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• • • •' » 

• • < •• • 


^^ / ' ^ . ^ <r •^ 

/<y ^^'<' X / 






This book is the outcome of teaching Spanish for several years 
to different types of pupils. The author's purpose has been to 
supply a useful book to English-speaking students of Spanish. 
Usefulness has therefore been the standard in determining the 
arrangement of the material. The introductory lessons are easy 
and progressive, assuming little or no general knowledge of gram- 
mar and language. They attempt to take advantage of the strength 
of first impressions ; for example, the use of usted is given prom- 
inence at the outset so that the pupil will be less likely at a later 
period to employ tti and the second singular in business corre- 
spondence. Other features of the book are, (i) exercises specially 
designed for drill on peculiarities of grammar that require habit to 
fix ; (2) ample material for oral work ; (3) a progressive vocabu- 
lary that attempts to include the commonest and hence most im- 
f>ortant words and phrases with many colloquial expressions that 
are necessary in social intercourse; (4) an order of development 
that has been proved of practical value. 

In the first few lessons, sentences illustrative of the grammatical 
topic of the lesson have been given before the explanation, as it is 
intended that these sentences should be committed to memory be- 
fore proceeding to the explanation. Special vocabularies to each 
lesson have been omitted because the preparation of such a special 
vocabulary is a useful exercise which is too often sacrificed in ele- 
mentary books. 

Part I furnishes an introduction to the chief characteristics of 

Spanish and is sufficient for a good working knowledge of the 

language. Part II takes up in systematic order those details of 




grammar which were neglected or hastily passed over in the first 
part. As the second part will not be studied until the pupil finds 
his reading in a continued text, no Spanish exercises are given. 
On the other hand, abundant material is provided for the transla- 
tion of English to Spanish. The sentences in these exercises are 
short, according to the author's principle of presenting to the pupil 
only a few difficulties at one time with ample practice on the point 
under discussion. As the English sentences are mainly translations 
of colloquial or literary Spanish, their rendering by the student 
should result in characteristically idiomatic expression. 

The author wishes to thank Mr. E. S. Harrison for his sugges- 
tions and kindness in reading the manuscript and proof. 







I. Conjugation, Present Indicative. Exercise i . . . . lo 

II. Gender and Number of Nouns. Articles. Exercise 2 . 13 

III. Ser. Estar. Exercise 3 16 

IV. Agreement of Adjectives. Exercise 4 18 

V. Possession. Demonstratives. Exercise 5 2i_ 

VI. Personal Subject "Pronouns. Possessive Adjectives. 

Tener. Exercise 6 24 

VII. Numerals. Days. Months. Seasons. Exercise 7 . . . 27 

VIII. Comparison of Adjectives. Exercise 8 32 

IX. Radical-Changing Verbs. Indirect Object. Personal 

. a. Exercise 9 36 

X. Reflexive Verbs. Exercise 10 41 

XI. Preterit Tense. Exercise ii 45 

XII. Imperfect Tense. Exercise 12 49 

XIII. Participles. Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses. Rela- 

tives. Exercise 13 52 

XIV. Future Tense and Conditional. Exercise 14 ... . 57 
XV. Personal Pronouns. Adverbs. Exercise 15 61 

XVI. Irregular Verbs. Exercise 16 66 

XVII. Imperative Mood. Present Subjunctive as Imperative. 

Exercise 17 71 

XVIII. Two Objective Pronouns. Possessive Pronouns. Exer- 
cise 18 , 76 

XIX. Infinitive Mood. Exercise 19 83 

XX. Subjunctive Mood in Dependent Clauses. Exercise 20 92 

XXI. Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense. Exercise 21 . . 96 

XXII. Letter-Writing. Exercise 22 100 





I. Order of Words. Exercise 23 107 

II. Articles. Exercise 24 iii 

III. Nouns. Exercise 25 118 

IV. Adjectives. Exercise 26 126 

V. Adjectives, Continued. Exercise 27 131 

VI. Numerals. Exercise 28 139 

VII. Possessives and Demonstratives. Exercise 29 ... . 147 

VIII. Relative Pronouns. Exercise 30 152 

IX. Interrogative Pronouns. Exercise 31 159 

X. Indefinite Expressions. Exercise 32 163 

XI. Personal Pronouns. Exercise 33 171 

XII. Adverbs. Exercise 34 179 

XIII. Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections. Exercise 35 190 

XIV. Verb Forms. Exercise 36 204 

XV. Syntax of Verb. Tenses. Impersonals. Exercise 37 . 241 

XVI. Passive Voice. Participles. Exercise 38 ....'.. 248 

XVII. Infinitive and Subjunctive Moods. Exercise 39 . . . 255 

XVIII. Idiomatic Uses of Verbs. Exercise 40 263 

Appendix I. Verb List 271 

Appendix II. Prepositions used with Certain Verbs 

BEFORE Dependent Infinitives 277 



INDEX 329 

- J » . * - " 


' ."^ • 

" • J J * 



1. The Alphabet 

. The Spanish alphabet has thirty different signs. 






; Names 

A a 








B b 








C c 








Ch ch 








D d 








£ e 







ve (or u de corazdn) 
(u consonante) 

F f 







doble u (or ve doble) 

G g 






H h 







y gnega (or ye) 

I i 









a. The names of the Spanish letters are feminine : nna b larga a long 
b (that is, b not i/). 

b. The letters k and w are found chiefly in words adopted from f ordgn 
languages ; the sound of rr at the beginning of words is represented by r. 

2. Vcnvels. Spanish vowels have approximately the following 
values: a as in/z/>i^; Ana 

e as d in gate ; Pepe 
i as in machine ; Anita, Maria 
as in note ; Manolo, Pedro 
tt as ^^ in moon ; Tula 



a. At the enfl*bf 's^ word. ^4 ^^^ jstanding alone i is written y: 
rey, king\ y, and,* '•* • '"' * •* • '••* 

b. The Spdni^^&c^iHKjs.of'e;^, ^f^d.'P ^^^ simple and not diphthon- 
gal as frequently* isf £tiglKslT:'4<is.AQVKke*V ^^ ^^^y^ is not like o 
in no^ u is not like u in ^2/^^. Learners should try to acquire an accu- 
rate pronunciation of the simple sounds without the final glide which 
characterizes the English vowels. 

^. In certain positions, especially before 1 and r, Spanish e has a more 
open sound like e of met : papel,^^/^r ; tener, to have ; ella, she ; perro, 
dog ; este, this. The quality of the other vowels varies somewhat accord- 
ing as they stand in an accented syllable or not, but fine distinctions are 
unnecessary to the learner. 

d. The quantity of Spanish vowels is short. The stressed syllable is 
not prolonged but merely pronounced with greater force. 

e. The vowels a e o are called strong ; i and u weak. 

f. Spoken Spanish contracts two identical vowels into one syllable 
without lengthening : as, de este = deste, cree = ere, la alta = lalta. 

3. Diphthongs. The strong vowels a, e, and o unite with the 
weak vowels i and u to form one syllable, called a diphthong. 
The weak vowels also combine with each other. Though each 
vowel keeps its own sound, the stress falls on the strong vowel, 
while the weak one is uttered rapidly: of two weak vowels, the 
last is stressed. The possible combinations are 

ai (ay) Maracaibo, Garay 

au Cauca, Bautista 

ei (ey) Leiro, Caney 

eu Ceuta, Eoropa 

oi (oy) oiga, Alcoy 

ou Bouzas 

iu LiuTa, ciudad 

a. Two strong vowels form distinct syllables : Bil-ba-o, Le-6n, Lis-bo^, 

b. If two vowels which commonly form a diphthong are pronounced 
separately, an accent mark is written over the vowel which bears the 
stress : Garcia, Maria, Valparaiso, Niobe, oido, fldido, Tliy. 


Santiago, Colombia 


Juan, Managua 


Oviedo, Cienfuegos 


Buenos Aires 


Dios, Antonio 


cuota, antiguo 

ui (uy) 



4. Triphthongs. A strong vowel between two weak ones forms 
a combination which is pronounced as one syllable : 

iai fiais uai (uay) La Goaira, Paraguay 

iei fieis uei (uey) acentu^is, buey 

5. Consonants, b denotes the same sound as v. It resembles 
English b only at the beginning of a word and after m or n : bala, 
tambi^n, enviar (pronounce embiar): In other positions b (or v) 
represents a bilabial sound not consciously used in English. To 
produce it, bring the lips together as if to pronounce ^, but, instead 
of closing them, allow thq breath to issue continuously as in utter- 
ing V, Avoid English v^ which is produced by allowing the breath 
to issue between the lower lip and the upper teeth. This sound 
does not exist in Spanish. Ex. — Bilbao, bilbaino, bebe. Before 
8 and t, b has the value of p or is silent : obscuro (often spelled 
oscuro), subterraneo, absoluto. 

C represents two sounds : 

1 . A voiceless spirant, th in thin^ before e and i : Cervo, Ponce ; 
Cid, Cicerdn. 

2. A voiceless guttural, k^ before a, 0, u, or another consonant, 
or when final : Costa Rica, Cuba, Ciara, Tepic, leccion. 

ch is pronounced like English ch in church : Child, chileno. 

d represents the voiced sound of th in though : Toledo, Granada ; 
but approaches English //at the beginning of words or after 1 or n : 
don, saldo, anda. When final, d is usually silent : Madrid, usted ; 
but some speakers give the voiceless sound of th in thin : sed. 
Intervocalic d is often silent, especially in the termination ado: 
Prado = lyaOy comprado = comprao, 

f is equivalent to English/: Flandes, flamenco. 

g denotes two sounds : 

I. A voiced guttural, g as in "English go, before a, 0, u, or another 
consonant : Galida, gallego, gusto, grande. To indicate this sound 
before e or i, a silent u is inserted : Portugal, portugues ; guia. 


2. A strong aspirate before e and i, similar to German or 
Scotch ch in loch but frequently softened to a strong English h 
(see Spanish j) : G^nova, genovis, Gibraltar. 

h is a silent letter in Castilian Spanish : la Habana, habanero. 
It is sometimes lightly pronounced before ue : huevo. 

j (Jota) denotes a strong aspiration, the same as g before e and i : 
Jalisco, J^rez, Gij6n. When final, it is nearly or quite silent : reloj 
often written rel6. 

• In some words the letter x used formerly to represent this sound, 
hence MMco, in Spain now spelled M^jico ; Xatixa = Janja. 

k is not a Spanish letter but is used in a few borrowed foreign 
words with the value of English k : Idlo, kodak. 

I is equivalent to an English / when pronounced clearly in the 
forward part of the mouth as in bill-, Lisboa, lisbonense. 

II denotes a sound similar to /// in million : Castilla, castellano. 
At the beginning of a word this sound is difficult for English 
speakers, who had better practice the vulgarism pronounced like y 
rather than allow the sound to lapse into a simple 1 : Llanos, llaye, 
lleno, lluvia, llorar. 

m is equivalent to English m : Manila, manil^o. 

n is more clearly pronounced than English n : Napoles, napolitano. 
Before the guttural sounds k and g^ before " jota" (j, and g before e 
and i), and before hue, n becomes the velar nasal represented by 
ng in thing \ bianco, blanquear, angel, naranja, un huevo. The 
same value is often given to emphatic monosyllables : ten, pon. 

Si is a sign having a value similar to ni in onion. The Spanish 
name for the mark over the letter is tilde. EspaSa, espanol. 

p is like English p : Panamil, panam^o. Before s and t, p is 
commonly silent: psicologia, s^ptimo, septiembre (usually spelled 
8^mo and setiembre). 

q is used only before ue and ui, with the sound of k : lorqueSo 
(from Lorca), Quito, quiteno. After q the u is silent 


r at the beginning of a word represents the value of rr (see 
below); but in the middle or at the end of a word it has a reduced 
value of the same sound, being pronounced with a single flick of 
the tongue. Care should be taken not to slur the sound at the end 
of a word but to pronounce it distinctly. Ex. — pero, comprar. 

rr is a strong trill with the tip of the tongue, produced just back of 
the upper teeth : perro, Navarra, navarro, Puerto Rico, portorrique&o. 

s initial, between vowels, and final, has the sharp hissing sound 
of English s, never the value of English z. Compare English 
president with Spanish preside&te, rose with roaa. Before a con- 
sonant, and sometimes when final, s tends to be reduced to a breath- 
ing and even to become silent : las niSas = lath nifias or la^ niHaSy 
mks rico = ma^ rico, dos = do\ inismo = mVmo, Before d, g, and m 
in the same word, s sometimes resembles English z : desde, musgo. 
But students had better pronounce s as a sharp hiss in all positions : 
Solis, Paso, I08 rusos. 

t is equivalent to English /, but more forcibly pronounced by 
bringing the tongue close to the upper teeth : Trinidad, trinitario. 

V has the same values as b : Valdivia, beber, vivir. 

w, used only in foreign proper names, has the foreign value : 
Washington, Wagner. 

X is equivalent to English x pronounced like ks ; before conso- 
nants, however, the sound tends to become a simple s and is so 
written in some words : sexto (sesto), ezcelente. Between vowels 
X is sometimes given the sound of gs : examen. 

y as a vowel, see i. As a consonant y is like English y in yes^ 
though strongly enunciated, not unlike the y in DorCt you : yo, 
Yucatin, yucateco. 

z has the sound of English M in Mn (see c before e and i), and 
occurs before a, 0, and u, final, and sometimes before another con- 
sonant : Zamora, Zorita, Zurbarim, Vera Cruz, Guzman. 

6. Peculiarities. In Spanish America and in parts of Spain the 
following peculiarities in pronunciation are common. 


C before e and i is pronounced like s : oonocer, cita, = conoser 
and sita, 

d is silent between vowels : matado = matao, vivido = vivio, 
iiada== na, 

11 is like English^ or even/ in Jest: caballo = cabayo or cabajo, 
XLegei=yega or jegq, 

r final is often silent : mujer = muje. 

s is reduced to a breathing or is silent : ties = tre, usted = ute, 
lefresco = refre^co, 

z is pronounced like s : Zulia, Diaz. 

Dialectical peculiarities that are often heard are 

bue = giie : bueno = gueno 
gua = wa : agua = awa 

7. How to Spell certain Consonant Sounds. The following table 
of spellings for certain consonant sounds before the five vowels 
and when final will be found useful for reference when forming 
plurals or derivatives of nouns and in conjugating verbs. 














as in thin 
















> cu 




as in go 













je, ge 
Jirez^ Ginova 




. Julio 


















^ The sign •• over a letter is called a diaeresis, and is used in Spanish to 
indicate that the a of the syllables gue and gui is not silent but pronounced. 


6. Accent. One syllable of a Spanish word receives greater em- 
phasis or stress of voice as in English, but without the slurring of 
other syllables peculiar to English. The accent falls regularly on — 
I. The final syllable of words ending in a consonant except n 
or 8 : aeilor, espulol, usted. 

~' ' " e penult) of words ending in . 

a leu. 

ule have the stress indicated 
bi idto, ingl^B, Guzm£ii. 

lark is used — 

coord with the general rule^ 
U U 

; elements : Uo, seria, aUn. 

use of certain pronouns and 
ac £c6tno? ^dtode? £cuil? 

: of the demonstratives iste, 

iM, A< Aas (3d sing. pres. ind. of 

be, / Aave {1st sing. prea. ind. of ht, behold 

BUS, but (conjunction) mis, more 

mi, my (possessive adjecdve) 
M, «y (reflexive pronoun) 

f words identical in spelling : 

give (pres. subj. of dar) 

I gave ( 1 St sing. pret. ind. of dai) 

he^ him (personal pronoun) 

(pers<^i pronoun) 

A, if 

Mlo, alone (adjective; 
te, thee (personal pronoun) 
tn, thy (posseswve adjective) 
T», he sees (3d sing. pres. ind. of 

s£, / know (IS 

■I, yes \ self (acfvsative of •>, 1 

junctive form) 
■6I0, only (adverb) 
ti, tea 

Ml, thou (personal pronoun) 
T<, go (imperative sing, of Ir) 


a. Monosyllabic preterits bear written accents : tI, vld, faf . 
6. The Spanish Academy authorizes the omission of accents from 
the words a, fo ; e, and; o, or, except between figures, 364; u, or. 

6. Plurals require the mark when the addition of es causes the 
accent to fall on the third syllable from the end of the word: 
examen, ezimeneB ; orden, drdenes. 

a. On the other hand, the addition of eo to .words ending in n 
or s accented on the final syllable will cause the mark to be un- 
necessary : ingUs, Ingleses ; nacl6n, n&cioiKB. 

7. Verb-forms to which pronouns are added require the accent 
mark whenever the stress falls on the third or fourth syllable from 
the end of the combination : dfgalo, did^ndolo, dedrselo, higamelo. 

a. But the addition of proj marks does 

not cause the removal of the r 

8. Adverbs formed by the lound words, 
retain the stress and the accei onent parts : 
Bfilidamente, espantapijaros, d< 

10. Diviaion of Syllables. contains as 

many syllables as it has vow ussible each 

syllable should begin with a sii the digraphs 

ch, 11, rr, and combinations of a consonant plus 1 or r (except rl, 
Bl, tl, and bt) are not separated : 

a. The prefixes ab, des, and sub are kept intact : aub-le-va-dfin, 
ab-to-gar, des-a-mor. 

i. The letter b before a consonant is kept with the preceding 
syllable : In-cons-ton-te, Ins-truc-do-neB, en-hies-to. 

Note. In printing observe the following. 

I. A syllable consisting of a single vowel should not stand at the be- 
ginning nor at the end of a line. Thus, a-gndo and ef«ctA-a are not 


2. Compound words which are distinctiy felt as such may be divided 
accordingly : nos-otros, extra-ordinario, cari-acontecido ; but derivation, 
except as indicated here and in section 10 a, is not considered : de-lante, 

3. The separation of contiguous vowels, even when not forming a 
diphthong, should be avoided, according to the general rule that each 
syllable should Ipegin with a consonant : geo-logia, arquea-do, poe-sla. 

11. Punctuation. Different from English is the use of the follow- 
ing marks of punctuation : 

1. Inverted interrogation and exclamation points before ques- 
tions and exclamations: ^Qui^n es? Who is it? |Qu^ hermosa! 
How beautiful / 

2. Three dots (. . .) to indicate an incomplete sentence where 
English uses a dash. 

3. A dash at the beginning of each speech in conversational 
matter where English uses quotation marks. See Exercise 6,-5, 2. 

The Spanish names of the marks of punctuation are 

• pun to final . . • puntos suspensivos ** dieresis 

I coma I ? interrogacidn « » comillas or cita 

; punto y coma j I admiracidn - gui6n 

; dos puntos ( ) parentesis — raya 

12. Capitalization in Spanish differs from its use in English 
mainly as follows. Not capitalized are 

The pronoun yo, /. 
Names of days and months. 

Geographical adjectives (except sometimes when used as nouns 
denoting human beings). 


^Habla Juan espaSol? Does John speak Spanish ? 

Si, seSor, habla espaSol. Yes^ sir^ he speaks Spanish, 

^Qu^ idioma habla uated? What language do you speak f 

Hablo ingles. / speak English, • 

Carlos y Maria hablan espafiol. Charles and Mary speak Spanish, 

^No hablan ingles? Doh*t they speak English ? 

No, seSor, no hablan ingles. No^ sir, they do not speak English, 

^Vive usted en EspaSa? Are you living in Spain ? 

No iiYO en EspaSa. / do not live in Spain, 

I D6nde vivimos ? Where are we living ? 

Viyimos en Nueva York. We live in New York, 

Y hablamos ingl^. And we speak English, 

14. Personal Endings. Observe that the endings of the verb in 
the Spanish sentences above vary and correspond to the English 
pronouns. Note that no pronouns appear in the Spanish sentences, 
except usted, meaning you, which is used with the same ending as 
he. Usted is generally abbreviated to V. or Vd. The plural ustedes 
(W. or Vds.) takes the same ending as they, 

15. Conjugations. Verbs are divided into three classes or con- 
jugations according to the endings of their infinitives ; thus, 

I. hablar, to speak 
II. vender, to sell 
III. vivir, to live 

If the ending of the infinitive is dropped, the stem, or radical, 
remains, to which are added the personal endings. 

Note. — The infinitive is the name of the verb and is the form given 
in dictionaries. 


16. Pxesent Tense Indicative Mood. 




I speak 

I am speaking 

do I speak ? 


he speaks 

he is speaking 

does he speak f 

habla usted 

you speak 

you are speaking 

do you speak ? 


we speak 

we are speaking 

do we speak ? 


they speak 

they are speaking 

do they speak f 

hablan ustedes 

you speak 

you are speaking 

do you speak f 


I sell 

/ am selling 

do I sell? 


he sells 

he is selling 

does he sellf 

vende Vd. 

you sell 

you are selling 

do you sellf 


we sell 

we are selling 

do W sellf 

vend en 

they sell 

they are selling 

do they sellf 

vend en Vds. 

you sell 

you are selling 

do you sellf 


I live 

I am living 

do I live f 


he lives 

he is living 

does he live f 

vive Vd. 

you live 

you are living 

do you livef 


we live 

we are living 

do we live f 


they live 

they are living 

do they live f 

viven Vds. 

you live 

you are living 

do you live f 

a. Observe that the three English forms correspond to the one 
form of the Spanish verb. The simple form^ " He speaks," is not 
used in English questions or negative statements ; but instead, either 
^^ progressive form, ** Is he speaking ? " " He is not speaking," or 
the emphatic form, " Does he speak ?" " He does not speak." 

17. Interrogative Sentences. Questions are asked in Spanish by 
placing the subject of the sentence after the verb. 

^ Habla Juan? Does John speak f Is John speaking f 

a. As the subject is frequently placed after the verb even in 
affirmations, an inverted question mark i precedes a question. 


18. Negation. To make a sentence negative, place no, notj 
before the verb. 

No hablo. / am not speakings I do not speak, 


a, to 

leer, to re<id 

aUi, there 

mal, badly 

aprender, to learn 

mucho, much^ a great deal 

bien, well 

papel, m., paper 

carta, f., letter 

poco, httle 

comprar, to buy 

qu^, what? 

comprender, to understand 

qui^n, who? 

con, with 

seSora, £., madam 

escribir, to write 

tambi^n, also 

Inglaterra, £., England 

tinta, £., ink 


A, 1, I Comprende Vd. bien ? No, senor, comprendo mal. 
2. ^Comprenden Carlos y Juan ? Sf, comprenden. 3. ^Qu6 compra 
Juan? Compra papel y tinta. 4. ^Qui^n vende papel? Carlos 
vende papel. 5. ^Que compran Vds.? Compramos tambidn pa- 
pel. 6. ^Leen Vds. mucho? No, sehora, . leemos poco. 7. ^Qu^ 
aprende Vd. ? Aprendo a hablar espaiiol. 8. ^Vive Vd. en Ingla- 
terra? No vivo allf. 9. ^-Con qu^ escriben? Escriben con tinta 
en papel. i o. ^ A qui^n escribe Juan ? Escribe a Carlos. 

JB. Answer in Spanish with a sentence containing a verb: 
I. ^Qu^ idioma habla Marfa? 2. ^-Habla Carlos ingles.? 3. ^'Vive 
Vd. en Inglaterra? 4. ^'Ddnde viven Vds.? 5. ^Qui^n compra 
papel? 6. iQu^ compran Juan y Carlos? 7. ^'Escribe Vd. mucho 
en espanol ? 8. ^ A quidn escribe Vd. ? 9. i Qu^ lee Vd. ? 10.^ t)6nde 
venden tinta ? 

C I. Do you speak Spanish? No, sir, I speak English. 2. Do 
they understand ? They do not understand. 3. Where do Charles 
and John live? They live in Spain. 4. Where do you {plural) 
live ? We live in New York. 5. What does Charles buy ? He is 



buying paper and ink. 6. What language does he speak ? He 
speaks Spanish. 7. To whom are you reading? I am reading to 
Mary. 8. Who understands ? I understand ; they understand. 
9. We are writing to Charles. 10. They^ are learning to speak 
Spanish. 11. Are you writing to John? No, sir, I am not writing 
to John. 12. Who reads a great deal in Spanish ? Mary and John 
read in Spanish. 



Un hermano. 

A brother. 

Una hermana. A sister. 

Un libro. 

A book. 

Una pluma. A pen. 

£1 hombre. 

The man. 

Los hombres. The men. 

La mujer. 

The woman. 

Las mujeres. The women. 

£1 ingles. 

The Englishman, 

Los ingleses. The Englishmen, 

£1 idioma de la inglesa. 

The language of the English 


£1 idioma de las inglesas. 

£1 color del papel. 

Los colores de los papeles. 

Juan escribe ana carta k la seSora. 

^Escribe Vd. cartas al seSor? 

The language of the English 

The color of the paper. 
The colors of the papers, 
fohn writes a letter to the lady. 
Do you write letters to the 

gentleman f 

20. Gender. Every Spanish noun is grammatically masculine or 

1. Names of male beings are masculine: el artista, the artist \ 
el rey, the king\ of female beings feminine : la mujer, the woman ; 
la reina, the queen. 

2. Nouns ending in are generally masculine ; in a, feminine : 
el Ubro, the book\ la pluma, the pen. 

a. But there are many exceptions : el dia, the day ;- la mano, the 
hand. These, like the gender of nouns ending in other letters than 
or a, must be learned individually. 

3. Nouns denoting persons, emplo)nnents, or nationality may 
often be made feminine by changing final to a, or by adding a : 



hermano, brother \ hermaiia, sister \ espftfiol, Spaniard \ espftfiola, 
Spanish woman. 

21. Articles. Spanish has two articles, Indefinite and Definite. 
Each must agree in gender and number with the noun which it 

I. Indefinite article. 





un libro, a book 

una carta, a lei 

finite article. 




Sing. el 



Plur. lOS 



a. Feminine el is an old form of the article which is still used 
before nouns beginning with a stressed syllable in a or ha : el agua, 
the water \ el hacha, the ax ; but la America, America. 

b. The form el combines with de, qfoxfromy to form del, of the 
ox from the ; and with a, to, to form al, to the, 

c» The neuter article is used only with adjectives not modifying 
a noun : lo mismo, the same, 

22. Plural of Nouns. To form the plural of nouns, add s to 
words ending in a vowel, es to words ending in a consonant. 

el hombre, the man los hombres, the men 

la mujer, the woman las majeres, the women 

Note. — For exceptions, see section 130. 

a. Observe change of spelling: el ULpiz, the pencil \ los ULpices, 
the pencils. The sound of th must be written c before es. See 
section 7. 

b. Final 7 is treated as a consonant : el rey, the king\ los re3res, 
the kings ; la ley, the law ; las leyes, the laws. 


23. Idiomatic Expressions. No two languages correspond pre- 
cisely in their methods of expressing ideas. Expressions which do' 
not appear to follow a rule of grammar, or which vary from our 
own method, we term idiomatic : thus, 

A Spanish letter^ una carta en espaSol 
A Spanish lesson^ ana lecci6n de espaSol' ^ 


A, Give the feminine with the definite article^ singular and plural : 
El abuelo, grandfather. El pgiRO, cousin. El tfo, uncle. El hijo, 
son. El sobrino, nephew. El muchacho, boy. El panadero, the baker. 
El alemdn, the German, El francos, the Frenchman. 

Give the plural and translate: i. El abuelo de la mujer. 2. El 
hermano del ingles. 3. Al tfo del espanol. 4. La prima del senor. 
5. Al hijo de la panadera. 

B, (The meaning of new words must henceforth be looked for in 
the vocabulary in the latter part of the book^ Translate : i. El her- 
inano del espanol vive en Espana ; no vive aquf. 2. i Escribe cartas 
al ingles ? 3. Las hermanas del sefior no viven en el pafs. 4. No 
comprendemos el idioma de la senora. 5. Escribimos una carta en 
espanol a un espanol. 6. Una mujer compra un libro y a^rendf a 
J^r.el espanol. 7. Escribo en el papel con una pluma y tinta. 8. Los 
ingleses viven en Inglaterra, los franceses en Francia, y los norte- 
americanos en la America del Norte. 9. El^ tfo lee la carta del ale- 
man. 10. La tfa habla al panadero. 

C Answer in Spanish : i, lA qui^n habla el tfo de la inglesa } 
2. 1 A qui^n escribe el seiior ? 3. ^ Qu^ lee la mujer ? 4. ^ D6nde 
viven los ingleses } 5 . ^ Qui^n vive en la America del Norte ? 6. ^ En 
qu^ pafs viven los* franceses? 7. i Con qu^ escribe Vd. la carta? 
8. I Qa6 escriben Vds. al espanol ? 9. ^ En qu^ idioma habla Vd. 
al seiior ? 10. ^ No comprende Vd. el idioma del hombre ? 

Z>, I. To whom are you writing the letter ? 2. Does John write 
Spanish letters to the Spaniards? 3. I do not understand the 



language of the gentlemen. 4. We live in North America; the 
Frenchmen live in France. 5. Charles is writing to the girl cousiju^ 
6. John and Maiy write English letters to the grandfather. 7. Does 
he read the books of the Frenchman ? 8. What language are you 
learning from the Spaniard ? 9. The baker speaks German to the 
boy. 10. We write the Spanish lesson with pencils on the paper. 



Soy americano. 

Bstoy en la America del Horte. 

^Qni^n es el profesor ? 

Bs el seffor Blanco. 

^Qai6ne8 son Yds.? 

Somos espafioles, pero estamos en 

Nueva York. 
Buenos dlas, ^c6mo estil Yd. ? 
Estoy muy bien, gracias. 
y 4 Yd.? 
Sin noyedad. 

25. Present Indicative. 

/ am an American, 

I am in North America. 

Who is the teacher f 

He is Mr. Blanco, 

Who are you f 

We are Spaniards^ but we are 

in New York. 
Good mornings how are you ? 
I am very well, thank you. 
And you f 
Same as usual (literally, without 



to be 



I am 



he is 


es Yd. 

you are 



we are 



they are 


son Yds. 

you are 

estAn Yds 

a. Ser and estar both correspond to the English verb to be, but 
each has its distinctive meaning. Estar denotes position : Estd en 
M^jico, He is in Mexico. Ser denotes character; hence must be 
used before all nouns standing in the predicate : Es espaliol, He is 
a Spaniard (see section 26, i). 


d. With adjectives estar indicates a condition temporary in dura- 
tion : "Esti enf ermo, ^e is sick ; while ser implies an essential quality 
of a person or thing : El papel es bianco, The paper is white, 

c. When an adjective is used in the predicate with the meaning 
of a noun, the proper verb is ser : Es rico, He is rich (that is, He 
is a rich man) ; Ella es joven, She is young (that is, a young woman), 

d. With bueno, good^ and malo, bad^ estar refers to health, while 
ser refers to character : Es bueno, pero estd malo. He is a good man^ 
but he is sick, 

e. Idiomatic: 

EstiL blen. All right, 

]EstiL bueno! Good / Excellent / 

26. Use of Articles, i. Before a predicate noun omit the in- 
definite article : Es alem&n. He is a German, 

2. Before a title use the definite article: el se&or Gonzalez, 
Mr, Gonzalez ; el general O'Donnell, General O^Donnell, 

3. Before the name of a language, except after hablar and en, 
use the definite article : 

Aprendemos el espaSol. We are learning Spanish. 

YX general G6mez habla espi^ol. General Gdmez speaks Spanish, 


A. Insert the correct form of the verb ser or estar in thefolloTV- 

ing : I . Juan en M^jico. 2 . Carlos un muchacho cubano. 

3. I Qui^n Vd. ? 4. i Vd. en Espafta? 5. Los mucha- 

chos ingleses, pero no en Inglaterra. 6. i Marfa 

y Juana muchachas espanolas? 7. i D6nde las muchachas? 

8. YX agua no caliente, frfa. 9. El hombre no 

rico, pobre. 10. ^ C6mo el senor ? 

B, Estamos ahora en una sala de clase. Arriba esta el techo. 
Abajo esti el suelo. Las ventanas estan al lado de la sala. Al otro 
lado estdn las puertas. Contra las paredes estdn las pizarras. Es- 
cribimos en la pizarra con tiza. 


Somos discfpulos del sefior Blanco. £s el profesor de la clase. 
Delante del profesor estd una mesa. Ei profesor esta sentado en 
una silla. £1 discfpulo debe estar de pie, cuando habla al profesor. 

C I. i D6nde esta Vd. ahora ? 2. ^ Qu6 clase es ? 3. ^ En qu^ 
clase estamos } 4. i Qui^n es el profesor ? 5. ^* De quidn son Vds. 
discfpulos ? 6. I Estd Vd. de pie o sentado ? 7. ^' Estoy de pie o sen- 
tado ? 8. ^ Soy discfpulo o profesor ? 9. ^' Esta Vd. sentado delante 
o al lado del profesor ? 10. ^ D6nde esta el techo ? ^ el suelo ? i la 
puerta ? 

£>, I. They are Cubans, but they live in New York. 2. Are you 
a Cuban or a Spaniard ? 3. Where is Mexico ? It is in North 
America. 4. I am not the teacher of the Spanish class. 5. Where 
are you seated ? I am sitting in front of the table. 6. Good morn- 
ing 1 How is Mr. Blanco ? He is very well, thank you. 7. Are the 
letters from the German ? Where are they ? 8. They are on the 
chair on the other side of the room. 9. Is the ceiling above or be- 
low ? The floor is below, the ceiling above, i o. We are Americans, 
but Mr. Romero is a Spaniard. 1 1 . The brother of Mr. Gonzalez 
is a merchant, not a physician. 12. They are not writing on the 
walls, but ^ on the blackboards. 13. We stand when we speak to the 
teacher. 14. We are not rich men. 1 sino. See section 232, 4. 


£1 libro bianco. TAe white book. 

La casa blanca. The white house, 

J«08 libros son blancos. The books are white. 

Las casas son blancas. The houses are white, 

£1 libro estil cerrado. The book is shut. 

La puerta estd abierta. The door is open, 

^Est^ abiertas las ventanas ? Are the windows open ? 

No, seSor, estdn cerradas. iVb, sir^ they are shut, 

28. Agreement of Adjectives. Spanish adjectives take the gen- 
der and number of the nouns which they modify. This rule is true 


also when the adjective is used after ser and estar. See section 
27 for examples. 

a. The attributive adjective is usually placed after the noun: 
el hombre cort^s, the polite man ; la mujer hermosa, the beautiful 

29. Gender of Adjectives. If a masculine adjective ends in 0, 
the feminine substitutes a for : bianco, blanca, white ; negro, 
negra, black. 

Adjectives ending in e or a consonant have the same form in 
both genders : 

el papel verde, the green paper la casa yerde, the green house 

el color azttl, the blue color la loz aztd, the blue light 

a. Exception. Adjectives of nationality add a to words ending in 
a consonant : ingles, inglesa, English ; alemiin, alemana, German, 

(For other exceptions see section 135.) 

30. Plural of Adjectives. Like the plural of nouns, the plural of 
adjectives is formed by adding s to words ending in a vowel and 
es to words ending in a consonant : los papeles verdes, the green 
papers ; las luces azules, the blue lights, 

31. Idiomatic Expressions, a. There is or there are^ hay. 

There are two doors here. Hay dos puertas aqid. 

There is no paper. No hay papel. (The negative must 

precede the verb.) 

b, A question introduced by ^por qu4? why^ may be answered 
by poique, because^ with a clause, or by "^dxdi^for or in order to, fol- 
lowed by an infinitive. 

^Por qu^ aprende Vd. el espi^ol? Why are you learning Spanish f 
Porqne voy a BspaSa. Because I am going to Spain. 

Para escribir cartas en espa&ol. In order to write Spanish letters. 



A. I. From each of the folloimng^ 

un papel una casa 

Los papeles son Las casas son 

make four phrases or sentences {sixteen in all) by substituting for 
the da^h the correct form of the adjectives 

bianco, white azul, blue 

negro, black verde, green 

2. Use both adjectives in tum^ 

,. . r ^ f El papel esti 

hmpao .J.«,|^ J El suelo esti 

sucio, dirty. J L. 

^ 1^ La casa esta 

3. Put the finished sentences of 2 in the plural, 

4. Explain why ser and estar are the proper verbs in the respeC" 
tive sentences of i and 2. 

B, Para estar bien de salud es preciso habitar una casa sana. 
£n tal casa admitimos el aire y la luz del sol por anchas ventanas. 
Si no hay luz, las habitaciones estdn oscuras y vemos mal. £n los 
Estados Unidos alumbramos la casa por medio del gas o de la luz 
eMctrica y entonces todo esta claro. Como el sentido de la vista 
esti en los ojos, debemos tener bastante luz para ver bien sin hacer 
dano a los ojos. Una madre cubre los tiemos ojos del nino, cuando 
hay demasiada luz en la habitacidn, para guardar el nino de la 
ceguedad. Los hombres que no ven son ciegos. 

C I. ^' C6mo esta Vd. de salud ? 2. ^ Por que admitimos el aire 
en la casa ? 3. ^ Por qu^ necesitamos la luz ? 4. i Cudl sentido esta 
en los ojos ? 5. ^ Estd oscura la sala ? 6. ^' C6mo estd alumbrada ? 
7. 1 Por qu^ alumbramos la casa ? 8. ^ Hay bastante luz aquf para 
ver bien ? 9. i Cuando ven Vds. bien ? 10. ^ Qu^ es un ciego ? 

D, I. The gentlemen are English, the ladies German. 2. Are 
the little children happy or unhappy ? 3. The light of the sun is 


very bright and gives bright colors to the worid. 4. There are 
many electric lights in the house. 5. In a clean house the floors 
of all the rooms are clean. 6. The president of the United States 
lives in the White House. 7. We are not blind, because we see 
very well. 8. We need the air in order to breathe. 9. Is there air 
enough? 10. The room is too dark to see well. 11. The collar 
and cuffs of the shirt are dirty. 12. He'wears a brown cap to pro- 
tect his head. 13. The nuts are yellow because they are not ripe. 
14. There is no soap nor clean towel. 15. The ladies are sad 
because the children are sick. 16. The Spanish flag is yellow with 
red stripes. 



^De quidn es eate sombrero? Whose is this hatt 

^£s el sombrero de Juan? Is it John's hatf 

Este yiejo sombrero es de Juan. This old hat is John's, 

I Ddnde compra Vd. un sombrero Where do you buy a new hat f 


En casa de Wanamaker. At Wanamaker^s, 

Ese libro es de Pedro. That book (near you) is Peter's. 

Aqnel libro es de Carlos. That book (over there) is Charleses. 

La familia de un hombre. A man's family, 

33. Possession is expressed in Spanish by the preposition de be- 
fore the name of the possessor: el lApiz de Paco, Frank's pencil \ 
I08 zapatos de mi abuelo, my grandfather^ s shoes, 

a, English, ix/ may be rendered en casa de, when at is followed 
by a noun in the possessive case without the name of the thing 
possessed ; as, at Henrys^ meaning at Henrys house^ office^ orstore^ 
en casa de Enrique. 

b. The possessive interrogative pronoun whose is expressed in 
Spanish by de qui^n, which is usually separated from the name of 
the thing possessed by the verij : 

£ De quidn es el cortaplumas ? Whose penknife is it f 

I De quito es aquella casa ? Whosfi house is that t 





















34. Demonstratiyes. The demonstrative adjectives are 

Masculine Feminine ^^euter 

6l|to this 

(lacking) these 

680 \ thai (near you) 

(lacking) those 

aqa6l^o that (yonder) 

(lacking) those 

a. Distinguish carefully between esc, \meaning that near the 
person addressed, and aquel, that, distant from both speaker and 
person addressed. 

b. Corresponding to the adjectives this and that are the adverbs 

here and there : 

68t6 libro aqui, this book here 

686 libro ahl, that book there (near you) 

aqu6l libro alii, that book (over) there 

c. When the demonstratives are not followed by a noun, they 

are pronouns, taking the gender and number of the noun to which 

they refer, and are marked by an accent. 

Aqui tengo dos plumas : ^ta 6S de Here I have two pens : this one 
Juan, aqu^lla de Maria. is John^s^ that one is Mary^s, 

d. The neuter forms stand for things not mentioned by name : 
^Qu6 es esto? What is this? or for clauses or ideas: jEso not 
Not that (what you say). Por too^for that (reason), therefore. 


A, a. Substitute Spanish for the English in these sentences and 
translate : i. Esta pequena casa aquf es Henry ''s, 2. Aquellos li- 
bros allf son Mary^s, 3. La familia John^s esta aquf. 4. Vivo at 
Charleses, 5. i Whose son estos cuellos ? 

b. Put the Spanish words for this and that (both forms) with each 

of the following words ; also give plurals : i. puerta cerrada. 

2. ventana abierta. 3. muchacho ingMs. 4. casa 

verde. 5. papel azul. 


c. In the expressions written for b, insert the proper form of wx 
or estar between the noun and the qualifying adjective. ' 

B, Esta parte del cuerpo es el brazo. Al extremo de los brazos 
estan las manos. £sta es la mano derecha y ^sta ot^ la izquierda. 
£stos son dedos. Con los dedos tocamos las cosas para sentir si 
son blandas o duras, suaves o asperas; pero el sentido del tacto 
esta en la piel suave que cubre todo el cuerpo. Si toco la madera, 
hallo que es dura, pero si tomo el pan fresco en la mano, es blando. 
Si compro pan en casa del panadero, pregunto si esta fresco. 

Tambi^n las partes interiores del cuerpo conocen el tacto con 
otras substancias : y por eso sentimos las comidas y bebidas f rfas 
o calientes cuando bajan por la garganta al estdmago. El tacto 
ayuda al sentido de la vista : por eso sabemos que todos los obje- 
tos no esj&n a igual distancia, sino que uno estA delante y otro 
detras, que los unos estan cerca y los otros ^ejos. 

C, 1. I Cual es la mslno derecha ? i* y la izquierda ? 2. i Q\i6 esta 
en las manos de Enrique ? 3. ^* Qui^n esta sentado a la derecha de 
Vd. ? 4. I Son de Carlos o de Marfa aquellos libros allf ? 5. i Cual 
sentido estk en la piel ? 6. i C6mo sentimos si una cosa es blanda ? 
7. I D6nde compra Vd. pan fresco ? 8. ^* Estd duro o blando aquel 
pan ? 9. ^' Estdn abiertas esas ventanas ? 10. ^ De qui^n son esos 
sombreros ahf ? 

Z>. t. These windows are open ; those (yonder) are closed. 
2. That door (near you) is locked. Is the key there ? 3. There is 
no key for this door. 4. He asks if this child lives in that house. 
5. John's brother lives in Mexico. 6. Henry is seated at Mary's 
right hand. 7. That baker's bread is not fresh; I buy Genaro's 
bread. 8. This is a child's hat. 9. Whose new books are these ? 
Charle s' books. 10. Who is at that gentleman's? ;ii. The serv- 
ant deans Alfred's shoes. 12. That penknife does not cut well. 
13. These matches do not bum; they are no good. 14. Whose 
napkin is this here on the floor ? 



To tengo mi libro. / Aavs my book. 

T^ tianes ta libro. Thou hast thy book. 

' tiane su libro. She 







> book. 

Usted (Yd.) tiene su libro. You have your book. 

Nosotros tenemos'nuestro libro. We have our book, 

Vosotros tenuis ynestro libro. You have your book, 

Ellos, ellas tienen su libro. They have their book, 

Ustedes (Yds.) tienen su libro. You have your book, 

36. Personal Subject Pronoans have the following forms : 

Singular Plural 

1. 70, / nosotros "I 

- >we 

j(fem.) nosotras J 

2. tti, thou vosotros^ 

(fem.) Yosotras y 

3. ^yhe '\ . ellosi , 
ella, she j (fem.) ellas J "^ 

a. The pronoun ttl and its plural vosotros, with their correspond- 
ing verb-endings, are used in speaking to members of the family, to 
children, or to inferiors. Foreign speakers must use usted (Vd.) with 
the 3d person singular of the verb. Usted is a contraction of vuestra 
merced, your grace, which was formerly used in polite intercourse. 

b. The personal subject pronouns, commonly omitted, are used — 
(i) When there is no verb : ^Qui^n es? Yo. IVho is it? I, 

(2) To emphasize the subject of the verb, since it is not possible 
to stress the verb-ending: ^ Tiene €1 mi libro? Ifas he my hook? 

(3) To mark a contrast between two persons: ^1 es alem^, 
pero ella es espa&ola, He is Germany but she is Spanish, 

37. Possessive Adjectives. 

mi (mis), my nnestro (-a, -os, -as), our 

tu (tus), j/^«r vuestro (-a, -os, -as), your 

sn iaua),his, her, its j your (ioxxa^M) su (sus), their j your{ioT ustedes) 


a. These adjectives must be plural before plural nouns: mis 
zapatos, my shoes ; sus pantalones, his trousers, 

b, Nuestro and vuestro have feminine forms : nuestra casa, our 
house ; vtiestras familias, your families. 

€, Possessive adjectives pust be repeated before each noun 
modified : mi padre 7 mi madre, my father and mother. 

For exceptions see section 141. 

38. Idiomatic Expressions, a. A statement about one's resi- 
dence may be made by tener su casa, to have one^s house^ reside. 
Tengo mi casa en el Hotel Inglaterra. / live at the Hotel Inglaterra. 

b. Note the idiomatic meaning of the subject pronouns when 

used with ser. 

Soy yo. It is I. ^ Es Vd. ? Is it you f 

Somos nosotros. // is we. i Son ellos ? Is it they f 

The pronoun may also precede : 

£1 es. // is he. To soy. // is I. 

c. Reference to a person's relatives is politely made by prefix- 
ing the tides sefior, sefiora : su se&or padre, your father. 

d. To inquire if another agrees with a statement you have just 

made : 

^ No es verdad ? or simply i verdad ? IstCt it true f 

Viene maSana, i no es verdad ? He comes to-morrow^ doesn't he f 

e. Leave-takings: hasta maSana, till to-morrow \ hasta luego, 
farewell for a little while ; adi5s, good-by. 


A. a. Learn the complete conjugation of the present tense^ indica- 
tive^ with and without the personal subject pronouns^ of comprar, 
vender, vivir, ser, and estar. See sections 240 and 2^0. 

b. Insert subject pronouns and possessive adjectives for the blanks 

in the following sentences: i. i Tiene Vd. libro en la mano? 

2. no tengo libro. 3. Juan tiene lapices. 4. 

vivimos en casas. 5. no viven en casas. 6. Marfa 


escribe a madre pero no contesta. 7. i Estd Juan o 

Marfa a la puerta ? Es y no . 8. tengo 

libros pero no pluma. 9. Carlos escribe a hermano 

pero no contesta. 10. ^ Tienen Vds. libros espanoles ? 

B. I. Nuestra familia consta del jHidre, de la madre y de los 
hijos, dos ninos y una nina. Mi abuelo es el padre de mi madre ; por 
esO) soy su nieto. £1 hermano de mi padre es mi tfo, y su esposa es 
mi tla. Yo soy su sobrino y sus hijos son mis primos. Tenemos 
nuestra casa en la calle de Fulton, ndmero dos, de esta dudad. 

2. — I Qui^n es ? 

— Soy yo, Juan. Su sefior padre esta en casa, ^ no es verdad ? 

— No estA. Estamos todos malos aqui y esta d en la fabrica. 
-^ I Qui^nes son todos ?- 

— Somos nosotros la madre, el hermano y yo. 

— I Esti visible su madre ? 

— Ella no, porque esta en cama muy enferma. 

— Es lastima. Hasta maiiana. 
N. — Adi6s. 

C. I. i'De qui^nes consta su familia? 2. ^* Tiene Vd. un tfo? 
I y primos ? 3. ^ De quidn son sus primos los hijos ? 4. i Qui^n es 
el padre de su padre ? ^ y la madre de su padre ? 5. ^ Esta en casa 
su sefiora madre ? 6. ^ Qu^ tiene Vd. en la mano ? 7. i* De quidn 
tiene Vd. el lapiz ? 8. ^ D6nde tienen Vds. su casa en esta dudad ? 
9. I En qu^ ciudad tenemos nuestra casa ? 10. ^ De qui^n es la 
casa en que vive Vd. ? 

Z>. I. I have John's pencil and he has my pen. 2. What has 
Charles in his right hand ? He has Peter's books. 3. Is your father 
at home ? No, sir, he is at my aunt's. 4. Their children are my 
father's nephews. 5. Our family consists of the father and^ the 
mother and* my brothers. Our grandmother resides with us.* 
6. Where do you reside ? We reside on Macon St. 7. Mary writes 
to her cousin Jane, but she does not answer. 8. Who are you ? It 

^ Insert de. * nosotros. 



is I, Peter, with my cousin. He has a letter for* you. 9. This house 
has all the windows shut. 10. These United States have many 
large cities. 11. Who has George's cap? Have you the cap? 

12. Whose Spanish letter is this here in the yellow envelope? 

13. This umbrella is a gift from your father, isn't it ? 14. My shirts 
and collars and all my clean clothes are in my brother's trunk. 
15. You have my grammar and he has my Spanish dictionary. 

> para. 


39. The Cardinal Numerals are 


1 un-o, -a 

2 dos 

3 tres 

4 cuatro^ 

5 dnco 

6 seis 

7 siete 

8 ocho 

9 nueve 

10 diez 

11 once 

12 doce 

13 trace 

14 catorce 

15 quince 

16 diez y seis (diecis^s) 

1 7 diez y siete (diecisiete) 

18 diez y ocho (diedocho) 

19 diez y nueve (diecinueve) 

20 veinte 

21 veinte y uno (veintiuno) 

. 22 




















1 ,000,000 

veinte y dos (veintidos) 










doscientos (-as) 

trescientos (-as) 

cuatrocientos (-as) 

quinientos (-as) 

seisdentos (-as) 

setecientos (-as) 

ochocientos (-as) 

novedentos (-as) 


dos mil, etc, 

cien mil 

doscient-os (-as) mil, etc, 

un milldn 

a. The cardinal numerals are invariable except uno (una casa, 
am house) and the compounds of ciento (doscientas mujeres, two 
hundred women). 


b. Uno drops o before masculine nouns even in compound nu- 
merals : un hombre, one man ; treinta y un libros, thirty-one books. 

c. Ciento becomes cien before nouns : cien pesos, one hundred 
dollars ; cien mil, one hundred thousand. But loi, ciento uno, etc. 

d. Wi^i ciento and mil the indefinite article is not used : ciento, 
one hundred'^ mil, one thousand, 

e. Above 900, Spanish speakers do not count by hundreds ; 1200^ 
for example, is mil doscientos. 

f. The conjunction y, and, is used only before the last numeral 
in a series : iSSS, mii quinientos cincuenta y cinco. 

g. After un mill5n, the preposition de is required : un mill5n de 
duros, a million dollars, 

40. The Ordinal Numerals are 

1st primero 5th quinto 9th noveno (<?rnono) 

2d segundo 6th sexto {or sesto) loth d^cimo 

3d tercero 7th sdptimo (^r s^timo) nth unddcimo 

4th cuarto 8th octavo 12th duod^mo 

a. Abbreviations according to gender and number are 1°, 2*, 
3<>», 4*^*, etc. 

b. In titles of sovereigns, chapters of books, names of streets, 
etc., the ordinals are used only to tenth : 

Carlos Quinto, Charles the Fifth. la avenida tercera, Third Avenue, 

Alfonso Trece, Alfonso XIII, la calle catorce al este, East Four- 
pdgina yeinticinco, page twenty- teenth St. 

five, la calle 42 al oeste, West 42d St, 


c. In giving dates, primero is used for the first day of the month, 
but the cardinal numerals are used for the other days. The proper 
form for writing a date is el 2 de mayo de 1808, May 2d, 1808, 
In letters, the name of the place and the date appear in the same 
line without the article : Madrid, 8 de abril de 1910. 

d. To inquire the date : i A cuimtos estamos ? In replying, be- 
gin with a : a quince de octubre, the fifteenth of October, 


41. Vez expresses repetition : ^ 

una vez, once cuiLntas veces, how often 

dos yeceSy twice muclias yeces, often 

tres yeceSy three times algunas yeces, sometimes 

la primera yez, the first time raras yeces, seldom 

cada yez, ^^z^^ //>»^ repetidas yeces, repeatedly 

a. The English indefinite article after such expressions is ren- 
dered by al, por, or the definite article : i cuiUitas Veces la semana, 
al dia, por afio ? how often a week, a day, a year 1 

42. Los doce meses del aSo, the twelve months of the year : 

ener6, January julio, July 

febrerOy February agosto, August 

marzOy March septiembre, September 

abrily April octubre, October 

mayOy May noyiembre, November 

junio, June diciembre, December 

43. Los siete dias de la semana, the seven days of the week : 

J luneSy Monday jueyes, Thursday 

martes, Tuesday yiemes, Friday 

midrcoles, Wednesday silbadOy Saturday 

domingo, Sunday 

el lunesy on Monday el jueyes pasado, last Thursday 

I08 mattes, on Tuesdays el tiltimo dla del mes, the last day 
el mi^rcoles que yiene, next of the month 

a. The names of the months, days, and seasons are usually writ- 
ten without capitalization. 

b. The definite article is required before expressions of time that 
are modified by afi' adjective : la semana pasada, last week, 

c. In expressions of time the definite article appears where Eng- 
lish uses the preposition on : el viemes, on Friday, El vapor sale 
el quince del mes, The steamer leaves on the fifteenth of the month. 


44. Las estaciones del aSo, the seasons of the year : 

la primayera, spring el otoSo, autumn 

el yerano, summer el inyiemo, winter 

45. Las divisiones del dia, the divisions of the day : 

la maSana, morning ajtiy yesterday 

el dia, day hoy, to-day 

la tarde, afternoon maffana, to-morrow 

la noche, night anoche, last night 

de dla, by day esta noche, to-night 

maSana por la maffana, to-morrow morning 


A, I. Read in Spanish, Add in Spanish, 

5 21 i6 105 

/ 2 zz 45 250 

8 15 62 500 

7 18 75 725 

4 9 26 375 

2. Read, El 4 de julio de 1776. 

El 12 de octubre de 1492. 
El 1° de enero de 191 1. 

3. Give in Spanish the date of to-day. 

Give in Spanish the date of your birthday (dfa de cumpleafios). 

B. I. Medimos el tiempo asf : sesenta segundos hacen un mi- 
nuto ; sesenta de dstos componen una hora ; veinticuatro horas un 
dfa ; siete dfas una semana ; cuatro semanas y media un mes ; doce 
meses un ano y cien anos un siglo. 

Amigo mfo : ^^^^^ ^^^^' ^ 7 de mayo de 1 9 1 2 

Por la noche estudio mis lecciones de aritm^tica y de espaiiol 
para la manana. Pero esta noche no estudio porc^ue tengo un pe- 
riddico de hoy. Leo que este es el dfa de cumple^anos de Alfonso 


Trece, rey de Espaiia. Su esposa y Jorge Quinto de Inglaterra son 
primos. Dice el peri6dico que los reyes van a estar juntos en Lon- 
dres el verano que viene desde el martes hasta el sabado. ^ 

C. J. I Cudles son los dfas de la semana ? i los meses del afto ? 
I las estaciones ? 2. i Cudntos dfas tiene una semana ? ^ el mes de 
enero ? 3. ,; Cuantos dfas hay en el ano ? 4. i Qu6 dfa de la se- 
mana tenemos hoy ? 5. ^ A cuantos estamos hoy ? 6. i Quien es 
el rey de Espana? i el rey de Inglaterra? 7. i Cual es su dfa de 
cumpleanos ? 8. ^ Cudl es la fecha del periodico de hoy ? 9. ^ Qu^ 
lecciones tiene Vd. el lunes por la manana ? 10. ^ Estudian Vds. sus 
lecciones por la tarde o por la noche ? 11.^ Cuantas veces lee Vd. 
cada frase ? 12. ^ Cuantas veces al dfa sale un tren para Chicago ? 

Z>. I . The months of spring are March, April, and May ; of 
summer, June, July, and August. 2. There are three hundred and 
sixty-five days in this year. Next year has three hundred and sixty- 
six days because it is leap year. 3. To-day's paper has the date 
Wednesday, the second of May. 4. I am living at 245 East 3d St. 
5. On Tuesday morning we have lessons in (de) arithmetic and 
Spanish. 6. My brother's birthday is July 7, 1898. 7. The father 
of the king of Spain, Alfonso the Twelfth, was the son of Isabella 
the Second. 8. This is the twentieth century. 9. Summer begins 
on the twenty-first of June. 10. August is the eighth month of the 
year. 11. There are a hundred days from January first to the tenth 
of April. 12. When we study the Spanish lesson, we read each 
sentence several times. 13. My brother comes home twice a day. 
14. December is the last month of the year. 15. These children 
are in their seventh year. 16. The lesson is on page forty-five, from 
the third to the thirtieth line. 17. The magazine comes on Fridays. 
18. The office is at number fifty East 23d St. 19. He is sick for 
the first, time in (de) his life. 20. The steamer leaves to-morrow 
morning. 21. The steamer for Malaga leaves twice a week. 22. It 
is the third of October. 23. A million dollars is enough for any 
(coalquier) man. 24. The year 1492 is in the fifteenth century. 




46. Shortened Form of Adjectiyes. i. Before a masculine sin- 
gular noun the following adjectives drop the final o : 

buenOf good primero,^r^/ 

malo, dad * tercero, third 

postrero, last 

OHO, one, an or a 

alguno, some 

ningano, nq, none, no one 

nn buen hombre, a good man 
mal tiempo, bad weather 
dXffoL dia, some day 
el primer mes, the first month 


un hombre malo, a bad man 
el primero del mes, the first of the 

2. Grande becomes gran before either a masculine or a feminine 
singular noun that begins with a consonant : 

nn gran 8e9or, a great lord 
una gran casa, a great house 

But grande hombre, great man 
nn grande amigo, a great friend 

a. When grande refers to size it is frequently placed after the noun : 
el rlo grande, the big river casa grande, big house 

47. Comparison of Adjectiyes. The comparative degree of Span- 
ish adjectives is formed by using m&s, more, with the positive. The 
superlative is made by prefixing the definite article to the com- 




m&A rico 
mkA rica 
m&8 ricos 
mAs ricas 


el mis rico 
la mis rica 
los mis ricos 
las mis ricas 

a. In forming the superlative degree, a possessive adjective may 
be substituted for the definite article : 

mi caballo mis fuerte, my strongest horse 
nuestra mejor tinta, our best ink 


48. IrregolAr Comparison. 

baeno, mejor, el mejor, good^ better^ best 

malo, peor, el peor, bad^ worse, worst 

grande, mayor, el mayor, great, greater, greatest j older, oldest 

peqae9o, menor, el menor, small, smaller, smallest; younger, youngest 

a. Grande and peque&o are also compared regularly. In speak- 
ing of persons mayor means older, menor younger^ while the regu- 
lar comparison refers to size. Mi hermano mayor, my older brother. 
Mi hermano es mk% grande que yo, My brother is taller than /. 

b. Corresponding to these adjectives are the foUowing adyerbs : 

bien, mejor, well, better or best 

mal, peor, badly ^ worse or worst 

mucho, mAs, much (a great deal), more or most 

poco, menos, little, less or least -^ 

1. Macho and poco are also adjectives. 

2. The superlative of an adverb is usually the same as the compara- 
tive. See section J45, 6. 

49. Than after comparatives is que; but when the comparison 
means a greater number than or a less number than, de must be used. 

Tiene m^ dinero que yo. He has more money than L 

Tiene m^ de mil pesos. He has more than a thousand dollars, 

50. Comparison of Equality. The comparison of things by the 
correlative words as , , . as, as (so) much . , , as, as (so) many , . . 
asy is called the comparison of equality. Before nouns as (so) much, 
as (so) many, are adjectives ; hence tanto and its feminine and plu- 
ral forms tanta, tantos, tantas are used. Before adjectives as (so) 
is an adverb and the short invariable form tan is required. The 
invariable come introduces the second term of the comparison. 

Tengo tanto pan y tantas manza- / have as much bread and as 

nas como Juan. many apples as John. 

Son tan ricos como reyes. They are as rich as kings. 

51. Agpreement of Adjectives. An adjective agreeing with two 
nouns is put in the plural. 


If the nouns are of different genders, the masculine plural adjec- 
tive is generally used. 

El hombre y la mujer son ricos. The man and the woman are rich, 

£1 presidente y sua hijas estAn The president and his daughters 

enfermos. are ill, 

52. Position of Adjectives. Spanish adjectives are usually placed 
after their nouns ; but common adjectives like bueno, malo, pequefio, 
grande, mucho, and numerals generally precede the noun : 

un libro rojo, a red book 

el pequeSo sombrero, the little hat 

cinco hombres^y^z/^ men 

a. An adjective modified by an adverb is usually placed after its 
noun : un buen caballo, a good horse, but un caballo muy bueno, a 
very good horse, 

b. A superlative adjective has the article before the noun while 
the remainder may follow the noun : 

la roca m&s elevada, the highest rock 
el buey m&s fuerte, the strongest ox 

c. Some adjectives have a different meaning according as they 
precede or follow the noun. For these and for further discussion 
of the position of adjectives see section 139. 

53. Idiomatic Expressions, a. After a superlative adjective, use 
the preposition de : 

the youngest in the family, el menor de la familia 

the prettiest girl in the town, la niSa mis linda de la ciudad 

b. To express age, use the verb tener, to have, 

I Qu^ edad tiene Vd. ? (lit. What age have you T) "1 

I Cuintos aSos tiene Vd. ? (lit. How many years \ How old are you f 

have you f) J 
Tengo veinte aflos. / am twenty years old. 

Mi padre es mayor que mi madre, My father is older than my mother, 

pero no tiene tantos aSos como but not so old as my uncle, 

mi tio. 



A, a. Use the Spanish adjectives for good, bad, great, first, best, 
richest, with each of the following ; then ^ put in the plural. 

El hombre La casa 

La mujer El libro 

b. Supply the proper word for than and translate .• i . Es mas rico 

yo. 2. Tiene mas cinco perros. 3. Un peso vale mas 

una peseta. 4. Yo tengo menos una peseta. 5. Carlos 

tiene diez afios mas yo. 6. Juana es menor su hermano. 

B, I. La tierra no tiene la superficie plana sino cortada por altu- 
ras que son las montaiias. Los terrenos llanos entre dos Cordi- 
lleras son valles. Los montes estan formados "en su interior de 
piedra, de don(Je sacan los hombres las varias clases de minerales y 
metales como el carbdn, el hierro, la plata y el oro. Los montes 
dan origen a las fuentes y a los rfos que riegan los bosquesy las 
selyas que suministran al hombre la madera para su casa, y los 
pastes de muchos animales. 

2. Algunos animales son muy litiles. El elefante es el animal mds 
grande del mundo ; pero el caballo es mejor para el trabajo, aun- 
que menos fuerte. Son tambidn buenos el buey y la vaca. De la 
piel de estos animales hace el hombre la mejor clase de cuero para 
los zapatos que protegen sus pies. Para abrigar su cuerpo contra 
el tiempo frfo, el hombre emplea la lana de la oveja, de la cual hace 
vestidos, un sombrero para la cabeza, una jaqueta para cubrir la 
espalda, el pecho y los brazos, pantalones para las piemas. El hom- 
bre come la came de los animales, especialmente la came de vaca, 
de camero y de cerdo. La leche es tambidn un alimento de grande 

C I. i Qu6 clase de metales saca el hombre de las montafias.? 
2. ^'De d6nde sacan los hombres el pro y la plata? 3. ^ Sacan 
tanto hierro como oro ? 4. i Que saca el hombre de los bosques ? 
5. I Cual es el animal mas grande del mundo ? 6. ^ Qud vestidos 
hace el hombre de la lana? 7. ^ Tiene Vd. un hermano mayor? 


I una hermana menor ? 8. ^ Cuantos aflos tiene ella ? 9. ^ £s un 
hombre tan fuerte como un caballo? 10. ^'Qu^ dase de came 
comen Vds. ? 11.^ Beben Vds. tanta leche como agua ? 12. i Cual 
es^l mejor alimento para los hombres ? 

' I?, I. From the forests (the) men get wood for their houses. 
2. They do not get as much gold as silver. 3. My older brother 
has a better horse than I. 4. We use sheep's wool for our best 
garments. 5. What animal is as strong as the ox ? 6. Do you eat as 
much meat as bread ? 7. Bad work is worse than no work. 8. A 
man wears a hat to protect his head. 9. I have more animals than 
you. I have more than a hundred. 10. A good cow and a good 
horse are very useful for men. yii. John is the oldest boy in the 
dass. His sister is the prettiest girl in the town. 12. A great man 
does not always live in a large house. 13. January is the first month 
in the year. 14. Beef and mutton are a better food than pork. 
15. Our richest friends live in London. 


54. Radical-changing Verbs. Many Spanish verbs having the 
radical vowel e or change the vowel in the present tense when 
the radical is stressed in pronunciation : e becomes ie, becomes 
ue. The radical in the present tense is stressed in the ist, 2d, and 
3d person singular, and the 3d person plural. 

(To find the radical of a Spanish verb, drop the ending of the infinitive : 
e.g. pensar, radical pens.) 

Present Indicative 
Pensar, io think ^ intend Encontrar, tofind^ meet 

Sing. I . pienso, / think Sing, i . encuentro, I find 

2. piensas, thou thinkest 2. encuentras, thoufindest 

3. piensa, he thinks 3. encuentra, he finds 

Plur. I. pensamos, we think Plur. i. encontramos, we find 

2. pensdis,^^^ think 2. tiox^axAxhSA^ you find 

3. piensan, they think 3. encuentran, they find 

I Piensa Vd. ? Do you intend f ^Eflcaentra Vd. ? Do you find f 



Qnerer, to desire^ nOish^ be willing 

Sing. I. f\pxtx% I wish^am willing 

2. quieres, thou wishest 

3. quiere, he wishes 

Plur. I. queremos, we wish 

2. qu^r^is, you wish 

3. quieren, they wish 

iQuiereVd.? Will you f 

Sentir, to feel, perceive, ^^g^^t, 
be sorry 

Sing. I . siento, I feel, am sorry 

2. sientes, thoufeelest, art sorry 

3. siente, he feels, is sorry 

Plur. I. sentimos, we feel, are sorry 

2. s/tnMs^ you feel, are sorry 

3. sienten, they feel, are sorry 

I Siente Vd. ? Do you feel f 

Poder, to be able, can 

Sing. I. puedo, I can 

2. puedes, thou canst 

3. puede, he can 

Plur. I. podemos, we can 

2. pod^is, you can 

3. pueden, they can 

I Puede Vd. ? Can you f 
Dormir, to sleep 

Sing. I. duermo, I sleep 

2. duermes, thou steepest 

3. duerme, he sleeps 

Plur. I. dormimos, we sleep, 

2. dormls, you sleep 

3. duermen, they sleep 

I Duerme Vd. ? Do you sleep f 

Some verbs of the ir conjugation change e to i, as 

Pedir, to ask for 

Sing. I. pido, I ask 

2. pides, thou askest 

3. pide, he asks 

Plur. I. pedimos, we ask 

2. pedis, you ask 

3. piden, they ask 

I Pide Vd. ? Do you ask ? 

55. The Infinitive. A verb depending on another verb is fre- 
quently put in the infinitive mood ; sometimes with a connecting 
preposition, but many verbs, such as poder, querer, sentir, pensar, 
ver, oir, are followed directly by the infinitive. 

Pienso ir a Cuba. / intend to go to Cuba, 

^ Puede Vd. dormir? Can you sleep f 

Queremos saber. We wish to know. 


56. Indirect Object. The indirect object of a verb is that person 
or thing interested in the action expressed by the verb, but neither 
performing the action nor receiving it directly ; thus, in He writes 
Charles a letter^ " Charles " is the indirect object. In English the in- 
direct object is often indicated by merely placing it before the direct 
object. If the indirect object is placed elsewhere in the sentence, it 
is preceded by some preposition, usually to : thus, Ife writes a letter 
to Charles. In Spanish, Escribe una carta a Carlos ; but the preposi- 
tion a must always precede the indirect object in Spanish no matter 
what its position in the sentence : thus, Escribe a Carlos una carta. 

a. Verbs denoting separation require the preposition a before the 
name of the person from whom things are obtained just as though it 
were an indirect object. Hence a translates ' from ' in such expressions 
as the following : 

comprar a un espaSol, to buy from a Spaniard 

pedir un favor a mi padre, to ask my father a favor 

olr el cuento a una gitana, to hear the story from a gypsy woman 

robar el dinero al ciego, to steal the money from the blind man 

b, \n speaking of the person or clothing, the definite article is used 
instead of the possessive adjective, and the indirect object indicates the 
person if necessary : 

Salv5 la vida al hombre. He saved the man^s life. 

El viento llev6 el sombrero a mi The wind carried off my father's 

padre. hat. 

En vez de contestar: — No puedo Instead of replying^ "/ cannot 

ir, — tomo el sombrero y voy. go^'' I take my hat and go. 

Romper^ la cabeza a quien quiera / will break the head of any one 

oponerse a mi entrada. who tries to oppose my entrance. 

57. Direct Object. Personal a. The direct object of a verb is 
that person or thing which suffers the action of the verb. In Span- 
ish, when the direct object denotes a definite person or personified 
thing, or is a proper noun, the preposition a must precede it. 

Encuentran un peso. They find a dollar. 

Encuentran a su padre. They find their father. 

Visitan a Valparaiso. They visit Valparaiso. 


The use of the preposition a before the direct personal object is 
very important in Spanish. It permits placing the direct object be- 
fore the verb. A Eduardo S^ptimo sigue Jorge Quinto, George the 
Fifth succeeds Edward the Seventh, 

58. Idiomatic Expressions, a. In regard to the weather, use the 

impersonal verb hace, it makes : 

I Qu^ tal tiempo hace ? What kind of weather is it ? 

Hace mal tiempo. // is bad weather. 

Hace buen tiempo. // is good weather 

Hace macho calor. // is very warm, 

Hace mucho frio. // is very cold, 

Hace yiento. // is windy, 

b. When the conditions of the weather concern visible objects, 

hay, there is^ introduces the expression : 

Hay sol. The sun is shining. Hay lodo. // is muddy, 
H&j polyo. // is dusty. Hay neblimi. // is foggy. 

Hay lumi esta noche. There is a moon to-night. 

c. Statements concerning the person commonly employ tener, 

to have, instead of the verb to be, as in English. 

Tengo frio. / am cold. Tengo hambre. / am hungry, 

Tenemos sueSo. We are sleepy. Tengo sed. / am thirsty. 

Tengo macho calor. / am very warm. 

Tienen prisa. They are in a hurry. 

Tiene los ojos azules. His eyes are blue. 

d. As the words calor, frio, etc. used with hace, hay, and tener 
are nouns, the adverb muy, very, cannot be used, but instead of it 
the adjective mucho, which must agree with the noun : thus, Tengo 
mucho calor y mucha sed, / am very hot and thirsty, 

e. Querer is a very important verb. Its general meaning, to de- 
sire, to wish, includes all kinds of willing. 

Will you ? 

Are you willing? I = ^Quiere Vd.? If you piecLse. Si Vd. quiere. 

Will you have? 

To mean, querer decir; as, What does this word mean? ^Qu^ 
quiere decir esta palabra ? 



A, a. Find in the vocabulary the infinitive of despierta, muere, 
▼istes, sirvo, cuentan. 

b. Insert the preposition a in the following sentences. Tell why it 

is necessary, i. La madre da una manzana su nino. 2. El 

chico pide un vaso de agua su madre. 3. Juan ama su 

madre. 4. Este senor escribe su sobrino. 5. No encontra- 

mos nuestra hermana. 

c. Translate: i. He asks for an apple. 2. We can see. 3. I 
wish to ask. 4. I can sleep. 5. They are sorry. 6. We are cold. 
7. They are very hungry. 8. It is warm. 9. What will you have ? 
10. I intend to study. 11. How much does he ask ? 12. What do 
you mean? 13. Is the sun shining? 14. It is not cold. 15. I am 
very warm. 

£, Cuando Enrique toca una campanilla u otro instrumento, 
suena ; y ^1 oye el sonido porque tiene el sentido del ofdo. Un so- 
nido confuso es un ruido. Algunas veces no podemos ofr bien a 
causa del ruido de la calle. 

Los demas sentidos son la vista, el gusto, el olfato y el tacto. 

Los ojos son los 6rganos del sentido de la vista. Hay hombres 
que no pueden ver : estos pobres son ciegos. Y en la obscuridad 
estamos todos ciegos, porque sin luz no es posible ver. 

Enrique siente el sabor de los alimentos en la boca donde tocan 
la lengua. Pues el chico no quiere el cafe amargo, ni la fruta dcida, 
pide a su madre aziicar que es dulce. Ella da el aziicar a su hijo. 

