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Institute fop g{ 
Eaatan Adjustas^it 



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KRANK W. BOOTH, - - Editor 
S. G. DAVIDSON, Assooiatk Editor 

Volume V 


- - • - - 



Printed at the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 

Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Penn. 

^ " • • • 

• • • 


Acoustic Problem, An, by G. Ferreri, 290. 

Acousticon, The, editorial, 200. 

Adams, Mabel Ellery* Self-Criticism, 90; ref. to, 53. 

Adenoid Growths, 427. 

A Fundmental Error, from Atlantic Educational Journal, 178. 

Agricultural School for the Deaf, An, by Lars A. Havstad, 421. 

Akoulalion, Trying the Use of the, Mabel EUery Adams, a review, 53. 

Alabama School for the Deaf, see Talladega, Ala., School. 

Allen, Edward E., Announcement of Meeting of Department of Special 

Education, 201; Proceedings of Department of Special Education, 

343; ref. to, 201. 
American Annals of the Deaf, reviews of, 53, 144, 273, 381, 453; statistics 

from, 94, 190, 196. 
American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, 

Report of Meeting of the Board of Directors, 97; The Annual Meet 

ing, editorial, 197; Call for Annual Meeting, 204; Report of Annual 

Meeting, 363; editorial on Annual Meeting, 399; Membership List 

of, 481. 
American Institutions for the Education of the Deaf, by G. Ferreri, a 

review, 465. 
American School at Hartford, for the Deaf, see Hartford. Conn., School. 
American Schools, To study, editorial, 289. 
American Teacher, The, William H. Maxwell, 177. 
Amman, John Conrad, 474. 
Among the Schools, editorial, 401. 
Anagnos, M., 210. 

An Educational Neglect, by Edward B. Nitchie, 415. 
Archibald, Carrie H., 27. 
Argiolas, Antonio L, Some Thoughts on Teaching Arithmetic to the 

Deaf, a review, 465. 
Argo, William K., 296, 479. 
Arithmetic, Methods in, by Barton Sensenig, 132. 
Arithmetic, Thoughts on Teaching to the Deaf, by Antonio I. Argiolas. 

a review, 465. 
Armstrong, T. H., The Relation of Geography to other Subjects of a 

Course of Study, 169. 
Art in Gennan Schools, by H. Hoffmann, a review, 276, 384. 
Auricular Training, 53, loi, 290. 
Austin, Texas, School, review of report, 54. 
Ajrrolo, Professor, Report of National Institution for Deaf Boys, Buenos 

Aires, a review, 68. 
Baldrian, Karl, 424. 

Banerji, J. N., Education of the Deaf in India, a review, 449. 
Barbier, Karl. A Contribution to Psycho Pathology, a review, 459. 
Barrett, E. M., 145. 
Bejarano, Eloy, 424. 

1 V Index. 

Bell, Alexander Graham, Call for Annual Meeting of the Association, 
204; Historical Notes Concerning the Teaching of Speech to the 
Deaf, 369; refs. to, 97, 98, 265, 266, 299, 348, 365, 367, 474. 

Bell, A. Melville, 142, 231, 236, 237, 238, 240, 255, 395. 

Bell, Mrs. Mabel Gardiner, 456. 

Berlin, Germany, Schools, review of report, 63. 

Bessant Memorial Fund, 147. 

Bezold, Professor, Auricular Experiments, a review, 61, 163; ref. to, loi 

Bible Stories from the Old Testament for Children, 470. 

Binner, Paul, 26^ 

Blake, Clarence J., on Sense Defects and Impediments, 356; ref. to, 361. 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung, reviews of, 151, 384. 

Blind-Deaf, see deaf-Blind. 

Blomkvist, J., 287. 

Bonet, Mr., 61. 

Booth, F. W., The Annals Statistics, 94; the Death of Dr. Ladreit de 

Lacharriere, 400; Report of Committee on Statistics of Defective 

Sight and Hearing in Public School Children, 436; Helen Keller 

Day at the Exposition, 469; Mr. Hitz in Europe, 474; refs. to, 98, 

361, 362, 364, 367. 
Boyeson, Eyvind, 421. 
Boyd, Hypatia, 25, 26. 
Braidwood, Thomas, 372. 
Brandt, Francis Burke, Influence of the Study of the Unusual Child upon 

the Education of the Usual, 346. 
Breckenridge, Mary S., James, an Unusual Pupil, 228. 
British Biblography of the Education of the Deaf, by A. Farrar, Jr., a 

review, 448. 
Broome, Edwin C, Excess Drill on Non-Essentials, 179. 
Brucke, Ernest, 238. 

Buenos Aires School, review of report, 68. 
Burritt, O. H.. 361. 

Burt, William, Report of the Edgewood Park, Pa., School, a review, 145. 
California, Day Schools in, 210, 299. 
Camp, Anna R., loi, 273. 
Campbell, Charles F. F., The Influence of the Study of the Unusual Child 

upon the Education of the Usual, 347. 
Campe, J. H., 151. 
Carter, Franklin, 148. 
China, The School in, editorial, 289. 
Christiania, Norway, School, 22. 
Qarke, Francis D., 296. 

Clarke School for the Deaf, see Northampton, Mass., School. 
Cadmus, or a Treatise on the Elements of Written Language, ref. to, 406. 
Carpenter, Lula E., 453. 
Church for the Deaf at Copenhagen, 458. 
Claremont Institution at Dublin, 447. 
Cleary, Edward P., 272. 
Goud, Rev. James H., 209. 
Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, see Washington, D. C , 

College and School. 
Columbus, Ohio. Private School, 212. 
Compulsory Education and its Relation to the Defective Classes, by 

Henry W. Rothert, 181. 
Congress of the Federation of German Teachers of the Deaf. 477. 

Index. ▼ 

Conditions that should assure Success in Teaching a Deaf Child to 
Speak, by B. Thallon, a review. 285. 

Conference of Superintendents and Principals, The Meeting of the, 294. 

Contribution to Psycho Pathology, A, by Karl Barbier, a review, 459. 

Cooley, Frank M., Department Work in Grammar Schools, 175. 

Copenhagen, Denmark, Deaf-Mute Congregation, 164. 

Copenhagen, Denmark, Schools, 17. 

Cornnian, Oliver P., The Most Neglected Pupil, 76. 

Corrections, 211. 

Correlation of Studies, from Lone Star Weekly, 86. 

Crockett, Eugene A., Sense Defects and Impediments, 359. 

Crouter, A. L. E., Report of the Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, School, a review, 
272; refs. to, 97, 98, 296, 352, 363, 364, 3^5, 366. 

Current Educational Literature, 72, 165. 

Current History in the School Room, by J. L. Smith, 112. 

Currier, Enoch Henry, The Acousticon, 200. 

Daily Plan, The, by Margaret Stockman Dickson, 165. 

Danger, O., Sketch of August Frese, 318. 

Danish Schools, statistics of, 457. 

Data from Institutions for the Deaf, by Frank B. Yates, a review, 379. 

Davidson, S. G., on Classification. 79; Latin and Grammar. 81: Our New 
Departments, 89: Public Gifts in 1902, 91; Homophenous Words, 
92; Wisconsin State Inspector, 93: The Annual Meeting. 197; The 
Acousticon, 200; The School in China, 289; The London Conference, 
290; The Statistics of Speech Teaching, 315; The Boston Meetings, 
399; Among the Schools. 401: Old Testament Stories, 470; ref. to, 97. 

Day Schools in California. 201, 299. 

Day Schools, remarks on, by Alexander Graham Bell, 266. 

Deaf-Blind, refs. to, 145, 148; Ragnhild Kaata, 281; Helen Keller, 274; 
Helen Keller Day at the Exposition, 471. 

Deaf Graduates of American Universities, by James Howson, 450. 

Deaf Teachers, from The Companion, 467. 

Defective Hearing, in '*An Educational Neglect," by Edward B. Nitchie. 


Defective Sight and Hearing in Public School Children, Committee on 
Statistics, 361 ; Report of Committee, 436. 

Department of Special Education, Announcement of Meeting, 201; Pro- 
gramme of. 296; Proceedings of, by Edward E. Allen. 343; editorial 
on, 399; Report of Committee on Statistics of Defective Sight and 
Hearing in Public School Children, 436. 

Department Work in Grammar Schools, by Frank M. Cooley, 175. 

Detroit Day Schools for the Deaf — illustrated, 322. 

Development of the Speech of Children and its Hindrances, by Hermann 
Gutzmann, reviews, 160, 456. 

Development of the Senses, from Iowa Hawkeye, 85. 

Dickson, Marguerite Stockman, The Daily Plan, 165. 

Die Kinderfehler, reviews of, 160, 459. 

Dobyns, J. R., 479. 

Donaldson Hospital. Edinburgh, 449. 

Dum Fool Things, by Paul Piper, 79. 

Edgewood Park. Pa.. School, review of report, 145. 

Editorials: Our New Departments, 89: Self-Criticism. 90; Public Gifts 
in 1002, 91; Homophenous Words, 92; Wisconsin State In<!pector, 
93: The Annals Statistics,' 94; The Annual Meeting. 197: Teaching 
by Indirection, 199; The Acousticon. 200: The School in China, 289; 
To study American Schools. 289; The London Conference, 290; An 
Acoustic Problem, 290; Training and Knowledge, 292; The Statistics 

vi Index. 

of Speech Teaching, 315; The Boston Meetings, 399; The Death of 
Dr. Ladreit de Lacharriere, 400; Among the Schools, 401; Helen 
Keller Day at the Exposition, 469; Old Testament Stories, 470: 
Teach Language Idiomatically, 471; Mr. Hitz in Europe, 474. 

Education of Teachers of the Deaf in Europe, by A. F. Nystrom, a re- 
view, 57- 

EfiFata, a review, 164. 

Eliot, Charles W., The Needs of American Public Education, 72. 

El Sordomudo Argentino, reviews of, 68, 388. 

Emplovment of Partial Hearing of Pupils, by W. Merkel, loi. 

Excess Drill on Non- Essentials, by Edwin C. Broome, 179. 

Faribault, Minn., School, Current History Teaching in the, 112. 

Farrand, Wilson, Kindergartens, 173. 

Farrar, A., Jr., The Relative Value of Speech and Lip-Reading, 429; 
British Bibliography of the Education of the Deaf, ref. to, 448. 

Fay, E. A., How can the Term "Charitable" be justly applied to the 
Education of any Child? 353; Resolutions on Joseph Claybaugh 
Gordon, 362; rcfs. to, 352, 382. 

Fay, Gilbert O., Report of the American School at Hartford for the 
Deaf, a review, 444. 

Fechheimer, Mrs. L. S., 97. 

Fernald, Walter E., Special Pupils in Public Schools, 351; ref. to, 352. 

Ferreri, Gherardo, The Voice in Language and in Song, a review, 395. 

Ferreri, Giulio, A Visit to the Schools for the Weak-Minded Deaf in Den- 
mark and Norway, translated from H. Stelling, 16; Some Didactic 
Questions, 254; The Vocabulary of our Pupils, a review, 274; An 
Acoustic Problem, 290; Teachers and Physicians, 423: American In- 
stitutions for the Education of the Deaf, a review, 466; refs. to. 387, 

Finckh, K., on Johann Kroger, a review, 279; Weaving in Schools for 

the Deaf, a review, 383. 
Finnish Schools, The, by John Hitz, 268. 
Fjortoft, J. A., Defects in Norwegian System of Deaf-Mute Education, 

a review, 382. 
Flatly, M. Stella, 27. 

Forchhammer, G., 56. 71, I57, 163, 275, 287, 39i. 
Formation and Development of Elementary English Sounds, by Caroline 

A. Yale, 12, 140, 231. 
Fomari, P., Requisites for a Teacher of Articulation, a review, 387; refs. 

to, 388, 389. 
Fredericia, Norway, School, 17. 
Freeman, J. N., 209. 
French Multiplication Table, 83. 
Frese, August, by O. Danger, 318. 
Fuller, Sarah, 97, 98, 368. 

Gallaudet College, see Washington, D. C, College and School. 
Gallaudet, E. M., Report of Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 

a review, 54; refs. to, 98, 209, 364, 366, 480. 
Gardner, Margaret, 298. 
Garrett, Mary, Report of Home for Training in Speech of Deaf Children, 

at Bala, Philadelphia, a review, 55. 
Geography, the Relation of, to the other Subjects of an Elementary 

Course of Study, by T. H. Armstrong, 169. 
Goodwin, E. McK., Report of the North Carolina School at Morganton, 

a review, 32. 
Gordon, Joseph C, Report of Jacksonville, 111., School, a review, 149; 

Index. vii 

Sketch of, by John Hitz, 213; Lip-Reading in the Indiana School, 
Thirty Years Ago, 316; Resolutions on, by Department of Special 
Education, 362; Testimonial to, by the American Association, 403; 
ref. to, 274. 

Goteborg, The Preparatory School at, by F. Nordin, a review, 60. 

"Grange" Reading Book for Deaf Children, by S. Kutner, a review, 

Green, D., 231. 

Greene, Mary C, Special Pupils in Public Schools, 348. 

Green, S. M., 209. 

Greener, Gussie, 27. 

Greenwood, Allen^ Sense Defects and Impediments, 358. 

Gruver, E. A., 360, 367. 

Guttman, H., 239. 

Gutzmann, H., Development of Speech in Children and its Hindrances, 
a review, 160. 

Hagerty, Thomas, 28. 

Hagstrom, A. J., 287. 

Hall, Frank H., The Influence of the Study of the Unusual Child upon 
the Education of the Usual, 344; ref. to, 352. 

Hall, Percival. 361. 

Halliday, Eve. 25, 26. 

Hamar, Norway, Schools, 20. 

Hamburg, Germany, School, review of report, 465. 

Hammond, Henry C, 209. 

Hansen, A., Instruction by the Ear, a review, 61. 

Hanson, Olof, The Sig^n Language in American Schools, 195; ref. to, 467. 

Hard-of-H earing, The, in Public Schools, from Lone Star Weekly, 87. 

Hartford, Conn., School, review of report, 444. 

Havstad, Lars A., An Agricultural School for the Deaf, 421. 

Heidsiek, John, 145. 

Hill, Moritz. Monument to, 57; His Principles of Speech Teaching, a re- 
view, 277. 

Historical Notes Concerning the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf— con- 
tinued, by Alexander Graham Bell, 369. 

Hitz, John, Sketch of Joseph Claybaugh Gordon, 213; The Finnish, 
Schools, 268; in Europe, editorial, 474. 

Hobart, Almira I., 28. 

HoflFgaard, Elias H., Ragnhild Kaata, 281. 

Hoffmann, H., Art in German Schools, a review, 276, 384. 

Home for the Deaf in Copenhagen, 459. 

Home for the Training in Speech of Deaf Children at Bala, Philadelphia, 
see Philadelphia, Bala, School. 

Homophenous Words, My List of, by Emma Snow, 29, 119, 241; editorial 
on, 92. 

Howard, James, 480. 

How can the Term "Charitable" be justly Applied to the Education of 
any Children? by E. A. Fay, 351;. by W. B. Wait, 354- 

Howson, James, Deaf Graduates of American Universities, 450. 

Hubbard, Mrs. Gardiner G., 97, 98, 365. 

Hull, Susanna E., Some Hints on the Practical Training of Teachers of 
the Deaf, a review, 447; ref. to, 146. 

Huntoon, B. B., 210. 

Hurd, E. G.. Training and Knowledge, 292. 

Hutton. A. J., 210. 

Idiocy, by Paul Sollier, a review, 392. 

viii Index. 

Idiomatic Language, by J. L. Smith, 471. 

Illinois Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, see Jack- 
sonville, 111., School. 

Illustrations, Illustrating Methods in Arithmetic, 136, 137; Dr. Joseph 
Claybaugh Gordon, op. page 213; Diagrams illustrating Statistics of 
Speech Teaching, 300; Illustrating work in Detroit Day Schools, 

India, Education of the Deaf in, a review, 449. 

Industrial Education of the Deaf in Germany, a review, 385. 

Influence of the Study of the Unusual Child upon the Education of the 
Usual, by Frank H. Hall, 344; by George E. Johnson, 345; by Francis 
Burke Brandt, 346; by Charles F. F. Campbell, 347. 

Institution Press, The, 85, 181, 468. 

Ireland, Education of the Deaf in, 447. 

Isawa, Shinji, Visible Speech in Japan, a review, 395. 

Is Normal Sight Necessary, from The Silent Hoosier, 187. 

Jacksonville, 111., School, review of report, 149. 

James, An Unusual Pupil, by Mary S. Breckenridge, 228. 

Jenkins, Weston, Teaching by Indirection, 199; ref. to, 274. 

Johnson, George E., The Influence of the Study of the Unusual Child 
upon the Education of the Usual, 34s; ref. to, 352. 

Johnson, Joseph H., Report of Talladega, Alabama, School, a review, 
150; ref. to, 296. 

Johnson, Richard O., 98, 296, 366. 

Jones, J. W., 362. 

Jorgensen, Geo., 287. 

Jorgensen, Rev. Mr., 164. 

Kaata. Raprnhild. by Elias F. Hoffgaard. a review, 281. 

Keller, Helen. Day at the Exposition, editorial, 469; ref. to 274. 

Kiesel, Theodore A., 453. 

Kindergartens, by Wilson Farrand, 173. 

Kindergartens for the Deaf, by Ellen E. Taylor, i. 

Kinsey. M. E. I., 448. 

Kroger, Johann Heinrick, by K. Finckh, a review, 279. 

Kuntze, Walter, 386. 

Kutner, S., The "Grange" Reading Book for Deaf Children, a review, 

Kyoto, Japan, School for the Deaf and Blind, a review of report, 397. 

I.acharricre, Ladreit de, Death of, editorial, 400. 

Lamprecht, E., Life and Personal Book in the Institution fo«* the Deaf, 
154; ref. to, 163. 

Lange, Paul, 144, 145. 

Language and Education, from The Companion, 88. 

L'Educazione dei Sordomuti, reviews of, 163, 274, 389. 

Le Garde, Ellen, Special Pupils in Public Schools, 349. 

Lewis. F. Parke, 361. 

Libraries in Schools for the Deaf, by Helen T. Kennedy, a review, 381. 

Life and Personal Book in the Institution for the Deaf, by E. Lamprecht, 
a review, 154. 

Lindstrom, Lars Gustaf, 60. 

Lip-Reading in the Indiana School Thirty Years ago, by Joseph C. Gor- 
don, 316. 

Lip-Reading. The Relative Value of Speech and, by A. Farrar, Jr., 429. 

London Conference, The, editorial, 290. 

L'Sordomuto Argentino, a review, 288. 

Lyon, Edmund, 97, 98, 364, 366. 

Index. ix 

Mann, B. Pickman, 352. 

Marr, Thomas S., 466. 

Martin, A., Technical Training, a review, 448. 

Mashburn^ Arthur G., 453. 

Maxwell^ William H., The American Teacher, 177. 

McCowan, Mary, 209. 

McDill, Laura, 273. 

McKee, N. B., 209. 

McNulty, B. F., Report of the Austin, Texas, School, a review, 54. 

Membership List of the American Association to Promote the Teaching 

of Speech to the Deaf, 483. 
Memoria del Instituto Nacional de Sordomudos, Buenos Ayres, a review, 

Merkel, W., The Employment of Partial Hearing of Pupils, in Institu- 
tions for the Deaf, loi. 
Methods in Arithmetic, with an Original Method of Elucidating the 

Meaning of the Decimal 3.1416 in Circular Measure, by Barton 

Sensenig, 132. 
Milwaukee School Dedicatory Exercises, by Laura E. Pettapiece, 264. 
Minnesota School for the Deaf, see Faribault, Minn., School. 
Mitchell, James, 372. 
Monro. Sarah Jordan, Some Don'ts to be Observed in Teaching Speech 

to the Deaf, 49, 143, 271; ref. to, 390. 
Morganton, N. C, School, review of report, 52. 
Most Neglected Pupil, The. by Oliver P. Comman, 76. 
Mott, R. A.. Retirement of, 188. 

Mt. Airy. Philadelphia, School, review of report, 272; ref. to, 69. 
National Association of Teachers of the Deaf in Great Britain, a meeting 

of, 449. 
National Educational Association, from The Mentor, 85; Special An- 
nouncement, 202; ref. to, 97. 
New Members, lists of, 99, 403. 

New Brunswick School, The. from The Canadian Mute, 468. 
New Brunswick School for the Deaf, see St. Johns*, N. B., School. 
Newspapers and Periodicals quoted or referred to: 

American Annals of the Deaf, 53, 144, 190, 195, 273, 381, 453. 

Atlantic Educational Journal, 178. 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung, 151, 384. 

Booklovers* Magazine, 79. 

Canadian Mute^ 468. 

Christian Observer, 370, 372. 

Companion, 88, 188, 468. 

Deaf American, 467. 

Die Kinderfehler, 160, 459. 

EflFata, 164. 

Education, 169, 178. 

Educational Review, 173, 177. 

El Sordomudo Argentino, 68, 288, 388. 

Iowa Hawkeye, 84, 181. 

Kentucky Standard, 467. 

Leader, 415. 

L'Educazione dei Sordomuti, 163, 274, 389. 

Lone Star Weekly, 87, 88, 186. 

Mentor, 86. 

Messenger, 449. 

Minneapolis Times, 180. 

X Index. 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan, 56, 156, 287. 

Organ der Taubstummen Anstalten in Deutschland, 69, 276, 382. 

Popular Educator, 165. 

Rassegna della Educazione del Sordomuti, 387. 

Revue Internationale de Tenseignement des Sourds Muets, 285, 464. 

School Journal, 175. 

Silent Hoosier, 87, 187, 466. 

Silent Worker, 466. 

Smaablade for Dofstumme, 164. 

Teacher of the Deaf, 146, 447. 

