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Full text of "The Assam Mission of the American Baptist Missionary Union : papers and discussions of the jubilee conference held in Nowgong, December 18-29, 1886"

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THE I 1916 

ASSAM MISSION ^'^^^^^^^^ 





DECEMBER 18-2 9, 188 6. 





The workers of the Assam Mission have always been so far 
separated that, though the desirability of a general conference 
has often been felt, no gathering of the whole Mission has 
taken place since 1854. It was felt that, at the end of this 
fiftieth year of our Assam Mission work, all the workers 
ought to meet, review the past, compare notes on the present, 
and lay plans for the future. As we did this we felt ourselves 
benefited, and conceived it desirable to preserve and make 
accessible the historical matter presented, and to acquaint 
others with the work here. So we determined to publish 
the papers presented, together with a brief of the accom- 
panying discussions. 

As there was no common language in which all the mission- 
aries and our native brethren could unite, the native brethren, 
all being familiar with the Assamese, held a separate con- 
ference at the same time and place, at which papers on 
living topics were presented and discussed. The two 
conferences were united whenever practicable. 


Page 4, line 21, for seventli read seventeenth. 

10, „ 14, ,, mail service ,, daily mail service. 
31, ,, 15, ,, helper ,, helpers. 

52, ,, 14, quotation ends with " follovr." 
66, „ 5, for 1885 read 1886. 

75, shift period from after Philippians, line 24, to after Mark, line 25. 

76, line 3, for eighth read sixth. 


„ 31, „ Wittier 

, Witter. 


,, 32, ,, demands 

, demons. 


„ 1, „ tend 

, trend. 


„ 28 & 32, for through , 

, thorough. 


„ 28, for 1885 „ 1875. 


„ 9, „ Mrs. 

, Mr. 


,, 13, ,, connected , 

, counted. 


,, 10, ,, eleven 

, ten. 


„ 18, ,, Morsgota , 

, Morzijofa. 


,, 20, ,, pelengoni , 

, perengoni 

Page 285, line 13, for January 1878— December, 1889 read January 1879 — 

December 1886. 
Page 285, line 29, for Jessie T. read Jessie F. 

Statistics : — 

Under head " Died in Communion," under Gauhati, for 166 read 165. 

Map : — 

Between the Miris and Mishmis, north of Lakimpur, should be repre- 
sented the Abors. 

The Singphos should be represented as occupying part of the hills ot the 
eastern part of Assam, and as extending, under the name of " Singphos or 
Ka-Kyens," (Ka-Chins), down to the south-east of Bhamo. 

The Kyens (Chins) should be represented as occui^ying the country along 
the Chindwin River. 

Disang Mukh, the river-station for Sibsagar, should be located at the 
mouth of the river south of its location on the map. 

Damra should be on the river east of its present location on the map. 

Samaguting should be in small type and Kohima in large. 

Chart .— 

Dr. Bronson and daughter, Miss Marie Bronson, returned to Assam in 
March 1870, instead of late that year. 

Mrs. Gurney arrived in Assam in 1877, not 1878, 


American Baptist Missionary Unimi. 

Rev. C. E. Burdette and Wife 
„ E. W. Clark and Wife 
,, A. K. Gurney and Wife 
„ M. C. Mason 
„ P. H. Moore and Wife 
„ E. G. Phillips and Wife 
„ S. W. Rivenburg and Wife 
„ W. E. Witter and Wife 

Miss Ella C. Bond 
„ Orrell Keeler 
„ Stella H. Mason 
„ Nettie Purssell 












Other Societies. 

Rev. T. Jerman Jones, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist 
Mission, Shillong, Assam. 

Rev. Isaac F. Row, Anglo-Indian Evangelization Society, 
Bangalore, Deccan. 

Missionaries Absent. 

Mrs. M. R. Bronson, in TJ. S. 

Rev. C. D. King and W if e, of Kohima, en route to U. S. 




December 18—29, 1886. 

Saturday evening, December 18. — All excepting Mr. and Mrs. 
Clark having arrived, a preliminary meeting was held and Rev. 
M. C. Mason appointed Chairman, and Rev. E. G. Phillips 
Clerk, for the following Monday sessions. Messrs. Moore, 
Witter and Phillips were appointed a Committee on Arrange- 
ments for Monday and Mr. Rivenburg, Mrs. Witter and 
Miss Purssell a Committee on Music for the whole Conference. 
Later in the eyening a devotional service was led by Rev. 
P. H. Moore. 

Sunday, Dec. 19. — At 9 a. m., after introductory services 
conducted by Rev. E. G. Phillips, a sermon was preached 
by Rev. Isaac F. Row, from Luke xii. 34-37. At 3 p. m., after 
introductory services in Assamese, by Rev. Tuni J. Goldsmith, 
pastor of the Nowgong church, Rev A. K. Gurney preached, 
in Assamese, from Matthew xxviii. 19, 20. At 7-30 p. m., 
after introductory services by Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, Rev. T. 
Jerman Jones preached from II Cor. x. 13-16. 

Monday, Dec. 20. — After devotional exercises from 8-30 to 
9 A. M. conducted by Rev. E. G. Phillips, the Committee on 
Arrangements was continued for the whole Conference, and 
Messrs. Moore, Burdette and Gurney appointed a Committee 
on Resolutions. A letter was read from the Presbyteiy of 
the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Mission to the Khasis, 
presenting Mr. Jones as their representative, and extending 
Christian greetings. The Clerk was requested, by vote, to 
draw up a letter in reply, extending to that Mission our 


Christian greetings, and Mr. Jones and Mr. Row were invited 
by the members to sit with us in full Conference. The fol- 
lowing papers were then read, and each followed by discus- 
sion : — namely, one on " Tithes^' by Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, 
and one on " The Necessity of Developing the Missionary 
Spirit in the Churches, and how best Developed," by Rev. 
W. E. Witter. 

At 2 p. M. officers were appointed as follows : — Moderator, 
for the evening and Tuesday, Rev. M. C. Mason ; for 
Wednesday and Thursday, Rev. A. K. Gurney; and for 
Friday and Saturday, Rev. E. W. Clark. Rev. E. G. Phillips 
was appointed Clerk for the whole Conference. A paper was 
then read on " Methods of Mission Work," by Rev. M. C. 
Mason, and followed by discussion. This was followed by a 
poem by Miss Nettie Purssell. 

In the evening Mrs. Gurney read an Historical Sketch 
of the Sibsagar Church and Mission. Letters from Mrs. 
Whiting, formerly missionary at Sibsagar, were then read, 
and prayers offered specially for Mrs. Whiting, and for the 
Native Christians at Sibsagar. 

Tuesday, Dec. 21. — After devotional exercises, from 8.30 
to 9 A. M., by Rev. I. F. Row, a jDaper was read on " Self- 
Support," by Rev. A. K. Gurney, and followed by discussion. 

At 2 p. M., two papers were presented, one on " Work for 
Assamese Girls and Women," by Miss Orrell Keeler, and one 
on "Work for Garo Girls and Women," by Mrs. C. E. 
Burdette. These were followed by discussion, during which 
the matter of Mrs. Scott, a former missionary, opening a 
medical Mission in Assam, was discussed. It was voted that 
" the sense of this Conference is that Mrs. Scott would do 
well to come to Assam now, and begin a Medical Mission." 
It was also voted that " Mr. Burdette be appointed to write 
to Mrs. Scott, informing her of the action of the Conference ; 
and to learn the opinion of the Natives of Gauhati, as to the 


work already attempted there, and as to Mrs. Scott's pro- 
posed work." 

At the evening- session, which, by vote, was held in the 
chapel instead of Mr. Moore's bungalow, an Historical Sketch 
of the Nowgong Mission was presented by Rev. P. H. Moore, 
after which letters from Mrs. Philbrick and Mrs. Scott, 
former missionaries at Nowgong, were read, and the latter 
translated to those knowing Assamese, but not English. 
During the session, hymns were sung in nine different 

Wednesday, Dec. 22. — (In chapel.) The devotional service, 
from 8.0O to 9 A. m., was led by Eev. S. W. Eivenburg. 
Business being resumed, Eev. A. K. Gurney in the chair, 
the Clerk was relieved of serving on the Committee of Ar- 
rangements, and Eev. M. C. Mason appointed in his stead. 
Eev. E. G. Phillips then read the Historical Sketch of the 
Garo Mission. Letters were also read from Eev. I. J. 
Stoddard and Dr. T. J. Keith, former missionaries to the 

At 2 p. M., at the chapel, a paper on " Work of Other 
Societies in Assam " was read by Eev. E. G. Phillips, and 
was followed by remarks by Mr. Jones and Mr. Eow. A 
resolution appreciative of Mr. Eow's work in Assam, and of 
sympathy and co-operation with his Society, was then 
passed."^ It was also voted that the Clerk give to Mr. Eow 
a copy of this resolution, to be forwarded to the Secretarj- 
of his Society. After some remarks by Norkha, a Khasia 
evangelist, Mr. Jones gave some account of the work of 
their Society among the Khasis. The Conference then 
adjourned to preach in the bazar and other places. 

The evening session, held in the chapel, was devoted to a 
testimony meeting at which each took part in his own 
language. The meeting was led by Mr. Jones. 

* For this and other resolutions see latter part of book. 

Thursday, Dec. 23. — After the usual morning devotional 
exercises, led by Eev, T. Jerman Jones, it was voted that 
the Conference be continued to Mc^nday and Tuesday of next 
week. A paper, on " The Claims and Conduct of Educa- 
tional Work in Missions," was then read by Rev. C. E. 
Burdette, and followed by discussion. 

At 2 p. M., Revs. M. C. Mason, A. K. Gurney and Tuni 
J. Goldsmith were appointed a Committee, "to make a 
digest of the letters from Rev. Godhula R. Brown, prepara- 
tory to the examination of his case to-morrow." It was also 
voted that " every subsequent session of the Conference be 
held in the chapel, when that is not otherwise occupied. 
Rev. P. H. Moore then read a paper on " The Need of a 
Native Ministry and How to Supply it." After the discus- 
sion following, the Conference adjourned to out-door 

In the evening, Historical Sketches of Deceased Assam 
Missionaries were presented by Mrs. A. K. Gurney and Miss 
Ella C. Bond, after which a resolution was passed, appre- 
ciatory of the pleasure and benefit received from the pre- 
sence in the Conference of Mr. Jones. This was followed by 
remarks by Mr. Jones, expressive of his own gratification in 
being present. 

Friday, Dec. 24. — After the devotional exercises, from 9 to 
9-30 A. M., led by Eev. C. E. Burdette, the Committee ap- 
pointed yesterday made their report. The report was such 
that it seemed unnecessary to further investigate the case., 
It was then moved " that we, as members of the Conference, 
deem it our sad duty, in consideration of his attitude against 
the church, and confessed misconduct, to withdraw froni 
Rev. Godhula R. Brown, our fellowship as a minister of the 
gospel." After a reply by Godhula, the motion was carried. 
It was also voted " that this Conference recommend the 
Sibsacrar church to rescind the ordination of Godhula R. 


Brown, and witbdraw from him the hand of Christian fellow- 
ship, and that they make their best efforts, in the spirit of 
the gospel, to restore him/' 

In the afternoon session, a paper, on "The Need of Ex- 
tending Our Work to New Openings," was read by Rev. 
E. W. Clark, and followed by discussion. 

In the evening session a j)aper on " Work for Missionaries' 
Wives " was read by Mrs. E. G. Phillips, also the Historical 
Sketch of the Ao Naga Mission, by Rev. S. W. Rivenburg. 
Rev. W. E. Witter gave a verbal account of the Mission at 
Kohima, and Mrs. Witter read the Historical Sketch of the 
Wokha Work. 

Saturday, Dec. 25, — At 10 a. m. Christmas services were 
conducted in the chapel by Rev. Isaac F. Row, who preach- 
ed from Luke ii. 10. The further sessions for the day were 

Sunday, Dec. 26. — At 10 a. m., after introductory ser- 
vices by Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, Rev. C. E. Burdette preach- 
ed from John xvi. 33. At 3 p. m., after the reading of the 
Scriptures and prayer by Rev. Tuni J. Goldsmith, the 
sermon was preached in Bengali by Thangkhan Sangma of 
Tura, from Joshua xxiv. 15. In the evening Rev. E. W. 
Clark conducted a general Conference meeting. 

Monday, Dec. 27. — The morning devotional exercises were 
conducted by Rev. M. C.Mason. Rev. E. W. Clark was then 
chosen to serve as Chairman " during the remainder of the 
Conference. Then followed a discussion on " Prevailing 
Vices," opened by Rev. S. W. Rivenburg. 

At the afternoon session, the question of the immediate 
occupation of Kohima was taken up, and a resolution, request- 
ing Mr. Rivenburg to at once occupy Kohima, was discussed, 
and unanimously adopted. Rev. A. K. Gurney then read a 
paper on "Translation," which was followed by discussion. 
The question of starting and locating a press for the Assam 


Mission was also discussed, but was laid over until to- 
morrow. A Committee was also appointed, consisting of 
Messrs. Clark, Moore, Mason and Burdette, to prepare a 
letter to the Executive Committee, bringing before them the 
need of more men for Assam. 

At the evening session letters from Secretaries of our 
Mission Societies, and from former missionaries to Assam, 
were read. 

Tuesday, Dec. 28. — The devotional exercises at 9 a. m. 
were led by Eev. W. E. Witter. At 9-30, Eev. P. H. 
Moore opened the discussion on " What to do with young 
Converts." After the discussion, the letter of the Clerk, on 
behalf of the Conference to the Presbytery of the Welsh 
Calvinistic Methodist Mission to the Khasis, was read and 
adopted. A resolution was also adopted, thanking Mr. Row 
for his presence and help in the Conference &c. The matter 
of the Press was then taken from the table, and it was voted 
" that it is the sense of the Conference, that, when we start 
a Press in Assam, we start it at Gauhati, as being the most 
desirable place for it." It was also voted, " that we take 
immediate steps for starting a Press at Gauhati." A Com- 
mittee of Messrs. Phillips, Burdette and Pivenburg was ap- 
pointed, after some discussion, "to arrange, prepare and print, 
at a cost not exceeding Rs. 1,000 for 500 copies, the matter 
of this Conference, in a suitable form." It was also voted 
that " as soon as the Committee has prepared their work, 
and made an estimate, they notify the different mission- 
aries, and solicit contributions towards the expense." It was 
also voted " that the Committee on publication be requested 
to make effort, for the sale of the book, and that after two 
years, the proceeds and unsold books be redistributed, pro- 
portionately to contributions. 

At the evening session, several resolutions were adopted ; 
first one appealing to the young men in home theological 


schools, to consider the claims of Assam upon them, and 
appointing Mr. Burdette to write to Newton, Mr. Witter to 
Eochester, Mr. Eivenburg to Crozer, Mr. Moore to Hamilton 
and Mr. Clark to Morgan Park. Another resolution was 
passed in reference to the work of Divine grace in the Congo 
valley; and a third, a resolution of thanks to our hosts. 
Mrs. E. W, Clark also gave verbal personal reminiscences of 
several former missionaries. 

Wednesday, Dec. 29. — After the morning devotional exer- 
cises, led by Rev. S. W. Eivenburg, the letter of the Com- 
mittee to present to the Executive Committee the needs of 
Assam for more missionaries, was read and adopted. It 
was also voted unanimously that, after three years, we hold 
another Conference of our Assam Mission. The attention 
of the Conference was drawn to a tract, entitled, " How is 
the World to Become Christ's ? " It was felt that the tract 
was not applicable to the Assam field, and Mr. Mason was 
appointed to Avrite a reply for the Examiner. A resolution 
of thanks to the authors of letters for the Conference was 
passed, and also one expressive of our need to seek Divine 
guidance, in adopting some system for raising up preachers 
and teachers of the Word. 

The Conference was then adjourned to meet again three 
years hence. 






Tune — America. 

Tliou who Alinio-lity art, 
Yet hast a Father's heart, 

Thine ear incline. 
Christ, our cause present ; 
For souls with love intent. 
May all our lives be spent, 

Spirit Divine. 

On Z ion's walls apart 

We've toiled with fainting heart, 

O Christ, for Thee. 
Wake now the trumpet sound ; 
Let all Assam resound, 
And all her tribes be found 

Turning: to Thee. 

First-fvuitsthouo-h small webrins:, — Not for the loved who sleep ; 

Half-century's offering, — Not for the watch we keep, 

Of all Thou'st given. Our prayer be heard. 

Ti'usting in thy sure word. We plead one Sacrifice, 

We now would prove Thee, Lord ; On Him we fix our eyes ; 

Let blessings rich be poured O for His praise arise, 

On us fi'om heaven. And us reyird. 

Sea-travelled prayers we hear ; 
Saints echo " Persevere :" 

Grand Jubilee ! 
Saved by the great I Am, 
Through lilood of Calvary's Lamb, 
Sin-free, — a new Assam 

By faith we see. 

By Rev. P, H. Moore. 

Assam is one of the twelve principal civil divisions into 
wliich India is divided for convenience of administration. 
Among these it ranks tenth in extent of territory and eleventh 
in number of population. But its location at the very 
north-east corner of the Indian Empire, bringing it into re- 
lation with border tribes, and also promising a way into 
Tibet and Western China, lends it a degree of importance 
more than commensurate with its relative size. 

Geography. Assam is situated between 23° 58' 30 ' and 
28° 17' N. Latitude and between 89° 46' and 97° 5' E. Longi- 

It is bounded on the north by the lower ranges of the 
Himalayas, on the east and south by a range of hills 
extending from the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal, and 
by the Bengal district of Tipperah. On the west by the 
Bengal districts of Maimansing and Rangpur, the State of 
Kuch Behar, and the Jalpaiguri district. 

The area, according to the latest figures given by the 
Survey Department is 44,750 square miles, of which 20,839 
is in the Brahmaputra valley, 9,581 in the Surma valley and 
J 4,330 in Garo, Khasi and Naga hills districts. 

The province is divided into these three parts according 
to its natural aspects. The hill tract being the watershed 
between the two valleys. The name Assam, though applied 
to the whole province, is more commonly used to mean 
simply the valley of the Brahmaputra, to which it strictly be- 
longs, as this on]y was under the rule of the Ahom or 
Assam kings, 


This valley is an alluvial plain about 450 miles long with 
an average breadth of about 50 miles, surrounded on the 
north, east and south by ranges of hills and mountains. 

Through the midst of this plain from east to west runs 
the mighty Brahmaputra river, the " Son of Brahm," as 
the name signifies. The Assamese have a tradition that 
they were once perishing for water, and their god Brahm 
gave them this great river. On one day in the year its 
waters are holy as the sacred Ganges. It has not yet been 
traced to its source. It enters Assam as a large river, and 
is swelled by thirty-four tributaries from the northern and 
twenty-four from the southern side which drain into it the 
water from the surrounding mountains. The Surma valley is 
much smaller than that of the Brahmaputra, in length much 
shorter, and broadens out into a wide plain. Here too there 
is one main river, the Surma, assisted by numerous smaller 
ones, draining the valley. The hill tract, including the Naga, 
Khasi and Jaintia, and Garo hills, is a long projected outwork 
of the mountain system that separates Assam from Burma. 
It consists not of one range, but of a large number of ranges 
and plateaux. It attains an altitude of 10,000 feet in the 
Naga district, gradually sloping down to 6,449 in the Khasi, 
to 4,700 in the Garo hill district. 

Rainfall. The recorded annual rainfall varies in different 
parts of the Brahmaputra valley from 60 to 111 inches. 
In the Surma valley from 120 to 173 inches, of which from 
50 to 60 per cent, falls in the months June to September. 
Cherra Punji, a place in the Khasi hills district has the 
greatest rainfall in the world, having an average of 489 
inches ; 805 inches are said to have fallen in this place in 
1861, of which 366 inches fell in the single month of July. 
With this heavy rainfall even the great river systems of 
Assam are sometimes overtaxed and destructive floods 


Temperature. The greatest range of the temperature 
during the whole year in the entire piovince is about 55° — 
saj from 45° to 100° F., and the average mean temperature 
is about 75°. Snow is unknown except as it is seen on the 
distant heights of the Himalayas, but there are occasional 
light frosts on the higher levels. 

Soil. The soil of the plain is mostly black loam, and is 
frequently enriched by inundations ; and that of the Hills 
is a red ferruginous loam, and is usually not cultivated in 
any one spot for more than two or three successive years. 
No artificial irrigation is required. Large tracts of arable 
land still lie waste, and the province is capable of maintain- 
ing a much denser population than at present exists. 

The present average density of population throughout the 
province is 109 to the square mile. But it varies from 319 
in Sylhet, the most populous district, to only 15 or 20 in 
some sparsely settled hill tracts. 

For Government purposes the province is divided into 11 
districts, as will be seen by referring to the accompanying 
map. These districts in the province are analogous to 
Counties in a State. Each having its own station correspond- 
ing to the county-seat of the county. The station is the 
head-quarters of all the district officers. Here courts are 
open and district work generally supervised. 

History. There is no book which pretends to give a his- 
tory of Assam. The record of events during the past one 
hundred years is fairly well-known, but one, tracing back the 
thread of history prior to the nineteenth century, advances 
into ever deepening obscurity. 

The valley of the Brahmaputra is believed to have been 
colonized by Aryans at a very early period. Perhaps, as 
early as the eighth century of our era, these Aryans were 
overcome by the Chutias, a horde who pressed into the valley 
from the north-east. They, however, did not wholly destroy 


or expel the Aryans, but gradually adopted their religion and 
amalgamated with them. These in turn were overcome by 
the Kochis, who entered from the west in the twelfth century, 
and established themselves in the lower part of the valley, 
but did not press on to its eastern end. 

The Ahoms, a tribe of Shan origin, whose depredations 
extended over several hundred years, entering the head of 
the valley in force in the thirteenth century overcame the 
remnant of the former dynasty left by the Koch invasion. 
These Ahoms, or Asams, multiplied and grew more and more 
powerful, pressing down further and further into the valley, 
until they came into collision with the Mussulman invaders 
from the west. 

These Ahom kings were the last native dynasty in Assam, 
and from them, the province takes its name. For a long 
period, they had fierce conflicts with the Muhammadans, 
who were trying to annex the valley to Bengal, But they 
finally successfully foiled these invasions, and maintained 
their sway till 18]0. 

They are said to have adopted Hinduism about the middle 
of the seventh century. Though successful in war, thay suc- 
cumbed to the enervating influences of their surroundings. 
Intestine strife and anarchy prevailed. At length the 
Burmans were called in as arbitrators. They saw their 
opportunity and in ten years' time were masters of the valley. 
Their atrocities are still matters of common traditions. 
So barbarous was their rule, that whole districts were depo- 

The British occupied Assam in 1824 as an incident of 
their war with the Burmese, and at the conclusion of that 
war in 1820, it was ceded to them by treaty. 

The British occupancy and development of the valley has 
been steadily carried forward since that date. 

For about fifty years it was attached to Bengal and ad- 
ministered by the Lieutenant-Governor of that Province. 


It gradually grew in importance, and in J 871 was made a 
separate Province with an independent administration under 
a Chief Commissioner. 

Ethnology. " There is no distinct Assamese nationality.'* 
Under the heading " Prevailing Languages " the Report 
on the Administration of the Province of Assam for 1885-86 
gives forty distinct languages and dialects, some of which 
are known to include other dialects not mentioned in the 
Report. This variety of language is a fair index of the 
mixed ethnic elements in the population of the plains of 
Assam. Take an Aryan substratum, mingle with it a Mon- 
golian element from the north ; then with this mixture a 
Dravidian element from the west ; add to this an element 
whose quality and quantity are both unknown ; once more 
mingle with this a strong element from the Shan race ; 
allow many centuries for the process of commingling ; give 
now a sprinkling of Burmese ; keep in mind that each one 
of these elements is preserved in every degree of change 
from absolute purity to the most thorough adulteration ; 
take into account on the one hand a fluctuatins" immi^ra- 
tion not hitherto mentioned, and on the other the influence 
of the tribes on the hill sides that have preserved their 
aboriginal qualities in various degrees of purity, and you 
have the people of the plains of Assam. Is not the typical 
Assamese a nondescript ? And yet there is a prevailing type 
of features, described as Indo-Chinese which, in our eyes, 
is fairer than either the pure Indian or Chinese. The Assam 
Census Report for 1881 divides the people according to 
language into 3 classes : 

(1) 3,881,775 permanent inhabitants, speaking the Aryan 
languages as follows : Bengali, 2,425,878 ; Assamese, 
1,361,359 ; Urdu, 94,538. These are the bulk of the people 
of the plains of the Brahmaputra and Surma valleys. 

(2) 882,307 speaking non- Aryan languages. Twenty dif- 


ferent languac^es are enumerated under this head, and 
of tliose speaking them the most numerous classes are the 
following, — Kacharis, 263,186; Khasis, 157,699; Garos, 
112,248, and Mikirs 77,765. Although about two-thirds of 
these 882,307 are enumerated as in the plains districts, 
they are generally speaking the inhabitants of the hills sur- 
rounding the plains of Assam. 

(3) 18,284 temporary settlers, mostly in the plains, speak- 
ing twelve different languages, and besides these 1,624 speak- 
ing a European language, and 5,130, whose language is not 
specified. These figures indicate how heterogenous is the 

The ethnical relations of several of the hill tribes are as 
yet undetermined. They are divided according to language 
into seven groups. Several of them show strong Mongolian 

The following are names of the leading tribes : Bliutanese, 
Akas, Daphlas, Miris, Abors (several tribes), Kamptis, 
Singphos, Mishmis (several tribes), Nagas (several tribes), 
Mikirs, Kukis, Kacharis, Khasis and Jaintias, Garos, and 
further to the south the Manipuris and Lushais. 

Government. Politically Assam is a pure monarchy. The 
Chief Commissioner is the Chief Executive officer of the 
Province, acting directly under the Government of India. 
He is assisted by a Secretary with an assistant and personal 
assistant ; two Judges, one for the Surma valley ; and one 
for the Brahmaputra valley, (who is also Commissioner of 
the Brahmaputra valley Districts) ; Conservator of Forests ; 
Deputy Surgeon-General (who is also Sanitary Commis- 
sioner); Inspector of Schools ; Inspector-General of Police 
(who is also in charge of the Registration and Commissioner 
of Excise and Stamps) ; and a Director of Agriculture. 

All these officers have their head-quarters at Shillong, a 
"station in the Khasi hills, 6, 150 feet above sea level, which 


thus becomes the capital of the Province, and is also its only 
sanitarium. During the cool winter months these officers 
travel all over the Province on inspection work, and in the 
hot rainy summer, return to head-quarters and issue the 
annual reports of their several departments. Besides these 
officers, there are eleven Deputy Commissioners, one for each 
of the eleven districts into which the province is divided. 

These, having their head-quarters in the chief town, or 
station, of their several districts, are directly under the Chief 
Commissioner of Assam. They, in turn are assisted by 
Assistant Commisioners of several grades ; and by a medical 
officer ; a police officer ; a Public Works officer ; a Forest 
officer; and an Educational officer, all of these again 
having local subordinates under them. Through these the 
details of administration in each department are effected. 

Military. Three regiments, with a total strength of 30 
European officers, 283 native officers, and 2,271 men are 
attached to the Province for its protection from wild tribes 
on the borders. As auxiliary to these there are 2,446 
Frontier Police stationed in the more exposed parts of the 
Province, and the number of Civil and Municipal Police be- 
longing to the several districts is about 2,000. 

Legislation. Politics in the English and American sense 
of the word is unknown to the mass of the people. Their 
legislation emanates direct from the Government of India. 
The chief officers of the province can shape it to the needs 
of the people, but the latter first hear of it when it is 
announced for enforcement. The dense ignorance of the 
people rendered this course necessary. 

Education. The Government is pushing the work of 
education as fast as possible, and is making commendable 
progress. The last returns show 2,424 schools of all grades, 
both public and private ; and these enrol 63,997 male and 
4,626 female pupils. But this is less than 10 per cent, of 
the population of school going age. 


gt;net?ai, vtew ov assam. 

Post Office and Telegraph Tliere are 195 Imperial and 
52 District Post Offices in the Province, the former under 
the direct control of the Government of India, and the 
latter, mostly small offices in out-of-the-waj places not 
yet transferred to the Imperial Government. The former 
received an approximate number of 4,232,540, and the latter 
163,346. covers for delivery in 1885. The Telegraph Depart- 
ment, also under Imperial control, has 48 offices, 1,148 
miles of line and 1,692, miles of wire. 

Revenue. The cost of maintaining this scheme of Govern- 
ment is met from the revenue of the Province, which is 
more than sufficient for this, leaving a round sum annually 
which goes into the Imperial Treasury. The total revenue, 
Imperial, Provincial, and Local for the past year was 
Es. 8,948,908. At present the chief sources of revenue 
are, land, Rs. 4,229,691. Excise, Es. 2,176,345. Stamps, 
Rs. 782,720, and Opium, Es. 419,456. 

Commerce. Assam is not a great name in commercial 
circles, nor does it seem destined to greatness in that 
line. Still it is not wholly insignificant, as the following- 
figures from the Administration Report for 1885-86 prove. 
Es. 29,047,167, (about $10,000,000) worth of Imports, and 
Es. 43,172,169 (about $15,000,000) worth of Exports were 
borne on her great rivers during the year. The following 
table shows what are the chief items of this trade : — 


Table showing chief Items of Import and Export. 






Coal ... 



Eaw Cotton 



Cotton Goods 



Drags and Chemicals 



Dyes and Tans 



Grains (Rice, &c.)... 



Hides and Skins ... 



Jnte (Raw) 






Metals (Brass, Iron, &c.) 



Oils (Kerosene and Others) ... 














Silk (RaWjIndian) .. 



Silk (Piece-Goods)... 








Stone and Lime ... ... — 









Woollen Piece- Goods 





It will be seen that cotton goods, metals and grains take 
the lead among the Imports ; and that tea is by far ahead 
among Exports, and is alone more than the whole Import 
Trade. Tea is in fact the one industry that gives Assam any 
commercial importance, and the fact that it is almost exclu- 
sively in the hands of foreigners (Europeans) is not flattering 
to the mercantile instincts and ability of the native population. 

The plant is indigenous in the land, but a European was 
the first to discover it and bring it to public notice, soon 
after Assam became British territory. European capital and 
enterprise nourished the industry in its infancy, have tided 
it over financial crashes, and established it on a permanent 
basis as the great source of wealth of the province. 



Besides this river-borne trade, a small amount of traffic is 
carried on every year with the neighbouring hill tribes, who 
come down from their mountain homes during the cool 
months for the pui-pose of barter. Rs. 551,027 worth of 
Imports and Rs. 134,356 worth of Exports are given under 
this head. 

Railways. There are two railways with 108 miles of line 
in the province. They are simply for the purpose of con- 
necting inlying parts with the Brahmaputra river which is 
the great artery of the valley. 

When our Missionaries first came to Assam, they were 
three months coming up this river from Calcutta in native 
boats. Now two lines of steamers run weekly from Calcutta 
carrying freight and passengers, &c. ; a line of mail service 
steamers connecting at Dhubri, with railway frou Calcutta, 
enables one to reach the upper end of the valley in six days. 

Roads. Some good, some bad, and some indifferent, 
enable one to travel inland in the more populous portions 
of the country. In other parts are only jungle paths. 

Only two towns have over 10,000 inhabitants and a few 
others have over 5,000 each. The great mass of the people 
are in small scattered villages. 

Crops and Products. The staple grain is rice, of which 
there are three main crops, the principal one being reaped 
in December and January. 

The fact that so much of this staple has to be imported is 
largely due to the presence of imported labourers on the tea 
estates. Out of 290,000 to 300,000 men, women and 
children who are employed in the tea industry, only about 
6 per cent, of the adults are Assamese. 

Only enterprise is lacking to enable the native population 
to raise rice for the imported labourers, who would always 
pay a fair price for it. 

Other common crops are mustard-seed, which yields an 


oil very commonly used for food and toilet purposes, and 
various kinds of pulse, of which the natives are very fond. 

Fish are plentiful in streams and ponds, and are more 
commonly eaten than any other animal food. 

The Hills of Assam abound in coal, iron, and limestone. 
*' Sylhet lime" is exported to Bengal at the rate of 30,000 
to 50,000 tons annually. 

The Makum Coal mines in the Lakimpur district now 
turn out a large annual supply of coal of good quality. 

Petroleum too is found in several localities, but has not 
yet been successfully worked. There are 9,586 square miles 
of forest in Assam which will be a material source of revenue 
under the present system of Reserves. 

Religion. It seems a hopeless task to try to give any 
other than the vaguest idea of the Religious condition of 
Assam in the few paragraphs now at our disposal. Indeed 
I doubt whether a whole volume of the most accurate 
description of the so-called religious beliefs and practices 
of the people of Assam, would not chiefly impress the 
reader with their monstrous and generally irreligious nature. 
An accompanying table shows the present population of the 
several districts of the Province, classified according to 
their religions. 






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Will the patient reader go over each district on the map, 
comparing it with the table and thus locate the population. 
Taking now the grand totals for the whole Province, we 
have the people labeled, and can say there are 5,462 native 
Christians, 3,062,148 Hindus, 1,317,022 Muhammadans, 
14, Sikhs, 177 Brahmos, 6,721 Buddhists, and 488,251 hill 
tribe people. But what real definite idea of the beliefs of the 
people with reference to God and their obligations to Him 
and of a future life, do these figures give ? 

Come walk down the street with me ; the first man we 
meet is a Hindu. Will you tell me now what his religious 
tenets are ? You know in a general way what Hinduism is ; 
but I venture the assertion that there is just about one 
chance in 333,000,000 that you will be right in getting the 
exact shade of this man^s thought, for Hinduism is a broad 
term, ranging from absolute monotheism on one extreme, to 
polytheism multiplied to the 333,000,000th degree on the 
other. But you say, this man shows by that daub of paint 
on his forehead just what his position in Hinduism is. 
Yes, quite true — that is almost true — that is, it would be true 
if he squared his creed according to the books. But such is 
not the case. Keep in mind the history of this people. Re- 
member, that though they are called Hindus, you will go very 
wide of the mark, if you expect to find their beliefs agree- 
ing with that of Hindus in other parts of India, as described 
in books on Hinduism. The denominations of Christians are 
numerous, but the differences of Hindus are legion. Assam 
is said religiously to have passed from primitive Hinduism, 
through Buddhism , Adi-Buddhism back again to Sivism and 
Vishnuism. There are scars of the fierce struggles that brought 
about all these changes. The conglomerate elements which 
mark the ethnical character of the people have their coun- 
terpart in the varied mosaics of religious belief. So that the 
three-fifth part of the population that are called Hindus pre- 


sent peculiarities that nothing short of local acquaintance 
will enable one to understand. However one or two general 
characteristics may be noted. 

(1) As a class they are idolators though we shall probably 
see no idols in our walk ; these are generally kept in temples 
and houses of worship. We have reason to be thankful that 
their excessive sanctity requires that most of the time they 
be veiled from the vulgar gaze, so that their hideous forms 
are not more frequently thrust upon us. We may see here 
and there shrines by the roadside — small, low pyramids of 
masonry with a hollow in one side, from which a dirty 
little lamp sends forth a feeble flickering light. But the 
devotees here are probably not native Assamese. They 
are immigrants of the merchant class — worshippers of 

(2) They are priest-ridden, they call their priests God, 
and are much more afraid to disregard their word than 
to disobey the law of God. If in their deepest conscious- 
ness, they do not regard sin against God as a very trivial 
matter, I know of no rational explanation of their conduct. 
A man will tell you that lying is sin ; that it is evil in 
itself and God's punishment of it is hell, but he goes on 
lying without compunction. He next admits to you that 
eating chicken is no sin in itself — still he will starve rather 
than eat it, simply because the priest forbids it. Does he 
not fear man rather than God ? He yields assent to autho- 
rity rather than reason, but it is human authority rather 
than Divine. To disobey the priest is to become outcast, 
which means more to the average Hindu than all the tor- 
ments of hell. 

Hindu castes are numerous — some high, some low. To 
whichever of these he belongs, his chief concern is to so 
observe its rules as to keep within its pale. Outward 
observance is all that is required for this. Hence it comes 


to pass that Hinduism, whose central thought is supposed 
to be undistracted meditation on the Deity, has degenerated 
into a round of lifeless formalities which now bind the 
people like fetters of brass. Until the Government intro- 
duced secular education the priestly class had a monopoly 
of learning. Since the days of Manu (700 B. C.) it has been 
regarded as a grave offence for one of low caste to so much 
as hear the words of their sacred scriptures. Thus the twin 
sisters, ignorance and superstition have held almost un- 
disputed sway — mutually rivalling each other in completing 
the degradation of the mass of the people. 

That next man we meet is a Mussulman. You know 
what the Koran teaches, so can tell pretty accurately what 
he believes, or rather ought to believe. For even the Mussul- 
mans of Assam have not escaped the influences of their 
environment. They belong to the same ethnical stock as the 
Hindus, being in large part descendants of the converts to 
Islam, made at the time of the various Mogul invasions of 
Assam. Hence, as is seen from the table, the greater 
part of Muhammadans are found in the districts border- 
ing on Bengal, where those invaders were most successful. 
Many of them hold the doctrines of Islam very loosely, 
or are very ignorant of what they are. Still they present 
a solid front against polytheism and idolatry ; but the vices 
so characteristic of the followers of the Prophet, find a fertile 
soil and attain luxuriant growth in the Mussulmans of 
Assam. Although no hour of the day has passed without 
lying and deceit, if with no more outrageous sin, do they 
not pray to the prophet four times a day, and will he not 
on this account plead effectually for them with the one 
God whose Prophet he is ? 

Works of merit to counterbalance their demerit before God 
are the great desiderata with both Mussulmans and Hindus. 
Blessed are the pure in heart is not among their Beatitudes. 


Passing on we find a man whose sturdy limbs give proof 
of mountain climbing. His prominent cheek-bones and 
slightly Mongolian cast of features at once mark him as 
different from the Assamese. I tell you he is a Hill man. 
But can you tell me what demon he worships ? That buffalo, 
pig or goat that he killed yesterday with so many incanta- 
tions, calling loud and long on the name of his god — whose 
wrath was he attempting to propitiate by the act ? What 
benefit did he expect from killing that fowl according to a 
time-honoured formula, leaving its blood and feathers under 
that green tree for the demon's acceptance and taking home 
its flesh to feast himself and family and perhaps neighbours 
also. Is it the demon of earth or air, or wood or mountain, 
who he fears will cause the failure of all his crops, and 
make his flocks and herds sterile and his wife barren, 
if he does not thus offer sacrifices ? Why are there no 
benevolent as well as malevolent spirits among his household 
penates ? 

We have already noted that more than forty languages 
and dialects are spoken in Assam. Half of these are lan- 
guages of hill tribe people. All these hill people are demon- 
worshippers, but each tribe has its own demons, and its own 
ceremonies, preserved in pristine purity, or largely modified 
by their environment. 

Remember too that the ranks of the Hindus are largely 
swelled by numbers of these hill tribe peoples, who, having 
given up keeping swine and drinking strong home-made rice 
liquor, to which they are greatly addicted, and paid a small 
annual fee to the priest, are admitted to the lower castes in 
the Brahmanical system. 

The hill people generally are anxious for the present life, 
sayino- what shall we eat and what shall we drink and 
wherewithal shall we be clothed (though very little clothing 
suffices) and the life to come claims very little of their 


thought. That Kachari, for instance, is a genuine Sadducee, 
and denies that there is either resurrection or angel or spirit. 
His motto is, let us eat, drink and be merry for to-morrow 
we die ; as the beast dieth, so dies the man. 

That Mikir, on the other hand, looks forward to a great 
and beautiful city into which he may hope to gain admit- 
tance after an indefinite number of transmigrations of soul. 
When his brother dies, he first mourns his loss with loud 
lamentations, then places by the corpse food and liquor for 
the journey of the departed spirit, and having allowed one 
or more days for the spirit to rest before starting on its long 
journey, be gathers his friends and neighbours and bids it 
depart joyfully on its journey, bidding it adieu with much 
mirth and singing, dancing and feasting, lasting all night in 
case of a child, and for several successive nights in case of a 
leading man. 

There is a respectable looking man, of the better class of 
the people. He has broken away from the thraldom of 
caste and now imprecates curses upon it. He has dared to 
think that his forefathers were wrong in matters of faith. 
He is a Brahmo ; a Unitarian among Hindus ; the Indian 
Theosophist. He has risen superior to the rubbish of Hin- 
duism. He wants no mediator between God and man. The 
human soul has a natural right to enter directly into the 
presence of the Father of us all. Human sin is too trivial 
an affair to have annulled this right. Hence no atonement 
is required, and he goes directly to God in worship. He 
dwells much on the infinite love of God, and does not trouble 
himself as to how He can be just and yet justify one who 
has broken His law. Hence, leaving out of sight the holi- 
ness of God, he also misses the most marvellous manifesta- 
tion of His love in the Divine Saviour. 

Here now we meet a native Christian, the chances are 
that he is from the hill tribe people, or if formerly a Hindu, 



that he is from the lower rather than the higher classes. 
Here at least, you think, is a man who believes and thinks 
as you do. But do not be too sure of this. Did not idola- 
trous superstitions cling to converts from heathenism in the 
days of the Apostles ? Do not be surprised if you find some 
of his former superstitions mingled with the truth which he 
■has received in Jesus. The ideas and associations of his 
childhood may not yet have been fully outgrown, though he 
is a true believer in the Christ of God. 

Such are some of the religious characteristics met with in 
Mission work in Assam. 

But the importance of this province as a mission field is 
not confined to its own limits and to its present 5,000,000 
of inhabitants. The fact of its location as a highway to 
Tibet and Western China enhances its value from a mis- 
sionary, as well as from a political and commercial point of 

The American Baptist Missionary Union occupied Assam 
in 1836 simply as a step towards entering China from the 
west. God turned us back, and has kept us here now fifty 
years. Was it because He saw that it was necessary that 
we first evangelize this valley and surrounding hills as a 
base of supply for more extended operations in the regions 
beyond, w^hich are still an unknown quantity in all our 
Geographies, both physical and moral ? 

Events are hastening to a consummation, and we are not 
keeping pace. Even during the past year links have been 
forged connecting this valley both with the north and the 
south. A Mr. Needham, the British Political Ofiicer at 
Sadiya, marched without armed escort, a distance of 187 miles 
from that station up the course of the Brahmaputra river 
into the Zayul valley. The significance of this journey lies 
in the now proven fact of the friendly disposition of the 
Mishmi tribe of that locality, and of the practicability of a 
route across to that far region. 


In 1854 two French Missionaries were murdered by those 
Mishmis, but it may now be time for us to press on thither. 

In November and December 1886 an expedition starting 
from Kohima made its way across Manipur into Upper Burma 
and joined hands with the British forces there. 

A way across to Burma is now established and in a few years 
will be easily practicable. 

Our Jubilee hymn says " Sin-free, — a new Assam by faith 
we see." It requires no prophetic vision to say that before 
that new Assam is realised, the regions beyond, both north 
and south, will be beckoning us on to still larger victories. 


By Mrs. A. K. Gurnet. 

The beginning of this Mission, as also the other two old 
stations of Assam, takes us back to the first Mission station — 
Sadiya, and our earliest Missionaries. The first attempt to 
reach Sadiya was made from Burma in 1835. Mr. Kincaid of 
Ava, having with great difficulty obtained permission to 
travel through the northern provinces, visited Bliamo and 
other villages, and in twenty-two days reached Mogoung 
which is 350 miles from Ava. Beyond Mogoung lies the great 
Hukong valley, still further north- west is a wilderness 
beyond which lies Sadiya in Assam. At Mogoung, Mr. 
Kincaid found it impossible to procure men or provisions, 
so turned his face again towards Ava. In 1836, Major 
Jenkins, the Commissioner of Assam, and other friends 
of missions, asked the Calcutta Baptists to start a Mis- 
sion on the frontier with chief reference to the Shan or 
Khamti tribes. The Calcutta Baptists asked the Ameri- 
can Mission in Burma, to take the field as it could soon, 
they thought, be connected with their Missions in Burma 
and open to the Missionaries an immense population between 
Burma and Assam. This seemed a providential opening. 
So Rev. Nathan Brown and Mr. Cutter with his printing 
press were sent from Burma, to open the new Mission. 
In 1836 we find them at Sadiya, commencing their work for 
the Khamtis and Shans. In April 1837, Bronson and 
Thomas were on their way up the Brahmaputra, approach- 
ing Sadiya when Mr. Thomas was killed by the falling 
of a tree from the bank. Mr. Bronson commenced work for 
the Singphos at Jaipur, and there remained till two years 

PAl'EK nv MRS. A. K. OUKNEY. 21 

later, when the work at Sadiya was broken up by an 
insurrection of the Khamtis, in which the station and villages 
in the District of Sadiya were burned, and the Khamtis scat- 
tered. Brown and Cutter were driven to Jaipur, and Mr. 
Bronson commenced a work for the Nagas at Nam Sang 
(in the hills) . In a few months the Government officers 
followed the Missionaries to Jaipur, and Sadiya deserted, was 
left to the tigers and jackals. 

In 1855, Mr. Whiting visited Sadiya and thus wrote :— 
" The houses have mostly disappeared and the very streets 
and walls have sunk to a level with the land, and have 
become overgrown with jungle." 

In 1840, Mr. and Mrs. Barker and Miss Ehoda Bronson 
came from America. Miss Bronson joined her brother in his 
Mission at Nam Sang; after a few months the continued 
illness of Mr. Bronson and his sister compelled their return 
to Jaipur, where Miss Bronson died at the end of the year. 
It soon became evident to the Jaipur Missionaries, that their 
work would be more effective in the plains among the 
immense Assamese population, than among the scattered 
tribes around Jaipur, so in 1841 we find them scattered to 
Upper, Central and Lower Assam. Messrs. Brown and Cutter 
came to Sibsagar where Mr. Barker had already been 
stationed for a year. Mr. Barker in 1840 gives us this first 
look at Eungpore or Sibsagar. He wrote, " This place is the 
present capital of Assam, is increasing rapidly, and will 
doubtless soon outstrip the former capital — Jorhat. The 
village is scattered on the banks of the Dikho. A mile away 
are the homes of European residents, of whom there are 
several, on the borders of a large tank two miles in circum- 
ference and thirty feet deep. On one side of this tank are 
three large temples which give to all around an ancient and 
venerable appearance." Five years later we get another 
picture of the old station, which remains nearly the same 


to-day in outward appearance as forty or fifty years ago 
save that the telegraph and mail steamer have given it a 
more rapid connection with the outside world. 

The Missionary Magazine Report for September 1845 says, 
*' Sibsagar is one of the most central and important positions 
for Missionary labor in Assam. It is on the Dikho river, 
a day's journey from the Brahmaputra directly opposite 
Rungpore, for many years the residence of Ahom kings, and 
eio-ht miles below Garhgaon their ancient capital and fort. 
The population in the immediate vicinity is large and partic- 
ularly well located for schools, there being about one 
hundred villages within a distance of six miles from the 
station. The population is mostly Ahom, the Brahmans are 
numerous, and a larger proportion of the people are able to 
read than in most other parts of the province." About the 
same time Brother Cutter thus wrote—" I wish you could go 
around with us for a week in the vicinity of Sibsagar. I 
resided in Maulmain three years, and I can say I think 
Gauhati, Nowgong, or Sibsagar a more interesting and 
inviting field than Maulmein." With this bright outlook, 
and two faithful Missionaries and their wives, who entered 
heartily into the work with them, to start the Mission, let us 
look at the harvest fields of forty years reaped by them and 
their successors. 

Nidhi Levi was the first Assamese convert, baptized at 
Jaipur, by Dr. Bronson in 1841. In 1846 there were a num- 
ber of converts in each station. Of the three baptized at 
Sibsao-ar, the conversions were so marked as to make a 
brief mention of each of interest even to-day, and what a 
■joy they must have been to the Missionaries' hearts. 

Batiram was a well-educated young Hindoo of the writer 
caste, who became a secret worshiper of Christ for some 
months. On his recovery from a serious illness he made 
unconditional surrender, and was baptized, though every 


effort was made by the Brahmans to prevent this. At his 
baptism, he addressed them all, urging them to take the true 
God and give up their idols. 

Eamsing his cousin, was very bitter towards him, finally 
led by the Spirit, he began to pray in secret and inquire 
what shall I do to be saved ? At the close of the Sibsagar 
Conference, December 1846, he was baptized by Dr. Bronson. 

The third convert, Kolibor, who had been an opium- 
eater gave up his old habits and was baptized. Person- 
ally knowing Kolibor we rejoice to-day to give testimony 
to his faithfulness. Not educated but a faithful man, he 
was employed some years as a preacher. Now, feeble and 
old, he waits patiently the call of his Master. At this 
time six hundred pupils were reported as connected with the 

From 1846 to 1851 when Mr. Whiting joined the Mission 
Messrs. Brown and Cutter were busy translating, printing, 
teaching and preaching both in and around Sibsagar. In 1846 
the Orunodoi, our Assamese newspaper, was started and a 
great deal of printed matter was issued from the Press, but 
in 1852 Mr. Brown says, " We must now stop and teach 
the people to read." In 1851, the Church numbered 17 
native members, and there had been 23 baptisms since 
the formation of the Church. In 1853 a problem arose 
which is still a serious question as affecting the pros- 
perity of this Mission. We find the following in the Missonary 
Magazine Report for that year. " The total or partial 
dependence of native converts on the Mission for temporal 
support is regarded aB an evil for which a remedy has been 
anxiously sought. The necessity of furnishing employment to 
all native Christians as means of support is a serious burden 
and the plan itself is not adapted to promote that personal 
independence and strength of character, which they should 
attain." On application of the Missionaries, land was granted 


to be cultivated by Christian families and five or six families 
thus found employment. 

In 1853, Mr. Cutter's connection with the Mission closed. 

In 1855, after a faithful service of twenty years, Dr. and 
Mrs. Brown returned to America, and two years later Dr. 
Brown gave up his connection with the Missionary Union. 
Up to 1855 Dr. Brown had baptized twenty including 
one Naga and two Europeans. In 1854 there were seven 
baptisms, of these four were baptized by Dr. Peck, who 
visited the Assam Mission that year. Up to 1871 Avhen a 
new era dawned, and new hopes were kindled for the Mission 
in the coming of the Kolhs, the baptisms had all occurred 
within the nominal Christian community, that is, the girls' 
boarding school and the persons in the employ of the Mission. 
During the previous thirty years, the average membership 
was twenty. After Dr. Bi-own's departure in 1855, Mr. 
Danforth and his wife came to Sibsagar, and assisted Mr. 
Whiting for one year. In 1857, Mr. Danforth returned to 
Gauhati when Mr. Ward left. 

During the year 1856 Mr. Whiting spent nearly seven 
months visiting all the large villages and towns in Upper 
Assam, but there were no immediate fruits of his labor, and 
in 1857 there were but few Missionaries on the field. The 
Danforths were at Gauhati, and Mr. and Mrs. Whiting at 
Sibsagar when the great mutiny commenced in April. The 
Whitings kept to their station till August when a plot was dis- 
covered at Sibsagar brewing among the sejjoys to rise at the 
Puja, kill all the Europeans, and place the young Prince at 
Jorliat on his grandfather's throne. Mrs. Whiting was the 
only European lady in the place. The Commissioner advised 
Mr. and Mrs. Whiting to go on the river, and placed a com- 
fortable boat at their disposal ; for several weeks they remain- 
ed in this boat. Meantime Captain Holroyd surprised the plot, 
sent the royal family away, telling some of the leaders who 


asked for a trial, " We'll hang you first and try you after- 
wards," which he accordingly did ! Of course the Mission 
work was greatly interrupted and it was not till four years 
later that we read of converts at Sibsagar. In 1861 there were 
eleven baptisms, none for the seven years preceding. 

In 1861 Dr. and Mrs. Ward came to relieve the Whitings, 
and the next year, after eleven years' faithful service, the 
Whitings left Assam, never to return. During his connec- 
tion with the Mission, Mr. Whiting baptized ten Assamese 
and one Naga. After Mr. Whiting left, Mr. Ward had the 
entire charge of the Mission for the next seven years. 
During these years, there seem to have been few conversions, 
and much to try the faith and patience of the workers. 
Under Mr. Ward's direction, the church, school and printing 
establishment were kept up. He translated and published 
the book of Psalms and revised the hymn-book, adding many 
original and translated hymns to those already furnished 
by Brown, Dr. Bronson and Nidhi Levi. In 1866, Mrs. 
Ward, who seems to have been enthusiastic always in teach- 
ing the people to sing well, wrote : '^ If the Assam Mission 
is behind some others in its churches and converts, few 
I think can excel it in its hymn-book." In 1865 Dr. 
Bronson was at Sibsagar working on his dictionary which 
was issued from the Press in 1866. 

In 1868, Mr. Ward baptized seven Assamese. In 1869, 
after eight years of hard work here, Mr. Ward made over 
care of Press and Mission to Mr. Clark and returned to 
America for a rest. 

Mr. Clark from the first was strongly drawn to the Naga 
Hills. In 1871 he wrote — " I am assured that for some ten 
or twelve years past, there has been very little proclamation 
of the gospel to the heathen in this part of Assam, by a mis- 
sionary. Tribe upon tribe of Nagas are accessible to the 
gospel. It is certainly painful for us at Sibsagar to be 


unable to lift our eyes without seeing these hills and think- 
ing of the men on them who have no knowledge of Christ." 

In 1871, Mr. Clark baptized the first Kolhs — four men who 
came a distance of seventy miles seeking baptism, one had 
been a Christian several years, through his efforts the other 
three were converted, the next year nine more were baptized, 
and the next year thirty, making forty-three Kolhs in all. It 
was Dr. Ward's privilege to baptize twenty of these converts 
on his return in 187-2, but at the later baptism his strength 
was scarcely sufficient for the task, he lingered but a few 
months, and then the Master called him. 

In 1872 we find Mr. Clark at Sibsagar with his eyes 
still directed to the hills. Sending a native preacher, he finds 
them even eager for the gospel, and urges the Missionary 
Union to take up this work. 

In 1874, Mr. Clark was designated to the Naga work and 
Mr. Gurney who that year completed his studies at Newton 
was appointed to Sibsagar with the especial task of complet- 
ing the translation of Scripture into Assamese, a work com- 
menced thirty years before. 

In 1874 there were fourteen Kolhs baptized and in 1875 
there were fifteen. 

In 18 7G, Mr. Clark turned over the Assamese work and 
Press to Mr. Gurney, and went to the Hills. 

From 1876 to the present date, or the last ten years, the 
hopes of the Mission have been so greatly dependent on the 
Kolhs as to make a brief notice of this people, in place here. 
They are imported tea-laborers from Chota Nagpur, a 
country of Central India, several hundred miles to the south- 
west of Calcutta. Their language is called Mundari. Our 
Assamese call them Bengalies, because they come up here by 
way of Bengal. In their own country the German Mission has 
made great progress, numbering its converts by thousands. 
They are a race without caste. On the tea-gardens of 


Assam the Kolhs and Santals number about 10,000. Many 
belong to the Church of England. Sibsagar being the great 
tea-district of Assam, our Mission has received more of these 
converts than any other. The most important branch 
churches formed of Kolhs, are atTiok ^0 miles south-west of 
Sibsagar, Bebejia (formerly called Modhupur) 50 miles away 
near the Naga hills, and Mokrung about 60 miles away. 
South-west of Sibsagar are the gardens Mackeypur and 
Dolbogan. In 1878, Rev. Henry Osborne of Southampton, 
England, proposed to pay into our Mission treasury £500 at 
once, and £100 annually for five years, in all £1,000, on con- 
dition that we would sustain two native preachers in his 
tea-gardens at Dibrugarh. Dr. Bronson visited the gardens 
and reported : "' On each of the two gardens are about two 
hundred coolies, men, women and children. They are all 
Santals from Chota Nagpur, Hindus, and are said to have 
a priest with them. They do not understand the vernacular 
of our Kolh preachers nor Assamese. Hindustanee is the 
only means of communicating with them. Dr. Bronson was 
sent to Dibrugarh to commence this work but owing to his 
ill-health and return to America, more especially the violent 
opposition of the manager of the gardens, this was all lost to 
the Mission. 

The particulars of Mr. Gurney's work for Kolhs and 
Assamese, and the station work for the last ten years may be 
gathered from his letters and reports to the Missionary 
Magazine. Up to 1879, he baptized thirty Kolhs. 

In 1879, he wrote — "The Assamese portion of the Church 
remains about the same, while the Kolh work, the hopeful 
element in this Church, is steadily growing. I have bap- 
tized eight Kolhs, who came from thirty miles away to 
receive this ordinance. There is great need of a special 
missionary for the Kolhs. As all do not understand Assam- 
ese I'eadily, they would receive much more instruction in 


Hindi than they can in Assamese. With the constant drain 
of press, church, preaching, editing of " Orunodoi," oversight 
of Assamese and Kolhs, both preachers and people, translation 
is of necessity slowly progressing." Early in 1880 Mr. Gurney 
made three trips to Tiok, Bebejia, and Mackeypur. During 
these three trips he baptized fifty-four persons. At that time 
he writes — " Tiok is a branch church of forty members, 
most of them baptized in Sibsagar by Mr. Clark or myself. 
These Tiok Christians have a chapel of their own building, 
hold service every Sunday, and their conduct is very satisfac- 
tory. Modhupur is even more interesting than Tiok, they 
have a neat chapel of their own building, and every Sabbath 
a service conducted by themselves. Christianity means some- 
thing to them, ignorant but sincere disciples of their lowly 
Saviour. My third trip was to Mackeypur, a large garden, 
belonging to the Assam Tea Company, here I baptized twenty- 
eight. The Christians of this garden are young converts and 
need much instruction, yet I note as a promising feature, 
that each of the ten couples I married here, made a volun- 
tary offering of one rupee. This is noticable in men, whose 
wages are only Rs. 5 or 6 per month. Not much of note in 
the Assamese department. In translation I have completed 

In 1881, eight Kolhs were baptized. 

In 1882, Mr. Gurney visited Bebejia and baptized seven. 
The same year Mr. Gurney writes of quite an interest among 
the Assamese portion of the church — children of our Christian 
parents, going on so quietly as to give us a surprise when 
several of our young people began to speak in our meeting. 
Five of these whose evidence of conversion seemed clear, I 
had the pleasure of baptizing in the Diklio. 

In 1883 Mr. Gurney writes — " I have visited Modhupur, 
where I baptized nine Kolhs. At Tiok I baptized eight. 
I found seventy-five Communicants at the Tiok service. The 


manager of the garden here is very much pleased with these 
people, gives them a good name as Christians. At Sibsagar 
I have baptized one Assamese, a young man of promise and 
ability, making eighteen baptisms in all." This year made a 
marked change in the Assamese department of the Church. 
The sale of the Press scattered the church-members, some 
went with the Press to Nazira as workmen. After nine years 
of service Mr. Gurney was obliged to go home for a rest and 
left Sibsagar in May 1883. 

Early in 1884 Mr. and Mrs. Witter and Mr. and Mrs. Eiven- 
burg came to Sibsagar. Mr. and Mrs. Rivenberg who were 
designated to the Naga hill station, Molung, were detained in 
Sibsagar for about a year. Mr. Witter was greatly troubled 
for preachers — no Assamese preachers for a district of up- 
wards of 300,000 Assamese, and he says — " Without a special 
effort in the line of school-work — an effort in my opinion 
amounting to the constant supervision of one or two Euro- 
peans I fail to see, as I think our brethren in America 
must fail to see, how our work for the Assamese is to exist 
much longer." In the Kolh work Mr. Witter rejoiced. On 
one garden he baptized eighteen in one day, and two from 
another place. Early in 1885 Mr. Gurney returned to Sibsagar, 
made one tour and baptized seven on the new garden at 
Mokrung. In March 1885, Mr. Witter was driven by con- 
tinued ill-health to the hills, and Mr. Rivenberg went to 
Molung for the Naga work. Mr. Gurney alone remains for 
the work, which Mr. Witter had written " is more than can 
possibly be accomplished by brother Gurney and myself, both 
working at our best." 

This year two Kolhs have been baptized. Present number 
of church-members is 154. 

The number of Kolhs who can be actually counted on the 
church roll is really smaller than reported two years ago, 
for these reasons, — several whose contracts on the gardens 


have expired, have returned to their native country' and others 
liave left the gardens and gone to other parts of Assam to 
distant gardens or to engage in cultivation. 

Since their contracts on the gardens cover but a few years, 
two, three or five as they agree upon, the Kolh work is 
necessarily fluctuating, and the migratory character of the 
Kolhs, makes the work less promising than it at first appear- 
ed. But who can say how many seed-sowers shall go forth 
from these gardens, and how great the outcome, if we 
steadily obey this command. 

" In the morning sow thy seed, and in the evening withhold 
not thy hand, for thouknowest not whether shall prosper." 

By Rev. P. H. Mooke. 

In October 1841, Rev. Miles Brousoii, driven away by 
disturbances from work in Upper Assam in the vicinity of 
Jaipur and among tlie Nagas, adopted Nowgong as a Mis- 
sion station. 

Up to that date no evangelical mission work had been 
done in the district. The population at that time had not 
been accurately numbered, but was estimated to be about 
200,000 — mostly Hindus, but with a considerable sprinkling 
of Mussulmans, and hill tribe peoples. After getting settled, 
Dr. Bronson began preaching and school work at once, and 
in April 1842, had schools enrolling 80 pupils. But the 
home influences of his pupils were very bad, counteracting 
all the good influences he could bring to bear upon them. 

To escape this difficulty, and to make a determined and 
systematic effort to raise up trained helper for his work, 
Dr. Bronson established the Nowgong Orphan Institution, 
into which he received such children as he could get of all 
ages and both sexes. This orphan institution was a leading 
feature of the work in Nowgong for the next ten years. 
Dr. Bronson succeeded in enlisting the interest of Christian 
friends all over Assam in this school, and thousands of 
rupees were subscribed for its maintenance, and children 
were sent to it from neighboring districts. 

Both Dr. and Mrs. Bronson gave much of their time and 
strength to teaching in the boys' and girls' departments of 
the school till 1848, when Mr. and Mrs. Stoddard, who had 
been specially designated to the superintendence of this 
institution, arrived to relieve them. But by that time Dr. 
and Mrs. Bronson with impaired health were obliged to take 
leave for America. 

In the meantime, however, a Baptist Church had been 
organized in Nowgong in 1845, with six constituent mem- 


bers, including Dr. and Mrs. Bronson. So when Mr. Stod- 
dard arrived he found the Church and school — two evange- 
lizing forces, already organized and at work. The burden 
of entire care fell on his shoulders by Dr. Bronson's depar- 
ture, but as English was then taught in the school, he could 
begin active work at once, without waiting to acquire the 
Assamese language. 