La nariz de Enrique sirve para sentir los olores. Puede percibir 
que una flor huele bien o mal, y que la habitaci6n huele a tabaco. 

El sonido que de la garganta viene a la boca es la voz ; recibe va- 
rias modulaciones de la lengua, de los dientes y de los labios. Enri- 
que grita o habla en voz alta a su abuelo porque dste es sordo : pero 
a su madre puede hablar en voz baja porque ella no tiene el ofdo 
duro^ y esti cerca. Pero si esta lejos, habla en voz alta tambidn 

a su madre. 

^ tener el oido duro = ser sordo. 


C. I. ^Cudntos sentidos tienen Vds. ? ^-Cuales son? 2. ^ Oye 
Vd. el sonido del piano ? 3. ^ Cuindo hay mucho ruido en la calle ? 
4. I Quiere Vd. la fruta dcida o dulce ? 5. ^ Qu6 pide Enrique a 
su madre para hacer dulce el cafd ? 6. i Para qud sirve la nariz ? 
7. I Cdmo huele una rosa ? 8. ^ Qu6 es un sordo ? 9. i Qud quiere 
decir la palabra sordid ? 10. ^ Puede Vd. ofr si hablo en voz baja ? 

11. I Tiene Vd. fiio o calor ? i Mucho ? 12.^ Por qud tienen Vds. 
fiio ? 13. ^ Hace fiio cuando hay sol ? 14. ^ A quidn sigue Jorge 
Quinto ? 

£>, I. When the bell rings, John opens the door. 2. A deaf man 
cannot hear so well as you. 3. When the coffee is bitter, I ask for 
sugar. 4. Do you wish sugar in your coffee ? 5. I do not sleep well 
when there is a great noise in the street. 6. In the street there is 
a man who ^ says,^ " Who wants oranges ? " How much does he 
ask? 7. I wish to give my sister a sweet orange. 8. I can hear 
Henry's voice; he is shouting. 9. Can you see Charles? He is 
ringing the bell. 10. The Spanish word la voz means the sound 
which comes from the throat, but the plural las voces means 
'words.* II. Will you give this poor man a dollar? He is blind. 

12. When I am hungry I wish to eat, and when I am thirsty I 
wish to drink. 13. John's eyes are blue. 14. If you visit London, 
you will see * the king. 15. On account of the darkness we cannot 
see the persons in the room. 

1 que dice. ^ verA. 


59. Reflexive Verbs. A reflexive verb is one which represents 
the subject as acting on itself : as, Ife cuts himself. 

a. The Spanish reflexive pronoun for the third person is se, which 
is appended to the infinitive : cortarse, to cut oneself. 

b. In Spanish many verbs are reflexive in form though not so 
in English: levantar, to raise \ levantarse, to raise oneself i.e. 
to get up. 


c. In conjugating a reflexive verb, the pronouns are usually put 
before the verb ; but the infinitive, the present participle, and the 
imperative without no, add the pronoun as another syllable. 

Levant^dose. Getting up, Sent^dome. Sitting down, 

LevAntese Vd. Get up. No se levante Vd. Don't get up, 

Si^ntese Vd. Sit down. No se siente Vd. DonH sit down, 

60. Present Indicative. 

Levantarse, to get up Ir a levantarse, to be going to get up 

me levanto, I get up yoy a lerantarme, / am going to get up 

te levai^tas, you get up yas a levantarte, you are going to get up 

se levanta, he gets up ya a levantarae, he is going to get up 

nos leyantamos, we get up vamos a levantamos, we are going to get up 

OS levantAis, you get up yais a levantaros, you are going to get up 

se levantan, they get up van a levantarse, they are going to get up 

I Se levanta Vd. 1 Do ^ Va Vd. a levantarse ? Are you going 
you get up ? to get up f 


a. It is always necessary to learn the special meaning of a reflexive 
verb, as it often differs in translation from the simple verb ; as, ir, to go, 
irse, to go away ; morir, to die, morirse, to be dying. 

61. The Spanish reflexive verb is often used in a general sense 
where English uses the passive voice. 

Aqui se habla espaSol. Spanish {is) spoken here, 

£1 muchacho se llama Juan. The boy is called John. 

I C6mo se llama Vd. ? How are you called? or, more idio- 

matically. What is your name f 
Me llamo Francisco. My name is Francis. 

62. Idiomatic Expressions, a. When referring to parts of the 
body or clothing it is customary to use the definite article instead 
of the possessive adjective. A pronoun before the verb shows what 
person is meant whenever necessary : Se pone el sombrero, He puts 
on his hat\ Me quito el sombrero, I take off my hat\ Se corta el 
dedo. He cuts his finger, (See section 56, ^.) 


b. To express the time of an action al with the infinitive is com- 
mon : Al leyantarme, me lavo la cara, On getting up (or When I 
get up\ I wash my face ; Al cerrar yo la puerta, gritaron, Upon 
my closing the door (or When I closed the door), they shouted, 


A, a. Write the conjugation and then translate the present tense 
indicative of Uamarse, sentarse, acostarse, ir a sentarse (sentarse 
and acostarse are radical-changing), 

b. Supply reflexive pronouns and translate : i. Juan sienta 

a la mesa. 2. Sidnte Vd. aquf. 3. Los muchachos Ua-- 

man Pablo y Pedro. 4. llamamos Juany Marfa. 5. El hom- 

bre lava la cara. 6. Voy a lavar — las manos. 7. Yo 

acuesto temprano. 8. i acuesta Vd. tarde ? 9. sentamos 

a la mesa. 10. ^ Cdmo llama ella ? 1 1. Al levantar , Pe- 
dro lava la cara. 

c. After reading Exercise lOy B, 7, change the Spanish verbs into 
the third person singular, 

d. Translate: i. I cut myself. 2. They cut themselves. 3. He 
gets up. 4. Do you get up? 5. We sit down. 6. I go to bed. 
7. We go to bed. 8. We are going to sit down. 9. They are called 
{or, they call themselves). 10. He takes off his hat. 11. Pedro 
does not wash his face. 12. On sitting down. 13. On washing 
my face. 14. Why don't you wash your face? 15. Why don't 
you sit down? 

B. I. Por la noche me quito los vestidos y me acuesto. Al des- 
pertarme por la manana, despierto a mis hermanos. Nos levan- 
tamos, nos lavamos la cara y las manos con jab6n y agua, nos 
secamos con una toalla, y nos ponemos los vestidos. Entonces me 
siento a la mesa para el almuerzo. Tomo caf^ con leche, pan y 
mantequilla, huevos o came. Para el servicio de la mesa me sirvo 
de im cuchillo, un tenedor y una cuchara. Despuds me marcho al 
despacho. AUf no me divierto mucho. 


2. La tierra se mueve alrededor del sol, inclinindose * un poco 
hacia una parte, de lo cual ^ resulta que una mitad del ano los pue- 
blos de la mitad superior de la tierra tienen los dfas mas largos que 
las noches. En la otra parte del ano sucede lo contrario y de este 
modo se verifican las estaciones del ano. El inviemo es cuando los 
rayos del sol vienen mas inclinados y son los dfas cortos ; por esto 
hace mudio frfo. En la primavera crecen la hierba y las plantas. 
En el verano hace mucho calor. En el otorio se cogen los frutos 
del campo mientras caen las hojas de los irboles. 

3. El hombre nace, vive y muere sobre la tierra. En su figura 
se asemeja dsta bastante a una naranja un poco aplastada por los 
dos extremos, que en geograffa se llaman los polos. Los rayos del 
sol alumbran y calientan la tierra, que da vuelta alrededor del sol, y 
con este movimiento se determinan cuatro puntos cardinales que 
son norte, sur, este y oeste. Se llama este aquella parte del cielo 
en que vemos el sol al amanecer. Oeste se llama la parte opuesta 
por donde se oculta el sol al anochecer. 

C. I. ^ Se despierta Vd. temprano o tarde ? 2. i Qu^ hace Vd. 
despuds de despertarse ? 3. j D6nde se sienta Vd. para el almuerzo ? 
4. I De qu^ se sirven Vds. para el servicio de la mesa ? 5. ^ A ddnde 
se marcha Vd. despu^s del almuerzo ? 6. ^ Se divierten Vds. mucho 
en el colegio ? 7. ^* Cuando tenemos los dfas mas cortos que las 
noches ? 8. i Por qud tenemos el dfa y la noche } g. i Qu6 estacidn 
del ano tenemos ahora ? 10. ^ Por qud hay estaciones ? 1 1. ^- Qu^ 
tal tiempo hace en el inviemo ? i en el verano ? 12. ^*C6mo se lla- 
man los puntos cardinales ? 

£>. I . In the morning we wake up early and wake up our friends. 
2. The bell wakes John ; he cannot wake up without the bell. 3. My 
brother does not have a good time at the office : he works. 4. We 
have (the) day and (the) night because the earth moves around the 
sun. 5. We have seasons because the earth is inclined towards one 
side. 6. It is very cold this winter, but in the spring it is much 

^ inclinindose, present participle of indinarse. ^ de lo ctialf/rom which. 


warmer. 7. The two ends of the earth are called the North Pole 
and the South Pole. 8. When I face the north, the east is on the 
right, and the west on the left. 9. French is spoken in France, but 
English is spoken here. 10. What is your name? — My name is 
Peter Lucas, but they call me Uncle ^ Licurgo. 1 1. In this season 
I wake early, but when it is cold weather I rise late. 12. During 
this part of the year, the nights are longer than the days. 

^ Add the definite article ; do not capitalize. 


63. Preterit Tense. The Spanish preterit tense, indicative mood, 
denotes that a single act was performed and completed in past time. 
It corresponds to the English past tense : He saw^ Vi6. Did you 
seel iVi5Vd.? 

-ar VERBS -er AND -ir verbs 

Sing. I. corner i^ I bought Sing. I . vcndi, I so/d 

2. compraste,^^« bought 2. vendiste,>'^« sold 

3. compr6, he bought 3. vend 16, he sold 

Plur. I. compramos, we bought Plur. i. vendimos, we sold 
2*. comprasteis, j/^« bought 2. vendisteis, ^^« sold 

3. compraron, they bought 3. vendieron, they sold 

I Compr6 Vd. ? Did you buy f i Vendi6 Vd. ? Did you sell f 

a. Note the importance of the written accent : compro, present 
tense, I buy\ compr6, preterit tense, he bought, 

b. In conjugating the preterit tense, certain changes of spelling 
must be borne in mind. The radical of a verb must keep the same 
final consonant sound which it has in the infinitive : consequently 
verbs ending in car, gar, and zar are spelled in the first person 
singular of the preterit like the following models : 

sacar : saqu^, / drew out, sacaste, etc. 
Uegar : llegu^, / arrived, llegaste, etc. 
empezar : empec^, / began, empezaste, etc. 

See table of spellings, section 7 ; and also section 242. 


c. Verbs of the -ir conjugation that change the radical in the 
present tense change e to i, and o to u, in the third person singu- 
lar and plural of the preterit tense. 

Sentir, to feel Pedir, to ask for 

Sing. I. sentf, I felt Sing. I. pedl, I asked 

2. ^TL\Xst<t, you felt 2. pediste, ^^72/ asked 

3. 8inti6y he felt 3. pidi6, he asked 

Plur. I. sentimos, we felt Plur. i. pedimos, we asked 

2. wtvM2\Ki!&y you felt 2. pedisteis,^^^ asked 

3. sintieron, they felt 3. pidieron, they asked 

iSinti6Vd.? Did you feel f iPidi6Vd.? Did you ask f 

Dormir, to sleep 

Sing. I . dorml, / slept Plur. I . donnimos, we slept 

2. dormiste, you slept 2. dormisteis, you slept 

3. durmi6, he slept 3. durmieron, they slept 

I Durmi5 Vd. ? Did you sleep f 

d, Spanish spelling requires that the letter i unaccented should 

not stand between two vowels; consequently, verbs whose stem 

ends with a vowel have y in the third person singular and plural of 

the preterit tense. 

Creer, to believe, to think 

Sing. I . crel, / believed Plur. i . creimos, we believed 

2. creiste, you believed 2. creisteis, you believed 

3. crey6, he believed 3. creyeron, they believed 

I Creyd Vd. ? Did you believe ? 

64. Idiomatic Expressions, a. The verb hace, it makes, is used 
with expressions of time to convey the same idea as the English 
word ago : 

hace an aSo, a year ago hace una hora, an hour ago 

b. In reckoning time the Spanish count the day on which the 
calculation is made ; hence, 

ocho dias, a week hace quince dias, a fortnight ago 


c. iQu6 hay de nuevo? What^s the newsf 
Nada de particular. Nothing special, 

d, Muchas gracias, seSor. Many thanks^ sir. 
No hay de qu6. Quite welcome, 


A, a. Conjugate^ with English meanings the preterit tense ofixh 
mar, escribir, sentarse, servir (Jike pedir), ofr, pagar, tocar. 

b. Read Exercise lO^ B, inputting the verbs in the preterit tense, 

c. Translate: i. How much did he ask six months ago ? 2. How 
did you sleep ? 3. What did they sell ? 4. He took coffee. 5. Where 
was he bom ? 6. I felt cold an hour ago. 7. I went to bed. 8. They 
went away. 9. I got up. 10. How was he called? 11. His name 
was John. 12. They asked for oranges. 13. Did you hear the bell ? 
14. Did they read the newspaper? 

B, I. Ayer por la maiiana me levantd — me lav^ — medio me 
vestf — lef los periddicos — escribf dos cartas — almorcd — acab^ 
de vestirme — me marchd a casa de un amigo. 

Por la tarde volvf a casa. En la calle me encontrd con un pobre 
— saqu^ una moneda de cobre del bolsillo — df diez centavos al 
pobre — llegud a casa sin otra novedad. 

Por la noche comf. Despu^s de la comida me sentd al balcdn al 
fresco, y ahora tengo sueno y voy a acostarme. 

2. Heman Cortes, conquistador de Mejico, nacio en 1485. Con 
once navfos y algunos centenares de soldados, desembarcd en el 
puerto de San Juan de Uliia en 15 19, fundd la fortaleza de Vera- 
cruz, quemd sus naves y marchd sobre Mdjico. Vencid a sus ene- 
migos; sitid y tomd a Mejico donde se apoderd de Montezuma. 
El emperador Carlos Quinto, rey de Espana, nombrd a Cortes 
capitan general de Nueva Espana, nombre que did^ al pafs que 
conquistd. Cortds volvid a Espana a contestar a las acusaciones 
dirigidas^ contra ^1, y murid allf en 1547. 

1 di6, preterit of dar. ^ directed. 


3. Francisco Pizarro, cdebre conquistador espanol, tenfa mds 
de cincuenta anos cuando emprendid la conquista del mds grande 
y rico imperio del nuevo mundo. Descubrid las costas del Peni 
en 1526. El ejdrcito del inca Atahualpa atacd a los espanoles, pero 
^stos salieron vencedores en aquel encuentro y quedaron duefios 
del imperio y de sus riquezas. Pizarro se casd con la hermana del 
inca Atahualpa. Fundd a Lima, capital desde entonces del Peni, 
donde murid en 1541 asesinado por sus enemigos. 

C I. I Cuil periddico leyd Vd. ayer ? 2. ^* A quidn escribid Vd. 
las cartas hace ocho dfas ? 3. ^' Con qui^n se encontrd Vd. en la 
calle ? 4. I Cuando did el senor el dinero al pobre } 5. ^* Qu^ hizo^ 
Vd. despuds de la comida ? 6. i Cuindo nacid Heman Cortes ? 
7. I Cudntos soldados desembarcaron con 6\ en Mdjico ? 8. ^ A 
ddnde marcharon ? 9. ^ Qu6 nombramiento hizo el rey ? 10. ^' Qu^ 
nombre tiene ahora el pafs de Nueva Espafia? 11. ^En qu^ afio 
murid Cortes ? 

£>, I . Many years ago, Hemdn Cortes and his soldiers besieged 
Mexico and conquered the country. 2 . Charles the ^ Fifth appointed 
Cortes captain-general of New Spain. 3. My friend rose early in 
the morning and dressed himself. 4. In the evening he dined at 
home, and after dinner sat in the open air. 5. Yesterday he read 
two newspapers and wrote his brother a letter. 6. When I arrived 
in New York,* I took my book from my pocket. 7. When he sat 
down to the table,' he found his newspaper at his place. 8. With 
our breakfast this morning we took coffee with milk and sugar. 
9. Did you sleep well last night ? Yes, I slept till my brother ar- 
rived. 10. Did you pay the bill ? I paid the tailor's bill a fortnight 
ago. II. The soldiers died in defense of the city, April 25, 1695. 
12. He washed his face and hands and went to bed. 13. Cortds 
gave the name of New Spain to the country which is now called 
Mexico. 14. Pizarro was bom in the province of Estremadura, in 
the little village of Trujillo. 

^ hizo, preterit of hacer. ^ Omit the article. 

• Translate the clause in two ways. 



65. Imperfect Tense. The Spanish imperfect tense, indicative 
mood, denotes a past action, either continuous or habitual in char- 
acter. He was singings Cantaba. He used to write every day, Escri- 

bia todos los dias. 

-ar VERBS 

Sing. I. compraba, / was buying, used to buy 

2. comprabas,^^?« were buying, used to buy 

3. compraba, he was buying, used to buy 

Plur. I. comprAbamos, we were buying, used to buy 

2. comprabais, you were buying, used to buy 

3. compraban, they were buying, used to buy 

' -er AND -ir verbs 

Sing. I. vend la, / was selling, used to sell 

2. vend las, ^^« were selling, used to sell 
■3. vend la, he was selling, used to sell 

Plur. I. vendlamos, we were selling, used to sell 

2. vendlai8,^^?« were selling, used to sell 

3. vend Ian, they were selling, used to sell 

a. To understand the imperfect tense, contrast its meaning with 
the preterit. 

Escribid una carta. He wrote one letter, 

Escribla cuando yo entr^. He was writing when I entered, 

EstAbamos a la mesa cuando 8on6 We were at table when the bell 
la campanula. rang. 

b. This tense is frequent in descriptive matter. Though usually 
translated as above, the simple form of the English past tense may 
occur: as, When I lived in Cuba, I spoke Spanish, As the verbs 
denote continued or habitual acts, the Spanish uses the imperfect 
tense, Cuando yiyla en Cuba, hablaba espaSoL 

66. Idiomatic Expressions, a, Habia, there was, there were, im- 
perfect tense corresponding to hay, there is, there are. 


b. With expressions of time todo, all^ in the plural means every : 
todos l08 dias, every day ; todos los domingos, every Sunday, But 
note in the singular todo el mundo, everybody, 

c, Spanish uses the singular, not the plural, when speaking of 
objects one of which belongs to each member of a group. The 
boys raised their heads ; as each boy has but one head, the Spanish 
says, Los muchachos levantaron la cabeza. The servants did not 
occupy seats, Los criados no ocupaban asiento. 


A, a. J^ead Exercise lO, B, i, substituting the impetfect tense, 

b. Translate: i . He was sleeping. 2. They used to read. 3. We 
were reading. 4. The bell was ringing. 5. Who was talking ? 6. I 
was eating. 7. I was cold and hungry. 8. Every Monday he used 
to rise early. 9. In Spain we rose late. 10. It was cold. 11. How 
many were here ? 1 2 . The enemy (^plural) were marching. 1 3 . There 
were five apples on the plate. 14. He used to drink milk. 15. We 
took coffee every morning. 

B, I . Juanito cuando tenfa hambre, querfa comer ; cuando tenfa 
sed, querfa beber. Cuando estaba cansado por haber corrido mucho, 
o tenfa suefio, deseaba la cama para descansar : cuando tenfa frfo, 
deseaba el abrigo. Luego que satisfacfa estas necesidades quedaba 
bien y contento. 

2. Hace muchos anos ( i como que yo tenfa siete I ) que al obs- 
curecer de un dfa de inviemo me dijo ^ mi padre : — Pedro, esta 
noche no te acuestas a la misma hora que las gallinas: ya eres 
grande y debes cenar con tus padres y con tus hermanos mayores. 
Esta noche es Nochebuena, 

Un enorme tronco de encina chisporroteaba en medio del hogar ; 
la negra y ancha campana de la chimenea nos cobijaba; en los 
rincones estaban mis dos abuelas, que aquella noche se quedaban 

1 dijo, preterit of decir. 


en nuestra casa ; en seguida se hallaban mis padres, luego noso 
tros, y entre nosotros los criados — porque en aquella fiesta todos 
representabamos la Casa^ y a todos debfa calentamos un mismo 
fuego. Los criados estab2in de pie y las criadas de rodillas. Su res- 
petuosa humildad les vedaba ocupar asiento. Los gatos dormfan 
en el centro. Algunps copos d^ nieve cafan por el canon de la 
chimenea. Y el viento silbaba a lo lejos. Mi padre y mi hermana 
mayor tocaban el arpa. Las criadas se encargaron de la parte vocal 
y cantaron coplas como la siguiente : 

« Esta noche es Nochebuena 
Y mafiana Navidad.» 

C. \, I Qu^ deseaba Juanito cuando estaba cansado ? 2. ^ Tenfa 
Vd. hambre ayer? 3. ^'Cuando es Nochebuena? 4. ^ Qui^nes se 
quedaban en casa de Pedro la Nochebuena ? 5. ^ C6mo se calen- 
taban? 6. ^ Por que no estaban sentados los criados? 7. jQu^ 
hacfan los gatos ? 8. ^ Qud hacfa el padre de Pedro ? 9. j Que 
instrumento toca Vd. ? 10. ^* Habfa nieve y viento la Nochebuena ? 
1 1. J Qu^ cantaron las criadas ? 12. ^ Donde estaban Vds. hace un 

D, I . Johnny went to bed early because he was sleepy. 2. When 
he was reading the newspaper he found his name on the first page. 
3. The snow was falling because it was very cold. 4. I know ^ that 
the sun was not shining because it was snowing. 5. On Christmas 
Eve they used to sing verses. 6. We were standing in the comer 
near the fire when they sang the verse. 7. The maidservants did 
not occupy seats that night. 8. Peter was seven years old when 
he dined with his older brothers. 9. Peter's cat used to sleep in 
front of the fire. 10. We used to sing when my sister played the 
piano. II. I was in Mexico two years ago, when he bought the 
mine. 12. I was getting up when he called. 13. His older brother 
used to write Paul a letter every week. 14. We were washing our 
faces when our friends came in. 

1 1 know = 8^. 



67. Participles. Spanish verbs have two participles, the present 
(or gerund) and the past 

-«r VERBS -er and -ir verbs 

Present comprando vendiendo 

Past comprado vendido - 

68. Present Participle. The Spanish present participle is inva- 
riable, and is used to express all sorts of relations much more freely 
than the present participle in English : Siendo nilio, vi al ley, When 
I was a child (lit. being a child)^ I saw the king. See section 274. 

a. The pronouns are appended to the present participle as an 
additional syllable, in which case an accent mark must be written 
over the stressed vowel of the ending : levant&ndose, getting up, 

69. Past Participle. The past participle may be used like an 
adjective, and agrees with its noun in gender and number. 

las puertas cerradas, the closed doors 
las yentanas abiertas, the open windows 

a. Some past participles are irregular in form : 

abrir; abierto to open j opened 

cubrir ; cubierto to cover; covered 

descubrir ; descubierto • to discover; discovered 

escribir ; escrito to write; written 

imprimir ; impreso to print ; printed 

romper; roto to break; broken 

b. The principal use of the past participle is in forming com- 
pound tenses with the auxiliary verb haber. The past participle 
remains unchanged in form. 

70. Perfect Tense. The present tense of haber combined with 
the past participle of any verb gives the perfect tense of that verb. 


-ax VERBS 

Sing. I. he comprado, I have bought 

2. has compradOy you have bought • 

3. ha compradOy he has bought 

Plur. I. hemos comprado, we have bought 

2. hab^is compradOy you have bought 

3. han comprado, they have bought 

^Ha comprado Yd. ? Have you bought f 

-ex AND -ir VERBS 

Sing. I. he vendido, I have sold 

2. has vendidOy you have sold 

3. ha vendidOy he has sold 

Plur. I. hemos vendido, we have sold 

2. hab^s vendido, you have sold 

3. han yendido, they have sold 

I Ha yendido Vd. ? Have you soldf 

71. Pluperfect Tense. The imperfect tense of haber combined 
with the past participle of any verb gives the pluperfect tense of 
that verb. 

-or VERBS 

Sing. I. habla comprado, I had bought 

2. habias comprado, you had bought 

3. habla comprado, he had bought 

Plur. I. habiamos comprado, we had bought 

2. hablais comprado, you had bought 

3. habian comprado, they had bought 

I Habla comprado Yd. ? Had you bought f 

-ex AND -ir VERBS 

Sing. I. habla yendido, I had sold 

2. habias yendido, you had sold 

3. habla yendido, he had sold 

Plur. I . habiamos yendido, we had sold 

2. hablais yendido, you had sold 

3. habian yendido, they had sold 

^ Habla yendido Yd. ? Had you soldf 


72. The Parts of a Compound Tense must not be separated by 
other words as in English. 

Have you written f ji Ha escrito Vd. ? 

/ have not written. No he escrito. 

Ha^ John always lived here f ^ Ha yiyido Juan siempre aqnl ? 

73. Use of Perfect Tense. The perfect and the preterit tenses 
both refer to action in past time. The perfect is used — 

1. When the action is recent : 

Ha UoYido mucho esta maSana. // rained hard this morning, 

2. When the action, though performed in the past, still continues 
or affects the present : 

La EspaSa ha producido grandes Spain has produced great men, 


La Inglaterra se ha hecho seSora England has become mistress of 

del mar. the sea. 

If these acts were ascribed to a definite past time the preterit 
would be used. 

La EspaSaprodujo grandes hombres Spain produced great men in the 
en el siglo XVI. sixteenth century. 

La Inglaterra se hizo seSora del England became mistress of the 
mar por la victoria de Nelson. sea through Nelson'' s victory, 

3. When the verb merely asserts the existence of a fact without 
referring the action to a definite time : 

Lo he dicho muchas veces. / have often said so, 

Lo dije ayer. / said so yesterday, 

74. Adverbs and Prepositions with Verbs, i . In English some 
verbs have their meaning so modified by adverbs as to form a 
class by themselves. Such compounds are expressed in Spanish by 
verbs having different roots and not by the same verb modified 
by different adverbs: as, 

go into^ entrar go up^ subir 

go out, salir go down, bajar 


2. In both Spanish and English some verbs require a prepo- 
sition before the object, but not necessarily the same verb in both 
languages. Examine the following : 

to answer a question^ oontestar a una pregunta 

to enter the house, entrar en la caaa 

to ask for an answer, pedir una contestaci6n 

to ask (i.e. to inquire), preguntar 

to go out of the room, salir de la habitacidn 

75. Relative Pronouns. The commonest relative pronouns are 

que, which, who, that ; referring to both persons and things 
qnien (quienes), who ; referring only to persons 

a. After prepositions, que is used only to refer to things, quien 
to persons. 

£1 Upiz que tengo. The pencil which I have. 

La mujer que vl. The woman whom I saw. 

La casa en que vivo. The house in which I live. 

£1 hombre a quien di6 el dinero. The man to whom he gave the 

Lo6 seSoies de quienes habUbamos. The gentlemen of whom, we were 



A. a. Form and translate the perfect tense ^estar, mandar, ser, 
vivity tener, escribir. 

b. Form and translate the pluperfect tense of the same verbs. 

c. Translate: i. What has he sold? 2. They have bought. 
3. He had bought. 4. Where has Charles lived? 5. I have not 
been in Spain. 6. We have been here. 7. He had been a soldier. 
8. They have covered the table. 9. I have had a present. 10. Writ- 
ing a letter. 11. Having written a letter. 12. Having two dollars, 
I bought a book. 13. Being at home. 14. We had been there. 

d. After reading Exercise ij,B^2, explain the use of the various 


B. I. Quiero un viaje de un modo raro, por eso voy a recapitu- 
lar mis viajes. 

Yo he viajado ya en barco de vela y en vapor. Tambi^n he via- 
jado en ferrocarril, en coche, a caballo y en mula. He patinado y 
andado en trineo. He sido llevado a cuestas para pasar algunos 
rfos. He bajado a algunas minas colgado de una cuerda. He ca- 
balgado siendo nino en cameros merinos y en perros de Terranova. 
Tambien he nadado. He volado en suenos. He cafdo de una al- 
tura. He saltado mas de cuatro arroyos. 

Hasta aquf no he viajado en aeroplano, pero tengo esperanzas 
de viajar de esta manera. Tampoco he caminado sobre un camello 
como los drabes, ni sobre el lomo de un elefante como los indios. 

2. Rodolfo tomd su sombrero, bajd la escalera y sali6 de la casa. 
Abajo al aire libre recobrd su presencia de espfritu. — } Caramba ! 
no he tratado la cuestidn de mas importancia. 

Entrd en la casa y subfa la escalera en el momento en que 
bajaba Dona Emesta. — Senora, dispense Vd. Quiero preguntar, 
I Ustedes han tenido gastos considerables ; la educacidn y mante- 
nimiento de ese joven ha producido desembolsos considerables ? 

La senora no contestd a la pregunta, levanto una mano y i zas ! 
la mejilla derecha de Rodolfo se puso encardenada^ y el sombrero 
cayo rodando por la escalera de arriba abajo. 

C I. ,1 Cuindo ha viajado Vd. en vapor? 2. ^ De qu^ manera 
ha viajado el senor ? 3. ^ Cuantos viajes ha hecho ^ Vd. en ferro- 
carril ? 4. i Cuando ha pasado Vd. el rfo del Norte ? 5. ^ A quien 
han escrito Vds. hoy ? 6. ^ Cuantos gastos han tenido Vds. ayer ? 
7. I Por qud entrd Rodolfo en la casa ? 8. ^ A qui^n ha encontrado 
en la escalera ? 9. <; Qud ha preguntado a D.* Emesta ? 10. ^ Qu^ 
contestacidn ha recibido ? 

Z>. I. Have you ever skated on the North River? 2. This man 
has traveled in many ways. 3. The Arabs travel on camels. Have 

^ se puso encardenada, turned red. 
2 hechOy past participle of hacer. 


you ever traveled in this manner ? 4. When he was {use pres, part ^ 
in India, he rode on an elephant's back. 5. When he was {use 
pres.part^ a child, he had ridden on dogs and sheep and jumped 
brooks. 6. We had opened all the windows before he came into 
the room. 7. He asked who had come down stairs. 8. They an- 
swered that they had been in the room an hour. 9. Rodolfo had 
gone up stairs because he had not discussed the question of most 
importance, i o. We have not had much presence of mind. 1 1 . The 
lady who had answered the question went out of the room. 12. The 
man who has crossed the river (by)^ swimming is my brother. 

13. The soldiers who have traveled by rail arrived yesterday. 

14. The boys of whom I have spoken are the best in the class. 

15. The ladies, to whom we had spoken, were cold and hungry. 

1 Omit. 

76. Future Indicative. 

Sing. i. comprar^, I shall buy 

2. comprarAs, j^« will buy 

3. comprar A, he will buy 

Plur. I. compraremos, we shall buy 

2. comprar6is,^^« will buy 

3. comprar An, they will buy 

I ComprarA Vd. ? Shall you buy f 

Sing. I wen6er 6^ I shall sell Sing. \ . viwir i^ I shall live 

2. vender As, you will sell 2. vivir As, you will live 

3. vender A, he will sell 3. vivir A, he will live 

Plur. I. vender emos, we shall sell Plur. i. vivir emos, we shall Jive 

2. vender ^is,_y^« will sell 2. vivir ^is,^;'^^ will live 

3. vender An, they will sell 3. vivir An, they will live 

I VenderA Vd. ? Shall you sell f i VivirA Vd. ? Shall you live f 

a. The future tense, indicative mood, of a Spanish verb is formed 
from the infinitive by adding the present tense of haber. The accent 


falls on the ending, and (except in the first person plural) is written. The 
h, being a silent letter, is not written, nor the hab of the second person 
plural : comprar(h)^, comprar(hab)^i8. 

b. Frequently the expressions will you, I will, etc. mean are you 
willing, I wish, etc., in which case they should be rendered by the 
proper forms of querer : will you buyf ^qniere Vd. comprar? 

77. Conditional. 

Sing. I. comprsr Ul^ / should buy 

2. comprar las, ^^« would buy 

3. comprar la, he would buy 

Plur. I. comprar iamosy we should buy 

2. comprar iaisy^<7» would buy 

3. comprar ian, they would buy 

^Compraria Vd.? Should you buy? 

Sing. I. vender la, I should sell Sing. I. vivirla, I should live 

2. vender las, _y^« would sell 2. vivirlas,^^« would live 

3. vender la, he would sell 3. vivirla, he would live 

Plur. 1. wtn6.txit^m.o%yWe should sell Plur. i. viviriaxios,we should live 

2. vender laiSj^^'^w would sell 2. vivirlais,^^^ would live 

3. vender Ian, they would sell 3. vivirlan, they would live 

I Venderla Vd. ? Should you sell ? i Vivirla Vd. ? Should you live f 

a. The conditional is formed from the infinitive by adding the endings 
of the imperfect tense of haber : comprar(hab)la. 

b. The conditional takes the name from its frequent use in the con- 
clusion of a condition: Si tuyiese dinero, oomprarla el perro. If I had 
money, I should buy the dog. The conditional is only used in connec- 
tion with some verb in a past tense ; hence, it stands for the future in a 
quoted statement depending on a verb denoting past time : Comprard el 
perro, He will buy the dog ; Dijo que comprarla el perro. He said that 
he would buy the dog. 

c. Should in the sense of ought is rendered by some form of deber, 
or other word expressing obligation : / should go because my father is 
sick, Debo ir porqne estd malo mi padre. 

78. Idiomatic Expressions. The Spanish word for time in the 
sense of hour, or 6^ clock, is la hora. 



I Qu6 hora es ? 
Es la una. 

Son las d08. 

Son las tres y cuarto. 

Son las cnatro y diez minntos. 

En mi reloj son las cinco y media. 
Son las seis menos cuarto. 

I A qu6 hora ? 

A las doce del dia. 
A las doce de la noche. 
A la media noche. 
De la madrugada. 
De la magana. 
De la tarde. 
De la noche. 
Por la maSana. 



What time (lit. what hour) is it f 

It is one o^clock, (Note the omis- 
sion of hora.) 

// is two o^ clock. (Note the plural 
of verb and article. The verb 
may be omitted, but never the 

It is a quarter past three. , 

// is ten minutes past four. (The 
word minutos may be omitted.) 

By my watch it is half past five. 

It is a quarter to six (lit six less a 
quarter. Between half past and 
the hour to come, state the next 
hour, less, menos, the minutes). 

When ? (cuAndo meaning when is 
more general, referring to any 
time except time of day.) 

At twelve noon. 

At twelve of the night. 

At midnight. 

A M /(^^^"^ midnight till dawn.) 

*\ (From dawn till noon.) 
P M /(^^^"^ noon till sunset.) 

' \ ( From sunset till midnight.) 

In the forenoon. (When the time 

is indefinite use por, otherwise'de.) 


A. a. Conjugate and translate the future and the conditional of 
hablar, comer, escribir, marcharse. 

b. Translate: i. He will speak. 2. He would speak. 3. Shall 
you write ? 4. Will you write ? 5. Would you write ? 6. When will 
he arrive ? 7. He will arrive at five o'clock. 8. When shall you go 
away? 9. I shsdl go away at hsdf-past seven. 10. They shall go 
at once (en seguida). 11. Will you go with our family? 12. I do 
not wish to go to-morrow. 13. How much will you pay ? 14. I am 
willing to pay ten dollars. 


B, I. Ano nuevo. Hoy los hombres saludan y felidtan a sus 
amigos escribiendo en la tarjeta de visita — Feliz ano nuevo. En 
un ano nuevo pueden suceder muchas cosas nuevas. Entre manana 
y ayer esta la vida. Ayer — esperaba : manana — recordard. Este 
ano seri tan largo como el pasado. Despuds veremos la fecha en 
la moneda. Pronto vendrd ^ la Primavera. Los valles y las laderas 
de los montes abriran al piiblico sus perf umerfas. Del Sur llegaran 
companfas de pdjaros a cantar; se tenderan alfombras de hierba 
en los campos: doseles de verdura cubrirdn los bosques. Todo 
sera luz, aroma y armonfa. 


,, . , NuEVA York, 2 de abril de 1012 

Muy senor mlo y amigo : 

En contestaci6n a su tarjeta postal de ayer, tengo el gusto de 
participarle ^ que el cartero entregd la tarjeta a las once y media de 
la manana. Me dijo • dste que si Vd. echaba sus cartas en el co- 
rreo mas temprano, llegarfan con el tren correo de la noche y se- 
rlan entregadas aquf a las ocho de la manana. 

Si Vd. manda valores, debe certificar la carta. En tal caso debe 
Vd. escribir su nombre y direccidn en el sobre. El gasto del certi- 
ficado importa diez centavos ademas del franqueo, que se paga en 
sellos pegados sd sobre. 

Saludo a Vd. y quedo como siempre su afJ"°* amigo. 

Carlos RoDRfcuEz 

C I. ^ A qud hora sde el tren para Sevilla? 2. jA qu^ bora 
principia la clase ? 3. j Que hora es en su reloj t 4. i Cuindo Ue- 
gara su padre de Venezuela? 5. ^ Cuando quiere Vd. ir a casa.? 

6. I Como felicitara Vd. a sus amigos el dfa de Ano Nuevo .? 

7. I Cuando sera Ano Nuevo ? 8. ,; Cuando se cubriran los arboles 
de verdura ? 9. ^ A qu6 hora Uegara el correo ? 10. ^ Qui^n traerd 
las cartas ? 11. Explique Vd.* en espaiiol la palabra " correo." 

1 vendrd, future of venir, to come, * af ."•, abbreviation for afectf- 

^ le = astedy^^M. siino, sincere. 

* dijo, preterit of dedr, he told, ^ Expliqae Vd., explain. 


D, I. The concert will begin at 8.30 p.m. 2. He will write 
Wednesday. He said that he would write Wednesday. 3. Mr. L6- 
pez went away yesterday. His daughter will go away to-morrow. 
4. When will the train arrive from Madrid ? My brother has writ- 
jten that he would arrive to-day. 5. It is ten o'clock by the cathe- 
drsd clock ; but by my watch I have seven minutes to ten. 6. I 
shsdl post my letters at nine p.m. 7. What should you send John ? 
I should send money. 8. My friends will arrive in the morning. 
I shall go to the station at a quarter past eight. 9. The mail will 
be here at 10.30 a.m., and will be delivered at the post-office. 
10. Where shall I buy stamps for these letters ? 11. We shall send 
the money by registered letter on Wednesday. 12. How many 
stamps shall I stick on the envelope ? 



^Tiene Vd. el liteo ? Have you the book ? 
Lo tengo. / have it. 

I Tiene Vd. la pluma ? Have you the pen f 

La tengo. / have it. 

£ Tiene Carlos los libros? Has Charles the books? 

Los tiene. He has them, 

I Tiene ^1 las plumas ? Has he the pens ? 

Las tiene. He has them. 

i Vi6 Vd. ayer a su madre? Did you see your mother yesterday f 

La vl. / saw her. 

^Me vid Vd. ayer? Did you see me yesterday f 
No le vl, seSor. / did not see you^ sir. 

I Qu6 mand6 Vd. a su padre ? What did you send to your father f 

Le mand6 una carta. / sent him. a letter. 

I Qu6 mand6 Vd. a su madre ? What did you send to your mother f 

Le mand^ una carta. / sent her a letter. 

I A ella tambi^n ? To her also f 

SI, seSor, a ella y a ^1. Yes^ sir^ to her and to him. 

Le liabl6 a usted, no a 61. / spoke to you, not to him. 

Note. The arrow indicates the word to which the pronoun refers. 


80. The Personal Pronouns have the following forms. 

subject direct object indirect object prepositional 

1 . yb, / me, me me, {to) me ml, me 

2. tu, thou te, thee te, {to) thee ti, thee 

3. ^1, he 1 . le or lo, him\ . le, (to) him'\{to) 61, him \ . 
eUaifShej Ia, her J U, (to) her J it ella, ^^r J 


1 . nosotros(-a8), we nos, us nos, (to) us no80tro8(-a8), us 

2. vosotros(-as),^tf« os, you os, (to) you YoaoUoaC-asyyyou 

3. ellos, /^^ los, them les, (/^) /^^/» ellos, them 
ellas, M^y las, /A^/;^ les, (to) them ellas, M/?/;^ 

a. Usted is represented by the pronouns of the third person ac- 
cording to gender and number. 

viatdd,you -I, :r /I le,(to)you uaied,you 

'"^ \l8L, you (fem.) j ' ^ -'•' '-^ 

d. The reflexive pronoun se has the prepositionsd form si : Dios 
me llama a si, Go^ calls me to himself. 

81. The Objective Forms of the personal pronouns are placed 
before the verb, except the infinitive mood, the present participle, 
and the positive imperative. The pronouns follow these verb forms, 
and are written as one word with them. If the addition of this ex- 
tra syllable causes the spoken accent to fall on any syllable farther 
back than the second from the end of the combination, the accented 
syllable must be marked by a written accent. 

Me habla. He speaks to me. 

H^bleme Vd. Speak to me. 

No me hable Vd. Don't speak to me. 

Quiere hablarme. He wishes to speak to me. 

Habl^ndome. Speaking to me. 

a. The objective pronouns have no accent of their own, but are 
pronounced as a part of the verb to which they belong. Me lo da, 


He gives it to me, is pronounced as if written melodd. No me ha 
dadO; He has not given me, pronounced Nomehadddo, 

b. On account of their close relation to the verb, the objective 
forms of the personal pronouns are sdso called " conjunctive." 

82. The Prepositional Forms are used after prepositions: una 
carta para ^1, a letter for him. They may be stressed in pronun- 
ciation, so are used to explain or emphasize the unaccented objec- 
tive forms : Nos e8cribi6 a mi y a mi hermano (explanatory). He 
wrote to us, (that is) me and my brother \ Me lo da a mi, no a ti 
(emphasis). He gives it to tne, not to you. 

a. The forms mi, ti, and si are not used after con. Instead, 
note the special forms conmigo, with m^ ; contigo, with thee ; con- 
sigo, with himself. 

b. Being used apart from the verb, the prepositional forms are 
also called " disjunctive." 

83. Adverbs in Spanish are formed from adjectives by the addi- 
tion of mente to the feminine singular : seguramente, safely. Re- 
member that the feminine of adjectives which do not end in in 
the masculine, with a few exceptions (see section 135), is like the 
masculine : hence, cort^smente, politely ; alegremente, joyfully, 

a. li two or more adverbs follow each other, mente is added only to 
the last : Oi el toque clara y distintamente, / heard the signal clearly 
and distinctly. 

b. From nouns, adverbial expressions are formed by the use of prepo- 
sitions : con alegria, joyfully ; sobre todo, especially, above all ; en 
seguida, at once, immediately. 

c. Adjectives are sometimes used as adverbs : Vivian dichosos, They 
lived happily. 


A. a. Supply the pronouns and translate: 1. To me mandd mi 
padre una carta. It recibf yo ayer. 2. Voy a contestar — him. 
3. Tengo un buen libro. i It quiere Vd. } 4. i Qui^n quiere mis pe- 
rros? 77iem quiero yo. $* lUs v\6 su padre ayer? i You vi6 ^1 
tambi^n? 6. No mev'i6. Quiere ver — you. y* i Us espera Juan? 


Sf, us espera. 8. Him esperamos. To him escriW, no to her, 9. To 
her escribimos la carta. It redbi6 ella ayer. 10. ^Tiene Vd. una 
carta para me} 11. ^Quiere Vd. venir con mel Sf, quiero ir con 

b. Translate: i. J^ef erring to a house (una casa). I saw it. He 
sold it. He wishes to sell it. We live in it. 

2 . lief erring to some books (libros). We have them. I am not read- 
ing them. Do you wish to read them ? I gave two dollars for them. 

3. Referring to a horse (un caballo). We have bought it. He 
has sold it They did not buy it How much did he pay for it ? 

4. Referring to some flowers (unas flores). He does not have 
them. I wish them. I wish to see them. How many are there of 

5. Referring to human beings, I met you. I met her. What did 
he give you? He gave her some flowers. I shall send you my 
book. We met them (masc). What did he give them? I saw them 
{fem,), I gave them the letter. I did not sell him the horse. He 
will send her a present. I wish to sell you my house. 

c. Make adverbs from these adjectives and give meanings : lento, 
fidl, claro, feliz, elegante, perfecto. 

Supply two adverbs to modify habl6, he spoke ; escribe, he writes, 

B, I. Hace muchos anos un campesino regresd de un viaje a 
casa donde tenfa una mujer hermosa y una pequefia nina muy bo- 
nita. A ti — dijo a su mujer — te he traldo un espejo. Mfrale^ y dime ^ 
qud ves dentro. Le did ' entonces una caja de madera donde, cuando 
la abrid ella, encontrd el espejo. AUf vid la joven esposa una cara 
que la miraba y le sonrefa alegremente. — i Qu^ ves ? preguntd el 
marido. — Veo a una linda moza que me mira y lleva un vestido 
azul exactamente como el mfo. — Tonta, es tu propia cara, le con- 
testd el marido. Encantada la mujer con el regalo pasd algunos 
dfas mirandose. Considerd el espejo como una alhaja de sobrado 

^ look at it. ' tell me. ^ he gave. 


precio ; la guard6 en su caja y la ocultd entre sus tesoros. Como 
no hablaba nunca del espejo, el padre lo olvidd completamente. 
Pasaron anos y marido y mujer vivfan muy dichosos. Pero llegd 
un dfa en que la madre cay 6 enferma y aunque la hija la cuidd cx)n 
tiemo afecto se fue^ empeorando cada vez mas. Cuando conocid 
ella que pronto debfa abandonar a su marido y a su hija, se afligfa 
por ellos, sobre todo por la nina. La llamd pues y le dijo^ : — Que- 
rida hija mfa, ya ves que estoy muy enferma y pronto voy a morir 
y a dejairqs solos a ti y a tu padre. Prom^teme que miraras en el 
espejo todos los dfas al despertar y al acostarte. En ^1 me veras y 
conoceras que estoy siempre velando por ti. Entonces le ensend el 
sitio donde estaba oculto el espejo y la nina prometid con lagrimas 
lo que su madre le pedfa, y ^sta expird a poco. En adelante la nina 
tomaba cada maiiana y cada tarde el espejo del lugar donde estaba 
oculto y miraba en ^1 por largo rato e intensamente. Allf vefa la 
cara de su perdida madre. A ella confiaba de noche sus disgustos 
del dfa y en ella sd despertar buscaba aliento y caririo. 

Muy seiior mfo, Santiago de Chile, 14 de juHo 

Adjunto le devuelvo el libro que me prestd Vd. hace ocho dfas. 
El portador de la presente le entregara tambi^n algunas cartas que 
nos escribid a mf y a mi hermano nuestro padre. Si le interesan, 
puedo enviarle otras. Al mismo tiempo si Vd. me manda otros 
libros, le quedarfa muy agradecido. Dandole gracias anticipadas, 

quedo de Vd., . ,. to c c 

^ Su amigo y at. S.S. 

Andres Romero 

C. Answer with pronouns for the italicized nouns : i. { Qud ha 
trafdo el seiior a su mujer ? 2, { Abrid ella la caja ? 3. ^ Que estaba 
en la caja ? 4. ^ Qu^ vid la joven esposa en el espejo ? 5. ^ Vid ella 
su propia cara ? 6. ^ Ddnde guardd la mujer el espejo ? 7. ^ Hablaba 
el padre del espejo} 8. En la bora de su muerte, ^qu^ dijo la 

^86... mAB, k^t getting constantly worse, ^ said. 


mujer a su hija ? 9. ^ Qu^ prometid la hija a su madre ? 10. ^ Vi<5 
la nina en el espej'o la cara de su madre ? 

Z>. I . The young wife took the wooden box and opened it at once. 
2. In it she found a mirror. 3. She used to hide it securely among 
her treasures. 4. She used to take it and look at herself every day. 
5. As the father forgot the mirror completely, the mother did not 
speak to him about it. 6. The mother said : "I am going to leave 
you and your father alone." 7. The mother showed the little girl 
the place where she had hidden it. 8. She gave her the mirror and 
said : " In it you will see me." 9. The girl promised her that she 
would look at it. 10. Will you lend me a pencil ? I shall send you 
one this afternoon. 11. Did I lend you a book yesterday? Yes, 
you lent me Don Quixote. 12. When will you send ipe the flowers ? 
I shall send you the flowers to-morrow morning. 13. Will^ you go 
to the theater with me to-night ? A friend has presented me with^ 
two tickets to the performance. 14. Mr. Gonzalez spoke to us at 
once because he recognized us as' two young Americans. 15. We 
answered him politely but firmly that we could not accept his offer 
to * accompany us. 

1 See § 76, b. - 2 Omit. » por. * de. 


84. Irregular Verbs. Many common verbs are irregular in their 
conjugation. These are conveniently memorized by considering 
their forms as derived from six principal parts. See section 243. 

85. Social Forms. 

Para servir a N^.\At your service, (When speaking of one's self or 

Servidor de Vd. J instead of answering one's own name.) 

I Tengo el gusto de hablar con Don Have I the pleasure of speaking 

Juan L6pez ? with Mr, John Ldpez ? 

Servidor de Vd. At your service, 

I Con qui^n tengo el honor de With whom have I the honor of 

hablar ? speaking ? 

Con Juan L6pez, para servir a Vd. With John Ldpez ^ at your service. 



These forms may seem stilted. But as the Spanish are formal 
and cxjurteous in their intercourse with strangers, the foreigner who 
wishes to succeed with them should cultivate their manners. 

Quiero presentarle a mi amigo, el / wish to introduce you to my 

SeSor Men^ndez. friend^ Mr, Menindez, 

Mucho gusto en conocerle. Or Pleased to meet you. 
Celebro la ocasi6n de conocerle. 

On taking leave of anybody (despedirse), it is good form to call 

your home his by saying Tiene Yd. su casa, calle de Le6n, nti- 

mero 75. This is equivalent also to an invitation to call. 

Siento molestarle, seSor. / am sorry to trouble you, sir. 

No hay molestia. No trouble. 

Me alegro de saber que su hermano / am glad to learn that your 
de Vd. estd mejor de salud. brother is better in health. 


A. a. Learn the principal parts of ser, estar, tenet, venir, ir, 
decir, hacer, querer. 

b. Conjugate the present indicative and the preterit indicative of 
the above verbs ; also the imperfect indicative of ser and ir. 

c. I. Use ser, to be. 

I am an American. 
He is a Spaniard. 
It is nine o'clock. 

Use both imperfect and preterit 

I was a^ soldier. 

It was ten o'clock (impf). 
2. Use estar, to be. 

I am here. 
Where is he ? 
How are you? 

^ Use polite form. 

Are you^ a Cuban? 

We 1 

r^. J- are not Englishmen. 

Were you a ^ lawyer ? 


They J 

-were merchants. 


► was in Mexico. 
How long were you there ? 
^ Omit. See section 26, i. 



Here ^ we are. 
Are they at home ? 

We I 

were not at home. 

3. Use tener, to have. 


We 'have. 

Does he have ? 
Do you ^ have ? 

4. Use venir, to come. 

I 1 

We Sdid not have. 

\ olhave? 

What did 





He comes. 







When does he come .? 

I am coming. 

He is coming. 

We ] 

They |-are not coming. 

You J 

'he 1 
Where ' did^ you i-come from ? 

When * did you come ? 

5. Use ir (a), to go (to) ; irse, to go away. 

I am going now.* I 

Where • is he going ? He 




•-are going home. You^ 

To-morrow I go away. 
Does he go away ? Where • did 
When do they go off ? 

1 here = ya. 

2 Singular and plural. 

' where fivtn^ i de d6&de ? 



►went to Cuba. We 

You 2 

► was gomg. 

► were going. 



He was going away, 
^go? I went away. 
They went off. 

* Translate in two ways. 

* ya. (Put before the verb.) 

* ad6nde. 



6. Use dedr, to say, to tell. 


We \ say. 

They J 

He says. 

What is he saying ? What did 

What do you say 1 

I 1 

We Ssaid. 

They J 




I was sa3dng. 

You were saying — ? ^ 

say then ? 

idf ^ ,|do? 

7. Use hacer,- to make, to do. 

' 1 ' 1 

We i-make. We ^made. 

They J They J 

What does he do ? „„ ... fhe 

wn, 4. 2 J • .What did-^ 

What are you ^ doing ? [ you 

8. Use querer, to wish, to desire. 

' 1 ' 

You i-wish to go. We 

They J They J 

What does he wish ? 
What do you wish 1 

What was he doing ? 
What were you* doing t 

wished to come. 

What did 



► wish.!* 

B. Una tarde cuando ya se anochecfa Flor se encontrd con el doc- 
tor Guzman a la vuelta de una esquina, y ^ste se detuvo a saludarla. 
-7- 1 Hola ! exclamd el con alegrfa.") 

— Para servir a Vd., doctor, ella. 

— I Adonde va por estos lados ? 

— Vivo muy cerca ; vengo del trabajo y voy a casa. 

— ^ Y qu^ hace Vd. ahora ? 

— Coser, coser y Uevar esta vida con paciencia. 

— Pero I qu^ bien la encuentro de salud ! 

— Despu^s de Dios, gracias a Vd. 

— Pues lo celebro mucho. He tenido gran placer en saludarla. 

^ i Decfa Vd. ? is the proper way to ask one to repeat what has not been 
understood, i Qa6 ? w^at, is vulgar. ^ Singular and plural. 


— Adi6s, adids, doctor. 

Y se estrecharon las manos. 

Un domingo por la tarde Rosalia entrd en casa de Flor. Estaba 
^sta en el jardfn, regando las macetas. Confusa Flor sali6 a recibirla. 

— Yo soy Rosalia de Valera : vivo en la calle de la Paz, casa 
niimero 36, y allf estoy a sus drdenes. 

— Senora, muchas gracias. Tengo mucho gusto en conocerla, 
y en esta casa habita una servidora de usted. 

— Me han dicho que usted hace muy bien toda clase de bordados. 

— Sf, senora, puedo bordar lo que usted quiera. 

— Pues bien, yo vengo a eso justamente. Puede usted hacerme 
el servicio de bordarme para dentro de dos meses cuatro fundas de 
almohada muy bonitas y vistosas. Las quiero asf para un regalo, 
I sabe usted ? 

— No tengo inconveniente. 

— Entonces i puedo contar con ellas ? 
^ — SI, senora. 

C. I, I Ddnde se encontrd Flor con el doctor ? 2. i Qu^ hizo el ? 
3 . I Con qu^ saludo contestd ella ? 4. i De ddnde vino ella } 5 . ^- Que 
clase de trabajo tuvo ? 6. ^' Qu6 hicieron al despedirse ?^7. i C6mo 
se present© a Flor la senora de Valera ? 8. ^' C6mo le contestd Flor ? 
9. I Que quiso la senora ? 10. i Para cudndo quiere las fundas de 
almohada ? 11.^ C6mo las quiere ? 12, i Que es una almohada ? 

Z>. I. Have I the pleasure of addressing Mr. Valera? At your 
service. 2. I am pleased to make your acquaintance. 3. How is 
your health to-day ? Much better, thank you. I am glad. 4. My 
grandfather comes at three o'clock this afternoon. I shall meet him 
at three o'clock this afternoon. 5. He says that he is going to Cuba 
next month. I shall go with him. 6. One Tuesday morning^ I 
went to his house and found him in bed very sick. 7. They said 
that they would go to Spain with me. 8. I wished to see him but 
he did not come to New York. 9. Where did he come from ? He 

1 por la mafiana. 




came from Mexico because he wished to learn English.^ 10. Yes- 
terday they came at a quarter to five ; and we were "there to meet 
them. 1 1 . What time was it when they went ? ^ It was 9 p.m. when 
they said that they were going, but they did not go before 9.30. 
12. The tailor who made me this suit said that it would be ready 
last week. 13. I told him that I wished it for Sunday. 14. We did 
not have the kind of goods which he wished. 15. They stopped 
on the comer of the street to greet us. 

^ Insert definite article. 

3 Use Irse. 


86. The Imperative Mood expressing command has these forms : 

-ar VERBS -er verbs -ir verbs 

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

t. compra comprad 2. vende vended 2. escribe escribid 

87. The Use of the imperative mood is limited to positive com- 
mands of the familiar form ; that is, to children or intimate acquaint- 
ances. Formal or polite requests, and negative commands of the 
familiar form, are supplied from the present subjunctive. A complete 
scheme follows : 



-ar verbs 



no compres 

compre Vd. 

no compre Vd. 



no compr^is 

compren Vds. 

no compren ^ds. 


dotiH buy 

-er verbs 

dotCt buy 



no vendas 

venda Vd. 

no venda Vd. 



po vend^is 

vendan Vds. 

no vendan Vds. 


dorCt sell 

-ir verbs 

dotiH sell 



no escribas 

escriba Vd. 

no escriba Vd. 



no escrib&is 

escriban Vds. 

no escriban Vds< 


dotCt write 


don't write 


88. The Sabjunctive Mood, present tense, has the following forms : 

-ar VERBS -er and -ir verbs 

Sing. I. compre Sing. I. vend a 

2. compres 2. vend as 

3. compre 3. venda 

Plur. I. compremos Plur. i. vendamos 

2. compr^is 2. vendAis 

3. compren 3. vend an 

A translation of the forms is not given because it might lead to mis- 
conceptions. See section 109. 

89. Radical-Changing Verbs, being accented on the radical, suf- 
fer a change of vowel in the 2d person singular of the imperative, 
and throughout the singular and in the 3d person plural of the 
present subjunctive. See sections 244-247 for models. 

90. The Present Subjunctive, when not used in a clause depend- 
ent on another verb, is used independently to express (i) a command 
or (2) a wish. 

I. English commands in the second person are ^ given by the 
imperative, usually 'without a subject expressed ; as, Go, English 
commands in the first person plural, and in the third person singu- 
lar and plural, are given by a locution beginning with let ; as. Let 
us go. Let him go, Spanish uses the subjunctive mood for all (ex- 
cept familiar commands, see section 87), but usually introduces the 
third persons by que. Note the forms : 

To speak, hablar 

Sing. 2. Speak, Hable Vd. 

3. Let John speak, Que Juan hable 
Let her speak, Que hable ella 

Plur. I. Let us speak, Hablemos 

2. Speak, Hablen Yds. 

3. Let them speak. Que hablen 


To sit doTvn, sentane 

Sing. 2. Sit doTvn, Si^ntese Vd. 

3. Let him be seated^ Que se siente 
Let her sit down^ Que se siente eUa 

Plur. I. Let us sit down^ Sent^monos 

2. Sit down^ Sidntense Vds. 

3. Let them be seated^ Que se sienten 

a. The present subjunctive is sometimes used for the imperative, even 
in affirmative commands. — Sube al momento. No recibi6 contestacidn. 
— Que subas. " Come up at once?'' He received no reply. " Com^ upj*^ 

b. The present indicative appears for the subjunctive in mild com- 
mands. Vas alii y le suplicas y le ruegas. Go there and beg and entreat 

2. A wish is expressed in English by the subjunctive or by may 
followed by an infinitive. Spanish uses the subjunctive mood. 

\ Viva el rey ! Long live the king I 

I Dios le ampare I God protect you / 

I Sea Vd. feliz I May you be happy / 

91. Pronouns, with the imperative or the subjunctive used as 
imperative, follow the verb and are appended to it, unless the 
expression is negative or introduced by que or some other word, 
in which cases the pronoun precedes. 

H&galo Vd. Do it. Dime ahora. Tell me now. 

No lo haga. Don'^t do it. No le digas. Don^t tell him, 

H&galo Jorge, or Que Jorge lo haga. Let George do it. 

92. Reflexive Verbs have the following peculiarities : 

1. The second plural imperative loses d before os, except irse: 

sentad -f os = sentaos, be seated 
But id08, go away 

2. The first plural drops s before noa : 

yamos -|- nos = ydmonos, Let ^s go away 
sentemos -|- nos = sent^monos, Let^s sit down 


93. Idiomatic Expressions. Englishplease, introducing a request, 
may be rendered by various locutions as in the following : 

Tonga Vd. la bondad de cerrar la Please (lit. Have the kindness to) 

pnerta. close the door. 

H&game Vd. el fayor de repetir. Please ()i\.. Do me the favor to) 

Sirvase Vd. traerme un yaso de . Please bring tne a glass of water, 
agna. (Siryase, from senrirse, is less 

courteous than the other expres- 
Pase Vd. Come in, sions. Use with persons under 

Pase Vd. adelante. Go first, obligation to serve you; fre- 

Dispense Vd. Excuse me, quent in business letters.) 


A, I. Express in the negative, familiar form : 

Speak) habla (hablar) Give, da (dar) 

Take, toma (tomar) Say, di (decir) 

Eat, come (comer) Come, ven (venir) 

Drink, bebe (beber) Go, v6 (ir) 

Go up, sube (subir) Go away, v^ (irse) 

Open, abre (abrir) Do, haz (hacer) 

Close, cierra (cerrar) Put, pon (poner) 

2. Put all the above forms in the plural, 

3. Express the same in the polite form, singular and plurcU, posi- 
tive and negative, 

4. Translate: 

To get into the carriage, Subir al ooche To go auoay, Irse 

Get into the carriage, sir Go away 

Let him get in Let him go away 

Let Mary get in Let Charles go away 

Let us get in Let us go away 

Get in, gentlemen Go away (//«r.) 

Let them get in Let them go away 


B. I. Mozo, trdigame Vd. un vaso de agua y una taza de caf^. 
Sfrvase Vd. echarme esta carta al correo. Dfgame Vd. el nombre 
de este pescado. 2. Cochero, ll^veme Vd. al teatro del Prfncipe y 
no se pare Vd. hasta Uegar. Espere un momento, he olvidado mi 
paraguas. Agudrdeme Vd. aquf. 3. Caballero, hagame Vd. el fa- 
vor de indicar el camino de la casa de correos. Vaya Vd. derecho 
fjor adelante. 4. Sfrvase hablar mds despacio. No comprendo bien 
cuando Vd. habla tan de prisa. 5. Caballero, ^'por ddnde se va 
al Hotel de Inglaterra? Siga Vd. hasta la esquina de la tercera 
calle y de vuelta a la izquierda. 6. Tenga Vd. la bondad de repetir. 
Soy extranjero y no comprendo si Vd. no habla despacio. 7. Co- 
chero, vaya Vd. m£s de prisa. No llegaremos a tiempo. Ya esta- 
mos. Bajemos. 8. Vamos a pie al parque y sent^monos debajo de 
los drboles. i No serfa mejor ir en coche o en tranvfa ? 9. Ya es- 
toy cansado de andar. Subamos al tranvfa y regresemos a casa. 

10. Conductor, hdgame bajar en la esquina f rente a la catedral. 

11. Pase Vd., seiior. Tome Vd. este asiento. No se vaya Vd. tan 
pronto. Quede Vd. un ratito. 12. Que el camarero me traiga el pe- 
riddico de hoy. 13. Que el camarero me Uame a las siete. 14. Que 
el mozo suba mi baiil a mi habitacidn. 

C The answers to the following should contain a verb in the sub- 
junctive mood expressing command:'^ i. i Quiere el seiior leche en el 
caf^ ? 2. 1 Dare yo la carta al cartero ? 3. Caballero, hagame Vd. 
el favor de indicar el camino del teatro del Prfncipe. 4. i Quiere 
Vd. indicarme la casa de correos ? 5. ^ Por ddnde se va a la calle 
de Alcala ? 6. ^- C6mo iremos al parque ? 7. ^ Quiere el senor el pe- 
riiSdico de hoy ? 8. ^ A qu^ hora quiere Vd. que le Uame t 9. Sefior, 
hay un caballero a la puerta, quien quiere entrar. 10. ^ Iremos al 
teatro en tranvfa o en coche ? 1 1. ^ En ddhde quiere Vd. su baiil ? 

12. ^ Me comprende Vd ^ 

* The answers to Cmay be taken directly from ^with some variations; 
for example, one answer to 12 might be, No may bien; sinrase hablar mAs 


Z>. I. What street-car do I take to go to the park ? Follow this 
street to the next comer and go south.^ 2. Please give me a time- 
table of the trains for Chicago. Do the trains stop for meals? 
3. Please tell me where is the railway station. Go straight ahead 
as far as the third comer and turn to the right. You will see it 
then. 4. Let's go to the theater. Shall we go on foot ? No, let's 
take a carriage. 5. Driver, take me to the plaza and stop in front 
of the hotel. 6. Here* comes a car. Let's get in and go home. 
7. Let us stay in the park to see the animals. Let's buy some bread 
to give them. 8. Let John bring me«some fried eggs and a cup of 
coffee. 9. I cannot understand you if you speak fast. Please speak 
more slowly. 10. Call me at 6.30, as I wish to take the first train 
home. II. Please ask the letter-carrier if he has any letters for me. 
12. If Mr. Gonzalez comes, let him come in at once. I wish to 
speak to him. 13. Please tell me if I am speaking to Mr. Genaro 
Chic ? At your service. 1 4. Wait for me a moment. I am going 
to mail an important letter. 15. Can you show me Mr. Ldpez's 
house? I will show you his house, if you will accompany me 
as far as the next comer. 

1 Supply al. ^ ya. 


94. Two Pronouns. When two objective pronouns occur with 
the same verb, the indirect object pronoun stands first 

Me lo did. He gave it to me. 

DAmelo. Give it to me. 

Si Vd. tiene mis libros, d^melos. If you have my books, give them 

to me. 

a. When the direct object is a pronoun of the first or second 
person, it is better to express the indirect object in the prepositional 
form preceded by a. 

Te presentd a ml. He introduced you to me. 

Pres^nteme Vd. a ella. Introduce me to her. 



b. When two pronouns of the third person occur together, the 
indirect object pronouns le and les assume the form se (derived 
from Old Spanish ge and not the reflexive se). Thus : 

Escribl una carta a mi padre. I wrote a letter to my father. 

Le escribl una carta. / wrote him a letter. 

La escribl a mi padre. / wrote it to my father. 

Se la escribl. / wrote it to him. 

c. The sentence Se la escribi may have six different meanings. 
To distinguish the various meanings of le, les, and se, use the prep- 
ositional forms of the pronouns : thus, 

wt'\to him^ a 61 
or \ to her^ a ella 
le J to you, a usted 

No se las escribl a ellos. 
Quiero declrselo a Vd. 
A 61 le mand6 un paquete. 
A ellas no les habl6. 

se *] to them (m.), a ellos 
or " to them (f .), a ellas 
les J to you (pi.), a ustedes 

/ did not write them to them. 
I wish to tell it to you. 
I sent him, a package. 
He did not speak to them. 

In sentences like these an English speaker is tempted to omit the 
conjunctive form. Do not omit it, because the prepositional form 
merely explains the other and is not a substitute or alternative. 

95. With hay the personal pronouns usually have the meaning 
of some. 

See section 253 for conjugation of the impersonal verb hay. 

^ D6nde hay sastrerlas ? — Las hay " Where are there some tailors^ 
en la calle dQ Francos. shops ? " " There are some in 

Francos street?'' 

^Hay husTOS frescos? — Los hay ^^ Are there any fresh eggs?'*'' 
de primera clase. " First-class ones^ 

96. Muy, very, is a shortened form of mucho ; and must be re- 
placed by mucho when occurring alone. The intensified form is 
muchisimo (muy mucho is not allowable). English much before 
past participles is muy. (For examples see section 210.) 


97. The Possessive Adjectives given in section 37 are shortetjed 
forms, used before nouns, of the following : 

mlo, my niiestro, our 

tuyo, thy vuestro, your (plur. of tuyo) 

his , . . (de 61) 
suyo-j her . . . (de ella) suyo-* 

your . . . (de listed) 

their (m.) . . . (de ellos) 
their (f .) . . . (de ellas) 
your . . . (de ustedes) 

a. These forms are declined to agree with the thing possessed. 
They stand after the noun, being regularly employed in direct ad- 

Queridos hermanos mlos y queridas My dear brothers and sisters, 

hermanas mlas. (Used by preachers.) 

Amigo mlo. Dear Friend. '\ (Complimentary 

Muy seSores nuestros. Dear Sirs, j openings of letters.) 

b. When the meaning is indefinite, these forms express the Eng- 
lish idiom of mine ^ of his ^ etc. : as, un amigo mio, a friend of mine ; 
ciertos libros suyos, certain books of his. 

c. On account of the several meanings of su and suyo, the prep- 
ositional forms of the personal pronouns may be added after the 
nouns modified, in which case the possessive adjective may be re- 
placed by the definite article : No tengo su libro de ella, or el libro 
de ella, I do not have her book. 

98. Possessive Pronouns are formed from the possessive adjec- 
tives by prefixing the article. 


1. el mlo (la mfa, los mlos, las mlas), mine 

2. el tuyo (la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas), j/^;/rj, thine 

3. el suyo (la suya, los suyos, las suyas), his^ hers, its, or yours 


1. el nuestro (la nuestra, los nuestros, las nuestras), ours 

2. el vuestro (la vuestra, los vuestros, las vuestras), j/^2^rj 

3. el suyo (la suya, los suyos, las suyas), theirs ox yours 


a. The possessive pronouns agree with the thing possessed : Su 
casa es miLs grande que la mia o la de usted, His house is larger than 
mine or yours, 

b. The article may be omitted before a possessive pronoun in 
the predicate : Este libro es mio, This book is mine, 

c, Los mios, los suyos, etc., may mean My folks ^ his tnen^ etc. 

d, Lo mio, etc., means what is mine : as, Con lo suyo y lo mio 
es imposible vivir, On his property and mine it is impossible to live, 

99. Idiomatic Expressions. 

To inquire one's opinion : iQu6 le parece? 
To inquire one's liking: ^C6mo le gusta? 
To invite one to partake : ^Le gusta? 

The subjects of the verbs are the things under discussion ; the 
person who thinks or likes is expressed by an indirect object pro- 
noun. The individuality of the persons may be emphasized by a 
pronoun in the prepositional form. 

I Qu^ le parece este paSo ? What do you think of this cloth ? 

A mi no me parece bueno. / don''t think it is good (lit. // 

doesn't seem good to me), 

I C6mo le gustan a Vd. las naran- How do you like oranges f 


A mi me gustan muchisimo. / like them very much. 

£ Le gusta comer con nosotros ? Will you dine with us f 

I Le gusta una copa ? Have a glass f 

Con mucho gusto. With great pleasure. 


A, Translate: 

(Use the formal singular for you. Remember that pedir and comprar 
take the indirect object of the person from whom a thing is requested 
or bought) 

I. Referrringto a letter (una carta). Give it to me. Give it to 
him. I gave it to you. He delivered it to them. I have not writ- 
ten it to her. 


2. Referring to some books (libros). I asked him for them. He 
asked them of you. I have read them to them. Give them to us. 
Did he send them to you ? 

3. Referring to some apples (manzanas). I did not buy them of 
him. Buy them of me. I wish to buy them of you. Did he sell 
them to him ? He sold them to us. 

4. Referring to a book (un libro). I read it to her yesterday. 
He wishes to read it to you. She sent it to me, not to you. He 
will not send it to her. They will not deliver it to you. 

B, I. Voy a hacer un viaje a Barcelona, i Conoce Vd. un buen 
hotel donde hay ascensor ? 

— Lo hay en el Hotel de Ambos Mundos. AUf encontrard Vd. 
buena cama, buenas comidas y servicio excelente. 

— I Cuales son las horas de las comidas ? 

— Por la manana al levantarse, cafe ; a las diez y media hasta 
las doce, almuerzo ; a las siete, la comida en mesa redonda. 

— I Cuanto pago ? 

— De 8 a 12 pesetas diarias segiin la habitacidn, todo incluso 
sino el cafd y las propinas. Muchos viajeros no toman nada por la 
manana. i Va Vd. a Barcelona por mar o en ferrocarril ? 

— Parto para Barcelona en el tren que sale a las diez de la ma- 
nana. A mf no me gusta viajar por mar. En los camarotes falta 
el aire; huelen mal y siempre me mareo. Ya he tomado en el 
despacho de la companla un billete de primera clase de ida y 
vuelta. Mi equipaje esta en la estacidn, listo para facturax. Yo 
mismo debo estar allf media hora antes de la salida del tren. A mi 
Uegada a Barcelona, alquilard un coche para Uevarme y lo mfo 
derecho al hotel. 

