as is done in the oriental 
languages. 

It is however always correct in the plural that the 1"^ pers. 
should terminate in -im^ the 2°'' in -tY, although, -i^m, ut, is 
to be met with in more recent Mss. In all verbs, (except the 
1"^ Class) with the modification of vowel in the principal syl- 
lable, which requires the termination -i, as: 

kOlluSum, kdllu9ut, brendum, brendut, teldum, 
teldut. 
The 3'*^ Pers. is only *found in u, in the modern icelandic 
of the northern dialect, as: 

kolluSu, brendu, teldu 

although these forms have crept into all Mss. The two first 
pei*sons in -urn and -^ are generally wrong, even if they ap- 
pear in the Sagas or the Skalds. 



39 

129. It must be observed that the Imperative 1'^ and 2"' 
person harmonize with the Indicative Present. The third per- 
son is formed by the Conjunctive, as: Nj. 67: 

kollum karl enn skegglausal 

and Sverriss. S. 185: 

Tynom BirkibeinumI 

beri Svemr hlut verral etc. 

130. In reflective verbs the 1** Person Plur. -umst, is often 
seen, also in the 1"' Pers. Sing, as: 

eigi berjumst ek (Fms. 6, 25), 
ek hug5umst (Snorra E. 97). 

131. The terminations of the Plural drop in the 1^* Pers. 
-m, in the 2°** Pers. -t (8) if immediately followed by a pronoun, 
particularly in the Imperative, as: 

megu ver, megu |)it (Nj. 17), 
fOru verl fari her! 

132. The 1*' Class is very regular. Words which have no 
-a in the principal syllable take naturally no modification, as: 

ek skipa, ver skipum, ek skipaSa, ver skipudum, 

not even those which have ()>, change it into a, although the 
-ii termin., which seems to have occasioned the in the prin- 
cipal syllable, is dropped and terminates in -a, as: 

ekfjOtra, verfjotrum, e)( fjotrada, ver fji>tru5um, 
fj5trat. 

133. The other class has some irregularities, occasioned 
by the vowel -t in the Imperfect and Part., which is dropped 
if the consonant is the same as the root. The ancients make 
it single, where it was double as: 



*>yggi 

hnykki 

kippi 

kenni 


byg»a 
hnykta 
kipta 
kenda 


bygt 

hnykt 

kipt 

kent 


-g8r 
-klr 
-ptr 
-dr 


-g» 
-kt 

-pt 
-d 


stemmi 


stemda 


stemt 


-dr 


-d 


hvessi 


hvesta 


hvest 


-tr 


-t. 



134. The termination is still more influenced by the con- 
sonant of the root 

-ta after p, t, k, s, 



40 

-da afler h, 8 (changed into d) fl, gl, fn, gn, m, 
-8a after /*, g^ r and every vowel; with another consonant 
preceding t is dropped behind tt or t^ 
'd behind nd etc., 8 behind r8, as: 



steypi 


steypta 


steypi 


-pir 


.pi 


veiti 


veitta 


veitt 


-itr 


-it 


krcbki 


kroekta 


kroekt 


-ktr 


-kt 


laesi 


Isesta 


laest 


-sir 


-si 


kembi 


kembda 


keinbt 


-bdr 


-bd 


rei8i 


reidda 


reidt 


-ddr 


-dd 


efli 


eflda 


ent 


-Idr 


-Id 


nefni 


nefnda 


nefni 


-ndr 


-nd 


flsemi 


flieuida 


flaemt 


-uidr 


-md 


deyO 


deyfda 


deyft 


-f8r 


-f8 


vigi 


vig8a 


vigi 


-g8r 


-g8 


laeri 


Iaer8a 


laeri 


-r8r 


r8 


)jai 


)ja8a 


)a8 


.8r 


-8 


hitti 


litta 


litt 


-itr 


-tt 


vaenli 


vsenta 


vseni 


-ir 


-t 


heimti 


heimta 


heiuit 


-ir 


-i 


sendi 


senda 


sent 


-dr 


-d 


virSi 


vir8a 


virt 


-8r 


-8. 



135. Those in -Ig, -ng, receive in some Mss. -Igia, -ngUa; 
in others -Igda^ -ngda; as fylgda, tengda (Fms. 7) — 
Those in I, n receive partly -da, partly -ta, as: fell, fell da 
(felda); maeli, maelta, s]fni, s]fnda; raeni, raenta. 

136. Those whose lasi consonant is g or ^, even with 
another consonant, preceding, do not always drop the t, but 
change it into j\ which they retain before the terminations -a 
and -K, as: 

byggi, ver byggjum, l)eir byggja, at byggja, 
byggjanda; likewise: 

ek fylgi, ver fylgjum; ek syrgi, ver syrgjum; 

ek teingi, ver ieingjum; ek fylki, ver fylkjnm; 
ek merki^ ver merkjum. 

137. It will be observed thai this class does not modify 
ihe vowel, having already received the modification in the first 
person (-t), which is transmitted without regard to ihe ter- 
mination. In some words this is not accidental; it seems as if 



41 



the characteristic letter should be e; these words have other 
irregularities, the most important of them are: 

dusi at diiga dugdka Conj. dyg8i du^at 

vekti 



vaki 
kaupi 
K>li 
)ori 
uni 
vari 
triii 
nae 

1^ (lj«) 



- vaka 
' kaupa 

- |)ola 

- |)ora 

- una 

- vara 

- trila 

- na 

- Ija 



vakta 

keypta - keypti 

l)olda - J)yldi 

t)or5a - {)yr8i 

unda - yodi 

var8a or vara8a-i varat 

tnifia Conu'. try8i truat 

na8a - nse8i nad 

1^8a - 1^8i 1^8. 



vakit -inn -in 
keipt -tr -t 
)olat 
)orat 
unal 



138. To this class belongs the auxilliary verb „hefi 
to have: 



u 



Indicative, 

Present. Sing, 1. hefi 
2. 3. hefir 

Plur. 1. hofum 

2. hafit 

3. hafa 

Imperf. Sing. 1. haf8a 

2. hafdir 

3. haf8i 

Plur. 1. hOfSum 

2. honSiit 

3. hOfSu. 

Imperat. Sing. 2. haf-8u 
Plur. 1. hDfum 
2. hafi8 



Conjunctive. 

Present. Sing. 1. hafa 

2. hafir 

3. hafi 

Plur. 1. hafim 

2. hafit 

3. hafi 

Imperf. Sing. 1. hef8i 

2. hef8ir 

3. hef8i 

Plur. 1. hefSim 

2. hef8it 

3. hef8i. 

Infinit. at hafa 
Part, hafanda, i 
Sup. haft, .f8r, hOfS. 



139. Sometimes the modification of a vowel appears in 
the Present: 



Sing. 1. vaki 
2. 3. vakir 

Plur. 1. v5kum 

2. vakit 

3. vaka; 



nae veld 

naer veldr 

nam (for naum) vOldum 
nait valdit 

na (for n^a); valda. 



42 



Veld is one of the most irregular verbs: Imperf. olli, 
Conj. ylli, Sup. valdit, now ollat, Infin, valda (only 
olla). In the Supine differs: lifi, lif9i, lifat. 

140. The third Class is monosyllabic in the Present 
Sing., but takes a -j before the finals in -a, -t«. In the Im<- 
perfect it has like the preceding -fa, -da, or 9a, but more 
regularly da after I, n. In the Part. Past, it has sometimes 
the shortened sometimes the mixed form (95). The Imperfect 
and Part. Past, has only a double modification of vowel, either 
e into a, or y into u, as: 

at glepja glapta glepli 



glep 

let 

vek 

kve5 

vel 

ven 

tem 

kref 

ber 

flyt 
lyk 
l>ys 

rv8 

hyl 

styn 

rym 

tygg 

spyr 



let)a latta letti 

vekja vakti vekti 

kvedja kvaddi kveddi 

velja valda veldi 

venja vanda vendi 

temja tamda temdi 

krelja kraf9a krefSi 

leggja laggSa leg8i 

berja barda ber9i 

fiytja flulta flylti 

lykja lukta lykti 

J)ysja |)usta J)ysti 

rydja rudda ryddi 

hylja hulda hyldi 

stynja stunda styndi 

rymja rumda rymdi 

tyggja tugSa tygSi 

spyrja spurSa spyrSi 

lyja liiSa ly8i 



glapit (glapt), to lead astray 

latt, 

vakil, 

kvadt, 

valit, 

vanit, 

tamit, 

krafit (kraft), 

(lagit) lagt, 

barit (hart), 

fiiutt, 

lukt, 

t)ust, 

rudt, 



to let 
to waken 
to take leave 
to chose 
to wean 
to tame 
to crave 
to lay down 
to smite 
to carry 
to shut to 
to rush on 
to root out 
to hide 



(hull) hulit, 
(stunt) stunit, to groan 
rumt, to roar 

tuggit, to chew 

spurt, to ask 

Itiit (lil8), to hammer. 



141. Irregular in the Sup. is: hygg, hugSa, hugat. 
The five following do not change the vowel: 

set at setja setta setti sett, to set 

selda soldi 

skilda skildi 

vilda vildi 

fl^Sa flySi 

of these vil is found in the ancient Manuscripts in the 2"' 
^and S'** person: vill (for vilr) sometimes to tthe 2°** person 
villtu or vilt, modific. form Infin. vildu for vilja. 



sel 


- selja 


skil 


- skilja 


vil 


- vilja 


flj 


- fljja 



selt, to sell 

(skilt) skiht, to separate 

viljat, to will 

flyit, to fly. 



4a 



The five following ha?e in the Present: 



segi 
J)egi 
tykti 

yrki 
soeki 



at segja 

- tegja 

- l^ykkja 

- yrkja 

- scekja 



sagSa 
pagSa 
|)6tta 

{orta 
yrkta 
s6tta 



seg8i 


sagt, 


to say 


)eg5i 


J)3gat, 


to be silent 


)(£tti 


l)Ott, 


to think 


yrti 


ort 


to write verse 


yrkti 


yrkt 


to work 


soetti 


s6tt, 


to seek. 



142. Some are also irregular in the Present, where they 
become monosyll. ; and like the Imperfect of the closed order, 
they are: 



ann 

man 

kann 

man 

mun 

skal 

{larf 

& 

mk 

knd 

veit 



{: 



at unna 

- muna 

- kunna 

- mundu 
munu 
skyldu 
skulu 
l)urfa 
eiga 
mega 
knega 
vita 



unna ynni unt, 

munda myndi munat, 

kunna kynni kuunat, 

I munda | ™y»^! wanting 

I skylda skyldi wanting 

))urfta 
dtta 



matta 
knatta 
vissa 



J)yrfti 

8Btti 

maetti 
knsetti 
vissi 



l)urft, 

^tt, 

m^tt, 

(kndtt), 

vita5, 



I 
( 



to grant 
to remember 
to be able 

will, wotdd 

shall, ought 

to be needful 
to own 

to be able 
to know. 



A regular word unni, unta, ynti, unt must be di- 
stinguished from ann. For kn^ is also found knai, knaSa, 
kn^8. 



143. The 
verbs, that the 
the termination 
is t, chiefly in 
some words -ut 
by the ancient. 

Sing. 1. 3. 
2. 

Plur. 1. 
2. 
3. 



irregularities in the Present consist in these 

1"' and 3"* person are alike, the 2"** receives 

-t or -St in words in which the principal letter 

the word veit; the 2"^* pers. Plur. receives in 

or -fV, the 3"* pers. Plur. often receives -u (o) 

and -a by the modern writers, as: 



kann skal a 

kant skalt Ui 

kunnum skulum eigum 

kunnit skulut eigut (i) 

kunna. skulu. eigu (a). 



veit 
veizt 

vitum 
vitiS (a5) 
vita (u). 



44 



144. 11''' Closed Order. 




Jjn6 


form. 




gefa, to give; Idti 


1, ro to; fara, /o fare. 


1" Class. 


2^^ Class. 


3"^ Class. 


Indicative Active. 




Pres. Sing. 1. gef 


laet 


fer 


2. 3. gefr 


laetr 


ferr 


Plur. 1. gefum 


Idtum 


fbrum 


2. geQt 


latiS 


farit 


3. gefa 


lata 


fara 


Imp. Stng. 1. gaf 


l^t 


f6r 


2. gaft 


l^zt 


f6rt 


3. gaf 


i^t 


for 


Plur. 1. gafum 


l^tum 


fdruin 


2. gafut 


l^tuS 


f6rut 


3. gafu. 


ietu. 


fdni. 


Conjunctive 






Pres. Sing. 1 . gefa (i) 


l^ta (i) 


fara (i) 


2. gefir 


l^tir 


farir 


3. gefi 


lati 


fari 


Plur. 1. gefim 


l^tim 


farim 


2. geflt 


latiS 


farit 


3. gefi 


lati 


fari 


Imp. Sing. 1. gaefi (a) 


l^ti (a) 


foeri (a) 


2. gaefir 


l^tir 


foerir 


3. gaefi 


l^ti 


foeri 


Plur. 1. gaefim 


l^tim 


foerim 


2. gaefit 


l^tiS 


foerit 


3. gaefi 


l^ti 


foeri 


/wp. 5m^. 2. gef(-8u) 


Ut 


far 


Plur. 1. gefum 


l^tUIll 


ft>rum 


2. gefit 


Uti8 


farit 


Inf. at gefa 


laU 


fara 


Pan. gefanda, i. 


Utanda, i. 


faranda, i 


Sup. gefit. 


latiS. 


farit. 



45 





IIP* Form. 




brenna 


1, to bum; gr 


Ipa, to gripe; 


skj6ta. 




f^ Class. 


2"" aass. 


3'^ Class. 


Indicative 


P 


assi?e. 




Pres. Sing. 


1. brenn 


grip 


skyt 


2 


. 3. brennr 


gripr 


skytr 


Plur. 


1. breoDum 


gripum 


skj6tum 




2. brennit 


gripit 


skj6tid 




3. brenna 


gripa 


skj6ta 


Imp. Sing. 


1. brann 


greip 


skaut 




2. brant 


greipt 


skauzt 




3. brann 


greip 


skaut 


Plur. 


1. brunnum 


gripum 


skutum 




2. briinnut 


griput 


skutuS 




3. brunnu. 


gripu. 


skutu. 


Conjunctive 


1 


• 




Pres. Sing. 


1. brenna (i) 


gripa 


skj6ta (i) 




2. brennir 


gripir 


skjotir 




3. brenni 


gripi 


skj6ti 


Plur. 


1. brennim 


gripim 


skj6tini 




2. brennit 


gripit 


skj6ti8 




3. brenni 


gripi 


skj6ti 


Imp. Sing. 


1. brynni (a) 


gripi (a) 


skyti (a) 




2. brynnir 


gripir 


skytir 




3. brynni 


gripi 


skyti 


Plur. 


1. brynnim 


giipim 


skytim 




2. brynnit 


gripit 


skyti9 




'3. brynni 


gripi 


skyti 


Imp. Sing. 


2. brenn 


grip 


skjot 


Plur. 


1. brennum 


gripum 


skj6tum 




2. brennit 


gripit 


skj6ti5 


Inf. 


at brenna 


gripa 


skj6la 


Part. 


brennanda, i 


gripanda, i 


skj6tanda, i 


Sup. 


bninnit. 


gripit. 


skotit. 



145. As a singularity in the Conjugation of this closed Or- 
der, it must be noticed that those whose principal letter is- s, 



46 



take in the 2"' and 3"^ person not -r, but in the 2"' -t, and 
retain in the y^ the termination of the first, as: 

ek ies, ^ti lest, hann les. Imp. las. Sup. lesit; 
ek blaes, t)u blsest, hann blaes. Imp. bl^s; Sup. bl^sit; 
ek ris, ))i!i rist, hann ris, Imp. reis. Step, risit; 
ekfrys, J)tifryst, hannfrys, /mp.fraus, Sup.frosit. 

No doubt this belongs to the modern Icelandic language, not to 
the genuine old Norsk, in which the termination was without 
doubt r, contracted with s into ss: 

ek eys, |)u eiss (Lokagl. 4), hann eiss, ver ausum^ 

Imp. j6s. Sup. ausit. Also: 
ek vex, J)i!i vex (not ^u vext)^ Snorra E. 114, hann 

yex, sst. ver vOxum, Imp. y6x or 6Xj Sup. vaxit. 

The modern language applies this rule generally to those words^ 
whose principal letter is r as: 

eg fer, ))ii fer8, hann fer, for 
ek fer, ))i!i ferr, hann ferr, 

which is generally the rule in the ancient language. 

146. The 2"* form. If Class, contains some irregular 
verbs, as: 

trd5um 

kv^mum 

sv^fum 



ek tred at troSa tra8 



kem 

sef 

get 

get 

et 

veg 

ligg 



koma kvam 
sofa svaf 



geta 

geta 

eta 

vega 

hggja la -gum 

l>>gg - l>Jg«ial)^ -gum 
se - sja sa -m 



gat 
gat 
at -um 
v^ -gum 



gdtum 
g^tum 



traeSi 

kvsemi 

svsefi 

gaeti 

gaeti 

8eti 

vaegi 

laegi 

J)aegi 

saei 



troSit, 

komit 

sofit, 

getiJ, 

getaS, 

etiS, 

vegit, 

legit, 

l>egit. 



to tread 
to come 
to sleep 
to beget 
to talk of 
to eat 
to km 
to lie 
to receive 



s^d (s^5}, to see. 



For kvam etc. we find often kom-um, kaemi, rarely in the 
Imp. Sing, v^g, Hg, ))^g; the second person is )>i!i vdtt 
(Nj. 203), not vdgt. The word se shortens, when u follows 
after a, as: in the Pres. sjdim (ver), Hk. 1, 163, and in the 
Imperf. s^8 (})er), Nj. 8. Part. Pass, adds j before e or takes 
the accent, as: in n. g. s^t (or s^8), in m. g. s^nn (Fms. 
5, 249) or s68r, in f. g. s^n. 

147. To this class belongs also the auxiliary verb, ek 
em, / am: 



47 



Indicative: Conjunctive: 

Pres. Sing, ek em (er) / am, se 
])ti ert 
hann er 
Plur. ver erum 
|)er erut 
|)eir eru. 

Imp. Sing, ek var I was. 
))u vart 
hann var 
Plur. ver vArum 
)er vArut 



)eir vAru 



ser 

se 

sem 

seS 

se. 

vaeri (a) 

vaerir 

vaeri 

vserim 

vaBrit 

vaeri. 



Imperative: 

veri 

ver-tu (verir) 

veri 

verum 

vent 

veri. 

Infinitive: 
Pres. at vera 
Part, veranda, i 
Sup. verit 



148. Some have irregular modification of the vowels in 



the Supine, as: 

at nema 



nem 

bregS 

her 

sker 

stel 



bregda 
bera 
skera 
stela 



fel 



- fela 



nam 
br^ 
bar 
skar 
stal 
Jfal 

1 m 



namum 

brugSum 

bdrum 

sk^rum 

stdlum 

fdlum 

f6lum) 



naemi 

brygSi 

baeri 

skaeri 

staeli 

faeli 



numit 

bnigSit 

borit 

skorit 

stolit 

falit I 

f61git/ 



149. The second class has but few irregularities, these are 



heit 

heiti 

h^ngi 

geing 

f» 



at heita 

- heita 

- hanga 

- g^nga 

- f^ 



h^t -um -i 
h^t -um -i 
h^kk 
g^kk 
f^kk 



hengum -i 
gengum -i 
fengum -i 



heitii 

heiti5 

h^ngit 

gengit 

fengit. 



150. Several belonging to this class are quite irregular in 
the Imperfect: # 

ny ni!ia nera -rum -ri ntiit 

sny sniia snera (Nj. 95) -rum -ri sndit 

roe r6a rera -rum -ri roit 

grcB groa grera -rum -ri gr6it 

they are conjugated according to the first form, namely 2*"* pers. : 
nerir, 3'^ neri etc. In the old language we often find ^ 
or ey for e^ in the new language e, as: n^ra or n^ri, sn^ri, 
etc. The word raeS, which is regular in the old language, 
forms in the new the Imperfect with additional i, r^Si. 



48 

151. The third Class has the following irregularities: 

{svar8i svttrSum sverSi I gygpjj 
s6r sdrum scBri I ' 



svaer 


sverja 


stend 


standa 


slse 


sM 


flse 


fl^ 


hlse 


hlaeja 


dey 


deyja 


spy 


spyja 



to swear 



sto8 -urn st(£5i staSit, to stand 

sl6 -gum sloBgi slegit, to strike 

fl6 -gum floegi flegit, to flay 

hlo -gum hloegi hlegit, to laugh 

d6 'gum da3gi ddit, to die 

spj6 -m — spiiit, to spit. 

In the Sing. Imperf. we find, although rarely 

sl6g, flog, I6g, d6g. 

The g is more frequently dropped in the Plur. of the Conj. 
Imperfect, as: 

sl6um, d6n, hlosi (Fms. 2, 152). 

152. Some verbs are quite irregular in the plural of the 
Imperfect, Indicative and Conjunctive, as: 

6x uxum yxi vaxit, to wax, grow 

jok jukum jyki . aukit, to increase 

j6s jusum jysi ausit, to sprinkle 

hlj6p hlupum blypi hlaupit, to run, urge 

bj6 bjuggum bjyggi bilit, to dweU 

hj6 hjuggum hjyggi hOggvit, to hew. 

We also find 6xum, hlj6pum, hut this form is spurious, 
as the Conjunct, oexi, hljoepi is not used, hut only yxi, 
hlypi, which presupposes in the plur. of the Indicat. uxum, 
hlupum. 

153. The r' form of the 3'** Class has also the following 
irregular verbs: 

finn (inna fann fundum fyndi fundit, to find 

bind binda batt bundum byudi# bundit to hmd 

vind vinda vatt undum yndi undit to wind 

sting stinga stakk stilngura styngi sttingit to sting 
spring sprlngasprakk spnlngum spryngi sprilingit, to split 

geld gjalda gait guldum gyldi goldit, to beworth, pay 

skelf skjdlfa skalf skulfum skylfi skolfit, to shake 

hverf hverfa hvarf hurfum hyrfi horfit, to diminish. 

The last are regular with the exception of tlie accent in skj ^ 1 f a , 
such is also the auxilliary verb: 

ek ver5, at verSa, var8, ur5um, yr9i, orSit. 



vex 


vaxa 


eyk 


auka 


eys 


ansa 


hlevp 


hiaupa 


b^ 


bi)a 


hOgg 


hOggva 



49 

Host of the regular verbs have o in the first syllable of the 
Sup.; only those which have n after the vowel, receive ti; also 

drekk, drakk, drukkit 

because kk stands here for nk or n§k (38). 

154. The second class is very regular. But the Verbs in 
-t^ have in the Imperfect not only -et^, but also the 2*^ form 
of the 2 ** Class in e, with a dropped g, as: 

Likewise: vik, vikja, veik or v^k (Paradism. S. 2t8). 

155. The third class is also very regular; only a few have 
^ in the Imperfect ; occasioned by a double Consonant following 
it, which is pronounced hard. Some in -ng take in the first 
syllable of the Sup. afler a vowel u. These oUjght to be added 
to those which take in the Imperfect; but the extension of 
all vowels before -ng (34) is the reason that they generally 
take -an, as: 

sukk sokkva sdkk sukkum sykki sokkit, to sink 

stokk stOkkva stokk stukkum stykki stokkit, to leap. 

hr5kk hrOkkva hrOkk hrukkum hrykki hrokkit, to move quickly 

is^ug syngja saung stingum s^ngi sangit,K^^j. 

\syng syngva- sOng sungum [ syngi sungit, ( 

Thus also slyng, slaung (Helgakv. Hundb. I. V. 33); slun- 
gil, and J>rjng, ))raung, t)r6ngit, which are however 
antiquated poetical words. 



Auxiliary Verbs. 

156. lliese auxiliary verbs are used to supply the wanting 
tenses by periphrase; they are very simple in the Old Norsk, 
and were less frequently in use than in the Danish, otherwise 
they are about the same. 

Future periphr. man (mun) and skal; 
Future preterite, munda, skylda; 
Perfect, hefi, em (er); 
Pluperfect. hafSa, var, 

f. i. with the auxiliary verbs em and verS. 

Icelandic GnuDmar. 4 



50 



Indicative 

Fut. periph. ek man vera ek 

- skal vera 
Fut. preter, - munda vera 

- skylda vera 
Perfect. - hefi verit 

Pluperfect. - hafSa verit 



Conjunctive 

Fut. periph. ek muna (i) vera ek 

- skula (i) vera 
Fut. preter* - myndi (a) vera 

- skyldi (a) vera 
Perfect. - hafa (i) verit 

Pluperfect. - hef8i (a) verit 

Derivative Forms 

Ind. Fut. per. (at) munda vera (at) 

- skyldu vera 
Perfect. - hafa verit 

Part. Perf. - hafanda verit. 

The Part. Perf, was rarely used. 



157. 
Indicative 

Pres. ek 

Imp. - 

Future. - 

Fut. pret. - 

Perf - 

Pluperf. - 

Conjunctive 

Pres. ek 

Imp. - 

Future. - 



man verda 
skal ver9a 
munSa ver8a 
skylda ver8a 
hefi orSit 
em orSinn 
hafSa or5it 
var ordinn. 

muna (i) verSa 
skula (i) verSa 
myndi (a) ver8» 
skyldi (a) ver3a 
hafa (i) orSit 
se ordinn 
hefSi (a) orSit 
vaeri (a) or8inn 

munda ver9a 
skyldu ver8a 
hafa orSit 
vera orSinn 
hafandi orSit 
hafanSi orSinn. 



Passive. 

em (er) kallaSr 
var kalladr 
man (ver8a) kallaSr 
munda (verSa) kallaSr 
hefi verit kalla9r 
hafSa verit kallaSr 



se kallaSr 

vaeri (a) kallaSr 

muna (i) [verSa] kallaSr 



talinn etc. 

talinn 

talinn 

talinn 

talinn 

talinn 



talinn 
talinn 
talinn 



51 



kallaSr talinn 
aSr talinn 



Fut. preU - myndi (a) [verSa 
Perf. - hafa (i) verit kal 
Pluperf. - hefSi (a) verit kalladr talinn 

Derivative Forms 

Ind. Fut. per. at vera kalladr talina 

Perf. - mundu [verSa] kallaSr talinn 

Pluperf. ' hafa verit kallaSr talinn 

These periphrase forms are rarely used in the order we have 
given, they are partly separated, partly transposed hy inserted 
words. 

Skal is used in an obligatory and assured sense. After 
man or skal — ver8a or vera is frequently left out. Vera 
is used for the present time, which has begun, ver9a, for the 
future time, which is now beginning, man and skal for the 
future time, not yet begun. 

158. The Passive form in -st, has also derivatives, as: 

ek man kallast teljast 

- munda kallast teljast 

- hefi kallazt tahzt 

- hafSa kallazt tahzt etc. 

¥. Particles. 

159. This class of words, generally not inflected, take a 
comparison, they form the Comparative in -a, the Superlative 
in -ast; some have shorter forms in -r, -st: 



opt 


optar 


optast 


often 


titt 


tiSar 


ti9ast 


dosely 


vf8a 


vfSar 


vidast 


widely 


norSr 


nordar 


nordast 


northerly 


skamt 


skeuir 


skemst 


shortly 


leingi 


leingr 


leingst 


long ago. 


160. Some 


are irregular 


or imperfect 


• 

• 


vel 


betr 


bezt 


good 


ilia 


verr 


verst 


had 


mjok 


meir 


mest 


mudi 


lltt 


minnr (mi5r) 


minnst 


little 


gjarua 


heldr 


helzt 


rather 


tiii 


utar 


yzt 


without 

4* 



52 

inni iDnar innst within 

uppi ofar (efra) ofarst (efst) up 

niSri neSar neBst beneath. 

The n. g. of the adjective in the 1'* and 2"** degree has often 
two forms with different significations as: 

utar, outside (opposite the door, but visible), 
ytra, without (out of sight), 
leingr and skemr, shorter, only of time, 
leingra and skemra, skorter^ only of place. 



The Formation of Words. 

161. The formation of words, much resembles the Dani^, 
but it is more lively, richer and more certain. We do not 
intend to enter here into a minute disquisition, but one of the 
chief sources of derivation deserves attention, it is the Imper- 
fect of the 2*"^ Order. From the plural are derived : 

162. A) Nouns, such as: 

dr^p, from drep, drap, dripum; 

ndm from nem, nam, namum; 

fengr from fae, f^kk, fengum; 

soeri from sver, s6r; 

hloegi from hlse, hlog; 

fundr from finn, fann, fundum; 

spriinga from spring, sprakk, sprdngum; 

hvarf from hverf, hvarf; 

stig from stig, steig, stigum; 

bit from bit, beit, bitum; 

saungr (sOngr) from s^ng, saung (sOng). 

Sometimes there is no difference at all, and the noun 
seems to be the genuine old Imperfect, as: 

bragS from bregS, bra; 
bod from b]f8, bauS; 
skot from skyt, skaut. 

