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APRIL 1918 

front. No .^tK|l^ni— No Aiidn 



Will the Destruction of Russia 
Make Germany Invincible? 

■ j,,Jl■^.B7^ l l^^V > ittl. ■^| . 

E::,v;.:^g- ^-''-:> :v-v 1 

Price 25 Cents 





















Important Change of Date Announced 

The attention of members of the Association 
is called to the change of date for Mr. Moissaye 
J. Olgin's lecture, "Social Forces in the Russian 
Revolution." The lecture will take place on 
Friday, April 19, at 8.15 P. M. instead of April 
12; and will be held in Havemeyer Hall, Co- 
lumbia University, and not, as previously an- 
nounced, in The Commons. Members may ob- 
tain tickets of admission by writing to the 
secretary for them. 


The first two articles appearing in this num- 
ber of Asia are written by the staff of the 
magazine. MR. FOORD, the editor, explains 
the nature of the problem confronting the world 
in Siberia. It has been expected for some 
weeks that the Japanese would enter that vast 
eastern province of Russia and the event may 
have been consummated when the April number 
of Asia appears on the news-stands. 

MR. MOORE enumerates the extensive ad- 
vantages that go to Germany as a result of the 
Russian cataclysm. 

India, which has remained her home. The 
Oriental influence upon her art has been very 
marked. "Boat Life In Kashmir" is representa- 
tive of her vigorous work, another instalment 
of which "Gardens in Kashmir" will appear in 
a future number. 

MR. TYLER DENNETT'S article, "What Does 
India Want?" is not one of his Mis.sionary 
Seeies. That series will be resumed in the 
future numbers of the magazine. 

well-known writer on Turkish and Near East- 
ern subjects, has contributed a timely account 
of the terrible career of Abdul Hamid II, whom 
some French writer has styled "The Great 

CHARLES H. BOYNTON is active in Ameri- 
can-Russian relations. He was formerly presi- 
dent of the American-Russian Chamber of 
Commerce of New York and has recently re- 
turned from an extensive trip through Russia. 


Copies of the Index for the first ten numbers 
of Asia — March to December, 1917 — will be 
sent to members and subscribers on request. 

On account of the dislocation of railway traf- 
fic and consequent delays of the mails, copies of 
Asia may be late in reaching their destination. 
The publishers are making every effort to facil- 
itate deliveries. 





Contents for April, 1918 

Portraits 267 

Emperor of Japan, Three Leading Japanese States- 
men, Marquis and Marchioness Okuma, Lieutenant- 
General Chang Yung-Cheng, General Yin Chang 

The Russian People in the Grip of Despotism 


The Worst Disaster of the War 273 

Russia Must Be Saved Bij Frederick Moore 21 A 

With the Japanese Army In Pictures 282 

Bolshevism in Eastern Asia By John Foord 286 

An American Policy and Russia 288 

Bij Charles H. Boynton 

Boat Life in Kashmir 289 

From the Original Lithographs bii Brnnhildr Chesney 

"The Great Assassin" 297 

By Hester Donaldson Jenkins 

What Does India Want? By Tyler Dennett 307 

The Chinese Theatre By Frank S. Williams 314 

Chinese Opera By Willia^n L. Hall 323 

Illustrated iy Gertrude Emerson 

Where Four Continents Meet Pictures 326 

Bank Clearings in China By A. W. F err in 328 

ASIA, Journal of the American Asiatic Association, is published 

monthly under the auspices of the Association by the 


627 Lexington Avenue, New Y'ork City 

John Foord, President, Frederick Moore, 

and Editor of Asia Managing Editor 

Louis D. Froelick, Ira H. Patchin, Treasurer 

Secretary and Publisher and Advertising Manager 

Issued Monthly, 25 cents a copy. Subscription price, $2.00 a year 
in the United States and Possessions, Mexico and Shanghai; $2.50 
in Canada; elsewhere, $3.00. Bai^k Numbku.s not over three 
months old, 25 cents each; over three months old, 50 cents each. 
Annual Indexes will be sent free to subscribers who apply for 
them. Instructions for Renewals. Discontinuance, or Change 
OF Addhess should be sent two weeks before the date they are to 
go into effect. Both old and new addresses must always be given. 
Entered as second-class matter March 5, 1917, at the Post Office 
at New Y'ork, N. Y., under the 

Act of Marcli :i, 1S79. 
Copyright, 1918, by Asia Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 

Articles and pictures on matters of Oriental interest are invited, 
but the responsibility is not assumed for the safe return of ma- 
terial submitted. Return postage should be enclosed 



THE PURPOSE of The American Asiatic Association is— 

"To contribute to a satisfactory adjustment of tlie relations 
between Asiatic countries and the rest of the world by the 
removal of sources of misunderstanding and the dissipation of 
ignorant prejudices; and to co-operate with all other agencies, 
religious, educational and philanthropic, designed to remove 
existing obstacles to the peaceful progress and well being of the 
peoples of these countries."— Section 5, Article II, of the Con- 

In publishing ASIA it will be the policy of the editors to 
regard with sympathy the attitude and activities of all Eastern 
countries. Nevertheless, the independent privilege of criticism 
will be steadfastly retained. No hampering restrictions will be 
placed on contributions on important subjects, regardless of the 
source from which they may come, Asiatic or American; and 
articles considered able and having value, whether they tend to 
inspire controversy or not, will be considered as beneficial to 
the promotion of knowledge and the removal of misunderstand- 
ings, and will be published in spite of the fact that the editors 
may not agree entirely with the opinions expressed. 

ACTIVE MEMBERSHIP in The American Asiatic Association is 
open as provided in Section 1, Article III, of the Constitution, 
which states that — 

"Any person of full age who is in sympathy with the foregoing 
objects and purposes (quoted above) shall be eligible to mem- 
bership in the Association." 

The annual dues of an Active Member— who participates in the 
policies of the Association and has power of voting on them — are 
$10.00 per annum, which includes subscription to the magazine 
and any other publications which may be issued, and also admis- 
sion to any lecture which may be given under the Association's 

ASSOCIATE MEMBEPvSHIP is open to those interested in the 
objects and purposes of the Association. Tlie annual dues, includ- 
ing subscription to ASIA, are $2.00 in the United States and pos- 
sessions, Mexico and Shanghai (of which the portion designated 
for payment for the magazine for a year is $1.75); in Canada 
$2.50; elsewhere, $3.00. 

JOHN FooBU, Secretary, 


627 Lexington Ave., New York City. 
I desire to become an Associate Member of the American 
Asiatic Association and to subscribe for ASIA— Journal of the 
American Asiatic Association, for one year, for which $1.75 of 
the annual membership dues of $2.00 is payment. 



Major Lloyd C. Griscom, U.S.A., former 
U. S. Minister to Japan, Turkey, and 
Eugene P. Thomas, President of the 
United States Steel Products Co., N. Y. 
Theodore B. Wilcox, President of the 
Portland Flouring Mills Co., Portland. 
.Vlba B. John.son, President of the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works, Philadelphia. 
John B. Cleveland, Lockhart Mills, S. C. 
Charles M. Schwab, Chairman of the 

Bethlehem Steel Corporation. 
Ellison A. Smyth, President Pelzer Mfe 
Co., Pelzer, S. C. 
Joseph Read Patterson, General Manager 
in U. S. of Arnhold Bros. & Co., Ltd., 

John Foord, Editor of ASIA. 
Kxecutive Co.-mmittee 
James R. Morse, President of the Ameri- 
can Trading Co., N. Y. 
John \\'. T. Nichols, of the Minot, Hooper 

Albert Cordes, Export Broker, N. Y. 

H. T. S. Green, President of the Interna- 
tional Banking Corporation, X. Y. 

Silas D. Webb, China & Japan Trading Co. 

I. Osgood Orleton, Carleton & Moffat 

E. P. Cronkhite, of Smith, Hogg & Co., 
X. Y. 

.Maurice A. Oudin, General Electric Co., 

George G. .\llen, British American To- 
bacco Co., X^. Y. 
Martin Egan, New York. 
Howard E. Cole, Standard Oil Co., X. Y. 
Major Willard Straight, U.S.A. 
John S. Ro.sseter, Pacific Mail Steamship 

Co., San Francisco. 
The American Association of China 
Shanghai Branch 
President ' Hoxorarv Secretary 

W . S. Fleiiiini;- \. S. Goldsmith 


\\ . T. Findley C. I.. Seitz 

Executive Committee 
J. W. Gallagher, S. .\. Ransom, H. H 
Arnold, W. A. Reed, F. J. Raven. J. H. 
Dollar, H. C. .Morton. 

The American Association of Japan 

Yokohama Branch 
President Secretary 

H. A. En.sworth R. F. Moss 

Vice-President Treasurer 

James Lee Kauffman E. W. Frazar 
Executive Co.m.mittee 

D. H. Blake, B. W. Fleisher, J. R. Gearv, 
F. W. Home, T. M. Laffin, Clav .Mac- 
Cauley, J. A. Rabbitt. J. T. Swift. X F 
Smith, O. .M. Poole, S. H. Wainri^'ht. 

Tokyo Branch 
Executive Committee 
S. H. Wainright, E. W. Clement. F. J. 
Home, J. Reifsnider, W. Hyde Price, 
Dorenuis Scudder, W. E. Schenok, R. H.' 
Turner. t^ , „ 

Kobe Branch 
President Secret.vry 

J. Grovcr Sims H. .M. Xock 

Vice-President Treasurer 

E. R. Dicknver R. L. Goldsmitli 
Executi^t: Committee 

G. F. Emanuels, H. O. Hereford, S. F 
Jones. .\. G. Xicolini, G. A. Roper, H 
S. Stetson. G. D. Swan. 


In the ancient Imperial costume worn at the time of his inauguration in 
November, 1915. Yoshihito is the son of the enlightened Meiji Emperor, 
Mutsuhito, and is the 122nd Emperor in lineal descent from Jimmu Tenno, 
who founded the empire in 650 B. C. According to Japanese mythology, 
Jimmu Tenno was the fourth in descent from the grandson of the Sun Goddess, 
who received from her, as insignia of his office, three Sacred Treasures, the 
Sword, the Jewel and the Mirror. Every emperor of Japan at the time of 
inauguration is formally presented with these three treasures in a ceremony 
corresponding to that of a coronation in Western countries. The Emperor of 
Japan is supposed to rule by divine right, but the principle of government is 
that of a benevolent monarchy. The Emperor calls himself the father of his 
people. Probably in no other country in the world is a ruler held as sacred 
as he is in Japan. 


Marquis Matsukata, at one time Premier and Minister of Finance, and Prince Yamagata, 
twice Premier, are representatives of the Genro, or body of Elder Statesmen, an advisory 
council to the throne. Premier Terauchi was Minister of War from 1902 to 1911 and 
Governor-General of Korea from 1911 until his appointment as Premier in 1916. The de- 
cision of the part Japan is to play in the new Far Eastern crisis, as yet undetermined at the 
time of our going to press, will rest largely with this powerful statesman. In a recent 
address before the Japanese Diet he made the following significant statement: "Russia's 
internal disorders are gradually spreading to her possessions in Eastern Asia, to the possi- 
ble menace of Far Eastern peace, the preservation of which is our national policy. japan 
holds herself responsible for the maintenance of peace in this part of the world, and con- 
sequently, in the event of that peace being endangered to the inevitable injury of our 
interests, the Government will not hesitate to take proper measures." 

P.rKan, the name of Marquis Okuma is better known to the American people than that 
ofanTothe.^jrpanese statesman. He was born .n 1838 when Japan was st.ll under 
^he feudal system and was instrumental in consummatmg the Restoration In I 888 he 
the feudal ^V^''^"'' ?^"°f revising Japan's Treaties. A clause appomtmg foreign judges 
undertook the -"^k o ■^"■^'"| ^ P ,3, ji^.ent, and an attempt was made upon h.s 
m the Supreme Court evoKea popular ui== . t- ,f !■ f near v 

l.f^ which resulted in the amputation of one leg. He has held port olios tor ne,.ri> 
which resulteo in y Premier, the last time immediately preceding the 

iQ Underwood and T'nd 


Said to be in command of the Peking garrison, and to exert much influence 

in Chinese military affairs at the present time. Judging from the display 

cf decorations that he wears, he has been of service as well to his country 

in its foreign relations. 


Gene.. Y.n ^ Ma^Hu o^^K aut^^-tV^n C^-^.^ Ha^^^ 
E:-:^^C:^^^^^^^'^^^^^ Co„>n,anae..n^CK.ef of tK^ ^ena 

liemlution. by Moissaye J. Olnin. H,.,iiy U„Ii anil Coiiipan: 


s'ec^XTn^'' R'^""'^R^'V''^"P""r/ ""' R°--"°ff Tyranny, Pr.nted 
Coni!., F R I j" R<=«'l"|'°"a'-y Magazine of Which Only Twenty 

Copies Ever Reached the Public. It Illustrates Equally Well the Recent 
Change of Masters, the New Autocracy Holding Russia in Its IrorRst! 
That of a Foreign Despotism. 



The destruction of Russia is incomparably the worst disaster that has 
befallen the Allies. The nation that alone, had she been organized and 
intelligently administered, could have defeated Germany, is now shattered 
and trampled under the heel of a conqueror who takes no chances that his 
victims may revive. To what end will he employ this conquest that he has 
won with his sword, tempered not with mercy, and his wits, hampered not 
with justice? What will he make of these victories? Will his skill be 
sufficient? Will his wisdom avail to make him invincible? 

Our country holds the balance of responsibility in this greatest crisis 
of the war. The peril of the Orient has become our peril. But for years 
we have devoted only casual attention to the East, and so today we stand 
deplorably unfitted to interpret its forces. We are called on in a moment to 
decide great issues and take part in international responsibilities, without 
knowing where they may lead, or how they may involve ourselves and our 
Allies. We have only a faint understanding of the spirit of the great races 
of Asia and Russia. Doubt assails us about what to do, because we have 
very imperfect information from which to estimate the consequences of 
action. Face to face we stand with these most perilous problems of the 
war. We thought we had years to learn and decide. Today we have hours. 

Overnight, ASIA has become a War Magazine. Yesterday we were 
prophetic ; today we are at the heart of the War. For several months we 
have been presenting authoritative articles dealing with the gravity of the 
situation that confronts the world in the break up of Russia. In this, and 
in coming numbers, ASIA will concentrate attention upon this issue, inter- 
preting, demonstrating, anticipating consequences, laying open the under- 
lying conditions. No periodical is in a better position to present an esti- 
mate of the Eastern situation than ASIA. 

The American Asiatic Association, and this magazine, must now 
accept their share of a national responsibility of impressive magnitude. 
We must aid to the utmost in supplying the information needed by hun- 
dreds of thousands of our citizens. The whole country must be summoned 
to awake to our peril in Asia. Our appeal to you, our members, is to take 
your part in this responsibility. We call upon you to help by extending 
the membership of the Association and the influence of ASIA. 


The Dire Consequences to the World of Leaving Her Prostrate 

By /Frederick Moore 

When Lriihic's brief huur ends he iriU hare tlic salixpu tiiin <if k-iioiriiin that lie ilid mare 
harm to the liuniaii race thini was ever done hii iiny one man in nueh short time .sinee 
hixtorii be<i(in to be recorded in the tombs alonei the Nile. — From the Nen- York ■■Timen." 

AS a result of the Russian disaster the Germans 
l\ threaten to dominate the continent of Asia as 
-^ -^ well as that of Europe. If you will look at the 
map you will see that four-fifths of the territory of 
Europe is already under their control, and that an 
equal portion of the much vaster though less de- 
veloped continent that joins Eui'ope on the east is 
threatened by their domination. Under the present 
process of stifling Russia by cutting her off from 
western seas that country lies at the mercy of Ger- 
many and Austria, and must continue to do so until 
another army is able to recover the lost Russian 
provinces, now being organized by Germany into 
buffer states, or until the Allies are able to dictate 
terms of peace. To make peace, leaving Russia dis- 
sected as she is today, will give Germany permanent 
victory. She may relinquish claim to her colonies, 
surrender Alsace-Lorraine, indemnify Belgium, and 
recreate Serbia, and yet she will have won the war. 
The states on her eastern border and beyond, more 
than a score in number, must buy from her and 
Austria and sell to them, and will never again, if 
her might remains unbroken, be in a position to 
challenge her with arms. 

The great value to the Central Powers of the new 
condition which they have been able to create out of 
the wreckage that was Russia lies in the territorial 
proximity. The new lands to be developed and ex- 
ploited are in their back yard, so to speak, while 
their front gate is protected by a hitherto unbreak- 
able line of bayonets, — in which the Germans ap- 
pear to have every confidence, judging from the 
audacity with which they have proceeded in dealing 
with Russian territory. They hand over a section 
of the Caucasus to Turkey ; recognize Ukrania as an 
independent state ; occupy, probably for permanent 
use, the Black Sea littoral known as Bessarabia ; 
hand a section of Rumania to Bulgaria and annex 
another ; curtail the independence of what remains 
to King Ferdinand of Wallachia and Moldavia ; hold 
Poland and the Lower Baltic states for future de- 
termination ; take Finland to all intents under a 
protectorate ; and drive the Swedes out of the Aland 
Islands. There was never a greater conquest made. 
in a single blow, in the history of the world. It is 
as if the New England States, New York, and Penn- 

sylvania, — though these states would by no means 
cover the e.xtent of territory affected in Russia, — 
were torn from the side of this country. Only if we 
were wrecked could such a thing happen. 

The Teuton's wildest dream of glory never opened 
the gates of the Orient to him in the way the Bol- 
sheviki have torn them down. His early dreams of 
Eastern power were of Asia Minor. But now, what 
is Turkey and the Persian Gulf to him? The road 
is open to the Indian frontier and across Mongolia 
down to China, — with a score of undefended inter- 
mediary Khanates each the size, territorially, of a 
European .state. He is like Aladdin after the door 
of the treasure house, unguarded, swung upon its 
hinges. His own limitations, his own inability, his 
own inadequate strength to gather in the riches, 
constitute his greatest embarrassment. 

By the self-destruction of Russia, Germany auto- 
matically became more powerful than she had ever 
been before. At no previous time in her history has 
she had, as now, only one frontier to guard. Re- 
lieved of pressure on her Eastern front, her West- 
ern became at once more formidable. Besides the 
vast augmentation of man power that went to Ger- 
many by the release of prisoners, she obtained con- 
trol of enormous sources of supplies, grain and cat- 
tle, copper and antimony, iron and coal, petroleum 
and almost every other necessity of war, — even 
whale meat and the oils and fats of the animals of 
the Arctic Ocean. Besides authority over the 
broken states that composed Russia, Germany's 
grip is tightened upon her confederates, — Austria. 
Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey. There is no means 
for the latter, as in former years, to play off the 
Slav against the Teuton and survive between the 
balance. Besides the way that is open to Germany 
on the East, the Scandinavian states on the north 
now lie at her mercy. The Baltic Sea and the Black, 
with the Danube reaching from the latter far into 
Hungary, have become German lakes, and Ger- 
many's sea effectiveness against the Allies is por- 
tentously increased by the release of her Baltic 

The Bolsheviki have repudiated the billions of 
Russian debt, which had come from the Allies, 
while the Germans have the power to levy_ tribute. 


Arms already made, factories ready to operate, 
railways in running order, fall with little injury 
under German control. In the matter of men, not 
only are the Eastern Front relieved and millions of 
prisoners restored to the Central Powers, but there 
are also the Baltic provinces, largely Germanic in 
population, now to draw labor from. 

Had her former rulers been wise enough and ca- 
pable in organizing Russia there is no question that 


her weight of numbers and wealth would have over- 
come the Germans. This has been a common say- 
ing. Now the latter have come into authority over 
that limitless storehouse. The disaster is incal- 
culably the worst of the war. 

A renowned strategist, the late Admiral Mahan, 
in estimating the outcome of such a conflict as that 
in which we are now engaged, gave the ultimate vic- 
tory to those Powers that held the sea. But the 
Admiral, if I recollect right, did not take into con- 
sideration, as even a possibility, the eventuality 
which we now see before us ; nor in the day of his 
writing, was the U-boat perfected. To the country 
that controls two-thirds of the linked continents of 
Europe and Asia, sea power may prove not to be 
essential. To manufacture for the states that were 
Russia might prove to be ample occupation for all 
the machinery that the fleets of the Allies have 

made idle in Germany ; and to buy the raw products 
of those dismembered states will take all the Ger- 
man surplus of capital. It is a matter of readjust- 
ment and reorganization. 

What length of time will it take to organize the 
country efficiently? Not longer, I venture to say, 
than it will take the United States to build sufficient 
ships, rapidly as we are working, to transport an 
army of five million men to France. It is my belief 
that in considerably less time than three years the 
Russian states will be producing supplies, receiving 
payment for them, and transporting them to the 
Germans without serious impediment or resistance. 

The Bolsheviki have talked of desperate resis- 
tance and have issued proclamations summoning 
the people to fight and destroy as they retreated. 
But the people have done neither and the Bolsheviki 
have formally sanctioned the terms of peace. Their 
notions of arms are like those they hold of state- 
craft. No disarmed proletariat, however intelli- 
gent, can arbitrate with German autocracy, and no 
guerilla warfare can be maintained against millions 
of organized and victorious soldiers of the present 
day. We have the examples of Belgium and Serbia : 
a city resists an invasion and is burned ; a district 
shows a tendency to rebel and its able-bodied men 
are lined up and shot or driven away to work as 
convicts in enemy fields and factories ; the popula- 
tions of cities are disarmed, their leading men held 
as hostages, and punitive tributes levied upon them. 
The Russian Bourgeoisie, as the Bolsheviki term the 
better classes, to be rid of their deadly fraternal 
enemy, are likely to welcome domination for the 
time being, hoping for the day of deliverance ; and 
the peasant may see no further than the wants of 
today. There will be desperate men, of course; so 
there were in France in 1871, in Bulgaria before 
1878, in Poland and in Alsace-Lorraine. But it 
will not be necessary for an army of occupation to 
scatter itself throughout the country, penetrating 
every district and occupying every town and ham- 
let, as the intelligent Trotzky and Lenine think the 
Germans will do. In territory which the enemy 
actually occupies, the railway lines, strategic mili- 
tary points, and the principal cities will be garri- 
soned, and sufficient mobile forces will accompany 
them to chase away attacking guerilla bands and 
to proceed on visits to villages which defy sub- 

The Ukraine, the most fertile section of the Rus- 
sian plain, has, as we know, agreed by treaty im- 
mediately to supply provisions, and will be made to 
do so even if her own populations starve. Rumania 
has consented not merely to permit but to expedite 
the passage of conquering troops across her terri- 
tory. Finland has accepted a German protectorate. 
And Poland, Lithuania, Esthonia and Courland, oc- 
cupied by German armies, must perforce acquiesce 

APRIL, 191S 

in whatever program Germany prescribes for them. 
In the Baltic Provinces, Poland and Bessarabia, 
German is spoken extensively and many of the peo- 
ple, even on the Black Sea coast, are German in 
sympathy. Before the war, — and during it, as we 
know, — many leading men have said that the 
Kaiser's rule would be better than that of the Czar. 
The Jewish communities, oppressed under the Rus- 
sian autocracy, are likely to accept the accomplished 
facts without protest. The great mass of the peas- 
ant soldiery have flung away their rifles and given 
up their pride. 

It is the policy of Germany to leave the crippled 
interior Russian state nominally at liberty, but 
Germans have methods by which they can control 
such a state, and they are already at work on these 
methods. They will muster first those forces that 
have always believed that German organization 
would be better for Russia than her own lack of 
method ; they will influence by bribery those who 
are corruptible ; they will play on the ignorance of 
the people by persistent propaganda, which will ap- 
pear to be Russian, displaying the Allies and the 
United States in untrue colors. (Propaganda of 
this sort, by means of posters, leaflets, and news- 
paper articles, was launched, as we know, imme- 
diately after the barriers were let down by the Bol- 
sheviki. The latter aided the Germans, it being 
part of their campaign also to turn all loyal Rus- 
sians away from sentiment and duty to the West- 
ern Allies.) The Germans will spread the reports, 
whether the Japanese enter Siberia or not, that 
they are massacring thousands of Russians. They 
will, if they can, enlist the clergy of the Orthodox 
Church into their service. The poison of these 
methods will be difficult to combat, especially in a 
country like Russia where illiteracy extends to more 
than four-fifths of the population. Against an ad- 
versary that knows no shame, what effect will the 
counter propaganda have, that of spreading Presi- 
dent Wilson's messages, excellent as ve know them 
to be? 