Teacher, 76, 79. 

World's Work, 72. 

Nitchie, Edward B., Self Instructor in Lip-Reading, a review, 398; An 
Educational Neglect, 415. 

Nordin, F., The Preparatory School at Goteborg, a review, 60. 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan, reviews of, 56, 156, 287, 453. 

Northampton, Mass., School, review of report, 148. 

North Carolina School for Deaf and Dumb, see Morganton, N. C, 

Norway and Denmark, A Visit to the Schools for the Weak-Minded 
Deaf in, by H. Stelling, G. Ferreri, trans., 16. 

Norwegian Agricultural School, 153. 

Norwegian Schools, Statistics of, 455. 

Norwegian System of Deaf-Mutc Education, Defects in, by J. A. Fjortoft, 
a review, 332. 

Notes and Notices, 404, 479. 

Nyborg, Denmark, School, 17, 61, 157. 

Nystrom, A. F., Education of Teachers of the Deaf in Europe, reviews, 
57, 456. 

Observations regarding Deaf Children before they are of School Age, by 
Fr. Scheele, a review, 453. 

Old Testament Stories, editorial, 470. 

On Teaching the Surd, or Deaf and Consequently Dumb, to Speak, by 
William Thornton, 453. 

Organ der Taubstummen Anstalten in Deutschland, reviews of, 69, 276, 

Organization of Deaf-Mute Education, by Ch. Seel and H. Vahle, a re- 
view, 69. 

Our New Departments, editorial, 87. 

Pach. Alex. L., 466. 

Parker, W. D., First Annual Report as Wisconsin Inspector of Schools 
for the Deaf, so; ref. to. 25. 

Pedagogical Treatment of Deaf Mutes, by Eloy Bejarano, a review, 469. 

Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, see Philadelphia, Mt. 
Airy, School. 

Perkins Institute and Massachusetts School for the Blind, review of re- 
port, 147. 

Pettapiece, Laura E., Dedicatory Exercises at the Milwaukee School, 264. 

Philadelphia, Bala, School, review of report, 55; ref. to, 260. 

Philadelphia, Mt. Airy, School, review of report, 272; ref. to, 69. 

Physicians, Teachers and, by G. Ferreri, 423. 

Piper, Paul, Dum-fool Things, 79. 

Pope, Alvin E., 98, 209, 366, 469. 

Porter, Samuel, 237. 

Porter, Sarah Harvey, A Qear Voice Beyond the Sea, a review, 144. 

Porto, Portugal, School, review of report, 390. 

Index. xi 

Porto Rico School, 96. 

Present Condition of the Education of the Deaf in Some of the Countries 
of Europe, by A. F. Nystrom, reviews, 57, 456. 

Prince, John T., Special Pupils in Public Schools, 350. 

Public Gifts in 1902, editorial, 91. 

Radomski, I., Statistical Notes on German Schools for the Deaf, a re- 
view, 66. 
Rassegna della Educazione dei Sordomuti, a review, 587. 
Reed, Hypatia Boyd, 453. 
Reed, Katharine E., 453. 
Report of Committee on Statistics of Defective Sight and Hearing in 

Public School Children, by F. W. Booth, per A. G. B., 436. , 
Reports reviewed: 

Alabama School for the Deaf, at Talladega, 150. 

American School at Hartford for the Deaf, 444. 

Berlin, Germany, Schools, 63. 

Buenos Ayres School, 68. 

Clarke School for the Deaf, at Northampton, 148. 

Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Washington, D. C, 54. 

Hamburg, Germany, School, 465. 

Home for the Training in Speech of Deaf Children, at Bala, Phila- 
delphia, 55. 

Illinois Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Jacksonville, 149. 

Inspector of Schools for the Deaf, Madison, Wis., 50. 

Kyoto, Japan, School, 397. 

North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb, at Morganton, 52. 

Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Mt. Airy, Phila- 
delphia, 272. 

Porto, Portugal, School, 390. 

Texas Deaf and Dumb Asylum, at Austin, 54. 

Western Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Edge- 
wood Park, 145. 

Yorkshire, England, School, 66. 
Requirements in Teachers of the Deaf, by Susanna E. Hull, a review, 447. 
Requisites for a Teacher of Articulation, by P. Fomari, a review, 387. 
Resolutions regarding the St. Louis Exposition, 97; regarding Dr. Jos- 
eph C. Gordon, 226, 362, 403. 
Reviews, 50. I44» 274, 379, 444. 

Revue Generale de Tenseignement des Sourds Muets, reviews of, 285, 464. 
Robie, Alice, 26. 
Robinson, Warren, 53, 273. 
Rochester, N. Y., School, 466. 
Rogers, Howard J., 469. 

Rothert, Henry W., Compulsory Education and its Relation to the De- 
fective Gasses, 181. 
Saxony Deaf-Mute Aid Society, 277. 
Scheele. Fr., Observations regarding Deaf Children before they are of 

School Age, a review, 453. 
Schleswig, Germany, School, a review, 56. 
Seele. Ch., 69. 

Self-Criticism, by Mabel Ellery Adams, 90. 

Self-Instructor in Lip-Reading, by Edward B. Nitchie, a review, 398. 
Sensenig, Barton, Methods in Arithmetic, 132. 
Serenius, Emilina M., 268, 289. 

Shepherd, Irwin. Announcement of N. E. A. Meeting, 202. 
Should the Scope of the Public School be broadened to take in all Chil- 

xii Index. 

dren capable of Education ? and if so, how should it be done ? by 
Mary C Greene, 348; by Thomas D. Wood. 349; by Ellen Le Garde, 
349; by John T. Prince, 350; by Walter E. Fernald, 351. 

Sicard, TAbbe, 151. 

Signs and Spelling, 445, 446. 

Sign Language in American Schools, by Olof Hanson, 195. 

Smaablade for Dofstunime, a review, 164. 

Smith, James L., Current History in the School-Room, 112; Teach Lan- 
guage Idiomatically, 471 ; refs. to, 53, 273, 453. 

Snow, Emma, My List of Homophenous Words, 29, 119, 241. 

Sollier, Paul, Idiocy, a review, 392. 

Some Didactic Questions, by G. Ferreri, 254. 

Spain, School for the Deaf in, reviews, 398, 463. 

Speech and Lip- Reading, The Relative Value of, by A. Farrar, Jr., 429. 

Speech and Speech-Reading, refs. to, 5, 49, 57, 140. I43, I44, MS, I47, 158, 
160, 190, 195, 231, 254, 271, 272, 277, 285, 287, 300, 315, 316, 322 et seq., 
369, 387, 388, 390, 395, 406, 429. 

Speech Commandments, Ten, 57. 

Speech in the Kindergarten, by Ellen E. Taylor, 5. 

Speech, Some Don'ts to be Observed in Teaching, to the Deaf, by Sarah 
Jordan Monro, 49, 143, 271. 

Standish, Myles, Sense Defects and Impediments, 357. 

Statische Nachrichten uber die Taubstummen Anstalten Deutschlands, 
by I. Radomski, a review, 66. 

Statistics: Of speech usage by graduates of Yorkshire, England, School, 
66; of the German schools, 66; The Annals Statistics, 94; of the Deaf 
in Prussia, 153; of Salaries in Germany, 156; of the Deaf in Iceland. 
164; of Speech Teaching in American schools for the Deaf, compiled 
from the American Annals, 190; of Speech Teaching in Canadian 
Schools, 194; of the Sign Language in American Schools, 196; of 
Progress in Speech Teaching in American Schools, 300; of Speech 
Teaching in the United States, 301; of Schools for the Deaf in the 
United States, 302; of Canadian Schools, 306; of Speech Teaching in 
American Schools for the Deaf, Supplementary Inquiry, 309; Notes 
on Speech Teaching in American Schools for the Deaf, 310; Data 
from Institutions, 379; Report of Committee on Statistics of Defec- 
tive Sight and Hearing in Public School Children, 436; of the Nor- 
wegian Schools for the Deaf, 457; of the Danish Schools for the 
Deaf, 457; of the Swedish Schools for the Deaf, 458. 

Steinke, Elsie, 25, 26, 27. 

Stelling, H., A visit to the Schools for the Weak-Minded Deaf in Den- 
mark and Norway, 16. 

Stewart, Dougald. 372. 

St Johns', N. B., School. 468. 

St. Louis Exposition, resolutions regarding, by American Association, 
97, 98; Exhibits of American Schools for the Deaf and Blind at, 205, 
297; Committee of the American Association, 366; Helen Keller Day 
at, 469: refs. to, 145, 198. 

Story, Arthur I., 146. 

Successful Deaf Men, from the Kentucky Standard, 466. 

Sullivan, Anna M., 469. 

Summer Meeting of the American Association. 97, 98. 187, 363- 

Summer School of the American Association, 98. 

Superintendents and Principals, The Conference of, 294. 

Swedish Schools, Statistics of, 458. 

Sweet, Henry, 237. 

Index. xiii 

Talladega, Alabama, School, review of report, 150. 

Tate. J. N., 480. 

Taylor, Ellen E., Kindergartens for the Deaf, i. 

Teachers and Physicians, by G. Ferreri, 423. 

Teaching by Indirection, by Weston Jenkins, 199. 

Teach Language Idiomatically, by J. L. Smith, 471. 

Technical Training, by A. Martin, a review, 448. 

Ten Speech Commandments, 57. 

Texas Deaf and Dumb Asylum, see Austin, Texas, School. 

Thallon, 6., Conditions that should insure success in teaching the Deaf 

to Speak, a review, 285. 
They Know English, from the Silent Hoosier, 466. 
Thornton, William, On Teaching the Surd, or Deaf and Consequently 

Dumb, to Speak, 406. 
Tilden. Douglas, 467. 
Tillinghast, Edward A., 53. 
Training and Knowledge, by E. G. Hurd, 292. 
Training Colleges of Great Britain, 147. 
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 407. 
Treasurer's Report, American Association, 367. 
Universal Exposition at St. Louis, see St. Louis Exposition. 
Urbantschitsch, Victor, loi. 
Vahle, H., 69. 

Van Adestine, Elizabeth, 362. 
Vatter, Joh., 71. 

Verbal Husks, from the Silent Hoosier, 87. 
Verwaltungs-bericht der Magistrats Zu Berlin fur das Estatsjahr, 1901, 

a review, 63. 
Visible Speech in Japan, by Shinji Isawa, a review, 395. 
Voice in Language and Song, The, by Gherardo Ferreri, a review, 395. 
Volta Bureau, 275, 474. 
Wait. W. B., How can the term "Charitable" be justly applied to the 

Education of any Children? 354; ref. to, 210. * 

Wallin. J., Report of his Visit to Schools for the Deaf in Germany and 

Denmark, 56. 
Wallis, John, 275, 389. 

Wanted — Men in the School System, from The Teacher, 81. 
Washington, D. C, College and School, review of report, 54. 
Watson, Samuel, 453. 

Watzitlik, Alvin, his Visit to Prof. Vatter, 71. 
Weak-Minded Deaf, Schools for, in Denmark and Norway, 16. 
Weaver, J. A., 147, 450, 468. 

Weaving in Schools for the Deaf, by J. Finckh, a review, 383. 
Weise, W., 151. 
Werner, F., 144. 
Western New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, see Rochester, 

N. Y., School. 
Western Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, see Edgewood 

Park. Pa.. School. 
Westervelt, Z. F.. Report of Annual Meeting of the American Associa- 
tion. 36.^; refs. to, 97, 98. 
Wettstein. Frances, 28. 

What Business Men Think is Needed, from Minneapolis Times, 180. 
What Teachers need to know about Sense Defects and Impediments, by 
Clarence J. Blake, 356: by Myles Standish. 357: by Allen Greenwood, 
358; by Eugene A. Crockett, 359; by Mrs. E. J. Ellery Thorpe, 369. 

ziv Index. 

WiIlho3rte's, Miss F. L., Private School, see Columbus, Ohio, Private 

Williams, Job, 96, 444. 

Wisconsin Day Schools, Report of Inspector, a review, 50. 

Wisconsin Round Table, 25. 

Wisconsin State Inspector, editorial, 93. 

Wood, Thomas D., Special Pupils in Public Schools, 549. 

Yale, Caroline A., Formation and Development of Elementarv English 
Sounds, 12, 140, 231 ; Report of the Clarke School for the Deaf, a re- 
view, 148; refs. to, 97, s^, 367. 

Yates, Frank B., Data horn Institutions for the Deaf, a review, 379. 

Yorkshire, England, School, review of report, 66. 

Zotterman, E. A., on Lars Gustaf Lindstrom, a review, 60. 


..Xhuierg'ttrleiii for the Dtaf 
^.Formation ami /yeitioftNoil ttj EUwfilaiy 

The American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 

Alexander Graham Bell. 

A. L. E. Crouter, Caroline A. Yale 

Z. F. Westervelt. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 


F. W. Booth, 
(7342 Rural Lane, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.) 


Albzahdbr Okabam Bell, Mhs. Gakdinbii G. Hubbard. 

A. L. E. Croutbk. 

Term Erpirei 190S, 

Carolinb a. Yalb, Edmund Lton, Richard O. Johnson. 

7'erm fCxpirei 1904. 

Jobbph C. Gordon, Sarah Fuller, Z. F. Wbstbrtblt. 

Term Expiree 1905. 

The American Agsociation to ProniotiC the;T«»achiiijT of Speech to the Deaf welcomes 
to its memberHhip all ]M!rsoiiB who are intcrcKtpil in its work. Thus the privilege of 
memherfthip is not restricted to teachers actively engaged in the instruction of deaf 
children, but is extended to include Directors or Trustees of schools for the deaf, parents 
or guardians of deaf children, the educated deaf themselves who wish to aid by the 
weight of their influence and by their co-operation the work that has done so much for 
them, and all other persons who may have had their hearts touched with a desire to 
show their interest and to help on the ^ork. 

Every person receiving a **sample copy" of The Association Rkvikw is invited to 
join the AssmMation. The membership Cor dues) fee is $2.00 (8s. 4d.) per year, pay- 
ment of which to theTrea.surer secures (after nomination to and election by the Roard 
of Directors) all riijhts anil privileges of membership together with the publications of 
the Association, including TnK A8so(?rATTON Urvikw. for one year. To non-memheri^ 
the subscription price of The Association Review is $2.50 (10s. 4<1.) per year. 





Vol. V. No. i. 

FEBRUARY, 1903. 


ellen e. taylor, cleveland^ ohio. 

Are they Needed ? 

Unlike the full-pan()]»lic*cl Minerva, a new idea springs into 
the arena of thought a.^^king the world to heed its message while 
it is still encumbered bv iirnorance of a wav to fulfill its mission. 
The truth is there, but can only manifest itself as its all-compell- 
ing power overcomes obstacles of circumstance and opposition. 

The value — pni and con — of kindergartens for hearing chil- 
dren is still such an unsettled question even among educators 
that numerous authorities may be quoted in favor of either side, 
their testimony ranging all the way from an earnest and enthusi- 
astic report of their wholesome influence in some parts of the 
country where they have had free course, to the views of others 
who look uf)on them as having an over-stimulating and dele- 
terious eflfect upon the children entrusted to them. The mul- 
titude occupy the position of vast indiflference and inertia, having 
no po.sitive opinions either for or against, simply from lack of 
thought on the subject. 

If the crop is still unthreshed and the grain of truth unsepa- 
raled from the chaff of ignorance when hearing chiMren are to 
be considered, how much more of a task lies before those who are 
weighing theories and experiences to find the best for the deaf 

If, as we are taught by both training school and mature life, 
the normal child <jr man is the basis upon which all prograuLs — 
either for school, or action after school, — are formulated, all 

2 The Association Review, 

experience having proved that if the average child or man be 
given the proper conditions for growth or action, both physical 
and mental, those above the average will find no difficulty in 
attaining for themselves freedom and opportunities equal to their 
abilities, while to those who are trying to help the child or man 
who is handicapped in some way, a consistent ideal is supplied. 
Thus if our educators could agree that two years of kinder- 
garten life should be granted to each hearing child, in order 
to give it the start it needs, we who think of the deaf would find 
our question of the advisability of kindergartens for the deaf 
settled in the affirmative, and could then go with a free mind to 
plan our work. 

It may be well to think over the needs of the children and 
the aims of the kindergarten that we may see if the latter will 
be likely to supply the former. The deaf child has the same 
needs as the hearing child and in addition those arising from his 
lack of "correspondence with his environment," which stands 
as a wall between him and his goal. 

Many well meaning and wise people insist that the child 
between four and six years of age is better off at home — free to 
spend his time out-of-doors and at his own pleasure rather than 
in school, even though a kindergarten seems mostly play. 

For the child whose mother is neither compelled by poverty 
nor induced by wealth to leave her little ones to the care and 
society of paid caretakers, but is at leisure to be a companion to 
her children, these years snent with the mother in the joyous 
industry of investigation of all the phenomena of life are precious 
beyond all computing. Even then it is possible that some good 
is missed unless the family be a large one. The one child of any 
family suffers more from his isolation than most people suspect. 
In the larger opportunities of the kindergarten we find the child 
beginning to realize that others have rights as well as himself, 
that he has a part to do which adds to the happiness of his fel- 
lows. Tliis is an almost impossible lesson for him to learn when 
surrounded by grown people only, for a child's intuition is quite 
correct that older people are created to look after him, though 
his application of that truth is apt to be rather to his disadvan- 
tage. If hearing children are the better for the societv of their 

Kindergartens for the Deaf. 3 

peers, how much more does a deaf child need that inspiring and 
controlling influence! 

As soon as deafness is discovered in a child he not only be- 
comes an object of solicitude to his family, but also to everyone 
who sees him. The knowledge of his condition is often such a 
shock to the mother and such a growing grief as to almost unfit 
her for her duties. Long before he can venture outside his door- 
yard his quick mind has discovered that the grown-ups are cer- 
tain to respect his whims, and that as a whole the children of his 
acquaintance are trained to yield his desires a ready deference. 

The result, in two or three years, would be amusing if it 
were not pitiful. What teacher has not seen father, mother, 
grandparents, stand about in helpless bewilderment while some 
midget expressed his or her aversion to something in a way that 
would hardly be tolerated in a hearing child. Tlie description 
by Ruth McEnery Stuart of "Sonny's" exploits when trying to 
secure the family clock for a plaything, must remind many a 
one of similar scenes with children. As soon as a trip to the 
nearest grocery can be accomplished, another element — 
prompted by the kindest motives — begins to work mischief. 
Gifts of fruit, candy, or anything, slip into the little hand. By 
and by it does not seem necessary to the child to wait until the 
desired thing is offered. Being unrebuked, it soon becomes a 
habit with him and the distinction between "mine and thine" has 
no meaning to the child. After a few years of this sort of pro- 
cedure both the parents and the child feel that something is not 
quite as it should be. Unbridled will has never yet brought 
happiness because, forsooth, so many things are just as 
unobtainable as the moon. Fortunately these extreme cases 
are not the invariable rule, though it is seldom that a deaf child 
is taught the same degree of self-control that his hearing brother 
and sister have acquired. 

The Aims of the Kindergarten. 

Now, what are the needs of these children at the age of four 


I. Happy occupation for a portion of each day. 

II. The society of other children while placed upon the 
same basis of responsibility as they. 

4 The Association Review. 

III. To have an explanation of the panorama of life, an 
answering of the endless questions which must be in the little 

IV. To gain an appreciation of the joy of working with 
others toward some end that will bring pleasure to all. 

V. To gain the powers of expression and comprehension 
that will put him in communion with all about him. 

If these needs are to be met, the Kindergarten must supply 
an atmosphere where all kindly deeds and eager thoughts may 
freely find opportunity for development. We must not measure 
results by hand work accomplished but watch for the unfolding 
of mind and character, trying to make sure that every condition 
surrounding them is as nearly right as possible. 

All kinds of hand work bring increased growth to the brain, 
and every time a flower is painted a keener and more accurate 
observation is fostered. In the games they gain a sympathetic 
interest in the life that surrounds them. To put one's self in the 
place of someone or something else in imagination is always a 
broadening of our mental horizon, and the child who plays he 
is a bird and has a nest in the busjhcs will feel a sense of com- 
panionship with his "little brothers of the air," and cruelty will 
be less likely to harbor in his thoughts. 

His tasks are suited to his capacity. Thus not being dis- 
couraged by the magnitude of the proposed bit of work, he not 
only does it with cheerfulness, but it leaves him with an agree- 
able sense of power, which causes something more difficult to 
look alluring. After a time the parents begin to speak of the 
increased happiness and resources of the child at home who, 
finding a satisfying outlet for his energies, loses his extreme 
capriciousness. We see the faces which at first were so unre- 
sponsive shine with awakened thought, and those who seemed 
entirely self-centered, begin to show regard for others. 

The Kindergarten as an Assimilator. 

The 'kindergarten performs an important function as an 
assimilator. Even though the child is beyond six years of age 
when he enters a school, the first few days are pretty sure to be 
trying ones. Gradually interest in the play and work about him 

Kindergartens for the Deaf, 5 

restores his composure, and the teacher may more correctly 
decide which group he should join or whether his abilities are 
such that with some special instruction he would be able to keep 
his place in one of the grades. 

Everyone who has taken the new ones as they come in and 
prepared them for entrance to their proper niche in the common- 
wealth of school, will realize what that work means. For 
instance, one boy delights in overturning his neighbor's posses- 
sions; another finds his chief joy in making faces; another is 
so shy as to suffer intensely; while another resembles nothing 
so much as a windmill continually in motion. To get these 
all ready for the quiet concentrated attention necessary to 
secure any results in speech reading and speech, requires more 
time and effort than most people who have not done it could 

Every year some applicants for admission to the school are 
found ineligible because of mental inability. Some of these cases 
manifest their true condition at once to an experienced eye. A 
right estimate of others can only be reached after days or perhaps 
weeks of careful testing. If all the newcomers arrived at the 
beginning of the year it would simplify matters, but each term 
brings its quota of new material to be adjusted and organized, 
and just as peace has settled upon us and the prospect of making 
more rapid progress looks bright, a new child is ushered in and 
the process of making "straight paths" begins again. An 
important element assisting in getting the new ones started is 
the public sentiment which grows rapidly in the little community. 

