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THE IMPERIAL 

AND 

ASIATIC QUARTERLY 
REVIEW 

Oriental and Colonial Record. 



■ ,«■ 

- iff ?.4 



THIRD SERIES— VOLUME XXI. Hoa. 41 ft 4fl. 
JANUARY— APRIL, 1906. 



" Oni hud an ScTlbii, 111' Olhei on Ihe 1 



THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE 




e/ 



CONTENTS. 



PAGBS 

The Tea Duties. By Sir Roper Lethbridge, K.C.I.E. ... i 

Facts of Interest and Curious Points in Mohammedan 

Law. By C. D. Steel, Judge U.P. Agra and Oudh ... 12 

Yarkand. By E. H. Parker . . 22 

Japan and the Peace. By R. G. Corbet 36 

Some Hindustani Proverbs. Collected by the late William 

Young, C.S.I. , Judicial Commissioner of Oudh .... 43 

A Plea for Compulsory Education in Ceylon. By A. G. 

Wise 61 

East African Protectorate 65 

Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism. 

By Professor Dr. Edward Montet 70 

The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. By H. Beveridge 79 

"The Ring from Jaipur." By R. E. Forrest .... 94 

The Jagannath Car Festival. By W. Egerton, I.C.S. . . 107 

The Yunan Expedition of 1875, and the Cheefoo Conven- 
tion. Extracts from the Diary of Colonel (now General) 
Horace A. Browne 114,346 

Civic Life in India. By A. Yusuf Ali, M.A., LL.M. (Cantab.), 

I.C.S 225 

Young India : its Hopes and Aspirations. By Shaikh Abdul 

Qadir, B.A 249 

The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. By 

S. M. Mitra, M.R.A.S 263 

'* Madras Irrigation and Navigation "—A Reply. By General 

J. F. Fischer, R.E >,••. 278 

• • •• • •••••• • •'•••••••••i»r •*• *t* ,* 

Northern -ffiCisiji^A: V::..J; •• • • vJc : -• ;/•: .•/. : V^. 304 

" ZARATHUStfTRTAf f HfLO* ? tWtf A\!H^Mtft*lD*S *XnD ISRAEL."* 6y * * 

Professor L. Mills, D.D 3U 

Arabic Verbs. By A. H. Kisbany, B.A. (Beyrout) . 3'^ 

"The Souls of Black Folk." By R. E. Forrest ... 323 

Proceedings of the East India Association .... ^55 

Correspondence, Notes, etc 136- 3^' 

'* Britain's Destiny: Growth or Decay ?'*— Indian Revenue and Land 
Systems. — K'lads in Travancore. — Southern Nigeria. — Recent 
Agreement : England and Japan.— The Siam Society.— Sute of 
Kelanun, Siam.— The Future of the Hindustini Language and 
Literature.— The Education of Children on Plantations in India 
and Ceylon.— China and Religion 13^— »^ 



250'j506 



Contents, iii 

PACKS 

Akbar's Revenae Settlements. — ** B itain's Destiny : Growth or Decay?*' 
— "Indastrial Depression: iis Cause and Cure.** — ''National or 
International Currency?'* — The Importance of Oriental Classical 
Studies. — British Central Africa Protectorate. — Uganda Protec- 
torate. — Federated Malay Slates. — Livingstone College, Leyton, 
London, £ 381 — 394 

Reviews and Notices 170, 395 

The Mahibhirata: A Criticism, by C. V. Vaidyd, M.A., LL.B.. Hon. 
Fellow of the University of Bombay. — The Emancipation of Egypt, 
by A. Z. Translated from the Italian. —The Historical Develop- 
ment of the Qor'an, by the Rev. Edward Sell, D.D., Honorary 
Canon of St. George's Cathedral, Madras, Fellow of the University 
of Madras. — River, Lan<l, and Sun, being Sketches of the London 
Church Missionary Society's Egypt Mission, by Minna C. Gollock. 
— A Catechism of Tamil Grammar, No. 2, by the Rev. G. U. Pope, 
M.A., D.D., Lecturer in Tamil and Telugu in the University of 
Oxford, etc. — The Far Eastern Tropics : Studies in the Adminis- 
tration of Tropical Dependencie*, by AUryne Ireland, F.R.G.S. — 
The Risen Sun, by Barun Suyemalsu. — ^John of Damascus, by 
Douglas Ainslie. — Les M^moires Historiques de Se*ma Ts'ien. 
Translated and annotated by^douard Chavannes, Professor at the 
College of France. — Le Shinn*toisme, by Michel Revon, formerly 
Professor of French Law at the Imperial University, Tokyd. — A 
History of Olt«»min Poetry, by the laie E. J. W. Gibb. Edited 
by Edward G. Browne, M.A., M.B., Sir Ihomas Adams Professor 
of Arabic and Fellow of Pembroke College in the University of 
Cambridge. — Hebrew Humour, and other Essays, by J. Chotzner, 
Ph.D., late Hebrew Tutor at Harrow. — The Private Diary of 
Ananda Ranga Pillai, Dubd^h to Joseph Francois Dupleix. Trans- 
lated from the Tamil, by order of the Government of Madras, by 
Sir £. Frederick Price, K.C.S.I., assisted by K. Rangachari, B.A. 
Vol. I. — Historical and Modern Atlas ol the British Empire. 
Specially prepared for Students by C. Grant Robertson, M. A., 
Oxon, Fellow of All Souls* College, Oxford, and J. G- Bartholomew, 
F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S.— China and Religion, by E. H. Parker, 
Professor of Chinese at the Victoria University of Manchester. — 
From the Cape to the Zambesi, by G. T. Hutchinson. With an 
introduction by Colonel F. Rhodes, C.B., D.S.O. ; with many 
illustrations from photographs by Colonel Rhodes and the author. 
— Muhammad and the Rise of Islam, by D. S. Margoliouth. — 
Tibet and Turkestan : A Journey through Old Lands and a Study 
of New Conditions, by Oscar Terry Crosby, F.R.G..S. — An Abridged 
Translation into English of Ibn Isfandiyar's History of Tabaristan, 
by E. G. Browne, M.A., M.B. — Das religiose Leben des Hindus, 
von Ad. Stiegelmann ("Christenthum und Zeitgeist,*' Hefte zu 
Glauben und Wissen, Heft VI.).— The Gold and Silver Wares of 
Assam : A Monograph, by F. C. Henniker, I.C.S. — A Monograph 
on Gold and S Iver Ware produced in the United Provinces, by 
A. P. Charles, Esq., B.A., I.C.S 170— 206 

The jMaka ; or. Stories of the Buddha's former Births. Translated from 
the Pali by various hands under the editorship of Professor E. B. 
Cowell. Vol. V. Translated by H. T. Francis, M.A., sometime 
Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. — The Lands of 
the Eastern Caliphate : Mesopotamia. Persia, and Central Asia, 
from the Moslem Conquest to the time of Timur (** Cambridge 
Geographical Series"), by G. le Strange. — A Tamil Prose Reader, 
by me Rev. G. U. Pope, M.A., D.D., Balliol College, Oxford.— 
G^ographie de I'Empire de Chme (Cours Superieur), by Rev. L. 
Richard, S.J. (Hia Chi-shT).— The Philosophy of the UpanUhads, 
by Paul Deussen, Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy in the University 
of Kiel. Authorized English translation by Rev. A. S, Geden, 
M.A., Tutor in Old Testament Languages, Literature, and Classics, 
Wesleyan College, Richmond. — With the Abyssinians in Somali- 
land, by Major J. Willes Jennings, D.S O., R.A.M.C., and 
Christopher Addison, M.D. With a preface by Colonel A. N. 
Rochfort, C.B. — Shinto: the Way of the Gods, by W. G. Aston, 
C.M.G., D. Lit. —Part L of the Tadhkiratu 'L-Awliyd ("Memoirs 
of the Saints*') of Muhammad ibn Ibrdhim Faridu' DDin 'Attdr. 



iv Contents. 

PAGBS 

Edited in the original Persian, with preface, indices, and variants, 
by Reynold A. Nicholson, M.A., Lecturer in Persian in the 
University of Cambridge. With a critical introduction by Mfrzi 
Muhammad 6. *Abda 'L-Wahhib>i Qazwinl. — Colonial Adminis- 
tration, by Paul S. Reinsch, Professor of Political Science in the 
University of Wisconsin. — The Reshaping of the Far E^> by 
B. L. Putnam Weale. 2 vols. — The Chinese at Home, by Emile 
Bard. Adapted from the French by H. Twitchell. — The East of 
Asia Mc^atine, vol. iv., Nos. 2 and 3. — Bushido, the Soul of 
Japan : An Exposition of Japanese Thought, by Inazo Nitob^, 
A.M.. Ph.D. With an introduction by W. E. GnfBs. Tenth 
revised and enlarged edition. — The Biibar-nima, edited by Annete 
S. Beveridge. — ^Judah Hall^vi's Kitab al KazarL Translated from 
the Arabic, with an introduction, by Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D. — 
Dictionnaire Fran9ais-Japonais, by the Abb^ Ragnet, of the 
Missions Etrang^res in Japan, assisted by Ono Tota. — A Progres- 
sive Grammar of the Telugu Language, with Copious Examples 
and Exercises, by the Rev. A. H. Arden, M.A. Second edition, 
1905. — The Gambia Colony and Protectorate: An Official Hand- 
book, by Francis Bisset Archer, Treasurer of the Colony. — British 
East Africa : Past, Present, and Future, by Lord Hindlip, F.R.G.S.. 
F.Z.S 395-4*4 

t 

Our Library Table 207, 424 

Summary of Events in Asia, Africa, and the Colonies 214, 433 



THE IMPERIAL 

AND 



A s iatic Quart e rly Review, 

AND ORIENTAL AND COLONIAL RECORD. 



JANUARY, I90a 

THE TEA DUTIES. 

By Sir Roper Lethbridge, k.c.i.e. 

The brief Report on the recent history of Tea Culture 
in Assam, lately issued as a Blue-book by Mr. Kershaw 
for the Government of Assam, accompanied by voluminous 
returns for the year 1904, is a record of work that may 
well make us feel proud of our race. Read with the " Tea 
and Coffee" Blue-book laid before the Imperial Parliament 
by the Board of Trade in August last, it shows the planting 
community of India bravely and resolutely struggling 
against the most intolerable fiscal oppression — oppression 
that is all the more galling because it is gratuitous and 
unnecessary, benefiting no one, hated even by those who 
impose it, and maintained simply in deference to the 
fanatical prejudices of the slaves of an antiquated and 
obsolete economic fetish. 

Like all other Indian producers, the tea-planter con- 
tributes heavily to the Imperial exchequer of India, not 
merely, or even mainly, in the shape of the direct taxation 
imposed upon him, but indirectly by reason of the currency 
and exchange policy of the Government. Everyone is 
agreed that this policy is a right and necessary one for 
India, and therefore for the Empire ; but due consideration 
should be shown towards the interests that suffer from its 

THIRD series, vol. xxi. a 



2 The Tea Duties. 

adoption. And let it not be forgotten that this policy, with 
its restrictions on the coinage of silver, acts as a direct 
protection to the teas of China with its free silver. Of that 
there can be no doubt in the world, though the Cobden 
Club would howl if this rank protection of China, naked 
and unabashed, were mitigated by even the smallest 
preference given to the teas of India and Ceylon. 

This unfair burden would be uncomplainingly borne by 
the Indian and Ceylon planters, from patriotic motives, if 
only they were treated with ordinary decency in the other 
fiscal arrangements of the Government. So, too, they have 
always cheerfully acquiesced in humanitarian labour legis- 
lation, feeling that the results are worth some immediate 
sacrifice. And it has long been admitted, even by those 
who are accustomed to look with suspicion on " pioneers 
of Empire," that there does not exist in the whole world 
a more humane, a more generous, or a more high-minded 
body of men as a whole than the planting community. 
Burdens such as those which I am now speaking of, which 
have at any rate an intelligible raison ditre, for they are 
felt to be burdens of Empire and of humanity, have been 
readily and cheerfully borne. But there are, and ought to 
be, limits to this patriotic complaisance. And surely those 
limits have been reached and passed when an industry that 
has resuscitated a British colony, that has created an 
Indian province, that has provided a livelihood for vast 
numbers of our Indian fellow-subjects, is impoverished and 
strangled for no better reason than the gratification of a 
well-meaning but exceedingly foolish British prejudice. 
These Blue-books prove beyond the possibility of a doubt 
that — directly in the markets of the United Kingdom, 
indirectly in colonial and foreign markets where India is 
not permitted to negotiate — Indian and Ceylon tea is 
penalized to an extent that is simply appalling, while 
the most worthless rubbish of Chinese production is pro- 
portionately protected, merely in deference to the Cobdenite 
fanaticism of a portion (probably a small portion) of the 



The Tea Duties. 3 

British electorate, and to the foolish and unreasoning dread 
of that fanaticism that is entertained by a certain number 
of British politicians who pose as Free Fooders. 

For these papers show most clearly that, in the wrong 
done to the tea industry, the fons et origo malt is to be 
looked for simply and solely in the working of our British 
and Indian fiscal systems. Under the existing British 
fiscal system, which Mr. Balfour's sarcasm has christened 
''Insular Free Trade" — much insularity, and very little 
Free Trade ! — British-grown tea is subjected to every pos- 
sible discouragement. It is hit both ways by our insular 
methods. For insularity refuses to remember that it is 
grown within the Empire, and therefore is really a domestic 
product. It treats Indian and Ceylon tea as a foreign 
product that cannot be grown within our insular limits, and 
that consequently may be taxed up to the hilt without any 
reproach of Protection. There is hardly any other com- 
modity of general consumption that can neither be grown 
in " British " soil nor worked up in " British " factories, if 
by " British " you mean " insular British." 

Tea is as much, and as essentially, ** food " as corn is. 
But if you tax foreign corn you might benefit the British 
farmer, and that, say the Free Fooders, would be Pro- 
tection. Now, revenue must be raised somehow. There 
must be some indirect taxation, for incomes are already 
taxed at a shilling in the pound, and the income-tax and 
the death duties between them are rapidly tending to 
destroy thrift. And indirect taxation, to be adequate, must 
be levied on articles of general consumption. So the 
soudisani Free Traders, and also — paradoxical as it may 
seem — those very foolish and illogical persons, the Free 
Fooders, have quite made up their minds that on these 
grounds tea is a commodity on which you may without 
reproach impose an import duty more than ten times as 
heavy as that which would be cursed by the Cobden Club 
if it were imposed on corn. 

But to anyone who will take the trouble to examine the 

A 2 



4 The Tea Duties. 

statistics of the tea trade, whether as given in these Blue- 
books, or as very lucidly explained in Mr. Stanton's excellent 
paper read before the Society of Arts, it will at once be 
evident that they completely knock the bottom out of every 
one of the Free Fooder's leading contentions — contentions 
that are usually put forward with a contemptuous air of 
cocksureness that altogether disdains to argue with such 
inferior mortals as Conservatives or Tariff Reformers. 

For instance, take the contention, maintained by most 
Free Fooders as if it were a mathematical fact, that all 
import duties are paid by the consumer, and that conse- 
quently Indian tea-planters need not bother about British 
import duties, except in so far as they check consumption. 
Well, as to the import duty checking consumption, the 
figures yield a somewhat dubious return ; for whilst the 
imports of Indian tea into the United Kingdom during 
the year 1904- 1905 (the year of highest duty) were 
2\ million pounds less than in 1903-1904, they were nearly 
16 million pounds more than in 1902- 1903. But as to the 
consumer paying all, or (in this particular case) any part, of 
the import duty, we find that the price obtained from the 
consumer in London averaged under 7d. per pound in 
1 904- 1 905, as against 7jd. per pound in 1 903-1 904, and as 
against 7|d. per pound in 1902-1903 ! Of course, every 
political economist knows perfectly well that, while it may 
properly be said that, ceteris paribus, an import duty may 
be paid by the consumer, and may therefore tend to check 
consumption, yet the fact is, in this world of sin and woe, 
there is never, or hardly ever, such a state of affairs as 
ceteris paribus. And Lord George Hamilton — though 
(strangely enough) something of a Free Fooder himself — 
with his usual straightforwardness frankly acknowledged 
this fact at Mr. Stanton's meeting at the Society of Arts ; 
for he said : ** Of course, there are other influences and 
agencies far more potent than taxation in regulating prices." 
He went on to minimize this admission, but these words of 
his are quite sufficient for my present contention. In every 



The Tea Duties. 5 

case, and in regard to every commodity, there will probably 
always be dozens of factors that will enter into the deter- 
mination both of price and of consumption. And opinions, 
even of competent experts, will generally differ as to which 
is the predominant factor. For instance, the Assam Govern- 
ment says : ** The fall in price has been very generally 
attributed to the increase in the home duty, which is said to 
have lessened the demand for the better qualities of tea ;" 
though we do not find any considerable increase in the price of 
the lower qualities to console us for the fall in the better 
qualities. We simply find that large quantities of the cheaper 
sorts of the China tea that is protected by its free silver 
poured in to keep even these prices down. My old friend, Mr. 
J. D. Rees, i.c.s., c.i.e., in the admirable paper* which he read 
last year before the East India Association on this subject, 
was evidently distressed to have to confess that, as a matter 
of fact, it was the planter chiefly, and possibly the merchant 
and distributor in a less degree, who pay the tea duty, and 
not the consumer at all. For he explains the phenomenon 
by the anxiety of blenders to keep down prices in order to 
avoid a check in consumption ; and since competition be- 
tween the blenders (as well as, it may be hoped, com- 
mercial morality) forbids the supposition of any general 
fraudulent substitution of the lower qualities for the better, 
it is obvious that Mr. Rees s explanation simply amounts 
to a confession that competition has compelled the planters 
and the distributors to pay the duty. 

If we take a longer period of years, the fact becomes still 
clearer that, owing largely to the effective competition of the 
protected China tea, the duty is mainly paid by the planters and 
by the distributors, and not by the consumers. This is what 
the newly-published Blue-book has to say on the point : 

•* In 1884 the value of the tea landed in this country 
averaged iifd. per pound; in 1904 it averaged about "j^. 
The value of the tea imported from British India was, in 
1884, 1 4* 1 2d. per pound; in 1904 it was 7*3od. The value 

* See Asiatic Quarterly Review^ October, 1904, pp. 277-295. 



6 The Tea Duties. 

oli that imported from Ceylon was I7'26d. per pound in 
1884; in 1904 it was 7*2od. Chinese tea in 1884 averaged 
iO'59d. ; in 1904 it averaged 7'i6d. It thus appears that, 
whilst the average value of tea from all these sources has 
declined to almost the same point, the absolute decline has 
been greatest in the case of Ceylon and least in the case of 
China teas. It is of interest, moreover, to compare these 
landing values in the United Kingdom with the declared 
values of the tea exported to all destinations from the 
various producing countries. Thus we find that the exports 
of tea from British India in 1884 were valued at I3*33d. 
per pound; in 1904 their value was 6'63d. at the port of 
export. Similarly, the exports of tea from Ceylon in 1884 
were valued at if •63d. per pound ; in 1903 at 6*24d. per 
pound. China tea, in 1884, averaged in value at the port 
of export 7'26d. per pound ; in 1904 5'37d. per pound. It 
will be observed that the decline in value here shown is 
(especially in the case of Ceylon and China) noticeably less 
than the decline in the import values in this country." 

It is only because, in the particular case of the tea trade, 
we possess the statistics of this trade equally for the country 
of production and for the country of consumption that it is 
possible thus clearly and certainly to demonstrate the futility 
of the cocksure dogmas of the Free Fooders. From these 
statistics we see that the heavier the tax, the keener the 
competition of the protected China product, and the more 
crushing the burden on the planters of India and Ceylon, 
and all the industries related to them — the railways, shipping, 
landing, warehousing, importing, distributing, wholesale 
dealing, and retailing industries that draw revenue from the 
trade in tea. Of course the time will come — if this out- 
rageous impost, or anything approaching it in severity, be 
maintained — when the resisting powers of the planters will 
have been worn down, when their profits, and even their 
capital, will have disappeared, and they will have to give up 
the struggle; and then the home consumer will have to pay 
all the duty. And even before this climax is reached, and 



The Tea Duties. 7 

while the industry is becoming more and more a losing 
concern, as the competition will naturally slacken, so more 
and more will the tax have to be borne by the home con- 
sumer. And thus gradually the trade, which was won from 
China by British pluck and British capital in India and 
Ceylon, will be retransferred back again to China, where it 
will be entrenched behind free silver, sweated labour, and 
the lowest standard of living known to modern humanity. 

With regard to this pleasant prospect of the imports of 
cheap foreign-grown tea into the United Kingdom once 
more ousting British-grown tea from the home market, 
some very pertinent remarks* were addressed to the meeting 
of the East India Association on July 20, 1904, by Mr. 
Durant Beighton, one of our Indian civilians (now retired), 
who has had an unrivalled official acquaintance with the 
Indian tea industry. Mr. Beighton said that the increased 
import of foreign teas was largely owing to the increased 
duty, for ** if the bulk of the imports were to consist of very 
coarse tea, owing to the necessity of tea companies making 
their profit by quantity instead of quality, China tea would 
come in in ever-increasing quantities." Mr. Beighton warmly 
advocated an extra impost on the foreign tea, so as to put 
it on a fair level with British-grown tea, which seems the 
most simple act of justice and fair-play towards the Indian 
planter. Lord George Hamilton, replying as a Free Fooder 
to this very reasonable proposal, said that " China tea 
amounted to only 7 per cent, of the whole, and what was 
the use of taxing that?" But, as a matter of fact, the 
import of foreign-grown tea in the year 1904 amounted 
to about 22 million pounds, against about 234 million pounds 
coming from India and Ceylon ; so that if this trade could 
be captured every Indian and Ceylon planter, on the average, 
would add to his yearly sales at least 9 per cent, more than 
he now sells. Would any intelligent business-man scoff at 
such an addition as that? Why, he would perceive that 
it would give to the wholesome Indian product the control 

* See Asiatic Quarterly Review^ October, 1904, pp. 396-398. 



8 The Tea Duties. 

of the market, to the infinite benefit alike of producer and 
consumer! And if good Indian and Ceylon tea, relieved 
from the burden of the duty, were in this way obtainable at 
the cheap prices now given for the inferior China rubbish, 
there is every reason to believe that the per capita con- 
sumption of tea in the United Kingdom would rise at least 
to the level which it has attained in Australia, and this 
would mean a further addition of 50 million pounds per 
annum, or altogether an addition of something like 30 per 
cent, to the sales of the Indian or Ceylon planter! Would 
Lord George Hamilton scoff at that ? At the meeting of 
the Society of Arts on June 3, 1904, Mr. Rutherford, the 
able President of the Ceylon Association in London, turned 
the tables on Lord George, by showing how utterly pre- 
posterous is the contention that Indian and Ceylon teas in 
this country have reached the limits of possible consumption, 
or anything like it. He observed : " As we have been told 
by Mr. Stanton that this country consumes 6 pounds per 
head, as against Australia's ^\ pounds, then, if we are 
* saturated,' what term can be applied to them T 

Mr. Stanton, of the world-renowned tea firm of Gow, 
Wilson, and Stanton, gave a masterly exposition of the 
whole subject in the paper which he read before the Society 
of Arts on June 3, 1904. And these were the striking 
words which he used about our taxation of British-grown 
teas ! ''It is quite intelligible that as long as tea was not 
grown by our fellow-subjects, but by foreigners, it should 
have been taxed, but when its production was so largely in 
the hands of our countrymen, as has been the case for the 
last twenty to thirty years, it is somewhat strange that the 
taxation should have still continued so heavy, and that it 
should have been impossible to find some other product 
upon which an impost could be levied which was not so 
largely grown by our fellow-subjects. With the duty raised 
to 6d., tea was taxed to the extent of not far short of 80 per 
cent, of its value, a burden which is admittedly a very heavy 
one." And now it is more like 120 per cent. 



The Tea Duties. 9 

Mr. Stanton showed that the result of our unpatriotic and 
unsympathetic taxation of our own kith and kin is, and 
must be (i) the reduction, at any rate for the time, of the 
consumption in the United Kingdom of the wholesome 
temperance beverage afforded by our Indian and Ceylon 
teas ; (2) the substitution, in the food of our poorer classes, of 
the rubbishy, worthless foreign tea, in some cases the rejec- 
tions of other countries ; and (3), if persisted in, the crippling 
of an industry of immense value to India and Ceylon, as 
well as to the Mother Country. Now, the practical question 
is, Wherein lies our hope of averting these evils ? 

Well, it is clearly shown, both by the official papers I 
have been quoting, and by the general sense of the discus- 
sions at the Society of Arts and the East India Association, 
that a new era of prosperity for the tea industries of India 
and Ceylon may be hoped for by the reduction or abolition 
of the existing import duties ; and that it will be secured, 
with almost boundless additions, by the establishment of 
preferential trading within the Empire, with the retention 
(for revenue purposes) of the existing duties on China, Java, 
Japanese, and other foreign teas. The returns show what 
advantages have already been obtained from the generous 
preferences spontaneously accorded by New Zealand to 
British-grown teas, by Canada to British productions in 
general. The virile common-sense and the sympathetic 
loyalty of all our Colonies are already manifesting them- 
selves in these spontaneous preferences, not only mutually 
towards each other, where their infinite value is well under- 
stood, but also towards India and the United Kingdom, a 
silent and dignified reproach for our selfish and short-sighted 
'* insular " prejudices. 

The practical question I have asked, then, becomes 
narrowed to this further question. What hope is there of 
the adoption by the United Kingdom of a more reasonable 
fiscal system, adapted to the commercial and industrial 
conditions, not of the " hungry forties '* of our grandmothers* 
time, but of the twentieth century ? 



lo The Tea Duties. 

I think that Mr. Chamberlain and Mr. Balfour have 
brought us within sight of this great deliverance from 
fanaticism. From the point of view of the tea industry, 
quite the most hopeful words that have yet been uttered 
were those of Mr. Bonar Law at Aberdeen in October last. 
The Parliamentary Secretary of the Board of Trade is, by 
common consent one of the ablest, most popular, and most 
trusted, of the members of Mr. Balfour's Government. 
Himself a level-headed, sagacious, and successful man of 
business, he speaks to business men with an authority that 
belongs to hardly any other of our front-rank politicians. 
His words are clear and to the point, and even the dullest 
and most prejudiced Free Fooder is compelled to admit that 
he knows what he is talking about. With some of his 
sensible and logical words, addressed to shrewd and long- 
headed brither Scots at Aberdeen, I will conclude this 
article with a real gleam of hope for the planters of India 
and Ceylon : 

*• What," he asked, " were our chief sources of indirect 
taxation now ?" Alcohol, tea, tobacco. He did not suggest 
that any change should be made in regard to alcohol, 
because he would approve of deriving as large a revenue 
from that trade as the trade could pay ; but what about 
the other two ? Tobacco was largely used by the working 
classes. Of course there were people who said that they 
should not smoke. He noticed, for instance, that Mr. 
Carnegie made that statement strongly the other day. He 
would himself rather any day go with a meal less than go 
without his tobacco ; and did they wish really that work- 
men should cease to use tobacco ? Had they so many 
pleasures that we grudged them this one ? Tea was still 
more important. It was not, of course, absolutely a 
necessary of life ; but, as a matter of fact, statistics and 
experience'showed that tea was largely used by the working 
classes, and that the poorer they were the more they used 
of it, so that in reality it was just as much as corn the food 
of the people, and the food of the poorest of the people. 



The Tea Duties. ii 

If, therefore, the working man s wife had to pay a little 
more in a week for her bread, and if she got her tea at 
exactly the same amount less, how much worse off was she 
at the end of the week ? Lord Rosebery, in one of those 
utterances which he was fond of making and leaving there, 
suggested that the Government departments of this country 
ought to be entrusted to business men. How would a 
business man look at this ? He would say : * Our foreign 
corn comes from Russia and America, both of which buy 
nothing from us which they can possibly produce at home. 
Our tea comes largely from India, which is one of our best 
customers. Would it not, therefore, be simple common- 
sense to so adjust the taxation as to improve the buying 
power of the country which is our customer, and not to 
benefit the countries which are not our customers ?' " 

P.S. — As I have been considering this question mainly 
from the Indian point of view, I have not ventured to deal 
with the revenue aspect, which, of course, must be adequately 
considered both in England and in India. In England, it 
is quite clear that the abolition, or at least the considerable 
reduction, of the tea duties is most likely to be undertaken 
as part of a general scheme for the readjustment of duties in 
general, such as that proposed by Mr. Chamberlain. And 
Indian preference for British manufactures will richly com- 
pensate the Mother Country for any loss of revenue from tea. 
In India, no time could be more opportune for reciprocal 
concessions to British industries, for the flourishing condition 
of the Indian finances is admittedly due very largely to the 
indirect burdens on Indian production to which I have 
alluded, which might be equitably compensated by British 
preference. 



12 



FACTS OF INTEREST AND CURIOUS POINTS 

IN MOHAMMEDAN LAW. 

By C. D. Steel, Judge U.P. Agra and Oudh. 

A HOLIDAY task of Mohammedan law may not appear at 
first sight to be a very attractive one ; but a perusal of Syed 
Amir Ali's " Mohammedan Law "* gives to a holiday that 
little extra zest which arises from the conviction that it has 
not only resulted in health and refreshment, but has also 
yielded something more of permanent use and interest. 
The distinction attained by the author is a guarantee of his 
trustworthiness. He is a Mutazala, one of those " Pro- 
testants of the Mussulmans ** whose doctrines are spreading 
rapidly amongst the younger minds. 

The book is quite remarkable for the amount of informa- 
tion it gives on matters of almost everyday mention among 
Europeans in India, concerning which the ideas of the great 
majority are, to say the least of it, extremely hazy. The 
author, for instance, quotes Mr. Justice Arnold's judgment 
in the Khoja case : 

Struggle for the Caliphate. — ** The general expectation 
of Islam had been that Ali, the first disciple, the beloved 
companion of the Apostle of God, the husband of his only 
surviving child Fatima, would be the first Caliph. It was 
not so to be. The influence of Ayesha, the young and 
favourite wife of Mahomet, a rancorous enemy of Fatima 
and of Ali, procured the election of her own father, Abubekr ; 
to Abubekr succeeded Omar, and to him Osman, upon 
whose death, in the year 665 of our era, Ali was at last 
raised to the Caliphate. 

Death of Ali. — *' He was not even then unopposed ; 
aided by Ayesha, Muawiyah, of the family of the Ommeiades, 

* " Mohammedan Law, compiled from the Authorities in the Original 
Arabic," vol i., third edition, by Syed Amir Ali, M.A., etc., barrister-at- 
law, Judge of H.M. High Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal. 



Interesting Facts and Points in Mohammedan Law. 1 3 

contested the caliphate with him, and while the strife was 
still doubtful, in the year 660 a.d., Ali was slain by a 
Kharejite, or Mussulman fanatic, in the mosque of Cufa, at 
that time the principal Mohammedan city on the right or 
west bank of the Euphrates, itself long since a ruin, at no 
great distance from the ruins of Babylon. 

** This assassination of Ali caused a profound sensation 
in the Mohammedan world. He was, and deserved to be, 
deeply beloved, being clearly and beyond comparison the 
most heroic of that time fertile in heroes — a man brave and 
wise, and magnanimous and just, and self-denying in a 
degree hardly exceeded by any character in history. He 
was, besides, the husband of the only and beloved child of 
the apostle of God, and their two sons, Hassan and Hus- 
sain, had been the darlings of their grandfather, who had 
publicly given them the title of * the foremost among the 
youth of Paradise.* 

Hassan. — " Of these sons, Hassan, the elder, a saint and a 
recluse, on the death of his father, sold his birthright of 
empire to Muawiyah for a large annual revenue, which, 
during the remainder of his life, he expended in works of 
charity and religion at Medina. In the year 669 a.d. this 
devout and blameless grandson of the Apostle of God was 
poisoned by one of his wives, who had been bribed to that 
wickedness by Yezid, the son of Muawiyah, and the second 
of the Ommeiade Caliphs of Damascus. 

Hussatn, — '* There thus remained, as head of the direct 
lineage of the Apostle of God, Hussain, the younger son of 
Fatima and Ali, a brave and noble man in whom dwelt 
much of the spirit of his father. 

Battle of Kerbela, 680 A.D, — ** Eleven years after his 
brother's murder, in the year 680 of our era, yielding to the 
repeated entreaties of the chief of the people of Irak Arabi 
(or Mesopotamia), who promised to meet him with a host 
of armed supporters, Hussain set forth from Medina to 
Cufa to assert his right to the caliphate against the hated 
Ommeiades. He crossed the desert with only a feeble 



14 Facts of Interest and Curious Points 

train — his wife, his sister Fatima, two of his sons, and a 
few armed horsemen — when, on reaching Kerbela, then a 
desert station about a day's journey from the west bank of 
the Euphrates, and in the near neighbourhood of Cufa, he 
found drawn up to meet him a host, not of retainers but of 
foes. The narrative of what follows is among the most 
pathetic in all history. The noble son of Ali and Fatima, 
the favourite grandson of the Apostle of God, after deeds 
of valour, romantic even in an Arab of that age, fell pierced 
through and through with the arrows and javelins of the 
cowardly assailants who did not dare to come within the 
sweep of his arm. One of his sons and nephew had already 
been slain in his sight. His other son, his wife, and his 
sister, were carried away captive to Damascus. They 
smote off the head of the son of Ah' and paraded it in 
triumph in the streets of Cufa. As it passed along, the 
brutal Obeidullah, the Governor of the city, struck the 
mouth of the dead man with his staff. * Ah !* cried an aged 
Mussulman whom horror and just wrath made bold, ' what 
foul deed is that ? On those lips I have seen the lips of 
the Apostle of God.' This tragic event stirred the heart of 
Islam to its very depth." 

Sources of Mohammedan Law. — The author states that 
**the grand superstructure of Islamic jurisprudence is 
founded on the Koranic laws and the traditional sayings of 
the Prophet ; but much of the coping-stone was supplied 
at Baghdad, in Bokhara, in Syria, in Andalusia, and Persia. 
The fundamental bases (for Sunnis) are (i) the Koran; 
(2) the Hadis or Sunnat (traditions handed down from the 
Prophet) ; (3) the Ijmia-ul-Ummat (concordance among 
the followers); and (4) the Kiyas (private judgment). 

Shiahs. — *' The Shiahs do not admit the genuineness of 
any tradition not received from the Ahl-ul-Bait (the * People 
of the House ') consisting of Ali and Fatima and their 
children, and repudiate entirely the validity of all decisions 
not passed by their own spiritual leaders and Imams. In 
the application of private or analytical judgment and in 



in Mohammedan Law. 15 

drawing conclusions from the ancient precedents, they also 
differ widely from the Sunnis." It is pointed out how the 
schism between Sunnis and Shiahs originated with dynastic 
questions, and grew into a separation on doctrinal and legal 
points ; and the bitterness between the two is attributed to 
the reception which the two accorded to the doctrine of the 
Imamate or ** spiritual headship of the Mussulman Common- 
wealth." The Shiahs repudiate entirely the authority of 
the Jama'at (or the universality of the people) to elect a 
spiritual chief, who should supersede the rightful claims of 
the persons indicated by the Founder of the Faith ; whilst 
the Sunnis regard the decisions of the assemblies, however 
obtained, as of oecumenical importance. Ali, when offered 
the caliphate on the death of Omar, on condition that he 
should govern in accordance with the precedents established 
by the two former Caliphs, declined it, declaring that in all 
cases respecting which he found no positive law or decision 
of the Prophet, he would rely upon his own judgment. 

At first known simply as the Banu-Hashim, the partisans 
of Ali under Muawiyah began to be called ** Shiahs " or 
** adherents " ; whilst the partisans of Muawiyah were called 
Amawis. When the Abbasides acquired the dominion, the 
faction which advocated the principle of election in preference 
to hereditary succession adopted the name of Ahl-us-Sunnat 
wa*l Jama'at ("People of the Traditions and Assembly"). 
According to the Shiah doctrine, the oral precepts of the 
Prophet are in their nature supplementary to the Koranic 
ordinances, and their binding effect depends on the degree 
of harmony existing between them and the laws of the 
Koran. 

Sunnis. — The Sunnis, on the other hand, base their 
doctrines on the entirety of the traditions. They regard 
the concordant decisions of successive Caliphs, and of the 
general assemblies (Ijmda-ul-Ummat) as supplementing 
the Koranic rules and regulations and as almost equal in 
authority to them. 

Four Schools of Sunnis. — The four distinctive juridical 



1 6 Facts of Interest and Curious Points 

schools among the Sunnis are those of (i) Abu Hanifa 
(whose doctrines are in force among the major portion of 
Indian Mussulmans, the Afghans, Turkomans, almost 
all Central Asian Mohammedans, and the Turks and 
Egyptians) ; (2) of Malik-ibn-Ans, whose tenets hold good 
in Northern Africa, especially in Morocco and Algeria ; 
(3) of Shafei of Ghizeh in Syria, whose doctrines prevail in 
Northern Africa, in Egypt, in Southern Arabia, in Java, 
in the Malayan Peninsula, and in Ceylon ; and (4) of Ibn 
Hanbal. 

The ** Disciples^ — Abu Hanifa had two celebrated 
followers — Abu Yusuf and Mahomed — who are so greatly 
venerated that when they both dissent from their master, 
the Mussulman judge is at liberty to adopt either of the two 
decisions which seems to him to be more consonant with 
reason. Abu Hanifa's dicta should be followed only in 
religious matters. In judicial decrees in all matters relating 
to disposition of property, a preference is given to the 
doctrine of Abu Yusuf, who was an eminent judge. The 
views of Mohammed should be followed in questions of 
inheritance. 

Legal Works of the Mussulmans. — The legal works of 
the Hanafis are text-books and digests of decisions (Fatawa). 
One of the most celebrated of the former is the Hedaya, 
which took Burhan-ud-din of Marghinan in Ferghana (who 
died A.D. 1 196) thirteen years to write. The glosses on the 
Hedaya, of most repute in India, are the ** Nihaya," the 
" Inaya," the **Ghait-ul-bayan," the *' Kifaya," and the 
** Fath-ul-Kadir." The Nihaya is important as supplying 
the omission of the law of inheritance in the Hedaya ; but 
a far better book on this subject is the ** Faraiz-us-Sirajiya.'' 
The Hedaya was translated into Persian and subsequently 
into English by Mr. Hamilton, under the auspices of 
Warren Hastings. The chief work in Turkey is the 
** Multaka-ul-Abhar," by Shaikh Ibrahim, of Aleppo, who 
flourished under Solyman the magnificent. 

Of the Fatawa, the most important are the Fatawai Kazi 



in Mohammedan Law. 1 7 

Khan and the Fatawai Alamgiri. Kazi Khan was a con- 
temporary of Burhan-ud-din, and his work is received in 
the courts as of equal authority with the Hedaya. The 
** Fatawai Alamgiri " were compiled by the orders of the 
Emperor Aurangzib Alamgir, and are referred to in 
Western works as the Hindieh. In the original the names 
of the authorities from which the decisions are collected are 
invariably given with many of the reasons and often with 
comments by the compilers, the learned mufti's of the 
courts. The most practical and well-reasoned work of 
this class is the ** Radd-ul-Mukhtar," by Md. Amin (the 
Syrian), which contains a critical r6sum6 of previous 
decisions, the opinions of the most important earlier legists, 
with a full account of the recognised and accepted principles 
in modern times. The best-known writer of the Maliki 
sect is Sidi Khalil, whose encyclopaedic work has been 
translated into French by M. Perron, under the patronage 
of the French Government. The chief works of the Shiahs 
would seem to be the ** Istibsar," the ** Nihaya," and the 
"Mabsut of Md. al Hasan" surnamed the "Shaikh," the 
Kitab'Ul-Intizar Murtaza, surnamed **A1 Huda" (the 
guide) of Saiyid, the Sharaza-ul-Islam, As to the last, 
our author says: ** It is hardly possible to exaggerate the 
baleful influence of this legist among the Shiah communities, 
which have adopted his views. His literal views have 
paralyzed all movements of the intellects." The ** Jamaa- 
us-Shittat,' a grand collection of decisions and dicta, was 
published within the last century in Persia by the leading 
mujtahids of Teheran. 

Causes of the Present Stationary Condition of Moham- 
medan Nations, — The present stationary condition of the 
Mohammedan nations as compared with their rapid progress 
in the early centuries of Islam is due, according to Syed 
Amir AH, to the general view that no one who had not 
obtained to the factitious or empirical stage of judicial 
knowledge possessed by the mujtahids of the first three 
centuries can aspire to freedom of legislation or liberty of 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. B 



1 8 Facts of Interest and Curious Points 

judgment. He points out that the same blight has fallei> 
over Shiah ideas by the introduction among the common 
folk of the Akbari rather than the Usuli doctrine. ** The 
freedom of judgment, he says, ** allowed by the latter school 
gave ample scope to social progress and moral develop- 
ment." 

Rafaa ed Dainism. — Shafeism now stands forth in the 
presence of the Sunnis as the embodiment of those aspira- 
tions for moral regeneration and legal reform which are 
agitating so many minds in Islam. In India, under the 
name of Rafaa ed Dainism, it is measuring strength with 
Hanafism in its very strongholds. The word Rafaa ed! 
dain means ** The raising of the hands.'* The Shafeis,. 
Malikis, and Hanbalis all do this when uttering the words 
** Allahu-akbar," (the takbir). The Hanafis raisetheirs no 
higher than their ears and recite the word *'Amen" very 
softly. The right of the non-conformists (**Ghair-mukallids") 
to say their prayers according to their own ritual in the 
mosques frequented by Sunnis have formed the subject of 
much litigation, but it has now been decided that they may 
do so so long as they do not interrupt or disturb the wor- 
ship of others. 

Curiosities. — The following are a few curiosities of 
Mohammedan law. The definition of a '* fakir *' by Kazi 
Khan is quoted. He says : *' A person is called fakir'' 
(indigent) ** who has only a lodging'' (and nothing more),. 
*' and he would be entitled to zakat " (poor rate or religious 
alms) ** as well as the benefit of a wakf for the poor. 
Similarly, a person who has only a lodging but no where- 
withal for a subsistence, though he may have an attendant, 
is a fakir. A person who has only a few necessary raiments 
and nothing else is a fakir." 

A special legacy of a drum for amusement is null and 
void, unless it can at the same time be used for warlike 
purposes and for pilgrimages. 

Mohammedan law does not seem to hold that ** A pound 
of feathers is heavier than a pound of lead," for we read 



in Mohammedan Law. 19 

that a person who has hired an animal to carry a certain 
quantity of cotton would not be at liberty to load the animal 
with "a similar quantity of iron," since the carriage of the 
latter would probably be more prejudicial to the animal. 

District officers in India will be interested in the following : 
" Trees planted in a mosque become the property of the 
mosque, as they are on the same footing as a building 
erected within the mosque (premises). But trees planted 
by the side of a public canal or a village reservoir remain 
the property of the owner, and he can transplant them'' 

The worn out mats and the broken beams of a mosque 
may be sold, but this is only lawful on the condition that 
these articles should serve as fuel. 

Shrewd Sayings. — The shrewdness of the Prophet and 
his followers often takes amusing turns. We are told that 
when a wakf is made for students, and the wakf is small. 
only poor students will be supported. But generally the 
word ** student " implies want, and when a wakf is made for 
students in general, it is confined to indigent students alone 
*'for students are almost all in straitened circumstances." 
The (modern) jurists hold that in these times it is not 
necessary to apply to the Kazi for the appointment of a 
mutawali, **as the Kazis of our times have proved them- 
selves not trustworthy." If of two sons one is very pious, 
and the other is best acquainted with the affairs of the wakf 
and its management, ** the towliat should be given to the 
latter if he is trustworthy." 

Female Testimony. — Pace the ladies ! "In cases where 
property only is concerned, the testimony of one witness on 
oath may be received, or of one male and two females, and 
the testimony of even a single female witness may be 
received as establishing the right of a legatee to a fourth 
part of what she testifies to ; of two women as supporting 
his claim to a half, of three as to three-fourths, and of 
four as to the whole." As to the appointment of executors 
or guardians, the Mohammedan law will not admit of 
female testimony. 

B 2 



20 Facts and Curious Points in Mohammedan Law. 

Lastly, the fifth tradition of the Prophet is to be noted. 
It runs : **The thing with which a man maintains himself 
is a charity." 

Interesting Law Points. — To turn now from these lighter 
matters to interesting points of Mohammedan law, it is 
noticeable that, ** as a matter of fact, no analogy drawn from 
English law with regard to trusts and settlements can assist 
in the comprehension of the Mohammedan law relating to 
wakfs. Under the English law a perpetuity is bad ; under 
the Mussulman law, without any difference, perpetuity is an 
essential element in the constitution of a wakf." Neither 
the ceS'tui qui trust nor the manager can grant a lease 
of wakf property for a long period. The mutawali is a 
mere manager ; he has no power of mortgage, sale, or 
lease over the wakf property, even for a necessity, save and 
except so far as is provided in the wakfnameh. 

Wakf. — Wakf is the subject treated of at most length in 
this book. The institution of wakf seems to have been a 
device to save property from the rapacity of Sovereigns. 
A wakf, besides being inalienable and noo-hereditable, is 
imprescriptible — that is, it cannot be subject to the rights 
of the Sovereign as private property. 

Wills. — M. Sautayra is quoted as follows : ** A will from 
the Mussulman's point of view is a divine institution, since 
its exercise is regulated by the Koran. It offers to the 
testator the means of correcting to a certain extent the law 
of succession, and of enabling some of those relatives who 
are excluded from inheritance to obtain a share in his goods, 
and of recognising the services of a stranger, or the devotion 
to him in his last moments.*' 

The position of an executor differs much from that 
assigned to him by English law. The legal estate does not 
rest in him. Abu Yusuf is reported to have said : ** To 
enter upon an executorship for the first time is a mistake, 
for the second a fraud, and for the third a theft." 

Temporary Marriages. — Many persons will be interested 
in the following : ** Among the Akhbari Shiahs, or a certain 



in Mohammedan Law, 2 i 

section of them, temporary contracts of marriage (mutaa) 
are recognised as valid. In such cases the husband has no 
power of divorcing his wife ; the contract being for a stipu- 
lated period, fixed by mutual consent, comes to an end by 
the efflux of the time so fixed, or by the death of either of 
the parties. They may, however, dissolve the convenient 
arrangement by mutual consent." 

MosqueSy Churches, and Synagogues. — The law imposes 
but one limitation over the liberality of those who do not 
follow the Islamic faith ; it forbids their constituting a 
mosque as beneficiary of their wakf. According to the 
Shafei doctrine a wakf for the construction of Christian 
churches or synagogues is void ; but a wakf in favour of a 
hospital for Christians or Jews, made as it is with a pious 
motive, is lawful. Abu Hanifa, more liberal than his two 
disciples, allows a Jew or Christian to bequeath his house 
as a church or synagogue, arguing that the founding of 
churches or synagogues is held by these persons to be an 
act of piety, and as we are enjoined to leave them to the 
exercise of whatever may be agreeable to their faith, the 
bequest is lawful in conformity with their belief. 

The volume now under notice contains the law as to gifts, 
wakfs, wills, pre-emption, and bailment. The third edition 
of Vol. II. relating to the personal law of the Mohammedans 
has not yet been brought out. If it does appear, it will 
doubtless be of great interest. The general index at the 
end of the volume now under review seems to want 
revising. For instance, the word '*Mutazala" does not 
appear on p. 12 to which the index refers us. 



22 



YARKAND. 

By E. H, Parker. 

As I explained in the short account which I gave of 
Kashgar {Asiatic Quarterly Review^ October, 1905), the 
first Chinese mission to the West in B.C. 130 kept well to 
the north, and did not go near Kashgar or Yarkand, 
neither of which places is mentioned in the first real 
Chinese history, written by Sz-ma Ts*ien, and published 
about B.C. 90. In B.C. 76 it was that the Kashgar- Khoten 
region was conquered by China from the Hiung-nu (i.e., the 
Huns of Europe, the Turks of China), and the name So-kii 
(the modern official name for the hien of Yarkand), appears 
about then for the first time. Of the two known roads to 
the West, the more southerly lay from Lob Nor to the 
north of the range still known as the Nan Shan or 
** Southern Hills," and thence "along the River*' — i.e., the 
Tarim, then erroneously supposed to be the upper course 
of the Yellow River — westwards to Yarkand, 

Previous to the Chinese conquest of b.c. 76, the whole of 
the Tarim Valley States were a kind of semi-independent 
foreign preserve, the most westerly of them, at least, under 
the rule of princes of the SSk or Saca race — that is, we 
must suppose, under Persians from Sacasthene or Seistan. 
At the present day the population is stated to consist chiefly 
of Turkish-speaking Persians and Turkish Sarts ; which 
fact, if correct, thus accords with the Chinese historical data 
of 2,000 years ago. and with what we know of the Turkish 
conquests. The Hiung-nu sub-khan, or prince, who ruled 
the western frontiers of the nomad empire, had a permanent 
military governor or commissioner stationed at the modern 
Harashar, then called Yen-k*i, or at one of the affiliated 
towns within a short radius of that centre ; it was the duty 
of this military commissioner or inspector to keep an eye 
on the settled regions of what we now call Turkestan, and 



Yarkand. 2 3 

to see that full supplies, drafts, tributes, and taxes were 
duly collected and forwarded by these vassal States for the 
use of the nomad government. 

After the Chinese conquest of B.C. 76, the nomad com- 
missioners at Harashar were naturally discontinued, and 
as the Chinese soon still further weakened the Hiung-nu 
power, these horse-riding rovers by degrees found them- 
selves quite unable to get near to the Tarim Valley at all. 
The first Chinese proconsul in charge of the West was 
appointed about B.C. 60, and his residence or citadel lay 
a little to the west of Harashar, on the Yarkand road, in 
the neighbourhood of the Bukur and Kuch6* of to-day. 
Chinese colonists were hurried up from the east, **and the 
So-kii land was divided up " — apparently into several minor 
principalities. 

Yarkand, as it will now be more convenient to style it, 
is thus described : It is 3,000 miles (9,950 li) from the 
metropolis — i.e., from the Si-ngan Fu of modern times, and 
lies 4,746 // to the south-west of the Chinese proconsul's head- 
quarters (near Kuch^), 560 li to the east of Kashgar, 740 li 
to the north-east of Sairlik (then called P'u-li), and 380 li 
north-west of P*i-shan (somewhere north of Shahidula). 
The King of the territory ruled at a city also called So-kii, 
from which we gather that his whole domain practically 
consisted of one central town and a circlet of villages and 
gardens ; just as the modern oasis included or includes 
Tashkurgan, Yanghi-hissar, Posgam, Kargalik, Sanju, 
Tagarchi, Karchum, Guma, Beshtarik, etc. There were 
2,339 households, 16,373 souls, and 3,049 effective troops. 
After the Chinese conquest, the administrative staff" con- 
sisted of one lord of the marches — probably the ex- King 
himself — two generals, two cavalry generals, two military 
inspectors, and four chief interpreters or translators. Iron 
and jade are mentioned amongst the trade produc- 
tions ; but it is not made quite clear whether they 

♦ Even 2,000 years ago the modern Kuch^ was known by an almost 
exactly similar name. 



2 4 Yarkand. 

came from Yarkand itself or from its immediate neighbour- 
hood. 

In my account of the Ephthalite Turks {Asiatic Quarterly 
Review, July, 1902) it was explained that, between their 
newly- founded Oxus- Indus empire and the nomad dominions 
of the Hiung-nu, lay a third Tartar kingdom called by the 
Chinese Wu-sun. It had been imperialist policy to link 
this people by marriage to the Chinese interest, and we are 
told that the youngenson of a Chinese princess, who had lived 
through two successive kings for forty years (b.c. 95-91) in 
Wu-sun land, was a close personal friend of the Yarkand 
king. When this Yarkand King died without heirs, it so 
happened that the young Wu-sun prince in question, who 
bore the purely Chinese name of Wan-nien (** myriad years *') 
was at the Chinese imperial Court, probably doing duty as 
a page-hostage. The leading men of Yarkand, anxious to 
ingratiate themselves with China on the one hand, and 
with the Wu-sun nomads on the other, submitted a request 
to the Emperor that Wan-nien might be made the next 
King of Yarkand. This request was granted, and a special 
ambassador was accordingly appointed to escort the young 
man back to his native land and new post. However, his 
temper proved so vicious that the late King's younger 
brother soon got up a revolution, murdered both Wan-nien 
and the Chinese ambassador, and endeavoured to induce 
the neighbouring states — corresponding to Yanghi-hissar, 
Kargalik, Kugiar, etc. — to rise against China. It so 
happened that just then another special Chinese envoy 
was escorting a Kokand (then called Ta-wan) mission 
either from or back to the West : this energetic officer 
secured for himself the co-operation of the neighbouring 
States, put the usurper to death, and appointed another 
brother as King of Yarkand. All this took place in the 
year B.C. 65, and the Emperor heartily approved of it. 

Nothing more is heard of Yarkund till a.d. 16, when in 

^hina a usurping dynasty intervened for about thirty years 

een the Early Han (b.c. 200 to B.C. 5) and Later 



Yarkamd. 25 

Han '.%.D, 25-220} imperial houses. The usuq>er sent a 
general "at the head of 7,000 Yarkand and Kuche troops " 
to take possession of Harashar. This the general did, but 
he soon lost his life in the struggles which went on there ; 
and the Chinese usurper himself died in a.d. 23, after which 
the western regions were totally isolated from China for 
some little time, and nomad Hiung-nu overpower was 
re-established. There was one exception, however, in the 
case of Yarkand, whose King was sufficiently strong in his 
own resources to resist all nomad dictation. This King 
had, during the reigjn period b.*:. 49-33. also been a [>age at 
the Chinese Court, and had in consequence conceived a 
liking for civilized ways, besides gaining some insight into 
the workings of law and of Court functions. He was, there- 
fore, always careful to impress upon his sons the wisdom 
and importance of faithfully ser\'ing the interests of the 
imperial Chinese house. This rjier died in a.d. 18, and was 
rewarded for his loyalty to China with the posthumous 
tide of Fidus Martins, His son not onlv resisted nomad 
encroachments, but, on the accession of the Later Han 
dynasty at Loh-yang (Ho-nan Fu) in a.d. 25, he suc- 
ceeded in safely convoying the Chinese proconsul, with 
his staif escort and camp following, safely back, after many 
years of helpless isolation, to the Chinese frontier (near 
Marco Polo's ** Erguiul "). For this service the Yarkand 
ruler in question was created in a.d. 29 ** Meritorious and 
Grateful King, under Han,* of Yarkand," and was also 
appointed Military Inspector over the 6fty-five Turkestan 
States. The reign of this semi-independent monarch 
closed in a.d. 33, when he also received a posthumous tide 
of honour. His younger brother and successor extended 
his conquests south and east to the modem Yularik and 
Kerya, setting two of his own nephews up in place of the 
native sub-kings o*" those places, and carrying his hegemony 

* Later on, in a.d. 229, Vasod^va, the Kusfaan or Indo-Scythian king, 
in the same way created " king, under Wei," etc. — iI/l, when the Han 
had been replaced by tbat of Wd (see Asiatic Quarterly RtvUw^ 
1902). 



26 Yarkand. 

even so far as Lob Nor,* along with whose King he sent 
tribute to China in a.d. 38. This was the zenith of 
Yarkand's power, which has never been equalled since, 
even under the ephemeral empire of Yakub Beg in our 
own times. 

In the year 41 the ambitious satrap of Yarkand sent an 
envoy to solicit the appointment of Chinese Proconsul of 
the West in his own person. The Emperor himself was a 
little doubtful about the wisdom of entrusting so much 
power to a foreigner ; however, after some deliberation in 
council, a special envoy was sent to confer the imperial 
title, and to carry suitable presents, along with the necessary 
insignia of rank. The Chinese frontier governor of Tun- 
hwang (Marco Polo's Sacchiou) remonstrated against the 
imprudence of confiding in a ** Tartar barbarian " to this 
unprecedented extent, in consequence of which the pro- 
consular seal was suddenly recalled whilst on its way, and a 
military seal as Chinese generalissimo was conferred instead. 
As the Yarkand envoy, who seems to have carried with him 
on his return the original full-powers, declined to exchange 
them for the inferior dignity, the Governor of Sacchiou 
effected the transfer by force, in consequence of which the 
irate King of Yarkand not only made unauthorized use of 
the full proconsular title, but even conceived a hatred for 
China, and adopted besides the nomad title of jenuyeh^^ or 
** Supreme Khan," to show his independence of the 
Hiung-nu. Abusing his power to overtax the neighbouring 
sub-states, he carried his victorious arms from time to time 
into Kuch6 and elsewhere. The result was that, in a.d. 45, 
the eighteen more easterly kingdoms corresponding to the 
regions of modern Turfan, Harashar, Lob Nor, etc., sent 
special envoys with presents and page-hostages to China, 
expressing a prayer that a genuine proconsul might be once 

* See Anglo- Russian Society Journal for 1902, ** Dr. Sven Hedin and 
Ix)b Nor,'* pp. 24-41- 

+ The shen-yii (Deguignes' and Gibbon's " Tan ''-jou) of the Hiung-nu, 
■ihe title still used in a.d. iooo by the Ghuz Turks (see Asiatic Quarterly 
w, January, 1904, ** Some New Facts about Marco Polo''). 



Yarkand. 27 

more established. But the new Emperor of China had not 
even yet sufficiently established the " restoration *' dynasty 
of Han on a strong basis, and was unwilling to risk his 
military power so far west; the result was that Varkand's 
pretensions became more aggressive than ever, and the 
other discontented States were obliged to satisfy themselves 
with a private understanding (approved by the Emperor), 
under which their hostages to China were kept ** on show " 
at Sacchiou ** until such time as the Chinese proconsul should 
arrive," hoping by this piece of '* blufif " at least to frighten 
Yarkand into moderation. This plan succeeded until the 
year 46, when the King, finding that the oft- threatened 
wolf did not come, ordered the King of Lob Nor to close 
the road leading to China. This arrogant demand was met 
by the instant decapitation of the envoy who brought it. 
War, of course, ensued ; Yarkand was victorious ; and the 
King of Lob Nor had to fly to the hills with a loss of 1,000 
prisoners. The triumphant King of Yarkand now pro- 
ceeded to annex Kuch6 and to murder its ruler. The 
hostages at Sacchiou, hearing of these untoward events, fled 
back in all haste to their respective native countries. An 
urgent appeal to the Emperor from Lob Nor explained 
that, unless China sent immediate help, there would be 
nothing for it but to ask protection from the Hiung-nu once 
more. As the Emperor was still not prepared to act, this 
political move actually took place, both Turfan and Lob 
Nor throwing themselves humbly upon the nomad mercy. 
Such action only made Yarkand the more overbearing : 
one of its westernmost sub-states in the Pamir region 
revolted, and was crushed ; Kuch6 was divided into two 
kingdoms ; and the puppets whom Yarkand set up to rule 
these refractory regions proved so unsatisfactory that their 
populations were also driven into seeking Hiung-nu protec- 
tion, in consequence of which the nomad power set up a 
Kuch^ king of their own. Yarkand s suzerainty seems to 
have extended westwards as far as Kokand, for we find an 
army made up of the troops of the various sub-states 



28 Yarkand, 

marching under Yarkand in order to enforce payment of 
Kokand's taxes. It appears to have been part of Yarkand's 
fixed policy* to transfer one king to another's kingdom, and 
vice versd; and in this way we next hear of Samarcand 
(then called K^ang-kii) attacking the King of Kerya, whom 
Yarkand had set upon the Kokand throne, and of the 
Khoten king being moved to a neighbouring throne, whilst 
a Yarkand prince was appointed to Khoten. So insecure, 
however, did the Supreme King of Yarkand feel under this 
system of manipulation, that he ended by summoning to a 
durbar, and then assassinating, the Kings of Kerya, Khoten, 
Yaka-aryk, and Kugiar (or perhaps Yularik), and decided 
to appoint military governors of his own instead of native 
kings in future. This new arrangement did not work well 
in Khoten ; war soon broke out, and a native Khoten 
pretender, after various plots and counterplots, succeeded 
in inflicting two very serious defeats upon the Yarkand 
forces (a.d. 6o). Kuchd, under Hiung-nu guidance, made 
an ineffectual attempt to crush Yarkand altogether, and at 
last the new King of Khoten managed to obtain recognition 
from, and to conclude a peace with, Yarkand. Next year, 
however, the treacherous King of Khoten, although con- 
nected with the Yarkand family by several family ties, once 
more made war ; captured by a ruse the King of Yarkand ; 
and, after keeping him in confinement for a year or more, 
killed him. Meanwhile the Hiung-nu, hearing that Khoten 
had taken the place of Yarkand as the leading settled state, 
despatched five generals to raise 30,000 troops in Harashar, 
Kuch^. and thirteen other of the easterly group of states. 
Khoten was besieged, surrendered, and gave hostages to 
the nomads, undertaking to pay tribute in carpets and silk 
floss. The son of the late King of Yarkand, who had 
meanwhile been a hostage with the Hiung-nu, was appointed 
by them to be King of Yarkand : but the Khoten king 
would not tolerate this, made war upon him, and killed 

"^ It will be seen later on that the modern Manchus acted in the 
same way. 



Yarkand. 29 

him, setting a brother of his own on the Yarkand throne 
instead. This was in the year 86, and some years after 
China had decided to intervene actively once more in 
western affairs, in the effective manner about to be 
explained. 

In A.D. Ti the celebrated soldier-diplomat, Pan Ch'ao 
(brother of Pan Ku, the author of the Early Han History), 
by a coup cTitat at Lob Nor at one blow decapitated the 
Hiung-nu resident ambassadors there, and secured the 
place for China once more. Khoten, Kashgar, and Yarkand 
followed suit; their troops, reinforced by Indo-Scythians, 
Samarcandians, and Wu-sun, supported Pan Ch*ao in his 
attack upon the refractory State of Kuch6, whose power 
included modern Aksu and Yaka-aryk further west. It 
was not until the year 87, however, that Yarkand, which 
from time to time coquetted with, or was constrained by 
Kuch^ when Chinese support was not at hand, was finally 
conquered by Pan Ch*ao. After thirty-one years* service in 
Turkestan, Pan Ch'ao went home to die in a.d. 102. 
Yarkand repeatedly attempted to throw off the Khoten 
yoke, and at last, subsequently to 119, fell under the 
supremacy of Kashgar. In 130 the King of Kashgar 
(appointed by the Indo-Scythians)* sent a page-hostage to 
China in company with the envoys of Kokand and Yarkand. 
During the short existence (220-265) of the Wei dynasty, 
the *' south road " was considered to run via Khoten, which 
was the predominant power. On the central road there 
were three great states, Harashar, Kuch^, and Kashgar; 
and Yarkand still belonged to the last named. 

For three centuries f Chinese influence now disappeared 
from Turkestan. During the fifth century, when the Toba 
Tartars ruled the northern half of China, So-ku is barely 
mentioned; it is stated that, after going west from the place 
to the Ts*ung-Hng Mountains, you continued west for 

* See '*Dr. Sved Hedin and Lob Nor," p. 31, and "The Ephthalite 
Turks *' as cited above. 

t See ** Kashgar" {Asiatic Quarterly Review^ October, 1905). 



30 Yarkand. 

another 400 miles (1,303 It) to a place called K'a-pei\ 
identified with some part of modern Wakhan, or the old 
Kapiga ; whilst, after going south-west to the same moun- 
tains, a second road continued south-west 1,300 It to Po-lu 
(the Buruts of Baltistan). So far as the city itself was 
concerned, the old name had entirely disappeared, and 
another town, either on or near the old site, had sprung up 
under the name K'ii-so, by which, according to such Chinese 
etymological rules as are known, we must suppose some 
such sound as ** Gusa " is meant. 

During the whole period of Turkish (550-670) and 
Tibetan (670-692) domination in the Tarim Valley, So-kli 
is not once mentioned, nor is K'ii-so ; nor is it at all clear 
whether the old city still existed, and, if so, under what name, 
belonging to which preponderant state. Just as had been the 
case at the beginning of our era, the Chinese proconsuls in 
charge of the West still had their headquarters at Kuch6 ; 
or at Turfan alternately. The Arabs, after their long struggle 
with the Turks in the Bokhara regions, are known to have 
influenced Khoten ;* but, though Kashgar resisted the 
Arabs, not a word is said of Yarkand, which, indeed, only 
at last re-appears after a long sleep of 1,000 years, and 
under its new and present name. It appears that when 
the Nuch^ns (early Manchus) turned the Kitans out of 
North China (1120), and the branch of the Kitans known 
as Kara-Kitans went west to found an empire in Kerman,t 
then it was that Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khoten soon fell 
under Kara-Kitan sway, which was ultimately established 
centrally at Ghuz Ordo (between Tashkend and Issyk-Kul). 
After that the Naiman Tartars imposed their yoke for a short 
time. In 12 18 Genghis Khans general, Cheb^, assisted 
by a Kara-Kitan renegade, took possession of the above 
cities, and by degrees broke up the whole Kara-Kitan 
empire. In this connection the Chinese historians who 
recount the events spell the word Ya-r-kHen, and this 

* See ** Kashgar," above cited. 

^ See Colonel Sykes' ** Persia " (John Murray), pp. 60, 304. 



Yarkand. 3 1 

seems to be absolutely the first appearance of the new 
word in Chinese history. During the war of 1262 between 
Kublai Khan and his brother Arik-buka, the place is called 
Ye-li'kHen. In 1274 thirteen post-stations — apparently 
established on the rivers crossed en route — were organized 
by Kublai between Khoten and Ya-r-k'an; the same year 
imperial relief was granted to the needy populations of 
Kashgar, Khoten, and Yarkand. This brings us down 
almost to the year of Marco Polo*s arrival there on his way to 
China ; he describes the provinces of Cascar, Yarcan, and 
Cotan — all Muhammadan in religion, but the former two 
containing Nestorians also. Kashgar was then (as we see 
the Chinese assert) under the dominion of Kublai ; but 
Marco Polo says Yarkand formed part of Kublai's nephew 
Kaidu's dominions ; which is not unlikely, as Kublai was 
alternately ** off" and ** on " in his relations with Kaidu. 
During the Ming dynasty (1368- 1643) Yarkand is only 
once mentioned, and then under the name of Ya-r-kan ; 
it figures among the petty ti-mien, or ** localities," sending 
tribute, but not ranking as a ** State." No doubt, like 
Kashgar, it was under the influence of Shah Rukh, with 
whom the Chinese had relations, as they had long had with 
his grandfather Tamerlane. In 1603 Bernard Goes found 
Yarkand to be the chief town of Kashgar province. 
Possibly the **Tanghetar" which he visited is a misprint 
or misapprehension for ** Yanghi - hissar," or possibly 
Yenghi-shar, or the ** new city" of Yarkand. In his time 
the old Mongol Khans still reigned at Hami, Turfan, and 
Yarkand, the last being more or less a suzerain. But in 
1644-1645 Mahmud (the twenty-sixth beighember \i\ direct 
descent from Muhammad), coming from Bagdad, took 
possession of at least some of the Kashgarian cities. It 
appears, however, that so late as 1686, Suliman, direct in 
descent from Genghis Khan, was still reigning at Yarkand, 
and that other branches of Mahmud's family took pos- 
session of Wakhan and Afghanistan, and possibly of 
Kokand. 



32 Yarkand, 

During the Manchu wars with Galdan the Eleuth in 
1696 (half a century after the Manchu conquest of China), 
Ye-r-kHn is stated to possess ** 20,000 of our Mussulman 
troops, sufficient to prevent Galdan from seeking to reach 
Kokonor via that route." The ruler of Yarkand was then 
Abdul Schid (or Seyid ?), who appears to have been taken 
prisoner by the Emperor, and subsequently to have been 
sent back honourably to his country, which had, together 
with Samarcand, Bokhara, the Pamirs, Issyk-Kul, Kashgar, 
etc., some time before been subdued by the Eleuths. In 
1 71 2 Ye-r-kin is mentioned with Bokhara as one of the 
cotton-producing regions, a point of importance to China in 
the manufacture of wadded armour. In 1719 Ye-r-ken 
and Kerya (near Khoten) are mentioned as being on the 
route of the Eleuth armies from Hi to Tibet. In 1745 a 
trade is mentioned between Yarkand [Ye-r-k^iang) and 
Ladakh. In 1755 Bulad Khodjo of Kashgar was em- 
ployed by China to endeavour to obtain the surrender of 
Yarkand, to which place the To-lun* (.-^ Taranchi) Mussul- 
mans were moved in 1758 by Borhan-Uddin, grandson of 
Abdul. Both Kashgar and Yarkand surrendered to the 
victorious Chinese in 1759, and a commemorative stone — 
probably still there — was set up in Yarkand. The Yar- 
kand oasis was then found to contain 27 towns, 
30,000 houses, and over 100,000 souls. Its annual 
tribute, when subject to the domination of the Eleuths of 
Hi, was 100,000 denge,\ besides taxes or drafts on gold 
(from the Zerafshan, or *' gold-bestowing" river), on cotton, 
piece-goods, leather, women, and animals. It now became 
the chief Manchu political centre, whence political negotia- 
tions were conducted with Kokand, Badakshan, and other 
places beyond the mountains. Ultimately the amban took 

* According to Lord Dunmore, at the time of the Arab conquests 
Kashgaria was styled by them ** Turan," or ** Mulki Tartar." 

\ One denge counted as 50 "cash** of red Yarkand copper. The 
Eleuths used to demand annually from Kashgar 40,898 padma (about 
10,000 tons) of grain. The native coin called /«r was one-fifth of a dcnge^ 
and in it poll-taxes were paid. 



Yarkand. 33 

up his residence at Kashgar, with akim-begs over the chief 
eleven cities, each city with from six to a dozen townships 
under it. The four western oases are Kashgar, Yarkand, 
Yanghi-hissar, and Khoten ; the four eastern are Ush, 
Aksu, Kuch6, and Pidjan ; making up, with Hami, Hara- 
shar, and Turfan, the total of eleven. China now con- 
tented herself, at least nominally, with a general 5 per cent, 
tax on both Yarkand and Kashgar, the chief centres of 
Hindoo and Persian trade ; the other towns were not taxed 
imperially. Among the private perquisites of the Manchu 
Residents was trade in jade from the Mirdai Mountains, 
400 li distant from Yarkand. In 1764 the Manchu- 
appointed Resident at Yarkand seems to have been one 
Yu-su-p'u (? Joseph), described as being a descendant of a 
former King of Hami. To this man fell the duty of 
arranging certain diplomatic difficulties with Badakshan, 
whose ruler appears to have been related to Emin Khodjo, 
the previous sub-King of Yarkand. In 1770 Narbad suc- 
ceeded his father Erdeni as ruler of Kokand, and was 
instructed by the Emperor to ** go on obeying the direc- 
tions he should receive from Kashgar and Yarkand." In 
1775 certain allotments of land were made to the Yarkand 
population. In the summer of 1778 one Osman was 
appointed by the Emperor to succeed his deceased father 
Otei as akim-beg of Yarkand ; but before long Otei was 
transferred to Kashgar, and Setiparti of Kashgar was 
ordered to Yarkand. Soon there were complaints of 
tyranny and corruption, more especially in connection with 
the Mirdai jade quarries. According to rule, the Khoten 
and Yarkand jade* had to be sent every spring and autumn 
to Peking. In 1788 the Yarkand **duke" Setiparti died ; 
his eldest son, Maimut-AbduUa, succeeded to the Manchu 
pei'tsz, or "dukedom," of Yarkand, and to the akim-beg 
duties of Kashgar; whilst one Iskandar was nominated 
from Yarkand to the vacant aktm-beg post of Kashgar. 
Thus it appears to have been Manchu policy to "keep the 

* This fact corresponds with what was stated nearly 2,000 years earlier. 
THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. C 



34 Yarkand. 

ball rolling " between these two centres, and to prevent too 
much political root being taken by their nominees at either 
place. Both centres had to send annual tribute of horses, 
along with Hi, until the Emperor's abdication in 1796, 
when, on account of the distance and difficulty of com- 
munication, Kashgar and Yarkand were freed from this 
impost. In 1799 steps were taken to lighten the burden 
of having to send enormous blocks of jade, which often 
failed to reach the Emperor at all ; and the Yarkand 
Mussulmans engaged in forced irrigation labours were 
exempt from half their poll-tax. In 1803 it was found 
possible to withdraw certain Manchu guard-posts at the 
out-stations. 

The Chinese had in 1761 mercifully spared Borhan- 
Uddin*s son, Samsak, then at Yarkand, and aged only 
seven years. When he grew up to manhood, he promptly 
began intriguing with Kokand ; and in 1797 Narbad, acting 
under orders from Peking, just prevented Samsak from 
actually attacking Kashgar. In 181 1 Samsak is spoken of 
as being dead, and his son Yil-su-p'u {} Joseph) seems to 
be carrying on a persistent intrigue for the recovery of 
Yarkand and Kashgar to the beighember interest. In 18 14 
the Yarkand akim-beg is one Maihamut (? Muhammad) 
Osan ; and in 1821 the English barbarians are found cor- 
responding, through one Connell, with the same akini-beg 
of Yarkand, with a view to trade in horses, etc., and to 
getting through to Bokhara. The correspondence dis- 
closes that ** England has now held W^ntustan for fifty or 
sixty years, Cashmir and ' Indi ' alongside of it also accept- 
ing her sovereignty." **As a matter of fact," says the 
Emperor in reply, ** no notice need be taken of obscure 
barbarians, whose proper trading-place is Canton ; still, 
precautions must be taken, and the Cashmir Mussulman 
traders at Yarkand might be instructed to make further 
inquiry." 

Meanwhile Jehangir, another son of Samsak, who seems 
to have been connected by blood with the ruling house 



Yarkand. 35 

of Kokand, was slowly but surely gathering round him a 
formidable Mussulman following. By 1826 both Kashgar 
and Yarkand had fallen into his hands, and the Manchus 
were compelled to undertake a very serious campaign, in 
which Isaac, akim-beg of Aksu, did good service. Kashgar 
and Yarkand were retaken in 1827, and in 1828 Jehangir 
was captured and sent to Peking, where he was put 
to death under circumstances of great barbarity. The 
Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khoten oases were now re- 
organized, and trading arrangements with Badakshan and 
Kokand were placed on a new footing; but in 1831 it was 
thought best to make Yarkand the chief administrative 
centre. 

During the next twenty years the complicated history of 
these parts chiefly centres around the intrigues connected 
with Kokand and Andijan trade. In 1852 Aimad, the 
akifn-beg of Yarkand, son of Isaac above-mentioned, laid 
before the Emperor a formal complaint about the cor- 
ruption of the Manchu Resident; but in 1853 we find 
Aimad himself being subjected to punishment for black- 
mailing the local trade ; he endeavoured to redeem his 
offences by offering assistance against the T*aip*ing rebels. 
In 1862 the akim-beg Maimad Hassem died, and the 
Manchu Resident proposed his son as successor. In 1864 
Yarkand fell, and Yenghishar with Kashgar was also a prey 
to military revolt. Then comes the substitution of Yakub 
Beg for Buzurg Khan (the heir to Jehangir), and finally 
the reconquest by China from Yakub's son in 1877 of ^he 
Atalik Ghazi's ephemeral empire. 



c 2 



36 



JAPAN AND THE PEACE. 

By R. G. Corbet. 

When the representatives of the Mikado at Portsmouth 
agreed to terms which filled the world with amazement, 
the newspapers, as was to be expected, burst forth into a 
chorus of eulogy of the humanitarian motives that had 
prompted all concerned, especially lavishing praise upon 
President Roosevelt as a benefactor of mankind. But it 
at once struck those not content to look at the surface that 
there must be something else beneath it As a rule^ 
" business is business " — at any rate, in this commercial 
age — in the case of nations no less than of individuals. It 
is only Britain who makes presents to people that give her 
no thanks for them. It accordingly seemed perfectly in- 
credible that Japan, who had the game in her own hands 
both by sea and land, should spontaneously acquiesce in 
what the Russians openly boasted of as a brilliant diplo- 
matic victory. 

Signs soon began to appear in confirmation of the doubt 
that she had acted of her own free will in the matter. The 
Government behaved as though ashamed of what it had 
done, and afraid to let the people hear news certain to prove 
unwelcome. It took every precaution to break this very 
gently to those in the islands, whilst, as regards the troops 
in the field, it went so far as to stipulate that they should 
not be informed of the cessation of hostilities until the 
treaty had actually been signed and the national honour 
pledged. But the best proof that the Japanese had not at 
a stroke been turned into disciples of Mr. Gladstone was 
furnished the moment some idea of what had happened 
filtered through. The conditions of which they were told 
caused them the same pang of pained surprise that all 
friends of Japan had experienced before them, and in so 
marked a degree that they actually cast aside their usual 



Japan and the Peace. 37 

impenetrable veil of reserve, and entered a violent protest, 
in the shape of public disturbances, against the agreement 
come to with the enemy. And in this the followers of 
every party were at one. 

Their indignation is easy to understand, but the reason 
of its intensity and of the form taken by it is not so 
obvious ; hence, as much light has been thrown upon this 
by one of the very few persons competent to do so, it may 
not be amiss to introduce him to the reader. To this end 
it must be explained that Italian journalism, which had, as 
a rule, been highly unsatisfactory up to the outbreak of the 
Russo-Japanese war, was moved to sudden activity by it. 
Previously the most meagre and inaccurate telegrams had 
been considered quite sufficient where all foreign news 
was concerned ; now one paper after another began to 
announce that it had made arrangements to procure a full 
account of events abroad, particularly in the Far East. 
Among the journals that most distinguished themselves in 
this connection was the rather sleepy Corriere delta Sera 
of Milan. This appeared to have been electrified into new 
life by the conflict, since which it has become the best 
paper for news in North Italy, not to say in the whole 
Peninsula. Hence, the Corriere sent out a correspondent 
of its own, Signor Luigi Barzini, to the seat of war, and his 
letters thence were every whit as interesting and authentic 
as those of the best Anglo-Saxon correspondents — a 
phenomenon observed for perhaps the first time in the 
history of Italian journalism. The reason is that Signor 
Barzini is a cosmopolitan, whose sympathy with those 
among whom he was thrown enabled him to put himself 
completely in their place. One of the consequences was 
that he, who appreciated the difficulties of the Japanese at 
Liaoyang, remained in their midst when several of his 
colleagues marched off in a huff, because their hosts did not 
carry on the war with a special view to providing copy for 
the papers ; and a further result was that he alone, with 
two men belonging to news agencies, represented the 



38 Japan and the Peace. 

Fourth Estate on the Japanese side at the Battle of 
Mukden, with regard to which he was presented with a 
number of secret documents and plans that give his coming 
book on the subject a unique value. 

This digression has proved somewhat longer than was 
intended, but it had better remain unaltered, as a know- 
ledge of Signor Barzini's qualifications adds point to his 
remarks. 

What struck him especially in the riots was the departure 
they showed from the customary attitude. There are two 
things which the Japanese treat as if they were the most 
sacred duties : an unquestioning conformity to the Imperial 
will, and the complete suppression in public of his own 
feelings. Tale after tale has come from the Far East of 
the heroic degree to which these observances were carried — 
how, for instance, men and even women would smile, and 
maintain every outward appearance of cheerfulness, while 
their heart was oppressed with the loss of those nearest 
and dearest to them. " The grievance must be very bitter 
indeed/' said Signor Barzini, **that could cause such a 
people to abandon its traditional impassibleness even for a 
moment '* ; and he went on to explain in what this grievance 
consisted. 

To the outsider it would appear that Japan, having been 
granted practically all that she asked for before the war, 
ought to have reconciled herself to the position, the more 
so as the Muscovite no longer threatened her in the Far 
East, where her ascendancy seemed assured, and the whole 
world had been compelled to give her unqualified recogni- 
tion as a first-rate Power. She had not received the 
indemnity claimed, it is true, which had loomed large in 
the discussion ; but this, after all, was not an item the 
people's heart was set upon. What, then, was the cause of 
her fury ? 

Signor Barzini traces it back to old wrongs, of which 
the Treaty of Portsmouth was deemed a perpetuation. 
They began when, as a matter of course, Japan was robbed 



Japan and the Peace. 39 

of Karafto, an island which she has never ceased to regard 
as part of the national territory, whilst for years afterwards 
her moral qualities, like her mental and material progress, 
were ignored, and she had to put up with the contemptuous 
treatment meted out to inferiors. Among the insults that 
hurt her more than even the loss of Karafto was the 
obligation imposed upon her to open her ports, under 
humiliating conditions, to the foreigner ; the hated consular 
jurisdiction within her borders lasting until she defeated 
China. A fresh injury then took the place of that just at 
an end : several of the Powers combined to deprive her of 
the fruits of her victory, the rest placidly consenting. The 
series of tyrannical acts which to us was understood 
seemed, indeed, to tell of a conspiracy against all her efforts 
to assume the position in the world for which she felt herself 
fitted, and it was in constant fear of the usual interference 
that she nervously watched every phase of the recent war. 

The people never ceased to expect occult pressure, open 
threats, or oppression in some other shape, naked or 
disguised, to step once more between them and their due. 
In their feverish anxiety to ward off this calamity, they 
kept their desires steadfastly before the authorities ; the 
terms of peace were discussed on all hands, resolutions on 
the subject were passed at meetings of every political 
colour, the Press devoted frequent articles to the conditions, 
and, as each Russian reverse helped to bring them within 
the range of practical politics, Statesmen like Baron Okuma 
interpreted the general aspiration by giving them concrete 
form. On the other hand, the Government, by means of 
the official organs, tranquillized all and sundry, assuring 
them that the time had at last come when Japan would 
receive complete satisfaction for all the wrongs she had 
suffered, and would triumphantly take her seat as an equal 
in the council of the nations. Then, all at once, instead of 
this happy consummation, the darkest popular forebodings 
were realized by the news from Portsmouth. 

Elsewhere this had been received with hesitation, and 



40 Japan and the Peace. 

believed to be merely a cloak for secret clauses which really 
gave Japan what was ostensibly denied her ; for people 
could not persuade themselves that she had so extensively 
gone back from her demands. But no confirmation of this 
sanguine surmise was forthcoming ; only the bare fact 
proved true that the Japanese had acted as if they felt 
unable to carry on the war — an implicit confession that could 
not but lessen the esteem in which they had been held. 
And they naturally asked themselves why their emissaries 
had stated the premises that led to this conclusion. Russia 
insisted that her honour would not allow her to give up an 
inch of her territory. What had induced Japan to give up 
half of Karafto, that part of the national inheritance which 
she had just recovered from the despoiler ? Was Dai 
Nippon vanquished, that she had given way almost all 
along the line } 

Two explanations had been offered abroad : that her 
army in Manchuria was not equal to defeating the enemy 
when the expected great battle took place, and that her 
financial position was such that she must stop the war 
at any cost. In the course of a conversation with him — 
which, with an article of his in the Corriere, has furnished 
the bulk of the materials for this paper — Signor Barzini 
declared that the former hypothesis was untenable : a 
Japanese victory was as certain as such things ever can be. 
The people knew this perfectly well, and paid no atten- 
tion to the theory of their military impotence ; but the 
other found an echo in their own thoughts. 

They saw the secret methods of diplomacy neutralize 
their victories once more, and when they asked themselves 
how this had been done, the most plausible conclusion they 
could come to was that, beneath the veil of the usual honeyed 
phraseology, Japan must have been threatened with the 
refusal of foreign financial assistance if she carried hostilities 
any further. She was to consent to the terms the Russian 
representatives were pleased to grant her, which were, in the 
main, but the fulfilment of the promises their country had 



Japan and the Peace. 41 

repeatedly made before the war to the whole world, and 
therefore served other purposes besides hers; she should 
not insist upon more, under pain of the displeasure of the 
American plutocracy. The motive for this ultimatum, 
again, was not difficult to guess. The United States, 
whose sympathies were at first on the side of Japan, had 
latterly begun to view the prospects of her unchecked 
expansion with no little uneasiness ; and in this her people 
had the key to President Roosevelt's humanitarianism. 
What must have exasperated them most of all was the part 
played by us. They had entered willingly into the first 
alliance with Great Britain, whose undertaking to prevent 
hostile intervention they foresaw would prove invaluable in 
a conflict with Russia ; but they were by no means equally 
enthusiastic with regard to the second, which, it was 
commonly said in Tokio, gave them nothing and England 
everything. The Battle of Tsushima, indeed, had made 
the assistance of the British fleet practically superfluous, 
while that of Japan's army would probably be of no little 
advantage if Russia attacked India; for, even supposing 
our troops there to be the finest in the world, there were 
very few of them when compared to the enormous host which 
the Russians had shown they could bring into the field, and 
to which Japans hundreds of thousands, in the plural 
number, bore a far more just proportion. 

Sir Thomas Holditch, by the way, concludes, in the 
October Fortnightly Review, that Britain's master-stroke in 
securing them on her side will, on the whole, be appreciated 
by people like the Afghans ; and this is good news. It is 
not equally satisfactory to hear that they think Russia to be 
a Mohammedan power, whereas she is emphatically the 
reverse. If we have thus far allowed them to believe any- 
thing so mischievous, we should lose no further time in 
opening their eyes to the fact that, even with Bokhara and 
Khiva, she has less than 12 millions of Mohammedans in a 
population of nearly 130 millions. That she is more Asiatic 
than European in her methods, on the other hand, is 



42 Japan and the Peace. 

undeniable ; and there is no reason to find fault with this 
impression. 

But to return to the Japanese. They have seen us hurry 
on the conclusion of the second alliance before the end of 
the negotiations at Portsmouth, apparently to forestall one 
between them and Russia ; and then, after getting all we 
wanted for ourselves, we seem to have drawn back and left 
Japan unsupported in her diplomatic fight, instead of 
offering her the capital which would have enabled her to 
defeat the Russo-American combination. 

If the Japanese thus accounted for what had taken place, 
as may be gathered from Signor Barzini's remarks, it 
becomes easier to understand the riots and the attack made 
upon the British Legation, of all others, as well as upon 
the missionaries identified with us in the minds of all 
Asiatics. 

Japan has now returned to her Sphinx-like attitude, so we 
need expect nothing more from her, save polite praise of the 
advantages which she has gained through her alliance with 
us, and through the Portsmouth treaty. But in the riots 
she has given us a momentary insight into her real feelings, 
all the more worthy of study because such revelations are 
rare. 



43 



SOME HINDUSTANI PROVERBS. 

Collected by the late William Young, c.s.l, Judicial 

Commissioner of Oudh. 

What manner of man is the average Hindu or the average 
Muhammadan of India ? The physical peculiarities of our 
Indian fellow-citizens are tolerably familiar nowadays to the 
British public. But how much is known of their intellectual 
and moral calibre, of their social instincts, their civil and 
political aptitudes ? Is not all this nearly a sealed book to 
most of us who live in Britain ? 

Yet British influence upon Indian affairs is now a vastly 
different thing from what it was fifty or even thirty years 
ago. Someone has said that if ever we lose India we shall 
lose her in the House of Commons. Certain it is that 
schemes of the gravest import are commonly initiated there 
for the supposed benefit of India, and British statesmen 
are more and more venturesome and comprehensive in their 
dealing with Indian problems. 

We are far from pronouncing this fact to be an unmixed 
evil. But this much at least is clear — namely, that only the 
fullest knowledge, the most patient inquiry, and the calmest 
judgment, can properly qualify our rulers for the new and 
arduous duties they now assume. The necessity devolves 
upon us of acquiring more extensive and more intimate 
acquaintance with the life-habits of our Indian fellow-sub- 
jects, with their modes of thought and feeling, their ruling 
fears and passions, their commonest aspirations. Such 
knowledge is hard of acquirement. Men may live all their 
lives in India and never gain it. The outward facts lie 
patent to all, but their hidden meanings can only be read 
by him who has the divine gift of sympathy. Very slowly 
and painfully, bit by bit, the portions of the puzzle must be 
gathered, and at last pieced together into a well-fitting 
whole. 



44 Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

Political life is almost unknown in India. Corporate 
institutions, as we know them, exist only in the Presidency 
towns ; and almost the only purely native examples of large 
associations are the still surviving village communities. 
Religious co-operation among the Hindus is feeble ; but its 
place is more than filled by the powerful and universally 
prevalent system of caste. Individual life is (within certain 
limits, chiefly prescribed by caste) extraordinarily free. 
Provided caste rules be obeyed, there is scarcely any length 
to which the Hindustani may not go, both in word and 
deed, without any fear of the ban of his society. 

Perhaps no clearer landmarks of common thought and 
sentiment are to be found — at least, are easily to be found — 
than in the proverbs prevalent among a people. Whatever 
intrinsically their worth, they show at least what such 
people esteems to be wisdom. In India the use of proverbs, 
adages, sententious distichs, or quatrains, is extremely fre- 
quent. High and low alike love them, and the judicious 
introduction of an old favourite will at once put the stranger 
in touch with a native interlocutor. The stolid face will 
brighten, the formal manner be laid aside, and sympathy 
and interest be at once awakened. No one can claim to 
know India well who has not some acquaintance with its 
proverbs, while the proficient student of Indian maxims will 
often be better able to comprehend the workings of the 
native mind than many a man who has spent a life in Cal- 
cutta or Bombay untinctured by native lore. 

The task of conveying to an English reader an adequate 
idea of Indian proverbs is by no means easy. The genius 
of Eastern language differs very widely from that of English, 
while the excessive conciseness of many Hindu adages often 
makes a literal translation simply unintelligible. In the 
effort of the translator to be perspicuous, too often the 
charm of equipoise, the sparkle, are inevitably lost. 

The Hindustani place-hunter is perhaps the most assi- 
duous in the world. The sweet simplicity of a monthly 
salary, paid by a paymaster who never fails, has something 



Sotne Hindustani Proverbs, 45 

ineffably attractive to the Eastern mind. No more buffeting 
with the winds and waves of Fortune! *' Stick to your 
patron's skirt, and take care it is a strong one," says one 
proverb, which at least is believed in without faltering faith. 
The patron is to the umedwdr (place-hunter) the punctum 
stans in a very shaky world. 

Get sifdrish (good recommendations) above all, for, says 
the proverb : 

" Sifarish-i-kutta bih az asp-i-tdzi " 
(Better than Arab horse, a dog well recommended). 

It is, alas ! but too true that many a sifdrish-i-kutta (dog 
strongly recommended) owes his post at this moment (and 
in some cases a high post) mainly to the fact that he had 
sifdrish. ** Remember Dowb '* is as much a household 
word in India as in England. Of course the man must not 
be an impossible person. He must be decently presentable 
for his post, for, says the Persian : 

" Halwa khurdan ra rui bay ad '' 
(To eat sweetmeats, one must have a mouth). 

While the place-seeker should never neglect his lord's 
lev6e, should be ever humble, strenuous and ready to stick 
at nothing, there is in native opinion a correlative duty 
owed to him by the patron. 

*' Jo jdke sarau basse 
Waki wdko laj " 

(The hero shames to yield 
The wretch beneath his shield). 

A native master feels his own honour impugned when 
his servant is attacked, and to the utmost of his ability will 
aid and screen even the humblest follower should the 
latter get into any scrape. Should a retainer find himself 
at odds with the myrmidons of justice about some trespass, 
little or big, the master would instantly furnish the accused 
with legal assistance to defend himself, and not improbably 
would cause bribes to be distributed right and left on the 
man's behalf — in fact, would do all for him that he would 
wish done for himself in like case. 



46 Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

Nevertheless, the general verdict is that service is a hard 
life, and that agriculture is the only really worthy occupa- 
tion. 

*' Ootim kh^ti 
Maddam Bau 
Nikasht chakari 
Bhik Nidau " 

(Farming is the best trade ; 

Commerce pretty fair ; 
Service was by Devil made ; 

Better beg, I swear). 

No wonder the Hindu praises the kind earth which pro- 
vides so abundantly for all his wants. The fertility of the 
soil (despite overcropping and waste of manure for fuel) is 
marvellous, and in ordinary seasons provides all men with 
ample food in return for a moderate expenditure of labour. 
For nine months out of twelve a thatch suffices for shelter, 
a waistcloth and turban for garments. The ** boon air " is 
itself a garment. The halt, maimed, blind, receive a sus- 
tenance freely yielded (without Poor Laws) by public 
charity. The obverse of the medal is seen, no doubt, in 
those dreadful times when famine year comes round. The 
agony of such a time those only know who have lived 
through it. The hot, breathless, brazen skies ; the dusty, 
whitened land ; the burnt-up herbage ; the leafless trees ; 
the dumb suffering of the cattle, and the human agony — all 
these sear into the brain the picture of famine in colours 
that last the lifetime. Yet, even in such dire straits, it is 
the peasantry who can endure the longest. The subsisters 
on charity suffer first ; next, the old men (like our hedgers 
and ditchers) ; then the petty village artificers and the 
servants of the poorer sort ; and, lastly, the small shop- 
keepers and the peasantry themselves. 

The happiness of a Hindu chuprassi {prA^rXy) is perfect 
when he can get three clear hours from the solid day for 
his dinner. He will squat down, unclothe, wash his hands, 
knead and bake his damper, cook his pease-porridge, and 
then proceed slowly to eat through the huge pile of moist 



Some Hindustani Proverbs. 47 

crumpets that he has prepared and calls his "bread." If 
peremptorily summoned from his repast, he will slowly and 
reluctantly obey, but, as a truly orthodox man, he cannot 
return afterwards to complete his meal. Sadly he flings 
the rest of his dinner to the expectant pariah dog, who has 
been watching him under the adjacent tree, and resignedly 
he mutters : 

" Kya chakari o khdla ji ka ghar " 
(Service is not aunty's house). 

The Hindu aunty — that is, the maternal aunt — always 
spoils her sister's children. (N.B. — Supporters of the 
Deceased Wife's Sister Bill may note this fact.) Aunty s 
house is an earthly paradise, where, if nowhere else, sugar 
and ^i^/ and fried-cakes and curds and flummery and chopped 
sugar-cane are to be had for the mere asking. In such 
affection is aunty held by her nephews and nieces that 
another Hindi proverb goes so far as to say : 

** Ma mare mousie jie " 
(Let mother leave, so aunty live). 

Humbug of all sorts is a favourite topic of badinage. 
Show without reality is particularly offensive to the native 
mind. 

" Dhol par dhol phoote, 
Roti ki kor na tootle " 

(Drums, many a drum to beat ! 
But not a blessed crumb to eat). 

To collect a huge procession of his friends and with 
them to circumambulate his quarter, preceded by native 
music (falsely so called), and finally to feed his guests to 
repletion on the very plain but abundant farinaceous food 
that they love, is the pride and glory of the Hindu, the 
pleasant proof of his orthodoxy. If he cannot afford to 
feast the whole brotherhood, he would think shame were 
he not now and then to get a score or so of Brahmans to 
dine at his expense. In short, to dispense this curious 
hospitality and to provide liberally for the cost of the 
weddings of his children are the main objects in life of 



48 Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

the average Hindu. Weddings are ruinously expensive, 
and the evil is that public opinion demands that they shall 
be so. 

*' Kouri na paisa 
Yih biab hai kaisa !" 

(Without cowries and pice, 
What wedding is nice ?) 

This proverb would be used metaphorically whenever 
any utterly absurd conjunction of things occurs. Some- 
what to a similar effect is the following : 

'* Khw^n barra, khwknpoch barra 
Koike dekho — ^to ddha barra !" 

(The tray is big, the traycloth, too : 
Peep ! half a muffin comes to view !) 

The trays, on which the nuzzurs (complimentary offerings) 
are brought, are usually covered with scarlet cloths; and 
the offerings consist of a varied assortment of fruits, flowers, 
spices, sweets, and confectionery. 

So, too, in contempt of empty display : 

" Unchi dukdn 
Phika pakwan '' 

(A pie-shop, high and wide ! 
But mouldy stuff inside) ; 
and — 

" Nam barra 

Dorshan thora *' 

(A great name — 
Nothing more) 

— both of which proverbs are in every Hindu's mouth. 
Another popular adage to the same effect is : 

'* Ghar na chhdn na chaffar 
O bahar miasi Muzaffar !*' 

(With ne'er a shed nor thatch at home, 
As Lord Muzaffar here we roam). 

The contrast between the actual poor surroundings and 
the infinite grandeur of imaginary ones always delights the 
Oriental mind, and is expressed in the following familiar 
phrase : 



Some Hindustani Proverbs. 49 

" Rabe jhouprosi mesi o khneiib dekke 
Mahallosi ki " 

(Dwells in a pigstye, 
Dreams of a palace). 

And, to like effect : 

'' Dhor sirydne kinggari so gaie kanggal 
Sapne mesi Rajah bhaie — ^jagat waki hawwdl " 

(The beggar for a pillow put his fiddle 'neath his head, 
Dreamt that a Rajah he became, woke, and the dream was fled). 

There is no harsh reproof here — rather a half-amused 
pity that the poor fellow's bubble so soon burst. But for 
vulgar pretence no pity is shown. Thus : 

" Khounrihai kuttia 
O makhmal ki jhool " 

(A mangy little pup, 

In velvet coat dressed up). 

Of all pretenders, the low upstart is the most unbearable. 

" Barre 1 — to barre I 
Chhote !— Subhanullah 1" 

(A big man ! Well, he is big ; 

But a little one — good gracious 1 [lit, " Gott in Himmel !**]) 

— i.e., tyranny from him is indeed intolerable. 

The merciless rapacity of the lower officials is referred 
to in the following distich : 

" Chhota musih 
Barra niwala " 

(Small mouth, 
Mighty swallow). 

How widespread and insatiable that rapacity is only 
those know whose lives are led in India. Few native 
officials save the highest will refuse a bribe, and not a few 
will extort from their wretched victims every pice possible. 
The difficulty is that the custom of the country is with the 
offenders. They do not greatly offend the public conscience 
— at least, so long as they do not add cruelty to mere 
extortion. A native official of rank once told the writer 
that he could count on his fingers the natives of his 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. D 



50 Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

acquaintance who never took bribes. Questioned as to 
his own practice, he frankly replied : ** Not now ! Formerly, 
when I was young, and my pay was very small and I had 
a horse to keep — yes, I used to take a rupee per village at 
festivals, as had always been the custom. It doubled my 
income and more. Now, of course, my pay is too good, 
and I see the error (and the danger) of such a course. 
Sahib, all take bribes." This man was one of the best 
officers in our service, a thoroughly capable man, generally 
esteemed by the people and much liked by all his European 
superiors. Was he to be believed } Well, cuique in sua 
arte credendum est is generally reckoned sound sense. 

The Hindu is pre-eminently conservative. He approves 
of obedience to ancient custom — admires the suitable, the 
proper. A new departure rarely takes his fancy. 

'^ Bip na mdre m^ndki 
B^ta— tirandaz " 

(The sire ne'er slew a frog, they say ; 
The son, a wam'or brave and gay). 

The incongruous is ever displeasing. 

*' Khak na dhool 
Aur bibi baithi phool 1" 

(Bare house, nor inch of ground ; 
Within a flower-like bride is found.) 

The contrast is between the utter beggary of the pro- 
prietor and his possession of so fair a flower for wife. 
Notice the chattel-like trade-mark which the proverb affixes 
to the bride. 

The English proverb — one should cut one's coat according 
to the cloth — takes in Hindi the following form : 

" Jetna chddar dekke 
Wetna pair phailawe " 

(Measure first your sheet. 
Then stretch out your feet). 

A native can sleep quite comfortably on the bare ground 
without a pillow ; but a sheet of some sort is indispensable 
to protect his skin from the mosquitoes and other insect 



Some Hindustani Proverbs. 51 

torments that else would murder repose. In some thin 
quilt or other he invariably rolls himself up mummywise — 
head, feet, and all — ere betaking himself to slumber. Now, 
if the sheet be short, he must obviously tuck up his legs ; 
if the sheet be long enough, then he can stretch out. 

Too many proverbs bear sad testimony to the terror 
that has sunk deep into the popular mind from the cruel 
oppression of tyranny during past ages. The lessons they 
impart are that it is vain to strive with the strong man, 
above all, with constituted authority ; that one should bend 
to the blast ; that humility befits the majority of men, 
especially the poor; that the battle is to the strong and 
that the strong man armed alone is safe ; for the rest there 
remains submission. 

" Jake lathi — wdki bhains " 

(Who can deal the heaviest blow. 
He shall have the buffalo). 

" Zabbardast ka thenga-ri par " 
(The strong man's thumb presses your head). 

" Hdkim hdre 
Musih m^si mdre '* 

(The lord, himself belaboured. 
Smites his servant's face). 

" Hukm-i-hikim margi mufdjdt " 
(The lord's law is as sudden death). 

Similarly — 

** Hakim mare 
Rone na d^ " 

(Though blows the master ply, 
The servant dare not cry). 

The why and the wherefore of the acts of the ruler must 
not be questioned. He is a law unto himself. 

" Pasa parke — so dose 
Rajah kare — so niose " 

(As the dice fall, play you must ; 
What the king does, that is just). 

The poor man must not expect consideration. 

" Latte ki joi sabki sarhaj " 
(The poor man's wife is everybody's sister-in-law). 

D 2 



52 Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

The sister-in-law receives but scanty deference, not- 
withstanding her kindness to her sister's children. So the 
proverb means that a poor man must not give himself airs 
nor expect his wife to be treated with much respect by 
anybody. 

If you say to a native : ** Surely such degradation must 
be due to your own pusillanimity ; you have yourself only 
to blame for the fact " — if fact it be — he will answer mourn- 
fully that *' the heart knoweth his own bitterness." 

" Jecore gorwa jde na bewai 
Oo ka jane pfr paraf " 

(Only he whose heel has split, 
Fully knows the pain of it). 

Natives often travel barefoot, and are, in consequence, 
subject to a peculiarly obstinate and most painful splitting 
of the sole of the heel, often resulting in a deep ulcer. 

As may well be imagined, the home life in such a society 
as that portrayed in the proverbial expressions given above 
is tinged with a somewhat gloomy colouring. Optimistic 
views find little favour. The teaching of Indian proverbial 
philosophy, so far as native domestic life is concerned, 
amounts to this : ** Do not endeavour to effect by kindness 
what can better be secured by severity." 

'' Lakri ki dar, bandari ndche " 

(Tis fear of the stick 
Makes the monkey so quick). 

'' Bin bhou, pirit nahisi " 
(No fear, no love). 

** Khanah' murdwat kharab " 
(The house of kindness is the house of blindness). 

Right or wrong, the weak must go to the wall. It is on 
the weak that men vent the anger they feel against the 
strong, but dare not show. 

" Tragi par zor na chale 
Gadhe ka kan um^the " 



(The big horse made him quail, 
So he twisted the donkey's tail). 



Some Hindustani Proverbs. 53 

A horse's tail (for obvious reasons) is never twisted ; but 
a donkey is less difficult to handle. The natives, it may 
be remarked by the way, are often cruel to animals. Many 
a poor bullock's tail is actually twisted until it is broken by 
the brutal driver. 

As exhibiting the difficulty of choosing the right course 
of action in doubtful circumstances, a typical dilemma is set 
forth in the following lines, the wide popularity of which 
must excuse their insertion here : 

" Bolusi — to ma marl jae 
Nalusi to — bdp kutta khae " 

(If I tell, mother will be beaten ; 
If I don't, dog's flesh will be eaten). 

The reference is to a popular story about a woman who 
was ordered by her husband to provide him a meal of meat, 
and who, being unable to procure any other flesh, killed 
a puppy and prepared a dish for her lord. Meantime, her 
cookery had been watched by her juvenile son, whose 
dilemma the proverb sets forth. 

" Hoolie and fairlie," says the Scotch proverb — that is, 
proportion effort to requirement. The Indian puts it thus : 

" Yih to bail cholbe na kare 
Ya chale to mendh udhare " 

(This bullock does not move at all, 
Or, if it moves, knocks down a wall). 

The same idea, that effort should be in proportion to the 
work to be done, is expressed in the short distich : 

" Samp mare 
Latthi na tootte '' 

(To scotch a snake 
Don't break a stake). 

A Stroke of a light cane will break a snake's back. No 
need, therefore, to deliver such a blow as to break your 
quarterstaff. 

We say : " If you want a thing done well, do it yourself." 
The corresponding Hindi proverb is : 



54 Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

" Jabtak— Pootta ! Pootta ! 
Tabtak— apan bootta " 

(Instead of crying, " Help me, son !" 
Set to yourself — the job is done). 

And our common proverb, '* A bird in the hand is worth 
two in the bush," appears in Persian dress as follows : 

" Sag-i-huzdr 
Bih az baradari ddr " 

(Better a dog at hand 
Than brother in far-off land). 

The money-lender or banker has not many friends. He 
is often hard in his dealings, and consequently does not get 
much sympathy even from his own immediate family. 

" Sosi mare — ghar larka bhou 
Jako lekho barnen you " 

(The banker died — his son was born ; 
So loss and gain were squared that morn) 

— i.e., everything is matter of arithmetic. Sentiment or 
affection is out of place in a money-lender's family. If the 
banker's death is placed on the debit side of the account, 
the son's birth will balance it on the creditor side. 

The controversy about methods of education — classical 
versus commercial — has its faint echo even in the Far East. 

" Parrhiye pootta soi 
Jamen hauria bhud-bhud hoi " 

(My son, to get such knowledge toil, 
As helps to keep the pot a-boil). 

Spiteful people are plentiful. Luckily, they are often 
as impotent as they are malevolent. So the Hindi : 

" Bakri ki lit ghoosit tak " 
(A goat can kick only as high as the knee) 

— i.e., ineffectually. 

In misery men seek companionship. 

'' Kori mari saughati chdhe " 

(A leper grim on death is bent ; 
He seeks out one of like intent). 



Some Hindustani Proverbs. 55 

This proverb refers lo the custom which used to prevail 
in Hindustan whereby a leper, tired of his miserable life, 
would commit suicide by being buried alive. This self- 
immolation the old Hindu religious books declared to be 
highly meritorious, earning immense benefits to the victim 
and perpetual exemption from leprosy for his family. 
When such an act was about to be performed, the whole 
village would assist in the ceremony with pleasure and with 
demonstrations of great respect to the wretched chief actor 
in the scene. The latter, after his intention had been duly 
proclaimed, would walk with a flower-garland round his 
neck, attended by all his fellow-villagers, to a ready-dug 
grave, in which he sat down. The earth would then be 
slowly filled in until it reached the head, when the work 
would be rapidly finished, the nearest relative first stamping 
upon the earth. It once fell to the writer's duty to stop 
such an intended "sainad," as it is called. The leper, 
when called on to answer, boldly declared that God had 
filled his mind with the idea, and that he would certainly 
commit suicide, if not in that way then in some other. 
Much against its will, the court had no alternative but to 
send the poor wretch to gaol. 

Another lesson taught in the proverbial philosophy of 
India is that of the old Greek fable of " The Dog and the 
Shadow." Thus : 

" Adhe chor ekko dhawe 
Aisa dube patta na lage '' 

(Ruin will overwhelm his soul 

Who leaves the half to grasp the whole). 

The next proverb contains a sneer at pilgrims and 

pilgrimages, which one would sooner have expected to 

hear in the neighbourhood of Exeter Hall than in the 
pilgrimage-loving East : 

" Satthar chuhe khake 
Billi Haj ko chale " 

(Threescore rats and ten 
Puss devoured, and then — 
Set out for Holy Mecca). 



56 Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

A propos of an unsympathetic listener, we have the 
following very picturesque adage : 

" Bhains ki samne kinggari bajai 
Bhains — rounchaif " 

(Fiddler scrapes, 
Buffalo gapes). 

The village cows are coming home. Among them stands 
one of those hideous creatures — the Indian buffalo — with 
its hairless black skin and goggle eyes. Meanwhile up 
comes a fiddler, fiddling for dear life, with his dirty white 
garments fluttering in the wind. The lumpish animal 
gazes at him till its eyes start, then slowly raises its head 
and utters its fearful bellow ! Often will the disappointed 
suitor of some great man solace his wounded feelings by 
quoting this proverb, likening to the ungainly buffalo the 
unresponsive dignitary whom he has failed to cajole and 
charm. 

It has been said by some that the Hindu character is not 
strongly marked by a sense of gratitude, and this is, perhaps, 
true in abstract matters. To him, however, who supplies 
to them the means of subsistence, the natives seem to 
entertain feelings of something bordering upon affection. 

" Jiska kbas^e 
Us ka gdiye " 

(His praise repeat 
Whose bread you eat). 

What we call " cupboard love '* is very well appreciated 
in the East. 

" Jiska hath doi 
Usika sab koi " 

(Who deals the food 
Is always good). 

The Indian is fully alive to the danger of an unbridled 
tongue. Words are to him far from idle things : 

'* Bataisi hdthi pdige 
Bataisi hdthi pdosi " 

(By words we get — an elephant ; 
By words we get — his kick). 



Some Hindustani Proverbs. 57 

The allusion here is to the horrible mode of execution 
sometimes practised by native rulers, when a trained 
elephant takes up the criminal, flings him on the ground, 
and tramples him to death. But mere talk is empty breath. 

" Jo garji — so barsi ka ? 
Jo poonwaisi — so kare ka ?" 

(Much thunder, little rain ; 
Much talk, little done.) 

The author of the next adage plainly had no belief in 
either ghosts or words of exorcism : 

" Ldt ka bhut bat nahisi mdnti " 

(Kicks avail most 
To lay a ghost). 

Any sketch, however slight, of Hindu proverbial philo- 
sophy that entirely omitted reference to the prevalent 
Oriental estimate of women would be very defective. That 
estimate is highly unfavourable ; whether justly so or not, 
is hard to say. Most Europeans believe it to be most 
unjust ; but certainly their experience of any, save the 
women of the lower orders, is very limited. It is possible 
enough that the barbarous and life-long incarceration to 
which the upper classes (Hindu and Muhammadan alike) 
subject their women has really deteriorated female char- 
acter; for it is as true in the East as in the West that 
"Satan finds some mischief still for idle hands to do." 
But if this be so, who is to blame for the fact ? The 
male Oriental, like Adam, has not the faintest shadow 
of scruple in laying the whole burden on the woman. 

" Zan, zamin, zar 
Yih tino fasdd ka ghar " 

(In woman, land or gold. 
The cause of every ill is told). 

So says the Persian proverb. The Hindi is still more 
brutal and ruthless : 

'' Kali bhalk na s^t 
Maro donosi eki kh^t " 

(Bad are women, black and white ; 
In one field kill both outright). 



58 Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

According to another popular sentence, they are mur- 
derous, deceitful, and incomprehensible. 

*' Tina cbaritz na jane koi 
Khapam ka galla katke satti howe " 

(A treacherous wife will take thy life, 
And then desire to share thy pyre). 

A bitter sneer at the moral frailty, coupled with the 
religious tendency of women and also at the hypocrisy of 
the priests, is contained in the following quatrain, which is 
very popular : 

" Patthal pujan maisi cholisi 
O pi apne ki laj 
Patthal pujat pi mile 
Ek pautti— do kaj " 
(A wife loquitur) : 

(To cure my husband I set out, 

And visited a shrine ; 
Both cure and husband there I found. 

And double joy was mine). 

The Hindu wife has gone to pray Mahaded for her 
husband's recovery from sickness, and, while at her devotions, 
meets a Brahman, who supplants the absent spouse. 