Early in 1850, the Missionary force was increased by the 
accession of Mr. G. C. Daiible, a Missionary of the German 
Lutheran Mission at Tezpur who, having embraced Baptist 
views of baptism and church polity, was baptized by Dr. 
Brown at Tezpur, and immediately joined the Mission at 
Nowgong, first as Missionary teacher and soon after as an 
ordained Missionary. 

For three years he served the cause zealously and effici- 
ently, first in the orphan institution, and when relieved from 
that, in preaching from village to village, till March 1853, 
when he was called to his reward. 

In March 1851, Dr. and Mrs. Bronson returned, bringing 
with them Miss Shaw, who was to help as teacher in the 
orphan school. The Missionary force then was the strongest 
that has been in Nowgong in all its history — Dr. and Mrs. 
Bronson, Mr. and Mrs Stoddard, Mr. Daiible and Miss Shaw, 
who became Mrs. Daiible in July 1851. This band worked 
on heartily and successfvilly. The orphan institution was 
flourishing with good numbers in both boys' and girls' 
department, the heavy work of bungalow building was 
pushed to completion, and village preaching was prosecuted 
vigorously. It was also a time of reaping, and baptisms were 

In November 1851 the Church for the first time gave 
"license to preach" to two of its members, Lucien B. 
Haydcn, and James Tripp. But the former went to Sibsagar 
and the latter died in 1853 — his death being a heavy blow to 
the Mission. 


1854 was an eventful year. Rev. Dr. Peek, sent out as 
a Deputation to visit the Asiatic Missions of the American 
Baptist Missionary Union, reached Gauhati in December 
1853, — proceeded from there to Sibsagar and in January 
1854 met for consultation all the Assam Missionaries 
assembled at Nowgong. All the interests of the Assam 
Mission were considered, but the Nowgong Orphan Institu- 
tion was the occasion of the most discussion and the most 
difference of opinion between the Deputation and the 

Want of space forbids entering into the details of the 
Conference. Suffice it to say, that contrary to the unanimous 
judgement of the Missionaries on the field, the Nowgong 
Orphan Institution was so far modified that its practical 
abolition was a question of only a few years time. Since its 
abolition no organized systematic training of Assamese con- 
verts for Mission work, has been carried on. 

The efforts of various Missionaries in this line have been 
single-handed and necessarily intermittent, and the result, 
such as might have been expected from such a policy. The 
Conference adjourned and the Missionaries dispersed to their 
several fields. Work in Nowgong went on much as before 
for about one and a half years, when in September 1855 
Mrs. Daiible was compelled by ill-health to leave for America, 
and the Stoddards followed her in December of the same 
year, thus leaving Dr. and Mrs. Bronson alone again on the 
field. In June 1855, Ghinai was licensed to preach — the 
third licentiate of this Church. In September 1857 ill- 
health compelled the Bronsons to take their second furlough 
to America, and the field was left without a Missionary for 
twenty months. The work was left in charge of Charles 
Sonaram Thomas, their native helper. The Church declined 
greatly dm'ing this period. By deaths, exclusions and scat- 
tering of members it was reduced to five resident members- 
one less than when it was organized. 


Tn May 1859 Rev. and Mrs. C. F. Tolman amved. They 
had been looking forward with special encouragement to the 
work among the Mikirs, but had to take charge of the station 
on their arrival. However they made a tour to the Mikir 
hills the following cool season, and here Mr. Tolman imbibed 
that malaria, which broke down his health and drove him 
back to America in June ]861, having been on the field only 
two years. But before his departure, in December 1860, 
Dr. and Mrs. Bronson had returned to Nowgong from 
America, and Mrs. Tolman remained with them, hoping 
Mr. Tolman might return. But it soon became apparent 
that he could not hope to work in Assam, and Mrs. Tolman 
followed him home in 1862, and the station was again left to 
Dr. and Mrs. Bronson alone until November 1863, when Eev. 
E. P. and Mrs. Scott arrived, having been designated espe- 
cially to the Mikir department. 

The first attempt at work by out-stations manned by 
native helpers was made in May 1863, when Bhubon was 
licensed and located in his own village in Darrang. But the 
attempt failed by his unfaithfulness. 

The first Mikir convert was baptized in 1863. Mr. and 
Mrs. Scott entered heartily into the work for this race, 
which at that time inhabited the range of hills in this dis- 
trict. They made an early tour to these hills, but the 
malaria, that dread enemy of all Europeans in Assam, drove 
them back to America in just about two years, after their arri- 
val here. 

Dr. Bronson, besides school and preaching work, labored 
with his pen to give the Assamese a Christian literature, as 
is evident from the number of Hymns and Tracts that bear 
his name. He now undertook the great literary work of his 
life — the Assamese-English Dictionary. Special friends of 
the Assamese seeing Dr. Bronson's special fitness for this work 
urged him to it and contributed freely towards the expense of 


publishing it. It was undertaken when he had Mr. Scott as 
an associate, but the enforced absence of the latter, left Dr. 
Bronson with this heavy work on his hands in addition to the 
whole care of the station. He, however, persistently pushed 
it to completion and it was published in 1867. In January 

1868, he was again reinforced by the return of the Scotts, but 
the double burden had so worn on him that he was obliged to. 
again leave for America early in that year. It was now the 
Scotts' turn to be left on the field single-handed. But their 
work was not to be of long duration, for in the following 
year Mr. Scott was called home to his reward. He died of 
cholera in Nowgong on the 18th May. He had been greatly 
interested in the Mikir people and had endeared himself to 
them, so that they felt his death as a real bereavement. 
Mrs. Scott bravely continued work alone till the return of 
Dr. Bronson in March 1870, and still held on until the 
Rev. R. E. Neighbor, who had been designated as Mr. Scott's 
successor in the Mikir Department, came out in January 
1871, and took up the work which Mr. Scott so early had 
laid down. Mrs. Bronson had died in America in September 

1869, and Dr. Bronson on his return was accompanied by his 
daughter Miss Marie Bronson, who was to be his helper and 
who entered into the work with much of her father's earnest 

A second attempt at working an out-station by native 
helpers was made by putting Charles and Besai at Nonoi, 
a thickly populated section about 7 miles from the station. 

By the arrival of Rev. and Mrs. R. E. Neighbor the 
station was again manned with two Mission families; 
Mrs. Scott removing to Gauhati ( which then seemed more 
needy ) in 1871. Mr. Neighbor took up in earnest the work 
for the Mikirs. He gave much attention to school work 
among them and succeeded in getting from Grovernmeut a 
grant-in-aid of Rs. 1,500 a year, Rs. 600 of which was 


for a Normal school for the training of teachers for village 
schools among the hill tribes, and Rs. 900 for the mainte- 
nance of those village schools. 

About this time Dr. Bronson married Mrs. Danforth, 
widow of the late Rev. A. H. Danforth of Ganhati. But 
she too was soon called home. She died in Burma in 1874 
whither she had gone in hope of benefit to her health by the 
change of climate. 

This affliction was soon followed by another, for Miss 
Marie Bronson, who had accompanied Mrs. Bronson to 
Burma, died of cholera on the steamer near Goalpara, on 
her way back to Nowgong and was buried at Goalpara. 

Soon after Dr. Bronson' s double affliction he removed to 
Gauhati, and the Neighbors were left alone in charge of the 
whole district till December 1875, when they were joined 
by Miss Sweet, who had been sent out by the Woman's Society 
of the West to take up Zenana work and girl's schools here. 
Miss Sweet's health failed her and she was not able to con- 
tinue long on the field. She tried various expedients to 
win back her health, but none of them were permanently 

In 1877 occurred the first ordination of Assamese converts 
to the work of the Gospel Ministry, Kandura R. Smith of 
Gauhati and Charles Sonaram Thomas of Nowgong being 
both ordained by a Council of Missionaries and churches 
which met at Gauhati. 

Charles was chosen pastor of the church at Nowgong in 
October of that year and continued in the office till his death 
in November 1881. He was a good helper and was greatly 

Mr. Neighbor finding it necessary to return to America in 
March 1878 invited Miss Keeler to come to Nowgong from 
Gauhati, as it was thought Miss Sweet in her feeble state of 
health was not equal to the burden of the entire work. For 

tAfER BY KEV. i*. H. MOOBE. 35^ 

a few months only Misses Keeler and Sweet were together, 
when ill-health obliged Miss Sweet to leave. She went to 
Calcutta for medical treatment and was there married to 
Eev. C. D. King and joined him in his work for the Angami 

Miss Keeler stood bravely at the helm alone, although the 
care and anxiety nearly wore her life out, until January 1880 
when Eev. F. H. Moore and wife arrived fresh from America, 
and she only too gladly transferred to him the charge of 
the station, reserving for herself the Women's Department, 
consisting of the zenana work, and girls' schools, which pro- 
perly belonged to her. She had, however, to be tongue and 
ears for the new-comers for two or three years longer, which 
added greatly to her own proper work. 

In April 1882 Tuni J. Goldsmith was ordained, and became 
Charles' successor as pastor of the church, in which office 
he still continues. For some years the church had been 
saving its collections in the hope of some time building a 
chapel. In 1882 it became necessary to rebuild the old 
chapel, and the church contributed Rs. 300 to this work. 

Miss A. K. Brandt sent out to be associated with Miss 
Keeler arrived in November 1881, but did not remain long 
in Assam. She was married to Rev. R. Maplesden of the 
Telugu field in January 1883, having been in Nowgong only 
about fourteen months. But Miss Keeler was not able 
longer to continue on the field without a change, and left for 
America in March 1883. 

Mrs. Moore took charge of the Women's Department of 
the work during her two years and eight months' absence, 
teaching daily in the girls' school, and going with the zenana 
women as often as she could. 

In 1883 the church, as a church, made its first attempt at 
financial support of an evangelist to the heathen, choosing 
Sarlok and paying him Rs. 8 per month to preach among 
the Mikirs. 


In July 1885, this work gave place to an attempt at self- 
support. The church agreed with Rev. Tuni John Goldsmith 
to serve it as pastor three days (Friday, Saturday and Sun- 
day) of each week, paying him Rs. 10 per month for his 
services. It also chose three Deacons, who with the Pastor 
were to exercise a general watch-care for the interest of the 
church. All cases of discipline and difficulties in the church 
are examined by them, thus relieving the Missionary of much 
time-consuming work. The plan is working as well as 
could have been expected of a first attempt ; and it is hoped 
the church will gradually attain to true independence. 

In November 1885, Miss Keeler returned to her work and 
was accompanied by Miss N. L. Purssell, who was to be 
associated with her in the Women's Department and who at 
once took up the study of the language. 

Since the establishment of the Mission in Nowgong the 
population of the district has largely increased, numbering 
according to the Census in 1882 310,579, of whom 249,710 
are Hindus, 12,074 Mussulmans and 48,795 others, including 
Christians and all non-caste people. 

Great improvements have been made in the way of road 
and Postal communications. The cause of education has 
advanced considerably. The last Report on Education shows 
that there are in the district 153 schools of different grades, 
enrolling a total of 5,377 pupils. This spread of education 
is a great advantage to Mission work, both by opening the 
way for the use of tracts and religious books, and by a 
general undermining of many superstitions. 

As a Mission we have not kept pace with the develop- 
ment of the district. The frequent change of Missionaries 
and the fewness and inefficiency of our untrained native 
workers have been crippling hindrances to the aggressive 
prosecution of our work. Many of the people have not yet 
even heard of Jesus Christ, and the general impression 



among those who have heard, is that Christianity is a modern 
religion that has come intending to break their caste ; that 
is, simply to destroy their social standing among their 
countrymen. Some have heard and secretly believe, and 
if caste were done away, and they felt free to act as they 
think, would be called Christians instead of Hindus. 

Hinduism says " sin is straw ; works of merit are the fire 
which utterly consumes it." The teachings of the Gospel 
that sin is a heinous offence against God, a challenge to His 
sovereign authority and that it can be expiated only by a 
Divine atonement — that justification is by faith alone, with- 
out the deeds of the law — that " God so loved the world that 
He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on 
Him should not perish, but have eternal life," are so foreign 
to the thoughts of the great majority, that it may require 
another half century of preaching before they fairly begin 
to apprehend them. 

The appended tables are instructive, as showing the pro- 
gress of the church in each decade of its history, and the 
various races that have been included in its membership. 

Table sho%i>ing 'progress of No%vgong Baptist Church hy Decades. 


^ A 










w • 





















































by Races o 

/ those received into 


ong Baptist Church. 


S 1 





































1845— '55 










1855— 'G5 








1865— '75 











1875— '85 












^ W 

S w -^ - 

fi , ^ in lO 
Jjl— ' CS - 

I- to « 


2 t-H 

B c3 

'^ .«• '^^ 

a; - 

fl -s S 

rO -^ 

1 J a 


P ss . 



CO c s 

c3 IS 
w . O 

CS 03 

s c 

IS 3 

be o 

.t>Sd g 

TJ .5 


at s 

^ > >■ 
s * o 

Q Cq HH ^JH 

.-^ 2 (D aj 

"I '\ 


. c3 • • 

O OJ o 05 

«5 Q CD CD 

"I iVl 

00 i« QO 00 

-}i us Its "Xi 




^ be 

O 1^ 

eo US i-H 00 00 M i>" eo 

40USCD i^t" GOOD 00 

i>i>o6'^*i>usi>o6usio.^ m ... .:7; 

•*USCDl>'4'USUSCCiUSU5t<'g 2 h h • • ^ !- .^ 

"1 '] "1 "j '1 "1 '1 "1 '1 "1 «3 Q^ S (M «5 O us i-H "* ^ cS Tjt 00 « P, 2 

^SSg^c^SS^^ II i II I I I I I I I I I I I M I 

.. _ ., « - ., - « .. - Oi-H 0505C0Q0e»S00O^r-l(N(X>00l0OOi-IUS 

O g d g 1^ ^ ^ ^ ^ > > q fl q 53 > a* q > > 

feg SS!2;h3>^h3 h^i-s S 12; t-5 Hj ;2i ^2; 



5^0 « ^H gcQ 

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t> CO t> 00 ^^ t> CO > 

(D ^ <D t^ ^-^ (D Jh aj 

o ^ . o 

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no • • • 00 00 

00 > 50 to 50 00 

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t> g to oo 



Origin and Workers. — The band-book of the American 
Baptist Missionary Union notes the Gauhati Mission as 
established in 1837, the year of the opening of the mission 
to Assam. But we read in the Missionary magazines that 
among the changes immediately accompanying the breaking 
up of the station at Jaipur, late in 1843, Mr. Barker re- 
moved from Sibsagar, and after a short tentative sojourn 
in Tezpur, took up his residence in Gauhati, the most im- 
portant town in the province. Certainly but little had been 
done before Mr. Barker's arrival. If a compound had been 
selected, there were no buildings upon it. Mr. Barker 
was the first pastor of the Gauhati church, and it is likely 
that he was the first missionary of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union definitely stationed in Gauhati. He re- 
mained less than six years, and died before reaching America. 
The tablet to his memory given on the following page was 
affixed to the walls of the chapel afterwards erected. 

After Mr. Barker, in more or less broken succession, 
occasionally and for short seasons associated in little com- 
panies, we meet a number of dear and honored names. Mr. 
Danforth arrived in 1848, a year and a half before the 
departure of Mr. Barker. Another substantial brick bun- 
galow was erected under his care, and a chapel building. 
The latter is a substantial brick building, quite sufficient 
to accommodate all congregations up to the present. It 
was a gift from the European residents in Gauhati, many 
of whom attended preaching service within it. Mr, 


^i€;§®i TO THE m^M^M' 










in %'Mtt IS mtUh 






Bevel XIV. 13. 


Danforth remained, with a short transfer to Sibsagar, ten 
years, and then returned finally to America. 

Mr. Ward is mentioned as associated with Mr. Danforth 
in the work at Gauhati, for at least one year. 

After Mr. Danforth left, seven or eight years passed 
before the work was taken up again by Messrs. Stoddard and 
Comfort. They seemed quite depressed by the effects of 
the long neglect of the field, but as Mr. Stoddard already 
knew the language and had had experience in mission work, 
it was possible to put it speedily into prosperous shape 
again; but Mr. Stoddard was more needed for the Garo 
work at Goalpara ; so, after five months, he departed thither 
and Mr. Comfort was left alone. He remained on the field 
about seven years. 

During Mr. Comfort's term of service, the station was 
reinforced by the transfer of Mrs. Scott from Nowgong, 
where her husband had died. It would almost seem that 
she was only called upon to keep up the work during the 
temporary absence of Mr. and Mrs. Comfort on account of 
ill-health. She seems to have taken hold with commendable 
energy, and dared to expect great things from God. When, 
after a little more than a year of earnest labor she was 
obliged to return to America, accompanied by Mrs. Comfort, 
her loss was especially deplored, because the entire care of 
the village schools had rested upon her shoulders. 

Dr. Bronson came to Gauhati soon after the departure of 
Mr. Comfort. He brought a rich experience with him as 
well as an intimate acquaintance with the various depart- 
ments of the work in the district from previous supervision 
of it during the lack of a resident missionary, while he was 
stationed at Nowgong. But the years of his service were 
nearly ended, and within four years, he bade farewell to the 
land which he loved more than his life, but which he should 
never revisit save in dreams and ecstatic reverie. Shortly 


before the transfer of Dr. Bronson from Nowgong, Miss 
Mary D. Rankin arrived from America, and liad the charge 
of the work immediately after Mr. Comfort left. Becoming 
Mrs. Bronson shortly afterward, she returned to America 
with her husband where she has since remained. 

Miss Orrell Keeler came to the station in 1875 and ren- 
dered service which Dr. Bronson gratefully acknowledged in 
the report of his work. But in a little more than two 
years she was called upon to take up the work which Mr. 
Neighbor was laying down in Nowgong, and with this latter 
station her name is ordinarily associated. 

On the departure of Dr. Bronson in 1878, the station was 
left in the care of Eev. Kandura E. Smith, commonly known 
as Kandura. He had been bought from his parents while 
a boy, and was brought up in the Nowgong Orphan Institu- 
tion. He seemed to possess unusual ability, and was put in 
charge of the station with the full authority of a missionary, 
save that the girls' school taught by his wife was in the 
charge of the Nowgong missionaries. 

In the fall of 1885 Mr. and Mrs. Burdette were trans- 
ferred from the Garo work in Tura, possibly in return for 
the previous loan of Mr. and Mrs. Stoddard. Their know- 
ledge of the Garo language gave them immediate access to 
nearly the whole body of native Christians in the field ; 
though they were shut off from direct communication with 
the bulk of the heathen population in the town, and from the 
few Assamese speaking Christians who did not understand 
English. Kandura continued to act as their assistant, and had 
the charge of all the Assamese services until the close of Sep- 
tember 1886, when he voluntarily resigned. His ready know- 
ledge of English and his ability to conduct religious services 
made his assistance very valuable to the new missionaries. 

The Work of the district may be divided into Station 
Work and Outside Work. 


The Station is spoken of as the most important town in 
the province. It was for some time the seat of the Provin- 
cial Government and is the river-landing for Shillong, the 
present seat of Grovernment, situated among the liills to 
the south. It stretches along both banks of the Brahma- 
putra for several miles, and is said to have a population of 
11,000. Communication between the two parts of the town 
is kept up bj a steam-ferry making several daily trips each 
way, and by numberless dug-outs. The south bank of the river 
and some adjacent land is occupied by European residences, 
Grovernment buildings, the church and school-houses. It 
was formerly a strong military station, and especially while it 
was the seat of the Provincial Government, there was a tole- 
rably numerous English population. Even now, the civil 
officers and the tea-planters in the immediate vicinity would 
form a good congregation if there was English preaching. 

On the north side and back from the river on the south 
side, the town breaks up into a number of more or less dis- 
tinct villages occupied by various races. Assamese, Rabhas, 
Kacharis, Garos, Mikirs, Nagas and even one village of 
Monipuris from the south of the Naga Hills are found there. 
There are three principal bazars. Two, situated at opposite 
extremities of the town, furnish the necessities aud luxuries 
of native life and industry, while the third adds a supply of 
all the ordinary wants of European residents. The latter, 
however, usually find themselves better suited at The Plan- 
ters' Stores Agency whose name indicates its character with 
sufficient clearness. In the two bazars first mentioned, there 
is at all times, and especially morning and evening, a crowd 
of men and boys with a good number of women and girls 
of various races and religious beliefs. Inhabitants of the 
town, whatever their race, have a good knowledge of Assa- 
mese, and strangers who come for trade are generally some- 
what familiar with it, and would be able to understand 


somewhat of the gospel message in that tongue. Even 
amongst the inhabitants of the town, there is a lamentable 
ignorance of even the commonest terms used in religious 
instruction, and such words as Jesus Christ, heaven, hell, 
and even the commonest term in the whole land for God, 
must be frequently or occasionally explained. On the other 
hand, the preacher is like to be posed on any occasion by the 
simplest question bringing in some principal term from an 
unfamiliar dialect. 

The European and Anglo-Indian population have the bene- 
fit of the services of a chaplain of the Church of England 
who divides his time between Shillong and Gauhati. From 
the beginning of the history of the station, these classes 
have claimed a degree of attention and labor from the resi- 
dent missionary. At present more than formerly there is 
added to this a considerable number of educated natives 
capable of understanding English preaching. There is a 
still larger number who would gladly attend English ser- 
vices, but who would be more benefitted by a very imper- 
fectly delivered message in their own language. 

The Outside Work is hardly less promiscuous. Assamese 
Mussulmans and Hindus, Kacharis, Rabhas, Garos, Mikirs 
in small numbers, imported Kohls, in deplorable ignorance 
and worse vice, seem proper objects of missionary labor. 
In the early years of the Garo work, the missionary at 
Gauhati, if there was one, otherwise the missionary at Now- 
o-ono- had to direct this work among villages the nearest of 
which was seventy or eighty miles from Gauhati, and seventy- 
five miles more from Nowgong. Four thousand Garos are 
said to live within the district at present. One half the 
field, probably, is mostly filled with Kacharis and Rabhas, 
meltiu"- away into various dialects towards the base of the 
Bhutan hills. All these of course have some knowledge of 
Assamese. But what knowledge they have, is confined to 


the purposes of trade and to the persons who attend the 
markets or visit the station, and their speech is often so 
imperfect and corrupt, that only a native can readily catch 
their meaning and reply in terms which will be clearly 
understood. Religious teaching amongst these villages in 
Assamese can reach but few ; and that few, those least 
susceptible to the Gospel message. 

Progress of the Work. — All the departments of the work, 
previously suggested, have received attention ; but it has 
never been possible to push all, or many at the same time, 
with sufficient energy to achieve large or permanent success 
in all. The nearest approach which seems to have been 
made to a symmetrical prosecution of the work, is noted 
in the annual report of 1855, where it is stated that 
Mr. Danforth is occupying a zayat in the town near one of 
the bazars, Mr. Ward is spending most of the dry season 
in the neighbouring villages, and Mrs. Ward is teaching 
two hours a da}^ in the town school. 

The Church in the Station was organized in 1845 with 
Eev. Cyrus Barker as the first pastor. At the end of two 
years, the church numbered twenty-seven members, only a 
few of whom, however, had been baptized in Gauhati since 
the beginning of the Mission. Eight years afterward a 
brick chapel was erected through the beneficence of the 
English residents in Gauhati. Occasional notes from the 
missionaries show that much attention was given to English 
preaching in former years, but the results of this work are 

In 1867 there is the following memorandum by Dr. Bron- 
son : " On the 17th of April 1867 the Eev. Messrs. Stoddard 
and Comfort with their wives arrived in Gauhati, and took 
charge of the mission church and property there. -^ * •5«- 
Have gathered the following (ten) names as present 
members of the mission church there. They are all living 


in Gaubati except (two). -)t ^ * ^ Orned and Eamkhe 
were members of tbis cburcb till tbe formation of a church 
in tbe bills or in tbe vicinity of Goalpara, April 1867. 
Donbtless there are others who are still members who have 
removed to other places." 

In the annual report of 1867 there is mention of the 
low state of tbe church as it was found by the new mission- 
aries. Tbe troublesome disciples there mentioned, still live 
in the station, a present sorrow, but doubtless ordained of 
God to be a future glory to all who shall prove to be His 
faithful servants here. In 1874 the membership of the 
Gaubati church and out-stations is recorded as eighty-two, 
diminished by six deatbs, leaving seventy-six. This number 
includes fifty -three baptized during the two previous years 
at Soraikurung (now Baraigaon), leaving something Kke 
twenty names perhaps as strictly belonging to tbe station 
church. Since that time there have been baptisms from 
time to time in Gaubati, but they have been mostly converts 
from different villages who came to the station for baptism. 
Various members of the older Cbristian families have been 
received, none of whom seem to have added to the strength 
of the church, while one or two new names of apparent 
worth have been added from outside. At the time of our 
Conference, aside from the transient membership of boys 
and girls in tbe station schools, there are but one Assamese 
Christian (a woman), and one illiterate Garo and his wife 
among the enrolled membership of the church who manifest 
a lively interest in its welfare ; while one educated member 
of the Nowgong church who lives in Gaubati, has shown 
considerable real devotion, and ten more enrolled members 
may be considered as ciphers or worse. 

It is possible tbat bazar preaching is considered such a 
matter-of-course in missionary work that mentions of it are 
rare. It is likely, too, that the inadequate force in the 


station compelled the missionaries to commit this work 
largely to their native assistants. But in the annual report 
of 1855 we learn that Mr. Danforth had had a zayat built 
near the Upper Bazar, and was preaching in it. In the same 
year he was temporarily transferred to Sibsagar on account 
of Dr. Brown's return to America; but he resumed his 
preaching again after he returned to Gauhati. In three or 
four years he returned himself to America, and for seven 
years there was no missionary in the station, and such work 
as this must have flagged. During Dr. Bronson's service we 
may feel sure that bazar preaching was not forgotten, and 
during the first years following Dr. Bronson's departure, 
Kandura and his helper Apinta gave a good deal of attention 
to it. An effort to resume it last October proved the occa- 
sion for Kandura's resignation. 

The School Work in the station is noticed as early as in 
1850. A good brick building for a station girls' school had 
been erected at that time almost entirely by the contribution 
of European residents in Gauhati, and a flourishing school 
had been assembled. At that time the boys' school in town 
numbered forty. In 1855 only one day school is reported in 
the station. Mrs. Danforth and Mrs. Ward are mentioned 
as giving considerable personal attention to this work. 
Later Mrs. Scott did good service in this department, and in 
Dr. Bronson's time a promising boys' school was maintained 
in the station, while a girls' school in the care of Kandura's 
wife was kept up in Gauhati by the Nowgong missionaries 
until last Spring. But the work has been intermittent at 
best, and has never advanced beyond promising beginnings. 
Most of the Garo Christians of this district who have any 
education have studied at one time or other in the town 
school. A good number, too, of heathen boys in the town 
were induced to risk contamination by the Gospel by the 
offer of free education. A small boys' school was re-opened 


in February 1886. A few Garo girls who came with Mrs. 
Burdette from Tura, reinforced by some Garo girls of this 
district and a few Aissamese girls from the town are the 
beginning of a new town school for girls. 

Tract Distribution is not frequently mentioned. In the 
year 1850-51 four thousand two hundred and thirty-eight 
persons were furnished with a religious book by Mr. Dan- 

Outside Work must have been given attention from the 
very beginning of the mission. Mr. Barker's previous 
acquaintance with the language would, of course, make this 
possible. Even in 1850 there was a noticeable interest 
among the Garos, and requests were received to establish 
Christian schools in their villages. It seems that there were 
a good number of Garos in the town school, and it is likely 
that these had served to kindle an interest in their several 
homes. Indeed it is said that there was a " great demand " 
for these schools and on one occasion thirty lads had come 
thirty miles into Gauhati to beg for books and a teacher, 
statino- that they had already formed themselves into a 
school. At that time, as frequently thereafter, nothing 
could be granted but books, and a promise tJiat the mission- 
ary would try to visit their village. 

The Garo Work hardly needs to be told. It has been but 
a small part of the refreshing experience related in the 
History of the Garo Mission. The first sparks were struck 
out in the heterogeneous toAvn work. But Omed and Ram- 
khe, under God's providence, went back to their own homes, 
nearer to the scenes where God himself, without the intelli- 
gent service of any voluntary agent, had brought his own 
word home to their knowledge and consciences. As the 
work prospered, it spread backward also into the villages 
nearer Gauhati ; and even now most of the Garo helpers 
in this district are old pupils in the mission schools at 


Damra, Goalpara and Tura. The missionaries resident at 
Gauliati and Nowg-ong- were for some years compelled to 
bear the care of this remote work, doubtless to the detri- 
ment of other plans. Then Gauhati gave Mr. and Mrs. 
Stoddard to engage solely in this work, leaving a new man 
without experience or a knowledge of the language to 
undertake to bring life and order out of the corruption that 
had accumulated during seven years abandonment of the 
Gauhati field. The Garos of this district had just begun 
to accept Christianity in large numbers when Dr. Bronson 
left. First, in 1873 and 1874, at Soraikurung over fifty 
were baptized. Since that time up to 1878 about one 
hundred and fifty more, and thence on to the present time 
nearly five hundred more have been baptized. 

Village Schools have been maintained as far as means 
could be obtained for the support of teachers and seem to 
have been an efiicient means of establishing the work which 
sprang up so suddenly and rapidly. The unfaithfulness 
of one or two teachers has wrought a good deal of mischief, 
but the most seem to have been faithful, even beyond the 
ability which they seemed to possess, and have given the 
Christians about them a good idea of the fundamental moral 
requirements of Christianity. 

The Formation of an Association is mentioned in 1851, 
and seven brethren were set apart to its service. It seems 
to have perished in the vicissitudes of the work, and at the 
earnest request of the Garo Christians a new organization 
was made in January 1886. It took up as its first work the 
spiritual care of destitute churches and the spread of the 
Gospel in heathen villages. To this end, it selected a man 
for itinerant preaching and furnished money for his support. 

The Rabhas and Kacharis in the district have been objects 
of the earnest attention and expectation of the missionaries 
from the beginning. They probably comprise one half the 


population of the whole field. Mr. Danforth speaks of 
their readiness for the Gospel. He describes them as simple, 
honest, ignorant of almost all religion, and not priest-ridden. 
He says that they had already a number of schools, and 
religious books were welcomed as text-books. They all 
confess sin, but most have no hope of salvation. They only 
need to be told of Christ. But he adds that Hindu teachers 
are busy among them, and that they should be provided for 
speedily. Nearly thirty years later. Dr. Bronson expresses 
a like confident hope regarding this people. On the occasion 
of the baptism of a promising Rabha convert, he writes of 
their peculiar fitness for missionary effort, and says that 
"if the Gospel once begins to take hold of the hearts of 
these Rabha Kacharis, multitudes will follow. Eight years 
more have passed, and they are still waiting. Missionaries 
and evangelists have made a few visits to the nearer villages, 
and occasional converts have been gained. But though 
these have generally proved faithful, and made good church- 
members, the apostle to this people does not yet seem to 
have arisen. The baptism of about eighty Hindus is recorded 
since 1878. It is probable that all of these are from the 
semi-hinduized Rabha and Kachari races. Mr. Endle of 
the S. P. G. Mission at Tezpur says, that a great advantage 
is gained in working amongst this people by the use of 
their own language instead of Assamese. It may be that 
God means to withhold His blessing until some one will give 
himself directly and definitely for this people, in so far at 
least, as to learn their language, and to let them hear in 
their own tongue the wonderful works of God. 

The Khols have not been the object of direct, systematic 
effort. They do not seem to be numerous in this district, 
though considerable companies may be met with on some 
tea gardens. In October 1883 a company of thirteen of 
this people came to Gauhati and were baptized by Kandura* 


In 1886 efforts were made to secure a teacher for them of 
their own race but without success. 

The Present Condition and Prospects of the work could 
hardly be estimated in a single year's experience. The recent 
resignation of Kandura, though not altogether unexpected, 
has compelled the temporary abandonment of work which 
might otherwise have been hopefully undertaken, and leaves 
the Assamese department of the work altogether dependent 
on the spare time of a missionary who is but imperfectly 
acquainted with the language and customs of the people. The 
small number of Christians dependent upon instruction in 
that tongue makes it more possible, but hardly more de- 
sirable, to move slowly and postpone definite undertakings. 
The low stage of piety among professing Christians is of 
course a serious hindrance to all human efforts to win con- 
verts, but the Gospel is not bound, and the Spirit of God 
is ready to bless faithful labor irrespective of favorable or 
unfavorable circumstances. But this work will probably be 

The Garo Christians are quite ignorant as a rule, compe- 
tent helpers are very few, and it may be found that many 
have altogether apostatized. But many are maintaining a 
good Christian character, and the work of the itinerant 
preacher seems to have been definitely efficient in commend- 
ing the Gospel to the heathen. With faithful helpers of 
moderate ability and education to put at the head of the 
work in various places and with the blessing of God, the 
Garo work ought to continue to advance numerically as in 
the past, and to increase in depth and permanence as helpers 
and appliances are multiplied. 

By Eev. E. G. Phillips. 

In the Gai'O mission, for the first beginnings we must go 
back many a year. In every work for tlie blessing of man- 
kind, we know that Providence prepares and leads tbe way, 
but it is not always that we can trace his steppings so 
clearly as in this work. 

For generations the Garos had been regarded with dread 
by their neighbours, and were an annoyance and perplexity 
to Government, so much so, that in 1867 the Chief Commis- 
sioner of the Province pronounced them " blood-thirsty 
savages," " most desperate and incorrigible," and expressed 
what seemed to him a precarious hope that the work of 
our Society among them might meet with success. 

Hoping to gain some influence and control over the tribe, 
Government had, in 1847, started a school in Goalpara for 
Garo boys. Their purpose has been realized, but not as 
they thought. Providence was leading them, though they 
may have suspected little how. Ten boys were brought 
into this school, two of whom afterwards became the first 
two Garo converts, and first two Christian laborers. Five 
others were among the first converts, and for years earnest 
and efficient laborers. Of these seven, three were afterwards 
ordained to the ministry. Thus did Providence claim this 
work as his own. 

Omed and Ramkhe. — No historical account of this Garo 
work could be complete, without a special reference to these 
two first converts, Omed and Ramkhe. Both were eager to 
learn and to enter the school at Goalpara from the first. 
Eamkhe, a boy of eleven or twelve years, was for a time 


prevented by a step-father, who appreciated his help on the 
cultivation more than his education. But soon a broken, and 
ever after a weakened arm removed this obstacle. Ramkhe 
at least seems to have been from a child of a religious turn 
of mind. While a boy, at home, he believed in the demons, 
and was diligent in always trying to appease them, often 
trapping wild birds to sacrifice to them. After entering the 
school, he became distressed by the drear prospect of future 
transmigration, an article of Garo creed, and especially by 
the prospect of being separated thus in after life from loved 
ones. In his distress and unrest, he conceived that there 
must be a spirit " better and stronger and wiser and 
greater" than Garo demons, and that this spirit could bless 
him, if it so chose. So he prayed to this spirit for blessing 
repeatedly, until soon, he says, he saw, on one occasion, a 
visible appearance, and had audible assurance that his 
prayer was heard. As he could now read Bengali, he began 
reading the Hindu Scriptures, and felt convinced that Ram 
or Bistu was this great, good spirit. But soon he read a 
tract that destroyed his faith in these, and he was thrown 
back into distress and unrest. 

Omed had enlisted as a sepoy in Gauhati, and after several 
years, Ramkhe went and lived with him, and attended the 
Gauhati Government Normal School. He proposed his 
difficulties to Omed. They decided that, of all the religions, 
the Christian religion was most desirable. They conse- 
quently put themselves under the instruction of Brother 
Kandura. But soon Ramkhe was called back to Goalpara, 
to take a post of head constable. The cares and sins of his 
calling soon deadened his convictions, but a tract again 
aroused him. He desired to go again to Gauhati, but could 
not get permission. Now his broken arm is again God's 
means of blessing him. On its account he is dismissed 
from service. He at once returns to Gauhati. and is 


soon, with Omed, baptized by Dr. Bronson, February 8, 

Having found the truth themselves, Omed and Eamkhe 
were desirous of taking it to their fellow Garos in the hills. 
Ramkhe had again entered Government service, now as a 
writer in the Chief Commissioner's office. They obtained 
dismission from service, and, in March 1864, returned to teach 
the good news to their own people. They went out as mis - 
sion assistants, but under the immediate supervision of 
Captain Morton, then Deputy Commissioner of Goalpara. 

They went first to their own relatives, and during a few 
months, six or seven accepted the truth. These Omed took 
with him and established a new village, — Rajasimla, for 
some years a nucleus, and always since one of our important 
Christian villages. To this new centre, others, brought 
under the influence of the truth, from time to time gather- 
ed in. 

After six or seven months spent among his own relatives, 
Ramkhe opened a school at Damra, where he remained the 
most of the time until a few years later he and Eangkhu, a 
Graro policeman baptized at Nowgong in 1866, took up waste 
land near by, were joined by other Christians, and esta- 
blished Nisangram, another centre of Christian influence. 
During these early years of work at Damra, Ramkhe's reli- 
gious influence was strong and marked. It was his custom 
to observe one day each week as a day of fasting and special 
prayer. Omed continued working as an evangelist. 

Tn April 1867, about three years after Omed and Eamkhe 
returned to their people, Dr. Bronson, then located at Now- 
wong, at the earnest and repeated request of the converts, 
visited the field. At Rajasimla he baptized thirty-seven 
converts and organized these, with Omed, Ramkhe and 
Rangkhu, into a church of forty members. He also ordain- 
ed Omed as their pastor, charging him to " range the hills, to 


preach, baptize, to do the work of a Christian pastor, and 
' to be faithful until death.' " 

The news of this beginning was heart-cheering to the 
friends at home, who had begun to look on Assam as a 
barren field. 

While Dr. Bronson was doing this joyous work. Revs. I. J. 
Stoddard and M. B. Comfort with their wives, were pass- 
ing up the river, designated to Gauhati. On his way back, 
while in Goalpara, Dr. Bronson, appreciating the necessity 
of occupying Goalpara as a mission station for the Garos, 
purchased a house and compound for Rs. 800. To meet this 
expense and begin work, he raised by subscription Rs. 1,119, 
mostly from the residents of Goalpara. On reaching Gauhati 
and consulting with Messrs. Stoddard and Comfort, they 
decided that Goalpara should be occupied with as little 
delay as possible. The Society approved, and in October 
1867 Mr. and Mrs. Stoddard removed thither. Goalpara was 
chosen because it was considered inexpedient to attempt 
living in the hostile interior, and because this was a Govern- 
ment station only nine or ten miles from the hills, and not 
more than thirty miles from the centre of the work. 

This year, 1867, closes with a church of forty members, an 
ordained native pastor, three other native assistants, with 
two schools, one at Rajasimla taught by Fokira, and one at 
Damra taught by Ramkhe. 

The following statistical table gives various facts in re- 
ference to the progress of the work. It will appear that 
there were no cases of discipline until 1875. There had, in 
fact, been some, but no record had been kept. Consequently 
all previous ones were recorded at that date, from which 
time the churches have kept more or less accurate records. 
It is found impossible to enter the number of deaths each 
year, as, in a good many instances, the churches failed to 
record the death of members, The membership for eacl^ 



year is taken from Annual Eeports, all excepting for 1886, 
which reports were for the most of the time for a year 
ending early in February. The numbers of baptisms, ex- 
clusions and restorations for each year, and the membership 
for 1886, are taken from the Church Records, and are for 
years ending December 30, and do not, consequently, agree 
with the numbers given in our Annual Eeports. 



i - 1 

























tic work. 







'. Rs. 




















, , 







. . 



.. '210 










. , '286 



.. [225 















. , 


. , 












, , 


1876 .. 



81| 2 







. , 

. 116 






154 5 





16 |264 

J 130 






107 20 





14 338 



.! 152 











46 404 



,i 128 






125 42 





44 515 



.: 184 






77 42 





42 551 

.! 101 






74 22 





26 1662 

■ • 1 

. 242 






75 45 

10 828 





. 269 







3 769 


. , 




. 158 








3 870 







8 176 















. 144 







During the first months of 1868, Mr. Stoddard visited 
many villages, baptized a goodly number, and was much 
encouraged in his work. He had the privilege of sitting 
at the Lord's table with 72 Garo Christians. 

The Government had already located, experimentally, a 


station with sevei'cal English ofl&cers at Tura, hoping to get 
control enough over the tribe to stop their bloody raids for 
heads against the people of the plains. In March, Mr. Stod- 
dard visited the place, and anticipated that ere long a 
Mission station might be opened there. After returning 
from Tura, he and Mrs. Stoddard attempted living at Damra 
for a while, that they might have more direct supervision 
of the school there, which had now become the training, 
or normal school for the Mission. But they were compelled 
to return to Goal^^ara early in July, on account of Mr. Stod- 
dard's illness. It has seemed utterly impracticable for a 
European to live at the foot of the hills during the rains. 
A kind of fever, amounting sometimes almost to a scourge, 
takes away many of the natives every rainy season. 

During the cold season of 1869-70, Mr. Comfort was with 
Mr. Stoddard in some of his work in the villages. After 
the close of this cold season, the Damra school was brought 
to Goalpara for the rains. 

During this year 1870, it was recommended by the Lieut- 
enant-Governor, and seconded by the Chief Commissioner, 
that the Mission at least occupy Tura as a station, if not in- 
deed remove there from Goalpara. It was also suggested that 
a medical missionary be sent there, and that, if able to 
perform the duties of the station, an appropriation from 
Government might be made for his support. 

In January of the next year, 1871, Mr. Stoddard, in 
company with Dr. Bronson and Mr. Comfort, visited Tura 
again. They were convinced that the station should be 
occupied, and with that in view selected a site for mission 
premises. They strongly represented to the Society at home 
the desirability of occupying Tura, and urged re-inforce- 
ment of the Mission. They left a Christian school teacher 
there, and with him two young men from the Normal School. 
These were employed for a part of the time by Government' 


as vaccinators, and a few months later passed through the 
hills to Goalpara. At first the people sought to turn them 
back, but when it was found that they were vaccinators, 
they were welcomed, and so had an opportunity, the first in 
all this region, of preaching the Word of Life to hundreds. 

January 15th, 1872, Eev. and Mrs. T. J. Keith arrived and 
joined the Mission at Goalpara. 

During this year a deep interest manifested itself at 
Sorikaru, a Garo village two days east of the present eastern 
limit of our field, where Joysing from our Normal School 
had been laboring. Early in 1873, thirty-one converts were 
baptized by Mr. Comfort, from Gauhati, and it was the be- 
ginning of the interesting Garo work of that field. 

During the cold season of this year, 1872-73, we mark 
another of the steps of Providence, wherein he overrules 
the wickedness of men for their own blessing, and for the 
advancement of his cause. Not even a native preacher 
could enter the hostile interior, save at the risk of losing 
bis head. Now occurs one of those bloody raids that have 
been repeated from time immemorial. A hostile village 
raids upon a Garo village under British protection, and 
carries off the heads of sixteen inoffensive men, women and 
children. The Government was tried beyond endurance, 
and resolved to annex the whole tribe. A military expedi- 
tion was sent into the hills. The people at once saw the 
odds against them, and submitted. With but one loss on 
both sides, the tribe was annexed. Under the wise, father- 
ly management of Captain J. W. Williamson, the tribe 
cheerfully accepted the new condition of things, and soon 
the whole hills were open to mission work. 

Early in 1873, Mr. Stoddard was obliged to return to the 
United States on account of broken health. Mrs. Stoddard 
had already preceded him. He had during the five years of 
his connection Avith the work seen the native church increase 


from forty to two hundred and eighty-six members. He had 
seen laborers trained and sent out, and the work extend all 
along the northern frontier. He gained a large place in 
the hearts of those gathered in, which can never be taken 
from him until it is filled with the more perfect love iu the 
meeting above. 

During this year there was considerable correspondence 
with reference to giving the whole of the educational work 
of the District into the hands of the Mission, provided they 
could prosecute it with vigor, and locate a missionary in 
the hills. The Mission failing to do this, the Governor- 
General Avas ready to consider any recommendations from 
the Chief Commissioner to give it to any other Mission or 
any other agency. The Society was not yet able to send the 
needed reinforcement, and the work remained as before, the 
schools of the north side under the Mission, and those of 
the south side under the Deputy Commissioner. 

In January 1874, Mr. Keith visited Tura, going in from 
the west, by the usual route, but returning through the 
centre of the hills to Goalpara. 

December 19, 1874, the mission force was again increased 
by the arrival at Goalpara of Revs. M. C. Mason and 
E. G. Phillips, with their wives. 

On the following April 3, 1875, delegates from the churches, 
or Christian communities, met at Goalpara, and organized 
the first Garo Church Association. The churches also 
through their delegates pledged themselves to support an 
evangelist during the following year. This they have con- 
tinued to do for the most of the time to the present. 

In September following, Messrs. Mason and Phillips 
visited Tura, selected a new site for Mission premises, and, 
with a balance of appropriations in hand, purchased some 
materials for a Mission house. The determination to occupy 
Tura was fully made, Providence not hedging up the way. 


Mr. Keith's health failing-, in November, with his family, 
he went to Calcutta. The medical decision was imperative 
that he must not spend another hot season here. He him- 
self returned, made tours among the churches, and thus 
introduced the new missionaries to their work. Early in 
1876, he was obliged to leave the work in inexperienced and 
ill-prepared hands. What all hoped would be a clear gain 
to the working force of the Mission, proves for the second 
time to be in part only the filling of depleted ranks. It is 
unfortunate for the missionary, as well as for the work, to be 
left in sole charge before he has a good command of the 
language and acquaintance with the field; and yet it must 
be done betimes, and God strengthens weak hands. 

Mr. Keith had been only about four years on the field, but 
had seen advancement all along the line, and had been 
enabled to make a good start in Garo literature. 

In 1876, a small additional appropriation was made for 
building at Tura, and it was decided that one family go 
there, and the other remain in Goalpara for the present. Mr. 
Phillips having gone ahead and prepared a small temporary 
house, removed there with Mrs. Phillips in March 1877. In- 
teresting tent-meetings had been held, while the temporary 
house was being built, and there were a few inquirers. In 
the following May, six were baptized, and soon after a 
church of seven members organized. 

With the occupation of Tura, the Mission was so located as 
to begin extending its work into all parts of the hills. Govern- 
ment soon proposed to pass over to the Mission the whole 
control of the educational work of the district, with the 
whole grant-in-aid of schools, provided the Mission contri- 
bute a certain amount of funds, and bring the normal school 
from Goalpara to Tura. This proposition we accepted on 
behalf of the Mission early in February 1878, and the school 
was takeii to Tura. 


The missionaries had now become convinced that, if there 
were but two missionaries, the best interests of the Mission 
would be served by their being located together at Tura. 
The location is such as to be nearly equally accessible from 
all parts of the District, the rainy season work could be 
carried on to better advantage in concert, and it is very 
advantageous to have the laborers so near together as to be 
able to consult on all important matters. Consequently Mr. 
Mason, in November 1878, gave up Goalpara as a mission 
station, and removed to Tura. The Executive Committee 
sanctioned the move, and made an appropriation for another 
mission house. 

The missionaries had long been asking that a missionary 
lady be sent out to take up school work for the girls. On 
the 1st January 1879, we had the pleasure of welcoming 
Miss M. Russell to this work. 

These first years after removing the station to Tura were 
greatly broken into by the work of building. This, too, was 
sadly increased by a destructive fire, which swept off Mr. 
Mason's bungalow, only a few weeks after it was first, occu- 
pied, and with it sweeping off the temporary bungalow and 
all the school buildings. The fire also destroyed nearly all of 
our Garo books. 

During this year, Government divided the District into 
four sections, or mauzas, placing over each a mauzidar. 
One of the ordained evangelists, Eev. Rangkhu, with the 
sanction of the missionaries, applied for one of these appoint 
ments, and was stationed in the south-eastern quarter. 
While school work had been done by Government alono- the 
southern frontier, and occasionally an attempt made in the 
hills, no religious work had been done. These mauzidars 
were directed by Government to teach the people whatever 
good they themselves had learned. Rangkhu considered this 
a full permission to teach religion. While he became a ser- 


vant of Government, he ceased not to be a servant of Christ 
While doing- Government work, he has done earnest Chris- 
tian work, and his influence has been widely felt for good. 
The south-western mauza was placed under another Chris- 
tian young man, and now there are a good number of converts 
awaiting baptism, the fruit to quite an extent of his teach- 
ing. The two other mauzidars were anything but helpful 
to the spread of Christianity, but one of these has been 
replaced by a Christian man of long and good standing, and it 
is probable the fourth will soon be superseded by another 
Christian man, in whom we place much confidence. 

At mauzidar Rangkhu's head-quarters a school was taught 
a few months in 1879, and then closed. In 1881 it was 
reopened, and in November of that year two young men were 
baptized, the first of this section, a hundred miles distant 
from the older Christian communities. Three more Chris- 
tian teachers were located in this section, and two years 
later the missionary had the pleasure of baptizing eleven 

On the northern side the general progress of the work 
has been constant, though not without reverses, and these, 
not because of the strength of the enemy without, but of 
that within. Intemperance has again and again reasserted 
its power over individual members, sometimes, for a time, 
almost over some churches. Because of these inconsistencies 
in the Christian community, Christ's name has been reproach- 
ed, and the progress of his cause stayed. For various 
reasons, and especially these just mentioned, the villages in 
the interior in that section where the work first began, were 
for a long time strongly prejudiced against Christianity. But 
for the past three or four years this prejudice has been 
melting away. The work has also progressed into the very 

In 1881, Mrs. Mason's health had become so sadly impair- 


ed that rest in America was imperatively demanded. So in 
the spring of 1882, Mr. Mason and family proceeded to the 
home-land. With much suffering Mrs. Mason reached home, 
and for a time seemed to rally. But the Master would take 
her up higher, and on the 9 th of September she left us to 
mourn her. 

December 25, 1883, the Mission was again reinforced by 
the arrival of Eev. C. E. Burdette. Already Mrs. Phillips* 
health had been sorely taxed by a long period of unbroken 
service, and Mr. and Mrs. Phillips left for America early in 
the following May, regretting to see Mr. Burdette so soon 
forced to take the whole load. 

In November 1884, Mr. Mason arrived at Tura, bringing 
back as his companion her that was formerly Mrs. Arthur, 
of the Japan Mission. But hardly had she entered upon the 
threshold of her new field of labor when on the 9th of Decem- 
ber the Master called her to Himself. She lived but eleven 
short days after their arrival at Tura. 

Shortly after this, December 25, 1884, Miss Eussell became 
Mrs. Burdette, but continued her work in the girls' school 
without abatement. During this year Mr. Burdette gave 
special attention and much of his time to the normal school, 
and with gratifying results. 

Early in March 1885, Messrs. Mason and Burdette visited 
the southern side and baptized twenty-one converts, among 
them an influential lascar and his wife, and the work is 
advancing all along this southern part. 

In the following October, Mr. and Mrs. Burdette, in com- 
pliance with the directions of the Society, removed to Gau- 
hati, to meet a long felt need in that field. We regret 
much their loss to the Tura field. We needed their labors, 
though Gauhati's needs may have been more urgent. But 
we congratulate them on the work the Master helped them 
to accomplish in general, but especially in the station boys* 


scliool and in the girls' school work. We rejoice too that they 
still have a part of the Garo field. The daily prayers of 
many Garo Christian hearts follow them. Meantime Mrs. 
Phillips' health has been graciously and wonderfully restored, 
and on January 28, 1885 Mr. and Mrs. Phillips, in company 
with Misses Ella C. Bond and Stella H. Mason, arrive at 
Tura. The work of the field is again divided, as in former 
years, Mr. Mason having charge of the churches and schools 
on the north side, while Mr. Phillips has charge of the station 
school and of the work in the southern part of the hills. 

Church Organization. — Since the first Garo church was or- 
ganized in Eajasimla, and Omed ordained as its pastor, April 
14, 18G7, at the very beginning of missionary work on the 
field, it has been the aim of the Mission to establish indepen- 
dent, self-supporting churches as fast as practicable. At the 
close of 1878, Tura made the ninth independent church. The 
organization of the most of these was at first imperfect, and 
in some is so still, but efforts have been made to gradually 
complete it. Two churches had ordained pastors in 1875, 
and in 1877 Mr. Mason made special effort to organize others. 
An elder and two deacons in one, and two elders and three 
deacons in another were ordained. Later still several of the 
churches adopted church covenants, similar to those adopted 
by our home churches. 

During the past year, 1886, three of these churches have 
supported their own pastors without mission help. This 
has not been done before, though one church had in part 
supported its preacher for two years. Two had also for a 
time supported itinerant preachers of their own, and the 
churches as a body have supported an itinerant preacher and 
his travelling companion for most of the time since 
April 1875. Two of our Christian men of the south-eastern 
part also support the preacher of that section this year. 
The churches have, after some persuasion on the part of 


the missionaries, displayed a commendable degree of inde- 
pendence in the management of their own affairs. A large 
number of converts, amounting to several hundreds, have 
been examined, received and baptized, independently of the 
missionary. In later years most cases of discipline have like- 
wise been attended to by the churches alone. While in 
doing such work errors may sometimes have been made that 
would not have been made, had the missionary been present 
to advise, yet we are confident that the gain has been far 
greater than the loss. The child must learn to walk alone 
though it sometimes stumbles. The church records show 
that the greater proportion of the exclusions were for a 
time from among those received during the beginning of 
their independent action. But these errors even have been 
experiences through which the churches have gained wis- 
dom and strength. 

An English school, independent of missionary help or con- 
trol, has been started by individuals of the churches on the 
north side. The school was closed for lack of a suitable 
teacher, but may be re-opened. 

Educational Work. — In aim and plan, the great thing ever 
before the Mission has been evangelization. The Garos are 
ruined by sin. The Gospel alone can restore them. But the 
Gospel must be communicated. Almost of necessity the 
written page needs follow the preached word. Such has been 
God's plan in all history. Hence the absolute necessity of 
education among savages, as a chief handmaid to religion. 
Little call would there be, by a people who cannot read, 
for Scriptures and Christian literature, — the foundation 
through their revealed Christ of Christian civilization. 

But why not Government educate and leave the Mission 
with unabated strength for purely religious work ? Govern- 
ment has not been slow to see, as the Chief Commissioner 
put it in his Eesolution on the Educational Report for Assam, 


of 1881-82, that " it is difficult to convince a Garo or a 
Khasia ^ * * of the advantage of learning-. The only lever 
that has been found efPective is that of religion." In other 
words, they consider that Christian education is the educa- 
tion needed by the Garos. They v^ere quick, too, to see 
that such education could be administered more efficiently 
by the Mission than by themselves. Hence, from the first, 
they were desirous that the Mission have charge of the 
educational work, as far as they were in a position to con- 
duct it effectually. The Mission were of the same opinion 
with the Government, and hence accepted the school work 
with the grant-in-aid as rapidly as practicable. It was 
accepted, from the first, on the condition, willingly conceded 
by Government, that we were at liberty to give as much 
religious instruction in the schools as we chose. 

This grant-in-aid for our whole field is Rs. 3,000 per annum 
with an occasional small additional grant for school build- 
ings at Tura. The Mission on their part are required to 
spend at least Es. 1,000 additional. The schools with grants 
are given into our hands as a whole, to be administered as 
we see fit, provided that the Rs. 4,000 be expended on 

In 1883, the Deputy Commissioner chose to start and 
maintain three or four village schools independent of the 
Mission, and to maintain in our station school four boys in 
preparation for teachers in such schools, but with this 
exception the educational work of the district is in the 
hands of the Mission. 

At the close of March 1886, there were thirty-six village 
schools, with 576 pupils. Of these eight were taught by 
non-Christian teachers, a fact that shows a part of our work 
merely incidental, owing to our having the work of the whole 
district, and the further fact of the district containing sec- 
tions of the plains, inhabited by Hindus and Mohamedans, 


wlio claim teacliers, and for v;liom we have no Christian 
teachers to spare. 

Our village teachers receive from Es. 2 to Rs. 10 per 
month, only one, however, receiving the latter sum. The 
villages always furnish the school buildings and necessary 
books. There has been some difficulty in reducing the pay 
of teachers to what seems to us to be proper, as the first 
teachers employed by the Mission and those maintained by 
Government received at first higher pay. 

The missionaries have immediate control of the schools 
in heathen villages and have had, until recently, in the 
Christian villages ; but a plan has been introduced which 
we would gladly see extended to all the Christian villages. 
It is to consider the schools as the property of the village. 
They select the teacher and have a care for the school. The 
amount given by the Mission for his support is a grant to 
aid the village. We aim to reduce this amount to their 
proper proportion of the Government grant. We believe 
that such a plan must lead to a deeper and more personal 
interest in the school on the part of the village. It will 
cease to be simply the Mission's school. 

Our school work has been an efficient agency in evangeli- 
zation. While, save in exceptional cases, we pay our teachers 
for the work they do in the school-room, we expect them as 
Christian men to use their opportunities to preach the gos- 
pel to others. While, among a people utterly unable to read, 
an evangelist does an important work, there is need that a 
more constant influence be brought to bear. Our Christian 
school-teacher is in just the position to exert such an in- 
fluence. Not unfrequently the interest awakened by the 
evangelist has been followed by a petition for a Christian 
school-teacher. And around these Christian teachers all of 
our Christian communities, with perhaps one or two excep- 
tions, have sprung up. First the pupils are brought to 
Christ, and then the parents and others. 


In 1877, at Cliotcliolja, where before there were no Chris- 
tians, on one day Mr. Mason and a native pastor baptized 
thirty-five converts, the result with God's blessing of such 
school work. At Derek and surrounding villages, nine or ten 
miles from Goalpara, a grand work began in 1880. The gospel 
had been preached there from the first coming of the mis- 
sionary. In one place a few converts had been gathered, 
but the heart of the people seemed hard. In 1877, I think 
it was, a teacher was sent to this village. In 1878 six school- 
boys and three women were baptized. The school failed, 
but was soon started again. The new teacher felt that he 
had a work to do besides school teaching, in leading the 
people to Christ. In 1880 seventy-eight were baptized, in 
1881 fifty-eight, and in 1882 thirty. What seemed to be a 
gospel-hardened community became a Christian community, 
and now in 1886 the church support their own pastor. 

This feature of our school work has been such as to call 
out our profound gratitude. The possibilities of this work 
are great, and the results will increase with the increase 
of spiritiial life in our teachers. 

Station School.— Without such village school work the 
character of our field would demand the maintenance of a 
station school, for the education of native workers. With 
the village schools, the need becomes doubly imperative. The 
few who had some education before mission work for the 
tribe began, were, thank God, mostly found among the early 
converts and early helpers. But they were few. Eamkhe 
was by far the best educated of these, and his school at 
Damra was soon selected as a training school. Until 1870 it 
was taught at Damra, then during the rainy season brought 
to Goalpara, until 1875 when it was removed there perma- 
nently, and in 1878 was brought to Tura. 

The grade of the school has been gradually advanced, and 
none arc admitted to the upper department Avho have not 


reached a certain standard. Bengali is taught and Bengali 
texts books are used in Arithmetic, Greography and History. 
It is the aim to give all the pupils a practical working use of 
the Bengali language, such as will make available to them the 
growing Christian literature of Bengal, as well as give them 
a good knowledge of Arithmetic, Geography and some of 
Indian history. The demand also for English has to some 
degree been yielded to, and a little acquired by a few. It 
has also been the aim to give as much regular Scripture 
instruction as possible. But want of missionary laborers, 
and pressure of other work has always prevented giving as 
much strength to this as the case demands. Yet with what 
can be done regularly in the school-room, in addition to the 
Sunday teaching, much religious instruction is given. 

All boys without distinction, who can support themselves 
and are qualified, whether Garos or others, are admitted to 
the upper department. The majority, however, being unable 
to support themselves, receive stipends of Rs. 4 per month. 
Admitting to receive stipends, we exercise onr discretion, 
admitting only such as give promise of advancing and making 
good workers. A good number of unconverted persons have 
been admitted to receive stipends, but I know of none for 
years who have passed through the school unconverted. 
Besides a few sons of Tura policemen, two hundred and 
thirty-seven have been in the school since it began. Some 
of these staid only for a short time. Of these two hundred 
and thirty-seven, I know of but fourteen who left school 
unconverted, and of these six were Hindus, leaving only eight 
Garos. Concerning seventeen of the first students I am 
uncertain, but some, perhaps a majority, were probably 

Of the two hundred and six besides policemen's sons, who 
have left the school, one hundred and three have been en- 
gaged in teaching or employed in some religious work by^ 


the Mission. Of those who have not been thus employed, 
some have been earnest helpers in church work. Some 
have left the school and returned at once to their farming, 
and more have returned to farming after having spent some 
years in teaching. Some are engaged in farming while teaching. 

I think that the danger which has sometimes been ex- 
perienced of a little education lifting its possessor above 
manual labor has been to a great degree avoided in our 
school work. Perhaps one thing that has helped to keep the 
minds of the students in a healthy state in this respect has 
been our unvarying rule that two hours a day be spent by 
the stipendiaries in manual labor, at any work that needs 
being done about the mission premises. This rule is not 
only advantageous to the students, but saves a good many 
mission rupees. 

Some difficulty had been experienced in persuading the 
pupils to remain in school as long as deemed desirable, by 
the missionaries. Consequently in 1881 a pledge was intro- 
duced, which each stipendiary signs on entering the school. 
By this he pledges himself to remain in school until dis- 
missed by the missionary, and to engage in teaching after 
leaving the school, if work be given him by the missionaries. 
This pledge has we think had a beneficial influence in caus- 
ing the pupil to work with a determination to complete the 
prescribed course, and to engage in teaching when through. 

This school is considered and must continue to be consi- 
dered a very important part of our work. 

A serious difficulty has been experienced in securing suit- 
able teachers. Thrice we have employed Bengali Christian 
teachers, from our Baptist friends in Bengal, but with very 
unsatisfactory results. On three occasions we were pressed 
to employ non-Christian teachers. At present our teaching 
force is the most satisfactory we have had. By keeping a 
promising class in school somewhat longer than usual, and 


by personal instruction, Mr. Burdette gave us some better 
indigenous teachers than we had had before. ( Since leaving 
Tura for this Conference, we have been sorely afflicted in the 
sudden death by cholera of one of our best and most promising 
teachers.) The present head-master has also had two years 
instruction in America, which in many ways fits him for 
more efficient work here. We think that in his increased 
ability, as well as complete willingness to instruct, not only 
in the school-room, but everywhere, and the healthful manly 
influence he exerts, he has fully repaid the expense of taking 
him to America, and has enabled us to realize in a good 
degree our aim to raise up efficient indigenous laborers. 

Female Education has not made very great advancement in 
the villages, though in Eajasimla, and a few other villages, 
there have have been girls in attendance at the boys' schools 
for the most of the time from the first. There is still a 
great lack of appreciation of female education. 

In 1874 Mrs. Keith gathered ten or twelve girls into a 
school in Goalpara, but the circumstances were adverse, 
and the school was after a time discontinued, but not until 
some had been much benefited. 