The work which the Germans are attempting is 
so gigantic that, of course, no power can succeed in 
permanently consummating it. Ultimately the na- 
tions that are subjugated, tricked, and beaten down 
today will come again into a measure of their rights 
and liberty. But for the time being the collapse of 
Russia has given the Teutons unlimited opportuni- 
ties to strengthen and fortify themselves to fight on 
longer. It has given them the chance of making 
themselves what they wish to be, the world's most 
powerful nation. Besides strengthening their forces 
on the Western Front, in Italy and Macedonia, and 
giving assistance to the Turks for their Palestine 
and Mesopotamia campaigns, the Germans have 
opened a way for themselves and their Moham- 
medan allies through Persia to Afghanistan and the 

frontiers of India. The miserable state of Persia, 
corrupt, degenerate and defenseless, formerly pro- 
tected by the union of British and Russian armies 
in Mesopotamia, now lies open to the armies of the 
Turks and Germans, and to their political agents 
and corruptionists. Ten thousand German troops 
would be able to capture and control the Shah's 
capital. There are, however, no railways in that 
ancient decayed empire ; and to move across it and 
through Afghanistan into India is a Napoleonic 
dream that can only be consummated if the Ger- 
mans remain on the off'ensive for several years. 
Meantime the British will be able to prepare meas- 
ures of defence for their Asiatic frontier. There 
are two immediate dangers, however, to Great 
Britain : first, the possible loss of prestige among 
her Indian subjects ; and, second, the campaign of 
propaganda and the running of arms, which the 


The Revolution Has Proauced Harmony 

Germans will surely endeavor to despatch. The so- 
called "Northwest Frontier" is long, traditionally 
hostile, and difficult to defend against gun running. 
But the menace of the future, should Germany suc- 
ceed in achieving a cessation of war while retaining 



The Map Also Show, .he M?„lVara':!r^:h^;rsru.?erNl''Av^S"o'' 

d the Baltic, Leaving 
to the Gulf of Finland, 
to Germany 

APRIL, 1 9 li 


First Bolshevik; "Let me see, we have made an 
of law, credit, treaties, the army, and the navy, 
there anything else to abolish?" 

Second Bolshevik: "What about war?" 

First Bolshevik: "Good, and peace, too. Away 
both of them." 

this strategic position, will be the serious one. 
Germany in Persia will be as a running sore in the 
side of the British Empire. 

We now come to the next important question, 
that of the Chinese border and of Manchuria and 
Siberia, each of which bears upon the others. Here 
the question of the entry of Japan raises contro- 
versy. The European Allies and Japan seem to 
regard the Bolsheviki as outlaws, or, in effect if not 
actually, Confederates of Germany. And in view 
of the fact that they undoubtedly foresee a long war 
protracted until they are able to restore and re-es- 
tablish the Russian Empire, they advocate the entry 
of Japan into Siberia, knowing that in the course 
of months this unguarded territory north of China 
will become a fertile field and base for German mili- 
tary and political enterprises. There is little doubt 
that this is a correct view. 

Too many intelligent men in this country are 
bothering themselves with Socialist programs to 
the detriment of efficiency. Because the Germans 
and the pacifists kept us out of war for two years 
we may have ten to fight. If now, for lack of un- 
derstanding, we fail to make up at once the time we 
lost when neglecting to prepare, we shall remain off 
the seas at Germany's injunction, — France and 
Britain being defeated. Socialist programs are 

good, and so are world courts, leagues of nations, 
and the like. Every right minded man is for these 
things ; and I myself am assisting in work upon 
such programs today, hoping ardently that we shall 
ultimately have the opportunity of putting them 
into practice. But the business of the day is to 
make the world safe for the democracies that re- 
main. Those democracies are not perfect, we know, 
but it is better to save them than to lose all by 
striving to perfect them at perilous times like these. 
We have the example of Russia, the nation that 
would have all or nothing, and exchanged a native 
for a foreign despotism. 

There are few men, even among our statesmen, 
who have sufficient vision of international affairs to 
understand the predicament in which we are today. 
To the average man it is inconceivable that we 
might not win the war. Two years is the limit the 
ordinary man allows for the massing in France of 
an army of sufficient strength to break the Western 
Front and march to Berlin. That is the reason we 
are exerting so much of our energy in words that 
are meant to lead the world to righteousness and 
meanwhile impair our effectiveness. 

P,.iiri,l«,-, III rnnrh. iP) I/iii.l«i 

The Pander: "Come and be kissed by him." 


From St Loui-; Post Pixp'itrh 



News Item: Berlin's latest peace terms with Russi; 
detach the regions of Karband, Kars and Batum, Rus 
sian territory in Transcaucasia, for Turkey. 

Cassel, in New York Eri-nina Wnrli 



Meanwhile, year after year, the Germans go on 
increasing the number of their victims, making 
their own position stronger. They have surprised 
themselves with their power. The British, at the 
beginning of the war, talked of beating the Rus- 
sians in the race to Berlin ; now they await the 
might of this country before expecting that con- 

Two and a half years ago, when Bulgaria joined 
the Central Powers, linking up the route from Ber- 
lin to Constantinople, men of the Allied nations 
spoke of promptly punishing her, and an army was 
sent to Salonica, where it still remains on the de- 
fensive. A year and a half ago Rumania allied her- 
self with the Entente and men spoke of the coitp de 
grace that was then to be given Germany ; but that 
victim is now ceding territory to Germany and 
pledging assistance to the German armies moving 
across her frontiers to Asiatic states. At the be- 
ginning of the war Russia was likened to a "steam 
roller" that would crush the Germans if France and 
Britain could hold them till the great colossus of 
Europe and Asia could mobilize her unlimited 
forces ; today Russia destroys herself. 

Early in the present war the writer deplored the 
over-confidence of the British and the reluctance of 
the United States to go to their assistance or even to 
make preparations lest the submarine should bring 
the British to terms. Now I deplore the lack of 
realization in this country that while Germany is 
still building submarines as fast as the joint navies 
of Britain, France, Italy and the United States can 
sink them, and is sending merchant ships to the 
bottom in a greater proportion than twelve months 
ago, a whole jaw has been wrenched off of the vise 
on which the Allied strategists were depending to 
compel Germany to terminate her military menace. 
We have a great work to perform ; the world never 
had a greater. We are the last bulwark today of 
democracy. Every other democracy has gone into 
the scale before us. What would happen should the 
Allies make peace trusting to the Germans to keep 
their pledge? When the moment was opportune 
they would strike France overnight, before the 
British troops or Americans could get back to her 
shores to assist in her defence. The British Isles 



would then lie at the mercy of hostile submarines 
and would become an outpost of an Anglo-Saxon 
confederation in conflict with the continent of Eu- 
rope with the supply house of Asia behind it. The 
British Empire could not longer exist, the heart 
itself and the arteries through the Mediterranean 
being gnawed unceasingly by submarines. 

We need the might of all our Allies as well as all 
the power of this country in order to overtake the 
advantage which our adversary has secured, and 
ultimately to make him sue for peace. Our efforts 
and resources, quickly as they are being mobilized, 
can hardly be got into action soon enough. 

If the Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, and Bul- 
gars could be made to realize that all real Ameri- 
cans, Britons and Frenchmen were determined to 
see this business through at whatever its cost and if 
its duration should be twenty years, some of them 
would be ready to withdraw from the support of 
the Kaiser and his clique. 



Conducting a Field Service on the Battlefield Before Tsingtau. Shinto Is the State Religion 
of Japan, and Is Familiar to the Western World As the Cult of Ancestor Worship 



The Keenness with Which the Japanese Have Followed Military Studies Is Here Very 

Evidently Portrayed 




[■ -.u - - 




The Russian Collapse and the Allied Responsibility 
By John Foord 

A N international situation to whicli it would be 
/\ hard to find an historic parallel, exists in 
■^ -^ Eastern Asia. The titular government of 
Russia is not the government of three-fourths of 
the territory of the Republic. Leaving out of sight 
the Finns and the Little Russians who have set up 
for themselves; Poland that is under the heel of 
Germany ; the Esths, the Letts and the Lithuanians 
who are marked for German absorption, and the 
somewhat shadowy State organizations which are 
feebly asserting themselves in the Caucasus and 
the Khanates, there is the vast stretch of Siberia, 
in the settled part of which the authority of the 
government at Petrograd manifests itself, through 
its Bolshevik adherents, mainly in the form of mur- 
der and pillage. That government is denied recog- 
nition equally by the appointees of its predecessor 
in Eastern Asia, and by Russia's neighbors there. 
Its supersession of the Russian Ministers at Peking 
and Tokyo and of the Director-General of the 
Chinese Eastern Railway at Harbin has been 
treated as so much waste paper by all immediately 
concerned. In the Russian sphere of influence 
traversed by the Railway in Northern Manchuria 
where China has resumed an authority long held in 
abeyance, a disposition to cooperate with the dis- 
credited ofl^cials of the Petrograd government and 
with the much dreaded Japanese became quickly 
apparent when the whole social and administrative 
fabric was threatened with utter collapse. 

Soon after the Bolshevist Junta achieved su- 
premacy by the simple method of breaking up the 
Constituent Assembly, they cast their eyes east- 
ward and tried to establish control over the Chinese 
Eastern Railway — that section of the Trans-Siber- 
ian which traverses Manchuria. When the Rus- 
sian government obtained from China the right to 
construct this short cut to an ice-free terminus on 
the Pacific through Chinese territory, they acquired 
a quasi-sovereignty over what was defined as the 
railway zone. China reserved the right to appoint 
the President cf the railway company, but as this 
official was to reside in Peking his duties were 
mainly those connected with the inspection of ac- 
counts. In the Boxer Rebellion the then President 
was executed, and the place was not again filled un- 
til the other day. Control of the railway has al- 
ways been vested in the Russian railway adminis- 
tration which was responsible to the Ministry of 

Communications in Petrograd. After the Treaty 
of Portsmouth, the southern part of the railway 
with the privileges inherent in the charter, passed 
to Japan. 

It was part of the original agreement that troops 
should be stationed at intervals along the railway, 
and when the war broke out the trained men as- 
signed to that duty were withdrawn and replaced 
by reservists, of whom two regiments were quar- 
tered at Harbin. In due course, these regiments 
turned Bolshevik and the government of Lenine 
and Trotzky seemed on the point of securing con- 
trol of the railway. Since, however, the Allied 
Powers, among whom China must be reckoned, had 
refused to recognize the Bolshevist government, an 
administration by its appointees of a railway tra- 
versing Entente territory was not likely to be ac- 
ceptable. Hence, the Allied Ministers in Peking 
pointed out to the Chinese Government that Harbin, 
where law and order were but feebly guarded by a 
nerveless police and an anarchistic Bolshevist sol- 
diery, was urgently in need of the presence of Chi- 
nese troops. The Government at Peking desired no 
better opportunity to resume part of the sover- 
eignty of which it had divested itself in Manchuria, 
and sent a particularly capable, well equipped and 
thoroughly disciplined body of men to perform a 
somewhat delicate task. It is recorded that the 
Russian reservists gazed in astonishment on the 
Chinese soldiery as they "sprightlily marched past 
in perfect rhythm." The contrast was the greater 
since the license enjoyed by the Russian soldier 
had deteriorated him beyond recognition, making 
him, according to the testimony of observers on the 
spot "a most uncouth, slovenly object to look upon." 

By the 5th of January the situation in Harbin 
was reported as having been "cleaned up." One in- 
cident of this process was the deportation of the 
Bolshevik soldiers across the frontier where they 
were delivered into the hands of the Commander of 
a Cossack train guard. One particularly trouble- 
some Bolshevik Commissary who had been arrested 
for an attempt to blackmail the Mechanics Club in 
Harbin, and who had attempted to induce the mili- 
tiamen to rise in a body, disarm the Cossacks and 
take possession of the train, was promptly court- 
martialed and shot. Meanwhile, on December 20, 
1917, the Bolshevik fever had penetrated to Irk- 
utsk, a thousand miles west of Harbin, the chief town 

APRIL, 1918 

of the government of that name, a rival of Tomsk 
for the title of the most important place in Si- 
beria, and in a close race with Vladivostok for the 
distinction of coming second with a population al- 
ready reckoned at a little over 100,000. On De- 
cember 21 the Bolsheviki began to use armed force 
which was partially resisted by military cadets, 
artillerymen and Cossack troops, the barracks of 
the latter being, however, outside of the town. 
Thus the Bolsheviki were able to wreak their un- 
disciplined will on Irkutsk — looting and destroying 
the museum, hospitals, banks, theatres and many 
of the principal shops. The plight of the terror- 
stricken populace was not greatly improved by the 
shelling of the town with artillery fire by the non- 
Bolshevik military force. The destruction wrought 
by the ruffianly element inside the town and its 
wound-be protectors outside continued for a week, 
leaving the principal buildings of Irkutsk a heap 
of ruins and putting to flight all of its population 
who were able to get away. 

It was not till the second week of January that 
some semblance of order was restored to the city 
on the Angara which here pours its swift waters 
into Lake Baikal. The actual number of foreign- 
ers in Irkutsk at the time of the outbreak of the 
Bolshevist reign of terror is unknown. But the 
British Consul at Harbin received urgent appeals 
for assistance from British and French refugees, 
and it is known that the French Consular Agent 
as well as two French officers had been robbed and 
killed. It seems to be a fact that several thousand 
lives were lost, and it is certain that for a time the 
population of Irkutsk was literally starving. It 
was noted at the same time that to the west of 
Lake Baikal, as far as Saratoff , many of the towns 
were in the hands of the Bolsheviki whose first act 
was always the arrest of the chief local authorities 
by way of preventing their leadership of any coun- 
ter movement. In these circumstances, it is hardly 
remarkable that as early as the third week in Janu- 
ary the possibility was seriously discussed by in- 
fluential Russians of the .sending of an internation- 
al force into Siberia in order to eflfectively stamp 
out the Bolshevik element. It was recognized that 
the joint action of the representatives of the Allies 
in bringing into the Russian Railway Area of 
North Manchuria alien troops to safeguard the 
lives and property of non-Russians had been fully 

justified, and that the law-abiding, peaceful Rus- 
sian citizen had equally benefited from this course 
of action. It seems to be taken for granted by 
those who have escaped the Bolshevist infection, 
that Siberia will declare its independence. But as 
there is but one line of railway communication 
across this vast expanse, and since it is temporarily 
peopled by large numbers of disorganized troops 
and German prisoners of war, the task of maintain- 
ing law and order there is an undertaking of very 
considerable magnitude and complexity. The ideal 
solution would be for the Buriat-Mongol Cossacks 
and their chief Esayul Simionov, who have been 
protecting the Trans-Siberian from the station at 
Manchuli up to Chita, to call to their support all 
the Cossacks living in Transbaikalia and in the 
Ussuri and sweep the Bolsheviki out of Siberia. 
As a matter of fact Simionov has issued a call urg- 
ing all able bodied men between 18 and 45 to rally 
to his standard and has posted it in Chita and other 
towns, villages and hamlets in or near the region 
which he occupies. But there is imminent danger 
of minimizing the proportions of the military task 
which must be undertaken to keep Eastern Siberia 
from falling into German hands. Such a mistake 
does not seem likely to be made by those on the 
spot, and judging from the present attitude toward 
the subject of Russians in the United States, there 
is a fairly just perception here of the importance 
of enlisting the military forces of Japan and China 
in what is manifestly a colossal enterprise. 

By the time this reaches the eye of the reader, 
the Government at Washington will undoubtedly 
have defined its attitude toward this question. The 
conflicting rumors that newspaper correspondents 
have sent out in regard to the policy of the United 
States in face of the necessity of Allied interven- 
tion in Eastern Siberia have tended to obscure a 
perfectly simple matter. China has found no diffi- 
culty in deciding upon her line of duty, and it is 
not at all clear why we should have any hesitation 
about following ours. It is certain that whether 
the problem be to save Vladivostok from German 
control, to keep the Chinese Eastern Railway from 
falling into Bolshevik hands, or to stem the tide of 
Teutonic conquest creeping eastward in Asia, the 
interests of the United States are as directly and 
clearly involved as those of Great Britain, China, 
or Japan. 

/ s 


By Charles H. Boynton 

THE Americcin policy toward.s Russia must 
be based on a realization that the duration 
of the war will be largely determined by the 
outcome in Russia, that the hopes and aspirations 
of the Russian people express anew the basic ideas 
of a governmental and economical structure which 
the American people are also seeking to achieve, 
and that there is a steadily growing feeling among 
the democratic forces in Russia that the aims of 
the United States toward the Russian people are 
unselfish and genuinely sincere. 

The supreme question of military intervention 
in Russia for the purpose of securing reunification 
of antagonism against German influence must be 
decided solely from the viewpoint of the effect of 
such intervention on the Russian people and the re- 
sults of their attitude to the cause of the Allies. 
Because of this reason, caution in regard to any 
separate action on the part of the Japanese is wise. 
Only those who are continually attempting by in- 
timations of ulterior motives to alienate the Jap- 
anese and American peoples will ever raise the 
question of the good faith or the sincerity of 
Japan's desire to aid her Allies; but, in order to 
protect the mutual interests of the United States, 
Japan and China, and in order to insure the estab- 
lishment of a liberal, stable democracy in Russia, 
every move on the part of the Entente in Russia 
must be judged with regard to its grave potentiali- 
ties in the whole question of international affairs. 
Germany by her present action towards Russia 
is destroying the results of the Russian Revolution. 
By so doing she is slowly but surely fusing together 
a unified opposition from the Russian people who all 
desire real freedom. It would be a serious tactical 
error on the part of the Allies to do anything that 
would tend to inaugurate a movement which could 
so easily be used by pro-German propagandists as 
a medium for attacking the motives of the Allies 
and which might be mistaken for aggression against 
Russia's national rights. 

The interests of all the Allies and particularly of 
Japan, China and America, are best safeguarded 
and insured by the establishment of a stable, order- 
ly and democratic government in Russia. Under 
these circumstances, what practical results could be 
obtained by military intervention in Siberia on the 
part of the Japanese alone? Such a step might re- 
sult in an antagonism against the Allies ; and any 
Japanese action, because of geographical condi- 
tions, would be necessarily confined to a zone of 
operations which lies nearly five thousand miles 
away from the present centers of German activity. 

The military supplies at Vladivostok have apparent- 
ly remained secure and the Chinese Government 
has already taken over control of the railroad junc- 
tion point at Harbin, which in turn gives complete 
control of that portion of the Trans-Siberian Rail- 
road running to Vladivostok. If, as might easily 
result, Japanese action should arouse the active 
antagonism of the Russian people, it would require 
months before Japan could get in touch with Ger- 
man operations in Russia. Russia must not be 
alienated from the Allies to be saved by Germany. 
The restoration of the morale of the Russian 
people and the creation of a unified antagonism 
among them against German influence is primarily 
a problem that must be solved through the develop- 
ment of a genuine and sympathetic co-operation 
between the Russian people and her Allies. Russia, 
today, needs economic supplies, and the Russian 
people are in dire need of the ordinary necessities of 
every-day life. They need shoes to work in, clothes 
to wear, tools to work with, and in order to gather 
this year's harvest, machinery equipment of every 
kind. If the Allied powers under the leadership of 
the United States will immediately take steps to 
provide the Russian people with these needed sup- 
plies, and if, at the same time, it be advisable to 
arrange for a joint movement of military forces on 
the part of all the Allies into Russia over the Trans- 
Siberian Railroad, such a movement should take 
place only after thorough explanation to the Rus- 
sian people of the peaceful and friendly intentions 
of these forces. They must be convinced that such 
liberating armies are entering Russia solely for 
the purpose of aiding the Russian people. 

Such a plan, if carefully worked out and put into 
operation, would be of the greatest assistance to 
Russia and to the cause of the Allies. In any such 
plan it should be remembered that China is one of 
our Allies in this war against German autocracy. 
The Chinese interests extend all along the Man- 
churian and Mongolian frontiers, bordering on 
Siberia, and the future of China is intimately con- 
nected with the creation of a free and liberal democ- 
racy in Russia. In view of these facts, China, which 
has done much already for the Allies, should be con- 
sulted and should have an important part in the 
development of such a program. 

We must thoroughly understand that the basic 
issue of this war is the test between democracy and 
despotism! We must realize that Russia will be 
saved by her owti people, provided they have the 
sympathetic support of their Allies. Russia is 
rnost dangerous when apparently crushed to earth. 

Original Lithographs by Brunhilde Chesney 

The himl life nf haslimii van he olit^crml (ini/irlHic mi the .Ihrliim 
River or Die hikes iij the rallcii. Tlic huatincn arc edited "iiianji." 
and they are born and live all their lives on their small boats, 
which are known as "doonga." Thouyh there are endless miles of 
low river banh-s. life in this valley of North India is not monotonous. 
In the distance shimmer the majestic snow-clad mountains of the 
Fir Panjal, crafts strange and friendly come and go. seasons wa.c 
and wane. The "manji" drink their tea out of pale grey-green 
china cups. During tea-time they hoist their great fishing-nets out 
of the water, glistening like the wing of some beautiful insect. They 
take long rests, drinking one tup of tea after another as the mother 
ladles it out of the large black cauldron in one crarf of the boat. 

The fruit vendor, or "Chernj-Wulhih" tis he ix culled, (joes the 
rounds daili/, visit hir/ all the hou-se-bonts and offeriiuj liis fruit mid 
ftoirers for sale. The heart-shaped paddle of his bootuiau is verii 
useful, espeeiallii in shalloie water. In the irinter months the Jheliim 
falls to a depth, in tiuiini iihues. iif onlii I u'o feet, and it is at this 
time that the heart-shnjinl iKuldlr is inniluable. When the boat is 
moored, the boatmru Irec/iicnihi sliik llirir paddles into the roof 
until they are wanted again. Food, after all, is an essential part 
of everyone's life, and the "Cherry-Wallah" conducts a busy and 
prosperous trade, as he continually plies up and down the river. 

All the memhers of tlic family congrrgntr in the interior of the 
"doonga" for tea. an indisi)ensabli' part of each dap's progravi. 
The boatmen are fond of brick-tea. uhich they boil and flavor with 
salt. The tea is brewed in a large eopper i-cssel. 7nade to fit on a 
stove modeled in clay by the mother of the family. This modeling 
of the cooking-stove is an art practised by women only, and the 
reputation of a clever modeler ivill spread far and wide so that 
many other icomen will come to learn the art from her. A "manji" 
woman's life is not idle, but her duties are simple — to cook, to 
tow the hiKil irhcn ncifssary. to punt, lunl to nursi- her h<ibies. 

The Mohammedan mrrcliiints in Kn.ilimir frrqiii'nth/ use a ••iloiiiipii" 
to f/o up and down the river on buniness. and very often tlnii lake 
their families unth them. Their reives are renuirkalilii Jan. mriini 
to the secluded life in the city where, accoriHiiu to MulKtmniciInn 
custom, they are confined to their houses. When they yo out in <i 
"doonya" they peep forth from 'between the folds of their veils or 
from behind the curtain of the boat, to assure themselves that no 
slranye mini in near. Then they will look around like rhildren 
ivith large wondering eyes at the many curious things ahonl Diem. 
smiling shyly at any lady whom they may chance Ui nicrl. 

Kashmir InrJirs have miirh time for They rati nftrn he seen 
resting in their boats on the river, or in some gentle Ixickwater 
or inlet starred with beautiful pale water-lilies. Young Kashtnir 
girls wear little red caps, and their hair is braided into many plaits 
which are lengthened with skeins of black cotton cleverly fastened 
together at the ends. This hair-dress, however, is always covered 
with a loose shawl after a little girl becomes eight years old. Only 
when a maiden is quite sure thai no strange man can see her, will 
she nnrovcr her head. But girls are very fond of shoieing their 
jewclrii mill liuir oniiimciits to one another, or to any lady visitor. 

On calm summer evenings boats come drifting down the river with 
the front and hack part of the roof propped up by short sticks. The 
"dooiiga" are made of deodar wood and matting. The matting is 
fastened to poles by means of ticine, and since no nails are em- 
phii/cd in the construction, the roof becomes wonderfully elastic, 
and can be placed at different angles according to the requirements 
of the loeather, tt is in the evening when the boat lights begin to 
gleam out here and there that the little vessels appear most fascinat- 
ing, ^mall tin lamps fastened to the top of a carved candlestick, 
or suspended from tin- roof by a irire, filled ivith mustard oil, cast 
a soft illtimiiiiitiiDi oirr tlie domestic scene in each tiny interior. 