— En la f rontera se registran los baiiles y las maletas a la adua- 
na. Por eso se para el tren casi una hora. Tambien hay fonda si 
tiene Vd. apetito para comer o beber algo. 

— I Tiene Vd. conocidos en Barcelona ? 

— No conozco a nadie allf. El sefior Pdrez es de Barcelona. 


— I Quiere Vd. presentarme a 61 ? 

— Con mucho gusto. 

2. — I Hay buenas tiendas en Barcelona? 

— Las hay muy buenas. Se puede comprar todo. Tienen siem- 
pre buenos surtidos de distintas novedades. 

— I Son m6dicos los precios ? 

— Sf, mucho. Se venden los artfculos a precio fijo y no es pre- 


ciso regatear. 

(JSl viajero entra en una tiendd) 

— I Qu^ desea el senor t 

— Sfrvase ensenarme un traje completo para hombre. 

— I Qu^ le parece ^ste ? Es del mejor pafio ingles, todo lana, 
y de un modelo muy modemo. 

— I Cuanto vale ? 

— Lo vendo a treinta duros. 

— A mf me parece demasiado caro. i No hay mas barato ? 

— Mas barato si, pero no tan bueno. Fljese Vd. en la calidad 
superior. El precio no es muy elevado y si le gusta el traje, puedo 
rebajar diez por ciento pagandolo al contado. No puedo darselo 
por menos. 

— No me gusta el color. Me parece que ese color azul tira a 
verde. Ens^neme Vd. algo mas obscuro. Los colores claros se en- 
sucian facilmente. 

— Pero este color es muy de moda. Vendo muchfsimo. Se lo 
he enseiiado a Vd. primero porque lo escogen tantos senores. i No 
quiere Vd. probar el traje 1 Si le sienta bien, el dependiente puede 
llevarselo a su casa en seguida. 

C, \, I Tiene Vd. su Have o la mla ? 2. ^ De qui^n es este badl ? 
3. I C6mo le gusta a su hermano la ciudad de Barcelona ? 4. i Le 
gusta a Vd. hablar en espanol ? 5 . ^ Hay cartas para ml ? 6. ^ Ddnde 
hay libros espanoles } 7. i Qud le parece este traje ? 8. i Que tal 
encuentra Vd. el hotel .? 9. ^ Quien le ha dicho que voy a Espana ? 
10.^ Ddnde compr6 Vd. un sombrero tan parecido al mlo ? 11.^ Les 


gustan a Vds. las tiendas de Valencia ? 12. ^- Le gusta a Vd. rega- 
tear ? 13. ^ Le gusta mas comprar a precio fijo ? 14. ^ £s de Juan 
aquella maleta? 15. Explique Vd. en espanol el sentido de «un 
conocido » ; « el equipaje » ; « una sala de espera » ; « una fohda » ; 
« un surtido de g^neros.» 

D, I . Can you tell me where to find a good hotel ? There is one in 
Broad Street. 2. Do you buy your clothes in London ? No ; I buy 
mine in New York. 3. I am writing a letter to my folks in Barce-* 
lona ; I shall send it to them at once. 4. My trunk weighs more 
than his. 5. Before the departure of the train, they will search your 
valises and mine. 6. This trunk is mine, but that bag is yours. That 
one yonder is Henry's. 7. There is no elevator in that hotel. I 
think the other is better. 8. I do not like to climb so many stairs. 
9. Will you have an apple 1 Many, many thanks. Nothing seems 
so good to me as a ripe apple. 10. The orange was mine, but he 
had cut it, so I gave it to him. 1 1. They showed a ^ desire to know 
the story and Luciano told it to them. 12. The postman had a let- 
ter for you. We were on the point of asking it of him, when he 
handed it to us. 13. Are the prices high in London? Yes, very. 
They seem higher to me than ours in New York. 1 4. Which coun- 
try do you like best ? I like the country most in which I am living. 
15. I think that I have your valise and that you have mine. 16. If 
you ask him, he will gladly give them to you. 17. Sir, you have 
made a mistake on paying me for^ the oranges. How is that?^ 
Haven't I paid you enough for them.?' 18. I had the pleasure 
of seeing* her and speaking* to her, when I went to mend the 
clock for her.* 19. I am not going to Spain alone; some friends 
of mine are going to take the trip with me. 20. They do not like 
long* journeys on the railroad, and so we shall stop at many places. 

1 Omit. ^ Omit is that. ' Direct object, omityZ^r. 

* Use infinitive. ^ Indirect object. • Supply definite article. 



100. The Infinitive Mood. A verb in the infinitive mood com- 
pletes the meaning of the verb, noun, or adjective on which it de- 

No puede trabajar. He cannot work, 

Queremos venir. We wish to come, 

Pienso ir. / intend to go. 

Ss precise hablar espaSol. // is necessary to speak Spanish, 

a, Before a dependent infinitive most verbs require some prepo- 
sition. The correct preposition must be learned with each verb. 

See Appendix II for lists. 

Aprende a nadar. He is learning to swim. 

Tratar^ de ir. / shall try to go. 

Me entretengo con leer. / amtese myself by reading, 

Consienten en yenir. They consent to come. 

b, A few verbs, notably seguir, govern the present participle. 
Siga Vd. leyendo. Continue reading, 

c, A preposition before the dependent infinitive after some verbs 
causes those verbs to have a different meaning. 

Deber, ought, should, Dejar, let, allow, 

Deber de, must (supposition). Dejar de, stop, neglect, fail. 

No debes leer la novela. You ought not to read the novel, 

Debe de ser tu prime. // must be your cousin. 

Me dejaron salir. They let me go out, 

Ram6n dej6 de hablar. Ramdn stopped speaking. 

No dej6 de darme los buenos dias. He did not fail to wish me good 


101. Verbs denoting motion have the preposition a before the 
dependent infinitive. 

Viene a yerme. He is coming to see m^e, 

Voy a escribir. / am going to write, 

Subi6 a hablar con el mMlco. He went up to speak with the 



a. The English idiom after verbs of motion frequently has a co- 
ordinate verb, as go and see. Such expressions in Spanish require 
that the second verb be put in the infinitive preceded by a. 

Fu^ ella a buscar un hneso. She went and got a bone, 

Venga Vd. a yerme. Come and see me. 

Vaya Vd. a llamar a su padre. Go and call your father, 

102. An infinitive dependent on a noun or an adjective is usu- 
ally connected therewith by the preposition de. 

Tenga Vd. la bondad de decirme. Have the* kindness to tell me. 

Tenemos la costumbre de leer los We have the habit of reading the 

peri6dioos. newspapers. 

Soy capaz de guardar el secreto. / am able to keep the secret. 

a. A few nouns and adjectives have the preposition a before the 

Estaba atento a mirarme. * He was looking at me attentively. 

Condena Vd. la propensidn a llorar You condemn the tendency to cry 
por motivos pueriles. for trifling reasons. 

103. Verbs denoting a sense-perception, as seeing or hearing,, 
show a dependent infinitive with a subject which is also the object 
of the principal verb. The two verbs are usually not separated. 

I Oy6 Vd. sonar la campanula ? Did you hear the bell ring f 

Vi correr a las ni9as. / saw the girls run. 

104. The dependent infinitive, with some exceptions as in sec- 
tion 103 (see also 106), must not have a subject different from that 
of the principal verb. Such expressions as He wishes me-to-come 
require the subjunctive mood (see section 109). But clauses that 
have the same subject as that of the principal verb are put in the 

Cree estar enfermo. He thinks he is sick. 

Espero llegar maSana. / hope I shall arrive to-morrow^ 

Crei haberle encontrado. / thought I had found him. 

a. Decir should be followed only by a noun clause: Dice que estA 
malo, He says that he is sick. 


b. Dejar, to allow ^ pennitir, to permit, and a few other verbs may take 
the dependent infinitive even if there is a particular subject. 

Vuestra Reverencia me va a dejar Your Reverence is going to let me 

ooger en la huerta una poca hoja gather in the garden a few 

para mis gusanos de seda. leaves for my silk-worms, 

Permitia al sol acariciar sus brazos She permitted the sun to caress 

desnudos. her bare arms. 

c, Hacer or mandar with the dependent infinitive means to cause, or 
to have a thing done. 

Size (or mand6) hacer un traje. He ordered a suit made, 
Hace facturar el haul. He has the trunk checked. 

Hence arise several idiomatic combinations : 

Hacer venir al m^ico. To send for the doctor, 

Hacer pasar al seSor. To show the gentleman in, 

Hacer saber. To make known. 

If the second verb has both a subject and an object, the subjunctive 
mood should be preferred : Haga Vd. que Rosa lo coloque en el 8ill6n de 
ruedas, Have Rosa put you in the wheel-chair. 

105. The infinitive is used as a verbal noun, 

1. Either as subject or object of a verb. 

Oir la 6pera es alll lo de menos. To hear the opera is the least thing 

Era frecuente encontrarla en la // was a frequent thing to meet 

calle. her in the street, 

Recnerdo mucho trabajar. / remember working a great deal, 

a. In this use of the infinitive the article frequently occurs. 

£1 cazar es buen ejercicio. Hunting is good exercise. 

Trabajo me cuesta el creerlo. To believe it is difficult (lit. costs 

me labor). 
Disimule Vd. el no haber contestado. Pardon my not having answered, 

2. After prepositions. (English uses only the present participle.^) 

Antes de viajar. Before traveling, 

Parti6 sin decir adl6s. He left without saying good-by, 

^ed^ en el colegio hasta cumplir / remained at school until I was 
I08 dieciocho aSos. eighteen years old. 

1 English grammarians commonly term this a verbal noun or gerund. 


106. After some prepositions the infinitive mood appears in de- 
pendent clauses with idiomatic meaning. Such clauses may have 
the subject different from that of the principal clause. 

1 . A introduces a conditional clause. 


Hnbiera prendido el fuego al con- The fire would have spread to the 
yento a no ser por los bomberos convent if it had not been for 

que llegaron en seguida. the firemen who arrived imme- 


a. A yer is sometimes used imperatively, an ellipsis for yamos a yer, let 
us see. 

Se ha obstruido la fuente de la The water-pipe in the kitchen is 
cocina. A yer si la arreglas. clogged. Let us see if you can 

fix it. 

Se ha desmayado, dijo el general. ^' He has fainted^^"* said the gen- 
A yer una Camilla y que retiren eral. " Bring a stretcher and 

a este oficial. carry away this officer.'''' 

b. Note such idiomatic adverbial expressions as 

a medio asar, half baked a saber, to wit, namely 

a medio yestir, half dressed a m^ no poder, with might and 

a todo correr, at full speed main 

a mds tardar, at the latest 

2. Al precedes a time clause. (See section 62, ^.) 

El viejo, al olr estas palabras, vol- The old man, when he heard (iyt 
vi6 la cabeza. on hearing) these words, turned 

his head. 

3. Con introduces either 

a. A clause denoting means : 

Un idioma se aprende con hablar. A language is learned by speaking. 
(The present participle is more common in this sense, § 274.) 

b. A concessive clause. 

En mi pueblo, con ser una ciudad In my town, though it is a city of 
de importancia, no hay abasteci- importance, there is no public 

miento de agua. water supply. 


4. De may introduce a conditional clause. 

Pues, de saberlo, dimitirla su cargo For^ if he knew it, he would re- 

de contador. sign his position as manager, 

Xsto no quiere decir que el capitAn This does not mean that the cap- 

fttese mal soldado ; de haberlo tain was a bad soldier; if he 

sido, no estaria a las 6rdenes de had been he would not be under 

8U tio. the orders of his uncle, 

a, De sometimes connects an infinitive with the noun in an adverbial 
expression of time beginning with a, usually introduced in English by 

a I08 pocos aS08 de estar en Madrid, after being (or he had been) a few 

years in Madrid 

a I08 diez segundos de atender, after he had (or having) paid at- 

tention for ten seconds 

5. Para precedes an infinitive clause which explains the purpose 
of the action expressed by the principal verb. 

Compramos libros para leer. We buy books to read. 

Come para yiyir 7 no yiyas para Eat to live, do not live to eat, 


Aproyecho esta ocasidn para agra- I take advantage of this opportu- 

decerle. nity to thank you, 

a. After verbs of motion a is used instead of para. 

8abi6 al campanario a contemplar He went up to the belfry to exam^ 

el horizonte. ine the horizon, 

£1 muchacho se par6 a yer la tropa. The boy stopped to watch the 


6. For introduces the reason or cause for the action of the prin- 
cipal verb. 

£1 buque no se ha perdido por tem- The ship was not lost on account of 

pestades sino por Ir yo en ^1. storms but because I went in it. 

No pudo hacerlo por hallarse en- He could not do it because he was 

fermo. sick. 

No nos ha dicho nada. — Por no ^^You have not told us a thing 

alarmar a ustedes. about it.^'* " For the sake of not 

alarming you^ 


107. Verbal idioms in which occur a dependent infinitive are — 

1. Tener que, must^ have to. 

Tengo que despedirme. / must take leave (or say good-by), 

TuYO que salir. He had to go out. 

Tendremos que ir. We shall have to go, 

2. Hay que, must^ in a general, hence impersonal, sense. 

Hay que mejorar la condici6ii del // is necessary to improve the con- 

obrero. dition of the workingman, 

Habia que pasar entre d08 fuegos. // was necessary to pass between 

two fires. 

3. Haber de denotes a slight degree of obligation, sometimes is litde 

more than a future. The imperfect has the force of the conditional. 

Caruso ha de cantar esta noche. Caruso is to sing to-night (or will 

sing to-night). 
Anoche habla de yenir mi tla. Last night my aunt was to come. 

Imaging que nadie habia de pedirle He imagined that nobody would 
cuentas. ask him for an accounting. 

4. Acabar de, have just. The infinitive is translated as though 

it were the principal verb. 

£1 yapor acaba de llegar. The ship has just arrived. 

Acababan de leyantarse. They had just risen. 

5. Volyer a, again. The infinitive is rendered as though it were 

the principal verb with the tense of volver. 

Vuelye a gritar. He shouts again. 

Volyer^ a principiar. / shall begin again. 

Muchas gracias, yolyi6 a decir la ^^ Many thanks ^^"^ the old lady said 

yieja. again. 

No vuelva Vd. a llorar. Don'^t cry again. 

6. Ser de, used impersonally, appears to give a passive meaning 

to the dependent infinitive. 

£s de suponer. // is to be supposed. 

Era muy de eztraSar. // was very surprising. 

Note the following : 

{ Era de yer la gente en la calle I You ought to have seen the people 

in the street / 


108. Relative Pronoun. 

el que (masculine singular), he who^ ^- , , . , 

, ,j. . . .1x7 7 \ the one who ox which 

la que (femmme singular), she who J 

I08 que (masculine plural)^ , c the ones who ox which 

las que (feminine plural) J \/^^j^ w^^ or which 

lo que (neuter singular), that which^ what 

a. As the first element of this compound is the definite article, the 
masculine singular el combines with the prepositions de and a to form 
del and al. 

b, English what is qu^ only when asking a question. An indirect 
question, as / know what he asks, must be introduced by lo que. Yo s4 
lo que pregunta. 


A, Translate : 1 . Before arriving. Without waiting ten minutes. 
After eating. The honor of speaking. The pleasure of knowing you. 

2. I have just arrived. He has just spoken. They had just dined. 
We had just come. Who has just risen ? 

3. On getting up. On sitting down. When he sat down. On 
saying good-by. When we returned. 

4. Come and visit me. Go and get it. He went and asked him. 
Let us go and see the machines. He went out to greet him. 

5. He laughs again. They shouted again. I will come again. 
Let us begin again. He has begun again. 

6. I must go. We must study. They have to eat He had to 
pay dear. I shall have to visit him. 

7. It is necessary to pay. Was it necessary to shout.? 

8. Mary is to come to-morrow. When am I to go ? Where was 
he to take you .? Who will sleep on the ground ? What would a 
young man do ? 

B. I. Os preguntais la noche del 31 de diciembre — eQue he 
hecho de los 365 dfas y seis horas de este aiio 1 Y es que s61o re- 
cuerda vuestra memoria mucho desnudarse y vestirse, mucho comer 
y volver a tener apetito, mucho dormir ; haber llorado algunos dfas, 


y haber refdo mds que nunca pocos dlas despu^s. j Y lo mismo 
siempre 1 j Y el ano pasado como el anterior ! j Y el aiio que viene 
como el que acaba de pasar ! 

2. El comercio es un campo de batalla, en un bando los vende- 
dores en otro los compradores. S61o hay tres casos en que el com- 
prador y el vendedor se entienden sin discusidn. i? Cuando no 
cuesta nada lo que se vende. 2? Cuando no se piensa pagar lo que 
se compra. 3? Cuando es otro el que paga. Fuera de estos tres 
casos que no son raros, tiene que haber lucha para fijar el precio 
de las cosas. Cada cosa vale segiin la estiman el que la posee y el 
que la necesita. 

3. Aunque son muchos los ramos en que' se divide el comercio, 
citaremos los cinco siguientes. 

Comercio por mayor ^ que consiste en comprar grandes partidas 
de mercaderfas en los puntos donde se fabrican o producen, para 
venderlas despu^s a los mercaderes por menor. 

Comercio por menor es el que se hace comprando g^neros a los 
comerdantes por mayor, para venderlos en tiendas a los consumi- 

Comercio de comisiSn, que se reduce a comprar, remitir, recibir, 
vender, girar, o practicar cualquiera operacidn mercantil por cuenta 
ajena. El que se ocupa de esto se llama comisionista. 

Comercio de Banca : lldmase asl a la especulacidn que se hace 
dando giro al capital por medio de cambios, descuentos de letras, 
pagar^s, pr^stamos. 

Comercio de Seguros, que consiste en responder del importe de 
las averfas, perjuicio o pdrdida total de los gdneros y efectos del 
comercio que por mar o tierra se transportan de un punto a otro. 
Hay companlas de seguros que aseguran contra incendio y sobre 
la vida de personas, obligdndose a ihdemnizar al que sufra una 

C 1, I Qu^ acaba Vd de leer ? 2. i Qud recuerda Vd. del aiio 
pasado ? 3. ^ Cdmo se llama el que hace el comercio de comisidn ? 


^•de banca? 4. Explique Vd. el comercio de comisi6n. 5. ^-Para 
qu^ sirve un banco ? 6. ^ C6mo se Uaman los que venden ? i los 
que compran? 7. ^ Piensa Vd. pagar lo que compra? 8. ^C6mo 
se llama el que compra pero no paga al contado? 9. ^C6mo se 
llama lo que uno debe? 10. ^'Por qu^ compra un comerciante 
grandes partidas de g^neros ? 1 1 . ^* En qu^ consiste el comercio 
por mayor ? ^ el comercio por menor ? 12. i Con qu^ motivo hace- 
mos asegurar una casa o un almac^n de g^neros ? 13. ^' Cuil de los 
ramos del comercio prefiere Vd. ? 14.^* Qu^ tiene Vd. que estudiar 
para ser comerciante por mayor ? 

Z>, I. He tried to answer him. 2. We do ill to permit it. 3. He 
asks permission to come in. 4. The watchman consented to open 
the door. 5. They wished to see me. 6. He did not let me go. 
7. We called twice to wake up the boy. 8. He must be a bad man. 
9. I believe I can go. 10. He regrets he must say it. 11. I am 
having my watch mended. 12. We had another key made. 13. I 
like to sleep in the morning. 14. He made the horse run. 15. He 
brought me a paper to sign. 16. They went out without looking 
at me. 17. He spoke without raising his glance from the paper. 
18. He thought he heard his father's voice. 19. I have heard my 
father relate the story. 20. Did you see the boys run.^^ 21. The 
one who has just arrived is Mr. Guzmin. 22. I know what you are 
going to say. 23. They came and visited me the first Sunday of 
each month. 24. A Frenchman came to give us French lessons. 
25. Those who buy goods to use are consumers. 26. Did you hear 
the bells ringing? 27. On leaving school we were to occupy dif- 
ferent places. 28. When they passed, people turned around to 
look at them. 29. The article in the paper insulted the Americans 
for favoring the insurrection. 30. He saw her again on the same 
street. 31. To speak a foreign language is more difficult than to 
understand it. 32. Before traveling in a foreign country one should 
learn its language. 33. More than once I have wished to come and 
pay you a visit. 34. They propose not to let me study. 35. While 
she lived, I never neglected to visit her. 36. After being a few 


months in Havana the poor boy fell sick with^ a fever. 37. The 
teacher punished the boy for not knowing his lesson. 38. It is neces- 
sary to be there at ten o'clock in the morning. 39. Several other 
persons lived there, because it was a boarding-house. 40. To give 
advice is dangerous. ^ 


109. The Subjunctive Mood is used in certain kinds of dependent 

I. Just as a direct command is expressed in Spanish by the sub- 
junctive mood, so is also an indirect command depending on an 
expression which implies a wish or command. 

Escriba Vd. a su padre. Write to your father, 

Quiero que Vd. escriba a su padre. I wish you to write to your father. 

Que el camarero me traiga el caf ^. Let the waiter bring me the coffee. 

Diga Vd. al camarero que me traiga Tell the waiter to bring me the 

el caf ^. coffee, 

a. The English expression in these cases is usually an infinitive 

with a subject expressed. Such a construction must not be used 

in Spanish unless the subject of the infinitive is the same as that 

of the principal verb. 

Quiero ir. / wish to go, 

Quiero que Vd. vaya. / wish you to go, 

b. Sometimes English has a present participle in the dependent 
clause. Prohibo que tti fumes, I forbid your smoking, 

c. Some common verbs that require the subjunctive in depend- 
ent clauses for the above reason are 


to request^ beg 

querer, to wish mandar, to order 

desear, to desire permitir, to permit 

'L' / -^ wwhen these words express a command) 
escnbir, to write j ^ '^ ' 

2. Verbs expressing emotions and mental states require the sub- 
junctive in the dependent clause. 


Sentimos que est^ malo su her- We are sorry that your brother is 

mano. sick, 

Espero que el mMico llegue a / hope the doctor will arrive in 

tiempo. time, 

Temo que no lo reciba. I am afraid he will not receive it, 

a. Some common verbs of this kind are 

esperar, to hope sentir, to regret^ feel sorry 

temer, to fear alegrarse de, to be glad 

tener miedo de, to be afraid of dudar, to doubt 

3. Whenever the verb in a dependent clause denotes indefinite 
future time, it requires the subjunctive mood. Such dependent 
clauses are introduced by conjunctions, as 

antes (de) que, before aunque, although hasta que, until 

cuando, when en cuanto, as soon as mientras, while 

EsperarA hasta que yo yenga. He will wait till I come, 

Mientras seas joven, trabaja. While you are youngs work. 

a. It should be observed that when the time is definite after these 
conjunctions, the indicative is employed. 

Mientras era joven, trabajaba yo While I was youngs I used to 
mncho. work hard. 

4. Whenever a dependent clause denotes the purpose, the result, 
or the condition of an action, the verb is put in the subjunctive. 
Common conjunctions which introduce such clauses are 

para que (a que after verbs of motion), in order that, 

sin que, without, 

de modo que (often simply que), so that, 

con tal que, provided that, 

Envio a Carlos a EspaSa para que / am sending Charles to Spain in 

aprenda bien el idioma espaSol. order that he may learn the 

Spanish language well. 

Deseo hablar con usted sin que se I desire to speak with you without 

entere nadie. anybody^ s being informed of it. 

B.oy saldris de la cilrcel, con tal Vou will leave the jail to-day^ 

que el arriero confirme tu decla- provided the mule-driver cor- 

racl6n. roborates your declaration. 




A. Use the present subjunctive of the verb indicated in the following: 

I. Quiero que Vd.J 

I wish you to 1 * 

^ I call me. 

%, ^Qu6 quiere Yd. que yt) 

What do you wish me to 

3. Digale Yd. que 

Tell him to 

4. Sentimos que Yd. 

We are sorry that you 

' write ? 



bring a glass, 
send the bill. 
Lcome in. 

fare sick. 

are gomg. 
do not know. 

5. Compro este libro para que Juan fmay read it. 

I am buying this book in order that John [may study Spanish. 

when he arrives, 
as soon as he comes, 
before he leaves, 
while he is here. 

6. Le ver^ 

I shall see him 

B. I. Quiero que aun me oigas un instante. 2. Le escribir^ que 
venga manana. 3. Mi padre quiere que yo me quede en casa. 
4. Diga Vd. al gitano que se vaya. 5. Me alegro de que Vd. me 
lo haya dicho. 6. Sienten que estemos malos. 7. Cuando el rey 
de Inglaterra vaya a Cannes, se detendra en Parfs para visitar al 
presidente de la repiiblica. 8. Nos dice que esperemos una hora. 
9. El homo esta muy mal ; quiero que vengan albafiiles para com- 
ponerlo. 10. ^ Quiere Vd. que le diga una cosa ? 1 1. Tu hermano 
me ha encargado que diga a tu madre que le suban una taza de 
caf^. 12. Dej^mosle que repose. 13. Carlos necesitara acostarse, 
en cuanto llegue. 1 4. i Qui^n tocara el piano para que bailen ? 


15. Yo le suplico a Vd. que pague diez pesos a cuenta. 16. Ven 
a buscarme cuando scan las diez. 17. Aceptard el trato con tal que 
no sea preciso vender mi alma. 18. Le ruego se sirva Vd. enviarme 
otro libro. 19. Le aconsejo a Vd. que estudie el espanol. 20. Pro- 
hibo que Vds. salgan antes de las cuatro. 21. Le digo a Vd. esto 
para que sepa la verdad. 22. La cena va a estar en seguida ; para 
que esperes menos voy yo misma a poner la mesa. 

C {The answers to these questions should contain a' verb in the 
subjunctive mood.) i. i Qu^ quiere su hermano de Vd. ? 2. ^ Qud 
manda Vd. ? 3. ^ De qu^ se alegra Vd. ? 4. i Qu^ ha dicho el ca- 
pitdn al camarero } 5. ^ Qu^ suplica el seiior ? 6. ^ Hasta cudndo 
van a quedar sus padres en Cuba .? 7. ^ Por qu^ compra Vd. esos 
libros ? 8. i Cuinto tiempo aguardara su hermano ? 9. i De qu^ 
tienen Vds. miedo ? 10. ^* Qud prohiben ? 

D, I . He wishes to write the letters himself : he does not wish 
me to write them. 2. Tell the boy to come up stairs. 3. We will 
go when you wish. 4. I am glad that^ he is going to Mexico. 
5. He has asked me to write you. 6. We hope you will receive 
them in good condition. 7. Let Don Luis go away. 8. I do not 
wish my things to resemble yours. 9. I am sorry I shall be absent, 
and I am sorry that you will not be there either. 10. We wish 
you to tell your friends to come. 1 1. They are sorry that you have 
no money. 12. When do you want me to return these books? 
13. Where does the gentleman wish me to take him? 14. I am 
afraid that^ the train will leave without us. 15. Wait here till I 
return. 16. I wish to speak to them as soon as they arrive. 
17. Write them to pay something on account. 18. Tell him to 
take off his hat 19. I am glad that^ you have called me. 20. I 
beg you to be brief. 21. I shall not permit you to be absent so 
long.* 22. We fear he will tell it to her. 23. Have the kindness 
to inform us as soon as you know. 24. I hope this will not pre' 
vent your seeing me. 

^ Use de before qoe. See section 231, 0. ^ tanto tiempo. 



110. The Imperfect Subjunctive has two sets of endings. The 
stem may be found from the third person singular of the preterit in- 
dicative : comprd, stem compr-; yendi6, stem vend-; tuvo, stem tuv-. 

First Form 
-ar VERBS -er and -ir verbs 

Sing. I. comprasa Sing. I. vendiese 

2. comprases 2. vendieses 

3. comprasa 3. vendiese 

Plur. I. comprisemoa Plur. i. vendi6wm08 

2. compraseia 2. vendieseia 

3. compraaan 3. vendieaen 

Second Form 

-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs 


Sing. I. comprara Sing. i. vendiera 

2. compraraa 2. vendieraa 

3. comprara 3. vendiera 

Plur. I. compriramoa Plur. i. vendidramoa 

2. compraraia 2. vendieraia 

3. compraran 3. vendieran 

111. Sequence of Tenses. Whenever a dependent clause occurs 
after a principal verb in a past tense the dependent verb must be 
put in the imperfect subjunctive. The present perfect and the con- 
ditional may, however, if the meaning allows it, be followed by a 
present tense. The following table gives the usual sequence : 

Main Clause Dependent Clause 

Present Indicative 

Future Indicative 
Perfect Indicative 
Imperfect Indicative 
Preterit Indicative 

Present Subjunctive 
Imperfect Subjunctive 



Mando que Juan lo haga. 
Handar^ que Juan lo haga. 
Handarla que Juan lo haga, pero 

no sabe haoerlo. 
Handarla que Juan lo hiciera si 

fuera posible. 
He mandado que Juan lo haga 

He mandado que Juan lo hiciese 

(or hiciera) ayer. 
Mandaba que Juan lo hiciese (or 

Mand^ que Juan lo hiciese (or 


/ order John to do it, 

I shall order John to do it, 

I should order John to do it, but 

he does not know how, 
I should order John to do it if it 

were possible, 
I have ordered John to do it to- 
I ordered John to do it yesterday, 

I was ordering John to do it, 

I ordered John to do it. 

112. Conditional Clauses, contrary to fact, have the verb in the 
imperfect subjunctive ; the conditional is used in the conclusion. 

If I had paper, I should write the 

If I were in his place I should 

Si tuyiese (or tuyiera) papel, es- 

cribiria la carta. 
Si fuera (or fuese) yo en su lugar, 

no iria. 
Amarla mucho a su hijo si le 


not go. 
He would love his son very much 
if he had one. 

a. The imperfect subjunctive of the -ra form is frequently used instead 
of the conditional, but usually implies something unattainable or unreal. 

De no obligarlo la necesidad, se 
hubiera ido sin comprar. 

Diera 70 por callarlo los dias que 
me quedan de yida. 

Hubiera querido ser un salyaje. 

If he had not been compelled by 

necessity, he would have gone 

away without buying. 
To avoid speaking of it I would 

give the days that are left to 

me to live. 
He would have liked to be a 


b, Quisiera used independently means would like with present 

Quisiera una habitacidn amueblada. / should like a furnished room, 

Quisiera que me preste Vd. un / wish you would lend me a 
peso. dollar. 


c. Ordinary conditions after si have the present or imperfect indica- 
tive. Si followed by the conditional has the meaning of whether, 

Le pregimt^ si partirfa maSana. / asked him whether he would 

leave to-morrow, 

d. The imperfect subjunctive contrary to fact often appears in clauses 
introduced by como si, cnal si, lo mismo que si, etc. 

Me recuerdo como si fuese ayer. / remember as if it were yester- 

£1 cielo se inoendid con un relAm- The sky was lighted by a brighter 

pago mis yiyo, ciial si la chispa flash, as if the electric spark 

el^ctrica hubiese estallado en- had burst over our heads, 

cima de nnestras cabezas. 

Lo mismo que si fu^semos amigos fust as if we had been life-long 

de toda la yida. friends. 


A, In the following sentences change the verb of the principal 
clause to the imperfect or preterit tense ^ and the verb of the dependent 
clause to the imperfect subjunctive: i. Quiere Juan que yo le dd un 
peso, fohn wishes me to give him a dollar, 2, Siento que Vd. est^ 
male, lam sorry you are ill, 3. Le escribo para que sepa las no- 
ticias, I am writing him so that he may know the news, 4. Suplico 
que se sirva Vd. enviar una mdquina de escribir, I beg you please 
to send a typewriter, 5. Nos dicen que mandemos muchos peri6di- 
cos, They tell us to send a lot of newspapers, 6. Tengo miedo de 
que no llegue 61 a tiempo, lam afraid he will not arrive on time, 

B, I. Le rogud que estuviese dispuesto a las cinco. 2. Su tfa 
regal6 a Juanito algunos dulces, dici^ndole que los Uevase a casa 
para comdrselos en varias veces. 3. Le escribf que no vendiese la 
casa antes de que yo la viera. 4. Hablaba a gritos como si estu- 
viera siempre en ferrocarril. 5. Se alejaron sin que yo pudiese ofr 
mds. 6. Gritd para que me oyeran. 7. El padre escribi6 a su hija, 
pididndola que viniera en seguida. 8. La cant ante esperaba a que 
se callara el piiblico para continuar ella. 9. No cref que viniera Vd. 
tan pronto. 10. Una noche salieron del lugar sin que persona los 


viese. 1 1. Si tuviera el dinero, comprarfa la casa. 1 2. Consult^ con 
ella mi deseo de que me ayudasc a encontrar colocaci6n. 13. Su 
padre hubiera dado su vida por 61. 14. Me dijo que tendrfa dinero 
cuando cobrase la herencia. 15. | Cuantas personas te envidiarfan 
la fortuna si la supieran 1 16. Le mand6 que le aguardase tres dfas, 
y que si al cabo de ellos no hubiese vuelto, tuviese por cierto que 
Dios habfa sido servido de que en aquella peligrosa aventura se 
acabase su vida. 17. Un lugareno fud un dfa a casa de su vecino 
a rogarle que le prestase su asno. El vecino, quien no estaba 
dispuesto a prestdrselo, contest6 que sentfa rnucho que dste no 
se lo hubiera pedido antes, pues lo habfa prestado a otro. Mien- 
tras se estaba excusando de este modo, el asno comenz6 a re- 
buznar. — j Oye ! dijo el aldeano. fise es el asno que Vd. afirma 
haber prestado. Hay que confesar que Vd. es muy servicial. — 
Me extrana mucho, repuso el vecino, que Vd. crea mas a mi asno 
que a ml. 

C. I. ^ Con qu6 motivo {u6 un lugareno a casa de su vecino? 
2. I Qu6 vog6 el lugareno a su vecino ? 3. ^ Querfa el vecino pres- 
tarle la bestia ? 4. i C6mo respondid ? 5. ^ Qu6 sentfa el vecino ? 
6. I C6mo desminti6 el asno a su dueno ? 7. ^ Qud dijo entonces el 
que querfa el asno ? 8. i Por qu6 se extranaba el vecino ? 9. i Cree 
Vd. que sea posible tal historia ? 10. ^' Qu6 harfa Vd. en semejante 

I?. I. My father wished me to stay at home. 2. He told the 
waiter to bring up the coffee. 3. He advised me to study book- 
keeping. 4. The ladies permitted the gentleman to accompany them. 
5. If I were alone, it would not matter. 6. I wrote you last month 
without as yet ^ having received an ^ answer. 7. We were glad that 
you came. 8. They used to go away before I arrived, and did not 
come back till I had returned to school. 9. Don Gumersindo was 
very kind and obliging provided that it did not cost him a cent 
10. She set the table herself in order that Charles might eat at once. 

^ hasta ahora. ^ omit 


1 1. He spoke to me politely, asking me to sit down. 12. He acted 
as if he understood. 13. The countess sent me a message that I 
should go and see her. 14. My brother said that as soon as he had 
money he would send me some.* 


113. Letter-Writing. 

I. The date, la fecha. 

Ifueya York, xo de abril de xgzz 
Madrid, 15 de junio de xgia 

dated, fechada 

the joth inst,. el 10 del J . . , *^v 

\comente (corr.*») 

the 1 2th ult,, el 12 del p. p.^(pr6zimo pasado) 

del p.* Y.* (pr6zimo yenidero) 

the s^h of next month, el 5 

del que yiene 
del que entra 

2. The address, la direcci6n. 


Sr. D.^ Guillermo Prieto, 
Prinoesa, 77, 

1 Sr. D. stands for Seftor Don. The title seftor is used with a man's family 
name (apellido) ; don with his baptismal name. Sefior is sometimes omitted, 
Don Ariiiro Gonz&lez ; but if the Christian name is omitted, sefior alone should 
be used, Seftor Gonzalez. The feminine forms are sefiora (Sra.), sefiorita 
(Srta.), dofia (D.*). A married lady retains her maiden name but adds her hus- 
band's surname. If Sefiorita Teresa S&nchez marries Don Arturo Gonz&lez, she 
becomes Sefiora Teresa S&nchez de Gonz&lez. Children may retain their 
mother's family name if they desire by adding it to their father's; as, 
Felipe Gonz&lez y S&nchez. The y may be omitted ; as Manuel Garcia Rodri- 
guez. Widows insert viuda. Sefiora Lucia Robledo, vda. de Fem&ndez. It is 
sometimes puzzling for a foreigner to know a Spaniard's family name, as it 
often happens that he may have two baptismal names and omit the mater- 
nal surname. Thus, in J086 Toriblo Medina, the apellido is Medina. 

LESSON XXI -:: V . ij: lOI 

fo address, dirigir . J^. p^^bt)x jjif spaitaila *ofasi^'^2 

^<7m il/. Gonzdlez, enTlo de M. /^^ envelope, el sobre 

GonziUez general delivery, en lista 

^^r^ ^, en casa de printed matter, impresos 

registered, certificado please forward, a reexpedir 

3. Complimentary opening. 

Dear Fnend< i » , 

1^ Mny seSor mio 7 amigo : 

My esteemed friend, Estimado amigo mio : 

Dear Doctor, Estimado doctor : 

To ladies, 

r Muy estimada seSora : 

Dear Madam< Muy distingnida seSorita: 

t SeSora : 
For business letters, 

l^Mny se2or nnestro : 

(from a firm) 
Gentlemen, Mny seSores mios (or nnestros) : 

To express respect to superiors. 

Sir, Mny seSor mio y de toda mi consideracidn : 

4. Complimentary close. 

1 . Hoping to hear from you, £n espera de sna gratas noticias, 

2. Awaiting your early reply, Esperando sn pronta contestacidn, 

3. With nothing else to-day. Sin mis por hoy, 

I remain'^ ,, , , anedo^ , „, ^* -, -, « 

J. \ Yours very truly ^ Ue Vd. at.*» y S.S.* 

lam J ^ -^ soy J 

More formal, 

4. Salndo a Vd. cordialmente y quedo como siempre snyo af ."^ ' y at.^ 


5. Tengo el honor de ofrecerle mis respetos y qnedo su mis at.^ y 


Note. Abbreviations are frequently used in Spanish. A period should 
be placed after the abbreviation ; if part is written above the line, the 
period is written after the letters that remain in the line ; as, af ."*•. 

1 Note that Spanish uses the colon after the salutation. 

^ at.^ y S.S. = atento y seguio servldor. ^ af ."^ = afectisimo. 

^ Q.B.S.M. = que besa sus manos. (To a lady) Q.B.S.P. = que besa sus pies. 

• • 


. -.'SPklSrlsb GRAMMAR 

yto inform you that 

1 . / have the pleasure ^ 

2. We have the honor \ of informing you that 

3. / take the liberty J 

4. The purpose of this letter is 

5. / regret (/ am sorry) 

1 . Tengo el gusto de 

2. Tenemos el honor de 

3. Me permito 

4. Sinre la presente para 

5. Siento 





6. Acknowledging receipt, 

1. In answer to 

2. Answering 

3. To acknowledge the receipt of 

4. We have before us 

5. I have just received 

6. / hasten to reply to 

7. I received 

1. £n contestacidn a 

2. Contestando a 

3. Acusar recibo de 

4. Tenemos a la yista ^sn-^ 

5. Acabo de recibir 

6. Me apresuro a contestar a 

7. Recibi 

your letter \ ^^, 
y - yofthe 
your favor) '^ 



atenta (at>) 


apreciable (ap.^) 


7. To request. 

1 . Please {be kind enough to) (or kindly) 

2. / shall be pleased if you 

3. We shall be obliged if you 

4. We beg you to 

1. Siryase Vd. (with infinitive of dependent verb) 

2. Estimar^ que Vd. (with subjunctive of dependent verb) 

3. Agradeceremos que Vd. (with subjunctive of dependent verb) 

4. Le rogamos *! 

Le suplicamos i-qne Vd. (with subjunctive of dependent verb) 
Le pedimos J 




NuEVA York, 7 de julio de 191 1 

A, I. 

Sr. D. Victoriano SuXrez, 
Preciados, 48, Madrid. 

Muy serior mfo : 

Me satisface acusar a Vd. redbo del catalogo, que se sirvid en- 
viarme. Le agradezco esta atenci6n y le pido me envfe las obras 
anunciadas en 6\ y que menciono al pie de la presente, en pago 
de las cuales adjunto Pesetas 55 en giro sobre el Banco Hispano- 
Americano, que importan, incluso gastos de la remesa. Doy a Vd. 
gracias por este servicio y me ofrezco su atento servidor q.b.s.m. 

Arturo Acosta GAlvez 

Sr. D. Arturo Acosta GAlvez, 
Nueva York. 

Madrid, 24 de julio de 191 1 

Muy seiior mlo : 

Tengo el gusto de acusar a usted recibo de su estimada del 14 
del c.** de la cual separd un cheque a mi orden, por valor de Pe- 
setas 55~, que le abono en cuenta. En cumplimiento de su atento 
pedido le remito por correo de hoy los efectos que van detallados 
al final, por los cuales cargo a usted en cuenta la suma de Pesetas 
56°^ que importan. 

De usted, como siempre, atento servidor, 

Victoriano SuArez 


Rub^n Darfo = Obras escogidas 








Gonzalez Blanco = Hista de la Novela 














San Martfn = Sepan cuantos 




V. de Guevara = El Diablo Cojuelo 




Clarfn = La Regenta 2 tomos 





Picdn = Dulce y Sabrosa 
















3- Hotel Peninsular, 

Sevilla, 14 de agosto de 19 10 
Sr. D. Roberto Samper, 

Calle Arenal, 45, Madrid. 

Muy senor mlo y amigo : 

Se van a vender en almoneda los muebles y efectos del difunto 

D. Martfn de Timoneda el dfa 3 del p.° v.**. Como yo sd que po- 

sefa una biblioteca compuesta de muy buenas obras y de las me- 

jores ediciones, quisiera adquirir la mayor parte de ella y aiin toda 

si fuera posible. Desgraciadamente no puedo concurrir a la venta 

por tener mala una piema, que no me deja dar un paso, y por esta 

causa me tomo la libertad de suplicarle me sustituya en esta opera- 

ci6n confiado en su amistad. Vd. conoce este genero y ningiSn otro 

podrfa serme tan iStil. Conque, tdmese Vd. la molestia de pasar 

por alia, y compre todo lo que se venda a un precio c6modo. Le 

remito dos mil duros para este objeto, suplicandole al mismo tiempo 

disimule la franqueza de su af."*° y at.*° S. S. 

Enrique Reyes 

P.D. Por la primera edicidn del Quijote puede Vd. pujar hasta 
quinientos duros. 


B, Translate into ^anish : 

1. My dear friend, 

I intend to go to Havana on the steamer which leaves New York 
on the nth inst. As I have never been in that city I do not know 
where to find the hotels. Can you recommend a good hotel or 
boarding-house at a moderate price ? When you reply, please tell 
me how to reach the house. 

Thanking you for this favor I am, as ever, 

Your friend, 

William Brown 

2. Dear Sir : 

I have before me your letter of the 29th ult., and hasten to reply. 
The proprietor of the house where I am living has a vacant room 
which he will reserve for you. I shall be on the wharf as soon as 
I learn the arrival of the steamer. Wait for me. I shall have great 
pleasure in accompanying you to your house. 

As ever, yours, 

Victor Garcia 

3* Boston, Mass., September 12, 191 2 

Messrs. B. Muro & Co., 

Florida, 34, Buenos Aires. 

Gentlemen : 

We take the liberty of calling your attention to a catalogue of 
our goods which we are sending under separate cover ^ by this 
same mail. We believe that these articles are suitable for your 
market. The prices are moderate and the terms of payment very 
liberal, six months from the date of shipment. We allow three per 
cent discount for payment by draft remitted by return steamer. 
Our factory has instructions to pack in special boxes all merchan- 
dise intended for South American trade in order that it may arrive 

^ Under separate cover = t>ajo pliego. 


in perfect condition. If you will favor us with a trial order we are 
confident that you will be satisfied with the quality of the goods 
and will desire further ^ shipments. 
Awaiting your early reply, we are 

Yours very truly, 

Henry White & Sons 

C Letter outlines, i. Write the answer of Mr. Roberto Samper 
to the letter A^ 3. 

2. Write to the Hotel de Roma, Sevilla, Spain, asking to have 
a room reserved for yourself and party. Explain when you expect 
to arrive and the number of persons. Request that mail be kept 
for your arrival. 

3. Send a request for a catalogue of the books published by 
G. Prieto and Co. of Madrid. Inquire how they wish sent the pay- 
ment for any works which you may order. 

4. Write an invitation to some friends of yours to spend a week 
with you in the country. Give an outline of what you intend to do 
for amusement. 





114. Sentences. While the arrangement of words is much freer 
in Spanish, and the meaning is not so dependent on a fixed order 
as in English, there are a few notions which the learner should keep 
in mind. The Spanish sentence aims at a certain balance by putting 
the longer members of the sentence or clause last. Considering the 
clause as composed of three members, subject, verb, and comple- 
ments, the longest of the three may be placed at the end. 

Juan yende muchos periddicos. John sells many newspapers, 

£1 pequeflo Juan yende muchos Little John sells many news- 

peri6dicoSy or Vende el pequeflo papers. 

Juan muchos periddicos. 

Vends muchos periddicos el chico The boy with the red cap sells 

de la gorra roja. many newspapers. 

a. In questions, the object, unless materially longer than the 
subject, precedes. 

^ Vende muchos periddicos el pe- Does little John sell many news- 
que2o Juan ? papers f 

115. Inyersion of Verb occurs, 

I. Regularly in questions : ^Qu^ vende Juan? What does John 




2. Frequently for the sake of emphasis : 

I Ha caldo una pabna 1 A palm tree has fallen / (said in 

the stress of excitement at the 
fact occurring during a storm.) 

3. Generally in relative clauses : 

Vino la mujer a quien hablan des- The woman whom the cries had 

perta^o las voces. awakened came. 

£1 cura entond la Salve, que re- The priest intoned the " Salve,^ 

piti6 la tripulacidn. which the crew repeated. 

116. A Predicate Adjective is best placed immediately after the 


I £s interesante el libro ? Is the book interesting? 

I Aqui es bueno el chocolate ? Is the chocolate good here f 

117. Adverbs, especially those of place and time, may be put for 
emphasis at the beginning of the sentence. 

Aqui se habla espaSol. Spanish is spoken here, 

Bien s6 yo. / know very well. 

MaSana viene mi padre. My father comes to-morrow. 

a. But the usual place for adverbs is immediately after the verb. 

Estudio siempre mi leccidn. / always study my lesson. 

Despierte Vd. con cuidado a Rosa. Wake Rosa carefully. 

118. The Adverb no always precedes the verb, but may be sep- 
arated from it by a pronoun used as an object. 

Yo no lo conozco. / do not know him. 

a. Used with adverbs or elliptical expressions, no follows the 

other words. 

I Hoy no ! Not to-day. 

I Todavia no I Not yet, 

I Eso no 1 Not that. 

119. A Subject Pronoun may be placed after the verb, but pre- 
cedes other words. 

Soy yo. // is I. 

No quiere ella la manzana. She does not want the apple. 



120. Compound Fonns of Verbs should not be separated into their 
component parts by the intrusion of other words. 

I Ha yisto Vd. ? Have you seen ? 

Bid dicho siempre. . / Aave always said, 

a. Likewise an infinitive closely depending on another verb is 
commonly not separated from the former except by pronouns. 

VI correr al muchacho. / saw the boy run. 

I Oye Vd. sonar la campanilla ? Do you hear the bell ringing? 

Lo admir^ al verlo patinar. / admired him on seeing him 


121 . Participles and Infinitives having subjects are usually placed 
before their subjects, contrary to English usage. 

Estando la seflora en el jardin, le The lady being in the garden^ I 

liable. spoke to her. 

Conseguidaladispensaeclesiisticay The dispensation of the church 

se fij6 la boda para las ocho de {having been) obtained^ the w,ed- 

la manana. ding was set for eight in the 


Al cumplir la Princesa los quince When the Princess was fifteen 

aSos era la admiracidn de la years old, she was the wonder 

. corte. of the court. 

122. The Preposition a, used to indicate the direct object, makes 
possible a very free arrangement of words ; see section 134. 

A Clara la llam6 a si DoSa Blanca. Doha Blanca called Clara to her. 

Poco despu^s yisitaron a la enfer- Shortly afterward the two best 

ma los dos m^icos mejores de doctors in the town visited the 

la ciadad. sick woman, 


I. Has this boy relatives? 2. His wife and his daughter were 
walking ahead. 3. Spring begins to-morrow. 4. Is winter cold in 
this country ? 5. Is the show to-day ? 6. They had not walked two 
hundred paces when there reached their ears a great noise of water. 
7. ,The Hollanders have not forgotten the history of their war with 


Spain. 8. When the lady said this,* she turned away. 9. Five dol- 
lars are lacking. 10. These are the men whom my father did not 
know. II. He was sitting in the shadow which the old tree made 
on the ground. 12. I have often seen them. 13. Traveling by 
night, his garments torn, his feet scratched, he finally reached home. 

14. I lived on the salary which an insurance company paid me. 

15. His work finished, he left the office immediately. 16. He saw 
his father coming. 1 7 . Not now, my son. 1 8. A month had passed 
since that day. 

1 Translate in three ways : i, al with infinitive ; 2, the present participle ; 
3, the past participle. 



123. The Definite Article has the following forms : 

Masculine Feminine Neuter 

Sing. el la (el) lo 

Plur. los las wanting 

a. The feminine form el is derived from the old feminine ela. 
It is used only before nouns beginning with an accented a sound, 
excepting names of letters : 

el aye, the bird el agua frfa, the cold water 

el hacha, the ax el Asia, Asia 


la alta casa, the high house la a, the a 

la America, America la hacienda, the estate 

b. The masculine singular el (or feminine el) combines with de 
or a to form del and al respectively. But the combination does not 
occur when the article forms part of a title : 

£1 autor de -E/ Trovador, The author of^^El Trovador. " 

Mandd su poema a El Liberal, He sent his poem to " The Liberal.^'* 

124. Uses of Definite Article. Primarily, the Spanish definite 
article, in common with the English, denotes a particular individual 
or a specific object ; but it also has the following uses not found 
in English. 

I. Before nouns denoting general or abstract ideas : 

£1 pan es el sustento diario de los Bread is the daily food of men. 

La vida es breve. Life is short. 

Los hombres aman la libertad. Men love liberty, 



a. The absence of the article conveys a partitive idea, often 
expressed in English by some or any^ or in the negative by no : 

i Tiene Vd. pan ? * Have you any bread? 

No tenemos libertad. We have no liberty, 

2. With geographical names, 

a. Especially if taken in a general sense and not after a prepo- 
sition : 

Ha corrido la Francia. He has traveled over France, 

But, EstA en Francia. He is in France, 

b. Always with some names : 

la America del Norte, North la CoruSay Corunna 

America el Panami, Panama 

l08 Estados Unidos, the United el Jap^n, Japan 

States la Habana, Havana 

el Canadi, Canada el Mediterr^eo, the Mediterra- 

el Perdy Peru nean 

c. Never with others : 

Venezuela Chile M^jico, Mexico 

3. With proper nouns modified by an adjective, and frequently 
with Christian names of women : 

el pobre Pablo, poor Paul la Paquita, Fannie 

a. Hence before titles and epithets when not addressing the per- 

El general Guzmin. General Guzmdn, 

La seSora Ldpez. Mrs. Ldpez, 

Juana la loca. Jane the Crazy, 

But, Buenos dias, seSor P^ez. Good mornings Mr. Pirez, 

b. Exceptions to a are the titles don, doSa, sor, fray. 

4. With adjectives used as the name of a language, except after 
hablar and en : 

Aprendo el espaSol. / am learning Spanish. 

I Habla Vd. espaSol ? Do you speak Spanish f 

Escribo en franc6i. / write in French. 


a. The adjective castellano, CasHlian, always takes the article. 
Hablamos el castellano. We speak Castilian, 

5. With adjectives of nationality, profession, sex, etc., in appo- 
sition with a pronoun expressed or understood : 

Nosotros los ingleses. We English, 

Ustedes las mujeres. You women. 

Los profesores comprendemos. We teachers understand, 

6. In certain expressions of time, — 

a. Those modified by an adjective or a phrase : 

el aSo pasado, last year el martes que yiene, next Tuesday 

b. Before names of the days of the week except in dates (English 
usually has the preposition on in similar cases), and before names 
of the seasons : 

La primavera. v Spring, 

Viene los lunes. He comes on Mondays, 

Mi^rcoles, el dos del corriente. Wednesday, the second instant. 

7. To express rate where English has the indefinite article, though 
Spanish sometimes omits the article : 

Un peso la vara, or un peso vara. A dollar a yard. 
Treinta centavos la docena. Thirty cents a dozen. 

8. In speaking of the person or clothing, in place of the possessive 
adjective : 

Cdrteme Vd. el pelo. Cut my hair. 

Tiene puestos los zapatos. He has his shoes on. 

9. To modify an infinitive or a clause : 

JJl mentir es un vicio. Lying is a vice, 

tf e vuelve loco el que no me lleve // makes me crazy, the {fact) that 
nunca la contraria. you never contradict me. 

10. In many adverbial phrases not possible to classify; as, 

en la escuela, at school en la iglesia, at church 

en el colegio, in high school a la ciudad, to town 


125. The Neuter Article is used with adjectives, making an 
expression equivalent to an abstract noun. It occurs frequentiy 
with past participles and in many adverbial expressions. 

No son lo mismo. They are not the same, 

Ama lo bueno. He loves whatever is good, 

Est^ por lo positiyo. They are for the practical. 

Quedamos en lo dicho. We stuck by what had been said, 

Grit^ y me contestaron a lo lejos. / shouted and they answered me 

far off, 

a, A peculiar idiomatic use of the neuter article occurs when the 
modified adjective refers to a word in a following clause, sometimes 
equivalent to an indirect English exclamatory phrase introduced by 
how. The Spanish adjective agrees with the noun. 

I Sabe Vd. lo buena que es mi her- Do you know how good my sister 

mana ? is ? 

A pesar de lo muy agradecidos In spite of how very grateful we 

que estamos. are. 

b. Lo in the foregoing idiom may be modified by todo : Queria decirle 
todo lo hermosa que me parecia, / wanted to tell her how very handsome 
she seem^ed to m,e, 

126. Omission of Definite Article occurs, 

1. Before a noun in apposition with another: el se&or F., direc- 
tor del colegio, Mr. F., the principal of the school, 

2. Before numbers that are part of the title of sovereigns : 

Alfonso Trece es el nieto de Isabel Alfonso the Thirteenth is the 
Segunda. grandson of Isabella the Second, 

3. Sometimes the omission or use of the definite article gives a 
different meaning to the phrase : 

hacer la cama, to make the bed dar vuelta a, to turn 

hacer cama, to be sick abed dar una vuelta, to take a walk 

dar la vuelta, to go around 

4. In many adverbial expressions : 

en Filipinas, in the Philippines en tercera persona, in the third 
por primera Y%Zyfor the first time person 


127. The Indefinite Article, identical with the numeral one^ has 

the following forms : ^^ t. 

^ Masculine Feminine 

Sing. uno, un una 

a. The masculine singular is shortened to un before a noun or 
an attributive adjective. Used alone or as a pronoun, the full form 

I Tiene Vd. un buen perro ? Have you a good dog f 

SI, tango uno. Yes, I have one, 

Tengo uno muy bueno. / have a very good one, 

b. The feminine, in imitation of the feminine definite article el, 
usually is un before nouns beginning with an accented a sound. 
un aye hermosa, a beautiful bird un dguila l>equeSa, a small eagle 

128. Use and Omission of Indefinite Article. The indefinite arti- 
cle is used about as in English, but is omitted in the following cases : 

1. Before an unmodified noun in the predicate denoting business, 

profession, party, religion, etc. : 

£8 sastre. He is a tailor. 

Se ha hecho abogado. He has become a lawyer, 

£8 liberal. He is a liberal. 

Soy americano. / am an American. 

a. The indefinite article may be used to attribute a given qual- 
ity to one's character. Es cobarde. He is a coward (under these cir- 
cumstances). Es un cobarde, He is a regular coward (by nature). 

2. Before nouns in apposition : 

Tampico, puerto del golfo de Tampico^aharboronthe Gulf of 

M^jico. Mexico, 

3. Before nouns preceded by de in adverbial expressions corre- 
sponding to English as a : 

Va de consul a M^jico. He goes to Mexico as a consul, 

Yo soy un hombre atroz, a quien / am. a disagreeable man, whom, 

nadie ha podido aguantar ni de nobody has been able to endure 

muchachOy ni de joven, ni de as a boy, as a young man, nor 

Tiejo. as an old man. 


a. Similarly de denotes apposition between an adjective and a noun 
or between two nouns. 

I £1 pobre de Pepe I Poor Joe / 

£1 marica de Don C^dido. Don Cdndido the old woman, 

I Qu^ Ustima de muchacha I What a pity about the girl! 

4. In many verbal idioms which must be learned by observation : 

Tiene buen corazdn. He has a kind heart, 

Poner precio. To set a price. 

5. Before certain adjectives ; mil, one thousand^ ciento, one hun- 
dred^ and other numbers and fractions denoting quantity, as media 
docena, half a dozen, 

tal, such a i qu^ tal muchacho ? what sort of 

otro, other^ another boy ? 

cierto, a certain 

6. In exclamations after | qu^ I 

I Qu6 ruido ! What a noise I 

I Qu^ chico atroz ! What an awful boy / 

7. In negative expressions or those implying a negative : 

No dice palabra. He does not say a word. 

Me dej6 sin respuesta. He left me without a reply, 

I Hay hombre tan atreyido ? Is there a man so bold? 


I. The largest continent is Asia. 2. Havana, the capital of Cuba, 
is a beautiful city. 3. Men seek gold in all parts of the world. 
4. There is gold in South America and in Mexico. 5. They do 
not speak pure Castilian in Chile and Peru. 6. Mr. Ibarra, a Cuban, 
teaches Spanish and French. 7. He is a Mexican and a soldier. 
8. We Americans love independence. 9. My hands and face are 
cold. 10. To read and write is indispensable. 11. Tailors make 
suits for men. 12. Captain L6pez arrived last Wednesday from 
Panama. 13. Whatever is good is expensive^ but people want 
the good cheap. 14. We know the worst: what we said has 


happened. 15. Another day comes to-morrow. I have a thousand 
things to do.^ 16. How much did you pay for such a thing? A 
dollar a pound. 17. Spanish is easier than French. 18. Good morn- 
ing, Miss Mary. Who came yesterday ? General P^rez and Mrs. 
Navarro. 19. Eating^ too much is bad for one's health. 20. He re- 
ceives one thousand dollars a year, not a hundred dollars a month. 
2 1 . Philip the Second was the son of Charles the First, king of Spain, 
who was Charles the Fifth, the German emperor. 22. Do you know 
how pretty she is ? 23. We have geography on Fridays. 24. You 
Spaniards read English easily. 25. This steamer leaves Corunna 
for South America next week. 26. Little Paco says that the water 
is cold. 27. Is iron more useful than silver? 28. The retinue con- 
sisted of Lieutenant Carvalho, the leader of the Brazilian colony, 
Messrs. Rodriguez and Guzman, and the writer. 29. Now we girls 
are for the practical. 30. What an idea! 31. He is John G6mez, 
a son of General G6mez. 32. There is not a carriage in the street. 
33. He dressed himself as a woman. 34. He is going to Spain with- 
out knowing a word of Castilian. 35. What a man I As a lawyer 
he had no success. Now he is a politician. 36. He was a rich man 
and is now poor ; he was a father and is alone on the earth ; he was 
a husband and is a widower. 37. I subscribed to The LiberaL 
38. The first thing that he did was to look at the books. 39. You 
do not know how cold it is." 

1 que hacer. ^ Use infinitive. • See section 58, a. 



129. Gender. Every Spanish noun is either masculine or feminine. 

1. Masculine are nouns — 

a. Denoting male beings : 

el rey, the king el artista, the artist 

el cura, the priest el amigo, the friend 

b. Ending in o : 

el yientOy the wind el ojo, the eye 

Except la mano, the handy and a few others rarely used. 

c. Names o'f most oceans, rivers, mountains ; and countries, not 
ending in unaccented a : 

el AtUntico, the Atlantic los Andes, the Andes 

el AmazonaSy the Amazon el Plata, the river La Plata ^ or 

el Sena, the Seine River Plate 

el Ecuador, Ecuador el Panamd, Panama 

But la EspaSa, Spain, la Italia, Italy 


d. Indeclinable words, infinitives, etc., used as nouns : 
el hablar, speaking el si, the yes 

2. Feminine are nouns — 

a. Denoting female beings : 

la reina, the queen la actriz, the actress 

la joven, the young lady la tigre, the tigress 

b. Those ending in a : . 

la pluma, the pen la naranja, the orange 

But exceptions are very numerous. Most important are el dia, 
the day ; el mapa, the map ; nouns of Greek origin usually ending 
in ma, as el idioma, the language ; el sistema, the system ; el 
telegrama, the telegram. 



Many nouns ending in a may be recognized as masculine by their 
signification : 

el centinela, the sentinel el papa, the pope 

c. Names of the letters of the alphabet : 

la by the b una ch, ckch 

d. Nouns with the terminations \dad, tad, tu^ ie, i6n, umbre, 

denoting abstract or general ideas : 

la libertad, liberty la necesidad, necessity 

la virtud, virtue la serie, the series 

la nacidn, the nation la costu'mbre, the habit 

130. Number. The plural of Spanish nouns is formed by add- 
ing 8 to words ending in an unaccented vowel, es to words ending 
in a consonant or an accented vowel, including the monosyllabic 
names of the letters of the alphabet. 

el hombre, the man los hombres, the men 

la mujer, the woman las mujeres, the women 

el rubiy the ruby los rabies, the rubies 

la 0, the o las oes, the o^s 

a. Note that the proper spelling to retain the sound of the sin- 
gular must be obtaiined by changing final z to c, and final c to qu, 
before es. 

la luz, the light las luces, the lights 

el frac, the dress-coat los fraques, the dress-coats 

Also, el 6nix, the onyx los 6nices, the onyxes 

b. The following words shift their accent in the plural : 

el cardcter, the character los caracteres, the characters 

el regimen, the regime los regimenes, the regimes 

I. Exceptions to the above rules are 

a. Words ending in y : 

el rey, the king los reyes, the kings 

el buey, the ox los bueyes, the oxen 

b. Words ending in € : 

el caf6, the coffee los caf6s, the coffees 

el pie, the foot los pies, the feet 


€. Exceptions to other accented vowel terminations are 

el papA, papa los papAs, papas 

el wfAky the sofa los soiis, the sofas 

la mamiy mamma las mamis, nuimmas 

2. The following make no change in the plural. 

a. Words ending in unaccented es or is : 

el lunes, Monday los lunes, Mondays 

la crisis, the crisis las crisis, the crises 

b. Family names, especially those terminating in es or ez, and 

foreign names not having terminations similar to Spanish : 

Pdrez, los Pdrez 
Franklin, los Franklin 

c. Adopted Latin words : 

el deficit, the deficit los deficit, the deficits 

el ultimatum, the ultimatum los ultimatum, the ultimatums 

3. Irregular: 

el lord, the lord los lores, the lords 

131. Compound Nouns. In English a noun may perform the 
function of an adjective and modify another noun. The combina- 
tion is written sometimes as one word, as hedgehog \ sometimes 
with a hyphen, as bear^sfoot\ often as two words, as bond paper. 
While a few such combinations exist in Spanish, as ferrocarril, 
railroad^ the great majority of English compound nouns must be 
turned into Spanish by the use of prepositions in various ways, as, 

1 . The modifying noun follows the other and is connected there- 
with by de : thus, 

el reloj de oro, the gold watch 
t la pluma de acero, the steel pen 

2. If the modifying noun denotes use or purpose, para is pre- 
ferred as the connecting preposition ; as, 

la taza para caf ^, the coffee cup 

la miquina para escribir, the typewriter 

See further under compound adjectives, section 138. 


132. Augmentatives, Diminutives, and other suffixes. Spanish 
compensates in part for its lack of compound nouns by possessing 
a large number of suffixes, some of which are classed as augmen- 
tatives and diminutives. Though these indicate size, they also de- 
note other ideas such as contempt, affection, irony, disagreeableness, 
mockery, which in English are often expressed by terms from dif- 
ferent stems ; as, casa, house ; casucha, shanty. Sometimes a word 
originally a diminutive acquires a specialized meaning ; as, cuchara, 
spoon \ cucharita, teaspoon. Many of the suffixes may also be 
applied to adjectives. v 

(A complete discussion of the suffixes will not be given, because the 
learner should not attempt to apply them himself and should rely on the 
dictionary for any forms other than the simplest) 

1. Augmentatives are 

a, -6n, -ona : 

silla — silliSn, big chair ^ easy chair nariz — narigdn, big nose 
Gaspar — Gaspardn, big Caspar mujer — mujerona, big strapping 


b, -azo, -aza : picaro — picarazo, great rogue. 

c, -ote, -Ota ; also depreciative : 

palabra — palabrota, offensive and vulgar word 
feo — feote, extremely ugly 

d, -ajo(a), -acho(a), -uco(a), -ucho(a) ; express poor quality or 

contempt : 

fraile — frailucho, contemptible espanto — espantajo, scarecrow 

friar vino — vinacho, poor wine, dregs 

cuarto — cuartucho, wretched room vivo — vivaracho, frolicsome 

2. Diminutives are 

a, -ito(a), -cito(a), -ecito(a), dialectical -ico(a) etc.,' -illo(a), 

-€illo(a), -ecillo(a) ; express also affection, niceness, pleasing qual- 
ities, pity. 

llor — florecita, little flower cigarro — cigarrillo, cigarette 

madre — madrecita, little mother, seSora — seSorita, miss 

dear mother mujer — mujercita, frail little wo- 
papA — papaito, papa dear man 


b, -uelo(a), -zuelo(a), -ezuelo(a) ; express also mockery and 

Venezia, Venice — Venezuela rey — reyezuelo, petty king 

pequeSo — pequeHuelo, dear little mujer — mujerzuela, sorry little 
fellow woman 

c, -ete(a), -cete(a), -ecete(a); frequently also depreciative. 

caballero — caballerete, dude^ dandy 
historia — historieta, short story 

d, -ejo(a); implies contempt: caballo — caballejo, nag, 

' e. The augmentatives ^n and -ote sometimes form diminutives : 

rata, rat — ratiSn, mouse isla, island — islote, islet 

3. Various combinations of these suffixes are common : 

rlo — riacho — riachuelo 

hombre — hombr6n — hombronazo 

chico — chiquito — chiquitito, chiquitillo 

4. A few Spanish suffixes, not augmentatives nor diminutives, 
should be known : 

a, -ada (capacity), Eng. -ful\ cuchara, spoon — cucharada, spoon- 

b, -ada, -azo, a blow with or a wound from. 

puSal, dagger — puSalada, dagger thrust, stab wound 
bala, bullet — balazo, bullet wound, shot 

c, -al, -ar, -eda, a collection, grove, or orchard. 

arena, sand — arenal, sandy spot 
caf 6, coffee — caf etal, coffee plantation 
manzano, apple tree — manzanar, apple orchard 
SHaxnOy poplar — alameda, avenue of poplars 

d, -dor, -dora, the person or thing that performs the act indicated 
by the verbal stem ; often used adjectively. 

hablar, to talk — hablador, talkative 

matar, to kill — matador, killer 

trillar, to thresh — (mdquina) trilladora, threshing-machine 


e, -ero(a), the person who makes, manages, or sells things. 

zapato, shoe — zapatero, shoemaker or shoe-^lealer 
molino, mill — molinero, miller — molineray miller's wife 

f, -ia added to -ero : -eria, place of business. 

zapateria, shoe shop or collection 0/ shoes 
librero, book-dealer — libreria, book store 

5. The past participle feminine makes nouns denoting the com- 
pleted action of the verbs. 

llegar, to arrive — Uegada, arrival 
salir, to depart — salida, departure . 

\ ^ ^ ^ >-un billete de ida y yiielta, a return ticket 
volver, to return J . 

133. Idiomatic Plural. The masculine plural of nouns and pro- 
nouns includes the corresponding feminine : 

I08 padres, the parents los hermanos, brothers and sisters 

los hijos, the children los parientes, the relatives 

los seSores Gonz&lez, Mr, and los reyes cat61icos, the Catholic 
Mrs, Gonzdlez Monarchs (i.e. Ferdinand and 


a. The titles of offices, being susceptible of misunderstanding, are an 
exception : 

el alcalde y la alcaldesa, the mayor and the mayoress 
el presidente y su seSora, the president and his wife 

134. Objective Case. The preposition a serves to indicate the 
objective (or accusative) case of nouns when the direct object is — 

1. A specific person, intelligent animal, or personified thing: 

Vea Vd. a Cecilia. Look at Cecilia, 

No encontr6 a mi amigo. / did not find my friend. 

Don Quijote cabalgaba a Rocinante. Don Quixote rode Rocinante, 

Las riquezas no siempre tienen por Riches do not always have joy 
compaSera a la alegria. for a companion. 

2, A geographical name without definite article : 

He yisto a Seyilla. / have seen Seville, 

But, Pizarro conqnistd el Perd. Pizarro conquered Peru, 


3. Out of its normal position, or liable not to be recognized : 

Al yate alcanzd el vapor. The steamer overtook the yacht. 

Ningnna de las cosas que a la flor None of the things which make 

hacen bonita. the flower pretty. 

El nombre rige al yerbo. The noun governs the verb. 

4. A pronoun, except que and the unaccented object pronouns : 

£1 seSor a quien llam^. The gentleman whom I called. 

El hombre que yl. The man whom I saw. 

No conozco a nadie. / know nobody. 

5. Though the preposition a be required by these rules, it is 

often not used before a word beginning with an a sound, or when 

there is also an indirect object in the sentence, or a noun governed 

by the preposition a : 

Mira aquel hombre. Look at that man. 

Di<5 el esclayo a su hijo. He gave the slave to his son. 

Maudd el muchacho a casa. He sent the boy home. 

Note. In general, a should be retained before nouns that require it, 
which is often possible by substituting the passive construction for the 
active ; as, Se le did el esclayo a su hijo, The slave was given to his son. 

6. Since a proper noun in the objective case always requires the 
a, two proper nouns governed by a should be avoided by using 
another expression : thus, instead of Prefiri6 a Pedro a Juan, say 
Prefiri6 el joven Pedro a Juan. 

7. With certain verbs, a appears before their personal objects 
when the verb has a special meaning : 

querer, to wish; querer a, to love 

tener, to have^ usually without a before a personal object, requires it in 

the idiom tener a uno en coalquier parte 
perder, to lose; perder a, to ruin, though sometimes also to lose by death 
Quiero un criado. / wish a servant. 

Isabel te quiere como a un hermano. Isabel loves you as a brother. 
Tengo un buen tlo. / have a good uncle. 

Tengo a mi tlo en Chile. My uncle is in Chile. 

Perdid (a) su hermano en la guerra. He lost his brother in the war. 
Con su mania del juego, pierde a By his passion for gambling he is 
su familia. ruining his family. 

NOUNS 125 


A, Determine the gender by the rules ^ and write the proper article 
with : ciudad, sistema, muchedumbre, circulacidn, independencia, 
esperanza, carlista, poema, Venus, monarca, calidad, unidn. 

B, Write plurals with articles: el agua, la tesis, el lunes, el ingles, 
el senor Martfnez, el pie, el rubf, el juez, el dguila, la serie, el rey. 

C, Determine the meaning of the whole word by examining the stem 
and the suffix : el hermanito, el animalejo, el hombrecillo, la mane- 
cita, Anita, el doctorzuelo, el papelucho, el bobarrdn, el chiquillo, 
Carlitos, el hombrdn, los zapatones, la zapatilla, una plumada de 
tinta, una cuchillada, la venida, el dador, la entrada, el naranjal, el 
palmar, el hachazo, un silletazo, una arboleda, el ranchero, el relo- 
jero, una relojerfa, una guanterfa. 

Z>. Translate : i . He has three grandparents, his father's par- 
ents and his mother's mother. 2. My brother has three children, 
two boys and a girl. 3. There is a party to-night at Mr. and Mrs. 
Gonzalez's. 4. We saw a handsome eagle in the park. 5. Put 
(an)^ accent on the i's of the endings of the imperfect indicative. 