In 1881 Miss Russell gathered a few girls and made a 
small beginning at Tura. In 1882 she spent seven weeks in 
a tour of the Christian villages, attended the associational 
meeting, and brought back with her to Tura a good number 
of girls. Believing that a much needed work might be done 
in the villages, she spent a good part of the winter of 
1883-84 at Nisangram, one of our principal Christian vil- 
lages. There she gathered a large school, and, when she 
returned after the association meeting, brought 21 girls 
back to Tura with her. Her self sacrifice and brave per- 
severance were rewarded, and the girls' school was well 
established. When she, now Mrs. Burdette, was obliged 
to leave her work here and remove with her husband to 


Gauhati, serious obstacles had been surmounted and difficul- 
ties overcome, and the work was on a good basis. Miss Bond 
was at once sent to take up her work, but during this year, 
while learning the language, the school was temporarily 
dismissed. The purpose is to open it again with the new 

Industrial Work. — In 1877, it was proposed to open an 
industrial department in connection with our school in Goal- 
para. A Government grant of Rs. 300 was expended in the 
purchase of tools, but the speedy removal of the school to 
Tura interrupted the work. While in America, Mr. Mason 
put on foot an enlarged plan for an industrial department in 
the mission. This was to collect a certain sum of money by 
special and extra contributions for this particular depart- 
ment. This was to be invested in machinery and improved 
implements for resale to the Garos. A missionary was to be 
appointed to have special charge of this department, who, 
while giving considerable time to this work, would have much 
time for more direct religious work. The plan was approved 
by the Society, and Mr. A. W. Weeks appointed. He did not 
however finally come, but Mr. Mason raised part of the funds 
sanctioned, and brought out machinery, tools and some 
material for resale. As much attention is being given to 
introducing these among the people, and developing their 
industries, as demands of other departments of the work 
will permit. 

Literary Work. — Among a tribe of savages, step by step 
with the entrance of Christianity there must be done a large 
amount of literary work. The Bible must be translated and 
a Christian literature must be given to them. Else the laborers 
will find themselves laboring on without tools. Happy the 
missionary, and happy the field of his labor, who finds that, 
in addition to qualifications for all other kinds of work, he 
has special qualifications for literary work. 


Two small publications of a phrase book by an Assam 
Educational officer, and a vocabulary by a Bengali gentle- 
man, were made as early as 1867. But I am not aware that 
these had any extended circulation. 

The Garo literary work done by the missionaries is as 
follows : — 

Rev. M. BiiONSON, D.D. : — Small book of sentences and brief 
outline of Grrammar, also Garo Primer in Roman and 
Bengali character. 
Rev. I. J. Stoddard : — MSS. for three primers, and a small 

Catechism and Hymns. 
Rev. T. J. Keith : — Published Mr. Stoddard's work, also 
Outline Grammar, small Garo-Bengali English Dic- 
tionary, and translations of the four Gospels. 
Rev. M. C. Mason : — Two tracts, translation of Genesis with 
explanatory notes. Garo Arithmetic, burned when 
just ready for press, so not published. Also Church 
Manual partly prepared but destroyed in the fire. 
Nearly ready now for press translation of John's 
Epistles, and revision of Luke. 
Rev. E. G. Phillips : — New Primer Pt. I, republishing of 
Pt. II twice and of Pt. Ill once. Two enlarged 
editions of Garo Hymns, translation of Galatians, 
Ephesians and Philippians. Revision of Matthew and 
Mark and revision of John's gospel, nearly ready for 
the press. 
Thangkhan Sangma : — Translation of Rev. W. R. James' 

Catechism on Life of Christ. 
Rev. M. Ramkhe : — Bengali-Garo Dictionary, to contain 
nearly 900 double column 8vo. pages. In press, ex- 
pected out shortly. 
An enlarged edition of the Hymns is also being published, 
which will bring the number of hymns up to considerably 
more than a hundred. Most of these are translations by Garo 


Christians of Assamese translations of English hymns. But 
a few are original compositions. 

The eighth year has also just been completed of our 
Achikni Ripeng, (Garo's Friend) an 8vo. twelve paged 
monthly in Garo, This is made up of short articles on 
important topics, contributions by our native brethren, fre- 
quently a new translation of a hymn or a bit of Garo poetry, 
and news notes. We have found it very helpful. It has 
now a circulation of about 200. The price is as yet merely 
nominal, just enough to prevent those asking for it who do 
not want it. 

The work done by Dr. Bronson and Mr. Stoddard was done 
through our Garo native helpers, through the Assamese, as 
the missionaries had not acquired the language. The plan 
of work in translating the Gospels and part of Genesis was 
to let native helpers make the first translation from the 
Bengali or Assamese, and then carefully revise their work. 
The plan in the further translations and revisions is for the 
missionary to do the work from the first, aided constantly 
by the best native helper available. 

Excepting the periodical and the Catechism on the Life of 
Christ, which were printed on our small hand press, nearly 
all our printing has been done at the Baptist Mission Press, 
Calcutta. But printing at so great a distance, with no one 
at the press capable of reading Garo proofs, has been very 
slow work. Consequently a larger hand press has been 
purchased and we are printing the present edition of the 
hymns on this. We hope to succeed sufficiently to warrant 
our attempting all our printing here. 

As to the dress for our Garo literature, the Bengali char- 
acter was finally chosen, as the most practicable for a people 
surrounded on three sides by a people speaking Bengali, or 
its twin sister, Assamese. 

In addition to the demand for Garo books there has been 


a good demand for Bengali Scriptures, tracts and religious 
books. There has been a special demand for complete 
Scriptures, the whole New Testament or whole Bible, and 
particularly the leather bound volumes, while there has been 
less demand for cheap paper covered Scripture portions. Of 
.the Commentary on the New Testament in Bengali, costing 
Es. 5 per set, a good number have been sold. I regret that 
I cannot give the exact statistics in reference to Bengali 
religious literature bought, as I feel sure it would speak 
well for our Garo Christians. As near as I can ascer- 
tain, since 1881, thirty-seven Bengali Bibles, one hundred 
and eighteen Bengali New Testaments and four hun- 
dred and twenty-two Bengali Scripture portions have been 
bought by them, besides at least twenty-four copies of the 
notes on Gospels and Acts, and seventeen on the whole New 
Testament. There were also some notes on portions sold 
before the whole were published. 

Chracteristics of the Field.— The superficial area of the 
Garo Hills is given as 3,653 square miles, but the actual 
surface must be, one would sometimes be tempted to 
suppose, many times that. A rougher country than many 
parts of the hills, one would hardly expect to see 
inhabited by man. The district hangs in sharp, deep 
wrinkles over the abrupt end of the range separating the 
Brahmaputra valley from the Surma valley. This cha- 
racteristic of the country has its effect on mission work, 
"We cannot travel to any great extent by boat, nor by ox cart, 
nor indeed by pony. The only means of conveyance thus far 
suited to all parts, is a good alpenstock, with a man to ride 
pick-a-pack across streams. But roads are gradually being 
opened and we hope for better things in the future. The 
hilliness and wildness however is not without its compen- 
sation, in the cooler climate it gives. 

The great distances of our farther outstations from Tura 


make tliem inaccessible during part of the year, and not 
readily accessible at any time. The farthest are at least 
seven days march distant. This of course increases the 
demand on physical strength in working our field. 

The people are savages, so the work in every respect is 
pioneer work. But savages and demon-worshipers have 
their redeeming features, when viewed from a missionary 
standpoint. They are virgin soil, not waste land, full of the 
roots and seeds of Hinduism, or Budhism, or IMohammedan- 
ism, land which must be first cleared, and in which you will 
expect to see the evil plants constantly re-appearing. Sow 
the true seed abundantly and prayerfully, and expect with- 
out fail to reap abundantly and speedily. 

They are independent spirited, free of caste. Trom un- 
told generations they have recognized none as their masters. 
A form of slavery has existed among them, but in spirit they 
are independent. This spirit of independence, when brought 
under the sway of the Cross, is immensely superior to the 
cringing spirit that is the child of religious caste. It gives 
itself readily to independence of Church work and action. 

Seclusion of women is not known among the Garos. 
They are as free to listen to the preacher as are the men. 

One of the worst obstacles, more stubborn than demon- 
worship by far, is intemperance in the use of intoxicating 
drink. Tt is the right hand and right eye that must be 
parted with before entering the kingdom. It is also the 
stumbling-block over which many a convert has fallen away 
from Christ. It is an enemy we have to fight to the death. 
Experience has shown the Garo Christians that total absti- 
nence is the only safe course for them, the course that has 
from the first been urged upon them and required of them. 

In laboring for the Garos we have a dense weight of 
ignorance to overcome, but it is gratifying to see the ready, 
and, in cases, rapid advancement that is made. I believe 


that in natural, undeveloped mental power, the Garos will 
compare exceedingly,favorably with, any other people. This 
is evinced by the character of our converts. Such has been the 
impression made upon their foreign teachers by the pupils 
in the schools. Under the influence of Christian civilization 
we look to see this people make splendid advancement. 

The spiritual development of the converts has not always 
been all that we could wish, yet we have that for which to be 
profoundly grateful. Is it not a grand privilege we have, 
brethren, when we can witness the miracle of God's grace in 
transforming a wild devil-worshiping savage, into a staid, 
substantial Christian man ? Such many a time is our privi- 
lege. We can see from what they have risen, and what a 
change ! WeHhank God for the privilege of laboring among 
"•--^ Garos. 

By Rev. S. W. Rivenbueg. 

"In the year 1851, Rev. S. W. Whiting in charge of the 
mission at Sibsagar, Assam, baptized a Naga from Morang- 
kong village of the Ao tribe. This man was then living at 
Sibsagar. He went to his own village in the hills to get 
Hm a wife and bring her down to Sibsagar. But in the 
short time he was there an attack was made on the village 
by its enemies and this man was killed. For the two or 
three years of his church membership at Sibsagar he is said 
to have lived an exemplary life. If he taught Christianity 
in the few days he was visiting the village of his youth, his 
instruction made no lasting impression. 

" In 1838 and 1840 Rev. Miles Bronson was at Jaipur and 
labored for the Nagas and Singphos in that vicinity. With 
these exceptions nothing was done to carry the gospel to 
the Naga Hills till the year 1871. At this time Rev. E. W. 
Clark was in charge of the Mission and Press at Sibsagar. 
He induced an Assamese Christian, named Godhula, to 
attempt to acquire the vernacular of some of the few Nagas 
living at Sibsagar. Godhula was in the prime of life and pos- 
sessed a good degree of tact and Christian zeal. He took a 
teacher during that rainy season. In October of this year 
Godhula, taking his teacher with him, went to Dicka Hai- 

mung village in the Naga Hills." Godhula remained 

a few days at the village and returned to Sibsagar. To the 
same village he made several such trips that cold season. 
*' The 6th of April 3872, he with his wife left Sibsagar for 
this Naga village." 

" In the following November, Godhula came to Sibsagar 


with a company of Nagas for baptism. In coming, the Nagas 
were obliged to expose themselves to cholera, of which they 
have great fear ; but they were not deterred, — their con- 
fidence was in the Lord whose disciples they claimed to 
be. Nine men related their experience before the church, 
were received and baptized.' 

" On their return to their mountain home, a small chapel 
was built in the village by the Nagas. In the subsequent 
month (December 1872) Rev. E. W. Clark went with God- 
hula and another member of the Sibsagar church to the 
village and fifteen men more related their Christian ex- 
perience, were accepted and baptized." 

" In 1873 Godhula and wife were on the Naga hills in 
the rains. In the cold season, Godhula was in the plain 
much of the time. The same is true of 1874, excepting when 
they came to Sibsagar after the rains. Poor health did not 
allow Godhula to return till July 1875, when he remained a 
few days. In September he returned to the hills again and 
remained till November." 

August 19th, 1876, the nine Nagas baptized at Sibsagar 
were dismissed from that church, to unite with the Naga 
church on the hills. 

" February 9, 1876, Rev. E. W. Clark made a trip of a week 
to Haimung village on the Naga hills and on the 2nd 
of March went up there to live. He and his one Assa- 
mese servant boy occupied a Naga house with the bachelor 
owner till the 24th of October, when he went with the first 
company of Nagas to establish a new village at Molung. 
There he lived in a small hut till February 15th, 1877, nearly 
four months, when a new rough house built by the Nao-as 
was ready for occupation." 

" Early in March 1878, Mrs. Clark who had been in 
America recruiting her health joined her husband in the 
work." She kept a school for girls and when she was again 


oblii^ecl to go to America, Tungbangla one of her scliolars 
took cliarge of tlie girls' scliool and has carried it on success- 
fully till the present. 

In 1879, one of Dr. Bronson's helpers, Zilli and his wife, 
were added to the mission. Zilli has been faithful and a 
very valuable aid in carrying on the work. From this year 
dates the cases of discipline which show that some had been 
received into the church who did not remain faithful. Early 
in the year 1881, Godhula was ordained and went with his 
wife to Merangkung (Nowgong) to found a new station. A 
few months afterward he baptized seven persons, of whom 
five still remain there. 

In May, 1883, David was sent to labor among Kilingmen 
men who were then living at Bura Haimung village. In 
November 1884, the teacher and most of the Kilingmen men 
removed to Assangma, near by, where a school has since been 
maintained. Several profess to believe but no baptisms. 

January 8tli, 1885, Eev. S. W. Rivenburg and wife found 
a home at Moluug, and soon after began to work at the 

In April of this year Godhula left the work and, we 
sorrow to record, left walking in the Gospel he so long and, 
much of the time, so well urged upon others. He is a sad 
example of the warning, ' Lest when we have preached to 
others we ourselves should be cast away.' Two schools were 
maintained in a large village called Mupungzuket from 
March till December 1875, without ajpparent results, when 
they were closed for lack of funds. 

From the first, schools were deemed desirable and were 
established because the teacher being located in a village, 
and his labor limited to that village, he could teach a primary 
school two hours each week-day without detriment to his 
work as a preacher. Because of peculiar conditions the 
schools were kept open for only about two hours in the early 


morning. The time was too short, and although Naga 
children are not dull, few succeeded in learning to read. 

In May, 1885, Eev. E. W. Clark left Molung for America, 
after a stay in Assam of seventeen years, nine of which were 
spent in the Naga hills. During this time the language was 
mastered and written, a dictionary made, primer, catechism, 
Life of Joseph in a book of 116 pages, a hymn book and 
Matthew and John were carried through the press, beside 
the ordinary work of the missionary. 

In July, 1885, Zilli visited Lyrman, a village a day's 
march from Molung, and the people heard the gospel for 
the first time. Some, like Philip of old, professed to believe 
and came to Molung entreating for a teacher that they might 
learn more and have their children taught. Eobi remained 
with them from October till April. Robi thought two men had 
been converted but they have not asked for baptism since 
he left. 

During October and November, 1885, eight men who had 
formerly resided at Molung came back and asked for baptism. 
They were baptized and thus a new interest started in 
Tazang. They have had no teacher or preacher to guide 
them in the new way. 

Baptisms at Molung have been as follows : 

1878 7 

1880 5 

1881 2 

1882 9 

1883 6 

1885 24 

1886 2 

Total number of Nagas baptized in the mission, 79. Pre- 
sent number, 54, residing in three villages. Unordained 
Assamese preacher Zilli, Assamese school teacher Hudhom, 
Naga school teachers, two. 


By Eev. S. W. Eivenburg. 

In compliance with tlie earnest request of Rev. E. W. Clark, 
laboring among the Ao Nagas, the Board, in 1878, appointed 
Rev. C. D. King missionary to the Naga Hills with permis- 
sion to plant a station wherever he thought best. Mr. King 
arrived in Calcutta, December 19th, 1878, and, on the 24th, 
was married to Miss Anna Sweet of Nowgong, Assam. On 
the 25th, he left his bride in Calcutta, and proceeded on his 
journey to the Naga country ; — calling at Tura for a few 
days to examine the methods and work of that mission before 
entering on the difficult task before him. 

" Of all the tribes — and they are almost as numerous as 
the hills they inhabit — into which the Naga group is divided, 
the most powerful and warlike, as it is also the most enter- 
prising, intelligent and civilized, so to say, is the turbulent 

Physically they are well developed men. Their dwellings 
are collected into large villages on the tops or slopes of the 
high hills of their rugged country. Their simple diet is 
largely supplied from the rice fields which they cultivate 
with more skill and ease than their neighbors. Cows, pigs 
and chickens are kept for food and trade. Cotton sufficient 
for their garments is cultivated on the fields, and woven by 
their women. The clothing of the men consists of a band 
eio-hteen inches wide around the hips, and a blanket nearly 
square thrown about the body. Ornaments of various kinds 
made of metal, shells and goat's hair dyed red are added to 
this simple dress according to wealth and deeds of blood so 


that a warrior in full dress presents a very picturesque ap- 
pearance. In his hand he invariably carries a spear, and in a 
block on his back a large axe-like weapon. 

The dress of the women is the same as that of the men, 
viz., a band and blanket ; except that the band reaches to the 
knees. Around the neck numerous strings of beads and shells 
are worn, and on the arms huge brass bands. 

They are without books or a written language, and by reli- 
gion belong to the demon worshipers. 

After generations of warfare and savage strife, the Govern- 
ment of India unfurled the peace- commanding British flag 
over this Angami counti-y and established a cantonment 
and civil government in the heart of the tribe at Kohima. 
The presence of a regiment of infantry and five hundred 
armed police indicated that the day of peace was at hand 
and of all points among the Nagas this appeared the most 
favorable for missionary labor. 

As Mr. King moved to the hills, he wished to proceed to 
Kohima at once ; but Government refused permission, in con- 
sequence of the unsettled condition of the people, and, there- 
fore, after many trials and delays he established himself at 
Samagoting, the station formerly occupied as the head quar- 
ters of Her Majesty's troops to protect the border from 
savage raids. Here he brought Mrs. King after a very trying 
journey June 27th. Punaram, an Assamese Christian accom- 
panied them to commence school work. They, without a 
house or means to get one, were allowed to dwell in their 
tent here, however, but a short time. In October, the Nagas 
arose to massacre all whites, and the Kings after many 
vicissitudes escaped and found their way to Sibsagar where 
they remained till March, 1880, when Mrs. King, in conse- 
quence of ill-health, was ordered to America. 

On the restoration of peace Mr. King received permission 
to again enter the hills, and he proceeded directly to Kohima. 


With great difficulty he built a bungalow, school house 
and out-buildings. Skilled labor was almost beyond the 
market and very much was done by his own hands. He 
had no more than finished this preliminary work and was 
giving himself to the language, and care of the school, when 
an order came from Government to vacate the location. He 
pulled down the buildings and erected new on a site half a 
mile away. All this building, with no proper place to live in 
during the process, very largely absorbed the time and 
strength of Mr. King. 

Mrs. King joined her husband atKohima in March, 1882. 
There being no suitable house her health again gave way and 
in May, 1884, she, with her two emaciated babies, started for 
America. Shortly after the new house was finished and 
Mr. King could for the first time give his whole attention to 
the language. In November, 1885, Mrs. King and the children 
returned and, very happy, they began life anew. But disease 
had its way. In less than a month all were ill and for a 
whole year one would rally only to care for the others. 
Strong hearts grew weary, and in December, 1887, they turned 
their weeping eyes away from their loved home and people 
to seek health in the land of the setting sun. 

Henry and Sarbey, two members of the Nowgong church, 
accompanied Mr. King to Kohima and were engaged as school 
teachers. A school was commenced with eleven Naga lads 
and it grew to thirty after a few months. This work was 
carried on with much success till 1886, when the numbers 
gradually fell away. There were no books in the Naga 
tongue ; so the work was all done in Assamese. 

It was also Henry's duty to conduct two Sunday services 
in Assamese and also a week-day prayer-meeting. To these 
services the school boys always came and here many sepoys 
learned something of Christian truth. 

March 29th, 1883, Mr. and Mrs. King with four Assamese 


Christians organized themselves into the Kohima Baptist 
Church. July 29th, 1883, the wife of one of the Assamese 
was baptized. The next year a Eurasian was baptized. 
June 21st, 1885, the first Naga was buried in the ordinance 
of baptism. Three others soon followed. At present, De- 
cember 25th, 1887, the little church numbers seven. 

Trials and sufferings have characterized all the efforts to 
establish this mission. May He in, whose name the work 
bas been done, bless the workers and water the seed sown, 
that in after years an abundant harvest may be gathered to 
the glory of God the Father and Jesus Christ His Son. 



By Rev. W. E. Wittek. 

In 1876 Rev. E. W. Clark declined the kind invitation of 
the Missionary Union to return to his native land for rest, 
choosing rather to endure hardship as a good soldier of 
Jesus Christ in planting the Gospel standard among the 
wild Ao Nagas, — a people as yet not brought under Govern- 
ment control, and considered by Government ofi&cials as a 
most difficult tribe with which to deal ; their yearly raids 
upon the people of the plains earning for them the reputa- 
tion of being most warlike and untamable. 

But for them " the Morning Light was breaking." With 
his ardor undampened by the bitter opposition of Govern- 
ment officials, and the reluctant consent of the Executive 
Committee at home, Mr. Clark took up his abode among 
these people, for the first night, like Jacob of old, making 
a stone his pillow — sharing, perhaps, his glorious visions. 

He was soon deserted by his Assamese helper, who weaken- 
ed under the trials and perils of a pioneer life in the Naga 
hills. " But never mind that now" he writes in his report of 
January 1877 and adds — " I know the exclusion from civili- 
zation, and the hardships and privations of living alone in a 
Naga village make up a pretty tough sacrifice (I was ten 
months here without seeing a white face) yet I am more 
than convinced that in the Hills among the people is the 
place for him to live who would evangelize this people." 

It was during these ten weary months of 187G that, in 
the good and honest heart of this heroic missionary, heaven's 
ministering spirits let fall the productive seed of a still 


broader philanthropy. Were the tidings of the Gospel of the 
" Prince of Peace " for the Aos alone ? The Spirit which 
said " Go ye into all the world " did not allow his eyes to 
remain fixed upon his own field ; they fell upon another 
people just as rude and savage. In the letter referred to 
above he says, " A road is being made from the Plain of 
Assam up to Wokha. The Political Agent will probably 
occupy Wokha another year, when it will doubtless be a safe 
place to live. Its height and location should give it a fine 
climate. Wokha is a large Naga village and other large 
villages are near. Let the other missionary family go there.^^ 

As Mv. Clark predicted, Wokha was occuj)ied by the polit- 
ical agent. Captain Butler. The brutal murder of one of 
his sepoys by the Wokha Nagas necessitated the burning of 
their large village. A few months later the brave Captain 
himself fell a victim to the hostile and warlike spirit of 
these people. His successor was at once appointed, and a 
site some two miles distant from the Naga village and com- 
manding a small and partially detached mountain spur has 
ever since been occupied as a sub-divisional station of the 
Naga hills, in charge of a sub-divisional ofiicer and guarded 
by a force of sepoys varying in number from 60 to 80. 

The occupation of Kohima as the head quarters of the 
English Government in the Naga hills, determined the settle- 
ment at that place of the missionary sent out in 1878 in 
response to Mr. Clark's request. 

Kohima is sixty miles to the south of Wokha and situated 
among the Angami Nagas — a large and powerful tribe, 
speaking an entirely different language from the Lliotas, for 
whom the request for a missionary had first been made. 

The year 1885 found the latter tribe still unprovided for. 
Brother Clark, however, believing that God by unmis- 
takable providences was calling upon us to enter this new 
field, and that there should be no delay in hastening to these 


people with the gospel — after taking a few rapid, nervous 
paces across the drawing room of his rude Naga house at 
Molung, suddenly turned to Mr. Moore and Mr. Witter who 
had sought for a brief visit his mountain eyrie, and said, 
" If the Witters will occupy Wokha at once, I will give 
the Missionary Union a special gift of Rs. 500 to cover the 
expense of their transfer, and I feel thoroughly convinced 
that such an act will meet with the hearty consent of the 
brethren at Boston." 

Some little time before, the Deputy Commissioner at Ko- 
hima had received a letter from a missionary of another 
Society inquiring whether this ground between the Angami 
and Ao tribes was already occupied, and, if not, what was the 
promise for mission labor. — Who shall say that the long 
delay in answering this letter was purely accidental. 

A telegram was sent to the Deputy Commissioner at Kohima 
asking whether there were any objections to a missionary's 
at once occupying Wokha. — A favorable answer was received 
and a house placed at his disposal. At this time the health of 
Mr. Witter was such as to make it exceedingly doubtful 
whether he would be able to continue his work in the plains 
of Assam. Earnest prayers were offered and the unanimous 
decision of Brethren Clark, Moore, Rivenburg and Witter 
was, that the removal of the Witters from Sibsagar to Wokha 
would be in direct accord with the mind and will of the Lord. 
Accordingly Mr. Moore, at once returned to Sibsagar to 
assist in the preparations for removal, Mr. Witter remain- 
ing quietly at Molung to more thoroughly fortify himself 
for the trying journey to the hills. He returned to Sibsa- 
gar, March 30th, and the following day the dear, first home 
with its pleasant memories of work among the Assamese and 
Kohls was reluctantly left. 

April 7th, Wokha tea estate lying at the foot of the hills 
was reached. Here the Witters were met by brother King 


of Kohima, who had traveled on foot 120 miles tlirough the 
mountains to lighten for them the burdens of the new untried 
way. He was accompanied by several sepoys and 100 Naga 
coolies, the narrow percipitous paths necessitating the trans- 
fer of all their goods by coolies alone. On the evening of 
April 9th, after the varied and exciting experiences incident 
to mountain travel, Wokha station was reached and the 
missionaries ensconced in an old abandoned rest house, which 
the Deputy Commissioner of the Naga hills had kindly 
placed at their disposal. At this time there was no bunga- 
■ low at Wokha, their only neighbor, the subdivisional officer 
occupying another rude rest house. 

April 17th, the study of the new strange language was 
begun. No attempts had previously been made to master or 
reduce it to writing. 

Sunday morning, August 2nd, Mrs. Witter gathered several 
Naga boys about her and began the first formal teaching 
of Christian truth to the Lliota Nagas. It was a day of 
small things, but " who knoweth whether shall prosper, this 
or that ? " 

July 27th, a letter from Dr. Murdoch was received ex- 
pressing the hearty approval of the Executive Committee of 
the steps which had been taken. In addition to the study of 
the Lhota, Mr. Witter devoted daily some time to the fur- 
ther pursuit of the Assamese, and in that tongue found many 
opportunities for sowing the Gospel seed. In order to seek 
medical advice and attendance, a temporary stay at Kohima 
was necessitated. October 15th, they reluctantly left Wokha, 
but February 5th found them again in their home, which 
was now brightened by the presence of a little " hinder- 
ing helper." From this time onward the instruction of 
the Naga Sunday school class was given in Lhota by Mr. 
Witter, while Mrs. Witter opened a Sunday school class for 
sepoy and bazar children, who were of mixed races, but all 


untlerstood Assamese. Ten cliildren were thus brought in 
from heathen homes. Occasionally, however, the religious 
scruples of the parents would result in the detention at 
home of some of the children for a Sabbath or two, and in 
the punishment of others who ran away in order to be present. 
The same children came to the bungalow Wednesdays to 
sing. The Assamese hymns were keenly enjoyed and sug- 
gested many a word which seemed not unheeded. Their 
parents said they were singing from morning till night. 

One of the boys after a few weeks' instruction seemed very 
serious and much altered. He said that with a younger 
brother he nightly offered to the true, living God the prayer 
which had been taught him, but which his mother had 
forbidden his offering aloud. 

About the middle of August, Mrs. Witter began to visit 
regularly the wives and concubines of sepoys and shopmen 
and soon came to know every woman in the station, to most 
of whom she had told the story of the need and mission of 
our Saviour. This work, undertaken with fear and trembling, 
whatever may be the fruit among those poor sinful women, 
was fraught with blessing to the laborer. 

August 25th, a day school was opened with three Naga 
boys who were employed as servants in the family. The 
number of pupils subsequently increased to seven, all of 
whom earned their living in the service either of Govern- 
ment officials or the missionary. The daily sessions were from 
an hour to an hour and a half, a part of which time was 
spent in Bible instruction, and a part in teaching the boys 
to read and write their own language, the Roman character 
having been adopted. The First Catechism in Assamese, 
with the exception of the Lord's Prayer, was translated into 
Lhota and a good share of it committed to memory by the 
school boys. They learned rapidly to read and satisfactoril}' 
completed a First Primer which Mr. Witter had prepared. 


A considerable vocabulary has been collected and material 
for a Phrase book, samples of which Government ofi&cials 
requested should be sent to Shillong*. Upon examination they 
expressed their approval of the work and their willingness to 
publish the same at Government expense, allowing the mis- 
sionary as many copies as he wished. But the sickness and 
death of the Sub-divisional officer at Wokha diverted the time 
and attention of the missionaries to such an extent as to forbid 
the preparation of the manuscripts before leaving Wokha to 
attend the Jubilee Conference. Many sepoys visit the mis- 
sion bungalow and in one way or another the missionaries 
are brought into more or less intimate relation with nearly 
all the residents of the station. 

Although conscious of having fulfilled but a small part of 
their obligations to these their neighbors, they are still glad 
to report that from their preaching of the Gospel to Assa- 
mese, Gorkalis, Garos, to Hindus, Mussulmans and demon 
worshipers, and from the distribution of tracts and the lending 
of Assamese New Testaments to those who could read, they 
expect others to enter into their labors and to sometime and 
somewhere reap a harvest of souls among these migratory 
peoples who have thus for the first time heard the story of 
the Cross in a strange land. 

They also feel that the day is not far distant when over 
all Lhota land, where every heart sitteth in darkness, the day 
shall dawn and the Day Star arise. 

The description which Captain Butler gave of the Lhota 
Nagas in 1874 remains true of them to-day. 

" A tribe quite distinct from the others we had previously 
visited, and one whose dirty persons, short and squat stature, 
and sulky suspicious behavior formed a very marked con- 
trast to the cleanly bodies, tall well knit frames, and open, 
frank manners of the Angamis." There are now fifty-three 
Lhota villages which pay revenue to Government. The total 


number of inhabitants of these fifty-three villages is some- 
thing like thirty-one thousand souls. 

The Lliota tribe dovetails into the Hatigoria or Ao tribe 
on the north, the large, and as yet unsubdued Sehma tribe 
on the east and the Rengma tribe on the south. The Doyong 
River emerging into the Plain of Assam also forms a part 
of its southern boundary. On the west it extends to the 
foot-hills bordering the Assam valley along the southern 
portion of the Sibsagar district. 

Since the Conference, Mr. Witter has visited several villages 
and many have listened to the word with seeming interest. 

Nine Naga boys are in the station school, learning rapidly 
to read and write their own language. They are daily re- 
ceiving Bible instruction and are learning to sing Naga and 
Assamese hymns. The Nagas are very fond of music and 
have said that they could not restrain the tears on simply 
hearing a gospel hymn, the words of which they could not 

The Lhotas, in common with other tribes, believe that 
rivers, rocks, forest and jungle are the abodes of gods and 
o-oddesses. There are two gods par excellence both of 
whom are known by the name of " Potsowo." One occupy- 
ing the lower heavens is the author of good, and the other, 
dwelling in the upper heavens, is the author of evil. The 
former sometimes performs the office of mediator, e. </., The 
evil spirit when angry with the children of men sometimes 
determines to destroy them by hurling down great blocks of 
ice. At such times " Potsowo " of the lower heavens rushes 
from his abode and seizing the huge door of his dwelling 
raises it above his head and goes rushing hither and thither 
cryino- " X. honoro nziinii viinii, a honoro uzilna viinii." 
" Show my chickens favor, show my chickens favor, " and 
the blocks of ice falling upon this door are dashed to pieces 
and fall to the earth as hail. 


To see " Potsowo " is to die, but the " medicine men " of 
the several villages are said to be in communication with 
him, and many and curious are the methods resorted to in 
order to appease the evil spirit. Having plenary powers he 
cuts short the life of those who will not do homage to him 
in the sacrifice of fowls, pigs and cattle. 

After death the shadows of men become the spiritual 
bodies of their spirits, or minds, which they convey to 
Wokha hill, i. e., Mount Thebzothn, and there enter upon an 
underground existence, where they live nine successive lives, 
passing after each death on to another underground village, 
after which they re-appear in insects, — bees, locusts, grass- 
hoppers, &c. The more fortunate — those who have been 
especially religious when on earth are delegated to dwell 
in the body of a large insect whose name and exact character 
I have been unable to ascertain. The buzz or song of this 
insect is very pleasing to the Naga ear. All are lost spirits 
and doomed to wander forever outside the home of the 
blessed, who have met their death by falling from a tree, 
by drowning or by being eaten by a tiger. The first are 
suspended eternally in mid air. 

The neighboring tribes with the exception of the Angami 
and Ao tribes are still without a missionary, and no Euro- 
pean or Christian native can understand or speak any of 
their dialects. 

God grant that very soon missionaries may enter these 
new and as yet uncultivated fields. 

By Rev. M. C. Mason. 

Christianity is a life. God alone is its author. Its birth 
and its development however, are subject to conditions 
depending largely upon the will and activity of man. Thus, 
even in the germination and development of the soul's eter- 
nal life ; in this the grandest noblest of all God's works, you 
and I are made laborers together with God. Thus honored, 
at his call we are here to-day, in a foreign land, to execute 
his will in gathering souls to life eternal. 

While giving us great freedom of action, God has placed 
upon us heavy responsibilities. We ourselves must devise 
plans. We must weigh and adopt methods. We have a 
Father's directions. We have an Elder Brother's advice and 
example. These must control our every plan, and ever form 
the underlying principles of all our efforts. 

For Mission Methods are but human adaptations of these 
divine principles to special conditions. Any , method there- 
fore must be measured, first by its harmony i^ith the divine 
principles, and second by its adaptation to its special condi- 
tions ; not forgetting the characteristics and abilities of the 
man who is to execute the work. A method or man, success- 
ful in one field, might be quite the reverse in another. The 
question for us therefore is : What are our best methods ? 

Guiding Principles. — A glance at the guiding principles 
seems first necessary therefore in the consideration of this 

{a) Preach. — " Go ye into all the world and preach the 
gospel to every creature," is the first and great command of 
him who hath sent us. This shows that the proclamation 


of the gospel ; the declaration of the good news of salvation 
must be our first and chief aim. We are to show the way 
of escape from sin ; the way from death unto life, to every 
creature ; man or woman ; high caste as well as low caste ; rich 
as well as poor ; wise as well as simple. It is easy indeed 
to give preference to the high, rich, and wise. Did you 
never feel that if this man with all his position, wealth, and 
abilities, could be converted, it would be of more conse- 
quence than the conversion of many from the ignorant mass ? 
If so, — for such thoughts are not unknown even among 
missionaries to the poor — I beg of you to remember that 
" Not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not 
many noble, are called: but Grod hath chosen the foolish 
things of the world to confound the wise ; and God hath 
chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things 
which are mighty." Remember also that Jesus himself 
prayed, " I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, 
that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, 
and hast revealed them unto babes : even so, Father ; for so 
it seemed good in thy sight." 

Let us not neglect this precept, nor reverse Christ's order. 
Bat let us preach as did Paul, to the mob at Ephesus, to the 
women by the riverside, or to the wise Agrippa ; as did Peter, 
on the day of Pentecost, at the house of Cornelius, or to the 
poor and afflicted at Joppa ; as did Christ to the multitudes 
by the sea ; to timid Nicodemus, the Pharisee, or to the 
woman at the well. Let us preach it in our towns, along 
our river banks, in our villages, and in the hamlets on the 
hills and in the valleys of our mountains ; to few or to many 
as we have opportunity. 

(&) Persuade. — Nor is this all : " Go ye therefore and make 

disciples of all nations," implies that we should at least try 

to convince. I doubt not you have been supplied with books 

and tracts, which claim that the proclamation of the gospel 



is our whole duty ; let liim tliat will, believe; he that will 
not, let him reject. But is this the way Christ has dealt 
with us ? Has he not all day long stretched forth liis hands 
unto a disobedient and gainsaying people ? Paul says, " I 
am made all things to all men, that I might by all means 
save some." Surely our instructions are, that we should 
exhort, persuade and urge men to accept Christ's offer of 

We need not argue nor dispute. It is well to leave alone 
as far as possible, their errors of belief and practice, and 
show them our Savior. When they have learned Christ, the 
truth will make them free. Dr. Clough says, — 

" I in my younger missionary days used to argue much, — 
prove logically everything that could be proved, and showed 
the absurdities of the Hindu sliastras, and abused their idols 
and other like things. I succeeded in making many of them 
very angry ; but no good resulted from such efforts. Of late 
all this has been abandoned. I content myself by telling the 
old, old story of Jesus and His love, over and over again, and 
with it the need of a Savior, the power and willingness of 
God to save, and the happiness of the believer, and the glories 
of Heaven, and this to all who will listen be they few or 
many, rich, or poor, — high or low caste, or no caste." 
Abusive or argumentative preaching does not convert. A 
person logically cornered, though convicted is oftener pro- 
voked than converted. We are to hold up Christ in all his 
beauty and loveliness. It is love that wins. Let us attract 
by all the powers of love. There is no power greater. While 
making plain the way of escape from sin and misery to life 
and happiness, make the people feel that we are their friends, 
and that we wish to do them good. 

(c) Charities. — When Christ sent forth the seventy, he 
said unto them, " Into whatsoever city ye enter, and they 
receive you * "^ * heal the sick that are therein." He sent 


the twelve " to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the 
sick." Christ and the Apostles were full of kindly deeds, 
to the sick and afflicted. And it is axiomatic that we should 
have the same spirit, and practice like kindness, so far as is 
in our power. Tlie principle of charitable relief and care 
for the sick, is quite generally and wisely accepted as one of 
the more effective means of gaining the attention, sympathy, 
and good will of the people. Good hospitals cannot fail of 
having a salutary influence. And each missionary can do 
more or less of this charitable work. 

{d) Signs. — But is this all that the above passages imply. 
In his parting words Christ says further : " All power is 
given unto me in heaven and on earth. Go ye therefore, and 
teach all nations, * ^ "^ and, lo, I am with you alway even 
unto the end of the world." " And these signs shall follow 
them that believe ; in my name shall they cast out devils ; 
they shall speak with new tongues ; they shall take up 
serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not 
hurt them ; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall 
recover." If Christ has all power in heaven and on earth, 
and is Avith us always, is he not expected to work with us 
and confirm the word with signs ? Are we not called upon 
to be mediums of God^s present working power ? The com- 
mon answer to this question is, " No ! The day of miracles 
in passed." " Miracles," as said Dr. Fuller, " are the swad- 
dling clothes of the infant church." " We of to-day have 
no right to ask such help." " The light of the present age 
in sufficient without these signs." " Many apparently 
forget," says Dr. Clough, •' that the Apostles were possessed 
of power not given to the modern missionary." He follows 
this by explaining that the modern missionary, not having 
the gift of tongues, the power to heal the sick, and so 
forth, labors at a great disadvantage as compared with the 
early disciples. In this I am sure he voices a very common 


feeling. But if, without this power, the light and advan- 
tages of our time were, as some say they are, so superior to 
those of the Apostles' time, would there be this prevalent 
feeling of disadvantage? What missionary of experience, 
although granting assent to this common opinion, has not 
longed to rescue the poor crushed victim from the heel of 
Satan, and prove to these ignorant, blinded, hopeless, souls, 
that our God is the true and living God? Who has not 
felt a twinge of inconsistency in the position that our God is 
the one God ; the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever ; 
and yet he will not grant to these most degraded and 
ignorant people as simple and conclusive evidences as he 
did to those Jews, who possessed a whole book of evidences, 
in which they had implicit confidence ? If the Lord gave 
testimony unto the word of his grace, and granted signs and 
wonders to be done at Iconium, why should he not to such 
people as are found in Assam. " God hath set some in the 
church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, 
after that miracles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, 
diversities of tongues." If we who are sent to prophesy 
unto this people, and to teach them, may possess these first- 
class- gifts, should none of us possess any of the fourth or 
fifth-class gifts, of which Christ and the apostles made such 
abundant use ? I ask these questions with earnestness ; for 
I feel that we have here a responsibility ; that we are not 
faithful to our trust, if we accept without verification, the 
more common opinion. Let us rather ask ourselves if it is 
not because of our lack of faith and consecration, that God 
cannot do many mighty works among us. Some of our 
respected brethren at home are calling upon us to consider 
if these gifts are not among our modern mission methods. 
May we not, my brethren, pray, as did the little company of 
disciples with Peter and John, "Now Lord grant thy servant 
to speak thy word with all boldness, while thou stretchest 

methods' OF MISSION WORK. lOl 

forth thy hand to heal, and that signs and wonders may be 
done though the name of thy holy child Jesus." 

(c) Teach. — After we have discipled and baptized, we are 
told to " teach them all things whatsoever I have command- 
ed you." This opens a very large field of work, one in which 
the missionary finds no end to his labors. We are to teach 
them all things. We are to instruct all grades of talent ; all 
kinds of gifts. We are to train, not simply preachers of the 
gospel, — but whole churches must be taught, and led to be 
wise and zealous workers in the Lord's vineyard. In our 
field we have found it necessary to take men of the wilds, 
when converted, and train them for preachers, school teachers, 
translators, printers, proof-readers, book-makers, carpenters, 
tailors, cooks, and the work of every necessary service. It 
needs line upon line and precept upon precept. And the 
missionary needs patience, patience, patience, and plodding 

(6) Character. — One other principle must not be omitted in 
this connection. In sending forth the twelve, Jesus said, 
" I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves ; be ye 
therefore wise as serpents and harmless as doves." We are 
told to be "blameless and harmless, the sons of God, with- 
out rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, 
among whom ye shine as lights in the world, holding forth 
the word of life." 

Acts, my brethren, are more powerful than words; cha- 
racter speaks louder than sermons, and far outshines the 
highest education. The Scriptures are so full of teaching 
on this subject, and make so prominent the necessity of 
being and doing, that it seems almost absurd to mention it 
here, especially as character is a presupposed fact in every 
missionary. But who of us, in these new surroundings, 
burdened with peculiar and most aggravating trials, amidst 
a people so unexpectedly crooked, is beyond danger of being 


led astray. It will harm none of us, my brethren, to dwell 
upon this teaching. We cannot be too careful to control 
ourselves under all circumstances ; to dispense with all 
domineering spirit ; to show in all our conduct a Christ-like 
love. " Let your light so shine before men that they may 
see your good works and glorify your Father which is in 

I have noted in our earlier converts the peculiarities of my 
predecessors. And I have been profoundly impressed with 
the thought that we are to these people Christianity's chief 
model. Paul said to his converts, " Be ye followers of me, 
even as I also am of Christ.'* We may hesitate to say as 
much ; but the fact will remain, that converts imitate their 
teachers. And the spiritual life of the convert seldom rises 
higher than that of the missionary. 

Application of Principles. — I have dwelt perhaps longer 
than prudent upon these principles. The application of them 
often brings perplexing difficulties. And in this one cannot 
speak for another ; each must walk in the light he has, and 
act for himself. Let my further remarks therefore be re- 
garded as but suggestions ; and suggestions not intended for 
China, Burmah, India or Africa, but for our own field. 

To Assam. — The stations, at present occupied by us, have a 
great variety of conditions ; those of the plains especially 
differing from those of the hills. Methods that would be 
most practical with some of us, would be quite useless with 
others. But there are interests in common, and I would 
suggest first, — 

(a) United Effort. — That we aim to unite our strength in 
a harmony of effort. Keeping in mind the whole field, let 
us work toward the same end. As our Home Mission Society 
has for its motto " North America for Christ," let us, feeble 
though we be, have Assam, or if you please All Central 
Asia for Christ. We are crippled without sympathy and 


help from our brethren at home. We shall have that sym- 
pathy and help in proportion to our united earnest effort. 
Says Christ, " If two of you shall agree on earth as touching 
any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for thera of 
my Father which is in heaven." Let us being agreed pray 
for the people of Assam, and putting shoulder to the work, 
let us lift in unison. For behold the field ; we are few and 
feeble, with no strength to waste. 

(6) Division of Labor. — Let us also make, where it is possi- 
ble, a division of labor. I do not mean a fence for separa- 
tion. Such fences are subject to thorns and briers. I mean 
a brotherly division that will economize time and strength 
for general good. We are at such a distance from each 
other, and travel is so difficult ; we use such a variety of 
languages, that I doubt if there is a field where it is less 
possible ; but it is sufficiently possible to make it of great 

As to separate work, most of us have fields with more or 
less clearly defined limits. Either the language, or the field 
of a neighbor missionary, gives at least an approximate 
boundary, extensive though it be. 

Know your field. — I would suggest therefore as one of our 
first duties, that we become acquainted with our field ; that as 
far as practical we traverse it, that we may know the habits, 
customs, beliefs, prejudices, and labors of the people. We 
should seek to know the controlling influences among them • 
the points at which our efforts will be most felt ; and where 
they will be least resisted by prejudice, and least crippled by 
the undeveloped conditions of the country. We should keep 
our eyes abroad and be as ready as possible to thrust in the 
sickle where ripening grain appears. With us, we find it of 
advantage to traverse our field personally, as far as possible 
each cold season, and to keep a few traveling preachers abroad 
throughout the year. Changes are constantly at work ; and 


the travel makes for the missionary a beneficial change from 
the office and class-room work of the rainy season; for travel in 
the hills in the dry season I find to be a good health invigorator. 

Plan. — We need also to lay out our work ; not for our 
immediate surroundings only, but for the whole field ; not for 
immediate results simply, but for after years. We should 
plan for the labor of forces yet unborn. We must pray for, 
and expect an army of workers to grow up on our field. For 
it is sufficiently plain, that the work of evangelizing the 
country must be done mainly by the natives themselves. 

Native helpers. — It becomes therefore one of the mission- 
ary's most important duties to train and utilize all the native 
talent possible ; not as agents, or helpers only, but as 
brethren ; as independent workers. We must take them into 
our confidence ; plan and consult with them. Let them see 
the work from our point of view. Show them work to do, 
and trust them with responsibilities. Otherwise they will 
not understand us, nor shall we understand them ; and there 
will be two sides, — a saheVs side and a native side — with an 
illy balanced evener to provoke balks. At times we must 
compel them to work, as the eagle compels its young to fly. 
It is easy to sail on a saheb^s back ; and many prefer this to 
walking. We must take ourselves from under such, and make 
them use their own power. We must indeed do for them 
all we wisely can. To be their friends, we must be ready to do 
them favors, we must listen to their difficulties, give them 
advice, and in general help them to help themselves. But as 
a rule it is not too much to say, that the missionary should 
do no work which he can get a native to do as well. When 
they can do every thing well, there is no occasion for a 
missionary. And in my opinion the man who gets the most 
Christian work from his converts, and who the soonest leads 
them to the self-reliant, independent standard of action, is 
the man whose labour is likely to yield most abundant fruit. 


Mission Money. — With special diligence must we keep them 
from leaning upon mission money. Money is the palace car 
which but few would decline. With money in our hand, 
some will crawl at our feet and be our subjects to the end of 
life. Dr. Phillips says truly, " The idea that a missionary is 
a gold mine sent over here to be dug has done harm enough." 
Let us give no occasion for such a thought. 

From necessity we become managers of several depart- 
ments. And to be efficient we must employ paid labor. But 
let the money be given for services rendered, and not for 
nominal positions. I see no reason why we should support 
their poor, educate their children, build their meeting houses, 
or support their pastors. I do feel however that it is wise to 
aid in educating poor young men for Christian work ; to aid in 
supplying the Bible and a Christian literature to the desti- 
tute ; to aid in supporting evangelists to the heathen ; and to 
aid district missionaries in work for the weaker churches. 
In short I recommend an economical use of mission money 
for most of the purposes for which the majority of the work- 
ing churches at home make regular contributions. 

Strengthen Converts. — But great care is needed lest our help 
leave their strength unused, and we thus enfeeble rather 
than strengthen. Their powers must be exercised. Teach 
them to stand alone, even when separated from friends. I have 
been told that in Burma the missionaries have rather con- 
cluded that it is wiser for the converts to gather themselves 
into separate villages, literally fulj&lling the command, 
" Come out from among them and be ye separate ; " but my 
experience leads me to feel it a help in the spread of the gos- 
pel, if converts remain and labor in their own village, or go into 
more desolate places. A few converts here and there, when 
watched, helped, and encouraged in their struggles with the 
hosts of sin about them, are as likely to cleanse themselves 
from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, as those who flee 


the tribulations of such surroundings. And they will do 
more service than scores gathered into one comfortable nest ; 
especially if that nest be under the wing of a saheh. Let us 
avoid every thing approaching the enervating practice of a 
compound system. We cannot raise good oaks in a flower 
pot. Let them live where there is opportunity for exercise 
and growth. 

Organize Churches. — Whenever there be a company of 
Christians sufficiently separated, lead them to organize their 
forces, and labor systematically for the upbuilding of Christ's 
kingdom. Show them their responsibilities, and the impor- 
tance of their work. An educated, salaried pastor is not the 
first essential to a Christian church. Every member should 
be a worker. It is a fallacy to suppose that God selects a few 
for his service, and expects the others to let it alone. This 
though unworded is often so plainly implied, as to be quite 
generally heeded. Let us away with the idea, so prevalent at 
home, that it is the pastor's duty to look after us, and every 
one else. It is the duty of every one to preach. Preachers, 
teachers, shepherds, carpenters, fishermen — whether men or 
women — should be made to feel their great privilege in 
beino- workers together with Christ. It is only when at work 
that the various gifts of the converts are manifest. Some 
are called to give their time to preaching ; others are called 
to raise rice for the preacher. Preachers are not our only 


Business La3nnen. — Our Assam churches need more ener- 
getic business-men; men who feel it their duty to make 
money for the Lord ; men who, while they gladly tell what 
the Lord has done for them, labor also with their hands and 
head to aid the advancement of his cause. Our churches 
Avill never be evangelistic, nor in the true sense self-support- 
ino- until we have a body of such laymen. A church may 
feed its pastor, and yet live so inactively as to sink gradually 


to its grave. It is one of our mission methods therefore, in 
building up working churches, to teach and aid the people in 
industries. I cannot enlarge on this here ; but let us remem- 
ber that Christianity is industrious, and not lazy. Money- 
making and money-using is a power. And it never was 
intended that the Devil monopolize that power. 

Christian Literature. — The Bible in the language of the 
people is one of the first essentials in the development of 
strong churches. Even if it take the life time of a few men 
to furnish a good translation, it would be lives well spent. 
Religious books, tracts and periodicals, also, need to follow 
closely th e translated word. The translation, the printin g and 
the distribution of Bibles, tracts, and other Christian litera- 
ture require therefore not a little of our attention. And with 
many of us, we must also teach the people to read before 
these can be of use : in which case mission schools are a 
necessity. But as Bible Translation and Mission Schools are 
to be separately considered, I will not dwell upon these 
points, but pass to a few suggestions on the manner of pre- 
senting the gospel, and regarding our position, in relation to 
our surroundings. 

Manner of Preaching. — In our preaching to the heathen, 
as before mentioned, logic and philosophy are less effectual 
weapons than the plain and simple statement of truth enforc- 
ed by clear illustrations. Our preaching should also be 
personal. I know that a sister society, not without success, 
professes to preach to the mass rather than to the man ; but 
in the matter of soul salvation God deals with individuals 
rather than with nations, tribes or families. In this country 
especially must we teach men, that before God they are to 
stand or fall by themselves. We must use tact also in obtain- 
ing and retaining a hearing. Every gathering is not an 
opportunity, nor is the greatest crowd the best opportunity for 
preaching. Street, bazar and market preaching have their 


advantages. The roaming preacher does a good work in 
clearing the way, surveying the field, and in selecting sites. 
And here and there a little grain may be gathered from the 
seed he scatters. But the soil that brings forth thirty, 
sixty, or a hundred fold, must be tilled ; the plants cultivat- 
ed ; the harvest cared for. With, us, by far the larger gather- 
ings have been made where the teacher has taken a claim as 
it were, where he has settled down permanently, and identi- 
fied his interests more or less with those of the people. In 
many parts of Assam there is need of more places for regular 
stated preaching. These places may be supplied with tracts 
and Scriptures ; they may be associated with one or more of 
a variety of attractions. A reading-room ; a book-stand ; a 
course of short lectures ; various scientific exhibitions and 
so forth, may be wrapped about the truth, so that many 
would listen to the gospel thus clothed, when they would 
otherwise turn a deaf ear. In my opinion also we have in 
Assam many Nicodemuses, who would gladly learn of Christ, 
if it were not for the taunts of others. Let there be a door 
for such. 

Attitude toward Natives. — Our relations to almost all about 
us are peculiar. To some we are lords, to others we are 
almost beggars. To our God let us be true servants ; to men 
let us be true fellows. To Christian helpers, to converts, 
and to servants let us be brethren. Christian servants, 
having a common interest and a true sympathy with us, 
are most helpful. Observing government oflicials have told 
me, as evidence against the Christianity of India, that they 
never found a missionary who employed his own converts as 
servants. While such evidence is not conclusive, it has its 
force, and my experience, especially when touring, is that it 
is much better to have a poor cook who will generally help 
in religious work, and preach when I cannot, then to have a 
good cook who will hold opposition meetings. 


Toward Europeans. — We are Europeans, and cannot change 
the fact. But we cannot be one Tcith the Europeans in their 
vices. I think it behoves us ever to keep to the front the 
fact that character, not color, makes the man. And while 
we should be friendly with all, we need not court the friend- 
ship of any not in sympathy vnth our work. To what extent 
should we separate ourselves from the European of the 
country ; to what extent should we bring ourselves down to 
the ways ol the natives, are often perplexing questions. To 
find and retain a wise and happy mean in these matters, needs 
much prayer and care. 

General Supervision. — Nearly every one of us is so 
situated that we cannot confine ourselves to any one depart- 
ment of work. We cannot be limited to one or two methods 
of work. We are each obliged to attend to various depart- 
ments. Translating, writing, publishing, printing, theolo- 
gical teaching, management of schools, preaching, touring, 
and a host of minor duties, all fall upon the same mission- 
ary. So that our question is not so much, to what shall we 
give our attention, as how shall we divide our strength so as 
to best economize our resources. How much help should we 
give to this man or that church? How much use should we 
make of our own prestige and authority ? How shall we 
guide and control all these forces, and yet lead them to bear 
responsibilities and act with independence ? These are verily 
difficult questions ; and questions not answered in a day : 
they are ever before us. With much prayer and earnestness 
must we ever seek our proper positions in relation to them. 
It is necessary in the earlier stages of the work to sustain a 
manly authority, our strength must supplement their weak- 
ness, but let us do our part as unobservedly as possible. If 
we keep informed as to prevailing opinions ; if we look 
ahead and be the first to discover rising tendencies, then, by a 
word most incidentally dropped, perhaps having no apparent 


relations to probable action, we may turn a stream from a 
destructive course, with augmented force, it may be, into 
useful channels. 

With prayer and care, a missionary may retain, as long as 
is wise, a controlling influence, without hindering the deve- 
lopment of independent powers. But if one is truly success- 
ful in his training, he must see his own authority eclipsed 
by powers thus developed. Do not be chagrined because 
a stronger has arisen. A father is not dishonored because his 
son is stronger and wiser than he. 

I close by calling attention to the fact that too much 
method, too much planning, too much discussing of means, 
will take the life out of our work. Christianity is a life, not 
a machine ; God is the life-giver; we are but fruit-bearing 
branches. And the branch which draws most from the vine, 
will bear most fruit. The humble, contrite soul only will 
have guidance through these difficulties. And God will 
honor him that walketh in his presence, more than a multi- 
tude of plans and counsels. May God grant to us all this 
vital union and sympathy with himself, which will enable 
us to follow closely his lead, and to execute his wishes. 


Mr. Rivenburg said he thought that, when possible, the converts 
should be taught to depend upon themselves for medical treat- 
ment, not on the missionary. 

Mr. Gurney concurred with Mr. Rivenburg on this point. 

Mr. Mason explained that, in the Garo Mission, no medicines 
are o-iven free of charge, except in cases where the sick person comes 
to the door. In other cases all medicines are sold. We should not 
let the converts lean upon the missionary. 

Mr. Moore said : — In Nowgong there is a prevailing sentiment 
against having a black preacher. I myself seldom preach to the 
church. Is my course right ? The church ought to have more 
Scripture teaching. I am in doubt as to the proper course to pursue. 


Mr, Jones said : — Among us the missionary, if present, always 
preaches, at least once, on Sunday. The natives expect it and the 
missionary expects it. I approve of Mr Mason's caution against 
too much planning. My own best plan is plodding work with the 
people. In Shillong, about once in two months, we have a meet- 
ing of all the men, and divide the work. Each company takes a few 
villages, and at the end of two months reports. The women do the 
same, and the men and women are sent out together. The plan 
works well. The visits are made on Sunday evenings especially, and 
I go out with them here and there. On tour, in the cold season, I 
usually take with me two or three men and women with a preacher, 
and this company increases, as from village to village others join 
us. In the social meetings I am captain and check all wandering 
talks that would drive away hearers. I approve having only 
Christian servants, who can help preach. Above all things, we 
must go to the people in love. We all administer medicines, but 
as a rule sell the medicines, and make profit for other uses. We 
find no harm in the line of increasing their dependence on us. 

Mr. Burdette brought to the notice of the Conference the proposal 
of Mrs. Scott, former missionary at Nowgong, to open a medical mis- 
sion, to treat partly gratuitously, partly for fees, and to teach medi- 
cine to others; she would also labor especially among caste women. 

Mr. Mason called attention to a point in his paper, and asked 
the opinion of the Conference whether or not we are called upon to 
expect to receive and to use in our work miracle-working powers. 

Mr. Bnrdette said : — I think that any who can use miracles should 
not hesitate to do so. I do not think that in seeking this we should 
sacrifice other gifts. 

Mrs. Phillips, in compliance to a request, related the case of her 
own healing in answer to prayer. 

Mr. Wittier said : — I believe that I am called upon to use means, 
as far as helpful. 

Mr. Burdette stated his belief that one might, in dependence on 
God, with impunity, set at defiance what seemed to be a law, when 
there was necessity for so doing ; and gave instances where he had 
done the same. He asserted his belief in faith. 


Mr. Mason raised the question whether the lack of the miracle- 
working power was not due to our lack of faith, which in turn was 
due to our own education. He also related cases among the 
Garos, of God showing his miraculous power in answer to prayer. 

Mr. Jones referred to similar instances, as occurring among the 

Mr. Moore said : — When men have sought signs, I have referred 
them to the fact that Christ gave no signs to those who sought 
them — a position in which Mr. Mason concurred. 

Mrs. Phillips asked if God in any place commanded to use medi- 
cine, and referred to the injunction in James v. 14. 

By Rev. A. K. Gukney. 

First attempt, Carey's Version. — Before the establishment 
of the Assam Baptist Mission, an attempt was made to give 
the Assamese a whole Bible. Dr. Carey included the Assam- 
ese in his scheme of translating the Bible into all the 
languages of India. This translation into Assamese was 
begun in 1811 ; the New Testament was completed in 1819, 
and the whole Bible was ready and printed in 1833. This 
translation is not a good one. Dr. Carey had no acquaintance 
with the Assamese. The whole work was entrusted to an 
Assamese pundit. Hence the work contains so many Sansc- 
rit terms as to make it unintelligible to the people. Therefore 
it cannot be said that the Assamese possess a whole Bible 
in Carey's version. 

Work of Dr. Brown and others. — The real work of giving 
the Assamese a whole Bible was begun by Dr. Brown soon 
after his arrival in the country ; was continued by Mr. 
Whiting, by Nedhi Levi Farwell and by Dr. Ward, and by 
myself ; all have been hindered by other important work. No 
missionary has been able to devote his whole time to this 
work, and some have been able to devote only a small part of 
their time to it. So that the Jubilee year finds the Assamese 
still without a whole Bible. This is a matter of regret. The 
work of translation cannot be too soon completed. 

Parts printed and available for use. — Of the Assamese 
Bible parts printed and available for use are as follows. 

1. The New Testament translated by Dr. Brown, of this 
four editions have been printed. The third edition was 
printed at the Mission Press Sibsagar in the year 1850. Of 


this there are only half a dozen copies left. The present 
fourth edition, a revised one, was printed by E. W. Clark at 
the Mission Press Sibsagar in the year 1873. There are a good 
number of copies of this on hand. This edition needs still 
further revision to bring it up to the present standard of 
Greek Scholarship. Yet it is good enough for all practical 
purposes and it would not be wise to incur much expense 
for a new edition until the old is exhausted. However 
should it be advisable to print the Bible in one volume, or 
two uniform volumes, the opportunity to revise should be 
taken advantage of. The fine print is an objection to this 
edition ; old men find it difficult to read. Of parts of the 
New Testament suitable for distribution, we have only Luke's 
gospel, printed at Calcutta in the year 1884. Other parts of 
the New Testament printed in a form suitable for distribu- 
tion among the people are urgently needed. 

Of the Old Testament the following parts are in print and 

1. The Pentateuch from 1st Genesis to Slst Exodus trans- 
lated by Dr. Ward. The first edition was printed at the 
Mission Press Sibsagar in the year 1869. A second and 
revised edition was printed at the same press in the year 
1881, with 10 additional chapters bringing it to the 31st 
chapter of Exodus. Of this the story of Joseph was printed 
in tract form and is available for distribution. 

2. The books of Judges, Joshua and Ruth translated by 
myself and printed in oDe book at the Mission Press, Sibsa- 
gar in the year 1880. This will need to be revised. The book 
of EiUth was printed in tract form and is available for distri- 

3. Psalms translated by Dr. Ward : — The first edition was 
printed at the Mission Press, Sibsagar in the year 1863. The 
second edition was revised by Mrs. Ward and was printed at 
Calcutta in the year 1875. This edition has very many 


typographical mistakes, yet not so many as to prevent its 
use. The above are the only parts of the Bible which the 
Assamese have in their own language at the present time. 

III. — Parts that have been tra7islated and printed hut are 
now out of print. 

(1) The books of Samuel and Kings translated by Nedhi 
Levi Farwell, (2) Isaiah translated by Eev. Mr. Whiting, (3) 
Proverbs, Job and some of the Minor Prophets. All of these 
need revision. 

IV. — Parts translated hut not printed. 

Pentateuch trom Exodus 8Ist Chronicles, Nehemiah, Ezra, 
Esther and the Minor Prophets. Some of the Minor Prophets 
were translated, all copies of the former translations being 

V. — Parts that are yet to he translated. Jeremiah, Bzekiel, 
Daniel, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon and Lamentations. The 
translation of Jeremiah is already under way. 


Mr. Mason said : — I am strongly impressed with the necessity 
of the Conference taking some step towards the distribution of 
Scriptures throughout Assam. 

Mr. Gurney said : — We have nothing suitable for distribution 
except Luke, Psalms, Genesis and Exodus, story of Joseph and 
Ruth. My intention is to establish centres of distribution. 

