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Full text of "Hindústáni as it ought to be spoken"

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littp://www.arcliive.org/details/asitoughthinduOOtweericli 



Hindustani 



AS IT ODGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



BY 

J. T'NVEEDIE, 

Bengal Civil Service, 



' It is really surprising, when you come to think of it, how ungrammati- 
cally people do talk." 



Third Edition. 



©alrutta 

Thacker, Spink & Co. 

London: W. THACKER & CO., 2, Creed Lane, Ludgate Hill. 

1900. 

\All rights reserved, '\ 



LOAN STACK 



PRINTED BY TH ACKER. SPINK & CO., CALCUTIA. 



n 

jWO 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



The Author must express his regret at this little work 
having been out of print for a time. His excuse is the 
unexpected rapidity with which the First Edition was 
absorbed by the public. It is, however, satisfactory to 
know that the book is fulfilling the purpose for which it 
was written ; and has already become, in a great measure, 
^/le dook, which even those who must eventually know 
the vernacular character, read, in order to gain a rapid 
knowledge of the construction of the language, and a large 
stock of guaranteed words and phrases. Nothing is then 
left but to study the Vernacular Alphabet. 

The present volume is larger than its predecessor. This 
is because many complaints reached the Author that there 
was too little in the book. The cry was for more. This 
is a good sign. But, on the other hand, there were com- 
plaints of inability to remember words only * once given ' 
in the course of the " Lessons." The collecting of all 
words given in the body of the book into the Glossaries at 
the emi, is one cause of the increase I size. 

Another is that the number of Exercises has, on demand, 
been largely added to, implying the introduction of many 
additional words. 

It has been considered proper to retain in the body of 
the book the lists of words there given, though now also 
to be found in the Glossaries. They are selected words 



€52 



VIU PREFACE. 

which, in the opinion of the Author, one must know ; and 
whether one learns them or not as they stand above the 
Exercises — one certainly would never learn them, if they 
stood only in a ** Dictionary." 

Perhaps the humble ** Index " deserves mention. Thus 
by turning to the proper Sub-Head under the General 
Head " Vocabularies," you will find where all the words 
relating to any one subject, (as * Animals,' ' Birds,' ' Vermin,' 
and so on,) are to be found collected in the body of the 
book. 

Another feature which certainly deserves notice here is 
that m both Glossaries, nouns which are masculine but have 
feminine terminations are marked (m.), while feminine 
nouns not ending in the recognised feminine terminations 
(see page 8,) are marked (f ). At page 105 you will find a 
useful (but of course incomplete) list of such feminine 
nouns. False genders grate horribly on the ear ; ' Mon 
soeur est ires-beau,^ 

But the chief new feature of this Edition is "The 
Reader," which contains a collection of modern extracts 
of fable, story, dialogue and oratory. These should be 
enough to satisfy all those who have ventured to * ask for 
more.' 

As the First Edition was complete in its exposition of 
the grammatical structure of the language, much could not 
be added on this subject. Some sections however have 
been now more fully treated than before ; as for example, 
the Pronoun * apna,' on page 30. 

Thus has the Author endeavoured to give some return 
to the public for its kind reception of the First Edition, by 
making the Second Edition more copious, more complete 
and more convenient than the First. 



PREFACE. IX 

The Author also hopes to be able to give the student 
— very soon — a translation of all the Exercises, and of 
*The Reader.' This will both shorten labour, and render 
a correct acquisition of the language more certain and 
easy. 

It remains for the Author to acknowledge the services 
rendered by Moulvi Zahir-ud-din of Patna in perusing the 
Hinditstani additions, as they passed through the press. 

Patna ^ February 1893. 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



This little book has been written at the request of ladies, 
so that no apology for its appearance is called for. Their 
complaint was that no book exists from which they can 
gain a complete and correct knowledge of the Hindilstani 
language suited to their daily requirements; and so they 
have to struggle with books which give them both too 
much and too little. Therefore they requested that a 
small book should be written by aid of which the true 
grammatical structure of the language might be learned, 
and a stock of words acquired which are actually in daily 
use. It is hoped, that those who have learned the lessons 
of this book viva voce with the Author will remember him 
kindly when they see these lessons in print. 

The scope of the book is not ambitious. Thus, there 
are no dissertations on the origin of the language, or on 
the derivation of words, or on philological analogies. Very 
little will be found of ornate Persian or Arabic phraseo- 
logy. Even some of the refinements of the alphabet— for 
instance, the distinction between ^alif and 'ain' — '/^' 
and ''to'e\^ have not been insisted on. 

The aim has been to make the book a thoroughly 
practical one, suited to all and every, whose mid life has 
to be spent in India. The lessons remain in the form of 
familiar oral teaching, dry rules being, as far as possible, 
avoided. It is hoped that the book will thus be interest- 



PREFACE. Xi 

ing to read, as well as easy to learn. A special feature will 
be found in the lists of English and other foreign words 
which have become naturalised, at least among those 
natives who come much in contact with Europeans. 

It is believed that the Alphabetical Vocabularies — in 
combination with a grammar — supply what does not at 
present exist in any form. Each of these contains about 
two thousand five hundred words and phrases, for the 
most part additional to the copious lists of words and 
phrases given during the course of the Lessons. All these 
have been selected and tested with the greatest care ; so 
that the reader may feel quite sure that he is getting in 
all cases the words actually used by natives of ordinary 
education when speaking of the common affairs of daily 
life. The spelling is everywhere uniform; and may be 
said to be the Government system of transliteration. Thus 
is the student of Hindiistani (as is believed for the first 
time) provided with an adequate and readily accessible 
stock of really colloquial, every-day words; alphabetically 
arranged in Roman type, both Hindiistani-English and 
English-Hindiistani, on a uniform system of spelling 
approved by Oriental Scholars and by Government, com- 
bined with a short and easy grammar. 

It cannot be denied that by far the greater number of 
Englishmen and Englishwomen in India speak a very 
peculiar language under the name of * Hindiistani ' — and 
this, both as regards grammar and pronunciation. The 
excuse is sometimes made, that they hear natives speak as 
they speak. There is some truth in this; but it is for- 
gotten that the natives referred to learned the language 
which they so speak from their masters and mistresses, and 
that if credit is due to anyone, it is due to the natives who 



XU PREFACE. 

have had the wit to understand, and the skill to acquire 
the dialect which they hear addressed to them. 

That (iialect is occasionally spoken of in the following 
pages as * Anglo-Hindiistani.' It is the Author's hope that 
by means of this little book, it will — in some degree at 
least— be replaced by Hindiistdni as it ought to be spoken. 

The contents of the book may be mastered in one 
month's study, even by those who are *not good at 
languages.' It is recommended that at the first-reading 
little or no attempt should be made to translate English 
into Hindustani. This should be made at the second 
perusal. At the first perusal, the twelve lessons should be 
completely mastered, the Hindustani exercises carefully 
analysed, pronunciation practised aloud, and as large a 
stock of words learned as the reader can possibly retain. 

It only remains for the Author to express his obliga- 
tions to Sayad Wajid Hossen, K. B., and to Baboo Sheo 
Darshan, learned scholars of Bihar, for their kind labours 
in revising, and, in some respects amending, the letter- 
press of these lessons, — labours which render it probable 
that the book contains nothing which will mislead the 
student. 

Patna^ December 1889. 



PUBLISHERS^ PREFACE TO THIRD 
EDITION. 



Owing to the lamented death of the Author, Mr. Tweedie, 
before the present edition was completed, the Publishers 
have had to seek other aid in passing it through the press. 
The work was entrusted to a distinguished linguist, and 
the very careful manner in which he has performed his 
task leads the Publishers to hope that the present edition 
will receive the same cordial support that was accorded to 
its predecessors. The features of the book remain in all 
respects the same, and no trouble has been spared to make 
the work as complete and accurate as possible. 

Calcutta, 1900. 



PARADIGM of the Verb ' Hona,' to be, or become. 

According to the forms most commonly used; but see Page 14, Sect. 9. 

To be read before the PARADIGM on page 16. 

The second of two bracketted lines gives the Feminine forms. 

See Page 10, Sect. 6. 



Vai'ious Parts. 

Stem, Ho. Infinitive, Ho-na. Pres. Part., Ho-ta. Past Part., Hii,a. 

(fern. hii,i; ^ hii,in.^) 

Tenses. 

Singular. | Plural. 

Subjunctive and Imperative, / ?nay be ; Be thou, drc. 

Ho-iin, Ho-we, Ho- we. ( Ho- wen, Ho, Ho-wen. 

Future, / shall or will be, ^c. 

{Hun-ga, Ho-ga, Ho-ga. I Hon-ge, Ho-ge, Hon-ge. 

Hiin-gi, Ho-gi, Ho-gi. I - - - same as the Masc. - - - 

Present, / a??i, ^c. 
Hun, Hai, Hai. | Hain, Ho, Hain. 

Past, I was, &fc. 
/Tha, Tha, Tha. I The, The, Tne. 

(Thi, Thi, Thi. I Ihin, Thin, Thin. 

The Compound Tenses are the same in formation as those shown 
Dn page 16, viz. :— Ho-ta hiin, &c., I am being, Ho-ta tha, &c., / 
was being. Hii,a hun. &c., I have been. Hii,a tha, &c., I had been, 
Hii,a hunga, &c., I shall have been. 

Special Parts. 
Ho-ke, or ho-kar, having been. 
Ho-te-hi, immediately on being. 
Hujiye, be pleased to be. 

^ Singular. 2 Plural. 



CONTRACTIONS 

USED IN THE BODY OF THE BOOK. 
The ordinary grammatical ones, as * Sing.' for * Singular ' ; ' Plur.' 
for * Plnral,' and so on, speak for ihemselves. * Anglo-Hind.' stands 
for * Anglo-Hindustani.' (See Preface to the First Edition.) (E.) 
means that the word beside which it is placed is an English* one in 
common use by natives. * Ex : — ' stands for * Example.' ( H.) means 
that the word may only be used of Hindus. (M.) means that the 
word may le used of Muhammadans. (L.B.) means that the 
word is current only or chiefly in Lower Bengal. 



» Some words, e.g. 'frikasi,' ' aspik,* &c., are so obviously English, (or any- 
how not Hindustani,) that they have been printed without the (E.). 



CORRIGENDA. 

The following corrections should be made, as far as 
possible, before beginning the perusal of the book : — 

Wherever * Huziir ' occurs, read * Huzur.' See page 28, also page 5r, 

Exercise Ko. 16, &c 
Wherever * tarah ' occurs, read ' tarah.' 
Page 16, after the line beginning * Girta hiin,' insert : — 
Imperfect, / was falling, ^c. 
Gir-ta tha, tha, tha. | Gir-te the, the, the. 
«> 43» place an asterisk before * sath.' 
,, 47, Note I, For * It is also ' read 'Another particle,' ""tho,^ is... 

Next line but one, for * to ' read * tho.' 
,, ,, (last two notes,) for ' v ' and * vi.' read * iv ' and ' v.' 
„ 103, (first line,) for * Ordinal,' read * Cardinal.' 
,, 121, (second line,) for * ghisarta, ghisarta,' read * ghisatta, 

ghisatta.' 
„ 149, (line 17,) for * ghisarna,' read *ghisatna.' 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



1ST 


Lesson. 


2ND 


5» 


3RD 


5) 


4TH 


J> 


5TH 


JJ 


6th 


5) 


7TH 


J) 


8th 


>J 


9TH 


n 


IOTH 


J> 


IITH 


5) 


I2TH 


)) 


I3TH 


)5 


I4TH 


51 


15TH 


?J 


Appendix No. 



Page. 
The Alphabet and Pronunciation... i 
Nouns ; their Cases, Numbers and 
Genders ... ... ... 5 

Agreement ... ... 10 

The Verb ... ... ... ... 13 

The Pronouns... ... 28 

Various Words allied to Pronouns 38 

Prepositions ... ... 43 

Conjunctions and Allied Words ... 46 

Adverbs and Allied Words 54 

Interjections ... ... ... 56 

Arrangement of Words in a Sen- 
tence ... ... 61 

Numeration ... ... ... 64 

Time ... ... ... 66 

Miscellaneous ... ... ... 72 

Supplementary Vocabularies and 

Exercises ... ... 80 

I. Numerals ... ... ... 103 

II. Relative AND Co-relative Words 104 
III. List OF SOME Feminine Nouns ... 105 



A Hindustani Reader 

A Glossary of Useful Words. 

J) ?j >» 

General Index 



Hind.-English 
English-Hind. 



109 
129 
209 
343 



HINDUSTANI 

AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



FIRST LESSON. 

The Alphabet and Pronunciation. 

The Consonants, 

1. These, in Hindustani, correspond closely with the 
English Consonants ; but in Hindustani there are soiwe 
additional sounds. There is no x ; its place is supplied 
by " ks." There is also no " c " whether soft or hard ; 
*' q " does not occur in the Hindiistani in this book. 

2. The unmarked " t " and " d " must be pronounced 
with the tip of the tongue touching the teeth. When 
these letters have a dot under them, pronounce with the 
tongue against the bars of the roof of the mouth ; so vvith 
"r"and"r." 

T.. H, I 



2 hindi5stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

3. Pronounce "ch" as in " church,"..." sh" as in 
" short,". .."g" as in "get,"..."ng" as in "king,"... 
"j" as in "jet,"..."y" as in "yet,"..." vv" as in "wet,'' 
though sometimes the sound of "v" in "vet," is given 
to this letter. You should be careful also to pronounce 
even a single " s," with a full hissing sound, not confound- 
ing it with "z." In Hindustani, we have both an "f,'^ 
and "ph;" "f," as in English; "ph" as directed in the 
next section; "h" is as much a consonant as any other; 
it is to be lightly sounded like an ordinary English "h.'^ 
AVhen it is the last letter of a word, and is preceded by 
another consonant^ the "h" is to be sounded like " ha,'^ 
cut short as you pronounce it ; " h," (with dot) is a rough 
aspirate, such as is commonly heard in the border-country 
at home ; " k " (without a dot) is sounded from the root 
of the tongue; "k" (with a dot) is sounded low in the 
throat. 

4. Many words and syllables begin with a consonant 
followed by "h." This "h" must not be ignored, as it 
nearly always is l)y Europeans. By ignoring it, you may 
call in a "loafer" when you merely want your "horse;" or 
a native woman instead of your brother. The effect of this 
"h," is to give sounds not familiar in English. You may 
acquire them by separating the consonant and the "h" 
with a very faint echo of any short vowel sound ; and 
practising the gradual withdrawal of that sound, till you 
can pronounce the consonant and the " h " as one sound. 
Any plan is preferable to leaving out the " h." As laid down 
in the last preceding section, "ch" is sounded as in 
''church;'' and " sh," as in ''short;'' "th" and "ph" 
also "kh" when not underlined, fall under this section. 
* Ch ' and ' sh ' are single letters in Hindustani. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 3 

5. Kh (underlined) is used to express a hard guttural 
sound. No English word begins with it. The Scotch 
word ''loch" ends with it. The "ch" in the German 
word "ach !" comes still nearer it. 

6. Gh represents a sound hardly attainable by adult 
Western throats. The most you will be able to do, is to 
treat it as a plain "gh," under Section 4 above; or you 
may try and catch its true sound by getting a, more or less 
educated Muhammadan to give you the word for a " domes- 
tic fowl.'* 

7. N (with dot) gives a strong nasal twang to the 7vhole 
syllable in which it occurs. 

The Vowels, 

1. The short ones : — 

a pronounced as the "u" in ''^fun. " 
i pronounced as the " i " in ^^fin. '' 
u pronounced as the "u" in "/////. " 

2. The long ones : — 

e always long (and to be pronounced at the end of 
a word, as well as elsewhere) : like the " e " in 
the German word mehr ; or the Scotch pronun- 
ciation of words like ^' there, ^^ ''fare^' '^ dare.^' 

always long, pronounced as "o" in pole; but 
more protracted in sound. 

a pronounced as the " a " mfar, 

1 pronounced as the " i " in machine. 

li pronounced as the **u" in the German " du," 
or "00" in ''fool;^^ but more protracted in 
sound than the latter. 



4 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

Throughout this book when "a," "i," and " u," are j/^t?/-/, 
they are not marked ; nor are they marked 7vhen final letters^ 
for then they are nearly always long ; when not final letters 
and long^ they are marked ', " e" and " o," being always long, 
are never marked. The instances in which words end in a 
short vowel are shown by an *' h" following the vowel. 

Diphthongs. 

8. Take 'it that there are no diphthongs: when one 
vowel follows another arid the two are not separated by the 
mark *'," pronounce the second rapidly after the first as in 
Italian. When that mark occurs, the two vowels belong to 
different syllables. 



VOCABULARY No. I. 

admi, a human being} bahin, a sister. 

mard, a man. bha,i, a brot/ur. \ing girl, 

aurat, a woman. ba^i, a native woman ; a danc- 

ma, a mother. bibi, a native lady. 

bap, a father. ghora, a horse. 

ma-bap, parents , a benefactor, gora, a European.^ 

beta, a son. khidmatgar, a table-servant.^ 

beti, a daughter. murghi, a hen. 

khasam, a husband. ghusl, a bath. 

joru ; zaujah, a wife. khana, dinner, [composition,) 

larke-bale, children, khanah, a room {much used in 



* But translate it, ordinarily, by * man; or * woman; according to 
the context. ^Really means */ajV-r^w//^;»:/^;W.' often means a Euro 
pean soldier ; is not applied to Europeans of rank. " So among Euro- 
peans ; amont; natives, the word is applied to any domestic servant. 



SECOND LESSON. 

Nouns : their Cases, Numbers, and Genders, 
Cases, 

1. *'Cases," are marked by certain small words, which 
follow the original word. The original word, however, so7?ie- 
times undergoes a slight modification before the word indi- 
cating the '*case" is written. For this modification, see 
next section ; but note here, in anticipation, that there are 
two accusative cases, the " simple acaisative^^'' which is al- 
ways the same as the nominative ; and an accusative formed 
with the particle " ko." 

2. The words used to indicate case-relationship are 
these : — 

ka, ke, ki, of ; se, by : ivith (of the instrument) ; 

ko, to ; at. also from ; also ^^ since ^^ (of 

time) ; ago. 
par, on ; at ; men, in ; itito. 

ne, by (of agency) tak ; talak, up to ; as far as. 

3. The selection to be made from ka, ke, ki is a diffi- 
culty which should be mastered once for all, as there are 
many analogies to it in the language. Note, therefore, the 
following explanations : — . 



6 hindijStani as it ought to be spoken. 

i. The thing oivned regulates the selection, 
ii. If that thing be feminine, always use * ki.' 
iii. If that thing be singular, masculine and nomina- 
tive, or simple accusative, always use *ka.' 
iv. If that thing be (a) singular, masculine and any 
case except the nominative or simple accusative : 
or : (b) plural, masculine, and any case : then 
always use * ke. ' 

4. The English style with '^apostrophe s," will always 
give the correct Hindustani order of the words. An inver- 
sion is required in our form with " of." 

Modifications informing Cases and Nufubers. 

5. Proper names and words expressing family relation- 
ships do not change in the Singular; Ex. Khuda, God: 
Chacha, a paternal uncle : Baba, a father : also, in Bengal, 
a child, 

6. Note again that the nominative and the simple 
accusative - both singular and plural — are always the same. 

7. As regards the other cases Singular : — 

> i. Most masculine nouns ending in "a," also many 
v ending in *'ah," change these into "e." 

ii. No change is made in any other word, masculine 
or feminine. 

8. As regards the Nominative (and simple ace.) 
Plural : — 

i. Most masculine nouns ending in "a", and many 

ending in "ah" change these into "e." 
ii. No other masculine noun changes at all. 
iii. Feminine nouns ending in "i," add "a^." 
iv. Feminine nouns ending in any letter other than 
"i,"add "en." 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 7 

9. The OBLIQUE cases of the Plural (including the 
ace. in "ko") are formed by adding "on," to the Nom. 
Sing, of nouns not ending in "a," or "ah"; or by sub- 
stituting "on" for "a" or "ah" in nouns which do end 
in these vowels. 

Note, — Plurals are sometimes further formed by adding the word 
^*\og^^ people, (oblique cases, logon) to the Nom. Plural, parti- 
cularly to express the idea of a * class.' Confer the use of 
* Leute ' in German. Ex larke-Iog, the children. This idiom 
is used only of human beings. 

The Accusative in " /^<?." 

10. This, in form, is the same as the dative. Its effect 
is often said to be to particularize a special thing. But this 
is not always so. The selection as between the two accusa- 
tives is a nicety of the language, for which no rule can be 
given. Avoid using the form with " ko " so as to cause 
confusion in the sense as to which word is dative and 
which accusative. 

The Vocative, 

11. The Vocative Singular is the same as the Nomi- 
native, except that "a" or "ah" becomes "e." The 
Vocative Plural ends in " o." 

Gender. 

12. Names of males are masculine. Names of females 
are feminine. 

Things called ^neuter'' in English, are either masculine 
or feminine in Hindustani. They should be taken to be 
masculine^ unless known to be feminine. 



8 hindxjStAni as it ought to be spoken. 

13. No detailed rules for gender can be given ; but 
most nouns which end in * i/ * t,' * t ' and * sh ' are feminine. 
Even to this rule, such common words as "/^«/," water; 
"^///V a sort of butter; ^^ motij' a pearl ; '' dahi,^' curd, are 
exceptions ; these being masculine. See Appendix, No. 3. 



Paradigm of Nouns. 

i. Masc nouns ending in " ^," and some in " ah " .• — 
Cases. Sing. PUu. 

Nom. and simple ace. larka (boy) larke. 

Oblique case?, larke larkon. 

So ; handah, slave, bande ; bande, bandon, &c. 

ii. Any other Masc. noun : — 

Cases. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and simple ace. mard {man) mard. 

Oblique cases, mard mardon. 

So; admi, man; moti, a pearl; guru, a spiritual 
teacher, Szc, But '' ddmi' has also a Nom. Plural, 
ddmi^dn. 

iii. Fevi. nouns ending in "/"; — 

Cases. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and simple ace. bibi (lady) bibi,an. 

Oblique cases, bibi hibi,on. 

So ; any other feminine noun ending in " i." 

iv. Fern, nouns ending in any other letter : — 
Cases. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and simnle ace. rat (night) raten. 

Oblique cases, rat raton. 

So ; any other feminine noun not ending in " i." 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



VOCABULARY No. II. 

j^ote. — There are no ''Articles" in Hindustani; they are either 
omitted in translation, or "«;" or '"''an'" is translated by 
'«^/^" z= one; and 'Uhe''' by the demonstrative pronoun, which 
you have not yet learned. N.B. Vej'bs are placed at the end 
of a clause or sentence. See pa^e 6i.' 



larka, a boy. 
larki, a girl. 
roti, bread. 
pani, water, 
diidh, milk. 
taiyar, ready. 
hazir, present. 
do, give. 
la,o, bring, 
ja,o, go. 
a,o, come. 
leja,o, take away. 
suno, listen to me. 
bolo, speak ; say. 



hai, is. 

hain, are. 

aur, and. 

bhi, ^/i"^. 

magar, ^///. 

kitab, a book (fern.) i 

kalam,^ /^;/. 

bula,o, call ; summon, 

chup raho, hold your 

tongue, 
rahne do, let alone ; leave. 
sabr karo, have patience ; 

wait a little. 
hat-ja,o, get out of the way. 



Exercise No. i. Translate. 

Mard ki ma hazir hai. Aurat ka beta aur mard ki bahin 
hazir hain. Larke ki roti taiyar hai. Ek admi bula,o. 
Ek admi ko bula,o. Suno ! ba,i ke bete ko bula,o. 
Suno ! ba,i ki beti ko leja,o. Ba,i ka bha,i hazir hai. 

Gore ka ghora taiyar hai. Ghusl ka pani taiyar hai. 

Sabr karo ! Chup raho. Hat-ja,o. Rahne do. 

Account to yourself //z writing for all the ka, ke, ki's, and 
for the changes of a into e, in the foregoing sentences. 



THIRD LESSON. 
Agreement. 

1. " Ka, ke, ki " agree with the thing owned ^ according 
to the rules above given. 

2. Adjectives ending in a consonant, or any vowel 
except *a,' agree without change. 

3. Adjectives used in making compound-verbs (see 
post^ page 21) do not change. 

4. Adjectives in " a," become " i " in the feminine, and 
then never change further, whether singular or plural. 

5. If the noun be masculine^ "a" of the adjective 
remains unchanged in the nominative and simple accusa- 
tive singular. It changes into "e" in all other cases of 
the singular, and in every case of the plural. 

6. Such parts of verbs as end in "a" also "agree," 
under the same rule as applies to adjectives ending in 
** a," and one rule more : for the feminine plural of verbs in 
" agreement " is in " in." But note, that if there be more 
than one word thus changeable, only the last takes the 
"n": the other stop at the ** i." The agreement is, ordi- 
narily, ^ with the nominative. 

* See post^ Fourth Lesson, page 19, section 25. 



HINDUStInI as it ought to be spoken. II 

Example of a Verb agreeing in Gender with its Nominative. 

With Singular Nominative Masculine. 

tha, tha, tha, was, 

hota tha, hota tha, hota tha, was becoming. 
With Plural Nominative Masculine. 

the, the, the, were. 

hote the, hote the, hote the, were becoming. 
With Singular Nominative Feminine. 

thi, thi, thi, was. 

hoti ihi, hoti thi, hoti thi, was becoming. 
With Plural Nominative Feminine. 

thin, thin, thin, were, 

hoti thin, hoti thin, hoti thin, were becoming. 



VOCABULARY No. III. 

dhan, rice in the fields or achchha, good, 

in the husk. kharab ; bura, bad. 

chawal, uncooked rice. lamba, tall ; long, 

bhat, cooked rice. lincha ; baland, high. 

dal, a kind of pea. kotah, short, 

dal-bhat, a native phrase bara, great, 

for native food generally . chhota, ^/;/^//. 

makkhan, butter. bahut, much. 

dahi, curd. thora, a little. 

ghi, native butter much used bas, enough ; thafs enough, 

for cooking purposes. chhoti haziri, early tea. 

cha,e, tea, bari haziri, breakfast. 

kafi, (E.); kahwah, coffee. nahi'n, not. 

chini, sugar. nahin, to, if not, then. 

Note. ^V^hen two thina;s are intimately connected, and is omitted, as 
ddl'hhdt, roti-makkhan [bread and butter), &c. 



12 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

Exercise No. 2. 

Cha,e laiyar hoti hai. Thora dal-blidt do. Ghi achchha 
nahin hai. Sabr karo ! makkhan nahin hai. Dahi le-ja,o, 
diidh la,o. Khidniatgar hazir nahin hai. A,o, kafi taiyar 
hai. Admi lamba hai, magar aurat kotah hai. Aurat ka 
bha,i bura hai. Mard ki beti achchhi hai. Bas ! ja,o. 

Exercise No. 3. 

Call the good boy. Call good boys. Take away the 
little girl. Take away little girls. Take away the bread and 
butter of the little girls.* The little girls are present. The 
men are ready. The horses are ready. The women are 
good. The boy is tall. The girls are tall. Call the table- 
servant. Call the table - servants. The early tea is very 
good. Give (me) (some) dal-bhat. Give dal-bhat to the 
women. Bring the cooked rice. Bring the uncooked-rice. 
Give (me) a little' cooked-rice. The man was bad. The 
woman was good. Early tea was getting {z^becoming) ready. 
Have patience, the rice is getting ready. A good book. 
Breakfast is ready. All right ! { = very good). 



* Genitives and datives come, in order, befoie accusative . 
See fosff page 61. 



FOURTH LESSON. 
The Verb. 

1. There is only one conjugation, and very few irregu- 
larities. 

2. Simple tenses are those in which no "auxiliary 
verb," (as '* am," *' have," '^ shall," *' will,") is used to 
form them. 

3. Compound tenses are those which are made of (gene- 
rally) the present or the past participle of the chief verb, 
and an " auxiliary^ 

4. The future tense, the present subjunctive, and the 
imperative, (with ' let ') though compound in English, are 
simple in Hindustani. 

5. Nearly all languages use the verhs " /(^ be^' and ''''to 
have^^^ as their chief auxiliary verb. Ex. " 1 am speaking," 
"I have spoken." In Hindilstani, there is no verb "to 
have."* 'J'he verb " /<? be^'^ is therefore used as the only 
" auxiliary^'' and must be generally translated by our verb 
*''- have " in all compound tenses of the past participle. This 
is a little difficult at first, as the tenses look like tenses with 
the sense oi 2i passive voice, but it will soon become familiar 
to you. Compare the German " Ich bin gewesen " and the 

* See posi^ page 75. 



14 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

Italian, lo sono stato, literally, I avi been, but, in English, 
French and Spanish " I have been." 

6. Subject to what has just been said as to translat- 
ing the Hindustani auxiliary by ''be'' or ''have,'' as the 
English idiom may require, compound tenses are got by a 
literal translation of the English, Remember, however, 
that the auxiliary verb comes last in Hinddstani — " I speak- 
inii am " : " They spoken had^' See, also, clause 4 above. 

7. Every verb consists of an invariable "stem ; " and a 
variable termination. Starting with the "Infinitive," which 
always ends in " na," it is to be noted that that part of the 
word which precedes " na," be it only a single letter, is the 
" stem " to which the terminations are added. 

8. The terminations are these : — (only masculine forms 
are given, but see Third Lesson, section 6, page 10). 

-lin -e -e -en -o -en, Imperative and Subjunctive. 

-linga -ega -ega -enge -oge -enge. Future. 

-ta, Present Participle. 

-a, Past Participle. 

-ke, kar, or karke, . Perfect Participle. 

-te hi, A special form, meaning 'immediately on,' or, 

* immediately after' 
-iye, A respectful or polite form of the 2nd person of the 

imperative ; meaning, 'please to,^ &c. 

Note,—T\it. Imperative, the Subjunctive and the last three never 
change ; * a ' agrees under the rules already given. 

9. The Future, the Subjunctive, and the Imperative of 
"bona," to be, are usually written in a contracted form. 
The Future is as follows : the Subjunctive and the Imper- 
ative being reached by dropping " ga " and "ge." 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 15 

Sing., hiinga, hoga, hoga. Plur., honge, hoge, honge. 

10. Sometimes these words are met with in the regular 
form, hojunga, ho,ega, &c. ; sometimes a euphonic " w '' is 
inserted, and then the words would be " howdnga, &c. " : 
but the contracted forms are, perhaps, the most common. 

So also the " e " of the stem of " dena " to give, is 
generally omitted ; also, the " e " of the stem of " lena," 
to take: so we get '* diinga " or " de,unga," &c. '^ I shall 
give:'' and "do," or **de,o" Imperative, ''give:'' so, 
liinga, or le,iinga ; lo, or le,o, I shall take ; take, 

11. Only the following parts of " ^(9;^^," therefore, can 
be considered as materially "irregular" : — 

Past Part., hu,a, been. 

Pres. Tense,— hai, hai; hain, ho, hain, arn, d^c. 
Past Tense, — tha, tha, tha ; the, the, the, was, c^c. 
[Always bear in mind Section 6 of the Third Lesson.] 

12. The compound tenses of "bona" are made with 
hona as the auxiliary, the same as any other verb. Ex. : — 
Main hii,a hiin ; ham hii,e the. I have been ; we had been. 

13. All " Infinitives " are Verbal Nouns. Present Parti- 
ciples are never verbal nouns. 

14. When, by inflection, two " a "s meet, they are sepa- 
rated by a "y," as ana to come ; stem a; past participle a,a ; 
but written " aya." ' 

15. When by inflection, an "a" and an "e" meet, they 
are usually separated by a " w." Thus from " ana," we may 
write "a,ega," or " awega." 

16. The plain stem is sometimes used as a 2nd per- 
son of the Imperative ; but it is insulting to the person to 
whom it is addressed. Ex : — ja, go. 

17. On the next page is given a Paradigm of a Hindu- 
stani Verb. 



1 6 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

Paradigm of a Hindustani Verb. 

Active Voice : Gir-na, to fall. Stem, gir. 

Various Parts, 

Infin. Gir-na, to fall. 

Pres. Part. Gir-ta, falling, 

Perf. Part. Gir-ke, or Gir-kar, having fallen. 

Past. Part. G'u-2i, fallen. 

Tenses. 
Singular. Plural. 

Subj. and Imperative. / may fall. Fall thou, o^c. 
Gir-iin, -e, -e. | Gir— en, -o, -en 

Future. I will fall, qt'c. 
Gir-unga, -ega, -ega. | Gir-enge, -oge, -enge. 

Present. I afn falling, d^c. 
Gir-ta hiiii, hai, hai. ■^ \ Gjr-te hain, ho, hain. 
e^^.f. :. U^-^/^"Pasi /M f&^-i ^ t^ ^ 
Gir-a, -a, -a. | Gir-e, -e, -e. 

Perfect. / have fallen, qt^c. 
Gir-a hiin, hai, hai. | Gir-e hain, ho, hain. 

Pluperfect. / had fallen, d^c, 
Gir-a tha, tha, tha. | Gir-e the, the, the. 

Fut. Perfect. / shall have fallen, c^c, 
Gir-a hiinga, hoga, hoga. \ Gir-e honge, hoge, honge. 

Special Parts. 

Gir-te-hi, immediately on falling, 
Gir-iye, be good enough to fall ; fall. 

So with nearly all other stems in the language. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 1 7 

16. The present participle^ used without the auxiliary, 
forms the tense which is usually called '' The Conditional." 
It expresses a condition witii reference to past time. The 
next clause, which gives the consequence, is also thrown 
into the same tense. Ex. : — If the man had come, (then) 
I would have given him one nlpi : ( = Agar admi ata, to, 
main us-ko ek riipiya deta). 

ii. The same tense also expresses continuity of action 
in past time ox ivhat usually happened ; \x'>^ "whenever the 
king visited the town, he gave gratuities to the poor ; " 
here also both clauses are put into this tense : Jab raja 
shahar ko ate, tab gharib logon ko bakhshish dete. 

[The verb is here m^.(\e plural ^ out of respect to the raja.] 

I 7. The past participle, used without the auxiliary, forms 
a tense which expresses an absolute, completed action in 
past lime. Ex. : — " He wrote a letter yesterday." It also 
expresses a hypothetical//////;'^ event. The ordinary future, 
or subjunctive, expresses the same sense ; so you may 
use any of the forms noted. When this participle is used 
^7^ an adjective, it is followed by " hu,a," both words agree- 
ing with the noun : as, pisa hu,a chawal, ground rice ; mari 
hiiji larki, a beaten (female) child, 

18. The future perfect tense, (see Paradigm) is much 
used to express what you think must have occurred, though 
you don't actually know that it has occurred. Hence the 
common phrase, *' hii,a hoga," literally *^ it will have been ;" 
but meaning '* no doubt it has so happened, though I don't 
know it," and so, in similar senses. Ex. : — " pahuncha 
h )ga," "no doubt he has arrived," "diya hoga," "it will 
have been given," i.e., no doubt, it has been given. 

19. ''Shall havej" is often equivalent to '•'must''' — 
being used either where we give a peremptory order, or 



1 8 HINDUSTi^NI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

recognise what is inevitable. The phrase is translated 
by the Verbal Noun (infinitive) followed by " hogaT Ex. : — 

Eng. We shall have to go in the carriage to-day (aj). 
Note, Main, /. Ham, we. Ham-ko, to us. 

Hind. To-day, to us in the carriage going will-be. Aj 
ham-ko gari men jana hoga. 

Eng. The table-servant must bring dinner. 

Hind. To the table- servant, bringing dinner is obliga- 
tory. Khidmatgar-ko khana lana hoga. 

20. ^^ Must'' when used politely, and not peremptorily, 
is rendered by the word " chdhiye^'' which is (in effect) 
an irregular 3rd personal verb — meaning " it is ?iecessary,'* 
^' proper,'' "^^ desirable'' or the VikQ. It is also used (with- 
out any polite sense) of what applies to one's self. Ex. : — 
Admi-ko jana chahiye, {to the man goi?ig is-proper) the man 
must go. Ham-ko roti chahiye, {to me bread is-7iecessary). 
I must have some bread, 

21. " Ought," which is a sort of modified " must," may 
be translated hy the same word " chahiye ; " or by appro- 
priate adjectival phrases, e.g., *' it is necessary " (zariir) ; 
"proper," (munasib) that I, you, the man, should do such 
and such. The easiest construction is the same as that 
given above, 'ham-ko jana chahiye.' 

22. " May " and " can," denoting permission and ability 
are translated by the verb " sakna," to be able. This is 
properly added to the " stem " of the principal verb : but 
is often used (incorrectly) even by natives with the geni- 
tive of the infinitive. Ex. : — 

He can speak [bolna] = wuh bol-sakta hai. 

The children may remain = bdba-]og rahne sakte hain. 

23. To " have done," or ''finished " with a thing is trans- 
lated by " chukna " added to the " stem " of the principal 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN^ 



19 



verb. Ex.: — He has done speaking = wuh bol-chuka hai. 
Sometimes it is found added to the past participle. 

Hence, the common *'ho-chuka" meaning ''^ if s finished,'' 
" it's done," " ifs all over." " Ho-gaya," irregular past from 
the compound verb "ho-jana," to become, is often used as 
equivalent to "ho-chuka." You may use either word; and 
whe7i used alone, i.e., not as part of a sentence, you need 
not alter the Wf^rH in any way. But you would say, " chhofi 
hdziri ho-clmki hai, if you wished to make a sentence of it. 

24. The language abounds in verbs intensified in mean- 
ing by one verb being added to the " stem" of another, the 
latter only being conjugated. They should be used rather 
than simple verbs. Here are some examples : — 
C.?\\\2i, to throw, plus di^xidi, to give, gives, dal-dena, to throw 

dozvfi. 



dena, to give. 


jj 


dt^na, 


to give. 


>> 


de-dena, to give up. 


dekhna, to see, 


M 


lena, 


to take, 


>> 


dekh-lena, to take 
a look at a thing. 


kahna, to tell, 


>> 


dena, 


to give, 


)> 


kah-dena, to inform. 


khana, to eat, 


J> 


lena, 


to take. 


)j 


kha-lena, to eat up. 


khana, to eat. 


JJ 


jana. 


to go, 


>> 


kha-jana to eat up. 


lena, to take, 


5) 


ana. 


to come, 


)» 


leana or lana, to 
bring. 


lena, to take, 


?> 


jana. 


to go. 


n 


le-jana, to take 
away. 


marna, to strike, 


• )J 


dalna, 


, to throw, 


)) 


mar-dalna, to kill. 


rakhna, to place 


J) 


dena. 


to give, 


1) 


rakh-dena, to put 
a thing doivn. 


pina, to drink, 


)J 


lena. 


to take. 


JJ 


pi-lena, to drink up. 


pina, to drink. 


}> 


jana, 


to go, 


j> 


pi-jana, to drink up. 



and very many more. 

25. The (so-called) Nominatives in the tenses of the 



20 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

past participle of transitive verbs are peculiar : but this is 
what you have to do : — 

i. Change the nonn'native into the case with *'ne." 
ii. Take the accusative, and consider it to be a nomin- 
ative, 
iii. Make //, so looked upon as a nominative, and the 
verb " agree," according to Section 6 of the Third 
Lesson. 
Ex. : — The man struck a ho}\ mard-ne ek larka mara.^ 
The fjian struck a girl, mard-ne ek larki mari. 
The man has struck two hoys, mard-ne do larke mare 

hain. 
The man had struck two girls, mard-ne do iarki,an 
mari thin. 
The explanation of this strange construction which is 
usually given is that it is equivalent to *^ by a man, a boy 
was struck^ But the explanation is faulty ; for that Eng- 
lish phrase is in the passive voice, while the Hindiistani is 
in the active voice. You must just accept the construction 
as it stands. 

26. Whenever it is possible to use the accusative with 
" ko,'' you partly avoid the difficulty ; for then the verb 
is always in the third person singular, masculine. 
Ex. : — Mard-ne larke ko mara, the man struck the boy. 
Mard-ne larki ko mara, the man struck the girl. 
Aurat-ne larki ko mara hai, the woman has struck 

the girl, 
Auraton-ne larki,on ko mara tha, the women had 
struck the girls. 
Also note that verbs such as those given on page 19, of 



* " Mama " may also mean io kill. 



HINDl5sTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 21 

which the last part is got from "ana," or "jana" {e.^. 
lana, to bring) (though transitive) follow the ordinary rule, 
and not the rule given at Section 25. 

27. By ad<Hng "karna," or "dena" to certain adjec- 
tives and nouns, you can reach a large number of corre- 
sponding verbs, Ex. : — 

taiyar, ready, taiy^r karna, to prepare ; ?nake ready. 

saf, clean^ saf karna, to dean. 

kala, black, kala karna^ to blacken, 

hazir, present, hazir karna, to bring one in ; intro- 
duce, 
supurd, trust, supurd karna, to entrust. 

bavvar, belief, bawar karna, to believe, 

and many more. 

28. Other forms of derivative verbs are such as the 
following : — 

bolna, to speak, bulana, to call. 
marna, to strike, marna, to die, 
khana, to eat, khilana, to give to eat ; to feed.'^ 

pina, to drink, pilana, to give to drink ; to water. ^ 
dena, to give, dilwana, to cause to be given, 

dekhna, to see, dikhlana, to show. 
and many more. 

29. There are some irrej;ular forms of the "respectful 
imperative," Viz. : — i. Dijiye, from dena, be pleased to give. 
ii. Kijiye, from karna, be good enough to do or make, iii. 
Lijiye, from lena, be pleased to take. iv. Pijiye, from pina,: 
drink ; v. Hiijiye, from bona, be or become. 

30. One other useful idiom should be learned, viz., the 
use of the pres. part, to express that you do one thing while 

* Governs the accusative 



2 2 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

also doing another thing. Ex. :— Wuh mard bolta chala- 
jata hai, that man goes along, talking. 

2:Jote, — This idiom is often strengthened by doubling the participle. 
With a fern. nom. it will be {e,g.) bolti, and in the plur. masc 
holte, according to the ordinary rules of agreement. 

The Irregular Past Participles, 

31. There are six irregular past participles (including 
"hi'i,a" from "hona" already given). They are as follows : — 





c 


Sing. 


Plur. 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


From jana, to go 


gay^ 


ga,i. 


ga,e 


ga,in. 


„ karna, to do 


kiya, 


ki. 


ki,e 


kin. 


„ dena, to give 


diya, 


di. 


di,e 


din. 


„ lena, to take 


liya, 


li. 


li,e 


lin. 


„ hona, to be 


hil,a, 


hii,i. 


hii,e 


hii,in. 


„ marna, to die 


mu,a 


miiji 


mij,e 


mil, in 



Note. — *'In Bengal, gaya is frequently corrupted into giya''"' in ordi- 
nary talk. Alania has also a regtdar past participl;r, mara. 

The Passive Voice, 

32. Never use the passive voice, if you can express 
your meaning in the active voice. 

In making the passive voice, use **jana," to go, where 
English uses the verb **to be." Confer Italian, which 
makes much use of ^ venire,^ in forming the passive; also 
the German, verloren gegangen. Ex. : — 

The man is struck — The man is going struck. Mard 
mara jata hai. ... The woman was struck = The woman 
was going struck, Aurat rrari jati ihi. ... The horse will 
IfC beaten = The horse will go beaten. Ghora mara ja,ega. 



hindcstAni as it ought to be spoken. 
VOCABULARY No. IV. 



23 



About the House. 



House, ghar ; (not * gar ') 

makan ; kothi. 
The verandah^ haramdah.* 
Office^ afis (E.) daftar ; ka- 

chahri. 
Room, kamra. 
The stairs, sirhi. 
The floor ^ zamin. 
The roof, chhappar ; chhat. 
The Walls, diwar. 
The door, darvvazah. 
The window, khirki. 
The glass-door, shishe ka 

darwazah. 
The Venetians, jhilmili. 
The dining-room, khane ka 

kamra. 
The drawing-room ^2X-\zv[\x2i. 
The private- room, kjhas-ka m r a. 
Thebed-rooin, sone ka kamra. 
The bath-room, ghusl-khanah 
The furniture, saman; chiz 

sab. 
The pictures, taswiren (fern.) 



The carpet, dari. 

The mat, chata'i. 

The curtains, pardah. 

A table, mez (fem.) 

A chair^ kiirsi ; chauki. 

An easy-chair, aram-kursi. 

A bracket, braket. (E.) 

The books, kitaben (fem.) 

The ornaments, ara,ish. 

The vases, gul-dan. 

The store-room, god am (cor- 
rupted from ^'godown"). 

The stables^ astabal. 

The cook-house, bawarchi- 
khanah. 

The he?i-house^ mur gh i-khanah. 

The coiv-shed, gao-salah. 

The flower-garden, phiil-bagh 
{or baghcha). 

The vegetable-garden, sabzi- 
ba gh (or baghcha) 

The orchard, bagh. 

Land in zvhich a house stands^ 
* compound.' ^ 



^ Derived from the Persian, ** bar-dtnadan^^'' to come out. 
'^ Pronounce as in English ; the derivation of this word is not known 
to the author. The word is used only by English people. 



24 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



VOCABULARY No, V. 
Useful Verbs. 



Toopen^ khulna (////r.). 
To open, kholi-a : khol-dena 

{trans). 
To close, band-karna. 
To read, p<rhna. 
To push, thelna. 
7^/////,khichna,(L.B.)tanna. To put on clothes, kapre 
To sleep, nindlena. p >hinna ; orhna. 

To Ik down, sona, often used To take off clothe. 



To do accounts, liisab likhna. 
To sew, sina; sila,i karna. 
To learn, sikiina. 
To teach, sikhana, or sikhlana. 
To dance, nachna. 



To sing, gana. 



to mean *to sleep.^ 
To get up, uthna. 
To raise, uthana. 
To take a walk, sair karna : 

hawa khana. 
To ride, sawar liona. 
To go in a carriage, gari men 

swar bona. 
To run, da urn a. 
To 7vash, dhona. 



kapre 

utarr.a. 
To drive, hankna. 
To get out of the ivay, hat- 

jana. 
To laugh, hansna. 
2^0 weep, rona. 
To take the air, hawa khana. 
To go away\ i:o, clialajana. 
To put into motion, or cause 

to go faster, chalana. 
To run off, bhag-jana. 



To write, hkhna. 

The master of the house, \:\\7ir ka sahib. 

The lady of the house, ghar ki mem-sahibah. 

The young lady of the house, gh^-r ki mis-sahibah. 

The youfig gentleviaft of the house, chhota sahib. 
No/e. — The first three phrases are required by the exigencies of Euro- 
peans ; but are not good Hindustani. The frofer feminine of 
*'• sahib ^' is ^^ sd/iibah ; " but ^sdhd)^ is often used as if of both 
genders. Never allow ^^ nits-bdha''^ for a gto7an -up youx\g lady. 
Mem-sdhibah is used to mean a mariied lady, plur. mem-log, the 
ladies. * Chhota sdhib^' used in an official sense, rtieaus ' the 
Assistant Magistrate,' junior partner, or the like. 



HINDl^STANI AS IT OUGHT TO KK SPOKEN. 



25 



khula, open. 

band, shut. 

baland, high. 

nicha, low. 

achchha, good. 

khatab ; bura, bad. 

nahin, not., often contr;ict- 

ed, na\ 
nahi'n to, other7vise ; if Jiot, 

then. 
hakim, ruler ; judge. 
ta j w 1 z, inves tiga tion 

(fern.) 
naukar, a servant. 
naukarlcg, the servants. 
larke-log, ^ 

baba-log, :> 

bal-bachche, J 
khabar, neivs. 
khabar ka kaghaz 

the newspaper. 
bakhshish, a gratuity 
khurak, /(?6>^, (fern.) 



VOCABULARY No. VI. 

zor ?>Q, forcibly ; " hard'' 
agar, if} 

kih, that (of narration), 
ek sath ; bahati), together. 
juda ; a lag, separate. 
^V?>ViX, t'rtqufntly. 



justice 



the chil- 
dren. 

akhbar, 



jab, 1 2 "^^^^^fi- 

tab, J then, 

kliiisiisan, especially. 

poshak, dress ; fine clothing. 
(fern.) 

sharm, shame (fern.) 

janam, birth. 

nikah ; shadi, marriage. 

zindagi, life. 

maut, death (fern.) 

hiizur, Your Honor. 

band-o-bast, arrangements 
(of any kind). 

koshisli, endeavour ; strug- 
gle; attwipt. 

apna-e-i, oivn^ reflexive ; alt 



- persons, both numbers. 
Exercise No. 4. 
Ghar ki mis-sahibah ghar men nahin hai. JhilmiH 
khuli hai. Darwaze ko band karo. Pankha tano. Pan- 
kha zor se khicho. Naukar los; hazir nahin hain. Baba- 



* Ahvays followed by '* to " at the beginning of the second clause ; 
Ex.: —If he comes, (then, ** to ") I shall leave. 

* *'/a^ " of the first clause is followed by tab in the second : Ex.: — '• 
When he came, (then, ** tab ") I left. See Appendix No. II, page 104. 



26 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

log gari men hawa khate hain. Darwazah band hai.^ 
Agar admi ka bha,i awe, to bolo, kih darwazah band hai. 
Agar admi ata, to band-o-bast achchha hota. Mard-ue larki 
bula,i hai. Mard-ne larki ko bulaya hai. Mard-ne apni 
jorii ko poshak di hai. Hakim-ne achchhi tajwiz ki hai. 
Naukaron-ko bula,o. Mis-sahibah ghar ka hisab taiyar 
karti hai. Roti do, diidh dijiyt-, pani lijiye. Larke log-ko 
le-ja,o. Khana t.iiyar.^ Hal-kamre men jata hiin. Chup 
raho, so,enge. Huziir ma- bap. 

Exercise No. 5. 

N.B. — Datives come before accusatives.^ Wuh = he, 
she, it, that. 

Put the book on the floor. Shut the glass-door. Open 
the Venetians. Please to bring bread, water, milk. Take 
away the children mto the dining-room. Push hard, the 
door will opt-n. Open the door. Please give bread to the 
European. Water ihe horse. If the man had called out, 
the children would have come into the house. Immedi- 
ately after speaking, he called the servants. The Sahib* 

' This phrase is use<l in India as equal to ** not at home'''* (as well as 
in its plain material sense). 

* •* Hai," is often left to be ** understood," but it is better to 
express it. 

* For full instructions as to arrangement of words, the reader may 
refer to page 61. 

* Custom warrants the use of this word by itself, or after a personal 
name, with reference to any European of fair social position Its cor- 
rect use is (not after a personal name but) after a designation, or name 
of office, whether Etiropemi or native: as Judge-sahib, the jfudj^e ; 
Diwan-sahib, the drwdn ; Munshi sahib the {Mtihammedan) 2uriter,^ 
&c. The phrase ** call my Baboo," meaning ** call writer, &c.," 
should be cut out of our Anglo-Hindustani. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 27 

has given a gratuity to the table-servant. He ,is striking 
the boy. She will strike the boy. The man has struck a 
boy. The man has struck a girl. The man has given food 
to the woman. The woman has made many attempts. I'm 
going. He has gone. Keep quiet! the * sahib' is lying 
down; the Mnem-sahibah ' is sleeping: the * mis-sahibah ' 
is learning Hindustani. Wait a little ! I am reading the 
newspaper. The children will go into the garden. The 
children may (can) go into the drawing-room. 



FIFTH LESSON. 

The Pronouns. 

These seem at first intricate ; but if you will notice 
the analogies which run tli rough them, they will become 
easy. 

2. To begin with a simple point. There is the pro- 
noun of respectful address to be used to equals and 
superiors, " ap." The word is unchangeable ; but takes the 
case-signs after it. With the case-signs of the genitive, it 
of course means **your." — It is joined to the third person 
plural for politeness sake. 

3. If you are addressing a person of not less rank than 
"raja," you may use the noun " huziir " (with the third 
person plural). Ex. : — " Huzur ka mizaj kaisa hai ? " Your 
Honour's health, how is it ? Huzur nahin jante hain (kih 
&c.) Does your Honour not knoiv (that &c.). The ordinary 
address to inferiors is made by the second person plural. 
The second person singular is used only in abusive or 
contemptuous address, and therefore ought to be always 
avoided. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 29 

4. The Personal Pronouns are as follows : — 
The First Person. 

Sing. Plur. 

Norn. ... ... main, /. ...ham, we. 

Gen. ... ... mera.* ...hamara.* 

Form to which to add all ])articles, excent ' ne' : — 

niujh. ...ham. 

The Second Person. 

Nom. ... ... tu, thou. ...tum. 

Gen. ... ... tera.* ...tumharn.^ 

Form to which to add all particles, except * ne ' : — 

tujh. ...tum. 

Notes :— 

i. " ne " is always added to the Nominative forms, 
ii. You will never be wrong if you use only these forms ; but 
there are also these other forms : — 

Dat. and Ace. Sing. " mujhe," ** tujhe." \ no parti- 
Uat. and Ace. Plur. *'hamen," ** tumhen." J cles. 
Oblique plur. forms, ** hamon," ** tumhon " These take 
the particles, including ** w^." 
iii. Never use the Sing, of the 2nd personal pronoun. Always 

use the plural throughout, (See para. 3, above.) 
iv. You will never be wrong in usin<j also only the plur. of 
'* main ; '' but when speaking to an equal or superior, it 
is better to use the singular. 
V Even natives of rank, when speaking of themselves, gen- 
erally use a noun of humility, with the 3rd person 
singular. Persons of inferior rank to you, ought 
always so to speak to you of themselves. Such words 
are : — " Ghulam," your servant ; •* Bandah," your ser- 
vant ; ** Fidwi," your faithful one; Tabidar," your 
subordinate, 

' These follow the rules for ** ka, ke, ki," but, being already 
genitive^ they do not take these particles after them. 



30 HINDl^STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

The Third Persmial Proiiotms. 
Nom. and simple accusative, yiii, he, she, it. ye, they. 
Oblique ioxms for all particles, is, hun, her, if. in, them. 
Nom. and simple accusative, wuli, he, she, it. we, they. 
Oblique forms, as above. us, him, her, it. un, them. 

' Yih ' is he, she, it of a person or thing near you; 
* wuh/ of a person or thing more or less distant. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 
5. Yih and wuh are also the Demonstrative Pro- 
nouns ; this, that ; these, those. 
Notes : — 

1. You will never be wrong if you use only these forms ; but 
there are also these other forms : — 
Dat. and Ace. 5/;/^., *' ise," **use." ) 

Dat. and Ace. P/ur., " inhen," "unhen." I "^ Particles. 
Oblique plur. forms. '* inhon," *'unhon." These take the 
particles. incUidijig ** w^." 
ii. When " yih " and " wuh " are fersonal pronouns, the case- 
particles are added to the oblique forms direct ; when they 
are demonstrative pronouns, these particles are added to the 
noun Q)v\y. Ex. : — is-ko do, give {it) to him ; is admi ko 
do, give it (to) this man. 
iii. It is polite to use the plural for the singular of these personal 
pronouns. Ex :- un-ko do, give (it) to him. 

The Possessive Pronouns. 

6. These are the Genitive cases of the ihxQQ personal 
pronouns, used as adjectives in agreement with the thing 
owned. Ex.: — Mera ghorn, 7Jiy horse; mere ghore, 7ny 
horses ; tumhari khushi, your pleasure : is-ka ghar, /^?> (or, 
her) house ; is-ka rang, its color ; un-ki bahin, his sister. 

The Reflexive Pronoun * Apna.' 

7. This word is a stumbling-block to Europeans. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 31 

8. It is a plain Adjective agreeing with a person or 
thin^ owneH, according to the rules of ka, ke, ki ; but when 
it means '''self,'' it is necessarily used without a noun. 
It never takes any of the terminations of the oblique cases 
in the plural. We have, therefore, only the three words 
' apna/ ' apne ' and ' apni.' 

9. It means my otvn, thy oivn, his oivn, her own^ its oivn ; 
our own, your oivn and their oivn, whenever these words 
'refer back' to a preceding Nominative, relating to the 
same person or thing. 

10. It also means ''5^//," ''' selves,'' as these words are 
added to my, thy, his, her, its ; our, your, them^ when they 
'refer back' to a Nominative of the same subject. Ex. : — 
I want that horse for myself. 

11. When '^myself etc., follow a personal pronoun 
merely as strengthening adjuncts, they cannot be translated 
by 'apna.' You must use the indeclinable word ' k/iud.' 
Notes : — 

i. Not to use ' apna ' where it is the proper word, or to use 
where it is not the proper word, is sure to give a meaning 
which you do not wish to express. 

ii. Observe that the Nominative is nearly always left to be 
* understood' in the second person of the Imperative Mood ; 
and that pronouns, as Nominatives, are also very generally 
omitted. These facts make no difference in the necessity 
for 'apna.' 

iii. ' Own ' is generally omitted in English, but if the context re- 
quires it, the omission does not remove the necessity for 
'apna.' Thus, the sentence ^ he wants his horse'' will be 
translated according as * his ' means his own horse, or 
the horse of another man. In the former case, the trans- 
lation will be, wuh apna ghora chdhta hai ; in the latter, 
wuh is-ka (or, us-ka) ghora chdhta hai. Everything turns 
on the second pronoun relating back (or not) to the same 



32 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO KK SPOKEN. 

person or thiiio as the Nomiuaiive, When it does so 
relate back, use *apna' ; when it does not so relate back, 
use an ordinary possessive pronoun. 

Exercise No. 6. 

Yih ghora mera hai. Yih mera ghora hai. Main apna 
ghora pasand karta hiin. Main us-ka ghora pasand karta hiin. 
Hamara ghora la,o. Mera ghora mere waste la,o. Main, 
auna ghora, apne waste, chahta hiin Main, apna ghora, us-ke 
waste, chahta hiin. Wuh admi apne bha,i ke waste am le-ata 
hai. Wuh admi us-ke bha,i ke waste am le-ata hai. Apna 
kam chhor-do ; mera kam karo. Apne ba,en ja,o. Apna 
khana kha,o. Us ka khana kha,o. Us-ne apna khana 
khaya hai. Usne us-ka khana khaya hai. Teri bat se 
teri badzati maalum hoti hai. Main-r>e, apne waste, bahut 
koshish ki^ hai. Wuh aurat, apne waste, bakhshish mangti 
hai. Main khud ja,iinga. 

Exercise No. 7. 

Pull your own rope; leave his alone. He calls his (own) 
servant. H e calls his (another person's) servant. Turn to your 
right-hand. He, by his labour, has become rich. He, by his 
(another person's) assistance, has got promotion. He will 
eat his (own) dinner. He will take his (another man's) place. 
He fetched a chair for his (own) mother. He has brought 
ten (das) Rupees for his (another person's) servant. I wish 
this for myself. This is my hat He has brought my pony. 
I myself will do it. The raja himself said. 



* *Ki' is either from * ka, ke, ki ' or is the fern, past part, of 
* karna.' Here, it is the latter. 



hindustani as it ought to 15e spoken. 33 

The Interrogative Pronouns. 

12. These are **kaun?" who'i which 2 what 2 and 
*'kya?"^ 7vhat2 

13. "Kaun" is used, properly, of persons only; but is 
often used for animals or things. It may either stand 
alone, or be followed by a noun. 

14. "Kya"' is used of animals or things. It may either 
stand alone, or be followed by a noun. 

15. Declensions. 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom, and Simple Ace. kaun ? kaun ? 

Form for the oblique cases kis ? kin ? 

Nom. and Simple Ace. kya ? kya? 

Form for the oblique cases kahe ? kahe ? 

The Relative Pronoun. 

16. This is "jo," who^ which, 

A little attention is here needed. In Hindustani the 
" relative " pronoun is put before the noun to which it relates ; 
and so we form the first clause; then we pick up the thing 
by a personal pronoun in the second clause. 
Ex. : — Eng. Call-in the man, who is at the door. 
Hind. What-man is at the door, him call-in. 
,, Jo admi darwaze par hai, us-ko-bula,o. 

1 7. The easiest declension of this word is as follows : 
Nominative and Simple Accusative, singular and plural /<?. 
Form to which case-signs of the singular are added . . .jis. 
Form to which case-signs of the plural are added ,..jin. 
The " correlative " or word with which the second 

clause begins is, ordinarily, the demonstrative "wuh," see 



^ Hence the common phrase ** kya hai?" '■^ what is it V what do 
t., h. 3 



34 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

the example above: — '* jo admi darwaze par hai — us-ko^ 
bula,o." 

For things, ' so ' (indeclinable,) is often used. 

NoU. — You will sometimes find the Relative Pronoun used in Hindus- 
tani followitig its antecedent as in English. P2specially when a 
clause stands as antecedent. 



VOCABULARY No. VII. 

Giving some English (and other) words, which (generally 
in a more or less corrupted form) have become common 
in English houses : and which may be freely used. They 
are both singular and plural. 

[The word *' kamis," (fern.) a shirt, or chemise, is of Arabic origin.] 
brush, a brush. • sill-draz, hody-draivers, 

baks or bakkas,^ a box, kalar, a collar, 

botal, a bottle (fem.) shal, a shawl. 

bi'r-sharab,- beer (fem.) dares, a lady's dress. 

brand i-sharab,= brandy (fem.) farak, a frock ; dress. 
wiski-sharab,- 7vhiskey (fem.) piti-kot, a petticoat. 
tost, toast. kantar, a decanter. 

biit, a boot ; boot.^ lamp,^ a lamp. 

pin, a pin. almari ; almaira, a wardrobe. 

draz, a chest of draivers. glas, a glass. 

patlun, pantaloon ; trousers, tamblet,^ a tumbler. 
silpat ; slipat, slippers. wain-glas, a ivifie-glass. 

minat, a minute. peg, a mixture of spirits and 

butam, a button, soda-water ; a ^ peg.^ 

* Hence " bakkas-wala" a **box-wala," a pedlar. 
= Also with "sheri" (sherry), **pot" (port), "simkin (cham- 
pagne), &c. 

^ Preserve your pronunciation of the Hindustani short * a '. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 35 

VOCABULARY No. VIIT. 

House Servants. 

sirdar or sardar-berer or sun- chaukidar, the watchman ; a 

ply 'berar,' the head house- police officer of inferior grade, 

servant not connected with niashalchi, the scullion. 

the table or food. bheri-vvala, the shepherd. 

khansaman, the butler. mihtar, the sweeper. 

bavvarchi, the cook. niihtrani, the female sweeper. 

grass-cut, (E.) he ivho cuts khidmatgar, the table-serva?it. 

fodder for the horse. <iarzi, the tailor. 

sa,is, the groom. bihishti, the waterman. 

mali, the gardener. dhobi, the washerman. 

darban, the gate^porter. dhobin, the washerwoman. 

•c\\2^y^x2i'^\Jhe messenger. {yA\.Qx- da,i, the wet-nurse, 

ally wearer of a "chapras" kirani, the Hindu writer. 

or badge.) munshi, the Muhamtnadan 

kyTih^ the female attendant on writer; also, a teacher of 

a lady or childreti. languages. 

pankha-wala, the punkha- "met" (E. mate) is used to 

puller. express " under"-servant, as 

kochban ; (half E.) gariban, met-mali, met-berer, met- 

the coachman. bavvarchi, &c. 



VOCABULARY No. IX. 

aj, to-day. bimar, sick. 

kal, to-morrow or yesterday bimar i, sickness, 

(according to context). han, yes, 

pahunchna ; a-jana, to arrive, na, no. 

chala-jana, to depart. kab ? when ? 

safar, a Journey, kyiln, why ? 



36 hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 

Exercise No. 8. 

Fidwi aj safar se pahuncha hai. Ap ka mizaj achha hai ? 
Ap kab chale-ja,enge ? Ghulam kal ja,ega. Kal main, 
bimar tha. Kal mera bha,i bimar hu,a ; aj achchha hai, 
Uski beti hazir hai. Kab hazir hij,i ? Us admi-ko roti aur 
bir-sharab do. Main-ne ek larki bula,i hai. Hazir hai ?' 
Han, hdzir hai. Ham ko ek saf kalar do. Is larki ka bap 
mar-gaya hai. Us larke ki ma mar-ga,i hai. Wuh admi 
kharab hai. Nahin ! Wuh kharab nahin hai Yih kharab 
hai. Kyiln jate ho ? 

Exercise No. 9. 

W hen did you arrive [are you arrived] from your jour- 
ney ? I arrived yesterday. I shall leave to-morrow. My 
sister became sick yesterday : to-day her health is good 
(or, she's all right to-day). That man's son is here (hazir,. 
present). I called him. The house-lamps ( = lamps of the 
house) are not clean. Khidmatgar^ ! bring (me) a peg. 
Yes, sir ! (sahib). 

Exercise No. 10. 

Pyar karna, to make dear, fondle, pet^ love, 
Jo admi darwaze par hai — usko bula,o. Jis admi ka 
ghora hazir hai — us ka bap bula,o. Jo larke kharab hain 
— unko saza do. Jo larki,an achchhi hain, — unko pyar karo. 
Jo pani glas men hai — wuh ham-ko do. Nahin sahib ! wuh 
pani saf nahin hai ; saf pani ghuldm le,ata hai. Kaun- 
bulata hai ? Kaun admi bulata hai ? Kya hai ? Jo gora 
darwaze par hai, — usko pani do. Jo larki aj pahunchi hai 
— wuh bimar hai. 

* Never call this servant your •* kitt." 



hindustani as it ought to be spoken. 37 

Exercise No. ii. 

Pet that good girl who is in the drawing-room. Call the 
man whose father arrived yesterday. {Hind, Of what 
man the father arrived yesterday — him call.) Bring me 
the collars which are in the drawers. The washerman has 
not brought the shirts which I gave (him) yesterday, 
( = what shirts I (main — ne) gave yesterday — these the 
washerman has not brought). Who is there^ ,^ What boy 
is there ? What children are there .^ Which is a good 
house? ( = which house is good ?) The European's house 
is a good one {say, only^ * is good '). 

^Hazir. 



SIXTH LESSON, 

A^ARious Words allied to Pronouns. 

1. " Ko,i " and " kuchh ' should first be noted. They 
may stand alone, or be followed by a noun. They are not 
interrogative ; though the sentence in which they stand 
may be interrogative. 

2. " Ko,i " is used of persons, and of things specifically 
indicated. It may be translated, some^ any — "ko,i" followed 
by " nahhi " gives us " no " or *' nobody T Ex. :— ko,i nahin 
hai, nobody is there. Ko,i admi nahin hai, There is no 7?ia7i 
present. Sab ko,i, eveiyone. Sab ko,i chale-ga,e hain, 
every one has gone away. 

3. " Kuchh " is used of matter or mental feelings, and 
has generally an abstract sense. It is unchangeable and is 
also translated some, any. With " nahin " added, we get 
" «<?," " 7ione, " and *' nothing^" 

4. Declension of Ko,i. 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. and Simple Ace. ko,i. ko,i. 

Form for the oblique cases kisi. kin. 

Examples: — Ko,i hai, someone is there. Ko,ihai^? is any cne 
there J Ko,i admi hai, soine man is there, Ko,i admi hai ? is any vian 



^ Kaun hai? Means who is there '^ — you knowing or believing 
that some one is there. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 39 

there? Ko,i kiirsi la,o, bring some chair or other. Kuchh roti hai, there 
is some bread ; kuchh roti hai ? is there any bread? Kuchh nahin hai, 
there is none. [Kya hai? What's the matter?] Kuchh nahin, nothing, 
Kuchh parwah nahin hai,* there is no matter ; pray donU trouble 
yourself. 

5. With " jo," and *ko,iand 'kuchh/ compound pro- 
nouns are made as in English — viz : — 

jo ko,i, whoever ... ... jo kuchh, whatever. 

Note. — Both 'jo,' and ' ko,i' cliange in the oblique cases according to 
the declensions of these words already given. Of course, in 'jo 
kuchh,' only the "jo " can change. 

6. The words given below are plain adjectives. They 
follow the rules of ka, ke, ki. 

(iiisra, another., whether meaning a different thing of 
the same kind, or an additional thing of the same 
kind. In the latter sense '* aur ek" (meaning one 
7?tore) may be used and ambiguity avoided, 
aisa, like this., waisa, like that, 

kaisa? like what? what like? ivhaf sort of a? how? 
kitna? hoiv much? how many? 
itna, this tnnch. 
jaisa, taisa, as.^ so. 

jitna, titna, {or itna) as much as ; or as many as — so 
much., so ma?ty. 
Notes : — 

i. Aisa... waisa and the two pairs last given are used correlatively. 
As : — Jaisa malik, taisa naukar, as is the master^ so is the 
servant. Jitna dudh hai, titna {or itna) do, give 7ne as 
much milk as there is. See Appendix No. 2, page 104. 
ii. Here notice the useful phrase *Jaisa chahiye,' as yon please ; 
* taisa kijiye' {so do) being * understood.' 

7. The following words do not change : — 

ek, one, or 'a' or ^an,^ also, ^^about^^ or "^z* j^," in such phrases 
as ' about ten rupees / ' there were a dozen men or so.^ 



40 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

har, each ; har-ek, each one. donon, both. 

bahut, inuch^ many. aur, more. 

chand ; baaze, several. aur ek, one more : another, 

aur do, aur tin, aur char, &c. two fnore, three more, four 

more, &^c. 

sab, all ; the whole, may be used without change, and either 
with or without a noun. Ex. : — Ham sab log, all we 
people. When used without a noun you may say " sab " 
or "sabhon," in the oblique cases. 

8. Distribution is marked by doubling the numeral : 
or by the use of " har-ek," each. Ex. : — 

Ek ek admi ko, ek riipiyah do, or, ) 

XT 1 ^j • 1 1 r ' t_ J \ Sive each man a rupi. 

Har ek admi ko ek rupiyah do. ) '^ ^ 



VOCABULARY No. X. 

Furniture and some things about a house. 

chatdji, 7natting for floors. pardah, a curtain ; hangings 

shatranji ; ghalicha ; dari, a in a doorway, o^c. 

carpet, i2i^\\iv, picture {fem.) 

mez, a table {fern.) chiz, a thing {of any sort), 

*khaneki mez,' the dinner- ifem.) 

table ; ^ likhne ki mez, ' ara,ish, the ornamentation. 

a writing-table ; *kitab ki kitab ; bahi, a book {fe?n.) 

mez,' a table with books on kalam, a pen. 

it; 'tash ki vatz,^ a card- pensil, ^ /^/2^/7 (E.) 

table, and so on. kaghaz, paper ; lal-kaghaz, 

chhdXdi, an U7?ibrella; parasol. red paper ; i.e., blottiiig- 

kursi, {also, chauki), a chair. paper. 

sail-bod, (E.) a sideboard. siyahi; roshna,i, ink; blacking. 
X\-^di,\, a tea-poy ; any small table, batti, a wick. 



HINDT^STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 4 1 

mom-bntU, a wax-^and/e, pa,o-dan; morha; ishtiil, (P^) 
te\-ba.tt\, an oi7-/ig/i^ ; a iiioht- a footstool. 

light, palang, a bed, 

baja, any musical instru- kauch, (E.) a couch. 

ment ; par excellence, as pankha, a pankha ; a fan. 

regards European houses, kunji ; chabi, a key. 

a pia7io. pauti, a work-basket. 

Dan, a termination which means a vessel for holding any- 
thing, as : "gul-dan," a flower-vase ; cha,e-dan, a tea-caddy ; 
ag-dan, afire-holder (for e.g.^ lighting cigars), &c., &c. 



VOCABULARY xNo. XL 

jalna, to burn (intr.) patthar ka ko,ila, stone-coal, 
jalana ; jala-dena, to burn or i.e., coals. 

kindle {trans.) 'sc^b^^i, goods and effects. 

bujhna; bujh-jana, to go out kahna,^ to say a thing. 

(as a light.) ya, or. 

bujbana ; bujha-dena, to ex- -^di, ^di, either ...or. 

tinguish. jaldi ; shitabi, haste ; speed. 

atash-khanah ; the fire-place ; jald, quickly. 

grate. darakht, ]jer; gachh, a tree, 

^gifire {fern.) par, a feather. 

hezam ; \2kT\, fire-wood. loha, iron or steel. 

ko,ila, charcoal. lohu, blood. 

Exercise No. 12. 

Sirdar ! atash-khane men ag do. Lakri diin, ya patthar 
ka kOjila ? Patthar, ka ko,ila. Kaun mez taiyar kariln ? 

* Governs the Ace. so has Nom. with ** ne^' " TOy'' after this verb, 
is translated by *' sc "— Us-ne mujh-se kaha. 



42 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO Bh: SPOKEN. 

Tash ki mez. Sardar se kaho kih sab hamara asbab jaid 
bakkas men rakii-de. Tel-batti nahin jalti hai, mom-batti 
jald la,o. Par ka kalam {quill) la,o, yih lobe ka kalam 
achchha nahin hai. Sab ghar, chata,i, shatranji, mez, taswir, 
aur dusre dusre' asbab saf karo. Turn kaise admi ho? 
Jaise sahib, taise naukar. 

Exercise No. 13. 
VVhat sort of a fellow is that ? Bring me all the milk in 
the house { = as much milk as is in the house, so much bring to 
me,) How many things are (there)' in the wardrobe ? There 
are' many men present { = ma7ty men are preseiit.) Light 
the fire. There is no fire-wood. Bring some from the 
cook-house. Please give me (/>., to me) some blotting-paper. 
This night-light has gone out : bring another. Put (it) on 
the chair, and go away. 

* Doubling an adjective idiomatically enhances its force. 
- See page 75, section 12. 



SEVENTH LESSON. 

PrKPOSITIC'NS. 

1. These generally follow their noun or pronoun. 

2. Most of them follow the genitive with ke : a few- 
follow the genitive with ki. 

3. Of course, when a word is itself a genitive^ the pre- 
position follows it directly, without ke or ki. Ex. : — Mere 
waste, for me ; for viy sake ; tumhare liye, for your sake^ for 
you, Kis waste, oti what accoufit ? tvliy ? 



VOCABULARY No. XIL 

I. Prepositions which follow^ the genitive with ke, or 
a genitive word in e. Those with an asterisk may also be 
used as adverbs. 

* age, in front. pas, near ; beside. 

^ andar ; bhitar, inside. mutabik ; mu,afik, like : in 

^ lipar, up ; above. confor??tity with : accord- 

baad, after (time). ing to. 

ba,is, by reason of ba-miijil>, according to ; 

* bahar, outside, agreeably to. 
badle, instead of. "^ nazdik, near. 

* bich, among ; between. "^ pichhe, behind. 
par, over ; across. sath, alo7ig 7vith 



44 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

^ samne, m front of. "^ niche, under. 

sabab, by reason of waste, for the sake of 

siwa ; siwd,e, ^aT(?//. * darmiyan, in the midst; 

ewaz, as a substitute for, by the way (i.e., road) 

^ karib, near, between ; among. 

■^ gird, around. yaban, beside ; in presence of 

\\y Q, for the sake of ; for. (the French '' chez;^^ Ger- 

mare, by reason of; on ac- man ^' bei.'') 
count of 

2. Of these which follow Xv, or genitive word in /, you 
need only learn these ; — 

babat, concerning. 

jihat, on account of. 

khatir, for the love of\ for the sake of 

tarah, like : is tarah, in this manner : us tarah, in that 
manner. ^ 

taraf, towards : is taraf, this way, (i.e., direction) ; us 
taraf, that ivay,"^ (i.e., direction). 

marfat, by the hands of ; through a person. 

nisbat, concerning; relative to ; ba-nisbat is ki, in com- 
parison with this. 

* Note. — In such quasi-adverbial phrases as these, made with " /.s" 
2indi^'' us ^'' demonstratives, \}[i^'''' ke''"' Qx "/^z" is omitted before 
the preposition. Other examples are ''^ is liye,^'' on this ac- 
count ; ^^ tis liye,^^ on that account. 

Exercise No. 14. 

Ghar ke age bara darakht hai. Dar ke mare baiiar nahin 
ga,e the. Mere nazdik ek riipiya bhi nahin hai. Tumhare 
liye sab ko,i koshish karega. Is taraf mat a,o ; us taraf ja,o. 
Ba-nisbat is ki, wuh achchha hai. Yih kam kis tarah kariinga? 
Jaisa cbahiye. Mere yahan bahut ghore hain. 



hindustani as it ought to be spoken. 45 

Exercise No. 15. 

The European soldiers have gone across the river. Under 
the lamp (is) darkness.* By the way, I saw two tigers. He 
was going towards the city. In this manner he became 
rich. For my sake he underwent much labour. Compared 
with this, dying is better. Among friends, quarrelling is 
bad. There are many good pictures in the Judge's house. ^ 
He has done the work, agreeably-to my orders, 

* Andhera, The sentence is an Eastern proverb. ' Use ' yahan.' 



EIGHTH LESSON. 

Conjunctions and Allied Words. 

VOCABULARY No. XIH. 

These present no difficulties. Those which suggest a 
*' subjunctive " sense (as, ' if^ ' though^') are often, but not 
always, followed by the Subjunctive Mood. The principal 
conjunctions are as follows : — 

agar ; jo, if. nahin, to, // not ; otherwise. 

agarchih, although. bhi ; ham, also. 

aur, and ; also. harchand, although. 

balkih, rather; on the contrary, pas, therefore ; so. 
chiinkih, in as much as; to, then, {^te Azotes, p. 47.) 

as ; since ; because. tau bhi, even then ; still. 

kill, that (of narration). warna, atid if not ; or else. 

Sometimes it has the sense hsLUOz, yet ; still ; up to this 

of * or^ as ' kih na,' or not. time. 
khvvah...khwah, either... or, ya, or. 
kyiinkih, because. ya...ya, either... or. 

go-kih, given that ; although, na . . na ; na yih . . . nah wuh, 
magar ; lekin ; par, but. neither... tior. 

See also Appendix No. II, page 104. 

* Both. ..and ' ; — 'Both' is not translated; *and' is 
usually translated by * o,' sometimes emphasised by adding 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 47 

'bhi' after the second word. Ex. :— 'Adnii wahan the,' o 
lafke bhi the, Both men and boys were there, 
j^otes. — *To' is used in the second clause to introduce the conse- 
quence, result, &c,, of the first clause. Ex. :— Agar turn yih kam 
nahin karoge, to main ghussah hunga, If you don't do this work^ 
I shall be angry. 

i. As a particle * to ' has several idiomatic uses. Thus, it is used 
to emphasise an Imperative. Ex. :— dekho to, /^^/C' ;/(7w/ 
swno io^ just yoii listen ! It is also used after a numeral, 
instead of a repetition of the thing spoken of. Ex. : — Ap-ko 
kitne rupiye darkar hain ? Das to kafi honge, IIo7v many 
rupees does Your Honor require ? Ten will be enough. 
ii. * Kih ' is much more frequently introduced in narration than 
is * that ' in English. It is generally pronounced as if spelt 
with a short *' e," like our " e " in kennel, 
iii. There is a peculiar idiom in the use of ' jab tak ' (or, talak) and 
* tab-tak ' (or, talak) — words which, taken together, give us 
one sense of the English * while,' and * till'. The idiom is 
that you must always insert a negative before the verb of 
the first clause. Wc fix our minds on (for example) the 
moment of our return ; the natives^ on the duration of the 
absence. Ex. : — ^jab-tak main nahin phir-a,un, tab-tak 
baithiye, so long as I do NOr return^ so long take-a-seat, 
i.e., till I return f take a seat. Jab-tak ghora taiydr nahin 
hoga, tab-tak ek kitab parhiye, as long as the horse is not 
ready — so long read a book, or, read a book, while the horse 
is getting ready, 

v. When two unrelated events are spoken of, as happening at 
the same time, use *jis-wakt' and * us-wakt.' Ex. : — ^Jis- 
wakt main chitthi likhta tha, us-wakt wuh akhbar dekhta 
tha, 7vhile 1 tvas ivriting a letter, he was taking a look at the 
ne7vspaper. 

vi. * Chiinkih ' of the first clause is followed by * is waste' in the 
second clause. 



48. 



HINDTJStInI as it OUCiHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



VOCABULARY No. XIV. 

Useful Verbs {continued) and Notes on Some. 



bajna, to sound {intr.) 

bajana, to sound ; to play 
{trans.) 

baz-rakhna, to keep back ; 
withhold ; conceal, 

bantna, to divide. 

bant-lena, to divide and ap- 
propriate, 

bandhna, to bind ; tie, 

baithna, to sit ; sit down, 

bithana, to seat, 

baja-lana, to carry out ; per- 
form, 

bachna ; bach-jana, to escape. 

bach ana, to rescue ; save, 

barhna, to grow ; increase, 

barhdna, to cause to gro7v, or 
increase ; advance {trans.) 

barasna, to rain, 

biljhna, to understand, 

bujhana, to explain, 

bhagna ; bhag-jana, to flee ; 
escape ; bolt, 

bhejna ; bhej-dena, to send, 

bhiilna, to forget ; to make 
a mistake (bhitl). 

bhiil-jana, to forget ; to be 
forgotten. 

chahna, to wish ; desire. 



charhna, to ascend, 
charhana, to cause to ascend ; 

raise. 
Chilian a, to scream. 

dubna, to si?ik ; be drowned. 
dubana, to cause to sink; 

immerse ; lower. 
daurna, to run, 
dalna ; dal-dena, to throw ; 

throw down. 
daryaft karna, to find out 

about a thing. 
dhilndhna, to search for. 

faramosh - karna, to forget. 

gana, to sing. 

guzarna ; guzar-jana, to pass 

over (e.g., a river.) 
girna ; gir-jana, to fall. 
girana ; gira-dena, to cause to 

fall ; to throw down. 
guman-karna, to fancy ; 

opine. 
ghabrana, to be confused ; 

perplexed ; put out ; (also 

trans.) 
ghulna, {intr.) to melt, 
ghulana, {trans.) to melt, 
hankna, to drive. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



49 



jagna, to be aivake. 

jagana, to waken (trans.) 

janna, to know. 

jina, to live. 

jitna, to win. 

jh again a, to quarrel. 

kabill karna, to agree to ; con- 
sent ; admit a charge.^ &^c. 
■ kam-ana, to be serviceable. 

kiraya-lena, to borrow ; hire. 

kasna, to pull ; make tight. 

khiijlana, to scratch ; tickle. 

khodna, to dig. 

khulna, to be open ; after rain 
&c. ; to clear. 

kholna, to open ; unfasten. 

khelna, to play ; sport. 

khojna, to search for. 

ladna, to be laden. 

ladna, to load. [paper.) 

lapetna, to wrap up {as with 

latkana ; latka-dena, to sus- 
pend ; hang- lip. 

lajana, to be ashamed. 

larna, to quarrel. 

lagna, to touch ; be in contact 
ivith ; reach ; also begin. 

lagana, to apply one thing to 
another ; to cause to touch : 
to lay on {and, so, to moor 
I K a boat, &^c., c^c.) 



letna, to lie down ; rest. 

mangna, to ask; demand; 
want. 

[piichhna, is to ask a question.] 

mangwana, to setid for. 
manna, to obey, also, to be- 
lieve ; acquiesce-in. 
inalna, to rub ; chafe. 

nikalna; nikal-jana, to go 

out ; sally forth. 
nikalna, nikal-dena, to ex 

tract ; take out ; turn out ; 

show-the-door-to. 

pan a, to get ; obtain. 
parhna, to read. 
parhana, to instruct. 
pakarna, to catch hold of. 
pakna, to grow ripe. 
pakana, to cause to ripen ; to 

cook. 
pukarna, to call out. 
piichhna, to ask a questioti. 
ponchh-dena, to wipe ; dust. 
pharna, to tear {trans.) 
phatjana, to split; burst, 

{intr.) 
pahchanna, to recognise one ; 

knozv one again. 
phir-ana, to come back. 
y^\\\x-]2iX\2i, to go back. 

4 



50 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

torna, to tear ; break ; destroy. 



pahunchna, to arrive. 
pahunchana, to escort ; con- 
duct; cause to arrive. 
paithna, to enter. 

rahna, to stay ; remain ; 
dwell. 



iitarna, to descend. 

utarna, to cause to descend, 

uthna, to rise ; statid up. 

uthana, to raise. 

uth-jana, to get up and go ; 

to depart. 
urna, iojly. 
Lirana, to dissipate ; to fly, e.g., 

a kite (guddi.) 



vvakif-hona, to be, or become 
aware of anything. 

yad-rakhna, to re77iember. 
zikr-karna, to 7nention. 



samajhna, to comprehend. 
samjhana, to explain. 
sochna, to meditate on. 

takna, to turn ; look this 

way ; guard ; watch. 
talab-karna, to seek for ; send 

for. 
tarashna ; katna, to cut. 
thaharna, to wait; stay where 

you are. 

Notes : — 

i. The verb * miina ' occurs most frequently as a 3rd personal 
verb only. What is our Nominative becomes a Dative, 
and our Accusative becomes the Nominative. Confer the 
Latin, * Liber est ??iihi,^ I have a book. 

With this construction always preserved, * inilna ' means 
every phase of a thing coviing-to, reaching, 7neetiitg a 
person or thing. Its precise English must vary with the 
context, and includes have, fnd, get, procure, meet, come- 
across or whatever else suits. 

* Mila^ (3rd pers. past tense,) is a handy word — used alone 
to mean ^ Vve found it ;^ *" Vve got it,^ Or you may say — 
more fully — ^ havi-ko mila hai.^ * Ham mile,' * wuh 
milega,' and so on, are not Hiitdtistdni, 

Examples : — Jangal men ham-ko do sher mile the. In the jangat 
I met two tigers, Mujh-ko bakhshish milegi, / shall get a reward. 



I 






HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 51 

Us-ko hukm-ndmah mila hai, he has got a ivriiten-order. Darmiyan 
rah ke, ek naddi mili thi, In the middle (or, by the way,) they 
came-on a river ; (* unhon-ko ' being * understood.') 

ii. From ' pakna,' comes the Anglo-Hindi. *pucca.' 

iii. ' Lagna,' when it means to begin, is preceded by the inflected 
form of the Infinitive : Ex : — Wuh bolne laga, he began to say. 

iv. * Darna,' to fear, requires * j-^ ' of the thing feared. Ex — 
main tum-se clarta hun, I am frightened for you. 

V. * Kahna,' to say, tell, also takes * se ' where we use to. Ex. : — 
Us-ne ham-se kaha, kih, &c , he told {to) us, that, ^c. So 
with 'puchhna ' : — us-se piichhiye, ask of him, ask him. 

vi. To e^'^XQSS ptcrpose, intention ox object, the inflected form of 
the Infinitive followed by ^ ko^ or * ke zvdste,^ is used 
Ex : — Wuh khane ko jata hai, he is going to difze. Khelne 
ke waste bahar jata hiin, I am going out to play. Or you 
may say — * ke matlab se ^ = with the intention of Ex : — Us 
shakhs-ne, mujh-ko nuksan pahunchane ke matlab se, yih 
bat kahi hai, that fellow has told this story in order to 
cause injury to arrive to me, i.e., to injure me. 

Exercise No. i6. 

In donon men se, ap kaun pasand karte hain ? Meri 
ra,i men, yih achchha hai. Huziir lijiye ; fidwi ke pas dilsra 
hai. Bahut achchha ! Ghulam aj sham ko huzdr ke pas bhej- 
dega ; nahi'n to kuchh kam ka nahin hoga. Achchha ! bhej- 
dijiye. 

Khet men dhan hai ; bawarchi-khane men chawal hai ; 
mez par bhat hai. Agarchih main us-ko phir dekhiin, tau- 
bhi nahin pahchan-sakilnga. Main us bat ko yad nahin 
*rakhta htin. Baaze admi kahte hain, kih shahr men bahut 
chor-log rahte hain. Main Hindustani zaban men hoshyar 
hoti hiln. 



i 



52 hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 

VOCABULARY No. XV. 

kaisar-i-hind,* the Empress of lat Sahib, the Lieutenant- 
India, Governor, 
badshah, or padshah, a king, zamin, land. 