6. Columbus discovered America, but Cortes conquered Mexico. 

7. Where did you find John ? 8. I saw nobody there whom I knew. 
9. Whom did you see in the theater ? 10. The night follows the day. 
II. The silver spoon is on the kitchen table. 12. They have a new 
sewing machine. 1 3. The Romans used to write on wax tablets with 
iron pencils. 14. He called the dog friend. 15. Lucas had taught 
the dog to dance. 16. The water carried me away like a feather. 
17. I do not believe unde Lucas 2} man to^ consent to* such fool- 
ishness. 18. They gave the sick woman medicine in small doses. 
19. The letter z is not written * before the vowels e and i. 20. In the 
Roman system of numeration the capital C equals one hundred, and 
the capital M one thousand. 21. Here you have Dona Dolores. 

1 Omit. * de. 'en. * Use reflexive verb. 



135. Gender. If the masculine singular of an adjective ends in 
0, the feminine is formed by changing o to a. Adjectives ending 
otherwise remain the same in both genders. 

on caballo negro, a black horse una yegna negra, a black mare 

el iLrbol yerde, the green tree la hoja yerde, the green leaf 

un hombre feliz, a happy man una mujer infeliz, an unhappy 
el belga, the Belgian woman 

el cielo azul, the blue sky la estrella azul, the blue star 

el partido socialista, the socialist la frontera marroqul, the Moroccan 
party frontier 

Exceptions are 

1. Adjectives of nationality, which add a to a final consonant : 

ingl68y inglesa, English andaluz, andaluza, Andalusian 

alemAn, alemana, German proyenzal, proyenzala, Provenqal 

2. Adjectives with the terminations im, 6n, or (except compara- 
tives), ete, ote, In : 

regordete, regordeta, plump hablador, habladora, talkative^ 

feote, feota, ugly 

holgazin, holgazana, lazy But una hermana mayor, an older 

chiquitln, chiquitina, tiny sister 

burldn, burlona, roguish la parte superior, the upper part 

3. A few adjectives of one termination which add a when used 
as feminine nouns, especially those ending in al. 

la colegiala, the schoolgirl la superiora, the mother superior 

136. Number. The plurals of adjectives follow the rules for the 
plurals of nouns ; see section 130. 



137. Apocopatiofi. See section 46. 

1. Giande in the fiiU form is used before nouns b^;inning with a 
vowel sound. 

nna gxande abundancia de flores, a great abundance of flowers 
nn sranda hombre, a great man 

a. Sometimes also for emphasis ; as, Ss cosa cierta que nunca grande 
oosa 86 hubo sin trabajo, // is certain that no great thing ever came to 
fass without work, 

2. Santo becomes san in names of saints, except before those 
beginning with To or Do ; as, San Pedro, Saint Peter -^ San Pablo, 
Saint Paul,, Santo Toribio ; Santo Domingo ; Santo Tomis. 

a. The name of the island, however, is San Tomas, with shift of 
accent due to derivation from English. 

b. The adjective santo, and its feminine form in names, have the full 
form ; as, el santo dia, the blessed day ; Santa Maria. 

3. Ciento becomes cien before nouns : den mujeres, one hundred 
women. But the full form occurs in counting above a hundred ; as, 
ciento dos pesos, one hundred and two dollars, 

138. Compound Adjectives, like compoxmd nouns, are not very 

numerous in Spanish. English compound adjectives must usually 

be translated into Spanish by prepositional phrases. 

una niSa de ojos aznles, a blue-eyed girl 

Ids ricos duros de coraz6n, the hard-hearted rich 

1. When the expression contains two nouns and an adjective, 
the adjective may ag^ee with either noun : 

ui sombrero de ancbas alas 
un sombrero ancho de alas 

2. The repetition of de may be avoided by using other preposi- 
tions according to sense : 

nn bastdn con puSo de oro, a gold- compaSfa de segnros contra incen- 
hectded cane ^ios^flre insurance company 

maqninaria para trabajar la ma- clavos para herraduras de cabeza 
dera, wood-working machinery pequeSa, small-headed horse- 

shoe nails 

\a broad-brimmed hat 


3. The English suffix -less is translated by the preposition sin : 

la telegrafia sin hilos, wireless sierra sin fin, endless saw or band- 
telegraphy saw 

4. With proper names and the words brand 21A color ^ the prepo- 
sition may be omitted : 

ruedas Pelton, Pelton wheels goantes color yerde aoeitnna, olive- 

fdsforos marca Victoria, Victoria green gloves 

brand matches el musgo color perla, the pearl- 

colored moss 

139. Position of Adjectives, i. The will of the writer largely 
determines whether an adjective shall stand before or after the 
noun. However, the emphatic position is after the noun ; hence, 
important adjectives that distinguish individuals from others of the 
same class follow the noun, while those which are characteristic or 
may apply to all objects of a class precede the noun. 

buenos amig<0Sf good friends claveles blancos, white pinks 

amigos intimos, intimate friends la blanca nieve, the white snow 

las bellas fiores, the beautiful una casa costosa, an expensive 
flowers house 

2. When two adjectives come together either before or after the 
noun, it is customary to write y, and, between them ; unless one 
of the adjectives is so closely connected with the meaning as to 
make practically a compound noun. 

ojos grandes 7 animados, large el Banco Nacional Americano, the 

animated eyes American National Bank 

dos largos 7 tristes meses, two aguas minerales extranjeras, for- 

long sad months eign mineral waters 

3. Groups of modifiers should be arranged so as to restrict the 
word intended, and with a care for the sound. 

Aceiteras de acero sin junta. Seamless steel oil-cans, 

Arboles corpulentos de rugosos tron- Huge trees with rough formidable 

cos formidables abrian en yerti- trunks opened on dizzy heights 

ginosas alturas los mil herciUeos the thousand Herculean arms 

brazos de sus ramajes frondosos. of their leafy branches. 



4. The following adjectives are always placed before the noun. 
(See also section 142, 6.) 

ambosy both 

cada, each 

cuanto, how much 

demAs, other 

macho, much^ plural many 

The cardinal numerals 

otro, other 

poco, Ittt/ey plural ^tt' 
^qu^? what? 
^cail? which? 
tantOy so much 
todo, every ^ all 

5. Some adjectives have a difference in meaning according as 
tiiey stand before or after the noun. These differences are usually 
a distinction between the figurative and the literal meaning, but the 
adjectives in their literal sense may sometimes be found in good 
writers placed before the noun. 

mi cara madre, my dear mother 
derto hombre, a certain man 

un gran seSor, a great lord 

mal caf ^, bad coffee 
el mismo dla, the same day 
un nuevo libro, a new (i.e. differ- 
ent) book 
I pobre muchacho 1 poor boy / 
yarios papeles, several papers 

\m libro caro, an expensive book 
una noticia cierta, a true piece of 

una casa grande, a large house 
una gran sala baja, a large lower 

un hombre malo, a wicked man 
el rey mismo, the king himself 
un libro nuevo, a new book (newly 

un muchacho pobre, a poor boy 
papeles yarios, miscellaneous pc^ 


a. Many expressions require a fixed position of the adjective : buen 
dinero (ironical), little money ; una buena pieza, a nice trick ; el padre 
santo, the Pope\ la Santa Biblia, the Holy Bible, (See the large 

b, A distinction exists between el mismo and un mismo. The latter 
implies no comparison, one and the same, while the former supposes 

Todo ello estd escrito de una mis- // is all written in the same hand 

ma letra. 
Esta gorra no es la misma. This cap is not the same one. 



A. Translate: i. Tanks of California redwood. 2. Elngraved 
wedding cards. 3. Solid steel cart-wheels. 4. Portable Victor re- 
frigerating machines. 5. Cotton-seed-oil presses. 6. Eureka brand 
table cutlery. 7. A gasoline illuminating system. 8. Seamless stock- 
ings. 9. A blue typewriter ribbon. 10. Aluminum advertising signs. 

B, I. John will earn a great honor and a good handful of silver. 
2. He wore a necktie of pearl-colored silk. 3. While the money 
lasted, the innkeeper treated me with great attention. 4. The cap- 
tain had a thick, black, silky mustache. 5. This large house belongs 
to the heir of a great family. 6. The poor sick girl I I took her 
some new magazines to read. 7. A dense impure vapor rose from 
the surface of the sea. 8. His younger sister was a charming girl. 
9. We entered the lower part of the house. 10. He bought two 
handsome black horses. 11. The German girls have pretty blue 
eyes. 12. The Carlist party has its name from Don Carlos, brother 
of Ferdinand the Seventh. 13. Wireless telegraphy is one of the 
great inventions of the nineteenth century. 1 4. Saint Thomas never 
visited the island of Saint Thomas. 15. With the stones he has 
built a safe, handsome yard for his cattle. 16. They have several 
kinds of new books. 17. The streets of the city are broad and clean. 
18. There are a hundred boys in the class. 19. This room has five 
broad high windows. 20. In the market we saw a heap of orange- 
colored squashes. 21. The president of the United States lives in 
the White House. 22. The same day the president himself opened 
the door. 23. He paid the hundred pesetas to both men. 24. They 
sell domestic and foreign goods of all kinds. 25. All this happened 
on one and the same day. 26. The same day we played ball in the 



140. Agreement of Adjective and Noun. i. An adjective modi- 
fying two or more nouns may be masculine plural when the nouns 
are of different gender ; and must be so if the nouns denote persons. 

£1 mddico y la seSora estaban sen- T/ie doctor and the lady were 
tados en el despacho. seated in the office, 

2 . The plural adjective may agree in gender with the nearest noun. 

Sangre, dinero, e intelligencia eu- European bloody money ^ and in- 

ropeas. telligence. 

Juntos el terror y la admiracidn Together terror and wonder arose 

germinaron en el alma de Lucila. in Lucille^ s soul, 

£1 misterio y sigilo diplomiticos. Diplomatic mystery and secrecy, 

3. If the nouns appear to the writer as closely associated in mean- 
ing, the adjective modifying them may agree in both gender and 
number with the nearest. 

£1 valor y constancia espaSola. Spanish valor and constancy, 

Otras devociones y ejercicios. Other devotions and exercises. 

Mi padre ha leido muchos romances My father has read many ballads 

e historias. and stories. 

a. An adjective or an article may be repeated when it is desired to 
mark a distinction in meaning between two nouns. See section 141. 

Tengo mucho frio y mucha hambre. / am very cold and hungry, 

4. Two or more singular adjectives may be used with a plural 
noun, agreeing with it in gender, when different objects are meant. 

I08 tomos primero y segimdo, the first and second volumes 
las Claras italiana y portnguesa, the Italian and Portuguese parlia- 



141. Repetition of Adjective and Article. Adjectival modifiers, 
including the articles, are repeated with each noun when distinct 
persons, things, oi ideas are presented. 

Hi madre y mi tia. My mother and aunt, 

Hasta las diez y media o la^ once. Until halfpast ten or eleven o'clock, 

Gracias a Vd. por las naevaa cartas / tkank you for the recent letters 

y los nueyos consejos. and advice, 

Esta consideraci6n y esta medita- This consideration and this reflec- 

ci6n me atemorizan. tion make me afraid. 

£1 amor de Dios y el concepto de God'' s love and the concept of God 

Dies todo lo abarcan. embrace everything. 

a. If, however, the two nouns appear to the writer to represent 
closely related ideas or to have a collective sense, the modifier appeals 
only once. 

Se comprenden bajo la denomina- Under the term baggage are in- 

ci6n de eqnipajes los batiles, ma- eluded trunks^ valises^ hat- 

letaSy sombrereraSy y saoos de boxes, and traveling-bags. 

£1 Principe de Viana tuvo la ma- The Prince of Viana had the 

jestad y esperanzas de im naci- majesty and hopes of a royal 

miento real. birth. 

Obra una transmisidn y mezcla de // effects a transmission and 

sangre. mingling of blood. 

142. The Comparative. See sections 47, 48, 49. 

1. The correlative adverbs the . . . the used with comparatives 
are rendered in Spanish by cuanto . . . tanto. 

Cuanto mds leo este autor, tanto The more I read this author the 
mds lo admiro. more I admire him. 

a. Tanto may be omitted ; and mientras may be used instead of cuanto. 

Cuanto mAs lejos, mejor. The farther the better. 

Mientras mayor me representa el The greater I imagine God^s love 

amor de Dios, menos celoso estoy {to be), the less jealous I am 

y mds le amo. and the more I love him. 

2. Though tan is used with adjectives, the full form tanto must 
be used with comparatives : tanto peor, so much the worse. 


3. The comparative may be intensified by cada vez to denote a 
gradual increase in degree. 

La seSora estalMi cada yez peor de The lady became constantly worse 

salud. in health, 

Brillan cada yez mis las luces The electric lights shine brighter 

el^ctricas. and brighter, 

4. Indefinite expressions after comparatives are usually in the 

mejor que en ningdn otro pais, better than in any other country 
mis rico que nunca, richer than ever 

5. A redundant no sometimes appears after a comparative. 

El guardia parecia ocuparse mis de The watchman seemed to pay 
la campiSa que no del rfo. more attention to the plain than 

to the river, 

6. The irregular comparatives mejor, peor, menor, and mayor 
may stand before the noun, but are placed after it when the com- 
parison is not limited, or when the noun is preceded by algono, 
ninguno, or otro. Mayor and menor may stand before the noun 
only in a completed comparison. 

mi mejor amigo, my best friend ninguna casa mejor, no better house 
su hijo menor, his youngest son una seSora mayor, an elderly lady 

VendrAn dias mejores. Better days will come. 

El peor hombre del mtmdo. The worst man in the world. 

La mayor casa del iMtrrio. The largest house in the quarter, 

143. Than after a comparative. See section 49. 

I. When the comparison is with a noun in the principal clause, 
Spanish uses for than del que, de la que, de los que, de las que, 
according to the gender and number of the noun represented. 

Tenia yo menos dinero del que me / had less money than he de- 
pidi6. mandedofme, 

Hubo mis gente de la que invito. There were more people than he 


£ Son machos los enemigos ? Mis Are the enemy numerous f More 
de los que esperibamos. than we expected. 


2. When the comparison is with a statement or idea, de lo que 
introduces the second member. 
Es m&a hdbil de lo que parece. He is more skillful than he seems, 

144. VLkR modifies many adverbs of place which have no com- 
parative degree in English, and otherwise forms various idiomatic 

mds adelante, later on^ farther on 

mds arriba, higher up, mds abajo, lower down 

mAs al nor^^ farther north 

mis bien, rather 

mds acd de, on this side, mis alii de, beyond^ on the other side 

no mis . . . que, only : No habla mis que dos sillasi There were 

only two chairs 
a poco mis, nearly : A poco mis se muere. He nearly died 

145. The Superlative, i. A possessive adjective may replace the 

article in forming the superlative. 

su poema mis interesante, his most interesting poem 
mi mejor amigo, my best friend 

2. The superlative adjective may stand either before or after the 

noun ; but in the latter case the article is placed before the noun. 

Isabel, sostenida por la mayor y mis sana parte del reino, Isabel^ sup- 
ported by the largest and soundest part of the kingdom 
las rocas mis elevadas, the highest rocks 

3. With several adjectives in the comparative or superlative, mis 

or menos is used only once. 

las regiones mis ricas y f^rtiles, the richest and most fertile regions 
los menos sabios y leldos, the least learned and well-read 

4. The superlative adjective in the predicate omits the article 
when the comparison concerns only the subject of the verb without 
reference to other nouns or pronouns. 

Cuando mis alegre estaba, vi que When I was merriest I saw the 

la seSora fij6 en ml la mirada. lady stare at me. 

No te cases nunca, Cecilia ; el Never marry ^ Cecilia j the man 

hombre que mejor parece de who seems best as a lover is the 

novio es el esposo peor. worst husband. 


5. A superlative adjective modifying a noun in apposition with 
anotiier has tiie article after the noun. 

Gonzalo de C6rdoba, general el mAa iliutre del siglo XV, Gonzalo de 
CdrdobUj the most illustrious general of the fifteenth century 

6. The article is not used with the superlative of an adverb un- 
less accompanied by the adjective posible, or an expression denoting 
possibility ; in which case the neuter article is required. 

Los cometas aparecen cuando me- Comets appear when they are 

nos se los espera. least expected, 

Se trataba lo menos posible con los He conversed as little as possible 

yecinos. with the neighbors. 

Huy6 lo mAs de prisa que podia. He ran away as fast as he could. 

I>on Fadrique bail6 lo mejor que Don Fadrique danced the best he 

supo. knew how. 

a. When it is necessary to emphasize or make precise the superlative 
degree of an adverb, Spanish uses a relative or adverbial clause. 

Es Juan el que corre mds de prisa. John runs the fastest. 

7. Most^ as a noun, is la mayor parte de or los (las) mds de. 

la mayor parte de su dinero, most of his money 
los mis de los suyos, most of his men 

a. Los (las) mis may also be used as an adjective ; as, las mds noches, 
M4)st nights, 

146. Absolute Superlative, i. When there is no real comparison 
but the adjective denotes a supreme degree, Spanish applies the 
ending isimo to the adjective; as, h^bil, j>^//^z^/— habilisimo, 
very skillful. 

a. A final or other vowel is dropped before adding the termination, 
and the rules for spelling (see section 7) must be regarded. 

mucho — muchisimo, very much rico — riqulsimo, very rich 
f eliz — felicisimo, very happy largo — larguisimo, very long 

b. The termination lo retains i, but io is dropped; though some 
adiectives in lo or io do not allow the addition of isimo. 

frlo — friisimo, very cold amplio — amplisimo, very ample 


c. The original Latin word influences the formation from adjectives 
having a stem vowel ie or ue, or the terminations ble, fico, yolo, or whose 
Latin superlative ended in rimus or limus. There are also a few unclassi- 
fied forms from the Latin superlative. 

cierto — certlsimo, very sure 

fuerte — fortlsimOy very strong 

noble — nobilisimo, very noble 

magnifico — magnificentlsimOy very magnificent 

ben^YOlo — beneyolentisimo, very benevolent 

c^lebre — celeb^rrimo, very famous 

fiu:il — facilin^o (also facillsimo), very easy 

sable — sapientisimOy very wise 

flel — tAtVisimOf very faithful 

2. The following adjectives have, besides the regular absolute 
superlative, others derived from the Latin forms : 

bueno — bonisimo, 6ptimo, very good 
malo — malisimo, p^imo, very bad 
grande — grandisimo, mdzimo, very great 
pequeSo — pequeSf simo, minimo, very small 

3. An equivalent for the absolute superlative may be formed by 
intensifying adverbs modifying the adjective. 

muy bueno, very good cantidades sobre manera pequeSas, 

sumamente fiel, extremely faithful exceedingly small quantities 

a. The particle re (rete) may be prefixed to the adjective with the 
same force : 

rebueno, very good; retebien hecho, very well done 

147. Adjectives as Nouns. The Spanish adjective may be freely 
used as a noun to specify individuals. English uses the adjective 
as a noun only in a limited way, usually supplying words like mariy 
woman, the one, the ones, 

I Vid Vd. al ciego ? Did you see the blind man f 

I Qui^n es la vieja ? Who is the old woman ? 

£1 pequeSo es mis bonito que los The little one is prettier than the 
grandes. big ones» 


1. Certain superlative expressions in English supply the words sort^ 
kind, one of\ these words are rendered in Spanish by the superlative 
of the adjective used as a noun governed by the preposition de. 

carmesf del mds yistoso, crimson of the showiest kind 

una noche de las mAs frfas de diciembre, one of the coldest December 

una tarde de las primeras frlas de octubre, one of the first cold after- 
noons in October 

a. In a similar way a superlative adjective preceded by de may stand 
with partitive sense in the predicate. 

Los dias que pas^ en aquella casa fue- The days that I spent in that house 

ron de los m^s tristes de mi yida. were the saddest in my life. 
£1 paSo es de primera clase. The cloth is first-class, 

2. After a neuter pronoun, as mucho, nada, qu^, the adjective pre- 
ceded by de may be treated as noun and may agree or not in gender 
and number with the word to which it refers. 

I Qu6 hay de nuevo ? What is there new f (idiomatic 

English) What is the news f 
Nada de particular. Nothing special. 

Aquellos ojos tenian mucho de her- Those eyes were very beautiful. 
moso or de hermosos. 

148. Adjectives as Adverbs. Adjectives are frequently used as ad- 
verbs ; as, hablar bajo, to speak low ; Carlos habl6 primero, Charles 
spoke first ; Viven felloes, They live happily. 

a. Solo when used as an adverb takes a written accent: s61o dos, 
only two. 

b. Medio, half is frequentiy found as an adverb : 

Los yiejos pareclan medio muertos. The old people seemed half dead, 
Estaba ella medio escondida. She was half hidden. 


I. The interest and emotion of the public were extraordinary. 
2. They live in the largest and richest city in the world. 3. We have 
Spanish lessons on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. 4. What 
is the opposite of " better " ? " Worse." 5 . A faithful dog is the most 
faithful of friends. 6. Most Spanish words of Gothic origin are 


military terms, or personal names like Federico. 7. Greece and 
Rome were the two most celebrated nations of antiquity, one for the 
arts and genius, the other for its strength and greatness. 8. The sil- 
ver mines of Potosf have produced for more than two centuries an in- 
calculable wealth. 9. I prefer the old book to the new one. i o. The 
old men were watching the young men. 1 1 . The house has nothing 
beautiful (about it).^ 12. I had only one friend in the city. 13. Our 
bookstore was established in one of the most central streets. 1 4. The 
streets became constandy uglier as we left ^ the center of the town. 
15. The price of the rags is greater the newer they are. 16. Why 
are we poor? Because we spend more than we earn, or because 
we earn less than we spend. 17. The servant returned earlier than 
we expected. 18. Acquaintance with* Spanish will be most useful 
for you. 19. I have sold all my best books. 20. Lincoln had not 
been a state governor nor a federal senator, the highest offices of 
the republic after that* of president. 21. Most of the houses were 
closed on account of the heat. 22. He studies more than anybody. 
23. He possessed many religious paintings and engravings. 24. They 
traveled silently. 25. Further on, the amphitheater of mountains, 
some higher than others, all black and formidable, surrounded the 
plain. 26. San Felfu is a town of 10,000 souls and one of the rich- 
est and most important in the province. 27. Through the little nar- 
row windows she saw the deep, blue bosom of the night. 28. Most 
Sundays I was invited to dine at my uncle's, a very rich old bache 
lor. 29. St. Paul's is the largest church in London. 30. The little 
girl was half dead from cold. 31. He entered the office in^ worse 
humor than ever. 32. From the roof he saw more than fifty bell- 
towers. 33. The Spanish and English fleets met in the harbor of 
Vigo. 34. His words were half French, half German. 35. There 
is something superior in that young man. 36. The pinks and white 
roses were a lovely present. 37. We are friends ; we were together 
at school. 

1 Omit ^ alejarse de. ' del. ^ el. * de. 



149. Cardinals. See section 39. 

I. Though un is omitted before mil, it is used in numbers above 


ji^ooOy treinta y un mil 
lOiyOOOy ciento un mil 

2. The plural of tmo is unos(a8), which is used as an indefinite pro- 
noun, see section 179, 3. Before plural nouns uno8(a8) has the mean- 
ing of one, Se yenden muchas tijeras : no quedan sino unas, We sell 
many scissors : only one pair is left, 

a. Before a cardinal number unos(a8) conveys an idea of indefinite* 
ness : unos cincuenta, someffty, 

3. Cuatro is used as an indefinite number. £1 alguacil refirid en cuatro 
palabras todo lo que sabemos, The policeman related in a few words 
all that we know. 

150. Ordinals. See section 40. 

1st primero, -a (primo, -a) 

15th d^mo quinto, -a 

2d segundo, -a 

1 6th d^dmo sexto, -a 

3d tercero, -a (terdo, -a) 

1 7th d^dmo s^ptimo, -a 

4th cuarto, -a 

1 8th d^cimo octavo, -a 

5th quinto, -a 

19th d^cimo nono, -a 

6th sexto, -a, or sesto, -a 

20th vig^simo, -a 

7th s^ptimo, -a, or s^timo, -a 

2 1 St vig^simo primo, -a 

8th octavo, -a 

22d vig^simo segundo, -a 

9th noveno, -a (nono, -a) 

23d vig^simo tercio, -a 

loth d^cimo, -a 

30th trigdsimo, -a 

nth und^dmo, -a 

40th cuadrag^simo, -a 

1 2th duod^dmo, -a 

50th quincuag^simo, -a 

13th d^dmo terdo, -a 

6oth sexag^simo, -a 

14th d^mo cuarto, -a 

70th septuag^simo, -a 




80th octog^simo, -a 

600th sexcent^simO) -a 

90th nonag^simo, -a 

700th septingent^simo, -a 

1 00th cent^simo, -a 

Sooth octingent^simo, -a 

10 1st cent^simo primo, -a 

900th noningent^simo, -a 

1 1 ith cent^simo und^dmo, -a 

1,000th mil^simo, -a 

200th ducent^simo, -a 

2,000th dosmil^simo, -a 

300th trecent^simo, -a 

10,000th diezmiMsimo, -a 

400th cuadringent^simo, -a 

1, 000,000th millon^simo, -a 

500th quingent^simo, -a 

a. The short forms primo, tercio, nono, are preferred in compound 
expressions. These may be written in one word, but both parts should 
agree in gender and number with the noun. 

b. Only educated Spaniards are familiar with the ordinals above 20th. 
They are used in the prayer-book and in some special expressions, as el 
quincuag^imo aniyersario, the fiftieth anniversary. 

151. Fractions to and including one eleventh are formed by using 
a cardinal numeral for a numerator and an ordinal for a denominator. 

un medio. 


tres cuartos, 


un octavo (ochavo), 

un tercio. 


un quinto 


un noveno, 

dos tercios, 


un sexto. 

" ■ 

un d^mo, 

un cuarto. 


un s^ptimo. 


un und^cimo. 




From and including one eleventh, the denominator of a fraction 
is formed by adding the termination -avo to the cardinal numeral. 

un onzavo, 
un dozavo, 
un trezavo, 
un catorzavo, 
un quinzavo, 
un diedseisavo, 
un diedsieteavo, 
un diedochavo, 

un diecihueveavo, 

un veintavo 

un veintiunavo, 

un trdntavo, 

un centdsimo or centavo, 

un mil^simo, 

un diezmil^simo 

un millon^simo, 


a. A frequent method in general conversational use of forming frac- 
tions is by introdudng the word parte ; as, las dos terceras partes, two 
thirds ; la yig^ima parte, one twentieth. 


b. Derived from their use with a noun, the fractional numerals, some 
in the feminine form, others in the masculine, have special meanings. 

una tercia, twelve inches^ i.e. one third of a yard (vara) 

on tercio, a bale 

una cuarta, nine inches^ one quarter of a yard^ frequently used in 

medio, cuartOy ochayo, are names of coins. 

See dictionary for meaning of this class of words. 

c. The adjective medio, half is used as a noun in calculations, other- 
wise the noun is la mitad. Note the difference between the two lan- 
guages in the matter of the article and the position of medio in respect 
to the noun. 

media hora, half an hour 

una media dosis, half a dose 

una bora y media, an hour and a half 

ties pesos y medio, three and a half dollars 

la mitad de la casa, half of the house 

152. Collective Numerals. 

un par, a pair una yeintena, twenty^ a score 

ana decena, ten una sesentena, sixty 

una docena, a dozen una centena or un centenar, one hundred 

una qnincena,7^^^M on miliar, one thousand 

a. The cardinals ciento and mil may also be used as collectives : 
miles de aves, thousands of birds. 

b. In commercial language, to express rate, ciento and miliar are 
the preferred forms. 

a $4 ciento, at $4 a hundred 

ladrillos a $15 miliar, bricks at $ij a thousand 

c. Collective numerals in -ena sometimes have an indefinite value : 
as, una decena, about ten. 

d. Collectives require de before a following noun. 

una yeintena de caballeros, a score of gentlemen 
una docena de hueyos, a dozen eggs 



153. Multiple Numerals. 

simple, single 

doble or dnplicado or ddplice, 
double^ twofold 

triple or triplicado or triplice, 
triple^ threefold 

cuAdmplo or cuadruplicado, quad- 
ruple^ fourfold 

154. Arithmetical Signs. 

-|- mAs X poi^ 

-f- diyidido por 

qnlntnplo or qnintnplicado, quin- 
tuple, fivefold 

sdztuplo, sixfold 

septuple, sevenfold 

d^cnplo, tenfold 

c^tuplo or centnplicadOy a hun- 

miUtiple, manifold, multiple 

= es igual a 

— menos 

Dos tercios mAs un medio son uno 

y un sexto. 
I Cuibitas veces cabe el 6 en 54 ? 

Dos por tres son seis. 
I Esti bien la suma ? 
La suma (0 el total) de ao y 30 es 
igual a 50. 

Two thirds plus one half are one 

and a sixth. 
How many times is 6 contained 

in S4 ^ 
Two times three are six. 
Is the total correct f 
The sum of 20 and jo is equal to 


155. Dimensions. In expressing dimension Spanish uses the 
verb tener with the following nouns and adjectives : 

alto, high la altura or elevacidn, height 

largo, long la longitud or eztensi6n, length 

ancho, wide la anchura or latitud, width 

^ \deep la profondidad, depth 

\ thick el espesor, thickness 

espesoj '^ ' 

The adjectives may be used in place of the nouns except as sub- 
ject of the verb. Note the following methods of expression : 

£Qu6 anchura tiene el rio? ^ 

-_ - . . ^. , _/ . f anchura? \How wide is the river f 
^Cuantos pies tiene el no de'j v 9 I 

' una anchura de media milla. ^ 
r de ancho. 
\de anchura. 

Bl rio tiene 

media milU 

► The river is half a mile wide. 


a. Expressions of dimension used as either attributive or predicate 
adjectives are preceded by de. 

de 900 metros de^ 

>A tower goo meters high. 

Una torre^ 

alta de 900 metres. 

Goantes largos de catorce botones. Fourteen-button gloves. 

El tamaSo de la caja es de tres pies The size of the box is three feet 

de largo y de dos pies, tres pul- long by two feet three inches 

gadas de ancho. wide, 

Es hondo de ocho pnlgadas. // is eight inches deep. 

156. Distance is expressed as follows : 

I Cuinto hay de Madrid a Seyilla ? How far ns it from Madrid to 

Seville f 
Dista de nnos 560 kil6inetros. // is about ^60 kilometers distant. 

No hay cinco minutes de aqul a la It is not five minutes'* walk from 
iglesia. here to the church, 

a. Adverbially, distance may be expressed by the preposition a. 

a dos pasos de aqul, two steps from here 
a una legua, a league away 

157. Price requires the preposition a. 

I A c6mo yende Vd. la tela ? How do you sell the cloth f 

A dos pesos vara. At two dollars a yard. 

\ A peira chica ^ la buena naranja I A good orange for a cent, 

a. Estimates take the preposition en. 

En dos arrobas de uyas apreci6 el He appraised the damage at two 
gasto. arrobas (jo lbs,) of grapes, 

b. Articles made or sold at a uniform weight or value have the double 
preposition de a before the rate. 

sellos de a cinco centavos, five-cent stamps 
una moneda de a 5 pesetas, a coin worth five pesetas 
un cartncho de dinamita de a a| kilos, a dynamite cartridge weigh- 
ing 21 kilos 

1 A copper coin of 5 centimes, worth about a cent of our money, is called a 
perra chica or perrita, also peno chico ; the piece of 10 centimos, being larger, 
is called a peno gordo or perro grande. The names are derived from the fact 
that the coins have on the obverse a representation of a lion holding a shield. 



158. Measure is preceded by the definite article in Spanish, which 

however may be omitted, and por may be introduced. 

r la vara. 
El paSo Yale nn peso-j vara. The cloth is worth a dollar a yard. 

[por vara. 

159. Rates involving an element of time are most commonly 

expressed by an adjective. 

Ocho pesetas diarias. 
Un suelda de $6o mensnales. 
Se calcula el consumo en ochenta 
mil toneladas annales. 

Eight pesetas a day, 
A salary of $6o a month. 
The consumption is estimated at 
eighty thousand tons a year. 

a. Note also the following. 

Cada seis meses. 

Una yez por semana. 

$40,000 anualmente. 

Dos yeces al dia. 

Un dla si y otro no. 

A perra chica uno. 

Caf 6 por una peseta. 

A raz6n de ocho reales la docena. 

Una yelocidad de 60 kil6metros por 

I Qn^ tanto por ciento ? 
Un descuento de 2 por 100. 
Al tipo de 4,50 por 100. 
El tipo del interns es de 5 por ciento. 

Every six months. 

Once a week. 

$40^000 yearly. 

Twice a day. 

Every other day, 

A cent apiece, 

A peseta's worth of coffee. 

At the rate of eight reals a dozen. 

A speed of 60 kilometers an hour. 

What rate per cent ? 

A discount of 2^^, 

At the rate of 4.^ per cent. 

The rate of interest is j per cent. 

160. Approximation. Numerical expressions are modified to ex- 
press approximation as follows : 

Cosa de dos horas. 

Como de una vara. 

Vale poco mis menos diez duros. 

Tiene unos cincuenta £^os. 

Tiene cincuenta y tantos £^os. 

Tres mil y pico de pesetas. 

About two hours. 

About a yard. 

It is worth about ten dollars. 

He is some fifty years old. 

He is fifty-odd years old. 

Three thousand and odd pesetas. 

a. With the hour of the day, a eso de is common : a eso de las 
siete, about seven d* clock. 



I. This bill amounts to sixteen thousand five hundred and 
twenty-nine pesetas. 2. He earns seven dollars a week, and pays 
fifty cents a day for his board. 3. We will allow a discount of 
three per cent for payment in cash. 4. The fanega is a Spanish 
measure which contains about a bushel and a half. 5. The pop- 
ulation of this city amounts to about one million two hundred and 
one thousand. 6. One half is a fraction which has for denominator 
the number two and which consequently supposes (the) unity divided 
into two equal parts. 7. The Mediterranean Sea is thirty-five thou- 
sand kilometers long from east to west, and has a minimum width 
of a hundred and forty kilometers between Timis and Sicily. 8. Ac- 
cording to the metric system of weights a kilo is equal to two and 
one fifth pounds. 9. This room is fifteen feet long by twelve feet 
wide. 10. We have begun at the eighth line of the fifty-second page. 
II. I want a dollar's worth of two-cent stamps. 12. The principal 
nave of the church measured 64 meters in length and 1 2 meters in 
width between the pillars. 13. The height of the arches above the 
floor was 24 meters. 14. During the first three years he used two 
thirds of his salary for the purchase of books. 15. He is about 
forty years old. 16. He is about five years older than I. 17. The 
Eiffel tower in Paris is more than three hundred meters high. 
18. How much is this cloth worth a yard? 19. We paid three 
dollars a day at that hotel. 20. One fourth plus one third equals 
seven twelfths. 21. We arrived at the city at about eleven o'clock. 
22. Columbus discovered America the twelfth of October, fourteen 
hundred and ninety-two. 23. The second of May is the Spanish 
national holiday. 24. At this price the shares return an interest of 
five and a quarter per cent. 25. The one-peseta piece is worth 
four reals, but there is no coin worth ^ a real. 26. He lives half a 
mile away. 27. The street car passes this comer every ten min- 
utes. 28. There was in the park a circular pond about a hundred 

^ Omit : see section 1 57, b. 


meters in diameter. 29. This hotel was a mile away from the sta- 
tion. 30. The pond was scarcely deeper than half a yard in its 
deepest part 31. How does he sell the eggs ? Thirty-five cents a 
dozen the fresh ones. 32. From the railway station coaches leave 
daily in summer for that village. 33. The production of manufac- 
tured cork amounts to two and a half million kilograms a year. 
34. I have read this book a dozen times. 35. In 1892 we Amer- 
icans celebrated the four-hundredth anniversary of the discovery of 
the New World. 36. The basis of the Spanish currency is the 
peseta which is nominally equal to nineteen and three tenths cents 
of our money, but there is always a discount in our favor. 37. There 
are about ten meters of this cloth ; how much will you sell it for ? 
At a dollar and a quarter a meter. 38. When shall we arrive in 
Granada? About nine o'clock if the train is not behind time. 
39. The custom house appraises these cigars at two dollars and a 
half per hundred. 40. An express train leaves for that city every 
other hour. 41. The richest emerald mines of Colombia are situ- 
ated about seventy-five miles north of Bogoti at an elevation of six 
thousand five hundred feet above sea level. 42. The Bolivian 
mines yield one sixth of the world's yearly production of tin. The 
metal sells at times as high as one thousand dollars a ton. 



161. Possessives. See sections 37, 97, 98. 

1. The indefinite use of the possessive adjective occurs also 

when the adjective stands in the predicate : Son aminos nuestros, 

They are friends of ours ; and between a demonstrative and the 

noun : este mi amigo, this friend of mine ; ese su perro, that dog 

of yours. 

a. Note the expression esta su casa, this your house, in English, my 
house, a polite reference to one's own residence ; see section 85. 

2. With parts of the body and clothing, the definite article is 
frequently substituted for the possessive adjective. The personal 
pronoun of the indirect object form is used with the verb to indi- 
cate the person if necessary. El peluquero le cort6 el pelo, The 
barber cut his hair, (See section 56, ^.) 

3. The possessive adjectives appear in several expressions like 
the following : 

En tomo suyo. Around him. 

En sn busca. In search of him, 

A nuestro encuentro. To meet us, 

A sn paso. As she passed, 

Mir6 a mi alrededor. / looked around me, 

162. Demonstratives. See section 35. 

I. Referring to time, este denotes present time ; ese, a recent 
period ; and aquel, a remote time. 

esta noche, to-night 
esa tarde, that afternoon 
aquel siglo, that century 


2. Ese often implies contempt : ese G6mez, that fellow Gbmez. 

a. The phrase de Dios gives a satirical turn : esas calles de Dios, the 
blessed streets. 

3. ifcste means the latter (that thing last mentioned, the nearest) ; 

aqu^ means the former, 

Tal distancia habla entre el yiejo y Such distance there was between 
elmozoquenuncapermiti6aqu61 the old man and the lad that 

delante de gente ser llamado tfo the former never permitted htm- 

por &te. self before people to be called 

uncle by the latter, 

a. These pronouns are often used to make the subject of the verb 

Lorenzo esperd a la yentana la Lorenzo waited at the window 

Yuelta de Clara. Asia lleg6 poco Clara's return. She arrived a 

despu^. little while afterwards. 

El autor nos entera de que Guiller- The author informs us that Wil- 

mo y Carmen se aman, de que Ham and Carmen are in love^ 

aqu61 elude hablar de matri- that the former avoids speaking 

monio. ^ of marriage. 

4. The feminine forms ^sta and ^sa, referring to ciudad or plaza 
understood, frequently mean this town (of mine) and that town (of 
yours). The phrases en (de, a) ^sta and en (de, a) ^sa may some- 
times be rendered simply here and there. 

Los precios en ^ta han sufrido Prices here have risen. 

una alza. 
Espero llegar maSana a 6sa. / expect to reach your town to- 


5. As the neuter forms stand for an idea, all three, esto, eso, 

and aquello, may at times be rendered that. 

I Qu6 es esto ? JVhat is that ? (which I have here). 

I Qu6 es eso ? What is that f (near you). 

Hace muchos aSos que 8ucedi6 That happened many years ago. 


a. The neuter forms refer only to unnamed things : ^ Para qu6 sirye 
eso ? What is that good for? An object having been named, its gender 
is known : ^ Cuil es su pluma ? Esa. Which is your pen f That one. 


b. Note the idiomatic expressions 

por esOy therefore; no por esc, not on that account 
en estOy hereupon^ at this moment 
esto de vivir en Madrid, this matter of living in Madrid 
eso de morirse, that idea of dying 

I Qu6 significaba aquello de lleyarme a Paris ? What did that statement 
about taking me to Paris mean f 

c. Before a prepositional phrase or a relative clause the neuter article 
may replace the demonstrative : 

lo de Castro, the affair of Castro 

lo de ayer, that {which happened) yesterday 

Bien s^ lo que quiere, / know very well what he wants, 

d. The expletive that of English is not required as a grammatical sub- 
ject I Es bueno I That is fine / \ £s i^eresante I That is interesting I 

6. The definite article replaces the demonstrative before a prep- 
ositional phrase or a relative clause, unless the relative is itself the 
object of a preposition. English has that^ the one, he, she, etc. 

£1 de la camisa limpia. The one with the clean shirt. 

La de Montejo. She of Montejo (that is, Montejo's 

£se cura es el que ofreci6 sn yida That priest is the one who offered 
por la de sus compaSeros. his life for that of his com- 

DoSa Eduarda es la que ha dicho Doha Eduarda is the one or // is 
esto. Doha Eduarda who has said 

£s Pepita aquella a quien ama. Pepita is the one whom he loves, 

a. Note that the English possessive case when used without a noun 
requires for its translation this demonstrative use of the definite article : 
mi perro y el de Juan, my dog and fohn's. 

b. In such expressions as one of the ( — ) which, Spanish prefers to 
arrange the words one ( — ) of those which, 

Un telegrama de los que recibi6. One of the telegrams which he 

Un curioso de los que habian acu- One of the idlers who had come 
dido. up. 


c. This construction in the predicate preceded by de means sort or 
kind of, 

Aqnellos ojos eran de los que no Those eyes were the kind that 

pueden olyidarse. cannot be forgotten, 

£ste no 08 de los que se marchan This man is not the sort that goes 

sin pagar. off without paying, 

^. In an attributive prepositional phrase the demonstrative is com- 

Flores raras de ^sas que 86I0 surgen Rare flowers of the sort that only 
de ruinas. spring from ruins, 

Un chiste algo amoroso de dstos que A rather loose jest of the kind that 
suelen permitirse los andaluces. Andalusians are accustomed to 

indulge in. 


I. There is no more; that is all. 2. Who is that fellow? The 
one with the green hat near the door. 3. Are these your books ? 
No, they are Henry's. 4. I have read the works of Cervantes and 
those of Calderon. I prefer the former to the latter. 5. My land 
is worth more than my neighbor's. 6. When you arrive in your 
town, remember that you have left friends of yours here. 7. The 
prices in this (market) have fallen. How are they in yours ? 8. He 
who lives in the country is called a countryman ; but those who 
live in the city are citizens. 9. He lent me more money than I 
asked. 10. Dona Ana was going to pass when her husband called 
her. " Listen," said the latter. 11. Those books are mine; and I 
have yours. Let us exchange. 12. Why did you let that tramp 
come into the yard? 13. These friends of mine have come from 
the country to see the celebrations. 14. That day I was happy. 
15. Those horses are the ones we saw yesterday. 16. Henry re- 
membered his parents, his friend Carlos, the bedroom where the 
pictures were : he wished he could see all that. 17. This matter of 
changing the name of streets is a mania in all those blessed towns. 
18. Your sister and Peter's are in the same class. 19. That aifair 
on Santiago Street was scandalous. 20. Those two gentlemen are 


brothers; the one to whom I introduced you was my partner. 
21. That business of yours had very good success ; but your cous- 
in's had very little. 22. I shall write to my folks and^ ask^ them 
for money. 23. Sir, I am not the girPs betrothed ; I am a relative 
of hers. 24. That is what I command you. 25. We received letters 
from our brother and sister: hers are more interesting than his. 
26. Your duties are those of a daughter. 27. He placed himself in 
a seat opposite mine. 28. At the house of the ladies of Femdndez 
they have spoken very badly of me. 29. Since those days my stud- 
ies have advanced very much. 30. I asked him if the button was 
his. 31. Don Francisco was the first of his people who did not 
serve the king. 32. Anita is the one who has fallen sick. 33. Bring 
some apples of the kind that uncle likes best* 34. One of the 
gentlemen who were present at the party related a long story 
about his business. 35. This fruit is one of that kind which is not 
known* in Europe, and therefore most people in Spain do not 
know its name. 36. What is the news in your town? Nothing is 
going on here ; it is always the same.*^ 37. Father and son parted ; 
the former to return to his business, the latter to go to his school. 
38. He invested his wife's money* in the shares of the Eastern 
Railway, and his own in those of the Northern. 39. One of the 
friends who came to the wedding brought his children and his sis- 
ter's. 40. Dealing with rascals of that stamp, who lie at every 
opportunity, one does not know what to expect.^ 

1 Omit. * Use reflexive verb. 

^ Use present participle. ^ lo de siempre. 

* m&s. ^ caadaly m, 

7 atenderse a. 




163. Relative Pronouns. 

' which'^ 

> referring to 


1, things 

2, persons, when not governed by a prepo- 


quien, quienes, who^ whom^ referring to persons only 


el que, la que, los que, las que 

el cual, la cual, los cuales, las cuales 

referring to both persons 
and things 



lo que, lo cual, which, referring to clauses or ideas 


of whom ..possessive relative adjective 

of which ] 

. . ( as much . . . ^J ^ . , o .^ i ^. j« ^« j 

cuanto, cuanta J ^^ ^ ^^ [ indefinite relative adjective and 


cuyo, cuya 
cuyos, cuyas 

^ < as m.any . . . as > 
cuantos, cuantas „ ^, ^r ^ 

X^all the . . . that J 

164. General Rules, i. Relative pronouns must not be omitted 
in Spanish though omitted in English : el libro que tengo, the book 
I have, 

2. Prepositions governing relative pronouns must stand before 
them, not at the end of the clause as in Engush : la casa en que 
vivo, the house that I live in, 

3. The student must beware a combination of the two foregoing 
peculiarities of English : el asunto de que Vd. me hablaba, the affair 
you were telling me about. 

4. Relative pronouns must stand as close as possible" to their 

antecedents : 

Se qued6 en casa de don Casto el The officer, who was a lieutenant^ 
oflcial que era un teniente. remained at Don Castors, 



5. The verb after a relative pronoun takes the person and num- 
ber of the antecedent, while the past participle, except when used 
with haber, has the gender and number of the antecedent in accord 
with the rules for the agreement of adjectives. (See section 140.) 

I16 yo que soy mAs joven. I will go who am younger. 

El estrecho y la isla que fueron The strait and the island which 
descubiertas por Bering. were discovered by Bering. 

a. Some writers prefer the third person of the verb when the relative 
occurs after a predicate noun or pronoun. 

Yo soy el gitano que di6 sus seSas / am the gypsy that gave his de- 
al capitin general. scrip tion to the captain general, 

b, \i the relative has indefinite force (see section 166, 3) the verb will 
be in the third person : Quien va soy yo, / am the one who is going. 

6. In a relative clause the verb frequently stands before the subject. 

Aquel hombre dispar6 el tiro a que That man fired the shot to which 

han contestado las tropas. the soldiers have replied, 

Maria Victoria es una muchacha Maria Victoria is a very pretty 

muy linda a quien ama Juan, el girl^ whom John^ the count of 

oonde de PeSafiel. Pehafiel, loves, 

165. Que is invariable. After prepositions it refers only to things. 

La casa que compr6. The house which I bought, 

Los hombres que vimos. The men whom we saw, 

Tir6 la pluma con que escribia. He threw away the pen with 

which he was writing, 

a, Donde, where, may replace que governed by a preposition : la 
ciudad donde yive, the city in which he lives, 

b. Que instead of cuando is customary in relative expressions defining 
time : el dia que llegu^ a Madrid, the day when I reached Madrid, 

166. Quien, qtiienes, in modem Spanish refers only to persons 
or personified things and abstractions. 

Snoontramos a DoiKa Blanca, quien We met Doha Blanca, who was 

salia de misa. coming from mass. 

No era la humildad cristiana quien // wc^ not Christian humility that 

habla elegido aqnellos tipices de had selected those tapestries of 

rojo terciopelo. red velvet. 


1. After prepositions, quien replaces que when referring to per- 

Ese liijo de tm posadero que yiene That son of an innkeeper who 

a ynestra cabeza y a quien Ua- comes at your head and whom 

man Murat. they call Murat, 

Sntonces entraion en el comedor los Then there entered the dining- 

caballeros con qnienes tuye la room the gentlemen with whom 

conversacidn. / hcui the conversation, 

2. A relative clause concerning persons, not restrictive of its an- 
tecedent, is usually introduced by quien. 

Escribo al SeSor Romero, quien esti / am writing to Mr, Romero^ who 

en Chile. is in Chile, 

Entreg6 las monedaa al abogado. He handed the coins to the lawyer^ 

quien las pes6 una por una. who weighed them one by one. 

a. El cual (or el que) may also be used in nonrestrictive clauses. 

Pa86 el gitano, el cual se par6 a yer The gypsy came along and stopped 
la tropa. to see the soldiers, 

3. In indefinite expressions no antecedent is required for quien. 

No tengo a quien dirigirm >. / have nobody to apply to, 

£ Hay quien sabe ? Is there anybody who knows ? 

Quien mucho abarca poco aprieta. He who takes much in hand grasps 

feebly (or accomplishes little). 

a,\n expressions corresponding to English he who, they who the one 
who, etc., quien may be said to include its own antecedent. 

Rodrigo fu^ quien acompaJI6 a la Roderick was the one who accom- 
niSa. panied the girl. 

4. When the antecedent is necessarily separated from the rela- 
tive, quien may show the correct antecedent. 

Bolivar es el h^oe vencedor en Bo- Bolivar is the hero, victor at 
yacd y en Carabobo quien fund6 Boyacd and Carabobo^ who 

a Colombia. founded Colombia, 

Note. For uses 3 and 4 of quien the pronoun el que may be 
Mi reino y mis tesoros dar6 al que / will give my kingdom and my 

salve a mi hija. treasures to him who saves my 




5. As correlatives, qui^n . . . qui^n are used idiomatically as 
indefinite pronouns, one , . . another ; in the plural, some . . . others. 

Qui6n habla contado los amores de 

Napoleon, qui^n la noche del dos 

de mayo en Madrid. 
Los Pescadores doimian en yarias 

actitudesy qui^nes de braces, 

qui6nes respaldados. 

One had related the love affairs 
of Napoleon^ another the night 
of the second of May in Madrid, 

The fishermen were sleeping in va-^ 
riotis positions, some face down- 
wards, some on their backs. 

a. Note that as correlatives qui6n . . . qui^ bear the written accent 

167. El coal, el que, are employed as follows : 

I. When the relative and the antecedent are separated by other 
words, the gender and number of the relative serves to show to 
which word it refers. 

Examin6 las colgaduras de la al- 

coba, las cuales eran de seda. 
He yisto a la hija del Se3or Robledo, 

la cual est£ ahora en la ciudad. 
Don Roqne, nn yiejo parecido a 

Bismarck, con el cual nombre se 

le conocia. 

He examined the hangings of the 
bedroom,, which were of silk. 

I have seen Mr. Robledo^s daugh- 
ter, who is now in the city. 

Don Rogue, an old man resembling 
Bismarck, by which name he 
was known. 

2, After prepositions, especially those of more than one syllable 
and compound prepositions ; but after a, con, de, en, the simple 
relatives que and quien are more frequent 

Such are the things about which 

I wish your opinion. 
The m,other ran into the street, in 

the middle of which she met 

her daughter. 
They put the wounded m^n in the 

house in front of which he had 

From our men were chosen eleven 

champions, among whom the 

most famous was Diego Garcia 

de Paredes. 

Tales son las cosas sobre las cuales 

quiero su opini6n. 
Corri6 la madre a la calle, en medio 

de la cual se encontr6 con su 

Metieron al herido en la casa de- 

lante de la cual habia caldo. 

Escogi^onse de los nuestros once 
campeones, entre los cuales el 
mis c^lebre era Diego Garcia de 


3. The neuter forms lo coal, lo que, refer to clauses or ideas. 
These should not be confused with lo que in the sense of that 
which or what, 

Se le apareci6 el cerdo de San An- There appeared to him St, Antho- 

t6ny por lo coal detennin6 me- ny^s swine^ on which account he 

terse a g;iiardador de puercos. decided to become a swineherd, 

Tal es nuestro famoso CapitAn Ve- Such is our famous Captain Poi- 

neno; por lo qne suplico a Vd. son; wherefore I beg you to 

tenga paciencia para aguantarlo have patience to put up with 

algunas semanas. him a few weeks, 

Sns simpatias estayieron por los His sympathies were for the parti- 

partidarios de la emancipaci6n sans of American freedom^which 

americana, lo que le hizo sospe- made him a suspicious charac- 

choso a las autoridades espaSolas. ter to the Spanish authorities. 


I Es yerdad lo que oigo ? Is that which {what) I hear true f 

Repita Yd. lo que dijo. Repeat what he said. 

Me conformaba con lo que era ley I complied with that which was a 
de la naturaleza, segiin el m^ico. law of nature according to the 


a. The phrase a lo que means according to^ or as, 

a lo que me cont6, according to what he told m.e 
a lo que me parece, as it seems to me 

b. lo que es, asfor^ as to, 

Lo que es el tio Lucas no se marcha. As for uncle Lucas^ he does not go, 

168. Cual without the article is correlative with tal. 

Tal era su conducta cual era de His conduct was such as was to 

esperarse. be expected, 

Tal cual colocaci6n. Some position or other, 

Tal para cual. Tit for tat, 

I. CuAl . . . cual, as correlatives, mean one , , , another \ cuiles 
. . . cuiles, some , . . others. See section 166, 5. 

En cuanto a armas, cuAl lleyaba As for arms, one wore a saber^ 
sable, cuAl espadin de etiqueta. another a court rapier, 

Tengo muchos libros, cuiles de / have many books, some of his- 
historia, cuAles de poesla. tory, others of poetry. 


2. Coal also appears as a relative adverb in the sense of as or like. 

Un paje sonrosado y coloradete cual A page blushing and red as a girl, 
una muchacha. 

a, dial si before clauses, as if\ see section Ji2,d, 

169. CuyO| like other Spanish possessive adjectives, agrees in 
gender and number with the thing possessed. 

Los porteros, cnyo imiforme admi- The gatekeepers^ whose uniform 

raba Anselmo. Anselmo admired. 

El caballero cuyas cartas ha The gentleman whose letters you 

traldo Vd. have brought, 

Un billete de loteria con cuya venta A lottery ticket by the sale of 

podria obtener unas cuantas pie- which he might get a few 

zas de cobre. coppers, 

a. When referring to the body or clothing, a quien as indirect object 
replaces cuyo. 

Por ella btisc6 an lance con el con- For her sake he picked a quarrel 
de a qnien ha roto la cabeza. with the county whose head he 

has broken. 

170. Cuanto takes the gender and number of the noun to which 
it refers. It is equivalent to todos los que, todo lo que, etc. 

Estoy may malo seg^ la opinion / am very ill according to the 
de coantos doctores me han opinion of all the doctors who 

yisto. have seen me. 

Le hice cuantas preguntas qaise. / asked him all the questions that 

(or a^ many questions as) I 


I. He gave the coins which he took from his pocket to the chil- 
dren. 2. The gendeman who was sitting at my right rose and 
shook hands with my daughter, who had come in a moment be- 
fore. 3. To-day I saw my friend's daughter who has been sick. 
4. The sexton locked the door near which we were standing. 5. I 
gave John the gold coins, who put them in his pocket. 6. We 
found ourselves in a handsome parlor, on whose walls was a rich 


collection of paintings. 7. '' Don't you see me ? " said Victor, for it 
was he who spoke. 8. He had three dogs with which he spent a 
great deal of time. 9. On the table he found letters for different 
persons, and one whose address said, "To my dear Joseph." 

10. The people were very merry : one was singing, another dancing. 

11. That land I was telling you about is for sale. 12. The ladies 
you spoke to are Mexicans. 13. The father cried when he saw 
the ugly building in which his son was a prisoner. 14. A gentie- 
man who said he would return soon has just left this card. 
15. They gave prizes to all those who won them. 16. We hunted 
in the dictionary for all the words which we did not know. 17. The 
girl's mother was sick in the hospital, on which account she lived 
alone with her uncle. 18. Not many days ago I received a letter 
in which a certain friend of mine asked me for money. 19. He 
appeared like one who has lost his last dollar. 20. The piano 
which she is playing belongs to a man whose daughter has died. 
21. It was Mary who selected the cloth. 22. The boy did not 
know his lesson, which displeased the teacher very much. 23. He 
promised him all the money that he had 24. I know whom you 
are talking about, Guzman's wife. 25. All that I have is yours. 
26. He asked the maidservant, '' Was it you who rang ? " 27. She 
answered, " It was not I who rang." 28. To you I owe all that I 
am. 29. The servant under (a) whose care he was gave him a 
glass of water. 30. To-day should arrive here the first regiment 
of infantry, which spent the night in Gerona. 31. He had written 
several works, in which he treated political questions. 32. His son 
was Philip the Second, on whose realms the sun never set 33. One 
more, another less, all dream of the probability of great wealth. 
34. It is all that I have to tell you. 35. He who distributes the 
letters to the houses is called the postman. 36. We were very busy 
on the day when he came. 37. The prisoner saw the daughter of 
the Moorish governor, of whose beauty he had heard.^ 

^ tenia noticias. 



1 71 . i qui^n ? who ? i qu^ ? what ? 

I a qui^n ? whom f i cuAl ? which f what ? 

I de qui^n ? whose f i coiinto ? how much ? 

a. The interrogatives require the written accent to distinguish them 
from the relatives. 

172. Qui^n (qui^nes) refers only to persons. 

I Quito 68 Vd. ? Who are you ? 

I Sabe qnito soy ? Do you know who I am ? 

I Ahl est&n I — ^ Quitoes ? There they are / — Who f 

1. Its objective case is a quito. 

I A quito hablaba ? To whom was he talking f 

I A quitoes vi6 Vd. ? Whom did you see f 

2. Its possessive case is de quito. 

I De quito es aquella casa ? Whose house is that ? 

a. The phrase de quito is seldom used except in the predicate after 

I De qui^n es la casa que habita Vd. . Whose house do you live in ? 

b. The form ciiyo was formerly used as an interrogative, but is now 
obsolescent i Ciiyo es el perro ? Whose dog is it ? Better i De quito 
68 el perro ? 

c. Many English expressions containing whose will be rendered by the 
indirect object. 

^A quito compr6 Vd. el caballo? Whose horse did you buy? more 

strictly From whom did you buy 
the horse ? 



173. Qu6 is invariable and may be used either as an adjective or 
as a pronoun. 

I Qui dice ? IVAa^ does he say f 

I i)yA libro tiene Vd. ? What book have you f 

174. CoAl (coiles) indicates choice. 

I Cuil es la f echa ? What is the date ? 

I Guiles son los meses del aSo ? What are the months of the year f 

I Cnil de los libros prefiere Vd. ? Which of the books do you prefer? 

I Ciiil de ustedes le ha yisto ? Which of you have seen him ? 

a, Qa6 in contrast with cuAl calls for a definition. 

I Qu6 es la geografia ? What is geography f 

I Ciiil es la mejor geografia ? Which is the best geography f 

b. Though cuAl may be used as an adjective, it is preferable to use it 
only as a pronoun: not ^ Guiles amigos yienen? but ^Guiles de los 
amigos yienen ? Which fiends are coming f 

175. Cuinto (cuinta, -os, -«8). 

I Guinto vale ? How much is it worth f 

I Guinto cuesta ? How much does it cost f 

I Guintos libros tiene la biblioteca ? How many books has the library f 

£ Guintas seSoras hay ? How many ladies are there f 

176. Interrogative idioms worthy of note are — 

1. ^Qu^tal? What kind of? 

I Qu^ tal cuarto le dieron a Vd. ? What sort of room did they give 

I Qu^ tales son las flores ? What kind of flowers are they ? 

a. Perhaps more common in the same sense is i qu6 clase de ? 

I Qu6 clase de hombre es el mar- What kind of a man is the mar- 

qu^ ? quis ? 

I Qu^ clase de gente hay aqui ? What sort of people are there here? 

Note, i Qu6 tal ? is also used as a familiar greeting : Hello ^ or more 
courteously, ^ Qu6 tal sigue Vd. ? How are you getting on ? 

2. ^Qu6 cosa? in place of simple qu6. 

I Qu6 cosa quiere ? What does he want ? 


3. ^ A i^7 for what purpose ? why ? 

I A qu6 estas notas Idgubres ? IVhy these mournful notes f 

I A qu6 yiene esta orden ? For what purpose is this order? 

4. ^Qu^ tanto? in place of cuiuito. 

I Qtt6 tanto dista el pueblo ? How far is the town ? 

177. Exclamations, i. |Qu6! is used in exclamations, 

(i) Before nouns with the meaning of what or what a, without 
the indefinite article : 

I Qu6 suerte 1 What luck I 

\ Qu6 hombre 1 What a man I 

a. When an adjective modifies the noun, tan or m&& may intensify 
the adjective. 

I Qn^ niSa tan guapa 1 What a pretty girl! 

I Qn6 pies tan frf os I What cold feet I 

I Qu6 tinta mis mala 1 What poor ink / 

(ii) Before adjectives or adverbs with the meaning of how : 

I Qu^ bueno es Vd. I How good you are / 

I Qu6 mal habla I How badly he speaks / 

2. I Qu6 de . . . I before nouns means how many, 

I Qu6 de pobres hay 1 How many poor there are / 

3. I Cuinto I is shortened to cuAn before adjectives and adverbs, 
but not before comparatives, verbs or nouns. 

I CoAnto sabe I How much he knows / 

I CoAntas cosas le diria! How many things I would tell 

you / 
\ Cttin dichosa es ella 1 How fortunate she is / 

I Cu&nto m^ dichosa es su hermana I How much happier is her sister / 
I CuAn lejos le parecla todo I How faraway everything seemed 

to him / 

a, Lo que is sometimes used for coiinto. 

I Si €i. supiera lo que le quiero ! (/ wish) he knew how much I 

love him / 
I Lo que nos divertiremos 1 What a good time we shall have / 



I. Who are you ? 2. What have you ? 3. Whose is it ? 4. What 
is that? 5. Which pencil have you? 6. How much is it worth? 
7. How many have you ? 8. To whom were you talking ? 9. Which 
door is open ? i o. What time was it ? 11. What a very lucky man ! 
12. Who is that young man ? 13. Whose hat has John ? 14. How 
happy they are I 15. With whom have they lived ? 16. Which are 
my books and which are yours ? 17. What is the price ? 18. Which 
do you wish ? 19. What kind of a dog is it ? 20. What kind of a 
book do you want ? 21. What do you want for it ? 22. For whom 
are these letters ? 23. One of these packages, I don't know which, 
is for you. 24. Is it true what he says? 25. What is the way to 
(de) Cidiz ? 26. What are you talking about ? 27. Which street is 
the station on ? 28. What kind of meat will you have ? 29. We 
have all kinds of books. Which will you have ? 30. What vegetables 
are there on the bill of fare ? 31. Have they told you what he has 
done ? 32. Do you know who that gentleman is ? ^^, What language 
do you speak ? 34. What kind of money do you want ? 35. How 
many five-cent stamps do you want ? 36. How much does he charge ? 
37. Whom do you think I met last night? My friend from C6r- 
doba. 38. Whom are you waiting for ? 39. How many plans I 
How many calculations I 40. What day was that? 41. How glad 
I am ! 42. Tell me, which one gave me these flowers ? 43. How 
horrible all this is I 44. How easy it is to give advice I 



178. Indefinites. The Spanish indefinite pronouns and adjectives 


alguien, somebody^ anybody 

alguno, some^ any 

algOy somethings anything 

cosa, thing 

mucho, much 

muchoSy many 

unoSy som^e^ a pair 

imo y otro, both 

ambosy los dos, both 

otro, another 

algirno que otro, occasional 

cada, each 

todo, every s all 

tal, such 

nadie, nobody 

ningimo, no^ none 

nada, nothing 

otra cosa, something else 

pocOy little; un poco, a little 

^ocos, /ewy algunos, a few 

unos cuantosy a few 

lino u otro, either 

ni uno ni otro, neither 

el otro, the other; los demis, the others 

ajeno, another^ s^ others'* 

cada uno 1 , 

, yeach one 
cada cnal j 

un tal, a certain; el tal, the said 

These wordis may be conveniently studied from the English point 
of view as in the following sections. 

179. Some — Any — No — Not A. i. The absence of the defi- 
nite article before a noun denoting substances implies a part of the 

I Tiene Vd. pan ? 

I Quiere Vd. legumbres ? 

Have you any bread? 

Do you wish some vegetables ? 

a. The negative of the above is expressed by the negative verb. 

No tengo pan. / have no bread. 

I do not wish any vegetables, 

No quiero legumbres. 


2. Alguno, sotne\ ningttno, ;i^; or no . . . algano (after the 


Algiin dia. Some day, 

Ningiin hombre. No man. 

No yeo hombre alguno. / see no man; or / donH see a 

single man, . 

3. nnos, some ; more indefinite than algunos ; often of things in 


Unos ojos muy grandes. A pair of very large eyes. 

XJnos paiptalones. A pair of trousers. 

4. Lo, la, I08, las, before hay and other verbs expressing parti" 

tive ideas as in i, signify some. 

I Hay manzanas ? Si, las hay en Are there any apples f Ves, there 

la mesa. are some on the table. 

^ Tiene Vd. pan ? Lotengo. Have you any bread? I have 

Con su seSora (los que la tenlan). With their wives {those who had 


5. Alguno que otro and uno que otro mean occasional ^ some or other. 

Alguno que otro pretezto. Some pretext or other. 

Alguna que otra mirada. An occasional glance. 

i yapor hace la carrera de Am^ My steamer goes to America only 

rica s61o una que otra yez. occasionally. 

180. Some of — None of . 

Algunos de mis amigos. Some of my friends. 

Ninguno (ningunos) de los libros. Not one (none) of the books, 

181. Somebody — Nobody. 

Alguien yiene. Somebody is coming. 

Nadie sabe. Nobody knows. 

a. Alguien and nadie cannot be used before limiting prepositional 
phrases as in section 180. 

182. Something — Nothing, dgo — nada. 

Mds yale algo que nada. Something is better than nothing. 

See section 210, 3, for adverbial use. 



a, Algnna cosa and una cosa are used for somethings ninguna cosa 
for nothings in some expressions. 

I Quiere Vd. que le diga una cosa ? Do you wish me to tell you some- 
thing ? 

Note. When ningimo, nadie, or nada or any other negative is used 
after the verb, it is necessary to put no before it See section 212, 2. 

No tengo nada^ 

Nada tengo j 

No conozco a nadie. 

Nadie me conoce. 

No ha adquirido ninguna cosa. 

183. Else. 

(Hra cosa. 
Nada mis. 

/ have nothing, 

I know nobody. 

Nobody knows me. 

He has purchased nothing. 

Something else. 
Nothing else. 

184. Much — Many, mucho, muchos, 

Mucho aziicar. Much sugar, 

Muchos hombres. Many men, 

a. Very much is muchisimo. 

b. Similar to English a great deal, plenty ^ etc. are such expressions 
as the following : 

They executed many influential 

In the Congress was observed the 

absence of many members. 

The boy gave John plenty of 

gran parte: Fusilaron a gran parte 

de personajes influyentes. 
gran n&mero: En el Congreso se ha 

notado la ansencia de gran nii- 

mero de diputados. 
una pardon de: El chico di6 a Juan 

una porci6n de golpes. 

185. Little — Tew, poco^ pocos. 

a little^ un poco de 

' algunos 

unos cuantos 
afew< . , ... 

-^ un par de {couple) 

cuatro (see section 149, 3) 

poca leche, little milk algunas palabras, a few words 

pocas naranjas, few oranges unos cuantos limones, a few lemons 

on poco de dinero, a little money un par de horas, a couple ^ hours 


a, A little as an adverb is more frequently un poquito : Hablo espaSol 
un poquito, / speak Spunish a little. 

186. Both, ambos, los dos, las dos, uno y otro. 

Ambas manos. Both hands. 

Traiga Vd. pescado para los dos. Bring fish for {us) both. 

Uno y otro sexo. Both sexes. 

a. For both . . . and, as correlatives, see section 236. 

187. Either . . . Neither, uno u otro, ni uno ni otro, and their 
declined forms. 

Uno u otro puede yenir. Either may come. 

No saben la yerdad ni uno ni otro. Neither knows the truth. 

a. For .the number of the verb see section 261, d. 

b. Neither . . . nor, as correlatives, ni . . . ni ; either ... ^r, ... ; 
see section 236. 

188. Other. 

1. El otro, the other. 

2. Otro, another (dXyffdcys without the indefinite article) : otra vez, 
another time, again, encore. 

3. Los demis, the others (i.e. the remainder). 

Cuando mi padre sali6 del cuarto, When my father left the room, the 
los dem&s me hicieron muchas others c^ked me many questions. 


4. Ajeno, another^ s, other's. 

en casa ajena, in another'' s house lo ajeno, other people^ s property 

5. With numerals and adjectives of quantity, otro precedes. 

Otros diez. Ten others. 

Otro tanto. As much m,ore. 

Otros muchos. As many others. 

Van cuatro cinco seSoras y otras Four or five ladies are going and 
tantas seSoritas. as many misses. 


189. Each : coda (invariable). 

Cada uno or cada cual. EcLch one, 

Cada uno de nosotros. Each one of us, 

CallamoSy quedando cada coal con We were silent^ each one having 
8US ideas. his own ideas. 

190. Each Other. This idea is expressed by the plural of the 

reflexive verb. (See section 257 for conjugation.) 

Nos yeremos. We shall see each other. 

Se odian. They hate each other. 

By adding uno y otro, uno a otro, uno de otro, and the declined 
forms (also with the definite article, el uno el otro), great precision 
may be obtained. 

Se temen el imo al otro. They fear each other {one man 

Se aman unos a otras. They love each other {men and 

No se recuerdan la una de la otra. They do not remember each other 

{one woman another). 

191. Every, i. Todo (without article): toda mujer, every woman. 

2. In expressions of time with the article and plural : todos los 
sibddos, every Saturday ; todas las noches, every night. 

3. In phrases expressing frequency cada is used. 

cada diez minutos, every ten cada dos horas, every two hours 


4. Todo el mundo, everybody. 

a. Before a relative, todo alone: todo el que cae en nuestro poder, 
everybody who falls into our power. 

5. Todo (neuter), everything. 

a. When todo is the direct object of a verb, lo before the verb indi- 
cates it : Mi padre lo perdi6 todo, My father lost everything. 

192. All : todo (with the definite article between it and the noun). 

todo el dla, all day toda la casa, the whole house 

todos los seSores, all the men todo Madrid, all Madrid 

1 68 


193. Such : tal (without the indefinite article), semejante. 

Tal dia como hoy. 

Tales son las cosas. 

Semejante disparate. 

No he Tisto a semejante hombre. 

Such a day as to-day. 

Such are the things. 

Such a blunder. 

I have not seen such a man {as he). 

194. A Certain, i. Cierto (without the indefinite article): cierto 
hombre, a certain man, 

2. Un tal Garcia, a certain Garcia, one Garcia, 

3. No 8^ qu6 (lit. I do not know what) : no s^ qu6 dia de agosto, 
on a certain day in August 

195. The Said : el tal, dicho, refendo. 

el tal L6peZy the said Lopez 
la tal comedia, the said comedy 
dicho principe, the said prince 

las referidas madre e hija, the said 
mother and daughter 

196. Indefinite Subject. When the doer of an action is indefinite, 
Spanish uses — 

1. The reflexive verb. (See section 272.) 

2. The third person plural of the verb. 


Llaman a la puerta. 

They say. 

There is a knock at the door. 

3. Uno; sometimes persona, in the negative; less frequently, 
hombre and gente. 

En un instante puede uno coger 
una gran rama de yioletas. 

I No te acuerdas de uno que tenia 
un estanco en la calle de Pere- 
grinos ? 

No qued6 persona a yida. 

Llegar hombre a casa 7 no poder 
subir a su cuarto, no es cosa de 
risa para gente cansada. 

In a moment one can gather a big 

bunch of violets, 
DonH you, remember a m^an who 

had a tobacco shop in Peregrinos 

Street ? 
Nobody remained alive. 
For a man to reach home and not 

be able to get into his room is 

no joke for a tired person. 


4. Whenever a fictitious name is preferable, as John Doe, or 

Mr. or Miss So-and-so, Spanish uses fulano, Don Fulano de Tal, 

mengano, or zutano. 

Fulano y zutana han preguntado Mr, So-and-so and Miss So-and-so 
por Vd. have inquired for you, 

197. Ever joined to adverbs and pronouns is quiera, present 
subjunctive of querer. 

1. Dondequiera que iba, wherever he used to go, 

2. Quienquiera que sea, whoever it may be, 

3. Cualquiera (cualesquiera), any in sense that does not require 
negation, any you please. 

Es un modo de vivir como otro It is a way of earning one's living 

cualquiera. like any other, 

Cualquiera de los dos. Either one of the two, 

a. As an adjective cualquiera may drop the final vowel before a noun, 
cualquier dia, any day de cualquier modo, in some fashion 

b, un cualquiera, a person of no account^ a nobody. 
The plural of this expression is unos cualquieras. 