In reply to the question as to what proportion of the people 
could read, a number gave as their opinion that in the larger places 
and throughout Lower Assam, a good many are able to read, and 
would be glad to get tracts and Scriptures. 

Mr. Mason said : — When in Goalpara, quite a number came to 
my house to get Bibles, and were willing to buy them. I found 
that they were sold in the bazar at a high price and large profit. 
In Goalpai'a I once sold a large number of tracts, by letting the 
boys in the Government schools sell on slight commission. 

Mrs. Moore said : — Tracts we can sell, but I doubt if the people 
would buy expensive books. We could distribute many tracts free. 

By Rev. A. K. Gukney. 

In our work the word " self-support" applies to many 
things besides " churches," as self-supporting schools &c., 
but we limit ourselves in this article entirely to " chui'ches." 
For founding churches and dealing with churches is the 
chief work we have to do here. 

The evangelizing agency in Assam is, or should be the 
church. If the kingdom of our Lord is to extend itself 
among the Nagas, it will be by means of Nagas organized 
into churches. If Christ is to bring multitudes unto himself 
among the Assamese and Kolhs, he will do so by means of 
Assamese and Kolhs organized into churches. This is the w^ay 
in which the apostles of old worked ; and it is the way in 
which we must work. 

Hence the question before us — and there is none more 
imj)ortant — is how can we raise up self-supporting churches 
in Assam, or how can we make the greatest possible ap- 
proach to such churches. 

But what is a self-supporting church ? Is the pecuniary 
idea the chief one in self-support ? Can self-support apply 
only to rich churches or churches with money enough to 
support a pastor ? The history of Bassein self-support is 
largely a history of money giving, shall we also deal with 
pecuniary self-support ? No, there are other things as essential 
and more important than pecuniary self-support that demand 
our earnest attention now. The question before us is not 
how much money an Assamese, Kolh or Naga Christian can 
give or be induced to give : it is not how many support, or 
can be induced to support a pasior. The question is how 


far Assamese, Kolhs and Nagas and Garos can be left to 
carry on their own work independently of the missionary. 

When we can leave Assam and trust the Assamese, Kolh 
and Naga Christians to carry on the work of Christ's church 
themselves, the7i and not till then will there be prefect self- 

In this article we mean by a self-supporting church one 
that performs all its functions by its own power within itself 
independent of any influence or power from without. Just 
as a strong vigorous young man works and earns his living ; 
is independent ; in his coming and going, sleeping and eat- 
ing, pleasure and business, he takes no order from any one : 
he is his own master. So is the self-supporting church : it 
works and grows on its own resources and consults no one 
but Christ and the word of God as to its work. 

But it is not our purpose now to inquire to what propor- 
tions self-support or self-management has attained in As- 
sam. I do not know what has been done in other parts of 
Assam, but in the Sibsagar district scarcely an approach 
has been made to the above standard, although considerable 
labor has been expended in the direction of self manage- 
ment. There are in the above district a number of men who 
profess to be Christians and to worship God and who most 
of them meet for worship, and this is all. They are not 
churches at all strictly speaking. In fact the Christians in 
the Sibsagar District resemble the trees on the Dikho com- 
pound from which I had to get my timber for my new 
house. There were lots of trees small and great. Some 
were tall, of beautiful wood a trifle crooked, but would make 
nice posts for the house. But there were others wonder- 
fully straight and tall : how beautiful they were. But alas 
they would be fit only for firewood. If put into a house the 
worms would make quick work of them. Others were short 
but would make beams : others again would only produce 


battens. And all would have to be cut down, sawed, dress- 
ed, and brought to the house and each timber fitted in its 
appropriate place. 

So it is with the Assamese and Kolh Christians. Lots of 
material and that is all : some very good, some medium, and 
some very poor. The church is to be built : and here is the 
material to build it : but it is all in the rough. Every bit 
of it will have to be cut and dressed. Some of the Chris- 
tians may be pillars, some may be beams, and some battens 
in the church. Alas there are none that are even battens 
now. They nearly all I think can be made to have some 
part in the structure of the church. But oh the labor be- 
fore they become so. What an amount of cutting, what 
dressing, what lopping of ugly limbs and what an amount of 
lifting and pushing before all find a place in the self-support- 
ing church. 

Now what shall we do ? How shall we bring symmetry 
and beauty out of these rough and crooked trees ? What 
shall we do with these Christians who know scarcely more 
than to pray and go to services ? The difficulties and obstacles 
before us are many. 

Relation of converts to the missionary.— The chief if not 
the greatest difficulty with which we have to contend here 
in Assam in establishing self-supporting churches, is the 
relation which the Christian sustains to the missionary. 
We are foreigners in the country. Our modes of life, habits 
and thoughts are different from those of the native Chris- 
tian. There is a great gulf between them and us. Our 
position is much above them. We cannot avoid this. We 
cannot bring ourselves down to them or lift them up to us. 
For the missionary to live like a native not only would be a 
great hardship, but it would ruin his health. To the 
native it is no hardship as he has always lived so. The 
missionary in education and knowledge is far above his 


native brother, and he belongs to the conquering race, the 
English and Americans being all the same to a native. 

All this cannot help having an influence upon the native 
Christian. The missionary is so great in the eyes of his 
native brother, and the latter feels so inferior in knowledge 
and wisdom that he does not feel like taking the lead when 
the missionary is near but instinctively waits for bim. 

Indeed if tbe missionary is not especially careful, and 
sometimes in spite of all they can do, the native Christians 
will depend on the missionary just as a lot of children do upon 
their parents, or like babes in arms, will scarcely be able to 
exist without the missionary. They will regard the mis- 
sionary as having lots of money, as all-influential among the 
English officers, and consider them as their father and 
mother bound to help them in all their troubles, to assist 
them when they are sick, to furnish them with work when 
they happen to be without it, to fight for them in court, to 
give them timber and bamboos, to help them repair or build 
their houses, to get them exempt from taxation, to settle 
their quarrels and disputes. If a cow gets into a man's 
field and eats 4 as. worth of dhan (rice) he expects the mis- 
sionary to leave his work and go forthwith and make the 
owner of the animal pay well for the damage. If he does 
not do all this they are offended and think he does not care 
for them. 

If they are so dependant in temporal things they will be 
still more dependant in spiritual matters. This dependance 
is fatal to all prosperity in the church. The Christians will 
regard all prayer-meetings, all preaching services, all disci- 
pline as belonging to the missionary, and will wait the order 
of the missionary in every thing and have no mind of their 
own. Let us illustrate. In the village of C. there is a 
church of 50 members. They sustain preaching services 
and the usual prayer meetings, support an ordained pastor 


and have preachers among the heathen. This you will 
think is a self-supporting church : but it is not. Why ? 
There is a missionary or two, a Press and a School in that 
place. Almost all the members of the church are employees 
in the Press or Mission, paid with mission money or stu- 
dents in the School with stipends. They support their 
pastor because they know the missionaries who employ 
them want them to do so. The prayer-meetings and preach- 
ing services are kept up under the eye of the missionary and 
in accordance with his instructions, and so is the discipline 
kept up. When a man does wrong the missionary investi- 
gates the case and gets the church to punish him. Nomi- 
nally the preachers are sent out by the church, but really 
by the missionary. 

The prayer meetings of this church are well sustained 
and the testimonies are given with much unction. There is 
the greatest harmony and good feeling between the Chris- 
tians and the missionaries. They all are one family, of 
which the missionaries are the parents and the Christians the 
children. To all appearances this is a thriving church : but 
it is in reality like a house made of card-board. The storm 
coming, down it will tumble. It is a case of extreme de- 
pendance. Should the Press and School for any reason be 
broken up, this church will quickly disappear. The Press 
and the School are the artificial stimulus that keeps this 
church up. When that is withdrawn it collapses. 

What can we do to avoid producing churches like the 
above ? Shall we refuse all employment in Press or School to 
Christians ? Shall we run Presses solely with heathen 
workmen? Can we carry on our work at all unless we have 
Christian preachers and helpers supported to some extent by 
mission money? Such helpers are a necessity and they 
must be helped to some extent with mission money. 
The Assamese are dependant and weak and I fear, will re- 


main dependant and weak for years to come. Yet I believe 
it is possible to avoid producing such cases as above if as 
far as possible we observe the following rules. 

(1.) Bo not treat them as children. Treat them as mew., 
just as capable of supporting themselves as their heathen 
and Mussulman neighbors, who have no missionary to lean 
upon. Discourage to the utmost the idea that you are their 
father and mother, and they your children. Treat them 
kindly but as men. 

(2.) Do not make presents to them just because they are 
Christians, on the contrary make as few presents as possible 
and those only for services rendered. 

(3.) Do not let all the helping be on your side and none 
on theirs. Do not have a Christmas tree whose presents are 
all from you and none from them. Let them help them- 
selves. Rather you help the church, and the church help 
them. Let them set up the tree and put on the presents and 
you help them. 

(4.) In short as far as possible and just as soon as pos- 
sible throw all the work of the church both temporal and 
spiritual upon them. Do not say they are too ignorant 
and childlike, no matter if they stumble, let them manage 
their own affairs. 

(5.) Do not let all the work of the church be done by 
hirelings in the pay of mission : but insist on the laymen 
doing a share of it. 

(6.) Do not change the temporal condition of converts on 
their becoming Christians. Do not give them a greater in- 
come than they had as heathen unless they prove them- 
selves worthy of it by improved skill. If a man had Rs. 7 
for doing a certain work as a heathen, do not give him Rs. 10 
for doing the same work as a Do not give them 
more privileges as servants or workmen because they are 
Christians. If a Christian can better himself by his own 



efforts so much the better, but do not do it yourself. Do 
not condone their faults because they are Christians, do not 
fine your heathen servant and forgive your Christian servant 
who is equally guilty. Fine both or forgive both. 

(7.) Keep a sharp distinction between secular and 
church work. Do not use pressure of any kind to make 
Christians come to services. Let the love of Christ bring 
them. Teach them that church services, prayer-meetings 
&c. are theirs and not dependant on the will of the Mis- 

Treat your Christian pressman or carpenter just the 
same whether he is delinquent in his church duties or not. 
It is not your business as a Press manager to bring him to a 
sense of his obligations but that of the church. 

(8.) All the converts, church members, students, 
preachers should be furnished as far as possible with se- 
cular work so that they either can earn all their living or 
at least part of it. Cultivation or some other kind of work 
should be given them. They should own their own land, 
pay their taxes and other dues. Do not let them be de- 
pendant on the Mission in any thing. The less church 
members supported by the Mission the better. In some 
cases it may be impossible to avoid this. It should be only 
tolerated as a necessary evil and got rid of or diminished 
as soon as possible. 

If these rules can be rigidly carried out, dependance on 
the missionary will be diminished, but not destroyed. 
Assamese Christians will be dependant in spite of all we can 
do. They cannot help depending on the missionary to some 
extent if he is near them. His superior knowledge and 
authority lead them almost insensibly to wait for his advice. 
Their character and nature lead them to be dependant as 
also their indolent disposition. They are averse to hard 
work, and to manage a church rigorously and efficiently 
means hard work. 


The Assamese are very secretive ; will not express their 
own opinions but endeavor to express what they think your 
opinion is. Hence as conversion does not change the na- 
tural character and disposition of converts the missionary 
will often find it difficult to get at the hearts of the church 
members, so as to be sure with what motives they do church 
work. Hence with such a people it is of the utmost im- 
portance that they be placed outside of the control of the 

2. Ignorance. — This dependance is founded to a large 
extent upon ignorance. This brings us to the second ob- 
stacle in the way of self-management on the part of 
Assamese and Kolh Christians. The Assamese in Sibsagar 
seem to have had until lately little or no idea as to church 
work, or the nature of a church, especially as to their res- 
ponsibilities as church members. It is very difficult to con- 
vince some of them that they are obligated to do any 
church work of themselves. There is nothing in Assamese 
on the nature or the work of a church or on the responsi- 
bilities of church members except a paragraph or two in 
Mr. Neighbor's Hand-book. I have searched the old 
Orunodoys to find something on the obligations of Christians 
to the church : but have found nothing. I had to betake 
myseK to Bengalee papers and books. 

As far as I can judge the sole reason why the Kolhs are 
so spiritually dependant is their ignorance. 

Temporally they are not dependant. They never think 
of leaning on the missionary or getting worldly help from 
him. They are no better off temporally than their heathen 
neighbours : have no temporal gain from being Christians. 
When I visit them they expect no help from me ; on the 
contrary they expect to help me. They are not dependant 
on the mission for food, medicine, work or anything else. 
Why then do they not manage themselves ? Simply be- 


cause they do not know how. Except what I could teach 
them personally and what little instruction they may have 
got from the Assamese preachers, on this point — and this I 
fear was very little and soon forgotten — they have never 
been taught anything about a church. 

To support themselves and families, pray and go to chapel 
they think sum up all their duties. They are grossly ig- 
norant, very few can read or write, and are totally unused 
to thinking or deliberating. But let them once be educated, 
learn to read and write, to read books and papers, let them 
once be impressed with the idea of their church responsi- 
bilities and I will trust them to take a share in church 

3. Habit and lack of training. — The failure of the 
Assamese to manage themselves is not wholly due to igno- 
rance but largely to habit and bad training-, or rather lack 
of training. As the tree is bent so it will grow. They 
think the missionary has been sent out here to do church 
work for them, to act as their pastor, and they think it 
strange that he should expect them to do it. They think that 
the services are his and that it is his work to carry them on. 
Why should they do it ? Whence did these people get these 
ideas ? Did they grow up with them spontaneously ? were 
they not taught indirectly to think so ? They have been 
sadly neglected certainly and have not had a pastor for years. 
The lone Missionary was saddled with other necessary work 
and could not pay attention to them. But are these people 
of such bad material that after having been trained in 
Mission Schools they cannot be left to themselves without 
going astray'? Are they like hot-house plants that perish if 
placed in the open ? One of our best Christians remarked to 
me the other day that the Mission did not help the Chris- 
tians now as it used to do, because it had no money. Of 
cour&e he referred to temporal help. Where did he get this 


idea from ? From his previous bringing up. Is there not 
some defect in the previous training of these Christians ? 

4. Lack of outside stimulus is a great obstacle to church 
self-management in this district. What is there to stimu- 
late a small body of Christians here ? Almost nothing. They 
are few, in the midst of a multitude of heathen. There are 
communities of poor laboring Christians not far distant but 
no church near. The nearest church is over one hundred 
miles away, one lone Missionary with lots of work. The 
face of another Missionary they rarely see. They rarely see 
even native Christians from other churches. Why should 
they feel ashamed if the church to which they belong does 
not thrive well ? What enthusiasm can they have ? Not an 
association even, no meeting other Christians. They read 
but little, and know nothing about what is going on in other 
parts of Assam or in Bengal ; know nothing about the pro- 
gress of the Kingdom of Christ in other parts of India. 
How can we expect self-management on the part of people 
situated like these ? 

5. We now come to the obstacle of poverty. — The 
Assamese and Kolh Christians are poor. The Kolhs are 
exceedingly poor. They can contribute only a very small 
part of the pay of a pastor. Although self management is 
possible I believe for churches that are too poor to support 
pastors, provided they are intelligent and understand their 
obligations and have the Spirit of God, yet a church is likely 
to make faster progress on the road to independent manage- 
ment and can perform the functions much better with than 
without a pastor. But where are the pastors for them? 
There are none in this district. There is not a man here 
that is fitted, truly fitted, to lead a church. And if there is 
a man fitted in some way to work for a church, he wants so 
high pay that his services are unavailable. Others there 
are who would make good pastors but they have no desire 


for it and no interest in it. So we lack in this district 
even the material for Pastors. The material with the help 
of the Lord will have to be dug out. 

What are we to do then ? Here is the field before us 
overgrown with the jungle of dependance, ignorance, and 
poverty. To cultivate this field, remove the jungle and 
raise up out of it self-managing churches we need efficient 
students and preachers of the word, native preachers and 
pastors. How are we to get them ? 

(1.) We must pray that the Lord pour out his Spirit 
upon the Assamese and Kolhs, that he put it in the heart of 
the Assamese and Kolhs to love the word of God and 
Christ's Kingdom and to fit themselves for his ministry. 

(2.) We must provide a place where such an Assamese and 
such a Kolh, although ignorant, scarcely knowing how to 
read and write, and not fit to put in a preachers' class, may 
study and fit himself for a preacher. And this place is 
Sibsagar or Jorhat. 

(3.) When this Assamese or Kolh has studied, can read 
and write well and has fitted himself for the preachers' 
class, when he can read Bengalee, and can study with 
profit and benefit the commentary, and other books, when 
he has got beyond the native pundit and the little time the 
Missionary can give him, what will he do then ? Will he be 
set to preaching before he is fitted for it, and be allowed to 
develop into a poorly educated non-efficient helper because 
the Missionary has no time to teach or train him ? It is 
better, far better, to have a place where he can go and com- 
plete his ministerial education, where he can receive instruc- 
tion and training from a missionary whose whole time is 
devoted to it, where he can meet others, Garos, Mikirs, 
Cacharies, Nagas engaged in the same study of God's 
word, where his enthusiasm can be aroused. There is no 
better place than Gauhati for this. 


(4.) An Assamese literature should as far as possible be 
supplied to the Christians. A newspaper should be started, 
both secular and religious, giving the news of the religious 
world in India. Its especial aim should be to interest 
and instruct the Christians on church matters. It should 
not be wholly devoted to the heathen, but largely if not 
mostly to the Christians. At present there are scarcely any 
books in Assamese accessible to the native Christians. 
There used to be the Pilgrim's Progress, Bible Stories, 
and Church History, but these are almost out of print 

(5.) The large religious literature in Bengalee should be 
as far as possible made available to the Assamese Christians. 
As many as possible should learn to read Bengalee. For a 
native preacher indeed it ought to be a matter of shame not 
to know Bengalee, at least not to know how to read it. 
With the best facilities we can have for printing it is not 
likely that we shall publish many books in Assamese. 
Hence the preacher who seeks instruction by reading, in 
many cases will have either to resort to the Bengalee or go 
without. If he cannot resort to the Bengalee what will he 
do ? Will he go the missionary or native who knows 
Bengalee ? In many cases there will be no one of these ac- 
cessible to him, and if they were the instruction he would 
receive from them might be very limited. Hence it is very 
important that every preacher know how to read Bengalee 
and it is not dif&cult for him to learn how to do so. 

(6.) But if the Bengalee literature were available to 
every native Assistant, if he knew how to read Bengalee 
fluently, nay more if he could have lots of books and 
papers in his own language, it all would be of little value to 
him if he had no taste for reading. To be of value books 
and papers must be read. At the present time the 
Assamese Native Assistants read very little : have little taste 


for reading. This taste must be cultivated by every possible 

(7.) Every church even here in Assam should belong to 
an association. As several individuals are moi'e powerful 
than one man, as Christians united in a church are more 
powerful than when working singly, so chui'ches united 
are more powerful than single churches. We should not 
delay another day in forming an association. 

Here is the work before us. We must raise up efficient 
church members and an efficient native ministry. 

Missionaries without native assistants cannot make self- 
managing churches. If we were to-day to put a hundred 
missionaries in Assam, they could not of themselves pro- 
duce a single self -man aging church. What we want is 
efficient native assistants, and until we get them self-ma- 
naging churches in Assam will be only a dream. 


Mr. Rivenburg said : — There is one difficulty through all our 
churches. If one enters the church, usually the whole family 
enters, so that when one errs the whole family oppose his disci- 
pline. To correct this we need a revival of religion. An error 
of the past has been that missionaries have spent too much time 
in literar}' work, and not enough among the people. 

Mr. Witter said : — I conceive that our predecessors have not 
failed in seeking to educate too much, but i-ather in not preaching 
enough themselves. Too much has been left to novices. We 
want more preaching, if need be, to the neglect of press work. 
We need a place for the training of a native ministry. The Lord 
will give the men. 

Mr. Burdette said : — I do not believe there is a better school for 
training a native ministry, than association with the missionary 
in his religious work. In the matter of the employment of con- 
verts, the difficulty is greatest among caste people. But must we 


discriminate against a native Christian ? Rather we should em- 
ploy them, require of them a higher standard of excellence than 
of heathen. 

Mr. Mason said : — I believe, with the essayist, that the fault 
lies in the ignorance, but not an ignorance to be removed by a 
theological education. We do not find among the Garos the 
family clannishness mentioned by Mr. Rivenburg. We receive 
great benefit, in our Mission, through our native monthly paper. 
While it is not the duty of the press manager to strive to induce 
the employes to attend Church, it is the duty of each to use to 
the full extent his power to influence those in contact with him. 

Mr. Gurney explained that, in his essay he meant simply that a 
press manager should not use pressure to induce employes to 
attend Church &c. 

Mr. Moore said : — I have made a great effort to induce the 
Church to settle matters of discipline. I have found much diffi- 
culty in inducing the church to take the step, but have thrown 
the work onto them. I do not see why it is absolutely necessary 
for the mission to require its employes to own their houses, if the 
use of the house is considered as part of their compensation. 

Mr. Mason said : — I do not believe we ought, as a rule, to push 
converts off fi'om dependence on the Missionary. In our work 
we have shown them the principles, and required them to act for 

Mr. Jones said : — It is very well to make rules to keep apart 
from converts in matters of discipline, but well also to occasion- 
ally break them. Mercy knows no rule. 

Mr. Row reminded the members of the conference that, while 
laboring in the same province they were not among the same 
class of people, some are more independent in character and so 
better Christians. The same difference, he said, is seen in the 
work of the Methodist Episcopal missions in the north of India as 
compared with that in the south. He gave illustrations from his 
own experience. 

Mr. Gurney said : — The Assamese, as a race, are very secretive, 
and seldom willing to reveal their feelings or views, unless in a 


case of quarrel among themselves. They work simply to please 
their superioi'S. 

Mr. Witter mentioned the utter lack, in the plains, of helpers, as 
teachers &c. 

Mr. Rivenburg drew attention to the difference in condition 
between the work among the Garos and that of Upper Assam- 
Mr. Mason said : — I have felt the difference between our mis- 
sion and those of the plains, I feel that the great thing to be done 
is to bring ourselves into sympathy and union with the native 
.church. We need to bring our whole mission into closer union. 
We need more laborers, and I believe we can have them. 

Mr. Moore said : — Though the Assamese character is so bad, 
the Gospel can transform it, as is seen in this mission. What we 
need is a revival of religion, so we need to cry mightily to God. 
We must be united in our work throughout Assam. I would 
suggest a circulating letter to go from place to place. 

Mr. Jones said : — We have good Sunday schools and they are in 
a way the back-bone of the church. All join them and study, 
remaining in the schools until old age, or death. We have several 
hundreds such schools, and the missionary visits them as he goes 
from place to place. The people know the Word of God well 
though they know little else. We have examinations in the 
Sunday schools, and give prizes of books &c. We have no 
theological seminary iu the hills. We are afraid of it and are iio\f 
only feeling our way. We do not know where it will end. We 
have theological classes, but are in doubt still as to the higher 

Mr. Moore said : — What we want is men who know the Bible, 
It is not the school. How to get them we do not know. 

Mr. Gurney said : — I have been trying for six months, or a 
year, to keep up a Sunday school, but the distance away at which 
the members reside, and indifference, have been hindrances. The 
Kolhs are willing, but have no teachers. 

Mr. Jones said : — I have found that nothing but plodding will 
avail hero. I always have a Khasia Testament with me, and 
p/lways read to others when I have a chance. If, after five years' 


labor, I have not one or two to go with me, I feel that I have 
made a failure. Many of our teachers have been trained in the 
work, rather than in the Normal School. When going about, I 
take persons with me to talk and sing. They receive help only iu 
the matter of food, and that only when they do not get it from 
the village. 

Then followed some conversation on the difficulties connected 
with the employment of native helpers. 

Mr. Jones said : — I have always found it to advantage never to 
question the motive of a native Christian, but to trust him, and 
leave him to Grod. Never drive a man into a corner. 

Mr. Mason said : — The whole underlying difficulty seems to be 
the idea of being an employe. 

Mr. Phillips suggested that we should help the church and not 
the pastor directly, and strive to make the laborers realize that 
they are helped and not supported. 

Paper by Eev. S. W. Eivenbueg. 

Definition. — Webster defines tithe as " the tenth ; the 
tenth part of any thing ; but especially the tenth part of 
the increase arising from the profits of land and stock al- 
lotted to the clergy tor their support." 

But it may be questioned, why the clergy should have 
the privilege or right of levying a tenth of the profits of 
land and stock for their support any more than poets or 

From the present stand-point man's existence is two-fold, 
temporal and spiritual, corresponding to body and mind. 
Each of these requires development and care. They are 
moreover largely opposed to each other, so that if the mind 
is busy with the one the other must be in a large measure 
neglected, thence the necessity of relegating one or the 
other to a second party. For the majority, the temporal or 
bodily care would be hard to relegate to a second while 
the second or spiritual is not so hard, and hence the part to 
be relegated. He who undertakes, therefore, the care of 
the spiritual wants of his fellows must, in proportion as he 
devotes his time to it, abandon his own physical cares to 
another ; and to whom has he the right except to the one 
for whom he performs spiritual service. Then the question 
arises. How much shall be paid for this spiritual service ? 

Few, apart from kings and princes, have the means to 
support private chaplains, and experience teaches that a spi- 
ritual adviser can perform the same service for several at one 
and the same time. If he performs the service for several 
it follows that his support should come from the several 
jointly. This will greatly lighten the burden of support of 
the spiritual class. 



But what proportion of the property of the temporal 
class or laity shall be set apart for this purpose ? What is 
there in natural or revealed religion to help us in the an- 
swer of this question ? Or, as the spiritual class or clergy 
represent in a large measure religion and God, let us make 
the question a little more inclusive and ask, What proportion 
of property shall be given to God ? 

I. Historical Authority. 

1. Profane. 

If we open the volume of history and seek an answer to 
our question, we will find {i. e., you will find with others 
who at least say they have found ; — I have neither the vo- 
lume nor learning to read it) numerous instances among 
Greeks, Romans, Carthaginians, Arabians and others, of a 
custom of dedicating one tenth of the products of the field, 
flock and war to religious purposes, and therefore there is 
some ground for regarding the one tenth as a law of natural 

Why one tenth has been taken instead of one eleventh 
or one ninth or any other fraction, we can answer only from 
the realm of fancy. It probably, however, is the proportion 
the majority can afford to give and all they can afford to 

2. Jewish History. 

If we turn to Holy Writ we read in Gen. xiv. 20 of 
Abraham's giving one tenth of spoil to Melchizedek, priest 
of God, when he returned from the slaughter of the kings ; 
and in Gen. xxviii. 22 of Jacob's consecrating one 
tenth of all his property to God, on condition he should 
return in safety to his father's house ; showing the existence 
of the tithe centuries before the enactment of the Levitical 

In Leviticus xxvii. 30 we read, "And all the tithe of 

134 TITHES. 

the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of 
the tree, is the Lord's. It is holy unto the Lord. And if a 
man will redeem ought of his tithe, he shall add thereto 
the fifth part thereof. And concerning the tithe of the 
herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passeth under the 
rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the Lord," which is the 
first enactment of the law of the tithe. 

In Numbers xviii. 20-21 we have the object to which 
this tithe was devoted. " And the Lord spake unto Aaron, 
Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt 
thou have any part among them : I am thy part and thine 
inheritance among the children of Israel. And, behold, I 
have given the children of Levi all the tenth in Israel for 
an inheritance, for their service which they serve, even the 
service of the tabernacle of the congregation." Also fur- 
ther on in the chapter instructions are given to the Levites 
to present one tenth of this tithe to the High Priest as his 

Forty years after this first enactment Moses, at the close 
of his life, called the people together and re-enacted the law, 
making many additions suited to the advanced condition of 
the people. One of these expanded points was with respect 
to the tithe. In Deut. xiv. 22-23 we have, " Thou shalt 
truly tithe all the increase of thy seed, that the field 
bringeth forth year by year. And thou shalt eat before the 
Lord thy God, in the place which he shall choose to place 
his name there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine and of 
thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herds, and of thy 

Inasmuch as the tithe was in kind and there would be 
much difficulty in its fulfilment by those living at a dis- 
tance, a provision for them was made in the next verse. 
" And if the way be too long for thee, so that thou art not 
able to carry it, then shalt thou turn it into money ; and 


bind up the money in thine hand and shalt go unto the 
place, which the Lord thy God shall choose, and thou shalt 
bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, 
for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine," &c. " and shalt eat 
there before the Lord thy God." 

After this follow directions for the gathering and laying 
up of the tithe of every third year " within the gates,"; 
probably, not at the metropolis, but at some central place of 
the district where could be gathered for a festival the 
fatherless and widows, the strangers and Levites. And 
lastly : Deut. xxvi. 12-14, at the end of the third year's 
tithing every Iraelite was to take an oath and say, " 1 have 
hastened to the voice of the Lord my God and have done 
according to all that thou hast commanded me." 

Erom all these directions we learn : 

1. That one tenth of all the products of the land was 
to be set apart for the support of the Levites. 

2. The Levites were to set apart one-tenth of their 
portion for the High Priest. 

3. One-tenth, and in all probability a second tenth, was 
to be set apart for festival purposes. 

4. This festival tithe or a third tithe every third year 
was to be eaten with the priests and poor. 

This makes annually two-tenths or one-fifth, and perhaps 
the third year three-tenths, to be given away. This may 
seem excessive. But we must remember that with these 
requirements were coupled promises of perpetual fertility of 
the land which, even after tithing, should flow with 

As a matter of fact this, in common with the rest of the 
law, was neglected and largely fell into disuse with the de- 
cline of faith among the people. Malachi iii. 8 thus 
laments. " Will a man rob God ? Yet ye have robbed me. 
But ye say. Wherein have we robbed thee ? In tithes and 

136 TITHES. 

offerings. Ye are cursed -with a curse, for ye have robbed 
me, even tliis whole nation. Bring ye all the tithes into 
the storehouse, that there may be meat in my house." 
Hezekiah revived its use and after the Captivity Nehemiah. 

Yet, though largely neglected, the custom lingered till a 
late date of Jewish history and was even carried to excess 
by the sect called Pharisees in their affected exactness for 
the observance of the law. Late in the 4th century A. D. 
Jerome speaks of its observance among the Jews. 

The Jews of to-day support their poor by large contribu- 
tions, but whether there is any attempt at tithing I do not 

The law covers only the occupation of the husbandman 
and shepherd ; thus leaving the merchant, the miner and 
the artizan free. 

Until the captivity the Jews confined their attention to 
cultivation and cattle, and from the tenor of the Pentateuch 
it would seem that God wished them ever to remain so. 
But their foolish hearts became darkened and they forsook 
God's plans and his lands. 

But this law as given by Moses was given to a theocratic 
people, whose sole ruler and judge was the Lord God 
Jehovah. We have now to inquire whether or no this law 
of the tithe has any authority with us. 

1. New Testament, — Let us look first into the New 
Testament, our sole and sufiicient rule of faith. 

Matt. X. 10. " The labourer is worthy of his food." 

Luke X. 7. "The „ „ „ „ „ hire." 

Rom. XV. 27. " If the Gentiles have been partakers of 
their spiritual things, they owe it to them to minister unto 
them in carnal things." 

I Cor. ix. 7. " What soldier ever serveth, at his own 
charo-es ? Who planteth a vineyard and eateth not the 
fruit thereof 'P or who f eedeth a flock and eateth not of the 


milk of the flock?" And v. 11. " If we sowed unto you 
spiritual things, is it a great matter if we shall reap your 
carual things?" v. 13. " Know ye not that they which minis- 
ter about sacred things, eat of the things of the temple, and 
they which wait upon the altar have their portion with the 
altar ? Even so did the Lord ordain that they which pro- 
claim the gospel should live of the gospel." 

From these passages it is clear that the ministers of 
Jesus have a right to look to the subjects of their ministry 
for support. This the Lord hath ordained. 
But what about the ' tenth' of Moses P 
In I Cor. xvi. 2 Paul exhorted the brethren to care for 
the Lord's poor in the words : 

" Upon the first day of the week let each one of you lay 
by him in store as he may prosper," that is, as he may 
be prospered. If little had been received then little was to 
be set aside, if much received, then much to be set aside. 
He does not say set aside one-tenth ; but, as the tenth as a 
religious portion was as familiar to every Hebrew mind as 
any other idea of their religion, who shall sa}^ that it was 
not in the mind of Paul when he wrote and taken for 
granted that one-tenth was meant. If you have been pros- 
pered by an increase of ten denarii lay by in God's store 
one ; if twenty then two ; if one hundred then ten &c., 
may be the true paraphrase of this verse. 

2. Interpretation by the Early Church. — If we turn from 
the New Testament to Church History, we may at least learn 
some of the wisdom of the ages on these passages. The 
apostolic canons and constitutions in the first century, 
the works of Cyprian of the third century, Ambrose and 
Chrysostom of the seventh century, and Augustine and other 
church fathers abound in allusions to the practice of 
tithing as a proper method of giving ; but it was as yet a 
voluntary offering. A half dozen or more of the Church 

138 TITHES. 

Councils sanctioned that form of giving, but not till the time 
of Charlemagne was it enforced by a Roman Emperor. 
From these and other sources, the payment of a tenth to the 
Church was extended throughout Western Christendom, 
As time went on, and corruptions crept into the Church, the 
tithe which was set apart for the Church drifted into the 
hands of princes, and became a means of oppression, and 
continues to the present day, more or less modified, in 
England and several countries of the Continent. 

In English and American Protestant churches there is a 
growing feeling that the Lord's portion is a tenth of all, 
and not a few are to be found, usually among the most de- 
vout, who carefully set aside this portion for benevolent 
purposes, and are very general in their testimony that they 
are blessed in so doing. " There is that scattereth, and yet 
increaseth ; and there is that withholdeth more than is 
meet, but it tendeth to poverty." 

II. Missionary Experience. There is an interesting passage 
on Self- Support in Bassein, where the Association passed a 
resolution to refuse to baptize any candidate who would not 
pay tithes and would not learn to read. It would be inter- 
esting and perhaps instructive to know how long and with 
what success the letter of the resolution was carried out. 
Whether the resolution was designed to aj)ply to the many 
or the few, the fact that large accessions to the church by 
baptism were continually made, proves that the resolution 
did not stop the march of the church in Bassein. 

Rev. N. M. Waterbury of the Telugu mission has imbibed 
the tithe spirit, and four years ago the majority of his little 
church were pledged to the tithe, beginning with himself 
and Rungiah, the chief assistant, to whom a salary of Rs. 
50 was given. Comparatively few have been baptized in 
Madras during these four years, but if the tithe has stood 
in the way, have we not one of the keys that will help us 
to open many locks in missionary life ? 


Woe worth the day, auy man is buried with Christ in bap- 
tism who has not died to the sin of covetousness as well as 
his other sins. Sooner or later it will cover him with con- 

Conclusion. — We have seen in tbis sketch a brief history 
of a custom as portrayed in the Old and New Testaments 
and Church History, extending over a period of nearly four 
thousand years, reaching back almost to the dawn of his- 
tory. It was an ancient custom, enacted by Moses in his 
law, something like it at least implied in the teachings of 
Jesus and the Apostles, and accepted by the early Church as 
a fair interpretation of those teachings, and enforced by 
Christian rulers as a debt Christians owe to God. 

1. Is it not binding- on us ?— The priest is done away. 
He no longer needs support to guard with spotless robe 
the sacrificial blood. But the minister is no less a man 
who must eat of perishable meats and be clothed in 
raiment which is sure to grow old. Saints and sinners 
still claim charity from benevolent hearts, and although 
the letter of the tenth may be abrogated, is it at all 
clear that the spirit is lessened? As ye are prospered. 
Are the sons of God prospered less than a tenth more 
than life's necessities? Have we not more promises of 
temporal blessings than ever fell to the lot of ancient Jews ? 
If God commanded him to give his tenth, because of the 
hardness of his heart, shall we whose light and blessings 
fall from the cross of Calvary give less of our temporal 
portion because it is not written in our law. Thou slialt ? 
Bather, are not our obligations greater even as our privileges 
are greater ? If these facts and questions are true, will God 
hold us guiltless if we fail of at least our tithe, and will we 
not be obliged to hear His voice as of old : " In tithes and 
ojfferings ye have robbed me ?" 
2. Our duty in relation to our conveits.— If it is the 

140 TITHES. 

duty of every Christian to give to the Lord as he has been 
prospered, and that fairly interpreted, means at least one- 
tenth of what is received from the Lord, should we not teach 
the native Christians this truth by example and precept 
in a way they cannot fail to understand ? In fact, do 
we not owe it to the coming church to insist upon it by re- 
fusing to baptize until a promise has been obtained to this 

Why is it that it is almost fatal to leave a native church 
a few years without missionary help and guidance ? It is 
not so with heathen congregations. These come up regular- 
ly and joyfully perform their vows. Are they not capable 
of thriving under the law of Christ ? The prosperous con- 
dition of numerous bodies among the Chinese (not Baptist) 
and Karens who never have felt the influence of a white mis- 
sionary's person and gold, prove that Christianity is adapted 
to their needs and can thrive on Eastern soil. If we look 
into the history of these Christian communities, which are 
apparently permanent, we shall find in each case that large 
sacrifices have been made by the members for the gospel. 
Indeed, a readiness to give to Christ what was once expended 
in heathen worship is apparent from the beginning, and in 
most cases we find a regular system of giving amounting to 
a levied tax. 

Is the oft-quoted plea that the natives of the East are poor, 
very poor, the poorest of the poor valid, true ? I assert 
that it is not. I believe there is hardly a man in all this 
land of the blessed, who, if he be industrious and virtuous, 
cannot earn enough in nine days to be able with ease to give 
the tenth day's earnings to God. 

A man's wealth is not rightly counted by the abundance 
of the things he possesses ; but by what his possessions will 
supply of needs and wants. Here many have apparently 
little, but where has mother nature been so kind"? When 


this liouse^ was built, the coolies received only one anna per 
day, but with that anna more food could be bought than a 
whole family could eat. The heathen Assamese are rich, 
working half the time. How is it that they beeome so poor 
as soon as they join the army of the Lord ? The ISTagas, of 
whom I know most, are the best off of any people I have 
ever known. Last year we had a famine and the people 
went to their garden, the jungle, and brought in tons of 
food, nourishing and good. In lower India the people die 
when the rice fails. I am convinced that if a Naga should 
see neither a pice nor kernel of rice from one year's end to 
the other, but have the free jungle of his native hills, he 
could gather a comfortable living from its fruits, its roots 
and leaves. 

If we could induce them to work faithfully and give up 
oi)ium, tobacco and beer and heathen worship, I venture 
to say they could give 50 per cent, of their income and still 
have more to eat and wear and live in better houses than 
they now do. One of our excluded members is possessed to 
make a heathen feast at a cost sufficient to support a 
preacher and also a teacher for a year, on a salary larger 
than a missionary will be likely to give for some time to 
come. Two excluded members and one in good standing 
have actually made this feast at similar cost. These four 
men, then, with the same outlay might have carried the 
church and a school four years. There are two other mem- 
bers at least equally well off. By actual count, enough 
value in cows, pigs and dogs have been killed in case of 
sickness by our members since Mr. Clark's leaving eighteen 
months ago to pay a preacher 6 Rs. per month during that 
time. Discipline has followed where it has been proved, but 
the fact remains. The people can afford to worship demands 
at large cost, and should they not be compelled by a liberal 

* The mission lionse of Nowsrooo:. 

142 TITHES. 

interpretation of New Testament precepts to give regularly at 
least one-tenth of tlieir income, which proves such a snare to 
them when not so dedicated ? Or, more concretely. Is it not 
iny duty to insist on tithes being paid to the church by my 
converts among the Aos ? 


Mr. Gurney said : — I believe that this is a matter of benevolence. 
Paul taught the Corinthians to give as God prospered them. In 
this matter each individual is to be judge, and the church ought 
not to lay down rules. 

Mr. Jones said : — We in the Khasia Hills are not up to the 
standard of the paper, and I do not know when we shall be. I 
think the early missionaries erred in not asking the native Chris- 
tians to give enough, and in giving them too much. Some doubtless 
give one-tenth of their income. I myself always give at least that, 
sometimes more. Church collections are taken, amounting to 
Rs. 2,000 annually. The people build their own chapel and school 
buildings. In Jawai, the people have built a chapel at a cost of 
Rs. 7,000, with no help from the Mission and only a little help 
from Wales. Now we are building a chapel in Shillong. Each 
member contributes three or four days' manual labour. The Babus 
were at first unwilling to do this, but I set them the example and 
all followed it. Formerly the missionaries helped all boys who 
attended the school, but now we require all to pay fees and 
buy their books. Last year about Rs. 1,800 worth of books were 
sold in the hills. In some villages we have taught the people to 
coiitribute a portion of rice to be kept in store, in case of famine. 
Thas large stores are often collected. This belongs to the local 
church, and from this contributions are often made by the church 
to the needy. We will strive to go even beyond the one-tenth in 
giving, but will not use compulsion. We will rather urge them 
to give from love. 

Mr. Witter said : — I do not think we can refuse to baptize a 
convert, on the ground of his not contributing a tenth. There 
would be difficulty in adopting the rule, because others heretofore 
have not been required to observe it. 


Mr. Phillips said : — I do not like a fixed rule, but think that we 
must require a candidate for baptism to be converted in purse as 
well as mind. The rule requiring one-tenth would not correct 
covetousness. Paul's rule is, " as prospered ; " but giving one- 
tenth may not be this. 

Mr. Row said : — In my experience with English, converts, I find 
that a man must be converted so as to include his property. I 
bave found some difficulties in attaining this. (Mr. Row then 
gave illustrations from his own experience.) 

Mr. Burdette said : — I would suggest that we might find help 
in this matter by inducing the converts to keep an account of 
their contributions, so that both they and we may know how 
much is given. I no not like set rules. 

Mr. Mason said : — I feel that we have erred in the past in giving 
too much help to the converts. In the Garo churches, some have 
adopted the rule of giving one-tenth, and I think this might be 
taken as a standard, but let each interpret Paul's instructions for 
himself. But let us see that the converts are converted to the 
extent of their property. 

Mr. Moore said : — I find difficulty in the matter of securing 
contributions towards religious work in the Nowgong field. The 
Christians are scattered, and when there are only one or two in a 
village, no meetings are held and no contributions to church work 
are made. How shall I get contributions from these scattered, 
ones, who number nearly one half of those on the church roll ? 

Mr. Witter said : — I think such might be taught to contribute 
towards religious work, by supporting the evangelist while he is 
among them ; thus contributing towards the work, while getting 
spiritual help themselves. 

Mr. Mason said : — I agree with Mr. Witter's suggestion, but 
would further suggest that, if there be no evangelist, two or three 
church members might be sent out instead. I fear a little the 
effect, under some circumstances, of the keeping of account of 
contributions by converts, suggested by Mr. Burdette. 

Mr. Witter said : — I think we ourselves ought to give at least 
one-tenth, and to teach our converts to do the same, though I do 
not like a set rule. 




By Rev. W. E. Witter. 

Mj beloved pastor, Dr T. Edwin Brown, once said, " You 
may trace the life, and test the present reality and the 
future promise of the life by the vigor or stagnation of the 
mission blood that courses in the veins of the church;" and 
now this thrilling utterance reaches us from over the seas. 
" An anti-mission church is an anti-christian church ; for 
such a church God has no use ; of snch a church the devil 
has no fear ; for such a church the world has no respect." 
God knows we would have our native churches Christian 
churches, — churches that God will delight to make use of 
as lights in the world, — churches against which the powers 
of darkness shall not prevail, — churches that, while they 
may not put to silence, may yet put to shame the caviliugs 
of a wicked heathen world. 

As incentives to the accomplishment of these ends let us 
consider — 

First, The necessity of a missionary spirit in our native 
churches ; and, 

Secondly, The means by which this spirit can be best 

First, then, as to the necessity of such a spirit. 
Now the church is the sum of that historic life which iu 
the successive ages has repeated and reflected the life of 
Christ among men. The life of this historic life is the 
spirit of Christ. Each unit of this historic life must find 
the centre and source of its life in Christ. These units may 


present glaring imperfections, but, if the tend of their 
characters is Christ-ward, if the main-spring of their exis- 
tence is the spirit of Christ, they are Christian, and are 
indispensable elements of the Church universal. So, also, 
organized bodies of these Christian units may present many 
glaring imperfections, and even include in their number 
many a traitor ; still, if the life of these organizations is 
the spirit of Christ ; if their laws are the laws of Christ ; 
if their practice is the execution of the laws of Christ, then, 
by the will of Christ, we call them churches. However in- 
dividual churches may differ as to gifts and environments, 
their right to be called Christian churches, everywhere and 
always must depend on the fact of Christ being their chief 
corner-stone ; the spirit of Christ both the life and the law 
of their being. 

One fundamental law obtains of the Christian Church, — 
The spirit of Christ is its life, — the will of Christ its law. 
What then is the spirit of Christ ? What then is the law 
of Christ? 

" I came not to do mine own will, but the will of him that 
sent me." — " I do nothing of myself, I do always the things 
which please him." — " I seek not mine own will, but the 
will of him that sent me." — " I can of myself do nothing, the 
Father abiding in me doeth his work." The spirit of Christ 
is one of absolute obedience to the will of the Father ; the 
law of his being to complete the work the Father has 
given him to do. To do the will of the Father then is for the 
individual and the church to reproduce the life of Christ — 
to be Christian. We shall see if it is to be missionary. 
" God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son 
that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have 
everlasting life." — " God sent not his Son into the world 
to condemn the world, but that the world through him might 
be saved." — " As the Father hath sent me, even so send I 


you." — " Go ye therefore and make disciples of all nations, 
baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Spirit : teaching them to observe all things 
whatsoever I command you ; and lo, I am with you alway, 
even unto the end of the world." From first to last Chris- 
tianity is missionary. It had its origin in a mission, and 
what a mission ? The only-begotten of God's eternal pur- 
poses,— creation itself but the opening up for it of highways — 
who may be strong enough to apprehend its breadth and 
length and height and depth and to know the love of its 
Sent One, its first and ever living Missionary ? The breadth 
of this mission is as broad as humanity. " Its length is 
conterminous with the duration of humanity here and 
yonder." From the apex of the glory that was with the 
Father before the world was, " down the long stair-case of 
incarnation, yea, down, down below all necessity, sorrow, 
suffering and sin, down beneath the undermost and most 
abject of hell's purchased victims," is the measureless 
depth to which it descends to seek and to save. Its height 
is the unmeasureable ascent from the abyss of sin and death 
to the eternal glory where Christ is seated on the right hand 
of God. Surely as Livingstone once remarked — "The spirit 
of missions is the spirit of our Master. A diffusive philan- 
thropy is Christianity itself. It requires perpetual propaga- 
tion to assert its genuineness." 

If then the cultivating of a missionary spirit in our native 
churches is identical with the cultivation in them of the 
spirit of Christ, the necessity of such cultivation is not only 
manifest, but we come to see that it is the one necessity — 
that it lies at the root of all their life, and growth and 

If the dominating spirit of our churches is not missionary, 
their controlling spirit is not the spirit of Christ, and, unless 
reanimated by His spirit, their history must of necessity be 


one of disease, decline and death. If the salt have lost its 
savour, it is henceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out 
and trodden under foot of men. " Every branch in me 
that beareth not fruit he taketh away." 

How then can the missionary spirit, in other words, the 
spirit of Christ be best developed in our native churches ? 

Let the Missionary answer. " Come ye after me, and I 
will make you to become fishers of men." No individual, no 
church can come into that vital relation with Jesus — that 
companionship with Him — indicated in these words — " Come 
ye after me" — and not become a soul-winner or a soul-win- 
ning church. "And I, if I be lifted up" says Jesus, "will 
draw all men unto me." The attraction is irresistible. He 
is a drawing Christ. Wherever he tabernacles the saving 
of that which was lost is continually going on. " He that 
abideth in me and I in hiin, the same beareth much fruit." 
The establishment and maintenance of a personal relation 
with Christ is the ground principle of all successful at- 
tempts toward the development of the missionary spirit ; and 
it is right here, I believe, if our churches were weighed in 
the balance, not a few of them would be found wanting. 
They have little personal relation with Christ, and hence 
little love for and allegiance to him. They are feeding on 
the chaff of lengthy exhortations, which have lost all savour 
of incitation to good works, rather than being enlightened 
and vivified by him who is the truth and the life. These 
things ought not so to be. The remedies are at hand ; — 

I. Through instruction in the Word. 

II. Faithful exemplification of the Word. 

III. This teaching and exemplification of the Word, 
owned and blessed by the Holy Spirit. 

I. Through instruction in the Word. 
Mr. Moody, than whom probably no man of this genera- 
tion is better qualified to speak with authority says — "I 


never saw a useful Christian who was not a student of the 
Bible." A wiser than Moody has said — " And that in the 
good ground, these are such as in an honest and good heart 
having heard the word hold it fast, and bring forth fruit with 
patience." Now it is quite beyond the missionary to make 
hearts honest and good. That work has been delegated to 
the Holy Spirit ; but, if we would imitate our Lord, if we 
would come after him, we will see to it that our native 
churches are thoroughly instructed in the Word. If we 
make this our special work, we may be sure we are follow- 
ing the example of our Lord. — " The words which thou hast 
given unto me, I have given unto them." We can be sure 
we are fulfilling his parting injunction. — " Go ye therefore, 
and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them into the 
name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 
teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I commanded 
you" We have now been labouring fifty years for the 
salvation and sanctification of the Assamese, and to-day we 
have not a single disciple who is mighty in the Scriptures. 
Is it strange that we find so few abiding in Christ's love, — 
80 few bearing fruit, not one willing to leave all ? Is it 
strange that we, missionaries, those, at least, who are work- 
ing among the Assamese, are repeating the song of Asaph 
over God's wasted vines? When we remember that the 
Holy Spirit cannot perform the first act toward the sancti- 
fication of the individual soul except as he works in and 
through the Word, I think we have little difliculty in account- 
ing for the difference in the type of Christianity among the 
Assamese and the Karens. In Assam there has been for many 
years no well organized system of Bible instruction. Among 
the Karens, hundreds of converts have been led over the whole 
inspired record. With the command to call nothing com- 
mon or unclean, dare we say that difference in races lies at 
the root of this great difference in spiritual attainments ? In 


the light of our Lord's teaching, in the light of history, is it 
not rather the faithful instruction in all tJcings ivludsoever he 
commanded which has produced, through God's blessing, the 
fruit-bearing missionary spirit in the one field, and the lack 
of such teaching the selfish, pharisaic spirit in the other? 
Until a well organized system of Bible instruction has been 
faithfully carried out, we shall have no right to marvel at 
the sterility of our soil ; or be justified in doubts as to God's 
ability to raise up out of these Assam stones, men and 
women who are willing to lay down their lives for the Gospel. 
God has been graciously prospering the translation of all of 
his Word into Assamese. Will he not as graciously assist in 
the teaching of it all ? Let us lead our native Christians, 
those at least whom we expect to be our Timothies, patiently, 
enthusiastically over all the inspired record, and thus having 
taught them all things whatsoever he commanded, look for 
the harvest of love, of philanthropic endeavour, of true 
missionary activity, of life and growth Avhich will surely 

I have indicated what I believe to be a necessary scheme 
of Bible instruction. The scheme is a comprehensive one, — 
too comprehensive for any one missionary to undertake with 
any hope of success, while he is still burdened with other 
and distracting duties, I believe, however, that the neces- 
sity of the scheme makes it a practical one, and that each 
missionary and native pastor and Sabbath School teacher 
can furnish material aid toward the successful accomplish- 
ment of the same. 

Li the first place we need a man, specially qualified to 
draw out and develop the native mind, who loves the Word, 
and who will enthusiastically and patiently lead the pupils 
over the whole of the Holy Scriptures. — Who will enter 
upon this work at once, gathering about him in some cen- 
tral station all the Assamese speaking young men of what- 


ever tribe, who are willing to fit themselves by patient study 
to preach the Gospel wherever they may be called of God 
to labor when they have completed their preparatory studies. 
I should consider a period of four, or, at least, three and a 
half years the shortest time in which the work could be 
successfully accomplished, I should incline to the longer 
period. The element of time is an important factor in the 
acquirement of an education — in the solidifying of thought. 
We are in great need of helpers, but our need is not so 
great, as to make it necessary for us to employ any more 
novicesj — men using their own tongues and saying, " He 
saith^' have been the curse of our Assam mission. Our 
Christians are not fed on either the sincere milk or the true 
meat of the Word. They are starving for what their 
preachers might give them were their preachers themselves 
students of the Word. We are reaping a bitter harvest from 
the neglect of this careful theological training, if you will 
call it so. We have sent out men whom we knew to be 
novices. Is it wonder that being beclouded by conceit they 
have fallen into the judgment of the devil and led many 
astray ? Let us inaugurate and carry out a method of Bible 
instruction which, with the blessing of God, will give us men 
complete, furnished completely unto every good work. Then 
shall we see sinners sought, sinners saved, and our Chris- 
tianity in Assam proving its genuinness by its diffusiveness. 

2. Again, meetings for young native converts, where the 
missionary may wield the sword of the Spirit to the destruc- 
tion of selfishness, and the preservation and growth of the 
soul's first love for the Master, fall as a special duty and'holy 
privilege upon each of us. Says Dr. Ashmore, in a recent 
article in the Examiner, " The writer has been astonished at 
the number of ministers he has found in the land who have 
said — ' I once thought I would be a missionary myself.' 
On inquiry it appears their desire to be missionaries was in 


the day of tlieir conversion, or of their special consecration, 
or in some hour of special nearness to God. Then they lis- 
tened and felt, as well as heard, the power of the command — 
' Go ye into all the world.' '" Brethren, conversion is the 
same the world over. Oh that we could seize upon these 
moments when the soul forgets caste, color, race and tongue 
and says, " Here am I send me ;" and were influences at hand 
to foster this Divine love, it would result in home and foreign 
mission work even in Assam. Here is the field — here are the 
white fields presented to each missionary, and he that reapeth 
shall receive wages and gather fruit unto eternal life. 

3. There are two other departments of church work in 
which no individual member of our congregations should be 
allowed to remain uninterested or unhelpful. And here 
again, as in the meetings for young converts, the missionary 
and the native pastors and teachers should ever keep in mind 
the raising up of a native ministry for the fuller proclama- 
tion of the gospel in fields already under cultivation, and the 
extension of the gospel message into regions beyond. These 
are the Sabbath School and the Missionary Concert, both of 
which should be regarded as our missionary nurseries. 

(1) . In the Sabbath School certain books of the Bible 
should be carefully studied. Large portions of Scripture 
should be committed to memory — a practice now prevalent in 
the Nowgong Sabbath School. In this work of memorizing 
the words of Scripture the missionaries, native pastors and 
teachers should always prove themselves worthy examples. 

The students should be induced to read the whole Bible. 
Questions upon the portions read by such individuals during 
the week could be made a most interesting exercise of a few 
minutes, — instructive to those who have not the ambition to 
undertake the work themselves, as well as a means of incit- 
ing some, perhaps many, to undertake the work. 

Let us make much of the Sabbath School, and labor with 


the definite aim in view of laying solid foundations for the 
spiritual development of future preachers, teachers and 
Bible women. 

(2) The missionary concert should, I think, take the 
place of the regular Sabbath service once each month. 

In this meeting the lives of missionaries should be re- 
viewed and re-reviewed until their names become household 
words. Extracts from the Missionary Magazine, Helping 
Hand, and Little Helpers, and from the publications of other 
missionary societies should be read and commented upon. 
The map of our mission stations should be made as familiar 
to our people as the paths leading to their cultivations. 
The off-hand translation necessary to acquaint those pre- 
paring to represent the condition and needs of certain fields, 
to give items of news from our mission monthlies as also in 
giving resumes of the lives of missionaries will require much 
time and patience, but it will fully repay the time and 
strength expended. It will be following up the instruction 
in the Word by just that teaching which will guide the love 
born of the Word and of the Spirit into proper channels of 
activity. Thorough instruction in the Word as it is fulfilled 
in the lives of those who live the Word is the best of all 
methods in leading out from the prayer — " Lord, lift the 
light of thy countenance upon me and give me peace" — to 
the more Christ-like petition, " O Lord, glorify th}'- name 
and convert sinners unto Thee through me." 

II. This leads me to notice, in the second place, that the 
means by which this thorough instruction in the Word 
shall bring forth the fruit of a Christ-like, missionary sj^irit 
and activity in our native Christians is by supplementing 
such teaching by faithful exemiilijication of the word on the 
part of those who teach it. 

True we must exhort with all long-suffering, we must 
teach with all patience, but more than this, in labor and 


travails, working night and day, if need be, we must make 
ourselves an example of our teaching and exhortation. The 
storj of the lives of the holiest and most successful mis- 
sionaries will have little power over the lives of our native 
Christians and young converts, unless we who are dwelling 
among them are living examples of the Word. As truly as 
Hosea was called upon to exemplify the patience and long- 
suffering of Grod toward Israel by his own unfailing and 
unfaltering love toward his wayward Gomer, so truly are we 
called upon to exemplify God's love for the Assamese, Garos, 
and Nagas by our separateness from sin and our patience 
with '* the unthankful and the evil." " Nations," says some 
one, " get their Christianity far more by what I may call a 
process of inhalation than by a process of education. It is 
in the atmosphere. Holy men and women living self-sacrific- 
ing lives, fill the air with a sanctity which is contagious, and 
so the gospel of the grace of God moves on. The natives of 
Bengal and the natives of Burmah when they saw Judson 
were in the habit of saying, ' This is Jesus Christ's man,* 
That is it. Just as we send men who embody the Christ, who 
exhibit his life, will it be illustrated that he is lifted up in 
holy and saintly lives, to draw all men unto him." Brethren, 
this is our work, to send out men who embody the Christ,-«i 
who shall exhibit his work ; and to this end we must our- 
selves embody him. We must ourselves be Jesus Christ's 
men. " I beseech you therefore be ye imitators of me as 
I also am of Christ." If there are any beings under the 
sun who ought to be able to use this exhortation, they 
are the missionaries of the cross. Oh that we might so live 
the life of our Lord here in the plains and hills of Assam, 
that in the hand of each Timothy whom we send out to 
strengthen our outstations we might place this message, *' We 
send you this beloved and faithful child in the Lord, who 
shall put you in remembrance of our ways which are iu 



My beloved friend, my ideal missionary, whom God has 
so lately called to complete his mission to the Tehigu people 
in heavenly places with Christ Jesus, Rev. Norman Water- 
bury, in his address before the Jubilee Conference of the 
Telugu Mission says — " I believe nothing has stimulated and 
encouraged my people more than to see my tithe laid down 
month by month, with theirs, to become a part of a com- 
mon fund." 

Since reading these words of a model missionary I have 
thought much about the power of example in this single 
act of giving for the spread of the gospel, and this has 
led me to a little figuring which will tell its own story. 
There are eighteen resident missionaries of the A. B. M. U., 
including the wives of missionaries, now in Assam. If 
each of these missionaries should contribute Rs. 5-12 a 
month for the support of a missionary family in some needy 
field, the amount would cover half the expense of keeping 
such a family on the field — or the amount would cover 
the whole of the same expenses for a single lady. If 
the missionaries of Assam are giving a tenth of their 
salaries as a tithe to the Lord's work, each missionary would 
have over and above this amount a small margin to expend 
each year for other benevolent objects. If the native Chris- 
tians of Assam would lay down beside these gifts of the 
missionaries each month an amount which in the aggregate 
should cover the expenses of a native helper for the family or 
a single lady whom the missionaries might call to represent 
their love for souls outside their respective fields, who will 
endeavour to estimate the amount of good which might 
accrue to oiir churches and ourselves as well as to another 
tribe and people who may never have heard the gospel or 
may be left, like the Angami Nagas, with only the name of 
Jesus in their ears and no one to teach them all things what- 
soever he commanded ? 


Whatever our plans and methods somehow the word of 
God — the whole word of God — must become the furnishing of 
those who would be complete, furnished completely unto 
every good work ; and to aim lower than this in fitting men 
for the ministry is dishonoring both the Word and its Author. 
By example we must show that " of sincerity," " of God,'* 
*' in the sight of God," " with love unfeigned " speak we in 

III. And finally. If the Holy Spirit oivn this teaching and 
exemplification of the word and crown them tvith His Messing — 
a7id He surely will — we may say with Paul, " Thanks be to 
God who leadeth us in triumph in Christ, and manifesteth 
through us the savour of His knowledge in every place.'* 
Grant, Holy Spirit, that the prayers which have preceded 
this gathering of thy people in conference and which 
now ascend, imploring thy presence, thy quickening, thy 
power, thy guidance of our dull minds into all the truth, 
may now be fulfilled for the glory of the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 


Mr. Rivenburg said : — I see a difficulty in carrying out the sug- 
gestion to have a theological school. Among the Nagas there are 
no suitable candidates, I think the time has not yet arrived for a 
full theological school, but rather for something leading up to it. 

Mr. Moore said : — The missionary spirit must depend on sym- 
pathy with Christ. I think that the prime necessity is a more 
thorough acquaintance with the Word of God. 

Mr. Burdette said : — I have found difficulty in trying directly ta 
induce a missionary spirit. It is one of the incidents of Christian 
life. I have sought to instil the missionary spirit incidentally, as 
by illustr-ation while preaching, while teaching Geography, and in 
many places. On my own field I have found that there already 
was a missionary spirit. 

Mr. Mason said : — I approve of Mr. Bux'dette's suggestion, as to 


incidental work in this line. On our own field, we have had the 
custom of observing the missionary concert, using the map while 
talking of different fields. We try to keep the people informed iu 
reference to the woi'k of our Society. 

Mr. Phillips mentioned the religious work done by the students 
of the Tura Station School in the adjoining villages, and the effect 
of the same in stirring up a missionary spirit among them. 

Ml*. Witter said : — I believe that, without thorough Scripture 
instruction, the missionary enthusiasm will soon fail, and hence the 
need of thorough instruction. 


By Rev. P. H. Mooke. 

Introduction. — The merchant who introduces an entirely 
new article into commerce, has before him the double task, of 
(J) manufacturing the article, and (2) creating a demand 
for it in the market. 

Something like this, from the human point of view, was 
the task which the missionaries in this country set before 
themselves, in attempting to raise up a native ministry here. 
Among Hindus and Mussulmans this new ministry was to 
supplant a long-established, haughty and arrogant priest- 
hood. Among the Hill Tribes, where the Patriarchal system 
prevailed more than the Priestly, it vvould come as a super- 
fluous novelty in the market. 

In any case the task was a sufficiently arduous one. But 
when all the circumstances of the case are taken into consi- 
deration — the lack of material from which the ministry was 
to be made ; the stolidity of the people, and all their preju- 
dice against innovation ; and especially, the natural heart's 
aversion to hear the truth, the formidableness of the under- 
taking becomes apparent. 

