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Full text of "Scientific explorations of the Philippine Islands [microform]. Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report by a committee appointed at the request of the President by the National Academy of Sciences to consider and report upon the desirability of instituting scientific explorations of the Philippine Islands"

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^rDr. JOHN S. B??,t""^«; i ' "**;'*■ ■ \ 

58th Congress, ) SENATE. j Document 

- ~ ~ * j , \ No. U&. 

582945,, L 


, „ ._ MESSAGE " 

f i. FROM. THE . '. i 



i ' 
ISLANDS. '?]., 

February 7, 1905.— Read, referred to the Committee on the Philippines, and 
ordered to he printed. . | 

To the Senate and House of Representatives,: 

Circumstances have placed under the control, of this Government 
the Philippine Archipelago. The islands of that group present as 
many interesting and novel questions with respect to their ethnology, 
their fauna and flora, and their geology and mineral resources as 
any region in the world. At my request, the NationaF Academy of 
Sciences appointed a committee to consider and report upon tne* 
desirability of instituting scientific explorations of the Philippine 
Islands. The report of this committee, together with the report: of 
the Board of Scientific Surveys of the Philippine Islands, including 
draft of a hill providing for surveys of the Philippine Islands* which 
hoard was appointed by me, after receiving the report .of the coift- 
mittee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences, with instrap- 
tions to prepare such estimates and make such suggestions as might 
appear to it pertinent in the circumstances, accompanies this 

The scientific surveys which should be undertaken go far beydjBp^ 
any surveys or. explorations which the government of the Philippine 
Islands, However; completely self -supporting, could be expected to 
make. 'The surveys, while of course beneficial to. the people of tfce 
Philippine Islands, should be undertaken as a national work for the 
Hifonnaiaon fcofc-mer^^^ Islands, Hat 

of the people ■ of i^iis country and of the world. Only pi*eliminary^ 

' * f 4 ■■■ ^ , • a&* 


explorations have yet been made in the archipelago, and it should be 
a matter of pride to the Government of the United States fully to 
investigate and to describe the entire region. So far as may be con- 
venient and practical, the work of this survey should be conducted 
in harmony with that of the proper bureaus of the government of the 
Philippines, but it should not be under the control of the authorities 
in the Philippine Islands, for it should be undertaken as a national 
work and subject to a board to be appointed by Congress or the Presi- = 
dent. The plan transmitted recommends simultaneous surveys in 
different branches of research, organized on a cooperative system. 
This would tend to completeness, avoid duplication, and render the 
work more economical than if the exploration were undertaken piece- 
meal. No such organized surveys have ever yet been attempted any- 
where, but the idea is in harmony with modern scientific and indus- 
trial methods. 

I recommend, therefore, that provision bo made for the appointment 
of a board of surveys to superintend the national surveys arid explo- 
rations to be made in the Philippine Islands, and that appropriation 
be made from time to time to meet the necessary expenses of such 
investigation. It is not probable that the-survey would be completed 
in a less period than that of eight or ten years, but it is well that it 
should -be begun in the near future. The Philippine Commission 
and those responsible for the Philippine "government are properly 
anxious that this survey should not be considered as an expense of 
that government, but should be carried on and treated as a national 
duty in the interests of science. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

The "VShite House, February 7, 1905. 


National Academy of Sciences, 

.Norfolk, Conn., February 12, 1903. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit to you herewith the report of the 
committee appointed, at your request, to consider and report upon the 
desirability of instituting scientific explorations of the Philippine 
Islands, and on the scope proper to such an undertaking. 
I am, w, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Asath Hall^ 
Vice-President National Academy of Sciences. 
The President. 

The President's request. 

White House, 
Washington, December 26, 1902. 
My Dear Mr. Agassiz : 

I should like much a report from the National Academy of Sciences 
on the desirability of instituting scientific explorations of the Philip- 
pine Islands and on^e scope proper to such an undertaking. The 


National Academy is the official scientific adviser of the Government, 
and I would like its cooperation in planning a comprehensive investi- 
gation of the natural resources and natural history of the islands. It 
will of course rest with Congress to decide the extent to which such a 
plan can be carried through; but I, should like, at any rate, to. have a 
plan formulated and to do what I <jan to have it adopted. 

Sincerely, yours, 

Theodore Roosevelt. 
Prof. Alexander Agassiz, : . 

President of the National Acad&tny, Cambridge, Mass. 

Appointment of the committee. 

National Academy of Sciences, 

Washington, D. C, January 1^ 1903. 
Dear Sir: In response to a letter addressed by President Roose- 
velt to Mr. Agassiz as president of the National Academy of Sciences, 
and in the absence of Mr. Agassiz from the country,' Vice-President 
Hall has named the following committee to formulate a plan of 
organization as suggested by the President: William. H: Brewer, 
chairman; George F. Becker, C Hart Merriam, F. ff. Putnam, 
R. S. Woodward. 

This committee was named after consultation with the members of 
the council living in Baltimore and Washington. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

Arnold Hague, Home Secretary. 
Mr. William H. Brewer, 

Yah University, New Haven, Conn. 

Report of the committee, 


The committee has the honor to report as follows : 
The primary incentive to scientific exploration orTthe Philippine 
Islands, as of any other region, is a desire to promote ti^e commercial 
and industrial welfare of the inhabitants, and this purpose should 
never be lost sight of. Experience shows that this end is best attained 
by a c$nprehensive investigation of facts and conditions under- 
taken in a broadly scientific spirit. Millions of dollars have been 
spent in searching for coal in regions where the rocks are far older 
than the coal measures. . It was the seemingly unpractical science of 
paleontology which put a stop to this waste and enabled geologists 
to outline the areas to which valuable^ coal fields are limited. So, 
too, antiseptic surgery is an application of recondite branches of 
botany and chemistry. The vast benefits which the Agricultural* 
Department and the Fish Commission have conferred upon our 
country are founded upon the untiring labors of zoologists, botanists, 
and chemists whose sole 6 purpose was to elucidate the truth; and 
long after Franklin took the first step in the science of electricity 


economic applications of the knowledge acquired were almost 
undreamed of. In short, modern industrial development is an out- 
growth of pure science, and almost every discovery ofL science is 
, ultimately turned to economic account. Hence it would be short- 
sighted not to extend to the Philippines the broad and generous 
spirit of research which animates the governmental scientific work 
of the United States. 