(M.) zamindar, a land-holder. 

malikah, a queen, (M.) mulk, a country, 

maharaja ; ^ raja^ a king. (H.) milki, landed property. 
mahdrani ; ^ rani^ a queen. (H.) khet afield, 
shah-zadah, a prince, (M.) kheti, cultivation, 
kilnwar ; jub-raj, ^//-/^f^. (H.) raiyat ;^ kashtkar ; kisan, a 
diwan, a minister of state. cultivator, [ {fern.) 

arkdn-i-daulat,^ the nobility. fasl, the crops ; the hardest 
khas-o-am,^ the people gener- rabi, the spring crop. 

ally. kharif, the autumn crop. 

khud, (indec.) self. apas men, aiiiong themselves. 

hsLia. Lit^ Sihib, tlie Governor- bsity {f^^n.) word; affairs; 
General, business ; news. 

Notes : — ^This ** i" is Persian for **^/"...^ 'rtiese words are best left 
untranslated.... ^Literally, *^ the Pillars of the Statey\., * Liter- 
ally, The Exclusive and the Common. ** o " is Persian for ** and, ' 
* i.e. ** Lord.'' « The Anglo-Hind, * ryot ' The plural is ri,iya, 
tenants ; subjects. 

When speaking of persons of distinction, you put the Verb in the 
Plural, even though the Nom. be singular. 

Exercise No. 17. 

Kaisar-i-Hind ke bete is mulk men a,e the. Bare Lad 
Sahib ke sath rahe the. Kaisar-i-Hind khud nahin 
a-saki thin. Sab Bddshdh, Mahardja, Raja, Khas-o-am, 
Kaisar-i-Hind ke bete-ko dekhne ke waste, Kalkatta ga,e 



Calcutta. 



1 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 53 

the. Shahzade-ne bhi logon-ko dekhne ke waste, sab inulk 
men safar kiya tha. Is-se sab ko,i nihayat khush hu,e. 

Agar yih bat ap-ko pasand nahin hai, to, main chala- 
ja,iinga. Yih admi daulatmand nahin hai, balkih gharib 
hai. Chiinkih tum-ne yih kam nahin kiya hai, is waste 
tum-ko saza milegi. Jab barsat achchhi hai, tab ri,aya khush 
hain. Jab main taiyar hiinga, tab ap ke sath bahar ja,unga. 
Mujh-ko khush kiarne ke matlab se, bakhshish di hai. 

Exercise No. i8. 

Given that Your Honor is unwell, still there is no fear of 
death. Although Your Honor has given the order, still I 
will not (io this work. Just you listen ! I shall go to Cal- 
cutta, and you shall stay here till I come back. Don't 
come till I shout. While I say a word to this man, you 
take-a-look-at lo-day's paper. 

The land-holders of this country are rich, and often 
quarrel among themselves. Their tenants get excellent crops 
when the rains are good. This year,i the rains have not 
been sufficient ; therefore {pas) the crops are bad. 

I am frightened for tigers. I saw two in the forest. 
They, becoming frightened at me, ran-ofif, making a loud 
cry. In the way, we also reached a river ; we crossed-over 
in a boat. 

^ The Persian * im sal ' is in common use. It is an accusative of 
time, and must not be used as if it were a Nominative. 



I 



NINTH LESSON. 



Adverbs, and Allied Words and Phrases. 

VOCABULARY No. XVI. 

These do not change. You may make up adverbs, by 
putting * se ' after any noun which will make sense. 
Ex. : — ' Zor-se (Anglo-Hind, 'jorsy,') with fore: ; forcibly. 
* Khabardari se ' with care ; carefully. Learn also : — 



ab, now ; at present. 
ahistah, slowly. 
albattah, certainly; ^ no doubt. ^ 
aslan-mutlakan, by no means ; 

most certainly fiot. 
ba,en, to the left hand. 
be-shak, without doubt. 
bihtar better. 

bii-fel, iminediately ; at once. 
bil-kul, entirely. 
dahine, to the right hand. 
ek dam, this instant. 
hameshah, always. [haps 
ho sakta liai, it may be ; per- 
itiifakan, it so happened that ; 

by chance. 



is wakt, at this time ; now. 
jald, quickly ; soon. \at once. 
j hat-pat, very quickly : now ; 
kabhi-kabhi, so?neti?nes. 
mat, the negative always used 

with the Imperative Mood. 
masalan, for example. 
iiihayat, exceedingly. 
raftah-raftah, gradually. 
siiayad, perhaps. 
thora thora, by little and little. 
turat, at once ; now. 
us wakt, at that time ; then. 
zardr, of necessity, 
ziyadah, jnore, often with the 

sense of, ' too much.^ 



hindustani as it ought to be spoken. 55 

Exercise No. 19. 
Main nihayat khush hiin; mere bap-ne ham-ko bahut 
rilpae di,e hain ; main bil-fel ghore mol-lilnga. Kapre 
almari men jald latka-do. Zariir jana ho^a. Ittifakan, 
murgh-ko ek moti mila tha; kaha, kih " yih chiz kis kam 
ki hai ? main bhdkh se be-tab hiln ; mf)ti, jauhari, on ki 
chiz, hai; mere waste ek danah ja,i bihtar hoga;" bolte-hi, 
bhiikh se mar-gaya. 

Exercise No. 20. 

I met a friend on the road. On his journey he came 
upon a river. A cock came upon a pearl. It came to pass 
that^ the king's daughter found a child on the bank of the 
river. He began to say (that) ' I met two tigers on the 
road;' but his friend said (that) Mhere are no tigers in 
this place,' so he shut-up.- 

^ Ittifakan. ^ Chup-rahna. 



TENTH LESSON. 

Interjections. 

Those in common use are as follows : — 

are, (// a female is addressed^ 'ari,') hey you ! 

kya bat, what a statement! stuff! nonsense! 

wah-wah ; shabash, bravo ! well done ! 

achchha ; khiib ; khair ;^ good ! ivell ! 

bahut achchha, ^ very good ! all right ! 

wa,e-wa,e, woe is me ! oh dear, oh dear ! 

bapre-bapre, expresses astonishment at some disagreeable 

news, or the like. 
bap- bap, help ! ?fiercy ! 
duha,i, or duha,i-duha,i,y«^//V^ ! 
duha,i Maharani ki, grant justice, oh Great Queen ! 
afsos, or afsos hai, what a pity ! how sad ! 



* We, in telling a story, often be,s;in a sentence with the exclamation 
* well ! ' Natives, in like circumstances, often end a sentence in the 
same way. Their word is * khair.' 

'^ *Bahut achchha' or * bahut khiib ' is also a common answer given 
by a servant on receiving orders. Or he may answer, *jo hukm,' 
whatever your orders (be) — * I shall attend to them ' being understood. 
Or he may say, simply, * Han, khudawand,' or, Ji ! han. Yes, Your 
Honor I 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



57 



chhi-chhi,' tigly / nasty I 

dilr ; diir-diir ; diir ho ! l^e off! get out I 



VOCABULARY No. XVII. 
Useful Adjectives — (continued,) 



achha ; khiib, good. 
kharab ; bura, bad. 

ilncha ; baland, high. 
nicha, low. 

bara ; bazurg, great. 
chhota, small. 

bahut, nnich. 
thora ; zarrah, little. 

mota, thick ; coarse ; stout. 
patla, ////;/ ; iveak in texture, 

or in body. 
barik ; \\\\\\m,fine in texture. 

dubla, thin ; scraggy. 
mazbiit ; strong ; firm. 
kam-zor, 2veak, {deficient in 

strength.) 
natakat, infirm ; shaky. 
zorawar, strong in body; 

oppressive. 



karvva, strong^ (as liquor^ or 
tea.) 

lamba, long, 
kotah, short. 

chaura, broad. 
kam-arz, narroiv. 

gol, round. 
chau-kona, square. 

kharkhara, rough. 
chikna, smooth. 

garm, warm ; hot. 
thandh ; thandha, cold. 

saf, clean. 
maila, dirty. 

sakht, hard, also, difficult. 
narm ; mula,im, soft. 

asan ; salis, easy, 
mushkil, difficult. 



^ This word must never be used as an adjective describing any of 
Her Majesty's subjects ; or their dialect ; as in these lines from the 
*• Laya of Ind'' — 

" What though upon her lips there hung 
The accents of the chhi-chhl tongue." 



I 



58 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



bhari, heavy. 
halka, light. 

tazah, fresh. 

sara ; purana, decayed. 

naya ; nau, neiv. 
purana, old. 

gaihra, deep. 
uthla, shallo7v. 

tez ; lezrau, fast. 
tez nahin, slow. 

nazdik, near. 
diir, distant. 

pyara, dear (of affection.) 
mahnga, dear (of price.) 
sasta ; manda, cheap. 

tang ; ?iarrow ; too tight. 
tez, sharp (as a knife.) 
kund, blunt. 

kafi, sufficient ; enough. 
kam, deficient ; '' short.' 

daulatmand, rich. 

gharib ; kangal ; muflis, poor. 

maghriir, proud. 



giinga, dufnb. 
langra, lame. 
langa, naked. 

maaldm, known. 
na maaliim, unknown. 
khush, pleased ; happy. 
na-khush, displeased ; un- 
happy. 

pasand, agreeable ; approved. 
napasand, disagreeable ; dis- 
approved. 

chalak ; 

tez-zihn ; 

aklmand ; 

dan a, 7mse. 
be-wukiif, foolish. 
kund-zihn, dull oj intellect. 
diwanah, mad. 

hoshyar, skilful ; up in your 
work. 

be-hosh, senseless ; stupid ; 
* no good; also, Hna swoon.' 

umdah, great ; noble. 
paji, viea7i ; base ; contemp- 
tible. 



clever ; sharp- 
witted. 



gharib ; miskin, humble ; poor ^Hm^ learned. 



in spirit, 

andha, blind, 
bahra, deaf. 



jahil, ignorant. 
saf, clear. 
and h era, dark. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 59 

Silk ha, dry. kala, black. 

bln'nga ; tar, 7vef, barun (E.), brown. 

u \. u ' ^ 4 -4 sabz, green. 

sach ; sachcha; rast,^r^/^ ; just. ^ ' ^ 

ihiitha, untrue. ma,. 

, *, , . , lal, red. 

na-rast, unjust ; wrong. ' 

zard, yelloiv. 
durust, right; proper. ^^^^j. . shamal, the North. 

na-durust, not right; im- d.khan ; janiib, //^^ .S-^^//^. 
proper. piirab ; niashrik, the East. 

sufed, white. pachchham ; ma gh rib,//zg IVest. 

Notes : — 

* Kam ' is much used as a prefix, signifying deficiency. * Maa- 
lum,' * Na-maakim, ' are much used colloquially, by themselves 
alone, to mean ' I know it, ' * / doiit know it.'' * Muflis ' is said 
also to mean * a bachelor ^^ but there is probably some error in this 
use of the word. 

The words * uttar,' 'dakhan,' * piirab,' and * pachchham,' are 
those most commonly used. From 'dakhan' comes the Anglo- 
Hind, * Deccan.' 

All natives know the points of the compass ; and all direc- 
tions should be given by them. Thus you may tell your servant 
if you want him to bring you an article, (and know yourself where 
it lies,) that it is, e.g.^ on the North-West corner of your table. 
He is then sure to find it, if there. 

Exercise No. 21. 

Are ! kidliar jate I10 ? ' Ap kyun piichhte hain ? Kya bat ! 
turn jawab nahin de,oge ? Han khudavvand ! fidwijawab 
dega ; fidwi bazar jata hai. Bahut achchha ! kusilr nahin 
hai, chalo. Duha.i Maharani ki ! chor logon-ne mere sab 
mal liit-hye hain ; hukm dijiye kih poh's (E.) ke sipahi,an 
fouran tahkikat karen. Wa,e ! vva,e. Afsos hai! charon taraf^ 



I 



' * Charon taraf ' — (char, /^//r) idiomatic; on all sides; *' char " 
is made plural ; * taraf is unchanged ; no preposition is required. 



6o HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

uttar, dakhan, piirab, pachchham, talash karenge, kaho • 
kya kya mal gum ho-gaya hai ? 

Yih admi aklmand hai ; wuh, be-wukiif hai. Yih aurat 
bahut dubli hai ; lekin uska khasam bahut mota hai. Yih 
kapra patla aur kam-arz hai, mujh ko kapra mazbdt aur 
chaura darkar hai ; tumhare pas aisa kapra hai ? Kala kapra 
mazbiit hai. Be-wukilf ! main sufed kapra mangta hiin, tum 
kala kapra bahar karte ho — ja,o ! Berar ! Han khudawand [ 
barun ghora bimar hai. Bapre ! bapre ! kaisa hd,a ? Main 
kya janta ! Jald dauro — bazar-se jullab ki dawa manga,-do. 
Tabidar chaprasi bhej-dega. Nahin ! tum sust admi ! is 
darmiyan men, ghora mar-ja,ega ; khud dauro ; diir ! 

Exercise No. 22. 

Hey you ! what are you up to? ( = doing.) Nothing. 
Then, what is all this noise ? We are only chatting among 
ourselves. Don't chatter in the verandah ; by reason of the 
noise, I cannot work. VVno are these men ? They are culti- 
vators. What do they want ? They say that owing-to (se) 
the oppression of their (own) landlord, iheir crops have 
been attached ; they desire justice. But is their story true ; 
God knows ! as a rule, there is some truth and some false- 
hood on both sides. Certainly these poor people won't tell 
lies. Your Honour has been six months in the country 
and knows everything ; but (your) slave's opinion is that 
whoever believes only half^ will do good justice.* 

* From * nisf,' /la/f, is derived * insaf,' justice ; also * Munsif,' a 
dispenser 0/ justice^ a * Moonsiff (Anglo- Hind). 



I 



ELEVENTH LESSON. . 

Arrangement of Words in a Sentence. 

The arrangement of words in a sentence is left a good 
deal to taste, subject to one fixed rule that your Verb must 
come at the end of the clause or sentence ; and if there 
be an auxiliary, it is the last word. You cannot divide the 
parts of a verb ; making such a sentence as * He had, after 
some delay, made a full confession.' All the component 
parts of a compound tense come together. 

2. Taking the ordinary words and clauses which occur 
in a sentence, the following order will be found idiomatic: — 
Nominative, preceded by the qualifying word, or words, if 
any; Object, purpose, intention, or the like; ..Dative.... 
Adverbial, or participle clause ;... Accusative; ... Verb. 
Ex. : — Us kharab admi-ne — nuksan pahunchane ke matlab 
se — mujh-ko — nihayat baland awaz se — gali di thi, That bad 
nian^ with, the object of causing (me) loss, to me, in a very 
loud voice, gave abuse. If you wish to state the place, you 
might say, e.g. ^ bazar men' before *gali.' The time ^o\Adi 
probably stand first of all : as, aj, din-ko, tin pahar ke 
wakt, (us Jcharab admi, &c.,) to-day, by day, at the time of 
three-watches, i.e., at three d clock this afternoon, ^c. 

3. Interrogation is expressed in several ways — 
\st. — By the mere inflection of the voice ; the words 



62 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

remaining in the same order as in an affirmative sentence. 
Ex. : — Tum nahin jante, kih, &c. Don't you know that r^c? 

2nd, — By the use of a plain interrogative word. Ex. : — 
kyiin deri karte lio ? Why are you delaying ? why are you so 
sloiv ? 

2,rd — By first naming a thing, and tht-n asking about it ; 
as often occurs in Frcncli. Ex. :— Ap ka mizaj — kaisa hai? 
Your Honor's health — how is it ? 

[Hai admi bazir? and the Hke, are not Hindiistani.] 

Some Interrogative Words. 

Kab, when? Kahan, where? Kidhar, whither? Kyiin, 
why? Kaun, tvho? Kya, which? what? Kab-tak, how long? 
Ka,eber ; ka,e dafah, how often ? Kis-waste, on what account; 
why? Kyun-kar ; kis-tarah ; kaisa, in what manner; how? 
Kitna, or ketna, Plur : kitne, or ketne, how many? how 
much ? 



VOCABULARY No. XVIII. 

The Boi>Y and some of its Parts. 

badan ; jism, 7/^^ body. ankh ; chashm, the eye. 

sir, the head. nak, the nose. 

bal, the hair. rukh ; gal, the cheek. 

zulf, curly hair. milnh, the mouth. 

milchh, mustachios. talu, the falate. 

darbi, the beard. dant or dant, a tooth, 
ru ; chihrah ; miinh,^ the face, jibh ; zaban,^ the tongue, 

peshani, the jorehead. , jabra, the jaw, 

abru, the eyebrow, lab, a lip. 

' Pronounce, nasally, * moo.' ^ Zaban means also * a lan^v^d. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



63 



thuddi ; zanakh, the chin, 
kan, an ear. 

gar dan, the neck. 
gala or gula, the throat. 
bazu, an arju, 
hath ; dast,^ a hand. 
hatheli, the pahn. 
ungli, a finger. 
nakhun, a ?iail. 

kandha, the shoulder, 
chhati, the breast. 
sinah, the bosom. 
godi, the lap. 
panjar, the side. 
pith, the back. 
chiltar, the buttocks. 

tang, the leg. 
jangh, the thigh. 
pindH, the calf. 



pa, on, the foot. 

talwa, the sole of the foot. 

eri, the heel. 

pa,on ki ungli, a toe. 

haddi ; har, a bone. 

panjari, a rib. 

khiin ; lohu, blood. 

pit, bile. 

pasinah, perspiration. 

dam^ ; sans, the breath. 

rag ; nas, a vein. 

maghz ; dimagh, the brain. 

dil, the heart. 

pet ; shikam, the belly, 

midah, the stoinach. 

phepre, the hmgs. 
tilli, the spleen. 
gild a, the marrow. 

chamra, the skin.^ 



* Hence, dast-anah, (;/^/ das-tanah,J a glove. 

2 Not to be confounded with * dum,' the tail of an animal. 

* Means also ' leather.^ 



TWELFTH LESSON. 

Numeration. 

The first things to learn here are the following frac- 
tions : — 

pa,o, a quarter. derh, one and a half. 

adha, a halj. arha,i, two and a half. 

also these : — 

sarhe, 07ie half moky. than the unit named. 

sawa, one quarter more than the unit named. 

paune, one quarter less than the unit named. 

2. Then learn these words : — 

ganda, a hmdle of 4. hazar, a thousand. 

kori, or kuri, a score. lakh, a hundred thousand. 

sau, a hundred. karor, ten millions. 

3. There are separate words from *one' to *one hundred/ 
but it will be sufficient for you to learn the words only from 
*one ' to ' twenty.' They are as follows : — 



I, ek. 


8, ath 


15, pandrah. 


2, do. 


9, nau. 


16, solah. 


3, tin. 


10, das. 


17, satrah. 


4, char. 


II, igyarah, 


18, atharah. 


5, panch. 


12, barah. 


19, unis. 


6, chhah. 


13, terah. 


20, bis. 


7, sat. 


14, chaudah. 





HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 65 

4. The Other numbers up to loo will be found in Ap- 
pendix No. I, page 103. With the materials now given 
you, you can express any number, in a perfectly idiomatic 
way : by using karors, lakhs, thousands, hundreds, scores^ 
and units. Ex.: — 557^ five hundred, two scores, and^ 
seventeen, panch sau, do kdri, satrah. 9,991 = nau hazar, 
nau sau, char kiiri, unis. 

5 The ORDINAL numbers are as follow^ : — Paihle, 7^^-^/ / 
diisra, or, doyum, second ; tisra, third ; chautha, fourth. 
These, when ending in 'a,' follow the rules of ka, ke, ki. 
After ' chautha, fourth, ' the ordinals are got by adding 
'wan' to the cardinals. *The sixth' is, for euphony's 
sake, ^chhatwan.' 

6. *Once,' * twice,' 'thrice,' &c., are expressed by * ek 
dafah,' * do dafah,' ' tin dafah,' and so on. 

7. *A,' in such phrases as 'a yard,* 'a foot' is ex- 
pressed by the word ' fi.' or by ' ek ek ' Ex. : — fi — or ek 
ek — gaz kitne riipae honge? how 7nany rupees a yard. 

8. As there are sixteen annas in a Riipi, 16 is much 
used to give the idea of a ' whole/ 'a unit,' or 'full quantity,' 
of anything; ''eight annas'' meaning a half ; ' four annas,' 
a quarter ; two annas, an eighth, and so on. Confer the 
words 'quadroon,' 'octoroon.' 

^ * And ' is never expressed with numerals. 



THIRTEENTH LESSON. 
Time. 

The English Months are sure to be known by all your 
servants, and are also known to natives generally. But you 
must catch the pronunciation in use in your locahty. 

The following is pretty near the ordinary pronun- 
ciation : — 

Janri. Julai. 

Fabri. Agast/ 

Marich. Saptambar. 

April. Oktobar. 

Mai. Navambar. 

Jiin. Dichambar. 

2. The Days of the Week are not known by their 
English names. 

The names most commonly used are these — 
Itwdr ; rabibar, Sunday. 
Sombar ; pir ka roz, Monday, 
Mangal, Tuesday. 
Budh, Wednesday. 
Brihaspat ; biphe, Thursday. 
Shukrbar; jumah, Friday. 
Sanichar; sanibar, Saturday. 

^ Accent on the last syllable. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGFiT TO BE SPOKEN. 67 

3. The HouKS are now-a-days always counted by the 
English watch when possible. But the native division 
assigns so much time to the day-light, and so much to the 
night. The reckoning is by the "pahar," (pronounced 
in Lower Bengal, ^prohor,') which consists of three English 
hours; four "pahars" being counted to the day, and four 
to the night. Then the word 'ghanta' — which means a bell, 
or gong — is used to mean 'an hour,' as in many parts of 
India a gong is struck after each hour. Again, there is a 
word /ghari,' which is said to be equal to about one-third of 
an English hour; but is often used very vaguely; as indeed 
all words of time are, when not referred to a watch or clock. 
* Ghari' is also used for the English ' clock, or ' watch ' 
itself. 

4. * The clock ' is known to all servants as well as to 
superior natives. The verb 'bajna^ {intr.) to sound; or the 
verb * bolna' {tnir.) to say, is used with reference to a clock 
or watch. If you will study the following clauses you will 
be master of * the clock' in Hindiistani : — 

kya baja hai, what has sounded ? what o'clock is it ? 

do baje hain, two have sounded; two o'clock. 

arha,i baje bain, a half 7nore than two has sounded. 

sawa do baje hain, a quarter more than two has sounded. 

paune do baje hain, a quarter less than two has sounded. 

do baj-ke. bis minat, two having sounded, twenty ?ninutes 
(more have passed), twenty minutes past 2. 

bis minat ke baad, do bajega, after twenty minutes, two 
will strike; twenty minutes to 2. Or this may be ex- 
pressed thus: — bis minat kam, do baje, (by) 20 ?ninutes 
less, two o'clock. 

Iderh baje, half past one. . . . arha,i baje, half past two. 
ka,e baje? at what o'clock ?■ tin baje, at three o'clock. 



68 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

5. Time in a vague sense is expressed by an accusative 
without government, as in English. Ex: — guzashtesal, last 
year ; pari roz, on the following day, 

6. When precision is aimed at, * at,' or * by,' (of time) 
is translated * ko/ or 'ke wakt' Ex: — Aj, sham-ko, to-day ^ 
at evening ; this evening. Rat ke wakt, by night, at night. 

7. *Ago,' * since,' ' for,' are translated by ' se,' or by 
*hii,a' in agreement. When * since' can be resolved into 
that I have not, you must use a negative. Ex, : — Tin baras 
hd,e, main Kalkatte men raha tha, three years ago, I ivas 
living in Calcutta, Kal se, main is-ko khojta hiln, I am 
searching for it since yesterday. Char mahinon-se, wuh 
bimar hai, he is {has been) sick for four months. Panch 
barson se, main-ne apna watan nahin dekha haij since five 
years, 1 have not seen my native country, or, in good English^ 
it is five years since I have seen my native country. 

8. In naming a date (tarikh, fem.) you use 'ko.' Ex.: — 
Navambar mahine ki panch tarikh ko, Kalkatte ja,iinga, 
I shall go to Calcutta on date s. of the month Noveinber. 

9. * Men ' is also often used for ' in,' or ' during,' ex- 
pressed or understood. 

10. In using the numbers, "- and' is always left untrans- 
lated. Ex. '.—five hundred and forty-three, panch sau, do 
kdri tin. 



HINDIJSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 69 

VOCABULARY No. XIX. 

Words and Phpases relating to Time, Money, 

Weight, and Measurement. 

Time. 

tarikh (fern.), a date. yih baras {or sal), this year. 

baras; sil, a year ; in dating, (Nom.) 

san. is baras; is baras men; im sal, 

mabinah, a month. this year ; during this year, 

haftah, a week. (Ace.) ' im ' is Persian ; but 

roz ; din, a day. * im sal ' is in common use. 

chaudah roz, y^r/;^/^/^/. a,indah, the future. 

ghanta; ^^2in, an hour. a,indah, baras, {or sal,) next 

minat (E.), a minute. year. (Nom.) 

iahzah, a second., (lit. twink- a,inde baras ; a,inde baras 

lin^ of an eye). men (or with * sal'), next 

aj ; im roz, to-day. year. (Ace.) 

kal, to-morrow, or yesterday 

(according to context ) ^^ > ^'^^ ^ '' ^'*' ^^' ^'''''''^ 
parson, the day after ^^- ek din naghah karke ; ek din 

morrow, or the day before chhor-kar, every alternate 

yesterday (according to ^^y 

context.) 
tarson, the fourth day (for- din ke wakt, by day. 

wards or backwards.) rat ke wakt, by night. 

pari roz, the day after (any ala-s-sabah, at early dawn. 

event) ; next day. tarka; fajr ; bhor; subh, early 

guzastah ; jo bit-gaya, the morning. 

past. do pahar din, noon. 

guzastah baras {or sal), last do pahar rat; adhi rat, mid- 
year.) (Nom.) night. 
guzashte baras {vr sal), last sham, the evening, 
year. (Ace.) sham-ko, in the evening. 



70 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Money. 
niablagh, a lump su7ji. 
rdpiya, a rupee. Plur. riipiye ; 

riipae ; riipi ; riipae is 

also used to mean ' mojiey.^ 
anab, an ^ anna,^ ^^ of a riipi. 
pa,i, a 'pie' ^L of an 'anah.' 
riipi, a rupi-piece. 
ath-anni, an 2>-dnah-ptece 
chau-anni a ^-dnah-piece. 
do-anni, a 2-dnah piece. 
paisa, a -^ pa ^i- piece (4 make 

an 'anah'), often means 

' money. ' 

Weights. 
man, a ' man ;' Anglo-Hind. 

'maund,' equal to about 

80 lbs. 
ser, a 'seer,' equal to about 

2 lbs. 
adha-ser; ek paun (E.), half 

a ' ser^ or one poiaid. 



chhitank, a ' chittack^ —^ of a 
^ser.' 

tola, a 'tolah f the weight of a 
ricpi; by which letters, gems, 
gold, silver, &c., are weighed. 

Measurement. 
ek kos, a ' coss ; ' about two 

miles, 
adha-kos, half a ' kos / a mile, 
bhiga, a land measure; varies 

in different parts of India, 
kattha, a 'cottah,' ^V of a ' bi- 

gha.' (square measurement), 
rassi, a measure of length 

about 60 yds. 
gaz, a yard. 
hath, a cubit. 
flit (E.), a foot. 
musht ; mutthi, a fist, i.e., a 

* hand,' (as in measuring 

horses.) 
inchi (E.), an inch. 



Exercise No. 23. 
Jo haftah bit gaya hai, us men main-ne do gh< re mol-hye 
hain, Guzashte sal, ri,aya bahut gharib the ; im sal, un-ki 
fasl achchhi hai, is Hye khush hain. Angrezi^ baras — Janri 
ki paihli tarikh ko — shuru hota hai. Meri ghari bigar ga,i 
hai. Us-ki ghari tez chalii hai, aur mere bha,i ki ghari sust 
chalti hai. Kuchh kam ki^ nahin hain. Main-ne paune 



English. 



' Agreeing with ' ghari.' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 71 

char gaz mol-liye. Unhon-ne arha,i man ko,ila kharid kiya. 
Ham-ko paune panch baje jaga,o. Ka,e baje bahar ja,enge ? 
Aj, sham-ko, bahar ja,iinga ; ka,e baje main ab nahin janta 
hiin. Sab chiz thik hai? Han khudawand ! Tel-batti 
ghusl-khane men rakh-do. 

Exercise No. 24. 

Her ear is small. Her breast is white. Her cheek is 
red. Her heart is hght. His jaw is large. There are 
gloves on her hand. There was much perspiration. His 
shoulder is strong. Give me one quarter. He has bought 
fifteen horses. How much has he given for them ? 
Rs. 9,786. Five hundred and forty-two men were present. 
Give me 2^. He is first, and she is second. I spoke to 
him three times. This year is hot. This year, the rains 
are good. To-day at one pahar, I shall go to Calcutta. 
At what o'clock did he go out ? At a quarter to three. 



FOURTEENTH LESSON. 

Miscellaneous. 
The Pronunciation given in this book is the purest 
known ; but you must not expect that here, any more 
than in England, pronunciation is everywhere the same; or 
even the same in one locahty, as uttered by educated and 
by uneducated people. Thus you will often hear * z ' and 
"j " confounded with each other; and will even learn to 
know " nazdik," under the metamorphosis of ' nagich.' 

2. You must also remember that there is such a thing 
as ACCENT in addition to * quantity.' Thus a long ' a ' at 
the end of a word will be sounded less strongly than the 
same elsewhere. 

3. Besides quantity and accent, there is also the 
CADENCE of a sentence. This, and the appropriate action 
of hands, face and body, can be acquired only by imitation. 

4. The great fault of Europeans — next to leaving 
out the non-initial *h' — is "clipping" their words as. 
they speak, ignoring double consonants, and forgetting that 
Hindiistani, when well spoken, is a language of vowels and 
double consonants, and must be vocalized like Italian. It 
is miserable to hear such sounds as harnreh garry low,^ 
pinnykypanny do, eggy barrow,^ sarry das bajy, and so on. 

* Pronounce as in * ho%v. ' No doubt, for ' age barha,o.' 



hindt5st1ni as it ought to be spoken. 73 

4. In concluding the instructions of this little book, a 
few matters which have not found place in the earlier 
lessons will be gathered up here. 

5. Idioms of a peculiar kind are not very numerous in 
the language. You have already learned (page 47) that 
you require * not ' in such phrases as ' wait here till I come 
l^ack ;^ and (page 68) ^ it is three years since I saw you, ^ 
Note also that words of time, measurement, quantity and 
so forth often stand in the accusative without any govern- 
ment. "Of" is not translated in such phrases as * a cup 
of tea,' ' a yard of cloth,' *a piece of bread.' The words 
stand in * apposition ' — ek piyalah cha,e — ek gaz kapra — ek 
tukra roti. Id such phrases, again, as ' he fell from the wall,' 
the natives say, he fell from on the wall (diwar par se); also our 
phrase * out of is taken in the reversed light, and becomes 
' from in.' Ex. : — lomri bil men se nikli, the fox came out 
of (from inside) its hole. There is also a favourite idiom 
by which the pluperfect tense (with had) is used where we 
use a plain past. See Example, Exercise 17, page 52 \ 
and (as in many other languages), the Future Tense is often 
used, where, strictly speaking, the Subjunctive Mood is 
the correct thing. The omission of pronouns, where no 
ambiguity will be caused, has already been pointed out. 
Doubling words in order to strengthen the force is common 
in Hindiistani, and not unknown in English : * My love is 
like the red red rose.' Ex. : — wuh achchha achchha admi 
hai, he is a Dery good man. 

6. You will sometimes find plurals in * an.' This is 
from the Persian ; and occurs chiefly in words ending 
in — dar. It does not change in the oblique cases. Ex. : — 
Zamindar-an, tabidar-an, chaukidar-an, &c. 

7. WiLA-WALi (masc. and fem, ; declined hke nouns in 



74 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

* a ' and ' i ') are very useful terminations. They are joined 
usually to the Nom. Sing, of a common noun, or to the in- 
flected form of the Verbal Noun. They indicate a person 
connected with the thing the noun expresses, or one who 
does the action expressed by the verb. Ex. : — pankha wala, 
a pankha-puller ; roti-wala, a baker ; machhli-wala, f/ie fish- 
monger ; likne-wali, the (female) writer^ and so on, ad- 
infinitum. They are also added to Adverbs. 

8. The DEGREES OF COMPARISON are made thus : — 
For the comparative degree you compare the thing you are 
speaking of with one thing of the same kind. For the 

* superlative degree,' you compare it with all conceivable 
things of the same kind. Your adjective has no change 
indicative of * degree;' but continues to * agree, ' as 
usual. Ex. : — 

Yih ghora , . . us ghore se ... achchha hai. 
This horse . . compared with that horse . . is the good one. 
Yih ghora . . . sab ghoron se . . . achchha hai. 
This horse . . compared with all horses . . is the good one. 

9. Occasionally you may find the Persian terminations 
of the comparative and the superlative degrees, viz.^ * tar ' 
and *TARiN,' used with adjectives derived from the Persian 
language. But this is not common. The only familiar 
word is * bihtar,' better ; the * positive degree ' of which in 
Persian is 'bih,'^^(9^. Superlative, ^bihtarin.' 

10. In NARRATION, you must use the same pronouns 
and verbs as the original speaker used : Ex. : — 

Eng. : — He said he would go to Calcutta to-morrow. 
Hind. :— He said, (that) * I will go to Calcutta tomorrow.^ 

11. So, in sending a verbal message (which you 



hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 75 

should never do if you can help it) give your messenger 
the very words he is to use. Ex. : — 

Eng. : — Go and tell him, I can't come. 

Hind. :— Go and tell him, (that) *The Judge sahib (or 
as the case may be) can't come.' 

12. *Itis;' * there is;' * there are.' These idioms 
do not occur in Hinddstani. The plain noun and verb 
only are used. Ex. : — kaun hai, ? raja sahib hain, who 
is it ? It isJhe raja sahib, Khabardar ! ag hai, take care ! 
there^s fire. 

13. To HAVE. There is no verb for this. You must 
use the verb * to be ; ' on the liber est mihi principle. 
Ex. : — Ham-ko kuchh ummed nahin hai, / have no hope. 
Us ke pas bahut kitaben hain, he has many books. Us-ke do 
ghore hain, (Jiis are two horses^ he has two horses. When 
* have ' has the sense of * get,' * obtain,' &c. * milna ' may 
be used. Ex. : — Us-ko ek hukm-namah mila hai, he has, 
holds, has got, a pass, 

14. '* Thank you." To a servant this phrase is pro- 
perly expressed by " bahut achchha ;," " achchha : " or even 
"bas." The last word means ^ enough;^ ^ that'll do.' To 
equals and superiors the word " shukr-guzar " (literally 
' thanks-passing ') should be used — by itself — on all fitting 
occasions. 

Note. — Exaggerated civility to an inferior is regarded by him as 
sarcasm. As you may never use any word of abuse, a little 
exaggerated politeness may be used instead. 

15. To SALUTE *'Salam karna ; " '* salam bolna ; " 
"saldmdena" " Salam karna" is to perform an act of 
salutation. " Salam bolna " and " saianudena " are about 
equal to each other in meaning. You will have to use 



*j6 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

them chiefly in two instances : first, as a polite mode of 
sending for a person : Ex. : — "kirani babu ko salam do" 
{or bolo), le., '''give (or say) viy * saldm ' to the (Hindu) clerk'' 
— the rest is eliptic ; but the clerk will understand that he 
is to come to you : so, secondly, when a caller sends in his 
card, you say " salam do ; " or " salam bolo " to the servant. 
He carries your salam to the caller, who comes upstairs 
and pays his visit, on receiving your " salam " but not 
before. A 'visiting-card'' is tikat (E.) 

i6. The PARTICIPLE "in ke" or " kar,"' (sometimes 
*'' karke'' or '' karkar^' all being derived from karna, some- 
times only the plain stem), is much used in Hindiistdni, to 
lead up to the principal verb— and avoid the repetition of 
''and'' Ex. ; — Yih bat bolkar chala-gaya. Having said this 
much (lit. this word), he we7it away : or. He said this much 
and left, 

17. This little book contains none of the high-flown, 
and somewhat exaggerated style of phraseology which 
abounds in Oriental languages ; nor any of the phrases 
adopted from Arabic. These belong to an advanced 
course. You should, however, provide yourself with two 
phrases of a superior kind, to be used to native gentlemen 
of rank. They are words meaning shortly, '' to arrive^' and 
"to depart;" and are " tashrff-lana," to arrive, "tashrif 
lejana," to depart, Tashrif means " the honour of your pre- 
sence : " the first phrase (to arrive) therefore means " to bring 
the ho?iour of your presence^' — and the second (to depart) — 
to take that ho?iour from us. " Huziir," is the correct word 
whereby to address natives of high rank. The verb will of 
■course be in the third person plural ; and so you will say : 

Huztir kab tashrif la,e hain ?= Vf^hen did you arrive ? 

Huzilr kab tashrif le-ja,enge ?= When do you go aivay ? 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO UK SPOKEN. 77 

18. Then, the poHte form by which to ask for a person's 
health is, ' mizaj sharif.' To which the answer may be 
* huziir ki mihrbani se,' dy Youf" Hofioiir's kindness^ or ' huzilr 
ki inayat se,' by Your Honour's favour^ or ' huziirki du,a se,' 
by Your Honour's blessing^ or * shukr Khuda ka hai,' thank 
God, — 'I am well ' being understood. 

19. Connected with this matter, I mention, in conclu- 
sion, that in the middle of many names of i\rabic origin, 
you will find the syllable **2//"or "2/^," occasionally "^/i*." 
They all mean,"^//^^" and the whole name has generally 
a grand significance. Thus Shams-ud-din means "The 
Sun of the Faith;" Siraj-ud-daulah\ "The Lamp of the 
Commonwealth," and so on. 



VOCABULARY No. XX. 

Khuda, God. Khairat, alms ; charity to the 

firishtah, an angel. poor. 

auliya, the saints. rozah, a fast. 

iblis ; shaitan, the Devil. rozah rakhnn, to fast. 

\y^\%\i\.^ heaven. namaz ({qvl\.), prayer. 

2^X2S. or iraf, purgatory. namaz parhna, to say prayers. 

jahannam, hell. gharib-log, the poor 

riih, the soul. ^irja, ci church. 

din ; mazhab, religion, [if^rse. masjid, a fjiosque. 

duniya, (fem.) the world ; uni- math, /z temple. (H.) 

neki ; bhala,i, righteousness. padri sahib, an English vii- 

gunah ; pap, sin. nister; also, a Catholic priest. 

^ The '* Sir Roger Douler " of the British soldier of the last century. 

* Hence is derived the name of that one of your servants whom you 
will probably call — this little book not withstanding— your ** Beasty." 
(Bihishti.) 



78 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

lat Padri Sahib, the Bishop. bigar-iana, to go wrong ; get 
imam, a Muhamviadan 7iiin- out of order {2iS health, a 
ister} watch, &c.); to miscarry^ 

mSLhant ; guru, a Hindu priest. (as plans.) 
bibal (E.), the Bible. kisan, a cultivator. 

kuran, the religious book of bona, to sow. 

the Muha in via da n s . r opna, to plan t. 

hh2igyi2il, ditto of the Hindus. nirauni, weedifi^ \ nirauni 

karna, to weed. 
gidar ; siyal, a jackal. 
bij, seed. zarrah', a little somewhat. 

chara, a seedling. kheti-karna, to cultivate. 

Note. — 'Lat' is corrupted English for 'Lord.' 

Exercise No. 25. 

Bhala admi gh arib logon ko khairat dega. Khairat dena, 
namaz parhna, rozah rakhna, ye tin chizen khuda ko 
pasand hain. Is .girje ke padri-sahib ka nam kya hai? 
Han* nahin jante. Rtlh ka aram bihisht men hai ; kharab 
admi,on ki saza jahannain men hogi. Ko,i mazhab nahin 
hai, kih us men bhale admi aur bure admi nahin hain Ek 
baras men barah mahine hain. Har ek baras men tin sau 
tin kiiri panch din hain. Kisan log paihle bij bote hain ; is 
ke baad, chare khet men ropte hain. Agar pani kam ho, 
to, fasl kharab hoti hai ; gh arib logon ko kabhi-kabhi 
sirf chdr ane ya do ana ki fasl milti hai. Tab zamindaran 
bhi bure hai men hain. Unhon-ko khazanah nahin 
milta hai ; sarkari mal-guzari nahin de-sakte hain ; pas, 
un-ki zamindari,ari nilam men bar-bad hain. 

. ^ Muhammadans have no " priests. " 



hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 79 

Exercise No. 26. 

This year the ryots will get a sixteen annas crop. Every 
one will be pleased ; tenants, landlords, and Government. 
Satan is the enemy of man j God is his friend. From 
religion, is the peace of the soul. The Bishop will be here 
the day after to-morrow. The church is open every 
alternate Sunday. 

Is my watch correct ? No. It is fast. How many nipis 
are in the house ? Three hundred and ninety-three. In 
the evening, jackals come into the garden. I have not 
been here since the day before yesterday. On what date 
did he go away ? On 7th July last. 



FIFTEENTH LESSON. 

The difference between words given in the body of this 
book and words in the Glossary at the end, is that the 
former are words which you 77iust know, and must learn up 
as soon as possible ; while among the latter, are many words 
which you may or may not require to use, and for which 
you must search if wanted. 

2. The following lists — among which Exercises are 
placed by way of rests — complete the words which you must 
know. Some of the words already given are allowed to 
appear again here. 



1 



VOCABULARY No. XXL 

Thk Seasons and Weather. 

mausam, or miisim, a season ; garmi ka mausam, the hot 
weather, weather ; summer. ^ 

jare ka mausam (or miisim), barsat ka mausam, the rainy 
the cold weather ; winter.^ weather} 

^ The durations of these three seasons may be roughly given thus : 
* The cold weather,' 15th October to 15th March. 'The hot 
weather,' 15th March to I5lh June. 'The rains,' 15th June to 
15th October. The cold weather is longer in North-Weastern India. 
There is plenty of hot weather everywhere during * the rains.' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



and hi ; til fan, a storm, 
khula din, a fine day ; fair- 

weatJier. 
dhiip ; tapish ; jiarmi, heat. 
jara ; sardi, cold. 
barf, S710W ; ice. 
yakh, ice. 

barsat ; barish ; pani, rain. 
patthar, hail. 



saf ; khula, clear. 

andhera, dark. 

abr ; badh", a cloud. 

hawa ; batas, (L. B.) wi?td. 

kohasah, fo^. 

garaj, thtmder. 

bijli, lightfiin^. 

garaj na, to thunder. 

bijli chamakna, to lighten. 

barasna ; pani hona, to rain. 



Note. -^Adjectives' may be made by using a noun and ka, ki, ke. Ex. :- 
Aj pani ka din hai, this is a rainy day. 



VOCABULARY No. XXII. 



Nature, the 

as man. the sky. 
siiraj ; aftab, the sun. 
chand, the moon. 
tara ; sitarah, a star. 

dunya, the ivorld 
mitti ; khak, earth. 
pani ; ab ; jal, water. 
hawa, air. 
ab-o-hawa, climate. 
samundar ; kala pani, 

open sea. 
darya ; naddi, a river. 
kinarah, the shore ; bank, 
nala, a ditch ; ' nullah,^ ( 

glo-Ilind.) 

T., H. 



Landscape, Towns, &c. 

nahr, a canal. 

tal, a lake. 

talab ; talao, « reservoir; a 
' tank: 

ahar ; khazanah, a reservoir 
made by damming up na- 
tural supplies. 

kii,a; indara, a ivelL 

pahar : koh, a mountain. 
tara,i ; daman-i-koh, the land 

at the base of mountai?zs. 
maidan ; ramnah, a plain ; 

meadoiv. 
darakht ; gachh ; per, a tree, 
abadi, cultivated land, 
6 



the 



An- 




82 



HINDXJSTiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



parti, waste-land .; uncultivat- 
ed land. 

]a.ng3.\, forest : hi^h-grass, or 
forest trees on land ; a 
weedy place ; ^ ju ngle. ' 

jhar; jhari, underwood; scrub. 

kichar, mud. 
balu ; ret, sand. 
patthar, a stone. 

patta, a leaf 

dal ; shakh, a branch. 

jar, a root ; roots. 

ghas, grass. 

phal \ mewa, fruit. 

phdl, flowers. 

shahr; nagar, a city ; a town. 
ganw ; basti \ gram (L. B.) 

a village. 
ghar ; makan ; kothi, a house. 
hopri, a cottage. 



rah ; {fern.) rasta, a road. 

sarak, the highway, (fern.) 

gali, a lane ; a ^ gully ^^ (Anglo 
Hind.) 

chauk, a square (often use 
as the market-place.) 

bazar, a collection of shops 
or stalls ; a market ; thi 
* bazaar^ 

hat ; mela, a fair. 

diikan, a shop. 

hotel, (E.) a hotel. 

isteshan, (E) the railway- 
station. 

jel-khanah, (jel, E.) the jail. 

kilah ; garh, a fort. 

pul, (2 bridge. 

rel-rasta, (^rel,' E.) the rail- 
way. 

rel-gari, a railway carriage ; 
a train. 



Exercise No. 27. 

Barsat ke mausim men, jangal aur jhar bahut linche bote 
hain; darya sab bare bain; gachh, maidan, ghas, sab chizen 
sabz rang ki hoti hain. Garm dinon men, darkar hai kih 
ko,i admi dhiip men nahin jawe; m agar aksar hota hai kilj 
garmi ke mausim men, sab ko,i tandurust rahta hai; jare k^ 
mausim men, ab-o-hawa nihayat pasand hai; lekin sard 
ke ba,is, zukam aur chand kism ki bimari admi,on-k^ 
taklif deti hain. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



83 



Exercise No. 28. 
A storm is coming from the West. I see lightning there. 
Listen! there's thunder. I can't hear it. There are many 
shops in the city; bat the streets are narrow. There are 
fogs in the cold weather. The train will arrive at noon. 
There are no shops in this square. It is near the bazar, 
therefore there are no shops. The water of the reservoir 
is better than the water of the canal. There is a large 
tank on the ' maidan.'" A fair will take place (say, 'there 
will be a fair') on the loth of next January. Have you 
been at (say, ' ever gone to') the Sonpiir fair (jnela) ? 



VOCABULARY No. XXIIL 
Common Animals. 



janwar ; haiwan, any animal, 
hathi ; fil or pil, an elephant, 
sher-babar ; singh, a lion, 
sher ; bagh, a tiger, 
chita, a leopard, 
bhal ; bhalu, a bear, 
jangli sii,ar, a boar, 
bheriya, a wolf, 
gi'dar ; siyal, a jackal, 
lomri, a fox, 

haran or hiran, a stag ; a deer. 
gilehri, a squirrel, 
khar-gosh, a rabbit ; hare. 



lint ; shutur, a camel, 
ghora, a horse. 
madiyan, a mare^ 
gadha,^ gadhi, an ass, 
tattu, a pony ; a Uatf (Anglo- 
Hind), 
kutta, kutti, a dog, 
billi, a cat, 
sand,^ a bull, 
bail, an ox, 

bhains ; bhainsa, a buffalo, 
ga,o or ga,e, a coiv, 
bachra, a calf. 



* Used as an English word ; especially in Calcutta. 
^ Also used figuratively. 

^ The pronunciation of this word does not admit of being reproduced 
by letters, you must hear it pronounced before attempting it. 



34 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



bheri, a sJieep, 

bakri ; chhagul, a goat. 



sil,ar,^ a pig. 



sanp, a snake. 
bichchhu, a scorpion. 
gojar, a centipede. 
indur, a rat. 
chilha, a mouse. 
chha-chhiindar, a musk-rat. 
chaiu-gidar, a hat. 
tiktikki, a lizard. 



bandar, a monkey. 

Vermin and Insects. 

til-chatta, a cocki'oach. 
chilnti, a7i a?tt. 
dimak, a white ant, 
machchhar, a musqi4ito. 
niakkhi ; magas, a fly, 
pissu, a flea. 
khat-mal, a bug. 
gandi, a 'giaidy.' 



Birds. 

chiriya, a bird of any kind. murgh, murghi, cock, hen. 
murgh-abi, water fond. piru, a turkey. 



gidh, a vulture. 
chil, a kite. 

chakwa, chakvvi, the 
. miny goose. 
mor, a peacock. 
saras ; bogla, a cra?ie, 
kauwa, a cjviv. 
ullu,2 ^^ ^^/^ 
bans, a swan. 
raj-hans, a goose, 
bat ; battakh, a duck. 



pekan, a capon (English word 
with V and '/>' misplaced). 
Brah- kabiitar, a pigeon. 

chaha ; isnaip (E.) snipe. 
bater, quail, 
til, (E.) teal, 
tota, tiiti, a parrot. 
maina, a ^maina.' 
bulbul, a bulbul (often con- 
founded with a nighiingale), 
shama, a nightingale. 






Exercise No. 29. 

Jangal men bahut janwar rahte hain. Sher-babar jangal 

ke badshah hain, Hindustan men sher-babar kam hain. 



'"^Alse used figuratively. 



hindustXni as it ought to be spoken. 85 

Sher bahut hain : aksar adtni,on-ko pakar-kar khate hain. 
Sab ko, i un-se (jarte hain. Barsat kemausim men sanp kabhi- 
kabhi ghar men ate hain : bahut khabardar bona chahiye. 
Diwar men sebichchhii tnkal-ate hain. HindiUtan ki chiriyan 
nahi'n gati hain. Mor ki awaz bahut na-pasand hai. Sahib 
log baliut murghi.an khate hain ; is mulk men sasti hain. 

Exercise No. 30. 
When the grass is long, (then) there are many snakes. 
At the base of the mountains, the hunter gets many tigers 
and elephants. The bear lives in the hills. Pig-sticking 
is the best sport in the country. A fast horse is necessary 
for pig-sticking. Ponies are serviceable for children. In 
this country, the three seasons are — the cold weather, the 
hot weather, and the rains. 



VOCABULARY No. XXIV. 
The Bazar. 

bazar, the market, pilnji, capital, 

bazar karna, to 7narket. siid, interest. 

mol-lena ; kliarid-karna, to buy. diikan, a shop. 

bechna, to sell. diikandar, a shopkeeper. 

bikna, to be sold. sarraf, (Anglo-Hind. * shroff'), 

kimat ; dam, price, a banker. 

nirkh (Anglo-Hind nirrik) ; mahajan, (//V. the great man), 

bha,o, rate. a money lender ; merchant, 

kharid-farokht, buying and saudagar, a merchant ; 

selling; trafficking. trader, 

sauda ; mal ; chi'z, merchan- saudagari; tijarat, /r^^^. 

dize ; goods. dastiiri, discount; allowance 
nafa, profit. given by the seller to your 

nuksan ; ghati, loss. servant. 



ft. 



86 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



raj, the mason, 

lobar, the smith. 

nal-band, the farrier, 

barha,i, the carpenter. 

balbar ; hajjam, the barber. 

sonar, the gold, or silver- 
smith. 

jiiti-wala, the shoe-maker. 

mocbi, the cobbler, worker 
in leather. 

tarazu, a iveighing-machine. 

bat khara, a weight for ditto. 

taul ; wazn, the weight of a 
thing. 

taul karna, to weigh. 



kapra, cloth. 

tban, a piece ; a web, 

namiinah, a patter?i ; sample. 

resbam, silk, 

mal-mal, muslin. 

katan-kapra, li7ien, calico. 

rii,i, cotton. 

iln ; pasbm, 7VOol. 

ban at, broad-cloth. 

flalen, i^) flafinel. 

markin, {i.e , 'American') 

calico, 
Ianiba,i, length. 
cboura,i, breadth, 
mota,i, thickness. 



VOCABULARY No. XXV. 
The Dinner Table. 



khane ki mez, the dining-table. 

mez ki cbadar, the table-cloth, 
also table-cover. 

bartan, a plate ; dish. 

khane ke bartan, the dinner 
things, [service. 

me we ke bartan, the dessert- 

diinga, the dish in which a 
side-dish or vegetables are 
served ; a side-dish, which 
servants are fond of calling 
also 'sai-dis.' (E.) 



dis, (E.) the piece de resistance 

sekan or sikan {i.e., 'second' 
E.), the second course, 

chhuri, a knife, 

kanta, a fork, 

chhuri-kanta, the kjiives and 
forks, 

chammach;chamchah,^i;^^^;/. 

dhakna ; sarposh, a cover ; lid. 

hath-boli, (half E.) a finger- 
glass, 

hath ka tauliyah, a napkin. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



87 



glas, (E.) a glass ; the glass- 
service. 
piyalah, a cup, 
pirich, a saucer. 



pench-kash, a cork-screw, 
kag, (for E. * cork') a cork, 
khiial, a tooth-pick, 
pik-dan ; ugal-dan, a spittoon. 



bawarchi-khanah, the kitcheji, 
degchi, a copper cooking vessel, 
kala,i, the tinning of the same. 

(has to be done once a 

month.) 
handi, an earthen pot. 
ghara, a water-pot, 
rasilji, cooking. 



VOCABULARY No. XXVI. 

The Kitchen. 

fara,i pan, (E.) the frying-pan, 

sikh, a spit, 

tanilr, a7i oven, 

chiilha, a stove ; fire-place for 

cooking. 
ko,ila, charcoal ; coals. 
hezam ; lakri, wood ; fuel, 
doh', a hanging meat-safe. 



rasilji ke bartan, the cookifig thali, a brass plate. 

pots. lota, a native brass-vessel for 
handi-bartan, vessels gener- liquids. 

ally. thali- lota, native brass-vessels 
ketli, (E.) the kettle, generally. 



VOCABULARY No. XXVIL 

The Bed Room. 

(See also pages 34 and 94.) 

sone ka kamara, /y^^ ^^^-r^^;//. hath-boli, (E.) a washing- 

singar-mez, a dressing-table. basin. 

a,inah, a looking-glass (accent aftabah, a water-jug ; a ewer, 

on first syllable.) sabun, soap. 



88 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



briish, (E.) a brush. 
kanghi, a comb, 
sabun-dan, a soap-dish. 
man j an, tooth powder or 

paste. 
khush-bu, scent. 
bal ka tel, hair-oil. 
palang ; charpa,i ; khat, a bed. 
miisah ri, inusquito-cnrtains. 
chadar, the sheets. 
kammal \ kamli, the blankets. 



raza,i, the quilt. 

takiyah ; balish, a pillow. 

ghilaf, a covering slip^ e.\^.^ 

case for a pillow, 
toshak, the mattress. 
tab, (E.) a tub. 
tauliyah, a towel, 
isfanj, a spon^^e. 
tokri, a basket. 
jharan, a duster. 
jharu, a broom. 



VOCABULARY No. XXVIII. 

Games. 

anta ; gend ; goli, a ball. 
khelne kilakri ; thapi, a bat ; 

a cue or the like. 
anta-ghar, the billiard room ; 

the club. 
khel-gah, the play ground. 
gend-gah, the racquet court. 
satar, a line, 
rassi, a rope ; string. 



jal, a net. 

khamba, a post, 

khiinta ; mekh, a peg. 

shatranj, chess. 

tash, cards. 

pase, dice. 

takhtah-nard, backgammon. 

tenis, lawn-tennis. 

polo, polo. 



No^e.-^And so of other games. The English word must be used because 
the natives not having /he things cannot have a name for it. 

Exercise No. 31. 

Ayah ! sab chiz taiyar hai ? Han mem sahibah ? sab durust 
hai. Turn kaisi admi ho ! kuchh sabun nahin hai, aur tum 
sab durust' bolti ho. Mera kusiir! mu,af kijiye! Tab men 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. S9 

pani hai ? Nahin mem-sahibah ! bihishti aj bimar hai. To 
ham kya karenge ? Ek kuli ko char paise dijiye, to wuh pani 
le-awega. Achchha ! achchha ! kuli ko bula,o — aur sabun, 
tauliyah bhitar rakh-do. Darzi bhi nahin aya hai! sab ko,i 
aj bimar hain ! Mem sahibah ! sach bat yih hai, kih aj bara 
tamashah hai ; is hye sab log bimari ka bahanah karte 
hain ; bandi hazir hai. 

Exercise No. t,2. 

Bring clciin sheets for ^ the bed. All the sheets are at ^ 
the washerman's ? Since when are they at the vvasher- 
iDan's ? Since yesterday. Put all the books on the table, 
and clean the book-shelves. See ! how dirty (they) are : 
clean (them) with warm water (and) soap ; (and) then rub 
(them) with polish. Sometimes snakes come into the 
house ; sc^ one must always be careful. Scorpions also and 
cock-roaches come out of the walls, an«l fleas and bugs 
and mosquitoes are everywhere. 

Exercise No. :^^. 

Do pahar ke wakt tumhara bap ghar men se nikal-aya. 
Andhere kewakt phir-gaya. Aj kaun tarikh hai? Aj jula,i 
mahine ki ath tarikh hai. Hamara badan kamzor hai ; 
mede men dard hai. Jibh dekhla,o. Zard rang ki^ hai ; 
daw a zariir nahin hai : subh ko, sham ko, ghore par hawa 
khana chahiye. Nahin ! chand roz hii,e, kih main apne 
ghore par se gir-para ; bihtar hai, kih ap dawa den. 
Achchha ! main diinga. 

Exercise No. 34. 
One day, at evening, a fox, having come out of the 
jungle, saw grapes in a garden. He said (that; " see there : 

^ Ke waste. - Ke pas. =^ Pas. 

* Feminine, because ' jibh, ' which is feminine, is understood. 



90 



hindiJstAni as it ought to be spoken. 



" certainly these grapes are large and sweet, I shall seize 
** some. " But the grapes were on the roof of a house. The 
fox began to jump ; but was not able to get up, ^ and could 
not lay-hold-of ^ even one grape. ^ Becoming vexed, he said 
(that) " no-doubt you are very sour, " and went away. 



VOCABULARY No. XXIX. 

The Stable and Harness-Room. 



istabal, the stable, 

than, a stall. 

saz, the harness, 

ras, the rehis. 

jot, the traces. 

bag : lagam, a bridle. 

dahanah, a bit. 

nuktah, the head-stall. 

zanjir, a chain, 

dumchi, the crupper (strap). 

zin, a saddle. 

zer-band, a martingale. 

halkah, a collar. 

peti ; tang, a girth. 

briish, (E) a brush. 

kharkharah, a curry-comb. 

rikab, a stirrup. 

rikab-divval, stirrup-leathers. 

kanta, a spur. 

chabuk, a whip. 



chauri, a fly -flicker. 

gari, the carriage. 

thikagari, a carriage for hire; 
^ ''fly ' / ^ caf>' 

tam-tam, (E.) ^ dog-cart. 4 

fitan-gari, (halfE.) a phae- 
ton. 

band-gari, a brougham. 

barush-gari, a barouche. 

ghora, a horse. 

madiyan, a fjiare. 

tattu, a po?iy. 

jori, ' the pair' (of horses). 

jori-gari, the carriage ana 

pair ready for use. 
kampas, (E) the shafts ; a 

07ie -horsed carriage. 
nal, a horse-shoe. 
nal-bandi, shoeing a horse. 



^ Charhna. '^ Pakarna. ^ Ek angiir bhi. 

* Supposed to be the English * tandem. ' 



HINDI^STANl AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



91 



khol-bandi, taking off the 
shoes, paring the hoofs 
(som) and putting the old 
shoes on again. 

thaili, a bag, 

balti, a pail. 

rassi ; bagdor,^ rope. 

saz ka ghora, a harness-stand. 

mom-raughan, grease; oil; 
harness-paste ; polish. 

barnish, (E.) var?iish. 

rang, paint. 

danah, grain ; corn. 



chana, gram. 

ja,i, oats. 

jau, barley, 

bhusi, bran. 

sattu, a kind of flour, given 

i7i water to horses whe7t 

tired, dr^c. 
ghas, grass. 
dub-ghas, a kind of grass 

which is best for horses. 
namak, salt. 
bichhauna, bedding. 
bichali straw. 



VOCABULARY No. XXX. 
Articles of Food. 



shorbah, (z/^//;^. silrwah) soup. 
machhli,y£y/2. 
samaPx-machhli, salmon. 
chingri, shrimps, 
gosht/ meat of all kinds. 
katlis, (E.) cutlets. 
minch, fjiince. 



istew, (pronounce as in Eng- 
lish, with-short ' i ' before,) 
stew. 

airan-i-stew, Irish-stew. 

frikasi, fricassee. 

aspik, aspec. 

murghi, a fowl ; fowls. 



* In English houses, the servants distinguish * bif-gosht,' ' matan- 
gosht,' &c. The parts of an animal, as used at table, are also gen- 
erally called by the English names ; as, * hed,' * sholdar,' * leg,' * fore- 
kartar ; ' 'sedli' (saddle,) *chap,' {chop,) ^isitk' (steak) ^ Szc. Many 
English people drop the * t' of gosht,' and so reach a word which 
means *an ear.' But the servants come to know what is meant. 



92 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



I 



murghi-rost, (half E.) roast- 
fowl, 

murghi-boil, (half E.) boiled- 
fowl. 

murghi-katlis, chicken-cutlets. 

kari, curry. 

bhat, cooked rice. 

kari-bhat, curry and rice. 

pulsijO, fowl cooked with rice 
and condiments. 

sassich, (E.) sausage. 

pat is, {E.) potted meat. 

an da, an egg, 

ham, (E.) (pronounce as 
English, ' hem ') ham. 

bekam, bacon. 



anda-bekam, ham and egs;. 
koftah, rissole. 
purling, (E.) pudding, 
panir, cheese. 
roti, bread. 
rol, (E.) dinner rolls. 
tost, (E.) toast. 
makkhan, butter. 
chapati, a scone. 
kulchah; *kek,' (E.) cake. 
biskit, (E.) biscuit. 
murabba ; ]im,(E.)/am; Jelly. 
jeli,(E.) Jelly, as taken with 

mutton, &c., or as ^a Jelly.' 
barf, (vulg.^ baraf) ice; an 

ice. 



VOCABULARY No. XXXI. 

Condiments. 



masalah, spices, generally. 
namak, salt. 
ra,i, mustard. 

mircha (vulg. *mirich') pepper. 
gol-mirch, black pepper. 
lal-mircha, cayenne-pepper. 
sirkah, vinegar. 
sas, (E.) sauce. 



wilayati^ tei, olive oil. 
adrak, green ginger, used also 

to medin preserved ginger. 
south, dry ginger. 
haldi, turmeric. 
lahsan, garlic. 
parsli, parsley. 
pudinah, 7nint. 



^ *Wilayati' means foreign ; especially, European, or English, It 
is the *belatee,' or *bilatty' of Anglo-Hindustani. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO 13E SPOKEN. 93 

chilli/ chillies. rnisri, crysfaiisedsn^^ar, 

chatni, chut nee. 

mithdji, sweets, also, 'the tambaku, tobacco. 

dessert.' churut, (E.) a cigar. 

chini ] shakar, sugar. sigaret, (E.) a cigarette. 



VOCABULARY No. XXXII. 

Vegetables. 
tarkari ; sabzi, vegetables, gen- sag, spinach; 'sag.' 
erally. 



alu, potatoes. 

matar, peas. 

bora, a bean. 

miili, radish. 

kobi, cabbage. 

phul kobi, cauliflower. 



shalgham, turnips. 
gajar; gajrah, carrots, 
piyaz, onions. 
tamatu, toniatoes. 
hatichok, (E.) artichokes. 
salad, (E.) lettuce ; salad. 
silari, (E.) celety. 



Note—ViTmy other vegetables are also used, and called by their native 
names, some having no English equivalent. Among these are, 
' kaddoo,' palwal,' * bhindi,' * brinjal' or * baigan,' * kachhu' {/eru- 
sa/em ar^ic/ioke), &c., &c. Your *wdtt ' will point them out to you. 



niewah, fruit generally. 
am, a mango. 
amrdd, guava. 
anar, a pomegranate. 



VOCABULARY No. XXXIII. 
Fruit. 

angiir, a grape ; grapes. 
anjir, a fig. 
badam, almo7ids. 
bel, the ' bel,' fruit. 



* Not a Hindustani word. 



94 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



kathal, the jack fruit. 
kela, plantains. 
khajiir, dates. 
kharbilzah, melon. 
kishmish, raisins. 
imli, tamarind. 
jauz, a nut ; mits, 
lemu, or laimiin, a lemon. 
lichi, the leechee. 



naranui, an orange. 
naryal, the cocoa-nut. 
pistah, pistachio nuts. 
seb, an apple. 
shaft-alu, a peach. 
sharifah, a custard-apple. 
strabari, (E.) strawberries. 
tipari, cape gooseberries. 
khiibani, apricots. 



2^ote. — In * anuiir ' the * ng ' has not a nasal sound. Pronounce as 
if the syllables were separate, 'an-giir.' You will not find on 
European tables in India many more fruits than those given above. 
You may add ''pamalo ' also anannas, pine-apple. 

Wine and Drinks. 
See page 34. Wines on English tables are called by their 
English names, (generally more or less altered,) followed by 
the word ' sharab,' wine. * Claret' is generally called * lal 
sharab.' Sometimes * kalarat' (without ' sharab' added.) 



VOCABULARY No. XXXIV. 



cha,e, tea. 

kafi ; (E.) ; kahwah, coffee. 

koko, (E.) coco. 

diidh, milk. 

mala,i, cream. 



barf-pani, iced-water. 
wilayati-pani, soda-water. 
mitha pani {sweet water), 

lemo7iade. 
tita pani, bitter, i.e., tonic 

water. 

Exercise No. 35. 

Ek admi ke ghar men, ek sau riipiye, chori se, gum-ho- 
ga,e the. Us-ne kazi ko khabar di. Kazi-ne sab naukaron 
ko talab karke, ek ek admi-ko ek lakri, nap men barabar, 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 95 

di ; aur kaha kih, "jo admi chor hai, us ki lakri ek ungli 
barh-ja,egi." Tab sabhon-ko rukhsat di. Rat ke wakt, 
chor-ne, apni lakri se, ek ungli kat dali ; is taur se, kazi-ne 
chor pahchana, us-se rupiye liye, aur saza di. 

Exercise No. 36. 
One man asked another, *you, on the sea have often 
made journeys : say, what^ wonderful-things^ have you 
seen ? He gave answer : ' Than all,^ this is wonderful,^ 
that I, at the shore, arrived in safety. 



VOCABULARY No. XXXV. 

(See also pages 34 and 87.) 

The Toilet and its Accessories. 

kapra ; kapre, clothes gene- kamar-band, a waist-hand ; 

rally, belt, 

khdne ka kapra, dress clothes, be) at (E.) a belt. 
topi, a hat. moze, boots ; but used in 

chhoti topi, a cap. English houses to mean 

solah^ topi, a pith hat. socks ; stockings. 

pagri, a cloth head-dress ; a but (E.) boots. 

turban ; also linen, or silk, jilti, or jylta., a shoe, [slipper. 

botmd round a 'topi.' silpat or slipat (E.); paposh,rt 

kalar, (E.) a collar. dastanah, gloves. 

gala- band, or gulu-band, a riimal, a pocket-handkerchief, 

neck-tie ; neck-scarf. resham ka riimal, a silk ditto. 

1 *Kya kya ;" doubling the pronoun gives the idea of number. 

2 Wonderful things ; wonders, *aja,ib.' 
^ See page 74, section 8, 

4 «ajubah.' 

^ Not derived from sol, solis, the sun. 



96 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



labadah, a cloak, 
kurii, a coat. 

barani-kuni, * a great coat, 
barsali-kapra, waterproofs. 
frak, (E.) ; dares, (E.) a 

lady's dress, 
frak-kot, (E.) a frock-coat. 
daman, the skirt, 
astin, a sleeve. 
waskat, (E.) ^ waistcoat. 
patliin, (E.) trowsers. 
brichis, (E.) breeches. 
gal is, braces. 
piti-kot, (K.) a petticoat. 
kamis, a shirt ; chemise. 
sul-daraz, drawers. 
bani,en, an jmder-flannel shirt. 
rat ka kapra, night dress ; 

7iight things, [^pyjamahs.' 
pa-e-jamah, ?iight drawers ; 
rat ki kurti, a short ?ii^ lit coat. 
rat ki kamis, a night-shirt. 
baroch, (E.) a brooch. 



augiithi, a ring. 

sone ki angiithi, a gold ring? 

istad, (E.;^ a stud ; studs. 

pin, (K.) a pin. 

biush, (E.) a brush. 

bal ka brush, a hair-brush. 

kapre ka briish, a clotlks- 

brush. 
dant ka briish, a tooth-brush. 
kanghi, a comb. 
kainchi, scissors. 
kalam-tarash, a penk?ii/e. 
silt, thread ; string. 
fitah, tape ; shoe-lace ; boot- 
lace. 
sii,i, a needle. 

su,i-taga, a needle-and-thread, 
sabun, soap. 

sabun-dan, the soap-dish. 
isfanj, a sponge. 
manjan, dejttifrice. 
bal ka tel, hair-oil 
khush-bn, scent. 



* Gentlemen generally call this their *brandy-kurti.' On the contrary, 
it is derived from the Persian 'baran,' which means rat7t. 

' And so of other met;d or gem rings; use * ki' before 'angiithi.' 
The principal ^ems are : — Almas ; hira, diatnomi. Zamurrad ; panna, 
emerald. Yakut, ruby. Firozah, or pirozah, turquoise, Lahsuniya, 
caCs-eye. Dudhiya-patther, opal (from diidh, milk), Moti, a pearl. 

3 Uneducated natives require a preliminary * /,' to help them to 
pronounce a word beginning with an *s.' followed by another con- 
sonant. Another common word is, *istrit,' street: and there are 
many others. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



97 



The Army. 

English titles of rank, of course somewhat altered, are 
used, followed by the word ' sahib.' The principal are : — 
jarnail sahib {the General)^ karnail sahib, mejar sdhib, 
kaptan sahib, sarjan sahib (the sergea?it). Native officers 
are called the subadar sahib, hawaldar sahib, jamadar sahib, 
&c., though it is to be feared that * sahib' is not always 
used to native officers. 



VOCABULARY No. XXXVI. 



fauj ; lashkar, the army, 

paltan, a tegime?it, 

gore ki paltan, a European 
regiment, 

sawar, a horse-soldier. 

si pah i, afoot-soldier; a ^ sepoy.'' 

baja, the band. [standard, 

jhanda ; nishan, a flag; the 

dera, a tent. 

dera karna, to enca??ip. 

kilch karna, to march, 

chhauni ; la,ins (E.), the bar- 
racks ; the lines, 

jang ; lara,i, war, 
roz-i-maidan, the day of the 

plain ^ i.e. of battle. 
saff-i-jang, battle 'order, 
lara,i; hamla ; mukabalah, 

battle ; attack; onset. 



saman-i-jang, equipments of 

war. 
zzxhyU stand of arjns. 
top, a cannon. 
bandiik, a gun ; 7nusket,. 
talwar ; shamsher, a sword, 
ballam ; barchhi, a spear. 
taghmah ; urdi," a uniform, 
goli, a ball ; bullet, 
top ki goli, a cannon-ball, 
tonta ; kartias (cartouche), a 

cartridge. 
barilt, powder. 
chharra, shot. 

martaul, a hammer. 

kudal ; kud^li, a spade ; 

pickaxe, 
tanga, an axe. 
rasad, forage ; provinder. 



* Not Hindustani ; but in common use. 



T., H. 



gs hindustini as it ought to be spoken. 

Exercise No. 37. 

Nakl hai kih barsat ke mausim men, ek iint aur ek gadha 
sath sath safar-ko ga,e the. Darmiyan rah ke, unhon-ko ek 
naddi mih'. Pahle lint pani men paitha ; gadha kinare par 
pichhe raha. Unt-ne kaha, * Are ! dost*! kyiin nahin ate 
ho ? pani thora hai.' Us-ne jawab diya, * albattah pani 
sirf tumhare pet tak hai, lekin mere kan tak hoga, main 
dilb-ja,iinga, age ja,iye, mujh-ko mu,af kijiye.' 
Exercise No. ^S. 

A miser said to a rich man, ' Oh ! friend ! I am going 

* on (ko) a journey ; give me your ring ; seeing (it) on my 

* finger, I shall keep remembrance' of (se) you.' The 
rich man said, * When you see your finger bare, you can 
remember' me.' He did not give the ring. 



VOCABULARY No. XXXVII. 

The Telegraph and Post Office. 

tar {wire), the telegraph. dak-ghar, the post-office. 

tar-ghar, the telegraph-office. chitthi-dak, the letter-post. 

tar ki khabar, ^r chitthi, a bahangi-dak, the parcel post ; 

telegram. (Anglo-Hind. „ * banghi 

faram (E.), a telegraph (or dawk.') 

any other) 'form: mahsdl, postage, 

dak; tappal,^ the post. dak-tikat, a postage-stamp. 

dak-munshi, the postmaster. chitthi dak men dena, or^ 

dak-wala, the postman, [ner, dalna, or, rakhna, to post 

dak piyadah,3 the postal-run- a letter. 

* Yad-rakhna. * Not used in Lower Bengal, 

^ There is a word pi, an,' generally spelt * peon,* in very common 

use for a 'messenger' of any kind. The natives think the word is 

English ; Englishmen think that it is Hindustani. 



HINDUSXiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

VOCABULARY No. XXXVIII. 

Miscellaneous. 



99 



aram, comfort. 

jawab, an answer. 

jawab dena, to answer ; dis- 
miss. 

chitthi; khatt, a letter; a note,. 
(Anglo-Hind, a ' chit.') 

nam, a 7tame, 

sust, lazy ; out of sorts. 

bu, a smell, 

khush-bu, a nice smell ; scent. 

bad-bu, a nasty smell, 

tab, or tap ; bukhar, fever, 

muhri, a drain. 

lakh ; lah, sealing-wax, 

le,i, paste, 

nashtah^ ; hdziri, breakfast, 

tifin, lunch, 

rokna ; thamna, to stop . 
{trans.) 

khara-rahna, to stop (intr.) . 

chain a ; chalana ; age bar- 
hana, to go on. 

shikar, hunting ; sport ; game, 
shikar-karna, to hunt ; shoot, 

shikari, a hunter. 



kam, any business, or work ■; 
use* 

yih kis kam ka hai, 0/ what 
use is this ? 

parwah, importance ; ^matter,' 

kuchh parwah nahin, ifs no 
matter ; ' don't trouble 
about it,' (The * kuch-par- 
wanny' of Anglo-Hind.) 

parwanah, a written order of 
command. 

kya kya, what (various) 
things ; what sorts of. . . ? 

nazdiki, neighbourhood. 

mihrbani kar-ke (///. doi?ig 
the kindness), * have the 
kindness,' * goodness,' <5r<. 

mu,af kijiye, means either 
{seriously), * pardon me,' or 
{courteously), ^ pray I excuse 
me,' * / beg your pardon' 

Khan : Bahadur : Khan Ba- 
hadur, native titles, best 
left untranslated. 

waghairah, et cetera, 

idik-dJi, finis. 



^ Not used in Lower Bengal. 



ico hindustani as it ought to be spoken. 

Exercise No. 39. 

Apni ma ke waste aram-kursi baramde men rakh-do. Rat 
andheri hai, lamp bahar lejana hoga. Achchha ! leja,o. Yih 
chithi jarnail sahib ke pas le-ja-kar, jawab la,o. Hamara 
sa,is bahut hoshydr hai : Aj sham ko, hamara ghora bhaga- 
jata tha ; usne, ek baghal se daurkar, lagam-ko pakar-kar, 
ghore-ko roka ; is-tarah ham bach-gaye. 

Bdlu par ek bhal chalta hai ; huziir ke ikbal se, bandah 
mdr-dalega : tonta-dijiye. 

Lara,i ke wakt, ri,aya khush nahin hain. Lashkar sab 
ddroi,on, sab chizon ka malik hota hai ; bahut zulm karta 
hai : khet ki fasl liit le-jata hai ; aur admi o aurat-ko, 
bojhe uthane ke waste, zor se, chhin-leta hai ; wa,e ! wa,e ! 

Yih chitthi dak men rakh-do. Sahib ! tikat nahin hai. 
Durust ! ham bhiil ga,e; tikat laga-do, aur jald dauro ! 
paune panch baje dak band hogi ; aur suno ! hamare 
waste, char tikat, char char ane ki, mol-lo. Fakat. 
Exercise No. 40. 

We shall go (put) shooting to-day. What sort of game^ 
are there hereabouts ?^ Tiger, leopard, and wild-pig. Any 
water-fowl ? Yes ! duck ; and there 's also snipe. We shall 
have to ride two kos. No matter ! it is the cold season. 
Yes 1 but the sun is hot at noon. We have solah-topis ! 
That's true. Wait a little ! my gun is not clean. 

When shall we be back ? At seven in the evening. 
But what will the ladies do ? They can play lawn-tennis 
with each other.3 That won't suit^ my wife, — we must be 
back by 3. All right ! we '11 come back together. 
Khuda saldmat rakhe. Amm. 
May God preserve you ! Amen ! 

^ Shikdr. * In this neighbourhood. ' Among themselves. 

* Be agreeable 



APPENDICES. 



I. 

Ntrmerals from 21 to 100. 

II. 

Relative and Co-relative Words. 

III. 

A List of Feminine Words in various final letters. 



Appendix No. i. 

Showing the Ordinal Numerals from 21 to 100. 
(See page 64.) 

From 21 to 30. 
ikkis...ba'is...te, is...chaubis...pachis...chhabbis...sata,is ... 
atha,is../un,tis...tis. 

From 31 to 40.' 
iktis . . . battis ... tetis . . .chautis ... paintis . . .chhattis. . .saintis. .. 
artis. . .untalis...chalis. 

From 41 to 50. 
iktalis ... be,ah's . . . tetalis . . ; chau,alis . . . paintalis. . .chhi,alis. . . 
saintalis...arhtalfs...unchas... pachas. 

Froni 51 to 60. 
ikawan...bawan . tirpan ...chauwan...pachpan ...chhappan 
santawan...anthawan...unsath...sath. 

From 61 to 70. 
iksath...basath...tirsath .. chausath ...painsath...chhi,asath 
sarsath...arsath...unhattar...sattar. 

From 71 to 80. 
ikhattar ...bahattar.. tihattar ... chauhattar ... pachhattar... 
chhihattar . . . sathattar . . .athatter . . unasi . . .assi. 

From 81 to 90. 
ikasi ... be,asi ... tirasi ... cliaurasi ... pachasi ... chhi,asi ... 
satasi . . .athasi . . .nau,asi . . .nauwe. 

From 91 to 100. 
ikanawe ... banawe...tiranawe...chauranawe...pachanavve... 
chhi,anawe...santanawe...anthanawe...ninanawe ...sau, or 
sai. 



I04 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Appendix No. II. 

Showing a list of Relative and Co-relative words, the 
latter to be used in Hin(Jiisiani, even though not required 
in English. 



agar ; jo, if: 

agarchi, although. 

jab, when, 

jab-tak {or^ talak), till 7vhen, 

jahan, where ; wherever. 

jahan-tak, however for ; up 

to where. . 
jaisa, as. 

jaun, ivhoever ; whatever. 
jidhar, zvhither soever. 
jis-kadar, in whatever degree. 
jis-wakt, at what time ; when. 
jitna, or^ jetna, as much as ; 

as many as 
jo,//: 

jo ; jo-ko,i, who ; whoever, 
]o-\i\ic\ih^ whatever. : 



to, then, 

tau-bhi, even then; still, 

tab ; to, then. 

tab-tak (^r, talak), //// then, 

tahaii, there. 

tahan-tak, to far ; up to 

there. 
taisa ; waisa, so. 
taun : wuh, he ; she ; that. 
tidhar, thither, 
us-kadar, in that degree. 
us vvakt, ^/ that time; then, 
itna, or utna, so much ; so 

many. 
to, then. [these. 

wuh, he^ she ; that ; we, they; 
so, that. 



Example. 
'* Jidhar ap ja,engi, tidhar bandi bhi ja,egi ; jahan ap 
rahengi, tahan bandi bhi rahegi. Jo log ap ke hain, we 
bandi ke honge ; jo Khuda ap ka ho, w^uh mera bhi hoga." 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



^05 



Appendix No. III. 
Giving a few common words, in various final letters, 
which are feminine in gender. 
kg, fire. 



akl, sense ; iiitelligefice. 

ankh, an eye. 

astin, a sleeve. 

awaz, t?Le voice ; a cry. 

bandiik, a musket ; a gun. 

bat, zvord ; news : affair. 

bhiikh, hunger. 

bu, smell. 

chadar, a sheet, 

chal, one^ s conduct, habits, &^c. 

chaukath, the frame of ^ a 
door. 

chhappar, a roof ; a thatch. 

chilam, the partof a?tative pipe 
(hukkah) in which the fire 
and the tobacco are placed. 

dastar, head-dress. 

dawa, medicifie. 

dhal, a shield; target. 

diwar, a wall. 

dohar, a double-woven cotton - 

cloth. 
du,a, befiediction. 
dunya, the world; ufiiverse. 
dum, a tail. 
dar, fear. 



guft-o-gu, conversation. 

bawa, air, 

haya, modesty ; shame. 

iba, a cloak, 
int. a brick, 

jibh, the tongue, 

kitab, a book, 

kiwar, a door; gate ; en- 
trance, 
kamis, a shirt ; chemise, 
khabar, news ; tidings, 
khak, earth. 
khui ak, food ; victuals, 

mez, a table, 

mi si, a file of papers. 

nakl, a story ; a copy of a 

writing, &^c. 
namaz, prayer ; prayers. 
nok, a point (e.g. of a stick). 

palak, an eye-lid, 
paltan, a regiment, 
pith, the back, 
pivas, thirst. 
poshak, dress, 
rah, a road. 



io6 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



sarak, the high way. 
saza, punishment. 
sharab, wine. 
sharm, modesty ; shame. 
shakl, shape ; form. 

X.2i7ix% praising ; praise. 
taawiz, recourse to God ; an 

amulet, 
tahrir, a written statement. 
tahsil, collectio7i of dues. 
tak, a niche. 

takrir, recital ; narration. 
taksim, division into shares. 
taksir, fault ; crijue. 



talab, a reservoir ; a tank. 

talwar, a sword. 

taswir, a picture. 

tajwiz, investigation ; trial. 

tir, an arrow. 

toshak, a mattress ; bedding. 

tiifatij a storm ; Hyphoon? 

ummed, hope. 

umr, age^ i.e., period of life. 

zaban, the tongue; a language. 
zamin, land ; the ground. 
zanjir, a chain, 

zulf, curly hair. 



A HINDUSTANI READER. 

CONTENTS. 

Page. 

( J adha 3UX Sheii (T/ie Ass ami t/ie Lion) ... ... 109 

2. Murgh aur Moti, (The Cock and the Pearl) ... ... no 

3. Y\\\^ 2iViX Q2,d\i^^ {^The Puppies and the Ass) ... .. in 

4. Sing ya Tangen, (^<?;7/j ^r Z^^j-) ... ... ... ill 

5. Buddha Naukar, (7"/^^ (9A/ .S'^rz;aw/) ... ... ...112 

6. Kauwa, Al<hrot aur Gilehri, {The Crozv^ the Walnut and 

ike Squirrel) ... ... ... ... I13 

7. Sher, Jangal ka Badshah, {The Lion, the King of the 

Forest) .. ... ... ... ... ... 1 14 

8. Bheriya aur Saras, (The Wolf and The (>rane)... ••• I'S 

9. Saudagaran aur Faujdar Sahib, {The Merchants and The 

Captain) ... ... ... ... ... 116 

10. Maut Joru aur Ga,e ki, (^The Death of one^s JVtfe, and 

one's Co2v) ... ... ... ... ... 117 

11. ^lv\s^.{ K?iXv\2iV{og2i,^ {Justice must be done) ... ... 118 

12. Kachhiia aur Ivhargosh, Bab Auwal, {The Tortoise and 

The Hare y First Chapter) ... ... ... 119 

13. Kachhiia aur Khargosh, Bab Doyam, {The Tortoise and 

The Hare, Second Chapter) ... ... ... 120 

14. KJiurshidi Begam, {A lady's natne. First Extract) ... 122 

15. Ish'^xshidi^egdimi {Second Extract) ... ;.. ... 114 



Note. 

The following Extracts have been taken from several modern sources, 
so as to give the student good samples of Hindustani as written and 
spoken at the present day. The modern style of composition is less 
ornate than the older style, at least, when the subject in hand is of a 
non-poetic kind. English words for which there are no vernacular equi- 
valents are freely used ; and the Relative Pronoun is not unfrequently 
found following its antecedent as in English, e,g,^ *admijo,' instead 
of 'jo admi ..wuh.' 

As regards further exercise in waiting Hindustani, the student cannot 
do better than translate these stories into English, and after some time, 
retranslate them into Hindustani. 

It only remains for the author to acknowledge the kindness of those 
gentlemen who have allowed him to make Extracts from their several 
Works. 



A HINDUSTANI READER. 
I. Gadha aur Sher. 

Kisi gadhe-ko, barsat ke mausim men, charne ke waste, 
bagh ki tar o tazah ghds mili ; aur pine-ko,^ chashme ka saf 
aur thanda aur mitha pani muyassar aya. Gadha, kha-pi- 
kar,2-khiib mota hii,a. Usi nawah men, ek sher bhi rahta- 
tha. Ek din, gadha sher ke sath khush-taba,i karne laga. 
Sher-ne, na-khush ho-kar, dant dikha,e. Gadhe-ne, usko 
hansi samajh-kar3, aur ziyadah^ chher-chhar shuruki.s Sher-ne 
kaha : — * agar yih gustdkhi, jo^ tu karta hai, akl ke sath hoti,7 



* *Pine-ko,'y»r drinking. 

^ * Kha-pikar,' i.e., *kha-kar, pi-kar,' having eaten and drunken, 
^ * Understanding latighter^* i.e , taking it for laughter » 

* * Aur ziyadah,* transl., still further, 

^ Remember that ' ki ' may be the fem. : sing, past tense, or past part, 
of * karna,' as well as the fem. of * ka,' * ke,' * ki.' 

* Relative here follows antecedent, as in English ; contrary to the 
ordinary rule. 

' * Agar. — akl-ke sathhoti,' transl., if„,werealong-with, i.e., accom- 
panied with, sense, or, understanding. 



no hindi^stAni as it ought to be spoken. 

to main tujh-ko zardr saza deta ; magar, mujh-ko, teri 
be-vvukilfi par, rahm ata hai/' 

HXsiL : — Bare log, ahmakon ki baton par, khiyal 
nahin karte.^ 

2. MURGH AUR MoTI. 

Ek murgh, bhiikh-se be-tab ho-kar, dane ki just-o-ju men 
kiire ke ambar ko^ kured-raha tha. Bahut der ke bad, 
nagah, ek besh-kimat moti nikla. Moti-ko dekh-kar, murgh- 
ne, bari hasrat ke sath, kaha : — * Afsos I itni jankani ke bad, 
mujh-ko mila bhi to* moti — jis-se na mere dil-ko tashaffi ho 
sakti hai, o na meri bhiikh-ko taskin. Yih moti agar kisi 
jauhari ya daulatmand-ko milta, to, is ki kadar karta, aur 
is-ko aziz-rakhta ; lekin, mere liye, aise zor ki bhiikh men,5 
jo,ar ya chane ka ek danah, is-se,^ kahin bihtar tha.' 

Hasil : — Numa,ish aur ara,ish ki chizen, zindagani 
ki asli zardraton men, kam nahin atin.7 

^ * Mujh-ko.. rahm ata,' to me comes cofiipassiouy i.e., / have cotn- 
passion on thy^ &=€. 

2 *Khiyal karna ' is a verb which has to be translated according to the 
context. The idea is the action of the mind in connection with any 
subject. H ere you may transl. * does not attach ifnportance to. ' In other 
connections, it may mean ^ to remember;' or,— with * nahin,' Uo forget;^ 
and so on. ** Khiyal" is one's ^ knowledge ,* * idea^'' ^notion,' on any 
subject. 