If smoke presupposes fire, some gleams of truth must be 
behind these dark pictures. But if there be faults, surely 
their existence may be largely explained by the cramped, 
self-centred lives which our Hindu and Muhammadan 
fellow-citizens compel their women to lead. They, in fact, 
deal out to women the same harsh meed that is awarded to 
the very worst malefactors — viz., life-long incarceration. 
May we not justly quote to Indian detractors of women a 
very homely Hindu proverb — 

" Cholisi mesi cludh dohe 
Aur nasib ko dosh de " 

(You milk into a sieve, and yet 
Are vexed so little milk to get) ? 

Our Indian brethren who clamour for admission to the 
chief seats in the offices of State and demand what they 
consider their rights, may well be asked to reflect whether 



Some Hindustani Proverbs. 59 

the attitude they assume towards a large portion of the 
population does not bar their approach to high positions of 
trust under a civilized Government. It is passing strange 
that men who are so keenly alive to what they esteem as 
their own due, have no regard whatever for the duty they 
themselves owe to their own wives and daughters. That 
the poor victims do not desire freedom is no answer and no 
excuse, for it only proves that women have not only been 
defrauded of their commonest rights by the men of Hin- 
dustan, but have been furthermore so degraded as not to 
know their degradation. Not till the Oriental has so far 
stepped out of his barbarism as to recognise woman as the 
free and equal companion of man will the average Euro- 
pean accept him as on the same level of civilization, and 
accord to him the equality he seeks ? 

Even the faint light shed by such few specimens of pro- 
verbial wisdom as we have collected in the foregoing 
pages will have revealed to the reader something of Indian 
family and social life, with its passions and prejudices, its 
hopes and its fears. 

National life, indeed, exists not ; it is not so much dead 
as uncreate. A French writer, M. Gabriel Charmes, very 
truly and profoundly says : ** En Orient il n'y a jamais eu 
r^ellement de nation ; la famille, la tribu, la religion con- 
stituent les seuls liens sociaux et politiques."* There never 
yet was a Hindu Empire. Kingdoms and Principalities 
and States (more or less ephemeral) there have been, but 
no entity corresponding to the " India for the Indians " of 
blind British philosophy has ever existed. 

Are the natives of India contented under our rule ? So 
far as the administration of justice is concerned, there can 
be little doubt that they are absolutely satisfied with the 
fairness and impartiality with which the laws are applied 
and enforced. While the Muhammadan, in nine cases out 
of ten, has no confidence in the impartiality of a Hindu 
judge — and a Hindu of a Muhammadan — both believe 

* Revue des deux Mondes^ August, 1883. 



6o Some Hindustani Proverbs. 

implicitly in our honour and good faith. Viewing the ques- 
tion from the political side, we may safely say that the 
attitude of the great mass of the population is one of in- 
difference. Some agitation and clamour are raised now 
and again, it is true, by certain native cliques in Bengal. 
It must be remembered, however, that very small creatures 
have often very loud voices. The Bengali coteries in ques- 
tion are, compared to the mass of the people of India, 
infinitesimally small, and wholly unrepresentative. With 
all its many excellencies the gentle and timid Bengali race 
is the very last that would rise to supreme power were the 
British driven into the sea ** bag and baggage." 

What, then, does the ordinary Indian really want ? If 
my readers could be behind the purdah (curtain) when the 
Hindu thus interrogated gave his answer, they would hear 
some such words as these (the speaker's hands being joined 
palm to palm, and touching the down-bent forehead) : 
** Protector of the poor ! you are my father and my mother ! 
Whatever you say is right. Still, my lord, the income 
tikkus (tax) is very bad. Your Honour knows, also, that 
we pay 66 per cent, for our land, and cesses and license and 
octroii. If your Honour would save us from being bullied 
by your underlings, especially by the police, you would be 
an Avdtar of Vishnu ; and, my lord, the British Raj is 
1,400 kos long and very glorious, but we don*t require any 
female schools, because the less women are taught the less 
evil they will do ; and if your Honour would order all 
robbers' hands to be chopped off, it would be much better 
than feeding the villains up in gaol ; and if the Sirdar 
Bahadur would kindly oblige by ordering a little money to 
be spent on the village roads which we principally use, it 
would be very kind. Finally, the British have made the 
railroad and the telegraph, and they are gods, and you are 
my father and my mother. Sab ko salaam (peace be to all)." 



6i 



A PLEA FOR COMPULSORY EDUCATION IN 

CEYLON. 

By a. G. Wise. 

The Commission on Elementary Education in Ceylon, 
appointed in January, 1905, has presented its Report, 
which contains recommendations of a novel and important 
character. This Commission was appointed to inquire 
into and report on the Education Question, with a view to 
propose practical steps to give effect to the suggestions 
contained in the Report of the Committee appointed in 
1901, and was also directed to report on the education of 
Tamil coolies employed on estates, and other matters con- 
nected with education in general. After an exhaustive 
description of the existing system of elementary education 
in Ceylon, the Commissioners discuss the question whether 
the time is ripe for the introduction of a general system of 
compulsory education for boys. They sum up strongly in 
favour of compulsory education for boys, pointing out that 
in most parts of the Colony boys who are not sent to school 
are not set to any regular work, that they are not acquiring 
habits of industry, but are for the most part of their time 
running wild, or in many cases grow up without the most 
rudimentary sense of self-control. They rightly contend 
that a population of this kind is especially dangerous in a 
country like Ceylon, in which wealth is rapidly on the 
increase, even among the labouring classes ; while, as in 
India, " the cultivator has been brought into contact with 
the commercial world, and has been involved in transactions 
in which the illiterate man is at a great disadvantage." It 
is pointed out that the Dutch had an extensive and success- 
ful system of vernacular schools throughout the conquered 
districts of the island, at which attendance was enforced by 
fines, and the Commissioners strongly recommend com- 
pulsory education for boys (and in certain districts for 



62 A Plea for Compulsory Education in Ceylon. 

girls), with a conscience clause. At this proposal the 
various religious bodies are already up in arms, and are 
offering such strenuous opposition that there would seem 
to be grave danger lest the whole scheme may fall to the 
ground. As all the existing agencies at work since the 
colony became a British possession have succeeded in pro- 
viding education for only 204,889 children out of 534,970 
children, it is time that the Government took this matter 
seriously in hand. The new proposals will be the means 
of giving instruction to over 330.000 children, who are now 
running wild and helping to swell the criminal classes. 
Crime is on the increase in Ceylon, and the direct con- 
nection of illiteracy with criminality is proved by valuable 
statistics collected by Mr. S. M. Burrows, a former 
Director of Public Instruction. If the religious missions 
insist on closing their schools, the Government should face 
the problem boldly, and take over the whole educational 
system, charging the cost to the general revenue. Of 
course, no attempts at proselytization should be coun- 
tenanced. The native priests, Buddhists, Mohammedans, 
and Sivites naturally favour the proposed conscience 
clause. 

Turning now to the vexed question of estate schools on 
plantations, I would first of all express my regret that a 
passage in Mr. Burrows' report has been reprinted without 
comment. He voices the opinions of some planters, that 
if the children were made to attend school it would ** deal 
a serious blow at the labour-supply, and would certainly 
reintroduce infanticide." Referring to this objection, Sir 
Lepel Griffin says he has ** never heard education put in so 
terrible a form, that a mother is prepared to kill her child 
rather than allow it to go to school. This seems to add to 
education a new and additional terror.'' The ** infanticide 
argument " appears to Sir Lepel an argument of ** an 
astonishing character," and " an absurd and exaggerated 
view." Mr. H. Mitchell Taylor writes : ** I feel sure that 
the opposition on the part of the planters in Ceylon and 



A Plea for Compulsory Education in Ceylon. 63 

India will vanish in the face of public opinion. As to the 
spectre of possible infanticide as a result of a mild form of 
compulsory attendance at school, surely such conjuring 
cannot be serious. I never heard of such a thing, and, 
after thirty years' intimate association with coolies in the 
Western Colonies, I could not conceive of any such possi- 
bility. Of course, it goes without saying that the persons 
responsible for enforcement of regulations must be endowed 
with some amount of tact. In the Western Colonies the 
planters are legally required to provide schooling for the 
children of indentured emigrants only, but it has been 
found from experience that this provision has been very 
largely taken advantage of voluntarily by the unindentured 
immigrants, who, after a short residence in the Colonies, 
very soon recognise the benefits of education for their own 
offspring, and, curious to relate, those who have most 
prominently come to the front are the children of the 
Madrassis." 

The Commissioners appear to take a similar view of the 
benefits likely to arise. They recommend that the planters 
shall furnish quarterly returns, showing how many children 
attend school, with inspection of all ** line " and other 
schools, and, finally, that the ordinance which provides for 
compulsory education in other parts of the island shall 
contain provision that the estate superintendent should, 
before a date specified by the Governor, satisfy the Director 
that he has made adequate provision for the instruction of 
the children. The same ordinance should contain a pro- 
vision empowering the Government to establish a school 
on any estate which, after clear warning, neglects to make 
proper provision for the schooling of the children, and to 
levy a rate on the estate to defray the cost of construction 
and maintenance of such school. 

It now only remains to hope that the Government of 
Ceylon will delay no longer in dealing with this important 
question of education, which Sir Henry Blake himself has 
admitted to be one of four questions requiring special and 



64 A Plea for Compulsory Education in Ceylon. 

immediate attention. For my own part, I consider that 
a system of free compulsory vernacular education for all 
Sinhalese and Tamil boys should be established throughout 
this flourishing colony, and it is to be trusted that the 
authorities will carry out the recommendations of the 
Commissioners as speedily as possible. 



65 



EAST AFRICAN PROTECTORATE.* 

It is about ten years since the Foreign Office assumed 
practical control of the administration of the territory now 
known as the East African Protectorate. During that 
time great progress has been made. The country was in 
every way undeveloped. It was inhabited by tribes whose 
everyday occupation had been for generations one of 
raiding and killing one another, and in slaying and selling 
women and youths, who for some time resented any 
attempt on the part of Britain to bring peace and order 
into the country. The language and customs were strange, 
and required mastering. There were no roads, and our 
only base was hundreds of miles from the principal stations. 
Our staff to carry out the work was small, but from the 
belief in the future civilization of the country the work of 
the staff was continuous and energetic. The British East 
African Company having surrendered its charter, the 
Foreign Office did not commence its control until October, 
1895. This Company had effected a certain amount of 
local influence at certain stations, Ndii, Machakos, and 
Fort Smith. The Government, in taking over the territory, 
took over the existing officers, which was the means of 
maintaining the continuity of the policy which had been 
carried on in the country to that date. The territory was 
then divided into a number of districts, with a headquarter 
station in each district, and was under an officer styled the 
District Superintendent, each of whom was directly re- 
sponsible to the chief administrator at Mombasa. On the 
Foreign Office assuming control, all the up-country districts 
then included in the East Africa Protectorate were placed 
within the limits of one province named Ukamba, and the 
district officers were responsible to His Majesty's Sub- 
Commissioner, who in turn was responsible to the Com- 

* Collated from the recent Parliamentary reports relating to administra- 
tion. *' Africa," No. 6, October, 1905. 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. E 



66 East African Protectorate. 

missioner-in-Chief. At that time trade goods consisted 
principally of cloth, beads, and wire, the only medium of 
exchange with the natives. Stern justice and speedy re- 
tribution were of necessity the ruling features of any 
effective policy", thus our administration rose and pro- 
gressed, and when the Company's flag went down, the 
Protectorate found a sort of basis upon which to work. 

In 1895 there was very little communication between 
the different tribes except raids and counter- raids ; hence 
our first main efforts were to keep the various districts 
quiet and bring them to a state of order. There was a 
state of slavery which we had to meet, and for this purpose, 
in July, 1895, police posts were established. These posts 
were attacked in considerable force by the natives, and 
destroyed the greater part of the garrison. We had then 
to make a punitive expedition, which succeeded in punish- 
ing the offenders. About May, 1896, Soudanese troops 
under Colonel Harrison arrived from the coast, and pro- 
ceeded at once to the unsettled areas. No punitive measures 
were, however, undertaken, as all the elders* came in, sub- 
mitted, and paid a fine, and the women who had escaped 
from their captors to our camp were handed over to their 
own people. After a time the troops withdrew, and the 
vacated temporary buildings were almost at once let to the 
Africa Inland Mission, and the locality has since ceased 
to cause any trouble. As the result of our endeavours to 
prevent and stop raiding, three other military and police 
expeditions were necessary in the Ulu district, the last of 
which was in 1897; since then the natives have caused, 
generally, no further trouble, and are now assisting in 
making roads. European settlers began, in 1903, to come 
into the country in appreciable numbers. 

The Ukamba province, as originally constituted, con- 
tained, as estimated, thirty-eight square miles. This area 
included Teita and Taveta, Kikumbului, Ulu, Kitui, 
Mumoni, Kikuyu and Kenya, and Southern Masailand. 
In 1902 Teita and Taveta were placed under the Seyidie 



East African Protectorate. 67 

(Mombasa) province, while the Kikuyu country north of 
the Chania River — and including Mount Kenya — was con- 
stituted a new province called ** Kenya." The area of the 
province as it is now is about 21,500 square miles. The 
boundaries in relation to that of the German boundary is 
as follows : On the south the Tsavo — from its source — and 
Sabaki Rivers to a point on the latter near Loga Hill ; 
thence the boundary proceeds on the east to Dokhat, 
keeping at an equal- distance from the Tana, which river it 
joins east of the Mumoni range ; taking in Mumoni, it 
strikes the Thika, and follows that river to the point where 
the Chania River enters it. The Chania to its source 
forms the northern boundary ; the western boundary is a 
line drawn from the source of the Chania along the Mian- 
zini to Kijabi, and then in a south-westerly line to the 
Gwazo Nyiro River, thence along the course of that river 
to the Anglo-German boundary. The population of this 
province, as estimated, is 214,000, composed of the follow- 
ing tribes : Wakamba, Wakikuyu, and Masai. In addition, 
the resident populations, including officials, number about 
5,700. The province forms one of the administrative 
divisions of the Protectorate, and is divided for adminis- 
trative purposes into districts, whose officers are respon- 
sible for law and order. They collect the revenue, and 
are the general advisers to the natives in abnormal matters. 
For generations in the past the different tribes resident 
in the province were hostile to one another. The Wa- 
kamba and Wakikuyu, who are a part of the Bantu race, 
are agricultural tribes ; while the Masai, who are of Hamitic 
descent, are purely pastoral. Amongst the Bantu tribes of 
the province there is no record of a paramount chief ; they 
have no form of government other than that of a patri- 
archal one. Amongst the Masai, however, there exists, 
and has always existed, a system of chieftainship. The 
chief in the old days, when the Masai were all-powerful, 
held practically absolute power. The Masai were, during 
their day, the lords of the interior of E^ist Africa. All 

E 2 



68 East African Protectorate. 

native tribes lived in fear of them, and contributed, through 
the medium of forced raids, a regular tribute to this once 
powerful tribe. For years raids and counter-raids kept the 
country in a state of unrest By our persistent efforts 
from 1895 these raids in 1900 ceased. Organized tribal 
raids are now unknown. 

The ordinary law of the province is that applied to the 
whole of the Protectorate, which consists in that laid down 
in the Indian Criminal and Civil Codes, supplemented by 
a number of ordinances under the Orders in Council. The 
natives are becoming to realize the advantages of bringing 
their cases before these courts for settlement, and they 
appreciate a civilized mode of dealing with their claims. 
In this circumstance alone we have a very striking illustra- 
tion of the advance made by the natives. From a state 
of raiding and killing for any little personal difference that 
may have existed formerly between people, we have now 
an application for a summons and an appearance in court 
The progress in this connection is not confined to localities 
just round stations : it extends amongst tens of thousands 
of the people. In 1890 slavery was declared illegal, and 
included dealing with slaves in any form. The several 
regulations and ordinances from 1897 to 1903 have all 
tended to simplify the administration of justice, and to 
make it more easily understood amongst the natives. All the 
Provincial Courts are subordinate to the High Court of 
East Africa. The police of the Protectorate is divided 
into three classes: (1) The District; (2) The Nairobi 
Township ; and (3) Watchmen and Guards. 

The introduction of the Uganda Railway has had a most 
wonderful and civilizing effect on the country through which 
it passes, and to it the province owes a great deal of its 
present progressive condition. The number of passengers 
during the year 1903 was: First class, 468; second class, 
660; third class, 16,325; the total being 17,453. In 
the year 1904: First class, 844; second class, 1,382; and 
third class, 24,303 ; making in all 26,529. The produce 



East African Protectorate, 69 

carried by the railway during those years has much in- 
creased ; for instance, beans, more than 222 tons, while in 
1904 it was increased to more than 535 tons ; potatoes, in 
1903, 937 tons ; in 1904, 1,162 tons. There was no timber 
carried in 1903, but in 1904 it amounted to more than 479 
tons. It is satisfactory to find that the railway is generally 
paying its own way. The construction of it has been not 
only justified from a financial point of view, but also a blessing 
to the country by opening it up to civilization, and proving 
to the Empire at large that East Africa is a land of fruitful 
promise. A comparison of travelling by the old caravan 
method and that of the railway from Bombasa is : one hour 
by railway, one day by caravan. By the old system there 
were no proper roads, but by degrees great improvemnt 
has been made in this respect. Post and telegraphs are 
being rapidly erected. There is also much progress in 
the surveying of land. In 1892 shops or business houses 
of any description were unknown, but now all this has 
changed. Hotels are being erected and banks established. 
The climate of the highlands is good, the soil is fertile, but 
the question has yet to be settled, **What will the soil 
produce that will pay a white man to cultivate it ?" Coffee 
and fibres will grow, but these require time and money to 
produce. The question of native labour and that of the 
settlers require organization, and the Chief Commissioner 
for this purpose is forming **a Labour Commission." The 
revenue in 1897- 1898 was Rs. 13,637, while in 1904- 1905 
it rose to Rs. 2,03,310. The expenditure for the latter 
year is estimated at Rs. 1,25,704. The natives of the 
province are pagans, but the introduction of missionary 
and educational efforts is being gradually established by 
various societies and churches. 



JO 



QUARTERLY REPORT ON SEMITIC STUDIES 

AND ORIENTALISM. 

By Prof. Dr. Edward Montet. 



GENERAL WORKS. 

The first portion of which we shall speak is devoted to the 
Proceedings of the Second International Congress of the 
History of Religions, which took place at Bile from 
August 30 to September 2, 1904.* We have given before 
an account of this Congress, f and will therefore treat the 
Proceedings now published very briefly. This interesting 
volume is divided into three parts : (i) A daily report of 
the Congress and of its arrangements with respect to 
committees and members; (2) papers read at the general 
sittings ; (3) proceedings of the sections. Several works 
presented to the Congress are printed in extenso^ but only 
a very few. The majority are given in summaries, and 
are often very short — half or a third of a page — the volume 
itself only containing 382 pages. This system of publishing 
the Proceedings is much to be deplored, and should be 
absolutely condemned. Who is judge of the works which 
ought to be published in extenso ? Some very important 
papers are given abridged, which detracts much from their 
value, hence the publication of the Proceedings loses much 
of its usefulness, especially to those members of the 
Congress who could not be present. The sad experience, 
then, as regards the summarized Proceedings of the 
Congress of Orientalists in Hamburg, should have been 
a lesson to the Bile committee. It would have been far 
better to have published nothing than to have prepared 
a volume of summaries both dry and inadequate. This 

''' " Verhandlungen des II. intemationalen Kongresses fiir allgemeine 
Religionsgeschichte in Basel." Basel : Helbing und Lichtenhahn, 1905. 

t Asiatic Quarterly Reviciv^ October, 1904 (" Proceedings of the Second 
International Congress of the History of Religions," a short daily report). 



Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism, 7 1 

was recognised at the last Congress of Orientalists at 
Algiers, which decided to publish all its proceedings in full. 
At th§ Algiers Congress, of which we gave an abridged 
account in these pages,* the Professors of the Ecole 
Superieure des Lettres d^Alger et des M^dersas d'Alg^rie 
presented a very interesting collection of essays and texts.f 
As Mr. R. Basset says in the preface to this volume, ** with 
their apparent diversity, the essays forming this volume 
have a common utility — viz., the scientific exploration of 
Northern Africa." This work deserves a short analysis. 
It contains : 

1. ** Bibliographical Researches on the Origin of the 
Salouat-al-Anfas of Muhammad bin Jafar, bin Idris al- 
Kettani"; this is a modern work, valuable on account of 
its acquaintance with the Maghreb, and is lithographed at 
Fez. This first work Ts by Mr. R. Basset. 

2. ** Certain Rites for obtaining Rain at the Time of 
Drought amongst the Musulmans of the Maghreb," by 
A. Bel. The author points out that the intercessions for 
obtaining rain in the Maghreb belong to the popular 
harvest festivals, which have preserved the ancient rites 
which existed anterior to Islam. It is known how reluc- 
tantly the Berbers adopted the religion of Muhammad. 

3. **On the Transmission of the Traditions of Bokhari 
to the Inhabitants of Algiers," by Muhammad bin Sheneb. 

4. " The Capitals of Barbary," by A. Bernard. 

5. "The Qanun of Adni," by Sayyid Boulifa. Adni is 
a conglomeration of five Kabyle villages. This Qanun, 
which forms the law and local customs, was communicated 
to the author of the article by ** the village elders." 

6. "The Son and Daughter of the King: A Story in 
the Berber dialect of Kef" (Beni-Snous), text and transla- 
tion, by E. Doutt6. 

* Asiatic Quarterly JRevitw^ July, 1905 ("The Congress of Orientalists 
at Algiers ''). 

t " Recueil de mdmoires et de textes du XIV. Congrbs des Orientalist es." 
Alger: P. Fontana, 1905. 



72 Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism. 

7. "The Khotba (burlesque of the Feast of Tolbas- 
students) in Marocco," a very curious article, by E. Doutt6. 

8. **An Arabic- Malgash Text in the Dialect of South- 
Eastern Madagascar,*' text and translation by G. Ferrand. 

9. "The Character of Micipsa, King of Numidia," in 
Sallust, by A. Fournier. 

10. "A Record of Religion and Philosophy"; treatise 
by Ibn Rashid (Averroe's), translated by L. Gauthier. 

11. "Saharan Oases," by E. F. Gauthier. 

12. ** Extent of the Carthaginian Rule in Africa," by 
S. Gsell. An essay of the greatest interest. 

13. Apparently Semitic or Indigenous Names in the 
Egyptian Pantheon," by E. Lef^bure. 

14. " Some Observations on the Practical Arabic-French 
Dictionary of Beaussier," by W. Mar9ais; an important 
lexicographic study. 

15. **L''Aqida of the Abadhites," by A. de. C. Moty- 
linski. The author of this very interesting work gives the 
text and translation of the ^Aqida, or symbol of faith, 
summarizing the doctrine followed in Mz4b and Jerba. 
Abadhite heresy has, in reality, survived to this day in the 
midst of the Musulman orthodoxy of North Africa ; in 
Mzdb, and in the Island of Jerba and mountains of Nefusa, 
three Berber groups. 

16. ** The African Commission" (July 7-December 12, 
^^Z:^^ by G. Yver. 

This rapid survey will show the richness of the large 
volume (612 pages) published by the Algerian professors. 

The third collection of Oriental texts and studies, of 
which we will now say something, is the magnificent volume 
published in honour of D. Francisco Codera, on the occasion 
of the jubilee of his professorship. We have already drawn 
attention to the advance proofs of this work in our Report of 
April, 1905 : 6>f^^ra/ reprints of** The Memoirs of R. Basset 
and M. Asin," of which we have pointed out the merits. 
One can say that all the works of this vast collection 
(xxxviii and 656 pages, 8vo.) deserve to be read. We 



Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism, y^ 

cannot here give even a simple analysis, the contents being 
so numerous. But it is well and useful to enumerate the 
richness of the volume, not according to its alphabetical 
index, but leaf by leaf. 

The collection, which contains as a frontispiece a fine 
portrait of Codera, begins with an introduction, by Edward 
Saavedra, on the life, career, and the eminent merits of 
Codera, and the author of this notice applies rightly to the 
learned professor and distinguished citizen the maxim of 
Algazel : ** He who knows, and works well and instructs, 
merits the title of great." A catalogue of the publications 
of Codera follows. 

The essays which compose the collection are as follows : 
(i) *• Origin of the Nizami College of Baghdad," by J. 
Ribera ; (2) ** Who was King Esmar of the Battle of 
Ourique ?" by D. Lopes; (3) "Surrender of the Chateau 
deChivert to the Templars," by M. Ferrandis ; (4) "The 
Account of Almicdad and Almayesa," by M. de Pano ; 
(5) •* The Parallel between the Defective Arabic Verbs and 
their Hebrew, Chaldean, Syrian, and Ethiopian Corre- 
spondents," by M. Viscasillas y Urriza ; (6) " On Al Kit4b 
al Bayan of the Jurist Ibn Rashid," by Nallino ; (7) 
•* Christians and Moors, Arragon and Navarre Documents," 
by E. Ibarra ; (8) ** Some Observations on Greek Fire," by 
De Goeje ; (9) ** African Numismatics (the Fatimites at 
Fez)," by A. Prieto y Vives ; (10) *' The Malekiten Tabaqat," 
by E. Fagnan ; (i i) " Otobesd= Abixa=Oropesa y Anlxa= 
El Puig of Cebolla = Onusa (?)," by C. F. Seybold ; (12) 
" Protest by the Inhabitants of Kano against the Attacks of 
Sultan Muhammad-Bello, King of Sokoto,'' by O. Houdas ; 
(13) *• Christian Soldiers in the Service of the Sultans of the 
Maghreb," by J. Alemany ; (14) ** Arabic Documents of 
the Archives of ' Ntra. Sra. del Pilar ' of Saragossa," by R. 
Garcia de Linares ; (15)** The Letter of Franchises granted 
by the Comte de Barcelone to the Jews of Tortosa," by J. 
Miret y Sans ; (16) " Relations of the Viscounts of Barcelona 
with the Arabs,", by F. Carreras y Candi ; (17) ** Cordovan 



74 Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism, 

Musulmans in Alexandria and Crete," by M. Caspar; (i8) 
" Opinion of Avicenna on Astrology and on the Relation of 
Human Responsibility with Destiny," by A. F. Mehren ; 
(19) **The Benimajlad of Cordova, a Family of Lawyers," 
by R. de Ureila y Smenjaud ; (20) ** Christian Art among 
the Moors of Grenada," by M. Gomez-Moreno ; (21) " The 
Theological Averroism of St. Thomas d'Aquin," by M. 
Asin ; (22) "Origin of the Cities of Garnata 6 Illiberriand 
of the Alhambra," by L. Eguilaz Yanguas ; (23) "The 
Syriac MS., No. 196, in the Vatican," by I. Guidi ; (24) 
" Note on some Musulmans of Madrid," by L. Gonzalvo ; 
(25) " A Note on the Historic Doctrine of Abenjaldun 
(Ibn Khaldun)," by R. Altamira ; (26) " Ibn AP Assails 
Arabic Version of the Gospels," by Duncan B. Macdonald ; 
(27) "Oh Aluacaxi and the Arabic Elegy of Valence," by 
R. Menendez Pidal ; (28) " Moshehid bin Yusuf and AH 
bin Moshehid," by R. Chabds ; (29) "The Arabic Root 
f^ and its Derivatives," by L. Gauthier ; (30) " Relations 
of Egypt with Spain during the Musulman Occupations," 
by Ahmad Zaki ; (31)'' Doncella Teodor " (a story of " The 
1,001 Nights," a book by Cordel and a comedy of Lope de 
Vega), by M. Menendez y Pelayo ; (32) "Indication of 
their Value on the Arabo-Spanish Coins," by A. Vives ; 
(33) " Mezquinos y Exaricos " (for the story of slavery in 
Navarre and Arragon), by E. de Hinojosa ; (34) " Questions 
of Prosody," by E. Saavedra; (35) "The MSS. ' Aljamiados * 
from my Collection," by P. Gil y Gil; (36) "Contribution 
to the Criticism of Conde," by L. Barrau-Dihigo ; (37) 
" Our Criticism on the Arabic MSS. of the National Library 
of Madrid," by H. Derenbourg ; (38) "Extract from the 
Description of Spain," taken from the work of the anony- 
mous geographer of Almeria, by R. Basset. 

Since our last Report, " Three Fascicules of the Talmud 
of Babylon," published by Lazarus Goldschmidt, have 
appeared. They include the treatises, " Baba Qamma" 
(Part H.) and "Baba Me^id" (Parts L and H.).* 

"^ Berlin : Calvary und Co., 1905. 



Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism. 75 

Volume V. of the Polyglot Bible, published by the 
Abb^ Vigouroux, has appeared.* It includes : The Eccle- 
siasticus, or ^Lo^ia ^ipa^ (Greek, Hebrew, Latin, French), 
Esau, Jeremiah, the Lamentations, and Baruch. Interesting 
illustrations taken of the monuments accompany the text. 



Old-Testament History of Israel, Samaria, and 

Assyria. 

Amongst the commentaries which have appeared on the 
Old Testament, we have to point out that of Strack on 
Genesis. t In the preface the author declares to have 
revised with much care his first edition (1896), without 
omitting the different discoveries, especially in the domain 
of Assyriology. The following interesting statement 
characterizes the point of view of his work : " I am satisfied 
that many of the results deduced from the information of 
the analysis by critics are false. They assert that, in many 
biblical passages, there are contradictions, whilst there are 
none. On the contrary, biblical accounts gain, in an un- 
anticipated spirit, credibility, because they declare that two 
or three narrators of the same event in the Bible, in re- 
lating it, essentially agree." The translation, printed in 
different characters, according to the several sources of 
which Genesis is composed, has been made with much 
care. As to the sources of the Pentateuch, the author dis- 
tinguishes, like Dillmann, P [Priesterschrift^ the sacerdotal 
writing), H {Heiligkeitsgesetz, the Sacred Law), J (Jahvist), 
E (Elohist), and D (Deuteronomy). The commentary, of 
178 pages, with translation and notes, is moderate and 
clear. We must particularly draw attention, as being 
extremely interesting, to the notes on Bibel and Babel ; the 
first ten kings (Urkonige) of Babylonia; Ur (Kasdim). which 
the author places north of Kharran ; the kings of chap- 

* Paris: Roger et Chernoviz, 1904. 

t "Die Genesis" (2** neu durchgearbeitele Auflage). Munich : C. H. 
Beck, 1905. 



76 Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism. 

ter xiv. ; the creditableness of the history of the Patriarchs ; 
the Song of Jacob (chapter xlix.), etc. 

The Rabbi L. G. L6vy has published, in order to 
acquire the degree of Doctor of Letters at the Sorbonne, a 
work of high interest on the family in the Israelitic ancient 
times.* The author examines the family, which forms the 
pivot and axle of Israelitic life, from its origin up to the 
Exile. The book is divided into five parts : I. Family and 
Religion (totemism, worship of the dead, the ancient 
religion of the Hebrews) ; II. The Family in General 
(primitive family, slave and ghir^ life of a clan family) ; 
III. The Solidarity of the Family (vendetta 2SiA gheoullah, 
genealogy of name, property) ; IV. Marriage and Conjugal 
Society (matrimony, matrimonial rights, etc.) ; V. Relations 
of Members of the Family between Themselves (paternal 
authority, funeral rites, successions, etc.). The contents of 
the Rabbi's book are much too copious for us to analyze 
here — in fact, they go beyond the family circle. Its erudi- 
tion is great and sound, its general views judicious and 
expansive, and the method is essentially scientific — that is 
to say, the book deserves to be read and recommended. 
It will certainly contribute to make known to the general 
public the ancient Israelitic family in its real light. 

I myself have published a second edition of my ** Gram- 
maire minima de I'H^breu et de TAram^en bibliques.^'f 

In the Revue des Etudes Juives (Paris, 1905), F. Macler 
has published an interesting work on a new manuscript of a 
Samaritan chronicle, ** El Tolideh," which was edited in 
1869 by Neubauer, after a manuscript of the year 121 2 of 
the Hejira. This manuscript, compared by Macler. was 
written strictly after the accession of Abd-ul-Hamid. This 
work, like other Samaritan histories, established a Hebrew 
computation for fixing dates, which go back to Adam. 

In the Revue SSmitique of July last (Paris) was inserted, 
under the title of '* Sumerological Correspondence," a series 
of letters which Mr. R. Brunnow and J. Halevy wrote to 

* Paris: F. Alcan, 1905. + Paris: E. Guilmoto. 1905. 



Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism. 77 

one another on the Sumerian question. We recommend 
their perusal, as they will make clear the much-disputed 
question of the Sumerian language. 



I SLAM- Arabic Language and Literature. 

A most interesting book on Islam has been published. 
It is not the work of an Arabis or of a specialist ; but its 
interest arises from the object that the author, Madame 
Hyacinthe Loyson, pursues. Her book is entitled **To 
Jerusalem through the Lands of Islam, among Jews, Christ- 
ians, and Moslems."* It is an account of some journeys 
undertaken by Mr. and Mrs. H.Lyson in 1894-1896 across 
Algeria, Tunis, Egypt, and Palestine, but it is above all a 
collection of religious impressions regarding Islam, which 
the author rehabilitates, and which she defends. Islam is 
so little understood, and so often decried, by the general 
European public, it is as well that, from time to time, a 
sympathetic voice is raised in its favour. Mr. and Mrs. 
Loyson dream of the approachment of the Christian West 
and the Musulman East — an ideal the realization of which 
is difficult, but in pursuit of which we must endeavour to 
strive, as it is a humanizing power. 

V. Chauvin has devoted, in the Revue des Bibliotheques 
et Archives de Belgique (vol. ii. ; part 4, Brussels, 1905), an 
article of very great interest on the translation of " The 
1,001 Nights/' by Mardrus. In this article he shows the 
very numerous additions made in the Arabic text by the 
translator, additions culled from the most diverse collections 
of Oriental stories, etc. (Artin Pasha, Spitta Bey, Garcin de 
Tassy, Dr. Perron, Decourdemanche, etc.). This is really 
a very suggestive article. 

In the Revue Africaine (No. 257, Algiers, 1905), A. Bel, 
custodian of the Tlemcen Museum, has pointed out, in an 
article entitled ** Trouvailles arch^ologiques k Tlemcen,'* 

* Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Co., 1905 (London: Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co.). 



78 Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism. 

several interesting curiosities. An ancient Arabic solar 
dial, coming from old Mansoura, near Tlemcen ; a modd en- 
nabi, modd du prophete^ a bronze vase or measure of 
8 decalitres, having an interesting inscription, on which we 
read that this modd was made in a.h. 1049 (a.d. 1639), 
after the modd habous of the town of Fez. 

Lastly, in the Revue Africaine (the same) we read a 
really captivating story of M. van Berchem on Musulman 
epigraphy in Algeria, with respect to "Corpus des inscrip- 
tions arabes et turques de I'Alg^rie " (first fascicule by 
Mr. G. Colin on the Algiers Department, second fascicule 
by Mr. G. Mercier on the Constantine Department). 

When about to terminate this article, we have received 
the last fascicule of " Der islamische Orient,*' by Mr. Hart- 
mann.* The same includes a long and interesting contri- 
bution entitled ** Ein Heiligenstaat im Islam : das Ende 
der Caghataiden und die Herrschaft der Chogas in Kas- 
garien." 

♦ Berlin: Wolf Peiser, 1905. 



79 



THE EMPEROR BABAR* IN THE HABIBU- 

S-SIYAR. 

By H. Beveridge. 

The Habibu-s-siyar of Ghiyasu-d-din Khwand Amir is a 
valuable help towards the understanding of Babar and his 
Memoirs. The author was a Persian and a native of 
Herat, and though a great admirer of Babar, there were 
two men whom he regarded as greater than he — namely, 
Sultan Husain of Khurasan and Shah Ismail Safavi, the 
King of Persia ; hence his account of Babar is not con- 
ceived in a strain of unmixed panegyric. He records his 
mistakes, and he is explicit about his vassalage to Shah 
Ismail, and his issuing coins bearing the names of his 
suzerain and of the Imams. His book also fills up the 
blanks for several years of which Babar has given no 
account. The Habib was known to Mr. Erskine, the 
translator of Babar's Memoirs, and Rieu's Persian cata- 
logue shows that he had in his possession a manuscript of 
part of the second volume. But apparently Erskine did 
not notice the references to Babar which occur in the life 
of Shah Ismail, and he failed to draw any inference from 
the singular resemblance between Babar's Memoirs and 
the accounts of Babar s early years in Khwand Amir's life 
of Sultan Husain. He, however, made use in his history 
of Babar of the seventh volume of the Rauzatu-s-safa, 
which, though ascribed to Muhammad Mir Khwand, is 
identical with the portion of the Habib which deals with 
the life of Sultan Husain, and is no doubt the work of 
the grandson Ghiyasu-d-din. The circumstance that the 
latter, in accordance with Muhammadan custom, took his 

* It has beeD remarked by Dr. Rieu that the proper pronunciation of 
this name is "Babur." This is corroborated by a distich at ii. ^sqi, line 7, 
of the Habib, where Babur seems to rhyme with fahur. Dr. Rieu's 
remark is quoted by Poole in the introduction to his '* Coins of the Shahs 
of Persia," p. xxv, note. 



8o The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. 

g;randfather's name, seems to have led to the confusion 
between the two writers. Another confusion which, as 
Dr. Rieu has pointed out, is confined to European writers, 
and which makes Ghiyasu-d-din the son, instead of the 
grandson, of the author of the Rausatu-s-safa, has perhaps 
arisen from the passage in the Habib, Bombay litho- 
graph, ii. 339, in which Khwand Amir says he stands in 
the relation of son (farzand) to Muhammad Mir Khwand. 
The true relationship, as Dr. Rieu has said, is given at 
p. 198 of the same volume. 

The Habib is a general history from the time of the 
patriarchs to near the end of Shah Ismail's reign — that is, 
to near the middle of 1524. It was begun early in 927 — 
that is, in the beginning of 1521 — but the author had not 
worked at it many months when his progress was stopped 
by the death of his patron Ghiyasu-d-din al Husaini, who 
was put to death by Amir Khan, the guardian of Shah 
Tahmasp, on suspicion that he was plotting with Babar to 
surrender to him the city of Herat. The circumstances 
under which Ghiyasu-d-din was put to death are detailed 
at great length in the Habib in the account of the reign of 
Shah Ismail, pp. 93 et seq. He was put to death on 
7 Rajab, 927 (June 13, 1521), shortly after the Uzbegs 
under Ubaid Ullah Khan had retired from an unsuccessful 
attempt to take Herat. Though the plotting with Babar 
appears, from pp. 93 and 100, to have been the ostensible 
cause of the murder, the real reason apparently was be- 
cause Ghiyasu-d-din disapproved of Amir Khan's adminis- 
tration, and was preparing to complain to Shah Ismail 
about it. At this part of the history we incidentally 
(see p. 96) learn that Babar was in the end of 926 and 
beginning of 927 actively engaged in besieging ShujV Beg 
in Qandahar. Both Amir Khan and Ghiyasu-d-din expostu- 
lated with him, but Babar replied that no confidence could 
be placed in Shuja* Beg, and that he hoped soon to send 
him as prisoner to Shah Ismail, and that he would sur- 
render the keys of Qandahar and the Garmsir to whom- 



The Emperor Babar in the HabibU'S-siyar. 8 1 

soever the Shah chose to appoint. We also learn that 
Khan Mirza Babar's cousin died in 926 or 927, and not 
in 917, as stated by Haidar Mirza, or the copyist, and that 
Babar appointed Humayun to take charge of Badakhshan. 
After the death of Ghiyasu-d-din, Khwand Amir found 
a new patron in Khwajah Habib Ullah, whose name he 
inserted into the title of his work. The Habib was sub- 
stantially completed in the end of 929, or in 930 (1524), 
and before he left Herat, though it appears from a state- 
ment at the end of the first volume, or jild (p. 84 of 
vol. L), that the finishing touches were given at a Tirmo- 
hana, or river junction, in Bihar in 935 (1529). On this 
point Elliot (iv., pp. 143, 155), and Rieu's Catalogue of 
Persian Manuscripts (iii., 1079, col. 2), may be consulted. 
Sir Henry Elliot suggests, with, as it appears to me, much 
probability, that what Khwand Amir did in India was to 
re-copy for the third time the work which he had already 
completed. He certainly could not have access to many 
books either in Qandahar or on the way from there to 
India. The Habib was lithographed at Bombay in 1857, 
and it is from this edition that my quotations are made. 
The passages which deal with Babar are embedded in the 
biographies of Sultan Husain and Shah Ismail in the 
second volume. There is also an account of Babar's 
father, Umar Shaikh, in the section dealing with the sons 
of Sultan Abu Sa'id. This is at pp. 194 and 195 of vol. ii., 
and closely agrees with the account in Babar's Memoirs 
(pp. 7-10). Babar s name seems to be first mentioned at 
p. 195, but his biography begins at p. 271, and extends 
from his birth to his first conquest of Samarqand — that is, 
it commences with the first month of 888 (February, 1483), 
and ends with the last days of November or December, 
1497. I mention the two months because, according to 
Babar's Memoirs, he entered Samarqand in the end of 
Rabi-al-awwal, whereas according to the Habib lithograph 
the entry was at the close of Rabi-al-akhir, 903. This 
portion of the biography occupies about six pages of the 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. F 



82 The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. 

lithograph, which is a folio containing thirty-one lines to 
the page, and closely resembles the account of this period 
in Babars Memoirs (Leyden and Erskine's translation, 
pp. 17-48). Immediately before this passage there is, on 
pp. 270 and 271, an account of the rebellion of the Tarkhans 
and of the escape of Baisanghar Mirza, which is almost 
word for word the same as that in the Memoirs, pp. 39, 40. 
There can be no question, I think, of the practical identity 
between the account of Babar s early years in the Memoirs 
and that in the Habib. One of them must have been 
copied from the other, unless, indeed, both of them have 
a common source. But for this alternative there is no 
evidence, and the fact is unlikely. The real point is, 
** Which is the original ?" and for reasons to be given here- 
after I am of opinion, though with some doubt, that the 
Habib is the original, and that Babar has copied and 
amplified the account there given. As instances of close 
correspondence of the two accounts, I may refer to Babar's 
narrative in the Memoirs of what happened on the arrival 
of the news of his father's death (Erskine, pp. 17-56), 
where Babar gives the reasons why he could not give up 
Andijan to his brother Jahangir. In the first instance, the 
story of Shiram Taghai's taking off the young prince 
towards the hills, and of their being stopped by an emissary 
of Maulana Qazi.is told in the same way in the Habib (p. 272), 
except that the latter represents Shiram as putting his boy- 
sovereign on horseback, while Babar, naturally enough, 
represents himself as taking the initiative and mounting 
his horse, and then having his bridle seized by Shiram. 
In the second, Babar gives two reasons why he could not 
comply with Uzun Hasan and Tambol's wishes. One was 
that he had in a manner promised Andijan to his uncle, and 
the other was that he could not act under compulsion. 
Both these reasons, and in the same order, are given in 
the Habib (p. 291). Throughout the two accounts also 
we find that the incidents and the names of the persons 
concerned are given in the same order and with similar 



The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar, 83 

particulars. It seems unnecessary to labour this point 
further, as the coincidences are too remarkable to be acci- 
dental, or to be the result of a common use of the same 
materials. At p. 277 of the Habib the account of Babar 
is interrupted in order to carry on the narrative .of Sultan 
Husain and his sons, but it is resumed at p. 291, and is 
continued, with short digressions, to near the bottom of 
p. 310. The account closely agrees with Babar's accounts 
of the transactions of 903-908 (pp. 56-98 of Erskine). 
Further on in the Habib, at pp. 317, 318, 323, etc., we 
have accounts of Babar and his uncles' defeat by Shaibani, 
near Akhsi, and of his conquest of Kabul. Sultan Husain 
died in the end of 911 (1506), so there is not much more 
of Babar in the account of the former's reign, but he is 
often referred to in the account of Sultan Husain's sons, 
and especially that of Muhammad Zaman Mirza, who 
eventually became Babar's son-in-law. These references 
end with 924 or 925 at p. 373, and were written, it appears, 
about the end of 929. For the events of Babar's career 
in Persia and Transoxiana during the years 916-919* 
(1510-1514), we must refer to the fourth section of the 
third volume of the Habib, which contains the life of Shah 
Ismail. 

The Habib is not only valuable because it gives accounts 
of the years which have been left blank in Babar's Memoirs ; 
it also helps us to understand and to correct statements in 
the Memoirs. For instance, it would seem from p. 182 
of the Memoirs as if Mas'ud Mirza had been married to 
Sultan Husain's daughter after he had been blinded by 
Khusru Shah. It appears, however, from the Habib that 
the marriage took place in 904 on Sunday, 3 Zi-al-qada, 
and that it was after this that Masaud went off to Khusru 
Shah at Qunduz, and was blinded by him in 905. Even- 
tually he returned to Herat, and it is evidently to this 

* From the Tarkhan-nama (Elliot, i. 307) it appears that Babar had 
returned to Afghanistan, and was besieging Qandahar in 919. But the 
dates in this work are not trustworthy. 

F 2 



84 The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. 

period that Babar refers when he speaks of Mas^ud's wife 
having been made over to him. Again, Babar (Erskine, 
p. 224) is severe upon'his rival Shaibani for seizing upon one 
Khanim, the wife of Mozaffar Husain, and marrying her, 
although .she was in an impure state, by which is meant, 
apparently, that a sufficient time had not elapsed from her 
divorce from her first husband. But the Habib puts quite 
a different complexion on the affair. According to it 
Shaibani admired her and proposed marriage, and the 
lady told him that Mozaffar Husain had divorced her two 
years ago. A number of respectable people confirmed her 
statement, and so, there being no legal objection, Shaibani 
married her (see Habib ii. 359). 

The Habib does not give the details of Babar's escape 
from Karnan, when Yusuf darogha came to him and he 
expected to be put to death. As is well known, the 
Persian translation breaks off here at the most exciting 
point (Erskine, p. 1 22), though the Turki versions of Ilminsky 
and Haidarabad continue the narrative, and conclude with 
Babar's departure from Farghana (see Pavet de Courteille's 
translation, i. 255-259). The fact that the Habib does 
not describe the incidents goes to show that Khwand Amir 
had not Babar's Memoirs before him when he was writing, 
for it could only be the Turki that was in existence then. 
The inference, however, is not certain, for the incidents 
were not in all the Turki copies — e,g.^ they were not in the 
Elphinstone manuscript. But though the Habib does not 
give these details, it furnishes, at p. 317, an important 
supplement to the Memoirs by describing how Babar and 
his maternal uncles were defeated by Shaibani near Akhsi. 
It is evident from this passage that Babar, as Erskine had 
conjectured (p. 124), succeeded in joining his uncles after 
the adventure of Karnan, but that this did not much better 
his position, for all three of them were eventually defeated 
by Shaibani. The exact date when this occurred does not 
seem to be known, but it was in the end of 908 or begin- 
ning of 909, and according to Babar (see P. de Courteille's 



The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. 85 

translation, i. 259) four months after his escape from 
Karnan. Shaibani on this occasion behaved generously 
towards the two uncles, and set them at liberty after he 
had captured them. But he sent a message to the people 
of Tashkand to the effect that if they wished to save their 
princes' lives they must stop Babar, who had fled towards 
Mogulistan, and must imprison Khwaja Abul Mukaram. 
The people of Tashkand carried out the latter order, but 
they did not succeed in catching Babar, as he came to 
know that they were holding the mouth of the defile he 
was in, and so turned aside and went off to Hisar Shad- 
man, and finally to Tarmiz. Of the year 909 Babar gives 
no account, his reticence, I think, being explained by the 
fact that it was a year of great hardship and misery. His 
only allusion to it is at p. 4 of Erskine, where he says, 
" I spent nearly a year in Sukh and Hushiar among the 
hills in great distress.'* The passage in the Habib just 
referred to seems to me to prove that the gap in Babar's 
Memoirs for 909 always existed, and that the omission is 
not due to any accident to the original manuscript, or to 
the mistake of copyists. For if Babar had written an account 
of his and his uncles' defeat by Shaibani and of his subse- 
quent adventures, he never would have written, as he has 
done (see P. de Courteille, i. 259) : ** I remained with my 
uncles for four months. . . . Then it came into my mind 
that it would be better to leave Farghana." This period 
of four months must have been before the battle of Akhsi, 
for after their capture and release they went off to 
Mogulistan, and Babar had to fly for his life, so that the 
expression ** It came into my mind that it would be better 
to leave Farghana " is inappropriate, and also insufficient 
for the description of nearly a twelvemonth of wandering. 

Here it may be permitted to me to make a short digres- 
sion about Babar's Memoirs, which Abul Fazl carelessly or 
ignorantly describes as covering the period from the begin- 
ning of his reign to the time of his death. 

As is well known, there are several gaps in Babar's 



86 The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar, 

Memoirs. One of them extends over eleven years of his 
reign in Kabul. Various explanations of the causes of the 
gaps may be given, but it seems to me that the most prob- 
able is that Babar did not like to record his humiliations 
We know that he slurs over the facts of his surrender of 
Samarqand and of his sister to Shaibani, and it is natural 
that he should evade describing his unsuccessful cam- 
paigns against Shaibani s representatives, and still more 
his humiliating submissions to Shah Ismail and to the 
Shia religion. The objection to this explanation, and it 
is a solid one, is that Babar has omitted to describe one of 
his greatest exploits — viz., his battle with the Moghuls in 
914, in which he is said to have been victorious in five 
single combats. Haidar Mirza speaks of this as one of his 
greatest achievements. Perhaps, however, Babar left it 
out because he would be obliged to state that eventually 
he put to death his cousin Abdu-r-razzaq. The latter was 
undoubtedly the true heir to the throne of Kabul after the 
death of his father, Ulugh Beg, who was Babar's father's 
brother. He may have been unfit to rule, and Babar — who 
pardoned him once — may have been justified in at last 
putting him to death, but still it would be an unpleasant 
circumstance, which Babar would be unwilling to dwell 
upon, as he had strong family feelings. Perhaps, also, it 
would not be too far - fetched to suggest that a rusd 
chronicler like Babar purposely left out the account of his 
brilliant victory in order that his admirers might urge — as 
they do — that the gaps were not caused by Babar s desire 
to conceal his misfortunes. However this may be, it seems 
certain that the blanks have always existed, and I cannot 
but think that one cause of them has been Babar's reluc- 
tance to exhibit himself as a fugitive and as a truckler 
to Muhammadan nonconformists. If we believe, as I do, 
that Babar copied from the Habib, another reason for 
some of the blanks would be that he had no original to 
work upon ; for the Habib tells us little about Babar's career 
in Kabul, and there does not seem to be any other source. 



The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. 87 

I now come to the important question of ** Which is the 
original, the Habib or Babar's Memoirs ?** The Habib 
was begun early in 927 (152 1), and is generally considered 
to have been completed in 930 (1524). At the very end 
of the chapter — viz., the third part of the third yV/^af or 
volume — ^in which the events of Babar s life are recorded 
down to his conquests of Kabul, the end of 929 (1523) is 
mentioned as the time of writing (see p. 378 of Bombay 
edition), and there is a similar statement at p. 367. If this 
chapter was finished then, and not greatly altered after- 
wards, the question might probably be decided at once in 
favour of the Habib, for it seems certain, and is held both 
by Erskine and Pavet de Courteille (see Erskine's preface, 
p. vi, and P. de Courteille's fuller discussion of the subject 
in his preface, pp. vi-viii), that Babar began to write his 
Memoirs after his conquest of India — Le.y after 932 or 1526. 
And if he did not begin his Memoirs till then, it seems 
almost certain that he must have had some materials* to 
assist his memory, such as the accounts of his early years 
in the Habib. But the discussion is complicated by the 
fact that at the end of his first volume (Habib, i., p. 82) 
Khwand Amir speaks of having completed it (that is, the 
first volume) ** after it had been for a long time in the state 
of a rough draught,*' at a Tirmohana,t or river junction, in 
Bihar. This must have been in April or May, 1529, for 
we know from the same passage, and also from Babar's 
Memoirs (Erskine, p. 382), that Khwand Amir did notreach 
Agra till September, 1528 (Muharram, 4, 935). and it was 
after this that he accompanied Babar to Bihar. See also 
Babar s Memoirs, pp. 411 ^/ seq. There is also the fact 
that Khwand Amir on more than one occasion gives Babar 
the title of Ghazi (see Habib, i., pp. 195, 291), which, 

♦ We know from Badayuni, iii. 180, that Babar had a Waqa-navis^ or 
historiographer, who came with him to India. His name — or, at least, his 
takhalius — was Atishi Qandahari, for he was also a poet. He was with 
Humayun in Badakhshan, and died in 973 (1566). 

t See the quotations in Elliot (iv., pp. 143, 155), and the Bombay 
edition (i. 82-84). 



88 The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. 

Babar tells us (Erskine, p. 367), he assumed in the Imperial 
titles after the victory over Rana Sanka in 933 (1527). 
This is startling, but it is not conclusive against the priority 
of Khwand Amir ; for flatterers may have given Babar the 
title before he publicly assumed it, and they may have 
thought his exploits against the Kafirs or the inhabitants of 
Bajour entitled him to the appellation. The title, too, may 
have been added by Khwand Amir in his final revision. 
On the other hand, the following facts make for the priority 
of Khwand Amir. First, it is evident that though he 
touched up his book three times, it was substantially com- 
pleted in 929. Secondly, if he had greatly altered or added 
to his book afterwards, he surely would have made some 
reference to Babar's conquest of India, and have even given 
some account of this. But he does not refer to Babar's 
connection with India except in the preface at the end of 
the first volume already referred to. Thirdly, he writes of 
persons being alive whom Babar mentions as having died. 
Thus at p. 253 we have the statement that Sultanam Begam, 
the mother of Mirza Muhammad Sultan, and eldest daughter 
of Sultan Husain, was still alive, whereas Babar (Erskine, 
p. 181) tells us that she died at Nilab on her way to India. 
Similarly, we are told at p. 327 that Afaq Begam, the wife 
of Sultan Husain, was still alive, though all her co-wives 
were dead ; but Babar tells us (p. 183) that he got news in 
January, 1528 (934), ths^t she had died at Kabul. Fourthly, 
there are occasionally indications that Khwand Amir could 
not have had Babar s Memoirs before him when he was 
writing. One of them is that in Khwand Amir's account 
of one of Babar s dreams there is no reference to the much 
more remarkable dream he had at Karnan. Another is 
that Khwand Amir, in speaking of the quatrains made by 
Binai and Babar after his conquest of Samarqand, says 
(p. 307) that Khwaja Abu-1-barka Faraqi also made a 
quatrain, and that he remembers two lines of it. He then 
gives these two lines, which are in Turki. Now, if he had 
had Babar s Memoirs before him, he could have given the 



The Emperor Babar in the Habibu^-siyar. 89 

whole four, for Babar gives the complete quatrain (see 
Erskine, p. 91, and Ilminsky, p. 107). At p. 306 Khwand 
Amir describes the taking of Samarqand by Babar the second 
time, and compares it with Timur s capture of Qarshi, both 
heroes having had only 240 soldiers.* But Babar in his 
Memoirs (p. 88) takes no notice of Timur, and makes an 
elaborate comparison between his own exploit and that of 
Sultan Husain in taking Herat, to the disadvantage of the 
latter. Surely if Khwand Amir, who was then writing the 
life of Sultan Husain, had come across this passage in the 
Memoirs, he would have had something to say about the 
comparison. Again, Babar, in his account of what led to 
the Battle of Khwajah Kardzan, ascribes his precipitation 
to astrological reasons and takes all the blame upon himself 
(Erskine, p. 92), whereas Khwand Amir says nothing about 
the aspects of the stars, and softens Babar's rashness by 
ascribing it in part to the influence of Qambar AH, whom 
Babar does not mention, except to say that he assisted him 
in his preparations. Finally, Khwand Amir gives a some- 
what different and less favourable account of Babar's trans- 
actions with Khusru Shah, and describes the latter as 
arriving in a state of destitution at Badiu-z-Zaman's camp, 
and as complaining of his treatment (p. 320) ; and apparently 
this is the foundation of Ferishta's remarks on the subject. 
Khwand Amir also (p. 318) ascribes to Amir Muhammad 
Baqar, otherwise Baqi Cheghaniani, the ruler of Tarmiz, 
the merit of having persuaded Babar to attempt Kabul, 
whereas Babar (Erskine, p. 128), though he mentions Baqi 
Cheghaniani, and speaks of going to Tarmiz, says nothing 
about his persuasions. For these reasons I am inclined to 
think that Khwand Amir wrote his account of Babar before 
seeing the Memoirs, and before they were written, and that 
Babar afterwards used the Habib as the groundwork of the 

* According to the Zafar-nama, Bib. Ind. ed., i. 129, and the Habib, 
i. 1 1 of the third portion of the third jildy the exact number of Timur's 
followers was 243. Babar (Erskire, p. 86) says that when he proceeded 
against Samarqand he had only 240 men, good and bad. 



90 The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. 

first part of his autobiography. This does not deprive 
Babar of the merit of writing his Memoirs, for the graphic 
touches and the personal details are all his own, and the 
Habib does not go beyond the time when Babar was only 
lord of Kabul. 

If it be objected that the statement of Khwand Amir at 
the end of his first volume shows that it was not finished 
till 1529, and that the rest of the book may have been 
written even later, for the author lived into Humayun's 
reign and died at Burhanpur in 1535-1536, the answer is 
that not only does he in several places speak of 929 and 
930 as the time of writing, but also at the very end of his 
book he gives two chronograms expressive of the fact that 
the work was finished in 930 a.h. The Habib consists of 
three volumes divided into twelve sections (see Elliot, 
iv. 157), and a Khatima, or conclusion, descriptive of the 
wonders of the world. At the end of this conclusion the 
author says that the world is full of wonders, and that it is 
impossible to describe them all. The greatest marvel of 
all, however, he says, is that a feeble soul like himself 
should have been able in a short space of time to write this 
great history of kings, saints, and philosophers. He then 
gives two chronograms, both of which yield 930 or 1524. 

The remarks at the end of the first volume (i. 82), already 
referred to, are lengthy, and were perhaps not all written 
at the same time ; or if they were, they seem to me to 
cover a long space of time, and to refer to disparate events. 
The heading of the remarks is, '* Thanks to God for com- 
pletion of the first volume, and prayers for the preservation 
of the glorious minister" — that is, his patron, Khwajah 
Habib Ullah, who is designated Asaf, after the name of 
Solomons vizier. The panegyric on Habib Ullah refers 
to his having read his book and corrected it, and goes 
down to the twelfth line of p. 84. This part ends with 
a distich, announcing that his words are finished. Then 
comes the statement, " Be it known that this work was 
completed for the third time on the way to India." 



The Emperor Babar in the Habibu'S-siyar. 9 1 

Then the author goes on to say that he left Herat in 
the middle of Shawwal, 933 (middle of July, 1527), and 
came to Qandahar. There he began to write these pages 
(in sawad), but before he had finished the first chapter 
{Juz) fate seized his cellar and dragged him to India. He 
set off on Jamadi-as-sani 10, 934 — ix.y on March 31, 
1528 — and on account of the heat and the rain, etc., was 
seven months on the journey, and did not arrive at Agra 
till Muharram 4, 935 — i.e., September 18, 1528. He fell 
ill shortly after his arrival, and remained in a dangerous 
state for several months. Afterwards he accompanied the 
Emperor Babar to Bihar, and wherever there was a halt 
he worked at his book, finally completing it at the junction 
of the Sarju and Ganges (about May, 1529). The remarks 
conclude with a panegyric of Babar and of his secretary, 
Zainu-d-din Khwafi. The latter wrote an account of 
Babar s conquest of India, if he did not translate the whole 
Memoirs, and he certainly could have given Khwand Amir 
full information about Babar's career^ and perhaps have 
shown him a copy of the Memoirs. It is possible, then, 
that Khwand Amir inserted in his history his details about 
Babar after his arrival in India, and that he and not Babar 
is the copyist. But this does not seem likely. The subject 
of Babar was germane to his life of Sultan Husain, and 
would naturally fall to be written at the time he was writing 
that part of his work — viz., 927-930. There are also in- 
dications, I think, that Khwand Amir could not have .had 
the Memoirs before him when he was writing the account 
of Babar s early years. Surely, too, if he had written that 
account after seeing the Memoirs, he would have taken 
pride in mentioning the fact, and would have dilated on 
Babar s most splendid achievement, his conquest of India.* 

* At p. 196, vol. ii., it is stated in the account of Ulugh Beg and his 
son that Babar is seated on the throne of Kabul, and rules over the 
territories once possessed by Mahmud of Ghazni. This, the author says, 
is the case at the present time, which is the end of Ramazan, 929 (August, 
1523). In this passage the author calls him only Babar Mirza, and says 
that Babar continues to behave loyally towards Ismail Shah. 



92 The Emperor Babar in the Habibu-s-siyar. 

On the contrary, he never refers to it, unless his occasional 
use of the title Ghazi be an allusion to it. It should also 
be noted that according to a statement at the end of the 
Bombay edition (p. 50), the lithograph was made from a 
manuscript in the authors own handwriting, dated 932. 
If this statement could be relied upon, it settles the 
question by showing that Khwand Amir could not have 
seen the Memoirs, as they were not written then. I find 
a difficulty, however, in accepting it, on account of the 
remarks at the end of the first volume, which certainly 
were not finished before 935. The above statement is 
contained in the biography of Khwand Amir, with which 
the edition ends, and on the page immediately preceding 
it is said that Khwand Amir is described in the Waqiat 
Babari, which Babar wrote in Turki and Zainu-d-din trans- 
lated, to have been received by Babar in the Hasht Bihisht 
garden (at Agra) on Rabi-al-awwal 8, 935 (December, 
1528). This second interview, for that in September is 
mentioned both by Babar and Khwand Amir, is not men- 
tioned in the Memoirs nor in the copy of Zainu-d-din 
accessible to me. 

I have not space to dwell upon the numerous references 
to Babar which are contained in the life of Shah Ismail. 
They supplement Babar's Memoirs, which are a blank for 
this period, and they are earlier in date and fuller in parts 
than the descriptions in the Tarikh Rashidi of M. Haidar. 
One of the most important passages occurs at pp. 65 
et seq. There it is said that Babar sent petitions and 
presents to Shah Ismail in Herat, and that, the latter having 
agreed to his taking possession of Transoxiana, Babar 
advanced to Samarqand in company with his Persian 
auxiliaries. We are also told the contents of a letter 
written by Babar, and how he issued at Samarqand coins 
bearing the names of the Imams and of Shah Ismail, and 
how the proclamation was made in the name of the latter. 
The two subsequent defeats of Babar are also described, 
and we read at p. 74 of Babar s having taken refuge at 



The Emperor Babar in the Habibu'S-siyar. 93 

Kishm in Badakhshan in 919. At p. 81 there is a de- 
tailed account of a dreadful famine which prevailed in 
Herat and other parts of Khurasan in that year. It lasted 
for more than two years (15 13- 15 14), and was marked by 
the horrors of cannibalism.* Apparently it was not so 
much caused by natural causes as by the interruption to 
husbandry produced by the war. : 

* Khwand Amir says that not only did bands of niffians waylay solitary 
passengers in the lanes, etc., and kill and eat them, but that many persons 
made a trade of selling ghee^ which was the produce of human flesh 
{n^kan-iadami). The famine lasted from 919 to 921. Khwand Amir's 
account is valuable, as it is that of an eye-witness. It may be noted here 
that a life of Khwand Amir and some account of the Habib will be found 
in an article by Quatremfere in the July number of iht Journal des Savants 
for 1843, PP- 386-393. 



94 



-THE RING FROM JAIPUR."* 
By R. E. Forrest. 

A, B, and C sat together. A and C had retired ; B was 
home from India on furlough. 

A. The author says : " There are bazaars in India where 
the eternal mystery of the East seems to gather and fill the 
place." What is the mystery of the East ? 

C. Never found it in any of the Districts I was in : only 
hard and horrid facts. 

B. It is always somewhere else. Perhaps it is to be 
found in Siberia or Siam. India does not seem the place 
for it. It is the land of glare ; of vast openness ; of the 
uncovered. In it a strip of cloth forms a suit of clothes for 
a man, a string a garment for a child ; there you have not 
even the mystery of decency, as one saw when riding by 
a village at dawn. 

C. And when one continued one's ride over the huge 
open stretches of cultivated or barren land, how one's heart 
cried aloud for the mystery of a shaded sun, the mystery of 
clouds, of their shadows, of the hedgerow, and the coppice, 
and the wood ! 

B. Yes ; for mysteries you must go to lands of cloud and 
mist. I believe a resident of Glasgow can see as much of 
the mysteries of sky and earth, and of human life, as a 
resident of Cawnpore. 

A. There is a feeling of mystery as you ride across one 
of those wide, level, open Indian plains, where nature 
seems reduced to its elements of earth and sky. 

C. Certainly : the same mystery that attaches to every- 
thing in the land — its thought, its literature, its science, its 
sacred books — the mystery of vacuity. 

A. But you would find it on the mountain heights, in the 
midst of the Himalayas. 

B. It is curious to think that when we first took Northern 

* By Frances M. Peard. Smith, Elder and Company, London. 



''The Ring from Jaipur'- 95 

India the sources of the Ganges and the Jumna were as 
mysterious as those of the Nile. 

C. Now they are mapped. The mysterious means the 
unknown. The mystery we talk about is within ourselves ; 
it is a condition of the feelings, a state of the mind. It is 
excitement. It is born of ignorance and fear. 

A. Nay, of the poetic faculty, too. 
C. In its childish condition. 

B. I have found in the Himalayas scenes exceeding in 
grandeur those of any European mountain-chain ; but the 
feeling of mystery might possibly attach oftener to the latter. 
The Himalayan landscapes — though so vast, so sublime — 
were so open, so distinct, so clear spread. 

C. For mystery you want plenty of darkness, within and 
without. 

A. You said, B, that the mystery was always somewhere 
else. The author goes on to say : ** The strange Eastern 
glamour which hangs about the Peshawar streets is not so 
subtle as that found farther south." The glamour, like the 
mystery, is always further off. 

B. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 

C. Certainly of an Indian bazaar. The glamour of an 
Indian bazaar. Good Lord ! There is about as much of it 
in most bazaars as there is of the brilliancy of Paris in 
a rude Breton hamlet. The glamour of the ordinary 
bazaar, with its one main street, with the inconceivably poor 
shops on either side ; the butcher s shop, with its pieces of 
goat's flesh and its flies ; the confectioner's, with its boiling 
oil and flies, its fat, three-quarters naked, profusely per- 
spiring confectioner : the main street, with its pariah dogs 
and dust and flies, the blear-eyed old women, the pot-bellied 
children, the spindle-shanked men, it may be the leper and 
the man with elephantiasis ; its narrow, filthy side-alleys, 
the border of poor huts, its encircling open latrine. There 
is no mystery, none at all, only horrid facts. 

A. The mystery may lie in the great cities. 

C. Not more than in the great cities elsewhere. We 



96 ^' The Ring from Jaipur'' 

have read such books as ** The Mysteries of Paris," " The 
Mysteries of London." The scene of the " City of Dreadful 
Night" should be laid in New York rather than in Calcutta. 
I do not remember which enjoys the vile supremacy — the 
Christian or the heathen city — but of all the great cities of 
the world, of which the statistics are available, New York 
and Calcutta are the two in which the prostitutes are in 
largest proportion to the population. 

B. They are not wanting among ourselves. 

C. No ; but they are condemned by public opinion, their 
haunts held vile, they slink, do not vaunt themselves. 

B. Not in Regent Street ? 

C. That is a public disgrace. But mark the difference. 
They have not their upper chambers in Regent Street ; do 
not sit out in their balconies in the scarlet robes, and with 
the bare head and face, of shamelessness, advertising their 
abodes. What mystery, what shamefacedness, there is, is 
here, among us. In India the vile calling is a part — a 
recognised, not unhonoured part — of the social and religious 
system. They do not form here a part of our religious 
establishments. In India the courtesans do form a part of 
the resident population of the great Hindu temples. In 
London men of the highest position would not have a con- 
course of prostitutes as a part of a public entertainment : 
they do in India. 

A. But there has been the secretiveness of other crimes. 
Climatic influences have made the people weak in mind and 
body, and therefore secretive. There was the secret 
murder system of the Thugs, there was a mystery in that. 

C. There have been, and are, secret murder and 
assassination societies in Europe, and in America, too. 

B. None so wide-spread, so long-continued, so ruthless, 
so careful to guard against all personal risk, whose ends 
were so low and mean, in which one s own gain was set so 
preposterously above the loss of others — a whole family, 
father, mother, children, babe in arms, massacred for the 
sake of its miserable belongings. 



** The Ring from Jaipur^ 97 

C. The bomb-throwers of Europe do not seem to mind 
about the killing of innocent people, the slaying of women 
and children. 

B. They do not desire to slay the little child, do not 
strangle it with their own fingers. There was something 
peculiarly cunning, cruel, ruthless, unmanly, reptilian about 
the murders of the Thugs. 

A. The difference between the proceedings of these men 
and those of our highwaymen may, perhaps, indicate a 
difference of national characteristics. 

B. The Thugs gave to their wholesale murder and their 
wholesale theft a religious character. 

C. Being Hindus it would be so; with them everything, 
good or bad, high or low, is religious. But the Sicilian 
brigand, too, makes offerings to his patron saint or the 
Madonna. There has been more mystery of every kind in 
Italy than in India. 

A. There is the mystery of the Hindu religion, with its 
myriads of worshippers, its strange gods (C. Very strange), 
and their extraordinary representations (C. Most extra- 
ordinary), Krishna and Kali and Mahad^o, and their often 
terrible images. 

C. Placed in the gloomy dusk of the innermost shrine, 
through which the stones of enormous value which con- 
stitute the images two eyes gleam. One of them is carried 
off by a hidden Englishman ; the trackers are set to work ; 
they turn up in Piccadilly. The image I have seen oftenest 
is the lingam, out in the open. Carlyle refers to what it 
represents as the open secret ; there is no secrecy here, all 
openness. The lingams and the women in the precincts of 
the villages at dawn ; there really is no mystery in India. 
This image certainly only represents facts. But I never 
could see the play of imagination in any of the images ; 
they are a mere jumble of facts ; the multiplication of arms 
and legs, the clapping on of wings, does not display imagina- 
tion, but the lack of it ; if there is any fancy about it, it is a 
childish one. The noble faculty of imagination does not 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. G 



98 ** Tlie Ring from Jaipur'^ 

display itself in giving a human figure four arms and four 
legs and the head of a beast. 

A. There is the mystery of the Sacred Books of the 
Hindus. 

C. There was ; acquaintance with them dispels it. I 
do not know Sanscrit, and so I plunged eagerly into Max 
Mullers translations in the India Office Library. I was 
horrified. Page after page of foolish, childish, disgusting 
rubbish ; the bare-faced, preposterous regulations of the 
Brahmins for their own benefit ; the heavy, cruel, nauseous 
penalties they enjoined for the slightest injury to them- 
selves. It was like expecting an auriferous deposit and 
finding a collection of potsherds, a filth-map. It was a 
great work of Max Mullers ; it laid open to us a page in 
the history of the human mind ; but he must often have 
been depressed in the midst of his long and arduous labours 
to find himself translating the unworthy sentences by the 
thousand, the worthy, those of any intrinsic use or value or 
beauty, by the five, the two, the one. 

A. It is a mark of the new time in India, of the change 
wrought by our system of education, that men who still 
cling passionately to their own — the Hindu — religion, yet 
lament the ignorance, the want of any real knowledge, the 
low level of morality, of the priesthood. 

C. There are men of high intelligence, lofty thinkers, 
leaders of very pure and simple lives, among the Brahmins ; 
but, as a class, they are greedy, ignorant, immoral, domi- 
neering, cunning, combative, oppressive, wholly given up 
to self-seeking. 

A. I heard one of the great Zemindars of Oudh, a man 
of large possessions, deliver an address in London, in the 
English language, upon the Brahmin priesthood. In it he 
dwelt in quaint but passionate language on the tyranny 
exercised by the Brahmins in Indian households ; on their 
everlasting exactions. 

B. The exactions seem to go the length of usurpation of 
xhe husband's special rights and privileges. 



'* The Ring from Jaipur'' 99 

C. The Brahmin leaves his slippers at the doors of 
women's bedchambers to give notice of his temporary owner- 
ship. That is quite open. There is no mystery there. 

A. A native gentleman reading a paper in London very 
lately said in it that English people often talked about the 
mystery of India, but that if they would learn the native 
languages and cultivate intercourse with the people, they 
would find there was no mystery. 

B. There was a mystery when India was remote and 
little visited, and the feeling has continued on to this day. 

A. It is kept up because of its usefulness in the romantic 
literature about India. The British public demands it ; the 
publishers insist on it ; it is the mystery and the magic that 
make the book sell. The English reader does not care 
about a delineation of the real, ordinary life of the people of 
India ; it is unfamiliar and unknown to him. 

B. An honest critic declared the other day that it was 
irksome to him to have to review such a book, from his want 
of knowledge of the mode of life portrayed ; that is, if it 
was confined to such portrayal ; when mystery and magic 
were thrown in he could have something to say ; about 
them he knew as much 

C. Or as little. 

A. Or as little, as the writer. 

B. As Dr. Johnson said, the object of a book is to be 
read ; if the mystery and the magic cause it to be read, that 
is full justification. 

A. Quite so. 

C. I should say perhaps so. 

A. Quite so ; but it seems unfortunate, as misdirecting 
effort, that the critics should hold that any description of 
the ordinary life of the people of the land is superficial, 
represents only its superficial aspects, while the mysterious 
and the magical represent ** the soul of the land," ** the 
heart of the people.** Surely **the soul of the land'* is 
represented in its arts and sciences, its literature, its handi- 
crafts, its banking and its commerce ; by its social and 

G 2 



lOO " The Ring from Jaipur'' 

domestic laws and organizations, and not merely in its 
superstitions. The landowner and the tiller of the soil 
represent the heart of the people, of whom they form the 
bulk, as much as the solitary in the forest, the mad fakir, 
and the wandering visionary. Yes, the realities of India 
are its wonders. The problems of the future are its mys- 
teries. We need not the sham occult, or the childish 
mystery and magic, to stir our sensibilities. India appeals 
to our sense of wonder by its extent, by its vast stretch of 
hills and forest and desert, and cultivation ; by its lofty 
mountains and great rivers, its animal and vegetable world, 
its varied tillage, its enormous population, forming a main 
section of the human race ; by its varied nationalities, tribes,, 
and races, its different grades of civilization, its manners 
and customs, its domestic and social systems, its handicrafts, 
its buildings, its ancient literature, its systems of religion, 
its past in the present. It awakens our deepest interest in 
connection with the past, the present, the future ; here, alive 
and in being, and to be observed, are institutions, modes of 
life, stages in the process of evolution of human society, 
primary grades of civilization which have passed away else- 
where ; and on this ancient and long-stationary civilization 
now, in the present, have been brought to work the thought, 
the sentiment, the mechanical appliances of the most ad- 
vanced civilization in the world. With what results in the 
future ? The deeply interesting question can be asked with 
reference to a hundred different matters : What change 
will there be in home and social life ? in thought and in 
feeling ? in agriculture, manufacture, commerce 'i in the 
great caste principle, with its good to millions and its harm to 
millions ; with its elevating, supporting, guarding, steadying 
influence ; its evil, unjust, cruel, degrading disabilities ? in 
the Hindu religion, whose strong grip has been one main 
cause of the retardation of progress, the prevention of 
change, the long stoppage of the process of evolution ? 
One observer has said that nothing has been done by any 
indigenous race long settled in the land, only by foreigners 



** The Ring from Jaipur!' loi 

and new-comers sudf-as.'oufsfilyes, whose justification for 
being in the land is that we^&Verdbiijg.the work which the 
people cannot and will not do. Andtne^'lfci sard that, owing 

to the adverse climatic influences, the level ot.tb'ioTting and 

* • • * • • • 

writing must always be low, as it always has been' •* 'Tfiptii- • 
to what extent will the possession of the appliances of /* 
civilization, continued good government and security, works 
of public utility, the accumulation of wealth, better housing 
and clothing, better food, dispensaries, hospitals, have in 
counteracting the adverse climatic conditions, in raising up 
a stronger, healthier race, one on a higher physical, intel- 
lectual, moral plane, a new man ? And how are the changes 
which are being brought about through our own endeavours 
and agency likely to effect ourselves and our rule, England ? 
C. It is obvious that the mystical business has been 
introduced into this book merely to meet the public demand, 
and to obtain a taking title. It is not in accord with the 
writer's turn of thought or qualifications. She is more 
concerned with the play of the emotions in ordinary daily 
life. She cannot produce the mystical atmosphere, make 
her mystery tell. It is very small magic. Her dealing 
with it is perfunctory. It has no real concern with the 
story. It is dealt with only in a few pages. It does not 
impress the reader. It shows incongruous in the book, 
which is of the chatty, gossipy order. The situations in 
which it appears are not strong. The first one, in which 
it is given to the heroine on the top of the Travellers' Rest 
House at Jaipur, in the presence of Sir Robert Chester, 
a Commissioner — Commissioners and Lieutenant-Governors 
now figure in all Anglo-India novels — is absurd; and the 
last one, in which the ring is found — you remember the 
heroine throws the ring away in a fit of anger, not outside, 
of course, but in her own room, and then she cannot find it, 
and there is a tremendous search for it by others, and it 
cannot be found ; then when the estranged husband comes 
into the room, on reconciliation bent, he alludes to the loss, 
and wonders if he could find it, and she bids him ** tackle 



I02 ** The Ring from Jaipur^ 

to 

the magic " — delightful incongcuityP^and he takes out his 
penknife, and, opening/o*)d:bf the blades, he inserts it into 
a crevice in ^he -floCtf; artd out comes the ring, and he puts it 
on h?r:6/igeii arid they are reconciled — is ridiculous : the 
..^njy. qfmlfsing thing I found in the book. 
: *• 'A. And yet the writer has a strong central situation, one 
simple and natural, often occurring, having the strength of 
reality and fact, giving room for much tragedy and comedy. 
B. What is it? 

A. You have not read the book ? 

B. No. 

A. It is that of a young girl who, immediately after her 
marriage, goes out to India with her husband, an officer in 
an English regiment. She conceives a horror of India, has 
a desperate longing to get back to England to her old 
home, and, repulsion and attraction acting together, she 
declares at the end of ten months of stay that she must go, 
notwithstanding that it is not agreeable to her husband, 
who looks on it as rather an uncomplimentary early desertion 
of himself, the more felt because of her open declaration — 
she being very honest and frank — that the attraction has 
more force than the repulsion : that she must go to England 
in order to see the old home circle and form a part of it 
once more. 

C. In fiction the marriage-tie is held the stronger; but 
I do not know that in reality the first home-ties and relation- 
ships — those of consanguinity and long-continued, close 
communion, of love pure and simple — are not. so ; at all 
events, they are not capable of dissolution like those of 
marriage. 

A. The husband, in his solitude and resentment, turns 
toward the wife of a Major in the regiment, who had been 
his first love, who had seemed not unfavourable to him, 
would probably have been his wife at this moment, but for 
the appearance of the other, the one that now is. 

C. We hear a good deal of the gay grass-widow, but not 
so much as we might of the gay married bachelor. 



** The Ring from Jaipur'' 103 

A. The two old lovers, the one angry with his wife, the 
other not loving her husband, a drunken brute, whom she 
married without loving ^him — here is a situation for great 
evolvement and involvement of feeling, for complications 
and entanglements and considerations of various kinds. 
He had not really loved her fully before, but now his 
feelings rise to a dangerous height ; she had loved him 
deeply then and does [now, but prevents evil consequences 
because of her love for him, because she does not love her 
husband, because she had married him without loving him. 
In the meanwhile, England reached, the wife finds, the first 
bubbling up over, that she has dropped out of the family 
circle, is no longer a member of the household, that her 
continued occupationj^of the spare bedroom disturbs the 
family plan of inviting thej eligible young man who is 
displaying an affection for her youngest sister ; that the 
local social circle is not the same to her as before. 

C. Not an uncommon experience. 

A. So,, she writes to her husband about the pleasure 
which she will have in going back, but his replies are cold 
and repellant ; and when she writes that she is returning 
at the time fixed, at the end of the six months, he writes to 
say that, as she is in'England, she had better remain there. 
So she takes her passagej herself at once, and goes out 
without letting him know. In India the scene has shifted 
to Delhi, and the drunken Major is there laid on his death 
bed, and on it he delivers^ to his wife a small, curiously- 
shaped metal box, which contains a white amethyst which 
he has received as a bribe from one Abul Haidar, declaring 
that he had done/so merely to benefit the boy, their only 
son ; but now he wishes it to be restored to Abul Haidar, 
lest he, not receiving his quid pro quo, should make the 
matter public, and so bring disgrace on the Major's name, 
to the everlasting injury of the son. There is a great 
to-do about this matter, which is all incomprehensible and 
improbable, rumours that disturb the local police officer, 
also his sister Molly, and also the Government, so that the 



I04 ** The Ring from Jaipur!' 

before-mentioned Sir Robert Chester, the Commissioner of 
Peshawar, an able official and nice man, is transferred to 
Delhi to deal with it. The real object of all this white 
amethyst business, which occupies an inordinate amount of 
space in the book, and takes away the interest of the reader 
from the first central motive, is to cause Mike, or Captain, 
Hamilton, the deserted husband, to turn away from the 
widow, the old love, back to Patty, the wife with whom he 
is angry, by placing the widow in circumstances which 
make her appear not only deceitful and dishonest but 
criminal. She has penetrated into the Zenana of Abul 
Haidar in order to deliver the ring into his own hands, is 
seen coming out of it by Mike, refuses all explanations, and 
she had told him before that she had never heard of Abul 
Haidar — ^a lie ! Such conduct being in glaring contrast to 
the honesty and frankness of Patty, who, however wilful, is 
always frank. Then Patty herself arrives and goes to the 
hotel, and someone tells Mike of the arrival of his wife, 
and he is furious at being made a laughing-stock from not 
knowing of her coming, and he won't take a bungalow 
for her and leaves her at the hotel under charge of the 
bearer who has come up with her from Bombay. 

C. That was not usual in my time. 

B. Nor now. 

A. Notwithstanding the doubts Mrs. Musgrave, the 
widow, has raised in his mind, Mike continues to be very 
attentive and kind to her because she seems to suffer, and 
has been left in distressed circumstances, and Patty is 
furiously jealous, and there is much display and discharge 
of feelings and emotions of various kinds, complications 
and misunderstandings. Then things begin to clear, the 
husband turns again toward the wife, there is the scene of 
the finding of the ring, and the reconcilement and coming 
together again, and the death of Mrs. Musgrave clinches 
the matter. There the curtain ought to drop. But if the 
public demands mystery it also demands a happy ending ; 
so we have the uninteresting episode of the courtship of 



** The Ring from Jaipur.'^ 105 

the Commissioner and Miss Molly, which has nothing to 
do with the rest of the book, thrown in. 

C. I found the book tedious. 

A. You would ; you are a hard-hearted brute. It is a 
feminine book, and meant for feminine readers. Mike and 
Patty as the names of the two principal personages shows 
that. 

C. The complications and misunderstandings seem to 
arise out of nothing, or for no adequate reason. There 
are no incidents, no action, no scenery, no atmosphere. 
It is all feelings and talk. 

A. The writer knows what she can do best. The con- 
siderable list of her former works shows that she has 
her clientele, and she knows what it — mostly feminine, 
probably — likes best, and she gives that, and only that. 
Other things would bore it. She keeps the emotions on 
the move, and the talk continually flowing. 

C Well, I like people to act sometimes for obvious and 
not always for unobvious reasons ; and it seems to me that 
without locality and action you can have no reality. 

A. The author's knowledge of India seems first-hand. 
She is generally right in her local descriptions and allusions, 
and does not make the monstrous blunders some others 
have made. But there are some errors. The flat roof of 
a house at Jaipur would not be covered with lead. 

C. No. 

A. Nor are Commissioner and Chief Commissioner 
interchangeable terms ; the Commissioner of Peshawar or 
Delhi is not a Chifef Commissioner. 

B. He only wishes he was. 

A. Then when Mike marches his men to church at 
Delhi it is said ** the clash of arms as they filed into their 
seats marked a change since that Mutiny Sunday when, 
with muskets left in barracks, the troops were practically 
defenceless." This is a strange error in one whose infor- 
mation and observation is generally so correct. The 
Mutiny Sunday was at Meerut. There were no English 



io6 '* The Ring from Jaipur'' 

troops in Delhi when the Mutiny broke out. But the 
book has given us a good long talk. (C. Long, certainly.) 
It has given me a good read. It is a lady-like book. 
There is in it nothing offensive or disagreeable. We have 
here none of that prurient stuff by means of which under 
guise of a high regard for art and morality so many of our 
women, as well as men, novelists seek a good sale for 
their pernicious wares. It is a nice, pleasant^ agreeable, 
readable book. 



107 

THE JAGANNATH CAR FESTIVAL. 

By W. Egerton, i.c.s. 

The Jagannath Car Festival, which takes place annually in 

Orissa, is one of the most famous as well as ancient of 

Indian religious ceremonies. The Province of Orissa 

sprang into momentary fame at the time of the great famine 

of 1866. Since then it has slumbered in peaceful but 

prosperous obscurity, like most of the other large provinces 

that go to make up the Indian Empire. When that great 

disaster, which swept off two millions of the population, 

occurred, the search-light glare of publicity was turned on to 

Orissa in the shape of a special Commission, which had to 

perform the delicate task of apportioning blame among high 

officials. Shortly afterwards the late Sir William Hunter 

wrote the ** History of Orissa," by which he first established 

his reputation as a historian. Since then Orissa has 

prospered exceedingly as an appendage to the satrapy of 

Bengal, from which it is no longer cut off, as in former times. 

Still, the province may be described as a terra incognita, 

except as regards the small handful of officials who 

administer it on behalf of the Government. It is the object 

of this article to describe briefly the great Car Festival as 

the writer saw it not long ago. 

The shrine of the god Jagannath in the sacred town of 
Puri, which is situated between Calcutta and Madras, on the 
east coast of India, has been for many centuries past one of 
the most famous in the whole of India. Thousands of 
foot - sore pilgrims and mendicants annually wended 
their weary way along the Orissa Trunk Road, coming 
from north, south, east, and west. It may be doubted if the 
oracles of Delphi and Dodond, or even holy Mecca itself, 
ever claimed a greater or more enthusiastic throng of 
worshippers than this celebrated seat of Hindu worship. 
By the construction, a few years ago, of the Bengal-Nagpur 
Railway from Calcutta to Madras, with a branch-line to 



io8 The Jagannath Car Festival. 

Puri, the road traffic has much decreased, and the ravages 
of cholera among the pilgrims have been simultaneously 
checked. For many days prior to the Car Festival special 
trains, crammed full of passengers, block the line, and on 
the great day itself the sight is almost indescribable. 
Hitherto Puri has been un visited by the globe-trotter, lying 
off the beaten track and not being easy of access. The 
Cook's tourist visits Bombay, and from thence he probably 
proceeds to Jaipur, Agra, Delhi, Cawnpore, Lucknow, 
Benares, and Calcutta. If he can fit in a short rush up to 
Darjiling to see the Himalayas, he feels he has seen India, 
and departs well pleased to write a book thereon. But now 
there is no longer any reason why the visitor, hard pressed 
for time though he may be, should not include a visit to 
Orissa in his itinerary. Although the Car Festival does 
not take place till July, after the setting in of the rainy 
season, there are still many things worth seeing in the 
towns of Orissa, from Balasore, where the first English 
factory was established about 1635, to Cuttack, with its 
fortress, and Bhubaneswar, with its well-known carvings and 
quaint temples. In the south of Orissa lies Puri, with the 
temple of Jagannath, only a days' journey by rail from 
Calcutta. 

After a life-time spent in India, an Englishman may hope 
to know bur little of the innermost life of the people ; but 
it will be his own fault if he has neglected the many 
opportunities open to him of coming in contact with them 
and of gaining their confidence. Nothing is more extra- 
ordinary or more worthy of attention than the conduct of 
the Indian people at the time of their great religious 
festivals. It was with the object of seeing for myself a 
unique spectacle and learning at first hand what took place 
at the dragging of the cars that I visited Puri at the time 
of the Car Festival. I did not make the visit in any official 
capacity, though I accepted the hospitality of the resident 
magistrate, and thereby got better opportunities for seeing 
what took place. 



The Jagannath Car Festival, 109 

When a small town is suddenly filled to overflowing with 
a multitude of enthusiastic mendicants and fanatics, it may 
well be imagined that the sanitary arrangements require the 
utmost attention of the authorities. The magistrate and 
civil surgeon, both British officials, have the charge of 
these arrangements. Outbreaks of cholera are of common 
occurrence. Another danger is the possible loss of life from 
overcrowding at the Temple gates. The great preliminary 
ceremony, which sometimes takes place in the middle of the 
nig^ht, consists in placing the three gods — Jagannath and 
his brother and sister — in the three large cars which are 
kept waiting outside the Temple for this purpose. At 
about 2 a.m. I received an urgent summons to say that this 
ceremony, known as the ** Pahandi," was about to take place. 
The magistrate, Mr. Garret, had been on the scene for 
some hours previously, working for all he was worth, to get 
everything ready. At the time of bringing forth the images 
of the gods the crush of sight-seers is so great that there is 
much danger of a catastrophe, and on one occasion a number 
of pilgrims were killed on the very threshold of the Temple. 
Hastily throwing on my clothes, I drove down through the 
narrow and badly-lit streets to the great square. There 
1 found that the **Pahandi" had already commenced, and 
vast crowds were gathered together. By the lurid light of 
torches the swaying masses could be distinguished, as a 
special band of priests carried round the image of the god 
Jagannath for all to see before placing it in the central car. 
There I found the magistrate well satisfied with the result 
of his efforts, as were also all the priests themselves. The 
huge image was brought close opposite and shown to us by 
a motley crowd of Temple servants. It is an effigy 
made of wood and painted in white, black, and red. The 
people seemed half mad with religious excitement, while the 
horns blew and the torches waved franticallv. All this 
takes place in the square before the Lion Gate (Singh 
Darwaza) of the Temple, which stands out grimly in the 
half-dark of the torch-light. Gradually the noise somewhat 



1 1 o TAe Jagannath Car Festival. 

subsides, and some steal away for a few hours' sleep before 
the labours of the morrow, while many keep an all-night 
vigil about the sacred cars. 

On the next morning the greatest and most important 
ceremony takes place. The cars, with their divine occu- 
pants, must be dragged from the Temple Square to the 
Garden House — a distance of about a mile and a half down 
the broad main street of the town. At the top of the 
street stands the Temple, and all around it are the stalls 
where the blessed rice (known as ** mdhAprasad ") is sold to 
the people. All who come to Puri must partake of this 
food. The Temple itself, except for its antiquity, is not 
particularly imposing. It is in the form of a pagoda. No 
European may cross its threshold, but there is no embargo 
upon Hindus ; even those who have adopted Western 
ideas and abandoned their caste are not prevented from 
entering. Consequently we are in possession of complete 
information as to the inside of the Temple, and photo- 
graphs even have been taken of it by educated natives. 
A full description of the Temple will be found in Sir 
William Hunter's ** History of Orissa," which, though 
written over thirty years ago, is still the only authoritative 
work on the subject. In front of the Temple there stands 
a wonderfully delicate and exquisite sun-pillar, which does 
not form any part of the Temple building, and was brought 
from elsewhere. But interesting as the shrine and its pre- 
cincts are to those who remember their history and their 
sanctity in the eyes of millions of the natives of India, the 
crowd that fills the square, the whole broad street, and all 
the houses and roofs along the way, is still more extra- 
ordinary. Fanatical sadhus, devotees from the Golden 
Temple of Amritsar, Brahman priests from Benares, Fakirs 
from Hyderabad, thousands upon thousands of devout 
women, and crowds of sight-seers and pilgrims from all 
parts of India, added to the vast numbers of Uriyas who 
come from nearer towns and villages — this is the picturesque 
and curious sight that meets the eye. The dragging of the 



The Jagannath Car Festival. 1 1 1 

cars, each of which must be drawn separately from the 
square to its destination at the Garden House (for the god 
is supposed merely to be upon a journey from the Temple 
to the Garden House), has to be carefully supervised by 
the local authorities. Sometimes the huge ropes supplied 
by the Temple priests are not sound, and break beneath 
the strain, and an accident is narrowly averted. In the 
olden days, before British rule had altered such things, a 
devotee would now and then be run over by the wheels 
of the car. Hunter has disposed of the fiction that many 
suicides took place in this way. but enough deaths occurred, 
no doubt, to justify the well-known allusions to the ** Car 
of Juggernaut " as an engine of destruction. Slowly the 
heavy ropes are affixed to one of the ugly wooden cars, 
and the order to start is given by someone in authority. 
Hundreds rush forward to assist in drawing the car upon 
its journey, but the energies of the votaries is soon ex- 
hausted. Curiously enough, up to a very recent date, when 
the Temple management was reformed and improved, the 
actual dragging of the cars to the Garden House, though 
only a short distance, sometimes took a week to accomplish. 
For when the first day's excitement was over many of the 
pilgrims cleared off, and the hard work of dragging the 
wooden-wheeled chariots through the heavy sand was 
universally shirked. Finally, hired labour had to do the 
needful. Such was the case when I witnessed the per- 
formance. Still, at the commencement the enthusiasm is 
enormous, and no apathy is apparent. Each car is pro- 
vided with a large automatic brake, and the speed is care- 
fully regulated, because as the route lies down-hill the cars 
might get out of control, and run over the crowd before 
the people could escape. 

Generally the magistrate and superintendent of police 
accompany the car, walking in the centre of the road, while 
the two large ropes on each side are thick with natives 
of all castes and classes, running alongside and tugging the 
car along. During the transit the priests strike cymbals 



1 1 2 The Jagannath Car Festival. 

and shout, the devotees shriek replies and prayers; and the 
din is hideous. The women, above all, are most con- 
spicuous — every roof and window is thronged, handkerchiefs 
and saris are waved furiously, and loud cries of "Jagannath 
Ji " rend the air. The strained and eager faces of people 
standing on the verandahs and roofs of the houses while the 
procession is slowly advancing down the street are most 
impressive. Numbers of these people have come on foot, 
by long and wearisome marches, walking day and night 
continuously for many weeks, and this is the consummation 
of their desire. They return towards their homes happy in 
mind though moneyless and destitute, often to die of disease 
on the journey. All the savings which they brought with 
them have been dissipated in offerings to the god, and 
in fees to the rapacious priests and servants of the Temple, 
who are past-masters in the art of cheating the unsophisti- 
cated villagers who come to the shrine. The festival lasts 
in all about ten days, and the priests are careful to keep up 
several minor celebrations throughout the year as an excuse 
for looting the pilgrims. But the great day ends with the 
first Car Procession. After that the heterogeneous crowd 
of sight-seers begins invisibly to melt away, and European 
non-officials depart, having seen what they came to see. 

It is difficult to describe upon paper the varying impres- 
sions produced upon the European mind by the Car Festival 
of Jagannath. The fact that this same ceremony has been 
repeated yearly for hundreds of years, preserving probably 
the same essential features, has in itself a certain fascination 
for most people. In spite of the inroads of Mahrattas 
and Mughals, and, finally, the British conquest, compara- 
tively no change has occurred in the annual festival. 
Truly has the poet sung : 

" The East bowed down before the blast 
In patient, deep disdain ; 
She saw the legions thunder past. 
Then plunged in thought again !" 



The Jagganath Car Festival. 1 1 3 

The picturesque blending of colour has its usual effect upon 
the artistic temperament. Over all, there is the romantic 
glamour of the East. During the coming winter many 
Englishmen, globe-trotters, and others, will visit India, and 
perhaps not a few, if they are well informed, will include in 
their itinerary the towns of Orissa and the Shrine of 
Jagannath. The holy town of Puri, like Venice, is best 
approached from the sea. The Temple, which is not far 
distant from the shore, is seen from a long way off dimly 
outlined in a vista of haze, and appears to rise from the 
water itself. The bright golden sand, the white surf, and 
the ever-present stately palm-trees, form a proper setting 
for the great pagoda — the ancient tabernacle where Lord 
Jagannath still reigns supreme, surrounded, as of yore, by 
his myriads of devoted worshippers, and venerated as the 
presiding genius of Orissa. 



THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. H 



114 



THE YUNAN EXPEDITION OF 1875, AND THE 

CHEEFOO CONVENTION. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARY OF COLONEL (NOW GENERAL) 

HORACE A. BROWNE. 

July 31, 1874. — (Notes previous to and after an interview 
with the Viceroy, Lord Northbrook.) 

The discovery of a north-east passage between Burma 
and China has long been agitating the minds of the Anglo- 
Burman and English mercantile world. 

The merit of first drawing attention to the desirability 
and feasibility of a short-cut to the rich south-western pro- 
vinces of China must be ascribed to Captain Sprye, who 
served in Tenasserim during the first Burmese War, and 
who, after the annexation of Pegu, constituted himself the 
apostle of the overland route to China. 

Captain Sprye*s idea was simplicity itself Any school- 
boy with atlas in hand can demonstrate that a straight line 
drawn from Rangoon to the nearest point of the Chinese 
Empire, which point is on the Cambodia River, between 
Kyang Hung in Upper Burma and Sze-mao (or Esmok) in 
Yunan, has a length of only about 500 miles, half of which 
lies in British territory and the other half in Kyang Hung, 
a Shan state tributary to Upper Burma.* 

Kyang Hung was visited by Captain (now General) 
Macleod in 1837, and he found its Shan and Chinese inha- 
bitants, all keen traders, longing for the opening out of a 
** gold and silver road " to the sea. 

To advocate the construction of a railway along this line, 
Captain Sprye has devoted much time and energy, so much 
so that the line has come to be known as " Sprye 's Route," 
and he himself imagines that he has acquired a vested 
interest in any railway that may be constructed along it 

What is more remarkable is that he has succeeded in 

* Since the annexation of Upper Burma in 1886 the whole of this line 
is in British territory. 



The Yunan Expedition of iSy^. 115 

imbuing others with the same idea. Recently the firm of 
Fox, Halliday and Co., when negotiating a railway conces- 
sion with 'the King of Burma, expressly stated that it had 
so selected a line as not to conflict with Captain Sprye s 
claims! And this, though Captain Sprye has not explored 
a single mile of the line himself. From his armchair in 
London he glorifies himself as the Wagner or Lesseps of 
Indo-China. He has now been riding his hobby for fifteen 
years or more, and writes interminable letters to every 
Government office in any way concerned, so that in many 
quarters he has come to be looked upon as an intolerable 
bore. Some officials, however, back him up, and he has 
got influential Chambers of Commerce to send memorials 
to ministers and Parliament. Many of these memorials 
bear a strong family resemblance to Captain Sprye's own 
elucubrations which are prosy and unattractive, but they 
are printed as Parliamentary papers. The gist of them all 
is simply the announcement of the discovery, which Captain 
Sprye claims as his own — viz., that the Rangoon- Kyan- 
Hung-Sze-mao line is only 500 miles long, and that a 
railway along it would bring the commerce of Western 
China down to Rangoon. 

After years of labour Captain Sprye had a partial triumph 
in 1867, when the Home and Indian Governments were 
induced to order a survey (at the Indian Government's 
expense) of that portion of the line which passes through 
British territory. The survey showed that, though there 
were no serious engineering difficulties, the line lies in a 
mountainous and sparsely peopled territory, and that it 
would be a waste of money to make a railway along it 
unless such railway were to be carried 250 miles further 
on, through Burman territory, so as to tap the rich province 
of Yunan. 

The English Chambers of Commerce, backed up in a 
measure by the Home Government, continued to press for 
the continuation of the survey to Kyang Hung ; but the 
Indian Government obdurately refused to spend the Indiaa 

H 2 



ii6 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

tax-payer's money on the survey of a line outside British 
India, though it admitted "that the project possessed great 
practical recommendations, and it would gladly further the 
completion of the survey, if its cost would be met from 
other sources than the Indian Revenue." Some commercial 
magnates, Mr. W. S. Steel and others, proposed to con- 
struct the line as a private enterprise, in return for certain 
concessions ; but the Government, fearing complications 
with a native state, would not listen to the offer. 

Sprye's route would tap Yunan at its Southern extremity. 
Some degrees further north, at the other extremity of this 
extensive province, there has existed since the days of 
Marco Polo, who mentions it, another trade route, from 
Tengyue-chow (or Momien) in Yunan to Bhamo, on the 
Irrawaddy, some 900 miles above Rangoon. The active 
trade which was formerly carried on here has been almost 
stopped during the last twenty years, in consequence of the 
Mohammedan rebellion in Yunan. The rebels, known to 
us by their Burman name of Panthays or Pan-tsees, entirely 
shook off the Chinese yoke, and were governed by a Sultan 
who reigned at Tali-foo. 

This route, although it lies entirely outside its own 
territories, the Indian Government has already attempted 
to explore and reopen. In 1868, when the Mohammedans 
were at the height of their power, a mission was sent under 
Major Sladen to open up communication with them. The 
route lies through a mountainous country inhabited by wild 
and turbulent tribes, who by their extortionate demands 
greatly impeded the progress of the expedition, which, in 
fact, was extricated from its difficulties and enabled to reach 
Momien only by the aid sent by the Mohammedan governor 
of that town. 

After establishing friendly relations with the Panthays 
the mission returned, its only noteworthy result being the 
acquisition of useful information regarding the narrow tract 
of wild country which it had taken several months to 
traverse. 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 117 

This mission was ill-timed and impolitic, having been 
accredited to men who were in open rebellion against their 
liege lord, who at the same time was our friend and ally — 
VIZ., the Emperor of China. It made, therefore, a bad 
impression at Pekin, and lead to one unexpected result — 
the extinction of Panthay rule in Yunan. 

Rebellions in outlying provinces of the Chinese Empire 
are of not infrequent occurrence, but, as often as not, the 
Central Government does not trouble itself much about 
them, leaving matters to right themselves, as they often do. 

But this policy of vis inertuB is followed only when no 
foreign complications are to be feared. In the case of the 
Panthays, the Chinese Government began to take matters 
seriously only when it found that the English had sent 
a mission to its rebellious subjects, and that these rebels 
were sending a return mission to England. 

Then, in 1872-1873, it put forth all its might, sent an 
army of 200,000 men to Yunan, and wiped the Panthays 
out of existence, sparing neither man, woman, or child. 
With horrible cruelty and slaughter they re-established 
Chinese rule over the whole province, Momien being one 
of the last places to succumb in 1873. 

Now that the poor Panthays, the victims of our friend- 
ship, have been annihilated, the idea of sending another 
mission to explore the Momien- Bhamo route has been 
revived. 

This time, of course, care will be taken to obtain the con- 
sent of the Chinese Government, and the mission will not 
start until the passports, applied for by the Ambassador, 
have been obtained from Pekin. 

I have been selected to command the expedition. I have 
followed with interest the accounts of the progress of the 
French exploring expedition in Indo-China of late years. 
I have written articles on the subject in the Calcutta 
Review, etc. Those articles may have had something to 
do with my appointment. I have not been consulted as to 
the line of march the expedition should take. If I had 



ii8 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

been, I should have given the preference to the " Sprye 
Route." A railway of 500 miles along that route would 
bring the trade of Western China direct to Rangoon. By 
the Bhamo route 900 miles of river navigation and 1 30 miles 
of road through a difficult country are required to reach 
Momien, which by all accounts is at a considerable distance 
from the more populous part of Yunan. The Yunan moun- 
tains, a spur of the great Himalayan Range, have generally 
a north and south direction, and decrease in altitude towards 
the south. The further one goes north, therefore, the greater 
are the difficulties to be surmounted. Moreover, the last 
mission has already made us acquainted with the Bhamo 
route, whilst the 250 miles which lie between our frontier 
and Kyang Hung are a perfect terra incognita, and there- 
fore much more interesting to an explorer. The objection 
which the Indian Government made, when it was urged 
to explore this latter route, that it lies altogether outside 
British territory, applies, of course, with still greater force 
to the Bhamo route. As I have already predicted in the 
Calcutta Review, there seems to be no doubt that the French 
will soon be complete masters of Tonquin, and it will then 
be important for us to have a solid footing at Kyang Hung, 
to prevent their establishing a communication behind our 
backs with Mandalay. The old King is anxiously looking 
forward to the moment when he will have free communica- 
tion with his new French allies without passing through 
British territory, and be able to obtain from them guns 
and ammunition and all that his heart desires. 

The Indian Government, however, has fixed its affection 
on the Bhamo route, so it will be no good to proclaim 
myself a partisan of the other scheme. My impression 
is that no members of the Indian Government, from 
the Viceroy downwards, are animated with any burning 
enthusiasm for a Yunan Expedition. They prefer devoting 
themselves to Indian affairs, which they understand, to 
meddling with Indo-Chinese problems, which are a puzzle 
to them. They have consented to a Yunan Expedition 



. and the Cheefoo Convention. 119 

only because they have been continually egged on* to do 
so from two sides, above and below. The Chief Commis- 
sioner of British Burma has been clamouring for it on one 
hand, and on the other hand Lord Salisbury has all but 
ordered it. The Home Government, pushed on by the 
English Chambers of Commerce, is rather in favour of the 
Kyang Hung route. The selection of the other route by 
the Indian Government seems to be a kind of compromise. 
Calcutta, November 25, 1874. — Since my arrival here 
I have been engaged in studying the correspondence about 
our expedition and in making preparations for a start. 
The party is to consist of: Myself as leader, Mr. Ney 
Elias as topographer, and Dr. J. Anderson as doctor and 
naturalist Mr. Ney Elias is a gentleman who has dis- 
tinguished himself by his travels in Central Asia. He is 
now in Mandalay, where he has been sent to collect carriage 
and make arrangements for a start. In the event of my 
being incapacitated, he is to assume the leadership of the, 
expedition. We are not to take more than four servants 
each. We are to have a guard. This has been decided 
on only after much discussion. The Viceroy, to avoid the 
risk of offending Burmese and Chinese susceptibilities, 
would have preferred our dispensing with the protection of 
an armed force. But it has been decided that we are to 
take with us many thousand rupees' worth of presents 
wherewith to propitiate Chinese officials, etc., and give 
them a lofty idea of the importance of British Burma, of 
the very existence of which probably they are unacquainted ; 
and in my opinion it would be the height of folly to pass 
through the Kakhyeng mountains, inhabited by tribes, 
whose sole occupations are robbing, blackmailing, and 
plunder, with a valuable train of pack animals and no 
armed escort. That we should be attacked and plundered 
under such circumstances is a certainty. I have main- 
tained, therefore, that if I am to have the responsibility of 
taking charge of a valuable caravan, I must have an armed 
guard — at least as far as the Chinese frontier. If the 



I20 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

presents are dispensed with and we can travel light with 
nothing but our personal baggage, I am willing to run the 
risk, which even then will be great. My arguments have 
prevailed, and I am to have a guard of fifteen Sikhs of the 
28th Regiment. Mahommedans are to be excluded for 
fear of exciting the suspicion of the Chinese. The presents 
we are to take are of a miscellaneous description. I have 
to buy two Australian horses, the biggest I can find. This 
is a suggestion of the Chinese merchants of Rangoon, who 
are of opinion that their countrymen will be much struck 
by the size of these animals. Some Australian kangaroo 
dogs, also of enormous size, elephants' tusks, rhinoceros' 
horns (held in great repute by the Chinese as medicine), 
edible birds'-nests, musical-boxes, clocks, carpets, cutlery, 
beads, etc., are some other items. The beads are for the 
benefit of the wild tribes, as the Chinese must be above 
such trifles. The whole will be of the value of about 
30,cx>D rupees or ;^3,ooo, more than enough to tempt the 
cupidity of the Kakhyengs and to encourage the whole of 
this collection of robber clans to turn out to attack us. 

A part of my cargo of presents I pick and choose out of 
the ** Toshakhana," or Government Treasure House, an 
omnium gatherum where all the gifts received by Govern- 
ment officers from Kings, Maharajas, Rajas, and potentates 
of sorts are stored and reissued only to be given away. 
The Baboo in charge has to look out to see that things are 
not given back to the original donors. 

Mr. Wade, our Minister at Pekin, has obtained from the 
Chinese Government passports for our party to Yunanfu, 
the capital of Yunan, with permission to return thence to 
Burma or to go through China to Shanghai. **The 
expedition/* Mr. Wade says, '*will do much good, but not 
so much as is imagined." What does he mean by this 
qualification } An interpreter, Mr. A. Margary, left 
Shanghai in September to meet us, with letters to the 
Chinese authorities and duplicate passports. This sending 
of an interpreter is a thoughtful act on Mr. Wade's part ; 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 1 2 1 

for \ve should have been in a rather helpless plight on 
reaching China if we had only such interpreters as we 
could pick up in Burma. Mr. Margary is to travel through 
China to meet us at the frontier, and if he reaches it before 
we do, he will have the distinction of being the first 
European in modem times^ or since the days of Marco 
Polo to travel from east to west through the whole 
breadth of China. 

Mr. Wade has given instructions to Mr. Margary as to 
his conduct whilst travelling, and these instructions are to 
be a guide for us also. Whilst collecting information as 
regards trade, we are not to put that forward prominently 
as the object of our expedition. Pleasure apparently is to 
be our ostensible object. Nor are we to talk too much 
about Talifu, the seat of government of the Mahommedan 
rebels to whom the last mission was accredited. We must 
not attract attention by anything like surveying operations, 
measuring heights, etc. In populous localities it will be 
better not to shoot or hunt, though there is no objection to 
this elsewhere. We are cautioned against travelling with 
Roman Catholic missionaries or accepting hospitality from 
them. The reputation of these gentlemen evidently is not 
high in the eyes of Mr. Wade, or at any rate in those of the 
Chinese authorities whom we wish to conciliate. 

It seems that these Romish priests, who may be and 
probably are very worthy personages in their way, do not 
devote themselves solely to the propagation of their faith 
and to the performance of their hebdomadal miracle of 
creating their Bon Dieu^ but seek also to make their flocks 
something above and independent of the powers that be. 
They try to constitute their sanctuaries, as in the dark ages 
of Europe, houses of refuge for all the scum of the country. 
The Mandarins, whose degree of civilization is far in 
advance of that of Mediaeval Europe, justly regard the 
erection of a State within a State as inadmissible, and they 
resent it when and wherever they have not the fear of 
a gunboat before their eyes. 



122 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

These peculiar representatives of Christianity, who ignore 
the precept about ** rendering unto Caesar the things that 
are Caesar s/' we are to give a wide berth to, so as to avoid 
all suspicion on the part of the Chinese as to our being 
identified with them. 

The Indian Government's instructions are that we are to 
recollect that the principal object of the expedition is to 
explore trade routes, to ascertain the obstacles that exist in 
the way of reopening old routes, and how such routes may 
be improved ; to report upon the burdens to which trade is 
subject, the best means of transport, the measures which it 
may be practicable to adopt for the protection of traders, 
and the agency through which it would appear most 
advisable that trade should be carried on. It will also be 
our duty to obtain as much information as possible regarding 
the conditio/i, resources, history, and geography of the 
territories through which we may pass, and any matters of 
general or scientific interest which we may have the 
opportunity of observing. 