The main object to be sought in planning explorations of the Phil- 
ippines is not to suggest new or unusual subjects of study or methods 
of study, but to provide against duplication of work, and to arrange 
for such cooperation between the officers engaged in different 
branches of the scientific surveys as will insure rapid, satisfactory," 
and economical progress in a noble contribution to human knowledge. 
Since the United States is engaged in the first serious attempt to 
develop an Anglo-Saxon civilization in the Tropics and among a 
non-Aryan people, it may not be amis* to call attention to the effect 
on the enlightenment and culture of the Filipinos which system- 
atically undertaken scientific surveys must inevitably produce. Such 
explorations will l)e a practical lesson in the application and value of 


The Philippine Islands form an extreme portion of one of the most 
interesting areas in the world, viz, Malaysia. The archipelago lies 
along the edge of the great and permanent abyss of the Pacific Ocean, 
. forming the last bulwark of the Asiatic continent toward the south- . 
east. This geographical position, half way between Japan and Aus- 
tralia, with the China Sea on one side ani&tlie "Pacific on the other, is 
most favorable to the development of a great cammerce, which in- 
deed, the Philippine Inlands once enjoyed. 

The archipelago has not always been separated from Borneo, Java, 
Sumatra, and the Peninsula of Malacca: on the contrary, land con- 
nections throughout this area existed at various times in.its geological 
history. It is also probable that at, one time Luzon and Formosa 
were connected. The islands themselves have undergone many geo- 
logical vicissitudes, still indicated in part by the belts of extinct and 
active volcanoes which intersect them. 

Gold veins, seemingly of very ancient origin, are widely distrib- 
uted in the islands, though no great gold field is known to exist there, 
and there are some valuable copper deposits. The Philippines con- 
tain also important deposits of mineral fuel similar to the so-called 
*■ coals " of Japan and jBorneo — a good quality of lignite — upon 
which much of the industrial development of the islands must 
, depend. It is well known that the fertility of the Philippines is 
astonishingly great. This is due primarily to a favorable admix- 
ture of various igneous rocks with limestones and sandstones. In 
the moist and equable climate "0"$ the archipelago the rocks are 
rapidly converted into soil, while the absence of cold and drought 
results in a vigorous growth of roots, which protects the soil as soon 
as formed from rapid erosion by the heavy rains. One evidence of 
the fertility of the land is the presence of superb hard-wood forests. 
These have been estimated to cover at least a third of the area of the 
islands, or, say, 40,000 square miles, and they include nearly 200 spe- 


cies of valuable timber trees. All tropical crops will grow in the 
Philippines, while that very important plant (miisa textilis) which 
yields the so-called " manila hemp " flourishes best in the archi- 
pelago. JThe resources of the islands have been very imperfectly 
developed; indeed, under Spanish rule attempts at industrial prog- 
ress usually met with disfavor. After the establishment of a well- 
ordered peace, the first step in progress must be the accumulation and 
dissemination of accurate and systematic information. 


In order rapidly and economically to provide the information 
desired it is essential that the various branches of the work should 
be coordinated, for they are to a considerable extent interdependent. 
For example, topographical maps, which are an indispensable pre- 
liminary to geological mapping, are also required for planning high- 
ways, for military purposes, for the land office, for the bureau of 
forestry, and for other ends. 

It will be necessary in the Philippines, as elsewhere, to map some 
regions on a larger scale than others. Simple relations between the 
several scales used should be maintained, as is done in the topograph- 
ical mapping of the United States. In selecting the scale for any 
region the uses to which the map is to be put should be well con- . 
sidered and the survey made with an amount of detail adequate to 
the use in view. A naval station, an army post, or the location of a 
possible canal should be surveyed in greater detail than would else- 
where suffice. It seems entirely practicable to foresee the probable 
development of a system of highways, since these are largely con- 
trolled by natural conditions, and there is no reason why the devel- 
opment of means of communication should not be taken into con- 
sideration in the original surveys. 

The mapping of each area should thus be undertaken on such a 
scale, as will suffice for the several purposes to which the govern? 
ment expects to apply the maps. Similarly, geological work should 
be done not merely with a view to elucidating the physical and bip- ,. 
logical history of the archipelago, or even to describing the mineral 
resources of the islands; the origin of soils, the occurrence of road 
metal, and the facilities for or the obstacles to the cutting of canals, 
tunnels, or roads should be systematically reported upon from a geo- 
logical point of view. Indeed it is manifest that assistance can and " 
should be rendered by each branch of a complete survey to one or 
more coordinate branches. For this reason a plan of cooperation 
will be suggested somewhat later. 


The subjects which it is advisable" for the government to investi- 
gate in the Philippines may be grouped as follows: 

Coast and geodetic work and marineynydrography. 

Land topography, including surveys and classification of the public lands. 

Geology and mineral resources. ' 

Botany. • . 

Problems of forestry. 




All of these subjects may be embraced under the general term 
,; scientific explorations/' and their study may be carried to a satis- 
factory degree of completion in a few years. 

Several other lines of inquiry are omitted from the enumeration, 
although they also are of great importance in the economic develop- 
ment of the islands. They are chiefly of local . interest, and are 
largely administrative, but are permanent in character.- They 
include meteorology, sanitation, the study of animal parasites, insect 
pests, and the fungus diseases of plants, as well as sylvicultural and 
administrative forestry and the establishment of agricultural experi- 
ment stations and of zoological and botanical gardens. These lines of 
investigation have already been initiated and more or less fully pro- 
vided for by the civil government of the Philippine Islands. The 
scientific surveys would naturally cooperate as far as possible with 
the insular scientific bureaus, to the great advantage of both. 

These several branches of the inquiry will furnish contributions to 
human knowledge, the importance of which will probably stand in the 
following order : Zoology, anthropology, botany, forestry, geology. 