Speech in the Kindergarten. 

But you say what about speech in the kindergarten ? 

My order of events now is Development first, last, and all 
the time, speech reading next, then speech. Like all beginners 
I confidently expected to get everything at once, little realizing 
how difficult it was for the child to learn a word on the lips, to 
speak it, and to write, nearly at the same time. Some words are 
comparatively easy even for the babies, but our line of thought 
was sadly restricted if we had to wait until the word could be 
pronounced. If accepted when incorrectly spoken, a word 

6 The Association Review. 

became a stumbling block for the future, forming a bad habit 
of speech. From these dilemmas speech reading has proven 
my best refuge. 

We have a good time every day at our breathing and tongue 
exercises, and when a word can be spoken, it is proudly put 
upon the wall slate. It is the natural way at least, for how many 
thousand times does a child hear a word before he tries to re- 
produce it ! I found this last year a gratifying tendency among 
the children to try to use their vocal organs more spontaneously 
then ever before in my experience, but definite speech work and 
writing are left until the child is six years old. 

We have for a short period every day exercises to secure 
freedom of arm movement and to develop their powers of 
visualization preparatory to writing. The class stands before 
the wall slate. A series 5f lines forming a simple design perhaps 
is drawn upon the slate. After a few seconds it is erased and 
some child is asked to reproduce it. If not successful, the 
crayon is handed on until one is found who has been able to form 
a mental picture of it. 

When this exercise has been continued from day to day 
until each child has learned to think for himself, they look care- 
fully at what is drawn, then go to their appointed places at the 
wall slate and try to reproduce, not only the form in a crude way, 
but attempt to make it in neatness and finish as nearly like the 
original as possible. If a tendency for copying from each other 
is shown, each child may be given an individual pattern to re- 
member. Careful work is encouraged by erasing all that has not 
been done in the best manner possible to that particular child. 

Some Things that Have Been Done. 
Much work has clustered about a doll house this year. A 
box was put on end and fitted with floors. The painting with 
regular house paint was quite an event. Wall paper was de- 
signed and prepared ; then we must have bordering. Each child 
in turn chose the wooden tablets he wished and laid what he con- 
sidered a pretty pattern on the table. Each design was copied 
on the wall slate, and when all were ready the Principal was 
called in to select the best for the house. Great interest was 

Kindergartens for the Deaf. 7 

aroused but no spirit of selfish disappointment, as they evidently 
felt the perfect justice and impartiality of the decision. These 
preliminaries over, the actual business of making the border 
began. A sheet of colored paper, scissors, pencil, mounting 
paper, and paste being ready for each child, the fingers were soon 
busy tracing their pattern forms, using the wooden tablets as 
guides, and as soon as sufficient were cut the pasting began. 

I was uncertain about the wisdom of allowing this kind of 
pasting and cutting, fearing that it would be too fine work for 
the children. Careful watching could detect no signs of fatigue 
even in the babies, for they cheerfully cut and were satisfied with 
their productions even though the corners were more numerous 
than the design demanded. We made a rag carpet for one room, 
each child assisting in weaving on a tiny loom the rags he had 
previously sewed. 

We have found much satisfaction in rythm work. The 
children gather around the piano putting their hands upon it. 
One is chosen to close his eyes in order to prevent the test being 
a matter of sight instead of feeling. A march or skip is played 
and when it is over, the child shows me how he would obey the 

Every day we march, accompanied by a drum and triangle 
in the hands of the children chosen for their well spent time in 
other matters. The first year pupils join us and it is a much 
anticipated period of the day. A window stick beaten upon the 
floor by a teacher helps to keep time, and altogether we make 
noise sufficient to let everyone in the building know what we are 
about. Once a week the children go in turn to the cupboard and 
select any materials for work or play that they desire. No one 
is allowed to know what another has chosen until all have 
decided, as some seemed to have little power for independent 
choice, but were guided largely by what others did. 

A record has been kept of what they did, which revealed 
interesting characteristics and modes of work, also a develop- 
ment of originality proving the great value of that period, but 
longer observation and much meditation will be necessary on the 
part of the teacher before definite conclusions — worth handing 
on — are reached. 

8 The Association Review. 

When the morning is over the children set the tables in the 
kindergarten room, the first year class comes in with its 
teacher, and after a simple blessing we all enjoy a luncheon 
brought from home. This over, all go to play for twenty-five 

The babies, numbering three, who live within a moderate 
distance, go home after luncheon under escort of mother or 
sister. Those who live miles away and must wait for someone 
to come for them, play in the afternoon out of doors if the 
weather is good, or if necessary, in the housekeeper's room, 
while I keep the older ones for speech and written work. 

Patrons of a day school have quite a problem to solve in 
regard to getting their small children safely to and from school. 
Whenever possible an older child in the family is transferred to 
a school near ours, and can then easily leave the younger child 
in the morning and come for him in the afternoon. The mothers 
too show a most heroic spirit, in many cases sparing no expen- 
diture of time and strength to bring the children to school. 

The day school has its reward for all these extra responsi- 
bilities in the alertness of the children. Traveling ten or twelve 
miles a day through a busy city cannot fail to arouse many an 
idea in the minds of the children which would hardly be thought 
of did they spend most of their time within a radius of two or 
three blocks from home, while the constant association with 
and observation of hearing people perceptibly influence the 
appearance and behavior of the children. Visitors frequently 
express their gratification at finding the children so well able to 
look after themselves. 

The Personnel of the Class. 

In the class of fifteen last year we had two happy, roly-poly 
babies of four years. That is, we celebrated the beginning of 
their fourth year after they came to us. They tangled us up in 
our march and were especially comfortable to love. It was a 
waste of time and expecting too much of them to give them any 
speech reading except in play or in connection with something 
they wished very much. They joined in the tongue and voice 
exercises and received strong approval if they succeeded in 

Kindergartens for the Deaf. 9 

giving a good element. In the occupation work the crudeness 
of their portion was never noticed if they had tried to do their 
best. In the games they bore their share with enthusiasm. 

Five other children of six years and a little older — having 
gained powers of attention — ^are quite ready after their year or 
more of kindergarten work to begin regular first year work. 

Another five ranging from six to ten years of age have lost 
their hearing through illness, and two more have partial hearing. 
These have been given as much first year work as was possible 
without infringing upon the time needed by the others. 

Last and largest of all is our twelve year old girl who was 
brought to us in the spring, never having been to school. Her 
life has been a succession of ailments culminating in deafness. 
Now that her hearing is entirely gone we have a girl who can 
talk so fast as to be almost unintelligible, ask questions by the 
yard, yea, by the furlong, but has not courage enough to attempt 
the simplest bit of work; while learning to write a word, which 
she could say perfectly, was a task requiring more perseverance 
than she could gather for weeks. Those who have started 
similar cases on the highway of learning will realize the diffi- 

One very interesting case was that of a boy about eleven 
years old who was sent to us from a hearing school, with the 
message that he must be deaf, for he did not understand anything 
that was said to him. He could write his name after having 
been in that school three years, but words seemed to have no 
meaning to him. It became clear within a few days that his 
hearing was almost if not quite normal. A simple thing which he 
could do quite well when alone with the teacher, seemed impos- 
sible to him when working with a class, and if individual work 
was continued more than ten minutes at a time, he seemed to 
lose all power of memory. The only alternative was to let him 
entirely alone until he had recovered from his fatigue, then a 
little more could be done. We kept him several weeks, until we 
found to our satisfaction that he could be taught. After the 
first two weeks he gained steadily, and no boy was ever prouder 
over each word that he learned to understand and write than he. 
As our school was over-crowded, and as he was not deaf, we 

lo The AssociaHan Review. 

sent him back to his former teachers, though it was a trial to lose 
his attractive and interesting presence. It would be most 
fascinating work to try to find and remedy the difficulty in his 
mental state. 

The Joys of the Work. 

Overbalancing the difficulties, however, were the joys. The 
wonder of seeing our little Emma restored to happiness was 
worth all the rest of the year's work. Her hearing had been 
taken suddenly when she was between four and five years of age, 
and when she came to us last September, six years old, she was a 
sad, timid child whose brown eyes told a pathetic tale of the 
burden of silence. She soon became interested, but showed no 
enthusiasm until the first snow came. As we played in the yard 
she seemed to be aroused to memories of merrier days. After 
that we saw a decided gain. Three or four times in moments of 
great excitement, she said a word or a sentence, but as it was in 
a foreign tongue, it formed no clue to help her on. In February 
she began to make rapid progress, and from the time that she 
could say her first sentence, proving to herself that she could 
make herself intelligible to those about her in a natural way, she 
became again a child of contentment and merriment and has 
easily led her division. 

-Could we have had sufficient assistance much more might 
have been accomplished, and in the ideal kindergarten an assist- 
ant in charge of each group would obviate the difficulties which 
met us this last year. The children of different ages would then 
have the work adapted especially to their stage of development, 
and the evils of being either pushed or hindered would be elimi- 
nated. Those children who can have two years of natural, quiet 
growth, gaining self-control, regard for others, imagination, 
which brightens all future life, the faculty for careful observation, 
creative power, attention and perseverance, should make rapid 
and most satisfactory progress in the first and each succeeding 

Play as an Educational Factor. 

Leading educators agree that no more potent factor than 
play can be found to influence the development of a child. It 

Kindergartens for the Deaf, 1 1 

influences the will, ^ves physical training, and cultivates all the 
faculties which are needed in later years. Dr. Gulick says that 
*'The way in which one pursues pleasure shows and produces 
morality far more than the compulsory activities of daily life." 
This being true, we must give each child full opportunity for 
wholesome, hearty, self-directed play at home, and may still find 
that three hours of directed play and work each day of the two 
years in kindergarten will gather enrichment for every other 
year of life. 

The close fellowship of mothers and teachers made possible 
in a day school for the Deaf forms one of our greatest and most 
far reaching advantages. 

Our ideal flits on before, inspiring us to stronger and worth- 
ier effort, while we stumble on^ impeded by ignorance and 
conditions which we have not learned to control, yet positive 
that the ideal will some day, somewhere, be fulfilled. 





Consonants — (Concluded). 
L. [CO] 

Formation: — The point of the tongue (Bell says the fore part) 
is raised and closed against the upper gum but an opening over 
each side allows the escape of an uninterrupted stream of voice. 
See note on liquids under M. Ex., /ark, fo/d, pai/. 

Method of development: — I. Teach by quick repetition of 
syllable /a, /a, /a. When the pupil recognizes and imitates the 
flapping motion of the tongue in giving that syllable, let him 
hold the initial position as the position for /. II. The position 
of the tongue may be shown against the upper lip, taking care 
that there be distinct apertures at the "corners of the mouth." 
When this position is well taken by the pupil the tongue may be 
drawn slowly back until it touches the upper gum and voice may 
be added. Vibration is distinctly to be felt in the cheeks. 

Note. — L may be considered as non-vocal when following 
a non-vocal consonant. Contrast />/ight, Wight, c/ue, ghx^\ etc. 

In such words as bottle, saddle, etc., the / final has the 
function of a vowel. 

Y. [O] 

Formation: — Top or front of the tongue raised and shut at 
the sides leaving only a small center aperture through which 
voice passes out. The tongue in forming this sound is almost 
in position for the vowel e, but the aperture over the center is 
closer. The difference between the two sounds may be seen in 
such words as yc and year, in which the vowel e follows the con- 
sonant e or y. Ex., you, , . • 

Method of dez'clopnrent: — I. By manipulation from 2. Often 
simply separating the teeth is all that is necessary. II. By 

Elementary English Sounds. 13 

forcible retraction of the tongue from the position assumed for 
vocal th, while the pupil's hand is placed under the teacher's chin. 
III. If developed after e it may be taught by contrast as a closer 
form of that sound. 

IVA. [O] 

Formation: — Lips rounded. Breath passing out between 
their approximated inner edges. Tongue raised slightly at the 
back. Ex., zt^/iat, , . 

Method of development: — Imitation. If necessary attract the 
pupil's attention to the action of the inner muscles in rounding 
the lips. 

IV, [J9] 

Formation: — Position of the lips the same as for wh, this 
being the vocalized form of that sound.. The position of the lips 
for w is almost the same as that for 00, but the aperture is closer. 
The difference between the two sounds may be seen in such 
words as woo^ woof, Elx., 7c;ant, , . 

Method of development: — Contrast with wh. 

Note. — In regard to w, when it occurs before a vowel. 
Smart says that it "is a consonant, having for its basis the 
most contracted of the vowel sounds, namely 00, which sound, 
being partially obstructed by an inward action of the lips, and 
then given off by an outward action, is changed from a vowel 
to a consonant." 

a. [OQ] 

Formation: — The front of the tongue in position for sh is 
closed and then forced open by the breath. 

Bell gives this sound as a combination of t and sh. Various 
other authors give the formation as stated above. Ex., r/tair, 
preacAer, larc A. 

Method of development: — I. Imitation. Let the pupil notice 
the position of the tongue and feel the escape of breath. II. 
By combining the two elements / and sh. III. By analogy 
from p and /, Let the teacher repeat p, t, ch; p, t, ch, again and 

14 The Assodation Review. 

again while the child watches the action and feels the breath. He 
will thus come to know that the action of the tongue is the same 
while the point of closure shifts and the teeth are nearly closed 
for ch. If k has been taught, that may be given as the fourth in 
the series — />, f. ch, k. Emphasis on the position of the teeth 
will largely avoid the danger of making this sound too explosive 
in character. 5A,the second part of the compound sound, is cer- 
tainly continuous not explosive. 

/. [Offl] 

Formation: — Position and action of the tongue the same as 
for ch of which ; is the vocalized form. This sound is also rep- 
resented by the letter g called "g soft,'* Ex., ;ump, ^em, legion, 
a^e, judge. 

Method of drcclopmcnt : — I. Contrast with ch. II. By anal- 
ogy. Teaching it as one of the series of shut voice consonants, 
^, dy ;, g. (hard). 

Note. — It may be well to teach initial j as/w, 9wd final j os 
uj. Final j may be written as jch, thus indicating a final breath 

H. [O] 

Formation: — H is an expulsion of the breath through the 
open glottis. Ex., /le, , . 

Method of dci'elopmcut: — Imitation. Hold the pupil's hand 
before the teacher's mouth while she gives h. Then induce the 
child to produce the same. Care should be taken that the chest 
wall be kept raised. 

Note I. — H is the emission of breath through the position 
for the sound following it as will be seen in the pronunciation of 
the following words: at, /tat; eat, fceat, all, /rail; it, hit; old, Aold. 

Note II. — In practicing h alone let the tongue be left flat 
and the mouth open. The necessary force of the stream of breath 
may be shown the pupil by blowing a slip of paper, a feather, or 
a candle flame. In cases of nasality the pupil may be made aware 
of the streams of breath from the nose by breathing against a 
wall slate, or on a mirror. 

Elementary English Sounds. 15 


X is the equivalent of ks, Ex., bo.r. In combining the two 
elements k and j, it is often well that the teeth be placed in posi- 
tion for s before the k is ^iven. The pupil may be made aware 
of the expulsion of the breath by holding his hand before the 
teacher's mouth. 


Q is always followed by « and the combination qu is equiv- 
alent to kwh, Ex., gtiite, in^ire. 

{To be continued,) 



Mr. H. Stelling, a teacher in the Institute for the Deaf in 
Emden, had the opportunity last year of visiting some of the 
institutions of Denmark and Norway. His particular object 
was to study the results of the instruction of the Deaf who are 
less endowed with intelligence; and this he could do most con- 
veniently in visiting the schools of these two countries, where 
the separation of the Deaf according to their degree of intelli- 
gence is an established fact, and where the institutions for the 
Deaf are so organized as to fulfill this object. Mr. Stelling has 
had occasion to make comparisons and to give his judgment up- 
on the value of the methods used in the instruction of the Deaf, 
but he adds that he does not intend by this to make any pro- 
posal tending to a reform of the method actually practiced in 
the schools of Germany. 

His report is divided into four paragraphs; and we intend to 
give a short account of each of them. 

I. The R. Institute of Copenhagen and the Method of 

THE Manual Alphabet. 

In respect to Denmark it is to be noticed before all that 
since 1891 the separation of the Deaf according to their mental 
capacity has been organized as follows. The Institute of Frede- 
ricia admits every year all the Deaf of school age, and after a 
yearns trial they are divided into the Deaf improper (who have 
some trace of hearing, or who have spoken)^ and the so-called 
Deaf proper, these last being then subdivided into three classes: 
A, B, C. 

1 Prepared for The Review by Prof. C. Forreri, Bostou, from the Ger- 
man publication: ''Die Krzi«bung der schwachbegabten uud scbwachsinni- 
ifen Taubstnmmen nnd die Teilung uacb Fahigkeiten uberhauDt." Von H. 
SteUing, Taubstummenlehrer in Emden. — Leipzig, Verlag vou Carl Merse- 
burger, 1903. 

A Visit to Schools for the Weak-Minded, 17 

The classes A and B remain in the Institute of Fredericia^ 
while the first mentioned (Deaf improper), are sent to the 
Institute of Nyborg^ and those of the class C to Copenhagen. 
The two institutes therefore have pupils from the 2d to the 8th 
school year, and they are divided into 7 classes. In the Insti- 
tute of Copenhagen, there is besides a special class formed of the 
Deaf of little intelligence^ in the 3rd, 4th, and Sth school years, 
(being formed only in 1896). In this period of time there have 
graduated from this class three pupils capable of being con- 
firmed, and three without being confirmed, notwithstanding they 
had completed the course of eight years instruction. It should 
be noted that also for these pupils who form the class D, the 
school work has not been without good results. They have 
received all the benefit possible in their condition. In this way 
they avoid committing the impropriety of sending the Deaf of 
little intelligence to the schools for feeble-minded children. In- 
deed the contrary has happened, as seen from the catalogue of 
the Institute of Copenhagen, some Deaf-Mutes having been sent 
there from the idiot asylum. There are besides in Copenhagen 
two small institutes under the supervision of the Government, 
and of the Principal of the Royal Institute, for the children of the 
city whose parents prefer to keep them at home, not wishing 
to put them in the large institutions. 

In regard to the division of the Deaf into the classes al- 
ready mentioned, it is done by a special commission composed of 
three principals, and one representative of the Government, who 
meet in the Institute of Fredericia a little before the close of the 
school year. 

Among the pupils of the class C, however, a kind of selection 
is made during the trial year, and especially after the first half 
year. From that on the weak-minded pupils are excluded from 
the lessons in articulation, and are only taught by means of writ- 
ing, but without the use of the manual alphabet, which has never 
been introduced into the Institute of Fredericia, thanks to the 
energetic resistance offered by the Principal Jorgenson. At the 
end of the year those pupils are sent to Copenhagen, where they 
are taught writing, and where the manual alphabet is used as a 
didactic means. 

1 8 The Association Review. 

The final result of the selection mentioned is the following: 
About 25 per cent. Deaf improper come to Nyborg, from 55 to 
75 per cent, remain in the classes A — B at Fredericia, the others, 
18 to 20 per cent., are sent to Copenhagen. The manual alpha- 
bet therefore is used for the instruction of only one-fifth of the 
Danish deaf children. 

"In order to be able to reply to the question," says Mr. 
Stelling, "whether the Institute of Copenhagen, by the use of the 
manual alphabet, has succeeded in advancing the education of 
its pupils in a greater degree than the other institutions, with 
children of equally weak minds, I attended the lessons of every 
class beginning with the first. In consequence of my observa- 
tions I must state that the Institute of Copenhagen may rest 
well satisfied with its work, but this good result does not depend 
upon the use of the manual alphabet, but rather, in my opinion, 
upon the following favorable conditions: 

"i. F'rom the good selection of material used in teaching, 
and from the form taken from real life; 

"2. From the exact intuitive representation, and from the 
particular explanation; 

"3. From the accurate exercise, and the thorough learning 
of the explained material." 

The practical examples which Mr. Stelling has taken from 
the teaching, the books used in the schools, and from the manner 
of teaching of the colleagues of Copenhagen, demonstrate clearly 
that his observations are well founded upon fact. The manual 
alphabet, one may observe, is nothing else than another way of 
writing, and would be of no use had the pupil not first some- 
thing in his head to write and to communicate. In regard to 
the value and utility of a purely objective method, to which we 
must attribute the merit of the results of the instruction of the 
weak-minded Deaf, Stelling concludes with this didactic maxim: 
"Material which is taken from the real life of the child has no 
need of long explanations." Everything depends upon the con- 
tinuous repetition (from 10 to 12 times), of the same thing, with 
the object of fixing the desired knowledge in the mind of the 
less intelligent. Neither must one believe that the children 
lose pleasure in the school on account of the frequent repeti- 

A Visit to Schools for the Weak-Minded. 19 

tions. Experience has taught the contrary: the feeble minded 
children find great satisfaction in showing that they know some- 
thing, as happens in the exercise of repetitions. 

A trial made in this sense gave as a result that of the chil- 
dren who were given the task of writing from memory an exer- 
cise from their copy-book, explained to them two years before, 
the weakest minded reproduced it in almost the same words, 
while the better pupils wrote it in a more diffuse and individual 
form. In short from what he observed, Mr. Stelling thinks he 
may conclude, — and we are of the same opinion — that the good 
effects depend only upon the manner used in teaching, and can 
not be ascribed, as the colleagues of Copenhagen believe, to the 
use of the manual alphabet. He concludes thus: "To the 
question if we should renounce our oral method, in favor of the 
manual, I must reply absolutely no!" 