In all matters of customs and etiquette, and in dealing 
with the Chinese authorities, I am to be guided by the 
advice of Mr. Margary, who is peculiarly competent in 
such matters. I am to be particularly careful to avoid 
intercourse with any parties in rebellion against the Chinese 
Government. This seems rather superfluous, as according 
to all accounts every trace of rebellion has been most 
effectually stamped out throughout Yunan. 

Regarding the route I am to take there have been some 
contradictory orders. At first it was decided that I should 
commence my land journey from Mandalay and go from 
thence due east vid Thiennee to Yunan, and not go vid 
Bhamo and Momien. This would be an approximation 
to the Rangoon-Kyang Hung route, favoured by Lord 
Salisbury. This would be an interesting route, as the 
greater part of it is as yet unexplored. In the maps com- 
piled up to the present time there is a great deal of guess- 
work hereabouts, and we may hope to furnish more exact 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 123 

data for the benefit of future geographers. The position of 
the main points seem to be : Mandalay, 22° north, and 
Kyang Hung in exactly the same latitude 4^° to the east, 
the former being about 96° and the latter 100° 45' east. 
Thiennee is a little to the north of a straight line between 
these two places. The country east of Thiennee is as yet 
a perfect blank in our maps. We know not whether it is 
a tableland or a range of high mountains. Journeying due 
east brings us to Po-urh, the Chinese district which pro- 
duces the finest tea, so valuable in China that none of it 
reaches Europe. Or, should the due east line prove 
impracticable, we should have to turn north-east, and 
following the valley of the Salween, arrive at Shunning-fu 
by crossing the range between the Salween and Cambodia 
Rivers, The nature of the watershed between these two 
rivers is as yet an unknown quantity. 

Unfortunately this forecast has been upset at the last 
moment by the news that His Majesty of Mandalay objects 
to our taking this route. The pretext given for this 
objection is that a certain Shan rebel or Dacoit chief named 
Tsanhai is in possession of the Thiennee passes and might 
molest our caravan. The real reason, no doubt, is that the 
King's hold on these Shan States is always of a very loose 
description, and he, thinking we do not know this fact, does 
not wish us to find it out. As long ago as 1837, Macleod, 
on his visit to Kyang Hung, found that the Shan chiefs 
were anxious to throw off the Burman yoke, if only they 
could make sure of British protection. The King now 
urges that **the Thiennee route being mountainous and 
jungly is rough and rugged," while that by Bhamo is 
'* smooth and pleasant." He adds that a Burman Mission 
is about to go to Pekin and will travel by the ** Ambassador s 
route " — i.e.^ by Bhamo. This last bit of information is of 
ominous import. Why has the King chosen this particular 
moment to send an Embassy to Pekin "i He has been 
profuse in his promises to do all in his power to help us on 
our way ; but no doubt he does so because he is afraid to 



124 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

do otherwise. Does he really wish us to succeed in opening 
out a trade route ? I suspect not, and this Burmese Embassy 
which precedes us is not likely to make the way smoother 
for us. No doubt it will avail itself of every opportunity 
for representing our mission in an unfavourable light and 
poisoning the minds of the Chinese against us. This seems 
to be an additional reason for selecting the Thiennee route ; 
but the Government seems to think it best to yield to the 
King's wishes and send me vi4 Bhamo. 

Bhamo is in 24° 20' or more than 2° north of Mandalay. 
Momien is in 25° and Talifu is nearly 26° north, Yunanfu 
being about the same as Momien. 

Mr. Wade has sent us a passport countersigned by the 
Tsung-li-Yamen, or Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
This is an imposing-looking document, as big as a street 
poster, on flimsy paper, with various red splotches which 
indicate its Imperial origin. This is the translation of it : 

" Mr. Wade, Her Majesty's Minister at Pekin, has 
received an intimation from the Viceroy of India to the 
effect that four officers of His Excellency's Government are 
about to pass from Burma into China with a certain number 
of followers. The officers in question may return by the 
way they came, or may proceed by way of the Great River 
to Shanghai. This is to request the Governor-General of 
Yunan, and the high authorities of any other provinces 
through which the officers above-mentioned may have to 
pass, to give orders to their subordinates in charge of the 
frontier passes, or elsewhere, to treat them with civility, 
and to assist them on their way with all speed. Their 
names and the names of their attendants are given below. 

** Dated July 31, 1874. 

** Stamped with the seals of Her Britannic Majesty's 
Minister at Pekin and of the Yamen of Foreign Aflfairs." 

The dispatch with which this is forwarded from the 
Yamen of Foreign Affairs states that it is **a passport 
issued for travel in accordance with treaties," making no 
allusion to the purposes for which such travel is undertaken. 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 125 

Hence, I imagine, Mr. Wade's recommendation to us not 
to put trade and commerce too much in the foreground. 

Mr. Wade has also sent us a letter of introduction from 
the Tsung-li-Yamen to the Governor-General of Yunan 
and Kwei-chow, whose name is Tseng-yu-ying. But 
Mr. Wade is of opinion that this official's proclivities are 
decidedly anti-foreign. 

In any case, Mr. Wade thinks it will not be of much use 
to discuss business matters, such as trade routes, com- 
mercial facilities, etc., with him or any other Governor- 
General. " These bigwigs have," he says, " really nothing 
of the character of satraps or minor potentates which some 
attribute to them. The civilians, even down to the lowest 
magistrates, are never natives of the province in which 
they serve, and, from the highest to the lowest, a brief 
Imperial decree would deprive them of all power in their 
jurisdictions. Such a decree once issued, they become but 
helpless units in the midst of an alien population.'* 

Mr. Wade appears somewhat pessimistic, and evidently 
he has not a high opinion of the good faith of the Central 
Government, for he goes on to say : ** It may turn out that 
the provincial Governments have been instructed, if not to 
stop the mission, to put in its way such obstacles as, with- 
out appearing to interfere, they will have it easily in their 
power to devise, the Yamen here knowing that six months 
elapse ere a complaint from Yunan can reach me." 

That a man with such unequalled knowledge as Mr. 
Wade of the peculiar ways of the Chinamen should indulge 
in such a prognostication gives matter for reflection. 
Mr. Wade concludes in more cheerful strain by saying : 

''In any case, I cannot suppose that a mission to examine 
the trade of that province will do anything but good. The 
province is a vast region full of natural wealth, and the 
exploration of the commercial routes which will be traversed 
by intelligent men cannot fail to be of great utility." 

As Mr. Margary may fail to meet us at the frontier, we 
are to be supplied with a second Chinese interpreter — 



126 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

Mr. Clement Alen, of the Consular Service, has been sent 
by sea to join us in Burma. 

Pkome, December 17. — Mr. Fforde, Superintendent of 
Police, who has been appointed to command our Sikh 
escort, joins us here. He has already done a very good 
stroke of business for us by discovering in this district the 
existence of a Yunan Chinaman, Li - kan - sheng, more 
generally known by his Burmese name of Moung-Yo, who 
has been settled in Burma for many years, has a Burman 
family, and speaks and writes Burmese fluently. Fforde 
desired to engage him as an interpreter, but found him un- 
willing to accept the post. He was doubtful about our 
being received as welcome guests in China, and did not 
think his countrymen would approve of his bringing 
foreigners into their land. On his being presented to me, 
my arguments, or, rather, the exhibition of the Tsung-li- 
Yamen's passport with the vermilion splotches, effected a 
complete revolution in his sentiments. He accepted the 
offer to enter my service as soon as he found we were 
travelling under such auspices, and he did so the more 
readily because he was anxious to see and to take money 
to his mother, who lives at Momien. He represents him- 
self as a distant relative of the famous Li-tshi-tahee, who 
for many years has occupied a prominent position in Burmo- 
Chinese frontier politics. It pleased the members of the 
last mission to describe this Li-tshi-tahee as ** a dacoit 
chief, a truculent and unscrupulous bandit," but he was 
very differently appreciated on the other side of the frontier. 
There he was considered to be a capable and patriotic 
Chinese officer, who gallantly and perseveringly struggled 
to uphold Chinese authority against the Panthay rebels. 

Moung-Yo states that he was employed as a soldier to 
fight against the Panthays, but, having had enough of that 
work, he fled to British Burma, where he has been estab- 
lished for some years and has acquired a respectable com- 
petence. He is undoubtedly intelligent, and appears 
honest. 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 127 

December 23. — We reach Mandalay this evening, and a 
Tsa-re-daw-gyee comes down to the steamer at once to 
take us up to the Residency, where we stay with Major 
Strover. The royal theatrical troupe is sent in the evening 
to amuse us. 

December 24. — I receive visits from the Myo-tha-won 
and the Keng-won-men-gyee. The former is the official 
who usually acts as a go-between for the King and the 
Residency, and the latter is the Prime Minister. He 
comes in a carriage and pair, which is a novelty in Manda- 
lay, where elephants or bullock-carts are the usual modes 
of locomotion. Arrangements are made for my paying 
formal visits to the different Ministers and the King. \ 
receive a letter from D'Avera, the completely Burmanized 
Frenchman, who has resided so long at the Burman capital. 
He is said to have first arrived in Burma as a political spy, 
sent by Walewski, the French Foreign Minister ; but he 
has long ago severed all connection with the French 
Government, and lives as a dependent of the King, now in, 
and now out, of favour. The foreign — Le.^ non-British — 
adventurers who swarm about this petty Oriental Court are 
always intriguing one against the other. D'Avera, appar- 
ently, is just now out of favour, and writes to me as follows : 
** Let me tell you that the fact of there not being a member 
of the mercantile community with you has helped some of 
the local politicians in rousing the suspicions of the King, 
who has been told that the son of the late Panthay ruler 
was being brought up by your Government with the view 
finally of restoring in his favour the power which his father 
enjoyed, and that the main object of your expedition is to 
ascertain how and when that could safely be done. The 
sooner you dispel that idea the better for yourself. Having 
the honour of not being a paid servant of His Majesty, 
I can have no scruple of conscience in conveying you this 
information. As a genuine friend of yours, I earnestly 
wish you to succeed and win fresh laurels." 
I have no doubt of the bona fides of D' A vera, and it is 



128 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

good of him to furnish me with this bit of Court gossip; 
but I do not think it merits any serious and direct refutation 
on my part. Such utterly unfounded reports are best left 
to themselves to wither away like a plant without a root. 

I may find an occasion to show that I am aware of their 
existence and laugh at their absurdity ; but were I to take 
pains to contradict them seriously, the effect probably would 
be just the contrary of what I wish. The contradiction 
would give fresh life to the rumour, and people would say, 
** As he is so anxious to deny it, there is some truth in the 
rumour." 

December 30. — I have made several attempts to get the 
(Thief Yunan Chinaman here, one Oo-lat-ton, to visit me ; 
but he has been very shy and appeared only tonday at 
a very inconvenient moment, when I was preparing for 
a visit to the palace. He probably chose the time on 
purpose, for he was evidently unwilling to be ** pumped." 
He says he has been so long in Mandalay that he can give 
no information about affairs in Yunan. He suggests, how- 
ever, that the Bhamo route is not the best one for entering 
China, and in this probably he is not far wrong. The 
interests of the Mandalay Chinaman and those of Bhamo . 
are not identical. The former prefer the shorter route 
going due west from Mandalay. For some reason or 
another the old man is not in a communicative mood, and 
the parting salute was evidently the most agreeable moment 
of the interview for him. 

We go in State, riding on elephants, to the palace at 

I I a.m. The King looked vigorous and in good humour. 
He commenced the interview by some rather fulsome praise 
of and compliments to myself. With his mouth encumbered 
with betel juice, hefgave us one of his usual homilies on the 
advantage of friendship, taking as his text the fact that 
peace has existed between himself and England for twenty 
years. I was not to listen, he said, to the words of 
foolish persons. With such sentiments, of course, I was 
in perfect agreement. He offered me one of his royal 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 129 

steamers to take me to Bhamo, which I declined with 
thanks. 

So far as it is possible to form a true estimate of the 
poh'cy of an Oriental potentate from outward appearance, 
the King is sincere in his desire to assist our expedition so 
far as it lies in his power to do so ; and, notwithstanding 
the existence of rumours as to our ulterior objects being 
hostile to his own interests and those of his friend the 
Emperor of China, he is apparently determined to make 
good the assertion in his letter to the Viceroy that the 
failure of the last expedition was due to mutual ignorance 
on the part of the English and Burmese officers of each 
other's customs and rules of etiquette. Since our arrival in 
Mandalay all the usual marks of polite attention have been 
paid to us. The royal troupes of actors, jugglers, and 
tumblers have come every evening for our entertainment. 
A dozen silver salvers, containing fruits and confectionery, 
have arrived every day from the Palace kitchens for our 
consumption, and I hear that MM. Sutherland and Andreino 
have received Rs. 3,cxxD for the entertainment of our 
servants. 

As we had omitted by accident to declare the revolvers 
of our guard, there was some little difficulty about this at 
first, but it was soon explained away. 

They were afraid to refuse permission for us to take a 
guard of our own, but they were no doubt rather jealous 
on the subject. As a sort of counter demonstration they 
have been putting some heavy guns on board one of the 
royal steamers, commanded by a Frenchman, and they are 
going to send her up to Bhamo — if they can. They have 
been busy in the Palace practising big gun-drill on an imi- 
tation ship, which ship they have rigged up for the purpose, 
the results proving highly ludicrous to the Europeans who 
have witnessed them. 

January i, 1875. — I paid a return New Year's Day call 
on M. D'Avera. Though a typical Frenchman he does 
not appear to be consumed with any burning desire to return 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. I 



130 Thi Vunan Expedition of 1875, 

to his own country. He sits here under his own vines, of 
which he is very proud, he having been the first to produce 
grapes here, and he appears to be attached to his Burman 
wife and family. His garrulity, seasoned with shrewdness, 
is always amusing, and sometimes interesting and instruc- 
tive. Our conversation turning upon the recent French 
Embassy to Mandalay, he informed me that the priest, 
P. Lecomte, who acted as interpreter, in order to induce the 
Burmans to sign the treaty, mistranslated one of the clauses 
of the Burman version, inserting words to the effect that if 
the Burmans were attacked, the French "would make their 
case their own," so that the treaty seemed to the Burmans 
to be an offensive and defensive one. Of course there was 
nothing of the kind in the French version. A somewhat 
Jesuitical trick, if true! It might, if true, result in incon- 
venience to us, by making the King think that he can rely 
in all cases upon French support, but D'Avera no doubt at 
a convenient season will enlighten him. 

January 3. — We make a start at length from Man- 
dcday this morning in the s.s. Mandalay, The party con- 
sists of myself and five servants, including Moung Yo, my 
interpreter; Dr. Anderson, and seven followers, servants 
and collectors of specimens ; Mr. Fforde and three servants ; 
our guard of fifteen Sikh soldiers with five followers. Total, 
thirty-nine persons. Mr. Ney Elias is to join us at Bhamo, 
where he has gone on to collect carriage. When leaving 
Mandalay we noticed one of the King's steamers, got up 
man-of-war fashion, with guns and soldiers on board, com- 
manded by a Frenchman. They were to have followed us, 
but for some reason or another did not do so. 

January 9. — What with fogs and what with sandbanks 
our progress has been most miserably slow. In six days 
we have made about twenty-five miles ! 

I almost regret I did not accept the offer of a royal 
steamer. We should then have travelled light, and might 
have skimmed over the sandbanks. As it is we are en- 
cumbered with a heavily-laden flat which makes it difficult 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 131 

to find our way along the tortuous channel. We have 
anchored each night at some town or village where the 
authorities have invariably made great preparations for our 
reception. We are beginning to feel rather tired of the 
sempiternal operatic performances. Our stay in the capital 
has made us rather blas^ and fastidious in this respect. The 
provincial damsels, whose charms are not enhanced by a 
thick coating of **Thanaka" (the Buamese equivalent for 
the European ladies' powder-puff), compare unfavourably 
with Yeng-daw-ma-lai, the Mandalay prima donna, who is 
really a graceful and interesting creature. 

We have passed to-day through the ** First Defile," 

where the river is confined to one narrow channel, in which 

the water is deep and beautifully clear, and have anchored 

for the night at Thengadaw. Here is that portion of the 

river which is frequented by the celebrated ** sacred fish," 

who come when they are called, sit upon their tails, and 

open wide their capacious mouths to receive the alms which 

pious people give them, tumbling back ungracefully when 

they are satisfied. They are supposed to be of the dog or 

cat-fish tribe, but their species not having been exactly 

determined, our naturalist is burning with desire to get hold 

of one and find out whether it has got a Latin name, and if 

not to give it one. As it would not be wise to offend the 

religious prejudices of the Burmans by openly catching one, 

Dr. Anderson resorts to stratagem. He immures himself 

at night in the Lascars* " buen retiro " and casts his line 

through the hole. He had not long to wait before he 

secured a fine specimen, which he wrapped up in a cloth 

and exhibited only to a chosen few before retiring to study 

its conformation in the recesses of his cabin. 

One of the perplexities one has to struggle with in this 
border land of many races is the variety of names used to 
designate each single person or place. A man here may 
be spoken of by his Burmese, Chinese, Shan, or Kakhyeng 
name, all quite different. I had a conversation on the sub- 
ject to-day with my Yunan interpreter. His Chinese name 

I 2 



132 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

is Li-kantseng. Here he is known only as Moung Yo 
(Mr. Honest), an appropriate name for him, as he is very 
straightforward and trustworthy. His case is a simple one 
as compared with that of his more celebrated relative, known 
to us as Li-tsee-tahee. He may be designated by any of 
the following names : Li-ssu, Li-cheng-kwo, Li-hsieh-tai, 
Li-ssu-ta-ye, Li-lao-mien. Li is evidently the family name. 
Li-ssu is said to be his *' youthful " name (ssu means fourth). 
Li-cheng-kwo is his ** young man's " name. Hsieh-tai is 
the name of his grade (= Colonel .**). Ta-ye an abbrevia- 
tion of Ta-lao-ye is an honorific title, meaning Venerable 
Father, and Li-lao-mien means Li the Burman. This Li 
is said to be now Too-tsen of Nan-teng, but expects to be 
promoted to Shunning foo, so we shall probably come 
across him. 

Burmese and Shans give names of their own coining to 
many Chinese towns. Thus the Teng-yue-chow of the 
Chinese is the Momien of the Burmans, and the Shun-ning-fu 
of the Chinese is Shweng-leng in Burmese. Chinese cities 
seem to be divided into three classes : ** tsen," ** fu or foo," 
and ** chow." Thus Yunan-tseng (not fu as we often call it), 
Shunning-fu and Teng-yue-chow. 

January 15. — After nearly a fortnight's voyage from 
Mandalay we reach Bhamo to-day. The Won who seems 
a pleasant mild mannered man, and Captain Cooke, the 
Assistant Resident, come off in war boats to receive us. 
We land and go to stay with Cooke at the Residency, 
which is some little distance from the town, our baggage 
and followers remaining in the town. We are joined also 
by Ney Elias, who informs me of the arrangements he has 
made for our journey. There are three practicable routes 
between Bhamo and. Momien, the northern or Pon-tsee, 
the central or Hotha (known also as the "Ambassador's 
route "), and the lower or Sawaddy route. 

I learn the history of the negotiations which have led to 
the choice of the last by Elias. 

At first both Cooke and Elias were in favour of the 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 133 

central route. The most influential chief along it is one 
Mateng, who until recently was on very friendly terms 
with Cooke, but after a visit recently paid to Mandalay, 
where he had the dignity of a gold umbrella conferred upon 
him, his manners changed, and he held himself aloof from 
the Residency. Last month he was engaged by the Bur- 
mans to convey their own mission to Pekin as far as the 
Chinese frontier, and he flatly refused to have anything to 
do with us. 

So we have this Burman Embassy putting a spoke in 
our wheel from the very first. 

Elias then turned his attention to the Sawaddy route. 
He went out himself two days' march, and made arrange- 
ments for carriage with Lenna, the principal Kakhyeng 
chief in this line. The chief has contracted to furnish us 
with 150 pack bullocks and take us as far as Kutlon, in the 
territory of the Maingmaw Tsawbwa, a tributary of China. 
I am to pay for the bullocks at the rate of 6^ tiekals of 
Sycee silver (about 8 rupees) for each bullock. I don't 
know yet whether to be pleased or not at this choice of a 
route. It has its advantages and disadvantages. The 
route is as yet unexplored, but is said to be less moun- 
tainous than the others. It has the demerit of being much 
the longest. One great drawback is that our ** Royal 
Order," directing every assistance to be given to us, is 
addressed to the Won of Bhamo,and Sawaddy, the starting- 
point, is out of his jurisdiction, and within that of the Won 
of Shwegoo. The Won here has written to him of Shwegoo 
to come and discuss matters, but it would be very unlike 
the usual conduct of a Burman Governor if he did so with- 
out receiving orders from Mandalay. 

January 16. — I perceive that there is a certain amount 
of tension between the Residency and the Burman officials 
on the subject of the negotiations with the Kakhyengs. 
Cooke and Elias, acting under instructions, have been 
treating with the Kakhyengs directly, and quite indepen- 
dendy of the Burmans. This does not please the Burmans. 



134 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

They have trouble enough as it is in keeping these truculent 
savages quiet, and preventing them from making razzias 
on Burman territory, and they believe that this trouble will 
be increased by our going behind their backs and making 
independent arrangements with them. The Burmans, 
naturally enough, I think, desire that our arrangements 
with the Kakhyengs should be made in harmony with, and 
not in opposition to, them. Such being the case, it seems 
to me that matters may run more smoothly if I leave the 
Residency and move down to the sheds which the Won 
has prepared for us in the town. 

January 17. — The great event of the day is the arrival 
of Mr. Margary, who has been escorted from Manwaing on 
the frontier by a guard of forty Burmans (the forty thieves 
he calls them, though they do not seem to have deserved 
the epithet) sent up by the Bhamo Won to meet him. Mr. 
Margary is looking very well, and feels no ill effects from 
his wonderful journey across the whole breadth of China. 
He came up the Yang- tse-kiang as far as the Tung-teng- 
lake ; then some distance up the Yuan river and the rest of 
the way by land. He is delighted with the reception he 
met with almost everywhere, and especially with the civility 
and politeness of every one in Yunan from the Viceroy 
downwards. This Viceroy is the man to whom anti-foreign 
proclivities are attributed by Mr. Wade, but nevertheless 
he did everything necessary to facilitate Margary's progress. 
He gave him two Mandarins to look after and escort him 
from the capital to the frontier. Though Tali-fu was off 
the direct route, Margary succeeded in visiting it. Some 
objection was made at first to his passing through this town 
on account of the extra-loyal and anti-rebel tendencies of 
Its present inhabitants ; but this objection he managed to 
overcome, and he was most hospitably received there by 
the Tartar-General, who sent a cordial invitation to our 
party to stay with him. 

At Momein he was received by the General Chiang, who 
is renowned for the part he took in the capture of Tali-fu 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 135 

and the massacre of the Panthays. At Manwaing he was 
met by no less a person than the much dreaded and much 
belied Li-hsieh-tai. As all the previous knowledge he 
possessed of this worthy was derived from the accounts 
given of him by our last expedition, Margary was not a 
little surprised to find that the *' ruthless bandit *' whom he 
expected to find was after all an extremely polite and 
intelligent Chinese officer. The truth is that the last 
expedition entirely failed to appreciate the fact that in 
opposing their communications with the rebel Panthays, Li 
was simply carrying out his manifest duty as a Chinese 
officer, and his endeavours to uphold the authority of his 
lawful Sovereign were qualified as ** acts of brigandage/' 
Li's title alone, if it had been understood, ought to have 
prevented a mistake of this kind. With this official 
Margary had various palavers, all more or less of the 
"Mutual Admiration Society" style, Li carrying his polite- 
ness so far as actually to perform the " Kotow." He 
further sent for the townsmen and some Kakhyeng chiefs, 
and solemnly adjured them to take care of Margary because 
he was travelling under the protection of an Imperial 

passport. 

To be continued. 



«36 



CORRESPONDENCE, NOTES, AND NEWS. 



"BRITAIN'S DESTINY: GROWTH OR DECAY." 

Sir, 

It is hardly necessary for me to say, that the letter 
which appeared in the last issue of your Review over the 
initials ** J. P." (see pp. 378-384) has interested me exceed- 
ingly, and it has also given me great satisfaction, for it is 
evident that the writer of it has been at considerable pains 
to make himself acquainted with the views of the late 
Major Phipson. But it is also evident to me, that he has 
suffered in the endeavour to come to a conclusion as to the 
soundness or otherwise of the views expressed, from the 
fact that he only became acquainted with them at second- 
hand through ** Britain's Destiny," which at best merely 
professes to give a bare outline of them, and I am keenly 
alive to the fact, that many aspects of the case presented by 
Major Phipson in his works, are barely even indicated in 
the short volume I ventured to lay before the public. 
Whether it would have been easily possible to give a more 
complete outline without unduly enlarging the size of my 
book, keen students of the subject will decide for them- 
selves ; but as I am desirous that no point of the late 
Major Phipson *s message to his fellow-countrymen should 
be lost or misunderstood through fault of mine, I venture 
the hope, sir, that you will extend the courtesy of your 
columns to me, to enable me to explain that which has not 
been clear to your correspondent, or has been misunder- 
stood by him, owing, as I think, to the fact that he had 
not the whole case before him, as presented by the author 
of ** The Redemption of Labour " and " The Science of 
Civilization " in those works. 

On the question of ** land nationalization," ** J. P." quotes 
words of Major Phipson's as proving that, according to his 
own showing, if the State were to become universal land- 



"^ Britain s Destiny : Growth or Decay'' 137 

lord, it would still leave the occupier all that he is in strict 
justice entitled to, because he admits that the payment of a 
rent — even a rack-rent— does not deprive him of any pro- 
duct of his own labour, but only to such benefits of civiliza- 
tion, as have accrued up to the time of the rent being first 
undertaken. But I think ** J. P." has probably overlooked 
the importance of the words ''first undertaken'' They 
imply, and Major Phipson leaves no opportunity for doubt 
on the point, that any raising of the rent after once fixed 
and first undertaken, does directly deprive the tenant of the 
products of his own labour. 

1 understand that the contention of land nationalizers is, 
broadly, that tenants should have fixity of tenure, subject 
to periodical reassessment of the ground-rents payable to 
the State, and that if they wish to sell their tenant-right, 
all they should have the right to sell, would be the added 
value of the land arising from their own improvements, 
such as buildings, drainage works, etc. This, too, would 
be all that should be saleable after the death of a tenant ; 
and if from one cause or another the value of the holding 
had further increased beyond this, the State would be 
entitled to take the benefit of the further increase in the 
letting value of the land. The justification for the State 
taking the advantage of this further increased value, is held 
to be that such increase is " unearned increment." 

It becomes necessary, therefore, to consider to what 
causes this increase is really due, and by whose efforts it 
is made possible. To do this it is necessary to start from 
the beginning, and to understand that civilized people are 
separated into two absolutely distinct classes, the most 
important of which we may call food-producers, and the 
remainder we may group under the broad definition of 
other workers. It will no doubt be agreed, after con- 
sidering the matter, that these latter, under a natural 
system, and where there is no compulsion, only give up 
their right to grow their own food because they know that, 
owing to some particular faculty not possessed by the 



138 ^' Britain s Destiny: Growth or Decay. ^^ 

majority of their fellows, if they devote themselves to other 
work and let someone else grow their food for them, 
they will be able to live with less labour than the food- 
producers of their country, and in the same state of comfort, 
or in greater comfort if they are content to work as hard. 

But before they can avail themselves of this great 
advantage, of being able to live with a minimum of toil, 
which is a proper ambition with every human being, it is 
necessary that they should first find food-producers, who are 
willing to produce a surplus of food with which to purchase 
their labour-products. Without such a surplus it is evident 
that no advance in civilization is possible, and when, there- 
fore, roads, railways, and other evidences of civilization are 
spread throughout the land, it is the self-interest of the 
other workers of the community which leads to this being 
done, as it thus becomes possible for more of them to live 
with less expenditure of labour, than if they had to grow 
their own food. 

They therefore enter at once into the full benefits of the 
advance of civilization ; but not so the food-producers, 
whose toil for a given reward is at first much greater than 
theirs. But the desire among increasing numbers of the 
community to live with less toil, induces competition among 
them, which necessitates a continuous increase in the amount 
of the labour-products they have to give in exchange for 
their food. Under ^justly regulated currency system^ this 
represents a progressive increase in the purchasing power 
of his food to the food-producer, and implies a levelling up 
of his reward and a levelling down of the reward, of other 
workers. Such levelling down, however — meaning, as it 
does, a fall in profits — the latter strive to resist, and, neces- 
sity being the mother of invention, their efforts are directed 
to the discovery of improved methods of manufacture, etc., 
which result in the continuous cheapening of their labour- 
products, attended often by increased profits to themselves, 
and always by a continuous cheapening to the purchasers 
(/.^., the food-producers). 



'^Britain's Destiny: Growth or Decay'' 139 

It IS this increase in the purchasing power of their surplus 
food, which really constitutes the increased rental value of 
the latter s land, and it is therefore self-evident that, so far 
from this increase being in any way an increment unearned 
by themselves, it is theirs by right, in virtue of the very 
real ** sweat of the brow" over and above that of other 
workers. Deprive them, then, of the right to sub-let the 
land at a profit rental, and land nationalizers would deprive 
them of the fruits of their labour, and would hand it over to 
the community at large, the other workers of which would 
already have received their reward. Until, therefore, the 
collectivist idea were put completely into force, and all 
work was done for the common benefit, the other worker 
would receive a twofold advantage. Far be it from me to 
blame land nationalizers for not having seen this. Mankind 
only arrives at the fundamental truths of life by steadfast 
search, and this search they have, I believe, disinterestedly 
made. Why the full truth has been hidden from them, 
that in a true system of renting land lies the economic 
salvation of labour, is hard, perhaps, for us to know, though 
to me it seems to be due to the fact that, unlike Major 
Phipson, they have narrowed their range of vision unduly. 

However that may be, when once they grasp the full 
scope of Major Phipson's teaching, and that the evils of 
sub-letting absolutely disappear, when the sub-tenant has to 
be granted the same fixity of tenure as the tenant enjoyed, 
I am hopeful that they will adopt his teaching as their own. 
I think the battle he started to fight will then be as good as 
won. For when landlords understand that, instead of re- 
ceiving decreasing rents, the purchasing power of their 
fixed rent must steadily increase, self-interest will step in 
to range them on the side of labour, which in turn, seeing 
that it will at last become free, by having the power to grow 
its own food when adequate wages are unobtainable, be- 
cause to rent land is within its power, will cease to desire 
the right to buy land, for which it does not possess the 
capital. 



140 '^ Britain s Destiny: Growth or Decay ^' 

** J. P." will probably now see why Major Phipson con- 
tends that the confiscation of the ** unearned increment " 
would prevent the free multiplication of purchasers ; for he 
classes food-producers only as purchasers, and if they are 
habitually deprived of the fruits of their own labour, they 
will remain more or less poverty-stricken, their purchasing 
power will be curtailed, and the inducement to remain 
food-producers will be diminished. For the effect to them 
of such confiscation is the same, whether it is borne by 
landlords for their own benefit, or by the State for the 
benefit of the community. It will also be apparent that 
the change from ** land-owning by lords " to that of ** land- 
holding (^>., renting) by tenants ** will promote the free 
multiplication of purchasers, because the wants of two men 
for the necessaries of life are greater than those of one man, 
and the increasing purchasing power of food under such a 
system, would be divided among an ever-growing number 
of the people, to the benefit of all, instead of being con- 
centrated in the hands of a few, as at present. It must be 
borne in mind, that the necessary alteration in our land 
system, can only be achieved by the adoption of a currency 
that shall be valueless in itself, and the recollection of this 
required change is needed during the consideration of the 
whole of this letter. 

As regards the note on p. 382, which suggests that, 
when I say "the German Bank would (naturally) prefer 
gold in bars," I seem to contradict Major Phipson's state- 
ment as to " the competition of foreign food-producers for 
gold — i,e., for the British food-tokens," I would remind 
** J. P." that bar-gold is the raw material of the British 
currency. The following quotation from the money article 
of the Standard of October 17 will serve to show that 
the effect of foreign competition for this raw material, is 
just as great as that competition would be, if it were for 
British coin : 

" Three months* bills were not taken below 4 per cent., 
and in some quarters there was a disinclination to take 



^' Britain s Destiny: Growth or Decays 141 

tAem on those terms, the idea being that a rise in the 
Bank-rate was at hand. This, however, was by no means 
the general view, the fact that the Bank was making efforts 
to secure the bar-gold available in the open market being 
considered — and rightly, we believe — as an indication that, 
while alive to the necessity of protecting its reserve, the 
directors are by no means desirous of imposing a 5 per 
cent rate upon the market, unless such action should 
become necessary. When it was known, later in the day, 
that about ;^ 2 50,000 in bar-gold had been secured by the 
Bank, a better feeling was apparent. . . ." 

A careful perusal of pp. 86-98 of ** Britain's Destiny " 
will, I think, serve to show why it is that the competition 
of foreign food-producers for the British food-token, has 
had a disastrous effect on the British farmer. I will only 
state briefly here, therefore, that theinflation of the British 
currency prior to 1873 caused the rent and other burthens 
placed upon the land to be high, thus leaving the British 
farmer unable to bear the fall in price of his food-products 
to their gold-bullion level, which followed the foreign adop- 
tion of the British legal standard. 

" For the debts of British farmers are now determined 
by one scale of prices, that of the inflated home currency ; 
but their means of paying these debts by another, that of 
bullion prices in the poorest gold-using countries" {cf, 
"Science of Civilization," p. 287). 

It will thus be seen, I think, that the effect of this com- 
petition would have been very real, quite apart from the 
competition of silver-using countries ; and what I said at 
the commencement of this letter — that many aspects of the 
case have been barely indicated in " Britain's Destiny " — 
applies with great force when the question of the effect of 
the competition of India, a silver-using country, is under 
consideration. Could your correspondent have read 
PP- 65*92 of ** The Science of Civilization," dealing with 
"Exchange," and Book VII., vol. ii., of " The Redemp- 
tion of Labour," on ** Commerce," and especially chapter iii.. 



142 '^Britain's Destiny: Growth or Decay.'' 

** Foreign Exchanges through Dissimilar Currencies — 
Exchanges with India/* much would have been clear to him 
that it will be impossible for me to explain adequately in the 
limits of a letter, as the subject is exceedingly complicated. 

To put it, however, as briefly as I am able, it must be 
borne in mind that, under a natural system, foreign trade 
consists of the barter of goods for goods, and implies a 
division of the profits of the export and import trade, 
between the exporter and importer, in varying proportions, 
that are regulated by the rate of exchange. Under a 
system based solely on " Exchange," unless exports have 
been made no imports are possible, and unless imports are 
made the exporter cannot realize any profit on his exports, 
neither can he receive payment for them ; and it is impos- 
sible for either exporter or importer, to permanently retain 
the whole of the profits resulting from the combined trans- 
actions. Take, for instance, the case of wheat imported 
from India. So long as the trade is conducted by means 
of exchange, as the importer of Indian wheat would have 
to pay I ndian currency for it, he would be under the 
necessity of finding an exporter, who had Indian currency 
owing to him for goods exported to India. The importer 
would then purchase with British currency the exporter's 
rupee draft, drawn on those to whom the goods had been 
shipped, and would remit the draft to his correspon- 
dent in India. Unless he paid a sufficient price in British 
currency to leave the exporter an adequate margin of profit, 
the latter would cease exporting, while the exporter in turn 
would have to part with his rupee draft, at a price that 
would leave an adequate margin of profit to the importer, 
or the latter would cease to import. 

But for various reasons, the causes for which I need not 
enter into, India is willing to receive silver in place of 
British manufactures. The importer of Indian goods into 
Great Britain, is therefore relieved of the necessity of 
finding an exporter who has a draft on India to sell. In- 
stead, he can purchase silver bullion abroad, and ship it to 



'' Britain s Destiny: Growth or Decay J^ 143 

India in payment for the import, if this proves a cheaper 
way of remitting the equivalent of rupees to India, than by 
the purchase of a rupee draft. 

If Great Britain had a currency valueless in itself, the 
possession of this option would be rendered comparatively, 
though not entirely, harmless, as, even if the silver-pro- 
ducing country elected to be paid in gold, British export 
merchants would have ultimately to export British labour- 
products to the gold-producing country, in order to purchase 
the gold. This latter having, in that case, no relation to 
the British food-token, the transaction would have no effect 
on British prices, and would in no way affect the food- 
producer, while the export of manufactures would give 
work to the wage-earners of the country, thus enabling 
them to pay for the foreign food they required. The 
operation would therefore resolve itself into an exchange 
of British manufactures for Indian wheat. 

But under a gold currency, now become international, 
the payment by Great Britain in gold for the silver required 
to be sent to India, results in the contraction of the British 
currency, which lowers the prices received by the farmer, 
and increases the burden of his debts. It correspondingly 
reduces the price in gold of all imports, and, by curtailing 
the demand for exporters* drafts, and therefore also the 
volume of exports, makes it less possible for the wage- 
earners of the country to purchase the imports. But "just 
in proportion to the influx of silver into India is the rise or 
fall in the general level of all Indian prices. So that what- 
ever an English importer saves in gold-currency tokens 
when buying silver bullion instead of an exporter's draft, 
he loses in Indian produce through the reduced purchasing 
power attaching to his newly-coined rupee tokens in India. 
Though he gives less gold, therefore, he receives less 
goods, and these he finds it harder to sell at home, because 
to the same extent as silver was bought for export in place 
of home manufactures, has the purchasing power of the 
British community been reduced. 



144 ^^ Britain s Destiny: Growth or Decay'' 

*' Vain is it, then, for the importer to strive to escape 
from the fundamental law of his being — that of complete 
dependence upon the exporter, while his useless struggles 
to this end can but result, if prolonged, in common disaster 
to all " {cf. ** Redemption of Labour," vol. ii., pp. 559-562). 

How complete this disaster is likely to be will, I think, 
be realized when it is considered, that if the importer pays 
India in silver he buys that silver with gold. How, then, 
seeing that the stock of gold held in this country is already 
dangerously slender, is that stock to be replenished ? The 
natural answer would be, ** By exporting manufactures to 
gold-producing countries." But this leaves out of account 
the important factor that if the material of which the 
currency of two countries is composed is the same its 
purchasing power will be greater in the poor country than 
in the wealthy one. From this it follows that, as countries 
with gold currencies and that are poorer than our own, 
increase their capacity to supply the manufactures required 
by the world, they must inevitably be able to undersell our 
manufacturers when both quote in gold. It must, there- 
fore, become more and more impossible for us to obtain 
gold in exchange for our manufactures. But the failure to 
do so implies the failure of the wage-earners of this country 
to obtain work, and therefore to obtain food, unless they 
are able to rent land under the conditions considered at the * 
commencement of this letter. But to obtain those condi- 
tions it is necessary for the country to adopt a currency 
valueless in itself — ^.^., a national currency in place of our 
present gold currency, which is international. It is therefore 
evident that, alike in the interests of wage-earners, mer- 
chants, food-producers, and landowners, this change in our 
currency system is imperatively demanded. 

I hope it will now be clear to "J. P." that, so far from not 
seeing that the remedy is for the people to go back to the 
land, the whole aim of Major Phipson s life's work was to 
show his countrymen how this could be done, not by 
philanthropic efforts, highly though he would have valued 



'^ Britain s Destiny : Growth or Decay T 145 

these as exemplifying the noble doctrine of ** giving without 
getting," but by the natural working of economic forces, 
when once the system was brought into harmony with 
them. Contrast the broad and firm outlines in which he 
has shown how social and commercial problems react on 
each other, and can only be solved by being taken in hand 
together, with the bewilderment of our statesmen and 
philanthropists, as evidenced by their vain struggles to 
alleviate the all too evident distress by dealing with it in 
compartments, and surely every thoughtful person must 
ask if, perhaps, after all this comparatively unknown man 
may not have grasped moral and economic truths which 
have been missed by the countless millions who, like him, 
have lived and died. And to stop and ask one's self this 
question must be to determine that the matter shall be 
sifted to the very dregs, unless, like Israel, ** seeing we will 
not see, and hearing we will not understand.** 

Your correspondent is no doubt absolutely correct in 
saying that ** before 1870 an English sovereign was always 
freely negotiable abroad at its full intrinsic value,** but until 
gold became international currency it was chiefly negotiable 
in the same way that a Bank of England note is to-day — 
not, that is, to be retained abroad, but to be remitted to 
Great Britain to pay off foreign indebtedness, though no 
doubt a certain (but relatively small) amount was retained 
for use in the Arts, etc. 

The remarks about the effect of the opening of the Suez 
Canal accurately sum up the situation with gold inter- 
national currency, as it became about the same time. But 
had the nation possessed a valueless currency, a careful 
consideration of the facts set out in ** Britain's Destiny," 
backed up by reference to Phipson's books themselves 
if necessary, will show that the British farmer would not 
have been in competition with either the cheap labour of 
the East, or the cheap land of the West. For it would be 
the duty of the Government to regulate the issue of such 
a currency, so that on an average of years it represented 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. K 



146 '' Britain s Destiny: Growth or Decay'' 

wheat at a given price — say, for argument, 30s. per quarter. 
Having done so, merchants would automatically regulate 
the price in their endeavour to earn the maximum of profit, 
so that when wheat was scarce and consequently rose above 
30s., they would strive to import it, whereas when plentiful 
and the price fell below 30s., they would cease importing it, 
and would* import raw materials or manufactured articles 
instead. 

It is undoubtedly true that rents have fallen, but let ** J. P." 
consider for a moment, and I think he will realize that the 
fall may have been at the expense of untold suffering. For 
how often has it failed to take effect until the original 
tenant has been drained of all his capital, and the land, left 
derelict for a time, has at last to be let for a lower rent. 
And that '' even now it is often more profitable to turn land 
into deer-forests than wheat-fields" is the most crushing 
condemnation of our entire system that it is possible to 
utter, for in it the whole of the wrong is summed up. It 
conjures up the vision of that depopulation of the country- 
side and the fell poverty of our towns that is fast ruining 
our nation body and soul, which the turning of our native 
land into a playground for America and the rising West, 
could surely only accelerate. But I prefer to believe that 
his sympathy with Major Phipson's attack on factory work 
for women, and his appreciation of the benefits of fixity of 
tenure, as they appear in the case of the Bengal tenant, 
more correctly indicate his attitude of mind than do his last 
sentences, and I am hopeful that further study of Major 
Phipson's teaching may lead him to work heart and soul 
with the small handful of us who are striving feebly, but as 
best we may, to convince our fellow-countrymen of the 
things that belong to Britain's peace, ere it may be too late, 

I am, etc., 

Mark B. F. Major. 



Indian Revenue and Land Systems. 147 

INDIAN REVENUE AND LAND SYSTEMS. 

Sir, 

I am sorry to take up your space and the time of 
your readers with a dispute, but General Fischers charge 
that I had ** resorted to the common artifice of misrepre- 
sentation in order to confute him " on a plain question 
of fact is so offensive that I beg to be allowed to state the 
facts as they appear to me. 

In criticising his paper on '* Indian Revenue and Land 
Systems" {Asiatic Quarterly Review y October, 1903) I 
pointed out (p. 181 of the Review for July), amongst 
other things which appeared to me to be mistakes, the fact 
that he quoted the Viceroy (Lord Curzon) as saying that 
"^ it is impossible to find water enough in the whole of India 
for more than 20 million acres of land." This statement 
1 quoted word for word from p. 261 of this Review for 
October, 1903. Now, however, General Fischer, passing 
lighriy over this page of his paper, says that he was referring 
to the calculation of Sir A. Binnie that there was water 
enough in the Godavery basin to irrigate 20 million acres 
of land. But this statement occurs on p. 262, and has 
obviously no connection whatever with the statement I 
referred to. I must say that this explanation seems to 
involve a far more serious misstatement of fact than any I 
noticed in his previous paper. When he goes on to say 
that such deliberate misrepresentation is a very usual 
practice amongst Cutcherry Brahmins, he goes out of his 
way to insult a body of men who are often most deserving, 
in order, I suppose, to create the impression that I, having 
been brought up in such an atmosphere of deceit and 
trickery, am naturally tarred with the same brush. 

As it would appear from what (on p. 256 of the 
Review for October, 1903) is apparently a reference to the 
papers ** regarding the land revenue system of British 
India," and the resolution thereon dated January 16, 1902, 
that he has already examined those papers ** through and 
through/' it is, I suppose, useless to suggest that he should 

K 2 



148 Indian Revenue and Land Systems. 

read the ** Proceedings " of the Madras Board of Revenue 
embodied in those papers, and equally useless for me to 
repeat their arguments for his benefit — even if you could 
find room for them. I will merely make a few very brief 
remarks on some other points in which he takes exception 
to my former criticism. 

As I was only concerned with General Fischer's reflec- 
tions on the Madras revenue system, it was not necessary 
for me to discuss the ideas of Adam Smith, Hallam, or 
Mill ; and when I suggested that he should read Seshiah 
Shastri's memorandum on the evils of the sharing system* 
it was only because I understood him to recommend us to 
revert to that system, as, indeed, he still does. From his 
question at the end of the first paragragh on p. 373 it 
would seem that he imagines we measure the ryots' crops 
every year ; if so, it certainly seems hopeless to discuss the 
question with him. 

He seems satisfied that in Madras we still follow ** the 
old Indian custom of extracting all we possibly can from 
the people and leaving their industries to starve," because 
Mr. Rogers says he ** once heard one Madras civilian say 
to another" that the Brahmins would not allow him to 
reduce the rates of assessment. It does not appear when 
Mr. Rogers heard this curious confession, but I doubt if 
even he would consider it sufficient evidence to prove that 
the land was generally over-assessed, even if General 
Fischer had not himself assured us that the rate of assess- 
ment levied by the British Government was moderate (see 
bottom of p.* 252 of the Review for October, 1903). 

He tries to show a contradiction between the body of 
my letter and the postscript as to the practice of over- 
assessment, but so far as his original paper is concerned 
there is no contradiction at all. ** The baneful practice of 
over-assessment " to which I referred in my postscript is of 

"^^ I never said Seshiah was an authority on economics, but I do say that 
he knew a great deal more about the evils of the Amani system than 
Adam Smith, Hallam, and Mill all put together. 



Indian Reventie and Land Systems. 149 

quite recent date, at the revision of the first settlements, 

whilst it is evident that General Fischer s strictures applied 

to our system for the last fifty years at least. Moreover, I 

explained in my last letter to what special causes such 

enhancement was due. 

Then he says that by Joseph s law this baneful practice 

would be entirely avoided ; but, as already observed, to 

collect 20 per cent, of the gross produce every year would 

probably double the burden on the ryot. 

He is good enough to recommend me to read certain 

books on road-making, and says that in India no such thing 

as a good road has ever existed (as if I was responsible), 

and that even now the people do not know how to 

construct a road properly. Now, road-making has never 

been my special business, but one may well ask. What has 

General Fischer been doing all his life, that he has failed to 

teach his subordinates how to make a single road ? On this 

point, however, I may safely leave him to Mr. Hughes (see 

p. 25 et seq. of the current number). 

Having been for three years collector of Trichinopoly, 

and for three years in a similar capacity at Tanjore, it would 

be almost a miracle if I knew nothing of Sir Arthur Cotton's 

work, for which no one, not even General Fischer himself, 

has a greater admiration. 

Lastly, with reference to his parting shot, I may just add 

that my object in writing my first paper was not to discuss 

"The Wealth of Nations" (with which, indeed, I have 

no fault to find), but his curious mistakes — I might 

almost say delusions — about the land revenue system of 

Madras. 

J. B. Pennington. 



ROADS IN TRAVANCORE, 

Sir, 

I send you below a copy of a letter which appears 
in the Madras Mail of October 3, 1905, and which shows 
very clearly, in a purely native Government, how little is 



150 Roads in Travancore, 

known in this country of the two possible methods by 
which alone the products of the earth can be enhanced 
both in quantity and value, and how right Adam Smith is 
in saying that ** the cross roads " of any country are of the 
utmost utility to the community in general : 

"ROADS IN TRAVANCORE. 

" Sir, 

" The inauguration of the Sri Mulam Popular Assembly 
marks, indeed, a new epoch in the history of Travancore, 
and it reflects greatly to the credit of Mr. Madhava Rao 
that this year he has established the Assembly on an 
electoral basis by giving the people freedom to elect their 
own representatives. There is no doubt that the future of 
the Assembly would to a great extent depend upon the 
amount of care and discretion which the members of the 
Assembly display in giving expression to public opinion. 
There is, however, one thing which might be brought to 
their notice, and the importance of which they cannot safely 
overlook — viz., the development of the economic resources 
of the country. Everyone acquainted with the different 
parts of Travancore can understand that the midland parts 
of the country and those adjoining the high range abound 
with peasant cultivators, whose toil and industry have 
rendered these bleak plains rich with the luxuriant vegetation 
of different kinds of crops. But the one pressing difficulty 
under which the peasant cultivator as well as the ordinary 
traveller labours is the want of proper f abilities for inter- 
territorial communication. As a result of this, it is well- 
nigh difficult for the ordinary cultivators to convey their 
agricultural products to the di'^erent marts in the country to 
get them exchanged for other useful articles for them. The 
few village roads that are now to be seen in the country 
might have been constructed out of charity by some bygone 
petty chiefs ; but these roads have all the characteristics of 
their antique construction. Bounded on either side by 
jungles, which are the abode of poisonous snakes, passing 



Roads in Travancore. 151 

through several canals and ferries difficult to cross over, 
and so narrow as to render it absolutely impossible for a 
cart to be drawn by a pair of bullocks, these village roads 
are useless both for the peasant cultivator and for the 
traveller. * But the condition of the roads that pass 
through the hilly parts of the country is still worse.* 
These narrow paths change their course every year 
according as the fancy or the convenience of the landowners 
through whose land they pass suggests itself to them. In 
the interest of the development of the internal resources of 
the country, it becomes, therefore, highly necessary that 
Government takes in hand this question of intercom- 
munication in the country, and it may be hoped that this 
year the members of the Popular Assembly will draw the 
attention of Government to this all important question. 

*'A. Travancore.'* 

"PUDUPET, 

" October 2.*' 

Travancore has never been under British rule, and the 
Brahmins have had everything their own way in that 
district in all ages ; its climate is good and the rainfall 
abundant, yet, with all these advantages, it has never 
entered into the head of the native administrations to afford 
the lands those, means by which alone the agricultural 
industry can be profitably developed, and then we are told, 
ad nauseam, that the Government of this territory is a 
"model one" for all India! So far as I remember, Sir 
A. Seshiah Shastri was at one time the Dewan of this 
province ; if so, perhaps Mr. Pennington will be able to 
explain whether his Amdni system was originated in 
Travancore, '* by which the crop is actually divided," but 
no means have been provided for realizing its full value in 
the markets of the world. Any assessment raised on lands 
in such a condition must be a most burdensome tax, quite 
enough to prevent all progress and to keep the population 
in a chronic state of poverty, whilst the Government riots 



152 Roads in Travancore. 

in luxury on such means as they can screw out of the 
people. 

Adam Smith says in ** The Wealth of Nations," Book I., 
chap. vi. : ** But the whole price of any commodity must 
still, finally, resolve itself into some one or other or all of 
those three parts, as whatever part of it remains after 
paying the rent of the land, and the price of the whole 
labour {wages) employed in raising, manufacturing, and 
bringing, it to market, must necessarily be profit to some- 
body." If, then, the cost of transport is reduced to a 
minimum, the outlay in wages and in stock for conveying 
products to market will be reduced in proportion ; the profits 
will then be enhanced in an equal degree, and the land will 
be enabled to pay, out of profits, a higher rent or assess- 
ment ; for if the cultivator is provided with the best means 
of securing the best prices for his produce at the right 
time in all markets it is for his interest to pay the highest 
rent the land will bear, and we shall hear no more of ** the 
harmful practice of over-assessment,'* which Mr. Pennington 

so feelingly deprecates. 

J. F. Fischer, 

General, R.E. 

Bangalore, October 20, 1905. 



SOUTHERN NIGERIA. 

Mr. Egerton, the High Commissioner, on July 16, 1905, 
reports from Lagos as follows* : 

The Protectorate has no debt, and at the end of the 
financial year 1903-1904 had a credit balance of over 
;^ 1 45,000, which has been considerably increased (by nearly 
;^40,C)Oo) during the financial year 1904- 1905. 

The history of the Protectorate is unique both for Africa 
and for other portions of the British Empire. Throughout 
the whole of the territory now under our control settled 
Government has only been established by means of a show 

* See Parliamentary Reports, September, 1905 (Cd. 2684-5). 



Southern Nigeria. 153 

of military force, and yet the whole cost of introducing and 
maintaining law and order — involving the maintenance of 
a large military establishment — has been defrayed from the 
local revenues without incurring any debt. As each year 
a larger area has been pacified, a proper system of justice 
established, free trade between town and town and with the 
coast rendered possible, the increasing revenue has enabled 
a further area to be similarly dealt with in the succeeding 
year. In addition to this, large sums have been annually 
contributed towards the cost of the administration of 
Northern Nigeria. 

Commercial imports, excluding specie, 1903, ;^866,i32; 
1904* ;^i 1088,563. Commercial exports, excluding specie, 

1903, ;^ 1, 43 1. 984 ; 1904* ;^ 1, 7 1 8, 7 17. Total, 1903, 
;^2,298,if6; 1904, ;^2,8o7,28o. 

The British Cotton-Growing Association s experiment on 
the Sobo Plains proved a failure, but they have now under- 
taken smaller plantations, in the drier climate of the interior, 
in the Uromi country and at Onitsha, where there are 
much better prospects of success than in the damp Niger 
delta. At the latter place the Government plantations of 
this product have yielded exceedingly good crops of cotton. 

The chief points in the history of the Protectorate during 
the year 1904 to which the High Commissioner invites 
attention are : 

(a) The continued increase in the trade and revenue, 
which enabled a sum of no less than ;^93,ooo to be devoted 
to extraordinary public works, and also the payment of a 
largely increased contribution of ;^50,ooo towards the cost 
of the administration of Northern Nigeria, {b) The 
Forestry Department is now fully organized and capable of 
exercising an efficient control over timber-cutting and, in 
a lesser degree, over the proper tapping of rubber- bearing 
plants, {c) Many articles used in trade, building, education, 
transport, etc., have been placed on the free list and 
exempted from Customs duties. Large permanent buildings 
have been erected for residential schools at Calabar and 



154 Southern Nigeria. 

Bonny, and more Government schools have been opened in 
the interior. The first Government schools for girls have 
been established at Warri and Sapele. The chief difficulty 
in extending educational work is the scarcity of teachers. 
(d) The first land telegraph-lines were opened during the 
year, and have proved of very great use both to the Govern- 
ment and the public, although interruptions on some sections 
have been unduly frequent. The rate charged for messages 
is only one penny a word, with the minimum charge of one 
shilling. This is not remunerative, but the low charge is 
expected to develop traffic, and the lines have been con- 
structed more with a view to helping efficient administration 
and as a convenience for the commercial communitv than 
as revenue-producing factors, {e) The construction of 
properly-formed cart roads, with no gradients exceeding 
I in 20, has been commenced, and a Road Construction 
Department organized. (/) The civil police force has been 
largely increased, and has replaced the military at many 
stations. (^) The mineralogical survey of the Protectorate 
has been well started, and several valuable results obtained, 
but the interior portions as yet unexplored are more likely 
to yield remunerative results, iji) Surveys for a more 
accurate map of the Protectorate have made satisfactory 
progress, (i) Works designed to improve the sanitation of 
all the stations where Europeans reside have been continued 
with most satisfactory results. 



RECENT AGREEMENT— ENGLAND AND JAPAN. 

The following is the text of the recent agreement be- 
tween England and Japan :* 

Preamble. — The Governments of Great Britain and 
Japan, being desirous of replacing the agreement concluded 
between them on January 30, 1902, by fresh stipulations, 
have agreed upon the following articles, which have for 
their object : 

* Parliamentary Paper, September, 1905 (Japan, No. 2, 1905). 



Recent Agreement — England and Japan, 155 

[a) The consolidation and maintenance of the general 
peace in the regions of Eastern Asia and of India ; 

{b) The preservation of the common interests of all 
Powers in China by insuring the independence and in- 
tegrity of the Chinese Empire and the principle of equal 
opportunities for the commerce and industry of all nations 
in China ; 

{c) The maintenance of the territorial rights of the high 
contracting parties in the regions of Eastern Asia and of 
India, and the defence of their special interests in the said 
regions. 

Article I. — It is agreed that whenever, in the opinion 
of either Great Britain or Japan, any of the rights and 
interests referred to in the preamble of this agreement are 
in jeopardy, the two Governments will communicate with 
one another fully and frankly^ and will consider in common 
the measures which should be taken to safeguard those 
menaced rights or interests. 

Article II. — If by reason of unprovoked attack or 
aggressive action, wherever arising, on the part of any 
other Power or Powers either contracting party should be 
involved in war in defence of its territorial rights or special 
interests mentioned in the preamble of this agreement, the 
other contracting party will at once come to the assistance 
of its ally, and will conduct the war in common and make 
peace in mutual agreement with it. 

Article III. — Japan possessing paramount political, 
military, and economic interests in Corea, Great Britain 
recognises the right of Japan to take such measures of 
guidance, control, and protection in Corea as she may deem 
proper and necessary to safeguard and advance those 
interests, provided always that such measures are not con- 
trary to the principle of equal opportunities for the com- 
merce and industry of all nations. 

Article IV. — Great Britain having a special interest in 
all that concerns the security of the Indian frontier, Japan 
recognises her right to take such measures in the proximity 



156 Recent Agreement — England and Japan. 

of that frontier as she may find necessary for safeguarding 
her Indian possessions. 

Article V. — The high contracting parties agree that 
neither of them will, without consulting the other, enter 
into separate arrangements with another Power to the pre- 
judice of the objects described in the preamble of this 
agreement. 

Article VI. — As regards the present war between 
Japan and Russia, Great Britain will continue to maintain 
strict neutrality unless some other Power or Powers should 
join in hostilities against Japan, in which case Great Britain 
will come to the assistance of Japan, and will conduct the 
war in common, and make peace in mutual agreement with 
Japan. 

Article VII. — The conditions under which armed 
assistance shall be afforded by either Power to the other 
in the circumstances mentioned in the present agreement, 
and the means by which such assistance is to be made 
available, will be arranged by the naval and military 
authorities of the contracting parties, who will from time 
to time consult one another fully and freely upon all ques- 
tions of mutual interest. 

Article VIII. — The present agreement shall, subject to 
the provisions of Article VI., come into effect immediately 
after the date of its signature, and remain in force for ten 
years from that date. 

In case neither of the high contracting parties should 
have notified twelve months before the expiration of the 
said ten years the intention of terminating it, it shall remain 
binding until the expiration of one year from the day on 
which either of the high contracting parties shall have 
denounced it. But if, when the date for its expiration 
arrives, either ally is actually engaged in war, the alliance 
shall, ipso facto, continue until peace is concluded. 

In faith whereof the undersigned, duly authorized by 
their respective Governments, have signed this agreement, 
and have fixed thereto their seals. 



Recent Agreement — England and Japan. 157 

Done in duplicate at London, the 12th day of August, 

1905. 

(L.S.) Lansdowne, 

His Britannic Majesty s Principal Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, 

(L.S.) Tadasu Hayashi, 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of 
Japan at the Court of St. James, 

Signed at London, 12 August, 1905. 



THE SIAM SOCIETY. 

We rejoice to see that a Siam Society has been recently 
founded (1904). Its objects are to investigate and en- 
courage arts, science, and literature in relation to Siam and 
the neighbouring countries. The patron is the Crown 
Prince of Siam, and the vice-patron is Prince Damrong 
Rajanubhab, Minister of the Interior. The council con- 
sists of presidents, vice-presidents, secretaries, librarian, 
and others, among whom is our esteemed contributor, 
Colonel Gerini, as a vice-president. 

In order to carry out the objects of this Society, meetings 
are to be convened from time to time for the reading of 
papers bearing on its objects. It is also proposed to form 
a library of books and MSS. and an ethnological museum. 
If possible a Journal will be published every six months, 
containing a report of the proceedings, including the papers 
that may be read. 

We have received Parts I. and II. of the: Journal, dated 
Bangkok, 1904, the agents in London being Luzac and 
Co., Oriental Publishers, Great Russell Street, W.C. 
Amongst the papers in the Journal is a ** History of the 
Foundation of Ayuthia,*' by Prince Damrong ; ** Proverbs 
and Idiomatic Expressions,*' by Colonel Gerini ; ** Notes 
Laotiennes,** by Pierre Morin ; ** On the Menam Man and 
the Provinces in the East." by Phya Praja Kitkarachakr ; 



158 State of Kelantan^ Siam. 

*^ King Mongkut," by O. Frankfurter, Ph.D. We hope 
that this Society will be liberally supported and highly 
successful. 

For further particulars application should be made to 
Dr. Frankfurter, Bangkok. 



STATE OF KELANTAN, SIAM. 

In our issue of July last year we made special reference 
to the first report of Mr. W. A. Graham, H.M.'s Resident 
and Adviser on the State of Kelantan, Siamese Malay 
States. We also noted the various steps which led to the 
agreement of 1902 whereby this arrangement took place. 
We also mentioned that that report covered the critical 
period whereby the old form of government was changed 
so as to give place to a new order of things. 

The second report by Mr. Graham has just reached us, 
for the period August i, 1904, to May 31, 1905. Mr. 
Graham says : ** A remarkable feature of this period is the 
rapid and almost unhoped-for improvement in the general 
behaviour of the uncles of H.H. the Raja, whose attitude 
of aloofness and suspicion at the beginning constituted the 
only grave danger to the State. These gentlemen, having 
all been provided with appointments as chiefs of different 
departments of Government, appointments which have not 
been allowed to become sinecures, have shown surprising 
interest in the work entrusted to them, and it is satisfactory 
to record that they have now all come forward and inti- 
mated their desire to receive the salaries and pensions 
allotted to them last year from the State Treasury, but 
at that time rejected with scorn, and to surrender the 
vague and determinate rights and privileges which they 
formerly enjoyed, in return for the legitimate authority 
vested in each by H.H. the Raja for his own particular 
sphere/' 

In Mr. Graham s previous report, and referred to by us 
on p. 186 of our July number, 1905, as to the operations 



State of Kelantan, Siam. 159 

and claims of the Duff Development Company, a new 
arrangement has been agreed upon. " By the old document 
certain rights were claimed by the company, by inference 
or by interpretation, which practically excluded one-third of 
the area of the State from the operations of the newly - 
formed administration, and these rights being disputed, 
considerable friction resulted. The new document is the 
outcome of a compromise, whereby the company relin- 
quishes its so-called rights in return for material reduction 
of revenue ; and though it is probable that the Government 
could, by merely prolonging the former situation, have 
ultimately resumed the disputed rights without the pay- 
ment of a price, yet, in view of the fact that such prolonga- 
tion might have proved the financial ruin of the company, 
while it must infallibly have delayed the development of 
administration, it is, perhaps, a matter for satisfaction that 
the new agreement has been signed, and the position of the 
company, as a purely commercial concern, is definitely 
settled." 

The financial outlook, though still far from reassuring, 
has, improved. ** The introduction of a certain amount of 
law and order has curtailed the depredations of the 
nobility upon the revenues of the State. Consequently 
the revenue shows a tendency to flow into the treasury 
more than formerly, which tendency has been further 
increased by the passing of various fiscal laws, providing 
for better assessment and collection of the taxes. The 
suppression of certain monopolies has also had good 
financial effect, both as regards trade and revenue." A 
law called the Port and Customs Regulation has been 
recently passed, by which a new Government Department 
has been established, which is likely to prove successful. 
The interior administrations of subdivisions of the State 
are progressing, as well as the organization of police 
arrangements and the promotion of public works. 

The population is estimated at 300,000, consisting of 
Malays, Siamese, and Chinese. The education of the 



i6o Future of the Hindustdni Language and Literature, 

youth has hitherto been much neglected, but an attempt is 
being made to erect schools and to organize an educational 
scheme- Mr. Graham's excellent report exhibits statistics 
of imports and exports and various other interesting infor- 
mation in regard to industries and climate ; for instance, 
the mean temperature has not exceeded 74°, and has not 
been lower than 69°. 

THE FUTURE OF THE HINDUSTANI LANGUAGE 

AND LITERATURE. 

Sir, 

As I was unable to be present at the reading of 
Shaikh Abdu 1 Qddir s most interesting paper,* with a copy 
of which I was favoured, may I ask you to give space in 
your journal to the following lines ? 

With reference to the employment of the term " Hin 
dustdni" in supersession of " Urdii" and " Hindi," I would 
remark that, although it is of European origin, it was 
adopted by Mfr Amman himself in his preface to the 
Bdghobahdr, so that there is literary authority for its use in 
reference to prose composition of a hundred years* standing. 

I have myself made a point of using the word in preference 
to ** Urdii'* or " Hindi" ever since the squabble over the 
language question which arose in 1882, when the provincial 
committee for the North-West Provinces and Oudh (of 
which I was a member) were taking evidence for the 
Education Commission. The respective merits of Urdii 
and Hindi were being discussed at that time with con- 
siderable warmth, but it became apparent from the state- 
ments on both sides that there was no quarrel about the 
spoken language of the country, which was called by no less 
an authority than Rijd the Honourable Shiva Prasdd, c.s.l 
('** Hindustani' {i.e.^ the language of Hindustdn)." The 
sole point at issue was whether that language should 
be written in the Persian or in the Ndgari character. As 
to the spread of the language, Rdjd Shiva Prasdd stated : 

* See this Review for July, 1905, pp. 65-80. 



Future of the Hindustdni Language and Literature. i6i 

'* I have not met a single man from Kashmir down to 
Gangd Sdgar and the banks of the Narbadd who found any 
difficulty in understanding my vernacular, which is talked 
in the courts and in the bazdrs of the cities and towns." 
Another witness before the committee defined ** Hindustdni " 
as** simple Urdii without big Arabic and Persian words, 
and which has Hindi as its basis." This definition is quite 
in consonance with the excellent advice given, I think, by 
Hdli to youthful aspirants for literary fame. He said that 
although rejecting the use of foreign words altogether was 
like trying to drive a cart over rough places without the 
aid of bullocks, yet to begin writing Urdii without a thorough 
knowledge of the Hindf elements of the language was like 
trying to move a cart without wheels. In 1902, however, 
a short story was published at Patna by Pandit Ajudhya 
Singh Upddhya which contains neither Persian nor Arabic 
nor Sanskrit words, and is yet extremely readable. Some 
years ago I made an abstract of the vocabulary of the 
Miratu l*Anis, and found that, out of 2,700 words occurring 
in the story, 1,222 were of pure Indian origin, 541 of pure 
Persian origin, 910 Arabic, and 27 of other languages 
(Turkish, English, Portuguese, etc.). Of course the words 
of Indian origin include many which recur over and over 
again, while many of the Arabic words are proper names, or 
words used once or twice only. 

One advantage of using the term ** Hindustdni " is that it 
can be made to include the whole of the modern literature 
of Hindustdn from its very beginning — that is to say, from 
the time when the country freed itself from the domination 
of Sanskrit and the debasing tradition that priests alone 
enjoyed the privilege of reading and writing. The historical 
accounts of ** Urdii" deal only with an episode in the main 
history of the modern language. They take as their 
starting-point the poems of Wall, although it is obvious 
that Wall did not invent a language which he used with 
such fluency. There are numbers and numbers of current 
idiomatic expressions which can be traced in the literature 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. L 



1 62 Future of the Hindustdni Language and Literature, 

of a date far anterior to Waif. Nor was Waif by any 
means the first Musalmdn who wrote in the language of his 
adopted country. It is said — I believe on the authority of 
Amfr Khusrau — that a dfwdn in Hindi was composed by 
one Khwdja Mas*iid, who died 1131 a.d. (525 A.H.). The 
Padumdwati of Malik Muhammad Jd^yasi, written in 1540 
A.D., is now being edited by Dr. G. A. Grierson, c.i.e. 
And contemporary with Malik Muhammad there was a 
poet named Nasrati, who wrote a heroic poem in Hindi, 
describing the wars of Sultdn *Ali *Adil Shdh of Bfjdpur. 
Surely no name for the literature of Hindustan should be 
adopted which would exclude the works of these and other 
Musalmdn authors. On the other hand, if ** Hindustdni " 
be accepted as a general term, including the whole of the 
modern language and its literature, we shall still be free to 
use the word ** Hindf " to describe that portion of it which 
is rooted in the history of the country, and which gives 
stability, energy, and strength to the existing speech. Nor 
need we abandon the term ** Urdu" when speaking of the 
long line of poets from Mfr and Saudd to Amir Mfndi and 
Ddgh, who have so greatly influenced the literary taste, 
and to whom the beauty and fluency and perspicuity of the 
existing language is so greatly due. 

I would like further to express my absolute concurrence 
in the views expressed by the lecturer in the last four 
paragraphs of his paper. As for the attitude of the Govern- 
ment to Oriental studies, it is a matter of notoriety. Nothing 
more bitter could be said about it than has been said by 
Professor Browne in the introductory chapter of ** A Year 
amongst the Persians " It is also a matter of notoriety 
that the Europeans of all classes who now choose India for 
the scene of their life's work are far less conversant with 
the languages of the people than those who used to seek an 
Indian career under the auspices of the East India Company. 
The fault is not wholly theirs. When once they have 
arrived in India, their whole time is at the disposal of the 
Government, and so great is the pressure of work that they 



Future of the Hindustdni Language and Literature. 163 

have no leisure for study. During their year of preparation 
for Indian life, the attention they can give to the languages 
is crushed by the number of other subjects they have to 
learn, which carry more weight in the examination. What 
they do learn is learnt by rote for a time, with the firmest 
determination that it shall be consigned to eternal oblivis- 
cence as soon as the examination is over. How can it be 
otherwise, when it is nobody's business in England to 
make the study as easy and attractive for them as 
possible ? 

Teaching is an art which is only acquired by practice 
after years of experience. The provision of good text- 
books in any branch of study must be the result of much 
patient labour by specially trained intellects. In respect of 
Hindustdni, the whole business has been practically left to 
amateurs, and the only great Hindustdni scholar of English 
birth who might have rivalled the fame of Garcin de Tassy, 
if placed in a professorial chair, was fain to work for his 
living under the cold shadow of neglect as a teacher of 
elementary Persian. 

Of one thing I am convinced, that until Hindustdni is 
recognised in England as the language of a civilized people 
having at least as great a claim to attention and respect at 
the seats of learning as the language of any other civilized 
country, there is no hope that a more extensive knowledge 
of it will be cultivated by Europeans in India. Nor can it 
be expected that Hindustdni emigrants to the colonies will 
be treated with any greater consideration than they are at 
present, so long as the parent country ignores the fact that 
they belong to a civilized and highly-cultivated nation. 
I do not think there is any question more worthy of 
engaging the attention of the East India Association than 
that of providing some organization for familiarizing the 
British public with the modern languages of India, of which, 
undoubtedly, Hindustdni is the chief. 

G. E. Ward. 



L 2 



1 64 The Education of Children on Plantations. 

THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN ON PLANTATIONS IN 

INDIA AND CEYLON. 

It is satisfactory to record that a start has been made by 
the Government of India in connection with the provision 
of some facilities for the education of children employed on 
plantations. 

The following despatch from the Officiating Secretary to 
the Bengal Government shows what steps are being taken 
in this matter in that Province : 

**With reference to the Government of India's letter, 
No. 693, dated August 17, 1904, I am directed to submit 
the following report regarding the arrangements that have 
been made to provide for the education of the children of 
labourers employed in tea and other plantations in this 
province. 

** 2. The Commissioner of Chota Nagpur reports that 
the tea-gardens in that division are small, generally un- 
important, and in a decadent condition ; that two of the 
largest of them have established lower primary schools on 
their own account, and that there are lower primary schools 
within easy reach of the others. In these circumstances 
the Lieutenant-Governor does not think that any special 
arrangements are necessary in so far as this division is 
concerned. 

** 3. The Commissioner of the Chittagong division reports 
that there is a primary school on one estate ; that on one 
or two more the children are encouraged to attend the 
neighbouring primary schools ; but that the owners and 
managers of other plantations are unwilling that the children 
of their labourers should receive education, as this, in their 
opinion, would unfit them for the work which their fathers 
are doing. The Commissioner thinks, however, that by 
his own and the District Officers' personal influence he will 
be able to induce most of the planters of the larger gardens 
to establish half-time or night-schools on their estates. 
As regards the smaller plantations, a school has been 
established in the Chittagong municipality, which the 



The Education of Children on Plantations. 165 

children of the neighbouring gardens will be able to attend. 
The District Officer of Chittagong has also promised to 
ascertain whether some of the existing schools cannot be 
moved nearer to those tea-plantations which cannot main- 
tain schools for themselves. 

"4. In the Rajshahi division, owing to the existence of 
primary and mission-schools in various parts of the Dar- 
jeeling district, the state of affairs is more promising in the 
hills than in the Duars. In order to effect an improvement 
in the latter, the Lieutenant-Governor has now sanctioned 
the establishment of primary schools in ten selected gardens, 
and has also made a grant of Rs. 1,000 to supplement a 
contribution of Rs. 700 from the District Board of Jalpaiguri 
for their maintenance. Private tuition is at present provided 
in thirty-two gardens in the Duars. 

" 5. I am further to add that the whole subject has been 

discussed by the Committee appointed by his Honour the 

Lieutenant-Governor to consider the question of revised 

courses for rural primary schools. The Committee were 

of opinion that the new courses proposed for rural primary 

schools would, if adopted, meet the case of primary schools 

in the tea estates ; and they recommended that, pending 

the introduction of these. Commissioners and Collectors 

might do much in the direction of encouraging education 

amongst tea-garden labourers by adopting simple courses 

o{ instruction in consultation with the Director of Public 

Instruction. The Lieutenant-Governor has accepted these 

views, and instructions have been issued accordingly. 

"(Signed) H. W. C. Carnduff." 

In Assam, unfortunately, where out of 250,000 children 
only 700 attend school, the whole question is to be post- 
poned for a year. The delay may be connected with the 
difficulties attending the partition of Bengal. It is incon- 
ceivable that the reform would be opposed by the planters, 
if the question were put before them by the officials in 
a conciliatory manner. 



1 66 The Education of Children on Plantations, 

In Ceylon, as is pointed out by Mr. A. G. H. Wise, 
who has actively pressed this question on the attention of 
Mr. Brodrick and Mr. Lyttelton, we have as yet nothing 
definite to announce, as the Report of the Government 
Commission on the subject has not yet been published. It 
is rumoured, however, that the Commissioners recommend 
compulsory education throughout the island. There is no 
doubt that much room for improvement exists in the educa- 
tional system of Ceylon ; and all true friends of progress 
would welcome such a change, which could not fail to be 
of benefit to the Colony, provided that the education were 
confined to instruction in the vernacular, and that no attempt 
were made to force sectarian teaching on the children against 
the wish of the parents, whether Buddhists or Hindus. 



CHINA AND RELIGION. 

Sir, 

Somebody in Cambridge — possibly the charming 
reviewer himself — has sent me a lengthy review of my poor 
book ** China and Religion,*' marked, in writing, ''Cam- 
bridge Review,'' from which I conclude that the undeserved 
notice in question has appeared in a publication of that 
name. I say " charming," firstly, because it is clear from 
his remarks that the reviewer belongs to that supreme 
social grade of mankind which regularly and closely studies 
its Asiatic Quarterly Review ; and, secondly, because he 
has not one single word to say in favour of my book, thus 
fulfilling the high desideratum of the Publishers' Union, 
Publishers' Society, (or whatever may be the correct name 
for the precincts in which those heroic men do habitually 
congregate) ; to wit, that a good slashing attack is by far 
the best ** selling '* recommendation that can be vouchsafed 
to a book. I could wish that such obscure Metropolitan 
journals as the AthencBunty Outlook, Standard, Morning 
l\>\t, Catholic Times ^ Medodist Times ^ New Age, Chronicle, 
ituardian, Record, etc., not to mention the thirty or forty 
Scutch, Irish, provincial English, Colonial, and foreign 



China and Religion. 167 

newspapers, which have, with such forgiving tolerance, 
noticed the said book, had given a timely thought to the 
same pre-eminent financial considerations, and had gauged 
their all too ** kindly lights " by the fierce flash thus shot 
forth from the hub of the universe on the banks of the 
Cam. To use the words of the unemployed, *' Curse your 
charity ! give me work (to do, in replying) 1" I am reminded 
of a picture that appeared a dozen years ago in Punch : 
"Why, confound it, sir" (quoth a rival artist), ** your per- 
spective is bad, there is no decent colour, the shading is 
impossible," etc. *' What on earth is there to justify its 
admission into the Academy ?'* The reply was : ** Why, 
iht pickchazv, of course !" 

There are, however, one or two specific points in con- 
nection with which the spirituel reviewer is really at fault 
himself. He says the book is "mostly a r^chauffd of a 
number of magazine articles." This is quite wrong. It is 
still more untrue to say that they have been left " almost 
in their original patch-work state." Every single chapter 

• 

but one was freshly written for the publisher, and not the 
slightest fragment of any chapter except that particular one 
is in any way a rdchaujff^ ; or has any part of the intro- 
duction, or of the eleven other chapters ever appeared in 
print before, though, of course, old facts may be (and must 
be) stated in similar language as occasion may require. 
The exceptional chapter is the one on Confucius, half of 
which has appeared before {^Asiatic Quarterly Review^ 
April, 1897); and it now appears afresh because the pub- 
lisher's ** examiner" himself voluntarily suggested that 
"Confucius would be quite readable even as it now stands." 
Then, as to the ** spurious text known as the Taoist 
classic," why find fault with the translation if the original 
be spurious ? So far as I have been able to ascertain, no 
Chinese historian or author of repute, at any date whatever, 
has ever suggested that the classic is in any degree spurious ; 
on the contrary, it has been steadily quoted as an unshakable 
text dynasty by dynasty, century by century, ever since it 



1 68 China and Religion, 

was written. Is it possible that the Cambridge reviewer 
has fallen under the glamour of Dr. Herbert Giles's influence 
(Professor of Chinese at Cambridge) ? Certainly, in his 
youthful days, Professor Giles rashly contended for the 
spuriousness of Lao-tsz's classic ; but Dr. Legge, Dr. 
Chalmers, and other of the sinological giants of the day, at 
once (and giving their full reasons, which I have found to 
be correct) mercilessly ridiculed this view, which,* I believe, 
has never been accepted by any sinologist of sound standing : 
indeed, Professor Giles's son, Mr. Lionel Giles, m.a. (Oxon), 
published last year (1904) a little book called the ** Sayings 
of Lao-tzu," which was favourably reviewed by me in the 
Asiatic Qtiarterly Review for January, 1905,* and which 
seemed to me to be a part recantation, at least, of his 
father's obsolete and *' cranky " views. True, even supposing 
that the reviewer of " China and Religion " has, indeed» 
allowed himself to be influenced by Professor Giles's views, 
these views, in the case of insignificant persons like the 
present writer — not to speak of Lao-tsz himself — are apt 
(I must warn him) to vary with the distensions or con- 
tractions of Professor Giles's unusually large heart ; for 
I myself have been frequently denounced as a spurious 
sinologue, and praised as a consummate master, by the 
same lively scholar at different periods of his career. 

As to M. Revon's work on ** Shinntoisme," I have con- 
tributed a notice of it for this issue of the Asiatic Quarterly 
Review, and when the Cambridge reviewer hazards the 
remark that **it is, indeed, charitable to hope that they 
(e.^., my humble words on Shintoism) were written prior to 
the publication of M. Revon's work," I have great pleasure 
in informing him in reply that his charity is here not at all 
misplaced. My chapter was written in May last, and was 
printed in June ; I have no idea when M. Revon's book 
was printed, but he (though a perfect stranger to me) sent 
me a copy of it on September 30 last, accompanied by 
a very polite letter, in exchange for which I had the 

* See Asiatic Quarterly Review for January, 1905, p. 207. 



China and Religion. 169 

pleasure to send him in return my own book, and to do him 
at the same time the small service he sought from me. As to 
the philosopher Vainancius, contrary to what the Cambridge 
reviewer supposes, I possess his work in the original. 

As to the views of Mencius or the origin of man's 
disposition, I refer to his "original sin," or what Dr. Legge 
calls his " lost mind.*' 

Since my Cambridge admirer has been so good as to 
express sympathy with me on account of the unsaleability 
of my literary wares, and to give the ** trade " a fillip by 
"going for me" in good publisher-desired form, I take the 
liberty of utilizing the hospitable machinery of the Asiatic 
Quarterly Review in order to make the following corrections 
of more real mistakes or misprints in my book : 

Page 29, seventh line from bottom, add ** no " before 
"longer." 
Page 6j,/or ** legis " read ** leges'' 
Page 6% for 2,200 read 2,100. 

Page 172, for ** their faith " read ** the Jewish faith." 
Page 193, for " French Jesuit " read ** Italian Jesuit." 

There are a few more trifling corrections to be made ; 
but, thanks to Mr. John Murray's admirable mechanical 
organization, they are exceedingly unimportant, and, together 
with certain organic emendations to be made at the sugges- 
tion of special authorities on Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, 
Orthodoxy, Catholicism, etc., they will receive due attention 
in the second edition. I shall also look up the other 
defects pointed out by the Cambridge reviewer, and, if I 
find he is right, I will be right too. Finally, I take this 
opportunity to correct a misprint in the Asiatic Quarterly 
Review for October last, p. 398 : M. Jean HUC should 
be M. Jean HUE — a distinction which touches the whole 
point of that particular criticism made by me on Professor 

Douglas* work. 

I am, etc., 

E. H. Parker. 

Liverpool, 
November 30, 1905. 



I70 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES. 



A. J. Cambridge AND Co.; Bombay, and 31, Newgate 

Street, London, 1905. 

I. The Mahdbhdrata: A Criticism, by C. V. VaidyA, 
M.A., LL.B,, Hon. Fellow of the University of Bombay. The 
author tells us, in his preface that, as the result of careful 
investigation, he has arrived at certain conclusions concern- 
ing Indian epic poetry. These ideas he proposes to develop 
in a series of treatises, of which the one now before us is 
the first. In this instalment he sets forth his views on the 
Mahdbhdrata considered from the literary and historical 
standpoints. His next instalment will deal with the second 
great Hindd epic, the Rdmdyan^ in which he will view this 
popular favourite from similar standpoints ; while the last 
of the series is to contain a survey of the social, religious, 
and intellectual conditions of the Aryan race between the 
years 3000 and 300 before the Christian era, as evidenced 
by these two venerable epics. 

It has often been complained by Hindiis that the men 
who have sought to interpret the East to the West have 
been persons of alien race and alien religion — the intended 
inference being that such interpretation has not been all 
that Hindii sentiment could have desired. On this account 
all such attempts as the present one to fulfil the function 
are decidedly to be welcomed. But if all Hindu writers on 
Hinduism had been as competent as Mr. Vaidyd, European 
writers would never have ventured upon the task. There 
is no denying that a work on the Indian epic poems was 
needed by persons of the missionary class in India, and by 
European Orientalists in general. Mr. Vaidyd has done 
good service in thus interpreting the East to the West. 
Many to whom those epics have hitherto been as a sealed 
book will be convinced that ** there were great men before 



Reviews and Notices. 171 

the days of Agamemnon '* — that they are in error who 
suppose that all that is great, and good, and wise, and 
brave, has been reserved for the men and women of our 
own time. 

In describing the various additions of the Mahdbhdrata, 
the author mentions that the opinions of Hindii authorities 
as to the number of shlokas which the poem contains vary 
widely, some reckoning that there are as many as 100,000 
shlokas^ while others adopt the more manageable figure of 
8.800. Where doctors so widely differ, who shall decide ? 
And what mere European Orientalist would presume to 
rush in where seraphs might fear to tread ? The Pundits 
must be left to fight out this battle among themselves. 
The mystery is to be sought, probably, in some variation 
in the principle of counting. But, indeed, the mental 
labour of this truly great epic must have been vast, exceed- 
ing all that the imagination could conceive. Mr. Vaidy^ 
throws wondrous energy into his labour, and he succeeds in 
investing this old-world poem with a new charm. For any- 
one who has become possessed of the passion for the heroic 
deeds and moral excellences of the earlier Indians, it will 
be difficult to tear himself away from this book of Mr. 
Vaidyd's. It may not be necessary to regard every state- 
ment in the Mahdbhdrata as ** Gospel truth," any more than 
the statements of the historical romances of Sir Walter 
Scott, or in the ** Death of Arthur," or in the epics of 
Milton ; and yet the impression left on the mind is that 
long prior to the era of the Buddha there were men and 
women in Bhdratvarsha of a type of mind and character 
second to none in the history of nations. That devout 
HindAs should cherish for the Mahdbhdrata and its heroes 
and heroines sentiments of admiration and affection some- 
what akin to worship is not to be wondered at. 

Mr. Vaidyd apologizes for any defects in the trans- 
literation of Sanskrit words and names which he anticipates 
the reader will detect in the course of the work. So far, 
good ; but no less important is the entire absence of accent- 



172 Reviews and Notices, 

marking, and of the recognised indications of the quality of 
consonants and of the quantity of the long vowels in names. 
The sound of t in ** Anushtub " is not the same sound as 
the sound of it in " Bhdrata " — the fact being that, although 
these letter- forms are in English one and the same, they 
are in Sanskrit two several letters, distinct in form and 
different in pronunciation. In places innumerable, again, 
the grammar of the author's English is sadly at fault. A 
lad at a Bombay University ** Entrance " would surely get 
minus marks for such a sentence as that beginning ** Nay " 
on p. 53 ! We regret to notice that the English exhibits, 
notwithstanding the author^s University distinctions, nearly 
all the defects characteristic of the attempts of Indians to 
compose in this language. There is the well-known in- 
accuracy in the use of the article definite, the seemingly 
incurable misuse of the tense-forms of the verb, and the 
characteristic confusion in the application of ** shall '* and 
** will." But we have no heart for fault-finding. Good, 
however, as the composition is, regarded on the whole, we 
have seen better in the writings of Hindus who had no 
University degree. In future editions Mr. Vaidya might 
discover some practised English penman to whom he might 
allow a free hand in correcting the English of his work, 
from the first page to the last. If thus the defects alluded 
to should be cleared out, the work would prove more com- 
fortable reading. The volume, however, contains signs of 
long and loving study of the Mahdbhdrata, and the three 
volumes will together form the satisfactory fruit of the 
author's high talents and unsparing research. Though a 
small book (only 222 pp.), the work is great enough to 
create, as we believe, an epoch in the study of this, the 
world's grandest epic poem. — B. 



Chapman and Hall, Ltd.; London, 1905. 

2. The Emancipation of Egypty by A. Z. Translated 
from the Italian. This work discusses from an Italian 



Reviews and Notices, 173 

point of view the Egyptian Question and the Great Powers ; 
also France and Italy; British Imperial Policy; the Position 
of Great Britain in Egypt ; the Egyptian Nation and Neu- 
tralization as the Only Solution of the Question, whether we 
study it from the Standpoint of Europe in General, Great 
Britain in Particular, or the Interests of Humanity in the 
African Continent. The writer's opinion is embraced in 
the following paragraph : ** Look where we will, for the 
native the future of Africa looms darkly. From the 
European there is not a glimmer of hope. One chance 
alone remains, and that is that some Mahometan Power 
should arise which, by the power it possesses of really 
reaching the native soul, may confer upon him some 
civilization, perhaps not the best, but such a one as should 
prepare him for the reception of a better. The one Power 
which might perhaps be trusted with the fulfilment of so 
noble a mission is Egypt — Egypt, which after a long and 
hard novitiate has learned from Europe all that it may 
learn for its betterment. But it is all as a free nation, with 
a proud consciousness of itself, that Egypt could act. And 
why should we not admit that Egypt has ended her years 
of apprenticeship, and that the hour has struck when she 
may be entrusted with the guidance of her own career — a 
career on which hangs the last despairing hope of African 
regeneration ?*' The volume is devoid of information to the 
English reader and statesmen who peruse the admirable 
annual reports of Lord Cromer. 



Christian Knowledge Society ; London, 1905. 

3. The Historical Development of the Qordn, by the 
Rev. Edward Sell, d.d., Honorary Canon of St. George s 
Cathedral, Madras, Fellow of the University of Madras. 
This little work (234 pp.) is one of the series published 
under the head of " Non-Christian Religious Systems." A 
work of this kind — accurate though compendious — has 
long been a desideratum. It is fitted to be of the greatest 



174 Reviews and Notices. 

usefulness to missionaries and to the general reader, and 
especially to students preparing to further the interests of 
the Christian religion in all parts of the world where 
Muhammadans reside — Europe, Asia, Africa, and the 
islands of the Eastern Archipelago. 

The force and application of much of the subject-matter 
of the Qor'dn turns upon the question of the period in the 
lifetime of Muhammad at which any given passage was 
first promulgated. To indicate the relation of one Sura to 
another in point of time becomes an absolute necessity to 
any Christian controversialist who would help the thought- 
ful Muhammadan in his quest of truth. It is just in this 
particular that the special value of this work of Dr. Sell s 
comes in. The unfortunate thing is that there are several of 
the Suras (or chapter-divisions) the locality of the original 
promulgation of which has never yet been ascertained 
— whether Mekka or Medina — and whieh will (as far as 
the present state of knowledge helps us to forecast) remain 
problematical to the end of time. What is still more im- 
portant is this : that the materials of some of the Suras 
have from the first been so jumbled up that even Muham- 
madans themselves have always found them to defy dis- 
entanglement. Dr. Sell very truly speaks (p. 33) ot certain 
of the Suras as being *' composite." It is as if a few verses 
from Exodus and a few from Job, and a few from any of 
the Prophets, and from either of the Gospels, and either of 
the Epistles, should be all shaken together and printed in a 
book, without continuity, and without connection or context 
of any sort or kind. Such is the discordance and irrelevancy 
of the subject-matter of some of the Suras. This being the 
condition of things in the Qoran as Muhammadans and 
ourselves now possess it, what must have been the condi- 
tion of the subject-matter prior to the final editing under 
the auspices of Uthmdn the Khalifa ! This leads us to 
express the hope that some day we may become possessed 
of a treatise on the ** Editions of the Qor dn," with the view 
of settling the history of the materials of which the book is 



Reviews and Notices. 175 

made up. For it is only when we are in a position to 
settle, not only the time and place of each of the Suras, but 
also the chronological order and relative setting of each and 
every A'yat, that we shall be able to understand the subject 
of the ** development " of the Isldmic system. As to the 
materials for such an enterprise, they are not far to seek : 
all that is needed is that a man so competent and so indus- 
trious as Dr. Sell should undertake it. Of mere ''commen- 
taries " on the Qor dn (both Muhammadan and European) 
the name is well-nigh legion ; but they all leave more or 
less unchurned the important and, indeed, vital aspect of 
the subject which we have now indicated. 

Amid so much to commend, we have to confess to a 
feeling of disappointment that we find not in the whole 
course of Dr. Sell's volume as much as a single allusion to 
the "Akbar Hajj," a subject to which allusion is made in 
the Qor4n, and which every true Muhammadan deems 
of the highest importance. It marked, moreover, a distinct 
step in the "development" of the Qor'inic system. This 
is the more to be regretted, seeing that he is very particular 
in distinguishing between the Hajj and the Umra. The 
Akbar Hajj, however, highly important though it is in the 
Isldmic system, is not by any means an easily manageable 
subject, requiring as it does that one fix the relation in 
point of time to the regular annual observance. The 
manner in which the printing has been accomplished speaks 
well for the workmanship of the Vepary Press. — B. 



Church Missionary House, Salisbury Square, 

London, E.G., 1906. 

4. River, Land, and Sun, being Sketches of the London 
Church Missionary Society's Egypt Mission, by Minna C. 
GoLLOCK. This beautifully illustrated volume is a brief 
record of the important work of the London Church 
Missionary Society in Egypt, as seen by the author during 
winter visits made on three different occasions, covering in 



1 76 Reviews and Notices. 

all a period of eleven months. No attempt has been made 
to narrate the work of other missionary agencies. There 
is one, however, specially referred to — that is, the American 
Presbyterian Mission, which has worked on a larger scale 
than any other in Egypt for fifty years. The volume, so 
well printed, exhibits more than icmd well-executed illustra- 
tions of towns, manners and customs of the people, the 
people themselves and children, the Nile and its ferry- 
boats, hospitals, villages, tombs, etc. The volume would 
be a handsome and beautiful Christmas gift to . those 
interested in Egypt, and specially to those who are co- 
operating in so ancient and interesting a country in Christian 
work. 

Clarendon Press; Oxford, 1905. 

5. A Catechism of Tamil Grammar^ No. 2, by the 
Rev. G. U. Pope, m.a., d.d., Lecturer in Tamil and 
Telugu in the University of Oxford, etc. Pope's ** Tamil 
Handbook " has for so many years been a household word 
in Southern India, and wherever Tamil is spoken, that it is 
a pleasant surprise to have evidence brought home to one 
of its venerable author being as active as ever. The 
catechism now reprinted by him — one of a series of gram- 
matical works which have been in use for over half a 
century — is a very convenient volume, whose present 
edition is especially intended for officials qualifying for 
the higher proficiency examination. Dr. Pope begins ab 
ovOy with the letters of the alphabet, making the method in 
the apparent madness of their changes plain to the un- 
initiated ; then he passes on to the different parts of speech 
and the syntax, and ends with the prosody. He illustrates 
the answers to his questions, at each step, by examples — 
often dividing the words given, moreover, into their con- 
stituent parts — and these, with the declensions, paradigms 
of verbs, etc., place the quintessence of the language, 
vulgar as well as literary, within easy reach of all who 
know Tamil sufficiently well to read it. Completeness has 



r 



Reviews and Notices. 177 

been aimed at as well as brevity, so that one is not dis- 
appointed when looking for such peculiarities as the nega- 
tive verb seyyathirukkir ran or words like enrru, — C. 



Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd.; 16, James 
Street, Havmarket, Westminster, 1905. 

6. The Far Eastern Tropics : Studies in the Adminis- 
iraiion of Tropical Dependencies, by Alleyne Ireland, 
F.R.G.S. The author of this work was appointed in 1901 
as Colonial Commissioner of the University of Chicago for 
the purpose of visiting the Far East, and preparing a 
comprehensive report on colonial administration in South- 
Eastern Asia. The report is in course of preparation, and 
will be produced in ten or twelve volumes by Messrs. 
Small, Maynard and Co., Cambridge, Mass., in the course 
of the next four years. Meanwhile the present succinct, 
interesting, and valuable volume has been produced. He 
has studied the subject during the last fifteen years, and 
the work contains a history of the origin, mode of control, 
and its maintenance while protecting the liberty and pro- 
moting the welfare of the natives of the respective colonies. 
It embraces Hong Kong, British North Borneo, Sarawak, 
Burma, the Federated Malay States, the Straits Settle- 
ments, French Indo-China, Java, and important chapters 
on the history and acquisition of the Philippine Islands, 
their government, the economic conditions and American 
policy. In addition there are valuable appendices of 
statistics, of bibliography, tables from the Philippine census, 
embracing population under various classifications, educa- 
tion, occupation of the people, and other details. There is 
also a minute and copious index. The work deserves the 
most careful attention. The author has written with the 
object of exciting an interest in tropical colonization, and of 
considering how best this colonization can be safely con- 
ducted so as to advance civilization and the welfare of the 
people. It may be added, although the author occupies an 

third series. VOU XXI. M 



178 Reviews and Notices. 

important position in the University of Chicago, he is a 
British subject, and he uses the expressions **our colonial 
policy/* " our Far Eastern possessions," etc. 

7. The Risen Sun, by Baron Suyematsu. Baron 
Suyematsu was one of what may be termed the second 
wave of Japanese pioneers (the Marquis I to and his 
contemporaries being regarded as the first) who came to 
Europe with a view of making themselves thoroughly 
familiar with Western institutions, and he holds the dis- 
tinction, which (owing to linguistic difficulties) has not fallen 
to a great many of his countrymen, of having taken a good 
degree at Cambridge. On those who knew him there in the 
early eighties he certainly made the impression of reserve of 
intellectual power and scarcely less so of originality, so that 
few of his contemporaries have been surprised that his sub- 
sequent career in his native country has been a distinguished 
one, including, under the Marquis Ito's Cabinet, the 
Ministry of the Interior. It is characteristic of the modesty 
of the man that none who knew him at Cambridge were 
aware that he had even then held a staff officer's commission 
in the Satsuma rebellion — that great struggle which was of 
similar vital importance to modern Japan as was the Civil 
War to America. 

When the war between Russia and Japan broke out, 
Baron Suyematsu undertook a semi-official mission to 
Europe, the object of which was to counteract, as far as 
speech and writing could do so, the effects of the pro- 
Russian press propaganda, which, though ultimately as 
dismal a failure as the operations of the same Power in the 
field, was at one time thought to be dangerous. In speech, 
in lecture, and *' from the platform of the great reviews " in 
France, Germany, and England, (the Asiatic Quarterly 
among the number), Baron Suyematsu has most ably dis- 
charged his task, and the present work, with its very appro- 
priate title, consists of these various utterances collected 
together and re-edited by himself and his secretaries. The 
work is divisible into three main sections, which we may 



Reviews and Notices. 179 

term the political, the ethological, and the prophetic. 
The first of these, which to the general reader will be, 
perhaps, the least interesting portion of the book, deals 
with the political controversy with Russia which resulted in 
the war ; the second is directed to placing before European 
readers the Japanese character and some of the salient 
features of the history of modern Japan in its most im- 
portant aspects ; and the latter part deals with the external 
relations of the country as at present modified, and 
likely in the future to be affected by, the results of the war. 
Everyone interested in Japan — and who now is not ? — 
will find •' The Risen Sun " a fascinating and absorbing 
work. It is pre-eminently triumphant in vindicating *' Dai 
Nippon " from the charge more often levelled against her 
on the Continent than here of being a semi- barbarous 
parvenu, who, like a Central African potentate, has recently 
adopted the frock-coat and top-hat. On the contrary, Baron 
Suyematsu shows very clearly that his country is 

" A4and of just and old renown, 
Where freedom slowly broadens down 
From precedent to precedent," 

and that its arts were flourishing and its civilization highly 
developed before the days of Charlemagne. Of particular 
interest and charm might be selected the chapters on 
Japanese *' Arts and Letters," ** Moral Teaching in Japan," 
and more especially " The Making of a Soldier in Japan." 
The facts revealed in this latter chapter go a long way 
towards explaining the results of the war, and they show 
very clearly that those responsible for Japan's military 
system have, above all things, set themselves to ** inform *' 
the nation's soldiers with the old Japanese ** military 
spirit" which has become universally famous as " Bushido." 
The latter part of the work has, naturally enough, a 
triumphal note, and one is glad to observe that for the last 
great naval battle the author has adopted the name of 
Tsushima, rather than the prosaic official title of the Battle 
of the Sea of Japan ; for Tsushima is an island, and will 

M 2 



i8o Reviews and Notices. 

one day be almost as famous in history as that other island 
— ** Salamis much beaten of the sea." — R. N. L. 



Arthur Humphreys: Hatchard, 187, Piccadilly, 

London. 

8. John of Damascus, by Douglas Ainslie. For any- 
one knowing the East, the most striking characteristic of 
this book is the success with which the author, who has 
never been there, puts himself in the place of Orientals, 
and the accuracy, on the whole, with which he makes them 
give an account of their different creeds. These, in fact, 
form the subject of the poem ; and he has enshrined them 
in a picturesque story — a meeting brought about by him 
between a Christian saint, the Vizier of the contemporary 
Caliph, a Buddhist ascetic, and that mysterious personage, 
the Veiled Prophet of Khorassan. St. John the Damas- 
cene, the vicissitudes of whose previous life form an intro- 
duction, tells the tale of Barlaam and Joasaph, weaving 
into it an exposition of Christian doctrine. The Buddhist 
claims the legend, saying that it is but an adaptation of 
that of Gautama, whose life and teaching he then describes. 
When he has done, the Vizier speaks of Islam, drawing 
largely upon its folk-lore to complete the picture, and 
bringing it down to the end of the fourth caliphate. As 
he concludes the Veiled Prophet comes upon the scene 
and takes up the thread. He recalls the tragedy of 
Kerbela, with the events that led up to it, and the peculiar 
tenets of the Shiahs concerning the Day of Judgment. 
The end of his story is practically that of the poem, the 
other characters merely adding a few words before they, 
like him, take their departure. 

It must not be imagined for a moment that Mr. Ainslie's 
work is a succession of dry theological treatises ; he has 
managed to give an idea of the different religions without 
ever being tiresome. He takes care not to make dogmas 
heavy by dwelling too long upon them, and he varies them 



Reviews and Notices, i8i 

with anecdotes and legends, so as to keep the reader con- 
stantly interested. There are a few errors to be corrected 
in the next edition— the calumny, for instance, that Mos- 
lems believe women to be " soulless " (p. 140), repeated by 
the author in evident good faith. But the wonder is that 
there are not more. Whence has Mr. Ainslie got that 
exasperating last vowel, by the way, in ** Ya Mohammeda " 
(p. 216) ? — C. 

Ernest Leroux ; Paris. 

9. Les M^moires Historiques de Se-ma TsHen, translated 
and annotated by ISdouard Chavannes, Professor at the 
College of France. It is now ten years since the unwearying 
French Professor brought out his first volume of China's 
earliest real history, and now at last, after a long interval, 
we are at the fifth volume, the dates of the others being 
1895, 1897, 1898-1899 (two parts), and 1901. Volume v. 
brings us up to the end of chapter 47, out of a total of 1 15 
chapters ; so that there still remains plenty of heavy work 
to do. The previous volumes have each from time to time 
been duly noticed in the Asiatic Quarterly Review ; the 
twelve chapters last reviewed, forming volume iv., treated of 
the history of the feudal States during the " Spring and 
Autumn" or hegemony period (722-481 B.C.) — that is. during 
the stretch of time covered by Confucius* Annals known by 
that peculiar name. The present volume of 550 pages 
treats of the nominally feudal States, which from being 
influential began to be really independent of the waning 
imperial power, subsequent to the '* Spring and Autumn "; 
but during the '* Fighting States " period — i.e., when the 
non-Chinese or mixed States of Ts*in in the west and Ch*u 
in the south began to contest the political supremacy which 
had been long held by the purely Chinese States of Ts*in 
(Shan Si) and Ts*i (Shan Tung), and to prepare the way 
for the revolutionary conquest by Ts*in. Finally comes 
the biographical sketch of Confucius himself, who is thus 
ranked amongst the ** Kings " of the world. M. Chavannes 



1 82 Reviews and Notices. 

has thus already completed the translation of the more 
important half of this great historical work ; and there now 
remains little more than the list of personal biographies and 
the supremely interesting accounts of the Hiung-nu (Turks) 
and other ** barbarous" States. If, as we may devoutly 
hope, M. Chavannes continues to enjoy health and strength 
sufficient for the accomplishment of this great task, we shall 
possess a magnificent annotated work of at least 5,000 
octavo pages, in many respects even a vaster achievement 
than the original monumental Sht-ki of Ez-ma Ts*ien 
himself. 

One of the most remarkable results of our indefatigable 
author's latest researches is a fairly clear proof that the 
celebrated romance (third century B.C.) of the two voyages 
of the " Emperor" Muh to the land of the "Queen of the 
West" (tenth century B.C.) is really nothing more than a 
traditional account of the journeys of a Turko-Chinese 
feudatory, the Duke Muh (seventh century B.C.), to the 
regions of Kuch6 and Harashar. That is, in this as in 
many other cases during their early career of expansion and 
intellectual conquest, the invading central Chinese quietly 
appropriated such of the noble and martial traditions of 
conquered feudatories (or sub-States, or foreign States) as 
suited their purpose, and deliberately brazed them on to the 
framework of their own imperial history ; just as, for 
instance, Julius Caesar ** appropriated " the Gaulish divinities, 
and rechristened them with such Roman names as Mars 
and Minerva. 

In these pleasure-loving and idle times, those persons 
who wish for a short respite from self-indulgence, pomp, 
and vanity, could not do better than settle down to a 
little medicinal change, and refresh themselves mentally 
with the study of M. Chavannes' marvellous volumes. — 
E. H. Parker. 

10. Le Skinn-ioisme.hy Michel Revon, formerly Professor 
of French Law at the Imperial University, Tokyo. This 
book, a careful study of over 200 pages, has for its object to 



Reviews and Notices. 183 

show that the Japanese had a genuine primitive religion, 
developed on the usual lines of Nature-worship, Animism, 
Hero-worship, Fetichism, etc., long before the arrival of 
Buddhism and Confucianism from China, vid Corea, forced 
them to invent a special name for it. The name they then 
chose for their old religion was ShSn-tao^ or, in pure 
Japanese, Kami-nO'-michi, "the spirits' (or gods') road." 
This purely Chinese word first appears in Japanese history 
in 586, at the accession of the Emperor Yo-mei (Yung- 
ming), when it is stated that the said Emperor or TennO 
(T*ien-hwang) ** revered SkSn-tao {Shin-to) and believed in 
the Buddhist law.*' But it must be remembered that, at 
that date the very word Yo-mei did not exist (if at all) in 
any historical work — Japanese, Corean, or Chinese — and 
that it was not until the year 712 that any Japanese 
•' history " was composed at all, and even then only from 
the memory of one single aged retainer, who had (twenty- 
five years before) been orally told of it all by a former 
Emperor. All this, and a great deal more bearing on the 
worthlessness of ancient Japanese ** history," has been 
explained ad nauseam by Messrs. Chamberlain, Aston, and 
Satow in various papers, and also succinctly by the present 
critic in vol. xxiii. of the China Review of 1898, pp. 59-74; 
moreover, it is all admitted by the Japanese themselves. 
M. Revon now wishes us to believe that the Japanese only 
applied the Chinese word Shin-to to their already existing 
and matured national religion after the arrival in Japan of 
Buddhism (sixth century), and in order to distinguish it 
from Buddhism : he thinks it absurd to call Shin-to a Chinese 
religion, simply because a ready-made and ancient Chinese 
name was thus given to it. He thinks that, if the ancient 
Chinese and the ancient Japanese religious ideas correspond, 
it is not because one was derived from the other, but because 
each developed on its own independent lines. Moreover, 
he considers that Japanese Shin-to (previous to the reform 
and reconstructions of two centuries ago) does contain a 
moral code and is really a religion, though perhaps not in 



184 Reviews and Notices. 

our Western sense — i.e.^ complicated by abstract meta- 
physics. In this view he is, to a certain extent, supported 
by that premier des japonisteSy Sir E. Satow, and, indeed, 
no one need deny to any race, which has survived the 
2,000 years* struggle for independent existence, the 
original capacity to think out a primitive Nature-worship 
for itself. 

M. Revon is, perhaps, a little too positive in laying down 
when the celebrated triumvirate oi japonistes just named 
are d tort in what they say. His own plan is to take the 
texts of the Kojiki and Nihongi ** histories," with all their 
faults, and to endeavour, by comparing their statements 
with the ancient norito, or "prayers," and with modern 
village life and superstition, to arrive at a clear notion of the 
anthropomorphism, magic, fear of death, desire for spon- 
taneous adoration, development of fetichism, etc., which 
characterized the evolution of early Shin-to. It will be 
for each reader to form his own opinion upon the value of 
M. Revon's special pleadings. The writer of the present 
notice finds the author's knowledge of Chinese much too 
slender. He adduces, as established Japanese ideas, notions 
manifestly Chinese. For instance, Shin-koku^ " Japan," is 
manifestly a variant of Shen-chou, ** China," just as tei-koku^ 
"empire" (an expression unknown in China) has been 
evolved out of Chinese words. As a study in religious 
evolution M. Revon's work is excellent, but as an attempt 
to deprive China of the honour of having created Japanese 
abstract thought it is of doubtful value. — E. H. Parker. 



LuzAC AND Co. ; Great Russell Street, London, 1905. 

II. A History of Ottoman Poetry, by the late E. J. W. 
GiBB ; edited by Edward G. Browne, m.a., m.b., Sir 
Thomas Adams Professor of Arabic and Fellow of Pem- 
broke College in the University of Cambridge. In the 
number of this Review for April, 1905, we had a notice 
of the previous volume of the present work. The contri- 



Reviews and Notices. 185 

bution now before us is volume iv., and to all that was 
then said respecting the enterprise we have not much to 
add. As regards the distinguishing peculiarities of the 
present volume, they may best be stated in Dr. Browne's 
own words : ** The character of what remains of my task/' 
says he, ** undergoes in this the fourth volume a material 
change. Up to this point I have had before me a manu- 
script which, however much the author might, if he had 
lived, have modified or enlarged, was essentially complete, 
needing only trifling alterations and occasional notes. For 
the period which remains — the period, that is to say, of the 
New School, which deserted Persian for French models, 
and almost recreated the Turkish language (so greatly 
did they alter its structure and the literary ideals of their 
countrymen) — only three chapters were to be discovered 
among my friend's papers." It thus appears that, as far as 
regards authorship and subject-matter, the work now enters 
upon a new stage. As Dr. Browne's description thus sug- 
gests, the present volume deals with the modern Roman- 
ticists — Shindsi Efendi, Ziyd Pdshd, and the rest. To 
what was said in our former notice there is not much that 
needs to be added. The name of Dr. Browne has for 
many years been before the world of Orientalists, and 
needs no recommendation. The Turkisk original is com- 
posed in the ** Gazal " form — a form that readily lends 
itself to erotic poetry — and the translation is done into 
English couplets corresponding thereto. The poems being 
of an amatory nature, there is much in them of a highly 
diverting character. There is an aroma about them which 
is redolent of the glowing Orient ; and the work, apart 
altogether from its scholarly character, will form seductive 
and amusing reading, as well in the original as in this the 
English translation. In the printing and other mechanical 
parts of the work, the present volume maintains to the full 
the singularly high level alluded to in our notice above 
referred to. The enterprise has not yet reached the 
"index" stage; the great extent of the work, however, 



1 86 Reviews and Notices. 

and the abundance of learned information contained in the 
foot-notes, will be found to render such an appendage highly 
important and most useful. — B. 

12. Hebrew Humour, and other Essays, by J. Chotzner, 
PH.D., late Hebrew Tutor at Harrow. This volume 
(i8o pp.) consists of a series of papers that have already 
appeared in several periodicals ; it treats of Hebrew sub- 
jects — Biblical and extra- Biblical — as well of modern times 
as of ancient. The essays are sixteen in number, and they 
are written in the sketchy style which readers of periodical 
literature find acceptable ; it is, therefore, a work for the 
general reader rather than for the scholar. The author 
includes in his treatises not only the older Hebrew writings, 
but also the writings of Hebraists down through the cen- 
turies to our own time, embracing even ** modern Hebrew 
journalism." 