The first step to be taken in the survey of the Philippines is the 
establishment of geographical stations and a primary triangulation. 
The position of Manila observatory is. of course, well known, and 
many oilier points have doubtless been well determined, but the 
accuracy of exiting determinations should be checked and the net- 
work completed. The land area of the archipelago is not large — only 
about 120.000 square miles — but because of its distribution in several 
hundred islands the area to be triangulated is far larger. 

The importance of marine hydrography requires no emphasis fur- 
ther than to recall the accidents and disasters which have occurred in 
the Philippine T-lands since the American occupation for lack of 
adequate surveys and charts. It seems eminently desirable that as 
fast as the triangulation is sufficiently advanced, a survey should be 
made of the very extensive shore line of the archipelago by a corps 
of marine hydrographers. These, can determine better than topog- 
raphers the amount of detail desirable in the line common to land and 
marine surveys. The line so determined should be accepted by both. 
eorp>. and from it the hydrographers should work seaward and the 
topographers inland. The hydrographers will meet with especial 
difficulties on account of the innumerable coral reefs in the Philip- 
pine waters, and may also have trouble with recent uplifts, such as 
are alleged to have taken place within a few years in the island of 
- Paragua. There and elsewhere bench marks should be established. 

The Coast and Geodetic Survey has already begun work in the 
Philippines. It has occupied 28 well-distributed astronomical sta- 
tion-, all in telegraphic communication with Manila, commenced a 
considerable number of. harbor surveys, and initiated tidal observa- 
tions at numerous points. It has also planned more extensive 


Topographic work in the 'mountainous and wooded portions of the 
Philippines will be extremely difficult, the vegetation being so dense 


as to form an almost complete obstacle to vision and to free locomo- 
tion. However, in various portions of the archipelago, extensive open 
plains exist which can be rapidly mapped. It will probably be 
found that the native Filipinos will readily adapt themselves to 
topographical work, and. as they are extraordinarily agile, they will 
be of great assistance in the mountains and the forests. It is in the 
highest degree desirable that the surveys and subdivisions of the 
public lands should be committed to a topographical corps, such as 
that of the Geological Survey, as has been done, for example, in 
the Indian Territory. The topographical maps should show forest 
areas, but the discrimination o^ agricultural and mineral lands is 
not contemplated. As has been already noted, the scales employed 
should answer to the prospective uses to which the topographical 
maps are to be applied. 


The geological problems to be solved nre numerous. The economic 
question of greatest moment is the stratigraphy of the coal-bearing 
Eocene formation, which is most extensively developed in south- 
eastern Luzon (Albay and Sorsogon) and the island of Cebu. It 
is probable, but not certain, that the coal deposits of Mindanao belong 
to the same period. The Eocene has been much disturbed and con- 
siderably faulted, so that its study will be a somewhat serious task. 
The coral reefs, volcanoes, and earthquakes will necessarily also 
demand the attention of geologi-ts. 

The dense vegetation of the Tropics offers great obstacles to the 
study or geology, and in the Philippines the lack of roads will also 
delay the work. There is, hoAvever, one set of exposures which are 
admirable arid of vast extent, as well as readily accessible by proper 
means. It has been estimated that there are over 11.000 miles of sea- 
coast, without counting minor indentations, and along most of this 
line the rocks are exposed by wave action. The study of the geology 
of the country will probably proceed most rapidly if begun from 
boats along these coasts, and in beginning geological work on any of 
the smaller islands it will probably be expedient, as well as most : 
economical, first to circumnavigate the island in steam launches, 
mapping the exposures with care. With the information thus ob- 
tained it will be comparatively easy to extend the surveys into the 

The geological formations of the East Indies, including Malaysia, 
are as yet imperfectly correlated with those of Europe. The dis- 
tance separating these two regions is so great, and the intervening 
land mass with its peculiar mountain- systems is so immense, as 
easily to account for extreme differences in fossil remains^ rendering 
it difficult to correlate the two systems. On the other hand, in 
America, where the mountains and coasts have a southerly trend, 
formations can be followed "from the Temperate Zone into the 
Tropics with no great difficulty, and a definite correlation has thus 
been obtained. Hence it is advisable that the geologists, and espe- 
cially the paleontologists, who may be sent to the Philippines, 
should have familiarized themselves with the geology of the marine 
strata of the West Indies and the Gulf of Mexico. In some respects 


knowledge of the geology of the Tropics is of more importance in 
the elucidation of the earth** history than that of the Temperate 
Zone. Climatic condition* along the equator must always have 
been more equable than in the Temperate Zone, and the development 
of life must have been le*s affected by changes in local conditions. 
Hence near the equator, if anywhere, will be found evidence of 
variation* in the climate of the earth as a whole in earlier geological 
times, variation- Mich a- may have been due to changes in solar 
emanation or in the composition of the earth's atmosphere. 

Attention ha- already been called to the fact that geologists should 
systematically lend a*-istance in the study of soils and in the devel- 
opment of a *y*tem of highways. 


The Philippine- have long been an attractive field for the student 
of natural hi-tory. and some of the nuM important theories respect- 
ing the origin, distribution, and coloration of animals and plants 
have resulted from -tudie- in thi« region. It was chiefly from obser- 
vations of the in.-ect- of the archipelago that Wallace discovered the 
law of natural selection- independently of Darwin, who had not 
then published his Origin of Specie*. But the fauna and flora 
are still very imperfectly known. Field work in ornithology has 
been more thorough than in the other lines: nevertheless several of 
'the larger i-land- have been only -lightly explored, and some of the 
smaller one- not at all. A -mall collection of mammals made by a 
bird collector on Mount Dai a. in- northern Luzon, comprising only 
such specie- as were brought to him alive by the natives. -contained . 
half a dozen new generic groups. This may be taken as a -promise 
of what will be -learned when the numerous lofty mountains of the 
larger inlands are *y*teniatically explored. Heretofore most of the 
natural-history work ha* been along the-coa«t and larger rivers. In 
future>t promi-ing ;1 nd important field. and"also the most, 
difficult *o far a* land specie- are concerned, is in the highlands of 
the interior. 