The plural brugfium seems to be formed from bragS and 
not from bra; also stigum from stig, not from steig, 
bitum from bit, not from beit; buSum, Conj. form bySi, 
from bo8, not from bau5; skutum, Conj. form skyti. 



53 

from skot, not from skaut. Related languages show the 
same, as for instance the english 

I bite, hit, I shoot, shot, with a bit, a shot, as nouns; 
such is also the german: 

beisse, biss, schiesse, schoss and the nouns: Biss, Schuss, 
Sometimes the German language lengthens the vowel as in 

steige, stieg; hiete, bot; 

but even these lengthened Imperfects harmonize with the Old 
Norsk nouns: 

stig, bo8, not steig, bau8. 

But transitions occur from 

ei into t 

au (ey) into o iu) 

even in the old norsk formation of words, as: 

veik-t — vik-na; baugr, beygi — bogi, bugr. 

163. B) Adjectives which show in the Active as well as 
Passive that the extention of the verb is possible. These are 
so much more remarkable, as they have entirely disapeared 
in the modern language, as: 

draep-t, draep-r, draep, what one may kiU; 
nsem-t, to take easily, contagious, 

^ - f e n gr, which is easily received, goes into the head, intoxicates; 
al-geng-t, (german gdng und gdbe) current, usual, from 

geng, gekk, gengum; 
foer-t, navigable, from fer, for; 
upp-tcek-t, takeable, from tek, t6k. 
fleyg-t, (german flUgge) fledged, from fl^g, flaug; 
neyt-t, useful, from n^t, naut etc. 

164. C) Verbs, which instead of the unobjective take the 
active signification, or if the root were active they take the 
figurative signification as: 

svasfi, to fall asleep, from sef, svaf, sv^fum; 

sa^ti, to watch, from sit, sat, s^tum; 

haengi, to hang up, from hangi, hekk, hengum; 

felli, to fell, from fell, fell-um; 

breyti, to alter, from bryt, braut; 

neyti, to eat etc. 



54 



Syntax. 

165. In the position of sentences the Old Norsk resembles 
the Danish, but the definite inflection to which the ancients 
paid great attention, gave them greater scope and freedom in 
the composition of the sentence. — The most remarkable differ- 
ence of this kind is the custom of placing the verb, particu- 
larly the Imperfect, before the noun or pronoun, as: 

kalladi Njall [letta lOgvOrn; — 

vara f ^essu J)^ margir hOfSingjar; — 

ok f^kst {)at af; 

gengu hvdnrtveggju J)^; — 

rida {)eir mi heim. 

166. The numeral pronouns up to 29 are always added to 
the noun as adjectives, whether declinable or not, as: 

J)rir islenzkir menu; fimt^n boendr; tuttugu skip 
(HK. 3, 344), 
but 30 and the higher decimals govern the word in the Ace. as: 

prj^tigi skipa; sextigi heiSingja (Fms. 6, 61); 
tfutigi manna (Fms. 7, 303). 

The reason of this is, that the last part of this compound is 
a noun (119) as with 

hundraS as: prju hundru5 nauta. 

167. The Verbs frequently govern the Gen. as in other 
languages, often the Dat. and Ace. Some govern two cases, 
two Gen., two Dat. or Gen. and Dat., Dat. and Ace. etc. 

One of these rules has such expansion that we must spe- 
cify it; it is this: a number of verbs govern the Dative, showing 
that a thing changes place and position, without being changed 
in its own basis, as: 

sn^, vendi, fleygi, kasta, sk^t, lypti, dreifi, sdi, 
st^ri, raeS etc. 

Some take the Gen. in a different signification, as: 

hann skaut Oru til mannsins; but: 
'skj6ttu manninn l)ann hinn mikla. 

All Verbs which express a use, assistance, injury, saying etc. 
govern the Dative, some of them take two Datives, as: 

hann lofaii henni ))vi; hon svaraSi h^num t)vi. 



55 

Prep^sitUns. 

168. The following govern the Genitive: 

um (of), over umfram, before 

umhverfis, round about framyfir, over 

i gegnum, through, by framundir, against, 

also a great many combinations with um, as: 
ttt um, out of, outside, 
inn um; yfir um, f hring um (around in a ring), 

and those signifying a position, as: 

fyrir norSan, fyrir sunnan, fyrirofan, fyrirneS- 
an, fyrir utan, fyrir innan, also fyrir handan ^na. 

169. The Dative govern: 

af, of h]A, by 

fr^, from ^mt, together with^ 

Or, yr, ur, or, out gagnvart, above 

undan, out of m6t, A moti, i m6ti, against, 

imth some combinations, as: 

lit af, upp frd, fram or, A undan (before), 

framhjd, by, over) 

1 gegn, against; 

A hendr, against, in opposition; 

til ban da, for, for the best; 
also: nsBr, naerri, fjarri, near, yet. 

170. The Accusative govern: 

til, to milium, A milli, A me5al, between 

an, on, without f sta6 (bans), instead of (his) 
utan, out of sakir (fyrir sakir) j 
innan, within sOkum > by means of, 

auk, without vegna J 

and the composita with me gin, as: 

b^8um megin, on both sides, 

oSrum megin, binum megin, on each side, 

J)essum megin, on this side, 

Ollum megin, on all sides, 

171. The Genitive and Dative govern: 

a, on eptir, behind 

f, to, in fyrir, for 

meS, with undir, under 

vi6, with, by, against yfir, over. 



58 

and a great number of combinations with short, local adverbs, as: 

upp a, i!it i, fram me5, i staSinn fyrir, inn undir, 
ut yfir etc. 

172. The preposition at governs three cases: 

1) the Genitive in the signiOcation y, after ''^ (oh sol ore), 

2) the Dative in the sign. „to, towards" used of things, 
places and time „at sumri, toioards summer, 

3) the Ace. in the signification „ar, in."' 

173. It often happens that a preposition is found before 
a noun, without governing the same; in such a case the prep, 
belongs to the verb ; in reading one makes a short stop between 
prep, and noun. As: 

sv^ at (legar tok of hofudit, 

so that (it) straight took off the head. 

174. The preposition is often found behind the verb in 
relative sentences, chiefly where the demonstr. pronoun is not 
declined, as: 

Sverrir koniingr haf9i vids^t {>essi snoru, 
er {>eir aetludu hann I veida. 
The king Sverrir had seen the cord 
with which they thought to catch him. 

The prepos. -t is accented, but forms no composite with veiSa, 
as iveida is no word. 



Prosody. 

175* The old verse of the Skalds may be reduced to three 
Orders ; corresponding to the three manners of rhyme in which 
the chief poems of the old Icelandic tongue are written. 

They are all divided into sing-verses or strophes (vfsa» 
staka) which generally contain eight lines in each verse. 

These strophes are again divided into two halves (visu- 
helmingr) and each of these again into two parts (vfsu- 
fjorSiingr) which form the fourth part of the whole strophe. 

The separate lines or verses (vfsnorS) are generally 
short, the longest has but four feet, they all have the caesura. 



57 

176. Tlie two lines which form the fourth part, of the 
strophe are without exception united b; alliteration (letter- 
rhyme), this is a most essential part of the Icelandic versification. 
The nature of Alliteration demands that three woids should occur 
in these lines beginning with the same letter. One of these 
three words must stand at the beginning of the second line 
and is called the chief letter, the two others in the first line 
are governed by it, these are called the sub-letters. 

If the chief-letter be a compound as -sp, st etc., the sub- 
letters must correspond with it, but if the chief letter be a vo- 
wel or a diphthong the sub-letters may change the tone by 
another vowel, as: 

Stendr Angant^frs 

ausinn moldu 

salr f S^msey 

sunnanverSri. 

177. It is not always necessary that the chief-letter stands 
at the beginning of the hne, in short verses it often has a 
toneless word before it, indispensable for completing the sen- 
tence, these are called (mdlfylling) .^filling up the sentence", 
such are or, sem i etc. 

178. The Assonance or Line-rhyme, consists in the uc- 
cuiTence in the same Hne of two syllables, the vowels of 
which and the following cons, agree together. The one stands 
at the beginning, the other at the end of the syllable. It is 
called half-assonance when the vowels are different, and only 
the consonants agree. These two kinds of the Line-rhyme 
are thus divided; the first line of the quarter verse has the 
half-assonance, the second has the assonance, as: 

held-vild, in the first /me, 
veg-seg, in the second line. 

179. The final rhyme is the same as in the modern lan- 
guage, except that it is generally monosyllabic, and that the 
two lines united by the chief-letter rhyme together, as: 

Nii er hersis hefnd 
vi8 hilmi efnd, 
gengr lilfr ok Orn 
of Ynglings bOrn. 

180. Quantity is not observed, as all syllables may be long. 
The freeest and oldest kind of verse is the (fornyrBalag) 



58 

speechverse ; it has four long syllables, sometimes two with em- 
phasis, and if the verse permits it is followed by some short ones. 
The example of § 176 is quite regular without short syllables. 

181. The Heroic-poems (drottvaeBi) generally have the 
end-rhyme and the syllabic-rhyme. Regular lines, each with 
six long syllables, or three spondees, of which the two first 
change with dactyls. This is the verse used in most of the 
Sagas. It must be observed, that one meets sometimes a syl- 
lable in the oldest verses of this kind, before the chief-letter, 
which cannot be looked upon as „malfylling*', but which 
belongs^ to the verse to give it the right lenght, as: 



s^ttadu 


Arafn i 


Aausti 


of hrdd- 


solli 


gjalla 




~ " 


— ~ 



182. The Songs (rtinlienda) have also regular lines but 
they have both syllabic and final rhymes. The shortest verse 
of four syllables also has sometimes a syllable before the chief- 
letter, for the reason given, as: 

vi9 hllmi efnd. 

Jon Olafsen, who has written a treatise „on the old Icelandic 
Poetry" expresses the same opinion on pag. 68. 

A single short syllable is frequently found in the verse. 



PART 11. 



The Old Norsk Poetry and the Sagas. 

Iceland was formerly looked upon as the uUima Thuie 
of Virgil; it received the greater part of its population from 
Norway, where it first became known between the years 860 
— 870 through the skandinavian navigators Nadd-Odd, Gar- 
dar and Floeke. The last one called it Iceland in conse- 
quence of the masses of drift-ice which he found in all its 
creeks. 

The first settler was the Norweian In golf (870) who 
fled to the iceland with his retinue and relations from King 
Harald Hdrfager who after having subdued the other petty 
kings of Norway, obtained supreme power by levelling taxes on 
all the freeholds of the nobles, whom he in reality reduced 
to tenants, and all those who would not submit to this usurped 
authority, emigrated to Iceland, and thus within 60 years the 
habitable shoreland of the isle was taken possession of. 

As most of these emigrants were the freest and noblest 
men of Norway, some of royal descent, others from the flower 
of the aristocracy, they continued their old mode of hfe in 
their new home, and Iceland became an aristocratic republic. 
They brought with them their language, the Old Dansk, their 
rites of heathen worship and their civil institutions. The ground 
work of their political life was chiefly Ulfilot's (927), who 
established a system of law and created the ,,AUhing*' a national 
parliament, composed of all the freeholders of the island, which 
held its meetings every year for 14 days on the great plain of 
the Thingvalla to discuss the interests of the land. 

Besides this general meeting, there were instituted since 962 



60 

a number of smaller Things* for the various districts of the 
island, to which was added A. D. 1004 through Njal a superior 
court of justice. Christianity, already introduced by some of 
the early settlers, vsas legally established in 1000, and with it 
came the knowledge of the latin language and literature, in- 
deed poetry and science found ground ready to receive them 
on these shores, and both poeti7 and historic sagas where al- 
ready more widely cultivated here than in other parts of the 
germanic north. 

It is no wonder that in this remote region a literary life 
began and literary treasures were kept and reared, whilst the 
whole of northern Europe was nothing but a bloody battlefield. 
These noble Norsemen had brought with them a beautiful lan- 
guage, diamond-bard, pure as crystal and golden tinted, in 
which the Edda Songs were written. We call it the Icelandic 
or Old Norsk tongue, but the Old Icelanders called it the 
„ddnsk tUnga och norrana tunga." 

It was once the common language of all the tribes of the 
germanic north, spoken in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, The 
FarOe, Orkney and Hebrides Islands, and transplanted by the 
Danes into England. This tongue is still spoken, with some 
modifications, in Iceland and the FarOe Islands, it has kept up 
its ancient type, partly from the naturally secluded position of 
the island, partly because of its finished literature. In Den- 
mark itself, it imderwent a process of degeneration by the mix- 
ture with the Anglo-Saxon and German, through the influence 
of latin and at last by the freuch, so that it is scarcely possible 
now to trace in the Danish language, the once powerful, 
harmonious, full - sounding Norraena- tongue. Thus it is that 
since the beginning of the 14^'' Century, the contrast of the 
old-norsk or icelandic tongue (islendska t^nga) and the modern 
danish and Swedish language has become visible.** 

It is interesting to enquire how these rich treasures of 
ancient lore were preserved in this remote island. A great 
quantity of Sagas matter was collected in Iceland from the very 
first, not only did the emigrants bring with them the great 
national Sagas of the Norwegians, Swedes and Danes, but also 

*) Thing in Icelandic means, a meeting or assize, Goart of Justice. 

**) Koeppen's Lilerar. Einieitung in dieNordischeMythologie; one 
of the best books on icelandic literature and Mythology. 

D i e t r i c h 's AUnordisches Lesebuch , with Introduction on tlie Old 
Norsk Literature. 



61 

Ibe Sagas of the tribes and the local traditions from every part 
of Scandinavia; besides a number of Sagas from the other 
countries which they continually visited in their numerous 
travels by sea and land. The nobles brought with them their 
own family Sagas from the remotest times, and they were also 
the keepers of ihe Old Sagas of Gods and Heroes, with the 
latter of whom their own families were often connected bv 
tradition. Hence this incredibly rich mine of poetry and history, 
of mythology and supei*stition in Iceland. Moreover the nobles, 
from the old houses of Ynguis or Ski Old, remained in their 
northern seats, without any other occupation than the care of 
their property, there was little agriculture and that was left to 
their servants. The national feasts, and the Things, and also 
<)isputes and wars occasionally interrupted their solitude, other- 
wise their days glided away evenly enough. Ennui drove the 
nobles partly to travel, partly to study and writing, and thus 
they became poets and historians, and created this rich icelandic 
literature which we possess. 

The Skalds. 

„The early dawn of literature*) in Europe was almost every- 
where else marked by an awkward attempt to copy the classi- 
cal models of Greece and Rome. In Iceland, an independent 
literature grew up, flourished, and was brought to a certain 
degree of perfection before the revival of learning in the South 
of Europe. This island was not converted to Christianity until 
the end of the tenth century, when the national hterature, 
which still remained in oral tradition, was full blown and ready 
to be committed to a written form. With tlie Romish religion, 
latin letters where introduced; but instead of being used, as 
elsewhere, to write a dead language, they were adopted by 
the learned men of Iceland to mark the sounds, which had been 
before expressed by the Runic characters. The ancient language 
of the North was thus preserved in Iceland, whilst it ceased to 
be cultivated as a written, and soon became extinct as a spoken 
language, in the parent countries of Scandinavia.'^ 

Thp. Skalds or poets were the Minnesingers of the North, 
they preserved poetry, mythology and history in the verses 



*) Wheaton's History of tlie Northmen pag. 49. ~ an interesting 
work for ttie early history of the Danes and Normans. 



62 

which they recited. As early as the 10'^ Century these Ice- 
landic Skalds where known far and near. We find them at 
all the northern courts, where they occupy a distinguished po- 
sition in the trains of kings, whose companions and chroniclers 
they were „who Hberally rewarded their genius (see Wheaton) 
„and sometimes entered the hsts with them in trials of skill 
„in their own art. A constant intercourse was kept up by 
„the Icelanders with the parent country, and the Skalds were 
„a sort of travelling minstrels, going continually from one North- 
„ern country to another. A regular succession of this order 
„of men was perpetuated, and a hst of 230 in number, of those 
„who were most distinguished in the three Northern kingdoms^ 
„from the reign of Ragnar Lodbrok to Valdemar II is 
„preserved in the Icelandic language, among whom are several 
„crowned heads and distinguished warriors of the heroic age. 
„The famous king, Ragnar Lodbrok, his queen AslOg or 
„Aslauga, and his adventurous sons, who distinguished them- 
„selves by their maritime incursions into France and England 
„in the ninth century, were all Skalds. A sacred character 
„was attached to this calling. The Skalds performed the ofQce 
„of ambassadors between hostile tribes, hke the heralds of an- 
„cient Greece and of the Roman fecial law. Such was the 
„estimation in which this order of men was held, that they 
„often married the daughters of princes, and one remarkable 
„instance occurs of a Skald, who was raised to the vacant 
„Jutish throne, on the decease of Erode III, in the fourth Cen- 
„tury of the Christian aera." 

In such a position the Skalds accompanied the king in 
their raids and to the battle field, they were present in the 
banqueting hall and in the hot fight, continually collecting ma- 
terials for new Songs, Sagas and Tales ; and at last when they 
were worn out and tired of life, they returned to their home 
in Iceland, frequently covered with renown and with riches, 
to tell their friends and countrymen of the foreign countries 
they had visited and of their own exploits. The Skalds therefore 
much more resemble the knightly Troubadours of the Middle ages 
than the Indian Bramahs, or the Celtic Druids. They could sing 
of fights and battles and deaths, which they had personally wit- 
nessed, they could sing of the Sea with its charms and dangers 
because they had led a daring Vikinglife and had steered the 
„steed of the sea^'; through storms and tempests. They could 
sing of the bliss of the Gods and Einheriar, because they 



63 

had partaken of kingly hospitality and feasts, the prototype of 
which was Valhall. 

The Skalds obtained their highest position at the time of 
Eric, the bloody axe, Hacon the Good, Harald and Ha- 
con Jarl. 

The most celebrated Skalds of that period were: Egil 
Skallagrimson, Kormak Augmundarson, Einar Hel- 
gason Skalaglam, Eilif Gudrunarson, GuttormSin-* 
dri, Glum; Geirason etc., but they were all surpassed by the 
Norweian Eyvind, the great-grand child of Harald Haar-* 
sch5ns, who received the proud name of Skaldaspillir (the 
annihilator of the Skalds). Even the Icelanders acknowledged him 
and sent him a costly present (Harald-Gr^felds-Saga c. IS).*) 
„As there were female warriors (Wheaton), or Amazons 
„in the heroic age of the North, so there were female Skalds 
„or poetesses, whose lays sometimes breathed the harsh notes 
„of war and celebrated the achievements of conquering heroes, 
„and at others sung the prophetic mysteries of reUgion. 

„Thus we perceive how the flowers of poetry sprung up 
„and bloomed amidst eternal ice and snows. The arts of peace 
„were successfully cultivated by the free and independent Ice- 
landers. Their Arctic isle was not warmed by a Grecian sun, 
but their hearts glowed with the fire of freedom. The natural 
„divisions of the country by ice-bergs and lava streams, insu- 
lated the people from each other, and the inhabitants of each 
valley and each hamlet formed, as it were, an independent 
„community. These were again reunited in the general na- 
„tional assembly of the Althing, which might not be unaptly 
,,likened to the Amphyctionic council or Olympic games, where 
„all the tribes of the nation convened to offer up the com* 
„mon rites of their reUgion, to decide their mutual differences, 
„and to listen to the lays of the Skald, which commemorated 
„the exploits of their ancestors.'^ 

A collection of these early remains of old Scandinavian 
poetry will be found in the Poetic or Elder Ed da, the prose 
in the Younger Edda and the Sagas, the Njdla, the 
Heimskrfngla, the Konungsskuggsjd, and the Land- 
ndmab6k.**) 

*) A Gatalogae of the most celebrated icelandic skalds (Skaldatal) 
will be found in Worm's Literat. Run, and in Peringskiold's Edi- 
tion of the Heimskringla. 

**) See Bosworth's Scandin. Literat with specimens of the va- 



5^ 

9> 



99 



64 

Indeed the Icelandic literature begins with the cooipAation 
of the Poetic Edda in 1056 and ends in the 14^ Century. 

The Edda. 

In the year 1643 the Bishop of Skalbolt Brynjulf Svend- 
sen found amongst other Manuscripts, a very old Membran 
which contained ieelandic poems, he had it copied and added 
to the title with his own hand „Edda Saemundar hin$^ 
Fr6da'' Edda of Sftmund the Wise. The old Manuscript 
was sent to Copenhagen and is now to be found there in the 
Royal Library. It seems to have been written in the 14^^ Cen- 
tury and although not quite perfect, is the chief codex of the 
Edda. 

This Poetic Edda is one of the most incomparable woriis 
of the human race, no people have noted down their heathen 
belief in sp innocent a manner and with such freshness of 
colour as the Icelanders. These Songs are the ancient Relics 
of Antiquity, and are for the Scandinavian Nations, what Homer 
and Hesiod combined are for Ancient Greece. It is the thoroughly 
original and national poetic monument of the Northern Nations. 

'The Songs of this Edda consist of the Sagas of Gods and 
Heroes. Edda means „ pro a via'* the great grand mother,* 
who tells to her numerous grand children the history and talcs 
of their forefathers. 

The Songs of the Edda are mythoiogic or heroic -epic, 
they are of so remote a period, that it is not likely they were 
written in Iceland, it is much more probable that they were 
brought over to Iceland by the old Noble families in whose 
keeping they were preserved, and it is the proud distinction 
of the Icelanders that to their intelligence we are indebted for 
these, the most precious relics of the germanic races. 

Wheaton says:**) „ About two centuries and a half after 
„the first settlement of Iceland by the Norwegians the learned 
„men of that remote island began to collect and reduce to 
„writing these traditional poems and histories. SaBmund Sig- 



rious northern Dialects; Mallet's Northern Antiquities. English trans- 
lations of the Edda hy S. Cottle (mythol. songs only) and by Thorpe. 

*) Halderson explains: „M6dir heilir ein. amma onnnr, edda 
hin {iridia.'^ (Moder is called the one [in the first degree] grand mother 
the second, Edda or the great, grand mother; the third). 
**) Northmen page 59. 



91 



9J 
f1 



65 

^,fussen, an ecclesiastic, who was born in Iceland in 1056 
,,and pursued his classical studies in the universities of Ger- 
,,many and France, first collected and arranged the book of 
^,songs relating to the mythology and history of the ancient 
„Nortli, which is called the poetic, or elder Edda. Various 
„and contradictory opinions have been maintained as to the 
^,manner in which this collection was made by Saemund, who 
,,first gave it to the world. Some suppose that he merely 
^gathered the Runic manuscripts of the different [>oems, and 
^transcribed them in Latin characters. Others maintain that 
,,he took them from the mouths of different Skalds, living in 
„his day, and first reduced them to writing, they having been 
^previously, preserved and handed down by oral tradition 
merely. But the most probable conjecture seems to be, that 
he collected some of this fragmentary poetry from cotem- 
„porary Skalds and other parts from manuscripts written after 
the introduction of Christianity and Latin letters into Iceland, 
which have since been lost, and merely added one song of 
his own composition the S6lar Lj6d, or Carmen-Solare of 
„a moral and Christian religious tendency, so as thereby to 
^consecrate and leaven, as it were, the whole mass of paganism/' 

The Edda contains P^ Songs of tlie Gods, and II'"' Songs 
of the Heroes. Volu-spA (the oracle of vali, the seer) tells 
of the ci^eation of the World, and the Gods and People who 
dwell in it. The Seer has heard of the doings in this world 
from her instructors, the primeval giants, and she is acquainted 
with nine heavens, she also knows the future. 

The entire poem is most prophetic and remarkable. 

Grimnis-m^l, the Song of Grimnir, in which he de- 
scribes the twelve dwellings of the Gods and the splendour of 
Valhalla. ' 

The Vaf{)ru5nis-m^l, 08inn undertakes to visit a 
wise and powerful giant and to question him on the World, 
the Gods and the Giants. The giant gives his replies and 
shows his knowledge, but from the tenour of the last question 
he guesses that the visitor who has drawn his secrets from him 
is the powerful God himself. 

The S61ar-li6d, the song of the sun, as we have al- 
ready seen is a christian song, interwoven with old mytholo- 
gical fancies. 

Besides these four most important songs, the following are 
of a very remarkable kind, in which the old poetry has a tinge 

Icelandic Grammar. 5 



66 

of divine lore, namely: the SkirnisfOr, VegtamskviSa^ 
Harbar8s]ioS, HymiskviSa and the Prymskvi5a. 

The most important of the Songs of the Heroes are 
the VolundarkviSa, the two Songs of Helgakvi9a, the 
songs of Si'gurS, Tafnismal and SigrSrifumal. 

The Epic contents of some of these Songs are maintained 
by Jac. Grimm, to have heen gathered from the german 
forefathers, and that the Scandinavians have saved these tutonic 
remains; these poems are of an epic grandeur, and a truly 
homeric power, which give them the foremost position in the 
Edda. 

Schools were formed in Iceland in the eleventh Century, 
and being far distant from Rome, enjoyed much liberty and 
national formation. The Bishops were elected by the Althing, 
the schools were not only established in the Monasteries but 
also in private houses. 

The Bishop of Skalholt introduced writing in 1057 and 
Sagas were then much collected. Without writing there were 
songs and sagas in abundance, even traditional science, but 
no literature. The Icelanders like other Norsemen certainly 
wrote earlier in Runic Characters, but these were only used 
for inscriptions in wood and stone, to express names, pedigrees 
and forms of witchcraft, rarely poems. 

The Runic alphabet*) „consists properly of sixteen letters, 
„which are Phenician in their origin. Tlie Northern traditions, 
„sagas and songs, attribute their introduction to Odin. They 
„were probably brought by him into Scandinavia, but they have 
„no resemblance to any of the alphabets of central Asia. All 
„the ancient inscriptions to be found on the rocks and stone 
„monuments in the countries of the North, and which exist 
„in the greatest number near old Sigtuna and Upsala, in Swe- 
„den, the former the residence of Odin, and the latter of his 
„successors, and the principal seat of the superstition intro- 
„duced by him, are written in the Icelandic or ancient Scan- 
„dinavian language, but in Runic characters.^^ 

The Icelanders first received the latin alphabet from the 
missionaries, in a double form, namely from the Germans and 
Anglo-Saxons. The german writing (MOnchsschrift) became 
however predominant, but they retained some of the anglo- 

*) Wheaton^s Norsemen 61. 



67 

saxon characters. — Books were created through school-know* 
ledge. Young Icelanders visited Germany, England, Italy and 
France to study and prepare themselves for the church; they 
studied at the Universities in Oxford, Rome and Paris. Schools 
were established to teach christian learning and to educate 
their own clergy, Latin, Theology, reading, writing and sing- 
ing were the branches chiefly taught. 

Ssemund hinn froSi, Sigfusson (born 1036. d. 
1133) who collected the poetry of the elder Edda had studied 
at Paris and Cologne, and in the School on his property Odd 
was educated „Snorri Sturluson the author of the Chron- 
icles of the Norwegian Kings from Odin downwards, and the 
Prose Edda. Historical prose rose to its highest point in the 
12^'* and 13^** Centuries when Sagas of all times and countries 
were written or translated. 

With the gradual fall of the political state in the begin- 
ing of the 13*^ Century, we also find that the compositions 
of the Sagas become less numerous; the 14^^ Century only fur- 
nished translations, fictions, fairy tales and Annals, and even 
these ceased to be created at the end of the Century, when 
Iceland was visited by diseases and plagues. 



Poetry of the Skalds. 

We find in the 12''' Century the most celebrated of the 
historical Skalds to be: 

Marcus Skeggson, Ivar Ingemundson at the nor- 
wegian court, the priest Einarr Skulason court poet, from 
1114 with Sigurd in Norway. He wrote poems on Sven, king 
of Denmark to whom he went in 1151. In the time ojf king 
Sv error (1177 — 1202) the following are the most distinguished 
Skalds: Hallr Snorrason, M^ni, Blackr, PorbiOrn, 
Skackaskald, and the young Snorri Sturluson. 

In the first part of the 13**" Century Liot, HOskuld 
the blind, Jatgeir, Snorri, Jarl Gizur, and chiefly Ola f 
hvtta skald j^orSarson (d. 1259) the author of the Knyt- 
lingasaga and of many poems on king Waldemar of Den- 
mark and Hakon VI of Norway were much esteemed. His 
brother Sturla hinn fro8i (d. 1284) wrote the histories of 
Hakon VI and Magnus VII. In the 12^'' Century we already find 
in the Icelandic and Norwegian Sagas a number of folk songs 

6* 



68 

(Volkslieder) interspersed. Saxo Gramroaticus often quotes 
these songs as authorities. 