I. Have you any money ? Very little. 2. We have no Spanish 
books. 3. I wish some white paper and black ink. 4. I am going 
to buy some good trousers. 5. No woman knows. 6. There is 
something which I do not understand. 7. Somebody is knocking 
at the door. 8. It is none of my acquaintances. 9. Some of the 
Frenchmen rose. 10. It is nothing. 11. Has anybody come ? No, 
nobody. 12. Many are called but few are chosen. 13. I bought a 
few pounds of meat and some vegetables. 14. I will take a little 
black coffee. 15. We had neither ink nor paper. 16. Neither has 
come, because both are sick. 17. After these letters, I received 
four others and wrote as many more. 18. He sang the same song 
many other nights. 19. He opened the windows and rested both 
elbows on the silL 20. Every afternoon I walk for a couple of 


hours. 21. Mother and son embrace each other. 22. We have much 
to say to each other. 23. The gentlemen do not know each other. 
24. None of the girls understood all that they read. 25. Everybody 
says it; nobody knows if it is true. 26. He thinks that he knows 
everything. 27. Such a thing has never been seen.^ 28. There are 
no such books in the library. 29. Every boy is here, none is ab- 
sent 30. He has not slept all^ night. 31. A certain gentleman 
used to come here every Monday. 32. A certain Suarez came to 
see me. 33. The said Suarez was another acquaintance of mine. 
34. On a certain day of* last month there arrived letters for each 
one of them. 35. Where can one find a good restaurant.? There 
is one on Burgos street. 36. Some one is ringing the bell. Some 
huckster, I suppose. * 37. Where are there some sheets for the bed, 
Mary? There are some in the closet. 38. Are there any pillow- 
cases there ? There are some also. 39. That is luck and nothing 
else. 40. Either of these books will be useful to anybody who is 
studying Spanish. 41. Other people's money does not interest me. 
42. Each boy has his own seat. 43. A large part of the audience 
remained standing, but the rest sat down. 44. I met our friend So- 
and-so this morning. He knows nothing of what has occurred. 
45. Every one who reads Spanish knows something about Cervan- 
tes' Don Quixote. 46. I have read to-day's paper without finding 
anything about the marriage. 47. Have you anything pretty in 
your store ? 48. He does not owe anything to anybody.* 

^ jamdd se ha visto. ^ del. 

^ Insert en before alL ^ seri. See section 266. 

* Say nothing to nobody. 



198. Methods of Address, i. The forms of the second person 
singular are used in addressing members of the family, intimate 
friends, children, or pet animals. Foreign speakers will always use 
usted with the third person singular of the verb, as this is the form 
employed by persons who desire to be courteous to each other. 

a, Usted is derived from yuestra xnffi^^^ your grace. Other similar 
forms are Usia, used in addressing magistrates, lower officers of the 
army, etc. ; Vuecencia, to ambassadors, members of the king's cabinet, 
etc. The different degrees of nobility also have their proper form of 
address or tratamiento. 

2. The second plural, vosotros, is primarily the plural of td; 
but it is sometimes employed in addressing persons collectively, 
who singly would be addressed by usted : for example, in public 
speeches, in friendly letters addressed to two or more persons, and 
in public advertisements. . 

VosotroSy hijos de la ReToluci6n, You^ sons of the Revolution^ are 
yenfs a EspaSa. coming to Spain. 

a. The older form tos, instead of vosotros, is still found in prayers, 
or in literature to represent ancient manners. 

Vos, SeSor, que sacasteis de la nada You^ Lord, that drew this world 

cste mundo. from chaos. 

I Eh ! Maestro . . . vos os burldis. Ah! Master^ you are jesting. 

b, Nos for nosotros is used by sovereigns and magistrates, and in reli- 
gious forms. 

Nos el rey. We the king, 

199. It. I. As the subject of a verb, // is usually unnecessary 
in Spanish ; llueve, it is raining. When necessary, it will be the 



masculine €1 or the feminine ella, according to the gender of the 
noun represented. Referring to an idea, it is neuter (section 206). 

2. Instead of it after a preposition, adverbs of place are some- 
times found. 

Le di6 una cajita. Alii mir6 la He gave her a little box. The young 
joyen esposa con asombro. wife looked at it with surprise, 

a. This use of adverbs of place is also extended to persons. 

Se me echa encima. He throws himself on me, 

De pronto se me puso delante. Suddenly he stood before me, 

200. Le — Lo — La — Lea. The objective pronouns of the third- 
person singular are used somewhat indiscriminately by some writers. 

1. Le may be the direct object form referring to things. 

No hay lazo alguno que conmigo te There is no bond that binds you to 
ligue ; y si le hay, yo le desato mej and if there is any, I un- 
y le rompo. bind it and break it, 

2. La and las may be the indirect object feminine. 

Cuando la visits, estaba alii su When I visited her^her cousin was 
primo y nada la dije. there and I said nothing to her, 

a. La and las are the proper forms for use with the reflexive verb 
when used impersonally. See section 273. 

Se la admira. One admires her; or, She is admired, 

Se las ye yenir. They are seen coming, 

3. Lea may be direct object plural referring to persons. 

Les f orzaba a partir la poca seguri- The insecurity of the beach com- 

dad de la playa. pelted them to depart. 

I Pobrecitos niSos ! Todo el mundo Poor children I Everybody knows 

sabe que les adoro. that I adore them. 

Note. The student should not imitate the constructions described in 
this section, but should be guided by the following : 

'him ox you, direct and indirect la, her, direct object feminine 

le ^ object masculine les, to them, indirect object mascu- 

^ to her, indirect object feminine line and feminine 

lo, // or him, direct object masculine los, them, direct object masculine 


201. Indefinite Feminine. The feminine of pronouns often has 
indefinite force. The form most frequently occurring is la. 

Ese hombre la echa de gracioso. That man pretends to be funny. 

La (or las) pagari. He will pay for it (that v&^get his 

I Buena la hlcimos ! We gave it to them good, 

Entonces seri ella. Then will come the pinch. 

En ^stas 7 en otras Uegamos a In the meantime we reached 

Manresa. Manresa, 

EUos harin de las suyas. They will play some of their 


202. The Prepositional Forms of the personal pronouns are the 
only ones which can be used with verbs that require a preposition 
before the direct object. 

El caf^ estd en la plaza, y en ^1 en- The cafi is on the square^ and we 

tramos a refrescamos. entered it for refreshment, 

Se ca86 con ella. He married her. 

No me acuerdo de ^1. / do not remember him, 

Ella, al reparar en mi, irgtti6 alti- When she noticed me, she raised 

yamente la cabeza. her head haughtily. 

a. The prepositional forms are often called disjunctive^ because 
they are not directly dependent on the verb. 

203. Redundant Pronoun. Whenever the pronouns le, les, or 
se are vague in meaning, they may be made definite by the em- 
ployment of the disjunctive (prepositional) forms. 

Le llama a Vd. He is calling you. 

Les enyiaremos a ellos las tarjetas. We shall send the cards to them, 

Se las entreg6 a ella. He delivered them to her. 

I. For the sake of emphasis or contrast, the same construction 
is frequent with the other personal pronouns. 

Esas cosas me hacen mis daSo a Those things hurt me more than 

mi que a ti. you. 

A mi me gnsta yiajar pero a mi / like to travel, but my mother 

madre no le gnsta. does not like to. 


2. This double-pronoun construction has been extended to nouns. 

Whenever for emphasis the direct or indirect object precedes the 

verb, the corresponding pronoun is also usually employed. 

Le envi6 a Aste un regalo. He sent the latter a present, 

A las seSoras les mand6 ramos de To the ladies he sent bouquets of 

flores. flowers. 

La primera muSeca que tuye me la The first doll that I had he gave 

di6 ^1. me. 

Eso te lo habrla dicho tu tla. Your aunt probably told you that. 

a. The neuter indefinite pronoun todo, when the object of a verb, must 
always be represented by lo. 

Mi padre lo sabe todo. My father knows all. 

Quiero conf esArselo todo. I wish to confess everything to you. 

Frutas, flores, monies, lagos, rlos, Fruits^ flowers^ mountains^ lakes ^ 

todo lo habia en esta tierra rivers^ there was everything in 

bendita. this happy land. 

204. Ethical Dative. There is sometimes used a redundant pro- 
noun, indirect object form, of the same person and number as the 
subject. It appears to give a slight degree of emphasis to the person. 

Me lo comer^. / shall eat it. 

Me la he encontrado muri^ndose. I found her dying. 

Hemos sacado a esa ni2a del con- We have taken that girl from the 

yento y nos la Ueyamos a convent and are escorting her to 

Madrid. Madrid. 

205. Mismo lends emphasis to a personal pronoun like the Eng- 
lish self When mismo emphasizes the subject, the pronoun must 
be expressed. 

El mismo sali6 a recibirme. He himself came out to receive me. 

Lo har6 yo mismo. / shall do it myself. 

Prometl a mis amigos yolver pron- I promised my friends that I would 

to y a mi mismo hacer la yisita return soon^ and to myself that 

definitiva. / would make the visit the last, 

a. Propio, own^ also intensifies a noun or pronoun : 

Mis propias manos. My own hands. 

El propio rey lo hizo. The king himself did it. 

Por si propio (or mismo). On one's own account. 


206. Neuter Pronouns, i. The neuter pronoun has the forms 

Subject Direct Object Indirect Object Prepositional 
ello lo le ello 

2. As subject the neuter pronoun is found mainly in the expres- 
sion ello es (or fu^) que. 

Ello es que no sabemos nada de lo The fact is that we do not know 
que hace. anything of what he does, 

3. The neuter forms refer to phrases or ideas without gender. 

^Cree Vd. lo que dice? Ya lo Do you believe what he saysf 

creo. / surely do believe it. 

^ Qu^ mal hay en ello ? What harm is there in it ? 

Son las seis de la tarde. Lo ha It is six o"^ clock in the afternoon, 

dicho el xeloj de la catedral. The cathedral clock has said it, 

Cierta mujer en traje de baile. A certainwontan in evening dress, 

I Qni^n era ? Lo ignoribamos. Who was she f We did not 


Conii6 demasiado. For ello tuyo He ate too much. On that account 

que sufrir una indigesti6n. he had an attack of indigestion, 

4. After the verb ser, in the predicate, lo refers to the whole 
phrase rather than to a single word. In such cases no word aj>- 
pears necessary in English; consequently, the student must be 
careful to employ the pronoun lo when required by Spanish usage. 

I Son hn^rfanas ? Lo son. Are the girls orphans ? They are, 

Irene fu^ una Venus, es decir, lo Irene was a Venus; that is, she 
ixii mis tarde. was later, 

a. Sometimes the English word corresponding to lo is so. 

Parece viejo sin serlo. He seems old without being so. 

No bien deseaba una cosa (a yeces No sooner did I desire a thing, 
8indecirlo),meloproporcionaba. sometimes without saying so, 

than he got it for me, 

b. If the pronoun refers to a definite person it takes the gender and 
number of the noun to which it refers or may be omitted. 

^Es Vd. la seSora de Gonzillez? Are you Mrs, Gonzdlez? I am^ 
Para seryir a Vd., la soy. at your service. 


5. Whenever a second verb in a clause refers to a foregoing 
predicate noun, adjective, or adverb, it is customary to insert lo. 

Si tal cnal recibo es falso no lo If such and such a receipt is false 
68. or not, 

6. Instead of repeating a verb, one may substitute hacer and 
the neuter lo. 

Todos ezaminaron el bicho, y yo All examined the bug, and after- 

despu^s tambi^n lo hice. wards I too did so, 

Ella me iiiYit6 a sentarme en el She invited me to sit on the sofa, 

Boii y lo hizo tambi^i. and she did so too, 

207. Position. The remarks about the position of the personal 
pronouns (sections 81 ; 6S,a\ 91) require the following additions : 

1. As a matter of style an imemphatic pronoun rarely begins a 

sentence except in conversation, but is appended to the verb. 

Seryfalo en silencio. She served him in silence, 

Abri^ronse las iglesias. The churches were opened, 

2. When several verbs occur in series, if one of them has a pro- 
noun it is appended to the verb. 

Sac6 papel del bolsillo, redacts una He took paper from his pocket, com- 
carta, ptisole el sobre, peg61o y posed a letter, put it in an enve- 
echdse a reir. lope,sealedit, and began to laugh, 

3. The pronoun may be attached to the auxiliary of a compound 

verb, but never to the past participle, though this is found in older 

writers and occasionally even now. 

Habianos yisto. He had seen us, 

Siente haberle ezpuesto a perder la She regrets having exposed you to 

yida. lose your life, 

Despu^ de haberla leido y hechote After having read it and crossed 

cruces. yourself, 

4. With the verbs poder, querer, deber, ir, salir, volver a, haber 

de, and other similar verbal expressions, the pronoun may stand 

before the auxiliary verb or be attached to the dependent infinitive. 

8e lo puedo enviar a Vd. 1 , j -^ u 

^ , .- , „, > I can send tt to you, 

Puedo enyiarselo a Vd. j 


jMe qniereVd. Tender la casa?^ „,.,, ., ,, , ^ 

/^i Tra ^ 1 ^ r Will you sell me the house f 

I Quiere Vd. yenderme la casa ? J *^ 

Les ynelYO a suplicar. / beg you again, 

Inclin6 la frente. Pronto yolyi6 a He bowed his forehead. Soon he 

alzarla. raised it again, 

I Ddnde se ha de colocar Eduardo ? Where is Edward to put himself? 

La niSa no ha de negarme la obe- The girl shall not refuse me obedi- 

dienda. ence. 

5. In the progressive (periphrastic) conjugation (see section 
258), the pronouns may stand before the auxiliary or be attached 
to it or to the present participle. 

La costa se iba alejando' 
fbase alejando la costa 
La costa iba alejAndose 

^ The coast kept getting farther away. 


I. This is a large house and many people live in it 2. My 
daughters also like very much to go to the theater. 3. You may 
believe that^ now, but you may change your ideas. 4. Does that 
price suit you ? Yes, it suits me very well. 5. O ! Valencia I I 
never found anything comparable to it 6. This book I dedicate 
to my parents. 7. He wished to send to the hotel for my valise ; 
finally I consented to it. 8. The fact is that I should not have 
bought myself this fur coat 9. Nobody could be more satisfied 
than I was. 10. He was only happy when he was talking, and he 
did it very well. 11. The only business that had turned out well 
was the steamer business, and that he had inherited from his father. 
12. They have also told me that his uncle and aunt are rich ; but 
they are not 13. If my brother-in-law should not marry, that tide 
would be for my son: Isabella the First herself gave it 14. But 
I was happy, I could not, conceal it. 15. On hearing me, he turned 
around and pushed the cash drawer to close it 16. Generally he 
listened to nobody but himself. 17. You may count on me ; I will 

1 Put first in sentence. See section 203, 2. 


be there. 18. It was now nine o'clock, as I ascertained by^ my 
watch. 19. I am going to tell him that you have arrived. 20. Tell 
him that I hoped to have met him at the station. 21. The fact was 
that the train arrived two hours late.^ 22. When the poor man cut 
the bread his knife struck* a coin which was inside it 23. That 
fellow thinks* he is handsome. 24. All confessed that Robert was 
brave when it was necessary to be so. 25. She loved him more 
than he did*^ her. 26. Pepita loved D. Gumersindo as the man to 
whom she owed everything. 27. Is the man rich ? I do not think 
so myself ; if he is, he must be a miser. 28. I have heard the name 
but I cannot remember it. If I could do so, I would tell it to you. 

29. The coins are mine and I am going to prove it, I tell you 
again, the old man shouted to those who were in front of him. 

30. It seems difficult to do this but it is not. 31. Many things at- 
tracted the good man's* attention and he tried to see most of them 
during his short visit. 32. To his wife he brought a diamond ring, 
and to his daughters he gave presents of money. They said so 
themselves. 33. There are things which one knows without having 
seen them. 34. Soldiers, you owe it to yourselves, to your families, 
to your country, to bear yourselves as brave men. 35. Having 
dressed myself hurriedly, I forgot to put it on. 36. Henry asked ''^ 
Prieto and Co. for^ a position and they have promised it to him, 
37. Hereupon he took out one of the telegrams which he had re- 
ceived and read it to them. — I am glad of it. 38. My dear brother 
and sister, I thank you a thousand times for the present. You know 
yourselves what a pleasure it gives to receive such a reminder. 

1 en. ^ con dos horas de retraso. ^ dar con. ^ See section 201. 
* Omit * Indirect object ; put first in the sentence. ' solidtar. 



208. Adverbs of Place. 

ahl, there (near . the person ad- 
dressed) . 

- \ there (at a distance), ^^;^d?<?r 

adentrOy «//V^z/^ ^(implying move- 
afuera, without] ment) 
adelante, forward 
attds, backwards 


abajo, down 
arriba, up 
cerca, near 
lejos, /ar 
donde, where 
enfrente, opposite 
dentrOy inside 
fuera, outside^ out of doors 
delante, in front 
detrdSy behind 
ddnde, where 

a, Aqul and alll are more precise and defined, while acA and alU have 
a more general meaning : Tengo el dinero aqul en el bolsillo, / have 
the money here in my pocket ; acd would be incorrect in this sentence. 

Alii implies a definite spot, while alU denotes distant places : alU en 
Cuba, there in Cuba ; alU, the invisible world ; acA, this world. 

AcA is frequently used with venir: Ven acA, Come here. 

With estar, acA refers to the house in which one is speaking or writing : 
AcA todos estamos bien, We are all well here. 

Note also Trae acA, Bring (it) here, 

AcA denotes present time, allA the remote past ; de ayer acA, now ; 
allA en el siglo de oro, then in the golden age. 

b. Aqui, acA, alll, allA, and ahl may be preceded by prepositions and 
followed by other adverbs of place. 

de alll a poco, a short time from 
then, thereafter 

de alll en adelante, henceforward 

por aqul, around here, in this di- 

por ahl, near you, that way 
allA arriba, up there 
alll fuera, outside, out there 
aqui dentro, in here 



c. Adverbs of direction are preceded by the preposition hacia after 
verbs of motion. 

Viene hacia aqui. He is coming this way, 

Cayd hacia atrAs. He fell backwards, 

Marcharon hada adelante. They marched forward. 

Mirando hacia arriba. Looking upward, 

d. The neuter article combines with adverbs of place in numerous 

lo de atrAsy the rear lo de delante atrAs, hind side fore- • 

lo de arriba abajo, upside down most 

e. Parte forms adverbial phrases equivalent to English compounds with 
where ; these are preceded by different prepositions according to sense. 

Dies estA en todaa partes. God is everywhere. 

Lo busqn^ per todas partes. / searched for it everywhere. 

No yamos a ninguna parte. We are not going anywhere, 

f The interrogative d6nde is usually defined by prepositions. This 
preposition often appears at the end of the clause in English. 

^ A ddnde va Vd. ? Where are you going (to) f 

I en d6nde ? i per ddnde ? ^ de d6nde ? 

209. Adverbs of Time. 

ahora'\ aun ^ ^ ^.7/ 

ya r^^ todavlaF^'''^'^^^ 

entoncesy then siempre, always 

ayer, yesterday despu^s, afterwards 

hoy, to-day luego, next, after 

maSana, to-morrow antes, before^ rather 

anoche, last night temprano, early 

pasado maSana, day after to- tarde, late 

morrow jamAs, ever 

antea3rer, day before yesterday nunca, never 

pronto, soon mientras, in the meantime^ while 

Interrogative, coAndo, when 

a. Adverbs of time and direction are generally placed after nouns. 

aSos antes, years before mar afuera, out to sea 

meses despu^s, months afterward tierra adentro, inland 
escalera airiba, up stairs boca abajo,y^^^ downwards 


b, MiBmo intensifies adverbs of time and place. 

ahora mismo, right now esta noche mismo, this very night 

ahi mismo, right there aytt mismo, only yesterday 

c, Ya with past tenses means already : 

Ya han yenido. They have already come. 

With present tenses, now : 

Bra muy rico, pero ya es pobre. He was very rich, but now he is 


With future tenses, at another time : 
Ya nos yeremoa. We shall see each other later, 

Ya is frequently used, however, to intensify statements. 

Ya estamoa. Here we are, Ya se ye. Now it is evident, 

Ya entiendo. Now I comprehend, Ya lo creo. / should say so, 
I Ya yoy I / am coming (note the use of ir instead of venir). 
^ Andr^ no yuelye ? Ya, ya tarda. Andrew doesn V return ? He is 

very late, 
(i) Ya no means no longer, 

Los que ya no pueden trabajar. Those who can no longer work. 
No estA ya en el mundo. He is no longer in the world, 

(2) Ya . . . ya introduces alternatives. 
Ya de dla, ya de noche. By day or by night. 

See section 278, 4 for use of subjunctive mood. 

d, The English adverb long referring to time is mucho tiempo. 

MAs tiempo. Longer, 

I Cuinto tiempo dura ? How long does it last f 

Demasiado tiempo. Too long, 

Hace tanto tiempo. // is so long ago, 

Poco tiempo ha. A short time ago, 

(i) Note the idiom tardar en + infinitive (lit. to delay in). 

No tardari mucho en yenir. He will not be long in coming, or 

// will not be long before he comes, 

Tard6 poco en llegai. He arrived in a short time, or He 

soon arrived. 


e. Coando (unaccented) and mientras are also relative conjunctive 
adverbs introducing clauses, and sometimes have prepositional force. 

cuando las elecciones, at the time mientraajdyenes, when youn^ men 
of the elections 

Coando also enters into various adverbial phrases. 

cuando mils, at most de cuando en CMan<dLOffrom time to 

cuando menos, at least time 

210. Adverbs of Quantity or Degree. 

apenas, scarcely mucho, much; muy, very 

bastante, enough poco, little 

casi, almost mis, more 

demasiado, too much, too menos, less 

tanto, tan, so much loAxto^full well, enough 

Interrogative, cuinto, how much 

1. Muy, the shortened form of mucho, stands before adverbs 
and adjectives (except comparatives, but including past participles), 
and is never used alone. 

Muy bien. Very well, 

Un azul muy claro. A very light blue, 

Un azul mucho mils claro. A much lighter blue, 

Estoy muy agradecido. / am much obliged, 

Parece muy cansado. SI, mucho. He seems very tired. Yes, very, 

a. Muy never modifies mucho. The absolute superlative is muchlsimo. 

2. Mucho, being also an adjective, appears for very in those idio- 
matic expressions in which Spanish has a noun corresponding to 
an English adjective. 

Tiene mucho f rio y mucha hambre. He is very cold a?td hungry, 
Es mucha verdad. // is very true. 

3. The indefinite pronouns algo and nada are also used as ad- 
verbs of degree. 

Yo soy nada curiosa. / am not at all curious, 

Su cabeza era algo calya. His head was somewhat bald. 


211. Adverbs of Manner. 

asi, thusy so bien, well alto, loud despacio, slowly 

quedo, softly , gently mal, badly , ill bajo, low de prisa,,/^/ 

Interrogative, c6mo, how 

a. From adjectives, adverbs of manner are formed by adding mente 
to the feminine singular. 

seguro — seguramente, safely 

habilisimo — habillsimamentey very skillfully 

feliz — felizmente, happily 

With two or more adjectives mente is used only once. 

Escribe mis correcta que elegante- He writes more correctly than 
mente. elegantly. 

1. Como (unaccented) has relative force, as. For its use in com- 
parisons see section 50. 

Asistla a la boda como testigo. He attended the wedding as a 


2. Recientemente, shortened to reci^n, is common with past 

el reci^n Uegado, the new arrival loaTeci6ncsis&dos,the newly wedded 

3. Adverbial expressions of manner are also formed by the 

phrases de una manera, de un modo. 

de una manera encantadora, in a de este modo, in this manner 
. charming fnanner 

4. From adjectives and nouns of nationality, adverbial expres- 
sions are formed as follows . 

a la francesa, /;/ the French style al estilo de Ja^n, in the fashion of 

arroz a la yalenciana, rice in Va- fadn 

lencian style vestida a lo nistico, dressed in 

al estilo g6tico, in the Gothic style rustic style 

212. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation. 

no, no justo, right 

ai, yes claro, evidently 

tampoco, neither \ eso no I no^ indeed! 

ni . . . ni, neither . . . nor \ eso si I yes^ indeed! 

ni siquiera, not even si tal, surely 


1. No precedes the verb and the objective personal pronouns. 

7o no le yf . / did not see him, 

A mi no me gusta dedr. / do not like to say, 

Pedro no ha yenido. Peter has not come, 

2. No must precede the verb when other negative words follow it 

No conozco a nadie. / know nobody. 

No tengo nada. « / have nothing. 

No yeo a ninguno de mis amigos. I see none of my friends, 

Pablo no lo tiene tampoco. Paul hasn 7 it either, 

a. But if the negatives precede the verb, no is omitted. 

Nada tengo. / have nothing. 

A nadie conozco. / know nobody, 

3. No usually follows adverbs and pronouns when used without a verb. 

ahora no, not now " yo no, not I 

todayia no, not yet a mi no, not to me 

4. If a second verb, noun, or adjective is included in the negation, ni 
precedes it. No era joven ni muy yiejo. He was not young nor very old. 

This is equivalent to omitting one of the correlatives ni . . . ni. 

No tengo libros franceses ni es- 

/ have neither French nor Span-- 
ish books. 

No tengo libros ni franceses ni es- 

a. Note also that the adverb ni is required even when the negation 
is merely implied. 

Una noche sin luna ni estrellas. A night without moon or stars, 

I Qu^ tienes que partir en mi ri- Whdt concern have you with my 
queza ni en mi pobreza ? wealth or my poverty ? 

5. After the adjective todo the negative is frequently suppressed. 

Kn toda la noche he podido dormir. / have not been able to sleep the 

whole night. 
En toda mi yida he yisto semejante In my whole life I have never 
cosa. seen such a thing. 

a. The last expression often omits toda, hence en mi yida is a com- 
mon expression for never, 

£n mi yida lo hice. / never did it. 


Similar expressions are en dlas de Dios, en los dlas de la yida, 

meaning never, 

6. Si often intensifies a statement, especially in contrast to a preceding 

Bn cnanto a los muebles, no costo- As for the furniture^ not costly 

808 pero 8f'c5modo8 y de forma but comfortable and of elegant 

elegante. shape, 

^Nos pagarin todo lo que nos Will they pay us all that they 

deben? Todo, eso si. owe us f All of it, surely. 

Lo que si le ruego. ThaVs what I do ask him-, 

213. Adverbs of Doubt. 


tal Tez , apenas '^ , ,, 

. - Y perhaps . > hardly 

qniza ^ ^ apenas si j -^ 


1. The subjunctive mood often appears with these adverbs, see 
section 278, 5. Acaso tenga Vd. la culpa, Perhaps you are to blame, 

2. In questions acaso implies improbability or shows that a neg- 
ative answer is expected. 

I Acaso lo s^ yo ? How do I know ? 

I Van acaso a saberlo ? How are they going to know f 

214. Intensification. The following methods of intensifying or 
modifying the meaning of words and statements exist. 

1. Absolute superlative of the adverb, or the use of sobre manera 
or sumamente ; sumo, -a, before nouns. 

lejos, lejisimo, very far 

sumamente ^ -, 

(-dificil, extremely difficult 
sobre manera j ' y m 

con suma gracia, with the utmost grace 

2. Si que. 

Bntonces si que no nos perdonarian. Then surely they would not par- 
don us, 
Sso si que no. JVot that by any means, 

Ahora si que hueles, y no a ambar. J^ow verily you do smelly and not 

of amber. 

1 86 


3. Que. 

I Socorro 1 | que me matan I 
I TlOy que te espero I 

4. Si. 

Si no ye, la pobre. 

Si no parece la misma casa. 

I Que si lo 8^ 1 

5. Tan — Tanto. 

Un instante, tan s61o un instante. 

I Qu4 dia tan hermoso 1 

Ni tan siquiera. 

Tengo tanto gusto en conocerle. 

6. Bastante. 

Hace bastante frio. 
£s bastante rico. 

La monotonia de mi yida empieza 
a fastidiarme bastante. 

7. Repetition. 

Asi asi es como se castiga a los 

Casi, casi estoy tentado a pensarlo. 

I Nada, nada 1 
I DigOy digo 1 

Help / they are killing me / 
Uncle, J am waiting for you / 

Why, she doesn 7 see, poor girl, 
Jt really does not seem like the 

same house, 
J should say I do know it. 

A moment, only just a moment. 
What a fine day / 
Not even, 

I am so pleased to make your ac- 

It is rather cold. 
He is quite rich. 

The monotony of my life begins 
to bore m.e considerably. 

That is the way to punish rascals, 

I am very nearly tempted to think 

No, no / (absolute refusal) 
/ declare / Do tell I 

8. The diminutive -ito in familiar and colloquial speech. 

I cuidadito 1 take good care \ en seguidita 1 right away 

9. Conque introduces a natural consequence of what has just 
been said; or recalls to mind, and insists on, the subject under 

{ Conque yamos 1 

] Conque las seiscientas pesetas I 

Well then, let V go. 
Come now, (take) the six hundred 
pesetas {which I have offered). 



215. Adverbial Phrases are formed in various ways : 
I. With the definite article. 

a (la) derecha, on the right 
a (la) izquierda, on the left 
a la moda, in style 
a la vista, in {at) sight 
a la verdady in truth 
al contadOy {in) cash 
al fin, finally 

2. Without the article, singular. 

a fondOy thoroughly 

a manOy by hand 

a menudo, often 

a pie, on foot 

con todo, nevertheless 

de antemano, beforehand 

de balde, gratis 

de buena gana, willingly 

de dla, by day 

de noche, by night 

de nuevo, again 

3. Without the article, plural 

a ciegas, blindly 
a escondidas, secretly 
a gatas, on all fours 
a sabiendas, knowingly 
a solas, alone 

al momento, instantly 

en el acto, at once 

en el dia, nowadays 

en lo sucesivo, in the future 

por lo comtin, commonly 

por lo pronto, yZ?r the time being 

por lo tanto, consequently 

- ^ r headfirst 
de cabeza < , 7 j 

\^on ones head 

de pronto, suddenly 

de propdsito, on purpose 

en contra, against 

en fin, in short 

en pro, in favor of 

en seguida, immediately 

por consiguiente, consequently 

por supuesto, of course 

por dltimo,^/^^//^ 

de espaldas, ^» {with) one'^s back 
de oidas, ^y hearsay 
de puntillas, ^/r ///>/^^ 
de rodillas, ^» ^;;^'j' knees 
de veras, /« /r«M, really 

4. Miscellaneous adverbial phrases. 

a manos Uenas, by handfuls 
a mds no poder, ^iV^ all one^s 

a sus anchas, at one^s ease 
al por mayor, by wholesale 
al por menor, by retail 
cuanto antes, as soon as possible 

desde luego, right away 

de vez en tx^BsA'^^from time to time 

gota a gota, drop by drop 

ni con mucho, not by a good deal 

para Bidrnpte, forever 

poco a poco, little by little 

siempre jamiLs, forever and ever 


216. Position of Adverbs. Adverbs should stand close to the 
verb they modify ; if emphatic they are placed first in the sentence. 

HaSana viene 61. He comes to-morrow, 

Bien sabes. You know very well. 

Llama con cuidado a Rosa. Call Rosa cautiously, 

a. They stand before adjectives and past participles, but must not 
come between the parts of compound tenses formed with haber. 

Ha dicho demasiado. He kas said too much. 

BstA bien dicho. // is well said. 

He ganado siempre. / have always won, 

b. Bien before the verb is especially emphatic and must be translated 
by other words than well. 

Bien hemos charlado esta noche. We have had a good long talk to- 
Bien creimos que se moria. We surely thought he was dying. 

Bien se lo debo. / certainly owe it to him, 

c. Adverbs modifying adverbial phrases stand before the whole phrase, 
muy a menudo, very often tan de prisa, so fast 


{This exercise contains examples of the irregular verbs and those 
with change of spelling. See sections 242 to 2§i. Adverbs must be 
taken from the chapter^ not from vocabulary^ i . I arrived the 
day before yesterday. 2. Where did you come from ? 3. He fell 
down from the top of the stairs. 4. They put themselves in front. 
5. Do you see that light up there? 6. I had my breakfast later 
than usual. 7. It is snowing outside. 8. They fell forward. 9. He 
was not around there. 10. Come inside here. 11. He died a short 
time thereafter. 12. His land extends farther up. 13. He built 
the house months ago. 14. The bird flies out to sea. 15. Tell me 
right now. 16. He no longer hears. 17. He repeats it right there. 
18. He sleeps anywhere. 19. He plays a long time with the boy. 
20. He slept too long. 21. He will come before long. 22. He 
runs away very fast. 23. He thinks so. 24. I approached on 


tiptoe. 25. He neither sees nor hears. 26. It is good for nothing. 
27. He was fr3dng the potatoes. 28. Do not laugh so loud. 
29. Perhaps he knows, but I doubt it. 30. Now you are surely 
l)dng. 31. He took leave of us last night. 32. He is sleeping on 
his back. ^^. Is he really coming ? 34. We will come immediately. 
35. Consequently I warn you. 36. He asks me for money from 
time to time. 37. He dresses himself as soon as possible. 38. I 
am sending him on purpose. 39. They have finally returned the 
book. 40. Commonly he does not return so soon. 41. It smells 
of kerosene. 42. SSlo as an adverb is accented. 43. Who defends 
the prisoner gratis ? 44. I paid cash. 45. Go out alone. 46. He 
went on all fours. 47. He had turned aroimd with his back toward 
the door. 48. They came secretly. 49. He sits down on the left. 
50. We had the steamer in sight a long time. 51. Of course you 
will say yes. 52. I shall not say that he lies, but I shall say that he 
is mistaken. 53. He has not done it yet. 54. She dresses in the 
SeviUian style. 55. They distinguish themselves in a very respect- 
able manner. 56. I ascertained the law at once. 57. I drew the 
newcomer out of the room. 58. The bell rings almost always at 
eight o'clock. 59. Don't bite, child. 60. We were somewhat tired. 
61. Over there in America you govern extremely well. 62. Con- 
cluding my speech, I left at once. 63. I began to shoot blindly. 
64. Bring me Valencian rice. 65. Blow your comet loudly and 
distinctly. 66. He feels too sick to go out. 67. He saw her again 
opposite. 68. We shall surely know something certain at last. 
69. That fellow truly is the type of a bad man. 70. The diligence 
rolled up the street, afterwards forward on the highway. 7 1 . Nothing 
seemed to him criminal nor even unpermitted. 7 2. In my whole life 
I have never had such luck. 


217. Prepositions. The simple prepositions in Spanish are 

a, at, to 
ante, before 
bajo, under 
con, with 
contra, against 
de, of, from 
^<bBAt^from, since 
durante, during 
en, in, to, at, on 
entre, among, between 
ezcepto, except 

hacia, towards 

hasta, until, to, up to, as far as 

mediante, by means of 

menos, except, but 


yxt.for, by 

salvo, except, save 

segdn, according to 

sin, without 

sobre, on, about 

tras, after 

218. From adjectives, and adverbs in mente, prepositions are 

formed by the use of a : 

adversamente a, adversely to 
conforme a, according to 
contrario a, contrary to 
correspondiente a, agreeably to 
frente a, opposite to 

junto a, close to, near 
relativamente a, in relation to 
respecto a, with respect to 
tocante a, in regard to 

219. From adverbs of place and time, prepositions are formed 
by using de : 

acerca de, about, concerning 
alrededor de, around 
antes de, before (time, order) 
cerca de, near, about 
debajo de, under 
delante de, before (place) 

dentro de, within 

despu^ de, after (time, order) 

detrib de, behind, after (place) 

encima de, over, on top of 

fuera de, outside of 

lejos ^^^ far from 




220. Prepositional Phrases. 

a causa de, on account of 

a ezcepcidn de, with the exception 

a fuerza de, by dint of 

al lado de, beside 

a lo largo de, along 

a mis de, besides^ farther than 

a pesar de, in spite of 

a panto de, about to 

a (or al) tray^s de, across^ through 

adenUs de, besides^ in addition to 

con motiyo de, on account of 

de parte ^e,from 

en contra de, against 

en cuanto a, as for 

en frente de, in front of 

en pro de, in favor of 

en vex de, instead of 

en yirtud de, by virtue of 

m&s alU de, beyond 

por medio de, by means of 

por raz6n de, by reason of at the 

rate of 
sin embargo de, notwithstanding 

a. Especially to be noted are 

a fines de agosto, at the end of August 

a mediados del siglo XV, about the middle of the fifteenth century 

a principios de 1492, at the beginning of I4g2 

b. Adverbial phrases may combine with prepositions. 

de espaldas a la puerta, with his a escondidas de mi madre, without 
back to the door my mother^ s knowledge 

221. A — En. I. A implies motion, en rest. 

Voy a casa. / am going home, Estamos en casa. We are at home, 

Se arroj6 al mar. He threw himself into the sea. 

Estar^ en Paris. / shall be in Paris, 

a. The verbs caer, to fall, entrar, to go in, saltar, to jump, require 
en. Entr6 en la ciudad. He went into the city. ' 

2. Concerning time, a considers the termination of the time, en 
the length of time in which an action takes place. 

A las tres. At three o^ clock. 

A dos diss de estar aqui. 

Al mes justo de esta conversaci6n 

se celebraron las bodas. 
Llegar^ a Paris en dos diss. 
Estari de vuelta en echo dias. 
Creo que ni en veinte aSos me 


Al dia siguiente. On the next day. 

After being here two days. 

Exactly a month after this conver- 
sation the wedding took place. 

I shall reach Paris in two days. 

He will be back in a week. 

J believe that I shall not die in 
twenty years. 


3. With expressions of distance, a signifies away. 

A do8 pasos. Two steps away. 

I«a ciudad estA a media milla. The city is half a mile away. 

222. Ante — Delante de — Antes de. 

Ante means before an authority, in the presence of\ or figuratively 
it denotes preference ; delante de, before^ in respect to place ; antes 
de, before^ in respect to time. 

ante el juez, before the judge ante la naci6n, before the nation 

ante la belleza, in the presence of ante todo, before all 


delante de 41, in front of him delante de la casa, before the house 

antes de junio, before June antes de la noche, before night 

223. Bajo — Debajo de. Bajo, under or below^ usually in figura- 
tive sense ; debajo de, under or below ^ in physical position. 

bajo el general Reyes, under Gen- bajo nna oondici6n, on (lit. undef) 

eral Reyes one condition 

diez grades bajo cero, ten degrees debajo de la mesa, under the table 

below zero 

224. Detr&s de — Tras — Despu^s de. Detr&s de refers to physi- 
cal position, behind \ tras to succession, after ^ behind \ despu^s de, 
after^ in respect to time. 

Detrib de la pnerta. Behind the door. 

Las poblaciones unas tras otras se The towns ^ one after another^ sur- 

rlndieron. rendered, 

Cerr6 tras si la puerta. He shut the door behind him, 

Huri6 la madre, y tras ella, a los The mother died^ and after her^ in 

pocos dias, el padre. a few days, the father. 

]>espu6s de las diez. After ten o'^ clock, 

225. £n — Encima de — Sobre. £n means in or on\ encima 

de, on top of ox above \ sobre, on, physically and figuratively. 

Vive en Cidiz. He lives in Cddiz. 

La oomida estA en la mesa. The dinner is on the table. 

Una Umpara colgante encima de A hanging lamp above the table. 
la mesa. 


Bstaba de pie sobre la silla. He was standing on the chair, 

Una oonferencia sobre Ceryantes. A lecture on Cervantes, 

Le prestd mil duros sobre una He loaned him a thousand dollars 
finca. on an estate, 

226. Desde means since, from^ often a correlative with hasta, to, 

desde Valencia hasta ULsA'nA^from desde entonces, since then 

Valencia to Madrid desde ahoxsijfrom now 

desde a}M,from there 

227. Hasta, until, till, as far as, refers to both time and place. 

Hasta el 15 del mes. Until the J^th of the month. 

He aoompaS6 hasta la puerta. He accompanied me as far as the 


a, Hasta is frequently used as an adverb in the sense of even, 

Hasta Paris cansa. Even Paris wearies, 

Hasta es bonita. She is even pretty. 

Hasta cinco hombres me encon- As many as five men met me, 

228. Entre, between, among, makes also adverbial expressions in 
the sense of half, 

entre aquella mujer y yo, between entie los drboles, among the trees 
that woman and me. (Note the entre llanto y risa, half crying, 
pronoun in subject form.) half laughing 

229. Para — Por divide the many meanings of English for and 
by. Para denotes destination or purpose ; por, exchange or reason- 
El tren para Chicago. The train for Chicago. 

Una mesa para la cocina. A table for the kitchen. 

Pagu4 un duro por el libro. I paid a dollar for the book. 

Tom6 su sombrero por el mio. / took your hat for mine. 

Por m6ritos de guerra ha obtenido For meritorious service he has 
la cruz de San Fernando. obtained the cross of San Fer- 


No lo digo por ml. / do not say it for my ow7i sake. 


1. Note also, concerning para, 

£s alta para su edad. She is tall for her age. 

Ley6 la carta para sf . He read the letter to himself. 

Decir para si. To say to one^s self 

Dejar para maSana. To leave for to-morrow. 

La lecci6n para maiXana. ^ The lesson for to-morrow. 

Estar para partir. To be about to leave (more com- 

mon, estar k panto de partir). 

2. Por is used in expressions of — 

a. Time, usually indefinite : 

por la noche, at night por entonces, about that time 

maSana por la maSana, to-morrow por la Nayidad, about Christmas 

b. Place, implying movement through: 

Volar por el aire. To fly through the air. 

Pasar por la calle. To go through the street. 

I Por d6nde se va ? Which way does one go ? 

Por alll. In that direction. 

Por aquf. In this direction. 

(i) Hence por combines with the prepositions debajo de, delante 
de, detris de, encima de, and entre, after verbs of movement. 

Tir6 la pelota por encima de la He threw the ball over the wall. 


He di6 un pnntapie por debajo de He gave me a kick under the 

la mesa. table. 

c. Oaths and exclamations : 

I Por Dios 1 

I Por vida mla I Upon my life ! 

I Bien por mi sobrino I Good for my nephew / 

d. Part of body or object concerned : 

La cogi6 por la mano. He took her by the hand. 

e. In certain verbal expressions very similar to English : 

enyiar por el mddico, to send for preguntar por alguien, to inquire 

the doctor for anybody 

ir por came, to go for meat tomar por esposa, to take as wife 


f. In numerous adverbial and cx)njunctive expressions : 

por . . . que, however (followed by subjunctive mood) 

por malo que sea, however bad he is 

por mis que digan, however much {whatever) they may say 

por decirlo asl, so to say per el estilo, of that style 

por mayor, at wholesale por desgracia, by misfortune 

3. For por after passive verb see sections 270, 2 ; 272, d:. 

4. In regard to para and por with infinitives, see section 106, 
5 and 6. 

230. Double Prepositions are a peculiarity of Spanish : 

1. After verbs denoting movement. 

Cogi6 al muchacho por debajo de He caught the boy under the arms, 

los brazos. 
El agua mana de entre las peSas. The water issues from among the 


2. Para con appears in ideas of conduct, English toward. 

deberes para con los padres, duties indulgencia para conmigo, indul- 
toward one's parents gence toward me 

3. De a (see section 157, i). 

un puesto de a real la pieza, a five-cent stand (a booth or stand where 
articles are sold at a uniform price) 

231. Prepositions complete the meaning of verbs in various 
ways. The same verb has different meanings according to the 
preposition used after it, an important thing for students to note. 

pensar (without preposition before pensar de, think of have an opin- 
an infinitive), intend ion about 

pensar en, think of meditate on 

a. A verb which requires a preposition before a noun object re- 
quires the same preposition before a clause that may depend on it. 

No consiento en la proposici6n. I do not consent to the proposition. 

No consiento en que Vd. se vaya, I do not consent to your going. 

He enter6 de que eran naturales de He informed me that they were 
Madrid. natives of Madrid, 


232. Conjunctions. The simple conjunctions uniting coordinate 

clauses are 

y, and ni, nor 

0, or perOy mas, sine, but 

1. Y reverts to e before words beginning with i or hi, except 

before questions and words beginning with the diphthong ie. 

espaSol e ingl^, Spanish and nieye y hielo, snow and ice 

English I y In^s ? and Inez ? 

madre e hija, mother and daughter 

a, Spanish often uses y at the beginning of a sentence or phrase 
merely as a mark of emphasis. 

Y I usted aqul ? Why^ you here f 

I Y si no Uega a tiempo 1 Suppose he doesn't come on time / 

2. becomes u before a word beginning with or ho. 

lino u otro, one or the other mujer u hombre, woman or man 

siete u echo, seven or eight 

3. Mas, but^ is more rhetorical than pero, and is sometimes used 

for euphony. 

Para si no qiieria grandezas : mas For herself she did not desire 
para su hijo todo le parecla poco. titles; but for her son every- 

thing seemed to her little, 

4. Sino, but^ is used after a negative. 

No es espaSol sino portagu6s. // is not Spanish but Portuguese, 

De nadie tiene que hablar sino de He can talk about nobody but 
esta mujer. this woman. 

5. English but as a preposition in the sense of only is generally 
no . . . mks que. 

No tenemos m^ que un huevo. We have but one egg, 

a. No . . . mds que is common with hacer: No hace mds que 
dar un silbido, He only hisses. 

233. Simple conjunctions introducing dependent clauses are 

como, asy as soon as 

pues, since 

cuandOy when 

que, that 

mientras, while 




I. Pttes is frequentiy used as an adverb. 

Pnes a mi no me digas. 

Pnes JO, aqui es donde m^ he 

Pnes si somos casi paiaanos. 

Esta noche no ir6. — i Pnes ? 

Conque liabl6 mal de mi. — Pnes. 

We//j don 7 tell me, 

Well^ as forme ^ here is where I 
have stopped most, 

Well^ we are surely almost fellow- 

"/ shall not go to-night, ^^ ^^How 
is that V 

" So then he spoke ill of me, 
'' He surely did:' 

2. Que, that^ besides forming other conjunctions (see below), 
has many peculiar uses. 

a. It is required after affirmations or oaths before adverbs and 
clauses, though redundant in English. 

Dice que si. 
Creo que no. 
Claro que no. 
A sabiendas de que no. 
8e fu6 a la calle, supongo que a re- 
correr los sitios donde estuviera. 

He says yes or He says so, 
I believe not. 
Plainly no. 

Knowing the contrary. 
He has gone out on the street^ I 
suppose to go over the places 
where he had been, 
I Por Dios 1 que no es yerdad. By God, it is not true, 

b. Que often has comparative force, impl)dng progressive or 
continuous action. 

His esperanzas muertas que muer- 

tas. # 

Mejor que mejor. 
Corria que no andaba. 
Tarde que temprano. 
Cone que corre. 
Perd estaba sentado, cavila que 


c, A que implies a bet. 
A que no sabe Yd. i cuintos aSos 

My hopes deader and deader. 

Better and better. 
She ran rather than walked. 
Sooner or later. 
It runs faster and faster, 
Peru was seated, thinking and 


d. For que as an intensifier see section 214. 

/ bet you don''t know how old hi 



234. Conjunctions formed from adverbs and prepositions by the 
addition of que are 

antes (de) que, before 

asf que, as soon as, so that 

, . \althous[h 

bien que J * 

desde que, since (time) 

despu6s que, after 

hasta que, until 

luego que, as soon as 

mientras que, while 

para que, in order that, so that 

porque, because 

pues que 

puesto que 
supuesto que 
ya que 
sin que, without 

>for, since (reason) 

235. Conjunctions formed from prepositional phrases by the 
addition of que are 

tn case 

a medida que, as 

de 'I manera )- que, so that 


a fin de que, in order that 
con tal (de) que, provided that 
dado que 1 . 

en caso de que j 

and others. 

236. Correlatiyes. 

apenas . . . cuando, scarcely , . . when 

Apenas habia andado doscientos Scarcely had I gone two hundred 
pasos, cuando quince o veinte pcu:es when fifteen or twenty 

hombres rodearon mi coche. men surrounded my coach. 

asf . . . como 
tanto . . . como 
lo mismo . . . que 

Bebieron vino y comieron dulces 
asf los enfermos como los sanos. 

Tanto en el patio como en las salas 
hay flores y plantas. 

Hubiera sido mejor para BspaSa 
asf como para Venezuela. 

Lo mismo los f railes que los caba- 


ni . . 

both . . . and 
as well , . , as 

They drank wine and ate goodies, 
both the sick and the welL 

Both in the court and in the rooms 
there are flowers and plants. 

It would have been better for 
Spain as well CLsfor Venezuela, 

Both the friars and the gentlemen. 

ni, neither . . . nor 

Ni Juan ni Pepe tienen raz6n. 

Neither fohn nor foe is right. 


no bien . . . cuando (ciiando often omitted), no sooner . . . than 

No bieir dej6 de hablar Rain6n No sooner did Ramdn stop speak- 
cuando me leyant^. ing than I arose, 

no 86I0 . . . sino (que), not only . . . but also 

No sdlo vino a mi cuarto sino que He not only came to my room but 
me Ueyd al suyo. took me to his own, 

* * ' . . \ either , . , or 

bien ... bien J 

locnra santidad. Either madness or sanctity, 

bien todo es cilculo, bien en- Either all is calculation or she 
laza la prosa de yiyir y la poesfa unites the prose of life and the 
de BUS ensueSos en una perfecta poetry of her dreams into per- 
armonia. feet harmony, 

ora . . . ora, now , . . now 

Ora por cartas, ora citAndonos. Now by letters^ now by appoint- 


sea . . . sea^ , ^, 

> whether , , , or 
ya . . . ya j 

Sea por impulso propio, sea por Whether by one^s own impulse 

sugestiones ajenas. or by the suggestions of others, 

Ya me quites la vida, ya me la Whether you take my life or grant 

dejes. it to me, 

237. Interjections are more numerous and important in Spanish 
than in English. 

I. Divine names as exclamations are common, and are not usu- 
ally regarded as profane : 

1 Dios I Gracious I \ V&lgame Dios I Bless me ! 
\ Por Dios ! For goodness^ sake / \ Jesus I Heavens / 

I Dios mlo I Dear me / Jestis, Maria y Jos6 (after a sneeze) 

I Ay Dios mio ! Oh dear me / \ Virgen santlsima ! Mercy me I 

\ Dios te oiga I fust listen / \ Ay Maria 1 Goodness / 

a. Similarly, { demonio 1 |diantrel |diablol The deuce I 



2. Peculiar to Spanish : 

Caramba I 
Caracoles I 
and others. 

Caramba qu^ suerte 1 

Qa6 caramba de yiaje es 6at 1 

Caramba contigo ! 

3. Ordinary interjections are 

OhI lahl 

Hal (exultation) 

He 1 (shock, start) 

£a ! (encouragement) 

Ea, ea ! (impatience) 

Huy ! (pain, disgust) 

Ola 1 or I Hola 1 (recognition or 

Ole I (approval) 
Puf ! (aversion) 
Ufl (weariness) 

Ca ! and | quia I (denial or doubt) 
Bah I (incredulity or contempt) 

Ah I Esteban. |Holal Manolol 
id verse en el espejo, no pudo 
menos de lanzar un | ah 1 de 
I Chist I habla bajo. 
EstA sufriendo un ataque de melan- 
colla. — I Quia! contest6 el me- 
dico. Lo que tiene esta seSora es 
un c61ico. 

> Gosh / 
The dickens / 

Gosh, what luck / 

What dickens of a trip is that ! 

The deuce take you ! 


Oh / alas / ah / 



Come / 

ComCy come / 

Ouch I phew / 

Ah ! oh I hello / 

Bully I bravo I 


Oh ! poh / 

No! nonsense! 

Pshaw ! 

Hush ! 

Hey, Stephen ! Say, Manolo ! 

On seeing himself in the mirror, 
he could not help uttering an 
ah ! in admiration. 

Hush ! speak low. 

She is suffering an attcu:k of mel- 
ancholy. Nonsense! answered 
the doctor. The trouble with 
this lady is the colic. 



I Va bien el yiolin ? — ] Ca I Hay 
yeces que lo romperia I 

Dicen que Alsina ha perdido en 
Bolsa. — I Uf I Es natural. 

I Ba I I a trabajar I 

Dos dias revu^lcase en la cama 
lanzando {ayes I doloridos. 

Violin practice going nicely f No / 

There are times when I would 

like to smash it. 
They say that Alsina has lost on the 

exchange, Poh! ThaVs natural. 
Come / get to work / 
For two days he turns in his bed 

uttering cries of pain. 

4, Some imitations of natural sounds are 


I ajajA I 

ijel ij< 
jcatapliiml splash 

5. Used to animals : 

I Arret 

{Alza! \ Get up! 

I Andal 

] pum, pum I pistol shot, blows of 

any sort 
jzasl smash 

I (To cats) I 

Puss ^ puss I 
Scat / 

I Miz miz I 
I Zape 1 

I T^ ' }(^° **°es) Here I here I 

I So I I jo ! \ cho I Whoa / 

6. Imperatives frequently become interjections : 

Pshaw ! go away / 
Come / do / 

. - . r (incredulity) 
1 Anda I -^ ;. ^ r' . 
* \. (importunity) 


^ «« ■ ^ «« ■ r (command) 
Callal iCallel-^ \ , ,./ 


\ (incredulity) 
I Diga ! 

{Oyel lOigal 
I Mira I \ Mire Vd. 1 
I Quita 1 \ Qultese Vd. 1 
I Toma I 

I Vamos I ] Vaya I 
I Viva I 

Shut up / keep still. ^ 

Nonsense / 

Say! do 'tell! 

Listen! hear^ hear! 

Look! listen! 

Get out ! let me alone ! 

Why ! here, take it ! 

Come on ! 

Hurrah ! 

Down with him ! kill him ! 

\ Muera I 

I Vaya ! is the commonest of these, and the hardest to render 

by a single word. Study the examples : 

I Vaya I abur. Well, good-by, 

{Carta de tu tiol Y |vaya si es Letter from your uncle ! And it ^s 

] Vaya una hora de yenir I 
] Vaya si le conozco I 

a fat one ! 
This is a pretty hour to come ! 
I should say I do know him ! 


7. Nouns and adjectives may become interjections : 

I Al asesino I Murder / \ Cuidado I Take care I look out / 

I Al ladr6n I Stop thief! \ Firme I Steady / 

I Alto I Halt/ jFuegoI Fire/ 

I Bravo I Good/ j Socorro I Help/ 

\ Ojo I J Mucho ojo I Attention/ With care/ (Used sometimes on ship- 
ping cases containing breakable merchandise.) 

8. Personal pronouns are connected with adjectives used as in- 
terjections by the preposition de ; which is also true of \ Ay ! with 
nouns or pronouns. 

I Necio de ml I Fool that I am / 

I Pobrecita de ella I Poor little girl / 

I Ay de mi I Woe is me / 

\ Ay de los yencidos I Woe to the conquered / 

9. Hombre, mujer, chico, hijo, hija, are frequent in conversation 
for emphasis or protestation. | Hombre ! is used even to women 
and by women to each other, SeSor appears in expressions not 
addressed to a particular individual : \ Pues, seSor, no esperaba es- 
capar tan bien, Well^ sir^ I did not expect to get off so easily, 


I. We saw the man run through the street. 2. Having neither 
brothers nor sisters, he is an only son. 3. Christopher Columbus 
did not go to discover the new world but to seek a new way to the 
Indies. 4. I shall know at the end of the month. 5. The wedding 
was fixed for the beginning of December. 6. They followed the 
shadow along the walls. 7. Federico had learned the facts in two 
days. 8. He looked at them over his spectacles. 9. Buyers had 
come even from England. 10. There was nobody in the dining- 
room but her and her mother. 11. I bet they don't dare tell me 
so. 12. I was sure that you were going to say that. 13. I trust 
that they will put me back soon. 14. I have scolded an innkeeper. 
Why? where? when? how? Because where, when I eat, they 
serve badly, I get out of patience. 15. I do not know anything in 


regard to the affair. 16. They came around the city. 17. He would 
come about Christmas if you asked ^ him. 18. Come under the bridge. 
19. On account of the weather, he brought a wrap. 20. On the 
next day he wanted to return. 21. We wish to reach home in a 
fortnight 22. A week after learning this, he had a letter from his 
partner. 23. He learned that they would come before October. 
24. The President has put the army under the command of Gen- 
eral Grant. 25. Aix)ut that time the army was below the city. 
26. What shall we do with the boy who stands before us ? 27. He 
went from Caracas to La Guaira in a few hours. 28. I leave for 
Spain about the middle of next month. 29. He knows a good deal 
for his age. 30. He said to himself, " I shall get out of here be- 
fore night'* 31. Send for a doctor. 32. She went for medicine. 
33. Has anybody inquired for me during my absence? 34. The 
enemy came out from among the trees. 35. Go and distribute this 
money among the poor. 36. Ferdinand and Isabella had no male 
children that lived to inherit the kingdom. 37. He neither trans- 
lated the sentence nor knew the sense of it 38. He produced but 
one great work. 39. She did nothing but sing all day. 40. I made 
ten or eleven mistakes in that exercise. 41. Being able not only to 
hear but also to see very well, I was satisfied. 42. They are not 
French but Russian. 43. After they came, the army departed for 
the Peninsula. 44. Hearing the noise, we jumped out of bed. 
45. Coming from under the bridge, the man said he was not an 
enemy but a fisherman. 46. Who says yes ? 47. Before he ob- 
tained the prize, he worked both night ^ and day.^ 48. Since I have 
seen you, business goes much better. 49. It was the signal that 
the enemy was approaching. 

^ Use imperfect subjunctive of pedir. 
3 Adverbial ; insert de. 



238. The changes in form which a verb undergoes are classified 
by voice, mood, tense, number, and person. The Spanish verb 
makes these changes by means of endings and auxiliaries. Their 
systematic arrangement is called conjugation. 

239. Verbs are divided into three classes according to the end- 
ings of the infinitive : 

I. -ax II. -«r III. -ir 

But the -er and -ir verbs differ in only four forms ; namely, the 
infinitive, the first and second persons plural of the present indica- 
tive, and the second person plural of the imperative. 

240. Regular Verbs. 

Infinitive Mood 
present tense 
comprar, ^o buy vender, to sell vivir, to live 


PRESENT (gerund) 

comprando, buying vendiendO| selling viviendo, living 


comprado, bought vendido, sold vivido, lived 

Sing. I. compro 

Indicative Mood 
present tense 

J buy vendo I sell 

I do buy I do sell 

I am buying I am selling 


vivp / live 

I do live 

I am living 



2. compras you buy 

you do buy 
you are buying 

3. compra he buys 

he does buy 
he is buying 

Plur. I. compra^os we buy 

we do buy 
we are buying 

2. comprAis you buy 

you do buy 
you are buying 

3. compran they buy 

they do buy 
they are buying 

vendes you sell 

you do sell 

you are selling 

vende he sells 

he does sell 

he is selling 

vendemos we sell 

we do sell 

we are selling 

vend^is you sell 

you do sell 

you are selling 

vend en they sell 

they do sell 

they are selling 

vives you live 

you do live 

you are living 

vive he lives 
he does live 
he is living 

vivimos we live 

we do live 

we are living 

vivls you live 

you do live 

you are living 

viven they live 

they do live 

they are living 

Nbgativb Form 

no compro, I do not buy no yendo, I do not sell no yIyo, I do not live 
etc. etc. etc. 

^Compra Yd.? 
Do you buy f etc. 

Sing. I. compraba 

2. comprabas 

3. compraba 

Intbrrogativb Form 

i Vende Vd.? 
Do you sellf etc. 


vend la 


Do you live f etc. 

/ was buying 
I used to buy 

you were buying vend las 
you used to buy 

he was buying vend la 
he used to buy 

Plur. I. comprAbamos we were buying 

we used to buy 

2. comprabais you were buying vendiais 

,you used to buy 

they were buying vendian 
they used to buy 

vivir like vender 

/ was selling 
I used to sell 

you were selling 
you used to sell 

he was selling 
he used to sell 

vendiamos we were selling 
we used to sell 

3. compraban 

you were selling 
you used to sell 

they were selling 
they used to sell 




Sing. I. compr^, / bought 

2. compraste, ^^« bought 

3. compr6, he bought 

Plur. I. compramos, we bought 

2. comprasteis,^£?« bought 

3. compraron, they bought 

vendl, I sold vivir like vender 
vendiste, ^^« sold 
vend id, he sold 


vendimos, we sold 
vendisteis, you sold 
vendieron, they sold 

Nbgativb Form 

no compr^, / did not buy, etc. no vendl, / did not sell, etc. 

Interrogative Form 

^Comprd Vd.? Did you buy? etc. ^Vendi6 Vd.? Did you sellf etc. 


Sing. I. comprar^, I shall buy 

2. comprards, ^£?w will buy 

3. comprarA, he will buy 

Plur. I. compraremos, we shall buy 

2. comprar^is,^^« will buy 

3. comprarAn, they will buy 

vender ^, / shall sell 

vivir ^, J shall live 
and same endings as for comprar 
added to the infinitive 


Sing. I . compT3ii&, / should buy vender isi, / should sell 

2. comprar las, _y^« would buy 

3. comprar la, he would buy 

Plur. I. comprar lamo8,a/^j^^«/^/^ftf>' 

2. comprar lai8,j/^« would buy 

3. comprar Ian, they would buy 

vivir la, / should live 
and same endings as for comprar 
added to the infinitive 

2d Sing, compra, buy 
2d Plur. comprad, buy 

Imperative Mood 

vende, sell 
vended, sell 

vive, live 
vivid, live 

For the negative, use corresponding person and number of the pres- 
ent subjunctive : no compres, do not buy ; see section 87. 


Subjunctive Mood 
present tense 



vend a 

vivir like render 


vend as 




vend a 

compretnot vendamot 




vend an 


First Form 

Second Form 


















vendieseis ^ 





















Note. Translations of the subjunctive mood, being likely to cause 
misconceptions, are not given. 

241. Compound Tenses. The compound tenses of all verbs are 
formed from the past participle and the various tenses of the auxil- 
iary verb haber, to have. 

Infinitive (present perfect) 
haber comprado, to have bought 

Participle (present perfect or perfect gerund) 
habiendo comprado, having bought 


Indicative Mood 

PRESENT PERFECT (pres. ind. of haber + past participle) 

he comprado, / have bought^ etc. 

PLUPERFECT (impcr. ind. of haber + past participle) 
habia comprado, / had bought ^ etc. 

PRETERIT PERFECT (preterit ind. of haber + past participle) 
hube comprado, / had bought^ etc. 

FUTURE PERFECT (fut. ind. of haber + past participle) 
habr6 comprado, / shall have bought^ etc. 

CONDITIONAL PERFECT (conditional of haber + past participle) 
habrfa comprado, / should have bought^ etc. 

Subjunctive Mood 
PRESENT PERFECT (pres. subj. of haber + past participle) 

haya comprado, etc. 

PLUPERFECT ist FORM (imper. subj. -se form of haber + past participle) 

hubiese comprado, etc. 

PLUPERFECT 2d FORM (imper. subj. -ra form of haber + past participle) 

hnbiera comprado, etc. 

• FUTURE PERFECT (fut. subj. of haber + past participle) 

hubiere comprado, etc. 

Note. The student, in forming compound tenses according to this 
scheme, must take care to use the correct form of the past participle ; 
as he yendido, I have sold\ he escrito, I have written ; etc. 

842. Orthographic Changes. As a Spanish verb throughout its 
conjugation maintains the sound of the final consonant of the radical, 




it is necessary at times to change the spelling to preserve the sound. 
See section 7 for changes in spelling. 

a. The following table shows changes of spelling which occur in 
both regular and irregular verbs. 

Verbs whose infinitives 






I. car 

c to qn 

1st person 

sacaiy to draw out 

2. gar 

g togu 



llegar, to arrive 

3. gwu^ 


indie, and 

ayerigiiar, to ascertain 

4. zar 

z to c 


lanzaiy to throw 

5. gcr 


coger, to catch 

6. gir 


dirigir, to address 

7. quir 

qu to c 


1st person 

delinquir, to transgress 

8. guir 

gu tog 


distingair, to distinguish 

9. consonant 

c to z 

indie, and 

veneer, toconqueryfalldue 

before ceiyCir 



esparcir, to scatter 

10. Vowel be- 

have zc 

conocer, to know 

fore cer, cir 

lucir, to shine 

I. Preterit indie, saqu^, sacaste, etc. 
































Present subj. saque, etc. 
llegu^, llegaste, etc. ** ^* Uegue, etc. 

averigii^y averiguaste, etc. " " averigiie, etc. 
lanc^, lanzaste, etc. " " lance, etc. 

cojOy coges, etc. 
dirijo, diriges, etc. 
delinco, delinques, etc. 
distingo, distingues, etc. 
venzo, vences, etc. 
esparzo, esparces, etc. 
conozcOy conoces, etc. 
luzco, luces, etc. 

coja, etc. 
dirija, etc. 
delinca, etc. 
distinga, etc. 
venza, etc. 
esparza, etc. 
conozca, etc. 
luzca, etc. 

Note. Important exceptions to 10 are tnecer, to rock ; cocer, to cook^ 
to boil] etnpecer, to damage, with forms according to 9: while hacer, 
to make ; decir, to say, are irregular, see section 250. 



b» Unaccented i cannot stand between two vowels, but is changed 
to y. This occurs whenever an ending containing the diphthong ie 
or 16 is added to a verb-stem ending in a vowel ; as, 

Creer, to believe 

Preterit Indicative Imperfect Subjunctive 

cref first form 

creiste creyese, etc. 


creimos second form 

creisteis creyera, etc. 


Present Participle 

Future Subjunctive 
creyere, etc. 

Many verbs ending in -uir have similar changes ; see section 248. 

c. Verbs whose stems end in 11 or a lose the i of the diphthongs 
ie and 16 ; as, engulllr, to devour, and taSer, to play (a stringed 
instrument) : ^ 


Preterit Indicative 













Present '. 




Imperfect Subjunctive 

first form 
engullese taftese 

second form 
engullera taflera 

Future Subjunctive 
enguUere tafiere 

(I) Likewise after j of the preterit stems of decir, -ducir, and traer, 
the 1 of the diphthongs ie and 16 disappears ; see the verbs, section 250. 

d. Most verbs ending in -iar and -uar accent the weak vowel of 
the termination in the ist, 2d, and 3d persons singular and the 3d 



plural of the present indicative and present subjunctive, and the 
2d singular of the imperative. 

Present Indicative 







Bnyiar, to send 

Present Subjunctive 










Present Indicative 







Continiiar, to continue 

Present Subjunctive 










Some important verbs which do not accent the vowel are 

cambiar, exchange limpiar, clean remedial, remedy 

diferenciar, differentiate principiar, begin All verbs in -guar (see 
estudiar, study presenciar, witness section 242, a, 3) 

e. The past participles of verbs of the -er and -ir conjugations whose 
Stems end in a, e, or require a written accent on the termination to 
show that the adjacent vowels do not form a diphthong with a conse- 
quent shift of spoken accent. 




Note. Common verbs conjugated like the models in section 242 are 

Radical change indicated thus, (1) (ue) 

a, I. acercarse, approach 
fabricar, manufacture 
proYOcar, provoke 

suplicar, beg 

tocar, touch 

YOlcar (ae)y overturn 



2. cargar, lotui 
colgar (ue), hang 
entregar, deliver 
ivi%%Bi Judge 

3. apaciguaTi pacify 
fitigaBXf /ofge, invent 

4. alcanzar, reach 
almorzar (ue), breakfast 
calzar, put on {shoes etc,) 
empezar (ie), begin 

5. acoger, receive 
eaoogeiy choose^ select 

6. afligirse, worry 
oorregir (i), correct 
elegir (i), elect 

8. aegiiir (i) follow 

9. torcer (ue), twist 

10. agradecer, thank 
carecer, lack 
crecer, grow 

negar (le), deny 
pegar, sticky strike 
xogar (ae)y oj^ 

menguar, lessen 

santiguar, make sign of cross ^ bless 

forzar {Xit)^ force 
gozar, enjoy 
rezar, /nj;/ 
tiopezar (le), stumble 

reooger, /iV>& »/, collect 
pxoteger, protect 

exigir, demand 
regir (i), rule 

See section 248, 2 

nncir, ^<7^^ 

merecer, deserve 
parecer, j^rm 
pennanecer, remain 

(There are about 200 verbs having this termination. Many are formed 
from adjectives, thus : 

durOy hard\ endurecer, harden 

▼erde, green ; enverdecer, become green 

Such verbs are called inceptive verbs.) 

b. leer, rectd 'goseetf possess 

• Pxoveer, provide^ has past participles provefdo and pioviato. 

c. bolUri boil 
mullir, beat soft 

brnfiiii polish 
cellir (i), gird 
refill (i), scold 

d. The following verbs accent the vowel : 

confiar, trust 
criar, raise^ educate 
gniar, guide 

variaTi vary 
acentuar, accent 
ef ectuar, effect 



243. Principal Parts. Radical-changing and irregular verbs are 
conveniently memorized by referring their forms to six principal 
parts, as follows : 

Infinitive Present Past. Present Preterit Preterit 

Participle Participle Indicative Indicative Indicative 

1st sing. 1st sing. 3d sing. 

gives gives 


(from whole in- 



(from stem of 


(except zst sing.) 








(This scheme is not an absolute guide, as there are 
some exceptions, but it is an aid to memory.) 

244. Radical-Changing Verbs are those whose irregularities 
consist chiefly in a change of the radical vowel when it is accented 
or when it precedes certain other vowels. The following may serve 
as models, divided for convenience into classes. 

Class I. Verbs having a change of e to ie and o to ue when the 

stem is accented. 

I. Pensar, to think 

Prin. PARys Pensar, pensando, pensado, pienso, pens^, pensd 

Pres. Ind. 







Impf. Ind. 





Pres. Subj. 







Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

pensase pensara 

etc, etc. 

FuT. Ind. 




FuT. Subj. 


Pret. Ind. 









2. Contar, to count 

Prin. Parts Contar, contando, contado, 

Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. 
















cuento, cont^, contd 

FuT. Ind, Pret. Ind, 

contard cont^ 
etc, contaste 

Conditional contamos 



Impf. Subj. 


contase, etc. 

2.Ti FORM 

contara, etc. 

FuT. Subj. 
contare, etc. 

3. Perder, to lose 

Prin. Parts Perder, perdiendo, perdido, 

Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. 


etc, pierde 














pierdo, perdf, perdid 

FuT. Ind. Pret. iNDb 


Impf. Subj. 

1ST form 2D form 

perdiese, etc. 

perdiera, etc. 



FuT. Subj. 
perdiere, etc. 







4. Morer, to move 

Prin. Parts Mover, moviendo, movido, muevo, movf, movid 
Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. 
















Impf. Subj, 
1ST form 

moviese, etc. 

2D form 
moviera, etc. 

FuT. Ind. 




FuT. Subj. 
moviere, etc. 

Fket, Inu 









1. like pensar are 

acertar, hit the mark 
alentar, encourage 
apretar, squeeze 
atrayesar, cross 
calentar, warm 
cerraii shut 
confesar, confess 
despertar, wake 
empezar, begin 
encomendaTy recommend 

2. Like contar are 

acordarse, remember 
acostane, go to bed 
almorzar, take breakfast 
apostar, wager^ bet 
colgar, hang 
consolai, console 
costaTi cost 

3. Like perder are 

ascender, ascend 
atender, heed 
defender, defend 

4. Like mover are 
doler, pain^ ache 

gobemar, govern 
hit\ax^ freeze 

manif estar, show, inform 
merendar, take lunch 
neyar, snow 
quebrar, break 
regar, irrigate, water 
remendar, mend, patch 
sentarse, sit down 
temblar, tremble 

encontrar, meet 
foizaif force 
mostrar, show 
probar, t/y, test 
recordar, remind 
rodar, roll 
rogar, ask, beg 

descender, descend 
encender, kindle, light 
entender, understand 

soltar, let go, loosen 
sonar, ring 
soSar, dream 
tronar, thunder 
Tolcar, upset 

extender, extend 
yvtUstf pour^ shed 

lloyer, rain morder, bite torcer, twist 

245. Belonging to Class I are certain verbs with peculiarities : 

I. Errar, to err, has ye in place of ie to avoid that spelling at 
the beginning of a word. 

pRiN. Parts Errar, errando, errado, yerro, errd, errd 

Pres. Ind. Pres. Subj. Imperat. 

yerro yerre 

yerras ycrres yerra 

yerra yerre _— 

erramos erremos 

errdis errdis errad 

yerran yerren — _. 



2. a, Jufi^ar, to piay, has ue when the stem is accented. For 
spelling of present subjunctive and first person singular preterit^ 
see section 242, a, 2. 