Night falls ubout an hour after the sun has set. 1 he ducks and 
fowl are called in. and after inrkimj up any yc'/'s of nre that 
may be lying about, go to roost under the stci, which leads to the 
interior of the boat. This is the time when the -manji tah( 
their evening meal of boiled rive and a kind of sinnach. or some 
other vegetable. The father and adult wale members of the family 
are served first, according to Mohammedan custom ,n Kashmir. 
Later the loife and ehildren receive their share, then they all he 
down to sleep on the hoarded floor of the "doonga. moored .■<afcly 
close to shore, with a blanket to keep them warm if the inghl is cold. 

There arc miiii.y industries which depend on- the hoiitvien of the 
Kashmir Valley. From Srhiagar, barges travel up to Islamabad, a 
four or five days' journey, returning with cargoes of rice. Grass 
for polo ponies must also be ferried across the river to Sonwarbagh 
— Garden of Sonivar — for polo is a popular sport with the heir ap- 
parent of Kashmir, and his Rajput and British friends. The grass 
is carried in large bundles on the /ikji/.s of the grass-cutters, who 
bring it from villages to the hargniirn uniting at the river bank. 
Honwarbagh was cst<ihli.?hcd by ihr ctihiihtrued ruler of Kashmir 
as a free ciiiniiiiig (inuitid. A ii ii risitor may set up his tents in these 
beautiful imliinil (iitnlciis. iiiiidiiiui a house-boat at some point along 
the bank, and llcing either on land or on water as he may choose. 


By Hester Donaldson Jenkins 

THE GREAT ASSASSIN," as a French author 
called Abdul Hamid, is dead. Press des- 
patches from Constantinople, dated February 
eleventh, announce the death from inflammation of 
the lungs of Abdul Hamid H, Sultan of Turkey 
from 1876 to 1908, and since that time political 
prisoner of the Young Turk Party. The thirty 
years of his reign were terrible for Turkey, terrible 
for himself, and much more terrible for his trem- 
bling subjects, both those of his own faith and the 
despised Christian peoples whom the Allied Powers 
now declare their purpose of liberating. His was 
a dramatic, tragic life, for in spite of streaks of 
brilliant ability, he was the possessor of a petty 
and miserable personality. 

It was on August 31, 1876, in the sacred Mosque 
of Eyoub on the Golden Horn, that the sword of 
empire was girded on Abdul Hamid II, thirty- 
fourth in lineal descent from Othman, the founder 
of the Ottoman Empire. He became by this cere- 
nionial act Sultan of the vast Turkish Empire in 
Europe, Asia and Africa, Caliph of the Faithful, 
and Shadow of God upon Earth. He on whom these 
overwhelming honors fell looked as though he were 
a victim rather than a conqueror. Pale and frail 
in appearance, his black eyes generally cast down 
or glancing slyly over his hooked nose, uttering 
his part in the ceremony in a timid and slow voice. 
his manner humble and submissive in spite of his 
thirty-four years, — he suggested a gentle youth 
who would make an excellent tool for the reform 
party, rather than an autocratic ruler. 

What had been the preparation of this small- 
statured man for a position of immense power over 
an Empire of over a million square miles and a 
population of some fifty millions, representing 
Tartar, Semitic and Aryan races, a score of na- 
tionalities and three great religions with their 
numerous subdivisions? He had spent nearly all 
his youth in the seraglia among the large harems 
of his father and his uncle. His Armenian mother, 
a simple house maid, had died when he was seven 
years old. Motherless and unloved in the great 
harem, he grew close and suspicious, distru.sting 
everyone around him, always afraid of enemies. 
The Valideh Sultana, wife to Abdul Aziz, is said to 
have taken charge of him in his forlorn childhood, 
and among other things to have taught him a love 
for magic, encouraging him in superstition and 
fanaticism. His clever mind saw that the way to 
make himself welcome in the semglio, the palace 
where the women of the Sultan's household lived. 

was to sneak in to the vulgar women with stories 
that fed jealousy and feuds. He quickly developed 
into a scandal-monger, and a depository of court 
secrets. To the disgust of his father, Abdul Med- 
jid, he hated study, never learning to write or spell 
correctly, or even to speak refined Turkish. Liking 
arithmetic, however, he would help the sarailee 
(or palace ladies) with their accounts. He divided 
his time between riding, hunting, gardening and 
relating gossip. He knew almost no history, geog- 
I'aphy or economics. 

Such was the man who came to the Turkish 
throne in 1876, a year of external wars and in- 
ternal revolts — a man who, to meet the great crisis 
in his country, could bring from his past only 
ignorance, superstition, suspicion, dissimulation. 

The shocking "suicide" of his uncle. Sultan Ab- 
dul Aziz, the attack on the ministry by a crazed 
Circassian resulting in three deaths and many 
wounded, the spells of insanity that seized his 
brother. Sultan Mourad, brought Abdul Hamid to 
the throne in a state of nervous terror. Afraid of 
the reform party headed by Midhat Pasha, pro- 
foundly averse to the constitution that he had 
vowed to accept, he dissimulated until he was able 
to banish all the reform ministers and seize the 
reins of government in his own slender hands. At 
the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Turkey lost the 
provinces of Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia- Herzegovina, 
Roumania and Cyprus, and a sti'ong hand was 
necessary to consolidate the power of the rest of 
the Empire. Abdul Hamid threw aside all pre- 
tense of a constitution, organized a new govern- 
ment and made himself its autocrat. It was then 
that the pious, modest youth suddenly revealed him- 
self as an iron autocrat and crafty reactionary. 

But his manner changed only slowly. Very mod- 
est when he first came into power, he would bow 
his head on his breast and murmur, "When I, un- 
worthy, came to the throne," following this by 
profuse compliments to his guest. Few westerners, 
however armed with prejudice, who have once dined 
at the Sultan's table have been able to resist his 
magnetism. When talking with Europeans, either 
men or women, he exerted a charm which possessed 
powers of fascination. Later the modesty changed 
to haughtiness, but the charm and gentleness re- 
mained. If any man could say "L'Hat c'cut moi," it 
was Abdul Hamid. Growing ever more distrust- 
ful, he feared for himself the fate of his uncle and 
brother and set him.self the one aim of keeping 
on the throne at any price. Dread of deposition 



Abdul Hamid leaving the gates of his palace, Yildiz Kioske, in his carriage, surrounded by "Young Turk" 

officers on foot. The photograph was taken after the reforming party had compelled the Sultan to proclaim a 

constitution, but before it had dethroned him 

and assassination became his obsession ; and from 
his youthful experience in the seraglio grew his 
vast system of espionage. To protect his person 
he moved his quarters and planned a new mode of 
living. Yildiz, Palace of the Star, in baleful and 
sinister dominance over the city of Constantinople, 
came into existence. 

The palace was a vast low building set in the 
midst of extensive gardens. Containing imperial 
quarters, seraglio, servants' quarters, barracks, 
theatre, small zoological gardens, and many indus- 
tries, it was a village in itself of several thousand 
inhabitants. High yellow walls surrounded the 
enclosure, so that only a suggestion of the buildings 
could be seen from outside, even from the Bos- 
phorus. Yet it hung over the city like a baleful 
cloud, ready to emit lightning at any moment. 
From the eminence of its walls a terrifying search- 
light pointed its ghostly finger up and down the 
Bosphorus, illuminating fearful and shrinking men. 
Sometimes cries of terror pierced the neighboring 
streets and sent the inhabitants pale and shudder- 
ing to their inner rooms, where they kept in hiding. 

The palace was guarded at all points by Arab 
and Albanian troops ready to shoot anyone who 
approached without a password on his lips. In- 
side the park a horrible stillness prevailed, broken 
only by the feet of the military watch. At night 
all precautions were trebled and the atmosphere 
became even heavier with suspicion. A guest with- 
in the palace reports that sleep fled his eyes while 
he counted the slow stepping guards who passed 
and repassed beneath his window, over a score of 
them. As an additional means of protection the 
superstitious monarch commanded a group of 
imams, priests, to chant in the gateway a lugubrious 
recitation from the Koran, which he considered 
a specific against Shaitati, a Turkish name for the 
Devil. Although the holy text may have given him 
comfort, others who have heard its dolorous strains 
echoing even to the ends of the palace have found 
that its surging wail merely added to their malaise. 

Within the guarded palace he buried himself, 
leaxing it only three times a year; once to adore 
the mantle of the Prophet in Stamboul, and twice 
to go to the Palace of Dolma Bagtche for the hand- 


Both in times of autocratic control and when Abdul Hamid served as Constitutional Monarch, crowds of faith- 
=ss the ceremony of the weekly public visit of their Monarch to the Mosque 

ful Mosler 

gathered to 

kissing ceremony. Extraordinary precautions were 
taken at these times. No one knew wiiether he 
would go by land or by water. Both yachts and 
carriages went forth from Yildiz, but which one he 
was in no one could tell. Guards and spies were 
everywhere, and in the streets one might not raise 
even a lorgnette to gaze after his carriage. 

The courtiers, to win imperial favor, exploited 
the fears of the miserable Sultan. They continually 
invented and reported plots to win thanks and 
bakHheef^h when the imaginary plot w^as frustrated. 
And so his terror increased. Afraid even to walk 
in the garden, he started with fright at a strange 
sound and met with fear every unexpected turn in 
the path. Any foreign workman in the grounds 
was sharply watched and woe unto the luckless 
wight who carelessly glanced at his Majesty when 
he passed. Abdul Hamid was a good shot, and 
with a little revolver in his pocket and one on the 
table of every room in his palace he was ready for 
in.stant action should fright .seize him. Many were 
the victims of his sudden suspicions. In cer- 
tain ways he was a spiritual brother to Philip of 

Spain, and might be called the "Spider of Yildiz." 
From his palace on the hillside he directed as 
many details of the government and the life of 
Constantinople and of the whole empire as lay 
within the power of one man. Amidst important 
occupations, he spent many an hour with his stew- 
ard examining personal accounts. His seci'etaries 
say that he rose at five o'clock, ate an abstemious 
breakfast, then called for his assistants and worked 
until sunset on accounts, details of government, 
and the reports from the 40,000 spies that infested 
his realm. Sometimes with only an hour at noon 
and at sunset for a simple meal of eggs and cutlets 
followed by coffee and cigarettes, and for a few 
moments of prayer, he would work until midnight 
or even until two o'clock, with incredible indUvStry. 
He needed only five or six hours of sleep every 
night. He himself signed every iradeh, or edict, 
for the kingdom, even, at times, when they referred 
to such small affairs as opening a coffee-house or 
appointing an official clerk. Without his sanction 
nothing could proceed. 

Harder and harder he worked, l)iMi(ling his bowed 

A I' l; I L. 1 9 1 s 

back over his papers, tiring his keen eyes and his 
sensitive ears with millions of reports, busying his 
astute mind with endless details, all in profound 
silence. And from him ran the steel-like webs of 
government espionage and graft, in which his hap- 
less subjects were enmeshed like fated flies. A 
word on the streets of Stamboul was heard at the 
palace, a whisper in a private house echoed at Yil- 
diz, a removal or a secret attempt to leave the city 
was known and probably stopped ; all words, al- 
most all thoughts, passed up the threads of the web 
to Yildiz. 

This mode of government meant that the capital 
was greatly over-governed, and that of necessity 
the government decreased in strength as it receded 
from the city, until there was little rule on the 
edges of the Empire. So every vilayet had its 
pasha who became in his turn a local despot. If 
he were conscientious and humane, as was occa- 
sionally the case, his vilayet was well ruled ; if, 
however, as was generally the case, he were a grafter 
who was in power for what he could get out of 
it, his absolute, though often very temporary rule, 
made him a terror to his people. 

When the first ambassadors from Europe went 
to Turkey from the West, they were received as 
though they were so many servants, were expected 
to kiss the hem of the Sultan's garments, to remain 
standing in his presence, and held as prisoners in 
the ambassadors' khan, or inn, when out of his 
sight, suffering many indignities. Within the life- 
time of men now living an ambassador at the Sub- 
lime Porte was treated with contempt ; but all this 
was changed by Abdul Hamid. Western ambassa- 
dors were the only visitors who could break through 
the cordon of secretaries that environed majesty, 
and often they were invited to the palace. Yildiz 
became famous for its dinners. At these the Sultan 
w-as a most gracious host. His mobile lips smiled, 
his semi-plaintive voice was friendly, his manner 
was full of charm, and his conversation interesting. 
He was adept at making the diplomat feel that he 
was conceding everything when in fact he had con- 
ceded nothing. Again and again an ambassador 
would retire from the imperial presence full of 
satisfaction, discovering later that he had been 
tossed like a child's ball between the skilful hands 
of the Sultan. Appearing to give satisfaction with- 
out doing so, deferring all unpleasant action in- 
definitely, gracious while refusing, deceiving with 
skill and grace — these were his diplomatic accom- 
plishments. Bismarck called him "the most astute 
diplomat in Europe." 

His method was simply diride et impera, which 
in his hands became a high art. In diplomacy it 
consisted of playing the Powers one against the 
other, balancing German against British, and 
French against Russian ; in the Balkans, Bulgarian 

was kept at enmity with Serbian, and Albanian 
with Greek ; within his own borders Catholics were 
estranged from Orthodox Christians and Jews 
from Moslems. 

His manipulation of the Pan Islam idea was a 
characteristic piece of Hamidian diplomacy. Al- 
though for four centuries the Sultan of Turkey 
had been nominally Caliph of the Mohammedan 
world, since Sultan Selim-the-Grim had taken over 
the empty title with the possession of Egypt and 
the Holy Cities, Mecca and Medina, no Ottoman 
ruler had ever made any practical use of the honor. 
The Caliphate of the Sultan is doubtfully legal, be- 
cause, according to Moslem law, the Caliph is not 
such by inheritance but is selected by the great body 
of believers and must possess three requirements : 
he must be a descendant of the daughter of Mo- 
hammed, possessing the relics of the Prophet (now 
in Constantinople), must rule in the Holy City and 
be recognized by the great Schools of Law. These 
requirements are not all of them possessed by the 
Sultan of Turkey. Nobody knew better than Abdul 
Hamid just how little claim he had to the allegiance 
of the Moslem world. But he revived the idea of 
Mohammedan world dominance, zealously dissemi- 
nated pretenses about the Caliphate, and indulged 
in Pan Islamic intrigues. His chance of success 
lay in the fact that the 230,000,000 Moslems of the 
world feel that the times are more or less out of 
joint and that a restored Caliphate might help 

But even the wily Hamid could not form any 
real Pan Islamic organization. The Moslems of 
Persia denied his claim, those of Arabia resented 
it, and those of Morocco claimed the Caliphate for 
their own Sultan. And even over the millions who 
do acknowledge his spiritual sovereignty, he had 
no tangible power except in Turkey. Pan Islam 
could not offer any program except the worn- 
out, absurdly impractical program of world con- 
quest — all non-Moslems subject to Islam — and poor 
Abdul Hamid, who was losing province after prov- 
ince to the ghiaour, could hardly talk about con- 
quest. At most his propaganda could cause local 
disturbance, but could never maintain constructive 
influence. The way in which he made the idea 
count was in dealing with the British, who had 
long felt hanging over their heads the fear of an 
uprising from the Indian Moslems if they did not 
support Turkey. Abdul Hamid thus bound them 
to a pro-Turkish policy. 

The Pan Islamic diplomacy was typical of Abdul 
Hamid's schemes. It was clever; it was based on 
the weakness and fear of other nations; it was 
marvelously intricate, yet it was never large nor 
truly able, nor in the end successful. At present, 
it is a tool in the hands of the Germans, but is 
again more diabolic than effectual. If Bismarck 

APRIL, 191S 

had lived to see the end of Abdul Hamid's career, 
he would doubtless have seen that as a diplomat 
he was extremely clever in small but not in large 
affairs ; acute but never great ; one who deferred 
the fatal da.v, but in the end had to meet it. 

In the matter of diplomacy Kaiser Wilhelm out- 
Heroded Herod. By his two visits to the Sultan 
and his "political pilgrimage to the Holy Land." 
as well as by other assiduous attentions, he obtained 
a strong influence over the Sultan. Whether he 
could ever have involved 
Turkey in its present unhap- 
py alliance had Abdul Hamid 
remained enthroned, it 
would be hard to say. But 
through personal efforts and 
the labors of the great diplo- 
mat, Baron Marshal Von 
Bieberstein, Germany ob- 
tained a considerable mili- 
tary control over Turkey, 
training her soldiers in the 
German methods. In addi- 
tion she obtained for herself 
two valuable concessions — 
the Anatolian Railway and 
the Bagdad Railway. The 
Sultan was less friendly to 
Great Britain than his 
predecessors had been, and 
more friendly to Russia. For 
this reason the great diplo- 
matic development in the 
Near East in the last genera- 
tion has been the gradual 
assumption of control by 

Although Abdul Hamid 
professed to be a devoted 

Moslem and used his position as Caliph as a politi- 
cal instrument, he was nevertheless neither en- 
lightened in religious matters, nor a devout be- 
liever. In discussions with Europeans he showed 
a good deal of skepticism, quite different from his 
fervor when in the presence of nidUalis. As to his 
practice in private, he neglected the prayers and 
fasting through the month of Ramazan, although 
in public he played his role as head of Islam and 
successor to the Prophet. However careless he 
might be of his own religious exercises, he was 
very strict with the people, insisting upon their 
observing the fasts and other ceremonials, and 
maintaining the most rigid ideas concerning the 
seclusion of women, adding to the thickness of their 
veils and shutting them even further from the 
world than they had been. This was a part of his 
general policy of keeping the Turks out of contact 
with Europeans, from whom, he greatly feai-ed, 

they would learn ideas of freedom and progress. 
Recognizing the importance of the faith to his gov- 
ernment, he once stated : "Without Islam my Em- 
pire and our independence must cease to exist." 

In the spring of 1902, at what was supposed to 
be sunrise but was actually nine o'clock in the 
morning (an imperial deception), I entered the 
diplomats' gallery of Dolma Bagtche Palace to look 
down upon the semi-annual ceremony known as 
the Bai"am Selamlik. This was the occasion on 

In the early days 

of : 


ign Abdul Ha 
pray at this r 

sque on the Bosphorus 

which the Sultan received homage from the officials 
of the Empire. The great throne room of the pal- 
ace contained only one piece of furniture, a simple 
gilded throne at one end of the room. Behind the 
throne stood a row of relatives of the Sultan and 
distinguished statesmen. A long line of officials 
walked around the room saluting his majesty with 
the Turkish tenioiah, bending lower and lower un- 
til they reached his throne, when they stopped and 
kissed the gold tassel held out to them by Fuad 
Pasha, the old hero of Plevna. Fir.'^t came the mili- 
tary officials, then the naval, in brilliant uniforms. 
Civil officials followed, with glittering orders across 
their breasts. As one line moved towards the Sul- 
tan, another line parallel with it backed away from 
him. Suddenly the band in the gallery, which 
had been playing Sousa marches, ceased, and the 
highest religious functionary of the Empire, the 
Sheikh-ul-Islam, stepped forward into the middle 


Repeatedly Grand Vizir 

man whose political pol 

ests and influe 

under Abdul Hamid, a states- 
icies always favored the inter- 
nee of Great Britain 

of the room with upraised hands. His Majesty, 
who had hitherto been seated, rose to greet him, 
and amid the silence of the hall the Sheikh uttered 
a brief prayer. Then, advancing in his flowing 
white robes he kissed, not the tassel of the throne, 
but the hem of the Sultan's overcoat. Following 
him advanced a long line of turbaned priests and 
molkih.'^ in green, mauve and tan colored flowing 
robes, who saluted their royal master. 

It was a brilliant ceremony, but the whole in- 
terest was centered in the silent, dignified figure 
of Abdul Hamid, the only person in the room who 
wore neither uniform nor medals. He was dressed 
in gray trousers, a frock coat, and a loose black 
overcoat with the usual red fez and conspicuous 
white gloves. But most significant, he leaned upon 
a shining curved scimetar. As he stood there, in- 
finitely alone, despite the crowds that saluted him, 
an object of fear and in many cases hatred to his 
subjects, his back a little bowed under the weight 
of his cares and anxieties, his small piercing eye 
watching for the assassin's knife, his dyed black 
beard dropping over his chest, his face painted in 
the attempt to appear young, he seemed an inex- 
pressibly pathetic figure. There was a sense of op- 
pression, almost of terror in the atmosphere. Sud- 
denly a very slight earthquake shock jari-ed the 
palace, immediately suggesting to everyone's mind 

that a bomb had been thrown. Scores of oflScials 
broke the windows, to make possible their escape. 
The Sultan rose. There was a perceptible pause 
when everyone held his breath. Then, as he real- 
ized that there was no explosion and that his life 
was safe for this time, he bowed his head and 
thanked Allah who had preserved them all. 

In so autocratic a state as Turkey the line be- 
tween the public treasury and the treasury of the 
ruler is a narrow one and Abdul Hamid saw to it 
that while his country starved, he himself was enor- 
mously rich. In order to content the holders of 
Turkish securities in Europe, he organized the Pub- 
lic Debt, which, under his hands, became an ad- 
mirable instrument for coining money, and a place 
from which he could borrow enormous sums. He 
developed the revenues of the crown in quite a 
new fashion, incorporating all the lands of the state 
in his own domain until he received from 3 to 30 
million pounds a year income from them, 20 mil- 
lions more for taxation, 10 million from Cadastre, 
and 10 or 12 million as revenue from provinces, 
the whole making a fantastic total. Naturally his 
palace officials developed a high system of graft 
;mu1 this same corruption extended to the lowest 
official in the Empire. 

As Abdul Hamid was unloved and unloving 
through his youth, so never in his life was he led 
by aff'ection. No palace favorite ever controlled 
him as some of his great predecessors had been con- 
trolled. He had a large harem, of course, but was 
not at all indiscriminate in his choice of favorites. 
He is said on good authority to have made a point of 
knowing the names, ages and native countries of all 
the women whom he honored with his favor, and 
he limited them to girls of remarkable beauty and 
distinction. To a few of these women he was a 
tender husband ; he was fond of one or two of his 
daughters, and certainly of his favorite son, Bur- 
han ed-Dhin. But he was known to dislike his 
own brothers and his uncle Abdul Aziz, and to have 
been quite indifferent to his father : and if ever it 
was a question between his own safety, as he 
imagined it, or the life of some member of his 
family, his revolver was quickly drawn. 

Under such a ruler with such a sy.stem of gov- 
ernment, what was the condition of the Empire? 

Territorially it shrank, for beside the great losses 
of 1878, Eastern Roumelia had been turned over 
to Bulgaria in 1885, Egypt was taken under British 
administration in 1881, and Crete was put into 
the hands of the Powers in 1897. Although several 
of the colonies nominally still belonged to the Otto- 
man Empire and were supposed to pay tribute to 
the Sultan, actually they were lost to Turkey and 
only awaited a favorable opportunity to slip the 
financial noose. Although Turkey had no census 
fvom which to make up vital statistics, the popula- 

tion was unquestionably decreasing, for besides a 
considerable emigration and no immigration, there 
were heavy losses caused by the Greek war of 1897, 
the continuous revolts in Arabia and the Armenian 
massacres. The wholesale slaying of Armenians 
then, as later, was short-sighted as well as wicked, 
for Turkey is undermanned, and the Armenians 
are an industrious and clever people, who are 
needed for both agriculture and trade. This fact 
may have been responsible for the remorse over 
the massacres that Abdul Hamid expressed to a 
European guest. 

Proud as the Sultan was, he must have felt bit- 
terly these losses, yet he once said with a still smile 
on his dark face, when his Empire was suffering 
the thi'oes of bankruptcy and dissolution, — "I am 
fully satisfied with the march of events. The in- 
creasing economic and political rivalry in Europe 
makes me safe against a sudden attack, and my 
utmost desire — to get rid of the capitulations — 
will also be realized." 