Prose writing rose high in the 12^ Century, historical 
events were frequently written down, and although the man- 
ner in which they were composed, was unfinished, yet an 
artistic form is visible in the narrative of events and in the 
treatment of the subjects generally. Real history of which the 
father is Ari hinn froSi who wrote a Chronicle of Iceland, 
and the Landn^mabok is treated too much in the character 
of dry statistics and genealogy and is much in want of general 
survey and enlarged handling. It is only when we come to 
Snorri and his nephews Olaf and Sturla that descriptive 
history becomes more finished and personal dialogues infuses 
life into the historical pages. Both Sweden and Norway have 
taken part in collecting and writing down their old laws and 
privileges, but we are only indebted to the industry and in- 
telligence of the Icelanders for having preserved to us the tra- 
ditions of their common Hero Sagas, to which we look as the 
real history of those remote ages. Without these Sagas there 
would be a great blank in northern history for several Centuries. 



The Sagas. 

„The ancient literature of the North" says Wheaton, „was 
„not confined to the poetical art. The Skald recited the 
„praises of King and heroes in verse, whilst the Saga-man re- 
pealled the memory of the past in prose narratives. The talent 
„for story-telhng, as well as that of poetical invention, was 
„cultivated and highly improved by practice. The prince's hall, 
„the assembly of Uie people, the solemn feasts of sacrifice, all 
^presented occasions for the exercise of this delightful art. The 
„memory of past transactions was thus handed down from age 
„to age in an unbroken chain of tradition, and the ancient 
„songs and Sagas were preserved until the introduction of book- 
„writing gave them a fixed and durable record.^' 

The great mass of Prose writing which has come down 
to us, from these cold icebound shores, is truly amazing, it 
contains not only the Sagas of entire tribes, but of kings, Jarls 
or chiefs, skalds and other celebrities. We will mention some 
of the most important 



69 



I" Hero Sagas 

vfere one of the first subjects of their prose tales. In the Vo I- 
siingasaga we find much of the germanic and northern ele- 
ment, it tells of Sigfrid's youthful deeds, this is followed by 
the Ragnarlodbrokssaga, in which is set forth how the 
danish king, having lost his queen Thora, marries Si gfr id's 
daughter, whose sons become the great conquerors, fioth Sa- 
gas belong to the 12^'' or beginning of the 13*^ Century. 

The Vilkina or Niflungasaga are based on low ger- 
man poems and tales. 

There are a number of sagas whose heroes are renowned 
Icelanders, such as Finnbog and Gretter, Hialmter and 
Olver, Hromund, Hr6i and of the Swedish Herraud 
and Bosi. StyrbiOrn, the Swedefighter, Gautrek King 
of Westgothia, and of his son Hrolf, and the Sagas of the 
Norwegian An, the bow-man, Sturlaug the industrious, Por- 
stein the son of Vikings and others. 

Foreign Hero-Sagas were introduced into Iceland and Nor- 
way during the 13^^ Century through translations, chiefly by 
Hakon Hakonarson and the icelandic clergy; of which 

J6n Hallt6r, Bishop of Skalholt 1322—39 was the most 
celebrated. Old British Legends are also early imported through 
translations, the Bretasdgur is said to have been made by 
the monk Gunnlaug Leifson in Thingeyre (1218). 

Many foreign sagas were transcribed by order of Hakon 
VI, such as the Prophecies of Merlin, the Artursaga, the 
Mottulssaga, the monk Robert, the Tristram ok Isod- 
dusaga; and in the 13^^ Century the Alexandrasaga, and 
the history of King Tyrus and Pilate, both by Brandr 
J6nsson , who died Bishop of Holum in 1264. The precise time 
when many of these sagas were translated is not known, as the 
Trdamannasaga and the Spanish Flo r and Blancheflur. 

7/"* The Historical Sagas 

were written unter the title SOgur, they contain much that 
is mythic before the time of Halfdan the Black (863) but 
much real history is interspersed, which is principally taken 
from the pedigrees and traditions of the Nobles of the land. One 
of the most important works, on the history of Iceland, chiefly 
composed from the various family histories which were then 



70 

in existance, is the „IsIendtngabok^' written by Ari hinn 
froSi (born 1067) which gives a general history of the colo- 
nisation and events of the island, down to the beginning of 
the 12^ Century, also the Landn^mab6k commenced by 
Ari, which after many continuations was finished by Sturla 
I^ordarson (d. 1284) with additions by Erlauk Erlend* 
son (d. 1334). It contains a complete history of the island 
from the taking possession of the same to the 10^^ Century, 
but it is full of genealogies and dry detail. — We must further 
mention the excellent Fcereyingasaga (12^ C.) which treats 
of the history of Sigmund, who introduced Christianity into the 
FarO Islands. The Orkneyingasaga from the middle of 
the 13^ Century; the Heidarvigasaga (12^ C.) which gives 
an account of the battle on the Heath (1013 — 1015) a fearful 
contest, in which entire tribes fought against each other. The 
Hungurvaka (12^^ Cent.) treats of the first five Bishops of 
Skalholt. 

The Laxdoelasaga (13^^ Cent) is an interesting history 
of the trials and adventures of a very rich norwegian woman 
Auda, who fled with her father before Ha raid, first to Scot- 
land and then to Iceland. 

The Sturlungasaga (end of the 13^^ Cent.) is one of 
the most important historical documents we possess. It begins 
its narrative in 1110, and relates minutely the fate of Sturle, 
the father of Snorri, and the various conflicts of his race with 
other chiefs; its author was Sturla I^ordssohn who was 
engaged in writing it until he went on his journey to Norway 
in 1164. 

The Vigastyrssaga written by a noble Icelander Styr 
(styled Arn grim) the ^^murderous fighter^^; he was at last slain, 
and it was in consequence of his death, that the celebrated 
battle on -the Heath was fought. 

The Liotsvetninga or Reykdoelasaga, written by 
the rich Gudmujid the powerful (d. 1025) and his sons. It 
gives an account of the earliest aristocracy of the island (12^** C). 

The historical biographies of the Icelandic Skalds are 
very interesting. One of the oldest is the Gunnlaug Orm- 
stunga ok Skald Rafn's Saga from the 12^*" Cent. The 
Saga of two poets, whose valour was widely renowned is the 
Fostbroedrasaga, it tells of Pormod who received his 
death wound in the battle of Stiklestad, and I^orgeir 
who saw many a fight in Iceland, Ireland, England and Norway, 



71 

in the latt^ country he was for some time Court skald at 
Olaf's, until at last he found his end in Iceland, where he 
was slain in battle. 

The Kormakssaga also belongs to this remarkable kind 
of Sagas, in which the battle and love adventures of these 
Minnesingers and gallant blades, which they experienced in 
their romantic wanderings are told. 

The Heimskringla (orbis terrarum) is one of the prin- 
cipal works of Iceland. It is written by Snorre Sturlason, a 
man to whom his country's history and literature are much 
indebted ; and who earned for himself the title of the Northern 
Herodotus. A sciou of one of the old noble families, he was 
born in the year 1178 at Hvamm. He lived long at the Courts 
of Sweden and Norway, became an Icelandic lagman and was 
murdered in his castle on the 22"*^ September 1241. He was 
a man of great talents, and made himself famous as a poet, 
lawgiver and historian. 

Snorre collected 16 Sagas on his numerous voyages, the 
first of which treats of the mythic times before Half dan the 
Black, followed by the histories of all Norwegian Kings down 
to Magnus Erlingsson (1162 — 1184). To these are add- 
ed three continuations, first by Karl J6nsson Abbot of 
Thingeyri (d. 1213) who wrote the minute history of King 
Sverrer, followed by the histories ofHakon Sverrersson, 
Guttorm SigurSarson and Ingi Bardarson, written by 
an unknown author, and lastly by St url a, the last Skald who 
wrote the life of Hakon VI and a fragment of Magnus VII. 

Snorre mentions that he has not only used the poems of 
the Skalds, but the Sagas of Kings which he found written, 
and which he collected in his travels. The completion of the 
entire work may be placed towards the year 1230. 

With this remarkable book, a masterpiece of history, only 
inferior to the Edda itself, closes the history of the Sagas. It 
is a mine of Icelandic history and mythology, interesting alike 
for its Swedish and norwegian Annals, giving at the same 
time historical glances at Russia. 

The history of the Swedish Kings has not been treated 
with originality by the Icelanders; nor has Danish history been 
faithfully represented after the 12'*" Century. The Jomsvikin- 
gasaga is the history of the renowned pirates who Uved in 
the Jomscastle, the terror of navigators and the coast popu- 
lation, and Jarl Hakon's taking and destruction of this Castle; 



72 

tiie Knytlingasaga records the history of Knut the Holy 
(1080 — 1086) and his successors down to 1186. 

There are also a great number of Biblical Sagas and Old 
Legends extant, which it would be beside our sketch to 
dwell upon. 

///"* The Old Law Statutes. 

are of great value to the philologist, as these Old Laws and 
Statutes were collected and written down by the northern Coun- 
tries in their own various dialects. One of the oldest is the 
Icelandic „Gr^gAs*' (Greygoose) which name was given to it 
by its last editor the Lagman Gudmund t^orgeirsson 
(1123 — 1135). It commenced in 1119 on the basis of the 
laws of Ulfliot in the lO*** Century, but was only used until 
the subjugation by Norway, since which time (1273) Ihe Ha- 
konarb6k was introduced, which, having being re-edited by 
Jon an icelandic Lagman (1280) was called J6nsb6k. 

The Icelandic Cannon -law (Kristinrettr) dates from the 
year 1275. 

/F^* Science. 

Remains of Learning and Science are not wanting in Ice- 
land, for after the introduction of Christianity, many persons 
studied abroad. Granunar, Rhetorics, Astronomy, Chronology, 
Physics and Geography were cultivated by them. The study of 
Grammar was an especial favourite in which Porodd became 
so great that he received the name Runameistari (Gram- 
maticus) but the most celebrated work is the 



Younger Edda or Prose Edda. 

It was first found 1628 by Arngrim Johnson. Three 
Codices are extant, two in the Copenhagen and one in the 
Upsala Library. It was Snorre who contributed mainly to 
the compilation of this prose Edda. 

In the 14^** Century the Younger Edda consisted of three 
parts. The 1^* contained the Myths, or the material out of 
which the poetic language should be formed. The 2"** Ken- 
ningar, gave the forms of authority, in which the mythic 
element should be adopted, and it therefore gives the Mytho- 
logy of the Poetic Edda. The 3'*^ part contains the Skalda, 



73 

the rules or art of poetry adopted by the Skalds subdivided 
into three classes namely 1) reading and writing, 2) speaking 
correctly and 3) writing verses as the result of the entire study. 
It further contains a Dictionary of poetic synonymes and the 
whole art of versification, alliteration, species of verse, etc. 

The „Konungsskuggsi^'' Kingsmirror, from the 12^'' 
Century, is a curious collection of knowledge and experience. 
It contains firsUy physical and geographical curiosities, secondly, 
rules of life and manners to be observed in the presence of 
Kings and Courts, and hence its tiUe. 

The learned industry, so long and habitually practised by 
these noble Icelanders, continued during the Centuries following, 
but after the introduction of the Reformation, althougli Uterary 
occupations were kept up, the authors wrote in latin, much 
was translated, nor did poetry entirely die out, but the power 
and the lustre of its might and beauty were gone, the Saga 
with its powerful poetry and its heroic elements fled, and the 
old Icelandic Art was at an end for ever."^) 



*) We refer the student for further information to 
Mo bins, T., Ueber die altere islandische Saga. 1852. 

Ueber die allnordische Philologie. 1864. 

Analecta Norrcena. Answahl aus der islandischen und norwegi- 

schen Literatar des Mittelalters. 1859. 
These books can be had of the publisher of this Grammar as well as: 
Haldorsson's Lexicon Islandico-Latino-Danicum. 
Jonsson's Icelandic-Danish Dictionary. 
Fritzner, J., Old Norwegian Dictionary. 



PART III. 

Icelandic Reader. 



Snndurlausir Pankar.*) 

@0nberIafe Rotifer. 

Separated thoughts. 

Icelandic: G6d bok og g5d kona, lagfaera margann brest, 
Danish: ®ob ©og og gob Sonc rctte mangen ©r^ft, 
English: Good book and good wife mend many fault, 

slaem b6k og slsem kona sk6mma margt gott hjartalag, margir 

ffcm ©og og ficm Sonc forbore mangt gobt ^jcrtctab, mange 

had book and bad wife spoil many good disposition, many 
gseta ekki ad Odru A bddum peim, enn hvOrnin J)ser 

fee life paa anbet paa bcggc bem, cnb l^bortebe^ be 

look not to others on both [sides) them, than how (but only to) they 
eru utan; — Fer })eiin ]^i ad kvarta yfir 

ere ubborte^, — ©wmer bem ba at Itagc ober 

are the outside {of things). Beseems them then to complain over 
hvOrnia hid ionra seinna reynist. 

l^bortebe^ bet 3nbre [enere ^jr^be^. 

how the interior later proves.**) 

Heimskum verdur ad halda til g6da, ])6 {)eir tali 

J)umme bltber at l^otbe ttl ®obe, ffi^nbt be tate 

Stupid must to keep to good, although they speak 
nokkra heimsku, l)vi ))ad v»ri hardt ad lofa })eiin aldrei ad 

nogen SDuml^eb, tl^t bet bocre l^aarbt at ttttabe bem atbrtg at 
some stupidity, for it were hard to allow them never to 

tala eitt ord. 
tale et Orb. 
speak one word. 



^) From Sivertsen's Icelandic Laesbog. 

**\ Must be constructed thus: Most people look not to both sides, 
but only to the outside of things; it behoves those who complain to 
examine both sides. 



75 



Correct Danish. 

@n gob S3og 00 en gob Sone forBebre mange ^dl, en 
ftet Sog og en ftem fione forbcerbe 3Kange« gobe ©inbelab* 
jDe gtefte fee hin paa ©egge^ Ubborte^. Summer bet fig 
t>a at Itage ober l^borlebed Segge^ 3nbre fiben erfare^? t)t 
iDumme maa man l^olbe bet til ®obe, ffji^nbt be tate noget 
t>nmt, ta bet bi(be bcere ffaaxit, atbrig at tiUabe bem at tate 
<t Orb. 

Gatir — ®aaber — Riddles. 

Eg er m6durlaus, en hann fadir minn er madurinn minn. 

3eg er moberl^jd, nten l^an gaber min er SKanben ntin. 

/ am motherless, but the father my is the husband my. 

Fr^ m6dur lifi kom eg hOfudlaus, og f6tavani, 

gra aJiober-ltb lorn jeg l^obcbl^J^, og g^bber^mangtenbe, 
From mother^ s life came I headless and feetwanting, 

fell eg l)annin mdrgum vel, med bofdi og r6tum er eg 
f atber jeg faatebe^ mange bel, meb ^obeb og giJbber er Jeg 
fall I thu^ many well, with head and feet am I 

lika g6dur maga l)inum, en ^A verdur ))il ad bida. 

Dgfaa gob Sttabe bin, men ba bliber bu at bente. 
clso good [to] stomach thy, but then must thou wait. 

Hvad er |)ad sem i dag ekki verdur {lat sama d 
fibab er bet fom i^bag i!Ie btiber bet famme t^ 
what is it which to-^y not becomes that same to 

morgan, missir bord, rum, hi'is, og nafnid med, en grse- 

morgen, mifter ©orb, ©eng, pnn^, og 5Wabnet meb, men grcc* 
morrow, loses table, bed, house and the name with but de- 

tur J)5 ekki missirinn. 
ber bog ifle ©faben (Xaitt). 
flores yet not the loss. 

Correct Danish: 

®aaitx. 

3eg er moberUd, og min gaber er min SSgtefcefle.— gba. 
3eg er f^b uben $obeb og i$0bber, og be^ager bog SOtange* 



76 

SReb ^oteb eg f$^bber fmager {eg big ogfaa ret gobt^ men faa 
bu jnaa bente (f^renb be lomme). — 2Sg* 

^bab er bet f om t Dag tHe btbcr bet famme i STOorgen^ 
foranbtcr ©orb, ©eng, ^uu«, og maafle 5Rabn, men bcgrceber 
beg et S^abet?— en ©rub* 



Thales — Thales. 
Merki til heimsku er ofmikil lyst til ad tala. 

STOcerle t)oa JDuml^eb er formegen 8ijft tit at tale. 

Sign of stupidity is too-great desire to to talk. 

Likamans farsaeld er innifalin f heilbrigdi, en s^lar- 
8egemct^ 8^ffalig]^eb er inbbefattet i ^elbreb, men ©jce^ 
The body's happiness is contained in health, but the 

innar i l8erd6mi. 

lend i Scerbom (Sunbflab), 

souFs in knowledge. 

01 er innri madir. 

« 

&l er inbre S^anb. 

Ale is inner man. 

Tyrkja-keisarinn, edur eins og {)^ var kallad Califen^ 

I^rlefeiferen elter Uge fom ba bar lalbet Salifen,, 

The Turks* emperor, or as then was called the Calif, 

Mahadi var einn af t>6iin sti6rnendum, sem v6ru sofandi a 
SKal^abi bar en af be ©t^rere, fom bare fobenbe paa, 
Mdkadi was one of those rulers, who were sleeping on 

kdngs-hdssetJDu, og feingu dgjOrDum rddherrum taum- 
Song«=^^(?if cebet , og finge gjcerrige 9iaab«]^errer 2^m^ 
the kin^s-highseat, and delivered avaricious counceUors the rein- 

haldid i hendur. Eiuusinni })d hann a dyraveidum var ad 
l^olbet i $CEnber. Sngang ba l^an pao, Si^refangfter bar at 

keeping in hands. Once then he on ^^^^^^^ was to 

\ nunitng) 

elta steingeit, villtist hann kA fylgiurum sfnum, og 

forf^Ige ©teengeeb, bitbebed l^an fra SiJigerc fine, oj 

pursue stonegoat ^^^^ (astray) ^ ^^^^ followers his, and 

sirayea 



77 

ndttin yfirKU hann. Pegar hann var })reyttur ordinn, kom 
fatten ot^erfalbt l^am. S)a ffan t>ax troet 6(e))en, lorn 

the night over fell him. When he was tired become, came 
faano i ri6dur, hvar hann s^ tjald eitt, \\r hvoriu ara- 

i^an i Sunb, l^Dor l^an faae Ztit tt, ubaf l^btdet ara« 

he in clearing^ where he saw tent a, from which Ara- 
biskur madur kom iU, og beiddi g4st sinn ad vera vel- 
Hf{ SOtanb torn ub, og bab ©jiceft fin at txnt t>tU 
hie man came out, and asked guest his to be wel- 

kominn. Callfen l^t ekki A bera, hvOrr hann vaBii, annad- 

lomtnen. Satifen (ob t!!e ntcerle, l^oem ffan t>ax, tn* 

come. The Calif did not disclose, who he was, ei- 
fayOrt til ])ess ad sj^ seinna hydrnin b6nda yrdi vid, fiegar 

ten tit bet at fee fcnere l^bortebed fflonbe /^^^^^ p^ ha 

ther in order to see later haw peasant became to, when 
hann feingi ad vita, hvOr kominn vaeri, ellegar og hann 

fjan flnge at J)ibe, l^bo lommcn bar, eUer og ffan 
he got to knowj who come was, or also he 

setladi einusinni A Iffstid sinni ni6ta ))ess yndis at 

agtebe engang paa 8ib«ttb fin n^bc ^^^^ (^ofnlS]t^) ^^ 

intended once in lifetime his enjoy that delight to 
umgangast vid jafnfnga sinn. Medan ))essi asrlegi madur 

j)mgaae9 beb Stgemanb fin. Sltebend benne cerltge 3Ranb 

converse with his equal. While this honest man 
giOrdi allt hvad hann gat til at taka vel A m6ti komum- 

fljorbe aft l^bab l^an fnnbe tit at tage t>cC t mob ®io^ 
did aU that he could in order to talk weU against the com- 

anni , spurdi Califen hann ad , hvarfyri hann byggi i 

ften, f|)urgte Salifen ffavx om, l^borfor l^an t^ggebe i 

er, asked the Calif him about, why he dwelled in 
svoddan eydiplatsi? t^adsem J)6r med svo miklum r^tti kaUid 

faabant £Jbe}>Iab^? SDetfom ©e nteb faa ftor {Ret lalber 
such desertplace? That which you with so great right call 

eydiplats, svaradi hinn arabiski, var fyrrum fjolbyggt 
£5be})Iab«, fbarebe .l^in 8lrabifle bar forbum toctb^ggct [ted 
desertplace, answered the Arab, was formerly numerously inhabi- 

af Arabiskum og TyrkjamOnnum, sem hofdu n6g vidurvaeri 

af arabiffc:* og ti^rfe^SDtenb, font l^abbe nol Unberl&otb 
by Arabs and Turks, who had enough support 



78 

af kauphondlun og akaryrkju, og med dnaegin guidii 
af ^4»b]^anbel 09 9[gerb^r!ntng, eg meb t^orn^jidfe betalte 
fr<im trade and agriculture, and with pleasure paid 

Jiolanlegann skatt Calffanum Almansor. S^ g68i Herra lagdi 

taaleltg @Iat Saltfen SUmanfor. !iDen gobe ^erre lagbe 

bearable taxes (to) the Calif Almansor. Thai good Lord laid 
altid A ad sti6rna sinum Idndum, og gjOra t>egDa 

f$(tb paa at ftt^re fine Sanbe, og gji^re Utiberfaatter 
dUigenee on to govern his countries and make subjects 

sina lukkussela; en banns eptirkomara og niiverandi 

fine I^IIe(tge; men ffan^ @fterIommered og nuboerenbe 

his happy; but his successors and present 

sti6rnara leti og hyrduleysi hefir feingid hird- 

@t^rere« SDobenflaB og ©Ii0be^t^J«l^eb ffox gibet m^lt^ 

rulers laziness and carelessness have delivered the coun-- 

stj6runum i hendur {legna hans, syo ad vegna 

atberne) ^ $cenbcr Unberfaatter ^an^, f«« at formcbelft 
ciUors in hand subjects his, so that on account 
|)eirra dgirni eru hinir tvistradir vidsvegar sem her 
bere^ ©jiomigl&eb ere l^tne abfprebte bibe SScte font ^er 
of their avarice are the others scattered far and wide who here 

bjuggu adur. Callfen, sem nu f fyrsta sinni heyrdi sannleikann^ 

^|?gg^be f0r« (Salifen, font nn fi^rftegang ffntt (Sanbl^eben^ 

lived before. The Calif, who now for first time heard the truth,. 

firtist ekki af ))vi, heldur ^setti s^r ad verda adgaet* 
brebebe« tHe af bet, men Beftemte fig at bttbe epmotiU 
got angry not of it, but resolved himsdf to be more atten- 

nari i embsettisskyldu sinni framveigis, en I6t ekki 

fommetc i Smbeb«*^ttgt fin frembcled, men tob tffe 

tive in office- duty his for the future^ but let not 

hi!isb6ndann A s^r merkja med hvada }>aunkum bans 

i^uudbonben paa fig mcerle meb ^t^iiit ZavStv l^an^ 
the house-master (on) himself perceive with which thoughts his 

sinni var uppfyllt. SA arabiski viidi gjOra komumanni til 

@inb bar opf\fit>t. SDen arabtflc bitbe gj^re ®j[ocften til 
mind was upfilkd. The Arab would do the comer to 

g6da al]t bvad hann gat, og ))6 undireins var 

®obe ait l^bab l^an formaaebe, og bog ttQtge bar 

good all what he could, and yet at the same time was 



79 

hraeddur um ad hann kynni hneixla hann, dr6 leiDgi tfmann, 

Bangc for at l^an funnc \^^l^l) ^am, brog tengc Xtmcn, 

afraid for that he might scandalize him, drew long the time, 

ddurenn hann taladi til J)ess, at hann aetti eina viuflosku, 

farcnb , ^an tatebc tit bctd, at ^an cicbc en SStin^gtaffe^ 

before he spoke to that^ that he possessed one wine-flask^ 

sem hann gjarnan skyldi g^fa honum ad drekka i!ir, ef 

fom f)an gicrnc ffutbc giJoc l^anncm at brtffc af, bcrfom 

whidh he willingly should give Mm to drink from^ if 

g^stnr {)yrdi ad taka l)ad upp^ slna samvitsku, J^vf eptir 

©jaft turbc at tage bet o^:^aa fin ©ambittigl^eb, tl^i eftet 

gmst dared to take it upon his conscience, for after 

Tyrkja-tril er ekki leylilegt ad drekka Tin, edur neitt sem 
Zifxli^^Zxo er iffe ttdabetigt at briffc SStin, etter noget fbm 
Turks' -religion is not allowable to drink wine, or anything which 

^feingt er. Califen sem var 6vanur ))essum drikk, vildi 
Berufenbe er* Eatifcn font bar u»ant benne Dril, bifbc 

inebriating is. The Calif who was umised this drink, would 
nyta s^r taekifserid til at ni6ta })eirrar dnsegiu, sem 
n^tte fig fieiligl^ebet tit at n^be ben« i5orni?ieIfe«, fom 
use forhimself the opportunity to to enjoy that pleasure, which 

honum var J)vi yndislegri af l)vf htin var fyribodin, og 
l^am bar bcfto bel^agetigere af bet l^un bar forbuben, og 
him was the more delightful because she was forbidden, and 

hann vissi ad sitt misbrot mundi her ei komast upp. 
ffan bibfte at fit gorbr^belfe monne l^er ei lomme^ op* 
he knew that his crime would here not come up. 

Eptir ad hann var bi^inn ad drekka hid fyrsta staup, sagdi 
gfter at ffan bar fcerbig at briHe bet farfte ©t^b, fagbe 
After that he was finished to drink the first glass, said 

hann med hlni bragdi vid })ann arabiska: Minn vini eg 
]&an meb blibt Slaf^n beb ben 8lrabiffe: SWin aScn! {eg 
he^ with mild mine to the Arab: My friend! I 

er einn af hirdsveinum Callfans, og })(1 skalt ei ))urfa ad 
cr en af ^offbenbe Salifen^, og bu flat ei iiS)0t)t at 
am one of courtiers the Calif's and thou shalt not need to 

ydrast eptir })ann greida sem {)ii hefir gjOrt m^r. S^ 
fortr^bc efter ben ©ebocrtning fom bn l^aber gjort mig. !iDen 
repent of that entertainment, which thou hast done me. The 



80 

arabiski Ui aptur A m6ti i te gledi og {lakkteti 

Xrabtfle (ob atter tmob t tee ®I(ebe og (et) XafnemmeltAl^eb 
Jra6 fer o^atn th return joy mid gratitude 

fyri ]>essa alud, og syndi komumaDni )>essmeiri 

for benne O))tn(rrlfoml^eb, og Dtfte ®i(rften beftomere 
for this condescension^ and showed the comer the more 

vyrdfngu. Wssi, sem sagdist vera Callfans embaettismadur, 
9lnfee(fe« 3)enne, fom fagbed bonre SaKfend (Stnbebdmanb, 

honour. This, who said himsdf be the Califs officer, 
t6k fli6tt til flOskunnar aptur, en vid hvOrt eitt staup 6x 

tog fnart tt( %ia\ttvA atter, men beb l^bert et St^b bojrte 
took quickly to the bottle again, but at every one glass increcaed 

hans ^naegja og yidfeldni. Eg vil ekki leyna ])ig 

Ifan^ gorn^ielfe og Omgcengeligl^eb. 3eg bt( tRe ffjule (for) big 
his pleasure and affability. I will not conceal thee 

neiDU sagdi hann vid htisb6DdanD , eg er Califans einka 
noget fagbe l^an beb ^uudbonben ieg er Saltfend bebfte 
anything said he to the housemaster, I am the Califs intimate 

vin, sem hann hefir mestar maetur ^. Si vinskapur 

aSen, fom l^an l^aber ftarfte ®obl^eber ipaa. !Den 9Senffa6 
friend whom he has greatest goodness upon. That friendship 

sem hann vyrdist at hafa til mfn, ska! innan skamms g^fa 
fom l^an boerbtged at i^abe tit mig, flat inben Soct^ gibe 
which he appears to have for me, shall within short give 

m^r taekifaeri at Dtvega {)^r velgjOrdir af hanns hendi. 
mtg(et) ?etlig]^eb at forflaffe big aSelgieminger af ffaM f)aanb. 
me opportunity to get thee benefits from his hand. 