3 'At,' or, *?«.' 

"* Indicates a unit ; also here contempt. * Mujh-ko mili bhi to moti,* 
' to me has'come-to hand this thing called a pear ;' or * this ivretched 
pearl, ' 

^ Aise zor ki bhukh men, ' in hunger of such force.' 

fi * Than this ' (pearl). 

7 * Atin ' (for ati hain ') 3rd pers. plur. pres. indie, feminine of 
*ana : ' transl. * Things of appearance and oriiament — in life's real 
necessities — are of no use.' The agreement is * chizen atin (hain). 
See page 10, section 6. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. Ill 

3. PiLLE AUR GaDHA. 

Ek kisan ke ghar-men ek gadha tha, aur ek kutiya bhi 
pali hilji thi. Kutiya-ne bachche diye. Jab bachche bare hii,e, 
tokhiib khitbkhelar,i,an kane, aur uchhalte, kildte; o kisan 
in bachhon ki piyari piydri harkaten dekhkar, bahut khush 
hota,' aur un-ko, apne hath-se rod khilata,^ aur chumkarta.^ 
Gadhe-ne dil men socha, kih * in pillon ki nisbat,^ main . 
bahut kam karta hiin ; magar hamara malik in-par ziyadah 
mihrbani karta hai ; la,o ! 3 main bhi pillon ki tarah* kilda- 
kariin, ta-kih malik mujhe bhi aziz-rakhe.' 

Yih soch-kar, gadha,ek din, be-tarah dolatti,an jharne laga. 

Kisan-ne pahle, to, guman kiya, kih * shayad makkhiyan ya 

machchhar is-ko satate hain ;' magar akhir-ko maaliim,hii,a, 

kih sirf shararat-se kiidta hai. Tab, to, kisan-ne gadhe ki pith 

men panch, char dande aise zor-se laga,e, kih lichhal kiid 

sab bhiil-gaya. 

Hasil : — Be-samajhe-biljhe5 kisi ki ris karna zarilr 

kharabi lata hai. 

4. Sing ya Tangen. 

Ek barah-singe-ne chashmah-e-ab men apna aks dekha ; 

to, apne singon ki shan-o-khilbsilrati dekhkar, bahut khush 

hii,a ; lekin jab us-ki nazar, patli patli^ tangon par, pari, to 

kahne laga : — * kih khuda-ne mujh-ko we bad-shakl, tangen 



^ * Would becofne, tS-^.' Seepage 17, section 16, ii. 

^ * As compared with these piips.^ 

^ As interj. * Take it so: ' So be it: 

^ Ace. of manner. * After the 7/iamjer of puppies ^^ or, ^ as the 
puppies do* 

^ Be-samajhe-biijhe, * without considering {and) understanding ; 
* heedlessly ; ' * 7vithout thotight, ' 

* Doubling the adj. gives greater force. 



112 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BK SPOKEN. 

kyiin bakhshi hain, jo' mere singon ki khiibsilrati-ko bhi 
aib lagati hain.' Yih dil men socb-kar raha tha; kih^ itne 
men. ko,i shikari a-pahuncha. Barah-singa aisa tez bhaga, 
kih shikari-ko us ki hath-ane ki ummed na rahi; lekin, thori 
diir ja-kar, jangalki jhari men, sing atak-ga,e, aur pakra gaya. 
Tab kahne laga, * Ha,e ! meri bad-akli ! singon se main 
khush tha : we meri halakat ka sabab hu,e hain ; aur tangon- 
ko main bura-janta tha, unhon-ne^ mujhe, maut-se bachane 
men kuchh kami nahin ki.'^ 

Hasil : — Jo chiz wakt par^ kam-ane-wali ho, is-ko 
aziz-rakhna chahiye, go-kih khush-numa na ho.s 

5. Buddha Naukar. 
Ek shakhs ke pas bara zabardast shikari kutta tha. Har 
roz apne aka ke waste shikar lata ; aur malik bhi us kutte- 
ko bahut aziz-rakhta tha. Akhir-ko, wuh kutta buddha hii,a; 
daurne ki takat baki narahi; ba-sar, zauf ke sabab-se,^ diirki 
chiz nahin dekh-saka tha. Gharaz, shikar-karne-se, sab tarah 
maazdl ho-gaya. Aisi halat men, malik-ne bhi nazar-i-iltifat 
kam kar-di. Raiib maukiif h\l,a. Akhir-ko, ghar se bahar 
nikal-diya. Jab kutta rukhsat hone^ laga, to, ro-kar, mahk- 
se^ arz ki, kih, * main-ne,9 jawani, ap-par nisar ki ; barason 

^ Refers to * tangen ; ' transl. — luhich, ox ^ for they, 
2 So that. 

' They, i.e., the legs. 
^ Opportunely. 

^ A relative clause * jo. ..is-ko ' transL, what thing — opportunely — a 
service-bringing one fnay be — that to esteem — is proper^ although^ ^c 
* * Ha-sar, zauf ke sabab se, ' at last (be-sar), by reason of debility, 
' * Rukhsat-hona,' to take leave ; depart, 
■ Observe, the prep, same as with puchhna. See page 51, v. 
. ' Ace. of lime ; no prep. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. II3 

se^ shikar ki just-o-ju men daura, aur bahut zakhm kha,e ; 
lekin, kya ! is khud-gharaz dunya ka yihi dastilr hai, kih, ab 
main lachar hdn,^ to, mere rahne taks ka, ko,i rawadar nahin 
hai ; ^ aur meri pichhli khidmaten sab akarat hain/ 

Hasil : — Buddhe naukar,5 jin-se^ kam nahin ho- 

sakta, un-ke pichhle hukdk-ko bhiil-jana7 bari na-ihsan- 

mandi hai. 

6. KaUWA, A^HROT AUR GiLEHRI. 

Ek kauwa akhrot-ko chonch-se tor-raha tha ; magar 
akhrot par kuchh asar nahin hota tha. Gilehri-ne dekha, aur 
kauwe-se kaha : — * Kyiin itni zahmat uthata^ hai ' ? Kauwe- 
ne kaha : — * main-ne suna hai, kih akhrot bahut maze ki 
chiz hai ; aur jab Khuda-ne, is sakhti ke sath, is-ko band- 
kiya hai, zarilr is ke andar,9 kuchh bari niimat hogi ; so, 
mam — jis-tarah ban-parega^° — is-ko tor-kar rahiinga.' 

Gilehri-ne kaha : — ' Main ek asan tadbir bata,iin ; akhrot- 
ko, bari diir, hawa men lipar le-jakar, patthar ki samne-wali 
chatan par" — chhor-de; girne ke sadme se, khud pdsh-pash 
ho-ja,ega.' 

^ Since, transl., ^ for years back.* 

'^* Now {thai) 1 am helpless,'' ox , ^useless J' 

^ * Up to the point of my remaining. ' 

'' Transl. : there is no consenter of (Eng. to) even my remaining, 

^ There is no verb to this Plur. Nom. It is leftstanding, and referred 
back-to by ' un-ke'; as we might say. * This man, why, he's a fool.^ 

* Oblique form of plur. of *jo.' 

' Verbal Noun, 

^ * Uthana ' and * khana ' are often used regarding mental feelings 
or sufferings. 

^ * It must be that inside it.^ 
^® */« whatever way it may be practicable? 

" ' On an opposite slab of stone' 

T., H. 8 



114 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

Kauwe-ne aisa hi kiya ; lekin, niche utar-kar, kya dekhta 
hai ? Kih wake men akhrot to pash-pash ho-^aya, magar 
tnaghz' gilehri le-kar chal-di ; sirf chhilke chhor-ga,i. 

HlsiL : — Khud-gharaz admi, jo^ saldh deta hai, us 
nien3 kuchh-na-kuchh apna fa,idah zardr soch-leta hai.* 

7. Sheii, Jangal ka Badshah. 

Sher aurrichh aur chita aiir bheriya, charon^, shikar ki 
just-o-ju men the ; sab-ne salah ki^ : — * a,o, darya-kinare 
men shikar karen ; jo shikar ^ milega, charon barabar hisse 
bant-lenge.' — Ittifakan,nil-ga,o-ko mara;aur, ba-miijib ahdo 
paiman ke, barabar char hisse kiye ! kiarib tha, kih har ek 
apna apna^ hissah le f itne men, sher, lapak-kar, bola : — 
* Suno, bha'i ! yih ek hissah, to,ba-mdjib kaul-o-karar-ke^ 
mera hai ; aur dusre hisse ka main is waste dawidar hiin, 
kih main jangal ka badshah hiin, kahin shikar ho, mujh-ko 
chaharum, ba-taur khiraj ke, milta hai ; aur tisra hissah main 
is wajah-se liinga,kih us men dil aur jigar hai, jis-ko^° tum 



* Ace. governed by * le-kar.' 

' Instance of the Relative Pronoun used as in English. 

* Namely, in his advice. 

* * Admi ' is Nom. to * soch-leta-hai ' {takes thought for ; considers) . 

• Fa,idah,' is the Ace. after this verb : or it may be looked on as an 

* ace, absolute ; ' and translated, takes thought regarding^ or, for his 
own advantage, 

* The plural form of * char,' transl., * all four. ^ 

* Fern, past part, of * karna ' 
' * Hamon-ko,' understood. 

* Doubled to express * distribution.' 
•3rd pers, sing. subj. of * lena.' 

*• * Regarding which. ' 



HINDT^StInI as it ought to be spoken. 11$ 

jante ho, kih meri ghiza hai ; raha^ chautha hissah ; so^ main 
nahin janta, turn tinon men, us-ko kydnkar taksim kariin ;' 
is-se* bihtar hai, kih us-ko bhi apne hi sarf men la,iin.* Yih 
kah-kar. sher, charon hisse chat-kar, gaya ; aur sab ke sab, 
munh dekhte ke dekhte,^ rah-ga,e. 

Hasil : — Zabardast ke sath sajha karne rae^, hame- 
shah nuksan hota. 

8. Bheriya aur Saras. 

Ek bheriye ke gale men ittifak-se haddi atak ga,i. Har- 
chand khansi aur bahuteri ubka,i,an h'n,^ magar haddi na 
nikli ; par7 na nikli. Majbiir hokar, saras ke pas gaya aur 
kaha : — kih *yar ! ham tum donon^ ek jangal men rahte hain ; 
is wakt hakk-i- hamsayah^ ada karo ; mere halak men haddi 
atak ga,i hai, aur jan par bani hai ;^° mihrbani kar-ke, apni 
Iambi gardan-se is-ko nikal-lo, aur yih kam main tum-se 
muft bhi nahin chahta ; jo tum kahoge, so diinga.' Saras 
razi ho-gaya ; aur bheriye ke halak men apni Iambi gardan 
dalkar, haddi-ko khat-se alag nikal-liya. 

Chand roz ke bad, bheriya shikar kar-ke gorkhar Idya ; aur 
darya-kinare" baithkar, khane laga, Saras-ne dekha, aur 

* * There remained, ' 
''' Astoit: 

* ^ I do not know— among you three — it — how I can divide J* 

* ' Than this,^ 

* A phrase, equivalent to * looking dejectedly in each other's faces. ' 
® Fern. 3rd pers. plur. past tense * lena ; ' agreeing with * ubka,i,an. 
''Stiir 

* ' Ham tum donon,' a phrase, ^both of us, ' 

* Adj. following noun ; in imitation of the Persian. 

'* See * banna, ' * is settling on my life, ' i.e., * is threatening, ' &»c, 
'* Acc. of place ; without prep. 



ii6 hindi^stXni as it ought to be spoken. 

bahut khush-amad se, pas ja-kar, kaha : — Kih *aj main, 
bhiikha hiin, gosht ka ek tukra mujhe bhi do.' - Bheriye-ne 
ta,ammul kiya. Saras ne — dabi zaban se — haddi ka nikalna' 
ydd-dilaya. To, bheriye-ne kaha :— * A,i ahmak ! yih indm 
kya kam tha,^ kih tu, mere halak se, teri gardan, sahih- 
saldmat nikal-kar, le-gaya.'3 

HlsiL : — Zdlim aur mdzi ddmi ke sath suliik-karna,^ 
aur bihtari ki ummed rakhna^ nd,-ddni hai. Dunyake 
log ihsan-ko jald bhdl-jate hain ; zardrat men^ admi jo 
waadah karta hai,5 kamtar us-ko piira-karta hai. 

9. SaudIgarIn^ aur FaujdAr-SAhib. 
Lara,i ke wakt men, do saudagardn, achchhe kapre pahin* 
kar, apne mal ke sdth, raste men chale-jate the. Ittifdkan, 
un-ko char sipahi,an mile ; aur un bad-bakht saudagaron ka 
sab mal liit-kar, bhag-ga,e. Sauddgaran, lachar hokar, fauj- 
dar-sahibke pas daure, aur apni bad-kismat ka hal bayan kiya. 7 . 
Hakim-ne un-se piichha, kih, *jis-wakt un sipdhi,on ne turn- 
hara mal liit-hya, us-wakt turn log, yih kapra orhe,^ jate the ? ' 
Unhon-ne jawdb diya, kih ' Han! sahib.' Tab faujdar-ne 
kaha : — kih, * is-se khiib maaliim hai, kih we shakhs mere 
admi nahin hain ; lekin dushman ke log hain ; agar mere 

* Verbal Noun. 

* *Yih inam kya kam tha.' idiomatic; lit. this gift (qf^ what use 
was {it)y viz., that^ dr'c,, equivalent to is it nothing that, dfc. 

' * Le-gaya* (from * le-jana') govs. * gardan.' 

* * In necessity ; 'i.e., * under a strain, or coinpulsion. ' 

* Transl. : — The man who makes a promise under compulsion, seldom 
fulfils it. English idiom of Relative Pronoun. 

* * An,' the Persian plural. See page 73. 

* *Unhon-ne' understood. Transl. : — They stated the circumstances 
of their misfortune, 

* Past part. Plur. * orhna ' to put on clothes ; agreeing with • turn log.' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. II7 

admi bote, to, yih achchha kapra kabhi nahin chhor-dete. 
Khuda ka shukr hai, kih tum-ko mere admi nahin mile the/ 
Bolte, bolte faujdar-sahib-ne apne logon-ko isharah diya ; 
aur jab saudagaran, lidas hokar, phire^ jate the, tab faujdar 
ke admi,on-ne un-ke kapre utar-di,e, jis-se we be-nasib 
saudagaran khah janghie men apne ghar-ko pahunche. 

10. Maut Joru aur Ga,e ki, 
Ek basti men ek kisan rahta tha, aur sab kam bahut nek- 
nami o diyanat-se kiya-karta^ tha. Is-hye, us-se aur ganw- 
walon-se,^ bahut dosti thi. Bad-nasibi-se, us-ka kam achchhi 
tarah nahin chala. Pahle, us ki ga,e mar-oa,i ; tab us ki joru. 
Is wajhe-se, bahut gham-gin aur dil-gir hil,a ; kyiln-ki, 
diisri ga,e inol-lene ke waste, riipiye nahin the ; aur is-ki 
joru har dam ghar ke kdm men madadgar rahi thi. 

Is afat ri.en, ganw-wdlon-ne, us-ke dil bahMne ke waste, 
bahut koshish ki. Ek shakhs-ne kaha, kih, ' Are ! bha,i! 
kyiin rote ho ? turn achchhe jawan ho ; lum-ko jald diisri joru 
milegi ; dekho, to, meri beti bahut khiibsiirat larki hai, 
main turn ko use khushi-se diinga.' Diisre-ne, apni bahinke 
bare men, wohi bat kahi. Tisre-ne apni bhanji ka hai 
bataya. 

Akhir ko, kisan-ne jawab diya, kih, * is ganw men, joru 
ki maut bihtar hai, ga,e ki maut se.^ Bahut admi mujhe 

* Similar to * orhe ;' here agreeing with * saudagaran.' 

2 i Kiya karna,' ^0 be in the habit of doing a thing ; it is the same as 
our idiom with * always.' 

^ * Us-se aur ganw-walon se,' w//-^ him and with the villagers; 
or, bettveen him and the villagers. Notice this idiom ; it occurs fre- 
quently. Notice also that in Hindustani, you say * I and you* 6^^., not 
^you and /.' * ham-se tum-se,' between you and me ; * Ego et rex mfeus.' 

'* Transl. : — The death of a wife is better thany dr^c. 



Il8 HINDlJsTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

dilsri joru dene ko taiyar hain ; ko,i shakhs niujhe diisri ga,e 
dena kabiil nahin karta.' 

II. *Insaf Karna Hoga.' 

Patne ke zile ki ek basti men, ek lobar, ba-nam Ram 
Gopdl, rahta tha. Wuh bahut hoshyar karigar tha ; lekin, 
faziil kharchi ke sabab se, hameshah langi se guzran kiya 
karta^ tha. Ek rat^ rah men usko ek saudagar mila ; us-ko 
lohdr-ne jan se mar-dala, aur mal chora-liya, Magar yih 
wuku chhipa nahin raha. Ganw ke mahton-ne, zamindar 
ke pds ja-kar, piichha, kih * huziir ! kya luarzi hai ? hakiman 
ko is ki^ ittila kis-jawe,-* ya nahin? '^ 

Ittifakan, zamindar se,^ aur Ram Gopal se,^ malguzari ki 
babat, takrar thi ; is liye zaminddr-ne raahton ko hukm diya, 
kih * us wuku ki^ khabar hakim logon ko do.' Pas, chauki- 
dar-ne, thane men ja-kar, apna izbar likwa-diya. Is-par, 
ddrogha sahib, ma,i tin char barkandaz, sar-zamin par aya, 
aur tadaruk karne laga 

Chdnkih Ram Gopal gharib tha, thana-walon ko razi 
nahin kar-saka.^ Pas, un logon-ne Ram Gopal ko, ma,i 
subiit, hakim ke pas chalan kiya. Tajwiz ke bad, hakim-ne 
fdrmdya, kih * us kam-bakht-ko phdnsi do.' 

Jab is hukm ki khabar ganw-walon ke pas pahunchi, niha- 
yat afsurdah hil,e ; aur bole, * agar ham-logon ke lobar- ko 

^ * Kiya-karna,* io continually do a thing ; to keep doing it, 

* Because * ittila ' is fem, 
' Fem. p. part. * karna.' 

* Passive, 

* The local Indian squire is generally consulted as to whether a 
crime is to be reported to the authorities or not. 

* Notice this idiom *se...se,' between A. and B. See preceding Story. 
' Because * khabar * is fem. 

* Alluding to the venality which some people attribute to the police. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. I I9 

phansi dengCj to, hamara kam kis-tarah se chalega ? hamare 
hal aur gari,an kaun marammat karega ? Bhiikh se mar-ja- 
enge. ' 

Fikrmand ho-kai, hakim ke pas ga,e, aur apna hal bayan- 
kiya, aur darkhast ki, ^ kih hakim mausiif lohar-ko khalas 
karen. Hakim-ne nahin kabiil kiya, aur kaha kih, * insdf 
karna hoga.^ 

Gaiiwar-log bahar jia,e ; aur, pipal ke gachh ke niche 
tambaku piie, pite, mashwarah karne lage. Akhir-ko hakim 
ke pas phir a,e, aur bole : — " Gharib-parwar ! huziir ki bat 
durust bai : ' insaf karna hoga '; lekin, insaf nahi'n hai 
kih ham *be-kusilr admi sab bhilkh se mar-ja,en ; gdnw 
chhota hai, aur is men sirf ek lobar rahia hai ; magar do 
jillahe hain ; hamdre kam ke waste, ek jiilahah bas hai ; un 
donon men se, ek shakhs le-kar, phansi dijiye ; is taur se 
insaf hoga. " 

Jab is bat-ko bhi hakim-ne nahin manzdr kiya, basti-wale 
chale-ga,e ; aur apas men bole : — * Bha,i ! bha,i ! kal-yug^ 
hai, dunya ^ men insaf nahin hai.' 

12. Kachhua AUR Khargosh. 

Bab Auwal, 

Ek kachhde-ko safar darpesh tha. Is ki just-o-ju hil,i,^ 

kih ' ko,i sathi mile,5 to safar kardn. ' Ittifdk se, ek khaigosh 

bhi usi taraf-ko jane-wala tha. Kachhiie-ne kaha : kih 'miyan 

* Fern, past tense of * karna. ' 

^ The black era, i. e.y the evil days. 

^ The reader will have noticed that ' dunya ' is a word of which the 
* a ' does not change into * e ' ; so also * darya, ' a jiver. 

* ' His search was, ' i.e.^ he was enquiring. 

^ Subj. understand 'mujh-ko,' transl., * Could any companion be 
found,^ 



I20 hindijstAni as it ought to be spoken. 

khargosh ! a,o ! ham turn sath-chalen.'^ Khargosh be ikhtiyar 
hansa, aur kaha; — * Abe ! ahmak! Kalian^ tu bhadda, phaph- 
sa, reng reng-kar, paharon mens ek balisht zamin4 chalta. 
hai, aur kahan maiii^ bijli ki manind lapakta hiin, hawa ki 
tarah urta hiin ; — bhala ! meraaur tera kya sath ?' Kuchhiie 
ne kaha : — * yih sahih hai ; magar manzii par (Khuda-ne 
chaha) ap se age hi pahunchdnga. Yakin na ho, to shart 
bandh-lijiye.5 Chunanchih, yih shart hil,i, kih jo hare, 
us-ke kan kate-ja,en.'^ 

13. Kachhua aur Khargosh. 

Bab Doyam. * 

Kachhda, ahistah, ahistah, apni chal chalne laga. Khar- 
gosh, do chhalangon men, nazar-se ghaib ho gaya.7 'Ihori 
diir age ja-kar, khargosh-ne socha, kih,* jitna main chal-chuka 
hiln,^ — sham tak,'^ to, kachhiie ko, yahan-ana mushkil hai ; 

^ Imperative, let you {and) me go together, 

^ Here begins a long sentence. Its purport is : where you, being 
such and such, do such and such ; and where /do such and such. The* 
sentence ends with a break-off at *urta hiin,' and resumes : * well ! mera 
aur tera ' ^ as to your {affairs) and mine,'' *kya sath (hai).' * What (is 
there) in common. " 

^ In the * pahars ' or watches, transl. , * in the 24 hours. ' 

* Ek balisht zamin : apposition : * a span of ground, ' 

* The sense is ; — * I (the tortoise) am sure to reach the journey's end 
before you (the hare), — for God so wills it, — but if you think this 
doubtful, then have a bet on it. ' 

® Passive. 

' *• Becafue vanished from sight,' * was out of sight C 

* * Tak' here (and often) expresses the idea of a time not yet arrived; 
the mind being directed to the interval between now and then. The 
sense here is that the hare thinks that he has now gone so far that it 
will be difficult for the tortoise to reach the spot, * sham tak, ' even by 
evening. 



HINDI^tStAnI as it ought to be spoken. 121 

main jaldi kydn kariin? la,o!' so-^ rahiin, Khargosh aram-se 
so-4raha. Kachhiia, bari der ke bad, ghisarta, ghisarta, aya. 
Dekha, to, harif para3 sota hai. Chup-ke chal-diya. Bari 
rat ga,i, khargosh jaga ; to, kachhiia nazar na' aya.^ Ap hi 
ap kahne laga5 : — * Allah ! re!^ sustkadam! miydn kachhile 
ab-tak tashrif nahin la,e.7 Khair ! chalen ! sara,e men 
rat-ko rahen; kal, jo^ miyan kachhiia yahan a,ega, to ja- 
enge.' 

Jon sara,e men kadam rakha, dekha to kachhiia maujiid 
hai. Khargosh-ko dekhte hi, kachhiia lapka, kih 'la,iye, 
Hazrat ! kan ! '9 Khargosh, dum daba-kar, aisa bhaga, 
kih aj tak, kanon ke dar ke mare, bhaga, -bhaga-phirta, 
hai.^° 

HlsiL: — Kaisa-hi" asan kuchh kam ho, jab uska 
ihtimam nahin kiya-jata,'^ to mushkil ho-jata. Kund- 
zihn, mihnati larke, zahin larkon-ko hara-dete hain. 
Dushman-ko hakir nahin samajhna chdhiye. Ghuriir/ 
kamal hasil-karne se, rokta hai ; waghairah. 



- ^ As interj. * take it so,^ 

^ Stem of *sona,' t<? sleep: *so-rahna,' to remain sleeping. 
' * Lain doivHy or, as we say, * lying down.' 

* Was^ or, had not come in sight. 

* He began to say to himself. 

* God Almighty I 

' See page 76, section 17, 

^ When : or, if. 

® * Bring {me) oh ! Your Excellency /— Your Ears P (The mock 
polite. ) 

'" Thus do Orientals account for the timorous movements of rabbits 
and hares. 

" *Kaisa-hi,' *-^^7e/^z/^;'.' 

^'^ Passive Voice. 



i. 



122 hindustani as it ought to be spoken, 

14. Khtjrshidi Beg am. 

The followinu extract is taken from an excellent modern novel called 
«• Fisanah-e-Khiirshidi," i.e.y " The Story of Khiirshidi"— a Muham- 
madan lady of rank. The author is the well-known Saiyid Afzal-ud- 
din Ahmad. In this book, English as well as native characters are in- 
troduced. It recommends itself by the simplicity of its style, by its 
freedom from all coarseness, and by the attempt which it makes to 
render Natives and Europeans better acquainted with each other than 
they at present are. This extract consists mainly of a dialogue between 
the English lady of the piece (Miss Thompson) and Khurshidi's father. 

Mis Tamsan shahr-i-Landan ke bare saudagar ki beti 
thi. Apne bap ke sath Hindilstaii a,in.' Us-wakt in' 
ka sinn bis baras ka tha; chalis baras tak, Hindustan men 
rahin.' Atharah zabanon se wakif thin.^ l.arkon ke par- 
hane ka nihayat shauk tha. L'illah,^ logon-ko parhati thin.' 
[Then begins the dialogue.] 

Nawvvab. — Main ap se, kya kahiin ? Ap to^ janti hi3 
hain,kih ham-logon ke yahan auraton ki taalim ki — kya halat 
hai.4 Auwal, ko,i aurat parhi, likhi^ milti^ nahin, jo piSri 
tarah se taalim de;7 diisre, yahan. ki ina,en^ aisi ajhal o 
na-parwah hoti hain, kih is taraf kuchh khiyal his nahin karti 

* Pronouns and verbs phiral^ out of respect to the lady. 
^ Arabic, ^ for the love of God,"" 

" Idiomatic strengthening particles. Transl. as best suils your 
English : or leave untranslated. 

* Begin with * kya halat hai ;' and go c)n ' of the education of the 
women resident-with us-peopIe.^ Trace the application of the rules for 
*ka,' *ke,' *ki,' by also translating * you know our people'' s 7vomenU 
education's condition — luhat it is.' 

* * Read-written^' i.e., * who can read and write,' 
\ Understand * hamon-ko.' 

' Subj. 'dena.' 

* Plur. of * ma,' mother. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 1 23 

hain ; — main akela kya kar-sakta hiln ? Kidhar dekhdii, 
kidhar na dekhiin ? mujh-ko, umdr-i-dunyawi se, itni 
fursat kahan hogi, kih khud apni larki-ko taalim diin ? ^ 

Miss T. — Is men shakk nahin hai, kih yahan ki auraten 
bil-kull jahil aur aksar an-parh^ hain ', is-liye aulad ki taah'm 
achhi nahin hoti hai. Lekin, agar ko,i aurat aisi ld,ik3 nahin 
milti thi, to, ip ke ysihsin mau/avt to"^ hain, un hi^ se taalim 
dilwa,i hoti.^ 

NAwwiB. — Yih bhi nahin ho-sakta, — do wajhon se : — ek 
to yih, kih jab larki syani hii,i,to, maulavike samne nahin jd- 
sakti ; dilsri,^ kih hamare yahan ke maulavi bhi akl ke putle 
hote hain ; tarikah parhane ka, achchha nahin jante hain. 

Miss T. — Sach hai ! Ap durust farmate hain ; 7 lekin, 
kusiir mu,af !^ is-men ap ki9 bhi kuchh khata hai : main 
salha^° sal se yahan hiln, aur ap-ne mujh-ko ittila nahin di." 

NawwXb. — Main kahne hi ko tha :^^ lekin I'illah bura na 
maniega.^3 Ap janti hongi, kih yahdn ki auraten kis kadr 

* Subj. *dena.' 

'' * A ' or * an ' negative^ as in Greek ; * parh * from ' parhna ; ' *an- 
parh,' unread ; illiterate, 

^ Understand * hamon-ko.* 

^ Idiomatic strengthening particles. Transl, as best suits your Eng- 
lish : or leave untranslated. 

* See page 17, section 16. 

*• Fem. because * wajh ' which is fem, is understood. 

' ' Farmana,' to order ; but used of any utterance by a great man. 

* Excttse fault ^^ i.e., * you will excuse my saying,' &c. 
** * Ap ki khata,' * ki ' is used because * khata ' is fem. 

^® * Ha ' is the Persian plural of neuter nouns ; as * an ' is of masc. 
Vi(^\iir\?,,U2in%\,, ^ years on years.' 

" Past tense fem. of ' dena,' * ittila ' being fem. 

*2 * Was on telling,' i.e., * was about tell you.' 

" An unusual form ; got by adding *ga' of the future to the respect- 
ful imperative ; the word is from * manna.' 



hindi^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 

/is-ul-akl^ aur muta,assib hain. Chunanchih, jab main-ne 

ii bibi se, ap ka zikr kiya, to wuh kahne lagin, kih ap 

ieri larki-ko Kristan bana-dalengin. 

Miss T. — Taubah ! yih kya guft-o-gu hai ! Ap dekhiye 

to ! main un logon-ko kis-tarah milati hiin ! Mujh-ko 

chiinkih ap-se dili-dosti hai, is-liye main dil-o-jan se ap ki 

larki ko taalim dilngi. 

Nawwab. — Ab ap Khurshidi begam-ko apni larki 
samjhiye ; aur jis-tarah munasib samjhiye, is-ko taalim dijiye. 

Mtss T. — Ap khatir-jamah rakhiye ; ap ki larki bahut 
zahin aur hoshyar hain ; aisi larki to kismaton se milti haif 
jald ilm o hunar se wakif ho-ja,egi. 

15. Khurshidi Begam. 

Second Extract from the same work. 

The young lady has progressed with her education so well that 
her drawing gains the prize at the Calcutta Exhibition ; the Viceroy 
makes a speech ; the young lady's father being present. She herself, 
however, has not yet so far advanced in English manners as to allow 
her pretty face to be seen. 

The Viceroy's Speech. 
Main nihayat khushi se, is bat-ko kahta hiin, kih yih 
nakshah, kih mere hath men hai, is ikzibishan (E.) men 
umdah-tarin3 nakshah hai ; balki, kam aise dekhne men ate 

' *U1' is the Arabic 'of the,' 

^ *Milna' is here used as a fully personal verb. In this sense it 
means * to he mixed up with ' or associated withy ^to be allied to ' or the 
like. Translate, * such a girl is sure to have a good destiny before her^ 
but don't fail to analyse the clause literally. 

* Persian superlative ; see page 74, section 9. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 1 25 

hain^ (tali,an). Main bahut khush hii,a, is amr se, kih ap 
log meri ra,i se ittifak karte hain, aur is nakshe-ko aur 
nakshon par^ — tarjih det^ hain. Mujh-ko ziyadah khushi is 
bat ki haij kih yih nakshah ek Hindustan ki larki ke hath 
se banaya hii,a hai. (suno ! suno !) Is larki ka sinn pandrah 
ya solah baras ka hai ; lekin is kam-sinn men, wuh bat kar- 
dekha,i — kih jis-se ham log mahz na-wdkif the. Is larki-ne 
yik^hit sabit-kar-di, kih Hinddstdn ki larki,a;n bhi akl o 
danist men Inglistan ki larki,oij se,^ kisi tarah kam nahin hain 
(khushi). Agar aisi hi taalim, Hinddstan ki kull larki-on 
ko, ho, to phir ko,i admi, in logon par, hans-na-sake. Yih- 
larki mahz jahil aur gum-nam rahti ; agar hamare la,ik aur 

mu,azzaz dost, Nawab Bahddur, C. S. I.^ is rishtah-e- 

ta,assub-ko na' torte,^ aur apni beti ki taalim is tarah se 
na' karte.^ Khuda kare, ki har bap-ki aisi hi larki ho ; aur 
bar larki'ko aisa hi bap mile, (hdra E.). Main Mis Tamsan 
ki ban taarif karta hiin, kih unhon-ne^ is mihnat o shafakat 
se — is larki-ko ilm o hunar sikhldya — ^jis ka natijah sab par 
zdhir hd,a. 

Ab main is takrir-ko khatm karta hiln ; aur afsos ke sath 
karta hdn, kih mu,afik lasm Hinddstdn ke, wuh larki yahan 
nahin a-sakti. Nahin-to, main khud, apne hath se yih 



* 'Few such (pictures) come into seeing,'* i.e., before one. 

* * (9«,' or ^ over other pictures : ' a form of the comparative degree. 
^ Namely, the * bat ' foreshadowed in the preceding sentence, and 

now about to be stat-ed ; a very common form of Hindustani composi- 
tion. 

* * Se ' of comparison. See page 74, section 8. 

* Companion of the Star of India, a British, not a native title of 
honour. 

' See page 17, section 16. * 

' * Unhon-ne,' she. 



126 HINDl^SXiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

medal (E.) us-ke zeb-i-gulu^ karta. Lekin, main ummed 

kartahiin, kih Nawwab aur Mis Tamsan yih medal us 

larki-ko pahina-denge, aur roeri taraf se bahut mubarakbad 
denge (tali, an tali, an). 



'^ * Her ornament of neck.'' See page 52, Note i ; also page 17, 
section 16. 



GLOSSARY OF USEFUL WORDS- 

VA KT I. 

HINDUSTANI-ENGLISH. 



NOTE. 

It is hoped that the following Glossary contains every 
word which occurs in the Vocabularies, Exercises, and 
" The Reader," — except those intentionally omitted, namely, 
English words which have crept into the language, and 
the 'numerals' which are given on pages 64 and 103. 
Numerals which occur in the Exercises or '^ The Reader" 
are, however, given. 

There are also thousands of words given which do not 
occur in the earlier part of the book. 

The following Table shows the sequence of the letters, 
not only as the Head-Letters of the Glossary; but through- 
out the columns. Thus all words in ' Kat ' are exhausted 
before you find * Kat,' &c., and so with other letters which 
are different and yet similar, as *d;' and "d;" *h,' 
and ' h.' 

TABLE. 



A. 


B. 


CH. 


D. 


I.>. 


E. 


F. 


G. 


. Gh. 


H. 


H. 


I. 


J. 


K. 


K- 


Kh. 


L. 


M. 


N. 


0. 


P. 


R- 


R. 


S. 


SH. 


T. 


T. 


u. 


V. 


W. 


Y. 


Z. 











T., H. 



130 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

The general arrangement is to give the shortest word — 
Noun, Adjective or other word — as a 'Head-word ;* and to 
range under it, longer words connected with the same 
subject. The ' head-word' is not, as a rule, reprinted ; but 
is represented by a short line. Ex. :— Diikan (f.), a shop. 
-dar, a shop-keeper, -dari, shop-keeping. Occasionally, the 
'head-word' changes before additions can be made. 
In such cases the short line represents the * head-word' 
down to the last permanent consonant, which consonant is 
repeated in that part of the new word which is printed. 
Ex. :— Azurdah, grieved, -dagi, grief. 
Contractions are used as follows : — 

i. The ordinary grammatical ones; as ^ kd].\ Adjec- 
tive ; *Adv.' Adverb, &^c. *Sing.' Singjilar ; 
* PL' Plural; 'trans.' transitive; ' intr.' iit- 
transitive, and so on. 

ii. Compound Verbs ending in ' /^^/-/z^' and 'dena' 
■ are very common. So these auxiliaries are 

shown by - k' and ' d' respectively. 

iii. When the meaning of words follozving a ^ head- 
word^ \% easily to be understood from the Eng- 

l , lish of the ' head-word,' the words which follow 

I are left untranslated. They are marked 'A.' if 

i ' Adjectives; ' Adv.' if Adverbs ; ' N.' if Nouns; 

i and ' V.' if Verbs. Ex. : — Azurdah, grieved, 

\ ' N. -dagi, which 7?iust mean ' grief. ^ Fikr, 

! anxiety ; care. A. -mand. Shuru, a bes^inning, 

\ V. -k. 

iv. (p.) ... indicates a Persian word not in use in its 
simple form ; but common in derivatives from 
it. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 131 

V. * Persian ' ...indicates that a phrase, though Per- 
sian, is in common use in Hindiistani. 

vi. (m.) Stands for masmline ; (i.) iox feminine ; (2i.) 
shows that a word (e g., light) is a?i adjective^ 
not a 710U71 ■; (n.) means that a word (e.g., 
light) is a nou7i and not an adjective ; (n.a.), 
means that the word is both a noun and an 
adjective. 

vii. (M.)... indicates that the word is to be used only 
concerning things Miihavunadan, 

viii. (H.)...the same as regards things Hindu, 

ix. (L.B.)... means that the word is current chiefly 
or wholly, in Loiver Be?igal only. 

X. (E.)... Stands for English; ' compos,' for <r^;;//<9j/- 
tlon ; • Lit. ' for literally, ; * ^^, ' for figuratively, 

- xi. The long word * Muhammadan ' is generally con- 
tracted Muha??i. 

Masculine Nouns ending in any of the feminine termina- 
tions are marked (m.) 

Feminine Nouns ending in anything except the recog- 
nised feminine terminations are marked (f) See Page 8, 
Section 13. 



GLOSSARY OF USEFUL WORDS. 
H industani-English 



A. 



A or an, a fiegative prefix ^ 
e.g. an-parh {See ^parhna'), 
illiterate, 

Ab, 710W ; at present, -tak, 
//// now. 

Ab (p.), ivater. -dar, a ser- 
vant ivho attends to the 
tvines, a^c. -o-hawa (f.), 
climate. 

Abad, cultivated ; peopled. 
-i, cultivated land. 

Abe, an interj. expressing 
scorn. 

Abr, a cloud, abri, clouded. 

Abru (f.), dignity ; respect ; 
inspired. 

Abru (f.), the eyebrow. 

Abvvab (pi. of *bab.'), chap- 
ters ; readings ; columns ; 
entries in detail in columns ; 
hence^ pay vients ; cesses^ 6^a 



Achchha, o-(?<^^; well. Also^^ 
interj. achha,i, goodness. 
achchhi-tarah, in good 
style ; carefully. 

Ada, payment, V. -k. 

Adalat, a court of justice. 

Adat, custom ; habit. 

Adha (ii. a.), a half ; half 

Adil, just ; equitable. 

Admi, a human being ; a 
man ; a tvoman. -yat, 
humafiity ; the hu?jian 
species. 

Adrak, green ginger ; preserv- 
ed ginger. 

Afat, a calamity. 
Afrin, bravo I 

Afsanah, a story ; tale ; 

romance. \as interj, 

hhos, sadness ; a pity. Also 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN, 

N. 



^33 



Afsurdah, gfieved ; sad, 

-dagi. 
Aftab, the sun, 
Aftabah, a water-jug; a ewer, 

-^g (f), fire, -dan, a fire- 
stand. 

Agar, if, -chih, although. 
Age, in front ; forward, 

-barhana, (trans,) to start ; 

move fonvard, -chalna ; 

-j., to go in front, -pichhe, 

in single file, 

Ahar, a natural reservoir of 
water, 

Ahistah, sloivly. 

Ahd-o-paiman, mutual agree- 
ment, 

Ahmak (n. a.), a fool; foolish, 
folly, -i. 

Aib, fault ; blemish, -lagana, 
to impute blame to ; to cast 
discredit on, 

^^v^^ laiv; order ; rule. 
Ajinah, a looking-glass. 
Aisa, like this ; such a... ; 

thus ; to such a degree. 
Aj, to-day. -kal, (lit. to-day- 

to-morrow), the present 

time, 
Aja,ib, wonders; wonderful 

things. 



A-jana, to arrive, 
Ajhal, very ignorant^ 
A jib, wonderful, 
Ajilbah, wonderful, 

Akar; akarath, fruitless ; in 

vain, 
Akela, alone. 

Aks, reflection (e.g., in water.) 
Aksar, frequently ; general- 

ly- 

Aka, an oivner ; master, 
Akl, (f.), sense; wisdom^ 
A. -mand. 

Akhir, the end. -ko, at last ; 

lastly.- 
Akhrot, a walnut. 

Alag, separate ; separately. 

Alahdab, separately. 

Alakah, jurisdiction ; rela- 
tionship, or connection, 7uith 
a person or thing, -ka- 
dar, a person in charge of 
an 'alakah.' 

Ala-s-sabah, early in the 
morning, 

Albattab, for certain ; cer* 
tainly. 

Alim, learned. 

Allah (M.), 6^^^.-re!(interj.) 
God Almighty. 

Almas, a diamond. 



134 hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 



Alo, light (n.) 
Alu, a potatoe. 

Am, a mango. Also, common; 
vulgar. Adv. umuman. 

Amad-o-raft, coming-and-go- 
ing ; intercourse. 

Am bar, a heap ; stock ; store. 

Am in, Amen I 

Arain, a deputy ; a commis- 
sioner. 

Amir (pi. umara), a noble- 
man ; an ''Amir.'' 

Amr (pi. umdr), any busi- 
ness, matter^ or affair. 

Amriid, guava (fruit). 

Anah, j\ of a 'riipi.' 
Aiia-jana, to come-and-go. 
Anannas, a pine-apple. 
Anar, a pomegranate. 
Andar, within ; inside. 
Andeshah, anxiety ; thought. 
And ha, blind, 
Andhera (n. a.), darkness; 

dark. 
Anda, a7i egg. 
Angrez, an Englishman, -i, 

English, 
Angiir, a grape ; grapes. 
Angiithi, a ring. 
Anji'r (f.), a fig. 
Ankh (f.), an eye. 



An-parb, illiterate. {See 

parima.) 
Anta, a ball, -ghar, a bil- 
■ Hard-room ; the club. 

Ap, Your Honor. Ap-hi-ap, 
by, or, to oneself. Apas 
men, among themselves. 

Apna. See page 30. 

A-pahunchna, to arrive'; to 
have arrived. 

Araf, purgatory. 
Ara,ish, ornamentation. 
Aram, ease ; comfort, -kursi, 

an easy-chair. 
Are ! hey, you I 
Arhai, tivo and a half 
Arkan-i-daulat, the Pillars of 

the State, i.e., the nobles. 
Arsah, a space of time. 
Arz {i.), petition ; request; 

what I want to say. V.-k. 
Arzu, wish ; desire, A. 

-mand. 

Asa, a stick ; cane. 

Asar, iinpression. 

Asami, a tenant; a client , 
a debtor ; a depe?ident ; al 
prisoner. Also, agency^ 
substitution. 

Asan, easy. N. -i. 

Asbab, goods and effects. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



135 



Asl, root ; origin, -i, radical ; 
real, aslan, by 710 means. 
aslan-mutlakan, by no man- 
ner of means ^ 

Asman, the sky. 

Astabal, a stable. . 

Astin (f.), a sleeve. 

Atish, or atash (p.), fire, 
'-hizi^ fireivorks. -khanah, 
afire-place ; a grate. 

Ata, fioiir. ^ 

Atakna ; atak-jana, to be 
stopped ; to stick. 

Atthh 3.h, eig/iteen ; a large 
number. 

Atkana ; atka-d, to stop ; 
detain. 

Auladj offspring ; descendants. 

Auliya, ike saints. 

Ba {a prefix).^ at ; with ; by, 
e.g. -mujib, according to. 
-nisbat, respecting ; about. 
(prep.) -nisbat is ki, com- 
pared with this, -sar, at^ or 
to a head, or e7td, -sar ana, 
to reach an end. -sar-k., 
to bring to an end ; to pass 
time, -taraf, aside] apart. 
-taur, by zuay of ; as being, 
and so on. 



B. 



k\M,and; also ; more, -ek, 
one more, -do,* two inore^i 
and so on. -kuchh, some 
more; any more, -kya, 
what more ? what else ? 
tvhat 7nore do you want f 

Aurat, ci wo77ian. 

Auwal, the first ; first, -an, 
in the first place. 

Avvaz (f.), the voice ; a cry. 

Ayah, a fe77iale attendant, 

A,yindah (n. a.), the future ; 
future, 

Azdd, free ; solitary ; inde- 
pendent, 

Aziz, dear ; precious, -rakh- 
na, to value ; esteem, 

Azurdah, grieved ; sad. N, 
-dagi. 

Baad, or bad (ke.), after; 

{of ti77ie.) 
Baaze, several, 
Bab, a chapter ; heading. 
Baba, a father ; an old 77ian% 

In L. B., a child, -log, the 

children (L. B.) 
Babat (ki.), concerning. 
Bachcha, a child ; a yoking 

speci7nen of any anittial ; 

Q.g., a pup, a kitten, t^c. 



13^ 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO 13E SfOKKN. 



Bachhra, a calf. 

Bachna ; bach-jana, to be 
saved ; to escape, bach ana ; 
bacha-d., to save; rescue ; 
protect. 

Bad, bad. N.-i. -akl, defective 
cofnmon-sense. Adj. -akli. 
-bakht, unfortunate ; wret* 
ched. -bu (f.), a bad smell. 
-kismat, bad luck ; misfor- 
tune, -nam, evil repute ; 
slander ; abuse, -nasibi, 
misfortune, -shakl, ill- 
formed ; unshapely, -surat, 
ugly\ -siirati, ugliness. 
-zat, of low caste ; villa n- 
ous, -zati, villainy; 

vice. 

Bad (ke.). See ' Baad.' 

Bad (p.), zvind. 

Badal, exchange. As prep, 
(ke.), in exchange for. 
-lena, to take in exchange ; 
to excha nge. ~n a , to change ; 
alter. Badla, (also as prep. 

. *ke badle,') same as 
* badal.' 

Badam, almonds, 

Badan, the body. 

Badshah (M.), a king, -i, the 
royal state. 

Ba,en, on^ or, to the left hand. 



Bag (f.), a bridle. 

Bagh, a tiger. 

Bagh ; baghan ; baghichah, 
a garden. 

Baghal, the arm-pit ; side ; 
direction. 

Bahadur (a title)^ ^ Bahadur.^ 
-i, bravery ; swagger. 

Bah am, together. 

Bahanah, a pretence; pretext. 

Bahangi, a pole on which 
burdens are carried, -dak, 
the parcel-post. 

Bahar (Adv.), outside. As 
prep, (ke.) out. -jana, to 
go out. 

Bahar (f.), spring ; beauty. 

Bah in, a sister. 

Bahldna, to amuse ; cheer 
one up. 

Bahna, to flow. 

Bahra, deaf. 

Bahut, much ; very ; suffi- 
cient, -achchha ! all right ! 
very well I -era, (2i.)very 
much, or very many. 

Ba,i, a native lady ; a dan- 
cing-girl. 

Bail, an ox. -gari, an ox- 
cart. 

Ba,is (ke), by reason of. 

Baithna, to sit ; sit dmvn. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO tJE St'OKEN. 



137 



Baja, a musical instrument. 
bajana, to play on ditto. 
l)ajna, to be played on ; to 
sound, {intr.) See page 6']. 

Baja-lana, to perform ; carry- 
through. 

Rak-bal:, chattering. V -k. 

Bakri, a goat. 

Baki, what remains over. 

Bakliil, a miser, -i, stinginess. 

Bakhshna, to qive a present, 
N.-bakhfhi>h. 

Bal, the hair, -wal, a barber. 

Baland. See ' Biiland.'' 

Bal-bachche, children. 

Baligh, one who has attained 
majority, -a (f.), marriage- 
able. 

Balisb, a pillow. 

Balisht, a span. 

Bal kill, on the other hand ; 
nay I nay., more ! 

Ballam, a spear. 

Baiti, a tent-can.,' ^m bucket. 

Bdlu, sand. 

Bam, the pole of a carriage. 

Banana, to form ; construct. 
bana-dalna, to co?ivert one 
thing into another. 

Banat, broad-cloth. ■ 

Band, closed. V.-k. band-o- 
bast (m.), arrangements. 



Bandah ; bandi, a servant ; 

dependant ; slave, -dagi, 

service ; attachment to a 

person. 
Bandar, a monkey. 
Bandh, a closing \ an embank- 

ment. -na ; -d. ; -kar-d. to 

close; fasten ; tie, 
Banduk (f.), a musket. 
Bani; (f.), a noise; shout. 

V. -d. 
Bannrj, to be made, bana- 

rahna, to remain ivaiting. 
Ban-parna, to succeed ; be able 

to do. 
hans, a bamboo. 
Bantna, to divide, bant-lena, 

to divide and take. 
Bap, a father, bap-bap; and 

bapre-bapre! See page 56. 
Bar (p.), on ; upon. Much 

used in compos. 
Bara, great. As adv., very. 

bara- sahib, the head of a 

house., firm., c^c. 
Barabar, breast to breast; 

equal; ^all the same.'' 
Barah, twelve, -singa, having 

twelve tines ; a stag. 
Bavimdsih, a verandah. 
Baran (p.). rain, -i kurti, a 

great-coat. 



138 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Baras, a year. 
Barasna, to rain. 
Bar-bad-d, to squander. 

-bona, to be sacrificed ox lost. 
Barchhi, a spear. 
Bare (ke.), in the matter of. 
Barf, snoiv ; ice. -pani, iced 

water. 
Barga, a rafter. 
Barham ; barham-darham, 

confused ; entangled. 
Barik, fine in texture. 
Barish, rain. 

Barkandaz, (lightning throw- 
ing)^ a police constable ; a 
guard : a watchman. 
Bar-khast, removing ; dismiss- 
ing ; adjour7iing, V. -k. ; 
kar-d. 
Barsat, rain, -i kapre, ivater- 

proofs. 
Bartan, a plate ; dish. 
Barut, gun-powder, \tual. 
Bar-wakt, up to tiine ; punc- 
Barha,i, a carpenter. 
Barhana {trans!) to advance \ 
increase, barhna ; barh-j. 
{tntr.) to advance; increase. 
Bas, enough ; * that HI do.^ 
Basan, a dish; a bowl. 
Bastah, a bundle. 
Bastij a village. 



Bat ; battakh, a duck. 

Bat, word; affair; neivs ; 
business, -chit, conversa- 
tion, [out: show. 

Batana or batlana, to point 

Batas (L. B.), 7airid. 

Batti, a ivick ; also, a light ; 
candle \ lamp. 

Bat-khara, a weight for 
weighing zvith. 

Bater, quail. 

Batwara, dividing property 
into shares. 

Bawar, belief ; trust, -chi, a 
cook, -chi-khanah, a kit- 
chen. 

Bayan, a statement. V.-k. 

Baz, a hawk. 

Baz (adv.), back, -rakhna, to 
restrain ; keep back. 

Bazar, a market ; bazaar. 

Baze {See Baaze), several. 

Bazu, the arm. 

Be (prefix), withcut. -fikr, 
without care. -ganah, 
strange ; foreign, -ikhtiyar, 
without poiver of control. 
-hosh, senseless ; also, in 
a sivoon, -hudah, absurd; 
ridiculous, -jan, lifeless. 
-jigar {without liver) ^ cow- 
ardly, -karar, restless. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



139 



-kiyam, unstable, -kusiir^ 
zvithout blame, -khabar, 
i^ivithout riews^) careless. 
-nasib, destitute of good 
luck, tarali, beyond the pro- 
per Jiianner ; improperly , 
-sabab, ivithout a reason. 
-shakk, beyond a doubt, 
-sharm, shameless, -tab, 
weak ; fai?it. -w u kd f, fool- 
ish ; stupii. N . - w u kii fi . 

Bechna, to sell 

Bel, the 'beV -fruit. 

Bhent, a meetingwith a person. 

Besli, more ; sufficient, -i, ex- 
cess ; surplus. -kirn at, 
high-priced. 

Beta, a son, Beti, a daughter. 

Bhadda, dull ; stupid, 

Bhagna ; bhag-jana ; bhag i- 
jana, to flee ; escape. 

Bhagwat, the religious book 
of the Hindus, - 

Bha,i, a brother ; relation. 

Bhainsa ; bhains, male and 
female buffalo. 

Bhal, or bhalu, a bear. 

Bhala, good, bhala,i, good- 
ness. 

Bhanja, a sister^ s son. 

Bhanji, a sister's daughter. 

Bhar, a load, -i, heavy. 



Bhara ; bhar pur, /////. 

Bharna, to fill. 

Bhat(m.), cooked rice. 

Bhatti, a still. 

Bhaunkna, to bark. 

hhed, secrecy. 

Bhejna ; bhej-d., to send. 

Bhera ; bheri,, a ram, a sheep. 
bheri ka gosht, mutton. 

Bheriya, a ivolf 

Bhi, also (after a noun or 
other zvord.) 

Bhiga, a measure of area., 
varying in different places. 

Bhinga, ivet. 

Bhor (f.), the daivn. ^ko, at 
daivn ; early. 

Bhilkh (f.), hunger. A. -a. 

Bhiil, anerror. -na;-jana, to 
commit an error ; to for- 
get. 

Bhusi, chaff, (lit.) 

Bhiit, a ghost ; a demon. 

Bhutta, Indian corn. 

Bibi, a native married lady ; 
also applied to a females- 
European, or of the mixed 
r ace ,- working in the cou?i- 
try, e.g., as keeper of a 
boarding-house. 

Bich (ke.), between ; among. 

Bichali, strazv. 



14<^ MlNDUSliNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Bichhana, to spread. 

Bichhauna, bedding. 

Bigar-jana, to go zvrong ; 
get out of order ; become 
alienated. 

Bih (p.), good, -tar, better^ 
-tarin (p.), the best, -tari, 
improvement, 

Bihisht, heaven, -i, a water- 
carrier. 

Bij, seed. 

Bijli, lightning. V.-hona. 

Bikna, to be sold. {See 
bechna.) 

Bi'V' {Arabic prefix,) in ; on. 
bi-1-faur {on the heat) 
instantly. h\-\-it\ in fact ; 
on the fact ; instantly, bi-1- 
kull, <?« the IV hole ; entirely. 
bi-l-aks, on the contrary. 

Bil, the burrow of an animal. 

Bila {Arabic prep.)., without., 
{i.e. devoid of) 

Billi, a cat. 

Bimar, sick. N-i. 

Biphe, Thursday. 

Birni, a wasp ; a bee. 

Bis, twenty, -i, a score. 

Bitjana {intr.), to pass, (of 
time.) 



Bithana ; bitha-d, to seat. 
Bo,a,i, soivins;. 
Bodna, to coax ; ivheedle. 
Bogla, a crane, (bird.) 
Bojh ; bojha, a load, bojhna, 

to load. 
Bolna, to say ; speak ; tell. 
Bona, to soiv. 
Bora, a sack. 
Bora, a bean. 
Bosah, a kiss. V. -d. 
Brihispat, Thursday. 
Bu (f.), scent ; smell. 
Budh, Wednesday. 
Buddha, old. Also, an old 

man. buddhi ; burhiya, an 

old woman, -pan, old age, 
Biijhna, to understand, bu- 

jhana ; bujha-d, to explain. 

Also, to extinguish a light, 
Bukhar J fever. 
Bukhl, stinginess. 
Buland, lofty. 
Bulbul, a 'bulbui: (bird.) 
Bura, bad. bura,i (n.), evil. 

bura-janna, to consider bad. 
Biirha, bilrhi, burhiya, same 
as ' buddha,' &:c. 
Buta-d, to extinguish a light. 



Pronounce as plain * bil. ' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



141 



Ch. 



Chabi, a key, 
Chabuk, a whip, 
Chabiltrah, a platform ; a 

UhabiUrah,^ generally of 

masonry : used in gardens 

for enjoying the air. 
Chha-chhilndar, a viusk-rat. 
Cl^adar (f), a sheet; table 

cloth, or cover. 
Cba,e, tea. cha-dan, a tea- 
caddy, cha-pochi, a tea pot. 
Chaha, snipe. 

Chaharum, the fourth part. 
Chahiye. Seepage 1^, section 

20. 
Chahna, to wish ; desire. 
Chakar, a servafit. 
Chakki, a wheel. 
Chdl (f.), chal-cbalan, habit ; 

behaviour, 
Chalak, clever ; too clever. — i, 

cleverness ; sharpness ; 

device. 
Cbalan, a despatch nofe ; 

-kar-d, to despatch. 
Cbalana, to set in motion ; 

despatch. 
Chalis, forty. 
Chalna ; chala-jana ; chal-d., 

to go ; proceed ; move off. 

Also of affairs, to prosper. 



Chammach ; chamchah, a 

spoon, 
Cham-gadar, a bat. (animal.) 
Chamra, skin ; leather. 
Ghana, gram, (for horses.) 
Chand, several ; a few. 
Cband, the moon. 
Changul, a claw. 
Chapati, a thin flour-cake ; a 

scone ; a ' chapatty' 
Chapras, a badge.— \^ a mes- 
senger ; a ^ chapras sy,^ 
Char, four-, oblique cases 

charon. — pa,i, a four 

poster ; abed. 
Chara, a seedling. 
Charana {trans.), to graze, 
Charkh, a wheel, 
Charna {inter.), to feed ; 

graze. 
Charhana; chsLrhsi-d., to cause 

to ascend. 
Charhna ; charh-jana, to 

ascend. 
Chashm, an eye, 
Chashmah, spectacles ; a 

spring of water. 
Chata,i, a floor-mat. 
Chatan (f.), a slab of stone, 
Chatna, to lick ; lick-up. 
Chatni, ' chutiiee' 



142 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Chau, four (in compos.), 
chauk, a square i?i a town. 
chauki, a 7vaich-post ; a 
chair, chaukidar, a waich- 
vian. chaukona, four- 
cornered, ch auras, on all 
four sides, chaurastah, a 
place where four roads 
meet., 6^r., cr'r. 

Chaudah, fourteen, -roz, a 
fortnight. 

Chaukath (f.), a doorframe. 

Chaura, /^^^^^. N. -chaura,i. 

Chauri, a fly flicker. 

Chautha, the fourth. 

Chawal, uncooked rice. 

Chela, the disciple of a reli- 
gious teacher. 

Chera, a domestic slave. 

Chhagul, a goat. 

Chhalang, a leap. V. -na. 

Chbanna (trans.)^ to pass 
through a strai?ter. 

Chhapa, printed. V. -k. 

Chhappar .(f.), a roof; a 
thatch. 

Chharra, shot, (for a gun.) 

Chhat, a roof; house-cover- 
ing ; ceiling. 

Chhata, an iwibrella ; a sun- 
shade. 



Chhati, the breast. 

Chhauni, military lines ; 

barracks. 
Chhed, a hole. V. -na. 
Chhekna {trans.), to stop; 

check. 
Chher-chhar, the act of an- 
noying. 
Chhi-chhi (interj.), nasty! 

ugly I 
Chhilka, a shell ; the rind ; 

parings. 
Chhinkna, to sneeze. 
Chhin-lena; to snatch ; rob; 

carry-off. 
Chhipkali, a lizard. 
C hhirakna, to sprinkle. 
Chhitank, a ' chitdk,' -^^ of 

a ' ser.^ 
Chhokra ; chhokri, a boy; 

a girl. 
Cnhorna ; chhor-d. ; chhor- 
jana, to let go ; release ; 
dismiss. 
Chhota, small. N. -chho- 

ta,i. 
Chhiina, to touch; to 

finger. 
Chhuri, a knife. 
Chluitna ; chhilt-jana, to 
escape; slip through the 
fingers. 



I 
I 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



V43 



Chihrah, the face. 

Chikna, oil ; grease ; oiled ; 

polished ; smooth. 
Chil, a kite, (bird.) 
Chillana, to scream. 
Chilam, the part of a native 
pipe (' hukkah ') /;/ which 
the fire and the tobacco are 
placed. 
Chingari, a spark. 
Chingri, shriinps. 
Chini, hroivn sugar. 
Chir ; chira, a cut ; incision ; 

dissection. V. chirna. 
Chiragh, a native lamp. 
Chiriya, a bird. 
Chita, a leopard. 
Chitthi, a letter ; a note. 
Chiz (f.), a thing of any 
kind. 

Chob, a post ; a mace, -dar, 
a mace-bearer. 



Chonch (f.), the bill or beak^ 

(of a bird.) 
Chor, a thief, -ana ; to steal. 

N. -i. 
• Chiiha, a mouse. 
Cliukna. See page \%^ sec. 2'^^. 
Chiilha, a fire-place ; a stove. 
Chumkarna, to coax; wheedle. 
Chiina, lime. 
Chilna, to leak ; drop. 
Chunanchih, in such maiver 
that ; accordingly ; thus ; 
for example: 
Chiinti, an ant. 
Chup, silent, -rahna, to re- 
main or become silent. 
Chdr, dust ; atoms ; crumbs. 
Chiira, dry grain prepared 

for eating. 
Churana ; chura-lena, to steal. 
Chiitar, the buttocks. 
Chiinkih, in as much as, " 



D. 

Daba, loiv ; depressed, daba- 
na ; daba-d., to depress; 
lower; crush doivn ; squeeze. 

Dadni, an advance of money. 

Dafah, a time. See page 65, 
sec. 6. 

Dafn, huriaU V,. -k* 



Daftar ; -khanah, an office- 

room. 
Dagh, a spot ;■ a stain. 
Daghabazi, deception ; fraud. 
Dahanah, a (horse's) bit. 
Dahi (m.),Y^;'^. \1iand. 

Dahine, cn^ or to^ the right- 



144 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Dahshat,/^^r. 

Da,i, a wet-mtrse. 

Dakhan, the South, 

Dal, a kind of pea ; ^ ddl.^ 

-bhat, cooked ^ddV and rice, 
Dalan, a halL 

Dalil, proof, \tnent. 

Dam, breath. Also, a mo- 
Dam, price. 
Dam ad, a son-in-law. 
Daman, a skirt, -i-ko!), the 

base of a mountain. 
Dana, ivise ; learned. 
Danah, graiji ; a grain, 
Danist, wisdom ; knowledge. 
Dand or dan da, a stick ; a 

blow with a stick, 
Dant, or dant, a tooth, 
Dar (p.), in^ as in dar-miyan, 

i7i the midst, dar-pesh, in 

fronts &'c. 
Darakht, a tree. 
Darban, a gate or hall-porter. 
Darbar, an audience-hall ; an 

audience ; a levee; a^darbdr.^ 
Dar-chini, cinnamon, [pain. 
Dard, paifi. -khana, to feel 
Darham-barham, confused. 
Dari, a native carpet; a 

* durry.^ 
Darya, a river ; the sea. 
Darj, mention ; entry, V. -k. 



Darkhast, a petition ; request. 

V. -k. 
Darmri, a mat. 
Darmaha, mo7ithly wages. 
Darobast, the whole of afiy. 

thing. 
Darogh, falsehood, -go, a 

lia r. -g o, i , /^ Isehood. 
Daroghah, a superior police 

officer : a ^ daroga.^ 
Darwazah, a door 
Daryaft, enquiry. V. -k. 
Darzan, a needle. 
Darzi, a tailor. 
Darhi, a beard. 
Das, tefi. 

Dast, the hand ; diarrhcea. 
-an all, a glove, -khatt, a 
signature. 
Dastar (f.), a turban. 
Dastur, what is m stoma ry ; 
the ^ dastoor.^ -i, cuiton-i- 
ary perquisites ; discou?it ; 
' dastoori.^ 
Daulat, ivealth. A. -mand. 
Daurna, to run. 
Dawa (f.), medicine. 
Dawa, or dawi (m.) (^mlg, 
dabi), a claim ; suit, V.-k. 
dawidar, a claimant ; ofie 
who supports any side of a 
question. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 145 



Dawat, a7t invitation ; a 

feast. 
Dawat, an inkstand, -kalam, 

turiting niite rials. 

Degchah, or degchi, a copper- 
cooking pot. 

Dekhna, to see ; look at. 

Dena ; de-d., to give. 

Der, or deri (f.), delay. V. -k. 

Des, or desh, one's country. 

Devi, a goddess, devasthan, 
a co7isecrated place. 

Dhamkana, to snub ; threaten. 
Dhamki, snubbing ; silencing. 

V. -d. 
Dhan, zvealtli. A. -i. 
Dhan, rice growings or in the 

husk. 
Dharam, virtue, -avatar, In- 
carnation of Virtue (a form 

of ad<iress.) 
Dhaunki, bellows, dhaunkna, 

to use bello-ws. 
Dhobi ; dhobin, washerman; 

ivashenvonian. 
Dhona ; dho-d., to ivash, 
Dhiijdn, smoke, -kash, a 

steam-boat. 
Dhiip, sun-shine ; sun-heat. 

Dih(pl. dihat), town; village; 
land appertaining thereto. 

T., H. 



Dikhana ; dikhlana, to show ; 
to point out, 

Dikk, trouble ; annoyance. V. 
-k. 

Dil, the heart. -giv, sad; griev- 
ed, -i-dosti, the heart of 
friendship, -kusha, heart- 
expanding (as wine.) 
-khiish, happy, -o jan se, 
with heart and soul, -se, 
heartily. 

Dilana ; dila-d. \ dilwana ; 
dilwa-d., to cause to give. 

Dimagh, the brain ; conceit ; 
pride. 

Din, a day. -bhar, all day. 

Din, religion, -dar, religious- 
ly inclined. [' dhhigy.^ 

Dingi, a kind of boat ; a 

Dip, a lamp. Also, an island. 

Di-roz (Persian), yesterday. 

Dimak, a white ant. 

Diwar, or di'vval (f.), a wall. 

Diwan, a Minister of State, 
-i, relating to Civil Justice, 

Diyanat, honesty ; good-faith, 
-dar, conscientious, N.-dari, 

Do, two. Also, imperaf. of 
dena, to give, 

Dohar (f.), double-cloth, 

Do-Iatti, a kick.. V. -marna, 
or jharna. ^ 

ic 



146 hindtjstAni as it ou(JHt To Be spoken. 



Dol, swinging, -i, a swinging 
article : e.g., a litter ; a 
hanging meat-safe^ &=€. V. 
-na. 

Donon, both ; i.e., two thin^ 
or persons. 

Dost, a friend, -diwzh, frie ^Id- 
ly, -i, friendship. 

Doyum, the second. 

Dozakh (f.), hell. 

Du,a (f.), benediction. 

Dilb-ghas (f.), a grass much 
Itked by horses. 

Diidh, 7nilk. ~ya pathar, an 
opal [mercy / 

Duba,i (interj.), jicstice I 

Duhra, or dohra, double. V. 
duhrana. 

Diikan (f.), a shop, -dar, a 
shop-keeper, -dari, shop- 
keeping, [dukhit. 

Dukh, pain; distress, A. 



Duldul, a hedge- hog. 

Dum, a tail, -chi, a crupper- 
strap, 

Dunga, a side-dish. 

Dunya (f.), the ivorld ; the 
universe, dunyavi, relat- 
ing to the world, 

Diir (f.), distance; distant. 
diir; dur ho ! be off! -an- 
desh, provident, -andeshi, 
foresight. })in (f.), a tele- 
scope ; a 'glass.' -k., to 
remove ; place at a dis- 
tance. 

Durbal, weak ; infirin, 

Durust, right ; correct, -k., to 
arrange ; put right. 

Dushman, an enemy. -i, 
enmity. 

Dushwar, difficult. 

Dusra, a second (thing) ; a 
different (thing). 



D. 



Dak (f.), a station, Q.g., for 
relief of post-horses, or 
runners ; the post (letters, 
&:c.) -chauki, the change 
ing-station -ghar, the post- 
office, -munshi, the post- 
master, -piyadah, the 
postal runner, "iik^X (E.), 



a postage stamp, -wala, the 
postman, -men dalna, 
rakhna, or dena, to post, 

paka, an attack by robbers. 
-parna, to rob. 

Dakait, a member of a gang 
of robbers ; a 'dacoit,' -i, 
gang-robbery ; * dacoityJ 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



147 



Dal (f.), d branch. [' dolly.' 
Pali, a present of fruit ; a 
Dalna ; dal-d., to throw down. 
Dand, an oar. 

Dank (f.), a sting. V. - marna. 
Dar, fear, -na, to fear, -ana, 

to frighten. 
Dayan, a witch. 

Dera, a tent, -k., /^ encamp. 
I)eyh, ^>'A!^ a^/^ « half ; a 
^ood deal. ^ 



Dhakna, a lid ; a cover. Also 
as V. to put on a cover. 

Dhal (f.), a shield ; a tar- 
get ; a slope. 

Dhela, a clod. 

Dhila, slack. Also, remiss. 

piuindna, to search for. 

pubana ; duba-d., to sub- 
merge ; lower ; depress. 

pLibna ; dub-jana, to sink ; 
be drowned ; be ruined. 



E. 



Ek, one; a or an. -a-ek ; 
-^baragi, suddefily. -dam, 
instantly ; this instant. 
-sath, together. 



Eri, the heeL 
Ewaz, a substitute ; 
change. 



ex- 



F. 



Yij\ddh^ profit ; advantage. 

A. -damand. 
Y2i]x{i.)^dawn; early morning. 
Fakat, only ; ^ finis.'* 
Fakir, a Muham : mendicant. 
Fanils (f ), a lajnp- shade. 
Faraghat, leisure ; repose ; 

prosperity. 
Faramosh, forgetfuL N. -i. 

V, -k. 
Fard (f.), a sheet ; a ply; a 

fold 



L 



Fareb, deceit, -d., to deceive. 

-khana, to be deceived. 
Fark, difference ; consequence^ 

(as in the phrase, ' ifs of 

no consequence.') 
Farman ; an order; edict, -a, 

to issue ditto ; also used of 

any utterance by a person 

of rank, 
Farsh, a carpet, farrash, 

one who attends to the 

carpets. 



14S 



HINDUSTANI AS it OUGHt I'O Efe St^OKfiM. 



Faryad (f.), a complaint, (e.g , 
in Couit.)-i, a complain- 
ant. 

Farzand, a son. 

Fasad, strije ; rebellion. 

Fasl (.) crop, (in the 
fields.) 

F'ath (f.), victory. 

Fatwa, a decree of a judge. 

Fauj (f.), an army, -dar, a 
commander, -dari, relating 
to Criminal Jtistice. 

Faulad, steel. 

Faziil, excessive ; surplus. 
-kharchi, extravagance. 

Y\ C Arabic), each ; ^ per-^ in. 
fil-jumlah, in the total, fil- 
hal, in the present ; imme- 



diately, fil-hakikat,/// truth. 
fil-wake, in reality ; as 
matters really stand, 6-v. 

l4dwi, a servant ; a retainer. 
-yat, fidelity. 

Fihrist, a list; an index. 

Flkr (f.), thought ; anxiety. 
A. -mand. V. -mand- 
hona. 

F^il, an elephant, -ban, an 
elephant-driver, 

Firishtah (pi. -tagan), an 
Angel, 

Firozah, turquois, 

Fisanah, a story; tale ; ro- 
mance, 

Fulanah, a certain one. 
Fur sat, leisure ; opportunity. 



G. 



Gachh, a tree. 

Gaddi, a cushion ; a throne, 

Gadha ; gadhi, a7i ass (male 

and female.) 
Gah, time ; place. Much used 

in compos, e.g., *shikar- 

gah,' hunting ground. 
Gahra, deep, N. gahra,i. 
Gajar, a carrot, gajarab, 

carrots, 
Gil, the cheek. 



Gala, the throat, -band, a 

neck-tie. 
Gali, abuse, V. -d. 
Galis, braces, (for pants.) 
Gana, to sing, 
Ganda, four (things), looked 

on as a unit. 
Gandh (f.), odour ; perfume, 

gandah, fetid, gandi, a 

certai7t badly-smelling iu' 

sect, a ^ gundy, ^ 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



149 



Gandak, a rhhwceros. 

Ganj, a mart. (The ' gunge' 
of Anglo-Hind.) 

Ganja, hemp, as used for 
intoxication. A decoc- 
tion of this plant gives the 
drink known as ' bhang.' 

Ganth, a knot. V. -bana-d. 

Ganvv, a village, ganwar ; 
ganvv-wala, a villager. 

Ga,o, or ga,e, A cow. ga,o- 
salah, a cmv-shed. 

Garaj, thunder. V. -na. 

Gard (f), dust. A. -a. 

Gardan (f ), the neck. 

Garm, warm ; hot. N. -i. 

Garb, a fort ; a steep place. 

Gari, a carriage ; a cart. 
-ban, a driver. 

Garna, to fix in the ground ; 
to plant. 

Gathri {vulg.^ g\\\\x\,) a bundle. 

Gavvah, a witness, -i, evi- 
dence. 

Gaz, a ya7'd (measure.) ; a 
rod ; a ramrod. 

Gehiin, wheat. 

Ghabrana, to be confused \ put 
out ; puzzled. Also trans. 

Gham, sun-shine ; sun-glare. 

Ghanta, a bell ; an hour. 

Gha,o, a sore. 



Ghar, a house. -ami, a 
t hatcher. 

Ghara, an earthen pot. 

Ghari, about 20 minutes : 
Also, an English hour ; a 
watch ; a clock. 

Ghas (f.), grass. 

Gliat, a motmiain-pass ; steps^ 

&^c., down to a river ; a 

ferry, -wal, a guardiafi of 

a pass, -wala, a ferry- 

man. 

Ghati, trade- loss. 

Gher, all round, -k., to sur- 
round. 

Ghi (m.), native butter. 

Ghisarna, to creep ; crawl. 

Ghora, a horse, ghori, a mare. 

Ghulna, to melt {intr.) 
ghulana, to melt {trans.) 

Ghiint, a gulp ; draft. V. -na. 

Ghusna, to enter. 

Gidar, a jackal. 

Gidh, a vulture. 

Gilehri, a squirrel. 

Giran, important ; weighty. 

Girana ; gira-d , to cause to 
fall ; to throw doivn. 

Gird (ke), around ; round. 

Giriftar, ^r giriftah. captive ; 
arrested, -bona, to be in 
arrest, -k., to arrest. 



ISO 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Girja, a churchy otherwise 
*grija ;' probably Portu- 
guese. 

Girna ; gir-parna, to fall. 

Git, a song, 

Go,ala, a cow-herd ; the viilk- 
man, 

Gobar, cow-dung. Much 
used as fuel. 

God ; godi, the lap. 

GOjindah, a spy ; informer. 

Go jar, a centipede, 

Go-kih, let it be said that ; 
given that ; granted ; even 
though, 

Gol, round, gola,^ a gra- 
nary ; a store-house, goli, 
a ball ; a bullet, -mirch 
(round, i.e.) black pepper. 

Gond, gum. 

Gor, a grave. -istan, a 

burial-grotind. 
Gora, fair-complexioned ; a 
European of inferior rank ; 
a European soldier, gore- 
log, Europeans, goron ki 
. paltan, a European regi- 

77ient, 
Gor-khar (an animal, pro- 
bably) the ivild-ass, 

* (Generally built 
^ Not applicable 



Gosh, a7i ear (of the body.) 
Goshah, a corner. 
Gosht,yZ?j//. 

Gram, a village. (L B.) 

Giida, the marrow. 
Giidar, rags ; rubbish, 

Guddi, a {boy's) kite, 

Guft-o-gu (f.), conversation, 

Guhar (f.), tu??iult ; noise; 
outbreak, -i, a rioter. 

Gul, a rose, -ab, rose-water. 
-ab-phill, a rose-bush, or 
rose flowers. -istan, a 
place where roses are culti- 
vated. Also, the name of 
a celebrated Persian book. 
-zar, a garden of roses, 
(lit. or fig.) 

Gulu, same as ^ gala,' 

Gum, lost, -k., to lose, -ho- 
jana, to be lost, -nam, naine- 
less ; obscure ; lost to f ante, 

Guman, guess ; fancy. V. -k. 

Gumashtah, a steward."^ 

Gumbaz, a dome, 

Gunah, a Jault ; sin, -gar, 
a transgressor , -gari, sin- 
ful doing. 

Giinga, silent ; duvib. 



in a circular form, 
to a ship steward, 



HINDtJSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



iSi 



Guroh (f.), a croivd. 
Guru, a Hindu teacher. 
Gustakh, impudent. N. -i. 
Guzarna (trans. )^ to pass ; 



pass-over, guzar-ghat, a 
Jerry. 
Guzashtah, /^5/; /(^5/ (as in 
' last year.') 



convey, guzarna ; guzar- Guzran (f.), mode or means 
jana (intr), to pass ; of livelihood. 



Gh. 



Ghaflat, negligence. 

Ghaib, out of sight ; vanish- 
ed. 4 

Ghair, foreign ; strange ; dif- 
fere7it. As a prefix, wa7it- 
itig, deficient, e.g., ghair- 
hazir, abse?it. ghair-mum- 
kin, impossible. 

Ghalat, error ; oversight. 

Ghalichah, a carpet. 

Ghallah, corn ; produce. 

Ghamm, sorroiv. A. -gin. 

Gharaz (f.), design ; aim ; 
object. As adv., in short. 

Gharib, poor ; humble; tame. 



Ghazi, a slayer of an infidel. 

Ghilaf, covering-slip.^ e.g., a 

' case ' for a pillow. 
Ghiza, ordinary diet. 

Ghol, or ghill, a crowd ; 
pressing, -mal (L. B.), co7i- 
fusion ; a rozv. 

Ghulam, a servant; a slave. 
Ghulel, a bo7a frofn ivhich 

pellets are shot; a ^ cata 

pult: 
Ghurilr, pride. 
Ghussah, grief ; anger. 



Ghusse, in a rage, 
-log, the poor, -parvvar, Ghusl (f.), a bath, -khanah, 
Nourisher of the Poor I a bath-room. Also, the IV, 
(a form of address.) C-k., to bathe. 

H. :a light Aspirate.) 
Haddi, a bone. Hal, or hal, a plough. V. 

Ha,e, alas/ -jotna. 

Haftah, a iveek. Halakat, death, 

Haizah, cholerq, Haldi, turmeric. 



152 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Hal-kamra, a dra7ving-7'oom, 
Halka, light (not heavy.) 
Halkah, an area of jurisdic- 
tion. 
Ham, we ; us. h\^o ^together; 
Much used in compos, e.g., 
ham-rah, ajellow-traveller. 
iiam-rahi, travelling to- 
gether, ham-sayah (satne 
shade); neighbourly ; friend- 

Hameshah, always. 

Han, yes. 

Hangamah, a riot. 

Hankna, to driije. 

Hanri, a pot. -bRrtSLn, cooking 

utensils. 
Hans, a swan. 
Hansi, laughter, hansna, to 

laugh. 
Hansli, an or7iamental hoop 

for the neck. 
Hanoz, yet ; still (of time.) 
Har, each ; every, -ek, each 
. one; everyone, -karah, a 

7nan of all 7Vork ; a mes- 
senger. 
Haran, or hiran, a stag ; a 

deer. 
Harchand, although. 
Harna, to lose (e.g. a bet.) 

hard-d., to lose to one. 



Hath, the hand; a cubit, -ana 
to reach, -dalna, to seize. 

Hatheh*, the palm of the ha?id. 

Hathi, an elephant. 

Hatiyar, tools ; tv capons. 

Hat, a fair. 

Hatana ; hata-d., to drive- 
back ; repel. 

Hatna ; hat-jana, to clear out 
of one's way ; to step aside. 

Hawa (f.), the air. -khan a, 
to take the air ; go a walk, 
drive, ar'c. 

Hazar, a thousand. 

Hezam, firezvo&d. 

Hi (a particle of emphasis, 
often untranslateable), 
very; this verv...; just 
this, c^c. 

Hihah, a formal gift or grant. 

Hiba-namah, a deed of ditto. 

Hijrah, the flight of Muham- 
mad to Mad'ma, A.D.622, 
whence begins the Muham : 
era. 

Hihia, to shake {intr ) ; hila- 
na ; hila-d. (trans.) 

Hindu, a dark-skinned inan. 
-Stan, Upper India.-?>iim 
relaii?ig to Hindu matters^ 
e.g., language. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 1 53 



Hira, a diamond, 

Hona, /^^ be; to occur; to 
take place, ho-jana, to be- 
come, 

Hosh, sense ; ' commo7i sense.'* 



-yar, careful ; prudent ; 
skilled. N. -yari. 

Hunar, skill. A. -mand. 
Hundi, a native Bill of Ex- 
change^ a ' hundee.' 



H. (a strong Aspirate.) 



Hadd, a boundary. 

Haivvan, an animaL 

Hajjam, a barber. 

Hajat, ivant : fiecessity ; re- 
straint, 

Haji, one who has made the 
Pilgrimage to Mecca, 

Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, 

Hakim, a ruler ; a fudge. 

Hakim, a native physician ; 
a wise man. 

Hakir, base : (ontemptible. 
-janna, or .^amajhna, to 
hold in co7itempt ; despise, 

Hakk, one's rights, liakikat, 
the very truth, bakiki, 
7'eally true, bakiki l)ha,i, 
&c., a full brother^ ^J^v. 

Hal, (pi. Halat,) state ; con- 
dition ; facts of the case. 
halan, presently, 

Halaf, an oath, (e.g., in 
Court.) halfan, on oath. 



Halak, the throat. 

Halal, according to law ; 
lawful, -k., to kill ac- 
cording to prescribed form 
(as by cutting the throat) \ 
to cut the throat. 

Halwdji, a S7veet-meat seller. 

Haml,^ a burden, hammal,' 
a porter, hamilah, preg- 
nant. 

Hamlah, an attack ; onset. 

Harakat, a movement^ e.g., of 
the body. 

H'aram, <?rbaram, unlanful; 
forbidden, -zadah, base- 
born ; a sco7ifid?'el. 

Harf, a letter, {of the Alpha- 
bet.) 

Harif, an opponent. 

Hasil, acquiring ; accomplish- 
ment of an '. object ; the 
* moral ' of a story, V. 
-k. 



? Not used in Lower Bengal, 



1 54 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Hasrat, desire ; regret ; grief. 

Hawalah, charore ; responsi- 
bility ; custody. 

Hay a (f.), modesty ; shcune. 

Hazir, present, -i, presence ; 
the family 'presence^ at 
breakfast ; breakfast ' 

Hazrat, dignity ; also as a di 
title of high respect, -isa, 
Jesus. 

Hikayat, history ; story ; nar- 
ration. V. -k. \yice. 
Hikmat, ivisdom ; skill ; de- 
Hilah, a stratagem ; a trick. 



Hisab, all accou7it in figures. 
Hissah, one^s share ; a por- 
tion, -dar, a partner. 

Hudild, bou7idaries (pi. of 
* hadd.) 
Hukni, an order, hukiimat, 

sovereignty ; power. 
Hukkah, a native pipe; a 

' hookah.' 
Hukdk, rights, (pi. of hakk.) 
Huriif, letters of the Alphabet. 
' (pi. of harf.) 
Huzur, presence ; appearance ; 

court ; Your Honour I 



I. 



Iba (f.), a cloak. 

Ibarat, compositioii ; icriting. 

Iblis, the devil. 

Ihtida, the beginning. 

I'd, a religious festival ; espe- 
cially the festival in honour 
of Abraham ^acrificifig his 
son Ishmdil. 

I fids, poverty. 

Ihtimam (f.), diligence ; ?ieces- 

sary application. 
Ihtiram, the act of showing 

respect. 



Ihtiraz, abstinence ; co?itrol of 
the passions. [gratitude. 
Ihsan, benevolence, -mandi, 
Ijarah, a lease ; a far?n. 
Ijazat, permissioji ; favour. 
Ikhatta, together. 
Ikbal, good fortune ; favour. 
Iklim, clime ; country, 
Ikrar, agreement ; confession, 
Ikhtilaf, discrepaticy. (pi. -at ) 
Ikhtiyar, power ; authority ; 

option. 
Ilahi, divine. 



> C'al]pd ' Nashta ' in Wester" In^lirv. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



155 



1 1 ti fat, friendliness, \seeching. 
Iltimas (f.), petitioning ; he- 
Imam, a religious Muham : 

leader, 
Imarat, a public building, 
Imli, tamarind, 
Im-roz (Persian), to-day, 
Im sal (Persian), this year, 
Imtihan, aii exarninatiori, 
Inam, a present ; a favour, 
Indara, a large well, 
Indilr, a rat, 
Inglistan, England, 
\nski, justice, 

Insan, a human being, -iyat, 

humanity, i.e., the human 

race. 

Int (f.), a brick. 

Intikal, transport ; change ; 

death, \inanagement, 

Intizam, good arrange7ne?it ; 

Iradah, intention ; purpose. 

\xdi, purgatory, [page 30. 

I s, inflected form of^Wi, See 

Isfanj, a sponge, 

Islam, the Muham : religion, 
-i, appertaining to ditto, 

Is-liye, on this account. 

Ism, a name, (pi. asami, q.v.) 

Istabal, a stable, 

Istifa, full performafice; resign- 
ing service ; abandonment. 



Istimai, use. V. -k. 
Istibagh, baptism. 
Istimrari, per??iafient ; fixed, 
-band-o-bast, the Perma- 
nent Settlement of Bengal, 
Istri, a smoothing iron, 
Is-wakt, at this tifne ; 7iow, 
Isharah, a hint ; a signal, 
Ishtihar, a public advertise- 
ment, 
Ishwar (H.), God, 
Itiraz, displeasure ; refusal, 
Itna, this much, itne njen, i7i 

the fneantime. 
Itr, essence. (Anglice, * otto') 
Itibar ; itimad, confidence ; 

belief in one. V. -k. 
Ittifak, agreement ; equality ; 
union ; chance, -bona, to 
happen ; to be in agreement. 
-k., to bring into agreements 
to agree with, -an, by 
chance ; it so happened that. 
Ittila (f.), announcement ; 
publication of news ; an 
* information ' lodged before 
a public officer, 
Itwar, Sunday, 

Izhar, deposition ; statement. 
Izzat, honour ; respect due to 

one ; estimation in which 

one is held. 



156 hindtSstXni as it ought to be spoken. 



J- 



Jab, whe7i. -tak, or talak, 

//// whe?i. See page 1 04. 
Jabr, oppressio7i. Adv. jab ran. 
Jabra, the jaw, 
Jadu, conjuring ; a 'ghost,'' 
Ja-e-phal, nutmeg. 
Jagah (f.), a place ; room. 
Jagana ; jaga-d. {trans.), to 

awaken. 
Jagna (intr.\ to wake7i. jagta, 

azvake. 
Jahan, wherever. See page 

104; the universe, -didah. 

{having seen the world) ; 

experienced. 
Jahan nam (f.), Hell. 
Jahil, ignorant, N. -i. 
Jai, victory, 
Ja,i, oats. 

Ja,iz, just ; proper ; fair. 
Jal, water. 
Jal, a net. 
Jal, forged, 
Jain, a cobweb, 

Jalana ; jala-d., to set on fire, 
Jald, quickly, -i, speed. 
Jalna, to be on fire. 
Jama, at, a7i asse7nbly. 
Jamah, cloth. Much used in 

compos, e.g., mom -jamah, 

im:<i-cloth. 



Jama, a collection ; a 
gatheri7ig ; the total of an 
account, -bandi, the rent- 
9 oil of an estate, -kharch, 
a credit and debit account. 
-dar, a native officer of 
ar77iy or police ; a head 
i7ia7i of any body, e.g., 
coolies. -wasil-baki, a 
statement of claims collec- 
tions a7id arrears. 

Jamna ; jam-jana, to co7igeal. 

Jan, life ; soul, -kani, a7iguish 
of soul, -se marna, to kill. 
-nisar, self-sacrificing. 
-war, an ani7nal. 

Jana, to go; proceed, jane- 
dena, to allow to go. 

Janab ; -ah', titles of respect. 
as * Your Worships 

Janam, birth, -din, birth-day. 

Janch, testing; tryi7ig, V. -na. 

Jang (f.), ivar. 