We venture to say that nothing less than an abiding faith 
that the human heart has an aptitude for God and his 
truth — and that it is the purpose of God to restore his imao-e 
in the souls of men ; and that that work is to be effected 
largely through the " foolishness of preaching " his word to 
men — nothing short of an abiding faith in these truths, 
would have sufficed to impel those missionaries to under- 
take the task of supplanting the Gohains, Gurus, and 


Muiisliis of ibis country, by faithful ministers of the word of 

How large this work, — how broad — how deep — how high ! 
What revolutions of thought ! what upheavals and transfor- 
mations in the very structure of society does it imply ! 
That it has not yet been accomplished need not surprise 
us. The thought that we may have some little share in so 
o-reat and glorious an undertaking, should challenge to its 
hi ""best endeavor all the Christian courage which God has 
implanted in us. 

Definition. — By native ministry, we mean the native 
human agency for ministering to the spiritual needs of the 
people, — including Pastors, Evangelists, Deacons, and Dea- 
conesses, or Bible women. 

The need. — As the number of churches in Assam is still 
very small, the number of Pastors, Deacons, and Deaconesses 
required for them is limited, yet even this limited demand 
is more than we are at present able to supply. But as our 
work is still for the most part among the heathen, our great 
need is for Evangelists — men not confined to one place by 
pastoral cares, but who are free to travel wherever they can 
find listeners to their message — men who have a message 
from God to man — men grounded and established in the 
knowledge of the word of God, and taught of the Holy 
Spirit to speak their message in the love of it. For lack of 
such men the work in Assam languishes. The need of 
such men is the vital necessity of the hour. For such men 
we are wholly dependent on God working through His 
Holy Spirit and His church. If we speak little here of 
the part of the Holy Spirit in this work of preparing a 
native ministry, we trust we shall not be thought to 
ignore or slight Him : for we reverently acknowledge 
our utter dependence on Him. But we wish to speak here 
particularly of what God would do through His church. 

PArER, BY nVV. p. H. MOORK. 159 

Hence what we as missionaries in Assam, acting in concert 
with the churches, should do, as our part, in raising up 
a company of such men, is what this paper will attempt 
to briefly outline ; for when we have a company of true 
Evangelists, the churches will have no difficulty in finding 
among their number those who are suited to serve them as 

The same agency that we require to train Evangelists, 
will suffice also for Pastors, Deacons, and Deaconesses. 

Materials for Evangelists. — But before inquiring what 
agency we require, if we first look at the material we have 
from which we hope to train this ministry, it may help us 
much in the whole inquiry. 

It is of course among the converts from heathenism and 
the limited number of converted ones, who have been 
brought up in Christian families, that we must look for those 
who shall be evangelists. 

For the most part I think the native ministry of the near 
future will be composed of young men and women who were 
born in heathenism and brought up in its poisonous atmos- 
phere — those who in their earliest childhood were taught by 
their own parents' lips all forms of lying and deceit and 
filthy communication — slander, back-biting, and reviling 
abuse. Their meagre stock of information was drawn from 
the vile stories of viler gods whom they were taught to 
bow down to and worship. Having an almost endless 
number of adjectives attributing all imaginable excellencies 
to God, the histories of their gods show them to be but 
monstrosities of basest men, and the effect produced in 
their minds was an utter confusion of right and wrong, 
of good and evil — that turning over to a reprobate mind, 
which is characteristic of all heathenism. Of a holy and 
just God, who cannot look upon sin with any degree of 
allowance, they had no conception. Of the revelation that 


that God lias made of Himself in His word and in Joswh 
C'lirist they probably first heard and understood shortly 
before their conversion. 

Of the contents of that revelation and of the Person, life 
and work of Jesus Christ, they have only the crudest and most 
elementary notions. They were convicted of sin and failed 
to find any remedy for it in Hinduism, Islamism, or Pagan 
rites. They heard of Jesus and said in their hearts, "He is 
the Holy One of God," and they became his disciples. 

Now, are they ready and fitted to do the work of evange- 
lists ? Keep in mind the great difference between these 
and those who are received into the churches at home. 

If those born in a Christian country, brought up in the 
Sunday-school, learning something of the Scriptures almost 
every week of their lives, since their earliest recollections, 
need years of systematic training in order to preach the 
truths of the Bible, do these who know almost nothing of it 
and whose whole training has tended to unfit them for a 
right understanding of it, need less than this ? 

It is true that God can take just such men as these and so 
endue them with the Holy Spirit, that without further in- 
struction from man or by man, they will become great 
preachers of the wondrous gospel. But this is not His 
usual method. He gave us one Nedhi Levi in Assam ; but 
in 50 years he has given us but one. The lesson is obvious. 
We must train the workers. 

Method of Training. — For our method of training we look 
to the Bible. God gave the Jews a hereditary j)riesthood. 
To train this priesthood for its special work Samuel estab- 
lished the schools of the prophets. 

The method seems to have been a spiritually minded 
teacher instructing his pupils in the law of God. 

This method varying according to the circuinstances of the 
people, seems to have obtained till the time of our Lord. 
What method He adopted is familiar to us all. Personal 


contact, close and lonrj continued, with a livinj^ teacher, 
showing his pupils bj word and example what they were 
to do; and when they had learned a little, sendirif^ them 
out two by two, to try their attainments. He was the 
model teacher — incarnating truth in his life, breathing it in 
his words, illustrating it by lessons from nature and life as 
seen about Him, and enforcing its claims by personal obe- 
dience to it. Nineteen centuries of experience have not been-, 
able to improve on his method, but Christians of all ages 
have made this their model and striven to attain to it. 

Doubtless this is the method for us to follow here. The 
living teacher should be in pretty constant contact with his 
pupils. The text book should be the word of God. In the 
study, and in going about from village to village, he should 
be with them, instructing their minds in the truth, leading 
them to act it out in their lives. 

The teacher should be a constant inspiration to his pupils. 
To make them mighty in the Scriptures should be his single 

The Agency for Training. — Given such material for a 
native ministry as we have outlined, what agency for train- 
ing is required to make it an efficient ministry ? 

I reply (1) A missionary to give his first attention to 
Scripture instruction. (2) An organized plan throughout the 
Assamese speaking portion of the mission, to bring together 
for instruction such converted men and women as the mis- 
sionaries and churches deem suitable candidates for the work 
of Evangelists. 

Although the number of Assamese-speaking converts is 
still small, and those among them who would become evan- 
gelists are few, still I am persuaded that nothing short of 
the measures which I have indicated will be adequate to give 
proper training to these few. It requires just about as much 
of the missionary's time to teach a class of four or five, as of 
fifteen or twenty. 


It is objected to this plan that it is too expensive, and for 
years the cheaper plan, of letting the missionary at each 
station give to this work of instruction whatever time he 
could spare from other pressing duties, has been followed. 

This plan has the merit of cheapness, and also brings each 
missionary into beneficial contact with the native workers ; 
and we would heartily endorse it, but for the fatal demerit, 
that it does not give us the needed supply of trained workers. 
The plan has been tried in Assam for the past twenty 
years or more, and has resulted in a drought of trained 
workers that is the lamentation of every missionary ; and 
this failure has not been on account of specially un propi- 
tious circumstances during these years, but on account of 
the inherent weakness of the system. 

The average number of years a missionary is on his field, 
is few. For the first few years, as we are painfully aware, 
he is practically both deaf and dumb, by reason of the 
strano-e language. Then there are times of sickness and 
other interruptions to be allowed for. These, together with 
the frequent changes of workers, make it utterly futile 
to hope that systematic training through a series of years 
will be carried on, as long as it is left to the odd moments 
that this and that missionary can snatch from other pressing 
duties. The plan has proved itself a failure through a 
series of years, in every one of our stations. Let us cease 
to rely on it and try another. 

Given the special Missionary Instructor for whom we 
plead, and there will still be needed all the training that the 
missionary at each of the several stations can find time for, 
in supplementing his special work. 

The new school would not be a full-fledged Theological 
Seminary at the start. But broad plans should be laid for 
years to come. It would develop according to the genius 
of the people and the necessities of the field. 

PAPEK BY REV. 1'. H. MOORE, 163 

The churches will need education with reference to it. 
They should be taught to look upon it as their institution. 
They should discern among their members those who 
give evidence of being called to this work of Evangelist, 
and should encourage them to attend the school; and should, 
as soon as practicable, contribute towards their support, thus 
helping the school financially. In the practical working of 
this plan there will be need of great caution. The matters 
of detail will require the best wisdom of all the missionaries 
and churches. A man-made ministry must be guarded 
against. It is as paste to the diamond, — as counterfeit to 
the genuine coin. 

The conduct of the school would have to be such as not to 
invite those who might be seeking the work on the supposi- 
tion that godliness is a means of gain, and yet it must not 
repel genuine workers. It must not foster habits of lazi- 
ness, to which the Assamese character is too much addicted. 
We can foresee many obstacles to the successful working of 
the project, and doubtless many more, now unforeseen, will 
have to be encountered and overcome. But these must not 
be allowed to frighten us into doing nothing, or they become 
the devil's snare to us. 

Give us (1) the man with a God-given fitness for teaching, 
and on whose heart the Master has laid this burden ; desig- 
nated by the Society for this special work and provided with 
the necessary means for it ; and (2) a plan of work, on 
which all the missionaries and churches are agreed and 
heartily cooperating, and we shall yet see in Assam, a 
native ministry that " needeth not to be ashamed, handling 
aright the word of truth." 


Mr. Clark said : — Dr. Murdock, fifteen years ago, advocated a 
Theological Seminary for the Assamese. There were then five 


missionariea in the valley of Assam, not including the Garo field, 
and about one hundred and twenty-five converts. The decision of 
the Executive Committee was against it, on the ground that the mis- 
sionaries could do the work as they were. The China mission- 
aries, who have more converts than we, but no theological school , 
gather in those men seemingly promising, give them a little in- 
struction, try them, and then, if efficient, give them more. Could 
we not do the same ? I feel that God has not yet given us the 
suitable men for a theological class. I think the missionaries 
need this contact with the native preachers, and so we may for the 
present follow the China Mission plan. There are very few Assa- 
mese Christians. What we now need is, I conceive, a work of the 
Holy Spirit, to raise up the men. 

Mr. Gurney said: — We want a class of trained, energetic 
preachers ; but I do not see how we can get them by desultory 
station teaching. We need the theological class, and at a station 
where they could have practical work while pursuing their studies. 

Mr. Witter said : — We need, as already stated, Bible instruc- 
tion ; and this must be given to a class, call it a theological school, 
or what you may choose. And this must be in the hands of one 
able to give his whole attention to this work ; who can lead them 
into work. The class could be sent back to the different stations 
to labor during the cold season. 

Mr. Moore, in reply to a question, mentioned eight in Nowgong, 
who, he thinks, ought to be under this constant training, and 
said : — My objection to the plan advocated by Mr. Clark is, that 
the fi'equent change of missionaries militates against all doing this 
work. Let one missionary make this his special work, and, even 
though called temporarily to take up the woi'k of another mis- 
sionary, let him take his class with him, and still make this his 
chief work. Let also the other missionaries teach their preachers 
all they can. The students must have an instructor to help them 
in the study of the Sci'ipturc, if such study is to be profitable. 

For ten years in Sibsagar, seven years in Nowgong, and seven 
years in Gauhati there have been none who could give their time 
to this work. 


Mr, Clark said : — My opinion is that the twelve Apostles would 
not have passed muster, under the educational tests of to-day. We 
have too exalted an idea of what is required, we want to limit 
God in His mode of labor. Remember Kothabyu, an ignorant man, 
but see what success. We want to be independent on our own 
field, and I do not think we need so much education. 

Mr. Witter said : — All that any one has advocated is, that we 
have men who know the Bible. No one has suggested high educa- 
tion. We must give them this Bible instruction, in order to 
fulfil our duty in obeying the Great Commission. 

Mr. Clark said : — The preacher's work is an inviting calling. 
The Assamese are very deceitful. If we take young men into this 
school, and keep them in five or six years, we put them into this 
calling, and nothing but venal conduct will displace them. 

Mr. Gurney called attention to the inefficiency of their preachers. 

Mr. Mason said : — There can be no doubt that if a man is 
called of God, he must have instruction as fast as he can assimilate 
it. My real opinion is, that the closing of the Nowgong Orphanage 
may have been a wise move. I believe that there are men on the 
Garo field, less educated, but more efficient in winning souls than 
any from that school. Yet I think, that if there are the God- 
called men in different stations, I would, to save missionary 
strength in teaching, advocate their being gathered into a class 
under one teacher. I think that any man, though his time be 
engaged in translation, could give some of his time daily to teaching 
one or two. I believe that our first duty is to seek that the men 
may be brought forth. 

Mr. Burdette said : — Mr. Gurney and Mr. Moore have attempted 
the plan suggested, and the results were unsatisfactory. Mr. 
Mason tried it for two years, but was obliged to give up the class 
at the middle of the term. My own experience has been, that such 
an arrangement is very trying. 

Mr. Clark inquired what regular work Mr. Bux'dette had, beside 
his school, and Mr. Burdette replied. 

When the minutes of this discussion were read, Mr. Clark fur- 
ther said, that he had tried the proposed plan for two years, with 
two of the best members of the Moluug church, and had met with 
a good measure of success. 


By Rev. C. E. Burdette. 

I. — Claims. 

There are some who object to all expenditure of missionary 
resources upon school work. There are others, it may be 
said without much exaggeration, who consider intellectual 
enlightenment and discipline the sole requisite for the con- 
version of the heathen. It is not necessary to discuss these 
two views at length, many shades of opinion are brought 
out by modifying the meaning of the terms knowledge and 
education. Mutual distrust is probably the principal feeder 
of the two extreme parties, but they may rely upon princi- 
ples so divergent as make it impossible that any third party 
should be simply a compromise, a mere fusion of the other 
two. If knowledge is man's supreme need and the chief 
pre-requisite to conversion, then surely, those who know the 
most are nearest the kingdom, and are fittest subjects for 
preaching and exhortation, and the first step of evangeliza- 
tion must be, the increase of knowledge. But if knowledge 
in a single department alone is the sole condition of repen- 
tance or a guilty failure to repent, and if, in that depart- 
ment, the heathen are a light to themselves and know the 
invisible things, the glory and Godhead of the Creator, from 
the visible creation and from the voice of their own con- 
science ; then it is not knowledge that is lacking, but choice, 
and the work of the evangelist is accordingly different. 

But practically it is not difiicult to adopt many sugges- 
tions from both sides. While we may not delay the appeal 
to conscience and will, under the misapprehension that the 
heathen are not yet competent to consider such an a25peal. 


not yet responsible for rejection of light and election of 
darkness, we may still consider it unwise to delay attention 
to instruction and intellectual training until after conver- 
sion is assured. While we may grant very readily that 
neither knowledge nor discipline nor manner nor all com- 
bined can make a man a real preacher of the Gospel, and may 
remember that a passion for learning may destroy true 
piety ; we need not forget that knowledge is power, resource, 
opportunity, and may certainly refuse to confess broadly 
that good learning is an evil and should be discouraged. 
Most missionaries believe that something more than what 
commonly goes for knowledge is needed to bring about repen- 
tance, and that the almost total lack of such knowledge is 
not incompatible with genuine conversion ; yet, in most mis- 
sionary circles, the usefulness or schools which give a o-ood 
degree of secular instruction passes with hardly a challeno-e. 
The following paper has regard to schools maintained for 
the practical ends before indicated, not to either one or the 
other theory of the relation between enlightenment and 

The Presumption in favor of Schools.— If there is any- 
thing which the missionary desires to introduce or explain or 
commend to a heathen people, it seems as well to do so 
systematically in a stated place, to enrolled pupils under the 
discipline of a school as in other ways. It is an advantage 
for the missionary to offset his general unpopularity by the 
respectable title of teacher. It is an advantage to have 
access to the minds of heathen, old or young, while in the 
receptive, trustful attitude of a school. 

Schools have always been considered a good means of 
disseminating knowledge of any kind, and especially for the 
instillation of new principles, good or bad. Books and doc- 
trines have depended largely upon the appearance of a 
teacher deeply impressed with either their truth or their 


expediency, who stamped them upon a school. The intro- 
duction of branches of study distinct from, and even hostile 
to, the main purpose of the teacher, has not proved a barrier 
to false teachers, but has proved an opportunity for him 
to pervert and weaken for the time their proper force. 
A true teacher with a book which must come into bless- 
ed and helpful relation to every phase of human life, 
either national or personal, may hope for the same suc- 
cess, only more lasting-. Schools were resorted to by men 
of God to stay the apostacy of the Jews, not without good 
results ; schools have certainly been profitable in early Chris- 
tian missions, notwithstanding attention to secular branches 
and industrial training. If criticism proves present schools 
corrupt, they should be reformed ; but they must be proved 
bad before they may be safely abolished, either wholly or in 
their higher grades. Nothing in this world is better, but 
perhaps no good thing has been more terribly corrupt than 
the organized Christian church ; it has been often reformed, 
but no good man wishes to see it abolished, or limited in its 
legitimate work. 

Written Scriptures necessitate some Literary Education.— 
The use of letters is not only an approval of the study of 
letters but tacitly enjoins such study. The use of letters 
in preserving and transmitting religious truth has express 
Divine sanction. God Himself wrote the Ten Commandments 
on stone. Teaching, which men received through visions 
and dreams, they must commit to parchment. What was 
once given without letters must be acquired afterwards 
through letters. It was not necessary that our Saviour, by 
some Oriental magic, should live through and manifest in a 
brief lifetime the patriarchal. Mosaic and prophetic periods. 
Taking his proper place as the crown and fulfilment of all, 
He charges hypocrisy upon the religious teachers who reject 
Him of whom Moses wrote, of whom the Scriptures testify. 


It was expected that pious men would acquaint themselves 
with God's written word. In the early Christian Church 
more attention was given to spiritual revelations ; but the old 
scriptures were by no means set aside, and Christian Scrip- 
tures were soon provided. 

The light of Nature does not remove the necessity of a 
knowledge of the written word ; it is a great advantage to 
have direct access to the oracles of God. The presence of a 
human teacher does not remove it, for the Scriptures are 
higher than the teacher ; though some might learn from the 
teacher through oral instruction, their number would be few 
and their attainments slight, compared with what might be 
accomplished where all could learn directly also from the 

It does not impugn the catholicity of the Christian Scrip- 
tures to say that they need to be explained to people of otlier 
places and other ages than those in which they were written, 
nor their simplicity to say that considerable care and in- 
tellectual acumen are necessary to understand the explana- 
tion of some parts of them. These considerations have 
especial weight in a heathen land. Some education and 
training is doubtless necessary. 

The Gift of Teaching" points to School-work. — God teaches 
men directly by His Spirit, but He also chooses men to be 
His mouthpiece to others ; the power to teach others is 
recognized as a gift of the Spirit ; some may possess this 
gift in such a degree as to devote themselves solely to teach- 
ing. Instruction in the word of God must be the conscious 
purpose of the missionary teacher ; but teaching in one of 
its phases or stages must not be divorced from antecedents 
which make that stage easier, nor from successive stages in 
whose achievements it has a right to share. The teaching 
of letters which makes the Bible accessible, and the training 
of the mind, which makes such access more profitable, are 


properly parts of the teaching which removes verbal and 
historical obstacles to the understanding of its language. 
The schools which teach the alphabets of reading or reason- 
ing may urge a strong claim upon those who wish to present 
truths in books or appeal to the understanding for credence 
or confidence. 

We are to teach others who themselves are likely to be- 
come teachers. It is no new statement that a Christian 
requires considerable mental training to venture upon a 
systematic presentation of the truths of Scripture and a 
settlement of questions arising in ordinary pastoral cares. 
This is especially true amongst people brought up in error 
and surrounded by false teachers. The promise of the pre- 
sence and aid of the Holy Spirit in every case of extremity 
does not conflict with the injunction to meditate on these 
things and to let our profiting appear to all. It does not 
seem wrong or foolish to seek means for improving a man's 
power of meditation, to furnish him with information which 
will increase the profit from his meditations. It seems pre- 
sumptuous to neglect this in training teachers. David was 
blessed in the use of the stone and sling to which his con- 
temptuous brethren limited him ; but he was not blessed in 
neo-lecting military training, nor rebuked, afterwards, for 
girding on the sword of Goliath. 

Other than Mission Schools fail to co-operate properly 
with the Missionary. — It is worth noticing that, if the Chris- 
tian Missionary withdraws from secular school-work, children 
and youth are left in the hands of non-religious, heathen, or 
irreligious teachers. In many countries there are already 
secular schools ; by the time a missionary is ready to abandon 
school-work in any country, Government schools will be 
established in their place. It would be strange if heathen 
schools should prove suitable coadjutors in mission work. 
Christian teachers do not always use schools to the best 


advantage ; but what is tlie weakness of tlie Christian 
teacher, becomes the predominant trait, if not the settled 
purpose, in the common schools of a heathen country. It is 
not only that a false religion is taught; such an evil would 
not be without its compensation. It is the lack of all purity 
and principle which follows upon estrangement from God 
that forms the chief objection to them. The earlier stages 
of education under Government are likely to be in the hands 
of teachers whose example at least trains pupils to deceit 
and immorality, and greatly diminishes natural manliness 
and moral courage. The actual intellectual advantages 
found in such schools need not be despised, nor should the 
servant of God feel unduly dismayed by the hindrance to his 
work which they present ; but it seems foolish to place our- 
selves in avowed dependence upon them, and it may be wise 
to be at considerable pains and expense to avoid both their 
deficiencies and their faults by the maintenance of schools 
under the more or less complete control of the missionaries. 
Claims for Financial Support. — If the schools call for 
establishment they call for support. Of course the people 
themselves or the Government should support them. But 
the people often prefer different schools, and the Govern- 
ment establishes a public school system to suit the vast 
majority of the people. It is not for us to let them run on 
to their own destruction ; what is worth a missionary's 
labor is certainly worth a merchant's money. We are their 
debtors ; let us try to pay them in whatever coin will make 
for their salvation. The same God who gives the Holy 
Spirit to them that ask Him, deigns to give more lavishly, 
if anything, the sunshine and the rain ; the people who 
complain of the cost, and the missionary who shrinks from 
the labor of teaching the heathen arithmetic and grammar, 
may find the Divine hand loth to entrust them with more 
exalted service. 


Objections. — It is sometimes objected to school-work, that 
the Savior and his apostles did no such work. The Lord 
Jesus and Paul certainly did a good deal of teaching and 
explaining the word and providence of God. It is signi- 
ficant that in their preaching, as in that of the prophets and 
in that of effective preachers in all ages and places, the 
preacher relied upon appeals to that which was already 
clearly known and accepted by their hearers, as the result of 
long instruction and discipline. The Athenians liked novel- 
ties, but they seem to have been disappointed in Paul. It is 
significant, too, that the effect of apostolic preaching seems 
to have been either trifling or transient except in countries 
where Judaism had spread a knowledge of the true God and 
of the Old Testament Scriptures, if indeed the Divine wisdom 
ever allowed them to exceed the limits of these regions to 
any considerable degree. 

It would be a thankless and nearly impossible task to 
examine practical criticisms on mission schools. It will 
hardly be denied that there are workers in Christian mis- 
sions who are more efficient and not less devoted for their 
training in mission schools. Much that is objected against 
schools seems to be simply complaint against disappointing 
results from the whole sum of missionary effort. That all 
converts from heathenism are not good, that many of them 
are bad, that some of the worst are occasionally put to the 
front, is no more than can be said of converts in Christian 
lands, and may possibly be the failure of preachers as well 
as of teachers, of churches as well as of schools ; it may 
result from indiscreet zeal in evangelistic work as well as 
from worldly ambition in school- work. There are some 
patent hindrances to the ideal success of mission schools. 
Hindrances arise from impaired vitality and from seasons of 
illness, from imperfect acquaintance with the people and 
their language, and from enforced attention to other things 


wliicli are given precedence over school-work. Sometimes, 
doubtless, there may be the temporary withholding of the 
divine blessing. Aside from these and like considerations, it 
may be well for us to confess the truth of the adage, " Like 
priest, like people." Perhaps our dominant characteristics 
do lay hold upon our pupils, but we do not care to confess it, 
and blame the schools for not realizing our professions and 

II. — Conduct. 

It is difficult to present clear suggestions, much more so to 
lay down a definite plan for conducting these schools. It 
need not encourage the neglect of moral and religious training 
in any school, to say that the necessity of it is greatly 
emphasized in mission schools. The missionary, as a simple 
matter of course, proposes to counteract the whole force of 
all the home and social influences which surround the pupils 
while out of school. It is a task which must command his 
most intense and constant endeavor ; every good means, 
direct and indirect, must be brought to bear on this, and in 
the school, in every possible right way, pupils must be habi- 
tuated to the reference of all questions to Christian consi- 
derations and standards. The teacher will do well to assume 
constantly, as he will often clearly know, that the moral 
tone and general bias of even Christian homes is far from 
helpful to his deepest, dearest purpose. He is probably more 
alone than his most lonely fancies picture him, and day by 
day, the priceless opportunities of his school-room are pass- 
ing, and bearing away the objects of his effort and prayers. 

There is need of the utmost care, but there is also room 
for indefinite variety in details without hindrance to the 
teacher's purpose. We may not hope by any system to 
insure either the beginning or the progress of a true Chris- 
tian life, without divine interposition. Trusting in such 
intervention, in many instances where we cannot clearly 


determine what is best, we may fearlessly do the best we 
know, and we need not be surprised if methods quite diverse 
succeed equally well. The same Spirit, operating variously 
through different gifts, will awaken through all alike the 
same life and perfect from it the same fruit. The teacher, 
the preacher, the exhorter, the learned, the less learned and 
the apparently ungifted need not fear to take up specifically 
school-work in missions, where necessity is laid upon him ; 
provided only, that love for his charge and humility before 
his Master assure him that he is not of those whom " I have 
not sent, yet they ran," but that, hearing the cry of need, he 
humbly but confidently responds, " Here am I, send me." 
The earthen vessel will first magnify and afterwards share 
the glory of God. On the other hand, the man who feels 
that he has preeminently the gift of teaching, unless his 
ultimate reliance is the same as that of the ungifted, need 
not expect any crown of rejoicing for the successful conduct 
of a mission school. He may impart much instruction, but 
he will lack power, and the last day will declare his work a 
failure. Peculiar gifts, peculiar antecedent training and 
after all, peculiar subjects of their care must more or less 
modify the methods of individuals in the work of instruct- 
ing and training the minds of their people ; yet I firmly 
believe that all may hope for equal success in the common 
work of all, the development of an intelligent, spiritual 
Christian church. With this somewhat extended preface I 
may venture the following suggestions, having particular 
reference to work in Assam. 

The Method of Instruction. — Five principal topics seem to 
arise in discussing the matter of the conduct of Mission 
Schools, namely, the method of instruction ; the selection 
of a dialect ; the branches of study ; the extent to which 
instruction in all branches or in special studies shall be 
carried, and discipline. There should be progress, rapid if 


practicable, gradual if necessary, from tlie methods most 
acceptable to the people to those most approved by contem- 
porary educational authorities and by the missionary's own 
judgment, especially the latter. A people may be so ignorant 
that all methods will be alike new, or so docile that the mis- 
sionary's preference will be a sufficient recommendation of 
any. Naturally, however, the earlier pupils and helpers will 
be more or less attached to methods in vogue amongst their 
fathers or their more cultured neighbors, and will be inclined 
to commend such methods to others. Fire should be fought 
with water rather than with fire. The stubbornness of the 
native is not likely to yield to mere obstinacy on the part of 
the missionary. Wise concession joined with intelligent 
persuasion will be more likely to beget a responsive spirit of 
concession, and even if this be not so, kindness will not fail 
in the long run to compel confidence from which, sooner or 
later, favoring circumstances will probably bring about sub- 
mission to the missionary's judgment, if it is correct. At 
the beginning the missionary should cultivate a conscious- 
ness of his own deficiencies. He may be well-versed in facts 
and approved educational methods ; but he probably has a 
very imperfect acquaintance with his people, and is so far 
incompetent to decide just what they need and just how it 
may best be given them. 

The method of instruction is not unimportant ; but it is 
of less importance than the subjects of study, and both 
together are not so important as it is to secure a friendly 
hearing for the gospel. Unwise haste or imperiousness in 
the matter of a method may awaken a spirit of antagonism 
to the missionary which will revolt against the substance of 
his instruction, and make it more difficult to gain attention 
for subjects which he considers of vital importance. On the 
other hand, by avoiding side issues, the missionary gains 
much in real power for pressing the great point at variance 


between a Christian teacher and a heathen people. Besides, 
this undue attention to method may lead pupils into super- 
ficiality which makes going through school and getting an 
education identical. I have found little difficulty in secur- 
ing conformity to methods which I preferred in classes 
which I have personally taught. How far pupils will adopt 
these methods in their own work is another question. 

The Selection of a Dialect. — It is quite indispensable that 
the people should hear in their own tongue the wonderful 
works of God and, therefore, that portions of the Scripture 
should be issued in every considerable, and considerably 
distinct dialect. But the scholar's pride in the language 
which he reads in school makes it advisable to issue elemen- 
tary reading-books at least, in all such dialects, in order to 
insure the reading of vernacular scripture in the hearing of 
the illiterate. After the issue of these books, a literary 
language should be selected, combining if possible slightly 
differing dialects ; in this the whole of the New Testament 
should be provided, and it should be used in any further 
text-books prepared by the missionary. If there is a lan- 
guage which can truly be called prevalent over a large 
adjacent region, the more advanced text-books should rather 
be provided in this language, especially if they can be obtain- 
ed without the labor of personally preparing them. If there 
is a kindred tongue in which there already exists a consider- 
able and pure Christian literature, a good deal of pains may 
be well spent in bending education with all reasonable speed 
towards that language. The existence of a literary language 
distinct from ordinary speech is indeed a misfortune, but in 
some circumstances it may be expedient to employ such a 
language for a number of years, even for generations. The 
final prevalence or permanence of this language is a problem 
that will solve itself, possibly without much further direct 
assistance from the missionary, and probably with little 


regard to his direct opposition ; his principal care should 
be, to notice the trend of progress and to take advantage 
of it. 

The Branches of Study. — The one thing needed by the 
people, the one peculiar thing to be imparted by the school 
is a knowledge of the word of God. The best course of 
study for the accomplishment of this purpose should be 
honestly selected on approved psedagogical principles. It 
seems hardly reputable to use secular instruction as a bait, 
unless it be in cases of extreme personal unpopularity and 
peril. It is not well to commend schools to villages while 
waiting an opportunity for directly commending the gospel. 
The first commendation will not be easily withdrawn and, 
not to discuss the direct effect of such tactics upon the 
missionary, the change of front is likely to harm him in his 
relations to the very best of the people. The purpose of 
the school should be promptly, continually aud clearly 

But the fact that a mixed course of instruction will give 
hope to some that they may get a free education and yet 
escape the influence of the gospel, ought not to weigh against 
sound J-easons for adopting such a course. It seems to be 
generally acknowledged that a preceding or accompanying 
course of discipline and general instruction is helpful in the 
pursuit of a specialty. In most heathen lands there are too 
great advantages in even a slight education to warrant ven- 
turing upon any considerable preliminary course of discipline 
or generalinstruction. It only makes the matter worse to 
offer direct or indirect especial material compensation as 
inducement to take the subsequent special course in Scrip- 
ture study. It seems best, therefore, as soon as the pupil is 
able to take up memory studies and logical exercises, to 
introduce scripture studies into the course. A marked dis- 
tinction between the two parts of the course should be 


avoided as far as possible, but good attention to the Scrip- 
ture lessons must be strictly required. I have found it 
profitable, in the case of repeated failure in an unpopular 
study, to require rerecitation in the hour of some favorite. 
As the class nears the close of the contemplated course of 
general instruction, the course in the mission school should 
become more purely religious and scriptural. No encourage- 
ment should be given to hope for elaborate instruction in 
other specialties at mission expense. Any pupil who, after 
so much attention, cannot be trusted to pursue special 
courses in the ordinary scliools of the country and to win his 
aid by merit, is unfit for the leadership which requires educa- 
tion in secular specialties. 

The Extent to which Instruction in All Branches or in 
Special Studies should be carried. — The extent of the course 
of instruction before taking on a purely religious character, 
and the extent of special instruction provided for any class 
thereafter should be modified by two considerations. First, 
the degree of culture of the people amongst whom the educa- 
tion is given. Great intellectual disparity between the educa- 
ted and uneducated classes is unnecessary, and any considera- 
ble unfilled gap between the two is quite undesirable! It is 
better to aim at a gradually ascending scale of education, 
seeking constantly to increase the number in each grade by 
recruits from lower grades. Natural gifts, especial diligence 
and divine providence will develop leaders among the leaders 
and raise up progressive spirits in every class. Second, the 
presence of more or less skilful and cultured teachers of 
error. All would probably agree that, from the very begin- 
ning of his work, the missionary in such a case should be 
awake to discover a few disciples properly gifted and of 
suitable temper, and should begin to lead them on in a con- 
siderable course of such general and theological instruction 
and training as will enal>ie them to confute false teachers in 
fair debate. 


Perhaps the most serious task will be to impress upon the 
pupils the necessity of using candor and fairness in debate. 
Every effort should be made to hinder incompetent teachers 
from escaping difficulties by mere vehement assertion, mysti- 
fication of interlocutors, or other dishonest feats of dialectic 
adroitness. Success by such means should be unfailingly 
branded as the most shameful of failures and as a hindrance 
to our work. The very stress laid upon sincerity will empha- 
size the necessity of thorough intellectual equipment, and 
induce more healthful methods of inquiry and study among 
the pupils. A desire aroused by such means may, as a 
general thing, be safely gratified by the privileges of a 
moderately severe course in Scripture and Theology. 

Discipline. — The condition of most heathen people is such 
that it may be difficult to bring them under all the refine- 
ments of school etiquette and decorum. The rules of the 
mission school, therefore, should be few, but they should be 
vigorously enforced. They should relate as little as possible 
to personal relations between the missionary and the pupil, 
and should have a clear bearing upon the general efficiency of 
the school and the mission. This bearing should be freely 
explained to the school, and if a rule is shown to be unneces- 
sary to this end, it should be promptly and openly discarded. 
This general efficiency of the school must be the missionary's 
reliance for securing personal respect to himself and rever- 
ence towards his master. Ordinary attention may be given 
to marked peculiarity in gifts and in temperament, but it 
will be better to err on the side of severity than to fall into 
temporizing. The pupils should understand that the school 
is provided with a view to their real needs and that those 
who prefer something else should go elsewhere to get it. 
Diligence in study, promptness and faithfulness in the dis- 
charge of assigned tasks should be steadily and sternly insisted 
upon. Only in this way may we hope to gather about us 
those who wish to obtain what we desire to give. 


Female Education. — In closing, various matters worthy 
of specific mention but hardly involving any new principle, 
may be noticed. The education of women must be modified 
by the customs of the people among whom the work in done. 
The divine arrangement for the prevention of hopeless dis- 
cord in a sinful race should not be forgotten. " And to the 
woman he said... thy desire shall be to thy husband and he 
shall rule over thee ;" but it should be remembered that this 
arrangement is a monument erected to the shame of our 
race. The women should be taught to submit to their hus- 
bands in love as the church to Christ, and seek in education 
a means of becoming, not men, but better women. At the 
same time a definite pressure should be exerted to bring all 
to realize that " there is neither male nor female, but all are 
one in Christ Jesus." Where the customs of the country are 
not actively hostile to co-education, careful attention to 
American opinion and practice in this matter is, perhaps, the 
best resource of the missionary. 

Industrial Schools should be classed with special schools. 
As a single element in a mixed course, it might be well to give 
some attention to industrial education. It may be possible 
to train up fair workmen in some of the industrial arts with- 
out very heavy demands upon either the time or the appro- 
priations of the missionaiy. The diversion of much missionary 
energy into this direction seems unwise. 

The Personal Presence of the Missionary should be felt in 
every part of a mission school. In the beginning, certain- 
ly, this will compel the missionary to give a large amount 
of actual instruction in the school. Even in the villao-e 
schools, where personal instruction is not possible, an inti- 
mate acquaintance with the teacher and a good deal of 
correspondence should be resorted to as a means of personal 
influence. I have tried to give attention in my letters to the 
faithfulness or remissness and progress of individual pupils, 


but do not know with what results. The time will come, and 
should be hastened as rapidly as may be, when the mission- 
ary's presence will be felt through teachers who have partaken 
largely of his spirit and ideas. It is likely that the mission- 
ary's hands may be gradually freed for a considerable 
amount of work, more or less distinct from the school, and 
his personal instruction limited to purely religious and ethical 
branches ; but a careful watch should be maintained, and 
any tendency to swerve from a strictly right line should be 
met by prompt personal intervention. 


Mr. Clark said : — I agree with the essayist in all important 
matters, but think there is an error creeping into many mission- 
aries' minds, as to the power of education to mould character, — 
using education in the sense of ordinary secular education. At 
home they are learning that education is practically powerless to 
mould character. Moses, instead of introducing Egyptian sciences, 
&c., taught simply the law. Schools cannot do the work. Our 
need is of the work of the Divine Spirit. 

Mr. Gurney said : — 1 believe that our education should he 
mainly religious education. I feel the need of education in our 
Kolh work. We want men able to think. 

Mr. Mason said: — I agree that secular education is powerless to 
mould a man's character, but still we must have the elementary 
education. There may be danger in the result of class-room disci- 
pline. We need some methods for helping to develop capable 
minds. Not even logic can mould character. The heart must be 
touched. Education is necessary for development, but we need be 
careful that we be not led into error by our own preconceived 

Miss Bond said : — The Holy Spirit, when entering a mind, is a 
quickening power, and we need education to help the mind 

Mr. Rivenburgh said : — I find in our field that there is a lack of 
any desire to leani. Would that we had it. The effort to educate 


the Nagas, thus far, seems a practical failure. I have tried keep- 
ing them longer in school, but am doubtful as to what is the best 
course to pursue. We need more of Christ in the heart, that they 
may desire education. 

Mr. Witter said : — My experience thus far teaches me to steer 
clear of putting any one in the hills who is not enthusiastic. I 
think the missionary may well teach personally, at first. My own 
experience confirms this view. When a man gets to thinking on 
the word of God, be begins to be a thinking man. 

Mr. Clark said : — There has been one difiiculty in our work 
among the Nagas. It was begun in famine times, and has, doubt- 
less, been hindered by the difficulty the people have in getting 
food. It has also been hindered by want of books. I did not like 
the system of supporting children, but chose the plan of first 
preaching the gospel. If the people do not want the preached 
word, I am willing to stand on New Testament ground and go on 
to other tribes. Education, as ordinarily understood and conduct- 
ed, does not, I feel confident, foster spiritual life. I must confess 
that, all through my collegiate and theological course of study, I 
had to fight against the cooling down of my first love for Christ. 
The people in America are awakening to the need of teaching the 
English Bible more in the Theological schools. 

Mr. Witter said : — I have, in my own work, constantly given 
Scripture study with other instruction. I require the boys to do 
secular work. 

Mr. Jones said : — So far as I know, the work among the Khasis 
was very slow in the beginning. The missionaries taught daily 
in the school. I think that, during the first years, the boys were 
helped financially. We have no particular plan for spi'eading the 
school- work, but work on as we can. Twelve years ago, there was 
a large tract about Shillong without any schools or Christians. I 
began to travel about, taking a circuit of ten or twelve miles, 
talking and singing, but never asking them to have a school. The 
same thing was done the next year. Perhaps after the second or 
third visit they woiild welcome us, and begin to desire instruction 
and a teacher. Then we would send them some one, 2)erhaps a 


student from, the town school, or from the Sunday school, even a 
cooly, as all the Christians can read. There are now 8,000 or 
10,000 Khasis who can read. Our work has now extended to the 
border of the plains. Objection has been made, by Government 
officers, to our having the contents of the reading books so decid- 
edly religious, but we have them so, and keep them so, all the 
same. The last reader contains the Life of Joseph, Life of Abra- 
ham, Fall of Man, &c., and of the first primer thousands are sold 
every year. Pilgrim's Progress is the third reader, and the New 
Testament the fourth. We have a large Hindu population in 
Shillong. We have gained access to the houses of these, and to 
those of Mahomedans, and preach to them in their houses. 

Mr. Mason said : — I think primary schools are an absolute 
necessity. The people must be taught to read, in order to read the 
Bible. I think Mr. Rivenburgh is in error in being discouraged at 
the present stage of their work. Nine years ago there was great 
opposition to schools in the inner parts of the Garo Hills, but it 
has, to a good degree, been overcome. 

By Miss Obrell Keeler. 
' From the time woman plucked the apple from the for- 
bidden tree and gave to her husband to eat, the curse has 
rested heavily upon her. She has gone down, down into the 
depths of sin and ignorance, until she has been despised and 
counted a degraded being. Nowhere is this more clearly 
seen and felt than in heathen lands. In all of these false 
systems of religion, although there may be some good 
precepts with the false, there is nothing which can elevate 
or restore her to her former state. Christianity alone has the 
vital power, and so we go about preaching Christ and him 
crucified to the imprisoned inmates of the zenana, and to 
those whose liberty is not restricted by the rigid laws of the 
" purdah system." 

Commencement of the work. — Work among women began 
in Assam with girls' schools. A few bazar girls were per- 
suaded to come to the mission bungalow, where they were 
taught by the missionaiy's wife, Mrs. Brown and Mrs. Cutter 
in Sibsagar, Mrs. Barker in Gauhati, and Mrs. Bronson in 
Nowgong. Gradually the numbers increased until it was 
dignified by the name of school. In the course of time the 
boarding school system was adopted, as the only expedient 
to cut them off from heathen influence. But as heathen 
parents would not commit their children to the care of a 
Christian teacher, our pioneer missionaries went out into the 
high- ways and by-ways and sought the orphan and the home- 
less. In Nowgong both boys and girls were received, and 
the school was called the " Nowgong Orphan Institution." 
This was in 184'3. Later similar schools were established 
in Gauhati and Sibsagar. It is not my purpose to follow the 


history of these schools, except that part which relates to 
the girls' department of the Nowgoiig Orphan Institution. 
The first reports do not speak of the schools separately, but I 
learn that the boys were taught by Dr. Bronson, with a 
native assistant, while Mrs. Bronson taught the girls. In 
1846, the care of the work was found to be too much for 
Mrs. Bronson, and a matron was sought. A Mrs. Hill, mem- 
ber of the Lall Bazar church in Calcutta, accepted the 
position, and proved an efficient helper. In 1847, Mr. and 
Mrs. Stoddard were sent out to take charge of the orphan 
school. From Mrs. Stoddard's own letter we learn she acted 
as matron of both boys' and girls' schools. She was assisted 
by an Eurasian, Mrs. Fen wick. From this time to 1850 
there were some changes and much hard work. Mrs. 
Fenwick became insane, and both cholera and small-pox 
became an epidemic in the school. In a truly motherly 
way did Mrs. Stoddard care for the sick, as well as for the 
moral training of these orphans. In 1850 Mr. and Mrs. 
Daiible took charge of the school, but were afterward releas- 
ed for jungle work, a work for which he was particularly 
fitted. The schools were again made over to the Stoddards. 
About this time we read of revivals in the schools, of im- 
proved methods of instruction, of new buildings, and a new 
philosophical apparatus, sent from America. Never had the 
school been upon a better basis, nor had the attendance been 
better. 74 pupils were enrolled. A new and prosperous era 
seemed in the near future. 

Orphanage closed. — In 1854, the well-known Deputation 
from America was sent out, with authority to revise the plan 
of school work. The revision resulted in the abandonment 
of the Orphan Institution. This decision was deeply lamen- 
ted by the missionaries of that day, and also by those of the 
present, for we feel assured that had the school been sus- 
tained, we should not have had such a dearth of trained 

18G woman's work among the assamese. 

helpers as we now have. Our most faithful workers have 
been the pupils of that school, some of whom are with us 

School-work recommenced. — From this time to 1870, but 
little is on record concerning the schools. In 1870, accom- 
panied by her father, Maria Bronson came to take up the 
school work. She collected a number of bazar girls into a 
day-school and for a time the school seemed in a flourishing 
condition, but her sudden death in 1874 made a sad break. 
However, Mrs. Neighbor, with the help of native assistants, 
kept up the school until 1875, when Miss Sweet came to 
carry on the work. As soon as she had a little knowledge of 
the language, she endeavoured to work in the school. In 1876 
an orphan girl from a tea garden was given her. She at 
once conceived the idea of a boarding-school for girls. 
Soon two others were given her. In 1878 I came from 
Gauhati and brought with me two girls. Thus the number 
increased. In 1879, Miss Sweet having married Mr. King, 
an arrangement was made to have the girls boarded in 
Bapuram's family, his wife acting as matron. Here they 
remained for six years, but after his wife's death and my 
return from America, it became necessary that the mission- 
ary should herself take charge of them. Accordingly dormi- 
tories were made near our bnngalow and a matron was 
found, a native widow, to live with them. The present plan 
of caring for them is virtually the same as the original one 
of the Orphan Institution. In addition to their studies, they 
are taught plain sewing, weaving, spinning and native house- 

Summary from 1875 to 1885. — Seventeen girls have been 
inmates of the boarding-school. Five have married, three 
have returned to their relatives, one is a domestic in a mis- 
sionary's family, one was expelled and one died. The present 
number is seven. Two have passed the Gvernment Lower 


Priinai'j Examination, one girl, a member of the school, but 
not a beneficiary, has passed the Grovernment Upper Primarj 
Examination, and has been sent to Calcutta, to the Bethune 
School, to study English, with a view of taking a medical 
course of study under the Lady Dufferin Eund. 

Village schools. — Several attempts have been made to 
sustain village schools, but the results have not been satis- 
factory, owing in part to the indifference of the parents, 
and the inefficient female teachers we are obliged to employ. 
One school, however, is still in progress. The redeeming 
feature of it is that the pupils are required to learn the First 
Catechism, and the children have taken great pleasure and 
pride in doing so. Some have committed to memory the 
whole Catechism. 

Zenana work. — Properly speaking, Zenana work refers to 
a work among women who are kept in seclusion, but as we 
go among all classes, we use the term in a more general 
sense. But little is on record of the work of our early mis- 
sionaries. We read of Mrs. Whiting's visits to the women 
of Sibsagar, and to the Ranee (queen) at Jorhat, and of 
Mrs. Barker's visits to the women at Gauhati. Prom these 
brief statements, we can easily believe our early missionary 
sisters lost no opportunity to enter every door which was 
opened to them, and we doubt not that of those of later years 
it may be said, " she hath done what she could." In order 
to be definite I must confine my remarks to the last ten 
years. This department has been attended with many difficul- 
ties. As Ave go about among the women, we sometimes meet 
a welcome, sometimes indifference, and sometimes a humble 
hearer. Formerly we could only gain access to many of the 
higher castes by teaching some kind of needle-work. Now, 
although but little of this kind of instruction is given, we 
are usually made welcome, and can get a hearing, when we 
point them to the " Lamb of Grod who taketh away the sins 

188 woman's work among the assamkse. 

of the world." We find the most opposition from the high 
castes, Brahmos, and the Mahomedans ; though in each of 
the above-naniftd classes occasionally we find exceptions. 

Spiritual indifiference. — The indifference we find among 
them to any personal responsibility concerning their souls' 
welfare, is but the result of their false teaching; for beiug 
taught that man is an incarnation of deity, that he is their 
spiritual guide, adoration and obedience to their husbands 
and " gohain " (priests) is all that is required of them to fit 
them for this life or the life to come. This idea is more 
deeply instilled into the minds of those of the higher castes. 
Yet it is universal enough to account for the indifference in 
all castes. But we must take them as we find them, show 
them that we come to them in love and sympathy, endeavour 
to look at them not only from a Christian stand-point, but 
from their own, and strive to impress upon them a sense of 
their own responsibility in the sight of God as well as man; 
and this thought can never take hold of them until they 
realize their lost condition, and need of a personal Saviour. 
While we try to present Christ as the only one who can give 
rest to their souls, they often say, " This present life is what 
concerns us most. The future we know nothing aboat : 
* ami Jci kam, Id pindhim,' what shall we eat, and what shall 
we wear, these are questions which are real and practical to 
us." They like best of all to tell of their troubles and their 
physical suffering. Right here, I believe, is a most effectual 
entrance to their heart. We all like sympathy if we are in 
trouble or sickness. If we have wisdom we may turn their 
minds from self to Christ the Great Comforter. And then 
if the missionary can relieve their bodily ills, she can gain a 
great influence over them. 

Medical knowledge helpful. — Tlie little knowledge of medi- 
cine I have has been of great value in gaining access to their 
homes and hearts. In my opinion a medical missionary 


could do a good work in Assam. The Government is direct- 
ing its attention to this subject, but as the attitude of the 
Government is anti-mission, refusing to have Christianity in 
any way connected with their medical work, it seems high 
time for Christian missions to wake up and send out those 
skilled and equipped in the healing art. At first the work 
would move slowly, for there are many prejudices to be over- 
come, and the people would be slow to make any returns for 
the benefits received. They would expect treatment gratui- 
tously. But with such a woman at the head as Mrs. A. K. 
Scott, M. D., the way at least might be prepared for a 
successful work in the future. 

Methods and incidents of work. — In our Zenana work we 
have no ideal methods or ideal workers, but we have tried to 
make the best use of such material as we have. For the 
greater part of the time, four Bible-women have been sent 
out, two and two, visiting both high and low castes. They 
are accompanied by the missionary, when weather and work 
permit. Our visits extend to the suburbs and surrounding 
villages. Among these different classes of people, we meet 
with various receptions. A few, instructed by their hus- 
bands, try to argue ; others, as soon as they hear the name 
of Christ, turn a deaf ear, but more frequently, as we enter 
their yards, we sit down and talk or sing, and soon, not only 
the inmates of the house come out, but all the near neigh- 
bours ; and while all do not listen with humble minds, we 
trust some words do make lasting impressions. Occasion- 
ally we meet some interesting and encouraging cases. 
Before I went to America, we visited by invitation a high 
caste family. There were the mother and two married 
daughters. They wanted to learn some wool work. As we 
continued to teach Christianity we were not always welcom- 
ed, and we finally ceased our visits. During my absence, 
both of the daughters died, leaving the care of their children 

190 WOBIAn's W01;K among the ASRAlVrKSE. 

to the aged motlier. Trouble bad softened ber proud beart. 
Tbe words of comfort sbe bad beard were brougbt to her 
remembrance. Sbe sent for tbe Bible- women. Sbe said, 
" The words of your Shastras comfort me in my trouble, 
but J find none in our Hindu religion.'^ Now, as we go to 
ber house, she drops ber work and will sit attentively, listen- 
ing and asking questions. I think we may count her as one 
of tbe secret followers of Christ, of which there are not a 
few in this land. Another interesting woman is of a low 
caste. In visiting one of our regular houses I noticed a 
strange face. I was speaking of man's lost condition and 
certainty of death, and inquired whether they had any con- 
cern as to their future state. At once this strange woman 
replied, " Yes, I have much anxiety, for I know I am a great 
sinner." As I spoke of God's compassion in sending His Son 
to redeem us from sin, sbe listened eagerly, as if longing to 
find rest to ber soul. She sometimes comes to our bungalow, 
and a few weeks ago came to our Sunday Scliool, bringing 
with ber two children, and remained to tbe prayer-meeting 
following. Her husband has tbe Gospel of Luke, and she 
tells me they read it every day. We believe tbe leaven is 
surely working, and although we have few visible results to 
report, yet our work is not in vain in tbe Lord. 

Need of Bible-women. — The great difficulty of this depart- 
ment is lack of efficient and earnest Bible-women. Those 
we have, though good women, are cumbered with many 
cares, being widows with large families. Other women 
among our people, of suitable age, are lacking in every quali- 
fication. Young women cannot be sent out. If we wait 
until our school-girls grow up, our own work may be finish- 
ed long before they are ready to take it up. How to raise 
up and train Bible-women is the problem. I have some- 
times tbougbt, that, if it were possible to gather into a train- 
inir school Hindu widows, thev might be converted under 


Christian influence and return to their people to tell the 
story of the Cross. Again I have thought, that, if we had 
facilities for opening a hospital for opium-eaters, we might 
rescue some and possibly find some valuable helpers. But 
with each class mentioned above, the difficulty is to get them 
to break away from former associations ; for, until they are 
liberated from the bondage of custom, from habits of indul- 
gence, however hard their lot, it is not in human power to 
persuade them to leave their all, and place themselves under 
Christian influence. The power of the Holj Spirit to con- 
vince of sin, to awaken a desire for a higher and better life, 
is what we need, before we can hope to find earnest and 
conscientious workers. Is this too much to ask of the Lord ? 
Let us not be faithless but believing. Native workers we 
must have before any great success can be hoped for, and he 
who has the wisdom, tact and faith to meet and overcome 
these obstacles, is the one who does a permanent work for 
the advancement of the Master's kingdom in heathen lands. 

On the 15th of the following May, the writer of the above, then Mrs. M. C. 
Mason, was called to her Heavenly rest, and the Assam mission mourned the 
loss of one whose whole life was thoroughly consecrated, and was a constant 
outflow of intense love to those among whom she labored. 



Social condition of Garo Women. — Before speaking of 
work for Garo women, I will briefly notice their condition 
and place. Unlike women of the plains, they appear to 
enjoy perfect freedom. They attend religious services, go to 
the weekly market, visit neighbouring villages and, in com- 
pany with male relatives, often visit distant places. When 
speaking of a man and wife, the woman's name is mentioned 
first ; this would seem to show respect to her, but the same 
form of speech among the Karens is said to show respect to 
the man. The Garos say that the man and not the woman 
would be offended by inverting the expression. Owing to 
the fact that property descends through the female instead 
of the male line, the women seem to have great honor. A 
more intimate acquaintance with the people, however, shows 
that the women are not honored by the men but are really 
held in contempt by them. A man may cruelly beat his 
wife, but if she so much as strike him once, he can cast her 
off. It degrades a man to have a woman sit in front of him. 
She must not eat before her husband has been helped, except 
under unusual circumstances. The freedom of the Garo 
woman differs from that of the Purdah-woman of the 
plains in kind rather than in degree. In both cases, the 
word of the man is the law that governs her actions. In many 
instances the Purdah-woman is hardly more bound to her 
apartments, than is a Garo woman to her work. A Garo 
woman must help open the jungle and cultivate the fields, 
help reap the ripened grain, must even help collect material, 
and assist in building their houses. After the day's work 



in the jungle or field is finished, she must collect wood, bring 
water, clean and cook rice and other food for the family. A 
woman that would refuse to do this, or any part of it, is in 
danger of being beaten or cast off by her husband. The details 
of field work may differ some in different families, and it may 
differ in different parts of the Garo hills. In the Kamrup, 
Gauhati District, field work is much less, as the women are 
not required to assist in harvesting. 

The Beginning of the work. — Work for Garo women was 
first undertaken by Mrs. Keith. In the Missionary Maga- 
zine of July 1874, we read, " Mrs. Keith has commenced a 
boarding school for girls at Goalpara, which promises to be 
very successful. There have been, during the last year, ten 
girls in the school ; all of them promising pupils. '^ In the 
annual report for 1874-75, we again read, "The girls' board- 
ing-school was opened, January 1st, 1874, under the care of 
Mrs. Keith, and in spite of her long and severe illness, has 
been kept in operation, with intervals through the year. It 
started with twelve girls but before the close of the year, 
the number was reduced to ten. Instruction was given in 
the Garo and Bengali languages, in reading, writing, arith- 
metic, the catechism of Christian doctrine, and sewing. The 
pupils have made good progress in those branches and fully 
demonstrated their capacity to learn. The chief drawback, 
is the unwillingness of the parents to give up their girls to 
attend school. It is hoped, however, that a better sentiment, 
that is, a desire for the education of their girls, will come 
to influence them." In January 1885, the girls' school was 
closed. Although Mrs. Keith continued it for but little 
more than a year, permanent good has resulted from her 
labours for the Garo women. One girl that attended her 
school married a teacher a few years ago, and has assisted 
in his school, teaching the girls and receiving a salary of 
Rs, 4 per month. She was the first Garo woman ever 


employed as teacher. She was liked by the people of the 
village, and not only children but some of the mothers 
attended the school. Twenty-two girls were enrolled at one 
time and there was a good enrolment for several years. The 
school was conspicuous for the attendance of the girls. 
Others, taught in Mrs. Keith's school, are now Christian 
•wives and mothers, letting their light shine in their homes 
and among their associates. 

Later work, 1881—1886. — My work for Garo women, has 
been principally school work. The first duties, after coming 
to the country, were, to learn the language and have a 
house built for myself, and school-room for the girls. Be- 
fore either were accomplished my health became so poor, 
I was obliged to drop all and leave Tura for a rest and 
chano-e. Near the close of my third year, 1881, with health 
restored, I was ready to open my school and sent out word, 
through the Achikni Hipeng, to the people to bring their girls 
to Tura. I had not learned much about the people, and in 
my innocent heart really expected they would do so. I smile 
now as I look back to those days and remember how I sat by 
my window day after day to watch for the coming of the 
o-irls. If I chanced to see a man with a bundle on his back, 
I would smile and say to myself, ' Oh ! perhaps some girls 
have come to school.' Vain hope ! at that stage of female 
education, or the desire for it, I might as soon have expect- 
ed a fairy to bring me a fortune. Thus the weeks went by. 
I was very much disappointed but not discouraged, and 
decided, if the girls would not come to me, I would go to 
the girls. 

A Tour. — December 26th of that year, I started on my 
first tour among the people. My coolies and attendants 
were all heathen Garos but one. One Christian school boy 
was with me the first two weeks. The journey from Tura to 
the first Christian village occupied one week. The path was 


tlirougli forest and jungle, over mountains and streams. 
Nights were spent sometimes in a grass hut, sometimes in a 
tent pitched by the wayside. Although I was warned not to 
expect too much success in collecting girls for my school, 
I was surprised and pained to find so much indifference to 
female education. Six years had passed since Mrs. Keith's 
school had closed, and a girls' school was almost a novelty 
again to the people. I went from village to village, stopping 
but one night in the smaller villages where there was no 
prospect of getting scholars, spending several days in the 
larger ones. The people were cordial and friendly, but when 
the school was mentioned they were usually silent. The 
girls were anxious to go, but their friends opposed them. 
Fifteen villages were visited, in the last of which the meet- 
ings of the association were held. There I met the mission- 
aries from Tura and had the pleasure of hearing and speaking 
English again. The girls that wished to go to school had 
agreed to meet me at the association. At the close of the 
meetings ten girls returned with me to Tura, where we 
arrived February 10th, 1882. All but one of the girls were 
orphans and most of them were glad of a place where thej 
could get support. 

The Beginning of a school. — Prayers with the scholars 
were instituted in the tent while on the way to Tura, which 
were kept up regularly. A woman's prayer-meeting was held 
every Wednesday. Both services proved of great spiritual 
benefit to the scholars. The girls were instructed in Bengali 
reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic, and Garo reading, 
writing, and spelling. Sewing was also taught. Scripture 
was taught every evening at prayers and in Sabbath school. 
A.t the close of the school year, all but three returned to their 
villages. The association met in Tura that year and, hopino- 
the parents and friends would bring the girls in when they 
came to the meetings, I did not go after them, but spent the 


vacation iu trying to tell the story of the cross, in the 
villages near Tura. At the close of the associational meet- 
ino-s, I found that only one former and two new pupils had 
come into school, a decided and discouraging falling off in 
numbers. During that summer much time was spent in 
prayer, asking for wisdom, for willingness to do anything in 
my power to interest the people, and gain their confidence 
and that I might be guided in the right way. 

A new plan, — I finally decided to spend at least one season 
in one of the large Christian villages and open a girls' school 
there. A bamboo house was built for me in Nisangram and 
the dry season of 1883-84 was spent there. The next day 
after my arrival in the village, the teacher said to me, " I 
fear your coming will break up my school." I asked why 
he tbought so. He replied, " There are seven girls in my 
fichool now but some of them say they are not coming any 
more because they are afraid to recite to you." I felt almost 
discouraged and said, If my coming is going to have the 
opposite effect from what I had hoped, I would better return 
to Tura. I went to see one of the girls and after talking with 
her awhile she promised to come to school. The next morn- 
ino" there were fifteen girls present ; the pundit was astonished 
and my faith in my undertaking was strengthened. The 
number increased from day to day until thirty-eight were 
enrolled, some of them coming as boarders from a village 
nearly a day distant. 

Encouraging" success. — At the close of the dry season 
twenty-one girls returned to Tura with me. Not only 
orphans, but those whose parents were living were allowed to 
go. From that time there was a decided change in the 
attitude of the people, and the station school seemed to be 
hopefully established. Most of the girls remained through 
the year and all who remained returned the following year. 
'Tis true many of the people are still prejudiced ; enough. 


however, have been won over to assure us the time is coming 
when female education will be sou<^ht rather than opposed. 

An incident. — There was a good deal of excitement in and 
around my house the morning I left Nisangram for Tura. 
Some were crying to go with me, others because their friends 
were going. One girl about fifteen years of age very much 
wished to go to the station school, and I was equally anxious 
to have her go. Her mother was sick with Kalahazar, Black 
fever, though able to be about. As we were getting ready 
to start, the girl came slowly and sadly to my house with 
her bundle of clothes and rice for the journey. I said to 
her, I am glad you can go. The tears came to her eyes as 
she replied, " My mother is not well but she told me that I 
am getting so large, I must go to Tura now if I am ever to 
go. I do not wish to leave her, if she should be very sick, my 
younger sisters cannot care for her as I can, and if my mother 
should die while I am away I will always be sorry for going." 
I told her to remain with her mother if she felt so sad about 
leaving her, and if she recovered, she could go to Tura the next 
year. As we were talking, her mother came, and when she 
saw her daughter crying, said, " My child, why do you cry ? 
Do you not know that God can take care of me ? You must 
not worry ; if I die I will be with Jesus. Go to school and 
learn all you can and may God be with you." The mother 
then returned to her house. The girl said, " I cannot leave 
my mother," and as we left the village, she returned to her 
home. The year passed and the next touring season found 
me in the village again, for a few days only. Immediately 
on my arrival, I enquired about the girl's mother, and was 
told she had died the day before, and that the daughter was 
sick with the same disease. I went to see her and found the 
report true. Her first words were, " My mother has gone." 
I said, " Yes, God has taken your mother and now you are 
sick." " Yes," she replied, " and I know I will die soon ; but 


I do not think of myself I think only of my mother." A few 
months later, the loving daughter went to join the mother for 
whom she had sacrificed her young life. 