Mr. Stelling then passes in review the expedients proposed 
lately by Heidsiek, Schumann, Gopfert and Forchhammer to 
facilitate the task of the modern school ; but he does not accept 
them, and admits only that one might have recourse to the indi- 
cation of the point of articulation for the most difficult sounds 
in lip-reading. 

Let us now see what the author says in regard to the new 
phonomimic expedient of Forchhammer. (See The Associa- 
tion Review, December, 1902, page 413-423): 

"We teachers of the Deaf are in duty bound to examine 
with great care and without prejudice, the worth of every new 
expedient proposed for facilitating the acquisition and the under- 
standing of language by our pupils. Therefore one must not 
neglect the new expedient of Forchhammer, the zealous director 
of the Nyborg institute, and still more as he wishes to demon- 
trate that with his oral and manual system one can succeed in 
instructing every species of deaf-mute by means of the oral 
method. As this system has already been published, the 
educators are acquainted with it. The future will show whether 
it corresponds with the object proposed. I, if I may be allowed 
to state my personal opinion, believe that it is simply a question 
of another manual alphabet, and hence in the photographs of the 
hand there is nothing new. I doubt also if the colleagues of 

20 The Association Review. 

Copenhagen will find it convenient to change the old manual 
alphabet for the new system. Until I shall have had the personal 
experience to convince me of the superiority of the new system, 
I shall prefer the expedient used at Bruhl which is to count the 
syllabic parts of the word to the Deaf of weak minds." 

"We do not mean to say by this, however, that all the educa- 
tors of the Deaf who shall apply the new system must necessarily 
come to the same conclusion; especially as Forchhammer affirms 
that he has already proved it practically and publicly in the 
Institute at Nyborg." 

II. The Public Schools for the Deaf in Hamar, and The 
Absolute Separation of the Feeble-minded. 

Passing on to Nprway. Mr. Stelling tells us of the public 
schools of Hamar, and the separation which they make there 
between the weak-minded Deaf and those endowed with greater 
intelligence. This was possible after the Congress of 1884 for 
the education of the abnormal in Scandinavia, that is when they 
were able to organize the schools upon the basis of a resolution, 
unanimously accepted, of the Principal Blomkvist of Orebo 

"To obtain a satisfactory result in the instruction of the 
Deaf in a country, it is necessary that they be divided, according 
to their intelligence and their ability in pronouncing and in 
speaking, into three different groups. This division should be 
obtained in every country in consideration of its special condi- 

Denmark, as we have seen, provides for this in admitting all 
the Deaf in one sole institute, making afterwards the necessary 
subdivisions; Sweden provides for it by means of a division in 
each province (7 districts with 9 public institutions). The other 
three schools with a more restricted number of pupils, which are 
included in the total of 12 Swedish institutions, are designed for 
the weak-minded blind Deaf-mutes. 

In Norway a fixed organization was not possible until 1887 
in consequence of a Royal decree. It was established that there 
should be five schools, and of these two for the pupils of the 
group A, two of those of the group B, one of those of the groups 

A Visit to Schools for the Weak-Minded, 21 

C and D together. From two of the districts where the Deaf 
of the country are admitted, they send the weak-minded Deaf 
to the common school of Hamar, where the pupils of the groups 
C and D live together, but are instructed separately. 

In a contrary manner from what they do in Denmark, in 
Norway the division of the children is made exclusively upon 
the proposal of the two principals of the institutes of admission. 
If, in order to give an example of this operation, we take into 
consideration 189 children between the years 1891 and 1899 
(exception being made for the year 1893, in which year no ad- 
mission was made, and this happens every 8 years), we have 
this result; 40 per cent, were sent to the group A, 38^ per 
cent, were sent to the group B, and 21^ per cent, to the 
Institute of Hamar for the groups C and D. This percentage 
combined with that had in Denmark is the same as that given 
by Stelling himself in his pamphlet: ''Die Fursorge fur die 
schwachbegabten Kinder.'' (The Care of Feeble-minded Chil- 

It seems however that the present organization in Norway 
is not satisfactory in respect to the condition of the country 
(extent, journeys, period of admission, etc.), and therefore the 
Government would not be adverse to adopting a new plan, if 
first the Principals of the five different institutes could agree 
upon one. Some of them however find the present organization 
quite right, and indeed they wish that the division into groups of 
the pupils should correspond with an equal variety of institutes, 
because they hold that a division in the same school will not 
guarantee efficacious and profitable work. 

The Principal of the Institute of Hamar insists upon the 
contrary: i. that with absolute separation the stimulus of 
emulation is lost for the weak-minded Deaf, and therefore they 
remain seriously injured in their intellectual development; 2. that 
the teachers who are obliged to work for the feeble-minded 
alone soon become discouraged from the constant repetitions, 
and from the unsatisfactory results of their labour, and lose in 
a short time all joy in their work; 3. that those pupils who have 
to come from distant parts of the country shorten their vaca- 
tions too much. 

22 The Associatioft Review. 

The Principal of the Institute of Christiania affirms on his 
part: i. that also the teachers in the school of admission have 
too hard a work to do. Every year they must teach at least 
three classes in articulation, and they have to contend with great 
difficulties in the educational part with children who come from 
miserable home conditions; 2. that of the five existing institutes, 
only the two schools of admission are able to have really expert 
teachers of articulation, who also in the further progress of 
teaching care for the mechanical speech, and try to perfect it; 3. 
that it is impossible after only one year's trial to make a just 
division of the pupils, as the mechanical ability of speech cannot 
be such as to give a sure measure of their capacity for further 
instruction; 4. then it is also a cruelty to take children away, 
after only one year, from the Institute to which they are accus- 
tomed, and place them in entirely strange surroundings. 

As we see, the arguments for and against have a great peda- 
gogical and didactical importance. Mr. Stelling takes them in 
examination, comparing them with the opinions of other educa- 
tors in regard to these various questions on the selection of the 
Deaf according to their intelligence. He also alludes to the 
question discussed lately by several of the colleagues, "as to the 
necessity of limiting the scholastic program in favor of the 
physical education, and of industrial instruction," but speaks of 
it afterwards ex professo in paragraph III, as we shall see later. 

Mr. Stelling has examined on the spot the results of the 
schools of Hamar, in regard to the teaching, with the purpose 
of making our position clear as to the mimic, to the objective 
method, and as to natural gestures in the instruction of the 
weak-minded Deaf. 

We must rejoice especially that at Hamar they urge the 
teaching of the spoken word as much as possible, and only 
renounce it in desperate cases in favor of writing. The same 
is said of the objective teaching, in which they have recourse to 
models and figures only when it is not possible to show the 
objects in nature; we must also note that in order to impress 
more strongly upon the minds of the children the things ex- 
plained in the lesson, they oblige them to write them, trusting 
to their memory for the task to be done at home. In order to 

A Visit to Schools for the Weak-Minded, 23 

accomplish this more securely, they make one of the pupils 
write on the black-board every sentence that has been made or 
said in the lesson. They also begin early to use (3rd year) the 
special books for reading and language. 

Mr. Stelling found however that they are too much afraid 
of natural gestures, and consequently the teaching is somewhat 
dry and cold. Neither can he imagine, for example, how it is 
possible to give reHgious instruction to the weak-minded Deaf 
without the aid of natural signs. 

III. The Practical (Manual) Teaching. 

In this article the author speaks of the teaching of manual 
labor and of its educative value for the Deaf. He remarks that in 
the countries of the north it finds a place in the program every- 
where, while in the German schools it has not yet found its place, 
perhaps because they do not yet appreciate its just value. This 
is difficult to understand in America, where manual training 
makes a part of every program of instruction, from the elemen- 
tary schools to the colleges and universities. 

IV. Boarding or Day-Schools ? 

"This question," says Mr. Stelling, "is of the greatest im- 
portance for the weak-minded Deaf, in regard to their educa- 
tion." All the educators, even in Germany, who have any ex- 
perience in this, now agree that they cannot succeed in this task 
without the institution of the boarding-school. Mutschmann 
and Barth, aUhough advocates of the day-school, call attention 
to the children who are weak in body and need to have special 
care as to diet ; but this can only be given in a boarding-school. 
In Denmark and Norway they are of the same opinion as to 
this. However the form of the institutions for the Deaf in the 
future will be a mixed one, that is a combination of day and 
boarding school, as we find already in Norway. 

As to the difficulties which may arise between the teachers 
and the Principal of an Institute, Mr. Stellino reminds us that 
agreement between them is the most important condition for the 
final result of the work. 

24 The Association Review. 

The general conclusions of the author upon the question 
as to the method to be used for producing the surest effect, and 
of the manner of organizing the school, are as follows: 

I. In Regard to the Method. 

Also with the weak-minded Deaf of groups C and D one 
should insist as much as possible upon the application of the oral 
method, but one should not exclude the mimic representation, 
nor natural gestures from teaching; and in regard to the educa- 
tion of these children, one should give the greatest importance 
and the amplest development to manual work; from this it 
follows that: 

II. In regard to the Organization, 

for these pupils there must be an absolute separation from those 
more gifted with intelligence — groups A and B — for whom the 
pure oral method is necessary and sufficient, and therefore they 
should be sent to special institutes; but a further separation of 
place between the pupils of the groups A and B is not necessary. 


milwaukee, wisconsin, december 29, i902. 

An Observer's Notes. 

The State Teachers' Association of Wisconsin has a section 
consisting of those persons interested in the instruction of the 
deaf. The section held a meeting last year, and has just closed 
the second session, having present a good body of the fifty 
teachers in the state, who participated chiefly in the presentation 
of papers, and the section will hereafter doubtless take a more 
definite place in the line of discussion of papers read. 

The State Inspector of Schools for the Deaf, W. D. Parker, 
presided, and a special feature of interest was the exemplification 
of the instruction aflforded Miss Eva Halliday by her teachers, 
Hypatia Boyd and Elsie Steinke. Mr. Parker reported that there 
were, during the past school year, 428 deaf (minors chiefly) in 
the 18 day, and i state, schools; that 33 lady teachers directed 
the oral work in the 18 day schools, and that some 19 male and 
female teachers taught the inmates at the state school, — over 
140 of whom were under instruction for speech. The inspector 
announced that his annual report of date June 30, 1902, will be 
mailed to the teachers within a few days. 

The main topic of consideration was "The Instruction of the 
Deaf in Language," and the several papers of the teachers ap- 
proached the subject from many points of view that, in the ag- 
gregate, aflforded a strong review of the method in the state. The 
Inspector was of the opinion that a creditable state of harmony 
exists among the teachers in the state, in spite of the variety of 
methods of instruction, and that language has a large measure of 
encouragement coming through the zeal of the teachers in the 
lines in which individually they work. 

State Superintendent -elect, C. P. Gary, late Superintendent 
of the state school during one year, stated that it was fairly 
manifested in his observation that the highest intellectual stim- 

26 The Association Review, 

ulus comes through speech for the deaf, and that language 
itself is promoted by the present methods of procedure at the 
state school, — which may be ranked as under the "combined 
method." That reading constitutes large valuable stimulus for 
improvement of the forms of language for the deaf. 

The paper of Miss Hypatia Boyd, of the state school, con- 
cerning the early instruction of the deaf-blind girl, Eva Halliday, 
stated that this girl, fifteen years old, entered the school last 
February, having no language, but a bright mind and affection- 
ate soul that was evidently pleading for release from the world of 
darkness and ignorance. Miss Boyd used finger spelling in her 
instruction, and the girl seemed to realize that all things had 
names and desired to spell on the hand continuously. The 
child's zeal was such that sentences were introduced early. The 
girl elicited the interest of William Wade^ of Oakmont, at an 
early date, and received from him a Braille writer, which she 
mastered in connection with the sign language. At this date, 
Eva has over five hundred words in her vocabulary for use on 
a Remington typewriter, also a gift of Mr. Wade, and she 
prints the same list in Braille and reads it after the manner of 
the blind. The child is reported to receive gymnastic exercises 
with interest; she engages in all sports with other deaf children 
who are not blind, and is alert in every physical and mental way 
that the teacher can desire. 

Miss Elsie Steinke, who became the teacher in speech of 
Eva in September, gave an interesting account of her procedure, 
which is substantially after the method employed elsewhere with 
the deaf-bHnd, and at a later moment each of the teachers^ Misses 
Boyd and Steinke, exemplified all of the work with Eva present 
excepting the Remington writer process. 

A paper by Miss Alice Robie, of the Ashland day school, 
was read by Miss Gardner, of Appleton, and stated that the 
essential steps which are taken for language must be addressed 
to the eye and lo the touch rather than to the car, and that this 
fact must be kept constantly in view in order that a comparative 
lack of spontaneous exercise of the learner shall find compen- 
sation in the degree of intensity with which repetition, through 
immediate instruction^ is promoted. 

The Wisconsin Round Table. 27 

Miss Gussie Greener, teacher in the day school at Rhine- 
lander, said, under the sub-title of "Action Work," that such 
work appeals to the deaf in natural ways, in that it is in conform- 
ity to the child to "do something," and the doing of something 
that is spontaneous leads to the ready doing of the things of 
school as writing, etc. In all this work, the child is taught the 
word that expresses the action, and the action itself affords an 
occasion for an amount of exercise that enables the teacher to 
release the child from the sum-mutisms which might otherwise 
continue. Out of general bodily action comes a sharpening of 
perceptive so that **lip-reading" is to most children a compara- 
tively easy process. 

M. Stella Flatly, teacher of the day school at Green Bay, 
in presenting the sub-topic "The Journal," remarked that the 
Journal secured spontaneous expression of the child; that at the 
speech lesson where the journal is admissible the child speaks the 
sentence, and each sentence is written on the slates by some pu- 
pil as it is spoken by another. When all the sentences are writ- 
ten, they are repeated by all the children, and each is called to 
substitute a noun for a pronoun, or the contrary, observing the 
change of form of pronouns with a view to denote person. On 
the succeeding day, questions are asked concerning that work 
in which children participate, and an exhibition of the journal 
comes easily to general sentential forms. 

Elsie M. Steinkc, of the state school, speaking from her 
notes concerning "Correlations with a View to Language," made 
strong points on lines well understood by teachers of the deaf, 
giving conclusive evidence that the relations in which words 
or facts stand to other facts and words, are made for extending 
the powers of the child concerning the content of the word or 

Carrie H. Archibald, teacher of the day school at Osh- 
kosh, answered the question, — "What do you consider the best 
means for enabling your pupils to acquire language in the next 
five years ?" 

Miss Archibald specified reading for third grade pupils, who 
are interested in Lights to Literature, book 2, and similar pubH- 
cations. Selections from the best poems are a help in the ac- 

28 The Association Review. 

quisition of languag^e, — the poetic form affords a variety. 
History, biography and mythology offer excellent fields for com- 
position work, and lead to a literary sense. Miss Archibald's 
paper is along the line of utterance of the pedagogues of repute 
concerning work in language with the deaf. 

The paper of Almira I. Hobart, of the state school, entitled 
"A Few Points in Everyday English," was, in the necessary 
absence of the writer, read by Miss Steinke, also of that school. 

Miss Hobart affirms that it is an ever recurring problem 
to the teacher to give the deaf child a fair knowledge of lan- 
guage. After minor sentences are familiar, systematic, rapid 
advancement will come through drill and the recitation of nat- 
ural facts told in familiar form. The child should be abundantly 
talked to, both in and out of the school room, in clear but simple 
English. He should have assistance in expressing himself in 
speech, dependent of course upon his indicated weakness in the 
present emergency. The teachers can help by placing upon 
the wall slates the difficult words and idioms that the child may, 
by repetition, master them. The child will thus be placed in an 
atmosphere of language, not of mere words but of sentences, 
all of which requires painstaking care. The children should be 
surrounded with bocks and papers, whose language is approp- 
riate, yet similar to that which his hearing brothers have. The 
supervision should be constant; interesting stories should be 
abundant, etc. 

Thomas Hagerty, physical trainer at the state school, signed 
a paper to the teachers, which was translated into speech by an 
associate teacher. Mr. Hagerty made a definite plea for physi- 
cal training for the deaf, both on account of general needs that 
people have for exercise, and for the special purpose of final self 
activity that are realized by those who deal with the deaf. 

A synopsis of this excellent paper is not given, owing to 
lack of immediate relevance to the main topic of the day. 

The exercises closed with Eva Halliday's exemplification, 
and the election of Miss Frances Wettstein, principal of the day 
school at Milwaukee, to the chairmanship of the section, for 
the administration of the work next year. 



It was through some vexatious mistakes which I made in 
conversation with members of my family, because of the simi- 
larity in appearance between two or more words, that gave me 
the thought of starting a list of homophenous words. 

I believed that the list could be made available for general 
use by lip-readers, as well as for those special students for whom 
it is chiefly intended, if it were made full and complete; but it did 
not seem to me at the start that I could go very far in the work, 
yet the more I enlarged the list the more the idea developed, 
and the insight into the movements of my lips and tongue 
became much keener, enabling me to use more effectively my 
judgment and ability in the ultimate selections. 

I am indebted to Mr. F. W. Booth, the editor of The Asso- 
ciation Review, for his kind criticism and valuable suggestions 
in regard to the arrangement of the words, and I wish to make 
acknowledgment of the credit due him in this work. 

I have finally completed the twenty-six lists, which are ar- 
ranged in alphabetical order, and in cross-reference style. Every 
word in its turn in the first column can be readily found, as 
people will wish to use the lists as they do a dictionary. There 
are more words that look alike than there are words that sound 
alike; crane, crate, grade, grain looking alike to the eye, and 
grate, great being the same to the ear, hence all the words in 
the lists are more or less difficult for speech-readers to distin- 
guish by the eye. 

In this arrangement there is no connection to help the mind. 
Any deaf person who understands the English language 
thoroughly is quick of thought to determine in which sense 
or significance a word is used. For instance: "First the blade, 
then the ear; after that, the full corn in the ear." There would 
be no sense in this quotation, if written in words of similar ap- 

30 The Association Review. 

pearance on the lips, thus: Versed, thee, plate, thin, thee, hear; 
after than, thee, full cord it thee here. But in cases, some of these 
words might be uttered when we cannot very well help seeing 
them as looking like other words. 

There are numerous words (not included in the lists) which 
are entirely dissimilar, yet are very easily mistaken for other 
words in rapid speech, for instance: one of my deaf friends, who 
is highly educated and an expert lip-reader, told me last Spring 
of one of the ludicrous blunders which she had made. Her 
mother was reading about a car-load of mixed-paints. She won- 
dered that such a quantity 6f mincc-mcat was shippecl at that time 
in the year. And I recently made the mistake of supposing that 
my sister said to me, "Wipe your face," when she had remarked 
instead, "Wrapper fades.'' The above words are totally unlike, 
and it is not always possible by the clearest estimation to decide 
which word or phrase is right. 

There are no two mouths alike in the world. If they were 
all what we call "remarkably good mouths," speech-reading 
would not be difficult of comprehension, but every mouth has 
its own distinctive manner of expression. Some move their 
lips with beautiful precision, and some open their jaws with great 
rapidity, which fills me with hopeless perplexity, yet even such 
a method may be very helpful to some speech-readers who are 
accustomed to its peculiarities. The greatest difficulties are 
found in distinguishing the following consonants, t, d, n, 1, 
formed by placing the tip of the tongue against the front teeth, as 
tot, don, not, lot; p, b, m, produced by lip-sounds, as bale, male, 
pale; f, v, ph, also produced by lip-sounds, as file, vile, phial; s, 
c, z, formed by pressing the teeth, as seal, ceil, zeal; c, g, k, which 
cannot be seen at the beginning of a word produced by throat- 
sounds, as cap, good, king; ch, sh, j, at the beginning of a word, 
produced by hissing sounds, as chop, shop, job; and q, w, which 
have the same appearance on the lips, when pronounced in a 
word, as quail, whale. In my experience the vowels are readily 
apprehended, and I have used this troublesome set of consonants 
as the basis of my lists. 

Although I have had no traininj^: for this special work, yet 
I believe if the homophenous words in each line were formed 

My List of Homophenous Words, 


in phrases and senter.ccs by the deaf learner, it would be of very 
great assistance. /Jlcr he has mastered the elementary sounds, 
the practice of these exercises would certainly forward final suc- 
cess in considering the context, and being able to decide which 
word of the several possible words is in any instance the one 
actually used. I believe also that those who do not immediate- 
ly apprehend the similarity between the given words in any in- 
stance, will soon discover it for themselves by repeating the 
words before a mirror or having them pronounced by some one 
without voice. The art of lip-reading is like any other com- 
mendable achievement. It is a very slow process and requires 
great patience and persistence. But it is full of intense interest 
every step of the way — and the benefits it yields to every one 
concerned out-measure in many ways the effort required in order 
to command them. 

Homophenous Words. 
























































































































The Association Review. 






























































































































a weigh. 














a weigh. 

























































My List of Homophenous Words. 


























































! pair. 
























. park. 





• (. 



























































































































The Association Review. 















« 1 

! peg, 




























' manner, 































' pay, 


. meed, 














• -"^ peg, 

















, maize. 















. me, 


' pell, 



























































































My List of Homophenous Words, 






















































































































































































1 'a 


bode. moat, 
mode, mote, 
"^ i^'^ mowed. 






* 1 *■ 













r 9 











■ ■ • X^ »▼ ^* ^lA • 











Tlie Association Review. 























































• » 




































































































« ' 













\ nraise. 







r • 


















• * 

































My List of Hofnophenous Words. 









^ J • 
; * - ■ 

> k . 









































:. f « 


































































































» pun. 


























iJ - 


















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my, , 


































































































. can't. 







catamount, gadabout 
























































My List of Homophenous Words. 

























• • 














































































• * 




. shuck. 




















I 1 


. shuck. 


