Steadily throughout his reign trade decreased 
and taxes increased. All initiative was crushed. 
To discover a mine meant to lay oneself open to 
having one's land seized ; to grow fine crops meant 
an increase in taxes ; to prosper meant to become 
an object of suspicion. Not only was taxation 
heavy ; the iniquitous system of tax farming was 
destructive. The aim of an official sent to a dis- 
trict, knowing that he would probably hold office 
but a few years, was to secure a fortune in that 
time. The system permitted him to collect as much 
as he could, keeping what was left after he had 
handed to the man higher up a set sum. He did 
not care that he was exhausting the land, for the 
future did not concern him. Apres moi le deluge 
was the practical motto of every local governor. 
One typical story is told of a pasha who owed his 
butcher a huge bill. When the butcher in despair 
urged the payment insistently, the pasha was final- 
ly moved to make him a judge and let him pay 
himself. "But I do not know how to judge," cried 
the butcher. "It is easy enough," replied the pasha, 
"You simply say either, 'I acquit you' or 'I convict 
you.'" The judge started on his career. Quite un- 
able to decide between his clients he mechanically 
acquitted the man who paid the largest bribe. This 
went on until he had more than repaid himself the 
amount of the pasha's debt, and until the people 
became desperate. A committee waited on him say- 
ing, "We quite understand your position, but we 
can't endure it any longer. What will you take to 
leave us?" The butcher, who meant well enough, 
named a good round sum, and left the bench. 

There were many serious restrictions on trade. 
No one was allowed to travel even a few miles by 
train or boat without a special passport, which 
might be refused and was generally delayed. There 


Several times Grand Vizir under Abdul Hamid. An 

able administrator according to the methods of the 

Old Turks 

was scarcely a decent road in the country, and 
transportation by rail or boat was entirely inade- 
quate. Roads were never repaired unless a sultan 
or royal guest were in need of travelling over them. 
Modern machinery and even the use of electricity 
was regarded as dangerous by the Sultan. No 
western methods were encouraged because of the 
general policy of obscurantism. Abdul Hamid 
wished to keep his people mediaeval so that he 
might remain on the throne in absolutism. Educa- 
tion was at a very low ebb. Schools were few and 
inadequate, and students were seldom allowed to 
study in foreign institutions. No books that men- 
tioned Turkey or Mohammedanism were allowed to 
enter the country ; no physical apparatus was ad- 
mitted to the schools. No Turkish subjects might 
leave the country to study or travel. Everything 
was censored. The press was muzzled and emascu- 
lated ; few original books were allowed to be pub- 
lished, and towards the end of Abdul Hamid's reign 
intercourse with Europeans was severely restricted. 
Once at his suggestion a European scholar planned 
a university for Constantinople and outlined a 
course including hi.story, philosophy and economics. 
Abdul Hamid exclaimed, "No, sir; such knowledge 
will be dangerous to my people; these subjects can- 
not be included in the program." 

It was not only the i-(iiia]ii< (cattle — a term aj)- 

plied to the non-Moslem population), who were thus 
oppressed ; the Turks also could not move without 
surveillance, were unable to entertain without giv- 
ing a list of guests to the government, might not 
study or travel, write or even speak plainly. The 
danger of exile hung over every man's head, for he 
who disregarded these restrictions was banished, 
or possibly sent down the Bosphorus in a sack. 
When a man once fell under suspicion, he might 
as well hang himself, for he was shunned by all his 
neighbors. No one dared to associate with him 
for fear of sharing his fate. Nor were the lives 
of men nor the honor of women safe from spies, 
brigands or rapacious pashas. 

While the palace camarilla and a few pashas 
were fattening, the masses were slowly starving. 
Even the army went in rags and hunger, only the 
Sultan's body guard of splendid Albanians being 
well paid. One of the curious accounts occasionally 
to be read in the few newspapers of the country 
was of some brave deed which was rewarded by the 
hero's receiving three months' back pay. As one 
pious and starving soldier expressed it, there was 
nothing to do but trust Allah and steal. And all 
this while the Sultan was giving priceless presents 
to his friend William of Germany, or bestowing 
properties, houses, jewels or thousands of pounds, 
upon his palace clique. 

"It is the royal favor that produces the best har- 
vest in the field of sovereignty," he sapiently re- 
marked to the Hungarian Vaneberg. 

For graft he had a tolerant smile or an epigram. 
Once when he heard of a conjurer swallowing 
knives, he said — "I find nothing miraculous in that; 
my minister of naval aflfairs swallows big ironclad 
frigates without doing the least harm to himself." 
He was, however, very sensitive to comments of the 
European press, and one of his great expenses was 
in paying out some millions a year to keep it favor- 
able to him. Another vast outlay was his army of 
40,000 spies. 

The idea of spies in a foreign and possibly hostile 
country has become familiar to us in this war, but 
that a ruler should comb his own Empire with 
spies, is a strange idea. This body of spies con- 
tained Moslems to spy on Moslems, Jews to report 
on the Jewish population, many a Christian willing 
to live at the peril of his co-religionists — men, wom- 
en and almost children, even an occasional English- 
man or German, set to spy on the foreign colonies. 
When Abdul Hamid's list of spies became public 
property, it was found that in every embassy and 
consulate there was at least one. often the "trusty" 
dragoman of the establishment. 

The people felt this burden of espionage fear- 
fully. Everyone was afraid to speak frankly even 
to his relatives. On the streets we foreigners were 
never careless enough to refer to Yildiz or Abdul 

llamid, and we even alluded to the Turks and Ar- 
menians as T's and A's. In every school there 
were a few students whose brothers or fathers or 
even mothers were spies. Every lecture or public 
entertainment was scrutinized by spies looking for 
a traitorous expression. A tourist not unseldom 
was followed wherever he went. When Fuad Pasha, 
the hero of Plevna and one of the most distin- 
guished men in the Empire, found himself dogged 
by spies he knew his hour had come. Meeting it 
like a man, he struck the spy, then reported him 
indignantly to His Majesty — but immediately after- 
wards he fied to a Russian steamship in the harbor. 
The long arm reached him, however, and sent him 
to exile in a little white house in Damascus. 

Abdul Hamid watched his own brothers with par- 
ticular care. Ex-Sultan Mourad spent a generation 
secluded within the Palace of Cheragan. Whether 
he ever recovered his sanity none knew, but he 
never went into the world again. The voyager 
down the Bosphorus when his boat was driven by 
the current too near the prison place, was warned 
away by armed sentries, who let no one approach. 
Reshid Effendi (now Sultan) was kept in a diflfer- 
ent sort of retirement, with plenty of wine and 
women, but was carefully shut off from any knowl- 
edge of affairs or history of the world in which he 

For thirty years Abdul Hamid dammed up the 
stream of progress in Turkey, but at last the wa- 
ters rose and swept him away. The story of the 
Revolution of 1908 has often been told. A suc- 
cession of brief scenes will present it in the aspects 
that touched Abdul Hamid. 

The first is laid in Yildiz, in the council chamber. 
The Imperial Council, known as the Divan, is as- 
sembled ; the bearded old councilors are desperate- 
ly troubled. Despatches from Saloniki reach them 
at fi-equent intervals. The revolutionists have taken 
that city and set up a provisional government ; the 
Second and Third Army Corps have gone over to 
them ; the old constitution is demanded at the point 
of the sword. Will the Sultan restore it and keep 
his throne? Let him answer at once. The pashas 
look at one another, and fear of the old lion in an 
adjoining room seizes them. Can they tell him the 
truth? Dare they speak this dangerous woixl "con- 
stitution?" Of course he knows — he hears from his 
chamber all that is said in the council room — but 
he does not speak. Silent and motionless, he sits 
aloof. The telegrams come faster; the men are 
trembling, yet still no one dares break the Sultan's 
silence. At last an idea comes to one of them. The 
venerable astrologer who has so much influence 
over the superstitious monarch. — he is a dying man 
who has nothing more to fear from life. Brought 
in on a litter he speaks the fatal words, "Let the 
constitution be accepted." The councilors hold 

Sultan of Turkey from 1876 
suicide of his uncle and the curie 
attack of insanity, until his overthrc 
From that time he was held prisom 
by his death ir 

their breath. No word from the next room. Silence 
gives consent. They send a despatch to Saloniki. 

Scene two is of a smiling and complacent mon- 
arch announcing to his beloved people how, for 
their good, and of his own volition, he is restoring 
to them the constitution that they are now ready 
for, counting as ever on their loyalty to him. 

The next scene is on the day of the opening of 
the first Turkish Parliament. The streets of Stam- 
boul are brilliant with red flags and gayly dressed 
people. The sun smiles vividly on the excited and 
happy crowds. A company of Armenians passes 
through the streets singing the new national song 
that one of them has composed, entitled M// Father- 
land, and we on the sidewalks choke at sight of 
their rapt faces, knowing that they have had no 
fatherland for nine centuries. We are also touched 

hen h 

came to the throne through the 

IS incident of his brother's sudden 

V in 1909 by the Young Turk Party. 

by the Young Turks, until released 

February, 1918 

by the sight of the many returned exiles with wist- 
ful faces on which are painted their past suffer- 
ings. And it is beautiful to .see imam and Christian 
priest walking arm in arm, to feel the fraternal 
spirit that animates the occasion. As the newly 
elected delegates drive past to the Pai-liament house 
they are applauded with clapping of hands. In 
frock coats with red fezzes or an occasional turban 
they drive along in open carriages. When the am- 
bassadors go by they receive applause; even the 
Austrian ambassador, whose country has been suf- 
fering a great boycott because of the seizing of 
Bosnia, is courteously applauded. At last comes a 
carriage whose hood is up. It seems to rush by as 
though to avoid observation. On the front seat 
sits the white bearded Grand Vizir, Kiamil Pasha, 
and opposite him, shrinking back under the hood 

of the vehicle, is the old Sultan. A few minutes 
later he I'ises in the Parliament house to read the 
prepared speech that abdicates his autocratic pow- 
er. The cnamber is appallingly silent, every eye 
is on the bowed figure. For an instant while men 
hold their breath, he dominates them with his gaze, 
as of old. Then his eyes fall to his paper. In a 
low, plaintive voice he reads his own degradation 
from absolute lord of the Empire to constitutional 

It is half a year later. Abdul llaniid, while ap- 
parently accepting the rule of the Young Turk, 
has secretly plotted to overthrow it. There is gold 
in the pockets of thousands of soldiers in the city 
and they are shouting for the restoration of the 
Slieriat, or sacred law. They have killed two hun- 
dred officers of the army, all too educated to suit 
them, and they are clamoring for the heads of the 
most progressive ministers. The city is hushed, 
the stores are barred and the houses closed ; through 
the streets rampage the mutineering soldiery. But 
the Sultan is gracious. He grants their demands, 
and for the moment the old regime is again on top, 
and the Young Turk leaders hide or flee. 

But Enver and Niazi and Mahmoud Shevket are 
not so easily defeated ; again from Saloniki an army 
is sent forth, this time to Constantinople itself. 
It is early morning. The "Army of Liberation," as 
we learned to call it, had entered the city at five 
o'clock and the crackling of their guns had awak- 
ened the frightened people. The barracks outside 
the walls were captured, then those in Stamboul. 
Some of the Sultan's troops fired one round, then 
deserted to the enemy ; others were defeated at their 
posts. The cannon roared around the Palace whence 
the courtly rats had scuttled. Most of the harem, 
laying hands on what jewels they could find, had 
fled. Deserted, trembling, yet never losing his curi- 
ous dignity, the old Sultan, more bowed than ever, 
awaited his fate. They came, the avengers, the 
Young Turks — Enver Bey, the brave young leader 
from Macedonia, and Mahmoud Shevket Pasha, the 
soldier and statesman — and took him prisoner as 
he sat. Below in the Bosphorus lay a great battle- 
ship, its guns trained on Yildiz. 

And the city waits. For days we wait, not know- 
ing when it will happen nor how. Then one after- 
noon the boom of a gun is heard. In our college 
in Scutari we rush to the roof whence we can see 
the yellow walls of Yildiz opposite us. The gun 
booms seven times — that might mean a fire — but 
no, it sounds eight! nine! ten! The students are 
dismissed from classes and crowd to the roof. 
Twenty-one shots would mean a princely death. 
But the guns go on, slowly, resistlessly. Twenty- 
two ! Twenty-three ! Now there is no doubt. It 
means the deposition of Abdul the Damned. A 
ship in the harbor suddenly dresses, and up flies 

an American flag from the college. A rattle of 
.joyful gunshots echoes over the Bosphorus. And 
all the time the great guns boom — Ninety-nine! 
One hundred! One hundred and one! Abdul 
Hamid is deposed ! 

The last scene of this strange eventful history, 
set in the city of the Sultans, is at the railroad 
station. Accompanied by a few servants, four 
wives and a score of trunks, the fallen monarch 
patiently allows himself to be handed into the train. 
The people, hating him too bitterly even to jeer at 
his fall, have left him alone — no one but the guards 
watch his lonely ignominious departure. He asks 
for a packet of his favorite cigarettes, but receives 
the cold answer, "It is martial law, Eff"endi; we 
cannot buy anything after sunset." He meekly 
enters the train and is carried away to his prison 
palace at Saloniki. He is still rich, for no one has 
been able to get hold of the immense fortune that 
he had deposited and invested in foreign banks. 
He can still plot, but somehow his plots never suc- 
ceed, and although as a matter of precaution he is 
occasionally removed from one prison to another, 
he is generally ignored and forgotten. 

And now Abdul Hamid is dead, but his work, if 
his thirty years of misrule can be called such, re- 
mains. His successors fell heir to a depleted treas- 
ury, a desolate country, a reduced population, the 
hatred of neighboring states and the suspicion of 
the Ottoman people. And even worse, they in- 
herited a system of corruption and inefficiency that 
they have been unable to overcome. If Turkey lacks 
statesmen it is because Abdul Hamid weeded the 
garden patch, destroying the promising men and 
corrupting those whom he employed. If the splen- 
did revolution has produced less fruit than the 
idealism and patriotism of its leaders led us to hope, 
it is largely because of the thirty years that Abdul 
Hamid devoted to ruining Turkey. His last auto- 
cratic act was to discredit the Young Turk Party 
in Europe by ordering massacres of the Armenians 
throughout the Empire. Like Samson of old, he 
pulled down the pillars of the temple to cover his 
own fall. 

His successor was nominally Mehmet V, his 
brother, the eldest member of the ruling family. 
But as he had been to all intents a prisoner of 
Hamid for thirty years, he was naturally incapable 
of administering the affairs of state. A camarilla 
of Young Turks has retained authority, the most 
conspicuous of them being Enver Pasha, the Min- 
ister of War, a man about thirty-five years old, 
brilliant, determined and resourceful, who, as mili- 
tary attache to Berlin, was won over to German 
political theories. This German conquest of Enver 
completed the work the Kaiser had begun several 
years before when he assiduously courted the dead 
Sultan. Abdul Hamid II. 


The Problem of Meeting the Demand for Home Rule in a 

Country Where Home Rule Is Not Considered Synonymous 

with Democracy and Public Spirit 

By Tyler DennetV 

J HAVE recently made a circuit of India from 
Madras to Lahore and from Bombay to Cal- 
cutta, asking these two questions: What 
is India thinking about? What does India want? 
The answers varied with striking regularity, de- 
pending on the class of person addressed. The vil- 
lage farmer or the shoemaker would pause to re- 
flect, now what does the Sahib wish me to reply? 
and would answer accordingly. But when one asks 
the educated Indian, the answer is uniformly the 
same : Home Rule. 

To quote one of the almost numberless resolu- 
tions which have been moved in true British style, 
during the last few months: "India asks that the 
government deepen and perpetuate the feeling of 
loyalty in India by the conferring of self-govern- 
ment on India, by a transformation of the constitu- 
tion of the Indian Government so as to give the 
people full control in internal affairs and make the 
executive government responsible to an elected 
legislature, and by placing India on a footing of 
equality with the self-governing dominions in 
inter-Imperial affairs." India is fairly scream- 
ing with such aspirations. The papers are full of 
them. All private conversation drifts that way. 
The tone varies all the way from mild request to 
imperative demand. What does it mean? 

In the first place it means that India does not 
aspire to complete independence, nor does she de- 
sire a change of masters. The Filipino looks for- 
ward eagerly to the day when the Stars and Stripes 
shall be replaced by the Filipino flag. The Indian, 
if he entertains a similar hope at all, does not ex- 
pect to .see it realized for very many years, and he 
does not talk about it. He may talk freely of what 
he regards as British misgovernment but he will 
tell one in the same breath that he sees no European 
master whom he would prefer. He fears Germany, 
has feared Russia and is beginning to fear Japan. 
There is no doubt but that India, so far as interna- 
tional aflfairs are concerned, is absolutely loyal to 
the British flag. 

Unquestionably there has been a great renas- 
cence of nationalist feelings in India since the be- 

'The present article does not constitute one nf tlie M>eci:il series 
ary enterprise in the Far East. 

ginning of the war. The present demands for Home 
Rule represent the feelings of a larger part of the 
population of India than ever before. But a most 
important question still is, how far do these de- 
mands represent the wishes of India, the India 
which is composed of three hundred and fifteen 
milhons of people? 

It is frequently charged that the policy of the 
government has been to keep the Mohammedans, 
representing about one-sixth of the population, and 
the Hindus divided, so that they might be pitted 
against each other in such times as these. The 
question used to be, when the Hindus asked for 
changes in the government, what will the Moham- 
medans say? Whatever may have been the policy 
of the government in the matter, it is more likely 
that this religious division which runs throughout 
India was chiefly the result of a definite choice on 
the part of the Mohammedans. One of them put it 
to me this way : "We have been accustomed to look 
upon ourselves and the English as foreigners in a 
foreign land. We therefore believed that our in- 
terests were together, and that we could profit most 
by siding with the British." Then he went on to 
explain that this attitude had been gradually un- 
dergoing a change. The Tripoli and Balkan wars 
and the present European conflict have done much 
to throw the Mohammedans into the arms of the 
Hindus. Coincident with this weakening of con- 
fidence in the British administration has come the 
new nationalist movement with its appeal to patrio- 
tism. The result has been that the Mussulman and 
the Hindu stand closer together now than ever be- 
fore in the history of India. At the Hindu National 
Congress, held at Lucknow a year ago. the All 
India Moslem League which represents the politi- 
cal side of Islam in India, joined in presenting a 
united demand for Home Rule. 

Further inquiry, however, led me to discover that 
the All India Moslem League cannot be said fairly 
to represent the entire Mohammedan community. 
It is composed of political leaders, mostly younger 
men, but its leadership is not very enthusiasticiUly 
acknowledged by consei-vative Mohammedanism. 

.lealinK with 



Although There Is Now One Government School For Every Five Villages in India. No Outcaste Children Are 
Allowed to Attend. Because of Caste Prejudice. Special Schools For Outcastes Are Being Organized by the Govern- 
ment, but For the Present the Work of Carrying on These Schools Depends Largely Upon the Missions 

At present the Mussulmen tell one that they are 
in a bad fix, politically. They have cast off an old 
alliance but they have by no means definitely fixed 
on a new one. They may join in with the Hindus 
some day. At present the course is in doubt. "It 
all depends," as one said, "on how the Hindus be- 
have themselves." 

Aside from the Mohammedan portion of India, 
how far do the Home Rule demands represent a 
united India? In answering this question one may 
divide India into three parts, the princes, the 
masses and the educated Indians. 

The princes stand in a class apart. They have 
been educated under the careful supervision of the 
government and great pains have been taken to 
keep them in good humor. They would doubtless 
accept with pleasure any increase in their power 
and prestige, but it is quite unsuited to their dignity 
and inclinations to go out and organize mass meet- 
ings to support their cause. The princes are, there- 
fore, not at all the leaders in this movement for 
Home Rule. On the other hand the educated Indian 
tells one that the Indian prince does not fairly rep- 
resent the country. He has received an alien educa- 

tion, has been pressed into a strange mould of alien 
design, and has come out an anomaly, neither Brit- 
ish nor Indian. It appears quite likely, however, 
that when the after-war reorganization comes in 
India — and all agree that it will come — the princes 
will be among the first to receive added recognition. 
There is talk of the creation of an Upper House,, 
similar to the House of Lords in England. This 
measure by itself, while it might please the masses 
to whom a prince is a prince just because he is a 
prince, would not at all satisfy educated India, nor 
is this change one of the demands of the Home- 

As for what the masses of India want, no one 
knows. One of the Indian judges of the High 
Court, a man of great acknowledged leadership, an 
ardent nationalist, said to me, "It is very difficult 
to know the mind of India. At the top there is a 
very thin layer of people who have received an Eng- 
lish education. Even we do not know what the peo- 
ple are thinking about ; much less does the govern- 
ment know." One has to remember that 280,000,- 
000 out of the 315,000,000 people of India live in 
villages which average only 290 people to the vil- 

Methodist Xlpl&copal Cliurcli 


This School Has a Curriculum Quite Different from That of the Government Schools of India, and Disparages the 

Use of the Elaborate Equipment Emphasized in the West. The Mild Indian Weather Makes It Possible to Dispense 

in Large Measure With Class-rooms, and to Conduct the Classes Out-of-doors 

lage. These people are engaged in a life and death 
struggle against starvation, with the odds often 
heavily against them. They are more than ninety- 
five per cent, illiterate in the sense that they cannot 
write a letter to a friend, even in their vernacular, 
nor read his reply. One wonders on going into 
these villages and seeing the impoverished lives of 
the inhabitants whether they even know that there 
is such a place as India. Although this statement 
will be violently denied by the more aggressive 
Home - Rulers, especially those in America who 
pleasantly gloss over some of the facts and paint 
to the American public an India which does not 
exist, I find little evidence whatever that the aver- 
age Indian villager is anything more than a most 
passive neutral in this fight for Home Rule. True, 
he is beginning to be affected by the agitation, but 
close questioning reveals that he does not yet know 
what Home Rule means. He has merely heard that 
its inauguration will improve his lot. On the other 
hand, it is an undeniable fact that when the villager 
goes to court, as he often does, for that is his recre- 
ation, he prefers to have his case tried before a 
British rather than an Indian judge. He knows 

that British justice is influenced neither by money 
nor by caste, not always the case with Indian justice. 

The results of an analysis of the Indian popula- 
tion would seem to show that the educated Indian is 
a self-appointed spokesman for his country. Any 
weighing of the value of his good oflfices leads at 
once into a bitter and acrimonious discussion, and 
that is the condition of India today. There has been 
a great deal of bitterness, though it is moderating 
now. The average Britisher will tell one that the 
educated Indian wants Home Rule because he wants 
the higher oflRces which, until now, have been held 
almost exclusively by the European. The Home- 
Ruler will assert that he is moved by motives of 
purest patriotism. He will frankly tell you that he. 
being an Indian, is more competent to govern his 
country intelligently and efficiently. One may give 
him credit for the best of motives and the most im- 
personal interest and yet there must be proved the 
truth of his own assertion that he is more com- 
petent than the foreigner to govern India. 

We hear with such tiresome reiteration that the 
Eastern and Western minds have different modes of 
thinking, that we often become numb to the truth 

of the lissertioii. Yet one must always keep it in 
mind. We in the Western world place in the same 
general category such subjects as home-rule, self- 
government, democracy and public spirit. It comes 
as a shock to a Westerner to find that they do not 
belong so closely together in India. India's desire 
for Home Rule finds a very sympathetic ear in 
America because democracy and self-government 
are so dear to the American heart. The following 

"What is it that India wants?" I asked these 

"We do not wish to be treated as a subject race," 
they replied. 

"And what do you mean by that?" I asked. "How 
are you now being treated as a subject race?" 

"Everywhere we are discriminated against," they 
replied. "In the railway trains, in the shops, in 
many of the hotels, and in nearly all public places. 


rkably Alert. At the Same Time There is an Expression o( Seriousness of 

The Faces 




•en Are 


Purpose ai 




ent Tha 

t C, 

School Child, 


The i 




May He 

ive t 

Alert. At the Same Ti 
mtrasts Markedly With the Indifferen 
>f Education in India Is Felt When One 
o Face Tomorrow the Grave Problems ( 

an Expression of Se 
;e of an Average Group of American 
Realizes That It Is the Children of Today 
f an India With Home Rule 

conversation will bring out some of the striking 
differences between the Indian approach to social 
questions and the ordinary American point of view. 
In Bombay I had the privilege of meeting two 
Indian ladies who may be said to represent the 
finest that India has produced in the way of culture 
and education. They belong to two of India's 
wealthiest families. I had often heard that one 
would find the springs of inspiration for the present 
Indian aspirations among the women. I therefore 
felt that the opportunity of questioning them was a 
rare one, since one meets few women of the edu- 
cated classes in India. There is only one literate 
woman for eleven literate men according to census 
figures, and purdah either still holds most of the 
women in its thrall or at least casts its shadow over 

Only recently one of our princes was refused ad- 
mission to the dining room in one of the best hotels. 
He insisted on his rights, and the next day four 
English army officers left the hotel because he had 
been given a place in the dining room. There are 
separate compartments for us in the railway car- 
riages, and so on. Everywhere we are apt to be 
kept separate." 