Jangal, forest ; high-grass 
la7id ; scrub ; 'jungle.' A. 
jan^h, ivaste ; tvild ; 
savage ; 'jungly.' 

Jangh, the thigh, -ia, sho7't 
\ we a ring) dra ivers, 

Janna, toknoiv. jan-biijh-kar, 
knowingly ; i7itetitio7ially. 



HINDUSTANI AS it OtJGttt TO BE SPOKEN. i^f 



Jannat, Paradise. 

Janib (f.), ^^'■^^ / /^^/. — dar, 

a partizan, — dari, taking 

one^s side. 
Janiib, the South. 
Jar, a root ; roots, 
Jaraliat, a wound. 
Jarimanah, or jurmanah, a 

fine, V. — lena. 
Jara, the cold; the cold 

weather, 
Jasils, a spy. -i, spyi?ig. 
Jauhar, a gem. -/, a jeweller. 
Jaun. See page 104. 
Jauz, a nut [youth. 

Jawan, youn ^ , a youth, -i, 
Jazirah, an island, 
Jel-khanah, a jail, (half E.) 
Jhagra, a quarrel, V. jha- 

garna ; ~k. 
J h alar, a fringe, 
J ban da, a flag, 
Jhar, ; jhari, underwood, 
Jharan, a duster, 
Jharna, to sweep ; dust, 
J ham, a broom. 
J hat-pat (adv.), this instant, 
Jhil, a shallotv lake ; a 

marsh. 
Jhilmih, the Venetians. 
Jhonk, a push, V.~jhonkna ; 
jhonk-d. 



Jhopri, a cottage, 

Jhukna ; jhuk-jana, to be or 

become awry or crooked. 
Jhiil, a covering for an 

animal ; horse-cloth^ ^'c. 
Jhulana {trans.), to szving, 
jhiilna {intr.), to swing. 
jhiila-jhiili, sivinging ; see- 
saw. 
Jhiith, or jiitha, false ; un- 
true, jhiith, falsehood. 
Ji, life ; soul ; spirit. 
Ji, or\\ ban, yes, 
Jibh (f.), the tongue. 
Jidhar. See page 104. 
Jigar, the vitals ; the liver. 
Jihad, a Muhain : religious 

war, 
Jihat (ki.), on accouut of, 
Jin, oblique case, pi, of jo. 

See page 33. 
Jina, to live ; be alive, 
Jins, kinds ; sorts ; goods ; 

merchandise. 
Jis, oblique case, sing, of jo. 

5^^/^^^ 33. 
Js-kadar. See page 104. jis- 
taraf, in whatever direction, 
jis-tarah, in whatever 
manner, jis-wakt. See page 
T04. 
J ism, the body. 



158 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Jitna, to ivin, 

Jitna. Seepage 104. 

Jo, jo ko,i, jo-kuchh. See 

page II' 

Jo,// 

Jo,ar, Indian corn, 

Jogi ; jogin, a Hindu asectic^ 
{male and female.) 

Jon, zvhen ; as soon as. 

Jonk, a leech. 

Joru, a wife. 

Jori, a pair, -gari, Ihe car- 
riage and pair. 

Jotna, to yoke ; to plough. 



Ka. See page 5. 

Kab, when ? 

Kabab. sliced meat roasted on 
skewers^ -i, suitable for 
roasting. 

Kabhi, ever^ -kabhi, now 

. and then -nahin, never. 

Kachahri, an office ; a court- 
house. 

Kachhila, a tortoise, 

Ka i, some ; several. 

Kaffarat, repentance ; atone- 
ment. \ciency. 

Kafi, enough ; kifayat, suffi- 

Kagh'^iZj paper. 

Kahnu, to say ; speak ; tell. 



Jot, one thing of a pair ; a 

* 7natch / harness ' traces.' 
Ju,a, a yokt ; a die ; dice ; 

gambling. -khelna, to 

gamble. 
Juba, young, jub-raj, a 

prince. 
Juda. separate. V. -k. 
Jiilahah, a weaver. 
Jumah, Friday. 
Jurm, a crime ; offence. 
Jiist-o-ju (f.), search. V. -k. 
Jiita ; jiiti, a shoe ; shoes. 
Juz, « portion of any thing. 

K. 

Kahin, somewhere ; any- 
where ; anyhoiv. As in 
such phrases as ' it were 
anyhow better, &c/ 

Kae, hoiv many J 

Kaisa, what sort of a ? what 
like ? how ? -hi, hozvever. 
As in such phrases as 

* however difficult.^ 
Kaj, crooked, 

Kal, yesterday ; to-morrow. 
Kal, an engine ; a machine, 
Kala, black, kal-yug,* the 
black age ; i.e., the present 
age of the world, -pani, 
the open sea. 



Hindustani as it oUght to Be spoken. 



159 



Kala,i, a kind of vetch. 

Kaleja, lirer. {organ of body). 

Kam, deficient. Much used 
in compos, e.g., kam- 

. di}^^ of deficient seme, kam- 
akli, want of sense, kam- 
bakht, unfortunate, kam- 
sinn, r^ tender age. kam- 
arz, of narroiv breadth. 
-i, deficiency ; failure, kam- 
kar-dena, to lessen. 

Kam, business ; use ; wish ; 
desire -ana, to be service- 
able, -yab, prosperous. 
N.-yabi. 

Kamal, perfection. 

Kaman, an {archer'' s) bow. 
-dar, an archer. 

Kamar, the waist, -band, a 
waist-cloth, 

Kami], perfect, 

Kaminah, base ; low. 

Kammal ; kamli, a blanket, 

Kamra ; kamara, a rao?n, 

Kan, the ear, 

Kan a, blind of one eye. 

Kanghi, a comb. 

Kanta, a thorn ; a spur ; a 
fork. 

Kan d ha, the shoulder. 

Ka})as5 undressed cotton^ 

Kapra, cloth, kapre, clothes. 



Kar, work ; business, kar- 

bar, trade : trafficking. 

-khanah, a place of busi- 

7iess. -igar, a ivorhnan. 
Kar-dekhlana, to make plain ; 

demonstrate. 
Kiiri-bhat, curry and rice. 
Kama, to do ; make ; effect ; 

accomplish. 
Karor, ten millions. 
Karwa, strong (as liquors 

tea^ &~'c.) 
Kasna, to tighten ; pull. 
Kasht, one^s cultivation, -kar, 

a cultivator, 
Katib, a scribe ; a zvriter, 
Kat, a cut, -na ; -dalna, to 

cut, katna, to be cut. 
Kathal, the jack fruit, 
Katora, a brass cup, 
Kattha, a ^ cottah,' {land 

measure. ) 
Kauwa, a crow, 
Ke. See page 5. 
Kela, plantains, 

Khainchna, or khinchna or 
khichna ; to draw (burden 
or picture) ; to pull. 

Khajiir, dates ; -gachh, the 
date-palm. 

Khambha, a post ; a pillar 



160 



iliNDUSTANI AS IT OtlCkt tO BE St^OKEN. 



Khana,^^^; dinner. Also, V. 
to eat. Also, to suffer ; un- 
dergo. 

Khansna, to cough, khansi, 
coughing ; a cough. 

Khari-mitti, chalk 

Kharkhara, rough ; a curry- 
comb. 

Khara, erect ; standing. 
-bona, to be., or become 
standing, -karn-^, to set 
up ; make straight^ -rahna, 
to stand ; remain standing; 
ivait ; stop {intr.) 

Khat, a pit; the gullet. 

Khata • i,)^ fault; defect. 

Khata-bahi, an account book. 

Khat; khatiya, a wooden bed- 
frame, 

Kbatmal, a bug. 

Khel,//^j^. -gah, play-ground, 
-diic']^ frolics, -na, to play. 

Khet, a field, -i, cultivation. 
kheti karna, to cultivate. 

Khilana, to feed, {trans.) 

Khirki, a windotv. 

Khodna, to dig, 

Khoj, search, khojna \ khoj- 
karna, to search for. 

Kholna ; khol-d. to open ; 
unfasten ; untie. khol- 
hsindi, taking off a horse's 



shoes, paring the hoofs ; and 
putting the shoes on again. 

Khona, to lose, kho-jana, 
to be lost ; ^go a missing.' 

Khujlana, to itch ; to scratch. 

Khula, open ; fair (as 
weather.) -din, af/ie day. 
khulna / khul-jana, to be 
or become open ; to clear. 
(e.g., after rain.) 

Khiinti, a peg. (e.g., for a 
tent-rope.) 

Ki. See pages 5 and 22. 

Kih, that (of narration). 
Also, as relative pronoun, 
often preceded by 'jo.' 
' kih na,' or not. 

Kichar, mud. 

Kidhar, ivhither ? 

Kil, a plug; peg; pin ; bolt, 

Kinah, spite ; malice Adj. 
kinawar. \shord ; edge. 

Kinarah, river-bank ; sea- 

Kirani, a native clerk, 

Kira, a wortn ; insect ; mag- 
got. 

Kisan, a cultivator. 

Kishmish, raisins. 

Kishti, a boat ; vessel ; tray, 

Kismis (E.), Christinas, 

Kitab (f.), a book. [much? 

Kitna, how many ? how 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



l6l 



Kiwar (m.), « door ; door-way. 
Kiya-karna, to be in the habit 

of doing a thing ; to keep 

on doing it. 
Ko. Seepages 5 and 7. 
Kobi, cabbage. 
Kochban, a coachman. 
Koh, a Mountain, -i-nilr, 

The Mountain of Light. 
Kohasah, fog ; mist. 
Ko,i. See page 38. ko,i, na 

ko,i, S07ne one or other. 

ko,i, nahin, no one. ko,i 

hai, is there any one there ? 

(used in India instead of a 

bell.) 
KOjilah, charcoal ; coals. 
Kolu, an oilman ; the caste 

of an oilman. 
Kona, a corner or angle. 
Kori, or kiiri, a score, (i.e., 

20.) 
Kora, a native whip. - 
Kos, a distance of about 2 

miles. 
Koshish, an attempt. V. -k. 
Kotali, short in stature, 

&c. 
Kotwal, a chief police officer 

of city, town, or market, 
Kothi, or kdthi, a masonry 

house. 

T., H. 



K\i,a, a well, 

Kubra, hump-backed. 

Kiich, a march. V. -k. 

Kiichah, a la7ie. 

Kuchh. See page 38. kuchh 
se \mc\\\\, from this thing 
to that, kuchh na kuchh, 
S077ie little ; somewhat. 

Kudal, or kudah, a spade. 

Kiid, a leap. V. -na. 

Kuftah, rissole. 

Kull (adj.), the whole; all the. 
-yat, entirely. 

Kulchah, a cake, 

Kumhar, a potter. 

Kumhir, an alligator. 

Kunji, a key. 

Kunwar, a prince. 

Kurah, a globe ; sphere, -i- 
khak, the terrestrial globe. 

Kiira, rubbish. 

Kuredna, to scratch, kured- 
rahna, to continue scratch- 
ing. 

Kursi, a chair. 

Kurti, a coat. 

Kutta, a dog. kutiya, a pup. 

Kya. See page 33. -bat. 
See page 56. 

Kyitn, why ? wherefore .?-kih, 
because, -kar, kow ? kyiln 
na ho, 7i'hy not ? 
II 



i62 hindi^stXni as it ought to be spoken. 



K. 



Kabalah, a deed of sale, 

Kabil, capable ; competent, 
N. -iyat. 

Kabdl or kubiil, consent, 
-iyat, a document express- 
ing consent ; a counterpart, 
kabiil karna, to consent, 

Kabzah, grip ; power, 

Kadam, a step ; pace, V. -k. 

Kadar, worth, -karna, to 
value ; appreciate. 

Kadd, stature, 

Kadim, ancient, 

Kafilah, a caravan. 

Kahwah, coffee. 

Kai, vomiting. 

Kaid, fetters ; imprisonment, 
-karna, to imprison, -i, 
a prisoner, 

Kd,im, erect ; firm ; stable, 

Kaisar,flr« Emperor ; an Em- 
press, -i-Hind. The Em- 
press of India, 

Kainchi, scissors. 

Kala,i, tin ; the tinning of 
cooking vessels, <5^V. 

Kalam, a reed; a pen. 
-tarash, a pen-knife, 

Kamis (f.), a shirt; a chemise. 

Karar, rest ; stability, -i, 
firm ; the firm land, -dad, 



a deed of settlement ; of a 

dispute, or other matter. 
Karib, about, karib tha kih, 

&c., it was on the point 

of &^c, (e.g., beiiig settled,) 
Karz, or karzah, a loan ; a 

debt, karz-dar, one in debt, 
Kasam (f.), an oath, (e.g., 

in Courts) -khana, to take 

the oath, 
Katrah, a drop, 
Katl, killing. V. -k. -amd, 

wilful murder, --insan, 

homicide, 
Kaul-o-karar, agreement ; bar- 
gain ; stipulations. 
Kaum, a tribe ; sect ; family ; 

brotherhood, 
Kawi, strong ; solid, 
Kaza, fate ; destiny ; death, 
Kdzi, a Muham : Judge, 
Kiblah, the sacred point in 

Mecca, to which Muham : 

turn when praying. 
Kilah, a fort. 
Kimat, price, -i, valuable, 
Kana,at, contentment, 
Kism, kind ; sort, 
Kismat, fate ; destiny ; what 

falls to your lot, or share, 
Kissah, a story ; a tale. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



163 



YasX, an instalment ; 'Quar- Kudrsit, omnipotence. 

ier-day.^ -bandi, a settle- Kufl, a lock, (e.g., of a box.) 

ment for periodical pay- Kuli, a labourer ; a * coolie.^ 

ments. Kurah, lots, -dalna, to cast 

Kiyamat, the Resuvrection. lots. 

YAyi% thought ; guess ; ^ idea. ^ Kuran, the religious book of 
V. -k. the Muham : 

Kiyasi, conjectural. Kusiir, a fault. 

Kristan (E.), a Christian. K-dvfSit, power ; authority. 



Kh. 



Khabar (f.), news; -dar, 

careful ; take care ? -dari, 

care ; caution. 
Khachchar, a mule. 
Khafa, angry ; ' huffed.' 

N. -gi. 
Khafif, light ; trivial. 
Khair, well. See page 56. 

Note I. -iyat, welfare. 
Khairat, deeds of charity. 
Khak (f.), earth ; dust. 
Khalal, interruption ; noise. 
Khalas, release ; freedom^ 

free. V. -k. -bona. 
Khalasi, a general out-door 

servant^ who attends to 

tents ^ 6r»r., a ^ Klashy.' 
Khali, empty. Adv. only. 
Khalifab, a fencing master; 

a prince ; a ' caliph.' 
Kh^mosh, silent. N. -i. 



Khan {a title), Khan. Also, 
Khan Bahadur. khan- 
^imin {lord of your pro- 
perty, i.e.), the butler. 

Khanah, a room; a place 
where work is done; or 
things are kept, e.g., lohar- 
khanah, a black-smith' s 
shop, murghi-khanah, a 
hen-house. Much used as 
last word in compos. 

Khandan, a family ; a house- 
hold. 

Khar, a thorn. 

Kharab, bad. N. -i. 

Kharash, scraping ; scratch- 
ing ; a scratch. V. -na. 

Kharbilzah, a melon. 

Kharch, expenditure. 

Kharif, (f.), autumn ; the 
second harvest. 



164 



HINDIJSTiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Khar id, purchasing- 
farokht, buying and selling. 
Kharij, excluded ; cut off. 
-karna, to exclude^ &^c. 
-bona, to be excluded^ 
&^c. 
Kharitah, a purse; a bag ; 
the covering of a letter sent 
in ceremonious style; hence, 
the letter itself, 

Khar-khara, snoring. V. -na. 

Khasam, a husband. 

Khas-khas, a scented grass ^used 
-wetted — 'for door-screens. 

Khass, pure ; noble ; reserved 
to one's self, -kamra, a pri- 
vate sitting-room, -mahal, 
land reserved by Govern- 
ment, -o-am, the * classes 
and the 7nasses.^ 

Khata, fault ; defect. 

Khatam, the end. V. -karna, 
(trans.) -hona, (inir.) 

Khatir (f.), the heart ; the 
soul, -jama^ peace of 
mind, khatir-jama rakhna, 
to preserve peace of mind; 
to feel assured. 

Khatt, a letter ; a note. Plur., 
Khutilt. 

Khatiin (M.), a female title. 

Khauf, J ear ; danger. 



Khazanah, a treasure-house ; 
treasure ; applied also to 
water stored for irrigation. 
khazanchi, a treasurer. 

Khidmat, service, -gar, a ser- 
vant^ especially a table- 
servant. 

Khilal, a tooth-pick. 

Khilat, a dress of honor. 

Khimah, a tent, -gah, en- 
camping-ground. 

Khiraj, tribute ; revenue. 
-lagana, to tax. 

Khiyal, ^ idea ; ' notion ; re- 
collection ; thought. V.-k. 
See page 110. Note 2. 

Khiib, good ; excellent. Also 

as inter;, -siirat, beautiful. 

-siirati, beauty. 
Khud, self; by^ or of him, 

her, its, self ; or themselves, 

-gharaz, self-seeking. 
Khuda, God. khudawand, 

lord; master. See page ^t 

Note 2. 
Khiin, blood ; murder. 
Khurak (f.), food, -i, an 

allowance of food ox money 
Khurshid, the sun {hence 

* Khurshidi Begam. ' See 

i>age 122.) 



1 

n m 



HINDl^'STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



165 



Khusiis, affair ; business.- an, 
especially ; particularly, 

Khush, pleased ; satisfied. 
Much used as first word 
in compos, e.g. -awaz, 
sweet-voiced, -am ad (f.), 
fawning approach ; flat- 
tery, -bu (f.), a sweet- 
smell, -hal, in happy cir- 
cumstances, dil, pleased 
at heart, -go, pleasant of 
speech. -n u m a, nea t ; 
pretty ; pleasant, -taba. 



jocularity, -zaban, honey- 
tongued. N. khushi, plea- 
sure ; satisfaction ; one's 
zvill and pleasure. 

Khushk, dry ; withered, -i, 
drought; the dry land. 
as Adv., by land (not by 
water.) 

Khwab' (f.), a dream; sleep 

Khwah... khwah, either ... 
or ; take it this way^ or 
take it that ivay. 

Khwahish, desire ; wish. 



La, {prefix ^1 destitute of ; e.g., 
• la-jawab, without an an- 
swer ; la-char, helpless. 
-khiraj, rent-free, la-par- 
wdh, ivithout care, la-waris, 
without an heir^ &^c. 

Lab, a lip, lab-a-lab, brimful. 

Labadah, a cloak. 

Lad (f.), a load. -lia, to load. 
ladna, to be ladened, 

Lagam (f.), a bridle. 

Lagan a ; laga-dena, to apply 
one thing to another; to 
cause to touch ; to moor^ ct'c. 



Lagna ; lag-jana, {intr.) to 

touch; meet; fit. lagna, 

means also to begin. 
Lahsan, garlic, -iya, cafseye. 
Lahzah, a second {of time.) 
La,ik, suitable ; fit ; capable. 
Laimiin, a lemon ; more 

commonly called * lemu.^ 
Lajana, to be ashamed ; to 

blush ; to put to shame. 
Lajja, shame ; 7nodesty. 
Lakh, 100,000. (In India, 

printed * T,co,ooo.') Also, 

sealing-wax. 



^ When a * w ' follows a consonant it is to be very faintly sounded. 
The letter has been omitted in some words, where it has practically 
ceased to affect the pronunciation. 



1 66 



HINDl5sTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Lakri, wood; firewood; a 
walking stick ; any kind of 
{playing) bat or stick. 

Lakshah, lac. 

Lai, red. -kaghaz, blotting- 
paper. 

Lalach (f.), avarice. Adj. 
lalchi. 

Lamba, long ; tall. 

Lana, or le-ana, to bring. 

Langa, naked. 

Langar, an anchor. 

Langra, lame^ N. langra,i. 

Lapakna, to flash ; rush ; 
pounce up. 

Lapetna, to roll-up. 

Larzah, trembling ; the ague. 
V. larazna. 

Lara,i, quarrel ; battle. V. 
-karna ; larna. 

Larka, a boy. larki, a girl. 

Larakpan, childhood. 

Lashkar (f.), an army. 

Lat, a kick. V. -marna. 

Latif, fine; subtle, laiifah, 
a witticis?n ; a joke. 

Lathi, a cudgel ; a heavy stick. 
lathial, a club-man. 

Latkana ; latka-dena, to hang- 
up ; to suspend. 

Lau, a flame. 

Lazim, proper ; fitting. 



Lazza, a bright flame. 

Le,i, paste ; batter. 

Le-jana, to take aivay. 

Lekha, a writing, -bahi, a 
writing-book; an account- 
book. 

Lekin, but ; stilU 

Lemu, a lemon. 

Lena ; le-lena, to take ; accept. 

'L^y^^ plaster, (for walls, &c.) 

Letna, to lie down ; to rest. 

Lichi, or lichu {a frmt\ 
leechee. 

Lifafah, an envelope. 

L'illah (Arabic), fi)r the sake 
of God. 

Likhna ; likh-dena, to write. 
likhana ; likha-dena, to 
cause to be written, likh- 
wana ; likwa-dena, to cause 
to be written by a third per- 
son, likh-lena, to take 
down in writing. 

Lipna, to plaster, lipna, to be 
plastered, lipt, plastered. 

Liyakat, ability. 

Liye (ke.),/?r the sake of. 

Log, people. 

Loha, iron, lobar, a black- 
smith, -band, iron-bound. 
Lohu, blood. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



167 



Lomri, a fox. Lughat, a dictionary. 

Lota, a native brass-pot ; a Lutf, courtesy, 

' lota' Liit, robbery ; * loot,' -na ; 

Lotna, to wallow, liit-lena, to rob. lutna, to 

Lilban, incense. ' be robbed. 



M. 



Ma, a mother. 

Maaldm, evident; k7iown. 

Maani, meaning ; drift. 

Maamill, the custom ; what is 
customary.-i, in accordance 
with routine. 

Maazdl, deposed ; discharged 
from office ; dismissed. 

Ma-bada, (Persian.) may it 
not be ! God forbid, 

Mi-bAp, parents ; a benefactor, 

Mablagh, a su?n of money, 

Machan, a raised platform. 

Machchhar, a musquito, 

Machhli, fish. 

Mad ad (f.), help.-^gir, help- 
ing ; a help-mate. V.-d. 

Madah, female ; a female. 

Maddah, any 7n alter ; affair, 

Madh, honey, 

Madiyan, a mare. 

Madrasah, a Muham ; college, 

Magar, but. Also, a croco- 
dile, 

Magas(f.), a fly. 



M.2igX2i, cross ; ^grumpy,' 

Maghrib, the West. 

Maghrilr, proud. N.-i. 

Maghz, the brain ; pride ; a 
kernal. 

Mdh, the moon ; a month. 

Maha, (in compos.) great. 
Hence, Maharaja ; Maha- 
rani (titles.) maha-na<idi, 
the great river, maha-jan, 
{the great person^ a money- 
lender ; a banker ; a mer- 
chant. -\2i\\\^ the business of 
a * mahdjan.' 

Mahabat, awe ; majesty, 

Mahant, a Hindu priest, 

Mahawat {vulg. mahout), an 
elephant-driver. 

Mahi, a fish. 

Mahinah, a month, 

Mahnga, high-priced. 

Mahton, a village headman, 

Mahabbat, love ; friendship. 

Mahall, a section of a house »* 
a storey. 



1 68 HINDlJSTiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Mahall, (plur. of niahall and 
of mahallah) streets ; sec- 
tions of towns ^ Q^c; land, or 
other sources of revenue re- 
served to Government, a 
' mehal.' See ' Khass.' 

Mahallah, a ward of a town. 

Mahbiib, a loved one. -Adj. 
-ah. -i, amiability ; sweet- 
ness. 

Mahbiis, imprisoned. 

Mahsiil, a tax ; duty ; postage. 

Mahz, pure. Adv. merely, 

Ma,i, (Arabic prep.), along 
with. 

Msiidaj ^our. 

Maidan, a plain ; a ' maidan.^ 

Maila, dirty. 

Main, /. 

Maina, (bird.) a * maina.^ 

Majara, the circumstances 
which occurred. 

Majbiir, forced ; constrained. 
N.-i. 

Majlis (f.), an assembly ; con- 
ference, 

Majma, an assembly,-\^\\ki 
kaniin, an unlawful assem- 
bly. 

Makdn, a dwelling ; a place ; 
a house. 

Makkhan, butter. 



Makkhi, a fly. 

Makra, a spider. 

Makam, a dwellitig-place ; 
resting-place ; lodging; halt- 
ing-ground. 

Makdiir, within the limits of 
possibility ; power, -bhar, 
to the full extent of possi- 
bility. 

Mai, goods ; property ; mer- 
chandize. m2X-o-vc\2X2i, goods 
and effects, mal-guzar, a 
rent-payer ; a tenant, mal- 
guzari, the paying of rent ; 
rent, malik, a master ; 
owner ; lord, nialik-ana, a 
payment made to an owner 
out of possession, mal- 
khanah, a store-house. 
maliyat, wealth. 

Maldji, cream. 

Malak, an Angel. 

Mali, a gardener. 

Malik, a King ; a Chief -2^, 
a Queen. 

Malish, rubbing. V.-k. 

Mal-mal, muslin. 

Main a, to rub ; to chafe. 

Mamu, a maternal uncle. 

Man, the mind ; intention. 

Man, a * maund.^ = about 
80 lbs. 



hindtSstAni as it ought to be spoken. 



169 



Manadi, a proclamation, 

Manda, tired. N. mandagi. 

Mangal, Tuesday, 

Mangna ; mang-lena, to ask 
for ; want, mangwana ; 
mangwa-dena, to procure. 
mang-lena, to borrow. 

Mani, a hindrance ; obstacle. 

Manind (f.), resemblance. As 
prep, (with 'ki '), like ; as. 

Manjan, tooth-powder^ or 
paste. 

Manna, to obey ; respect ; 
allow ; confide in ; believe ; 
hold as ; attend to. 

Manzil (f.), a stage of a jour- 
ney. 

Manziir, approved ; permitted. 

Map, the measure of a thing. 
-na, to measure. 

Mar, beating, mara-inari, i^iu- 
tual assault, mar-pit, an 
assault. V. marna, {which 
?neans also to kill), mar-d., 
to beat, mar-dalna, to kill. 

Marammat, repairing ; re- 
pairs. V. -k. 

Mare (ke.), by reason of. 

Mard, a man ; a husband. 
--anah, brave. -nagi, 
bravery ; manliness. 

Marifat (ki.), by the agency of. 



Marhiim, one who has found 
the mercy of death ; the 
deceased ; * the late? 

Marna \ mar-jana, to die. 

Martabah, step ^ degree; rank. 

Martol, or martaul, a ham- 
mer, 

Marzi, wish; will; ^plea- 
sure. 

Masahri, musquito-curtains, 

Masalah, spices ; solder. 

Masiha, The Messiah. 

Masjid (f.), a mosque. 

Maskharah, a jester, 

Masalan, for example. 

Masnad (f.), the throne. 

Mast, lustful ; drunk, N. -i. 

Mastisa, a half-caste. 

Mastiil, a mast. 

Mashal, a torch, -chi, a torch- 
bearer ; a scullion, 

Mashghiil, busy ; occupied. 

Mashhilr, celebrated ; well- 
known, 

Mashk (f.), (vulg, mashak), 
the leather bag used by the 
* bihishti^ ' for carrying 
water. 

Mashrik, the East, 

Mat, not^ (with the imper. 
mood.) 

Matlab, intention; meaning 



1 70 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Matrdkah, property ; especi- 
ally as left by a deceased 

person, 
Matwala, a drunkard. 
Math, a Hindu temple. 
Matar, peas, 
Mauj (f.), a wave. 
Maujiid, present ; at hand. 
Maukiif, postponed ; put off ; 

stopped, (as an allowance.) 
Maulavi, a Muham : learned 

man ; a * Moulvi.^ 
Mausam, (^rmausim,*? season 

of the year ; weather, 
Mausiif, afore-said. 
Maut (f.), death. 
Mauza, a parish ; the village 

and the village lands. 
Mazah, taste ; flavour. 
Mdizh'Cit^ firm ; solid. N.-i. 
Mazdiir, a daily labourer, -i, 

his daily pay ; the work of 

a labourer. 
Mazhab, religion, 
Mazkilr, afore-said, 
Mazmilm, sense ; meaning; 

the contents of a book. 
Mekh (f.), a peg, (e. g., for a 

tent ;) a nail. 
Mela, a fair ; a ' r7iela, ' 
Men, in ; into. 
Mez (f.), a table. 



Ml, ad, the period allowed jar 
doing anything, -i, limited 
to a specified time. 

Midah, the stomach. 

MS}s\\w,fine in texture; subtle. 

Mihman, a guest, -dar, a 
host, -dari, hospitality. 

Mihrban, kind ; condescend- 
i7ig. N. -i. 

Mihnat, labour, -i, laborious. 
-anah, ivages. 

Mihtar, or mehtar, a sweeper. 
If female., mihtrani. 

Milki, a landowner ; often 
used for milkiyat, landed 
property held in one's own 
right. 

Milna, as 3rd personal verb,. 
See page 50 ; as fully per- 
sonal verb, to be mixed up,. 
or associated with, milana ; 
mila-dena, {trans.) to mix; 
adjust ; fit ; match a pat- 
tern, and the like, mili- 
juli, on the best of terms. 

Minar, a minaret. 

Mir, a Muhafn. title. 

Mirch, or mircha, pepper. 

Mirgi, epilepsy. 

Mirza, a Muham. title. 

Miskin, poor ; humble, 

Misl (f.), a file of papers. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



171 



Misr, Egypt, misri, Egyptian, 
hence applied to crystallis- 
ed sugar^ as coming from 
Egypt. 

Mi star J a guide for writing 
straight by ; a ruler. 

Mistiri, or mistri, (supposed 
by some to be the English 
' mister'') a head workman ; 
a worhna?!. 

Mitha, sweet, -pani, lemon- 
ade. mitha,i, sweet-meats. 

Mitt ha, a kiss ;^ sweet. 

Mitti, earth. 

Miyan, a ivord of respectful 
or friendly address, or 
refereitce to one. 

Mizaj, temperament ; health. 

Mizan (f.), a balance ; scales. 

Mlecha, afi unclean person, 
i.e., a?iy one not a Hindu. 

Mochi, a cobbler ; a currier. 

Modi, a grain- shop-keeper ; a 
grocer. 

Mohr, or mor, a peacock. 

Vi(j\ purchasing. V, -lena. 

Mom, wax. -batti, a ze/^jc- 
candle.-YSLU^B.nj polishing- 
paste ; varnish ; grease, 
-i, waxen. 



Morha, a footstool, 

Moti (m.), a pearl. 

Mota,ya// coarse. N. -i. 

Moze, boots ; used also for 
stockings ; socks. 

M\i,ii, forgiven. V. -k. N. -i. 

Mu,afik (ke.), conformably to. 

Mu,aiyan, fixed ; stationed. 

Mu,amalah, any affair ; busi- 
ness, 

Mu,azzaz. honoured; esteemed. 

Mubarak, happy ; fortunate. 
-bad (Persian, * may it be 
fortunate^) congratulations ; 
compliments; ^blessing.'' 
-badi, the act of congratu- 
lating, d^c. 

Mublagh, or mablagh, a sum 
of money. 

Mdchh (f.), fnustachios. 

Mudda,a-alaih, {plur. mud- 
da,a-alaihim), a defendant 
in a suit. 

Mudakhalat, entry on land, 
&^c, 

Mudda,i, a plaintiff in a suit. 

Muddat, time ; space. 

Mufassil, in detail ; the coun- 
ties in contrast with the 
metropolis. 



* Ayahs use the corrupted English, *Kissi.' 



172 HINDlJSTiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Mufi'is, Jfoor ; wretched, N. -i. 

Muft, gratis. 

Mufti, a Muham : law-officer, 

Mughal, a ' Mogul' 

Muhr (f.), a seal ; an obsolete 
gold coin, 

Muhri, a drain. 

Muhafiz, a defender ; a re- 
cord-keeper, 

Muh2insim, forbidden ; sacred. 
The first month of the 
Muham : year, * The 
muharram 'festival. 

Mukabalah, the comparing of 
e. g., draft with fair copy ; 
attack; onset ^ V. -k. 

Mukarrar, fixed ; enduring. 
-i, a fixed land tenure, 
-idar, the holder of such, 

Mukhalif, disagreeing ; con- 
flicting ; an opponent, 
-at, variance ; discrepancy ; 
plur. mu khalifat. 

Mukhtar, exalted ; an attor- 
ney. 

Mulahazah, viewing ; inspec- 
tion, V. -k. 

Mala,i, cream, 

Mula,im, soft ; tender. 

Mulakat, a visit. V. -k. 

Mulazim, a servant. 

Miili, radish. 



Mulk (Anglo-Hind., moo- 
look), a country, 

Mulla, a Muham : laivyer or 
doctor, 

Multavi, put off ; adjourned. 

M u m ki n, possible. 

Munasib, suitable; right; 
proper, 

Munh, the mouth ; the face. 

Munib, a patron ; a master. 

Munshi, a Muham : teacher 
of languages ; a writer ; 
a head-clerk, 

Murabba, pickled ; pre- 
served ; jam. 

Murabbi, a teacher ; director ; 
guardian, 

Murad (f.), wish ; intention. 

Murattab, arranged ; put in 
order ; prepared, 

Murdah, dead ; a corpse. 

Murdar, polluted ; carrion. 

Murgh, a cock, murghi, a 
hen, murgh-abi, water- 
fowl, miirghi-khanahj a 
hen-house, 

Musafir, a traveller, 

Musawwir, a painter ; a sculp- 
tor, 

Musalman ; muslim, a Mu- 
salman, fern. -i. 

Musibat, adversity. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



173 



Miisiki, 7nusic. 

Mushkil, difficult, -at, diffi- 

culty ; difficulties. 
Musht, the fist. 
Mushwarah, consultation, 
Muta^aiy an, posted /fixed. 
Muta,ammil, meditative. 
Muta.assib, biootted. 



Mutawalli, a guardian of a 

mosque, d^c. 
Mutlak, or matlak, 'at all,' 

e.g., mutlak nabin, not at 

all. 
Mutthi, the fist ; a handful. 
Muyassar, available ; ready 

to hand. 



Mutahik (ke, ), according Muza,ikah, importance, e.g., 

to. 'kuchh muza,ikah nahin, 

Mutafarrik, miscellaneous. ifs of no consequence. 

Mutarjim, a translator. . Milzi, importunate ; trouble- 

Mutasaddi, an accountant. some ; vexatious. 



N. 



Na, no ; not. Much used as 
prefix, -dani. want of wis- 
dom, -durust, not right ; 
out of order ; i?icorrect. 
-ihsaninandi, ingratitude. 
-kis, worthless, -kis-ul-akl, 
of no mental calibre. -\^<iXi- 
(blood.) the nail of man or 
animals. -maalilm, un- 
known, -pasand, disagree- 
able ; not approved, -rast, 
unjust ; unrighteous, takat, 
without strength, -wakif, 
uninformed, -yih, -wuh, 
neither this nor that. 

Nabz (f.), the pulse, -dekhna, 
to feel the pulse. 



Nach (/), a native dance. V. 

-na, or -k. 
Nadamat, repentance. 
Naddi, a river. 
Nafa, profit. 

Nafs, the soul ; the spirit. 
Nag, a snake. 
Nagah, suddenly. 
Nagar (as last part of word 

e.g., Ahmad -nagar), a city ; 

a town. 
Nahana (intr.), to bathe. 
Nahr (f.), a canal. 
Nahi, no I not so I you^re 

not to do that, 
Nahin, not. -to, if not then ; 

otherwise. 



174 



HINI^USTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Na,ib, a deputy ; an agent; 
a subordinate^ e.g., -gum- 
ashtah, an under steward. 
-patwari, a subordinate 
^patwdrP (i.e., collector of 
rents.) 

Najib, noble. 

Nak (f.), the no^e. 

Nakl (f.), a story ; a copy. 
-navis, a copyist. 

Nakshah, a drawing; a 
model ; a design ; a map ; 
a plan ; a chart. 

Nal, a horse-shoe, -bandi, 
shoeing a horse. V. -ban- 
di-k. -kholna, to take off 
the shoes, 

Nala, a ditch ; a * nullah.'' 

Nalan, wailing. 

Nalish, a compfaint {of 
wrong.) 

Nam,« name ; fame ; charac- 
ter, -burdah; the above- 
named. — war, famous. 

Namah (as last part of word), 
a writings e.g., hibah- 
namah, a deed of gift. 

Namak {vulg. nimak,) salt. 
-dan, a salt-cellar, -ka 
chammach, a salt-sroon. 

Nan az (f.), prayer. V^ 
-pari^na. 



Namdah, a coarse 7voollen 
covering ; a pad, used as 
under saddle-cloth, &^c. 

Namiinah, a pattern; a 
sample. 

Nana, a mother* s father. 

Na,o (f.), a boat ; a ship. 

Nap (f.), same as Map. q.v. 

Nap it, a barber. 

Nar, a male ; male. 

Narikel, ^rnariyal,^ cocoanut. 

Narangi, an orange. 

Narni, 5^// (lit. and fig.). N.-i. 

Nas (f.), a vein ; a sinew. 

^2i?>\h,goodfortune ; lot in life. 

Nasihat, advice ; good counsel. 
V. -k. and -d. 

Nasr, an eagle. 

Nashah, intoxication. 

Nashpati, a pear. 

Nashtah breakfast. 

Nashtar (f.), a lancet. 

Natthi, an official string or 
file of papers. 

Ndti, a daughter's son. 

Natijah, the necessary result 
(e.g., of an argument) ; up- 
shot ; end of the matter. 

Nau, younf[ ; new ; fresh. 
-jawan, a youth, -jawani, 
youth, -roz, Neiv Year's 
Day. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



175 



Naubat, time ; tur?i. 

Naukar, a servant, -log, the 
servants, -i, service. 

Nawah, district ; neighbour- 
hood. 

Nawwab, or Niiwab, (pi. of 
Na,ib.) {Anglice, * Nabob/) 
a viceroy ; a governor ; a 
Nawdb, 

Naya, new. 

Nazamat, the criminal de- 
partment of Government. 
-adalat, the criminal court 
of a judge. 

Nazar (f.), a look, -k, to take 
a look ; cast an eye upon. 

Nazim, a governor. 

Nazir, a superintendent ; (es- 
pecially) a sheriff or head 
bailiff, nazarat, the depart- 
ment superintended by such. 

Nazdik (Adj.) near; neigh- 
bouring. Also as prep, 
with (ke.) -i, neighbour- 
hood. 

Nazr, an offering from an 
inferior to a s74perior ; a 
* nuzzur.^ 

Ne. See page 5. Also page 19, 
section 25. 

Nek, good ; of good repute. 
N. -rxi-m y and -x\im\. 



Nibedan, prayer, e.g., for 
redress. 

Nicha (adj.). low; under. 
-k., to lower, niche (ke), 
below. 

Nigah (f.), look; regard. 
-rakhna, to watch one. 
-bani, custody ; charge. 

Niimatj/f^y/ delight. 

Niha,y3.t, the extremity. Adv. 
extremely. 

Nikalna ; nikal-jana, to go 
out ; get out. 

Nikalna; nikal-d., to put 
out ; turn out, (e.g.. from 
one's presence), nikal-lena, 
to extract. 

Nikah, marriage. V. -k. 

Nil; nila, blue; tndigo. nil- 
ga,o, {blue cow) (an ani- 
mal), a ' neel-gai^ nil-kothi, 
an indigo-factory, nil-kothi 
k a sahi b, an Indigo Planter. 

Nilam, an auction -k., to 
sell by auction. 

Nim, half ; Also, a kind of 
tree; a ^ Ne em-tree.^ -roz, 
midday. 

Nind, sleep. V. -lena. A. -i. 

Nir, a prefix, ///^^ ^ un'in 
English. 

Nirauni, weeding. V. -k. 



176 



HINDl5sTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Nirkh {vulg. nirrik), the 
market-rate. 

Nisar, largesse ; donation ; 
sacrifice of one* s self. V. -k. 

Nisbat, the relation of one 
thing to another^ is ki nis- 
bat, in compariso7i with this. 

Nisf, the half ; half (n. a.) 

Nishan ; nishanah, a mark ; 
a signal. 

Niwar, cotton-belting ; obstruc- 
tion, 

Niyat, intention ; aim. 

Ylizdim^ good arrangement ; a 
governor ; * The Nizam,' 
(e.g., of Haidarabad.) 



Nok (f.), a beak ; an end; 

a point. 
Nona, or niina (adj.), salt, 

-pani, salt-water. 
Nujiim, astrology, -i, the 

art of ditto. Also, an 

astrologer, 
Nuksan, loss ; injury, -pahun- 

chann, to cause ditto. 
Numa,ish, appearance ; show ; 

from. 
Niir, light ; brightness. Hence 

' Koh-i-nilr,' The Mountain 

of Light. 
Nuskhah, a recipe ; a medical 
prescription. 



O. 



O (Persian), and. 
Ojha, a wizard ; a magician. 
Ola-pira, cholera. 
Olti, eaves. 

Orhna, to put o?t clothes ; to 
cover one^s self up. as N. <? 



covering-cloth,^. g. , a blanket. 
Os, dew. 

Osarah, a verandah. 
Ot, shade ; protection, -k., to 

protect; conceal, -bona, 

to lie concealed. 



P. 

Pa% a leg ; a foot, -e-jamah, foot-stool, -posh, a slipper, 
sleeping drawers, -e-kha- pai-dal, on foot. 
nah, a privy, -o-dan, a Pachchham, the West. 



^ Takes many forms, as pa,e, pa,i, panw, pa,o ; paya, PI. pa,on. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



'77 



Padshah, a kbig. -i, sove- 
reignty ; a kingdom. 

Padri,^ minister; a priest. 

Pag, a foot, -dandi, a foot- 
path -dandi-lena, to track, 

Pagal, a fool ; a lunatic, 'a 
po^gle.'' -khanah, a lunatic 
asylum. 

Pagri, a turban. See page 95. 

Pahalwan, a wrestler; a 
swash-buckler. 

Pahar. See page 67. Sect. 3. 

Paiiar, a mountain. 

Pahchanna. to recognize; to 
know one. 

Pahinna, to put on clothes. 

Pahiya (m.), a ivheeL 

Pahunchna, to arrive, pahun- 
chana ; pahuncha-d., to 
escort ; cause to arrive. 

Pai, a '//V,' i\ of an ^dnah.^ 

Paida, born, -hona, to be 
born, -ish, birth, -war, 
produce ; ^ yield. ^ 

Paigham, a inessage ; evangel. 
-ghambar, a messenger ; 
an apostle ; especially Mu- 
hammad. 

PaiWa, or pahle, first ; the 
first ; in J he first place. 



Paik, a runner ; a messenger. 

Paiinan, a promise. 

Pai ma, ish, measurement of 
land. V. -k. 

Pairna, to swim, pairak, a 
swimmer. 

Paisa, a coin, = 3 \pdi' 
paise, money ; ^change. ^ 

Paithna, to enter. 

Paji, contemptible ; mean. 

Pak ; pakizah, clean ; pure. 
N. -i ; -izagi. 

Pakarna, to seize ; to catch. 
pakar-le-jdna, to seize and 
carry off. 

Pakka, also, pukhtah, ripe ; 
cooked ; thorough ; done in 
the best manner ; e.g , pak- 
ka lasta, a metalled road. 
The converse word is 
' kachcha.' The ^pucca^ and 
'catcha" of Anglo- Hind. 

Pakana {trans. \ to cook. 
pakna {intr.), to cook ; to 
groiv ripe, pakwana, to 
cause to be cooked. 

Pakhdl, a large bag for 
water carried in pairs on 
bullocks. 

Palak(f.), the eye-lid. 



^ Not Hindustani. 



T., H. 



■78 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Palang, a bed. 

Pal as, the cotton-tree. Hence 
' Plassey.' 

Palki, a palanquin ; a ^palki^^ 
-waia, a palki-carrier. 

Pain a, to rear ;. bring-up ; 
cherish, palna, to be rear- 
ed, &^c. palak, o?ie who 
rears, brings up, S-'c. 

Paltan (f.), a regiment. 

Pan, betel {chewed by natives.) 

Pan a, to get ; obtain. 

Panah (f.), shelter; protec- 
tion. Used as form of ad- 
dress, e.g., jahan-panah ! 
Protector of the Universe! 

Panch, five, panchayat, a 
village-council <?/" (nominal- 
ly) five members, panch, a 
member of the village-council, 

VsLudrah, fifteen. 

Pandit, a learned Hindu. 

Pani (m.), ivater ; rain. ~h., 
to rain. 

Panir (f.), cheese. 

Panj, (Persian,) five, -ab, 
{the 5 waters) The ^ Pun- 
jaub.' -ah, a claw. 

Panjar, the side {of the body). 

Panjari, a rib, 

Pankha, a fan ; a ^punkha.' 
-wala, a punkha-puller. 



Panna, an emerald. 

Panseri, a measure, or weight 
of 5 * sers.' 

Pa,o, a quarter : one-fourth. 

Pap, sin. 

Par, on ; upon, at. As parti- 
cle, still ; for all that. As 
N. a feather. 

Par (ke.), over ; across. V.-k , 
to cross.-\\ov\'3i, to be across, 
(e. g., a river.) As N. a 
shore ; a bank. 

Parb, a religious holiday. 

Parchah, a fragment ; a scrap. 

Pardah, a curtain ; curtains. 
-nishin, remaining behind 
the curtain ; (applied to 
ladies who do not go out.) 

Pardeshi, foreign. 

Pareshan, distressed ; vexed ; 
worried. N. -i. 

l^arganah, a local division ;■ 
a ^purgunnah.' 

Parhez, (f ), abstinence ; 
moderation 

Pari-roz, (Persian,) next-day. 

Paros, neighbourhood. ~i, a 
neighbour. 

Parson, the day after to- 
morrow ; the day before 
yesterday. See page 69. 

Parwah, matter ; consequence. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



179 



Parwanah, a written order 
from one in authority. 

Parwar, a patron^ as in 
* gharib-parwar !' Patron 
of the Poor ! 

Parwasti, cherishing ; supply- 
ing means of livelihood. V.-k. 

Para, a quarter of a town ; 
a beat, -wala, a watchman 
of ditto. 

Parhana, to teach. 

Parhna, to read ; to learn. 

Parna, to fall : be down. (e.g. 
with sickness.) para, down ; 
fallen. 

Parti, land * resting ' / waste- 
land. 

Pas, then ; therefore ; conse- 
quently ; SO. 

Pas (ke.), beside, near, or 
by one. -ana, or jana, to 
go near, or up to. 

Visbin, a patrol, -i, patrolling, 

Pase, dice. 

Pasinah, perspiration. 

Pash-pash, smashed ; in mor- 
sels, -ho-jana, to be 
smashed ; to go to pieces. 

Pasheman, repentant. 

Pashm (f.), wool. 

Pata, signs ; indications ; 
traces ; a persorHs address. 



Patthar, a stone ; hail, -ka 
kojila, coals. 

Patla, thin ; meagre. 

Pattar, a leaf. 

Pat, a ^breadth' of cloth; 
a flap ; a board. Also, 
tow. 

Patakna ; patak-d., to dash 
against ; to throw to the 
ground. 

Patana, to irrigate. 

Patna, a district, and also a 
city in Lower Bengal; 
' Patna: 

Patpat, the sound of beating ; 
beating, 

Patta, a deed of lease. 

Patti, a plaster ; a bandage. 
Also, a demarcated section 
of land. 

Patwari, a village rent-collector. 

Patel, beating ; a village mag- 
nate so called. 

Paune. See pages 64 and 67. , 

Pauti, a small basket, 

Pech, a twist ; a turn, -dar, 
twisted, -kash, a screw- 
driver, -tab, restlessness; 
* the fidgets: -ish, contor- 
tion ; stomach-ache, V. -na. 

Peru, a turkey. 

Per, a tree. 



I So 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Pesh, in front ; facing, -ab, 
urine, -ah, one^s trade ; 
business, -ani, the fore- 
head, -gi, an advance of 
money, -kar, a clerk who 
lays business before his supe- 
rior, -tar, formerly ; at an 
earlier time V.-k , to bring 
forward any matter for at- 
tention ; to place before one. 

Peshwa, a Mahratta Minis- 
ter ; ' The Peishwa ; ' a 
guide. 

Pet, the belly, -i, a waist- 
band, also, a trunk ; a box, 

Phailana {trans.) phailna, 
{intr,) to spread abroad, 
(as news, 6rc.) 

Phal, fruit, (lit. and fig.) 
-dar, fruitful, 

Phank (f.), a slice ; a ' cut: 

Phansi, a loop ; noose, -d., to 
execute b\ hanging. 

PhaphsH, blvivn-out ; s7vollen. 

Phaphola, a blister ; dil ka-, 
soreness of mind, 

Pharsa, an axe. 

Pharna ; phar-d , (trans.) 
to Tear, phara hii,a, torn, 

Phatak, an outer-gate. 

Phatna, phat-jana, (intr.) ta 
tear ; to burst ; to break. 



Phenkna; phenk-d., to throw; 
to throw doivn. 

Phephre, the lungs, 

Pher, or phir, back ; again. 
-ana, to come back, -jana, 
to go back, ^htx'x-V., to ex- 
ercise horses. [about, 

Phirta-phirta, wandering 

Phir. See ' Pher.' 

Phiil, a flower ; flowers, -a, 
sivollcn. -dan, a flower- 
vase, -jana, to swell, -kobi, 
a cauliflower, -na, to blos- 
som ; flower ; be in robust 
health, phul-wari ; phiil- 
bagh ; phill-baghan, (L.B.) 
a flower-garden, phul-jhari, 
a kind of fire-work, phul- 
kari, an ornamental cloth 
studded with bright metal. 

Phiink, blowing with the 
mouth. V. -na. \deceive, 

Phuslana, to wheedle ; coax ; 

Phiitna, to be broken, phiita, 
broken, phiita pani, boiling 
water, 

Pichhe, behind, also, prep, 
(ke). pichhari, the hinder 
parts ; ropes for fastening 
horses by the hind hgs. 
pichhla, the hindermost ; 
the last. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKkN. 



l8l 



Pichkari, a squirt ; a syringe, 

Pidar, (Persian,) a father. 

Pik (f. ), saliva caused by chew- 
ing betel-nut. -dan, a spit- 
toon. 

Pil, an elephatit. -ban, his 
driver, -khanah, his stable. 

Pilana, {trans.) to give water. 

Pila,o, {a kind of food.) *pil- 
law/ 

Pilla, a pup. 

Pillu, a worm. 

Pina, {trans, and intr.) to 
drink. Also, {trans.) to 
smoke. 

Pindli, the calf of the leg. 

Pinjra, a cage ; a trap. 

Pipa, a cask ; a barrel ; a 
'pipe: 

Pipal, a ' peepaV tree. 

Pir (M.), an old man ; a reli- 
gious man ; a saint, -ka 
roz, Mo?iday. 

Pirich, a saucer. 

Pirozah, turquoise. 

Piru. See ' Peru.' 

Pisar, (Persian,) a son ; a boy, 

Pisna, to grind, pisna, to be 
ground. 

Pistah, pistachio-nut. 

Pissu, a flea. 

Pit, ^A- pith, bile. 



Pital, brass. 

Pitara, a travelling-box. (of 

special make.) 
Pitna, to beat ; to assault. 

pitna, to be beaten, o^c. 
Piyadali, a messenger. 
Piyalah, a cup. 
Pyar (f.), ajfection. -a, dear ; 

loved, -k., to caress ; fondle. 
Piyaz, a?i onion. 
Poddar, a money-changer. 
Ponchhna; ponchh-d., to 

dust ; to clean, 
Po-t, rind : skin. Also, the 

poppy-plant, -i, one who 

uses opium. 
Poshak (f.), clothing. 
Pota, a son^s son. poti, a 

son's daughter 

Pran, life ; soul ; sweetheart. 

Prasansa, praise. 

Prem (f.), love, -sagar, ''The 

Ocean of Love, ^' {a book so 

called.) 
Prit, love ; friendship. 
Prithi, the earth, -nath. Lord 

of the Universe. 

Piichhna, to ask a question. 
Pudinah, mint, 
Puja (H.), worship, -ri, a 
priest, V. -k. 



1 82 hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 



Pukarna, {intr.) to shout, 
{trans.) to call one by shout- 
ing, 

Pukhtah. See ' Pakka.' 

Pul, a bridge, -bandi, a con- 
tribution for making or 
maintaining bridges. 

Pula,o. See ' Pila,o.' 

Puanda, a parcel ; a bundle. 

Piinji, capital used in trade. 

Pdr, a town ; a city, only 
as termination, e. g.^ Nag- 
pUr. 



Pilra, complete ; full, -k., to 

do in a complete manner ; 

fulfil ; finish. 
Pdrab, the East. 
Piiran ; puranah, certain 

quasi-religious books of the 

Hindiis. 
Purana, old ; ancient. 
Purush, a human being. 
Pusht, a generation ; a?tcestry 

-ba-, from generation to 

generation. 
Putli, a doll ; an image. 



R. 



Rabi, the Sun. -bar, Sunday. 

Rabi, the spring-crop. 

Radd, rejection ; refutation ; 
vomitiftg. -badal, argu- 
nienta tion ; w ra ngling. 
-i-jawab, a rejoinder to an 
answer, -namah, a deed of 
abandonment. V. -k. 

Rafa, repairing ; ?naking up 
a dispute. V. -k. rafa-na- 
mah, a deed settling a dis- 
pute. 

Raftah-raftah, gradually^ 
(from Persian ' raftan,' to 
go.) 

Rag (f.), a vein ; a sinew. 

Raged (f.), pursuit. V. -na. 



Rah, or rah (/), a road. 

rahzan, a highivay robber. 

rah-zani, highway robbery. 
Raha,i, orx\\\k^\ release. V.-k. 
Rahat, repose ; peace. 
Rahn, or rihn, a pledge ; a 

pawn. 
Rahna, to dwell ; to re?nain. 

rahne-d., to leave; lei alone. 

rah-jana, to remai?i waiting. 
Rahm ; rahmat, pity ; mercy. 

A. rahman. 
Ra,i, opinion; advice. Also, 

mustard. 
Ra,is, a chief ; a nobleman. 
Ra,iyat, (plur. ri,aya.) 2 pea- 
sant ; a ^ ryot -^ a subject. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



183 



Raj (H.), nile ; a kingdom. 

--a, a ' Rdja. ' - bans, a 

goose. 
Raj, or raj-mistri, a mason. 
Rikab (f.), a stirrup, --diwal, 

stirrup-leathers. 
Rakhna ; to put; to place; 

keep beside one, ra k h-d . , to 

put a thing doivn. 
Rakshas, an Evil Spirit. 
Ram ; Ram- Ram (H.), God. 
Ramazan, the Muhani: ^Lent.^ 
Ramnah, an open plain ; a 

park. 
Rana (H.), a prince ; rani, a 

queen ; a ' Ranee. ' 
Randi, a wench ; a woman.^ 
Rang (f.), colour ; paint, -i, 

chintz, -rez, a dyer, -saz, 

a house-painter, -d., to 

dye ; to paint, -in, dyed ; 

coloured. 
Ranj ; ranjish, grief ; bitter- 
ness of spirit. A. ranjidah. 
Ras (f.), driving-reins. 
Ras, juice. 
Rasad, provinder. 
Rasm(f.), laiv ; custojn. rasmi, 

according to ditto. 
Rassi, a rope. 



Rast, Just ; true ; sincere. 
N. -i. 

Rasta, a road. 

R a s li, i , cooking ; cooked food, 

Rashid, ivise. 

Rat, night. 

Ratan (f.), a jewel. 

Rath, a chariot ; a religious 
processional car. 

Ratti, a weight by which 
jewels are iveighed. 

Ratib, food-allowa7ice. {for 
an animal.) 

Raughan, polish : oil; har- 
ness-paste. 

Rawadar, one ivho gives his 
consent to anything. 

^2c^2iVi.^ flowing. Also, soul ; 
life. 

Rawanah, a pass ; a permit ; 
despatch of goods, -k., to 
despatch, 

Raz, a secret, 

Raza (f. ), razamandi, consent. 

Raza, i, a bed-cover ; a quilt. 

Razi, satisfied ; 'agreeable.^ 
--k., to satisfy ; appease. 
-i-namah, a deed express- 
ing satisfaction of a 
claim. 



^ Not a respectful word. 



i84 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGH I' TO BE SPOKEN. 



Reg (f.), sand, 

Rengna ; reng-reng. --k., io 

creep. 
Renkna, to bray. 
Resham, silk, reshmi, of silk. 
Ret (f.), sand, -i, a file. V.--na. 
Rezah, a scrap ; a crumb. 

Rijdya. See ^ Ra,iyat. ' 

Ri'chh, a bear. 

Ris (f.), anqer. - k., to enrage. 

Rish (f.), a beard. 

Rishi (H.), a sage. 

Rishtah, relationship ; a 

thread on which papers., 

drc,^ are strung. 
Rishwat, a bribe, -d., to give 

a bribe, -khana, <?rlena, to 

take a bribe. 
Rit ; riti, the custom. 

Rog, sickness : disease. 
Rohu, a fish so called. 
Rokar (f.), prompt payment. 

-bahi, a cash-account book, 
Rokna {trans.), to stop ; 

check ; hem-in. 
Rona, to weep. 
Rora, small stones ; gravel. 
Roshan, or raushan, clear ; 

bright. N. roshndji, which 

means also, blacking ; ink. 
Roti, bread. 



Roz, a day. -ba-, day by day, 
-ana, daily, -gar, daily 
earnings; service; means 
of livelihood; daily pay 
-inah, daily pay. -nam- 
chah, a diary. ~i,maidan, 
the day of battle. 

Rozah, a fast. V. -rakhna. 

Ru, the face, -ba-kar, or 
-ba-kari, a writing by 
ivhich a juattfr is laid be- 
fore one ; a ' roobacarry.' 
-h'di--, face to face, -e-dad 
(f.), a wtttten stateme7it of 
facts, -mal," ci handker- 
chief. -j)0sh,2 hidden. 
-posh bona, to be concealed ; 
io hide one^s self. 

Riih, the soul ; the spirit. 

Ril,i, cotton. 

Ruju, a turning or appealing 
to one ; making a matter 
over to one. V. -k. 

Rukh, I he cheek. 

Rukhsat, permission to go; 
leave ; discharge, -d., to 
grant permission to go. 
-bona, to be allowed to go ; 
to depart, -lena, to take 
one's leave, or discharge ; 
to depart. [p^ge 7^. 

Rilpa, silver, rilpiya. See 



* See' Malna.' 

' From the Persian ' poshidan, ' 



/o cover ; clothe ; hide. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



185 



R. 

No word begins with this letter. 



S. 

Note. — There are three *S's' in Hindustani; but their 
sounds are so much ahke that they liave not been distin- 
guished in this book. 



Sa, (adj.) (after a noun) like^ 
e L'., baiidar-sa, monkey- 
like, (after an adj.) ^-ish/ 
' pretty ; ' * rather. ' e.g., 
ek bara-sa ghar, a pretty 
large house. 

Sab ; all ; the whole ; often 
used to give a pltiral sense 
to words which have no 
plural Nom. -ke-, an em- 
phatic form (9/"*sab.' -ko,i, 
every one. -kuchh, every- 
thing. Obhque PI. sabhon. 

Sabah, cause ; reason. 

Sabere, in the morning. 

Sabik, relating to past time. 

Sabit, fir?n ; established. 
-kar-d., to establish^ or 
make good a point, -bona, 
to be established, &^c. 

Sabr, patience, -k,, to have 
patience ; to wait a little. 
A. sabir. 



Sabiin, ^/-sabiin, .y<?^/. -dan, 
a soap-dish. 

S u b II t , firmness ; stabilify ' ; 
establishment by evidence. 

Sabz, (Adj.) gretii. -i, ver- 
dure ; vegetables, 

Sach ; sachha, trfte ; honest; 
upright. N. sachha,i. 

Sada, plain ; unadorned. 
Also artless. 

Sadmah, a shock ; a bknv. 

Saf ; safa, clea7i. (lit. or fig.). 
SQfa.i, clean?iess ; the clear, 
ing of one^s character ; de- 
fence. 

Safar, a journey. V. -k 

Saff-i-jang (f.), battle-order. 

Sag, (Persian,) a dog. 

Sag, spinach ; ' sdg.^ 

Sagu, sago. 

Sagar, the Ocean. 

Sagiin, teak-ivood. 

Sahi, (interj.) triie I quite so I 



i86 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Sahib, sahibah. See pages 24 
and 26. -i-khanah, the 
master, (or mistress) of the 
house, 

Sahih, accurate ; just ; just 
the thing -k., to correct ; to 
sign -'>>2\k\\^'2i\., safe and well, 

Sahn, a court-yard, 

Sai, or sau, one hundred. 

Sa,il, a petitioner. 

Sailab, a7i inundation. 

Sair, a walk ; a journey, -k., 
to take a walk, o^c. 

Sa.is, a groom. 

Saj, adornment ; equipment ; 
harness. V. {trans.) -na ; 
-lagana ; -laga-d. V. {intr.) 
sajna. 

Saj ha, companionship ; part- 
nership, sajhi. a cojJipanion, 
arc. 

Sakin, an inhabitant. 

Sakna. See page 18, Sect. 22. 

Sukiinat, one's ^ parish ;^ 
doj7iicile. [difficult, N. -i. 

Sakht, hard. (lit. or fig.) ; 

Sakhi, liberal ; open-handed. 

Sal, a tree so called. 

Sal, (Persian,) a year, {pliir. 
salha.) -2.x\2\\, yearly, 

Sal ah, peace ; concord ; good 
advice. V. -d. and lena. 



Sal am, compiiments ; an obei- 
sance, -k., or d., to salute. 
-d., or bolna, to send ones 
compliments. 

Salamat, safety ; preservation ; 
as adv., safely. 

Salami, money paid on a lease 
being granted, or the like. 

Salis, an arbitrator, -i, arbi- 
tration. 

Sails, easy. N. -i. 

Salotar, a farrier ; a ' vet.^ 
-i, the profession of ditto. 

Salu, coarse red cloth. 

Saliis, The Trinity. 

Sama,at, the hearing, e.g., of 
a case in Court. 

Samajh (f.), understanding. 
V. -na ; -men lena, to 
understand, samjhana, to 
explain. 

Saman, jas7nine. 

Saman, level ; equal ; alike, 

Saman, furniture ; equipage. 

Sa m ba t , ^ special era so called. 

Sam bar, a kind of elk. 

Sombar, Monday. 

Samet, with ; ahng with. 

Samne (adv.) in front ; op- 
posite, also, as prep. (ke.). 
-vvala, what is opposite. 

Samundar, the Ocean, 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



187 



San, the year ^ {in dating.) 

Sanad (f.), a royal, or other 
deed of grant ; a letter of 
appointment. 

Sandal, sandal-7Vood. 

Sand, a bull. 

Sang, a stone, -in, stony ; 
arduous ; serious, (as a 
crime.) 

Sani, (Persian,) second. 

San i bar, Saturday. 

Sanichar, Saturday. 

Sanp, a snake. 

Sans (f.), the breath, -tiitna, 
to break, i.e., lose one's 
breath, 

Sanyasi, a Hindu devotee. 

Sar, or sir, the head ; the top ; 
the point ; starting-point. 
sar-ba-sar, entirely, sar- 
dard, headache, sardar, a 
headman, sar-i-nau, quite 
new ; fresh, sar-i-rah (f.), 
the centre of the road, -k., 
to execute; succeed ; get on ; 
make head with, sar-zamin 
(f.), the place at ivhich a?ty 
event occurred. 

Sara, the whole ; all the... 

Sara,e (f.), an abode ; an 
inn ; a halting-place ; a 
shelter. 



Sarak (f.), a public road. 
Sar-anjam, apparatus ; neces- 
sary things. 
Sdras, a crane (bird). 
Sarasari ; sarsari, (aoj.) all 

round about ; summary. 
Sard (adj.), cold ; y^. -i., cold ; 

a cold. 
Saresh, glue. 
Sarf, expenditure ; use. V.-k. 

-men Ian a, to bri7tg into 

one^s use. 
Sarfaraz, exalted ; noble. 
Sare, ^per,^ (^-g-* per yard.) 
Sari, a wrapper ivorn by 

native females. 
Sirkah, vinegar. 
Sarkar, the Government ; a 

Superintendent. A. -i. 
Sar-o-kar, business ; relation 

which one thing bears to 

another. 
Sar- posh, a covering-cloth, 

(e.g., a tea-cosy) ; a lid. 
Sarraf, a banker ; a * shroff? 
Sarrishtah, a record-office, or 

the like, -dar, head of 

the same. 
Sarhe. See page 64. 
Sas, a mother-in-lait\ 
Sasta, cheap. N. -ti. 
Satana, to vex ; to annoy. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Satar (f.), a line 

Sath (ke.), with ; along with. 
-jana, or chalna, to accom- 
pany, -i, a companion. 

Sati, ^ ividow who burns her- 
self on her husband's pyre. 
a ''suttee.^ 

Saitu, a kind of flour. 

Satiin, ^r sutiin, a pillar. 

Satana ; sata-d., to join ; to 
place two things beside 
each. 

Satna ; sat-jana, to stick ; 
adhere, sata hii,a, stuck to- 
gether ; contiguous. 

Sau See * Sai/ 

Sauda; saiiddi^ari, trade, sau- 
dagar, a trader. 

Sawal, or suwal, a question ; 
a petition in Court. V. -k. 

Sawar, f?iounted ; a horseman. 
N. -i, riding ; A. -i, re- 
lating to riding, sawari 
ghora, a riding horse, -h., 
to be mounted ; to ride. 

Sawere, early morning. 

Sayah, shade ; shadow, saya- 
ban, any structure for the 
purposes of shade; e.g,, 
a verandah. 

Saz, equipments ; harness. 
-ka ghora, a harness- stand. 



Saza (f.), one's deserts; punish- 
ment. — i , to punish. 
Se, from ; with ; by means 

of ; cigo ; since ; than. 
Seb, an apple. 
Senkna, to toast ; to warm at 

the fire. 
Ser, a weight of abotit 2 lbs. 
Sih (p.), three, -pahar, the 

third watch; the afternoon. 
Sid ha ; straight ; in order. 

V. -k. 
Sifarish, recommendation. V. 

-k. 
Sijil, a seal ; a register ; a 

decree. V. -k. 
Sikhna, to learn, sikhana ; 

sikhlana; sikhla-d., to teach. 
Sikh (f.), a spit. 
Silai, sewing. V. -k. 
Silii, a hone ; a strop. 
Silsiiah, a chain ; a sequence. 
Sina, to sew. 
Sinah, the bosom. 
Sing (f. ), a horji. 
Sin^ir, ornament ; dress.-mez. 

a dressing-table. V. -na. 
Singh, a lion ; used also as a 

name. 
Sinn, one^s age. 
Sipahi, a foot- soldier ; a 

^ sepoy' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



189 



Sir. See / Sar/ 

Siraj, a lamp ; the Sun. 

Sirf, only. 

Sirhi, a ladder; steps ; a 
staircase. 

Sisa, lead. 

Sit (n.), cold. A. -al. sital- 
pati, a cool kind of mat for 
sleeping on. 

Sitarah, a star. 

Sitla, small-pox. 

Sith, or sithi, refuse of plant 
(e.g., indigo) after manu- 
facture ; of betel or tobacco^ 
6^^., after being chewed. 

Siti, whistling. V. -bnjana. 

Siwa, or siwa,e (adv.), more ; 
as prep, (ke.), besides ; in 
addition to. 

Siwanah, a boundary line. 

Siyah, black, -i, blacking; 
ink. 

Siyana, grown-up. 

So. See page 104. Also 
stem of ' sona.' q.v. 

Soch, meditation ; thought. 
-na, to think ; take thought 
about. 

Sohan, a file (tool). 

Sojh, straightness A. -a. 

Sokna, to absorb. 

Solah, sixteen. 



Solah-topi, a pith-hat. 

Sona, gold. A. sone ka. 
sonar, a gold-smith. 

Sona, to lie dozvn ; to sleep. 
so-rahna, to continue sleep- 
ing. 

Sonta, a club ; a pestle. 

Sonth, dry ginger. 

Stan, a suffix meaning ^ place ^^ 
e.g., *gulistan,' a place of 
roses. 

Sthir, firm ; fixed. 

Stri, a woman, -dhan, the 
private property of a wo- 
man. 

Siibah, a province. -h2idi.r, 
a governor; a native mili- 
tary officer ; a sergeant. 

Subh (f.), the morning ; in 
the morning. 

Subuk (adj.), light. (not 
heavy.) (lit. or fig.). 

Slid, interest 071 money ; profit, 

Sufed, 'thite, N. -i. 

Sd,i, a needle, -taga, a needle 
and thread. 

Siikhna (intr.)^ to dry. 
riikhdna ; silkhd-d. {trans.\ 
to dry. A. sdkha. 

Sukhan, speech ; language ; 
business ; affairs. 



190 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Sulh, peace of mind ; concord, 

-namah, a deed settling a 

dispute. 
Sultan, a ^Sultan.'' saltanat, 

dominion ; power. 
Suliik, good behaviour. V. -k. 
Siinglina, to sniff ; to smell. 
Sunni, lawful ; the orthodox 

party among the Muham : 

opposed to ' Shiah.^ 
Sunna, to hear; listen to; 

obey, sunana ; suna-d., to 

cause to hear ; read over to 

one, 
Supari, areca, or betel-nut. 
Supurd, entrusting. V. -k. 



Surahi, a porous water-bottle ; 



Suragh, search; traces. 

Silraj, the Sun. 

Silrakh, a hole. 

Siirat, shape ; form. [dust. 

Surkh, red. -i, redness ; brick- 

Surmah, antimony. 

Sust, lazy ; out of sorts ; of a 

watch, slow. N. -i. 
Slit, thread, -i, 77iade of 

thread; Hence. ' ek-siiti ;' 

^ do-sdti,' &c., in describing 

cloth. 
Suthra, clean ,- tidy ; nice. 
Sutli, thread ; string. 



Sh. 



Shab (f.), night.-i-mah, (night 
of the 7noon\ moonlight. 
-nam, dew. -o roz, night 
and day, or by ditto, 
-chiragh, a firefly ; aglow- 
worm. 

Shabash, bravo! well done I 

Shabd, a sound ; a noise ; 
a vocable. 

Shadi, rejoicing; marriage. 
V. -k. 

Shaft-alu, a peach, 

Shafkat, condolence; kindness; 
sympathy. 



Shagird, a pupil ; a scholar. 

Shah, an Emperor, -i, im- 
perial ; royalty, -an-shah/ 
King of Kings (i.e., the 
Emperor of Persia), 
-zadah, a prince ; of prince- 
ly birth, fem., -zddi. 

Shahad, honey, -ki makkhi, 
a bee. 

Shahadat, evidence. 

Shahid, a witness. 

Shahr, a city ; a to7vn. 

Shaikh, a ' Shekh: {title). 

Shaitan, Satan. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



191 



Shakar, sugar ; in compos: 
sweet, e.g. -lab, sweet- 
lipped. 

Shakk, dotibt. V. -k. 

Shakl (f.), shape ; form 

Shakh (f.), a branch. 

Shakhs, an individual. 

Shal (f.), a shawl 

Shalgham, turnips, [evening. 

Shaai (f.), evening, -ko, at 

Sham a, a nightingale, 

Shanial, the North. 

Shamil, along with ; put along 
with, -k., to put one thing 
up along with another. 

Shamiyanah, a large tent ; a 
canopy. 

Shams, the Stin. {Arabic.) 

Shamsher (f.), a scimitar. 

Shan, dignity ; state ; nature. 

Sharah (f.), wine. 

Shara, Muham : law. 

Sharakar, partnership. 

Shararat, vice. 

Sharbat, ''sherbet. ' 

Sharif, noble. 

Sharifah, a custard-apple. 

Sharik, a partner. 

Sharm (f.) ; -indagi, shame ; 
modesty. A. sharm indah. 
sharmana {intr.)^ to feel 
abashed, sharm-sar, bashful. 



Shart, a 'stipulation ; agree- 
ment ; wager. 

Shast, aim. {7vith gun^ c^c.} 
V. -k. 

Shastr (f.), the sacred books 
of the Hindus. 

Shatranj, chess, -i, a large 
carpet. 

Shauk, one's favourite pur- 
suit ; * hobby. ' (Anglo- 
Hind., 'shok. ') 

Shayad, (Persian,) (// may 
be) ; perhaps. 

Sher, a tiger, -m^ a tigress 
-babar, a lion. 

Shikam, the belly. 

Shikar, hunting; shooting; 
game (alive or dead), -i, 
a hunter ; appertaining to 
sport, e.g. -i kutta,^ hound. 

Shikastah, broken ; running- 
hand-writing, -hali, broken 
fortune. 

Shil, fiature ; quality ; deport- 
ment. 

Shirin, sweet ; gentle, (lit. and 
fig.) -zaban, sweet-tongued; 
eloquent. N. -zabdni. 

Shishah, glass ; a phial, -she 
ka, made of glass. 

Shit (n.), cold, -kal, the cold 
weather. 



192 



HINDUSTi(NI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Shitab, haste ; speed. Adv. -i. 

Shokh, fonvard ; impudent. 
N. -i. 

Shor, noise ; row. 

Shorah, marshy-land ; salt- 
petre. 

Shorba, (;vulg. siirwa,) soup, 

Shubhah, doubt. 

Shubh, happy ; fortunate. 



Shuja, brave. -ja,at, bravery. 

Shukr, gratitude ; thanks, 
-guzar, grateful, -guzari 
expressing gratitude. 

Shulah, aflaine. 

Shumar, counting. V. -k. 

Shuru (f.), ^ beginning. V. -k. 

Shutur, a camel, -ban, a 
camel-driver. 



There are two soft * t's ' in 

are so similar, that you have 

guish ihem. 

Ta, up to (of time) ta-kih, 
until ; in order to ; to the 
end that. 

Ta,ajjub, surprise ; admira- 
tion. V. -k. 

Ta,ala (M.), Almighty God. 

Taalim (f.), instruction. V -d. 

Ta,alluk, or ta,allukah, con- 
nection ; association ; a ter- 
ritorial division ; an estate ; 
a * talook.' ta,alluk-dar, the 
owner of a ta,alluk. 

Taamil, putting in force; 
carrying out. V. -k. 

Ta,ammul, meditation. V. -k. 

Taatif (f.), praising ; praise ; 
a defifiition.Y. -k. Aiso, a 
table of rates, a ' tariff. ' 



Hinddstani, but their sounds 
not been troubled to distin- 

Ta,assub, prejudice ; bigotry. 

Tab, then -tak, up to a time 
indicated. See page 104. 

Tab, or tap, fever. 

I abi ; tabiyat, disposition ; 
tetnperament ; health. 

Tabi, subordinate, -dar, a 
subordinate; an adherent. 
-dari, subordination ; al- 
legiance. 

Tabib, a physician. 

Tabassum, a smile. 

Tad, then; next, -an tar, 
after that. 

Tadaruk (f ), retaliation ; 
preparation for ditto., as by 
getting up evidence in a case 
in Court ; investigation. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



^93 



Tadbir (f.), deliberation ; ad- 
vice ; plan, 

T2i{^nu]{{.), recreation, V. -k. 

Tafiwutjdislance; delay, V.-k. 

Tafsil (f.), details, -k., to give 
in detail, -bolna, to tell at 
length, -an, in detail, 

Taghmah, a medal ; a uni- 
form ; a property-mark.' 

Tahan. See page 104. 

Tahkik, or tahkikat, enquiry ; 
investigation, V. -k. 

Tahsil (f.), collection of rents; 
a revenue area ; profits^ 
or collections generally, 
-dar, a collector of refits^ 
Q^c, -dari, his area of 
work, 

Ta,id, corroboration ; assist- 
ance ; an apprentice, 

Taiyar, ready, N. -i. 

Taisa. See page 104. 

Taj, a crown, -dar, a prince, 

Tajwiz (f.), investigation ; 
trial (e.g. in Court.) result 
of trial. -V. -k. 

Tak (f.), look ; glance ; aim, 

Tak, up to {time ^ ox place), 

Takalluf, ceremony, 

Takid, pressing ; urging; or 
reminding one, V. -k. 

Takyah, a pillow. 



Takrar (f.), reiteration ; dis- 
pute, -i, contentious ; 
quarrelsome ; disputed. 

Tak Iff (f.^, ceremony ; trouble; 
inconvenience, V. -d. 

Takna (trans.), to observe ; to 
watch, takna (intr.) 

Tak (f.), a niche, 

Takat, strength ; ability. 

Takaza, a dunning of one, 

Takdir (i.),fate ; predestina- 
tion, 

Takrir (f.), recital; oration; 
detailed state?nent, V. -k. 

Taksim (f.), division of pro- 
perty, &^c., by shares, V. 
-k. and lena, 

Taksir (f.), a fault ; a crime 
A. -mand \ -war. [thing. 

Takhfif, 7naking light of any - 

Takhminan, by guess ; ap- 
proximately, 

Takht, a throne, 

Takhtah, a hoard ; a plank ; 
a shelf; a plot of land, 
- posh, a low wooden plat- 
for77i for sitting on cross- 
legged, -nard, backgammon, 

Tal, a lake. Also, a kind of 
palm tree. Also, same as 
* taliV q,v. 

Tala, a padlock ; a key. 

13 



194 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Talab (f.), or tala,o, an arti- 
ficial water-pond, 

Talab, sending for one ; desire. 
Also, pay ; salary, ~k., to 
send for one. -d., to give 
one one's pay. -anah, fees 
for sumnioning ; daily al- 
lowance while waiting. 

Talaffuz, pronunciation, 

Talak, same as ' tak/ q. v. 

Talak, divorce. 

Talash, search V. -k. 

Tala,o, same, as * talab/ q.v. 

Tale (ke), under. 

Tali, a key. Also, clapping 
the hands, -an, applause by 
clapping. 

Talikah, a list ; a schedule. 

Talu, the palate ; lampas. 

Taiwan (f.), a sword. 

Tamach ih, a slap, 

Tamam, whole ; entire, -k., 
to complete, 

Tamassuk, a bond for money 
borrowed. 

Tama ; tamba ; or tamra, 

copper. 
Tama^ha, an entertainment : 

a show , a jete. 
Tamatu, tomatoes. 
Tanibakn, tobacco, -pina, to 
smoke ditto. 



Tambii, a tent. 

Tamsil (f.), comparison ; a 
parable ; an illustration. 

Tan-duriist, in good health. 
JS. -i 

Tang, narroiv ; too tight. 
N. -i. means, also, poverty. 

Tanga, a hill-cart ; a ^tongah.'' 

Tankhwah (f.), wages; salary, 

Tanna (L.B.), to pull; stretch 

Tant, a loom, -i, a weaver, 

Tanilr, an oven. 

Tap (f.), heat ; fever, tapna- 
to IV arm one's self, 

Tapish, heat (lit. or fig.); 
affliction. 

Tar, moist; wet. -k^x^ moist 
land at base of mountains ; 
* The Terai: 

Tar, string ; wire ; the tele- 
graph, -ghar, the tele- 
graph-office, -ki khabar, 
or chitt ti i, telegraphic 7ieivs ; 
a telegram. 

Tara, a star, 

Taraddiid, perplexity. 

Taraf (f.), side ; direction. 
Also, as prep, (ki.) -dar, 
a partizan, -dari, parti- 
zanship. -sani, the second 
par ty n tiit ; the defend- 
ant. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



195 



Tarah (f.), mode; manner. 
Also as prep, (ki.), like, 

Tarakki, promotion; advance- 
ment, -pana, to get ditto. 

Tarash (n.), cutting. V. -k. 
or -na. 

Tarazu, a weighing fnachine. 

Tarikah, mode ; manner, 

Tarikh (f.), a date, (e.g. of a 
letter.) 

Tarjib, superiority, -rakhna, 
to gain superiority, -d., to 
assign preference. 

Tarjamah, a translation. 
-man, a translator. 

Tarkari, moist vegetables. 

Tarson, on the fourth day. 
(backwards or forwards.) 

Tartib (f.), good order, ar- 
rangement, -k., to set in 
order. Adv. -i. 

Tarka, the dawn. 

Tash, the cards ; a game with 
cards, -ki w^itz^a card-table. 

Tasar, a kind of silk; ^tusser,^ 

Tasarruf, use ; enjoyment ; ex- 
penditure ; waste. V. -k. 

Tasbih (i.), praising God by a 
certain formula ; a rosary. 

Tasdi'k {{.)^verification. V.-k. 

Taskin (f.), comfort ; consola- 
tion. 



Tasmah, a leather thong. 

Taswir (f.), a picture. 

Tashaffi, a feeling of satisfac- 
tion ; satisfaction. 

Tashrif, honour conferred. See 
page 76. Sect. 17. 

Tatil, rendering waste or use- 
less ; a vacation ; a holiday. 

Tatolna, to ,^^rope. 

Tau, then; -bhi, even then; 
even in such circumstances. 

Taubah, repentance ; penance. 
As interj., ivhat a shame I 
i.e., matter for repentance. 

Tauliyah, a towel. 

Taun. See page 104. 

Taur, mode ; maimer. 

Tauret, or tnurat, the Old 
Testament. 

Tawakkuf, delay ; wasting 
time. V. -k. 

Tawelah, a tethering-rope ; a 
stable ; a cattle-pen. 

I'awiz, having recourse to 
God ; a7i amulet. 

Tazah, fresh ; green ; young. 
N. -zagi. 

Tazim (f.), the act of honour- 
ing one. 

Tel, oil. -batti, an oiled-wick ; 
a lamp ; a night-light, -i, 
an oil-man. 



196 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Tez ; tez-rau, swift. N.-i. 
tez nahin, slow, tez-zihn, 
sharp-witted. 

Thaili, a bag ; a nose-bag. 
Thaka, tired, thakana, to 

weary, 
Thali, a brass platter so called, 
Thambha, a pillar ; a post. 
Thamna (trans.), to stop ; to 

check. 
Than, 'a piece^ or iveb of 

cloth ; also, a stall. 
Thanah, a police station. 

-dar, an officer in charge of 

a ^thanah' 
Thapa, or thapi, the sound 

of beating ; a mallet ; a bat. 
Thora, a Hi fie. -thora, a very 

little, 
Thiik, spittle. V. -na. 

Tidhar. See page 104. 
Tiffin,^ lunch; 'tiffin.' 
Tifl, a child. 
Tijarat, trade ; trading. 
Tilak, the dedication mark on 

a Hindu's forehead, 
Tilli, the spleen. 
Tin, three. Obi. cases, 'tinon.' 



Tipa, i, a small table ; a 

teapoy. 
Tipari, Cape-gooseberry. 
Tir (m.), an arrow. 
Tirchha, bent ; crooked ; awry , 
Ti'sra, the third. 
Tishnah, thirsty, N. -nagi. 
Tita, bitter, -panf, tonic- 
water, 

Titna (co-relative), so many ; 
so much. 

To. See page 47. Note i. 

Tol ; taul, the weight of a 
thing, tola, the weight of a 
rupi, taulna, to 7veigh, 

Tonta, a cartridge. 

Top, a cannon, -khanah, 
the artillery-lines. 

Top, a grove ; a * tope.' 

Torna; tor-d., to break; tear ; 
destroy, tor-rahna, to con- 
tinue breaking. 

Toshah, valuables, -khanah, 
a treasure-house, 

Toshak (f.), a mattress ; bed- 
ding. 

Tota ; toti, a parrot, (m. f.) 

Tu, thou. 



I 



> This word is derived from an Arabic 
enjoyment. 



oot, " fan," meaning 



I 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



197 



Tiifan (m.), a storm. A.-i. 
Tu f II 1 iy at, childhood. 
Tuhmat, an accusation. V. 

-lagana, 
Tu]h^ inflected sing, of ^tu."* 
Tukhm, a seed ; a seed-stone. 
Till, length, also, iong. 
Tul, like ; simila7'. 
Tulna, to be iveighed. 
Talsi, sacred basil. 



Turn, ye : you. Also, in Ob- 

liq : cases. 
Tund, sharp ; active ; fierce. 
Often used in compos, e.g. 
-zihn, sharp-zvitted ; clever, 
Turat, at once. 

Turk, a Turk. A.-i, *Turki' 
also means a certain kind 
of horse. 
Tursh, harsh; sour. (lit. or fig.) 



T. 



Talna, to be evasive, talatoli. 

evasiveness ; beating about 

the bush. 
Tang (f.), the leg. -na ; -d., 

to give a leg ; to hang up. 
Tanga, or tangi, an axe. 
Tapa, a coop ; Anglo-Hind., 

a ' topper."* 
Tappal,^ the letter, <^c. post ; 

the post-office. 
Tat, coarse canvas ; ''gunny.' 
Tatolna {intr.), to grope ; feel. 
Tatti, a screen ; a privy. 
Tattu, a pony ; a * taft' 

Terha, not straight. 

Thag, a garotter ; a * thug.' 



Thaharna, to remaiti ; stop ; 
wait, thahrana, to de- 
tain. 

Thakur, a divinity ; an em- 
blem of ditto ; a Brahman. 
Also, commo7i as a name 
among the Brahmaii class. 
-ani, fern, of ^ Thakur.' 
-ban', a Hindu place of 
worship. 

ThaiKla (Adj.), cold. N. -i. 

Thattha, a jest, thathol, a 
jester. thatholi, jesting^ 
thathol na, to jest. 

Thelna, to push. 

Tiddi, a locust ; a grass-hop- 
per. 



* Not used in L. B. 



198 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

Thik ; thik-thak, exact ; per- Thuddi, the inch, 

fectly right, tfikana, one's jikli, a wafer, 

address; trace whereby to ^., -i 1 • 

^ , ,, . . \\\i\\Yk\. a lizard, 

find a thing ; (e*tainty. ' ' 

Thika, hire ; lease ; contract. Tip (f-X ^ note of hand ; an 

/ • I O U 

-gari, a hirei carriage. 

-dar, the holder of a lease ; Tokri, a basket. 

a contractor. Tola, a quarter of a toivn. 

Thokar (f.), a bloiv ; a knock. Tukra, a piece ; a vioi'sel. 

thokna, to strike, -khana, Tiingna, to peck, 

to get a blow., or knock. T^U^> broken. 

U. 

\!>h2\n2i (tratis.\ to boil, ubal- ed upside down. v\\'^^-y^\x\\z^ 

na, {i?itr.) upside down ; in confusion. 

Ubka, i, vofniting ; straining. Umdah, excellent ; noble. 

V.-k. and lena. Ummed(f.), hope. A. -war, 

TT 1 u 1 7 ^' 17 which is also used as a 
Uchhai, leaping. V.~na. 

noun meaning one hoping 

Udas, grieved. N. -i. for an appointment, &-c. 

Udhar, thither ; on the far Ummiimat, maternity. 

side ; over there. Umr (f.), one's age. 

Ugal, spit, -dan, a spittoon. Umiir (PI. of 'amr.'), affairs ; 



Ukharna, to uproot. 



business. 
Uh, 2vool. un, inflected plur. 
Ulat, the act of upsetting. ^Svuh.' 

-na (trans, and intr.\ to Uncha, high. N. -i. 
upset, or be upset.-d., to Ungli, a finger, 
upset, -pulat, upside down. Ungul, the thumb. 
Ullu, an owl. Unt, a camel. 

Ultana, to upset: turn upside U'par, above ; up ; high up; 
down, ulta, reversed ; turn- As prep, (ke.) 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



199 



Urdu (f.), a market ; a camp. 

a name of the Hindustani 

language^ as formed by the 

mixing of various races in 

market and camp. 
Urna ; ilr-jana (intr.)^ t> fly. 

urana ; ura-d. {trans.)^ to 

fly ; to squander. 
Usarah, a portico; a verandah. 
Us, inflected, sing, of ^wuh.^ 

-kadar. See page 104. 