■ sink, 











:• sight, 






'. site, 


























, clabber, 




• • 



















The Association Review. 


















































1 v' 






commute,) compute, 















































condemned, contemned contempt 

































confounded, unfounded 





, condemned, contempt. 




condemned, contemned, 
































































^ coat, 













My List of Homophenous Words. 
































































. grab. 






































































































































1. . 





c ite. 









• 1 






, crimpage 







The Association Review. 



































J tamp, 

. tamp, 















































































































































List of Homophenous 






















































5, nominate 




















































































, disgust. 

























































i ' 


















1 r 







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duchy, touchy. 



































































elephant, elevate, 
elevate, elephant, 































embark, impark, 
embower, empower, 
emigrant, immigrant, 
eminence, imminence, 
empower, embower, 
end, head, hen, 

enrapt, enwrapped, 
ensign, incite, inside, 

enwrapped, enrapt. 

My List of Homophenous Words. 











































































































































































































The Association Review. 


































































































































































































My List of Hotnophenous Words. 











































































































































:, catamount. 




m ' 



























































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(To be continued.) 




It is to the teachers of those who hear that instructors of 
the deaf should turn for help in their work and they should 
realize more and more that this is as true of speech as of the 
other branches. 

A careful study of the best methods of teaching speech 
to hearing persons and of training, not only the singing but the 
speaking voice, has, together with much experience in the 
adaptation of these methods, rtiade important changes in this 
department of the education of the deaf. 

A teacher who has given much time and thought to this 
special work is willing to give to others the benefit of her ex- 
perience and as it is a propensity of human nature to be more 
readily attracted by a statement of what we ought not to do 
than by one which tells us what we should do, she has chosen 
the short and concise form of "Don'ts" given below. 

In teaching speech to the deaf, in training their voices — 

Don't allow the condition of the muscles in any part of the 
body to be such as to prevent good speech and a good tone; 

Don't direct a pupil to use his voice until he has gained 
control of his tongue, in the first position; 

Don't allow a pupil to feel the vibration of the voice in 
the throat. 

If those who wish to ask the "Why?" of the "Don'ts" will 
write to Mrs. Sarah Jordan Monro, Horace Mann School for 
the Deaf, 178 Newbury St., Boston, Mass., she will be glad to 
reply to the inquiries. 


First Annual Report of the Inspector of Schools for the 

Deaf, Made to the State Superintendent, June 30, 1902. 
Madison, Wisconsin. 

Mr. W. D. Parker, of Madison, Wisconsin, was appointed 
Inspector of the public day schools for the Deaf and of the 
Delavan boarding school on July i, 1901, in accordance with 
a law passed by the state legislature during the preceding May. 
His report of work done during the year and of his studies of 
questions relating to the education of the deaf is an interesting 
and valuable contribution to the literature of the profession. 
There is abundant evidence that he came to the work with a 
mind quite unbiased by preconceived opinions as to the merits 
of the various methods of instruction and of organization in the 
diflferent schools under his observation, and that, with the 
trained intellect of an expert in the theory and practice of peda- 
gogics, he has sought only to arrive at the truth in all matters 
of dispute and to determine the principles upon which the educa- 
tion of the Deaf should be based. There may be disagreement 
regarding the justice of some of his conclusions, which might 
be modified by longer study and experience in the work, but 
none will dispute his impartiality and ability in the discharge 
of his duties. 

Mr. Parker reviews the history and the conditions that en- 
viron the various schools, and gives numerous statistical tables 
in connection therewith. He makes an impartial presentation 
of the claims of the different m'ethods of instruction; speaks of 
his efforts to increase the professional efficiency of teachers by 
obtaining from local boards permission for them to visit other 
schools, and by organizing them as a section of the Wisconsin 
Teachers' Association; and mentions that the training classes 
connected with the Milwaukee, Chicago, and Detroit day schools, 
and the Clarke School and Gallaudet College have been accred- 
ited by the Stale Superintendent in certifying teachers for the 
Wisconsin day schools. 

Reviews. 5^ 

Apart from financial matters, the Inspector makes the fol- 
lowing criticisms of the day schools: 

"The 'exclusive oral method' is employed for all pupils; the 
result is the hopeless task of teaching speech and speech-reading 
to some pupils whose ages at entrance vary from 4 to 23 years, 
whose minds are fatally '*feeble," and still others who are per- 
manently aphasic or have defective speech organs. 

"The opportunity of the day school is disparaged by isola- 
tion — isolation of teacher when only one is employed (there are 
i-i such), isolation owing to ignorance of officers; the result is 
that the teacher secures less satisfactory results than her patient 
skill and her motherly care deserve, and professionally she is 
likely to deterioration owing to want of sympathy of her kind." 

He makes the following recommendations: 

"Concerning methods of instruction, it is recommended that 
the day schools continue the oral method and writing as hereto- 
fore, that vigorous calisthenics and some Sloyd or other wood 
work and sewing be practiced daily, that the inspector be author- 
ized to join with local authorities and parents in showing the 
advantages of the regimen at the state school, whenever individ- 
ual day school pupils show upon due trial, not to exceed three 
years' duration, inaptitude in oral work that amounts to arrest 
in actual speech and intelligence. 

"In all such action the consent of the parents and of the 
President of the Board of Control should be secured, and en- 
trance at the state school should be effected, as a rule, only at its 
annual opening in the fall ; such pupils entered at the state school 
should be classified under the discretion of the superintendent 
of that school. Like procedure should be authorized for the 
transfer of feeble-minded pupils from day schools to the Home at 
Chippewa Falls. 

"Also, the information concerning methods, accommoda- 
tions, etc., at the day and state schools should be carried repeat- 
edly by circulars to the attention of parents of deaf minors who 
have not attended any Wisconsin schools for the deaf, thus 
affording parents repeated occasion for determining whether 
their children shall be instructed and to choose between the ex- 
clusive oral and the combined method; and between paying 
board and having free home in the institution. 

"A recommendation concerning the state school is included 
in the suggestion in favor of the permanent separation of the in- 
mates who are taught in the oral system, and the creation of 
ample modern hospital facilities." 

52 The AssociaHon Review. 

A voluminous appendix to the report gives excerpts from 
the reports of many schools for the deaf showing their attitude 
on methods of instruction ; extracts from letters from adult Deaf, 
whose views regarding methods were solicited; opinions of in- 
dividuals and organizations on the same subject; statistics of 
the Wisconsin day schools; and miscellaneous statistics. 

North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb at Morgan- 
ton, Sixth Biennial Report. 

This report shows that the Morganton school is as regards 
material equipment, organization, and methods of instruction, 
the peer of any institution for the education of the Deaf in 
America. Since the last report, two additions have been made 
to the main building, and a complete system of water-works has 
been installed,. There are now 237 pupils in attendance, and 
Mr. Goodwin claims there are probably as many more deaf chil- 
dren in the state who should be enjoying the advantages of the 
school, and recommends the passage of a compulsory education 
law for their benefit. There are distinct manual and oral de- 
partments, the course of study being the same in each, with the 
exception that in the later the pupils are taught speech and 
speech-reading and by means of speech. Every pupil entering 
the school is given a trial in the oral department, and transferred 
to the manual only on demonstration of his inability to learn, and 
to learn by, speech and speech-reading. We note that it was 
thought necessary to transfer from the oral to the manual de- 
partment three pupils last year and four this year. There are 
at present iii pupils under oral instruction. In the manual de- 
partment signs are discouraged both in and out of school, in- 
struction being by means of spelling. The separation of the 
oral and manual pupils is as complete as may be where they at- 
tend one school, extending to chapel service and the dining 
room as well as the class-rooms. The rotary method of recita- 
tions has been adopted with the advanced oral classes, and of 
this innovation Mrs. Hurd, the Chief Instructor of the depart- 
ment, says: 

Reviews. 53 

"The advantages of this plan are already evident. The 
classes are better graded, yet no more teachers are required; 
the pupils come in touch with more than one teacher; the work 
can be more evenly balanced, preventing the tendency towards 
spending more than enough time upon one kind of work at the 
expense of another; the pupils enjoy the change from the sur- 
roundings of one room to those of another^ and the value of the 
additional practice in speaking to, and reading the speech of 
more than one teacher can not be measured." 

American Annals of the Deaf, Washington, D. C, Jan., 1903. 

"Physical Characteristics of Pupils/' by James L. Smith, 
Faribault, Minnesota. This is a continuation of the paper on the 
same subject printed in the September Annals, and reviewed in 
the December Review. It tells of some very practical tests 
made of the pupils' eyesight and shows their practical application 
to the educational work of the school. It would be greatly to 
the advantage of the pupils if similar tests were made in every 
school. . 

"Trying the Use of the Akoulalion/' by Mabel EUery 
Adams, Boston, -Mass. Miss Adams gives the results obtained 
with the instrument since the publication of her article in the 
March, 1902, Annals, describing her experience with it in teach- 
ing a deaf boy. Her conclusions are that with a child of the 
degree of hearing possessed by this pupil (It is so small that 
doctors claim it is nil), he will come by sufficient practice, to rec- 
ognize with certainty a small vocabulary, and the practice will 
give greater accuracy of pronunciation and improved emphasis 
and manner of speech, but there is no evidence that it will mod- 
ify or change the tone quality. 

Other interesting and helpful articles to teachers are 
History," by Warren Robinson, of Delavan, Wisconsin^, and 
Notes on Language Teaching," by Edward A. Tillinghast, of 
Danville, Kentucky. There is also an account of "A Case of 
Hysterical Deaf-Mutism" reprinted from the Laryngoscope, the 
usual statistics of schools, which are reviewed in our editorial 
department, a list of instructors in American schools for the 
Deaf, and school notes. 

54 The Association Review. 

Forty-fifth Annual Report of the Columbia Institution for 
the Deaf and Dumb, Washington, D. C. 

The number of pupils in the institution during the year was 
200, of whom 136 were in the college department. Three young 
men who graduated in June were awarded the degree of bachelor 
of science, they having completed the required course in scienti- 
fic and technical work, and two of these are now completing 
their studies, one in the Georgia School of Technology, the other 
in Washington University^ St. Louis. In this connection Presi- 
dent Gallaudet says: 

"In this way the problem of technical education for the deaf 
seems to be nearing solution. Bright young deaf men and 
women with sound training in the elements of chemistry^ civil 
engineering, mechanical engineering, or architecture can, after 
leaving the college, finish their courses in two or three years in 
the best technical schools of the country and be prepared to 
begin their professions with the best possible preparation. 

"If a fund could be secured for the assistance of such grad- 
uates of the college in pursuing their studies further, the suc- 
cess of this plan would be assured." 

That the college continues to make progress in the teaching 
and the employment of speech and speech-reading is shown by 
the following paragraph that appears in the report: 

"In the divisions of large classes in the college into sections, 
speech has become the basis for division. In the sections con- 
taining those most proficient in speech a great deal of recitation 
work has been done orally, and in all classes students have been 
encouraged to use what power of speech or speech-reading: they 

Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Texas Deaf and Dumb 

Asylum, Austin, Texas. 

Mr. B. F. McNulty, the Superintendent, in his report to 
the Board, draws a striking picture of the deplorable condition 
in which he found the institution buildings at the beginning of 
his administration in February, 1899, and reviews the improve- 
ments since made. The Texas School now ranks among the 
best equipped and most progressive in methods of administra- 

Reviews. 55 

tion and instruction, and the progress it has made and is making 
shows what may be accomplished by a man of energy, tact, and 
good judgment^ though he enter on the work without previous 
experience with the Deaf. During less than three years the sum 
of $79,019.17 has been expended in repairs and the erection of 
new buildings, and the number of pupils has increased from 260 
to 390, an attendance of 500 being indicated for the next session 
(the present school year). Of these pupils, 204 were in the oral 
department, 180 in the manual department, 3 were special pupils 
in the industrial department, and 3 were blind-deaf. Regarding 
the teaching of speech, the report says: "The policy of giving 
all marticulates who are not too old and have sufficient mentality 
a trial in speech, is adhered to. A comparatively small percent- 
age of the previous year's beginners were last year transferred 
from the oral to the manual department. As the work of speech 
teaching becomes better systematized and more efficient, this 
number will grow somewhat less." 

The Texas School now uses fuel oil in place of coal and we 
are told that the cost of installing the plant and operating it for 
one year amounted to less by several hundred dollars than the 
ordinary coal bill for the same length of time. 

We are pleased to learn from other sources that Mr. 
McNulty has been reappointed by the new state administration, 
and the school is therefore assured of continued advancement 
for some time to come. 

Home for the Training in Speech of Deaf Children Before 
They are of School Age, Philadelphia — Sixth Report. 

This report is illustrated very prettily with numerous half- 
tone engravings of the very young children who are its pupils. 
Miss Garrett, the Principal, states that since the last report five 
children who have completed the course have been admitted 
to schools for the hearing, and presents letters from their 
teachers that show they are all making satisfactory progress, 
some doing much better than the average hearing pupil. 

56 The Association Review. 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan, [Scandinavian Journal 
of Deaf-mute Education], Goteborg, Sweden, Nos. 6 — ii, 

"Observations Regarding Formal Speech Exercises" by 
G. Forchhammer. "Report of J. Wallin to the Royal Swedish 
Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs on his Visits to Various Insti- 
tutions for the Deaf in Germany and Denmark." Among the 
rest Mr. Wallin visited the old established and famous school in 
the city of Schleswig. As regards the instruction in this institu- 
tion he says: "The main object of the instruction is to enable 
the children to freely and unhesitatingly express themselves rel- 
ative to occurrences in their common every-day life. These 
occurrences form in the first place the subject of instruction, and 
their description is repeated innumerable times. The teacher 
has, therefore, considerable freedom in the selection of his sub- 
jects, and must be prepared to take up any occurrence which 
attracts attention. The instruction thereby becomes an object 
lesson in the fullest sense of the term, and the spoken word is 
intimately connected with an actual occurrence. 

"Printed text books are used, it is true, from the beginning 
of the second year, but as a general rule the subject for the read- 
ing lessons are taken from occurrences in the school room. 
"Whenever a pencil falls on the floor, a window is opened or 
closed, a fly settles on the nose of one of the pupils or the 
teacher, instruction is interrupted and the occurrence forms the 
subject of conversation, often for the fiftieth time. 

"Only in rare cases are pictures employed for object lessons. 
The teacher takes his class out with him into real life. Sur- 
rounded by his pupils he takes his position on a street or in a 
square, where there is a good deal of life, and converses with 
them on everything that passes, e. g., here comes a country- 
man with his wagon; he has butter to sell; a pigeon settles on 
the roof; there two boys are fighting; they are naughty boys! etc. 
The pupils are also sent to stores to buy what is needed for the 
house and kitchen; and they have often to trot to and fro several 
times till they succeed in making themselves understood. 

"A circumstance which struck me very favorably was this 
that the teachers take great care that an object which is to serve 
to impress an idea on the minds of the pupils, shall be by itself, 
that is to say, it shall not be brought before the eyes of the 
pupils in groups or in connection with other objects, as thereby 
the idea becomes vague, undefined and possibly erroneous. 

Reviews. 57 

To teach, e. g., the meaning of "goose" it would confuse the 
pupils if a goose were shown to them among a flock of different 
kinds of poultry. To teach the word "cup," the cup is shown 
without the saucer, which forms an object by kself. 

"This principle is so thoroughly carried out in the Schleswig 
institution that in instruction in arithmetic by means of black- 
board, a cloth was hung over those portions where there were 
other figures than the ones under consideration. 

"As another instance of this system it may be mentioned 
that one of the teachers got a potted plant and let it stand in the 
schoolroom without water till it began to wither. The pupils 
who watched this saw that the plant withered, that it was almost 
dying. Why ? The soil in the pot was dry. What was the cause 
of this ? The plant needed water. What should, therefore, be 
done ? The plant should be watered. This was done and after a 
few hours the plant began to revive. This was shown and ex- 
plained in a similar way. 

On the wall of the highest room there hung a board con- 
taining the "Ten Speech Commandments" which are as follows : 
I. Open the mouth sufficiently wide to let the vowels sound 
clear and full. 2. Pronounce all consonants, especially "f," "s" 
and "sch" correctly and distinctly. 3. Pay close attention to 
short and long vowels. 4. Pronounce the final sound invari- 
ably short, but do not swallow the final "e." 5. Connect the 
words in a sentence, but do not interpolate an incorrect sound. 
6. Give always the correct accent. 7. Speak neither too loud 
nor too low, or through the nose. 8. In speaking do not 
squeeze out the words. 9. Do not make faces while speaking. 
10. Try to speak well in all places and at all times, even on the 
playground or on the street. 

The collection for a monument for Hill has been closed in 
the Scandinavian countries. It appears from a statement in the 
Journal that the amount collected in Sweden was 149 kroner 
and in Denmark 102 kroner (in all $67.00). 

"The Development of the Education of Teachers of the 
Deaf and its Present Condition in Some of the Countries of 
Europe" by A. F. Nystrom. The first instalment of this article 
is devoted to Prussia. The first step in organizing a teachers' 
education was a ministerial order of December 20th, 181 1, plac- 
ing a certain Mr. Neumann as "learning teacher" in the Berlin 

58 The Association Review. 

institution, for the purpose — as it was stated — ^that Neumann 
when returning to his native province should be able to instruct 
as a teacher of a public school not only the normally endowed 
children but also the deaf. In 1813 it was resolved that every 
other year such a "learning teacher" should enter the Berlin 
institution. The course comprised a probation time of four 
weeks, followed by a period of 6 months for learning; followed 
in its turn by a period of teaching. This was of course only a 
small beginning, but already in 1828 a complete course of study 
for candidates for teachers' places in institutions for the Deaf 
was elaborated : and from that year a number of young men who 
desired to make the teaching of the Deaf their life work entered 
this course every year. 

According to the present regulations, candidates for such 
places must pass two examinations, viz: the "teachers' examina- 
tion" and the "Directors' examination." There is no normal 
school in the present sense of the term. The education of teach- 
ers who study for the "teachers' examination" is confined to the 
various provinces. The course which lasts two years is for both 
male and female students. They are at liberty to attend any 
institution for the deaf which they may prefer, but all those who 
belong to one province must undergo their examination at some 
institution in their province selected by the Minister of Public 
Instruction. Although the education of teachers is scattered 
throughout the country, it must be stated that the Royal Insti- 
tution in Berlin forms the central point. This Institution has to 
fulfill the following duties: 

1. The "Directors' examination" for the whole of Prussia 
is always held at this institution. 

2. The Royal Institution is attended by all the candidates 
from the Province of Brandenburg, but in addition by a g^eat 
many from other provinces of Prussia; 

3. Special lectures for the candidates are delivered regu- 
larly at the Royal Institution which is not the case at the other 
institutions. The two years' course embraces the following: 
lectures in the institution; lectures in the Berlin clinic for dis- 
eases of the ear; practical exercises in the various classes of the 
institution under the personal direction of the Director; exer- 
cises in the classes without the constant assistance of the Direc- 
tor; witnessing instruction in the various classes by the teachers; 

Reviews. 59 

surveillance over the boys of the institution outside of study 

The lectures in the institution embrace two principal sub- 
jects; viz.: theory and history of deaf-mute education. The 
text-books used are "Manual of Deaf-Mute Education" and 
'•History of Deaf-Mute Education," both by Walther. The lec- 
tures in the clinic for diseases of the ear take place once a week, 
and relate to the anatomy and physiology of the organs and their 
causes. Practical exercises in the classes are held twice a week, 
when one of the candidates imparts instruction — under the di- 
rection of the Director. Before the lesson opens, the candidate 
must give a written outline of the same; and after the lesson it 
is subjected to criticism in the presence of all the candidates and 
teachers. Exercises without the aid of the Director take place 
four times a week. The examinations which candidates have to 
pass, are both written and oral; and every candidate who has 
passed the examination receives a certificate to that effect from 
the Royal Board of Examiners, which entitles him to apply for 
a place as teacher at any of the schools for the deaf in Prussia. 

The higher examination — for Directors' places — is held only 
at the Royal Institution in Berlin. To enter the lists for this 
examination a person must have successfully filled a teacher's 
place for at least five years. 

To prepare themselves for this examination, the candidates 
are permitted to spend some time at the Royal Institution, and if 
they are without means, the Government allows each one loo 
mark (equal to $23.80) per month during this period. 

The examination is written and oral. The written portion 
consists in the writing of a composition under the surveillance 
of some of the professors. The oral examination embraces the 
following subjects: i. Reading and translating from French and 
English works on the education of the deaf; questions in the 
grammar of these two languages. 2. Phonetics and its applica- 
tion to articulation. 3. Anatomy and physiology of the organs 
of speech and hearing. 4. Acoustics. 5. Methods of instruction 
of the deaf. 6. History of the education of the deaf. The prac- 
tical examination consists in instructing a class of deaf pupils. 

6o The Associaiian Review. 

"The Preparatory School at Goteborg" by F. Nordin: Mr. 
Nordin proposes that the Carnegie Fund, given for the educa- 
tion of the deaf, should at least, in part, be devoted to such a 
school. Many people may think that the education of the deaf 
is well cared for in Sweden, and that nothing more is needed. 
But this is not altogether a correct view. It should be borne in 
mind what a vast difference there is between hearing and deaf 
children at the time when they enter school. The hearing chil- 
dren come with fully developed speech by which they can ex- 
press all their thoughts, ideas and wishes, whilst the deaf lack all 
this. The mental horizon of the hearing children is wider and 
fuller, their ideas of rights and duties are clearer. The difference 
between the two kinds of children is in fact so enormous that 
they cannot be brought to the same level during the period of 
schooling. All this and much more can be said in favor of a 
preparatory school for deaf children under school age. This 
whole question, as well as that of supplementary schools for 
pupils after leaving school, is the question of the day in many 
other countries, such as Denmark, Germany^ etc. Such a school 
should have a 4 years' course, and be in the nature of a "kinder- 

The Swedish Deaf-Mute Teachers' Association, and the 
Swedish Government has again this year, as in previous years, 
been very liberal in providing teachers with the means for visit- 
ing foreign countries, and becoming practically acquainted with 
the instruction of the deaf in those countries. This is an ex- 
ample worthy of imitation, for it will result in a practical benefit 
to the teachers, something which they could not derive from the 
reading of books on the subject. 