I^egar enn arabiski heyrdi ))etta, {)6ktist hann ei n6gsamliga 
2)a ben WcaUflt l^erte bette, t^Ite9 l^an ei nolfomt 
When the Arab heard this, thought himself he not sufficiently 

g^ta veitt g6sti slnum lotnfngu en kysti hanns klsedafald, 

lunne ^be @|(eft fin $^iagte(fe men I^fte f)an9 (en) ftfobebon, 
be able given guest his reverence but kissed his doths'-seam, 

og beiddi hann fyrir alia muni ad spara ei })etta Tin, sem 
og bab l^am for at Siing at f^are et bette iBtin, fom 
and bade him by all Tneans to spare not this wine, which 

gjOrdi hann svo lystugann. Mahadi kom s6r betur og betur 
giorbe l^am faa t^ftig, SDkl^abi fom ftg bebre og bebre 
made him so merry. Mahadi came himsdf better and better 



81 

i gjseti hji Tininu, svo hann })urfti ekki ad taka naerri 
i SSenflaB l^od 93tnet, faa f)an bel^^^ebe tile at tage nest 

into friendship by the wine, so that he needed not to tdSce near 
s^r ad drekka })ad fyri hdsbdndans b6n. Eg sj^ sagdi 

fig Cii brtfle bet for ^uudbonbend ^^n. 3eg feer fagbe 

himself to drink it for the homemastefs request. I see^ said 

hann, ad Ol seigir allann vilja. Eg er hvOrki hirdmadur 

ffan, at CI figer at ajittie. 3eg er l^berleu ^offinbe 

he that ale says all wiU. I am neither courtier 

ii6 einka vinur Califans, beldur er eg Callfen sjalfur, og 
-cflcr bebftc SScn Salifen^, l^cfler cr jeg Saltfen fetb, og 
tiorintimatefriendoftheCdifs, rather am I the CcUif himself , and 

uti stadfesti eg og ytreka allt])ad loford, sem eg adur hefi 

tiu ftabfoefter jeg og gientager alt bet ^ijfte, font jeg f^r l^ar 
now confirm I and repeat all that promise which I before have 

£JOrt I)6r. Arabiski madurinn tok strax i kyrdum frd 

fliort big. 3lrabtffe*manben tog ftrajc i ©till^eb fra 

made thee. The Arab took immediatdy in quietness from 
honum floskuna, og aetladi ad bera hana burt. Hvad ertil 
l^anttetti S^ffen, og agtebe at boere ben bort. fibab er bu 

him the bottle^ and intended to carry her {it) away, what art thou 
ad gjOra? spurdi Callfen, sem bugsadi ad sd arabiski mundi 

<d gii^re? f))urgte (^altfen, font tcenlte at ben 3lrabt[Ie monne 

to do? asked the Calif who thought that the Arab would 
nu syna s^r Idngtum meiri lotnlngu enn ddur. t^^r 

tin btfc fig tangt mere ^^Jjagtetfe enb f0r. SDe 
now show him far more reverence than before. You 

megit vera hvOrbeist sem ))er viljid, svaradi htisb6ndinD, 

tttaa bcEre l^bofontl^elft font S)e bit, fbarebe ^unebonben, 

may be whosoever which you like^ answered the housemaster, 
J>d Iset eg ydur samt ekki drekka meir. Vid fyrsta staupid 

fca taber Jeg ©em bog ille brillc meer. SSeb f4>rfte ©t^^bet 
then let I you yet not drink more. At the first glass 

sOgdust {)6r vera st6rbeiTa, og })vi gat eg Tel trliad; 
fagbe« !De bcrre ©torl^erre, og betlnnncjeg bet troet; 
thou saidts you were great Lord, and that could I weU believe; 

vid l)ad annad vorud J)6r ordinn mesta uppd bald Califans, 
t)eb bet anbet bar ^e bleben mefte Stf^otb (Eatifen^, 
4U the second were you become greatest favourite of the Calif* s^ 

leelandie Grammar. 6 



82 

og })^ hafdi eg st6ra vyrdingu iyrir ydur; vid hid })ridja 
eg ba l)at>t>t jcg [tor SSrb^bijl&et) for 'I)cm; J)eb bet treble 
and then had I ffreat reverence for you; at the third 

85gdust ))6r vera Califen sjdlfur, og I)ad getur sk6d, 
fagbed I)c boerc Saltfen fclb, og bet Ian flee, 
thousaidst you were the Calif himself, and that may happen 

ad pad s6 salt; en haett er vid, ad })6r vid fj6rda staupid 
at bet er f anbt ; men f arltgt er bcb, at 35e bcb fjerbe ©ti^Bet 
that it he true; but danger is to, that you at the fourth glass 

segist vera okkar st6ri sp^madur Mohamelh, og kannsk^ 

ftge« t)(Ere bore« ftorcSjjaamanbSWol^amcb, og lanflce 
say you were our great prophet Mahometh^ and perhaps 

vid fimta staupid alm^ttugur Gud ; en {)vi A eg hAgi med 

beb f entte ® t^bet almcegttge ®ub ; men bet ejer jcg JDnbt meb 
at the fifth glass Almighty God; but that own I difficult with 

ad trtia. Mahadi hlo ad t)essu einfaldlega en {)6 ekki 
at troe. 3)%al^abi toe ab bette eenfolbtge men bog tHe 
to believe. Mahadi laughed at this simple but yet not 

heimskuliga svari; og l)ar vinid var farid ad stfga uppi 

bumme ©bar; og ba 9Sinet bar faret at ftige o)> i 
stupid answer; and as the wine was begun to rise up in 

hofudid, lagdi hanu sig nidur A ^breiduna, sem hiis- 

£)obebet, (agbe l^an fig neb paa %tpptn, fom |)uu^ 
the head, laid he himself down on the coverlet, which the house- 

bondinn hafdi aetlad honun) til ssengur iim n6ttina. Daginn 

bonben l^abbe agtet l^am tt( @engd om ^atttn. 3)agen 
master had intended (for) him as bed during the night. The day 

eptir reid hann af stad, tok med s^r })ann arabiska, svo sem 
efter reeb l^an affteb, tog meb fig ben Slrabtffe, faafom 
after rode he away, took with him the Arab, as 

leidsOgumann, og gaf honum st6r gjafir, )>egar ))eir komu 

Sebfagetfe^manb og gab l^am ftore @aber, ba be lom 

guide and gave him great presents, when they came 

til Bagdad, 
tit JBagbab- 
to Bagdad. 



83 



Vtlegdarsagan. 

GodgjOrdasamur madur nokkurr ^setti s^r ad audsyna 
velgjOrdir eioum {)rseli sinum, gaf honum {)essvegna frelsi, skip 
med oUum reida, og svo mikiDn forda, sem n6gur vaeri til ad 
leita s^r lukku og frama med, i hvOriu hells! landi sem haon 
vildi taka s6r b6irestu. t^essi frelsingi f6r um bord, og l^t lir 
lagi, en skelfilegr stormur kom upp^, sem hrakti hann uppa 
nokkra ey, er honum syndist vera 6bygd. Nil var hann bilinn 
ad missa allt hvad hann dtti, hj^lp^rlaus, vissi ekkert hvad af 
s^r mundi verda, og gat ei hugsad til seinni timanna An skd- 
fingar. Hann var einsog f |)oku hvad hann dtti ad horfa, g^kk 
dfram 1 })aunkum, edur r^ttara ad seigja t)^nka]eysi, ()^Dgadtil 
fyri honum vard sl^ttur og trodinn vegur. Med gledi h^llt 
hann dfram pann veg, og sA ^leingdar st6ra borg, hvad ed jok 
bans fOgnud, svo hann hvatti sporid til ad koma ])^ngad sem 
fli6tast. Hissa vard hann, {)egar hann n^lgadist borgina, sa 
hennar innbyggjara koma 1 h6palah A m6ti s^r, segja sig vel- 
kominn med meslu bhdMtum, og ad stadarins tiUkur hr6padi 
harri rOddu: ))essi er ydar K5ngurl AUir fylgdu honum til 
borgarinnar med fOgnudi og gledil^tum ; hann var leiddur med 
mestu vidhOfn og prakt f ))^ hoU, hvar K6ngarnir v6ru vanir 
ad hafa sitt adsetur, var fserdur i purpura kdpu og dirmaet 
k6r6na sett A bans hofud. iEdstu hOfdingjar borgarinnar s6ru 
honum hollustu eid 1 alls lidsins nafni, ad J)eir skyldu vera 
honum hlldnir, hollir, og trilir, einsog ])eim bseri vid K6ng 
sinn ad breyta. S^ nyi K6ngur hugsadi i fyrstunni, ad t)etta 
allt v8Bri ckki annad enn draiunur, en af reynslunni blaut hann 
ad gdnga i)r skugga um, ad ))etta var raunar einsog })ad syn- 
dist, svo hann i huganum vard ad spyrja sialfinn sig; hvad A 
})etta ad l)yda? Og hvad mun sA sedsti Sti6rnari allra hluta 
setla s6r med mig? t^essi ^Anki f6r aldrei tir huga bans, og 

Audsyna, show. horfa, apply, 

Fordi, provisions. 41eingdar, from distance. 

leita, search. hvatti sporid, quickened his paces 

Frami, honour. h^rri rdddu, in a loud voice. 

B61fe8ta, dwelling. Adsetur, residence. 

ad lata ur lagi, to leave the dirmsetr^ precious. 

harbour. breyta, behave. 

hrakti, drifted. hlaut, was obliged. 

buiuD, finished. g^nga lir skugga, be convinced. 

An, without. rauuar, really, in fact. 

6* 



84 

loksins kom hann honum til ad grendslast eptir, hvornin A Ollu 
J)essu stsedi. Hann kalladi ^\i l)ann af hirdmOnnum sinum 
fyri sig, sem optast var vanur ad vera i kringum bans per- 
s6nu, var hans radaneyti, og sem af Guds forsj6n syndist hafa 
Terid settr honum til adstodar f landstjOrninni. Dr6ttseti! 
sagdi hann: hvOrr hefur gjOrt mig ad ykkar K6ngi? hvorsvegoa 
hl^da m6r allir? og hvad A af m6r ad verda? Vitid Herra, 
svaradi hirdst j6rinn honmn, ad innbyggendm* eyar ))essarar, 
hafa bedid Gud ad senda ])eim A An hvOriu t)ann Kong sem 
s6 af Adam kominn. Sd Almdttugi hefur bsenheirt )>^, svo ad 
A ari hvOriu kemm* hlugad ein manneskja, allur lldurinn tekur 
med mestu vidhOfn og fOgnudi m6ti {)essmn manni, og setur 
hann til K6ngs yfir sig; en hans rfkisstj6rn varir ekki leingur 
enn eitt Ar. t^egar s^ timi er A enda, ]^A er honum velt dr 
h^ssetinu, dregin af honum tignar klsedin, og hann aptur faer- 
dur f litilQorliga larfa, stridsmenn, sem ekki g^fa nein grid, 
fsera hann ofan til strandar, og kasta honum ))ar liti skip, er 
fiytur hann til annarar eyar, sem af si^lfrar sinnar kostum er 
hn6strug og gsedalaus. S^sem fyri nokkrum dOgum var rikur 
k6ngur, hefur ^A hvorki I^egta n6 vini, en liiir {)ar f sorg og 
eymd. Lfdurinn, sem laus er ordinn vid sinn gamla K6ng, 
flyiir s^r ]^A ad medtaka ))ann n;^a, sem Guds forsj6n ^lega 
sendir hingad, og t)etta Herra I er ^ad 6umbreytanlega lOgmal, 
sem ekki stendur f ydar valdi ad raska. Vissu ])eir sem fyri 
mig hafa verid spurdi K6ngurinn, ))essi hOrduforlOg? Eingum 
l)eirra svaradi Dr6ttsetinn, hefir })ad verid dulid, en )>eir hafa 
ei haft n6gann mod og mannshug ad athuga svo sorglegar Ijt- 
farir, I)ar augu ))eirra hafa verid blindud af glampa Kongdae- 
misins. I^eir hafa lifad og Mtid einsog vellystingar og ^naegja 
hafa hvatt )^A til, og aldrei hugsad til ad n^ stodugri lukku, eda 
g]5ra s^r baerileg t)au endalok, sem t)eir vissu s6r var 6mOgulegt 
ad umfl^a; t)eirra lukku ^r leid setid fli6tara enn )>^ vardi, svo 
4)fara dagurinn kom loksins yfir ^A fyrr enn ))eir v6ru btinir, ad btia 
nokkud f haginn fyri sig, ad eymd og titlegd t)eirra yrdi {)eim bseri- 
leg. t^egar Kongurinn heyrdi {)etti, vard hann miOg dttasleginn, 
sveid honum ])ad mest, ad mikill partur af dlrmaeta timanum 
var til 6npis lidinn; hann dsetti s^r J)vl ad brdka t)ess betur 

grendslast eptir, inquire, hri6strogury barren, 

ttdstod, assistance. I^egn, subject. 

Drottseti^ counsellor, eymd, distress, 

titilljdrlegr, mean. 6umbreytanlegr, unalterable. 

larfar, rags. raska, alter. 



85 

))ad af honum, sem eptir var. I^A vitri Dr6ttseti! Sagdi hann 
til bans, ))u heiir sag! m^r mitt tilkomandi 6fall, segdu m^r 
Ifka hTOrt medal er til ad komast klaklaust hj^ {)vf? Minnist 
))6r, Uerral svaradi Drdtisetinn, ad ))6r komud hingad allslaus 
til eyarinnar, og athugid ]^h undir eins ad allt eins muni verda, 
])egar ])4r farid h^dan, og ad l)6r aldrei munud sid hana aptun 
Eitt einasta medal er til, ad varna t)vl 6falli sem fyrir ydur 
liggur^ H^ verdid ad senda smidi til eyannnar, sem )>^r egid 
ad fara til, l^ta byggja ^Ar st6r vistahiis, og fylla l)au af oUu 
sem {)arf til vidurlifis. Fors6mid h^danaf ekkert augnablik sem 
{)6na kann til ydar lukku og brukid Oil ))au medol sem |)6r 
g^tid upphugsad, til ad koma i veg fyri ^A vesOld, sem fli6tt 
dynur yfir en leingi varir; allt {)etta verdm* ad giOrast undan- 
dr^ttarlaust ))vf tidin fl^gur, s^ fastsetti tfmans piinktur n^lgast, 
og {)ad er forg^fins ad aetla s6r ad aptm* kalla {)a stund sem 
aflifud er; en yfir alia bluti fram, munid til J)ess ad A ])eim 
stad, sem ))^r egid til svoddan l^ngframa ad biia, munud {)6r 
ekkert fyri finna nema })ad, sem ))er latid fiytja })angad, A {)eim 
stutta tima er J)^r egid ennu eptir. K6ngurinn f^Ust A rad 
Dr6ttseta sins, sendi strax smidi til Eyarinnar ad koma oUu 
))essu i verk, bann 16t gjOra eyuna ad yndisligum og gagn- 
legum bilstad. Loksins kom s^ ^kvardadi dagur, k6nginum 
Tar snarad dr bdssetinu, allur Kongs-skrtidi af bonum tekinn^ 
og bann bnepptur ilti skip sem flutti bann i bans Utlegdarstad. 
I^essi afsetti K6ngur kom })dngad lukkulega, og bfdi })ar bsedi 
rdlegri og dnsegdari enn ddur. 

6fall, disaster. vidarlifi, subsistence, 

Klaklaust, without danger. undandr&ttarlaust, without delay. 

Vistahus, store-room. langframa, for so long a time. 



Af Egils-Saga. 

Vppliaf rikis Haralds harfagra. 

Haraldr, son Hdlfdanar svarta, baf5i tekit arf eptir fdSur 
sinn; bann bafSi t)ess belt streingt, at Idta eigi skera bdr sitt 
ne kemba, fyrr en bann Tseri einvaldskoniingr yfir Noregi ; bann 
Tar kallaSr Haraldr ll!ifa. 

SiSan bar^ist bann Ti8 ^A kontinga, er nsestir T§ro, ok 



86 

sigra9i J)a, og eru l)ar Ungar fr^sagnir. SiSan eignaSist hann 
UpplOnd, ])a8aD f6r hann nor9r f t^r^ndheim, ok dtti |)ar mar- 
gar orrostur, a8r hann yrdi einvaldi yfir oUum t^raendaldgum. 

Sidan aetladi hann at fara norSr i Naumudal A hendr ])eim 
brobdrum Herlaugi ok HroUaugi, er |)d v^ro konilngar yfir Nau- 
mudal. En er {)eir broBdr spurdu til fer9ar hans, ])a gekk 
Herlaugr i haug t)ann me9 t61fta mann, er ^8r hOf3u ))eir 
gera ldti9, ok T^ro at ^r^A vetr; var siSan haugrinn aptrlokinn. 
En Hrollaugr kontingr veltist or konilngd6mi, ok t6k upp jarls - 
r^tt, ok f6r sl8an a vald Haralds konilngs, ok gaf upp dki sitt. 
Sv^ eignaSist Haraldr kondngr Naumdoelafylki ok Hdlugaland; 
setti hann l)ar menu yfir riki sitt. 

SiSan bj6st Haraldr kondngr or I^rdndheimi me9 skipaliSi, 
ok f6r su9r A Moeri, ^Iti t>ar orrostu vi5 Hun))j6f koniing, ok 
haf8i sigr; f^Il ))ar Hdn{)j6fr: ]}A eigna9ist Haraldr komingr 
Nordmoeri ok Raumsdal. 

En Solvi klofi, son Hi)n))j6fs, hafSi undan komizt, ok f6r 
hann A Sunnmoeri til Arnvi9ar konungs, ok ba8 hann ser full- 
tings, ok sag9i sv^: t^6tt |)etta vandraedi hafi ni!i borit oss at 
hendi, |)a mun eigi l^ngt til, at sama vandraedi mun til y9?ar 
koma; [iviat Haraldr sella ek at skj6tt mun her koma, ^a er 
hann hefir alia menn |)raelkat ok ^t)ja9, sem hann vill & Nor9- 
moeri ok i Raumsdal. Munu {>er hinn sama kost fyrir hOndum 
eiga, sem vser dttum, at verja fe y9vart ok frelsi, ok kosta 
l)arlil allra I^eirra manna, er y9r er U9s af van, ok nl ek 
bj69ast til me9 mfnu H9i m5ti l)es$um ofsa ok 6jafna9i. En 
at 09rum kosti munu ))er vilja taka upp I^at ra9, sem Naum- 
doelir ger9u, at gdnga me9 sj^lfvilja i dnau9, ok gerast ))raelar 
Haralds. t^at {)6tti ib9ur mfnum sigr, at deyja i komingddmi 
me9 soemd, heldr en gerast undirma9r annars kontings A ga- 
mals aldrrr hygg ek at ^er muni ok svd l^ykja, ok 09rum {>eim 
er nokkurir ero bor9i, ok kappsmenn vilja vera. Af slftum 
fortolum var kontingrinn fastri9inn til I)ess at samna li9i, ok 
verja land sitt. 

Bundu {>eir Solvi ^k saman lag sitt, ok sendu or9 Au9- 
bimi komingi, er r^9 fyrir Fir9afylki, at hann skyldi koma til 
li9s vi9 ))a« En er sendimenn komu til Au9bjarnar kontings, 
ok b^u h^num J)essa or9sendfng, J)d r^9st hann um vi9 vini 
sina, ok r^du h^num |)at allir, at samna U9i, ok fara til m6ts 
vi9 Moeri, sem h^num v^ro or9 send til. 

Au9bj()rn kontingr l^t skera upp herOr, ok fara herbo9 
um allt sitt riki; hann sendi ok or8 rfkism5nnum, ok ba8 ))d 



87 

koma a sinn fund. Ed er sendimenn koDiings komu til Kveld- 
Clfs, ok s6g9u b^Dum sin erendi, ok l)at at koDilagr vill, at 
Rveld-Ulfr komi til bans med alia hiiskarla sina; {)a svarar 
hann: I^at muD koni^Dgi skylt l)ykja, at ek fara mei b^num, 
ef hann skal verja land sitt, ok se herjat i Fir9afylki, en hitt 
setla ek mer al16skylt at fara nor9r A Mceri ok berjast })ar, ok 
verja land })eirra. Er y3r t)at skjotast at segja, ^A er })er bittiS 
kondng y9varn, at Kveld-Clfr mun beima sitja um J)etta ber- 
hlaup, ok bann mun eigi berlidi samna, ok eigi gera slna ^A 
heimanCerS, at berjast moti Haraldi lufu; J)viat ek bygg at bann 
hafi ))ar byr9i gn6ga hamingju, er kontingr v^rr bafi eigi krep- 
ping fuUau. F6ro sendimenu beim til kontings, ok sOgdu b^num 
erendislok sin, en Kveld-Ulfr sat beima at biium sinum. 

I^eir t6r61fr ok Egill vAro J)anti vetr me8. t6ri (bersi) 
i g68u yfirlseti, en um vArit bjuggu t)eir Idngskip mikit, ok 
fengu manna til, f6ru um sumarit i Austrveg ok berjudu, fengu 
J)ar of fj^r, ok Attu orrostor margar. teir h^ldu til Kiirlands, 
ok logSu vi9 landsmenn b^lfs m^naSar friS, ok bOfSu vi9 ^d 
kaupstefnu; en er J)vf var lokit, ]^A t6ko {)eir at berja, ok 10g9u 
^t f ymsum sto9um. 

Einn dag lOgSu t)eir at vi$ dros einn mikinn, ok var ^ar 
mdrk mikil A land upp ; ^eir r^9u })ar til uppgongu. Li9i var 
skipt i sveitir, t6lf mdnnum saman ; l)eir gengu yfir sk6ginn, 
ok var ^A eigi Idngt, Aiv en bygSin tok vid; })eir raentu |)d, 
ok drapu menn, en lidit fl]f9i, unz ))eir fengu Onga vi5t(}ku. 
En er dlei5 daginn, ^k \hi t^6r6]fr bldsa liSinu til ofangOngu ; 
sneru menn ^A aptr A sk6ginn, |)ar sem bverr var staddr. En 
€r ))eir t^6r61fr rannsOku9u lidit, ^A var Egill eigi ofankominn, 
ok sveit bans, en ^A t6k at myrkva af n6tt, ok t)6ltust menn 
«igi mega leita bans. 

Egill baf9i gengit yfir sk6g nokkurn , ok tolf menn me9 

h^num, ok sA ^eiv ^A slettur myklar ok bygSir. Boer einn 

sl68 skamt frd ^em ; ^eir stefna til boejarins, en er {leir komo 

)ar, blaupa {)eir i biis inn, ok verSa ekki vi9 menn varer; 

jeir t6ko fe })at allt, er fyrir {)eim var, laust, l)ar vAro mOrg 

ii!is, ok dvaldist t)eim ))ar lengi. 

En er t)eir vAro iitkomnir, ok fra boenum, var li5 komit 
inilli {)eirra ok sk6garins, ok s6lti I)at at ))eim. Ski8gar8r var 
faar fvA boenum til sk6garins ; ^A maelti Egill , at ))eir skyldu 
fylgja b^num, s\A at eigi msetti oUum megin at })eim gdnga. 
Peir gerdu svA, gekk Egill fyrstr, en si5an bverr at 59rum, 
s\A nser at ekki mdtti skilja ]^A, Ki2irer sdttu at l)eim fast, ok 



S8 

mest me8 lOgum ok skotum, en gengu ekki f h5ggorrostu. 
Eq er J)eir Egill h^ldu fram me8 skiSgarSinum, fundu J>eir eigi 
fyrr, en ])ar gekk annarr ski9gar8r jafnTramt, ok gerSist }>ar 
mj6tt 1 milli, t)artil er lykkja var9 d, ok m^tti eigi framkomast. 
Kiirir sottu eptir ])eim f kvfna, en sumir s6ttu utan at, ok 
l5gSu spj6tum ok sverSum 1 gegnum gardana, en sumir b^^ru 
klseSi A v^pn {)eirra. Urdu J)eir Egill sdrer, ok )>yi nsest haDcl* 
tekner, ok aller bundner, leiddir svd heim til bcejarins. 

SA var rikr maSr ok audigr, er boe {>ann ^tti; hann dtti 
son roskinn. t^^ var umroedt, hvat vi5 J)d skyldi gera: sagSi 
b6ndi, at h^num ))6tti J)at r^8, at drepinn, vseri hverr A foetr 
59runi; b6ndason segir at |)d gerSi myrkt af n6tt, ok m^tti 
enga skemtan af hafa at kvelja ^^, ba8 hann Idta bl5a mOrgins. 
Var l)eim ))d skoti9 i hiis eitt, ok bundnir ramliga; Egill var 
bundinn vi9 staf einn, baeSi hendr ok foetr; sl9an var hiisit 
Isest ramliga, en Mrir gingu inn i stiifu, ok mOtu5ust, ok 
vdro allkdtir ok drukku. 

Egill foerSist Yi9, ok treysti stafinn, til )>ess er uppIosnaSi 
or g61fiuu; sidan f^U stafrinn, smeygSist Egill ^A af stafnum. 
Eptir {)at leysti hann hendr sinar meS tOnnum; en er hendr 
bans voru lausar, leysti hann bond af f6tum ser. SiSan leysti 
hann felaga sina; en er ^eir vdro aller lauser, J)d leituSust 
{)eir um, hvar llkast var i!it at komast. Htisit var gert at yegg- 
jum af timbrstokkum st6rum, en i annan enda hiissins var 
skjaldj)ili flatt, hlj6pu ^eir parat, ok brutu j^ilit; var J)ar htis 
annat, er ^eir komo I, vAro l)ar ok timbrveggir um. 

Pa heyrdu })eir manna mdl undir foetr ser ni8r; leituSust 
])eir ^A um, ok fundu hurS f g6lfinu, luku ))eir ])ar up, var 
{>arundir grOf djtip, heyr8u {)eir })dngat manna mdlit. t^a 
spurSi Egill hvat manna ])ar vaeri. Sd nefndist Aki, er vi5 
hann mselti. Egill spurSi ef l)eir vildi upp ur grOfinni; Aki 
segir at ))eir vildu J)at gjarna; slSan l^tu ^eir Egill siga festi 
ofan f grOfina, )>d er })eir vdro bundnir me8, ok dr6gu ))ar 
upp ^r}A menu. Aki segir at ))at v^ro synir bans tveir, ok 
J)eir vdro menn dansker, hOf8u {)ar or8it hertekner it fyrra 
sumar. Var ek, sag8i hann, vel haldinn i vetr, hafSa ek mj5k 
QdrvarSveizlur btianda, en sveinarner v^ro )>jd9er ok undu t)eir 
flla. I v^ r^9u ver til» ok hlupum A brott, ok ur9um si9aii 
fundner, vdro ver ])d her setter i grOf })essa. t^er mun her 
kunnigt um htisaskipan, segir Egill, hvar oss er vsenst A brott 
at komast. Aki sag9i at ))ar var annat skjald{)Ui: brj6d {)er 
])at upp, munu })er ^A koma fram f kornhlo9u, en ))d er t)t* 



89 

ginga sem sjdlfr vill. I^eir Egill gerSu sv^, brutu upp ])ilit, 
gengu sidan i hloSuna, ok })a8aii lit. Ni9ainyrkr var L 

Pa mseitu {)eir f&ruDautar Egils, at t)eir skyldu skunda 
A skdginn. Egili maelti vi9 Aka ef {)er eru her kunnig h^byli, 
^A muntu visa oss til fefanga nokkurra. Aki segir at eigi 
mundi I)ar skorta lausafe: her er lopt mikit, er b6Ddi sefr i, 
{>ar skorter eigi v^pn inni. Egill baS ^A ])^ngat fara til lopt- 
sins ; en er {)eir komo upp A loptri9it, ^A sA ^eir at loptit var 
opit; var J)ar lj6s inni, ok J)j6nostu-menn , ok bjuggu rekkjur 
manna. Egiil baS })d suma titi vera, ok gaeta at engi ksemist 
tL Egill hlj6p inn i loptit, greip [>ar vApn, {)vfat })au skorti 
par eigi inni, dr^pu ))ar menn alia, ^A er t)ar v^ro inni; Jieir 
t6ko ser aller alvaepni. 

Aki gekk ]>ar til er hlemmr var i g6lf[)ilinu, ok lauk upp, 
mselti at ^eir skyldi )>ar ofan g^nga i undirskemmuna. I^eir 
t6ko ser ]j6s, ok gengu (i^ngat; v^bro ))ar fehirzlur b6nda ok 
griper g68er ok silfr mikit ; t6ko men ser })ar byrSar, ok b^ira 
tit. Egill t6k undir hOnd ser mjoddrekku eina vel mikla, ok 
bar hana undir hendi ser. En er })eir komo f sk6ginn, ^A 
nam Egill staS ok mselti : {)essi fer9 er alllll, ok eigi hermann- 
lig; ver hofum stolit fe b6nda, sv^ at hann veit ekki til, skal 
oss aldregi ))^ skOmm henda; fbrum nti aptr til boejarins, ok 
Mtum ^A vita hvat tltt er. Alhr mseitu J)vf f m6t, sOgSu at 
)>eir vildu til skips. 