"Then it is equality that India wants," I sug- 
gested, "equality with the European." 

"Yes, that is it." 

"But how far down do you wish that equality 
to reach?" I asked. "Is it that you desire equal- 
ity merely with the European, or do you desire 
that equality be given to India, equality also 
among yourselves; equality, for example, with the 


APRIL. 1918 

The good ladies were shocked beyond measure 
that I could even suggest such a question. Of course 
they did not wish for equality for all Indians. They 
wished merely that the social disabilities which now 
rest upon them might be removed. 

This incident gives an approach to two facts 
about the present unrest in India. In the first place 
the causes are fundamentally not so much political 
as racial. India talks about Home Rule but all the 

even than the Englishman, though not always in as 
carefully selected water; but he regards western 
methods of personal hygiene as extremely filthy. 
On the other hand the Indian is none too careful 
about the good order of his European clothes, when 
he wears them. What the Indian claims to be color 
discrimination the European affirms is something 
quite otherwise. As a matter of fact both are part- 
ly right. 



Individual Initiative and Sense of R 

Mainly Because the People Are Un- 

Absence of Public Spirit to Endov 

For This Reason, Variou 

ponsibility Are Largely Lacking in India. There Are Few Good School 
lling to Pay the Direct Taxes Necessary to Support Them, and There Is a 
Educational Institutions and Throw Them Open to All Who May Wish to Ente 
Cults and Societies Have Organized Private Schools of Their Own 

time she is thinking about the removal of race prej- 
udice and color discrimination. Practically every 
educated Indian has buried in his heart some ex- 
perience of what appears to him to be purely color 
discrimination, which rankles and rankles until he 
goes and joins the Home Rule movement to relieve 
his feelings. To this charge of color prejudice the 
European will reply in this wise : "There are very 
many Indians among my friends whom I would be 
glad to receive into my home on terms of perfect 
equality if they could come that way, but they can't. 
I bring them there to meet my wife but the.v will 
not bring their wives with them, nor will they pre- 
sent me to their wives if they return the hospital- 
ity." Another answer which is frequently made 
touches the very elementary subject of personal 
cleanliness. The Indian bathes more frequently 

There is a certain type of European in India who 
is very much complicating these problems. I met 
an elderly gentleman who came out to India before 
the Mutiny and has lived there continuously ever 
since, who put it this way : "When I came out it 
took me several months to reach Bombay. I came 
here to make my home, to live my life. I went up 
into the hills whei-e I was the only European in 
many miles. I had to learn to understand these 
people. I had to learn to like them, for I had to live 
with them. Now these young men come out and 
live at a fine hotel, stay nine months and then go 
home. They do not learn the language; they do 
not have to learn the people. They are here merely 
for the money they can get and then they are off 
again." I have seen very many of the class he de- 
.scribes. They go about their business with the very 

APRIL, 1 9 1 S 

comfortable assurance that the white man is or- 
dained of God to rule the earth, and to many of 
them the Indian is as dirt under their feet. When 
they go they leave a terrible harvest of ill-will, 
which the British official, who is usually a very 
different type of man, has to reap and dispose of. 
This type of business man and tourist is not pecu- 
liar to India. One finds him throughout the Orient 
and Africa, from Tokyo to Gibraltar. Our own 
Manila has its share. If the tinted races of the 
Orient ever are able to rise to the point of dis- 
puting this assumption of superiority on the part 
of the white man, then will there be trouble indeed. 
The other conviction to which my conversation 
with the Indian ladies led me is that India has only 
the vaguest conception of democracy. The edu- 
cated Indian wishes for social equality with the Eu- 
ropean. He does not wish for a thorough-going 
reorganization of Indian social life which would 
open the way for the outcaste and the sweeper to 

become a Lloyd George or a President Lincoln. The 
European in India makes much of this fact when 
he is discussing the question of Home Rule. He 
.says, "What these people desire is that we shall 
turn over the government to the educated Indian. 
If we do, it will go hard with the people out in the 
villages." The Home - Ruler replies indignantly, 
"Does it stand to reason that we shall neglect our 
own people? We understand our own people. You 
do not. You are the ones who are re.sponsible for 
the present degradation of the Indian villager. . . . 
And look at our students in England," he will add. 
"They are most unsympathetically received." 

"But your students should not be in England," 
I suggested. "We in America would never think of 
sending our boys and girls out of the country to 
be educated. The place for one to receive education 
is in the country where one is going to live and 
work. Your students ought to be educated in In- 
dia, ought they not?" 


He Was Formerly Vice-Chanc 
a Firm Believer in 

of the Uni 
ne Rule, B 

lity of Calcutta and First Indian judge of the High Court. He 
Is Not Numbered Among the More Radical .Agitators 

APRIL, 1911 

"Ah, that is just the point," is the answer. 
"There are no good schools in India. The govern- 
ment does not provide them. It wishes to keep us 
down. We have to send our boys to England." 

"And when they go to England," I remarked, 
"they go not to government institutions but to Ox- 
ford and Cambridge which are private foundations. 
The government has nothing to do with those uni- 

When I inquired why India did not have her own 
private universities similar to those of England, 
I discovered that this question had never been 
thought out. India is suffering terribly, as she has 
suffered for centuries, for just that absence of a 
public spirit which will endow public institutions 
for the general uplift and throw them open to all 
who may wish to come. India lacks social leader- 

From a tyrannical and gory past India seems to 
have inherited the disposition to shift all responsi- 
bility to the man higher up and eventually to pass 
it on to the govei-nment. Individual initiative and 
sense of responsibility seem to be lacking. This 
deficiency came out in a long discussion which I 
had with some of the leading officials of the native 
state of Baroda. All through India I had been 
hearing of the demand for schools. I believe that 
is the one thing which all India is agreed in desiring 
today, — popular education. I went to Baroda with 
high expectations and, in the main, was not dis- 
appointed. This state, under the progressive and 
benevolent leadership of His Highness, the Gaek- 
war, has had for more than fifteen years a system 
of compulsory education. I was prepared to say, 
when I had seen it, "Why cannot the British Gov- 
ernment do as much for British India as this en- 
lightened prince is doing for his state?" 

His Highness himself confessed to me with sad- 
ness that although the public school system had had 
ample time to demonstrate itself, even today the 
people in the villages are quite unwilling to pay a 
direct tax for the support of the schools. They do 
not mind so long as the school revenues are derived 
in some indirect way, but they would riot rather 
than pay directly for school privileges. "The Gov- 
ernment ought to do it," is the common reply. 

It is not such a simple thing to provide schools 
for 45,000,000 school children. Who will pay for 
them? There is an old, worn-out debate in India 

as to whether the money raised by taxes is 
really all spent on India, or whether part of it 
is shipped to England to enrich the master coun- 
try. Of this much I am sure. If India were to 
have schools, taxes would have to be greatly in- 
creased. A very large proportion of the people are 
living already below a fair margin of subsistence. 
Moz-e taxes would mean less rice to eat. In view of 
the experience in Baroda State one wonders just 
how much increased taxation the people of India 
could and would stand for the sake of schools. 
Again, how large a proportion of the families of In- 
dia could permit the withdrawal of children of 
school age from productive labor? 

Accusations fly back and forth between the edu- 
cated Indian and the British residents. The Indian 
will tell one that the fundamental evil in India is 
the presence of a foreign government. All their 
reforms, he thinks, are dependent on the return of 
Home Rule. I have even heard Great Britain 
blamed for the presence of the caste system. The 
European, on the other hand, says, "You ought to 
have Home Rule just in proportion as you demon- 
strate in matters now entirely within your control 
that you are capable of administrating them. What 
about your system of child marriage, your cruel 
caste restrictions, your cruel oppression of the out- 
caste and your dishonesty?" 

India's case for complete self - government is at 
present weak, in that there is far too little to show 
in the way of Indian ability to handle responsibili- 
ties of government and social leadership in matters 
which are already under the entire control of the 
Indians themselves. Meanwhile the attitude of the 
government officials is becoming increasingly toler- 
ant and sympathetic toward the extension of self- 
governing institutions throughout the country. 

It is unlikely that, even after the war, India will 
receive all that she is demanding. It is even possi- 
ble that she will be so disappointed at not receiving 
more that she may make some trouble. On the other 
hand, if the policies, already approved both in Lon- 
don and Delhi and partly initiated, are carried to 
fulfilment, the Indian himself is soon to take upon 
his individual shoulders more of the responsibili- 
ties of a free citizen than either the land or the 
people have ever known before. The day may yet 
come, not soon but eventually, when India will be 
safe for democracy. 


I Strange and Fantastically Painted Actors Impersonate Familiar Civil or Military Characters of Ancient China 


A Romantic Institution Fettering the Past and the Present in China 

By Frank S. Williams 

IN the Chinese theatres the performance usually 
begins at eleven in the morning and finishes at 
eleven at night, or at six in the evening, end- 
ing at six in the morning. There is nothing regular 
about the beginning or ending; so we shall be in 
plenty of time for a front seat. If we have not 
engaged our seats beforehand, we go either to the 
ticket office and enquire for seats, or question the 
ushers who meet us at the door and present us with 
programmes. (Let me say here that you will find 
many changes in the present-day theatre. In the 
"old days," the programmes were written and sent 
out 100 days before the performance was given ; 
now they are printed and you get them at the door.) 
Before we go up to our seats let us stop for a 
moment and investigate the first floor. We stand in 

the back of a large room and look straight ahead 
toward the stage. The room is comparatively a 
large one, divided into four parts and seating about 
four hundred people. The orchestra, or space di- 
rectly in front of the stage which runs all the way 
across the building, is furnished with long wooden 
benches, each with little narrow shelves at the back 
for the tea-pots, cups and eatables of those sitting 
behind. On both sides of the orchestra and running 
the full length of the room is a space with long 
benches and stools. No provision is made here for 
the tea-pots and cups, as these are the ten and 
twenty-cent seats. 

We ascend by way of narrow, rickety stairs and 
find ourselves in a three-sided balcony with boxes 
in tiers. The space near the wall is left for a pas- 

APRIL, 191S 

sage way. Our box will seat about eighteen persons, 
and contains very comfortable chairs and a nice 
little shelf for the tea-pots and eatables, with a 
gutter attached to receive the debris. We are no 
sooner seated than the ticket man approaches. 
After a polite enquiry as to the state of our health, 
and hoping we shall enjoy the performance and as- 
suring us of the honor we are upon the 
theatre by being present, he would appreciate very 
much our handing over the required amount for the 
tickets. We ask him the sum total of this impor- 
tant transaction and he replies, "Six dimes for the 
ticket and six cents for the ushers and coolies, for 
each person. Ushers and coolies are allowed one 
cent for every ten cents paid." After his generous 
thanks and, "Begging your pardon for disturbing 
you," he takes his departure, but is quickly fol- 
lowed up by a coolie bringing tea-pots and cups. 
He places these on the little shelf and leaves with- 
out a word. As soon as he has disappeared another 
coolie arrives, bringing a number of small dishes, 
each filled with the delicacies of the season, but 
always including the water-melon seed. You notice 
the same performance going on all about you and 
you wonder just how a Chinese gentleman would 
feel if he had to sit through some theatrical per- 
formance without his tea-pot and melon seed. 

In the adjoining box is a man with his mother, 
three wives, several children ranging in years from 
two to twenty, and three amahs (nurses). This 
family group seems very happy. The man is en- 
joying his water pipe ; the women are conversing 
with one another and with the amahs, while the 
children are devouring water-melon seed, sugar 
cane and cakes from the dishes in front of them. 
All seem perfectly contented and in no particular 
hurry for the play to begin. The ladies of the party 
are dressed in rich silks and satins and their flow- 
ered coats strike a marked contrast to the clean 
blue cotton dress of the servants. We look down 
upon the people in the orchestra. The men are 
largely from the merchant and banking class. 
Many young men, in parties of two or more, are to 
be seen in all parts of the audience, but we do not 
find many young ladies. Over there by the aisle 
you can see an old Buddhist priest. On one side of 
the orchestra are chairmen, servants, coolies and 
men of small means. On the other side you will 
see a congested crowd of soldiers occupying the 
whole space. These soldiers are supposed to pay 
the regular price, twenty-five or ten cents, but they 
walk by the ticket office as if it were infected. 
Almost all the theatres have stopped trying to col- 
lect anything from these soldiers and let them in 
free of charge. They doubtless think it best to stay 
on good terms with the military. 

As the crowd grows larger we see fruit vendors 
with trays and baskets containing all the fruits of 

the season, cake pedlars with all varieties and col- 
ors of delicacies, coolies with the ever-present, 
brass hot-water-kettle, all persistently pushing and 
crowding among the audience, crying their wax'es 
and trying to fill empty tea-pots and dishes. 

You will soon realize that you are not only sitting 
in a fire trap but that you are in the very midst of 
several disease traps. Do you see that man dis- 
tributing hot towels among the audience? Well, 
he receives part of the one-tenth of the ticket money 
for that work. Look at that dirty street coolie 
wiping his face, eyes and hands on that towel, and 
then passing it on to his companion. That towel 
will be dipped in hot water and then given to some- 
one else, probably a small child, to use. Is it any 
wonder that there are so many children suff'ering 
from incurable diseases? The crowded and con- 
gested condition of the audience is another medium 
through which diseases find an easy passage. The 
Chinese have no idea of isolation and only stay at 
home when they are not physically able to go out. 
Thus contagious diseases are often spread through 
whole cities and villages at one performance of the 
theatre. Listen to the hacking coughs in different 
parts of the house ; see the fly-specked cakes and 
candies being offered for sale ; look at the children 
eating canal-water soaked sugar cane! Do you 
wonder that China is the home of so much suffering 
and disease? 

The Chinese themselves must be quite familiar 
with the play and its historical story if they expect 
to get any enjoyment from the performance. So it 
may be well to give a brief outline of what we are 
to expect from the performance when it really 

All plays are taken from actual historical facts 
and legendary stories and represent the two great 
divisions of national life, Civil and Military. There 
are, at this time, three distinct classes of plays in 
China. I can find nothing definite as to the time or 
manner of their origin. The Vun Pan Shi, repre- 
senting the Civil life, is the oldest class of plays and 
was the one used in the first theatres of China. 
These plays are presented in the form of songs and 
are sometimes called the singing plays. They are 
very emotional in character and are taken from the 
historical events and stories which tend to play 
upon the feelings of the audience. The acting is 
such as to stir the deepest sentiments of patriotism 
and filial piety. In the Ts'in dynasty another kind 
of play was added to the repertoire of the Chinese 
actors. This was called the Jin Pan Shi, meaning 
Peking plays, or acrobatic plays. This class of 
plays usually represents the Military life but may 
be employed in some cases to represent Civil life. 
These plays are also taken from historical events 
and constitute real Chinese drama. The chief dif- 
ference betwen the Vun Pan Shi and the Jin Pan 

APRIL, 1911 

Shi is in tiie manner in wiiich the plays are acted, 
and the tones used in the singing. In the latter the 
actors are loud spoken, dance and jump about the 
stage, clash their swords and knives and make all 
the noise possible. At the same time the weird 
music which accompanies the performance grows 
louder and louder until the din and noise seem to 
be unbearable. The third class, the Vun Min Shi 
is the modern or new play. This class has been 
copied from the foreign plays, and, in a way, repre- 
sents the advanced or new ideas which are influ- 
encing national life in China today. The actors in 
these plays dress in the ordinary dress of foreign 
and Chinese men and women, and not a few of them 
use foreign dress altogether. They employ the na- 

Comic Characters Wearing Masks, But Whose Gestures Are 
to Rigid Etiquette 

five dialects instead of Mandarin used in all the old 
style plays. 

The first two classes clearly represent the real 
Chinese drama. They are based upon historical 
facts, which are studied in the present day histories 
and with which the average school boy in China is 
perfectly familiar. This adherence, by actors, to 
these historical facts and events has been the donii- 
nant factor in the permanent establishment of the 
theatre in the hearts and minds of people in every 
out-of-the-way village in China. A standardiza- 

tion, as it were, of the drama has kept each suc- 
ceeding dynasty bound to all those preceding it by 
ties that cannot be broken. History thus taught is 
never forgotten and the events which happened, in 
some cases, 3,000 years ago, are still fresh in the 
minds of the people. One of the most interesting 
evils attributed to the theatre is that in its adher- 
ence to these old historical plays, dealing with em- 
perors and kings, it is keeping alive, especially in 
the minds of the ignorant class, the old monarchical 
ideas, antagonizing the people against accepting 
and encouraging the new Republic and its adminis- 
tration. On the other hand a large number of the 
plays are taken from the Classics, thus bringing 
these wonderful gems of literature into the reach 
of millions of people who could in no 
other way learn them. 

A brief outline of some typical popu- 
lar plays will give an idea of the dif- 
ferences existing betwen them. 

San Nyang Kau Ts, Third Wife 
Teaches the Child, is a famous and 
very popular play of the Vun Pan Shi 
class. It is taken from an event in the 
Soong dynasty. There was a man who 
had three wives. One of them gave 
birth to a son. Some time after the 
arrival of this son the man disappeared 
and was never seen again. Two of his 
wives fled, but the third one remained 
in his house and brought up the son 
which belonged to one of the runaways. 
The most important part of this play 
is the teaching of the adopted son 
which is brought out by the singing 
of the actor. 

Sang Yoer Gi Ts, or Leaving a Son 
in the Mulberrii-tree Orchard, shows a 
father's sacrifice. During the Tsur 
dynasty China was invaded by a great 
army. Among the fugitives was a 
man named Teng Poh Tao. He took 
with him his sister-in-law, nephew and 
son and tried to make his way to the 
home of a relative in a distant land, 
ing ^Y^Q party were overtaken by the in- 

vaders and the sister-in-law taken cap- 
tive. Teng went on his way w^th his son and 
nephew but he was an old man and had to travel 
slowly. The two boys were young and small and 
could not endure the long marches. Teng took 
turns in carrying them but soon grew so weak that 
he could hardly move his legs. Finally he realized 
that he could never reach his destination with both 
the boys so he had to decide which one to leave be- 
hind. This was a difficult problem for the old man. 
At last he said to himself, "My younger brother is 
dead, my sister-in-law has disappeared, and if I do 


[ ^^^^^^0^*^ 

4iJ ^M 

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m ^^m 




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^Jtim. ^«^ 


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Especially Do the Young Military Hero 

Try to Impre 
and Sv 

the Audien 
d Dances 


th Their Adroitness and Grace in Spear 

not care for my nephew how can I face them when 
I get to heaven?" So he determined to leave his 
own son and take his nephew with him. Soon after 
reaching this decision, the old man and the boys 
passed a mulberry-tree orchard and Teng asked his 
son to climb one of the trees and gather some mul- 
berries. The boy did so and while he was up the 
tree Teng tied him to a limb. Teng then bit one 
of his fingers and wrote with blood on a piece of 
cloth which he put in his son's pocket. He went on 
his journey leaving his son in tears. Shortly after- 
wards his sister-in-law escaped from the invaders 
and passed the mulberry orchard on her way home. 
She saw her nephew tied to a mulberry tree and 
quickly set him free. She carried him safely to 
her relative's home where she found the other mem- 
bers of her family. They were all united again, and 
Teng was greatly honored for his heroic sacrifice. 
K'ung Dzun Gi, or Empty City Trap, is a real 
Jin Pan Shi play. This is taken from an event 
which happened in the Hur dynasty. During the 
reign of Lui Pei, a very dangerous enemy sent an 
army against Sei Dzun, the most important city of 
China at that time. Lui Pei's military adviser 
was a very wise and brave man and used many 
clever tricks to out-wit the opposing generals. On 

this occasion most of Lui's soldiers were in another 
part of the country and it was impossible for them 
to reach Sei Dzun in time to save the city. So 
Chu Ko Liang, Lui's military adviser and com- 
manding general, thought out a clever scheme to 
save the city. He ordered all the soldiers in the city 
to take down all the flags and open wide all the 
gates. He then chose several old soldiers and gave 
them brooms and ordei'ed them to go out and sweep 
the streets leading out of the city gates. Chu him- 
self sat on the city wall and played the harp as if 
he had no thought of an army being within one 
hundred miles of the city. When Sz Moh Yih, the 
leader of the invading forces, came in sight of the 
city he could not understand the strange sights he 
saw. He came a little closer to the wall and heard 
Chu singing, "I am the man who lived in a straw 
hut into which I had retired to live in .solitude, with- 
drawn from the world. I was induced by my lord 
Lui Pei to come out and help him, and now I can 
beat you just as easy as I can turn my hand over. 
If you want to atUick me, come on. I have pre- 
pared a great deal of wine to drink with you when 
you take the city." Sz Moh was greatly perple.xed 
but not brave enough to fight. So the city was 
saved l)y this entertaining ruse. 

There is no curtain to hold the attention of the 
audience but all watch for the appearance of the 
orchestra, for every action is interpreted by this 
important group. A stage hand walks out of the 
door leading from the dressing room, hangs his 
coat on the wall, moves a stool here or there, gen- 
erally using his foot, and then settles himself on 
another stool as though he were the high critic 
of the whole performance. Presently you realize 
that something is going to happen for eight men 
have taken their seats very close together near the 
wall at the back of the stage. They have queer look- 
ing instruments in their hands, and evidently con- 
stitute the orchestra. Would you ever think these 
men, dressed in ordinary dress, some wearing caps, 
some smoking, some laughing and talking, were 
real musicians? The man who beats the small 
stone-like-sounding drum is always the leader. The 
other musicians change their tunes or instruments 
to suit the kind of music most fitting to accompany 
the various actions of the drama. 

Soon we hear the drum begin its drum-a-drum- 
drum, and we settle back in our seats to enjoy the 
overture. It is of short duration, much to our re- 
lief, for just as the combined efforts of the musi- 
cians have succeeded in practically deafening the 
audience, the curtain over the door on the right of 
the stage is swept aside and a real live Chinese 
actor, dressed in all his handsomely embroidered 
robes, wearing a long heavy black beard and a 
gruesome looking mask and carrying a bright heavy 
sword, strides to the center of the stage and after 
speaking a few of the opening lines of his part, 
turns to the audience and informs them that he 
has arrived. 

When one looks upon a group of young Chinese 
actors he really looks upon a group of slaves or 
near-slaves. Practically all actors in China were 
sold at an early age by their poor parents to travel- 
ing groups of actors. Most of them are bought in 
Tientsin. They are treated very cruelly, often 
being beaten and cuffed about without the least 
provocation. Their masters provide food and cloth- 
ing for them but they receive no money whatever. 
When a child becomes the property of an actor he 
is forced to memorize story after story and song 
after song. Few, if any, can read or write, and 
no effort is made to teach them. They must get 
along the best they can alone. They serve an ap- 
prenticeship of six years before they are allowed 
on the stage, and their lot during those six years 
must be anything but a happy one. Even if a child 
shows a marvelous talent for acting and has great 
ambitions for that profession, he is choosing one 
against which the Chinese have raised an insur- 
mountable barrier. Actors, as a class, are looked 
down upon by the Chinese with scorn and contempt. 
Formerly they were not allowed to compete in the 

Literary Examinations or to purchase literary or 
official rank, and consequently they were debarred 
from the only paths that led to honor in the eyes 
of the people. One reason for this barrier is not 
difficult to understand. Actors in China, as a whole, 
are a very debased class. They fall so far short of 
even attempting to live up to the virtues they ex- 
hibit in public that the people have, to a great ex- 
tent, lost confidence in the real virtuous ideals which 
the theatre once attempted to hold up to them. 
Actors do not take their work seriously. They often 
laugh or talk on the stage while a very serious part 
of the play is being acted. Yet they must be exceed- 
ingly careful to observe every detail of polite 


By His De 


and His Abrupt 

APRIL, 1 S) 1 8 

etiquette, for a common coolie or an old farmer will 
hoot and criticise an actor, although he may be im- 
personating a prince, for breach of a ceremonial 
form or for shortening the tiresome formality of 
parting with another magnate. 

The Chinese actors are divided into several dis- 
tinct classes. The first division comprises those 
who perform in the permanent theatres. The own- 
ers of the theatre contract for the services of the 
whole company, ranging from twenty to one hun- 
dred persons, usually consisting of about seventy 
persons. There were, in the "old days," no female 
members included in the properly constituted com- 
panies, and a com.pany which carried actresses had 



Wear Long Flowing Beards, and Thi 
Shoes That Add to Their Height 

to procure official permission to play. There are 
now, however, many companies composed wholly of 
females. An actor's salary ranges from $30 to 
$25,000 per annum. Those who impersonate female 
characters are usually the highest paid. The names 
of some of the most prominent actors in China, with 
an estimate of their salaries, may prove of interest 
in this connection. 