"Lars Gustaf Lindstrom" by E. A. Zotterman. Few Eu- 
ropean countries have, comparatively speaking, done so much 
for the education and advancement of the deaf as the three 
Scandinavian kingdoms of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. 
Among the men standing in the front rank of the movement 
in Sweden is undoubtedly the Rev. Lars Gustaf Lindstrom, born 
in 1842 and died August 23rd, 1902, whose biography, with 
portrait, is given in No. 10 of the "Tidskrift." Although he 
considered the teaching of religion as his life's calling, he at an 

Reviews. ^i 

early period in his career, began to take the deepest interest in 
the education of the deaf, and was for a number of years religious 
instructor at the well known institution for the deaf at Manilla 
near Stockholm. His memory in Sweden will always be asso- 
ciated with this branch of his activity. He was a prominent 
and exceedingly active member of the Commission appointed 
by the King in 1876 to make a report on the condition of deaf- 
mute instruction and frame propositions for its improvement. 
This report formed the basis of the Law of 1889 which, though 
it did not realize all the hopes of the friends of the deaf, was 
nevertheless a great step in advance. Mr. Lindstrom was a zeal- 
ous advocate of the speech method, and strongly favored small 
boarding schools in preference to large ones, where each pupil 
could not receive the attention he needed. Whenever the 
history of deaf-mute instruction in Sweden is written, Lind- 
strom will be mentioned as one of the pioneers in the cause. 

"Instruction by the ear, with special regard to the Institu- 
tion at Nyborg, Denmark;" an address delivered at the third 
meeting of the Danish teachers of the deaf at Nyborg in April, 
1902, by A. Hansen. Mr. Hansen gives an historic outline of 
the growth and development of this instruction from the earliest 
times. Thus we learn that in 1620 a Mr. Bonet, a Spaniard, 
gave an account of how in his time the hearing of the deaf was 
sought to be developed. The deaf were placed in large empty 
barrels and compelled to yell as loud as possible, so they might 
hear the echo from the sides of the barrel. Sometimes the poor 
deaf were forced to yell till the blood gushed from their throat. 
These first hearing exercises certainly appear to us very bar- 
barous. After mentioning the experiments made at different 
times by Pereire and Itard in France, Barries in Hamburg, 
Tappe in Berlin, Dr. Samuel Akerly in New York, Lehfeldt and 
Urbantschitsch in Vienna, Mr. Hansen devotes same time to the 
experiments made by Prof. Bezold of Munich with the continu- 
ous series of sounds invented by him with 32 to 500,000 vibra- 
tions per second. By means of this apparatus it can be ascer- 
tained in what part of the scale of sounds the defect in hearing 
exists. Bezold was not satisfied with this scientific result, but is 
anxious that the practical instruction of the deaf should derive 

62 The Association Review. 

some benefit therefrom. He draws the conclusion that a persis- 
tent speech exercise through the ear deserves to be carried out, 
and should be carried out on the basis of the facts proven both 
by his and Prof. Urbantscitsch's experiments.With the view to 
obtain satisfactory results from this kind of instruction, he pro- 
poses to divide all the pupils into three groups. The positively 
and absolutely deaf form a group by themselves; the second 
group comprises those who have become deaf some time early in 
life but have preserved remnants of speech; whilst those who 
have same capacity for hearing form the third group. During 
the later years of schooling these two last mentioned classes 
may, however, be instructed in common. As regards the 
Nyborg School with its 75 pupils, Mr. Hansen states that he 
has elaborated a scheme, according to which the pupils are divid- 
ed first of all into 3 groups (A, B, and C,) as regards their talents 
viz., talented, mediocre and poor; these groups are again sub- 
divided, according to their ability to hear, into three other 
groups,(A, B, viz.: the first can hear vowels, and are more 
or less able to hear sentences ; the second are defective in hearing 
vowels; and the third group comprises those who possess a very 
defective hearing or none at all. There is made, however, a 
third division (A, B, C,) according to the capacity for speaking 
possessed by the pupils when they enter the school. This divi- 
sion is of course only approximately correct. Group A comprises 
those who when entering the school possessed a more or less 
perfect child's speech; grouo B those whose speech consisted of 
broken words and phrases; and group C those who must be con- 
sidered as absolutely or nearly mute. Although there are 
many difficulties in the way of strictly carrying out these divi- 
sions in all cases, instruction is on the whole adapted to this 
classification as well as circumstances present and generally with 
good results, each pupil receiving that care and that instruction 
which his physical and mental capacities and his previous life 
demand. This leaves of course much to be desired, but it does 
at any rate point out the principle which should be followed in 
the instruction of the deaf. 

RetHews. 63 

Vcrwaltungs-bcricht des Magistrals Zu Berlin fur das 

Etatsjahr, 1901. N0.8. Bericht der stadtischen Schuldeputa- 
tion. (Report of the School-Trustees of Berlin for the fiscal 
year 1901. No. 8. Report of the school board of the city). 

In the classification of the schools of the city of Berlin, we 
find that those of the Deaf and Blind are placed under the title 
Preparatory Schools. In the present report the following article 
occurs relative to the treatment necessary for children who are 
physically defective : 

The children who for this cause cannot take part in the 
general class instruction will receive instruction at their homes. 
The respective teachers will receive an adequate salary. 

The money applied for this purpose amounts to about 10,000 

The course of instruction for those who stammer had been 
reorganized and 2000 marks were expended for it. There was a 
principal and a supplementary course. There were 74 pupils 
who took part in the principal course, (5 classes of 12 pupils, 
and one class of 14 pupils), and there were 69 pupils in the 
supplementary course. Only boys of from 12 to 14 years of age 
were admitted, who had been selected by the school directors 
and inspectors, and had also been examined by the physician. 

The length of the principal course was ten weeks or 60 
hours, and that of the supplementary course was 40 hours. 

The time for the daily exercises was one hour, that is from 
12 to I o'clock. Five teachers and one physician were in charge 
of the courses, who had all been prepared according to the same 
method, and who all taught the same method. The attendance 
of the children at the school was large, and the results were 

In the principal course complete success had been obtained 
with 27 pupils, and fair success with 47. In the supplementary 
course complete success with 48, and only an improvement with 
21 pupils. There was organized besides a class for those hard 
of hearing and of little intelligence, who were taught by a teacher 
of deaf-mutes. 

From the Society for the Feeding of Poor Children, the sum 
of 3000 marks had been received, and placed at the disposition 

64 The Association Review. 

of the Principal of the school for the luncheon of the destitute 
children, which consists of bread and butter, hot milk, and mush. 
Besides this income from the "Rudolph fund" of 1081, 35 marks 
was destined also for this same object. 

The City Schools for the Deaf: At the beginning of the fiscal 
year of 1891, there were with the Principal, 15 teacher specialists 
and 3 special teachers for manual work. As they were obliged 
in October to establish another class for articulation, they in- 
creased the number of teachers, and thus were able to have 
15 classes. 

In cases of illness among the teachers, the substitutes were 
taken from the College of Teachers, but only in case of a pro- 
longed absence on account of illness, and a supplementary salary 
was provided. The state of health of the teachers however had 
been satisfactory' on the whole, so that the school had not suf- 
fered from this disturbance. 

The number of pupils which in October, 1900, was 158, in- 
creased in October, 1901, to 178 pupils. The average number of 
pupils for each class was 12. 

Arrangements had been made for the division of the pupils 
according to their ability, in different grades, and also for the 
hours of instruction of the single pupils ; The necessary care also 
was taken of the many feeble minded children who cannot keep 
up with the class instruction; as well as for those children who 
only lately become totally or even partially deaf, and needed a 
longer instruction than the others. 

The attendance had been regular and punctual, although 
there is no law for the compulsory education of the Deaf. 

The orphan Deaf of the city could find board in families near 
the school so that they were able to attend the school regularly. 
The necessary means for providing destitute deaf children with 
warm clothing for the winter was given by public charity at a 
Christmas fair. 

The necessary cooperation of the home with the school for 
the Deaf was obtained by the institution of "lessons for the par- 
ents," in which the parents and relatives of deaf children might 
accustom themselves to the process of their instruction, and 
thus be able to help them at home. 


The state of health of the Deaf had been good for the whole 
year. Thanks to the cooperation of the Society of the vacation 
colony, 14 deaf children had been allowed to participate in the 
vacation colony at Soolbad. 

The vacation for the Deaf was the same in time and length 
as that of the other schools. Visits to the Zoological garden 
were also arranged for the pupils, and like the preceding years, 
gratuitous tickets were provided for the baths of the city. 

The school library of about 200 volumes of the best writings 
for the young was diligently used by the pupils of the higher 

The Deaf are allowed to observe, as in former years, all 
the national, civil, and sacred holidays. 

The fifth paragraph, concerning the graduation of the pupils 
from the school, is of special interest : 

After leaving the school the pupils can learn a trade, the 
boys some kind of manual work and the girls, when they cannot 
find work at home, are taught sewing, or other work, so that 
they can support themselves. It is not difficult to find good 
places for such instruction, for Deaf apprentices are taken 
very willingly as there is no special difficulty in teaching them as 
they can be taught orally; and there is besides a premium of 
150 marks paid by the Government to the person who has taught 
a deaf-mute a trade for a period of 4 years. The pupils however 
after leaving school continue to attend the city schools for a 
post-graduate course, and thus remain in close relation with the 
school and with their teachers. This post-graduate course for 
the Deaf consists in confirming and extending the knowledge 
already acquired in school, and in putting the pupils more and 
more in relation with practical life, and in perfecting them in 
spoken language and in lip-reading. 

The city schools for the Deaf were much visited during the 
past year by the Directors, Inspectors, and Physicians of the 
schools for the Deaf, as well as by other persons who take in- 
terest in this special branch of instr .ction. The local teachers 
also of the supplementary classes, and those who direct the 
courses for stammering, made visits to the school in the interest 
of their missions. 

66 The Association Review. 

Annual Report of the Committee of the Yorkshire(England) 

Institution for the Education of Deaf and Dumb Children, 
for the year 1901 — 1902. 

This school reports an attendance of 119 pupils. A new 
school building has recently been completed. It contains a 
large^ well lighted central hall with ten class rooms around it 
and a large room equipped for the teaching of cooking, laundry 
work, and dairy work to the girls. An interesting feature of the 
report is the replies to circulars sent out by the management 
making inquiries of friends regarding former pupils. 73 re- 
sponses were received. The answers to the questions relating 
to speech and speech-reading were as follows: 

Does he (or she) give satisfaction ? — ^Yes, 70. 

Does he (or she) continue to use his (or her) speech ? — Yes, 58, 

No, 6. 
Can he (or she) make himself (or herself) generally understood 

by speech ?— Yes, 50. No, 7 (4 of which are qualified as to 

Does he (or she) read the lips of others speaking to him (or 

her) ? — Yes, 59. No, 2 (several qualified). 
Do you value the amount of speech and lip-reading which he 

(or she) possesses ? — Yes, very much indeed, we think it 

of great benefit, &c., 60. No, not much, &c., 3. 
Does he (or she) associate with the adult Deaf and Dumb? 
, —Yes, 36. No, 13. Qualified, 14. 

Statische Nachrichten uber die Taubstummen-Anstalten 
Deutschlands und deren Lehrkrafte fur das Jahr 1903. VII. 
Jahrgang. Bearbeitet voni Koniglichen. Schulrat. I. Ra- 
domski. Direktor der Provinzial-Tauhstummenanstalt in 
Posen, Posen. Bei d. Verfasser, 1903 (Statistical Notes on 
the German Institutions for the Deaf and their teachers for the 
year 1903. 7th vear. Compiled by I. Radomski. Principal 
of the Provincial Institution for the Deaf at Posen). 

This is the seventh year since Mr. Radomski, the Principal 
of the Institution of Posen. bcpfan the publication of statistical 
notes in regard to the schools and institutions of the Deaf in 
Germany. We find in the first place an index of the teachers 

Reviews. 67 

and principals of all the schools for the Deaf in Germany ; after- 
wards particular notices are given of every school and institute, 
with the number of pupils, the form of the school (day or board- 
ing-school), religion of the teachers, the date of their birth, and 
of the beginning of their career, amount of salary, etc. 

The volume is in the form of a note-book, and may be used 
as such as an aid to memory, as well as for the didactic program 
of the school. 

Among the statistical notes, the following deserve special 
mention. Of the 89 institutes now existing in Germany for the 
instruction of the Deaf, 39 are day-schools, 38 institutions, and 
12 of a mixed form (with boarding and day scholars). The 
total number of the Deaf now actually under instruction is 6607, 
divided into 674 classes with 738 teachers. The pupils divided 
according to sex, 3625 males and 2982 females. 

According to the last general census of the population, there 
existed in Germany in 1900 a total of 31278 deaf-mutes, of whom 
215 were also affected with blindness. The Deaf are thus 
divided among the various provinces: Province of East Prussia 
3663, Province of West Prussia 2661, Berlin 1328, Brandenburg 
2536, Pomerania 1835, Posen 2974, Silesia 4478, Saxony 2015, 
Schleswig-Holstein 829, Hanover 171 1, Westphalia 1682, Coun- 
try of the Rhine 3621, Hohenzollern 49. 

All the institutions and schools are under the supervision 
of the Minister, exercised by special officers, there being in 
every province a Superintendent and a Director of the studies 
who supervises the work of the schools for the Deaf. 

In the course of the past year (Aug. 1901 — ^July 1902), seven 
teachers retired on a pension on account of age, and six died. 

The course of instruction in the various schools is of 6, 7, 
and 8 years. The duration of the weekly lessons is different 
in the different schools. In 3 institutes they have 24 hours a 
week of lessons: in 13, 26; in 7, 28; in 11, 30; in i, 32; in 3, 
24 — 26; in 4, 26 — 28; in i, 28 — 30; in 2, 24 — 31; in 2, 24 — 28; in 
2, 25 — 28; in I, 27 — 29. 

In the period mentioned above 17 special publications have 
been issued, of which 8 in the service of the teachers, and 9 as 
text books for the school. 

68 The Association Review, 

Besides the German convention of the Teachers of the Deaf, 
there exists in Prussia also an association of educators with 
statutes and special conditions. 

Elementary instruction for the Deaf is compulsory by law 
in the following states and provinces: Schleswig-Holstein, Sax- 
ony, Weimar, Eisenach, Saxony-Coburg-Gotha, Saxony-Mein- 
ingen-Hildburghausen, Oldenburg, Anhalt, Brunswick, Bremen, 
Lubeck, Kingdom of Saxony, Denmark, Norway, Lippe. 

Memoria del Institute Nacional de Sordomudos correspon- 

diente al ano 1901. [Report of the National Institute for 
the Deaf (boys) for the year 1901, Buenos Aires, 1902]. 

Prof. Ayrolo, the Principal of the National Institution for 
the Deaf at Buenos Aires presents his annual report to the 
Minister of Public Instruction of the Argentine Republic, saying 
that the Institute continues to progress although its budget 
has been continually diminished. From the report we find the 
following information: During the last year (1901) the number 
of pupils was 88, and the tuition of each pupil amounted to 
about $5.50 per month. Speaking of the pupils and their mental 
condition, Prof. Ayrolo gives an interesting exposition of the 
various causes which produced deaf-mutism. Among 88 pupils 
19 are foreigners, 12 are Italian, i French, i North American, 
I Greek, and 4 from the contiguous Republic of Uruguay. 
Among the trades, carpentry gave the best results. The school 
building had been improved by some repairs and changes. 

El Sordomudo Argentine. Revista Mensual. Organ del In- 

stitnto Nacional de Sordomudos. Ano II, Nos. 9 y 10, 
Julio y Agosto de 1902. [The Argentine Deaf-Mute. A 
Monthly Review of the National Institute for the Deaf at 
Buenos Aires. Argentine Republic. II year. Nos. 9 and 
10, July and August, 1902]. 

"Historical Rectification" is the subject of a series of official 
documents upon the basis of which is demonstrated that the 
Institute at Buenos Aires was the first one in the Argentine 

Reviews. 69 

Republic for the education of the Deaf. This rectification has 
been suggested by the fact that in the Annual Report of the same 
Institute for the year 1895, it was stated by mistake that the 
Institute of Buenos Aires was opened in the year 1870, and was 
therefore the second among those of the Republics of South 
America. The official documents in regard to the commence- 
ment of the education of the Deaf at Buenos Aires show that the 
school for the Deaf was founded in that Capital in the year 1857. 

Among the other articles published in this number the 
following must be noticed: "Psycho-Physiolog>' of the Lan- 
guage of Deaf, Idiot and of Aphasic persons/' the conclusion 
of a paper by Dr. Horace G. Pinero; "The Speech of Many of 
the Deaf," as the principal point of accusation against the 
German system; **A Contribution to the teaching of Articula- 
tion," by P. Kopka. (translated from the German by Prof. G. 
Ferreri); Tyschology of Language," by N. R. D. Alfonso. 
(Translated from Italian by J. P. Diaz Gomez). — Juan A. Pla 
speaks about the utility of excursions for practical teaching, 
and L. Morzone publishes the paper read by him on the occa- 
sion of the public exercises at the end of the scholastic year in 
the Institution for the Deaf at La Plata. 

Among the reviews a minute account is given of the late 
reports of the North American institutions of Philadelphia 
(Mt. Airy) and Ohio. — Much domestic and foreign information 
show that the revived magazine takes its place already among 
the interesting periodical publications for the Deaf. 

Organ der Taubstummen-Anstalten in Deutschland] Organ 
of the deaf-mute Institutions of Germany], 48th year, Parts 
II and 12, Friedberg, November and December, 1902. 

"The Organization of Deaf-mute Education From the 
Point of View of Dividing the Pupils According to their Mental 
Capacity, with Special Reference to the Province of Hanover," 
by Ch. Seel and H. Vahle. This essay passes by the general 
theoretical discussion as to the necessity and possibility of divid- 
ing the pupils, and merely endeavors to bring the discussion 
as to the realization and practical working of the principle of 

70 The Association Review. 

division which will be most beneficial to the education of the Deaf 
as near as possible to some conclusion. The various points 
which come into question are the following: 

1. The correct and earliest possible division according 
to mental capacity. This will mainly depend on a thorough 
knowledge of the capacity of each pupil. The first year of 
schooling which is principally devoted to the laying of a solid 
foundation of the technical and phonetic sides of speech does 
not afford a full opportunity for reaching the end in view; thus- 
it must be said that the provisional division of the first year can- 
not be made definite and approximately correct till the second 
year. To make the division as nearly as possible correct, all 
the pupils should be together in one place. It is, therefore, 
necessary that the pupils of one year from the entire Province 
should be kept together in one institution, and be there instruc- 
ted for two years till the definite division is made. 

2. How shall the sign language be kept within the proper 
limits ? As it has been shown by experience that the German 
method is least able to influence the speech of the deaf in case of 
dull pupils, and that, consequently, these pupils will use the sig^ 
language more than others, they should be kept separate from 
the other pupils. Calling the three grades — ^according to 
mental capacity — A, B, and C, it will, for the purpose of limiting 
the use of the sign-language, be most advantageous to have a 
separate institution for each of these grades (A being the gifted, 
and C the dull pupils). This, therefore, decides 'the question 
where the pupils are to be placed after the definite division has 
been made. 

3. The classes should be as far as possible uniform as to 
the number and age of the pupils. 

4. Educational drawbacks should be avoided. Care should 
be taken that during and after the division the pupils do not 
become conscious of the fact that the basis and object of this 
division is the different mental capacity. If this is not done, the 
consequence will in most cases be that the brighter scholars 
look down upon the less gifted as "stupid ones," and that among 
them a very reprehensible spirit of pride is fostered, while on the 
other hand the less gifted will lose self-confidence and find fault 
with their fate. 

5. Fullest possible employment of speciaHsts. Teachers 
of the deaf should not be mere routine-men. They should con- 
stantly study the organs of speech, the physiology of speech, and 
endeavor to utilize everything new in well tried experiments; 
they should be possessed of a calm temper, much patience and 
self-control, to bear up among the many and severe disappoint- 

Reviews. 71 

ments of their calling and its many galling experiences. They 
should finally have a strong constitution and exceptionally 
strong and healthy organs of breathing and speech. Only spec- 
ialists of this character will be sure of success. 

6. The work of teaching should be divided as evenly and 
justly as possible among the different teachers and the Directors 
of the Institution^ so as not to overburden the one, whilst the 
work of the other is comparatively light. 

7. There should be uniformity of instruction, as to the ar- 
rangement of the various subjects, the course of instruction 
(number of hours for each subject), development of didactics 
and methodics, due reference being had to the special capacity 
of each pupil. The uniformity of the standard of instruction and 
the constant comparison of the results will create a spirit of 
noble emulation among the teachers of an institution. 

8. Even in view of the education of the teachers with the 
greatest possible freedom from disturbing elements, it will be ad- 
visable to have two institutions. If articulation instruction is 
imparted only in one institution, the young teacher must after 
having familiarized himself with this branch, be transferred to 
some other institution, as the field for observation and practice 
is too small with only three so-called "A" (gifted pupils) classes. 
Moreover he would have to be employed for some time at a so- 
called "C" (less gifted pupils) institution. If there are two 
institutions with a middle (B) and upper class, (A), the first 
transfer is not necessary, but only the one to the "C" institution. 