Need of Religious Instruction. — Living in the native vil- 
lage gave me an opportunity that I could have gained in 
no other way of becoming acquainted with the every 
day lives of the Christian women. There are some 
earnest, noble, self-sacrificing Christians among them, 
but, judging from what I saw and from what I learned by 
asking questions, there is undoubtedly a great work to be 
done among them. There seem to be comparatively few that 
have an intelligent idea of what is required of a Christian. 
They have been baptized and have given up sacrificing and 
drinking ; aside from this, the habits of a great many differ but 
slightly from the habits of heathen women. Very few attend 
the prayer-meetings. They attend preaching service, but as 
their custom compels them to take the back seats, they hear 
very little of the teaching of the word. Many of the school 
o-irls, even those that have always lived in Christian villages, 
some that had been Christians a number of years, did not 
know how to pray when they entered my school. Often in 
the woman's prayer-meeting have I heard such words as 
this : " Before coming to school, I never prayed. I would 
attend preaching service on Sunday to visit, not to hear 
what the preacher taught." One girl said, " I did not 
know that I must try to overcome the evil in my heart ; I 
thought that because I had been baptized I would be saved. 
Now I know that I have been living contrary to the will of 
God." She asked very earnestly that we would pray for her. 

Ready for the Truth. — After being taught that each pro- 
fessing Christian is responsible for his or her misdeeds, that 
each one, man or woman, old or young, will be judged 
according to the deeds done in the body, many of the girls 
earnestly tried to live true Christian lives. Some of them 


soon became so desirous of knowing the Scriptures, tbey 
would come to me in season and out of season to be taug-bt. 
Eager to know the will of God, and, after knowing, anxious 
to do bis will. 

Conclusion. — In my work I have found personal conver- 
sation the most successful method of winning souls to Christ. 
An audience of one is usually attentive. Such effort has 
often resulted in conversion. Many a morning have I spent 
in my garden, apparently to show the gardener where to 
plant the seed, really to talk with him about the salvation of 
his soul. One gardener was converted and is now an earnest 
Christian worker. One young woman slave, sick with con- 
sumption, had been driven from her master's house to die in 
the jungle. I took her to my place, and day by day told her 
of Jesus. She died professing faith in him. Many other 
incidents could be mentioned in connection with my work 
in the Garo Hills. Near the close of 1885, this part of the 
work was necessarily interrupted by my transfer to Gauhati. 
One trip has been taken through the Christian villages in 
the Kamrup district, and a small beginning has been made 
towards a station girls' school for Garos and Assamese. 
During the eight years spent in the work, a few, I trust 
have been won from the ranks of heathenism and some 
already followers of Christ, have learned more fully the respon- 
sibilities and privileges of a Christian life. That there are 
trials and difficulties and disappointments to be met and 
overcome and endured, is too well known by each one eno-aged 
in the work of giving the Gospel to the heathen, to be more 
than referred to here. Now as Miss Bond and Miss Mason 
take up the work, not only of winning the Garo women to 
Christ, but of teaching them to be Christians, may the Holy 
Spirit be with them and the blessing of God attend all 
their labours and may they see many souls saved as seals of 
their ministry. 



The two preceding papers presented consecutively and were 
discussed together. 

Mr. Mason said :—< While Mrs. Burdette's remarks, as to the in- 
ferior condition of the Garo women, have just grounds, yet these 
women have a great deal of influence, especially in relation to 
property. I feel the urgent need for girls' school- work among the 
Garos, and am strongly impressed with the excellent results of 
Mrs, Burdette's work. 

Mrs. Burdette explained the position of women, in relation to 
property, in the Garo tribe. 

Miss Bond asked how we are to overcome the prejudice the 
Garo men have against the girls becoming educated, on the ground 
of their getting lazy. 

Mr. Rivenburg related the experience of Mrs. Rivenburg, in 
employing a Bible- woman at Molung, and said : — A revival of 
spiritual life followed her work. She received pay, and when Mrs. 
Rivenburg was able to instruct her daily, was faithful in her 
work, but when Mrs. Rivenburg was unable to give the daily 
instruction, her earnestness lagged. When her pay ceased, her 
work, so far as known, ceased. I question how far the boarding- 
school system should be carried on, but think we must come to it, 
notwithstanding the dangers, 

Mr, Mason mentioned one Garo woman worker, in Tura, who 
had done good work, though not a paid Bible- woman. 

Mr. Witter said : — I think that Miss Field in China has Bible- 
women, who cannot read, but who receive oral instruction and go 
and impart the same. Could we not adopt the same plan ? If the 
boarding-school system is not the best system, the lady missionary 
must go to the villages. 

Mr. Burdette said : — I think that the boarding-school system is 
not so dangerous in evil after effects, in the case of girls, as in that 
of boys. I think that firm treatment would avoid the danger in 
the hills, but that there would be more difficulty in the plains. 

Mr. Jones said : — We have no girls' boarding-schools, though we 
have many girls' schools. Years ago, some were taken into the 



Normal College, but they did not turn out very well. The educa- 
tion of the girls is only limited, and with this some are taught 
sewing, &c. Among the Khasis, the women hold the same pro- 
perty relationship as among the Garos. We had a conference of 
the Khasis in reference to sending a girl to Calcutta for medical 
education, but all opposed. I am dead against the boarding-school 
for girls, in the Khasia Hills, in the present state of things. Go- 
vernment gives a few stipends to girls, in the Normal College, from 
which there are no bad effects. 

Mr. Row said : — I have visited many boarding-schools, and was 
surprised to find any opposition to the system here. Mr. Row 
related what he had seen elsewhere, of the valuable results of such 

Mr. Jones said : — If I were in these other missions, under other 
circumstances, I should probably take the same view as the mis- 
sionaries there, but there seems to be no need of boarding-schools 
in the Khasia Hills. 

Mr. Rivenburg referi-ed to the former prosperity of the Nowgong 
Orphan Institution, and the good results from it, and asked if it 
would not pay to push these boarding-schools. 

Mr. Mason said : — There is a demand for all the girls thus 
educated in the Garo Hills, for wives. I think the boarding- 
school expedient in the hills. The girls stand at some disadvantage 
in the village schools. 

Mr. Moore said : — Where a European teaches, could not the 
boys and girls be taught together, so that all could receive the 
benefit ? I think it would be better for all. 

Mr. Burdette said. — I have done a little mixed teaching in 
Gauhati. It seemed to produce no shock, or cause remark. The 
experiment seemed to encourage the hope that it would be 

Mr. Rivenburg mentioned the fact that the Govei-nment is 
trying to encourage mixed schools. 

Mr. Moore thought this a move in the right direction. 

Miss Keeler said : — I think the mixed education, in the class- 
room, practicable, and I hope to see it practised here in Nowgong, 


1 hope, too, to see the board ing-scliool done away with, as it seems 
to foster pride, notwithstanding the girls are taught to work. 
How are we to educate Bible women ? We need them now, but 
see none suitable or fi'ee to come for instruction. 

Mr. Rivenburgh said : — Still it comes back to the fact that what 
we need is a revival of religion, to prepare suitable women. 

By Mrs. E. G. Phillips. 

At tlie time of the creation tlie position accorded to 
woman was that of helpmeet or counterpart of man. Pos- 
sessed of the same general characteristics, and being his 
equal socially, she was well fitted for the place assigned her. 
Although he has the greater physical strength and is the 
better fitted to bear the heavy burdens of life, she has the 
ability to lighten those burdens in a measure, and to help 
make the rough places smooth. She can be his comforter 
in hours of sorrow, as Rebekali comforted Isaac after his 
mother's death. 

But the particular work of the wife is more explicitly set 
forth in Proverbs, where it says : — 

" The heart of her husband trnsteth iu her, 

And he shall have no lack of gain. 

She doeth him good and not evil 

All the days of her life. 

She seeketh wool and flax, 

And worketh willingly with her hands." 

" She riseth also while it is yet night. 

And giveth meat to her household, 

And their task to her maidens." 

" She spreadeth out her hand to the poor ; 

Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy." 

" She openeth her mouth with wisdom ; 

And the law of kindness is on her tongue. 

She looketh well to the ways of her household. 

And eateth not the bread of idleness. 

Her children rise up, and call her blessed ; 

Her husband also, and he praiseth her, saying : 

Many daughters have done virtuously. 

But thou excellest them all." 


These inspired words portray to our minds the character 
of a woman who is capable of discharging the various duties 
which devolve upon her as a wife. These are the duties not 
only of one wife but of every wife. It is true that in this 
present age it is not necessary for the wife to perform all of 
the minor duties enumerated in these sayings, but the prin- 
ciples herein involved and the results to be attained are the 
same as those of three thousand years ago. The customs of 
society may change, but the characteristics necessary to the 
full development of " a prudent wife from the Lord " will 
remain the same throughout all ages, until the Lord shall 
call all of his people to the mansions above, where " they 
neither marry, nor are given in marriage." 

The subject given me was the Work for Missionaries' Wives. 
Let us see wherein the wife of a missionary differs from the 
wife of one pursuing any other calling, — that is, any calling 
which is compatible with the advancement of Christ's king- 
dom in the world. And I am speaking only of those wives 
who have accepted Christ, and profess to be followers of the 
meek and lowly Jesus, " who died for all, that they which 
live should no longer live unto themselves, but unto him who 
for their sakes died and rose again." Then, all of those who 
"have been called out of darkness into his marvellous light" 
stand in the same relation to their Saviour. They are not 
their own, but belong to him. Each has a mission of love 
to perform in giving to others of that which has been so 
freely received. So all who belong to Christ are His mission- 
aries. With the exception of wives, to no class of women 
is there any particular work given in the Bible. Some of the 
specific duties given to them have already been mentioned. 
Again, in Titus we learn that Paul would have the aged 
women " train the young women to love their husbands, to 
love their children, to be sober-minded, chaste, workers at 
home, kind, being in subjection to their own husbands, that 


the word of God be not blasphemed/' When a missionary's 
wife steps on heathen shores does she in any way cease to be 
a wife? As a wife, are not the same duties resting on her 
as were before she left her native land ? It is true that 
when she sees the vast multitudes of human beings living 
in sin and ignorance, with no knowledge of the Light of Life, 
her heart goes out after them, with a longing desire to tell 
them of a loving Saviour. But is that to be her only work ? 
Is she to give up the work which God has already appointed 
her to do ? 

In the general view of the work given in the Sixtieth 
Annual Report of our Missionary Union, the question was 
proposed, — " If single women, why not single men for mis- 
sions '?'' The writer gives some of the chief advantages of the 
marriage relation for missionaries, and then proceeds to 
state some of the drawbacks which may be regarded as 
sufficient to justify the policy of sending forth men alone. 
Now my dear married sisters, I know that the idea of being 
drawbacks to our husbands is farthest from our thoughts, so 
let us consider these drawbacks, and see if there is no way 
to avoid them. 

The first drawback of which the writer speaks, is the loss 
of time and opportunity as one of the results of the family 
ties of missionaries. It is conceded that the greater the 
number, the greater the liability to illness, which necessarily 
takes the time of the missionary, as well as that of his wife. 
He is sometimes detained from tours on account of the 
illness of some of his family. How can we as wives avoid 
this drawback ? If we look well to the ways of our house- 
holds, and provide those things needful for the physical com- 
fort of the little ones which God may have given us, can we 
not in a great measure prevent many of those illnesses, which 
are a drawback to the husband and father ? 

He also speaks of the serious drawback of special domestic 


expenses, — that is, the expenses incurred to the missionary 
boards in taking a chang-e to the home land, and also the great 
loss of time to the missionary in thus being obliged to leave 
his work. The principal and usually the only reason given for 
the change is ill-health. The causes of ill-health are numerous. 
Among these one prominent cause is worry. How often do we 
hear of missionaries who are unable to obtain their proper rest 
at night, because of the continuous worry about things con- 
nected with their work. Some of these worries are needless, 
and others might be wholly obviated were the wife to properly 
perform the duties assigned her. One of these causes for worry 
is that much dreaded enemy, debt. In whatever household it 
enters, there is sure to be a worried, careworn look on the 
husband's countenance. Cannot the missionary's wife, un- 
less it be in a few exceptional cases, prevent this ? The 
wives of ministers and Christian men at home, who allow the 
expenses of their households to exceed the means supplied, 
are often bitterly censured. Although the missionary's wife 
may be doing direct mission work, does that in any measure 
justify her in doing that which would provoke censure if 
done by the wives of those who follow different callings in 
life? Could she not, by giving more attention to her house- 
hold duties, prevent the dreaded enemy gaining admittance 
to their pleasant home? When once he has entered, how 
difficult it is to be rid of his presence. It can be done only 
by retrenchment in some form, and that too often comes at 
the table. In such cases this great evil not only leads to ill 
health, through the channel of worry, but also affects the 
health in not satisfying the cravings of the stomach. 

Nearly all, if not all missionaries enter the field with the 
expectation of sacrificing many pleasures and comforts for the 
sake of the work. The first sacrifice comes in bidding fare- 
well to all the loved ones. We have well considered this 
sacrifice, and are in a measure prepared for it. But when 


at the end of our journey we find ourselves in some isolated 
place in the jungle, as is the case with most of us here, we 
find another sacrifice awaiting ns. There comes a feeling of 
loneliness in being so shut off from the outside world, and 
the intercourse of Christian friends. But this sacrifice is 
gradually lessened as we gain a knowledge of the language, 
become acquainted with the people, and find enough to do to 
improve every precious moment. We often hear of other 
sacrifices, — sacrifices in the home life ; but have we, as wives, 
ever duly considered that the majority of these are wholly 
unnecessary? Many missionaries' wives come out with the 
idea that they are no longer to be troubled with household 
duties, they are coming to a land where Europeans are not 
expected to labor with their hands ; native servants do all 
the work. Having this idea in mind, they are quite ready 
to follow the example of others, thinking little of the conse- 
quences. Time passes on. Gradually the climate begins to 
show its effects upon them. They cannot perform all the 
work they have taken upon themselves. They must spend 
some time in rest. Then it is that they begin to feel the 
sacrifices connected with home life. O ! for a rest in some 
of the quiet cozy homes across the seas, a taste of some of 
those delicacies so highly prized in youth. They might not 
acknowledge to others that these thoughts had ever entered 
their minds, yet the little desires continue to increase until 
they becoine indescribable longings, and they come to the 
settled conviction that nothing but a rest in the home land 
will restore the health. So the long, expensive journey is 
made, — result, the wife is a drawback. Truly the wife could 
not have wholly prevented the effects of the climate upon 
the health, but she might have cared for the home comforts 
and luxuries, and so have aft'orded pleasant surroundings in 
which the tired, enfeebled body could have joyfully rested 
and recruited without giving a thought to the homes in 
other lands. 


Let us, as missionaries' wives, remember our household 
duties, and see that ours is not a misdirected zeal. Zeal in 
mission work is a needful characteristic, but other charac- 
teristics are also necessary. A medical missionary in Japan, 
in speaking of the mental and physical qualities needed in 
missionaries, says, — " To maintain health, and be a success- 
ful missionary, a man must possess more judgment than 
enthusiasm, and more discretion than zeal." He also says 
with reference to women that, " if the applicant were a lady, 
my first question would be, could she make good bread, cook 
a good roast of beef, and get a good dinner. Whether she 
was so familiar with culinary work that it was a drudge and 
a duty, or a pleasure and a delight." " Not a few, " he says, 
" have failed from lack of these qualifications." 

A gain, the writer of the report referred to speaks of wives 
as drawbacks on account of their want of interest in the 
work. He says, — " many a woman gives herself to the man 
and not to the missionary." It is true that among people of 
the world we quite often see a wife who takes no interest in 
her husband's occupation, and, as a natural result, no great 
amount of happiness falls to them, in their connubial rela- 
tion. A girl brought up in the city, surrounded by all the 
luxuries which wealth can give, and moving in circles of 
fashionable society, becomes enamoured with a well-educated 
farmer. At first she is delighted with her rural home, but 
after a little the novelty is gone ; she takes no interest in 
the waving fields of grain, and in the flocks and herds 
among which the greater part of her husband's time is 
spent, but is longing for the pleasures of the life which she 
has left behind. So she becomes a hindraiice to her husband 
in all his work. Although there are many such instances 
among worldly people, we can hardly conceive how a woman, 
in whose heart love and pity for the perishing millions had 
found no place, could consent to occupy the position of help- 


meet to one whom she knew liad been called of the Lord 
to the work of saving souls. But it would seem that there 
must have been some such cases known as a foundation 
for the writer's criticism when he says, " a woman who 
without regard to connubial relations, would not wish to 
become a missionary, ought not, except in cases of special 
stress, to go abroad as a missionary's wife." It is indeed 
true that the missionary's wife must possess a mission- 
ary spirit ; but may she not possess this though she never 
has had, and perhaps never would have had a call to go forth 
and join the noble band of single women whom God has 
placed on our mission field ? If she had received a call, how 
could she in answer to another call accept a position, the 
requirements of which might prove to be so many as to 
nearly preclude engaging in the active service to which God 
had called her ? If, without fully considering her duties as 
a wife, she enters the married state, thinking that she is still 
following the calling to which God has appointed her, is 
there not danger of her so neglecting her duties as wife that 
she becomes a drawback to her husband, and perhaps the 
cause of their both leaving the v^ork which was so near and 
dear to their hearts ? 

Although the duties devolving upon us as wives do, in a 
measure, debar us from engaging in direct mission work, let 
us not look upon these as " narrow family cares that chain 
us down," but rather consider them as well worthy our time 
and attention, being duties imposed upon us by Him who 
rules the universe, and has assigned to woman the position 
of helpmeet. We may not become 'prominent workers in the 
mission field, but He who rewards those who give a cup of 
cold water in His name, will he not reward us, though our 
works be insignificant in the sight of man ? Although we 
may have many family cares, still all have some time to 
spend in laboring directly for the perishing souls abt>ut 


them. As to the manner of spendinf^ that time, let each 
decide for herself. Some are best fitted for teaching, some 
for evangelistic work, while others might perhaps use some 
time to good advantage in assisting their husbands in their 
literary work. Let each one strive to use the talents which 
God has given her in a way pleasing to him. 

He has revealed to us our duties as wives in that we are 
to be blessings to our husbands, diligent, prudent, benevo- 
lent, hospitable, and adorned with modesty, sobriety, and 
good works. Where can we find these characteristics more 
beautifully exemplified than in the life of Priscilla ? We see 
her as the wife of a humble tent-maker, quietly moving 
about, performing her household duties, and no doubt taking 
a real interest in her husband's work, as they are always 
spoken of together. Both members of the church of Christ, 
they had the one grand aim in view of doing what they 
could in His service. They were particularly noted for their 
hospitality, desiring that Paul should abide with them a 
longer time; and when they heard the eloquent ApoUos, 
they were pleased to take him to their own home, and ex- 
pound unto him the way of God more carefully, that he 
might receive the light which they had received. 

So it is that before the devoted Christian wife many 
unforeseen opportunities of doing good are continually aris- 
ing. So let us, as such, bravely take up the duties which 
God has given us and, 

" Work till the last beam fadoth 
Fadeth to shine no more ; 
Work while the night is darkening, 
When man's work is o'er." 

By Eev. E. G. Phillips. 

Among the more than four millions of Assam, there are 
besides our own, so far as I know, only two societies doing 
mission work. These are the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist 
Society, laboring among the Khasias and Jainti;is, and the 
S. P. G. Society, laboring among the Cacharis about Tezpur. 

Besides, there is in the Goalpara district, north of Dhubri, 
a colony of Santals, established by the Indian Home Mis- 
sion Society. The English Baptist Mission Society, the 
Assam and Cachar Mission Society, and the Church of Eng- 
land have all done some work in Assam. With reference to 
these various missions, though I have sought information by 
correspondence, I regret to say that, with the exception of 
our neighbours in the Khasia Hills, the little information 
I have is gleaned from the meagre sources in my own 

The English Baptist Missionary Society were, I think, 
the first to do any work in Assam. Dr. Carey translated the 
New Testament into Assamese, and the missionaries in 1797 
made one mission tour, at least, to Bhutan, and we may 
suppose to places in Assam, en route. We also learn that a 
Mr. Lish of the Serampore Mission labored among the 
Khasias for a few years shortly previous to 1841, the date of 
the beginning of the present Welsh Mission. In 1876, work 
was begun by this society in Cachar, and was continued for 
some years. At present they are, so far as I know, doing no 
work there. In 1881, Rev. I. Allen was laboring there with 
two native assistants. The Christian community numbered 
285, with 25 communicants, and 16 adult baptisms in that 
year. I have no later information in reference to the Avork. 


The Assam and Cachar Mission began work in 1868, but 
was afterwards discontinued. In 1871 the community was 
reported to number sixty-one. 

The Church of England has been conducting mission 
work, to some extent, in Dibrugarh and Gauhati. As no 
ordained or lay agents are mentioned in the statistical tables 
prepared by the Calcutta Missionary Conference in 1881, I 
infer that this work was all done through the Chaplain of 
Assam. In 1871, 150 were reported as belonging to the 
Native Christian community at Dibrugarh, but no communi- 
cants are reported. No report is given for 1881. At Gauhati 
the Christian community numbered ten in 1871, and eight in 
1881, with three communicants. These facts are gleaned 
from the statistical tables mentioned above. 

The S. P. G. Society. — To the same source I am indebted 
for all the information I have in reference to the work of the 
S. P. G. Society among the Cacharis in and about Tezpur. 
I the more regret this, as it is a living mission, and meet- 
ing with some success. We would gladly look in upon their 
work, and know soniewhat of their methods and appliances, 
that we might gain suggestions for our own fields. The 
mission was established in 1841, forty-five years ago. In 
1881, Eevs. J. P. Smitheman and S. Endle were the mis- 
sionaries, assisted by three preachers, ten Christian teachers, 
and ten non-Christian teachers. The native Christians num- 
bered three in 1851 ; seventy in 1861 ; one hundred and 
thirty in 1871; and two hundred and ten in 1881. In this 
latter year there were thirty-five communicants, four adult 
baptisms, and two congregations. 

The Indian Home Mission Society can hardly be said to 
be laboring at all among the people of Assam. They have 
here only a colony, and so a kind of branch of their most 
interesting and prosperous work among the Santals. The 
following is from Mr. Skrefsrud's report of this work in the 


last issue of Baclley's Indian Missionary Directory. He 
says : " An agricultural colony, or Christian settlement, was 
established in 1880, in western Assam, quite a number of 
Santali families emigrating from Bengal. The experiment 
has proved very successful. The colony now contains several 
hundred Christian farmers, a church large enough to accom- 
modate 1,000 people has been built, and schools have been 
opened. For several years, the affairs of the colony have 
been in the hands of Count Moltke, an honorary missionary, 
who recently returned to Europe." Recent tidings come of 
his death. I am not informed as to the number of com- 
municants. If I remember rightly, the colony does not 
consist alone of Christian Santals, but that any Santal, by 
complying with certain conditions and regulations, may join 
the colony. 

Connected with this mission to the Santals, there are in 
all 3,500 communicants. The mission was established in 
1867. In their work they seem to have aimed to confine 
their labors to a limited area, until they had accomplished 
thorough work there, and then with this accumulated force 
reach out to the regions beyond. Their preaching has been, 
apparently, addressed more to the nation than to individuals. 
I would gladly bring in, through this door of their colony, a 
fuller account of their work, had I the information at hand. 
We could study it with profit. 

The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Mission. —In turning our 
attention to. the work of our neighbors in the Khasia and 
Jaintia hills, we will not look in vain for valuable suggestion 
and for inspiration for our own fields. Any review of their 
God-prospered work should be especially valuable to us who 
like them are engaged among the non-idolatrous, demon- 
worshiping savages of the hills. The population of these 
hills in 1872 was 141,878, in an area of 6,157 square miles. 

The first missionary of this society, to the Khasias, arrived 


in the Lills, June 22, 184], wliicli date may be taken as the 
date of the beginning of the mission. During the first ten 
years, there were many obstacles incident to beginning 
work among such a people, — the prejudices of the people, 
the mastery of a new, unwritten language, the preparation 
of books, and all the first pioneer work. The statistical 
show for the first decade is not large ; — one church, fourteen 
communicants, and six candidates. But foundations were 
laid well and broad, and the work seems to have progressed 
with continually augmenting force, until now we see a 
thoroughly established work, well developed in all its 

The following facts are gleaned from a brief review of the 
work published in 1884. As already stated, in 1850 there 
was one church. In 1861 there were six, in 1871 sixteen, and 
in 1881 thirty-six. In 1850 there were 6 communicants ; in 
1861, 158 members with 62 communicants; in 1871, 514 
members with 106 communicants ; in 1881, 2,060 members 
with 452 communicants. These numbers have increased in 
1885 to 3,502 members with 893 communicants. Last year's 
report shows also that there w^ere 17 licensed preachers, 94 
churches and preaching stations, 122 received into commu- 
nion, and 548 to the church on trial. It also shows 4,796 
hearers, that is those who have left heathen practices and 
attend Sunday sers^ices. The work at some places seems to 
have been very rapid, and at the same time thorough. 

From the above-mentioned report we learn that the mis- 
sion field is divided into seven districts, each under the 
charge of one foreign missionary. Each missionary, besides 
holding Sabbath and week-day services, Bible-classes, teach- 
ers' meetings and teaching a few hours daily in the day- 
school in the chief station, has the general supervision of the 
churches and schools in the district, which he frequently 
visits in order to stimulate and encourage the teachers and 


other workers. He also, accompanied by some of the most 
experienced native preachers, makes more extended mis- 
sionary tours. 

Twice a year the missionaries, the native preachers and 
deacons, together with many of the teachers and others 
delegated by the churches, meet in Presbytery ; the meetings 
being held in each district in rotation. We can easily see 
that these meetings must prove to be very beneficial. By 
this body all the principal affairs of the whole mission are 
regulated, preachers licensed and plans formulated. 

Among the features of the work specially interesting are 
these. From the first beginning of the work, educational 
work has been an important part. In 18G1 there were 13 
schools with 290 pupils; in 1871, 55 schools with 1,250 
pupils ; in 1881, 103 schools with 2,666 pupils, and in 1885, 
3,213 pupils, of whom 923 were girls and 2,290 boys. 

Supplementing the village school-work is a Normal Col- 
lege at Cliera Poonjee, under the care of Rev. J. Eoberts 
and Mrs. Eoberts. Government has aided liberally in the 
school-work, especially in the Normal College. Mr. Roberts' 
salary is paid by Government. 

Besides the elementary education given in the native 
tongue, English has been thoroughly taught, and is used as 
a medium of giving instruction in the higher branches. Ben- 
gali is also taught in some of the higher schools. After 
such a mastery of English has been acquired as is acquired 
by some of the Khasias, there is certainly great advantage in 
acquiring information. We appreciate this when we learn 
of theological classes reading Hodge's Outlines of Theology, 
and see that the students are able afterwards to pass a 
written examination on the subject that is highly commend- 
able, both as to the matter of the answers, and the almost 
perfect English used. 

The need of a theological school is met by the mission- 


aries holding classes in theology, the classes being made up 
of the evangelists, and the most advanced young men in the 
schools who give promise of being helpful in the future. 

Sunday-school work seems to be carried on very success- 
fully. Last year there were reported 250 teachers and 4,040 
pupils, an increase since 1881 of 80 teachers and 1,29^ 

In 1879 a medical mission was established, and has, the 
missionary in charge testifies, been very helpful in bringing 
people from far villages under the influence of the Gospel, 
and also in dispelling many of their superstitions in reference 
to demons being the cause of every ill. 

The people are learning to give liberally of their substance 
for the work of the Gospel. In this past year, Es. 2,353 
were contributed, not including contributions for chapels, 
school-rooms, &c., and collections for the poor, which would, 
if counted, increase the amount some Es. 2,000 still farther. 

The New Testament has been translated many years, and 
published in several editions, and a revision recently pub- 
lished. During the last few years, several missionaries have 
been engaged on the translation of the Old Testament. The 
Pentateuch was in press in 1884, and is doubtless out now, 
with perhaps other parts. Other books also have been trans- 
lated, as Pilgrim's Progress, Come to Jesus, Dr. Watts' 
New Testament History, and school-books and tracts have 
been written. 

Successful efforts have been made to teach the Khasias to 
read music. The Tonic Sol Fa notation is used, and some 
small children even are able, it is said, to sing simple tunes 
at sight. 

We congratulate our fellow missionaries of this mission on 
what the Master has wrought and is working through them, 
and would with them take renewed courage for the years of 
work to come. 

paper by rev. e. g. phillips. 217 


Mr. Jones said : — In the Welsh Mission to the Khasias, all are 
counted as Christians who have abandoned heathen customs, and 
attend services regularly. Converts are received on probation, and 
then put under instruction for a year. Then they are thoroughly 
catechised, and, if satisfactory, are baptized and counted as com- 

Mr. Row called attention to the work done in Assam by the 
Anglo-Indian Evangelization Society. While it works specially 
among Europeans, in this way it works indirectly for the native 
population, as the English have Eo much inflaence to help or 
impede mission work. They also do direct work among the Eng- 
lish-speaking native population. He related some of his experience 
in the work, and asked to be connected with us in work for 
Assam. Mr. Fordyce came for two years and labored in Assam, 
Mr. Jones mentioned the work done by this Society in Assam, and 
wished them much success. 

Mr. Jones, previous to giving a fuller account of their work, 
called upon Norklia, a Khasia evangelist present, who made an 
address in Khasia. This Mr. Jones, in substance, translated into 
English, and the Chairman again into Assamese. He said in sub- 
stance : — Before the Gospel came to the hills, we did not know that 
we were men, but were like beasts. But when the Gospel came, 
we found that we were men. After having the Gospel presented 
to us, and having believed on Jesus, we are trying, men and women, 
by Sci'ipture-readiug and prayers, to give the Gospel to others. So 
the gospel is spreading. At Shillong we have meetings for Confer- 
ence, and appoint men and women to go to diiferent villages to 
preach. We receive no one into the church who drinks maud, or 
uses opium. All were intemperate, so we keep drunkenness out of 
the church, that we may keep the church jjure. In reply to Mr. 
Mason's question as to what they would do if all the missionaries 
were to leave them, he replied, that we wish them to stay, but, while 
the missionaries remain we stand by God's grace, and if they go 
we will stand by God's grace. 


In reply to questions, Mr. Jones stated tlie following facts. 
At first there were only two or three stations, and now the number 
is not always fixed, as some come and go. For the first ten years, 
there were two families. No two missionaries occupy the same 
station. We have not found it to work well. 

All medicines are sold, none given gratis, except to those who 
we know are unable to pay. In the hospital work, there is always 
a preacher present, and always preaching to those waiting for 
treatment. The work is doing great good. They come from great 
distances. Save in exceptional cases of the very destitute, no food 
is supplied or clothing given. I would give Mrs. Scott's proposal 
a trial. We started our medical work as an experiment, and now 
we recognize it as an institution not to be dispensed with. 

We approve now the course of former missionaries in the matter 
of education. I believe that if I were to begin again, I w^ould give 
the same prominence to school work that the earlier missionaries 
did ; although there are some missionaries who would give the 
school work over to Government, and give the whole time to evan- 
gelistic woi'k. But all our Khasia teachers are Christians, and the 
work is evangelistic. The first lesson in the First Primer is about 
sin. It is, " I sin. He sins. You sin. All sin. Sin is wicked. 
Do not sin any more." 

English is taught only in the advanced schools. The same is 
true of Bengali. Khasia is taught in all schools, and even Bengali 
boys pass in it. 

By Rev. E. W. Clark. 
The theme assigned me to present to this Assam Semi- 
centennial Conference was, " The need of extending our 
mission work to new openings." To discuss this subject 
intelligently, it is necessary to take a survey of the regions 
beyond our present work. Preparing this en route to India, 
I am obliged to trust entirely to memory, as works of refer- 
ence are not available. A beginning will be made in lower 
Assam, say opposite G-auhati, then the course will be up the 
north side to the head of the valley, and then across to the 
south side. 

I note first a large body of Cacharis, or Kosaris, who con- 
stitute an important element of the population on the north 
side of the Brahmaputra River in lower Assam, and are said 
to extend nearly to Darjeeling. The Cacharis are allied to 
the Garos in language, and belong to the aboriginal races of 
India, which have been found much easier to Christianize 
than the Hindu, Mohammedan, or Buddhist. Where Cachari 
communities have lived many years alongside of Assamese 
Hindus and mingled with them, they frequently take on 
something of Hindu faith and caste, and also acquire a 
limited use of the Assamese language. Though ruder and 
less cleanly in customs and dress than the Assamese, they 
are said to be more truthful and honest. I understand that 
in the later years a few of these people have been baptized 
into the membership of the Gauhati Baptist church. Possi- 
bly these conversions are an intimation from the Lord that 
we should enter the field and cultivate it. 

The Hill Tribes. — After the Cacharis, next in order come 


the Bbutanese. Companies of these, in the cool season, 
descending from their mountain homes in the sub-Himalayan 
ranges, come down to Gauhati and other Assamese villages 
for trading purposes. Some of these, Kandura has found 
latterly a good deal interested in the doctrines of Christianity. 
The Bbutanese are pretty stiff Buddhists, and might be slow 
to receive the gospel, yet it should be faithfully presented to 
them. Christ has made it the duty of his disciples to preach 
the good news of his kingdom to every creature. This the 
Bbutanese who visit Gauhati may never have heard in their 
own country, though a few years ago the English Baptists 
did, I think, send some gospel heralds into Bhutan from the 
Darjeeling side. As I remember, the reports of these labors 
were to the effect that the Bbutanese generally seemed to 
turn a deaf ear to the gospel of Jesus, that the Lepchas 
living among the Bbutanese and in subjection to them, but 
not Buddhist, or at least nothing like as strong in that faith 
as their rulers, these down-trodden Lepchas seemed more 
favorably disposed toward the gospel. Still, to the best of 
my recollection, the reports of these labors of the English 
Baptists did not chronicle any conversions. 

Leaving the country of Bhutan, moving eastward, and 
keeping on the north side of the Assam Valley, we find the 
Akas. They are nearly opposite our mission station, Now- 
gong ; further eastward are the Duphlas, who have some 
villages in the plain of Assam near the base of their hills, so 
mission work in this tribe could probably be commenced 
with comparative ease. 

Sadiya and Vicinity. — Still further to the east on these 
hills north of Assam are the Abors, who claim that their 
territory extends down near to the Brahmaputra River. 
Near the Abors are the Miris and Mishmis ; the latter are 
located about the north-east corner of Assam, and hold what 
is believed to be an easy pass into Tibet and Western China. 

PAPER BY nV.V. E. W. CT.AUK. 221 

Here we are in the vicinity of old Sadiya, the first of our 
American Baptist Mission stations in Assam, and one that it 
seems to the writer should be re-occupied by us at as early 
a day as possible. 

The Akas, Duphlas, Miris, Abors, and Mishmis are mostly 
beyond English jurisdiction, and little is really known about 
their religious beliefs. Where they border on Buddhist 
Bhutan, or Tibet, they probably have a touch of that faith, 
and where they border on Assam there may be a tinge of 
Hinduism in their religion, but it is not probable that either 
of these systems of belief has much grasp on the minds of 
these wild people of the hills, and so they present a particu- 
larly inviting field for missionary labor. Their homes on the 
hill-tops are sufficiently high to escape most of the malaria 
of Assam, hence they may be deemed pretty healthy, but, 
being high, the climbing up to them is rather laborious. 

At Sadiya is held an annual fair or market for purposes of 
traffic between the neighboring hill people and the traders of 
Assam. The occasion is also utilized by the English Govern- 
ment to cultivate friendly relations with the inhabitants of 
the hills. The fair lasts several days. The thing itself and 
the number of hill men that 3'early assemble here indicate 
the importance of Sadiya as a mission station. It is the 
coolest and perhaps, the healthiest Government station in 
the valley of Assam. Another fact of no little importance 
should be borne in mind ; it is the proximity of Sadiya to 
what is believed to be a fairly practicable pass from India 
into Central Asia and adjoining China. During the past year, 
an English officer from Sadiya has been over this pass. He 
found it a little rugged in places, but the highest elevation 
was only about 4,500 feet above sea level. From Sadiya, at 
the eastern extremity of India, to the Afghan passes, at 
India's western extremity — a distance of 2,000 miles — there 
is probably not one pass over the lofty Himalayas suitable 


for mission transit. If the Sadiya pass prove as favorable as 
expected, it is likely, in the near future, to be a highway for 
a mission advance into Central Asia. We ought to re-occupy 
Sadiya and be at the head of this advance column. We 
ought to re-occupy Sadiya because of its exceedingly favor- 
able position for reaching great hill tribes on two sides 
of it. 

Kamtai Hills— Shan Home.— One of these tribes not yet 
mentioned is the Kamtai or Kamti people. They occupy 
extensive ranges of hills at the head of the valley of Assam, 
and separate it from China. The Kamtai are Shans, as tlie 
name would indicate. Here, quite probably, is the cradle of 
the Shan race ; the people, as they increased, moving down 
from these hills into upper Burma and western China. Per- 
Jiaps the question may be raised. Why is it not just as incum- 
bent upon our Missionary Union to give the gospel to the 
Shans of Assam as to the Shans of Burma ? The people are 
the same. A few years ago we had a school of Kamtai boys. 
Mrs. Ward employed a young man of the Sibsagar church 
to teach it. She found it impracticable to continue the 
school because it was so far from her residence at Sibsagar. 
But she thought the Kamtis were really desirous to have it 

Singphos or Kachins. — Now, let the attention be turned to 
another people that extend from upper Assam into Burma. 
These are the Singphos who are on the hills back of the 
south-east corner of Assam. A little before the English took 
over this province, these Singphos raided badly over Upper 
Assam. But they have been on good terms with the Eng- 
lish. On the Burma side, they have numerous villages even 
down to Bhamo and beyond. Our mission work among these 
people in Burma is in the hills on the further side of Bhamo 
from Assam. The Singphos or Kachins, as they are called 
on the Burma side, are conceded to be a vigorous and pushing 


people. The success of our work among tbem in Burma 
emphasizes our duty to commence work among them on the 
Assam side. 

Promise on a Neglected Field. — Here it should be stated 
that, save a little preliminary work done in the short time 
our Society occupied Sadiya and Joipur, nothing has been 
attempted by it to give the gospel to any of the many thou- 
sands of the hill populations thus far noticed. This is a hard 
charge to make, considering that we have been in the valley 
fifty long years, where our position and principles demanded 
something of us for these mountaineers entirely destitute of 
the light of the cross. The difficulties to be overcome in giving 
them the gospel, I do not believe to be as formidable as those 
encountered by our own pioneer missionaries of former days, 
not as formidable as those surmounted by the first missiona- 
ries to South Africa, or as those now faced in Central Africa. 
After devoting fifty years to the Assamese, who have so per- 
sistently rejected the gospel, is it not high time we recog- 
nized that we are under some obligation to the people 
beyond ? Remember, too, that all our more successful work 
in the Assam Mission has been among hill people. For, 
without mentioning the Mikirs or Nagas, the Kohls on the tea 
gardens are as much hill men as are the Garos, for they came 
from a like mountainous region in Central India. Note, too, 
the large measure of success given to the Welsh Mission on 
the Khasia hills. Let it be remembered, too, that the Lord 
sent us converts for baptism from the Garos and Kohls, not 
as the fruit of direct labor of ours for these people, but to 
introduce us to them as fields of labor. Before we had 
sought these peoples, the Lord sent us converts from them 
for baptism. When we speak of the leadings of Providence 
what mean we if such facts as these have no significance' 
to us ? 

Naga Hills. — But to resume, the survey of the hill people 


in spiritual destiiiition about the valley of Assam would not 
be complete without noticing the Naga tribes between Upper 
Assam and Burma. These extend from the Singphos, west- 
ward some 200 miles. The width of these Naga hill ranges 
proba,bly varies from 50 to 100 miles. They are pretty 
well brought under cultivation, so that the population must 
be considerable. How far these people extend down on the 
Burma side is not well known. The Chins of Burma are 
probably Nagas, or closely allied to them. A number of con- 
versions in Burma during the few years past among these Chins 
has called the attention of Burma missiouai'ies to them as 
a promising field for evangelistic labor. These people abound 
along the Chindwin, or Kyendwin River, and this Chindwin 
is Burmese for Chin hole or Chin hive, a derogatory term 
that the supercilious Jiurman ai)plics to a river on whose 
banks are the homes of the rude Chins. Well, this river 
runs near the south side of Manipur, and on our Assam maps 
the people there are designated Nagas. There may be 
2,000,000 of the Nagas, and they belong to that class which, 
the world over, have been found the easiest to Christianize, 
that is, they are for the most part pure Pagans, not Moham- 
medan, Buddhist, or Hindu, nor have they caste. Most of 
the tribes are doubtless much easier of access by the mission- 
ary from the Assam side than from the Burma side. 

Road from Assam to Burma. — Perhaps I may add here 
that on our way up the Brahmaputra River in Assam, we 
had as one of our fellow passengers an Englishman in the 
telegraph department, who was on his way to assist in laying 
a telegraph line from Kohima in the Naga hills through the 
Angami Naga country across Manipur and down the Chind- 
win valley in Burma, to Ava or Mandalay. It was expected 
this line would be completed next year. A few months ago, 
some troops from Assam were marched by this route into 
Burma, to assist in restoring order in that country. The 

rAI'Ki; ItY IMOV. K. VV. OLAKK. 225 

maintaining o! a telegraph line from Assam to Burma by 
this route means that along i(, ^ fjiif degree of order will be 
established. Hence, in the near rnliirc, onv missionaries of 
Assam a.nd Burma may be (!xp(>('t('(l to b(; shaking hands 
along this lino. In fact, so far as the hill work is concerned. 
Upper Assam is an extension of Upper Burma. How long 
will it take our people in America to understand this ? 

Nag'a Missions. — But, to resume our subj(!ct proper, there 
are among ilio Na.gas on the Assam side, three mission 
stations, one in th(^ Ao tribe, om* in the Lhota. tribe, and one 
among the Angamis. Th(M'e iiro other openings. One that 
is quite desira^ble to oocn])y soon is that a.mong the Somas, a 
lai-ge and vigorous tribe biihind the Ao a,nd lihota Magas. 
Some of the Sema villages are in the Naga Hills district which 
is under English jurisdiction. A missionary could occupy one 
of these not far from Wokha, thus he and the one at Wokha 
could support each other by (M)unsel, co-operation, and occa- 
sional visits, especially in case of illness. Tiie Witters at 
Wokha are sadly isolated. In positions among barbarians, 
whore there is scarcely a l<]uropoa,n in the neighborhood, it is 
(juite dosiraljlethat missionaritis Ixi near enough tostrengtlien 
each otlior's hands. This real dc^sithn-atuni of the Witters 
could be obtained as above indicated, and at the same time 
tlie gospel be given to a large and powerful tribe who have 
never hcnird it. 

Another Naga opening is in the tribe east of Molung, and 
adjoining the Ao tribe. For several years requests have been 
conung from these people for Christian teachers. From vil- 
lages further to the eastward thirty or forty miles, have also 
come applications for Christian instructors. But as one of 
the new openings which along with the Sadiya and the Sema 
demands the more immediate attention, I would mention the 
one among the Nagas near Makum ; thus the Missionary to 
the Singplios would have a fellow missionary near him. 

220 (iospioii inosri'i'iT'i'ioN ahoitt assam. 

Many 3'oarR ao^n Dr. Brmisnii, in the short tinio ho lived near 
Maknni, made a siuall but vahiable commencement at Koma- 
ni/ino- tlio ]an^-n;i<4-e of these Nat^as, and also that of the 
Sin<^phos. In rc-occupyino^ this Held these works would be 

Incentives to Advance. — A cursory survey has now been 
completed of the peoples about Assam, who are sittinf]^ in 
gross darkness, wlio are without the gospel, nnd to whom we 
are under obligations to give it. Of the unoccupied mis- 
sionary fields in Asia or in the world even, I doubt if any 
are more promising Or more accessible than these. They will 
in these important respects compare favorably with Upper 
Burma or Central Africa. According to good authorities, 
the heavier opposition to English rule in Upper Burma may 
be broken down in a few months, but time will be required 
to establish order fairly good. In Assam all is quiet. If it 
is d(^siriible to evangelize Slians, we have them in the Kamtai 
hills. If the Kachins or Chins are to be reached, they are 
close to us in Assam. 

Furthermore, there must soon bo an unrest among missiona- 
ries and societies laboring in India proper, where perhaps every 
tribe and people has now the gospel in its own language. 
The commands of the Master, the promptings of the Spirit, 
and the leadings of Providence alike urge that we and all 
Christians gird ourselves to carry the gospel to every nation 
and tribe on the earth. For the last seventy-five years Chris- 
tians have been praying for the world to be opened to the 
heralds of the cross. The Lord has been answering their 
petitions and has opened field after field as fast as his people 
were prepared to enter. Now the whole world is virtually 
open to missionaries. By what trumpet notes does the 
Master call upon all his followers to push forward the work ! 
Look into our Theological Seminaries at home, and see the 
wonderful awakening in the hearts of many of the students 
for foreign mission fields. All this is the Lord's doing. 


Again, how was it that the Missionary Union closed the 
last financial year free of debtP Largely because the cry was 
raised, Onward into Upper Burma, take hold of and push tlie 
new Congo Mission. This cry touched the deeper, the real 
Christian impulses of our people ; the Lord was pleased, and 
our loved society was permitted to close the year with flying 

If 1 mistake not Chris fr is deeply in earned to have the good 
news of his salvation proclaimed in all the earth. His heralds 
must be ever advancing. As has been said, there must soon 
be a pushing out of the old fields of India, especially from 
the less i^roductive ones, into the i-egions beyond. Then atten- 
tion will be turned to these mountains about Assam, partic- 
ularly to the pass into Central Asia and Western China. 
Shall we American Baptists cultivate these rich new fields 
convenient to us, where God has in his providence placed us, 
into which he, as it were bids us enter ? or shall we blind 
ourselves to the signs of the times and miss our opportuni- 
ties ? Let us go forward and plant the banner of the Cross 
on all these hills and make them voice the praises of our 
Master and King:. 

Note. — The tine allotted to the discussion of this paper was taken up by 
the consideration of the supply of Kohima, just loft vacant by Mr. and Mrs. 


Prevailing Vices, our treatment oi' tuem. 

The discussion was opened by Mr. Rivcnburg, who said : — Let 
us notice some of the excuses for some of them. 

Laziness. — It is born in a man. If born lazy, what can you do 
with a. man ? You may scold, but he is lazy still. The only 
course for the missionary 1o pursue is to follow Paul's injunction 
that, if a man will not work, neither should he eat. 

Opium use. — The excuse for the Molung Christians i.s that they 


use it as a medicine. For a nunibcr of diseases, opium is the best 
remedy known by them. In Molung, thirty men are luibitual 
opium-eaters, and it is taken oeeasionaily as a niedieiue by many. 
It undermines the character. It is to these people what liquor is 
to people at home. There arc henee the same grounds lor disci- 
pline for its nsc. 

Maud- drinking, — With this the ease is similar. There is no 
excuse for the Assamese, but there seems to be for the Nagas, as 
the rice is almost all damaged. They fei'nient tlie rice, and it 
becomes eatable. So far, good ; but as fermentation proceeds, the 
liquid which trickles out is intoxicating. This they drink. It 
seems that the best thing would be to eat the fermented rice, but 
not drink the liquid. But the former leads to the latter, so we 
think wc must teach them to dispense with both, lest the temple of 
the Uoly Cihost be dehled. 

Sabbath-breaking.— The tiling that leads to this is the Sunday 
markets, lieie alone they must sell their produce. It would be 
better if they could go on Saturday, and only sell on Sunday ; but 
this is difficult. If we do not discourage this Sabbath-breaking, 
can wc consistently oppose any Sabbath- breaking ? The Nagas 
have been opposed in this, but to little effect. There seems no 
resort but discipline. 

Neglect of worship. — Weariness is the excuse. It is seldom 
that we see at Sibsagar or Molung full congregations. But 1 am 
unable to decide on the course to be pursued in this matter. In the 
others, I see only discipline as the remedy. 

Mr. Mason said : — In all discipline there is danger in laying 
down specific rules. In our mission, there is a tendency to mag- 
nify the merit or demerit of specitic acts. If we nuike the refrain- 
ing from these the standard of Christian character, this danger is 
increased. My ojiinion is that we should make no standards as to 
discipline, other than the Scriptural ones. As to Sabbath-breaking, 
there might be differences of opinion. As to drunkenness, there 
can be no doubt, but there may be some difference of opinion as to 
the use of opium. In the Garo hills, there is no opium-eating, 
but on the plains one church has been ruined by this. (Mr. 
Mason gave an instance of a niaii confessing the consciousness of 

t>isctssioN. 229 

his moral riiiu throuj^h opium.) I haiv any rule of discipline in 
those cases ; and would prefei- dealing with each case individually. 
If a man wishes to purify himself, as God is pure, he needs differ- 
ent treatment from ono not evincing this desire. Keep these 
things from being a standard of Christian conduct. 

Mr. Moore said : — The church may adopt the law of self-pre- 
servation. In Nowgoug, this opium-eating and maud-drinking 
became so [)revalent as to endanger the church. The church felt 
that something must be done. After corresponding with other 
stations, the church adopted these rules, namely, 1st, No opium- 
eater will be received ; 2nd, Young members contracting this habit 
will bo subject to discipline ; 3rd, Old members, under the power 
of the drugs, need not be excluded, but will be admonished. Thus 
they hope gradually to become free of the vice. 

Mr. Bui'detto said : — I try to impress the fact that the church, 
as now organized, is an artificial arrangmcnt, not including all the 
saved, nor excluding all the lost ; so we must treat all charitably. 
When we see what seems incompatible with faith in the Lord 
Jesus Christ, we exclude the offender. I have taught that, while 
we do not judge a man, any outbreaking vice, as drunkenness 
even though but for once, is incompatible, and the man is exclud- 
ed. He is then under the surveillance of the church. I have not 
wished to take a definite stand, as to the moderate use of these dru"-s 
and intoxicants, but exhort the individuals to total abstinence. 

Mr. Clark said : — Mr. Rivenburg refeiTed to the Sabbath ques- 
tion. Christ had many a conflict with the Pharisees on this sub- 
ject. Nagas, in studying the Scriptures, see this, and so there is 
difficulty. I put the Sabbath on the ground of law for man's 
good. It is a matter of food with the Nagas, in I'cference to 
maud. The law of self-preservation compels them to ferment the 
bad rice. Tlie Bible only demands temperance, not total absti- 
nence. We can discipline, but mtist have Scriptural authority 
and not do it on the say of the missionary. Can wo press the 
matter further than do the churches in America on similar ques- 
tions ? There is great dilliculty as to the Sabbath-question as 
the markets are arranged by the tea planters for Sunday. Tlio 


opium- question is a difficult one, as the Nagas and some Indian 
physicians consider it a valuable tonic in this climate. 

Mr. Gurney said : — Among the Kolhs, the great vice is maud- 
drinking. Thi'ee Christians were recently guilty of drunkenness, 
and were excluded. Afterwards they were repentant and were 
restored. The course pursued by Government, in the matter of 
locating grog-shops near the gardens, is very bad. Opium-eating 
is not at all prevalent among the Kolhs. There arc a few opium- 
caters in the Sibsagar church, but all were such when received 
into membership. 

Mr. Witter said : — I think the Nowgong church were wise in 
making their rules. I would, with Mr. Mason, combat the idea of 
merit in the refraining from vices. I think churches have been 
injured by the system of suspending members. I think they should 
be excluded for the first offence of drunkenness, or open sin, and 
should not be too hastily restored, but should be under the watch- 
care of the church. I do not see how we can treat opium-eating 
differently fi-om maud-drinking. I think we ouglit not to admit 
such into the church. 

Mr. Burdette said : — I oppose a repressive method. Outbreak- 
ino" sins niust be punished by exclusion, and after once expelled, 
greater care should be taken in receiving the person again. We 
must be positive, in our requiring them to attend worship. I 
cannot teach total abstinence from Scripture. In receiving con- 
verts I make the total abstinence test sti'ong, as, if one is not 
willing to give up the use of intoxicants then, I have little hope for 
him afterwards. 

Mr. Phillips said : — I think we can and must strongly urge 
total abstinence from opium and maud. 

Mr. Clark said : — One difficulty is, the Nagas do not get drunk 
easily. When docs the drunkenness begin r* It is difficult to say 
iust what is to be called di-unkenness. Total abstinence is best. 

Mr. Row said : — I have listened with interest to the account of 
the character of the Assamese. I had heard that the Madrasees 
were a hard class, but now think the Assamese are harder. I 
think that this is a reason why this held bhould be more thoroughly 


worked. The greater tlie need of the people, the greater the 
demand for workers. Our power is from above. After years of 
experience, I have come to be more lenient in matters of church 
discipline. Tares and wheat will grow together. Care is needed, 
lest we root up the wheat with the tares. Go on with hope, 
trusting in the Lord. I think that, next to an oixtpouring of the 
Spirit, you need a great re-inforcement of workers. I shall remem- 
ber you, and seek to awaken interest for you. 


What Course shall we pursue with Young Converts ? 

The discussion was opened by Mr. Moore who said : — This is an 
important question on which I want light. Another reason for 
bringing it before the Conference is, that almost nothing seems to 
be being done in this particular line. 

A young convert is one who has received a new life. He is a 
child of the church, and something ought to be done to develope 
him. But here in Nowgong it seems to be the opinion that, when 
baptized and received into the church, the whole duty has been 
done. This is an erroneous idea. The church and pastor and 
deacons ought to take these into special care. But in Assam, 
pastors, when there are any, are not educated to this. 

The first need is of Scriptural instruction. Young converts 
should be led into work. The missionary ought to take in hand 
tlie matter of teaching the church its duty in this respect. In 
Nowgong, I had, one year, a weekly meeting for young converts, 
which was helpful. The missionary usually attended. One of the 
converts conducted. While it was helpful, there was one defect. 
The leaders selected what passages of Scripture they chose, so 
there was a lack of system and efficiency. This might be improved 
and more Scripture instruction imparted, by the missionary, or 
pastor if capable, leading half of the meetings ; he having some 
definite plan in his selection of passages. I have found these 
meetings helpful, in that those attending were free, and so received 
help, which diffidence in the public meetings would have hindered. 


Mr. Rivenbui'g said : — Would it not be better to have them settle 
upon the leader, and then let him come to the missionary before- 
hand for passages, with suggestions and instructions on the same ? 
Mrs. Rivenburg has adopted this plan with the Naga women, with 
success. She had meetings for converts and inquirers, but thought 
that they failed in part, from there being no one to gather them in. 

Mr. Mason said : — I object to making a marked distinction be- 
tween young and old converts. The most of ours are, practically, 
new converts. All who are brought into the church belong to the 
same body. They should all be urged constantly, as opportunity 
offers, to engage in religious work, and should have work laid out 
for them. We have no young converts' meetings. We have a 
weekly meeting led by some young man of the station school, but 
open for all. In the villages, the leader, pastor or teacher, does 
little more than many other members. We have practised Mr. 
Rivenburg's suggestion, to some extent, but think it should be done 
with caution. I recommend, when possible, a Bible-class. 

Mr. Clark said : — I found that it was the practice of Mr. Ward, at 
Sibsagar, to hold an adult Bible-class on Sundays. I followed the 
practice. I think this very helpful in grounding the converts in 
Scripture doctrine. If native preachers, who are at the central 
station, cannot get instruction in this way, I doubt if they are called 
of God ; for such the Holy Spirit will make receptive of truth. 

Mr. Gurney said : — I have had a Bible-class of a few, and have 
had these teach others, but found that they forgot during the week 
what they learned on Sunday. What we want is a trained class 
of preachers. This can be elfected only by a theological class, 
under a special teacher. 

Mr. Clark replied : — If the Holy Spirit does not help, and if the 
instruction be forgotten at once, man, whoever he may be, can do 

Mr. Burdette said : — We must teach by example, and we must 
teach the principles of our work. Last year, I found my boys very 
deficient in real Scripture knowledge, such as to enable them to 
o-rasp the principles of the teachings of Scripture. I taught them 
an outline of Christ's life. In review T sought to have the students 


give the substance of the teachiug, as parable, &c., and not the 
literal. They failed, but found out their own weakness. I have 
not asked any to lead in meetings, as I deem them imqualified. I 
propose next year to adopt somewhat the plan of training of the 
Chicago Training School, of the Woman's Home Mission Society. 
They have field days for every week, and a strict journal is kept, 
which is criticised by the class, and reviewed by the teachers. I 
shall try to have pupils teach, and also to hold the teachers' meet- 
ings under my supervision. I will not only tell them how to work 
but will have them try, and then review with them their work. 


By Mrs. A. K. Gurney. 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning says that " The funeral of 
kings is less sad than the holiday of miserable men." But 
even the funeral of kings, with all that a nation's wealth can 
furnish of bright and glorious ceremony attendant, seems to 
me less glorious than the end of such lives as this noble band 
of men and women whose life-history I have here tried to 
cull for you. 

Since the formation of our Mission fifty years ago, there 
have been fifty-six missionaries connected with it. Of this 
number twenty-one have died, eleven in this country, ten in 
America, and one, Mr. Barker, found his grave in the Sou- 
thern Ocean. 

Rev. Jacob Thomas, — Rev. Jacob Thomas was one of the 
first lives given to our Assam Mission. Late in the year 
1836, he, Bronson and their wives left America to join the 
Sadiya Mission. They reached Calcutta in 1837, and on the 
26th of April commenced their long journey up the Brahma- 
putra in a twelve-oared budgerow. For weeks they encoun- 
tered more or less danger all the way from strong head-winds, 
rapid currents, dense malarious jungle and terrific gales, in 
which their boat was with difiiculty kept upright. When 
approaching Sadiya, Mr. Bronson was taken very ill with 
jungle fever, and Mr. Thomas took a small boat and hasten- 
ed to Sadiya for medical help. When within three hours of 
Sadiya the fatal tree crashing across his boat caused it 
instantly to sink, and Mr. Thomas, who had voluntarily given 
his life to our Mission, was now called to lay it down on the 
threshold. Within sight of his field of labor but not per- 
mitted to enter in ! 


(He was born in Ellbridge, N. Y., died July Tth, 1837.) 

Mrs. Thomas. — Mrs. Thomas soon after joined friends in 
Maulmein where she became the wife of Rev. S. M. Osgood. 
While in Maulmein, she did valuable though unpretending 
service for the Mission, and in 184G she returned to America 
with her husband. At the age of tbirty-five she died as she 
had lived in the exercise of a calm and peaceful trust in the 

Miss Rhoda Bronson. — Miss Ehoda Bronson came to Assam 
with Mr. and Mrs. Barker in 1840. She joined her brother, 
Dr. Bronson, in one brief look at her mission work among 
the Nagas, only a look, as if God were proving her entire 
consecration to Him, by allowing her to take every step of 
the way. Then, after a few months' illness, He called her 
home. She was thirty-five years old when she died at Jaipur 
in 1840. Dr. Bronson wrote — "As she requested, she lies by 
the side of the lamented Thomas, in my own compound, 
close to my house, where I trust she will quietly rest until 
the glorious morn of the resurrection." 

Rev. Cyrus Barker. — Rev. Cyrus Barker was a native of 
Portsmouth, R. I. He was thirty-three years old when he was 
appointed to the mission in Assam, and that year, 1840, he 
arrived at Jaipur, accompanied by his wife and Miss Rhoda 
Bronson. Shortly after, he commenced his mission work at 
Rungpore, as Sibsagar was then called. His work there for 
two brief years was not in vain. It is pleasant to read that 
some of the earliest converts of this church dated their con- 
version to Mr. Barker's preaching. When the Press was re- 
moved from Jaipur to Sibsagar, Mr. Barker went to Gauhati, 
where he did earnest, faithful work. Mr. Danforth joined this 
mission in 1848, and found him a feeble man far gone in 
consumption. In 1849, Mr. Barker with his family sailed 
for America, but his grave was made in the Southern Ocean, 
not far from the Mozambique Channel. Forty-three years old 


when Le died ; liis missionary life was a period of less than 
ten years, but lie is said to have laid good foundations on 
•which others have built. 

Rev. G. Dauble. — Mr. Daiible came to Tezpur, Assam, 
as a German missionary of the Basle Missionary Society. 
Changing his views, he left the Lutheran church and 
joined the Baptist. He was baptized in 1850, and appointed 
a missionary at Nowgong. This was a hard step for him to 
take, since his relatives and the student friends with whom 
he had spent five years in a college at Basle were all deeply 
grieved and strongly opposed him. He married Miss Mary 
Shaw of the Nowgong mission, and joined that mission. 
He had fully qualified himself for the exclusive work of 
an evangelist. Of his influence in preaching, the Chief 
Magistrate of Nowgong wrote : 

" Mr. Daiible's preaching caused more dissatisfaction 
among the Brahmins and opposers of Christianity than all 
the labors of the mission for the last ten years. Had he 
lived long enough to have brought over a few to Christianity, 
great numbers would have followed." 

His work was short. After three years of intensely ear- 
nest labor in the school, the street, and the jungle, he died 
at Nowgong of cholera in 1853. 

Rev. E p. Scott.— The following notice of Mr. Scott's 
deatl\ is from tlie Missionary Magazine, 1870: 

" Edward Pay son Scott died of cholera at Nowgong, Assam, 
May 18th, 1869, after an illness of only twelve hours. He was 
born in Greesbow, Vermont, 1832, studied at Knox College, 
Illinois, and was a graduate of Hamilton Theological Insti- 
tute. He came to Nowgong in 1862, was only seven years in the 
field, and gave promise of many years of usefulness to come. 
But He in whose hands his life was, decided that his work 
was done. Passed away in the first strength of his manhood, 
ust as he was girding himself anew for his chosen service. 


Mr. Scott was a man of sincere piety, of sound judgment, 
and of great aptness for his work. His mission to tlie Mikirs 
opened auspiciously, and we cherished the hope that he 
would be spared to see it attain a more positive character of 
success. That liope is cut off, but his hope is realized." 

He was thirty-seven years old at the time of death. 

Mrs Ruth Montague Bronson. — Mrs. Bronson was twenty- 
three years old when she came with her husband to Assam, 
fifty-six when she died. Of those intervening thirty-three 
years most of them were spent in Assam. From the 56th 
Annual Report, I copy the following notice of her death : 

" This gentle but heroic spirit passed into rest at Elmira, 
N. Y., September 30, 1869. Mrs. Bronson had been the com- 
panion, comforter and helper of her husband, during the whole 
period of his missionary service, and had borne her lot whe- 
ther of toil or privation bravely and well. The sweetness of 
her disposition, the constancy of her purpose, and the quiet 
force of her character, combined with earnest love for the cause 
of missions, and an unquenchable desire for the salvation of the 
heathen, rendered her conspicuous at once in the endearments 
of domestic life,and in the activities of missionary work." Four 
of Dr. and Mrs. Bronson's daughters are living in America ; 
three young daughters and her daughter Marie died in Assam. 

Miss Marie Bronson. — As you pass the station Goalpara, 
on the Brahmaputra, you may see a monument, prominent 
in the beautiful cemetery, overlooking the river. Under 
that stone lie the remains of Miss Marie Bronson, one of the 
daughters of the mission, born at the pioneer station, Jaipur. 
When a little child, her parents removed to Nowgong, where 
Marie remained until seven years of age. Old native women, 
still living here, remember Marie haba, and the love and 
sympathy she had for the heathen. Child as she was, sbe used 
to gather the children around her, and teach them the Bible. 
In 1847, Marie and four little sisters were taken to America. 