The fauna of the Philippine i- complex in origin and hetero- 
geneous in character. It con-i*t* of type.- originally derived in part 
from the -outh (Borneo. Celebe-. and the'Moliiccas) "and in part from 
the north ( Formo*a and southeastern China): hence it is not sur- 
prising that the animal* and plant- of certain i-land* differ widely 
from those of other i-lands. It is important that the fauna and flora 
of each island be -tudied in detail, and that the zoological work include 
mammals, birds, reptile-, batrachians. fishes, insects, and marine 
invertebrates; and that the botanical work include, besides systematic 
botany, the study and identification of the food plants, fiber plants, 
ancTmedicinal plants used by the native tribe*. 

In each of these department- the work should be under a trained 
naturalist, competent to -upervi-e the field work, make the necessary 
technical studies, and prepare the report 1 relating to his own special 
line. The chief object of the work should be a complete and author- 
itative report on the fauna and flora of the i-lands. comprising de- 
scriptions of all the specie-, with a statement of their "geographical 
ranges. This will lead to a natural classification of the islands ac- 


cording to the origin of the fauna and their relationship to one 
another and to those of adjacent Elands. Attempts thus to group the 
islands have been made by Wallace. Steere, Worcester, and others, 
but as yet the fauna and Horn are too little known to admit of final 


The subject of forestry. in the Philippines is one which is both of 
deep scientific interest and of great importance in the economic devel- 
opment of the islands. A local bureau of forestry has already been 
instituted by the Philippine Commission, and this will undoubtedly 
be a permanent organization. It will be needed to protect, control, 
and foster the extremely valuable 7 timber resources of the islands, 
and it is already doin^ good work. There are, however, certain fun- 
damental facts and relation* in connection with the forests which can 
be ascertained only by a thorough scientific investigation, which is 
beyond the scope of the local bureau. These studies can be completed 
within a few years, with the certainty that the knowledge obtained 
will be of lasting benefit to the local lDiireau of forestry, and the in- 
vestigation of these subjects properly belongs to a scientific survey 
of the archipelago. Such subjects are the sylvicultural organiza- 
tion of the forest*: periodicity of growth in tropical trees; processes 
of seed bearing, seed distribution, and germination; growth and com- 
petition in early life: the influence of moisture and temperature on 
the tropical forest, and the influence of the forest on moisture and 
temperature. While forotrv v. -trictlv speaking, a branch of botany, 
its methods are peculiar and it will be expedient to treat it as a sep- 
arate branch of the scientific surveys. 


Although little is known of the archaeology and ethnology of the 
Philippines, there are sufficient rea-ons for believing that in these 
two closely related lines of research facts of the. greatest importance 
will be discovered in the archipelago. Indeed it is probable that in 
southeastern Asia or in the adjacent insular regions the remains of 
fossil man will be found. The discovery of bones of Pithecanthropus 
erectux, that strange ape : like man or man-like ape. in the Pliocene 
formation of the island of Java leads to the expectation that syste- 
matic research in the deposits marking the beginning of the Qua- 
ternary period in the Philippine* will yield the remains and prob- 

ably the works of man. and thus throw light on the subject of early 
mail in Asia. The small amount of archaeological research thus far 
accomplished in the islands has already revealed,, evidence of an 
apparently aboriginal people differing from the Negritos. 

This Negrito race of the islands, with its closest affinities on the 
Malay Peninsula and the Andaman Islands, offers a problem of 
exceeding interest and scientific importance. Where did this Negrito 
race originate? Is it a distinct primitive type that has persisted in 
the outlying regions of the Asiatic Continent, or is it a differentiated 
branch of a widely extended primitive race or species of man? 
These and other important questions may not improbably be an- 
swered by an extended anthropological survey of the Philippines.. 



Linguistic studios of the. widest scope should be pursued on the 
islands. The myths and folk-lore of the various tribes should receive - 
the attention now demanded by the requirements "of science. Col- 
lections of archaeological material also should be secured as a means 
of studying t| ie early status of man on the islands, and the effect that 
the later intrusions have had on the aboriginal peoples ought to be 
ascertained by a thorough study of the custom*. arts, and mental 
characteristics of the many and diversified tribes. 

Knowledge of these matters is essential in order the proper 
method of dealing with the natives may be determined. The honor 
of the United States demands that every means be taken to avoid 
mistakes of ignorance in dealing with the vast and relatively helpless 
(Kjpulation of these i>lands. This first attempt of the United States 
to bring; alien races of the Tropics into the fold of Anglo-Saxon : 
'•ivilization should be guided by strictly scientific data and principles. 
This necessitates, first, thorough knowledge of the peoples to be 
assisted, and then measures which accord with their various customs 
and their capabilities Only a thoroughly scientific anthropological 
survey can provide the information required for the attainment of 
enlightenment and humane results. 


Kach special survey should cooperate as far as practicable with 
other branches of the service in the collection of specimens, and be 
ready to afford them all facilities not incompatible with its own 

The specimens collected will be the property of the United States. 
The lirst series, including all type specimens, should be deposited in 
the United States National' Museum. A serif- of duplicates should 
be deposited in a local museum in the Philippines, such museum to be 
designated by the Philippine Commission. Other duplicates, if there 
be any. should be distributed to such leading museums, desiring 
collections of this character, as by reason of permanent endowments 
are able properly to care for and preserve the specimens; 


For the purpose* of the contemplated surveys Malaysia as a whole 
constitutes a Convenient geological and biological province. A very 5 
large amount of valuable scientific investigation has been accom- 
plished in other portions of Malaysia, particularly by Dutch geolo- 
gists and naturalists. Some of the questions arising in the Philip- 
pines can not be satisfactorily settled without comparison of the 
occurrences in the archipelago wifh those in adjacent islands. Hence 
this committee is of opinion that general permission should be 
granted to the scientific surveys of the Philippine Islands to send 
observers, from time to time and for brief periods, to neighboring 
islands for the purpose of making comparative studies. Great sav- 
ing of time and great increase in efficiency would result from such a 


The scientific history of the United States during the last fifty 
years demonstrates the value of unification and systematic organiza- 


tion in such surveys as are contemplated in this report. The State 
geological surveys were manned by able and industrious observers, 
but there was a lack of unity of method and a lack of unity of aim, 
which made, it nearly impossible to correlate their results/ No one 
familiar with the. subject will question the statement that the country 
as well as the science of geology has profited by the extension of the 
United States Geological Survey over the entire country. The 
national scientific bureaus have, laboriously and after long experience, 
developed methods of work and staffs of assistants which are at least 
equal to any in the world. To develop in the Philippines a separate 
set of similar bureaus would require much time and loss of time. Nor 
would employment in such bureaus be attractive ; for prolonged service 
in the Tropics is so trying to most constitutions that the number of 
competent men willing to accept permanent positions -there will prob- 
ably not exceed the demand of the insular administrative bureaus; to 
which reference has been made in a preceding paragraph. 