Egill setr niSr mjoSdrekkuna, sfdan hefr hann A r^s, ok 
rann til boejarins; en er hann kom til boejarins, ^A sA hann, 
at ])j6nostusveinar gengu fr^ eldaskdla me8 skutildiska, ok b^ru 
inn f stofuna. EgUl s^ at f eldahtisinu var eldr mikill, ok 
katlar yfir, gekk hann J)dngat til. I^ar hOfSu verit stokkar 
st6rer flutter heim, ok sv^ eldar gerver, sem J)ar er siSvenja 
til, at eldinn skal leggja i stoksendann, ok brennr sv^ stokk- 
rinn. Egill greip upp stokkinn, ok gekk heim til stofunnar, 
ok skaut |)eim endanum er loga5i upp undir upsina, ok svd 
upp f naefrina, ok festi par eldinn i skj6tt. En vidir lAn par 
skamt i brott, ok bar hann ^A fyrir stofudyrnar. Eldrinn las 
skj6tt tr68vi9inn, en peir er vi8 drykkjuna s^tu; fundu eigi 
ffrr, en loginn st69 inn um raefrit. Hlj6po menn pa til dy- 
ranna; en par var ekki greiSfoert ilt, bae5i fyrir viSunum, sv^ 
pat at Egill var5i dyrnar, ok drap p^ fiesta er tit leituSu, baeSi 
i dyrunum ok M fyri. 

B6ndi spyrr, hverr tpir eldinum r^8i. Egill segir: s^ 
einn neSr ut fyrir eldi, er per mundi 6lfkast pykja f gserkveld, 



90 

ok ftkalto ekki beiSast at baka heitara, en ek mmi kinda; skaltn 
bafa mjtikt bad fyrir mjnka rekkjo, er |)a TeiUer mer ok minum 
fbroDaiiUiiii. Er ber otk sd sami EgilJ, er |)6 itn Ijdtra, ok 
binda rid stafinn i husi |>Ti, er ))er laestuS vandliga: skal Did 
laana )>er vi8t5kur, sem |)!i ert TerSr. t |>Ti setlar b6ndi at 
leyDast tti i myrkrit, en Egill Tar naerstaddr, ok hj6 bann )iegar 
banabdgg, ok marga aSra. En l>at Tar svipstnnd ein, a8r stafan 
brann, stA at hon 1^11 ofan ; lyndist |Kir mestr hlati liSs )>ess, 
er |>ar var innL 

En Egill gekk aptr til skdgarins^ fann ])ar ntaiinauta sina, 
fara |>a allir saman til skips. SagSi Egill, at mjoSdrekku ^ 
vill hann bafa at afn^msfe, er bann fdr meS, en hon var 
reyndar full af silfrL I^eir ^6r6lfr ur8u allfegnir, er Egill kom 
ofan, b^ldu }>eir )>d f>egar frd landi, er momadi. Aki ok ))eir 
fedgar T^ro i sveit Egils. ^eir sigldu um sumarit, er ^eiS, til 
Danmarkar, ok l^gu |>ar enn fyri kaupskipom, ok raenUi ))ar 
er {>eir komust viS. 

Haraldr Gonnsson hafiii t>^ tekit vi8 riki 1 DanmOrk^ 
en Gormr var {)^ dau8r, faSir bans; landit var )>a berskdtt, 
Ugu vfkingar mjOg liti fyri, DanmOrku. Aka var kunnigt i 
DanmOrku baeSi A sji ok landi; spurSi Egill hann mjOg ept- 
ri, livar ))eir sta8er vsri, er st6r fefaung mundi fyriliggja. Ea 
er l)eir komu i Eyrarsund, ))d sagSi Aki at t)ar var d land upp 
kaupstaJir mikill, er h^t f Lundi, sagSi at ^ar var fev^n, ea 
Ifkligt at ))ar mundi vera viStaka, er boejarmenn vaeri. t^at 
ni^l var uppborit fyri liSsmOnnum, hv^rt' l)ar skyldi r^da til 
uppgaungu e9a eigi. Menn t6ko {)ar allmisjafnt A, fystu sumer 
en sumer lotta, var {)vi m^li skoti9 til st^rimanna. t^6r6lfr 
ffsti heldr uppgaungu; ^& var roedt vi8 Egil, hvat konum ]>6tti 
Hi hann kvaS visu: 

Upp skolum orum sverSum, 

t!i]fs-tann-litu8i I glitra; 

eigum daS at drj^gja 

i dal miskunn fiska. 

Leili upp til Lundar 

1^8a hverr sem bra5ast; 

gerum I)ar fyri setr s61ar 

sei5 6fagran vigra. 

SiSan bjuggust menn til uppgaungu, ok f6ro til kaupsta- 

Sarins. En er boejarmenn ur8u varer vi5 tifriS, ^A stefndu 

))eir i m6t; var ))ar treborg um sta8inn, settu l)eir |)ar menn 

til at verja; t6kst })ar bardagi binn harSasti. Egill s6tti at 



91 

hliSinu fast me5 sina sveit, ok bllfSi ser lilt; var8 ])ar mikit 
maDDfall; {) 1 at hverr fi^lh um annan borgarmanna. Er sv^ 
sagt at Egill gengi fyrstr manna f borgina, ok siSan hverr 
at 09rum; siSan fly9a boejarmehn, var l)ar mannfall mikit. 
£n {)eir &6r6lfr raentu kaupstaSinn, ok I6ku mikit fe, en Wendu 
boejinn, a9r l)eir skildust viS. F6ro sidan ofan til skipa sinna. 



Af Snorre Sturlesens Heimskrfngla. 

Sagft lakonar g68a. 

1. Fl^kon ASalsteinsfdstri var ^A ^ Englandi, er hanh 
spurSi andl^t Haralds kontings f58ur sins; bj6st bann J)^ ))egar 
til ferSar: f^kk Adalsteinn koniingr b^nom lii, ok g69an ski- 
pakost, ok bj6 bans f6r allvegliga; ok kom bann um haustit 
til Noregs. PA spur8i bann fall broeSra sinna, ok l)at me8 
at Eirikr kontingr var ^A i Vikinni: sigldi ^A H^kon nor9r til 
t^randbeims, ok f6r A fund SigurSar Hla9ajarls, er allra spekfnga 
var mestr i Noregi, ok f^kk ()ar g69ar viSt5kur, ok bundo ^eir 
lag sitt saman; b^t H^kon b^nom miklo riki, ef bann yrdi 
koniingr. PA l^to l)eir stefna ^ing Qolmennt, ok A J)ingino 
talaSi Sigurdr jarl af bendi H^konar, ok baud b6ndom bann 
til koni!ings. Eptir ))at st69 H^kon sjdlfr upp ok talaSi; mselto 
J)d tveir ok tveir sin A milli, at t)ar \xn kominn Haraldr b^- 
fagri, ok orSinn ilngr i annat sinn. H^kon bafSi J)at uppbaf 
sins m^ls, at bann beiddi boendr vi8t5ku, ok at gefa ser kon- 
i!iDgsnofn, ok {lat me5 at veita ser fuUting ok styrk til at balda 
kontingddmiuom; en J)arim6t bau8 bann l)eim at gera alia 
boendr 65aIborna, ok gefa l)eim 69ol sin, er abjoggu. At |)esso 
^rendi varS r6mr sv^ mikill, at ailr bonda milgrinn oepti ok 
kallaSi, at t)eir vildi bann til konilngs taka; ok var svA gert, 
at t^rsendir t6ku H^kon til koniings um allt land, [t)ar var bann 
15 vetra: t6k bann ser ]^A birS, ok f6r yfir land. 

t^au tiSindi spurSust A UpplOnd, at I^rsendir bOfSo ser kon- 
ting tekit, slikan at OUu sem Haraldr binn b^rfagri var, nema 
J)at skildi, at Haraldr bafSi allan 1yd i landi [l)raelkat ok d|)jd8, 
en t)essi, Hdkon, vildi bverjom manni gott, ok bau8 aptr at 
gefa b6ndom 68ol sin, l)au er Haraldr konilngr hafiSi af })eim 
tekit. Vi5 t)au ti9indi urSo allir gla8ir, ok sag8i hverr o9rum, 



92 

flaug ])at sem sinoeldr allt austr til lands enda. Margir boendr 
f6ro af UpplOndum at hitta H^kon konting; sumir sendo meon, 
sumir gerSo ortsendingar ok jartegnir, en allir til ])ess, at 
bans n^enn vildo gerast Kontingr t6k pvf {)akksamliga. 

2. H^kon kontingr f6r ondurSan vetr A UpplOnd, stefndi ])ar 
}>ing, ok dreif allt f6lk A hans fund, ))at er komast m^tti; var ban 
])d til koniings tekinn A dUum ))fngom; f6r bann ^A austr tilVikr. 

11. ti er Hdkon var koniingr f Noregi var friSr g68r 
med b6ndom' ok kaupmOnnum ; sv^ at engi grandaSi oSrum 
ne annars fe; {)d var ok ^r mikitbseSi A sjd ok landi. Hdkon 
koniingr var albra manna gla9astr ok mdlsnjallastr ok litilldtastr} 
bann var ma8r st6rvitr, ok lag9i mikinn bug A lagasetnfng: 
bann setti Gula})ingslOg me8 raSi t^orleifs spaka ; ok bann setti 
FrostaI)ingslOg me8 vAii SigurSar jarls ok annarra Jirsenda^ 
))eirra er vitrastir v^ro; en HeiSsaefislOg baf9i sett Hdlfd^D 
svarti, sem fyrr er ritat. 

15. H^kon koniingr var vel kristinn, er bann kom i Noregi 
en fyrir ))vf at J)ar var land allt beiSit, ok bl6tskapr mikiU^ 
ok st6rmenni mart; en bann {)6ttist liSs })urfa mjOk ok alj)y5a 
vinsseld ; ^A t6k bann |)at rd9, at fara leyniliga me8 kristninni^ 
b^lt sunnodaga ok frj^dagaibsto ok minnfng binna stoersto bdtiSa. 
Hann setti ))at f lOgom, at befja j6labald J)ann tima, sem krist- 
nir menn, ok skyldi ]^A bverr ma5r eiga maelis ol, en gjalda 
fe ella, ok balda beilagt meSan Ol ynnist; en ^8rvar j6labald 
bafit Hoko-n6tt, })at var miSsvetrar n6tt, ok baldin ))riggja ndtta 
j6l. Hann setlaSi sv^, er bann festist f landino, ok bann bef5i 
frj^lsliga undir sik lagt allt landit, at bafa J)^ fram kristnibo5» 
Hann gerSi sv^ fyrst, at bann lokka9i ^A menn, er b^nom v^ira 
kaerstir til kristni ; kom s\A me5 vinsseld bans, at mj()k margir 
l^to skirast, en sumir l^to af bl6tom. Han sat lOngom f t^r^nd- 
beimi, ])viat t)ar var mestr styrkr landsins. £n er Hdkon kon- 
tingr )>6ttist fengit bafa 'styrk af nokkorum rlkismOnnum, at 
balda upp kristninni, ^A sendi bann til Englands eptir biskupi 
ok oBrum kennimOnnum; ok er {)eir komu f Noreg, ^A ger5i 
H^kon koni^ngr |)at bert, at bann vildi bjo5a kristni um allt 
land, en Moerir ok Raumdoelir skuto t)annug sfno m^li, sem 
I^raendir v^^. Hdkon koniingr l^t ]^A vfgja kirkjor nokkorar, 
ok setti t)ar presta til. En er bann kom 1 t^r^ndbeim, )>1 
stefndi bann ])lng vi9 boendr, ok bau8 J)eim kristni. t^eir svara 
svd, at l)eir ^ja f)esso mdli skj6ta til Frosta})ings, ok vilja })a 
at })ar komi menn or oUum fylkjom, ))eim sem ero i t^raenda- 
lOgom; segja at ^A m^no J>eir svara ^esso vandmseli. 



93 

17. H^kon koDiingr kom til Frostat)fDgs, ok var t)ar korait 
allfjOlmeDDt af b^ndom. En er ^ing var sett, ^i talaSi H^kon 
koniingr, hefr })ar fyrst, at ^ai var boS bans ok boen vi$ boendr 
ok bii^egna, rfka ok lirfka, ok })anned Yi9 alia all)y9o, tinga 
menn ok gamla, sselan ok vesselan, konur sem karla, at allir 
menn skyldo kristnast l^ta, ok trda A einn gu8, Krist Marfoson, 
en hafna bl6tum 5llum ok heidnom goSum, halda beilakt binn 
7da bvern dag viS vinnom ollum, fasta ok binn 7da hvern dag. 

En tegar er konungr bafSi })etta uppborit fyrir alJ)y9o, 
))d varS l)egar kurr mikill, kurroSo boendr um {)at, er konilngr 
vildi vinnur taka af J)eini, ok segja at viS ))at mdlti landit eigi 
byggja; en verkalySr ok t)rdelar koUudu, at ^eir msetti eigi vinna, 
ef peir skyldi eigi mat bafa: sogSo ok at l)at var skaplOstr 
H^konar koniings, sem fbSur bans ok {)eirra fraenda, at {)eir 
v^o illir af mat sinom, {)6tt j^eir vseri mildir af gulli. 

AsbjOrn af MeSalbiisom or Gaulardal st69 upp, ok svarar 
eyrindi kontings ok maelti. I^at bug5o ver boendr, Hdkon kon- 
i^grl segir bann, at ^A er ^ti baf9ir et fyrsta {)ing baft ber 
i I^rdndbeimi, ok bOfSom |)ik til kontings tekit, ok t)egit af ))er 
^8oi v^r, at ver befSim J)d bimin bOndom tekit; en nil vitom 
ver eigi bvM beldr er, at ver m^nom frelsi })egit bafa, e8a 
mantu uti Idta })rselka oss af n^jo me8 undarligom bsetti, at 
Ter munim bafna ^trt!ina9i l)eim, er feSr v^rir bafa baft fyrir 
oss, ok allt forelbi, fyrst um brunaOld , en mi um baugsOld, 
ok bafa ))eir verit miklo gOfgari en ver, ok befir oss J)6 dugat 
})essi ^triinaSr. Ver b5fum Tagt til y5ar sv^ mikla AsitiS^ at 
ver bOfom |)ik r^Sa Idtit me8 oss Ollum l5gum f landino ok 
landsr^tt. Nti er t)at vili v^rr ok saml)ykki, b6ndanna, at balda 
})au l5g, sem })ii settir oss ber A Frosta{)ingj, ok ver j^taSom 
|)er; viljom ver allir ))er fylgja, ok})ik~til konungs balda, me- 
isLU einnbverr er Iffs bandanna ))eirra, er ber ero mi A |)fn- 
gino, ef ^ti, kontingr, vill nokkut b6f vi9bafa, at beiSa oss 
^ess eins, er ver megom veita |)er, ok oss se eigi 6geranda. 
En ef {)er vilit )>etta mdl taka me8 sv^ mikilli freko, at deila 
afli ok ofriki vi8 oss, ]^A bofum ver boendr gert r^5 vdrt, at 
skiljast allir vi8 {>ik, ok taka oss annan bOfSingja, t)ann er 
oss baldi til l)ess, at ver munim f frelsi bafa ))ann dtriinaS, 
«em [ver viljom. Nii skaltu, konAngr, kj6sa um kosti J)essa, 
iSr {)fng se slitit 

At eyrindi })esso gerSo boendr r6m mikinn, ok segja at 
}>eir vilja sv^ vera l^ta. 

En er blj65 f^kkst, })^ svarar SigurSr jarl: t^at er vili 



94 

H^koDar koniings, at sam))ykkja vi8 y9r, boBndr, ok l^ta aldri 
skilja y8ra yin^tto. Boendr segja at })eir >ilja, at kontingr 
bl6ti til drs ))eim ok friSar, svd sem fa9ir hans gerSi, stadnar 
}>^ kurrinn, ok slfta ])eir J)ingiDo. SiSan talaSi SigurSr jarl 
vi8 konting, ok ba8 hann eigi nemast me8 oUu, at gera sem 
boendr vildi, sagSi at eigi raundi annat lyda, en sveigja til 
Dokkot vi8 b(£Ddr: er {)etta, kondngr, sem sj^lfir ])er roegut 
heyra, vili ok ^kafi hOfSingja ok t)arme8 alls f6lks; skolo ver, 
kontiDgr, her finna til gott vAi nokkut; ok samdist )>at me5 
|)eim konttngi ok jarli. 

16. Sigiir8r La8a-jarl var hinn mesti bl6lma9r, ok sv^ 
var Hdkon fadir hans; hMt SigurQr jarl upp bl6tveizIom dllum 
af hendi koDilings })ar i trsendalOgom. 

t^at var forn si8r, ])d er bl6t skyldi vera, at aliir boendr 
skyldo ^ar koma, sem hof var, ok flytja })annug fong sin, ))au 
er ))eir skyldo hafa, me8an veizlan st68. At veizlo })eirri skyldo 
allir menn Ol eiga: })a var ok drepinn allskonar small ok sv^ 
hross, en bl68 ))at allt, er ))ai* kom af, })at var kallat hlaut, 
ok hlautboUar {)at, er bl68 |)at st68 f, ok hlaulteinar, }>at var 
sv^ gert sem stoklar, meS ^vi skyldi rj68a stallana Olio saman, 
ok sv^ veggi hofsins utan ok inuan, ok sv^ stdkkva A mennina; 
en sl^trit skyldi sj68a til mannfagnaSar. Eldar skyldo vera 
A mi8jo g6lfi 1 hofino*, ok ))ar katlar yfir, ok skyldi full um 
eld bera. En s^ er ger8i veizlona, ok hOflffDgi var, J^A skyldi 
hann signa fullit ok allan bl6tmatinn. Skyldi fyrst 08ins full, 
[skyldi ^at drekka til sigrs ok rikis konungi sfnom, en siSan 
NjarSar full ok Freys full til drs ok fnSar. Pa var mOrgum 
m5nnum titt at drekka parnsest Braga full; menn diiikko ok 
full frsenda sinna, {)eirra er gOfgir hOfSo verit, ok v^ro ))at 
minni kOlluS. 

Sigur8r jarl var manna Orvastr; hann gerSi ))at verk, er 
frsegt var mjok, at hann gerSi mikla [bl6lveizlo A HloSom, ok 
h^lt einn upp oUum kostnaSi. 

18. Um haustit at vetrn6ttum var b]6tveizla A Lo5om, ok 
s6tti J)artil koutingr. Hann hafBi jafnan fyrr verit vanr, ef 
hann var staddr ])ar sem bl6t v^ro, at matast f litlu hilsi me$ 
f^ menn; en boendr toldo at ])vi, er hann sat eigi f h^ssetr 
sfno, ])^ er mestr var mannfagna8r; sag8i jarl, at hann skyldi 
eigi ))d sv^ gera, var ok sv^ at kontingr sat f h^saeti slno. 
En er et fyrsta full var skenkt, ])d maelti SigurSr jarl fyrir, 
ok signaSi (38ni, ok drakk af horninu til koniings; koniingr 
t6k vi5, ok gerSi krossmark yflr: ^A maelti Kdrr af Gr^tingi: 



95 

hvi ferr kontiugrinn ni^ sv^? vill hanu eigi enn bl6ta? SigurSr 
jarl svarar: kootiogr gerir sv^, sem ))eir allir, er triia A m^tt 
sinn ok megin, ok signa full sitt P6r; hann gerSi hamarsmark 
yfir, Air hann drakk. Var ^A kyrt um kveldit. Eptir urn da- 
ginn, er menn gengo til borda, {)^ ])usto boendr at koui^ngi, 
sOgSu at J)^ skyldi hann eta brossasMtr; koniingr vildi {)at firir 
engan mun. Pi Min ^e\r hann drekka soSit; hann vildi {)at 
eigi. Pa bd9o j[)eir hann eta flotit; hann vildi J)at ok eigi; 
[ok var ^A vi8 atgOngu bilit. ' 

[Jarl kvaSst vildu ssetta ))d, ok ba5 ^A hsetta storminom, 
ok baS hann konilng gfna yfir ketilhOdduna, er soSreykinn hafdi 
lagt upp af hrossasldtrino , ok var smjOrug haddan; ^A gokk 
konilngr til, ok br^ Iindi!ik um hodduna, ok gein yfir, ok gekk 
sfdan til h^ssetis, ok likaSi hvdrigom vel. 

19. Um vetrinn eptir var btiit til j6laveizlo koniingi inn 
A Moeri ; en er alleiS j6lunom, Iog9o {)eir stefno meS ser ^tta 
hOfSingjar, er mest r^8o fyrir bl6tum i Ollum t^rsendalOgum ; 
])eir v^ro 4 utan or t^rdndheimi : K^rr af Gr;^tfngi ok AsbjOrn 
af MeSalhiisum, t^6rbergr af Varnesi, Ormr af Ljoxu; en af 
Inn^rsendom B6l6lfr af Olvishaugi, Narfi af Staff Veradal, })r^ndr 
haka af Eggjo, t^6rir skegg af Hiisaboe^i eynni 18ri: l)essir 8 
menn bundust f ))vf, at ^eir Q6rir af [lJt|)raendom skyldu eyda 
kristninni, en ^\v Q6nr af Inn|)r8endom skyldu neySa koniing 
til bl6ta. DtJ)rsendir f6ro 4 skipom su8r A MoBri, ok drdpo 
})ar presta 3, ok brenndo kirkjor 3, [f6ro aptr siSan. En er 
H^on koniingr ok SigurSr jarl komu inn A Mceri mei hir5 
sina, ]}A vAro ))ar boendr komnir allQolmennt. Hinn fyrsta dag 
at veizlonni [veitto boendr, koniingi atgOngo, ok b^5o hann 
bl6ta, en h^to h^nom afarkostom ella ; Sigur9r jarl bar ))^ s^tt- 
mdl f millom })eirra, kOmr ^A sv^ at H^on kontingr At nok- 
kura bita af hrosslifr; drakk hann ]^A Oil minni krossalaust^ 
})au er bcendr skenkto h^nom. 

En er veizlo l)essarri var lokit, f6r kondngr ok jarl {)egar 
tit A Hladir; var komingr alMk^tr, ok bj6st })egar f brott me8 
Oilu li6i sino or I^r^ndheimi, [ok maelti sv^, at hann skyldi 
fjolmennari koma f K^ndheim annat sinn, ok gjalda b^ndom 
j^enna Qandskap, er ))eir hOfSo til bans gert. SigurSr jarl 
baS koniing gefa I^rsendoro })etta eigi at sOk ; segir svA at kon- 
tingi muni eiga {)at duga at heitast eSr herja A innanlands 
f6lk, [))ar sem mestr styrkr er landsins, sem f I^^ndheimi 
var. Kontingr var ^A sv^ reiSr, at eigi m^tti orSom vi8 hann 
koma; f6r hann i brott or t^r^ndheimi, ok su8r A Moeri; dval* 



96 

dist ))ar um vetrinn ok um vdrit. En er sumraSi dr6 hann 
li8 at ser, ok v^ro ))au or5 d, at hann mundi fara meS her 
}>ann A hendr {iraendom. 

20. [H^on konilngr var ))^ A skip kominn, ok hafSi h8 
mikit; t)d koma h^nom tfSindi sunnan or landi, J)au at synir 
Eirfks kontings y^ro komnir sunnan af DanmOrk f Vikina; ok 
J)at fylgSi, at ))eir hOfSo elt af skipom Tryggva konting Olafs- 
son austr vi8 S6tanes; hOfSo ])eir ]^A viSa herjat i Vikinni, ok 
hOf3o margir menn undir ^A gengit En er koniingr spurSi 
}>essi tiSindi, {)6ttist hann h8s })urfa, sendi hann ^& or8 Sig- 
ur8i jarli, at koma til sin, ok sv^ ttSrum hOfSingjom, {)eim er 
h^nom var ii5s at van. SigurSr jarl kom til H^onar koniings, 
ok hafSi allmikit Ii5; v^o l)ar J)^ allir Praendir, {)eir er um 
vetrinn hOfSo mest gengit at kondnginom, at pynda hann til 
bl6ta; v^ro ^eiv pA allir [f ssett teknir af fortolum Sigur8ar 
jarls. 



lani^afnaSr me5 komiDgiin. 

Eysteinn kouilngr ok SigurSr konilngr f6ro einn vetr b^fiir 
at veizlom A UpplOndom, ok dtti sin bi!i hvdrr {>eirra; en er 
skamt var milli J)eirra boeja, er komlngar skyldo veizlor taka, 
{)a ger9u menn })at rd5, at J)eir skyldu bdSir vera samt at 
veizlonom, ok si no sinni at hv^rs bilum ; v^ro })eir fyrst b^9er 
samt at })vf bi^i, er Eysteinn konilngr ^tti. En of kveldit, er 
menn t6ku at drekka, ^A var munngat ekki gott, ok v^ro menn 
hlj68er. t^^ mselti Eysteinn konilngr: [1^6 ero menn hlj65erl 
hitt er 5lsi8r meiri, at menn geri ser gleSi; fdm oss Olteiti 
nOkkura, man ^A enu ^reitast gaman manna. Sigur5r br68irl 
t^at mun oUum soemst }>ykkja, at vi8 hefim nOkkurar skemt- 
unarroeSur. SigurSr konilngr svarar heldr stygt: ver J)!! sv^ 
m^ugr sem J>i!i vill, en l^t mik nd at ))egja fyrir J)erl 

Eysteinn konilngr mselti: sA OlsiSr hefir opt verit, at menn 
taka ser jafnaSarmenn , vil ek her sv^ vera l^ta. PA )>ag8e 
SigurSr konilngr. 

Se ek, segir Eysteinn konilngr, at [ek verS at heQa )>essa 
teiti; mun ek taka t)ik, br6SerI til jafnaSarmanns mer: fceri 
ek ^at til, at jafnt nafn hofom viS MSer, ok jafna eign, geri 
ek ok engi mun aettar okkarrar eSa uppfoezlu. 

Pa svarar SigurSr konilngr: mantu ))at eigi, er ek braut 
|)ik A bak, ef ek vilda, ok vartu vetri ellril 



97 

Eysteinn koniingr svaraSi: eigi man ek bitt si5r, er ^u. 
fhiki ekki leikit, {)at er mjilkleikr var i. 

Pa mselti SigurSr kontlDgr: mantu hversu of sundet f(6r 
flieS okkr? ek m^tta keQa |)ik, ef ek vildal 

Eysteinn sagSi: ekki svani ek skemra en t)il, ok eigi var 
ek ?err kafsyndr; ek kunna ok A isleggjom, sv^ at engan 
vissa ek, l)ann [er kepSe vi5 mik, en })u kunnir J)at eigi heldr 
en naut. 

Sigurdr koniingr svarar: b5f9ingligri idr6tt ok nytsamligri 
))ykki mer su, at kunna vel vi9 boga; aetla ek at {)ii nytir 
eigi boga minn, [)6tto spyrnir f6toni f. 

Eysteinn segir: ekki em ek bogsterkr sv^ sem l)i!i, 
en minna mun skilja beinskeyti okkra, ok myklo kann ek 
betr en ])il A skiSom, ok haf9e l)at enn [verit kallat fyrr 
g65 i5r6tt. 

SigurSr segir: ])ess {)ykkir mikill munr, at t)at er hOf5ing- 
ligra, at s^ er yfirma9r skal vera annarra manna, se mikill i 
flokki, sterkr ok v^pnfoerr betr en a8nr, auSsser ok auSkendr, 
pA er [margir eru saman. 

Eysteinn segip eigi er })at si5r einkanna hlutr, at ma8r 
se friSr s^nom, ok er sa ok auSkendr i mannQolda, J)ikki mer 
pat ok hOfSingligt, ))viat fiiSleikinom samir hinn bezti bunaSr. 
Kann ek ok myklo betr til laga en pTl] ok svd, bvat sem viS 
skolum tala, em ek myklo sl^ttorSari. 

Sigurdr svarar: Vera kann at f>il hafir numit fleiri log- 
pretto, t>viat ek ^tta pi annat at starfa ; ok engi fryr J)er sl^tt- 
niaelis, en hitt mssla margir, at pi^ ser ekki allfastorSr, ok litiS 
mark se hverjo pt beitr, ok mdslir eptir l)eim er pk ero bjd, 
ok er t^at ekki konilnglikt. 

Eysteinn svarar: t)at herr til J)ess, er menn bera mdl sin 
fyrir mik, pA hugsa ek J)at fyrst, at lilika sv^ hvers manns 
m^li, at peim msetti bezt l)ykkja; pi kemr opt annarr, s^ er 
m&i A vi8 hann, verSr pA jafnan dregit til ok miSlat, sv^ at 
b^9om skyldi lika. Hitt er ok, at ek heit {)vi er ek em be5enn, 
))vf at ek vilda, at allir foeri fegnir af minom funde ; se ek hinn 
kost, ef ek vil hafa sem pd gerir, at heita Ollum illu, en engi 
heyri ek efndanna fr^ja. 

SigurSr svarar: ^at heiir verit laAl manna, at fer5 si!i er 
ek f6r or lande vseri heldr hOfSinglig, en pti sazt heima me5an, 
sem d6ttir fi)8ur ))fns. 

Eysteinn svarar: mi greiptu A kyUnol eigi mynda ek ])essa 
roeSo vekja, ef ek kynna her engu [um at svara: nser ^6tti 

Icelandic Gzammu. 7 



98 

mer hino, at ek gerSa ))ik heiman sem systor mina, a8r J)tl 
yr8ir buinn til fararinnar. 