Every reader of the Bible must have perceived that the 
humour displayed by the writers of our Sacred Literature 
presents a subject well worthy of careful notice. This 
same quality may be found no less in the Greek Scriptures 
than in the Hebrew. Greek, however, does not come 
within the scope of the author's scheme. But the reader 
should not be too much influenced by the word " humour " 
in this connection. As found in the Scriptures, a good deal 
of it is what in these days would oftener be described as 
"banter," "irony," "ridicule," "sarcasm" — all, however, 
perfectly natural, and never strained, far-fetched, or out of 
place, as witness the incitement of the prophet to call more 
loudly in the invocation of the Sun-god in the Carmel 
incident (i Kings xviii. 27). It is the sarcastic banter 
of one who was fully assured that he was himself on the 
winning side. In the order of ** humorousness " Dr. 
Chotzner grades the prophets thus : Isaiah, Kohalath, 
Hosea, Amos ; giving Elijah, however, a very high place^ 
** alone by himself" — a kind of inspired Diogenes. 

As the Scripture passages alluded to are numerous, a 
list of them should have been given at the end of the work, 



Reviews and Notices. 187 

as also, and in a separate count, of the Hebrew words 
which come in for notice. Such an arrangement would 
have rendered the work more interesting to the intelligent 
reader, and would have been a saving of time. But there 
is, even so, a good deal of information in the volume which 
will make it charming reading to all who would obtain an 
insight into the subject of Hebrew literature, ancient or 
modem. — B. 



Madras ; Printed for the Superintendent of Records, 
Government Secretariat and Government Press, 1904. 

13. The Private Diary of Ananda Ranga Pillai^ Dubdsh 
to Joseph Francois Dupleix, translated from the Tamil, by 
order of the Government of Madras, by Sir E. Frederick 
Price, k.c.s.i., assisted by K. Rangachari, b.a. Vol. I. 
Records of native life in French India in the time of 
Dupleix are none too common, and for this reason especially 
do we hail the appearance of this important and excellently 
edited book. It is the diary of Avanda Ranga Pillai, an 
inhabitant of Madras, who at an early age was taken by his 
father to Pondicherry in 1716, where he had influential con- 
nections, and there he spent the remainder of his life under 
the rule of the French. His relative Guruva Pillai em- 
braced Christianity in France, whither he had gone on a 
mission to the Duke of Orleans for help to redress the 
unjust charges against his family, was made a chevalier of 
St. Michael and appointed ** Courtier," or chief native 
inhabitant of Pondicherry, and though he died when the 
diarist was young, he doubtless made his influence felt. 
The diarist himself was employed in 1726 by the Governor, 
M. Lenoir, and soon made head of the chief factory of 
Porto Novo, and in this capacity came under the notice 
of M. Dupleix, the new Governor, who, in 1747, raised him 
to the post of "Courtier," or. ** Chief Dubdsh," which he 
held, even after his patron's downfall, until 1756, when 
he was removed. He died a few years after, in 1761, just 



1 88 Reviews and Notices. 

four days before Pondicherry surrendered to the English and 
the vision of French supremacy in India was over. Much 
that is interesting is chronicled in this diary, as well as the 
most trivial incidents. The writer had considerable influence 
over Dupleix, and throughout the book we have many 
notices of him, of Mme. Dupleix, her daughters, and her 
unseen power also. The religious liberality of both the 
Governor and his wife is shown by the account of their visit 
to the school at Bommaiya Pilaiyam in December, 1744. 
In this voluminous book we might find many things to note 
had we space. In 1739 there is the hearsay report of 
Tahmasp Quli Khan's victories. In 1745 we notice that 
the Christian service was first held at Pondicherry without 
distinction of caste — the priest of Karikal being the reformer 
— and that sumptuary laws were laid down for female con- 
verts which were not kindly received. In the last pages we 
find the account of a fracas in 1746, when a certain M. 
Coquet was ejected (with beating) from a Tamil house, and 
the wise Governor congratulated the ejectors, saying, ** They 
have done well in making a thorough example of him." 
The diarist does not neglect to draw some sharp pen 
portraits of his confreres also, one of which we will quote, 
as it is instructive as to his^ estimate of a certain B&lu 
Chetty and human nature. The passage runs : "His ideas 
are not of a high class ; and not having moved in the 
society of gentlemen, he is not well mannered. The low 
nature of his character is to be imputed to the fact that he 
was not born rich," — A. F. S. 



Methuen and Co. ; 36, Essex Street, London, W.C 

1 4. Historical and Modem Atlas of the British Empire, 
specially prepared for students by C. Grant Robertson, 
M.A., Oxon, Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, and J. G. 
Bartholomew, f.r.s.e., f.r.g.s. This is a handy and well- 
got- up Atlas. It contains coloured maps showing com- 
parative views of the countries of the British Empire, 



Reviews and Notices. 189 

British Isles and Europe, Asia, Africa, America (including 
Canada and the West Indies), and Oceania. There is also 
an admirable introduction on the relation geography has to 
history, a short gazetteer of the British Empire and posses- 
sions up to date. For example, under the Commonwealth of 
Australia there is the following description : ** A Federa- 
tion of the six Colonies — New South Wales, Victoria, South 
Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, and Tasmania — 
created by 63 and 64 Vict., c. 12, January i, 1901, respon- 
sible federal self-government." Under British India there 
is the following description : **That port of the Indian 
Peninsula which is under British rule and influence, and 
includes districts under direct administration and the native 
States. It is divided into nine provinces and certain minor 
charges. 1600- 1858 administered by the East India Com- 
pany. In 1858 the Crown, by 21 and 22 Vict, c. 106, 
resumed its sovereign rights. The supreme executive and 
legislative power in India is vested in the Governor-General 
in Council, subject to the Secretary of State for India in 
Council, who is responsible to the Crown in Parliament. 
In 1876 the Crown of Great Britain took the title of 
Emperor of India." We give only another example : 
** Orkney and Shetland Islands, a group of islands to the 
north of Scotland ; capital, Kirkwall ; under Norwegian 
jores, 872-1231 ; nominally under the King of Norway, 
1231-1471 ; annexed to Scotland since 147 1." 

To show that it is up to date, we give the following quota- 
tions : " Political Changes in 1905. — Dominion of Canada : 
The organization of ports of the North-Western Territories 
of Canada into two new provinces, as shown on Map 
No. 51, was inaugurated (September, 1905): Alberta (com- 
prising the former Alberta and one-half of Athabasca), 
capital, Edmonton ; Saskatchewan (Assimboia, Saskatche- 
wan, and one-half of Athabasca), capital, Regina." ** Empire 
of India. — The provinces of Bengal, Central Provinces, and 
Assam have been rearranged and reconstructed, as shown 
on Map Nos. 34-35. The boundary between Bengal and the 



IQO Reviews and Notices. 

Central Provinces has been readjusted, whilst Assam and the 
eastern portion of Bengal now form the new province of 
• Eastern Bengal and Assam.* " There are also interesting 
tables and lists giving the statistics of the British Empire and 
of possessions not now under the British Crown, as well as 
a bibliography of the British Empire, historical and modern. 
We strongly recommend this Atlas to our readers. 



John Murray ; Albemarle Street, London, W., 

1905. 

15. China and Religion, by E. H. Parker, Professor of 
Chinese at the Victoria University of Manchester. This 
book seems to have for its leading note the suggestion that 
all religions are purely human institutions, the main double 
object of which has always been and is to account for the 
unknown, and to regulate the order of human life. The 
author nowhere states this formidable view as his own 
opinion, but the general trend of his arguments, as 
marshalled in facts cold and merciless, indicates that this 
must really be his view. For the rest, the twelve chapters 
are simply each in turn a historical retrospect of the twelve 
religions which have from time to time presented them- 
selves for consideration to the Chinese mind ; and, of 
course, it is for specialists in each department to decide 
for themselves how far this work has been faithfully and 
conscientiously performed by the author. 

We are all more or less familiar with what has been said 
upon the subject of Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism 
— the san-kiao, or *• three religions," of ancient and modern 
Chinese parlance — but Nestorianism, Manicheism, Mussul- 
manism, Judaism, the Russian Church, and Shintoism, 
have not yet been described in popular language in such a 
way as to make their influence in China clear to the man in 
the street. The overpowering influence of Taoism upon 
many, if not upon all, of these later teachings is described 
in detail, and the whole of the Taoist classic is translated 



Reviews and Notices. 191 

m 

word for word in an appendix, with check numbers added, 
enabling the reader to refer to all sentences of parallel 
meaning. A good deal has been written lately upon the 
subject of Japanese shinto and bushido, which latter " re- 
ligion " is really of so modern a conception that no Japanese 
dictionaries even mention it by name, nor is there any trace 
of its existence under that name in any Chinese work, 
ancient or modern. In spite of the somewhat strained 
arguments of Baron Suyematsu, it is, in fact, as Mr. Aston 
has clearly shown it to be, a purely modern catchword, 
exploited for all it is worth, and turned (like our words 
"efficiency," "free trade," " open door," " retaliation," etc.) 
to purely political uses. 

A special point in Mr. Parker's work which may be 
viewed with some satisfaction is the copious index. This 
enables the reader to control facts and dates by back and 
counter references. It cannot be too often impressed upon 
authors that a good index is as essential to a '* learned " 
book as a good railway guide is essential to commodious 
travelling. The dozen or so of photographs are in some 
cases quite interesting — for instance, the picture of tlie 
Nestorian stone and the portrait of the Chinese priest. 
Father Hoang. As to the letterpress, Mr. Murray may 
be fairly congratulated upon his care and prudence. 
Throughout the whole book there is but one serious mis- 
print, and that is the word legis for leges upon p. 67. 
Moreover, the paper is light, and the book may be easily 
held up to a lamp in one hand. 

While Mr. Parker's study may be fairly described as 
interesting to all, and even absorbing to specialists, it can 
hardly be recommended to the lazy man for light reading ; 
indeed, all but specialists will, perhaps, have a difficulty in 
mastering more than one chapter at a sitting. On the 
other hand, the unmistakable facts are there, and the places 
whence the facts are derived are all given in a preliminary 
" Foreword," so that anyone can " verify his references " for 
himself, and the book is secure of a long life. The author 



192 Reviews and Notices. 

seems to make a special point of the necessity for *'ob- 
jectiveness " in taking a fair and uncoloured view of the 
religions of mankind. To many of us this demand may 
savour too much of agnosticism, but, after all, why should 
we not all frankly admit the possibility of our being in 
error ? Every man is at liberty to believe in the absolute 
virtue and sanctity of his own wife's — in other words, to 
make a religion of it — but who so foolish as to deny the 
physical possibility of that wife — or, at all events, any other 
wifes — going wrong under sudden temptation or over- 
powering moral pressure ? So with religion. There is no 
reason under the sun why the most devout orthodoxy 
should not be coupled with the intellectual admission that 
"everything may be a mistake." Unless, in fact, we make 
this admission, in what way do we differ from those who 
claim ** infallibility " for Papal decisions ? Do we not in- 
ferentially declare ourselves infallible when we presume to 
deride the possibility that we may be wrong ? The fact is, 
it is only within the past generation that men as a body 
have begun to " think straight " at all, Mr. Parker would 
have been burnt at the stake 300 years ago. In past times 
such men as Locke, Bacon, Newton, or Johnson, may have 
exceeded in reasoning power anything that we can show at 
the present *' degenerate " day ; but even they were on 
occasions unable to shake off the *' infallible " beliefs they 
had sucked in with their niothers' milk. This was especially 
so in Johnson's case. The position now suggested, if not 
established, by Mr. Parker, that a man may be an absolute 
and convinced believer without abandoning one single 
point of vantage secured by modern science, is thus a 
simple though a far-reaching one ; nor is it in any way in- 
consistent with reason or common-sense : it is that the 
individual mind must be — as in fact the individual body is — 
perfectly detached. In this way we can all hope to see 
clearly, and yet we are all left quite free to believe what 
we choose, however inconsistent with ** undetached " 

thought. — J ULIANUS. 



Reviews and Notices. 193 

J 6. From the Cape to the Zambesi, by G. T. Hutchinson, 
with an Introduction by Colonel F. Rhodes, c.b., d.s.o., 
with many illustrations from photographs by Colonel 
Rhodes and the author. The author, with a facile pen, 
describes the various scenes recorded in the book. He 
begins with South Africa, and says : ** It is only now that 
Englishmen are beginning to realize how vast are the re- 
sources of South Africa. Practically the whole of it, from 
Cape Town to the Zambesi, may be described as a white 
man's country — in the sense that there are no climatic con- 
ditions to prevent white men from making it their home.*' 
*' It is rich in mineral wealth." ** Diamonds have been 
found in Cape Colony, the Transvaal, and the Orange 
River Colony, a fact that goes to prove that the deposits 
are spread over an immense tract of country ; at the present 
the chief difficulty is to regulate the supply so that it shall 
not be in excess of the demand. The gold-mines of the 
Rand have much of the character of a permanent industry." 
*' South Africa has great agricultural possibilities. For 
more than a century it has had a purely agricultural popu- 
lation, which has steadily spread northwards, and has now 
reached the Zambesi." 

The author then gives his impressions of the Cape 
Colony ; Kimberley ; Rhodesia, its gold-mines, its farm- 
ing operations, its prospects in the future; the Victoria 
Falls ; the veld ; the Native Question ; the land settlement 
in the Orange River Colony ; Johannesburg ; and a copious 
index. The numerous illustrations are beautifully executed, 
and the author concludes : ** These chapters [of the volume] 
will have entirely failed in their purpose if they indicate 
that all seems to be plain sailing in South Africa ; every- 
where there are difficulties to be met, and in many cases 
help is required from home. But they will have failed 
even more completely if they give the impression that 
things are beyond repair. The tone of quiet confidence 
that is universal in South Africa is an eloquent testimony 
to the contrary ; the country may be said to be ' marking 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. N 



194 Reviews and Notices. 

time/ but nearly ready for the word * advance/ " We 
believe this opinion is honestly and sincerely given. 



G. P. Putnam's Sons ; 24, Bedford Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. ; 27, West 23RD Street, New York, 1905- 

17. Muhammad and the Rise of Isldm, by D. S. 
Margoliouth. There are some subjects which in their 
very nature are so contentious that it seems impossible to 
treat of them without more or*less revealing one's own pre- 
dilections. The most serious indictment of Ignatius Loyola 
that has ever yet come to our notice was written by one 
who was himself a Jesuit, and whose object in writing was 
to put forth an apologia for Jesuitism and its founder! 
Dr. Margoliouth, while desirous of steering clear of the 
•'confessedly Christian bias" of Sir William Muir, does 
undesignedly, and by sheer suggestion, produce respecting 
Muhammad a most unfavourable impression. We say this 
not with any desire to derogate from the literary importance 
of his book, but merely as showing the unavoidably con- 
tentious nature of the materials, even when they fall into 
hands the most unprejudiced. The case proves that the 
more ingenuous and unbiassed the compilation of the life of 
the Prophet and the development of Isldm, the more fatal 
is the verdict. 

So rapidly have events unfolded themselves in regard to 
the history of the original founding of Isldm within the last 
fifty years that it is now at length becoming clear that> 
masterly as were the compilations of Muir and Sprenger — 
works which will be classics for all time — several publications 
have appeared which supply details respecting the subject 
that in the days of those two writers were as yet un- 
discovered. They, to be sure, obtained their materials 
*• from original sources," but the subsequent publication of 
the works of other Arabian writers has led, not to the under- 
mining of their works (which, indeed, were an impossibility, 
seeing that they obtained their information from sources 



Reviews and Notices. 195 

the most primitive and authentic), but to the filling in of 
certain lacurue and the addition of certain modifying details 
which lead to greater completeness in the narrative. Hence 
the raison d'itre of this new contribution. 

But high as the reputation of Dr. Margoliouth stands as 
an Orientalist, we know not on what information he was 
led to affirm (see Preface, p. vii) that Muhammad ** solved 
the political problem of the construction of an empire out 
uf the Arab tribes." He did, to be sure, upset the long- 
dominant oligarchy of Mekkaand the Hijiz, and he brought 
into subjection many tribes ; but he never so subdued the 
whole of them, nor did he weld them into an ** Empire " ; 
and that his demise was the signal for general defection is 
matter of common knowledge.. The conquests of Isldm 
after his decease were abroad (in Egypt, Palestine, Spain, 
etc.) rather than among the Arabian tribes. Indeed, as 
Burckhardt showed a century ago, some of the tribes con- 
tinue to this day not only unsubjected and unsubdued, but 
unconciliated, and even openly and actively hostile to the 
IsUmic faith and practice. Some of the tribes of Arabia 
have from the very first remained coldly aloof and un- 
affected, while others of them have proved utterly unamen- 
able and irreconcilable. If proof of this were needed, it 
might be seen in the agelong opposition of the tribes of 
the interior to the Hajj caravans. The heavy tribute they 
enforce, on pain of robbery and murder, is clear proof that 
they have no belief in the religion which renders passage 
through their howling wastes a matter of necessity. Their 
organized onslaughts on these followers of the Prophet are 
a standing evidence that in any ** empire " he may have 
** constructed" they have no part or lot. From time 
immemorial the hostility of the tribes has been bought off 
at a very high price. They do not go on the pilgrimage 
themselves, and those who do so they relentlessly punish. 
And yet is this duty absolutely binding on every follower 
of his ! The fact is, that with the removal of the person- 
ality of the Prophet all prospect of the subjection of the 

N 2 



196 Reviews and Notices. 

numerous tribes of the Badawfs vanished, and that for ever. 
The genuine son of the desert has ever proved himself as 
untamable as the wild ass of that same solitude — as well 
since the Prophet's time as prior to it — and whether his 
would-be subduer was Greek, Roman, or Arab. The 
hostility of the natives of Yaman, as lately as this very year, 
is proof that the hostility of the pre- Islamite Arabs to the 
Government of Mekka obtains to this very day. The 
further away the habitat of the tribes from the Sacred City, 
the more attenuated has ever been the influence on them 
of the system of which that is the headquarters, whether 
of politics or religion. Muhammadism has never at any 
period been the religion of all Arabia, nor have the 
** tribes " ever been *' constructed into aa empire," whether 
in sub-Muhammadan or pre-Muhammadan times. 

Nor are we at all able to agree with Dr. Margoliouth in 
his estimate (on the same page of the volume) of Sayyid 
Amfr 'Ali. ** Eloquent " it indeed is, as he says, and 
beautifully written ; but it can only prove ** charming " to 
one who is oblivious of the historical yar/^ / 

At the end of the work we have a useful ** Index and 
Glossary," and a " Plan " of the city of Mekka, the details 
of the plan being carefully specified in the margin. This 
is followed by a map of Arabia as it was in the days of 
Muhammad, showing the localities of the different Arab 
tribes in those days. In the Contents-Table at the be- 
ginning of the work are noted in chronological order the 
leading events of the Prophet's life, while the pictures 
(which are numerous) represent quite an interesting series 
of things, places, and individuals that come into the story. 
The work is decidedly enriched by the section devoted to 
the Bibliography of the subject. Its object is to name 
all the works that are of any permanent value — Arabian, 
German, English, etc. — from the earliest writer, Ibni 
Is-hdq, down to articles that have been published in 
periodicals of our own time. It is impossible to appraise 
fh^ tmportance of this section too highly to present and 



Reviews and Notices. 197 

future students of Isldmic subjects. Good, however, as 
the Bibliography is, we are sorry to be compelled to add 
that it is nothing like complete. We look in vain for any 
mention of the compact and really erudite compilation of 
Dr. Prideaux, Dean of Norwich. Not a word is said about 
Bartema and Finati, or of Badia of Spain, better known 
as " AH Bey," to say nothing of the profoundly learned 
Pococks, father and son. In comparison with the works of 
these men, the desultory and superficial book of the well- 
nigh illiterate Haji, A. H. Keane, is barely worth even a 
glint, and yet his book figures in this list ! To be sure, he 
*• went to Mekka," but so also did Badia, Bartema, Finati, 
and other men of our own time — English, Dutch, and others 
— whose books are not here mentioned, not to speak of the 
first Englishman that ever set foot in Mekka, poor Joseph 
Pitts. Last, but not least, mirabile dictu ! we find not in 
this Bibliography the name of the distinguished French 
writer. Monsieur Caussin de Percival. We are sorry to 
have to point out so many defects and blemishes in what 
is, after all, a really good and useful compilation. The 
pictures are exceedingly well executed, and the composition 
and the printing are such as to make the perusal of the 
book a pleasure to the reader. — B. 

1 8. Tibet and Turkestan : A Journey through Old Lands 
and a Study of New Conditions^ by Oscar 1*erry Crosby, 
F.R.G.s. So far as description of travel goes, this book 
may be described as a kind of " Sterne's Sentimental 
Journey," from the Caspian Sea, via Andijan, Kashgar, 
Yarkand, Khoten, Polu, and the Karakoram Pass, to 
Ladak-Leh and Kashmir. From that point of view the 
first few chapters will be disappointing to readers who 
want specific facts, and are indifferent to the subjective 
convolutions of the author's sympathetic heart. But Mr. 
Crosby has a reason for it, and as we read on we find that 
he not unreasonably concludes it to be unnecessary for him 
to repeat in detail what has already been stated ad nauseam 
in the books of other travellers — specialists, sportsmen, 



198 Reviews and Notices. 

scientists, politicos, etc. — who have been over nearly all 
of the same ground. Accordingly, the descriptive running 
history of the above-named places, including the incidents 
of travel, may be characterized as bald, and (to those who 
do not care to be bored with soliloquies and ** asides") in 
some places even tedious. True, a ** Sketch of the History 
of Turkestan " — and a very passable one at that — is added 
(at the suggestion of the inevitable friends) in Chapter XXL, 
and there is an excellent ** Sketch of Tibetan History " in 
Chapter XIV.* Both of these came as a welcome surprise 
to the writer of these modest words of criticism, who began 
to think he was going to be deprived of any ** back-bone " 
in the book at all. 

Where Mr. Crosby rises to the full height of his evident 
lofty attainments is in his able and suggestive chapter on 
the Tibetan people-^of whom, curiously enough, he saw 
the least — and in his discussion of the ** true inwardness " 
of polyandry and monasticism. For his facts he appears 
to draw largely upon M. Grenard's ** Le Tibet,*' but his 
generalizations appear to be his own, and, if so, they dis- 
close traces of true statesmanlike and philosophical genius. 
There is no occasion whatever to apologize, as he does, for 
his "excursive reflection upon the lordly States of our 
Western world " — except that he exhibits an odious specimen 
of "split infinitive" four lines from the bottom of p. 165. 
These reflections are, in fact, intensely interesting, and if (as 
it seems) he is an American, his frank criticisms of Yankee 
political corruption do him great credit. His fierce attack 
upon the villainous record of Great Britain in connection 
with the opium trade would infallibly indicate his American 
origin, even if other things — including, in fact, his own 
statement — did not point that way. He also appears to 

* The facts, as stated in these two chapters, may be compared with the 
following papers in the Asiatic Quarterly Review : " Nepaul and China," 
January, 1899; "Kokand and China," July, 1899; "Ephthalite Turks," 
July, 1902; "How the Tibetans Grew," October, 1904 j ** Kashgar," 
October, 1905; "Yarkand," January, 1906. Also "Khoten^and "Lob 
Nor," both in the Anglo- Russian Society s Journal iox 1902. 



Reviews and Notices. 199 

have taken up a special anti-British brief in connection 
with the recent expedition to Tibet ; but here, though he 
is fair, and his arguments are excellently put, he forgets 
amid his cocksure calculations to specify the most likely 
Russian motive of all. If Russia had been able to create 
an " interest " — even a religious one — in Lhasa (as the 
German Emperor tried to do in the independence of the 
South African Republics), she would have infallibly solidi- 
fied that interest, claimed right of way through the very 
Turkestan which, as Mr. Crosby shows, now blocks her, 
and ended by absorbing the whole of Turkestan, just as 
she absorbed Manchuria, and was about to absorb Corea — 
possibly with ultimate hopes of absorbing Japan too. Not- 
withstanding, however, Mr. Crosby's passionate pleadings 
for right against might, his sermon deserves the utmost atten- 
tion ; and it is plain, from the general style of his remarks 
throughout the work, that he is in no way whatever given 
to sanctimonious claptrap, but is, indeed, a man of the 
world, and withal a just and a charitable one, full of sound 
good sense and true philosopy. 

The charming photographs reproduced to illustrate this 
really first-rate book are scattered about in the most reck- 
less manner, without any reference whatever to the opposite 
pages. The one on Abyssinians at least might have been 
placed in front of the page where the author's experiences 
in Abyssinia are spoken of as an illustration or comparison. 
Moreover, pretty and well chosen though the photographs 
are, they are nearly always ** thick," and one can form little 
idea of personal features, least of all of the author's, or of 
Father Hendrick's, who appears to have been a most inter- 
esting man. The map also leaves something to desire, 
more especially as the author describes his route most care- 
fully in the text. Surely, Karakoram at least ought to have 
been marked, not to mention the exact locality of the last 
Kirghiz encampment, the particular branch of the Upper 
Karakash, and the other villages spoken of on the road to 
Rudok from Polu, such as Sasar. 



200 Reviews and Notices. 

The chapter on Buddhism and " Pon-bo " deserves high 
praise, and is, perhaps, as good a popular account of 
Tibetan religion as has appeared anywhere. " Heavy 
work " is judiciously relegated to the Appendices, and, 
indeed, the author is to be congratulated on the skill with 
which he has avoided interlarding his pages with " stodge." 
The Index is only so-so, and might well have been fuller. 
** Song- Yang " and " Weng Ts*ang " are hideous distortions 
of " Sung Yiin " and ** Htien Tsang," which in no possible 
Chinese dialect can bear the forms given by Mr. Crosby. 
At the bottom of p. 243 there is a sentence without a 
properly related nominative. The horrible x\mericanism 
program appears three-fourths of the way down p. 215; 
and a second excruciating ** split infinitive'* occurs near the 
top of p. 199. Notwithstanding, the misprints are very 
few, the style literary, and the general effect good. — 
E. H. Parker. 

Bernard Quaritch. 15, Piccadilly, London, W., 1905; 
E. J. Brill, Imprimerie Orientale, Leyden. 

19. An Abridged Translation into English of Ibn Is/an- 
diydf^s History of Tabaristdn, by E. G. Browne, m.a., 
M.B. The present is an abridged translation of a work 
compiled as long ago as the year of Magna Charta 
(613 A.H.) by Muhammad bin al- Hasan bin Isfandiydr. 
It is based on the India Office MS., and compared with 
two MSS. in the British Museum. It is the second 
volume of the **Gibb" memorial series. The work, in- 
cluding the notes at the end, runs to 280 pages, and this is 
followed by an index of 74 pages, bringing the number of 
pages up to 356. This unusually large index is of great 
importance as supplying the clue to the almost endless 
names and details mentioned in this recondite and little- 
known history. The labour involved in the collating and 
transcribing translating and editing, of such a work must 
indeed have been immense, exceeding altogether the power 
of anyone but Dr. Browne himself to conceive of. His 



Reviews and Notices. 201 

functions as editor and proof-corrector of the work have 
been discharged in a manner beyond all praise. It is in no 
respect a slipshod performance ; workmanship so sound in 
its principles and so highly finished is bound to hold its 
own for all timle. 

The volume is important for the light it throws on the 
intimate life of Persia and on the literary history of that 
land. It derives great interest from its relation to Mdzydr, 
who stands for the national and religious ideal of ancient 
Persia. But this is only one aspect of the subject — an 
aspect which may not have interest for all student tempera- 
ments ; another aspect of it is that of the historic wars — as 
well internecine as foreign — as also of military and political 
matters in general. Besides all this, the work abounds in 
information and anecdotes regarding the long series of 
Persian potentates. The whole subject-matter of the 
volume is fraught with Oriental shrewdness and redolent 
of the Oriental flavour. The publication of such works 
ought to be hailed as opening up to the Western mind 
the intellectual wealth of the wise men of the East hitherto 
hidden in musty and neglected MSS., and thus forming a 
groundwork on which future histories of that mysterious 
land might be built up. — B. 

20. Das religiose Leben des Hindus, von Ad. Stiegel- 
mann, Stuttgart, 1905 (**Christenthum und Zeitgeist," Hefte 
zu Glauben und Wissen, Heft VI.). We are glad to see 
that Missionar Adolph Stiegelmann, who is now employed 
in South Africa, has not forgotten India, in which he 
travelled and laboured so long. His last work deals with 
the religious life of the Hindus. Many manuals have 
appeared on this subject, notably the " Indische Religions- 
geschichte " of the late Professor Hardy, in which a vast 
amount of learning, illuminated by critical acumen, is packed 
into a very small compass. Mr. Stiegelmann's work is 
more popular than Professor Hardy's, and is characterized 
by a freshness of description and a warmth of sympathy, 
which are the result of his minute observation of Indian 



202 Reviews and Notices. 

customs and rites, and his familiar intercourse with the 
people of our great dependency. At the same time we are 
bound to admit that he never fails to go back to origins, and 
traces with patient industry the development of Indian 
religion from its source in the Vedic hymns to the form it 
assumed at the close of last century. The reformation 
of Buddha and the rise of the modern Saiva and Vaisnava 
sects are described at considerable length, though the 
religion founded by Mahavira seems to have escaped 
notice. Philosophy, which in India is so intimately con- 
nected with religion, is not neglected. 

The most noteworthy sections of this pamphlet seem to 
us to be those dealing with family life in modern India and 
modern Indian theism. In the former we cannot help 
feeling that we are reading the account of a man who has 
** seen with his own eyes/' and knows how to distinguish 
the permanent from the transitory in Hinduism. Mr. 
Stiegelmann seems to have been naturally attracted by 
the noble figure of the great Bengali reformer Rammohun 
Roy, whose services to his countrymen are, perhaps, in these 
latter days a little too much overlooked. It is, perhaps, 
difficult for any European duly to appreciate the heroic 
courage which Rammohun Roy showed in publishing, about 
the year 1813, a pamphlet directed against the practice of 
burning Hindu widows alive with the dead bodies of their 
husbands. He showed equal courage as an advocate of 
theism against idolatry. He was the true founder of the 
movement, subsequently developed, on various lines, by 
Debendra Nath Tagore, Kesab Chandra Sen, Dayananda 
Sarasvatl, and others. 

There can be no doubt that the religion of Kesab 
Chandra Sen and his successor, Pratap Chandra Mazumdar, 
has been profoundly influenced by Christianity, But there 
is good reason to think that Hindus who have not joined 
any theistic Church are not altogether impervious to 
Christian ideas. The following words of our author 
seem to describe admirably the present attitude of the 



Reviews and Notices. 203 

Indian mind — in Bengal, at any rate — on this subject : 
'* Many modern Hindus acquainted with the Bible read 
Hinduism in a Christian light, and instead of saying of our 
religion, as they would have done twenty years ago, * It is 
not true,* say, * It is not new.* " It is certainly a sign of the 
times that a distinguished Bengali, as we have lately seen 
to be the case, can, apparently without abandoning Hinduism, 
argue in favour of the existence of God, a future life, and 
the efficacy of prayer. It would appear to be our author's 
view that Christianity is exerting on modern Hinduism an 
influence similar to that which it exerted in the early ages 
of the Church on the religions of Mithra and Isis. In 
support of this we quote his concluding words : 

** As Christianity triumphed over the religions of Greece 
and Rome, not by destroying them, but by absorbing into 
itself what was good and true in Greek philosophy and 
Roman law, so will it happen with India; her longings, her 
mysticism, and her speculation will be sanctified by Christ, 
and find in Him their fulfilment and elevation, and so the 
beautiful words of the Indian sage will come true : 

" * Lead me from unreality to reality, 
From darkness to light. 
From death to immortality.' 



> »f 



GOLD AND SILVER WARES OF ASSAM. '^ 

Speaking generally, the gold and silver wares of the 
province of Assam consist of articles of personal adorn- 
ment, though here and there other objects are manufac- 
tured. Manipur produces a few gold and silver cups, 
hookahs, etc., these being principally used by the royal 
family of the State ; Sylhet turns out occasional silver 
vases for " atar," silver sprinklers for rose-water, silver 
buttons, jugs, and so on ; but few of these things show 
any artistic design. On the other hand, Assam jewellery 

♦ " The Gold and Silver Wares of Assam." A monograph. By F. C. 
Henniker, i.cs. One shilling. 1905. 



204 Reviews and Notices. 

is far from lacking in merit, though displaying a crudeness 
often traceable in Eastern productions of that class, while 
the precious stones used are neither very precious nor very 
well cut. But the work is eminently quaint and charac- 
teristic. The gold, too, is of a high degree of purity, for 
the Assamese goldsmiths* customers would not be satisfied 
with 14-carat or even i8-carat gold. 

The number of people employed in the manufacture 
or sale of gold and silver ornaments, together with their 
dependents, was nearly 15,000 in 1901, or roughly \ per 
cent, of the population. Forhat, in the Sibsazar district, 
is the chief place for the manufacture of purely Assamese 
jewellery, and the speciality of the Jorhat workmen is their 
enamelling. The enamel is usually of three kinds — a dark 
blue, dark green, and white, but red and yellow are also 
sometimes used. It comes from Calcutta in blocks, exactly 
like glass slag in appearance. The finished ornament 
usually shows narrow threads of gold arranged in fanciful 
patterns in the body of the enamel. These are formed of 
wire, and are laid on before the enamel. 

Among the chief articles in which enamel forms the 
main decorative feature are : 

1. Gejera. — A boat-shaped shell of gold, suspended from 
a necklace of coral and gold beads. One side is enamelled, 
while the back is engraved gold, and the inside is filled 
with lac. Price, Rs. 80 to Rs. 100. 

2. Thuria. — A pair of ear ornaments for women in the 
shape of small cylinders, one extremity of each expanding 
into a kind of flower, often ornamented with stones, and 
the sides enamelled. Price up to Rs. 140. 

3. Keru, — Very similar to the above, but smaller. Price 
about Rs. 40. 

4. Biru — A cask-shaped locket, attached usually to a 
necklace. One side is enamelled, the other either plain or 
set with false rubies. Those worn by men cost Rs. 15 
or Rs. 20 ; those worn by women are larger, and cost from 
Rs. 80 to Rs. 100. 



Reviews and Notices. 205 

5. Du^dugi. — A heart-shaped pendant for a necklace, 
very graceful in form, and usually tastefully decorated with 
an elaborate gold- wire pattern set in the enamel, the other 
side being usually set with stones. 

Besides the above enamelled ornaments, a detailed list 
of necklaces of many patterns is given by Mr. Henniker, 
some with pendants set with rubies and emeralds, strings 
of small gold and coral beads with pendants, and a notably 
artistic trinket — a gold chain, on which are slung filagree 
drum-shaped caskets. The work is described as very 
handsome. It must be borne in mind, though, nowhere, 
as a rule, does the goldsmith ordinarily keep a stock of 
wares ready for sale ; he only makes articles to order, and 
the customer usually supplies the materials required. 

It is said that the trade is declining, fewer articles of 
jewellery being ordered nowadays. Mr. Henniker remarks 
with truth that it would be a great pity if this charac- 
teristic and interesting industry should die out. 

Sylhet has actually the largest number of persons de- 
pendent on the trade, and considerable skill is shown in 
embossing and chasing gold and silver vases, cups, and 
trays. Gold riband is sometimes plaited with ivory, 
making a pretty and artistic fan. The Khasias produce 
articles of a pattern peculiar to themselves, and quite 
different from anything else in the province. The local 
chiefs and women wear on State occasions gorgeous neck- 
laces of large gold and coral beads, and at the annual dance 
the performers wear elaborate silver coronets, with a peak 
at the back, and a tassel at the end of a long rope hanging 
behind, all of silver. 

On the whole, Assam jewellery is described as so 
different from anything else that it is difficult to obtain a 
good idea of it without a picture or seeing the original. A 
small exhibition was held in Shillong in June, 1904, and 
the collection was extremely attractive, and many of the 
articles for sale found ready purchasers. We entertain a 
hope hat Mr. Henniker's descriptions will arouse a general 



2o6 Reviews and Notices. 

interest in the products of this attractive industry. — 
C. E. D. B. 

Another work of a similar character deals with the gold 
and silver ware of the United Provinces.* It appears that, 
though some of the gold is collected by washing the 
auriferous sands of small rivers in Bijnor, the greater part 
is obtained by importation. No silver at all is produced in 
the provinces. The amount of these imports and exports 
is very uncertain, for precise statistics appear to be wanting ; 
but such figures as are forthcoming from the Department of 
Land Records and Agriculture indicate that in the last 
three years about 19,000,000 ounces of silver were absorbed 
in the provinces- This came in the shape of bars, ingots, 
and coin not in currency, all being handed over to the 
sunars, or working jewellers, to convert into ornaments. 
From this it is possible to form a rough notion of the 
enormous amount of bullion which from time immemorial 
has been absorbed in these provinces alone. 

Among the more interesting objects of manufacture are 
vessels of mixed metal (zinc and copper), plated or damas- 
cened with patterns of silver ; ** diamond-cut " work, where 
facets are cut on the metal like those on a diamond ; 
enamels and toys, such as the silver representations of rats, 
peacocks, wild boars, antelopes, and the flexible fish, which 
form such characteristic items when worn on chatelaines. 
Silver articles such as tea-sets, toilet-sets, vases, bowls, salt- 
cellars, etc., are turned out in great numbers for sale to 
Europeans, Lucknow being the chief place of manufacture 
for these. There are also large quantities of ornaments of 
various patterns and characters worn by the natives round 
the neck, arms, ankles, and on the fingers, ears, nose, etc. 
Many of these are elegant and artistic, as may be seen 
from the photographs to Mr, Charles's work. 

With regard to the moot question of designs, the author 

* "A Monograph on Gold and Silver Ware produced in the United 
Provinces," by A. P. Charles, Esq., b.a., i.cs. Allahabad, 1905. 



Our Library Table. 207 

acknowledores that originality is not in demand, and almost 
absent. He agrees with Mr. Baden Powell, author of 
" Punjab Manufactures,' and other authorities, that some- 
thing might be done by art education towards improving 
the crudeness and more obvious blemishes of the work. 
Without the estaWishment of schools of design throughout 
the country art can scarcely be expected to make material 
progress. — C. E. D. B. 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

Government of Bombay, General Department — Archce- 
ology : Progress Report of the Archceological Survey of 
Western India for the Year ending June 30, 1905. This 
interesting report is divided into two parts. The first 
contains an account of work at headquarters, publications, 
library, annual expenditure, treasure - trove, museums at 
various places, and programme for 1905- 1906. The second 
part relates to Rapputana, Central Provinces, and Berar, 
Bombay Presidency, and details of the Assistant Archae- 
ological Surveyors tour in Rajputana. 

Anntial Report of the Archaological Survey, Bengal 
Circle, for the Year ending April, 1905. (Bengal 
Secretariat Press, Calcutta, 1905.) The report is divided 
into two parts, the first consisting of departmental notes 
and the second general remarks. The survey has been 
partly in Assam and the remainder in Bengal. 

Annual Progress Report of the Superintendent of the 
ArcfuBological Survey, Panjab and United Provinces Circle, 
for the Year ending March 2^\, 1905. (Economical Press, 
Lahore.) The report is divided into two parts. Part L 
containing a report of the Annual Progress ; Statement 
of Expenditure ; List of Inscriptions, Photographs, and 
Drawings, copied, taken, or made. Part H. : Preservation 
of Ancient Monuments ; Excavations at Kasia ; Epi- 



2o8 Our Library Table. 

graphy ; Acquisitions for the Lahore and Lucknow 
Museums ; and List of Publications issued. 

Notes on India for Missionary Students. (Church 
Missionary Society, Salisbury Square, London, E.C., 
1905.) A very handy and useful work for students pre- 
paring for Christian work in India. It contains, in a brief 
form, statements as to the country, its races, languages, re- 
ligions, population, missions of various kinds, also good 
maps, and an excellent index. 

Report on Archceological Work in Burma for the Year 
1904-1905. (Rangoon : Government Printing Office.) 
The report is divided into two parts, with subsections in 
each. Part I. gives details of programme carried out and 
of that proposed next year. Part II.: A report of the 
works of restoration and preservation of important buildings, 
and sites of excavations and fresh discoveries. Under 
Section 2 of this part there are the plans of Halingyi, 
Kalag6n, Payagdn, or ruins of a pagoda, and Lamayangyi. 
There are also numerous appendices, containing, amongst 
others, lists of buildings of archaeological, historical, or 
architectural interest to be maintained, either by the Public 
Works Department or the Government. 

Sri Brahna Dhdrd {"'Shower from the Highest'') 
through the Favour of the Ma/iatma Sri Agamya Guru 
Paramahamsa, (Luzac and Co., 46, Great Russell Street, 
1905.) The writer of the preface of this work — nearly 
100 pages — considers that it **is unique in its character, 
for the reason that no Hindu of his class and high rank 
has ever before sought to teach the Western world." In 
it •* lies the thread for the enlightened to take up if they 
wish to follow in his path *' ( p. v.). 

Indian Love, by Laurence Hope, author of ** The Garden 
of Kama," " Stars of the Desert." (London : William 
Heinemann ; New York, John Lane, 1905.) 

Japan Year-Book. First year edition. The 'Japan 
Year- Book" Office, Tsukiji, Tokyo. Japan, 1905. The 
compilers of this book, under various difficulties, have col- 



Our Library Table, 209 

lected together, for the first time, a year-book full of informa- 
tion to travellers — those in commerce and those interested 
in diplomatic relations. The compilers are all natives, and 
have done their work well. The volume contains geo- 
graphical information, population, Imperial Court, various 
departments of local administration, finances, banks, 
forestry and fishery, manufacturing industry, foreign trade, 
exports and imports, railways, education, religions, the 
army and navy, a very interesting biographical sketch 
of the contemporary worthies of Japan, and the press. 
There is also useful information about Formosa and 
Corea, and a full index to the whole volume, and a table 
of weights, measures, and monies (Japan and Great 
Britain). The second year's edition is expected to be pub- 
lished in May next. 

Climate, October, 1905. A Quarterly Journal of Health 
and Travel, edited by Charles P. Horford, m.a., m.d. 
(Travellers* Health Bureau, Leyton, London, E.) This is 
the final issue of Climate in its present form. It is now 
incorporated with the Journal of Tropical Medicine. That 
Journal, in order to meet the special requirements of the 
readers of Climate, will give four issues a year specially 
devoted to the aims and objects of Climate. The publishers 
are Messrs. John Bale, Sons, and Danielsson, Ltd., 83-91, 
Great Titchfield Street, London, W. 

Grammaire Minima de F Hdbreu et de V Aram^en 
BibliqueSy par Edouard Montet, Doyen de la Faculte de 
Th6ologie de T University de Geneve. Deuxieme edition. 
(Librairie Orientale et Americaine, E. Guilmoto, fiditeur, 
6, Rue de M^zieres, Paris, 1905.) This manual will be very 
helpful to those students who have attended the course of 
lectures of the learned professor. In it is given the general 
principles of Hebrew and Aramean Biblical languages 
from a Semitic point of view, of which a correct idea cannot 
be formed unless looked at as a Semite, who speaks them. 
The author, in order to make the manual as simple 
and as brief as possible, has introduced some modifications 

THIRD series. VOL. XXI. O 



2IO Our Library Table, 

in vocalization and with regard to syntax. He has kept to 
Biblical examples, but sometimes has departed from this 
rule, when a clear explanation was needed for the conjuga- 
tion of a dif¥icult Aramean verb. 



We beg to acknowledge the receipt of the following 
publications : George Newnes, Limited, London and New 
York : The Captain, The Strand Magazine, The Grand 
Magazine, The Sunday Strand, The Wide World Magazine ; 
— Technics, a magazine for technical students ; — A Techno- 
logical and Scientific Dictionary, edited by G. F. Good- 
child, B.A., and C. F. Tweney ; — C. B. Fry's Magazine; — 
Bibliay a monthly journal of Oriental Research in Archae- 
ology, Ethnology, Literature, Religion, History, Epigraphy, 
Geography, Languages, etc. (Biblia Publishing Company, 
Meriden, Conn., U.S.A.) ; — The Indian Magazine and 
Review (London: A. Constable and Co.); — The Indian 
Review (G. A. Natesan and Co., Madras); — The Madras 
Review; — The Review of Reviews (published by Horace 
Marshall and Son, 125, Fleet Street, London, E.C.) ; — 
Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Geselleschaft in Wien 
(Vienna : Alfred Holder) ; — The Contemporary Review : — 
The North American ^Review ; — Public Opinion, the 
American weekly (New York); — The Monist (The Open 
Court Publishing Company, Chicago, U.S.A., and Kegan 
Paul and Co., London) ; — Current Literature (New York, 
U.S.A.) ; — The Canadian Gazette (London); — The Harvest 
Field (Foreign Missions Club, London) \— Journal of the 
Royal Colonial Institute (The Institute, Northumberland 
Avenue, London) ; — Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly 
Statement (38, Conduit Street. London, W.) ; — The 
American Jotimal of Semitic Languages and Literatures^ 
continuing **Hebraica** (University of Chicago Press); — 
The Canadian Engineer (Toronto : Biggar, Samuel and 
Co.) ; — The Comhill Magazine ; — The Zoophilist and 
Animals Defender (^2, Victoria Street, London, S.W.); — 



Our Library Table. 211 

Sphinx. Revue critique embrassant le domaine entier de 
r^gyptologie, publide par Karl Piehl (Upsala : Akade- 
miska Bokhandeln, C. J. Lundstrom ; London : Williams 
and Norgate, 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden) ; — 
Questions Diplomatiques et Coloniales. Revue de politique 
ext^rieure, paraissant le i" et le 15 de chaque mois (Paris : 
Rue Bonaparte 19) ; — The Rapid Review (C. Arthur 
Pearson, Henrietta Street, W.C.) ; — The Theosophical 
Review (The Theosophical Publishing Society, 161, New 
Bond Street, London, W.) ; — The Board of Trade 
Journal (with which is incorporated the Imperial Institute 
Jcnimal)^ edited by the Commercial Department of the 
Board of Trade (Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, E.G. ; 
Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh ; Edward Ponsonby, Dublin) ; 
—The British Empire Review y the organ of the British 
Empire League, a non-partisan monthly magazine for 
readers interested in Imperial and Golonial affairs and 
literature (The British Empire League, 112, Gannon 

Street, London, E.G.) ; Bulletin de P^cole Franfaise 

d' Extreme-Orient. Revue philologique, paraissant tous 
les trois mois, vol. v., Nos. 1-2 (Hanoi: F.-H. Schneider, 
Imprimeur-fiditeur, 1905) ; — The Wednesday Review of 
politics, literature, society, science, etc. (S. M. Raja Ram 
Rao, editor and proprietor, Teppakulam, Trichinopoly, 
Madras) ; — The Hindustani Review and Kayastha Sama- 
char, edited by Sachchidananda Sinha, Barrister-at-law 
(Allahabad, India, 7, Elgin Road) ; — Proceedings of the 
Anglo-Russian Literary Society (founded in 1893), August, 
September, and October, 1905 (the Imperial Institute, 
London, S.W.) ; — The Hindu (published at the National 
Press, 100, Mount Road, Madras) ; — The Christian Patriot 
(the M. E. Press, Mount Road, Madras) \— Journal of the 
Moslem Institute, a quarterly chiefly devoted to subjects of 
Oriental interest (Galcutta, No. i) ; — Business Magazine 
(Toronto) ; — Documents Inddits, pour servir a Thistoire du 
Christianisme en Orient, publics par le P^re Antoine 
Rabbath, de la Gompagnie de J6sus, vol. i. (Luzac and Go., 

o 2 



212 Our Library Table. 

46, Great Russell Street, London, W.C.) ; — Malabar Daily 
News, a morning and evening newspaper (Kottayam : 
P. Jacob Pothan, Malabar Daily News Publishing House). 



We regret that want of space obliges us to postpone our 
notices of the following works : The Great Plateau : being 
an account of exploration in Central Tibet, 1903, and of 
the Gartok Expedition, 1904- 1905, by Captain C. G. 
Rawling (London : Edward Arnold, 41 and 43, Maddox 
Street, Bond Street, 1905); — A Tropical Dependency : an 
outline of the ancient history of the Western Soudan, with 
an account of the modern settlement of Northern Nigeria, 
by Flora L. Shaw (Lady Lugard), (London : James Nisbet 
and Co., Ltd., 21, Berners Street, 1905); — The Mainten- 
ance of Health in the Tropics, by W. J. Simpson, m.d., 
F.R.c.p. (John Bale, Sons, and Danielsson, Ltd., Oxford 
House, 83.91, Great Titchfield Street, Oxford Street, W.) ; 
— Part L of the Tadhkiratu 'L-Awliyd (** Memoirs of the 
Saints "), edited by Reynold A. Nicholson, m.a. (Luzac and 
Co., 1905); — Colonial Administration, by Paul S. Reinsch 
(London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1905) ; — Judah 
Halleris Kitab Al Khazari, translated from the Arabic, 
with an introduction, by Hart wig Hirschfeld, ph.d. (London : 
George Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1905); — Shinto (**The 
Way of the Gods"), by W. G. Aston, c.m.g., d.lit. (London: 
Longmans, Green and Co., 1905) ; — Everyday Life among 
the Stead' Hunters, and other Experiences from East to West, 
by Dorothy Caton (London : Longmans, Green and Co., 39, 
Paternoster Row, 1905) \— British East Africa : Past, 
Present, and Future^ by Lord Hindlip, f.r.g.s., f.z.s. 
(London: T. Fisher Unwin, Paternoster Square, 1905); — 
Rifle and Romance in the Indian fungle : a record of 
thirteen years, by Captain A. L R. Glasfurd (John Lane, 
The Bodley Head, London, and New York) ; — Swami 
Vivekananda : a collection of his speeches and writings 
(G. A. Natesan and Co., Esplanade, Madras); — Bushido: 



Our Library Table, 213 

tfie Soul of Japattj by Inazo Nitobe, a.m., ph.d. (G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, 24, Bedford Street, London, 1905, and 
New York) ; — The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate — 
Mesopotamia^ Persia, and Central Asia — from the Moslem 
Conquest to the time of Timur^ by G. Le Strange 
(Cambridge : At the University Press, 1905) ; The Bdbar- 
Ndma: being the autobiography of the Emperor B^bar, 
the founder of the Moghul Dynasty in India, written in 
Chaghatay Turkish, now reproduced in facsimile from a 
manuscript belonging to the late Sir Sdldr Jang, of Hay- 
ddrdbdd, and edited with a preface and Indexes, by Annette 
S. Beveridge (** E. J. W. Gibb Memorial" series, vol. ii.) 
(London : Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly ; Leyden : E. J. 
Brill, Imprimerie Orientale, 1905). 



214 



SUMMARY OF EVENTS. 

India : General. — Their Royal Highnesses the Prince 
and Princess of Wales arrived at Bombay on November 9, 
where Lord Curzon, the retiring Viceroy and the Governor 
of Bombay, met them. A most loyal and enthusiastic 
welcome was given to them by all classes. Their Royal 
Highnesses were fully occupied — receptions held for native 
princes, return visits paid, addresses in many languages 
received. The Princess was most enthusiastically welcomed 
on the part of the Indian ladies. The programme pre- 
arranged for them was as follows: Indore, November 15 
Udaipur, 18; Jaipur, 21; Bikanir, 24; Lahore, 28 
Peshawar, December 2 ; Manoeuvres, near Rawal Pindi, 5 
Jammu, 9; Amritsar, 11; Delhi, 12; Agra, 16; Gwalior 
20 ; Lucknow, 26 ; Calcutta, 20 ; Darjeeling, January 7 
Calcutta, 9; on board ship, 10; Rangoon, 16; on river, 19 
Rangoon, 21 ; on board ship, 22; Madras, 24; Maisur, 29 
Bangalore, February 5; Haidarabad, 8; in train, 16 
EUora, 17; Benares, 19; Nepal; Aligarh; Simla, March 7 
in train, 10; Quetta, 12; Karachi, 17; departure from 
Karachi, 19. 

On November 14 they arrived at Indore, where they 
were received by the Maharaja Holkar, the Begam of 
Bhopal, and a gathering of the principal ruling chiefs of 
Central India. 

The next halting-place was Jaipur, where a darbar was 
held in the Maharaja's palace. On the i8th Udaipur in 
Rajputana was reached. Bikanir and Lucknow were con- 
secutively visited, and Peshawar on Saturday, December 2. 
Here a reception of the Border Chiefs took place. 

His Highness the Aga Khan of Bombay proceeded on a 

tour, which comprises Zanzibar and Mombasa. Thence 

^ng the line to the Lake, and may return to India by 

lartum and Cairo. 



Summary of Events. 2 1 5 

The Hon. Sir Arthur Lawley, k.c.m.g., Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Transvaal, has been appointed Governor 
of Madras, in succession to Lord Ampthill, g.c.s.i. 

Sir Henry Rawlinson will consult with Lord Kitchener 
in regard to the working of the Indian Staff College. 

Major-General Scott has been appointed the new supply 
member. The Hon. Sir C. L. Tupper, b.a., etc., has been 
appointed Vice-Chancellor of the Panjab University. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir David William Keith Barr, k.c.s., 
has been appointed a member of the Council of India in the 
place of Sir C H. T. Crosthwaite, kx.s.l, whose term of 
office has expired. 

The following gentlemen have been nominated as ad- 
ditional members : Mr. Stanley Ismay, c.s.i., i.c.s. ; Mr. 
William Thomas Hall, b.a., ll.b., cs.i., i.c.s. ; Mr. Alexander 
Cochrane Logan, i.c.b., and the Nawab Bahadur Khwajah 
Salimullah of Dacca. 

India : Frontier. — Soldiers belonging to the Waziristan 
Militia fell into an ambush in the Tochi Valley. Two 
men were killed and two wounded. Ilindin, the notorious 
oudaw, headed the raiders. 

The two brothers at Dir, who have so long been at 
enmity, have decided to live at peace with each other. 

Captain J. W. E. Donaldson, r.a., was attacked by a 
ghazi at the frontier post of Bannu, and shot dead. The 
assailant was captured. 

The British trade agent at the new mart at Gartok, in 
Tibet, reports that the total trade between India and 
Western Tibet during the past summer amounted to 1 2 lacs 
of rupees. 

India : Native States. — Almost the whole town of 
Baramula in Kashmir has been burnt down. The damage 
being estimated at 8 lacs. 

Maisur. — The Representative Assembly met in October 
last. The President stated in his speech that the income 
amounted to Rs. 216,10,486, and the expenditure to 
Rs. 216,84,799. The Budget estimates for the current 



2 1 6 Summary of Events, 

official year are for receipts Rs. 227,43,000, and the ex- 
penditure Rs. 213,40,000. 

Sir Uyyen Wang Chuk, the Tongsa Penlop of Bhutan,, 
has been invited by the Government to be present in 
Calcutta during the Royal visit. 

Burma. — The following gentlemen have been appointed 
to be members of the Council of the Lieutenant-Governor : 
Mr. F. G. Gates, i.c.s., Chief Secretary of the Government; 
Mr. H. W. V. Colebrook, M.Inst.CE., Secretary to 
Government, and Chief Engineer Public Works Depart- 
ment ; Mr. R. S. Giles, Barrister-at-Law, Government 
Advocate ; Mr. J. P. Hoy ; and Maung Ba Tu. 

Federated Malay States. — According to the official 
report for the year 1904, progress and prosperity continue. 

Sir J. Anderson, the Governor of the Straits Settlements^ 
is about to take over the administration of Labuan. 

Ceylon. — The new mineral, thorianite, lately discovered 
by the Mineralogical Survey of Ceylon, has created much 
excitement and speculation in the colony. 

The new Session of the Legislative Council was opened 
on November 14. 

The financial position of the Colony is good. The 
revenue of 1906 is estimated at Rs. 31,059,300, and the 
ordinary expenditure at Rs. 28,739,000. The sum available 
for Extraordinary Public Works is estimated at Rs. 7,000,000^ 
Of this, it is proposed to appropriate Rs. 2,500,000 for new 
Public Works and Irrigation Works, and Rs. 1,478.000 for 
special Railway Services, besides reserving Rs. 1,500,000 
for the Negombo Railway. The salaries of practically all 
classes of public servants are proposed to be increased by 
nearly Rs. 500,000 per annum. 

Afghanistan. — There was a marked increase of trade 
between this county and India during 1905. 

The Afghans report that the Russians have bridged the 
Oxus between Karki and Khwajah Salar. 

Turkey in Asia : Yemen. — Large reinforcements were 
ent vii Hodeida, under General Amin Pasha, for tlie Azir 



Summary of Events. 2 1 7 

district. Marshal Faizi Pasha reported that the towns of 
Aoran, Tajila, and Kankaban have surrendered. The 
situation has so much improved that 14,000 troops have 
been sent back to Syria, and the Sultan has decorated the 
G)nimander-in-Chief for his great services in suppressing 
the revolt. 

The Haifa branch of the Turkish Hedjaz Railway was 
opened in October last. The entire line from Damascus to 
the Hedjaz is expected to be completed in about three 
years hence. 

Russia in Asia : Transbakalia. — Many cases of bubonic 
plague have occurred near the Datai-Nor Lake. 

Japan. — As the result of the Treaty of Peace becoming 
known, upwards of forty memorials were received con- 
demning the same, and urging a refusal to ratify it were 
sent to the Throne. The treaty was ratified by the 
Emperor of Russia and the Mikado on October 14 by 
the appending of their signatures to duplicate copies, thus 
officially terminating the war. The country has, by the 
skill of its commanders and devotion of the army, obtained 
generally its object — viz., the evacuation of Manchuria and 
a predominant influence in Korea. According to an agree- 
ment recently drawn up with Korea, the control of the 
country passes to the hands of Japan, the Japanese agreeing 
to maintain the sovereign rights and honour of the Korean 
Emperor and family. 

Notwithstanding the war, the total trade for 1904 amounted 
to ;^69,o62,ooo, against ;^6o,663,ooo in 1903. This result 
has been attributed mainly to an extraordinary rice harvest. 
A new agreement has been signed with Great Britain, 
renewing the earlier one of January, 1902 (see the text of 
this agreement elsewhere in our pages). Its objects are : 
The consolidation of general peace in the regions of Eastern 
Asia and India, the independence and integrity of the 
Chinese Empire and the open door, the defence of the 
interests of both countries as distinct from those of other 
nations, and the paramouncy of Japan in Korea. 



2 1 8 Summary of Events, 

The Legation of Great Britain in Tokyo has been raised 
to that of an Embassy, and Sir Claude Macdonald, k.cm.g., 
has been appointed Ambassador. 

According to the official report, the total losses sustained 
during the war was 218,429 killed and wounded, and 
221,136 sick. 

China. — The Hongkong Government has lent the 
Government a million sterling, to enable it to acquire the 
American rights in the Canton- Hankow Railway. 

The Viceroy of Szecichuan is about to open to foreign 
trade the Yangtse River port of Wanhsien, the future 
terminus of the Hupeh-Szecichuan Railway. 

Five American missionaries have been murdered at 
Lien-chau. 

Wing Ta Sieh has been appointed Chinese Ambassador 
at the Court of St. James's. 

Egypt and the Sudan : The Budget. — The revenue for 
1906 is estimated at ;^ 14,500,000, and the ordinary expendi- 
ture at ;^i 2,3 1 7,000, and ;^683,ooo set down for special 
expenses, leaving a surplus of ;^500,ooo. A total reduction 
of taxation, estimated at ;^332,ooo, is made up as follows : 
A 4 per cent, reduction of the duties on coal, sheep, etc., 
;^i 18,000; abolition of the salt monopoly, ;^i75,ooo; sea 
fishing and ferry dues, ;^7,ooo ; Red Sea lighthouse dues, 

;^30,000. 

In recognition of his valuable services to the State, the 
Government has presented the sum of ;^i 5,000 to Sir 
W. F. Garstin, its adviser for Public Works. 

Lord Edward Cecil has been appointed Joint Under- 
Secretary of State for Finance, Serhant Pasha succeeding 
Lord Cecil as Under-Secretary for War. 

Through the taking fire and sinking of the British steamer 
Chatham^ laden with petroleum, in the Canal near Port Said, 
much inconvenience and delay to traffic occurred. The 
ship had to be blown up, and for many days traffic was 
entirely suspended. 

Cattle plague has broken out in the Sudan and 



Summary of Events. 219 

several veterinary inspectors have been sent there with 
serum. 

Africa : Somaliland Protectorate. — The latest official 
report, that for 1904-1905, shows that there was a decrease 
of j^4,653 in the revenue, as compared with that of 1903- 
1904. The commerce of Zeyla is falling off in consequence 
of the railway to Jibuti, and is expected to diminish still 
further, until trade with Harrar practically ceases. 

The Somali MuUa has made friendly overtures for the 
opening of trade with Berbera. 

Africa: East Africa and Uganda Protectorate. — 
The Nandi tribe have again been giving trouble by making 
raids and killing people on the railway. Their country is 
difficult for operations, but a strong expedition was sent, 
and fighting took place, with the result that the tribe lost 
about 600 in killed, besides 10,000 cattle, and 18,000 sheep. 
Our loss was trifling, no officer was killed, but our levies 
had forty killed and forty-eight wounded. The trouble is 
now over. According to the annual report of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hayes Sadler for the year ended March 31 last, 
the Protectorate has made rapid progress. The ex- 
penditure has fallen from ;^ 186,800 in the previous year 
^0;^i73,O38, while the revenue has fallen from ;^5 1,474 to 

^59707. 
Africa : Rhodesia and Zambesi. — Southern Rhodesia 

is making steady progress. The financial position of the 

company is satisfactory. The working capital consists of 

about ;^930,ooo. The estimated revenue for the current 

year ending next March is ;^5i8,550, and the expenditure 

^53i>349- About ;^90,ooo will have to be provided for 

the administration north of the Zambesi. It is proposed to 

administer both Northern and Southern Rhodesia from one 

centre, as being more economical, especially as the rail-head 

has now been carried 121 miles beyond Kaloma, and the 

earthworks to 205 miles. 

Transvaal. — In September last Lord Selborne, the High 

Commissioner, commenced a series of tours in the Colony, 



220 Summary of Events. 

with the object of bringing the Boer population more into 
touch with the Government. He was heartily received in 
most places. At Pretoria, in the course of a speech, his 
Lordship advised the union of all the South African 
railways, both main and branch, and including that to 
Lorenzo Marques. The Cape and Natal Governments are 
favourably inclined, and the Inter-Colonial Council is en- 
deavouring to arrange the undertaking. 

The output of gold for the year 1904-1905 was valued at 
;^i8,420,644, and diamonds at ;^i, 118,727. The total 
exports amounted to ;^20,670,720. 

The distribution of the payment of ;^3,ooo,ooo ' in 
accordance with the Vereeniging Treaty, has taken 
place. 

Orange River Colony. — The revenue for 1904 amounted 
to ;^786,049, and the expenditure ta;^78o,535. 

The value of the exports during the year ended June 30 
last amounted to ;^2, 263,925. The imports of same period 

to ;^3»25i,098. 

Cape Colony. — The De Aar-Prieska Railway was opened 
last September by Mr. Smartt. 

Irrigation works on the Gamtoos River were destroyed 
by floods. 

West Coast of Africa : Nigeria. — The negotiations 
between France and Great Britain with regard to Anglo- 
French boundaries in Northern Nigeria will shortly be 
resumed, including that of Zinder. 

Some fighting has taken place on the Ethiope River with 
the Kwale tribe. The natives lost 103 killed ; on our side 
three white men were wounded, and a few levies killed. 
A second expedition under Colonel Montanaro proceeded 
up the same river and met with complete success ; the 
troops thereupon returned to Lagos. 

Victoria. — Mr. Bent, the State Treasurer, delivered his 

budget statement in October last. The revenue for the 

past year amounted to ;^7. 509,000, and the expenditure to 

^6,982,000, leaving a surplus of ;^527,ooo. He estimated 



Summary of Events. 221 

the revenue for the coming year at ;^7, 145,000, and the 
expenditure at ;^7, 133,000. 

New South Wales. — It is reported that a sum of ;^2,ooo 
for assisting immigration has been voted by Parliament by 
a large majority, against strenuous opposition on the part of 
the Labour party. The Agent-General is negotiating with 
the steamship companies for co-operation in stimulating the 
flow of immigration to the State. 

The rains which fell during last September have insured 
a good spring and a good butter harvest. 

South Australia. — The Taxation Bill has been laid 
aside, owing to the disagreement between the Legislative 
Council and the House of Assembly as regards the proposed 
progressive land-tax. 

The next Federal elections will be fought on the Tariff 
issue. 

Western Australia. — The Parliamentary elections 
which took place last October resulted in the return of 
thirty-four Ministerialists, thirteen Labour, and one Inde- 
pendent Labour member. 

The gold exported during the first ten months of 1905 
amounted to 1,629,976 ounces, and the mining dividends 
for that period to ;^i,887,533. The total dividends 
amounted to ;^ 13,459,736. 

Mr. Quinlan has been elected Speaker of the Legislative 
Assembly. 

Canada. — The revenue for the fiscal year ended June 30 
last amounted to $71,180,036, and the expenditure to 
$631309,305, leaving a surplus of $7,871,321. The ex- 
penditure on capital account for the year was $15,414,400, 
an increase of $4,500,000. 

Mr. A. B. Aylesworth, k.c, has been sworn in as 
Dominion Postmaster- General. 

British Guiana. — A serious riot, owing to a strike of 
wharfingers, has occurred in Georgetown. The mob, on 
attacking the Governor's house, was fired upon, and several 
killed and wounded. 



222 Summary of Events, 

Obituary, — The deaths have been recorded during the 
past quarter of the following : — Major-General Dixon Henry 
Hoste (Crimea, Fenian raid, 1866) ; — Arthur Randall 
Earle Lidbetter, b.a., Government Chaplain at Thayetmyo, 
Burma ; — Colonel Frank Rhodes, c.b., d.s.o., at Cape Town 
(Sudan campaign 1887, Nile expedition, Suakin 1888, 
Military Secretary to Governor of Bombay, Mission to 
Uganda, Jameson raid, Matabele insurrection, Khartum 
expedition {Times correspondent) 1898, besieged in Lady- 
smith ; — Major-General F. E. Edward Wilson, c.b., late 
York and Lancaster Regiment (Egyptian campaign 1882) ; 
— Commissary - General Arthur William Downes, c.b. 
(Crimea, China expeditionary force 1857-59); — The Very 

# 

Rev. DeBertt Hovell, Dean of Wacapu, N.Z. ; — Lieutenant- 
Colonel Richard Atholl Nesbitt, c.b. (Kafir 1878-79, 
Basuto rebellion 1880-82, last South African war) ; — His 
Highness the Thakor Sahib of Palitana, Sir Mansinghji 
K*c.s.i. ; — Captain Joseph Wiggins, the opener of the 
present open highway within the Arctic Circle, and re- 
establisher of a sea route for Siberian produce to Europe ; 
— Captain J. F. R. Aylen, r.n. (Arctic relief expedition 
1849-50, China war i860, Abyssinia 1868) ; — Dowager 
Lady Asman Jah, sister of His Highness the Nizam of 
Haidarabad ; — Captain Sir Donald Stewart, k.c.m.g., Com- 
missioner and Commander-in-Chief British East Africa 
Protectorate (Boer war 1881, Sudan campaign 1885, Ashanti 
war 1895-96) ; — Sir Frederick Cleeve, k.c.b., k.n. (Black Sea 
1854-56) ; — Major-General Robert Thomas Leigh, late 
Indian Staff Corps (Sutlej campaign 1845, Mutiny sup- 
pression 1857-58) ; — Lieutenant-General T. Lamb, formerly 
Bengal Native Infantry ; — Lieutenant-Colonel E. M. Forbes 
(Bhutan expedition 1864-65, Afghan war 1879) ; — Sir 
George Berkeley, formerly Colonial Secretary and Con- 
troller of Customs in Honduras, and afterwards Lieutenant- 
Governor of St. Vincent, Acting Administrator of Lagos, 
and Governor of West African Settlements consecutively ; 
-Colonel Arthur James Poole, c.b. (China war i860. 



Summary of Events, 223 

Afghanistan 1878-80, Burmese expedition 1886); — Colonel 
W. Livesay, of the old 43rd Light Infantry (Mutiny and 
New Zealand campaigns) ; — Sir William Willis, late 
Accountant-General of the Navy during Crimean campaign 
(Mutiny, China, Cape, Abyssinian, and New Zealand 
wars) ; — Mr. W. D. Cowley, Deputy Accountant-General ; 
—Colonel Sir Charles Henry Leslie, c.b., formerly of the 
Indian Staff Corps, and Colonel-Commandant 2nd battalion 
4th Ghurkas (Chin-Lushai, Manipur, Chitral relief, and 
Tirah expeditions) ; — Mr. Arthur Douglass, Commissioner 
Public Works in the Cape Parliament (Kafir war 1878, 
iMorosi campaign 1879, and Boer war); — Major J. M. M. 
Hewett, late 62nd Regiment (Sutlej campaign 1845-46); — 
Lieutenant-Colonel H. J. Shuldham, retired. Royal Innis- 
kiIlingFusiliers(Burmacampaign 1852-53, Crimea); — Major- 
General James Sebastian Rawlins, formerly ist Ghurka 
Light Infantry (Sikh campaign 1845-46, Burmese war 
1862-53, Mutiny, Bhutan, and Hazara expeditions 1866-68) ; 
—Major John Barnett Walker, formerly 5th Fusiliers 
(Mutiny) ; — Captain Osmond Beckitt Simpson, Royal West 
Kent Regiment (Tochi field force 1897-98, Malakand and 
Buner field forces, and Tirah expedition) ; — Major-General 
Richard Wellesley Chambers (Sutlej campaign 1845-46) ; — 
Sir Bryan -O'Loghien, formerly Attorney -General and 
Premier of Victoria ; — Mr. Christopher Robinson, k.c, one 
of the loaders of the Canadian Bar ; — Dr. William Carr 
Sprague, formerly Indian Medical Service (Bombay) ; — Sir 
Michael R. de Quadros, Knight Commander of the Orders 
of Christ and Immaculate Conception, etc., for some time 
Portuguese Consul at Bombay ; — Sir Augustus Adderley, 
K.C.M.G., formerly member of the House of Assembly 
(Bahamas); — General Philip Gosset Pipon, c.b., Colonel- 
Commandant Royal Artillery (Eastern campaign 1854-55); 
— Tahillasm Kemchand, c.i.e., a well-known lawyer and 
President of the Karachi Municipality ; — Major-General 
A. TuUoch, late Bengal Staff Corps (posted to the 
58th Bengal N.I. in 1848, Mutiny and Naga campaigns); 



224 Summary of Events. 

— Colonel E. T. Pottinger, c.m.g., Bombay Artillery 
(North -West Frontier campaign 1859-60, South African 
war) ; — Colonel T. Weldon, c.i.e., posted 42nd Madras 
N.I. 1854 (Mutiny campaign) ; — Colonel W. Campbell 
flacDougall, late Bengal Staff Corps (Punjab campaign 
1848-49, Mutiny); — Lieutenant-Colonel H. G. F. Siddons, 
R.A., retired (Burma expedition 1885-89) ; — The Hon. 
Emanuel Raphael Belilios, c.m.g., merchant, and member 
of the Legislative Council of the Colony of Hongkong ; 
— Brevet- Lieutenant- Colonel J. T. Sterling, Coldstream 
Guards (formerly A.D.C. to Governor of Hongkong, 
served in South African war) ; — Captain Richard Hastings 
Harington, r.n. (China 1850, Black Sea and Baltic 1854) ; 
— Mr. Want, k.c, a member of the New South Wales 
Legislative Council ; — Lieutenant-Colonel H. J. Faircloth 
(Mutiny, Afghan war 1878-79); — Staff Veterinary-Surgeon 
Alfred Job Owles (Crimea and Mutiny) ; — Captain Graham 
Young (Crimea, Shah's service, and afterwards in the 
Indian Forest Department); — Mr. James Gray, Professor 
of Pali at the Rangoon College ; — The Right Honourable 
Sir Richard Crouch, p.c. (formerly Chief Justice of the 
High Court of Calcutta; — Rev. Dr. Robert H. Warday, 
General Agent of the Presbyterian Church and one of the 
best known Canadian Divines at Toronto ; — Dr. J. F. 
Stewart, killed by natives in Southern Nigeria (South 
African war as Civil Surgeon) ; — Major-General T. J. 
Watson, late Bengal Staff Corps (Mutiny, Bhutan expedition 
1864, Jowaki Afridi expedition 1877-78, Afghan war 1879- 
80) ; — Fleet- Paymaster Frederick Le Breton Bedwell, r.n. 
(attached to Lord Elgin's Embassy to China and Japan 
1860-61); — Sir Lionel Eldred Smith-Gordon (Crimea, 
Mutiny). 

December 5, 1905. 



THE IMPERIAL 



AND 



A s iatic Qua rte rly Review, 

AND ORIENTAL AND COLONIAL RECORD. 



APRIL, 1906. 

CIVIC LIFE IN INDIA.^ 

Bv A. YusuF Ali, M.A., LL.M. (Cantab.), i.c.s. 

The average life of a citizen is made up of so many strands 
intertwined with one another, that it is useful occasionally 
to isolate one of them and examine it. We shall thus dis- 
cover its strength or its weakness, and ascertain what strain 
it is undergoing under the stress of social forces operating 
on it, how it responds to that strain, and what can be done 
to render it more efificient as a binding force in organized 
society. The strand which we are now about to examine 
is that which knits municipal life together in India. 

Some observers would doubt whether there is any active 
civic life in India. They fix their gaze on the predominating 
factor in the government of the country, the factor which 
has moulded its history for centuries past. That has always 
taken the shape of a central Government, responsible only 
to its own conscience and to religious and moral sanctions 
for its policy and conduct. When these were dormant we 
had government of the most arbitrary and brutal type. 
When these were active we had an administration of the 
most beneficent and enlightened kind. But in either case 
there was no continuous growth of institutions, no evolution 
of the people guided by ideals which, whether successful or 
not at any given stage, supplied the motive power in the 
lives of communities. The people, as a factor in the 
commonwealth, were, for all practical purposes, neglected. 

♦ For discussion on this paper see report of the Proceedings of the East 
India Association elsewhere in this Review. 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. P 



2 26 Civic Life in India. 

It is true that the people (or realm, in Buhler's translation*) 
were one of the seven estates composing the commonwealth, 
as described by Manu. The father of Hindu polity enume- 
rates those seven estates as the king, his minister, his 
metropolis, his people, his treasury, his army, and his ally. 
These have a sort of mystic union — septem juncta in una. 
For, though the gravity to the commonwealth of the harm 
done to any of these estates is in the order in which they 
are named, it must not be supposed that any of these are of 
less importance than any of the others, so long as they 
fulfil their functions in the complex institution called the 
State. This noble conception of Manu is of the highest 
importance in dealing with the germs of Hindu political 
ideas ; and yet its practical working-out is most disappoint- 
ing, even in Manu. We have the amplest maxims for the 
king's life and policy ; we have far-reaching regulations 
about the individual's life, ritual, and conduct ; we have 
also full details about the constitution, history, rights, and 
privileges of the several castes and classes ; but we look in 
vain for a definition of the rights and privileges of the 
people as a whole, as an estate of the commonwealth. 

The conception was developed no further in Mohamme- 
dan India. Mohammedan polity started in the land of its 
birth on a thoroughly democratic basis. In the history of 
cities like Baghddd we have faint glimpses of the devolu- 
tion of power from the central to the local authoritiy, or, 
rather, a group of local authorities. But the circumstances 
of India prevented these tendencies from bearing any 
practical fruit. That the idea, however, was not entirely 
dead will appear from an interesting exposition of the 
KotwiFs duties in the Ain-i-Akbari.f Abul Fazl's qualifi- 
cation for a Kotwdl might well be taken to heart by the 
Municipal Commissioners of modern India. The Kotwil, 
then, should be vigorous, experienced, active, deliberate, 
patient, astute and humane. Further, he should keep a 

♦ Manu, ix., 294-297, " Sacred Books of the East" 

t **Bibliotheca Indica," vol. Ixi., part ii., p. 41 (Book iii., Ain 4). 



Civic Life in India. 227 

register of houses and frequented roads, engage the citizens 
in a pledge of reciprocal assistance, and bind them to a 
common participation in weal and woe. Here is an excel- 
lent summary of the creed of municipal government. But 
the idea never took root, and, in the unstable history of 
more than two centuries after Akbar, the music of the soul 
of human society, ever striving to express itself in the 
growth of ethical ideas and concerted action, was subdued 
in the martial clang of internecine warfare. 

What about the village institutions ? Did they not 
embody and keep alive the civic ideal ? To this my 
answer is only a qualified "Yes." In the ideal village all 
the ranks and castes were graded, and each had its function 
and purpose in life. Every individual, so long as he fitted 
himself into the scheme, had an important status in his own 
sphere. He had a voice in many of the ordinances which 
affected his interests, though such ordinances were usually 
the crystallized product of the opinions and experiences of 
ages and generations of men, rather than frequent experi- 
ments in the gradual evolution of the village community. 
But all this was possible because the village was an associa- 
tion of men who knew each other intimately, and saw each 
other's daily lives. The failure of any member to fulfil the 
duties expected of him resulted in his immediate ostracism 
in the society. He lost the protection of his commune and 
all the rights and privileges attaching to his station. Duty, 
as so understood, may be summed up in the formula : ** Do 
this, or the village visits its wrath on you." In contrast to 
this, my conception of civic duty, the conception which 
would entitle a man to boast of being a ** citizen of no 
mean city," goes beyond this. The penal scheme, no 
doubt, does aflfect, if only unconsciously, the life of the 
most refined and high-thinking citizen. But in the main it 
is now restricted to a narrow circle of actions which come 
within the purview of criminal law or of municipal bye-laws. 
My advanced citizen is governed, in his civic acts and ideals, 
by considerations like the following. " I am," he thinks, 

p 2 



228 Civic Life in India. 

"more fortunately circumstanced than some of my fellows 
in the community. I have better education, a more refined 
up-bringing, more opportunities of travel, more wealth, a 
higher position, or more talent than some of those I see 
around me. Can I use these for the benefit of the less 
fortunate } Can they be brought to see things from the 
higher standpoint 'i Will it not strengthen the community 
as a whole, and therefore me as an individual member, if 
the laggards can be made to march abreast of the active 
members, if the obstruction which stands in their way be 
removed, so that everyone is able to make the best of him- 
self, to his own benefit and the benefit of the community "i 
Again, there are other members of the community who are 
somewhat similarly placed in respect of some of these 
advantages to myself. Will not the union of our efforts 
and resources produce a higher aggregate result in material 
and moral advancement than when some of the energy is 
wasted in individual and unco-ordinated endeavour ? Again, 
I see some persons better endowed than myself. In so 
far as it is in my power, is it not my duty to aim at better- 
ing myself, not for personal aggrandizement or self-glory, 
but because the pursuit of the higher is the highest ideal, 
for myself individually and for the community at large ?" 
In such musings the individual is sunk in the community. 
If we must have a tangible formula embodying the incen- 
tive to such conduct, it would be: ** If I do this, it will 
mean increased good to myself and community.*' The 
hope of reward in its highest form here takes the place of 
the fear of punishments. 

The prevailing notion that the ancient Indian village 
was based on communistic ideas of property and life is, 
I think, incorrect. The boundaries of a family are neces- 
sarily wider in an early than in a later stage of society. 
That being so, the unit which society recognises for 
purposes of ownership and possession is also wider and 
more indefinite. In movable property, however, we find 
^thing to justify us in inferring that anything like com- 



Civic Life in India. 229 

munistic ideas existed. In regard to land, the fact that 
periodical redistributions of land took place, and that no 
exclusive and permanent rights were recognised in indi- 
viduals, has led to the reasoning that the property was 
joint. But perhaps it would be truer to say that no 
property in land was recognised at all, whether in the 
individual or in the community. Land was treated as a 
free gift of Nature, like light, or air, or the water of a river. 
As long as the population was scanty, and the quantity of 
land appeared unlimited, there was no occasion to create 
well-defined rights of property. When the demand first 
began to outstrip the supply, the rights which were earliest 
recognised were rights of cultivation or pasturage, or, to 
speak generally, rights of temporary possession. These 
were regulated by many provisions of customary law, 
designed, no doubt, for the common good, or for the good 
of the lord or chief, -in the same way that an individual's 
private conduct was similarly regulated. A conquering 
chief parcelled out the land among his kinsmen or retainers 
in the same way as he might detail his sentinels on duty at 
different posts, or assign different offices or functions to 
different members of his household. Here the question 
would not be one of property in the individuals, the com- 
munity, or the chief, but rather one of discipline and 
organization. 

Nor was life in the village community based on com- 
munistic ideas. Equality among all the members was the 
last thing that would have occurred to a philosopher of the 
times, or been recognised by anyone in touch with the 
actual government of the village. There was a splendid 
system of subdivision of labour, and a thorough under- 
standing between the different classes into which the 
community was divided. The organization was perfect ; 
it promoted the greatest efficiency with the least waste of 
energies ; the greatest peace, concord, and contentment 
with the least inducements to luxury or crime. It may be 
one form of the millennium dreamed of by the framers of 



230 Civic Life in India. 

fancy republics, but it is not communism. The bed-rock 
of the communistic principle is equality of enjoyment for 
all members, coupled with an equality of responsibility for 
the well-being of the whole society. The fundamental 
basis of village life in its palmiest days was the due sub- 
ordination of castes and classes to a scheme which was 
nowhere, and at no time, worked out with feudal precision, 
but which acquired strength or weakness according to the 
amount of resistance which village institutions were called 
on to exert in antagonism to a strong or weak central and 
military power. The village had no military organization 
or history, but it had marvellous powers of passive re- 
sistance. And its relation to the central power was not 
usually that of branches that supply nourishment to a tree, 
or that of a large number of tiny rills whose flow goes 
towards the augmentation of the strength and volume of 
some mighty river. On the contrary, the village com- 
munity looked upon the central power much as a tree (if it 
could think) would look upon the parrots and mainas that 
feed on its fruit. There was no intolerance, and no 
chafing, so long as no more than customary contributions 
were levied but there was distinctly a feeling of aloofness, 
a consciousness that the structure of the village community 
was quite independent of the central power. 

There is, therefore, no paradox in the fact that the most 
beautifully organized structure of the village community 
led to no advance in civic life — the life that uses the 
experience and organization of local communities for the 
formation, development, and support of the wider and 
more human conception of the State. Nor have any of the 
modern representative institutions of India any historical 
affinity with village institutions. The trade guilds of the 
towns and the panchayets of the castes were the institu- 
tions that most familiarized the plebeian portion of the 
population with the practical details of concerted action. 
The higher castes are, and have always been, compara- 
bly weak in the matter of organization and combination 



Civic Life in India. 231 

for worldly ends. The history of the Indian trade guild 
and of the panchayet — if it could be written — would furnish 
some of the most fascinating chapters in the annals of 
India ; but unfortunately there are no materials (whether 
in the forms of records, grants, charters, or accounts) on 
which even the meagre outlines of a reasoned history can 
be based. The Mir Mohalla (** alderman of a ward" 
would be a fair translation of the term) or the Lambardar 
of a Mahal (shall we call him " steward of a manor " ?), if 
and where the representative character of these function- 
aries was recognised and they were invested with fiscal 
powers, exercised a certain amount of authority in im- 
mediate touch with the^ people. They acted as buffers 
between the representatives of the central government 
and the people. The lump sum of taxation payable by 
the community which they represented was fixed after 
consultation with them, and they were left to apportion this 
among the contributories in accordance with local rights 
and customs. But these institutions never flourished with 
a lusty and vigorous growth in the directions in which 
their trend can be connected with the local self-government 
of modern India. 

The growth of modern civic institutions can all be 
referred to the last half-century. The ideas naturally first 
took shape in the Presidency towns. Calcutta was the 
first of the towns to discuss, but Bombay was the first to 
adopt, the elective principle. Before this principle was 
adopted the city government had been carried on by means 
of a bench of magistrates or justices. The elective pro- 
posals of 1840 for Calcutta had to be dropped. But when 
Bombay took the lead in 1S72 with an electorate that was 
practically based on household suffrage, Calcutta followed 
suit in 1876. The history of municipal government in 
those two cities has since been full of both interest and 
excitement The constitution of the municipality has been 
altered in both cases. But it is to be noticed that in 
Bombay the change has been effected without much 



232 Civic Life in India. 

popular excitement, while in Calcutta the revision of 1899 
was attended with almost as great a measure of opposition 
as the more recent reconstitution of the Province of 
Bengal. In Bombay there has always been a large 
deliberative body, with a smaller managing council, while 
the entire executive power has vested in the municipal 
commissioner, who is nominated by and is in close touch 
with the Government. In Calcutta the executive power 
was until recently vested in what was considered an 
unwieldy body by those who applied the shears in 1899. 
After the advent of the plague ten years ago, a separate 
body, called the Bombay Improvement Trust, has been 
called into existence, which exercises powers independently 
of the corporation's control, for carrying out gigantic 
5;chemes of public improvement, such as the sweeping away 
of overcrowded areas, the widening of streets, and the 
provision of sanitary buildings for the mill hands, while the 
.esthetic side of a town's responsibilities was not lost sight 
of for a city which prides itself on the title of Bombay the 
Beautiful. This great scheme was due to the enthusiasm 
and practical sagacity of Lord Reay,* just as the great 
Calcutta Improvement Scheme, which has not yet emerged 
from the incubatory stages, is due to the marvellous energy 
of Lord Curzon. In the city of Madras the elective 
principle was introduced in 1878, and though little of 
dramatic or popular interest has been heard of the recent 
administration of the oldest Presidency town of British 
India, the legislators, administrators, and people of the 
::50uthern Presidency are unanimous in claiming for Madras 
the title of the best and cheapest governed city in India. 
I wish they could add to the claim some faint allusion to 
the goddess of civic beauty, for her cheery smile can surely 
never come near the Madras parcherries, which for gloom 
and squalor would be able to give points to the much- 
abused bustees of Calcutta or Bombay. 

Local government by magistrates existed in the Pre- 

The actual scheme, however, was worked out and carried by Lord 
lurst some years later. 



Civic Life in India. 233 

sidency towns almost from their first creation as vigorous 
and growing communities ; it flourished until it was super- 
seded in the seventies by representative institutions. In 
the Mofassil towns organized government by a magistrate 
and a consultative council began in 1850, with an Act 
respecting " Improvements in Towns." This Act authorized 
local governments to appoint a magistrate and such number 
of inhabitants as may be necessary to be commissioners, to 
prepare rules for levying and expending money for any 
special purposes of local administration. In form, this state- 
ment of the Constitution has undergone a complete and 
radical alteration ; but in substance — in the living ideas 
underlying the new forms— this principle practically applies 
to municipal government in the districts to-day. In 1856 
was passed the great Act which governs the smaller towns 
in Northern India to the present day. This makes the 
arrangements for local improvements permanent instead of 
occasional. The magistrate of the district is both the 
initiative and administrative authority. He fixes the sum 
required for a given year for town purposes ; and he con- 
stitutes by nomination a small council, or panchayet^ to 
distribute this lump sum among the different inhabitants, 
either on their local knowledge of the taxpayer's worldly 
circumstances (which sounds vague), or (which is very rare) 
on a definite valuation of property. In either case the 
magistrate hears the appeal from an aggrieved assessee. 
Having finally confirmed the assessment list, the magistrate 
collects the tax and spends it on local improvements. Now 
I have some little experience of the assessment lists of 
these little towns — some of them decaying vestiges of what 
were once important centres of population. I have no 
hesitation in saying that the vaguer of the two principles — 
assessment according to position and means — works far 
better, both in justice and in smoothness, than the appa- 
rently sound principle of a formal valuation of property! 
There are other institutions in India in which a similar 
paradox occurs, and it is well to remember in drawing up 
paper constitutions that things are not always what they seem. 



234 Civic Life in India. 

In the government of the smaller towns under Act X. of 
1856, there is neither in theory the election of members, 
nor local supervision by the people in carrying on the works 
for which the town fund is levied. In practice, however, 
a sympathetic magistrate always arranges informally for 
local supervision by such respectable inhabitants of the 
town as are willing to charge themselves with the respon- 
sibility of ** looking after other people's business." But the 
principle of supervision by local, though not necessarily 
elected, citizens, for Mofassil towns and rural areas, was 
strongly insisted on by Lord Mayors Government in 1870. 
It was then recognised that funds devoted to such objects 
as education^ sanitation, medical charity, and public works 
of a local character, benefited by the supervision of local 
agency. But the greatest landmark in the history of 
modern representative institutions in India was the action 
of Lord Ripon's Government in 1882. Certain broad prin- 
ciples were laid down by that Government which were 
afterwards embodied in the legislation of 1882 and 1883. 
The objects held in view by the far-reaching reforms then 
promulgated were stated to be twofold — first, to relieve the 
officers of Government from a portion of the duties and 
responsibilities which had gone on increasing as the 
machinery of Government became more elaborate ; and, 
secondly, to introduce local interest in local affairs, coupled 
with local unpaid service as an instrument of political 
and popular education. The machinery with which these 
objects were to be carried out was provided by the creation 
of local boards for rural areas and municipal boards for the 
larger towns, with an assured preponderance of non-official 
members, elected by popular vote wherever the local cir- 
cumstances admitted of the principle of popular election. 
Government control, it was laid down, was to be from 
without rather than from within, and the chairmen of the 
boards were accordingly to be non-official. The rural 
hoards were to be for small areas about the fifth or sixth 

irt of a district on the average ; and there was to be in 



Civic Life in India. 235 

each district a district board exercising authority over the 
local boards and co-ordinating their action. 

The result of these comprehensive proposals was that all 
the principal towns of India were granted municipal consti- 
tutions, in which the elected members usually preponderated, 
though room was found for some members nominated by 
Government, and a few ex officio members. The franchise 
of the different municipalities varied very widely, and was 
fixed according to local circumstances, often under bye-laws 
drawn up by the municipalities and sanctioned by the 
Government. The constitutions or the numbers of these 
municipalities have varied little since then, except in regard 
to two important points presently to be noticed, though a 
vast amount of progress has been made in these twenty- 
four years in grappling with the details, intricacies, and 
pitfalls of local administration, and in elaborating municipal 
codes in the different provinces. The points in which there 
has been in practice the greatest divergence from Lord 
Ripons ideas are (i) as regards the personnel of the chair- 
man, and (2) as regards the relation of Government to the 
boards. In practice, the chairmen of most of the Mofassil 
municipalities are the magistrates of the districts in which 
they are situated. The magistrate is not ex officio chairman. 
The board regularly goes through the formality of electing 
its own chairman, and may, if it choses, elect a non-official 
gentleman ; . but by a sort of unwritten law the board in fact 
elects the district magistrate as chairman. Whenever there 
is a change in the office of district magistrate, it is distinctly 
understood that the outgoing magistrate resigns the chair, 
and equally understood that his successor in the magisterial 
office is elected to the chair of the municipality. Now the 
district magistrate being the chief executive officer of 
Government in the district, it follows that his election as 
the head of the municipality introduces indirectly Govern- 
ment control from within rather than from without. It is 
true that Mr. Smith, as chairman of the municipality, some- 
times carries on a lively correspondence with himself as 



236 Civic Life in India, 

magistrate of the district ; but the situation, though full of 
humour, has no significance whatever in practical adminis- 
tration. The fact that one man fills the two posts is a 
guarantee (in the case of an average man) that he will take 
the same point of view in both offices in all material ques- 
tions of business. This may possibly appear to derogate 
from the independence of municipalities ; but in the present 
circumstances of India it is necessary, in the smaller muni- 
cipalities, in the interests of efficiency and smooth adminis- 
tration. The chairman -magistrate, a man of affairs and 
experience, and yet on the spot, serves as a buffer between 
the amorphous opinions of an inexperienced board and the 
weighty but somewhat detached position of the Commis- 
sioner, to whom the control and guidance of the municipali- 
ties has been delegated by Government. That Government 
control and guidance are necessary at the present stage no 
one can deny ; granting that necessity, the arrangement 
which the experience of two decades has evolved seems to 
be the best possible at once for present efficiency and for 
future progress. 

In discussing the progress of the rural boards, we find 
the situation far less encouraging than in the case of the 
municipal boards. The two points of departure from the 
original conception of the boards, which we noticed in 
discussing the municipalities, are also noticeable, even 
with stronger force, in the case of the rural boards. The 
greatest diversity prevails in the different provinces in 
respect of the unit for the rural boards. It may be said of 
several of the provinces that they contain district boards 
only, and practically no local boards for the smaller areas. 
The United Provinces are an instance in point. The local 
boards have not sufficient powers and responsibilities, and 
they rarely perform any solid business. It is only within 
recent years that even district boards have been invested 
with any financial independence, and in public bodies, as in 
families, you cannot be said to have started housekeeping 
jntil you have separate accounts of your own to worry 



Civic Life in India, 237 

over. Another cause of backwardness in the local govern- 
ment of rural areas is to be found in the great isolation of 
rural interests from one another, and the slower suscepti- 
bility, compared with the towns, to the grip of that knitting 
force which is the chief glory of the British Administration 
in India. Madras is the only province in which the rural 
boards have shown signs of a vigorous existence. There 
the unit adopted is a small one — the village union, 
governed by a panchayet. Higher in the scale are the 
Taluk Boards, which correspond to the local boards of 
Upper India ; and over them all is the district board, which 
flourishes because its constituent feeders live a growing and 
healthy life. The village union was not in the large and 
comprehensive scheme of rural self-government drawn up 
for the whole of India, but by its adoption in Madras the 
roots have penetrated sufficiently deep into the soil to give 
strength and vitality to the growth above. Another 
argument for calling Madras the ** benighted Presidency !'* 

There are in the whole of British India* 763 munici- 
palities. The population living within municipal limits is 
close upon 17,000,000. The total number of members of 
municipal boards is more than 10,000, or an average of 
thirteen members to each municipality. The municipal 
boards of the Presidency towns are very much larger 
bodies, Calcutta having fifty members, and Bombay seventy- 
two ; but their constitutions, offices, bye-laws, and procedure 
are in many respects entirely different from those of 
district municipalities. The proportion of official to non- 
official members for the whole of India is 2:7, that of 
European to Indian members is 1 : 7. The maximum 
proportion of appointed to elected members is fixed by 
statute. For example, in the United Provinces the number 
of appointed members is not to exceed a quarter of the 
total number of members. The aggregate income of the 

* The figures that follow are principally taken from the "Statistical 
Abstract relating to British India for 1903-1904," published as a Blue-book 
in 1905. 



238 Civic Life in India. 

municipalities, according to the Return* published in 1905, 
in ;^6, 5 79,094— roughly speaking, six and a half millions 
sterling. This may be divided into three convenient 
heads, viz. : (i) Loans, deposits, advances, etc., three and 
a quarter millions, of which fully one-third is on account of 
the Presidency towns ; (2) amount realized from rates and 
taxes, two and a half millions ; (3) amount realized from 
rents, contributions, sale proceeds of manure, etc., three 
quarters of a million. 

It will be noticed that about half the year's income is 
derived from loans and other sources which can be 
classified as debt. The year s expenditure nearly balances 
the income. The municipalities are very properly not 
allowed to hoard their money, a tendency which some of 
the outlying boards showed at the earlier stages of their 
career. A sufficient closing balance is, of course, insisted 
on. It follows that about half the years municipal ex- 
penditure comes from borrowed money. While the 
expansion of income under the second and third heads 
(taxation, rents, etc.) has been only about 33 per cent, 
during the last ten years, the increase under the head of 
debt has been about 600 per cent. These figures are 
startling at first sight, but it must be remembered that the 
process of sinking money in material and tangible assets — 
to wit, large public works — has been carried on very con- 
siderably in the last decade. Most of the large district 
municipalities have constructed their waterworks within 
that period. Large drainage and sewage schemes, the 
widening and paving of roads and thoroughfares, and 
measures for the prevention or fighting of plague, have 
necessitated large demands on the municipal exchequer. 
Perhaps in some cases a more cautious policy in the matter 
of borrowings might be advisible ; but the expert super- 
vision of the Government makes it impossible that in any 
case the financial stability or solvency of a municipality 
should be jeopardised by reckless borrowing. All the 

* "Statistical Abstract," as above. 



Civic Life in India. 239 

Mofassil municipalities have to get Government sanction 
for their loans, and their financial statements every year 
have to show clearly how their debt account stands, with 
reference to their assets, the state of the sinking fund, and 
the arrangements made for the payment of the interest 
charges. In the case of the Presidency municipalities 
there are statutory limitations to the aggregate amount of 
debt which the municipality can owe. In Calcutta, for 
instance, the cost of the interest and sinking fund is not to 
exceed 10 per cent, of the valuation of the city. At present 
I beh'eve it is 7^ per cent. The debt of Calcutta is about 
two millions, against an annual revenue of half a million ; 
that of Bombay is about three millions against half a 
million of revenue. The proportion of revenue to debt is 
therefore i : 4 in the one case, and i : 6 in the other. 
The proportion in the national finances of the United 
Kingdom is between i : 6 and i : 7. On the other hand, 
the interest charges in local finance are very much heavier 
than in Imperial finance, the Indian municipalities usually 
paying between 4 and 7 per cent, of interest on their loans. 
The question of debt in municipal finance ought to be 
studied more carefully than it is by members of Indian 
municipalities, as the expedient of throwing the burden of 
present difficulties on future generations may result in a 
serious crippling of resources, or a check to the expansion 
of activity, unless there is an expanding benefit derived 
from the works undertaken. 

As regards the form of taxation the different provincial 
systems differ widely. In the Punjab, the United Provinces, 
and the Central Provinces, octroi forms the chief source of 
income, and in Bombay it forms a considerable item in 
municipal taxation. Bengal, Madras, and Burma, among 
the larger provinces, do without octroi. The system works 
thus : A number of octroi stations (ten or fifteen) are placed 
all around the municipal boundaries, commanding all the 
ways of entry into the town. There is a clerk in charge of 
each station, whose duty it is to levy a tax on all goods 



240 Civic Life in India. 

entering the municipality, according to a schedule fixed 
and notified by the municipality. The schedule contains a 
classified list of goods which are chargeable to octroi, 
with the rates shown against each. Some of these rates 
are ad valorem^ and others are according to weight or 
measure. A set of scales and weights are provided by the 
municipality. The quantity or weight is often estimated 
by the cart or the load, or in accordance with local com- 
mercial usage. But if there should be a dispute between 
the importer of the goods and the clerk, the whole of the 
goods have to be taken out and weighed, counted, or 
measured, as the case might be. In the case di ad valorem 
rates there is most chance of a dispute. Where the 
importer is a large wholesale dealer, the invoice which 
accompanies the goods is often a sufficient indication of the 
quantity or value. But in India, where make-believe or 
collusion play so important a part in the machinery of life, 
this test cannot always be relied upon. To the petty 
trader or the private individual, however, the annoyances 
are numerous and vexatious. The clerk who collects the 
tax has a salary of from 9s. to 1 2s. a month. There is a 
strong temptation and opportunity for illicit gains. In all 
cases where he can reasonably count upon not being found 
out, he creates difficulties and differences of opinion. There 
is a machinery for settling these, but it is cumbrous in com- 
parison with the nimble coin slipped into the clerk's hand, 
which solves all doubts and difficulties without trouble or 
loss of time. Octroi administration therefore demands 
constant vigilance on the part of members and officers of 
municipalities. The first requirement is to make a good 
schedule, simple and unambiguous, with as few items in it 
as would be consistent with clearness, and with due 
regard to the fostering, according to economic principles, 
of the local industries and manufactures ; the next object 
of attention should be the appointment of as honest 
and efficient a collecting and supervising staff as possible ; 
and the third is the careful periodical examination of 



Civic Life in India. 241 

the statistics, accounts, and practical working, with free 
opportunities provided to all who have specific com- 
plaints to make before the Board. Some boards maintain 
an overgrown supervising agency, drawn from the same 
class as the tax-collecting clerks. They forget the maxim, 
**the greater the supervision, the greater the collusion." 
They are gradually abolishing octroi in the Bombay 
Province. It would be a good thing if it could be abolished 
altogether. In spite of an elaborate and carefully worked 
out system of supervision, checks by means of standards 
of consumption, refunds, and exemptions, it probably takes 
more from the pockets of the people than actually goes 
into the coffers of the municipalities. Its chief merit as an 
indirect tax paid on commodities, and not directly levied 
from the citizens, is neutralized by many delays and petty 
malpractices, and it is a fruitful source of harassment to the 
poor and uneducated classes who enter towns with even a 
small amount of belongings — the very classes who require 
most protection. The question of abolition, however, is 
not yet within the region of practical politics in Upper 
India, and it is all the more necessary for civic patriotism 
to be directed towards insuring its proper administration. 

Apart from octroi the most important sources of municipal 
taxation are a tax on houses and lands, which is sometimes 
levied in addition to octroi, but which occupies the chief 
place where octroi does not enter into the scheme; a water- 
rate in large towns with waterworks ; and a conservancy- 
rate, which is usually for public conservancy only. The 
system of private conservancy is still peculiar in most of the 
smaller towns. The mechanical appliances for sanitary 
conservancy have scarcely taken root even in the Presidency 
towns ; in the Mofassil they do not exist. A caste of 
hereditary scavengers, who look upon the goodwill of their 
business as a marketable and heritable asset, claim the 
monopoly of service in private houses. The payments 
to them are not systematic, but are based on a set of elastic 
customary rights. The consequence is that private con- 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. Q 



242 Civic Life in India. 

servancy is the weakest feature in town life. Any radical 
reform evokes opposition, not only from the scavenging 
class with vested interests, but even from the citizens them 
selves, who are apt to forget the inefficiency of the present 
system in concentrating their attention upon its cheapness. 
Taxes of minor importance are : taxes on animals and 
vehicles ; taxes on professions and trades ; tolls on roads 
and ferries ; and a lighting-rate, though the cost of light- 
ing the town is usually defrayed from the general income 
of the municipal fund. 

The incidence per head of the population of the amounts 
raised or (what is equivalent to it) spent by the munici- 
palities varies greatly in the different Provinces, and the 
different kinds of municipalities. The Presidency towns 
are, of course, more expensive than the Mofassil towns, and 
among them Bombay leads the way as easily first. From 
rates and taxes Bombay raises 12s. 7d. per head, and from 
all sources, including loans, 14s. 7d. per head. The figures 
for Calcutta are 8s. iid. and ids. 8d. respectively; and 
those for Madras only 2s. iid. and 4s. 3d. respectively. 
Rangoon is almost as expensive as Bombay, the incidence 
of taxation being 8s. 8d. per head, and *of all municipal 
revenue 14s. 6d. per head. But Rangoon, as a municipal 
town, has a shorter career behind it than the Presidency 
towns, and its borrowings must necessarily be on a liberal 
scale to keep pace with the phenomenal rate at which the 
town is growing — in size, population, and commercial 
importance. These figures are comparable to the incidence 
of the rates levied in England for the use of the Poor Law 
authorities, which average to about 6s. or 7s. per head 
of population. The incidence of municipal expenditure in 
English boroughs furnishes no fair basis of comparison ; 
first, because the scales of people's incomes are so different 
in England and India, and secondly, because the English 
municipalities undertake, on the whole, more duties, and 
are more in touch with popular sentiment than are the 
ndian municipalities. The incidence of municipal taxation 



Civic Life in India. 243 

per head of population in the borough of St. Albans, in 
virhich I reside, is about 15s. 

The figures of the Mofassil municipalities are, as might 
be expected, lower than those of the Presidency towns. 
The Province of Madras is again the cheapest, with an 
incidence of is. 6d. for rates and taxes, and 2s. sd. for total 
income in district municipalities. Burma is the most ex- 
pensive, with 2s. 3d. and 5s. id. respectively. The varia- 
tion in the figures for the district municipalities is small, and 
the incidence per head may ordinarily be taken to be about 
2s. for rates and taxes, and about 3s. for total income. 

An analysis of the main heads under which the expendi- 
ture falls may be of some value. From the figures in the 
statistical abstract already quoted I have prepared the 
following table showing the percentages : 

Percentage to total 
expenditure. 

Interest, debt (repayment), sinking fund, 

deposits, etc. ... ... ... ... 503 

Public health and convenience ... ... 35*8 

General administration and collection 

charges ... ... ... ... ... 6*7 

Public safety (lighting, police, fire, etc.) ... 4*2 

Public instruction ... ... ... ... 3*0 



lOO'O 



It will be noticed that the debt charges absorb more than 
half the total amount spent by the municipalities, and 
exceed by a long way any other single item. Under the 
head of public health and convenience, which accounts 
for about 36 per cent, of the annual expenditure, are 
included a large number of items. Not only is the annual 
expenditure on water-supply and drainage debited to this 
account, but also the capital outlay under these heads. 
This amounts to a very considerable item, and when the 
public works expenditure is added to it (i.e. the outlay on 
roads, bridges, public works establishments, and stores) the 
amount left for conservancy is not very large, and is 

Q 2 



244 Civic Life in India. 

certainly quite inadequate in most cases for the needs of the 
overcrowded plague spots which are called Indian towns. 
Markets and slaughter-houses are also debited to this head, 
but the outlay is small, and is ordinarily more than counter- 
balanced by the tolls and dues levied in them. The 
municipal expenditure on hospitals, dispensaries, and 
vaccination is not large, and is a mere supplement to the 
funds contributed from private, district board, or Govern- 
ment sources. 

The expenditure on services of public safety is insignifi- 
cant, being only 4 per cent, of the whole. Very few 
of the municipal boards maintain fire brigades. Systems 
of fire insurance are unknown in the Mofassil, as indeed 
might be expected, considering that the majority of the 
proletariat live in mud huts with thatched roofs, and a man's 
personalty in many cases amounts scarcely to anything 
more than what he might carry as personal luggage on 
a railway journey. The police charges, which are included 
in the statistics, are no longer paid by municipalities in the 
United Provinces, where the stability of municipal finance 
under the stress of plague expenditure was threatened, and 
relief from the police charges was one of the liberal conces- 
sions made from provincial funds by the Government of Sir 
James La Touche. In the matter of lighting there is little 
satisfactory result in the Indian towns. Kerosene oil, often 
of the poorest description, is the illuminant used. In the 
Civil stations a respectable attempt is made to light the 
roads, but even there the magnificent distances which 
separate one house from another preclude the struggling 
street lamp's misty light from performing any other office 
than that of rendering the darkness more visible. The 
magnificent distances also render any thorough schemes 
of street paving or well-constructed drainage so expensive 
as to be prohibitive. The best roads consist of a strip 
of metal 9 or 1 2 feet wide, with broad alleys on either side 
of a depth of 2 or 3 inches of dust or mud, according to the 
noods of Jupiter Pluvius. 



Cwic Life in India. 245 

The charges of general administration and collection of 
taxes amount to nearly 7 per cent, of the expenditure. 
This is the average. In many municipalities the propor- 
tion is higher. Considering that the majority of the 
servants paid out of the salary bill are entertained primarily 
for purposes of tax collection the proportion is high, and 
might with advantage be scrutinized and reduced wherever 
possible. The salary bill in many of the English munici- 
palities bears a much smaller proportion to the total 
expenditure. In the borough of St. Albans it is about 
5 per cent. It is an invidious task, especially where the 
servants happen to be nominees or prot6g6s of the 
members, to cut down salaries or reduce establishments, 
and Indian civic dignitaries are as generous in voting 
money — other people's — as any in Christendom. What 
they ought to remember is that public money is not other 
peoples money, but their own. Indeed, the standard of 
care and economy to be expected in regard to public money 
ought to be very much higher than that which people are 
accustomed to exercise in their own private affairs. If a 
man mismanages his own affairs he only hurts himself, and 
the ordinary promptings of human nature should in most 
cases deter him from persistently erring in that direction. 
But when he fails to exercise the utmost diligence in his 
power in the administration of public funds committed to 
his care as a sacred trust, he is a traitor to the interests of 
hundreds of poor taxpayers who have bestowed upon him 
the honour of being their representative because they 
trusted him. Such betrayal, if there were an active civic 
conscience, would be considered deserving of far more 
reprobation than any individual lapses in private life. 

Economy, however, is not to be confounded with niggard- 
liness. Economy makes for efficiency, while niggardliness 
is only a form of mismanagement. Now there are objects 
on which municipal boards might spend far more funds 
than they actually do. Such an object is education. 
Under this head the total sum spent by the municipalities 



246 Civic Life in India. 

of India amounts to a paltry 3 per cent, of their outgoings. 
This can scarcely be considered adequate. Free education 
in municipal towns may be a counsel of perfection. But 
there can be no doubt that a much larger amount than is 
actually spent would be required to meet the existing 
demand for education, and that that xlemand is growing 
every year. It has always been the settled policy of 
Government to encourage municipal boards in making 
liberal grants towards elementary education, but it is re- 
markable that the response from the boards has not been 
as hearty as might have been desired. In the towns the 
demand is all for English education in Anglo- vernacular 
schools. These come rather under the description of 
secondary than of primary education. Now while primary 
education has received most attention, the opinion has 
frequently been held that secondary education — especially 
in English — should be paid for by those who desire it* 
Every town has one or two secondary schools, but they 
are generally overcrowded, and as the English course is of 
most material benefit to the pupils, it is the most popular 
branch of study. It is also the least organized. The 
names of many distinguished statesmen — none more than 
that of Sir Alfred Lyall — are associated with an attempt to 
encourage secondary and English education, and there are 
signs that the Education Departments are realizing the im- 
portance of English in the early education of the children 
of India. But the municipalities would do well- — while not 
starving elementary education — to lay out judiciously 
sufficient funds for meeting the demand that has vigorously 
set in for secondary and English education. 

I think I have said enough to show the opportunities 
and the shortcomings^ the possibilities and the pitfalls of 
civic life in India. It is true that the qualification fof 
voters, though low enough, still keeps a large number of 
the population outside the vortex of municipal life. In 
Calcutta, for instance, the qualification is threefold — viz., 
<^ither the payment of rates and taxes to the amount of 



Civic Life in India. 247 

Rs. 24 ; or the possession of a license to practice certain 
trades and professions ; or the occupation or ownership of 
land of a certain value. Under the last head a man may 
have as many votes as there are units of property. In any 
of these three forms property bulks largely (for India) in 
the makings of a civic elector, and the number of names 
on the Voters' Register bears a very small proportion to 
the total population. But, on the other hand, the interest 
shown by electors in contested elections is very keen ; 
indeed, in some cases it might with advantage be moderated 
with some of that tolerance for opponents which introduces 
chivalry into the civic code. In 1895, as many as 75 per 
cent, of the electorate voted in the contested wards of 
Calcutta.* This makes a verv favourable show when com- 
pared with the London County Council election of 1901, 
in which only 20*6 per cent, voted in the City of London 
and 56*8 in Stepney. The fact is that in spite of many 
failures and many gaps to be filled up in the future, a fair 
amount of progress has been made in building up a civic 
conscience in India. So acute an observer as Lord Curzon 
(then Mr. Curzon), in piloting the India Councils Bill 
through the House of Commons in 1892,! used words 
which are truer to-day than they were fourteen years ago — 
words full of generous sympathy and penetrating insight. 
He defined the objects of that measure to be : 

" To widen the basis and to expand the functions of 
Government in India ; to give further opportunities than 
at present exist to the non-official and native elements in 
Indian society to take part in the work of government, and 
in this way to lend official recognition to that remarkable 
development both of political interest and political capacity 
which has been visible among the higher classes of Indian 
society since the Government of India was taken over by 
the Crown." 

* P. 83 of the "Moral and Material Progress of India for 1 901- 1902" 
(Blue-book of 1903). 
t Hansard, fourth series, vol. iii., p. 53, March 28, 1892. 