Prin. Parts Jugar, jugando, jugado, juego, jugu^, jugd 

Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Impbrat. 










Pres. Subj. 







Impf. Subj. 


jugase, etc. 


jugara, etc. 

FuT. Ind. 




FuT. Subj. 
jugare, etc. 

Prkt. Ind. 







b, Agorar, to augur, and other verbs having go in the stem, 
as degollAT, to behead, and avergonzar, to shame, will require the 
diaeresis when this syllable breaks to ue under the accent. Other- 
wise like contar. 

Prin. Parts Agorar, agorando, agorado, agiiero, agor^, agord 

Pres. Ind. Pres. Subj. Imperat. 

agiiero agiiere 

agiieras agiieres aguera 

agiiera agiiere 

agoramos agoremos 

agordis agor^ agorad 

agiieran agiieren 

c, Desosar, to bone, and desovar, to spawn, have an h inserted 
before ue in the accented syllable. 

Pres. Ind. 







Pres. Subj. 












3. a, Disoemir, to discern, being derived from cemer, has the 
vowel-changes of peider but the endings of the -ir conjugation in 
the first and second plural, the present indicative, the second plural 
imperative, and the infinitive. 

Prin. Parts Discemir, discerniendo, discemido, disciemo, discemf, 


pRES. Ind. 







Pres. Subj. 










b. Concemir, to concern, has the peculiarities of discemir, but is 
defective, being used only in the third person singular and plural 
of each tense. 

4. a. Volver, to return, has an irregular past participle but is 
otherwise like mover. 

Prin. Parts Volver, volviendo, vuelto, vudvo, volvf, volvi<5 

Like volver are 

devolver, give back 
envolvery wrap up 
revolver, stir 

absolver, absolve 
diBolver, dissolve 
resolver, resolve 
solver, loosen 

b. Oler, to smell, has hue when the stem is accented, because no 
word should begin with ue. 

Prin. Parts Oler, oliendo, olido, hudo, olf, olid 

Pres. Ind. 







Pres. Subj. 












246. Class n. Verbs whose stem-vowel e becomes ie when 
accented, and i before an accented syllable containing ie, 16, or a ; 
or whose stem-vowel o becomes ue or u under the same circum- 

I. Sentir, to feel 

Prin. Parts Sentir, sintiendo, sentido, siento, sentf, sintid 
Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 





















Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

sintiese sintiera 

etc, etc. 

sentir^ sentf 
etc, sentiste 

Conditional sentimos 

sentirfa sentisteis 
etc, sintieron 

Fut. Subj. 


2, Dormir, to sleep 
Prin. Parts Dormir, durmiendo, dormido, duermo, dormf, durmi6 

Pres. Ind. 







Impf. Ind. 





Pres. Subj. 







Impf. Subj. 

1ST form 2D form 

durmiese durmiera 

etc, etc. 

Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 
dormir^ dormf 
etc. dormiste 

Conditional dormimos 


Fut. Subj. 



I. Like sentlr are 

adyertir, warn 
arrepentirse, repent 
conyertir, convert 
consentir, consent 

diyertir, amuse 
herir, strike^ wound 
heryir, boil 
Inyertir, invest 

mentir, lie 
pref erir, prefer 
referir, relate 
resentirse, resent 



2. Like dormir, but with irregular past participle, is moiir, to die, 

Prin. Parts Morir, muriendo, muerto, muero, morf, murid 

a. The past participal muerto is used with active meaning instead 
of matado when referring to human beings ; as, Han muerto al ca- 
pita, They have killed the captain, 

3. Adquirir, to acquire^ and inquirir, to inquire^ have ie when 
the stem is accented and i when unaccented. 

Prin, Parts Adquirir, adquiriendo, adquirido, aTdquiero, adquirf, 

Pres. Ind. 








Pres. Subj. 









Other forms 


247. Class in. Verbs whose stem-vowel e becomes i when 
accented, or before an accented syllable containing ie, 16, or a. 

I. Pedir, to request^ ask for 

Prin. Parts Pedir, pidiendo, pedido, pido, pedf, pidid 

Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 




pedf as 








pedf an 



Impf. Subj. 


















Fut. Subj. 








Like pedir are 

competir, compete 
concebir, conceive 
derretir, melt 
despedirse, take leave 
tx^^f forward, ship 
gemir, groan 
impedir, prevent 
medir, measure 
rendine, surrender 


repetir, repeat 

seryir, serve 

Testir, dress 

comgir, correct'\ 

eleeir, elect > ^. "^^ ^ 
nir,mle J section 242. «. 6. 

oeSiTy gird " 
xeSir, scold 
teffir, dye 

See section 242, c. 

2. Seguir, to follow^ and its derivatives are like pedir, but with 
orthographic changes according to section 242, tf, 8. 

pRiN. Parts Seguir, siguiendo, seguido, sigo, seguf, siguid 

PRES. Ind. 

Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. 

segufa siga 

etc, sigue sigas 



seguid sigdis 


Impf. Subj. 
xst form 2d form 

siguiese, etc, ^guiera, etc. 

Like seguir are 
conseguir, jji#^^^^</ '^«tw^^\x^ pursue 







FuT. Ind. 



Prbt. Ind. 







FuT. Subj. 

siguiere, etc. 

proseguir, prosecute 

3. Brgnir, to erects may have either ie (written ye) or i when 
the stem is accented. 

Prin. Parts Erguir, irguiendo, eiguido, . V, eiguf, irguid 

Pres. Ind. 
yergo, irgo 
yergues, irgues 
yergue, irgue 
yerguen, irguen 

Pres. Subj. 
yerga, irga 
yergas, irgas 
yerga, irga 
yergan, irgan 


yergue, urgue 

Other forms like 




4. Verbs ending in -eir belong to this dass, but lose one i when 
two i's come together. Note the many forms with written accent 

Reir, to laugh 
Prin. Parts Refr, riendo, refdo, rfo, ref, rid 
, Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind, 

Pres. Ind. 

Impf. Ii 

















Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

riese riera 

etc, etc. 




Fut. Subj 


Tret. Ind. 







Like refr are 
engrelr, make conceited sonrelr, smile 

Frelr, fry^ has irregular past participle frito, as well as fref do. 

248. Verbs ending in -uir have a y added to the stem-vowel u 

except before i ; and i unaccented between two vowels is changed 

to y. 

I. Hnir, to run away ^ flee 

Prin. Parts Huir, huyendo, huido, huyo, huf, huyd 

Pres. Ind. 







Impf. Ind. Imperat. 


hufas huye 



hufais huid 


Pres. Subj, 







Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

huyese huyera 

0tc, etc. 

Fut. Ind. 




Fut. Subj. 


Prbt. Ind. 









Like huir are 

atribair, attribute 
comXmx fjinish 
constrnir, construct 
contribuir, contribute 
destituir, remove from office 
destmir, destroy 
distribair, distribute 

ezdnir, exclude 
incluir, include^ inclose 
influiry influence 
instruir, instruct 
obstrttir, obstruct 
restituir, restore 
snstituir, substitute 

2. Argiiir requires the diaeresis before i but not before y. 

pRiN. Parts Argiiir, arguyendo, argiiido, arguyo, argiif, arguyd 
Impf. Ind. Argiifa, etc, 

249. Irregular Past Participles. Some verbs otherwise regular 
have irregular past participles : 


to open 



to cover 



to discover 



to write 




freido, frito 


to print 



to oppress 

oprimido, opreeo 


to take^ arrest 

prendido, preso 


to provide 

proveido, provisto 


to break 

rompido, roto 


to suppress 

suprimidOy sapreso 

«. The form roto is used when the verb is transitive, otherwise rom- 

Ha roto la pierna. He has broken his leg. 

He rompido con mi novia. I have broken with my sweetheart; 

b. The forms frito, opreso, preso, provisto, snpreso, are preferred as 
adjectives. With haber the regular form is used, though frito and pro- 
yisto may occur. 

Pescado frito. Fried flsh. 

Parr6n esti preso. Parrdn is captured. 

Ha prendido el fuego en el convento. The fire spread to, or broke out in^ 

the convent. 



250. Irregular Verbs may be conveniently divided into two 
groups according to their preterits. In one group, the preterits, 
like those of regular verbs, are accented on the ending in the first 
and third persons of the singular; the preterits of the second 
group accent the stem in the first and third singular. The arrange- 
ment is alphabetical in each group. 

Group I. 

Prbs. Ind. 







Asir, to grcLsp 

Prin. Parts Asir, asiendo, aside, asgo, asf, asi6 

Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. 

asfa asga 

etc, ase asgas 


— -^ asgamos 

asid asgdis 


Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

asiese asiera 

etc. etc. 

FUT. Ind. 

Pret. Ind. 












FuT. Subj. 



Caer, to fall 
Prin. Parts Caer, cayendo, cafdo, caigo, oaf, cayd 
Prbs. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. 

caigo cafa caiga caer^ 

caes etc. cae caigas etc. 

cae caiga 

caemos calgamos Conditional 

ca^is caed caigdis caerfa 

caen caigan etc. 

Impf. Subj. 

1ST form 2D form 

cayese cayera 

etc. etc. 

Fut. Subj. 


Pret. Ind 







Note that a written accent is necessary on the 1 of the past participle 
and of the second singular and first and second plural of the preterit 



Prbs. Ind. 



Dar, to give 
Prin. Parts Dar, dando, dado, doy, df, did 
Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. 











diese, etc. 

Impf. Subj. 

2D form 
diera, etc. 




Fut. Subj. 
diere, etc. 

Ir, to go 

Prin. Parts Ir, yendo, ido, voy, fuf, fud 

Pkbs. Ind. 


Impf. Ind. 




Pres. Subj. 

Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

fuese, etc. 

' Fut. Ind. 
irds, etc. 


irfas, etc, 

Fut. Subj, 
fuere, etc. 

Pret. Ind. 


Pret. Ind. 


fuera, etc, 
Xrae, to go away 
Prin. Parts Irse, yendose, ido, me voy, me fuf, se fud 

Olr, to hear 
Prin. Parts Ofr, oyendo, ofdo, oigo, of, oyd 

Pres. Ind. 

Impf. Ind. 





Pres. Subj. 

Impf. Subj. 


oyese, etc. 


oyera, etc. 

Fut. Ind. 



Fut. Subj. 
oyere, etc. 

Pret. Ind. 

ofste _ 

Note the many written acx^ents, occurring on i when stressed after o. 



Salir, to go out, leave 
Prin. Parts Salir, saliendo, salido, salgo, salf, sali6 

Pres. Ind. 
salfs * 

Impf. Ind. 




Pres. Subj. 

Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

saliese, etc. 

FuT. Ind. . 
saldrds, etc. 


saldrfaS) etc. 

FuT. Subj. 
saliere, etc. 

PRET. Ind. 

saliera, etc. 

Ser, to be 
pRiN. Parts Ser, siendo, sido, soy, ^uf, fud 

pREs. Ind. 


Impf. Ind. 





Pres. Subj. 


FuT. Ind. 

1ST form 
fuese, etc. 

Impf. Subj. 

2D form 
fuera, etc. 




Fur. Subj. 
fuere, etc. 

pRET. Inix 

fuisteis ' 

Valer, to be worth 
Prin. Parts Valer, valiendo, valido, valgo, valf, valid 

Pres. Ind. 

Impf. Ind. Impbrat. 


etc, val^rvale 


Pres. Subj. 

Impf. Subj. 

1ST form 2D form 

valiese, etc. 

Derivatives are 

equivaler, to be equal to 

valiera, etc. 

FuT. Ind. 





FuT. Subj. 
valiere, etc. 

preyaler, avail 

pRET. Ind 



Prbs. Ind. 







Ver, to see 
Prin. Parts Ver, viendo, visto, veo, vf, vi<5 
IMPF. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. 











Impf. Subj. 





\ etc. 



Fut. Subj. 


Prbt. Ind. 







The derivative proveer, to provide^ is regular but has also the ir- 
regular past participle provisto. 

Yacer, to He 

Prin. Parts Yacer ; yaciendo ; yaddo ; yazco, yazgo, or yago ; yacl ; 


Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind, Pret. Ind. 

yazco, yazgo, yacfa yazca, yazga, yacer^ yacf 

or yago etc, yace yaga etc, yadste 

yaces oryaz etc, yadd 

yace yadmos 

yacemos Conditional yadsteis 

yac^is yaced yacerfa yaderon 

yacen etc. 

Impf. Subj, 

Fut. Subj 


yaciese yaciera 


etc, etc. 


Gtoup n. The preterits in this group have unaccented e and o 
in the first and third persons of the singular because the spoken 
accent falls on the stem ; the stem-vowel is usually different from 
the stem-vowel of the infinitive. 



Andar, to go 
Prin. Parts Andar, andando, andado, ando, anduve^ anduyo 
pRES. Ind. Impf. Ind. Impbrat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 






ande andar^ anduve 

etc, etc, anduviste 

Conditional anduvimos 
andarfa anduvisteis 
etc, anduvieron 

Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

anduviese, etc, anduviera, etc. 

Pres. Ind. 

Fut. Subj. 
anduviere, etc. 

Caber, to be contained in, hold 

Prin. Parts Caber, cabiendo, cabido, quepo, cupe, cupo 

Imperat. Pres. Subj. 

— — quepa 

cabe quepas 



cabed quepdis 


Impf. Ind. 



Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 

cabr^ cupe 

etc, cupiste 

Conditional cupimos 

cabrfa cupisteis 

etc, cupieron 

Impf. Subj. 
xst form 
cupiese, etc. 

2D form 
cupiera, etc. 

Fut. Subj. 
cupiere, etc. 

Pres, Ind. 

Impf. In 









Decir, to say 

Prin. Parts Decir, didendo, dicho, digo, dije, dijo 

Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind 

diga dir^ dije 

digas dirds, etc, dijiste 

diga dijo 

digamos Conditional dijimos 

digiis dirfa dijisteis 

digan dirfas, etc, dijeron 



Impf. Subj. 

Fut. Subj. 
dijere, etc. 


dijese, etc, dijera, etc. 

The present indicative third singular has the special indefinite form 
diz, // is said. 


The derivatives bendedr, to bless, and maldecir, to curse, differ 
from decir as follows : 

Past Part. Imperative (2D sing.) Fut. Ind. 

bendecido bendice bendedr^, etc. 

maldeddo maldice maldedr^, etc. 

Other derivatives are like decir except in the imperative singular : 

Imperative (2D sing.) 

oontradecir, contradict contradice 

dMdtdi, gainsay desdice . 

prededr, predict predice 

-dncir (STEM now obsolete) 
Condacir, to conduct, drive 

Prin. Parts condudr, condudendo, conduddo, conduzco, conduje, 


pRES. Ind. Impf. Ind. Impbrat. Pres. Subj. Fxtt. Ind. Pret. Ind. 

conduzco conduda conduzca condudr^ conduje 

conduces etc, conduce conduzcas etc, condujiste 

conduce conduzca condujo 

condudmos conduzcamos Conditional condujimos 

conduds condudd conduzcdis condudrfa condujisteis 

conducen conduzcan etc, condujeron 

Impf. Subj. Fut. Subj. 

1ST form 2D form 

condujese condujera condujere 

etc, etc. etc. 

Derivatives are 

dediicir, deduce producir, produce 

ediicir, bring out redncir, reduce 

induciiy induce reprodadr, reproduce 

introduciiy introduce traducir, translate 



Estaiy to be 

Prin. Parts Estar, estando, estado, estoy, estuve, estuvo 

Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 

estoy estaba est^ estar^ 

estds etc. estd est^s etc. 

estd est^ 

estamos estemos Conditional 

est^ estad est^is estarfa 

estdn est^n etc. 







Imp^. Subj. 
xst form 2d form 

estuviese, etc, estuviera, etc. 

Fut. Subj. 
estuviere, etc. 

Haber, to have 
Prin. Parts Haber, habiendo, habido, he, hube, hubo 

Pres. Ind. 







Impf. Ikd. 





Impf. Subj. 

Pres. Subj. 







Fut." Ind. 

habrds, etc. 


habrfas, etc. 

Pret. Ind. 








hubiese, etc. 


hubiera, etc. 

Fut. Subj, 
hubiere, etc. 

Note. Though chiefly used as an auxiliary verb, haber remains as a 
finite verb in such expressions as 

£1 malhechor fu6 habido. 
I Haya paces I 
I Bien haya ! 
I Hal haya ! 

The criminal was appreherided. 
Stop quarreling! 
Blessed is he / 
Curses on hint. 

The imperative combines with the adverbs aqui, ahi, and aM. 
Personal pronouns are appended to the verb: thus, H6ine aqui, 
Here I am ; H^tenos aM, There we are. 

Some grammarians deny the derivation of h^ from haber, and 
attribute it to ver. 



Hacer, to make, to do 
Prin. Parts Hacer, hadendo, hecho, hago, hice, hizo 

pREs. Ind. 

Impf. Ind. 






Pres. Subj, 

Impf. Subj. 


hiciese, etc. 

FuT. Ind. 
hards, etc. 


harfaS) etc, 

FuT. Subj. 
hidere, etc. 

Pret. Inix 








hidera, etc, , 

The derivative satisf acer, to satisfy, retains the original f of the Latin : 
Prin. Parts Satisf acer, satisfadendo, satisf echo, satisf ago, satisfice, satisfizo 

Poder, to be able, can 
Prin. Parts ' Poder, pudiendo, podido, puedo, pude, pudo 
Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 
puedo podfa wanting pueda podr^ pude 

puedes etc, puedas podrds, etc, pudiste 

puede pueda 

podemos podamos 

pod^is poddis 

pueden puedan 

Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

pudiese, etc, pudiera, etc, 

Poner, to put 

Prin. Parts Poner, poniendo, puesto, pongo, puse, puso 

Imperat. Pres. Subj. 


pon pongas 



poned pongdis 



podrfas, etc, 

Fut. Subj. 
pudiere, etc. 


Pres. Ind. 

Impf. Ind. 



Fut. Ind. 
pondrds, etc. 

Impf. Subj. 


pusiese, etc. 


pusiera, etc. 


pondrias, etc, 

Fut. Subj. 
pusiere, etc. 

Pret. Ind. 



A few derivatives are 

anteponer, put before ezponer, expose 

^mponer, compose, mend imponer, impose 

disponer, dispose oponer, oppose 

xecomponer, mend 
proponer, propose 
suponer, suppose 

Reponer, to reply, is used chiefly in the preterit, repuso. 

Querer, to wish, desire; to love 
Prin. Parts Querer, queriendo, querido, quiero, quise, quiso 

PRES. Ind. Impf. Ind^ Imperat. Pres. Subj. 
















Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 



FuT. Ind. 

querrds, etc. 


querrfas, etc, 

FuT. Subj. 


Pret. Ind. 







Saber, to know 
Prin. Parts Saber, sabiendo, sabido, s^, supe, supo 

Pres. Ind. 







Impf. Ind. Imperat. 


etc. sabe 


Pres. Subj. 







FuT. Ind. 

sabrds, etc. 


sabrfas, etc. 

Impf. Subj. Fut. Subj. 

1ST form 2D FORM 

supii^ra y supiere 


Pret. Inr 











Tener, to have 
Prin. Parts Tener, teniendo, tenido, tengo, tuve, tuvo 

Pres. Ind. 







Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. 










Impf. Subj. 
1st form 2d form 

tuviese tuviera 

etc, etc. 

Derivatives are 

abstenerse, abstain 
atenerse, stick to^ heed 
contener, restrain 

FuT. Ind. 

tendrds, etc. 


tendrfas, etc, 

Fut. Subj, 


Pret. Ind, 







detener, stop 
entretener, entertain 
mantener, maintain 

obtener, obtain 
retener, retain 
sostener, sustain 

Traer, to bring 
Prin. Parts Traer, trayendo, trafdo, traigo, traje, trajo 
Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Pres. Subj. Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 
traigo trafa 






etc, trae 


Impf. Subj. 



Derivatives are 

atraer, attract 
contraer, contract 










Fut. Subj. 
















Venir, to come 

Prin. Parts Venir, viniendo, venido, vengo, vine, vino 

Pres. Ind. Impf. Ind. Imperat. Prbs. Subj. Fut. Ind. Pret. Ind. 

vengo venfa venga 

vienes etc, ven vengas 

viene venga 

venimos vengamos 

vendrds, etc. 

venfs venid vengdis 
vienen vengan 

Impf. Subj. 

1ST form 2D FORM 

viniese viniera 

etc, etc. 



Fut. Subj. 








Important derivatives are 

ayenir, reconcile 

conyenir, tigree 

preyenir, wam^ anticipate 

proyenir, take rise from 
sobreyenir, come unexpectedly 
subyenir, c^sist 

251. Defective Verbs, having only certain forms in use, are — 
I. Placeri to please^ usually found only in the third person singu- 


Pres. Part. Prbs. Ind. 
pladendo place 

Impf. Ind. Pres. Subj. 

placfa plega, or 
plegue, or 

Fut. Ind. 


Pret. Ind. 

plugo, or 

Impf. Subj. Fut. Subj. 

1st form 2d form 

pluguiese, or pluguiera, or pluguiere 

pladese pladera 


2. Raer, to erase. This verb, but little used, is conjugated like 
caer with the addition in the present subjunctive of the forms raya, 
rayas, etc. 


3. Roer, to gnaw. 

Prbs. Ind. 

Pres. Subj. 

roo, roigo, royo 

roa, roiga, roya 


roaSy roigas, royas 


roa, roiga, roya 





a. The derivative corroer, to corrode^ avoids the forms with -ig- 
or -y-. 

4. Ten verbs ending in -ir are commonly used only in those 
forms which have i in the ending. Hence they lack the present 
indicative singular and third plural, the present subjunctive, and 
the imperative singular. Otherwise their conjugation is regular. 
These vejbs are 

abolir, to abolish despavorir, to become frightened 

agnerrir, to make warlike embafr, to impose upon 

arrecirse, to become numb empedernir, to harden 

aterirse, to become numb garantir, to guarantee 

desmarrirse, to become sad manir, to become tender 

252. Impersonal Verbs denote the action of an unspecified sub- 
ject, generally it in English, but not referring to any person or 
thing. Such verbs in Spanish use the infinitive, the participles, and 
the third person singular of the various tenses. 

I. Impersonal verbs denoting phenomena of nature are 

amanecer, to dawn : amanece, // is dawning 

anochecer, to get dark or night : anochece, // is getting dark 

deshelar, to thaw : deshiela, /'/ is thawing 

granizar, to hail: graniza, // hails 

helar, to freeze : hiela, it is freezing 

llOTer^ to rain : llueye, // is raining 

neyar, to snow : nieva, it is snowing 

relampagnear, to lighten : relampaguea, it lightens 

tronar^ to thunder: tmena, it thunders 


2. Other impersonal verbs are 

acontecer^ to happen : acontece, it happens 
bastar, to be enough : basta, it is enough 
constar, to be evident : conatai it is evident 
conyenir, to suit : conyienei it suits 
importar, to matter: importa, /'/ matters 
suceder, to happen : sucede, // happens 

Haber, hacer, estar, and ser may also be used impersonally. 

253. Haher Impersonal. For the sake of the translation, a com- 
plete conjugation of haber used impersonally is here given. 

Infinitive haber, be ; as, no pnede haber, there cannot be 
Pres. Part. habiendo, there being 
Past Part. habido, there having been 

Indicative Mood 

Present hay, there is, there are 

Imperfect habia, there was, there were 

Preterit hubo, there was, there were 

FwTURE habrA, there will be 

Conditional habria, there would be 

Pres. Perf. ha habido, there has been 

Pluperfect habia habido, there had been 

Pret. Perf. hubo habido, there had been 

FuT. Perf^ habrA habido, there will have been 

CoNDiT. Perf. habria habido, there would have been 

Subjunctive Mood 

Present haya, let there be haya habido 

Imperfect ist hubiese hubiese habido 

2D hubiera hubiera habido 

Future hnbieie hubiere habido 

a. With expressions of time ha is used instead of hay: poco 
tiempo ha, a short time ago, 

254. Passive Voice. The passive voice of a Spanish verb is 
formed from the auxiliary set and the past participle of the verb. 



The past participle must agree in gender and number with the 
subject. For other auxiliaries see section 270, i,a. 

Prbs. Part. 
Past Part. 



Imperative 2D Sing. 

ser llamadOi /^ 6e called 
siendo Uamado, being called 
sido llamado, been called 

Indicative Mood 

807 UamadOi / am called 
eres \\axnaA.%you are called 
68 llamado, he is called 
ella 68 llamada, she is called 

8omo6 llamados, we are called 
80i8 llamadiMi, you are called 
son llaiiiado8', they are called 

era Uamado, / wc^ called 
eras Uamado, you were called^ etc. 
fui llamado, / was called^ etc. 
eer^ llamado, / shall be called^ etc. 
eeria llamado, / should be called^ etc. 
8^ llamadOi be called 


Imperfect ist form 
2D form 

2D Plur. eed llamadoe, be called 

Subjunctive Mood 

8ea llamado, etc 
fneee llamado, etc 
fuera llamado, etc 
fuere llamado, etc. 

Pres. Perf. 
Pret. Perf. 
FuT. Perf. 
CoNDiT. Perf. 


Imperfect ist form 
2D form 

Compound Tenses 
indicative mood 

he eido llamadOi / have been called^ etc 
habia eido Uamado^ / had been called^ etc. 
hube sido llamado, / had been called^ etc. 
habr6 sido llamado, / shall have been called^ etc. 
habria sido llamado, I should have been ccUled^ etc 

subjunctive mood 

haya sido Uamado, etc 
hubiese sido llamado, etc 
hubiera sido llamado, etc. 
hubiere sido llamado, etc. 


255. Reflexive Verbs. 

Infinitive leyantar86| to get up 
Pres. Part, leyantibidose, getting up 
Past Part. leyantadO| (^gof) up 

Present Indicative 

Sing. I. me leyanto, I get up Plur. i. nos leyantamos, «/^^^/ «^ 

2. te leyantas, you get up 2. os leyantdis, you get up 

3. se leyanta, he gets up 3. se leyantan, they get up 

Vd. 86 Vfs^dJcAjBi^ you get up Vds. se \s^b:dXj8:cl^ you get up 

Imperf. Ind. me leyantaba, / was getting up, etc. 

Pret. Ind. me leyant^, I got up^ etc. 

FuT. Ind. me leyantar^, / shall get up, etc. 

Conditional me leyantarfa, / should get up, etc. 

Pres. Perf. Ind. yo me he leyantado, / have got up, etc. 

Neg. yo no me he leyantado, I have not got up, etc. 
Interr. ^ se ha leyantado Vd. ? did you get up ? etc. 
Neg. Interr. £ no se ha leyantado Vd.? did you not get up f etc. 

Imperative Mood 

Sing. 2. leyintate, get up For the negative, supply corre- 

Plur. 2. leyantaos, get up sponding persons frpm the 

present subjunctive. 

Present Subjunctive as Imperative 

Sing. 2. que te leyantes,^^/ up no te leyantes, don'' t get up 

(formal) ley&ntese \6,.^get up no se leyante Vd., don't get up 

3. que se leyante, let him que no se leyante, let him not get 
get up up 

Plur. I. leyant^monos, let us get no nos leyantemos, let us not get 

up up 

2. que OS leyant^is,^^/ up no os leyant^is, don* t get up 
(formal) leyintense Yda., get up no se leyanten Vds., donH get up 

3. que se leyanten, let them que no se leyanten, let them not 

get up get up 

Other forms of reflexive verbs are formed in a similar way. 
The pronouns precede the verb except the infinitive, the present 


participle, and the positive imperative, to which the pronoun is 
appended. A written accent is required whenever, by the addition 
of this extra syllable, the spoken accent is thrown farther back 
than the second syllable from the end of the word. Before nos 
the final 8 of the first person plural, and before os the final d of 
the second person plural, are dropped. 

1 nus, leyantemos -|- nos gives leyant^onos 

leyantad -|- os gives leyantaos 


id -|- 08 gives idos, from irse, to go away 

256. Impersonal Reflexive. 

Present Indicative 

se me ocurre, it occurs to me se nos ocorre, it occurs to us 

se te ocurre, // occurs to you se os ocurre, // occurs to you 

86 le ocurre, // occurs to him^ her se les ocurre, // occurs to them 
se le ocurre a Vd., // occurs to you 

Present Perfect Indicative 
se me ha ocurrido, // has occurred to me, etc. 

Preterit Indicative 
se me ocuni6, // occurred to me, etc. 

257. Reciprocal Verb. The plural of some reflexive verbs may 
be called reciprocal because they represent the action as occurring 
between two or more individuals. 

, amarse, to love each other 

Present Indicative 

nos amamos, we love each other 
OS amAia,you love each other 
se aman, they love each other 

The persons concerned may be defined as to gender and num- 
ber by the use of el uno el otro, la una la otra, etc. 

Juan 7 Maria se aman el uno a la John and Mary love each other, 

Las mujeres se aman unas a otras. The women love each other. 


258. Periphrastic Conjus:ation. (Progressive Form.) 

Present Indicative 

estoy cantando, / am singing 
estib cantando,^^!^ are singing 
estA cantandOi he is singing 
estamos cantandOi we are singing 
estAis cantandOi you are singing 
estibi cantando, they are singing 

Imperfect Indicative 
estaba cantando, / was singings etc. 

Preterit Indicative 
estnye cantando, / was singings etx:. 

Other tenses and moods are formed in a similar way. 
Instead of estar other verbs may be used as the auxiliary, espe-. 
dally ir. See section 275. 

Present Indicative 

voy siendOi / am getting 
yas MVL<^%you are getting 
ya siendo, he {if) is getting 
yamos siendo, we are getting 
yrsAa sidfAOf you are getting 
van siendOi they are getting 

Imperfect Indicative 
iba siendo, / was getting, etc. 

Preterit Indicative 
ful siendOi I was getting, etc. 

I. Make lists of — 

1. Irregular past participles. 

2. Present participles with change of stem-vowel. 

3. Irregular futures and conditionals, ist person singular. 

4. Irregular imperatives. 



5. Preterits having an unaccented termination in the ist and 
3d person singular ; as, tuve, tuvo. 

6. Present indicatives, ist person singular, having the letter g 
as the last letter of the stem, and the corresponding present sub- 
junctive ; as, tengo, tenga. 

II. Study the irregular verbs according to the following scheme by 
substituting each verb in turn. 





sellX vendemos 

I was sellings vendla 


I ^ 



have sold^ 

he vendido 
hemos vendido 
han vendido 

sold\ vendi6 

I shall ] r vender^ 
we shall -sell\ venderemos 
they will] [vender&n 


(familiar), vende 
(formal), venda Vd. 

let him 
let us 
let them 


que ^1 venda 
que vendan 

he sells, vende 

do you sell? ^ vende Vd. ? 

he used to sell, vendla 

have you sold? i ha vendido Vd. ? 

did you sell? i vendi6 Vd. ? 

I should 
he would 
we should 

selH venderia 

, , „ f (familiar) no vendas 
don^t selP ^ ^ 

[ (formal) no venda Vd. 

(he wishes) me to sell, que yo venda 

in order that he might sell, para que vendiese or vendiera 

(J ordered) him to sell, que fl vendiese or vendiera 



259. Agreement. A verb must agree in person and number 
with its subject. 

Yo estudio; td jnegas. I study j you play. 

Bran las once de la maSana. // was eleven in the morning, 

260. Person. If the subject has different persons, the verb will 
have the first person in preference to the second or third, and the 
second in preference to the third. 

IJ^l y yo ibamos en el mismo tren. He and I were traveling in the 

same train, 
Ella cree que t6 y yo nos entende- She believes that you and I have 

mo8. an understanding. 

Til y Juan no os amAie. You and John do not love each 


a, A relative pronoun, as the subject of a verb, has the same person 
as its antecedent. See section 164, 5. 

1x6 yo qne soy mis joven. / will go who am younger, 

Td eres nn pastelero que siempre You are a trimmer who always 

quieres quedar bien con todo el wants to be on good tenns with 

mundo. everybody, 

261. Number. A compound subject requires a plural verb. 
El vino y el aceite se yenden bien. Wine and oil sell well, 

I. But if the verb precedes the compound subject, it sometimes 
agrees with the first noun only. 

Se yende mucho vino y aceite. Much wine and oil are sold, 




2. A singular noun or pronoun is frequently used to sum up a 
series, in which case the verb is singular. 

Caf^, caiKa de azticar, algod6n, ta- Coffee^ sugar-cane^ cotton^ tobacco^ 
baco 7 cochinilla, todo se produce and cochineal^ all are easily pro- 

con fadlidad. duced. 

a. Two or more singular subjects, closely related in thought but not 
connected by a conjunction, may be followed by a singular verb. 

La profesidn, el paitido politico, la The profession, the politics, the 
yida entera de muchos hombres whole life of many men depend 

pende de casos fortuitos. on chance circumstances. 

3. Two or more neuters take a singular verb ; hence, two infin- 
itives with a singular verb is common. If, however, it is desired to 
emphasize each idea by way of contrast, the article is used before 
each neuter, followed by a plural verb. 

Seria dificil el moralizar y evan- To make moral these peoples and 

gelizar a estas gentes. Christianize them would be 


Saber teologia y no saber montar To know theology and not to know 

desacreditaba a D. Luis a los how to ride discredited Louis 

oj08 de su primo. in the eyes of his cousin. 

El oir y el entender no son lo Hearing and understanding are 

mismo. not the same. 

4. Words connected by ni ... ni, ... 0, or similar connec- 
tives may take a plural or a singular verb according to sense, but 
require different verbs to show the person when the person differs 
in the several clauses. 

Ni uno ni otro es mi padre. Neither one is my father. 

Bra un joyen de una belleza que ni He wa^ a young man of a beauty 
la penitencia ni la agonia hablan which neither fasting nor the 

podido eclipsar. hour of death had been able to 

Vd. es loco 70 lo soy. Either you are crazy or I am, 

5. Collective nouns may be followed by either a singular or a 
plural verb, according as the whole or its component parts are 
uppermost in mind. 



El dla de su salida acadieron a On the day of his departure many 

saludarlo muchas personas. Gran persons came to pay their re- 

parte fu^ con ^1 hasta la Gnaira spects, A large number went 

7 no se apartaron hasta perder de with him as far as La Guaira, 

yista el barco que lo conducla a- and did not disperse until the 

la Habana. vessel which was taking him 

to Havana was lost from sight, 

6. With ser the subject rather than the predicate noun deter- 
mines the number ; but if the subject is separated from the verb 
while the predicate noun comes close after it, the verb may agree 
with the predicate noun in both person and number. 

Sns colecciones eran una marayilla. His collections were a marvel, 
£1 alquiler de esta casa son mil The rent of this house is one thou- 

pesetas al aSo. sand pesetas a year. 

Son los cuadros de Murillo lo que Murillo^s paintings are what I 

m&s me gusta en Seyilla. like best in Seville, 

But, Los cuadros de Murillo es lo que mis me gusta en Sevilla. 

262. Present Tense, i. The Spanish present tense indicative, 

generally used as in English, may also represent an action which 

began in the past but is still continuing in the present English 

has the present perfect. 

I Desde cuAndo est& Vd. aqui ? Since when have you been here f 

Estoy aqui desde ayer. I have been here since yesterday, 

Sesenta aSos lleyo siryiendo al rey. / have spent sixty years serv- 
ing the king. 

a. After the impersonal verb hace with expressions of time, the pres- 
ent tense is frequent. 

Hace dias que no la yeo. // is days since I have seen her, 

Hace dos meses que estoy aqui. I have been here for two months, 

2. In lively narrative, the present is sometimes used instead of the 


Estaban ciegos de c61era. Me en- They were blind with anger, I 

tero del motive de la disputa, learned the cause of the dispute 

les digo que unos y otros estin and told them they were both 

equivocados y se ponen furiosos wrongs and they got angry ai 

contra mi. me. 


3. The present also appears for the future, especially in offers. 

Si quieres que me maiche, magana If you wish me to go, I will leave 

salgo para Barcelona, 7 espero to-morrow for Barcelona and 

alii a embarcar. wait there to embark, 

Se lo doy a Vd. por doa pesetas. I will give it to you for two pesetas, 

4. The present tense is employed in certain idiomatic expressions, as 

A poco mis se muere. He almost died, 

Tropezd y por poco se cae. He stumbled and almost fell, 

263. Imperfect, Preterit, and Present Perfect compared and 
contrasted in their regular uses, see sections 63, 65, and 73. 

264. Imperfect Indicative, i. The imperfect tense, indicative, 
has the force of the English pluperfect when used with expressions 
of time denoting a continuance of the action. 

Hacia dos aSos que estaba en / had been in Madrid two years, 


2. The imperfect indicative may appear in place of the condi- 

Una de las cosas que hacia, si He- One of the things which I should 

gara a tocarme un buen premio, do, if I happened to win a good 

era regalarle al portero el panta- prize, would be to give the j an- 

16n mio de cuadros. . itor my checked trousers, 

265. Preterit Perfect, or past anterior, indicative, is used after 
conjunctions which denote time, as apenas, scarcely, asi que, as 
soon as; despu^s que, after; etc: 

Mi amo apenas me hubo visto Scarcely had my master seen me 
cuando me llam6 por mi nombre. when he called me by name, 

Despu^s que hubieron salido del After they had left the apartment. 

a. The simple preterit is generally employed instead of the compound 

Asi que se march6 el medico. As soon as the doctor had gone. 


b. The conjunctions compounded with que lose their first element if 
the participle stands first. 

Bchado que hubo pie a tierra. As soon as he had set foot on the 

Salido que hubieron del aposento. After they had left the apartment, 
Sentado que se hubo ella. When she had seated herself 

266. Future. The future indicative may denote probability. 

SerAn las doce. // is probably twelve o^ clock, 

^Vd. sabrA bastante contabilidad I suppose you know bookkeeping 

y tendrA buena letra ? NOySeSor, and write a good hand f No^ 

no la tengo muy buena ni muy sir^ I don V write a very good 

mala siquiera. No s^ leer. hand nor even a very bad one, 

I canH read, 

a. The future tense is frequent in rhetorical questions that are con- 
sidered undeniable by the speaker. 

I HabrA desgracia mayor ? Can there be a greater misfortune ? 

iQu^ ojos I08 de aquella niSal ^^What eyes that girl has! ^"^ ^^Can 

— I Serin mis hermosos que los they be handsomer than yours ?^^ 

suyos? pregunt^. I CLsked, 

b. For haber de and ir a as paraphrases for the future, see sections 
107, 3; and 60. 

267. The Future Perfect has uses corresponding to those of the 

simple future. 

I Qu^ asombro habrA sido el de Vd. 1 What astonishment yours must 

have been ! 

268. The Conditional may be employed like the future, to denote 
probability, when referring to past time. 

Serian las tres de la madrugada. // was probably three in the morn- 
Podrla tener a la saz6n catorce He might have been at that time 

aSo8. fourteen years old, 

Juan no yino. Estaria enfermo. fohn did not come, I suppose he 

was sick, 

269. Impersonal Verbs. Verbs that are used only in the third 
person singular are called impersonal. See section 252 


1. Verbs denoting phenomena of nature are impersonal in both 
Spanish and English. 

Llneye. It is raining. 

Va a helar. // is going to freeze, 

Estd neyando. // is snowing, 

2. Ser with adjectives and a few nouns is common in the im- 
personal use. 

£s justo. // is right, 

Fu^ claro. // was evident, 

Fuersa es confesar. // must be confessed, 

3. Spanish has many impersonal expressions which correspond 
to personal expressions in English. The person concerned in the 
action of the Spanish verb is expressed by the indirect object 

A mi no me importa. / donH care, (Lit // doesnH mat- 

ter to me.) 
No me conyiene vender. // doesnH suit me to sell. 

Le toca a Vd. hablar. // is your turn to speak. 

4. Many reflexive verbs are used impersonally. As the person 
concerned is expressed by the indirect object pronoun, these verbs 
may be said to have an impersonal conjugation. See section 256. 

Se me figura. / imagine, 

Se me olyida. I forget, 

Se no8 ociirre. There occurs to us. 

I Qu6 se te ofrece ? What is the matter? 

A D. Luis se le figoraba que iba Louis fancied that he was going 
a deslustrar su gloria. to blast his reputation, 


I. The color, the drawing, the composition, all revealed a genius 
of the first rank. 2. You and I are going to Madrid. 3. Who says 
so ? I, who have seen you take off your hat 4. The old man and 
you were seated before the door. 5. The doctor, the notary, and 
the priest were present at the party. 6. Eating and drinking are 


indispensable. 7. Neither John nor Paul has arrived. 8. Either 
she will write or I will. 9. Many people came to say good-by, and 
some wept. 10. I have been up^ more than two hours. 11. You 
are probably a friend of the Spanish consul. 12. When I met you, 
I had been there half an hour. 13. It was only six months that 
they had been married. 14. We have always been friends from 
childhood. 15. He was probably forty years old when he took 
command^ of the army. 16. As soon as he had finished his speech 
the audience shouted, " Bravo, bravo." 17. After the captain had 
gone ashore, the sailors stopped working. 18. There were many 
strangers who had come to attend the fair. 19. I promised that 
neither I nor any oT my friends would raise insurrectionary' par- 
ties. 20. It is more than a year since I have spoken to him. 2 1. I 
have forgotten the lesson. 22. It did not occur to me to say any- 
thing. 23. He imagines he is* a great orator. 24. It does not 
matter to me what he says. 25. It is very fine weather to-day: 
the sun is shining and there is no dust. 26. There was no moon 
that night. 27. If it rains, it will be very muddy in the streets. 
28. Was it very cold when you were in the country ? 29. In the 
summer it dawns early and grows dark late. 30. I do not know 
what education he is likely to have, nor what books he may have 
read. 31. I suppose he is coming to-morrow morning. 32. She is 
to deliver the work next Monday evening. 33. Have you been 
waiting long ? 34. The candidate had many friends in the audience, 
but a large nimiber did not applaud his speech. 35. The salary of 
this position is two thousand dollars a year. 36. We are the ones 
who have the greatest interest in this project. 

^ leyantado. * Omit. 

^ Supply the definite article. ^ Use infinitive. 



270. Passive Voice. The passive voice indicates that the action 
is performed upon the subject ; as, The dog was kicked by the boy. 
The person performing the action is called the agent ; as, boy in 
the example. 

1. In Spanish the passive voice is formed by the combination 
of the auxiliary verb ser and the past participle of the verb, which 
must agree in gender and number with the subject. See section 
254 for conjugation. 

a. Other verbs than ser are sometimes joined with the past participle 
in the formation of the passive voice ; as, quedar, hallarse, encontrarse, 
verse, andar, ir. 

Qaeda ezplicado en la pigina ao. // is explained on page 20, 

Las tiopas se h^laban mandadas The troops were commanded by 

por buenos oficiales. good officers. 

En el fondo del lienzo se veia pin- In the background of the canvas 

tado otro cuadro. was painted another picture. 

Van inclnidas muchas f otograffas Many photographs are included 

en el diccionario. in the dictionary. 

2. The agent in Spanish is introduced by por; or, in case the 
action is mental, by de. 

C^ar fu6 asesinado por Bmto. Casar was assassinated by Brutus. 
C^sar fu^ respetado de todos. Ccesar wets respected by all, 

271. The passive voice is little used in Spanish. On the other 
hand, it is commonly employed in English for the following pur- 



(i) To give prominence to the thing acted on by placing it at the 
beginning of the sentence as the subject of the passive verb. 

(2) To make a statement indefinite. 

Now Spanish, using the active voice, obtains the same results as 
follows : 

1. By reason of the personal a (see section 134) which allows 
the object to stand first in the sentence. 

A Carlos V sigue Felipe II. Charles V is succeeded by Philip II, 

2. Indefiniteness is obtained by the use of the third person plu- 
ral. (See section 196.) 

Me llamaron a las cinco. / wcls called at five o'clock, 

Sintid que le tocaban en la espalda. He felt himself touched on the 


3. By substituting the reflexive verb ; see section 272. 

272. Reflexiye Substitute for Passive. As a substitute for the 
passive voice, the reflexive verb is most important. 

Puede decirse. // may be said, 

Se ban mandado los efectos por el The goods have been shipped by 

vapor Caracas. the steamer Caracas, 

Se daba la orden de ataque. The order for attack was given, 

Di^ronseles las mejores armas. The best arms were given them, 

a. As with the true passive, the agent may be introduced by por after 
a reflexive verb. 

Finn6se la concordia primero por The agreement was signed first by 
^1 y despu^s por el rey. him and afterwards by the king, 

b. The reflexive substitute for the passive occurs frequentiy in signs 
and general statements. 

Se yende la casa. The house is for sale, 

Se prohibe fumar. Smoking forbidden, 

Aqui se habla espaSol. Spanish spoken here, 

Se dice. // is said, {People say. They say,) 

Se alquila. For hire (or renf). 



273. Impersonal Reflexive. The reflexive verb used imperson- 
ally as a substitute for the passive voice conveys an idea of indefi- 
niteness. Se, in the popular mind, acquires almost the meaning of 
somebody ox people. 

Se nos pregunta por correo. 

Se procesa a los criminales. 

Se me busca a mi. 

Se va a salir de la iglesia. 

We are asked by mail. (Lit. // is 

asked us by mail.) 
The criminals are prosecuted, 
I am being looked for. 
People are about to come out of 

the church. 

274. Present Participle. The present participle, or gerund, has 
many uses. It never changes its form ; and may have a subject 
different from that of the principal verb. It may denote — 

1. Time. 

Nos conocimos siendo niSos. 

2. Manner. 
V6 oorriendo. 

3. Means. 

En otros siglos hnbiera logrado su 
prop6sito pagando un asesino. 

4. Cause. 

No yendo nosotros, snpongo qne no 

iris tti. 
Siendo ella bonita y Luciano dis- 

tinguido, hacian una buena 


We became acquainted when we 
were children. 

Go on the run. 

In other centuries he would have 
achieved his purpose by paying 
an c^sc^sin. 

Since we are not goings I suppose 

you will not go. 
As she was pretty and Lucian 

distinguished^ they mcuie a fine 


5. The only preposition used with the gerund is en ; which then 
means after. 

En muriendo ella, saldris de aqul. After she dies ^ you will get out of 



6. The gerund must not be used as an adjective. Spanish has 
many adjectives derived from the Latin present participle in ante 
or ente, which take its place. 

una cesta colgante, a hanging basket 
agna corriente, running water 

a. If no adjective exists to express the idea, a relative clause must be 

Remito a Vd. cuatro cajas que con- / send you four boxes containing 
tienen cien fusiles. a hundred rifles, 

275. Periphrastic Conjugation. The present participle is used 

with verbs to denote progressive action, whenever it is desired to 

emphasize the progressive character of the act. The weak English 

progressive is usually the corresponding simple tense form. 

She is singing, Ella canta. 

She was singing. Ella cantaba. 

But, Ella estaba cantando en el She was singing at the time when 
momento en que entr^. / stepped in. 

The verb estar most frequently occurs as the auxiliary in the 
periphrastic conjugation ; but other verbs, as hallarse, encontrarse, 
venir, andar, quedar, are employed and give great precision to the 
idea. With verbs denoting movement ir is especially common. The 
present participle with these words is closely allied to its use in ex- 
pressing manner. For the progressive conjugation see section 258. 

Pedro estd oonstruyendo una tapia. Peter is building a wall. 

He estado arreglando la liabitaci6n. / have been putting the room in 

Gonf orme ella iba leyendo la carta, As she continued reading the letter 

se iba poni^ndose p^ida. she kept growing paler andpaler, 

Los reUmpagos fueron siendo me- The flashes of lightning kept get- 

nos frecuentes. ting less frequent. 

La casa de Cerinola yenla cayendo The house of Cerinola had been 

desde tiempo del padre de Luis. decaying since the time of Louis'^ 

Un dia el pintor andaba recorriendo One day the painter was visiting 

laa iglesias de Madrid. the churches of Madrid. 


276. Past Participle. With aiixiliary verbs the Spanish past 
participle forms compound tenses and the passive voice. See sec- 
tions 241, 254. 

1. With haber, the past participle is invariable ; with other verbs 

it agrees with the subject 

Ha escrito la carta. He has written the letter, 

Tengo la carta que ha escrito. / have the letter which he has 


^ - lescrita la carta. The letter is written, 


Fu6 escrita la carta. * The letter was written, 

2. Tener may be used, with transitive verbs only, as an auxiliary 
when attention is directed to the state of the direct object rather 
than to the process indicated by the verb. The participle then 
agrees with the direct object. 

Lo que mis daSaba a la diyisi6n What most harmed the division 

eran unas piezas que los carlis- was a couple of guns which the 

tas tenlan situadas en un cerrillo. Carlists had located on a knoll, 

I Cdmo decirle que la tengo en- How tell her that I keep her de- 

gaSada? ceivedf 

a. Llevar is sometimes used like tener as an auxiliary verb. 
Llevo escrita la carta. / have got the letter written, 

3. Ser cannot be the auxiliary with an intransitive verb. 

Han ido. They are gone. 

Ha muerto. He is dead, 

4. Some past participles have an active meaning ; but they are 
usually applicable only to human beings. 

Un hombre muy leido. A well-read man, 

Es cansado. He is tiresome, 

dL^dAwX<\Q^ grateful parecido, similar^ like 

atreyido, bold porfiado, obstinate 

callado, silent sentido, sensitive 

diyertido, merry sutnSiO^ patient 

and many others. 


5. The past participle may be used absolutely; in which case 
it usually stands first in the clause. English commonly requires in 
the corresponding construction that the present participle of an 
auxiliary precede the past participle. 

Dicho esto, salid. Having said this, he went out, 

A mi, muerta la seSora Condesa, As for me, now that the countess 
nada me pnede interesar de is dead, nothing in that house 

aqnella casa. can interest me, 

6. The means whereby the action of a past participle is carried 
out is usually introduced by de. 

La tierra esti cubierta de nieye. The earth is covered with snow, 

Ftt^ cargado de hierros. He wets loaded with irons, 

7. The prepositions antes de, despu^s de, loego de, and para 
may govern an absolute participial construction, in which the noun 
is often in reality the subject of a passive verb. 

]>e8pu^8 de cerradas las puertas, After the doors were closed the 

empez6 la conferencia. lecture began, 

Lnego de yuelto le yf. After he returned I saw him. 

Las ideas no eran para xeyeladas The ideas were not {such as) to be 

a su sobrina. revealed to his niece, 


I. His opinion was listened to with profound respect. 2. The 
lady was agreeably surprised by the visit. 3. I complain and I am 
told that I ought not to complain. 4. Behind my back I hear my- 
self called. 5. The lands have been sold at auction two months 
ago. 6. There were seen on both sides two long narrow counters. 
7. On a table in the center were placed the works recendy pub- 
lished and the reviews. 8. The letter for you was sent to Madrid. 
9. The letter lay inclosed in a little secret drawer. 10. Everything 
has been sold very dear. 11. Not a bill is paid without my con- 
sent. 12. People say that it is the fashion. 13. The doors are 
closed at six o'clock. 14. This house for rent. 15. It may be said 
that I haven't a single moment of rest. 16. Segovia was founded 


by the Phoenicians. 17. The walls were adorned with religious 
engravings. 18. The trees are now covered with leaves. 19. The 
French king was made a^ prisoner by the Spaniards. 20. A sharp 
dispute had the community divided. 21. As he passed the bank 
he thought of * the money which he had deposited there. 22. The 
days are getting shorter. 23. It is raining. 24. I am getting tired 
of my residence in this place. 25. We have been working all day. 
26. It is snowing at present. 27. She was* talking to Sancho 
when she entered the room. 28. I prefer to earn wages* by sew- 
ing. 29. You ought to be ashamed to work like a peon when you 
are the richest man in the village. 30. As the teacher was sick, 
we had no lessons to-day. 31. By traveling one learns many 
things. 32. After the performance was finished® we left the thea- 
ter. 33. She is an amusing actress, very similar to her father. 

34. They would rob me of^ the treasure after it was discovered. 

35. He has the gold coins hidden in his garden. 36. Why did you 
come in when I was busy? 37. Having reached his village, he 
found that his parents were dead. 38. He earned this money by 
working all summer. 39. As he had no friends in the city, he did 
not remain there long. 40. Because he was a bold man by nature, 
he did not hesitate. 41. The sick man was taken to the hospital 
and his life was saved. 42. The question having been read,® the 
assembly discussed it for more than an hour. 

1 Omit 2 en. * Use venir. 

* Say a wage, * Absolute past participle. 



277. Infinitive Mood. See Lesson XIX, Part I, for discussion of 
this mood before reading the following additions. 

1. Infinitives completing the sense of impersonal verbs or of 
predicate nouns and adjectives stand without a connecting preposi- 

Importa saber. // is important to know, 

Es f&cil equivocarse. // is easy to be mistaken, 

Es Ustima perder el tiempo. // is a pity to waste time, 

a, li the dependent verb has a subject expressed by a noun, or by a 
pronoun other than the indirect object pronoun, it is better to replace the 
infinitive by a clause having the verb in the subjunctive mood. 

Tiempo es de partir. // is time to leave, 

Tiempo es de que til te vayas. // is time for you to leave. 

Me es imposible salir. // is impossible for me to go out, 

Es imposible que salgan los niSos. // is impossible for the children 

to go out, 

2. An infinitive connected with an adjective by the preposition 
de often has a passive force. Such verbs are usually reflexive. 

Esta fruta es buena de comer. This fruit is good to eat, 

Es digno de notarse. // is worth noting, 

3. Infinitives often stand alone after relative and interrogative 
pronouns in cases where some auxiliary like poder or debet can be 

No tengo a quien dirigirme. / have nobody to whom to apply. 

No s6 qu6 decir. / do not know what to say, 




4. With the indefinite pronouns algo, nada, mucho, poco, and 
nouns denoting something indefinite, infinitives may stand after 
the connective que. 

Nada tengo que decir. 
Deja macho que deeear. 
El mancebo esperaba cantidades 
que anotar. 

/ have nothing to say. 
It leaves much to be desired. 
The clerk was waiting for figures 
to take down. 

5. Infinitives are sometimes used as imperatives, frequently in- 
troduced by a, and often in exclamations which repeat a previous 

|Sa! despejar, que Y07 a echar la 

I Pnes a dormir, caballeros ! 
I Pagarme Vd. a ml 1 

Come / Clear out, I am going to 

lock up. 
Well, sirs, to bed! . 
You pay me! 

278. Subjunctiye Mood. The subjunctive mood conveys an idea 
of indefiniteness. Hence, in addition to the uses of the dependent 
subjunctive already given, Lessons XX and XXI, there are the fol- 
lowing. The verbs of dependent clauses take the subjunctive, 

I. When they depend on questions, or on any construction, im- 
plying restriction or a negative : 

^ Quite asegura que sean ciertas 

estas noticias ? 
To no tenia persona que me aconse- 

No creo que ningiin griego haya 

estado tan contento como 70 lo 


Who vouches for it that this news 

is truef 
I had nobody to advise me, 

I do not believe any Greek has 
been as satisfied as I was. 

2, After impersonal expressions unless these state a certainty : 

Ee posible que sea ella mi madras- 

Mejor es que no juguemos a los 

I Qu^ importa que yo e8t6 mejor 


// is possible that she may become 

my stepmother. 
It is better for us not to play cards. 

What does it matter whether I am 
better or worse f 



But, Es cierto que ningana obra de // is certain that no work of such 
semejante antigiiedad se ha con- antiquity has been preserved so 
seryado tan bien. well, 

3. In indefinite relative clauses and those with an indefinite an- 
tecedent : 

f Har6 lo qne Vd. me mande. 
I Hay qnien pneda salyarla ? 

/ will do whatever you command 

Is there anybody who can save 
Quiero an mnchacho qne lleye esta / want a boy to take this letter to 
carta al correo. the post-office, 

4. In clauses presenting alternatives : 

Ta me qnites la yida, ya me la 
dejes, moriris ahorcado. 

Tnyi^mos no dlnero, fuese de 
dia de noche, ardiese la tierra 
bajo el sol del yerano, estu- 
yiese cnbierta de una vara de 

Whether you take my life or grant 
it to me^ you will die on the 

Whether we had money or not, 
whether it was day or night, 
whether the earth wets burning 
beneath the summer sun or 
whether it was covered by a 
yard of snow. 

5. In any clause which implies indefiniteness, concession, or the 
like, and' is introduced by an adverb of doubt, a conjunction, or a 
conjunctive phrase; after the same conjunction may appear the 
indicative if the clause denotes certainty : 

Voy a referir cosas que acaso Vd. 

ya sepa. 
Con ana condicidn me callo, y es 
que no te yayas de mi lado. 

No hay desgracia en el mundo, por 
grande que sea, que no pueda ser 

Busqu6 un sitio donde pudiera dor- 

/ am going to relate things which 
perhaps you already know. 

On one condition I will be silent, 
and that is that you do not 
leave me. 

There is no misfortune in the 
world, however great it may 
be, which cannot be greater, 

I looked for a place where I might 



6. After superlatives or negatives if tiie writer wishes to make 
the statement more modest or less sweeping : 

No hay la menor of ensa en que yo 

la acompaSe. 
Nada indicaba qae tuyiese tan 

grande animosidad contra mi. 

Esta seri la dltima carta qae yo 
escriba a Vd. 

There is not the slightest offense 

in my accompanying you. 
Nothing indicated that he had 

such great animosity toward 

This is the last letter that I shall 

write you. 

7. In both principal and subordinate clauses of many expres- 
sions denoting indifference, are found the present, the imperfect, 
and the future tenses of the subjunctive : 

Sea como sea. 

Fuera como fuese, las circtmstan- 

cias le favoreciesen. 
Quienquiera denota persona inde- 

terminada, algtmo, sea el qae 

Valga lo que yaliere. 
Venga lo que viniere. 

Be it as it may. 

However it was, circumstances 

would favor him, 
Quienquiera denotes an indefinite 

person, any one, whoever it 

may be. 
Take it for what it may be worth. 
Come what may. 

279. Unreal Conditions expressed by the imperfect subjunctive 
may have the imperfect subjunctive in the conclusion as well as in 
the condition, especially if the condition is placed first with the omis- 
sion of si. The second clause must then be connected by y or que. 

Si te hubieras ido no hubieras pre- 

senciado esta victoria. 
Pidiera ella mi protecci6n y (or 

que) yo se la dispensara. 

If you had gone you would not 
have witnessed this victory. 

Should she ask for my protection, 
I would give it to her. 

a. The imperfect subjunctive may appear in the conclusion of a con- 
dition which is not expressed. 

I Qui^n creyera que en esta forma 
estaba oculto un dios ? 

Vierais entonces un cuadro sublime. 

Who would believe {if anybody 

saw me) that in this form was 

hidden agodf 
You would then have seen (if 

you had been there) a sublime 



b. The simple tenses are often used instead of the compound tenses 
as in the last preceding example. 

280. The Imperfect Subjunctive of the -ra form, being derived 
from the Latin pluperfect, was formerly used as a pluperfect in- 
dicative and occasionally appears in poetry or in imitations of the 
older form. 

Pasaran ya tres semanas desde Three weeks had passed since our 

nuestra llegada. arrival. 

El arte migica que su padre le The magic art which his father 

enseSara. had taught him, 

281. The Future Subjunctive, also called the hypothetical sub- 
junctive, is used in clauses implying a supposition. It is now found 
only in legal style or antiquated phrases. 

Cuando an comerciante encargare When a merchant intrusts to his 
a su mancebo la recepci6n de clerk the reception of merchan- 

mercaderias y ^te las recibiere dise and the latter receives it 

sin reparo sobre su cantidad without examination as to its 

calidady surtiri su recepci6n los quantity or quality^ its accept- 

mismos efectos que si la hubiere ance shall entail the same con- 

hecho el principal. sequences as if the proprietor 

had done it, 

Al que leyere. To him who may read (found in 

the preface of books). 

Si alguno llamare a la puerta, le If anybody should knock at the 
abriris. door^ you will open to him, 

a. The present indicative after si, or the present subjunctive after a 
conjunctive phrase implying uncertainty, now replaces the hypothetical 

Si alguno llama a la puerta, le abriris, or En caso que alguno llame a 
la puerta le abriris. 

282. Wishes may be expressed, 

I . By the simple independent subjunctive : 
\ Dios me lo perdone I God pardon me for it. 


2. By the subjunctive dependent on ojaU or plega a Dies with 
or without a connecting que : 

I OjalA disfrntemos otros machos May we enjoy many other years / 


I Plega a Dios que sea recompen- May it please God that he be re- 

sado ! warded, 

a, OjaU may even stand alone when referring to a previous verb. 

Vi todo, hasta la posibilidad de que / saw everything^ even the possi- 
^1 se defendiera, me desarmara bility that he might defend him- 

y me matase. { OjaU 1 self disarm me, and kill me. I 

wish he might, 

3. By the imperfect subjunctive when contrary to reality or con- 
sidered impossible of attainment : 

I Fuese ya maSana y estuyidsemos Would that it were the morrow 
en la batalla I and that we were in the battle. 

Such wishes may be introduced by ojali, pluguiera a Dios, asi, 
qui^n, si. 

a, I Ojali no hubiera ido 1 O that I had not gone / 

I Ojali fuesen todos los pueblos O that all towns were like this / 
como ^te 1 

b, I Pluguiera a Dios que aun vi- Would to God that he were still 

yiese I alive I 

I Pluguiese a Dios que asi f uera I Would to God that it were so I 

c, I Asi esta picara fatiga me per- / wish this confounded weariness 

mitiese a mi bromear tam* would permit me also to make 

bi^ni jests/ 

d, Qui^n implies the first person singular : 

I Qui^n supiera escribir ! / wish I knew how to write / 

I Qui^n pudiera volar ! / wish I could fly / 

I Qtti^n fuera seSora para Uevar / wish I were a lady to wear such 

tal traje ! a gown / 

e, I Si bastara querer I If only wishing were enough / 

I Si viera Vd. qu^ viejo y feo I wish you could {or You ought to) 

estd ! see how old and ugly he is j 




{Before attempting this exercise the student should review Lessons 
XIX, XX, and XXI, of Fart I) 

I. He found little or nothing to admire. 2. It is time to go. 
3. It is time that John should come. 4. It would be good for you 
to take him out to get^ a little air. 5. My father demands of me 
that I should stay here with him at least two months. 6. She 
wished a good situation for her daughter which would get her out 
of financial difficulties.^ 7. My father and his friends are delighted 
that I am not completely ignorant of country affairs. 8. It is 
strange that there should be no time to write to you. 9. I have 
told him not to speak to me again. 10. Get another to play the 
piano. II. It is not good for man to be alone. 12. If you had 
listened to me, this would not have happened. 13. Even if it were 
so, why had he not come ? 14. It is possible that mamma will not 
allow us to talk to each other alone. 15. As there is nobody herQ 
who will do me that service, I will introduce myself. 16. It is 
necessary for me to have a Spaniard accompany me. 17. As soon 
as it is night I will go and get you. 18. I thank you greatly that 
you have had the kindness to pick it up. 19. Do you believe 
that he will come ? 20. I was afraid that Sancho would not come 
the second night. 21. It does not matter to me that she does not 
know me. 22. It is not evident that the jewel is yours. 23. I re- 
member as if it were a thing of yesterday. 24. Ojald comes from 
the Arabic, "if God wills," by* which is denoted a keen desire 
that a thing should happen. 25. O that I may see him alive! 
26. I wish I might live a thousand years. 27. May he come soon. 
28. I wish this tooth would stop aching. 29. No boat has come 
in, that I know of.* 30. Although it was late, he decided to enter 
the theater. 31. The table was set for all those who might come. 
32. I want a boy to go to New York. 33. Do you know anybody 

1 tomar. • con. 

' financial difficulties = apuxos. ^ Omit. 


who speaks Spanish ? 34. Whether he comes or not, he will pay 
for^ the ticket 35. If Carlos himself had come to ask me for the 
money, I should have refused it. 36. It is to be supposed that he 
had nothing to do. 37. At your age, iUnesses, however severe they 
may be, are easily cured. 38. Alas 1 gracious goodness, I wish I 
were that 1 39. The girls trembled, although it was impossible that 
Dofta Blanca had heard them. 40. He dreamed of Europe where 
he would see theaters and civilized people. 41. However strong 
he may be, it is possible that he lose. 42. Would I find anybody 
who would help me ? 43. There is no church in the dty which we 
have not visited. 44. Whether he goes to Europe or stays at home, 
it is the same to me. 45. However that may be, I do not hesitate 
in saying that I believe him. 46. It is the least that he can do. 

47. Francisco, learning that his father was asleep, in order that the 
latter might not hear him and wake up, went on tiptoe to his room. 

48. Perhaps the young man might have come earlier by asking per- 
mission of his master to leave on^ the morning train, but he did 
not wish to do so. 

1 Omit. * con. 



283. Andar — ir — pasearse. 
as to walky go, move ; ir, to go ; 
for pleasure. 

La miquina no anda. 
AnduYO cinco legiiaa. 
La tierra anda. 

Voy a pie, a caballo, en coche, en 
tranyia, en ferrocarril. 

Me paseo 

Doy un paseo 

Doy una vuelta 

Se pasea en coche todas las tardes. 

Andar denotes mechanical motion, 
pasearse, to take walks or drives 

The, tnachine does not go. 

He walked five leagues. 

The earth moves, 

I go on foot ^ on horseback^ in a 

carriage^ in the street car, on 

the railway, 

I take a walk. 

He drives every afternoon. 

284. Caber is from the root of the English word capable, 

No cabe duda. There is no doubt. 

Si cabe. Jf it is possible. 

Caber en, to hold, to be contained, takes for its subject the name 
of the thing contained. 

The trunk will not hold the clothes. 
The piano will not go through the 

Can you get in ? Is there room 
for you f 

Los yestidos no caben en el badl. 
No cabe el piano por la ventana. 


285. Caer, to fall. 

caer bien, to be becoming 
El traje cae bien a la muchacha. The suit is very becoming to the 



caer a, to open on 
La yentana cae a la calle. The window opens on the street, 

caer en, to catch on, to comprehend 
No cae en ello. He does not comprehend it, 

(Ta caigo 1 Now I catch on, 

286. Conocer — saber, to know, Conocer refers to persons and 
things ; saber, to ideas. 

Conozco al Sr. Diaz. / know Mr, Diaz, 

I Conoce Vd. la mfisica ? Do you recognize the music f 

I Sabe Vd. esta lecddn ? Do you know this lesson f 

I Sabe Vd. qui^n es ? Do you know who it is f 

a, Conocer also means to make one^s acquaintance, Le conoci ea 
Sevilla, / made his acquaintance in Seville, Hence un conocido, 
an acquaintance, 

b. Saber a means to taste of. 

La 80pa sabe a petr61eo. The soup tastes of kerosene, 

287. Dar, to give^ appears idiomatically in over 200 expressions. 

dar la hora, to strike the hour 
Van a dar las ocho. // is going to strike eight, 

dar los bnenos dias, to wish one good morning 

dar un paso, to take a step 

dar cnerda a un reloj, to wind up a clock 

dar a, to open on, to lead to 
Esta puerta da al patio. This door opens on the court, 

dar con, to happen on, to find 
I Has dado con ella ? Have you found her f 

On the other hand, English ^V^ in the sense of to make a present 
is regalar ; to grant favors, conoeder ; to deliver or hand, entregar. 

Hi padre me regal6 un relo] de oro. My father gave me a gold watch. 

Me concedi6 el permiso de yisitar He gave m.e permission to visit 

el Castillo. the castle, 

Le entregu^ el telegrama. I gave him the telegram. 


288. Echar, to throw or toss. 

ifchame Vd. esa lApiz. Toss me that pencil, 

echar el caf^, to pour the coffee 

echar una carta al biiz6n (or al correo), to mail a letter 

echar llaye a la pnerta, to lock the door 

echar (de) menos, to miss 

echar de yer, to notice 

echar a perder, to spoil 

Una alfombra riqulsima echada a A magnificent rug spoiled. 


echarse a, to begin 

El seilor se echd a reir. The gentleman began to laugh, 

289. Faltar, to he huking — sobrar, to be superfluous^ to be enough 
and mare, to be left. 

Sobran palabras y falta sentido. Too many words and a lack of 

' sense. 

No faltaba mis (a frequent expres- That caps the climax. 

sion, often used with present 


a. Note the use of the imperfect subjunctive in the following : 

Poco faltaba para que cayera. He nearly fell. 

Por pocOy adyerbio con que se da Porpoco,an adverb, by which one 
a entender que apenas falt6 nada is given to understand that 

para que sucediera una cosa. something almost happened. 

290. Hacer, to do or make. 

hacer caso de, to pay attention to^ to mind 
No hagas caso de h&t. Never mind that fellow. 

hacer daSo, to hurt, to be injurious 
Hace daSo a los ojos leer en una // hurts the eyes to read in a dark 
sala oscura. room. 

hacer falta, to need (with indirect object of person concerned) 
A Juan le hace falta un sombrero. fohn needs a hat. 
He hace falta un paraguas. / need an umbrella. 

Hace falta tinta. There is no ink. {Ink is needed^ 


hacer el papel, to play the part 

hacer preguntas, to ask questions 

hacer lo posible, to do one^s best 
Hizo lo posible para ganar el premio. He did his best to win the prize. 

For hacer with infinitives, see section 104, r. 

Hace construir una casa. He is having a house built, 

hacer por (*+ infinitive), try 
Haga Vd. por venir. Try to come. 

a, Hacerse to become. The past participle, hecho, often as an ad- 
jective ; as, ropa hecha, ready-made clothing. 

£ncontr6 a su hermanita hecha una He found his little sister grown 

soberbia moza. into a fine-looking young lady, 

Estaba alii con la boca hecha un He stood there with his mouth 

agua. watering. 

b, Hace impersonal, see section 58. 

Hace frio. // is cold {pi the weather). 

Hace un ano. A year ago, 

291. Poder, to be able^ can, tnay^ denotes physical ability. Eng- 
lish sometimes uses can in the sense of mental ability, which in 
Spanish is saber. 

S^ nadar, pero no puedo nadar hoy, / can swim (that is, / know how 
estando malo. to swim\ but I cannot swim, to- 

day because I am sick, 

Poder also implies permission, may. 
^ Se puede entrar ? May one come in f 

poder mis, to be more powerful 
Veremos qui^ puede mAs. We will see who can {do) most, or 

is most powerful. 

no poder mds, can do no more 
No puedo m&8. I can't {do any) more, I am played 


a mis no poder, to the utmost of one's ability 
Ri^ndose a mis no poder. Laughing to split his sides. 

no poder menos de, cannot help 
£1 padre no pudo menos de Uorar. The father could not help crying. 


292. Poner, to put, place — meter, to put into. 

Pone la espada sobre la mesa. He places the sword on the table. 

Hetid el dineio en el bolsillo. He put the money in his pocket. 

El sol se pone. The sun sets. 

Una puesta de sol. A sunset. 

La gallina pone hueyos. The hen lays eggs. 

ponerse de pie, to stand up 

ponerse pilido, to turn pale 

ponerse a, to starts to begin 
Se puso a trabajar. He began to work. 

meterse en, to meddle 
Se mete en todo. He meddles in everything; i.e. a 


293. Prestar, to lend. 

Y^ ^ ^ . \to borrow un prdstamo, a loan 

tomar prestado J ' 

Me pidi6 prestado mi paraguas. He borrowed my umbrella. 

Tom4 prestado este libro a Carlos. / borrowed this book of Charles. 

Busc6 nn pr^tamo sobre su sortija He sought a loan on his diamond 

de brillantes. ring. 

294. Senrir, to serve. 

I Para qu< sinre eso ? What is thcU good for? 

Wo sirve para nada. // is good for nothing. 

£1 me sirvid de gnia. He served me as a guide. 

senrir (+ infinitive), //?Ay^ 
Slrrase Vd. dedrme. Please tell me. 

Le suplicamos a Vd. se sirva ase- We beg you kindly to insure this 
gurar este envio. shipment. 

seryirse de, to use 
I Por qu4 no se sirve Vd. del gnia ? Why donU you use the guide f 

295. Ser de denotes source or origin, as well as the idea of prop- 
erty expressed by English belong. 

Es de Sevilla. He is from Seville. 

La finca es de mi tio. The estate is my uncle's or belongs 

to my uncle. 


Ser de also means to become of, 

I Qn^ lia sido de ellos ? What has become of them f 

^ Qn^ ya a aer de mis hijas ? What is going to become of my 

daughters f 

a. Become with more specific meaning, denoting a change of 
state, get^ is expressed by hacerse, llegar a ser, venir a ser. 

8e ha hecho abogado. He has become a lawyer, 

Llegd (or Vino) a ser general. He became a general. 

With adjectives, ponerse and volverse are frequent 

La seSora se puso p^ida. The lady turned pale. 