Sigurdr svarar: heyrt muntu t>at hafa, at ek dtta orrostor 
margar i Serklandi, ok f^kk i oUum sigr, ok margskonar gjor- 
simar, [)8er er eigi hafa slikar komit hingat i land; ))6tla ek 
))ar mest verSr, er ek fann gOfgasta menn, en ek hygg, at 
eigi hafir ))ii enn [hleypt heimdreganom. F6r ek til J6rsala, 
segir hann, ok kom ek vi9 Piil, ok s^ ek ^ig eigi {)ar, br68iri 
Ek gat* koDi!ingd6in Rodgeiri jarli blnom rfka; vann ek dtta 
orrostor, ok vartu at aungarri. F6r ek til grafar drottins, ok 
sa ek ]}\g eigi ))ar, br68irl V6r ek i dna J6rd^n, t)ar sem 
drottinn [var skfrSr i, ok svam ek t)t yfir ^na, ok sd ek ^\g 
eigi ))ar, [en lit A bakkanom yar kjarr nOkkuO, ok knytta ek 
^er par kniit a kjarrino, ok biSr {)in J)ar; [ok mselta ek sv4 
fyrir, at J)ii skylder leysa, br68er! e8a hala ellar pvilikan for- 
mula, sem ))ar var dlagSr. 

H mselti Eysteinn konilngr: srodtt mun ek hafa berim6ti: 
NorSr i V^gom setta ek fiskimannabil5ir, at f^toekir menn maetti 
nserast til lifsbj^Ipar, ok setta ek ))ar prestvist, ok lagSa ek fe 
til kirkju {)eirrar, er n^liga var allt heiSit ^8r; mdno J)eir 
menn muna, at Eysteinn koni!ingr hefir verit i Noregi. Um 
Dofra fjall var ibr or t^rdndbeimi; ur8o menn |>ar jafnan titi» 
ok f6ro ))ar margir menn hOrSom fOrum, l^t ek J)ar saslobiis 
gera, ok fe tilleggja, ok munu (>eir vita, at Eysteinn koniingr 
befir verit I Noregi. Fyrir AgSanesi voru ttraefi ok bafnleysi^ 
f6rust mOrg skip; ))ar er nti bofn ger ok gott skipalaegi, ok 
kirkja gjOr. SiSan let ek vita gera A bdfjdllom; ml munu J)essa 
nj6ta allir menn innanlands. Hollina l^t ek gera i BjOrgyn 
ok postulakirkju ok riS milli ; munu konilngar })eir muna nafn 
mitt, er eptir koma. Mikjalskirkju l^t ek gera ok milnklifi; 
skipaSa et ok lOgonom, br69ir, at bverr maetti bafa r^ttindi viS 
annan, ok ef ))au ero baldin, pd mun betr fara landsstj6min. 
StOpulinn l^t ek gera i Sinb6lmssundi. Peim jamtom bOfom 
ver ok sntiit undir [)etta rfki, meir me8 bli5om orSom ok viti 
en me9 ag^ng e8r 6fri8i. Nti er J)etta sm^tt at telja, en 6gi 
veit ek vist at landsbtiunom se })etta 6hallkvsemara , en J)6tt 
)ii brytja8ir bMmenn fyrir fjandann [A Serklandi, ok brapa 
)eim sv^ til belvUis. En {)ar sem ))ti br6sa8ir g68gemingom 
)inom, setia ek mer eigi minna til s^lubdtar staSi pd, er ek 
^t setja breinlifismOnnum. En {)ar sem ))ti reitt mer kniltinn^ 
ok mun ek J)ann eigi leysa, en ri8a mdtta ek ^er ])ann knilt, 
[ef ek vilda, at )>d vserir aldregi konfingr i Noregi, ^A er )>il 



99 

sigldir einskipa 1 her minn, er })u komt i land. Liti nii vittrir 
menn hvat t)i!i hefir umfram, ok vita skulut J)er J)at, gullh^ls- 
arnir, at menn muno enn jafnast vi5 i8r i Noregi. Eptir J)at 
])0gnu8o t>eir baSer, ok var hv^yeggi reiSr. Fleiri lutir urSo 
))eir i skiptom ]>eirra broeSra, er t>at fanst, at hvdrr dr6 sik 
fram ok sitt mil, ok vildi vera oSrom meiri, en J)6 h^zt fri8r 
[milium J)eirra, me9an l)eir lifSo. 



Af Njalssaga. 

Ciinnarr a Hli5arenda. 

19... Gunnarr H^mundarson bj6 at Hli5arenda 1 FIj6ts- 
hll8; hann var mikill ma8r yexti ok sterkr, [manna bezt vigr: 
hann hj6 b^8um h5ndum ok skaut, ef hann vildi, ok hann 
yA sy^ skj6tt me9 sverSi', at J)rjl!i t>6ttu A lopti at sj^; hann 
skaut manna bezt af boga, ok hoefSi allt |)at er hann skaut 
til'; hann h]j6p meir en bseS sina me5 6llum herklaeSum, ok 
eigi skemra aptr en fram fyrir sik; hann yar syndr sem selr; 
ok eigi yar s^ leikr, er nokkurr ^yrfli yiS hann at keppa; 
ok hefir sy^ yerit sagt, at eingi yaeri bans jafningi. Hann yar 
ysenn at yfirlitum ok ]j6s-Uta8r, r^lt-neQadr ok hafit upp i fra- 
manvert, bMeygr ok snareygr, ok ro5i i kinnunum, hdrit mikit, 
ok f6r yel ok yel litt; manna kurteisastr var hann, har9gjOrr 
i oUu, femildr ok stiitr yel, vinfastr ok yinayandr; hann yar 
yel auSigr at fe; br69ir bans h^t Kolskeggr, hann yar mikill 
maSr ok sterkr, drengr g69r ok druggr i oUu. Annarr br68ir 
hans b^t HjOrtr, hann yar I>^ f bernsku... 

20... Nj^ll bj6 at Berg))6rshydH f Landeyjum, annat bti 
^tti hann i P6r6lfsfeni. Nj^ll yar yel auSigr at fe ok ysenn 
at dliti, h^nom vox eigi skegg. Hann yar iOgmaSr sy^ mikiU, 
at eingi fannst bans jafningi; yitr yar hann ok forspdr, bell- 
r^3r ok g69gjarn, ok yar5 allt at rdSi, {)at er hann r68 mOn- 
num, b6gvserr ok drenglyndr; hann leysti hyers manns yandrseSi, 
er A bans fund kom. •Berg{)6ra h^t kona hans, hon yar Skar- 
pheSins d6ltir, kyennskOrilngr mikill ok drengr g68r, ok nokkut 
skapbOrS ; })au dttu 6 bOru, doetr ))rj^r ok sonu J)rj^, ok koma 
})eir aUir viS {)essa sOgu sf8an. 

25... M skal nefna sonu Nj^s: Skarphe8inn h^t hinn 

7* 



100 

€lzti, hann var mikill ma5r vexti ok styrkr, vel vigr, syndr 
sem sir, manna f6thvatastr, ok skj6tr ok Oruggr, gagnor9r ok 
skj6tor5r, ok sk^d gott, en ))6 laungum vel stiltr; hann var 
jarpr d hdr, ok sveipr i h^inu, aug5r vel, folleitr ok skarpleitr, 
li5r A nefi, ok lA Mtt tanngar9rinn , munnlj6tr mjdk, ok )>6 
manna hermannligstr. Grimr h^t annarr son Nj^ls, hann var 
fridr s^num, ok haerSr vel, dokkr A h^, ok fri9ari s^num en 
Skarphe9inn, mikill ok sterkr. Helgi hk inn {)ri9i son Nj^ls, 
hann var friSr synum ok haerSr vel, hann var styrkr raa8r ok 
vigr vel, hann var vitr ma8r ok stiltr vel; allir vAru Jieir 6k- 
vAngaJiir synir Njdls. HOskuldr h^t hinn Q6r8i son NjAIs, hann 
var laungetinn, m68ir hans var Hr68ny, ok var HOskulds d6ttir, 
systir Ingjalds fvA Keldum. 

33. Gunnarr reiS ok J)eir allir, en er {)eir komu A })ing, 
J)d vAru J)eir svA vel biinir, at Ongir voru I)ar jafnvel biinir, 
ok f6ru menn ilt or hverri bil9 at undrast l)d. Gunnarr rei5 
til bu9ar Rdngseinga, ok var ^bv meS fraendam sinum. Mar- 
gir menn f6ru at finna Gunnarr, ok spyrja hann tfSinda ; hann 
var vi8 alia menn I6ttr ok k^tr, ok sagSi Ollum slfkt er vildu. 

tat var einn dag, er Gunnarr gekk fvA lOgbergi, hann 
gekk fyrir mosfellingabiiS , ^A sd hann kono fara i m6ti ser, 
ok var vel bi^n, en er ^au fundust^ kvaddi hon {)egar Gunnar, 
hann t6k vel kve8ju hennar, ok spyrr hvat kvenna hon vseri 
Hon nefndist Hallger5r, ok kvaSst vera d6ttir Hdskulds Dal- 
akoUssonar; hon maelti til hans djarfliga, ok ba8 segja ser M 
ferSum sinum, en hann kva9st ekki varna mundu henni mdls; 
settust l)au })d ni5r, ok t5lu8u. Hon var svA bi!iin, at hon var 
1 rau9u kyltU, ok hafSi yfir ser skallazskikkju [hla5btina i skaut 
ni5r; hdrit t6k ofan A brfngu henni, ok var bseSi mikit ok 
fagrt. Gunnarr var f skallazklseSum, er Haraldr kontingr Gorms- 
son gaf h^num; hann hafSi ok guUhrfng A hendi, }>ann er 
Hdkon jarl gaf h^num. 

I^au tOlu5u lengi hdtt, |)ar kom er hann spur5i, hv^t 
hon vaeri 6gefin. Hon sag5i at svA vseri: ok er pat [ekki 
margra at haetta A )>at. I^ikki ))er hvergi fuUkosta? Eigi er 
{)at, segir hon, en mannvOnd mun ek vera. Hversu munt ])ti 
svara, ef ek bi8 ))in? t^at man {)er ekki i hug, segir hon. 
Eigi er })at, segir hann. Ef J)er er nekkurr hugr A^ ^A finn 
yti f58ur minn. SiSan skildu ))au taht 

Gunnarr gekk ))egar til bildar Dalamanna, ok fann mann 
i^ti fyrir btiSinni, ok spyrr hvArt HOskuldr vaeri i bti8 ; sA segir 
at hann vaeri i htS ; gekk ^A Gunnarr inn. HOskuldr ok RUtr 



101 

t6ku vel vi8 Gunnari, hann settist nidr a meSal J)eirra, ok 
faoDst ))at ekki 1 tali })eirra, at {)ar hefSi misssetti verit i meSal. 
l*ar kom ,Di8r roeSa Gunnars, hversu J)eir broe8r mundu {)vi 
svara, ef hann bseSi Hallgerdar. Vel segir HOskuldr, ef |)er er 
J)at alugat. Gunnarr segir ser J)at alvOru: en svA skildu ver 
nsestum, at morgum mundi {)at ))ikkja Hkligt, at her mundi 
ekki samband verSa. Hversu lizt J)er, Riitr fraendi? segir HOs- 
kuldr. Riitr svaraSi: ekki I)ikki mer J)eUa jafnraedi. Hvat 
finnr })il til })ess? segir Gunnarr. Mtr maelti: {)vi mun ek 
svara |)er um J)etta, er satt er; |)ii ert ma8r vaskr, ok vel 
at l)er, en hon er blandin mjok, ok vil ek t>ik f Ongu svfkja. 
Vel man J)er fara, segir Gunnarr, en J)6 mun ek l3at fyrir satt 
hafa, at })er virdit f. fornan fjandskap, ef {)er vilit eigi gera 
mer kostinn. Eigi er ]3at, segir Rutr; meir er hitt, at ek se 
at ))i^ mdtt ml ekki viSgera; en {)6tt ver kaupim eigi, ^A vil- 
dim ver ^6 vera vinir J)inir. Ek heii talat vi9 hana, segir 
Gunnarr, ok er [)at ekki Qarri hennar skapi. Rutr mselti: 
veit ek at bddum er J)etta girnda rdS, haettit J)it ok mestu til, 
hversu ferr. 

Riitr sagdi Gunnari 6fregit allt um skapferSi Hallgerdar, 
ok J)6tti Gunnari fyrst oerit mart, ])at er ^fdtt var, en {)ar kom 
si8ar, at saman dr6 kaupmdla me8 J)eim. Var })d sent eptir 
Hallgerdi, var ^A talat um mdlit, sv^ at hon var vi9. L^tu 
J)eir mi sem lyrr, at hon festi sik sj^lf; skyldi |)etta bo8 vera 
at HliSarenda, ok skyldi fara fyrst leyniliga, en ^6 kom l)ar, 
er allir vissu. 

Gunnarr reiS heim af l)iugi, ok kom til Rerg|)6rshvoIs, ok 
sag9i Nj^i fr^ kaupum sf num ; hann t6k J)essu biAngliga. Gun- 
narr spyrr hvi Njdli J)6tti J)etta svA iird81igt? rvfat af henni 
man standast allt it ilia, er hon kemr austr hlngat, segir Nj^U. 
Aldd skal hon spilla okkru vinfengi, segir Gunnarr. rat man 
|)6 [svd user fara, segir Njdll, en ^6 mant })il jafnan boeta fyrir 
henni. Gunnarr bauS Njdh til bo8s ok (3llum j^eim J)a8an, sem 
hann vildi at fceri. Nj^U h^t at fara. SfSan rei8 Gunnarr 
heim, ok reiS um heraSit, at bj68a mOnnum. 



PART IV. 



Modem Icelandic. 

This part has been added for Travellers and for practical 
purposes; and will, it is hoped, be a welcome assistant for 
travellers in Iceland. 

The Modern Orthography and Grammar is the same as 
the ancient, except k, which -is in modern orthography fre* 
quently changed into the softer g, and t, which is frequently 
changed into 8. 



Modern Icelandic. 





For Travellers. 






1. Alphabetical Vocabulary. 




accept 
acceptable 
accommodate 
can you accom- 
modate me 


ganga a9 
a5gengilegur 
tilvega 
getiS l36r lit- 
vegaS m6r 


afternoon 

again 

age 

agent 


siSari hlut 

dags, 
aptur 
aldur 
umbo5sma5ur 


account 
give me my ac- 
count 
I admire 


reikningur 
gefiSmerreikn- 
inginn minn 
eg ddist a8 


air 
ale 
a glass of ale 
all 


lopt 
01 
glas af Oli 
allur 


advice 


rA9 


not at all 


alls eigi 


give me your 
advice 


gefiS m6r y5ar 


nothing ataU 
alone 


alls ekkert 
einn, aleinn 


after 


eptir 


also 


lika 



103 



altogether 


allir saman, 


baih 


«» 


alveg 


I want a bath 


alvoays 


alitof 




and 


og 


to be 


angler 


ODglari 


be quick 


animal 


dyr 


let it be 


to answer 


aS svara 




answer, me 


GjOriS svo vel 


because 


please 


a8 svara m^r 


bed 


answer slowly 


svari9 seint 


give me a bed 


cpartment 


herbergi 




hav^ you an 


hafi8 )>er her- 


I go to bed 


apartment to 


bergi til 


beef 


let? 


leigu? 


roast beef 


apple 


epli 


beef steakes 


the arm 


handleggurinn 


beer 


to arrive 


a9 koma 


I want some 


to ascend 


aS fara uppd 


beer 


I want to as- 


eg vil fara 


to beg 


cend the 


uppd QalliS 


I beg of you 


mountain 




behind 


to ask 


a8 spyrja, biSja 


I left it be- 


ask him 


spyrjiS hann 


hind 


to assist 


a8 hjdlpa 


the bell 


assist me 


hjalpi9 m^r 


the biU 


at 


f, ^ 


to bind 


at home 


heima 


bind it up 


at sea 


^ sj6 




not at all 


alls eigi 


the bird 


attendant 


|)6nari 


can you tell 


I want an at- 


eg vil ik J)6n- 


me where to 


tetidant 


ara 


get board 


back 


aptur 


and lodgings 


let us go back 


fbrum aptur, 


boat 




sn\!iuin aptur 


book 


bacon 


flesk 


bookseller 


bad 


vondur 


boot 


bandage 


umbuSir 


I want my 


bank 


banki 


boots mended 


banknote 


bankaseSill 




banker 


vixlari 


brush my 


the barber 


rakarinn 


boots 



baS 

eg vil fa 
baS 
a8 vera 

veriS flj6tur 

latiS t>a8 
vera 
af })via9 
nlm 

lati9 mig fa 
riim 

eg feraShdtta 
nautakjot 

nautakjots- 

steik 
bjor 

eg vil f;§ bj6r 



{ 



a9 bi9ja 

eg bi9 ySur 
eptir 
eg skildi {laS 
eptir 
bjallaD,kIukkan 
reikninguriDD 
a8 binda 
bindi5 |)a8 
upp 
fugliuD 

GetiS ))^r sagt 

in6r, hvar 

m^ fa kost 

og husDse9i? 

batur 

b6k 

b6kasOluma8ur 
stigv^l 
eg ))arf a8 fd 
gjOrtvidstfg- 
velin mlo 
bursta9u slig* 
v^Iiu mio 



104 



boot jack 


stigv^la togari 


candle 


kerti 


box 


askja, kas8i 


I wanta 


eg parf kerti 


brandy 


brennivin, ko- 


candle 






niakk 


care 


uiuhyggja, van 


I want some 


egvilfi brenn- 


take care 


takid vara 


brandy 


ivin 


carriage 


vagn 


fill my flask 


fylli9 floskuna 


to carry 


a8 bera 


with brandy 


mina meS 


carry this 


beri5 t)etta 




brennivini 


cartridge 


skotmanns ves- 


bread 


brauS 




ki 


breakfast 


morgunverSur 


cattle 


nautpeningur 


I want to 


eg vil fti mor- 


certain 


viss 

• 


breakfast 


gunver8 


chair 


St6ll 


bridge 


brii 


chamber pot 


ndttpottur 


bring 


bera, fsera 


change 


skipti 


bring me 


faeriS m6r 


givemechange 


gefiS m6r 


bring me som^ 


faeriS m6r 




skipti 




nokkuS 


to charge 


aS setja upp. 


a brush . 


bursti 




beimta 


brush my 


burstiS fbtin 


what do you 


hva8 setiS )»6r 


dothes 


luin 


charge 


upp? 


but 


en 


cheap 


6djr 


butter 


sujjOr 


cheese 


ostur 


to buy 


a9 kaupa 


chest 


kista 


by 


hja, uie8, af 


- of drawers dragkista 


by and by 


vi8ogvi8,br^5- 


chicken 


hsenuungi. 




um 




kji'iklingur 


by all means 


fyrir alia umni 


child 


barn 


by no means 


fyrir engan 


church 


kirkja 




niun, engan 


chymist 


efnafrae5ingur 




veginn 


cigar 


vindill 


cabbage 


kal 


city 


baer, slaSur 


cabbin 


kjlhetta 


clean 


hreinn 


to call 


aS kalla 


doak . 


k^pa 


call the wai- 


kallid d{)j6n- 


clock 


klukka 


ter 


inn 


closet 


aihi!is 


call the man 


kalliS^mann- 


coach 


vagn 




inn 


coat 


frakki 


what do you 


hvaS kalli9 


coffee 


kaffi 


call thatl 


J)6r l)a8? 


give me some 


gefiS m6r 


can 


a8 geta, eg get 


coffee 


kam 


can you 


getiS J)6r? 


coffee-house 


kaffihiis 



105 



cold 


kaldur 


at day break 


i dOguD 


I feel very 


m^r er mjOg 


dear 


Aft 


cold 


kalt 


this is very 


jietta er mjOg 


comb 


kambur 


dear 


dyrt 


to come 


a8 koma 


delightful 


yndislegur 


come here 


komiS b^r 


dentist 


tannlseknir 


come with me 


koiiiiS med 


departure 


burtfor 




m6r 


descend 


fara nidur 


a conveyance 


flutningur 


let us descend 


fdrum ni8ur 


to cook 


a8 elda 


dialect 


inall]fzka 


cost 


kosta 


what dialect 


hvaSa iii^llyzku 


what does it 


hvaS kostar 


do they speak 


tala {)eir 


cost? 


})a8 


here? 


b6r? 


country 


land 


difficult 


Or9ugur 


courier 


bra8sendiho8i 


dinner 


miSdagsverSur 


cow 


k^r 


I want to 


eg vil \A miS- 


cream 


rj6iiii 


dine 


dagsver8 


give me some 


gefiS m^r 


distance 


QarlaBg8, vega- 


cream 


rj6ma 




lengd 


cup 


boUi 


what is the 


hvaS er vega- 


cup and saucer 


bolli og un- 


distance? 


lengdin ? 




dirskal 


to do 


a8 gjora 


to cut 


a8 skera 


do this 


gjOri8 {)etta 


cut it 


a5 skera l>ad 


do that 


gjOriS hitt 


damp 


rakur, volur 


do it 


gjOri8 l)a8 


I hope the 


eg Tona, a5 


do me 


gjOriSfyrirmig 


sheets are not 


rekkvoSirnar 


dont do it 


gjOrid^aSekki 


damp 


s^ ekki rakar 


the doctor 


IsekniriDD 


danish 


danska 


dog 


huodur 


do you speak 


taii8))6rdOiis- 


door 


dyr 


danish 


ku? 


to doubt 


aS efa 


what is that 


hva8 er ))a8 


I doubt it 


eg efa l)a8 


called in da- 


kallad A 


down 


ni8ur 


nish 


dOnsku? 


let us go down 


ibmm ni9ur 


I do not speak 


eg tala ekki 


drawers 


nserbuxur 


danish 


dOnsku 


to dress 


aS kloeSa sig 


I understand 


eg skil dalitii 


to drink 


a8 drekka 


a little da- 


i dOnsku 


I want to 


eg vil ik a8 


nish 




drink 


drekka 


dark 


dimmur 


dry 


J)ur 


day 


dagur 


each 


hver 


to-day 


i dag 


eagle 


Om 



106 



early 


snemma 


fieU 


engi 


earth 


jOr8 


finger 


fingar 


east 


austur 


fire 


eldur 


east wind 


austanvindur 


let us make 


kveykjiim upp 


easy 


auBveldur, hae- 


a fire 


eld 


%^ 


gur 


I want some 


eg vil f^ eld 


to eat 


a8 eta, borSa 


fire 




I want to 


eg vil fa aS 


a fish 


fiskur 


eat 


borSa 


to fish 


a9 fiska 


let uj eat 


latum OSS 


let tis catch a 


latum OSS 




borSa 


fish 


veiSa fisk 


have you any- 


hafi9 t)6r nokk- 


my fishing rod 


fiskistOngin 


thing to eat? 


u8 a5 




min 




borSa? 


flask 


flaska, pilSur- 


m 


e^^ 




horn 


give me two 


geQ8 m^r tvO 


fog 


})oka 


eggs 


^^^ 


foot 


f6tur 


to engage 


a5 festa 


my foot is 


f5turinnam^r 


engage a guide 


festa fylgdar- 


sore 


er viSkvoemur 




mann 


far 


|)via8 


enough 


n6g 


fork 


gaffall 


evening 


kvold 


free 


frjals 


every 


s6rhver 


fruit 


dvOxtur 


every day 


s^rhvern dag 


fuU 


fullur 


eye 


auga 


game 


veiSi 


my eye pains 


m6r er illt i 


its there any 


er nokkur- 




auganu 


game here! 


Yei5i h^r 


face 


andlit 


german 


J)yzkur 


far 


langl 


to get 


a5 fa, iltvega 


is it far from 


er ))a8 langt 


get me 


iltvegiS m^r 


here? 


h69an? 


get it 


titvegiS ))a9 


how far is it 


bvaS langt er 


gin 


einirberja* 


from here? 


paS h65an? 




brennivin 


a farm 


bser 


to give 


aS gefa 


fast 


flj6tt 


give me 


gefiS m^r 


go faster 


gangiS fljotar 


give it 


gefiS ))a8 


do not speak 


tali8 ekki 


a glass 


glas 


so fast 


svona flj6tt 


to go 


aS ganga, fare, 


faster 


fljdtar 




koma 


fellow 


maSur 


go with me 


komiS me8 


you are a good 


|)6r eru5 goS- 




m6r 


fellow 


ur maSur 


go away 


farid f burtu 



107 



go back 
go down 
go up 
good 
very good 
better 
best 
be 80 good 

have the good- 
ness 
great 

a great deal 
gun 

give me my 
gun 

where is my 
gun? 

powder 

hair 

hair brush 
half 
ham 

hand 

give me your 
hand 

hand it me 
handkerchief 
handsome 
harbour 
hard 
hare 
harness 
hat 

hatbox 
to have 

have you? 

let me have, 
hay 
he 



fariS aptur 
fariQ DiSur 
fariS upp 
g68ur 

mikiS g68ur 
betri 
beztur 
veri8 svo g68- 

ur 
gjOriS svo Tel 

mikill 

mikill hluti 
byssa 
faiS m^r bys- 

suna mfaa 
hvarerbyssaa 

mfn? 
pi!i8ur 

bar 

h^rbursti 
hdlfur 
hangiS svfas- 

laeri 
bond 

gefi» m^r bO^^ 
y8ar ^^ 

r6tti8 m^r |) 
vasakliitur 
fallegur 
hofn 
bar8ur 
b^ri 
aktygi 
battur 
battaskja 
a8 bafa 

hafi8 t)6r 

l^ti8 mig bafa 

bev 
bann 



head 
to hear 

do you hear? 
heart 
heat 

great heat 
heavy 
heigiu 

what is the 
height 
help 

help me 

give me a help 

hen 
here 

come here 
high 

how high is 
it? 
hiU 

to hire 
to hold 

hold this 
home 

is this your 
home? 
honest 

I want an ho- 
nest fellow 
horse 

horseshoe 
hot 

it is very hot 

I want it hot 

hotel 
hour 
house 
how 
how much 



b5fu8 
a8 beyra 

beyri8t)er 
bjarta 
biti 

mikill biti 
))ungur 
haeS 

hvaS er 
bse8in? 
bj% 

bJ^lpiS m6r 

veiti8 in6r 
bjdlp 
baena 
b^r 

komi8 h^r 
b^r 

bvaS b^tt er 

J)a8? 
bsed 

a8 leigja 
a8 balda 

baldi8 A {)essu 
beimili 

er l)etta y8ar 
beimili? 
r^Svandur 

eg vil fi r^8- 

vandan mann 
bestur 

skeifa 
beitm* 

})a8 er miki8 
heitt 

eg vil fd J)a8 
beitt 
gestgjafabl^is 
klukkustund 
bils 
bversu 

bversu miki8 



lOS 



hunger 


hungur 


(2o yo^ know 


vitiS J)6r 


hungry 


hungra5ur 


lake 


vatn 


I am hungry 


eg er hung- 


lamp 


lauipi 




raSur 


land 


land 


a hut 


kofi 


landlord 


husb6ndi 


Ice 


is 


language 


tunga 


Iceland 


Island 


Lapland 


Lappland 


an Icelander 


islendingur 


late 


seint 


are you an 


eru8 J)6r is- 


it is very late 


pa8 er mjog 


Icelanderl 


lendingur? 


lava 


seint hraun 


do you speak 


talis l)6r fs- 


to lay 


a8 leggja 


Icelandic! 


lenzku? 


lay it down 


leggiS J)a8- 


what do you 


hva5kalli5))^r 




niSur 


call this in 


J)etta ^ is- 


lay down 


leggiS ni8ur . 


icelandict 


lenzku? 


to lead 


a8 lei8a, liggja 


if 


ef 


does the way 


liggur vegur- 


ill 


illt 


lead up? 


inn upp? 