-wakt, at that time ; then. 



Usturah, a razor. 

Utarna; iitar-d. to break 
down ; to tear off ; to strip 
off. utarna, to come down; 
to descend. 

Uthla, shallow. V. -i. 

Uttar, the North. 

Uthna, to rise, uth-jana, to 
rise and go, uthana ; 
utha-d, to raise. 

Uzr, an excuse, -k., to excuse. 



V. 

Words in which W is sounded Hke V are nearly all 
derived from Sanskrit, and would not be of use to you. 
But you should know the word * Ved ' or ' Veda,' the general 
na-me of the Sacred Books of the Hindus— M^ * Veds.' 



W. 



Waadah, a promise. V. -k. 

Wa,e-wa,e, woe is me I 

Wafa, fulfilling a promise ; 
integrity. 

Waghairah, et ccetera. 

Wahan, there: may be follow- 
ed by ka, ko, se, tak, &c. 
like a noun. 



Wahid, alone ; unique, 
Waisa, like that; so. See 
page, 104. -hi, in that 
very mafiner just like 
that. 

Wajab, a span, {of the hand.) 
Wajh (f.), reason ; catise. 



Wahhabi, a follower of Abd-l- Wajib, or wajibi, right ; pro- 
' Wahhdb^ a Muham : per, wajibat, proper acces- 
teacher of the last centttry. sories ; necessary things. 



200 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Wakil, or Vakil, an ambassa- 
dor ; representative; attor- 
7tey. wakalat-namah, a 
power of Attorney. 

Wakf, a Miihain : religiotis 
endoivment, 

Wakifiyat, experience ; know- 
ledge. 

Wakif, aware; informed; 
acquainted with, -bona, to 
be, or become ditto, -k., to 
i?ifor7n, 6^6*. 

Wakt, ti7ne. -ba-, fro7n tiine 
to time, -na-, occasion- 
ally. 

Wala-wali. See page 73, 7. 

Wali (M.), a holy man. 

AVapas, back; behind; re- 
turning, -ana, to come back. 
-d., to give back, -bona, 
to be back, -rakbna, to keep 
back. 

WaHd, a father. -2^\, a mother. 

Warak, a leaf of a book, or 
of a tree. 

Warid (Adj.), approaching ; 
arriving; present. V.-hona. 

Waris, an heir, PL -an. 

Warna, and if not ; if this 
be not so ; otherwise. 

AVasikab, firmness ; solidity ; 
a bond; a written agreement. 



Wasil, joined together ; col- 
lected, -baki, a statement 
of collections a?id arrears. 
-at, accou7its ; 7nesne-pro- 
fits. 

Wasilab, 7neans itsed to acco7Ji- 
plish a7iy object. 

Wasiyat, one's last ' will' 

AVaste (ke.), for the sake of; 
for. 

Watan, one's 7iative country. 

Wazir, a nmiister ; a ' Vizier.' 

Wazn, weight, (lit. or fig.) 
V. -k. -i, heavy. 

We, they ; those. Norn. PI. 
of ^wuh.' 

VVilayat, foreign la7ids. -i, 
foreign ; Europea7Z ; Eng- 
lish, -i pani, soda ivater. 

Wiran, depoptdated ; waste; 
a desert. 

Wobi, that vety. wobin, 
thus ; i7i this 7nanner. 

Wujild, existe7ice ; substance; 
esse7ice ; inve7iti07i. See 
' Ba-wujild.' 

Wub, he ; she ; it ; that. 

Wuku, an occurre7ice ; an 
eve7tt, PI. wakiyat. 

Wukiif, experience. 

Wusdl, collection of rents, ore. 
V. -k. 



HINDIJSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



201 



Y. 



Ya, or. ya...ya, either.., or. 
Yad (f.), recollection. V. -k. 

-dasht, a rnemoranduin. 

-dilana {trans.), to remind. 
Yahan, here. Also used with 

ka, ko, se, <S:c. as a noun. 

As prep. (ke.). See page 

44. -ana, to arrive. 
Yahiid, a Jew. -in, a Jewess. 
Yakin, certain, -janna, to 

know for certain. N. -i. 
Yakiit, a ruby. 
Yakh (f.), ice. 
Yane, na?7iely ; that is to say ; 

^ I mean.^ 



Yar, a friend. -A, friendship. 
Yatim, an -orphan, -i, -cy.. 

Yawah, idle talk ; ?ionsense. 
Ye, they : these. Norn., PI. of 
'yih: 

Yih, he ; she ; it i this. -, this, 
very. 

Yogi, also jogi, a Hindu 
ascetic. 

Yon, thus, in this manner. 
-hin, in this very manner. 
. Also, by chance ; casually. 

Yug, « cycle of time. 



There are four 'Z's' in Hindustani, but their sounds are 
so similar that you have not been troubled to distinguish 
them. 



Zaban (f.), the tongue; a 

lajiguagd. -i, orally. 
Zabar, superior in position. 
-dL2i?>t} powerful ; oppres- 
sive. N. -dasti. V. -dast 
bona, -dasti k. 
Zabh, sacrifice, -k., to kill an 
animal asprescribed by law, 
i.e., by cutting the throat. 



Zabitah, ordinance ; law ; 

established custom. 
Zabt, confiscation. V. -k. 
Zabiin, bad; wicked. 
Zahin, sharp-witted. 
Zahir, evident ; clear, -bona,. 

to be evident, -k., to make 

evident ; to demonstrate^ 

Adv. -an. 



' Dast,' the hand. V. ante. 



202 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Zahr, poison ; -aludah,/>^/V^«- 
ed (as food.).-ila, poisonous. 

Zahmat, anxiety ; pains, 

Za,if, frail ; infirm. 

Zakhm, a luound. A. --i, means 
also a wounded per S071. 

Zalim, an oppressor. A. -i. 

Zaman ; zamanah, any time ; 
an epoch ox age of the World, 

Zamin, bail, zamanat, surety- 
ship, 

Zamin (f.), land, -dar, a 
landed proprietor, -dari, 
la nded-property. 

Zamurrad, or zumarrad, an 
emerald. 

Zan (p.), a woman, -ani, ap- 
pertaining to women.-2in2ih, 
the female apartment . 

Zanakh, the chin. 

Zang, rust, -khiirdah, rusty. 
-pakarna, (rust has seized 
this ;) equal to, * this has 
turned rusty' 

Zinu, the knee. 

Zanjir (f.), a chain. 

Zar, gold. 

Zarar, hurt ; injury, -khafif, 
trivial injury, -shadid, 
serious injury. 

Zarb (i.) a blow. 

Zard (Adj.), yellow. N. -i. 



Zarrah (f.), a little ; a morsel, 

Zardr, necessary, -at, neces- 
sity ; time of difficulty. 

Zat, caste. 

Zaujah, a ivife, 

Zer (p.), under, -band, a 
martingale, -tajwiz, under 
enquiry, 

Zewar ; zevvarat, jewels. 

Zidd, perversity ; spite, V. -k, 
A. -i. 

Zikr, remembrance ; 7nention. 
V. -k. 

Zila ; a district ; a country. 

Zi m m a h , cha rge ; keeping ; 

responsibility , 
Zin (f.), a saddle. V. -ban- 

dhna ; bandh-d. -posb, a 

saddle-cloth. 
Zin dab, alive., -dagi ;-dagani 

life ; being alive. 
Ziyadah, more ; too inuch, 

dat, increment. 
Ziyafat, a feast. V. -d. 
Ziyan, loss. 

Zor ; zori, force ; strength. 
-awar ; -mand, strong ; op- 
pressive, -d., to assist; to 

strengthen, -k., to strain ; 

to force ; to oppress. 
Ziid, quick ; swift, also as adv. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 203 

Z\ii, or zoi, dodily frailty. 7.u\i\ pure ; limpid ; whole- 
Zuhr, the turn of the day at some. 

noon ; noon. Zulf (f.), curly hair. 

Zukam, a cold in the head. Zulm, oppression. A. -i. 



GLOSSARY OF USEFUL WORDS 

F-A.ET II. 

ENGLISH-HINDUSTANI. 



NOTE. 

The contractions used in the English-Hindustani part 
of this Glossary are the same as those used in the first part, 
with one addition, viz, (v. n.), which means ' Verbal Noun/ 
See page 15. Sect. 17. 

The ' head-word ' is generally the shortest word from 
which longer words are derived. Thus under 'Art' you 
will find ' Artificer; 

Always look for the Noun first, (if there be a ncun,) e.g,^ 
for ' Advice,' not for ' Advise.' 

As, within the space available, all synonyms cannot be 
given, if you cannot find the precise word wanted, try 
another of a similar meaning— Note also that as Ja^niliai' 
words are given, you should lock for such ; as for * Delay,' 
not for ' Proc7 astination.' 

A double use is made of the short line ; first, associated 
with English, it represents the head English word, (or so 
much of it as is wanted,) e.g., * accurate,' ' -acy ;' secondly^ 
associated with the IJindustdni, it refers to the preceding 
word or w^ords, e.g., * affirmation,' ikrar ; izhar. V. -k.^ 
means that you may use *karna' with both * ikrar' and 
Mzhar,' for the English * to affirm.' When one verb is not 
applicable to a string of nouns, the string is broken, the 
verb applicable to the nouns up to that point is shown 
within brackets ; the nouns are then resumed ; other ap- 
propriate verbs being given in their proper places. 



20S HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 

English within brackets indicates the precise shade of 
meaning of the word being dealt with. 

Nouns of an abstract sense do not often occur in the 
common Hindustani. Few therefore are given here. The 
abstract idea of an act is generally expressed by the Verbal 
Noun, e.g.^ chup-rahna bihtar hai bak-bak karne-se, ''''silence 
is better than chattering ;" and the abstract idea of a person 
is expressed by a clause with * jo ' — or by the humble 
' wala,' e.g.^ Jo insaf karta hai, wuh Khuda-ko pasand hai, 
■** The Doer of Justice is pleasirig to God^ 



GLOSSARY OF USEFUL WORDS. 



English-Hindustani. 



A. 



A, or an. !See pa^e ^. Note. 
Abandon, chhor-d. ; iark-k. 
Abetment, madad ({.) ; idnat. 

V. -d. -tor, madadgdr. 
Abide. See * Live,' ' Remain.' 
Ability, kdbiliyat ; makdur. 
Able, kdbil. to he- sakna. 

See page i8. Sect. 22. 
Above (adv.), upar. (prep.), 

ke upa'*'. 
Absent, ghalr-hdzir. N. -/. 

V. -hona. 
Absorb, sokhna ; sokh-jdna. 
Abstinence, parhez (f.), V. 

-k. ; nahiii karna. 
Abstract, kjiuldsah. V. -k. ; 

(as essence), nikdl-d. 
Absurd, behudah. N. -dagi. 
Abuse, gdli. V. -d. 
Academy, madrasah. 

T., H. 



t 



Accede to, kabui- (or kubiil-) 

k. ; manzur-k. 
Accelerate, jaldi-kurdna. N. 

jaldL 
Accept, lena; le-lena ; pasand 

-k. ; kabul-k, A. pasand; 

pasandidah ; achchha. 

-ance, lena (as v.n.). 
Access, rah (f.) ; rdsta. of 

fever, dmad (f.). 
Accident, ittijdk. by -, ////- 

fdkan. 
Accompany, sdth-jdna ; ham- 

rdhi-k. 
Accomplish, tamdm-k. ;pura- 

k.; taamil-k, ; -td, (done), 

tamdni^ <^c. (learned), 

dlini ; kdniil ; drdstah. 
According to, hasb ; ba- 

mujib ; ke mu^dfik. 

14 



2IO 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Account (in figures), hisdb. to 
do-,-^., oxlikh7ia. to take-, 
-lena, to keep -, -rakhna, 
-ant, mutasaddi -book, 
-kibahi. (in words) bay an ; 
bat ; kissah; hikdyat. Y-k, 

Accurate, thik ; durust ; 
achchha, -acy, sihhat. 

Accusation, tuhinat, (V. la- 
gdna) ; fidlish. (V. -k ) 
-er, faryddi ; in udda, i. 

Accustomed, I 2iT[\, yih niera 
dasturhai, or other phrase. 

Acknowledgment, ihdr ; 
kabul-k. (v.n.). V. -h, 
deed of-, ikrdr-ndmah. 
(receipt), * rasid' (E.). 

Acquaint, khabar-d. : dgdh-k; 
ivdkif-k' -ed (with any 
matter.) wdkif ; dgdh ; 
niain jdnia hun. -ance, 
dost ; ydr ; bhd,i. -ance- 
^h\^^jdn-pahchdn ; dosti. 
' Acquire, pdna ; hdsil-k. ; 
jama-k. ; milna. See page 
50, Note I. -siiion, hdsil ; 
jo hdsil hii^a. 

Acquittance (in Court), kha- 
Ids ; rihdj, V. -kar-d. 
(of an account), ' rasid' ; 
(E.) ; fdrigh-khatti, V. -d. 

Across, tdr ; us pdr. 



Act, fel ; amr; avial. -tion, 

kdin, V. karna. 
Active, tez ; chdldk. -ity, 

chtisti ; chdldki. 
Add, lagd-d. (figures), jam a- k. 
Address (speech), takrir (f.); 

arz (f.); baks {(.); nibedan. 

V. -k. (of letter, &c.,) 

thikdna. 
Adhere, lagna ; lag-jdna ; 

satna ; sat-jdna. 
Adjacent, ?tnzdik ; karib. 
Admiration, ajab ; ta.ajjub. 

V. -k, -able, ajib ; khub ; 

achchha. 
Admit (to presence), dne-d, 

(agree to), kabul-k. ; ikrdr- 

k. -mission, ikrdr. 
Adorn, sajdna. -menr, 

drdjsh ; sitigdr. 
Advance, barhd^o. V. {trans.\ 

dge barhd?ia ; chaldna. 

{intr.), chalna ; dge j ana, 

(of money), dddni. -ment 

in life, tarakki. V. -d. and 

pdna. 
Advantage, fdjdah. -ous^ 

fd^idaniand. , 
Advertisement, ishtihdr. V. 

-jdri-k. 
Advice, saldh (f.)/ maslahat. 

V. -d 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Affair, bdl ; amr ; kdm ; 

ivitku. 
Affect, asar. V. -k. ; lagna. 
Affection, pydr ; mukabbat. 
Affirmation, ikrdr ; izhdr, 

V. 'k. ; kahna. 
Affliction, ghatiwi; dzurdagi; 

taklif (f. ). -ed, ghamgiti ; 

dzurdah ; dil-sokhtah, V. 

satdna ; taklif-d. 
Afford, de-sakna. 
Mooi^ paidal ; pd^07i-pd^on. 
After (time), ke baad ; ke pi- 

chhe. (place), ke pichhe : 

(adv.), pichhe. -wards, is 

ke baad ; tab. -noon, do 

pahar ke baad ; sih-pahar. 
Again, phir ; pher, - and-, 

ber-ber ; aksar. 
Against {e.g,^ a stone), /^r. 

(adverse), se Jzhildf. 
Age, iimr{i)\ sinn. (period), 

wakt ; zamdnah ; yug. 

old-, burhdpa. 
Agent, nd^tb ; gwndshtah ; 

kartah ; kdr-parddz. (for 

law business), vakil ; 

mukhtdr. -cy, gumdshta- 

gari ; vakili. 
Agree to, kabid-k; rdzi-hona, 

-able, khush ; pasand ; 

mu^dfik, -ably to, hasb ; 



ba-niiijib ; ke mu^dfik 
-ment, shart ; kaul-o- 
kardr ; ahd-o-paimdn. -(in 
writing), satta ; sarkhatt, 
...ndmah, added to word 
expressing the nature of 
the agreement ; as sulk- 
ndmah, an agreement for 
peace, e.g.^ in a litigation. 

Aid, madad (f.). V. ~-d. 

Aim (at mark), shast. V. -k. 
(intention), matlab ; ird- 
dah ; kasd ; niyat ; gharaz 

(f.). 

Air, haiva {{.). to take the-, 

hazva khd/za. 
Alarm, dar((.). N .-dikhldna. 
Alike, eksdn ; ek kis7n ka ; 

bardbar. 

All, sab ; sab ke sab ; kull ; 
iaindfji. -right ! bahut 
achchha I ; bahut kJmb ! 

Allegation, bdt ; baydn ; arz 
(f.). V. -k. ; kahna. 

Alligator, ma gar ; ghariydl ; 
kumhir. 

Allow, use ^ dena' and the 
veib of that which is al- 
lowed, e.g., us-ne ham-ko 
dne diya liai^ he has allow- 
ed me to come. When 



■ 



212 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



equivalent to 'give/ (I 

allow you ten rupees a 

month), also use * dena.^ 
Allude to, zikr-k. N. zikr. 
Almonds, bdddm. 
Alms, khairdt. V. -d. 
Alone, akela ; ekla ; ianha ; 

viujarrad. 
Along {e.g.^ the street,) meii; 

/^r.-with, ek sdth ; kesdth. 
Aloud, zor se, or baland 

awdz se. 
Already, ab-hi ; with c/iukna, 

e.g., I have already spoken, 

maiijL bol-chuka hun. 
Also, aur ; bhi. 
Alternate. See page 69. 
Although, agar-chih ; har- 

chand. 
Always, hameshah ; aksar. 
Am, hiin. 
Amendment, bihtari ; du- 

rusti ; tarmini. V, -k. 
Amiable, aziz ; shdyastah, 

-bility, shdyastagi. 
Among; amidst, ke bich. 

-themselves, dpas men. 
Amount, jumlah ; jama. 
Amuse, bahldna ; khush-k, 

-ment, td??idsha ; khela- 

kheli. 
Analysis, tafsil; tafrik. V. -k. 



Ancestor, jadd ; bdp-ddda ; 

muris. -try, jaddiyat. 
Anchor, langar. V. (to cast, ) 

-ddlna. (to heave), -uthd- 

na. 
Ancient, kadim ; agla ; 

purdna. 
And, aur ; wa : 0. 
kx\g€[, firistah.{Pl. -tagdn.)] 

malah. 
Anger, ghussah ; kJiafgi ; ris, 

(f.). A. ghusse : khafa, 

V. -ho?ia. 
Anima], J dnwar ; haiwdn. 
Animosity, addwat ; dush- 

ffiani. 
Announcement, khabar^ (f.) ; 

iitila (f.). V. ~-d. 
Annoyance, dikk ; taklij (i.). 

V. -d.; satdna. 
Another, (an additional 

thing,) aur ek. (a different 

thing), dusra. 
Answer, jawdb^ V. —d. {to 

^dOy) thik-hona ; achchha- 

hona. (liable to answer), 
jawdb-dihi. 
Ant, chyuiiti. (red,) benbtit. 

(white.) dimak. 
Antimony, sur7nah. 
Antipathy, zidd ; naffat ; 

chirh (f.). 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN, 



213 



Antiquity, awdjl ; agle-7vakf. 
Anxiety, yf/e/' (f.) ; andeshah ; 

taraddud, A. fikrmand ; 

miitafakkir. V. fiknnand^ 

c^c. hona. 
Any. See page t^^. -where, 

kahtn, -how, kisi tar ah ; 

jis - tarah ban - parega. 

-more, aiir kuchh. 
Apart, juda ; alag ; ek taraf. 

-ment, kothri ; kamra. 

(for females), zandnah. 

(for males), marddnah. 
Apology, uzr. V. -k. 
Apostle, rasul ; paighambar. 

(the latter referring, par 

excellence^ to Muhammad.) 
Apparatus, sdz; sdz-o-sdmdn; 

saranjdni ; chiz sab. 
Apparent, zdhir ; maahim ; 

sdf. to be-, -hona. to 

make- -k. 
Appearance, sicrat; shaklii.). 
Append, jorna ; lagd-d. ; 

shdmil-k. -age, Idhik. -ix, 

tatimniah, 
Apple, seb. 

Applicable, Id^ik ; inundsib. 
Apply (one thing to an- 
other), lagdna ; lagd-d. ; 

tnildna ; . mild-d. (as to 

study), tnihnat^ tandihi^ 



or ihtimdm-k, ; dil-lagd-d. 

-plication, (of one thing to 

another,) ek chiz dusri ko 

lagd-d. (v.n.). (diligence,) 

mihnat ; tandihi ; ihtimdm. 
Appointment, kdm; naukari, 

V. kisi ko kdm, &^c. d. ; 

tayin-k ; ndm-zad-k. -ed, 

muta^aiyan ; mansub. 
Apprehend (with mind), sa- 

majhna; samajh men lena; 

bujhna, -hens ion, samajh, 

(f.) ; biljh, (f.) ; hosh ; akl 

(f.) See ' Arrest.' 
Approach, nazdik, or sdmne, 

or pds dna ; wdrid hona. 
Approve, pasand-k. ; man- 

zicr-k. -al, manziiri. 
Apricot, khiibdni, or khobdni. 
Arbitration, sdlisi ; panch- 

dyat V. -k, -tor, salts ; 

panch. 
Arch {n.),mihrdb.V .-bandna. 
Archer, kamd?t-ddr ; tir-an- 

ddz. -ery, kamdn-ddri ; 

iir-anddzi, . 
Ardour, gar mi ; dil-sozi ; zah- 

mat ; fnihnat. filled with-, 

garm ; dil-soz ; mihnati. 
Arduous, sakht ; mushkil ; 

sangin ; wazani. 
Are. See page 15. Sect. 11. 



214 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO "fe'E SPOKEN. 



Area, 7naiddn ; j'aga/i, (court) 
sahn, 

Areca-nut, supdri, pan. 

Arise, uthna ; uth-Jdna. (be- 
gin,) shuru-k, (come up, 
e.g,^ for attention,) bar-pd- 
hona ; pesh-hona. 

Arm, bdzu; hdih, -pit, baghal^ 
(f.). (of sea, or river\ sota. 

Arms, hathiydr ; harbe. 

Army yfauj (f.) ; lashkar (m.). 

Around, har taraf ; chdron 
taraf;chauras.'^xt^. kegird. 

Arrangement, tartib; intizdm; 
band-o-bast. (m.). V. -k. ; 
thik-k. ; durusi-k. 

Arrears, bdki ; jo bdki hai ; 
bdkiydt, 

Axitsl, pakarna ; pakar-lena, 
or le-jdna ; giriftdr-k, in 
arrest, girifidr-hic^a ; kaid- 
hic^a ; pakra gay a. 

Axx\\e,pahunchna ; d-paJum- 
chna ; dna ; d-jdna ; hdzir- 
hona, or dna ; tashrif Idna, 
See page 76. Sect 17. 
ivdrid-hona. -al, dmad (f.). 
dar-dmad (f.). and with the 
verbs used as v. n. -e.g., 
* on his arrival,' us-ke dne 
ke wa^t. 

Arrow, tir (m.). 



Art, hunar ; ihn ; kdm. -ful, 
hilah'bdz ; shokh, -fully, 
fann se. -less, sidha ; sack- 
cha, -ifice, hilah. -ifice*^ 
kdrigar. -ist, musawwir. 

Artichoke, hdtichok. (E.). 

Artillery, the, iop-khdnah. 

As. See page 104. (like.) ki 
fndntnd ; ke mu^dfik ; chun- 
dnchih. * he gives orders 
as a master, malik kar 
(from *karna,') hukum deta 
hai * as if is best transla- 
ted by Mike,' e.g., he speaks 
as if he ivere a great man^ 
-he speaks 'like,' or * in 
the manner of * a great 
man,' *bare admi ke taur se 
bolta hai, or, bara admi 
kar bolta hai.' As far as, 
as long as, &c. See corre- 
sponding phrases at page 
104. as often as... so often, 
jai-ber..Jai-ber, ^ that as 
well as /^/V,' wuh, aur yih 
bhi, 

As»cend,charhna ; charhjdna, 
N. luichi za7Jiin (f.). 

A scerta i n m e nt, darydft ; 
tahkik. V. -k. ; khabar 
Idna ; piuhhna. 
Ascribe, lagdd. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



215 



Ashamed, sharmiiidah ; lajit. 

to be-, -hona ; sharmdna ; 

sharm-khdna ; lajdna. 
Ashes, rdkL 
Ask, (a question.) puchhna ; 

sawdl-k, (for something.) 

mdngna ; chdhna. 
Asparagus, sparugras, (E.). 
Aspec, aspik, (E.). 
Aspire, drzi4 rakhna. -ation, 

dli-hhfimaf. 
Ass, gadha. (f. gadhi) ; kliar. 
A^?,2iu[t,ha77ilah;mdr-pit.Y-k. 
Assembly, -blage, jamd.at ; 

majmii^ah ; majlis; ainboh, 

(unlawful) maJ7iia khi- 

Idf kdnun. {x\o\.o\x%) guhdr, 

V. {trans.), jama-k. (intr.), 

jama-hofia. 
Assent. See ' Agree to.' 
Assert. See ' Say.' 
Assist. See * Aid.' -tant, 

madad-gdr. 
Associate, sharik ; rafik. to 

-with. 7nel-rakhna ; sdth- 

rahna ; suhbai-rakhna. 
Assume (take), lena ; /e-lena. 

(for argument's sake,) 

farz-k, (airs), itrdna. 
Assure, kahtia ;yakin kardna^ 

-2Lnce,yakin ; khdtir-jama^ 

-edly, albattah. 



Astonishment, tahaiyur, V. 
kisi ko tahaiyur-k. -ed, 
ghdbra, -ing, ajubah ; ajib^ 

Astrology, nujum. -ger, nu- 
jiimi. 

At, (a person's,) ke pds ; ke 
yahdit. (place,) vien, 
(time,) ko. -all events, ba 
har surat. -first, awwalan ; 
pal hie. -hand, ke pds ; ke 
nazdik ; muyassar. -home. 
ghar meii. -last, dkhir ; 
dkhir ko ; dkJiir-ul-ainr^ 
-least, kam se kam. -lei- 
sure, e.g., abniMJh-ko fursat 
hat. -lengih, (in detail,) 
mufassalan. (See, * at last.') 
-most, bahut se bahut, 
-pleasure, marzi ke mti^- 
dfik. -present, ab ; is wakt 
-random ; ittifdk-se ; be- 
taur ; be-thikdna. -times, 
kabhi-kabhi. -work, kdm 
men ; mashghuL-Jho, worst, 
sab se buri hdlat men. 

Attach, lagdna ; lagd-d ; 
jorna. -ment (as a friend), 
tarafddri ; mail, (a join- 
ing), /^r. (seize, by process 
of law, or otherwise), 
zabt-k. 

Attack. See * Assault.' 



2l6 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BP: SPOKEN. 



Attain, pdna ; viihia {See 

.page 50. Note I.) hdsil-k. 
-ment,(of \i\^\) kdmydbi. 
(acquisition), hdsil. (learn- 
ing), ///;/ ; ddfiist ; hunar. 

Attempt, koshish. V. -k. 

Attendance, hdziri, kjiidmat; 

. (in hopes of employment), 
vmviedwdri. -tion, kha- 
barddri ; sucheti. -tive, 
kJiabarddr ; suchef. to give 
attention, khabardd7'i-k. : 
dil-lagdfia. to attend on 
one, kisi ki khidmat-k. 
with attention, khabarddri 
se : surt se. 

Attestation, tasdik (f.); shahd- 
dat V, -k. 

Attorney, vakil; mukhtdr : 
nd.ib, power of-, vakdlat- 
nd.mah ; imikhtdr-ndmah. 

Auction, 7iildm. V. -k. to 
send \.o-,ni/dm men d., or 
ddlna. 

Audience, darbdr ; inajlis. 
-hall (pablic), diwd?i-t- 
drn7?i. (private), diwdn-i- 
khdss. to grant an-, diwdn- 
i-dmin (or khdss) 7nen 77iuld- 
kdt farindna^ 

Augment, bar/idTia ; zijd- 
dah-k. -ation, ziyddai. 



Aunt, (paternal,) phuphi. 

(maternal), 77ia2isi. 
Author, 77iusa7mif. 
Auth()rity,//|////j'^>; 7nakdur ; . 

hukianat. -htyijdzai-d. 
Autumn, kJiarif. A. kJiarifi, 

— crop, kJiarif. 
Avail of, kd77ilena. -able, 

kdiii ka. of no avail, kuchh 

kd7ti ka 7iahi7i. 
Avarice, Idlach^ (m.) ; hukhl ; 

(f ) ; Mrs, (f.) A. Idlchi. 
Avenge, i7itikdin le7ia. 
Averse {kuchh chiz se\mukhd- 

lif. \ -/i07ia. -sion, 7iafrat. 
Await, rah7ia ; kisi ke wdste 

sabr-k. 
Award (v.) dildna. {n.)faliva; 

hukiji. 
K\\2cc^yWdkif, to be-, ivdkif- 

hona. to make-, -k. 
Away. See ' Absent. ' 
Awaken, {lra7is.) jagdna ; 

Jagdd, {intr,)^ jdg7ia. 

tiv;:ike, J dg/ a ; beddr. wide- 
awake, ( fi L! . ) hoshydr ; 

chdldk. 
Awe, (n.,) dar (m.). (v.) dar 

dikhld7ia. -ful, haul-7idk. 
Awning, shdmiydnah. 
Axe, td7iga ; kuihdri. 
Azure, dsi7id7ii. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT 10 BE SPOKEN. 



2 I 7 



B. 



Babe, baby, bachchah ; bach- 
, chah miydii ; larka ; (fern.) 

larki ; bdba (L. B.). 
Bachelor, n>ukjilis ; imijar- 

rad ; ko,dra. 
Back (v. irans.)^ pichhe-k. ; 

hatd-d. (v, intr.), hatjdna ; 

hatna. to give-, ivdpas-d. to 

keep-, 7'okna ; bdz-rakhtia. 

{w.) pith, {(.). {?L^\.)pher; 

pichhe ; bdz. 
Bacon, bekajii. (E.). 
Bad, Jzhardb ; biira ; bad (last 

much used in compos.) 

-ly, khardb; khardb taurse. 
Badge, chaprds. wearer of 

a-, chaprdsi. 
Bag, ihaili ; kisah ; kjiaritah. 

for water (small), mashk, 

i^^\g€)^pakhdl. -gage, chiz- 

bast, (f.). 
Bail, zdmini. -or, zdmin. 
. -iff, 7idzir. 

Bake^pakdna. -er, roti-7vdla. 
. -house, tanur-khdtiah. 
Balance, (foe weighing,) (n.), 

tardzii. (unpaid,) bdki ; 

bdkiydt. (excess, ) fdzil. 
Bald, garija. -ne>s, garij. 



Ball, goli ; gend ; anta. -of 

thread, &c., batta. (dance), 

ndch, (f.). a fancy -, pudri- 

ndch. (half K). 
Bamboo, bdns. 
Band, (of people, ),^«n?//. (m.), 

(music,) bdja, (for waist,) 

kamar-band. (for neck,) 

gala-band, or giihi-band. 

-a lie, patti. 
Bank, (river, &c.,) pdr ; 

kindrah (money,) kothi ; 

bank} (E. . -er, sarrdf ; 

sdhukdr ; mahdjan. 
Barber, bdrwal{Yj.)', hajjdm; 

ndpit. 
Bare, (naked,) langa, or 

?ia nga .(plain,) sdda ; khdlL 

to lay-, kholna ; dekhne-d. 

-faced, be-sharm. 
Bargain, shart ; kaid-o-kardr, 

V. -bdndhna ; -bdndh- 

lefia ; -k. 
Barley, y^//. (for table,) bdrli, 

(K). 
Barouche, barush-gdri, (half 

K). ' 
Barracks, chhduni; Idinsi^.), 
Barrel, pipa. 



* Preserve your Hindustani pronunciation of the short 'a.' 



21 8 HINDl5STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Barren, -land, zainin jis-se 
fasl nahin milti hat. 

Base (n.), bunydd, (f.). (adj.), 
bad-zdt ; pdji. (of coin,) 
mekhi. 

Bashful. See ' Ashamed.' 

Basil, tidsi. 

Basin, bdsan. (metal,) chilam- 
chi. 

Basket, tokri, work-, pauti. 

Bat, (beast,) cha7ngddar,(^\2iy- 
ing,) thdpi ; lakri. 

BsLiiieJardjt ;yang.((.).Y ,mk.; 
larna, -array, saff-i-jang. 

Bazaar, bdzdr. 

'Et,hona; (for Passive Voice), 
jdna. -it so, so hi ho. 

Beach. See ' Bank.' 

Bead, ddnah, a string of-, 
mdla. 

Beak, choiich ; ?iok, (f.). 

Beam,(large,) /^///^^; (small,) 
barga. 

Bean, bora ; lobiya. 

Bear (v.). See * Carry.' (en- 
dure,) barddsht-k, -fruit, 
phalna ; phal-d. -pain, 
dard uthdna. -children, 
janna, -young, biydna. 



-witness, gawdhi, oxshakd- 
dat-d, * bearer.' See page 35, 
See * Carrier.' (animal), 
richh; bhdl ; bhdlu. 

Beard, ddrhi ; rish (f.). 

'Be-dst, jdnwar ; haiwdn. 

Beat, vidriia ; pitna ; thokna; 
(in contest,) jitna, {i.e., to 
win,) (^.^., a drum,) bajdtia, 
-ing, 7ndr ; mdr-mdr ; 
7ndra-7fidri ; vidr-pit to be 
beaten, mdr-khdna. 

Beautiful, khub-surat, N. -/. 

Because, kyiinkih} 

Become, ho-jdna (suit,) 
achchha-lagna ; Idjk-hona, 

Bed, palang. -stead, chdr- 
pd^i ; khdt ; khatiyah, (for 
flowers,) lakhtah. (of river,) 
pet. -clothes, bichhdwan ; 
orhne ka kapra. -ding, 
bichhanTia. to make the-, 
palang taiydr-k. to spread 
-ding, bichhauna bichhdna. 
-room, soTie ka kamra. 

Bee, zambur;shahd kimakkhi. 

Beef, bifgosht. (half E.). 

Beer, bir-shardb^ (f.), ( half 
E.). 



* The idiom often is as follows : Eng. ' Because it is raining, I shall 
not go out.' Hind. 'It is raining, therefore (is sabab se), I shall not 
go out. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



219 



Before, (adv.) (person or 
place,) sdmne ; pas ; age, 
(time,) age ; pat hie ; pesh- 
tar. (prep.), ke sdmne ; ke 
pas ; ke age ; huzur vien. 

Beg, mdngna ; iltimds-k, 
(alms,) bhikh - mdngna. 
-gar, bhikdri, * I - your 
pardon,' mu^df kijiye. 

Begin, lagna ; shurti-k.-nmg, 
shuru. ; ibtida^ (f.) from 
beginning to end, kull ; 
tamdm ; sar-d-sar ; sar-d- 
pd. 

Behalf (on - of,) ke wdste ; 
ke liye. 

Behave, nibdhna, N. chdl- 
chalan. 

Behind, {2idw,) pichhe. (prep.) 
ke pichhe. 

Being, (a human,) ddini ; 
insdn. 

Belief, bdwar ; itimdd ; 
itibdr, V. -k, ; mdnna. 
(religious) mazhab ; imdn. 

Bell, ghanta. 

Bellows, dhaui}kni. V. 
dhaunkna. 

Belly, pet; shikam. to fill 
the-, (/.^., to satisfy one,) 
pet bharna, -ache, peck- 
ish. 



Belong, by the genitive, e.g., 
yih ghora mera hai. 

Beloved, pydra ; mahbiib. 

Below, (adv.) niche, (prep.) 
ke niche ; ke tale. 

Belt, band (as last part in 
compos.) ', peti ; bekit. (E.). 

Bench, chauki. of Justices, 
' binch: (E.). 

Bend(n.), terhd,i;pech. V. -k. 
A. terha ; kaj ; bdiika. 

Beneath. See * Below.' 

Benediction, du,a (f.). 

Benefactor, md-bdp; jnurabbi. 

Benefit, fd^idah ; nafa ; 
ihsdfi. 

Benevolence, khair-khwdhi ; 
iliifdt ; shajakat ; ihsdn. 

Beseech. See * Beg.' 

Beside, besides, (near,) ke 
pds ; ke nazdik ; ke yahdtj,, 
(except,) ke siwa. (in addi- 
tion to,) aldwah is ke ; is 
ke sitva ; is-par yih bhi 
hai. 

Best, sab se achchha^ to do 
oxi€ ?>-^viakdur bhar kdm-k, 
to make the - of it, bare 
bhale nibdhna^ or lena. 

Bestow, de-d, ; bakhshna ; 
bakhshish-d, . 

Bet, shart, N -band-lena. 



2.20 HIN^DUStXnI as IT OUdHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Betel, sitpdri^ or supydri. as 
chewed by natives, /^'«. a 
dealer in-, tainboU, -box, 
pdn-ddji. 

Belter, bihtar ; us-se achchha. 
V. kisi ki bihtari-k. 

Between. See ' Among. ' 

Beware. See ' Acquainted.' 

Beyond, ke bdhar ; tis taraf. 
(e.g, the sea,) pdr. 

Bible, baiba/. (E.). 

Bid, kahiia ; hukm-d. -good 
day, &c. kjiair-bdd or 

. mubdrak-bdd kahna (n.) 
(at auction,) (/^f/^. (to bid at 
auction) ddk-k,, or bolna. 

Big, bara ; buziirg. (fat,) 
7nota. N. bard,i ; motd^i. 

Bigoted, viuta^assib. 

Wi\Q, pith, ox pit. 

Bill. See 'Beak' and 'Ac- 
count.' -of exchange, 
hiindi. 

Billiards, anta-khel. -room, 
ajita-ghar. 

Bind, bdndh?ia ; bdndh-d. 

. -ing of a hook, J itd-bandi. 

Bird, chiriya. -cage, pinjra. 
-lime, /^'jTrt'. 

Birth, jana;/i. -day, -^/>/. 

Biscuit, ^/Vy^/V. (E.). 

Bishop, /dt pddri sdkib. - 



Bit, ///>^r^ ; zarrah (f. ) ; thora- 
. sa (for horse,) dahdnah. 
Bite, /^^/^. V. ^«';// se kdtna. 

(as hot things,) lagna. 
Bitter, tita ; karwa ; tcz. 

-ness, talkjii. 
Black, kdla ; siydJi. -ness, 

siydhi. V. kdla-k, -ant, 

chyunti, -guard, bad-zdt. 

smith, lohdr. -ing, 

siydhi ; roshnd,i. pepper, 

gol-mirch. 
Blame, //s^'///; inaldmat. V.-k. 

less, be-kiisur ; nirdosh. 
Blanket, kamrnal, (f.). kamli. 
Blaze, lati ; lahar ; shulah, 

V. lahrdna. 
Bleed, {trans.), fasd-kholna ; 

lohu lena.{intr.),lohu girna- 
Blemish, aib, (f.) ; kJiata ; 

ddgh. A. ddghi. V. ddghi-k. 
Blessing, du,a, (f.). A. inubd- 

rak. V. -d. 
Blind (adj.), andha ; kor-oi 

one eye, kdna, V. andhera- 

k. -ness, kori ; nd bini. 
Blind (y\.), pardah. 
Blister, phaphola. 
Block, kundah. -head^ 

ahmak ; be-wukuf. 
Blood, kJiun ; lohu. -y, khun- 

dludah. -less, be-khun. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



'^\o%som^ phu/y -bahar ana. 

Blot, ddgh. -ed, ddghi. V. 
-/^.-ting-paper, Idl-kdghaz. 

Blow (n.), zarb (f.) ; thokar, 
(f.) ; ghusa. (V.) (as wind,) 
chalna ; hahna -with the 
mouth, phiuikna; phunk-d, 
-over, (as a storm,) sdf 
hona ; khulna, to - an in- 
strument, bajdna, to give 
a-. See * Beat.' 

Blue, nil ; nila. 

Blunt, kund. N. -/*. 

Blush, kjiijlat, V. -^ at the 
first-, dekhte hii^e. 

Boar, janglt sti^ar. 
Bj^v Board, takhtah. (assembly), 
BL ' borad,' i:^,). 



[Boasting, Idf-zani, V. -k. 



a -er, Idf-zan. 

Boat, kishti ; nd^o (f.) ; with 
thtir various kinds, as 
• bajra ' y '' panso^V ; 'den- 
ghi^^ Q^c. -man, malldh. 
head ditto, mdnjhi. 

Body (human,) badan ; jism. 
(of men.) See 'Assembly.' 

Boil (trans. )^ ubdlna ; (intr.)^ 
khaulna ; iibalna. -ing 
-wdiitr^ garmpdni. servants 
^2iy, phuta pant. N. phap- 
hoia. 



Bold, marddnah ; shitja, 

-ness, marddnagi ; ausdn^ 

(f.) ; shvjd.at. (in a ba<l 
. sense,) j/^<?^^/. N. shokJiL 
Bolster, bara iakiyah. -up, 

?nadad-d. 
Bolt (n.), ^^/;/^; theki. V.' 

-lagdna. as, e.g., a horse. 

bhdgna ; bhdg-jdna. 
Bond (fetter,) ^'^/^ (f.). (to 

secure debt,) tamassuk. 
Bone, haddi ; hdr. 
Book, kiidby (f.) ; bahi. 

-sli elves, -ka takhtah. 

binder, jild-band. -bind- 

wi, jild-bandi. 
Boot, but. (E.) ; inozah. 

-lace, bict ka fitah. 
Border, kindrah. (of a writ- 
ing,) hdshiyah. 
Bore (v.), chhedna. (annoy,) 

satdna ; dikk-k. -er, ^ar- 
mah. 
Born, to be, paida-hona. 
Borrow, mdng-lena ; karz- 

lena. -er, niustair. 
Bosom, sinah. 
Both (two), donoij, both... 

and. See page 46. 
Bottle, botal, (f.),(E.). j/^/y/^- 

Bough. See ' Branch'- 



222 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Bound (leap,) kudna ; uchhal- 
na, N. Md ; uchhal, (en- 
close,) hadd (f.) (or, plur.) 
hudiid-d, or lagdna. A. 
pd-band, -ed, ghera ; viah- 
dud. 
Bow (for arrows,) ka7?idn ; 
dhanuk (f.). (for pellets,) 
ghulel (f.). to use a-, -k. 
(salutation,) saldin. V. -k. 
Bowl, boli (E.); piydlah ; 
katora. finger-, hdth-boli. 
Box, sanduk ; sandiik-chah ; 
hakas. (E.). (trunk,) peti, 
tin-box of a particular 
shape for clothes, &c., 
pitdrah. ...dan. See page 
41. a small -, e.g.^ for . 
snuff, a single ring, &c., 
dibiya. See 'Blow.' 
Boy, chhokra ; larka. In 
. Bombay and Madras, ^bof 
is used in calling one's 
personal servant ; never so 
in Bengal, -hood, larak- 
pan. -ish, chhokra-sa. 
Bracelet, called by endless 
names ; a general word is, 
bdzu-band. 
Braces, gdlis. 
Bracket, brdkit. (E.). 
Braid, giindhaft. 



Brain, maghz; dimdgh. -less, 

be-wukiif. 
Bran, bhtisi. 

Branch, shdkji ; Ml {i,). (of 

river,) sota, (of a subject,) 

juz ; bdb. 

Brandy, brdi^di-shardb (f.). 

Brass, pital. of-, -ka, 

-platter, ihdli. -vessels 

(generally), thdli-lota. 

Brave. See * Bold.' dildwar ; 

diler, -ery, dildwari, dileri. 

Bravo ! shdbdsh ; bahut 

achchha I 
Brawn, bardn. (E.). 
Bray, renkna. 
Bread, roti ; ndn (f.). (food 

generally,) khdna. 
Breadth, chaurd^i ; araz. 
Bresd^ (ff'am.), forna ; tor-d.; 
phdrna. (intr.\ ttit-jdna. 
-open, torna ; tor-d 
-away, bhdg-jdna. -off, 
barkJidst-k, of day, bhor ; 
barifajr; tarka ; subh; ala- 
s-sabdh. broken, ticta ; tuta 
Mc^a. -fast, hdziri ; ndsh- 
tah. V. "lena ; -khdna. 
Breast, chhdii ; sinah. 
Breath, dam ; sdi,is. to be out 
of-, dam-tutna.Xo draw-, 
-lena. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



223 



Breeches, jdiighia ; brichis, 

(E.). 
Bribe, rishwat ; ghus. to 

give a- -d, to accept a- 

-lena, or -khdna. 
Brick, /;//, (f.) ; kjiisht 
Bridge, ////. V. -banana, 

tolls for construction of-, 
-bandi. 
Bridle, lagdm (f.) V. -lagd-d. 
Brief; briefly, mnkhtasar, a-, 

intikjidb. 
Bright, sdf ; raushan. V. -k. 

-ness, raushani. 
Bring, Idna ; le-dna ; lele- 

dna. -about, band-id na, 

-in, hdzir Idna ; hdzir- 

kar-d.; dne-d.; yahdn-ldna. 

-over, is laraf Idna. -up, 

pdlna ; parivarish-k. 
Broad, chaura ; ariz. N. 

chaurd.i; araz, -cloth, 

bdndt. 
Brocade, ka^nkhwdb. 
Broker, dalldl. 
Brooch, baroch. (E.). 
Broom, jhdru. 
Broth, sjiorba. 
Brother, bhd^i ; barddar. 

-hood, barddari. -ly, bard- 

dardfia. 
Brougham, band-gdri. 



Brow (of face,) abru. (of a 

hill,) lab. 
Brown, barun, (E.). 
Brush, See ^Broom.' (hair, 

clothes,) brush, (E.) V.-//., 

or lagd-d. See page 96. 

(sweep,) jhdrna ; jhdr-d. 

--wood, jhdr ; jhdri. 
Bucket, dolchi ; bdlti. 
Buffalo, bhainsa. f. -si. 
Buffoon, 7Jiask/iara/i. 
Bug, kiiat-inai. 
Build, banana ; bdndhna ; 

uthdna, -mg^giiar; viakdn^ 

kothi ; imdrat. 
Bull, nar-gd^o ; sdiid, or sdrir. 
Bullet, goii. 

Bullock, baii. -cart, -gdri. 
Bunch, guciichha. 
Bundle, ^;^<i!//^r/; bast ah; chiz- 

bast ah; mot. (^.^., of grass,) 

bojJia. 
Burden (n.), bojhaN. boj'hna. 
Burial, kafan-dafan, (f). 

V. -k. ; mitti-d. -ground, 

goristdn ; kabristdn. 
Burn {n.),sokhtah. (v. trans.,) 

jaid?ia ; jald-d.; dg-iagd-d, 

{intr.), Jaina, 
Burst (intr.), pJiutna ; phat- 

jdna. (trans.), torna ; 

phdrna. 



224 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT T^ HE SPOKEN. 



Bush, jhdr ; gdchh. rose-, 

gul-db-phul. 
Business, kdm; kdr; kdr bdf ; 

kdr-o-bdr. (trade,) tijdrat. 

(profession,) peshah. V. -k. 
Busy, kdm men ; mashghul. 
But, kkin ; magar. (only,) 

sirf; kJidii, e.g., there is 

nothing but books here, 

yahdrj. sirf (or, khdli) 

kitdbe7} hati,t. 
Butcher, kassdb. V. katl-k. ; 

zabh-k, 
Butler, khdnsdmdij,. 
^vX\.tx^makkha7iy(y\2i\AV^^ gh i 

(ill.), -man, makkhanwdla. 
Butterfly, /////. 



Buttocks, chutar. 
Button, ghundi ; bu/dm, (E.), 
' -hole, mtindi. 
Buy, mdl-lena ; kharid-k, 
-ing and selling, /^//r?^-/V- 

farokht -er, khariddr. 
Buzz, bhm-bhindna. -ing, 

bhin-bhindhat. 
By, se. -me, mere pds, by 

hundreds, sau^ sau hokar. 

^one's self, dp hi dp^ or 

dp-se. -chance, ittifdkan. 

-all means, har tarah se. 

-no means, hargiz na. 

-and,- tkori ghari ke baad, 

-heart, ydd se. year by 

year, sdl-ba-sdl. 



Cab, thika-gdri -man, -wd^a. 

Cabbage, kobi. 

Cage, pinJ7'a 

Cake, kulchah ; kek. (E.). 

Calamity, dfat; viusibat. 

Calendar, jantri. 

Calf, bachhra. -of leg, pindli. 

Calico, katan kapra ; mdrkin 

(i.e., 'Arrierican.') 
Call (one), biiidna; buld-lena; 

ialab-k. (shour), pnkdrna ; 



dzadz-d. N. dim z ,{(.); bdng. 

(visit,) muldkdt. V. -k. 
Camel, //;//; shntur. -driver, 

shutur-bdn. 
Ca m p, khimah'-gdh; J is jagah 

khiuie khare hii^e haijj. 
Camphor, kdfur. 

Can, See page i8. Sect. 22. 
dna^ (of what a person is 
able to do, e.g., ham kolikh- 
na dta hai, I can write.) 



* Pronounced also ^ KJiaiutah.' 



HINDT^STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



¥ 



Canal, na/ir. (f.). 

Candle, mom-batti ; kandil. 
{not E.). -stick, shama- 
ddn. 

Cannon, top -ball, top ki golL 

Canvas, tat. 

Cap, topi. 

Capable. See ' Able.' 

Caper (n.), kabar {i.) -, kepar 
(E.). (v.) uchhalna. N. 
uchhal. 

Capital (in trade,) pimji. 
Adj. achchha ; bahut ach- 
chha ; utndah. 

Ca.pon, pekan. See paoe ^\. 

Captain, sirdar ; kat)tdn sahib. 

Caravan, kdrwdn ; kdfilah. 

Card, tikat (E.). playing-, 
tdsh. -board, kat. 

Care (anxiety,)y^/^r(f.) ; ande- 
shah ; tarraddud ; Adj. 
fikr-mand. V. fikrmand- 
>^<7?/^. (guardianship.) amd- 
nat ; hifdzat ; zim??iah. 
V. (to take care of a thing,) 
apne pas rakhna ; hifdzat 
men rakhna, (caution,) 
khabarddri, Adj. khabar- 
ddr. V. khabarddr-ho?ia. 
-less, ghdfil. N. ghaflat. 



(free from care,) be-kJiabar. 

N. be-kJiabarddri. 
Caress, nawdzish. V. pydr-k. 
Carpenter, barha.,i, -try, 

najjdri. 
Carpet, dari ; Jarsh ; shat- 

ranji ; gh dlichah^ or kdli- 

chah . 
Carnage. See page 90. 

stage-, ddk-gdri. 
Carry, uthdna ; icthd-ke-k- 
jdna. -into effect, ba-sar- 

Idna ; ba-ja Idna ; nibdhnn. 

-ier, kuli ; barddr ; ham. 

mdl p- motiya. 
Cart, gdri. bullock-, bail-gdri. 

-load, gdri ka bojha ; gdri 

ki khep. 
Case (covering,) ghilaf. (box,) 

sandick. See page ^i, * dan."* 

(in Court,) mukaddamah ; 

ndlish. the facts of the-, 

hdl ; asl Ml; mdjara, 

one's-, (i.e. what he has ; 

to say,) guzdrish ; arz (f.), 

nibedon. 
Cash, paise ; rupiye. ready- 

nakd-riipiye ; -book, khdta- 

bahi ; hisdb ki bahi. -ier, 

khazdnchi. 



* Not in use in Bengal. 



15 



226 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Cask, fipa. 

Cast. See ' Throw.' 

Cat, hilli. 

Catalogue, ^/^m/. 

Catch, pakarna ; pakar-lena. 
-cold, sardi khdna. to be 
caught, pakra-jdna. 

Caterpillar, jhdnjha. 

Cattle, ma^mshi ; ^a,e-goru. 

Cauliflower, phid-hobi. 

Cause, sabab ; wajh, (f.). V. 
kardna ; kard-d. without-, 
be-sabab. 

Caution. See ' Care.' 

Cease {trans.), maukuf-k. ; 
band-k. {intr.\ same words 
and hona ; ho-jdna. 

Celery, silari (E.). 

Cent, per, saikra, e.g. pdnch 
rupiye saikra, 5 per cent. 

Centipede, gojar. 

Centre, markaz ; bichon bich. 
in the-, bich men. 

Ceremony, takaliuf ;takiif(i.). 

Certain {^\xx^,) yakin. N. -/. 
V. -hona. (settled,) mu- 
karrar ; kd,im. V. these 
words and hona. * a certain 
person' fuldnah ; fuldnah 
shakhs. -ly, albattah ; be- 
shak ; zariir, -ify, sdbitk. ; 
tahkik-k. 



Certi ficate, sifdrish ka kJiatt ; 
' sartifikat {Ys.), 

Chaff, bhtlsi. 

Chain, zanjir. (f.). V. lagd-d. 

Chair, kursi ; chauki. -man, 
(of a t neeti ng, ) sar-i-majlis. 

Chalk, khdri-matti. 

Chamber, kamra ; kothri. 

Chamois-leather, sdbari. 

Chance, ittifdk. V. -se hona. 
by-, ittifdkan. 

Ch2iugQ, tabdil ; badl ; badld. 
badli. V. {trans.) -k.(intr.) 
-hona. 

Channel, ndla ; sota ; khdl. 

Character, chdl-chalan. good- 
nek-ndm. bad-, bad-ndm. 
a bad character (person,) 
bad-madsh. (letter,) harf^ 
pL huruf. 

Charcoal, kojla. 
Cnarge (keeping,) amdnat ; 
hifdzat ; nigdhbdni. V, 
{trans.) -men rakhna, 
{intr.) -men hona. (attack, ) 
havilah. V. -k, (accusa- 
tion,) ilzdm. V, -lagd-d, 
charge in an account, 
hisdb J7teii likhna. 
Charity, khairdt ; lutf (f.). 
-able, khairdti ; faiydz ; 
sakhi. 






HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



227 



Chase (sport), shikar. Y.-k. 
(pursuit), raged ; khader. 
V. ragedna ; khedna. 
Chattering, bak-bak ; kdji- 

kdn, V. -k. 
Cheap, sasta ; nianda ; kam- 
kimat. -ness, sasti ; kam- 
kimati. 
Cheating, ya;r^^/ daghd-bdzi. 
V. -k. one who cheats, 
daghd-bdz. 
Check, dhiste-k ; rokna ; 

atkdna. 
Cheek, gdl\ rukh. 
Cheer (amuse, &c.) bahldna ; 
khush-k, -ful, kjiush ; 
kjmsh-dil ; khiish-ru ; be- 
fikr. -fulness, khush-tab.i. 
( applau d, ) khushi-khushi- 
bolna, (by clapping,) 
tdli^dn-k. cheers, khushi- 
khushi ; ^ hura ' (E.). 
Cheese, panir{m.), -monger, 

-farosh. 
Chess, shatranj, to play-, 
-khelna. -board, -bisdt, 
-man, muhrah. 
Chest. See ' Box. -of drawers, 
drdj (E.). (of body,) cMdft. 
Chew, chdbna ; chabdna. 
Chief, (n.) sarddr, {2i,) paihla; 
awwal. 



Child, bachchah ; larka^ larki; 
tifl; bdba (L.B.) -hood, 
larakpan ; tufuliyai. -less 
be-auldd ; Id^wdris, -dren, 
larke-log ; bdba-log^ (L.B.). 
Chin, thuddi ; zanakh. 
Chintz, rangi. 
Chisel, (dnki. 

Choose, lena ; chdhna ; pa- 
sand-k. N. (what pleases,) 
jo pasand hat (option,) 
ikhtiydr ; marzi ; khushi. 
Cholera, haizah ; ola-pira. 
Chop, (v.) kdtna; tukra-tukra 
kar-d. (n.) chdp. (E.). -per> 
bdivarchi-khdne ki chhuri. 
Christ, HazratPsa, -ian> 
isawi -ianity. Tsd-i-maz- 
hab, -mas, bara din ; 
kismis. (E.). a Christian, 
Kristdn (E.). 
Church, girja^ or Q,rija, 
Cinnamon, ddr-chini. 
Circle, ghera ; dd,irah. (of 
jurisdiction.) halkah ; aid- 
kah ; parganah ; zila : 
and many other territorial 
words — * i ' added to the 
title of an officer often 
means his jurisdiction, e.g., 
'' zaminddri^^ the territory 
of a zamindar, and so on. 



HINDUSTANI AS 11' OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Circumstance, jel ; amal ; 
amr ; Ml ; a si hal ; wdki^- 
dt ; jo hu^a hai. -tial, 
7?iufassalati ; tafsil-wdr. 

City, shahr \ (as last part in 
compos :) ' nagar' and 
^ pur."* -izen, shahr men 
rahiie-ivdla. 

Civil, su-shiL -ity, suluk ; 
nek-chalan. -ization, tah- 
zib-i-akhldk. 

Claim, daiva. (f.) ; as formu- 
lated,) darkJiwdst ; arz ; (f.) 
sawdl. V. -k -ant, da^vd- 
4dr. (in Court,) niudda^i. 

Claret, Idlshardb (f.) ; kald- 
ral(K.). 

Class, kism. (rank,) darjah, 
(of Railway, or School,) 
kalds. (E.). -ification, tar- 
tib. -ify, tartib-k. 

Clause, dafah ; jumlah. 

Claw, changul ; ndkhun. 

Clay, gil (f.), chikni mitti. 

Clean (adj.), sdf ; safa, (v.) 
sdf-k. -liness, safdj. ; paki- 
zagi. 

Clear, sdf ; shaffdf. (obvi- 
ous,) sdf; maaltim ; sdf 
maahim ; zdhir, V. sdf-k. 



CAtdive, phdrria ; chirna. -er, 
See 'Axe' --to one, lagd 
rahna ; ke pas rahna. 

Clerk, kirdni ; kdtib ; iiazvis- 
andah : as last part of 
word ... navis, e.g., nakL 
navis, a copying-clerk. 

Clever, chdldk; hoshydr^'^.-i- 

Climite, db-o-haiva, (f.). 

Cloak (n.), iba (f.) ; labddah, 
(v.) chhipdna. (adj.) chhipa- 
hu,a. 

Clock, gharl. See page 67. 

Cloci, dhela. 

Close, (v,), ba7id-jk.(n.) dkhit\^ 
or akhir^ (near,) nazdik ; 
ke pds.-td, band. 

Closet, kothri. the W. C. 
ghiisl-khdnah ; pd-e-khd- 
nah ; jd-e-zarur. 

Cloth, kapra. tahlt^-, mez ki 
chddar ; dastar- khwdn. 
web of-, thdn, cotton-, 
nan-kldth ; ^ katdn-kapra,. 
woollen--, bdndt, to lay 
the-, mez lagdna, or 
taiydr-k. clothes, kapre, 
night-, rdt ke kapre. See 
page 95. Clothe (v.), kaprc 
pahinna ; orhna. 



* This is an attempt at the English, ' long-cloth.' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



229 



Cloud, abr ; badli ; megh. -y, 

abri. 
Clove, karanful. 
Club, lathi; chob ; sonta. 

-nun, IdtliidL 
Cbal, kojia. 
Coarse, mota. N. motd^i 

(fig.) be-hunar ; b^.-adab. 
Coast, kindrah ; pdr. V.- 

kindre par chalna. 
Coat, kurti. 

Coax, phusldna ; chumkdrna. 
Cobbler, mochi. 
Cob-web, niakri kajdla. 
Cock, murgh, (of a gun,) 

ghora (v.) -khara-k. 
Cockroach, til-chatta. 
Coco, koko (E.). 
Coffee, kahivah ; kdfi (E.). 
Coffin, sanduk^ (v.) -nie7,i 

rakhna. 
Coin, paise ; ricpiye. V. 

-bandna. false-, mekhi 

rupiye. 
Cold (adj.), sard; thandha ; 

sital. (n.) sardi ; thandhd^i. 

-in the head, zukdm. V. 

-thandha-k, to be-, than- 
dha hona. 
Collar, kdlar (E.).-of a coat, 

«&c., girebdn. 
Colleague, rafik; sharik. 



Collection, Jama ; jamiyat. 
V. -jama-k. -of dues, 
wasiil. V. -k. -tor, (of a 
district,) kalektar sdhib. 
(gei^eraWy,) tahsi/ddr; sazd- 
waL 

College, 7nadrasah. 

Colonel, karnail (E.) sdhib. 

Colour [\\.) rang, (f.), V. -d. 
-en, ratigin. 

Column, situn ; khamba. 

Comb, kanghi. V. -d. or 
lagd-d. 

Come, ana ; d-jdna ; tashrif 
Idna, {Seepage 76. Sect, 
17.) -about, ho-jdna. 
-back, phir-dna. -out, 
bdhat-dna; nikalna; nikal- 
dna, -to one's self, hash 
men ana. 

Comfort, tasalli ; tashaffi ; 
taskin \i.) ;k2iushi, V. -d, ; 
bahldna. 

Command, hukm. V. -d, 
-er, hdkim ; sarddr. with 
special names for various 
commanders, ^g./auj-ddr^ 
a military -er ; kila-ddr^ 
a -er of 'a fort, and so on, 
down to Jama-ddr, head- 
man of any small body, 
military or other. 



I 



230 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Commence. See ' Begin.' 

Commendation, sifdrish, 
(praise,) taarif {{.). V. -d. 

Commerce, sauddgari ; tijd- 
rat; kjiarid-farokht ; mahd- 
jaiii. 

Commit (do.)j kar?ia. (en- 
trust to,) haivdle men rakh- 
na ; hawdlah-k,; supurd-k.; 
amdnat men rakhna. com- 
mission, (e.g. of an of- 
fence,) with *karna,' as 
v.n. 

Common, J;;/;;/, -ly, umuman; 
aksar. held in-, ijvidli ; 
mushtarah. a-, maiddn ; 
parti zamin (f). 

Companion, sdthi ; rafik ; 
ham-rdhi. -ship, rijdkat. 

Company. See ' Assembly.' 
The East India Company, 
Kampatii Bahddiir. 

Compare, mildna : miikd- 
balah-k, -atively, ba nisbat 
is kL -ison, (act of,) mukd- 
ba/ah-k, as v.n. 

Compel, use ' zor-se, or 
zabar-dasti se^ with appro- 
priate verb. 

Competent. See 'Able' 

Complaint(in words,) ndlish ; 
ndla. V. -k. (sickness,) 



bimdri ; yo^. complainant 

(in Qo\ix\.^)faryddi;mudda,i. 
Conjplete, tarn dm. V. -k, 

-tion, -k. as v.n. -ly 

ta?ndm ; hill ; bil-ktill ; 

sar-a-pa. 
Comprehend, samajhna / 

saniajh nieij, Idna, -sion,. 

sainajh (f.) ; hosh ; akl (f.). 
Conceal, chhipdna. to be 

-ed, ruposh-hona. -menty 

ruposhi. 
Conclude See ' Close.' 
Condemn (disapprove,) nd- 

pasa?id-k. (sentence,) hnkin 

-d, -nation, sazd ka Mikin^ 
Conduct, sulnk ; chdl-chalan. 

V. pahnnchd-d. 
Confectioner, haiivd.i. -ery^ 

viithdi. 
Confession, ikrdr ; kubiil. 

V. -k, (person who ad- 
mits,) kd^il. 
Confine (by bounds,) hadd- 

lagd-d. (imprison,) kaid-k. 

-ment, kaid ; girijtdri. 
Confirmation, subut. V^ 

-kar-d. ; sdbit-k. 
Conflict. See ' Battle ' 
Conform to, hukm ke mu^dfi^ 

kdm k, ; mdnna. -bly to,. 

hasb \ ke mu^dfik ; ba-mujib^ 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKKN. 



231 



Confound {trans.), ghabrdna. 
be -ed, ghabrdna. Adj. 

ghdbra. -(one thing with 

another,) mild-d. -fusion, 

gol-mdl (L. B.); be-tar- 

tibi. (of mind,) ghabrdhat. 
Congeal, jainna ; jam-jdna. 
Congratulations, mubdrak- 

bddi. V. -k. 
Conjuring, y^^2/. V. -k. -er, 

"gar. See ' Beseech.' 
Connect! on,aldkah;sar-o-kdr. 

V. -rakhna. See ' Relation.' 
Conscience, dt7 ; khdtir. 

-cious, rdst ; sachcha ; 

sddik, -ciousness, rdsti. 

sachd,i ; sddik i. 
Consent. See * Agree.' 
Consequence, natijah ; md- 

hasal. See page, 99. 
Consideration, (thought,) 

sock (f.); kjiaydl; tadbir (f). 

V. -k. (dignity.) 7nartabah. 

-ately, tadbir-se ; bujh-ke. 
Consign. See * Commit.' 

-ment, mdl ; chaldn (f.). 
Consist oi-ka hona ;-se hona. 
Consolation. 6"^^ 'Comfort.' 
Constancy, kd^imi ; mazbiUi ; 

istikrdr A. kd^im, mazbut. 

V. hona, (with the Adjs.) 

-tly, hameshah ; aksar. 



Construct, bandna ; band-d. 
-tion, iindrat. 

Consultation, 7naslahat. (v. 
-k.) saldh (f.). V. -lena. 

Contain, by phrase, e.g* 
is sandiik men misri hai, in 
this box is sugar = this 
box contains sugar, con- 
tents, is men jo kuchh hai. 
table of contents, fihrist. 
-of a book, 7?iazmun. 

Contemplation, muldhazah. 
(mentsi\,)fa,ammn/. V. -h.; 
dekhna. --tive, tmiiafakkir. 

Contemptible, hakir ; pdji, 
-temn, hakir jdnna. 
tempt, hikdrat. 

Contention, jhagra ; lardj. 
V. -k. A. jhagrdlu; ziddi. 

Contentedness, razdmandi. 
A. rdzi ; khush. V. rdzi, 
or khush hona. 

Continue, rahna. (to keep 
doing a thin",) rahna, 
added to stem. 

Contract, shart ; kaul-o- 
kardr ; ahd-o-paimdn. V. 
-k. ; bdndh-kna. -debt, 
karz-lena ; karz-ddr hona. 
(e.g. in business,) thika, 
V. -lena. -or, thikd-ddr. 

Contradict, bar-khildf kahna. 



232 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Contrary to, mukhdlif. 

-riness, zidd (f.) j aks ; 

addwat. 
Contusion, chot ; thokar {{,). 
Qor\\tr\\tr\\.,7fiu^dfik ; durust ; 

achchha ; thik. to be-, hona. 
Conversation, bdt-chit ; guft- 

o-gu (f. ). V. -k. 
Convey, le-jdna ; pahu7}chd-d. 

See * Carriage.^ deed of 

-ance, ndmah (following 

the word expressing the 

kind of conveyance, e.g. 

hibah-ndinah, a deed of 

conveyance by gift.) 
Convict (n.), kaidi ; mulzim. 

V. ek shakhs ko fiiujrirn 

sdbit-k. 
Cook (n.), bdivarchi. -room, 

-khdnah.{y.),pakdna. -mg^ 

rasii, i. See page 8 7 . 
Cool. See ' Cold.' 
Copy, nakl (f ) V -k. ist, 
-navis. (as last part in 

compos.). 
Cord, rdssi ; sutlu V. 

-lagd-d ; se bdndh-d. 
Coriander, dhaniya (f ). 
Cork, dhatha ; thefithi ;* kdg,^ 
(E.). V. d. -screw, kdg 
kholne ka peek. [Servants 
use only the word ^ kdg.'^ 



Corn, andj ; ghallah ; ddnah 
a grain of- ddnah. -field, 
fasl ka khet. 

Corpse, Idsh (f ) ; miirdah. 

Correct, sahih ; thik ; durust, 
V. --k. See ' Punish.' -ly, 
thik. 

Correspond (match,) viilna ; 
mil-jdna ; eksdn, or thik 
or bardbar ho7ia. N. mu,d- 
fakat. (by letter,) khatt, 
or khutiit likhna. N. khatt- 
khutut ; Jdiatt-kitdbat. 

Cost (n.), ddm ; kiinat. V. 
itni kimat ka hona. -ly, 
kimati ; besh-kimat. 

Cotton, ru^i ; pumbah ; kapds. 
-tree jkapds J or sirnal gdchh. 

Couch, kauch (E.). See * Bed.* 

Cover, sar-posh ; dhakna ; 
chapni. V. -d, ; lagd-d. 
-ing (according to its kind, 
Q.g.),kammal {vci.) or kafnli, 
a blanket ; rizd^i, a quilt ; 
chddar (f ), a sheet, &c. ; 
orhne ki chiz. 
Covetousness,/^'/^^/^; hirs., (f.) 

V. -k. A. Idlchi. 
Cough, khdnsi. V. -k. 
Council. See * Assembly.' 
Counsel. »SV^ * Advice.' (law- 
yer,) kausili sdhib (E.). 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



233 



Count, ^inna ; shumdr-k, 
^, -ing, shumdr-k.^ as v.n. ; 
K hisdb-k, -ing-house, dafiar- 
khdnah ; dfis. (E). 

Country (a.), mulk. native-, 
zvatan; des, (not the town,) 
dihdt ; mufassal. -man, 
ganwdr, (co-patriot,) haiti- 
watan ; des-bhd^i. 

Courage. See ' Brave.' 

Court (yard,) sahan. (King's,) 
(public,) diwdn-i-dmm. (pri- 
vate,) diwdn-i-khdss. (of 
Justice) (civil,) dhvdni- 
addlat, (criminal,) fauj- 
ddri-addlat. V. (none ; 
natives do not * court,' 
they employ a broker, 
called ^ ghatak') 

Cousin, bhd,i ; bahin, with 
(iescriptive words before 
them, viz : father's bro- 
ther's son, chachera-. mo- 
ther's ditto, mamera-. 
father's sister's son, phu- 
phera-, mother's ditto, 
mausera-. So, ' chacheri 
baking d^c, if the cousin 
be female. ^ 

Cow, gd,e, or gd,o ; goru. 
-dung, gobar, -herd, or 
-'kQGpQr,go,d/a, {{.) go^dlin. 



-shed, gd.o-sdla, or go- 

sdla. 
Coward, nd-mard. -ly, be- 

jigar, -liness, be-jigari. 

See * Jigar.' 
Crack, phdt. V. (trans.) 

phdrna ; phdr-d. (intr,) 
p hat- j ana. 
Crane (bird,) sdras ; ghongla. 

(machine,) charJzli ; kal. 
Creak (v.), charchardna. 
Cream, inald,i. 
Creature. See ' Being.' 
Credit, &c. See ' Believe,' &c. 
Creep, ringna, or rengna ; 

reng-reng-k. 
Crime, jurm ; gundh, -inal 

(n. a. ), mnjrim ; giindh-gdr. 

See * Court.' 
Croak, ghoiyghon-k. 
Crocodile, ma gar ; kiimhir ; 

nihang ; ghariydL 
Crooked, terha ; tirchha ; 

bdnka ; kaj. 
Crop (of field,) fast, (f.) ; 

ghallah ; paiddwdr. 
Cross (adj.), magra; sarkash. 

V. (e.g., a river,) pdr-k, 

(e.g., two sticks,) dra- 

lagdna, road, chau-rdsta. 
Crow (voice,) bdng, (f). V. 
-d. (bird,) kauwa ; kdg. 



234 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Crowd, guroh ; amboh. 

Crown, tdj, V. -rakhna. 
-lands, khdss mahdll. 

Cruel, be-rahm. -ty. -/. 

Cruet, sirkah-ddn. 

Crumb, cMr ; rezah ; tukra. 

Crush, dabdna ; dabd-d. 

Crust, chhilka. (of bread,) 
post. 

Cry (weep,) rona, (out,) 
pukdrna ; chilldna. (up,) 
taartf-d. N. pukdr ; bdng 
(f.) ; dwaz (f.) ; shor. 

Cubit, hdth. 

Cucumber, khira, (native,) 
pindol ; palwal. 

Cudgel, Idthi. V. -chaldna ; 
—se mdrna. 

Cultivate, kketi-k. -lion, 
(fields,) kheti ; kdsht. -tor, 
kdsht-kdr ; kisdn ra^iyat. 
-ed land, dbddi. -tion, (of 
mind,) tahzib-t-nafs, 

Qu^iptydlah ; katora, -board, 
almdri. 

Curd, dahi^ (m.) 



Cure (medicine,) ildj (f.) ; 
dawa, (f.). (recovery,) 
shifa; durusti, V. durust^ 
or achchha-k, -ed, bhala. 

Curl, of hair, zulf, (f.). V. 
pechtdb-d. 

Currier, chamdr. 

Curry, kdri. 

Curtainj pardak ; (mosquito,) 
musahri. 

Cushion, gaddi; ktUhan,(E.). 

Custard, kastad, (E.) / fdln- 
dah. -apple, sharipah. 

Custom, dastur ; riwdj ; 
7naamid. (tribute,) khirdj : 
niahsid; tikkas, (i.e., 'tax/) 
-house, parmit-ghar, (half 
E.). -ary, dastur ke 77111 ^dfik ; 
hasb zdbitah.-2ixy discount, 
dasturi. 

Cut, l:dt ; chira. V. hdpia ; 
chirfia ; tardshna. -cut, 
kdta hii.a. a -ting, (of 
plant,) kalam. 

Cycle, yug. 

Cypress, saro, or sarv. 



D. 



Damage, nuksdn ; ziydn ; 
zarar, V. -^.;] -pahu7j,ch- 
dna. 



Damp, tar; bhi7,iga. V. 
bhiiigd-d, -ness, tari ; 
tard,t ; bhi7,igd,i. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



235 



Dance, ndch, (f.), (fancy,) 
pudri^-ndch. V. -na. 

Danger, khatrah. -ous, 
khaiar-ndk. to run into -, 
khatre meii dna. 

Dare, hhnmat-rakhna. N. 
dileri. Adv. dileri se. 

Dark, andhera ; tdrik. -ness, 
andhera. V. -k. 

Darning, rafu. V. -k. 

Dash (assault,) patak. V. 
-d. (down), ddl-d, (at,) 
lapakna. 

Date (time,) tdrikh, (f.), V. -d, 
-d, markum.({x\\\X^)khajur. 

Daughter, <^^//; dukJitar. -in- 
law, bahu. 

Dawn, j-^^M / M^^- ; tarka ; 
bari fajr. 

Day, din ; roz. -by-, roz-ba- 
roz. daily, y^^?* r^^j. ; (as 
adj.) rozinah. daily pay, 
rozinah. a fine- khula^ or 
achchha din. a bad-,/<i;// /^« 
^/>/. to-, 4/. in these days, 
dj-kaL -book, roz-ndm- 
chah. -break, See *Dawn.'* 
-labourer, mazdur, daily 
bread, khdna-pina. 

Deaf, bahra, -ness, bahrd^i. 

Dear (price,) viah?,iga ; besh- 
kimat. N. besh-kimati. 



(affection,) pydra. papa I 
dear ! bdba jdn. dearest 
mamma, ainvia jdn. my 
dear ! 7neri jdn. Oh ! dear I 
hd^e. hd,e f to hold dear, 
pydr-k. or rakhna. 

Death, maut^ (f.) ; maran ; 
intikdl. 

Debate, bahs, (f.). V. -k. 

Debt, karz ; -or, karz-ddr. to 
be, or get in to-, karz- 
lena : karz-ddr hona. 

Decayed, sara ; piirdna. 

Decanter, ' kantar.' (E.)r 
shardb ki surdhi. 

Deceased, inarhum ; inuta- 
waffa. 

Deceive. See ' Cheat.' 

Decision, (e.g., of a case,) 
hukm ; faisalah ; farmdn 
V. -d. ' I have decided 
to go to Calcutta,' mera 
kasd hai kih inai^i Kalkatta 
jd/m. 

Declaration, bdt ; baydn ; 
izhdr. V. -k. ; kahna (as 
v.n.). 

Decline (slope,) dhdl. (f.). 
See ' Refuse.' 

Decrease, kami^ V. -k. and 
hona. 

Decree. See ' Decide ' 



236 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Deed, kdm ; fel ; amr. -in 
writing, ndmah^ as last 
part of word, e.g., hiba- 
ndmah, a deed of gift. 
Various kinds have differ- 
ent names, e.g., kahdlah^ 
a deed of sale ; sanad (f.), 
a deed of royal, or other 
grant of favour ; patta\ *a 
deed of lease ; kabulyat^ 
an acceptance of a lease. 
&c., &c. A general word 
is dast-dwez^ (f.). 

Dtep, gai/ira ; amik, Y -k. 
N. gaih.rd,i. 

Deer, hiran, or haran. 

Defeat, hazimat. V. -d. to 
be defeated, -khdna. 

Defect, kusur ; khata ; aib. 
A. ndkis. 

Defend, bachdna ; bachd-d. 
(in Couxt^) jaw db-d. (one's 
character,) zizr-k. defence, 
bachd^o ; hijdzai ; jawdb ; 
uzr, -dant, muda^d-alaine ; 
farik sdni. 

Defer, maukuf-k ; multavi 
rakhna. 

Deficiency. See 'Decrease.' 

Definition, taarif^ (f.). V. -k. 

Defraud. See ' Cheat.' 

Defy, dhamkdna ; dhamki-d. 



Degree, inartabah ; darjah. 

by degrees, raftah-rajtah ; 

kadam-ba-kadam. 
Delay, der^ or deri ; taivak- 

kuf. V. -k. (trans.) rokna. 
Deliberation, ta^a?nmul. V. 

-k. Adv. -se ; tadbir se ; 

soch karke. 
Delicious, latif ; laziz ; 

kjiush-mazah, a - cacy, 

lazzat ; niitnat ki chiz. 
Delight, khushi, V. -/^.-ful, 

or -ed, khush ; dil-khush. 
Deliverance, khaldsi ; rehdj. 

V. -d. 
Demand. See ' Ask.' 
Demon, rdkshas ; bhut ; 

jinn ; baitdl. 
Demonstration, 5/^(^///. Y,-kar- 

d. ; -kar-dikldna ; zdhir-k. 
Denial, inkdr, V. ^k. 
Departure, rawdnagi ; chald- 

jdna, as v.n. V. jdna ; 

chaldjdna ; uthjdna ; 

rukhsat le?ia ; fashrif le- 

jdna. See page 76. 
Dependent (a), tdbi. ('on,' 

se.) (n.) -dar. -dence, 

tdbi-ddri. This depends 

on my j^leasure, yih meri 

khwdhish par maukuf hau 
Deponent, kdjL 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



237 



Deposh, amdnaf ; giraw. V. 

rakhna ; sipurd-k. 
Deposition , bat ; bay an ; 

izhdr. (V. -k.) on oath,) 

shahddat ; s^aivdhi. V. -d. 
Depress, dabdna ; dabd-d. (in 

mird), afsiirdah-k. -ed, 

afsiirdah. 
Deprive of, le-jdna ; cJihin- 

lena, N. nuksdn ; ziyan. 
Deputy, wakil, or vakil ; 

gumdshtah ; nd^tb. V. 

bhejna. 
Descend, idarna ; niche-ana. 
Description, bay an ; taarif 

(f). V. -k ; -d. (sort,) kism. 
Desert (n.) baydbdn ; jangal. 

(a.) wirdn, V. See * Aban- 
don.' 
Design. See * Intention. ' 

' Drawing. ' 
Desirc^, khwdhish ; murdd^ 

(f.) drzu ; jo maiti chdhta 

Mfi^, so. V. chdhna. A. 
arziimand ; mushtdk. 
Despatch (speed), jaldi ; 

shitdbi. (of e.g. goods,) 

chaldn ; rawdnagi. V. 

chaldn-kar-d. ; bhej-d. 
Despise, hakir-jdnna. N. 

hikdraf. 



Despot, zdliin.-\Q^ mustakilly 
-ism, zjihn. 

Dessert, 7newa ; farut^ (E.). 

Destiny, kisniat ; kaza^ (f.) ; 
takdir. 

Destitute, gharib ; be-inak- 
dicr ; and almost any noun 
preceded by * be ' ; Ml a, 
(Arabic prep.) -tion, iflds. 

Destroy, khardb-kar-d ; nuk- 
sdn-kar-d. N. miksdni ; 
khardbi. 

Detail, tafsil, (f.) V. -d. ; or. 
bolna. Adv. -imr. mufas- 
sal. V. -kahna. Adv. -Ian. 

Detention, rukd.o ; atkd^o. 
V. rokna ; bdz-rakhria ; 
atkdna. 

Determination. See ' Deci- 
sion. ' 

Devil, iblis ; shaitdn. A. 
shaitdn-ka. 

Device, hikmat ; iadbir, (f); 
bandobasi ; taur. V. -pdna- 
nikdlna ; batldna ; karna. 

Devotion, (piety,) ibddat ; 
naindz^ (f.). (to one,) fid. 
wiyat. V. dena. 

Devout, musalli ; khuda- 
tars.^ 

Dew, shabfiam, (A. /.) os. 



^ From Persian, * tarsidan, ' to fear. 



238 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Dialogue. See 'Conversation.' 
Diamond, almas ; hira. 
Diarrhoea, dast. 
Diary, roz-ndmchah. 
Dice, pdse, V. -khehia. 
Diction, ibdrat ; bol-chdl. 

-ary, liighat. 
Die (expire,) mama ; mar- 

jdna : intikdl hona. 
Difference, fark. -ent, nd- 

mu^dfik ; dusre kism ka, a 

different ... , dusra. V. 

dusre kism ka hona, 

(quarrel,) kaziyah ;jhagra. 

V. -k. 
Difficult, mushkil ; dushwdr ; 

sakht, V. -hona. -y, 

mushkildt ; dushwdri ; ish- 

kdl. Adv. ishkdl-se. 
• Dig, khodna. -up, (e.i:. 

plants,) ukhdrna, -ger, 

bel-ddr. 
Dignity, kadr ; darjah ; izzat. 

-nified, shdn-ddr. V. hiir- 

mat-d. 
Diligence, ihtimdm ; tandihi; 

mihnat. A. mihnati, N,-k,; 

(with adj. ).-hona. K^w-se. 
Dinner, khdna. V. -khdna, 

dining-room, khdne ka 

kamra, dining-table, khdne 

ki 7nez, 



Direction (order,) hiikm. (Y. 
-d,) (way,) rah (f.) ; taraf, 
(V. batldna,) (of letter,) 
thikdna. Y. lagd-d. 

Dirty, maila, V. -k. and 

hona, N. mail. 
Disagreement. See ' Differ- 
ence.' 
Disallow, nd-manzur-k. (and 
so with many other words 
in * dis; ' place * na ' before 
the affirmative word.) 
Disaster, dfat ; musibat ; 
bad-bakhti, A. bad-baJzht. 

Discern, dekhna ; samajhna. 
-ment, akl^ (f.) ; hosh^ zihn; 
chdldki. 

Discharge (freedom,) kjialds ; 
(V. -k) rihd.i. V. -kar-d, 
(dismissal,) jawdb ; rukh- 
sat. V. -d, -ed, barRhdst ; 
maazid. (of an account.) 
rasid,, (E.). ddkhilah. 

Disclose, kah-dena , ikrdr-k ; 
zdhir-k. 

Discount, batta; dasturiy.-d. 

Discourse, bahs,, (f.) ; waz, 
Y.-k. See * Converse. ' fl 

Discovery, darydft. V. -k. ; 
dhimdhna. 

Discretion, akl^ (f.) ; imtiydz. 
A. aklmand. 






HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



239 



Disdain, hikdrat. V. hakir- 

jdnna. -ful, maghricr. 
Disease, rog ; bimdri, -ed, 

rogt ; biindr. 
Disfavour, nd-iltifdti. 
Disgrace, be-hurmati ; tahkir ; 

be-izzati. V. -k. ed, be- 

hurmat ; be-izzat. -ful, 

nd-shdjstah ; khardb. 
Dish,^ bartan, side-, dunga. 
Dishonest, bad-diydnat ; (N. 

-/.); beAmdn. 
Dismiss. See 'Discharge.' 
Dismount, uiarna. 
Disobedient, sar-kash; viuiih- 

zor, N. -/. V. nahin 7ndnna. 
Disorder, be-tartibi. in --, 

darha7n-barha7n. 
Dispel, hatd-d, ; bhagd-d, ; 

iird-d. 
Display. See 'Show.' 
Displease, nd-khush-k. ; nd- 

pasand-hcna.-^uxQ^ khafagi; 

nd'kJmshi. 
Dispose, of. See 'Sell. ' also, 

' Arrange.' -al, ikhtiydr, 
-ition, mizdj ; tabi^at. 

( arrangement, ) ifitizdm ; 

band-o-bast, -ed (in order,) 

murattab. 



Dispute, kaziyah ; jhagra. V. 
-k. 
Dissatisfied, ?id-rdz ; nd- 

khush; khafa. -faction, 

nd-khushi ; khafagi. 
Dissect, chirna ; kdtna. 
Dissipate, urd-d. 
Dissolve (intr,) galna. (trans, 

galdna. 
Distance, diiri ; tafdwut ; 

fdsilah. A. diir. 
Distant. See 'Separate.' 
Distinction. 6"^^ 'Difference.' 

(rank,) inartabah ; shdn, 

a person of-, shdn-ddr. 
Distress ; iasdi ; taklif ; 

tangt ; dukh, V. -d, ; 

satdna. -ed, dzurdah ; aj- 

surdah ; ghamgin. 
District, nawdh ; nazdiki 

(technical,) zila. 
Disturbance, khalal ; ghul ; 
shor; hangdmah, V. -k. 
Ditch, ndla -J paghdr. 
Ditto, aizan. 
Dive, dubki mdrna ; diibna, 

-er, ghotah-mdr. 
Diverse, baaze ; ka^i-ka^i.-iiyy 

baazi iarah kdm-k. ; adal- 

badal-k. 



* 1 he English * dis ' is used by servants to mean the Pitce de rests* 



iance. 



240 



HINDU-STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Divert, khush-k. ; bahldna. 
(turn aside,) //^^r-^. -ion, 
khushi ; taindsha. 

Divide, bdntna ; bdnt-lena. 
-sion, taksim^ (f.); hissah; 
(of family property,) bat- 
wdra. V. -k. 

Divine, biijhna ; samajhna. 
A. ildhi. 

Divorce, taldk. V. —d. 

Do, karna ; ba-jd-ldna ; 
taamil-h. See *Deed.' --er, 
karne-wdla. 

Doctor, (if of Eni^lish train- 
ing ;), ddktar sdhib. (if 
native,) tabib ; hakim ; 
baid, (in learning,) fuau- 
lavi, (M.) pandit, (H.). 
See 'Cure.' 

Dog, kutta ; sag. -cart, tarn- 
tam. (Not Hindiistani.) 

Doll, putli. 

Don't, mat karo ; nahin! 

Door, darivdzah ; khirki, 
outer-, phdtak. out of 
doors, bdhar. indoors, 
bhitar, -keeper, darbdn. 

Double, dohra. V. dahrdna. 

Doubt, shakk ; shubhah, V. 
-k, and rakhna, A. sdf 
nahifj. ; shakk ki bdt, (sub- 
ject to -, or suspicion,) 



7Nushtabah. -less, be shakk ; 
be-sh2ibhah. 

Down, downward, niche; tale, 
(prep ) ke. -. 

T>ozen, bdrah; ek-darjan, (E.) 

Drain, (off,) sukhdna\%\x2\x\,} 
chhdnna. 

Draw (load, or picture,) 
khainchna, a-ing, nakshah^ 
-ing-room, hdl-kamra. 

Drawers (body, ) jdnghiya ; 
sul-drdj (E. in some forma- 
tion,) (chest of,) drdj. (E.). 

Dress. See 'Clothes.' -ing- 
case, singdr-ddn. -glass,. 
d,inah. -table, singdr-mez. 

Dream, khwdb, V. -dekhna. 

Drink (according to its kind, 
as pdni, shardb, &>c. See 
page 93). Y.pina. 

Drive, hdnkna. -in (a nail,) 
mdrna. -er, gdribdn ; 
kochbdn, (half E ) 

Drop, (down,) {intr,) girna ; 
gir-parna. (let -,) girdna : 
gird-d, (as water, ) chiina ; 
tapakna, N. katrah. (a 
very little.) zzrrah-sa. 