On the other hand, there seems no essential difficulty in embracing 
this area, like any other territory of the United States, in the fields 
occupied by existing national bureaus. Members of these organiza- 
tions would be willing to be detailed for two or three years to so 
interesting a region as the Philippine Islands with the prospect of 
resuming duty at home. 

In order to secure cooperation and to preserve due proportions 
between the various surveys under the charge of the national bu- 
reaus, to arrange for suitable forms of publication of reports, prepare 
estimates, recommend legislation, determine upon the system of 
measurements, and to settle other questions of common interest, there 
must be frequent consultations in Washington between the repre- 
sentatives of the various branches of the work. 

For. this purpose it is suggested that a board of Philippine surveys 
be created and put in charge of the work. It is manifestly of the 
utmost importance that such a board should be composed exclusively 
of eminent scientific experts, who alone are competent to direct the 
work. For administrative reasons it is essential that the board should 
consist of officers selected from the national scientific bureaus, and in 
the opinion of the committee these should be : 

Superintendent of United States Const and Geodetic Survey. 

Director of United States Geological Survey. 

Chief of United States Biological Survey. 

Botanist of United States Department of Agriculture. 

Chief of Bureau of Forestry. 

Chief of Scientific Staff of Fish Commission. 

Chief of Bureau of American Ethnology. 

From these members one should be appointed chairman by the 
President, with the consent of the Senate, and the chairman should 
report to the President. There are precedents for such an organiza- 
tion in the Smithsonian Institution and in the boards of commission- 
ers appointed to represent the Government at various expositions. 

The chief necessary expense of such a board would be a yesv mode- 
rate sum for clerical assistance, but it would probablv be expedient 
and economical for the board to employ an officer, to be stationed at 
Manila, to perforin functions analogous to those of quartermaster 
and commissary for all field parties, which will have many material 
wants in common. 


While the methods of work and the selection of men should be left 
to the chiefs of the national scientific bureaus, viz, the members of 
the Board of Philippine Surveys, much latitude must be allowed the 
officers in charge of field work in so remote and exceptional a region 
as the Philippine Islands. On the other hand, if these officers are 
left entirely to their own judgment as to areas in which work is to be 
done in any given season and as to the amount of detail requisite 
there will be danger of lack of harmony in the results and delay in 
the progress of. the work. To insure cooperation and to avoid dupli- 
cation in the field work the following plan is suggested: 

Let a scientific council be created in the Philippine Islands, pre- 
sided^over by a member of the Philippine Commission, to consist of 
the chief field officers of the several Scientific bureaus present in the 
Hands, as follows: - 

One geodosis'. designated by the Superintendent of the Const Survey. 

One : liydro.irr:'.i»lier. designated by the Superintendent of the Coast 

One topographer, designated by the Director of the Oeologieal Survey. 

One geologist, designated by the Director of the Oeologieal Survey. 

One zoologist, designated by the Chief of tlie.I'.iolouicil Survey. 

One botanist, designated by the l'.otanist of the Department of Agricul- 

One forester, designated by the Chief of the T.uroau of Forestry. 

Oik- anthropologist, designated bv the Chief of the IHireau of American 

-"-YMith whom should be a<-ociatcd one officer of Engineers. United 
States Army, and one naval officer. Let this council meet once each 
year, for example, toward the close of the rainy season,- and decide. 
in the interests of the Philippine surveys as a whole, what areas each 
bureau shall take up during the ensuing season and with what de- 
gree of detail. It is believed that such a council would deal satisfac- 
torily with all matters which might come before it without lack of 
due regard to the expert opinions of the chief officers atfected. In 
case of dissatisfaction, however, an appeal might be allowed to the 
governor-general. The findings of. the council should be regularly 
reported to the Poard of Philippine Surveys in'- "Washington. 


Except at the largest towns, it is seldom possible in the Philippines 
to obtain clothing or food such as Americans are accustomed to. and 
transportation facilities are very limited. For this reason it is 
recommended that the officers of the scientific surveys be granted per- 
mission to purchase supplies al military depots, such as army posts 
and naval vessels, and to avail themselves of opportunities of trans- 
portation on vessels attached to either service when such accommoda- 
tion can be afforded without detriment to the military service. 


This committee is not in a position to offer estimates of the cost of 
Philippine surveys. These could be easily furnished by the chief 
officers of the various scientific bureaus. It is believed, however, that 
with a moderate number of parties in each branch, under the system 


of cooperation recommended in this report, nearly all the work of 
exploration outlined above would be completed in a period of ten 
years, including charts, topographical maps, and geological maps. 


Should it be impracticable to organize the entire system of surveys 
simultaneously, it is recommended that they receive attention in the 
following order : 

Coast and geodetic work and marine hydrography. 

Land topography, including surveys and classification of the public lands. 

Geology and mineral resources. 


Systematic forestry. 



This report was adopted by the, committee on February 7, 1903. 

> William H. Brewer, 

George F. Becker, 

C. Hart Merriam. 
F. W. Putnam. 
' R. S. Woodward. 



At the meeting of the Board of Scientific Surveys on June 18, 
1903, the report of the committee on plan and organization, as, 
amended by the board, was ordered to be printed, together with the 
detailed estimates, for the use of the board. (Secretary's minute.) 

Board of Scientific Surveys of the Philippine Islands. 
[Constituted by the President March 9, 1903.] 

. Charles D. WA£c&rr^€7iairinan. 
Barton \V. Evermaxn. 
W. H. Holmes. 
C. Hart Merrtam. 


Frederick V. Coville, Secretary. 