Deur Shin-pan, the king of actors, has received 
as much as $10,000 per month. He died only very 

Mei Lei-fong, from $2,000 to $5,000 per month. 

Wong Vung Ch'en, $2,000 per month. 

Lui Hung Sun, $1,000 per month. 

Mau Uwen Kio, a Soochow man. $1,000 per 

Vung Ts Wu, a Soochow man, $1,000 per month. 

Li Uweh Jau, $1,000 per month. 

Actresses : 

Un Shiau Fung, the best, $1,700 per month. 

Wong K'uh Jin, famous acrobat and actress, $1,- 
700 per month. She was very recently married to 
the famous Tsang Schwen (Chang Hsuan). 

Siau Lan Yin, $1,500 per month. 

Deur Shin-pan, the king of the Chinese actors, 
was the possessor of a very interesting character, 
and came to quite a disastrous end. He was the 
leading actor in China for forty years. He was born 
in Hupeh province in Wong Cho^v Fu seventy years 
ago, and began studying to become an actor at the 
age of ten. He was a very bright boy and had an 
e.xcellent voice, — sweet as an organ. Deur tried 
three roles before he finally decided on the Lau 
Sang, or impersonator of emperors, a part which he 
kept until his death. The mother of Emperor 
Kwong Zi was very fond of Deur and invited him 
to come to her palace and act as chief instructor to 
her private actors. It was she who persuaded him 
to stop smoking opium. For the past few years he 
was living in retirement, taking part in very few 
plays. Recently, when Premier Tuan Chi-jui called 
all the Military Governors to Peking to discuss the 
war proposition, great celebrations were held all 
over the city. Loh Yung-ting, the Military (Gov- 
ernor of Kwangtung, prepared a great entertain- 
ment for his friends and invited Deur Shin-pan and 
Mei Lei-fong, the two greatest actors in China, to 
entertain his friends. Deur refu.^ed this invitation 
but Loh would not accept his excuse, as he had made 
all arrangements to have the popular play, Voo Jah 
P'oo, presented to his guests and he knew that there 
was not another man in China who could take the 
leading part as well as Deur Shin-pan. So he sent 
another messenger to Deur's house rcque.sting him 
to accept the role. Deur's second refusal so angered 
Loh that he got in his automobile and went to 
Deur's house. He caught the actor and by main 
force put him in his car and carried him to the 
theatre. There he insulted and abused him and 
threatened his life if he did not play his part in the 
performance. Deur played his part but with a 

A I' K I L , 19 18 

heavy heart. His suffering was so great that many 
people in the audience wept from pity and sym- 
pathy. As soon as the play ended Deur escaped to 
his home. He was so deeply hurt by the disrespect 
and insulting manner in which he had been treated 
that he smoked a large amount of opium and that, 
together with his old age and feebleness, so weak- 
ened his constitution that nothing could save him 
and he died on the seventh of last May. All the 
Chinese papers paid glowing tributes to this 
honored and renowned man, and did not hesitate to 
lay the blame for his death at the feet of the over- 
bearing official, for whom the ideal of perfect gov- 
ernment lies in individual power. 

The second actor division comprises those per- 
forming in temporary theatres. There are several 
classes of these actors : 

First: those performing in temples. In many 
of the temples in China there are large stages built 
in the courts or in the largest rooms to accommo- 
date the plays which are given during the spring 
and autumn of each year to celebrate the birthdays 
of the various idols. One man or one family or a 

number of families or sometimes a whole village will 
employ a troupe of actors for the occasion, and the 
plays are continued through the period of festivi- 
ties. Then we have the Grass Stage Plays, given 
by strolling companies in mat sheds erected for 
the purpose, or on open stages built in the fields. 
These actors are employed in the spring by the 
village or country folk, usually the farmers, to 
pacify the gods so they will not send cholera upon 
the hogs or people during the year, and in the 
autumn to give thanks to the gods for a bountiful 
harvest. Another very interesting class of strolling 
actors is the Kang Woo Pei, River Canal Actors. 
They live on boats and use their homes as stages 
and the banks of the rivers or canals as seats for 
the audience. When one of these companies reaches 
a village, several men with gongs, drums and cym- 
bals, are sent out to "work the town." Farming 
tools are put aside, buffalo and cow are unhitched, 
and every one assembles on the bank for the enter- 
tainment. Then there are the solitary actors, or 
Speaking Books, in the tea shops and restaurants. 
There is a vast army of these men, hired by the vari- 



The Illusion Is Remarkably Perfect, as a Rule, Owing to the Custom of Using a Falsetto Voice, and the Clever Make-ups 


A I' K 1 I, . 1 y 1 s 

ous proprietors to amuse their guests while they sip 
their tea or eat their rice. I have seldom seen any 
one listening to them, as they sing or gesture in 
wild attempts to attract the attention of the guests. 
But they seem to have an inexhaustible store of 
lung power and stories without end. 

Each troupe of actors has its own repertoire of 
plays and the large ones carry a playwright with 
them. This playwright furnishes new dramas 
which are generally taken from historical events or 
novels. The tunes are sometimes supplied by the 
author of the plays but oftener by the actors who 
have to sing them. 

The most influential and feared person in the 
company is the Shi Di Diau or General Manager. 
This is a very important position and one which is 
difficult to fill. The Di Diau must know every man's 
ability and be able to decide which actors can best 
sing together. He is something like a District 
Superintendent, for he has control over all the 
actors in a district, selects companies and plans 
their trips. He must be perfectly familiar with all 
the plays for he has to select the appropriate rep- 
ertoire for each company. 

Actors are divided into not less than twenty-six 
groups, but I shall mention only a few of the most 
important ones, the Sangs, Tes, Ts'uis and Zeens. 
The Tsun Sang or Lau Sang are those who im- 
personate emperors or distinguished persons and 
wear flowing beards. The Siau Sangs or little 
Langs represent youthful civilians. One of these 
is usually the hero. The Wu Sangs represent 
elderly military commanders and wear long 
beards. The Voo Lau, Voo Siau and Voo Sang 
are those who perform acrobatic stunts. They 
belong to the Sang class. The Lau Tes are those 
who represent the leading female characters such 
as empresses and principal wives. Hwo Tes are 
those who take youthful female characters, and 
the leader of these is generally the heroine of the 
play. The Wu Tes represent female warriors, and 
the Mo Tes servant women or girls. These act as 
female cavalry or infantry soldiers when desired. 
Voo Te, P'eh Te and Sak Te represent female acro- 
bats. The Ts'uis take the parts of wicked and 
detestable characters. The Pi or Nur Ts'ui pain^-« 
his face and represents a character obnoxious from 
deformity or some other cause. He is the clown. A 


Four Flags on the Back Indi 
an Actor Who Wishes 

■s a Commander of Four Banners, or Divi: 
Take a Journey Gallops Around the Stage 

ol th. 
w Ti. 

Imperial Manchu Army, 
les. Brandishing a Whip 


APRIL. 1918 

Zeen has a minor part, wears a mask and paints 
his face. The Nga usually have painted faces and 
are the villains. 

One might also mention the stage hands whose 
duties are interesting and entertaining. See that 
tall one handing a cup of tea to the kneeling actress. 
She has sung herself out of breath and must have 
a sip of tea to stimulate her. See how perfectly 
she holds her arm up to hide her face while she 
drinks? The Lau Sang's cloak has fallen too far 
over one shoulder so another stage hand calmly 
goes out to him and rearranges his dress. The 
heroine wishes to change her costume; a servant 
brings another dress, or she calmly takes off her 
top one on the stage, in full view of the audience. 
These men act like machines. They seem never to 
have to be told anything, but are always on the spot 
when a fan, cup of tea, or change of dress is needed, 
or a bridge or city wall has to be supplied. 

If any of you have ever been behind the scenes 
in one of our modern theatres you would be very 
much surprised at the differences existing between 
the dressing room of a Chinese theatre and the 
scores of small private rooms in an American opera 
house. Back of the stage is a large room which 
occupies a space the whole width of the building. 
There are two doors opening from the room onto 
the stage ; the one on the right is the entrance and 
the one on the left the exit. Curtains are hung 
over the doors for screens. In this room, on tables, 
are various colored paints and pencils which the 
actors, while standing or sitting in front of small 
mirrors, use to make up such beautiful or grotesque 
faces as their parts require. Around the walls, 
suspended from hooks, are masks, false beards of 
various colors, false wigs and false ladies' coiffures ; 
strange caps and helmets such as have been worn 
at various periods during the last 3,000 years ; high, 
thick-soled shoes and slippers to increase the stature 
of their wearers ; swords, spears, tridents, bows and 
arrows, and old fashioned implements of war; 
patched and ragged clothes for the poor and mean, 
and, in large boxes, handsome and beautifully em- 
broidered robes of state for the rich and honored, 
such as real princes might well be proud to wear. 

Under shelves behind or on top of boxes, stretch- 
ed on mats, you will see actors, some of them smok- 
ing opium preparatory to dressing for their parts. 
You will see that they are not overly clean looking, 
and the little clothing they wear is shabby and un- 
kempt. Their appearance is listless, and through 
dissipation and the use of opium their faces have 
the pallid hue of death. Just before their call comes 
they dress for their part. Some will put on coif- 
fures and paint until by the proper application of 
white and red to their faces and lips, and black to 
their eyebrows, they resemble strikingly handsome 
females. And after putting on wooden imitation 

small shoes and dressing themselves in ladies' appa- 
rel, they enter upon the stage, tottering on their 
"golden lilies" with a natural swaying gait, which, 
with the high falsetto voices assumed in speaking 
and singing, enables them to fill their feminine roles 
to perfection. 

Scenery in China is conspicuous by its absence. 
Mountains, mountain passes, rivers, bridges, city 
walls, temples, graves, thrones, beds and other ob- 
jects are represented by an arrangement of chairs, 
stools and benches, while the passage of rivers, 
horse riding, unlocking of doors and entering 
houses where not even a screen exists between the 
visitor and those he visits, the climbing of moun- 
tains, execution of criminals and numerous other 
actions are presented by pantomimic motions that 
are perfectly understood by the audience. Thus, 
a leper drinks wine, in which, unknowm to himself, 
a venomous serpent has been soaked, feels an itch- 
ing sensation and throws himself into an imaginary 
fish pond where, to the beating of gongs, he goes 
through the motions of washing and finds himself 
cured of that loathsome disease, to become a future 
chief graduate. Or a general sent on a distant ex- 
pedition brandishes his whip, capers around the 
stage a few times amidst the clashing of cjTnbals, 
and then stops and informs his audience that he 
has arrived. Or a criminal who is to be hung, ac- 
companied by the weird music from the two- 
stringed fiddle, will wail and moan his confession 
and then walk over to one side of the stage and 
stand under a bamboo pole with a rag tied to the 
top. He has been hung! All pain is represented 
by throwing the head back and gazing upward. 
Anger, by very hard breathing and staring eyes. 
Every movement of the hand or head, the positions 
in which the feet and arms are held, are all signifi- 
cant of some definite action and meaning, and these 
movements are perfectly understood by the Chinese 
who will tell you, like the modern school of stage 
artists in the West, that scenery is a superfluity. 

The members of the orchestra are now nodding, 
some of the stage hands are asleep while others are 
lazily rearranging the stools, benches and chairs, 
constructing bridges, mountains and city gates for 
the tired actors to cross or enter on their homeward 
journey. Many of the children in the audience are 
asleep, and several of our neighbors are showing 
marked effects of the strain of sitting so long in 
one place. But the music is growing louder and 
louder and faster and faster, as the weary actors 
put all their remaining strength in a last effort to 
make themselves heard above the din and noise. 
Suddenly the mighty clashing of gongs and cjTnbals 
announces the end of the last scene of the last act 
of this strange performance, and the whole audience 
breathe a sigh of relief as they yawn and stretch, 
preparatory to taking their departure. 

Dr. Hall, a medical missionary -in 


By William L. Hall 

Illustrations by Gertrude Emerson 

interior Chinese city, was given an unusual opportunity to study the music and inspect the scores of 

- — - . - .. . . _ ™. 1 is a thing 

and Intri- 
the songs. 

The God of Evil Desire 

Ferocious countenance and misshapen body 
mark this important personage. — 

T AM the God of Evil Desire! 

I am the Master of Man! 
I am the Besom of Inner Fire! 
I am The Will and The Can! 


The Firmaments obey my call. 

All peoples before vie fall. 

Hark ! 

The mountains tall confess my 

In silence the night-clouds lower. 

Leap ! 

The stags of the stone-crags trem- 

In response all creatures assemble. 

I am the Besom of Inner Fire! 

I am the Master of Man! 
I am the God of Evil Desire! 

I am The Will and The Can! 

Down nations of earth without 

The greatest of earth lie in slum- 


The sons of the weakest are Mas- 

The worlds on their orbits move 


All rivers their bounds tear 

The thunders all gather in uondcr. 

I am the God of Evil Desire! 

I am the Master of Man! 
I am the Besom of Inner Fire! 

I am The Will and The Can! 

Ho, ye! 

Myriads of earth gather nigh. 
Go, ye! 

Off to the deserts they fly. 

Hear me! 

Heads are high in adoration. 
Fear me! 

Loio they lie in supplication. 


Brows are draion in contemplation. 

Bodies sway in consternation. 

I am the Besom of Inner Fire! 

I am the Master of Man! 
I am the God of Evil Desire! 

I am The Will and The Can! 

Lead me! 

Into spears of death they rush 
with pleasure. 
Feed me! 

Hands groic hard in search for 


The concourse is far beyond num- 
Dissemble ! 

For me, though awake, they seem 

Spy for me! 

'Gainst flesh and blood they turn 
without fail. 
Die for met 

Life is a barter — death is a sale. 

I am the God of Evil Desire! 

I am the Master of Man! 
I am the Besom of Inner Fire I 

I am The Will and The Can! 

The Empress-Mother 

Clad in white, emblem of mourning. The 
Empress leaves her home. — 

IIEARTS with grief are burdened 

Wheti the viind is ill. 
Words covie but with labor — 
Thoughts run where they will. 

Peace comes but with patient wait- 
ing — 
Thcti lingers for a day. 
So now, from out my husband's 
I take my weary way. 

My husband's love for me has van- 
ished — 
My fortune is undone! 
Full five years gone — and fate has 
That I should bear a son. 

Bamboo roots with tears I've wa- 

Incense burned to every god. 
To remove the curse irreverent. 

Pass I now beneatJi the rod. 

Over China's vast dominions. 

Wandering on from hill to sea. 
Without home, or help, or shelter. 

Is the portion given me. 

Many weary moons I've wandered. 
Seeking — seeking — for that one 

On whom the gift of heaven has 
Power on earth to grant a son. 

Sack-cloth rough my skin has cov- 

Food most vile my body fed; 
Clad in rags and filth I've traveled. 

Oft by uncouth beggars led. 

On I'ai San's holy summit kneeling. 
Goddess of Mercy beckoned me; 

There, blood from out my right arm 
Offered sacrifice most free. 

Noio rctvm I home-land. 
Satisfied that I have done 

Everything decreed by heaven 
To secure to me a son. 










(hid in imperial vestments, and carrying 
ill lier arms lier ncw-l)orii babe, she sings: 

/ am the wife of the emperor. 

The mother off his son! 
The highesi gift from heaven show- 

Is now mi/ britisoii. 

Punishments the body (jiven 
Are naught compared with this. 

for happiness hath crowned mtj 
Changed mii pain t-; bliss! 

Unto the gods most gracious 
Who hath on me bestowed 

High heaven's greatest gift — 
Relieving of the load 

Of censure and reviling poured, 
By ancient custom given, — 

/ now may stand in proper place, 
of sin and suffering shriven. 

I am the wife of the emperor. 

The mother of his son! 
And heaven hath given you to me. 

My son. my hope, my oivn. 

Slie passes before the assembled dignitaries, 
will) salute Hitli proper ceremony. 


Spoken : 

/AM mad! 
Mil hand rcaihcs out for human 
' life. 
Visions of grandeur pass before me-- 
To be attained only through de- 

The moon made me mad. 
The moon did it. 

(Ml a certain day, when darh-ncss 

had fallen, 
And my aching limbs refused to 

I laid me down by the wayside 
To rest awhile. 

I slept! 

And as 1 slept 

The demon who holds the moon in 

his moiith 
Opened it wide and the moon 


Her face rvas uncovered before me — 
.1/1/ face was to her up-turned. 

Little ivriggly devils. — 
Her ill-begotten brood. 
Passed from her and entered my 

Noiv they move about inside my 

Entreating me to hear their message 
And do their bidding. 

Come with me and we shall see. 
The land where every man is free. 

My hand the screen shall tear aside. 
So we in peace may there abide. 

We bow before thee, holy child. 

And offer thee each life. 
We ivorship thee, and bare each arm. 

To shield thee from all strife. 

Thou art the son of the emperor! 

Thou art our lord and guide! 
And may our souls in terror seethe 

Should we think of one beside. 

Our heads bow low before thee now. 

Our faces in the dust 
Proclaim to all throughout the land 

Thou holy art — and just! 

Thou art the son of the emperor! 

Our emperor sublime! 
Our zeal shall thy protection be 

Through life, and death, and time. 

Tbe Mother siiiRS : 

/ «ii7 the wife of the emperor! 

The mother of his son ! 
My blood shall drain. — if thou dost 

My oivn. my little one. 

Spoken : 

/ tell you I am mad! 

My feet are where my head should 

My head is in the dust, you see! 
My eyes are in my toes. 
My ears are in my nose. 

I'm mad. I say! 
I'm mad! 

To take you there I now am glad. 
To go with me you now seem sad. 

I'll pull your body thro the air. 
In lightning speed shall we be there. 

I'll take your shoulders from your 

You'll go with me — though you are 


The Sage 


TilRTH is a mystery. 

Understood by none. 
Birth is a heritage 
By suffering won. 

Birth is beyond our will. 

Birth is a danger. 
Birth begins life — and death. 

Birth is a stranger. 

Birth brings us weal or woe. 

Birth deals sedition. 
Birth bestows happiness. 

Birth is > rcntion. 


Life is a problem dark. 

Each lives it alone! 
Life is a friend or foe — 

A smile or a groan. 

T,ife rules us every day. 

Life bids us labor. 
Life lays a burden hard. 

Life is a sabre. 

Life points the way for -us. 

Life teaches duty. 
Life brings reicard at last. 

Life showcth beauty. 


Death is an incident — 

It comes to us all. 
Death is a loving friend 

To men. — great and small. 

Death is a mantle dark. 

Death is a devil! 
Death shows no preference. 

Death brings all level. 

Death covers all our faults. 
Will not unveileth. 

Death cometh. sure, to all- 
Death never faileth! 












The Song of the Broom 

TF there's dust on the floor 

Don't mind it! 
'Tivill do you no harm. — 

ni .and it: 

If it fulls in the craclyS 

ni stir it! 
Vent not your spleen on. nie — 

Defer it! 

Though it fulls in the food. 

Forget it! 
What we don't knoic nrrer kills, — 

Jiist eat it! 

Sioeep. sireep, sweep, dust, dust, 
I do it! 
Ho forget all the things you ran't 
help. — 
Or rue it! 

The Farmer 

As he walks he sings, — 

A LIFE of ease is not my lot. 

Dig, dig, dig. 
The weeds grow fast, the tveeds 
climb high, 
Big, Mg, big. 

A gentleman rides in his i-hair. 

Swing, sioing, sioing. 
A lady sips tea in her silken room. 

fiing, sing, sing. 

The merchant piles his silver high. 

Rich, rich, rich. 
The tailor sits on his table smooth. 

Stitch, stitch, stitch. 

My back is turned to rain or shine. 

Bare. bare. bare. 
My prayer must turn the weather- 

Fair. fair. fair. 

My pigs grow thin, my debts grow 

Sigh, sigh, sigh. 
My children, cold, beg me for food. 

Cry, cry, cry. 

My wife is old before her time. 

Old, old, old. 
My hair is thin, my hands are 

Cold, cold, cold. 


J AM a birber gay! 

Hea" my call today.- 
Ta-ichoong, — ta-whoong ! 
Hear my noise, I say. 

I detest society, 
I <l<'fy propriety, — 

Ta-whoong, — ta-whoong! 
I abhor sobriety. 

! wantli r llinnifih the street 
On rrri rrxllrss feet, — 
Ta-whiiiiiifi. — hi-ichoong! 
My call your car shall greet. 

Early and late I go. 
Calling, calling. — so.' 
Ta-whoong, — fa-ichoong ! 
Walking to and fro. 

Razors sharp I carry. 
Onward! — never tarry, — 
Ta-whoong, — ta-whoong ! 
.1)H quick at repartee. 

Water hot will soak you. 
Towel tight will choke you. — 
Ta-whoong. — ta-nhoong ! 
As on the face I stroke you. 

So handy a man am I 
My customers never sigh! 
Ta-whoong, — ta-whoong !' 
I never tell a lie. 

Whene'er you hear my gong. 
Where'er you hear my song. — 
Ta-ivhoong, — ta-whoong ! 
I soon shall come along. 

On street, in mart, in home, 
Willitigly I roam, — 
Ta-whoong, — ta-whoong ! 
For copper cash I come. 

Your back I'll also beat. 
Until you feci the heat. — 
Ta-whonng. — la-whoong! 
From head down to your feet. 

Your cars I clean n-ilh care 
Of every substance there. — 
Ta-whoong. — ta-whoong! 
.■\neiv I braid your hair. 

O'er check and brow and nose 
My razor swiftly goes. — 
Ta-whoong. — ta-whoong! 
Your comfort ever grows. 

The Spear-Man 

^ MAN of might am I! 

My enemies ever sigh 
When they see me nigh. 

See the frown upon my brow, — 
See me vanquish with a blow 
All icho meet me now! 

When, on the highway, smart 
I stand, — my friends apart, — 
Lightnings ever dart 

From my bright blade. 

Low are all opponents laid — 

All who see afraid! 

Flesh I tear with ease. 
Life I shorten — as I please! 
Strife with me agrees. 

With foes I strew the ground. 
By me is honor found. 
Near me doth life abound! 

Pauper and prince alike 
Tremble to see me strike. 
All fear my trusty spike! 

The Bliml Minstrel 

r)AY comes. — and night. 

Sunshine and shade. 
Heavy and light. — 
All things appear 

Alike to me. 
Food is just food, — 
/ eat; — and see 
As through a wall. 

Pathways arc rough 
Or smooth tailnii. — 
One hand enough 
To lead iric on. 

Sunshine and shade 
Count naught to me; 

All things are weighed 
By thought alone. 

Friends hare I noni'. 
Home is a dream; '' 
.III. all. are gone 
From me anai/. 

Life is all night. 
Life is re<iret ; 
Life hath no light.- 
Life draggcth on. 

^^^^^^ @e^i^ ^sggg!^< 


In the Pictures Below, Australians, Africans, and an Englishman Are Shown in 
Military Array on or Near the Continent of Asia 

) Underwood and Underwood 

Out of Our Modern Civilization the Australian Volunteer Has Emerged a Romantic Warrior of the East, 
Employing the Native Transport of the Desert in Much of His Cavalry Campaigning. The Highest Test 
of Skill in Camel Training Is Called for When the Cantankerous Beast Is Put into Marchmg Order. 


The Black Soldier Holding the Flag Staff Stands Straight and Looks Proud. In the British Campaigns in 
Africa in the Present War the Native Soudanese, Who Are Mohammedans. Have Been Loyal and Efficient. 