On the return of the parents to India, Marie was adopted by 
Mrs. Cotes of Springfield, N. Y. In this home she was edu- 
cated and converted to Christ. In 1868, her parents returned 
to America where Mrs. Bronson died soon after. Marie, now 
a woman grown, with a heart full of missionary zeal, returned 
with her father to Nowgong. The native Christians, though 
mourning for the mother, were full of joy that Marie baba 
had come to take her mother's place. The language of her 
childhood seemed to come readily back to her. She learned 
it very rapidly in a few months. From this time on, she 
literally gave herself body and soul to her work. While 
greatly interested in the general and zenana work, her 
especial charge was the Nowgong girls' school. Four happy 
years full of labor for Christ and perishing souls, then came 
a change in the happy Nowgong home. 

The story is well known to you all how the daughter left 
her school to accompany Mrs. Danforth Bronson, who was 
very ill, to Singapore ; Mrs. Bronson died at Eangoon, and 
Marie having been met by her father, in the return journey, 
fell a victim of cholera, and died in a half hour after land- 
ing at Goalpara. 

Rev. A H. Danforth. — In February 1865, Rev. Appleton 
Howe Danforth died at Milestown, Penn., at the age of forty- 
eight years. His native place was Pelham, Mass., and his 
young life was spent in Massachusetts and Halifax. At 
Halifax he was converted when nineteen years old. Soon 
after, a great desire to preach came upon him, and his 
brother said that entering his room one day he found 
him reading aloud the Great Commission, and added, "I 
wish God would give me that Commission." " With an 
audible voice ?" asked I. " No matter how," he replied, " if 
I can only know he means it." Soon after, he commenced 
his studies, but he was poor, and it was a struggle and up- 
hill work. After leaving Hamilton, he entered Madison 


University, from which he graduated in 1847, in the same 
chiss with his friend, I. J. Stoddard. Stoddard and Danforth 
were appointed missionaries to Assam that year, and in No- 
vember they sailed with their wives from Boston. In 1848 
they reached Gauhati, where Mr. Danforth remained to relieve 
poor tired out Mr. Barker. Eighteen months after, Mr. Dan- 
forth waa left alone, when Mr. Barker sailed for America. 
The first years of a missionary are supposed to be spent with 
pundits and devoted to study, but the early labors of Dan- 
forth were the building of a substantial brick dwelling- 
house, and a school-house. Even the bricks were moulded 
and burned under his direction. He was a man of great 
physical endurance, travelling often and at great distances 
from his station. Once he started on horseback from 
Nowgong. On the first day the pony gave out and 
Mr. Danforth walked the rest of the distance, distributing 
books and talking with the natives as he passed. So for 
many years he would start out in November, and for -3 or 4 
months preach to a multitude of people. In 1851, Mr. Ward 
came to his assistance. In 1852, Mr. Danforth planned the 
new chapel. With him to plan was to accomplish. The resi- 
dents gave generously, and in a few months the chapel was 
dedicated and still stands. Mr. Whiting said that Danforth's 
long reaching mind and willingness to wait made him equal to 
the native shrewdness. He once by great perseverance ob- 
tained a spot for a temporary chapel, and soon preached in 
the stiffest portion of Hinduism in Gauhati, which put the 
natives in a great uproar. For another three years he con- 
centrated his work here in Gauhati. When Mr. Brown left 
for America, Mr. Danforth was called to Sibsagar for two 
years. While here he translated in part and edited the Pil- 
grim's Progress early in 1857. When the Stoddards and Wards 
left for America he was called back to Gauhati. This was 
the summer of the terrible mutiny. Even Assam was greatly 


excited. No one kuew at night what the morning might 
bring. For six mouths Danforth might have been seen 
drilling in sight of enraged and hostile sepoys, that he 
might be the better able to protect his family, and the pro- 
perty of the mission, in the event of an attack. The excite- 
ment of the times completely prostrated Mrs. Danforth. Mr. 
Danforth going out for a jungle tour, too early in the 
season, was prostrated with fever. This was the end of his 
active missionary life. Early in 1858 he and Mrs. Danforth 
returned to America. In two years after with recruited health 
he had made every arrangement to return, but the war in 
America broke up his plans. Mr. Danforth became pastor of 
the Baptist Church in Milestown, near Philadelphia, in 1862. 
When the war broke out and the Government called for 
chaplains, Mr. Danforth was anxious to go. Three or four 
hundred men came to his preaching every evening, and he 
greatly enjoyed this work, until an attack of pneumonia 
sent him home very ill. He lived but a few months. As 
the last moments came he prayed, — " Give me a token 
fresh from thy throne. Give me an escort through the dark 

Then trustfully he fell asleep. After his death Mr. Whiting 
wrote, " As a missionary Mr. Danforth will be long remem- 
bered in Assam. Many have already wept bitterly as they 
have heard that Danforth Sahib is dead." 

Mrs. Danforth Bronson. — Mrs. Bronson, formerly Miss 
Frances Studley of Worcester, Mass., was married to Rev. 
Appleton Danforth in 1847, and in November of that year 
sailed with her husband to Gauhati, Assam. In 1858, after 
eleven years of faithful devoted missionary work, Mrs. 
Danforth's health failed, and they returned to America. I 
remember Mrs. Danforth and her children. When I was a 
member of the Portland Sunday School, our superintendent, 
at the close of school one day, said he would introduce a 


missionary's children to us, who would sing us some Assam- 
ese hymns. Then Mrs. Danforth came forward with her 
two children, and I listened for the first time to " Ek huhhor 
titan ase." " There is a liappy landJ' At this time the Dan- 
f orths, after going through the great heart-struggle of leaving 
the dear children, were about to return to Assam. Jennie, 
the daughter, found a home in our pastor's family, and 
became my much-loved friend and classmate. The war in 
the States occurring at this time prevented Mr. and Mrs. 
Danforth's return, and the mother instead of parting with 
her children was called upon to part with her husband, who 
died during the war. In 1871, Mrs. Danforth returned to 
Assam and became the wife of Dr. Bronson. Two yeara 
later she was attacked by pulmonary consumption, and seek- 
ing relief, she went to Singapore, accompanied by Miss Marie 
Bronson. On her return to Assam she died at Rangoon, a 
sweet, peaceful death at tlie end of a faithful Christian life- 
She was forty-six years old, and left two sons and one 
daughter in America. 

Mr. and Mrs. Oliver T. Cutter. — Oliver Thomas Cutter was 
a Massachusetts man, born in Lexington. Of his student 
days I have no record. He was only twenty years old when 
he received his appointment as printer to Burma. With his 
wife, Mrs. Harriet Low Cutter, he sailed from Boston in 
1831, taking with him a steam printing-press. We next 
hear of Mrs. Cutter as superintending a school of fifty pupils, 
for about a year, in Maulmein. Then the Cutters were 
transferred to Eangoon. In 1833, Mr. Kincaid established 
himself in Ava, and urged a printing-press to be sent, since the 
king and prince were disposed to have one. So Mr. Cutter 
and his printing-press went to his aid. An old account of his 
journey to Ava and short work there, is interesting enough 
to be its own excuse for insertion here. It says, the Cutters 
started in a native boat for Ava. So great was the sca,rcity 


of food aloiif^ the banks of the Irrawaddy that great num- 
bers of people had become robbers, as their only resource to 
sustain life. The preservation and safe arrival of Mr. and 
Mrs. Cutter, after a passage of forty-three days, was regard- 
ed as a special favor of God's good Providence. The press 
was set up and the printing of tracts commenced. But after 
the conversion of one of the most popular preachers of Bud- 
dhism, Government was alarmed and the missionaries were 
summoned before the High Court of the Empire. They were 
told they could live outside tlie city, and they readily removed 
outside, to the very spot where the Judsons had lived. Here 
they opened a school and preaching and printing went on 
till Mrs. Cutter's health failed, and they returned to Ean- 
goon. In 1885, Brown and Cutter came to Ava, printed a 
second edition of 3,000 of the Catechism, then removed the 
printing-press to Maulmein. In 1836, we find Mr. Cutter and 
his printing-press established at Sadiya, and Mrs. Cutter 
teaching and preparing books for the press, though often 
suffering much from ill health. She was always active in 
mission work. Mr. Cutter printed Khamti, Singpho, and 
Assamese books. In 1843, he and Mr. Brown, with their fami- 
lies, came to Sibsagar, and for the next ten years the amount of 
printed matter in shape of books, tracts, and other printing 
was too great to be here enumerated. Nor was Mr. Cutter 
confined to the press, for we find many accounts of his 
preaching and teaching with much enthusiasm. In 1853, 
Mr. Cutter's connection with the mission closed. Soon after 
he took an important position in Calcutta, as Superinten- 
dent of the Government printing, but his secular work did 
not seem to lessen his love for the mission, and I've heard 
many of the older missionaries speak of the loving care and 
attention ho and his wife gave all our missionaries passing 
througli Calcutta. 

In 1804 Mr. Cutter united with the Circular Road Baptist 


Cliurcli. As a Christian gentleman lie was recognized and 
loved, and his genial, courteous manners, which endeared 
him to all, gave him a host of friends in Calcutta, also in 
London, where he and Mrs. Cutter spent their last days, he, 
dying first in April 1881, at the age of seventy. Born in the 
same year the threads of their lives seemed to run parallel in 
good words and good works, and in their affection for each 
other, and in death they were not long divided. Mrs. Cutter 
died in London, two years later, in 1883. 

Rev. Wm, Ward, D. D. — At the age of fifty years William 
Ward died in Sibsagar, August 1873. Mr. Ward's native State 
was Ohio. When twenty-three years old he entered Madison 
University, Dr. Burlingham of N. Y. was his classmate and 
friend, and in the Magazine of 1873 he gives a paper full of 
pleasant memories of Mr. Ward's student life. He tells us 
that Dr. Ward stood among the first in his class for scholar- 
ship and for ability as a thinker and writer. His literary 
work in Assam proved him a poet, a classical scholar, and a 
most acceptable translator. In 1850, in company with the 
Whitings, the Wards came to Gauhati, where for the next 
six years Mr. Ward remained to work, most of the time 
with Mr. Danforth, two years alone. During those six years 
Mr. Ward spent much time touring among the neighboring 
villages, and his letters of that period show how faithfully 
he preached the Word. 

Dr. Ward was of a temperament which suffered more keenly 
the lack of the many-sided congenial society of home than 
other missionaries, who, with quaint humor like Whiting, 
could enter heartily into the native life and be recreated by 
it. We get a glimpse of what this man sacrificed in his hard 
working life here. In a letter written after Dr. Peck's 
visit to Assam, Dr. Ward wrote, " One of my first thoughts 
in meeting him, one that recurred most frequently during 
his stay with us and the last as we waved him ndien, was 


how different must be his feelings as he mingles with us, in 
his brief sojourn, and ours who remain to make heathenism 
our companionship and exile our home. I do not murmur, 
for I believe there are two sides to this work, and that if we 
are ever permitted to mount up, where we shall look down 
upon this enterprise, we shall be astonished that what to our 
earthly view presents so much cloud and darkness is so 
gloriously bright, — on the side seen from Heaven." After two 
years home Dr. Ward returned to Sibsagar, Assam, in 1860, 
where for ten years, with no missionary assistant, he must 
have labored unceasingly. To the care of Mission Press, 
editing of Orunodoi, preaching and mission work, he added 
much literary work besides. He translated and published 
the Psalms, revised the Assamese hymn-book for a new 
edition, to which he added scores of original and translated 
hymns. Surely our Assamese as long as they sing any- 
thing will sing — 

Mur probhur namor morsgota. 

(I am not ashamed to own my Lord). 

Prohhu Yisur pelengoni. 

And many others. 

In 1872, when Dr. Ward returned to Sibsagar, after a two 
years rest, he had set his heart upon completing the transla- 
tion of the Bible, a work in which he seems to have 
delighted. After his physician told him that his disease 
was incurable consuinption, he never expressed a wish to 
live. In his last letter to the Committee in Boston, he wrote, 
" It was in my heart, dear brothers, to do the Lord's work, 
but it seems to be ordered otherwise. I hope the Lord will 
accept my purpose." So, having traversed " the death- 
fraught wilderness," having suffei'ed the exposures of fatigue 
and heat, damp and fever, anxiety and heart sickness of 
Assam, William Ward passed away with these words on his 
lips, " I am going home to-day. All fear, all trouble is gone, 
my soul triumphs in the Lord." 


Mrs. Cordelia Ward. — Mrs. Cordelia Ward was twenty-live 
years old when she came with her husband to Assam. Her 
native place was New York, and she is said to have been a 
gifted, cultivated, beautiful woman. For six years she was a 
faithful worker at Gauhati, when her health failed and she 
returned with her husband and three little girls to America. 
Dr. Ward soon after took a pastorate at Wellsville, N. Y., 
but the happy home was not of long continuance. 

Mrs. Ward died in 1859, at the age of thirty-five. One of 
her three daughters, Emma, is the wife of Mr. William 
Bucknell, Philadelphia. 

Mrs. Susan R. Ward. — Mrs. Susan Ward was born in Bel- 
cherton, Mass., in 1822. In 1848, she was married to Rev. 
Judson Benjamin and went to Burma. After a few years of 
devoted mission work in Burma, Mr. Benjamin died. Of 
Mrs. Benjamin's three children, two died in infancy, in 
Burma. Her third son is a successful lawyer, now living 
at St. Paul, Minnesota. 

In 1860, Mrs. Benjamin became the wife of Dr. William 
Ward, and came to Sibsagar. She was a very energetic woman 
was fond of teaching children. At one time she had a suc- 
cessful school of sixty Hindu boys. After Dr. Ward's death 
she gave much of her time to a Eurasian school, and spared 
not herself in caring for these poor neglected ones. Return- 
ing to Sibsagar, after a few years' absence, she engaged in 
Government school work, worked hard and lived most self- 
denyingly. After falling ill in Sibsagar, she went to Calcutta 
for medical aid, where she died in the General Hospital, 
April 27, 1884. The Magazine of 1884 pays her this tribute : 
*' The record of her life shows that Mrs. Ward was not care- 
ful of her own comfort or even health when the spiritual 
well-being of others was in question. The progress of mis- 
sionary work, especially in Assam, was to her an object of 
personal concern, and her last sickness and her death were 


perhaps largely due to exposure in what seemed to be the 
line of her duty. In her death another cord is broken, 
which bound us to the heroic past of our mission." 

Rev. S. M. Whiting. — Mr. Whiting was a graduate of 
Trinity College, Hartford, in 1846, and of Newton Theological 
Seminary in 1850. He married Miss Mary Elizabeth Flint, 
of Hartford, and as missionaries of the Union they came to 
Sibsagar early in 1851. For ten years Mr. Whiting did 
good effective work as pastor and preacher, teacher and 
translator. He was a fine Hebrew scholar. Isaiah and 
other portions of the Old Testament were translated by him 
into Assamese. A large list of words too were contributed 
by him to the Assamese Dictionary. 

He was of a cheerful, genial disposition, which endeared 
him greatly to his associates, and gained the love of the 
natives. His love of life and his work, also his patience and 
gentle forbearance with native faults, were very marked. 
Let me give yovi, as an example of the spirit and purpose 
which animated this man, some extracts from his own care- 
fully kept journals of that time. There was a wide sweep 
of cholera in 1853 in Sibsagar, and Mr. Whiting, after 
devoting much time to the sick, wrote, " I have felt that I 
was fulfilling the Saviour's precept, ' Lend hoping for 
nothing again,' for I suppose there is no people on earth so 
ignorant of the sense of gratitude as this. They think we 
are under obligation to them for the means they afford us 
of obtaining merit. Still we hope that our various duties 
have some effect on the mass, and that when the agencies in 
the evangelization of thia land are scrutinized hereafter, little 
acts of the missionary, the work done in secret, a kind look 
to this one and a soft word to that one, will all be found to 
have done their part." Again he says ; " It has been my 
aim to preach the Gospel plainly and pointedly as a dying 
man to dying men. 


" One old Hindu pundit of threescore and ten came to see 
me frequently. His fingers were continuously counting his 
beads and repeating the name of Krishna. I urged him to 
immediately find refuge in Christ. With much feeling he 
exclaimed, ' Sahib do you think I am so foolish as to throw 
away all the merit I've been acquiring for these sixty years, 
for the little merit I can obtain in two or three years by 
taking the Christian religion ?' The old man appeared so 
sincere in his belief, I felt an agony of pity for him on this 
account." For several years Mr, Whiting spent three or four 
months of each cold season in and about Jorhat, thirty-four 
miles from Sibsagar, and he wrote — " One man cannot do 
the work which needs ten this very day. During one month 
I have visited about 500 houses, preached to more than 5,000 
people, and distributed Testaments, Tracts, and the Orunodoi 
to the amount of 800 or more." With the high-caste 
Brahmins he had many encounters, in which his patience 
over-matehed their shrewdness. Once, at Jorhat, several 
Mussalmans commenced a furious harangue, trying to 
break up the preaching. When one Mussalman got tired 
another took his place ; seeing their plan Mr. Whiting says, 
" I took the New Testament and commenced reading. After 
reading two chapters I handed the book to Batiram and he 
commenced reading, after keeping up the discussion, reading 
and talking for four hours, our opponents said they wished 
to go and eat their rice." 

" One evening as the Daroga came along, I was earnestly 
engaged in preaching to a very good company of listeners. 
As he passed he said, ' you have got a few boys to hear you 
this evening.' " Yes, " I replied, " and I will teach you also 
if you will stop, for our religion is for great and small. The 
Lord is Lord of lords and King of kings." 

After five years here he wrote, "I am satisfied in the 
thought that Assam is my home, and my home for life. Let 


me yearly sound the Gospel forth in all these parts, until I 
am released from earthly work." But his wish was not ful- 
filled. After five years more of earnest work, Mr. Whiting 
returned to America, and these ten faithful years were sealed 
up for eternity. On his return to America in 1861, he 
became the loved and successful pastor of churches in Vermont 
and Connecticut, and continued in this work for twelve or 
fifteen years. Then his health failed and he retired from 
active work, spending his last years in New Haven, where 
he died in 1878, at the age of fifty-two years. 

Dr. Nathan Brown. — Dr. Brown, though one of the pioneer 
missionaries to Assam, and first to start our 50 years old 
mission, has died so recently that we've only to turn to a 
late magazine, and read the chief facts of his well-rounded, 
useful life. He was seventy-nine years old when he died, 
and for seventy of those years had been a member of a 
Christian church — think of a Christian record covering 
seventy years ! Baptized at the early age of nine years, at 
the age of twenty he graduated from Williams College, 
taking the highest standard in a class of thirty. For a few 
years he was teacher and editor, but, as he has told us in 
one of the most beautiful missionary hymns ever published, 
his " soul was not at rest." 

" The vows of God are on me and I may not stop 
To play with shadows, or pluck earthly flowers 
Till I my work have done and rendered up acconnt. 
The voice of my departed Lord ' go teach all nations' 
From the Eastern world, 
Comes on the night air and awakes my ear." 

After a short time spent at Newton, he was ordained at 
Rutland Vt., and in December sailed for Burma with his 
wife and child. 

He reached Maulmein in 1833. Here he remained only 
two years, and then started for Sadiya, in company with his 

PAPER nr MRS. A. K. GURNET. 249 

family and Mr. Cutter and wife. One would think two years 
a short time to have learned the language of Burma well 
enough to have left a lasting record of himself in Burma, 
but Dr. Jameson writes in the August Magazine, " Dr. Brown 
lived here long enough and learned the Burmese language 
well enough to write several of the Lest Christian hymns in 
the language. They are mostly translations of favorite 
English hymns such as — 

" ' Guide me Q thou great Jehovah.' 
" ' Tlie day is past and gone.' 
" ' There is a happy laud.' " 

Dr. Jameson adds : " I doubt if there will ever be a hymn 
book published for Burma Christians that will not contain 
several of Nathan Brown's hymns, which are great favorites 
with the native Christians. And that this man, .who did 
work so long and so well in Assam and Japan, should have 
also translated hymns for Burmans which they will go on 
singing as long as they sing anything, has seemed to me 

Turning to our Assamese hymn book we count from the 
selection of three hundred and thirty hymns, sixty-two trans- 
lated by Mr. Brown. Many of these are great favorites 
with our natives, the two especially which he gave the Bur- 
mese, — 

" Guide me O thou great Jehovah." 
" The day is past and gone." 


" Ami korim zoton." 
(We'll try to be faithful.) 

are especially liked by our Sibsagar people. He also wrote 
many hymns in Japanese. But hymn-making was only a 
diversion with Dr. Brown, the more serious work of transla- 
tion he commenced shortly after reaching Sadiya, and his 
great gift to the Assamese — the entire New Testament in 


Assamese, — was completed in 1848. He also translated a 
number of school-books and tracts in Singpho, Shan, and 
Khamti, and many in Assamese. In 1855, after twenty 
years of hard work in Assam, he left for America, never 
to return to Assam again. During the next fifteen 
years spent in the United States, Dr. Brown was Editor 
of the Amei'ican Ba2}tist. 

In politics he was a pronounced anti-slavery man, and was 
one of the three delegates who waited on President Lincoln 
before the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation. 

In 1872 he started for Japan. Peaching Yokohama, he 
commenced studying and translating, and in six years he 
completed and published the first New Testament in full, in 

January 1st, 1886, at the age of seventy-nine years Dr. 
Brown died at Yokohama. This simple inscription he left 
for his tomb-stone : — 

American Missionary. 
Born June 22nd, 1807. Died January 1st, 1886. 
God bless the Japanese. 

Mrs. Eliza Brown. — Mrs. Eliza Ballard Brown gave twenty 
years of her useful life to work in Assam. I picked up one 
day in the old Press bungalow a sketch of this noble woman, 
and I read with keenest interest and many tears, the story 
of her trials and sufferings in those pioneer days, such trials 
nobly borne as surely gave her a place among our missionary 
heroines. Miss Eliza Ballard's early home was in Deerfield, 
Mass. At the age of twenty-one years, while teaching in a 
seminary in Vermont, she found her Saviour, and henceforth 
it seemed to " matter not, if storm or sunshine were her earth- 
ly lot," she only prayed, " God fit me for thy work." Two 
years later, she became Nathan Brown's wife. While they 


were living in Vermont, Mr. Brown's attention was strongly 
drawn to the mission field. Mrs. Brown was not long in say- 
ing, " I too will go." Two years later she started for Burma 
with her husband and child. After a long and stormy passage 
of six months, they reached Maulmein in 1833. When, three 
years later, they were leaving Burma for Sadiya, tlieir young 
son died on the very day of tlieir departure. While in Sadiya 
they buried their six-year old daughter, Dorothea, whom they 
took from America, but the poor mother found no resting 
place for her little one. Three times the precious body was 
disturbed and the casket broken by natives searching for 
gold. At last the father collected and placed in his bunga- 
low for safe-keeping, the scattered bones of his child, which 
he afterwards took to America. From this same station 
they had to flee for their lives, when Sadiya was attacked 
and burned by the Khamtis. Owing to the exposures of this 
time, their son Nathan was prostrated with fever which left 
him a cripple. When they were comfortably settled once 
more at Jaipur, Mrs. Brown found that tlie child's eyes were 
so affected as to make it imperative for her to seek medical 
aid in Calcutta. Only a four months' journey, long and 
even dangerous for a lady alone, with two helpless children; 
but this brave woman, unwilling that her husband should 
be taken from his work, undertook it alone in a native canoe, 
with Assamese boatmen, often obliged to anchor their boat 
for the night near dangerous jungles, where lurked wild 
beasts, sometimes in coves where huge alligators would 
strike against the sides of the little boat, and at other times 
in places known to be the resort of robbers. But oh how 
much harder the journey back, when the poor mother, finding 
no help for her child, carried him back to Sadiya, where he 
died in a few months. 

In 1846, weary and worn, Mrs. Brown returned to America 
with her two remaining children, and by her coming she 


aroused such an interest in the churches, as resulted in the 
appointment of Rev. Messrs. Danforth and Stoddard and 
their wives to this mission. It is said that, " But for this 
reinforcement, the Assam Mission would, in all probability, 
have been abandoned." 

In 1850, Mrs. Brown wrote from Assam, " After three 
years' absence in America, I am back in my old home on the 
Sibsagar tank. Bat the dear children, how much we miss 
their joyous footstep, and the merry music of their sweet 
voices to light up the dark mud walls of the old bamboo 
house." The last years of her life here were full and busy 
years. She translated a dozen tracts from Bengali and Eng- 
lish, and left a most useful arithmetic, which is still some- 
what used in our Government school. 

In 1850, she started a successful boarding-school of ten or 
twelve girls. In one year ten were converted, and before 
Mrs. Brown died, she had the joy of knowing that all who 
had been under her care in the school, had become Christians. 
In 1855, Mr. and Mrs. Brown returned to America, where 
she died sixteen years later, in 1871. 

" Yonder thou seest a glorious throng 
And stars on every brow ; 
For every soul they led to me 
They wear a jewel now." 

Dr. Miles Bronson- — Miles Bronson was born in Norway, 
N. Y., 1812. Educated at Hamilton, at the age of twenty- 
four years he was appointed a missionary to Assam. For 
over forty years he did mission work in Assam. He died 
at Eaton Rapids, Michigan, November 10th, 1883. If 
we could look back fifty years into those new missions 
just commenced at Sadiya and Jaipur, few of us could recog- 
nize, in that young man, with dark hair and bright eyes, our 
dear Dr. Bronson with silvered head and declining step, as 
he was known to us, when we entered and he was about 

PAT'KU I'.V MRS. A, K. GURNET. 25:5 

leaving the work so dear to his heart. Still in that young 
man of twenty-four years the same gentle, persuasive, loving 
spirit, which marked his later years, we recognize as holding 
sway over those savage Naga Chiefs. For about two years 
Mr. Bronson's time was given to learning the Assamese and 
Singpho languages, and some Singpho books were prepared 
by him in expectation of starting a mission among them. 
But when he found that the Nagas at Nam Sang were far more 
numerous (about 100 to 1 of the Singphos), that they were 
without caste or any prejudices, he, in the face of many 
obstacles, visited them, prepared books in their own lan- 
guage, and so gained their hearts, that they welcomed him 
and built him a house, to which he trustfully moved, with 
his wife and the little daughter, Mary. His trust in these 
savages was not misplaced. To the end of his stay among 
them, they proved his faithful friends. For about eight 
months Mr. and Mrs. Bronson, their Assamese assistant, and 
the interpreter, spent most of their time teaching the wild 
Naga boys, boys so untamed, that at the noise of a deer or 
barking of a hound they would leave their books and off to 
the chase. Then the continued illness of Mr. Bronson and 
his sister, who had joined the mission, compelled him to 
leave his mountain home and go down to the plains. 

The Nagas, too, were full of regret, but said right man- 
fully, " We cannot ask you to stay and die here. Go and get 
well, and come again." The aged chief, who had seen more 
than one hundred years, came to Mr. Bronson, with his 
numerous sons, saying, " Before you return, I may be gone, 
for my hair is ripe, but there my sons will stand pledged to 
be friends with you.^' 

Those few years in Upper Assam had disappointments and 
losses for Dr. Bronson ; first he was saddened by the loss of 
his dear friend Thomas, with whom in joyous brotherly in- 
tercourse he had travelled for many a month ; then his own 


and sister's illness compelled the giving up of his Naga work 
and removal to Jaipur. After our missionaries became con- 
vinced that the practical work for them was among the 
thousands on the plains, rather than the scattered hill- 
tribes, Brown and Cutter went to Sibsagar, Mr. Barker to 
Gauhati, and Dr. Bronson to Nowgong, where he com- 
menced the Nowgong Orphan School. If he had never done 
any other work for the Assamese, save this school, Assam 
would have reason to bless his memory for this. Charles, 
the beloved pastor of Nowgong, was a sample of manhood 
and Christian living, for whom any missionary might have 
thanked God and taken courage, and there are still living 
men from the school, whose influence and lives are a power 
for good, while others whom he taught and loved were 
waiting on the other side, to welcome the dear master. Over 
forty years of work in Assam, and how full those years, 
teaching, translating, preparing books in Singpho, Naga, 
Khamti, and Assamese. The Dictionary, his most important 
literary work, was put through the press in 1866. He also 
translated a number of hymns. But these labors were not 
Dr. Bronson's chief delight. It was the joy of his life to 
tell the " Old, Old Story," and never did he seem more inspir- 
ed than when preaching and welcoming the new converts. 
Nidlii Levi Farewell, the first Assamese convert (preacher, 
poet, writer, and translator) was baptized by Dr. Bronson 
in 1841. 

How earnest and loving his words to those native Chris- 
tians. Some of us who received his farewell at the River 
station in 1878, as with sad, reluctant heart he was leaving 
his work for America, will never forget his parting words : — 
" I do not want to go, my heart is here. I desire, above all 
thino-s to live and labor for Christ here." Turnins: to a 
native Kolh preacher with us and placing his hand on his 
shoulder, he said, " Preach Christ, live Christ. A great 


responsibility rests on the native Christians. Be true, be 
faithful, my brother, and may God bless you." This was his 
farewell, and these last words, were they not fitting words 
from lips which for forty years had preached Christ so 

As in his early years, so in his later life here. Dr. Bronson 
met sore bereavement in the death of his best-loved, first 
the wife of his youth who for more than thirty years had 
been an inspiration and a joy in his home, again by the 
death of his second wife at Rangoon. And a few weeks later 
his loved daughter Marie fell, the victim of cholera. Within 
a few days' journey of home, the poor father, who was 
returning with her from Calcutta, in the absence of all mis- 
sion friends had, with his own trembling lips, to read the 
funeral service over his child, and then proceed on his sad 
journey to the now empty bungalow. 

It would be interesting to gatlier the testimony of natives 
as to the love they bore him. We heard one of his Nowgong 
pupils say, " I believe the Sahib loved the Assamese better 
than his own folks !" 

His life given to them was proof of his love, and even in 
death his soul was far away from the wintry home in the 
West. And he was in his beloved Assam, in the jungle 
preaching Christ, in his old home conversing with the native 
Christians, So passed away as a conqueror, laden with 
many sheaves, Miles Bronson, at the age of seventy-one years. 


By Miss E. C. Bond. 

Mrs. Delia S. Mason. — Many years ago, on a hill farm in 
the town of Madison, N. Y., there lived a farmer and his wife 
with their family of five daughters and one son. They were 
possessed of strong religious principles, sturdy common sense, 
and untiring industry, which qualities they bequeathed to 
their children. On the farm the daughters learned all the 
various branches of housework ; and each, in addition to her 
attendance at the district school, spent some time at the 
Seminary in the neighboring town of Hamilton. They all 
became Christians in early life, and two of the older ones were 
married in due time to ministers of the Gospel, a third 
marrying a farmer. When the fourth daughter was eighteen 
years old, the family removed to Hamilton. This fourth 
daughter, Delia S. Howes, is the subject of this memorial 
sketch. Converted at the age of fourteen she united with 
the Baptist church in Madison, and as a church-member 
was always faithful and devoted. After the removal to 
Hamilton, she and her younger sister were among the most 
faithful attendants at the prayer-meeting, although their 
home was at some distance from the church, and many 
would have thought themselves too tired, after a hard day's 
work, to traverse the distance twice. During these years 
of quiet home-life she was developing a strength and 
sweetness of Christian character which were to exert an 
influence in far different scenes and circumstances. 

In June of 1874 there was a double wedding in the Bap- 
tist church at Hamilton, and these two younger daughters of 
the farjner's household were the brides. The bridegrooms 


were Eev. Messrs. Mason and Phillips, both of them desig- 
nated to foreign mission work among the Garos of Assam. 
In September of that year they sailed from America, and 
reached their destination, Goalpara, in December. 

Only those who have had similar experiences can realize 
fully a missionary's feelings on first arriving on a new field. 
To accustom one's self to new ways of living, to learn to 
express one's self in a foreign language, to make a home in 
a strange land, — these seem difficult of accomplishment at 
first, and one is often tempted to discouragement in con- 
fronting them. Mrs. Mason undertook the task with strong 
courage and a determination to succeed which rendered 
success certain. Tiie two families remained together a little 
more than two years when, by the removal of Mr. Phillips 
to Tura, Mr. and Mrs. Mason were left alone in Goalpara. 
The separation was not of long duration, however, for, in 
November 1878, the Masons also removed to Tura, and the 
sisters were reunited. Then came a year of living in a tem- 
porary house with all its inconveniences and discomforts, 
while the new house which was to be Jiome was buildino-. 
At last it was finished, and we can imagine the feeling of 
satisfaction with which its mistress took possession of it, 
thinking, " Now that we have a home we can do so much 
more for this people." But alas ! their delight was of but 
short duration. They had lived in the house but six weeks 
when it took fire and burned down, and with it much furni- 
ture, clothing, and many valuable books and papers were 
destroyed. This was indeed discouraging, but after the first 
shock of the calamity was over, they set to work to build 
another house and repair as far as possible the losses. It 
was during the second residence in a temporary house, neces- 
sitated by this untoward accident, that Mrs. Mason con- 
tracted a cold from the effects of which she never recovered. 
She enjoyed the second new house only about seven months. 


In November 1881 they went to Calcutta to superintend 
some printing-, and thence they sailed for America in March 
1883. Mrs. Mason's health had not been good for some 
time, but it was hoped that the voyage and change of air 
would restore her. The homeward journey, however, was 
somewhat interrupted by sickness, and for a few weeks after 
reaching the home shores she was quite ill. Afterwards she 
seemed to rally, and enjoyed some pleasant visits among old 
friends. They had just returned from a trip to Micbigan 
when the Master called her to " come up higher." The 
summons came suddenly just after midnight, September 9, 
1882, and before her friends could be called she was gone. 
The husband and little boy who were left behind were indeed 
sorely bereaved, and all who had known and loved her felt 
that they had lost a true friend. She had been a faithful 
wife and mother, and had set an example of Christian living 
before those to whom the name of Christ was strange. 
Although she did not engage in direct mission work, her 
influence over the people among whom she lived was very 
powerful. She won the affection of all with whom she came 
in contact by the interest which she manifested in them, 
and her evident concern for their Welfare. How strong a 
hold her adopted home and people had upon her affections 
may be seen froin this extract from a letter written as she 
was nearing the home shores : " It always seemed to me 
that if ever I was permitted to draw near the shores of 
America again, I should be so overjoyed I should scarcely 
know what to do with myself ; but instead of looking for- 
ward to the future I find myself looking almost constantly 
back to the old (or rather new) house left behind, and wishing 
so earnestly that we were there instead of here." When she 
first began to think of leaving her little boy in America and 
returning to the mission field without him, she felt, as many 
another mother has felt, that she could not do it. But her 


love for tlie work caused her to consent, after a time, even to 
tbis sacrifice. Her sacrifice was accepted and slic left Lim 
indeed, but it was for tbe joys of Heaven instead of tbe toils 
and trials of missionary life. She died at Nortbeast, Pa., 
at tbe bouse of ber busband's sister, and ber remains were 
laid to rest in tbe cemetery at Strykersville, ber busband's 
early liome. 

Mrs. Clara A. Mason. — On the 17tb of June, 1844, a little 
daugbter opened ber eyes on tbe world in tbe bome of Dea. 
Samuel Stevens of Eastport, Me. Witb ber birth ber mother's 
life ceased, and we find tbe little girl growing up under tbe 
care of ber grandmother, who lived near by. As sbe grew 
toward womanbood sbe developed a talent for writing, and 
a number of poems and sketcbes from ber pen appeared in 
tbe magazines and periodicals of tbe day, over the signature 
" Margaret Mason." Sbe early consecrated herself to tbe 
Master's service, and later we find her proving ber filial 
devotion by ber care for ber father in his last days. It was 
while she was watching by bis sick bed that sbe wrote her 
missionary hymn beginning, " Tbe sails are set," all uncon- 
scious that ber words were a prophecy of her own life. 

In June, 1873, she was married to Rev. James Hope Arthur, 
who bad been designated to tbe mission work in Japan, and 
in October they sailed from San Francisco for their new 
bome. Their first winter was spent in Yokohama, in the 
study of the language, and such work as they could do among 
the English speaking people with whom they came in con- 
tact. But their object was to work among the masses of tbe 
Japanese, and to this end they removed during the following 
summer to Tokio, and took up their abode in the heart of the 
city, in tbe midst of the native population. Their location 
proved so unbealthful, however, that they were soon obliged 
to go to the mountains for the benefit of purer air and more 
healthful surroundings. On their return they succeeded, 


througli the favor of a Japanese official, in obtaining a more 
healthful location. Here they made their home and here 
they gathered pupils around them. Some were converted 
and a church was organized in the midst of the heathen 
city. But Mr. Arthur's health was not equal to the task 
which he had taken upon himself, and in the spring of 1877 
they left their home in Japan to try the effect of the more 
invigorating air of California. For a time the change seemed 
beneficial, but as the rainy season came on Mr. Arthur 
grew rapidly worse again and died on the 9th of December. 
Three weeks later an infant son went to join his father. 

The bereaved wife and mother with her one remaining 
child returned to her friends in Newton Centre, Mass., and 
there spent several quiet years, serving the cause of missions 
with voice and pen as opportunity offered. 

In the spring of 1884 she was married to Rev. M. C 
Mason, and in September of that year they sailed from New 
York for Tura, The journey was accomplished safely and 
pleasantly, and they arrived in Tura, November 28. But in 
a few days Mrs. Mason was taken ill and on the 9th of 
December she passed away. Years before she had written, 

" My work nnfinislicd hero below 

I will lay aside, and softly go 

To seek for blooms that fadeless grow." 

And so, indeed, just as she was beginning a new work, 
it dropped unfinished from her hands, and she was called 
away to a land of " fadeless blooms." 

She has left us her poems, collected and published under 
the title, " The Cherry Blooms of Yeddo," and also a volume 
of sketches entitled " Etchings from Two Lands," which 
contains much valuable and interesting information concern- 
ing the people and customs of Japan. 

At one time Mr. and Mrs. Mason had planned to visit the 
Holy Land on their way to Assam. Circumstances rendered it 


necessary to abandon this plan. The following poem written 
at the time of the change of plan shows the spirit with which 
she entered again the mission field. 

" I may not from homo toil enticed 

Seek Mary's Bethlehem ; 
Nor in the footprints of the Christ 

Tread earth's Jerusalem. 

Gold is not mine to cross the seas 

By Jordan's stream to stand, 
Or walk beneath the olive trees 

In that dear Holy Land. 

No zealot's crusade cross I bear 

To lone Gethsemane, 
Nor dingy is the dress I wear 

With dust of Calvary. 

But over sin for triumphs won, 

Each day from morn to morn 
Is filled with joy, that Mary's Son 

In Bethlehem was born. 

What matter if I never see 

Thy cradle, holy Child, 
If I but walk through life with thee, 

In raiment undefiled ? 

My Master paints the leaf and fern ; 

I touch His hand through them, 
And in each holy heart discern 

His New Jerusalem. 

It may not be when by-and-by 

Thou comest, Christ, for me, 
My cast-off dress shall dingy lie 

With dust of Calvary. 

But let thy kingdom, Lord on earth 

To me be holy land. 
May I with joy, renewed in birth, 

iJcneath its olives stand. 


Tho bliss on distant shores be mine 
To toll that thou hast died, 

Till hate and wrong through grace divine 
With thee are crucified. 

And when earth's darkened haunts of sin 

Shall be thy Bethlehem, 
And heathen sonls rejoice within 

Thy glad Jerusalem, 

Then Easter light, that backward streamed 

On lone Gethsemane, 
Shall garland with a world redeemed 

Triumphant Calvary." 



From Mes. Jane W. Barker. 

2Z15, North Dupont St. 
Minneopolis, Minn., Oct. 20th, 1886. 

Mt dear Mr. Buedette, How great would be my pleasure 
to meet with you in person at the dear old Nowg-ong mission 
station ; for it was there, somewhere in the Forties, that our 
first ingathering- of any numbers of these Assamese into the 
kingdom of Christ was made. The missionaries and their 
families were there in a body for prayer and conference upon 
the great work that had brought them to the country. The 
Holy Spirit was present with us and a goodly number were 
brought to Christ. Mrs. Tolman, then a little girl, started 
with the boys from her father's school on the heavenly 
pilgrimage, and at this time with the Assamese converts 
put on Christ by baptism. Even the younger children 
caught the spirit of devotion. I remember one little fellow 
calling the missionaries' children together, leading them to a 
place of prayer, exclaiming, " Let us go to worship." Follow- 
ing this was a spiritual blessing and an ingathering of souls 
at Gauhati and Sibsagar, * ^ ^ ^ ^ ^, 

Assam ! the dear country of my youthful adoption, I love 
her people and would to-day lay myself at her feet to secure 
for her salvation through Christ. The dear native disciples ! 
whose Christian course we watched with so much anxiety and 
for whose continuance in the faith we thanked God. I re- 
member their faces and their prayers better than their 
names. Most, if not all, have been removed to the heavenly 
kingdom. The dear missionaries, Browns, Cutters, Bronsons, 


who welcomed us in 1840 to their labors, joys and sorrows, 
have all, with my husband, finished tlieir life-work. Noble 
Christian men and women all, who gave their lives for the 
Assamese and their neighboring tribes. 

I am the last living member of the first group of missiona- 
ries to Assam. My husband and myself with Miss Bronson 
left America in the fall of 1839, reached Jaipur the follow- 
ing summer. When Assam was made our field of labor 
instead of the Naga hills, we removed to Sibsagar and opened 
its first mission station. Brother Brown soon followed. The 
Board in Boston decided that the printer and translator 
must reside in the same station, which caused brother 
Cutter's removal to Sibsagar. 

My husband then sought another city in which to erect the 
standard of the cross and after much prayer decided to 
remove to Gauhati, and in that stronghold of heathenism 
and idolatry to unfurl the banner of the cross. Here we were 
greatly blessed and prospered, until my husband's health 
failed and we were compelled, most reluctantly, to drop the 

My companion's health continued to fail till God took him, 
January 31st, 1850. Myself and fatherless children found a 
father's door opened to receive us in Elgin, 111. 

The Board in Boston cared for us as kindly and lovingly 
as an elder brother could have been. Goodness and mercy 
have followed us. No good thing has our Heavenly Father 
withheld from us. To God be all the glory for ever and 
ever. The names of our missionaries in Assam from the first 
to those of the present are written on my heart. You and 
your work, brethren and sisters, whether in the valley or on the 
mountains, T commend to God in most earnest prayer * * •^. 

Ever your sister in the blessed work of Foreign Missions. 

Jane W. Barker. 



Pella, Iowa, 
October I8th, 1886. 

My dear Brother ^- * ^ -5^ ^-^_Wife and I would like to 
take the next train and be eating turkey (?) with you all at 
Nowgong- on Christmas ^ ^ "^ '^, In 1873 my books, jour- 
nals, papers &c. from 1847 to 1873 went down in the Indian 
Ocean with the old ship " Tennison." * -^ -h- -Jf- -x- -x-^ 

Mrs. Stoddard and I sailed in 1847 from Boston for Now- 
gong, which we reached after a journey of 196 days. We 
dined with the Bronsons about 4 p. m., and five of the six 
little daughters were at the table, all dressed in white; our 
first hour's introduction to our new home and life in Now- 
gong, where we labored till failure of health compelled us to 
leave for America. 

Wife and I took our first lessons in Assamese while on 
board that canoe eight days from Gauhati to Nowgong. 
Somehow we had secured, " What is this ? " and the poor 
boatmen were aroused from many an opium dream to give 
answer, and so the roll of words increased. 

We sailed a second time in 1866, and from Goalpara 
labored among the Garos until the second time driven from 
the country by ill-health. In 1881 we again broke up our 
home in America and expected to sail from New York for 
Gauhati, where we hoped to spend our days in helping our 
brother Kandura in the glorious work among Assamese and 
Garos. But on the eve of sailing, a council of doctors pro- 
nounced me so full of malaria as to be of little service in any 
malarious country, and with the saddest experience of my 
life we reluctantly turned back to our children in Iowa. 
Thus it is, no doubt, with all Assam missionaries now at 
home ; they would gladly be in the field again if they could. 



We talk of tlioso earlier dtiys with their trials, discourage- 
ments, slow progress, and also of the encouragements all 
along the way beaming so brightly from our chart, the Word 
of God. * * * ^ ^ ^. 

Colonel Houghton was Commissioner of the Hill tribes 
when I was there. He was a devoted Christian and church- 
man; but was so delighted with the American Baptist 
method of teaching and preaching to savages, and their 
wonderful success, that he always advised Government to 
give those American missionaries an opening among all such 
tribes in preference to his own church missionaries. He was 
among the Karens before going to India. He paid his money 
freely to every mission enterprise. I hope you find as good 
men among Government officials as Colonel Houghton. * "^ * 

I can tell a short history of one tract. 

Kandura Bura [Old Kandura] was a little dried up old 
man when I first met him at Gauhati in 1867. He had been 
a jolly sort of a heathen in his day, as I gathered from his 
own mouth. He said he was made up of four halves, one 
half Hindu, second-half Casarrie, third-half Garo, fourth-half 
something else ; and that he could talk and sing and chant 
in all these four languages. And so he spent his years in 
going from house to house and from village to village 
chanting and fiddling in any tongue to suit his hearers — 
taking a collection at each point to keep soul and body on 
good terms. 

He was in Goalpara when brother Bion scattered tracts in 
the bazar. He could read and so took one, " True Refuge," 
I think. So in his vocation he would read and chant this 
tract to the people as something new from the gods. After 
chanting it over many times during two or three months he 
began to understand a little, just enough to be arrested and 
slightly frightened. He went at once to his house and read 
the tract to his wife through and throujrh two or three times 


until both, as he told me, became very much interested and 
alarmed. To allay their fears they went out together and 
chanted the True Refuge to the people, who ridiculed them. 
They grew worse rapidly and started for Gauhati to find a 
teacher, in the midst of the rains. They were nine days on 
the road, through water and mud, sleeping under trees among 
snakes and alligators, wet and hungry and almost starving. 
The old man said the people called them crazy, possessed of 
devils, and were afraid to feed and lodge them ; because we 
called to every one we met, " Life, life, eternal life ! Who 
will tell us about it." At Gauhati they found teachers, were 
baptized, and went out with joyful hearts to chant salvation 
to the people. 

The old woman died near Gauhati, a devoted Christian 
and worker for Jesus, I heard, as I never saw her. But the 
old man returned to Goalpara with me in 1867 and there 
died in a few years, blind and feeble ; but chanting and 
repeating Scripture like an old theologian as long as his 
tongue could move. 

•5f -x- -K- -x- * J'rom the Hand-Book I note 20 missionaries 
now in Assam. We read carefully all the names from 
brother and sister Burdette of Gauhati to brother and sister 
Witter of Wokha and count ourselves introduced ; and with 
the exception of those Naga stations can enter pretty well 
into your surroundings. To each of you beloved brethren 
and sisters Mrs. Stoddard and I send Christian greetings 
and a most hearty God bless you, and sustain you amidst all 
the secret and untold trials of your most glorious mission 
labors. * ^ * * * ^ 

Affectionately your Brother, 

I. J. Stoddard. 


To Rev. P. H. Mooke. 

Waterville, Me, 

October Utli, 1886. 

Bear Sir, — I rejoice to Lear that you plan to have a Jubilee 
Conference of the Assam missionaries, and that it is to be 
held at dear old Nowgong. that I could charter a balloon 
and so be with you during those days ! 

You ask for reminiscences. I close my eyes and a throng 
come crowding before my memory ; for of no period in my 
life are recollections so vivid as those during the few years 
spent in Assam ; some glad and some, oh, how sad ! but crown- 
ing all, I see the sweet and blessed will of God. 

Upon our arrival in Nowgong at the close of 1850, we 
found brave sister Stoddard had been passing through a 
season of trial. Most of the children in the Orphanage 
School had been severely ill with small-pox ; her own infant 
daughter had suffered terribly from the disease, so that very 
soon it was deemed necessary that she should go down to 
Gauhati for medical treatment ; thus the girls' school came 
under my care before I could speak ten words of the lan- 
guage. The girls remained with me but a few months, for 
as my husband spent several months every year travelling in 
the villages, it was thought best that I should be free to go 
with him and work for the women. 

During the first season we met with much encouragement 
in the village of Sol Soi. Soon after our tent was pitched 
there an old shaster reader, accompanied by a Hindu of 
respectability, came one night to make inquiries about 
the foreign shaster which had fallen into their hands. They 
listened to my husband's explanations Avith marked atten- 
tion. The next night found them with us with undimi- 


nished interest, and so for several evenings ; till at length 
they were requested to invite their neighbors into their own 
home, and allow us to hold a meeting with them. This they 
consented to do. So, on the following night there might 
have been seen my husband, myself and Ghinai, with several 
coolies carrying lighted torches, following a little footpath 
through a rice field to the old man's cottage, where quite an 
audience assembled on our arrival. As I remember it this 
meeting was one of the most interesting I ever attended. 
Mr. Daiible opened it by reading and explaining a chapter. 
Singing followed, then Ghinai talked and made a prayer, 
when Mr. Daiible called upon the two inquirers to pray. 
They replied, " Oh, Sahib, we have not learned how yet. 
We must listen to you more." 

" What !" exclaimed Mr. Daiible, " If your child is hungry 
and needs food what does he say ? Father, I am hungry, 
give me bread. Now you have told me that you feel that 
you are a sinner, and wish to be forgiven. Cannot you ask 
your Heavenly Father to give you what you are willing to 
give your child ?" 

At once the idea of prayer was understood. Both heads 
were bent to the ground, and the cry came. " Yes, yes, we 
are great sinners ! Heavenly Father forgive us !" 

It seemed as if the Spirit of the Lord had come down 
upon us in a wonderful manner. All recognized His pre- 
sence. Such earnestness, such solemnity I seldom have 
witnessed ! 

When the meeting broke up, several caught hold of my 
husband and begged him to stay till they all learned the 
true way. We were greatly encouraged ; it seemed that 
there must be a great work of the Spirit then and there ; but 
alas ! the next evening we found very few present and those 
seemed afraid to be there. The evening following we found 
the door closed against us. The head man of the village 


had ordered that no more meetings be held. A heavy penal- 
ty was threatened, and all Avere forbidden to call on the 
foreign Sahib. 

So the work which seemed to open up so beautifully was 
closed. No, not closed, for " old Adiram," he who came 
with the shaster reader, asked to be allowed to go to Now- 
gong with us. He was at first advised to remain and help 
his neighbors, but he said, " I am ignorant of this religion, 
I cannot even read. Let me go home with you and learn to 

He went, and his diligence in learning was wonderful. 
He would follow us about the house, as we were busy, spell 
out his words, and ask for the pronunciation. After he 
could read he took the Assamese Catechism, committed it to 
memory, and daily would we find him sitting by the road 
side calling to passers by, " Stop ! sit down by me, I have 
something new to tell you." ^- * -^ * -J^- -^ ^ Most faithful 
was he at that time. 

One more cold season came and went. Cholera had 
broken out in Gauhati; for some time our friends had 
written of its ravages there. At length there came a day 
when it was said to us that cholera had come to Nowgong. 
Already the dead were being carried past our door ; but we 
thought so little of it for ourselves that we did not fear ; 
till one Monday morning our dear one fell ill. Still we did 
not call it by that awful name. We had no physician to 
tell us what it was. Our neighbor Captain Buller came and 
administered heavy stimulants which drove out all reason. 
In a few hours the work was accomplished. A strong, 
healthy young man lay there speechless and pulseless. 

0, the desolation of that hour ! I can never describe it. 
Oh, the dreadful weeks and weeks which followed ! The 
tom-toms of the natives beating away the evil spirits. I can 
hear them now and those calls for help as one victim after 


another was seized ; all these things ai'e burned into my 

The next cold season found me again in the villages with 
old Adiram and Ghinai ; but after a little I was carried home 
with fever. Recovering from that, I went into the boys' 
school and taught. Severe duties fell upon me, I was glad 
to be useful ; but at the close of the cold season of 1855 I was 
again attacked with fever, and obliged to go to Gauhati 
for medical aid. Then, after months of illness, it was de- 
cided that I must come home. It seems very strange ; but 
the six months previous to my last illness were blotted out 
of my memory. •x-*^*-5^-x--x-* 

How my heart has longed to go back and labor again in 
Assam. But since those early days I have been taught 
many lessons. **-^^-5^*-^* 

Mrs. Philbrick. 


October IBth, 1886. 

Dear Brother Moore, — Thanks for your invitation to be 
present by letter in the Jubilee meeting of the Assam 
Mission. You may well imagine that were it possible we 
should gladly be present in person. -^^ -5^ -x- -x- -x- x -x- 

The mettle of those pioneers in the mission was evinced 
by Mr. Bronson's reply, when urged not to attempt the 
journey up the river at that season. " Would you hesitate," 
he asked the officer, " if you were ordered to join the regi- 
ment in Sadiya. " " No sir, " was the response. " Then sir," 
said Mr. Bronson, " we dare not delay when our Heavenly 
Captain bids us advance to join the little force awaiting and 
expecting our arrival." Years after this his last move (who 


was loui:;:ost in the mission of all the missionaries) was in 
perfect keeping with his initiatory movement. Comfortably 
settled in Ganhati, with abunihmoe of work, and feeble from 
over forty lon<^ years of labor for the Assamese, and expo- 
sures and journeys in their behalf, yet when requested by 
the Executive Committee to remove to Dibrughai' and 
open a station there, so near his tirst camping ground at 
Sadiya, the old soldier unhesitatingly acceded and with his 
family moved to an out of the way station with a dilapi- 
dated house for shelterTand began work anew. This'was the 
Mnal exposure that broke him down. * * * * 

We both remoniber with great pleasure our personal con- 
nection with the mission. They are among the brightest 
memories of our lives. To one the recollection of a happy 
childhood and ten years of life spent in the home of loving 
parents under whose faithful teaching she was converted 
and baptized in the dear old Mori Kullung, are full of sacred 
joy. Many of those then baptized have long since entered 
into rest. Jnrimon, who we believe is still living, was a 
marked tigure in the memory of all those yeai's, as well as 
the old and faithful ayah who cared for all the children 
of the Bronson Memsahib. -^^ * * * * 

After the enforced return of the family by the n\utiny 
God opened the way for her to return and the Tolman 
Sahib and Memsahib were warmly welcomed. The four 
months' voyage gave time for study so that the new comer 
under the tuition of his wife had become able to read the 
Assamese before landing in Assam. We well remember the 
surprise and pleasure of the native Christians when the new 
nxissionary in his tirst prayer-meeting read a little scripture 
and the verse of a hymn. 

The girls' school was gathered together and work was 
carried on with energy. The Mikirs pleaded for the Gospel 
and were specially visited and books prepared for them. 


In six months the first sermon in Assamese was preached in 
the Nowgong chapel. IJut'oru this two marriages were cele- 
brated. In one of the latter " separated" was said instead 
of " joined." On his mistake being pointed out the novice 
in the language was embarrassed, bat Jurimon reassured him 
by saying, " The Lord understood what he meant and the 
marriage would stand." 

But soon illness came which resulted in our removal from 
the mission : the greatest disappointment in our lives. * "^ -^ 
In the language of Dr. Bronson's gifted daughter Eliza : 

" Yot land bereaved, beloved for thee 
Thy children's tears fall silently, 
The sickle dropped, the grain unbound 
Stands whitening all the fertile ground. 
While scattered laborers strong in faith, 
Toil on though suffering unto death." 

Dear Native Converts, — Dr. Bronson's last prayer in our 
hearing was in Assamese for you and for the heathen of 
Nowgong. Calling his little family together he asked for 
the Assamese Testament. He told the children to sit down 
and pointed to where he thought you were sitting within 
hearing of his voice. His eldest daughter read a few verses 
from the Divine Word. Then in feeble accents he addressed 
you; entreating you to accept Christ and labor faithfully 
for him. Then he prayed in Assamese and the burden of 
his supplication was that God would greatly increase your 
numbers and make you faithful until the end. 

He and others await you at the golden gates. May we and 
you meet them there and rejoice through all eternity for the 
blessed results of the past fifty years of the Assam Mission. 

With loving earnest prayers 

Your Brother and Sister in Christ, 

Cybus F. and Mary B. Tolmon. 



Belleville, Jefferson Co., N. Y. 

October SOth, 1886. 

Dear Brother Moore, — ^ * ^ ^ * ^ ^ My own connec- 
tion with the Assam Mission forms but a comparatively 
trifling factor in producing the results which have been 
there accomplished. And yet my seven years on the field 
form a period in my life, and in my ministerial course, full 
of pleasant memories and apparently more fruitful than any 
equal period in my home work. I reached Gauhati in 
April 18G7. 

The journey, though devoid of startling incidents, had yet 
been full of the charm of novelty. That was at a period far 
enough back to involve the old voyage by a merchant vessel 
from Boston to India, and therefore you will not be 
surprised when I tell you that it was 147 days after going 
on board before we landed at Calcutta. It might be thought 
that there was a grim fitness in the fact that our vessel's 
cargo was ice. We were at least spared the humiliation of 
having either rum or idols below decks, as they say has 
sometimes been the case with vessels which had missionaries 
for passengers either to Africa or India. -^J- ^ -h- ■}«■ ^ 

I shall not attempt to give a connected account of my 
work during the subsequent years. The varied experience 
in wrestling with a new tongue ; the trials of domestic life 
under the system of division of labor peculiar to India ; the 
novelty and pleasure of missionary touring and contact with 
the people in their numberless hamlets ; the joy of telling 
them " The Old Old Story of Jesus and his love ;" the strong 
attachments formed between the native Christians and the 
missionary ; the delightful occasions when we were able to 
look into our fellow missionaries' faces, clasp their hands, 
and welcome them to the hospitality of our homes ; the 


sweet experience when in our touring we could go two and two, 
as the blessed Saviour, who understood the need of human 
hearts and the craving for companionship even when doing 
his work, sent out his disciples ; all this and more will 
readily occur to those who are yet in the field. On the 
other hand, the discouragements, the trials, the discomforts, 
the struggles with disease and all the wide range of sorrow- 
ful experiences in missionary life will likewise be recalled 
and need not be dwelt upon here. 

My arrival in Assam was just as the promising Garo work 
was fairly opening. We passed up the Brahmaputra while 
the now sainted Bronson was out at Rajasimla, engaged in 
the joyful work of baptizing the converts whom Omed had 
gathered together, and in organizing the first church of Garo 
disciples. He had hoped to complete his work in time to 
return to Goalpara and join us on our upward trip ; but 
in this anticipated pleasure we were all disappointed. It 
was some time later, when we had the rare satisfaction 
of greeting this venerable and beloved missionary as he 
reached Gauhati on his way to Nowgong. ^ ^ * "^ * "^ 

In 1869 I made my first extended missionary tour. I left 
Gauhati and after a march of six days joined Brother Stoddard 
at Damra in Garo-land. I reached him just in time to par- 
ticipate in the baptism of several happy Garo converts. 
Thereafter for several weeks we two enjoyed among that 
interesting people the happy association of Christian fellow- 
ship and service. Years later with brethren Bronson and 
Stoddard I had a most enjoyable tour of inspection from 
Goalpara to Tura and return. "^ ^ ^ "^ 

I had the satisfaction of starting the work in Eastern 
Garo land next the borders of the Khasia Hills. This begin- 
ning was the planting of a school by a Garo convert named 
Joising at the village of Sorai Kurung. From this place 
five men and one woman came to Gauhati and I had the 


pleasure of baptizing them. The next dry season I visited 
the village and baptized 27 more. The next year this grati- 
fying work was repeated while other hamlets were visited 
and converts baptized. ^ "^ -^ ^ * ^ Mr. and Mrs. Clark 
are the only ones now there whose services are at all contem- 
poraneous with our own. Others have stepped into the 
breach made by those who have died or have left the field. 
In your work you have our prayers for your success. And 
that your coming meeting may be rich in precious memories 
and freighted with the blessings of the Holy Spirit is my 
earnest wish. 

Yours in Christian bonds, 

M. B. Comfort. 



October 22nd, 1886. 

Dear Brother and Sister,— How I would like to be with 
you in your dear old Nowgong home, for I remember how 
pleasantly the mission houses looked to me when I visited 
them years ago. Then there is the Kullung river on which 
we journeyed one whole night while the boatmen sang their 
dolorous boat-songs. But the muddy Kullung has an at- 
traction to me greater than to most of our missionaries. 
Beneath its water I was buried in the ordinance of baptism 
by my own husband, having changed my views from con- 
viction. When I left Boston I was a Presbyterian, a very 
decided one, and remained one for four years after reaching 
Assam. I rejoice that the truth came to me at last. 

But dear Gauhati was our home, on the banks of the 
mighty Brahmaputra. I almost think I am strolling through 
the grounds there as I write. The fragrance from the 
Golunsi iiower is wafted to me, and the shaved heads of the 


Brahmins are plainly seen, nodding here and there, as they 
gather the flowers in the early morning for worship. 

From my earliest years I had a strong passion for mis- 
sionary work and often in the night would pray for the poor 
heathen who were in darkness, and most of all desired that 
I might go with the light to them. My hopes were realized 
in this respect, but how much good I did on the foreign field 
in my weakness, God alone knows. ^ -^ -^ -^ Sincerely to 
do good to that people He knows was my desire. And now 
may God's richest blessing rest upon you and upon those to 
whom you have gone, and may great in-gatherings be the 
result of your labor. With much love to all the dear mis- 
sionaries I close. 

Affectionately yours, 

Jennie E. Comport. 

464 N. East St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

October 2lst, 1886. 
Dear Brother Moore, — "^ -h- * -^ The planting of the 
Cross for the first time in any part of the world is for that 
portion of the world the pivotal point in its history. It is 
a simple enough thing, to be sure, and its accomplishment 
attracts but little public attention, makes no noise in the 
world, is not taken account of in the politics of nations, 
and yet it is an event which far eclipses in its significance 
any other event, and all others in its history. " The making 
of England," as Green calls it, really began with the intro- 
duction of the Gospel into England — whenever that might 
have been, and Queen Victoria was altogether right when 
she handed the Bible to the envoys of the African Prince 
and said, " This is the foundation of England's greatness." 
And so, though there will not be many of you to come to- 


gether for the celebration of your " Jubilee," and though it 
will not be attended with the eclat with which I remember 
the proclamation of the Queen as "Empress of India" was 
attended, I am free to say that you will be celebrating an 
event which in every respect surpasses in its importance to 
the people of Assam either the Queen's assumption of that 
title or any event in its past or coming history. We only 
wish we could be with you. -^^-^-^^--J^-^-x--^* Hendura too 
is in heaven, a man specially interested in the Mikir work, 
and a man upon whom in any time of difficulty in jungle 
work, as when Brother Scott's boat sunk in the river and 
when my elephant ran away with the children, it was a com- 
fort to have with one, a man of rehable character. * ^ "^ -^ 

As I look back over the nearly eight years we were in 
Assam, it seems to me to have been a period of considerable 
activity and of development. The work enlarged in its 
sphere; it became better organized; the facilities for its 
prosecution were better than they had been ; the force of 
missionaries was considerably increased beyond what it 
was when we reached Nowgong. The great lack which I 
individually felt was that of means to spend a much larger 
portion of the year among the villagers; and of permanently 
and efficiently occupied centers in the rural districts as com- 
pared with the system of itineration from Nowgong. We 
were always cramped for money — and I say this while recog- 
nizing the fact (and because I recognize it) that mission 
work efficiently done is and must be under existing condi- 
tions expensive. 