Drown (intr.) Mbna ; dub- 
jdna, {trans,) dubdna. 

Drum, dhoL V. -bajdna. 
-mer, -iya. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



241 



Drunk, mast; mativdla ; 

nashe-inen, -ard, matwdla. 

-enness, rnasti ; nashah. 
Dry, kJiushk ; sukha. V. 

sukhdna ; sukhd-d. -land, 

khushki. 
Duck, bat ; battakji. (brah- 

mani,) chaktva, chakwi. 
Due, to be, by various phrases, 

e.g., miijh-ko das rupiye 

pdna hat, or dte haiii ; 

ham-ko das rupiye dena, 

hoga. my dues, fnera 

pd^ona ; mera hakk. 
Dull (intellect,) kund-zihn, 

(sad,) afsiirdah. (weather,) 

abri, -ard, kund-zihn 

ddmi ; ahmak. 



Dumb, gmgd ; chiip. V. 

gihiga hona ; chup rahna, 

-ness, gungdj. 
Dung, guh, (f.), goats -, 

viengni. cow -, gobar, 

horse-, lid, (f.), -hill, kuta. 
During, men ; ke bich ;jabiak 

,».tabtak. S^ee page 104. 
Dust, gard. A. -a ; aludah. 

V. poiichh-d, ; jhdrna, 

~er, jhdran. 
Duty, kdm ; jo wdjib o-mund 

sib hai ; ivdjibi kdm. (tax,) 

mahsuL 
Dwell, rahna ; bud-o-bdsh-k,; 

makdm-k.-ing-house,ghar; 

viakdn ; kothi. 
Dynasty, k/ianddn-shdhi. 



E. 



Each, har-ek ; ek-ek. See 
page 40. -other, ek-digar, 
on -side, dono?,i iaraf. 

Ear, kdn ; gosh, (of corn,) 
bdl ; bdli.-xmgs,bdia ; bdli. 

Early. See ' Dawn. ' 

Earth, mifti ; kJidk (world,) 
dunya (f.) ; dlam -en, 
mitti ka. 

Ease, drdm ; rdhat fa?'d- 
ghat ; fursat. at' ease, 
d7'd7n 7nen -sy, dsdn ; 

T., II. 



salis. N. dsdni ; saiisi. 

-ily, dsdni-se ; ba-khiibi. 
East, purab ; mashrik. 
Eat, khdna. give to - 

khildna. 
Eaves, olti. 
Ebb, (of tide,) bhdtha^ V. 

-'ho7ia. 
Ebony, dbnus. 
Eclipse, (of sun,) siiraj-gra- 

ha?i. (of moon,) chdnd- 

grahan. 

16 



242 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Edge, (e.g., of knife,) dhdr. 

(of cloth, the sea, &c.) 

kindrah. a stiff - (as in 

matting), kor. 
Edifice, hndrat. 
Education, taalim, (f.) ; iar- 

biya t; tahzib, (f . ) V. taalim-d. 

Effect, asar ; naiijah. to pro- 
duce an -, karna ; kardna; 
anjdm-k; asar-k. my words 
produced no effect, meri 
bdtoii se kuchh asar nahin 
tha.-'\s^^ Mm ka; kdr-gar ; 
mu^assir. 

Effects, mdl ; mdl-o-mata ; 
asbdb ; chizen ; chiz sab. 

Effort, koshish. make an,->^. 

Egg, anda ; baizah."^ -cup, 
-ddn, -spoon, ande ka 
chammach, eggs and 
bacon, ande bekam (E.). 

Either. See page 46. 
Eject. See ' Expel.' 

Elapse, bit-jdna; guzar-jdna. 

Elbow, kuhni; baghal. 

Elegant, latif ;siithra; khiish- 
mtma. -gance, latdfat. 

Elephant, hdthi ; pil, ox fil. 
-driver, mahdivat ; pil- 
bdn, -shed, pil-k/idnah. 



^\o(\uence, fasdhat, k.fasih. 

Else, (otherwise,) nahin to, 
(additional,) ^z^r. e.g., any- 
where else, atir kahin. 
what else, aur kya ? who 
else is there? aurkaun hat? 

Embankment, bdndh, (f.). V. 
"banana. 

Embezzlement, tasarruf ; 
kjiiydnat V. -k. 

Embroidery, chikan-dozi.-td 
cloth, got laoa hu,a kapra. 

Emerald, zatnurrad; panna. 

Emetic, kai ki daiva. 

Emperor, kaisar ; shdh-an- 
shdh ; sultdn. The Em- 
press of India, Kaisar-i- 
Hind. 

Empire, raj ; bddshdhi ; sal- 
fa nat. 

Employ, khidmat 7jien lena ; 
kdm-d. (oneself, j masK 
ghul-hona-er, uidlik ; dka; 
munib. -ment, kdm ; naii- 
kari ; kdrbdr ; rozgdr. 

Empty, kJidlL V. -k. ; sab 
chiz nikd/na. -intss, kjmlu. 
-hande(i, kjidli-hdth. 

Enable, madad-d ; ijdzai-d. 

Enact, fanndna. -ment^ 
far?7idn ; hukm ; d/in. 



* Used in Western and North-Western India. The word is Persian 



HINDUSXiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



243 



Encamp, dera-k. ; makdm-k, 

-ment, khaima - gdh ; 

makdm. 
Enclose, ghera lagdna. -ure, 

by the word appropriate to 

the use of the place, e.g., 

bdghy a garden, sahfi, a 

court-yard, &c. 
Encouragement, dildsa. V. 

-d. 
End, dkhir ; khatm, (pi Q.g.^ 

a stick,) nok, (f.). V. 

(trans,) ba sar Idna ; 

dkjiir-k ; khatm-kar-d, 

from beginning to-, awwal 

se dkhir tak, to no --, be- 

fdidah. 
Endeavour. See * Effort. ' 
Endurance, barddsht ; burd- 

bdri ; sabr, (f.) V. -k, 

(to last,) ab tak hona^ or 

rahna. 
Enemy, dushman, enmity, 

dushmani \ addivat. 
Engaged in. See * Employ.' 
Engine, kaL (railway,) injin, 

(E.). 
England, Inglistdn. A. ang- 

rezi. 
Enjoin. See * Command.' 
Enjoy, lahna ; kiichh chiz se 

khush hona. I enjoy good 



health, maiii bahut tan- 
darust //?/;/.-ment, khushi ; 
dnand. 

Enlargement, barhd^o. V. 
barhdna ; is-se bara-k. 

Enough, bas ; bahut, (suffi- 
cient, ) kdfi. N. kifdyat. 

Enraged, gh usse. V. -k. 

Enter, bhitar, or andar-dna, 
oxjdna ; paithna ; ghiisna, 
(in a book, &c.) likhna ; 
siydhah'k, ; mundaraj-k. 
-trance, (passage,) dar- 
wdzah^ rdh^ (f.), act of 
entering, dakhlk, (v.n.). 

Entertainment, ziydfat ; khd- 
na ; bar a khdna, (amuse- 
ment,) tatndsha, the act 
of entertaining, mihmdnu 
V. -k. -er, 7?iihmdn-ddr ; 
dene-wdla. 

Entire. See ' All. ' 

Environs, gird-nawdh ; Jo 
chdron taraf hat ; atrdf. 
(pi. of ' taraf, ') 

Envy, hasad, (f.). V. -k. 
A. hdsid. 

Epilepsy, mirghi. 

Epistle, chitthi; khatt; rukah. 

Equal, bardbar ; ek-sdn ; 
mu^fidk, N. bardbari ; 
mu^dfaJ^at 



244 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Equipage, sdz ; sdmdn. V. 
saz-o-sdmdn taiydr-k. 

Equity, insdf ; jo rdst-o- 
diirust hai^ so. A. rdst ; 
ddil ; sachha. 

Era, san ; tdrikh. (f.). 

Erect, sidha ; khara. V. -k. to 
be -, "hona, -ion, imdrat. 

Error, ghalati ; khata ; bhiU ; 
chuk, V. -k. ; bhulna ; 
bhid-jdna. -roneous, gha- 
lat ; nd-diirust. , 

Escape, bhdg-jdna, as v.n. ; 

firdr ; (from danger,) 

bachd.o, V. bhdg-jdna ; 

(danger,) bach-jdna ; 

chhutna ; chhut-jdna. 

Especial, khusiis ; khdss ; 
Adv. khustisan. 

Essence, (scent,) iir. (of any 
matter,) ain ; nafs ; 
mdhiyat. -tial, zarur, the 
essentials, zaruriydt. 

Estate, milk ; milkiyat ; 
zamin, (f.) with names ac- 
cording to kinds ; as zainin- 
ddri ; ta^alluk ; mtik- 
arrari, &r. -given for 
support, Jdgir, or jd-e- 
gir. -holder, zaininddr ; 
ta,alluk-ddr ; tnukarraru 
ddr : jdgir-ddr^ 6^r. 



Esteem, aziz-rakhna ; kadr 
-k, -timation, kadr. -ed, 
aziz ; pydra, 

Et caetera, wa gh airah. 

Europe, wildyat, --ean, 
wildyati. a European, 
wildyaii ddmi ; gora. 

Evasion, tdla; tdla-toli.N . -k. 

Even. See * Equal, '-if, agar- 
chih. 

Evening, shdm, (f.) ; sdiijh. 
at--, -ko. 

Event, wuku. at all events, 
ba har siirat, in the event 
of, agar ; is Ml men^ kih^ 

Ever, kabhi ; hargiz. what-, 

jo kuchh. who-, jo koj. 

when-, jab ; jab-kih. jis- 

wakt. where--, jahdn- 

kahdn. -more, hameshah. 

Every, (one,) har ek; sab koj. 
(thing.) sab kuchh; sab, 
followed by noun of per- 
son or thing spoken of. 
-where, harjagah; chdroi.t' 
taraf. 

Evident, zdhir, maalum ; 
sdf. Adv. zdhira?i, -ce, 
shahddat ; gawdhi. 

Evil, (n.) badi ; zabinii ^ 

. khardhi , kJiardb kdm; 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



245 



biira^ /*, bura kdm. (a.) 
kjiardb; bura; bad; zabun. 
-Ao&^^jo-karta /2^/. -heart- 
ed, bad-Jilio ; bad-dil. 
-speaker, bad-go J- -speak- 
ing, bad-go^i.^ 

Ewer, dftdbah. 

Exact, thik ; durust ; achchha; 
sahih. Adv. thik, V. See 
'Demand.' N. duriistagi. 

Exaltation, bard J ; sarfa- 
rdzi. V. ~k. ; -d. -ed, sar- 
fardz. 

Exam i nation, imiihdn;jdnch; 
tajiviz (f.). Y-k.;jdnckna ; 
dzmdna, to be examined, 
h?itihdn-d,io examine into, 
tahkikdt-k. to pass an-, 
-se nikalta hona. 

Example, masal {(.). tarns 1 1, 
(f.). for-, fnasalan. 

Exceed, ziyddah-k. excess, 
ziyddat;fdzil ; jo bdkl hai. 
excessive, (and as adv.) 
nihdyat. 

Excellence, kamdl ; iarjik, 
(f.). V. kdmil-hona; tarjih- 
rakhna ; nikalta-hona ; 
sab se achchha-hona. Your 
-cy ! huzur ; jandb-dli ! 



A. kjiub ; sab se achchha. 

Adv. achchhi tarah se. 

Interj. khiib ! khub ! bahiit 

achchha ! shdbdsh ! 
Exception, mustasna. Y.-k. ; 

chhor-d. ; jdne-d. prep. 

ke siwa^ or siwd-e ; aldwah 

is-ke. to take -to, bura 

mdnna. 
Exchange. See * Change.' 
Excise, dbkdri. 
Exclaim, kahna ; (scream,) 

pukdrna ; chilldna; baland 

dwdz se bolna; zor-se bolna; 

shor-k, N. bdt ; divdz^ (f.); 

shor ; shorshdr. 
Exclude, bdhar rakhna ; 

nahin dne-d, ; mana-kar-d. 

N. rokdyO. also, better. 

by Verbs as v. n. 
Excuse, uzr ; mu^dfi. V. 

-(oneself; uzrk. -(an 

other) mu^df-k. -ed, rnu^df. 

-able, kdbil-i-uzr. with- 
out-, be-uzr. 
Execute. See ' Do.' (by hang- 
ing,) phdnsi-d. -tioner, 

jalldd. 
Exercise, (work,) kdm ; mih- 

fiat, (using,) isthnal; inuhd- 



1 From the Persian, *• gujian,' ' to say.' See also' Gijft-o-gJt. 



246 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



warah. {yt^^ox\,) sabak. (by 
walking, &c.) by the words 
which mean these, (mili- 
tary,) kaivd.id. to take-, 
hawa khdna to- e. g. a 
horse, pheri-k. 

Exhaust, (e. g, a bottle,) y^//^7/- 
k. (resource?,) urd-d.: bar^- 
bdd^-d. (one's stren<;th,) 
thaka-k. and hona. -ively, 
pure tatir se. 

Exhibition, iksibishan. (E.). 
V. dikhldna ; dikhld-d. ; 
zdhir-kar-d. 

Exist, hona. -tence, zindagi. 
(abstract,) hona as v.n. 
-ing, maujudi Ml. in the 
-ing circumstances, ba 
hdldt 7na74Judah. 

Expand, kholna ; phaildna. 
(as a flower,) khulna ; 
phiclna. N. khuli jagah. 

Expectation, intizdr^ (f.) ; 

Minmed^ (f.) ; timmedwdri, 

V. -k. -tant, also, an 

-tant, ummedwdr. 
Expedient, wdjib ; mundsib ; 

Idzim. N. with ''jo' 
Expel, v2/i^^/-^. N. ikJirdj. 



Expenses, kharj ; kharjah, 

(cost,) kimat ; -ive, besh 

kimat ; kwiati ; mahiga. 

-diture, sarf. V. kharj-k. ; 
sarf-k. 
Experience, wdkif-kdri. -ed, 

wdkif : hoshydr. V. (e. g. 

pain, ) khdna ; uthdna. 
Expert, chdldk ; hoshydr. 

N. -// -/. 
Explanation, tashrih (f.) . 

baydn {oi conduct,) uzr ; 

safdj ; jawdb. V. ~d. ; 

sanijhdna. 
Expose. See 'Show.' 
Express, -ion. See 'Diction.' 

'Say,' &c. -ly, kluisusan ; 

tdk'id-se. 
Extend. See 'Spread,' 'Ex- 
pand.' 
Extinguish, bujhd-d ,■ butd-d ; 

thandha-k. 
Extract. See ' Essence.' (e.g. 

from a book,) muntakJiab, 

V. nikdl-leria. 
Extravagance, fuzul-kharji, 

A. fiizul k}ia7'j. 
Extremity, dkjurat. (e.g., of 

a stick,) nok. (f.). See 

' Distress.' -ely, 7iihdyat 



1 See 'bar' and 'bad' in Glossary, Part I. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



247 



Eye, diikh ; (f.) ; chashm, 
-brow, adru, (f.). -ball, 
ptitlt, -]ash,pa/ak, (f.).-lid, 
papota. -sight, Mnd^i. -sore, 



djjkh ka kdii{a. -glass, 
chashmah (telescope, bin- 
oculars,) durbui, -witness, 
chash m-did^ -9awdk. 



F. 



Fable, kissah ; afsdnah : 
nakl, (f.). 

Face, 7jnn,ik ; chihrah ; ru. 
V. sanine-dna ; munh 
pherna. to make faces, 
iminh terha-k, -to-, ru- 
ba-rii, -ing, ke sdtnne. 

Fact, asl hdl ; hakikat, in fact, 
hakikat mef/. 

Factory, kothi, indigo-, niL- 

Fade, kumldna. 

Fail, (as stores,) kam-hona. 
(in any work,) chukna, I 
have failed in my attempt, 
;;?«/>? apni koshish men 
nd-kdin-ydb'^ hu^a. -ure, 
7id-kdm-ydhiJ^ 

Faint, (a.) be-hosh^ (n.) -/. 
V. — hona, (as, e.g. ink,) 
kam-numa. -ness, ziif ; 
7id-tdkati; kam-zort,-hesirt- 
ed, buz-diL 



Fair, (n.) mela; hdt{2i.)gora ; 
siifed, (as weather,) kjmla ; 
achchha. -to see, khub- 
surat. -play, tdst-bdzi ; 
nek-kdm -ly, rdsti-se. 

Fairy, pari. 

Faith, imdn, -ful, -ddr. -ful- 
lness, ddri, to put- in, 
itimdd-rakhna, -fully, -se, 
-less, be-Ufidn ; bad-diyd- 
7iat, 

Fall, (n.) gir-par-fia^ v.n. (v.) 
gtr-parna. cause X.o-,gird-d, 

False, jhutha ; darogh ; 
farebi. -hood, jhuth. See 
* Lie'. 

Fame, 7id7?i ; nek-ndmi, A. 
ndinwar ; mashh'ir. 

Family, kjidnddn ; barddati ; 
ghar-ke-iog, of good-, 
khdnddni, the children of 
the-, larke-bdle. 



* From the Persian • didan,' ' to see.' 

^ From the Persian, 'yd/fan,' * to obtain.' 



248 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Famine, kaht ; akdl. 

Fan, patikha. (small,) hdth-, 
(for fire,) phukni (for 
flies,) chaui,iri. V. (if large,) 
-khhichna ; tdnna. (L.B.) 
(\i%m2i\]^)jhalna ox do Id na. 

Fancy, khaydl ; atkalN, -k. ; 
atkalna. A. nmiawahhim. 

Far, dur ; dicr-dardz, thus-, 
yahdn tak 

Fare, (n.) kirdya. (person,) 
-ddr, V. chalna. how are 
you faring? dp ke pds sal? 
kaisa chalta hat? -well, 
Khuda hdfiz. ^ to take 
farewell, rukjisat lena. 

Farm, Jot ; kdsht ; zaniiti ; 
(f.) chds ; khet ; khet- 
bdri. (of revenues,) ijdrah ; 
thika. -tx^kisdn, &-'c. See 
' Cultivator.' -of revenues, 
mustdjir; ijdrah-ddr; tjiikd- 
ddr. 

Farrier, salotri ; ndl-band. 

Farther, aur dge. (in addi- 
tion,) aldwah is-ke. -est. 
sab se dur ; sab se pichhla. 

Fast, (n.) rozah, V. -rakhna. 
(a.) tez. -ness, tezi, 
(closed, secure,) band ; 



band-hu^a ; sak/if ; mazhiU. 
V. bafid^ sak/it, or mazbut. 
-k. N. mazbiiti. 

Fat, (a) inota ; farbih ; (n.) 
charbi. -ness, niotd^i, V. 
ifiota-k. 

Fate, kaza, (f.) ',kismat fatal, 
kdtil ; sanghdru. 

Father, bap ; wdlid ; pidar. 
-ly, pidardna. -in-law, 
siisra ; sosur. (L.B.) 

Fault, gUTidh, (f.); kusur ; 
taksir, (f.) ; khata, (f.); aib. 
-ly, iaksir-wdr. (as work, 
&c.) thik 7iahin ; achchha 
7ia]m}, -less, be-kusur. (as 
work, &c. ) thik ; durust ; 
bahut achchha. 

Favour, (thing granted,) 
hidm. (mental,) indyat ; 
iltifdt. (kindness,) viihr- 
bdni. to grant a- hidm-d. ; 
viihrbdiii-k, to be favour- 
able to.) i?idydt-k. ; ilti- 
fdt-rakhna. -able, 7nihr- 
bdn. a - ite^ydr ; dost ; 
musdhib. ably, mihrbdni 
se; dili-iltifdt se. 

Fear, dar^ (f.) ; khaiif dah- 
shat ; tars, V. darna ; 



1 Literally, (may) God (be your) keeper, as in our 'good-bye.' 



hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 



249 



dar-khdna, -ful, ( timor- 
ous,) dahshat-ndk. (horri- 
ble,) khatif-ndk, -less, be- 
khauf ; marddna. 

Feast. See * Entertainment.' 

Feather, par. -bed, -ka bicli- 
hauna. 

Feature, chihrah. 

Fee, (of o^cQ^)rusum. (gra- 
tuity,) bakhshish.^ V. -d. 

Feeble, kam-zor ; durbal, 
za^if. N. kani-zori ; 

Z74f. 

Feed, (eat,) khdna, (another,) 
khildna. 

Feel, (grope,) tatolna. (e.g. 
pain) . . . khdna ; nthdna. 
(for one,) rikkat rakhna. 
-ing, (sense of,) Idmisah. 
fine feelings, khaydldt. 

Feign, rnakr kachhdna. 

Fellow, (person,) ddmi ; 
shakhs ; kas. a certain-, 
fuldna, (match,) jora., or 
jori. a fellow (e.g. travel- 
ler,) hatn^ added to ap- 
propriate noun, -ship, 
ham-sari ; sajhd^i. 

Female, mddah, a-, aitrat. 



Fence, ghera. V. -lagdna. ; d. 
Ferry, guzar-ghdt -man, 

ghdt-indijji V. pdr-k. 
Fertile, zar-khez. N. -/. 
Fever, tab ; bukJidr, -ish, 

gar7?i, to have-, viujh-ko 

tab hai. 
Few, chand ; thoi-e. -ness, 

kafni. 
Field, khet; maiddn ; raumah. 
Fig, anjir, (f.). 
Fight. See ' Battle.' 
Figure, (shape,) shakl, (f.) ; 

si'irati^ 1 , 2 , 3 , &c. ) hindasah. 
File, (tool,) suhdn. V. retna. 

(of papers,) 7iathi ; misL 

(f.). 

Fill, bharna; bhar-d.; ptira-k. 

(a post,) uhdah-rakhna . ; 

fuldna kdm-k. 
Final, dkJiir ; dkjiiri. -ly, 

dk/iir-ko ; dkhir-ul-umr. 
Find, milna {See page 50) ; 
pdna. -out, darydft-k. ; 

piichh?ia. 
Fine, (n.) jarimdnah. V. 

-lena, (a.) mihin ; bdrik, 

N. bdriki, in fine, alkissah; 

dkhirash. 



* This word suffers much in Anglo-Hind. The author has seen it 
reduced to ^hoxu: It is a Persian word, from * bakhshida?!,' 'to give 
a present,' * to reward.' 



250 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Finger, ungli. V. chJmna, 
Finish, tamdm-k. ; khatm-k. 

-ed, tamdm ht7,a ; kdniil ; 

piira ; ho-gaya. 
Fire, dg, (f.); dtish. V. -lagd- 

d. -place, dtish-khdiiah. 

-fly, shab-chirdgh. -wood, 

lakri ; hezini, (f.). -works, 

dtish-hdzi. 
Firm, sakht, mazbut ; kd.im ; 

kardr, V. -k. -ness, sakJiti; 

viazbuti; -ly, sakJit; zor se ; 

mazb/it iaiir se. 
First, /^//^/<7, or, pahla. in the 

-place, or, time, pat hie. 
Fish, machhli ; md/ii.-mong- 

er, machhli-ivdla : 7fiachhli- 

farosh. V. machhli-7iidrna. 

-er-man, jaliya ; mdhi-gir. 

-ery^jalkar. 
Fist, mittthi ; niusht. -icuffs, 

viukkd-inukki ; mdrd-mdri. 
Fit, {intr.) achchha baithna ; 

thik-lagfta, {ij-ans.) thik k., 

or lagdna, or baithdna. (a.) 

thik; duricst. (suitable,)/^,//'. 
Fix. See ' Firm/ -in the 

ground, gdrna. 



Y\2ig,jhanda ; ni'shdn. -stone, 
chatdn, (f.). (v.) dhila, or 
snst ho-jdna. 
Flame, shidah ; lau^ (f.) ; V. 

shtdah utjma (tig.) chamak- 

na ; lapatna. 
Flannel, fldlen, (E.); dhus- 

sa. 
Flash. See * Flame. ' a ^flash^ 

e.g. of lightning, say, e.g. 

the lightning ^.^^//^5. 
Flat, chaptd. N. -d^i. Adv. 

(plainly,) sarihan. 
Flattery, kjmsh-dmad, (f.). V, 

-k. ; phiistdna. -er, with 

'jo: 
Flea, pissu. 
Flee, bhdgna ; bhdg-jd?ta ; 

bhagd-jdna ; chal-jdna ; 

firdr-hona. 
Flesh, gosht. -y, mota ; far- 

bih. 
Flight, bhagel^ (f.); firdri. 
Flock, gallah. 
Flog, chdbuk^ se mdrna.-ingr 

(by the operator,) chdbuk- 

bdzi. (as received,) chdbuk 

hi saza. 



^Vary ^ chdbuk ^^ which means '« whip,' according to the instrument 
used. The cane (^heV) is generally used. In India, only criminals- 
are flogged. Domestic and school discipline are unknown. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 251 



Floor, za7nin^ (f.). (storey,) ma- 
hallah. -c\oih, dart ;farsh. 

Flour/ dta ; maidah ; sattu. 

Flourish, achchhe Ml men 
honaiphulna, ( e.g. a stick,) 
hildna. 

Flow, (v.) bahna ; jdri-hona ; 
chalna. ~ing,jdrt ; rawdn. 
the -of the tide, juwdr, 

Y\o\ver, phul ; gul. -garden, 
phul-wdri, -pot, gamlah ; 
jhdri. -y. pMlphula ; (fig.) 
ran gin. (speech,) gul-fish- 
dn. V. -na ; -d. 

Fly, magas, (f.) ; 7nakkhi. 
(cab, ) thikd-gdri. {v.){mtr. ) 
urna ; ur-jdna. {trans.) 
nrdna ; urd-d. 

Fodder, ghds. (f.) ; chdrah ; 
7'asad^ (f.). 

Foe. See * Enemy.' 

Fog, kohdsa. -gy, dhundla. 

Fold, (for animals,) berh ; ba- 
iJidn ; or with * khdnah^ ad- 
ded to the name of the 
2imvci2\^^.gjnurghi-khdnali. 
(in cloth,) tah. (of a door, 
^c), palla. two-, &c. do- 
gnna.N .lapetna;tah-k. with 
-ed hands, hdth-jor-kar-ke. 

Follow, pichhe-dfia sundjdna. 
(a trade), peshah-k. -er, 



pichhe-dne-wdla. (adher- 
ent,) tdbiddr. 

Folly, be-wukrifi ; ahmaki ; 
hhndkat. A. be-wuktif; 
ahmak. 

Fond, shdjk ; tndjl. to be 
-of a person, pydr-k. ; 
aziz-rakhna. (of a thing,) 
pasa7id-k. 

Fool, ahmak. V. himdkat-k. 
See * Folly.' adv. be-wuku- 
fi-se. 

Foot, pdnw. (measure,) y}//. 
(E.). -man, chob-ddr;piyd- 
dak. -path, pag-dandi. 
-step, kadani. -stool, mor- 
ha ; is h fill. (E.) \ pdo-ddn. 

For, ke wdste ; ke liye ; ko. 
(because,) clmnkih. -in- 
s,i2iic\ce,ch7indncht; masala7t. 

Forbearance, parhez, (f.) ; 
sabr, (f.). V. -/^. 

Forbid, niana-k. which, may 
God- Khuda na kare. 
N. 7na7ia. 

Force, zor. (oppression,) 
zuhn^ (f.) ; zabar-dasti. V. 
-/'. A. zor-dwar. Adv. 
zor se^ arc. -ed, (constrain- 
ed,) 7najb7ir. N. 77iajb7iri. 

Fore, (adv.)V^^; agla; sd7?me; 
pesh. 



9S2 



HINDlSsTiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Fore-fathers, jadd ; fuurisdn. 

-finger, shahddad ki iingli. 

-foot, agla-pdnw -head, 

peshdni. -noon, do pahar 

ke dge, -go, chkor-d. ; 
jdne-d, 
Foreign, pardeshi ; bideshi ; 

wildyatl. -comntry.pardes; 

wildyat -er, bidesi ddmi. 
Forest, jangal ; ban. (as in 

* sundar-ban. ' * the beauti- 
f id forest,' The Soonder- 

bunds.) 
Forgetfulness, bhul, (f.) ; 
fardvioshi. V. -k.; bhubia; 

bhtd-jdna. A. fardmosh- 

gdr. -gotten, fardmosh. 
Forgiven, tnu^df. N. -/. V. 

-k. -er, with ^ jo' 
Fork, kdnta. 
Form, shakl, ( ^O ^ surat. V. 

banana, (bench,) kursi ; 

takhtah ; ^ binsh.'' (E.). 
Former, peshtar ; agla ; 

pahla ; sdbik ; -ly, age ; 

agle zamdne meii ; peshtar. 
Forsake, chkor-d. ; tydg-k. 
Fort, ki/ah ; garh. 
Forth, age, and so-, waghai- 

rah. to go-, bdhar-jdna. 

to show-, batld-d. ; zdhir-k. 



Fortnight, chaudah roz ; do 
hapte. 

Fortune, (good, or bad,) kis- 
mat. (good,) 7iasib ; ikbdl. 
(bad,) bad kismat ; bad- 
bakfiti. be-nasibi. (wealth,) 
daulat ; mdl. A. nek-bakjit ; 
khush nasib; bhala; daidat- 
mand. Adv. nasib-se ; fiek- 
bakJiti-se. to be -ate, adjs. 
with hona. 

Forward, age. (rude,^ shokji ; 
gustdkJi. V. chaldn kar-d. ; 
rawdnah kar-d ; dge bhej-d. 

Foundation, bunydd, (f.). 

Fountain, ckaskmak. 

Fourth-part, ckautkd-i ; pd^o. 

Fowl, ckiriya ; (poultry,) 
murgh; murghi ; (small,) 
kharckak ; (middle size,) 
nim ; (roast,) kabdb. 

Fox, lomrL 

Frame. -^^^ * Make.' picture-, 
dkdncka. door-, chau-katk 

(f.). 

Fraud. See * Deceive.' 
Free, kkalds; dzdd. N. kkaldsi; 
rikd^i dzddagi. V. ckhor- 
d ; kJialds kar-d. ; jdne-d, 
adv. (e.g. with a free- 
hand,) kushddah^ hath se. 



I 



• From the Persian * kushddan' ' to open. 



hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 



253 



Freeze, (intr.) jam-jdna. 
(trans.) barf men rakhna ; 
jam d-d. 
Frequent, (di,),jo aksar hota 
hai. -ly, aksar. (v.) dnd- 
jdna ; dmad-o-raft-k. 
Fresh, tdzah ; nan. -ness, 

tdzagi. 
Friday, jumah : sJmkr-wdr, 

(or -bdr.). 
Friend, dost; y dr. -ship, dosti. 

-ly, dostdnah. 
Frighten, dardna ; dar-dikh- 
ld7ia or karna, or kardna. 
Frock, frdk, (E.). kurti. 

-coat, frdk kiirti. 
Frog, mendak. 
From, se ; az (Persian). 
Front. See * Face,' * Fore.' 
Fruit, mewah ; phal. (results,) 
natijah. -erer, meivah- 
farosh. -ful, phal-ddr. 



Fry, fardi (E.) -kar-d.-va^- 

pa n , /rtf rdi-pdn ( E. ) . 
Fuel, lakri; hezim, (f.). 
Fulfil, add k. &c. See 'Accom- 
plish.' 
Full, piira ; bhara ; bhar- 
pur. -grown, (of persons,) 
siydna Adv. piire taur se; 
iafiila?i. 
Fun, kjiushi ; khel ; tamdsha, 

-ny, hansne ki bdt. 
Fur, pashm. 

Furious, dhvdnah ; ghusse ; 

josh, a -passion, dtish-bdr 

ghiissah. 

Furlough, chhiitti ; rukhsat. 

Furnish, (supply,) pahuij- 

chd-d. ; bhej-d. (e.g. a 

room,) sajdna : singdr-k. 

Furniture, sdmdn ; asbdb ; 

mez-chaiiki. 
Future, (n.a.), dyindah. 



Gain, nafa ; miindfa ; fdi- 

dah. V, -k. (e.g. learning,) 

hdsil-k. ; jama-k. 
Gallop, (n.), chhdr-iag. V. 

daurna. 
Gamble, ju,a khelna. bier, 

jiiwdri. 



the word for the kind 
of game, e.g. dttsh-bdzt\ 
games with fire, fireworks, 
(sport,) shikdr. See ' Gam- 
ble.' Also page 88. 
Garden, bdgh ; bdghchah, 
-er, mdlL 



Game, khel ; bdzi following Garlic, lahsan. 



^54 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Garment, (according to its 
. name. ) -s, kapre ; poskdk, 

(f.). See pages :^4, 87 & 95. 
•Garrison, ki/e ke log. 
Gate, phdtak, -man, dar- 

bdn, 
^Gather, jania-k, (flowers,) 

torna, 
'Gay, khush ; kJiush-dil. V. 

hona, N. -// -/. 
Gaze, dekhte rahna ; ghurna. 

N. nigardni. 
-Gem, jawdhir ; jauhar ; 

zewar, 
•General, dmm. -ly, wnuman. 
Generation, ///i-Zz/. from- to-, 

pusht-ba-pusht. 
•Generous, sakhi ; N. sakjid- 

wat. 
'Gentle, narm ; gharib. (of 

birth,) najib ; ashrdf ; asil. 

-man, bhala ddmi. gently, 

dhistah. 
•Get. See * Acquire.' -you 

gone, duY I ; dur-ho ! 
-Ghost, bhut See M:)ie.' 

* Holy.' 
•Gift, indm ; bakjishish. (to a 

superior,) nazr ; ?iazard- 

nah ; salami, V. -d. 



Gilding, tial. -er, kdr. gilt, 

sundhla. 
Gimlet, bar ma. 
Ginger, (green, or preserved,) 

adrak. (dry,) sonth. 
Girl, larki ; chhokri. (slave,) 

bandl ; laundi ; ddsi. -ish, 

larki-sa. 
Give, dena ; de-d. -up, 

chhor-d. -way, hatna, -er, 

dene-wdla. See * Gift. ' 
Glad, khiish ; kJmsh dil. V. 

hona^ and karna, -ness, 

khushi ; dil-khushi. Adv. 

kjiushise. 
Glass, shishah ; glds, (E.), 

service o^-, glds sab.'' -of, 

shishe ka. 
Globe, kurah. A. ^^/. 
Gloomy, dhuinla. N. -/. 
Glue, saresh. V. -5^ jorna. 
Glutton, bisydr-khor. -y, -/. 
Gnat, ;7/^i'. 
Go, J ana ; chalna ; barhdna; 

fdh-lena. -against, kisipar 
jdna. -forward, dge-jdna, 

or chalna, or barhdna, 

-hack, ptchhe jdna, a^'c. 

to let-, chhor-d, -round 

about, chakkar-karkejdna. 



* See * Sab ' in Part I of this Glossary. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



255 



Goat, chhdgul ; bakra, (in.) 
bakri^ (f.). 

Go(i, (Christian and M.) 
Khuda ; Khiidd-ta^dla, 
(M.) Allah. (H.) Ishwar ; 
Parineshwar ; Bhagwdn ; 
Rdm ; Rdm-Rdm. and 
many more, corresponding 
to the attributes of God. 
(as we say, ' The God of 
Love,' 'The God of Fire,' 
&c.). Religious figures are 
called ''biit^ ]\Iuhamma- 
dans are forbidden to use 
them, -ly, Khudd-tars. 
-liness, takwa. 

Gold, sona ; zar, A. sone ha ; 
sonahla. -smith, sondr. 

Good, achchha ; bhala ; khub ; 
nek, -and bad, bhala- 
biira, a -deal, khub-kiichh. 
a -while, der tak. a -way 
kiichh dur, -for nothing, 
nd-kdra^ kiichh kdm ka na- 
hii^, -for, kdm ka, a -many, 
bahut-sa. -morning, sabd- 
hu-l-khair. -evening, shab 
ba-kliatr. N. achhd^i ; 
bhald^i ; neki. (kindness,) 
mihrbdni. to do-, achhdj, 
c^c, k. to make-. See 
' Establish.' 



Goods, mdl ; asbdb ; chiz sab. 

Goose, rdj-hdns. 

Gospels, the, injil. 

Government, hitkwnat ; sal- 
tanat ; amalddri. 

Governor, according to his 
rank, from pddshdh, to 
' subahddr' ; Mkim, -Ge- 
neral, bara Idt sdhib, 
lieutenant-, Idt sdhib. See 
page 78. 

Gourd, kadu. 

Grace, indyat. to show-, -k, 
-ful, sajila. 

Gracious, mihrbdn ; rahim ; 
shirin, N. /. -ness, mihr- 
bdni. 

Graft, kalam. V. lagdna. 

Grain, ghallah ; andj ; ddnah, 
(a little,) zarrah-sa. (f.) ; 
thora-sa. 

Granary, gola. 

Grand, bara; umdah, buzurg; 
dlishdn. -eur, bardi ; shau- 
kat. as applied to rela- 
tives : father's father, ddda. 
mother's father, ndna, fa- 
ther's mother, dddi. mo- 
ther's mother, ndni. son's 
?>on,pota. son's daughter, 
poti, daughter's son, ndti, 
daughter's daughter, natni. 



256 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Grape, grapes, a>igur. 

Grasp, pakarna. N. kabzah ; 
hath. 

Grass, ghds, (f. ). (for horses,) 
diib-ghds. -hopper, tiddi. 

Grate, ragar-k, ; charchar- 
dna, N. ragar. (for fire,) 
dtish-kjidnah ; jhanjhdri. 

Grateful, thsdnma?id. >J. -/. 

Gratify, khush-k. -itude, 
shukr. (expressing grati- 
tude,) shiikr-guzdn'. 

Grave, (n.) kabr ; gor. -yard, 
-isidn. (a.) (in mind,) 
fikr7nand : udds ; afsur- 
dah, (as an affair,) san- 
gln ; wazaiii. 

Gravel, rora : reg ; kankar, 

Gv2i\y, db-i-gosht ; grevi. (E.). 

Gray, sabsah, flea-bitten-, 
magasi. (as \\2\x^ pdka. 

Graze, (intr.) charna, {trans.) 
chardna. one who tends 
cattle -ing, charwdha. 
-ing-ground, parti za??iin, 
(f.) ; chard-gdh. 

Grease, charbi;chiknd,i. V. -d. 

Great, bara, c^c. See ' Grand.' 
a -deal, bahut ; dher. 

Green, sabz. (hesh,) tdzah ; 
tar-o tdzah. -ness, sabzi ; 
tdza^i. 



Grid'won, grit-ddn. (half E.). 

Grief, ghafiim ; a/sos ; dukh ; 
ranj. A. ghamgin ; djikhit; 
raiijidah ; dzurdah : udds. 
V. {tra7is.) bezdr-k ; izd-d ; 
satdna. (intr.) hona, with 
the adjs. 

Grind, pis?ia. -stone, chakki. 
-ing -slab, si I. 

Groan, kardh ; dh ; ndlah. 
V. -k. ; kaharna. 

Grocer, modi. 

Groom, sd^is. V. ghora 
thafida-k. ; ghpre-ko malna, 
sdf-k. or other appropriate 
phrase. 

Grove, bdgh : top. 

Ground, zainin^ (f.) the sur- 
face of the-, ru-i~zamin. 
dry-, kJiushki. wet- tari ; 
tard^i. as in * camping- 
ground,' &c., .. gdh as last 
part of word, kjiaima-gdh, 
c^c.(c2iu^e,)sabab. (origin,) 
bnnydd, {L); Jar. -less, be- 
bunydd ; be-sabab. V. (as 
a boat,) -par lag-jdna ; 
thekna; thek-jdna. (a case,) 
is bunydd par arz karna, 
kih, a-r. 

Growy (intr.) phalna ; ugna ; 
dna ; d-jdna ; ho-jdna. (e.g. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



257 



in stature,) bara hona ; 
barhna. (trans.) (e.g. vege- 
tables,) bcMa ; ropna. 
grown-up (persons,) jr/yr?«^. 

Grumble, kurkurdna ;garaj- 
na. N. ktirkurdhat ; garaj. 

Guava, amrud. 

Guarding, (n.) (as sentinel,) 
pahra ; 7iigdhbdni ; pds- 
bdni, V. -k. one who guards, 
pahra-wdia ; pdra-wdia 
nigdh-bdn ; chauki-ddr. to 
be on one's guard, kJiabar- 
ddr hona. 

Guardian, hdfiz. (of youth, 
&c.) murabbi. (of a minor,) 
wali.oi(^^\o\i^\\.y^)aindnaU 
ddr ; chauki-ddr. (of a 
Muham. : religious trust,) 
mutawalli. (of a Hindu 
ditto,) shewait, (vulg. 



shebait.) -ship, hifdzat : 

amdnat ; zinimah. 
Guess, ktyds ; atkal. V. -k. ; 

atkalna. by-, atkal se ; 

anddzi. 
Guide, rdh-niuna ; agwa. (v.) 

rdh batldna ; pahunchd-d. 
Guile, fareb ; daghd-bdzi : 

hilah ; chdldki, A. farebi : 

hila-bdz. 
Guilt, gundh ; kusur. A. 

gundh-gdr ; mujrim. -less, 

be-kusur. 
Gulp, ghih,it. V. -se kkdna, 

or pina. 
Gum, gond. V. -lagd-d. : 

dena. 
Gun, banduk^ (f.) -powder, 

bdrut. shot for -, chharra. 

(cannon,) top. at -fire, 

top ke wakt. 



H. 



Habit, dastur ; maaniul. a 
bad-, buri ddat. -ual, jo 
aksar-hota hat. -ually, 
aksar; hatneshah.-oixmndi, 
mizdj ; kho. See ' Dress.' 

Hail, patthar ; ola. V. -par- 
na. interj. mubdrak-bdd / 

Hair, bdl ; chut, -brush, bdl- 
ka brush (E.). -dresser, 
T. , H. 



hdhval. -less, gatija ; kora. 
-y, mu-e ddr. curling-, 

Half, ddha ; nisf ; nim. V. 
ddhiydna ; nisfd-nisfi-k. for 
' half in compos. : use 
'' adh^ e.g. *adh-bhara,' 
half-full. *mm' is also 
used in ihis sense. 
17 



258 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Hall, ddldn. (of audience,) 
diwdn-i-dmm. 

Ham. See page 92. 

Hammer, vidrtol. V. -se 
77idr7ia. 

Hand, hdfh ; dast. of watch, 
kdnta ; sic^i, at -, taiydr ; 
77iuyassar ; 77iurattab ; ke 
fas ; ke 7tazdik. - in - 
hdthd-hdthi. -covering 
(gloves,) dast-dnah, -ker- 
chief, riM7idl. -writing, 
hdth-likha. -cuffs, hdth- 
kari.-iM\^mutthi-bhar (grip, 
power,) kabzak. (v.) deTta ; 
de-d. 

Handle, dastah ; kara, (v.) 
hdth lagd7ta ; pakarTia ; 
chhiina. 

Handsome, khubsurat. 

Hang, (truTis.) latkdna ; 
latkd-d, (iTitr.) latakna, 
(execute,) pM7,ist-d. -man, 
jalldd. 

Hsippen^koTia ; /io-jd7ia ; dTia; 
pesh hoTia ; bar-pd ho7ta. 

Happy, khush ; k/msh-diL N. 
-/. -/. V. -ho7ta. 

Harass, satdTia ; dikk-k, N. 
dikk ; tasdi. (f.). 

Hard, sakjit. (lit. and fig.) 
N. -/. See ' Difficult.' -ly. 



mushkil se. There is hard- 
ly a man present, kaTti- 

tar ek ddThi hdzir hat. - ship. 

See ' Distress.' -dy, TTiaz- 

but ; sakht ; i7iardd7iah. 
Hare, khar-gosh. 
Harm, zarar ; iaklif ; tasdi, 

(f.); 7iuksd7i; ziydn, Y.-k.; 

-pahu7j,chd-d. -ful, with 

'jo,' ; muzirr. -less, ghair- 

77iiizirr ; be 7iuksd7i. 
Harness, sdz. (f.). -room, 

-khd7tah. -stand, kaghora. 

See page 90. 
Harsh, tursh ; khatta ; kar- 

wa. See * Cruel' * Hard.' 

N. turshi ; khatd,i. 
Harvest, (spring,) rabu 

(autumn,) kharif, (general 

word,)y«i'/, (f.). 
Hash, (meat,) hesh, (E.) ; 

kiTTiah. V. -k. 
Haste, shitdb, or shitdbi ; 

jaldi. V. -k. -en, -kardTia; 

-kard-d. Advs. Seepage 54. 

-y, (in temper,) tu7id-kho, 

N. -/. 
Hate, nafrat ; dush77iani ; 

addwat, V. -rakh7ta. -ful, 

bura ; zabim ; nafrat- 

a7igez. 
Have. See page 75. Sect, 13. 



HINodSTlNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 259 



Hawk, jurra^ (ni.)- ^^^> (^•)- 

Hawker. See * Pedler.' 

He, yih ; wuh. See page 30. 

Head, sar^ or sir. (so many 
cattle,) rds. (of corn,) bdl. 
-ache, sar ka dard. -long, 
be-tadbir, -man, sar-ddr, 
-quarters, sadr makdm. 
stall, nuktah. -strong, 
munh-zor. N. mufih-zori^ 
-y, nasha-ddr, to make-, 
sar-k. (to lead,) sarddri-k,; 
sarddr-hona. 

Health, tan-durusti ; bhald,i ; 
khairiyat ; mizdj, A. tan- 
darust ; bhala ; khair. to 
be in good-, tan-durust 
hona. to be in bad-, tan- 
durust nahin hona ; bimdr 
hona ; kam-zor hona. 

Heap, {n.) dher ; ambdr, (of 
people,) guroh ; majma ; 
ghoL See ' Collect.' 

Hear, sumia. (obey,) sunna ; 
manna, hearing, (e.g. a 
case in Court,) samd^at. 

Heart, dil. (central part,) 
magkz : giida ; bhitar jo 
hat. by-, nok zabdn se. 
hard -ed, sang-dil. soft 
-ed, narm-dil, -y, dil-soz ; 
dil'^arm. -ily, dil-o-jdn se. 



-less, be-dil ; be-rahm. to 

take-, himmat rakhna. 
Heat, garmi ; t apish ; sozish. 

(of sun,) dhtip ; ghdm. 

(of temper, )^^^^//; tundi; 
josh ; dtish, V. garm k. See 

' Hot. ' 
Heaven, bihisht, (paradise,) 

jannat. 
Heavy, bhdri; wazani ; girdti. 
Hedge, (n.) bdrh ; ghera ; 

ihdtah, V. -d. ; -lagdna. 

-hog, dul-duL 
Heel, eri. 

Height. See ' High. ' 
Heir, wdris. PL -dn. 
HeW, jahannam, (f.). dozakh. 
Help, madad, (f.); idnat 

V. -d. -ful, madad-gdr. 

-less, Id'Chdr. by God's 

help, Khuda chdhe ; ba- 

fazl-i-Khuda, a - mate, 

madad'gdr. 
Hemp, san ; pdt. -plant, 

gdrija. 
Hen, mu rg hi. -house, 

-khdnah. 
Hence, (time, )/^^ baad. (place,) 

yahdj^ se, (cause,) is liye. 
Her, is-ka ; us-ka. See page 

30. herself, See page 30, 

Sect. 7. 



i 



26o hindtJstjCni as it ought to be spoken. 



Here, yahd^i ; is jagah^ or 
is jagah mefj, -and there, 
idhar - udhar, -abouts, 
kahif^-yahin. -after, dyindah 
met}, -on, or -at, is-par ; 
is 7nen ; is-se. yih bat sun- 
kar, or bol-kar. 

Heron, bagla. 

Hesitation, pas-o-pesh ; tdld- 
toli ; deri, (in speech,) 
hichkich. V. -k. 

Hidden, cMipd M, a ; riiposh. 

Hide, {trans.) chhipdna ; 
ruposh - rakhna, {intr.) 
chhipd-hona ; ruposh-hona 
(n.) chanifa ; khdl, (f.). 

High, imcha ; baland, or 
buland. N. tlnchdj. -bred, 
asil, -in price, mahnga ; 
girdn, -.minded, dli-him- 
mat, -in rank, dli-shdn. 
-in spirit, diler ; hifnmati. 
in the height of (anything,) 
ain^-meTj,. -way, rdh, (f.) ; 
sarak. (f.). -way-man, 
rdhzan, -way robbery, 
rdhzani. 

Hill, pahdr ; uricki zamin. 

Him, is, us; is-ko ; us-ko. 
See page 30. 



Hinge, chtd. 

Hint, (n.), ishdrah, V. -/&. 

Hire, (fare in money.) kirdya, 
V. -lena, -r, kirdya-ddr. 

His, is-ka; us-ka. Seepage 30. 

Hobby, shauk. 

H og,sii,ar. wild- iangli sn,ar. 

Hold. 5^^ * Grasp. ' -(con- 
tain.) reverse the sentence, 
say ' one ser of milk will 
go into this glass,' is piydle 
meij. ek ser dvdh atta hai, 
[atna, to get into a given 
space.] or you may say, 
yik ek ser ka piydla hai— 
this is a one ser glass, i,e. 
holds, or can contain, one 
ser. -one's tongue, chup- 
rahna, to -good, rahna ; 
thaharna, -er, ddn. See 
page 41. 

Ho\e,chhed; (V. -na.)surdkh, ^^ 
(of an animal,) bil, fl 

Holy, musalli ; Khudd-tars, 
-iness, takwa^-day, iatiL 
(religious,) parb, (vulg., 
^parab, ') - war, jihdd. 
-Ghost, rtihu-l-Idh. 

Home, ghar ; niakdn ; kothi, 
Rt-, ghar mejii. not at-,(lit.). 



' Arabic for ' the eye.' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 26 1 



g/iar men nahin, (fig.). See 
page 26. \.o go-, ghar J ana. 

Hone, silli. 

Honesty, diydnat-ddri ; 

sachd^i ; rdsti, A. diydnaU 
ddr ; sachcha ; rdsi. -ly, by 
* se,^ added to the nouns. 

Honey, shahd.-coxwh, chhdta. 

Honour, (reputation,) izzat ; 
(dignity,) shdn ; sar-fardzi. 
(reverence,) tazim. your-, 
huztir. dress of- khilat. 
Y.-tazim-k, ; adab-k. 
-able, mu^azzaz; viutabar. 

Hook, ankri ; kdnta, hiik. 
(E ). V. -se pakartia. 

Hope, ummed, (f.). V. 
-rakhna. -ful, also , one 
who is hoping for some- 
thing, -wdr, (expectancy,) 
-wart, -less, be-ummed. 

Horn, sing ; shdkh. to draw in 
one's horns, dum-dabdna. 

Horse, ghora ; asp. -back, 
ghore par sawdr ; sawdr 
ho-kar, -dung, lid, (f.), 
-doctor, salotar. -man, 
sawdr. -manship, sawdrl. 
-race, ghur-daur. 

Hospitable, mihmdn-ddr. N. 
-/. -tal, haspatdl, (K.); 
shifd-khdnah. 



Host, mihmdn-ddr ; sdkib-u 
khdnah. See ' Crowd.' 

Hot, garm. the - weather 
garmi ka mausam. 

Hound, shikdri kutta. 

Hour, ghari. See page 67.-ly, 
(i. e. always,) ghari-ghari. 

House. See * Home.' -break- 
ing, sendh-chori. -breaker, 
sendhiya, -hold, khanddn, 
-holder, sdhib-i-khdnah. 
-keeping, ghar ka intizdm 
karna ; khdnah-ddri. 

How? kalsa; Ms tarah; kyun^ 
kar. -ever, lekin. -long, 
kab-tak. -often, ka,e bdr ; 
kitne dafah -many, kitne. 
-mucli, kitna. -do you 
do? mizdj sharif ; dp ka 
mizdj kalsa hat ? however 
strong he may be, still, &c. 
agarchlh wuh bahut zor- 
dwar ho, taubhl, dr^c. 

Human, being, ddml ; tnsdn, 
A. insdnl. the -race, i7i- 
sdnlyat ; ddmiyat. -mane, 
rahim; mihrbdn ; muld.im; 
nek-kho. 

Humble, gharib : mis kin. 
N. -// -l;faro-tanl. to be- 
hona, with theadjs. {trans.) 
nichd'k. ; dabd-d. 



262 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Humour. See * Moist.' (wit,) 
lutf ; thattha. A. latif ; 
thathoL -ously, latife-se. 
good-, khush-hdli. bad-, 
bad- halt ; in a bad-, 7nag- 
^CL ; ghusse. to- ijdzat-d.; 
dena. 

Hump, kubar. -backed, 

, kubra. 

Hundred, sau, or sat. as a 
unit, saikra. 5 per cent. 
fi saikre, pdnch riipiye. 

Hunger, bhtikh. (f.). A. -a, 
to be, "hona. 



I. 



Ice, barf, (f.) ; yakh, (f.). 
V. harf men rakhna, 
-d-water, barf-pdni. 

Idea, khaydl. See page no. 
A. -/. 

ld\o\., pdgal ; ahmak,-ocy^-u 
-tic, ahmak ke taur par. 

Idle, (doing nothing,) be-kdr; 
be-kdm ; drdm-men (lazy,) 
sust ; dhila. -ness, drdm ; 
fur sat; fardg/iaf.(\a.zinQss,) 
susti. to be- adjs. with 
hona. 

Idol, but. -2i\.xy,-parasti. 



Hunt, (n.) shtkdr. V. -k, 
-sman, -/. -ing dog, -/ 
kutta. -ground, -gdh. A. 
shikdri. 

Hurry. See ' Haste.' 

Hurt. See * Harm.' 

Husband, khasam ; shaiihar ; 
mard. See 'Cultivation.' 

Hush ! chup ; chup-raho ; 
khdmosh I to -up, chhipd- 
7ia, -money, rishwat 

Husk, (n.) chhilka ; post. V. 
-utdrna. 

Hut, jho7npri. 

If, agar ; jo. See page 104. 
Ignorant, jdhil ; ajhal ; nd- 

ddn ; kam-akl. -c^Jdhili; 

nd'ddni ; kam-akli, (f.). 

adv. with ^ se.^ 
Ill, bimdr. -ness, -/. See 

* Bad.' -behaved, bad- 

suliik, -behaviour, bad- 

suluki. -disposition, bad- 

kho ; bad-tabi,at. 
Illegal,^ khildfkdmin. -ity, 

jo khildfkdmin hai. 
Illumination, raushani ; tan- 

wir, (f.). V. -k. 



1 For many negatives in • il/ ' un,* •ira," &c., use the affirmative and 
7iahin ; or prefixes 'be,' ' la\ ' nd,' * nir,' ^fc. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



263 



Illustrious, ndfii-ivar ; ndm- 

ddr; mashhur. in compos: 

jalil. 
Image, putla ; putli. (idol,) 

but. See ' Idol.' 
Imagination, khaydl ; tassaw- 

wur. V. -k. -ary, kJiaydli. 

See ' Idea.' 
Immediate, maujiid ; hdzir ; 

tnakhsus. -ly, bil-fel. See 

P^ge 54. 
Immense. See * Grand.' 
Immot i est, be-sharm ; be-haya. 

N. be-sharmi, be-hayd,i. 
Immoral, nd-maakul ; zabihi. 
Impair, ghatd-d. to be -ed, 

ghatna ; bigar-jdna. 
Impatient, be-sabr. A. -/. 
Impel, chaldna ; chald-d. 
Incapable, ghair-kdbil. 
Incense, {n.)hibdn. (v.) (make 

angry), ghussa-k. 
Inch, inshi^ (E.). 
Incident, kdtn ; fel ; a?nr ; 

wuku ; bdt 
Incite, uthdna ; targhib-d. 

N. iarghib^ (f.). 
Inclination, mail^ (f.) ; r agh - 

bat ; drzu, (f.) ; yhauk, 

I am- inclined to think, 

?nera khaydl yih ha?\ kih^ 



Include, shdfnil-rakhna. -ed, 

shdmil-kiya ; sdth rakha. 
Income, dmadaiii ; md-hasal. 
Incomprehensible, be-kiyds ; 

ghair-?nutasawz(.iar ; jo ko^i 

shakhs nahin samjhe. 
Incorrect, nd-duriist^ &^c. 

See ' Correct.' 
Increase, {trans.) barhdna ; 

ziyddah-k. {intr.) barhna ; 

zidddah-h . ( n . ) izdfah ; 

ziyddat. 
Indeed, fil-wdke ; hakikat 

meii. 
Independent, niustakil; be- 

lagd^o ; aldhidah ; khud- 

sar. -ce, dzddi ; be- 

ta^alluki ; khud-sari. 
India, Hind, -n, Hindui ; 

Hindu, -n corn, bhutta. 
Indigo, nil^ (f.). -factory, 

-kothi. -planter, -ka sdhib. 
Indivi(iual, (n.). See 'Being,' 

(a. ) ek ; ek-ek. -ly, ek-ba-ek ; 

fark-fark ho-ke. 
Indolent. See 'Idle.' 
Industry. See ' Diligence.' 
Infamous, zabun ; mayiib ; 

bara khardb. N . bad-ndmi ; 

zabuni ; khardbi. 
Infant. See ' Child.' 
Infection, sardyat. V. -k. 



264 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Infidel, (one not a Muham :) 
kdfir. (one not a Hindu,) 
malechha, -ity, kufr. 

Infirm, (body,) za^if. (body 
and other things,) kam-zor; 
durbal ; nd-tdkat ; nd- 
tawdn, (of mind,) mun- 
kharif, -ity, (of body,) 
zuf, or zof. (of body, &c.,) 
kam-zori ; nd-tawdni ; nd- 
mazbuti, (of mind,) in- 
khirdf. 

Inflame, jaldna ; josh-k.-vc\2i- 
ti(in, josh ; sozish ; garmi. 

Influence, asar ; idsir^ (f). 
V. -k. 

Inform. See ' Tell.' an -ation 
in Court, ndlish ; daw a, 
(f.); suwdl. -QT, gojndah. 

Ingratitude, nd-ihsdnmandi. 

Ingress, bhitar jdne ki rdh, 
(admission to presence,) 
huziir fjiefj, ana. (v.n.). 

Inhabitant, sdkin; bdshindah; 
rahne-wdla. See *Live.' 

Inherit, wdris-hona. -ance, 
mirds^ (f.) ;. tarikah, or 
tarkah, -or, wdris. 

Inhuman, be-rahn, d^c. See 
' Cruel.' 

Iniquity, /4^y zabimi; burdj, 
A, zabtm ; bura ; khardb. 



Injunction, hukm ; kahna^ 

(v.n.) V. hukm-d. ; kahna. . 
Injury, nuksdn; ziydn. (hurt,) 

zarar, (trivial ditto, zarar- 

khafif. (serious ditto,) 

zarar-shadid, or sangin. 

( wrong, ) nd-hakk ; be-insdfi. 

V. — k.; -pa hunch d-d.-\ous, 

jis-se (any of the nouns) 

dta hat. 
Injustice, be-insdfi. ; nd-hakk. 
Ink, {h\2iQk^) siydhi ; roshnd^i. 

(red,) surkhi. -stand, or 

pen-and-ink, dawdt ; ka- 

lam-ddn. 
Inn, sard^e, (f ) ; musdfir- 

khdnah; ddk-bangla ; hotel. 

(E.). 
Innocent, be-gundh ; sdf ; 

pdk. N. be-gundhi ; safdj; 

pdki ; pakizagi. 
Inquiry, pikhhna, (v.n.); tah- 

kikdt ; darydft ; taddnik. 

V. the nouns diwAkarna. 
Insane. See ' Mad.' 
Insect, kira ; kirm. 
Insensible, be-hosh ; be- 

hawdss. N. -/ ,* -/. 
Insert, ddkhil-k. ; da rj-k. : 

mundaraj-k. ; zikr-k. -ion, 

indirdj. 
Inside, bhitar ; andar. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



265 



Insight, wukuf ; hoshydri. 
Insist, musirr-h. ; zor se 

t; mdngna, or chdhna, or 
kahna. -ency, bdr-bdr 
vid7}gna^ d^c, (v.n.). 
Insolent, gustdkh ; sar-kash. 

N. -/; -/. 
Inspect, dekhna ; viuldha- 
zah-k, -ion, takaiyud ; 
nazar-anddzi} -or, muta- 
min ; inshpektar-sdhib.{\\K\{ 

K). 
Instant, (n.) lahzah ; ek dam. 

See ' Immediate/ This in- 
stant. See page 54. 
Instead of, ewaz ?ne?ji, ;ke badle. 
Instruct, sikhdna ; sikhd-d. ; 

sikhldna^ siJMd-d, ; taa- 

lini'd. N. iaalim, (f.). -or, 

jo sikhdta hat; sikhak ; 

munshi ; pandit ; guru. 

-ive, inufid. 
Instrument, dlah ; haihiydr. 

He was instrumental in^ 

6^^., us-ki madad se^ &c. 
Intellect, akl^ (f,); hosh ; zihn. 

A. akli ; zahin. 
Intelligence (of mind,) See 

' Intellect,' (news.) See 

* News.' 



Intention, kasd ; irddah ; 
murdd, (f.); gharaz, (f.) ; 
matlab. V. -rakhna, or, 
better, with hona, e.g. mera 
kasd yih hai^ kih, d^c. 
Adv. kasdan ; jdn-bujh-ke. 
Intercourse, ildkah; sarokdr; 
dna-jdnd, (v.n.) ; dmad-o- 
raft. V. kisi ke ^ sdth - 
rakhna, or, better, with 
hona^ e.g. niujh-se us-se 
kuchh - nahiri hat, ' I have 
nothing to do with that 
fellow.' 
Interest, (of money,) stid. 
(with a person,) kahd-suna; 
asar. (share,) hissah ; 
sdjha, (in any matter,) 
shauk ; mail, (f.) V. -rakh- 
na ; dil-lagdna. self -ed, 
gharaz-mand. seeking one's 
own- khud-gharaz. 
Inter[)ret, samjhd-d. See 

* Translate.' 
Interruption, khalal ; atkd.o ; 
rok. V. -k.; atkd-d, ; 
rokna. 
Interval, (time,) arsah ; 

{s^2iCQ,) fdsilah. 
Interview. See ' Visit.' 



* From the Persian ' anddkhtan ' ' to throw ; ' a not uncommon 
termination. ^ Anddzi' as adv., means ' approximately.' 



266 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Into, men ; ke bhitar ; ke 

andar. 
Intoxication, nashah. -ed, 

nashe vief,i ; matwdla. V. 

nashe uietj. hona ; matwdla 

hona. 
Introduce, muldkdf-kara-d. ;■ 

hdzir-kar-d ; bhitar^ or 

huziir 7ne^, Idna. -tion, 

idkhdL a letter of -tion, 

sifdrish ka khatf. 
Intrust, supurd-kar-d, ; kisi 

ke pds rakhna, amdnat 

me7,i rakhna. 
Invent, nikdlna; pdna. -ion, 

ijdd, (f.). 
Inventory, tdlikah ; fihrist. 
Investigation. See 'Inquiry/ 
Invisible, ghdjb ; ghair- 

mahsiis. 
Invitation, nyota, V. -bhejna. 



Involuntary, -rily, -be- 

ikhtiydr. N. -/. 
Inundation, saildb, (m.). 

Iron, loha. of-, lohe ka. a 

smoothing -, istri. V. -k' 
Irregular, khildf-dasiur. N. 

-/. adv. be-tartibise. 
ln'\ga.te,pafdna.-ion, dbpdskL 
Irritate, satdna ; dikk-k. N. 

chher-chhdr ; dikk. -able, 

ghussa. 

ls\a.nd, jazira/i ; dwip^ or dip. 
Issue, (v. trans}) jdri-kar-d. 

{intr.) nikalna; nikal-dna. 

(n.) natijah ; dkibat. 
It, yih ; wuh ; its, is-ka ; 

us-ka. See page 30. 
Itch, khdrisht ; khujli. A. 

khdrishti. V. khujidna. 

Ivory, hdthi-ddfjLt. 



J. 



Jackal, gidar ; siydl. 
Jacket, jdkit^ (E.); kurtah, 

or kurti. 
Jail, Jel-khdnah, (half E.) ; 

^aid'khdnah, -or, jelar^ 

sdhib, (half E.). 
Jam, murabba ; jdm. (E.). 
Jar, {\t^?>e\)ghara;jdr, (E.). 

-ring ^ownd^kharkhardkat. 



Jasmine, saman. 

Jaw, jabra. 

Jealous, bad-za?in, N. -/. 

Jelly, y>//, (E.). 

Jest, thattha. V. -k. -ing, 

thatholi^ -er, thathol. in-, 

thatholi ke taur se. 
Jesus Christ, hazrat-isa. 
Jew, yahtid (m.) ; -/>/, (f.). 



HINDT^STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



267 



Jewel, gahna ; zewar ; jawd- 
hir. -er, jauhari. -box, 
with . . . dan. See page 41." 

Job, kdm ; tahal. 

Jockey, sawdr ; jdkt, (E.). 

Jocoseness, thatthe-bdzi ; 

khush-tab^i. 

Join, {r).),jor, V. -d.;jorna ; 
mild-d. joint, (a.) mild- 
hti.a. (j unction, )y^r. 

Joke. *S^^*Jest.' 

Jolly. See * Happy.' a -fel- 
low, ydr-bdsh. 

Jot, zarrah^ (f.) thora-sa ; 
ek ddnah. 

Journal, roz-ndmchah. 

Journey, safar; kiich. V. -k. a. 
day's-, manzil. 

Joy. See * Happy.' 

Judge, hdkim ; jaj-sdhib^ 

,. (half E.). sadr-dla sahib ; 
munsif sdhib ; kdzi sdhib. 
(all these, except the first, 
are technical words.) 
-ment, (decision,) faisa- 
lah ; fativa ; hukm ; dikrt, 
(E). V. -d, (sense,) akl, 
(f.) ; hosh : samajh, ((.). 
(to select,) pasand-k. 

Judicious, dkil ; ddnish- 
mand ; hoshydr. -ness, 
ddiiist ; akl^ (f.) ; hosh. 



Jug, kulhiya, (f.) ; piydla ; 
Jag, (E.). 

Juice, ras; pdni; diidh ; arak. 

Julep, julldb. 

Jump, (n,) kiid ; chhaldng, 
(f.) ; uchhdl ; jast. V. -k. ; 
ktidna. 

Junction, &c.. See ^ Join.' 

Jurisdiction, (power,) huk^/i ; 
hukiimat ; amalddri ; ikh- 
tiydr. (territory,) aid- 
kah ; zila, c^c. accord- 
ing to local divisions, a 
' sub-division ' of territori- 
al-, mahkamah, -a word 
which really means ^a 
tribunal.^ 

Jury (native village,) panch ; 
panchdyat. (in English 
courts,) y^^r/, (E.). * Gen- 
tlemen of the Jury,' sdhib- 
dii-jiiri. 

Just, ddil;rdst; sack ; sachcha; 
insdfi; insdf ka. -ice, insdf; 
hakk. -ness, rdsti ; durus- 
tl. (proper,) mundsib ; 
wdjib ; ba-ja. (at this mo- 
ment,) ab ; ab-tab, -ify, 
sdf^ or safd^i-k; uzr-Tc. adv. 
rdsti-se. 

Justle, thelna ; dhakka-d 
-tling, -thel-pel kar-ke. 



268 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BK SPOKEN. 



K. 



Keep, rakhfia ; apne pas 
rakhna. (back,) bdz-rakh- 
na ; rokna ; atkdna. (e.g. 
sheep.) pdlna. He keeps 
two horses, us ke pas do 
ghore ham. -er, rakhwdl. 
to -on doing a thing, use 
the stem of the principal 
verb, followed by rahna. 

Kernal, maghz ; giida ; bhi- 
tari. 

Kettle, ketli, (E.) ; tdbah, 
fish-, machhli ki ketli. 

Key, kunji ; chdoi ; tdli. 
bunch oi'kQys-ka gi4chchka. 
-hole, —ka surdkh. 

Kick, Idt. V. -tndrna. -ing 
and cu ffi n L' , Idt- mukki. 

Kill, vidr-ddlna ; katl-k. 
khun-k, (for food,) zabh-k.; 
haldl-k, -ing, katl ; khim- 
rezi ;^ zabh. 

Kind, (a.) mihrbdn ; shafik, 
-ness, mihrbdni. adv. 
mihrbdni-se, (sort,) kism^ 

(f.) 

Kindred. See * Relations.' 



King, (M.) pddshdh, or bdd- 

shdh. (H.), rdja ; mahd- 

rdja. -dom. bddshdhi. 

saltanat ; rdj. -ly, shdhi. 
Kiss, (n.) bosah : mithi, (v.) 

bosah-d ; chihnna. mutual 

-ing, bosah-bdzi. 
Kitchen, bdwarchi-khdnah^ 

See page 87. 
Kite, (bird,) chil. {^oy, ) gttddi^ 
Kitten, billt ka bachchah. 
Knee, ghutna : zdnu. to 

kneel, do-zdnu baithna. 
Knife, chhiiri. clasp-, chakku^ 

pen-, kalaJTi'tardsh. 
Knock, (at a door,) dkab- 

dhabdna. See ' Blow.* 

' Strike.' 
Knot, gdnth. (fig. e.g. the 

marriage-,) akd. 
Know, jdnna ; pahchdniia ; 

wdkif-hona ; khabar pdna. 

-ledge, ddnist ; ilm^ (f.); 

wdkfiyat. -n, maahiin. See 

page ^(). well-known, mash- 

hiir. -ingly, didah-o- 

ddnisiah /^ jdn-bicjh-ke. 



* From the Persian. ' rekhtan^ * to pour out,* 

2 Persian.; ' having seen and known ; ' 'didan, ' to see.' 



HINDUSTAN I AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



269 



L. 



Labour, rnihnat. (V. -k,) 
(A. -/. ;) ihiimdm, daily-, 
mazduri ; roz-gdr, -er, 
mazdur ; kuli, 

Lac, lakh ; I ah. 

Lace, (embroidery,) gota ; 
gold-, laldbattun^ for boot, 
&c. -^fitah; dori ; sutli. 

Ladder, sirhi. 

Lady, bibi; khdtuti ; begam ; 
musammdt ; sdhibah, Eng- 
lish title, ledi^ 

Lake, tdl; tdl-db, (m.) ; tald,o. 

Lamb, bheri ka bachchah. 

Lame, langra-nt^s, langrd^i. 

Lamentation, ndlah, V. -k, ; 
rona ; chhdti-pitna . -able, 
ghafnm-khez} 

Lamp, (English,) lamp.'^ (na- 
tive,) chirdgh : dip ; sirdj. 
-black, kdjal ; kajli. 

Lance, ballam; barchhi. -cet, 
nashtar^ (f.). V. chirna ; 
nashtar ?ndrna. 

Land, zamin^ (f.). -holder, 
-ddr, -ed property, -ddri; 



milk ; tnilkiyat. the dry-, 

khushki, moist- tari, by-, 

khushki. -lord, mdlik ; 

sdhib'i-khdnah. V. (trans.) 

iitdrna. (intr.) utarna. 

kindre tak d-jdna. 
Lane, gali ; chhoti rdh. 
Language, zabdn, (f.) ; holL 

the common-, chahii-boli. 
Lantern, laltain or lanten 

(both being attempts at 

the English word). 
Large, bara ; buzurg ; kaldf}. 

-ness, bard^i, -ly, bahut-sa. 

-esse, nisdr. 
Lash, (y\.)zarb. yjhx'^-^phimd. 

V. chdbuky &'c. se mama. 
Last, (a.) sab se pichhla ; 

dkhir. e.g. -year, guzash- 

tah. V. ab tak rahna, or 

hona» -ly, dkliir-ul-amr. 
Late, der. -ness, -/'. * the 

late,' marhum; mutawaffa. 

(former,) agla, -ly, thore 

difiof} se. 
Laugh, haT^sna. -ter, haf^si. 



* You must ask for the ' ledi sdhibah ' (not the ' mem-sdhibah,') if 
the lady has the title. See page 24. 

* From the Persian, ' khezidan^ ' to rise.' 

' Pronoimce, according to rule, like the English word * lump. ' 



270 



HINDdsxlNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Law, (divine,) (M.) shara^ 
(f.) ; (H.) dharm-shdstra. 
(human, )^,f«, (m,);kdmin, 
(custom,) rasmj (f.) ; 
kd^idah ; zdbitah, -court, 
addlat, (criminal), fauj- 
ddri^ civil, diwdni,) -ful, 
jdjz ; hash kdnun. -less, 
be-d,in ; d^in ke khilaf^ 
-suit, dawa^ (m.) ; ndlish ; 
suwdl ; mukaddamah. 

Lay, rakhna ; rakh-d, lagd- 
na ; lagd-d. 

Lazy, sust ; dhila ; majhid ; 
kdhiL -iness, susti ; maj- 
huli ; kahili. 

Lead, (n.) sisa, -en, sise ka. 

Lead, (v.) le-chalna ; le-jdna, 
-er, sar-ddr. to -the way, 
dge chalna, to -one's life, 
guzrdn-k. 

Leaf, patta ; warak, -of a 
book, warak, -of a door, 
palla. 

Lean, dubla : patla, -ness, 
dubld,i. V. jhukna, (to an 
opinion,) mdil-hona. 

Leap. See *Jump.' 

Learn, sikhna ; parhna. -er, 
shdgird. -ed, dlim ; fdzil, 
-ng, ilm^ (m.) ; ddnist 

Lease, thika ; ijdrah. docu- 



ment expressing a -grant- 
ed, patta, ditto -accepted, 
kabulyat. V. thika, ijdrah ' 
(or as the kind of lease 
may be) dena, to- e.g. a 
house, kirdye-d, or, /^«^. 
lessor of land, mdlik. 
lessee, thikdddr;ijdrahddr; 
ra^iyat, &^c., according to 
the kind of* lessee. See 
Glossary Part I. sub voct- 
bus. 

Least, sab se chhota. See ' A t. 

Leather, chamra. -n. -re ka. 

Leave, (n.) ijdzat ; (-to go,) 
rukhsat ; chhutti, to take- 
-lena. without-, be-kahe- 
piichhe. (v.) chhor-d. 

heech^jonk, (f.) 

Leek, gandana. 

Left, (over,) bdki. (surplus,) 
fdzil ; jo bacha hai. on, or 
to the left hand, bd,e7i. 

Leg, and its parts. See page 

63- 

Leisure, fursat ; drd7n ; fard- 
ghat, at-, -mefi^. -\y,dhime- 
dhime ; dhiste-dhiste. 

Lemon, lemu ; lembu. -ade, 
mitha-pdni. 

Lend, udhdr, or, karz^ or 
mangni-d. -er, with 'jo' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 27 1 



Length, lainbd.i ; till, (time,) 
arsah ; niuddat. See *At.' 
V. lambd-k. 

Leopard, chit a. 

Leprosy, korh. A. korhi. 

Less, kam ; kmntar. as suffix, 
^ be^ before the noun, e.g. 
be-wukicf, senseless, -en, 
kam-kar-d, ; ghatdna. 

Lesson, sabak. 

Lest, e.g. be quiet, lest I be 
angry, chup raho, nahiJi to 
main, ^c. don't speak, lest 
he hear, mat bolo, zuriir 
sunega, and so according 
to the analysed meaning 
in each use. 

Let. See * Lease.' (allow,) 
^^;?i3;,followingthe inflected 
infin. of principal verb. e.g. 
bhitar dne-do, let him come 
in. or, more formal, ijdzat- 
d. ; hiikm-d, ; farmdna. 

Letter, (written,) chitthi ; 
khatt ; rukah. (alphabet,) 
harf, PI. huruf. 

Lettuce, saldd, (E.); kdhu. 

Levee, darbdr;jamd,at; maj- 
ma ; majlis. 



Level, bardbar ; samdn, V. 
-k. N. -/. 

Liable, mdkhiiz, but best 
translated by the Persian 
suffix ^ dih,^ or ^ dihi.^ Q.g. 
jawdb-dih, liable to an- 
swer, responsible ; liable 
to punishment, saza-wdr, 
-to sickness, error, &c. 
may be best translated by 
* ana,^ or * aksar dna.^ e.g. 
us-ko zukdm aksar dta 
hat. or ^ karna.^ e.g. wuh 
hameshah ghalatikarta hat. 

Liberal, sakhi ; karim ; faiz- 
bakhsh. -minded, karim^ 
un-nafs. N. sakhdwat ; 
faiz, (f.). -ly, dil-khol-ke. 

Liberty. See ' Freedom.' 

Library, kutub-khdnah. 

Lick, chdt. V. chdtna. 

Lid, dhakna; chapni; sarposh. 

Lie, (tell a,) jhiith-kahna ; 
darogh-bolna. -ar, darogh- 
go.^ -ying, darogh-go,i. 

Lie, (down), letna ; sona. 

hifejjdn (f.); rtlh, (f.). (being 
alive, life-time,) zindagi ; 
zindagdni ; haydt, ((,). 



* From the Persian, ' guftan,' 'to speak." Hence also ^ guft-o-^u,' 
'conversation;' ^ go,indah,' 'an informer,' or 'spy,' and many other 
words. 



272 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



- less, be-jdn ; mii^a-hu^a, 
(fig.) he-dil ; afsurdah; 
udds, to spend-, guzrdn-k. 
-long, umr-bhar. 

Lift, uthdna ; uthd-d. 

Light, (not heavy,) halka ; 
subuk (clear,) sdf ; rau- 
shan ; ujdla. (fig.) khafif. 
-ness, halkd^i.^ (clearness,) 
safari ; raushani ; ujdla. to 
lighten (e.g. a boat,) hal- 
ka-k, -ning, bijli. V. 
chamakna. to Wght^ jald-d. 

Like, (a.) bardbar ; samdn ; 
ek kism ka ; ki vidnind ; 
ke mti^dfik, to be - 
another thing, yih is-se 
inilta hat. See Glossary, 
Part 1. 'Sa.' V. chdhna ; 
pasand-k. ; (be fond of,) 
pydr-k. -ly, aghlab. -ness, 
w //, dfaka t ; sa rikha . 

Lime, chuna. -kiln, -e ki 
bhatthi. 

Limit. See ' Boundary,' 
* Fence.' 

Line, sa^ar. -ing, astar. 

Linen, katdn-kapra. 

Lion, sher-babar ; singh. 

Lip, lab. 

Liquor, shardb^ {L). See page 34. 



List, fihrist ; fard, (f.) ; tdlu 
kah. 

Listen, kdn-lagdna ; sunna. 

Litter, sawdri ; pdlki ; dolt. 
(rubbish,) kurkat. 

Little, chhota ; khurd. a-, 
thora ; zarrah-sa ; kuchh- 
kuC'hh, -httiQx, kuchh 

achchha. -ness, (quantity, ) 
kami. (size,) chhotdj. 

Live, jina ; zindah-hona. 
-lihood, guzrdn. means 
of -lihcod, rozi ; rozgdr ; 
guzrdn. (to dwell,) rahna ; 
bud -o-bdsh-k . 

Liver, (organ Qiho^^^)jigar; 
kaleja. (person living,) 
with 'y^.' 

Lizard, tiktiki ; chhipkali. 

Load, (n.), bojha ; bharti ; 
khep^ (i^.(y. trans.) Iddna ; 
bharna. (v. intr.) ladna. 
ladened, bhara hti^a. 

Loaf, ek rati. 

Lock, kufl. V. -lagd-d. ; 
-se band-k. 

Long, lamb a ; dardz ; tul- 
tawil. See ' Length.' -ago, 
bakul dinon se; agle zamdne 
meft; the whole 6diy- Jajndm 
din ; din bhar, as-as. Jab- 



* From the Persian, ^biidan^ ' to be.' 



HINDT^STANl AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



,273 



tak, followed by ' tab-tak.^ 
See page 104. to -for, 
chdhna ; raghbat, or khivd- 
hish-rakhna. 

Look, (n.) nazar^ (f.); 7iigdh, 
(f.). {w,)dekhna. -this way, 
tdk7ta. (to keep an eye on,) 
nazar, or nigdh rakhna. to 
-out for, intizdr-k, (to con- 
sider,) ghaur-k, he looks 
(well, &c.), {achchha, ^^c.) 
maalicni hota hat. his -fell 
on me, MS-ki nazar mujh- 
par pari, -out, khabar-ddr 
hona. -ing-glass, d.inah.'- 

Loose, khitla, (slack,) dhila, 
V. kholna ; khol-d. to 
come-, khul-jdna, to 
break-, chhutjdna ; chhiit- 
ke bhdg-jdna. 

Lord, sdhib ; mdlik ; khudd- 
ivand ; khdwind ; huzur, 
to - it over one, zulm-k,; 
zabar-dasti-k. 

Lose, kho?ia ; gum-k. gene- 
rally the passive form is 
used, viz., gum-ho-jdna, 
(e.g. a bet,) hdrna ; hard-d, 
loss, nuksdn ; ziydn ; zarar. 



(in trade,) ghati, to be at 
a loss, pareshdn-hona , 
shakk meii hona. 

Lot. See ' Fortune.' (die,) 
kurah. to cast lots, kurah 
ddlna. 

Loud, loudly, baland dwdz 
se, to call-, pukdrna. 

Love, pydr, (f.) ; mail^ (f.) ; 
ydri, (animal) -, ishk, 
V. pydr-k. ; aziz rakhna. 
-ly, khubstcrat. -liness, 
kJmbstirati, -ed, pydra ; 
mahbtib. 

Louse, jicTji.. 

Low, nicha, (mean,) kaminah^ 
also as noun, a mean per- 
son, (as voice,) daba, to-, 
ba?nbdna? to lower, niche-k.; 
dabd-d. -liness. gharibi ; 
faro-tani. 

Luggage. See ' Goods.' 

Lumbago, kamar ka dard. 

Lump, tukra. 

Lunch, tiffin. See Glossary, 
Part L 

Luxury, aiydshi ; khushi, A. 
aiydsh, 

Ly i ng, (n. ) jhiith-miith. 



i 



* Accent on first syllable. 

2 In India the cattle are very silent. 



iS 



2 74 HINDI^STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



M. 



Mace, (staff,) chob ; soTi^ta, 
-bearer, chob-ddr, (spice,) 
basbdsah ; masdlah. 

Machine, kai. 

Mad, dkvdnah; pdgal; pagla, 
-man, pdgal ddi7ii. -house, 
pdgal-khdnah. -ness, diivd- 
nagi ; be-hoshi. -ly, diwd- 
nah-sa, -den, diwdnah-k, 

■ (fig.) ghusse-k. ; josh-k.; 
bad dinidgh-k. 

Magistrate, hdkim ; majis- 
tret sdhib. 

Maid, bdkirah ; ku.dri. -ser- 
vant, ay ah ; bdndi ; laundi. 

Mail, dak; tappdL See page 98. 

Maintain. See 'Assert, '*Live.' 
(rear,) pdlna ; parwasti-k, 
N. parivarish ; rozi ; 
khurdki ; khdna-pina. 

Make, banana ; band-d.; kar- 
na ; 'I made him come to 
me,' usko mere pds dnepar 

■ main-ne majbicr kiya, e.g. 
-profit, hdsil-k. ; kdmdna; 

* -progress, ba-sir-k. -sport. 



thattha-mdrna, -away with, 
urd-d.; bar-bdd-k. -haste, 
jaldi-k. (n.) (shape,) shakl, 
(f.); bandwat, -er, sdz,^ or 
kdr,^ d^c. as last part in 
compos. 

Male, nar. 

Malice, kinah ; bad-khoi. A, 
kinawdr ; bad-khwdh, 

Man, mard ; ddmi ; ins an ; 
shakhs ; kas. (at games,) 
nard. -kind, ddmiyat 
iitsdniyat ; bani-ddam.^ 
-hood, jawdni ; mardi, 
-1 in ess, marddnagi. A. 
marddnah, -ly, mard-sa ; 
marddnah, -eating, mar" 
dum-khor,^ 

Management, tntizdm; band;- 
o-basf, (m.) ; sar-ba-rdki. 
V. -karna,; kisi taur se 
karna, -er, sarbardh-kdr ; 
kdr-parddz; manejar^ (E.), 

Mange. See * Itch.' 

Mango, dm, -tree, -gdchh. 
-fish, tapsi-machhlt. 



* From the Persian, * sdkhtan,* to • make.' 
3 This of course is from ' karna,* 

* * Sons of Adam ;' he being common to Muham : and Christians, 

* From the Persian, \khurdan* * to eat.' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



ns 



Manifest, {2i)zdhir; maalicm; 
sdf. V. — k. ; kar-dikhldna. 
-o, izhdr-ndviah ; sicrat- 
hdl. -ly, zdhiran. 

Manner, taur ; tarah, (f.) ; 
tarikah. See ' Custom,' in 
this, (that) manner^ is^ 
(tis)tarah. in what manner, 
kis-tarah ; kyihikar. -ly, 
siisil. good -s, dddb ; 
akhldk. 

Manufacture,^rzi'/-y^ir/. -tory, 
kdr-khdnah. 

Many, bahut ; dher; bahutere; 
bahui-se. -a, bahui-ek, 
-times, aksar; bdr-bdr. 

Map, nakshah, V. -khaujich' 
na ; -taiydr-k. 

Marble, sang marmar, 

March, (n.) >^z/^^ V. -k. 

Mare, mddiydn ; ghori. 

Margin. See * Edge.' 

Mark, ddgh ; nishdn. (trace,) 
asar ; aldniai ; surdgh; 
pata. V. to make a-, ~d, 
to find -s of, -dekhna ; 
-pdna, ' ' , 

Market, (n.) bdzdr, {v. -k. ;) \ 



hdt ; chauk. -rate, nirk/i, ; 
bhd^o. 

Marriage, shddi ; hydh;nikdh. 
V. -k, -ied, (m.) bydha^ 
(f.) bydhi. 

Marsh, y/^//, (f.) ; gil-db, (f.), 
-y, tar ; martiib. 

Martingale, zer-band. 

Mason, rdj ; rdj-inistri, -ry^ 
rdj ka kdni. 

Mass. See * Lump.' 

Master, mdlik^ 6^^. See 
* Lord.' 

Mat, chata^i ; darina. (V. 
-lagd-d.) ; for sleeping on, 
sital-pdti. -maker, or sel- 
ler, chatd,i-wdla. 

Match, (n.) jora ; sdni.^ V. 
jorna ; bardbar-k ; mild-d, 
-es, dia-saldj; mechis'^ (E.). 
-less, Id-sdni. 

Materials. See " Apparatus.^ 

Matter, 7ndddah ; Jism,^ 
(affair,) kdm ; bat; mu,d- 
malah, no-, kuchh parwdh 
nahiTj, ; kuchh muzd^i^ah 
nahiri, what's the-, kya 

. 7iz\a ? kya hat? 



* VQv$,\2iX\' second," or * a seconds "* This word means * lanif)-chips.' 

* 'the Author knows tio Word really irh common use for ' mattqr ' in 
.the abstrac^. .,,^.^>^:.:i \ '"-^'v. 'V'-- r- " . ■ '■ ' • •■• ./^^ 



276 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Mattress, ioshak, (f.). 
Mature, pakka ; iaiydr, 
Maund, man. See page 70. 
May. See page 18. 
Me. See page 29. 
Meadow, inaiddn ; ramnah ; 

khuli jagah. 
Meal, (flour,) dta ; viaidah ; 

sattu, (food,) khdna. 
Mean, pdji ; ka??iinah. -ness, 

kaminagi. 
Meaning, mani ; matlab ; 

mazmiin^ 10 mean, with 
- ho?ia, e.g., what does this 

mean ? is-ke mani^ dr^c. 

kya hain ? 
Means. 6*^^* Wealth. '(agency), 

wasilah ; tadbir^ (f.). by 

no -, hargiz nahin. by 

some - or other, kuchh- 

tar ah se ; kisi ianr se. 
Meanwhile, meantime, in 

the, is men ; itne metj^ ; 

darmiydn is-ke. 
Measles, pan-goti. 
Measure, (of a thing,) mdp ; 

ndp, (f.). -ing of land, 

paimdjsh ; jarib. V. -k, ; 

mdpna. See page 70. 
Meat, (butcher's,) gosht. See 

page 91. Note, (generally,) 

khdna pina ; khurdk^ (f.). 