APRIL, 1918 

i.vittH !).. 

n<tf'a "i'h.v > n:( ; n ii - )i y i. a- ii;i V^r iii m i 

rWT r' .^^ t ^f t,-^;^ 


Opposing with Big Guns a Cos^ 
sack Advance on Sibehapf-' ' 
?i Railroad, .v/ 


Russjan Government Pi 
Aga(ii'^t Occupation of Alands 

(Kaiser Opens Way to India \ 
And Asiatic Empire; England^ 
tdtls for Jap&n^W^ 

r-nirp TICKET— BUT 


'i^yinff "TO dly wiin AMERICA ^^jr^^" 
re^Wj^rces 'In men and materia .^f/-' 
must ■"<f6';^t,i^r still. Vou rauafVo.^ 
with alJl.,ypU'l>lBifebts»«tf'SI«*9a;- •-/,;»,,, i 

"iTlflnk of yourselves as under' "«Tl v 
jijiimedlate, terrible, and personal men- t;la. 
j'ace, as if a oarbarous, cruel invasion | fj-oi 
were coming to occupy your land as j help 
I It has already devastated ours. That a'^rtic 
is what it means and you will not be ;)-\\t 
doing your utmost until you sec and fe^'turn<: 
J^. in those precise terms." .,«,;„«>;>■!>'''•''' Amei 

'idence o' The French n'omi^ - 

'Ruxian Collapse Now 

Leaves Free Route to 

Afghanistan and 


Army of Captives 
Mass in Siberia 

BoUheviki Openly An- 
ti-Entente; Teutons 
Inciting Maiiom* 
etan Tribes 

The Teuton in Asia is the Teuton at our Doors 

Not his armies but his army leaders 
inflaming millions in the heart of Asia, 
his subtle agents gathering stores of 
fats, cattle, wheat, minerals, to meet us 
with new defiance on the Western 
Front — these are immediate possibili- 
ties. The Teuton on the Pacific is 

the most perilous threat of the war. 
At no time, has alertness of the public 
consciousness to our dangers held such 
power for victory. At no time has the 
threat of the war struck so directly at 
the personal welfare of every man and 
woman, every home in America. 

Asia — a War Service 

gives that knowledge necessary to see, that stimu- 
lation necessary to meet this great crisis of the War. 


This Association will establish active representatives to spread the import of this 
greatest phase of the War by increasing the Associate Membership. We ask you 
to cooperate: 

(i) Add one new member 

(2) Send the name of a man or woman of calibre to do membership work 
on an attractive income basis. We will send information. 

AMERICAN ASIATIC ASSOCIATION, 627 Lexington Avenue, i\.evv Vork. 

I nominate the following for Associate Membership to receive ASIA for one year, and enclose my check to cover mem- 
bership fee. Of the $2.00 annual dues, $1.75 is for one year's subscription to ASl.-\. 

Name Vddrcss 

I suggest as membersliip representative for the ,^mcrican Asiatic Association 

Name Address 

( Signed) Name .Address 


APRIL. 1 !l 1 N 

r** Ports of 

the Orient " 

... a special edition 
of the "Far Eastern 
Review," of Shang- 
hai, China. 

The Far East, com- 
prising half the 
world's population, 
is awaking to the 
need of modern civil- 
ization and is seek- 
ing in the West her 

The Ports of the 
Orient edition will 
be a "Vade Mecum" 
for manufacturer and 
trader — 200 pages of 
maps, port descrip- 
tions, methods, 
tariffs, commodities, 
traders — an invalu- 
able advertising me- 
d i u m . Circulates 
throughout the 
Treaty Ports, China, 
Manchuria, Korea, 
Philippines and in 

Particulars should 
be secured at once. 
Forms will be closing 
shortly in Shanghai. 


Conway BuiM 
Chicago, Illino 
U. S. A. 
And at 
Cape Town 

liy A. W. Fehui.n 

OF liank cloaiinus in C'liiiia onu may 
iiialve the same statement that was 
once made of snakes in Ireland: tliere 
: rea't any. Because of the great num- 
ber of native banlts which have not yet 
caught up witli American and Euro- 
pean practice it has not been feasible to 
( stablisli clearing houses, and balances 
between banks must still be settled as 
tliey were in New York and other Amer- 
ican cities before the Civil War. One 
of the sights of a Chinese city familiar 
to the long time resident, but surprisinfi 
to the visitor, is that of coolies carrying 
from bank to bank great boxes of silver, 
suspended on bamboo poles. 

.^nd still stranger is the form of that 
silver. Most Americans who have read 
about China at all know that the Chi- 
nese monetary measure is a Tael, but 
probably few- except those who have 
travelled in China know what a Tael is. 
It is not a coin, but a weight of silver. 
Tlie Haikwan or Customs Tael is one 
and one-third ounces of silver, .975 fine. 
Each province has a Tael, too, varying 
slightly from province to province, but 
usually weighing about an ounce. While 
the Tael is not a coin, it is cast, even 
in one Tael pieces, but such pieces are 
curiosities. The 60 Tael piece, however, 
which is called a syvee or shoe and is 
worth at recent rates of exchange about 
it>\ Gold, is current among banks, ami 
it is witli this strange form of cash that 
l)ank balances are settled. It is difficult 
to describe the .s.i/ccc's shape, but tlie 
accompanying photograpJi, taken in a 
Chinese "mint", shows quite clearly 
what it is. Why the shoes assume this 
sliape instead of a small silver bar is 
I'.ard to say. Probably it is one of the 
[Cnntiniiiil (in page 332) 


From the Original Water Colors 
LetterPress byCertrudeEmerson 

In portfolio, the eight paint- 
ings ^ reproduced in the 
March number of ASIA. 
Beautifully done on cameo 
art card, 9 '/axl 3, for framing 

Price $3.00. postage prepaid 
to any part of the world 

A PR II., 1 !l 1 S 


557 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Chinese Antiques 


Yamanaka ^ Co. 





A CORDIAL invitation is extended to our 
Art' Loving Patrons to inspect the New 
Galleries, the wonderful collection of Orien- 
tal Art and a new department of modern 
silks, silk crepes, etc.. which has just opened. 


l\ commercial bank 
which in actual practice 
cultivates tlie friendship 
of its customers and 


Woolworth Building 

New York 

APRIL, 1911 



Center of the City's Life and Color 
A Host to Cosmopolitans 


FROM $2.00 

Under the Management oj James Woods 





Q Direct fast service dail^), for Ocean, Lake and Rail traffic 
bet-cv^een Vancouver, Seattle, Tacoma, Portland on tKe North 
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Rates and Information furnisKed upon request 

Northern Pocftc Ry., General Off. 
Representatives in the leading c 

St.Paul,M.nn.,U. S. A. 
5 of tNe United States 

?ss^ssi^>>r<^^x<'-\\\ ^\.\ "^"^X "^^xVW 

APRIL, 1918 




Twenty-five years ago the General 
Electric Company was founded. 

Since then, electricity has sent its 
thrill through the whole structure of 

Eager to turn wheels, to lift and 
carry, to banish dark, to gather 
heat, to hurl voices and thoughts 
across space, to give the world new 
tools for its work — electricity has 
bent to mans will. 

Throughout this period the General 
Electric Company has held the great 
responsibilities and high ideals of 

It has set free the spirit of research. 

It has given tangible form to inven- 
tion, in apparatus of infinite preci- 
sion and gigantic power. 

And it has gone forth, co-operating 
with every industry, to command 
this unseen force and fetch it far to 
serve all people. 
By the achievements which this 
company has already recorded may 
best be judged the greater ends its 
future shall attain, the deeper niys- 
teries it yet shall solve in electrify- 
ing more and more of the world s 


(('(iiiliniird from jiiKjc WIS) 
iiiiuiy things vvliicli the Chinuse have 
inherited from tlieir ancestors and which 
have lost their explanation down the 

Each bank has its own syrec.s made in 
one of several "mints" which are author 
ized to do business — small workshops 
where natives melt up the bar silver 
and transform it into the size, shape 
and weight, which will make it accept- 
able by one bank from another, Tlie 
banks import tlie silver, in bars, or Imy 
it from bullion dealers, sending it lo the 
mint to he made into shoes as needed. 

Transporting Silv 
barrow from 1 

r Bars by Wheel- 
ink to the Mint 

The photograph herewith shows a wheel- 
harrowman leaving the Chartered Bank 
in Shanghai with a load of silver bars, 
on his way to the mint. The weight 
of the bars prevents the load from being 
a large one. 

At the mint the silver is melted over 
a charcoal fire, fanned by a hand bel- 
lows, and is then poured into molds, 
from which it emerges in rounded forms, 
somewhat hollowed out. It is then placed 
in strong boxes and returned to tin- 
bank on the coolies' bamboo poles, or 
in the wheelbarrow in which it came. 
or in a native cart. 

The interior of a Chinese mint resem- 
bles nothing so much as the village 
smithy which, in our school readers, 
stood under the spreading chestnut tree. 
Coatless, shirtless, smiling Chinese work- 
ing in the fitful glare of the charcoal 
flames present a scene quite as fascinat- 
ing as the one portrayed in the poem, 
and the manner in which they handle 
{Coniludc'l on ixific 337) 

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Union Trust BIdg.. Cincinnati 
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Pacific Bidg., San Francisco 

Van Nuys BIdg., Los Angele: 
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A !■ K I L . 19 18 

TO or from the Pacific 
North^^ est the Great 

Northern Railway's Oriental 
Limited (thru between Chi- 
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Spokane, Seattle, Tacoma, 
Portland) crosses the splendid 
Montana Rocky Mountains 
along the border, and by the 
gates, of Glacier National Park 
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The Oriental Limited follows the 
transcontinental "speedway" track 
that's the route of the fastest long- 
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The "Oriental" is a pleasant-journey train 
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Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Santos. 


Montevideo, La Plata, Buenos Aires and 



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Vladivostok, Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, 

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S. I.Ol'NSnERY Afient, Passenfti-r Ocnnrtment 

1184 Broadway, NKW VORK 


Passenger Traffic ManaCor 

ST. I'M 1 

Funch, Edye & Co., 


Established 1847 

Stedmship Agents 
end SMp Brokers 


Cable Address-'TUNCH, NEW YORK" 

APRIL, 191S 

A Scotchman Started It 

ONadull, rainy day 
in Glasgow, many 
years ago, a Scotchman 
wearing an odd-look- 
ing cloak sauntered 
along in the drizzle. 

His good neighbors 
wondered what he 
could be about. Doubt- 
less they thought him 
daft. Little did they 
know how much he 
was to add to the future 
comfort of the world. 
For this was the first 
practical test of Charles 
Macintosh's discovery 
that rubber could be 

Rainproof coats came into favor very 
slowly. Rubber was expensive, the 
wearing qualities of the rubberized 
fabrics of that day were poor, and the 
styles were hideous. The old caped 
"macintosh" soon grew brittle and 

What an improvement today ! 

The United States Rubber Company 
makes weather coats of standard, well 
proved, durable materials, tailored to 
satisfy every taste. Among 
them are weather coats for 
all people and all services — 
from the light-weight gar- 
ments that modish women 
wear to the heavy storm coats 
used for hard work — or play. 

The makingof thou- 
sands and thousands of 
weather coats is a great 
business by itself. But 
it is only one of the 
many activities of the 
United States Rubber 
Company, the largest 
rubber manufac- 
turer in the world. 

Included in the out- 
put of its 47 factories 
are also all Styles of 
rubber footwear, 
canvas rubber-soled 
shoes, tires for auto- 
mobiles, motor 
trucks and all other 
vehicles, druggists' 
rubber goods, insulated wire, soles 
and heels, belting, hose, packing, 
mechanical and moulded rubber 
goods of every description. 

To furnish this vast output the 
United States Rubber Company has 
built up an immense organization, 
based on a foundation laid 74 years 
ago. Some of its units are especially 
skilled and equipped for the produc- 
tion of one kind of rubber goods, 
some for another. But every 
unit in the United States 
Rubber System is guided and 
dominated by this funda- 
mental policy: the stand- 
ard of quality must be 

United States Rubber Company 


APRIL, 1911 





The Mark of Quality 


Motor Spirits — 

for Motor Cars, Motor Boats, Flying Machines, 

Illuminating Oils 
Lubricating Oils — 

for lubricating aU classes of machinery Road Oils and Material for 

Lamps, Stoves and Heaters Road Building 

ParaffineWax and Candles 

Our products are prepared under the care of 
the world's foremost experts, so as to give the highest amount of efficiency. 




APRIL, 1 91 S 

Cotton Goods 
for Export 

Jeans and Sheetings. 


Sheetings and Drills. 



Print Cloths. 


Sheetings and Drills. 

Minot, Hooper & Co. 






16 and 18 Exchange Place 



345^347 Broadway, N. Y. 

Tire Fabrics 
Cotton Yarns 
Cotton Flannels 
Cotton Blankets 

New York ' Boston 
Philadelphia - Chicago 



Edited by Welford Beaton 

1 he only annual handbook printed in any language dealing with everything 
that pertains to shipping on the Pacific Ocean. 


It is a commercial geography of all the countries on the Pacific and all the 
islands in it. It contains full and complete information about the various ports, ac- 
commodations, port charges, etc. It is full of the information that shippers, ex- 
porters and importers who do business with Pacific Ocean countries must have to 
carry on their business understandingly. 

Lloyd's List (London), says of Pacific Ports: — 

We can most cordially recommend it to. the classes for which 
it is intended. 

The Exporters' and Importers' Journal (New York), says of Pacific Ports: — 

Should prove as invaluable to the shippers in Chile, Australia 
or China, as it is to those of the United States of America. 

1918 Edition ready for delivery in February. Price $3.00 net. At booksellers or 


Eastern Office, Frank Waterhouse & Company, 1444 Woolworth Bldg., New York. 

APRIL, 1911 

(Concluded from page 332) 
the heavy silver bars and the boxes of 
finished syccc proves that the muscles 
of their brawny arms are "strong as 
iron bands." 

One might thinli that the transfer of 
bars and boxes of silver through the 
streets of a Chinese city would tempt 
brigandage, but the sycce weighs nearly 
four pounds avoirdupois and there are 
60 in each box, while the bars weigh 
30 to 60 pounds. A robber would not 
get far with box or bar. Besides, the 
sycee is essentially a bank token and 
no merchant would accept it from a cus- 
tomer; neither would the bullion dealer 
be likely to buy one from any source 
except a bank. In fact, the theft of 
sycee is far less frequent, in Shanghai 
at least, than was that of gold coin in 
New York in the days when bank bal- 
ances were settled by the daily transfer 
of $5,000 bags of gold pieces. 

Primitive as is this system of settling 
balances, it works well enough in China, 
so well, indeed, that a clearing house 
is likely to be among the later steps in 
any program of banking reform. 

The use of sycee is practically re- 
stricted to the banks, though they are 
sometimes used in large business trans- 
actions. The currency of the common 
people and that of retail trade is the 
Mexican, Yuan Shih-kai or other silver 
dollar, or banknotes convertible into 
silver dollars, and small silver and cop- 
per subsidiary coins. Banknotes are 
Issued against silver dollars which are 
not used as bank reserves, not against 

By Rodney Gilbert 

THE pneumonic plague, which is 
now working its way into thickly 
populated sections which are fairly 
familiar to travellers in China, took its 
rise in a district which, though not re- 
mote, is badly mapped and abounds in 
towns and villages of Mongol origin with 
names which are usually misspelled and 
are easily confused at best. For some 
weeks after the first plague cases were 
reported the pestilence was confined to 
a small area around Paotowchen, a Chi- 
nese city in Mongolia, ten li from tlie 
north bank of the Yellow River and just 
west of the Shansi border, built upon 
land leased from the Mongols. When 
it was reported that the plague had 
reached Saratsi, it seemed from a study 
of the map that it had approached dan- 
gerously near Kueihuach'eng, while as 
a matter of fact the Saratsi on the map 
is really Sarsach'i, 100 li from Kueihua, 
and the city which was meant was 
(Conrlnch'il on piKje 344) 



Total Weight of Engir.e. 126,000 pounds; Weight on Drivers. 103.000 pounds; 
Diameter of Drivers, 36 inches; Boiler Pressure, 200 pounds; Cylinders. 13 and 
20 H X 20 inches; Maximum Tractive Power, working simple, 29,200 pounds- 
working compound, 24,300 pounds; Gauge of Track, 2 feet 6 inches. 

1 of these narrovkf gauge Mallet locomotives 
were delivered to the Serbian Government by 
this company. They have outside frames 
necessitated by the 30-inch gauge of track. 


Total Weight of Engine, 139,000 pounds; Weight on Drivers, 88.500 pounds; 
Diameter of Drivers. 53 Vs inches; Boiler Pressure. 180 pounds; Cylinders, 19 x 24 
inches; Maximum Tractive Power, 25,000 pounds; Gauge of Track, 4 feet 8% 





Export Representatives in all Foreign Countries, except Canada 



CHINA — Mitsui & Company, Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, Tientsin 
JAPAN — Mitsui & Company, 1 Suruga Cho. Tokyo 
RUSSIA — Russian American Trading Corporation, Nevslcy 1, Petrograd 

AP Ji I 1. , 19 1 


Steamship Agents and Brokers 



General Agents for Steamship 
Lines from 


















And Any Other Ports and Places 

Throughout the World as 

Opportunity Offers 

Loading Berths 

Piers 1 and 2 Bush Docks, 
South Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Consignments from Interior Points 
of the United States and Can- 
ada to our care will be 
promptly forwarded. 

Insurance Effected under our Open 
Policy at Lowest Rates. 



New York Direct to Montevideo 
and Buenos Aires, South America. 

New York Direct to Capetown, 

Durban, Bombay, Madras, 

Rangoon and Calcutta. 

Bookings to All Principal 
Ports of the World. 


Ship Brokers 


Steamship Agents 

Cable Address 

U. S. A. 


Wellington, Sears 
& Company 





Merit A and Bullseye Drills 

Columbus L L Sheetings 

Columbus Family Cotton 

Oceanic Duck 

Sail, Wide and Army Ounce 

Hose and Belting Duck 

Awning Stripe 




Some Evebyday Tbauedie.s 

By S. Washio, Ph.D. 

ONE evening last summer a certain 
group of Kobe narikin, mushroom 
millionaires, met in the most fash- 
ionable restaurant of the city, Toki- 
wakan, and ordered a dinner at five 
hundred yen a piece. One of the .spe- 
cialties served was a live tai (sea-bream) 
swimming in a glass box. Mr. Kuhara, 
a new giant In the mining field and 
leader of the narikin class, took a vaca- 
tion trip to Shiobara one summer day. 
He ordered a first class special car and 
had it made into an icy palace. 

Such episodes are now out of date. In 
their place we have Oka-han and daikon. 
Oka ban is a rice-speculator and he is 
now brought to public attention by his 
attempt to corner the rice market. Dai- 
kon is a big Japanese radish and now 
famous because of its high price. Oka- 
han and daikon are the symbols for the 
high cost of living and the suffering of 
the people. Daikon has risen from three 
sen to thirteen sen a piece in the last 
three months. The chief reason for such 
an exceptionally high price for daikon 
Is the exceptionally severe cold of this 
winter, which killed the plants in the 
field. The price of daikon, therefore, 
cannot be taken as the criterion of the 
ratio of the increase in the prices of 
everything. Nevertheless, the general 
increase of the cost of living is so ap- 
palling to the general public that the 
price of daikon, which is the chief vege- 
table food of the Japanese people, is 
aptly taken as a typical grievance by the 
suffering and complaining housewives. 

Cost Has Doubled 

Speaking from the general impression 
of the public, the cost of living has 
doubled since the war, and the highest 
upward tendency began particularly 
from the early summer of 1917 and con- 
tinued steadily up to the present, par- 
ticularly with relation to the prices of 
daily necessities. 

On whose shoulders does this high cost 
of living tall most heavily? The ob- 
vious answer is upon the middle and the 
lower classes. But nothing is more mis- 
leading than the words "middle" and 
"lower." Before the war the middle 
class of this country meant the class of 
people who live on fixed incomes of be- 
tween fifty yen and two hundred yen a 
month. But this is no longer a good 
working distinction. On the one hand, 
the wages of laborers who constituted 
the bulk of the so-called lower class have 
{Continued on page 340) 

APRIL, 1918 

Established 1857 


Foreign Freight Contractors 

I MCI TD A M/""!? War and Marine Risks a Specialty. Lowest rales quoted in 
IINOUIXAINI^H. standard American companies, also London and Petrograd. 




OSAKA SHOSEN KAISHA (Osaka Mercantile Steamship Company, Ltd.) 
NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA (Japan Mail Steamship Company). 

Sailing weekly from Tacoma and Seattle to ports in China, Japan and Philippine Islands in connection 
with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Co. 


Weekly sailings from Liverpool to Lisbon and the Canary Islands, connecting at Lisbon for Cape Verde 
Islands and Portuguese West and East African Ports. 


W. R. GRACE & CO. 


San Francisco New York New Orleans 

Lima, Peru Valparaiso, Chile 

Callao, Peru Santiago, Chile 

Arequipa, Peru Concepcion, Chile 

La Paz, Bolivia Valdivia, Chile 

Agents in All the Principal Cities of Central and South America 


Direct Sailings from New York twice a month for Antofagasta, Arica, Callao, 
Coquimbo, Coronel, Eten, Guayaquil, Iquique, Mollendo, Pacasmayo, Payta, 
Punta Arenas, Salaverry, Talcaliuano, Valparaiso, and other ports as induce- 
ments offer. 




Rio de Janeiro Santos 



Letters of Credit : Cable Transfers : Bills of Exchange 

Exceptional facilities for collecting in Central and South America 

A I' li I L . 1 9 1 S 

\11E IN r.s.A. 
Trade Mark Reg. 


For Export 


Strong export barrels weighing 500 
lbs. net; 570 gross. Measurements 
101/2 cu. ft. 

Packed in tins, each tin covered 
with colored glazed paper showing 
the color the dye will produce. 

Sizes I Kilo 500 gr. ;50gr. loogr. so gr. ^5 gr 

I lb ;; lb. u lb : i... I o,. 


Eagle Direct Black 
Eagle Direct Congo Red 
Eagle Direct Pink 
Eagle Direct Blue 
Eagle Direct Violet 
DirectChrysamine Yellow 
Eagle Direct Green W. T. 
Eagle Direct Brown 
Eagle Direct Fast Yellow 
Eagle Direct Navv Blue 
Eagle Direct Sk-y Blue 
Eagle Methyl Violet 


Bismark Brown R 
Bismark Brown Y' 
Chrysoidine R 
Methylene Blue 
Purpurine 4B 
Metanil Y'ellow 
Direct Orange W.B 
Direct Salmon Red 
Direct Tan 
Neutral Gray 
Direct Fast Scarlet 
1 Violet Crystals 
Turquoise Blue 



Eagle Ponceau Red 
Eagle Scarlet II R 
Eagle Napthol Green W 
Eagle Orange II 
Eagle Fast Bordeau 
Eagle Carmesine B 
Eagle Dark Claret 
Eagle Bismark R 
Eagle Bismark Y 
Eagle Acid Brown G 
Eagle Acid Brown U 
Eagle Royal Purple B. 2 

Eagle Violet 4BX 
Eagle Acid Black 
Eagle Fast Rose 
Eagle Victoria Yellow 
Eagle Acid Yellow 
Eagle Crocein Orange 
Eagle Victoria Green 
Eagle Napthol Green W 
Eagle Fast Acid Green 
Eagle Indigotine 
Eagle Acid Navy Blue 
Eagle Methylene Blue 
Eagle Turquoise Blue 

Samples of Packages and Prices 
on request. 

Cable Address: 



1489-1490-1491 Cort. 

Hongkong and 
Shanghai Bank- 
ing Corporation 

Paid-up Capital, $15,000,000 

(Hongkong Currency) 
Reserve Funds, 
In Gold . . $15,000,000 
In Silver . . . 19,500,000 
Reserve Liability of 
Proprietors .$15,000,000 

Court of Directors and 
Head Office in Hongkong 

London Bankers — 
London County & West- 
minster Bank, Ltd. 
Grant drafts, issue Let- 
ters of Credit for Travel- 
lers, and negotiate or col- 
lect bills payable at the 
principal cities of Europe, 
Asia and America. 
36 Wall Street, New York 

China and Japan 

Trading Com 


80 Maiden Lane 

No. 4 and 5 East India Ave., 
Leadenhall St., London, E. C. 

No. 3 Lloyds House, Albert Sq., 

No. 42 Kiangse Road, Shanghai, 


No. 89 Yamashita Cho, Yoko- 

No. 88 Naka Machi, Kobe. 

No. 20 Nakanoshima 7 Chome, 

and Importers 


(Continued Jrom page 338) 
considerably increased since tlie war. 
All skilled laborers arc getting very 
much more than fifty yen a month and 
even the wages of the average laborer 
closely approach this limit. On the other 
hand there are many whiskered gentle- 
men, who by their intelligence and ac- 
quired habits distinctly belong to the 
middle class, and who are yet compelled 
to live on a salary of fifty yen or there- 
abouts. Considered from the question 
of living, there are two distinctive 
classes which do not correspond with 
the traditional distinction between the 
middle and the lower classes. They are 
the suffering and non-suffering class. 