It was a very pleasant eight years we spent in association 
with the workers in Assam, and we do heartily wish you all 
every success and give you a place in our prayers. 

With Christian love for all from us both, I am now and 

Your afPectionate brother, 

E. E. Neiohboe. 



Des Moines, III. 

Odoher loth, 1886. 

Dear Brothers and Sisters of the Assam Mission, — More 
than ten years have passed since my service for Jesus in that 
part of the world closed ; but I shall for ever praise the Lord 
that in my way to heaven he led me through the Assam 
Mission. My four years there has kept me bound in spirit, 
more or less, to the work of salvation as represented by the 
workers and converts in those hills and plains. Intelligence 
from no part of the mission field has the interest in my 
home as from Assam, and especially the Garos. -J^- -h- * -x- ^ 

There were 256 Christian Garos when I went among: them 
in 1872. I praise the Lord that number has grown to four 
times that now. Oh ! may He hasten the day when in the 
Garo Hills, " No man will say to his brother. Know thou the 
Lord, but when all shall know him from the least of them 
unto the greatest." I suppose some of the old standbys yet 
live. Oh I would love to see them as in memory their faces 
rise up before me. I always think mournfully of the hill 
at Goalpara. It seems to me that I would weep to go up 
that river and see no bungalow on " the perch." Four years 
there ! Oh such experiences, sickness, death, sad and joyful 
experiences. I sometimes wish I could live those four years 
over again. I know so much more of some things than I 
did then. The missionary who is out in the field with a 
clearly written commission from Jesus, has I think, the 
best chance of a most blessed life with Jesus. * ^ ■^ -^ ^ 
May the Lord bless you, my brethren and sisters in Jesus. 
May he keep you well and strong and happy is my best wish 
for you all. 

Yours in Jesus, 

T. J. Keith. 



Passed at the Conference. 

1. 7i e.fnlved, That this Conference feels the importance of the 
work which the Anglo-Indian Evangelization Society are doing 
for the Europeans and English speaking people of Assam, and 
that we express to them our hearty sympathy, co-operation and 
prayers, and request that they furnish our Society with information 
of the work they have done. 

2. Resolved, That we gratefully acknowledge the great benefit 
we have derived from the attendance and counsel in our 
meetings of the Rev. T. Jermau Jones, of the Welsh Calvinistic 
Methodist Mission to the Khasis ; 

That as we have received spiritual inspiration, strength and 
sound wisdom from his presence and words, we return to him, to 
the native Christians who accompanied him, and to the Presbytery 
who courteously appointed him to attend our session, our hearty 
thanks, and add the assurance of our joy in the prosperity which 
God has granted to their mission in the past, and our sincere 
desire and earnest prayer that past blessings may be multiplied to 
them in the future, and that, whether in their present field, or in 
new regions, they may have the great joy of winning souls, and of 
hastening the day when the kingdoms of this world shall become 
the kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ ; 

That the clei'k be instructed to forward a copy of this resolution 
to the Presbytery of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Mission at 

3. Whereas, Kohima station has been left vacant by the return 
of our brother. Rev. C. D. King, to America, 

Resolved, That we, the missionai-ies of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, convened in the Jubilee Conference at Now- 
o-ong, do I'equest our brother. Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, to at once 
occupy Kohima, as the missionary to the Angami Nagas. 


4. Resolved, That this Couferonce send our united and 
earnest appeal to the young men of the Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary at Newton Centre, Massachusetts, at Hamilton and Roches- 
ter, N. Y., Crozer, Penn., and at Morgan Park, 111., to consider if it 
is not their duty to come to the Lord's work in Assam, and that 
they unite with us in every effort to supply this destitute field 
with laborers ; 

That Brother Burdette be requested to write to those at Newton, 
Brother Witter to those at Rochester, Brother Rivenburg to those 
at Crozer, Brother Moore to those at Hamilton, and Brother Clark 
to those at Morgan Park, conveying to them this appeal of this 
Conference, and laying before the young men of these institutions 
our need of new laborers. 

5. Resolved, That we, missionaries of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, in the Province of Assam, Central Asia, have 
been greatly rejoiced at hearing of the dealings of Divine grace 
among the heathen in the Congo Valley of Central Africa, and 
that we do unitedly pray that God may raise up men and women 
for the vigorous prosecution of the work in that dark land. 

6. Resolved, That it is an end and aim of our work as mis- 
sionaries to raise up self supporting and self-managing churches in 
Assam, and to this end we deem a class of vigorous preachers and 
teachers of the Word a necessity, and that, seeking divine guidance, 
we should adopt some system to raise up such a class. 

7. Resolved, That we the missionaries of the American 
Baptist Missionary Union in Assam hereby express our apprecia- 
tion of the earnest, faithful labors of our brother and sister, Rev. 
and Mrs. C. D. King, for the Angami Nagas ; that we deeply re- 
gret the ill-health which has compelled their return to America ; 
and that we follow them with our sympathy and pi-ayers for 
journeying mercies, and for our Heavenly Father's care and bless- 
ing for all their future lives. 



8. Inasmuch as it is a generally accepted fact among the ob- 
serving and thinking men throughout India that the large efforts 
made by the Government of India and missionary societies for 
education throughout the country ; and also the dissemination of 
Scripture truth ; together with such incidental agencies as the 
association of different caste people in railvray cars, and the diffu- 
sion of Eui'opean ideas in the land, have greatly weakened caste 
and like exclusiveness among the people of India, and also their 
faith in the religions of their ancestors ; and that, as they discard 
these, they seem likely to choose either Christianity or Atheism, 

Resolved, That this Conference earnestly request the Christians 
of America to pray God that he will graciously incline the rising 
generation of India to the Redeemer of the world. 

9. Resolved, That we the members of this Conference hereby 
express our sincere gratitude to Brother and Sister P. H. Moore, and 
Sisters Keeler and Purssell for their laborious efforts in convening, 
■entertaining and so successfully managing this Conference. 

10. Resolved, That we the missionaries of the American 
Baptist Missionary Union in Assam, return our hearty thanks to 
the secretaries of the A. B. M. Union, the Woman's Missionary 
Society, and the Woman's Missionary Society of the West, and 
all former missionaries in Assam, now residing in America, who 
have added so much to the interest of our Jubilee Conference by 
the letters which they have sent us for this occasion. 


Barker, Cyrus ; b. Portsmouth, R. I., March 27, 1807 ; Hamilton 
Lit. and Theol. Inst. 1838 ; oi-dained September 1839 ; Assam, 
May 1840; left for home, October 29, 1849; died at sea, 
January 31, 1850. 

Mrs. Jane Weston; b. Shropshire, Eng., July 12, 1817; 
Assam, May 1840 ; home, 1849 ; now in Minneapolis, Minn. 

Bond, Miss Ella C. ; b. New Britain, Conn., July 26, 1857 ; Assam, 
January 1886. 

Brandt, Miss A. K. ; b. in Denmark ; educated in the U. S. ; 
Assam, November 1881 — January 1883 ; married to Rev. R. 
Maplesden of the Telugu Mission, January 30, 1883. 

Bronson, Miles ; b. Norway, N. Y., July 20, 1812 ; Hamilton 
Lit. and Theol. Inst. 1836 ; ordained, April 29, 1836 ; Assam, 
July 17, 1837—1847, 1851— October 1857, 1860—1868, 1870- 
1879 ; died in U. S., November 9, 1883. 

Mrs. Ruth Montague Lucas ; h. Madison, N. Y., Aug. 3, 
1813 ; married to Rev. M. Bronson, September 7, 1836 ; Assam, 
1837—1847, 1851-1855, 1856—1857, 1860—1868; died in 
U. S., September 30, 1869. 

Mrs. F. a. Studley Danforth ; (see Mrs. Danforth). 
Mrs. Mary Rankin ; (see Miss Rankin.) 

Bronson, Miss Rhoda M. ; b. Norway, N. Y. ; Assam, May 1840 ; 
died, December 8, 1840. 

Bronson, Miss Marie Coats ; b. Jaipur, Assam, 1840 ; went to 
the U. S. in 1847 ; returned to Assam, 1870 ; died, 1874. 

Brown, Nathan ; b, New Ipswich, N. H., June 22, 1807 ; Wil- 
liams Col. 1827, Newton Theol. Inst. 1832 ; ordained, August 
15, 1832 ; Burma, 1833 ; Assam, March 1836 ; U. S. 1855 ; 
Japan, 1873, where he died January 1, 1886. 

Mrs. Eliza W. Ballard ; b. Charlemont, Mass., April 12, 
1807 ; Assam, 1836-1846, 1850—1855 ; died in U. S., 1871. 


BuRDETTE, Charles E. ; b. Peoria, 111., February 23, 1854 ; Brown 

Univ. A. B. 1880; Newton Theol. Sem. 1883; ordained 

Peoria III., September 11, 1883 ; Assam, December 25, 1883. 
Mrs. M. Russell; (see Miss Russell). 
Clark, Edward W. ; b. North East, N. Y., February 25, 1830 ; 

Brown Univ. A. B. 1857 ; Newton and Rochester Theol. Sem. 

1858 — 59 ; ordained pastor Logansport, Ind., June 30, 1859 ; 

from 1861 editor and publisher of The Witness, Indianapolis, 

Ind. ; Assam, March 1869— May 1885, and December 1886. 
Mrs. Mary J. Mead; b. Amonia, N. Y.; married to E. W. 

Clark, September 29, 1858 ; Assam, March 1869—1873, 1877 

—1882, and December 1886. 
Comfort, M. B. ; Rochester Univ. ; Assam, April 1867 — 1874 ; 

now pastor Belleville, N. Y. 

Mrs. Comfort ; Assam, April 1867—1873. 
Cutter, Oliver T. ; b. Lexington, Mass., March 19, 1811 ; Burma 

1832; Assam 1836—1852; died in London, Eng., April 

Mrs. Harriet B. Low ; b. Milton, Mass., January 4, 1811 ; 

Assam, 1836—1847, 1851—1852; died in London, Eng., 

November 1883. 
Danforth, Appleton Howe ; b. Pellham, Mass., July 8, 1S17 ; 

Hamilton Lit. and Theol. Inst. 1845 and 1847 ; ordained, Octo- 
ber 27, 1847 ; Assam, May 1848—1858 ; Chaplain U. S. Army, 

1862 ; died, 1864. 

Mrs. F. a. Studlet ; b. Worcester, Mass., April 27, 1827 ; 

married to Rev. A. H. Danforth, 1847 ; Assam, 1848-1858 ; 

returned to Assam and married to Miles Bronson, D. D., 

January 19, 1872 ; died, February 3, 1874. 
Dauble, G. ; joined the mission at Nowgong from the Basle 

Missionary Society, February 1850 ; died, March 1853. 

Mrs. M. S Shaw; Assam, March 1851; married to Mr. 

Daiible, July 23, 1851 ; U. S. 1855 ; now Mrs. Pliilbrick, Me. 
Gurnet, A. K. ; b. Cumberland, Me., May 29, 1845 ; Colby Univ. 

A. B. 1871 ; Newton Theol. Sem, 1874 ; ordained August 

1874 ; Assam, December 1874— May 1883, and November 1884. 


Mrs. Mary F. Lawrence ; h. Jay, Mc, September 13, 1840 ; 

married to Rev. A. K. Giirncy, July 19, 1877 ; Assam, 1877— 

1882 and October 1885. 
Keeler, Miss Orrell C. ; b. Genoa, Ohio, February 3, 1845 ; 

Assam, December 1875 — 1883 and October 1885. 
Keitit, T. J. ; b. Knox Co., Ind., September 21, 1842 ; ordained 

August 19, 18G9; Assam, January 1872— February 187G ; 

pastor now at Des Moines, Iowa. 

Mrs. p. a. ; married to Rev. T. J. Keith, August 21, 18G9 ; 

Assam, January 1872 — February 1876. 
King, C. D. ; b. Mexico, N. Y., May 25, 1847 ; Rochester Univ. 

and Rochester Theol. Sem. 1878; ordained September 11, 

1878 ; Assam, January 1878— December 1889. 
Mrs. Anna K. Sweet ; (see Miss Sweet). 
Mason, Marcus C. ; b. Strykersville, N. Y., June 6, 1844 ; Madison 

Univ. A. B. 1872, Theol. Sem. and A. M. 1874 ; ordained, 

July 29, 1874 ; Assam, December 1874- March 1882, and No- 
vember 1884, 
Mrs. Delia S. Howes ; b. Madison, N". Y., April 20, 1842 ; 

married to M. 0. Mason, June 18, 1874 ; Assam, December 

1874— March 1882 ; died in U. S., September 9, 1882. 

Mrs. Clara M. Stevens Arthur ; b. Eastport Me., June 17, 

1844 ; married to Rev. J. H. Arthur, 1873 ; Japan, 1873—1877 ; 

married to Rev. M. C. Mason, April 15, 1884 ; Assam, Nov. 

1884 ; died December 9, 1884. 
Moore, Pitt H. ; b. Akyab, Burma, December 4, 1853 ; Madi- 
son Univ. A. B. 1876, Theol. Sem. and A. M. 1879 ; ordained, 

July 23, 1879 ; Assam, January 1880. 

Mrs. Jessie T, Trevor ; b. Sand Lake, N. Y., November 11, ■ 

1857 ; married to P. H. Moore, July 8, 1879; Assam, January 

Neighbor, R. E. and Mrs,; Assam, 1871 — 1878; now pastor in 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
Phillips, Elnathan Gr. ; b. East Bloomfield, N. Y., December 6, 

1845 ; Madison Univ. A. B. 1872, Theol. Sem. and A. M. 1874 ; 

ordained July 8, 1874 ; Assam, December 1874 — June 1884 

and January 1886. 


Mes. Ella V. Howes ; b. Madison, N. Y., May 1, 1849 ; 
married to E. G. Phillips, June 18, 1874 ; Assam, December 
1874— June 1884, and January 1886. 
PuRSSELL, Miss Nettie ; b. Springfield, Ohio, February 16, 1861 ; 

Assam, October 1885. 
Rankin, Miss Mart ; Assam, 1873 ; married to M. Bronson, D.D., 

1874 ; United States, 1879 ; now in Eaton Rapids, Mich. 
Rivenburg, Sidney W. ; b. Clifford Pa., October 12, 1857 ; Brown 
Univ. A. B. 1880, A. M. 1883 ; Rochester Theol. Sem. 1883 ; 
ordained August 22, 1883 ; Assam, December 1883. 

Mrs. Hattxe E. Tiffany ; b. East Bridgewater, Pa., May 
14, 1862 ; married to Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, October 10, 1883 ; 
Assam, December 1883. 
Russell, Miss Miriam ; b. Philadelphia, Pa., April 26, 1845 ; Assam, 
January 1, 1879 ; married to Rev. C. E. Burdette, December 
25, 1884. 
Scott, Edward Patson ; b. Greensboro, Vt., 1832 ; Knox Col., 111., 
and Hamilton Theol. Sem. 1860 ; Assam, November 18G3 — 
1865, January 1868 to death. May 1869. 

Mrs. Anna K. ; Assam, November 1863 — 1865, January 1868 
— 1873 ; now practicing medicine in Cleveland, Ohio. 
Stoddard, Ira J. ; b. Eden, N. Y., 1820 ; Hamilton Lit. and 
Theol. Inst. 1845, 1847 ; Assam, 1848—1855, April 1867— 
1873, now at Pella, Iowa. 

Mrs. Drdsilla Allen ; b. Collins, N. Y.; married to Rev. I. J. 
Stoddard, August 23, 1847 ; Assam, 1848—1855, 1867—1870. 
Sweet, Miss Anna K. ; Assam, December 1875—1880, 1882—1884, 
1885—1886 ; married to Rev. C. D. King, December 1878. 
• Thomas, Jacob ; b. Elbridge, N. Y. ; Hamilton Lit. and Theol. 
Inst, 1836 ; Assam, 1837 ; died just before reaching his station, 
July 7, 1837. 

Mrs. Sarah Maria Willset ; b. Fairfield, N. Y., December 
6, 1814 ; afterwards married to Rev. S. M. Osgood of Burma, 
July 19, 1838; died, July 13, 1849. 
Tolman, Cyrus F. ; b. Meridian, N. Y., October 25, 1832 ; Madi- 
son Univ. A. B. 1856, Theol. Sem. 1858 ; Assam, May 1859— 
1861 ; since 1866 Dist. Sec. A. B. M. U , Chicago, 111. 


Mrs. Mary R. Bronson ; b. Nowgong, Assam ; married to Rev. 

C.F.Tolman in U.S., October 4, 1858; Assam, May 1859—1862. 

Ward, William ; h. August 28, 1821 ; Madison Univ. A. B. 

1848 ; Assam, April 1851—1856, 1860—1869, and 1873 ; died 

at Sibsagar, August 1, 1873. 

Mrs. Cordelia Hefbi{ON ; b. Erieville, N. Y., September 12, 
1824; Assam, 1851—1856; died at Wellesville, N. Y., 
November 1, 1859. 

Mrs. Susan R. Benjamin ; &. Belcliertown, Mass., February 
5, 1822 ; in 1848, married to Rev. Judson Benjamin and went 
to Burma ; in 1860 married to Rev. William Ward ; Assam, 
1860—1869, 1873—1880; in 1882 teacher in Government 
School, Sibsagar ; died in Calcutta, April 27, 1884, 
Whiting, Samuel Mellen ; 6. Sutton, Mass., June 25, 1825 ; 
Trinity Col. Conn, and Newton Theol. Inst. ; ordained May 8, 
1850; Assam, 1851—1861 ; died in U. S. 1878. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Flint; b. Hartford, Conn., May 8, 1823; 
Assam, 1851 — 1861 ; now for several years Sec. Woman's 
Missionary Soc, for Connecticut. 
Witter, William Ellsworth ; b. La Grange, N. Y., December 
9, 1853 ; Rochester Univ. A. B. 1880, A. M. 1883, and Ro- 
Chester Theol. Sem. 1883 ; ordained August 15, 1883 ; Assam 
December 1883. 

Mrs. Mary A.Potter; b. Oxford, N. Y., April 14, 1860; 
married to Rev. W. E. Witter, August 15, 1883; Assam, 
December 1883. 

Chart of Mission Work in Assam, 

The figures at the top indicate the year of the century, and the 

horizontal lines represent the periods of service of missionaries 

the heavy ones those of males and the lighter ones those of 

During the half century there have been on the field 23 different 
male missionaries, 27 wives of missionaries, and 6 unmarried lady- 
missionaries, or rather 10 if we count 4 who were afterwards mar- 
ried and are included in the 27 wives of missionaries. 


Tlie greatest inimber of years of service performed by any one 
missionary was by Dr. Bronson, wliilc Dr. Brown gave the longest 
term of unbroken service. 

During the first years of the period, the stations were well 
manned, but during the rest of the period there have seldom been 
more than two male missionaries, frequently only one, at each 
station. In some cases there have been none. A glance will show 
how broken has been the service of many. 

At one period, during parts of 1858 — 59, only two missionaries, 
Mr. and Mrs. Whiting, were present on the whole field, while 
Gauhati has had two long periods with no foreign missionary. 
The largest number of male missionaries on the field at any one 
time was eight. 

The inadequacy of the force of men for the efficient occupation 
of fields representing between two and three millions of people, is 
evident. It need hardly seem surprising that the missionary 
labor, spread so thinly over so great an area, should result in no 
greater fruits. A good part of the work done during portions of 
the period, has been necessarily mostly fort-holding. 

Sadiya and Jaipur were occupied for only a short period, and then 
abandoned for Sibsagar, Nowgong, and Gauhati, in which stations 
woi'k has been continued, with more or less intei'mission, ever since. 

The work among the hill-people has all been of recent date. 
The first to be opened was the Garo field (Goalpara and Tura), 
next the Ao tribe (Molung), next the Angami tribe (Samaguting 
and Kohima), and last the Lhota tribe (Wokha). The occupation 
of Dibrugarh was very brief. 

The Garo work is under the head of Goalpara and Tura, because 
the head station was first located at Goalpara and then removed 
to Tura. The same is true of the Angami field, under the head of 
Samaguting and Kohima. 

V H A 11 1 of Missionary Service in the A b b A M M 1 O O 1 jN , A, 

, A. B. M. U. 

STATIONS i!i!i i 


_ — \ — \ — I — 1— 

s i 1 : i 1,1 1 

1 |T|" 







£ 2 





























N. Brown A Wifp, 

SaDIYA. 0-T Cntter* Wife. 

M. BroD»on 4 W 


fe. j 4^( 1 

M. B.nmon * Wife. H 

>. Bru«n & Wife. 

■I Al PUH ^- '"' Ciitltr i. Wife. 

C. .Marter & Wil 

Mifs Rliod^ Brona 


— , 


— * 

1 N. Brown & Wife. 









•|'v^ '"',"■ i-t:-t 


; 1 






i n 

■ ] : 1 


' t vr-e 

J 1 




W W 1 * W,f„ 
















rT 1 1 1 - ! 








I J 



— \ — h" 

rd * Wife, 

4h '^ 






— a 






r. s! sh 




\m-G. DauLlu 

H S 



Mi8.s M»rie i 




1 : 


^ — 




//t- f. D. King 


K 'l 


' r.' u ^. ' i J; 




A. k. Brandt, j 

1 lIlissN. 

1, PnrBsiiII. 

/7i- il.MapIcsden. 
Telugii Miss-B 


I V ' 




1. J 

. St 

: w'if., 
& Wift 


J. t 


rdrtt'! 4 Wife, a 

1 1 

xdied at S«». 

A.„. . 

H i 


' ' 


m^ M. B.oinon 1872 




. I'.'seu 


1. Uuukin j "' 

v^- M Bronsou 





rd d 









* , 

iM. TruA 






1 1 1 L 

lias M. 

rn- C. IS. Biudctte. 

C. E 

1 ; 

Burdette i Wife. 

Mi,« E. C 

1 i 




.W. Cli 

.rk 4 ■Wile. ^- 










M. Bronson * Wife.'^fc 






C. D. Kine & Wife. = 

1 , '! 













i 1 , 1 W. E. Witt«r4 Wile.^ 

■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 J 


NOTE- -(^trinsfer loop from another station, o- Vacation. A -home, not to return, r/- deceased. 

Name of Station. 


No. of 










Received by letter 8. 
Dismissed by letter 9. 
Name dropped, Kolhs who have 
gone home, or to other gardens, GO. 

* Probably slightly inaccurate. 

t Not in service since 1st Oct. 18B6. 

Dismissed by letter 2. 
* Formerly Goalpara, later Tura. 
t Including schools closed during 
the vear. 

* At first Samaguting, later Kohima. 
t Left for America during 1886. 


B5 44 















VILL.10F, Sciioois 1886. 

Station Schools 









Name of Station. 

No. of 


, Non- 

No. of 








1 a 





1 Z 























1838 1843 

Kolli ... 


Received by letter 8. 
DiemiflBed by letter 9. 












Name dropjied, Koiha who have 
gone home, or to utiier gardL-iis. GO. 















Mikir ... 









Mikir ... 












* Probably slightly innccnrnte. 









Kolh ... 













t Not ill Bcrvico since let Oct. 188G. 


Mikir ... 


Habha ... 




Dismissed by letter 2. 

Garo ... 


• Formerly Goalpara, later Tara. 





2J 4 




Eablia ... 













t Including schools closed during 
the year. 










Naga ... 




















Naga ... 





* At first Saninguting, later Kohima. 
t Left for America during 1886. 













620 362 


11 7 



184J 61 3 


5 2 




A. B. M. U. occupy Assam, 18. De- 
putation sent by, 33. 

Abor.% 220, 221. 

Achikni Ripeng (Garo's Friend), 76. 

Adiram, 270. 

Agriculture, director of, 6. 

Ahoms or Asams, rnle of, 1. Origin of, 
4. Invasion of, 4. Kings of, 4, 22. 
Religion of, 4. Population of, 22. 

Aiti, 49. 

Ahhas, 221. 

Allen, Rev. I., 211. 

Allen, Brasilia, 286. 

Alpenstock, 77. 

Angami, see Nagas. 

Anglo Indian Evangelization Society, 

Ao, see Nagas. 

Apinta, 49. 

Argue, 98. 

Arthur, Rev. J. H., 259. 

Arthur, Mrs., see Mrs. Clara A. 

Aryans, 3. 

" Assam, general view of," Paper, 1. 
Geography of, 1. Name, 1, 4. 
Rainfall, 2. Temperature, 3. Soil, 
3. Population of, 3. Division for 
Government purposes, 3. History, 

3. Invaded lay, 3. British occupy, 

4. Administrated by, 4. Ethno- 
logy, 5. Population of, 18. Go- 
vernment of, 6. Military, 7. Legisla- 
tion, 7. Education, 7. Post Office 
and Telegraph, 8. Revenue, 8. 
Commerce, 8. Railways, 10. Roads, 
10. Crops and produce, 10. Reli- 
gion, 11. As a mission field, 18. 
Christian literature, 34. Dic- 
tionary, 34. Application of princi- 
ples to, 102. Missionaries of, 283. 
" Mission Work in A. by other Socie- 
ties," Paper, 211. English Baptist 
Missionary Society, 211. Assam 
and Cachar Mission, 212. Church 
of England, 212. S. P. G. Society, 
212. Indian Home Mission Socie- 
ty, 212. Welsh Calvinistic Meth- 
odist Mission, 213. Discussion on, 
217. " Gospel Destitution about A ", 


Paper, 219. Kosaris, 219. Hill 
tribes, 219. Sadiya and vicinity, 
220. Kamtai Hills — Shan home, 
222. Singphos or Kachins, 222. 
Promise on a Neglected field, 223. 
Naga Hills, 223. Road from A. 
to Burma, 224. Naga Mission, 
225. Incentives to advance, 226. 

Assarn, Uijper, Bronson driven from, 

Assamese, Tradition, 2. Nationality, 
5. No. of, 5. Devotees not, 14. 
Hill men different from, 16. Cha- 
racter, 130, 230. Dependent, 120. 
Secretive, 123. Poor. 125. Rich, 
141. Lack of training, 124. Iso- 
lated, 125. Work eflFective among, 
21. Baptized, 25, 29. Literature, 
34,127. Scriptures into, 26, 113, 
211. Preachers for, 29. How 
work for to e.xist, 29. Clark turned 
over work, 26. Portion of Church, 
27. Oversight of, 28. Change in 
Church, 29. Sepoys understand, 92. 
Witter studies, 91. 
" Woman's Work among the A." 
Paper, 184. Commencement of the 
work, 184. Nowgoug Orphan 
School, 185. Orphanage closed, 

185. School work recommenced, 

186. Summary from 1875 to 1885, 
186. Village schools, 187. Zenana 
work, 187. Spiritual indifference, 
188. Medical knowlege helpful, 
188. Methods and incidents of 
work, 189. Need of Bible women, 
190. Discussion, 200. 

Assangma, 82. 

Association, at Ganhati, 51. Garo, 61. 

Authority, 14. 

Ava, Kincaid of, 20. 

Ballard, Elizabeth W., 283. 

Bapuram, 186. 

Barker, Rev. Cyrus, 283, 21. School 

work, 50. Church, 41. Tablet, 42, 

Barker, Mrs. Jane W., 283, 21. Lettes 

from, 263. 
Barter, 10. 
Batiram, 22. 



Behejia, 27. Gnriiey visits, 28, 

Beer, (Maud) IG, 78, 228, 230, 141. 

Benevolence, 142. 

Be^ijamin, Susan R., see Mrs. Ward. 

Benqali, Kolhs called, 26. Taiio-ht 
inTura, 71. Teachers, 72. Char- 
acter, 76. Scriptures, 77. Com- 
mentary, 77. Keed to know, 127. 

Besai, 35. 

Bhamo visited, 20, 222. 

Bhubon licensed, 34. 

Bible class, 232. 

" i?tb?ein Assamese," Paper 113. First 
attempt, Carey's Version, 113. Dr. 
Brown, 113. Parts printed, 113. 
Parts ont of print, 114. Parts 
translated but not printed, 115. 
Piirts untranslated, 115. Discus- 
sion, 115. Distribution of, 115. 
Sale of, 115. 

Bible translation, 107. 

Bible women, need of, 190, 200. 

Bion, 266. 

Bond, Miss Ella C, 283. Sent to 
Tnra, 60, 74. "The two Mrs. 
Masons " b_y, 256. 

Brahmaputra River, Name, 2. Tradi- 
tion of, 2. Source of, 2. Tribu- 
taries of, 2. Trade of, 10. To 
Zayul valley, 18. Drowned in, 20. 
Sibsagar from, 22. 

Brahamuputra Valley, 2. Colonized 
by, 3. Population of, 5. Judge of, 6. 

Brahmins, 22, 277. 

Brahnio, 17. 

Brandt, Miss A. K., 283, 37. 

British, 4. 

Bronson, Mrs. Danforth, 284, 36. 
School work, 49, 238, 240. 

Bronson, Miss Jlarie Coats, 283, ar- 
rives, 35, 186, 238. Died, 36, 237. 

Bronson, Miss Mary R., see Mrs. 

Bronson, Mrs. Mary Rankin, 286. 

Bronson, Rev. Miles, D. D., 283. Joins 
Sadiya, 271. Commenced work, 
20. For Nncas, 21, 80, 226. Bap- 
tized first convert, 22, 23. Visits 
Dibrngarh, 27. Return to America, 
27, 31, 33. At Nowgong, 31,32. 
FiStablishos Orphan Institution, 31. 
Alone, 33. (loes to America and 
returns with daughter, 35. Mar- 
ries Mrs. Danforth, 36. At Gau- 
bati, 36. Preaching and school 
work, 49. Hope of Kacharis, 52. 
Baptized first Garos, 56. Visit.'; 

Garos, 56, 275. T<iterary work, 34. 
Hymns, 25. Last words, 273. 
Obituary, 252. 

Bronson, Miss Rhoda, 283, 21, 235. 

Bronson, Mrs. Huth Montague, "283. 
Teacliing, 31. Returned, 32. Died, 
35, 237. 

Bro%on, Mrs. Eliza, 283, 250. 

Brouni, Rev. Nathan, D. D., 283. Sent 
from Burma, 20. Driven to Jai- 
pur, 21. To Sibsagar, 21, 23. 
Teaching, 23. Hymns, 25. Trans- 
lation, 113. Baptized Datable, 32. 
Returned to America and resigned, 
24, 49. Obituary, 248. 

Brown, Dr. T. Edwin, 144. 

Buddhism, 13. 

Burdette, Mrs. Miriam R., 286. 
School, 50, 65, 73. "Work for 
Garo Women " by, 192. 

Burdette, Rev. C. E., 284. Arrives, 
Normal School, 65. Ganhati., 
65. Gave teachers, 73. " History 
of the Gauhati Field" by, 41. 
" Claims and Conduct of Mission 
Schools " by, 166. 

Burma and Assam, population be- 
tween, 20. Road from Assam to, 

Burma, Upper, expedition, 19. Way 
to, 19. From to Sadiya, 20. 

Burmese, called as arbitrators, 4. 
Rulers, 4. Ceded to the British, 4. 

Business laymen, 106. 

Butler, Capt., murdered, 89. Des- 
cribes Lhota Nagas, 93. 

Cachar Mission, 212. 

Cacharis, see Kosaris. 

Calcutta, journey from to Assam, 10. 

Calcutta Baptists asked, 20. 

Carey, Dr., 113, 211. 

Castes, 14. To break, 39. 

Character, 101. 

Charities, 98. 

Charles, 35. 

Chart of Missions in A., 287. 

Cherra Punji, rainfall of, 2. College 
at, 215. 

Chicken, eating of, 14. 

Chief Commissioner, when organized, 
5.' Office, 6, 7. 

China, road to, 18. 

Chindu-in, 224. 

Chins, 224. 

Cholera, 81. 

Chota Nagpnr, 26. 

Chotcholja, baptized at, 70. 



Christian, native, 17, 217. 

Church, artificial arnuigeniont, 229. 
Orf^anization, Garo, 6G. Evange- 
lizing agency, 116. 

Churches organized, 106, 116. Self 
supporting. Rules for the treat- 
ment of, 121. Benevolence of, 
142 Anti-mi.ssion, 1 ll'. 

Church of England, Kolha members 
of, 27. 

CMdias, 3. 

" Claims and conduct of Mission 
Schools," see Mission Schools. 

Clark, Mrs. Mary M., 284, 81. 

Clark, Rev. E. W., 284. At Sibsagar, 
25,80,232. Drawn to Nagas, 25. 
Baptized Kolhs, 26, 28. Sends 
native preacher, 26. Designated 
to Nagas, 26. Goes to live among, 
81. Request for Angamis, 84. 
Special gift, 90. Declined to go 
home, 88. Left for America, 83. 
" Gospel Destitution about A.," 
Paper by, 219. 

Clothing, 16. 

Clongh, Dr., 98, 99. 

Coal, 11. 

College, normal, 215. 

Comfort, Mrs. Jennie E., 284. Letter 
from, 276. 

Comfort, Rev. M. B., 284, 43. Letter 
from, 274. 

Commerce, 8, 157. 

Compomid, 23, 106. [33. 

Conference at Sibsagar, 23. Novpgong, 

Contributions for chapel, 37. 

Converts, 22. Relation to Missionary, 
118. Poor, 141. In school, 71. 
Rules for the treatment of, 121. 
Trust them, 131. Pay tithes, 138. 
Duty to, 139. Discussion on, 231. 

Courts, 3. 

Crops and produce, 10. 

Cutter, Mrs., 284, 241. 

Cutter, Rev. O. T., 284. Sent from 
Burma, 20. Driven to Jaipur and 
Sibsagar, 21, 22. Connection 
closed 24, 241. 

Dam,ra, 51, 56, 275. 

Danforth, Mrs., see Mrs. Danforth 

Danforth, Rev. A. H., 284. At Sibsa- 
gar, 24, 49. Builds zayat, 49. 
Tracts, 50. Hope of Kacharis, 52. 
Returns to America, 49. Died, 36, 

Daphlas, 221. 

Dnrrang, 34. 

Daiihle, Mrs., see Mrs. i'liilln-ick. 

Daiible, Rev. G., 284. Joined Mis- 
sion, 32, 185. Married, 32. Preach- 
ing, 269. Death, 270, 2.36. 

David, 82. 

Drnrons, 38. 

Di'iiinn worship, 16. 

Deputy Commissioner, 7. 

DepHtation sent, 33. 

Derek, work at, 70. 

Dibrugarh, Bronson sent to, 27. 

Dicka Haimung, 80. Clark settles at, 

Dictionary, 25, 75. Published, 34. 

Dikho River, 21. Baptized in, 28. 

Discipline, 128, 129. 

Discussion, of methods of mission 
work, 110. On Assamese Bible, 
115. On self support, 128. On 
tithes, 142. On missionary spirit 
in our native Chiirches, 155. On 
need of a native ministry, 163. On 
Woman's work for the Assamese, 
200. On Work for Garo Women, 
200. On claims and conduct of 
mission schools, 181. On prevail- 
ing vices, 227. On young con- 
verts, 231. On mission work in A, 
by other societies, 217. 

Dolbogan, 27. 

Education, 7. Need of, 67. And 
manual labor, 72. Scriptures ne- 
cessitate, 168. Female, 73, 180. 

Effort, united, 102. 

JEruUe, Rev. S., 52, 212. 

English occupy A., 4. Taught in 
schools, 32, 67. 

Ethnology of A., 5, 6. 

Eurasian, 87. 

Europeans, baptized, 24. Plot to kill, 
24. Supervision of, 29. Enemy 
of, 34. Attitude toward, 109. 

Evangelists, teachers as, 69. Place 
to live, 88. Support of, 143. Need 
of, 158. Materials for, 157. Work 
of, 166. 

Exports, 8, 9. Table of, 9. With 
tribes, 10. 

Farming, 72. 

Female education, 180. 

Fenwick, Mrs., 185. 

Fish, 11. 

Flint, Elizabeth, 287. 

Fordyce, Mr., 217. 

Formalities of Hinduism, 15. 

Forests, conservator of, 6, 7. Extent 
of, 11. 



French missionaries, mnrdor nf, 19. 
Funeral, Mikir, 17. 
Oarhgaon, 22. 
Gam Friend, 76. 

Oaros, " Historical sketch of Field," 
54. Beginning of work, 54, 275. 
Compared, 79. Government rela- 
tions with, 54. Boys' school started, 
54, 59. Girls' school, 50. Tribe sub- 
dued, 60. English school, 67. Sta- 
tion school, 70. Educational work, 
67. Method of translation, 76. 
Printing, 76. Publications for, 75. 
Demons, 55, 78. First converts, 54. 
Omed and Ramkhe, 54. Rangkhu, 
56. Baptized, 51, 65, 275. Bur- 
dette arrives, 65. Miss Bond arrives, 
66. Miss Mason arrives, 66. Church 
organization, 66. First Church, 
56, 66. Character, 76. Character- 
istics of the field, 77. Savages, 78. 
No cast, 78. Intemperance, 78. 
Ignorance, 78. Spiritual develop- 
ment, 78. Property relations, 192, 
200. Christians in Gauhati, 53. 
Increase in Gauhati, 50. Tools for, 
" Garo Women, work for, " Paper, 
192. Social condition of, 192. 
Beginning of the work, 193. Later 
work, 194. A tour, 194. Begin- 
ning of a school, 195. A new 
plan, 196. Encouraging success, 
196. An incident, 197. Need of 
religious instruction, 198. Heady 
for the truth, 198. Conclusion, 
199. Discussion, 200. 
Gauhati, " History of the Field," 41. 
Origin and woi-kers, 41, 24. Ward 
left, 24. Danforth came, 24, 49. 
Peck arrives at, 33. Mrs. Scott 
comes to, 35. Stoddards, 51. 
Ghinai licensed, 33. Station, 45. 
Zayat, 49. School work, 50, 65. 
Church in station, 47. Normal 
school, 55. Outside work, 46. 
Village schools, 51. Garo work', 
50. Rabhas and Kacharis, 51. 
Kolhs, 52. Omed, 55. Burdetts 
go to, 73. Baptisms, 52. Progress, 
47. Association, 51. Condition and 
Prospect, 53. 
German, Lutheran Mission, 26, 32. 
Ghinai, 33, 2G9. 
Goal para, 279. Miss Bronson died 

at, 36. School, 51, 54, 73, 74. 
Oodhula, 80. Ordained, 82. Left the 

work, 82. Hand of fellowship 

withdrawn, X. 
Goldsmith, Rev. Tuni, 37, 38. 
Gosjoel, not proclaimed, 25. 
Government grant-in-aid, 35. For 

tools, 74. 
Government of A., 6. 
Gurne;/, Mrs. M. L., 285. "History 

of Sibsagar Field" by, 20. " Our 

Missionary Dead" by, 234. 
Gurnet), Rev. A. K., 284. Appointed, 

26. " Work, 27. Baptized Kolhs, 

27, 28. Tour, 28. Translation, 28, 
114. To America, 29. Tour and 
baptized at Makrung, 29. " Bible 
in Assamese " by, 113. " Self-sup- 
port " by, 116. 

Hai/den, Rev. Lucien B., 32. 

Healing, 99. 

Heffron, Cordelia, 287. 

Hendura, 278. 

Henrif, 86. 

ffi»,"Mrs., 185. 

Hill tract, 2. 

Hill tribes, ethnical relation of, 6. 

Religion of, 16. In Nowgong, 31. 
Hindi, 28. 
Hindu, 14, 31, 38. Castes of, 14, 

Belief, 39. Scriptures, 55. 
Hi7iduit<m, adopted by Ahoms, 4. 

Variety of, 13. Central thought 

of, 15. Formalities of, 15. Says, 

Hind.Uiitanee, Santals speak, 27. 
Holroi/d, Capt., 24. 
Hou(/hton, Col., 266. 
Howes, Miss Delia S., see Mrs. Delia 

S. Mason. 
Howes, Miss Ella V., see Mrs. Ella 

V. Phillips. 
Hudhom, 83. 
Hukong valley, 20. 
Hymn book, 25, 34. 
Idolators, 14. 
Imported labor, 10. 
hnporfs, 8, 9, 10. 
luhahitants. No. of, 5. 
Intemperance, 78, see beer. 
Indo-Chinese, 5. 

Industrial work, 74. Schools, 180. 
Jaipur, work at, 20. First converts, 

22. Driven to, 20. Driven from, 

Jenkins, Major, 20. 
Joising, 275. 

Jones,' lle.v. T. J., VIII, 217, 280. 
Jorhat, 21. Prince at, 24. 



Jubilee Hymn, XIV, 19. 

Judges of A., 6. 

Judson, 153. 

Jurimon, 272. 

Kachari, ethnical relation of, 6. No. 
of, 6. Belief of, 17, 219. In Gau- 
hati, 51. 

Kachins, 222, 226. 

Kandura, see Rev. K. Smith. 

Kandura Bura, 266. 

Keeler, Miss Orrell C, 285. At Now- 
gong, 36, 186. Alone, 37. To 
America, 37, 38. Work, 38. 
" Woman's work among the Assa- 
mese " by, 184. Death, 191. 

Keith, Mrs. P. A., 285, 73, 193. 

Keith, Rev. T. J., 285, 75. Arrival, 60. 
Departure, 62. Letter from, 279. 

Khamtis, 20, 222. Insurrection of, 21. 

Khasi Hills, rainfall, 2. Property 
relations, 201. Mission to, 213. 
Work among, slow, 182. Church 
giving, 142. Music taught, 216. 

Kolhs, 24. Notice of, 26. Number 
of, 27. Speak Assamese, 27. Bap- 
tisms, 26, 27, 29. Witter rejoiced 
in, 29. Witter left, 90. Reason 
for decrease, 29. Character of 
work for, 30. Dependent, 123. 
Duties of, 124. Poverty, 125. 
Need of education, 181. In Gau- 
hati, 52. 

Kincaid, Journey to Sadiya, 20. 

Kilingmen, 82. 

King, Mrs. Anna, 286, 37, 85, 86. 

King, Rev. C. D., 285, 37. Appointed, 
84. Formed Church, 86. 

Kochis, invasion of, 4. 

Kohima, expedition from, 19. From 
Wokha, 89. King arrives at, 85, 89. 
Mrs. King arrives at, 86. School, 
86. Baptisms, 87. Church, 86. 

Kolibor, 23. 

Labor, division of, 103. 

Languages, 5. 

Law, Harriet B., 284. 

Lawrence, Mary F., 285. 

Laziness, 227. 

Letters, extracts from, to the Confer- 
ence from former missionaries, 263. 
From Mrs. Jane W. Barker, 263. 
Rev. I. J. Stoddard, 265. Mrs. 
Philbrick, 268. Rev. Cyrus F. and 
Mary B. Tolman, 271. Rev. M. B. 
Comfort, 274. Mrs. Jennie E. 
Comfort, 276. Rev. R. E. Neighbor, 
277. Rev. T. J. Keith, 279. 

Lhota, see Nagas. 

Lish, Mr., 211. 

Literary work for Garos, 74. Too 
much, 128. 

Literature, Christian, 74, 107. 

Livingstone, 146. 

Li/rmen, 83. 

Mackeypur, 27, 28. 

Madras, 138. 

Manipur, 19. 

Maplesden, Rev. E., 37. 

Marriage of Kolhs, 28. 

Mason, Miss Stella H., 66. 

Mason, Mrs. Clara A., 285, 259. 

Mason, Mrs. Delia S., 285, 256. 

Mason, Rev. M. C, 285. Industrial 
work, 74. Goes home, 65. Divides 
work, 66. " Methods of mission 
work," Paper, by, 96. 

Maulmein, 22. 

Mead, Mary J., see Mrs. Clark. 

Medicine, 110, 111, 218. 

Medical Mission, 216. 

Merangkonq, 80, 82. 

Merit, 15. 

" Methods of mission work," see Mis- 
sion work. 

Mihirs, ethnical relation of, 6. No. 
of, 6. Belief of, 17. Where live, 
34. Plead for the Gospel, 272. 
Schools for, 35. Tolman arrives 
for, 34. Scott designated to, 34. 
First converts, 34. Sarlok sent to, 
37. Neighbor designated to, 53. 

Miracle, 99, 111. 

Miris, 221. 

Mishmis, 18, 19, 221, 

Mission money, 105. 

" Mission Schools, claims and conduct 
of," Paper, 166. I claims, 166. 
Presumption in favor of schools, 
167. Written t^crijitures neces- 
sitate some literary education, 168. 
The gift of teaching points to 
school work, 169. Other than mis- 
sion schools fail to cooperate with 
the missionary, 170. For financial 
support, 171. Objections, 172. II. 
Conduct, 173. Method of instruc- 
tion, 174. Dialect, 176. Branches 
of study, 177. Extent of instruc- 
tion, 178. Discipline, 179. Female 
education, 180. Industrial schools, 
180. Personal presence of the 
missionary, 180. Discussion, 181. 

" Mission work, methods of," Paper, 
96. Gniding principles of, 96. 



Preach, 96. Persuade, 97. Clmri- 
ties, 98. Signs, 99. Teach, 101. 
Character, 101. Application of 
principles, 102. United effort, 
102. Division of labor, 103. 
Know your field, 103. Plan, 
104. Native helpers, 104. Mis- 
sion money, 105. Strengthen 
converts, 105. Organized churches, 
106. Business laymen, lOG. Chris- 
tian literature, 107. Manner of 
preaching, 107. Attitude toward 
natives, 108. Toward Europeans, 
109. General supervision, 109. 
Discussion, 110. 
" Mission work in A. by other So- 
cieties," see Assam. 
Missionaries, first, 20, 146. Jaipur, 
21. Converts relation to, 118. 
Dependence on, 119. Work of, 
214. Table of, 283. 
" Missionai-ies' wives, work for," 
Paper, 203. Drawbacks, 205. Loss 
of time, 205> Expenses, 2U6. 
Sacrifices, 206. Zeal, 208. Lack 
of interest in the work, 208. Each 
for hei-self must decide how to be 
useful, 210. Blessings to husbands, 
Missionary concert, 152, 156. 
Missionary dead, our," Paper, 234. 
Kev. Jacob Thomas. 234. Mrs. 
Thomas, 235. Miss Rhoda Bron- 
son, 235. Eev. Cyrus Barker, 235. 
Rev. G. Daublc, 236. Rev. E. P. 
Scott, 236. Mrs. Ruth Montague 
Bronson, 237. Miss Marie Coats 
Bronson, 237. Rev. A. H. Dan- 
forth, 238. Mrs. Danforth Bron- 
son, 240. Mr. and Mrs. Oliver T. 
Cutter, 241. Rev. Wm. Ward, D.D., 
243. Mrs. Cordelia Ward, 245. 
Mrs. Susan R. Ward, 245. Rev. S. 
M. Whiting, 246. Rev. Nathan 
Brown, D. D., 248. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Brown, 250. Rev. Miles Bronson 
D. D., 252. Mrs. Delia S. Mason, 
256. Mrs. Clara A. Mason, 259. 
" Missionary Spirit in our churches, 
necessity of and how best deve- 
loped," Paper, 144. Necessity, 
144. Thorough instruction in the 
Word, 147. Meetings for young 
native converts, 150. Missionary 
nurseries are Sabbath school, 151. 
Missionary concert, 152. Ph:em- 
plification of the word by those 

who teacl) it, 152. Owned and 
blessed by the Holy Spirit, 155. 
Discussion, 155. 

Modhupur, 27, 28. 

Moifounrj, 20. 

Mokriin}/, 27, 29. 

Moll ke,' Count, 213. 

Molumj, established, 81. Church, 
165. Riveuburgs designated to, 
29. Home at, 82. Clark left, 83. 
Baptized at, 83. 

Monotheism, 13. 

Moore, Jessie T., 285, 37. 

Moorr, Rev. P. H., 285. Arrived, 37. 
Visits Molung, 90. " General view 
of Assam" by, 1. "History of 
Nowgong Field " by, 31. " Need 
of a Native Ministry " by, 157. 
Discussion opened by, 231. 

Morton, Capt., 56. 

Mnndari, 26. 

Mupungzuket, 82. 

3Iiissid)nan, invaders, 4. Belief of, 

15. Where found, 15. In Now- 
gong. 31, 38. 

Mustard, 10. 

Mutiny, 24. 

Nagas, Angami, " Historical Sketch 
of A. N. Mission," 84. Chai-acter, 
84. Dress, &c., 85. Demon wor- 
shipers, 85. No books, 85. Bri- 
tish occupy, 85. Work for, 37. 
King appointed to, 84. School, 
86. Compared with Lhotas, 93. 
Left, 154. Rivenburg requested to 
occupy, 280. 

Nar/as, Ao, " Historical Sketch of A. 
N. Mission," 80. Ethnical rela- 
tion, 6. Territory, 2. Religion, 

16. Work commenced for, 21. 
Accessible, 25. Native preacher 
sent, 26, 80. Clark designated to, 
26. Went to, 81. Molung estab- 
lished, 81. Mrs. Clark arrives, 
81. Rivenburgs designated to, 29. 
Schools, 81, 82. Baptized, 24, 25, 
80, 81, 83. Church formed, 81. 
Discipline, 82. Excuse for vices, 
227. Books for," 83, 182. Well 
off, 141. 

Naijas, Lhota, " Historical Sketch of 
L. N. Mission," 88. Description 
of, 93. No. of, 94. Boundary of, 
94. Belief of, 94. Language, 89. 
Witters go to, 90. First teaching 
of, 91. School, 92, 94. Roman 
character used, 92. First Primer, 



92. Cateuliisiii, '.(2. Love of music, 
iH. Hope for, 'J3. 

Nartas, near Mukuni, 225. 

Nugas, other tribes, 95, 225. 

Nagas, Sema, 225. 

Nam Sang, 21. 

Native Christian, dependence on mis- 
sion, 23. \10^- 

Native helpers, 104, attitude towards, 

" Native Ministry, need of and how 
to supply it," Paper, 157. Intro- 
duction, 157. Definition, 158 The 
need, 158. Materials for evan- 
gelists, 159. Method of training, 
160. The agency for training, 161. 
School, 161. Discussion, 163. 

Needham, A., 18. 

Neighbor, Rev. R. E. and Mrs., 285. 
arrived, 35, 18G. Alone, 36. Letter 
from, 277. 

Newspaper, Assamese, 23. Garo, 76. 

New Testament, 113. 

Nidhi Levi, first convert, 22. Hymns, 
25. Translation, 113, 115. 

Nisangram, 56, 73, 196. 

Nonoi, 35. 

Norkha, 217. 

Normal school, Nowgong, 36. Gau- 
hati, 55. Garo, 65. 

Nowgong, " History of the N. Field," 
31. Populations of, 31, 38. Stod- 
dards arrive, 31. Bronsons leave for 
America, 31. Church organized, 

31. Daiible came to, 32. Bronson 
returned to, 32. Miss Shaw joins, 

32. Bungalow built, 32. Church 
gives license, 32, 33, 34. Confer- 
ence, 33. Baptisms, 32. Church 
members, 33, 39. Church rules as 

• to opium eating, 229. Tolraan 
arrives, 34. Bronson returns to, 
34. Scott died, 35. Miss Sweet 
came to, 36. Charles pastor, 36. 
Miss Keeler comes to, 36, 38. 
Moores arrive, 37. Tuni pastor, 

37. Miss Brandt at, 37. Supports 
evangelist, 37. Self-support, 38. 
Deacons, 38. Miss Parssell arrives, 

38. Mission behind, 38. 

Nowgong, (Merangkung), 82. 

Noivgong Orphan Institution, estab- 
lished, 31, 32, 184. Flourishing, 
32. Small-pox, 268. Modified, 33. 
Closed, 165, 185. 

Old Testament, 114. 
Oined, 50. Sketch of, 54, 55. Ordain- 
ed, 56. 

Opium, 141, 227, 229. 

Ordination, first, 36. 

Onmodoi, 23, 28. 

Oslorne, Rev. H., 27. 

Outcast, 14. 

Out stations, first, 34, second, 35. 

Peck, Rev. Dr., 24, 33. 

Petroleum, 11. 

Philbrick, Mrs., 284. Marries Daiible, 
32. In Nowgong Orphan Scliool, 
268. In Camp., 269, 271. Leaves 
for America, 33, 271. Letter from, 

Phillips, Mrs. Ella V., 286, 256. 
Health broken, 65. Restored, 66, 
111. " Work for missionaries' 
wives, " Paper by, 203. 

Phillips, Rev. E. G., 285,256. Leaves 
for America, 65. Returned, 66. 
Work divided with Mason, 66. 
" Historical Sketch of the Garo 
Field " by, 54. " Mission work in 
Assam by other Societies," Paper 
by, 211. 

Plan, 101, 110, 111. 

Police, Inspector General of, 6. No. 
of, 7. 

Politics, 7. 

Polytheism., 13. [12. 

Population, 5, 18. Religion of, 11, 

Pooja, plot at, 24. 

Post Office, 8. 

Potsowo, 94. 

Potter, Mary A., 287. 

Preachers, need of, 158. Witter 
troubled for, 29. Black, 110. Sent 
by, 120. Lack of, 125. How to 
get, 126—128. Discussion, 128. 

Preaching, manner of, 107. Among 
Khasis, 111. 

Presbytery, 215. 

Presents, 121. 

Press, sent from Burmah, 20. At 
woi'k, 23. Dictionary from, 25. 
Drain of, 28. Sold, 29. For Garo 
work, 76. 

Priests, 14. 

Psnlms, 25. 

Public Works, 7. 

Punaram, 85. 

Purssell, Miss Nettie L., 286, 38. 

Rahhas, 51. 

Raihvays, 10. 
Rainfall, 2. 

Rajasimla, 73. Founded, 56. Bap- 
tized at, 56. 
Ram, 55. 



Ramkhe, 48, 50. Skptcli of, 54. 

EmnKinti, 23. 

Rini<ikliii, 5(5. 

Banlcin, Mary, see Mrs. Mary Eankin 

Read, how many can F 115. 

Reading room, 108. 

Religion, 11. Table of, 12. 

Resolutions passed at the Conference, 
280, 281, 282. 

Rest-house, Witters occupy, 91. 

Revenue, 8, 11. 

Rice beer, see beer. 

Rivenbnrg, Rev. S. W. and Mrs., 286. 
Designated, 29. Home at Molung, 
82. " Historical Sketch of Ao 
Naga Mission " by, 80. " Histori- 
cal Sketch of Angami Naga Mis- 
sion" by, 84. " Tithes," Paper by, 
132. Discussion opened by, 227. 

Roads, 10. 

Roberts, Rev. J. and Mrs., 215. 

Robi, 83. 

Roto, Rev. I. F., VII, VIII, XI, XII, 
129, 143, 201, 217. 

Rungpore, 22. 

Russell, Miss Miriam, Arrival, 63, see 
Mrs. Burdette. 

Sabbath breaking, 228, 229. 

Sadiya, first station, 20, 221. Broken 
up, 21. Visited by Whiting, 21. 

Samagotiitg, 85. 

Sanitai-iiiin, 7. 

Santals, No. of, 27. Mission to, 213. 

Sarbei/, 86. 

Sarlok, 37. 

Schools, Inspector of, 6, 7. No. of, 7. 
Priestly monopoly, 15. Special 
effort for, 29. Sibsagar, 23. Now- 
gong, 31. Advance of, 38. Now- 
gong Orphan School, 31, 185. Goal- 
para, 54. Gauhati, 49, 55. Garo 
girls, 73, 183. Garo Normal, 65. 
English, 67, 71. Village, 67. Sta- 
tion, 70. Bengali taught in, 71. 
Scripture in, 71. Manual work in, 
72, 74, 180. Plan of Garo, 69. For 
Nagas, 81, 82. At Kohima, 86. 
Lhota Naga, 92. Khasis, 182, 218. 
Presumption in favor of, 167. Self- 
supporting, 116. Powerless to 
mould character, 181. 
Schools, boarding, 200. 
Schools, mission, see mission schools. 
Scott, Mrs. Anna K., 286, 34. Alone, 
35. School work, 35, 49. Proposal 
to return. 111. 

Scott, Rev. E. P., 286. Arrived, 34. 
Died, 35, 236. 

Scriptures, Gurney appointed to 
translate, 26. Necessitate educa- 
tion, 168. 

Self-management, 117. 

" Self-support," Paper, 116. Rela- 
tion of converts to the missionary, 
118. Dependent, 119. Ignorance, 

123. Habit and lack of training, 

124. Lack of outside stimulus, 125. 
Poverty, 125. 

Sema, see Nagas. 

Sepni/s, mutiny of, 24. 

Shans, asked to work for, 20, 222, 

Sliasteis, offence to hear, 15. 
Share, Miss M. S., see Mrs. Philbrick. 
Shillong, 6. Preaching at. 111, 217. 
Shrines, 14. 
Sihsagar, " History of the S. Field," 

20. Tea district, 27. Population, 
22. Telegraph, 22. Barker came 
to, 21. Brown and Cutter came to, 

21, 23. Peck arrives at, 33. Dan- 
forth at, 24. Position for mission 
work, 22. Baptisms, 25. First 
Nagas baptized, 80, 81. Church 
members, 23. Interest in Church, 
28, 29. Church resembles, 117. 
Schools, 23. Mutiny, 24. Ward 
came, to 25. Whitings left, 25. Bron- 
son at, 25 Clark at, 25. Gurney 
at, 26, 29. Witters at, 29. Riven- 
bnrgs in, 29. Kings escape to, 85. 
Witters left, 90. 

Signs, 99, 111. 

Sin, 14. 

Singphos, 20. 

Sirism, 13. 

Smith, Rev. Kandura R., ordained, 

36, 44. Baptized Kolhs, 52. Teaches, 

55. Resigned, 49. 
Smitheman, Rev. J. P., 212. 
Soil, 3. 

Soraikurung, 51. 
Sol Soi, 268. 

S. P. G. Mission, 52, 212. 
Sfeamei-s, 10. 
St i lie lids, 71. 
Stoddard, Mrs., 286, 31. 
Stoddard, Rev. I. J., 286. Arrives, 

31, 185, 265. To Garos, 57, 265. 

Leaves for America, 33. Letter 

from, 265. 
Studlen, F. A., 284. 
Sunday-School, 130, 151, 216. 



Superstition, 18. 

Supervision, general, 109. 

Surma valley, 2, 5, 6. 

Siveet, Anna K., sec Mrs. King. 

TaUe of imports and exports, 9. 
Of population, 12. Of Nowgong 
church, 39. Of Nowgong mis- 
sionaries, 40. Of statistics, 1886. 

Ta7ik of Sibsagar, 21. 

Tea, 9. Labor in, 10. 

Teach, 101. 

Teachers, village, pay of, 69. Pledge 
to be, 72. Indigenous, 73. Train- 
ed in work 131. Exemplification of 
the work, by, 152. Purpose of, 169. 

Telegraph, 8. 

Temperance, 229, 230. 

Temperature of A., 3. 

Temple, 21. 

Tezpur, Daiible baptized at, 32. Endle 
of, 52. 

Thangkhan, in America, 73, 75. 

Thibet, road to, 18. 

Thebzothu, 95. 

Theological school, 126, 161, 163, 232. 

Thomas, Mrs., 286, 235. 

Thomas, Rev. Jacob, 286. Killed, 20, 

Thomas, Rev. Charles S., 33, 35. 
Ordained, 36. 

Tiffany, Hattie E., 286. 

Tiok, 27. Gurney visits, 28. 

" Tithes," Paper, 132. Definition, 
132. Historical authority, 133. 
Profane, 133. Jewish, 133. New 
Testament, 136. Interpretation by 
the early Church, 137. Missionary 
experience, 138. Conclusion, 139. 
Is it binding on us, 139. Our duty 
to our converts, 139. Discussion, 
142. Of missionaries, 154. 

Tobacco, 141. 

Tolman, Mrs. Mary R., 287, Married 
and baptized, 263, 272. Letter from, 

Tolman, Rev. Cyrus, F., 286. Arrived, 
34. Learned to read Assamese, 
272. Letter from, 271. 

Tracts, 38, 50, 108, Omed reads, 55. 
Witter distributes, 93, 115. Sale of, 

Traffic, 10. 

Translation, method of, 76. Dialects 

Transmigration, 17. 

Trevor, Jessie F., 285. 

Tripp, licensed to preach, 32. 

True Refuge, 266. 

Tungbangla, 82. 

Tura, see Garo. Stations distance 
from, 77. Visited by Missionaries, 
59, 61. 

Vices, prevailing, discussion on, 227. 
Laziness, 227. Opium using, 227, 
Drinking, 228. Sabbath breaking. 
228. Neglect of worship, 228. 

Vishnuism, 13. 

Ward, Mrs. Cordelia, 287, 245. 

Ward, Mrs. Susan R., 287, 25. School, 
49, 222. Death, 245. 

Ward, Rev. Wm., D. D., 287. Left 
Gauhati, 24. At Sibsagar, 25. 
Baptized, 25, 26. Bible class, 232. 
Translation, 113. Death, 243. 

Waterbury, Rev. N. M., 138, 154. 

Weeks, Mr. A. W., 74. 

Weston, Jane, see Mrs. Barker. 

Whiting, Mrs. Elizabeth, 287, 24. 

WJiiting, Rev. S. M., 287. Visits 
Sadiya, 21. Baptized 25, 80. 
Mutiny, 24. Translation, 113, 
115. Death, 246. 

Wiilsey, Sarah M., 284. 

Witter, Mrs. Mary P., 287, 29. Teach- 
ing, 91 . Visiting women, 92. 

Witter, Rev. W. E., 287. At Sibsagar, 
29. Visits Molung, 90. Decides 
to go to Wokha, 90. Arrived at 
Wokha, 91. Isolated, 225. At 
Kohima, 91. Baptized, 29. Preach- 
ing, 93. Translations, 92. " Jubilee 
Hymn " by, XIV. " Historical 
Sketch of the Lhota Naga 
Mission" by, b8. "The necessity 
of a Missionary Spirit in our 
Native churches and how best 
develo2Ded," by, 144. 

Wokha 89, 90, 93. 225. 

Wokha tea estate, 90. 

Woman's Society of the West, 36. 

" Woman's work among the As- 
samese," see Assamese. 

" Work for Garo Women " see Garos. 

Yazang, 83. 

Young converts, discussion on, 231. 

Zayul valley, 18. 

Zenana, 36, 37, 187. 

Zilli, 82. 

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