Medal, medal. {Yj,)Jamghah. 

Medicine, daiva, (f.) ; ddru. 

Meditation, ta^amviul, (m.) ; 
fikr^ (f.) ; soch ; andeshah. 
-tive, muta^ammil ; muia- 
fakkir ; fikrmajid ; soch 
men. 

Meet, (v.) milna. Seepage 
50. (assemble,)y«w«-i^^;z^. 
(as clothes.) thik-hona, or 
baithna. (a.). See 'Suit- 
able.' a - ing, (of friends,) 
77iuldkdt ; bhent. V. -k. ; 
bhentna. See ^ Assembly.' 

Melon, kharbiizah. 

Melt, {intr.) galna ; gal-jdna. 
{trans.) galdna ; gald-d. 

Member, (of the body,) azo ; 
juz. (of a meeting,) sdhib- 
i-majlis ; membar, (E.). 

Memory, ydd, (f.) ; hifz, (f.). 
-andum, ydd-ddsht.-hodkf 
baydz^ (f.). -rial, ydd-gdr. 

Mending, marammat ; rafa. 
V. -k. -in health, bhala or 
achchha hona. 

Mental, dili ; dil ka. -arith- 
metic, zabdni hisdb;zabdnt 
jokha. -ly, ba-dil ; dil se. 

Mention, zikr^ (m.) V. -k. 

Merchant, sauddgar ; mah< 
jan ; baniyd. (travelling,) 



M 



1 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



277 



baipdri; bakas-wdla. (half 

E.). -dize, sauda ; 7?tdl ; 

jinSj (f.) ; chiz^ (f.). See 

' Trade.' 
Mercy, rahm^ (f.) ; inihrbdni, 
. A. rahim ; mihrbdn, -fully 

with se. -iless, be-rahm, 

-ilessness, be-rahmi. 
Merely, fakat ; sirf ; khdli. 
Merit, kadar^ (f.) ; liydkat, 

-torious, kadar ka. ; khiib ; 
. achchha ; ivdjib-i-ri^ dyat 

the merits of any matter, 

bhalebure; aslhdl; wdkidt. 
Merry. See * Happy.' 
Message, M^^rt^r, (f.) ; bdt ; 

pa igh dm. V. -d. or bhejna, 

-enger, chaprdsi ; piyddah; 

pi^an^ (divine,) paigham- 

bar,"" 
Messiah, Masiha. 
Metal, dhdf^ or dhdiu,^ 
Mid, ddh; nim. -day, nimroz ; 

do-pahar ; zuhr. -night, 

ddhi-rdt ; do-pa har-rdt. 
Middle, bich ; mtydn. in the 

-bich nmi ; bichon-bich ; 

dar-miydn. 
Midwife, dd^i. 



Might, (v.) sakna. page 22. 

(n.) See * Power.' 
Mild, gharib ; narm ; narni' 

diL N. -/. 
Mile, fiiil ; ddha-kos. 
Military, the, lashkar, A. -/. 
Milk, dudh. A -ka. V. doh- 

na. -man, go^dla. -woman, 

go^dlin. 
Mill, chakkl ; dsya. oil-, 

kolhu. -stone, chakki ; 

sang-i-dsya. 
Millet, bdjara. 

Million, das lakh, ten mil- 
lions, karor. 
Mince, niinsh ; (E.). kimaK 

V. ~k. 
Mind, (n.) akl^ (f.) ; hosh ; 

zihn ; ruh, (f.) V. ydd-k, ; 

lihdz-k, ; ghaur-k, to put 

in -, ydd dildna. 
Minister, (of state,) diwdn ; 

wazir. (of church,) pddri- 

sdhib. See pages 52 and 77. 
Minor, (n.) nd-bdligh, (a.) 

khurd ; chhota ; kam. -ity, 

Icajn-umri^ (f.) ; kani-sini. 
Minute, (n.) ek minat, (E.). 

(a.) See ^ Small.' 



^ Not Hindustani ; probably Portuguese generally written 'peon,' 

^ Applied especially to Muhammad. 

^ Not often heard, as you generally name the metal. 



278 



hindtjstAni as it ought to be spoken. 



Mirror, d^inah ; darpan. 
Mirth. See 'Joy.' 
Misbehaviour, bad-saliiku 

(v. -k,) bad chalani, V - 

hona. 
Miscarry, (fail,) bigar-Jdna, 

(as a letter,) gum-ho-jdna ; 
: kho-jdna. 
Miscellaneous, har kism ka ; 

mutafarrik. 
Mischief, badi ; nuksdn. to 

make -, bigdrna ; bigdr-d. 
Misdeed, bad-fel ; bad-kdm. 
MLser, bakhil, -liness, bukhl^ 

(m.). -ly, bukhl-se. 
Misery, zillat ; bad-hdli ; 

be-chdragi ; fangi. -able, 

zalil ; bad-bakht ; be-?ta- 
• sib. 
Misfortune, bad-bakhti ; musi- 

bat ; tabdht. 
Mislead, bhatkdna ; rdh- 

bhuldna. 
Mismanagement, bad-inti- 

zdmi, V. -k. 
Misplace, be-tariib-rakhna ; 

kisi dusrijagah men rakhna. 
Miss, viissdhiba/i, (half E.) ; 

begam y' sdhib-zddi. 
Miss, (v.) chiikfia ; chhorna ; 



(intr,) nahin lag-jdna, (n.) 

chiik ; khata. 
Mist, kuhdsah. -y, dhundhla. 
Misunderstand, use nahitj, 

with ' Understand.' 
Mix, mildna; inild-d.^,mild^o. 
Moan. See * Groan.' 
Mode. See * Manner.' 
Model, nakshah. (v. -k.) 

(pattern,) namunah. 
Modesty, sharm^ (f.) ; haya^ 

(f.) ; A. sharmandah ; 

lajila. -ly, sharm se 
Moist, bhinga ; tar ; sila ; gila, 

V. -k ; bhtjjgd-d. ; sildna. 
Molasses, gur. 
Mole, (animal,) kor-mush. 
Moment. See * Instant.' a 

matter of-, zariiri kdm. 
Monarch. See ' King.' 
Monday, Soi?ibdr ; pir ka roz; 

do shambah. See page 66. 
Money, paise ; rupiye, a sum 

of-, mablagh ; zar, (m.), 

ready-, nakd rupiye. -bag, 

tor a ; thaili, -changer, 

sarrdf. -lender, mahdjan. 

-less, tihi-dast ; khdli-hdth. 
Mongoose, newal. 
Monkey, bandar. 



* * Khiirshidi begam^' {See pa^e 
beam.' Khiirshid is a Persian word 



122,) may be translated * Miss 
meaning the ' Sun.' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 279 



Month, mahinah ; 7?idh-\y, 
or, - by-, mdh-ba-mdh. -ly 
pay, mdhiydna; dar-?ndhah. 

Moon, chdnd ; mdh. See 
* Eclipse/ -light, chdfidni. 
a -light night, chdndnirdt ; 
shab-i-mdh, -beam, chdnd 
ki jot. 

More, aur ; aur kuchh ; 
ziyddah. the more ... the 
more, jyon-j'yo?t ... tyoii- 
tyon. the more ... the less, 
same phrase, with * nahiit ' 
in the co-relative clause. 

Mosque, masjid, (f.). 

Mosquito, 9?iachchhar, -cur- 
tains, masahri. 

Most, beshtar ; sab se ziyddah. 
Adv. beshtar ; sab se aksar. 

Mother, ma ; viddar ; wdli- 
dah, step-, sauteli ma, 
a - who has had a son, 
larkori. -less, be-mddar^ 
-ly, md sa. -tongue, 
watani^ zabdti, (f.). 

Motion, harakat. 

Motive, sabab ; bdjs ; mat- 
lab ; gharaz^ (f.). 

Move, {intr,) hilna ; dolna, 
{tra?ts.) hildna ; doldna. 



-on, chalna; chald-jdna ; 
dge-barhdna. -off, chal-d, 
-ing, rawdtj, ; chalta ; 
harakat men. as last word 
in compos.:... a?igez^ e.g. 
ri^kat-angeZf compassion- 
stirring. 

Mount. See * Ascend.^ 

Mourning, ^^^?////. v.- ^. -ful, 
-gin. -fully, -se. 

Mouse, chtiha ; mush.- trap, 
-ddn. 

Mouth, miinh. to make a-, 
fnwih terha-k. - ful, a, 
lukmah^ - of a river, 
muhdfia. 

Much, bahut ; bahutera, 
Xoo-^ziyddah. Seepage 104. 
so-so, that, &c., is mar- 
tabe ko, kih, dr'c. 

Mud, kichar, {Q ', g^'^j i^-^- 
kddo. - dy, maila ; bahut 
kichar hai.- wall, mittikidi- 
wdr, (f ); kachchi-diwdr,(i.) 

Mug, mag (E.). 

Mulberry, ////. 

Multiply. See ' Increase.' 
(arithmetic), jorna. 

M ul ti 1 u (i e, guroh^ (m . ) ^ jafni- 
yat; ghol, (m.) ',guhdr, (f.). 



* • Watan ' means one's fatherland. 



28o 



hindx^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 



Murder, khicn. wilful-, katl 

amd, (homicide), katl-i- 

insdn. V. -k.; indr-ddlna, 

-er, khimi ; kdtil. -ous, 

, khiin-rez. -ed, uiaktuL 

Muse,(v). sochna; andeshah-k. 

Mushroom, musharum^ (E.) ; 

chhdta ; dharti. 
Music, viusiki. -cian, mutrib. 
-cal, shirin. -cal instru- 
ment, bdjd. (with very 
many names for various 
kmds.) 
Musk, viushk, -cat, 7mishk- 
. billi. -rat, chha-chundar. 



N. 



Nail, preg. V. -d. ; lagdna. 

(of man or beast,) ndkhiin. 
Naked, la?iga, or nanga. N. 

?ia?tgd,i. 
Name, nam ; ism. V. -d. 

-less, gut)i-7idm ; nd- 

maalum. -sake, hafn-ndm. 
Napkin, hath ka tauliyah ; 

ru-vidl, 
farrow, (tight,) sakra ; ta?ig, 

(not broad,) kaui-arz. 

-ness, sakrdj ; kam-arazi. 
Nation,^ mulk ; mulk ke log. 



Musket, ba?iduk, (f.). 
Muslm, mal-7JiaL 
Must. SI ee page i8. 
Mustache, muchh^ (f.). 
Musalmaii, musalmdn ; mus- 

lim. PL viuslimin. fern. 

viusalmdni. their religion, 

isldtfi. 
Mutiny, balwa ; baghdwat 

V. -k. 
Mutton, bheri ka gosht. 
My, itiera. See page 30. 

Sect. 6. 
Mystery, rdz, (m.) ; bhed, A. 

rdz ka. 

Native, (a.) mulk ka. (n.) sd- 

kin ; bashandah. -country, 

watan ; des. -ity, janam ; 

paiddjsh. r\3ita\, j an am ka. 

Natural, ba-ddat ; tabi-u 
nature (disposition.) ddat ; 
tabiat ; mizdj ; kho. 

Near, (prep.) ke pas ; ke naz- 
dik ; ke yahdii ; ka7ie. (a.) 
nazdik; karib; pds ; yahdn, 
-ly, karib-karib. -ness, 
7iazdiki. -(in blood), bhd^i- 
ba7idi ; barddari. 



* The European conception of a ' nation ' does not, and never can, 
exist in India. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



281. 



Neat, suthra. N. suthrd^i. 

Necessaries. See * Apparatus.' 
-ary, zarur ; Idzim ; 
chdhiye. See page 20. 
{\)X\wy,) jd-e zartirat. -ity, 
zanirat. • -arily, zariir ; 
zarurata7i. -itous, muhtdj ; 
gharib ; tang hdl. 

Neck, gar dan, (f.) ; gala ; 
gidu, -cloth, gulu-band, 
-lace, India, 

Need, (v.) chdhna ; 7nujh-ko 
zariir hat, ( n. ) zarurat, 
-ful, zarur ; dar-kdr, -y, 
gharib ; tang ML 

Needle, (large,) sic^a. (com- 
morij) su^l ; darzan. eye 
of-, ndka. -case, su,i-ddn, 
-work, St Id J ; suj ka 
kdm. 

Neglect, (n.) be-khabarddri, 
(carelessness,) ghaflat. 
V. -k.; bhidna; riahiTj, kar- 
na; (z.) ghdfil ; kdhil ; maj- 
hid. {yi\\\\hona, these make 
verbs.) -fully, ghaflat se. 

Negro, habshi. 

Neighbour, parosi ; ham- 
sdyah. -hood, nazmh; naz- 
diki ; jagah ; paros. -ly, 
ham-sdyah ; barddardna. 

Neither... nor, na yih,,,na 



wuh ; na ek,..na diga r ; 
ko^i nahifi ; donon nahifj.. 

Nephew, (brother's son,)^>^^- 
tija. (sister's son,) bhdnja. 

Nerve, rag^ (f.) ; nas, (f.). 

Nest, ghonsla ; dshiydna. 

^t\.,jdla;jdl. 

Never, kabhi ^^/^/^/.-theless. 
tau-bhi ; td-ham. 

New, nau ;naya.{{ve,%\\,)idzah, 
-ness, tdzagi. -year, nau 
sdl. -Year's Day, nau roz. 

J<^Qws,k/iabar, {L)bdt. good-, 
khush-khabari ; achchhi bat, 
bad-, bad-khabdr ; khardb 
bdt,-'p2LpeY, akhbdr; khabar 
ka kd gh az.-v^v'xttx, khabar- 
navis. vi\iho\iX.-,be-khabar, 

Next, Jo pichhe hat ; dusra, 
-time, dusre wakt -year, 
dyandah-sdl. 

Nice. See 'Neat.' 

Niche, tdk, (f.). 

Niece, (brother's daughter,) 
bhatiji. (sister's daughter,) 
bhdnji. 

Night, rdt ; shab, (f.). to- 
dj rdt ko, by-, rdt ko. 
last-, kal rdt ko. a moon- 
light-, chdndni rdt. -and 
day, shab-o-roz ; rdt-din, 
-dress, rdt ka kapra. 



282 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SP6KEN. 



Nightingale, shdmak. 

Nip, nochna. 

No, nahii} ; ndhi ; na. -one, 
ko\i nahiij,, nothing, kuchh 
nahin. -^h^x^^kahifinahi?!. 

Noble, sharif ; asil ; najib, 
-man, mir ; amir, c^^c. (ac- 
cording to the title en- 
joyed.) -bility, shardfat ; 
najdbat. the -bility, arkdn- 
i-daulat. {See pa^e 52 ) ; 
umara, (Pi. of amir,), of 
-birth, najib-zddah. 

Nobody, ko,i nahin. a -, nd- 
kas ; nd-chiz. 

Noise, shor ; divdz, (f.) ; 
ghul, to make a -, -k. 

None, (person,) ko,,i nahin, 
(things,) kuchh nahin. 

Nonsense, behudah bdt;ydzuah. 

Noon, do pahar. {See page 
6"].) '^ do pahar din ; zuhr. 

Noose, phdnsi. V. phdiistia. 

Nor. See ' Neither.' 

North, uttar ; shamdl. 

Nose, ndk, (f.). 



Not. See'^o: 

Notification, ishtihdr; mand-^\ 
di, y. -jdri'k. 

Notion, khiydl ; gumdn. to 
have a-, -k. 

Nourish, pdlna ; parwarish 
or parwasti k. or d. 

Now, ab ; is -wakt ; bil-fel ; 
hdlan. -a days, dj-kal. 

Number, by the numeral 
applicable. The English 
word ' nambar ' is in com- 
mon use ; the natives not 
having our idiom. Thus, for 
^number 8/ they say * thf 
8th.' Also, ' there was a 
great number of people 
present' bahut log hdzir 
the. See * Count.' 

Numerous. See ' Many.' 

Nurse, (native,) dydh;^ (Eng- 
lish,) nass,"^ (E.) wet-, 
dd^i. 

Nut, jauz, wal-, akJirot 

Nutm eg, jd-e-phal, 

Nutnment,£hiza; ghizd, lyaL 



* Probably Portuguese. 



* That is, • nurse.' 



hindi^stIni as it ought to be spoken. 



283 



o. 



Oar, ddnd. 

Oath, kasam ; halaf. to take 
an-, -khdna. 

Obey, 7ndnna; siuina. -dient, 
htikm-barddr ; tdbiddr, 
dience, -/; -/. 

Object, (thing,) chiz, (f.). 
(aim.) See ' Intention.' any 
object of pursuit, &c. 
f?iatma-i-nazar. 

Object, (v.) nd-manzur ox nd- 
pasand-k. ; itirdz-k.^.ttirdz. 

Obhged, (compelled,) inaj- 
bur. N. -/.v. -k. (favoured) 
mamnun. (v.). mihrbdni-k, 
(n.) mihrbdfii ; Jiiinnat, 
under -gation, fjiinnat-ddr, 
(n.a.). -ing, mihrbdn ; nek- 
kho. 

Observation, (noticing, )//-^<is:; 
ghaurinazar-anddzi. Y.-k.; 
dekhna. -er, dekhnewdla ; 
nigdh-bdz See * Word.' 

Obstinate, sar-kash; gardan- 
kash ; sakht ; j?iaghriir, 
N. sar-kashi. V. -k. 



Obstruct, rokna; atak-kar-d, ; 
thek-k -ion, rok ; rukd^o ; 
atak. This road is -ed, 
yih rdh band hat. 

Obtain. See * Acquire.' 

Obtuse. See ' Stupid.' 

Obvious, sdf; zdhir; maalum, ■ 
Adv. sd/; zdhiran. 

Occasion, (time,) wakt, 
(cause,) sabab ; wajh, (f.). 
(opportunity,) wakt ; mau- 
ka, (need,) kdin ; zaricrat, 
V. See 'Cause.' -ally, 
kabhi-kabhu 

Occupation, kdm ; dhandha ; 
peshah. -pied,(busy,)w«^/^- 
ghul. V. hona ; furs at 
nahin /z<2/.-pier, dakhl-kdr; 
kdbiz. V. (e.g., a house,) 
dakhl'k. ; dak/iil-Mr, or 
kdbiz-hona ; kirdya-ddr 
hona. 

Occur, hona; bar-pd-hona ; 
ittifdk-hona ; ana ; d-jdna; 
pesh-dna. -rence, wuku^ ; 
fel ; kdm. 



^ The real pronunciation of this difficult word is that of a short, 
closed \\7\\\2lx\ * o * in the first syllable ; very near the ' o,' in * ora- 
tion,' ' oku.' In Hindustani '6, ' *u, ' * v, ' and ' w ' are written with 
one and the same character. Short ' o s ' do occur in Hindustani, and 
also short * e s ; ' whatever the Grammarians may say. Thus you will 
often hear moharrir, Mohammad ; mehtar, mehrhdn^ ^c,^ df^c, and 
these sounds cannot be said to be wrong. See page 47, Note ii. 



284 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Ocean , sa nuaidar ; saga r ; 
kdla pdni^ ('"•)• 

Odour, khush-bu, (f.). Adj. 
mu^attar. 

Of, See pages 5 and 73. of 
himself, dp-se;k}iiid ; khud- 
ba-kJmd. 

Off, (distant,) dur ; to go- 
(person,) /^/2^; chald-jdna. 
(gun,) chhutjdna. interj. 
dtir ; dur-dur / 

Offence. See ' Crime.' 

Offer. There is no corre- 
sponding idea in Hindus- 
tani. Use such phrases as 
suit. e.g. He offered ^o help 
me, viujhko inadad dene 
ko taiydr tha. He offered 
(or made an offer of) ten 
rupis for the cloth, kapre 
ke wdsie das rilpiye bola^ 
and so on. See ' Present.' 

Office, (post,) uhdah ; kdm ; 
peshah ; naukari; khidtnat. 
-room, daftar ; daftar- 
khdnah ; dfis, {Yj.) servant 
thereof, daftari. -er, ac- 
cording to his work, from 
the 'hakim,' or *• head,^ 
down to the ' mihtar,' or 



sweeper. Some of these 
are as follow : — Chief sub- 
ord i nate, sar-rishta-ddr, 
reader, pesh-kdr. Writer, 
(native,) muha rrir ; (Eng- 
lish,) kirdni ; translator, 
midarjim. Record-keep- 
er, vmhdfiz. (all these, 
when you call for them, 
should get ' sahib ' after 
their titles) : the copyist or 
section-writer, nakl-navis. 
the messenger, for near 
work, chaprdsi ; for distant 
work, piyddah. -cers of 
the army. See page 97. 

Often, aksar. how-, kae-bdr ? 
so, ^ras-, jai-bdr^ tai-bdr. 

Oil, tel } raughan ; chiknd^i, 
hair-, bdl ka tel, and so of 
other kinds of oil : kero- 
sine-, karshin ^ {^.) ka tel, 
mustard-, sarson ka tel, 
castor- renri ka tel. cocoa- 
nut-, ndriyal ka tel. -man, 
teli ; kolu, -press, kolhu. 

Ointment, mar ham; raughan 

Old, piirdna ; kadim. -man, 
buddha. -woman, buddhi ; 
burhi. -age, burhdpa. 



» This oil is now extensively used in Indian houses. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



285 



of- kaditn men ; agle 
zamdne vieit. how - are 
you ? tumhdra sinn kya 
hat ? a boy of ten years - 
das baras ka larka. 

Olive, /^/-/i^. 

Omelet, mamlet, (E.). 

Omnipotence, kudrat. A. 
kadir. 

On, par; (lit. and fig.) ke 
iipar. - a person's side (as 
a friend,) ki taraf. - this 
account, is-wdste. - that 
day, us-roz. - this, is-par ; 
tab. I Jrhall reach - or by, 
the (lay after to-morrow, 
parson tak. - the contrary, 
bil-aks ; bd^vujud is-ke. 

Once, ek dafah ; ek bar. all 
at - (persons acting to- 
gether.) sab-mil-ke; eh sdth, 
(ditto, suddenly,) ^^/^^//rt/^; 
ndgdh ; ndgahdn, - or 
twire, do ek martabe. -up- 
on a time, sdbik dinofi 7ne?u 

One, ek. often followed by 
* tho,^ an expletive, not to 
be translated, but equi- 
valent to * unit ' -another, 
ek-digar^ some-, ko,i ; ko^i 
ddmi. a certain -, fuldnah ; 
fuldnah dd?ni, - by -, 



ekek. it is all -, ek hi bat 

hat; kiichhfark nahiri hat. 
Onion, piydz. 
Only, ek ; ekla ; (merely,) 

sirf ; fakat ; kJidli, 
Onward. .^^^ ' Advance.' 
Open, (v.) kholna ; khol-d, 

(a.) khiila. -land, inaiddn; 

khiilijagah. ^SV^ ' Liberal' 

~ing, rdh^ (f.) ; bhitar jdne 

ki rdh ; bdhar dne ki rdh ; 

nikds. -ly, zdhiran ; sab 

logon ke sdmne. 
Opinion, rd^i or rd^e ; khiydl ; 

I hold this -, meri rd^i 

yih hai, kih^ 6"r. 
Opium, (made,)<2^//;^. (»row- 

ing,) post, one who uses -, 

afimi ; posti. 
Opportunity. 6'(?^ ' Occasion.' 
Oppose. See 'Obstruct,^ 

viukhdlif hona. -ponent 

mukhdlif^ (also as an adj.)^ 

-position, jnuzdhamat ; 

rok ; rok-tok; at kd,o. -po- 

site, {jxAv ,) sdmne ; (prep.). 

ke sdmne. 
Oppression, zid7n ; zabar- 

dasii ; sakjiti. V. -k. -or, 

zdlim. -ive, zabar-dast ; 

sakht ; sang-diL -ed,. 

7nazlinn. -ively, jabran. 



286 hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 



Oral, zabdni, also adv. 

Orange, ndrangi. 

Orator, zabdn-dwar. -y, -/. 

Orchard, Mg/i ; baghdn^ 

(E.B.). 

Order. See * Command ' and 

* Arrangement' -ly officer, 
ar dally (E.). 

Ordinary, maamiili ; bdzdri ; 

chalni ; jo dastiir hai. 
Origin, jar ; asl ; bunydd, 
(f.). -al, asli ; awwaL 
-ally, shuru se ; ibtida se. 
See 'Beginning.' 
Ornament, sif^gdr, (f.) ; zeb ; 
drdjsh ; kliush-numdj, V. 
-• singdrna. -al, zeb-dwar ; 
khush-numa. -ed, drds- 
iah ; khiib-siirat, 
'Ortolan, bageri. 
Ostrich, shutur-7nurgh. 
/Other, {Qxix2i,) aur-ek, (differ- 
\ ent,) diisra ; digar. See 

* One.' some one or -, 
koj na koj. some thing or 
-, kuchh ; kuchh na kuchh. 
-wise, aur ; aur tarah se, 

, -wise, nahin to. 
Oven, tamir, 

/Over, tipar. (prep.) ke upar ; 
.par, -and above, is ke 



siwd^e ; aldwah is ke ; 
ziyddah ; aur. Verbs com- 
pounded with ' over,' must 
be translated according to 
their meaning, there being 
no corresponding prefix 
in Hindiistani,e.g., he went 
over ( = across) the river, 
darya ke us pdr gaya. he 
overcame ( = removed) my 
scruples, us-ne jfiera pas-o- 
pesh (hesitation) dabd diya, 
-look, mu,df-k. See 'Ne- 
glect.' -night, rdikeimkt ; 
rdt-ko. -sight, bhiU ; chiik^ 
(f-) ; ghalat, -take, djdna ; 
pds dna; ke pds pahunchna, 
-turn, ultdna ; ultd-d. 

Ought. See page 1^. Sect. 21. 

Our, hamdra ; ham logon ka, 
with *own.' See page 30. 
we -selves, ha?nju?7i; ham- 
donojj, (if only two.) ; ham- 
sab, (if more.), among 
-selves, dpas men. 

Out, (adv.) bdhar. (prep.) 
ke bdhar, to go-, bdhar 
jdna ; nikaljdna, (as fire,) 
bujhjdna, to give-, kahna; 
zdhir-kar-d. to ciy-^pukdr-^ 
na. to put-, (as a light,)] 
butd-d, ; bujhd-d. -of, (a! 



hindi5st1ni as it ought to be spoken. 



287 



place, or a number,) merj. 

se. (a material,) se, -of 
b {e.g.) fear, dar ke mare, -of 
\ breath, be-dani. -of time, 

be-wakt. -of spirits, udds ; 

ghamgin. get-, dut! dilr! 
\ ' dur-diir! -most, sab-se diir, 

-let, nikds ; muhdna, 

-right, piire piire taiir se. 
Outrage, zulm ; be-hurmati ; 

be-tzzatLY , -k. 



Owe, (money,) karz rakhna; 

karz-ddr hona. owing to, 

se or ke sabab se, e.g. dMp 

se, owing to the heat. 
Owl, u//u. 
Own, (s-dj.) See page ^o. (v.) 

(e.g. property, )...r^/^y^«^; 

mdli'k hona. -er, mdlik; 

kdbiz; dakhl-kdr; sdhib-i... 

e.g. sahib i-khdnah. 
Ox, ba^il. -cart, -gdri. 



Pace, kadam, (V. -k.); deg. 
Pacify, khush-k. ; rdzi-k, ; 

thanda-k. N. use these as v. n. 
Pack, (v.) chiz sab band kar- 

na. -et, gathri ; pdkit,(E.). 
Pad, gaddi ; namdah. V. is 

men ruj (or other mate- 
rial, )^^;2«. 
Padlock, -^^{/? / tdla. 
Page, (of book,) safhah ; 

warak. (servant,) v^^ii"/ 

khds naukar., 
Vdigt2int,-ry,hasham;hdshmat. 
Pail, bdlti. milk-, dohni. 
Pain, dard, ("^O^ sozish ; 

dukh: to fee] -, ^uthdna ; 

khdna.'Xo cause-^, --d, -ful, 



dardka; dard-angez.-fuWy, 

dard-se. -s, mihnat ; 

zahmat. V. -k. ; -uthdna. 
Paint, (n.) rang, (m.) ( v.) (as 

an artist,) khifichna. ( as 

an artificer,) -d.;-iagdna. 

-er, (artist,) musawwir. 

(artificer,) rang-rez. -ed, 

mankiUh ; jis par rangdiya 
^gayd ^z/.-ing,a, taswir, (f.). 

(the art oi,)taswir-kashi.^ 
' Pair. See 'Join.' 
Palace, rang-mahal ; raj -Idri, 
'Palanquin, pdlki. -bearer, 

-wdla ; -biirddr ; berar, 

{EX - : ^ 



"*' See page 22. Sects. 32 arid 31* / - ^ - 
*- Fxom the Persian^ ''kashidan,^ * to draw.' 



288 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Pale, (iTuc^^zard ; pila. (gen- 
eral word,) halke rang ka. 
Palette, rang ki takhti. 
Palm, (according to its kind, 
followed by ^gdchk ' tree,) 
date, khajYir, cocoanut, 
ndriyaL arccsinutjSi^piydri. 
plantain, ke/a. 
Palsy, sitang. 
Pan, pdn^ (E.); tdbah. -cake, 

pdn-kek^ (E.)- 
Pane, shishe ki takhti. 
Panel, lakri ka takJitah. 
TsLUtaloon. pathm, (E.). 
Panther, cMta. 

Pantry, khdnsd?ndn ka ka7?ira. 
Paper, kdghaz, blotting-, 

Idl-. -biscuit, papri. 
Parable, tamsil,(^.)\ masal^({,) 
V2iX2i6\sQ,jannat ;firdaus, (m.) 
Paralysis, lakivah. 
Parasol, ckhdta. 
Pardon, 'afu ; mu.dfi, V. -d, ; 
uzr manzur-k. ; 7nu^df-k, 
-me! mu^dj kijiye ; bur a 
na mdniega kih main, d^c. 
-ed, mu-df. 
Parent. See 'Father.' *Mo- 
tber.' -s, fnd'bdp, -al, 
wdliddna ; pidari. 
Parish, sukimat ; mahallah ; 
mauza. 



Park, ramna ; maiddn. 
Parlour, baithne ka kainra ; 

khds, or, khalwat-khdnah. 
Parrot, iota (m.); toti, (f.). 
• Parsley, /Jz-j//, (E.) 
Part, (n.), juz ; tukra ; kissah, 
(concern in,) aldkah.{?>ldQ,) 
taraf, (f.). (v.). bdntna ; 
hissah-kar-d, to take one's 
-, tarafddr hona. to take 
in bad -, bura mdnna. to 
take in good -, bhala- 
jdnna ; pasand-k. -ial, 
tarafddr. N. tarafddri, -ly^ 
kuchh, -ially, tarafddri se. 
-isan, tarafddr. -ition, 
taksim, (f.).; batwdra. 
-icularly, (in detail,) tafsi- 
Ian. (especially,) khusiisan. 
Partner, sharik ; hissa-ddr, 
-ship, shardkat; hissa-ddri^ 
Partridge, titar. 
Party, ,..ki iaraf ke log. 

(-ies in a suit,) far ikain. 
Pass, (v.) jdna ; chaldfdna, 
(as time,) {intr.) bit jdna, 
-away, hofdna ; ho chukna^ 
-time, (trans.) sarfk. -cur- 
rent, jdri-hona. -across^ i 
par or ubtir-k, -ov^r, (over- 
look,) 7nu,df-k, ; chhor-d. 
come to -. See * Occur/ 



J 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



289 



to - one's word for, pat- 
mdn-k. ; izhdr-k. the past, 
jo giizashtah hai. 

Passage. 6>^'0atlet.' ^Extract.' 

Passion. See 'Anger.' to be 
or get in 2i-,jhaljhaldna, 

Paste, (batter,) le,t\ (on a 
pie,) karast, (E. crust.), 
-board, tut. pastry, samo- 
sah ; niathri ; pestari. (E.) 

Pasture land, chard-gdh, to 
pasture, chardna, 

Pat, (n.) thak ; iamdchah, 
V. -d. ; (as a thing flap- 
ping,) thak-thakdna. 

Patience, sabr. (f.). V. -k. 
Adj. sdbir. Adv. -se. 

?a.t\tntj2i,Mmdr ddmi ; mariz. 

Patron, murabbi ; parwar^ as 
last word in compos. : e.g. 
gharib-pa rwar, - of the 
poor, -age, hhndyat. -ize, 
murabbi hona ; parwasti-k. 

Pattern, namiinah. 

Paw, (n.) panjah ; changuL 
(v.) tdpna. 

Pay, (n.) talab ; tnushdharah ; 
(daily,) rozinah, (month- 
ly,) dar-mdhah ; mahina. 



(y ea-rly, ) sdl'dna, V. ^d, (an 
account, &:c.,)add-k. -able, 
JO dena hat, -ment, ada. 

Pea, peas, matar. 

Peace, siilh^ (f.) ; saldmaf, 
(of mind,) khdtir-jama ; 
taskin, (f.). (rest,) drdm 
to hold one's -, chup- 
rahna, to break the -, 
balwa-k, -ful, be-fasdd^ 
-fully, be-fasdd se ; chup-ke. 

Peach, shajt-dlu. 

Peacock, mor^ or ?nhor. 

Pearl, mott\ (m.). 

Peasant, kisdn ; grihist ; 
ra^iyaf, the -try, ra^dya. 

Peck, thongna. 

Peculiar, khdss ; mukhtass, 
-ity, khustisiyat; khdsstyaf, 
-ly, khusicsan. 

Peg, mekh^ (f.). 

Pellet, goli, a - bow, gulcL 

Pen,^ kalam. -knife, -tardsk, 
-box, - ddn. - and ink, 
dawdt kalam, V. -band-k.; 
likhna. See ' Restrain.' 

Penal, wdjib-us-saza. the 
Indian - Code, majmti^ah 
tdzirdt-i-Hind, 



* As natives always used a reed for writing, there are no words for 
a * nib,' or a * pen-holder.' But ^lohe ha kalam^ is in use for the form- 
er, and * kalam ki lakri,' for the latter. Natives now use * nibs.' 
T., H. 19 



290 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Tend], pensi/, (E,). 
Penury, tangi ; tang-das tL 

-ious, iang-dil ; bakhiL 
People, log ; ddmi ; khald^tk, 

(v,) basdna ; dbdd-k, 
F epper ^ mirck. (black,) ^^/-. 

(red,) MI-. V. -d, -box, 

-ddn. 
Perceive. See * See.' 
Perfect, (a.) kdmil ; pura ; 

sdkhtah ; pukhtah ; tamdfn, 

V. -k. -ion, kamdl ; ikmdl ; 

tamdmi, -ly, bahiit thik ; 

tafndm-o ka?ndL 
Perform. See * Do.' -ance 

(doing,) fel ; kdm^ &^c, 

(completion,) tamdmi. 
Perfume. See ' Odour.' 
Perhaps, ho sakta hat ; shd- 

yad.^ 
Period, arsah ; viuddat ; 

wakt; zamdnah ;{[ong^) yug. 
Perish. See ' Die.' 
Perjury, jhiithi-kasain. to 

commit -, -khdna ; jhuthi 

gawdhi-d. 
Permanent. See ' Firm.' 
Permission, ijdzat, V. -d, ; 
dena with the inflected in- 
linitive of anything per- 



mitted, as in the common 

phrase, ^jdne do^ permit 

him to go. 
Perquisite, dasturi. 
Person. See * Being.' -ate, 

bhes-k. ; nakl-k. ; surat 

bandna. -ation, by the v. n. 
Persuasion, targhib^ ((.).Y.-d. 
Perturb. See ' Confound.' 
Perverse, mukhdlif ; ziddi, 

V. -hona, -ness, zidd ; 

mtikhdlafat. 
Pestle, sonta. 
Pet, (n. a.) pydra, (m.), -/, 

(f ). V. pydr-k. 
Petition, darkhwdst; guzdrish; 

arz^ (f.) ; suwdl ; nibedon ; 

baydn; bdt. Y.-k. -er, sd^il^ 
Petticoat, pittikot.'^ 
Phial, shishi. 
Pick, (v.) chunna; chun-kna. 

(flowers,) torna. - a quar- 
rel, lard^i iithdna. -axe, 

phaura ; kudra. 
Pickles, pikal, (E.). 
Picture, /^^ze//r (L)] 7iakshah, 

-frame, dhdncha. See 

* Draw.' 
Piece. See ' Part.' -meal, 

tiikre-tukre. 



^ Persian * it may be,' from * shudan^^ ' to be.' 
* Indian ladies don't wear petticoats. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



291 



Pierce, chhedna ; chhed-k. in- 
strument for -ing, chhe^- 
oni. 

Pig, su.ar. 

Pigeon, kabiUar, - house, 
-kJidnah. 

Pile, (heap,) dher^ (f.) ; am- 
bdr, (of cloth, )r<?,^e^. (post), 
khambha. 

Pilgrim, (to Mecca,) hdjL 
(generally,) tirathi, -age, 
(to Mecca,) hajj. (gene- 
rally,) tirath. 

Pill, goU; habb, (f.). 

Pillage, (n.) lut V. -k, ; 
lutna, to be -ed, lutna. 
one v/ho -s, liUiya, 

Pillar, situn ; khavibha. 

Pillow, takyah, -case, -ye 
ka ghildf. 

Pin, (n.) (for clothes, <1'C.) 
pin, (E.). (small bolt,) kil, 
(f.) V. --la o d-d 

Pincers, sangsi ; chimta. 

Pinch, (n.) noch, V. nochna ; 
chutki-lena. ► 

Pme-apple, anannds. 

Pious, din-ddr ; khudd-tars ;^ 
sdlih ; nek. piety, takwa; 
khiidd-iarsi. 



Pipe, (smoking,) (native,) 
htikkah, (English,) paip^ 
(E.). (for e.g. water,) nal ; 
nai, (f.). (cask,) pipa, 
(musical,) ba7}si, V. baf}si 
bajdna. 

Pistachio, pistah. 

Pit, garha ; chdh, V. ~k. 

Pitch, (n.) -^/V. (v.) (eg. a 
tent,) khara-k. ; taiydr-k. 
See 'Throw.' 

Pith, guda. 

Pity, (n.) rahni ; mihrbdni. 
V. -k, -iful, rahim; niihr- 
bdn. -iless, be-rahm. 

Place, (n.) jagah, (f.); ja; 
makdn ; gdh, as last part in 
compos : See * Rank.' 
*Take.' in this place, is 
jagah men ; yahdn (v.) 
rakhna ; or by special 
description, e.g. khara-k, 
to erect ; gdrna, place in 
the ground, bdndk-d., to 
tie up, and so on. 

Plain, (n.) See ' Park.' (a.) 
(unadorned,) sdda. (level,) 
bar-d-bar : saindn. -deal- 
ing, sdda-dili. -ly, sdf ; 
zdhiran. -ness, sddagi. 



From the Persian, 'tarsldajiy ' to ear.' 



292 



HINDUSTANI AhJ IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Plaint, ndlah. (in Court). See 

* Petition.' -iff, 7Jiudda^i ; 

faryddi. -ive, -ly, ndldn. 

Plan, tadbir, (f.) ; hikmaf ; 

upd,e, V. -k, ; -bandna ; 

-nikdlna. See * Drawing.' 

Plane, (tool,) randah. V. 

-chaldna; randesesamdn-k. 

Plank, takhtah, V. -lagdna. 

Plant, (n.) paudha ; per, 

V. -lagdna. 
Plantain, kela. 
Plaster, lep. V. lepna, 
Plate, bartan. -ed, viulaiii- 

ma. 
Platform, chabiitrah ; takh- 
tah ; uiachdn. 
Play, (n.) khel, (m.); ns last 
word in compos : bdzi, V. 
khelna^ (on an instrument,) 
bajdna, -day, chhutti ka 
din ; tatil, (f.). -fellow, j^'^V/ 
ham-bdz. -fulness, aiol, 
(f.). -ful, alola, -house, 
ndch ka ghar. -thing, 
khilauna. 
Pleader, (in Court,) vakil; 
mukhidr, -ing, bahs^ (f.). 
N, bahs-k. 
Pleasant, achchha ; khiib ; 
khush ; dil-pazir. -ness, 
pasanaidagi ; khush-taba^i ; 



raghbat. to please, khush- 
k, ; rijhdna, -ed, k/iush ; 
rdzi. -ing, khush; mak- 
bid. pleasure, k/iusht\ 
(will,) marzi ; khushi ,- 
ikhtiydr, please God, in- 
sha alldh. 
Pledge, {n,) giro ; rihn, (m.)^ 
V. -rakhna, -d, 7narhiin, 
Plenty, bahut ; ghanimat - 
ifrdt, -iful, bahut ; bahu- 
tera. -i fully, if rat se. 
Pliers, chi?nta. 

Plot, (of ground,) takhtah; 

kitah ; chaman, (of evil,) 

sdzish ; bandish. V. -k. 

Plough, (n.) hal or hdl, V. 

hal-ba,il-k. ; jotna ; chds-k^ 

-man, halwdha ; chdsa. 

Pluck, torna. See 'Courage.*^ 

Plug, datta ; thent. 

Plum, bair, (f.). -tree, -gdMu \ 

Plunder. See Tillage.' 

Ply, (in cloth, &c.) tah. (v.>j 

e.g. a trade, karna. 
Bocket, jaib, (f.). V. -merf\ 
rakhna, -book, baydz^ (f.)J 
-handkerchief, rii77idL 
Point, (of stick, &c.) nok, ' 
(f.) (dot,), nuktah, on the- 
of, par ; karib tha kih, &^c^ 
thora bdki tha kih, &*€, 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



293 



-td^nokila, to-, (sharpen,) 
tez-k. to -out, batld-d, 

•Poison, zahr^{i.) ; bis, (m.). 
-ed, -aliidah, V. -d, 

Pole, bans; chob ; lakri ; 
khambha. 

Police, polls, (E.). -office, 
thdnah, -officer, thdna- 
ddr; ddroghah ;jama'ddr ; 
kdjistabil, (E.). (for vil- 
lages,) chauki-ddr. Up- 
country, they say kotwdl, 
for a head police-officer ; 
and kotwdli, for his office. 

Polish, (n.) raugha?i ; mom- 

Prau gh an ; pdlish, (E.). V. 
• -lagd d. ; sdf-k. 
Polite, adabi ; khalik, -ness, 

adab, (m.) ; kjiulk, (f.). -ly, 

kjiulk se. 
Pomegranate, andr. 
Pond, tdldb, (m.). 
Pony, taffu. 

Pool, (water,) ddbar, (m.). 
Poor, gharib: kangdl; muflis. 

(in spirit,) gh arib: miskin; 

nicha. the poor, gharib- 

log. See Toverty.' 



Poppy, post, one who u^es 
opium, postt. 

Populous, dbdd ; gul-zdr, 
-ness, dbddi ; maamuri, 
popular, dmm-pasand. 

Porcelain, chiri^ ke bar tan. 

Porch, osdra ; de^orhi. 

Pork, su,ar kagosht.^ 

Porridge, (oat-meal,3) pdrich, 
(E.). (of rough native 
flour,) silju (of crushed 
wheat,; dally a. 

Porter, (at gsiie,) darbdn. (car- 
rier, k24ll; motiya; bar ddr, 
(drink,) portar shardb, (f.). 

Portion. See *Part.' 

Portmanteau, petl ; bakaSy 
(E.). 

Position^ jagah, (f.). to place 
in -, jagah meij, rakhna. 

Possess. See page 75. Sec. 13; 
dakhl-k. -ion, kabzaK 
-ions, nidi ; daulat ; chiz 
sab, and by their special 
names, as ^milkiyat,' land- 
ed possessions, ^'c. -or^ 
dakhl-kdr ; kdbiz ; mdlik ; 
sdhib-i.,, . (e.g. khdnah.) 



* Chin is China. 

* You may have Enghsh ham and bacon on your table ; but 
the native animal. 

® Oat-meal itself is also called ^pdrich,' 



294 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Possible, muvikin ; ho sakia 

hat, -bility, with jo. -ibiy, 

shay ad ; ho sakta hat, to 

be -, viumkin hona ; ho- 

sakna, 
Post(for letters, &c.). See page 

98. See 'Appointment ;' 

* Office;' 'Pillar.' 
Posteriors, cMitar ; fichhdri. 
Posterity, pasini, to all -, 

naslan baad nasi. 
Postpone, (make delay,) der^ 

or deri-k. (adjourn,) rnaii- 

kuf-k, 
Vot^deg; degcha;degchi; hdT^ri, 
Potato, dlu. 
Potter, ktcmhdr. -y, rnatti ke 

bartan. 
Poultice, lo,i. V. -lagdna. 
Poultry, murghd-murghi. 
Pound, (n.) ddha-ser; ekpaun, 
, (E.). (v.) pisnd; (beat,) 

pitna, the village -, ber-ha ; 

paun, (E.). to impound, 

pd7in men rakh7ia. 
Pour, ddlna ; ddl-d, a - of 

rain, J hart. 
Poverty, iflds, muflisi ; tangi; 

iang-dasti. 
Powder, (for fire arms,) bdnU, 

(small dust of anything,) 

chicran. 



Power, kudrat ; kuwwai ; ' 
ikhtiydr ; hukni ; hdth, 
-ful, zor-dwar ; zabar-dast. 
-fully, zor-se, -less, nd- 
tawdn ; ka?n-zor ; durbaL 
-f u 1 n ess, zabar-dasti ; 

bardj ; zor-dwari ; tdkat 

Practice, mashk, (v. ~k. ) 
(habit,) ddat (custom,) 
dastnr; riwdj. V. hona. 

Praise, taarif, (f). V. -k, ; 
-d, -worthy, kdbil-i-iaarif. 

Prawn, chiiigri. 

Prayer, ?tamdz, (f.). Y,-parh- 
na. See 'Request.' 

Preach, waaz-k. -er, wdjz. 
-ment, (sermon,)z£;rt'^5, (m.)» 

Precaution, khabar-ddri, 

V. -k, ; khabar-ddr hona. 

Precede, dge-Jdna^ or chalna, 
-dence in rank, takdim, 
(f.). to give ditto, -dena. to 
enjoy ditto, -lena. 

Precious, (affection,) aziz ; 
pydra. (V. -rakhna), 
(price,) besh-kimat. V, 
-hona. 

Precise. See 'Exact.' -ly 
thik ; bi^ainihi. 

Preface, ta7Jihid^ (f.). 
Preference, pasand, (f.). ; 
chdh; khwdhish. V. chdhna; 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 295 



pasand-k. ; bihtar samajh- 
na ; iis-se is-ko pasand-k. 
to assign a -, tarjih-d. 
-able, bihtar ; dthro7,i se 
achchha. 

Preferment, tarakkl ; barhti; 
barhdj. 

Preparation, taiydr-k. (v. n.); 
taiydri, V. taiydr-k, ; in- 
tizdm-k. (make,) bandna. 

Prescribe, kahna ; huk?n-d. 
(as a doctor,) dawa-d, 
-ption, nuskhah. 

Present, (n.). See *Gift.' (a.) 
hdzir ; sdmne ; pesh ; ru- 
ba-ru ; taiydr ; maujiid^ 
-ce, (lit.) hdziri. (respect- 
fully,) huzur, in the - of 
many people, bahut logon 
ke sdmne. - of mind, 
tez-zihn ; hoshydri. -ly, 
fauran, qt'c. See page 54. 

Preserve. See 'Defend.' 

Press, (v.) dabdna ; dabd-d. 
(constrain,) majbur-k. (n.) 
(of people,) guroh^ (m.) ; 
ghol,{m.). (for clothes,table 
things, &c.) almdri} (oil,) 
kolhii. (printing,) chhdpne 
ki kal} -ure, dabd.o ; ddb. 



-ed labourer, begdr, -ed 

labour, begdr i. 
Pretence, bahdnah ; uzr ; 

hilah. Y. -k. 
Pretty, khub-sicrat ; suthra^ 

-iness, -/. (somewhat,) 

kuchk-kuchh. See Part 1. 

*Sa.' 
Prevalence, ghalbah. -ent, 
jdri; phaila htr^a ; muraw- 

waj. 
Prevent, mana-kar-d ; rokna ; 

chhenkna ; atkdna ; bdz- 

rakhna; thdmna; N. rok ; 

chhenkd^o ; atkd,o ; muzd- 

hamat. 
Previous, -ly, dge ; peshfar. 
Price, kiniat; dd?n. rate of-, 

nirkh ; bhd^o. 
Prick, {trans.) chubhona. 

{tfttr. and passive) chubh- 

na. (n.) kdnta ; khdr. -up 
one's ears, kdn uthdna. -ly, 
khdr-ddr. -ly heat, gha- 

mauri. 
Pride, ghuricr ; dimdgh. A. 

maghriir^ V. with hona. 
Prime, (n.) bahdr^ (f.). -min- 
ister, wazir. {2i.) awwal ; 

awwal kism ka. 



I Not Hindustani ; probably Portuguese. Confer French, ' almoire, 
and Scotch, ' aiunrie.' ^ ' KaV is masculine in the western ^parts. 



296 hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 



Prince, shdh-zddah^ (fem. 
-di.); kuT^war; rdj-kumdr; 
jub-rdj, -ly, -sa. 

Principal, awwal ; sab se 
bara. 

Principle, sabab ; sabab-i-aw- 
wal^ jar, (f.); bunydd, (f.). 

Print, (v.) chhdpna, ~ed, 
chhdpa hu,a, -ing, by the 
v.n, -ing-press, chhdpne ki 
kal, -ing-house, chhdpd- 
khdnah, -er, chhdpne-wdla. 

Prison. See ' Jail.' 

Private, khdss; kjiud, (in com- 
pos :) e.g. kJiud-kdsht, one's 
reserved cultivation, or 
* home-farm.' -room, khal- 
wat-khdnah; khdss-kamra, 
a - soldier, sipdhi. in - and 
in public, khalwat-o-jal- 
wat men, -ly, khalwat 
men. 

Privy, (n.) ghusl-khdnah ; 
jd-e-zarurat ; tatti. 

Probable, aghlab ; mumkin, 
-bility, jo aghlab hai ; 
ihtimdl, to be -, ihtimdl 
hona ; 'ho sakta hai,^ -bly, 
shakk bahut nahi^ hai ; 
shdyad ; ghdliban. 

Proceed. See * Go.' -cedure, 
kdr-ratvdj ; The Code of 



Criminal Procedure, maj- 

mii^ah zawdbit faujddri, 

ditto Civil, majmu^ah 

zawdbit diwdni, -ings, 

jo sab kd?n kiya gay a hai ; 

pairavi ; kdr-rawdj. 
Proclamation, ishtihdr ; 

ma?iddi. V. -k. ; -jdri-k,; 

mashhur-k, ; zdhir-k. 
Procure, Idna ; mangwdna ; , 

mangzvd-lena. 
Prodigal, fusiU-Jiharj.-\\.'^,-i, \ 
Produce, (v.) dena; paidd-k. 

(n.) paidd^ish; paidd-wdr; 

fast, (f.). -ductive, zar- 

khez. —td, paida. 
Profess, hahna ; waadah-k, 

(a trade, &c.) karna, 

-ion, (what one alleges,) 

bdt ; baydn ; kahna, (v.n.) ; 

waadah. (trade,) peshah ; 

kdm ; dhandha. 
Profit, fdjdah ; nafa • 

7nahdsil, to make -, -k, ; 

-pdna, -able, fdjda- 

mand. 
Progress. See * Advance.' 
Prohibit. See ' Forbi(1.' 
Promise, waadah ; ikrdr ; 

paimdn. V. -k. 
Promissory-note, tip, (f.) ; 

tatnassuk. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



297 



Promote. See 'Aid.' (ad- 
vance,) barhdna ; tarak- 
ki-d. N. bharti ; tarakki. 

Pronounce, kakna. (sen- 
tence,) hukm dena, -nun- 
ciation, talaffuz. 

Proof, dalil, (f.) (evidence,) 
shahddat ; gawdhi. V. ~d. 

Prop, balli;tekni. V. -rakhna, 

iVopagate, upjdna ; paidd-k. 
(by gr2ih\ng,)/ea/am /a^dna. 

Propel, age chaldna. 

Proper, durust ; wdjib ; 
sahih ; thik , -ly, thik ; 
achchha ; achchhi tarah se. 

Property. See ' Possess.' 

Prosecute, (any work,) karha; 
kartd-jdna ; chaldna ; pat- 
ravi-k, N. ia^akkiib ; paira- 
vi; kdr-rawd^u (in Court,) 
mukaddamah, -tor. See 
* Plaintiff.' 

Prospect, (view,) madd-i- 
nazar, (e.g. of success,) 
umriied. (f.). 

Prosperity, bhald^i ; nek- 
bakhti ; daulat ; barhti, 
V. - meii hona ; -me?} rah- 
na ; -men guzrdn karna. 
-ous, the nouns followed 
by ' me7i ; ' ba-khair. His 
affairs are prosperous, us 



ka sab kdm ba-khiibi (or 
achchhi tarah,) %chalia 
hat. 

Protect, bachdna ; bachd-d. ; 
pdndh-d. ; parwarish-k, 
(from justice, &c.) ruposh 
rakhna. -tion, bachd^o ; 
hifdzat ; muhdfazai ; dsra, 
(watchfulness,) nigdh-bdni, 
self -tion, or defence, hifd- 
zat-i-khud. -or mdlik ; 
sdhib ; hdfiz ; miirabbi ; 
dast-gir ; nigdh-bdn. 

Provide, hdzir-kar-d.; taiydr- 
k, ; saranjdm-k. -visions, 
khdne ki chiz sab. (for 
troops, &c.,on the march,) 
rasad, (f.). -dent, khabar- 
ddr ; dur-andesh. 

Province, subah, governor of 
a-, suba-ddr. 

Provoke, ris-kardna. N. 
c?iirh, (f.). 

Prudence, khabar-ddri ; hosh- 
ydri ; tadbir, (f.) ; imtiydz^ 
(f.). -dent, khabar-ddr ; 
hosh-ydr. V. adjs. with 
hona. -tly, khabar-ddri, 
d^c, se. 

Prune, (n.) pariin, (E.) ; 
sukhi bair, (f.). (v.) 
chhdntna ; chhd7}t-k. 



298 



HINDl5sTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BK SPOKEN. 



Public, the, log sab ; dmni-o- 
kh(Us ; khald^ik a - ser- 
vant, sarkdr ka naukar, 
the - service, sarkdr ki 
naukari, (well-known.) 
maaltim ; zdhir ; mashkur, 
-ly, zdhir an ; sab logon ke 
sdmne. 

Publish. See ' Proclaim. ' (as 
a book,) jdri-k, -er, with 

^jo: 

Vudidmg, puding, (E.). 

Puddle, dabra, or dabra. 

Pull, khinch, (f.). V. kh'mch- 
na ; tdnna. (L. B.). 

Pulse, (of the body,) nabz, 
(f.) to feel the -, -dekJuia. 
-sation, tis. 

Pulse, (grain,) known by its 
various kinds, e.g. 7710th; 
ddP- ; urad ; cha7ia ; 7711'mg; 
kald,i ; biU, &>€., &^c. 

Pump, (v.) pdni uthdna. (n.) ; 
paf7ipah or bambah^ being 
attempts at the English 
word, natives having no 
pumps ; and few mechani- 
cal contrivances. 

Punctual, -ly, bar-wakt. 
-ality, -hona, (v.n.). 



Punishment, saza, (f.). V. -d. 

deserving -, ivdjib-us-saza. 
Puppet, putli. 
Puppy, pilla. 
Purchase. See * Buy.' 
Pure, sdf;zuldl;pdkizah. -ity^ 

-ness, safdj ; pdki ; neki. 
Purgative, di^julldb ki dazva, 

(f.). V. j'hdrna. 
Purgatory, irdf, or ardf. 
Purple, IdL 
Purport, 77iaz77i7in ; 7natlab ; 

mani. 
Purpose. See ^ Intention.' 
Purse, kisah ; kharitah. 
Pursue. See ' Chase.' 
Push, (n.) dhakka. V. -d. ; 

thelna. 
Put, rakhna ; rakh-d. ; baith- 

d7ia ; baithd-d, -away, le- 
jdna, -back, wdpas rakhna. 

- crossways, dra rakhna. 
-off, (e.g. clothes,) utdr7ia. 

- off, (make delay,) deri-k.; 
7naukti.f-k. - on, (clothes,) 
orhna; kapre pahinna.-ont, 
(e.^.) a person, nikdl-d. 
(a light,) bujhd-d. (money 
at interest.) stid par de7ia. 
-an end to, khatam-kar-d. 



* A pleasant dish known as khichH, (vulg. kichary), 
mixing ' ddr and rice, cooked, of course*, but served dry. 



is made by 



HINDUSTi^NI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



299 



-to shame, sharmdna ; 
lajwdna. - in mind, ydd 
dildna. -lo^ight, d/iagd-d.; 
ghdlib ho?ia. - past, ofne 



pds rakhna, - up with, 
barddsht-k, - to death, 
mdr-ddlna ; katl-k. 
V\xX.\.y,putwg, (E.). 



Quack, (as a ,duck,) kdn- 
kdn-k. (onescU.) /d/zam'-k. 
-ery, Idfzani, 

Quail, batcr. 

Quality. See ' Kind. ' ' Rank.' 

Quantity, mikddr. 

Quarrel, jhagra ; lardi ; 
kaziyah. V. -k,; jhagarna ; 
larna. -some, jhagrdlu, 
to pick a -, kaziyah uthdna; 
or barpd-k. 

Quarry, (stone,) sang ki kdn. 
(lime,) chune ki kdn, 
(game,) shikdr. 

Quarter, (n.) chaiithd^i; pd^o ; 
chahdru7n, -rii[ji, chati- 
a?ini. See 'Neighbourhood.' 
-of a town, 7nahallah ; tola. 
-s, makdm. See pages 64 
and 9 1 note, (v.) chdr his son 
7nefi bdnt?ta, -in battle, 
amdn, ( f.). to give -, 
dnid?i-d.; bachdna -(billet,) 
chdr-pdra-k. -ly, si-mdhah. 

Queen, (M.), vialikah ; kai- 
sar. {^.) rdni ; mahd-7'dni. 



Question, (n.) sawdl, or 
suwdl. (v. ; puchhna; sawdl- 
k. out of the -, bahs ke 
bdhar ; behiidah, -able, 
mjtshiabah. 

Quick, jald ; tez; tund; chust, 
N. jaldi ; tezi ; Misti ; 
shitdbij -ly. See page 54. 
V. daurd-d; tez-k. -(alive,) 
zindah. -lime, bari. -sand, 
chor-bdlu, silver, pdra. 

Quiet, (a.) chiip ; sdkin (as 
an animal,) gharib. (n.) 
drdm ; rdhat ; khdmoshi. 
(v.) thanda-k. ; sdkin-k, 
to kee u -. {i7itr, )thuprahna, 
-ly, chupke ; dhiste. 

Quill, shdh-par. (writing,) 
par ka kalafn. 

Quilt, razdj. 

Quince, bihi. 

Quit. See ' Abandon.' -tance, 
fdrigh-khatti. 

Quite, bil-kull; fa/nd/n. -right, 
thik; khub ; bahut achchha. 

Quotation, ikiibds. V. -k. 



300 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



R. 



Race, (descent,) asl^ ( f • ) ^ 
nasl^ (f.); khdnddn, (horse, 
&c. ) daur, -course, ghur- 
daur. 

Radical, asli ; l?u?iyddi. 

Radish, mtili. 

Rafter, lattha ; barga, 

Rag> gudar ; gudrL 

Rage. See ' Anger.' he has a 
rage (for, &c.,) us-ko bara 
shauk hat, &>€. 

Railing, a, katahra ; bera. 
V. -lagdna. See * Abuse. ' 

Railway, rel-rdsta, (half E.). 
-train, rel ki gdri]dn. -en- 
gine, ni/'in, (E.). -ticket, 
re/ ka tikat, (E.). -station, 
isteshan^ (K.). 

Rain, {n.) pdni {m.) ; bdrish; 
me^h ; bdrdn^ (Persian.) 
V. '-hona ; barasna. -y, 
pdni ka. a - day, pdni ka 
din. the -y weather, bar- 
sdt ; barsdt ka rnausim, a 
storm of -, jhari, -coat, 
bdrdni kurti ; if water- 
proofs, barsdti kapre, 
-pock, (in horses,) barsdti, 
-bow, dhanak, (m.). 

Raise, uthdna ; uthd-d ; kha- 
ra-k, -crop, «S:c. upjdna. 



Raisins, kishmish. 

Ram, (n.) bhera, (v.) thdsna; 
thelna, -mer, durmus. 
- rod, bandiik ka gaz. 

Random, at, ittijdkan ; be- 
anddz ; be-tadbir. 

Rank, (position, )y^^^/%, (f.) ; 
darjah ; niartabah. high -, 
shdn^ (f.) ; sar-fardzi ; 
shaukat. 

Rap, (v.) (at door,) tho7}kna. 
See * Strike.' 

Rapid. See * Quick.' 

Rare, katJi ; jo kam dekhne 
men (or hdth .men.) dta 
hai. N. -/. 

Rascal, bad-zdt ; hardm-zd- 
dah. -ity, bad-zdti; hardm- 
zddagi. Adv. with se. 

Rash, be-lihdz ; be-tadbir. 
-ness, -/*. Adv., use the 
Adjs. 

Rate, (n.). See ' Price,' * Mar- 
ket.' (v.) gdli-d. 

Rather, with se. I would 
rather sleep than eat, nind 
karna nmjh-ko pas and hai 
khdna khdne se. See * Pre- 
fer.' (somewhat,) kuchh- 
kuchh. 
Raw, kachcha. N. kachd^i. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 30I 



Reach. See * Arrive.' Tower.' 

Read,/^r/^«^. -X.o ow^^ park- 
sundna. -er, parhne-wdla, 
read, parhd-hu^a. a -ing, 
parhdj, -ing and writing, 
(reversed,) likhnt-parhni. 

Rq ady^f a iydr, -iness, -i.Y-k, 

Real, asi ; hakiki ; sachcha, 
-ity, hakikat ; asl Ml. -ly, 
albaiiah. (interj.) really 
now 1 sack bdt ! (interro- 
gatively.) 

Reap, (lit.) kdtna ; katni-k, 
(fig.) hdsil-k. -er, kat- 
waiya ; kdtne-wdla, -ing 
hook, haswa^ or hasua. 
-time, katd^i. 

Reason, (for a thing,) sabal? ; 
waj'h^ (f.). (mind,) akl^ 
(f.) ; hosh ; fahm. -able, 
?fiakul ; wdjib : 77iu^dfik, 
-ableness, shd^istagi ; ma- 
kuliyat; durusH; akbiiandu 
Adv. with se. 

Rebel, (n.) bdghi, V. -hona, 
-lion, baghdwat, -ious, 
bdghi. 

Rebuke, sar-zanish.^ V. -k. ; 
dokhna ; ilzdm-d. 

Receive, Una ; kabid-k. ; 



milna. See page 50. (a per- 
son,) dne-dena. (a receipt,) 
rasid ; fdrtgh-khafti. 

Recent, nau ; ihore dinoT} ka 
-ly, thore dino?^ se ; ab. 

Reckon, ginti-k.; ginna ; 
shu??idr-k. (fig.) samajhna ; 
khiydl-k ; kiyds-k, -ing, 
ginti ; hisdb-k, (v.n.). 

Recollection, 7^V, (f.). V. -^. 
to recollect oneself, hosh 
kdjm rakhna; nahiij. ghab- 
rdna. 

Recommendation, sifdrish, 
V. -k. a letter of -, -ka 
khatt. 

Recompense. See 'Reward'. 

Reconcile, mildna ; mild-d. ; 
sulh-k, ; tasjiyah, (or tas- 
fz,ah)-k, N. mel ; mild.o ; 
sulh ; tasfiyah, a deed of 
-iation, sulh-ndmah. 

Record, (v.) likhna. (put 
aside in oftice,)ddkJiil'k. (n.) 
(bundle of papers,) natthi ; 
7nisL (f.); kdghazdt -room, 
daftar ; daftar-khdnah ; 
muhdfiz-khdnah. -keeper, 
muhdfiz-i-daftary generally 
called * muhdfiz ' only. 



^ From 
punch.' 



sar^' 'the head,' and Persian, * zadatty' * to strike,* *to 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BIC SPOKEN. 



Recover, (thing lost,) pdna ; 
milna. (from illness,) ach- 
chha^oxbhalaho-jdna. -ery, 

5 (of a thing,) pher-pana, 
(v.n.)from illness, achhd^i ; 
bhald,t ; ski/a. 

Recreation, tafarruj. 

Red, Idl ; surkh.^. surkhi. 

Redress, insdf. V. -k.^ or d. 

Reed, nai ; kalam. 

Reference, zikr ; (v. -k) (for, 
e. g. another person's opin- 
ion,) riiju. V. -k, ' I 
refer you to Mr. A.' A. 
sdhib se puchhiye. 

Reflection, soch ; fikr^ (f.); 
andeshah ; ta.ammul. "V.-k.; 
sochna ; fikrmand hona. 

Refrain, nahin karna ; par- 
hez-k. ; bdz rahna. 

Refreshment, (byrest.)^;'^/;^y 
rdhat ; dsudagi, (by food,) 
kuchk khdna ; iifin ; jal- 
pdn. V. drdm, dr^c, lena ; 
kuchh khdne ki chiz lena, 
(by amusement,) bahldna ; 
khush-k.; tamdsha dekhna. 

Refuge, dsra ; ot ; pandh ; 
dr. to give -, d. 

Refusal, inkdr ; nd-inanzuri ; , 
V. ^L 

Refuse, (n.) dkhor ; fuzlah. 



Refutation, radd^ (v. -k.) ; 
jawdb. (v. -//.). 

Regard. See 'Look,' 'Re- 
spect.' I regard him as a 
father, Idp ki tarah^ maiij. 
uska lihdz karta him. 

Regiment, paltan,{i.)\ saldri. 

Region, mulk ; Jagah, (f.) ; 
7iawdh ; taraf, (f), or, PL 
atrdf. 

Register, registration ; regis- 
trar, these words are re- 
presented by various cor- 
ruptions of the English, 
which must be locally 
picked up : Vernacular 
words for similar matters 
will be found under ' Re- 
cord.' 

Regret, afsos ; hasrat ; 
(strong,) soz. V. ~k, ; 
-khdna ; pachtdna. 

Regular; (in routine,) Jiasb 
kdidah ; hasb zdbitah; das- 
tur ke mu^dfik. -ity, (in 
work, &c.) intizdm ; band-o- 
bast, (m.). tartib^ (f ) ; (as 
to i\mQ,) bar-wakt, pahuit- 
chna^ karna, 6^r. a -lation, 
d,in ; kdnicn ; kukm. 

Rejection, nd-nianzuri ; nd- 
pasand-k,{w,n,) wdpasdena. 



HINDUSXiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 303 



(v.n.) V. nd-manziir-k, ; 

wdpas-d. ; nd-pasand-k. ; 

pherna. a rejected (article,) 

phirta. 
RQ\gn,juMs; saltanat; hukii- 

mat; amalddri; bddshdhi ; 

rdj, V. -k. in the reign of 

A., bddshdh A. ke aiydiri^ 

meTi^ ox julus men. 
Reins, rds, (f.); bdg, (f.). 

V. -khinchna ; -khara-h. 

to put on the -, -lagd-d, 

(loins,) kamar, (f.). 
Rejoice, k}iushhona;rijhna ; 

shddmd?i-hona. 
Relate. See *TelV 'Connec- 
tion.* 
Release, (n.) rihdj ; khalds; 

khaldsi ; chhutti, V. -d, ; 

chhor-d. 
Relief, drdm. V. -d, (of a 
guard,) badli, V. badal-k. 
Religion, difi ; mazhab, 

-gious, din-ddr, -gious- 

ness, din-ddri ; khudd- 

tarsi. 
Relinquish. See ^Abandon.' 
Relish, (n.) zdjkah ; mazah ; 

niimat ki chiz, V. laziz-k. ; 

khush-zd^ikah se khdna. 



Remain, (stay,) rahna ; tha- 

harna ; sabr-k. (be over,) 

bdki-hona ; bachna. 
Remains, (of food, &c.) jo 

bacha, or bdki hat ; dkhor ; 
fuzlah. (mortal,) murdah ; 

Idsh, (f.). 
Remark. ^^^ * Say,' * Word,' 

&c. -able, ajib ; ajubah. 

Remedy, ildj ; upd.e; tadbir, 

(f.); chdrah. N ,-k.;-batldna. 

Remember, khdtir inert rakh- 

na ; ydd meti ho?ta. to call 

to mind, ydd-k. ; chetna. 

(to cause a person to -,) 

ydd dildna, N,ydd, (f). 
Remind, ydd dildna. 
Remit, (a portion,) ghatdna; 

ghatd-d.; kam-k {i\\Q whole, 

a penalty, &c.) mu^df-k. 

-ting, by v.n. -tance, cha- 

Idn ; irsdL 
Remove, (trans.) le-jdna ; 

dur-k. ; hatd-d. ; nikdl-d. 

{intr.) jdna ; chald-jdna ; 

uth-jdna ; hat-jdna. (one 

from service,) rukhsat-d. ; 

bar-khdstJc. ; rnaaziU^k, ; 

(in a coarse way ) nikdl-d.'^ 

'ii^.by v.n.; dusrijagahjdna. 



^ i.e., times^ PI. Q){^ yaum^^ which is also Hebrew. 
' Equivalent to our colloquial, ^kick him otit.^ 



304 HINDIJSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Render. See * Give/ * Trans- 
late.' 

Renounce. See ^Abandon.' 

Renown. See Tame.' 

Rent, (house, shop, Src.) 
kirdyah, (land,) jndl-guzd- 
ri ; jama ; khazdnah ; 
khirdj, -free, Id-khirdj, 
rate of -, nirkh ; sharah. 
-roll, javia-bandi. 

Repairs, -ing, marammai, 
V. "L 

Repeat, ^ phir' or 'pher,' with 
appropriate verb. e.g. phir 
kahtye, please say it again, 
repetition, by v.n, -edly, 
aksar ; bahut dafe. 

Repent. See * Regret' -ance, 
naddmat, -ant, pashemdn. 

Reply. See ^Answer.' 

Report. See * Inform.' -of a 
gun, bhardka -of an oc- 
currence, khabar ; (if de- 
tailed) surat Ml} 

Repose, {xQ^t^) dram ; rdkat ; 
fardghat (sleep.) nind, 
V. -lena, ; letna ; sona. 

Reprimand. See * Rebuke.' 

Reproach, tan ; ianah, -ing, 
iana-zant, V. -k. 



Reproof. See * Rebuke. 

Reptile, kira ; kirm. 

Reputation, (general,) ndm. 
(good,) nsk-ndmt. (bad,) 
bad-ndmi. Y.jdnna;ginrja, 

Request. See * Petition.' 

Require, (desire,) chdhna. (a 
person to do a thing,) 
huk77i-d, (to be in need of,) 
by hona and the 3rd Per- 
son, e.g., I require a watch, 
mujh-ko ghari zarur, or 
darkdr hat, as may be 
required, jaisa zartcr hoga, 
-sition, talab ; iltija, (f.) ; 
hukm. 

Rescue. See *Save,' ^Protect 

Resemblance, miishdbih , 
mushdbahat. he resembles 
his father, wuh apne bdp 
ka mushdbih hat. 

Reservoir, haziz ; tdldb, (m.) ; 
khazdnah ; pokhar. 

Resident. See 'Inhabitant.' 

Resign. See 'Abandon.' 

Resin, dhuna. 

Resistance, rok-tok; muzdha- 
mat. V. -k. 

Resolve. See 'Intend.' -lute, 
mustakill. 



* A technical phrase ; properly * J^ir«^«--^a/,*=* appearance of the 
event,' a formal report drawn by an investigating officer. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



305 



Respect, (v.) aziz-rakhna ; 
izzat-d.; bara jdnna^ to 
pay one's -s, kisi ki 
tazini'k ; dddb bajd-ldna ; 
saldm-k. (n.) adab, izzai, 
act of showing ~, tazim, 
(f.). in all -s, ba-har-surat, 
in this -, is amr men 
kih, d!^c. ; is bdre meij. 
-able, achchha; bhala; mu- 
tabar ; izzat-ddr ; zvdjib-ut- 
tazim, -ful, iim^addab. 
Rest. See 'Repose,' ' Re- 
mains.' the rest, (people,) 
aur sab log. (things,) jo 
bdki-hai. -less, be-drdm ; 
be-kardr. -lessness, be- 
drdmi ; be-kardri. 
Restrain, rokna ; atkdna ; 
bdz-rakhna ; chhenkna. -t, 
rok ; atkd^o ; muzdhamat 
Result, natijah ; hdsil ; pJial ; 
nikds ; dkhir, V. these 
words and hona : 1 he 
enquiry has resulted thus, 
tahkikdt ka natijah yih 
hai, kih, S^c. 
Resurrection, the, kiydmat. 
Retain. .S^^'Keep.'-er, tdbiddr. 
Retire, /i/^ rahna. See *Go 
away, -d, chhipa, -ment, 
khalwat. 
T., H. 



Retreat, (e.g. of an army,) 

(n.) pahln-tihi. V. -k. 

(place of private -,) khal- 

wat-gdh. 
Return, (go, or come back,) 

pher-dna ; pherjdna ;phir- 

na ; lautna. (give back,) 

wdpas-d, N. by v. n. -ed, 

phiria ; phirta hu^a. 
Revenge, iniikdm. V. -lena. 
Revenue, khirdj ; dmadani ; 

dmad. (f ). -free, Id-khirdj. 
Reverence. See * Respect.' 
Reward, indm ; bakhshish, 

V. d. ; bakjishna. 
Rheumatism, bdj. 
Rhinoceros, gainda. -horn, 

khdg. 
Rib, panjari. 
Rice, (in field or husk,) dhdn. 

(cleaned, but dry,) chdwaL 

(cooked,) bhdt. 
Riches, daulat ; mdl ; dhan, 

rich, daulat-rnand ; dhani. 
Ride, (v.) saivdr-hona ; 

sawdri-k. -ini', sawdri, a 
ride, ghorepar haiva khdna, 
V. n. -er, sawdr. 
Right, (a.) (done well,) thik; 

durust ; achchha bhala, 
(just,) wdjib ; nek; hakk 
ke mu.dfik. on, or to the 



3o6 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



-hand, ddhine, (n.) insdf ; 

hakk. -or wrong, hakk nd- 

hakk, to put -, durust-k. 

-eous, nek; sddtk; musalli, 

-ful, mustahakk. 
Rind, chhilka^ to tdike off the 

"^chhilna ; chhilka utdrna. 
Ring, (v.) {trans.) bajdna, 

(intr,) bajna. (n.) angiithi ; 

angushtari. (circle, )dd^ irah. 
Riot, hangdmah ; balwa. 

V. -k, -er, guhdr-Iog.-ous, 

hangdmah kar-ke. 
"Kvpt^pakka; pukhtah. -en, 

{trans.) pakdna. {intr.) 

pakna. -ness, taiydri ; 

pakkdj. 
Rise, uthna; uth-jdna. (stand 

up,) khara-hona. (in life,) 

harhna ; bara-hona ; tarak- 

kipdna. {2iscen^,)charhna. 

(in rebellion,) balwa-k. (as 

plants,) upajna. (as bread,) 

sujna. (in price.) is-ki 

kima t ba rh-ga^ i hat. 
Risk, khatrah. to run -, 

-iithdna. 
Rival, harif ; rakib. -ry, 

rikdbat. V. -k. 
Road, rdh^ or rah^ (f.); ri^/^. 

high-, sarak, (f.). (lane,) 



(v.) 



Roar, (n.) ghurrish. 
ghurrdna. 

Roast, (n.) rost, (E.); y^^^^^. 
V. ->^. 

Rob, lutna ; liit-lena. -ber, 
rah-zan.g2iX\g -ber, dakait. 
-bery, rah-zani. (by a 
gang, ) (/^/^^ ; dakaiti. a rob- 
bery took plsice, ddha para. 

Rock, (n.) patthar ; sang, 
(v.) {trans.) hildna ; jhul- 
dna. {intr.) hilna ; jhiilna. 

Roll, (v.) {trans.) lapetna. 
{intr.) lotna. (from side to 
side,) lot-pot-k. (n.) (e.g. 
of paper,) binda. (rolling 
about,) lot-pot dinner-, 
rol, (E.). 

Roof, chhappar^ {i.) ychhat. 

Room, a, kamrah ; kothi; as 
last part in compos:... 
khdnah. {s])2iCQ^) jagah, (f.) 
(stead,) iwaZy or ewaz. -ym 
khula ; kushddah ; bara. S 

Root, (n.) jar ; (fig.) aslf^ 
jar; bunydd, {{.). to -up, 
ukhdrna. to take-, jcit^ 
pakarna. - and branch 
bil-kull. 

Rope, /'ajj/ ; dori. to-, -/<fl'^^ 
</. ; se bdndh'd. 

Rosary, tasbih, (f.). 



hindustIni as it ought to be spoken. 307 



Rose, gill ; guldb ; gul-db-^ 
phuL otto of-, itr-i-guldb. 
-bush, guidb gdchh. -gar- 
den, gul-istdn, -water, 
gul-db. -y, gul-rang. 

Rot, sarna. -ten, sara, -ten- 
ness, sardhind. 

Rough, khaf'khara, -ness, 
kharkardhat 

Round, (spherical, ) goL to 
make -, ~k, (circle,) dd^- 
irah ; ghera. to put any- 
thing - another, gher-k. to 
go a-, ghian ho-ke jdna. to 
go -s, (as an officer,) roun- 
gasht-k. (half E.), all -, har 
taraf. -r\t^, gol-shakl, (f.). 

Row, (line,) katdr^ (f.). See 
' Riot/ 

Royal, shdht. -ty, hddshdhi, 
t\\Q-i2ixm\y ^klidnddn-i-shdhi. 
Rub, (intr.) ragar-k. {trans.) 
malna; mdlish-k. N. (scrap- 
ing,) ragar. (e.g. with 
hands,) mdlish. a thing for 
rubbing body with, khisah. 



Rubbish, kurkut ; kiira ; 
rdbish, (E.) 

Ruby, ydkut; Idl. 

Rude, gustdJih ; be-adab. 
-ness, -/;-/. Adv. with se. 

Rue, {n.)suddb, {v.)ta,assuf~k. 

Rug, kammal^ (f.) ; kamli. 

Ruin, khardbi ; tabdhi; pare- 
shdni, V. -y^. a -, khandar, 
-ed, be-7iiaraminat ; shikas- 
tah ; tuta-phuta. 

Rule. See * Government.' 
-er, (for desk,) mis tar. to 
-paper, safar-khamchna. 

Rumour, afwdh ; hawara. 

Run, daurna. (as time,) bit- 
jdna, (as water,) bahna. 
-out, (as water,) chutia ; 
tapakna. -out, (go done,) 
kain hona ; ghatna, -away, 
bhdg'jdna, cause to -, 
daurdna ; daura-d 
Rust, zang ; morchah -y, 
zang-dliidah. This has 
turned rusty, is-par zang 
laga hat\ 



S. 



Sabre, shamsher^ (f.) 
Sack, (n.) bora, (y.) hitna. 



Sacred, mukaddas. a -place, 
niakdis. 



* See Glossary, Part I. ' A'b. 



3o8 



HINDIJSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



SsLcrifice, kurMn. W.-k. self-, 

nisdr. V. -k. 
Sad, udds; ghanun-gin .• afsur- 
dah. to -den, -k^ -ness, 
uddsi ; afsurda^i ; gham7Ji. 
Saddle, zin^ (f.). V. -bdndh-d, 
-cloth, -posh. -horse, 
sa7vdn kd ghora. saddler, 
zingar ; vwchi. 
Safe, 7ndniuii ; saldjnat. N. 
saldmat; bachd^o; itmindn, 
(hanging.) doli, -ly, ba- 
khair. See * Save/ 
Saffron, zafardn. 
Sagacity. See ' Intelligence.' 
Sago, sdgii. 
Sail, (n.) pdl. (v.) jahdz 

men chalna. 
Saint, wall; pir. the -s, 

auliya. 
Salad, saldd, (E.) ; sabzi. 
Salary. See ' Pay.' 
Saliva, thuk. 

Salt, namak. -dish, -dan, 
-spoon, -ka cha?7imachj or 
chavicha, -petre, shorah. 
Salutation. See page "z^. 
Same, ek ; ek-hi ; eksdn ; ek 
kism ka ; bardbar, this -, 
yihi^ that -, wuhi, in 
compos : ham. this is the 
same as that, yih aur wuh 



ek-hi hain. They both 

arrived on the same day, 

we donon ek roz pahunche. 

Sample, naniunah. 

Sand, ret ; reg ; bdlu, -bank, 

char, -y, balu^a. 
Sandal, sandal. 
Sapphire, nil-niani. 
Satan, Shaitdn; lb lis. 
Satin, atlas. 

Satisfaction. dil-tashaffi ; 
khdtir-jarni ; taskin. to 
feel — rakhna, -tory pas- 
and ; achha ; khub. -fled, 
rdzi ; kJiush. V. -k. 
Saturday, Sanibdr; Sanichar, 
Savage, (a.) jangli. (n.) 

- dd^ni. See * Cruel/ 
Sauce, sds, (E.). -pan, sds- 

pdn, (E.). 
Saucer, pirich. 

Save. See * Rescue.' to - 

money, &c., riipiye, mdl^ 

d^c, jania-k. 

Sausage, sassich, (E,); kulma. 

Saw, (n.) dra. (v.) di'e se 

chirna, or kdtna, -dust, 

bura. -yer, drd-kash. 

Say, (speak,) bolna, (tell,) 

kahna, people -, khabar 

hat ; hawara hai, a -ing 

bdt ; kaha ; baydn, it is 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



309 



commonly said, aksar 

sunne men dta hai. 
Scaffold, mackdn. 
Scale, (balance,) tardzii, 

(degrees,) silsilah. 
Scanty, kam. N. -L 
Scare. See ' Frighten.' -crow, 

bijh-gdh. 
Scarf, orhni. 

Scatter, chhitrdna ;chhitkdna. 
Scene, (view,) madd-i-nazar, 

(arena,) akhdra ; khet ; 

inaiddn, (show), tavidsha. 
Scent. See * Perfume.' 
Scheme, hikmat ; tadbir^ (f.); 

khaydl ; mansubah. 
Scholar, (pupil,) shdgird ; 

(learned person,) dlim-o- 

fdz il ddm i; m aula vi, ( M . ) ; 

pa7idit^ ( H. ). -ship, 

//;;/. (m.). 
School, tshkiil, (E.) ; inaktab- 

khdnah ; pdt-sdla, -master, 

ishkul-mdstar^ (E.). ustdd ; 

guru ; inu^allim. 
Scissors, kaiiichi ; mikrdz. 
Scold, (n.) raridL -ing, a, 

jhirki ; gdli, V. -d. ; 

jhirakna. 
Scorpion, bichchhu. 



Scoundrel. See ' Rascal.' 
Scrape, (rasp,) r agar no. (e.g. 

o^ xvcidi^) chhilna ; chhil-d. 
Scratch, (n.) kJiardsh, (v.) 

khujldna. 
Scream, (n.) chill dhat V. 

chilldna ; chikJina. 
ScxQQn.pardah; tattt;jhd??ip. '■ 

V. -lagd-d.; (fig.) bachdfia: 

pafidh-d. rupcsh rakhna. 
Screw, iskru^ (E.) ; pech ; 

viarori, V. -d. 
^Qx\y^\^^ pas-o-pesh ; waswds; 

shakk. V. -k, he overcame 

my scruples, us-ne mera 

pas-o-pesh dabdya. 
Scrutinize. See ' Examine.' 
Scullion, mashdlchL 
Scum, kaf. V. -le-jdna. 
Sea, samundar; darya; kdla 

pdni. (m). 
Seal, inuhr ; chhdp. V. 

-lagd-d. -ed, makhtilm, 

-ing- wax, Idkh, a stick of 

-iiig-wax, Idkh ki baiti. 
Seam, dokjit ;jor. 
Search, taldsh; khoj; dhundh; 

just-o-ju^ (f.). V. -k, ; 

taldshna ; khojna ; dhun- 

dhna, -er, with 'jo' 



^ This is {.'enerally moveable ; put on and taken off, like shop-shutters. 



3IO HINDljSTiNI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Season, 7nmisam. See page 80. 
-ing, masdlak. V. -c/. 

Seat, (of body,) dsajt; chiUar, 
(for sitting on,) dsan ; 
baithak, (f); chauki: kursi, 
to have a good - on a 
horse, dsan mdrna, (v.) 
hithdna or baithdna. 

Second, (number,) diisra ; 
sdni ; doyum. (time,) lah- 
zah, (v.) ma da d-d.; idnai-d. 
~ly, doyum ; dusra yih 
hat, &c. 

Secret, (n.) bhed ; rdz^ (m.)- 
-crecy, rdz-ddri, {^.) poshi- 
dah ; chhipa ; ghd^ib, -e, 
chhipdna. -ly, chhip-ke. 

Section, fasl; dafa; jumlah. 

Secure. Ste * Safe.' 

Sedition. See ' Revolt.' 

See, dekhna; nazar-k.; idkna, 
to be able to -, sujhna, 
(eye-sight,) sujh, (f.). -ing, 
nazar-k. (v.n.) -ing that, 
chundnchi ; chunkih. 

Seed, (n.) biya ; bij. -ling, 
chdra ; bihan. -plot, bihan 
ka takhtah, --time, bone ke 
din. -pearl, rez-i-?notL 

Seek. See 'Search.' 



Seem. See * Like.' it seeni?^ 
maalum hota hat, -ingly^ 
dekhne men. 

Seize, pakarna; pakar-lejdna; 
girift, or giriftdr-k. (confis- 
cate,) zabt-k. -nxe^ pakai\ 
(f.); zabti, (by illness,) 
dmad, (f.). 

Seldom, kam ; thore wakf. 

Select. 6'(?^ 'Choose.' 'Extract.' 

Self. See page 30. -conceit, 
khud-pasandi. -defence, 
hifdzat-i-kJiud. -denial, 
nisdr. -Q\\d(^nt,k]iud-zdhiK 
-mitrt^t^kjiud-gharazt, (f.). 
-ish, lihud'gharz. -ishly, 
khud-gh a rzi-se. -murder, 
kJiud-kushi.-wiW, sar-kashi\ 

Sell, bechna ; farokht-k. to 
be sold, bikna. -er, bd,i ; 
bechwaiya ; bechne-ivdla ; 
as last part in compos :... 
farosh. buying and -ini", 
kharid-farokJit. ^ 

Semi, nisf ; nim ; adh ; ddh. 

Send, bhejna ; (goods, <Scc.), 
chdidn, or raivd7iah-k. -for, 
biildna ; talab-k. 
Sense. See ' Intelligence,' 
' Meaninor.' 



^ From the Persian, * kjiai-idan,^ * to buy,' and ^ farokjitaiiy ' to sell/ 



I 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



311 



Sentence. See * Decision.' 
-of book, 8cc,,jumlah. 

^Qni\nt\pds-bdn; pahre-wdla. 

Separation, jiidd^i ; mufdra- 
kat. A. juda ; alag ; aid- 
hidah ; mutafarrak. V. 
karna with the adjs. -ly, 
juda-juda ; alag-alao; ; ek- 
ek. (by kinds.) jinswdra. 

Sergean t, dafa-ddr;jama-ddr; 
sdrjan sdhib (half E.). 

Serious, wazani ; bhdri, (as 
injury,) shadid, (of dispo- 
sition,) sanjidah, -ness, 
sanjidagi. 

Sermon, waz. 

Serpent, sdmp ; ndg. 

Servant, naukar ; chdJzar ; 
khidmat-gdr ; inuldzim. the 
-s, naukar log. Seepage 35. 
V. ?iaukart, or kJiidviat-k, 
-s\q.Q2^\Aq^ kdm ka ; 77iujid. 