248 Civic Life in India. 

The German philosopher Haeckel uses a felicitous 
phrase, " Communal Soul," in discussing the habits of the 
most primitive of Protozoan forms. Whether this communal 
soul exists in the unicellular radiolaria must be left to 
biologists to determine. But it certainly forms an im- 
portant factor in the capacities of mankind. It is the 
centripetal force which binds families, races, and nations 
together. It is the element which lends pathos, dignity, 
and sublimity to epic poetry. It gathers the threads of 
isolated thoughts, floating dreams and visions, and uncon- 
nected deeds of gallantry and heroism, and weaves with 
them a tangible and splendid fabric, whose composite glory 
of sparkle, softness, and strength forms the outer robe 
of aspiring humanity in its stately march through the 
centuries. 



249 



YOUNG INDIA: ITS HOPES AND 

ASPIRATIONS.* 

By Shaikh Abdul Qadir. 

The generation in India that is fast passing away from the 
scene of its earthly labours is regarding the younger genera- 
tion with mingled hope and fear. The hope gives rise to 
the fear, because it is felt that the future of the land rests 
entirely on what the younger generation is. To find out, 
therefore, the tendencies of "young India," to know some- 
thing of the sentiments that actuate it, to discover the 
directions in which the prospects are promising as well 
as those in which the outlook is gloomy, and to calculate 
the chances of progress in the country when affairs finally 
pass into hands now preparing for them, must be a subject 
of absorbing interest to everyone interested in India. But 
it is not the unique fascination of the subject that is its 
diief recommendation to attention, but to my mind it 
deserves a serious consideration at our hands as a factor 
in the solution of many of the social and political problems 
with.which modern India bristles, and which will be difficult 
to handle unless those trying to solve them have a clear idea 
of the present conditions of the country and understand the 
men they have to deal with. 

"Young India" can be classed into several divisions. 
There is, for instance, the division of the sexes, the male 
world consisting of young men in active walks of life, and 
the young female world inside the homes, possessed of no 
small influence and capable of moulding the destinies of the 
country, no less active for being hidden from the eye of the. 
ordinary observer. There is another great division of young 
India — that of the educated and the uneducated, or, to be 
more comprehensive, of the literate and the illiterate. Let 
us begin with this latter classification of young Indians. I 

* For discussion on this paper see report of the Proceedings of the East 
India Association elsewhere in this Review. 



250 Young India : Its Hopes and Aspirations. 

need hardly state that, unfortunately, the illiterate form a 
large majority. I do not propose to enter here into the 
causes of this prevailing want of education, and to decide 
whether the Government or the people are more to blame 
for it, though at first sight it appears that a civilized Govern- 
ment like that of Britain must have been sleeping pretty 
soundly over its duties to neglect the elementary education 
of the people so much. But the truth is that the people, 
too, have been apathetic to this primary duty of all civilized 
nations, and the Government is not exclusively open to 
blame, and in fairness to both it may be added that there 
are signs of an awakening in both the quarters to a sense of 
their duty to the masses to provide for a general elementary 
education. For our present purpose, however, it has to be 
admitted that the bulk of the population even in " young- 
India'* is unlettered. Now we have to see what this mass 
of humanity is about. Outwardly it is not much different 
to its prototypes of a past or a passing generation. The 
young peasant tills the soil as diligently as his fathers before 
him, uses the same implements of agriculture, and has, more 
or less, the same simple mode of life and the same philosophic 
faith in Providence. The workman has the same quiet way 
of going to work, the same long hours of labour, and the 
same struggle to make both ends meet. The artisan, with 
the exception of a few fortunate members of his class, who 
in some modern factories have learnt the use of improved 
tools and machinery, goes on pretty much in his old way. 
The professional beggar, a drain as he is on the national 
earnings of India, still goes his daily rounds, and the acro- 
batic dancer and the juggler still amuse the crowd with 
their feats and tricks. To all appearances the current of 
life runs quite smoothly, but a little below the surface 
there is commotion, for the man in the street in India and 
the labourer in the field is no longer as ignorant as he looks. 
The literate minority is not so much cutoff from the illiterate 
majority as is commonly supposed, and the influences that 
are modifying the trend of thoi^ht of the upper and educated 



Young India: Its Hopes and Aspirations. 251 

classes manage to reach the lower and less informed sections 
of the people, though in a weaker and less distinct form. 
The vernacular press, so often despised or ignored, is 
gradually becoming a powerful medium of education for 
the masses, and those who cannot read the papers them- 
selves at least hear the echoes of what is agitating the 
newspaper world. A gossip about the latest news, especially 
in days when a great war is raging in any part of the world, 
is not an uncommon thing now in the village circle of an 
evening or in the leisure haunts of workmen in the towns. 
What is discussed by them as the " latest " may be very 
stale for an up-to-date man, but, still, their interest in it from 
day to day indicates a broadening of their mental horizon 
and a rising sense of what is happening around them. This 
spirit is stimulated to an appreciable extent among the 
masses all over the country by the growing number of their 
countrymen going abroad — as travellers, as students, as 
traders, as emigrant settlers, and as indentured labourers. 
In a large number of rural districts of the Punjab, for 
example, the name of Africa is now very well known, 
because thousands of men have gone out to Uganda. 
Similarly the name of Australia has become a household 
word, both as the place where work is to be found and as 
the place of which the doors have been long shut against 
British Indians by a British colony under the flag of Great 
Britain. The compactness of village life renders every 
departure of an emigrant from the village an event in its 
history, and from that day begins an interest in the outside 
world. The soldiers who have gone abroad on important 
expeditions, like that to China and the still more recent one 
to Somslliland, bring back home to their villages and towns 
exciting descriptions of their travels by sea and land, of the 
sights that met their eyes, of the nations which they came 
in contact with, and of the interesting experiences they went 
through. Thus they serve as a link between their small, 
retired, and hitherto isolated village community and the 
great world beyond. The progenitors of the peasants of 



252 Young India: Its Hopes and Aspirations. 

to-day knew little, and cared less, about the destinies of 
people outside their little world, but the younger men are 
brought up under conditions which open their eyes and 
expand their sphere of interest. This indirect education 
that is slowly but steadily going on is not yet strong enough 
to give rise to a presumption that the illiterate section of 
young India can take an intelligent interest in the current 
affairs of their country and of the world, but it can hardly 
be denied that a great and effective step is being quietly 
taken towards that goal, and that in course of time, with 
a further development of the causes enumerated, helped by 
a more general elementary education, and accelerated by 
efforts from patriotic Indians aiming at raising the level of 
the intelligence of the masses, a body of opinion may grow 
up in the country calculated to compel attention. 

Turning now to the literate portion of young India, no 
less important for the comparative smallness of its numbers, 
we find that there is already some stir in it. Education 
is having its natural effect : the minds of men are being 
awakened, their thoughts fly higher, the voice of ambition 
finds a sympathetic response in their hearts, and they 
aspire to come into line with the great nations of the world. 
This desire to improve their condition intellectually as well 
as materially, individually as well as collectively, is takings 
diverse forms, according to the inclinations of the persons 
actuated by it. We see this spirit of activity, this desire to 
do something, this anxiety for the welfare of the Mother- 
land, displaying itself in political movements like the Con- 
gress, in social movements like the Conferences of Reform, 
in educational movements like the Mohammedan Educa- 
tional Conference, and in religious movements • like the 
Arya Samaj among the Hindus, to take only one typical 
instance out of many which mark religious revivalism in 
India of the present day. Some of these movements are 
now established institutions, commanding vast inriuence, 
and being appreciated in different ways by the classes 
whom they try to serve. Each has its zealous adherents, 



Young^ India : Its Hopes and Aspirations. 253 

who believe the welfare of the whole country to be bound 
up with the success of their plans, and look with disfavour 
upon those who bestow their sympathies elsewhere. But 
to the impartial student of Indian affairs all of them seem 
to be the natural outcome of the conditions in which we 
live, and of the period of transition through which we are 
passing; and he believes all of them to be more or less 
needed to culminate eventually in a national life, under the 
influence of which the hearts of a whole people will throb 
in unison. Before attaining that end, however, the ques- 
tion is how to reduce this apparent discord into unity. 
Some would suggest the bringing together of the various 
streams of patriotism, charity, and enterprise that have 
so far flowed in different directions, and making them run 
into one channel, to produce a strong and powerful motive 
power. There can be no doubt as to the strength of such 
a unity were it possible, but constituted as mankind is, 
scope must be given to individual likes and dislikes, and it 
is useless to expect the whole of India to seek its salvation 
through any one of the organizations existing for the 
amelioration of her condition. What is wanted is a spirit 
of tolerance towards each other, an admission that there 
is a limited power for good in most of the movements that 
are on foot, and that such power is not centred in any 
of them to an unlimited extent. It is regrettable that 
these different organizations have a tendency towards 
narrow exclusiveness, and gradually degenerate into cults, 
the followers of which look with something like horror 
upon those who believe in other systems of work, and thus 
add one more powerful force of disintegration and disunion 
to other forces of the kind that already exist in India, and 
keep the people of the land divided. The recognition of 
the good that there is in each, the extension of sympathy 
with each other, and the desire to co-operate so far as 
possible, are remedies which, if skilfully applied, can change 
discord into harmony and multiply chances of usefulness. 
I have pointed out where the weak spot in the social 



254 Young India: Its Hopes and Aspirations. 

and political movements of the India of to-day is, and 
hinted how those engaged in them may try to strengthen 
their position. This has reference to the relations be- 
tween various societies and their foremost workers ; but 
there is another side of this question, and that concerns 
the relation between these movements and the Government 
in India. People in England, who have practically a free 
hand in the development of their national life and institu- 
tions, can hardly understand to what extent a movement 
in India can be affected for better or for worse by the 
attitude which the Government takes with regard to it. 
And the attitude of the Government towards many of the 
movements we are considering is one of apathy and in- 
difference, and sometimes of hostility and mistrust. The 
Mohammedan Educational Conference of Aligarh, con- 
fining itself as it does to the object of preaching to Mo- 
hammedans that they should take to Western education, 
to which they have been averse for a long time, is almost 
the solitary exception among the more important public 
organizations of our country which has occasionally received 
a word of sympathy from some far-seeing members of 
the Government ; but a large number of other movements 
have been treated with indifference. Now, I hold that it 
is not a wise policy for any Government (least of all a 
Government like that of the British in India) to remain 
indifferent to movements that sway the popular mind. 

Having said something about the apathy that generally 
characterizes the official attitude towards popular move- 
ments in India, I think I must say something about the 
open hostility and mistrust with which political movements 
have been regarded. The Congress was started with the 
avowed object of constitutionally agitating for better rights 
and privileges for Indians, both as citizens and as public 
servants. It assembled annually, and its assemblies were 
public, and it made no mystery of its proceedings. That 
its object was not pleasant to *' the powers that be " we can 
nderstand, but it acted within its legal rights, and there- 



Young India : Its Hopes and Aspirations, 255 

fore the mistrust that it excited in official quarters and the 
open hostility with which it sometimes met have been 
responsible for an amount of ill-feeling which is now 
begioning to bear fruit. The Congress started by recog- 
nising the British Government as a necessity for a peaceful, 
progressive, and prosperous India, and embodied this prin- 
ciple in its resolutions, in the speeches made on its plat- 
forms, and in the printed record of its proceedings. It 
still adheres, I think, to that principle in its official utter- 
ances; but I have it on good authority that there is a 
growing body of men who once supported it, but who have 
been driven by what they regard as years of disappoint- 
nient and disencouragement from the Government to an 
attitude of defiance. They recognise the smallness of 
their numbers and the helplessness of their present situa- 
tion, but they feel very bitterly towards the British, and 
wish to cut themselves off from them by offering them 
"passive resistance.'* Up to the present this hardly con- 
stitutes anything more than a sign, but it is a sign which, I 
think, everyone who believes in the desirability of good 
relations between Englishmen and Indians, and wishes to 
solve most of the difficulties of the country by getting the 
two classes to work together for the welfare of India, will 
notice with deep regret. Measures of repression to crush 
the growing spirit of independence have been tried, but 
have failed to bring about the desired result. They have 
ended in more bitterness. It yet remains to be seen what 
kindness and sympathy can do. It may be said that sym- 
pathy has been tried also, but I believe one may rightfully 
ask for a larger measure of it than has been given hitherto. 
That was a measurcf adapted to times that are past, to men 
who had been trained in a different atmosphere, and to 
conditions that have materially changed. Societies as well 
as States are in constant need of readjustment to suit 
changing circumstances, and in many respects, perhaps, 
no country in the world is undergoing greater changes than 
India, though few countries have a higher reputation for 



256 Young India : Its Hopes and Aspirations. 

clinging tenaciously to their ancient manners and customs. 
Think of the horror with which the grandparents of many 
of my Hindu friends in this hall would have regarded the 
idea of their children sojourning here, were they to come 
to life again. But India is now getting over this feeling, 
and the man who crosses the water no longer loses caste. 
In most places he is welcomed back with open arms, and 
in others re-admitted after some slight ceremonies. Imagine 
for a time the descendants of people among whom widows 
used to sacrifice their lives for their deceased husbands by 
jumping into the funeral pile, agitating for the remarriage 
of widows, and succeeding in that agitation. Fancy the 
successors of Moslem divines who, up to the middle of the 
last century preached a religious war against the ** un- 
believing," proclaiming that religious war in India was not 
allowable by the Islamic law. These are important and 
essential changes, but these are only a few of a long list 
that could be easily drawn up, which show that India is 
going through a g^eat transformation — nay, it is already 
considerably transformed. It is a new India which you 
have to deal with, but you do not notice the transformation, 
simply because it has been going on under your own eyes, 
just as you often fail to notice how your own child has 
grown up since last year if the child has been constantly 
before you. India is changing— changing in more directions 
than you know of — but you are too near to observe the 
phenomenon. I have long believed in this fact, but much 
has happened recently in different parts of the country to 
convince me more than ever that the treatment by English- 
men of their fellow-subjects in India ought to be adapted 
to the altered circumstances. We have long been familiar 
in India with a sharp line of distinction between the ruling 
race and the subject race. But is any such distinction just 
after royal promises of equality of treatment } or can it last 
long without hampering the growth of a spirit of mutual 
goodwill and confidence between the Western and Eastern 
neople whom Providence has brought together in India } 



Young India : Its Hopes and Aspirations. 257 

Moreover, is it true in fact ? I doubt if it is. I see an ever- 
increasing number of Indians entering the higher grades of 
the public service through the doors of competitive tests, 
where they prove themselves the intellectual equals of 
their English fellow-subjects. They take part — within 
limited areas, but an important and responsible part all the 
same — in the administration of the country, thus cutting 
some ground from under the feet of the theory of a ruling 
rcue. I also find a number of highly-qualified Indians 
sitting on the benches of our High Courts, exercising the 
same authority and discharging the same duties as their 
English colleagues ; and the number of such Indians is 
bound to grow as time goes by, if all goes well and no 
retrograde policy is adopted by the Government. How 
can we, then, speak of a ruling race with any accuracy ? 
The European official in India, in the interests of the 
Empire, and in order to win the confidence of the people, 
should so act as not to show any assumption of a Divine 
right to rule, or any air of conscious superiority, which, 
without strengthening his position, jars upon the suscepti- 
bilities of the people. I can quite imagine somebody 
objecting to the view I have expressed, and saying : ** This 
must be some new sensitiveness that the Indians have 
developed, as their fathers rejoiced in honouring the 
rulers.'* Yes, it is new, but it is there, and it has to be 
taken into account. The Indian to-day is not behind his 
father in deference to constituted authority, but he is now 
learning to bow to authority in the abstract as distinguished 
from its concrete embodiment — the official. He has im- 
bibed the English notions of right and duty, has learnt at 
the feet of broad-minded English scholars the lessons of 
ittdependence and love of liberty, and he finds it impossible 
to behave like those who never had these privileges. It is 
no use, therefore, to fret at this spirit, which is one of the 
most direct results of the contact between England and 
India-; but efforts should be made to foster it on right 
lines, and to encourage it within due bounds, as is the 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. R 



258 Young India: Its Hopes and Aspirations. 

advice of one of our rising poets, who, in lines addressed 
to Englishmen responsible for ruling India, has the follow- 
ing memorable verse : 

" Yih dp Ide hain maghrib se sail-i-dzadi, 
Banden ab wuh imdrat ki ustawdr rah^/' 

" This flood of freedom, it comes from the West, and you yourself have 
brought it. 
Erect now an edifice that may stand the rush of the waters." 

That edifice can be built only in the hearts of the people, 
and the deeper you sink its foundations the better for all 
concerned. The value of that edifice has been yet scarcely 
recognised in England. It means a satisfied India and 
a strong India. Well, a strong India means a stronger 
England. At present India, with all the advantages that 
its possession confers on England, is the weak limb of the 
Imperial body politic. It is the point that is most vulner- 
able. But with a people awakened to a full sense of their 
capacities and prepared to stand by England, sharing the 
privileges as well as the duties of citizens of the British 
Empire, and feeling a pride in admission, through Britain, 
to the comity of nations, it can be the strongest weapon 
in the Imperial armoury. We have often received with 
pleasure from the lips of English orators the compliment 
that India is the brightest jewel in the British crown, and 
some eminent Indians have followed suit in making use of 
this happy phrase. You will perhaps be surprised, there- 
fore, when I say that I am not quite satisfied with this 
expression. I wish Englishmen looked upon India as 
something more than a ** jewel.*' A jewel is more of an 
ornament than an article of daily use. It is only brought 
out on great occasions. It is meant for show. It has 
comparatively little intrinsic value. So we find this bright 
jewel shining with a lustre all its own in coronation re- 
joicings and other State ceremonies, but at other times old 
England prefers her simple black bonnet to the heavy 
crown and the dazzling Koh-i-noor. That is why I would 
-ke India to fulfil a less brilliant but a more useful function 



Young India: Its Hopes and Aspirations. 259 

in the paraphernalia of England. It should become — and 
it can very easily become — the staff on which the aged 
Mother of Empires may lean in her times of trouble. Who 
can stand before an England having at her beck and call 
three hundred millions of people, if she sets to work to make 
so many Britons of them — i.e.y British subjects in the true 
sense of the term, and not, as they are now, British subjects 
for some things and nobodies in other things — for example, 
in the treatment they receive at the hands of their fellow- 
subjects in South Africa ? 

It has been possible to allude but briefly to the chief 
aspiration of educated Indians, and through them of the 
rest of India, to see their status improve in the eyes of 
their own Government, and consequently in the eyes of the 
world abroad. They desire to raise the country to a higher 
level of social, educational, and industrial progress. Their 
efforts have hitherto been mainly confined to endeavours 
for political progress in the case of some and for educational 
advancement in the case of others, but they are now turn- 
ing their thoughts to other urgent needs of the country as 
well, and therein lies the great hope of the future. They 
are expanding the sphere of their duties, and this new 
tendency may be said to be almost coterminous with the 
new century. If this wholesome inclination proves lasting 
and fulfils the promise that it seems to give, the historian 
of the future may date a new era in India from the dawn of 
the twentieth century. The movement that had been slowly 
going on during the last five years has gathered considerable 
force in the year which has just ended. This year has seen 
greater attention towards industrial and commercial develop- 
ment. Home industries have been encouraged. The need 
for technical education has been more emphatically recog- 
nised than before, and the number of smaller institutions 
for such training is multiplying fast. A large number — 
'much larger than that of any previous years — have come 
to England for studies other than literary or belonging to 
learned professions, and a good many have gone out to 

R 2 



26o Young India : Its Hopes and Aspirations. 

Japan and America for a similar training. The average 
stay-at-home Indian merchant has of late ventured out of 
his shell and travelled abroad, visiting England, France, 
and Germany in quest of better openings for his trade, and 
for establishing direct relations with European firms to 
avoid the demands of the middlemen. Larger orders than 
before have been given for the purchase of different kinds 
of machinery in Europe for use in India, and even the slow- 
going agriculturist has in some cases — for instance, in the 
Punjab — shown a willingness to try improved agricultural 
implements on the farms, and to form combinations for 
the protection of his interests. Travelling for the sake of 
information has also been more largely resorted to, and 
a remarkable characteristic that Indians visiting the West 
have recently shown, and which offers a great contrast to 
the case of many who preceded them, is that they seem to 
be free from that slavish imitation of the West for which 
we were so often rightly blamed and held up to ridicule. I 
have come across a large number of my countrymen who, 
while adapting themselves with admirable elasticity to their 
surroundings in this part of the world, adhere firmly to the 
essential principles of religion or ethics taught them in the 
East, and do not regard it necessary to lay down all their 
ancient possessions at the altar of Western civilization. 

These are hopeful signs, but what strikes me as most 
hopeful is that greater benevolence and public spirit than 
before have characterized the donations that have been 
made to educational work, and that the encouragement of 
female education has received a place side by side with the 
education of the boys in the programme of many an educa- 
tional reformer. Among the Mussulmans the first place in 
attention to this work is due to our Bombay friends, who, 
under the able guidance of our chairman of to-day (Mr. 
Justice Badrud Din Tyebji) have long been fighting the 
cause of female education. What is more welcome still is 
that at the Conference of Mohammedans held at AHgarh 

-ing last Christmas funds were collected for founding 



Young India: Its Hopes and Aspirations. 261 

a training-school for lady teachers, as it has been found 
by experience that one great difficulty of conducting girls* 
schools in India is the want of suitable lady teachers. 
Her Highness the Begum of Bhopal has evinced a very 
deep and practical interest in this scheme, which fact raises 
hopes of its success. In connection with the Conference has 
been held a very successful exhibition of the art and needle- 
work of women, exhibits to which came from Bombay and 
from the Punjab, and at which Her Highness the Begum 
of Bhopal and the Maharanis of Patiala condescended to 
show their own work side by side with that of their humbler 
sisters. The splendid reception which the ladies of Bombay 
gave to H.R.H. the Princess of Wales the other day, graphic 
accounts of which were published by the London papers, 
has shown that they are now alive to a sense of their civic 
duties. This indicates that the awakening among men is 
beginning to have some effect upon women as well, and 
the other half of young India is by no means quite asleep. 
Several journals meant particularly for ladies have come 
into being, and are accelerating the advancement of Indiaa 
women. The Ladies' Magazine^ the excellent monthly in 
English coming out from Madras ; the Tahzib-i-Niswany 
the useful weekly of Lahore ; the Khatoon, a high-class 
monthly in Urdu, published at Aligarh, besides many in 
Bengali, may be mentioned for the information of those 
interested in this branch of work and desirous of studying the 
direction things are taking in the enlightenment of females. 
Let us, in conclusion, sum up briefly the facts to which I 
have invited attention. We have seen that the sentiment 
that actuates Young India is a desire for advancement — 
intellectual, commercial, and political. We have observed 
that the idea, though primarily agitating the educated 
classes, has reached the masses as well, and is beginning to 
be shared by that important section of the population that 
has hitherto led its life in seclusion away from the gaze 
of men, and has not brought its influence to bear on the 
public life of the country as the woman in the West has 



262 Young India : its Hopes and Aspirations. 

done. We have also noticed that this sentiment has found 
expression at first in movements of social and political 
reform, and later in the promotion of industrial and com- 
mercial enterprise, which, though in its commencement at 
present, is full of vast potentialities. The desire to travel 
abroad, and to move to distant corners of the world in 
search of fresh fields and pastures new, is also manifesting 
itself in larger proportions than before, notwithstanding the 
obstacles that are placed in the way of Indians by people 
who have had the good luck of being a little early in the field. 
And last, though not the least, the spirit of independence 
and self-help that has come into existence is an asset the 
value of which can be scarcely over-estimated. These are 
all matters justifying a hopeful view of the situation. But 
there are directions in which the outlook is not very 
promising. The differences between various sections of 
the community in India have long stood in the way of pro- 
gress, and though of late there have been some indications 
of a desire for co-operation, at least in the lines of education, 
social reform, and commerce, there are forces at work 
among the younger generation of India that render all 
united action difficult. The great magnitude of the country 
adds no little to the difficulties of the task that India has 
before it, and the very circumstance that would constitute 
her strength, if she is once welded into a great whole, now 
forms her weakness. But the facilities of communication 
are drawing different parts of India more and more together; 
the comparative freedom of contact between various 
provinces is removing many an old barrier of prejudice, 
and the press is contributing its share to the work of 
consolidation. The prospect, on the whole, strikes me to be 
far from gloomy. There is no height which Young India 
may not be able to reach with wider education and a greater 
co-operation between the communities inhabiting the land, 
especially if those in whose hands God has placed our 
destinies give us their full sympathy, and encourage the 
efforts of the people to better their fortunes. 



26 



^ 



THE PARTITION OF BENGAL AND THE 

BENGALI LANGUAGE.* 

By S. M. Mitra, m.r.a.s., Late Editor ** Deccan Post." 

In connection with the reconstruction of the Province of 
Bengal and Assam, better known as the Partition of Bengal, 
the public have heard a great deal about the Bengali language. 
There are some who profess to fear the severance of the 
lingfuistic ties of the people of Bengal as a result of the 
Partition. About fifty millions of British subjects speak the 
Bengali language. Its growth, therefore, has a most im- 
portant bearing on the political discussions which affect the 
largest Province in the British Indian Empire. Among 
Englishmen of the present day, Dr. Grierson, Mr. Beames, 
and Mr. Gait of the Bengal Civil Service are considered 
authorities on the Bengali language and literature. Other 
Englishmen who have carefully studied the Bengali langUcLge 
have also been struck with the beauties of the language. 
Mr. F. H. Skrine, author of " The Expansion of Russia," 
a retired member of the Indian Civil Service, who served 
in Bengal for about a quarter of a century, says : ** Bengali 
is a true daughter of ancient Sanskrit, and approaches its 
parent more nearly than any Indian language in the qualities 
which have rendered Sanskrit so unrivalled a medium for 
the expression of the highest ranges of human thought. 
It unites the mellifluousness of the Italian with the power 
possessed by the German of rendering complex ideas." 
Another retired member of the Indian Civil Service, who 
has very carefully studied the Bengali language, says : " You 
cannot speak too strongly of the beauties of the Bengali 
literature or the charms of one of the most euphonious 
languages in the world." 

The Bengali literature of the present day is rich in 
history, philosophy, biography, travel, poetry and drama. 

^ The discussion of this paper will appear in the report of the East 
India Association in our next issue. 



264 The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 

The Bengali, not satisfied with ordinary dictionaries, has 
tried to imitate the " Encyclopaedia Brittanica " and the 
modest Bengali production called the ** Visva Kosha," 
though not edited by experts, is a monument of literary 
industry running into many volumes. At present there 
are over fifty Bengali periodicals, devoted to literature, 
science, art, religion, poetry, medicine, agriculture, etc. 
English literature and Western enlightenment have had 
a direct effect on the growth of the Bengali language and 
literature. To-day Bengali occupies the foremost place 
among the numerous vernaculars of the British Indian 
Empire. It is enriched with translations from the French, 
German, Arabic, and Persian languages. The young Bengali 
lady of to-day, even if she knows not so much as the alphabet 
of any European language, can read Guy de Maupassant*s 
stories, discuss the poems of Heine and Victor Hugo and 
the comedies of Moliere. She can enjoy a hearty laugh 
over the good-humoured banter in that masterpiece of 
Persian literature, '*The Vizier-i-Lankaran." She may not 
know the ** aliph" or *'be" of the Arabic alphabet, and yet 
may follow the discussions of learned Maulavis as to whether 
the Arabic word "Budn" in the Koran, when used with 
reference to the Eed Sacrifice, means a camel only, or 
includes cattle also. She may compare the philosophy of 
Herbert Spencer and Mill with that of her own national 
** Gita." She can tell you whether Schopenhauer's concep- 
tion .of the Hindu philosophy of Karma and Nirvana was 
right. The Rontgen rays and wireless telegraphy are 
known to her through the medium of her own language. 
In fact, in expressiveness and copiousness the Bengali 
language of to-day has all the qualities found in the most 
literary languages of Europe. 

A cloud of obscurity hangs over the origin of the Bengali 
language. The city of Dacca was a flourishing capital in 
the days of Pliny. History shows that a well-known 
Buddhist temple was built in Sagar Island, at the mouth 
if the Hughli, so far back as 430 a.1). A map of " Bengal 



The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language, 265 

in the Fifteenth Century," still carefully preserved in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, is of considerable interest ; 
but Bengal is also mentioned by name in the Raghuvansa 
a thousand years earlier (500 a.d.). Before the English 
occupation of Bengal, Gaur and Navadwipa (Nadiya) were 
the centres of Bengali culture. According to Rennell, Gaur 
(the modern Malda) was the capital of Bengal in 750 B.C. 
Tamralipta (the modern Tamluk) was the Mecca of the 
Buddhists about nineteen centuries ago. Fa Hian, the 
Chinese priest, visited Bengal in the third century a.d., and 
lived there for two years. Professor Wilson, in the journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, refers to Fa Hian's visit to 
Bengal as a historical landmark, and as fixing one of the 
few dates in Indian history. Bengal and the Bengali 
language have always attracted a good deal of attention 
from European scholars. Dr. Muller's '* Relation of the 
Bengali to the Arian and aboriginal languages of India'' 
offers philological disquisition regarding the Bengali lan- 
guage. Dr. Muller says that Bengali is a direct offshoot 
of the Sanskrit. 

Some scholars are of opinion that the Bengali alphabet 
is derived from the Indo-Pali or the South Asoka characters 
used in India before the Christian era. Max Muller, Roth, 
Buhler, Goldstiicker, and Lassen all hold different views as 
regards the Indo-Pali alphabet. Whatever may be the 
origin of the Bengali characters, they were evidently in 
existence five centuries before Christ. According to the 
Lalita Vistara, Vishvamitra taught the great Buddha the 
Bengali characters. The Bengali characters are a set of 
symbols, like the Devanagri, though of a somewhat 
different shape, yet based essentially on the same 
principles. The Bengali characters are bold and simple. 
They are easy to remember, and, unlike the Arabic 
characters, easy to read and difficult to mistake. Bengali, 
the daughter of Sanskrit, has much of her mother's stately 
charm and beauty. Many colloquial words in Bengali are, 
however, of distinctly Magadhi- Prakrit origin. Bengali 



266 The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 

owes as much to the Sanskrit as French and Italian owe 
to Latin. The supple and beautiful rhyming metres of 
Bengali, though perhaps not direct descendants of the 
Sanskrit couplets called Slokas, are no doubt derived from 
the Sanskrit metrification. They are divided into Tripadi 
and Chaupadi metres. Not otherwise can the rhyming 
metres of French prosody be traced through old Christian 
hymns to the hexameters of Rome. For all its resemblance 
to the parent Sanskrit, Bengali has only few of the blemishes 
which characterize Indo-Germanic tongues. Its structure 
is simple, and abounds in vigorous expressions. It is not 
the result of a coalition of clashing languages as is modem 
English — that hybrid of Saxon and Norman French. 
Bengali, notwithstanding the influx of Semitic words and 
phrases, due to Muhammadan influences, owes its structure 
entirely to Sanskrit. Literary Bengali consists almost 
wholly of Sanskrit words, the "bibhakti" or final letters 
(suffixes) being generally omitted. In short, with a 
single stroke of the enchanter's wand, as it were, all the 
difficulties, such as sex epithets, etc., peculiar to Sanskrit, 
have disappeared in Bengali. In pronunciation, however, 
Bengali differs from Sanskrit. The clear brief Sanskrit A 
in Bengali becomes a dull O, like the ** k " of Scandinavian 
speech. The semi-vowel Y is invariably pronounced as 
J, and there is no distinction between the pronunciation 
of V and B. 

Before the twelfth century, though Bengali was spoken, 
it was regarded as vulgar to write Bengali. As the Italians 
of the period of Dante wrote in Latin, as the Anglo-Saxon 
writers, even so late as the time of Alfred the Great, wrote 
in the language of Rome, the Bengalis in olden times wrote 
in Sanskrit. There was hardly any Bengali literature 
before the twelfth century. It was in the twelfth century 
that the songs of Manik Chand roused the Bengali nation 
to a sense of the beauty of their language. In these 
songs Buddhism still governs the poet's imagination. It 
is evident that caste was then less powerful than in our 



The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 267 

own day. The Bengali then travelled widely, and took 
an active interest in the outer world. Several Bengali 
Pandits visited Tibet. Rockhill, in his " Life of Buddha," 
writes: "In 1042 the famous Atish, a native of Bengal, 
came to Tibet. He wrote a great number of works 
which may be found in the Bstanhgyur, and translated 
many others relating principally to Tantrik theories and 
practices." The Bengali line of the Sena Kings ruled 
in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and encouraged 
every literary movement in Bengal. Up to 1203 no 
foreign invader had penetrated as far as Bengal. All 
literary efforts were therefore confined to Sanskrit culture. 
There was then not a Semitic word in the Bengal language. 

Jayadeva, a native of Bengal, created a revolution in the 
literature of Bengal. He was, according to Buhler, born 
in the twelfth century. His " Gita-Govinda," composed in 
Sanskrit, immortalized the amours of Krishna and Radhika*, 
and has been called the Indian ** Song of Songs." He 
dealt allegorically with the relations of the soul to God in 
describing the passionate love which Radhika bore to the 
man-God Krishna. Sir Edwin Arnold has rendered Jaya- 
devas song into admirable English verse. Chandi Das 
lived in the fourteenth century. Jayadeva of Bengal was 
imitated by Vidypati of Mithila (Behar), and Chandidas 
imitated his contemporary Vidyapati. Vidyapati, though 
really belonging to Mithila, is accepted as a master of 
singers in Bengal, where his verses are still read, although 
the dialect in which they are written resembles Hindi 
rather than Bengali. 

The great Sanskrit epics — the Mahabharata and the 
Ramayana — are, of course, well known to Western scholars. 
They were early translated into European languages. For 
instance, the Ramayana was translated into French by 
Hippolyte Fanche, and an Italian version by Gorresio was 
published at the expense of the then King of Sardinia. 
Both the great Sanskrit epics were translated into Bengali 
verse in the fifteenth century, and became very popular. 



268 The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 

All over the East, whether in Persia or in India, poetry is 
widely read even by the humblest classes. Incidents in 
the life of Rama and Krishna are as well known to the 
millions in Bengal as the tales of Wallace and the Black 
Douglas to the Scotch peasantry, or as Robinson Crusoe 
to English children. The Bengali translations of the epics 
are by no means perfect ; indeed, they are rather naive 
paraphrases of the heroic tale rather than translations 
properly so called. But they have a simple charm which 
appeals even to cultivated readers, and may be compared 
not inaptly to such popular European epics as the 
" Chanson de Roland " or the ** Morte Arthure." 

The translators made sundry concessions to popular tasie 
which amuse the modern scholar. For instance, Krittibas, 
the Bengali translator of the great Sanskrit epic ** Rama- 
yana," introduced the stories of Mahi Ravan and Ahi Ravan, 
and the monkey-god Hanuman hiding the sun under his 
arm, which are not in the Sanskrit original. But Krittibas, 
the translator of the ** Ramayana,** and Kashiram Das, the 
translator of the " Mahabharata," laid the foundations of the 
Bengali literature. Though good Bengali translations of 
these great Sanskrit epics have since been published, yet 
the old editions, in tattered volumes on primitive wooden 
tablets, are still the staple literary food of the Bengali 
masses. The masses being illiterate, a Brahman, known 
as a Kathak, is employed to dole out the ancient mythology 
to an admiring crowd squatting on a palmyra mat under a 
canopy of date leaves. The institution of the Kathak, or 
Bard, like that of the Bhat, is perhaps as old as Indo-Aryan 
civilization. The masses of Bengal delight in repeating 
from these epics a priest's curse or a warrior's vow, perhaps 
because of the forcible language and its quaint impressive- 
ness. Except the Sanskrit couplets, known in Bengal as 
the **Chanakya Sloka" (the couplets of Chanakya), nothing 
is more popular than quotations from these two great epics. 
The ** Chanaka Slokas " were handed down from father to 
son by oral repetition, as was the case with Sadi's verses 



The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 269 

in Persia. The Slokas represent the concentrated wisdom 
of ages in a nutshell. Dr. Haeberlin has collected some 
of these apothegms in his well-known Anthology. Their 
universality is beyond doubt, and they contain rules for 
guidance in critical positions in life. Chanakya is to 
Bengal what Sadi is to Persia, and perhaps what Lord 
Chesterfield was to educated English youth a century ago. 
We shall give the translation of a couple of Slokas to give 
an idea of ancient Bengal wisdom. Friendship is thus 
described : ** The man who stands by you in the day of 
feasting and in the day of calamity, in famine and in war, 
at the King's gate, at the resting-place of the dead, that 
man is a friend." The English rhyming proverb contains 
the same sentiment in brief : 

" In time of prosperity friends will be plenty ; 
In time of adversity not one in twenty " 

Enmity is thus summarized : ** A father who runs into 
debt is an enemy, so is a dissolute mother ; a handsome 
wife is an enemy, and so is an uneducated son." Some of 
the Slokas are full of homely yet keen common-sense ; 
others might almost be the work of a rustic La Rochefou- 
cauld. In the sixteenth century, however, is the birth of a 
true literature. With the advent of the religious reformer, 
Chaitanya (born 1485), the thought and language of Bengal 
entered upon a new phase. Chaitanya may be regarded as 
the Bengali counterpart of Buddha, for Vaishnavism 
embodies in Hindu phraseology the doctrines of equality 
and brotherhood preached by Sakya-Muni. The religious 
reformer in every country has always used the vernacular 
of his country in preaching to the people. WyclifTe in 
England, St. Patrick in Ireland, Calvin in France, and 
Luther in Germany, all used the language of the people for 
the diffusion of new ideas. The Bengali reformer was no 
exception to the rule. Chaitanya's teachings gave a great 
impetus to the Bengali language. The " Padakalpataru," 
" Rasamanjari," ** Gita Chintamani *' and '* Padakalpalatika" 
refer to no less than 1 50 Bengali poets who sang Chaitanya's 



2 70 The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 

doctrines. Some wrote under feminine nom de plumes^ like 
Siva-Sahachari, etc. The Chaitanya philosophy became so 
popular in Bengal that even Musalmans vied with one 
another to compose songs in the fashion of the day. The 
verses of at least a dozen such Mahommedan poets exist to 
this day. The Hindu system, though in theory opposed to 
proselytism, appears to have thus made proselytes. The 
Bengali Chaitanya cycle of song has attracted some attention 
from Western scholars. Professor Newmann quotes : ** If 
thy soul is to go on into higher spiritual blessedness, it 
must become a woman, however manly thou may be 
amongst men." 

In the seventeenth century appeared Mukundaram, whom 
Professor E, B. Cowell, of Cambridge, called the ** Chaucer 
of Bengal." Mukundaram is better known in Bengal by his 
title of " Kabi Kankan." Bharat Chandra, a master of melli- 
fluous verse, and Ram Prasad, a famous songster, lived 
in the eighteenth century. Kabi Kankan and Bharat 
Chandra were long the favourite poets of Bengal. Un- 
happily, indelicacy has been one of the characteristics of 
Eastern literature, and the works of Bharat Chandra, 
though they display real poetical talent, are often coarsely 
sensual in idea and expression. The '' Annada Mangal" of 
Bharat Chandra is, however, still popular, while Kabi 
Kankan's ^' Chandi," once a highly popular work in praise 
of the goddess Durga, has lost some of its prestige. Both 
these poets enjoyed the patronage of the Maecenas of 
Hindu literature. Raja Krishna Chandra Roy, of Nadiya. 
During the regime of Krishna Chandra Roy, Nadiya 
became the literary centre of Bengal, a kind of Bengali 
Oxford. In the study of Hindu logic Nadiya still retains 
its ascendancy, and attracts Brahmin pupils from Benares, 
and even from distant Dravida (Madras), and Maharastra 
(Bombay). There is almost as much difference between the 
Bengali of a hundred years ago and the Bengali of the 
present day as between Rabelais and Anatole France, 
between Chaucer and Tennyson. Modern Bengali is fitted 



t 

The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 2 7 1 

alike for the philosopher and the man in the street. But the 
Bengali (especially the official Bengali) of Warren Hastings 
time (1772) had not reached its full development. It was 
written in Bengali characters, it is true. Except the conclud- 
ing verb, the rest of the sentence had very little to do with 
the parent Sanskrit. Bengali was largely intermixed with 
Arabic and Persian, and the vagaries of Muhammadan 
pronunciation often grated on the offended ear of the man 
of culture. Even now pronunciation varies as one travels 
from the banks of the Hugli to the banks of the Padma and 
further east. In Eastern Bengal sh is pronounced as ^ ; 
in Sylhet the sound is labial, in Chittagong nasal, in the 
Sunderbuns palatal, and in Assam guttural. A man from 
Eastern Bengal even to-day, though a master of the 
Bengali language in writing, yet will disfigure it in speaking, 
as the Scotsman, by his Doric accent, offends the English 
ear. Those who learn Bengali through " the cold medium 
of books " can hardly be expected to appreciate the capacity 
for music possessed by the most harmonious of Indian 
tongues. The Bengali language is tolerably easily learned 
by foreigners ; thus the majority of Muhammadans in 
Bengal not only speak, but write Bengali. The Bengali 
Musalman usually prefers Bengali to Hindustani, and 
at present there is more than one Bengali monthly review 
conducted by Bengali Musalmans of light and culture. 
The Bengali Muhammadan, when speaking, indulges in 
a language which is more or less a mixture of the 
phraseology of Kalidasa and of Abul Fazl, of Manu and of 
Abu Hanifa. The *' Muhammadan Bengali " thus fashioned 
has acquired an inelegant stiffness which would have shocked 
Panini or Bhatti. But we are glad to notice that the present 
generation of the Musalmans of Bengal are trying to improve 
their patois by introducing a larger number of Sanskrit 
words into their vocabulary ; and this gives more life 

and vigour to their tongue. 

A hundred and fifty years ago the Bengali language did 
not possess a single dictionary or grammar. There was 



272 The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 

hardly a prose work of sterling value. It was the mission- 
aries of Christianity who created a revolution in the language 
and literature. Carey and Marshman found Bengal so 
much caste -ridden as to make any intellectual effort 
impossible for the nation. But as Voltaire and Rousseau 
shook the fabric of the priestly and aristocratic despotism 
in France, so did Carey, Duff, and Marshman in Bengal. 
Before the days of these eminent missionaries, as we have 
already seen, Bengali could not boast of a dictionary or 
a grammar in the language. In 1778 the first Bengali 
Grammar was published. It was Halhed's Bengali 
Grammar, and was printed at Hugli, twenty-four miles 
from Calcutta. There was then no Bengali type. Sir C. 
Wilkins prepared the first Bengali type with his own hands. 
He afterwards edited the *' Bhagavat Gita." In 1800 the 
Marquis of Wellesley founded Fort William College (Cal- 
cutta). His masterly minute on Bengali literature is pub- 
lished in Rocbruck's "Annals of the College of Fort 
William." By pecuniary and other encouragement, he 
gave an impetus to the cultivation of Bengali which pro- 
duced remarkable results. It was under the patronage of 
the College of Fort William in 1801 that Dr. Carey pub- 
lished his Bengali translation of the New Testament, which 
was followed by his well-known Bengali Dictionary, in three 
volumes, quarto, containing 80,000 words. In 18 16 a Ben- 
gali translation of the Gospels, by John Ellerton, of Malda, 
was published at the expense of the Calcutta Bible Society. 
The Countess of Loudon founded and endowed a Bengali 
school at Barrackpore (about nine miles from Calcutta). In 
twenty years, under the patronage of the Fort William 
College, in addition to over sixty Sanskrit, Arabic, and 
Persian works, a number of Bengali books were published. 
Among them were the *• Hitopadesha," in 1801, Sergeant's 
Bengali translation of four books of the "yEneid," and 
Monkton's Bengali translation of Shakespeare's "Tempest." 
Most of these books were issued by the Serampore Mission 
Press. Dr. Carey was to the Bengali language what Dr. 



The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 273 

Gilchrist was to Hindustani. In 18 13 the East India 
Company, at the instance of Lord Minto, the great grand- 
father of the present Viceroy of India, fostered the revival 
of Oriental letters by an annual grant of a lakh of rupees 
(;^6,6oo). The result was the discovery of many Oriental 
books and manuscripts, which made the improvement of 
the Sanskrit and the Bengali languages possible. The 
Calcutta Bible Society came into existence in 181 1,' which 
received the compliments and approval of the Asiatic 
Society of Paris. In thirty-eight years it issued no less 
than 602,266 copies of the vernacular Scriptures, of which 
about one-fourth were in Bengali. As a result, the Bengali 
language improved considerably. But the tone was not 
yet healthy. The Marchioness of Hastings, finding that 
the Bengali nations could not supply a single native child's 
book in Bengali, established, in 181 7, the Calcutta School- 
book Society. At that time the Bengali language could no 
doubt boast of about sixty indigenous works, but most of 
them discussed only mythological and amatory subjects, 
quite unfit for the rising generation. It was Englishmen, 
as Bengali teachers, who filled this gap in Bengali letters a 
century ago. The names of Mr. Stewart, the founder of 
the Burdwan Church Mission School, of Mr. May and Mr. 
Pearson of the Chinsura School, are still remembered with 
gratitude. Their publications, if not exactly literature, 
themselves, served to train a new school of writers. They 
worked with the enthusiasm of crusaders in the malarious 
and depressing climate of Bengal. They published 
Bengali books on history, geography, and other educational 
subjects. 

In 1818, the Digdarshan [Compass), a Bengali maga- 
zine, was published. The first Bengali newspaper the 
Darpan [Mirror) was started at Serampore on May 23, 
1818. The Marquis of Hastings wrote a letter with his 
own hand congratulating the editor, and directed that a 
large number of copies should be subscribed for at the 
public expense, and should be sent to the various native 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. S 



274 The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 

courts. The postage of the Darpan was reduced to one- 
fourth the usual rate — no small matter in those days. 

The Serampore College was founded in 1818, and did 
much useful work in educating the future authors of Bengal. 
In 182 1 Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the founder of Brahmaism, 
started his Brahminical Magazine. Its main object was to 
oppose the spread of Christian doctrines. It, however, dis- 
appeared in a very short time. In 1823 the Calcutta Tract 
Society came into existence. But the Bengali language soon 
after sustained a severe blow in the death of Felix Carey. 
Among Carey's Bengali translations the following may be 
mentioned : ** On Anatomy," Goldsmith's ** History of 
England," " The Pilgrim's Progress," etc. The Timir- 
nashak {Destroyer of Darkness) in 1824, and Banga Dm 
{Bengal Messenger), in 1829, were among the newspapers 
that, before the Calcutta University was established, tried 
to stimulate the indifferent and instruct the learner. Sub- 
sequently the Prabhakar^ Tatvabodhini, Bangadarshan^ 
and various other magazines came into existence. Raja 
Ram Mohan Roy was the first Bengali prose-writer. Iswar 
Chandra Vidyasagara (1850) and Akhay Kumar Datta 
(1850) gave Bengali prose a classical dress, and it was left 
to Bankim (i860) to simplify prose style and adapt it to 
popular narrative. 

Professors Derozio and Richardson, of the Hindu College, 
in the early forties of the last century, created a revolution 
among the young men of Calcutta. Michael Dutt, one of 
the students of the Hindu College, was among others per- 
meated with Western thought, and visited Europe in 1848. 
After his return to Bengal, in 1861, he published an epic 
known as the ** Meghnad Badh," which won for him the 
distinction of introducing blank verse into the Bengali 
language. In the last twenty years the Bengali literature 
has made great strides. There are now Bengali poetesses, 
and a leading Bengali magazine is edited by a Bengali 
lady. The name of Srimati Kamini Roy, the talented 
author of ** Alo o Chhaya " (Light and Shade), and of 



The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 275 

Srimati Mankumari, writer of " Kusumanjali " (Offering 
of Flowers), are well known to every educated Bengali. 
Bengali widows sometimes express their grief in poetry. 
The authors of **Asrukana" (Teardrops) and **Nirjha- 
rini " (Waterfall) are young widows. Their pictures of the 
woes of the Hindu widow are among the most pathetic and 
moving lyrical poems that have ever been written in India. 

The Bengali language, full as it is of words expressing 
different degrees of family relationship, has hardly any 
words that have a political origin. A single Bengali word 
expresses family ties, to express which in English one 
requires a long periphrasis. The word ** Jethai " at once 
points out the good lady who has married your father s elder 
brother. The word ** Kaki " tells you that she is the better- 
half of your father's younger brother ! The every-day con- 
versation of the average Bengali begins with, and is some- 
times limited to, inquiries after the health and welfare of the 
various members who represent the most distant ramifica- 
tion of the family tree. But one searches in vain for 
colloquial words for "liberal," "conservative," or other 
most ordinary political words of every-day use. Of course, 
we have recently introduced into our literature pedantic 
translations of some of the modern political terms ; .but 
they are known only to the few, and seldom used even 
by them in conversation. Though the lives of Mazzini and 
Garibaldi have been translated into Bengali, the national 
literature of Bengal contains no political works. As to 
representative Government in the modern sense, the idea 
was, of course, unknown to India. A Government evolved 
out of the wishes of the people was a thing never dreamt 
of by our ancestors. Implicit obedience to the ruling 
power was alike inculcated by religion and precedent in 
India. 

The nursery songs and ballads of Bengal are very 
interesting. Notwithstanding the present Sivaji demonstra- 
tion at Calcutta, the nursery rhymes of Bengal clearly 
indicate the hatred felt by the Bengali for the Mahratta — 

s 2 



^ 7^ The Partiliofi of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 

the **bargi " (bogie ?) of the national nursery rhymes. In 
Bengali ballads we can see the Bengali feeling towards the 
^usalman conquerors, and it is by no means always 
friendly. It is difficult, however, to find a single ballad 
^r nursery rhyme in Bengal uncomplimentary to the 
English. Nothing could be stronger evidence of the 
friendly feeling of the Bengali masses towards the English. 
In the Bengali language there is always present one 
strong impress of nationality, the spirit of Hinduism. The 
Bengali literature is Hindu ; it is sometimes saturated with 
Hinduism even in the writings of men who got their 
literary inspiration from Musalman or English writers. 
The poems of Christian Michael Dutt are Hindu in 
inspiration ; the admirable novels of Bankim, though 
collecting ideas from the Musalman as well as Christian 
literature, are Hindu. The poems of Nabin Sen are also 
Hindu, though he has sung of the romance of the sea 
with a Swinburnian enthusiasm. Bengalis delight in calling 
their popular authors by English names. Michael Dutt is 
called the ** Milton," Nabin Sen the " Byron," and Bankim 
the ** Scott " of Bengal. The educated Bengali likes his 
own literature only when there is Western thought mingled 
with it. This may appear paradoxical, but it is true. In 
Sanskrit erudition all Bengal will admit that Taranath 
Tarkavachaspati and Bharat Chandra Siromani were much 
superior to Isvar Chandra Vidyasagar and Swami Vive- 
kananda of American fame. But Vachaspati or Siromani 
did not receive a tenth of the homage from the Bengali 
that Vidyasagar and Vivekananda did. Vidyasagar's and 
Vivekananda's knowledge of English helped them to mix 
Hindu ideas with Western thought, and hence their popu- 
larity. Bankim Chandra Chatterji, the '* Scott of Bengal," 
is another very popular Bengali writer. His " Gita" dis- 
cusses the views of Western savants like Lassen and 
Weber. His **Dharmatatva" is practically Mill's philosophy 
in Bengali garb. Thoughtful Bengalis clearly see that they 
must try to harmonize Bengali ideas with Western thought. 



The Partition of Bengal and the Bengali Language. 277 

The Sahitya Parishad (the Bengal Academy of Literature) 
of Calcutta, which numbers among its 600 members 
eminent High Court judges, members of the Indian Civil 
Service, barristers, doctors, etc., is now engaged in the 
study of the bibliography of the Bengali language. It 
is introducing a scientific system of transliterating Muslim 
words into Bengali characters. Preference has been given 
to Grimm's law above the rules of Panini. The new 
system of transliteration will be on the lines of the one 
established by the International Oriental Congress of 1894, 
and adopted by the Royal Asiatic Society. 

It will be seen that, as Sir George Bird wood has pointed 
out in the Times, the Bengali language and literature in 
their modern evolution, extension, and influence, are, so 
to say, and without paradox, an English achievement. 
No administrative measure, such as the ** Partition of 
Bengal," will have any injurious effect on the growth of the 
Bengali language and literature. Burns and Scott are 
not less English authors, because Scotland is, in a sense, 
separated from England. In fact, the intellectual eminence 
of Edinburgh was due to the fact that it was the capital 
of Scodand. Who knows whether Dacca, the capital of 
the new Province of East Bengal and Assam, may not 
yet be another Bengali Oxford, and compete with the 
Navadwip (Nadiya) of former days } Several of the best 
Bengali authors hail from Eastern Bengal. Michael Dutt, 
who is called the *' Bengali Milton/' and Nabin Sen, the 
''Bengali Byron," are both from Eastern Bengal. The 
best history of the Bengali literature extant is written by a 
native of Chittagong. Administrative divisions have not 
interfered with the development of the Hindustani (Urdu) 
and the Marathi languages, and there is absolutely no 
reason why any administrative separation should affect the 
langus^e and literature of Bengal. 



278 



''MADRAS IRRIGATION AND NAVIGATION"— 

A REPLY. 

By General J. F. Fischer, r.e. 

In the Asiatic Quarterly Review for October, 1905, there 
IS an article on the above subject by Mr. W. Hughes, 
M.A., M.I.C.E., in which I am taxed with having written 
certain articles in the same Review, "based on incorrect 
information to a large extent," and against the Indian 
Government in general, and more particularly against the 
Madras Government. As regards the matter of writing 
against the Government, there is no evidence whatever in 
existence, and I repudiate the charge entirely. That I 
have commented on the doings of their servants in the 
discharge of their duties in some important matters I freely 
admit, and will reproduce the instances by-and-by ; for Mr. 
Hughes very carefully omits all these, and in no instance 
does he show at all clearly that my information was in- 
correct except in what he is pleased to call his own 
opinions. 

The manner in which Mr. Hughes argues in general 
can be gathered very easily from the following statements 
taken from his article. He says at p. 244 : ''It is not the 
fact that it is governed in the interests of a priestly caste " ; 
and at p. 249 he says : ** We have struck at the root of 
caste ascendency by offering the same educational facilities 
to all." If it is a fact that caste ascendency did not prevail 
at all in South India, what object was there to strike at its 
root ? Mr. Rogers says he heard a Madras civilian declare 
the Brahmins would not let him make some reductions 
in favour of the common people, and everyone knows this 
practice prevails all over South India, under the authority 
and influence of the Head Sheristadar of the Board of 
Revenue, Madras ; but according to Mr. Hughes, this 
priestly caste has no existence or influence ! His experience 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigation^' — A Reply. 279 

of Indian affairs and district administration must be very 
small indeed. 

Mr. Hughes is in error when he says the Department of 
Public Works was formed after the Mutinies ; it was in- 
stituted about 1854-55. The Mutinies broke out suddenly 
in 1857, so his long dissertation about Kudi Maramut 
is more whimsical than anything else, for he himself did 
not come to India for years after the Mutiny had been 
suppressed, I believe. At this time the Department of 
Public Works was greatly reduced on account of the state 
of the finances ; all new works, except military, were stopped, 
but " repairs " were allowed to be proceeded with ; and 
during the years 1857-59, with the assistance of the old 
Kudi Maramut^ which had been left to us, I set to work to 
put the old tanks and channels in the old Bellary districts, 
having then an area of about ii,cxxd square miles, into 
good order. We expended in these three years Rs. 360,000 
in improving these works, storing more water, etc., with 
the cordial cooperation of the ryots ^ who never failed in one 
single instance to perform the work they had promised to 
do, without any stamp agreements, and they also paid 
a water-rate of Rs. 5 per acre for all lands for which 
water was provided. By these operations we brought an 
additional 85,000 acres of land into cultivation, yielding a 
revenue of over 4 lacs of rupees, so all the original outlay 
was soon recovered. The cost of maintenance was re- 
duced by Rs. 25,000 a year from the sum which had been 
usually allowed for the district, and the works were allowed 
to be in far better order than they had ever been in before 
even by those who were most hostile to the new Depart- 
ment of Public Works. I always found the members of 
the old Kudi Maramut very useful. None of them were 
highly educated ; some could not read or write their own 
language ; but they were good practical men of experience, 
and soon learnt to do well with a little assistance and 
instruction. I consider their method of tamping in an 
earthen bund much superior to our usual practice ; and I 



28o '^Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 

believe, for India, their placing a good thick backing of 
stiff clay behind the stone-facing of tank bunds is far better 
than the clay puddle-walls in the middle of the bund we 
usually adopt. The clay in such a position is preserved 
from cracking by the presence of the water in close 
proximity to it, and in hot weather the stone-facing 
preserves it from the heat of the sun. Some of these old 
people could make a cement of the common *'kunker" 
of this country quite equal to any Portland cement. So, 
as far as my knowledge of them goes, such people were 
not to be despised if only properly treated. 

Now, if Mr. Hughes can show that by the large outlay 
on the tank restoration scheme during the years of its 
existence, with a special extra establishment (its cost is 
never mentioned), any additional revenue has been secured 
to the Government, the storage of water greatly improved, 
and the extent of land irrigated greatly increased, he will 
have established something in favour of this extraordinary 
establishment ; but so far as the published reports of its 
working show, there is absolutely nothing to indicate that 
any great advantages have been secured by it, either for 
the Government or the people. I n fact, it does not appear 
that this establishment has been employed at all in main- 
taining even registers of the rainfall. How, then, can 
it have been of any great use for improving hydraulic 
works.** If I may be allowed to tender some little advice 
to so great an authority as Mr. Hughes on hydraulic works, 
I would respectfully advise him to study Sir A. Binnie's 
paper on the Nagpore Water- works in the Proceedings 
of the Civil Engineers' Institute, London, and he will 
then learn how necessary it is to maintain registers of the 
rainfall for as many years as possible in order to be able 
to execute hydraulic works efficiently. In none of Mr. 
Hughes papers does he show that this matter has been 
properly attended to in Madras by himself or any of 
his predecessors, and it is, therefore, quite impossible for 
their works to be in good order or as efficient as possible. 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigatioti'' — A Reply. 281 

The expenditure on works is no indication that the 
works are being properly attended to. The results for all 
this outlay should be clearly shown, and a comparison 
annually made of the cost of establishment, with the 
outlay on works ; otherwise any amount of money can 
be spent in India, as was done in the old regime, and 
no results attained, and the accounts were always several 
years in arrears. A bare assertion that I am mistaken 
without any proofs is a strange way to dispose of serious 
public interests. 

Mr. Hughes asserts, on his own authority, that my 
quotation from a letter of Mr. Ragoonatha Row's is " very 
incorrect and misleading.'' That letter appeared in the 
Madras Mail, which is a strong supporter of Mr. Hughes' 
opinions and ideas, has never been contradicted publicly, 
and as Mr. Ragoonatha Row is a retired deputy collector 
of the Government service and a large landed proprietor, 
his statements cannot be set aside in the supercilious 
manner Mr. Hughes treats a respectable native gentleman. 

Before going into further details it will be as well to 
dispose of the subject of main and cross roads in South 
India. The two following letters appeared in the Madras 
Mail q{ October 21, 1905. 

MADRAS ROADS. 

Sir, 

May I suggest that if their Royal Highnesses could 
be induced to drive at least once over all the principal 
roads of this city they would, in all probability, confer 
substantial benefit upon its citizens } There would be a 
chance, at least, of some of the roads which badly require 
attention, other than those which their Royal Highnesses 
will traverse, being seriously taken in hand by the muni- 
cipality. 

KiLPANK. 

I would thank you to publish the following few lines in 
the columns of your largely-circulated paper, calling the 



282 ''Madras Irrigation atid Navigation'' — A Reply. 

attention of those who are in charge of the repair of public 
roads, New Town, which are a disgrace to any municipality, 
especially the end along the factory. The road is so full 
of mud ruts that even the wheels of a light carriage sink 
half their height. The horse drawing the carriage I was 
riding in along this road had even to stop three or four 
times to get its wind, it being such a hard pull — and the 
horse was by no means a weak animal. I would ask those 
in charge of the repair of public roads to do their utmost to 
repair this road, even for the sake of the poor animals. 

Sufferer. 

If the roads in the chief town of the Presidency are in 
the condition described by these writers — and here, in the 
principal military station, these are little better, if at all — it 
is easy to imagine what must be their condition in the 
Mofussil, where they are hardly seen by Europeans. It is 
well known that the good roads made by Sir Mark Cubbon 
in Mysore are in the most ruinous condition, and that in 
Travancore they have never existed at all. Mr. Hughes 
should show very clearly how much the cost of transport 
has been reduced by the works he so praises. As to ** the 
incalculable benefits " claimed for the railways, that is an 
old song which is now as stale as a parrot's single note. 
These works have introduced no new industries into this 
country ; the towns and villages they run through are all in 
the same condition they were in 2,000 years ago, and the 
bazaar rates for lending money have more than doubled 
since their introductions ; so it is very easy to estimate 
•* the incalculable benefits " they have conferred on the 
community, especially as an ** expert " employed by the 
Government has declared their freight charges for passengers 
and goods are over 80 per cent, too high for the present 
industrial condition of India, whilst Mr. Hughes declares 
them to be probably the cheapest in the world! How, 
then, does it appear the railways are the most profitable 
vorks for a miserably poor agricultural community ? And 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 283 

they have never increased the value of real estate by a 
farthing. 

Mr. Hughes states the great imperial systems novo 
irrigate 3,cxx:),ooo acres, and the larger provincial works 
irrigate ^QO,ooo acres. He takes care not to give the 
dates when these works were originated. Of the former 
more than 80 per cent, belong to the delta works, designed 
by Sir A. Cotton, and of the latter very much belong to 
his energetic endeavours. I expect, if the dates are 
properly looked up, this is another instance of his making 
bare assertions without any proofs. Mr. Hughes charges 
me with making a statement in the Review of October, 
1904 (p. 259), that India, with its most abundant water- 
supply, is declared to be unable to irrigate more than some 
20,ooo,cxxD acres of land, and adds \ ''no such statement was 
made'' The statement was made by Lord Curzon, as I 
said, when he assumed the government of this country, 
and was based " on a carefully prepared estimate," which 
had been prepared for his lordship, as can be seen by a 
reference to my article in the Review. All this Mr. 
Hughes omits, and in the most abrupt manner contradicts 
me — on his bare assertion, as usual. In the same way 
he asserts the area irrigated in British India from all 
sources is about 44,ocx:),ooo acres. In the last review 
by the Government of India for the year 1903 -1904 this 
area is given at 21,50x5,000 acres, being an increase of 
1,500,000 acres in all British India over the previous year. 
So much for the correctness of Mr. Hughes' figures. Mr. 
Pennington {Review, July, 1905, p. 181) states : ** We have 
over 44,000,000, or more than a fifth of the cultivated area, 
actually under irrigation at the present time, exclusive of 
well cultivation." As the Government of India in their 
/tw/r^z/^w of irrigation in India, for the year 1903- 1904, state 
the extent was only 21,500,000 there is a good opportunity 
for these gentlemen to correct the errors and mistakes 
of the Government of India. 

Mr. Hughes declares (pp. 250, 251) that I quoted and 



284 ''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 

misunderstood his statement that ** the Godavari cannot be 
utilized except in the delta." I very much regret if I made any 
mistake, but I said he apparently did so ; for when he spoke 
of the Godavari, I naturally inferred that he meant the whole 
basin of that great river. When we speak of the Thames, 
we do not refer to that portion of the river below London 
Bridge. Mr. Hughes informs us that, " in fact, about 200 
projects for irrigation in the Central Provinces were brought 
to the notice of the Irrigation Commission "; but he omits to 
state that these same Commissioners declared it was im- 
possible to carry out any such works in those territories on 
account of the Zimindari tenure of the land prevailing in 
them! And this is his way of promoting the public interests 
of the Government and the community in general, by with- 
holding all the real facts which prevent agriculture being 
successfully carried on. Mr. Hughes is graciously pleased 
to tell the public he has not been able to verify the evidence 
I gave before the Irrigation Commission in 1 901, as he has 
not had any opportunity of consulting the volume of evi- 
dence taken before the Commission. This is rather strange, 
for when it suited his purpose he quotes their report freely — 
for instance, when he wrote all that ** farrago of nonsense" 
about Kudi Maramut, and in many other instances. His 
surmises about my connection with the Toongabadra project 
are as fanciful as they well can be. It is quite true this 
project originated many, many years ago with Sir A. Cotton, 
and in 1856 the papers were sent to me for investigation. I 
then pointed out to the Government his proposal to carry 
the large volume of water over the Huggri River, across the 
watershed in the Bellary district, to supplement the supply 
of the Pennar River, was most expensive, and I suggested 
the Pennar should be supplied by the Khoondaar Valley 
below Kurnool from the Toongabadra River. The Govern- 
ment ordered this proposal of mine to be submitted to Sir 
A. Cotton on his return to India, and in 1857-58 Sir 
Arthur at once approved of my suggestions, and directed 
me to investigate his project for a reservoir on the Toonga- 



'^Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 285 

badra, and to convey the water from it by a canal, so as to 
form a junction with the Kurnool works. I found the site 
for the reservoir, which Sir Arthur was much pleased with, 
and was making my investigations for the canal in Bellary, 
when these were stopped by order of the Government, as 
they considered the Kurnool works were quite sufficient to 
begin upon. There is the whole matter in a nutshell, and 
I explained this fully to the Irrigation Commission, and as 
I was leaving the room Colonel Smart, R.E., introduced 
himself to me, and said he had never seen the Toongabadra 
project explained in the manner I had just described, and 
he thought it was quite feasible, and would remove all 
difficulties, so I do not see how he could have anticipated 
me. I admit that I did not suggest the tunnel through the 
hills to the Commission, as I had long considered the 
subject, and thought the cost far too great for this country, 
and its execution would occupy many years, when we 
wanted to relieve the district of all fear of famine as soon as 
possible. I am not sure, but I think a tunnel of less than 
two and a half miles in length can be executed in that part 
of the country. I insisted upon the navigation being made 
quite through to the coast, and I maintain my opinion as 
before that the project will not be a success unless through 
navigation is adopted. On this subject I acted in entire con- 
currence with Sir A. Cotton's views and opinions. In 
connection with this Toongabadra project, when Mr. Hughes 
had described it as being ** on a much grander scale," etc., 
I wrote in this Review in October, 1904, as follows : 

'* Now will it be believed that he and all his predecessors 
in office for more than forty years condemned this project 
intoto^ and advised ihe. Government to abandon it altogether, 
as all 'official ' records can prove T' To this question Mr. 
Hughes makes no reply, but slurs the matter over, though 
by his own admission the Government had lost in twenty 
years some 6 crores of rupees, and in forty years under 
amilar circumstances this loss was not less than 1 2 crores 
of rupees, exclusive of the loss of lives and live-stock, simply 



286 ''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 

for want of this water-supply, which was always at hand, 
but which neither he nor any of his predecessors took the 
least trouble about to save the Government and the people 
from suffering all these fearful losses and the frightful 
horrors of famine ; and now Mr. Hughes says, at p. 251 of 
this Review for October, 1905: "It is difficult to treat 
seriously my vagzie ideas regarding the possibilities of ex- 
tending irrigation in Madras," when he was well aware that 
the Irrigation Commission had readily accepted my sugges- 
tions and proposals as explained to them for carrying out 
this same Toongabadra project, and had at once recom- 
mended the work to the Government of India for adoption! 
However vague my ideas about extending irrigation in 
Madras may be in Mr. Hughes estimation, they were very 
readily accepted by the Irrigation Commission, and in the 
course of my service in India under Generals Sir A. Cotton, 
R.E., C. A. Orr, F. H. Rundle, r.e., and Colonel Ander- 
son, R.E., all my proposals were highly approved of and 
accepted generally. Their incapacity perhaps was not so 
great as Mr. Hughes', who has not left a single work oi zxiy 
importance in Madras, as originated and carried out by 
himself, on record. The value of his judgment on irrigation 
can be easily appreciated, as I will proceed to show in 
reference to the Mopand and Nagawalli River-projects. 
The Mopand project is a proposal to construct a reservoir 
on the Manera River, in the Nellore district, and this river is 
south of the Pennar and has never had anything done for it^ 
although Mr. Hughes had declared that 70 per cent of its 
waters had been fully utilized. I pointed out that similar 
rivers in the North Arcot district, south of the Pennar, and, 
in fact, all similar rivers north and south of the Pennar 
River all along the Coromandal coast, were in flood in that 
season, and doing immense damage to the railways, etc. 
So there was no ground for Mr. Hughes' assertion that 
there is very limited scope for impounding more water in 
them, for they were already fully utilized. When the 
report on the Mopand project was published, it contained 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 287 

no description of the Manera River, no account of its catch- 
ment area, nothing to show what the general incline of its 
bed might be, or if the gathering ground was composed of 
hard steep ground or flat soil in general ; no observations 
or calculations of the ordinary or heavy flood discharges of 
this river were given, and not a single year s register of the 
rainfall in this basin or in the district accompanied the 
report And Mr. Hughes declares my ideas about irrigation 
are vague ! 

I assumed the rainfall might be the same as in the 
adjacent district of North Arcot — viz., 36 inches on an 
average — and sketched out a project for utilizing this river 
more fully; but the chief points I insisted upon were that it 
was very dangerous to construct an earthen dam at such a site, 
and the peculiar character of the rainfall on this coast. This 
latter has been just confirmed, for in this very year Nellore 
reports that over 1 5 inches of rain fell there in three days. Of 
this quantity 8*5 inches fell on the first day, and 57 inches 
on the second. There was no cyclone or hurricane about ; the 
storm was apparently one of those frequently occurring at 
this season on this coast. Mr. Hughes gives the average 
rainfall hereabout at 28 inches, so that more than half fell 
in three days, and in the tropics everyone knows what 
floods such rainfalls create in all rivers, and my contention 
is that we should make reservoirs large enough to secure as 
much as possible of this abundant rainfall. In this instance 
the river has a catchment of upwards of 1,200 square miles, 
and when over 15 inches of rain fell in three days, it is not 
too much to assume that 12 inches of it ran ofl* in its floods. 
During the time these prevailed ; this river, then, was con- 
veying 1,200 million cubic yards of water waste into the 
sea, and I submit it is the duty of an engineer to provide by 
all possible means to utilize such abundant rainfalls in the 
interests of the Government and the people, and that is the 
idea of the engineers in the arid regions of the United 
States of America. With the data given for the Mopand 
project as published, I do not think it ought to have been 



288 ** Madras Irrigation and Navigation " — A Reply, 

sanctioned at all. How Jong this project was in preparation 
I do not know, but a very similar project for the Nagavulli 
River in Vizagapatam took no less than sixteen years to pre- 
pare, under Mr. Hughes* own supervision, during a part of 
this time. In this case no catchment areas are given, no 
discharges of the river in ordinary or heavy floods, the 
rainfall registers for four years only out of the sixteen the 
project was preparing, and in two seasons some observations 
of the floods were noted, but no calculations of the quantity 
of water running off" appear to have been made. No 
reservoirs are proposed to be constructed in this river 
basin, and it is not expected to irrigate more than one crop 
in favourable seasons. Why it has been sanctioned on such 
data I do not know, but there is no chance of the project 
ever paying, for no endeavour has been made to utilize the 
abundant runs-off' along this coast in any satisfactory manner. 
From the peculiar character of the rainfall on this coast, it is 
absolutely necessary to have large storage reservoirs on all 
such streams. I may also add that not only did Mr. Hughes 
and his confreres take sixteen years to prepare this project, 
but they want six years to carry out the work, estimated to 
cost about 8 lacs of rupees. In Sir A. Cotton's day it took 
three years to build the Godavari Anikut, and he had to go 
away for a year on sick leave ; and in about the same time 
the Kistna Anikut was built, and the people then were in 
gross ignorance and darkness. These are the two largest 
rivers in South India, draining between them nearly 200,000 
square miles of country, more than three times the area of 
England and Wales, having heavy tropical rainfalls pre- 
vailing in them. Nowadays Mr. Hughes and his associates, 
after sixteen years* consideration, want six years to deal with 
a common jungle stream ! I am indeed truly thankful I 
have lost all touch with such doings and practices — in 
fact never soiled my fingers with them. I should have liked 
to see a man go up to Sir A. Cotton, or even General C. A. 
Orr, and tell them it would take sixteen years or more to 
deal with a common jungle stream. I do not think anyone 



^^ Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 289 

would have attempted to do so a second time, after the 
blessing he would have received. As projects are generally 
prepared in such a manner in South India since Sir A. 
Cotton left the country forty-five years ago, it is perfectly 
absurd to say irrigation has been properly attended lo—for : 

1. The catchment areas of river basins in which it is 
proposed to construct reservoirs are not given, and no 
description of their physical character, soil, steepness, etc., 
or the general incline of their beds. 

2. No observations or calculations of ordinary or heavy 
flood discharges, or their duration at certain seasons. 

3. No registers of rainfall for as many seasons as 
possible, nothing said about the intensity of the fall or the 
rapidity of its run-off, particularly in the tropics. How 
great this may be is recorded by Sir A. Binnie, c.e., in his 
paper on the Nagpore Water- works, when he actually 
measured it was 98 per cent, of a shower of 2*2 inches in 
one hour and twenty minutes. What, then, is likely to be 
the run-off in a locality where more than 50 per cent, of 
the average annual rain falls in three days ? No un- 
common event this all along the whole Coromandal coast. 
And then Mr. Hughes tells us it is only possible to store 
about one-seventh of the average rainfall on this coast 1 Of 
course, if he constructs earthen dams without any considera- 
tion of the peculiar character of the rainfall, or any records 
of this for a series of years, and maintains that this, and 
this only, is the proper way to execute hydraulic works, he 
differs from all common hydraulic engineers, such as the 
late Mr. Bateman, the present Sir A. Binnie, c.e., and 
many others ; and the Madras Mail, and all others who 
think he is the only one capable of giving an authoritative 
opinion about such works, are perfectly welcome to accept 
his ideas. Of the progress of irrigation in Madras since 
Sir A. Cotton left India in i860, Mr. Hughes himself 
gives a very good illustration, when he says, at p. 252, 
that in 1898 a special officer was sent on duty into the 
Nellore districts after the collector had most bitterly com- 

THIRD SERIES. VOL; XXI. T 



290 ** Madras Irrigation and Navigation " — A Reply. 

plained, loudly and publicly, of the total neglect of all 
irrigation works in his district, and especially of the seven 
large rivers in it, which were conveying immense volumes 
of waste water into the sea. When Mr. Ragoonatha Row, 
a respectable retired native servant of the Government, 
makes a similar complaint of the state of irrigation works 
in general throughout the whole Presidency, Mr. Hughes 
characterizes such statements as being ** very incorrect and 
misleading" (p. 245). On his own bare assertion, why 
does he not treat the collector of the Nellore district in the 
same way? Is this the way he did justice and judgment 
to all His Majesty's subjects in India, as declared should be 
the rule for public servants under the proclamation of Her 
late Majesty, without reference to creed, caste, or colour ? 

Mr. Hughes charges me with making ** sweeping asser- 
tions of neglect of duty in extending irrigation," etc., and 
then, omitting the several instances of this given by me, he 
goes off into a long account of the finances of India, with- 
out refuting any of the instances I had produced. To 
vindicate myself I must reproduce them : 

1. The unnecessary delay made in submitting my esti- 
mates for the central delta, Godavari district, by which 
the Government and the people suffered immense losses ; 
for the Government of India had sanctioned my estimates 
on the same lines for the eastern and western deltas, 
with their cordial approbation and thanks, and no revision 
had to be made for the central delta, except to omit my 
name and substitute another man's. 

2. The abuse of the Governments confidence in the 
matter of the Bangalore water-supply, in giving a prize for 
a most worthless essay on the subject, in order to secure 
the best and cleanest water-supply for the late Dewan, 
who had secured this project for himself in the most dis- 
graceful manner. In consequence this station has been 
saddled for ever with a most unnecessary burden of taxa- 
tion for water obtained from the filthiest catchment in its 
vicinity. 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigation^' — A Reply. 291 

3. The deplorable mismanagement in the execution of 
the Kumool and Cuddapah Canal, which is almost useless 
as an irrigation work, and utterly worthless for all navigable 
purposes, thereby entailing a loss of 4 per cent, a year 
permanently on the country for all the outlay on its 
hydraulic works. 

4. The Toongabadra River project, which Mr. Hughes 
and all his predecessors totally neglected and condemned 
for forty years, and the only explanation Mr. Hughes now 
offers is that I had been anticipated by his successor, when 
the records of his own office would show him, if he had 
ever properly studied them, that this statement is *' very 
incorrect and misleading," as Colonel Smart, r.e., admitted 
to me in a personal interview already described. 

This project as originally designed by me for Sir A. 
Cotton provides for protecting four large districts perma- 
nently from famine, provides the means for raising all 
crops with the greatest security in all seasons, provides an 
ample water-supply for maintaining man and live-stock in 
good condition and fit for any work, and, if made thoroughly 
navigable, as Sir Arthur always insisted upon, the people 
would have secured to them access to all the markets of 
the world at the cheapest possible rates of transport. 
According to Mr. Hughes* own figures, the Government 
have lost already by the neglect of this project upwards of 
12 crores of rupees. At the rate works are now being 
executed in Madras, it may take a century to complete 
this project, for they require six years to deal with a 
common jungle stream like the Nagavalli River, after ex- 
pending sixteen years in preparing the project! What 
qualifications Mr. Hughes possesses for passing judgment 
peremptorily on irrigation projects can be gathered from 
the way he treats of the Manera and Nagavalli Rivers. 
He gives no catchment areas of these rivers ; no account 
of their physical characteristics ; of soil — if steep or other- 
wise; no observations or calculations of the probable, 
ordinary, or heavy flood discharges of these rivers. In 

T 2 



292 ** Madras Irrigation and Navigation " — A Reply. 

one instance only is the register of rainfall given, and that 
for four years only out of the sixteen years the project was 
under consideration ! and not a single observation about 
the peculiarity of the rainfall all along the Coromandal 
coast during storms or cyclones, which are so common 
throughout its whole length, and have been noted for years 
by all observers. How heavy these may be we have an 
instance in this year, when there was no cyclone or hurri- 
cane blowing. Nellore reported 15 inches of rain as having 
fallen in three consecutive days, or more than half the 
average annual rainfall of the district. As long droughts 
always prevail after such heavy rains, lasting for six or 
eight months, Mr. Hughes declares I am wrong in pro- 
posing to utilize such abundant supplies of water as much 
as possible, in order to preserve the lives of the people and 
their live stock as well as possible, and to secure the 
Government from all losses as much as possible in famines. 
Well, he is entitled to hold his opinions, but we never 
worked so under Sir A. Cotton, and always did our best to 
promote the interests of the Government to secure their 
revenue by affording the people the best means to pay it, 
without its being too great a burden to them. And this is 
quite clear if we take but a casual view of Sir A. Cotton's 
great works in the Tanjore, Godavari, and Kistna districts. 
Before these works were established those districts could 
not pay 60 lacs of rupees a year securely to the Govern- 
ment as revenue, they now pay 320 lacs a year with perfect 
ease, without fail, and are the most prosperous districts in 
all India. Compare this fact with the results obtained by 
much larger outlay on the Kurnool and Cuddapah canal^ 
whereby a loss of 4 cent, a year permanently has been 
caused in the returns from all the other works in Madras, 
by sheer mismanagement and most deplorable incom- 
petency, ever since Sir Arthur left India in i860 ; and in 
this lamentable fiasco Mr. Hughes had a considerable 
hand. It is therefore useless for him to say so many 
hundreds of lacs of rupees have been spent in this time, 



^^ Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 293 

when he can show no good results whatever for the outlay. 
And as regards the tank restoration scheme, there is 
nothing to show that the works have been so well improved 
as to yield any return whatever for the outlay on them. 
The cost of extra establishment on this account is never 
exhibited so as to compare with the annual expenditure. 
I certainly do not think it worth while to make any reply 
to Mr. Hughes' observations on inland navigation. I have 
carefully perused my article in this Review for July, 1905, 
have given the authorities on which it was based, and in 
no single instance has Mr. Hughes shown that foreign 
countries have failed to secure great advantages for them- 
selves against us by utilizing waterways as much as possible; 
and Mr. Hughes carefully ignores all the facts, and tries to 
throw doubts on the cheap means of transport prevailing 
on German rivers and canals, though I have shown that on 
the Aire and Calder navigation at home the rates are far 
cheaper even than in Germany. Hjs methods of arguing 
are as follows : He says (p. 260), ** The great advantage 
which Germany has, that most of her waterways are 
navigable rivers^' etc., whereas I have shown in the Review, 
pp. 6 and 7, that during the last twenty years more than 
;^i, 000,000 has been expended on the Rhine alone to 
make it as navigable as possible. Many of its tributaries 
have been improved in the same manner, notably the 
Main, on which ;^400,ooo has been expended to make it 
navigable for twenty miles up to F^rankfort. Again, at 
p. 259, he says ; ** 2,400 miles of State canals had to be 
closed because they could not compete with the railways." 
At p. 12 of my article in the Review for July, 1905, I 
quoted from ** Indian Engineering for the United States " : 
" No figures are given because the enormous sums spent 
yearly by the Government in improving rivers and in 
making canals are too well known for it to be necessary to 
more than mention the fact." And Mr. Hughes does not 
hesitate to state publicly that in those States waterways 
are being discouraged nowadays. What credibility can 



294 " Madras Irrigation and Navigation " — A Reply. 

attach to his bare assertions ? At p. 261 he says: "Taking 
8 feet as the economic lift for a lock " — as the limit I pre- 
sume he means. Now, he must be well aware that in the 
Godavari canals 10 feet lifts have been most successfully 
adopted for more than thirty-five years, and my own opinion 
is that 12 feet lifts can be very easily and economically 
adopted. What useful object can be obtained by ai^uing 
with a man who distorts facts in this manner for no other 
purpose than to mislead people deliberately. 

Mr. Hughes says (p. 250) : ** The Godavari is the only 
river, I said, can be made navigable '*; but he does not say 
for what kind or size of vessels. And then adds : •* Former 
proposals have been reported on fully and condemned as 
impracticable." On what data Mr. Hughes totally fails to 
show. Sir A. Cotton and Colonel Haig, who had both 
long studied the subject for many years on the spot, were 
of opinion the project was quite feasible, if large storage 
reservoirs were constructed in all the tributaries of this 
great river, and with them I quite agree. If the project 
has been fully condemned, is it not rather absurd for Mr. 
Hughes to ask me to say what kind or size of vessels I 
would propose to use on it ? If I were to do so, I do not 
know how he would be able to see more clearly than he is 
able to do at present. In Germany they first made their 
rivers and canals as navigable as possible, and tAen in- 
creased the size of their vessels. Mr. Hughes says at 
p. 261 : *' It appears to be the almost universal opinion of 
irrigation engineers that only in very exceptional cases is 
it advisable to combine navigation and irrigation." Now, I 
have shown in this Review, from official records, that the 
Ramchendrapooram taluk in the Eastern Delta, which had 
been furnished with five navigable canals and a cross-cut 
from Man-Jair to Covoor, affording the easiest access to 
Cocoanadah and all the markets of the world by water 
transport, was able to pay an assessment of Rs. 9 per acre, 
whereas the Central and Western Delta, not possessing the 
same facilities of cheap transport, paid on an average only 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 295 

Rs, 6 per acre, or 50 per cent, less ; and I pointed out what 
the difficulties were which prevented the Government ob- 
taining a better revenue in them, and how these could be 
very easily overcome in great part. It is only a very poor 
native idea to say the soil in Amlapur and Narsapur taluks, 
in the same Delta formation, are less fertile than in the 
Eastern Delta. Of these facts and circumstances Mr. 
Hughes takes no notice in his comments on my articles, 
showing he knows next to nothing about the law of pro- 
duction from land, and that there are but two methods only 
by which the limitations of this law can by any possibility 
be overcome, so as to work the land economically ; but 
these are well known to all land surveyors, and very care- 
fully attended to in estimating the value of real estate. 

To show the value and importance of making canals 
navigable I must mention another instance. In the 
Western Delta, the Uttali Canal was cut to irrigate 30,000 
acres of land about 1852-1853. On my return to the 
district in 1869-1870, I found this canal did not irrigate, on 
an average, more than 7,000 acres, although passing through 
good delta-soil. As soon as my estimates were sanctioned, 
I ordered this canal to be made navigable at once, in spite 
of very strong opposition. Before we got in the founda- 
tions of the first lock the ryots asked if the navigation was 
to be completed, and, being fully assured of this, they at 
once took up an additional 10,000 acres of land for irriga- 
tion, and promised to take up all the rest of the land as 
soon as the second lock was finished. This same canal 
has since always irrigated about 43,000 acres for first and 
second crop, and its ramifications are very large, as can be 
seen in Walsh s *' History of the Godavari Works," under 
whom the works were executed by my orders, and very 
much against his opinion, so he takes good care to omit 
these facts in his so-called ''veracious'' history. Much the 
same kind of thing occurred soon afterwards in the Undi 
taluk, when the navigation was extended into it. And if 
Mr. Hughes has any doubts in his mind about the matter. 



296 ''Madras Irrigation and Navigation''' — A Reply. 

I refer him to the present Major-General Sir A. R. F. 
Dorward, r.e., k.c.b., for confirmation of my statements, as 
he was then employed in that part of the Delta. When 
Mr. Hughes and other irrigation engineers can show by 
the results of their labours that, by omitting navigation or 
all other means of transport for conveying the products of 
the earth cheaply to all the markets of the world — for a tree 
is known by its fruit — it will be time enough for them to 
claim to have done better than Sir A. Cotton did in India. 
At present they have failed to produce one single instance 
in which their works have yielded any good results at all, 
and Mr. Hughes is only attempting to go on stilts before 
he has learnt to toddle. 

When Mr. Hughes says *• But, after all, charges of two 
or three pence per ton-mile are not very onerous for 
moderate distances," and omits to state what are moderate 
distances in his opinion, he makes a very serious mistake 
as regards production from land. Anything which tends to 
increase the cost of this is certain to reduce rents or assess- 
ments, as all land surveyors well understand. If the 
Government of India then demanded that the rates on the 
canal traffic should be increased for revenue purposes, etc., 
they were very ill-advised, and acted very injudiciously, as 
all experience shows such a measure would certainly result 
in throwing lands out of cultivation ; and I believe it has 
done so already, as I stated in my article, for the figures 
were taken from a review of irrigation by the Government 
of India. The irresponsible authority Mr. Hughes taxes 
me with following is the Madras Mail, a paper which 
always supports his views, and therefore he ought not to 
declare the information it publishes is unreliable. As 
regards the fluctuations in second-crop cultivation in the 
Godavari Delta, I showed in the October number of this 
Review for 1903, at p. 20, that these were very serious 
indeed. In three years there had been a decrease of no 
less than 167,376 acres, and a probable loss in revenue and 
/^alue of produce of 25 lacs of rupees. Of this very impor- 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'^ — A Reply. 297 

tant matter Mr. Hughes takes no notice whatever. As 
reservoirs in the Upper Basin of the Godavari would pre- 
vent all these losses, keep the Delta canals navigable 
throughout the year, and allow this great river to be made 
navigable for 400 miles inland, I showed it would be worth 
while to spend 625 lacs of rupees at a moderate rate of 
interest to secure such very great and important objects, 
for it is almost quite certain the second-crop cultivation 
would be greatly extended as soon as a good and certain 
water supply was established. But Mr. Hughes declares 
my ideas on this subject are too vague for him to consider ! 
When Mr. Hughes declared, in a number of this Review, 
that ** there must be many sites for reservoirs, in which an 
abundance of water can be stored for water-power purposes 
^vA for improving the irrigations all parts of the country," 
he was about right, for his opinions have been fully con- 
firmed by the experience of the two seasons of 1903 and 
J905, when, from the abundant rainfall, all the drainages 
were discharging immense volumes of water, waste, into 
the sea, and doing great damage to the railways, telegraphs, 
etc., north and south of Pennar River ; but when he stated 
that 70 per cent, of all the rivers south of the Pennar had 
been so fully utilized there was no room for further im- 
provements, he made far more " incorrect and misleading " 
statements than Mr. Ragoonatha Row ever did, and much 
more inexcusable, for he had been the Chief Engineer for 
Irrigation in Madras, and ought to have known much better 
than any non-professional man how to develop irrigation 
from such sources, as he himself admits, have abundance of 
water in them for reservoirs. But the only works he 
appears to have designed are those for the Manera River, 
south of the Pennar^ and the Nagavalli River, north of the 
same, and, from the manner in which these projects have 
been worked out, and the fearful delays in their preparation, 
it is quite evident they cannot possibly pay, and will most 
probably result in such fiascos as the Kurnool and Cudda- 
pah Canal has done, as above detailed. And these are 



298 ^^ Madras Irrigation and Navigation^^ — A Reply. 

apparently all the fruits of irrigation in Madras by Mr. 
Hughes, his predecessors and successors, since Sir A. Cotton 
left India in i860. 

Mr. Hughes says, p. 261, in effect, that it is almost im- 
possible and inadvisable to combine navigation and irriga- 
tion ; that it had been attempted in the Godavari and Kistna 
works, as the cases of these deltas was exceptional, but, as 
usual, he fails to explain why or how ; that the navigation 
has been of immense benefit, but it has always been carried 
on under difficulties. There he also, again, fails to explain 
these, and treats the subject much in the way he spoke of 
the German rivers being naturally navigable, omitting to 
say anything about the insuperable difficulties existing in 
them by ice in the winter months, and heavy floods from 
the melting of the snows on the Alps in summer, as well as 
from long droughts, etc., and assumes to himself the right 
to dictate to the world on the subject of inland navigation, 
when it is quite clear from his own statements he does not 
understand the importance of the subject at all. 

I was in charge of the Godaveri works for six or seven 
years, and found them to be almost ruined by sheer neglect; 
I persuaded the late Colonel Anderson, r.e., to let me 
have 3 lacs of rupees to put the Cocoanadah and Narsapur 
canals into good order for navigation and irrigation purposes, 
and I would then send in estimates for the whole Delta. 
The Government of India at once acceded to this proposal, 
and sanctioned the money. These works were then put in 
hand at once, and in about twenty months I had prepared 
all the plans, surveys, levels, and estimates amounting to 
35 lacs of rupees, together with all necessary information 
about revenue returns. The estimates for the eastern and 
western Deltas were entirely approved of, and sanctioned at 
once for execution as soon as they were submitted to the 
Government of India ; I am not responsible for the delays 
and neglect in submitting to them the estimate for the 
central Delta, but when at length it was sent up to them 
just as I had prepared it, this project was readily approved 



" Madras Irrigation and Navigation " — A Reply. 299 

of and sanctioned, so there is no reason in attempting to 
blame the supreme Government about funds, etc. 

The results attained by this outlay in the eastern Delta 
generally and the western Delta, by making all canals as 
navigable as possible, have been already described, and 
more particularly as regards the Uttali and Undi canals, 
but the most remarkable success of combining navigation 
and irrigation is shown in the Narsapore canal. I began 
this work many years ago under Sir A. Cotton ; it had been 
fitted with temporary locks, and was in a very poor con- 
diuon. It was at once taken in hand, fitted with permanent 
locks, 150 feet by 20 feet, and 10 feet lifts^ which can be 
very easily filled or emptied in less than two minutes. 
How long a time does it take in India to pass a goods 
train through a station ? About a couple of days perhaps ! 
whilst the boats lie in the chambers in perfectly smooth 
water. By the way, Mr. Hughes says the success of the 
German waterways is due to their being able to use large 
boats of 200 tons burden ; he ought to have been well aware 
that in the Godaveri canals the people have used native 
crafts of 200 and 300 tons burden for more than thirty-five 
years. So much for the qare and attention he paid to 
hydraulic works in India. This canal runs on a watershed, 
and irrigates, right and left, over 75,000 acres of land for 
first and second crop, and, like the Uttali canal, yields an 
annual income to the Government far in excess of the 
capital expenditure on them, and then Mr. Hughes says 
it is most inadvisable to combine navigation and irrigation 
unless in very exceptional cases! It is quite evident he 
never learnt how to do so, or took any trouble about it. 

In the year 1872-1873 all the works in progress were 
inspected by General F. H. Rundle, r.e., the Inspector- 
General of Irrigation in India, who toured with me all 
through the Deltas and up the river, and he reported in 
most favourable terms on their progress and prospects ; in 
1 877- 1 878, when I was at home, I had long and intimate 
conversations With Sir A. Cotton about his great project, 



3CX) ** Madras Irrigation and Navigation ** — A Reply. 

and he was not only perfectly satisfied with all I had done 
to save the works, and the progress I had been making in 
developing them, but in the kindness of his heart he said 
far more to me than it would be becoming in me to repeat, 
and now Mr. Hughes, who cannot show that he ever did 
any work of any importance in India to promote the 
interests of the Government or the welfare of its people, 
comes forward to sit in judgment on Sir A. Cotton, and to 
condemn the principles on which he worked, on his bald 
ipse dixit, although the success of Sir Arthur s works have 
been abundantly acknowledged on all hands, and proved by 
the good results obtained, as shown in the several instances 
above detailed. The current in a navigation canal must 
indeed be bad if it is a greater obstacle to traffic than the 
steep gradients so common on Indian railways. The ease 
with which irrigation and navigation can be combined has 
been amply proved by the success of all the Godaveri canals 
under proper management and careful supervision. 

There is a fact recorded in Walsh's history of these 
works, on the authority of the collector of the district, 
which Mr. Hughes, as usual, ignores, and which ought to 
have enlightened him, if it is possible to do so. Some 
years ago the head lock of the eastern delta was destroyed 
by a heavy flood in the river, and through navigation was 
stopped y^rybwr months only, whilst it was rebuilding. By' 
this interruption the trade of the port of Cocoanadah 
decreased by 33 lacs of rupees, and, in the face of this 
fact, Mr. Hughes wants us to believe navigation is of very 
little or no importance to an agricultural community whose 
products are of great bulk and small value. The French, 
Germans, and Americans think very differently. 

On the evidence I gave before the Irrigation Commis- 
sion in 1 90 1 the Toongabadra River project, though con- 
demned by Mr. Hughes and all his predecssors, was en- 
tirely revived, and at once recommended to the Government 
of India for adoption. It has now been investigated — on 
what lines I do not know — and accepted by the Madras 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 301 

Government, and recommended for sanction ; but, as the 
navigation has been entirely left out, I can only repeat my 
firm conviction that it will be a failure. It may afford some 
protection from famine, but without affording the people 
the freest, easiest, and cheapest means of access to the most 
extensive markets of the world, the industries of the 
population cannot be promoted, and the project cannot 
possibly answer all good purposes, so as to secure the 
fullest benefits to the Government and the people, as we 
have done in the Godavari district, by combining irrigation 
and through navigation with the greatest success ; and 
there is absolutely nothing to prevent the same principles 
being carried out on the Toongabadra project by judicious 
professional skill and management. When I took charge 
of the Godavari works in July, 1869, the irrigation had 
decreased by 40,000 acres in the eastern delta. The extent 
of land irrigated in the whole Delta was about 430,000 
acres, and the total revenue of the district about 55 lacs of 
rupees. By my estimates, amounting to 35 lacs of rupees, 
it was provided to make all the canals fit for irrigation, and 
all as navigable as possible, and there was no difficulty 
whatever in doing so. The results, as far as I am able to 
judge now, have been to extend the irrigation nearly, if not 
quite, to 900,000 acres of land, the revenue of the district 
has increased to upwards of no lacs of rupees, and we 
have seen above how important the navigation had become 
when the stoppage of it for four months only, reduced the 
trade of the port of Cocoanadah by 33 lacs of rupees. All 
accounts agree in showing that the district is now one of 
the most flourishing in India. I do not know what the 
total outlay up to date may be on the lines I had laid down, 
but I do not suppose the expenditure has exceeded 40 lacs 
of rupees, whilst the revenue has been permanently increased 
by 55 lacs of rupees. Compare these results with those 
obtained on the Kurnool and Cuddapah Canal during the 
time Mr. Hughes and his confreres have been employed 
on it — nearly half a century. The capital outlay is between 



^ 



02 ''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 



200 and 300 lacs of rupees, and ^t, grand result is that the 
returns on all the capital expended on irrigation in Madras 
has been permanently reduced by over 4 per cent. This 
canal has been laid out so as to be almost useless for irriga- 
tion, and is totally worthless for all navigation purposes, 
and this is what Mr. Hughes considers as the great progress 
Madras has made since Sir A. Cotton left the country in 
i860. As the largest work carried out since his day is 
such a miserable fiasco under the management of the new 
regime, there is no reason for believing minor works have 
been better attended to, for if the blind lead the blind, 
everyone knows what the consequences must be ; and it is 
worse than useless to say hundreds of lacs of rupees have 
been expended on irrigation in this time when not a single 
good result has been, or can be, shown. 

P.S. In Indian Engineering of November 4, 1905, 
p. 304, it appears from the Board of Trade's report on 
British railways for the year 1904 the total receipts amounted 
to ;^i 1 1,000,000; the net receipts were ^42.000,000, 
so working expenses, maintenance, etc., amounted to 
;^69,ooo,ooo or 62*2 per cent. The dividend on ordinary- 
stock was only 3*25 per cent., the lowest return of recent 
years. It is instructive to note that in the growth of railway 
receipts England has even been passed by Germany, when 
for the year 1903 they amounted to ;^ 11 3,000,000; while 
the return on the capital invested in the German railway 
system in 1903 was 5*95 per cent, against the 3*39 per 
cent, of the British railways. 

From the above it would appear that though the German 
railways have to contend against river and canal transports, 
their returns on capital invested are 2.56 per cent better 
than the British railways yield when every endeavour has 
been made to benefit them by obstructing canal transports. 
It is very well for Mr. Hughes to deny this on his own 
authority, but a Committee of the House of Commons has 
admitted the fact that this policy has been allowed to 



''Madras Irrigation and Navigation'' — A Reply. 303 

prevail far too much, and there can be no doubt this same 
policy has been introduced into India by the same class of 
people under cover of the excuse that the receipts for 
navigation did not cover the expenses of the establishment 
maintained in the Godaveri canals, overlooking the fact 
that this same establishment has to attend to the distribu- 
tion of the water for irrigation as well as many other duties, 
such as seeing the banks, etc., are kept in good order. 
From my own experience in working the Godaveri canals, 
I would reduce the license fees to 4 annas a ton a year for 
mere registration purposes, and have only one tax as a 
water-rate; the curse of all Indian administration is that 
rates, cesses, etc., are multiplied at the caprice of small- 
minded officials under pretext of making revenue for the 
Government, without much thought about harassing the 
people who are engaged in cultivating the land. The 
Government of a great country ought not to act as a petty 
landlord to get all he can out of his little holding for his 
own private purposes ; they ought to consider what will be 
most beneficial to the society in general as Adam Smith so 
often says. As the railways did not till very lately pay for 
the guaranteed interests, why were they not taxed to make 
up this deficiency } 



304 



NORTHERN NIGERIA.* 

Sir F. D. Lugard has presented a full and very interesting 
report on the state of affairs in Northern Nigeria. It has 
been prepared for the Intelligence Division of the War 
Office. His notes of inspection cover fifteen provinces, 
whose capitals he has visited and otherwise settled on the 
grounds of health. The distance travelled in this connection 
is over 2,000 miles by land and over 1,600 miles by water. 

The general organization of the administration, both 
central and provincial, has made considerable progress 
during the year. Political and intelligence sections have 
been created in the High Commissioner's office, which have 
greatly increased efficiency, and enabled him to cope 
with work which was becoming too heavy. He was thus 
able to visit the head-quarters of every province, except 
Sokoto, and personally to confer with the residents and the 
native chiefs on subjects of administrative or political 
importance ; and, with the advice of the principal medical 
officer and the director of public works, to settle the ques- 
tion with respect to the permanent site of each Govern- 
ment station. The opportunity was also taken to formally 
instal the ruling Emirs who had been appointed under 
Government sanction, and for the first time an oath of 
alliegiance and fidelity was administered to each. The 
personal interview with each Emir, and discussion with 
each Resident on administrative problems in each province, 
were of great value in promoting a knowledge of the policy 
of government, while to the High Commissioner it was an 
incalculable advantage. 

In regard to provincial organization, six out of the 
seventeen provinces into which the Protectorate is divided 
— viz., Sokoto and Gando, Kano and Katagum, East 
and West Bornu, have now been formed into double 

* Collated from the recent Parliamentary Colonial Report, No. 476, 
for 1904, presented to Parliament November, 1905. 



Northern Nigeria. 305 

provinces, under the charge of three '*First-Class Residents," 
selected for their special ability and long experience. The 
desire of the High Commissioner i^ gradually to extend this 
system, and thus to relieve the central administration of the 
direct supervision of the seventeen separate units, and to 
devolve upon the officers who have proved themselves 
most fitted for increased responsibility, a larger measure of 
administrative control. The admirable qualities of the 
Fulani as rulers — when once they have realized that former 
evil practices must cease — will enable the administration to 
be carried on efficiently with a less number of British 
officers. The progress of the native chiefs in methods of 
civilized rule is very marked and satisfactory. During the 
year an event of unusual and political importance was the 
personal visit of the Emir of Kano to Zungeru, and 
the Embassy of the Waziri from Sokoto. The latter who 
formerly opposed us in arms made this voluntary recognition 
of the British rule. The head of the Mussulmans sent his 
Wazari to salute the Governor, and had intended to come 
himself, but has expressed a desire to do so in future years. 

The staff is in every way capable and devoted to the 
service. The higher grades of Civil Service are becoming 
experienced administrators, to whom large responsibilities 
can be rightly entrusted. The administrators' staff is still 
insufficient for its numerous duties, and it has been found 
impossible to obtain an adequate supply of properly qualified 
native clerks. A scheme for introducing some subordinate 
officials from India is now under consideration. A matter 
of almost vital importance is the knowledge of the local 
language, and, in this respect considerable progress has 
been made alike on the civil and the military side. A 
language test to qualify for promotion in the political 
department has been established, and for this reason the 
higher posts are almost invariably filled by selection from 
among the junior ranks, and not by introducing officers 
from outside. 

With respect to taxation, the High Commissioner is of 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. U 



3o6 Northern Nigeria. 

opinion that while indirect taxation by means of customs on 
the coast is an ideal way of raising revenue (especially 
when, as here, export^ are limited to raw materials and 
imports consist wholly of manufactured goods), nevertheless, 
the principle of direct taxation, though it should be 
cautiously applied and should at first be very light, should 
not be wholly set aside in laying down the lines which are 
to govern the future development of the country. Northern 
Nigeria has no sea-board on which to collect custom dues, 
and, owing to its distance from the sea and consequent 
transport charges, it offers less attraction to trade (on which 
alone customs are levied) than the Southern Protectorates. 
Northern Nigeria has also to maintain a powerful military 
force and derives no revenue from trade spirits, the 
importation of which is entirely prohibited. Internal fiscal 
frontiers were abolished, when the Niger Company's 
territories were transferred to the Crown. The basis of 
taxation must depend largely on direct contributions, if the 
country is to pay its fair share of the general revenue. 
Such a system has been in operation from remote antiquity ; 
and the first step towards raising a revenue by such means 
consisted in studying the existing systems, so that Govern- 
ment, when instituting its scheme, might act in harmony 
with the traditions of the country, and, while providing 
a revenue, should at the same time assure to the native 
chiefs a fair proportion of the proceeds, and introduce only 
such reforms as should simplify and cheapen the collection, 
regulate its incidence upon the people more fairly, and 
reduce as far as possible the opportunities for extortion and 
oppression. As the native chiefs have lost their income 
derived from slave raiding and from taxes on traders, it has 
become necessary to arrange for revenue, in another 
direction, in order to meet this loss and to secure their, 
loyal services. This change has had the beneficial effect 
of bringing the British staff into close touch and relations 
alike with the peasantry and with the ruling classes. Thus, 
the rulers learn to recognise that their interests are identical 



Northern Nigeria. 307 

with those of the administration and a close co-operation is 
established, while the peasantry look to the British officers 
as their guardians and protectors against irregular demands 
and oppression. The security afforded for life and property 
and the certainty that the amount fixed as payment will not 
be arbitrarily increased, are a blessing so great that the pay- 
ment of a reasonable tax falls lightly on them, while the 
direct payment of each village through its own chief to the 
district head-man will gradually have the effect in practice 
of emancipating the greater part of the rural population 
from slavery, or serfdom, and promoting a sense of individual 
and communal responsibility to take the place of slavery, as 
the institution gradually expires. Moderate taxation seems 
to supply an incentive to industry and production, which is 
needed in a country where pressure of population does not 
exist, owing to the depopulation of large areas caused by 
former misrule, and where the fertility of the soil and the 
employment of women in manual labour leave the male 
population ample leisure when debarred from the "pass-time" 
(f inter-tribal quarrels. In carrying out the scheme referred 
lo under the Land Revenue Proclamation of 1904, the 
reports of the Residents have been satisfactory, but it is 
stated that an increase in the political staff is absolutely 
necessary to give proper effect to it, and thus to assure to 
the native chiefs the payment of such dues, which they 
cannot now collect for themselves, as will enable them to 
maintain their position, while assuring a growing revenue 
to the Government. This scheme has met with general 
approval and satisfaction. 

The total number of slaves liberated during the year 1904 
was 564. The constitution and working of the native 
courts, of which eighty had been established at the end of 
1904, have made progress. The returns of the principal 
cases are submitted to the Residents, and are examined by 
the High Commissioner with the object of making sugges- 
tions and promoting uniformity of sentences. The courts 
deal almost entirely with civil causes and petty criminal 

u 2 



3o8 Northern Nigeria. 

cases. Since the abolition of the punishment of mutilation 
and the Government requirements of decency and humanity 
in imprisonment the native tribunals have been deprived of 
their most effective punishments for serious crime. It 
appeared, moreover, to be advisable that the powers of each 
court should be limited until it had proved that former abuses 
had ceased. Increased confidence in the impartiality of the 
native courts appears to be shown by the people, in as much 
as there has been no complaint of unjust judgments, or of 
bribery. The High Commissioner hopes to be able to 
establish a school of law for the training of Mallams at 
Sokoto. The appointment of a native judge to review the 
-sentences of all native courts would probably be of great 
value, and would, he thinks, give much satisfaction alike to 
the native Emirs and to the Alkalis as proving the inten^ 
tion of Government to uphold the dignity of the courts, and 
non-interference with the law of the Koran. The courts in 
Bornu have not proved very successful, and in pagan 
countries but little progress has yet been made. 

The population of the various provinces is estimated to 
be 9,161,700. The proportion per square mile in some of 
the provinces is about three ; in other provinces, such as 
Bassa, it is nearly 143. 

In regard to trade, the institution of caravan tolls has 
enabled the administration to collect a quantity of detailed 
information as to the nature and quantity of articles carried 
by traders. At first the Government "caravan tolls" in 
substitution of the exorbitant levies ^t every turn were 
levied on " down " caravans ; but now they are levied both, 
on "down" and "up" caravans. After careful inquiries 
from all the Residents, the High Commissioner has received 
from every province reassuring reports to the effect that 
the traders pay the dues mpst wilHoglyt and welcpme thia 
system of tolls as a great relief from the exactions of.tfee 
past, and the enforced delays. He is not satisfied with thi$; 
form of taxation and hopes to be able to largely modify it^i 
if not to abolish it, by merging it in the general tribute tax* 



Northern Nigeria. 309 

In order to supplement the grant-in-aid by some iocal 
revenue, direct taxation has been instituted. The levy 
amounts to nearly ;^34.500, being one-third of the local 
revenue. Trade is increasing rapidly. 

The imports of local origin are chiefly (i) salt from the 
North and East (Asben and Manga) ; (2) natron from 
Damageram and the East ; (3) cattle and horses from 
Sokoto and Bornu ; (4) kolas from Ganja and Lagos ; 
(5) antimony from the Benue. Imports of European 
origin are (i) from Tripoli, English cloth, majenta-coloured 
diread in great quantities, beads, sugar, scent, mirrors, 
aeedles, spices, pepper, burnooses, horse-trappings, and a 
large quantity of writing-paper ; (2) from the South, 
English cloth, salt, German dyes, and Austrian beads. 
Exports to Europe are leather, ivory, and feathers (the two 
latter from Bornu ; feathers also from Sokoto). The bulk 
goes to Tripoli. Skins cost 6d. in Kano and realize 
2 francs in Tripoli. 

Regarding ** economics," the first serious attempt to 
devek>p the economic resources of the Protectorate was in 
the year 1904. The High Commissioner, along with Mr, 
Elliott, the forestry officer visited various regions and 
made minute inquiries. His conclusions are ''that there 
are very valuable areas containing rubber, which are either 
untapped, or are being destroyed by injudicious methods; 
that many other commercial products exist, and demand 
development ; and that the prospects of a great cotton 
ilMlustry are good, the soil admirably adapted to it, and its 
oritivation well understood by the people. On the vast 
and- Kttle cultivated, lacustrine plain on the shores of Chad 
there were cotton bushes of such enormous size, that Mr. 
Elliott pronounced their measurements as almost exceeding 
credibility." The acacia forests of Bornu yield the gum 
most valued in European markets, and it may be found 
possible to develop this product by improved means of 
tmnsport Samples of cotton from each provinte were* 
sent early in 1905 to the British Cotton-Growing Associa- 



3IO Northern Nigeria. 

tion, and Mr. Hutton, an expert, writes : ** I can say that 
the cotton appears to be of excellent quality, good long 
staple, and just the class we require in this country and 
which we are most short of, and there is no doubt that if we 
could develop trade in this class of cotton there would be 
a great future before Northern Nigeria." 

With respect to minerals, it appears that limestone of 
excellent quality, suitable to mortar, which will replace the 
costly import of Portland cement for all masonry work, 
-occurs in many districts bordering the Benue. The High 
Commissioner regards this discovery **as of the utmost 
importance, and second only to a discovery of coal in its 
value for the internal development of the Protectorate, 
The construction of bridges, culverts, and buildings of all 
Icinds, will, by its means be greatly cheapened, and it is 
possible that its excavation, burning, and transport to the 
place where it may be required may become a native 
industry similar to that in natron, which is now so widely 
extended." The salt from the brine springs of Awe and 
elsewhere has been analyzed at the Imperial Institute, and 
it appears probable that a nearly pure salt could be prepared 
without difficulty. The present output is estimated at 
277 tons per annum, obtained during the dry season only. 
The development of these springs is being investigated. 
'* Among the minerals obtained by the Survey may be 
mentioned : Magnetic iron-ore of excellent quality, galena 
containing some silver, and tin-bearing sands, all of which 
are being investigated with a view to determining their 
commercial value. The examination of the sands of certain 
rivers has revealed the fact that small quantities of monazite 
occur. This is a valuable mineral containing thorium, 
which is now in considerable demand at high prices. 
These deposits will also be thoroughly investigated. No 
new prospecting licenses have been granted during the 
year ; but the Niger Company have proceeded with the 
thorough investigation of the tin deposits in the area, 
for which they hold an exclusive prospecting license. 