Workers and laborers belong to the 
latter class. Their incomes have in- 
creased more than enough to balance 
the higher cost of living, and living on 
the standard they were living before the 
war they do not suffer now. The suf- 
fering class is the class of the people 
whose incomes have not been increased 
by the war and who have to meet the 
doubled cost of living with exactly the 
same resources they had before the war. 
The bulk of this class consists of salaried 
men. This last statement, however, 
needs a qualification. There are two 
kinds of salaried men: those who get 
mere fixed salaries and those who get 
salaries and bonuses. The latter are 
the employees of industrial and mercan- 
tile companies. The employees of the 
prosperous companies have been receiv- 
ing in the last two years bonuses and 
special rewards, which, on an average, 
are about equal to the amount of the 
regular salary. Clearly they do not be- 
long to the suffering class. 

The SuFFERi.NG Class 
In the last analysis, the class that is 
suffering is the salary-without-bonus 
class. It consists largely of teachers, 
professors, writers, editors, newspaper 
reporters, police, soldiers and other gov- 
ernment officers and the employees of 
the private companies that are not pros- 
pering. The burden of the increased 
cost of living falls heavily especially 
upon those who are getting fixed salaries 
below one hundred yen a month. One 
hundred yen a month was considered as 
a fair average income before the war, 
but since the war its economic value has 
been reduced to one-half and the respec- 
table gentlemen of the middle class are 
now relegated into the lower class finan- 
cially. They are pinched to the utter- 
most, and the wonder is how those who 
still get only fifty or sixty yen a month 
can manage to live and support their 
(Conlitiurrl on page 342) 

APRIL, 1911 


General Exporters 
and Importers 



Cebu, Iloilo, Zamboanga, Tacloban, Legaspi and Vigan 

in the Philippine Islands; Kobe, Japan; Sydney, Australia; 

and at 11 Broadway, New York; 310 California Street, 

San Francisco; and Hoge Building, Seattle. 


General Export and Import Merchants 

Handling all Classes of Manufactures and 
Products to and from all parts of the World 

Cable Address— PAIBODIE 
Main Office 

17 State Street, New York City 

Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 
Chicago, III., U. S. A. 
San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. 
London, England 
Liverpool, England 

Branch Houses or Representatives 

Sydney, Australia 
Melbourne, Australia 
Brisbane, Australia 
Wellington, New Zealand 
Manila, Philippine Islands 
Capetown, South Africa 

Johannesburgh, South Africa 
Durban, South Africa 
Buenos Aires, South America 
Rio Janeiro, South America 
Sao Paulo, South America 

APRIL, mis 


We Operate Our Own 
Plant for Handling Oils, 

Our Own Docks and 

Our Own Line of 
Tank Cars. 















Rogers Brown & Co. 

Seattle, Wash., U. S. A. 

Hoge Bldg. 


Kobe, Japan. Chicago, 111. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
New York, N. Y. 

Cable Address: ROGBRO 
Codes: ABC. 5th Ed. Yc 
Bentley's, Western Union 
Private Codes. 

Milliken & 

Manufacturers' Agents 

Brown Sheetings 



Bleached Cottons 



Printed and dyed Shirtings, 

Voiles, Organdies, 

Poplins, etc. 

79 and 8 1 Leonard St. 



(Continued from puye 340) 
families. This last is probably the in- 
come of the bulli of the salary-getting 
class, the class obviously "lower" finan- 
cially, but whose members would not 
like to be classed as such socially. I 
can give no better idea of their actual 
condition than by quoting the accounts 
of the housewives of this class. The 
following is the family budget given by 
the young wife of a certain lieutenant 
of the Japanese army. 

The family consists of the man, his 
wife, two children and a nurse. The 
salary of the lieutenant, which is fifty 
yen a month, is the only income on 
which the family lives. Out of this fifty 
yen the husband spends about eight yen 
for his luncheons and other expenses, so 
that he brings home forty-two yen which 
is spent by the wife for the following 
itemized expenses: 

For rice, fuel, shoyu (Japanese 
sauce), and milk (subdivided 
into 7.00 for rice, 2.00 for shoyu, 

2.00 for gas, 2.50 for milk) 13.00 

Side dishes 4.00 

Rent 11.00 

Wages for the nurse 2.00 

Income tax 1.50 

Private expenses of the husband. . 3.00 

Private expenses of the wife 1.50 

Social expenses 1.50 

Educational fund for the children 1.00 

Emergency expenses 1.00 

Savings bank deposit 2.00 

Total 42.00 

The sad economy of this needs no com- 
ment, but the brave young wife herself 
makes the following remarks: "I am 
ashamed of the poor economy of this ac- 
count, but I really can't do any better 
when prices are so high. When some 
expenses for clothing are absolutely 
necessary I draw on the emergency ex- 
penses. Fortunately, we are all healthy 
and rarely fall ill, so that the emergency 
expenses usually go to the savings bank. 
As to clothing, my husband and myself 
are equipped with all we need for prac- 
tical purposes. What new clothes I make 
are for the children and in this respect 
I am greatly relieved by the assistance 
of my parents. 

My husband is frequently sent out of 
the city on duty, and whenever he re- 
turns home from such a trip he usually 
brings some saving out of his special 
allowance. I have made it my duty to 
deposit all such savings to the savings 
bank in the name of the children. 

I stay almost always at home. I rare- 
(Concluded on page 346) 

APRIL, 19 1: 

Joshua L. Baily & Co. 

Dry Goods Commission Merchants 


1508 Walnut St. 

New York 

39 & 41 Thomas Street— 217 Church St. 


31 Bedford St. 

St. Paul— 203 Endicott Bldg. San Francisco— 916 Postal Telegraph Bldg. 

Sheetings, Shirtings, Drills, Canton Flannels, Flannelettes, Domets, 
Denims, Tickings, Ginghams, and all kinds of Cotton Goods. 


100 Rollins Bldg. 

242 Equitable Bldg. 



160 West Jackson Bl'vd 

1009 Mercantile Library Bldg 

St. Louis 


610 Century Bldg. 

418 Railway Exchange 

J. p. STEVENS & CO. 



Standard Cotton Fabrics for EXPORT TRADES 

including Shirtings, Sheetings, Drills, Twills, Print Cloths, 
Tickings, Flannelettes, Crashes, Etc., Etc. 




Bates Manufacturing Company, Androscoggin Mills, 

Laconia Mills, Boston Duck Company, 

Warren Cotton Mills, Thorndike Company, 

Edwards Manufacturing Company, Cordis Mills, 

Otis Company, — Underwear, Hill Manufacturing Company, 

Columbian Manufacturing Company, Otis Company, — Palmer Mills, 
Pep|)erell Manufactiirinfi Omipanv. 



A r K I L , I !t 1 S 

'An Organization Established to Fill the Exact Wants of the Foreign Paper Buyer' 

Smith Tablet Co., Inc., 
Holyoke, Mass. 






Woolworth Building 

General Paper Goods 

Manufacturing Co., 

New York City. 















M. F., ETC., ETC. 

rded Immediately Upon Request. 

pies Forw 

iquiries explicit so that your requirements may be met 
ithout delay. Factories and mills near seaboard. 

Make youi 
fully and 

Merchandise Properly Packed and Promptly Shipped, 






(Cnncluded from page 337) 
Salach'i, only 90 li from Paotowchen and 
240 li from Kueihua. 

In the beginning the plague was 
working under difficulties, for it had 
only one highway on the west and one 
highway on the east along which it 
could travel and the population is not 
dense. Two weeks after the first cases 
were reported and described the plague 
could have been confined to an area 200 
li square by suspending traffic on the 
single highway over which the wool 
from the west travels from Ninghsia, in 
the extreme northeast corner of Kansu, 
to Fengchen, the railhead of the Peking- 
Suiyuan railway. It has not only found 
its way unhindered through the narrow 
valleys to Fengchen in Shansi on the 
east and, by way of Kueihua, to Soping 
and other cities inside the Great Wall, 
but it has contrived to work west over 
the little travelled road that follow^s the 

Yellow River in its circuit of the Ordos 
desert and is now said to be taking a 
hold in the Ninghsia district of Kansu. 

The first case was reported from 
Patsebulong, a mission settlement, north 
of the Wula Shan and northwest of 
Paotowchen. The next reports were 
from Paotow and the next from Salach'i. 
From this city which is just within the 
Shansi border and is officially known as 
Wuyuanhsien, it advanced to Kuei- 
huach'eng, marked on old maps as 
Kueihuating, and mentioned in official 
reports as Suiyuan, the latter being the 
residence of the Tutung, about a mile 
and a half from the commercial city. 
Prom Kueihua, the unhindered pesti- 
lence had the choice of two roads, one 
leading to Fengchen and Tatungfu, 380 
and 490 li distant respectively, and the 
other running southeast through Soping 
and Taichow to Chengtingfu on the 
Peking-Hankow railway. It chose both. 

Moving west from Paotowchen there 

is only one highway, which many camel 
trains from Kansu follow in winter, but 
which is almost deserted in summer 
when the Yellow River is ice free. This 
road leads through Santaoho, a Roman 
Catholic Mission village near the elbow 
of the river, through Shihtsuishan, 
where there is a carefully guarded pass 
and a large garrison, and on into the 
populous Ninghsia district of Kansu, al- 
together an eighteen day journey of 
about 1,300 11 through thinly settled 
country in which a pestilence would 
travel with difficulty and in which it 
could have been most effectually checked 
at any of half a dozen points. This dif- 
ficult journey the plague has also con- 
trived to make, and on the vfest, as In 
the east, it has reached Intramural 
China and Is claiming its victims in 
thickly populated districts tapped by 
railways and Interlaced with a network 
of much travelled cartroads. — From T?ie 
North China Herald. 







Bleached Goods, Cambrics, Nainsooks, Batistes, Duck, Drills, Osnaburgs, Woven Chambrays, 
Denims, Tickings, Hickory Stripes, Suitings, Covert Cloths, Khaki Cloths, Jeans, Fancy Colored 
Duck, Wide Sheetings, Pillow Tubings, Sheets and Pillow Cases, Shrunk Interlinings, Corset Inter- 

Washington Printed Fabrics, Percales, Lawns, Prints, Washington Oil Colors, all widths. 

Wash Goods, Shirtings, Gabardines, Twilled Jeans, Pajama Checks and Plaids, Voiles, Piques, 

Poplins, Oxfords, Repps. 


APRIL, 191! 


BOSTON.144 Essex Street NEW YORK, 11 5-1 17 Worth Street 
CHICAGO, 160 W. Jackson Boulevard 

Standard Woven Cotton Fabrics 

Everett Mills 


Pin Checks 

Plain Denims 

32 INCH Madras 

Prescott Stripes 

32 INCH Fine Zephyrs 

Double and Twist Denims 

Print Cloth and Twills 

Massachusetts Suitings 

Brown Sheetings and Shirtings 

U.S.Army Olive Drab Uniform Cloth 

Brown and Bleached Cotton Flannels 

Bleached and Unbleached Shaker Flannels 

28iNCH, 32 INCH. 36iNCH Work Shirt Material; 

Eden Cloth 
Brown Drills 
Blue Drills 
Dress Ginghams 
Cotton Ducks 
Hickory Stripes 
Checks and Plaids 
Covert Cloth 
Scout Cloth 
Cotton Blankets 

Massachusetts Cotton Mills 

produced by 
Massachusetts Cotton Mills York Manufacturing Co. 

Everett Mills Massachusetts Mills In Georgia 

TheTrjon Co. Floyd Cotton Mills 

Ware Shoals Mfg. Co. 

York Manufacturing Co. 


is an address known the world over where railways have been built. 

Mikado Type Freight Locomotive for Service in Cliina 

The Baldwin Works provide, to an unusual degree, two essentials in the 
production of successful locomotives — a varied experience, and complete 
manufacturing facilities. 

Baldwin engines are designed for the work to be done, and the Baldwin 
organization is prepared to study railway traffic requirements, and to build 
locomotives specially fitted for meeting them. 

Baldwin Gasoline Locomotives are doing good work in light indus- 
trial and switching service. They are fully described in Record 85. 


Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 

London Office: 31 Victoria St., S. W. 

Cable Addresses: — "Baldwin, Philadelphia", — "Fribald, London." 


Andersen, Meyer & Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China Sale & Frazar, Lid., Tokyo, Japan 




Branch Offices: Chicago, New York, San Francisco, Los 
Angeles, Hongkong, Shanghai, Kobe, Tokyo, London. 

Cable Address, "Nortraco, Seattle' 

All Codes Used. 


(Concluded from page 342) 

ly have a chance to see other people and 
so I don't become envious of more for- 
tunate women. I have my pleasure in 
taking care of the children and look for- 
ward to the time when my husband's 
salary will be raised just one degree 

"Ah, one degree higher!" That is a 
matter of only ten yen more. The cost 
of living has increased fully 20 per cent 
since the brave wife made this comment. 
I can't help wondering what sort of a 
family budget she has now. Examples 
of this kind can be given without end, 
but this one is the fairest possible sam- 
ple of the state of the "suffering class" 
I could give. — From the Japan Adver- 


By S. S. Venezuela, from Hongkong 
January 30, via Shanghai February 3, 
Kobe February 6, Yokohama February 
8, Honolulu February 19, 1918. 
From Manila. Hongkong and Shanghai 

Miss K. Abbey, Mrs. L. S. Abbey, Mr. 
and Mrs. C. H. Blake, Mr. E. S. Bennett, 
Mr. A. P. Beckett, Miss E. C. Brown, 
Mr. C. I. Carver, Mr. P. Fowlie, Mrs. P. 
Hockmuth, Mr. Chop Juan, Mr. and Mrs. 
Hing Juan, Miss W. B. Honsinger, Mr. 
W. H. Heppel, Mrs. R. G. Helmick, Mr. 
W. H. Kearns, Mrs. E. J. Kitchings, Miss 
E. J. Kitchings, Master R. N. Kitchings, 
Mr. M. E. Levy, Mr. L. L. Lepetit, Mr. 
R. Leon, Mr. G. Lekszycki, Mr. E. Lun- 
ney, Mr. V. V. Lemberger, Mrs. A. Major, 
Miss O. Major, Mr. H. B. Ollerdessen, 
Mrs. M. E. Palmer, Mr. R. Roxburgh, 
Mr. F. W. Stones, Mr. James Scotson, 

Mr. L. Scialdione, Mr. M. Trebilcot, Mr. 
J. Whyte. 

From Kobe and Yokohama 

Miss M. L. Bowers, Mr. H. Christener, 
Mr. D. L. Cramer, Mrs. M. Frank, Mrs. 
L. Fuller, Mr. W. L. Hess, Mr. A. L. 
Hill, Mr. C. Holmes, Mrs. F. B. Hyde, 
Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Jackson, Mr. M. 
Klope, Mrs. M. Klope, Master Mervyn 
Klope, Miss Vera Klope, Mrs. J. C. 
Logan, Miss R. Lambros, Miss S. Marco, 
Mr. Wm. B. Mason, Jr., Mrs. P. A. Mc- 
Dermid, Mr. S. H. Scheuer, Mr. and Mrs. 
A. Schofield, Master Parker F. Schofield, 
Mr. and Mrs. F. R. Sites, Master Ken- 
neth G. Sites, Mr. Chas. I. Smith, Miss 
I. A. Souvorina, Mr. Theodor Sherer, 
Mr. A. P. Thorne, Mrs. A. H. Tripler, 
Mrs. M. E. Wigton, Master Robert 

From Honolulu 

Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Randolph. 


We are one of the largest Importers and Exporters of Japanese and American 

merchandise and products in the Pacific Northwest. 

If you are interested in Oriental merchandise of any kind w^e shall be pleased to 

receive your inquiries. 

216-218-220 Second Ave., South 

Branches in Tacoma, Vancouver, B. C, Yokohama and Kobe, Japan 

APRIL, 1911 

Andersen, Meyer & Co. 







Selling Agents for 

Pacific Mills Ipswich Mills Ipswich Mills io'^^^^^Znd 

Merrimack Mfg. Co. Boston Mfg. Co. Whittenton Mfg. Co. 

These Mills are the world's foremost makers of bleached, printed and 
dyed Cotton Goods of every description, Cotton Warp and All Wool Dress 
Fabrics, Corduroys, Khakis, Velveteens, Gray Cloths, Medium, and fine 
Ginghams, Full and Crib size Cotton Blankets, Men's, Women's and 
Children's Seamless Hosiery, Shoe Linings, Leather Substitutes, etc., 
adapted for both domestic and foreign requirements in every respect. 



PT-vT^/^f-f P><ar»cirf mont Address all correspondence from foreign countries to 
■CyApUl L J-^t^pai Llilt;ill LAWRLNCE & CO., 24 Thomas Street, New York 


APRIL,, 1918 

Cable Address "BOWRING" Codes Used — Western Union, ABC, 5th Edition, Bentley's 


17 Battery Place - - New York, U. S. A. 

Exporters and Importers 

Chemicals Cocoanut Oil 

Dyes China Wood Oil 

Machinery Soya Bean Oil 

Oils Copra, Bee's Wax 

Steel Products Dried Peas and Beans 

General Merchandise Castor Beans 

Our facilities enable us to render Prompt and Efficient Service at Minimum Charges. 

Harry Edward Amhold, Shanghai, China Charles Herbert Amhold, London, England 




Incorporated (October 1, 1917) under the Hongkong (British) Ordinances 

Head Office: SHANGHAI 

(Successors to the firm of Messrs. H. E. ARNHOLD, China) 


and Contracting Engineers 

Agents and Home Offices 

Arnhold, Karberg & Co. 

LONDON: 14 Fenchurch St., E. C. NEW YORK: 21 State Street 

JOSEPH READ PATTERSON, General Manager in U. S. A. 


43 and 45 Worth Street, NEW YORK 

Cable Address: RUNDELA, New York 


Manufacturing Well Known Brands of 



For Home and Export 
All Weights and Constructions of Print Cloths and Fine Cloths in Plain and Fancy Weaves. 


Baltimore Boston 

St. Louis Philadelphia Chicago 

St. Joseph San Francisco Shanghai, China 


APRIL, 19 18 

American Trading Company 



Head Office • 25 Broad Street, New York 



Cape Town 
J oliannesburg 

Buenos Aires 
Bahia Blanca 


La Paz 


Rio de Janeiro 



Sao Paulo 





Porto Alegre 

Rio Grande do Sul 


San Francisco 

Guatemala City 

San Salvador 
San Jose 







Cali, Cauca 














Mexico City 


Panama City 





La Guayra 
Ciudad IJoIivar 



Port of Spain 



The Export World and Herald 

Monthly in English and Spanish 


APRIL, 1 9 1 S 

United States Steel Products Co. 

Exporters of the products of 






STEEL SHEETS, plain and corrugated; galvanized and painted. Galvanized sheets 
"APOLLO" brand. Black sheets "EAGLE" brand. Copper bearing sheets 
"KEYSTONE" brand, either black or galvanized. 


PIPE, black and galvanized wrought, for steam, gas and water; American or English 
Standards. Lapwelded steel BOILER TUBES. CASING, TUBING and DRIVE 
PIPE. Oil and Gas line Pipe. CONVERSE and MATHESON lead joint pipe. 

STEEL RAILS (Vignole) of all sections. Groove and guard rails for tramways. 
RAILS and ACCESSORIES. SPECIAL TRACK WORK, points and crossings. 
Manganese Steel Insert and Solid Manganese Steel for electric and steam rail- 
roads. Portable SWITCHES, switch stands, rail braces, compromise joints, etc. 

STRUCTURAL MATERIAL of all kinds; Joists, Channels, Tees, Angles, etc., for 
Bridges, Buildings and General Constructive work. Best quality BESSEMER 
and BASIC OPEN HEARTH STEEL BARS, Rounds, Squares, Flats, Ovals and 
Hexagons. Special bolt, rivet and shafting steel. STEEL SHEET PILING, 

FORGED AXLES of highest quality for Locomotives, Railroad and Tramway Cars. 

HOOPS for barrels and casks, and TIES for baling. 

We Solicit Inquiries 

accompanied by exact specifications stating 
which the goods are required. Special 

APRIL. 191i 

United States Steel Products Co. 

30 Church Street, New York, U. S. A. 







Branch Offices at 







MILD STEEL PLATES for ships, tanks, stacks and boilers. Flange and fire-box 
steel. Checkered plates. 

WIRES, baling and fencing; all classes of coated and uncoated for manufacturing 
purposes. Genuine "IOWA," "GLIDDEN" and "WAUKEGAN" barb wire. 
Fence and netting STAPLES. Tinned mattress, broom and bottling wire. 
and Tacks of all descriptions. 


PLATES for deep stamping, etc. 

AERIAL TRAMWAYS. Bleichert System. Locked coil track cable, locked wire 
cable and smooth coil track cable for Aerial Tramways. 

IRON and STEEL WIRE ROPE, bright and galvanized for all purposes. Bright and 
galvanized SASH CORD, galvanized CLOTHES LINES. Bare and insulated 
COPPER WIRE and CABLE of every description. 

COPPER RAIL BONDS, solid and stranded for electric railways. 

WEATHER PROOF INSULATED telephone and signal WIRE. Galvanized tele- 
graph and telephone wire. 


FABRICATED MATERIAL for railway bridges, highway bridges, turntables, trans- 
fer tables, barges, steel chimneys, steel buildings, mill buildings, office build- 
ings, tanks, towers, transmission towers, trestles, cylinder piers. 

quantity desired, with full particulars as to size, weiglit, finish, packing, etc., and the purposes for 
catalog on application. 

A1'KI1>, 1918 


OCEAN SPACE— is the cry of the day. 

Are you awake to the situation? The world's tonnage is being rapidly dimin- 
ished. Your position in the export trade depends upon your ability to deliver 
your goods. 

/VUy yourself with a progressive shipping company. 

Our service is world-wide, meeting the requirements of the American Exporter 
and Importer in every respect. We furnish ocean space for shipments ranging 
in size from the smallest parcel to full cargoes, whether it is to be exported 
or imported. The basic principle of our service is trade encouragement. 
OCEAN RATES under the unusual conditions that prevail are naturally high 
but you can depend upon us to give you lowest rates consistent with good service. 

line of chartered steamers from Pacific Ports to Japan, China, Russia, Australia, 
New Zealand, Philippines and India. 

Space furnished for cargo to be transported to this country from Japan, Russia China, 
Philippines, Straits Settlements, East Indies and British India, Australia and New Zealand. 
CONSOLIDATED CAR SERVICE— We maintain a regular service between Chicago 
and Pacific Coast Ports, making it possible for shippers to send less than carload lots 
intended for the Orient and Australasia at rates almost equal to those charged on car- 
load shipments. 
Offices and reliable agents at all principal ports on the Globe. 

Our service is at your disposal. A trial is convincing 
Boob your ocean space through us—a service with no regrets. 

Our own offices ; 

R. D. WHITE & CO., 


L. C. Smith Bldg. 

" The only American Bank in the Orient'' 

International Banking Corporation 

Capital $3,250,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits $4,598,000 
Head Office: 55 Wall Street, New York City. 

H. T. S. Green, Pres. & Gen. Mgr. M. D. Cijreie, Ass't Cashier 

Lawrence M. Jacobs, Vice-Pres. & Treas. P. W. Jones, Ass't Cashier & Secretary 

L. I. Sharp, Cashier N. G. Evans, Ass't Cashier 

A. C. Shorey, Ass't Cashier 

Offers its services for the development of Foreign business. 










San Francisco 


San Pedro de Macoris 


Santiago, D. R. 


Santo Dommgo 







Puerto Plata 


In addition to the above, by reason of our close affiliation with THE NATIONAL CITY 
BANK OF NEW YORK, we are able to place the facilities of the branches of that Institution, 
located in the following Cities, at the disposal of our customers : 


Buenos Aires 





Rio de Janeiro 

Santiago de Cuba 
Sao Paulo 

Pacific Cable 


Hawaiian Islands 
Philippine Islands 
Dutch East Indies 
China and Japan 

Exclusive Connection with Postal Telegraph Co. 

CLARENCE H. M.\CK.\Y - President. 

GEO. G. WARD, Vice-President and Gen'l Mgr. 

Palace Hotel 


The Palace Hotel 
is a San Francisco 
known as 



Fifty- second year in Steamship Service to Japan, China, Philippines 

Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 

Under American Flag 

"Sunshine Belt" to Orient 

"Ecuador" "Venezuela" "Colombia 

(14,000 Tons Displacement) 

















For Information, Reservations, or Passage, Apply to 
any Railroad or Steamship Agent, or to Company at 

NEW YORK, 33, 366 or 1158 Broaaway. CHICAGO, ILL., 31, 33 W. Jackson Blvd. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 508 California St.