The United States has undertaken to develop an Anglo-Saxon civ- 
ilization among a non- Aryan tropical race, the first serious attempt of 
the kind in the history "of the world. Experience shows that the 
moral, commercial, and industrial welfare of a race, by which its civ- 
ilization is largely measured, is fundamentally subserved by a com- 


prehensive investigation of facts by scientific methods. The funds 
of the Philippine government aCpresent are. and presumably for sev- 
■ eral years will be. needed for purposes of actual government, so that 
only a small amount can be expended for scientific investigation, and 
even that upon problems immediately connected with governmental 
administration. It is planned to conduct for ten years; in coopera- 
tion with the Philippine Commission, a series of surveys to cover work 
not now done by the Philippine government and beyond its means, 
but at the same time contributory to the solution of the problems with 
which it is confronted. The expense of the surveys, it is proposed, 
shall be borne Itv the Cnited States, as a contribution not only to the 
"welfare of the Philippine people but to the world V progress in scien- 
tific inquiry. 


m.vhi.m: hydrography and gkodksy. 

The work proposed in marine hydrography and geodesy in the 
Philippines is to make a trigonometric and hydrographic survey, and 
a topographic survey of the coast, including the requisite astronomi- 
cal determinations, to chart the waters and map the coasts, to observe 
(he tides, to analyze them, to establish bench marks for levels, and to 
determine the direction of the magnetic needle and investigate the 
,-laws governing the changes to which it is subject, for the purpose of 
prediction. The information thus collated would be utilized in the 
publication of tide tables, guides to mariners, called Coast Pilots.'and 
warnings of dangers and aids to navigation issued at frequent inter- 
vals in Notices fo Mariners. The work could be done to the best ad- 
vantage in conjunction with the survey of similar character, but much 
less extensive and more immediately required for purposes of com- 
merce and defense, now being carried on by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey in conjunction with the Philippine Commission. 


The proposed survey covers the preparation of topographic maps 
of the land area of the Philippines — about 75 per cent on a scale of 1 
to 250.000. about 20 per cent on a scale of 2 miles to the inch, and 
about 5 per cent on a scale of 1 mile to the inch. These maps would 
be used by the Philippine surveys as a base for the platting of the 
geological formations, different forest types, and distribution of the 
native races, and for similar objects. In addition to the innumer- 
able uses of topographic maps to the public generajly. it is probable 
that the Philippine government would find it economical and effect- 
ive to have its land-subdivision surveys made in conjunction w T ith the 
topographic surveys. 


The work in geology covers the preparation of geological maps and 
reports. They woulct show the geological history of the Philippines, 
would be an important aid to the development of the coal,- gold, cop- 
per, and other mineral resources of the islands, and would render 
much assistance to the Philippine government in its investigation of 


the extent and usefulness of the different types of agricultural soils. 
In connection with the proposed system of public highways the 
geological investigations would give valuable general information in 
the matter of location of roads and the possible supply of road 

The object of the proposed forest work in the Philippines is to 
ascertain, describe, and map the various forest types which the 
islands contain, preparatory to their use in practical forestry; to 
.ascertain how the forest reproduces itself under natural conditions 
and how natural reproduction is affected by human agencies; to dis- 
cover the relation of Philippine forests to temperature, moisture, 
precipitation, and the run-off of water in the streams, and, in general, 
to ascertain and make accessible the fundamental facts upon which 
forest management is necessarily based. Such a survey would 
establish a sound and broad basis. of facts which would be of daily 
assistance to the insular bureau of forestry in dealing with great 
economic problems concerning what is at present the most important 
available resource of the islands. 

The object of the proposed botanical work is to produce a. report in 
which all the plants of the Philippine Islands will be described, and 
their geographical extent, abundance, native names, and uses 
recorded. Such a report would furnish a great fund of scientific 
information to botanists the world over and would be of fundamental 
importance to the bureau of agriculture and the bureau of forestry 
of the Philippine government. It would aid materially in facili- 
tating the development and utilization of the plant resources of the 

The purpose of the zoological work in the Philippines is to prepare 
an authoritative, comprehensive account of the mammals, birds, rep- 
tiles, fishes, insects, and aquatic invertebrates ascertained to occur in 
the islands, with a description of each species and a statement of 
its geographic range. Special attention should be paid to the fishes. 
A careful study should be made of their distribution, abundance, 
spawning habits, food, and enemies, and of all other questions that 
would aid the Philippine government in protecting the fisheries 
resources of the islands and in extending their utilization. 


The main ethnological field of the Philippines is the study of two 
of the four great races of man in a manner similar to that in which 
the Bureau of American Ethnology has studied' a third of these races 
in North America. The work should cover the, physical, mental, 
linguistic, social, religious, aesthetic, and industrial development of 
the many primitive Philippine tribes. Collections illustrating their 
culture should be made before those changes take place which will 


inevitably follow American occupation and industrial development. 
Many practical questions are involved, such as the geographic dis- 
tribution and resources of the various tribes, and their requirements 
as to government, education, and industrial utilization. In these 
matter^ the proposed survey will be of material assistance to the 
Philippine govern inent bureau of non-Christian tribes. 


Initial expenses—. , small vessels $250,000 

Annual expenses : 

Expenses of four small vessels at $•">< U » h > each $120,000 

Repairs of same 10,000 

Instruments 10,000 

Tidal survey and bench marks 6,000 

Surveys on land 30,000 

One bead surveyor ^ 4,000 I 

Eight assistants on ships, at $2.4«'ni 19 % 200 

Eight assistants on shore, at $1.800 14,' 400 

Two draftsmen, at $1.800 3.600 

Eight draftsmen, at $800 j 6,400 

Two computers, at $1.800 3,600 

Two computers, at *S0O 1,600 

Two clerks, at $1.200 2,400 

Two nautical experts, at $l.Noo 3,600 


™ ....... .:...._ T ..."S= 


One head topographer _ 4,000 \ 

Subsistence 730 > \^ 

Outfit, native help, local traveling expenses, and clerical 

help , .2,000 

6, 730 

One .draftsman 1,800 

Subsistence 730 


Three field parties, at $20.550 61,650 

Expenses of each party : 

, One topographer $2,400 

Two assistant, topographers, at $1. 800 3,600 

One levelman 1,600 

One rodman (native) 600 

Subsistence (5 men, at $7oM)__: 3,650 N , 

Instruments (first year) 1.200 

Outfit, native help, and traveling expenses.. 7,500 

20, 550 

20, 550 . 