Northern Nigeria. 3 1 1 

It is understood that their skilled experts have reported 
highly upon the probable results of this enterprise, and that 
the Company will shortly ask for mining licenses over 
specified areas.'* 

The exports of ** Kano leather " appears to offer prospects 
of a valuable development. " I am informed," says the 
High Commissioner, **that these skins are in very great 
demand in England, both in the bookbinding and the 
upholstering trades. It is probable that it will be more 
profitable to purchase these skins untanned, and to export 
ihem in this state. I am informed that while skins cost 
from 3d. to 6d. at Kano, as much as 7s. 6d. is offered for 
a good skin in this country ; but the admixture of spotted, 
imperfectly prepared, or unequally strained skins reduces 
the value of a considerable proportion in each consignment. 
The development of this trade is ^likely to be taken up by 
a Company formed for the purpose." 

Captain Harford, assistant resident in the Sokoto 
Province, having had much experience in South Africa and 
California, after careful inquiry and personal inspection, 
pronounces the district north of Sokoto to be *'an ideal 
ostrich-breeding country ; it has all the qualifications neces- 
sary, sandy sqil, dr)' atmosphere, and no frost." He proposes 
to start a small model ostrich farm in the district, and also 
in North Bornu, in order to show the natives by actual 
results the value of better methods in farming, and thus 
greatly to increase the value of this industry. 

The actual revenue collected each year, apart from 
Customs dues which are collected by Southern Nigeria and 
Lagos, is steadily increasing. For example, in 1 900-1 901 
it was only ;^2,i8o; in 1904-1905 it was ;^89,6o4; and it 
is estimated that for the year 1905- 1906, ;^93,589. Customs 
stations have been instituted on the frontiers towards 
French and German territory, and each Resident is a 
Custom's officer. The imports from Southern Nigeria and 
Lagos have free entry into the Protectorate, with the 
exception of salt, which pays a duty of is. per cwt. The 



312 Northern Nigeria. 

customs accruing on all goods entering from these Pro 
tectorates are collected at the coast ports of entry, and are 
included in the revenue of those governments. The Tripoli 
Arabs have availed themselves extensively of the parcel 
post, and Customs dues amounting to about ;^6oo have 
been collected on articles thus imported. The revenue 
from Customs, which had been nil in the previous years, 
amounted to ;^6,463 in 1903- 1904. 

The establishment of a coin currency has made progress, 
especially silver. This amounted in 1901 to ;^90,ooo ; 
in 1904, ;^ 1 98,000. The Niger Company has now agreed 
to purchase produce with cash if demanded by the natives, 
and this will, of course, greatly promote the circulation of 
coinage. 

The question of transport has engaged the attention of 
the High Commissioner for the past four years, and he now 
expresses the view that the best way of meeting the 
difificulty involved by the use of carriers along the 
main route between Zungeru and Kano, would be the con- 
struction of a very light surface rail or tramway, and by the 
provision of cart-roads and the introduction of wheeled 
transport. During 1904 some progress has been made in 
this direction. The railway surveyors, sent out by the 
Secretary of State, have completed their work, which may 
lead to the construction of a light and very cheap line 
from Baro on the Niger to Kano, which the Commissioner 
has long advocated. The section already constructed 
between Zungeru and the Kaduna at Barijuko (twenty-two 
miles) has proved invaluable. The construction of cart- 
roads is progressing in various departments, as well as 
transports by water, both for goods and passengers. Also 
the erection of telegraph lines is proceeding to the extent 
of 564 miles. 

MeJical and meteorological services continue to be 
sustained, as well as police and prison arrangements. 

The total revenue, including local Parliamentary grant 
contributions, from Southern Nigeria and Lagos amounted 



Northern Nigeria. 313 

in 19001901 tO;^i35,729; it is estimated that in 1904-1905 
it will be ;^5 19,945. The total expenditure, under various 
heads, in 1900-1901 amounted to ;^96,457 ; and for 1904- 
1905 it is estimated that it will amount to ;^505,282. 

In regard to elementary schools, they are chiefly carried 
on by the Church and other Missionary Societies. But 
"a school conducted under Government auspices is greatly 
needed, where the sons of chiefs could be taught English, 
and fitted in various practical ways for the responsible 
positions they may later occupy, and where they might 
learn to understand the habits of thought of Europeans and 
to grow more in touch with them. There is also a great 
need for an establishment where educated Mallams might 
be taught English, and the reading and writing of Hansa 
in the Roman character, without prejudice to their religion, 
so as to fit them for employment as interpreters and political 
agents, etc." 



«4 



" ZARATHUSHTRA, PHILO : THE 
ACHiEMENIDS AND ISRAEL."* 

The author of this work announces it as being, when sup- 
plemented by a second volume, in substance his University 
Lectures for 1901- 1904, He was led on to the subject, as 
he states, by a request which he received some few years 
ago from the trustees of the Sir J. Jejeebhoy Translation 
Fund of Bombay to write a book on the antiquity of the 
Avesta. The occasion of the request was the sudden 
change of opinion on the part of Dr. Mills' own colleague, 
Professor Darmesteter, who startled the world some years 
before by recalling his views as to the age of even the 
oldest portions of the Avesta, the Gathas. 

Dr. Mills seems to be placed in a somewhat delicate 
position. He expresses himself in a very complimentary 
manner with regard to his singularly acquired opponent. 
After introductory matter, he devotes considerable space to 

« 

a close discussion of the document called ** Tansar's Letter," 
which was brought into prominence by an admirable 
edition by Professor Darmesteter, with a translation by 
Ahmed Bey Agaeff, a young Musulman from the 
Caucasus, at one time Darmesteter's pupil. 

This was published and translated, apparently, in order 
to suggest that sufficient culture existed at the date of 
Ardashir for much Avesta to be written ; and as collections 
and redactions of the Avesta documents must certainly 
have taken place at a time when the Zoroastrian religion 
was being formally re-established as the State religion of 
the Persian Empire, the composition of matter which 
might well deserve the name of Avesta may have taken 
place there and then. To this Dr. Mills fully accedes; 

* " Zarathushtra and the Greeks," Vol. I., pp. xiii + 208; being in sub- 
stance University Lectures delivered in 1901-1903 by Dr. Lawrence Mills, 
Professor of Zend Philology in Oxford. — This work may be had from 
F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig. 



*• Zarathushtra, Philo : the Ackcemenids and Israel'' 3 1 5 

indeed, he does not attempt to limit the lateness of the age 
at which portions of the now extant Avesta may have been 
composed, and even suggests that such persons as Tansar 
could not well have helped writing or rewriting religious 
documents of the kind indicated. He opposed his colleague, 
chiefly, though not exclusively, as to the matter of the 
Gathas. The French savant held at the latter period of 
his valuable life that even the Gathas were composed at so 
late a period as about the time of Christ, not precisely 
stating their exact date. 

Both Professor Darmesteter and Dr. Mills recognise 
this alleged letter of Tansar's as containing, as it now 
stands, large portions of later interpolated matter, and both 
of them hold that there exists in it a nucleus of truth ; that 
is to say. Dr. Mills holds that its nucleus corresponds to 
what we would term nowadays a " political pamphlet "; but 
he, Dr. Mills, carries his excisions far beyond those of the 
editor. In fact, he finds nearly the entire bulk of the piece 
in its present shape to be impossible as a composition of 
A.D. 226 or thereabouts. He is particularly struck with 
allusions to ** predestination,*' etc., which have the familiar 
look of the religious discussions of Perso-Arab authorities 
from the ninth century on. 

Dr. Mills repudiates the idea that the Gathas could have 
been written as late as the time of Christ, first and chiefly 
on account of their personal and passionate tone. He 
does not think that sentiment of the kind expressed would 
be contained in a dead language once spoken in Iran ; and 
the Avesta speech had ceased to be a living tongue for 
centuries. He does not forget that much personal feeling 
has been expressed in a Sanskrit language which had long 
ceased to be spoken ; but he does not think that the two 
cases afford a parallel. He can see no evidence that Iran 
possessed such centres of artificially cultivated literature as 
India did ; and he deems it to be highly improbable that 
any persons situated as the Zarathushtra of the Gathas 
was, together with the other members of his circle, would 



3 1 6 * * Zarathushtra^ Philo : the Ackamenids and IsraeL 



»i. 



have made use of a dead language in addresses, some of 
them especially prepared for public recital. Two of the 
Gathas, as he shows, were introduced by expressions 
addressed to gatherings of the people, and were evidently 
composed to be memorized by the various local priests, and 
taught in their homes, ** from near or from afar." 

This likewise, as he thinks, disposes of the theory of 
intentional misrepresentation. He thinks it extremely 
unlikely that they could have been forged as impostures at 
so late a period as the Christian era. He seems to rest 
his case for their antiquity almost entirely upon internal 
evidence, and even says in one place that, *' if any passage 
occurred in the Gathas which asserted that they were com- 
posed at any given early date, he would reject the place 
with contempt " (see his Preface to the Second Edition of 
the Gathas, English Verbatim and Free Metrical, 1900). 
This is going rather far. He probably means to emphasize 
his own extreme position in the critical school. 

To lose sight of all external evidence seems to be out of 
all keeping with prevailing ways of looking at such things. 
In the case of the Gathas, however, he has what would seem 
to be enough to mislead anyone in this direction, for next 
to the Behistun inscriptions, which strongly resemble the 
Gath*as in this respect, they are, perhaps, the most 
'^personal" of all equally ancient compositions of their 
kind. To imitate such pieces in Ancient Iran at the late 
date of A.D. [-226, so as to make them appear to be the 
compositions of a contemporaneous living person, seems to 
Dr. Mills to be a task beyond the power of any composer 
then present in that country, where literature did not 
flourish till much later. 

The author devotes the rest of the book to a comparison 
of Vohumanah or Asha with the ** L6gos " of the Greek 
philosophical writers, including Philo. This is done to 
controvert the opinion that these concepts, Vohumanah, 
Asha, etc., owe their origin to the suggestions of Philo 
''idaBus. 



" Zarathushtra, Philo : the Achamenids and Israel.'' 3 1 7 

Dr. Mills works up this part of the subject quite elabor- 
ately, both making use upon the well-known specialists as 
well as of the original texts, this last especially in the case 
of Philo. He recalls that the Greek ** L6gos " often 
corresponds to Ahura Mazda, rather than to any of His 
creatures (see the places). But his sheet anchor seems to 
be the fact that the " L6gos " of the Greeks in the philo- 
sophically dualistical systems of Anaxagoras, Plato, etc., 
was evolved to abridge a supposed chasm between God 
and impure matter, an idea which existed neither in the 
imperfectly co-ordinated system of Zoroastrianism nor in the 
Greek Monism. 

The author concludes with the argument that neither 
Vohumanah nor Asha could have come from the Philonian 
" Lcigos," because they — Asha, Vohumanah, and the rest of 
those six ideas, as personified called Amshaspends — existed 
superabundantly in the Rig Veda ages before Philo lived. 

Several of the chapters in the book are rewritings of 
articles which have appeared in this Review, and some of 
them in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. We 
understand that the second volume of the work will be 
soon in the binder s hands. Its title will be " Zarathushtra, 
the Achaemenids and Israel.'' It will deal with the doctrines 
and internal animus of the inscriptions and the Avesta, 
and contains an approximately complete, though scattered, 
translation of the greater part of the first. 



'• ' . . . 4 



1 



3t8 



ARABIC VERBS. 
By a. H, Kisbany, b.a. (Beyrout), 

The verbs are chosen for treatment in this short article in 
preference to nouns for no other reason than that, being 
uniform and regular in theory at least, they afford an easier 
method of demonstration ; and it will be seen that its main 
concern is with one class only, the Ayin doubled. In Arabic, 
as, indeed, in all the Semitic languages, the verb, more so 
than the noun, adheres to a standard rule in its radical and 
derivative forms ; and in theory every verb, without excep- 
tion, is perfect and regular, and must agree with the para- 
digm. The actual irregularity of certain verbs arises from 
the nature of the letters that enter into their construction, 
and those irregularities are in their turn regular and 
governed by rules and provisions that are binding on every 
form. 

The Ayin doubled verb is a class by itself, and it shows 
in the triliteral and derivative forms a wide deviation from 
the standard ; and like the weak verbs it starts with a loss, 
in its radical triliteral form, of one syllable, that seems to 
denude it from its verbal character. It will be contended, 
as school-books teach, that the loss of one syllable is super- 
ficial : one vowel is sacrificed, the second and the third 
letters are contracted into one, to secure harmony in sound, 
and avoid needless repetition of the same consonant. This 
much will be readily granted if it were proved beyond all 
doubt that the root originally consisted of three consonants, 
of which the second and third were alike in sound if not in 
vowel also. The writer hopes that it will not be considered 
inconsistent to question the correctness of this theory in its 
entirety ; and while admitting the triliterality of the root, 
the real identity of the second letter is, in his humble 
opinion, open to grave doubt. 

In order to get at the real reason for the existence of 



Arabic Verbs. 319 

such contracted forms, and to determine their original con- 
sonantal constitution, it is necessary to look deeper, and go 
as far back as is possible to the early periods of Semitic 
speech, and investigate the causes and effects of circum- 
stances and the evolution of voice. No records are avail- 
able as sure grounds to build upon, but in such cases it is 
permissible to utilize results as bases for this sort of philo- 
logical investigation. 

From a study of etymology, as it is now constituted, 
it will be inferred that the Semites in their early stages of 
conveying thoughts and naming actions in compound tri- 
consonantal sounds — if this expression be allowed — have, 
with a wide field for choice before them, confined them- 
selves in certain cases — Ayin doubled verbs are in great 
minority in their respective languages — to the mere repeti- 
tion of the second sound. Unless there be a scientific reason 
why they should do so, this theory seems at its best an 
assertion with very little or nothing in its favour except an 
easy way of explaining away an anomaly. Or can it be 
that Ayin doubled verbs are remnants of the monosyllabic 
(two consonantal) dialect that preceded the dissyllabic 
(three consonantal), and that their inclusion in the latter 
category is a device resorted to by the compilers of the 
language in their great desire to regularize its study ? 
This alternative is untenable. These verbs are triliteral, 
and any possible monosyllabic dialect does not come within 
the scope of this article. 

Another explanation remains, and has much in its favour. 
It rests on what appears to be sound foundation, and to it 
the writer wishes to draw the attention of Orientalists. 
They may take it as a mere suggestion, and are invited to 
accord to it consideration as it deserves. It is this : That 
Ayin doubled verbs originally consisted of three absolutely 
different consonants, of which one or two — the second or 
the third — were, in the majority of cases, gutturals, either 
the Hamzah, H'a, Ayin, or Ha, sometimes liquids (Ra, 
Lam, Meem, or Noon), and rarely strong. 



320 Arabic Verbs, 

If we look into the human voice itself, and in the light 
of natural science retrace its growth, we find, judging by 
the sounds of the lower animals, that in its first stages 
it was prominently a throat voice ; the sounds emanating 
from the larynx were shaped and modified by the action' of 
the muscles of the throat only, a process that invariably 
produces gutturals. The lingual and labial sounds are of 
comparatively much later date, for it must have taken man 
many long centuries to develop tongue and lip, and adapt 
them to the use of speech. If this be so, and science 
must decide the point, it follows that in the anterecord 
period gutturals were prevalent in the language ; and in 
the course of time, as man gradually developed tongue and 
lips and acquired a finer sense of hearing, and as separate 
and distinct tribal dialects took shape, and poets took 
liberties with many words and twisted them to suit their 
fancies, styles, and meters, and as defective mouths and 
ears were among the channels of conveying pronunciations, 
and to this added a great number of minor causes, many 
gutturals, which are harsh and repulsive to delicate ears, 
were dropped from use, and sweeter notes adopted. That 
so many gutturals still remain in the Semitic languages is 
due to the great importance that they (languages) have as 
integral parts of the religions of the race, and but for this 
reason they would have lost very much, not to say all, 
of their articulate value, and possibly vanished altogether. 
In this connection it is interesting to note the practical 
absence of gutturals from the Latin and Teutonic 
languages, and the precarious position of the ** H." Also 
that in modern Hebrew the Ayin ** Y " is in Europe used 
as a vowel letter, or treated as silent, except when be- 
ginning a word. The various grammatical rules improvised 
for the guttural verbs which Hebraists treat as imperfect 
are so framed that, when it does not clash with the inherent 
qualities of the consonants, as fundamental to preserve the 
verbal character, the proper pronunciation of the gutturals 
be avoided. Such* rules were never recognised by the ancient 



Arabic Verbs. 321 

Hebrews, and are justly ridiculed by the Arabic-speaking 
man, who undertakes the study of this sister language. 
His instinct rebels against them. 

After the advent of alphabetical writing, the language 
was compiled, as the Arabs say, from the tongues of men ; 
words were recorded as then spoken in tribal diahect, and 
as used and abused by the poets. If we compare the 
modern dialects of the Arabic-speaking countries, we find 
they differ materially from each other in the consecution 
and pronunciation of letters ; and if this be the case now, 
when the Koran rigidly defines words and sounds, how 
much more the early Arabs, divided as they were into 
many clans, must have differed, as we know they have, 
io this respect. 

Therefore, in conclusion, the writer is of opinion that in 
the Ayin doubled verbs the contraction has not taken place 
between two similar letters, but between two absolutely 
different ; and that the suppressed letter, grammar not- 
withstanding, either the second or the third, was, in the 
majority of cases, a guttural, which, from its nature, is 
more liable than others to be dropped from sound (other 
letters in few instances have suffered the same), and a sub- 
stitution was resorted to by doubling the other letter. We 
still find in the language many verbs of this class, existing 
in perfect forms. 

Few citations will be sufHcient to show the great proba- 
bility if not the absolute certainty of this theory. 

Compare Baththa with Baatha, Bashsha with Bahaja 
—the Jeem evidently was changed to Sheen (Wajh is now 
in the various dialects pronounced Wash) — Jadda with 
Jahida, Radda with Rada'a, Rajja with Rahaja, Shabba 
with Shahaba, S abba with S'ahaba, Lajja with Lahaja, 
Hadda with Hadama, and so on to the end of the chapter. 

The meaning has, in many instances, been modified to 
suit occasions and circumstances, but when fully examined 
both forms point to a common parentage. 

What is true of the Arabic is also true of the other 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. X 



322 Arabic Verbs. 

Semitic languages, and the first has been chosen because 
it is a living language and is still going through the process 
of change ; and with demonstrating from more than one 
language, which the writer has not attempted, and com- 
paring words common to two or three, a uniform pheno- 
mena unveils itself. 

Finally, the writer hopes that scholarly researches on the 
lines here indicated will result in removing many of the 
difficulties attending the philological study of the Semitic 
languages, and a thorough investigation of all the im- 
perfect and weak verbs will result in establishing the fact 
that a Semitic verb is and was by nature perfect and 
regular, without any possible exceptions ; and that the 
vowel letter verbs were originally, as the Ayin doubled, 
made of three strong consonants, one of which lost its 
sound, and its loss substituted for by the lengthening of 
the vowel of the preceding consonant. 



3^3 



f 

"THE SOULS OF BLACK FOLK."* 

By R. E. Forrest. 

This work is written with full knowledge and deep feeling, 
from the heart. The " black folk " are the negroes of the 
United States of America, whose presence in that com- 
munity constitutes so grave and ever-increasing a difficulty. 
The writer is himself one of them — and how his name stirs 
our speculations ! This book of his, so excellent in thought, 
feeling, and expression — it is written in such admirable 
English, nervous and clear — constitutes the best argument 
in support of his earnest plea for the highest education — a 
University education — for his brethren. We think we can 
deal best with it by giving a series of extracts from it. 

''Between me and the other world there is ever an unasked 
question — unasked by some through feelings of delicacy ; 
by others through the difficulty of rightly framing it." 

This never asked, but always implied, question is : " How 
does it feel to be a problem ?" 

"In a wee wooden school-house something put it into 
the boys* and girls* heads to buy gorgeous visiting-cards — 
ten cents a package — and exchange. The exchange was 
merry until one girl, a tall new-comer, refused my card — 
refused it peremptorily, with a glance. Then it dawned 
upon me with a certain suddenness that I was different 
from the others, or like, mayhap, in heart and life and 
longing, but shut out from their world by a vast veil. 

•• Why did God make me an outcast and a stranger in 
mine own house ? The shades of the prison-house closed 
round about us all : walls strait and stubborn to the 
whitest, but relentlessly narrow, tall, and unscalable to sons 
of night, who must plod darkly on in resignation, or beat 
unavailing palms against the stone, or steadily, half hope- 
lessly, watch the streak of blue above. 

* By W. E. Burghardt Du Bois. (Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 
London.) 

X 2 



324 ** The Souls of Black Folk'' 

'* One ever feels his two-ness — an American, a negro ; 
two *souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings ; two 
warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength 
alone keeps it from being torn asunder. The history of 
the American negro is the history of this strife — this 
longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his 
double self into a better and truer self. In this merging 
he wishes neither of the other selves to be lost. . . . He 
simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a 
negro and an American, without being cursed and spit 
upon by his fellows, without having the doors of oppor- 
tunity closed roughly in his face. 

** This waste of double aims, this seeking to satisfy two 
unreconciled ideals, has wrought sad havoc with the courage 
and faith and deeds of ten thousand thousand people, has 
sent them often wooing false gods, and invoking false 
means of salvation, and at times has even seemed about to 
make them ashamed of themselves. 

" Away back in the days of bondage they thought to see 
in one Divine event the end of all doubt and disappoint- 
ment. . . . To them slavery was indeed the sum of all 
villainies, the cause of all sorrow, the root of all prejudice ; 
emancipation was the key to a promised land of sweeter 
beauty than ever stretched before the eyes of the wearied 
Israelites. 

** Years have passed away since then — ten, twenty, forty : 
forty years of national life, forty years of renewal and 
development — and yet the swarthy spectre sits in its accus- 
tomed seat at the nation's feast. 

** The nation has not yet found peace from its sins ; the 
freedman has not yet found in freedom his promised land. 
Whatever of good may have come in these years of change, 
the shadow of a deep disappointment rests upon the n^ro 
people — a disappointment all the more bitter because the 
unattained ideal was unbounded save by the ignorance of a 
simple people. 

** The ideal of liberty demanded for its attainment 



" The Souls of Black Folkr 325 

powerful means, and these the Fifteenth Amendment gave 
him. The ballot, which before he had looked upon as a 
visible sign of freedom, he now regarded as the chief 
means of gaining and perfecting the liberty with which war 
had partially endowed him. 

** A million black men started with renewed zeal to vote 
themselves into the kingdom. So the decade flew away, 
the revolution of 1876 came, and left the half-free slave 
wondering but still inspired. Slowly but steadily in the 
following years a new vision began gradually to replace the 
dream of political power : this was that of education, a 
full and complete education obtained through school and 
college and University. 

" Up the new path the advance-guard toiled, slowly, 
heavily, doggedly. Only those who have watched and 
guided the faltering feet, the misty minds, the dull under- 
standings of the dark pupils of these schools know how 
faithfully, how piteously, this people strove to learn. It 
was weary work. . . . To the tired climbers the horizon 
was ever dark, the mists were often cold, the Canaan was 
always dim and far away. If, however, the vistas dis- 
closed as yet no goal, no resting-place, * the climb * 
changed the child of emancipation to the youth with 
dawning self- consciousness, self-realization, self-respect : 
he saw in himself some faint revelation of his power, of 
his mission. 

" For the first time he sought to analyze the burden he 
bore upon his back, that dead-weight of social degradation 
partially masked behind a half-named negro problem. He 
felt his poverty ; without a cent, without a home, without 
land, tools, or savings, he had entered into competition 
with rich, landed, skilled neighbours. He felt the weight 
of his ignorance — not simply of letters, but of life, of 
business, of the humanitus ; the accumulated sloth and 
shirking and awkwardness of decades and centuries 
shackled his hands and feet. Nor was his burden all 
poverty and ignorance." There was "the red stain of 



326 ** The Sauls of Black Folkr 

bastardy, which two centuries of systematic legal defilement 
of negro women had stamped upon his race. 

** The bright ideals of the past — physical freedom, 
political power, the training of brains and the training of 
hands — ^all these in turn have waxed and waned until even 
the last grows dim and overcast Are they all wrong, all 
false ? No, not that, but each alone was over-simple and 
incomplete; to be really true all these ideals must be 
melted and welded into one. The training of the schools 
we need to-day more than ever — the training of deft bands, 
quick eyes and ears, and, above all, the broader, deeper, 
higher culture of gifted minds and pure hearts. The 
power of the ballot we need in sheer self-defence, else 
what shall save us from a second slavery } Freedom, too, 
the long sought, we still seek — the freedom of life and 
limb, the freedom to work and think, the freedom to love 
and aspire. Work, culture, liberty — all these we need, not 
singly, but together, each growing and aiding each, and all 
striving toward that vaster ideal that swims before the 
negro people, the ideals of human brotherhood, gained 
through the unifying ideal of race. . . .'* [He means 
race as distinct from colour.] 

"The problem of the twentieth century is the problem 
of the colour line, the relations of the darker to the lighter 
races of men in Asia and Africa, in America, and the 
islands of the sea." 

Mr. Du Bois does not share the views of Mr. Booker 
Washington, of the same race as himself, who has had a 
remarkable career, and is doing a remarkable work as a 
leader among his brethren. 

" Mr. Washington's programme practically accepts the 
alleged inferiority of the negro race. 

** Mr. Washington distinctly asks that black people give 
up, at least for the present, three things — (i) political 
power ; (2) insistence on civil rights ; (3) higher education 
of negro youth — and concentrate their energies on indus- 
trial education, the accumulation of wealth, and the con- 



•* The Souls of Black Folkr 327 

ciliation of the South. This poh'cy has been courageously 
and insistently advocated for over fifteen years, and has 
been triumphant for perhaps ten years. As a result of this 
tender of the palm-branch, what has been the return ? In 
three years there have occurred : 

" I. The disfranchisement of the negro. 

'* 2. The legal creation of a distinct status of civil 
inferiority for the negro. 

'* 3. The steady withdrawal of aid from institutions for 
higher training of the negro." 

But Mr. Du Bois, and '' the other class of negroes who 
cannot agree with Mr. Washington, feel in conscience 
bound to ask of this nation three things : 

** I. The right to vote. 

** 2. Civic equality. 

** 3. The education of youth according to ability. 

** They do not ask that ignorant black men vote when 
ignorant whites are debarred, or that any reasonable 
restrictions in the suffrage should not be applied; they 
know that the low social level of the mass of the race is 
responsible for much discrimination against it ; but they 
also know, and the nation knows, that relentless colour 
prejudice is more often a cause than a result of the negro's 
degradation. 

*' Negroes must insist, in season and out of season, that 
voting is necessary to modern manhood, that colour dis- 
/crimination is barbarism, and that black boys need educa- 
tion as well as white boys." 

It is not our purpose, as it is not our business, to take 
part in this discussion. This is not the place for it. In 
the past the slave trade has produced some of the darkest, 
and one of the brightest, pages in the history of England. 
The present sad condition, the impasse^ the irritating false 
portion, the existence in the land of equaUty of a colour 
line of division as sharp and severe as the caste line 
between Brahmin and pariah in India, on the one side all 
advantage, on the other all disadvantage ; the scorn and 



328 '* The Souls of Black Folkr 

disdain and abhorrence, the humiliation, the abjectness, 
the deep dejection, the foolish presumption, the continued 
antagonism, the fierce animosity, the evil passions, and the 
horrible evil deeds ; the dread portent of the Americans 
having in their midst in the future — the near future, for the 
race is very prolific — an alien, and it may be hostile, com- 
munity twenty or thirty millions strong ; all these things 
concern England, and may concern her very deeply ; they 
are the results of our own doings in the past ; it is the sins 
of our fathers that are being visited upon their children, 
even unto the third and fourth generation. But these 
matters in themselves are outside the scope of this review, 
without its geographical limits, wide enough already. On 
the other hand, any lessons that may be learned from them 
with regard to the contact between a white and a dark race 
come within its scope, for throughout those geographical 
limits the great feature of the present, the resulting great 
problem of the future, lies in the contact between ourselves 
and dark races. The case of the American Negro is a 
special one, as the conjunction of the two words shows. 
We can make no deductions from it exactly applicable else- 
where : different places present different conditions ; but we 
can draw certain general conclusions ; we can enter into 
a general consideration of the matter; we can begin to 
think about the problems which will call for solution, for 
active action — action of great moment to ourselves and 
others, determining the future — at a time not very far off 
The book should be read, therefore, by every Englishman, 
for every Englishman has an interest in those problems. 
It should be read by all those who have a political connec- 
tion with the lands in which those problems are preparhfig, 
who may be called upon to take a personal part in their 
solution. Those whose interest in those lands is a religious 
one, through the missionary agencies on which so much of 
the life and energy, so much of the wealth of numbers of 
the English race is so worthily spent, should read the chapter 
about the negro Church, the wholly separate negro Chtirch. 



" The Souls of Block Folk:' 329 

I now proceed to give some general considerations that 
have occurred to myself, some further extracts that seem 
to bear on some of the questions with which we have to 
deal elsewhere. Mr. Du Bois says : *' We must strive for 
the rights which the world accords to men, clinging un- 
waveringly to those great words which the sons of the 
Fathers would fain forget. We hold these truths to be 
self-evident : that all men are created equal ; that they are 
endowed by their Creator with unalienable rights ; that 
among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." 

But Mr. Du Bois does not seem to observe that these 
"great words," these self-evident truths, these unalienable 
rights with which men are said — it is not stated how the 
knowledge was come by — to be endowed by their Creator, 
do not support his cause ; for when those words were said, 
those truths enunciated, those rights proclaimed, the 
Fathers held his own forefathers in slavery, and considered 
they had a " Divine right " to do so. They had little care 
for the right to life of the Red Indian or the negro. Their 
declaration was a statement of their own thoughts and 
sentiments, arising out of the conditions of the times, their 
own circumstances ; of their own claims and demands, of 
what they held necessary for their own proper living. 
" What is truth ?" asked Pontius Pilate. Locke said it 
was a definition. Circumstances and conditions rule. Are 
statements of truths and rights declarations of views formed 
on conditions and circumstances which vary ? Are they 
(kductions which vary with the conditions } What is a 
right? an achievement.^ an attainment? an acquisition? a 
danand ? a claim ? a concession ? a modus vivendi ? the 
Utmost to be got ? a need ? a want ? a desire ? an 
advantage ? the utmost advantage obtainable ? being and 
well-being ? that which conduces to the preservation, main- 
tenance, and ennoblement of life ? the full enjoyment of 
the fruit of one's own labours ? non-disturbance ? ancient 
maqners ? ancient customs ? a settled mode of living ? life ? 
freedom ? means of .subsistence ? health ? happiness ? 



>» 



>» 



330 ** T:*^ Souls of Black Folkr 

To the word right or rights are often attached the 
adjectives natural, eternal, inherent, unalienable, Divine. 
Apart from revelation it does not seem clear how a man 
can confidently set forth a knowledge of the will and 
designs of the Creator. Contradictory rights have often 
been declared Divine, and the issue decided by force of 
arms. The assumption, the full acknowledgment of a 
** Divine right," has not prevented the dethronement of 
Kings. Are these epithets used merely because they are 
strong words, to emphasize the claim, to display the 
claimant's own strong feelings, to work on the feelings of 
others ? Has a man any right or rights ? He has a 
starting possession — life. Life is necessary to his exist- 
ence. Air, food, and water are necessary to life ; these 
absolute needs and wants are often styled '* natural, 
*• inherent " rights. If a man is '* endowed by the Creator 
with life as an unalienable right, no provision seems made 
to guarantee him in the possession of it. In India droughts 
come ; there is not the usual provision of water ; there is 
no food. Man dies ; millions perish. Has he been de- 
prived of a right — an unalienable right .^ Man has to 
arrange for himself upon the earth ; he is the chief im- 
mediate working force. He is the fighting force ; he iias 
to fight against the drought ; he has to sustain and defend 
his life. Whatever existence life may have apart from the 
means of sustenance — air and food, solid and liquid — it is 
obvious that on this earth it cannot exhibit itself, continue 
without them. If it is declared, '' It is He that hath made 
us, and not we ourselves," so is it declared, '' If a man 
worketh not, neither shall he eat." Man has to exert 
himself, however lightly and pleasantly, with whatsoever 
severity and distress, to obtain the means of sustenance. 
He has to labour for his life, and, if necessary, fight for it* 
Passing emotions have been declared eternal principles. 
Present conditions have been called laws. Desires of the 
moment have been set forth as eternal rights. .Fierce 
declamatory declarations of the rights of man and the laws 



** The Souls of Black Folkr 331 

of Nature once convulsed Europe ; but do rights mean 
more than desires, betterment ? Does the most misleading 
expression "laws of Nature" mean more than existing 
agencies and their interaction ? 

Take a man and a woman by themselves. A man, 
whom we will call Settler, and his wife stand, like Adam 
and Eve, in the distant region into which he has pene- 
trated as a pioneer. It is a fair land, an Eden ; but the 
loaves do not hang upon the trees, nor is the water laid on. 
Here was corn land, but it had to be worked ; pasture 
land, but it had to he fenced. He had to place his hut 
with reference to security and defence ; the water had to 
be fetched from the spring, or, when that ran dry, from the 
deep-running stream. It was not a land in which water 
and vegetation and animal life held predominant sway ; 
where fierce and destructive animals abounded ; where man, 
unprovided with the additional skins which, in the shape 
of garments, civilization — ue., the higher, fuller, more organ- 
ized exertions of man — supplies, or with the arms which it 
affords, and which augment his power so enormously, 
walks a pigmy. It was an open land, varied with hill and 
dale, with here and there a wood, with a temperate clime. 
There were on it deer, whose flesh and skins he could 
bring into his own use. There were not on it wild animals 
whose single force was enormously greater than his own ; 
but there were wolves, and these hunted in couples or in 
packs. He bad to defend himself and his helpless sheep 
against them. Worse — for the greatest enemy of man is 
ever man — in the fastnesses of the hills near were some 
savage people who lived by hunting, and there was danger 
that they might come down and kill him and his wife, or, 
more terrible^, carry her away captive, destroy his hut, and 
drive away his flocks and herds. There was the more 
danger of thi^ because to such conduct these people gave 
the name of gJory^ And so he had to go armed con- 
stantly^, ^nd.) I^f^^ wqrst part of his situation was that It 
induced in h^.a^piri^ of fearfulnefls. If^be had plenty lof 



332 *' The Souls of Black Folk'' 

freedom, he had little security. If he escaped competition, 
he lost co-operation. His gains were limited by the extent 
of his own powers. If his corn land gave forth produce 
beyond his own wants and possibility of use, he could not 
profit by the superfluity. He had full command of neces- 
saries, little of comforts, none of refinements. He could 
do what he liked, go where he liked, put everything about 
him to his own use and benefit. He had command of the 
field, the pasture, the spring, and the wood. He was 
"monarch of all he surveyed." Then the poem about 
Robinson Crusoe goes on to say, " There is none my right 
to dispute." But the word ** right " was not known here ; 
occasion had not risen to produce the thought or utterance 
of it. Finally, if he had command only of what his own 
labour produced, he had full command. 

Then came a great rush of other settlers. A village 
rose up around the spring and by the wood ; other villages 
rose up not far ofiF. Settler now became a member of 
a community. He could enjoy social intercourse. He 
obtained the help of other brains and hands. The loaves 
now came from the baker's. The blacksmith and the 
wheelwright and the saddler and the shoemaker and the 
mason now helped him. He soon had a better dwelling- 
place. He could dispose of his surplus produce, sell his 
sheep and his lambs, his milk. He had more comforts. 
A band of men are stronger than one man, and he enjoyed 
the great blessing of security. But if the community can 
defend, it can also coerce. He could not now go where he 
liked, do what he liked — in fact, think or say what he liked ; 
could not take or leave of all about him as he pleased. He 
had no longer command of the land and water, of the wood. 
There began disputes about the possession and use of 
these — not least with regard to the last, for fuel is as much 
a need of life above the brute stage as food. — I pause to 
remark that this fact has been greatly overlooked by our 
Government in India. No member of it has ever lived as 
an Indian peasant. In many parts the want of fuel is 



" The Sauls of Black Folkr zzz 

greatly felt. Badly-cooked food is greatly the cause of 
a weak and miserable physical condition. Though the 
care and conservatidn of the forests was one of the most 
important duties the Government ever undertook^ the too 
hasty and rigid curtailment of their former privileges of 
entry — which no doubt many of them abused — often pressed 
very heavily on the people, more heavily than the Govern- 
ment officials, from their want of knowledge of their 
domestic economy, could appreciate. The supply of fuel 
should become a direct care of the Supreme Government, 
like the supply of salt. All that is wanted is attention to 
the subject ; no additional agency is needed ; it could be 
carried out through the Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce, and the Forest Department The officers 
of the Forest Department should not confine their 
work to the forests which lie in the uninhabited regions, 
but to the growing of plantations in cultivated regions. 
For instance, along the edge of the valley of the 
Jumna are long stretches of broken waste ground, which 
could be utilized for the growth of fuel. The Govern- 
ments of France and Germany attend most carefully to 
this subject. — Then began the scramble which is called 
the " struggle for existence.'* Now began the use of the 
words ** right "and "rights," which seemed here to mean 
claims. Now came powers and possessions, qualifications 
and disqualifications, privileges and disabilities. The strong 
men strove to obtain the fullest command of the natural 
advantages, of the produce of the labour of men's hands, 
of privileges. Then many cities, walled round, in which 
merchants and artisans congregated, rose up. The wolves 
and the robber tribes had been exterminated. The deer 
were now to be found only in the stringently guarded 
preserves of the various strong men who had obtained 
command of large areas of land and forest, and of the 
streams running through, which they claimed as their own 
individual property, and would not allow others to use, 
except on their own terms. These terms 'they called 



334 '' Tht Sauls of Black Folkr 

rights. They could enforce them by means of strongholds 
and armed men, so that it was said that might was right. 
And so Settler's grandchildren found that they had not full 
command of the fruit of their own labours, as he had. They 
were not so free from interference. The amount of the 
produce of his own labour which a man shall be allowed 
to retain for his own use is a great problem in all com- 
munities, especially the agricultural, as we may observe in 
India. Here it was very little, so that the conditions of 
these folks were very bad, and their disabilities were very 
severe, and conditions were laid upon them that were 
degrading to their manhood. And so arose a great cry of 
wrongs and rights, and rights seem to be born of wrongs. 
They cried for. their just rights. They called for a new 
arrangement of things, so that rights seemed to mean 
arrangements. And they proceeded to employ the means 
by which rights, like modes of livings are established, main- 
tained, or disestablished, force. By combination among 
themselves, and with the men of the cities, they were able 
to overcome the strong men of the fortresses. And that 
condition of things was ended, and the towns and cities 
increased and grew larger, and manufactures and commerce 
flourished, and there was greater command of the comforts 
of life ; but there were still disputes about rights and 
wrongs. Disabilities were still the fruitful source of 
enmity and strife, disputes and dangers, as they have 
been in every human community that ever was. The 
robber tribes had been exterminated, but round about had 
grown up other States, which acted the part of these. There 
was danger of loss of life and land and treasure from the 
nearest ones, for this had been suffered once or twice. 
And this was the more strange, as these were not savages, 
but Christian people, followers of the Prince of Peace. 
And they, too, called this conduct glory. And so in the 
time of his great-great-grandchildren, Settler, now a very 
old man, found that every man in the community was 
obliged to go armed, as he had been when by himself. And 



" The Souls of Black Folkr 335 

the people lived in great Tearfulness ; and so he said, ** As 

it was in the beginmn^, is now " and then he died. 

This book enforces the old lesson that evil deeds have 
evil consequences, and that the reaping will be as the 
sowing. 

It shows that the laws of morality cannot be set aside 
for immediate economic considerations ; if they are, the 
business will not be profitable in the end. Profit lies in 
righteousness. Whatever the immediate gain from- the 
production of sugar, cotton, or gold by means of slave 
labour in the end will be loss. 

It shows how deep is the division between men of a 

different race and of a different grade of civilization. 

Differences of race, of habitat, of physical construction, 

of up-bringing, of modes of life, must always tell, ** make 

a difference," produce a separation. But this may be 

merely a natural aloofness, or a fierce animosity. In 

America, from the peculiar circumstances of the case, from 

the two races being at the very top and bottom of the scale 

of evolution and civilization, from the theory of Equality, 

the contact is a confronting — not only an aloofness, but a 

waving off, a repugnance, abhorrence, animosity. ** The 

ignorant Southerner hates the negro ; the working man 

fears his competition ; the money-makers wish to use him 

as a labourer ; some of the educated see a menace in his 

upward development." 

It is said that the negro race, as at present constituted, 
\s inherently disqualified from rising to; a high level of 
civilization ; that the question at this moment is not of its 
soaring, but of its sinking, descending further into degrada- 
tion and crime, swelling still more the criminal classes in 
the great towns ; that the first endeavours should be to 
save it from this ; that sloth and sensuality are at present 
too prominent in its character ; that with its mental and 
moral deficiencies is combined an extraordinary self-suffi- 
ciency and an absurd arrogance ; that its estimate of its own 
fitness is not for equality, but superiority ; that at the 



336 " The Souls of Black Folk.'' 

moment the negroes need elementary, mental, and moral 
development ; that his sphere of activity, of bread-earning, 
lies in the lower class of industries ; that for political 
power he is quite unfit. Mr. Booker Washington, who is 
held in such high regard both by the whites and his negro 
brethren (or half-brethren, for his father was an English- 
man), aud who has done so much to bridge the gulf 
between the two, holds the same views. He is *• striving 
nobly to make negro artisans business men and property 
owners" ; he ** insists on thrift and self-respect" ; counsels 
'* a silent submission to civic inferiority '* ; he ** advocates 
common school and industrial training, and depreciates 
institutions of higher learning." Mr. Washington's ** work 
has wonderfully prospered ; his friends are legion. To-day 
he stands as the one recognised spokesman of his ten 
million fellows, and one of the most notable figures in a 
nation of seventy millions." But, says Mr. Du Bois further 
on, his " programme practically accepts the alleged in- 
feriority of the negro races." Mr. Du Bois himself holds 
that th^ are capable of rising to the utmost height of 
manhood ; that they should be given help and opportunity 
to do so, so that they may come to stand by the side of the 
white men as fellow- citizens, fellow- workers, free from any 
social or political ban or bar. The means of the achieve- 
ment lies, he holds, in education and the ballot-box, in the 
possession of political power. The opponents of the higher 
education of the negro say that it has been tried, and has 
proved a failure : " even though many were able to pursue 
the course, most of them did so in a parrot-like way, 
learning what was taught, but not seeming to appropriate 
the truth and import of their instruction, and graduating 
without sensible aim or valuable occupation for their 
future." This, word for word, with a most extraordinary 
similarity, is the indictment brought against our own 
higher education in India. But Mr. Du Bois says that 
statement is extreme and overdrawn. The number of 
the graduates who have gone forth from the special negro 



" The Souls of Black Folk:' 337 

colleges, or taken their degree at Harvard, Yale, and the 
similar institutions (often brilliantly), is not yet large ; but 
of these, while many have not, most have justified their 
higher education. They are doing excellent work in the 
professions, as teachers, lawyers, physicians, .as clergymen 
in their own Church, as merchants and farmers, in the 
Government civil service. ** College men are slowly but 
surely leavening the negro Church, are healing and pre- 
venting the devastations of disease, and beginning to 
furnish legal protection for the liberty and property of the 
toiling masses.*' 

Whatever its defects on the side of culture, the results of 
our own higher education in India have been to raise men 
from a lower to a higher level, to improve the intelligence, 
quicken and strengthen the mental powers, give command 
of real knowledge, raise the moral sense, improve the tone 
of the mind ; to produce a new order of educated. Princes 
and nobles and great landowners ; to raise up a new middle 
class of men, doing better work and enjoying better means, 
engaged in occupations needing intelligence and character, 
and improving intelligence and character ; men employed 
in the various departments of the State, in industry and 
commerce, in the various professions, as lawyers, phy- 
sicians, teachers, journalists ; also to produce new moral 
and religious associations, a stir and change in the social 
and religious conditions of the land, to introduce a new 
leaven. 

The ** closer knitting of the negro to the great industrial 
possibilities of the South " is acknowledged important, and 
*'the common schools and the manual training and trade 
schools are working to accomplish " this ; but " the founda- 
tions of knowledge in this race, as in others, must be sunk 
deep in the college and University if we would build a 
solid, permanent structure.'* The ** training of deft hands, 
quick eyes and ears," is needed ; but ** above all, the 
broader, deeper, higher culture of gifted minds and pure 
hearts." The aim of the education should be not to 

THIRD SERIES. .VOL. XXI. Y 



338 " The Souls of Black Folk:' 

produce pedants or artisans, '* but a man ; and to make men 
we must have ideals, broad and pure and inspiring ends of 
living, not sordid money-getting." 

In India we began with the higher education, the 
colleges ; then came the elementary schools ; then came 
the desire to supplement the purely literary or ** classical" 
teaching of the colleges by fuller and more direct instruction 
in science, to have places for instruction in the industrial 
arts ; for this was held to be most important, not only by 
its bearing on the material interests of the scholars, as 
enabling them to earn a livelihood in other ways besides 
Government employ, but by its bearing on their intellect 
and character. Nowhere are the exact sciences wanted 
more than in India. True science is needed to displace 
false, so that facts should take the place of fancies, realities 
of phantasms^ and knowledge and sentiment not be non- 
sensical. Science is needed not only to train the intel- 
lectual faculties, but to create them ; to curb exaggerations 
and extravagancies of thought and feeling, such as lead to 
absurd cosmogonies and ridiculous chronologies, to false 
and overweening conceptions of their own present powers 
and capabilities ; to teach, educe true judgment, certitude, 
exactness. 

'' Education among all kinds of men always has had, and 
always will have, an element of danger and revolution, of 
dissatisfaction and discontent." 

Our giving of education in India has not been unpro- 
ductive of such results. But we gave because we had to 
give, as the only course in accord with our feelings, with 
our views of our rule in India, possible to us Englishmen. 
The charge of India is no light one. It has its calls for 
sacrifice of life and health and strength, it has its diffi- 
culties and dangers ; but it is a high charge, and we have 
to fulfil it in a lofty and noble spirit. We hold its con- 
tinuance to be necessary for the good of the land ; we hold 
that we should exercise it for the good of the land, the 
benefit of the people. There are European races ruling in 



** The Souls of Black Folk!' 339 

Eastern lands who work on the principle, Make the land 
fruitful, but keep the people ignorant ; irrigate, but do not 
educate. But that is not in accord with our ideas. We 
have given the people the finest works of irrigation in the 
world, but we have also set the waters of knowledge flow- 
bg ; we would have the mind and character of the people 
give forth their best fruits as well as the soil. We hold 
that the noblest is also the best policy. 

This book shows the evil of the bestowal, of political 
systems suitable to one race on another wholly different ; 
at all events, prematurely, and without reference to want, 
or desire, or preparation, or capacity, or consequences. 
The bestowal of the vote on the negro immediately after 
his emancipation was the cause of great bewilderment and 
confusion and loss to himself, of disappointment and sorrow 
to his well-wishers. The North had once felt so keen an 
interest in his condition that it had led to a bloody war in 
his cause ; and even in the South before the war there had 
been •* something of kindliness, fidelity, and happiness." 
But now he found himself in evil case, hated and shunned 
and kept under ; none for him, all against him ; '' in a 
wide desert of caste and proscription, amid the heart- 
hurting slights and jars and vagaries of a deep race 
hatred." 

'* Negroes must insist continually, in season and out of 
season, that voting is necessary to modern manhood," says 
Mr, Du Bois. But he says also : ** To stimulate wildly 
weak and untrained minds is to play with mighty fires. . . . 
Thus negro suffrage ended a civil war by beginning a race 
feud. 

*' The better class of negroes followed the advice from 
abroad and the pressure from home, and took no further 
interest in politics, leaving to the careless and the venal of 
their race the exercise of their rights as voters. The black 
vote that still remained was not trained and educated, but 
further debauched by open and unblushing bribery, or 
force and fraud, until the negro voter was thoroughly 

V 2 



340 ** The Souls of Black Folk'' 

inoculated with the idea that politics was a method of 
private gain by disreputable means." 

Great heights of manhood have been attained to under 
kingly and princely rule, under oh'garchies, and under 
republics. Many have held the highest flower and fruitage 
of human life had been attained to in a small community of 
freedmen, having under them a working community of 
slaves — this was in ancient Greece. Even Mr, Du Bois 
says with regard to the South that there now material 
prosperity is beginning to be regarded ** as the touchstone 
of all success. The fatal might of this idea is beginning to 
spread ; it is replacing the finer type of Southerner with 
vulgar money-getters ; it is burying the sweeter beauties of 
Southern life beneath pretence and ostentation." (All this 
is not to argue in favour of slavery, which is an accursed 
institution.) And he says with regard to America : ** The 
perpetuity of republican institutions on this continent 
depends on the purification of the ballot, the civic training 
of voters, and the raising of voting to the plane of a solemn 
duty." Strong in man is the lust for power and greed. It 
is v^ry sad for those to whom the extension of the suffrage 
and the use of the ballot-box seemed once the keys to 
Utopia, the means for the production of a perfect civil 
condition, that these have become the instruments of that 
lust for power and greed. It is sad to find that in America, 
where the system of free voting prevails on the largest 
scale, the best men keep aloof from politics, deeming it 
•* ?i disreputable and useless form of human activity." It is 
sad to see it the mere engine of selfishness in some of our 
own colonies, where the people, the free and ruling people, 
seem to be in the condition of the Roman populace, when 
it cared for nothing but bread and sport. It is sad at this 
moment to see how in the first Parliament in which the 
direct representatives of Labour form a party they have 
taken up an ostentatious position of caring only for their 
own. class interests. Every human institution, religious or 
secular, is degraded, put to its worse use, used for selfish 



•c 



The Souls of Black Folk^ 34 x 



ends. Think of the beginning of Christianity and of some 
of the institutions that have grown up out of it — of the 
sweet heavenly flower and the rank, choking human weeds. 
Monarchies become corrupted into tyrannies, republics into 
oligarchies, plutocracies. It is the swing away from misused 
religious and secular institutions that lead to irreligion and 
anarchy. 

The native of any portion of India has a preference for 
the clime which has produced the race, for the ** air and 
water," which are '* conformable '* to him. He likes the 
help and comfort of known things and people. He is not 
enterprising, and does not care to move into other sections 
of the peninsula, where the physical and social conditions 
would be different from those in which he was born and 
brought up. To go beyond the limits of the peninsula, to 
cross the black water, is abhorrent to him, for it means 
infringement of that personal sanctity which is to him the 
matter of supreme concern in life— of supremest concern. 
He does not care to go far from his native village, and 
desires to return to it ere he dies. But the political divisions 
of his section of the peninsula are not a matter of life and 
death to him, as is that personal sanctity, as is his caste : 
now it may be divided thus, now that way ; now the 
capital may be here, now there ; now this race may rule, 
now that : the divisions of rice land, and corn land, and 
millet land are of more concern to him. He cares for the 
organization of his village, the longer-lived, and not of the 
State, the more evanescent. The one is of more personal 
concern to him — and his concerns are chiefly personal. And 
those concerns are ruled, his life directed and governed, his 
deepest sentiments evoked, not with reference to place of 
birth or political organization, with reference to fatherland, 
or nation, or State, as is the case with other peoples — 
peoples belonging to later forms of society — but wholly 
with reference to kinship and religion, to tribe, and class, 
and caste. 
' The people of India early attached a sanctity to the 



342 *• The Souls of Black Folk.*' 

primary wants of food, and water, and fire. These have 
entered inta the sacred rites, the reh'gious tenets and 
dogmas, of all nations, but nowhere more so than in India. 
A religious feeling has attached everywhere to eating and 
drinking and the use of fire, but never with such ruling, 
predominant force as in India. Everything connected 
with them — the act, the occasion, the instruments, the 
place — is holy. The divine, the inalienable rights, the 
immemorial privileges, for which he is ready to die, to a 
Hindu are the sanctity of his person, the divinity, '*that 
doth hedge him round like a King," which is conferred oa 
him by his caste ; of his home, especially of the sacred 
women's apartments, of his hearth, of his cooking-place, his 
cooking-pots, his platter — to dip hands in which with him 
ia the mark of brotherhood — and, above all (naturally, in a 
thirsty land), his lotah, his drinking vessel, the allowing of 
the use of which is the mark of full brotherhood, the dis- 
allowing the dread mark of ostracism. The recognition, 
the maintenance^ of those rights was his one essential 
demand from any Government or ruler. It was the fear 
that we desired to deprive him of that essential concomitant 
of existence by means of the greased cartridge that caused 
the Mutiny. Security, the leaving to him of a fair share of 
the produce of bis labour, non-interference with his religion 
and his caste — obtaining these from a Government, the 
name or form, or composition of it, is a matter of very little 
care or concern. It was a great Hindu chieftain, Rana 
Raj Singh of Mewar, who wrote to the Emperor Aqrung- 
zeb with regard to ''his royal ancestor, Mahomed Juktl^ud- 
din, whose throne is now in heaven," that he ** conducted 
the affairs of this empire in equity and firm security for the 
space of fifty-two years, preserving every tribe of men in 
ease and happiness," whatever their religious beliefs 
Equity, firm security, ease, full religious toleration — these 
things given, the foreign ruler was lauded and accorded a 
throne in heaven. 

In connection with politics an Englishman ^desires acti- 



'' The Souls of Black Folkr 343 

vities, a native of India non-disturbance. To the latter the 
ideal of life is the calm, still, little-changing, quiet lake ; to 
the former the flowing river. Running water and still 
«u:h have their good and ill : in stagnant water weeds 
grow and foul gases are engendered ; the moving stream is 
more wholesome, and does work. 

An Englishman takes his institutions and his games with 
him into other lands, and is very desirous to introduce both 
among people to whom they appear to involve too much 
fatigue. 

It may seem to show how general principles did arise 
from personal feelings and special circumstance^ that Lord 
Comwallis, being a territorial magnate, thought the English 
landlord system was the best for Bengal, and so inflicted a 
great loss on the revenues of the people under our rule, 
while Lord Ripon. an advanced Liberal, was all in favour 
of popular institutions and introduced municipalities. 

1 happened to be connected with the first of these that 
were introduced into the then North-West Provinces, the 
tract to which my experience belongs and my remarks 
refer. I can recall some of the points that arose in dis- 
cussing these institutions with the natives of various 
classes. They were not in accord with their v/ishes or 
feelings* The assembly system was known, but only in 
the same caste. How could those of higher and lower 
caste work together ? The men of higher position, of 
lebure, preferred the dignity and ease of aloofness to 
taking a share in public affairs. To canvass, to solicit the 
votes of low-caste men, to owe position to their suffrage, 
was abhorrent. The people thought their ancient ways 
with regard to sanitation and water-supply were good 
enough, the best for them, the ones they preferred. Men 
of position thought it undignified to be connected with 
such things as cesspools and public latrines ; it exposed 
them to ridicule. The new goddess Cloacina was strange 
to the people. They did not understand private persons 
carrying out public duties. Were there not public 



344 " The Souls of Black Folkr 

officers, Government officials ? Let the rulers rule. Why 
should not the magistrate, the head of the district, look 
after the town, as he had done before ? Would not his 
will still be law ? and was the new arrangement only a 
clever dodge by which the magistrate obtained more funds 
to carry out the works he loved so much, while the odium 
and hostility aroused by the new works and the new 
taxation would rest on the council ? Why should men do 
work without payment ? Above all, why not let them rest 
in ancient ways ? 

But notwithstanding the difficulties and troubles first 
encountered, it was determined to persevere in the estab- 
lishment of municipalities, because not only was this desired 
for the same reasons as in England, but because of their 
stimulating and educative value ; they were meant to 
arouse a new spirit. I am unable to speak from personal 
knowledge of what their social, political, economic effects 
have been, nor have I access at this moment to official 
publications that might give this information ; but I have 
this information — there are now in the U. Province eighty- 
nine municipalities, instead of eight or nine, and that they 
are at work in places where their introduction would never 
have been dreamt of forty years ago. 

There are now everywhere local boards and councils on 
which natives sit. There is now in that province a local 
legislative council, out of the thirteen members of which 
seven are natives. Natives have sat in the Supreme 
Legislative Council for many years. Natives have sat as 
members of the House of Commons, in the Supreme 
Council of the Empire. It is open to them to become 
members of the House of Lords. But the extraordinary 
sorrow awakened by the death of Queen Victoria, the 
extraordinary fervour aroused by the visit of the Prince of 
Wales, shows that what really stirs the heart of the people 
and awakens their enthusiasm in connection with our rule, 
is the monarchy, the Supreme Ruler. 

What the black folk desire most, says Mr. Du Bois, 



•• The Sauls of Black Folkr 345 

is sympathy. To so much of the colour prejudice ** as is 
founded on just homage to civilization, culture, righteous- 
ness, and progress," they bow ; but " that nameless preju- 
dice that leaps beyond all this, that personal disrespect 
and mockery, the ridicule and systematic humiliation, the 
all-pervading desire to inculcate disdain for everything 
black" — these awaken in them a savage wrath or a dull 
despair. The look of the eye may hurt as much as the 
blow of the hand, the tongue sting as much as the lash of 
a whip, the " proud man's contumely " be held worse than 
••the oppressor's wrong." 

The natives of India are very sensitive to ridicule, and 
set great store on personal respect and courtesy, value 
good manners as highly as good deeds. 



346 



THE YUNAN EXPEDITION OF 1875, AND THE 

CHEEFOO CONVENTION. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARY OF COLONEL (nOW GENERAL) 

HORACE A. BROWNE. 

{Continued from p, 156.) 

January 18, 1875. — The Won seems gratified at my 
moving down from the Residency, and accepting his hospi- 
tality in the town. We haye long conversations about the 
last and present expeditions. The difficulties of the last 
expedition are attributed by him partly to the Kakhyengs, 
and partly to imperious and overbearing conduct on our 
part. The last act of the expedition — viz., the sacrifice 
of bufialoes to please the Kakhyengs. in defiance of the 
religious prejudices of the Burmans. just outside the gates 
of the Won's house, still rankles in the minds of pious 
people here. 

The Won would have liked us to go by the Central or 
Ambassador's route, as he has more influence over the 
Kakhyengs in this direction, and the King's embassy 
having passed by it, the line is now clear for us. I 
admitted that his reasons were good, but the Assistant 
Resident having already hired carriage for the Sawaddy 
route, we are committed to it. He replies that although 
this route is outside his jurisdiction, he will do all in his 
power to assist me, and will send a guard to accompany 
me to the limits of Burman territor)- at Mantsee. The 
Kakhyeng bullock drivers come in with their bullocks, and 
undertake to convey us six marches from Sawaddy to 
Kwon-looD or Kut-loon, which is in the jurisdictioQ of the 
Maing-maw Tsawbwa, a Chinese Shan chieftain, and well 
outside Kakhyeng land. The bullock men object to thr 
size of many of our packages, which had been made up for 
mules that cany 50 viss, whilst bullocks take oqIt 55 or 



The Yunan Expedition of 1873. 347 

40 viss. Thus, a great deal of rearrangement will be 
required. The Mateng arid other Kakhyengs of the 
Central route are present whilst we are talking with the 
Sawaddy men, and seem- much disappointed at our choice 
of a route, though it is not easy to judge of sentiments 
from the expression of faces where a forbidding scowl is 
hardly ever absent. The physiognomy of the Mateng 
himself is an exception to the general rule. He has a 
pleasing, intelligent look^ and is actually cleanly in his 
person. I took him for a Manipuri when I first saw him, 
and suspect that one of his ancestors must have captured 
a female slave of that race. He speaks Burmese perfectly, 
and converses fluently in Chinese with Margary. He 
seems now to be thoroughly under Burman influence. 

January 19 and 20. — We are endeavouring to reduce 
our packages in size, so as to meet the requirements of the 
bullock drivers. I send Shan letters off to the Tsawbwa 
of Maing-maw, and Margary sends Chinese letters off 
to Li-ssu at Nan-teng and the Governor of Momien, 
announcing our visit. Two French priests, Father Lecomte 
and another now here, are preparing to start in a few 
days by the Upper route for Yunan to establish a com- 
munication between their mission here and that of Tibet 
and China. 

January 21. — The Shwe-goo Won, in whose jurisdiction 
Sawaddy lies, sends wprd, as I thought he would, that 
having no orders from Mandalay he cannot assist us. 

This is .the Burmese ** worship day," and for some 
reason or another (some say it is by ** Royal Order") 
everyone here, from the Won downwards, is in an extra- 
ordinarily devotional frame of mind. A Scotch Sabbath 
is a time of revelry and riot in comparison with a full moon 
worship day at Bhamo. The few people to be seen in the 
streets are all telling their beads, and a hum of prayer is 
issuing from the Won's house. Our encampment has 
hitherto beea the constant resort of a motley crowd of 
Burmansi Shans, . I?aloungs, Kakhyengs, etc., curiously 



348 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

observing our movements, and on the watch for small 
presents and opportunities for picking up unconsidered 
trifles. To-day we are left to ourselves. Whatever may 
be the motive with Burmese and Shans, it cannot be 
religious fervour that has kept away the savages, so I am 
inclined to think there has been some recent decree for the 
better observance of worship days. Although we cannot 
make people sober by Act of Parliament, it appears that 
a Royal Decree here is sufficient to make people pious, 
outwardly at any rate. It is inconvenient for us, as it 
delays our work. 

The Chinamen here are under the impression that we 
are going to make a railway straight off to China. One 
of them remarked to me to-day that though the Sawaddy 
route is longer than the others, it is much the best for a 
railway. 

The arrival of Margary, the great Fetching Meng 
(Pckin Mandarin), is still the great sensation of the day, 
both among Burmese and Chinese. He is a hand- 
some young man, with very taking manners, and is a 
general favourite both among ourselves and the natives. 
He is accompanied by a writer of sedate and dignified 
appearance, whom, on account of his wearing phenomenally 
large circular spectacles, we have dubbed " Goggles." He 
is believed by the natives to be a Mandarin of high rank, 
sent to escort Margary from Pekin. The apparition of an 
English officer coming from Pekin. speaking Chinese, able 
to eat with chopsticks, and having in his suite an imposing- 
looking, veritable Mandarin, is something so new and 
unheard of that every Burman is bewildered. The Won 
invites Margary and his writer every day to see a new 
Burman play or dance, and every Burman or Shan who 
has picked up a smattering of Chinese is anxious to enter 
into conversation with them. To-day the Mateng Tsawbwa, 
between whom and Cooke there has been a considerable 
amount of coolness, stalked into Cooke's drawing-room, 
and without taking any notice of the master of the house 



and the Cheefoo Convention. 349 

drew Margary aside into the verandah to have a chat 
with him. 

From to-day I have dispensed with a cash chest. Not 
only is such an article inconveniently heavy to carry, but 

« 

its appearance is likely to excite the cupidity of the savages. 
I have, therefore, distributed our money among the private 
trunks of the different members of the expedition. Gold, 
we have found, is not popular in these parts. It sells here 
at only Rs. 24 per tickal, and Margary informs me I shall 
get still less for it in Yunan. Rupees, too, are said to be 
no longer in favour among the Kakhyengs, who have been 
taken in by some of the Mandalay coins. I have, there- 
fore, converted all my rupees and most of my gold into 
the lumps of silver which are current everywhere in the 
Kakhyeng Hills. There are two kinds of it, Nos. i and 2. 
No. I is used by the Chinamen, but No. 2 is good enough 
for the Kakhyengs. 

January 23. — Our baggage is put on board boats to be 
taken down to Sawaddy, and we ride down there. We 
find it is a wretched village of about thirty houses. It used 
to be much larger, but has been desolated by Kakhyeng 
raids. 

The Tsitkai of Bhamo, who has had military experience 
in Thiennee, has been appointed to command the escort 
which is to accompany us to Mantsee, on the border of 
Kakhyeng Land and China. His force consists of a lot 
of wretched ragamuffins collected from the neighbouring 
villages. Here the Tsitkai is out of his own jurisdiction, 
and feels rather helpless ; the Shwe-goo Won, in whose 
district we are, having given no orders about us. The 
Tsitkai pulls a long face, and says that nothing has been 
prepared for our reception. He has had a rickety old 
zayat (rest-house) screened off with curtains for our accom- 
modation, and has himself taken up his quarters in a hut, 
our horses and followers camping out in the open. The 
village headman looked morose and inhospitable, but 
promises of liberal payment soon produced the few things. 



350 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

such as water, grass, and firewood, which we required. 
Everything has to be paid for at exorbitant prices. The 
smallest coin known here is the *'moo," or two anna piece, 
and it is hard to find anything that can be purchased for 
one of these coins. The Shan women, our chief purveyors, 
bring a handful of grass and ask four annas for it. At 
this rate a pony will eat Rs. 2 worth of grass per diem. 
The Paloungto Tsawbwa, with the bullock men, is here. 
They seem to have quite enough bullocks, though they 
cannot, or will not, tell us the exact number. The Tsawbwa 
is an ordinary looking Kakhyeng, remarkable only for the 
enorm6us extent to which he has distended the aperture 
in the lobe of one ear to accommodate a roll of gold leaf 
about 2 inches in diameter. To communicate with these 
men I have only one interpreter, Moung Mo, lent to me 
by Captain Cooke, who inspires me with anything but 
confidence. 

January 24. — I commence making the baggage over to 
the Tsawbwa and his lieutenant or pawmaing. I find it 
will be impossible for our small Sikh guard to keep efficient 
watch over a straggling convoy of some 200 bullocks, so 
I hand over everything, with the exception of our clothes 
boxes, to the Tsawbwa, who undertakes to be responsible 
for them. 

None but we ourselves are supposed to know that these 
clothes boxes contain also our cash ; but probably the 
Kakhyengs have made a pretty shrewd guess on the 
matter by this time. Each box has to be fitted into a 
basket made expressly for it before it can be put on a 
bullock, and this basket-making process is a tedious one. 

The Tsitkal informs me that royal orders have just been 
received that he is to escort us right up to the Chinese 
frontier — i.e., to Kutloon, five marches beyond Mantsee, 
at which latter place he previously thought he was going 
to leave us to the tender mercies of the Kakhyengs. This 
news is not pleasing to the ears either of the Burmans 
or of the Kakhyengs. The Kakhyengs in their own lairs 



and the Chee/oo CcKvention. 351 

are terrible bugbears to the Burmans, and the savages 
resent the presence of any Burmans in their mountains 
unless they come as traders who can be fleeced. 

The Tsitkai grumbles at the increased expenditure which 
will fall on him, and his brave army may have to go back 
to their own villages to replenish their commissariat bags. 
I have been employing these poor, half-starved fellows as 
coolies; but as payment has to go through the Tsitkai's 
hands, I fear that most of it never gets any farther. 

We have had a wondering crowd of half a dozen 
nationalities and tongues round our camp all day. The 
Tsawbwa and his followers have an insatiable craving for 
brandy, and our stock seems likely to run short before we 
are out of their clutches. 

January 25. — The mornings are very cold, and the 
Kakhyengs cannot be roused to do any work before 
10 a.m. They took over 100 boxes yesterday, giving 
receipts, and carrying them off to be fitted into baskets. 
Things worked so smoothly that I began to think they 
were not such bad fellows after all ; but this was too good 
to last, and to-day they began to object to the size of some 
of the packages. I informed them that any which were 
too heavy for them I should send back to Bhamo, and* on 
this they at once withdrew their objections. This looks 
as if they had an eye to plunder. Then the Tsawbwa 
appears with a long face, and says he has brought 
336 bullocks, and expects to be paid for them all, though 
we require only about half that number. His only reason 
for this cool request is that when Elias visited his village 
he made a casual remark that the village did not seem 
large enough to furnish 300 bullocks, and to prove the 
contrary he, the Tsawbwa, had brought more than that 
number. He admitted that Cooke had contracted with 
him for the supply of 1 50 bullocks only, so I informed him 
I should stand by the contract, and not by the casual 
remark. He then calmly requested that I would pay down 
the whole of the bullock hire at once. This I laughed 



352 The Yunan Expedition of 1875, 

him out of, .but promised to pay half the hire if he is ready 
to start the day after to-morrow. I suspect that my 
rascally interpreter, Moung Mo, is putting the Kakhyengs 
up to making these absurd requests. This has been a day 
of argument rather than of work. 

January 26. — The Kakhyengs again assert that many 
of our boxes are too heavy for their bullocks, and suggest 
that we should unpack and place the things loose in their 
panniers. This arrangement for making theft easy I 
decidedly object to. 

The Sikhs had some revolver practice to-day at a dis- 
tance of 200 yards. It was quite good enough to astonish 
and impress the crowds who came to witness it. 

January 2 7.^ As it rained heavily to-day I purchased 
thatching grass to cover our baggage, but as soon as we 
had turned our backs the Kakeyengs used it to cover their 
bodies. The Tsawbwa appears to receive the promised 
advance. I require an assurance that we shall really start 
to-morrow morning. He replies sulkily that he requires 
money to purchase salt to load on the surplus bullocks. 
There is no salt to be had here, so he is evidently return- 
ing to the charge to compel me to pay for 300 bullocks. 
One result of the last expedition having been to gain us 
the reputation of being a very squeezable people, it is 
necessary to make a stand against these repeated attempts 
at extortion. Otherwise we shall be in a state of bank* 
ruptcy before we arrive at the Chinese frontier. So I 
replied that as there appeared to be no chance of my start- 
ing by this route. I should have to try another. On this 
the Tsawbwa got up in a huff and stalked away, saying 
that as the previous arrangements had been made with 
his Pawmaings, I might continue to negotiate with them. 
These men were more malleable, and at once said they 
would start the day after to-morrow, if I would give them 
one viss of silver and 10 rupees for each village. I called 
the Tsawbwa back to ratify this agreement, which he at 
once did. The money having been paid he pocketed it 



and the Chee/oo Convention. 353 

himself, and with a grim smile remarked that we were 
brothers. 

Let not those in search of the ** Noble Savage " come to 
the Kakhyeng Hills, for they won't find him there. I 
have tried to discover some good qualities beneath the 
filthy exterior of these degraded creatures, but so far in 
vain. Until this race of robbers is thoroughly coerced, 
no regular trade over these hills is possible. A strong 
Government, however, would put down the nuisance in a 
few months. The Burman Government, though not strong, 
has succeeded in establishing some police posts along the 
Northern route, but here its influence is nil. 

In the evening Clement Allen, the second Consular 
interpreter, sent from Shanghai, surprises us and himself, 
too, by dropping in among us. He had been provided 
with royal boats at Mandalay, and whilst going up-stream 
he noticed some Indians on the bank, and stopping to inquire 
who they were, found that they belonged to our party. 

January 28. — The doctor gives the Tsawbwa a dose of 
medicine, which seems to improve his temper for a while. 
The Pawmaings and Moung Mo, the Kakhyeng inter- 
preter, have been hobnobbing together this morning, and 
the latter comes to me with very incoherent stories, wind- 
ing up always with the remark that it is surprising that our 
Government rewards such a valuable servant as himself 
with only 20 rupees a month. While we were at breakfast 
the Kakhyengs make another attempt to carry off our 
clothes boxes, notwithstanding the well-understood agree- 
ment that they were not to have them. The Sikhs on 
guard refusing to allow them to pass, the Kakhyengs 
became angry, and fired off muskets over the Sikhs' heads. 
The Sikhs behaved with commendable coolness, and treated 
the aggressors like naughty children. 

The Tsawbwa was displeased at being thwarted, and 
sent word to say he would not accompany us. This is 
really getting too bad. The sulky savage seems to con- 
sider himself the arbiter of our destinies. Another difficulty 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. Z 



^ 



54 The Yunan Expedition of 1875. 



now crops up. Our road lies through other territories 
besides that of this Tsawbwa. He gave Cooke to under- 
stand that he had made it all right with the other Tsawbwas, 
and that we should be allowed to pass on payment of small 
sums to them. He now admits that there is one Tsawbwa, 
him of Poongan, whom he has made no arrangement with, 
and who is likely to be refractory. The Burmans state 
that this man is collecting a force to oppose us. Armed 
as we are we could walk through the whole of the Kakh- 
yeng Hills if unencumbered, but in case of opposition our 
valuable baggage train would have a poor chance of getting 
through 

The Kakhyengs, we find, have already begun to steal 
our rice and liquor, and have prodded holes in various 
packages to see what they contain. 

The Burman Tsitkai and his brave army are in a state 
of fright, looking upon a conflict as inevitable. 

Evidently the choice of this route was a mistake, as was 
also the desire to ** work independently of the Burmans," 
which led to it. Some believe that the Burmans are at the 
bottom of our difficulties. Even Moung-Mo suggests that 
the Burmans have been ** poking the Tsawbwa in the 
side " as he expresses it. I am not of this opinion. The 
Burmans have candidly told us that they are not in favour 
of this route, because they have not as yet obtained so 
much influence over the savages here as they have on the 
Northern route. 

The way in which these Kakhyengs tyrannize over the 
peaceable Burmans in other neighbourhoods is lamentable. 
A characteristic incident has just occurred here. A couple 
of Kakhyengs got into a boat, and from it fell into the 
water and were drowned. The Tsawbwa sent word to say 
that if the boat had not been there the men would not have 
been drowned, and the village therefore must pay a fin^ of 
a certain amount of salt. The fine was paid to avoid 
worse evil. 

i^To be continued.) 



355 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE EAST INDIA 

ASSOCIATION. 

A Meeting of the members of this association was held at the Caxtou 
Hall, Westminster, on Monday, February 19, 1906, for the purpose of 
hearing a paper by Shaikh Abdul Qadir, b.a., on '* Young India: Its 
Hopes and Aspirations." The Hon. Mr. Justice Budruddin Tyebji (a 
Judge of His Majesty's High Court of Judicature at Bombay) occupied 
the chair. There were present, among others : Sir William Wedderburn, 
BART., Sir Lepel Griffin, k.cs.i.. Sir Charles Lyall, k.c.s.i., Sir Charles 
Stevens, k.c.s.i.. Colonel C. E. Yate, c.s.i., c.m.g., Mr. Lesley Probyn, 
Mr. F. Loraine Petre, Mr. Alexander Porteous, ci.e., Mr. C. A. Abdul 
Latif, Dr. Pollen, ci.e., Mr. Ameer Ali, ci.e.. Major Syed Hasan Bilgrami, 
Mr. A. N. Wollaston, ci.e., Mr. F. H. Skrine, Mr. C. W. Whish, Mr. S. 
Digby, Mr. W. Coldstream, Mr. Yusuf Ah', Mr. H. H. Khudadad Khan, 
Mr. Husain B. Tyabji, Mr. Victor Corbet, Mr. Arthur Sawtell, Mr. 
Mussaldan, Mr. Albert Louis Cotton, Dr. Bhaba, Mrs. and Miss Arathoon, 
Mr. P. D. Patel, Miss Hilda Malony, Mrs. Corfield Lambert, Mr. Lufti 
Ali, Mr. D. D. Kamat, Mr. D. N. Reid, Mr. C. J. Bond, Mr. A. S. Khan, 
Mr. Parmeshwar Lall, Mr. Bashir Ahmad, Mr. W. F. Piper, Mr. A. E. 
Dakhyl, Mr. D. N. Basu, Mr. W. Martin Wood, Mr. K. A. Bhojwain, 
Mr. E. Dalgardo, Mr. G. E. Ward, Mr. S. H. Swiny, Mr. and Mrs. A. E. 
Howarih, Mr. and Mrs. May, Mr. Frederick Grubb, Mr. S. M. Ahmad, 
Mrs. Audy, Mr. Q. T. Husain, Miss Chapman Hands, Mr. K. L. Dhingra, 
Mr. K. A. Rahman, and Mr. C. W. Arathoon (Hon. Sec). 

The Chairman said that he had much pleasure in introducing his friend 
Shaikh Abdul Qadir, who had been acquainted with the meetings of the 
association for many years ; he was a first-class lecturer, and was not un- 
known to the audience. 

The paper was then read.* 

Mr. Parmeshwar T^ll, in opening the discussion, said that Indians 
had an ancient reputation of being philosophers, and Mr. Abdul Qadir 
had certaiuly kept up that reputation by the disinterested and philosophic 
description he had given of the state of things in India ; but there was 
something deeper going on which apparently he did not care to bring to 
the attention of the meeting. He (the speaker) understood that at these 
meetings political discussions were forbidden, and that was probably the 
reason why the matter had not been brought forward. Along with the 
growth of education in India, the poverty of her people also increased. 
The Indian of their grandfather's time who would have been horrified at 
their coming to England used to have more to eat and drink than the 
Indian of to-day. India had sent, and was sending, a very large amount 
of money every year to this country, and that amount continually increased, 
and a country that sent out such a large proportion of its revenue to a 

* See paper elsewhere in this Review, 

Z 2 



356 Proceedings of the East India Association, 

foreign country, for which it got no direct return, was certainly not in the 
fair way of progress. The amount sent out of India at the present time 
amounted to ahnost £^\ per head of the population of this country. India 
was, unfortunately, the poorest country on the face of the earth, and with 
that terrible drain on her resources, education, social reform, industrial 
reform, and political reform, were hampered. Some idea of the indiffer- 
ence of England to the real wants of India might be gathered from the 
King's speech of that day (a summary of which had been seen by the 
speaker on his way to the meeting), in which, although India was con- 
vulsed on account of the partition of Bengal, and the boycotting of British 
goods was raging fiercely, there was not one word about India. As long 
as that indifference lasted, the danger in India was very great indeed in 
spite of the very pleasant theories in which the lecturer had been indulging. 
After twenty-one years of meetings of the Indian National Congress, 
English public opinion was still as indifferent as it ever was, and under the 
circumstances what wonder was it that there was discontent in India; 
what wonder was it that they should get tired of continual blood-sucking. 
Englishmen should be alive to the gravity of the situation, and try to meet 
it because the growing poverty of the people, and the growing despair of 
any reform coming to them in the ordinary way, reforms might be made 
to come in the most frightful fashion. (Applause.) 

Mr. Martin Wood, as one of the oldest members of the Association, 
expressed himself as much pleased with the Shaikh Abdul's paper, which, 
he thought, was essentially reasonable and comprehensive in its view and 
in the best possible tone. They had seen during the last six or seven 
years in India a certain expansion of self-help and self-reliance in various 
forms which had not been so prevalent hitherto, and which he trusted 
would go on increasing. At the same time there was much still to be 
desired in that direction. Another point, the awakening of the people of 
India to their position as British citizens was a very important matter; but he 
was very sorry to have to confess that that movement had not met from this 
side with as much fair recognition as could be hoped. In contrast to the 
antagonism which of late years the governing class in India had shown to 
various reasonable political movements, he thought it was well to recall the 
encouraging aspects in former times which had been so well explained in 
the paper. The last speaker had said that the Association was opposed to 
the discussion of political subjects, but that was by no means the case. It 
depended on how these subjects were discussed ; and as far as the broad 
view taken in this paper of the relations between the Indian people and 
the ruling classes was concerned, it was entirely in accordance with the 
objects of the Association, and he expressed satisfaction that one of its 
original Indian members had done them the honour of presiding that^day. 

Mr. Yusuf Ali, i.c.s., said that he thought he might at the outset con- 
gratulate Mr. Abdul Qadir on the excellent paper he had read to the 
meeting, and on the summary and analysis of the movements at work 
which made ideas filter from the educated to the uneducated classes. 
Most of those who had observed Indian life had noticed that things were 
moving in a different direction from that in which they appeared to be 



Proceedings of the East India Association. 357 

mo\'ing on the surface. In many of the developments of popular ideas it 
had been found that the Indian Press exercised an amount of influence on 
the people which was not suspected originally by those who only looked at 
things from a conventional point of view. While therefore he entirely 
agreed with the analysis which the lecturer had given of the causes at 
work which tended towards the elevation of the people of India, he thought 
he had been less than fair to the amount of work that had been done by 
Government in the matter of elementary education and the sympathy 
shown towards political movements. He thought he detected somewhat 
of a sneer when the lecturer asked the question : What had Government 
been doing to neglect elementary education ? He might be wrong, but his 
reading of the political history of India during the past few years was bome- 
what different. Not many years ago the Government were trying to drive 
the Indian population to take elementary education, and the people would 
not have it He did not think he was exaggerating when he said that in 
the country districts, as opposed to the towns, it was the constant eflbrts 
of the Government through its educational and civil officers to impart 
elementary education that were in a large measure responsible for such 
progress as had been achieved in elementary education. He did not mean 
to assert that Government agency had been the only agency for the support 
of popular education, nor that at the present moment popular education 
was looked upon with indifference by the people. On the contrary, 
there was a larger demand for education than coul I be supplic;d by 
existing educational institutions and authorities. It was largely a ques- 
tion of funds. If they had sufficient funds to start a large number of 
schools, they would have as many students coming to them now as there 
would be room for. At the same time he thought the efforts that had 
been made in the past to encourage education ought to be recognised, 
and while the apathy of the lower classes of the population towards 
elementary education ought to be understood and appreciated, it ought at 
the same time to be recognised that the people had generally shown a 
greater inclination for higher and secondary education. He believed in 
many instances secondary education had not received the amount of atten- 
tion it ought to have received ; but in that matter things were now njoving 
somewhat differently. The claims of elementary education having been 
recognised there was a good basis created on which a higher superstructure 
of secondary and of University education could be raised. He did not 
mean to assert that one should necessarily take precedence of the other, 
though it was an arguable point, but he thought it would be perfectly 
l^itiroate to say that higher education and secondary education would be 
a complete failure unless elementary education had been sufficiently 
instilled into the people. 

As to the second pomt he was rather surprised to find the lecturer 
criticise the attitude of Government towards political institutions. It was 
too much to ask that Government should stoop down from its pedestal and 
8fty to all political movements : ** Yes, you are perfectly right, and we want 
^ welcome you.'* To a certain extent the Government always ought to 
welcome movements based on reasonable ideas and he believed there 



358 Proceedings of the East India Association. 

were no popular movements based on reasonable ideas which would not 
ultimately assert their claim to recognition ; but he thought it was going 
too far to claim that those movements which had for their primary 
object the entire change of the machinery by which the Government 
was conducted should immediately and ipso facto receive a measure of 
Government encouragement which they did not receive in any other 
country. (Hear, hear.) In the Viceroyalty of Lord Dufferin the Congress 
itself received, he might almost call it, an enthusiastic welcome from the 
authorities in the capital of the country. He believed that Lord Dufferin 
invited the delegates of the Congress to a party at which he gave 
them full opportunity for social intercourse, and transmuted an official 
reception into a friendly reunion by his Irish geniality and charm of 
manner. Some people might say, "What about the speeches?*' because 
Lord Dufferin criticised the Congress and called it ''the representatives 
<A a microscopic minority." That phrase had a certain amount of sting 
in it ; but they had to ask themselves : Was the sting based on (act or 
not ? If it was not, it would have been entirely indefensible. If it was, 
was there anything to be surprised at? It was the business of the 
Government and of a responsible administrator like Lord Dufferin to 
point out what they conceived to be the fact, but if a popular movement 
were endowed with any vitality, or had the courage of its convictions, of 
course it would look facts fairly in the face. Government never took 
up an attitude of hostility to it, nor made an attempt to suppress it, and 
in his (the speaker's) own private opinion had absolutely no intention 
of showing any hostility. (Hear, hear.) He thought it was unreason- 
able to demand that the Government should encourage it in the same 
way that they would be expected to encourage educational or social 
movements. The lecturer had pointed out that the Aligarh College was 
an institution that had received a large amount of Government help ; but 
he should have gone further and said that had it not been for Govern- 
ment assistance the Aligarh College would not have occupied the position 
it did at present. Further, he did not think the Aligarh Collq^e was the 
only institution that had received Government encouragement. The 
lecturer would find, on reference to some recent correspondence in the 
Pioneer^ about the Hindoo College in the United Provinces that Govern- 
ment had clearly been sympathetic as regards earnest private efforts in 
education. He believed the Government had done a great deal in 
collecting and preserving objects of art and antiquities. Government 
had also spent a large amount of money in collecting historical manu- 
scripts, and Government had done a great deal to foster social movements 
as opposed to political movements. He, of course, expressed no opinion 
as to whether the political movements were right or wrong, but his opinion 
was that everyone in every country ought to enjoy perfect freedom of 
speech and ought to express the faith that is in him, and should be at 
liberty to organize in order to express it; but he thought it was wrong 
to think that because official favour was not shown to any particular 
movement that therefore there was want of freedom. Freedom consisted 
in allowing you to do what was right. If a movement was suppressed by 



Proceedings of ike East India Association. 359 

law merely because it was critical and for no other reason, then there 
was no freedom. If a movement was allowed full scope to carry on its 
own propaganda, provided it was carried on within all reasonable bounds, 
be thought they were right in saying it was a free movement and entitled 
to live as long as it showed itself worthy to live. 

There were only two more points he desired to refer to besides what 
he had said as regards the Government and the aims and aspirations 
of Young India. One of the greatest ideals they ought to have before 
them was the formation of character. He believed in India they had 
got as clever people as in any other country in the world ; but he thought 
he was also right in saying that in India their weak point was strength 
o( character, whether it took the form of not continuing a movement that 
bad been started, or the form of intolerance of opposition, or the form of 
not taking themselves seriously. (Hear, hear.) It always amounted to 
this — that they were not able to show that strength of fibre, and that 
courage of their convictions, which were absolutely necessary before any 
movement amongst their people, social, political, or educational, could 
ever hope to achieve success. The next point tley had to study was the 
difference between fractiousness and freedom, between slavishness and 
discipline, between sycophancy and a proper reverence of constituted 
authority. He thought they should gain in usefulness by showing 
deference to people with better experience than themselves instead of 
showing too great an impatience with those who were in authority. The 
sooner they placed those ideals and aspirations before themselves, the 
distinction between sycophancy on the one hand and that independent 
bearing on the other, which understood one's own position and the 
position of one's opponents, the sooner would it be possible for them 
to achieve their aims. In conclusion he strongly urged that in discussing 
these questions in the philosophic aspect mentioned by Mr. Parmeshwar 
Lall they should bear in mind the accomplished facts. It was no use 
taking up a certain attitude and running it for all it was worth ; they 
must recognise that facts were facts, and on those facts their chief duty 
was to see how far they could use them for the furtherance of those objects 
which they all had at heart. (Applause.) 

Mr. J. D. Patel said : I think we are all very much indebted to 
Mr Abdul Qadir for giving us a paper on a subject which is so very 
important and interesting. Gentlemen, India presents a problem which is 
most profound and interesting in the history of the world. 

I must also congratulate Mr. Abdul Qadir for his paper, which is excel- 
lent in every way. When a subject is controversial, it is not an easy task 
to handle it so as to give it a fair and impartial treatment. Mr. Qadir, to 
hfs great credit, has got over all those difficulties which lay in his path. 

Time being very short, I have to hurry on and come to the point at 
onc^.' Gentlemen, I do not stand here to denonunce the British rule. 
Thath not my business. I stand as a fair and impartial critic. I admit 
that many legislative measures and social reforms have been passed to 
benefit the country. Laws with good intentions and sincere motives have 
been passed. But I am afraid their effects very often have been otherwise. 



360 Proceedings of the East India Association. 

The machinery of administration, which was useful and necessary fifty 
years ago, cannot be and is not necessary and useful at the present time. 
Changes have taken place in the thoughts, ideas, desires, intelligence, and 
aims of the people. Progress has been made in material ways, and I think 
it is high time that they must have a proper and just share in the adminis- 
tration of the government of their own country It is no use keeping them 
out of it. With your permission I will quote a couple of independent 
authorities to substantiate the truth of what I say. 

Lord Curzon said : '* Changes should be taking place in the thoughu, 
the desires, and aims of the intelligent and educated men of the country 
which no wise and cautious Government can afford to disregard, and 
to which they must gradually adapt their system of administration, if they 
do not wish to see it shattered by forces which they themselves have called 
into being, but which they have failed to guide and control." 

The Marquis of Hartington, when Secretary of State for India, said : 
'* that the exclusion of Indians from the government of their own country 
could not be ;i wise procedure on the part of the British people, as the 
only consequence could be to make the Indians desirous of getting rid in 
the first instance of their European rulers." 

Gentlemen, talking of reforms I should suggest as the first reform the 
curtailment of military expenditure. India's cry of crushing military 
charges has been always sought to be hushed up by dangling before her 
eyes the bogey of a Russian invasion. In order to prepare her to meet 
Russia domestic reforms have been postponed, education starved, in- 
dustries left stagnant, and the people taxed most heavily. In spite of 
this we always hear from Englishmen that the army is inadequate, and its 
organization not yet complete. Well, if the army is insufficient, why peril 
the safety of the country by sending Indian troops to China, Egypt, 
Arabia, and even to Europe (despatch of Indian troops to Malta, 1878). 
This shows that the country does not want such a big army. 

I think this is a most conclusive condemnation of the system of govern- 
ment now pursued in India, that though practically hundreds of millions 
have been spent on the defences of the country during a period of more 
than twenty years, at the end of this period it should be said by the 
Englishmen themselves that the army is insufficient and its organization 
incomplete. Fancy India having spent millions for nothing more than 
this state of affairs. 

I see my time is up, and with your permission, Mr. President, I will say 
one remark more before I sit down. 

Gentlemen, very often it has been said by the opponents of progressive 
movement in India that the interesu of the educated classes are not the 
same as those of the uneducated class. Can anything be more sham, 
hollow, unreal, and illusory? These people themselves in their heart 
of hearts know that such a distinction does not exist and will never exist 
To hold that the interests of the educated are antagonistic to those of 
the uneducated I call an idle pretence. 

This is why I would earnestly urge you, ladies and gentlemen, to give 
your active support and unceasing efforts for a better, more humane, more 
just, and, above all, more economical government in India. 



Proceedings of the East India Association. 36 1 

The diacussioQ was continued by Mr. C. Rai, Mr. Q. T. Husain 
and Mr. P. Narian, who criticised the defence of the Government by Mr. 
YusufAli. 

Shaikh Abdul Qadir, in replying to the criticisms which had been 
made on his paper, said that his task had been rendered easy, because 
most of the speakers had gone in for Mr. Yusuf Ali. He thanked Mr. 
Yusuf Ali for the relief he had thus afforded him. Practically there were 
two points he had to answer, the first made by Mr. Parmeshwar Lall, and 
the other by Mr. Yusuf Ali. With regard to the remark of Mr. Parmesh- 
war Lall that he had eschewed the political side of the question (which 
he thought had been rather unfortunately brought in by other speakers) in 
his paper, he had taken a higher stand than simply deference to the wishes 
of the Association. He had pointed out in his paper how many important 
lines of activity there were available for the different classes in India to 
co-operate in, and as the political side had already caused a good many 
differences of opinion, it was desirable that they should bring into prominence 
other institutions which gave more occasion for co-operation between the 
different classes of people inhabiting India, and also between the Govern- 
ment and the people. (Hear, hear !) The Industrial Exhibition organ- 
ized of late by the National Congress itself afforded an instance of what 
coold be done. (He^r, hear !) When that Industrial Exhibition was 
started the differences that had hitherto existed between Congressmen and 
some classes of the people were sunk in the cause of industrial progress, 
and Hindoos and Mohammedans had been working shoulder to shoulder 
in making that movement a success. (Applause.) It ought also to be 
remembered that that movement from the beginning had had the support 
of the Government Wherever an industrial exhibition had been organized 
the Governor or the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province had rendered the 
organizers valuable assistance. With regard to the remarks of his friend, 
Mr. Yusuf Ali, the paper did not ask the Government to encourage a 
political movement like the Congress. The point was that the attitude of 
hostility to it was unjustified, and in defence of that Mr. Yusuf Ali had 
not stated anything. In fact, his argument that Lord Dufferin gave it a 
little recognition in the beginning made the hostility shown to it later on 
in official circles more objectionable. The details of that hostility could 
be given if required, but he did not think it necessary to enter into them 
at the fag-end of the meeting. With regard to the state of primary educa- 
tion, and all other education, he thought that no sensible Indian could 
e?er deny the debt of gratitude he owed to the British Government for 
gifing India education (Hear, hear) ; but the complaint had often been 
made by the people and accepted by responsible officials and members of 
the Government that the Government had not done as much for education 
and had not given as much of its funds towards the cause of public in> 
suruction as was necessary, and as was done by other countries. (Hear, 
hear !) That was what he meant to invite attention to when he had said 
that perhaps the Government might have been sleeping pretty soundly for 
some time to have allowed primary education to be so little advanced, 
but he did not mean to deny the value of what had already been done. 



362 Proceedings of the East India Association, 

On the contrary, he would be the foremost to give the Government credit 
for the work it had already done in that direction, but he should also 
be amongst the first to ask for still larger work to be done in the same 
direction. (Hear, hear !) 

The Chairman said : I believe it has been the practice of ihe gentlemen 
who have presided at these meetings to say a few words in winding up the 
discussion, and I do not propose to depart from that practice, although I 
must say that I have very little to say upon the subject. In the first place, 
I must congratulate you upon the excellent lecture which we have listened 
to by our worthy lecturer. (Applause). Whether we agree w^th him in all 
he has said or not, I think we cannot but admit that the lecture which he 
has delivered displays a great deal of thought and deliberation, and a deep 
study of the subject on which he has spoken, and I think we must all adroit 
that the expectations we had formed of listening to something that was 
worth listening to have not been in the least, at all events, as far as I am 
concerned, disappointed. Then, as regards the discussion, the lecturer 
has said that my friend Mr. Yusuf Alt really has come in for a good deal 
of the discussion and a good deal of the criticism which W3uld otherwise 
have been directed to the lecturer himself; but, after all, we are met here 
for the purpose of discussing, and, I suppose, for the purpose of criticising 
each other, and as so much has been said upon the freedom of speech thmt 
ought to be allowed by the Government of India and in other countries, 
certainly it would be highly inconsistent on our part not to allo^ the fullest 
freedom of speech here. (Laughter.) But, after all, really the question 
is one of practical administration, and we have met here not merely for the 
purpose of discussing it, but also for the purpose of saying something that 
might throw light upon the very great and very important questions which 
face the Government of India. In the first place, I think we must admit 
that no Government can deal with any questions of importance unless it is 
in possession of the ideas and aspirations of the people whom they are 
called upon to govern (hear, hear) ; and, therefore, so long as the natives 
of the country speak their minds with freedom, but, at the same time, with 
all due respect to the powers that be, and as long as they do not transgress 
those bounds of decent criticism, which I think it is the duty of all decent 
speakers to keep in mind, I feel perfectly certain, and I am sure, from my 
own experience, that the Government of India is just as willing to listen to 
any criticism of its acts as any Government can be. Of course, the natives 
of India in criticising the acts of Government very often forget to make 
those allowances which I think it is our duty to make for those who are 
our rulers. We forget oftentimes to remember that India is not ooe 
country, but that it is a conglomeration of countries ; we forget that lodia 
does not consist of one people, but it consists of a large variety of people; 
and we also forget that the duty of the Government is not to any parHcular 
section of the community, but to all these communities. (Hear, hear!) 
I think it will be found that when there is some complaint by Mussulmans 
of the attitude of the Government towards them, it perhaps owes its ongbi 
to a desire on the part of the Government to conciliate, to a certain degree, 
the Hindoos ; and when the Hmdoos complain that the Government b not 



Proceedings of the East India Association, 363 

acting as fast as they desire, it possibly arises from the desire of the Govern- 
ment to see that they do not go too fast as far as the Mussulmans are 
concerned ; and I believe it is to a great extent, in this desire of the Govern- 
ment to conciliate the feelings of these various communities, that a good 
deal of explanation will be found of what appears to most of us the halting 
attitude which the Government have been talcing, — looking at what has been 
going on during the last fifty years in India. Although I have oftentimes 
in former days criticised the acts of Government, I would ask my young 
friends to remember whether they have not very much to be grateful for, 
although they have no doubt also many causes to complain ; but in looking 
It the acts of the Government, it does not do either for young India or, for 
the matter of that, middle-aged India, or old India, always to fix its eyes 
upon the faults of the Government, and entirely to forget those blessings 
which we enjoy under the aegis of the British Government. (Hear, hear!) 
I have generally found that when any matter of public interest is brought 
forward before the authorities, if the memorials are couched in decent and 
respectful and proper language, they have always been listened to, and I 
have never yet had any cause of complaint with reference to the reception 
of any of these memorials and addresses that have been sent up from 
responsible parties ; but when people, instead of pressing their requests in 
proper language, use language which goes beyond the bounds of mere 
decency, I think one cannot be surprised if oftentime the replies which 
they get from responsible authorities are couched in language which, perhaps, 
is not so pleasant to listen to. But, then, Governments, after all, are the 
same as private individuals. If a request is addressed to a private indi*^ 
vidual in a manner that appeals to him properly, I think we must all admit 
that there is much more chance of its being listened to and possibly assented 
to. If the request is addressed in another set of words, that request may 
be refused, and I have, therefore, always, wherever I have had anything to 
do with public work in India, impressed on my countrymen the desirability 
of keeping within temperate, modern language, and of addressing the 
Government in those tones which we ourselves like to be addressed in. 
(Hear, hear !) I feel perfectly certain, for example, that when the pro- 
ceedings of the Congress are carried on on these lines, they are listened to 
with greater consideration than if they were carried on on different lines. 

Now, as regards the attitude of Government towards the Congress, 
although we have been reminded that this is an occasion where political 
views may be discussed, it must be borne in mind that in the position 
which I occupy at present, I am not at liberty to discuss any political 
questions of a controversial character ; but I believe that Government 
perfectly understand and recognise that the Congress is not a seditious 
body. I believe they recognise that the Congress does consist of a large 
body of people speaking with authority upon the question, and although 
ihey do not like their acts to be criticised openly in the way that sometimes 
they have been, I believe that the resolutions of the' Congress are really 
conmdered by Government in a sympathetic spirit ; and as far as they 
Mok any effect can be given to them, I believe that they are desirous of 
giting effect to them, and to the desires of the nation as expressed through 



364 Proceedings of the East India Association. 

the Congress. But after all — speaking now for my own countrymen — 
I think we have to address ourselves more to the question of education 
and to the question of social reform, side by side with the question of 
political reform. I am afraid that young India has fixed its attention 
too exclusively upon politics and too little upon education and upon social 
reform. I am one of those who think that our improvement and 
progress lies not in our efforts simply in one direction, but in various 
directions (hear, hear), and that we ought to move side by side for 
the purpose of improving our social status and our educational status quite 
as much as our political status. It is no use labouring altogether for 
a representative Government of a very advanced type if the majority of our 
own countrymen are still steeped in ignorance, and experience shows that 
the majority of the Indian subjects have not yet appreciated the 
advantages of that higher education upon which I think the fate of our 
nation really rests. Look at the Mussulmans. I have often in my judicial 
capacity had to deal with wills made and executed by my own people, and 
I have found that a very wealthy individual who dies, if he has no near 
relations, his one idea is to devote his fortune to some old-fashioned charity, 
such as the feeding of fakirs, the building of old-fashioned tanks, or making 
pilgrimages to Mecca, or reading so many hundreds of times the pages of 
the Koran, or things of that kind — very excellent things in themselves, bat 
which, unfortunately, do not advance the fortunes of the nation. Now if, 
when young India becomes old and is about to make its will, it will only 
remember, instead of leaving their fortunes to these old-fashioned charities, 
to devote their fortunes to the advance of education, I think we should have 
very much less cause of complaint against Government, because probably 
we should be able to do that ourselves which we now ask Government to do. 
As regards the employment of the people in Government service, I think it 
is a perfectly legitimate aspiration on the part of the natives of India to be 
employed in larger and larger numbers in the higher grades of the public 
service. Natives of India possess very high natural qualifications for employ- 
ment in many branches, such as the judicial, the public works, the railways, the 
telegraphs, and I for one am unable to see why much larger numbers of the 
natives of the country should not be employed in these departments not only 
without prejudice, but with great advantage to the empire. (Applause.) 
Ladies and gentlemen, it is getting very late, and I do not wish to detain you 
any longer. I simply once more express my pleasure at the lecture which we 
have listened to, and I think I may take it upon myself to express on your 
behalf also, the pleasure with which we have heard this paper. (Loud 
applause.) 

Sir William Wedderburn : Ladies and gentlemen, a very pleasing 
duty has been assigned to me, which is to propose a hearty vote of thanks 
to the Chairman. I am sure we are very grateful to him for presiding, and 
for the interesting and judicious advice he has given ; also, it gives me 
particular pleasure to propose this vote of thanks for personal reasons. One 
of them is that Mr. Justice Tyebji has been my friend for about forty years, 
and he is one of those men that the more you see of him the more you like 

'm and respect him. Another reason that gives me pleasure b that Mr. 



Proceedings of the East India Association. 365 

Justice Tyebji has had a most distinguished career in the public service, 
and a third reason I may give is, that he is one of those who has done 
more than most to direct and stimulate the energies and the aspirations of 
young India in a right direction. (Applause.) The lecturer mentioned that 
there are two directions in which progress has been impeded : one was from 
defects of education, and another was want of unity amongst the workers. 
In both those directions Mr. Justice Tyebji has been remarkably dis- 
tinguished. His family for several generations has done in Bombay a great 
deal to assist education amongst the Mussulmans, which community, 
as regards intelligence, are in no way behind their brethren the Hindoos. 
The Tyebji family accepted Western education early, and have taken full 
advintage of it. As regards unity amongst the diflferent classes of the 
community, I can say that Mr. Justice Tyebji specially represents that 
principle. There were three distinguished gentlemen who were my contem- 
poraries in Bombay, who represented the Hindoos, the Mussulmans, and 
the Parsees. Mr. Justice Tyebji represented the Mussulmans, Sir Pheroz- 
shah Mehta the Parsees, and the late Mr. Justice Telang the Hindoos ; 
and those three gentlemen worked together in perfect harmony, and showed 
the very great advantages that ensue when high-minded men and the whole 
of the community, instead of advocating what we may call selfish interests, 
were working together for the public good. I have therefore the greatest 
pleasure in moving a hearty vote of thanks to the Chairman. 

Sir Lbpel Griffin having seconded the motion, it was carried by 
acclamation. 

The Chairman having thanked the meeting for the vote of thanks, the 
proceedings terminated. 



366 Proceedings of the East India Association. 



FURTHER PROCEEDINGS. 

A MEETING of this Associatioti was held on Monday, March 5, 1906, at 
the Caxton Hall, for the purpose of hearing a paper by A. Yusuf All, Esq., 
M.A., LL.M. (Cantab), i.c.s., on "Civic Life in India." The Right Hon. 
Sir Alfred Lyall, k.c.b., g.ci.e., d.c.l., ll.d., presided. There were 
present, amongst others: Right Hon. Lord Reay, g.ci.e., ll.d., Lady 
Lyall, Sir Charles Lyall, k.c.s.l, Sir Charles Elliot, k.c.s.l. Sir Lepel 
Griffin, k.c.s.l. Sir George Birdwood, k.c.le., Sir Frederick Fryer, k.cs.l, 
Mr. Lesley Probyn, Mr. F. Loraine Petre, Colonel C. E. Yate, cs-l, 
C.M.G., Major F. H. Fink, lm.s.. Shaikh Abdul Qadir, Mr. F. H. Brown, 
Mr. J. W. Fox, Colonel and Mrs. Altaf Ali, Dr. John Pollen, c.le., Mrs. 
and Miss Pollen, Syed Major Hasan Bilgrami, Mr. Arthur Sawtell, Mrs. 
Corbet, Mrs. and Miss Arathoon, Mr. and Mrs. T. W. Arnold, Mr* 
William Irvine, Mr. C. E. Buckland, c.i.e., Mr. A. H. Khudadad Khan, 
Mr. P. D. Patel, Mr. Donald Reid, Mr. H. Nott, Miss A. A. Smith, Mr. 
R. L. Dhingra, Mr. N. Jacobs, Mr. A. E. Lorain, Miss Watson, Mr. K. A. 
Bhojwain, Miss R. James, Miss A. L. Major, Mr. W. Martin Wood, 
Mr. T. Morison, Mr. S. A. Coad, Mr. J. Read, Mr. M. A. Khan. Mr. 
M..A. 21 AH, Mr. C. A. Latif, Miss Gertrude Toynbee, Mrs. MacDonald, 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Wyer, Mrs. Mackenzie, Dr. Bhaba, Miss Chapman Hands, 
Miss Stevens, Dr. Oswald, Major G, Malet, Mr. K. C. Tyabjee, Mr. A. V. 
Gompertz, Mr. Kavel Krisnna, Mr. R. Rai, and Mr. C. W. Arathoon 
(Hon. Sec). 

The Chairman having briefly introduced the lecturer, the paper was 
then read.* 

The Chairman : Ladies and gentlemen, we have had the advantage of 
hearing to-day an address on one of the most important problems that lies 
before those who are responsible for the Government of India. The 
lecturer has had the advantage of combining experience as an Indian 
official with the knowledge of his own country, which comes from being 
born and bred in it. He has evidently studied the history, and has given 
us a glance back at the past traditions of the country with reference to its 
constitution, and he is thoroughly acquainted, accurately in detail, with 
the present state of the municipalities. I think you will all agree that both 
in the form and in the substance of his lecture he has been most successful. 
(Hear, hear !) The lecturer has said, and rightly, that those who have dealt 
with an active civic life in India have tixed their gaze '' on the predomin- 
ating factor in the government of the country — the factor which has 
moulded its history for centuries past. That has always taken the shape 
of a central Government, responsible only to its own conscience, and to 
religious and moral sanctions, for its policy and conduct" In fact, that 
only amounts to this, that they are irresponsible — responsible to nobody at 
all. There really was no continuous growth, as far as I know, of political 
institutions in India. The grouping of the population — such grouping as 
there was — was not political : it was religious. They had their customs 
and their personal law. In early days they had no rights or privileges at 

* See paper elsewhere in this Review, 



Proceedings of the East India Association. 367 

all as political communities. Another remark which the lecturer made is 
of great importance, and paramount in the history of the question. It is 
that the great towns in India, rich aind populous as they were, have never 
bad any sort of municipal autonomy. They have never had any such 
thing as European towns have had for centuries ; they have had no power 
of corporate action ; they played no part at all in the political history of 
India. I observe that as a remarkable and important fact. Though Abul 
Fazi, as the lecturer says, recorded a pious opinion as to the duties of a 
kotval and his qualifications, evidently nothing came of it, and I think, if 
1 am not wrong, the kotwal himself was never a political officer, but always 
an officer of the executive Government. Any idea of recognising local 
duties and authorities, if it ever germinated in the minds of the Mogul 
Emperors, was, as the lecturer says, to use his own phrase, *' subdued in 
the martial clang of internecine warfare." That is, it was stifled in the 
confusion of foreign invasions, frontier wars, civil wars, and incessant 
rebellion, which 611ed the annals of the Mogul Empire till it declined and 
fell It was impossible, under those circumstances, that municipal institu- 
tions could exist at all. Moreover, I am afraid the idea itself was quite 
foreign to the Constitution, and to the ideas and the atmosphere of the 
Mogul Empire. Although its rulers were brilliant and powerful, and had 
considerable notions of statesmanship, such a thing was not within their 
range, and this has been a most serious misfortune for India. The ex- 
planation, however, is not far to seek. The Mogul Empire which preceded 
the British power was in principle and practice an absolute despotism. It 
was like a great steam- roller which rolled fiat all obstacles to arbitrary 
official authority. It enforced a dead-level of subordination wherever it was 
powerful enough to do so. I may say that all Asiatic despotisms have been 
of that kind, and that is the real reason why almost all these despotisms, 
brilliantly successful as some of them have been, have usually been 
unstable, short-lived, and top-heavy. The mainspring of all those Govern- 
ments was military force, and when that mainspring grew weak and broke, 
the whole machine fell out of gear and the whole fabric collapsed. I 
would remark that I lay stress on this point to show the state of the country, 
and the difficulties which the British Government had to face when it 
took over the Government from the Mogul Empire. All India was in a 
state of confusion and anarchy, and there had been a complete levelling 
of every sort of local institution, except, as I say, the law of the country 
and the castes — that is to say, the religious grouping ; and, of course, to a 
certain extent, the separate jurisdictions of certain chieftains and inde- 
pendencies within the Mogul Empire, whilst their vast and imposing 
authority lasted. The British Government had to build on the foundations 
of their predecessors, and they found complete disorganization ; they had 
everything to begin afresh. There was nothing that they could keep up. 
There were no institutions or conditions or independent action in the 
towns, and for a long time the British rulers themselves were so much 
occupied in pacifying the country and consolidating their dominion that 
they could not possibly enter into local questions. The lecturer has shown, 
however, that the Britbh Government, by various Acts and orders, en- 



368 Proceedings of the East India Association. 

deavoured at last, as he said, fifty years ago, to plant the germs of municipd 
autonomy in the towns, though the idea of administrative progress really 
dates from the suppression by the Government of the great Mutiny In 
1857. I may say briefly that I consider modern India dates from the 
year following that great convulsion. Since that time the great policy of 
administrative decentralization, which is the keynote of our policy through* 
out India, has been steadily gaining ground, and I quite agree that the 
main impulse and the practical application of that principle may be found, 
as the lecturer says, in the action of Lord Ripon's Government in i88t. 
That was Lord Ripon's policy. That was a principle he did his very best 
to enforce, and I think his action was both right and just, and I believe 
it has always been recognised as such by the natives of India. I speak 
with some knowledge of the subject, because in 1882 the North-Westem 
Provinces and Oudh, now called the United Provinces, were under my 
charge, and I had to introduce these reforms as best I could ; but the veiy 
extensive modifications and improvements in all the working details that 
have been made in the last twenty-five years are, of course, due to my 
successors. I have no doubt at all that they are making excellent pro- 
gress, and I am very glad to hear from the lecturer the condition of things 
at which we have now arrived. All political institutions, to take root, must 
grow gradually ; they must be adapted to the circumstances, and to the 
wants and conditions of the country, and that is the great difficulty. It is 
an ordinary mistake, made by the English as well as others, in proposing 
an institution for a new country, to imitate too narrowly the systems with 
which they are familiar at home. That is a natural thing. In the first 
place, it saves a great deal of trouble, and it saves thinking. Of course, it 
is possible to introduce machinery wholesale ; but it is another thing to 
those who have to work it But when you consider that the whole thing 
in India was, at the beginning of British rule, perfectly new, and had 00 
roots and no foundations, and when we look back in England and remem* 
ber that the office of the person in whom all municipal government cul- 
minates, and who is, as it were, the illustration of it — the Lord Majror of 
London — is 800 years old, you have some conception of the time it takes 
to build up, squarely and solidly, institutions of this sort in such an exten- 
sive country as India. The distribution of local jurisdiction to those who 
best understand local feelings and interests is, I trust and believe, folly 
recognised as the cardinal policy of our Government in India. It has bees 
acted on in the larger sense by the establishment of legislative councils, by 
greatly enlarging their powers, by spreading broadcast throughout India 
such institutions as the district boards, rural boards, and the 790 mom- 
cipalities mentioned by the lecturer. I am as confident as anybody can 
be that where there are municipalities, whether they are in towns or mral 
boards, the devolution and distribution of power of jurisdiction and of 
authority in a vast Empire, such as we have in India, is not merely the 
best policy, but it is the only policy, and the only thing you can do ; hot 
you must always remember that it is the exact reverse of the policy of 
predecessors. Our predecessors went on building op a top-heavy G01 
ment, piling it up, and that is the reason why it collapsed. We are bro ad en 



Proceedings of the East India Association. 369 

0^ the base. They put too much on the upper story; but the difficulty is 
in constmctwg steadily and patiently, and I would say that there is a slight 
tendency in India to expect too much from the people. I only say to 
those who criticise the municipal Government of India, and who suppose 
that e?en in England the government of the boroughs and the government 
of the towns is perfect, and worked in the best way, and does not run 
wrong sometimes, and does not need watching and supervision, that 
experience would show this to be a mistake. The great thing is to have 
patience in India, not to expect too much — to work slowly, and build up 
a sjrstem that will attract the people and engage them in one great policy 
for the government of that vast Empire. Political interest and capacity 
has been in the last generation certainly greatly increased. If you want 
evidence on this point, I do not think you can have any better proof than 
the very intelligent and practical appreciation of this important subject 
which has been to-day given us by the lecturer. (Applause.) 