Se volvi6 loco. He became crazy. 

Other ways of expressing become are 

(i) The progressive form of the verb ; as Va siendo tarde or ha- 
ci^ndose tarde, It is getting late. See section 258. 

(2) The inceptive verbs in -ecer (see sect. 242 , note, a, i o, p. 2 1 2) : 
obscurecer, to get dark ; enflaquecer, to become thin^ i.e. ponerse flaco. 

296. Tener appears in idioms referring to the body or mind, 
which are usually expressed in English by the verb to be, 

I Qn^ tiene Vd. ? What is the matter? 

Tengo dolor de cabeza, or Me duele / have a headache, 
la cabeza. 

to be 

Referring to the body. Referring to the mind, 

gana or ganas, f . eagery have a desire 
miedo, m. afraid 
prisa, f. in a hurry 
yergiienza, f. ashamed 
raz6n, f. right 

no tener raz6n, to be wrong 

tener inconyeniente, m. to have an objection 

Note. As the words used with tener are nouns, very is rendered by. 

Tengo mncho calor y mncha sed. / am very hot and very thirsty. 

'calor, m. warm 

frlo, m. cold . 

r r tener 

hambre, f. hungry ^ , 

sed, f. thirsty 

sueSo, m. sleepy 


For tener referring to age, see section 53, ^. 

I CnAntos aSos tiene el cMco ? How old is the boy f He is eleven 

Tiene once aSos. years old. 

For tener que, musty with an infinitive, see section 107, i. 
Tenemos que despedimos. We must take leave, 

297. Valer, to be worth, 

I Cudnto vale ? How much is it worth ? 

Mis yale saber que haber. Better wisdom than property. 

Mis vale que yo no venga. / had better not come. 

No hay pero que valga. There is no objection that counts, 

valerse de, to avail one's self of ^ to use 
Se vale de su fuerza. He uses his strength, 


{The student is expected to find the expressions in the preceding 
pages y not in the vocabulary^ i. He wished him good morning. 
2. The clock is going to strike seven. 3. It has just struck nine. 
4. My room looks out on a court. '5. Charles busied himself in 
winding the many clocks. 6. My mother gave me some Spanish 
books. 7. He took a step backward. 8. Your new suit is very be- 
coming to you. 9. Let's go for a walk. I prefer to drive. 10. My 
watch* does not go well ; it is slow.^ 11. Yours is fast, it seems to 
me. 12. The steamer travels very fast to-day. 13. It hurts me to 
sit in a draft. 14. He has become a lawyer. 15. After his absence 
of nine years, he found his sister grown into a handsome young 
lady of seventeen. 16. They did their best to win the game, but 
they were played out. 17. Better late than never. 18. It is worth 
little. 19. This room does not hold three hundred persons. 20. He 
cannot play the piano to-day because he has hurt his finger. 21. I 
cannot play because I never learned. 22. Can you speak Spanish 
well.^ 23. May one come in? 24. I do not know him, nor do I 
know who he is. 25. Please pour the coffee. 26. Where do I mail 

1 to be slowy atrasar (a verb) ; to befast^ adelantar. 


this letter ? 27. We missed you at the performance. 28. Who played 
the leading part ? 29. These photographic plates are spoiled. 30. I 
have spoiled another plate in the developer. 31. Please post these 
letters for Chicago for me. 32. Why don't you use the dictionary ? 
^;^, What is the machine good for ? 34. It is used to develop pho- 
tographic plates. 35. Peter has borrowed my pencil 36. He came 
to borrow my g^n. 37. He obtained a loan on the estate. 38. One 
letter is lacking in the word, and another is superfluous. 39. Of 
my fortnight in Madrid five days are left^ 40. Do you know your 
lesson ? I know it by heart. 41. It lacked a little of the time when* 
the afternoon train would leave. 42. This faithful old servant 
helped his master* to walk when he did not know how and later 
when he could not. 43. The lady has had flowers brought from 
her garden. 44. Have you hurt yourself ? 45. He could not help 
following his steps. 46. He was much ashamed and turned red. 
47. What will become of my children ? 48. My friend, Don Gena- 
ro's son, has become a doctor. 49. If you get sick, send for him. 
50. That man will never become president. 51. Never meddle in 
other people's business. 52, I am getting hoarse from* so much 
shouting. 53. If you do not need it, we will keep it till Thursday. 
54. If I need money, he gets it for me.' 55. We have done our 
best to leam how to write Spanish well. 


^ Use aobrar : supply me. ' Indirect object 

^ para que ; omit o/^Ae time. * con. 


List of Verbs with Peculiarities of Conjugation 

Veibs whose sole peculiarity consists in an orthographic change such as is indicated 
in section 242 a^ inceptive verbs, etc., are not included in this list 

abnegar, renounce : 244, i ; 242, a, 2 
abolir, abolish : 251, 4 
abrir, open : /./. /rr., 249 
absolver, absolve : /./. t'rr., 245, i 
abstenerae, abstain : 250 (/. tener 
abstraer, abstract : 250 (/. traer 
acertar, hit the mark : 244 
aclocarsey stretch out, brood : 244, 

2 ; 242, at I 
acordaiy resolve, remind, tune; 

acordarse, remember : 244, 2 
acoatar, lay down : 244, 2 
acrecentar, increase : 244, i 
adestrar, guide : 244, i 
adherir, adhere : 246, i 
adormir, make drowsy : 246, 2 
adquirir, acquire : 246, 3 
aducir, adduce : 250 ^ -dacir 
advertir, observe, advise : 246, i 
agorar, divine, prognosticate : 245, 

aguerrir, inure to warfare : 251, 4 
alebrarse, squat, cower : 244, i 
alentar, breathe, encourage : 244, i 
aliquebrar, break the wings : 244, i 
almorzaiy breakfast: 244, 2; 242, 

alongar, lengthen : 244, 2 ; 242, a, 2 
amoblar, furnish : 244, 2 
amolary whet : 244, 2 
amoyer, remove, dismiss : 244, 4 
andar, go, walk: 250 


antedecir, foretell : 250 ^. deck 
anteponer, put before, prefer: 250 

cf, poner 
anteyer, foresee : 250 (/! ver 
apacentar, graze : 244, i 
apercoUar, collar, snatch : 244, 2 
aplacer, please : 251, i 
apostaiy bet, post : 244,2; apostar, 

post troops, reg. 
apretar, squeeze, press : 244, i 
aprobar, approve : 244, 2 
argiiir, argue : 248, 2 
airecirse, become benumbed : 251, 4 
arrendar, rent, hire : 244, i 
arrepentirae, repent : 246, i 
ascender, ascend : 244, 3 
aaentar, seat, set down : 244, i 
aaentiiy assent, acquiesce : 246, i 
aaerrar, saw : 244, i 
asir, seize, grasp : 250 
asolar, level to ground, raze : 244, 2 
asoldar, hire : 244, 2 
asonar, assonate, be in assonance: 

atender, attend, mind : 244, 3 
atenerae, abide, hold: 250 cf. tener 
atentar, try : 244, i ; atentar, attempt 

a crime, reg. 
aterirse, become rigid with cold: 

aterrar, fell : 244, i ; aterrar, terrify, 




atestar, cram, stuff : 244, i ; atestar, 

attest, reg. 
atraer, attract: 250 cf. traer 
atrayesaiy cross : 244, i 
atribuir, attribute : 248 
atronar, make a thundering din, 

stun : 244, 2 
ayanzar, advance : 242, </, 4 
ayenir, reconcile : 2^0 cf. venir 
ayentar, fan, winnow : 244, i 
ayergonzar, shame : 245, 2, b 
bendecir, bless : 2^0 cf, deck 
bienquerer, esteem, wish well : 250 

cf querer 
bruSir, burnish : 242, c 
bullir, boil : 242, c 
caber, be contained : 250 
caer, fall : 250 
calentar, warm, heat : 244, i 
cegaiy blind : 244, i 
ceSir, gird : 242, c 
earner, sift : 244, 3 
cerrar, close : 244, i 
cimentar, found, establish : 244, i 
circuir, encircle : 248 
clocar, cluck : 244, 2 
COCer, boil, bake : 244, 4 ; 242, a, 10, 

colar, strain, filter : 244, 2 
colegir, collect : 247 ; 242, a, 6 
colgar, hang up : 244, 2 ; 242, ^, 2 
comedirse, behave : 247 
comenzar, commence : 244, i ; 242, 

a, A 
competir, compete : 247 

complacer, please, content: 251, i 

componer, compose: 2$o cf poner 

comprobar, verify, confirm : 244, 2 

concebir, conceive : 247 

concemir, concern : 245, 3, b 

concertar, concert, regulate : 244, i 

concluir, conclude : 248 
concordar, accord, agree : 244, 2 
condescender, condescend : 244, 3 
condolerse, condole : 244, 4 
conducir, conduct: 250 cf -dncir 
conf erir, confer : 246, i 
confesar, confess : 244, i 
confluir, join : 248 
conmoyer, move, affect : 244, 4 
conaeguir, obtain, attain : 247, 2 
consentir, consent : 246, i 
consolar, console : 244, 2 
consonar, be in consonance, rime : 

constituir, constitute : 248 
constroir, construct : 248 
contar, count, tell : 244, 2 
contender, contend : 244, 3 
contener, contain : 250 ^ tener 
contorcerse, be distorted, writhe: 

244,4; 242,^,9 
contradecir, contradict : 2^0 cf decir 
contraer, contract \ 2^0 cf traer 
contrahacer, counterfeit: 250 cf 

contraponer, oppose, compare : 250 

cf poner 
contrayenir, contravene : 2^0 cf 

contribuir, contribute : 248 
controyertir, controvert : 246, i 
conyenir, agree, fit: 250 cf venir 
conyertir, convert : 246, i 
corregir, correct : 247 ; 242, <j, 6 
corroer, corrode : 251, 2, a 
costar, cost : 244, 2 
creer, believe : 242, b 
cubrir, cover: 249 
dar, give : 250 
decaer, decay: 2^0 cf 
decir, say: 250 




dedncir, deduce ; 2$oc/, -dodr 
defender, defend : 244, 3 
def erir, defer : 246, i 
degollar, behead, cut the throat: 

245, 2, d 
demoler, demolish : 244, 4 
demostrar, demonstrate : 244, 2 
dentar, tooth, indent ; teeth : 244, i 
deponer, depose, depone: 250 cf. 

derretir, melt : 247 
derrocar, pull down, demolish : 244, 

2 ; 242, a, I 
dermir, cast down, destroy : 248 
des : Jor verbs compounded with this 

prefix^ see the simple verbs 
descender, descend : 244, 3 
deslelr, dilute : 247, 4 
desolar, make desolate : 244, 2 
desollar, flay : 244, 2 
desosar, remove bones : 245, 2, c 
desoyar, spawn : 245, 2, c 
despertar, awaken : 244, i 
desterrar, exile : 244, i 
destituir, deprive, remove from 

office : 248 
destmir, destroy : 248 
detener, detain : 2^0 cf. tener 
detraer, detract: 250 cf. traer 
deyolyer, give back : 245, 4, a 
diferir, defer, delay, differ : 246, i 
digerir, digest : 246, i 
diluir, dilute : 248 
discemir, discern : 245, 3, a 
discordar, disagree, be discordant : 

disentir, dissent : 246, i 
disminnir, diminish : 248 
disolyer, dissolve : 245, 4, a 
disonar, be in dissonance : 244, 2 
disponer, dispose : 250 (/I poner 

distender, distend : 244, 3 
distraer, distract : 250 ^. traer 
distribuir, distribute : 248 
diyertir, divert : 246, i 
dolar, plane, smooth (wood, etc.) : 

doler, pain, grieve : 244, 4 
dormir, sleep : 246, 2 
edncir, educe, bring out: 2 socf. -dodr 
elegir, elect : 247 ; 242, a^ 6 
embalr, impose, deceive : 251, 4 
embestir, invest, attack : 247 
emparentar, be related by marriage : 

empedemir, harden, make inveter- 
ate: 251,4 
empedrar, pave : 244, i 
empeller, urge, push : 242, c 
empezar, begin : 244, i ; 242, a, 4 
emporcar, sully, befoul : 244, 2 ; 242, 

a^ I 
encender, light, kindle : 244, 3 
en : for verbs compounded with this 

prefix, see the simple verbs 
encontrar, meet, find : 244, 2 
engrelr, elate, puff up : 247, 4 
engroaar, fatten, strengthen : 244, 2 
enhestar, erect, set upright : 244, i 
enmendar, amend, correct : 244, i 
enaangrentar, cover with blood : 

244, 1 
entender, hear, understand : 244, 3 
enterrar, inter : 244, i 
entortar, make crooked ; deprive of 

one eye : 244, 2 
entre : for verbs compounded with 

this prefix i see the simple verbs 
envolyer, involve, wrap up, compli- 
cate : 245, 4, a 
equiyaler, equal, be equivalent : 250 
cf valer 



erguir, erect : 247, 3 

errar, err, wander : 245, i 

escarmentaTy g^ve warning example, 
learn by experience : 244, i 

escocer, smart: 244,4; 242, a, 10, note 

escribir, write :/./. irr.^ 249 

esforzaiy strengthen ; esforzarse, at- 
tempt: 245, 2 ; 242, ay 4 

estar, be : 250 

estatuir, establish: 248 

estregar, rub, scour, grind : 244, i ; 
242, aj 2 

estreSir, bind, restrain: 247,1; 242,^ 

excluir, exclude : 248 

ezpedir, expedite, despatch : 247, i 

ezponeiy expose : 2<p cf. poner 

extender, extend : 244, 3 

extraer, extract : 2^0 cf. traer 

ferrar, put on iron points, etc.: 244, i 

fluir, flow : 248 

foliar, blow with bellows : 244, 2 

forzar,- force : 244, 2 ; 242, a, 4 

fregar, rub, cleanse : 244, i ; 242, a, 2 

frelr, fry : 247, 4 

garantir, guarantee : 251, 4 

gemir, groan, moan : 247, i 

gobernar, govern : 244, i 

gruir, cry like cranes : 248 

grttfiir, grunt : 242, c 

haber, have: 250 

hacendar, transfer property : 244, i 

hacer, do, make : 250 

heder, have a stench, stink : 244, 3 

helar, freeze : 244, i 

henchir, stuff, cram : 247, i 

hender, cleave, split : 244, 3 

herbar, dress skins : 244, i 

herir, wound : 246, i 

herrar, shoe (horses), brand (cattle) : 
244, 1 

heryir, boil, bubble : 246, i 

holgar, rest, cease working : 244, 2 ; 

242, a, 2 
hollar, trample on, tread on : 244, 2 
huir, flee : 248 
imbuir, imbue : 248 
impedir, impede : 247, i 
imponer, impose i 2^0 cf, poner 
imprimir, print : p.p. trr., 249 
improbar, disapprove, censure : 

incensar, perfume, incense : 244, i 
incluir, include : 248 
indisponer, indispose, disincline : 

250 cf. poner 
inducir, induce : 2$o cf. -dadr 
inferir, infer : 246, i 
infemar, torment : 244, i 
influir, influence : 248 
ingerir, graft, insert : 246, i 
inquirir, inquire : 246, 3 
instituir, institute : 248 
instruir, instruct : 248 
interdecir, interdict: 250 cf dedr 
interponer, interpose: 250^. poner 
intenrenir, intervene : 250 ^ venir 
introducir, introduce : 2$ocf. -dudr 
inyemar, winter : 244, i 
inyertir, invert, spend, invest: 

246, 1 
inyestir, invest, gird : 247, t 
ir, go: 250 
jugar, play : 245, 2, a 
leer, read : 242, d 
Hover, rain : 244, 4 
maldecir, curse : 2^0 cf decir 
malherir, wound seriously : 246, i 
malquerer, dislike, abhor: 250 cf 

malsonar, make cacdphony : 244, 2 
maltraer, maltreat: 250 cf traer 
manifestar, manifest : 244, i 



manic f mellow, mature meat : 251, 4 
mantener, maintain : 2$o c/. tener 
meceii rock, lull, mix: 242, a, 10, note 
medir, measure : 247, i 
melar, boil to honey, deposit honey 

(of bees) : 244, i 
mentar, mention : 244, i 
mentir, lie : 246, i 
merendaiy lunch : 244, i 
moblar, furnish : 244, 2 
moler, grind : 244, 4 
morder, bite : 244, 4 
morir, die : 246, 2 
mostrar, show : 244, 2 
moyeiy move : 244, 4 
negaiy deny : 244, i ; 242, a^ 2 
nevar, snow: 244, i 
obstmir, obstruct : 248 
obtener, obtain : 250 ^. tener 
oil, hear: 250 
oler, smell : 245, 4, fi 
oponety oppose : 2$o cf, poner 
oprimir, oppress : 249 
pedir, ask : 247, i 

pensar, think, mean, believe : 244, i 
perdeiy lose, spoil, destroy : 244, 3 
persegiiir, pursue, persecute : 247, 2 
penrertiry pervert : 246, i 
placer, please : 251, i 
plaSir, lament, bewail : 242, c 
plegar, fold : 244, i ; 242, a, 2 
poblar, found, people, fill : 244, 2 
podeiy be able, can : 250 
poner, put: 250 
poseer, possess : 242, 6 
posponer, place after, postpone: 

250 c/, poner 
predecir, predict: 2$o c/. decir 
predisponer, predispose: 250 (/.poner 
pref erir, prefer : 246, i 
prender, arrest, catch : 249 

preponer, put before, prefer: 250 

cf. poner 
presentir, forebode, foresee : 246, i 
presuponer, presuppose: 250 cf. 

preyalerse, prevail : 2$o c/. valer 
preyenir, forestall, prevent : 250^ 

preyer, foresee : 2$o cf. ver 
probar, prove, try, taste : 244, 2 
producir, produce : 2^0 cf, -ducir 
proferir, utter, pronounce : 246, i 
promoyer, promote : 244, 4 
proponer, propose : 250 ^. poner 
proaegiiir, pursue, prosecute : 247, 2 
proyeer, provide : 242, b ; 249 
proyenir, proceed : 2^0 cf. venir 
quebrar, break : 244, i 
querer, wish, like : 250 
raer, scrape, grate, erase : 251, 2 
rarefacer, rarify -. 2^0 cf hacer 
re : for verbs compounded with this 

prefixy see the simple verbs 
recordar, remind : 244, 2 
referir, relate, refer : 246, i 
regar, water : 244, i ; 242, a^ 2 
regimentar, form into regiments: 

244, I 
regir, rule, direct : 247, i ; 242, a, 6 
regoldar, belch, eruct : 244, 2 ; 245, 

2, b 
relr, laugh : 247, 4 
remendar, repair, patch : 244, i 
rendir, subdue, render; rendirse, 

surrender: 247, i 
renoyar, renovate, renew : 244, 2 
reSir, quarrel, scold : 247, i ; 242, c 
repetir, repeat, recite : 247, i 
requebrar, court, make love : 244, i 
requerir, investigate, require, re- 
quest: 246, I 



resolrer, resolve: /./. im, 245, 

4, tf 
resolUM:, respire : 244, 2 
rerentar, burst : 244, i 
rodar, roll : 244, 2 
roer, gnaw: 251, 3 
rogar, entreat, ask : 244, 2 ; 242, a, 2 
saber, know : 250 
salir, go out, come out: 250 
salpimentar, season with pepper 

and salt : 244, i 
sarmentar, gather prunings of vine : 

Batisfacer, satisfy : 250 ^. hacer 
segar, reap : 244, i ; 242, a, 2 
seguir, follow ; 247, 2 
sembrar, sow : 244, i 
sementar, sow : 244, i 
sentar, seat, set, suit : 244, i 
sentir, feel, regret : 246, i 
ser, to be : 250 
Berrar, saw : 244, i 
seryir, serve : 247, i 
BObre : for verbs compounded with this 

prefix^ see the simple verbs 
sofrelr, fry slightly : 247, 4 
solar, floor, pave, sole : 244, 2 
soldar, solder, mend : 244, 2 
soler, be wont, be accustomed : 

BOltar, untie, loosen : 244, 2 

solyer, loosen:/./. */r., 245, 4, a 

sonar, sound : 244, 2 

sonrelr, smile : 247, 4 

sonrodarse, stick in the mud : 244, 2 

8o2ar, dream : 244, 2 

sosegar, appease, rest : 244, i ; 242, 

a, 2 
sostener, sustain : 2^0 cf. tener 
soterrar, put underground, bury : 

244, I 

sub : for verbs compounded with this 

prefix, see the simple verbs 
sugerir, suggest : 246, i 
superponer, superimpose : 250 cf. 

Buperyenir, supervene : 25o^.yeiiir 
suponer, suppose : 2^0 cf poner 
suprimir, suppress : 249 
sustituir, substitute : 248 
sustraer, subtract : 2^0 cf traer 
taSer, ring, peal, touch : 242, c 
temblar, tremble : 244, i 
tender, stretch : 244, 3 
tener, have, hold : 250 
tentar, feel, try : 244, i 
teflir, tinge, dye, stain : 247, i ; 242, c 
torcer, twist, bend : 244, 4 ; 242, a, 9 
tostar, toast : 244, 2 
traducir, translate : 2^0 cf -dudr 
traer, bring : 250 
trans or tras : for verbs compounded 

with this prefix f see the simple verbs 
traresar, cross : 244, i 
trocar, exchange, barter : 244, 2 ; 

242, a, I 
tronar, thunder : 244, 2 
tropezar, stumble : 244, i ; 242, a, 4 
Taler, be worth : 250 
Tenir, come : 250 
yentar, blow : 244, i 
yer, see : 250 
yerter, pour, shed : 244, 3 
yestir, dress, clothe: 247, i 
volar, fly, rise, blow up : 244, 2 
yolcar, overturn : 244, 2 ; 242, a, i 
yolyer, return, come back : 245, 4 
yacer, lie : 250, 1 
ynxtaponer, put in juxtaposition : 

2^0 cf poner 
za (m) bullirse, dive : 242, c 
zaherir, reproach, censure : 246, i 


1. Verbs followed directly by a dependent infinitioe without a connectiny 
preposition are — 

aconaejar, advise, counsel 
acostnmbrarse, be accustomed 
afirmar, affirm, declare 
asegurar, assure, claim 
aseyerar, assert 
celebrar, be glad 
oonfesar, confess 
conyenir, suit 
creer, think, believe 
deber, should, ought 
declarar, declare 
dejar, let, allow, permit 
desear, desire, wish 
determinar, determine 
escuchar, listen to 
esperar, hope 
figurarse, imagine 
fingir, pretend 
gnstar, like, please 
hacer, make 
imaginarse, imagine 
impedir, prevent, hinder 
intentar, try, attempt 
jnrar, swear 
lograr, succeed in 
mandar, order 
m&a vale, it is better 
merecer, deserve 
mirar, look at, watch 
necesitar, need, want 
negar, deny 

notificar, notify 

ocurrir(8e)y occur (to one) 

odiar, hate 

oil, hear 

osar, dare 

parecer, seem 

pensar, intend 

permitir,. permit 

poder, be able 

preferir, prefer 

presumir, presume 

pretender^ claim, try 

procurar, try 

prohibir, prohibit 

prometer, promise 

proponer, propose, purpose 

querer, wish 

recomendar, recommend 

reconocer, acknowledge, confess 

recordar, remember 

saber, know how, be able 

sentir, feel, hear, regret, be sorry 

servirse, please, be so kind as 

significar, mean, signify 

soler, be wont 

sostener, maintain ; affirm 

sugerir, suggest 

temer, fear 

tocar, be one's turn 

yaler mAs, be better 

ver, see 




2. Verbs that require a btfore a dependent if^mtive are — 

abandoiiar(se), give (one's self) up to 
acceder, accede, agree 
acercarse, draw near, approach 
acertar, happen 
acomodarse, conform one's self 
acudir, hasten 
adherir(se)y stick to 
aficionarse^ become addicted 
ajustarse, agree, combine 
alcanzar, reach, attain, succeed 
andarse, undertake, busy one's self 

animar, encourage 
aplicarse, apply one's self 
aprender, learn 
apre8urar(se), hasten, hurry 
arriesgarse, risk one's self 
aspirar, aspire 
atreverse, dare 
autorizar, authorize 
aventajar, excel, surpass 
aventurarse, venture 
ayudar, aid, help 

circunscribir(8e)y confine (one's self) 
comenzar, commence, begin 
comprometer(se), engage, agree 
condenar, condemn 
condescender, condescend 
conducir, lead, conduct 
confonnarsey conform, agree 
consagrar(se)y devote (one's self) 
conspirar, conspire 
continuar, continue 
contrariar, oppose 
contribuir, contribute 
convidar, invite 
conyocar, convoke 
cooperar, cooperate 
correr, run 

dar, give 

decidir(se)y decide, determine 

dedicar(se)y dedicate (one's self) 

desafiar, challenge 

descender, descend 

deshacerse, try hard ; kill one's self 

destinar, destine 
detenerse, stop, tarry 
detenninar(8e)y determine 
disponer(8e)y prepare, get ready 
distraerse^ amuse one's self 
diyertirse, amuse one's self 
echar(se)y exercise ; begin 
empezar, begin 
enseSar, teach 
entrar, start 

entretener(8e), entertain (one's self) 
enyiar, send 

esforzar(se), attempt, endeavor 
excitar, excite 
ezhortar, exhort 
exponer(se)y expose (one's self) 
f altar, fail 
forzar, force 

ganar, excel, surpass ; win, gain (by) 
habitiiar(se), accustom (one's self) 
humillar(8e), humiliate (one's self) 
igualar, equal 
impelery impel 
incitar, incite 

incliiiar(8e), incline, induce 
inducir, induce 
inspirar, inspire 
inyitar, invite 
ir, go 

jugar, play (at) 
liinitar(se), limit (one's self) 
llegar, come, succeed 



mandar, send 
matarse, kill one's self 
meterse, undertake 
iiioyer(se)y impel (one's self) 
negarse, decline, refuse 
Obligar(se)y oblige (one's self) 
ofrecer(8e)y offer, present (one's self) 
oponerse^ oppose, be adverse 
pararse, stop 
pasar, proceed, pass 
per8uadir(se), persuade (one's self) 
poner(se), put one's self, begin 
preparar(se), prepare, make ready 
presentarse, present one's self 
probar, try 
proceder, proceed 
proYOcary provoke 
quedar(se), remain 
reducir(se), reduce one's self, 

bring (one's self) down 
referirse, refer 

reliU8ar(se), refuse 

renunciar, renounce 

resignarse, resign, submit 

resistirse, struggle, resist 

resolTer(8e)y resolve, decide 

romper, break out in 

aacar, draw out, extract, invite 

salir, go {or come) out 

sentarse, be seated, sit down 

soltar, start 

8ometer(se), submit (one's self) 

temer, fear 

tender, tend 

tirar, tend, be inclined 

tomar, return; . . . again 

urgir, urge 

yencer(8e), outdo, excel, surpass 

yenir(se), come, happen 

volar, fly 

TOlver, return ; . . . again 

3. Verbs that require con before a dependent infinitive are — 

amenazar, threaten 

bastar, be sufficient, be enough 

contar, count on 

contentarse, content one's self 
divertirse, amuse one's self 
soSar, dream 

4. Verbs that require de btfore a dependent infinitive are- 

ab80lyer(8e), absolve (one's self) 
aburrirse, be vexed, wearied 
acabar, finish, end 
acordarse, remember 
acusar, accuse 
admirarse, wonder 
afligirse, lament, repine 
agraviarse, be grieved, piqued 
ahogarse, be suffocated 
alegrarse, rejoice, be glad 
apercibirse, perceive 

aprovecharse, profit 
arrepentirse, repent 
arrieagarse, risk one's self 
asustarse, be terrified 
ayergonzarse, be ashamed 
cansar(se), tire, grow weary 
Cesar, cease 

concertar, agree, covenant 
concluir, conclude 
confesarse, confess' 
contentarse, be satisfied 



ciiidar(se), take care not to, keep 

cnlpar, blame 

dar, give 

debar, owe, ought 

dejar, leave off, cease, fail 

desacostmnbrarse, lose the custom 

de8ani]nar(8e), discourage, be dis- 

descansar, tire, weary 

descuidar, neglect 

de8de3ar(se), disdain, be disdainful 

de8e8perar(8e)y despair 

desistir, desist 

detenerse, stop, tarry 

dignarse, deign 

di8Ciilpar(8e), excuse 

diBgustar(se)y disgust, be displeased 

dispensar, excuse 

distraerse, distract (one's self) 

disuadir, dissuade 

dudar, doubt, hesitate 

echar(se)y come to 

encargaiBe, take upon one's self 

enorgullecerse, take pride 

entristecerse, become sad 

ezcu8ar(se)y excuse (one's self) 

faltar, fail 

fa8tidiar(8e), weary, be weary 

fatigar(se)y tire, be tired 

felicitar(Be), congratulate (one's 

gozar(se), enjoy 

guardarse, avoid, guard against 

haber, have 

hablar, speak, mention 

hartarse, satiate one's self, be satis* 

impacientarse, be impatient 
incomodarse, be annoyed 
indignarse, be indignant 
jactarse, boast 
jurat, swear 

ju8tificar(8e), justify (one's self) 
ofenderse, be offended 
olyidar(se), forget 
per8iiadir(se), persuade 
pesar, be sorry 
picarse, be vexed 
preciarse, boast 

priyar(8e), deprive, be deprived 
quejarse, complain 
relrse, laugh 
reventar, burst 
sentirse, feel 
ser, be 

sonreirse, smile 
sospechar, suspect 
sufrir, suffer 
temblar, tremble 
terminal, finish 
tratar, try, endeavor 
Talerse, avail one's self of 
yenir, come, have just 
vivir, live 

5. Verbs that require en brfore a dependent mfinitwe are — 

acertar, succeed (in) apresurarse, hasten 

acordar, agree aventajar, excel, surpass 

adelantar(Be), advance in balancear, hesitate, waver 

adie8trar(8e), train (one's self) can8ar(se), tire, grow weary 

andar, undertake complacerse, take pleasure 



condescender, condescend 

confiar, confide, trust in, hope 

confonnarse, agree 

consentity consent 

consistir, consist 

consumirsey be consumed 

continuar, continue 

conTenir(se)y agree 

cooperar, cooperate 

cuidarse, take pains 

dar, come to 

deleitarse, delight 

deshacerse, try hard to ; kill one's 

self in 
detenerse, stop 
detenniiiarse, determine 
distraerse, amuse one's self 
dirertirse, amuse one's self 
ejercitar(se), exercise (one's self) 
empeSarse, try, insist 
emplear(8e)y employ (one's self) 
engaSarse, be mistaken 
entenderse, agree 
entreteiier(se), amuse (one's self) 
equirocarse, be mistaken 
e8forzar(se), attempt, endeavor 
esmerarse, to take great pains 
fijarse, pay attention 
ganar, excel, surpass, bear 
gaatar, spend 

gozar(8e), take pleasure 

incidar^ fall into (as an error) 

insistir, insist 

iiistrair(se)y instruct (one's self) 

matarse, kill one's self 

meditar, meditate 

mezdarse, meddle with 

moderarse, moderate one's self 

molestarse, put one's self out 

obstinarse, persist in 

ocupar(8e), busy (one's ;self) 

parar, stop 

particiilarizarse, specialize 

pensar, think 

perder^ lose 

persererar, persevere 

persistir, persist 

promimpir, burst forth, break out 

qiiedar, agree 

recrear(se), divert (one's self) 

romper, break out (into) 

sobresalir, excel 

tardar, delay 

terminar, end (by) 

titubear, hesitate 

trabajar, work 

yacilar, hesitate 

Teiicer(se), outdo, surpass, excel 

rengarse, avenge one's self (by) 

Tenir, agree 

6. Verbs having por btfore a tUpendent infinitive are — 

acabar, end by 

afanarse, toil 

apnrarse, exert one's self 

dejar, leave to be ... 

estar, yet to be . . . {see next section) 

hacer, try 

incomodarse, put one's self out 

matarse, try hard {see next section) 
morirse, be djring to 
quedar, remain to be ... 
piignar, strive, struggle 
rabiar, be crazy to 
reyentar, be bursting to 
trabajar, work 



71 Same verh$ dut vary m idiom or m oa ning ac c o rdin g to the construction 
btfore a dupendoit iitfinitio e are — 

acabar de, finish ; have just . . . 

acahar por, end with ; . . . finally 

No acaba de llorer. It does not 
stop raining. 

El seHor acaba de salir. The gen- 
tleman has just gone out 

Habfan acabado par tomane mncho 
cariSo. They had finally become 
very fond of each other. 

acertar a^ happen ; succeed 

acertar en, hit it right 

Aquel dla acert6 a ser domingo. 
That day happened to be Sun- 

Acert^ en suponerlo. I was correct 
in supposing so. 

acostnmbrar {dtfrc^ infinitive)^ be in 

the habit of 
acostnmbrarse a, get the habit of 
No acostnmbro mentir. I am not 

in the habit of lying. 
Acost^mbrate a guardar silencio. 

Acquire the habit of being silent. 

dar a, give to 

dar de, serve with food, etc. 

dar en, insist on 

Me di6 a entender. He gave me to 

El Obispo da de almorzar a doce 
pobres. The bishop serves break- 
fast to twelve poor men. 

Dl de comer a mi caballo. I fed my 

El burro di6 en rebuznar. The ass 
insisted on braying. 

deber {dir, infin.), ought, should 
deber de, must {supposition) 
Debemoseatndiar. We should study. 
Debe de hacer frio. It must be cold. 

dejar (dir. infin,)^ allow, permit 
dejar de, fail, neglect ; stop 
D^jale correr. Let him run. 
Dej6 de complir con su promesa. 

He failed to keep his promise. 
Manuel dej6 de silbar. Manuel 

stopped whistling. 

echar(se) a, begin, start 

echar a perder, spoil 

echar de yer, notice 

El vapor echa a andar lentamente. 

The steamer begins to move 

La came se echa a perder. The 

meat is spoiling. 
^No echas de yer las sombras? 

Don't you observe the shadows .^ 

estar para, be about to 

estar por, yet to be . . . ; be inclined 

Estil para morir. He is at the point 

of death. 
La sala estil por barrer. The room 

is yet to be swept. 
Estoy por romperle la cabeza. I am 

inclined to break his head. 

matarse a, kill one's self by 
matarse por, try hard 
Se mata a trabajar. He is killing 
himself with work. 



Juan se mataba por ganar el pre- 
mio. John tried hard to win the 

pensar {dir, in/in,), intend 

pensar en, think of 

Piensa ofrecerles una comida. He 
intends to offer them a dinner. 

La reina pensaba en elegir un 
ministro. The queen was think- 
ing of choosing a minister. 

renir a, come to 

Tenir de, come, to have just . . . 

Tenir en, grant (used in legal style 

and decrees) 
Venga Vd. a rerme. Come and see 

Vino a ser rey. He became king. 
Vengo de cumplir un yoto. I have 

just fulfilled a vow. 
Vengo en decretar lo siguiente. I 

decree the following. 


a to, at, on, from, sign of the personal afecto m. affection 


abajo below, down 

abandonar to abandon, leave 

abierto /./. <7/"abrir ; open 

abonar to credit 

abrigar to shelter, protect 

abrigo m, shelter, wrap^ overcoat 

abril m. April 

abrir to open 

abuelo -a m. and f. grandfather, 
grandmother ; m.pL grandparents 

acA hither, here 

acabar to end, finish ; acabar de to 
have just 

aceptar to accept 

acerca de about 

Acido -a sour 

acompaSar to accompany, go with, 
sympathize with 

aconsejar to advise 

acostar to lay down, put to bed ; 
refl. to lie down, go to bed 

actisaci6ny. accusation 

acttsar to acknowledge 

adelante forward ; en adelante hence- 

ademds (de) besides 

adids good-by 

adjunto inclosed, herewith 

admitir to admit 

adquirir to purchase ; acquire 

aduana /. custom-house 

aeroplanOy m, aeroplane 

afirmar to affirm 

afligirse to worry 

af."><>=afectisimo most affectionate 

agosto m, August 

agradecer to thank, be grateful for 

agua /. water 

aguardar to wait for, await 

Aguila/ eagle 

ahl there 

ahora now 

aire m. air ; aire libre open air 

ajeno -a another's, other people's 

al to the 

albaSil m. mason 

aldea /. village 

aldeano m. villager 

alegrarse to be happy 

alegre happy, joyous, merry 

alegria /. joy 

alejarse to withdraw, go away 

alemAn-ana German 

Alemania /. Germany 

alfombra / carpet 

algo something, an3rthing, somewhat 

alguien some one, somebody 

algdn cf. alguno 

alguno -a some, any ; pi. some, cer- 
tain, a few; no . . . alguno not 
. . . any 

alhaja f. jewel 

aliento m. encouragement 

alimento m, food 

alma / soul 




almac^n m. store, warehouse 

almohada /. pillow 

almoneda /. auction 

almorzar to breakfast 

almuerzo m. breakfast 

alquilar to rent, hire 

alrededorde around 

alto -a high, tall, loud 

altura /. height 

almnbrar to illuminate, light 

alU there, thither 

alll there 

amanecer to dawn 

amar to love 

amargo-a bitter 

amarillo-a yellow 

ambos -as both 

America /. America 

americano -a American 

amigo -a m. and/, friend 

amiguito -a m. andf, little friend 

amistad / friendship 

ancho-a broad, wide; (»^i^») breadth, 

anchura /. breadth, width 
andar to go, walk, run {as a watch)\ 

animal m, animal 
anoche last night 

anochecer to become night, get dark 
anteayer the day before yesterday, 

two days ago 
anterior previous 
antes before, beforehand ; antes de 

anticipar to anticipate 
anunciar to advertise 
aSo m, year ; tener . . . afios to be 

. . . years old ; Afio Nuevo New 

apetito tn. appetite 

aplastado-a flat 
apoderarse to seize 
apreciable estimable, kind 
aprender (a) to learn (to) 
aquel -ella adj. that, the former 
aqu^l, aqn^lla, aqu^Uo, that one, 

that, the one, the former 
aqni here 
irabe Arab 
irbol tn. tree 
aritm^tica f. arithmetic 
armonla /. harmony 
aroma f. perfume, aroma 
arpa f. harp 

arreglar to arrange, regulate, see to 
arriba above, up 
arroyo m. stream 
artlculo tn. article 
ascensor tn. elevator, lift 
asegurar to insure 
asemejar to resemble 
asesinar to murder 
asl as, so, thus ; asf como as well as 
asiento m, seat 
asistir to be present 
asno -a m. andf. ass, donkey 
Aspero -a rough 

asunto tn. matter, affair, business 
atacar to attack 
atenci6n f. attention 
at> = atento attentive, kind 
aim still, yet; accented after verb a6n 
annque although, even if 
ausente absent 
ayentura f. adventure 
arerfa f. damage 
ayer yesterday; antes de ayer day 

before yesterday 
ayudar to help 
azucar tn. sugar 
azul blue 



bailor to dance 

bajar to go down ; take down ; get 

bajo -a low 

balc6n m. balcony 

banca /. banking 

banco m. bank 

bando m, band, side 

barato -a cheap 

barco m, boat, ship; barco de vela 
sailing ship 

bastante enough, sufficient; suffi- 
ciently, quite, rather 

batalla /. battle 

batil m, trunk 

beber to drink 

bebida /. drink 

bestia /. animal 

biblioteca /. library 

bien well, comfortable 

billete m, bill, bank note, ticket 

bianco -a white 

blando-a soft 

bobo m. fool, booby 

boca /. mouth 

bolsillo m. pocket 

bondad f, goodness, kindness 

bonito -a pretty 

bordado m. embroidery 

bordar to embroider 

bosque m, woods 

brazo m, arm 

.bueno -a good, well 

biiey m, ox 

buscar to seek, look for 

buz6n m. letter-box 

cabalgar to ride 
caballero m. gentleman, sir 
caballo m. horse 
caber to be contained 

cabeza / head 

cabo m, end ; llevar a cabo to carry out 

cada adj. each, every ; cada ono (-a) 

each, each one 
caer to fall ; refl. to fall down 
caf^ m. coffee 
caja / box 

calentar to warm, heat 
calidad /. quality 
caliente hot, warm 
calor m. heat, warmth ; tenet calor 

to be warm {as a person) ; hacer 

calor to be warm {as the weather) 
callarse to hush, be silent 
calle /. street 
cama y. bed 
camarero m. waiter 
camarote m. stateroom 
cambiar to change ; to exchange 
cambio m, change ; exchange 
camello m. camel 
caminar to journey, walk 
camino m, road, way 
campana /. bell ; mantelpiece 
campanula /. small bell 
campesino -a m. and/, countryman, 

campo m. field, country; casa de 

campo country house 
cansado -a tired; {with ser) tiresome 
cansar to tire, fatigue 
cantante m. and/, singer 
cantar to sing 

caS6n m. opening of chimney, flue 
capital m. capital {money);/ capital 

capitiln m. captain 
cara /. face 

caramba good gp-acious 
carb6n m. coal 
cardinal m. cardinal 



eargar to load, charge ; to debit 

cariflo m» affection 

Carlos m, Charles 

came f. flesh, meat ; came de vaca 

carnero m, sheep, mutton 
caro -a dear, expensive 
carta /. letter 

cartero m. postman, letter-carrier 
casa /. house ; en caea at home ; a 

caea home ; en casa de see section 

33. « 
casar to marry ; casaree con to marry, 

be married to 

casi almost 

caso m. case ; en case que in case 

castellano -a Castilian ; el casteUano 

catillogo m. catalogue 

catedral /. cathedral 

causa /. cause ; a causa de on ac- 
count of 

ceguedad /. blindness 

celebrar to l^e glad 

c^lebre celebrated 

cena /. supper 

cenar to have supper, sup 

centavo m. centavo, cent 

centenar m. a hundred 

centteimo-a hundredth 

central central 

centro m. center 

cerca near 

cerdo m. pig, pork 

cerrado -a closed, shut 

cerrar [ie) to shut, close 

certificar to register 

ciego -a blind 

cielo m, heaven, sky 

ciento, cien, one hundred * 

cierto -a certain, a certain 

citar to mention 

ciudad /. city 

claro -a bright, light, clear 

class /. class, kind, sort 

clima m. climate 

cobijar to shelter 

cobrar to cash, receive money 

cobre m. copper 

cocina /. kitchen, cooking 

coche m. carriage 

cochero m. driver, coachman 

coger to catch, gather 

colegio i». school 

colgar to hang 

colocacidn /. place, job 

Col6n m. Columbus 

color m, color 

comenzar to commence 

comer to eat, dine 

comerciante m. merchant 

comercio m, commerce 

comida f, dinner, meal 

comisi6n /. commission 

comisionista m, commission mer- 

como as, like; while; oomoqne when 

c6mo how 

c6modo -a comfortable 

compaSero -a m, andf. companion 

compaSia/. company 

completo -a complete 

componer to compose, make up, 

comprador m. buyer 

comprar to buy 

comprender to understand 

compuesto p.p, ^t/* componer 

com^ common; porlooomibi com- 

con with, toward ; para con toward ; 
con tal que provided that 



concnrrir to attend 

conde m, count 

conducir to conduct, lead, guide 

confesar to confess 

confiar to confide 

confuBO -a confused, embarrassed 

coimiigo with me 

conocer to know, be acquainted with 

conocido m. acquaintance 

conozco/r^j. indie, istsing. ofwosicet 

COnqiie so then, see section 214, 9 

conquista /. conquest 

conquistador m, conqueror 

conqiiistar to conquer 

consentir (en) to consent (to) 

considerar to consider 

consigo with himself, herself, etc, 

consiguiente m. consequence; por 

conaigttiente consequently 
consistir to consist 
constar (de) to consist (of) 
consultar to consult 
consumidor m, consumer 
contado : al contado for cash 
cental {ue) to count, tell, relate; 

contar con count on 
contener to contain 
contento-a satisfied 
contestacidn f, answer 
contestar to answer 
contigo with you, with thee 
continuar to continue 
contra against 
contrario-a contrary 
conyertir to convert 
conyidar to invite 
copiar to copy 

copla f. couplet, verse, stanza 
copo m. flake 

Cordillera /. mountain range 
corregir to correct 

correo i». mail, post-office 

correr to run 

corriente present {month), instant, 

cortado -a cut, broken 

cortar to cut 

corte f. court, capital, Madrid 

cort^s polite, courteous 

corto -a short 

COsa f, thing, affair ; matter 

coser to sew 

costa /. coast 

costar to cost 

crecer to grow 

creer to believe, think ; pres, part, 

criada f. maid servant 

criado m. servant 

CriBt6bal m. Christopher 

.c.*» = corriente 

cuadro m, picture 

cual which ; el (la) cual who, which, 

cudl interrog. adj. and pron. which, 

ciialqiiier(a) any 

cuando when; cuindo when, /;f/^rr<c7^. 

cuanto -a how much, as much, all 
the, all that ; coantos, coantas, //. 
how many, as many, all the, all 
that ; coanto antes as soon as pos- 
sible ; en cuanto as soon as 

cudnto -a interrog, and exclam, how 
much ; //. how many ; cuinto tiem- 
po how long; cu&ntos alios tienes 
how old are you 

cuarto m, room 

Cuba /. Cuba 

cubano-a Cuban 

cubriT to cover ; /./. cabierto 

cuchara /. spoon 



cnchillo m, knife 

cuenta /. accounti bill 

cuerda/ rope 

cuero m. leather 

cuerpo m. body 

cnesta : i cuestas on one's back 

Ciiesti6n /. question 

cuidar to take care of 

cmnpleaflos m, birthday {anniver- 

cumplimiento m, fulfillment 

cumplir to fulfill, complete 

cnSado -a m, and f, brother-in-law, 

cnyo -a whose, of which 

cheque m, check 
chico m, boy ; adj. small 
chimenea /. fireplace 
chiBpa /. spark 

chisporrotear to burn and throw out 

D. = don Mr. 

daflo tn. harm ; hacer dallo to hurt 

dar to give, face, hit, strike {of a 

clock) ; dar vnelta turn 
de of, from, since 
debajo de under ; beneath 
debar to be {morally) obliged to, 

ought, owe, should 
decir to say, tell 
dedo m. finger 
dejar to leave, allow, let 
del of the, from the ; del cual of whom 
delante in front, before 
demAs othei^ rest 
demasiado -a cuij, too much, too 

many ; cuiv, too, too much 
dentro inside, within 
dependiente m. clerk 

derecho -a right, straight 

desagradabia disagreeable 

descansar to rest 

descanso m, rest 

deacnbrir to discover 

descnento m, discount 

desde from, since ; desde . . . hasta 

from ... to ; desde que since 
desear to desire, wish 
desembarcar to disembark, land 
desembolBO m, expenditure 
deseo i». desire 
desgracia f, misfortune 
desgraciado -a unfortunate 
desmentir to behe 
desnudar to undress 
despacio slowly 
despacho m. office ; deiq^acho de bi- 

lletes ticket office 
despedirse rejl, to take leave 
despertar {ie) to awake, wake up; 

refl. to awake 
despiite afterward ; despn^s de prep. 

after; despa^s que conj. after 
detallado itemized 
detener to stop 
detenninar to determine 
detiAs behind 
denda /. debt 

deyolyer to return, g^ve back 
dla m. day ; de dia by day ; echo dias 

a week ; quince dias a fortnight 
diario -a daily ; a day 
dice pres. indie » 3d sing, of^tdt to say 
diciembre i». December 
dicho -a said, the said 
dich080-a happy 
diente m. tooth 
diffdl difficult 
difunto-a deceased 
diga pres, subj. ^dtdi 



digO pres. indie, ist sing, o/dedi 

dijeron /«/. indie, 3d pi. ^decir 

dinero tn. money 

Dios m. God 

direcci6n /. address 

directo -a direct, through 

dirigir to direct ; refl. address, turn, 

direct one's self 
discfpulo -a m. andf. pupil, scholar 
discusi^n f. discussion 
disgusto tn. trial, displeasure 
disimular to excuse, pardon 
dispensar to excuse 
dispuesto ready, disposed 
distancia /. distance 
distinto-a different 
diyertir refl. to amuse one's self, 

have a good time 
diyidir to divide 
Dn. = don 
DSa. = doSa 
docena /. dozen 
doler to ache 
dolor m. pain, ache, grief ; dolor de 

cabeza headache 
domingo tn. Sunday 
don, doSa, m. andf. Mr., Mrs., Miss ; 

don Quijote Don Quixote 
donde where, in which ; en donde 

where, in which 
d6nde interrog. where 
donnir to sleep ; refl. to fall asleep 
d08 two ; I08 (las) dos both 
dosel tn. canopy 
dnda /. doubt 
dndar to doubt 
dueSo tn. master 
dulce sweet 
dnque tn. duke 
dnro -a hard, severe 
dnro in. dollar 

e and 

echar to throw, cast, pour {as water) ; 

re/l. to throw one's self down, lie 

down ; echar en el correo to mail 
edici6n /. edition 
edificio m. building 
educaci6n /. education 
efectos m. effects, goods 
ejemplar tn. copy 
ejercicio m. exercise 
ej^rcito m. army 
er(la, lOy los, las) the, that, the one, 

those ; el que who, whom, he, who, 

m he, him, it 
el^ctrico-a electric 
elefante -a m. andf. elephant 
elegante elegant 
eleyado-a high 
ella she, her, it 
ello it 

ellos, ellaSy they, them 
emperador tn. emperor 
empezar to begin 
emplear to employ, use 
emprender to undertake 
en in, into, on 
encantar to delight 
encargar to order ; encargarse de to 

take charge of 
encender to light, kindle 
encina /. (evergreen) oak tree 
encontrar to meet, find ; enoontrar- 

se con to meet 
encnentro tn. encounter 
enemigo -a tn. and f enemy ; cuij. 

enero tn. January 
enfermedad / illness, sickness 
enfermo -a ill, sick 
enorme huge 



Enrique m, Henry 

enseSar to teach, show 

ensuciar to get dirty 

entender to understand; reft, to 

entero -a entire, whole, firm 
entonces then 
entrada/! entrance 
entrar to enter, go into; hacer entrar 

to show in, admit 
entre between, among 
entregar to deliver, hand over 
enyiar to send 
enyidiar to envy 
equipaje m. baggage, luggage 
eran imperf. indie, 3d pL of ser 
es pres, indie, 3d sing, of Bet 
escalera /. stairs 
escoger to select, choose 
escribir to write 
escrito /./. <7/*eflcribir 
escuchar to listen 
escuela /. school 
ese (esa, eso, esos, esas) that 

(those) ; 68e ete. that one ete. ; eso 

that which you say 
espalda /. back 
EspaSa/ Spain 
espa&ol -ola Spanish 
Espa&ol -ola m. and f Spaniard, 

Spanish woman 
especiilaci6n /. speculation 
espejo m, mirror 
esperanza /. hope 
esperar to hope, wait (for), expect 
espiritu m. spirit, mind 
esposo -a m. andf. husband, wife 
esquina /. corner 
estaci6n /. station, season 
estado m. state 
Estados Unidos m.pL United States 

estar to be 

estatua /. statue 

este (esta, esto, eatos, estaa) adj. 
this (these), the latter ; 68te etc. 

eate m. east 

eatimaci^n /. esteem 

eatimada favor {letur) 

eatimar to value 

eatdmago m, stomach 

estrechar to press 

eatrecho -a narrow 

eatudiar to study 

ezacto-a exact 

ezclamar to exclaim 

ezcnsar to make excuses 

dzito m. outcome, result, issue, suc- 

expirar to expire 

ezplicar to explain 

ezpliqne Vd. explain {pres, subj, of 

eztranjero -a m. andf stranger, for- 

eztraSar to surprise 

eztremo m, end 

f Abrica /. factory 

fabricar to make, manufacture 

f Acil easy 

facilidad /. ease, facility 

factura /. invoice 

facturar to check {baggage) 

faltar to lack 

familia /. family 

favor m, favor ; hacer el favor to do 

the favor 
febrero m. February 
f echa /. date 
felicitar congratulate 
feliz happy 



f 60 -a ugly, homely 

ferrocarril m, railway 

fiel faithful 

fiesta /. feast, festival, festivity 

figura /. figure, form 

figurar to figure; refl, to fancy, 

fijar to fix ; fijarse en to notice, ob- 

fijo fixed 

flor / flower 

Flor /. Flora 

fonda /. inn, restaurant 

f ormar to form 

fortaleza m, fortress 

f ortuna /. fortune 

francos -esa French 

Francia /. France 

franco -a frank 

franqueo m, postage 

franqueza /. frankness 

frase /. sentence 

frente /. front, forehead ; frente a 

fresco -a fresh, cool ; al fresco in the 
open air 

frfo -a adj. cold 

frfo m. cold ; tengo frlo I am cold ; 
bace fiio it is cold 

frontera /. frontier, border 

fmta /. fruit 

fmto m, fruit, crops 

fnego m. fire 

fuente /. fountain, spring 

fuera impf. subj. jd sing, of ix to 

fnera de apart from, outside of 

faerte strong, mighty, powerful 

fnmar to smoke {as tobacco) 

funda /. cover, case 

fnndar to found, build 

gallina / hen 

ganar to earn, make [money), gain, 
win ; ganar a to surpass 

garganta / throat 

gas m. g^s 

gastar to spend, waste 

gasto m. expense 

gatito -a m. andf, kitten 

gato -a m. andf. cat 

general m. general 

g^nero m. goods 

geograf ia /. geography 

girar to draw [drafts) 

giro m, turn, revolution; draft, or- 
der ; dar giro to set in movement 

gitano m. gypsy, tramp 

gracias thanks, I thank you; dar 
graciaa anticipadas to thank in 

gramAtica f grammar 

gran cf grande 

grande great, big, large, g^nd 

gritar to shout 

grito tn. shout 

guante m. glove 

guardar to keep, protect 

guardia /. guard ; m. policeman 

guarismo m. numeral, cipher, figure 

guerra / war 

guerrero m. warrior 

gustar to taste, please; me gusta 

gusto m. taste, pleasure 

ha pres. indie, jd sing, of haber 
haber to have, be ; hay there is, there 

are ; haber de to have to 
habitaci6n /. room 
habitar to live in, inhabit 
hablador-ora talkative 
hablar to speak, talk 



hacer to make, do; liacer talta to 

be needed; hace fiio it is cold; 

bace ana bora y media an hour and 

a half ago; cuinto tiempo hace 

how long is it 
hacia toward(s) 
hacha f. ax 

hallar to find ; refl, to be 
hambre / hunger ; tener hambre to 

be hungry 
hasta to, up to, until, as far as, even 
hay there is, there are {cf, baber) 
hecho /./. of bacer 
herencia /. inheritance 
hermano-a /in. a;f<//. brother, sister 
hermoso -a beautiful, handsome, 

hierba /. grass 
hierro m. iron 
hija /. daughter 
hijito -a m, and f, little son, little 

hi jo -a tn, andf. son, daughter; m, 

pi. sons, children 
historia /. history 
hogar m, hearth, home 
hoja /. leaf 
hola hello 
hombre m. man 
bora /. hour ; qu6 bora es what time 

is it ; a qu4 bora when 
horno m, oven 
hoy to-day 

hubo there was, there were ((/*. baber) 
huele pres. indie. 3d sing. of^oUn 

to smell 
hueyo m. tgg 
hnmilidad /. humility 

ida going; billete de Ida y vnelta 

excursion ticket 

idioma m. language 

ignal equal 

imperio m. empire 

importancia /. importance 

importante important 

importar to be of importance, con- 
cern, amount to; no importa no 

importa m. amount, value 

imposible impossible 

inca m. Inca 

incendio m. fire, conflagration 

indinar to incline 

inclttso included 

inconYeniente : no tener inoonyeniente 
to have no objection 

indemnizar to indemnify 

indicar to point out, show 

indio-a Indian, Hindu 

informes information 

ingeniero m. engineer 

Inglaterra /. England 

ingles -esa English 

Ingles -esa m. and f. Englishman, 

instante m. instant ; al inatante in- 

instniir to instruct 

mstmmento tn. instrument 

inteligente intelligent 

intenci6n /. intention 

intense -a intense 

interns m. interest 

interesante interesting 

interesar to interest 

interior interior, internal 

inyiemo m. winter 

ir to go, go on, continue ; refl. to go 
off, go away 

italiano-a Italian 

izqoierdo-a left 



jab^n m. soap 

jamis ever, never ; no . . . jamis 

jaqueta /. jacket 
jardfn m. garden 
Jorge m. George 
Jos^ m. Joseph 
joyen young 
joven m, and/, {young) man, woman, 

Juan m. John 
Juana /. Jane 
Jnanito m. Johnny 
jueyes m. Thursday 
jnez m. judge 
jugar to play 
jirnio m, June 

junto -a together ; junto a near 
justamente exactly 

kil6metro m. kilometer 

la /. the, that, the one, she, her, it ; 

//. the, those, they 
la p^rs. pm. her, it ; //. them 
labio m. lip 
ladera /. side, flank 
lado m. side 
lAgrima / tear 
lAmpara /. lamp 
lana f. wool 
l£piz m. pencil 
largo -a long ; n. length 
listima /. pity 
layar to wash 

le him, it, you ; to him (her, it, you) 
lecci6n / lesson 
leche / milk 
leer to read 
lejos far 
lengua f. tongue, language 

lento -a slow 

les to them, to you 

letra f. draft ; letter of credit 

leyantar to raise ; refl. to rise, get 

ley / law 
libertad/. liberty 
libra f, pound 
libre free 

librero m. bookseller 
libro m, book 
lim6n m. lemon 
Undo -a pretty 
listo -a ready 
lo the, it, him, you, so ; lo que that, 

which, what ; lo cual which 
lodo m. mud 
lomo m, back 
Londres London 
longitud /. length 
I08 the, them, you; I08 que those 

who (whom) ; los snjros his own 
lucha /. struggle 
luego directly, soon, next; luego que 

as soon as 
lugar m. place 

lugare&o -a m. and/, villager 
luna /. moon 
limes m. Monday 
luz /. light 

llamar to call, knock, ring; refi. to 

be named 
llano -a level 
llaye / key 
llegada /. arrival 
llegar to arrive 
Ueyar to bear, carry, take, wear; 

llevar a cabo to carry out 
Uorar to weep, cry 
Uoyer to rain 



maceta / flower-pot 

madera /. wood 

madre / mother 

iaadiiro-41 ripe 

mal badly, poorly; noun m. evil, 

harm ; cuij. cf, malo 
maleta f. handbag, valise 
male -a bad, ill, sick 
mamA /. mamma, mother 
mandar to command, order, send 
manera /. manner, way 
mano /. hand 
mantenimiento m. support 
manteqnilla /. butter 
manzana /. apple 
maSana /. morning, to-morrow; 

m ^fl^wA por la maBana to-morrow 

morning; pasado maftana day after 

mar m. orf, sea 
marchar to march, go ; refl, to go 

marearse to get seasick 
Maria/. Mary 
marido m. husband 
martes m, Tuesday 
marzo m. March 
mas but 
mAs more, most, plus ; no . . . mis 

qae only 
matar to kill 
mayo m. May 
mayor greater, greatest ; elder, 

older, oldest; por mayor wholesale 
me me, to me 
medicina /. medicine 
m^ico m, physician, doctor (of 

medio -a half, a half, middle; por 

medio de by means of 
medir to measure 

mejicano-a Mexican 

M^jico m, Mexico 

mejilla/ cheek 

mejor better, best 

memoria f, memory 

mencionar to mention 

menor smaller, smallest; younger, 
youngest ; por menor retail 

menos less, least; a menoa que unless 

menudo : a menado often 

mercader m. tradesman 

mercaderia /. merchandise 

merino -a merino 

mes m, month 

mesa / table, desk 

metal in. metal 

metro m, meter 

mi my 

mi me 

miedo m. fear ; tener miedo de to be 
afraid of 

mientras while 

mi^rcoles m. Wednesday 

mil (one) thousand; noun m, thou- 

militar m. soldier, ofiicer 

milla/. mile 

mill6n m. million 

mina /. mine 

mineral m. mineral, ore 

minuto m. minute 

mlo -a my, mine 

mirar to look 

mismo -a self, himself etc.\ same, 
very; mismo qae same as 

mitad /. half 

moda/ fashion; demoda fashionable 

mddico -a moderate 

modo m. way, mode, manner 

modulaci6n /. modulation 

molestar to annoy, trouble, disturb 



molestia /. trouble 

momento m, moment 

moneda/. coin 

montaSa /. mountain 

monte m, mountain, woodland 

morir (»<) to die ; refl, to die, be dying 

motiyo m, reason 

mover to move, actuate 

moTimiento m, movement 

mozo -a m, and f, youth, lad, lass; 
waiter, waitress 

mnchacho -a m, andf, boy, girl 

muchlsimo -a (fr, macho) very much 

macho -a much, a great deal, very 

maeblem. article (piece) of furniture; 
//. furniture 

maerte /. death 

majer /. woman, wife 

mala / mule 

mando m. world ; todo el mando ev- 

may very 

nacer to be bom 

nacionalidad /. nationality 

nada nothing, anything, any respect ; 
no . . . nada nothing 

nadar to swim 

nadie no one, nobody, any one, any- 
body; no . . . nadie nobody, not 

naranja /. orange 

nariz /. nose 

nave f. ship ; nave (0/ church) 

Navidad /. Christmas Day 

nayio m. vessel 

necesidad f, necessity 

necesitar to need, want 

negar to deny 

negocio m. business, affair 

negro -41 black 

neyar to snow 

ni nor, or ; ni . . . ni neither . . . 

nor; ni . . . tampoco not . . . either, 

nor . . . either 
nieto -a m. andf. grandson, grand- 
nieye f. snow 
ningono -a no, none ; no . . . ningano 

not any 
ni&o -a tn. andf. child, (small) boy, 

no not, no 
noche /. night ; estanoche to-night; 

de noche by night 
Nochebaena /. Christmas Eve 
nombramiento m, appointment 
nombrar to appoint 
nombre tn. name 
norte m. north 

norte^americano-a North American 
nos us ; to us, to ourselves 
nosotros -as we, us 
noticias /. //. news 
noyedad /. novelty ; occurrence 
noyiembre m. November 
naestro -a our, ours 
naeyo-a new 
n^mero tn. number; gran ndmero 

a large number, many 
nanca never, ever ; do . . . nonca 

never, not ever 


objeto tn. object 
obligar to oblige, compel 
obra /. work 
obscarecer to get dark 
obscaridad /. darkness 
obscaro-a dark 
octabre tn. October 
ocaltar to hide 



oculto-a hidden 

ocupaci^n/. occupation 

ocnpado -a busy, occupied 

ocnpar to occupy 

odiar to hate 

oeste m. west 

ofreoer to offer 

Oido m. hearing, ear 

Oiga pres. subj. of oir 

olr to hear 

OJO m, eye 

Oler to smell ; oler a to smell of 

Olfato m. sense of smell 

Olor m. odor 

olyidar to forget 

onza f. ounce 

6pera f, opera 

operaci6n /. operation 

opinar to opine, be of the opinion 

opini6n f, opinion 

6ptiino -a best, excellent 

opnesto -a opposite, opposed 

orador m. orator 

orar to pray 

orden /. order 

ordinal ordinal 

6rgano m. organ 

oriental Oriental 

origen m. origin 

original original 

ore m, gold 

08 you 

osar to dare 

osciiro dark 

otoSo tn. autumn 

otro -a other, another 

oyeja f. sheep 

oye (^. olr) hear 

Pablo tn. Paul 
paciencia /. patience 

padre m. father, priest ; //. fathere, 

pagar to pay 

pagar6 m. promissory note 
pAgina/. page 
page m, payment 

pagu^ pret, indie, ist sing, of pagar 
pala m. country, region, land 
pijaro m. bird 
palabra /. word 

palabrota {Jr. palabra)/. coarse ex- 
pression, harsh word 
palacio m. palace 
palma /. palm tree 
pan m. bread 
panadero m. baker 
pantalones m. trousers 
paSo m. cloth 
paSoelo handkerchief 
papA m. papa, father 
papel m. paper ; papel secante blot 

ting paper 
paqnete m. package 
para for, to, in order to ; para qa« 

in order that, that 
paragnaa m. umbrella 
pararse to stop 
parecer to seem ; refl. resemble ; qu6 

le parece what is your opinion 
parecido -a similar 
pared /. wall 

pariente-a m. and/, relative, relation 
parque m. park 
parte /. part, direction; por todaa 

partes everywhere; la mayor parte 

participar to inform 
partida /. lot ; game 
partir to depart, leave 
pasado-a past, last; pasado maftane 

day after to-morrow 



pasar to pass, pass through, pass 
over, spend {time) 

paso m, step ; dar on paao take a step 

pasto m. forage, food ^ 

patinar to skate 

paz /. peace 

P. D. = posdata postscript 

pecho m. breast, chest 

pedido m. order {of goods) 

pedir to ask for; pedir a to ask of 

Pedro m, Peter 

pegar to stick 

pelear to fight 

peligro m, peril, danger 

peligroso -a dangerous 

pelota /. ball 

pensar to think, intend, mean {fol- 
lowed directly by an infinitive)^ pen- 
sar en to think of, recall ; pensar de 
to think of, form an opinion of 

peer worse, worst 

pequeSo -a little, small, slight 

percibir to perceive 

perder to lose ; perder a to ruin 

p^rdida /. loss 

perfuxnerla / perfumery 

peri6dico m. newspaper, periodical 

perjuicio m, injury 

permitir to permit 

pero but 

perro m. dog 

persona /. person, anybody 

personaje m. personage 

pertenecer to belong 

pesar to weigh 

pescado m, fish 

peseta/, peseta (nearly twenty cents) 

peso m. weight; dollar 

piano m, piano 

pie m. foot; de pie standing 

piedra / stone 

piel f skin, hide 

piema /. leg 

piso m. story, floor 

pizarra f slate, blackboard 

placer m, pleasure 

piano -a level 

planta /. plant 

plata /. silver 

plato m. plate 

pluma /. pen, feather; pluma tintexo 
fountain pen 

pobre poor 

poco -a little ; an poco a little ; pocoa 
-AS few; poco ba a short while 
ago ; a poco in a short time 

poder {ue) to be able, can, may 

polo m, pole 

poner to put, place, set {a table)^ lay 
{eggs) ; refl. to put on {clothing)^ 
become, beg^ 

por for, through, by, along, on ac- 
count of, per ; por alli over there ; 
por la maftana in the morning ; por 
eso therefore ; por qa6 why 

porqne because 

por qu^ why 

portador m. bearer ' 

poseer to possess, own 

posible possible 

postal postal 

p.p.^ = proximo pasado 

practicar to practice 

precio m. price 

preciso -a necessary 

preferir to prefer 

pregunta / question 

pregtintar (a) to ask {question) 

presencia /. presence 

presentar to present, introduce 

presente present 

presidente m, president 



pr^stamo tn, loan 

prestar to lend 

primayera / spring 

priiiier(o) -a first 

primo -a m. andf, cousin 

prfncipe m. prince 

principiar to begin 

prisa /. hurry ; tener piiaa to be in a 
hurry ; de piiaa quickly, fast 

probar to prove, test; try on {gar- 

producir to produce 

profeaor m, professor, teacher 

prohibir to forbid, prohibit 

prometer to promise 

pronto soon, quickly 

propina /. tip, gratuity 

propio -a own 

pToteger to protect 

pr6ximo -a next ; pr6zi]iio pasado last 
month, ultimo 

ptiblico -a public ; noun m. audience 

pueblo m, people, town 

puerta /. door, gate 

puerto tn, port, harbor 

pnes since, well, why ; so, then 

pujar to bid 

punto m, point, element 

que, el (la, las, los, las) que, who, 

which, that; lo que that which, 

que conj, that, for, than, as ; t«ner 

que to have to, must 
qu^ interrog. andexclam, what, what a 
quedar to remain; refl, to remain, 

stay ; quedarse con to keep 
quemar to bum 
qoerer to wish, want, like, try ; que- 

rer a to love, like ; qaerer decir to 

mean, signify 

qnerido -a dear 

qoien who, whom, he who, him who 
qni^n interrog, who, whom 
qnitar take from, take off 
quizAs perhaps 

ramo m, branch 

rancho m. ranch 

raro -a strange, odd, queer 

rate m, while ; ratito little while 

rayo m. ray, beam 

raxdn f. reason, right ; tener rax6n 

to be right 
rebajar to allow a discount 
reboznar to bray 
recapitular to recapitulate 
recibir to receive 
redbo m. receipt 
recobrar to recover 
recordar to recall, remind 
redondo -a round ; mesa redonda table 

reducir to reduce 
referir to relate, utter 
regalar to g^ve, present 
regale m. present, gift 
regar (/>) to water, irrigate 
regatear to bargain 
registrar to search, examine 
regresar to return 
regreso m, return 

reir to laugh ; relrse (de) to laugh (at) 
reloj m. watch, clock 
remesa /. remittance 
remitir to remit 
repetir to repeat 
repoear to rest 
representar to represent ' 
reptiblica / republic 
repuso , rejoined 
reapetuoso-a respectful 



responder to respond, answer ; ret- 
ponder de to answer for, be respon- 
sible for 

resultar to result 

retrato m. portrait, picture 

rey m, king ; //. monarchs - 

rezar to pray 

rico-a rich 

riegan water, irrigate {from regar) 

rincdn m. comer 

rfo m. river 

riqueza /. riches, wealth • 

rodar to roll 

rodilla /. knee ; de lodillas on one's 

Rodolfo m. Rudolph 

rogar to ask, entreat 

rojo-a red 

ropa /. clothing, clothes 

ruido m, noise 

S.S.Q.B.S.M.(P.) = 8egiiro(na) 
seryidor (-ora) que besa sub 
manos (pies) 

siibado m. Saturday 

saber to know, know how, learn, be 
able ; saber k to taste of 

sabor m. flavor 

sacar to take out, get 

sala /. room; sala de dase class- 
room ; sala de espera waiting-room 

saiga pres. subj. ^salir 

salida/. going out, departure ; salida 
del sol sunrise 

salir to come out, go out, issue, leave 

saltar to jump 

salud /. health; Men de salad in 
good health 

saludar to greet 

saludo m\ greeting 

sano -a healthful, well 

santo -a holy, saint 

sastre m, tailor 

satisfacer to satisfy, please 

se himself, herself, itself, one's self, 
yourself, themselves, yourselves ; 
( = le, les) to him, to her, to it, to 
them, to you 

secar to dry ; refl. to wipe one's self 

sed /. thirst ; tener sed to be thirsty 

seguida: en segoida next, immedi- 

seguir to follow, succeed, keep on 

segdn prep, according to ; conj. ac- 
cording as, as 

segundo m. second 

seguridad /. security, safety 

seguro-a secure, sure, firm ; noun m, 

selva /. forest 

sello m. stamp 

semana/. week ; la semana que viene 
next week 

semejante such a 

sentado seated, sitting 

sentar to set, seat ; fit, suit ; re/i, to 
sit down, be seated 

sentldo m. sense 

sentimiento m. feeling, grief, sorrow 

sentir to feel, perceive; be sorry, 

seSor m. sir, gentleman, Mr. 