I feel ill 


\ mkx er illt 


lead to right 


leiSa A rattan 


I am ill 


way 


veg 


fetch a doctor 


saekiS laeknir 


left 


vinstri 


in 


1, Ji 


to the left 


til vinstri ' 


in the city 


f baenum 


to let 


a8 Idta 


in the country 


k landinu 


let me alone 


l^ti8 mig vera. 


indeed 


svolsannarlega 


let it be 


I^ti8 J>a8 vera 


the inn 


veitingahiis 


let me do it 


l^tiSmiggjOra 


inn keeper 


veitingauiaSur 




l)a8 


ink 


blek 


let it he done 


i^ti8 ])a8 vera 


insect 


skorkvikindi 




gjOrt 


iron 


jam 


letter 


br6f 


island 


ey 


any letters for 


nokkur br^f 


it 


})a8 


me? 


tii min? 


to keep 


geyma 


send the letter 


sendi8 hr€Sb 


keep it for me 


geymiS l)a9 


to the Post 


A p6st ht!isi5 


■ 


fyrir inig 


life 


Iff 


key 


lykill 


the light 


Ij6si8 


knife 


hnffur 


bring a light 


komi8 me5 


give me a 


lj^i9 m6r hnif 




lj6s 


knife • 




strike a light 


kveiki8 lj6s 


where is my 


hvar er hnif- 


light the candle 


kveikiS A kert- 


knife? 


urinn minn 




inu 


to know 


a8 vita, |)ekkja 


like 


Ilka, ))ykja 


I know 


eg yeit 




vsent um 



109 



/ should like 


m^r skyldi 


give me some 


geG8 m^r 




))ykja vaent 


miUc 


inj61k 




mil 


mill 


mynla 


linnen 


llDfOt 


money 


peningar 


wash my bn- 


t)void linrotin 


moon 


in^ni, tUDgl 


nen 


min 


moor 


mjri 


I want my 


eg })arf a9 f^ 


more 


meira 


linnen wash" 


linfotin min 


more and 


nieira og^meira 


ed immedi- 


))vegm undir- 


more 




ately 


eins 


most 


mest 


little 


litill 


morning 


morgun 


to live 


aS Ufa 


mother 


iii68ir 


liver 


lifur 


mtLch] 


mikiS 


loaf 


brau8 


it is too mu£h 


{)a8erofiDiki9 


lock 


l^s, skr^ 


much more 


mikiS jujeira 


lock the door 


Isesid dyrunum 


so mudt 


svo mikiS 


lodging 


leiguherbergi 


mtist. v. aux. 


verSa, blj6ta 


long 


langur, lengi 


youmustdoit 


J)6r ver&iS a8 


to look 


a3 lita 




gjOra ])a8 


looking glass 


spegill 


mustard 


mustar9ur 


to lose 


a9 missa, Una 


mutton 


sau8akjOt 


I have lost 


eg hefi misst 


my 


minn 


have you lost? 


hafi9))6rinisst 


nail 


nOgl 


luggage 


farangur 


name 


nafn 


where is my 


hvar er fa- 


what is your 


hvaS er nafn 


lug gage "i 


rangurinn 


name? 


ySar? 




minn? 


my name is N. 


nafn mitterN 


to make 


a9 gjOra 


narrow 


{>rdngur 


make haste 


flJtiS ySur 


nasty 


slsemur 


man 


maSur 


near 


Dserri 


many 


margur 


it is near? 


er J)a5 naerri? 


market 


markadur 


necessary 


nauSsynlegur 


me 


uiig, m6r 


needle 


ndl 


meat 


kj5t 


neither 


hvorki 


roast meat 


steikt kjot 


neither-nor 


hvorki-n6 


boiled meat 


sodld kj5t 


never 


aldrei 


to meet 


ad maRta 


new 


nyr 


meet me 


maeti5 m^r 


news 


tfSindi 


merchant 


kaupmaSur 


next 


naest 


milk 


iiij6lk 


night 


n6tt 


have you any 


hafiS [>6r nokk- 


last night 


i gserikvdldi 


milk? 


ra mj61k 


no 


engiDn 



110 



no one 


eDglDD 


pear 


pera 


nobody 


eDginn maSur 


pen 


penni 


n r 


norSur 


penknife 


pennahnifur 


north wind 


norSan vindur 


pencil 


rilbly 


not 


ekki 


people 


lv8ur 


not yet 


ekki enn |)d 


pepper 


pipar 


now 


nti 


perhaps 


ef til vill 


oats 


hafrar 


person 


maSur 


to oblige 


bj%a urn 


a pin 


tituprjdnn 


oblige me 


bjilpi9 lu^r 


pipe 


pfpa 




mil 


pistol 


smabyssa 


ocean 


baf 


place 


staSur 


<^ff 


burtu 


plate 


diskur 


far off 


langt i burtu 


poor 


fdtaekur, vesali 


often 


opt 


pork 


svinakjOt 


oil 


olfa, lysi 


porter 


bur5anna9ur 


old 


gamall 


portmatueau 


fer9ataska 


omlet 


eggjakaka 


post 


p6stur 


on 


A 


where is the 


hvar er p6st- 


only 


einungis 


post office? 


skrifstofan? 


open 


opinn 


postage 


burSareyrir 


or 


e5a 


potatoe 


jarSepli, kart- 


an orange 


apelsina 




apla 


other 


annarr 


powder 


pi)9ur 


the other man 


biDnmaSurinn 


pronounce 


bera fram 


the other day 


uni daginn 


pronounce this 


beri5t>^r})etta 


each other 


hver annan 


to me 


fraiiifyrirmig 


out 


tit 


provisions 


matvseli, nesti 


out of 


lit tir 


to put 


a5 setja 


over 


yfir 


put it down 


seli9lia8ni5ur 


ox 


uxi 


put it there 


seti9 l>a9 


to pack 


a8 UUk uppd 




{)arna 


the mules 


lUfaldarnir 


quick 


flj6tur 


paper 


pappir 


railway 


j^rnbraut 


to pay 


ad borga 


rain 


regn 


I want to pay 


eg sella a8 


rain water 


regnvatn 




borga? 


it is a rainy 


J)a8 er rignin- 


what have I 


bva9 & eg a8 


day 


gar dagur i 


to pay? 


borga 




dag 


peak 


tindur 


rainy 


regnlegur 


can we ascent 


getumvi5fari8 


wiU it rainl 


aetlar hann a5 


the peak? 


upp^ tindinn 




rigna? 



Ill 



raw 

to read 
read it to me 

ready 

is every thing 
ready? 

are you nw- 
dy? 
rest 

let us rest 
here 
to return 
rich 
ride 

I will ride 
rifle 
right 

is this right? 

is it the right 
way? 

to the right 
ripe 
river 
road 

the high road 
rough 

a rough road 
rum 
to run 
saddle 

saddlebags 

horse 
salt 

have you any 
salt? 
sand 
to say 
the sea 

the sea bird 

the sea shore 
to see 



hrdr 
a8 lesa 

lesid J)a8 fyrir 

mig 
tjlbtiinn 

erallttilbAiS? 

eru8 J)er til- 
l)i!iinn 
hvfld 

Yi8 skulum 

hvila h^rna 
a9 fara aptur 
rikur 
ri5a 

eg vil ri9a 
kiilubjssa 
r6ltur 

er I)etta r^U 

er {)etta sa 
r6lti vegur? 
til hsegri 
{)roska9ur 

vegur 

alfaravegur 
6sl6Uur 

6slettur vegur 
romm 
a5 hlaupa 
hnakkur, s59ull 

hnakkpoki 

hestur 
salt 
hafi5 })6r nokk- 

u9 salt? 
sandur 
a8 segja 
sj6rinn 

sj6fuglinn 
sj^arstrOndin 
a8 sj^ 



let us see 
to send 
send it away 

servant 
to set 

set it doion 
to sew 
to shave 



ship 

shirt 

shoe 

shoemaker 

sick 

to sit 

to sleep 

sleep 

slow 

small 

to smoak 

soap 

soon 

speak 

do you speak 
english? 

or french 

or icelandie 
or danish? 
I do not speak 
I speak a little 
speak slowly 

spoon 

steamer 

steel 

stocking 

stone 

straw 

street 

strong 

stupid 



Idtum OSS sj^ 
a8 senda 

sendi8 ])a3 i 
burtu 
l)j6nn 
a8 setja 

seti9^a9Di9ur 
a8 sauma 
a8 raka 
hiin 
skip 
skirta 
sk6r 
sk6ari 
sji^ikur 
a9 sitja 
aS sofa 
svefn 
seinn 
mill 

ad reykja 
s^pa 
brsl8um 
tala 

tali5 ))6r 
ensku? 

eSa frakk*> 
nesku 

eSa islenzku 

e9a dOnsku? 

eg tala ekki 

eg tala d^litiS 

tali9 hoegt 
skei9^ sp6nn 
gufuskip 
stal 
sokkur 
steinn 
strd 
strseti 
sterkur 
beimskur 



112 



sugar 
sun 
supper 
sweet 
to swim 
table 

the tailor 
to take 

take me^ 

take it 
tea 

a cup of tea 

have you any 
tea 

hot tea 

cold tea 

tea spoon 
to tell 

tdl me 

I tell you 
tent 
thanks 

many thanks 

I thank you 
that 
theatre 
then 
there 
^thick* 
thin 
thirsty 

I am very 
thirsty 
this 
time 

what is the 
Ume? 
to 

to-day 
to-morrow 
tob€uxo 



sikur 
s6l 

kvOldver5ur 
saetur 
a9 synda 
borS 

skraddarinn 
aS taka 

takid mig 

takid ))a5 
tevatn 

tevalnsbolli 

hafiS ^€r Dokk- 

u9 tevatn 

heilt tevatn 

kalt tevatn 

teskeiS 
a8 segja 

segiS m6r 

eg segi ySur 
tjald 
))akkir 
margfaldar 
))akkir 

eg ))akka ySur 
aS 

leikhtis 
>^ 

)ar 

)ykkur 

>unnur 

)yrstBr 

eg er mikiS 
j^yrstur 
{)essi 
timi 

hva8 er fram- 
orSifi? 
til, f, d 
i dag 
A morgun 
t6bak 



towel 

town 

travel 

trowsers 

true 

trunk 

under 

understand 

do you under- 
stand me? 

I do not un- 
derstandyou 

can you un- 
derstand? 

not much 

only a little 

until 

up 
up the hill 
up the stream 

upon 

vegetables 

very 

the waiter 

to walk 

warm 

to wash 

the washing 

the watch 

water 

give me some 
water 
the water doset 
the way 

show me the 
way 

whidh way 
must I go? 

whicih is the 
way to? 



handklaeSi 
baer, staSur 
fer8 
buxur 
sannur 
koffort 
undir 
skilja 
skiii8))6rmig? 

eg skil ySur 
ekki 

getiS l)6r 
skiliS? 

ekki roikiS 

eittungisddiit- 
i9 
til 
upp 

upp bseSina 

uppeptirfljdt- 

inu 
a 

kalmeti 
mjttg 
)>j6nninn 
a8 ganga 
heitur 
a5 l>vo 
))votturinn 
liriS 
vatn 

gefiSm^rvatn 

ndShi^iS 
vegurinn 
visiS m^r veg- 

inn 
hvaSavegveri 
eg a8 fara? 
hvar ervegur- 
inn til? 



113 



we 


v6r, vi8 


window 


gluggi 


weather 


Te8ur 


wine 


vfn 


will it be fair 


setli J>a8 verSi 


have you any 


haf]8 {)^r nokk- 


weather? 


gott ve8ur 


wine? 


u8 vin 


will it be bad 


setli l)aS verdi 


Portwine or 


portvfD eSa 


weather? 


vont veSur 


Sherry? 


s6rri 


well 


gott, g68ur, 


with 


mei 


• 


frfskur 


without 


an 


/ am not weU 


eg er ekki g68- 


woman 


kona 




ur, filskur 


wood 


skogur, viSur 


west 


veslur 


to write 


a8 skrifa 


wet 


volur 


to write a 


a8 skrifa br6f 


what 


hva8 


letter 




where 


hvar 


year 


Ar 


when 


hvenaer 


yes 


j^ 


which 


hver, hvaSa 


yet 


enn, 600})^ 


why? 


t)Vf 


you 


l)6r 


will you 


vili8 J)6r 


you are 


|)6r eru8 


wild 


viltur 


are you? 


eru8 J)6r? 


wind 


vindur 


yourself 


J)6r sj^fur 



11. Necessary ftoestions. 



/ want 



Mig vantar, eg 
parf, eg vil 
fd 

flesk 

vjxlara 

ba8 



some bacon 

a banker 

a bath 

my beard shav- skegg mitt rak- 

ed a8 

a bedroom svefnherbergi 
some beer bj6r 

my bill reikninginn 

minn 
the biU of matarlistann 

fare 
my boots deanr stfgv^lin min 

ed hreiDSu8 

my boots soled stigv^iin min 

s6Iu8 

Icelandic Grammar. 



some brandy 



a 



bottle 
brandy 
some bread 
to breakfast 



of 



tea, coffee^ 
two eggs and 

bacon 
or ham 

a brush 
some btUter 
to buy 

my carpetbag 
a carriage 



brennivin, kon- 

iakk 
brennivfns 

flOsku 
brauS 
ad bor8a morg- 

unver8 
tevatn, kafQ 
tvO egg og 
flesk 

e8a hangi8 
svlnslseri 
bursta 
sinj()r 
a8 kaupa 
JferSapokann 
I minn 
vagQ 

8 



114 



for one, two 
hours 
for a day 
the chamber- 
maid 
some cheese 
to change some 
money 

my coat 
my collars 

washed 
a cup of coffee 
a cup of tea 
a comb 
to dine 

fish 

roast meat 
boiled meat 
potatoes 

vegetables 

pudding 

salad 
drawers 
eggs 
a fire 
to get up at 

5 o^dock 
a glass of water 
a glass of wine 
to go to the . . 
to goby steamer 

to go by rail- 
way 
to go to bed 
some ham 

a good hotel 



eina , tvaer 
stundir 
einn dag 
l)j6nustu sttilku 

ost 

ad skipta nokk- 

mm pening- 

um 

frakkaDn minn 

kragana mina 

])vegna 
kaffibolia 
tevatnsbolla 
kamb 

a9 borda mid- 
dagsver9 
fisk 

steikt kjOt 
so8i9 kjOt 
jarSepli, kart- 

Oplur 

k^lmeli 

btiding 

salat 

naBrbuxur 

eld 

ad fara A faetur 
klukkan fimm 
glas af vatni 
glas af vlni 
aS fara til 
a9 fara med 

gufuskipi 
a8 fara me8 

j^Dbraut 
a8 fadtta 
hangid STins- 

Iseri 
gott gestgjafa- 

hi'is 



a horse 

some ink 

an interpreter 

the landlord 

my letters 
to write a letter 
to post a letter 

my linnen 

washed 
my baggage 

some meat 

cold meat 

hot m^eat 
pepper 
pens 

the porter 
roast beaf 

mutton 

veal 

pork 

the railway 
a room 
some salt 
to see the town 
- - - thea- 
tre 
to see thepro^ 

menade 
dry sheets 

shirts 
my shirts 
washed 
a sitting room 
my dippers 

some soap 
a stick 
my stockings 
suggar 



best 

blek 

ttilk 

htisb6ndann 

brMn min 

a8 skrifa br^f 

a9 koma br^fi 

A p6slliDn 
linfotin min 
J)vegin 

farangurinn 
minn 
kjOt 

kalt kjot 

heitt kjot 
pipar 
penna 

burdarmanninn 
steikt nautakjot 

- sau5akjOt 

- k^lfskjot 

- svfnakjot 
jdrnbrautin 
herbergi 

salt 

a9 sjd bseiDn 

- - leikbiisiS 

- - skemmti' 
gODgusvi8i5 

))urrar rekk- 

vo8ir 
skirtur 
skirturnar mln- 

ar })vegDar 
herbergi 
morgunskona 

mina 
sdpu 
staf 

sokkaua mina 
sikur 



115 



supper 


kv5ldver8 


help me 


hj^lpa m^r 


a ticket 


bilseti 


let me 


l^ta mig 


for the 1*^ class 


A fyrsta pldss 


let me have 


l^ta mig hafa 


forthe2'"^class 


A anna5 plass 


look for 


gA a8 


toothbrush 


tanabursta 


look after 


lita eptir 


my trowsers 


buxurnarmiDar 


make 


gjOra 


my trunk 


koffortiS mitt 


mend 


gjOra vi8 


umbrella 


regnhlif 


oblige 


bjdlpa um 


you to wake me 


a8 I)6r veki8 


pick 


tlna 


at , . . 


mig um . . . 


please 


})6knast 


the waiter 


))j6DiDQ 


procure 


litvega 


some water 


vatn 


recommend 


msela med 


hot water 


beitt vatn 


remain 


vera eptir 


cold water 


kalt vatn 


rest 


hvila 


watch 


lir 


ride 


ri8a 


wine 


vfn 


row 


r6a 


a bottle of wine 


flOsku af vini 


skate 


fara A skautum 


port wine 


portvin 


speak 


tala 


sherry 


s^rii 


swim 


synda 


claret 


rau8a vin 


stay 


dvelja 






stop 


standa vi5 


IILWillyou 


Vilig |)6r 


teU me 
walk 


segja m6r 
ganga 


ask 


spyrja, bidja 


V^T ^r^ 




assist me 


hj^lpa lij^r 


IV. Does the 


bring 
call me 


faera, bera 
kalla d mig 


bell ring? 


hringir bjallan? 


come 


koma 


coach go to A? 


fer vagninn til 


drive 


aka 




A? 


divide 


skipta 


coach stop at B? 


stendur vagn- 


do 


gjora 




inn vi8 i 


do me 


gjOra fyrir mig 




B? 


fetch 


saekja 


- stop here? 


stendur vagn- 


find 


finna 




inn vid 


get 


fd 




h^rna ? 


go to 


fara til 


- leave at? 


fer vagninn 


away 


fara burtu 




bnrt? 


from 


fara fr^ 


- take pass- 


tekur vagninn 


give me 


gefa mer 


engers? 


vi8 ferSa- 


go with 


fara me5 




mOnnum? 


go on 


fara afram 


coach start at? 


fer vagninn A 


hand me 


r6tta m6r 




sta»? 

8* 



116 



road lead to? 

- take to? 

- passnear? 

- crosses at? 
railway go to ? 
train go quick? 
train go slow? 
mail start 

journey take 

long? 
steamer start 

from? 
steamer pass 

here? 
steamer stops 

herel 

steamer stop 

at? 
steamer land 

passengers? 



way lead over? 

way lead 
through ? 
way go right? 

- - left? 

- - strait 
on? 

time admit of? 



fliggur vegur- 
l inn til? 
liggur vegunnn 

naeiri? 
liggurvegurinn 

yfirum 
liggur jdrn- 

brautin 
ferjdrnbrautar- 

lestin hart? 
ferjarnbrautar- 

lestin haegt? 
fer posturinn 

af sta8? 
varir ferSin 

iengi? 
fer gufuskipid 

frd? 
fer gufuskipiS 
h^rna framhj^? 
stendur gufu- 

skipi5 herna 

vi8? 
stendur gufu- 

skipiS vi5 i? 
laetur gufuskip- 

i8 fer8a- 

menn A 

land? 
liggur vegurinn 

yar? 
liggur vegurinn 

gegnum? 
liggur vegurinn 

til haegri? 
liggur vegurinn 

til vinstri? 
liggur vegurinn 

beint ^fram? 
leyfir timinn. 



V. Is it? 


Er hann 




(l)a8) 


attentive 


a8gaetinn 


had 


vondur 


beautiful 


fagur 


hitter 


bitur 


hlack 


svartur 


hlue 


bldr 


hlunt 


slj6r 


hold 


djarfur 


hroad 


brei8ur 


hroum 


bninn 


careless 


skeytingarlaus 


cheap 


6dyr 


dean 


hreinn 


clever 


lipur 


cold 


kaldur 


dark 


diuimur 


dear 


djr 


deep 


djilpur 


disagreeable 


6})aegilegur 


difficult 


erfi8ur 


dirty 


6hreinn 


dry 


|)urr 


easy 


au8veldur 


empty 


X6uiur 


false 


6sannur 


far 


langt 


fine 


faliegur 


flat 


flatur 


fuU 


fullur 


green 


grsenn 


good 


g68ur 


great 


mikill 


grateful 


}>akkMtur 


grey 


grir 


hard 


har8ur 


heavy 


))ungur 


healthy 


heilna^mur, 




heilsug68ur 


high 


h^r 



117 



hoUouD 

honest 

hot 

kind 

large 

left 

light 

long 

low 

mild 

narrow 

near 

new 

nice 

obliging 

€ld 

polite 

poor 

frudmt 

red 

rich 

right 

ripe 

rough 

round 

sharp 



holur 

rdSvandur 

heitur 

gdSur 

st6r 

leifSur, eptir 

l^ttur 

langur 

Idgur 

mildur 

|)rOngiir 

naerri 

up 

nettur 

greidvikinn 

gamall 

kurteis 

f^tsekur, vesall 

hygginn, for- 

rauSur 

rfkur 

r6ttur 

))roskaSur 

6sl6Uur 

kriDgl6ttur, sf- 

yalur 
skarpur 



short 

sick 

small 

soft 

sour 

strong 

stupid 

sweet 

tediwis 

thick 

thin 

tired 

true 

uggiy 

unhealthy 

unwell 

warm 

weak 

well 

wet 

white 

wild 

wide 

wise 

wrong 

yellow 

young 



stuttur 
sjtikur 
litill 
mjiikur 
sur 

sterkur 
heimskur 
saetur 
lei9inlegur 
)ykkur 
)unnur 
)reyttur 
sannur 
lj6tur 

6heilnaemur 
<3frfskur 
heitur 
veikur 
heilbrigSur 
votur 
hvftur 
viltur 
vi5ur 
vitur 
rangur 
gulur 
UDgur 



VL Adrerbs. 



nil 

almost, 
already 
4dways 
at last 
4U once 

because 
besides 
but 



alls 

haestum 

t>egar 

alltaf 

a5 sf9ustu 

i einu, undir- 

eins 
af I)via9 
auk 
en 



by all means 
by no means 
by and by 

certainly 

daily 

early 

else 

enough 

ere 



fyrir alia muni 
fyrirenganmun 
vi8ogvi5,brd6- 

um 
Tissulega 
daglega 
snemma 
annars 
n6g 
^8ur 



118 



ever 

extremely 

exceedingly, 

here 

hither 

hourly 

how 

however 

if 
in 

indeed 

in fact 

in this manner 

in short 

just now 

late 

like 

monthly 

much 

neither-nor 

never 

no 

no doubt 

not 

not at aU 

nothing 

now 

of course 

only 

oft 

once 

over 



jafnan, setld 

mjOg 

einstaklega 

h^r 

hingad 

hverja stund 

hvernig, hversu 

samt sem ^dur 

ef 

i 

svo 

1 raun r^ttri 

svona 

1 stuttu m^li 

einmitt niina 

seint 

likt 

mana9arlega 

mikid 

hvorki-n6 

aldrei 

nei 

efalaust 

ekki 

alls ekki 

ekkert 

nil 

sjalfsagt 

einungis 

opt 

einusinni 

yfir 



out 

perhaps 

pretty 

quite 

scarce 

seldom 

since 

so 

some 

sometimes 

soon 

surely 

then 

there 

thither 

thus 

till 

to-day 

to-morrow 

to-night 

truly 

well 

very 

where? 

whence? 

why? 

with 

without doubt 

yearly 

yesterday 

yet 



lit 

ef til viU 

fallegt 

alveg 

valla 

sjaldan 

sidan 

svo 

nokku9 

stundum 

brdSum 

vissulega 

J)a 

)ar 

)anga9 

)annig 

)anga9 til 

dag 
a morguD 
1 kvold 
sanDarlega 
vel 
mjOg 
hvar? 
hvaSan? 

t)Vi? 

^ meSan 
efalaust 
arlega 
i gaer 
enn, enn])^ 



VII. Voyage to Iceland. 



/ go to Iceland 
When? 
to-morrow 
how? 

by the steamer from Grange- 
mouth, 



eg fer til Islands 
hvenser? 
d morguQ 
hvernig? 

me9 gufuskipinu fra Grange- 
mouth, 



119 



It is a screw steamer 

It comes from Copenhagen 

And goes to Reykjavik 
calls at Grangemouth 

On their outward and home- 
ward voyage 

six times a year 

The ship is dean and fast 

The danish cheer provided is 
ample and wholesome 

No man used to luxuries 

Should make the trip 

Even in fine weather 

A few Icelanders are an hoard 

The weather is excelled 
We left the Shetlands yesterday 
The Faroe islands are in sight 
Their mountains and cliffs are 

lofty 
At noon we reashed Nalsoe 

From which we went to Thors- 
haven 

We leave the Faroes for Ice- 
land 

Iceland is one-fifth larger than 
Ireland 

It is situated about 500 miles 
N, W. of Scotland 

The Needles of Portland Head 

are curious 
We pass the singular rock called 

the „Mealsack'' and see Rey- 

kianaes 

The horizon is so dear, that 
we see in the north the mag- 
nificent outline of the Snae- 
fells JOkul 

The view is magnificent 



)a5 er skrdfugufuskip, 

)a8 kemur fr^KaupmannahOfp, 

og fer til Reykjavikur; 

J)a5 kemur vi8 f Grangemouth 

A i)t- og heim-leidinni, 



sex sinnum A dri. 

SkipiS er hreint og traust. 

Hin danska fae9a, sem veitt er, 

er mikil og heiinsem. 
Enginn ma8ur, vanur vi8 saellifi, 
setti aS fara ^A fOr, 
jafnvel i e68u veSri. 
Fcieinir Islendingar eru A 

skipinu 
Ve8ri8 er dgaett. 
V6r r6rum trA Skotlaudi i gaer. 
Faereyararnar eru i syn. 
Fj5llin og bjOrgin A ^eim eru 

Um hddegi komumst v6r til 

N^lseyar, 
t)a5an forum v6r til {)6rshafnar. 

V6r fOrum fvA Faereyum til Is- 
lands 

Island er einum fimta hluta 
staerra en Irland 

})a8 liggur h^rumbil fimm hund- 
ru8 mllur 1 i)tnor8ur fr^ 
Skotlandi 

Drangarnir vi8Dyrh6laey (Port- 
land) eru skritnir. 

YiS fOrum framhjd hinum s^r- 
staklega kletti, sem kalla8ur 
erM^lsekkur, og sjdum Reyk- 
janes 

Lopti8 er svo bjart, a8 ver 
sjdum f nor8ri hina tlgulegu 
umgjOr8 ar Snaefellsjokli; 

Utsj6nin er vegleg • 



120 



We soon reach the bay in which 
lies the capital Reykjavik 

Here you wiU find an hotel 

It is not a had one 

But you have only a week to 

return by the steamer 
We want ponies by to-morrow 

for the Geysers 
Early, very early I 
The Icelanders think little of 

time 
It is indefinite, 
Early in Iceland, is at any time 

during the forenoon 
The beds are delicious 
This is the land of eider-down 
The winter requires warmths, 

rest, sleep 
The harbour and Esianrange 

is visible 
There is a pretty cemetery 
At its foot is the road to Bessa- 

stad 
This is the promenade of the 

beau monde 
There is a cathedral 
It contains a font by Thar- 

waldsen, 
who was of icelandic parentage. 
At the back of the church is 

the Alsing, the house of par- 

lament of the island^ 
But the whole town looks more 

like a village. 
Society here is purely Danish. 

The great natural phenomena, 
with the exception of the 
Krabla, lie in and about the 
south-west portion of the is- 
land. 



V6r komumst brdSum innd flo- 

ann, ^arsem hOfuSstaSurinn 

Reykjavik iiggur. 
t^ar er gestgjafa hUs; 
])a8 er ekki siaemt; 
})er hafi5 aSeins viku, ef ^er 

fari5 aptur me8 gufuskipinu. 
ViS {)urfum hesta A morgun 

til Geysis; 
snemma — brdSsnemmal 
Islendingar hugsa eigi iniki5 

um timaDD; 
|)a8 er odkvarSaS. 
Snemma A island! er allt til 

h^degis. 
Rtimin eru inndael; 
t)etta er seSardtins land. 
'A veturna t)urfa menn hita, 

hvfld, svefn. 
Hofnin s^st og QallgarSur sd, 

sem kalladur er Esjan. 
})arna er laglegm* kirkjugarSur. 
Fram bjd honum Iiggur vegur- 

inn til Bessasta9a. 
Hann er skemmtig OngusviS 

hinna ungu manna, 
})arna er d6mkirkja, 
})ar er skfrnarfontur eptlr 

Thorvaldsen 
FaQir bans var Islendingur 
'A bak viS kirkjuna er er biis 

paS, sem AlJ)ing Islands er 

haldiS i. 
Allur baerinn Iftur lit likt og 

})orp. 
Samkvoemin eru h^r meS alveg 

dOnsku sniSi. 
Hin miklu natturu einkenni 

eru Oil f og kringum su5- 

vestur bluta landsins , a8 

KrOflu undan skildri. 



121 



The island is volcanic. 
At ThingvaUa, of historic re- 
noun, is good shooting. 

It is one of the most wonder^ 

ful sights in the world. 
All are riding ponies. 
No one thinks of walking here. 

The Salmon fishing is excellent 

sport, 
Particularly the salmon rivers 

at Bogar Fiord, 
From here you can go to Snae- 

fells JCkul 
Visit the vaUey of Reykholt and 

its terminal waters^ 
The cave of Surtshellir, 
Than, if* you have time, go 

across country to Geyser and 

Hekla, 
Generally the visitors only go 

to the Geysers and Hekla. 
You ought to have good traveU 

ling books. 



LandiS er fullt af eldQdllum. 
'A t^ingvOllum, sem nafnfr;3pgir 

eru f sOgulegu tilliti, er n6g 

a8 skj6ta. 
I^eir er ein bin undrunarverS- 

asta sj6d 1 heimi. 
Allir riSa A hestum. 
Eogum dettur i hug a5 ganga 

h6r. 
Laxvei5i er ^gset skemmtun, 

einkum i lax^num i Borgar- 

fir8i. 
H^dan m^ fara til Snaefells- 

jOkuls 
Sko8i8 Reykboltsdalinn og 

laugarnar })ar. 
Surtshellir 
Ef t)^r hafi5 ^A tima til, geti& 

})er fariS yfir um landid til 

Geysis og Heklu. 
Vanalega fara ferSamenn a9eins 

til Geysis og Heklu. 
))er setti5 a9 hafa g65ar fer8a- 

bsekur. 