Sir Lkpel Griffin : Ladies and gentlemen, I have no desire or inten- 
tion of making a speech to you this afternoon, 2^nd my only object in 
rising is to submit an appreciation of two of the earlier workers in the 
nmnicipal field, long before the arrival in India of Lord Ripon, of whom 
cor chairman has spoken. I would invite you to remember and acknow- 
ledge the enlightened efforts of two great Lieutenant-Governors of the 
Punjab, Sir Robert Montgomery and Sir Donald McLeod. The real birth 
of municipal institutions in India is, I think, more due to the initiative of 
Sir Robert Montgomery than to that of anyone else. We possessed full- 
blown and active municipal committees in all the large towns of the 
Punjab in the early sixties. I myself, I hope not too autocratic a 
ixuigistratCt was at the head of the municipal committee of Amritsar, the 
great religious centre of Sikhism, in 1868, fourteen years before any 
decrees were issued on the subject of municipal government by Lord 
Ripon. Sir Donald McLeod followed most loyally and sympathetically 
in his predecessor's footsteps. With reference to these chiefs, under 
whom I served, and whom I very much honour, I am anxious to declare 
how much municipal institutions (from which all those who love India 
expect so much) owe to those two Lieutenant-Governors of the Punjab. 
(Applause.) 

Sir Frederic Fryer said that his experience of civic government in the 
Punjab dated from much the same time as that of Sir Lepel Griffin. He 
remembered that they had municipalities in the Punjab when he joined 
the province in 1865, and even in those days great interest was taken in 
municipal work. When they started district boards he was Deputy 
Commissioner of Azara Hazara, and he recollected that they had an 
election of members of the board. A complaint was brought to him by 
one candidate that, though he had a very large majority of votes in his 
favour, another candidate had been returned instead of him. An inquiry 
was held into the matter, and the Tehsildar said that the statement was 
correct ; but he considered the other candidate the best man, and there- 
fore he had torn up a sufficient number of votes in favour of the successful 
candidate, so as to bring in the man he thought more fitie'^ ^'"'' ^^-^ oost. 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXI. 



370 Proceedings of the East India Association. 

He flailed to see that his proeedare was in any way improper. He (the 
speaker) quite agreed with what the prerious speaker hitd said'aboat 
'district boards not being very useful. They had very little to do» and took 
very little interest in the matter. Municipal boards in Burmah oeitaiiilf 
took great interest in their work. The high proportion of loans came 
principally from loans incurred by big towns. In Rangoon a great deal of 
money was borrowed, and was spent in a very useful way in procoring 
a proper water-supply, a very excellent system of drainage, and generatty 
on works which would be most useful to the town, to the present popula- 
tion and future generations. That money had been exceedingly wdl 
spent, but his experience was that in the small towns no money was 
borrowed as a rule, and they generally contrived to keep their expenditure 
below their revenue. It was only where works were very large and oonkl 
not possibly be constructed out of revenue that loans were justifiable. In 
such cases the resort to the power of borrowing by municipalities was most 
serviceable. The municipal government of many towns with which he was 
acquainted was most praiseworthy, and he certainly thought that as a role 
members of municipalities, *both European and native, took much interest 
in their work, and as time went on the idea of local government wo«ikl 
develop more and more, and be a great benefit to India. (Applause.) 

Mr. William Irvine (late of the Bengal Civil Service) said that ihe 
lecturer had very naturally divided the subject into ancient history and 
the present time. The ancient municipal institutions of India in the 
English sense were non-existent, and therefore he would say nothing 
about them, except that in studying native history he had been very much 
struck by the great strength of local institutions. Very few of the 
Commercial or social disputes of the towns ever travelled any further than 
the communities themselves ; and there was a very strong body of \oc9\ 
government of a sort, though it did not extend to what they would coa- 
sider municipal institutions in the way of roads, drainage, and water- 
supply. The kotwal was an officer of the central Government — in fact, a 
police rather than a municipal officer — and he had under him certmiD 
local headmen, who collected his dues and helped him in his duties. 
Turning, then, to the present day, he had been for three years secretary, 
and at times the chairman, of a large municipality, and for ten yean 
chairman of other municipalities, and therefore he had had considerable 
experience of the working of those institutions. There was a tendency to 
date things from one's own recollection, and unfortunately his went back 
a little further than Lord Ripon's days. With all respect to Lord Rtpoa's 
good intentions, he did not think he advanced municipal institutioos in 
the United Provinces. His (the speaker's) connection as secretary wkh 
municipalities preceded the year 1882, and he did not think froai his 
subsequent experience of several years the municipal institutions were 
better after that time than they were before. The only time the 
legislation told was when we defied the Commissioner. A dismissed cktk 
appealed, and the Commissioner ordered his reinstatement. Ii was 
pointed out in the humblest language that we could only be repotted to 
Government : our orders could not be heard in appeal The case went m^ 



Pn^cetdings of the East India Association. 371 

to Gavernmeiit, our view was upheld, and we became a '* leading case." 
So £ir as he remembered, that is the only instance in whidi Lord Rtpon's 
lepslition gave increased independence to any municipality with which 
*the speaker was concerned. If he were to exf^n how elections were 
conducted, it would hardly meet with the views of the free and inde- 
pesdent electors, of EngUnd. Further, he was certain that the sub- 
.district board project of Lord Ripon fell flat from the very day it was 
imied. These sob-district boards, he supposed, still existed on paper, but 
he had never attended a meeting of one, nor had he ever read the 
proceedings of one in the whole course of his official experience ; they 
died still*bom. As for the district boards, they foundered principally on 
the question of income, having to live on money doled out to them by the 
Govemraent. They were too much nursed, and could do little effective 
work ; they could only administer the orders from the central power, and 
the members could not be made to take any interest in that system. 
These boards had no vitality, for the reason that there was no possible 
interest; the members were told exactly what they were to spend, and 
what upon. They were entirely in the hands of the superintending 
engineer and his subordinate, the district engineer. The educational 
work had formerly been attended to with a good deal of effect. Then it 
happened that they came under a very strong centralizing Director of 
Public Instruction, knd he took the whole thing out of the hands of the 
districts ; he directed from the centre what they were to do, and the last 
state of things was worse than the first. There was little life in the 
district Boards, and he did not believe there ever would be unless they 
were given an income of their own to administer and expend on plans and 
projects of their own. (Hear, hear.) Then there was the perennial 
difficulty that the native of India was very limited in his notions. He 
wanted a road to his own town, but he could not see why one fifty miles 
away was needed. So much for district boards. On the other hand, 
be (the speaker) was a great believer in municipal institutions. He had 
worked them for twelve or thirteen years, and found there was a lively 
interest taken in them. He had seen the most wonderful personal zeal 
displayed ; but he was very much surprised to observe from the paper that 
the borrowing powers had been so largely exercised, and he thought 
that was an extremely dangerous feature, that should be carefully con- 
sidered. Indian towns were very poor places, and could not stand heavy 
taxation, and 50 per cent, of the income spent on the repayment of- debt 
seemed to be monstrous. The pace had been too fast by fiar, and they 
shoald be pulled up. It was all very well to say they must have modern 
institutions ; but if they could not pay for them, they must do without 
them. He thought that in the last ten years they had been doing too 
much. (Applause.) 

[Note. — ^^I may add a word or two that has occurred to me since the 
meeting on (i) the Act XX. or chaukidari towns, (a) the octroi tax, 
(3) English officials as chairmen and secretaries. The small towns under 
Act XX. of 1856 suffer greatly from the narrowness of their income, the 
first charges on which are for watch and ward and scavenging. Still, in 

AA 2 



372 Proceedings of the East India Association. 

a small way the panches do much good work, and it is pleasant on an 
inspection tour to see the pride with which they show you a bit of 
pavement or roadway, a newly-cleaned -out and repaired well, or a freshly- 
planted corner of the camping-ground. The small brick-built towns with 
which both sides of the Jamnah are dotted from Delhi to the foot of the 
hills have benefited greatly by the unobtrusive work done in them, so far 
as funds allow, by their headmen, under the guidance of the district staff. 
As for the octroi, our lecturer, Mr. Yusuf Ali, has dwelt too exclusively 
on the obnoxious side of this tax, which as an academic thesis I am not 
prepared to contest. But even in taxation imagination plays its part 
Surely the goose may choose the sauce it is to be cooked witk The 
fact that indirect taxation is tolerated, while direct taxation is abhorred, 
must weigh greatly against any theoretic objection to an octroL The 
population decidedly prefer it ; even if it takes a little more out of their 
pockets, it takes it insensibly in small sums, and at a time which suits 
them. On the question of official chairmen and secretaries, there is one 
aspect of the question which I do not think has been discussed. 
Municipal work and the charge of a Court of Ward's estate are perhaps 
the only spheres of his activity In which the English official gets rid of his 
attitude of tax-gatherer, punisher of evil-doers, or decider of disputes. 
On a municipal board he and the members meet as men working for a 
common object. I wish to record the fact that the pleasantest part of my 
official work was that connected with municipalities ; and to this day I 
feel grateful to one of my official superiors, who forced me, much against 
my natural bent, to take an active part in it, greatly to my eventual 
benefit, and, I hope, without detriment to the boards themselves on 
which I served. What a pity, then, that this avenue to good-feeling 
between Englishmen and Indians should be definitely closed by the 
abolition of all official chairmanships !] 

Sir George Birdwood said : I am glad to avail myself of the invitation 
to address the meeting, as it gives me the opportunity of publicly express- 
ing the pleasure and admiration with which I have listened to the delivery 
of Mr. Yusuf Ali's truly admirable lecture. It has been full of instruction 
and interest for me. But that is not what I so particularly desire to say of 
it, but rather and advisedly and pointedly this, that what has most moved 
me has been its remarkable literary quality, the simplicity, ease, and 
amenity of its expression, and the sanity and serenity of its whole in- 
spiration, and, I would add, the grace and effectiveness of its delivery. 
Nothing gives me more genuine or greater delight than the discovery 
of literary ability in any of its true forms among Indian students of the 
English language, and Mr. Yusuf Ali's command of the tongue that 
Shakespeare taught and Milton upheld in its loftiest phrasing, and his 
facility and persuasiveness in its use, whether in writing or speaking, might 
well be the envy and inspiration of even practised English authors and orators. 
Of the subject of his lecture he had no practical knowledge, and no title 
to address an audience of Anglo-Indian experts on it. But the subject 
had always interested him. In the very first year of his return to India, 
in 1854, he had in a quite accidental way, come upon Sir George Win- 



Proceedings of the East India Association. 373 

gate's "Reports" on the Revenue Survey of Bombay, and Goodine's 
little tract on the " Village Communities of the Deccan," and had been at 
once and permanently fascinated by them ; and he had lived in the Deccan 
and Concan villages, and as a villager for the time, and twice as the guest 
of village /a/f/r, or rural mayors; and all this had led him to the con- 
viction that there was still much more of the civic life and the civic spirit 
in India^ the India of the Hindus — at least, in the Bombay Presidency — 
than was dreamt of in this country. The communal villages of India, each 
a self-contained little republic, had indeed proved the salvation of the 
immemorial sano-sanet civilization of India through the 2,000 years of 
outrageous military devastation and political anarchy anterior to the British 
pacification of the country ; and, with the best intentions, we had in truth 
done India a dubious service in interfering, in our strenuous manner, so 
radically as we had with the indigenous communal life of the people. The 
people of each village regarded it as the very hub of the universe, and all 
beyond it^ even across the hedge, or road, or river ; separating it from the 
immediately neighbouring villages, as the foreign soil of outer barbarians ; 
and they had ever looked on at the struggles of successive armed invaders 
for the conquest of the country with as little concern as we might at a 
military tournament in the Agricultural Hall at Islington, or a battle scene 
on the colossal stage of the Empress Theatre at Earl's Court. It was 
A pageant which only interested them in so far as it amused them. When 
^ 1S57, at Sattara, the only place in Western India where the Mutiny 
came to any serious head, the native regiments there broke away from their 
European of&cers and looted the bazaar, the ryots in the fields within 
earshot of the city knew little of it, and practically nothing ; and to a stranger, 
who out of mere curiosity questioned them on the matter observed, and 
without turning from their work, "Oh, it's only some of those black- 
guards in the town kicking up a rumpus !" The municipal feeling was, 
indeed, strong in India — that is, among the Hindus — and instinctive, 
through nearly 3,000 years evolution of it ; and I have always felt that it 
was a calamity we did not endeavour to do more to foster this, so to say, 
luitural instinct, and to develop the civic institutions already existing in the 
country, particularly in Western India, and, I understand, even more com- 
pletely in Southern India, rather than attempt, so energetically and incon- 
siderately, to force on the country the exotic European forms of these 
communal organizations. The path of the plague had closely coincided 
with the course of the succession of spheres over which we had established 
our modem district boards and councils throughout British India. 

Dr. John Pollen said Sir George Birdwood had said most of the 
things he (Dr. Pollen) would have attempted to say much more ably than 
he could have said them himself. He wished, however, to express his 
cordial appreciation of the very picturesque and graceful lecture they had 
been favoured with. He envied Mr. Yusuf Ali his easy flow of words and 
the correct rounding of his periods, and he could not help recognising also 
that the lecturer's '' terminologies " were not only picturesque, but, what 
was somewhat unusual in these times, " exact." (Laughter.) He also 
desired to claim for the memory of Sir Bartle Frere due appreciation for 



356 Proceedings of the East India Association, 

foreign country, for which it got no direct return, was certainly not in the 
fair way of progress. The amount sent out of India at the present time 
amounted to almost J[^i per head of the population of this country. India 
was, unfortunately, the poorest country on the face of the earth, and with 
that terrible drain on her resources, education, social reform, industrial 
reform, and political reform, were hampered. Some idea of the indiffer- 
ence of England to the real wants of India might be gathered from the 
King's speech of that day (a summary of which had been seen by the 
speaker on his way to the meeting), in which, although India was con- 
vulsed on account of the partition of Bengal, and the boycotting of British 
goods was raging fiercely, there was not one word about India. As long 
as that indifference lasted, the danger in India was very great indeed in 
spite of the very pleasant theories in which the lecturer had been indulging. 
After twenty-one years of meetings of the Indian National Congress, 
English public opinion was still as indifferent as it ever was, and under the 
circumstances what wonder was it that there was discontent in India; 
what wonder was it that they should get tired of continual blood-sucking. 
Englishmen should be alive to the gravity of the situation, and try to meet 
it because the growing poverty of the people, and the growing despair of 
any reform coming to them in the ordinary way, reforms might be made 
to come in the most frightful fashion. (Applause.) 

Mr. Martin Wood, as one of the oldest members of the Association, 
expressed himself as much pleased with the Shaikh Abdul's paper, which, 
he thought, was essentially reasonable and comprehensive in its view and 
in the best possible tone. They had seen during the last six or seven 
years in India a certain expansion of self-help and self-reliance in various 
forms which had not been so prevalent hitherto, and which he trusted 
would go on increasing. At the same time there was much still to be 
desired in that direction. Another point, the awakening of the people of 
India to their position as British citizens was a very important matter; but he 
was very sorry to have to confess that that movement had not met from this 
side with as much fair recognition as could be hoped. In contrast to the 
antagonism which of late years the governing class in India had shown to 
various reasonable political movements, he thought it was well to recall the 
encouraging aspects in former times which had been so well explained in 
the paper. The last speaker had said that the Association was opposed to 
the discussion of political subjects, but that was by no means the case. It 
depended on how these subjects were discussed ; and as far as the broad 
view taken in this paper of the relations between the Indian people and 
the ruling classes was concerned, it was entirely in accordance with the 
objects of the Association, and he expressed satisfaction that one of its 
original Indian members had done them the honour of presiding that^day. 

Mr. Yusuf Ali, i.c.s., said that he thought he might at the outset con- 
gratulate Mr. Abdul Qadir on the excellent paper he had read to the 
meeting, and on the summary and analysis of the movements at work 
which made ideas filter from the educated to the uneducated classes. 
Most of those who had observed Indian life had noticed that things were 
moving in a different direction from that in which they appeared to be 



Proceedings of the East India Association. 357 

moving on the surface. In many of the developments of popular ideas it 
bad been found that the Indian Press exercised an amount of influence on 
the people which was not suspected originally by those who only looked at 
things from a conventional point of view. While therefore he entirely 
agreed with the analysis which the lecturer had given of the causes at 
work which tended towards the elevation of the people of India, he thought 
he had been less than fair to the amount of work that had been done by 
Government in the matter of elementary education and the sympathy 
shown towards political movements. He thought he detected somewhat 
of a sneer when the lecturer asked the question : What had Government 
been doing to neglect elementary education ? He might be wrong, but his 
reading of the political history of India during the past few years was bome- 
what different. Not many years ago the Government were trying to drive 
the Indian population to take elementary education, and the people would 
not have it He did not think he was exaggerating when he said that in 
the country districts, as opposed to the towns, it was the constant efforts 
of the Government through its educational and civil officers to impart 
elementary education that were in a large measure responsible for such 
progress as had been achieved in elementary education. He did not mean 
to assert that Government agency had been the only agency for the support 
of popular education, nor that at the present moment popular education 
was looked upon wiih indifference by the people. On the contrary, 
there was a larger demand for education than coul 1 be supplied by 
existing educational institutions and authorities. It was largely a ques- 
tion of funds. If they had sufficient funds to start a large number of 
schools, they would have as many students coming to them now as there 
would be room for. At the same time he thought the efforts that had 
been made in the past to encourage education ought to be recognised, 
and while the apathy of the lower classes of the population towards 
elementary education ought to be understood and appreciated, it ought at 
the same time to be recognised that the people had generally shown a 
greater inclination for higher and secondary education. He believed in 
many instances secondary education had not received the amount of atten- 
tion it ought to have received ; but in that matter things were now moving 
somewhat differently. The claims of elementary education having been 
recognised there was a good basis created on which a higher superstructure 
of secondary and of University education could be raised. He did not 
mean to assert that one should necessarily take precedence of the other, 
though it was an arguable point, but he thought it would be perfectly 
legitimate to say that higher education and secondary education would be 
a complete failure unless elementary education had been sufficiently 
instilled into the people. 

As to the second pomt he was rather surprised to And the lecturer 
criticise the attitude of Government towards political institutions. It was 
too much to ask that Government should stoop down from its pedestal and 
say to all political movements : " Yes, you are perfectly right, and we want 
to welcome you.'' To a certain extent the Government always ought to 
welcome movements based on reasonable ideas and he believed there 



376 Proceedings of the East India Association. 

interest. If some measure could be devised by the Imperial Govemment, 
when, as happened some time ago, it had a very good surplus to dispose 
of, by which part of the immense debt of these bodies could be cleared off 
once for all, and their capacity for usefulness enhanced by being able to 
use a larger part of their ordinary income, it would be a measoie of great 
usefulness. The expenses the municipalities had to incur on works like 
waterworks were particularly entitled to a demand on the Imperial 
exchequer, because he felt that works of that character, though from one 
point of view works of local good, were from another point of view of 
Imperial good. For instance, when the plague broke out, or any other 
epidemic came on, the Imperial Government had to incur enormous 
expenditure to stamp out the epidemic. If, instead of that, works like 
waterworks and a good system of drainage were to be provided for the 
large towns in times of freedom from disease as preventive measures, aod 
the Imperial Government took a larger share of that expenditure than it did 
at present, he thought the money would be well invested. (Applause) 



Colonel C. £. Yate, owing to the lateness of the hour was not able to 
address the meeting, but has recorded what he was going to say — viz.» as 
follows : There is just one point in the able and well-worded lecture given us 
by Yusuf Ali to-day that I should like to touch upon, and that is his com- 
plaint that too little money is expended on education by the municipalides 
and District Boards of India. My time has mostly been passed out of 
British India and away from municipalities, and I am not an authority on 
District Boards, but from what I have heatlrd I should say that these Boards 
should not be urged on to spend more money upon education than they 
do at present. I have heard of District Boards who were spending 35 per 
cent of their total income on education alone, and there was not enough 
money remaining for other works that were urgently required. I should 
have thought that these Boards required rather to be cautioned against 
spending too much in this way, especially in the smaller places, where the 
children of the municipal commissioners and their friends sometimes 
form a considerable portion of the total number of children to be 
educated. 

The last speaker, Shaikh Abdul Kadir, has dwelt on the lecturer's 
remarks about the tendency of municipalities throughout India to elect 
their district officer to be their chairman, and has deprecated the custom, 
and urged that it should no longer be permitted. Surely the fact that 
municipalities do so elect their district officers shows of itself that 
they realize that they still require a trained and experienced officer to 
guide their deliberations, and to hold the scales even between opposing 
interests, and, for from urging the abolition of this custom, I should say 
that the longer it is continued, the more chance we have of municipal 
government proving the success in India that is hoped for it. As ShaUch 
Abdul Kadir himself has just said, municipal institutions are a product 
of the West that have been suddenly planted down in the East, where, 
as has been shown, the population has had no previous training in the 
working of them. 



Proceedings of the East India Association. 377 

The discussion here to-day has demonstrated the fact that barely forty 
years have passed since municipalities were first inaugurated in India, 
and what is forty years compared to the 800 years of the Lord Mayorship 
of London that our chairman has told us of? We cannot do better than 
pause and think well of the sound and able advice to go slowly and 
patiently in this matter that Sir Alfred Lyall has given us in the address 
that has been such a treat to all of us here who have been privileged 
to hear him to-day. Even after 800 years the action of municipalities in 
England is far from being free from criticism, and the longer the newly- 
formed municipalities of India have a trained administrator to guide them, 
the better for them, I should say. 

This expression of a desire for the freedom of Indian municipalities 
ixoxsk official guidance is, however, only part and parcel of the present cry 
of young Indians for a greater share in the administratioiv of India. I 
was at a lecture here in this very hall only a fortnight ago, when Shaikh 
Abdul Kadir himself gave us an excellent paper on '* Young India : its 
Hopes and Aspirations,'' which I listened to with interest. I also well 
remember the sound advice given to the young Indians then present by 
our lecturer to-day, Yusuf Ali. I was sorry to see, though, that young 
India did not relish that advice. They cried aloud for the immediate 
necessity for higher employment in the Government service in India. 
One gentleman from Bengal even went so far as to say that if this reform 
did not come to them in the ordinary way, \l would result in its coming 
in the most frightful fashion — a violent and threatening speech which, how- 
evtf safe and harmless in a London hall, only showed how ill qualified the 
speaker was to realize the true situation. I wondered at the time if any 
of the young men who then spoke had ever realized the large share in the 
administration of India that is now enjoyed by Indians. I wondered if 
they had ever taken the trouble to examine the Civil Lists of the various 
provinces in India, and to see how the numbers actually stood. Take the 
Civil Lists of the larger provinces, like Bengal, Madras, Bombay, or 
Punjab, for instance. These lists only give the names of those holding 
superior appointments under the Local Government, and do not include 
the hundreds and thousands of minor' appointments held almost exclusively 
by Indians. 

Well, in the Punjab, which is a much newer province than the others, 
supposing there are some 2,500 names in the Civil List, of these only about 
1,000 will be European names, the remaining 1,500 being purely Indian. 
This means that for every two Britishers employed in the province there 
are at least three Indians similarly employed. Now, amongst these 
Indians will be found men holding the appointments of divisional and 
sessions judges, magistrates, deputy and assistant commissioners of dis- 
tcicts, revenue settlement officers, police, postal, telegraph, railway and 
forest officers, inspectors of schools, professors of colleges, civil surgeons, 
superintendents of gaols, civil engineers, examiners of accounts, and 
officials of every branch of the Government service, in fact Thus 
eveiywbere the Indian official is to be found working side by side with 
the British official, and in larger numbers than the British, and all on 



3/8 Proceedings of the East India Associatioft. 

good paiy. £ven the clerk on loo rupees a month in India is far better off 
than the clerk on £Zo a year in England, and his education has probably 
cost hkn much less. 

I wondered, too, if the young Indian speakers had ever studied the 
difference of the employment in the Government service given by the 
Government of India and that given by other Governments. Had they 
ever realized what chance they would have of steady employment end 
good pay under such Governments as Persia or Afghanistan ^ Had they* 
ever been across the Russian frontier in Central Asia, and seen what the 
chance of employment to Asiatics was there ? Under Russian rule there 
is comparatively little Government education and little Govemmeiit 
employment in Central Asia. The Russian Pristav, who is a sort of 
district magistrate and police officer combined, has perhaps one clefiL, 
and that clerk is a Russian. Every appointment, down to the loweit 
clerkship, is held by a Russian. This is the case not only with ad*- 
ministrative officers, but the Customs, postal, railway, telegraph, police^ 
and every sort of official is a Russian. Had they ever been to Indo- 
China and seen what administration was there under the French Govern- 
ment ? I have always heard that Saigon is full of French officials, and 
the same may, I believe, be said of German, Italian, Dutch, or any other 
territory in the East. How different this is from what it is in India 1 
No other country in the world offers such a wide field for Government 
employment as the British Government in India offers to the Indians, and 
it is not only in India, but in other countries as well that this field is yearly 
widening out. It was only yesterday that a batch of some fifty Indiana 
sailed from Liverpool for employment in the Government of Southern 
Nigeria, and as British subjects Indians are thus acquiring the right to 
Government employment both in East and West Africa, and right well 
they will acquit themselves, I feel sure. No, it is not the want of em^ 
ployment that India has to complain of at present. It b the in- 
temperate clamour of young men like those I heard the other day that 
India has to complain o£ Speeches such as those only bring down con^ 
tempt and derision for the cause we have at heart Old Indian officers 
like myself, who are deeply interested in India and the Indians, and who 
would welcome any means of giving a helping hand to the hopes and aspira- 
tions of young India, have to pause and wonder where we are to find j^ilog 
Indians really qualified by strength of character, moderation of language, 
common-sense, and soundness of judgment, to hold the appointments fi>r 
which they clamour. Shaikh Abdul Kadir, I was glad to see, pointed out 
in his lecture that there was an ever-increasing number of Indians entering 
the higher grades of the public service in India, and this is as it should 
be. We desire that Indians who possess the qualifications for high 
administrative responsibility should possess that responsibility ; but, as in 
municipalities, so in the public service, the pace should not be forced. 
Let us proceed slowly and patiently, and the result in the end will be aM 
the better. 

MtL YxJsuF Ali, in replying on the discussion; said that with regard to 
the policy of the official chairman having become crystallised by praollce, 



Prociedings of the East India Association^ 379 

and not by law, in most pans of India, which Mr. Abdul Qadir had^ said 
wAs not good for. the ftiture, he thought it would leave the door open fpr 
easy transition ^t any future time, when a municipality felt itself strong 
enough to elect a chairman of a non*official character ; and, in fM:t, soqae 
of the municipalities did elect non-official gentlemen as chairmen. Another 
point made by Shaikh Abdul Qadir was that the Government of India 
ooght to' give doles and grants to the municipal funds. The Government 
of India had done that time after time, especially as regards the recent 
plague expenditure. He might be wrong in using the words '* the Govern- 
ment of India," because the ^rstem of finance was such that the Govern- ^ 
ment of India made contract grants to the local Government, and the loca^ 
Government apportioned its grant among the difierent items of expenditure, 
including subventions to the municipalities ; but the Government had cer- 
tainly nmde large grants for purposes of municipal expenditure, J^nd no 
doubt it would do so again. But it would introduce a wrong and dangerous 
principle to look Upon doles as the means to set right the equilibrium, of 
the municipal services. It would be better if municipalities tried to work 
within the limits of their own funds. 

On. the motion of Sir Lbpbl Griffin, a unanimous vote o( tbt^kawajs 
accorded to the chairman. 

The Chairman having thanked the meeting, the proceedings terminated. 



Mr. Martin Wood writes : 

In the discussion on Mr. Yusuf All's paper treating of Indian munici- 
palities, Sir George Birdwood claimed to speak as having been one of the 
original members of the first " responsible " Corporation for the *' town and 
island of Bombay." Having been myself one of that early group, as also, 
later on, a member of the first '* representative " municipality of that city, 
it was my wish to have made a few remarks, but time did not serve. These 
would have been mainly by way of filling in two or three shades in the 
lecturer's brief sketch of the Western municipal methods somewhat hastily 
pressed upon the three Presidency cities in the middle sixties ; and, later 
on, in less crude form, on two or three of the up-country large cities. 

Quite true : much good work was done in these few early years by, or 
through these improvised corporations. This could scarcely be otherwise ; 
seeing that the local Governments had much neglected their duties as 
conservators amidst the enormous communities for whose social well-being 
they were directly responsible. But no indication was given in the paper, 
and scarcely at all by the speakers who followed, of the severe strain thrown 
on the civic populations by this new and Europe sort of municipal work. 
No landed property or other permanent resources were assigned by the 
Supreme Government to assist these civic communities during the initial 
stages of their new and immense obligations. Power to '* tax themselves ** 
was given freely, and very freely was it used ; so that tax-gathering itself 
became a heavy, and often a baffling burden. The Chief Commissioners 
and Health Officers, who had to learn the methods of Western civic adminis- 
tration, were necessarily expensive; but the Central authorities thereby 
found places for these highly-paid officers at other peoples' — that is, the 



380 Proceedings of the East India Association. 

ratepayers' — heavy cost. Then the new water-supply conservancy and 
drainage works required expensive engineers and other specialists, mostly 
brought from England, the cost of whom has been ever mounting. 

These local public works were alluded to with some pride, both in the 
paper and in the discussion ; but no one has, or can compute the large sunas 
lost or wasted whilst the Civilian and Engineering authorities, as also the 
citizens themselves, were feeling after, or fumbling their way through those 
large and somewhat extravagant undertakings. Nor must it be forgotten 
that those modern methods of water-supply, drainage, and sanitation in- 
volved large loans and burdens of prolonged debt, which the municipalities 
drag after them like a log, the weight of which can only be gradually light- 
ened by the ratepayers " taxing themselves.'' 

As to methods of this civic taxation, Mr. Yusuf Ali said much about 
octroi, and seems to regard that convenient but inequitable system with the 
customary Indian toleration. But the Bombay Corporation, at its start, 
repudiated that evil fiscal device. It was only after the " inevitable " 
extravagance had broken down its finances that this pressure on the poor 
was resorted to; and it was stubbornly resisted by the wisest of Indian 
members of the Corporation, also by two or three European members. 



38i 



CORRESPONDENCE, NOTES, AND NEWS. 



AKBAR'S REVENUE SETTLEMENTS. 

Sir, 

My friend Mr. Irvine has called my attention to a 
statement of Akbar s revenues which is bound up with 
B.M. MS. Or. 1286 of Keval Ram's Tazkirat-ul-Umara, 
Rieu's Catalogue II. 876^. This MS. at p. 334^ 
gives the revenue (Jama*) in the time of Akbar Badshah, 
according to Nizamu-d-dfn's Tabaqat Akbari, as 3 arbs 
and 40 krors of Muradi Tanka, and states that this is 
equal to Rs. 170,000,000. In pounds this comes to 
;^i 7,000,000. According to this statement, then, Mr. 
Thomas was right in regarding the Muradi Tanka as equal 
to ^ of a rupee. But instead of 6 arbs, as taken by Mr. 
Thomas and given in Elliot (v. 186), it has only three. This 
is interesting, as it agrees with the India Office MS. 
No. 998, which has sihsad u chahal 340 krors. If the 
compiler of the calculations is right in regarding the Muradi 
Tanka as a Sikandari Tanka, and as equal to ^q of a rupee, 
his *' three arbs'' is probably more correct than the **six 
arts'' of the MS. relied upon by Thomas, for then the 
figures will closely agree with De Laet's statement — 
obtained from the Dutch Chief of Surat and quoted in 
Thomas's book, p. 20 — that Akbar's revenues were 3 arbs, 
49 krors of tangas, or 6 arbs 98 krors of clams. It is still 
a question, however, if the compiler was right in his view of 
the value of the Muradi Tanka. 

The statement in the B.M. MS. above mentioned 
also gives the revenue in the times of Shah Jahan and 
Aurangzeb, the former coming to about ;^2 2,cx>d,ooo, and 
the latter to about ;^34.ooo,ooo. 

H. Beveridge. 

February 12, 1906. 



382 ^* Britain's Destiny: Growth or Decay'' 



"BRITAIN'S DESTINY: GROWTH OR DECAY?" (Second Notice). 

— M. B. F. Major. 

•'INDUSTRIAL DEPRESSION : ITS CAUSE AND CufeJE."— 

Arthur Kitson. 

"NATIONAL OR INTERNATIONAL CURRENCY?"— 

Fisher Unwin. 

We all know that money, whatever form it may assume, 
is m^jsly a medium for the exchange of goods ; and as the 
free exchange of the goods of all countries has generally 
been considered the ideal state of things for profitable 
commerce, it has also been generally supposed that an 
international currency, founded on some fairly stable metal, 
is of all the most desirable. Major Phipson, however, 
challenges the claim of gold, or any intrinsically valuable 
substance, to be a suitable medium of exchange, and con- 
tends that an absolutely valueless currency, one that is free 
from all possibility of becoming international, is the best for 
us, and, I presume, for all other nations. He points out 
with compelling cogency that even now, though our currency 
is nominally of gold, yet the overwhelming majority of all 
our payments are made by means of cheques, which are 
issued in practically unlimited quantities; and that, too, 
though the amount of gold in the country at any given 
time is probably not one-tenth of the amount of our transac- 
tions. Now, it is well known also that the amount of the 
currency should be regulated to suit the volume of our 
business, and that the regulation of it should in theory 
be kept in the hands of the Government ; but with our 
system of practically unlimited banks, all issuing cheques to 
a quite indefinite amount, the Government of this country 
has, in fact, lost all control over the currency, and the banks 
literally coin money (or •' credit," which answers the same 
purpose as long as there is no catastrophe), and we have, in 
consequence, continual fluctuations in prices, which are most 
objectionable and demoralizing. As Major Phipson points 



'^Briiain^s Destiny: Growth or Decay'' 583 

out, there is only one real *' standard of value ''* in this 
country, and that is wheat (as in India it is perhaps ric^), 
and the great object of our Government should be to keep 
its pifrchasing power as steady as may be. But with gold 
as the medium of exchange it is obvious (as he also* points 
out) that it is entirely beyond the power of any Government 
to regulate the currency, because they have no means of 
procuring fresh supplies of it just as they want it, and have 
to rely on private enterprise to provide the material for the 
currency, and so, in fact, " put the monopoly ofour currency 
into the hands of a comparatively small number." — the 
bankers. When, therefore, there is a shortage 'in the 
supply of gold, or a largely-increased demand for it in other 
countries, gold is ''appreciated," and the unfortunate pro- 
ducer of our real " standard of value" — wheat — may at any 
lime have to sell a quarter of wheat for 20s. instead of 40s. 
If the price could be kept steady at about 30s., as Major 
Phipson says it might if the volume of the currency were 
carefully adjusted to the demands upon it, he would have 
very little to complain of; but obviously this could only be 
done if the Government had the complete control which 
a paper currency would give them. As, however, at least 
97 per cent, of all payments made in this country now are 
made by cheques, we have already evolved what is practi- 
cally a paper, and therefore a valueless, currency ; but the 
difference between a currency composed of unlimited 
cheques issued by private banks and a currency of cheques 
issued by Government and strictly limited to the volume of 
our transactions, each individual, moreover, being under the 
necessity of keeping strictly within his means (including, of 
course, his command of credit) is immense. The present 
system is practically one of book credits ; and when I give 
a tradesman a cheque I am merely making a debit in my 
banker's books and a credit in his, no coin passing at all. 

* This, of course, is merely a conventional expression, and only means 
that the " intrinsic value " of all commodities (if Mr. Kitson will allow us 
to use such a term) must ultimately be measured in food. 



384 ''Britain's Destiny: Growth or Decay.'' 

Nor, indeed, is there anywhere to be found in cash more 
than one-tenth of the money represented by this immense 
volume of cheques. Is this a sound system ? It certainly 
seems a very convenient one ; but, at the same time, one 
cannot help thinking that it confers upon a number of 
private bankers the privilege of issuing unlimited money 
without any real security in coin at the back of it. At the 
same time it seems to show that there is no necessity for a 
metallic currency, except, perhaps, for petty payments ; 
and if all private banks were abolished and the State 
monopolized the issue of cheques, it is obvious what a 
splendid source of revenue we should have. What effect 
such a revolutionary change would have on our present 
system of commercial gambling is quite another question, 
but it could hardly fail to reduce the volume of business, 
and perhaps, also, per contra, the number of bankruptcies 
which are largely due to the reckless spirit of gambling 
in trade so often dignified by the name of enterprise, the 
bankers to whom we trust our money for safe custody 
being at the bottom of all this commercial gambling, and 
being actually guilty of using trust money for their own 
benefit. 

It is surely a very curious thing that a serious, and 
certainly able, writer like Major Phipson should venture to 
charge the bankers of the country with systematic fraud on 
the most gigantic scale, and yet that no notice should 
be taken by anyone. One would have thought that in a 
great, commercial country like this, where trade, after all, 
depends on honesty and good faith, such a statement would 
have been met with prompt denial. ** Organized robbery," 
** embezzlement of ;^6 5 5,000,000" are strange expressions to 
apply to our highly respected and, within the limits of their 
business, no doubt honourable bankers. It certainly seems 
worth while to consider whether the position of trustee for 
all the money deposited with him for safe keeping is com- 
patible with the banker's practice of speculating with his 
client's deposits. His plea would, no doubt, be that there 



^* Industrial Depression: Its Cause and Cure." 385 

»t his clients are well aware of the 
id tacitly acquiesce in it, knowing that 
lakes use of the money he could not 
lout some charge for doing so. 
rritten long before 1 came across the 
thur Kitson quoted above, and found 
t had been treated by him in a masterly 

make no pretensions, but, curiously 
' reference to Major Phipson's works, 

somewhat different lines, though his 

the same — namely, to get at the 
tion (if, indeed, there is such a science) ; 
:se two heretical teachers of economics 
—namely, that our present system of 
e root of all evil in commerce, and that 
lined gold is the direct cause of com- 

the constantly recurring bankruptcies 
Tcial classes. Is it right or necessary 
money should give fifty men in New 
t stop every wheel on all the railways, 
all our factories, lock every switch in 
:, and shut down every coal and iron 

States ?" or that it " should %iv& its 
DOwer over a whole nation's industries," 

says it does in America ? 
ry independent thinkers agree also in 
he unjust treatment of labour is part of 
, and Mr. Kitson considers It proved 
Df the United States is largely due to 
t high wages are not due to prosperity, 
;d. " We undertake," he says, " ex- 

to Thibet and other distant lands at 
}f pounds " (and many innocent human 
te with a few barbarians, who, after all, 
', whilst here at home are thirteen 
. oeople capable of furnishing a market 
miy the means and the machinery 



386 ^'National or International Currency'' 

are provided. . . . Two-thirds of our annual production 
is distributed among less than three million persons, whilst 
some forty xnillions have to struggle along on the balance." 

There is another important point on which Mr. Kitsoo 
is substantially in agreement with Major Phipson. They 
both insist that the ** value" of money is not due to the 
metal composing it, and Mr. Kitson points out instances 
where irredeemable paper currency exchanged with gold on 
perfectly equal terms, and the reason of that is clearly 
because whatever the law decrees to be money is money ; 
so that if ''every piece oPgold in circulation were displaced 
by a paper note of nominally the same value and the gold 
annihilated, the purchasing power of money would remain 
the same/' This is remarkable testimony to the soundness 
of Major Phipson's views. 

" Money," indeed, is supposed to be " the tool of in- 
dustry," but, in fact, nowadays " industry is the slave pf 
finance." Both our authors agree that the present high 
** value " of gold is due entirely to pernicious monetary laws, 
and Mr. Kitson actually uses the same language as Major 
Phipson in describing our present coinage system as ** one 
of the greatest frauds ever perpetrated upon mankind/' 
" Money monopoly," he says, *' is a greater evil than " 
(even) "land monopoly." "Banking and the creation of 
money" should be nationalized (another echo of Major 
Phipson). '* Mr. Chamberlain talks of our antiquated 
fiscal system, but here is an institution handed down to us by 
the ' superstitious ignorance of barbarous ages' " — (Major 
Phipson again !) — " which warrants all the harsh things he 
has ever said against free imports." He tells us we have 
" never had free trade," and he is right because free trade 
does not exist. How can trade be free " when almost 
"everything connected with it is taxed, and the" (so-called) 
'* * tool of trade ' — the medium of exchange — is a legally 
" constituted monopoly ?" 

In such a complicated subject as the currency question, 



" National or International Currency.^' 387 

a concrete example is of^en more illuminating than all the 
argument in the world, and Mr. Kitsori's account of the 
procedure of a New York Railway Syndicate when it 
wanted to b^jy the shares of one of its rivals is singularly 
instructive. **A11 they did," he says **was to 'corner' a 
large supply of the currency, with the result that prices 
fell, and the shares were sold at an exceedingly low 
figure." 

Like Mr. Kitson, I have often wondered ** why " (mere) 
" banking has been allowed to grow into a highly profitable 
system for the benefit of a few professional men and share- 
holders." Clearly, as he says, ** it ought to be an essential 
branch of every industry . . . worked only for the benefit 
of trade and commerce, and not for the purpose of earning 
big dividends." ** Every penny paid by banking com- 
panies in the shape of dividends and commissions is taken 
out of the pockets of manufacturers, merchants, and wealth- 
producers generally. . . . The fact is that our present 
banking system is built upon a foundation so rotten that in 
times of trouble the stability of the banks can only be 
maintained by the depression of trade and the bankruptcy 
of thousands of commercial men." 

The simple remedy for all these evils, according to M n 
Kitson, is the repeal of those laws which have made money 
and credit a monopoly, and the creation of an instrument 
of exchange which will be equally available for all forms of 
wealth — in other words, Major Phipson s national and in- 
trinsically valueless paper currency, backed by the whole 
wealth of the State that issues it, and therefore not abso- 
lutely irredeemable, but only irredeemable in gold or any 
other precious metal, 

J. p. 

February 8, 1906. 



BB 2 



388 The Importance of Oriental Classical Studies. 
THE IMPORTANCE OF ORIENTAL CLASSICAL STUDIES. 

The Honourable Sir Lewis Tupper, V ice-Chancellor 
of the Panjab University, at the Convocation held on 
December 23 last, delivered a very useful and eloquent 
address, in which he made the following observations on 
the above subject : 

''Though I commend the acquisition at first hand of 
Western learning, I think that new aspirations should not 
induce the Panjab University to neglect or forget the 
traditions which from the very first have been associated 
with our corporate life. Every translation or text-book 
composed by a Fellow or Reader of the Panjab University 
which really aids in the diffusion of European science 
through the medium of the Vernacular languages of the 
Panjab is an honour to the University itself, tends to fulfil 
one of its prominent objects, adds to the educational 
equipment of the Province, and helps to bring the educated 
men who have not mastered English more into touch with 
their educated fellow-countrymen in India at large. These 
advantages have not been overlooked by the Senate and 
the Syndicate in the general scheme for University im- 
provement, which was framed by the Syndicate, and sub- 
mitted to Government, in consequence of the offer of the 
Government of India of an annual grant of 5 lakhs for 
University and College purposes ; for in that scheme we 
provided for an allotment of Rs. 5,000 per annum for 
rewards to authors bringing out translations, editions, and 
the like, and for the general encouragement of Vernacular 
literature. 

•* In the same scheme, too, we proposed an additional 
annual grant of upwards of Rs. 17,000 for the Oriental 
College, which, we considered, should have a whole-time 
Principal. To my mind the study of the Oriental Classics 
is a matter of greater and deeper import than the trans- 
lation of Western books into the Vernacular. The prin- 
ciples of art are universal ; their application is as various 



The Importance of Oriental Classical Studies. 389 

as the historic ages and the physical surroundings of 
man. No cultivated age, no civilized country has the 
monopoly of the beauties of art. What Greek and Latin 
are to Europe, that Persian and Arabic and Sanskrit are 
to Southern and Western Asia. A classic style means art 
in literature alike in the East and in the West. Inherited 
tastes and sympathies will make different forms of literary 
art more acceptable in diffierent Continents ; but a Univer- 
sity without the classics is a thing we need not contemplate 
in India. . It is true that in the West the rising orb of 
science looms already large above the intellectual horizon ; 
but even there the light of classical literature will not die 
out in our time ; and were it ever quenched there would be 
a loss to art — far worse if it were repeated here, because 
while French and German and English literatures may 
rank with the literatures of Greece and Rome, there is as 
yet, so far at least as my imperfect knowledge permits me 
to say, no modern Vernacular literature in India that can 
rank with Persian and Arabic and Sanskrit. 

"Apart from aesthetic reasons for Oriental classical 
studies there are reasons which I do not hesitate to call 
spiritual. There is a boundless empyrean to which the 
spirit of man is sometimes able to soar — leaving below for 
some brief space the innumerable vexations, the wearing 
anxieties, the sordid cares, the bitter griefs of everyday 
existence, and coming into touch with what is, or seems to 
him to be, infinity. If there is no monopoly in the beauties 
of art, still more is there no monopoly in the possibilities 
of spiritual exaltation. The winged passages to that 
immeasurable height are as wide as interstellar space, and 
as lofty as the universe. It is not the Christian Church 
alone that can say with deep sincerity, * Lift up your 
hearts.' So long as you find in the books of your religions 
the means of that spiritual devation for which piety is ever 
athirst, the study of those books should be recognised as 
amongst your most precious possessions. 

" The general scheme for University improvement which 



39© Brituh Central Africa P-roteciorate. 

I mentioned just now provides for .wants which have long 
been felt, but owes it$ immediate origin to the proceedings 
of the Indian Universities Commission, and to the belief 
that those Universities were to receive} generous financial 
aid from the Government of India. It is a principle of 
the scheme to emphasize the fact that we are a teaching 
institution. Grants are proposed for the Oriental and 
Law College buildings to complete the quadrangle of which 
this hall fgrms one side ; for Oriental and Law College 
boarding-houses ; for a well-equipped University library ; 
for the establishment necessary to make all these institu- 
tions effective ; for the rewards to authors ; and for public 
lectures, by which I hope w€ .may prove able to make a 
small and modest beginning of the professorial work which 
is so pre-eminent and valuable in English Universities." / 



BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA PROTECTORATE.* 

The revenue of this Protectorate for 1904- 1905 was 
approximately £(>7,SZ7*> ^^^ expenditure ^123,000. Trade 
conditions have improved due to the extension of cotton 
cultivation and the general developments in agriculture, 
which consists of coffee, cotton, chillies, rice, rubber, tea, 
fibres, afforestation. 

The general condition of Native affairs has been satis- 
factory. Native workmen are now willing to engage for 
considerable periods. A, sign of the times is the opening 
up of small retail stores. by enterprising natives in com- 
petition on a small scale with the banyan, as the local 
Indian trader is called. Markets for native produce are 
being established at Zomba and Blantyre with a fair 
amount, of success. A market building is in course of 
erection at Zomba. Education is carried on chiefly by 
missionary societies. The schools are within the reach of 
all natives who desire it. There is hardly a village in the 

"^ Report for 1904-5 presented to PaiUament, November^ i9^y 
•Na^ya. <: i ... .-. ... • i.'i • 



Uganda Protectorate, 391 

Pix)tect<fratd which canilot produce at least two or three 
scholars able to read and write, and the younger genera- 
tion now refcognise that positions of trust are easily ob- 
tained through education, bringing higher pay and greater 
comfort, and hence forming an incentive to learn. All 
the subordinate Government posts, as clerks, interpreters, 
typists, telegraphists, and mechanics, are filled by educated 
natives, as are also many posts of trust in the agencies of 
the many trading companies. Artizans are trained in the 
industrial schools attached to the missions, where car- 
pentering, printing, bookbinding, and other trades are 
taught, much to the benefit of local industries generally, 
the cost of European artizans being prohibited. There are 
thirteen native hospitals, with sixteen dispensaries, main- 
tained by the various societies. Treatment is free, but 
natives who can afford are expected to pay a small con- 
tribution. 

Various ordinances of legislation have been published, 
surveys have been made, and various roads constructed. 



UGANDA PROTECTORATE.* 

The estimated revenue for the year 1904- 1905 was 
;^42,985 ; the actual revenue was j^59,707. The estimated 
expenditure was ;^ 184,463; the actual expenditure was^ 

Uganda being an inland Protectorate, its trade really 
fonns part of the trade of East Africa, and figures in the 
•general customs returns of that Protectors^te. The imports 
by sea come exclusively from East Africa, and reach 
Uganda according to local requirements and demand 
through firms in Mombasa. Similarly, the exports are 
consigned to that port The annual value of the trade 
proper of the Proteaorate has risen from ;^62,538 in 
i902->i903 to j^i49,737 in 1904-1905 ; the exports from 

* Colonial Reports, No. 467, presented to Parliament, October; 1905. 



392 Federated Malay States. 

;^32,i79 to ;^67,375. The principal articles of import are 
beads, cement, cigars and tobacco, boots and shoes, books 
and printed matters, corrugated iron, cotton goods, firearms, 
flour, machinery, and other miscellaneous articles, also 
petroleum, rice, salt, sugar, timber, tools, wearing apparel, 
wines, spirits, and beer, wire, etc. The principal exports 
are chillies, coffee, cotton, fibres, cattle, ghee, hides and 
skins, ivory, native tools, rubber, sim-sim, and ground nuts. 

Various ordinances have been passed relating to regis- 
tration of documents, births, deaths, and marriages, 
customs, etc. 

Education is promoted chiefly by missions. Hospitals 
and dispensaries are being built, and various departments 
for administering justice are being established. Generally, 
the chiefs and people continue to advance in material and 
social well-being. 



FEDERATED MALAY STATES.* 

The High Commissioner, Sir John Anderson, reports 
that there has been continuous progress and prosperity in 
the various States. ** Not only have law and order been 
firmly established throughout the whole area, but, so far, at 
any rate, as the three Western States are concerned, they 
are better provided with roads and railways, public build* 
ings, and all the usual adjuncts of administration, and 
comforts and amenities of civilization than any of the 
Crown Colonies in the Empire. The construction and 
maintenance of roads and railways through a tropical 
country are always expensive and difficult, and the fact that 
on an average over twenty-two miles a year have been 
added to railways, and more than double that length to 
roads, entirely from revenue, shows the extraordinary 
natural wealth of the States." 

In reference to Kuantan, he says that, if the harbour, 
which is only capable at certain states of the tide for small 

* Straits Settlements Reports to Parliament, November, 1905. 



Federated Malay States. 393 

steamers, "could be improved at a reasonable cost, there 
can be no doubt that it would lead to a great development 
of the neighbouring part of Pahang, which is very rich, not 
only in minerals, but also in valuable timber. A detailed 
survey and observations of tides and currents have been 
made, and plans have been submitted for the advice of 
Messrs. Corde, Son, and Matthews." ** Two new trunk 
roads into Pahang are now being rapidly pushed forward, 
one from Kuala Lunpor, by the Ginting Pass, and the 
other from Kuala Pilah." And it is hoped ** ultimately to 
continue the latter across the Pahang River to Kuantan, 
and open up the heart of the country, which is at present 
practically unknown." ** A trial survey for a railway from 
the Sungei Gemas, where the main line crosses the Johore 
border to Kuala Kuantan, has now been made, but it is 
not proposed to proceed with the construction until the 
results of the road construction now in hand have shown 
whether the expenditure would be justifiable. A trunk 
road through what is known as the New Territory, in 
Upper Perak, has also been undertaken, and will soon be 
completed, opening up what is believed to be a good 
^ricultural as well as mining country." 

In the course of Sir John Anderson s tour through the 
States he observes : " I received numerous addresses from 
the inhabitants of all the different races, in which they ex- 
pressed their appreciation of the benefits which had been 
conferred upon the country by the British Administration." 



LIVINGSTONE COLLEGE, LEYTON, LONDON, E. 

Livingstone College was founded rather more than 
twelve years ago. Its object is to give some medical 
training to those whose mission is to go to Africa and the 
East in unhealthy climates and surroundings. Hence, a 
band of men and women thus trained have saved the lives 
of many native Europeans. The Principal, Dr. Harford, 
will be pleased to send full particulars to any who will 



394 Livingstone College, Ley ton, London, E. 

write to him at Livingstone College, Leyton, E., and to 
receive contributions for so deserving an object 

We observed in our last issue that its publication 
** Climate'' has now been incorporated with the Journal of 
Tropical Medicine, which will issue four numbers annually 
specially suited to the readers of Climate. The Principal 
is making a special offer of bound volumes of Climate at 
reduced prices. These volumes contain information con- 
cerning climate and disease in tropical and other climates, 
which cannot be obtained elsewhere, and Dr. Harford will 
be pleased to send full particulars concerning his offer to 
any who will apply to him at Livingstone College. 



395 



_ I 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES. 



i. The Jatakuy or Stories of the Buddha s former Births. 
Translated from the Pali by various hands under the 
editorship of Professor E. B, Cowell. Vol V. 
Translated by H. T. Francis, m.a., sometime Fellow of 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Cambridge 
University Press, London, 1905. 

The •* Guild of Translators" formed by the late Pro; 
fessor Cowell to render into English the edition of the 
Palijataka Book, completed in six volumes by the great 
Danish scholar, Professor V. Fausboll, are now within 
measurable distance of their goal But, as Mr. Francis 
remarks in his introduction to the volume now before us, 
Professor Cowell, who planned this literary undertaking, 
and Mr. Neil, who collaborated with Mr. Francis in the 
translation of the third volume, have been removed by death 
during the progress of the work. The sixth and last volume 
of the translation, left unfinished by Professor Cowell, is 
now in the hands of Dr. Rouse, the translator of the fourth 
volume. The series was auspicated by Mr. Chalmers, who 
undertook the first volume. While we cannot help admiring 
the energy and perseverance of these four disciples of the 
great Cambridge master, we should not leave out of sight 
the fact that Professor Rhys Davids published, in 1880. a 
version of the first forty Jatakas and the Nidanakath^ with 
a most valuable introduction and notes. 

Owing to the peculiar arrangement of the stories in the 
Jataka Book, which are classified according to the number 
^f verses that they contain, the task of the translators 
increases in difficulty as it progresses. Mr. Francis depre- 
cates too severe a criticism of his metrical versions, on the 
ground that tl>e originals are in niany cases equally ** pro- 
saic aq4. comnionplace- " His verses seem to us to be very 
.spirited considering their closeness to the originsds.. As a 



396 Reviews and Notices. 

general rule, translators of Oriental poetry consider them- 
selves privileged by the exigencies of rhyme in departing 
very widely from the text before them. This genial aberra- 
tion, no doubt, renders their versions more acceptable to 
the British public. But the system which Mr. Francis has 
followed is, in our opinion, preferable. 

The chief interest of the Jataka Book is generally sup- 
posed to lie in the fact that it is the oldest collection of folk- 
lore stories in existence, and that it gives a faithful picture 
of the manners and customs of ancient India in the centuries 
immediately preceding our era. 

It may be safely asserted that folk-lorists will find in the 
present volume many tales which will remind them of those 
found in other collections. Many parallels are pointed out 
by Mr. Francis. For instance, on p. 141 he reminds us 
that the Kusa-Jataka may be linked with the European 
variants of the tale of " Beauty and the Beast," and refers 
to the Tibetan tales of the well-known folk-lorist Professor 
Ralston, Introduction, p. xxxvii, and pp. 21-28, and Kusa- 
Jakaya, a Buddhistic legend, rendered from the Sinhalese 
into English verse by Thomas Steele. Professor Ralston 
did not fail to observe the resemblance in this story to that 
of Cupid and Psyche, in that the wife is forbidden to look 
upon her husband. One of the extraordinary feats of 
archery performed in the Sarabhanga Jataka reminds Mr. 
Francis of a feat of the archer Locksley (Robin Hood) in 
** Ivanhoe." Archers in folk-lore and legend, from the 
hero of the Asadrisa Jataka to Adam Bell, perform exploits 
which seem incredible to degenerate men of modern days. 
Numerous parallels will no doubt occur to our readers. 
There is a curious incident in the Sambhava-J§.taka, No. 
515, which has its parallels in European folk-lore. An 
enquirer is sent to a man named Vidhura, who refers him 
to his son Bhadrakara, and by him he is sent on to his 
younger brother, Sanjaya, who refers him to a still younger 
brother, Sambhava, who solves the problem. In the same 
way, in Gonzenbach's '' Sicilianische M&rchen/' p. 86, an 



Reviews and Notices, 397 

inquiring Prince is sent by one ** Einsiedler " to his brother, 
and this brother sends him to an older brother, and he again 
to a still older one» who is described as steinalt. In 
Thorpe's " Yuletide Stories," p. 158, the youth, who is in 
quest of the Beautiful Palace, East of the Sun and North of 
the Earth, is sent by an old woman to her old sister, who 
refers her to a still older sister. Other parallels might be * 
adduced from the folk-lore of Bohemia, Russia, Scandinavia, 
and Italy. The same incident is found in a later Indian 
work, the " Katha Sarit Sagara," in which will also be found 
a striking parallel to the Mah^kapi Jataka, p. 38. A man 
is hauled out of a pit by a monkey, and he tries to murder 
bis benefactor while asleep. The good monkey neverthe- 
less shows him, with due precautions against treachery, the 
way out of the wood. In the Katha Sarit Sagara a Hon 
asks a bear to throw down from a tree a sleeping prince, to 
whom he had promised protection. The bear refuses, but 
when the bear was asleep the prince made an effort to 
throw him down, but did not succeed, and was very justly 
punished with madness. This Jataka is found in the 
Northern Buddhist collection, called ** Jataka-mala," edited 
by Professor Kern. 

Of man-eating ogres there is no lack in the volume under 
notice. The most interesting, perhaps, is the cannibal 
king, described in No. 537, who had been a yakkha in a 
former birth. But in the story of the ogre, on p. 13, there 
is an incident which may perhaps remind us of the story of 
Damon and Pytheas (or Phintias) versified by Schiller. A 
king has been captured by an ogre, and though perfectly 
willing to be devoured, he is troubled by the thought of an 
unfulfilled duty. He explains the matter in the following 
stanza : 

" A promise once I to a brahmin made ; 
That promise still is due, that debt unpaid : 
The vow fulfilled, to-morrow's dawn shall see 
My honour saved, and my return to thee." 

On the King's return to his palace, the Prince obtains 
permission to take his father's place. However, the ogre. 



39^ Reviews and Notices. 

after the manner of Indian Ogres, is so much impressed by 
his courage and self-sacrifice, that he decides not to eat 
him. But the story does not end there. The » Prince dis- 
covers that the ogre is not a real ogre by Ihe following 
signs : ** The eyes of ogres are red, and do not wink ; they 
cast no shadow, and are free from all fear. This is no 
' ogre; it is a man." (It may be observed that the notion. 
that the eyes of supernatural beings do not wink, is found 
in many Indian books, and in the ** -^thiopica " of Helio- 
dorus. That such beings do not cast a shadow is also a 
fancy common to India and Europe.) Eventually the 
Prince discovers that the supposed ogre is his uncle, his 
father's elder brother, who has taken to ogreish ways, 
owing to his having been stolen and nourished by an 
ogress, and a family reconciliation takes place. Among 
other well-known Indian stories, this volume contains the 
Ummadanti-Jataka, three versions of which, all ending un- 
happily, are found in the Katha Sarit Sagara. For another 
version Mr. Francis refers us to the Jataka-M&ll. His 
knowledge of Northern and Southern Buddhism has 
enabled him to compare many cognate legends, and to 
throw light upon many Buddhist doctrines and practices, 
and also to explain many difficult expressions. Owing, no 
doubt, to the necessity' of economizing space, which weighed 
so heavily on Professor FausbSU^ he has had occasionally 
to be content with a brief reference to the works of other 
scholars. For instance, in speaking of the Chaddanta- 
Jataka he remarks, ** In the Journal Asiatique for 1895, 
torn, v., N.S., will be found a careful study by M. L. Feer, 
of the Chaddanta-Jataka, based on a comparison of five 
different versions — two Pali, one Sanskrit, one Chinese." 
Many such notes, most valuable to the specialist, will be 
found scattered through this volume. It is, perhaps, worth 
while to remark that this Jataka will be found represented 
in Cunningham's ** Stupa of Bharhut," Plate XXVI. 
Plate XLVIII. in the same volume illustrates an incident 
described on p. 92 of Mr. Francis* translation, where a king, 



Reviews and Notices. 399 

finding a gray hair on his head, determines to embrace 
jw ascetic life. This incident is a commonplace in Indian 
iiction, and is even found ia a well-known Muhammadan 
tale. 

To inquirers, who take interest in the manners and 
customs of ancient India, this volume will present many 
attractions. Jataka> No. 520, contains an account of a 
king, who, after a fashion frequently followed in India, and 
not, perhaps, altogether unknown in Europe, roams about 
incognito with his chaplain, to hear what his subjects think 
of him. As a rule, in Indian stories, such royal listeners 
hear no good of themselves^ as the Indian public in ancient 
times was wont to impute all evils to the sins of its rulers. 
Accordingly, King Paftcala, the hero of the tale above 
referred to, hears himself blamed, by an old woman because 
her two daughters have not been married ;. by an old man 
because a thorn runs into his foot ; by a milkman because 
his cow kicks him and upsets him, milk and all; and by a frog 
in a dry tank, because he and his brethren are devoured by 
crows. The way in which these misfortunes are connected 
in the story with neglect of duty on the part of the Sovereign 
is certainly very ingenious. Among customs, generally 
considered to be opposed to Buddhism, mentioned in these 
tales is that of drinking intoxicating liquors. The women 
who, under the influence of strong drink, ventured into the 
presence of the Buddha, were sternly rebuked by him, and 
it is satisfactory to find that they were immediately 
"established in the fruition of the First Path." 

The unbecoming conduct of these women leads the 
Master to give an account of the discovery of strong drink, 
which is very curious. According to him it was originally 
generated in the hollow of a tree, which was filled with 
water. ** Round about it grew two myrobalan plants and a 
pepper shrub ; and the ripe fruits from these, when they 
were cut down, fell into the hole. Not far from this tree 
was some self-sown paddy. The parrots would pluck the 
heads of rice and eat them, perched on this tree. And 



400 Reviews and Notices. 

while they were eating, the paddy and the husked rice fell 
there. So the water, fermenting through the sun's heat, 
assumed a blood-red colour. In the hot season flocks 
of birds, being thirsty, drank of it, and becoming intoxicated, 
fell down at the foot of the tree, and after sleeping awhile, 
flew away, chirping merrily. And the same thing happened 
in the case of wild dogs, monkeys, and other creatures." 
A forester observing this, imitated the birds and animals, 
and taught the bad practice to an ascetic. The next step 
was that the votaries of this new habit took to imitating 
themselves the process of nature, and manufactured intoxi- 
cating liquor largely. Eventually the King of Sivatthi 
took to the practice of drinking spirits, and though he 
himself renounced it when admonished by the god Sakka^ 
we read that "the drinking of strong drink gradually 
developed in India." It is clear that the Jataka book 
describes ancient India as it actually was, and not as, 
according to Buddhist ideas, it ought to have been. The 
practice of indulging in animal food, which the offenders in 
this tale combined with their Bacchanalian practices, and 
which appears in a somewhat repulsive form on p. 121 
in the case of a hermit, who eats the flesh of a monkey 
given to him by the inhabitants of a frontier village, may 
perhaps be excused by the example of the Buddha himself, 
whose death was, according to Professor Rhys Davids, due 
'* to a meal of rice and young pork." The above instances 
are sufficient to show that the Jataka Book gives a picture 
of many sides of Indian life in the centuries which preceded 
our era. 

The information which it furnishes with regard to the 
social organization of the Indian people in these ancient 
times has been made the subject of a special treatise by 
Dr. Pick, whose book is referred to by Mr. Francis. 

It remains to state that Mr. Francis volume is furnished 
with an ** index of subject matters/* and an ** index of 
names and Pali words," which considerably enhance its 
value. — C. H. T. 



Reviews and Notices. 401 

Cambridge University Press, Fetter Lane, 

London, E.C. 

2. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate — Mesopotamia^ 
Persiay and Central Asia, from the Moslem Conquest to 
the time of Timur (Cambridge Geographical Series), by 
G. Le Strange. This scholarly work is the sequel to the 
author's *• Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate," and the 
care and labour with which it is compiled merits all praise. 
Arabia is omitted from the present volume, though it was 
usually under the empire of the Abbasids, and the author 
hopes that some other scholar will finish his great work by 
describing the historical geography of that country, the 
African kingdoms, and the western Caliphate of Spain. 
Mr. Le Strange divides his subject into the provinces of 
'Irik, or Babylonia, of which the capital was Baghdild, 
Jazlrah which embraced Mosul, the Upper Euphrates ; 
Rfim or Asia Minor including Trebezond, Aydln, Ephesus, 
and Smyrna, AdharbAyjan, Gildn, and the North- Western 
provinces, among which were GurjistAn or Georgia and 
Armenia, Jiblll or Irllk 'Ajam, the Greek Media, Khuzistan, 
Pars, Kirmin, the Great Desert, and Makr^n, Sijistan, 
KAhistan, KCkmis, Tabaristan and Jurj4n, Khurisin. the 
Oxus, Khwilrizm, Sughd and Samarkand, to which Buk- 
hara was attached, and the Jaxartes provinces. This wide 
range is copiously illustrated with maps, and the author has 
not only contrived to digest most of what the early Moslem 
travellers have to say on the subject of the geography, 
topography, and trade routes of this enormous district, but 
! also to make his book interesting in no small degree. The 
' difficulty in doing this must have been very great, as he 
relies upon the writings of twenty-four Moslem writers of 
\ geography ranging from Ibn Khurd^dbih (a.d. 864) to 
. Abu-1-Ghazi (a.d. 1604), and gives many quotations from 
I their works, while at the same time pointing out that their 
* statements may not always have been correct on every 
point To Eastern historians this book will be very welcome 

third series. vol. XXI. cc 



\ 



402 Reviews and Notices. 

and valuable. They will find from the copious index re- 
ferences to statements on topography ready to their hand, 
and will be able easily to verify the geographer s descrip- 
tions of towns, curious scraps of local information, and sites 
of battles, from the original sources. We ourselves are glad 
to be able to say that we owe a debt of gratitude to 
Mr. Le Strange for having placed his erudite book before 
us. — A. F. S. 

Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1906. 

3. A Tamil Prose Reader, by the Rev. G. U. Pope, 
M.A., D.D., Balliol College, Oxford. This volume forms 
Part V. of the well-known Handbook, in connection with 
which it must be used, and to which it accordingly gives 
copious references. Dr. Pope does not confine himself to 
the features usual in books of the kind, and represented 
here by easy stories, classical prose, and selections from the 
Pailcha-Tanthiram for higher proficiency students. He 
devotes a whole chapter to reports and other official docu- 
ments of the class with which Indian civil servants have 
constantly to deal, and a further one to petitions and 
official correspondence, explaining as he goes along all 
that is likely to cause any difficulty, as, for instance, the 
Hindustani words clothed in Tamil garb by Mohammedan 
subordinates. He also gives specimens, accompanying 
them by the correct version, and pointing out the chief 
differences— in footnotes— of the language spoken by the 
illiterate majority, and of the misspelled and ungrammatical 
letters one often has to decipher. His reproductions of the 
latter bring into relief such things as the insertion of the 
y in yeluthi for elutki^ and the general neglect of puUi and 
punctuation, or the substitution of one form of consonant 
for another. All this is palpably of the greatest use, so far 
as it goes ; but the person not used to reading Tamil letters 
has another serious difficulty to contend with^ and it is to 
be hoped Dr. Pope will give him a helping hand here too, 
"^v means of an appendix to hts next edition. We all 



Retnews and Notices. 403 

know how hard it is to read certain handwriting in our own 
language, and it is naturally far more so when the characters 
are foreign. A few pages at the end of the book, giving 
facsimiles of Tamil letters, with the printed version under 
each word,' and any notes Dr. Pope may think necessary, 
would form an invaluable addition to an already valuable 
guide. — C. 

Catholic Mission Press, Shanghai. 

4. Giographie de r Empire de Chine {Cours Superieur), 
by Rev. L. Richard, s.j. (Hia Chi-shi). This worjc of 
600 pages ought, as was originally intended, properly to 
have been corrected and finished by Father St. Le Gall, 
whose extraordinarily accurate knowledge of the Chinese 
language and manners particularly fitted him for the task. A 
Cours Inf^riiur, being an ** extract " from, or 2i precis of, the 
excellent work now under review, has a separate existence, 
and the original idea was to provide a class-book for the 
Jesuit schools in France, or at least for French classes ; but 
it has been found necessary to recast the multifarious know- 
ledge in such a way that Chinese and other foreigners, not 
too familiar with the niceties of French literary discourse, 
may be able to utilize the book easily too. Hence specially 
great pains have been taken with the co-ordination and 
convenient arrangement of matter. Recourse has been had 
to every author, no matter what his country, his religion, or 
his irreligion {e.g., the brothers R^clus), who could throw 
light on any geographical subject, whether from a political, 
commercial, religious, or physical point of view; and, in 
fact, physical geography is the chief feature of this admir- 
able publication, which, besides its own numerous charts, 
j maps, and plans, is provided with an outside pocket, 

\ contaifiing an excellent up-to-date Chinese^French map of 

China, and a list of all the commissioned officers in the 
Empire, with their towns. Book I., with seven sections 
\ and twenty-chapters, treats of the eigliteen provinces, their 

features, means of communication, fauna, flora, population, 

cc 2 



404 Reviews and Notices. 

productions, hydrography, climate, etc. Book II., in six 
chapters, treats in the same way of Manchuria, Mongolia, 
Turkestan, Tibet, Corea, and Formosa (though this last is 
— practically these two last are — now Japanese). At the 
end of each chapter is given a list of authorities that may 
be consulted by any close student who may desire specialist 
information ; but, as a matter of fact, everything reasonably 
desired, and in any way connected with the economy of the 
Chinese State, may be found in this single volume itself, so 
far at least as ** outsiders" are concerned. Anyone who 
desires to write on Chinese subjects may now safely steer 
himself clear of ridiculous error, if he will only consult 
Pere Richard's handy little volume, which (a most unusual 
and welcome thing in French books) is, moreover, provided 
with a very complete index. — E. H. Parker. 



T. AND T. Clark; 38, George Street, Edinburgh, 

1905. 

5. The Philosophy of the Upanishads^ Paul Deussen, 
PH.D., Professor of Philosophy in the University of Kiel. 
Authorized Engli:>h translation by Rev. A. S. Geden. m.a., 
tutor in Old-Testament languages, and literature, and 
classics, Wesleyan College, Richmond. The best exposition 
of the Upanishads that has hitherto appeared in the English 
language was published by Trlibner more than a quarter of 
a century ago, and it is now in more respects than one out-of- 
date. At the present moment no adequate exposition of 
their philosophy and contents is extant in our language. 
The present translation of the German exposition is 
described on the title-page as ** authorized," because it is 
put forth with the sanction of Dr. Deussen. Besides a 
very elaborate table of contents at the beginning of the 
volume, there is at the end an index of names and matters, 
followed by a very full index of every reference made in 
the course of the work to the Sanskrit original — all this in 
addition to countless and minute notes and references at 



Reviews and Notices. 405 

the foot of the pages throughout the volume. Altogether, 
the mechanical structure of the work and the arrangement 
of the subject-matter are such as to meet the requirements 
of the industrious and researchful student. 

The study of the systems thought out by the ancient 
Indian sages has a humbling lesson for us all in these en* 
lightened days. The more these systems are known, the 
more is the thought borne in upon us that ** that there is 
nothing new under the sun " — that there is no philosophy 
evolved from the minds of modern men which was not also 
evolved from the minds of those quiet, gentle-spiritec), and 
devout ascetics who wandered about in the umbrageous 
jungles and forests of Asia in unknown ages in the past. 
Nor is there anything of a worldly, work-a-day, wage- 
earning nature in their thinkings. They had no passion for 
personal ease or aggrandizement, no desire for fame or 
notoriety ; no lust of wealth. They, as nearly as possible, 
practised the thing they preached — unearthliness, detach- 
ment, other- worldliness. In all that is essentially charac- 
teristic of an original philosopher, the men whose excogita- 
tions are enshrined in the Vedas and the Upanishads left 
us an example which we may admire — at a distance — but 
to which, by the very conditions of our modern existence, 
we may not hope to attain. In the more than 400 pages 
of this admirably-printed octavo volume, there will be found 
abundant material for profitable and stimulating thought, as 
well for the general inquirer as for the more technical 
student of the wisdom of the ancient Aryans. — B. 



H ODDER AND Stoughton ; Paternoster Row, 

London. 

\ 6. With the Abyssnians in Somaliland, by Major J. 

WillesJennings,d.s.o.,r.a.m.c., and Christopher Addison, 

■ M.D., with a preface by Colonel A. N. Rochfort, c.b. In 

1902-1903 Brigadier-General H. W. Manning commanded an 
expedition in Somaliland against the ** Mad Mullah," whose 



4o6 Reviews and NoticeSi 

Jehad was causing trouble not only to the Abyssiniians but 
to the British Protectorate, and associated with his forces 
were 5,000 Abyssinians provided by the Emperor Meneh'k 
under the command of Fituarari Gabri, along with Colonel 
A. N. Rochfort. Though these made some' headway 
they were not able to bring the redoubtable Mullah to 
terms, and larger operations were planned iii 1903- 1904 
under Lieutenant-General Sir C. C. Eg^rton. Colonel 
Rochfort was now provided with a small staff, and two 
British medical officers, of whom Major Jennings was one, 
were sent out at the request of the Emperor Menelik. 
This well-illustrated book, which was obviously written on 
the march, and has been arranged for publication by Dr. 
Addison, deals with Major Jennings's experiences, and is a 
pleasant narrative of travel from Aden into Somaliland 
with the Abyssinian force. There is a description of 
Djibouti, the European part of which is ♦'a clean smart 
little town," and thence the expedition proceeded inland, 
meeting Ras Mukunnan at Harrar, a town of which it is 
said "inside the walls it is a rookery," with streets likei 
" Scotch burns run dry," which was conquered with the 
Galla country by Abyssinia in 1887. There is an interest- 
ing account of the country round Harrar and the fauna it 
contained, amongst which are the notable, if objectionable, 
*• stink ants." Mr. Wakeman joined the party at Jigjiga, 
and the writer expresses deep indebtedness td him for much 
information about the Abyssinians, gleaned through his 
knowledge of Amharic and Arabic. Thie S6malis, the 
author thinks, contrast in many respects favourably with 
the Abyssinians ; they are cleaner, and, as Mohammedans, 
teetotallers. We are given interesting chapters upon the 
Abyssinian customs. The soldiers are praised for their 
endurance, and there is a curioUi account of their l^ashai, 
or thief-catcher. ' • . : . . - 

Though the Abyssinians proffesChristianity, the marriage- 
tie is said to be slight;- ceremonial or sacram^ntlal marriage 
is rare, and can be dissolved only by tKe Aboima, while 



Reviews and Notices. 4&j 

concubinage is prevalent. Circumcision precedes baptism^ 
which shows an interesting relic of the pre-Christian religion. 
We do not know what to make of the authors remarksj 
•'Attendance at church is very regular; but most persons 
appear to go either as a matter of course, or because it is 
the fashion. There can hardly be said, however, to be 
much worship," as the custom for similar reasons is some^ 
times, perhaps, known nearer home. More interesting is 
his account of the Abyssinia fasts, feasts, and medical 
practices, and his remarks on the Somalis and the outcast 
tribe of the Midgans. Accounts of Shikar^ illustrated by 
photographs, also occur in the narrative, and these will-, 
with the notes of flora and fauna throughout the book, be 
of great interest to sportsmen and naturalists. — A. F. S. 



Longman and Co.; 39, Paternoster Row, E.C., 1905. 

7. — Shinto: the Way of the Gods, by W. G. Aston^ 
C.M.G., d.lit. This is a concise and thorough treatise on 
the oldest religious system of Japan. It would be hard to 
mention any item in reference to Shintoism that has been 
overlooked. The 377 pages are devoted to minute investi- 
gation of the subject, while the clear and careful method 
in which the information is imparted stamps this, like all 
Mr* Astqn's preceding works, with a value ihat is indis- 
putable. ... 

**The Way of the Gods" is an analytical glossary of the 
Kami cult».with its hierarchy of gods and goddesses, whose 
origin is wonderfully diversified, from the hero who ha$ 
ioduenced. national events, to the animal life that plagiie» 
humanity ; from the storm-god to the deity who presides 
aver purity of wells, or the safety of gate-posts. This 
Kami cult existed before the oldest available book wanir 
iKimteh in Japan. It swayed the hearts of .the pwpW frpm 
timet tmmemoriai» and drew them with a force gentle bUA 
i(esistles3« Its dogmas have^beea received thrpughoiit thci 
length oC the: Empireu . One geaetation after anojt^r^l^s^ 



4o8 Reviews and Notices, 

led lives of discipline and self-renunciation by means of its 
slender tenure. Events of history, particularly since the 
last conflict, have brought to our notice this dreamy, shadowy 
creed, with its ceremonials full of strange impressiveness, 
so diverse in their fulfilment to any other ritual. The 
author describes weird rites that are participated in, both 
during the lifetime of mortals as well as at their burial, and 
explains the progressive theory by means of which men attaia 
the rank of deified ancestors, to be remembered before the 
family shrine or the wayside cemetery. ** Pure " Shinto 
may remain for a time, but there is a tendency for it to 
wane before the more florid faith of Buddhism, or the unrest 
of the soul seeking comfort from new and untried sources 
altogether. 

Mr. Aston's work will be found sufficiently satisfying to 
the student bent on investigating the subject from a strictly 
scientific standpoint, while the dogmas are too startling to 
be entirely passed over by the novice should curiosity lead 
to a chance acquaintance. This book provides a mine of 
knowledgeand a fund of explanatory research conscientiously 
entered upon and discussed. — S. 



LuzAC AND Co. ; Great Russell Street, London, 1905. 

8. PaYt I. of the Tadhkiratu 'L-Awliyd {'' Metnoirs 0/ 
the Saints'*) of Muhammad ibn Ibrdhim Faridu DDin 
'Attdr, edited in the original Persian, with preface, in- 
dices, and variants, by Reynold A. Nicholson, m.a.. 
Lecturer in Persian in the University of Cambridge ; with a 
■critical introduction by MfRzA Muhammad B. *Abdu 
'L-WahhAb-i QAZwiNf. This well-printed volume forms a 
part of vol. iii. of the Persian Historical Texts. ** It is the 
oldest work of the kind in Persian, and that, although 
deficient in dates and biographical details of any sort, it con- 
tains a large amount of material which is not to be found in 
the later biographies, or, so far as I know (says the editor) 
anywhere else. Its value as a source for the history of 



•I 



Rsmews and Notices. 409 

Sufiism can hardly be over-estimated. Compared with 
Jimfs ' Nafahdtu X-Uns' it has this immense advantage, 
that its articles, being much fewer in number, are far more 
exhaustive ; where J4mf gives only a rapid sketch 'AttAr 
draws a full-length picture," The work is ** an excellent 
example of early Persian prose, plain, terse, and dignified." 
Six manuscripts have been used in preparing this volume. 
These manuscripts are described in detail, and very valu- 
able variants are noted. There is also a short, but very 
interesting notice of the author, and the motives which led 
him to compile his " Memoirs of the Saints." 



Macmillan and Co. ; New York and London. 

9. Colonial Administration, by Paul S. Reinsch, 
Professor of Political Science in the University of Wiscon- 
sin. This volume forms part of "The Citizen's Library 
of Economics, Politics, and Sociology,' edited by R. T. 
Ely, PH.D., LL.D., Professor of Political Economy in the 
same University. It contains a comparative study of the 
methods of colonial administration by the Government of 
various countries, with the view of solving problems which 
Colonial Governments have to face, in alien countries. A 
part of the first chapter was read by the author at the 
International Congress of Arts and Sciences at St. Louis, 
and a part of the second chapter was published in the 
American Journal of Sciology. There is a valuable and 
discriminating introduction on general principles by which 
\ Golonial Governments ought to be guided in the numerous 
I diversities of native populations, their habits and customs. 
The chief topics discussed are — education and general social 
improvements, finance, currency, banking and credit, com- 
merce, communication, agriculture and other industries ; 
questions arising from land and labour, and defence and 
police. Each chapter on all these important subjects con- 
tains references to official publications, treaties;and articles. 
There is an excellent index. The author concludes that 



410 Reviews and Notices. 

**it will be wise for the Colonial legislator not to attempt 
too much, not to have too ambitious a programme. But if 
rightly planned, the economic reforms which it is in his 
power to effect with success may, like the massive archi- 
tecture of a cathedral crypt, in time upbear an edifice which 
will an&wer larger purposes than those of mere economic 
welfare and progress." i 

ID. The Reshaping of the Far East, by B. L. Putnam 
Weale, 2 vols. In two sumptuous volumes, profusely 
illustrated, the author of ** Manchu and Muscovite" pro- 
ceeds to give us his somewhat dogmatic opinion of the 
political position in the Far East before June, 1905. After 
a historical prologue upon the march of recent events 
in China and Japan, he describes in very graphic language 
his travels up the Yangtze to Hankow, and then to Peking. 
His observations of the country he saw are always trenchant, 
and his descriptions of the scenery and geography happy. 
A good chapter on ** Trunk Railways as Political Weapons *' 
shows the haste, jobbery, and inefficiency of the railway 
syndicates. The writer is particularly severe upon the 
Belgians controlling the Hankow- Peking line, who are 
themselves, owing to their constitution, entirely in the 
hands of the natives. Yet, nevertheless, he prophesies 
a great future for railways in a populous country like 
China. Peking ** under the foreign heel " is next con- 
sidered, and we are shown how the Chinese have cause to 
detest the garrisons and fortifications of the Legation$, 
which have been held to be necessary since 190a ** The 
Legations," says the author, ''watch the Chinese Govern- 
ment, and so does Dr. Morrison watch the Legations, 
which is the finest thing of all." And it is stated that his 
word is st411 more powerful than that of the British .Minister*. 
It is insisted, however, that China, in spite of the Manchu 
rule, is arming to, and for, some purpose. The Customs 
Service is well described, and the career of Sir Robert 
Hart, which has included great financial and diplomatic 
uccesse^ during the fifty-one years which it has occupied, 



Reviews and Notices. 411 

is narrated. The position of the great Viceroy, Yuan Shih- 
Kai, comes'next under review, and it is stated that, in spite 
of all temptations, he is *' pro-Chinese and pro-nothing else " 
in his sympathies. We are told of the great expenditure 
and partial success of the German settlement in Kiaochow, 
and the author prophesies that in a few years another naval 
base near Swatow will be demanded by the Germans, who 
then, linked by their railways, will be able to rule a large 
portion of Northern, Central, and Southern China ; and 
their push and energy in Shantung, which has had a certain 
amount of success, is described at length by him. There is 
a bombastic account of Japan in war-time which we could 
have spared, but it is followed by a good chapter upon the 
causes which led to the Russo-Japanese War. We are told 
later of the success of the Anglo- Japanese Alliance, though 
it is carefully pointed out that, owing to possible extensions 
and complications, this may be only temporary, and that it 
has alienated Britain from the rest of the European nations 
in the East. A large part of the later portion of the book 
deals with Korea. It is rightly indicated that the West 
forgets that Japanese influence there is no new thing by 
any means, having begun— or, at least, become prominent 
—under the Empress Jingo, and a clever sketch is given of 
the way Russian " interests " were created. The career of 
Mr. McLeavy Brown of the Korean Customs is told, and it 
is shown that the chief interests (during the war) in Korea, 
ontside the Russian and Japanese spheres, were those of 
America and Britain. The work of the American Mission 
Schools is duly praised, and there are many well-written 
accounts of the great war, and also of its great mistakes, 
upon wTiich the author, like most war correspondents, waxes 
eloquent. Ciiapters full of interest follow upon the rising 
Chines^ Press, and upon American Relations, The difficult 
qitestions of Chinese Religion, The Schemes of the French 
attd Belgians, '^ciiid sbme dogmatic conclusions and sugges- 
tions, with vialiialJle appendices of documents. We have 

j rtad th'is book with pleasure, but we cannot promise that 

I 

I 



4 ! 2 Reviews and Notices. 

its success will be as great as the writer's first work, or 
that, like it (as the author claims), every word will be 
" verified by the march of events," though we hope they 
may. — A. F. S. 

George Newnes, Limited, London. 

II. The Chinese at Home, by ]£mile Bard. Adapted 
from the French by H. Twitchell. This is a nicely 
printed and tastefully got up book of the ** red-fish which 
walks backwards " type — that is, it conveys a not inaccurate 
general idea to the average reader who knows nothing exact 
or first-hand about China, but is quite worthless for pur- 
poses of scientific or careful study. ** Adapted " is a good 
word, for there is not the faintest trace of translation or 
Gallicism throughout ; possibly it has been ** adapted " out 
of all recognition. The photographs are excellent, and all 
of them present scenes quite famih'ar to the writer of these 
lines, who, in fact, actually lived for one month in the notde 
temple facing p. 240. Having paid the book these frank 
compliments, we feel bound to add that it is full (almo^ 
from the very first word {/atte, for fatto twice over) of 
mis3pellings, misprints, and, what is infinitely worse, of 
gross misstatements. For instance, p. vi, ** Abb6 Hue 
wrote in 1862, etc." He died in i860, and wrote the 
words mentioned about 1850. ** Prostrations which the 
missionaries have never refused (!) to perform " (p. 3). On 
P- 2>2iy ** many farmers are engaged in sheep-raising"; in 
few parts of China known to traders will sheep live at all ; 
foreigners who want mutton to eat have to get live sheep 
from Calcutta, or mutton in a frozen state from Mongolia. 
** Sons wear mourning for her [the mother] for three montAs'* 
(should be " years," p. 41). '* King of the city of Ten-yen 
. . . under Emperor Ten-tsung, who died in 783," for 
** Prince of Ffin-y^ng . . . under Emperor T6h-tsung, 
who abdicated in 805 " (pp. 70, 71). On p. 84 the massacre 
of Tientsin is put down to the year 1878 instead of (as 
correctly on p. 122) 1870, and it is totally untrue that **at 



Reviews and Notices. 413 

that time the French had enough troops in the province to 

reduce the city to ashes'*; they had not a single soldier 

in all China« Nor (same page) had the Boxer rebellion 

of 1900 "been brewing for a century," or, if it had, then it 

had brewed for fifty centuries. The Emperor Kwang-sU 

(p. no) is the cousin, not the nephew, of his predecessor. 

A •* record " sentence, indeed, on p. 125 : ** It was begun in 

1100 A.D. by the famous Ho Ti of the Tsin dynasty, whose 

victorious troops penetrated as far as Judea, under the 

leadership of the great general Pan-Chao." It was before 

100 A. D.; Han dynasty (nearly 200 years before the Tsin 

dynasty) ; Pan-Ch'ao never got beyond the Cabul region ; 

%o Chinese soldier ever at any time reached Judea; and Pan- 

Ch*ao*s messenger was afraid lo go beyond the Euphrates! 

After all, what are 1,000 years in the history of China ."^ 

The four chapters on ** Money," ** Merchants," *' Products/' 

" Foreign Treaties " are not at all bad, but the " Outline 

of Nation's History" is ludicrous in the extreme; for 

instance (p. 233), ** Chinese annals mention the invasion of 

India by Sesostris in 1627 B.C." ** Beyond 1005 B.C. (p. 235) 

horses were unknown in China." ** Tsin-chi-hoang-ti, King 

of Tsin, founded the Tsin dynasty in 247 B.C." (p. 237) ; 

the title Shi Hwang-ti was not assumed until 221 B.C., 

nor was the imperial dynasty of Ts'in founded until then. 

The Sung capital (p. 246) was at Hangchow, not at 

Nanking ; and the last Emperor did not ** take refuge at 

Hankow," but surrendered to General Bayen at Hangchow, 

— 1,000 miles away. The Emperor Hung-wu (1394) never 

had missionaries (p. 253) at court, and none came to China 

until about 200 years after that. If the Emperor K'ien- 

lung (p. 263) wrote 33,950 poems (jiic) during his sixty 

years reign, he must have written about two a day, year 

in, year out. Consul Parkes was not (p. 273) put to death 

in 1859, but died in 1885 whilst Minister at Peking. Baron 

von Kettler (p. 286) was German Minister, not Consul. 

The Dowser-Empress' father was not exactly a Manchu 

nobleman (p. 290), but a Manchu taotai Xi2sn^ Hweich^ng, 



1 



414 Reviews and Notices. 

ennobled third-class '*duke" after his deathi It is absurd 
to suggest (p. 293) that she murdered her own natural son. 
who notoriously died of small*pox (as, indeed, is already 
stated on p. 280 !). It would, in short, be excellent practice 
for beginners in Chinese to utilize Mr. Twitchells book 
(for it is diflficult to believe that M. Bard in his original 
work can have made all these foolish blunders) as a sort of 
literary ** Aunt Sally," each one trying how many " howlers " 
he can bowl over in a single chapter. — E. H. Parker. 



North China Herald Office; Shanghai. 

12. The East of Asia Magazine y vol. iv., Nos. 2 and 3. 
This quarterly magazine keeps up its standard of informa- 
tion and illustration. The plan of * providing its readers 
with a wide range of subjects connected with the East is 
faithfully carried out. Fairy world stories, poems, descrip- 
tions of out-of-the-way but important corners of the Eastern 
Empires, together with papers and translations of deep 
political interest, supply a choice of reading for all sub- 
scribers. We recommend to those who are interested in 
the development of the Eastern question a translation of 
special significance entitled The Yellow Peril. This con- 
tribution throws much livid light upon the impetus that is 
moving the kingdom of the Dragon, at length awakened 
from long sleep by the success and activity of its island 
neighbours. No. 4 of this volume, lately received, is par- 
ticularly interesting. Included in the contents are several 
articles on Japanese subjects. The Fire Ordeal, by Mr. 
Pfoundes, and The Soul of Nippon, by George T. Murray, 
are both to be commended to the reader ; and Bridges of 
Western China is charmingly illustrated. — S. 



G. ^. Putnam's Sons; New York and London^ 1905. 

13. Bnshido — tJu Soul of Japan : An Exposition of 
Japanese Thought, by Inazo Nitob6, a.m., ph.d.^ with an 
Introduction by W. E. Griffis* Tenth i revised and en- 



\ 



Reviews and Notices. 415 

larged edition. How shall this book be dealt with ? How 
shall such a sensitive theme as that embodied within its 
pages be analyzed to the leveKof ordinary criticism ? It is 
redolent with the fragrance of the cherry bloom, whose 
breath symbolizes the daring deeds of the Samurai, and the 
loyal intents of all true Japanese citizens. The author tells 
us : •' What Japan was, she owed to the Samurai ; they were 
not only the flower of the nation, but its root as well. All 
the gracious gifts of Heaven flowed through them." The 
moral standard of the fighting strength was high, whether 
actuated from motives of Shinto or Buddhist influence. 
Rectitude, benevolence, self-control, and other virtues were 
to be practised by all who took up arms in fair fight " In- 
tellectual and moral Japan was directly or indirectly the 
work of knighthood." 

We could quote many lines from Mr. Nitob^'s book, but 
it should be read as a whole to be fully comprehended and 
appreciated. The chapters follow well in sequence, and 
lead the reader on by means of a secret will-power the 
author exercises throughout his clear and subtle arguments. 

" Bushido," with its code of moral principles ** unuttered " 
and "unwritten," became **a law written on the fleshly 
tablets of the heart." It supplied to the Oriental of the 
Far East what the spiritual stay of Christianity afforded to 
the Occidental. By mere remembrance of the duties 
expected of this knightly band, tyrants became as slaves 
before their own conscience, while hours of temptation were 
fought out and left unsullied, in the lives of the strongest 
natures by aid of its precepts. The tenets of "Bushido" 
influenced all who willingly embraced the teaching, and 
strengthened each heart bent on overcoming foes seen or 
invisible. It brought men out of the scorch and flame 
of passion and resentment, tyranny and self-seeking, free as 
a sea-bird uninjured by the rolling waves of a tempestuous 
ocean, over which the pathway was inevitably marked. 

That Mr. Inazo Nitob^'s book has found a home within 
countries beyond the land of its birth is not surprising, or 



41 6 Reviews and Notices. 

that it has run through many '' impressions " in English. 
Perhaps of all the books concerning Japan (which may now 
be counted by hundreds) this is the first that affords us an 
insight into the secret mind and character of our Eastern 
allies. The race is hard to understand — to enjoy a deep 
friendship after years of comradeship with these Orientals 
is a rare privilege. This, however, is made more possible 
after a study of the work of this thoughtful and well-read 
author. The tenor of his arguments shows a mind unbiassed. 
He seeks out and admits good, in the creeds and deeds of 
others. He excels in this particular with a masterly mind, 
above all bounds existent in the earlier days of the world's 
history. 

Mr. Nitob6*s ** Bushido '* will do more to rivet the East 
to the West than the signing of bonds for the balancing of 
the world's power, for all that brings the nations of the 
extremes of the earth to a better understanding of each 
other, is the surest aid towards true peace and universal 
brotherhood. — S. 

. Bernard Quaritch ; 15, Piccadilly, London, 1905. 

14. The Bdbar-ndma, edited by Annexe S. Beveridge. 
The present volume contains, in the Turki language and 
character, the history of the founder of the Mughal dynasty 
in India, and is Vol. I. of the series printed for the trustees 
of the Gibbs Memorial, and published under their auspices. 
Its designation, signifying **The Memoirs of Bdbar," is 
but one of the several designations under which these 
memoirs are known. The volume consists of the autobio- 
graphy of the Emperor. Originally written in Choughatiy 
Turkish, it is here reproduced in facsimile from a MS. 
which belonged to the late Sir Sdldr Jang, of Hydarabid, 
and is edited, with a preface and indexes, by the lady above* 
named. The owners of the MS. are members of the 
family of that distinguished statesman, and it is for this 
good and sufficient reason that it is to pass into history as 
** The Hydardbdd Codex." Although the Bdbar-ndma is 



Reviews and Notices, 417 

an autobiography, it is by no means exclusively autobio- 
graphical : it contains much general information relating to 
matters which interested its original compiler. Nor is it a 
continuous or uniform narrative, it being broken by means 
of lacuna, and clean cut into two sections by change of 
style. How enthusiastically Mrs. Beveridge has taken up 
with the study of the career of the great Emperor is seen 
in the exceedingly erudite articles which appeared from her 
pen in ikie^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for October, 
1905 and January, 1906, and not less in the handsome 
facsimile now before us of the original Turki manuscript 
The MS. as here printed consists of 382 pages ; the indices 
(which are very complete and detailed) occupy 105 pages. 
The whole is prefixed by a preface containing much in- 
teresting information concerning the inception of the enter- 
prise and concerning its merits. — B. 



George Routledge amd Sons, Ltd . London ; E. P. 
DuTTON AND Co., New York ; 1905. 

15. Judah HalMvi's Kitdb al Kazari, translated from the 
Arabic, with an Introduction, by Hartwig Hirsch- 
FELD, PH.D. Originally written in Arabic, this work has 
been translated into Hebrew, Latin, German, Spanish, and 
English. The present work was also many years ago 
rendered by Dr. Hirschfeld into German, in which language 
many editions of his translation have appeared. Nor does 
it appear in English now for the first time. An English 
rendering of it was produced by Mr. E. H. Lindo, which, 
however, has never yet been published —the MS. of that 
translation is now in the library of the Jews* College. The 
work is written in the dialogue form, and consists of argu- 
ments, with question and answer, carried on between the 
King of the Kazars and a Jewish Rabbi. The work is full 
of Hebrew learning, Jewish theology, and Rabbinical tradi- 
tions. In these respects it calls to mind the work of 
Maimonides reviewed in these pages a year ago. It is, 

THIRD series. VOL. XXI. DD 



4 1 8 Reviews and Notices. 

indeed, fitted, even in these advanced days, to be helpful 
in a very high degree to the student of Old-Testament 
religion. It is very thoughtful and very intelligent, and, 
withal, very learned. The notes and references, instead of 
being entered at the foot of the page, are brought together 
at the end of the work in a section of annotations, and 
these, together with the index of matters, the index of 
Scripture passages quoted, and the dialogues, make up a 
handy duodecimo volume of 313 pages. To anyone en- 
dowed with an inquiring mind, and a penchant for Jewish 
theology and Old-Testament information, this book should 
be interesting and useful. The conversion to Judaism of 
the Kazar people and their King is a historical fact. We 
feel it to be impossible to commend the little volume too 
highly. In these days, when every thoughtful person 
would examine for himself the reasons and the foundations 
of religious belief, it should have a wide circulation. — B. 



RiKKYo Gakuin Press, Tokyo. Also E. Leroux, Paris ; 
schepens and co., brussels ; noessler and co., 

Bremen. 

16. Dictionnaire Franfais-Japonais , by iht Abb£ Ragnet 
of the Missions Etrangeres in Japan, assisted by Ono Tota. 
We regret to find that England has not been favoured with 
the nomination of a publisher of this excellent work. As 
everyone knows. Englishmen have always taken the first 
place in Japanese literature, as the magnificent historical, 
philological, and religious studies of Aston, Satow, and 
Chamberlain amply bear witness ; not to mention the 
labours of Brinkley, Imbrie, Hall, Longford, and others. 
But (as is the case also, by the way, with English-Chinese) 
the practical British mind has hitherto comparatively neg- 
lected the Anglo-Japanese department, which one would 
have thought was the most eagerly desired by the English 
student anxious to acquaint himself at once with colloquial 
Japanese. Thus, although we have long had with us 



Reviews and Notices. 4119 

Hepburn's Japanese-English dictionary, hitherto the best 
English-Japanese has been Hampden and Poulett's (based 
on Satow and Isibashi's) ; but Abb^ Ragnet's great work 
of 1 ,000 pages contains thrice the amount of matter, besides 
being printed in the neatest and clearest possible way. The 
French head-words are all set forth in bold thick type ; the 
Japanese romanizations {i.e., the sounds of the pure Japanese 
or Sino-Japanese words acttmlly accepted as equivalents up 
to the present date by the Japanese themselves ; not merely 
invented translations or paraphrases) are printed in italics ; 
and the unromanized forms or characters are presented 
almost exclusively in pure Chinese, to the exclusion of the 
unscientific and irregular Japanese katakana and hiragana. 
To put it in another way, there are about 60,000 leading 
French words, 300,000 idiomatic illustration renderings, 
and 120,000 Chinese characters to do duty concurrently 
with the romanizations, whether those romanizations repre- 
sent pure Japanese ideas and words, such as akari; pure 
Chinese ideas and words, such as skokubuisu; mixed Chinese 
and Japanese words, such as sen-ya ; or possibly ancient 
Chinese words which may have become Japanese in pre- 
historical times, such as iki. In the very fe^ cases in 
which the Japanese termination syllables are added, the 
object aimed at is not apparent, unless it be that the 
Japanese in such exceptional cases habitually decline to 
use the Chinese ideograph without the ** superfetation." 

The thanks of the literary world are due to M. Paul 
Doumer, formerly Governor-General of French Indo-China, 
for his good sense, public spirit, and liberality in granting 
from the colonial treasury a handsome subsidy in aid of the 
splendid enterprise of the Missions Etrangeres Society, and 
acknowledgment is also due to the Belgian Government 
(M. Ragnet is a Belgian) for adding a subsidy of their 
own, besides conferring their distinguished patronage. The 
learned Abbe has had the happy thought of prefacing his 
dictionary with a concise and extremely useful abridged 
grammar ; so that, armed with this one single work, the 

DD 2 



420 Reviews and Notices. 

student can tackle with his combined dictionary and 
grammar the whole subject of Japanese — of course with 
his native teacher — until such time as he is fit to sit at the 
feet of Aston, Chamberlain, and Satow, whose grammatical 
works are, naturally, of a more searching nature, as, indeed, 
becomes publications exclusively devoted to a particular 
field of knowledge in detail. Most Russians and Dutchmen 
of education are as familiar with French as with their own 
tongue, and to them in especial the Abb6 Ragnet's work 
will have a special value ; for, as everyone knows, the 
Dutch language was for long the only European tongue 
studied by the Japanese, and even a generation ago the 
first batches of English student-interpreters and consuls 
found it their interest to be proficient in Dutch. With the 
French themselves it is much a case of sic vos non vobis, for 
there are so few of them in Japan. It is greatly to the 
credit of the disinterested and self-sacrificing Missions 
Etrang^res that to them we owe also the best Corean 
dictionary and grammar. Altogether the Dictionnaire 
Franpais-Japonais is an excellent production, full of inex- 
haustible interest to the Far-Eastern student, whether his 
speciality be Chinese or Japanese ; it merits a rapid, in- 
creasing, and permanent sale. — E. H. Parker. 



Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Madras: 
AND SiMPKiN, Marshall and Co., London. 

17. A Progressive Grammar of the Telugu Language, 
with Copious Examples and Exercises, by the Rev. A. H. 
Arden, M.A.. Second edition, 1905. The author in com- 
posing this excellent grammar has followed a most useful 
course. He has so arranged the exercises and examples 
as to enable the English student to master it with ease 
and rapidity. The early portions of the book will be 
found specially suited for beginners, as they are based 
upon papers which were drawn up by himself when he 
commenced the study of Telugu. Throughout the book 



Reznews and Notices. 421 

the student is led. step by step, to obtain such information 
only as is positively required at the stage at which he 
has arrived ; hence its progressive character which will 
greatly accelerate the acquisition of the language. The 
type is large, and a considerable portion of the book is 
taken up with examples and exercises all of which have 
been supplied by natives and are consequently thoroughly 
idiomatic and colloquial. The colloquial and grammatical 
dialect is kept quite distinct. Having acquired the 
colloquial dialect, the student can then with ease acquire 
a knowledge of the grammatical dialect The author has 
therefore divided his grammar into three parts. In the 
first part there is an interesting statement as to the 
language itself, and how it should be studied. The 
alphabet is then explained, followed by a chapter showing 
the alphabet fully, together with some exercises in reading. 
The second part contains a complete grammar of the 
colloquial dialect, and the third part forms an introduction 
to the grammatical dialect used in books. In every way 
the structure of the volume is admirable and gives as little 
trouble as possible for the acquisition, not only colloquially, 
but grammatically, as it appears in books. Mr. Arden 
should be congratulated in furnishing such a useful help to 
students who wish to acquire a thorough knowlege of this 
interesting language, which is spoken by about twenty 
millions of people inhabiting a portion of the eastern side 
of the Indian Peninsula. 



St. Bride's Press, Limited ; 24, Bride Lane, 

London, E.G. 

I 18. The Gambia Colony and "^ Protectorate, an official 

Handbook^ by Francis Bisset Archer, treasurer of the 
Colony. This excellently got-up volume has been dedicated 
to the present Governor, Sir George Chordin Denton, 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of the 
Gambia. It is modestly titled ''An Official Handbook,'* 



422 Reviews and Notices. 

but it is an interesting and exhaustive history from our 
remotest knowledge of it through the period when, as in 
all the settlements on the Guinea Coast, it saw the slave- 
trading post established in the face of the opposition of the 
Portuguese, French, and Dutch — a period that carries us 
to the treaty of 1783, which first recognised the Gambia as 
a British River, though with the reservation of Albreada ; 
through the time of prosperity for the ** factories," which 
ended with the prohibition of the slave-trade in 1807 ; and 
thence through the decade of practical desertion of the 
district until, in 1817, British merchants from Senegal 
formed a settlement on St. Mary Island and substituted 
for the iniquitous bartering of human lives a legitimate 
trade in ivory, ground-nuts, bees-wax, and other tropical 
products. Four years later the Gambia and the Gold 
Coast were joined with Sierra Leone to form the ** colony 
of West African settlements," but in 1843 the growing trade 
in ground-nuts having revived its prosperity and its area, 
having been increased by various additions of territory 
along the banks of the river, the colony was rendered 
independent of Sierra Leone, and it remained a separate 
colony until 1866, when all the settlements were again 
combined under one governor-in-chief, though each con- 
tinued to have its own Legislative Council. When, in 
1874, the Gold Coast and Lagos were united as the Gold 
Coast Colony, the Gambia still remained attached to Sierra 
Leone, under the name ** West African Settlements." In 
1888 the Gambia became a Crown Colony, and it remains 
as such to the present time. It is situated as nearly as 
possible in the north latitude 13'' 24' and xfy" 36', and com- 
prises both banks of the river Gambia, from the north inland 
due east to a small village on the north bank three miles 
above Konia, where the French sphere of influence is 
reached. It consists of somewhere about 5,000 square 
miles. The seat of the Government is at Bathurst. The river 
itself is one of the great waterways of the world, measuring 
at Its mouth about twenty-seven miles across, and. opposite 



Reviews and Notices. 423 

Bathurst two and a half miles. Next to the Congo it is 
the safest river to enter on all the West African coast, 
having a bar, which can be crossed at any time of the tide. 
This bar is never less in depth than 26 feet of water, and, 
as there is a wide channel, ships of war on the station and 
ocean-going steamers have no difficulty in crossing. The 
river is tidal for 350 miles, and is navigable by steamers 
drawing 6 feet of water as far as the shallows of Barraconda. 
Along the river in certain parts the scenery is interesting, 
enhanced by its being the scene of Mungo Park's 
explorations. 

The volume contains maps and plans and numerous 
beautiful illustrations. The value of the work may be 
indicated from the divisions regarding the earliest records 
of the founding of Bathurst down to 1865 — descriptions 
under the travelling commissioners, the history of the 
colony during the past decade, the chief enactments in 
force for the government and administration of the Pro- 
tectorate, a dictionary of words and phrases in common 
use, general information as to appointments, finance, fiscal, 
and much miscellaneous information. There is also a 
record of the services of officers and an excellent index. 



T. Fisher Unwin ; Paternoster Square, London, 1905. 

19. British East Africa, Past, Present, and Future, 
by Lord Hindlip, f.r.g.s., f.z.s. This readable, practical, 
well-written, well-printed in good type, and handy book, 
is dedicated to Sir Charles Eliot, late High Commissioner 
for British East Africa, ** as a slight token of regard in 
recognition of his services to the country, and as a protest 
against the treatment he received." It consists of nine 
chapters, appendix, and minute index. It treats of the 
Masai Question and Sir Charles Eliot's resignation, the 
Uganda Railway, administration, hut-tax and labour supply, 
settlement of the country, land, and prospects of settlers, 
suggestions for settlers, and a settlers views of game 



424 Reviews and Notices, 

preservation. The author, for his purpose, divides the 
country into three zones, the first of which is the sea-coast. 
This strip is tropical and not too healthy. Its vegetation 
consists chiefly of mangrove forests, cocoanut palms, 
mangoes, fibrous plants, such as sidal and sans-virei, 
bananas, pineapples, oranges, limes, forests of valuable 
timber, and of rubbi^r. The second zone, or the real 
white man's country, is noted chiefly for the herds of 
game, gangs of gunners, and the quantity and ferocious- 
ness of the ticks. The plains will do for stock, if these 
pests are njt too deadly. The third zone begins at 
Mohoroni, where there is good grazing, but this zone, in 
his opinion, is hardly fitteJ for a white man's home. The 
** Suggestions for Settlers " are practical and valuable. 
But the whole book ought to be carefully perused. 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

The Benefits of Kindness, by Shaikh Sa *Di of Shiraz. 
Being the second book of the Bustan, translated by 
George S. A. Ranking, ma. (Oxon.), m.d. (Cantab.), 
University Lecturer in Persian. (Parker and Son, Broad 
Street, Oxford, 1906.) The present translation has been 
prepared solely as an assistance to those students of Persian 
in Oxford, lor whom the second book of the Bustan is an 
examination subject, and has in consequence been made 
literal. 

Swami Vivekananda, A Collection of his Speeches and 
Writings. With five portraits. (G. A. Natesan and Co., 
Esplanade, Madras.) This publication is the first of its 
kind, being a collection of his writings, speeches, and 
addresses in England, America, and India, and interesting 
letters in prose and verse to friends. His speeches are 
both eloquent and inspiring. His works cover the whole 
field of Hindu religion and philosophy. He exhorts his 
countrymen "to cast off the customs and superstitions of 
degenerate days, and to rise to the grand and noble con- 



Our Library Table. 425 

ception of the Upanishadic divinity of man." There is 
much in the volume that will greatly interest the Western 
reader. 

Sotne Sayings from the Upanishads. Translated into 
English, with notes, by L. D. Barnett, m.a., d.litt., 
Assistant in the Department of Oriental Books and MSS. 
of the British Museum. (Luzac and Co., Great Russell 
Street, London, 1905.) A collection of interesting and 
well selected sayings, with historical and explanatory 
notes. 

The Writers and Artists Year-Book, 1906. (Adam 
and Charles Black, Sbho Square, London.) A very 
useful directory to authors and writers, lists of publishers 
in England and America, colour-printers, literary agents, 
classified index of papers and magazines, and useful direc- 
tions as to how to correct proofs. 

The Maintenance of Health in the Tropics, by W. J. 
Simpson,^ m.a., f.r.c.p. (Published under the auspices of 
the London School of Tropical Medicine by John Bale, 
Sons add Danielsson, Ltd., Great Titchfield Street, 
London, 1905.) This is a useful handbook, written in 
a simple and popular manner, and will be found helpful to 
those residing in or visiting the tropics. It is composed of 
six chapters, treating as to climate, diet, drinking-water, 
dwelling -house, fevers, snake -bites, other wounds, and 
other ailments. It also contains a list of medical equip- 
ments as to drugs, instruments, bandages, disinfectants. 

Report of the Director of Public Instruction in the 
Bombay Presidency for the year 1904- 1905, with Supple- 
ment. The number of Public Institutions for the year 
1903-1904 was 9,887, and for the year 1904-1905, 10,194. 
The number of pupils for the former year was 5i3,479> 
and for the latter year 593,43 r. The number of Private 
Institutions, " advanced and elementary," for the former 
year, 2,573 ; for the latter year, 2,782. And the number of 
pupils respectively was 64,881 and 72,672. 

Annual Progress Report of the Archaeological Surveyor 



426 Our Library Table. 

United Provinces and Punjab for the Year ending March 3 1 , 
1905. The report is divided into two parts. The first 
consists of archaeological notes on buildings in Lahore, 
Delhi, Lucknow, Multan, Ajmer. The second, notes on 
some places visited during the year 1904. The report is 
accompanied with beautifully-executed photographs, draw- 
ings, and maps. The photographs reflect great credit on 
the artists. 