SeSor m. Lord 

seSora /. madam, lady, wife, Mrs. 

seSorita /. young lady, miss 

sepa pres. subj. of^tHOKt 

separar to take 

se(p)tiembre m. September 

ser to be 

serie /. series 

servicial obliging 

seryicio m. service 



servidor -ora m. a/f^/. servant ; ser- 

▼idor de Vd. at your service 
servir (i) to serve ; servirse de to 

make use of ; sirvase Vd. please, 

be kind enough ; para qu6 sirve 

what is it used for 
seyero -a strict, severe 
Sevilla /. Seville 
si if; whether {in indirect questions) ; 

why, indeed {in exclamations) 
si yes 
si himself, herself, itself, yourself, 

one's self, themselves, yourselves 
siempre always, ever, still 
siga pres. subj. of seguir 
siglo m. century 
significar to signify, mean 
siguiente following 
silbar to whistle 
silencio m, silence 
silla /. chair, saddle 
sin without 
singular m. singular 
sino but, except; no . . . sino only 
sistema m. system 
sitiar to besiege 
sitio m. place 
sobrado -a great 
sobre on, above ; sobre todo above all, 

sobre m. envelope 
sobrino -a m. and f. nephew, niece 
sol m. sun 
soldado m. soldier 
solo -a alone, solitary 
s61o adv. only, merely 
sombrero m. hat 
son they are {from ser) 
sonar to sound, ring 
sonido m. sound 
sonrelr to smile 

sordo -a deaf 

Sr.| S(ff.y = sefior 

Snr.y SSfa.y = seHoia 

SrtS. = sefiorita 

su his, her, its, their, your, one's ; sn 

. . . de Vd. your 
suave smooth 

subir to go up, take up : get in 
substancia /. substance 
suceder to happen, follow {in order) 
suelo m. floor, ground 
sueSo m. sleep; tener snetlo to be 

sleepy ; en suefios in dreams 
sufrir to suffer 
suma /. sum, amount 
suministrar to supply 
superficie f surface 
superior upper 
suplicar to beg, entreat 
surtido m, stock, assortment 
sustituir to substitute, take one's 

sur m. south 
suyo -a your, yours 

tabaco m, tobacco 

tacto m. touch 

tal such, such a ; an tal a certain ; 

oon tal que provided that ; tal vez 

perhaps ; qa6 tal how, what kind 

tambi^n also, too 
tampoco as little, neither, nor . . . 

tanto -a as much, so much ; tantos 

-as as many, so many ; tanto . . . 

oomo as (so) much ... as 
tanto adv, so much, so 
tardar to delay ; no tardar& en venir 

it will not be long before he 




tarde late 

tarde f, evening, afternoon 
tarjeta /. card ; tarjeta de yisita vis- 
iting card 
taza f, cup 
te you, thee 
t^ m, tea 
teatro m. theater 
techo m, ceiling 
tela /. cloth, fabric 
temer to fear 
temprano early 
tenderse to be spread 
tenedor m. fork 
tener to have, hold ; tener que to 

have to 
tercio-a third 
terminar to finish, end 
Terranoya Newfoundland 
terreno m, land 
tesoro m, treasure 
ti you, thee 
tlayi aunt 
tiempo m, time; weather; cuAnto 

tiempo hace how long is it 
tienda f, shop, store 
tienen pres, indie. 3d pi. ^ tener 
tiemo-a tender 
tierra f. earth, land 
tinta /. ink 

tfo -a m. and/, uncle, aunt 
tirar to throw; (of colors) shade 
tiza /. chalk 
toalla /. towel 
tocar to touch, ring, play (a musical 

instrument) ; knock {on a door) ; 

be one's turn 
todayla still, yet 
todo-a all, every; «. all, everything; 

todo el dfa all day ; todas las noches 

every night 

tomar to take 
tomo m. volume 
tonto -a m. and/, goose, fool 
torre f. tower 
trabajar to work 
trabajo m. work 
traer to bring 
traiga pres. subj. of\XB»z 
traje m. suit, costume 
transportar to transport 
tranyia m. tramway, street car 
tratar to treat, have dealings (with) 
trato m. bargain 
tren m. train 
trineo m,. sleigh 
triste sad, gloomy, dismal 
tronco m. trunk of a tree 
tu thy, your 
td thou, you 

tuyo -a thine, yours ; el tujro ete. 
thine, yours 

u or 

dltimo-a last 

nniyersidad f. university 

lino -a one ; unos -as some, any, 

about ; k la una at one o'clock 
usted (//. astedes) you 
dtil useful 

V. (usted) you; W. (ustedes) you 

yaca f. cow 

yaler to be worth; mAs vale it is 

yalor m. valor, courage ; value, val- 
uables, securities 

yalle m. valley 

yan {cf. ir) they are going 

yapor m. steam; steamer 

yara / yard 



rarUr to vary, change 

yario -a various, different 

raso m, glass 

yaya prgs. subj. of it 

Vd. (ttsted) you; Yds. (nttedes) 

yecino -a m, and/, neighbor 
redar to forbid 
Tela /. candle ; sail 
yelar to watch 
yelocidad /. speed 
yencedor m, victor 
yencer to conquer ; . win ; fall due 
yendedor m. seller 
yender to sell 
yenga pres, subj. ofytnit 
yenir to come, happen 
yenta / sale 
yentana /. window 
yer to see 
yerano m. summer 
yerdad /. truth; ^no es verdad? isn't 

it so? 
yerdadero -a true, real 
yerde green 
y^rdiira /. verdure 
yerificarse to take place 
yestido m, garment, clothes, suit 
yestir (/) to dress, clothe ; tr^. to 

dress one's self 
yez /. time ; otra vez again ; una vex 

yiajar to travel 
yiaje m. journey, travel, trip 
yiajero m. traveler 

yida /. life, living 

yiejo-a old 

yiena {cf, venir) he comes 

yiento m. wind 

yiemes m. Friday 

yiaible visible, to be seen 

yiaita /. visit 

yiaitar to visit 

yiata /. sight, view 

yiato -a /./. o/yex to see 

yistoso -a showy 

yiudo -a m. and f. widower, widow 

yiyir to live 

yolar to fly 

yoluntad /. will 

yolyer to turn, return, come back; 

volver a again, see section 107, 5 ; 

refl. to turn around 
yos you 

yosotros -as you, ye 
yoy pres» indie, ist sing, of ir 1 go 
yox /. voice 
yuelta /. turn, return ; a vuelta de 

correo by return mail; estar de 

vuelta to be back, have returned ; 

dar vuelta to turn 
yiiestro -a your, yours 

y and 

ya already, now, see section 209, r; 

ya no no longer, no more 
yo I 

zapato m. shoe 
zas smash 


Note. Radicatchanging verbs are indicated thus : sentir (ie) 

a, an, un, una 

about {approximately) cerca dc ; [pf) 

de ; {with regard to) respecto & 
aboye adv. arriba ; prep, sobre, en- 

cima de 
absence ausencia/. 
absent ausente 

accent acento in.\ vb. acentuar 
accept aceptar 
accompany acompafiar 
according to segiin 
account cuenta /. ; on acooant a 

cuenta; on account of a causa de 
ache doler (»<) 

acknowledge reconocer; acknowl- 
edge the receipt (of) acusar recibo 

acquaintance {person) conocido ; 

{knowledge) conocimiento m. ; 

make acquaintance conocer 
act hecho m.\ vb. hacer 
actress actriz/. 

address direcci6n/. ; vb, saludar 
admire admirar 
adorn adomar 
advance adelantar 
advertise anunciar 
advice consejom.; give advice aeon* 

advise aconsejar (a) 
affair asunto m. 

affectionate carinoso -a ; very (most) 

affectionate afectisimo -a, af.™® -» . 
afoot d pie 
afraid: be afraid (of) tener miedo 

after /^. despues de ; conj. despu^s 

afternoon tarde/ 
again otra vez, de nuevo, volver a 
age edad/. 
ago: a long time ago hace mucho 

tiempo; mucho tiempo ha; see 

section 64, a. 
agree (to) convenir (en) ; {get along 

together) entenderse 
agreeable agradable 
ahead delante; straight ahead dere- 

cho por adelante 
air aire m. ; open air aire libre, al 

Alfred Alfredo m, 
alive vivo -a 

all todo -a ; all day todo el dia 
allow dejar, permitir; {a discount^ 

almost casi 
alone solo 
along 4 lo largo de 
aloud alto ; en voz alta 
already ya 
also tambi^n 




although aunque 

aluminam aluminio m, 

always siempre 

A. M. de la mafiana 

America America/.; North America 

la America del Norte 
American oiij. americano -a, norte- 

americano -a 
among entre 
amount importar ; ascender {u) (a) ; 

importe m. 
amphitheatre anfiteatro m. 
amusing divertido -a 
and y, {before i- or hi-) e 
angry enojado -a, irritado -a, enfada- 

do -a ; be angry enojarse, irritarse, 

animal animal tn. 
Anna Ana/ 

anniversary aniversario m. 
another otro -a 
answer responder ; (/^ a lettef) con- 

testar (a) ; {noun) contestacion/ 
antiquity antigiiedad/ 
any (one) alg^no-a; {after negatives 

or expressions suggesting negation) 

ninguno -a, alguno -a after noun ; 

in any way {after neg. etc.) en nada 
anybody alguien; {after neg. etc.) 

nadie ; anybody who see sec. i66, 3 
anything algo, alguna cosa; {after 

neg. etc.) nada 
appear aparecer, {seem) parecer 
applaud aplaudir 
apple manzana/. ; apple tree manza- 

no m. ; apple orchard manzanar m. 
appoint nombrar 
appraise apreciar 
approach acercarse (a) 
April abril m. 
Arabic drabe 

arch arco m. 

argue argtiir 

arise levantarse 

arithmetic aritm^tica/ 

arm brazo m. 

army ej^rcito m. 

around alrededor de 

arrival llegada/. 

arrive (at, in) llegar (a) 

art arte/ 

article articulo m. 

as como ; as ... as tan . . . como ; as 
soon as luego que, tan pronto como 

ascertain averiguar 

ashamed : to be ashamed tener ver- 

ashore a (en) tierra 

Asia Asia/ 

ask {question) preguntar ; {beg^ re- 
quest) pedir (1), rogar {ue) ; ask of 
pedir a ; ask for pedir 

assembly asamblea/ 

at a, ( = in) en 

attack acometer 

attend concurrir (a) ; asistir (a) 

attention atenci6n/ 

auction subasta/ 

audience los oyentes ; asistencia/ 

August agosto tn. 

aunt tia/ 

autumn otoflo m. 

avoid evitar 

await esperar 

awake despertarse {ie) 

tLWXy {wit A expression of distance) a 
before noun ; cu adverb with verbs j 
see the verbs 

bachelor solter6n m. 
back {of person) espalda/ ; {of ani- 
mal) lomo m. 



bad malo -a; bad cold fuerte res- 
friado; it's too bad es Ustima 

badly mal 

bag saco m. ; traveling bag maletay. 

baker panadero m. 

ball pelota/. ; play ball jugar a la 

bank banco m. 

bark ladrar {of dogs) 

basis tipo m, 

bathe baiiarse 

be {permanently or inherently) ser ; 
{position or temporarily) estar ; be 
cold tener fiio {of a person or ani- 
mal) ; estar frio {of an inanimate 
objett) ; hacer frio {of the weather) 

bear one's self portarse 

beard barba/I 

beautiful bello -a, {handsome) her- 
moso -a 

beauty hermosurayi 

because porque 

become ser; hacerse, ponerse 

bed Camay. ; go to bed acostarse {ue) 

bedroom habitaci6n/. 

beef came de v?iC2if 

before {position) ante, delante de ; 
{time) antes de ; adv. {formerly ^ be- 
forehand) antes ; conj. antes que 

beg {request) pedir (/), rogar {ue) 

begin empezar {ie ;) principiar 

believe creer 

bell campana/I ; campanillayi ; bell 
tower campanario m. 

belong ser de, pertenecer 

beloved amado -a ; querido -a 

below abajo 

besiege sitiar 

best mejor 

bet see section 233, 2, c, 

betrothed novio -a m^. andf 

better mejor 

between entre 

Bible Biblia/ 

bill {account) cuenta/". ; {bank-note) 

billete m. ; bill of fare lista de co- 

bird pijaro m. ; avey 
birthday dia de cumpleafios, cum- 

pleanos m. 
bite morder {ue) 
bitter amargo -a 
black negro -a 
blackboard pizarray 
blind ciego -a 
blow {comet) tocar; the wind blows 

hace (hay) viento 
blue azul 
board pensi6ny 

boarding-house casa de huespedesy 
boat barco m. 
bold atrevido -a 
Bolivian boliviano -a 
book libro m. 

bookkeeping teneduria de librosy 
bookstore libreriay 
bom : be bom nacer 
borrow pedir (tomar) prestado -a 
bosom seno m. 
both los dos, ambos ; both . . . and 

asi . . . como 
box cajay 
boy muchacho m. ; {young boy) 

nino m. 
brand marcay 
brave valiente 
Brazilian brasileno -a 
bread pan m, 
breakfast almuerzo m. ; take (have) 

breakfast almorzar {ue) 
breathe respirar 
bridge puente m. 



brief breve 

bright claro -a ; {of colors) vivo -a 

bring traer; bring down bajar ; bring 

np subir 
broad ancho -a 
broken roto -a 
brook arroyo m, 
brother hermano m, ; brother-in-law 

cufiado m. 
brown moreno-a 
brush cepillo m. ; vb. acepillar 
build construir 

building edificio m. ; caser6n m, 
bum quemar; intr, arder; bum up 

(^rdown) quemarse 
burnish brufiir 

bushel use English word^ w. accent 
business negocio m. {usually plural) 
busy ocupado -a 

but pero, mas ; [after negcUive) sino 
butter mantequilla/. 
button bot6n m, 
buy comprar 
buyer comprador m. 
by {with pcusive verbs) por,de; {near) 

junto d, cerca de, al lado de ; by 

day de dia; by my watch en mi 


calculation c&Iculo m. 

call Uamar 

camel camello m. 

can poder {ue) ; {know how) saber 

candidate candidato m, 

candle vela/. 

cap gorray. 

capital capital »»., {city)f\ {letter) 

captain capitan m. 
car : street car tranvia m. 
card taijetay. 

care cuidado m, 

Carlist carlista m. 

carriage coche m. 

carry off llevar, llevarse ; arrastrar 

cart carro m. 

case caso m. ; in case en case que ; 

{pillow) funda/I 
cash al contado 

cash-drawer caja de caudales/. 
Castilian castellano -a 
cat gato -a m. andf 
catalogue catdlogo m. 
catch coger; {tctke) tomar; catch cold 

coger un resfriado 
cathedral catedral/. 
cattle ganado m. 
cause causa/*. ; motivo m, 
ceiling techo m, 
celebrate celebrar 
celebrated celebre 
celebration fiesta/. 
cent centavo tn. 
center centro m. 
central central 
century siglo m. 

certain : a certain cierto -a ; un tal 
chair silla/. 

change cambiar ; {ideas) variar de 
charge cobrar, llevar 
Charles Carlos m^ 
charming encantador -ora 
cheap barato-a 
child nifio -a m, andf ; children ni- 

nos m, pi, ; {sons and daughters) 

hijos m. pi. 
childhood ninez/ 
choose escoger 
Christmas Navidad / ; Christmas 

Eve Nochebuena/. 
Christopher Crist6bal 
church iglesia/. 



circular circular 

citizen ciudadano m. 

city ciudad/. 

ciyilized civilizado -a 

class clase/ 

clean limpiar; adj. limpio -a 

climb subir 

clock reloj (de pared, de mesa) ; at 

six o'clock a las seis; what time 

is it qu^ hora es 
dose cerrar {ie) 
closed cerrado -a 
closet alacena/. 
doth tela/. ; pafio m, 
dothes ropa/. ; vestidos m* 
Ck>. s££ company 
coach coche m, 
coat levita/. ; {boy^s coat) chaqueta 

/; {overcoat) gabin; {evening or 

dress coat) frac m» 
coffee caf^ m. 
coin moneda/. 
cold adj\ frio -a ; noun frio m. ; (i7/- 

ness) resfriado m.\ be cold tener 

frio ; {of the weather) hacer frio 
collar cuello m. 
collection colecci6nyi 
colony colonia/. 
color color m. 
Columbus Colon 
comb peine m.\ vb. peinar 
come venir ; comes viene ; come in 

entrar ; come out salir ; come up 

subir ; come back volver ; come 

down bajar 
comfortable c6modo -a 
command mandar ; mando m. 
community comunidad/. 
company compania/ ; Co. cM 
comparable comparable 
complain quejarse (de) 

completely completamente 

composition composici6nyi 

conceal ocultar 

concert concierto m, 

condude concluir 

condition estado m. 

confess confesar 

confident : be confident confiar (en) 

conquer veneer; conquistar 

consent consentir {ie) (en) ; consen« 

timiento m. 
consequently por consig^iente 
consist constar (de) 
constantly cada vez 
consul c6nsul m, 
consumer consumidor m. 
contain contener {compound of X»wst) 
content, contented, contento -a, sa- 

tisfecho -a 
continent continente m, 
continue continuar 
copy copia/. ; {of a book) ejemplar m, 
cork corcho m, 

comer rinc6n m.\ {of street) esquina/ 
comet cometay. 
correct corregir (/) 
correctly correctamente 
Comnna la Corufia 
cost costar {ue) 
cotton algod6n m, 
count contar {ue) \ count on contar 

counter mostrador m. 
countess condesa/ 
country pais m. \ {native land) patria 

f ; {as distinguished from the city) 

campo m. ; country house casa de 

countryman campesino m, 
court {yard) patio m, 
cousin primo -a m. andf 



cover cubrir,/./. cubierto 

cow vacayi 

criminal criminal 

cross atravesar (ie) ; pasar 

cry gritar, dar voces; (weep) Uorar 

Cuba Cuba/ 

Cuban iu(/. cubano -a 

cuff pufio m. 

cup taza./, ; {wine cup) copa/ 

cure curar, sanar 

currency moneda/. 

custom-house aduana/. 

cut cortar 

cutlery cuchillerfa/. 

daily diario -a, todos los d{as, cada 

dance bailar 

danger peligro m. 

dangerous peligroso -a 

dare atreverse (a) 

dark o(b)8curo -a 

darkness o(b)scuridad/. 

date fecha/ ; vd. fechar 

daughter hija/. 

dawn amanecer 

day dia m. ; good day buenos dias 

dead muerto -a 

deaf sordo -a 

deal : a great deal of mucho -a ; vd. 

dear {beloved) querido -a, care -a ; {ex- 
pensive) caro -a, costoso -a; dear 
Sir muy Senor mio ; dear Madam 
muy Sefiora mia 

death muerte/ 

debt deuday. 

debtor deudor m. 

December diciembre m, 

decide determinar 

dedicate dedicar 

deed hecho m, 

deep profundo -a, hondo -a 

defend defender (/>) 

defense defensa/ 

delight : . be delighted pasmarse 

deliver entregar 

demand exigir 

denominator denominador m. 

denote denotar 

dense dense -a 

depart partir 

departure salida/ 

deposit depositar 

desire desear ; deseo m. 

despair desesperarse 

destroy destmir 

develop {photo.) revelar 

developer revelador 

diameter diametro m. 

diamond brillante m. 

dictionary diccionario m. 

die morir {ue)yp.p. muerto 

different distinto -a 

difficult dificil 

diligence diligencia/. 

dine comer 

dining-room comedor m. 

dinner comida/. 

dirty sucio -a 

discharge despedir (i) 

discount descuento m, 

discover descubrir 

discovery descubrimiento m. 

discuss discutir; tratar 

displease dar un disgusto a 

dispute disputa/. 

distinguish distinguir 

distribute distribuir ; {mail) repar- 

divide dividir 
do hacer 



dog perro m, 

dollar {in Spain) dure m., {in Amer- 
ica) peso m. 

domestic {of a country) nacional 

door puerta/. 

dose dosis/*. 

doubt duday. ; vb, dudar 

down abajo 

dozen docena/. 

draft {air) corriente/. ; {money) giro 

draw sacar 

drawer caj6n m. ; little drawer cajon- 

drawing dibujo m. 

dream sofiar {ue) (con) ; suefio m. 

dress vestir (/) ; inir, vestirse (/) 

drink beber 

driver cochero m, 

drop {let go of) soltar {ue) \ {let fall) 
dejar caer 

drown ahogarse 

dry secar ; {wipe) enjugar 

during durante 

dust polvo m, 

duty deber m. 

each cada ; each other el uno (al) otro 

eagle iguila/. 

ear oreja/I ; {hearing) oido m, • 

early temprano -a ; pronto -a 

earn ganar 

earth tierray^ 

east este m, 

easy ficil 

eat comer 

education instrucci6nyi 

egg huevo m. 

either ... -or o . . . o ; not . . . either 

elbow codo m» 

electric el^ctrico -a 

elevated elevado -a 

elevation elevaci6n/. 

elevator ascensor m. 

else : something else otra cosa 

embrace abrazar 

emerald esmeralday. 

emotion emociony*. 

emperor emperador m. 

employ emplear 

employee empleado -a m. andf. 

end extremidady.; extremo m.\ fin m, 

ending terminaci6n/. 

enemy enemigo -a m. andf. 

England Inglaterra/. 

English ingles -esa 

engrave grabar 

engraving estampa/. 

enough bastante, suficiente 

enter entrar (en) 

envelope sobre m, 

equal igual ; vb. valer, equivaler (a) 

establish establecer 

estate finca/. 

Europe Europa/. 

even adv. aun ; even if aunque 

evening tarda/*.; good evening bue- 
nas noches 

ever {always) siempre ; {in a ques- 
tion) jamis, alguna vez; {with 
pronouns or adverbs) see section 
197 ; not ever no . . . nunca, no 
. . . jam&s 

every (one) todo -a ; cada (uno -a) ; 
every night todas las noches; 
every time cada vez 

everybody todos (//.), todo el mun- 
do m. 

evident: be evident consta {imper- 

exchange cambio m. ; vb. cambiar 



exercise ejercicio m. 
expect esperar 
expensive costoso -a ; caro -a 
express expreso m. 
extend extender {ie) 
extraordinary extraordinario -a 
extreme extremado -a 
eye ojo m. 

face carayC ; vb. estar f rente a 

fact seg section 206, 2 ; hecho m. 

factory fdbrica/. 

fair feria/. 

faithful fiel 

fall caer ; fall down caerse ; {of prices) 

sufrir una baja 
false falso -a 
family familia/. 
far lejos ; as far as hasta 
fashion moda/. 
fast {Jirm) firme, seguro -a ; {swift) 

veloz, ligero -a ; be fast {as a watch) 

adelantar, estar adelantado 
fast adv. {firmly) fuertemente, firme- 

mente ; {rapidly) aprisa, de prisa 
fatal fatal 

father padre m. ; pap4 m. 
fault culpa/ 
favor favor m.\ vb. favorecer; {a 

Utter) grata, apreciable, estimada 
fear temer 
feather pluma/! 
February febrero m, 
federal federal 
feel sentir {ie) ; intr. sentirse 
feeling sentimiento m* 
fellow ^se 
Ferdinand Fernando 
fever fiebre/ 
few, a few, pocos -as; unos (-as) 

cuantos (-as) 

finally al fin 

find hallar ; {meet) encontrar {ue) 

fine bueno -a 

finger dedo m. 

finger-nail una (de dedo)/. 

finish acabar; concluir 

fire {in the abstract) fuego m. ; {burn- 
ing wood or coal) lumbre/ ; {con- 
flagration) incendio m. ; {to fire a 
gun) disparar 

firm casa/; {firm name) firma/; 
adj. firme 

first primer(o) -a ; {in compound oi< 
dinals) primo -a 

fisherman pescador m. 

fist puno m. 

fit sentar {ie)^ caer, estar 

fix fijar 

flag bandera/ 

fleet escuadra/ 

floor suelo m. ; {story) piso m. 

flower flor/ 

fly volar {ue) 

fog neblina/ ; niebla/ 

foggy : it is foggy hay neblina 

folks see section 98, c. 

follow seguir (/) 

food alimento m. 

foolish bobo -a ; tonto -a 

Ifoolishness tonterfa/ 

foot pie m. ; on foot a pie 

for {for the sake of in exchange for) 
por; {destincUion) para 

forbid prohibir 

forehead f rente/ 

foreign extranjero -a ; foreign coun- 
try el extranjero 

forest monte m. ; bosque m.\ selva/ 

forget olvidar {often used as imper- 
sonal reflexive^ see section 269, 4) 

fork tenedor m. 



formidable formidable 

fortnight quince dias 

found fundar 

fraction quebrado m. 

fragrant oloroso -a, fragrante 

France Francia/. 

Frances Francisca/. 

French francos -esa 

fresh fresco -a 

Friday viemes m. 

fried frito-a 

friend amigo -a m, and/, 

frighten espantar, asustar ; be fright- 
ened asustarse 

from dey desde ; from . . . to de . . . 
a, desde . . . hasta 

front : in front of delante de 

fruit fruta/. 

fry frelr, /./. frito 

fur piel/ 

furniture muebles, 

further mis alia 

game partida/ 

garden jardin m, 

garment vestido m, 

gasoline gasolina/. 

generally generalmente 

genius genio m. 

gentleman sefior tft. ; caballero m. 

geography geografia/*. 

George Jorge m. 

German alem&n -ana 

get {obtain) conseguir (/), obtener; 

{from) sacar; {go after) buscar; 

{supply) proporcionar, facilitar ; 

{become) hacerse, ponerse ; get up 

levantarse; getinsubira; get out 

bajar; salir 
j;ift regalo m. 
girl muchacha/i; ninayC 

giye dar 

glad alegre, contento -a ; I am glad 
(to) me alegro (de) ; tengo mucho 
gusto (placer) (en); lo celebro 

gladly de buena gana 

glance miradayi 

glass vaso m. 

glore guante m. 

go Ir ; {of a machine) andar ; go away 
marcharse, partir; go out salir ; go 
up subir ; go into entrar (en) ; go 
to bed acostarse {ue) ; go on.ocurrir 

God Dios m, 

gold oro m. 

good bueno -a ; be good for nothing 
no valer nada, no servir para nada 

good-by adi6s; good-by for a while 
hasta luego; good-by until we see 
each other again hasta la vista; 
say good-by despedirse (1) 

goodness bondad /. ; (lo) bueno n, 

goods g^nerosi mercancias, efectos 
{all may be used in the singular) 

Gothic godo -a 

govern gobemar {ie) 

governor gobemador m. ; {Moorish) 
alcaide m. 

grammar gram&tica/. 

granddaughter nieta/. 

grandfather abuelo m. 

grandmother abuela/ 

grandparents abuelos m.pL 

grandson nieto m. 

grant otorgar, conceder 

great graR(de) ; a great deal mucho-a 

greatly infinito 

greatness grandeza/. 

Greece Grecia/. 

Greek griego -a 

green verde 



greet saludar 

ground suelo m. 

grow crecer ; grow dark oscurecer 

guide guia m, {pgrscn),/, (book or 

gun escopeta/. 

hair pelo m. 

half mitad/. ; adj. medio -a ; a half 

or half a medio -a 
hand mano/.; vb. entregar; come to 

hand venir a (mis) manos 
handful pufiado m. 
handkerchief paiiuelo m. 
handsome hermoso -a ; guapo -a 
happen acontecer, suceder 
happy f eliz 
harbor puerto m, 
hard duro -a ; {difficult) dif{cil ; adv, 

diligentemente, mucho 
harm mal m. ; {damage) dafio m* 
hasten apresurarse 
hat sombrero m. 
hate odiar, aborrecer 
Havana la Habana 
have aux. haber; {possess^ hold)\jt- 

ner ; have to tener que, haber de 
he ^1 ; he who el que, quien 
head cabeza/I 
health salud/ ; be in good (better) 

health estar bien (mejor) de salud 
healthful saludable 
healthy sano -a 
heap mont6n m, 
hear o{r, sentir {ie) 
heart coraz6n m, ; by heart de me- 

heat calor m, 
heaven cielo m. 
heir heredero m, 
help ayudar; socorrer 

Henry Enrique m. 

here aqui, aca 

hereupon en esto 

hesitate vacilar, dudar 

hidden oculto-a 

hide ocultar, esconder 

high alto -a ; elevado -a 

highway carretera/. 

him ^1, le, lo 

his su, sus ; suyo, etc. 

historian historiador m. 

history historia_/I 

hoarse ronco -a ; get hoarse enron- 

holiday fiesta/ 
Hollander holand^s -esa 
holy santo -a 
home {to one's home) a casa ; at home 

en casa 
honor honra/. 
hope esperar; esperanza/ 
horrible horrible 
horse caballo m. 

horseback : on horseback a caballo 
hospital hospital m. 
hot caliente 
hotel hotel m. ; fonda/. 
hour hora/. 
house casa/. 
how como ; how much (many) cuan- 

to -a (-OS, -as) 
huckster revendedor m. 
humor humor m. 
hundred ciento 
hunger hambre/ 
hungry hambriento -a ; be hungry 

tener hambre 
hunt buscar 
hurriedly con prisa 
hurry prisa/; be in a hurry tener prisa 
husband esposo m, ; marido m. 



ice hielo m. 

idea ocurrencia/. ; idea/. 

if si 

ignorant ignorante 

ill enfermo -a, malo -a ; adv. mal 

illness enfermedad/. 

illuminate alumbrar 

imagine imaginar ; figurarse 

immediately en seguida 

imperfect imperfecto -a 

importance importanciayi 

important importante 

impure impuro -a 

in en; (w/Mm) dentro de ; {after a 
superlative) de 

incalculable incalculable 

incline inclinar 

inclined inclinado -a 

inclose encerrar (i>) 

independence independencia/. 

independent independiente 

India la India 

Indian indio -a 

indicative indicative m, 

indispensable indispensable 

inexplicable inexplicable 

infantry infanterfa/. 

influence influencia/. 

inform participar, avisar 

inherit heredar 

ink tinta/. 

innkeeper posadero m. ; hostelero m. 

inquire preguntar (por) 

instant instante m. ; {of the pres- 
ent month) del corriente, del pre- 

instead of en lugar de ; en vez de 

instruction instrucci6n/I 

insult insultar 

insurance seguros m» 

insurrection insurrecci6nyC 

intend pensar {ie)t tener la intenci6n 

intended destinado -a 
interest interns m. ; vb. interesar 
interesting interesante 
introduce presentar 
invention invenci6n/ 
invest invertir (/) 
invite convidar, invitar 
iron hierro m. 
Isabella Isabel/. 
island isla/ 
it ^1, ella, ello, lo, la 
Italian italiano -a 

Jane Juana/ 
January enero m, 
jewel alhaja/ 
Jolin Juan m. 
journey viaje m, 
judge juez m, 
July Julio m. 
jump saltar 
June junio m. 

just adv. justamente, exactamente ; 
to have just acabar de 

keen vivo -a 

keep guardar 

key llave/ 

kilo kilo, kilog^amo m. 

kilometer kil6metro m. 

kind clase / ; especie / ; adj. bon- 
dadoso -a; apreciable or atenta 
(carta) ; be kind enough tener la 
bondad (de) ; servirse (1) 

kindness bondad/. 

king rey m. 

kingdom reino m, 

kiss besar 

kitchen cocina/ 



knife cuchillo m, ; {clasp-knife) na- 
vaja/. ; {penknife) cortaplumas m. 

knock llamar, tocar 

know {be acquainted with) conocer \ 
{be aware of know how^ be able) 
saber ; I know conozco or si ; let 
them know conozcan or sepan 

lack faltar 
lady sefiora/. 
lamp lamparay. 
land terreno m. ; //. tierras/. 
language idioma m. ; {style of lan- 
guage) lenguaje m. 
large gran(de). See section 46, 2. 
last ultimo -a, postrer(o) -a; last 

week la semana pasada ; vb. durar 
late tarde 
Latin latin m. {the language) ; adf 

latino -a 
laugh reir ; laugh at reirse de « 
laundress lavandera/. 
law ley/. 

lawyer abogado m. _, 

lazy perezoso -a ; harag&n -ana 
leader jefe m. 
leaf hoja/ 

leap year afio bisiesto m. 
learn aprender (a) ; {news) saber 
least menos; at least a (por) lo me- 

leave dejar, abandonar; {depart) 

partir ; {go out) salir ; take leave 

despedirse (/) 
left izquierdo -a ; on the left a la iz- 

leg piema/ 
lend prestar 

length longitud/. ; largo m, 
less menos 
lesson lecci6n/ 

let {leave) dejar ; {permit) permitir ; 

{rent) alquilar, arrendar {ie) ; {to 

express will) present subj. with 

que or without 
letter carta/; {of alphabet) letia/ 
letter-carrier cartero m. 
level nivel m, 
liberal liberal 
liberty libertad/ ; take the liberty 

library biblioteca/ 
lie mentir {ie) 
lie down acostarse {ue) 
lieutenant teniente m. 
life vida/ 
light luz/ ; vb. alumbrar, iluminar ; 

{kindle) encender {ie) 
lighten relampaguear 
like querer (a), gustar (de) ; I like me 

gusta {lit* it pleases me) ; cuiv, 

likely see section 266 
line linea/ ; rengl6n m, 
listen escuchar; {exclamation) {oye I 
little poco -a ; {small) pequeno -a ; 

chico -a 
live vivir 
living vida/ 

lock cerrar a Have, echar Have a 
locked cerrado -a a Have 
London Londres m, 
long largo -a ; a long time mucho 

tiempo; see tardar; as long as 

mientras, mientras que 
look (at) mirar; {appear) parecer; 

look for buscar; look like pare- 

cerse a 
lose perder {ie) 
loud alto -a 
love amar; querer (a) 
lovely precioso -a 



low bajo -a 
lower inferior 
luck suerte/ 
lucky dichoso -a 

machine maquina^. 

madam senora/. 

magazine revista/. 

mail correo m. ; vb. echar al correo 

male var6n m. ; {of animals) macho 

man hombre m. ; his men los suyos 

mania mania/*. 

manner manera/! ; modo m, 

manufacture fabricar 

many muchos -as 

march marchar 

March marzo m, 

market mercado m, 

marry casarse (con) 

Mary Marfa/. 

master amo m. 

match f6sforo m.; vb. caer bien 

matter importar 

may poder ; tener permiso (de) 

May mayo m. 

meal comiday. 

mean {to intend) pensar {ie) ; {to sig- 
nify) significar, querer decir 

measure medir (/) ; medida/ 

meat came/. 

medicine {science of) medicina f \ 
{drug) medicamento m. 

Mediterranean mediterrineo 

meet encontrar {ue) \ encontrarse 

mend remendar («>), componer; re- 

merchandise mercancias/. 

merchant comerciante tn, 

message recado m. 

meter metro m, 

metric m^trico -a 

Mexican mejicano -a 

Mexico M^jico m, 

middle medio -a 

mile milla/ 

military militario -a 

milk leche/ 

million miil6n m. 

mind espiritu/. 

mine mio; el mio etc,\ {minerals) 

minimum mfnimo m. 

minute minuto m. 

mirror espejo m, 

miser avariento m. 

Miss (la) senorita ; {before given 
names) dofia 

mistake error m. ; faltay. ; be mis- 
taken, make a mistake, equivocarse 

moderate m6dico -a 

moment momento m. 

Monday lunes m. 

money dinero m* 

month mes m, 

moon luna/*. 

Moorish moro -a 

more m&s 

moreover ademis 

morning mafiana/. ; to-morrow morn- 
ing mafiana por la mafiana ; good 
morning buenos dias 

most mds; {very) muy 

mother madre/. 

mountain montafia/. 

mouth boca/. 

move moverse {ue) 

Mr. (el) senor; {before given names) 

Mrs. (la) seiiora; {before given names) 



much mucho -a ; very moch much{- 
simo -a ; so (as) much as tanto -a 
. . . como ; too mach demasiado 

mud lodo m. ; {miref slime) fango 

mule mulo -a m. andf. {the fern, form 
is generally used) 

music miisica/. 

must tener que, haber de ; {moral 
obligation) deber ; {conjecture) 
deber de 

mustache bigotesm.//. 

mutton camero m. 

my mi, mis ; mio -a (-os, -as) 

nail clavo m. ; finger nail ufia (de 

dedo) f. 
name nombre m.'y {surname) apellido 

m. ; my nam6 is me Uamo 
napkin servilleta/. 
narrow estrecho -a 
nation naci6n/. 
national nacional 
native natural m. andf. 
nature naturaleza/. 
nave nave/! 
near cerca de, junto a 
nearly casi 
necessary necesario -a ; be necessary 

ser necesario, ser preciso, ser 

neck cuello m. ; pescuezo m. 
necktie corbata/ 
need necesidad f ; vb. necesitar ; 

hacer falta 
neglect dejar de 
neighbor vecino -a m. andf 
nephew sobrino m. 
never nunca, jamis 
new nuevo -a 
newcomer reci^n venido -a 

news noticia/. ; noticias/.//.; qurf 

. . . de nuevo 
newspaper peri6dico m, 
next pr6ximo -a, siguiente ; next 

month el pr6ximo mes, el mes que 

viene (entra) ; the next page la pi- 

gina siguiente 
niece sobrina/. 
night noche/. ; last night anoche ; 

by night de noche 
no no 

no one, none, ningun(o) >a 
nobody nadie 
noise ruido m. 
nominally nominalmente 
nor ni 

north norte m. ; adj. norte 
North American norte-americano -a 
nose nariz/. 

not no ; not . . . either ni . . . tampoco 
notary escribano m. 
note notar ; be noted notarse 
nothing nada 
November noviembre m. 
now ahora 
number ndmero m. ; {nunural) gua- 

rismo m. 
numeration numeraci6nyi 
nut nuez/ 

oblige obligar 

obliging servicial 

obtain obtener 

occupy ocupar . .. ,^ 

occur ocurrir - 'i-^r- 

o'clock fem. def art. ; at six o'clock 

a las seis ; see section 78 •" • 
October octubre m. 
of de; {with verb of separaHok)^^*^ 

offer ofrecer; oferta/. : 

office despacho m. ; {position) cargo 



often muchas veces ; a menudo 

oil aceite m. 

old vie jo -a, anciano -a; {ancient) an- 

tiguo -a ; older {of persons) mayor ; 

be years old tener afios 
on en ; {on top of) sobre, encima de ; 

on time a tiempo 
once una vez ; at once en seguida 
one un(o) -a ; one or another uno (-a) u 

otro (-a), alguno (-a) que otro (-a) ; 

that one aquel etc. 
only unico -a; adv. s61o; no . . . m&s 

que ; no . . . sino 
openabrir,/./. abierto ; open air j^^ air 
opinion opini6ny. 
Opportunity oportunidady. 
opposite opuesto, contrario; adv. 

en frente ; prep, frente a 
or o ; u {bef. o- or ho-) ; not ... or no 

. . . ni 
orange naranja/. 
orator orador m. 

order {command) ordeny.; {commer- 
cial) pedido m. ; vb. pedir (/), man- 

dar ; in order to para ; in order that 

para que 
origin origen m. 
original original 
other {another) y otro -a; {the rest) 

ought deber 
our nuestro-a 

ours nuestro ; el nuestro etc. 
out fuera; {outside) afuera; go out 

outdoors afuera, fuera de casa 
oyer {upon) sobre; {above) encima 

de ; {to the other side of) al otro 

lado de ; over there por alii 
overcoat sobretodo m. ; abrigo m. ; 

gabdn m. 

owe deber 

own propio -a ; mismo -a 
owner dueno -a m. andf 
oz buey m. 

pace paso m. 

pack envasar, empaquetar 

package paquete m. 

page pAgina/ 

painting cuadro m. 

pale p&lido -a 

Panama el Panami 

paper papel m. ; {newspaper) peri<S- 

dico m. 
pardon perd6n m.] vb. perdonar 
parents padres m. pi. 
Paris Paris 
park parque m. 
parlor sala/. 

part parte/. ; vb. separarse 
partner socio m. 

party tertulia/.; {political^ partido m, 
pass pasar 
past adj. pasado -a ; at half past one 

o'clock a la una y media 
past (lo) pasado n. 
patience : get out of patience deses- 

Paul Pablo m. 

pay pagar ; {pay a visit) hacer 
payment pago m. 
peace paz/. 
pearl perla/. 
pen pluma/ 
pencil Idpiz m. 
peninsula peninsula/. 
penknife cortaplumas m. 
peon pe6n m. 

people pueblo m. ; {persons) gente/ 
pepper pimienta/. 
per cent por ciento 



perfect perfecto -a 

performance repre8entaci6nyi 

perhaps tal vez, quizes 

permission permiso m. (de) 

permit permitir 

person persona/. 

personage personaje m. 

personal personal 

Pern el Perti m. 

Peter Pedro m. 

Philip Felipe m, 

Philippines Filipinas/.//.; in the 

Philippines en Filipinas 
philosophy filosofia/ 
PhCBnicians fenicios m.//. 
photographic f otogrdfico -a 
physician medico m. 
piano piano m, 
pick up recoger 
picture cuadro m.; {portrait) re- 

trato m, 
piece pedazo m. ; {of music, etc.) 

pieza/. ; {of furniture) mueble m, ; 

{coin) moneda/"., pieza /". 
pillar pilar m, 
pillow almohada/. 
pink clavel m, 
pity piedad/. ; misericordia/. ; lis- 

tima/. ; it is a pity es Idstima 
place sitio m.\ plaza/.; lugar m.\ 

vb. colocar, poner 
plain vega/ 
plan proyecto m, 

plate platom. ; {photographic) placa/ 
play jugar {ue) (a); {on a musical 

instrument) tocar 
please gustar, agradar; {be kind 

enough) h&game Vd. el favor (de), 

tenga Vd. la bondad (de) 
pleasure gusto m. ; placer m. 
plural plural m. 

plus mis 

P. M. {till dark) de la tarde ; {after 

dark) de la noche 
pocket bolsillo m, 
poem poesia/. 
point punto m. 
pole {of the earth) polo m. ; north 

pole polo norte 
polite cort^s 
political politico -a 
politician politico m, 
pond estanque m. 
poor pobre 

population poblaci6n/ 
pork came de cerdo m, 
portable port&til 
porter portero m. 
position colocaci6n/ ; puesto m, 
possess poseer 
possibUity posibilidad/ 
possible posible 
post {letters) echar al correo 
postman cart^ro m, 
post-ofSce correo m. ; casa (admi- 

nistraci6n) de correos/. 
potato patata/ ; {in most parts of 

Spanish America) psLpsif 
pound libra/. 
pour echar 
practical positivo -a 
praise alabar 
pray rezar; orar 
prefer preferir {ie) 
presence presencia/. 
present regalo m. ; presente m. ; vb. 

presentar ; present with regalar ; 

be present asistir (a) ; at present 

al presente 
president presidente m, 
press prensa/ 
pretty bonito -a ; Undo -a 



preyent impedir (/) 

price precio m, 

priest cura m, 

principal principal 

print imprimir, /./. impreso 

prisoner prisionero m, ; cautivo m. 

prize premio m, 

probability probabilidad/. 

probably probablemente ; see section 

produce producir 
production elaboraci6n /. ; produc- 

profound profundo-a 
project proyecto m. 
promise prometer 
propose proponer 
proprietor duefio m, 
protect proteger 
prove probar (ue) 
provided that con tal que 
province provincia/. 
public publico m. 
publish publicar; be published pu- 

blicarsCi salir a luz 
punish castigar 
pupil discfpulo -a m. and/. 
purchase compra/. ; vb. comprar, 

pure puro -a 

purse bolsa/ ; bolsillo m. 
push empujar 
put poner; put out {afire or light) 

apagar ; put in meter ; put back 

reponer ; put on poner 

quality calidad/. 

quarter cuarto fn.\ at a quarter past 

one o'clock a la una y cuarto 
question preguntay. ; (discussion) 


rag trapo m. 

rail {railway) ferrocarril m, 

rain Hover {ue) ; Uuvia/. 

raise levantar 

rank orden/. 

rare raro -a 

rascal brib6n m. 

reach alcanzar; {touch) tocBX \ {ex- 
tend) tender {ie), extender {i€)\ 
{arrive at) Uegar a 

read leer 

ready listo -a 

realm reino m. 

reason rzz6nf. 

recall recordar {ue) 

receipt recibo m, 

receive recibir 

recently recientemente, reci^n 

recognize conocer 

recommend recomendar {ie) 

red rojo -a, Colorado -a, encamado -a 

refrigerating = to make ice 

refuse negarse {ie) 

regard : in regard to referente 4 

regards recuerdos m. pL 

regiment regimiento m, 

register certificar 

regret sentir {ie) 

relate contar {ue) ; referir {ie) 

relative pariente m. 

religious religioso -a 

remain quedar, quedarse ; restar 

remember acordarse {ue) (de) ;. re- 
cordarse {ue) 

reminder recuerdo m, 

remit remitir 

rent alquilar 

repeat repetir (/) 

reply contestar 

republic republica/. 

resemble parecerse (a) 



reaerra reservar 

reside vivir, tener su casa 

residence residencia/. 

respect estimaci6n f. ; respeto m. 

respectable respetable, estimable 

rest descansar; {support) apoyar; 
descanso m. 

restaurant fonda/. 

retinue comitiva/. 

return volver («^), regresar ; {give 
back) devolver {ue) \ [interest) de- 
vengar; {of mail, steamer, etc.) 
vuelta f. 

reveal revelar 

review revista/! 

ribbon cinta/. 

rich rico -a 

ride ir en coche, tranvfa, etc. ; cami- 
nar ; {horse) montar a caballo 

right justo -a ; {cts compared to left) 
derecho -a ; on the right a la de- 
recha ; be right tener raz6n 

ring tocar {person) ; sonar {ue) 

ring sortija/! ; anillo m. 

ripe maduro -a 

rise levantarse ; {of sun, moon, etc.) 
salir ; {of prices) alzar 

rob robar 

roll rodar {ue) 

Roman romano -a 

Rome Roma/. 

roof techado m. 

room cuarto m. ; habitaci6ny! ; bed- 
room alcoba/. ; bathroom cuarto de 
baiio m. ; classroom sala de clase 
/ ; dining-room comedor m . ; state- 
room camarote m.; {space) lugar 
m., espacio m. 

rose rosa/. 

run correr ; ran away huir 
Russian ruse -a m. andf 

sad triste 

sale seguro -a 

said : he said dijo 

sailor marinero m. 

saint san(to) -a m. andf. ; saint's day 

dia del santo m., dias m. pi. 
salary sueldo m, 

sale venta /. ; be for sale venderse 
salt sal/. 
same mismo-a 
satisfied contento -a; be satisfied 

quedar contento 
Saturday sibado m. 
save salvar 
say decir 

scandalous scandaloso -a 
scarcely apenas 

school escuela/ ; {high) colegio m. 
scold refiir (/) 
scratch lacerar 
sea mar m. 

seam costura/. ; {in metal) junta/ 
search registrar 
season estaci6n/ 
seat asientom. ; be seated estar sen- 

second seg^ndo m. 
secret secreto m. 
secure seguro -a 
see ver 
seed semilla/ 
seek buscar 
seem parecer, fig^rarse 
select escoger 
self mismo -a 
sell vender 
senator senador m. 



send enviar, mandar 
sense sentido m, 
sentence frase/. 
September se(p)tiembre m. 
serious serio -a ; {dangerous) grave, 

peligroso -a 
servant criado -a m. andf. 
serve servir (1) ; serve as servir de 
service servicio m. ; at your service 

para servir a Vd. 
set sentar (i>) ; {of the sun^ moon, 
^etc.) ponerse; (set the table etc.) 

several varies -as ' 
severe severe -a . 
SeviUe Sevilla/ 
sew coser 
sexton sacristin m, 
shadow sombra/*. 
shake {hands) estrecharse 
share {of stock) accion/. 
sharp recio -a 
shave af eitar, rasurar ; intr, af eitarse, 

sheep ovejay. ; carnero m. 
sheet sibana/. 
shine lucir, brillar; the sun shines 

hace (hay) sol 
shipment envio m, 
shirt camisa/. 
shoe zapato m. 
shoot disparar 
short corto -a ; a short while (time) 

ago poco tiempo ha 
should {ought to) deber 
shout gritar ; grito m. 
show ensefiar ; {point out) indicar ; 

mostrar; representacion/". 
shut cerrar {ie) ; culj. cerrado -a 
SicUy SicUia/. 

sick enfermo -a ; be sick estar malo 

side lado m. 

sign firmar ; {advertising) letrero m, 

signal sefial/ 

silk seda/. 

silky sedoso -a 

sill alf^izar m, 

silver plata/. 

similar parecido -a 

since prep, desde ; conj. desde que 

sing cantar 

sir sefior m. ; caballero m. 

sister hermana/. 

sit down sentarse {ie) ; be sitting 
estar sentado 

situated situado -a 

situation colocaci6n/! 

skate patinar 

skillful experto -a, hibil 

slate pizarra/. 

sleep suefLo m. ; dormir {ue) ; go to 
sleep, fall asleep, dormirse 

sleepy : be sleepy tener sueiio 

slow lento -a, atrasado -a ; be slow 
{as a watch) atrasar, estar atra- 
sado -a 

slowly despacio 

small pequefio -a, chico -a 

smell oler ; smell of oler a ; it smells 

smoke humear, echar humo ; smoke 
tobacco fumar tabaco 

snow nevar {ie) ; nieyef 

so tan ; so much (many) tanto -a, tan- 
tos -as ; so ... as tan . . . como ; he 
said 80 lo dijo ; and so y por eso, 
y asi 

soap jab6n m. 

soldier soldado m. 

solid s61ido -a 



some alg^no -a ; //. algunos -as, unos 

somebody, some one, alguien ; algu- 
no -a 

something algo, alguna cosa ; some- 
thing else otra cosa 

son hijo m. 

song canci6nyC 

soon pronto, presto, temprano; as 
soon as luego que, tan pronto como, 
en cuanto 

sorry afligido -a, triste ; be sorry sen- 
tir (i>) 

soul alma/. 

sound sonido m. 

soup sopa/. 

south sur m. 

South America la America del Sur 

Spain Espafia/. 

Spaniard espanol -ola m. andf. 

Spanish espafiol -ola; {the Spanish 
language) el castellano, el espafiol 

speak hablar 

special especial 

spectacles quevedos m. 

speech discurso m. 

spend {money) gastar ; {time) pasar 

Spoon cuchara f, ; teaspoon cucha- 

spring {season) primavera/ 

squash calabaza/ 

stairs escalera/. ; {steps) escal6n m. 

stamp sello m. 

stand up ponerse de pie ; be stand- 
ing estar de pie 

state estado m. 

station {of railway) estacion/ 

stay quedar, quedarse ; stay in bed 
guardar cama 

steal robar 

steamer vapor m. 

steel acero m, 

step paso. m. 

stick pegar 

still todavia; aun (<7raiin) 

stocking media m, 

stone piedra/ 

stop {movement) detenerse, pararse *, 

{leave off) dejar (de) ; cesar (de) 
story cuento m. ; historia/. 
straight derecho -a 
strange extrafio -a, particular 
stranger extranjero -a m. andf. ; 

{unknown) desconocido -a m. and 

f. ; {from out of town) forastero -a 

m, andf. 
street calle/. 
street-car tranvfa m, 
strength fuerza/. 
stripe ray a/. 
strong fuerte 

study estudio m.\ vb. estudiar 
subscribe suscribirse (a) 
success ^xito m. 
suchy such a, tal 
suffer sufrir 
sugar aziicar m. 
suit traje m. ; it suits conviene 
suitable a prop6sito (para) 
summer verano m. 
stm sol m. 

Sunday domingo m. 
supper cena/. ; have supper cenar 
support mantener 
suppose suponer ; see section 266 
sure seguro -a 
surface superficie/. 
surprise sorprender 
surround rodear 

sweet dulce ; sweets dulces m. pi. 
swim nadar 
system sistema m. 



table mesa/. 

tablet tableta/ 

tailor sastre m. 

take tomar ; ( carry ^ conduct) Uevar ; 
take off quitar ; take out sacar 

talk hablar 

tall alto -a 

tank tanque m. 

taste g^sto m. ; vb. g^star ; inir, sa- 
ber a 

tea t^ m. 

teach ensenar 

teacher profesor -a m, andf. ; maes- 
tro m, 

tear lagrrima/. 

tear romper,/./, roto 

teaspoon cucharita/. 

telegraphy telegraffa/. 

tell decir, contar {ue) 

term {word) vozf. ; terms condicio-, 

than que ; de {before numerals) ; del 
que, de la que, etc. (before depend- 
ent clauses) 

thank dar (las) gracias (a), agrade- 
cer; thank you gracias 

that rel. que 

that dent, ese -a -o ; aquel, aquella, 

that conj. que ; {in order that) para 

that one aquel, aqu^Ua 

the el, la, los, las, lo 

theater teatro m. 

their su, sus ; el (la, los, las) . . . de 
ellos (ellas) 

them los, les, las ; ellos, ellas 

then entonces 

there alii, alld ; {near person ctd- 
dressed) ahf ; over there por alii ; 
there is (are) hay 

therefore por consig^iente ; por esto 

they ellos, ellas 

thick espeso -a 

thief ladr6n -ona m. andf 

thing cosa/. 

think pensar {ie) ; {believe) creer, 
opinar ; think of pensar en ; think 
about pensar de 

thirst sed/. 

thirsty : be thirsty tener sed 

this dem. este -a (-os, -as, -o) ; this 
one pm. ^ste, ^sta, etc. 

those who los que etc. 

thousand, one thoasand, mil 

throat garganta/*. 

through por; through ticket billete 
directo m. 

throw echar, arrojar ; {throw a bally 
stone ^ etc.) tirar 

Thursday jueves m. 

ticket billete m, 

till prep, hasta ; conj. hasta que 

time tiempo m. ; hora/. ; {multiplica- 
tion) vez f ; what time is it qu^ 
hora es ; the first time la primera 
vez; on time a tiempo; have a 
good time divertirse {ie) ; be be- 
hind time estar atrasado 

time-table itinerario m. 

tin estano m. 

tired cansado -a 

title titulo m. 

to a, hasta ; {in order to) para 

tobacco tabaco m. 

to-day hoy 

together junto -a 

to-morrow maflana; day after to- 
morrow pasado maiiana ; to-morrow 
morning mafiana por la maflana 

ton tonelada/. 



to-night esta noche 

too (a/so) tambi^n ; too (mach) dema- 

siado -a ; it's too bad es listima 
tooth diente m. 
toothache: he has a toothache le due- 

len los dientes (///. the teeth ache 

to him) 
toward(8) hacia 
towel toalla/ 
tower torre/. 
town pueblo m. ; ciudad/. ; pobla- 

trade comercio m, ; mercado m. 
train tren m. 

traitor traidor -ora m. andf, 
tramp gitano m. 
translate traducir 
trayel viajar, caminar 
traveling-bag maleta/ j 
treasure tesoro m. 
treat tratar 
tree irbol m, 
tremble temblar (;>) (de) ; estreme- 

trial ensayo m. 
trip viaje m. 

trousers pantalones 
true verdadero -a; {faithful) fiel; it 

is true es verdad, es cierto 
trunk haul m. 
trust fiarse (en) 
truth verdad/ 
try {test) probar {ue) ; {tempt) tentar 

{ie) ; {endeavof) tratar (de), procu- 

rar, esforzarse {ue) (a) 
Tuesday martes m. 
Tunis Tiinez 

turn {turn around) volverse {ue) ; {be- 
come) ponerse, hacerse ; {a comer) 

dar vuelta a ; turn out well salir 


twice dos veces 

type tipo m, 

typewriter mdquina de escribir/I 

ugly f eo -a 

umbrella parages m, 

uncle do m.\ oncle(8) and aant(s) 

tios m. pi. 
understand comprender; entender 

unfortunate desdichado -a, desgra- 

ciado -a 
unhappy infeliz 
United States Estados Unidos m. 

unity unidad/. 
unless a menos que 
unpermitted no permitido 
until prep, hasta ; conj. hasta que 
up arriba 

us nos, nosotros -as ; to us nos 
use usar, emplear, servirse (/) de 
useful litil 
usual comiin 
usually por lo comiin; de postum- 


vacant vacante 

valise maleta/. 

vapor vapor m. 

various vario -a 

vary variar (de) 

vegetable legumbre/I 

verse copla/. 

very muy; mucho 

vest chaleco m. 

village aldea/. 

visit visitar; visita/. 

voice vozf. 

volume tomo m. ; volumen m. 

vowel vocal m. 



wages Jornada/! 

wait (for) esperar, ag^ardar 

waiter mozo m. ; camarero m. 

wake (up) despertar (/>) 

walk andar ; ir ; paseo m. ; take a 

walk dar un paseo, ir a paseo 
wall muro m. ; {inner wall of house) 

pared/! ; {of fortification) muralla/! 
want {lack) carecer de ; {wish) que- 

rer, desear 
war guerra/. 
warm caliente, cilido -a ; I am warm 

tengo calor ; it is warm hace calor ; 

warm water agua caliente 
warn advertir {ie) 
wash lavar 

wash-basin jofaina/. ; palangana/. 
watch reloj m, ; vb. mirar 
watchman guardia m. 
water agua/. 
wax ccrsif. 

way camino m. ; direcci6n/! ; {man- 
ner) manera/! ; modo m. ; not . . . 

in any way no ... en nada 
we nosotros -as 
wealth riqueza/! 
wealthy rico -a, opulento -a 
weapon arma/! 
wear llevar 
weather tiempo m. ; be good weather 

hacer buen tiempo 
wedding boda/ 
Wednesday mi^rcoles m. 
week semana/! ; in a week en ocho 

dias ; in two weeks en quince dfas 
weep Uorar 
weigh pesar 
weight peso m. 
well bueno -a ; bien de saludy adv. 

west oeste m. 

wet mojado -a ; get wet mojarse 

wharf muelle m, 

what pm. rel. lo que ; interrog. qu^ ; 

{which) cuil; what is mine lo mfo 
whateyer is neuter article with adj. 
wheel rueda/! 

when cuando ; interrog. cuindo 
wheneyer cuando, cuandoquiera que, 

siempre que 
where donde ; interrog. d6nde 
whether si ; {after dudar etc.) que 
which que, el cual, el que ; interrog, 

while {time) tiempo ; conj. mientras, 

mientras que 
white bianco -a 
who que, el cual, el que, quien ; 

interrog. quien 
whose cuyo -a ; interrog. de qui^n 
wicked malo -a 
wide ancho-a 
widow viuda/! 
widower viudo m. 
width anchura/! ; ancho m. 
wife mujer/. ; senora/! ; esposa/! 
will {be willing) querer {ie) ; other- 
wise will denotes future time 
win ganar 
wind viento m. 
window ventana/! 
windy : it is windy hace (hay) viento 
wine vino m. 
winter inviemo m. 
wire hilo m. 
wish querer (/>), desear 
with con 
without sin 
woman mujer /! ; young woman 

wood madera/". ; {variety of wood) 

palo m, ; {firewood) lefia/. 



wool lana/. 

word palabra/*. 

work trabajo m. ; (literaty or artistic 

production) obray! ; vb, trabajar 
world mundo m. 
worth : be worth valer 
wrap abrigo m, 
write escribir,/./. escrito 
writer el que escribe; (author) es- 

wrong : be wrong no tener raz6n 

yard corral m, ; patio m. ; (measure) 

year afio tn, ; leap year afio bisiesto 
yellow amarillo -a 
yes si 

yesterday ayer 
yet todavfa, aun (or aun) ; as yet 

hasta ahora 
3rield dar 

young joven; jrounger menor 
your tu ; vuestro -a ; su, el (la, los, 

las) . . . de Vd. 


Figures refer to sections 

A, after verbs of motion, loi ; io6, 5, ^ 
before direct personal object, 57 ; 


with infinitives, 106, i ; Appen- 
dix II, 2 

A — en, 221 

A lo que, 167, 3, tf 

A yer, 106, i, a 
absolute superlative, 146 
acA, 208, a 

acabar de, with infinitive, 107, 4 
acaso, 213 
accent, 8 

written, 9 
accusative case, see direct object 

agreement, 28 ; 140 

apocopation, 46 ; 137 

as adverbs, 148 

as nouns, 147 

comparison, 47 

comparison, irregular, 48 ; 142, 6 

comparison of equaUty, 50 

comparative, use, 142 

compound, 138 

expressing dimension, 155 

gender, 29; 135 

meaning, before or after noun, 139 

modifying two nouns, 140 

plural, 30 

position, 52; 139 

superlative, 145 

superlative absolute, 146 
adverbs, 208 ft. 

in -mente, 83 ; 2 1 1, a 

position, 216 

agent after passive verb, 270, 2 
agreement of verb with its subject 
259 if. 

after relative, 164, 5 ; 260, a 
al, with infinitives, 62, b ; 106, 2 
algp, 182; 210,3; 277»4 
alguno, 179, 2 ; 180 ; 181, note ; 185 

algmio que otro, 179, 5 
" all," 192 
alll, 208, a, b 
alphabet, i 
andar, 283 

ante — delante — antes, 222 
approximation, 160 
aqtti, 208, a, b 
arithmetical signs, 1 54 
articles, see definite article and 

indefinite article 
asi, in wishes, 282, 3, c 
aug^entatives, 132 

bajo — debajo, 223 
bastante, 214, 6 
'* become," 295 
bien, 216,^ 
" both," 186 ; 236 
'*but," 232 

caber, 284 
cada vez, 142, 3 
caer, 285 
capitalization, 12 
cardinal numerals, 39 ; 149 
''certain," 194 
dento, 39,<; 137,3; 152,^ 
con with infinitives, 106, 3 ; Appen- 
dix II, 3 




conditional, 77 ; 268 

conditional clauses contrary to fact, 

112; 279 
conjugation, 1 5 ; Chapter XIV 
conjunctions, 232 ff. 
conocer, 286 
conque, 214,9 
consonants, 5 

spelling for consonant sounds, 7 
correlatives, 236 
cosa, 160; 176, 2; 182; 183 
cnal, relative pronoun, 168 
cu&l, interrogative pronoun, 174 
cu^ . . . cuAl, indefinite correlatives, 

168, I 
cualquiera, 197, 3 
cuAn, 177,3 
cuando, 165,^; 209,^ 
cuanto, relative pronoun, 170 

cuanto — tanto, 142, i 
cuAnto, interrogative pronoun, 175 
cuatro, 149, 3 

cuyo, relative pronoun, 169 
ciiyo, interrogative pronoun, 172, 

dar, 287 
dates, 40, r, d 
days, 43 

de, before collective numerals, 1 52, d 
between words in apposition, 128, 

3; 237»8 
denotes agent, 270, 2 

denotes means, 276, 6 

denotes possession, 33 

with infinitives, 106, 4 ; 277, 2 ; 
Appendix II, 4 

dea, 157,^; 230 
deber de, 100, f; Appendix II, 7 
decir, followed by noun clause, 104, a 
definite article 

as demonstrative, 162, 6 

for possessive adjective, 56, b\ 
161, 2 

forms, 21 ; 123 

omission, 126; 179, i 

repeated, 141 

uses, 26; 124 

with infinitive, 104, b 

deJar de, 100, c 
demonstratives, 34 ; 162 

de I08 que, de estot que, = **the 
sort of," 162, 6, r, </ 
dimensions, 155 
diminutives, 132, 2 ; 214, 8 
diphthongs, 3 

direct object, 57 ; 134; 203, 2 
distance, 156 
divisions of day, 45 
donde, 165, a; 208,/ 

"each," 189; 190 
echar, 288 

'* either," 187 ; 236 ; 261, d 
el, feminine, 123, a 

el cual, 167 

el que, 108; 162, 6; 167 

el que, after comparatives, 143 
" else," 183 
en, 221; 225; 274, 5 

en ^sta, 162, 4 
estar, 25 

conjugation, 250 
ethical dative, 204 
"ever," 197 
"every," 191 
exclamations, 177 

faltar, 289 

family names, 113, 2, note 

"few," 185 

" former . . . latter," 162, 3 

fulano, 196, 4 

gender, 20; 129 
gerund, 274 
" give," 287 



gnnde, 46, 2 ; 137, i 
gttsta, 99 



auxiliary, 70 ; 71; 276 

conjugation, 250 

finite verb, page 229, note 

impersonal, 253 

haber de, with infinitive, 107, 3 

with infinitive, 104, c 

idiomatic uses, 58 ; 64 ; 290 
hacia, 208, ^ 
hasta, 226; 227 
hay que, with infinitive, 107, 2 
h^me aqul, see haber, 250 

idiomatic expressions, 23 

(The following references to idioms in 
Part 1 are given in order of occur- 
rence to facilitate review.) 

una lecci6n de espafiol, 23 

una carta en espafiol, 23 

Buenos dlas, £c6mo esti Yd.? 24 

estA bueno, 25, ^ 

no hay, 31 

I CuAntos libros hay ? 31 

I no es verdad ? 38, d 

adi68, 38, e 

hasta luego, 38, e 

I A cuAntos estamos ? 40, d 

I Cu&ntos afios tienes ? 53, b 

hace buen tiempo, 58, a 

hay sol, 58, b 

I Tiene Vd. calor ? 58, c 

iQuiere Vd.? 58,^ 

^ Qu6 quiere decir ? 58, e 

Aqni se habla espafiol, 61 

I C6mo 86 llama Yd. ? 61 

Me quito el sombrero, 62 

al levantarme, 62, b 

hace ocho dlas, 64, a^ b 

I Qu6 hay de nuevo ? 64, c 

Muchas giacias, sefior, 64, d 

No hay de qu6, 64, d 

todos los dlas, 66, b 

todo el mundo, 66, b 

^Qu^ hora es? — Son las seis me- 

nos cuarto, 78 
Tiene Yd. su casa, 85 
Servidor de Yd., 85 
Sfrvase Yd., 93 

HAgame Yd. el favor de repetir, 93 
Tenga Yd. la bondad de cerrar la 

puerte, 93 
I Qu6 le parece ? 99 
a mi me gusta mucho, 99 
I Le gustan las manzanas ? 99 
Tengo que despedirme, 107, i 
Hay que hablar, 107, 2 
Ha de venir, 107, 3 
Acabo de llegar, 107, 4 
Yuelve a gritar, 107, 5 

imperative mood, 86 ; 87 ; 277, 5 
imperfect subjunctive as a pluper- 
fect, 280 
imperfect tense, 65 ; 264 
impersonal verbs 

conjugation, 252 ; 253 ; 256 

substitute for passive, 272 ; 273 

use, 269 
indefinite article 

form, 127 

use, 128 

omission, 128 ; 149, i 
indefinite feminine, 201 
indefinite pronouns, 178 ff. 
indefinite subject, 196 
indirect object, 56 
infinitive mood, 55; Lesson XIX; 

277 ; Appendix II 
inversion of verb, 115 
intensification of statements, 214 
interjections, 237 
interrogative pronouns, 171 ff. 
interrogative sentences, 17 
"it," 199 



la, indefinite, 201 

le — lo — la — 1««, 200 

letter-writing, 113 

" Uttlc," 185 

lleyar, as auxiliary, 276, 2, a 

lo, neuter article, 125 

neuter pronoun, 206 

lo coal, 167, 3 

lo d« ay«r, 162, 5, r 

lo que, 167, 3 

lo que, for cu&nto, 1 77, 3, a 

lo que 08, 167, 3,^ 
" long," referring to time, 209, d 

m&8, 144 

measure, 158 

medio, 106,1,^; 151, f 

-mente, 83 ; 211 

meter, 292 

methods of address, 198 

mismo, 139, 5, 6 ; 205 ; 209, d 

months, 42 

" most," as a noun, 145, 7 

mucho, 96; 184 ; 210, 2 ; 277, 4 

muy, 96; 210, 1 

nada, 182; 210, 3; 277, 4 

negation, 18; 212 

negative indefinite expressions after 

comparatives, 142, 4 
neuter article, 125 ; 208, d 
neuter pronouns, 206 
ni, 212, 4; 236 

ningUDO, 179, 2 ; 180 ; 181, note 
no, 212 

position, 118; 212 

redundant after comparatives, 

142, 5 
gender, 20; 129 
number, 22 ; 130 
idiomatic use of plural, 133 
idiomatic use of singular, 66, c 
compound, 131 


cardinal, 39 ; 149 
ordinal, 40 ; 1 50 
fractional, 151 
collective, 152 
multiplicative, 153 

0, 232, 2 
ojaU, 282 
" other," 188 
otro, 183; 188 

para, 229 ; 230, 2 

with infinitives, 106, 5 
parte, 151, a; 208,^ 
participle, 67 

absolute constructions, 276, 5, 7 

past, 69 ; 249 ; 276 

present, 68 ; 274 
passive voice, 270 ; 271 

substitutes for, 271 ; 272; 273 
perfect tense, 70 

use, 73 
periphrastic conjugation, 258; 275 
personal a, 57 
personal endings, 14 
personal pronouns, 36 ; 79 j 80 ; 81 ; 
82 ; 198 ; 200 

position of objective pronouns, 
81 ; 207 

position with present participle, 
68, ^z 

position with imperative, 91 ; 92 

prepositional (disjunctive) forms> 
82 ; 202 

redundant, 203 

two object pronouns, 94 ; 203 

= " some " wit^ hay, 95 ; 179* 4 
pluperfect tense, 71 
poco, 185 ; 277, 4 
poder, 291 
poner, 292 
por, 217; 229; 270,2; 272, a 

with infinitives, 106, 6 



position of adjectives, $2 ; 139 

of adverbs, 117; 212; 216 

of infinitive, 120, a 

of predicate adjective, 116 

of subject of participle and infini- 
tive, 131 

of subject pronoun, 1 19 
possession denoted by de, 33 
possessive adjectives, 37 ; 97 
possessive pronouns, 98 ; 161 
prepositions, 217 to 231 

before clauses, 231 

before infinitives. Appendix II 

double, 230 
prestar, 293 
preterit tense, 63 

radical changes, 63, c 

use, 63; 65, tf; 73,2 
price, 157 

progressive action, 25S; 275 
propio, 205, a 
pues, 233, I 
punctuation, 11 ; page loi, note i 


conjunction, 233, 2 ; 234 ; 277, 4 ; 
* qoe, 233, 2, c 
to intensify, 214, 3 
relative pronoun, 75; 165 
for cttando, 165, ^ 
qu^, interrogative pronoun, 173; 

^ 174. « 
in exclamations, 177, i ; 128, 6 

qu* de, 177, 2 

qu6 tal, 176, I 

quh tantc, 176, 4 
qtt«rer, 58,^ 

quien, relative pronoun, 166 
quito, interrogative pronoun, 172 

in wishes, 282, 3, ^ 
qni^n . . . qui^n, indefinite correla- 
tives, 166, 5 
qnisiera, 112,^ 

radical-changing verbs, 54 ; 89 ; 244 

to 247 
rates, 159 
reci^n, 211, 2 

reciprocal verbs, 190; 257 . 
reflexive verbs, 59 ; 60 ; 61 ; 92 ; 

impersonal, 256; 273 

substitute for passive, 272 

relative pronouns, 7 5 ; 108; 163 ff. 

saber, 286; 291 
"said," 19s 
86 la escribi, 94, c 
seasons, 44 

as auxiliary, 254 ; 270, i ; 276, 3 

as auxiliary, substitutes for, 370, 

idiomatic uses, 295 

impersonal, 269, 2 

ser and estar, 25 

ser de, with infinitive, 107, 6 
servir, 294 
si, 112,^; 214, 4 

in wishes, 282, 3, e 
si, 212, 6 

si que, 214, 2 
•ino, 232, 4 
■obrar, 289 
subjunctive mood, 88 ; 109 ; 278 ff. 

as imperative, 90 ; 91 

future tense, 281 

imperfect tense, 1 10 ; 279 ; 280 

in dependent clauses, 109 ; 278 

in unreal conditions, 112; 279 

in wishes, 90, 2 ; 282 

sequence of tenses after, 1 1 1 

with adverbs of doubt, 213 
"such," 193 
suffixes, 132, 4 
superlative, 47 ; 48 ; 145 ; 146 

absolute, 146 
syllabication, 10 




to intensify, 214, 5 

with comparatives, 142 

tanto (tan) . . . como, 50 
tardar en, 209, ^, (i) 

as auxiliary, 276, 2 

idiomatic uses, 53,^; 58, r; 85; 296 

tener que, with infinitive, 107, i 
tenses, use 

future, 76 ; 266 

future perfect, 267 

imperfect, 65 ; 264 

perfect, 70 ; 73 

pluperfect, 71 

present, 16; 262 

preterit, 63 ; 65, a ; 73, 2 

preterit perfect, 265 

sequence of, 1 1 1 
"than," 49; 143 

" the . . . the," correlatives, 142, i 
time of day, 78 

todo, 191; 192; 203, a; 212,5 
triphthongs, 4 
t6, 36, a 

uno a otro, 190 
uno u otro, 187 
uno y otro, 186; 190 
unos, 179, 3 

with numbers, 149, 2 
Usia, 198, I, a 
ttsted, 36, a; 80, a; 198 


forms, 238 ff. For particular verbs y 
see lisii Appendix I 

compound tenses, 120; 241 

defective, 251 

impersonal, 252; 253; 269 

impersonal reflexive, 256; 273 

inceptive, 242, note, a^ 10, page 
212; 295, ^z (2) 

in -iar and -uar, 242, d 

in -uir, 248 

irregular, 250 

irregular past participles, 249 

orthographic changes, 242 

passive voice, 254 ; 270; 271 

passive voice, substitutes for, 271 ; 
272; 273 

periphrastic conjugation, 258; 275 

principal parts, 243 

radical-changing, 244 if. 

reciprocal, 190; 257 

reflexive, 255 ; 272 

See also tenses, participle, subjunc- 
tive mood, etc. 
verbal idioms, 283 to 297 
yez, 41 

volver a, with infinitive, 107, 5 
VO8, 198, 2, a 
vosotros, 36, a; 198, 2 
vowels, 2 

wishes, 90, 2 ; 282 
word-order, 114 

valer, 297 
yaya, 237, 6 

y, 232, I 
ya, 209, c 



Return to desk from which bonowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

MAR 2 6 1953 

(Ef5)(i'f®fl?[i®Ki imm\m 

LD 21-100m-7,'52(A25288l6)476 


YR 36287