Set, (v.) See ' Place.' one's set, 
barddari'^ ham-zdt; taraf- 
ddrdn ; dosidn. 

Settle, (in a place,) basdna ; 
bud-o-bdsh-k, (a dispute,) 
tai-k.; inita-d, (an account, ) 
add-k. (in life,) sar-kJiud-k. 
-ment, band-o-bast, -r, 
khud-bdsh. 



Several, baaze; chand ; ko^i ek, 
-ly, ek-ek ; juda-juda. 

Severe, salzht, -rity, sakhtt. 

Sew, sina;sildj-k. Ang^sildJ. 

Shade, i-iy^/^. Isimp -,/dmis, 
V. -d. -dy, ^dyaddr. 

Shadow, aks ; sdya. See 
' Shelter.' 

Shake, (frans.) kildna; hild-d, 
{intr.) hilna. N. hild^o, 
(tremble,) kdmpna. 

Shallow,(a )uilila.{v\.) ufhldj. 

Shame, sharm, (f.) / sharm^ 
indagi ; Idj, ( f. ) ; hay a, (f.). 
to feel -, lajdna. to put 
to -, lajwdna. -faced, 
shar7?t-ru. -ed, sharm-sdr, 
-ful, mayub. -fully, shann- 
se, (badly,) bahut khardb 
iaur se, -less, -lessly, b 
sharifi. 

Shape, (n.) shakl, (f.) ; daul; 
sural, (v.) bandna. -less, 
be-daul. -ly, khub-sicrat ; 
su-datil. 

Share, (v.) bdntna ; laksim- 
k. ; hissah-d. (n.) hissah 
hakk ; kisinat. -r, hissa- 
ddr ; sharik ; bhdgi. 

Sharp, lez. (v. -k.). (in point,) 
nokila. -ness, lezi. 



'From ihe Persian ' baidiar,' * a brother.' 



312 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BP: SPOKEN, 



Shave, hajdmat-k. ; mnndna, 

~n, umndla. 2i-mg,chMlan; 

chhilka. 
Shawl, shdl. 

She,j^/7^y wuh. See page 30. 
Sheep, a, bheri, sheep, bheri,- 

dn. a flock of -, bherion 

ka gallah. -fold, hheri-sdla. 

shepherd, bheri-wdla. 
Sheet, chddar, (f.). -of paper, 

kdghaz ka takJitah. 
Shell, chhilka. V. -, -utdr-d. 
Shelter, {n.) pandh, (f.) ; dr ; 

sdyah. V. -d. 
Sheriff, ndzir ; sherif sdhib. 

(half K). 
Shield, (n.) dhdl, (f.) ; sipar. 

V. See ' Protect.' 
Shine, chamakna; raushan-h. 
S\{\^,jahdz.\ -mcTj, charhna, 

or charhdna. -master, 

sdhib-i-. wreck, -shikani. 
Shirt, kamiSy (f.). 
Shock. See ' Blow.' (offend,) 

chirhdna, -ing, -ingly, 

bahut khardb. 
Shoe, _;■////. horse -, ndl 

-m2i\itr, j'uti-wdla ; niochi, 

-ing a horse, udl-bandi. 

V. -k. See page 90. 
'^\i00'i,chaldna, with the name 

of the weapon before it, as, 



bafiduk, (f.) a gun, tir, (m.) 
an arrow, to - rubbish, 
kiira phenkna, or ddlna, 
to- as plants, tipajna. 

Shop, dukdn^ (f). -keeper, 
-^^V, -keeping, -ddri. 

Shore, kindrah ; fdr. 

Short, kotdh^ chhota.'^. kotdhi; 

chhotd^i. ill -, al-kissah ; 

algharaz. -en, -k. -ly, 

(soon,) thori der ke baad ; 

J aid. put -ly, mukliiasar. 

Shot, (for gun,) chharra, 
gun-, ^/^^/. 

Shoulder, kdndha. 

Shout, (n.) shor ; baland 
dwdz. (v.) pukdrna ; chil- 
Idna / lalkdrna. 

Show, (n.) tavidsha. (v.) 
dikhldna ; dikhld-d. ; bat- 
Idna ; batld-d. ; zdhir-k. 

Shower, jhari ; barkha. 

Shrimps, chii}gri, j 

Shrine, dargdh. 

Shroud, kafan. V. -lagd-d. 

Shun, kisi se alag-rahna. 

Shut, (a.) band; lagd hu^a, 
V. band-k. ; lagd-d. -ter, 
(Venetian,) jhilmili ; (of 
bamboo,) jhdmp ; tatti , 
(of wood,) kapdt. 

Sick, bimdr ; rogi ; uiariz. 



J 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SP0KP:N. 



3T^3 



V. -hona. -ness, himdri ; 

rog. -ly, sust ; kdhil or 

kdhilah ; kam-zor. 
Sickle, hasii a^ or hasiva. 
Side, taraf, (f.) ; ba gh al, (f.); 

pdnjar ; Jdnib ; bdzu. (e.g. 

of a river,) kindrah. this-, 

is taraf, that -, us taraf ; 

pdr. on all -s, chdrori 

taraf, to - with, taraf-ddr 

hona; tavaf-kashi-k. to - 

against, diisri taraf lena ; 

muJzhtalif hona. 
Sieve, ghirbdl^ (f.) ; chalni, 

to pass through a-, {trans,) 

chhdnna. 
Sigh, (n,)dh,({,),N ,-khait}ch- 

na. 
Sight, nazar, (f.) ; basdrat ; 

siyh, (spectacle,) tamdsha. 
Sign, (n.) (indication,) ishd- 

rah. (signal,) nishdn, V. 

-k, ; -^. 
Signature, sahih ; dast-khatt, 

V. ^d.; ~i 
Signify. See *Mean.' 
Silence, khdmoshi, V. -rakh- 

na ; chup 7'ahna. A. chup ; 

chiip-chdp ; kJidmosh ; (for 

want of iiaving any reply,) 



Id-jawdb. Interj. chup! 

chup raho I Adv. chupke. 
Silk, resham. -en, -ka ; -/. 
Silly, sddah ; murakh. N. 

sddagi ; murakh-pan, a 

-fellow, sddah lauh. 
Silver, rupa; chdndi. A. -ka. 
Simple, (single,) klidli.{Q2iS>y,) 

sahl ; salts, (plain,) sddah, 

(in mind,) gharib ; rdst ; 

nek, - pi i city, ^jo ' WMth 

these adjs. -ply, sirf ; 

Jihdli ; fakat. 
Sin, pdp ; gundh. A., also 

a -ner, gundh-gdr, V. -k. 
Since, (\\xvi^^,fab-se^.,Jab-se;'^ 

se, ' (cause,) chuti-kiJi)' . . . is- 

wdste} 
Sincere, rdst ; nek ; sach, 

-cerity. rdsti ; neki ; 

sachdf. -ly, with se. 
Sinew, nas^ (f.). 
Single, singular, ek ; akela; 

tanha. -Iv, ekek. 
Sink, (trans.) dub d-d, {intr,) 

dubna. 
Sir, miydii ; sdhib ; lihudd- 

wand. 
Sister, bahin. -in-law, (a 

man's wife's sister,) sdlL 



* In the first clause. ^ In th"e second clause. Seepage i04,» 



3M 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



(a man's brother's wife,) 
bhojd.i. (a woman's hus- 
band's sister,) nanad ; na- 
nand (a woman's brother's 
wife,) bhdwaj. 

Sit, baith7ta. 

Size, kadar, (f.) ; mikddr. 

Skill, shu/ir ; hunar ; ilm ; 
wukuf. -ful, hunar-mand ; 
mdhir. -fully, by se. 

Skirt, ddman. 

Skull, khopri ; kdsah-e-sar. 

Sky, dsmdn. -blue, -ra?ig. 

Slab, chatdn^ (f.) ; sil. 

Slack, dhila^{^g.)sust; nar?n. 
^. dhil ; susti ; narnii. 

Slander, bad-ndmi; gait'; tuh- 
mat, V. -d. -ous, bad- 
ndm, ^'c. ki bdt, -er, with 
jo. -ously, with se. 

Slap, (n.) tamdchah. V. -d. 

Slaughter, katl ; khicn-rezi, 
(V. -k.) of animals, zabh ; 
haldl, V. -/^.-er,(butcher,) 
kassdb. -house, kassdb- 
khdnah. 

Slave, chera ; launda ; ban- 
dah ; ghuldm. -ery,^ ban- 
dagi ; ghuldmi. 



Sleep, nind^ (f.) ; khwdb. 

V. -k, sleepy, nmddsa, I 

am very sleepy, nindkarne- 

ki khwdhish hat. 
Sleeve, dsiin. 
Slender. See *Thin.' 
Slice, salais^ (E.) ; phdnk ; ' 

kdsh, V. tdrdshna ; kdtna. 
Slip, (v.) khisakna. (n.) 

(cover,) ghildf, (mistake,) 

bhul; chuk, V. -k. 
Slipper, slipat^ or silpat (E.) ; 

pd-posh. 
Slope, (n.) dhdlu, V. (irans.). 

-k, -ing, dhdl, to be -, 

-hona. 
Slow, tez nahin ; dhistah ; 

dhima. -ness, dhistagi. -ly. 

dhiste ; dhiste-dhiste. 
Sly, mutafanni ; makkdr. 

-ness, hirfat. Adv. with se. 
Small, chliota ; khurd, -ness, 

-tdj ; khurd L -pox, sitla; 

chechak. 
Smell, bu, (f.) ; sungh, (f.). 

sweet-, khush-bii, a nasty-,. 

bad-bu, sense of -, sham- 

viah, (v.) {trans.) sunghna. 

{intr.) bu-d ; bu ka kona. 



* All slavery, in India is domestic slavery ; to which our harsh words, 
' slave .?c[i6. ''slavery are hardly applicable. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



315 



Smile, (n.) tabassum V. -k. 

Smith, (iron,) lohdr, (gold, 
&ic ^) sonar ; zar-gar. 

Smoke, (n.) dhic^V. V. {intr.) 
-nikalna. to-tobacco, &c., 
tambdku^ &'c. pina. 

Smooth, chikna;sa7ndn ; bard- 
bar; musattah^Y .-k. -ness, 
chikndj; bardbari. 

Snaffle, (bridle,) kazai. 

Snake, sd?}ip ; ndg ; 7?idr, 
(Persian.) there are many 
kinds ; of which the worst 
are iht guh??ianah, cobra-di 
capello, and the ' karaitJ 
which has no English name 
known to the Author. -of 
a * htikkah^^ i.e. native 
(smoking) pipe, 7iaichah. 

Snare, phdfida ; dd?fi, V. 
phdndna ; phdnde tnefi pa- 
karna. 

Sneeze, (n.) chhiJik. V. -na. 

Snipe, chdha. 

Snoring, (11.), kharrdta. V. 

-mdrna ; ndk kharkhard- 
na, ox bajdna. 
Snow, barf. V. -girii hai. 
Snuff, simgni. V. -khainchna* 
So, (therefore,) pas. (man- 
ner,) aisa ; jaisa..Jaisa. 
(page ic^4); is-tarah. 



(degree,) is kadar ; Una; 

eta. so-so, aisa-waisa. Mr. 

So-and So, fuldnah ; fuld- 

nah ddmi. it may be -, 

wuh ho-sakta hai ; sa 

hoga. 
Soak, {trans.) bkiiiga-k. (intr.) 

sokna. -ing, (very wet,) 

khtib bhinga. 
Soap, sdbun. V. -lagdna. 
Sob, thunuk, (f.). V. -na. -k. 
Sober, parhez-gdr. -briety, 

parheZj (f.). 
Sock, mozah ; sdk, (E.). 
Socket, ...ddn, (P^g^ 4i-)> 

khdnah ; ghar. 
Sofa, suffah ; kauch^ (E.). 
Soft, narni ; muld^im. N. -/*. 

-ly, dhime-dhime ; dhiste. 
Soldier, sipdhi. native -s, 

sipdhi^dn. European ditto, 

gore log. a regiment of -s, 

pal tan, (f.). 
Sole. See 'Alone.' 
Solemn, sanjidah. -ity, -jida- 

Solid,(not liquid,) 7Jiunjamid, 
(firm,) sakJit ; 7nazbiU ; 
kdjin ; ^ pukJitah. -ity> 
sakhti ; mazbuti; pukhtagi. 

Solitary. See * Alone.' -tude^ 
tanhdj ; khalwat. 



3i6 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



'Some, (of things,) ; kuchh ; 
kuchh-kuchh; thora ;zarrah- 
sa, (of persons,) ko^i, -one 
or other,>^<^,/-;^^/^->^^,/.-more, 
aur hichh. -times, baaze 
wakt; kabhi-kabhi. -where, 
kahiit, 

"Son, beta ; larka ; bachcha ; 
pisar^ (p.). -in-law, ddmdd. 

Song, git, V. gdna ; gwy 
gdn-k. 

Soon, jald; ab ; thori der ke 
baad. as - as, jab...tab ; 
te-hi. {See page i4)~er, 
paihle ; us ke age, no sooner 
...than... 7iahin pay a, kill, 
e.g. his order no sooner 
reached me, than I carried 
it out, 7is-ka hukm mere pas 
pahunchne nakin pdya, kih 
main-ne vsko taamil kiya. 

Soreness, dard^ is^-^ to be 
sore. -k. a-, ghd^o; zakhm; 
ndsiir ; phaphola, 

Sorrow, afsos ; ghamui; ranj. 
A. afsurdah ; dzurdah; 
ghamgin ; ranjidah. to be 
-ful, afsos ^ ^c. khan a ; 
adjs. and hona, sorry, 
pashemdn, I am very sorry 
I am late, afsos hai kih 
main-ne der ki hai. (use- 



less,) nd-kdra ; nd-chiz ; 
kajuinah. 

Sort. See ' Kind.' kism. V. 
thik-k. ; tartib-k,; sudhdr- 
7ia ; sab chizoij. ko apni 
jaghon meij, rakhna. 

Soul, ruh^ (f.) ; nafs :jdn;ji, 
with heart and -, dil-o- 
jdn-se. 

Sound, (n.) sabd ; divdz, (f.) ; 
shor ; shor-shdr ; hab-gab ; 
hdon-ghdon. (of fire-arms,) 
dhdii-dhun. V. -k. ; pu- 
kdrna ; chilldna. (any in- 
strument,) bajdna, {intr,) 
sabd, &^c, d. ; bajna. -in 
health, tan-durust, to be 
&\\.\.Q^tan-durust hona.-wQ^^ 
of health, tan-durusti. -in 
quality, mazbut ; piikhtah; 
be-aib ; inustahkam, -ness 
of ditto, niazbuti; piikJita- 
gi. -as a business, /^/^y^^ / 
thik ; sab achchha. a- e.g. 
thrashing, kjiub saza (dena^ 
pdna^). 

Soup, shorbah, corruptly, 
shurivah. 

Sour, khatta ; tursh. N. tur- 
shi. to turn -, khatta ho- 
jdna. 

South, dakhan \jamib 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



3ir 



Sow, (n.) su.dri. 

Sow, (v.) bona; rompna. -ing, 

bo^d^i. 
Space, (time,) arsah ; vmddat. 

(place,) jagah^ (i,)\fdsUah. 

-cious, khula ; fardkli. 
Spade, kuddli ; bel ; belchah. 
Span, (of hand,) bdlisht ; 

wajab. (arch,) mihrdb. 
Spare. See *Thin' (excess,) 

barhti ; fdliu, (v.) (e. g. 

life,) bachdna, (give,) de-d. 

-time, fursat. a -liver, 

parhez-gdr. N.-/. 
Sparrow, ghauriya. 
Speak, bolna; kahna;bhdkhna. 

(converse,) bdt-chit, or giijt- 

o-gU'k. (chatter,) bakna ; 

bak-bak-k. (incoherently,) 

bukhld?ia. See ' Language.' 
Spear, ballain ; barchhi. V. 

-lagd-d. 
Special, khdss; viakhsiis, -ly, 

khusiisan. 
Spectacle, tamdsha. -tator, 

dekh?ie-wdla» 
Spectacles, chashinah. 
Speech. See * Language. 'a 

-, takrir, (f.) ; bahs, (f.). 

-less, bezdbdn ; Id-jazvdb, 



Speed, (n.) jaldi ; shifdb, or 

shiidbi ; dat^r, V. daurdna; 

chaldna, -ily, jaldi, d^c.. 

See faoe 54. 
Spend, Jzharj, or kliarch-k. 

{\2i\\sh\y),ttrd-d.; bar-bdd-k. 

-thrift, fazul-kharj. N.. 

(waste), -/'. -(time,) sarf-k. 
Spice, masdlah. hot-, gann-. 
Spider, makia ; niakri. 
Spill, gird'd. 
^^m, kdtna ; stit-kdtna, -ning 

wheel, charkh. 
Spinage, isfdndj ; sdg. 
Spine, (body,) rir/i, (f). 

(plants,) kdijta. 
Spirit, ruh, (f) -of God,. 

riihu-l-ldh} (breath,) dam, 

(ghost,) bhut, (temperj) 

mizdj. (manliness,) mar- 

ddnagi. (liquor,) arak, 

(juice,) ras ; diidh, -less,. 

be-dil ; be-jigar. 
Spit, (for cooking,) sikji, (f ). 

V. -lagdna. 
Spit, (v.) thukna. N. thuk, 

-toon, pik-dd?i ; ugdl-ddn. 
Spite, kinah ; zidd, (f.). -ful, 

kina-ivdr; ziddi. Adv. with 



* According to Muhammad, Jesus Christ. 



3i8 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Spleen, /////. (disease of,) -ka 
rog. 

Splendour, shaukat ; jlla, (f.); 
jihvat; shdn^ (f.); raushani, 
-did, ali-shdn ; viujalla ; 
u?7idah ; sar-fardz. 

Spoil, khardb^ or be-kdr-k ; 
bigdr-d, spoilt, khardb ; 
kuchh kdm ka nahin. the-s 
(e.g. of war.) liU-pdt; ghani- 
mat. 

Sponge, isfanj. -gy, phulka. 

^^oox\^chammach;ckamchah. 

Sport. See *Play.' (hunting, 
&c.,) shikdr, -sman, also 
adj., 'relating to-,' shikdri, 
-ive, khush-taba ; shokh. 

Spot, {s\.2i\n,)ddgh. (place,) 
jagah, {i.) ', sar-za?nin, (f.). 
-ted, ddghi} V. ddghi-k. 

Sprain, (n.) mar or; 7?iurak, 
V. 7narorna^ murakna. 

Spread, (e.g. a carpet,) bich- 
hdna ; bichhd-d, (e.g. dis- 
ease,) {trans,) phaildna. 
{intr.) phailna. 

Spring, (season,) bahdr^ (f.); 
basant ; rabi. (of water,) 
chashmah-e-db, (leap,) ktid^ 
(f.) ; uchhdl^ (f.); chhaldng. 



(f.) V. kudna ; jast-k. ; 

lichhalna ; chhaldngna, to 

-at, lapakna. 
Sprinkle, chhiUia ; chhit-k. 
Spur, kdnta, V. -d,, or mdrna. 
Spy, (n.) jdsus, his work, 

jdsusi. -glass, dur-bin^ to 

spy, dekhna;tdkna. (furtive- 

\y,)j'hd?,tkna ;jhd7^k Una, 
Square, (n.) chauk. (a.) chau- 

kona; chau-khwita; chauras. 
Squeeze, dabdna; dabd-d. 
Squirrel, gilehri. 
Stable, (n.) istabal. See 

' Firm,' &c. 
Stack, tdl ; dher. V. ^k. 
Staff, asa ; lakri. (of office,) 

chob. 
Stag, bdrah-singa. 
Stage, (e.g. of a theatre, )/^w^'- 

sha-gdh, (journey,) manzil, 

(f.). (platform,) machdn ; 

takhtah. -coach, ddk-gdri. 
Stain. See 'Spot.' 
Stair, -case, sir/it . 
Stall, tMn. (public,) argara, ', 
Stammer, hakla. V. -k, ; 

hakldna. 
Stamp, viuhar, (f.) / chhdp, 

V. -lagd-d. 



* Means also a prisoner who has been branded, or otherwise marked ; 
as by his name being entered in the list of ex-convicts. 



HINDL'STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



3^9 



Stand, (n.) pdyah ; ghora ;. . . 
dan. {page,/\,\.)-\wg^ khara. 
(v.) khara-hona ; khara 
rahna. -up, uthna; uth-ke 
khara hona^ d^c. -down, 
niche j ana; utarna.-m the 
way, sdnine ho na -out of 
the way, hat-jdna. -good, 
kd^im rahna. of long 
-ing, bahut roz ka. See 
^Endure.' 

Star, idra ; sitdrah. 

Starch, kalap ; kdfiji. 

Stare, ghdrna; dekhte rahna. 
N. ghur. 

Start, (n.) (sudden move- 
ment,) chaurik. V. chaurik- 
na^ e.g. a carriage, chaldna. 
for a place, rawdnah hona, 
to startle, chaurikdna.sidiXX.' 
ling, ta^ajjub ka ; ajib. 

Starve, bhiikh se mama. 

State. See * Government.' 
(condition, )<^^// hdldt ; asl 
ML (dignity,) kadar^ (f.).; 
martabah; shdn, (f.) ; sar- 
fardzi.{v. )kahna;baydn-k.; 
bolna; samjhdna ; izhdr-k, 
-in writing, kalain-band- 
karke baydn-k.-mcntf bdt; 
baydn ; izhdr ; arz, (f.) ; 
guzdrish; ilttmds, (f.).- in 



writing, surat-hdl ; suwdl; 

darkhwdst; ripot^ (£.">. 
Station, chaukl ; Jagah^ {(.). 

(railway,) isteshan. (E.). 

(v.) rakhna ; khara-k. 

fnuta,aiyan-k.; taindi-k. 
^t2iy ^rahna;thaharna; sabr-k. 
Steak, ishtek, (E.). 
Steal, chori-k. ; chordna ; 

chord-Iejdna, 
Steam, dhic^dn.-ho^X.dhu^djj,- 

hash ; dg-bot, (half E.). 
Stee], /a u /ad ; loha. 
Stem, (family,) asl ; nasi ; 

bunydd, (f). -of tree, 

shdkh. 
Step, kadani; deg. N .-rakhna, 

(in relationship) sautela.., 

e.g. sauteli-ma. 
Stew, istew. (E.). V.-^ 
Steward, nd^ib ; gumdshfa ; 

kdr-parddz. 
Stick, lakrt ; (walking,) asa. 

(v.) (e.g. bone in throat,) 

atak-jdna. (together,) sat- 
jdna. stuck, sat-gaya; sdtd- 

hu,a.{trans,)jorna; lagd-d.; 

satd-d. 
Still, (a.) chup ; chup-chdp ; 

be-harakat. (adv.) tau-bhi ; 

td-ham ; par. 
Sting, dank, Y,-mdrna, 



320 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Stir, {trans.) hild-d, {intr.) 

hilna. (n.) harbari; khalal. 
Stirrup, rikdb^ (f). -leather, 

rikdb-da:vdl^ (f.). 
Stitch, (v.) sina ; tdnkna ; 

tdnk-d. (x\.)tdnk, (f. ) ; tdnka. 
Stocking, viozah ; pd-e-tdbah. 
Stomach, tnidah^ or medah. 
^iox\Q,patt/iar; sang, of stone, 

with 'y^^,' -ny, pathrila. 

-ny hearted, sang-dil. 
Stool, (foot, )pd-o-ddn; morha; 

ishtul^ (E.) xix^l-Jzomod^^ 

(E.). 
Stoop, J/iukna ; jhiik-jdna. 
Stop, {intr.) khara rahna ; 

atakna. {trans.) rokna ; 

thdmna ; atkd-d. -page, 

rok ; atkd,o ; atak. 
Store, dickdn, (f.) ; jins sab ; 

ambdr ; dher, - house, 

dukdn^ {{.) ; gola. stores, 

e.g. for a journey, sar-an- 

J dm ; sdmdn ; chiz sab ; 

sab chiz. 
Stork, dhanes ; bogla.'^ 
Storm, tufdn ; dridht. -y, 

tiifdni. 



Story. 6"^^* Tale.' 

Slove, (moveable,) angethi. 

(fixed,) cluWia. (oven,) 

tanicr. 
Stout, mota ; mazbut. N.-/'. 
Straight, sidha ; sojha. N.-/. 
Strain. See * Pull.' (liquids,) 

chhdmia. a-er, cJihdnna. 
Strange, (unfamiliar,) be-gd- 

nah ; gJiair. (wonderful,) 

ajib ; ajubah. -ness, ajna- 

biyat. a -ger, ghair ddmi ; 

be-gdnah ddmi; bi-desiddmi. 
Strap, tasmah; dawdl^ (f.). 
Stratagem, hilah ; fareb ; 

dagha. 
Straw, bichdli ; po^dl ; bhusa. 
Stream, darya ; sota. V. j 

jdri-hona. 
Street. See 'Road.' tstrit,{E.). 
Strength, zor ; tdkat. (of 

liquors,) tiindi ; karwdj, 

V. mazbut-k. ; zor-d. 
Strict. See * Severe.' 
Strike, thokar-d. ; zarb-d. ; 

nidrna. -e.g. tents , gird-d ; 

kholna. - against ...par 

lagna. 



* In India, this word — 'commode' — must never be used in any other 
sense. The accent is on the last syllable. 

* Names of birds are mostly vague ; as identity between many English 
and many Indian birds is wanting. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



321 



String, siitli ; dori. shoe-, fitah- 

Strive. See 'Endeavour.' 

Stroke, (blow.) chot ; zarb ; 
thokar^ (f.); thojjk. -of 
pen, &c., ddgh ; nishdn. 

Strong, zabar-dast ; zor- 
dwar ; zor ka ; fnazbiU, (as 
liquor.) karwa ; kaivi. 

Stubborn, sar-kash ; gardan- 
kash. N. -/. Adv. -i se. 

Stud, (shirt,) istad, (E.). 

Study, parhna ; taalim lena. 
-dent, shdgird. -dious, 
inihnati. 

Stupid, kuiid : kund-zihn ; 
ndddn ; be-ivukuf ; ndkis- 
iil-akl. -ity, hitndkat ; be- 
iviikufi, a - fellow, be- 
wukiif ddmi ; akl ka putla. 

Subdue, dabdna ; kisi par 
ghdlib liona; kdbu meii Idna. 
-e<i. (conquered,) maghltib, 
(metkj) g /ia rib: narni. -er, 
ghdlib. 

Subject, (underling,) idbi ; 
idbiddr ; fai indii-barddr ; 
Jiukrn-barddr ; asdmi ; ra,- 
iyaf. A. tdbi. (v.) See 
' Subdue,' he is subject to 
fever, us-ko bukJidr aksar 
dta hat. -, e. g. of a lecture, 
mabhas. 

•J., H 



Submit to, indnna ; hukfu 
sunna ; tdbi-ho7ia. (e.g. 
for orders,) pesh-k : sdmne 
rakhiia. -mission, tdbi- 
ddri ; hnkm-barddri ; zer- 
hukiinii. 

Subscribe. See 'Sign.' -ption, 
(to a charity ^c.,)chandah. 

Subsistence, (means of liv- 
ing,) roz-gdr ; khdna-pina ; 
khurdk-poshdk, (f.) ; par- 
wasti ; peshah ; dha?ida. 
-allowance, khurdki. -ing, 
zindah ; zindagi vien ; hat. 

Substance. See ' Thing.' (es- 
sence,) hir. (abstract,) 
kjmldsah ; mtMtasar Ml ; 
mazvmn. -tial, 7nazbiU ; 
kdjm. 

Substitute, (n.) ewazi; kdjm- 
makdm. V. -k. ; -rakhna ; 
vmta^aiyan-k. 

Suburb, shahar ka dd7nan. 

Successful, kdm-ydb. N. -/'. 
V. -ho7ia. to succeed a 
person, pichhe dna ; kdjrti- 
77iakd7Jt ho7ia. -cession, 
kd^ivi-77iakd77ii. -fully, 

barakat'Se ; 7iek'bakjiti-se. 
-ively, ek par ek ; age- 
pichhe ; tdbar-tor. 

Such, aisa - 2i one, fuldnah. 



322 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Suck, chusna ; khainchna ; 

pi-lena. a -ing babe, dudh 
ka bachchah. 
Sudden, -ly, achdnak; ndgdh. 

N. ndgahdni. 
Sue, (in Court,) mukadda- 

viah'k, (ask,) md^^^na ; 

iltimds-k. 
Suffer. See * Allow.' (endure,) 

barddsht-k, (pain, or other 

feel i n g, ) . . . uthdna ; ... khd- 

na. -ing. See ' Pain,' &c. 
Sufficient, bas ;kdfi. N.-hona, 

N. kifdyat -ly, bas ; 

zariirat ke mu^dfik. 
Sugar, chini ; shakar ; ^nisri, 

(brown,) khdnd. -candy, 

misru -cane, ukh, (f.) ; 

katdrL 
Suggestion, saldh, (f.) ; ishd- 

rah; tadbir, (f.). V. -d,; 

-batldna. 
Suicide, khud-kushi, V. -k. 
Suit, (n.) (dress.) jora, (in 

Court,) mukaddamah. (v.) 

{^\tdi.s^^) pasand-hona. (fit,) 

tnilna ; achchha baithna. 



{trans.) uiild-d. -able, 
pasatid ; achchha ; mu^dfik. 

Sulphur, ga?idhak. 

Sum. See ' Total.' -of money 
zar ; inablagh. (v ) jorna ; 
jama-k. 

Summer, gar mi ka mausam. 
See page 80. 

Summon, buldna ; talab-k. 
a -s of court, talabi-par- 
wdnah ; samans, (E.). 

Sun, siiraj ; sirdj ; kJmrshid ; 
dftdb. -heat, dhup^ (f.). to 
bask in the -, dhup khdna, 
-shine, dhup, (f.) ; ghdm. 
-rise, iulu-i-dftdb. - set, 
ghurub-idftdb. -ny, dhup 
ka ; ghdmi. -day, itwdr ^ 
rabi'bdr ; yak-shambah. 
Superintendent, sar-ba-ran 
kdr ; sarddr, -dence, sat 
ba-rdh-kdri ; sarddri. V| 
sar-ba-rdh kdr, &>€., hona \ 
sar-ba-rdh-kdri, ^^c.-k} 
Superior, 2^^/^ se achchha^bara^ 
(or as the matter of 
* superiority ' may be.) 



* Superintendents are named according to their work : e.g. thana\ 
ddVy - of a police station, ndziry a - of process-serving, &c. muhdfizy j 
- of records, and so on zi infinitum, 

* The English word * afsa * (officer), is much used to mean one'i 
immediate 'superior.* 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



323 



Supper, rdt-ka-khdna ;sapa ^( E. ) 

Supply, dena ; hdzir-kar-d. ; 
pahiinchd-d. N. jo kdfi 
hoga ; ambdr ; dher. 

Support, (n.) tekni ; dsra. 
V. -d. to - a person, par- 
wasti-k. ; khdna-pina-d. 

^My^}^o^\\\ox\Jihaydl;atkalN.-k. 

Sure, (certai n,)^^-f ////'. to be-, 
yakin jdnna. N -/. * to be 
sure !' surely ! be shakk ; 
albattah ; chdhiye kih. 

Surface, ru, (f.). 

Surgeon, y^rr^'-^y tabib-i-jarh. 

Surpass. See ' Excel.' 

Surround, gher-lena. 

Survey. See ' View.' ' Mea- 
sure.' - or, janb-kask. 

Suspect, kisi par shakk rakh- 
?ia.-ed, mushtabah; shakk 
ki bat, -cion, shakk ; 
shubhah ; wahm. 

Sustain. See * Support.' -e.g. 
losses, uthdna. 

Swallow, (bird,) abdbil, (v.) 
nigalna ; ghuntna. 

Swamp, daldal, (f.). -y, -/. 

Swan, rdj-hd)j.s. 

Swear, (use bad language,) 
gdli-d, (e.g. in Court,) 
kasam khdna, or iena. 



Swt^tjpashia. he is sweating, 

us-se pasina giria hai, or 

nikalta hat. 
Sweep, (man,) mihtar,^ fcm. 

inihtrdni, (v.) jhdrna ; 
jhdr-d. -away, jhdr-ke 

lejdna, -ings, kurkut. 
Sweet, mitha; shiriii; khush; 

pasandidah, -hesLrt, pydra, 

fern, -i, -meats, mithdj, 

-ness, shirini ; viithd^i, 

-ly, dil-kJiushi-se. 
Swell, styna ; phuhia ; uth- 

jdna. a -ing, ivaram. 
Swift, iez ; jald. -ness, tezi ; 
jaldi, -\y,jaldi ; jaldi-se ; 

tez ; tezi-se. 
Swim, pairna. -mer, pairdk. 
Swing, (trans.) jhuldna, 

(intr.) jhulna. a-, jhula. 

-ing, jhula-jhuli. 
^vioon, be- has hi. in a-, be hash. 
Sword, talzvdr, (f.) ; sham- 

sher^ (f.). -sman, talwdr- 

hdz. 
Syllable, lafz kajuz. 
Sympathy, rikkat. V. kisi 

se - rakhna. A. ham-dard. 
Symptom, nishdn ; aldmat. 
Syringe, pichkdri. V. -d. 
System, kdjdah : rasm. 



Mihlar ' is really a native title of distinction. 



324 HINDI^STANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



T, 



Table, /;/^s, (f.). -cloth, mez 
ki chddar^ (f.) ; dastar- 
khwdn. to lay the -, inez 
lagd-d. or taiydr-h. to re- 
move things from the -, 
chiz sal) le-jdna. 

Tail, dum, (f.). 

Tailor, darzi. 

Take, lena. -away, le-jdna, 
-place, hona, (accept,) 
lena. ; kabul-k.^ pasand-k. 
-captive, pakarle-jdna ; 
giriftdr-k. -effect, lagna ; 
chalna. -on hire, kirdye- 
lena. -flight, bhdg-jdna : 
ur-jdna, -thehandof, hdth 
fakarna. -heed, khabar- 
ddr hona. -off, (e.g. 
clothes,) utdrna, -down, 
niche-ldna. (in writing,) 
kalam-band-k. -up, uthd- 
lena, -courage, hiinmat 
rakhna. -the field, khet 
pakarna, - in good part, 
bhala jdn?ia. -in bad part, 
bura vidnna. -the side of, 



taraf-ddr hona. -out, (ex- 
tract,) nikdlna. 
Talc, abrak. 
Tale, kissah ; hikdyat ; nakl^ 

(f. ) 'jkaMni ; bdt:khabar,{i ). 
Talk, bdt-chit ; guft-o-^ii^ (f.); 

bdt. V. -k. ; bolna ; kahna; 

bakna. to - to one's self, 

dp se bolna. 
Tail, lamba ; dirgh. -ness, 

lainbdj. See 'High.' 
Tame, gharib, N. -/'. V. -k.; 

dabdna ; hildna. 
Tank,(cistern,) ^^//s. (pond,^) 

idldh^ (f.); tald.o ; pokhra. 
Tap, thap-thapdna. a -ping, 

thappa ; thappi^ which 

mean also a thing for tapl 

ping with, e.g. a mallet\ 

bat, &>€. 
Tape, fitah ; nlwd?'. 
Ta.per\ng,gd-o-dnm. V. -honak 
Tar, kitrdn; al-kah-a? V| 

-lagd-d. 
Target, dhdl, (f.) ; sipar 

-practice, chdnd-^indri. 



« In India, artificial ponds are called ' tanks ; ' a natural pond, < 
lake, is ' tdh* as at ' Nynee Tal.' 

■ This is the word most generally used ; but is not to be found in eithej 
the Persian or the Hindustdni dictionaries. 

« ' The moon ; ' the ' bull's-eye' being regarded a a full-moon. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



325 



Tariff, iiirkji-ndmah. 

Task, (lesson,) sabak. (la- 
bour,) ham. to take to -, 
ddfitna ; dhamki-d. 

Tassel, jhabba. 

Taste, (n ) mazah. (fii:.) sali- 
kah. sense of -, zd,ikah. 
(v.) thora khdna ; zdjkah 
lena: of a pleasant -, 7naze 
ka ; laziz. -less, be-inazah. 

Tax, mahsfil ; tikas, (E.). 
V. -lagdna. 

Tea, chd.e, (f.). -pot, -pochi, 
-caddy, -^tf//.- kettle, ketli^ 
(E.). cup, -ka piydlah. 
-spoon, -ka chauuiiach^ or 
cliamchah. 

Teach, sikhdna ; sikhldna ; 
iaalim d. -ing, byv.n. -er, 
iistdd ; ffiu^allim ; guru ; 
iskul-7Jidstar, ( E. ). 

Tear, (of eye,) dnstc. (rent,) 
chir ; phdk. to shed -s, 
rona. (to rend,) chirna ; 
torna ; phdrna ; fhdr-d. 

Tease, satdiia ; dikk-k. 

Telescope, dur-bin} 

Tell, kahna;bolna; kjiabar-d.; 
bdt-bolna; baydn-k. (count,) 
ginna ; shumdr-k. 



Temper, mizdj ; kjio, (f.) ; 

labia t. 
Tempest, ii'ifdn ; di,idhi, A. 

iufdni. 
Temple, (M.), ibddat-gdh ; 

masjid, (f.). (H.) ptija- 

Midnah; thdkur-bdri; math^ 

(Christian,) girja^ or grija. 
Tenant, (of house,) kirdya- 

ddr. (of land,) asdmi ; 

ra/iyat; kdsht-kdr. the -ry, 

ri.dya ; asdini-log. 
Tender, narm ; muldjm. See 

' Offer.' 
I^ent, khainiah; tambu; dera, 

(servant's,) pdl, -pole, 

chob.^ -curtains, kandt, 

-peg, jnekh. -pitcher, 

klialdsi. 
Terrify. See * Frighten.' 
Testament, (Old ) taurdt. 

(New,) i7i.jil. (will,) ^vasiyat- 

ndmah ; wil, (E.). 
Testimony. See ' Evidence.' 
Than, se ; az, (Persian.). 
Thanks, shukr. to thank, -k. 

-ful, -guzdr, (N. -/.) 

(grateful,; ihsdn-mand. 

(N. -i.\ -less, nd-shukr. 

Adv. with se. 



' Persian 'bi'na,' 'vision.' 



326 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO P.E SPOKEN. 



That, (narration,) kih. (de- 
monstrative.) See page 30. 

-very, uwhi. -is to say, 

ya7ie. 
Thatch, (the,) chhappar, (f.). 

(grass,) ghds, (f.) ; khar, 

V. ghds^ c^c, lagdna. 
Theatre, ndch-ghar; iamdsha- 

khdnah ; nakl-k^idnah. 
Thee. See page 29. 
Their, their?, them, &c. See 

pages 30 and 3 1 . 
Then, (time following,) fal? ; 

is-ke baad ; baad is-ke. 

(time previous,) tab; us- 

wakt.; us-ke baad. now 

and-, kabhi-kabhi. 
Thence, -forth, (place,) 

wahdij-se ; us-jagah-se. 

(time,) baad is-ke ; us 

ivakt-se. 
There, wahdn ; us-jagah 

w^;/.-abouts, wahin-kahin. 

here and-, idhar-iidhar ; 

yahdn-wahdjjt. 
Therefore, is-wdste ; pas. 
Thereon, -upon, is-par ; tab. 
The)^ JY/ we. Seepage 30. 
Thick, mota ; gdrha. N. 

7?iotd,t. to go through - 

and thin, dg pdni men 

parna. 



Thief, chor ; duzd. theft, 

chori ; sarkah ; dnzdi. 
Thigh, jdngh, (f ). 
Thin, patla; (texture,) bdrik; 

(e.g. as skin,) kdghazi V. 

patla-k. and hona. -ness, 

patldJ.Ay, kani. 
Thing, chiz. (f.) ; shai. one's 

things, chiz sab ; bastah ; 

mdl ; mdl-o-maia. 
Think, sochna ; kjiaydl-k. ; 

bichdrna. me thinks, niujh- 

ko ma alum hota hai. 
Third, tisra ; siyiim. 
Thirst, (n.) pyds^ (f.) ; tish- 

nagi. -y, pydsa. V. mujh- 

ko pyds lagi hai ; pydsa 

hona. 
This, yih. See page 2,^. 
Thither, ndhar ; ivahdn ; us 

taraf. 
Thorn, kdnta ; kJidr, -y, 

kaiitd?'. 
Thorough, tamdm ; piira. 

-ly, sar-d-sar.-idiXQ:^ sarak^ 

(f.), guzargdh ; dmm-rdsta. 
Thou, iu. See pa ^e 29. 
Though, agar-chih ; har- 

cha7id ; az bas kih. as 

jaisa-kih . . . taisa-kih. 
Thought, sock; Jikr, (f.) ;| 
ta.ainmul ; andeshah ; j 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



327 



dhydn. See ' Thing.* -ful, 
fikr-viand, (N. -/.) muta^- 
ammil ; andesha-ndk, -less, 
be-fikr ; be-khabar ; be- 
parwdh, N.add 'i ' to these 
adjs. adv., nouns and se. 

Tlirash, {coxn^)dd,Gna ; dhun- 
na ; jhdrna. See * Flog.' 
-ing floor, khalthdn} 

Thread, siU ; sutli ; tdga ; 
(strong,) (Z^/-/. needle and-, 
sttj tdga. to-a x\eed\e^tdgna. 

Threat, dhaviki; ta?i, V. -d.; 
dhafiikdna. 

Throat, gala, or gulu ; halak. 

Throb, tis^ (f.) V. -mdrna ; 
tisna. 

Through, kebich; vien. (means) 
se, (agent,) se ; ki mdrfat. 

Throw, phenkna ; phenk-d. ; 
ddbta ; big?ia -aside, bar- 
taraf pheijkna, -away, 
phenk-d. -down, gird-d. 
-open, khol-d, - up, 
(as a ball,) uchhdlna. 

Thrust, (n.) dhakka, V. -d. ; 
ghuserna. 

Thunder, ^j^^r/T/*, f.). N.-na, 

Thursday, biphe ; brihaspat ; 
juma-rdt, 

Thus,fl'/*v^ / is- far ah; isi-iarah. 



Ticket, tlkat. (E.). 

Tickle, gudguddna. 

Tide, (ebb,) bhdtha. (flow,) 
J aw dr. 

Tidings. See *News.' 

Tie, bdndhfia ; bdndh-d. a -, 
batid. neck -, gulu-band. 

Tiger, bdgh ; sher. -gress, 
sherni. 

Tight, ta7ig ; drawn -, kasa 
hu,a. N. tangi. V. -k. ; 
kasna ; khinchna. 

Tile, (round,) khapra. 

(squ:irej)pe2e'a/. N .-lagdna. 

Till, (v), kheii-k ; chds-k. ; 
hal-bail-k ; jotna. 

Till, (adv.). See page 47, iii. 

Timber, lakri. 

I'ime, wakt; za^ndTi, or za7?id- 
nah^ (period of.) arsah ; 
muddat. (c}cle of,) yug. 
— when one ruled, exist- 
ed) &c. wakt ; aiyd7n. -of 
life, umr, (f.) ; sinn, (m.) ; 
i}Q\s\ixe,)fursat;fardghat. 
(delay,) der, (f.) ; from- 
to-, waktan-fa-waktan. at 
all- ^^har wakt; hameshah. 
in - cr out of -, wakf-ndy 
wakt. at the proper-, bar- 
ivakt. 



* Accent on the last syllable. 



328 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Tin, kalai. V. -d. ; -!agd-d. 

Tipsy, matzvdla ; mast. 

Tire, thakdna. -ed, ihaka ; 
mdndah. -ed n ess, mdndagi. 
-some, maldl-ajigez. a 
-some fellow, thakdne- 
wdla ; dikk karne-wdla. 

Title, ndm ; kJiiidb ; lakab ; 
(ceremonious heading,) 
alkdb, (PI. i^i lakab.) 

To,^ (generally,) ko ; (ap- 
proach), ke pds ; (transfer,) 
ke hdth ; ko. -day, dj ; ini- 
roz. -and ixo.,idha7'-udhar ; 
face - face, ru-ba-ru ; ke 
sdmne, with respect -, is 
bdre men ; is-ke hakk 7Jien, 

Toast, {\\)senkna 'N.fos/,(E.). 

Tobacco, tambdkii. to smoke 
-, -pina. 

Together, ke sdth ; sdth ; 
sdth-sdth ; ek sdth ;bdham; 
ham^ as first part in com- 
pos : all -, (action, )i'^/^ mil- 
ke, (company,) sab ek sdth. 

Tcmib. See * Grave.' 

Tongue, //M, (f.) ; zabdn,({.). 
See * Language.' 

Too, (of excess,) ziyddah, 
(also,) bhi. 



Tool, hathiydr. 

Tooth, ddnt. -ache, ddnt ka 

dard. -brush, ddnt ka 

banish, (E.). -pick, kjiildl. 

-powder, or paste, manjan. 

to cast ill one's teeih, 

munti par bolna. 
Top, sar. (toy,) laftu. -most, 

sabhot,i se upar. -heavy,i'/>- 

bhdri. -zy-X.ux\y ,ulat-pulat ; 

upar -niche. 
Torch, inashdl. -I nearer, -chi. 
Torment, (n). siydsat ; dikk; 

dukh ; jdn sozi. V. -k. ; 

satdna. 
Tortoise, kachhua. 
Toss. See * Throw. ' 
^oXAJumlah', kull; kulliyai ; 

mot ; sab le-ke ; jama. 
Touch, chhuna. N. chhuhd- 

wat ; the sense of -, lams. 
Tow, (n.) pdt ; patwah -ing- 

rope, gun. V. gun k. 
Toward, towards, ki taraf ; 

ke pds. 
Towel, tauliyaii. ; dast-mdl. 
Tower, burj. V. baland-hona. 
Town, shahr ;...pur^ and 

.. nagar, as last part in 

compos : -sman, shahr- 



* ' To * or * for ' *a place,' is generally omitted, e.g. '' kal rdt-ko 
Bandras raivdnah hji,a,' ' he started last night /t;r Banaras.' 



hindust^(ni as it ought to be spoken. 329 



ka ddmi, one of the same 

-, ham-shahr. 
Toy, {n.)khilau?ia. {v.)khelna. 
'J race, (n.) (by which to 

find,) surdgJi ; aldniat ; 

pata ; asar. (harness,) jot. 

(v.) khojna ; khojh-k. : pag- 

dandi-lena, (by pen, &c.) 

kjiiiichna. 
Trade, tijdrat ; saudd-gari ; 

kdr-hdr ; Ma rid- fa rokji t ; 

byopdr.-^x^ saudd-gar; bai- 

pdri. (travelHng,) banjdra ; 

bakas-zvdla, (half E.). 
Traffic, dnd-jdna ; dmad-o- 

ra/t. See 'Trade.' 
Trail, {truNS.) ghasitna ; 

khiiichna. {intr,) ghasitna. 
Train, (of dress,) ddman. 

(followers,) hashmat ; hain- 

rdhi.dn. (sequence,) tar- 

iib, (f.) ; silsitah. (railway,) 

gdri^dii. (v.) sikhldna. 
Trample, pd e-mdl-k, N. -/. 
Transact. See ' Do.' 
Transfer, muntakal-k. 
Translation, tarjamah. -tor, 

tarjiimdn ; mutarjim. 
Transparent, \y//^^i/. N. -/. 
Transpositon, iiikildb. V. -k. 
Trap, kal^ (f.)^- d<^^h ^^ ^^^^ 

part in compos. 



Travel, safar-k. ; sair-k. -ler, 

musdfir. -ling, (adj ) safari. 
Tray, khwdn ; kishti. 
Treacle^ gur ; tirydk. 
Treason, daglid-bdzi ; namak- 

hardmi. 
Treasure, kJiazdnah. -ry, 

-khdnah, -er, kjiazdnchi. 

(v.) aziz-rakhna ; kadar-k. 
Tree, darakjit ; per ; gdchh. 
Tremble, kdmpna. -bling, 

larzish. 
Trial, imtihdn ; J duck ; dz- 

mdjsh, V. -k. (in Court,) 

taj-wiz, (f.). 
Tribunal, addlat; mahkamah. 
Trick, hilah; bahdnah; fareb. 
Trickle, girna ; rasfta ; 

tapakna. 
Troop, gur oh, (f.) ; tdjfah ; 

jamd.at ; ghpl. troops, 

lashkar, (m.) ; sipdhi.dn. 
Trot, (n.) dulki. V. -chaljia. 
Trouble, (n.) tasdi, (i.)\ 

dukh ; dikk ; taklif, (f.) ; 

raiijish. to feel -, -uthdna. 

to cause -. -k. ; satdna ; 

chherna ; rajtjdna, -d, 

dzurdah ; fikr-7nand ; 

gham-gin. -some, muzi; 

ranj-divar ; dikk-karta ; 

dikk-ddr. 



330 HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Trousers,/^//////, (E.). izdr^^ 

(f.). 

True, sack ; wdjib ; sddik ; 
diirust, truth, sachd^i ; 
rdsti ; a si bdt ; hakikat. 
in truth, wdke 77ien ; fil- 
hakikat. 

Trumpet, fur hi. V. -bajdna. 

Trust, itibdr ; itiindd. V. 
-rakhna. (deposit,) amd- 
nat. -tee, amdnat-ddr, one 
who trusts, mutarnid. -wor- 
thy, itibdr i ; ivafd-ddr ; 
imdn-ddr. -worthiness, 
imdn-ddri ; wafd-ddri. 

Tub, tab^ (E.). ta gh dri. 

Tube, 7idli ; nai ; nal. 

Tuesday, mangal; si-sha7?ibah. 

Tumble. See ' Fall/ 

Tumbler, tainblet, (E.). 

Tumult. See * Riot/ 

Turban, pagri ; sa r-ba nd. 

Turkey, (bird,)/^r//, ox pint. 

Turmeric, haldi. 

Turn, {intr.) phirna ; phir- 
jdna ; ghthnna. {trans.) 
ghumdna;ghumd-d. to make 



a-, (circuit,) chakkar mdrna; 
ghuin-ke jdna ; to take 
a-,(exercise,) hawa-khdna. 
to -back, pker-dna, or 
jdna ; lantna. to - out, 
nikdl-d. to - one's back, 
pith-dikldna a - ing, 
chakkar ; peck. See * Tur- 
ner/ 

Turner, (trade,) kJiarddi. 
-ing lathe, k/iardd, (f.). V. 
kharddna. 

Turnips, shalgham. 

Tweezers, chimta. 

Twilight, godhaura\ shafak ; 
chirdgh jaldne ka wakt. 

Twin, (one.) tau.am ; (the 
two,) taivdtndn. 

Twine, (n.), sut. See 'Climb.' 

Twist, aifithfia ; niarorna. 

Type. See ' Kind.' (printing,)- 
chhdp. 

Tyrant, zdliin ; jafd-kdr.-ny, 
zulm ; zabar-dasti ; sitam ;■ 
jabr ; zor. -ous, zulmiy 
zabar-dast ; sakht. -ously, 
jabran : ziilm^ &^c. se. 



* Means, rather, ' drawers.' Natives, unless anglified, seldom wear 
' trousers.' 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



331 



U. 

Note. — Many of the words beginning with 'un' fiegative, 
are not given. Yoii may turn the sentettce into one with ' not ' 
e.g. this is untrue = ''this is not true^ — yih sach nahiii hai ; 
or secondly, you may prefix ^ na,^ to almost a?iy adjective ; and 
' be ' to almost arty 7ioun : e.g. na-pasand, na-maalum, na- 
duriist ; — be-hosh, be-akl, be-sharm. 'La' 'ghair' and 
' kam ' are also negative prefixes, but they are appropriated 
to certain words, e.g. la-waris, without an heir ; la-jawab, 
ivithout an excuse, ghair-hazir, absent. Many words of 
Saijskrit origin {of which only a feiv have been given) take 
* a 'privative, (as in Greek,) or ' nii,' e.g. a-dhaim, injustice ; 
nir-buddhi, senseless, stupid. 



Udiier, than. 

Ugly, bad-surat ; bad-shakl. 

-ness. --?*. 
Ulcer, ndsur. 
Umbrella, chhdta ; chhatri. 

--bearer, chhatar-ddr . 
Unanimous, ek zabdn ha. 

~ity, ek zabdn ka ittifdk. 

-ly, ek zabdn se. 
Unawares, achdnak; 7idgahdn. 
Uncertain, be-thikdna; ghair- 

mukarrar. 
Uncivil, bad-kjiulk ; be-adab. 

N. -/. 
Uncommon. See ' Rare.' 
Under. See ' Below.' -trial, 

zer tajzviz, (f.). 
Undergo, (e.g. pain labour, 

&c.) khdna ; uthdna. 



Understand, samajhna; bujh- 

na ; samajh men lena ; 

wdkif-hona. N. samajh, 

(f.) ; hosh ; akl, (f.) ; fahtn; 

wukuf. 
Undertake, bir-a-uthdna ; 

hath lagdna ; karna. -king, 

kdm, or by tiie name of 

the thing. 
Underwood, y/^^V / jhdri. 
Undo, kholna ; (fig.) akdrath- 

k.; iabdhi-k. -done, khula; 

(fig.) tabdh ; shikastah. 
Unfix, kholna ; utdrna ; 

nikdl-d. 
Unfortunate, kam-bakht. 
Uniform, (a), eksdn; ek kism 

ka {n.)urai. -ity, bardbari; 

eksdni. adv. with se. 



33^ 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Union, ittifdk ; ek-dili ; 
ekiyat ; bd-hajjiL unite, 
(join,) jor?ia ; mild d. 

Universe, the, diinya, (f.) ; 
dlam;jahdn -sal, har-jdj ; 



\Jn\\t\\,achchha nahbi ; wizdj 
khardb hai : bimdr ; tnariz. 
Unyoke, kholna} 

Up. See ^^b)ve. ' 
Upon, par. 



kull; ^^-^^^--sality kulli- Upright, khara. V. -k, (fig.), 

yat ; -sally, bil-kulL -sity, 

madrasah. 



Unlawful, kjiildf kdnun ; 

kJiildf-i-shara. 
Unless, agar followed by 

nahiu^ e.g. unless you do 



rdst ; sachcha ; sidha ; nek. 
N. rdsii; sachdj ; sidhdj ; 
neki. 
Uproar, ghiil ; dan^a ; haul- 
jaitl) kjialal. V. -k. Adv. 
with se. 



this, I shall notpay you, ^ift^r -xr^^^^ , \ 7^, ,.,, 

, .^ ^, ^ \l ^ Upset, (v.) ultana; idtd-d. 

turn yth kam nahin karo. /o \ w^ u t ^ 

■^ ' ' (a.) 7dfa ; nlta hu,a. 

Upshot, fiatijah. 

Urge, (e.g. a horse,) chaldna. 
(a request,) iltimds-k. he 
urged nie to grant his 
prayer, is ki darkjidst man- 
zurkarne ko^ mujhe dahdya, 
or Id-chdr kiya.ox tangkiya. 

Urine, pesh-db. 

Us, ham, 6^6. See page 29 

and Notes. 
Usage. See ' Custom.' 
Use. (n.) istiamdl. V. -k.; 



to, main ekpaisa nahin dun. 

Unmarried, kundra. an -per- 
son, muftis. 

Unravel, udherj,ia. 

Unroll, kholna. 

Unruly, sar hash ; be-lagdm. 
N. sarkashi. 

Unseen, ghdjb ; nazar se 
ghdjb. 

Until. See page 47, iii. 

Unusual, kjiildf dastur ; 
iK-riwdj ; jo kam dekhne 
meti dta hai. 



* The reader will have observed how universally this word is used 
for all senses of 'disjoining' as well as of merely ' 6';i.?;/^■//^^' He will 
hear English children who are allowed to talk English (a bad habit for 
them in India) say, ' opin mai shoos' where the happier children in Eng- 
land say, ' untie my shoes ' — (or do it for themselves. ) 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



333 



ham 711671 lena. -ful, kd77i 
ka; kd77ii, (salutary,) 77mfid. 
-iuWy, /d,ide ke sdth. -les.-, 
7Jd'kdrah ; kuchh kd77i ka 
7iahi7i. -lessly, Id-hdsil ; 
be-fdjdah. -iessness, id- 
hdsili. 



Usual, hasb-dastih' ; jo jdri 

hat. -ly, aksar ; beshtar ; 

ba dastnr. 
Usurer, bydj-Jzhor : sM-kJior, 

-ury, -/. 
Utensil, chiz, (f). (but naiiie 

the - you want.) 



Vacant. See * Empty.' -ca- 
tion, iatil^ (f.). 

Vagabond, bad-zdt ; htchcha. 

Vain, du/idghi^ to be-, U7'- 
chaliia ; Idf-zani-k, -\ ty, 
kjiu d- faros hi ^ i n -, be-fd, ida/i. 

Valid, diirust; pakka; kdJ77i; 
77iazbut. -ity, durusii; maz- 
buti. 

Value, ^ee ' Price.' -able, 
kimati; besh-kii7iat ; gird7j- 
baha. V. k'uiiat-lagd-d. 
(fig,), aziz-rakhna; kadar- 
k. ; pydr-k. 

Vanish, ghdjb-hona; urjdna. 

Vanquish, ghdlib-kona ; da- 
bd-d. ; to7yia. 

Variety, iarahtarah ; kis77i- 
Ms 771. -ious, chand kis77i 
ka. -ously, aur aur tarah 
i"^. to vary, (trans. )badal7ia; 
chand tarah se kar7ia. 
(intr.) badal-jdna. 



Varnish, (n.) bdr7itsh, (E.) ; 

pdlish, (E.) ; raughan ; 

chik7idj. V. -lagd-d. 
Vase. See page 41. 
Vegetables, tarkdri ; sabzi. 
Vehicle, gd7:i ; sawdri. 
Veil, 7iikdb. wearer of a -, 

-ddr. (pretence,) burkah. 
Vein, nas, (f.) ; rag, (f.). - 

of metal, asar, or PL 

dsar. 
Velvet, 77iak}i77iaL 
Vengeance, hitikdm. Y.-lena. 
Venture, hi77imat-k. at a -, 

kis77iat par. 
Verandah, bard77iadah. See 

page 23. 
Verbal, -ly, zabd7ii. 
Verdure, sabzi. 
Verification, tasdik, ({.).Y.-k. 
Verily, hakikat 77ie7,i ; fil- 

wdke. 
Vermicelli, bara77iseii, (E.). 



334 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



Very, bahut ; nihdyat ; by 
suffix *y^/V e.g. ivu-hi ddmi, 

* that very man' 
Vessel. See ' Dish,' * Ship.' 
Vex, -ation. See * Annoy,' 

* Grief,' &c. 

Vice, shardrat ; khardbi ; 

badi; zabuni. (a), khardb ; 

bad-kjio ; zabun. 
Vice... (substitute,) kdjm- 

makdm. 
Victor, ghdlib, -ious, arid to 

be -ious, -hona. -y, fath ; 

ghalbah ; jaL 
View. See * See,' ' Scene.' 
Village, gdnw ; basti ; dih ; 

grdm, (L. B.). -together 

with the lands attaclied, 

dihdt ; mauza, -er, ga7i- 

wdr; gdoij-'Wdla; basti-wdla. 
Villain, -o\is,bad-zdt; hardm- 

zddah, -y, bad-zdti. 
Vine, angur ka darakht, 

-yard, angur ka bdgh. 
Vinegar, sirkah. 
Violence, zor ; jabr. V. -k. 

(adv.) with se. (a.) sakht ; 

zor-dwar ; zabar-dast ; be- 

lagdm. 



Virgin, bdkirah. -yiy^bikdrat. 

Virtue, rdsti ; neki ; b ha Id J. 
A. rdst ; ?iek ; bhala. by - 
of his office, az ru-e-uhde 
apne ; ba-zari^e^ (or ba- 
sabab,) apne uhde ke. 

Visible, zdhir ; nazar viej}. 
-bility ziihur. -bly, zdhi- 
rati, vision, (sight,) nazar^ 
(f.) ; bind^i ; basdrat. (in 
s leep, ) kh ivdb-khaydl. -ary, 
wahmi. 

Visit, inuldkdt; bheiit. V. -k, 
or, by 'jo.' 

Vizier, wazir. 

Voice, divdz^ (f.) ; shabd, 
vocal, awdz se ; shabdi. 
vocal and instrumental 
music, ^gdna-bajdna\s.i\.). 

Volume, jild^ (f.) 

Voluntary, ikhtiydri. 

Vomit, (n.) kai; ubkdj; radd. 
V. -k. 

Voyage, safar-i-darya. -r, 

jahdzi- tnusdfir. 
Vulgar, (public, )a WW. (mean,) 
tiicha ; kaminah; pdji. See 
* Common.' 

Vulture, gidh. 



> Lit. ' to sing (and) to play.' Page ii, Note, 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



335 



W. 



Wade, helna. 

Wafer, tikli. 

Wager, shart ; hora ; hart, 
V. -k. ; bdndh-lena. 

Wa-es. See ' Pay.' 

Wagon, chhakra ; gdri. (car 
used in religious proces- 
sions, &c.) rath. 

Waist, kamar^ (f.). -band, or 
belt, -band, -coat, tvdskif, 
(E). 

Wait, rahna ; sabr-karna ; 
rah-jdna, -ing, initzdr, 
(on one), kjiidmat ; mid- 
dzamat. V. -k. -er, (gen- 
eral,) with ''jo' ; M milled' 
war. {?>erw^r\\)^khidmal-gdr. 

Wake, {trans. )jagdna;jagdd. 
{i?itr.) Jdgna, awake, jdg- 
la ; beddr, -ful, beddr ; 
be-khwdb. -fulness, beddri. 

Walk, (n.) sair; hawa-khd?ia, 
(v.n,).{v.)c/ia/na; kadam-k. 
(take a-,) sair-k.; hawa- 
khdna. 

Wall, diwdr, (f.). -of a tent, 
^andt. 

Wallow, lotna. 

Walnut, akhrot. 

Want, (need,) hdjat; ihtiydj, 
(deficiency,) kuchh kami ; 



aib. (poverty,) iangi. (v.) 
(desire, )chd/ina; hdjat hona. 
(be deficient,) kam hona. 

War, laraj;jang^ (f.). V. -k, 
-like, jangi. -equipments, 
sdtndn-i-jang. 

\A'arm, garni. V. -k.'^. gar mi; 
tapish. a -bath, garm- 
dbah. to -oneself, tdpna. 

Warn, chitdna ; Izhabar-d. ; 
dgdh-k. a -ing, khabar^ (f.); 
ittila, (f.). 

Was, tha^ <>r. See page ii. 

Wash, dhona ; dho-d. ; sdf-k. 
-ing, dhoi'dj.-tr, (person,) 
,..sho, as last part in com- 
pos : -erman, dhobi. -er- 
woman, dhobin. 

Wasp, birfii ; zambur. 

Waste, (what is over after 
manufacture, &c.,) sithi ; 
sith, ((.). (squandering,) 
isrdf. (a desert,) wirdna. 
(v.) ghatdna ; urd-d. ; bar- 
bdd-d.; khardb-kar-d. ful, 
fuzul-kharj. -fulness./uzti/- 
kharji. 

Watch, (n.) (pocket,) ^//^r/. 
-man. See * Sentinel' 
-post, chauki (protection,) 
hifdzat ; nigdh-bdni ; kha- 



33^ 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



barddri. -fnl, be-ddr ; kJia- 
bar-ddr. Adv. with se. (v.) 
hifdzat^ CT'r. k. 

\N £iier, pdni^ (ni.) db, (Per- 
sian,) ; Jal. -fall, db-shdr. 
-fowl, 7nu?'g/i-dbi. -ing, 
db-pdshi, -ing-pot, lota, 
-pot, ghara ; ka.si. -man, 
bihishtiipdni-ivdla. -melon , 
tarbuz. -seivant, db-ddr. 
-y, tar ; dbi. (v.) pdni-d. ; 
(irrigate), patdna ; db- 
pdshik. to sprinkle-, pdni 
chhit-karke-d. 

Wave, (n.) f?ianj, (f.). (v.) 
hildna ; hild-d. 

Wax, inom. -en, mom ka, 
-cloth, mom-jdmah. seal- 



ing -, Idkh. 



Way. See ' Read.' by the -, 
i.e. on the road, darmiydn 
rdh ke. by the -, e. g. by 
the way, 1 ought to men- 
tion, &c., kahte hu,e ; 
J ate h2i,e. by way of... (e.g. 
kindness,) az rdh-i-mihr- 
bdni. costs of the -, rdh 
ka kharch. 

We, ham. See 29. ; ham log. 

Weak, kam-zor ; nd^tawdn ; 

K za,if. -ness, kam-zori ; nd- 

' tdkati ; zof. 



Wealth. See ' Riches.' 

Weapon, harbah ; hathiydr. 

Wear, (our, as clotiies), piir- 
dna ho-jdiia. (clothes, &c.), 
pahinna; orhna ; bdndhna; 
lagd-d. ; rakhna, 

AVeather. See page 80. 

Weave, biiina. -ing, bindwat. 
-tv,juldhah ; tdiiti, 

Web, thdn. 

Wecinesday, budh ; chdr- 
shambah. 

Weed, ^y^^'i", {{.)',jangli ghds. 
when plucked wi^^ghds-pdt; 
dkJior. y. -ukhdrna. 

Week, haftah. 

Weep, rona ; d?}su-gird-d. 

Weigh, {trans ) taulna ; 
wazn-k. (intr.) itne wazn 
ka hona, (ponder,) wazn- 
k. : jdiichna ; sochna, -ty, 
bhdri ; wazni ; sangm ; 
girdn. all lit. and fig. 

Welcome, mubdrik, (also by 
way of address). Y,-bdd-k, 
See ' Agreeable.' 
\Vt\\{2i,)achchha;bhala;k_hub, 
(which are also interjs.) to 
be-, -hona. (in good style,) 
achchhi iarah. -enough, 
kam-besh. as - as possible, 
makdur bhar. this, as - as 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SP0KP:N. 337 



ihdiX, yih^aurwuh M/.-fare, 
khairiyat.-dox\Q ! shdbdsh! 
bahut achchha I -known, 
khiLb-inaalum ; mashhiir. 
-wisher, khair-khivdh. 

West, pachchham : maghrib. 

Wer, bhht^a ; tar ; gila, 
-ness, tari, V. bhingdna. 

What, -ever. See pages 33 
and 39. 

Wheat, gehut}. 

Wheedle, phusldna ; chum- 
kdrna. 

Wheel, (n.) charkji ; pahiya; 
chakkar. (v.) e.g. a barrow, 
chaldna. 

When. See page 1C4. -ever, 
jab kabhi.,.tab. 

Where, -ever. See pages 104 
and 62. -a bouts ? kahdij, ; 
kis tar a/? 

W h ether, khwdh . . Mwdh ; 
kya . . . kya (e.g. whether rich 
or poor,) khwdh daulat- 
mand^ khwdh gharib. 

Which. See page 33. which 
of these two do you prefer, 
in donoii me^ se kaun 
pasand karte ho ? which is 
which, I can't say, kaunyih 
hai aur kaun wuh hai, 
main nahin kah-sakta hun 



While. See page 4'j. in. also, 

' Space.' a long or good -, 

bah?a der tak ; muddat-i- 

dardz. a little -, thori der 

tak ; chhaft-ek. 
Whip, chdbuk ; kora. V. 

-mama, or -se mama. 
Whirl, ghiunna ; phirna. 

-pool, gird-db-vi\nd, gird- 

bdd. 
Whiskers, muchh, (f.). 
Whisper, phasphasdhat. V. 

phasphasdna. 
Whistling, siti ; safir^ (f.). 

V. -bajdna. 
White, safed, N.-i. Y,-k. a 

-man, gora.a. -ant, diwak. 

-wash, piichdra. 
Who, -ever. See pages i'i> 

and 39. 
Whole, (a) kuU ; tamdm ; 

sab. (n.) kulliyat, -some, 

7nu^dfik ; sajhvan ; zuldL 

-ly, bil-kull ; mahz. 
Why? kyuij. ? kdhe? kis waste? 
Wick, batti. 
Wicked. See ' Bad. ' 
Wicker, -yjoxk, jafari. 
Wide. See * Broad.' 
Widow, rand ; bewa ; be- 

shauhar, -er, randu^a ; 

be-zan. 



T., H. 



22 



338 HINDtJST^NI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



V^\ie,joru ; zaujah; kabilah. 

Wilful, khud'pasand ; sar- 
kash, -ly. See * Intention.' 

Will. :See * Pleasure/ * Pow- 
er.' (testament,) wasiyat- 
ndmah, -ing, taiydr; 7dzt; 
rizd-mand ; khiish. -ing- 
ness, taiydr i ; rizd-inatidi ; 
khushi, -ingly, khushi-se. 

Win, jit7ia ; ghdlib-hona , 

Wind, hawa, (f.) ; bdd, (Per- 
sian.). 

Window, khirki ; ghurfah. 

Wine, shardl?, (f.) mat; mad; 
ddru, (f.). bddah, (Per- 
sian.)^ 

V^'mg^par; pankh^{^'ji.)ba£hal, 
(f.). V. pankh mdrna. 

Wink, (n.) chashmak. V. -k. 

Winter, jdre ka mausam. 

Wipe, ponchhna ; po?ichh-d. 

Wire, tdr. See page 98. 

Wisdom, akl, (f.) ; hosh ; 
ddnist. A. akl-mand ; 



hosh-ydr ; ddnish-ina7id. to 
have-, to be wise, the adjs. 
and hona. wisely, akl se. 

Wish. See ' Oesire.' 

Wit. See * Wisdom,' *Jest.' 

Witch, ddyan. 

With, (accompanied by,) ke 
sdth; ie-kar; ma^i} (instru- 
ment, manner,) se; ke sdih, 
(cause,) ke mdre; ke bd,ts ; 
ke sabab; se -draw, ie-jdna, 
-hold, 7iaMri-d ; bdz- 
rakhna.-^\.2iX\di, 77iukhdlif' 
ho7ia. -in, bhitar ; aTidar, 
-out, bdhar; (destitute of,) 
be ; bila. 
Witness, gawdh ; shdhid; 
shdki^ (L. B.). tyQ-^chashm- 
did gawdh. 

Wizard, ojka. 

Wolf, bheriya. 

Woman, aurat ; zaTz, (p.) 
stri ; ra7idi.-^ property, 
stri-dhan, appertaining to 



* This word will remind you (later on) of the beautiful song, *tdzak 
ha tdsah, nau ba nau^* where occur the line and refrain. 
* Bddah-i-dil-kusha bijo — 

Tdzah ba tdzah, nau ba 7iau — * 
• Bring forth the heart-expanding wine—fresh and afresh.* 
2 This word is nearly equivalent to 'and.* It is used of what is 
elosely connected with a thing already named ; as * a case wit (or 
^nd) its evidence.' Seepage 118, for two illustrations of this. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BJ2 SPOKEN. 



339 



women, zandni, -'s apart- 
ments, zafidnah, -ly, 
aurat-sa. 

Wonder, ia^ajjiib; hairat ; 
tahaiyur, V. -k, -ful, 
ajib ; ojubah, -fully, ajib 
tar ah se. 

Woo, natives never* woo;' 
in L. 1^. they employ a 
broker, called ^ghatak^ 

Wood, lakri ; hezim, of-, 
lakri ha. 

Wool, itn; pashm, of-, -ha. 

Word, bat ; bay an ; lajz ; • 
sitkjiun ; shabd. - by -, 
lajzan. {ntws,) /ihabar,{t)) 
bdt;ittUa, (f.). 

Work, ham ; hdr ; kdr-hdr ; 
hdr-o-bdr. See * Trade,' 
* Labour,' -man, kdrigar.'^ 
-shop, -place, hdr-khdnah; 
dtikdn, (f.). V. kdm^ arc, 
h, ; mihnat-k. 

World. See * Universe.' -ly 
affairs, timur dunydvi. 

Worm, kirm ; hira, glow -, 
shab-tdb, -eaten, kinii- 
khiirdah. 

Worn, -owi^ purdna; ho-gaya. 
See ' Tired.' 



Worse, its-se khardb : (in 
h t ixhh, ) dj 7CJI//1 aur bimdr 
hai\ or dj bimdri aur sakJit 
Jiai. worst, sab-se Jzhardb, 

Worship, (M.) ibddat ; (H.) 

piija. Y,-k. your^l h/^zur^ 

ja7idb ; ja7idh-dli ; gharib- 

patwar ; jahdtypandh ; 

dhnrm-avatdr^ ^c. 

Worsted, tin ka sut. 

Worth. See *Price,' 'Value.' 
n ruj»i's -of cloth, ek riipiye 
ha kapra, it's not - while, 
kuchh parwdh nahiij, ; 
iaklif 7?iat uthdjye. 

Wiestling, kushii, V. -k, 
-tier, kushii-gir ; pdhl- 
wdn. 

Wre tc h , kar?i-bakht ; be-chdrah. 
-ed, be-nasib ; kangdL 
(contemptible,) nd-kdra, 
-en n ess kam-bakjiti ; be- 
nasibi, shihasta-hdli, -edly, 
taiigi-se; hJiordb Ml me;,t. 

Wring, machorna. (out water,) 
pdni nikdl-d. ' 

Write, likhna ; likh-d; halam- 
band-k. a -ing, lekha, -er, 
hdtib ; 7iawisandah ; as last 
part in compos :...«tfZ£;/j 



* Accent on first syllable. 



340 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 



or... 7tams. e.g. nakl-7iavts^ 
a copyist, -ten, likha hu^a; 
nawishtah : kalam-band ; 
taiydr. -ting materials, 
dawdt-kalam ; ka/am- 

siydhi, the art, or act, of 
-ting, kalam-ba7idi ; ibdrat ; 
tasnif, (f.). 



Wrong, (a.) 7id-durust ; thik. 
7iahiii : is 7)ien hhul hai ; 
achchha nahiti, (unjust), 
be-tTtsdf; nd-hakk ; ghair- 
tvdjib. right or- hakk-7id- 
hakk, N. be-insdfi ki bdt ; 
zui77i -doer, with ^jo.^ 
-fully, be-insdfi se. 



X. 



[Nil.] 



Y. 



Yard, (court,) sah7u (mea- 
sure,) gaz. 

Y2L^\\,ja77ihd,i V. -k ; ja77i- 
hdna. 

Year, baras ; sal, (p.); (in 
dating), saTi. during this-, 
ifn-sdi. during last -, 
guzashte sdl. for years, 
barason se ; sdlha sdl se. 
-ly, sdlydTtah, or sdliydTtah. 
every -, har sdl ; sdl-basdl. 
advanced in— s, buddha; 
sinn-ddr. of tender -s. See 
'Young.' the new -, nau 
roz, 

YnWovf, zard, N. /. 



Yes, hdn ; ji hdii. See page 

56, Note 2. 
Yesterday. See page 6(), 
Yet, {Qg^yet he did not obey 
me,) lekiTi ; in agar ; tau- 
bhi ; id-ham. (for all that,) 
par."^ there \'s>yet this to be 
said, yih bhi kahiia hoga. 
he has not comt yet,ab-tak. 

Yield,(n. )paiddwdr;fasl, (f.). 
(v.) de7ia. 

Yoke, (n.) ju^a, or ju.dtk, 

(y.)jot7ia. 
You, your ; yourselves. See 

pages 2?, 29, a fid 30, 7. 



* See page 115, line 9. 'maqar haddi 7ta' nikli ; par na nikli. 



HINDUSTANI AS IT OUGHT TO BE SPOKEN. 34I 

YoMng,jaivdn ; juba. under Youth, a, jawdn ; nau 
age, kam-sinn ; kjiurd sal, jawdn. time of youth, 
i:rovvn-up, but -, siyd/ia. jawdni. -{uWy^jawdn-sa, 



Zea\y josk; tezi ; garmi. -ous, Zephyr, bdd-i-saba. 

iu7id; iez ; garm. a - ot. Zest, hasrat. 

with y^' (devv>tee,) zdhid, TA^-z^ig, kaj-o-pech. 

-ously, josh^ d^c. se. Zone, t'k/im ; tftintaka. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



NOTE, 



A single figure, (as * 23/) inlicates the pa^^c. When that figure is 
followed by a comma and another figure, then the first figure 
indicates the page, and the second, the section on that page. A 
second or third figure not referring to a Section, is separated from 
the preceding figure by a semi-colon 

A. 

A, or An, 9, Note. 

' A,' as in, * /lozu much ' * a yard F ' 65, 8. 

Abuse, words of, 75, 14, Note. 84 (foot note). 

' About ' (<?. g. about ten men), 39, 7. 

Accent, 72, 2. 

Adjectives, allied to Pronouns, 39, 6. See 'Agreement/ 

Adverbs, and Allied Words, 54. 

Agreement, generally, 10. of the Verb, 10, 6 ; 19, 25. 

' Ago,' 68, 7. 

Alphabet, the, i. 

Anahs, as used to express fractions, 65, 8. 

'And,' omission of, ir, Note; 68, 10. 

Answers, by servants, 56. Note 2. 

'Ap' 28, 2. Apna, 30, 7. 

Arrangement of Words, 9, Note; 61. 

Articles, the, 9, Note. 

At, of time, 68, 6. (^See Glossary, sub voce.) 



344 INDEX. 

15. 

* Bahut Achchha ! ' ' bahut khijb ! ' 56, Note 2, 
Body, the Parts of the, 62. 

Both, 40. Both... and, 46. 
By, {of time,) 68, 6. 

C. 

Cadence, 72, 3. 

Cardinal Numbers, the, 64; 103. 

Cases, 5. 

* Chahiye,' 18, 20. 

* Chhi-chhi,* warning against certain uses of, 57, Note. 
Civility, exaggerated, 75, 14, Note. 

Clock, the, 67, 4. 

Colours, the chief, 59. 

Comparison of Adjectives, ordinary, 74, 8. by the Persian 

method, 74, 9. 
Compass, points of the, 59. 
Conjunctions, the, 46. 
Consonants, the, and their Pronunciation, i, et seqq; 72,1. 



D. 
DAn, as a suffix, 41. 

Darna, to fear ^ followed by *se ' 51, Note iv. 
Dating, 68, 8. 
Days of the Week, 66, 2. 
Degrees of Comparison, 74, 8 and 9. 
*Dena,' to give ^ contractions of, 15, 10. 
DiPTHONGS, 4, 8. 

Distribution 40, 8. 



INDEX. 



345 



E. 
Euphonic Vowels in Verbs, 15, 14, et seqq. 
Exercises, passim, 

F. 

Feminine Nouns, list of, 105. 
Fractions, 64 ; 65, 8. 

* From his horse.' 73, 5. 

' From inside ' = ' out of, ' 73, 5. 

Future Tense used for Subjunctive, 73, 5. 

G. 

Gems, the principal, 96, No/e 2. 

Gender, 7. 

Glossaries, English, 205. Hindustani, 127. 

H. 

' H ' at end of a word preceded by a consonant, 2, 3. 
Following another consonant, 2, 4. 

* Have,' how translated, 13, 5 ; 75, 13. 
Health, to ask for one's, 77, 18. 
Hindustani Readkr, A, 107. 
'Ho-CHUKA,' (and the like,) 19, 23. 
Hours, how reckoned, 67, 3. 

* HiJjA HOGA,' 17, 18. 

Humility, nouns of, used for ist Personal Pronoun, 29. 

JVofe iv. 
"*HuzuR,' 76, 17. 

I. 

I, between two Persian words, meaning of, 52. Notes. 
Idioms, 73, 5. 



346 INDEX. 

Interjections, 56. 
Interrogation, 6 r, 3. 
Interrogative Words, a list of some, 62. 
Intention, how expressed, 51. 
Mtis,' 75, 12. 

J. 

* Jab-tak,*,..*tab-tak,' 47, 3. 

* Jis-wakt'...*us WAKT,' oL Unrelated events, 47, \y. 
' Jo-KO,i,' *jo.kuchh/ 39, 5. 

* Jo-HUKM,* 56, No/e 2. 

K. 

Ka, ke, ki, rules for, 5, 3. 

* Kahna,' ^o say^ followed by *se,' /<?, 51, Note v. 

* Kam,' Prefix meaning deficiency, 59, Note, 

* Kaun hai,' * KO,i hai,* difference in meaning, 38. 
-KE -kar ^r -karkar, participle ending in, 76, 16. 

* Km na,' 46. 

* Ko,i,' * KucHH,' 38, et seqq, 

L. 
*Lagna,' when it means to begin, construction with,. 51^ 

Note^ iii. 
Ledi-sAhibah, 269, iV(?/^ i. 
' Lena,' to take, contractions of, 15, 10. 

* Log,' /^^//i?, used in forming plurals, 7, Note. 

M. 
'Maalum,* * NA-MAALi5^M,* coUoquial use of, 59. 
Marks of vowels, &c., 4. 
Measurement, 70. 
*Mem-sAhibah,' *mem-i.og,' 24, iVt//^. 



INDEX. 347' 

*MiLNA,' 'MiLA,' 3rd Personal Veib, 50, Note \. 
' Mis bAba,' *mis-sahibah,' 24, Note. : 
Months, the, 66. ' , 

N. \ 
Narration, 47. A^ote \\ ] 74, 10. 
' Not AT HOME,' 26,7\^^/'(? i. 
Nouns, See ' Cases ;' * Number,' ' Gender.' paradigm of, 8,. 

-of humility, used instead of ist Personal Pronoun.. 

29, AWe V. 
Numbers, 6. - : 

Numeration, 64 ; 103. 

O. 

' O,' between two Persian words, meaning of, ^2^ Notes. 

'O^; {in e.g. 'a cup of tea^) 73, 5. 

Omission of 'and,' ii, Note ; 68, 10. of Pronouns, 31.. 
Note ii ; 73, 5. of the 3rd Pers. Sing, of the Substan- 
tive Verb, 26, N'ote 2. 

*C)NCE,' 'twice,' 'thrice,' &C., 65,6. 

'Or so,' 39,7. 

Ordinal Numbers, the, 65, 5. 

'Out OF,' 73, 5. 

^ Ow^y {pronoun,) 2,0yf, , 

P. 

' Pahar,' a, 67. 

Paradigms :— of HoNA, to be or become, precedini^ the- 

'First Lesson.' of Nouns, 8. of terminations of Verbs,, 

14, 8. of Verbs, 16. 
Participles, See, 'Verbs/ 
Parts of the Body, 62. 



348 INDEX. 

Points OF 'i he Compass, 59. 

Post-office, the, 94. 

Pluperfect Tense, used for Past, 73, 5. 

Plural, ordinary, 6,5, et seqq. Persian, 73, 6; 123, Note 10. 
-for Sing, in Verbs, 52, Notes. 

Prepositions, 43. 

Pronouns, 28. *Ap/ 28, 2. Demonstrative, 30, 5. In- 
terrogative, 33, 12. et segg. Personal, 29, 4. Posses- 
sive, 30, 6. Reflexive, 30, 7. Relative, 33, 16. Words 
allied to - 38. 

Pronunciation, 1 ; 72, i. et seqq. 

Purpose, how expressed, 51. 

R. 

Railway, the, 82. 
Readkr, a Hindustani, 107. 

Relative and Co-relative words, 25; 39, Notes; 47, 
Notes; 104. 5^^ * Pronouns/ 

S. 
Sahib, Sahibah, 24; 26, Note 4. 
Salute, to, 75, 15. 
Self, 31, 8. 
Since, {of time,) 68, 7. 
Stem, of Verb, 14, 7. use as»an Imperative, 15, 16. 

T. 

Tashrif lana, -lf.jAna, 76, 17. 

— TE-Hi, Participle ending in, 14, 8. 

Telegraph, the, 98. 

^ Thank you,' 75, 14. 

* There is,' 'There are,' 75, 12. 

Tho, 47, Note i. and table of ' corrigenda,' 



INDEX, 34(^ 

Time, 66. 

'To,' as Cc-relative, 25, Note i ; 47, Notes ; 104. 

U. 

* Ul,' 'Ud,' 'Us,' meaning of, in personal names, 77, 19. 

V. 

Verbs : — Agreement in Gender of - 10, 6. Auxiliary -,. 

13, 5. 'Can,' 18, 22. 'Chiikna,' construction with, 
18, 23. Compound -, 21, 27. Contractions in -, 14, 9. 
et seqq. 'Darna,' and other -which take 'i*^,' 51, Notes, 
Derivative -, 21, 28. Euphonic letters in-, 15, 14 
et seqq, 'Have,' 13, 5 ; 75, 13. ' Have done with,' or 
'finished with,' 18, 23. ' Hona, to he^ or become^ 13, 5 
et seqq.; 14, 9 et seqq, ' Hii,a hoga,' and similar 
constructions, 27, 18. Imperative mood of-: — (^.) 
Abusive, 15, 16. (h.) Irregular, 21, 19. (r.) Ordinary,. 

14, 8. (d.) Respectful, 14, 8. Intensified -, 19, 24. 
' Lagna' to begin^ construction with, 51, Note \\u 
'May,' 18, 22. ' Milna,' : — {a) as a 3rd Personal Verb, 
50, Notes, (b,) as a full three-personed Verb, 124, 
Note 2, 'Must/ 18, 20. 'Ought,' t8, 21. Paradigms 
of -, : — {a.') Of ' Hona,' preceding the ' First Lesson.' 
(^.) Of Nouns, 8. {c) Of the Regular Verb, 16. 
(d.) Of the terminations of the Tenses, 14, 8. Partici- 
ples :—(«.) The past, 14, 8 ; 17, 17. (b,) The present,. 
14, 8; 17, 16; 21, 30. (c) Irregular, 22, 31. (d,) In 
,..ke,,,.kar,.,.karke, 14,8; 76, 16. ' Sakna,' construc- 
tion with, 18, 22. 'Shall have,' 17, 19. Stem the, of-^ 
14, 7. Tenses the, of-, 14, 8 et seqq. Tenses of the 
Past Participle of Transitive -, construction with the^ 
19,25. 



35© INDEX. 

Verbal Noun, the; 15, 13. 

VocAHULARiES, classified : — Adjectives, useful, 9 ; 11 ; 25 ; 
57. Adverbs, 54. Animals, common, 83. Bazar, the, 
85. Bed-rooii), the, 24; 34 ; 87 ; 95. Birds, com- 
mon, 84. Body, parts of the, 62. Colours, the chief, 
59. Compass, points of, 59. Condiments, 92. Con- 
^nctions, 46. Dignitaries, 52. Dinner-table, the, 86. 
Dress, 25; 34; 95. Drinks, 34; 94. English words 
in common use, 34. Food, articles of, 11 ; 91 el seqq. 
Fruit, 93. Games, 88. Harness, 90. House, the, and 
House-furniture, 23 ; 40 ; 87. Insects, 84. Kitchen, 
the, 87. Land, and Cultivation, 52 ; 78. Landscape, 
the, 81. Measurement, 70. Miscellaneous, 9; 11; 
25 ; 35 ; 41; 97- Money, 70. Nature, 81. Post- 
Office, the, 98. Prepositions, 43. Relationships, 4. 
Religion, 77. Seasons, the, 80. Servants, 35. Stable, 
the, 90. Telegraph, the, 98. Time, words relating to, 
. 69. Toilet accessories, 95. Town, a, its principal 
parts, 82. Vegetables, 93. Verbs, useful, 24 ; 48. 
Vermin, 84. Weather, the, 80. Weights, 70. Wines, 

34; 94. 

Voices, Active, 13/1^ 22. Passive, 22. 

Vowels, Euphonic in Verbs, 15, 14 and 15. Pronuncia- 
tion of, 3. 

W. 

* Wait, till I come.' {idiom.) 47. xYoie iii 

^WXla,' *wiLi,* 73, 7. 

Week, days of the, 66, 2. 

Weights, 2, 70. 

Words, arrangement of in sentences, 61. 

'' "" ' ' '" "^" ' ' ^' ' FINIS.