Total____. 70>910 

a These estimates have been drawn up by the secretary of the board from 
data f urnjshed, first, by the. report of the committee on biological work ; second, 
by discussion of estimates at meetings of the board ; third, by subsequent Con- 
ference with individual members. 



One head geologist : $4,00(1, 

Subsistence ■___ 730 

Outfit, native help, and local traveling expenses,. 2,000 


Four field parties, at $8,760 . _^Ol_„ 35,040 

Expenses of the four parties : " 

First, second, and third parties — 

One geologist $3,000 . 

One assistant geologist 1,800 

Subsistence (2 men, at $730) 1,460 

Outfit, native help, and traveling ex- 
penses — 2,500 


Fourth party — 

One paleontologist 3,000 

One assistant paleontologist 1,800 

Subsistence (2 men, at $730) 1,460 

Outfit, native help, and traveling ex- 
penses 1 2,500 

8,760 * 

One draftsman 1,800 

Two clerks, at $1,200 . 2,400 

Subsistence (3 men. at $730) 2,190 


Instruments and freight *. 2,500 

Charter of 2 boats for coast work, at $2,500 5,000 

Total _'; 55,660 


One head forester 4,000 • . 

Subsistence ^ 730 

Outfit, native help, local traveling expenses, and clerical 

assistance '" 2, 000 

6, 730 

Expenses of the three parties : 

First party — 

One forester $2,400 

One assistantrforester 1,800 

One assistant forester 1,400 

Subsistence (3 men, at $730) 2, 190 

Outfit, native help, and traveling ex- : 
penses i 2, 360 

10, 150 

Second and third parties — 

One assistant forester 1,800 

One assistant forester 1 1.400 

Subsistence (2 men, at $730) 1. 460 

Outfit, native help, and traveling ex- 
penses \1,460 « 

6,120 — 

Total : I ■ 29, 120 


One head botanist 4,000 

Subsistence 730 ' 

Outfit, native help, local traveling expenses, and clerical 

assistance 4 '— 2,000 

\ 9,730 

S. Doc. 145, 58-3 2 \ 


Four field parties (2 at $6,600, 1 at $6,600, 1 at $2,500) $21,700 

Expenses of the four parties : 
First and second parties — 

One botanist $2, 400 

One aid 1,200 

Subsistence (2 men, at $730) 1,460 

Outfit, native help, and traveling ex- 
penses .___- 1,540 


Third party- 
One assistant botanist 1.800 

One aid i 1,200 

Subsistence (2 men, at $730) 1,460 

Outfit, native help, and traveling ex- 
penses 1.540 


Fourth party — 

One aid 1,200 

Subsistence 730 

Outfit, native help, and traveling ex- 
penses _' 570 

2, 500 — 

Totak 28,430 


One head zoologist $4,000 

Subsistence 730 

Outfit, native help, local traveling expenses, and clerical 
assistance 2,000 

6, 730 

Land vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles), two field parties (one at 

$9,100; one at $7,100) 16, 200 

Expenses of the two parties : 
First party — 

One vertebrate zoologist ; $2,400 

One assistant vertebrate zoologist 1,800 

One aid ,__ 1,200 

Subsistence (3 men at $730) 2,190 

Outfit, native help, and traveling expenses 1,510 

9 t 100 

Second party — 

One vertebrate zoologist 2,400 

One assistant vertebrate zoologist I'l 1.800 

Subsistence (2 men at $730)__'_ 1,460 

Outfit, native help, and traveling expenses 1,440 


Entomology : 

One entomologist 2,400 

One assistant entomologist 1,800 

One aid 1,200 

Subsistence (3 men at $730) !___ 2,190 

Outfit native help, and traveling expenses 1.410 

9, 000 

Total i 31,930 



One head ichthyologist $4,000 

Subsistence 730 

Outfit, native heip. local traveling expenses, and clerical 

assistance ? 2,000 

= $6,730 

Three field parties (2, at $8,920; 1, at $8,320) :. 26,160 

Expenses of the three parties : 
First party — 

One aquatic invertebrate zoologist . , 2,400 

One assistant ichthyologist 1,800 

One aid , 1,200 

Subsistence (3 men, at $J30) 2,190 

Outfit, native help, and traveling expenses 1, 330 


Second party — 

One ichthyologist 2,400 

One assistant aquatic zoologist 1,800 

One aid 1,200 

Subsistence (3 men, at $730)__. 2,190 

Outfit, native help, and traveling expenses 1,330 


Third party — 

One assistant zoologist 1,800 

One artist 1,800 

One aid 1,260* 

^^^ Subsistence (3 men, at $730) 2,190 

^^ Outfit, native help, and traveling expenses '. 1,330 

Total _*_ „ 32,890 


One head ethnologist , 4,000 

Subsistence 730 

Outfit, native help, local traveling expenses, and cler- 
ical assistance _._ 2,000 

6, 730 

Three field parties, at $7,160 21,480 

Expenses of ea!eh of the three parties : 

One ethonologist $2,400 . 

One assistant ethnologist ^__ 1,800 

Subsistence? (2 men, at $730) 1,460 

Outfit, native help, and traveling expenses. 1, 500 


Total -__ i_: 28,210 


Marine hydrography and geodesy 484,800 

Topography 70, 910 

Geology _• 1 - 55,660 

Forestry 29, 120 

Botany __. , J 28,430 

Zoology : 

Land $31,930 

Aquatic -~ 32,890 


Anthropology 28,210 

Total : 761,950 

A BILL to provide for surveys or the Philippine Islands. 

He it enacted bij the .Senate and House of Representatives of the 
l' hlted States 'of America in <'on<jre*.s assembled. That the President 
l»e authorized and requested to cause surveys of the Philippine 
Islands to be made, as herein provided, in addition to and in further- 
ance of such surveys and investigations "as have already been author- 
ized by Confirms or by the Philippine Commission. 