LIST OF 

ICELANDIC BOOKS 

IN STOCK OR IMPORTED BY 

FRANZ T: 



:iiuiw 



EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL BOOKSELLER 3 BROOK STREET, 
GROSVENOR SQRE, LONDON. W. 

j^. S. d, 

Andreae, Lexicon Islandicum. ed. Resenius. 4^. 1683. 14 — 
Dietrich's, AUnordisches Lesebuch, Poesie and Prosa bis 

XV. Jahrh. 1843. — 4 5 
Edda Islandornm, Islandice, danice et latine. ed. Rese- 
nius. 4 partes. 4'^. 1665—73. 3 __ __ 
~ Saemundi, dicta Voluspa, Iscel. et Lat. ed. Resenii, 4*^. 1673. 1 10 — 
— ^ Semundar Hinns Froda. 3 Vol. 4. 1787—1828. 5 5 — 

— die, iibersetzt von Simrock, 8®. 1855. — 7 6 
EgilSSOn, Lexicon pret. anti. Linguae seplentrionalis. 1854. 2 10 — 
Fornmanna, Sogur eptir gomlum Handritum utgefnar ad Tilh- 

lutun bins Norraena Fornfrseda Felags; in Icelandic. 12 

Vols. 8«. Kop. 1812—1837. 2 10 — 

Gilason'S, DonskOrdabok, medlslenzumThydingum. 4. 1851. 14 — 

— um frum. parta Islenzkrar tiingu i fornold. 1846. — 7 6 
Grimm, W. G. Alldanische Heldenlieder, Balladen u. Mar- 

chen, ubersetzt ins Deutsche. 1. 1811. — 9 — 

Haldorsen'sLexiconlslandico-latino-danicumed.Rask. 1814. 2 10 — 

Jonsson'S Oldnordisk (islandsk-dansk) Ordbog. Cop. 1863. 11 — 
Ire. (J. Glossarium Suio-Gothicum ; Dialect. Moceso-Gothica, 

Anglo-Saxonica, Anglica hodierna, Islandica, etc. 2 Vol. 

Folio. 1769. 4 le — 

Islands Landnamabok: Islandice et Lat. 4to. 1774. 1 1 — 

Koppen, Liter. Einleitung in die Nordische Mythologie. 1837. — 5 — 

MoDins, uber die alteste islandische Saga. 1852. — 3 ~ 

— Ueber die altnordische Philologie 1864. — Id 

— Analecta Norraena. Island, u. norw. Lit. d. Mittelalters 1859. — 7 6 
MWer« L. G. Islandsk Laesebog. Kop. 1836. — 8 — 
Pfeiffer, AUnordisches Lesebuch. Text, Grammatik, Worth. 

1860. _ 9 — 

Rask, die Verslehre der Islander, dentsch. von Mohnike. 1830. — 2 — 

— Undersogelse om det gamle islandske nordiske eller 

Sprogs Oprindelse. Gop. 1818. — 10 — 

— Icelandic Grammer by Dacent (rare) 1843. Cloth. — 14 — 
Scripta Historica Islandonim de rebus gestis veterum 

Borealiuni. ed. Soc. Reg. Antiq. Sept. 12 Vols. 8®. Gop. 

1828/46. 5 5 — 

Vheaton'S history of the Northmen 1831. — 8 6 



for the Study of Foreign Langaages 

published by 

FRANZ THIMM, 

Foreign Bookseller and. Publish.er, 
3 Brook Street, Grosvenor Square, London W. 

Post Office Orders to be made payable at Ycre Street 



msmz THIIRIM'J 

Series of 

ETOOPEAir, ORDHfTAI AITO CLASSICAL &BAMMAES 

after an easy and practical Method, with Exercises, Reading-Lessons and 

Dialogues. 



AU nniftm in siie 8ro. and neatly b»and in Cloth. 

6EBMAN GRAMMAR by Meissner. 10th Ed. 1867 . 

„ Key to ditto sewed .... 

FRENCH GRAMMAR by Ahn. 8th Ed. 1867 . . 

„ Key to ditto sewed .... 

ITALIAN GRAMMAR by Marchetti. 4th Ed. 1863 . 

,, Key to ditto sewed .... 

SPANISH GRAMMAR by Salvo. 2nd Ed. 1862 . . 

„ Key to ditto sewed .... 

PORTUGUESE GRAMMAR by Cabano. 2nd Ed. 1860 
SWEDISH GRAMMAR by LenstrSm. 2nd Ed. 1861 
DANISH GRAMMAR by Lund. 2nd Ed. 1860 . • 

„ Key to ditto sewed .... 

DUTCH GRAMMAR by Ahn. 2nd Ed. 1860. . . 
HEBREW GRAMMAR by Herxheimer. 1862 . . . 

„ Key to ditto sewed .... 

LATm GRAMMAR by Seidenstticker. 2nd Ed. 1862 

„ Key to ditto 

RUSSUN GRAMMAR by J. Alexandrow. 1867 . . 
MODERN GREEK GRAMMAR by A. Vlachos. 1867 
ICELANDIC GRAMMAR by Rask (in the press). 



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Franz Tliimxn's 

Series of European Grammars 

combine Theory with Practice, and foUow the ideas which eminent men have 
adopted, as to tiie clearest and most rational method of teaching langaages. 

The celebrated philosopher Leibnitz remarked ^*my opinion with regard 

to grammar is this, most is learned by use — the rules must be added for 

Jinish" and the learned philologist Facciolaii obserres, / am indebted to the 

clcusical authors for every thing I know, to the grammarians I owe nothing" 

Seidenst^cxeb, was the first who in 1811 introduced this new Method 
for the Latin, Greek and French languages, and to him belong^ in justice 
the merit, of having introduced a rational system of tuition. Ahn who made 
use of this method long after in 1834^ acknowledges in his Preface, Seiden- 



sttloker as the ori^nator of the System. But there was an essential point 
omitted even in these books. It was, that the 

''grammatical form should precede the Exercises, so that the learner 

"should at once be made acquainted with the grammatical structure 

"of the foreign language, without which, he cOuld never attain a 

"thorough knowledge of it". 

This then is the principle which has been followed in "Fkanz Thimm's 

Series of European Grammars'* and which gives it a distinct feature of 

progress over the former systems pursued. 

The prevalent idea in these grammars is that of teaching a language 
easily and pleasantly, of adapting it to every capacity, of removing all unne> 
cessary difficulties and at the same time of imparting the necessary gramma- 
tical knowledge. 

In this respect therefore 

^'Franz Thimm^s Series of Grammars*' 
is not only original, but extending the new Method to all the languages of 
Europe, it is unique. 

NEW SERIES OF FOREIGN DIALOGUES, 

On an entirely new and practical plan, calculated to insnre a rapid 
. acquisition of Foreign Languages. 12mo. Cloth. £ s. d. 
GERMAN and ENGLISH Dialogues, by Meissner. 2 6 
FRENCH „ „ „ byDudevant. 2 6 
ITALL\N „ „ „ byMarchetti. 2 6 
SPANISH „ „ „ by Salvo. 2 6 
PORTUGUESE „ „ „ byMonteiro. 2 6 
SWEDISH „ „ „ byLenstrdm. 2 6 
DANISH „ „ „ by Lund. 2 6 
DUTCH „ „ „ by Harlen. 2 6 
Turkish, Russian, English and French Vocabulary for Tra- 
vellers in the East 026 

A correct and fluent conyersation will soon be obtained by the use of 
these Dialogues for they contain nothing but important matter. The words 
generally in use, the easy colloquial phrases and the idiomatic expressions 
of the language, which form the essence of correct conversiEitron, have been 
oarefuUy arranged, so as to make these Dialogues really useful. 

Published by Kr. Fbanz Tkimx, Foreign Publisher, 3 Brook Street, 

Grosvenor Square, London. 



Dialognes in 3 Languages. 
FRANZ THIMM'S 

TRAYEILER'S PRAOTICAI MAITirAL 

OF CONVERSATION IN THBEB LANGUAGES 

ENGLISH, GERMAN AND FRENCH. 
16®. boards. — 2 5. 



TEAVEIIEE'S PEACTICAL MAITFAI 

OF CONVERSATION IN FOUR LANGUAGES 

ENGLISH, GERMAN, FRENCH AND ITALIAN. 

16<*. boards. — ^ s. 6 d. 

Useful for travellers or for the study of comparative languages." 



Just published 

in a wrapper 8to. "one Shilling" eaoh 

FRENCH SELF-TAUGHT, 
GERMAN SELF-TAUGHT, 
ITALIAN SELF-TAUGHT, 
SPANISH SELF-TAUGHT, 

A new System on the most simple principles for self- tuition, with the com- 
plete english pronunciation of every word, table of coins etc. 8yo. 

Price "one Shilling'* sewed. 
Very practical and nsefol introductory -treatlBes for self-tuition with the correqt 

pTonnnciatlon of these langroagea. 

The most approved Books for the tuition of Foreign Langaages. 

fieraan Langaage. 

I- For tlie N-orsepy. j^ 5. ^, 

CHILD'S GERMAN BOOKbyHahn. 3rdEd. 42mo.,Cl. 3 

'*An excellent and easy Book for Children." 

SCHMIDT, CH., One HundredGennanTales, with english 

notes by Mathias. 5th Ed. 8vo. 1866. Cloth. 2 
'^Simple moral tales written in an easy german style, the 
**very best book for beginners." 

HAHN'S Interlinear German Reading Book, for self-tui- 
tion. (Hamiltonian Method.) 8vo. 1857. Cloth. 2 6 

THE FIRST BOOK OF GERMAN POETRY. Deutsche 
Gedichte filr den ersten Unterricht, ausgew^hlt von 
P. Geissler.' l2mo. 1857. Cloth 2 6 

^'Containing German Nursery Ehymes, Fables, and Poems 
"of an easy yerse and constr action, graduidly rising to and in- 
''cluding the minor poems of Schiller, Goethe and Uhland. All 
''selected to be learnt by heart." 

LESSING'S Fabehi (Prose and Verse) with english notes 

by HiU. 12mo. 1859. boards 16 

"Of a classic simplicity. Text book for Goyernment 
'*Examination8." 

GERMAN SELF-TAUGHT, with complete pronunciation 

of every word. 8vo. sewed 10 

TL For th.e Class Room. 

MEISSNER, M., A new practical and easy method of 
learning the German Language. Tenth corrected 
Edition. 1867. 8vo. Cloth 3 6 

'*This Grammar, which has at once embraced and super- 
'^ceeded all former systems, is one of the most yaluable german 
''Grammars published — it is not only an easy book for be- 
^'ginners, but also a desirable class book for progressiye study. 
''Professors pronounce it the "best german Grammar eyer 
"published." 

„ Key to ditto, sewed 10 

JULIUS, German Writing Copies (Deutsche Vorschriften.) 

3rd Ed. oblong. 8vo. 1863. sewed ... 1 6 
"These Copyslips are simple and graceful in form , they 
"are methodical and the proper modem handwriting." 



FRANZ THIMM'S GERMAN COPY BOOK. A new and 
complete Method, imparting a modem and elegant 
fonn of German Handwriting. 4to 16 

"A perfect Method of german writing yery useful for Schools 

HAHN'S GERMAN TALES AND STORIES; including 
HaofTs kalto Herz — Schmidt's Tftubchen — Auer- 
bach, des Waldschtitzen Sohn, for progressive reading 
with english notes. 8vo. 1857. Cloth ... 3 6 

CAROVE'S MARCHEN OHNE ENDE (the story without 
an end) with english notes by Mathias. i6mo. 
Cloth gilt edged .020 

^'Nowhere will you find the book of nature more freshly and 
'^beautifully opened, than in Carov^s 'Milrohen ohne Ende' of its 
'*kind one of the best that was ever written.'* 

Quarterly Reriew January 1867. 

SCHMIDT'S. Germssin Plays, adapted for School-Reading 

with english notes by A. E. Hill. Svo. Cloth .050 

or separately: 

Part I. Die Erdbeeren — Der kleine Kaminfeger 

- n. Der Blumenkranz — Der Eeierdieb . . 

- UI. Emma oder die kindliche Liebe . . * . 

"Adapted for children, and may easily be acted." 

EOTZEBUE'S Deutsche Kleinstadter, with notes by 

Meissner. Svo 

KOTZEBUE'S Pagenstreiche, with notes by Meissner. 8. 
"The text of these two Comedies has been altered in this 
"edition, so as to adapt them for Ladies and Schools. Only 
"these Editions by "Meissner^' can be safely used." 

MEISSNERS German and English Idiomatic Phrases and 

Dialogues. 4th Ed. 12mo. Cloth. 1867. . . 2 6 

"This Dialogue and Fhrasebook only contains useful matter, 
•S'such as will give great facility of expression in speaking the 
"language. Very useful for Travellers." 

rCL For tlie Senior Class. 

THIMM, F., the Literature of Germany from its earliest 
Period to the present time. Historically deve- 
loped. 2nd Ed. illustrated, fscap. 8yo. Cloth. 1866. 5 

"Among publications of a superior «kind, fitted to give an 
"excellent sketch of the rise and progress of German literature, 
"we are acquainted with no work so well adapted as Mr. OQiimm's, 
"of which a new edition has just appeared. The characters of 
"the leading writers are ably and graphicaUy depicted, and their 
"chief works enumerated." 
^^^ Oxford Journal. 17 March 1866. 

THIEME'S German Dictionary, publ. by Franz Thimm. CI. 7 
THIEME'S Critical German and English and EngHsh 

and German Dictionary, imp. 8. bound. 1866 10 6 
"These two, are the best german and english Dictionaries, 
"that can be placed into the hands of the german Scholar. Its 
"advantages are numerous. "The accent is given, which facilitates 






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«the german Pronunciation — to the substantive are added the 
'*6ender, the genitive, dative and the termination of the plural — 
'*to the Adjectiyes are added the irre^lar comparative forms — 
'*and to the irregular Verbs all irregularities are added. — The 
''print of the Dictionaries is beautiful and the price very low." 

MEISSNER. The German Exercise Book, being a 
Collection of Exercises intended as a supplement 
to every German Granmiar, or as a necessary 
assistant for German Practice and Self-Tnition. 

8vo. Cloth. 1857 2 6 

„ A key to ditto. Svo. sewed. 1858 . 2 

"Progressive Exercises, for writing more extended composi- 
"tions, tales, letters, historical prose" etc. 

GEISSLER. Die schdnsten deutschen Balladen undGe- 

dichte. (Collection of the most beantiful German 

BaUads and Poems. Goethe, Schiller, Bfirger, Uhland, 

Heine, Freiligrath etc. etc. Heransgegeben von 

Geissler. 2nd Ed., illustrated with the heads of 

the chief poets. 8vo. Cloth neat 5 

''This is one of the most beautiful collections of german 
"poems published/it gives the essence of all that is grand and 
"distinguished in german poetry, atid therefore of particular 
"value to the student." 

COLLECTION of the most esteemed Tales and Novels of 
Germany. (Elassischer Novellenkranz.) 
'These novels and tales are adapted for Ladies 
and Class Readings, vol. L 8vo. Cloth ..060 

„ „ vol. n 7 

1. Zschokxb's Abenteuer der Neujahrsnacht, sewed 2nd £d. 16 

2. Haufp's Othello 1 6 

3. Yabnhagen's Sterner und Psitticher 1 6 

4. Hoffmann's Fr&ulein Scuderi, 2nd Edit 16 

5. ZsoHOKKE, der todte Gast 2 

6. Einkel's Hauskrieg 1#0 

7. Stifteb's Hochwald 2 

8. Zschokke's FUrstenblick 1 6 

Part. 5 to 8 forms the 2nd Volume Cloth 7 

Part 9 ZsoHorKE's Loch im Aermel 1 6 

ZSCHOKKE'S Vier Erzfthlnngen. Cloth 7 

"Nothing is more difficult than to recommend to German 
"Scholars a good volume of elegant prose, which will make them 
'^acquainted with the best authors and also tend to unite amuse- 
**ment with instruction. This Collection presents the Beader with 
''nine Masterpieees' elegant and amusing tales by excel- 
"lent writers and also with such as may safely be placed 
''in the hands of every one without danger; in consequence 
"slight alterations of text have been deemed necessary, so as to 
"make these tales suitable for young ladies and for classes." 

FRANCK'S Deutscher Briefsteller. (German Letter- 3 6 
writer.) Svo. Cloth 

. "This collection not only facilitates the composition of ger- 
"man letters, but serves the scholar as a book of study and as a 
"model of german prose composition, for it contains a coUeo- 
"tion of letters by classical german authors." 



THIMM'8 

SCHILLER'S Neffe als Onkel, with engUsh Notes by i s. d. 
M. Meissner. 12mo. 1866. boards .... 1 6 

''The text has heen slightly modified so as to give this Edi- 
''tion a 'distinct character' as a Class Book." 

SCHILLER'S Wilhelm TeU, with engtish notes by 

M. Meissner. 12mo. 1859 02 

GOETHE'S EGMONT, with engiish notes by 0. v. Weg- 

nem. l2mo. 1863 02 

''The notes to these celehrated Dramas are historical, gram- 
"matical and explanatory, and facilitate the reading and appre- 
"ciation of thesd classical pieces." 

French liangnage. 

I. Step. 
THE CHILD'S FRENCH BOOK by Hahn. Cloth .030 

"This is the first book for the nursery.'* 

ANN'S French Class Book for Beginners, being the first 
Course of the French Method adapted from the 
german original and improved by Dndeyant 4th 
Edition. 1862. . . . *. 16 

"This remarkahle book was published first in Germany and 
"has now reached the 150th Edition!" 

FRENCH SELF-TAUGHT, A new system, on the most 
simple principles for self-tuition, with the complete 
engUsh pronunciation of every word 10 

POfiSIES DE L'ENFANCE, chosies par Francois Louis. 

(French Poetry for Children.) r2mo. 1859. boards 2 

"This collection has heen made with great care, giving easy 
"and short pieces such as are rarely found in similar collections 
"and are adapted for the youngest children." 

^ n. Step. 

FRENCH GRAMMAR by Ahn. "Author's eighth Edition." 

8vo. Cloth. 1867 3 6 

Key to ditto. 1858 . 1 

"This is one of the most remarkable school books ever pub- 
"lished for the french language." 

FRENCH READER compiled after Ahn and other Readers 

by Dudevant. With English Notes. Svo. Cloth. 16 

It contains: L Detached sentences, Sahstantives, Adjectives 
Pronouns, Verbs, Particles. II. Anecdotes. III. Short pieces from 
Natural history. IV. Fables. V. Tales. VI. Descriptive Prose. 

DUDEVANT'S French and English Idiomatic Phrases 
and Dialogues ; indispensable for a rapid acquisition 
of the French Language. 12mo. 1856. Cloth 2 6 

SPIERS French and English and English and French 

Dictionaries. 2 Vol. 8to. 1854. Cloth ... 1 1 
„ ditto. ditto. abridged 12mo. ... 7 6 

BARRETS French and English pocket Dictionary. 24. 

Cloth 1855 046 



THEATBE F B A K 9 A I S 

with english notes by A. Dudetakt. 

No. I. fflOLI^RE'S le BOVRGEOIS GENTILHOMHE. 

Comedie. 16^. paper boards. 1 s. Q d. 
"This School series will be continued and embrase Racine, 
''Gorneille and Modem Theatre." 

Italian Langnage. 

ITALIAN SELF-TAUGHT. A new system on the most < s. d. 
simple principles for self-tuition, with the complete 
english pronunciation of every word .... I 

MARCHETTrS Italian Grammar. 3rd Ed. 1 860. 8vo. CI. 4 
„ Key to the Grammar. Svo. sewed ..010 

**One of the .most practical Grammars published, full of 
'^exercises, reading lessons and Dialogues." 

MARCHETTrS Italian and EngUsh Idiomatic Dialogues 

for the rapid acquisition of the language. Cloth 2 6 
BLANC'S Italian and Engl, pocket Dictionary. 24mo. CI. 4 6 
MILLHOUSE ItaUan and English Dictionary. 2 Vols. 

Svo. Cloth 14 

Spanish Language. 

SPANISH SELF-TAUGHT, A new system on the most 
simple principles for self-tuition with complete engl. 

pronunciation 

SALVO'S Spanish Grammar. 2nd. Ed. 1862. Svo. Cloth 

„ Key to the Grammar. Svo. sewed . . . 

„ Spanish and English Idiomatic Dialogues. CI. 

BLANC'S Spanish and English pocket Dictionary. Cloth 

DE MIER, El Commerciante Espanol. Svo 

Art de la Correspondance commerciale espagnole-frauQ. 

Portuguese Language. * 

CABANO'SPortuguese Grammar. 2nd Ed. Svo. CI. I860 4 
MONTEIRO-S Portuguese and Engl. Idiomatic Dialogues. 

1857 026 

VTEYRA'S Portuguese and English Pocket Dictionary. 

1857 

Arte de Correspondencia commercial portuguez . . . 
FONSECA, Prosas Selectas (Portuguese Reader). 1837 

Danish Language. 

LUND'S Danish Grammar. 2nd Ed. Svo. Cloth. 1860 

„ Key to ditto 

„ Danish and English Idiom. Dialo^es. CI. 1857 
Danish and English Pocket Dictionary. 12mo. Cloth. 1857 
PERRALL and REPFS Danish and English Dictionary. 

2 Vols. 12mo. 1863. 1/2 bound 

H0L8TS Dansk Laesebog. Vol. I Prose 6 s. Vol. II Poetry 
BRESEMANN'S ditto with german Notes. 1 2mo. 






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The Princess Alexandra and the Royal House of ^ s. d. 
Denmark. A Genealogy; giving an account of Da- 
nish history from the Sea-Kings-down to the family 
of the Princess of Wales. 12mo. 1863 .... 1 

Swedish language. 
LENSTROATS Swedish Grammar. 2nd Ed. 8vo. CI. 

1861 040 

Swedish and EngLDialogues. I2mo. 1857 2 6 

SvenskLoesebogiprosaogpoesi. 8. 1843 6 

„ Sveriges Litteratur Historia. 8vo. 1841 6 

TEGNER'S Frithiofs-Saga. 12mo 2 6 

Swedish and English Dictionary. 12mo. Cloth. J. 857 5 

Dutch Language. 

AHN'S Dutch Grammar. 2nd. Ed. 1860. 8vo. Cloth 4 
HARLEN'S Dutch and Engl. Dialogues. 12mo. CI. 1858 2 6 
Dutch and English Dictionary. 12mo. Cloth .... 5 

Eussian and Turkish Languages. 

Russian, TurkishjFrenchandEnglishVocabulary 

for Travellers in the East. 2nd Ed. 12mo. CI. 1858 2 6 

ALEXANDROWS Russian Grammar. 8vo. 1867. Cloth 4 

Russian and English Dictionary. 12mo. Cloth ... 5 

lodem Greeli Language. 

VLACHO'S Modem Greek Grammar, 8vo. 1867. Cloth 4 
BYZANTIUS Dictionnaire grec-fran^. et fr.-gr. imp. 8vo. 1 5 
DEH^QUE, Dictionnaire grec moderne fran9aise. 12mo. 8 

Commercial Correspondences. 

GERMAN AND ENGLISH, Commercial Correspondence! 
FRENCH AND ENGLISH ditto by Dudevant I. 
ITALIAN AND EN GLISH ditto by Marchetti | ^ ^^^ P^^^' 
SPANISH AND ENGLISH ditto by Salvo j £ s. d. 
FLCGEL'S Triglotte, oder kaufmannisches WOrterbuch. 

Deutsch, Englisch, Franzdsisch. 8vo 14 

RHODE'S praktisches Handbuch der Handels-Correspon- 

denz deutsch, franzdsisch, englisch und italienisch. 

8vo. CI 10 6 

MANITDJS, der kaufmannische Correspondent deutsch, 

englisch, franzOsisch, italienisch und spanisch .060 
SCHUljTEN, deutsche, lollandische, franz5sische und 

englische Handels-Correspondenz. 8 vo. ... 7 

LEIPZIGER Handels-Correspondent 5 

FORT, kaufmftnnische Correspondenz 7 

EEEGAN'S kaufmannische Phraseolo^e in franzdsischer 

und englischer Sprache 026 



8HAK8PEARIANA 

from 1564 to 1864. 

An aocount of the Shakspearian Literature 

of 

England, Germany and France 

during three Centuries 
with Bibliographical Introductions 

by 



Londcin 1865. 8®. Cloth. 4 s, 

"The author has laid the student of Shakspearian literature under deep 
"obligations. That literature is now of itself an important and flSstinctive 
"branch of study. Innamerable essays, criticisms, commentaries, expositions^ 
"and lectures upon Shakespeare have been published in England, Germany 
"and France. Their titles, authors' names, and dates of appearance have 
"been collected together by Mr. Thimm, and arranged in alphabetical order. 
"Prefixed to each list is an historical aooo^mt of the progress of Shakspea- 
*^ian criticism in the three countries, which instructively shows the growth 
"of the appreciation of the exhaustless dramas. The book is both valuable 
"as a reference, and as a study of the advance in the English and Conti- 
"nental estimation of Shakspeare. It is the fullest compilation of the kind 
''we have; Bohn's edition of Lowndes has hitherto been the moat complete 
"record on the subject; but to the works there enumerated Mr. Thimm has 
"added the titles of at least one hundred and seventy more books in the 
"English, and nearly three hundred in the German and French Department. 
"Mr. Thimm's is therefore the most perfect collection of Shakspeariana." 

It has been his "endeavour to place before the lovers of the great dra- 
matistes" an elaborate Catalogue of what the Times calls the ^'Shakspeare 
Library" and he has succeeded in accomplishing his object. 

Shrewsbury Observer. 1865. 
. From the Preface. 

The first "Shakspeariana" by Wilson, published in 1827 was too im- 
perfect to be of much use. 

Mr. Halliweirs, which appeared in 1841, is very useful for the various 
early editions of Shakspeare's works ; but for so great a student of the dra- 
matist and his history, his collection of Commentaries and essays (which 
only extends to 233 numbers) is singularly imperfect Sillig's Shakspeare 
Literatur bis Mitte 1854 was decidedly the most perfect production of its 
kind, which had hitherto seen the light. 

Nevertheless I could not relinquish the idea of publishing my ovni 
Collectanea; for notonly were my materials and the labour expended upon 
them considerable (the subject has occupied me for more than 12 years) 
but it was moreover a part of my plan to classify the productions of Eng- 
land, France and Germany, in a manner as yet unattempted. Halliwell had 
only 26 additions to Wilson, I had over 600 more than Sillig, enough in 
themselves to constitute quite a new work. The latest addition to Shaks- 
pearian literature has appeared in the new edition of "Lowndes-Manuel" by 
Mr. Henry Bohn, and constitutes a "Shakspeariana" of which I cannot but 
speak in the very highest terms' And yet it will be found, on oomparison, 
that I have at least 120 additional references in the English, and nearly 
300 in the German and French departments. 

"Southey said, when Isaac Keed's contribution appeared, Comments 
"upon Shakespeare keep pace with the National Debt: yet I should like to 
"see his book and would buy it, if I could. Of course ; and a costly store 
"is obtained by such continual additions" 

The complete Catalogue, as far as it vis possible for a Bibliographer to 
give, of this Shakespeare "Library" it has been ray endeavour to place be- 
fore the lovers of the great dramatist. 



Inx 5De!ttf4ie. 



Thlmm's 

Ijondon und Mancliester. 

Ein praktisches Eeisebuch 
fur England und Sohottland 

mit eiuem neuen Plane yon London. 
14f Jahrgang. Gebunden. 25 Sgr. oder 2 s. & d. 



Der 

Englisclie imd Amerikanisclie Dolmetsclier. 

Ein Handbuch 

fUr Jeden, der in der allerktirzesten Zeit ohne Lehrer und obne alle 

Miibe richtig Englisch lemen und sprechen will. 

Yon William Jones. 

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Terms of the 
German, French and Italian 

Circulating Library 

of 

* 3 Brook Street, Grosveiaor Square, London. 

:6 s. d. 
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Three Month —76 

One Month — 3 — 

€oantry Subscribers. 

For one year 1 4 — 

For six Months — 15 -7- 

**Tlie newest books are added to the Library immediately after pablication." 

This Libraby has been established exclusively for the circulation of 
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and Italian Literature, and the newest puclications of interest are constantly 
added to the Library. 

Rales. 

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2. Subscribers are entitled to one work at a time in Town, and six 
polumes in the Country. 

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A Register is kept for qualified Foreign Governesses and Teachers for all the 

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Leipzig, Printed by J. B. HirscMeld.