"Albin Watzulik*s visit to Prof. Vatter in Frankfort-on-the 
Main" by K. Finkhl (Schleswig). A graphic description of the 
meeting of the two great teachers of the deaf whose methods are 
diametrically opposed to each other (Watzulik, sign method; and 
Vatter, speech method). An account of this meeting has al- 
ready been given in a previous number of The Association 
Review. " The Fifth German Congress of Deaf-mutes" held at 
Berlin in Augxist, 1902, by H. Lehm. "The Third Meeting of the 
Association of Teachers of the Deaf of Northwestern Germany" 
held at Onabrick in October, 1902. "A New Invention," by 
Eduard Rozsa, Budapest. A strong argument against the prac- 
ticability and usefulness of the "phonetic hand alphabet" invent- 
ed by Prof. Forchhammer (Denmark). Mr. Rozsa states in the 
name of all the adherents of the German method, that Forch- 
hammer's invention must be termed an assault on that method, 
and should be vigorously opposed. 


The Needs cxf American Public Education — By Charles 
W. Eliot, President of Harvard University. 

We present below parts of a lengthy address delivered by 
President Eliot before the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction 
October 3rd, 1902, and published in full in the December issue 
of The World's Work. The speaker's aim is to justify his advo- 
cacy, in previous addresses, of larger expenditures for education 
in the United States. After demonstrating the importance 
of providing school buildings that shall be fire-proof and capable 
of being kept in a thoroughly sanitary condition, and of employ- 
ing physicians to look after the health of the pupils and guard 
against the spread of contagious diseases, he says: 

The next object for additional expenditure is better teach- 
ers. Of course, teachers should know well the subjects which 
they are to teach; but that is by no means sufficient. Every 
teacher should also know the best methods of teaching his 
subjects. College professors heretofore have been apt to think 
that knowledge of the subject to be taught was the sufficient 
qualification of a teacher; but all colleges, as well as all schools, 
have suffered immeasurable losses as a result of this delusion. 
Of course, it is better for a teacher to know his subject without 
knowing the right method of teaching it than to acquire a formal 
method without knowing the subject; because a conscientious 
teacher, by experimenting on his pupils, may in years acquire 
a good method at their expense; but teachers who are ac- 
quainted at the start with both subject and method are what 
schools and colleges urgently need. To secure this double pro- 
ficiency means a greater expenditure on the training of teachers. 
Under the head of better teachers may best be mentioned certain 
specific desiderata such as a larger proportion of male teachers 
in urban school systems, a larger proportion of women teachers 

Current Educational Literature, 73 

who have been educated at college, and a larger proportion of 
both men and women who have received a genuine normal 
school training. All these are expensive desiderata. 

With better teachers, numerous other improvements would 
come in, as, for instance, a better teaching of literature and of 
history, and better biological and geographical instruction, these 
natural-history studies being pursued by the pupils in the open 
air as well as in the schoolrooms. I have elsewhere urged that 
all public open spaces, whether country parks, forests, beaches, 
city squares, gardens, or parkways, should be utilized for the 
instruction of the children of the public schools by teachers cap- 
able of interesting them in the phenomena of plant and animal 
life. But this means quite a new breed of common school 
teachers. The teaching of geography in the open air is a de- 
lightful form of instruction; but it requires a teacher fully pos- 
sessed of the principles of physiography, and knowing how to 
illustrate these principles on a small scale in gutters, brooks, 
gullies, ravines, hillsides and hilltops. Some nature study of this 
desirable sort has been already introduced into American 
schools; but it is not persisted in through years enough of the 
school course. There is needed much more of this sort of study, 
beginning in the kindergarten and going through the high 
school. Vacation schools can give this sort of instruction to 
great advantage. It must be confessed that it is an expensive 
kind if instruction; but this is one of the places at which more 
money should be spent. 

4c 4c ^ ^ ^ 1|C 

In order to keep good a large staff of teachers employed 
by a city or town, a system of retiring allowances for teachers 
is indispensable. It is the American practice to keep in office 
superannuated or partially disabled teachers who have served 
long and well, and to pay them their salaries until death or com- 
plete disability overtakes them. This practice is uneconomical 
and very injurious to the children who come under the charge of 
such partially disabled or senile teachers. It is considerate 
toward the few veterans, but very inconsiderate toward the 
hundreds of children whose education is impaired. A proper 
pension system gives the managers of a school system the means 
of retiring such teachers, and of replacing them by fresh, well- 
selected appointees, without causing any hardship or wounding 
any feelings. A good pension system is not expensive; for when 
an old teacher retires on an allowance the retirement will ordina- 
rily give rise to several shiftings of place, and the vacancy really 
filled is one near the foot of the scale of salaries. There is a 
pension to pay, but there comes upon the pay-roll a newcomer's 

74 The Association Review. 

salary which is much smaller than the salary of the teacher of 
long service. Pension^, or retiring allowances, would not there- 
fore be the cause of a large new expenditure, but would instead 
bring about a large increase in the competency or efficiency of 
any urban school system. 

An incidental effect of these changes would be the develop- 
ment of departmental instruction — that is, skilful teachers would 
teach one subject through several grades, instead of teaching 
all subjects for one grade. It was in 1766 that Harvard 
College — then no more than a good high school — abandoned 
the method of teaching all subjects to one class by one man. 
The American public school system bids fair to be nearly one 
hundred and fifty years behind Harvard College in adopting the 
departmental method — a method which develops in both teach- 
ers and pupils a growing interest in their work and increases 
greatly the personal influence of teachers, because the staying 
pupils work through several successive years under the same 
teachers. Another eflFcct of this enrichment of the programmes 
would be the postponement for every individual pupil of the 
grave decision between studies which permit access to the higher 
institutions of learning, and studies which do not. The later 
this decision can be made the better for the individual, and the 
better for the schools; because a course of study which is pre- 
paratory to all possible future routes in education is sure to be 
a better course than the poorer of two courses, one of which 
leads on to the higher institutions and the other does not. 

Another additional expenditure which public schools ought 
to incur as soon as possible is a development of instruction in 
drawing. Drawing is a mode of expression which ought to be 
as universal as writing. There is no art, trade or profession 
in which it is not useful, and the enjoyment of life may be greatly 
increased by the habitual use of the pencil in sketching interest- 
ing objects of all sorts, natural or artificial. Time for drawing 
can be obtained in school programmes by diminishing the time 
given to penmanship. Instruction in one art will help the other, 
and of the two drawing is far the most instructive, since it trains 
the powers of observation and helps to make the retained im- 
pressions both accurate and vivid. It is an incidental advantage 
of drawing that it reinforces the teaching of geometry, and par- 
ticularly of solid geometry. The comparative neglect of geom- 
etry is one of the most curious phenomena in American educa- 

Current Educational Literature. 75 

tion, when the importance of that subject in the mechanical and 
constructive arts in which Americans excel is duly considered. 

4c 4: 4t 4t ♦ ♦ 

Lastly, the schools ought to be provided liberally with all 
appliances which can improve either teaching or administration^ 
and with all service which can relieve the teachers of unnecessary 
bodily or mental strains. Such appliances are books, maps, 
charts, models, diagrams, lantern-slides and electric lanterns, 
telephones, collections of specimens, physical and chemical ap- 
paratus, casts, photographs, pictures, typewriters and pianos. 
To try to teach without these aids is like trying to stop a con- 
flagration with buckets passed from hand to hand, or like start- 
ing for Chicago in a one-horse chaise instead of in the Empire 
State Express. The prevailing poverty of our schools in these 
respects is lamentable. At every stage of education, from the 
kindergarten through the university, an alert and progressive 
teacher can save his or her own time and energy by transferring 
the mechanical or routine parts of his or her work to an assistant 
who receives a much smaller compensation than the teacher. 
To save that valuable time and energy for the best work is the 
truest economy, yet this economy is seldom practiced. In both 
these respects American schools fall far below the standards of 
well-conducted commercial and industrial establishments. 

I have thus enumerated various ways in which a greatly 
increased expenditure on American schools ought to be made. 
This audience of teachers may perhaps have observed that I have 
not said a word about raising salaries. That is because I do not 
consider that direction the best one for additional school expen- 
diture. The teacher needs many other things more than higher 
pay — good light and air to work in, medical inspection and care 
for the school, all available assistance in the schoolroom, all 
useful apparatus for teaching — particularly that which appeals 
to the eyes and fingers of the pupils — relief from mechanical 
and clerical work, a better tenure, a pension at disability, and 
expert instead of amateur supervision. And on the other hand, 
the community needs to have the teacher a more intelligent, 
better-informed, robuster and gayer person, that children will 
"take to" and wish to please, and that parents will be glad to 
have visit them in their homes. 

4c 4c 4( ♦ ♦ 4( 

The lines of asterisks above indicate parts of the address 
that have been omitted because, although of great interest to 
public school teachers, they bear little or no relation to our 
special work of teaching the Deaf. 

76 The Association Review, 

The Most Neglected Pupil— By Oliver P. Cornman, In The 
Teacher, November, 1902. 

That the pupil properly designated as the "bright" pupil, 
as contrasted with the other two classes, the "dull" and "ave- 
rage," should be said to be the most neglected pupil of our 
schools and in need of sympathy for his unfortunate position or 
lack of opportunity in our educational system appears at first 
sight an absurd proposition. It would seem that on the contrary 
he is a very much favored individual, a subject rather for con- 
gratulation upon the bountiful generosity of nature toward him 
than of commiseration for his pedagogical hardships. The road 
to learning, it may be said, has been made easy for him by the 
very quality of his natural endowments, and as nearly a "royal" 
one as that road can be made. His less gifted brethren must 
toil painfully along to keep up with him at all. Some fall hope- 
lessly behind and others perhaps drop out of the march com- 
pletely, forsaking this road in early years for the daily toil of 
wage earning in the lower walks of Hfe. Truly it would seem 
that the "bright" boy has nothing to complain of, while the mise- 
ries of the "dull fellow" are so obvious that they rightfully appeal 
to our sympathy and induce us to give him that special direction 
and assistance that his talented brother "does not need." Yet 
in spite of this view of the matter, or it should rather be said 
on account of it, the "bright pupil" is the most neglected pupil 
of our schools. 

It is true that he "does not" need the same kind of sympathy 
that a defective or a sub-normal condition calls forth, nor the 
same kind of special attention that a backward pupil requires, 
yet he does need encouragement to put his talents out to 
usury, he does need the fostering care that will help him to 
fan into bright flame the spark of genius perhaps that would 
otherwise glimmer and go out. In short he does need, and 
of right should have the opportunity to develop the very best 
that is in him. That he is not accorded this opportunity by our 
graded system, an examination of the facts will show and justify 
our contention that not only is he the most neglected pupil 
of our schools, but that this neglect cannot be justified by the 
plea of expediency or economy, and least of all by the usual 
theory that it is necessary because only the majority (supposedly 
the "average" pupils) can be legislated for. If such legislation 
involves denial of "equality of opportunity to every pupil" it 
is fundamentally undemocratic, absolutely opposed to the true 
spirit of public education and positively inimical to the best in- 
terests of the State. 

Current Educational Literature, 77 

Leaving for the present the question of the "average" 
pupil and his treatment, let us compare the treatment of the 
"dull" with that of the "bright^pupil. That the former receives 
by far the greater proportion of the time and best thought of 
the teacher is well known to everyone intimately acquainted 
with our school system. This is partially due to the ease with 
which the "bright" pupil masters a course of study prepared 
for the average boy or girl, and the sympathy naturally felt 
for the more unsuccessful plodder. Moreover, even when this 
feeling is not an important factor in the determination of the 
teacher's conduct, the fact that her professional success is most 
frequently measured by her ability to promote the dull section 
of her class, leads to the same result — ^letting the "bright" 
pupils take care of themselves, while every refinement of meth- 
od and a surprising abundance of patience is devoted to the 
great aim of getting the dull ones by hook or crook promoted. 
The opportunities of the "bright" pupil are thus sacrificed to 
the end of obtaining a high percentage of promotions. 

The teacher is not only encouraged in this procedure by 
the emphasis placed upon percentages, but is often directly 
stimulated to do so by the utterances of pedagogical author- 
ities and of those officially directing her work. It is not unusual 
to find in educational journals, to hear from the lecture platform 
or at regularly conducted teachers* meetings, the direction to 
devote special attention to the dull pupils, since the bright ones 
are bound to succeed anyway. This view is frequently thus 
expressed: "Any teacher can promote the first third of her 
class. It is the progress of the lowest third that is the real cri- 
terion of her ability." On the other hand, extraordinary success 
of a few pupils is more likely to be attributed to their own native 
genius rather than to the eflForts of the teacher. No wonder 
then that the explanations of the teachers are brought down to 
the level of the comprehension of the duller pupils, while the 
bright members of the class are either patiently enduring a be- 
numbed boredom, or find vent for their natural mental activity 
in devices of their own that have to be classed as disorder and 
breaches of discipline. Much of the apathy of some pupils and 
the badness of others is thus directly traceable to the relative 
neglect suflFered by the brighter members of a class. 

Not only does the sub-normal child receive the greater 
attention in the class-room, but he it is to whom the teachers 
devote so much extra time, specially coaching and instructing 
him in his deficiencies. What teacher has any surplus energy 
left for this kind of labor with the super-normal child? Yet if 
it be right for one pupil to be held up to nearly the full limit 

78 The Association Review. 

of his capacity, the other should also receive the necessary 
stimulation to induce and require him to put forth his full 

Perhaps the most striking evidence of the difference of 
treatment accorded the dull and the bright pupil is seen in the 
effort to make extraordinary provision for the former by the es- 
tablishment of special classes and special schools, in which 
carefully selected and higher salaried teachers are given charge 
of comparatively small numbers of pupils. The curriculum also 
in such cases is generally modified to meet the pupils' neces- 
sities, and he frequently enjoys the luxury of a manual train- 
ing denied the regular school on the ground of its expense. It 
is true such special provision is made only for the very back- 
ward or defective pupils, but the extraordinarily gifted pupil is 
just as frequently occurring a phenomenon, yet we hear of no 
analogous attempts to secure for him the special consideration 
which the exceptional nature of his case with equal justice and 
with greater reason demands. 

The writer goes on to show that the so-called average pupil 
also fares much better than the bright pupil, the course of study 
being designed to embrace what he might be expected to ac- 
complish and the periods for review, examination, and promo- 
tion timed to meet his requirements. This is commonly justified 
by the claim that the majority are thus provided for, but it is 
easily demonstrable that while the average pupils are more 
numerous than either the very bright or the very dull, these two 
latter classes taken together constitute a majority of the whole 
number, so that the school ministers effectively to only a min- 
ority. As a remedy he recommends the adoption, according to 
which best satisfies local conditions, of some one of the following 
methods of grading suggested in the report of the Committee* 
on School Organization of the New Jersey Council of Educa- 

"(i) Yearly grading with incidental promotion; (2) semi- 
annual interval method — semi-annual promotions; (3) short in- 
terval system. Interval shorter than six months; (4) grouping 
system, organizing the class into groups with reference to 
ability, and without regard to time interval; (5) parallel course 
system; (6) providing extra teachers for special pupils; (7) 
providing ungraded classes for pupils ; (8) various combinations 
of foregoing plans." 

Current Educational Literature. 79 

In schools for the Deaf the difference in the rate of ad- 
vancement of the bright, the average, and the dull pupil is much 
greater than in ordinary schools, and the problem of grading is 
still further complicated by the fact that progress is so frequently 
irregular as regards the different branches of study. Some 
pupils, from the accident of having lost their hearing later in 
life than others, may average high in language and in those 
studies requiring primarily an understanding of language, and 
yet be very deficient in certain subjects and in the mental de- 
velopment they are intended to provide. To promote them 
under the usual method of classification means that they will 
always remain deficient in these respects, while to keep them 
back, compelling them to review in its entirety the work of the 
grade, cultivates in them habits of indifference, inattention, and 
indolence, from lack of necessity to exert themselves during a 
large part of the time, that will not only interfere with their 
future progress in school, but are in themselves defects of 
character that it should be the first and the constant aim of 
education to correct. As a matter of fact, the bright pupil of 
the lower grade seldom distinguishes himself in the more ad- 
vanced studies, or does as well after graduation as those who 
were reckoned average or dull. The discipline of hard work 
does more to determine character and ultimate advancement 
than any amount of knowledge acquired from books or teachers. 
What is needed is a system of classification that will make it 
possible to give each pupil the instruction he requires in each 
subject of the course so that there will be orderly progress in 
the several branches and all may enjoy the full measure of mental 
and moral discipline from constant employment at tasks suited 
to their ability. This is most likely to be found in an arrange- 
ment of departmental teaching that will enable a pupil to lake 
some subjects in one grade and some in another. S. G. D. 

Dum-fool Things. — By Paul Piper, in Booklover*s Magazine. 

Latin is a dum-fool thing. I feel that way to-day. My boy 
works at Latin and he requires eighty per cent, of something to 
pass something else. I do the other twenty per cent, myself. 

8o The Association Review, 

The new French pronunciation is what puts me at a disadvantage. 
When I was a boy bonus was simply horic-iiSy now it is bone-use; 
but when a thing is a dum-fool thing the way you say it doesn't 
matter. Isn't it time that our schools waked up to the fact 
that we can get along very well over here without Latin? If 
we must have it, give us three weeks of Latin roots from an old 
spelling book and let it go at that. The teacher told me upon 
enquiry that Latin gives a boy culture. I told him in two words 
that I didn't believe any such thing. You might as well scratch 
a boy's back to produce culture. I know from observation as 
well as from experience that Latin produces obstinacy, and 
crankiness, and deceit, and fickleness, and hatred, and indiges- 
tion, and lying, and sore eyes, and a strong tendency towards 
profanity. I admit that Latin has its place but it belongs with 
other Roman creations now dead. If we were the least bit short 
of studies there would be some excuse, but we're not. Put 
Julius Caesar and Cicero in the archives where they belong and 
let us translate Wordsworth and Tennyson and Abe Lincoln and 
Darwin. These younger men said something and they said it 
in fairly intelligent English. You don't need to scrape the paint 
off a picture to interpret the artist or to pick a flower to pieces 
to appreciate its beauty. There is only one thing dum-fooler 
than Latin and that is the educational system which thinks that 
Latin ought to be taught in American schools in the twentieth 

I ran across another dum-fool thing at breakfast a few 
mornings ago. It was transitive verbs. They had gone through 
all the preliminary stages of mastication and were ready to serve. 
My little girl of a dozen years had a grammar beside her plate. 
Her eyes were swollen; her whole expression was one of much 
misery and discomfort. The sun was shining, the air was beau- 
tiful, and the morning was the kind that specially loves flowers 
and birds and children. 

"Well, my dear," I said, "what is the matter?" 

"Transitive verbs," she said. 

"What are they? " I asked, and her answer came in one 
long sobbing breath. She evidently had repeated the definition 
a hundred times before leaving her room. 

"A transitive verb," she said, "is a verb which expresses an 
action, a possession, or an ownership such as either literally or 
metaphorically passes from one person or thing called the sub- 
ject to another person or thing external to the subject upon 
which it terminates." 

"Great heavens," I said, "let me see the book! " 

Current Educational Literature, 8i 

Sure enough there it was; printed in bold face type to 
indicate its importance. 

"Well, child," I said, "Fm glad it terminates:' 

My wife had many times before cautioned me about express- 
ing my opinion on education and religion and other abstract 
things before the children. A warning glance was sufficient. 
I didn't say anything out loud for a minute or two, but after the 
children had gone to school I asked my wife to talk with the 
teacher and ask if the Lord's Prayer, or the 23d Psalm, or a 
little poem from Longfellow, or Eugene Field, or something 
else beautiful and sweet could not be substituted for transitive 

My little girl had three pages of such tommyrot to commit 
to memory or in default of the same stay an hour after school. 
This is the twentieth century and the school is in a beautiful 
suburb of a beautiful city. 

The lesson to be learned from the above is not that Latin 
and Grammar are "dum-fool things," but that they may be 
taught in a "dum-fool" way. There are numerous laymen and 
some teachers who would emasculate the school course by doing 
away with all studies that require thought and effort on the part 
of the pupil. The task should be proportioned to the strength 
and the method adapted to the mental state of the child; but a 
rational course of instruction must provide for the development 
of all the intellectual faculties and in such a scheme Latin, 
Grammar, and many other subjects condemned by amateur 
educational reformers, have their proper place. The question 
should be how and when to teach them to the best advantage. 
To limit a child's education to the Lord's Prayer, the 23d Psalm, 
the poems of Longfellow and Eugene Field, and similar "sweet 
and beautiful things," would be to equip him very imperfectly 
for either the intellectual life for social and business advance- 
ment. S. G. D. 

Wanted — Men in the School System. — Editorial in The 
Teacher, December, 1902. 

In Philadelphia more than 93 per cent, of the teaching force 
ir the public schools consists of women, and a similar prepon- 
derance of women over men teachers obtains in general through- 
out the United States. The disproportion is becoming even 

2 The Association Review. 

more marked. The report of State Superintendent Schaeffer, 
e. g., shows that during the year ending June, 1902, there was a 
decrease of 609 in the number of male teachers and an increase 
of 1205 in the number of female teachers in Pennsylvania. The 
causes and effects of the tendency thus evidenced should be care- 
fully studied, for the problem of inducing men to enter and 
remain in the profession cannot be neglected much longer. 
Unless some effective remedy be found, there is danger that the 
now very small percentage of male teachers will be so greatly 
reduced that the schools will be practically under the almost 
exclusive direction and control of women. We speak of this as 
a danger without in the least implying anything derogatory to 
the merit of women as teachers, nor to the value and necessity 
of their influence in the school system. The danger is that of 
a one-sideness of training for the child. For without raising the 
question of the comparative merits of men and women as teach- 
ers, it must be conceded by everyone that they are different and 
make different kinds of impressions upon their pupils. The 
male teacher will have a certain influence upon the children that 
a woman cannot exert, and the latter will bring to bear in- 
fluences that tho man plainly lacks. These influences are, to a 
great degree, complementary; the child needs not one alone, but 
both; otherwise he cannot secure the many-sided ideals and 
harmonious development that are the ideals of the whole system 
of education. We believe that the girl as well as the boy needs 
the influences of the male teachers, but however this may be, 
there can be no question but that under present conditions the 
education of the boy is too overwhelmingly feminine. 