The" Pre?'". it .1 may cause to be transferred or detailed for this serv- 
ice persoL irom the Federal classified service, and he may cause to 
be employed such other persons as may be necessary: Provided, That 
the persons so transferred, detailed, or employed shall be entitled to 
the same leave of absence as persons in the Philippine civil service. 

The President shall appoint from the Federal civil service a board 
of Philippine surveys, consisting of seven members and a chairman • 
(selected from the seven members or in addition to the seven -mem- 
bers, as the President may deem expedient), all men of recognized 
scientific standing mid administrative experience, serving without 
additional compensation, who. cooperating with the Philippine Com- 
mission, shall supervise, direct, and coordinate the surveys herein 
provided for. arrange for suitable publication of results, authorize 
tlie necessary expenditure by the bureaus to which the respective sur- 
veys are germane of moneys which may be appropriated by Congress 
in pursuance of this act. and submit to the President annually, i/ffr—— 
transmission to Congress, reports of progress and of expenditures 
and estimates for the prosecution of the work. 4 

For all purposes necessary to carry out the provisions of this\ct 
the following sums are hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the 
Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, to be im- 
mediately available and to remain available until expended: Pro- 
''!</<■(/, That no advance of money shall be made to a chief of field 
party under this appropriation unless he shall give bond in such sum 
as the Secretary of the Treasury may require. 

Marine hydrography and geod-esy : For all expenses necessary, for 
a trigonometric and hydrographic survey and a topographic survey 
of -the coast, including the requisite astronomical determinations, 
charting the waters, mapping the coasts, observing the tides, analyz- 
ing them, establishing bench marks for levels, and determining the 
direction of the magnetic needle and investigating the laws govern- 
ing the changes to which it is subject for the purpose of prediction, 
the information thus collated to be utilized in the publication of tide 
tables, guides to mariners called ki Coast Pilots," and warnings of 
dangers and aids to navigation issued at frequent intervals in Notices 
to Mariners, four hundred and eighty-five thousand dollars. 

Topography : For all expenses necessary for the preparation of 
topographic maps of the land area of the Philippine Islands, suitable 
for use by the Philippine surveys, a.s a base for platting the geolog- 
ical formations, different types of forests, distribution of the native 
■- races, and similar objects, as well as for public uses generally, seventy- 
one thousand dollars. 

Geology: For all expenses necessary for the preparation of geolog- 
ical maps and reports showing the geological history of the Philip- 


pine Islands and furnishing a geological basis for the development 
of the coal, gold, copper, and other mineral resources of the islands, 
fifty-six thousand dollars. 

Forestry: For all expenses necessary for an investigation of the 
basic facts of forest life -and production in the Philippine Islands, 
including the mapping and description of forests and' forest types, 
the study of silviculture and forest reproduction, the relationof the 
forest to human life and to temperature, moisture, rainfall, and 
stream flow, thirtv thousand dollar*. 

Botany: Fdr all expenses necessary for botanical 'exploration and 
the preparation of a report in which the plants of the Philippine 
Islands shall be described, and their geographical extent, abundance, 
native names, and uses recorded, twenty-eight thousand dollars. 

Zoology : For all expenses necessary for zoological exploration and 
the preparation of an authoritative fauna of the region, a comprehen- 
sive, systematic work containing descriptions of all the mammals, 
birds, reptiles, insects, fishes, and aquatic invertebrates ascertained 
to occur in the islands, with a statement -of the geographic range of 
each species; and for a study of the distribution, abundance, spawn- 
ing habits, food, and enemies of Philippine fishes, *nd other questions 
relating to the fisheries resources of the islands, sixty-five thousand 
dollars, of which not more than thirty-two thousand dollars shall be 
used for land zoology. 

Anthropology : For all expenses necessary for the study of the geo- 
graphical distribution of the various primitive Philippine tribes and 
their physical, mental, linguistic, social, religious, aesthetic, and in- 
dustrial development, and for making collections illustrating their 
culture, twenty-eight thousand dollars. 

The board is also authorized to charge against the several appro- 
priations, in due proportion, such expenses for quarters, clerical as- 
sistance, and other administrative expenses as may be indispensable 
to the exercise of its functions. 


A representative of the present board should go to the islands be- 
fore the final report is made to the President, to discuss the plans and 
organization with the members of the Philippine Commission and se- 
cure their approval. 

The field work of each of the surveys should be in immediate charge 
of a responsible officer trained in the corresponding field of research. 

The head field officers of the various surveys, with such cooperation 
among themselves regarding transportation, location, and sequence 
of work, and joint field operations as sound administration may re- 
quire or permit, should operate under the direction of individual 
members of the board. 

The plans of individual members of the board, after approval by 
the whole board, should be referred back to the same members for 

The board should appoint members of the scientific force and ad- 
ministrative or executive emloyees, this power to be delegated by 
them, if deemed advisable, to the individual members ; the clerks and 
nonscientific assistants to be appointed in the Philippine Islands, for 


service there, by the head field officers of the various surveys, such ap- 
pointments to be reported to the board. 

The head field officers of the various surveys, in the preparation of 
recommendations to be submitted yearly to their chiefs in the board, 
should consult with the officers of the insular government who are 
carrying on related lines of work. 

A representative of the board should inspect annually the work of 
the surveys and consult with the Philippine Commission regarding 
future operations, and a copy of the plans finally determined upon 
for the following year's work should be filed with the Commission. 

Should the Philippine Commission make appropriations for any 
work to be carried out under the direction of the board, the yearly 
plans for such work, in execution of the general plan approved by 
the Commission at the outset, should also be subject to the Commis- 
sion's approval. s 

The Philippine Commission, the War Department, and the Navy 
Department should be requested to extend to those engaged in the 
various survevs the same privileges relative to transportation, sup- 
plies, atfa meclical attendance that are held by persons in the Philip- 
pine service. 

The Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries should be asked to assent 
to a plan of cooperation which will involve the use of the Albatross 
in marine zoological work. 

J The results of the surveys should be published ultimately " in a 
series of volumes constituting the final report of the board, but mean- 
while the board should authorize the issue, through existing channels 
of publication, of any results needed by the Philippine Commission 
or otherwise required for immediate Use.