Statistical Abstract relating to British India from 1894- 
1895 to 1 903- 1 904. (Thirty-ninth number. Presented to 
Parliament, 1905.) This voluminous abstract contains 
tables relating to area and population, 1901 ; Justice, 
Police, and Prisons ; Finance, Coinage, and Currency ; 
Post-Office Information, Banks, Telegraphs, Municipalities, 
District and Local Boards ; Education, Printing Presses, 
Agriculture, and Land Tenures; Railways, Irrigation 
Work, Trade, Shipping, Army, Emmigration, Vital 
Statistics, Wild Animals, Wages, Joint Stock Companies, 
Industries, Inventions, and Designs; Mineral Productions, 
etc. ; numerous appendices, and a copious index. 

Report of Archceological Survey Work in the North- 
West Frontier Province and Baltichistan for the Period 
from January 2, 1904, to March 31, 1905, by M. A, 
Stein, PH.D., Government Press. Peshawar, 1905. The 
Report consists of surveys in various districts, well- 
executed illustrations, and plans. 

A History of India, by A. F. Rudolf Hoernle, m.a. 
(Oxford), PH.D. (Tubingen), c.i.e., late principal Calcutta 
Madrasah, and Herbert A. Stark, b.a. (Calcutta), In- 
spector of Schools Orissa Division. (Cuttack Orissa Mission 
Press, 1905. Luzac and Co., London.) The authors of this 
short school history have noticed the chief points suitable 
to schools in an interesting narrative form, and the results 
of modern research as to inscriptions, coins, and MSS. 
And in order to assist teachers desirous of obtaining further 
information, a selected list of the best and latest writings on 
Indian antiquities has been added. There are numerous 



Our Library Table. 427 

illustrations of coins, inscriptions, stupas, buildings, and 
portraits. The latest is that of Lord Curzon. The work 
is a concise history, well arranged, and well adapted to 
teachers and scholars of high-class seminaries. 

The Congress and Conferences of 1905, being a collection 
of all the papers read at and submitted to the Industrial 
Conference at Benares, and the Presidential Addresses 
delivered at the Benares Sessions of the Congress, the 
Social Conference, the all- India Temperance Conference; 
also Mr. B. G. Lilaks speech at the Bhorat Dhorma 
Mohamandala. and the Hon. Syed Mohomad Hussians 
Presidential Address at the Muhammadan Educational Con- 
ference at Aligarh. (G. A. Natesan and Co., Esplanade, 
Madras.) This is the first Industrial Conference held in 
India in connection with the National Congress. R. G. Dutt, 
Esq., J.G.I.E., was elected President and delivered an admir- 
able address. The contents of the various papers and 
speeches are interesting and merit careful perusal. 

Ezekiefs Vision und Die Salomoneschen Wasser becker. 
Von Dr. Ludwig Venetianer. (Friederich Killan Nach- 
folger, Budapest, 1906.) A very learned pamphlet in 
German on Solomon's water-pools, showing the importance 
of the study of Assyriology in throwing light on certain 
difficult passages in the Old Testament, especially EzekieKs 
Vision. 

English Composition Simplified : a Short Treatise con- 
taining a Summary of English Grammar, Hints on Essay- 
writing, Outline, and Specimen Essays, and a List of 
Typical Subjects, by J. Logan, Headmaster of the Ormond 
School for boys, Dublin. (Thomas Murby and Co., 
3, Ludgate Circus Buildings, London ; Brown and Nolan, 
Ltd., Dublin.) This small work will be very useful to the 
youths in India and the Far East who wish to acquire an 
accurate knowledge of some portions of English grammar 
and composition. 

Report on the Administration of the Bombay Presidency 
for the Year 1904- 1905, (Printed at the Government 



428 Our Library Table, 

Central Press, Bombay.) This exhaustive report contains, 
in Part I., a Summary. In Part II. there are nine chapters, 
referring to Tributary States, Land Administration, Legis- 
lative Authorities. Production and Distribution, Finance, 
Education, Archaeology, Miscellaneous, including the 
Churches of England and Scotland. 

The Assisiani Commissioners Note-Book, by Captain 
C. H. Buck, i.a., Punjab Commission. Dedicated to Lord 
Curzon of Kedleston, with Glossary of Vernacular Words. 
(Edward Stanford, Long Acre, London, W.C., 1906.) This 
most useful note-book is written, concisely and distinctly, 
from personal experience, and ought to be in the hands of 
every official entering upon his duties as an Assistant 
Commissioner. Within the small space of about 150 pages, 
Mr. Buck has condensed information in regard to Outfit, 
Administrative Duties, Official Instructions, and Depart- 
mental Examinations ; Court Procedure, Criminal and 
Civil ; Inspection of District Divisions ; Duties of Village 
Accountants, District Police, and Inspection ; Inspection of 
Schools ; the Culture of Trees and Grasses ; a variety of 
miscellaneous subjects. There is also appended a Glossary 
of Vernacular Words, which will be of great service on the 
initiation of a young official. 

The Faithless Favourite : A Mixed Tragedy, by Edwin 
SouTER, 1,331, North Seventh Street, St. Louis, 1905. The 
author of this drama adheres to the fundamental fact of the 
old chroniclers' stories of Athelwold and Elfredi. The chief 
names are taken from Humes "History of England." 
There is added to the work what he terms ** Schediasm," 
which embraces some quaint, witty, and wise cogitations. 



We beg to acknowledge the receipt of the following 
publications : George Newnes, Limited, London and New 
York : The Captain, The Strand Magazine, The Grand 
Magazine, The Sunday Strand, The Wide World Magazine ; 
— Technics, a magazine for technical students; — A Techno- 



Our Library Table. 429 

logical and Scientific Dictionary, edited by G. F. Good- 
child, B.A., and C. F. Tweney; — C. B. Fry's Magazine; — 
Biblia, a monthly journal of Oriental Research in Archae- 
ology, Ethnology, Literature, Religion, History, Epigraphy, 
Geography, Languages, etc. (Biblia Publishing Company, 
Meriden, Conn., U.S.A.) ; — The Indian Magazine and 
Review (London: A. Constable and Co.); — The Indian 
Review (G. A. Natesan and Co., Madras); — The Madrcts 
Review; — The Review 0/ Reviews (published by Horace 
Marshall and Son, 125, Fleet Street, London, E.C.) ; — 
Mittheilungen der Anthrapologischen Geselleschaft in Wien 
(Vienna: Alfred Holder); — The Contemporary Review; — 
The North American Review ; — Public Opinion, the 
American weekly (New York) ; — The Monist (The Open 
Court Publishing Company, Chicago, U.S.A., and Kegan 
Paul and Co., London) ; — Current Literature (New York, 
U.S.A.) ; — The Canadian Gazette (London); — The Harvest 
Field (Foreign Missions Club, London) \— Journal of the 
Royal Colonial Institute (The Institute, Northumberland 
Avenue, London) ; — Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly 
StcUement (38, Conduit Street, London, W.) ; — The 
American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures^ 
continuing "Hebraica" (University of Chicago Press); — 
The Comhill Magazine; — The Zoophilist and Animals 
Defender (92, Victoria Street, London, S.W.); — Sphinx. 
Revue critique embrassant le domaine entier de TEgyp- 
tologie, public par Karl Piehl (Upsala : Akademiska 
Bokhandeln, C. J. Lundstrom ; London : Williams and 
Norgate, 14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden) ; — Ques- 
tions Diplomatiques et Coloniales. Revue de politique ex- 
t^rieure, paraissant le i*' et le 15 de chaque mois (Paris: 
Rue Bonaparte 19) ; — The Rapid Review (C. Arthur 
Pearson, Henrietta Street, W.C.) ; — The Theosophical 
Review (The Theosophical Publishing Society, 161, New 
Bond Street, London, W.) ; — The Board of Trade 
Journal (with which is incorporated the Imperial Institute 
Journal)^ edited by the Commercial Department of the 



430 Our Library Table. 

Board of Trade (Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, E.C. ; 
Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh ; Edward Ponsonby, Dublin) ; 
— The British Empire Review, the organ of the British 
Empire League, a non-partisan monthly magazine for 
readers interested in Imperial and Colonial affairs and 
literature (The British Empire League. 112, Cannon 

Street, London, E.C.) ; Bulletin de r^cole Franfaise 

d' ExtrStne-Orient. Revue philologique, paraissant tous 
les trois mois, vol. v., Nos. 1-2 (Hanoi: F.-H. Schneider, 
Imprimeur-fiditeur, 1905) ; — The Wednesday Review of 
politics, literature, society, science, etc. (S. M. Raja Ram 
Rao, editor and proprietor, Teppakulam, Trichinopoly, 
Madras) ; — The Hindustani Review and Kayastha Sama- 
char, edited by Sachchidananda Sinha, Barrister-at-Iaw 
(Allahabad, India, 7, Elgin Road) ; — Proceedings of the 
Anglo-Russian Literary Society (founded in 1893), October. 
November, and December, 1905 (the Imperial Institute, 
London, S.W.) ; — The Hindu (published at the National 
Press, 100, Mount Road, Madras) ; — The Christian Patriot 
(the M. E. Press, Mount Road, Madras) \— Journal of the 
Moslem Institute, a quarterly chiefly devoted to subjects of 
Oriental interest (Calcutta, No. i) ; — Malabar Daily News, 
a morning and evening newspaper (Kottayam : P. Jacob 
Pothan, Malabar Daily News Publishing House) ; — India 
Office Library Catalogue. Vol. i., with index and supple- 
ment ; vol. ii., Parts I., III., and IV. ; — The Light of the 
World, Nos. 4, 5, 6 (A. Suhrawardy, 2, Fenchurch Avenue, 
London, E.C.) ; — The Busy Matt s Magazine (The Maclean 
Publishing Company, Ltd., Toronto) ; — Articles from the 
Smithsonian Report for 1904 ; — Rabah et les ArcU>es du 
Chavi (Librairie Orientale and Americaine, 6, Rue de 
Mezieres, Paris) ; — The Journal of the Anthropological 
Society of Bombay (Bombay Education Society's Press, 
Bombay ; Luzac and Co., London) ; — Anthropos, vol. i., 
No. I (Zanruth and Co., Salzburg, Austria). 



Our Library Table. 431 

We regret that want of space obliges us to postpone our 
notices of the following works : The Great Plateau : being 
an account of exploration in Central Tibet, 1903. and of 
the Gartok Expedition, 1904- 1905. by Captain C. G. 
Rawling (London : Edward Arnold, 1905) ; — In the Desert^ 
by L. March Phillips (London : Edward Arnold, Maddox 
Street, 1905); — Everyday Life among Head- Hunters, and 
other Experiences from East to West, by Dorothy Cator 
(London : Longmans, Green and Co., 39, Paternoster Row, 
^905) \—Rifie and Rotnance in the Indian Jungle : a record 
of thirteen years, by Captain A. L R. Glasfurd (John Lane, 
The Bodley Head, London, and New York, 1905) ; — 
The Africander Landy by Archibald R. Colquhoun 
(London: John Murray, 1906); — The Classics of Con- 
fucius: book of history (Shu King). Rendered and com- 
piled by W. Gorn Old, m.r.a.s. (London : John Murray, 
1906); — The Wisdom of the East: ** The Instruction of 
Ptah-Hotep'* and "The Instruction of Ke' Gemni/' the 
oldest books in the world. Translated from the Egyptian, 
with an introduction and appendix, by Battiscombe G. 
Gunn (London: John Murray, 1906); — The Wisdom of 
the East: **The Wisdom of Israel," being extracts from 
the Babylonian Talmud and Midrash Rabboth. Translated 
from the Aramaic and Hebrew, with an introduction, by 
Edwin Collins (London : John Murray, 50A, Albemarle 
Street, W.) ; — Dictionary of Indian Biography, by C. E. 
Buckland, c.i.e. (London : Swan, Sonnenschein and Co., 
Ltd., 25, High Street, Bloomsbury, 1906) ; — The Shdhndma 
of Firdausu Done into English by Arthur George Warner, 
M.A., and Edmond Warner, b.a., vol. i. (London : Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Trlibner and Co., Ltd., Gerrard Street, W., 
1905); — Japan, by David Murray, ph.d., ll.d. With a 
supplementary chapter by Joseph H. Longford. Sixth 
edition (London: T. Fisher Unwin, i, Adelphi Terrace; 
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906); — Turkish Self- 
taught, with English Phonetic Pronunciation, by Captain 
C. A. Thimm. Reivised by Professor G. Hagopian. Fourth 



432 Our Library Table, 

edition (London : E. Marlborough and Co., Old Bailey, 
E.C., 1905) ; — At the Gates of the East: a book of travel 
among historic wonderlands, by Lieutenant-Colonel J. P. 
Barry, a.b., m.b. (Longmans, Green and Co., Paternoster 
Row, London, New York, and Bombay, 1906) ; — A Fantasy 
of Far Japan ; or, Summer Dream Dialogues, by Baron 
Suyematsu (London : Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 
^905) ; — A Tropical Dependency : an outline of the ancient 
history of the Western Soudan, with an account of the 
modern settlement of Northern Nigeria, by Flora L. Shaw 
(Lady Lugard) (London : James Nisbet and Co., Ltd., 
Berners Street, 1905) ; — Here and There: memories, Indian 
and other, by H. G. Keene, c.i.e. (London : Langham and 
Co., 78, New Bond Street, 1906). 



SUMMARY OF EVENTS. 

India : General. — The principal event of the last quarter 
was the visit of Their Royal Highnesses the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, the detailed account of which in the 
Indian newspapers has been followed with the greatest 
interest. Amongst the many public functions that His 
Royal Highness performed duririg the time was laying the 
foundation-stone of the following institutions ; the Queen 
Victoria Memorial Hall at Calcutta, a new Medical College 
at Lucknow, the Technical Institute at Madras, the Victoria 
Zenana Hospital at Haidarabad ; also the opening of the 
Memorial Park at Rangoon and the unveiling of a statue 
erected to the memory of Queen Victoria at Bangalore. 

Their Royal Highnesses' visit to Haidarabad at the 
beginning of February brought to a filling close that part 
of the royal tour which has been devoted to the Native 
States of India, the loyalty of whose rulers to the British 
Crown will have been cemented still further by the visit of 
the Heir Apparent. 

In connection with the Prince of Wales' visit to Benares 
a Sanscrit Library will be erected at that place. 

The royal visit to Aligarh is to be commemorated by the 
erection and equipment of a school of science connected with 
the Anglo-Oriental College. To provide for this 7 lacs 
have already been subscribed by Muhammedans in India. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales also went to 
Quetta, the headquarters of the British Administration in 
Baluchistan, where he received visits from the Khan of 

Khelal a--" -"-- ' ' ' " °-'- "-" "-•-■ - »^-^" 

attended 

Their I 

Thedi 
discussed 
been smo 

Brigad 

THIRD 



434 Summary of Events. 

College, has been appointed Secretary in the new Army 
Department, and Colonel Maconchy Secretary in the 
Military Supply Department. 

The drought ' stricken regions of Upper India have 
benefited by rain. In the Central Provinces, however, 
while rain helped the late-sown crops, it has damaged the 
standing crops. The number of persons under State reUef 
throughout India now exceeds 352,000. 

The Prince of Wales visited a famine relief camp. 

A severe earthquake occurred in Bashahr, one of the 
Hill States. 

The Report for three years ending March 31, 1905* on 
the Irrigation of Bengal, shows that the annual receipts 
from major works were Rs. 2,056,000, and the annual 
average working expenses just over 1 1 lacs. The area 
irrigated by the Orissa, Midnapore, and Sone canals 
exceeds 800,000 acres. 

Regarding Madras, a Report issued shows the totsd 
area taken up since the work commenced as 63,062 square 
miles, of which 54,541 square miles have been completed, 
out of a total area of 1 16,855 square miles to be investigated 
in the Presidency. 

The total expenditure on major irrigation works in 
Burma during 1904- 1905 was a little over 12 lacs of rupees. 
The revenue receipts from major and minor works and 
navigation were 28^ lacs, and the working expenses 16 lacs, 
leaving a net revenue of 1 2^ lacs. 

Some of the canals in the United Provinces during last 
year gave a very high percentage of return on capital out- 
lay, notably the Eastern Jumna, 22*82 ; the Bijnor canals, 
1470 ; and the Upper Ganges canal, 9*88. 

At the annual Kumbh Mela gathering in Allahabad the 
number of pilgrims present was estimated to be 2,000,000. 

The Prince of Arcot, having resigned his seat on the 
Madras Legislative Council, Mahomed Raza Khan, a 
retired member of the Provincial Civil Service, has been 
nominated in his place. 



Summary of Events. 435 

The following^ gentlemen have been appointed members 
of the Panjab Legislative Council : Sardar Partalb Singh 
Ahluhwalia, of Jullunder, dnd Thakur Mahan Chand, of 
Gurdaspun 

India : Frontirr. — A settlement on satisfafctory terms 
was made in January with the chamkaivmsy north of the 
Kurram Valley. Their raiding of Luris will, it is hoped, 
not be renewed. 

An attack was made on December 22, 1905, on the 
-village of Banamani by a party of armed Afridis, a few 
miles from the cantonment of Peshawar. The firing lasted a 
<:ouple of hours. One vHlager was shot. The raiders were 
led by the notorious outlaw Gafar, and their object was loot. 

Mr. Crump, the Political Officer at Wana (North- West 
Frontier), had a meeting with the Mashud headman on 
February 28 on account of the recent offences committed by 
the tribe, which include the murder of three British officers. 

India : Native States. — H.H. the Maharaja of Orchha 
has been appointed k:g.c.s.i., and H.H. the Raja of 
Chamba K.C.I.E., and H.H. the Nawab of Janjira k.g.c.i.e. 
H.H. the Mir of Khairpur has been granted an addition of 
two guns, as a personal distinction, to his salute of nirl€fteen 
guns. The Maharaja of Banswora, Rajpootana, has been 
invested with: the powers of a ruling chief. 

Persia. — The erection of the extension across the desert 
<rf the Indo - European Government telegraphs from 
Teheran to India is progressing. It proceeds vid Kashan 
Yez, Kerman, Panjgur, vi4 Las Beyla. 

The Naib es Saltaneb, brother of the Shah, who was 
Minister of War for twelve years, from 1884 to 1896, has 
been reappointed to his former post. Other^ ministerial 
changes will take place. 

In reference, to the TurkishiPersian frontier dispute, the 
Turkish troops have -not yet been withdrawn. 

The Persian Government has rejected the award made 
by the British ^ Mission regarding the distribution of the 
waters of the river Helmand between the Persians and fh^ 

£E 2 



436 Summary of Events. 

Afghans for irrigation purposes. This decision was formally 
notified on February 26 

The King has appointed Major P. M. Sykes, cm.g., to 
be His Majesty's Consul-General in Khorassan, to reside 
at Meshed; and Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Mackintosh 
Stewart to be His Majesty's Consul for Kerman and 
Persian Beluchistan, to reside at Kerman. 

Turkey in Asia : Yemen. — News received in January 
stated that the Turkish troops had received a reverse, 
Ahmad Faizi Pasha having sustained a check, being com- 
pelled to fall back upon Omran, near Sana's, where he was 
awaiting reinforcements of some 8,000 men before attack- 
ing the Arabs. 

News received in February stated that the Turks have 
retreated from Sana's to Taiz, and that the Arabs are in 
pursuit. The Turks sustained serious losses at Shahara. 
Amran was surrounded, and Jebel .Doran and Maaber 
occupied by the Arabs, who made their headquarters at 
Khomirh. The country is in a state of disorder. 

In the Mocha and Dubab districts abnormal rains have 
flooded the country. 

Japan. — The new Cabinet appointed by the Emperor last 
January consisted of: Marquis Saionji, Prime Minister; 
Mr. Kato, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; Mr. Hara, 
Minister of the Interior; Mr. Yoshiro Sakatani, Finance ; 
General Teranchi, War ; Vice- Admiral Minoro Saito, 
Marine; Mr. Isaburo Yamagata, Communications; Mr. 
Makino, Education ; and Mr. Matsuda, Justice. 

Mr. Luke E. Wright, Governor- General of the Philip- 
pines, has been named by President Roosevelt as first 
American Ambassador to Japan. 

The Budget for the current year includes ;^ 11,000,000 
devoted annually to pay off the war debts. The normal 
expenditure unconnected with the war amounts to 
^^23,000,000, and expenditure as a result of the war, 
;^8o,ooo,ooo ; j^2,ooo,ooo is to be spent on the navy, and 
;^ 1 5,000 on rewards and pensions. 



Summary of Events. 437 

In consequence of the famine in Japan, liberal subscrip- 
tions are being received and forwarded from England 
and our colonies. The Victorian Government telegraphed 
;^400 to Japan for the relief of the famine-stricken popu- 
lation. 

The Dominion Government of Canada is contributing 
;^5,ooo worth of Canadian flour to the Japanese famine 
fund. This will be shipped with yeast and directions for 
baking. 

The Government of Japan has made the following regu- 
lations for foreigners who desire to enter Port Arthur, and 
other places within the jurisdiction of the Governor-General 
of the Kwong-tung Peninsula. Permits will be issued by 
the Minister of War ; applicants must apply through their 
respective embassies or legations at Tokio, Permits will 
be granted under the following conditions: (i) Only 
persons going to remove their property will be allowed to 
go. (2) Precise details must be given as to the time and 
place of departure, and the position of the property to 
be removed, as well as its quantity, nature, and value. 
(3) Each owner of property may send one representative, but 
joint owners can send only one person to represent them 
jointly. (4) No traveller can be accompanied by more 
than three servants. 

Prince Arthur of Connaught arrived at Yokohama on 
February 19. At Tokio he was met by the Emperor in 
person, who exchanged the most cordial greetings. The 
Prince afterwards drove to the Kasumi Gaseki Palace, 
accompanied by the Crown Prince of Japan. Here on the 
following day Prince Arthur bestowed the Order of the 
Garter upon the Mikado. The day was observed as one 
of general rejoicing. 

Prince Arthur also invested Admiral Togo and Marshals 
Yamgata and Oyama with the Order of Merit. The 
ceremony took place in the palace in the presence of all the 
Garter Mission. After visiting several other places in 
Japan, Prince Arthur will pay a visit to Canada. 



438 Summary of Events. 

The Governn^ent of Japan having proposed the national- 
ization of all the railways, Mr. Kato, the Foreign Minister, 
has resigned. 

Egypt and the Soudan. — On January 27 Lord Cromer 
declared the Nile Red Sea Railway open from Port Soudan 
to Atbara Junction before an assembly which included the 
Sirdar and Lady Wingate, ten members of the Legislative 
Council, Sir Vincent Corbett, and many others, including 
native chiefs. 

South Africa. — The Duke and Duchess of Connaught 
have made an extensive tour in South Africa, visiting the 
principal towns and historic places in the Transvaal, the 
Orange River Colony, and other parts. They have been 
enthusiastically received everywhere. 

Africa: East Africa and Uganda Protectorate. — 
Mr. R. E. Noble, barrister-at-law, has been appointed by 
the Earl of Elgin to be Chief Magistrate at Nairobi, East 
African Protectorate. 

Transvaal. — The mineral output of the Transvaal for 
1905 is valued at ;^22,688,675, of which amount diamonds 
account for ;^922,78o. The total increase in value, as 
compared with 1904, amounts to ;^4f 544.558. 

Natal. — Some trouble has arisen with reference to the 
collection of the poll-tax. On February 8 a collision 
occurred between police and armed Zulus. An officer and 
a trooper were killed. The leader, Gobizembehos, has 
been captured, and the presence of Imperial troops has 
settled the matter. 

Wbst Coast of Africa : Nigeria. — The first exhibi- 
tion for the central division of Southern Nigeria was opened 
on December 19 by Mr. Copland Crawford, Divisional 
Commissioner for Central Division. Chiefs, with their 
many followers, from all the surrounding towns were 
present. The exhibits were numerous, among which were 
a great number by native chiefs and their people. At the 
opening there were 20,000 natives present, including) all 
:he important chiefs. The exbibifiion proved a coniple(e 



Summary of Events. 439 

success in every way, and it is intended to make it an 
annual events 

The administration of Southern Nigeria Protectorate has 
been placed under that of the Colony of Lagos, and the 
name changed to that of the Colony of Southern Nigeria. 
(See also our article in this number.) 

An outbreak having occurred by certain native tribes 
under, as is reported, the Mahdi, a stubborn fight took 
place in the region of Sokoto with the troops of the West 
African Frontier Force, under the command of Major 
Goodwin. The rebels were completely defeated. Captain 
Gallagher was severely wounded. 

Africa : Morocco. — Several important questions having 
arisen between France and the Sultan connected with 
reforms, a Conference has been held at Algeciras with 
representatives of France. Germany, and other interested 
Powers. This Conference has continued for several weeks, 
and the final result with regard to the question of Bank and 
Police has not, on our going to press, been settled. 
All the Emirs are showing remarkable loyalty. 
SoMALiLAND. — Brigadier-General E. J. Swayne, Com- 
missioner of the Somaliland Protectorate, has been ap- 
pointed Governor of British Honduras, in succession to 
Sir E. B. Sweet-Escott. 

Australasia : Sydney. — The population of Sydney 
metropolitan area on December 3 last was estimated to be 
529,000, an increase of 1 1,030 during the year. 

New South Wales. — The exports and imports for 1905 

show increases of ;^ 1,500.000 and ;^ 10,000,000 respectively^ 

The area under wheat is 2,220,000 acres. 

Mr. Aw Morgan, the Premier of Queensland, has been 

elected President of the Legislative Council, in succession 

to the late Sir H. M. Nelson. 

Victoria.— The revenue for the last six months of 1905 
amounted to ;^3»5 15,000. 

Queensland. — The revenue returns for January showj 
th?it the excess over the expenditure during the;past seven 



440 Summary of Events, 

months amounts to ;^ 137,000, as compared with ;^72,cxx> 
during the same period of the previous financial year. 

Canada. — The revenue for the first half of the current 
fiscal year, ended December 31 last, was $37,877,167, 
and the expenditure $25,747,695, leaving a surplus of 
$12,129,472. 

The Customs returns for the seven months ending 
January last reached $26,292,000, an increase of over 
$2,000,000 on the corresponding period of last year. 

The colonial control of the garrison of Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, commenced on January 16 last. 

The mineral production of Canada during the past 
year is valued at $685,747,010, showing an increase of 
$10,795,791 over the output of 1904. 

Elaborate preparations are being made in Canada for 
the reception of Prince Arthur of Connaught, who will 
arrive about March 28. 

Newfoundland. — The value of the imports for the 
year ended June 30 last was $10,279,292, and exports 
$10,669,342. 

The amount of revenue for the December quarter was the 
largest in the Colony^s history, viz., ;^i 11,400, as compared 
with ;^io8,400 in the corresponding quarter of 1904. 



Obituary, — The deaths have been recorded during the 
past quarter of the following : — Sir Clinton Edward 
Dawkins, k.c.b., employed under Lord Cross, Secretary 
of State for India, after under Mr. Goschen as Under- 
Secretary for Finance in India; — Captain Edward Gelly 
Meyricke, r.e. (190 1-5 served with Egyptian army) ; — 
Sir Lionel Eldred Smith-Gordon, formerly ist Battalion 
Highland Infantry (Crimea and the Mutiny); — Mr. Henry 
Edward Sullivan, c.s.i., late of the Executive Council of 
the Government of Madras, afterwards Resident at Tra- 
vancore and Cochin; — Major-General T. J. Watson 
(Mutiny, Bhutan expedition 1864, Jowaki expedition 
1877-78, Afghan war 1879-80); — General I. S. Hawks 



Summary of Events. 441 

(in Madras Native Infantry 1846, in command Keonphur 
Cuttack expedition 1868) ; — General George G. Pearce, c.b., 
late colonal commanding Royal Horse Artillery, Madras 
(Punjab campaign 1848-49, expedition to Khagan and the 
Black Mountain 1852, Mutiny) ; — Colonel J. Stevenson, 
retired, Royal Scots Fusiliers (Mutiny, Bhutan expedition 
1 864-65 ) ; — Lieutenant-Colonel W. K. Westropp, 80th 
Regiment (Bhutan expedition 1865, Afghan war 1879-80); 
— General, Sir Charles Cooper Johnson, g.cb., 33rd Bengal 
Native Infantry 1845 (Sutlej campaign 1845-46, Mutiny, 
Hazara expedition, Afghan campaign 1878-80); — General 
Robert Romer Younghusband, entered 1837 (Afghan war 
1840-42, Sind campaign 1842-43, Persian expedition 
1856-57); — Mr. Thomas Archer, formerly Agent-General 
for Queensland; — Colonel Montague Charles Browning, c.b., 
late Lieutenant-Colonel 3rd (Militia) Battalion Suffolk 
Regiment (Crimea and Mutiny) ; — Surgeon-General John 
Lumsdaine, ludian Medical Service, Central India 1857-59 
(Ratghur, Baroda, Sangor, Gwalior, etc.) ; — Major-General 
Cooper Johnson, g.cb., Bengal army 1844 (Sutlej cam- 
paign 1846, Mutiny, Hazara expedition 1868); Major- 
General T. M. Shelley, Indian army (Mutiny) ; — Colonel 
William Carey, c.b., late Royal Artillery (Burmese expedi- 
tion 1885-86) ; — Captain John Lawrence (Crimea, Mutiny) ; 
— Captain G. H. Burgoyne, late 93rd Highlanders (Crimea, 
Mutiny); — Rev. J. A. Elliot, for many years a Wesleyan 
missionary in India ; — The Dowager Maharani of Burd- 
wan ; — General G. N. Channer, v.c. (North -West 
Frontier 1863-64. Perac expedition 1874-75, Jovaki expe- 
dition 1877-78, Afghan war 1878-79, Hazara expedition 
1888) ; — Major-General Alexander Clark Kennedy, Indian 
Army, entered 1862 (Egypt 1882, Burmese expedition 
1887-88, Chin Lushat expedition 1889-80) ; — General W. G. 
Main waring, entered 1843 (Punjab campaign 1848-49, 
Persian expeditionary force 1^57, Afghan war 1879-80, 
Defence of Kandahar); — General C. Hight, entered 1842 
(Orissa Hill tribes 1847. 1849-51) ; — Major-General F. W. 



442 Summary of Events. 

CoUis, Indidn Staff Corps (Abyssinian war 1868, Afghan 
war 1879, Mahsud Vaziri expedition 1881); — Mr. Ernest 
Barclay^ late Government solicitor of Madras ; — Mr. Frantis 
Lloyd, late Judge of the High Court, Bombay ; — Mr. John 
Christopher Graham, formerly Field Artillery, late Honotn^- 
able East India Company's service; — Captain G. C. P. 
Williams- Freeman, Chief Constable of Shropshire (Egypt 
war 1882, Sudan expedition 1884-85); — Babu G. Law, ci.E., 
a merchant in Calcutta, and served on the Legislative 
Council of Bengal and the Government General) ; — Mr. 
Philip Sandys Melvill, cs.i., i.c.s., assistant to Sir Henry 
Lawrence; — Colonel W. N. McCausland (Indian campaign 
1858-59, Lucknow); — Mr. Robert Knox MacBride, c.m.g., 
was for many years Director of Public Works, Ceylon ; — 
William Frederick de Fabeck, m.d., m.r.c.s. Eng., retired 
Surgeon-General, Indian Medical Service; — Sir Mount- 
stuart Grant Duff ; — Captain Richard Freer Thonger 
(Sutlej campaign 1845-46, Punjab campaign 1848-49, 
Mutiny, Lucknow) ; — General Charles James Merriman, 
formerly of Bombay Engineers, Government Secretary to 
the Public Works and Irrigation Departments 1880-85 : — 
Sir Joseph Ewart, retired Deputy Surgeon-General of the 
Indian army ; — Mr. G. D. Leman, late Madras Civil 
Service; — Major-General D. E. Lockhart (Indian Mutiny 
campaign, siege of Delhi, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding 
107th Regiment 1874-79) ; — Major-General T. R. Hume, 
late 55th Regiment (Eastern campaign 1854-55, Alma, 
Inkerman); — Colonel Matthew Morton Bowie, late Madras 
Artillery and the Indian Staff Corps; — Mr. Ross, Super- 
intendent of the Government Central Press, Calcutta ; — 
Lieutenant Robert Nicholson ; — Major-General Henry 
Peter Sykes, late of the 2nd Bombay Cavalry ; — Major* 
General William Cooke ; — Major John Whitacre Allen, 
late Princess of Wales* own Regiment, India ; — Major- 
General R. B. Moore, la^e of Bombay Staff Corps, and 
formerly of the 3rd Bombay Light Cavalry ; — Major- 
General Osborn Wilkinson, c.b., of the Indian army (siege 



Summary of Events. 443 

and capture of Lucknow) ; — Mt. James Hunter Prinsep, 
Jj^e of the Indian Civil Service ; — Mr. Henry Dewes, of 
Indian Civil Service ; — Mr. O. T. Hemsley, Superintendent 
of the Government Agri- Horticultural Gardens, Lahore; — 
Mr, W. H. Kennedy, cletk in the Foreign Department of 
.Government of India; — Major-General P. C. Cunningham, 
l^te of the Indian army , — Arthur William Irwin, late 
Her Majesty's chaplain, Bengal establishment; — Colonel 
.Malcolm Scrimshire Green, cb., entered Bombay army 
.1845, during Indian Mutiny commanded 2nd Scinde Horse, 
retired Scinde Hors^ 1868, and from Bombay army 1869 ; 
— Admiral Lindsay Brine, f.r.g.s. (1875 accompanied Sir 
Douglas Forsyth to Mandalay with the mission to the 
King of Burma, commanded the Invincible at the occupa- 
tion of Cyprus 1879 ; — Lieutenant Martin Young, late 
Yorkshire and Lancaster Rtrgirrient, Poona, India; — 
General C. A. Benson, late of Indian army; — Lieutenant- 
Colonel Richard Louis Milne, d.s.o. (Afghan war 1878-80, 
Te^-el-Kibir, Burma expedition) ; — Mr. G. I. L. Litton, 
British Consul at Tengyueh ; — William Ainslie, late Judge 
of the High Court, Calcutta ; — Major-General William 
Abercromby Dick, late Bombay Cavalry ; — Rao Bahadur 
C. Jambulinga Mudeliyar, c.i.e., Judge of the Madras 
City Court; — Thomas Durant Beighton, late Indian Civil 
Service ; — Surgeon-General James Pattison Walker, late 
of Bengal army ; — Major- General Charles George Baker 
Pasha, v.c, formerly Deputy Inspector-General of Police 
in Bengal, and later Chief of the Public Security Depart- 
ment Ministry of the Interior of Egypt ; — George Vander- 
zee, of Madras army ; — Herbert Baring Harington, formerly 
of the Oude Commission ; — Lieutenant-Colonel T. Groube, 
served in North-West Frontier of India campaign 1863, 
and Afghan war 1879-80; — Major J. S. Lumsden, of the 
Indian Army Medical Service; — Tom Le Mesurier, of 
Poona, of late Revenue Surveys ; — Surgeon-General T. E. 
Charles, late of the I. M.S., m.d., ll.d.. Edin., f.r.cp. Lond., 
K.H.P., late of Calcutta ; — James Beaumont Buchanan, a.m.. 



444 Summary of Events. 

I.C.E., M.R.A.S., Chief Engineer Public Works Department, 
Hyderabad, India, retired; — Colonel G. W. Willock, Com- 
mandant of the 3rd Bengal Cavalry, Afghan war 1879-80 ; 
— Roland John Trimen, Lieutenant Ceylon Planters' 
Rifle Corps ; — Major-General Sir. William Forbes Gatacre, 
K.C.B., D.s.o. (India, South Africa, Soudan) ; — Lieutenant- 
Colonel Michael Walker Heneage, late of the Coldstream 
Guards (Crimea, Balaclava, Inkerman, Sevastopol) ; — 
Lieutenant-General and Honorary-General the Hon. Sir 
David Macdowall Fraser, g.c.b. (entered Royal Artillery 
1843, Eastern campaign 1854, Hyderghur 1858, Crimea, 
Afghan war 1878-79) ; — Major-General Thomas Francis 
Forster, Bengal Staff Corps (Sutlej campaign 1846, Ali- 
wal) ; — Colonel J. W. Huskisson, late 56th Regiment, 
entered army 1850 (Indian Mutiny campaign, South Africa 
1878, Zulu war 1879); — ^Lieutenant-Colonel Albert Peel Gar- 
nett, late nth Hussars; — Colonel A. M. Hadley, formerly 
commanding Alexandra Princess of Wales* Own, entered 
1858 (Hazara campaign 1868, Black Mountains); — The 
Raja of Faridkot ; — General R. R. Mainwaring of the 
Bengal Staff Corps, retired (Sutlej campaign 1846, Southal 
campaign 1855, Indian Mutiny); — Lieutenant-Colonel 
James Stephen Nicholson, Madras Infantry (Indian 
Mutiny) ; — Major Thomas Davey, Royal Artillery (Indian 
Mutiny campaign, Lucknow). 

March 17, 1906. 



THE IMPERIAL 

I 

AND 

ASIATIC QUARTERLY 
REVIEW 

AKD 

Oriental and Colonial Record. 



THIRD SERIES— VOLUME XXII. No*. 43 ft 44. 
JULY— OCTOBER, 1906. 



"One li»naooScTtlii«.lh"olheionlh« More."— S«ti««. 



TOoMng : 

THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE 



CONTENTS. 



An Indian Militia for India's Defence. By S. S. Thorbum, 

I.C.S. (Retired) i 

Baluchistan. By Colonel C. E. Yate, CS.I., C.M.G. ... 15 

Criminal Justice in India. By Captain C. H. Buck, I.A., 

Punjab Commission 36 

A Behar Planter on the Opium Question. By Donald 

Norman Reid 42 

The Educational Problem in Ceylon. By A. G. Wise . . 52 

Quarterly Report on Semitic Studies and Orientalism. 

By Professor Dr. Edward Montet 56 

Samarcand. By E. H. Parker 64 

The Yunan Expedition of 1875, and the Cheefoo Conven- 
tion. Extracts from the Diary of Colonel (now General) 
Horace A. Browne 82 

The Rural Industries of Japan* By J. Ellis Barker . . 97 

Ophir. By J. F. A. McNair, Major R.A., C.M.G., late officiating 

Lieutenant-Governor, Penang iiS 

On Leprosy and Fish-Eating. By George Brown, M.D. . . 131 

A Plea for the Bagpipe in India. By Donald Norman Reid 13S 

Proceedings of the East India Association .... 143, 341 

China's Attitude towards Japan and Russia. By Sir R. K. 

Douglas 225 

S elf-Government for India. By the Hon. G. K. Gokhale, 

CLE 23s 

An Open Letter to the Hon. G. K. Gokhale. By J. B. 

Pennington 244 

India and Anglo - India : Some Unofficial Impressions. 

By Arthur Sawtell 2Sa 

The Congo Free State Administration 261 

The Congo Question : a Case of Humanity. By Major 
Arthur Glyn Leonard, author of the "Lower Niger and its 
Tribes" 276 

Morocco— The International Conference at Algeciras . 302 

^The Abandonment of St. Helena. By A. G. Wise, SecreUry 

to the St. Helena Committee y^- 

Taoism. ByE. H.Parker 3" 

Therapeutics of Climate. By George Brown, M. D. . . 334 



Contents. iii 

rAGBft 

Correspondence^ Notes, etc i53f 3^5 

Pipers oo Social Reform : being the Speeches and Writings of 
K. Srinivasa Ran, dedicated (bjr permission) to Lord Ampthill, 
Governor of Madras. — ^The Kathiawar Cases: Judgment of the 
Privy Council. — India: Income and Expenditure, 1904-1905. — 
The Present Condition of Egypt and the Soudan.— England and 
the Conga — Northern and Southern Nigeria 153 — ^71 

India — Militia for Defence — Native Administration. — The Opium 
Question in India.— Indian Budget, 1906- 1907.— England, Tibet, 
and China. — Agreement in Reference to Money Orders between 
the General Post Office of England and the General Post Ofiice 
of the Dutch East Indies so far as it concerned the General 
PubUc 383-397 

Reviews and Notices ......... 172, 39^ 

In the Desert, by L. March Phillipps.— The Letters of Warren Hastings 
to his Wife. Transcribed in full from the Originals in the Britiiii 
Museum. Introduced and Annotated by Sydney C Grier. — Here 
and There: Memories Indian and Other, by H. G. Keene, CLE., 
author of " A Servant of John Company,*' etc— A Fantasy of Far 
Japan ; or, Summer Dream Dialogues, by Baron Suyematsu. — 
An English-Tamil Dictionary, by the Rev. G. U. Pope, M.A., 
D.D., Balliol College, Oxford.— The Shahndma of Firdausi, by 
A. G. Warner, M.A., and E. Warner, B.A. Vol. L— At the 
Gates of the East : a Book of Travel among Historic Wonderlands, 
by lieutenant-Colonel J. P. Barry, A.B., M.B., Indian Medical 
Service. With thirty-three illustrations. — Lord Curzon in India: 
being a Selection from his Speeches as Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India, 1899-1905, with a Portrait, Explanatory Notes, 
and Index. With Introduction by Sir Thomas Raleigh, K.CS.I. 
— The History of Japan, together with a Description of the 
Kingdom of Siam, 1690- 1692, by Engelbert Kaempfer, M.D. 
Translated by J. G. Scheuchzer, F.R.S. Vols. I.-IIL— life of 
Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Andrew Clarke, G.C.M.G., 
C.a, CLE., edited by Colonel R. H. Vetch, C.B. ^th a 
Preface by Colonel Sir G. S. Clarke, K.CM.G., F.R.S., R.E. 
With illustrations and maps. — ^Western Culture in Eastern Lands : 
a comparison of the methods adopted by England and Russia in 
the Middle East, 1906, by Arminius Vamb^ry, C.V.O. 410 pp., 
I2S. net.— Tibet and the Tibetans, by the Rev. Graham Sandberg. 
—Dictionary of Indian Biography, by C. E. Buckland, CLE. — 
Greece, from the coming of the Hellenes to 14 A.D., by E. S. 
Shuckburgh, Litt.D., Lecturer in Ancient History, University 
College, London 172—206 

India under Royal Eyes, by H. F. Prevost Battersby, author of ''In 
the Web of War." "The Plague of the Heart," etc.— A Biblio- 
graphy of the Sanskrit Drama, with an Introductory Sketch of the 
Dramatic Literature of India, by Montgomery Schuyler, Jr.A.M., 
Consul-General of the United States to Siam. — Hindustani for 
Every Day, by Colonel W. R. M. Holroyd, M.R.A.S., Fellow of 
Calcutta University, and of the University of the Punjab, and 
Director of Public Instruction, Punjab. — Persia by a Persian, being 
Personal Experiences of Manners, Customs, Habits, Religious and 
Social Life in Persia, by Rev. Isaac Adams, M.D., author of 
" Darkness and Daybreak " ; founder of the Nestorian Colony in 
Canada. — Everyday Life among the Head-Hunters, and other 
Experiences from East to West, by Dorothy Cator. With thirty- 
four illustrations from photographs. — Rifle and Romance in the 
Indian Jungle : a Record of Thirteen Years, by Captain A. J. R. 
Glasfurd, of the Indian Army. With numerous illustrations by the 



iv Contents. 

PACKS 

author and from photographs. — The Achehnese, by Dr. C. Snonck 
Hurgronje. Translated by the late A. W. S. O'Sullivan, Assistant 
Colonial Secretary, Straits Settlements. With an Index by R. J. 
Wilkinson. 2 vob. — Things Indian : being discursive notes on 
various subjects connected with India, by William Crooke, of the 
Bengal Civil Service (retired). Pp. 544. — Empires and Emperors 
of Russia, China, Korea, and Japan, by Count Vay de Vaya and 
Luskod. — Sadi's Scroll of Wisdom, with Introduction, by Arthur 
N. WoUaston, CI. El — A History of Assam, by E. A. Gait, 
Indian Civil Service 398—420 

Our Library Table 206,421 

Summary of Events in Asia, Africa, and the Colonies . 215, 432 



THE IMPERIAL 

AND 



A s iatic Quart e rly Review, 

AND ORIENTAL AND COLONIAL RECORD. 



JULY, 1906. 

AN INDIAN MILITIA FOR INDIA'S 

DEFENCE.* 

By S. S. Thorburn, i.cs. (Retired). 

Though Russophobia dates back to the beginning of the 
last century, costly action to strengthen our position in 
Northern India against attack by Russia only began in 
1838, when for the first time we invaded Afghanistan. 
Soon afterwards, under the same obsession, we conquered 
and annexed Sindh (1842) and the Punjab (1849), thus 
extending our dominion to the line of the Indus. There, 
for the next twenty-five years, we sat still in fancied 
security, closing our eyes to Russia's progress towards us. 
We woke up in 1877-78 to find her in military possession 
of Central Asia as far south as the Oxus, and her envoy 
in Kabul negotiating a treaty with the Amir. To convince 
the latter that England, not Russia, was his friend, we 
drove him from his country, and after two years of warfare 
and vicissitude installed as his successor a friendly and 
capable member of his family, engaging that so long as he 
held no intercourse with the rival Power, and left the 
management of all his foreign affairs to us, we should pay 
him annually a fixed subsidy, and guarantee the integrity 
of his kingdom. 

Though at the time the territories comprising it were 

♦ The discussion on this paper will appear in the report of the 
Proceedings of the East India Association in our next issue. 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXII. A 



2 An Indian Militia for India s Defence. 

known and loosely described, the exact boundaries had 
nowhere been clearly ascertained and defined; hence, before 
the engagement could become effective, the delimitation of 
Afghanistan with Russia, Persia, and India was necessary. 
Work in the field was soon after begun, and, in spite of 
delays, difficulties, and the Panjdeh crisis in 1885, has 
been slowly and thoroughly carried through, with the 
result that all the States and tribes, parties to the opera- 
tions, have exact knowledge of their common frontiers and 
the political relations subsisting between them. In each 
case the actual boundary-lines, marked by cairns of stones 
or mounds of soil, and the lands adjacent thereto, have 
been mapped in a way which would compare favourably 
with the Ordnance Survey sheets of English counties. 

In prosecuting the work, once preliminaries were settled 
by negotiations, Russia was slow, determined, but fairly 
reasonable, and Persia evasive and obstructive. Our 
greatest troubles occurred in surveying and fixing the lines 
between the eastern front of Afghanistan and the Pathan 
tribes occupying the mountain ranges immediately west of 
the valley of the Indus. However, after twenty years of 
persistence, and the expenditure of many lives and much 
treasure, the whole series of operations — with one small 
exception in Mohmand territory — has at last been accom- 
plished, and India has now a triple line of defence against 
aggression by Russia — viz., (i) Afghanistan, a buffer State ; 
(2) the belt of highlands between our actual and Afghan 
frontiers, held by a number of independent Pathan tribes 
within our exclusive sphere of influence, and extending for 
500 miles from the Pamirs to Biluchistan ; and (3) our 
actual frontier, mostly acquired in 1849, loosely described 
as the valley of the Indus. 

The strength of our most advanced and weakest line 
depends on the will and ability of the two responsible 
powers — the Amir of Afghanistan and the British Cabinet 
of the day — to fulfil their respective obligations. Whether 
or no we should have the power — assuming the will — to do 



An Indian Militia for Indicts Defence. 3 

our duty would depend upon the number of soldiers we 
should be able to put in the fighting line and maintain there, 
and the amount of loss we could inflict upon Russia by the 
blockade of her ports and destruction of her sea-borne 
commerce. The strength of our second line, the western 
hinterlands of the Pathan highlanders just beyond our 
actual frontier, is problematical ; it corresponds with the 
"scientific frontier" of the late Lord Lytton, and has some 
-excellent defensive positions, which it would be difficult to 
turn or take if the local tribes were with us — an ** if" upon 
which no reliance will ever be possible, depending as it 
would upon the success of our arms in the field and the 
amount of well-paid service which we should give the 
tribesmen. 

The strength of the third line, that actually held by us, 
is enormous, the eastern ends of the only two present-day 
army approaches to India, those via the Khyber on the north 
and Kandahar and Biluchistan on the south, being strongly 
fortified and garrisoned, the former at Peshawar and Rawal 
Pindi, the latter at Quetta. In addition, all the secondary 
positions of strategic value throughout the Indus valley are 
interconnected by railways, which are linked up with the 
main lines of the Indian peninsula. So satisfactory is this, 
our ultimate line of defence — a glacis of roadless mountains 
and unproductive wilds for a depth of 400 miles beyond it, 
and behind it all the resources of the Indian Empire ready 
to hand — that if we had a sufficient number of reliable troops 
4o hold it^ and were not bound by treaty to defend Afghan- 
istan, the two more advanced lines might be wholly dis- 
regarded, and we might await in perfect security the slow 
and exhausting nearer approach of Russia towards the 
Indus. 

The crux of the problem of defence was, is, and long will 
-continue to be, that contained in the italicized words in the 
kst sentence. Until the middle of the seventies, the 
advocates of inaction, with whom the Liberals identified 
themselves, had reason in their contention that the forward 

A 2 



4 An Indian Militia for India s Defence, 

policy was unwise — premature at least, as Russia's outposts 
were still separated from India by many hundred miles of 
sterile, difficult country, through which no large army could 
penetrate and survive as an organized field force, and that 
consequently, India being poor and already secure, her 
resources should be spent internally on improvements, and 
not externally in forcing our friendship upon Afghanistan, 
and probably provoking a quarrel with Russia. When, 
however, that Power reached the Oxus and began in- 
triguing with the Kabul Government, public opinion in 
England realized that a new situation had been created 
which demanded from us energetic action of some sort, and 
before 1885 had generally endorsed the Conservative 
policy of delimitation, and the assumption of responsibility 
for the preservation of Afghanistan as a buffer State. 

By guaranteeing the integrity of Afghanistan we ad- 
vanced India's political frontier to the Russo- Afghan 
delimited line, and have since stood committed to defend 
it against aggression by Russia. When undertaking that 
obligation we doubtless supposed that, should events in 
Europe or Persia induce our rival to put our ability to the 
test, we should have the power to prove it, and to further 
secure the desired result we augmented our Anglo-Indian 
army by 10,000 British and 20,000 newly-raised Indian 
troops. Had we foreseen that before the passing of a 
generation Russia would be in a position to seize Herat 
and occupy Afghan territory up to the Hindu Kush before 
we could put a single division in Kandahar, and, further, that 
for every man we could maintain in the fighting line Russia 
would be able to keep five, it may be doubted whether we 
should have undertaken responsibilities so hopelessly beyond 
our means of performance as they were and still are. 

What changed the whole situation was the rapid com- 
pletion of Russia's system of strategic railways up to her 
Afghan frontier — two lines linked up with her European 
systems, one on the south, from the Caspian to Merv, the 
Oxus, and Andijan, and the other on the north, from 



An Indian Militia for India s Defence. 5 

Orenburg, in South- Western Siberia, connecting with it, 
supplemented by a branch extension from Merv to Kushk, 
a military outpost and depot only two forced marches from 
Herat. Even so equipped, we doubted whether Russia would 
be able to place and feed more than two or three divisions in 
Afghan Turkestan. Her recent war with Japan has now 
demonstrated that she could at any time maintain there or 
nearer the Indus, not 50,000, but 500,000 troops. In 
Manchuria, 5,500 miles from Moscow, and connected with 
it by the frail thread of a single-line railway, with a long 
break at Lake Baikal, she recently placed and supplied for 
eighteen months over half a million of soldiers. What she 
did in the Far East she could very easily do in the Middle 
East, at less than half the distance from her bases, with 
two railways in rear, and continuous sources of supply con- 
veniently near the theatre of war — viz., Southern Russia, 
Persia, South-Western Siberia, and the more productive 
of her Central Asian districts. These sources are capable of 
contributing quite as much food to an army in Afghanistan 
as South- Eastern Siberia, Mongolia, and Northern Man- 
churia did in the late war to the Russian forces in the field. 
If, instead of forcing war upon Japan, Russia had thrown her 
weight upon Afghanistan, with India as her ultimate objec- 
tive, she would have had a fair chance of overwhelming all 
the fighting forces of Afghanistan, India, and Great Britain 
combined. Fortunately for us, she preferred the line of 
most, not least, resistance, and is now for many years to come 
impotent for serious aggression against a first-class Power. 
Even without the reserve of strength afforded by our 
happy alliance with Japan, we have now ample time 
wherein to solve the problem of India's defence against 
invasion. Being now a Continental Power, with a frontier 
which must be defended, marching with that of Russia for 
700 miles, and she being almost invulnerable to our navy, 
how can we so increase our land forces as to be in a 
position to fight her on equal terms somewhere between 
the Oxus and the Indus ? That is the problem. Whether 



6 An Indian Militia for India's Defence. 

in the event of her seizing Herat we should, under any 
conditions, attempt to expel her by direct attack is a 
question which may be deferred for another generation, by 
which time Russia may be again aggressive, and we may 
have an army fit to oppose her. At present we have in India 
220,000 soldiers, one-third of them British, the rest Indian. 
Of this Anglo-Indian army, 70,000 are already stationed in 
the Punjab and its two connected trans-Indus provinces, 
and that number will probably be raised to 100,000 within 
the next ten years. We have also scattered over India 
30,000 volunteers, all Britishers, and some 20,000 Imperial 
Service troops. Though the aggregate — 270,000 men — is 
considerable, less than half would, in an emergency, be 
available for active trans-Indus service ; and of our field 
force a considerable portion — the fraction depending on 
the theatre of war and the disposition of the intervening 
tribes — would be required to protect our lines of communica- 
tion. As regards the troops retained on our actual frontier 
and cis- Indus, it must be remembered that we could not 
denude our Empire Dependency of its soldiers, garrisons 
being necessary for its strong places, arsenals, cities, and 
some districts and towns ; nor would it be possible to call 
out the volunteers generally to replace troops moved for- 
wards, because 12,000 of them are railway employes, and 
of the others the bulk are serving the Government in some 
capacity. Then, too, some of our Indian regulars — many 
of those recruited in the Deccan, for instance — are unfit for 
arduous warfare in Afghanistan, a mountainous country 
with a severe climate. 

If we take 100,000 men as an extreme estimate of the 
number of troops we could put in our fighting line, and add 
thereto 30,000 half-trained and uncertain Afghans, and if 
we assume that this mixed Anglo- 1 ndo- Afghan force could 
beat an equal number of Russian troops, our army in the 
field would still be overborne by the disciplined hordes 
Russia could hurl against it. Whence, then, are we to 
orocure the additional troops necessary to defeat or wear 



An Indian Militia for India s Defence. 7 

out the invader ? The question has never yet been fairly 
faced and answered. 

For some years now we here at home have been tinker- 
ing with our little British army, but, improve it as we may, 
until we enormously increase its numbers, we shall never in 
any crisis be able to spare, except at very great risk to 
ourselves, and at a cost which would be crippling, more 
than 40,000 to 50,000 foreign service soldiers as special 
reinforcements for India. 

Lord Roberts recently, when appealing to the nation to 
adopt universal military training, pointed out that, in the 
contingency contemplated, it would be " imperative " that 
we should be in a position to put at least half a million 
. British soldiers in the fighting line in Afghanistan, rele- 
gating the protection of our communications to Indian 
troops. That probably was intended as a counsel of per- 
fection, for if we could mobilize a foreign service army of 
half a million men we should hardly waste it in Central Asia, 
but use it for counter-attack on Russia's Baltic littoral. 
By so doing we should reduce the cost per man by half or 
more, minimize our home risks from jealous European 
Powers, and force a quick issue ; in Central Asia we might 
fight to mutual exhaustion without conclusive results in the 
field. 

As it is obvious that, unless here in England we adopt 
the Continental military system — which is unlikely, our 
people shortsightedly relying on our navy and insularity, 
and shutting their eyes to outside factors — our small and 
costly home army will never be able to contribute largely 
for the defence of India, it follows that she must draw most 
of her material for that purpose from her own population. 
Dare we, then, take a new departure and convert a con- 
siderable fraction of that population into half-made soldiers ? 
That is the question towards the solution of which I 
venture to offer some suggestions. 

If we dare but hold that Indian troops, though recruited 
from the best available material, led by British officers, 



8 An Indian Militia for India s Defence, 

and fighting in conjunction with British troops, are not suffici- 
ently reliable to beat equal numbers of conscript Russians 
— cadit qtuestio — we shall not be able to stem Russia's next 
movement towards India. On this preliminary point of 
quality I think the preponderance of expert opinion favours 
the belief that Sikhs, Ghoorkhas, Pathans, and after them 
the best classes of Hindu Jats, Rajputs, and Punjabi 
Musalmans, are as good fighting men as any in the world. 
Only a few months ago Sir Ian Hamilton, in his scrap- 
book on the first part of the Russo-Japanese War, re- 
corded : *' Every thinking soldier who has served on our 
recent Indian campaigns is aware that for the requirements 
of such operations a good Sikh, Pathan, or Gurkha 
battalion is more generally serviceable than a British . 
battalion." In the next page he wrote: **Why, there is 
material in the North of India and in Nepaul sufficient and 
fit, under good leadership, to shake the artificial society of 
Europe to its foundations." 

On the main question, that of trustworthiness, opinions 
will always differ. Certainly, for many years after the 
Mutiny we acted on a policy of distrust Since early in 
the seventies our attitude has been gradually changing, as 
proved by the successive steps of the arming of the Indian 
troops with the same or as good a rifle as that in the hands 
of their British comrades, the establishment of corps of 
Imperial Service troops, the addition since 1885 of five 
new Indian mountain batteries to the six previously exist- 
ing, and, finally, the partial introduction of Lord Kitchener's 
new distribution and concentration scheme. 

Notwithstanding these indications of a broadening con- 
fidence in the loyalty of the most martial tribes and castes 
of India, the composition of our Anglo-Indian army con- 
tinues to be one-third British to two-thirds Indian, and, 
with the exception of the mountain batteries just referred 
to, and one garrison battery, the whole of the artillery in 
India is British. Further, though from time to time Indians 
have petitioned to be enrolled as volunteers, and nothing in 



An Indian Militia for India s Defence. 9 

the Indian Volunteers Act, 1869, as amended in 1896, 
shuts out any class of ** loyal subjects " from so serving, 
Christianity, and a skin showing at least partial European 
descent, are still indispensable for eligibility. 

Though it is true that, as a whole, our combined Anglo- 
Indian army constitutes India's defence against external 
enemies, it is equally true that the British third is more 
England's garrison in India than India's reserve of force 
against hostile movements from outside. The belief that 
justice is the basic principle on which the stability of our 
rule in India depends is no doubt correct, but ultimately it 
depends also on our power to enforce order, and this we 
preserve by maintaining the perfect equipoise of the forces 
of possible disturbance. To that end we determine the 
composition of the class and caste regiments of the Indian 
army, and the ratio of British to Indian troops. 

This policy of equipoise, analogous between nations to 
what is called ** the balance of power," is undoubtedly 
sound, but if we compare conditions in the sixties with 
those of the present time, it will, I think, be conceded that 
what may have been necessary or advisable then is so no 
longer. Progress in education, great industries, communi- 
cations by sea and land, and world knowledge acquired by 
reading, observation, and travel, has borne in upon all 
Indians of insight and intelligence a reasonable conception, 
if not of their citizenship in the British Empire, at least of 
the solid advantages enjoyed by them from their place in it ; 
and as to the masses whose aspirations hardly extend beyond 
the next full meal, they know that their daily bread is more 
secure under the British Government than it would be under 
either of the two possible alternatives, Russian or Home rule. 

If the above views of the oneness of India with our 
Empire be accepted, the desired equipoise qu& forces inside 
India would be preserved were we to considerably reduce 
not only the numbers of the Anglo-Indian army, but the 
standard ratio of its white to its brown constituents as well. 
India, however, being liable to land attack by Russia, and 



lo An Indian Militia for India s Defence. 

in a minor degree by France also, requires for her security 
an army fully twice as numerous as that which she now 
possesses, and as limitations of men and money render it 
difficult or impossible for us to send her large reinforce- 
ments from this country, the best and most economic means 
for increasing her defensive forces would be, I believe, by 
the creation of an Indian militia. 

About fifteen years ago, in conjunction with a brother 
civilian, now the head of a department under the Govern- 
ment of India, I submitted proposals on the subject to the 
military authorities, and there the matter ended ; we were 
told our ideas were impracticable, as they involved a depar- 
ture from the established proportion between the British 
and Indian soldiers. Perhaps, in view of the circumstances 
sketched above, the subject may now be considered, 
examined, and decided upon its merits. 

Recruitment for the militia would, of course, be by 
voluntary enlistment. Since 1880 Indians have from time 
to time petitioned to be enrolled as volunteers, but, so far, 
the movement has been confined to urban ** intellectuals," 
particularly Bengalis, a class which, however loyal and 
patriotic, would be unfit to resist Russians or the Afghan 
climate. For militia service we should have to draw, 
certainly in the first instance, on the hardiest of the cis- 
Indus peasantry of Northern India, namely, on those tribes 
and classes who supply most of the Punjabi recruits for the 
army — Sikhs, Jats, Rajputs, and the group loosely con- 
gregated in the Army List as ** Punjabi Musalmans," in 
which term are included the many branches of Pathans 
and Biluches who are settled in the districts immediately 
east of the Indus. AH are of good physique, inured to 
hardships, and imbued with fighting traditions ; hence for 
rough campaigning under any conditions it would be diffi- 
cult to find better raw material. 

Though army service is generally popular with them, 
they are, Sikhs excepted, so numerous that the great bulk 
of their active manhood remain in their villages occupying 



An Indian Militia for India s Defence. 



II 



themselves in husbandry and other rural pursuits for nearly 
nine months in the year. For three and a half, from about 
the middle of November to the end of February, there is 
little or nothing for them to do in the field. The cold 
weather, then, the busiest time for soldiers, is the idlest for 
agriculturists. In those months they would be proud and 
happy to serve the Government in any capacity, provided 
that the work was honourable, remunerative, and, if possible, 
congenial and not very far from home. No employment 
better fulfils the first three provisos than soldiering, and 
service in a tribal and territorial militia would further fulfil 
the last. Thus the Government has ready to hand a prac- 
tically unlimited source of supply for an Indian militia of 
the best quality, and if the matter be taken up and wisely 
and considerately worked, I am certain — and I lived amongst 
and interested myself in the Punjab peasantry for over 
thirty years — that by the time when Russia will have re- 
covered from the effects of her last war and its domestic con- 
sequences, we should be able to put as large an army in the 
field against her as she is ever likely to move and maintain 
south of the Oxus, if not in Afghan-Turkestan, certainly 
cis-Hindu Kush, in which case India's preparedness would 
be the best possible guarantee for Russia's peacefulness. 

From the following statement the fields of enlistment 
in each part of the Punjab and the British cantonments 
within each area of population will be seen at a glance : 





Aoproximate 
Numbers 






Tribe or Class. 


Locality of Densest 


British Cantonments 


(Census of 


Population. 


within the Locality. 




1901). 
2,200,000 


Central plains 




Sikhs 


Lahore, Amritsar, 








and Jallunder 


Jats (mostly 


5,000,000 


South - East and Mid- 


Ferozcpore and 


Hindus) 




Punjab 


Umbala 


Rajputs 


1,800,000 


Eastern hills and generally 


Jallunder and 


(mixed) 




eastern half of the Umbala 

1 






province 




Punjabi 


3,000,000 


Western plains and Salt 


Rawal Pindi and 


Musalmans 




Range Multan 

1 



12 An Indian Militia for India's Defence, 

Out of the aggregate i2,ooo,cxx), the males between 
twenty and forty years of age would certainly be one in 
eight, or 1,500,000, from a sixth to a third of whom would 
probably be keenly eager to serve in the militia. Whether 
the establishment of an Indian militia on a large scale will 
be practicable, safe, and a good investment, or the reverse, 
can only be proved after giving the experiment a fair trial. 
Personally, I am convinced that it is the only possible form 
of insurance against invasion, risks, and scares open to us. 
Some of the grounds for this opinion have already been 
given. 

All interested in India know that the peasant and yeoman 
proprietary of the Punjab are sturdy, laborious, manly, and 
very poor ; that the land revenue annually collected from 
each holding does not average more than thirty shillings ; 
and that Government employment in the agriculturists* 
idle season would be very popular. It may not be so 
well known that in their villages the soldier is the most 
honoured, the muafidar the most envied of men ; the latter 
term means the holder of a mimfi or revenue-free parcel of 
land. If, then, the Government, in addition to paying the 
militiaman at military rates during his few weeks of annual 
training, were also to grant him a small muaf on all or 
some of his unmortgaged fields, not only would almost every 
small farmer volunteer, but the prize of a muafi would be a 
spur to his speedily mastering his drill in cantonment and 
practising thrift in his village. Once an ** effective," four 
or five weeks' training in each subsequent year would 
probably suffice to keep him up to standard. As after 
each course his rifle and uniform — excepting, perhaps, 
some symbol of his honourable calling to wear on occasion 
at home — would be kept for him by the military authorities, 
he would, whilst a civilian, revert to his position in the 
body politic of unarmed peasant. In the event of being 
called out to prepare for active service, probably a few 
months of hard drilling and rifle practice would qualify him 
for duty on the line of communications ; thence, as regiment 



An Indian Militia for India s Defence i 



o 



after regiment approached the standard of the regulars, 
they would be pushed forward to feed the fighting line. 

As regards risk, it is hard to see where the element of 
possible danger to our security comes in. Per se a drilled 
but unarmed peasant muafidar must be a better supporter 
of order than an ignorant yokel, whose world knowledge 
only extends to his village boundary. The annual expense 
of drill in a large cantonment would prove a liberal educa- 
tion for him. After all, too, even were risk possible it 
should be faced. There is no alternative. We must safe- 
guard the land approaches to India, and that is impossible 
unless we can at short notice double our fighting forces in 
India. As we have not the men or, for that matter, the 
money to put and keep in the fighting line trans- Indus 
ioo,ocx> British troops — Lord Roberts demands five times 
that number — we have no alternative but to use Indians 
for India's defence. 

As regards the value of the investment, the upkeep of 
a militia force 100,000 strong would be less than that of 
20,CH30 Indian or 8,000 British troops : hence the cost would 
not be great; moreover, the whole of the money would 
circulate in the country. The heaviest outlay would occur 
during the first two years from the date of raising each 
regiment, as arms, kit, shelter, would all have to be pro- 
vided, and the period of training would be longer than 
afterwards. As a small set-off, there would at first be a 
saving in the recurring item of muafies for efficients. Then, 
too, the scheme would come into full operation very 
gradually, and would probably be worked out, once the 
experimental stage was passed and success assured, in such 
a way that by the time that the initial expenditure of con- 
stitution of regimental units had practically ceased to 
appear in the militia budgets, the complement of strength, 
whether 100,000 or more, would be reached. 

In elaborating the scheme the matter of greatest difficulty 
would be the provision of British officers. In peace-time 
probably two per regiment would suffice. If the existing 



14 An Indian Militia for India s Defence. 

complement with mounted infantry regiments were in- 
creased by that number, the Indian army might be drawn 
upon during the training periods for that purpose. How 
best to meet the case of a general mobilization for active 
service, when hundreds of additional British officers would 
be required, is a problem of detail to be solved by fore- 
thought and expenditure. It would be easy to provide 
and distribute them throughout India until the contingency 
contemplated should arise, but the expense would be con- 
siderable and the waste of good material great, as the find- 
ing of full peace employment for such large numbers of 
Englishmen would be hardly practicable. Whatever the 
ultimate cost of an Indian militia adequate to India's 
necessities, whether it add lo per cent, or more to her 
present military budget, the price paid for insurance would 
be small. 



15 



BALUCHISTAN.^ 

By Colonel C. E. Yate, c.s.l, c.m.g. 

Baluchistan, the frontier province, of which I was the 
Chief Commissioner from 1900 to 1904, contains a total 
area of 132,000 odd square miles — that is, some 11,000 
square miles larger than England, Scotland, and Ireland 
put together, or some 21,000 square miles larger than the 
whole of Italy. 

The province extends from the Gumal Pass, near Dera 
Ismail Khan, in the north-east, right down to the sea at 
Gwettar, on the Persian border in the south-west Regard- 
ing the eastern frontiers adjoining the North-west frontier 
province, the Punjab and Sind, I need not say anything — 
that is all internal India. The northern portion of Balu- 
chistan directly administered by the British Government is 
divided into five districts — viz., Zhob, Loralai, Sibi, Quetta- 
Peshin, and Chagai. The first four of these are each 
controlled by a political agent, or deputy commissioner in 
charge, with one assistant to help him. Chagai, which is 
the latest addition to our administered territories, has as 
yet only one assistant in charge of it ; and though in actual 
extent, some 19,000 square miles, Chagai greatly exceeds 
the other districts, still, it is very sparsely populated, and 
the time has only lately come when more detailed adminis- 
trative machinery is a necessity. Considering, however, 
the importance of the Seistan trade route which passes 
through it, more especially now that the railway has reached 
Nuski, I trust the Government of India will soon give the 
officer in charge the same status as those in charge of the 
other districts, and also an assistant to work under him. 
When I succeeded Sir Hugh Barnes in the charge of the 
province in 1900, the whole of the country, from the Gumal 

* Lecture delivered before the Central Asian Society, 22, Albemarle 
Street, Ix>ndon, W., February 14, 1906. 



1 6 Baluchistan. 

on the north to Sibi in the south was administered by two 
district officers only. Each district averaged over 14,000 
square miles in extent, and as time went on, and adminis- 
tration became more complex, the officers in charge found 
it impossible to give the outlying portions of their districts 
the supervision that was necessary. The Government of 
India, I am glad to say, agreed to my proposals to divide 
the area into three districts instead of two, and the central 
portion was, therefore, taken away and formed into the new 
district of Loralai — so named from the cantonment which 
forms its headquarters — and the size of the Zhob and Sibi 
districts was thus reduced to more workable limits. At the 
same time, the consent of His Highness the Khan of 
Kalat was obtained to the lease, on a fixed quit-rent, of 
the strip of country running along the Sind border to the 
north of Jacobabad, known as the Khan's lands. This 
small strip, belonging to the Khan of Kalat, but irrigated 
by British canals from Sind, had long been the cause of 
much trouble, owing to the unsatisfactory state of the 
Khan s administration, and its transfer to British rule was 
a relief to all concerned, and especially to the people them- 
selves. 

Thus the whole of Northern Baluchistan, stretching from 
the Gumal Pass on the north to Chagai on the south-west 
and the Khan's lands on the south-east, a tract of some 
53,000 square miles in extent (including the Marri and 
Bugti country, which is tribal territory), is governed by 
five district officers with four assistants, a total of nine 
British officers in all this great extent of territory. One 
revenue and judicial commissioner controls them all in 
those two branches of the administration, and I don't sup- 
pose that ten British officers can show better results in any 
part of the world. The rule of these ten Britishers — one 
officer, roughly speaking, to an average of some 5,000 
odd square miles — is a magnificent testimony to the strength 
and power of our Indian Administration. 

Considering the importance of Baluchistan, both in a 



Baluchistan. 1 7 

political and military sense, in case of war on the frontier, 
the wildness of the tribesmen and the constant fights, 
disputes, and disturbances connected with land, women, 
cattle, and everything, in fact, that man holds dear, that 
are continually going on amongst them, the constant and 
strong personal rule which British officers alone can give 
IS a necessity, and the British element in the Baluchistan 
administration should be extra strong ; but this can hardly 
be said to be the case at present 

There are many questions connected with the internal 
administration of Baluchistan that I could touch upon, 
many of them peculiar to Baluchistan, and all affording an 
interesting study, but they are foreign to our subject. I 
may simply mention that, before I left Baluchistan, I had 
the good fortune to receive a special grant from the Govern- 
ment of India of 10,000 rupees for the construction of a 
boarding-house to be attached to the Sandeman High 
School at Quetta for the accommodation of the sons of 
sirdars and headmen who may be sent in there for their 
education ; and now that the chiefs will be able to place 
their sons under proper supervision in a well-constituted 
boarding-house, I hope education amongst the upper classes 
of the province will make more rapid progress than it has 
hitherto done. 

Another grant was also given us for the construction of 
a library and museum, which building was well in hand 
before I left. I trust that before long a really comprehen- 
sive collection of books bearing upon Central Asia will be 
the distinguishing feature of this library. I did my best to 
get as many of these books together as I could before I 
left, and my successors, I hope, will continue the work. 
The library and musuem has been erected close to the 
beautiful Sandeman Memorial Hall at Quetta, in which 
the autumn meeting of the Shahi Jirga, composed of all the 
native chiefs of the province, is held. The spring meeting 
is held at Sibi in the plains, where, at my suggestion, a 
roomy hall was erected in 1 902 by the chiefs, officials, and 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXII. B 



1 8 Baluchistan. 

people of Baluchistan to perpetuate the memory of Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, so that Baluchistan is now gradu- 
ally becoming fairly well provided with public buildings. 

So much for the northern portion of the province, which 
we may call, in a general way, British Baluchistan. 

The southern portion of the province is all native terri- 
tory, and here we have one political agent with two 
assistants controlling the whole country from the Bolan 
Pass right down to the sea, a country nearly 80,000 square 
miles in extent, and one of the most difficult and important 
charges of its kind in the whole of India. There are two 
minor territorial chiefs, the Jam of Las Bela and Sir Nouroz 
Khan of Kharan, but the Khan of Kalat is the nominal 
ruler of the country. After all, though, His Highness the 
Khan is ovXy primus inter pares amongst all the Brahui 
and Baluch sirdars, of which the Kalat confederacy is com- 
posed, and it was the revolt of these chiefs from the Khan s 
authority that first led to British interference, resulting in 
Sir Robert Sandeman s settlement, known as the Mastung 
Treaty of 1876. Since that date, the power of the tribal 
chiefs has increased rather than decreased, and the power 
of the Khan, as the leading factor of the country, is no 
longer what it was in olden days. 

Kalat is like no part of India that I know of, in that the 
Khan takes no revenue from the chiefs, and the chiefs take 
no revenue from the people, so that the income both of the 
Khan and of the sirdars, or chiefs of tribes, is, except 
partly in the south, entirely derived from the lands owned 
by themselves individually. The territory owned by His 
Highness the Khan is divided up into various districts, 
called Niabats, each under its own Naib, or local governor. 
Each chief has his own family lands, in virtue of the chief- 
ship he holds, and we thus have the Khan at the head of 
the confederacy as chief landowner, and some fifty sirdars, 
or chiefs of tribes, each holding lands in various degrees, 
and each controlling their own particular tribesmen. Under 
the agreement of Mastung of 1876, all important disputes 





Baluchistan, 19 

between the various sirdars and tribesmen come up for 

settlement before the political agent, and are disposed of, 

under his orders, by Jirgas, or assemblies of chiefs and 

headmen, or by Shariat, that is, Muhammadan Law, or by 

arbitration, as the case may be. In such a huge tract of 

country it is impossible for any one British officer to get to 

know the various chiefs and tribesmen properly in the 

ordinary tenure of a political officer's appointment. What 

with illness, leave, and transfers generally, no officer 

remains long, as a rule, nowadays in any one appointment, 

and successful administration is thus all the more difficult, 

and especially so in Kalat. In Baluchistan every effort 

should be made to prevent a constant change of officers. 

The Baluchis and Brahuis of Southern Baluchistan are 
large camel and sheep owners, and are nomads and graziers 
more than cultivators. In case of war we should draw on 
them largely for transport, and, in fact, camel registration 
has been successful beyond all expectation in Baluchistan, 
and arrangements have been completed for the enlistment 
of many camel corps both from Pathans and Baluchis in 
case of necessity. As an instance of what can be done, a 
complete camel corps was enlisted and despatched to 
Somaliland during the operations there a couple of years 
ago within a space of ten days, and many such corps could 
be enlisted and sent off to any part of the world with equal 
celerity. The Pathan and Baluch has no objection to 
crossing the sea ; in fact, a large portion of the camelmen in 
Western Australia hail from Baluchistan, and they are 
still constantly coming and going to and fro. 

It is not only, however, in camels that Baluchistan offers 
such a fine field for recruitment. Every day the desire for 
enlistment amongst the men is more and more marked. 
The first step to further this desire for enlistment amongst 
the Baluch tribesmen is to enlist them in a local levy corps, 
the frontier term for what corresponds in Baluchistan to 
our yeomanry and militia at home. As yet only two such 
levy corps exist in Baluchistan : one in the north, known 

6 2 



20 Baluchistan. 

as the Zhob Levy Corps, composed almost entirely, of 
Pathans, and one in the south, known as the Mekran Levy 
Corps, composed of Baluchis and Brahuis from Kalat. In 
the Zhob Levy Corps the press of men to enlist is becoming 
greater every day, and the sirdars and people thoroughly 
identify themselves with the corps in every way. Owing 
to the impossibility of entertaining all applicants, the desire 
to enlist in regular regiments is getting stronger and 
stronger, so much so that the Zhob Pathans are beginning 
to look upon it as a grievance that recruiting in the two 
local Baluchistan regiments is closed to them. I hope that, 
before long, the Punjabis and the Sikhs in these Baluchis- 
tan regiments may be eliminated, and that not only both 
regiments may be made Baluchistan regiments in reality as 
well as in name by the enlistment of only local men, but 
that a third battalion may also be raised to complete the 
centre. It is a curious thing that in England we have been 
doing our utmost to make our regiments territorial, and yet 
in India, where we have our local and territorial regiments, 
we are doing just the contrary. 

The Brahuis and Baluchis in the Mekran Levy Corps 
are hardy tribesmen, inured from early youth to long- 
distance rides, and who in time of war would make excellent 
scouts, and would also be reliable men in case of internal 
disturbance in India. We have, at present, three Baluch 
regiments in the Indian Army, but they have only two 
companies of Baluchis each instead of eight, and the system 
of recruitment by recruiting-parties under non-commissioned 
officers is not of the best. The real way to get the right 
stamp of men is to obtain the help and co-operation of the 
sirdars and chiefs of tribes by getting them to give a son, 
a brother, or a cousin of their own as a native officer, with 
the required complement of their own tribesmen as sepoys. 
These tribesmen, doubtless, are wild and unused to dis- 
cipline, and inclined to break the bonds of restraint ; but 
one has to remember that the generation which knew not 
the British Government has not yet passed away. The 



Baluchistan. 2 1 

wildness is gradually wearing off, and the generation to 
come will probably take to discipline without a murmur. 
Thus the day is not far distant when Baluchistan will 
become a most valuable recruiting-ground, and every penny 
spent now in raising local levy corps, and in thus inducing 
a spirit of discipline amongst the people, will bear good 
fruit hereafter. Indeed, without levy corps properly armed 
and disciplined under the command of British officers — 
something after the fashion of the old Punjab frontier force 
when first raised — I do not see how the district officers in 
Baluchistan can be expected to maintain proper control 
over their frontiers in peace-time, or throughout their 
districts in time of war, when the regular troops will be 
called away. The police maintained in Baluchistan are 
mostly enlisted in India, and are employed almost entirely 
on the railway line and at headquarters of districts and 
Tehsils, and it is properly-armed levies or militia that we 
have to look to for the preservation of law and order in the 
outlying districts and along the frontier, where Indian police 
and regular troops are equally out of place. 

The raising of the Mekran Levy Corps and the appoint- 
ment of an assistant to the political agent of Kalat, for the 
special charge of Mekran, was one of Lord Curzon's last 
administrative measures before I left Baluchistan. At present 
Mekran is ruled by an uncle of the principal Sarawan Sirdar 
under the supervision of the political agent ; but the hold. 
of the Nazim, as he is styled, over the country, is not suffi- 
cient to enable him to carry out reforms or to introduce 
really efficient administration ; and the sanction for the 
raising of a local levy corps, to guard the frontier from 
Persian raids, and for the appointment of a British officer 
to control our frontier relations and to support the Nazim 
in his administration and facilitate trade, will, I hope, have 
most beneficent results. 

Now, to turn to the western, or external frontiers of the 
province. On the north we first of all have to deal with 
the Waziri country — that hitherto lawless tract which has 



22 Baluchistan. 

given so much trouble in former years, and whose people 
have been so prone to raids. Since the Mahsud-Waziri 
blockade, the one frontier operation during Lord Curzon's 
Viceroyalty, things have mended greatly, though the danger 
of fresh outbreaks is always present. Leaving the Gumal 
River at Domandi we come to Afghan territory, and this 
extends for no less a distance than some 800 miles of frontier 
in a general south-westerly direction till we come to Koh-i- 
Malik Siah, on the Persian frontier — the small hill that 
marks the tribeyt of our Indian Empire, Persia, and 
Afghanistan. 

The Baluchistan frontier, on its northern side, is guarded 
by a chain of posts held by the Zhob Levy Corps, extending 
from the Gumal Pass, on the Waziri border on the north- 
east, down along the Afghan border to the confines of the 
Zhob district, to the north of Hindabagh, on the south-west. 
The large tract of highland country along this portion of 
the Afghan border is known as Kakar Khorasan, and is a 
wild and comparatively little known part of Baluchistan, 
standing at an elevation of between 6,000 and 7,000 feet 
above sea-level, and almost entirely cut off from the rest of 
the district throughout the winter months. In spring and 
early summer it is one vast grazing-ground, inhabited by 
numbers of nomads with their herds of camels and sheep ; 
but during the winter it is almost entirely deserted, except 
Jor the small settlements that are gradually springing up 
around the Zhob Levy Corps* outposts. I was much struck 
by the almost entire absence of cultivation when I travelled 
through this country ; but the efforts that I directed to be 
made to induce cultivators to settle there will, I hope, show 
good results. 

Another similar upland tract of country to the west of 
Kakar Khorasan is known as Toba, and stretches along the 
northern side of the Peshin district. This similarly is 
thickly occupied in summer, but is mostly deserted in winter, 
when the majority of the Achakzai tribesmen move down 
into Afghan territory on the western borders of the Registan 



Baluchistan. 23 

desert. This divided population, living one half of the 
year in British territory and the other half in Afghan 
territory, is one of the main causes of trouble on this part 
of the frontier. The original fault was the rendition to the 
Amir after the termination of the Afghan War of the small 
district called Shorawak, a little tract of land lying at the 
foot of the Khwajah Amran range and between that and 
the Registan desert. This outlying bit of territory had 
been taken over by us with Peshin under the treaty of 
Gundamak, and had been administered by us for some 
years, and it would have been much more politic both for 
the British and Afghan Governments had we retained 
Shorawak and constituted the Registan desert as the bound- 
ary between British territory and Kandahar. As it is, any 
man with a grievance, real or fancied, whether about family 
matters, land, cattle, wife, betrothal, or anything whatsoever, 
has only to cross over the Afghan border and raid back to 
his heart s content ; whereas were the desert the frontier, 
he would, at any rate, have to go to the other side of it, and 
he would thus be too far away to do much harm. Reports 
of raids on this frontier have appeared in the papers of late, 
and though the border is now far, far quieter in this respect 
than when I first went to Baluchistan sixteen years ago ; still 
there is always the possibility of trouble, and I trust the 
Government of India will eventually come to my opinion 
that the best way to put a stop to these local disturbances 
is to garrison the Peshin frontier with a properly organized 
local levy corps under British officers, as has already been 
done further north in Zhob. I should like to see not 
only a Peshin Levy Corps, but a Chagai Levy Corps, and 
another corps for service in the Loralai and Sibi districts 
as well. 

Following the frontier westwards, the boundary-line 
passes through desert, uninhabited country. In the Chagai 
Hills, half-way along this portion of the frontier, there is 
an elevated bit of land known as Barabchah, some 5,000 
feet or so above the sea-level, where it may be possible to 



24 Baluchistan. 

live in the summer out of the great heat and constant dust- 
storms of the plain below ; but unfortunately only half of 
this little plateau belongs to us, as the boundary-line runs 
through the middle of it. The original frontier in this 
part of the country ran along the northern edge of the desert 
only some eight or ten miles to the south of the Helmand, 
but for some unexplainable reason the Government of India 
permitted the late Amir to occupy and subsequently to 
claim the country all this way to the south, and finally gave 
it to him, and, as in the case of Shorawak, we have had 
cause to rue it ever since. Instead of having a compara- 
tively straight run for our Persian trade-route from Nushki 
to Seistan, which might possibly have been arranged in 
exchange for the concessions given elsewhere, if the Govern- 
ment of India of that day could only have been induced to 
take the question up, merchants and traders have now to 
go all the way round by Koh-i-Malik Siah, and this of itself 
is a serious hindrance to trade. 

From Koh-i-Malik Siah, the Persian frontier commences, 
and this runs for some 350 miles in a general southerly 
direction to the sea at Gwettar. This frontier, too, has had 
almost as many vicissitudes in its settlement as the Afghan 
frontier I have just referred to. The first portion from 
Koh-i-Malik Siah to Jalk is only a paper frontier, and has 
not yet been locally demarcated. In the Teheran Agree- 
ment negotiated by Sir Mortimer Durand in 1895, ^^ was 
laid down that the boundary was to run in a straight line 
from Jalk to Koh-i-Malik Siah, and that in any deviation 
in local demarcation Persia was not to have more land than 
would be comprised in such a straight line. Just as the 
Amir was permitted to advance fresh claims in the case of 
the Helmand boundary, so was the Persian Government 
permitted to advance fresh claims in the case of the Jalk 
boundary, and the final result has yet to be seen. 

It is a curious thing, but we have given way to Persian 
aggressiveness in almost every instance that I can think of 
along the Persian frontier. Take the case of Kuhak, a 



Baluchistan, 2 5 

little below Jalk. Kuhak was in dispute so long ago as the 
time of the Goldsmid Mission of 1872. It was then decided 
that it belonged to Kalat, and not to Persia. Despite this, 
Persia subsequently occupied it by force of arms. The 
Government of India submitted to the occupation, and 
Kuhak has remained Persian to the present day. We reap 
the loss of it now when Kuhak is blossoming into impor- 
tance as a station on the new Central Persian Telegraph 
line, which will, in future, become our main line of tele- 
graphic communication between England and India. 

The aggressiveness shown by Persia in overrunning the 
country now known as Persian Baluchistan is only of com- 
paratively recent date. A large portion of this country, 
more especially near the coast, formerly owed its allegiance 
to the Arab rulers of Muscat, and other places were 
nominally under Kalat ; but the Arabs were gradually 
ousted, and so was the influence of the Khan of Kalat, and 
the result is that we now have a Persian Baluchistan 
bordering on a British Baluchistan, and there has been 
much friction resulting from this dual control. 

The story of the pacification of the country on our side 
of the border — the country shown as Mekran on the map 
— takes us back only a few years. This is not the time 
to enter into an account of all Sir Robert Sandeman's 
endeavours to bring Mekran under proper government, or 
the various ups and downs that the Mekran administration 
has gone through of late years, or the successive expe- 
ditions that have been necessary to punish outrages. The 
last of these expeditions occurred at the end of 1901, and I 
mention it to show what little control Persia has over its 
so-called Baluchistan subjects. A Mekran outlaw was able 
to collect a body of no less than some 503 men, formed of 
contingents from the leading Baluch chiefs on the Persian 
side of the border, and to invade Mekran and to attack and 
plunder a village called Kuntdar, carrying off loot to the 
value of a lakh of rupees or more. The Persian Govern- 
ment were unable to punish the offenders, and while we 



26 Baluchistan, 

were vainly demanding the restitution of the stolen 
property, some of these very raiders returned and took 
possession of one of the little mud forts, of which there are 
so many in Mekran, known as Nodiz, in the Kej valley. 
The Nazim of Mekran lost no time in assembling his men 
and surrounding this fort, and there I found him when I 
arrived on the scene. I think it was the fifty-third day of 
the siege when I appeared, and the Nazim had no less than 
I, GOG men round the fort. 

Major Showers, the political agent of Kalat, had been 
directed to march across country with a couple of mountain 
guns and a small cavalry escort, while I myself met him at 
Turbat in Kej with a couple of companies of infantry by 
the sea-route viA Karachi and Gwadar. Major Showers, 
leaving the guns to follow, rode on to join me, and we went 
on to Nodiz together. The scene there was a curious one. 
In a ring outside the fort were the various parties of the 
Nazim's Mekranis in shelters and trenches of sorts, and 
the raiders defiant within ; and so they might have re- 
mained to this day, for all they could do to each other, had 
we not appeared on the scene. As soon as the guns came 
up in the early morning of the following day, the men and 
mules had just an hour or so to water and feed — thinking 
nothing of having been on the march all night — and off we 
all went against the fort, the Nazim's men being told to 
stand fast in their shelters. 

One thing that we badly require in India for use against 
mud towers and small forts in country where no wheeled 
artillery can go is a jointed Howitzer, or some sort of gun 
capable of throwing a heavy shell, and yet made in pieces 
light enough to be carried on camels. I tried my best to 
induce the Military Department in India to take this 
question up, and to supply Quetta with such a gun, but 
without result, I regret to say. In the case of Nodiz the 
mountain guns were practically useless against the walls of 
the fort, and could only knock down some of the battle- 
ments ; but the fire of the outlaws, though hot for a time. 



Baluchistan. 27 

was reduced by the gallantry of the storming party, who 
got in by a hole in the wall, and the guns, being brought 
up to close quarters, finally battered down the building 
inside held by the last of the raiders, and the fort was ours. 
The two British officers who led the storming party were 
seriously wounded, and a few of our men were killed and 
wounded ; but the almost instantaneous attack and capture 
of the place, combined with the death or capture of all the 
raiders, so different in promptness and decision to the tactics 
of the people themselves during the two months preceding 
our arrival, had an extraordinary effect through the country 
generally, and I may say that Mekran has remained quiet 
ever since. 

Major Showers subsequently proceeded into Persia with 
the troops who had captured Nodiz, where the Persian 
Governor-General of Kirman met him with a body of 
Persian troops, and the united forces then marched through 
the country and exacted reparation for the plunder of 
Kuntdar. Without the support of the British troops the 
Persians could never have done this, and though the Indian 
Government has always gone out of its way to assist and 
support the Persian Government in every possible manner, 
and, as in this case, even went to large expense to do the 
work that the Persian Government ought to have done for 
itself, I have never yet seen a case in which any gratitude 
has been shown to us by the Persian Government, or in 
which anything but obstruction has been shown to British 
officials and traders. The trouble and worry that has been 
given to our officers and traders in Seistan alone during the 
last few years has filled volumes. We have been doing 
everything we could in India to open up trade through 
Nushki with Persia ; but hitherto every Persian official has 
been against us, and the wonder is that trade has been 
carried on so well as it has. Whatever results have been 
obtained have been obtained by the dogged perseverance 
and patience of our Indian political service consular officers. 

In Mekran itself the opening of the port of Pasni will, I 



28 Baluchistan, 

think, do much to facilitate trade. Lord Curzon visited 
Pasni at the conclusion of his memorable tour round the 
Persian Gulf in December, 1903, and held a Durbar there, 
at which I was present, together with the political agent and 
all the Mekran sirdars and headmen. His Excellency 
the Viceroy's speech on that occasion is one that will be 
long remembered by the latter. Since that date the road 
from Pasni to Turbat, Bolida, Panjghur, and Ladgasht has 
been, or is being, opened up, and the question of the 
erection of a small landing-stage at Pasni was being favour- 
ably considered by the Government of India when I left. 
If this landing-stage is built, Pasni will become the port of 
the Mekran coast, and will soon outrival Gwadar, which is 
a foreign port belonging to Muscat, and which only ob- 
tained pre-eminence owing to the fact that in former years 
it was the only port of call on the whole Mekran coast. 
The British India steamers now call regularly at Pasni ; 
various traders have settled there, including several from 
Gwadar, and, amongst other results, the Customs contract 
for the first two years went up from 9,000 to 1 6,000 rupees. 
With a seaport of its own, Mekran trade is sure to go 
ahead. We must not forget, either, the military importance 
of the road now being opened up. giving us direct lateral 
communication from the sea to Eastern Persia and Southern 
Afghanistan. 

One of the most serious questions on the Persian 
Baluchistan coast is the import of arms from Muscat. 
When I was last at Muscat, in 1902, a French trader was 
established at the place, through whom thousands of rifles 
and thousands of rounds of ammunition were annually im- 
ported. These were run across the Arabian Sea in native 
dhows, and landed in the secluded creeks along the Persian 
coast. The Persian authorities are unable to prevent this. 
Not only is every fort in Persian Baluchistan — ^and there 
are some very strong ones there — now filled with arms of 
precision, but the result is that the Persian Government in 
the future will be incapable of controlling the country on 



Baluchistan. 29 

their side of the border. Disturbances may break out there 
at any rime, and we have to consider what the effect may 
be on our own administration in Mekran. The British 
Government is doing its best to help the Persian Govern- 
ment, in aiding it by every means in its power to prevent 
the imp>ortation of arms and ammunition ; but the question 
is one of difficulty from a treaty point of view, and until the 
French Government consents to measures for the preven- 
tion of the import of arms into Muscat, comparatively little 
can really be done. Here, again, we are apparently suffer- 
ing from the inability of our Government officials to look 
ahead and to provide for future contingencies. Muscat and 
Zanzibar were originally one, and anybody who is familiar 
with the history of those two Sultanates will remember 
how the French treaty of 1863 applied to both. When 
that portion of the treaty regarding Zanzibar was abrogated 
in return for the French occupation of Madagascar, there 
can be little doubt that, had the opportunity been taken to 
include Muscat in the negotiations, we might have effected 
an agreement that would have saved us, not only from our 
present difficulties, but from various others that have arisen 
there before this, and have given rise to much friction. 

It is not Persia alone, though, that is affected by this 
trade. An article in the Times of February 13, 1906, 
headed "Rifle Selling in the Middle East," states that 
attention has now been drawn to the fact that a number of 
Martinis, with an Arabic inscription on them, have been 
imported into Afghanistan from the Persian Gulf, and are 
finding their way to the tribal country on the north-west 
frontier of India, where they are being sold at less than 
half of what was formerly the cost of such a rifle. This is 
most serious for India, and every effort will have to be 
made to prevent the trans-frontier tribesmen obtaining 
breech-loading weapons so cheaply, if the peace of the 
country is to be maintained. 

It is true we have had a Hague arbitration lately on the 
right of Muscat dhows to fly the French flag, but we can 



30 Baltuhistan. 

only hope that this will be followed up by the further action 
necessary to get at the root of the present evil regarding 
the importation of arms. 
Now to turn to Russia. 

We have had various communications in the newspapers 
of late on the subject of an understanding between England 
and Russia, and any understanding with Russia regarding 
Persia or Afghanistan naturally affects Baluchistan. One 
of the first of these communications was a telegram from 
the Times correspondent at St. Petersburg, published on 
October 14 last, in which a Russian advocate of such an 
understanding stated that Russia sought no modification 
whatever of the status quo in Afghanistan or Tibet ; that, 
as regards Persia, Russian policy was the policy of the 
open door, and, as regards Afghanistan, Russia strictly 
adhered to existing treaties. 

Another of these communications was an article by a 
Russian writer, described by the Paris correspondent of 
the Times in his telegram to that paper published on 
November 22 last. The Russian writer stated that **the 
understanding would comprise a formal Russian guarantee 
of the inviolability of India and Afghanistan ; a delimitation 
of purely commercial spheres of influence in Persia ; an 
understanding concerning Turkish affairs, in which England 
would support the traditional policy of Russia, and settle 
in agreement with Russia, France, Austria, and Italy the 
Armenian, Cretan, Syrian, and Macedonian questions ; 
while coming to a negative understanding as to the com- 
pletion of the Baghdad railway for the exclusive advantage 
of the Germans." 

A further telegram to the Times, dated Paris, Decem- 
ber 31, said that the bases of an understanding have 
already been arrived at, and if domestic peace was restored 
to Russia, the agreement decided on in principle would be 
immediately concluded, based on mutual concessions by the 
two contracting parties. 

Now, nothing is said as to what these mutual concessions 



Baluchistan, 3 1 

are to consist of, and in none of the communications have 
the Russian writers apparently offered us anything we have 
not got already. If the proposed Russian formal guarantee 
of the inviolability of India and Afghanistan is to consist of 
nothing more than the paper it is written on, I do not see 
that we are likely to be any better off than we are at 
present. No one would welcome a really friendly under- 
standing with Russia more than myself. No people can 
be more friendly to the Britisher than the Russians in 
Russia, and no one has received greater kindness than I 
have from Russians in Russia. It is only when we meet 
Russians outside Russia that our interests clash, and 
mutual susceptibilities are aroused ; and if any understand- 
ing can be arrived at by which the clashing of our respective 
interests in the Near East, the Middle East, and the Far 
East can in the future be avoided, a great advance will be 
made ; but the guarantee must be of practical value, and 
the concessions really mutual. An offer simply not to 
break existing treaties is not of itself a sufficient induce- 
ment to call for concessions on our part. All nations, too, 
are probably already agreed that the Baghdad Railway 
should not be constructed *' for the exclusive advantage of 
the Germans," and, considering the overwhelming pre- 
ponderance of British interests in the Persian Gulf, and the 
importance to India of a railway from the head of the Gulf 
to Baghdad in connection with the large pilgrim traffic 
between India and the holy places at Kerbela and else- 
where near Baghdad, it is only natural that the British 
share in the Baghdad Railway scheme should be the con- 
struction of the portion from the eastern terminus on the 
Persian Gulf up to the point where the line enters the 
northern confines of the Baghdad Government. When we 
consider what India did in the construction of the Uganda 
Railway, it is clear that no Government in the world could 
build a railway through Turkish Arabia so cheaply and so 
well as the Indian Government. 

Regarding railways in Persia, . Colonel Beresford in his 



32 Baluchistan. 



lecture on ** Russian Railways towards India." in December 
last, told us that the projected Russian line through Persia 
was to run from Julfa, past Tabriz, to Teheran. From 
there the main line was to run east to Meshed, Herat, Farah, 
and thence onwards in two branches, one to Seistan and the 
other to Kandahar ; while from Teheran another line was 
to run south to Kum, Isfahan, and Shiraz, and thence to 
Bandar Abbas on the Persian Gulf 

The first line from Meshed to Herat, Seistan, and Kan- 
dahar need not be considered here. The Amir of Afghan- 
istan, we all know, is averse to railways in his country. 

Regarding the second line, I cannot help thinking, despite 
the dotted lines on the Russian map exhibited by Colonel 
Beresford, that the Isfahan, Shiraz, Bandar Abbas line is 
not the only project that has been considered by Russia. 
Bandar Abbas does not appear to me to be the only port 
on the Persian Gulf that the Russians have had an eye on. 
Indeed, I am inclined to think that Chahbar has been the 
real objective that the Russians have had in view. So 
long as Afghanistan is closed to railways, any Russian line, 
from their Central Asian railways to the south, must run 
entirely through Persian territory, and instead of the pro- 
posed Meshed, Herat, Farah. Seistan line, described by 
Colonel Beresford, we may, I think, substitute a line taking 
off from the Transcaspian Railway, somewhere about 
Doshakh, or from the Merv-Kushk Railway, and running 
down the eastern border of Persia, skirting the Seistan 
Hamuns by Behrang and along the foot of the Palang Koh 
Range, and thence on southwards to Chahbar. 

I have traversed the country between Meshed and Herat 
on the north, and Seistan and Farah on the south, four 
times by four different routes, and I know of no impediment 
to a railway there. South of Seistan to Chahbar the country 
is little known, but I have never heard of anything to lead 
me to suppose that the difficulties there are insuperable ; 
and of one thing we may be very sure, and that is, by taking 
this route railway engineers would avoid the tremendous 



Baluchistan. 33 

and sudden drop from the plateau to the coast that is ex- 
perienced between Shiraz and Bushire for instance, and also 
the difficulties through the mountains between Kirman and 
Bundar Abbas. It may be said that a line through these 
desert regions of Eastern Persia would never pay, but then 
we have to remember that Russian railways are made for 
strategic, not for commercial purposes, and the Russian 
Government, if once embarked on any hostile policy, would 
certainly not be debarred from railway making by any com- 
mercial considerations. 

Now, if railways are ever to be made in Persia, Russia 
and India will each naturally claim to have the making of 
them within, what the Russian writer above referred to was 
pleased to term, the respective Jlussian and British ** purely 
commercial spheres of influence." If Russia and England 
are to have such spheres, the British sphere will, of course, 
extend from the southern borders of Khorasan near Turbat- 
i-Haidari and Khaf on the east, across the middle of the 
great salt* desert to the westward somewhere along the line 
of the thirty-fourth or thirty-fifth degree of latitude, including 
on our side the Kain, Kirman, Isfahan, and Kirmanshah 
provinces. I mention Turbat-i-Haidari and Khaf on 
purpose, because to the south of those places there is a 
desert tract marked by a small salt marsh, called Nimaksar, 
which forms the frontier between Khorasan on the north, 
and Tabas, Kain, Birjand, and Seistan on the south, 
and these four districts, which are all held by members of 
one family — that of the old Amir of Kain of Goldsmid's 
days — all fall within the British commercial sphere. The 
great salt desert is the natural divide of Persia, and should 
any railways be required in the British sphere to the south 
of this in the future, they should naturally be in British 
hands. Russia would not consent to British railway guards 
garrisoning Khorasan just on the border of her Central 
Asian possessions ; and similarly England could not agree 
to the presence in Kain, or anywhere on our side of the 
desert, of Russian troops as railway guards — such guards, for 

THIRD SERIES. VOL. XXII. C 



34 Baluchistan. 

instance^ as not so long ago were quartered in Manchuria ; 
and just as Mr. Balfour in his memorable speech of May 
last, stated that any railway construction by Russia in 
Afghanistan should be considered an unfriendly act to us, 
so should any railway constructed by Russia in the south or 
eastern portions of Persia that I have described, be equally 
considered an unfriendly act, and resented accordingly. 

A final telegram from St. Petersburg, on the subject of 
Anglo-Russian relations, appeared in the Times so late as 
February 7, 1906. The correspondent then stated that 
Anglo-Russian relations were once more receiving attention 
in the Russian press, and that the SlovOy in a series of 
articles, declared that an understanding with England was 
possible only on condition that Great Britain offered serious 
concessions regarding Southern Persia, Afghanistan, and 
Tibet ; secondly, that an intention seemed to be indicated 
on the part of the Russian Government to devote greater 
attention to Persian affairs, and that this was entirely borne 
out by the views prevailing in Russian military circles ; 
thirdly, that the chief of the Central Asiatic section of the 
general staff, in a recent lecture, dwelt upon the necessity 
of co-ordinating the efforts of Russia's army and her diplo- 
macy, in order to reach warm water in the Persian Gulf. 

This lecture was delivered before a military society in 
St. Petersburg, and a precis of it was published in the Pall 
Mall Gazette of February 7, -1906. It is well worth the 
attention of all interested in Central Asian politics as a type 
of the spirit that, I regret to see, is being shown by Russian 
oflficers of the present day. The lecture, which is rightly 
described by the Pall Mall Gazette as an ** extraordinary 
address," consists of one long tirade against the Indian 
Government, which is said to be "a system of piracy tem- 
pered by trade," **a robber government condemned for its 
cruelty and injustice," which ** evoked the hatred of the popu- 
lation/' while the relations of the British towards the Indians 
ire said to be those of ** cattle-drovers with their cattle." 

I have hitherto always given it as my opinion that the 
nore British officers in India and Russian officers in Central 



Baluchistan. 35 

Asia met each other and travelled in each other s territories, 
the more we should each learn to appreciate the work the 
other was doing, and the higher the respect we should each 
have for the other : and I must confess I am sadly dis- 
appointed to find that Colonel Snyesareff's visit to India 
has resulted in nothing better than the outpouring of this 
bitter feeling towards the English in India now described 
in the Pall Mall Gazette, We Indian officers, who know 
and love India, and have many Indian friends, well realize 
the true and fervent loyalty that pervades all that is good 
amongst the Indian chiefs and people ; as, indeed, has been 
fully instanced by the warm attachment to the British throne 
that has been so strikingly displayed throughout the tour of 
their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales. 
We can, therefore, afford to view with disdain such utter- 
ances as those I have referred to, but what we cannot afford 
to treat with neglect are the unfriendly sentiments that 
inspire such utterances. Colonel Snyesareff, so the St. 
Petersburg correspondent of the Pall Mall Gazette says, 
is ** an officer of the Liberal school, who will occupy a high 
position at the Russian War Office in case the liberalization 
of Russian institutions becomes an accomplished fact." 
Any Russian officer in power, who is imbued with such 
sentiments towards the Government of India as Colonel 
Snyesareff has so lately given public utterance to, can only 
be looked upon by those who would welcome a friendly 
understanding with Russia as a public danger, and the 
lecture only shows how little, apparently, we can really rely 
on friendly co-operation with Russia in the Middle East^ 
There have been other references in the papers of late to 
the agitation in Russia for the acquisition of what is now 
called a "military port" in the Persian Gulf; and however 
disappointing this agitation may be to those who hoped for 
more friendly relations, it just shows us how necessary it is 
for us to maintain to the full our vigilance in upholding 
British interests in Eastern and Southern Persia and through- 
out the Persian Gulf. 

c 2 



36 



CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN INDIA. 

By Captain C. H. Buck, i.a., Punjab Commission. 

Criminal work in India is rather different from what it is in 
England, for the magistracy in the former country have to 
deal with a people composed, not of one nation, nor even 
of a collection of nations, but of a vast number of races, 
tribes, and castes, all with their different customs and 
prejudices, their vaWous religions and languages. In order 
for a magistrate to dispense justice under such circum- 
stances, it is necessary for him to have an intimate acquain- 
tance with the peculiarities of the people in the tract where 
his work lies, and a thorough knowledge of the language 
spoken there. 

A grasp is more easily acquired of Indian than of 
English criminal law, for the former is contained in two 
excellent codes, known as " The Code of Criminal Proce- 
dure" and "The Indian Penal Code." Its method of 
administration, too, is exemplified by the rulings of the 
principal courts of the various provinces in all important 
cases, classified and printed in convenient monthly reports. 
In addition to this, the magistrates receive instruction from 
their superior ofHcers, and have to pass examinations in 
law before they can rise from one class to another. 

In India the novice finds considerable difHculty in 
sifting the evidence, for the native has a wonderful 
capacity for manufacturing it, and hardly a case is brought 
to trial in which more or less is not false. Experience, 
however, generally enables one to perceive when witnesses 
are perverting the truth, and ingenuity in examining them 
usually brings the true facts to light Most of the totally 
false cases are brought out of enmity, frequently of a very 
petty nature, or out of revenge. It is, however, a common 
occurrence for a person, with the assistance of his friends 



Criminal Justice in India. 37 

or relatives, to concoct a counter charge directly he learns 
that a complaint is about to be, or has been, made against 
him, and, as an instance of this, I may mention the follow- 
ing, which occurred in a Punjab district : 

A poor tenant had obtained a decree against a wealthy 
landlord for possession of a plot of land, and the day after 
he had obtained execution of his decree he went to the 
fields in question with another man and began ploughing. 
The landlord happened to arrive at the sf)ot on horseback, 
with several friends, and, on seeing the tenant, rode at him 
and broke one of his arms by a blow with a heavy stick. 
His companions then beat the man black and blue, and left 
him lying insensible on the ground. A consultation im- 
mediately took place, and it was decided that the landlord 
should gallop off at once to the headquarters of the district, 
some five miles away, to establish an alibi, and that a 
village watchman should be sent there on foot with a 
report to the effect that a fight had occurred between the 
tenant and some other man. The landlord managed to 
arrive in a short space of time at the central meeting-place 
of the town, where he accosted quite a number of eminently 
respectable gentlemen, and asked them the time. After he 
had been there about two hours, the watchman arrived 
with a message from the headman of the village, and 
the landlord, who pretended to have heard it for the first 
time, proceeded without loss of time to report the 
matter at the police-station, accompanied by the watchman 
and some of the aforementioned gentlemen. In the report 
the time of the occurrence was carefully entered so that it 
appeared to have happened about an hour after the 
landlord's arrival in the town. While it was being 
recorded, the wounded man's relatives arrived and put in a 
complaint against the landlord, which at first was hardly 
credited. Fortunately, the true facts came out at the 
investigation and trial, and the wealthy man received his 
deserts, notwithstanding the fact that he had engaged five 
of the principal pleaders in the town to defend him. 



38 Criminal Justice in India. 

In a country where such a large amount of false evidence 
is given, it is, of course, possible that innocent persons 
occasionally get convicted, but the Criminal Procedure 
Code has been so framed that the accused person is given 
protection throughout each stage of his trial, and the chance 
of a miscarriage of justice is reduced to a minimum. When 
the original trial is concluded, the prisoner still has the 
opportunity of getting the proceedings set aside by an 
appeal, or by an application for revision, to a higher court, 
and, in the case of a death sentence, after an appeal to the 
principal court of the province, the condemned man also 
has the right to petition the head of the province, and 
finally the Viceroy. Only in the pettiest of cases, tried by 
senior magistrates, in which very light sentences have been 
given, or in those in which sentences of whipping only 
have been ordered, is no appeal allowed. Even these are 
open to revision by the superior courts if it can be shown 
that the trial has not been conducted strictly according 
to law. 

The statistics of crime in India show that, during the 
quinquennial period ending with 1903, the average number 
of offences reported annually was 1,402,579 in a population 
amounting, according to the census of 1901, to 231,830,884. 
Of these 83-3 per cent, were returned as true, and 1,050,805 
cases were brought to trial, but a very large proportion ot 
them were trivial ones. The number of persons concerned 
in these offences averaged 075 per cent, of the population. 
These figures, of course, do not represent the actual crime, 
for a great deal remains untraced, and much is never re- 
ported. 

Comparing the criminality of the various provinces with 
one another, and taking as a standard the number of cases 
brought to trial per 10,000 of the population, we find that 
Madras heads the list with a ratio of 80, and Assam is 
apparently the least criminal, its ratio being as low as 24. 
The figures for the other provinces work out as follows : 
Bombay, 78 ; Burma, 71 ; North-West Frontier Province, 



Criminal Justice in India. 39 

62 ; Punjab, 49 ; Central Provinces (including Berar), 31 ; 
Bengal and the United Provinces, 25 each. 

Of the total number of offences brought to trial, more 
than half are those of a petty nature against special and 
local laws, such as the Forest, Canal, Municipal, Excise, 
and Police Acts, and about two-thirds of the remainder 
belong to the following categories : 

Affecting life, 2 per cent. ; inflicting hurt, 36 per cent. ; 
criminal force and assault, 20 per cent. ; theft, 26 per cent. ; 
and criminal trespass 16 per cent. Crimes of violence 
under the first three heads are most rife, in proportion to 
the population, in the Punjab and Bombay. 

On an average, about 500 persons are sentenced to death 
annually, 1,600 to transportation, 130,000 to rigorous, and 
15,000 to simple imprisonment, 630,000 to fine, and 23,000 
to whipping. 

About ;^245,ooo are annually imposed in fines, but of 
this amount only some ;^205,ooo are realized, while about 
;^ 1 8, 500 are paid out of the latter as compensation to com- 
plainants, or, in false cases, to accused. 

Close on 175,000 persons lodge appeals every year, and 
of these 67^5 per cent are rejected. 

For the disposal of criminal work there are 45 judges of 
the principal provincial courts, 103 judges of other courts 
superior to district courts, 195 chief magistrates of districts, 
and 6,064 subordinate magistrates. The latter deal with 
almost all of the original work, and it will be apparent from 
the figures previously given that, on an average, each 
ordinary magistrate tries about fourteen cases a month ; in 
addition, they have to do a large amount of miscellaneous 
criminal work, and perform numerous other duties on the