It is undoubtedly the sense of the community that boys of 
grammar school age at least should have over them a greater 
number of men teachers. In private schools, where the selec- 
tion of teachers is dictated solely by considerations of business 
expediency, head masters are the rule and a much larger propor- 
tion of male assistants is employed than in the public schools. 
In consequence of this in some parts of the country boys are 
being withdrawn in noticeably large numbers from the public 
schools in order to be sent to private institutions, where they 
may receive the kind of training which the public schools are 
either unable or unwilling to afford. Men are so greatly needed 
in the schools, the demand of the public is so unmistakable, that 
to induce men to enter or continue in public school work has 
become one of the most important problems of modern educa- 
tional administration. 

Current Educational Literature. 83 

French Multiplication Table. 

Below is a modified form of the French multiplication table: 




























5 6 
80 86 







5 6 7 
85 42 49 






6 6 7 
40 48 66 


















6 6 7 
45 54 63 


6 6 7 
50 60 70 

5 6 7 
65 66 77 











6 6 7 
60 72 84 




11 12 
132 144 

Several advantages are apparent. There are 66 products 
instead of 144. This is due to the omission of unnecesary state- 
ments (such as "one 5 equals 5"), and by regarding either 
factor of any product as the multiplicand or the multiplier, e. g., 
84 in the last row of products is regarded as either 12 times 7, 
or 7 times 12. 

In having pupils make the table, the prominent numbers are 
at first regarded as multipliers. Each new product is then ob- 
tained by adding the multiplicand to the product just above. 
It is easy to make pupils understand how to find 8 times 6, for it 
is simply a matter of adding one more times 6 to the 42 (or 7 
times 6) on the line above. 

The proximity of the multiplicand and the product is helpful 
in fixing the recurrence of figures in the rather easy products of 
the ten and eleven lines. In the nine line, it may be made es- 
pecially useful, for it shows very plainly that the tens digit of the 
product is always one less than the multiplicand, and that the 
sum of the digits is always nine. A reference to this curious 
fact is usually sufficient to fix the troublesome nine table in the 
pupil's mind in a single lesson. Other advantages will be evi- 
dent upon consideration. 

The Institution Press. 

The Development of the Senses. 

The exercises for the training of sight and touch which are gfiven at 
the Northampton school, are used, first, to quicken the perceptive 
faculties; second, to cultivate the habit of accuracy in seeing and feeling; 
and third, to discriminate, by immediately observing similarities of differ- 
ences and relations, always remembering that attention is the underlying 
condition for the proper development of these functions. 

Some of the first exercises that are given are to train the sight, as 
movements of the whole class, as running, walking, bowing, etc., and 
gymnastics of the arms, hands, face and tongue, leading to articulation. 

Colors are matched in similar and dissimilar objects as blocks, rib- 
bons, sticks, etc. Geometrical solids, blocks, and balls of similar shape 
but dissimilar size, are recognized. 

The number of spots on a block is recognized, and the pupil is re- 
quired to hold up the number of cubes to illustrate the number of spots 
on the block. 

To develop touch, a number of objects are seen, then recognized 
by touch, or a number of objects are felt then recognized by sight. 

Pieces of satin, wool, silk, plush, etc., are stretched across a hoop 
and a pupil being blindfolded, recognizes the texture, between his fingers. 

The same materials are pasted on a card and the surface is dis- 
tinguished by touch. 

Strings, loosely twisted cords, closely twisted cords, fine wire, thread, 
etc., are given to the pupils to find duplicates on a board. 

A child puts his hand on the bridge of a guitar, and tells by the vib*^- 
tion which string was struck, and he also distinguishes between a slow 
and a rapid vibration. 

These exercises lead to a distinguishing of vibrations in the larynx. 

For older pupils, it has been found an interesting and valuable prac- 
tice to measure upon the blackboard various lengths, and with a standard 
of comparison in the mind to be able to distinguish the exact length of 
the lines— 2 inches from 2>^, 5 inches from s^, 9 inches from 10, 2 feet, 
6 inches from 2 feet 8 inches, etc. Strict attention will fix the various 
lengths in the mind. 

In another exercise, ask the pupils to turn to a certain page of a 
book, to look at the first two lines for a single moment, close the book, 
and write the lines, using capitals, punctuation marks, etc. Whole para- 
graphs may be produced in this way after a single reading. 

^ Many gems from literature could be memorized in a short time, if 
tried in this way. If this state of attention could be reached among our 
pupils. It would save a vast amount of fatigue, and much time would be 
secured which is too often wasted in the miscalled study hours. 

Such habits of the mind are a thousand times to be preferred to the 
carelessness of the untrained scholar who is content with a superficial 
glance and rests satisfied if the result of his observation is almost correct. 

The Institution Press. 85 

In giving short exercises, give them but once, as there is not the 
stimulus to attention when repetition is expected. 

In our manual classes, this applies to hnger spelling, and in our oral 
classes to speech. 

If a pupil knows that a command will be spelled or spoken two or 
three times, he will not pay as much attention when it is given the first 
time as he would if he knew that the command would be given but once 
— Extract from a paper read by Miss Cooper before the Teachers' As- 
sociation of the Council Bluffs School and printed in the Iowa Hawkeye. 

National Educational Association. 

It has been suggested again, this time by Superintendent Tate, of 
Minnesota, that it would be well to hold the Convention of American 
Instructors of the Deaf at the same time and place as the meeting of the 
National Educational Association. It would be well, indeed. Not, how- 
ever, from the standpoint of the man who is apprehensive that the public 
may conclude, from the manner in which the Department of Special In- 
struction is conducted, that the country has adopted the oral method 
of educating the deaf, but from the broader view that the more the public 
knows about the work of our schools, the quicker and the more certain 
will English become the established medium of communication between 
teachers and pupils. 

It is not so very long ago since leading American educators of the 
deaf brushed aside the claims of oralism as being of doubtful value. Not 
only did they belittle its importance, but they received it with marked 
indifference. To-day all their apathy has disappeared. Every institution 
has one or more classes in speech and speech-reading, and the condescen- 
sion of old has given way to the growing fear that unless some counter- 
acting influence is set at work, it may be thought by the public that the 
country has adopted oralism. It is altogether too late to rest any hope 
upon such a doubtful possibility. Oralism is here. It has already been 
adopted, not by one school, but by every institution in the land. Oralism 
is just as necessary to the success of the combined system as is the manual 
alphabet, and it is infinitely more so than the sign-language. Yet some 
zealous advocates of the combined system and warm supporters of the 
sign-language still contend blindly against oral work, just as their pred- 
ecessors did fifty years ago. 

What would be the status of our institutions a few years hence, if 
they should persistently refuse to teach speech to their pupils? Why, 
the results to be seen at Northampton, in Boston, Chicago, and in many 
other places, would eventually either establish new managements, or close 
their doors. Now let us ask, what would be the intellectual, moral and 
social standing of our institutions, if teachers and pupils were resolutely 
refused permission to use the sign language? There wouldn't be any 
closing of doors or changing of managements. The constant practice 
in English would increase mental activity, encourage closer fellowship 
with our grreat authors, and make more simple to pupils understanding 
the beauties of literature, facts of history, and the problems of mathe- 
matics. The deaf child who has come to understand the English 
language has by that very fact been uplifted. What were his idle moments 
before, change to busy hours, and corrupting loss becomes moral gain. 
Besides, knowing the meanings of words, deaf children, as a rule, would 
blush to put in words that which they might find easy to communicate in 
signs. English is the common basis upon which the deaf must meet the 

86 The Association Review. 

hearing. It is the vernacular of the American people, and the better the 
deaf man can use and understand it, the wider open becomes the doors 
of social enjoyment, business preferment, and political independence. 

Nothing would be better than to have the convention of American 
Instructors of the Deaf meet with the National Educational Association. 
These matters could then be discussed before men and women who are 
unrestrained by traditional heritage, untrammeled by ties of association 
and friendship, and free from the barriers of selfishness. Just now, how- 
ever, the chances are too remote to hope for such a blessing. When the 
union does come, the sign language will be put upon its trial before a 
jury that will convict, and oralism will be convicted by the evidence of 
those who appear against it, that "speech and speech-reading of the high- 
est order are taught in combined system schools." To commend oral 
instruction is to commend the combined system as it obtains to-day, but 
some seem to think that to conimcnd oralism is to condemn the combined 

There are certain deaf children who cannot learn to speak well. This 
constitutes in the minds of some the failure of the oral method. There 
are many deaf children who, after several years* attendance at school, 
learn to sign well, and that is about all. This, by the same some, is 
probably looked upon as demonstrating the success of the combined 
system. The term combined system is a screen behind which a man 
practicing any method can conceal or defend himself. What is needed to 
right matters is first, a proper classification of methods so that a school 
using signs will be known as such, and schools using other methods will 
be known for what they really are; second, joint meetings of the Conven- 
tion of American Instructors of the Deaf and the National Educational 
Association. — The Mentor. 

Correlation of Studies. 

A recent article in our scholarly contemporary. The Mentor, dwelt 
on the importance of the correlation of studies. For instance, in telling 
what he knows about plant-life the pupil should be trained to use English 
with the same care as in his rhetorical exercises; his study of geography 
should be so directed as to remind him of the facts of history, of zoology, 
of politics and government, of tiade movement, which he knows any- 
thing about. 

Strangely enough, to our way of thinking, the writer says that arith- 
metic is of all the common branches the hardest to bring in relation with 
other lines of study. To us it seems the one immediately practical thing 
— ^after reading and writing,— in our school work. The botanical develop- 
ment and geographical journeyings of a bunch of bananas are no doubt 
interesting, if skillfully presented, to a school boy, but the fact of supreme 
importance to him in this connection is the fact that three bananas can be 
bought for five cents. 

He has a healthy curiosity to know how tall he is, how much he 
weiphs, how far he can jump, how long he can hold his breath. His 
mquisitiveness as to the cost of everything he sees or hears about will 
lead him to figure eageriy on data judiciously supplied by his teacher. 
The application of figures to the facts of geography and history does as 
much to clarify the situation as does the use of the scales in chemistry 
For instance, what conception has a grammar school pupil of the straights 
of Sherman's army at Chattanooga? But let him figure out the weight 

The Institution Press. 87 

of daily rations of 100,000 men and forage for 20,000 horses, of ammunition 
and clothing, and he will begin to see what the problem of transporta- 
tion means in military matters. 

If it be true that, in teaching, the pupils should be the centre around 
which facts should be grouped, then arithmetic, it seems to us, is the 
centripetal force which keeps these facts all in their proper stations.— 
Alabama Messenger. 

Our Alabama friend, as usual when it comes to considering questions 
relating to the education of the deaf, makes a correct diagnosis of the case. 
Not only do other branches of study as such involve arithmetic to a 
greater or less extent but the practical relations of life are few that do 
not require a knowledge of numbers or their manipulation. Moreover, 
arithmetic is invaluable in the teaching of language; aside from appealing 
to the interest of the child in many ways — we can hardly conceive of a 
period so early in the development of the mind that number in some 
form has not a fascination for the normal — it brings into use many 
of the common everyday phrases, and being an exact science it requires 
correctness of expression. No other study is so useful in breaking up a 
loose, shuffling habit of expression. Clear thinking precedes and in- 
duces exact statement. No class of children need the aid of the corrective 
force of arithmetic in their use of English more than the deaf. For this 
reason, if no other, we have always been an advocate of teaching English 
with numbers from the ground up. — Lone Star Weekly. 

Verbal Husks. 

"The ambition on the part of a few teachr -s," says the Lone Star 
Weekly, "to cram their pupils with verbal husk, finds no favor with us. 
It is more essential that a child can use intelligently the words he knows 
than that he be possessed of a long list learned by rote." 

In truth, the vocabulary of a deaf child early becomes one of the least 
important features of his education. When he gets into the way of using 
language, he rarely has any difficulty in acquiring all the words he needs. 
A most serious objection to the teaching of words for the sake of the 
words themselves is that it prevents the acquirement of those meanings 
and shades of meaninj? which become apparent only when the words 
are used in sentences with relation to other words. If he will stop to 
think of the matter, the teacher will remember that it is not once in three 
times that he is able to define a word for a deaf child until he has seen 
the connection. — The Silent Hoosier. 

The Hard-of-Hcaring in Public Schools. 

The number of people in almost every community with defective 
hearing is probably larger than any one imagines. The result of an 
accurate enumeration of such would doubtless greatly surprise everybody. 
To secure reliable statistics along this line would not be an easy matter. 
The only way it can be done is by expert examination of each individual. 
That is not likely soon to be undertaken. Data are sometimes secured 
in the examination of applicants for enlistment in the army upon which 
a guess may b^ made. But it can be only a guess, and even that is liable 
to be far from the mark, as men who are perceptibly hard of hearing do 
not make application for enlistment, knowing that they would be rejected. 
Another thing that makes guesses upon such data uncertain is the fact 

88 The Association Review. 

•i -.^yiw 

that there is a larger per cent, of defective hearing among the old than 
among those of enlistment ages. The difficulty of obtaining reliable 
statistics, however, ought not to discourage the undertaking. Especially 
is it important to secure data concerning school children. Such data will 
guide parents and friends of the children in planning their future. There 
are, moreover, a number of children in the public schools whose hearing 
is so deficient as to retard their scholastic progress. They are often 
looked upon as dull pupils and eventually allowed to fall by the wayside. 
Sometimes, after thus fruitlessly spending their earlier and most impres- 
sionable years, they drift into schools for the deaf. With fixed habits, 
stolid minds and discontented dispositions, they are misfits and often 
a source of no little trouble to our schools. Had they been admitted 
earlier they might have proven shining lights in their classes. Perhaps 
every school in the country has had experience with such pupils. Ours 
has had quite a considerable. This year we admitted half a dozen who 
have almost reached the age and stature of maturity but whose mental 
development is largely a matter of the future. We are glad to know 
that at the Minneapolis convention of the National Educational Associa- 
tion, Department XVI, composed of teachers of defective classes, took 
steps to secure statistics of defective hearing and sight among public 
school children. A committee was appointed, who will endeavor to 
obtain necessary data from the records of the National Bureau of Edu- 
complete returns. Undoubtedly the result of their labors, if thoroughly 
performed, will be of great benefit. — Lone Star Weekly. 

Language and Education. 

We are entirely in accord with the Mt. Airy World in the stand 
it takes that it is unfair to question the education of a person merely be- 
cause grammatical or orthographical errors are noted in that person's 
writing. The fact that a person can write in strict accordance with all 
the rules of grammar, can spell to suit Webster or the Century, and can 
dot all his i's, cross all his t's, and place all commas, periods, etc., correct- 
ly, is not to be taken as indubitable proof that he is better educated, in the 
broadest meaning of the word, than one who occasionally slips up and falls 
down on grammar, orthography, and punctuation. True education implies 
more than a polish to the English language. It includes common sense, 
the ability to think and reason, to recognize and make the most of one's 
opportunties. The use of correct English is prima facie evidence of good 
training along that line, but it not infrequently happens that one whose 
English is faulty at times has a broader knowledge, both of books and of 
people and things. In some cases lack of aptitude for a perfect mastery 
of language may be inherited, though the person may be fully endowed 
in all other respects. Such a person may attain a high standard of edu- 
cation, and if possible devise plans by which said bureau may secure more 
cation as regards other knowledge, and still be faulty in the use of 

The Companion has more than once protested against the tendency, 
in the discussion of methods of educating the deaf, to regard the ac- 
quisition of written and spoken English as if it were synonymons with 
education. Language is certainly the most facile means towards gaining 
an education, but it is only a means to an end, and there is danger, if 
we give too much attention to this means, that we may overlook or 
neglect other matters that have an important bearing on the end we arc 
strivmg to attain.— The Companion. 


Our New In this number of The Association Review 

Departmeots we introduce two new departments, "Current 

Educational Literature" and "The Institution Press." In the 
former it is proposed to reprint such articles and extracts from 
articles appearing in educational publications or elsewhere as 
may be interesting and helpful to teachers of the Deaf, though 
not written with reference to their particular work. To confine 
our study to what is being done in schools for the Deaf is to be 
less and to accomplish less than we might with fuller knowledge 
and a broader outlook. Our aims are one with those of teachers 
of normal children; our special methods are based upon general 
methods. The more we know about the science of pedagogy as 
a whole, the better fitted we shall be to adapt its teachings to the 
needs of our pupils. In our own little field there are few men 
and women who may serve as leaders in educational thought and 
action; outside there are many who have devoted themselves 
to the solution of problems similar in their essence to those that 
vex and hinder us. Should we not avail ourselves of their ex- 
perience? We believe there are those >vho will welcome this 
department as a convenient and economical means of doing so. 

The department of "The Institution Press" will contain 
articles reprinted from papers published at schools for the Deaf. 
Many of these sheets are edited by teachers and other teachers 
write for their columns. The contributions on educational 
topics are sometimes of much value, but they are largely wasted 
because the papers are read by few teachers outside of the schools 
from which they are issued. Through this department of The 
Review they will be given a wider circulation and a place in 
the permanent literature of the profession. 

Another innovation that we think will contribute to make 
The Review more interesting and valuable to teachers is the 

90 The Association Review. 

publication of signed editorials by leading men and women of 
the profession. The time of many teachers is too fully occupied 
to permit the preparation of lengthy articles, but it is possible 
to put in three or four hundred words the salient points of an 
argument or an idea and, by stimulating thought and discussion, 
to contribute largely to the advancement of our work. We hope 
to receive numerous such contributions for future numbers. The 
one in this issue on "Self Criticism" will serve as a good illustra- 
tion of what is desired. S. G. D. 

Is there a single teacher of us all who does 
Sell Criticism not feel a sinking sensation beginning some- 

where in the region of her throat and ending 
— well in her boots, when the principal ushers in "Mr." or "Miss" 
So-and-So of the Blank Institution for the Deaf?" The work 
we are doing may be absolutely necessary for the particular 
children under our charge, but oh ! how far behind the third 
grade it must seem to Miss So-and-So, whose second-year pupils 
grappled successfully with far more difficult matter at the last 
Association meeting. An explanation seems like an apology, 
a statement that the class is a slow one looks like an attempt 
to shift the blame from the teacher to the children, and a sud- 
den change of program to exercises which will give the children 
a chance to do themselves justice is rather apt to end disas- 
trously, because the young mind does not take kindly to jerks. 
"There is no misery so great as the misery of conscious weak- 
ness/' and that is what we experience when Miss So-and-So de- 
parts with cordial thanks and gracious praise. 

There is no real remedy for these trials, but there is a course 
of treatment which renders a teacher's system somewhat less 
liable to acute attacks and directions for this treatment are here- 
with offered: 

Prepare a day's program with customary care: it is es- 
pecially essential that no unusual preparations be made. Meet 
an imaginary visitor, who represents the best teacher in your 
line of work in your country, take her upstairs with you, seat 
her where she will be able to see and hear everything, and then 

Editorial. 9^ 

go to work. Straighten out your desk, which ought to have been 
attended to the night before, if you must, get your materials 
ready if it is your custom so to do, make such explanations as you 
deem necessary, and then welcome the children. When the les- 
sons begin do the very best that in you lies from period to period, 
and as you go on watch every incident of teaching and learning, 
discipline and behavior, with the eyes of that invisible visitor in 
the comer. At the end of the day, in your character of visitor, 
tell yourself, in your character of teacher, what you really and 
truly think of yourself. Conduct your class for a month in 
accordance with such changes as your visitor may have caused 
you to adopt and then entertain her for a day again. 

This treatment is warranted to help, though not to cure. 

Mabel Ellery Adams. 

Public Gifts According to Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia, 

ji, 1^ the donations by wealthy and public-spirited 

Americans to educational, charitable, and ec- 
clesiastical purposes amounted, during the past year, to over 
$85,000,000, not including the $18,000,000 contributed to foreign 
missions and the large aggregate of gifts of less than $5,000 each. 
There are also excluded the $10,000,000 with which John D. 
Rockefeller proposes to endow a General Education Board, the 
$8,000,000, donor's name not given, which will provide for the 
consolidation of Rush Medical College with the University of 
Chicago, and the indefinite sum which it is reported Henry C. 
Frick will expend in the creation and endowment of a univer- 
sity in Pittsburg that will be a larger and wealthier institution 
than the Polytechnic School for which Andrew Carnegie set 
apart $5,000,000. John D. Rockefeller gave over $5,000,000 to 
various universities and colleges. Andrew Carnegie's donations 
to libraries and to higher educational institutions amounted to 
nearly $3,000,000. Other notable gifts were $4,000,000 be- 
queathed to the hospitals of Boston by P. B. Bingham, $4,000,- 
000 by John M. Burke of New York for a home for convales- 
cents, $4,000,000 by Mrs. Crossman Riley of New York for a 

92 The Association Review. 

home for aged men, and the $2,ooo,cxx) spent by P. A. B. 
Widener of Philadelphia in the erection and endowment of a 
training school for crippled children. 

A perusal of the list of benefactions shows the high favor in 
which educational institutions are held by the wealthy, and one 
is further impressed by the fact that their gifts are, with a few 
insignificant exceptions, to universities and colleges. It does 
not appear to have occurred to any of them that the cause of 
higher education would be best subserved by better provisions 
in the primary and secondary schools. There is not one of 
these, whether public or private, that could not use to advantage 
many times the amount of money at its disposal. The appropri- 
ation the most liberal and prosperous of commonwealths can 
make for the support of its schools is insignificant compared 
with their needs. The money spent by Carnegie on public 
libraries would accomplish far more good if devoted to the 
establishment and maintenance of school libraries. Gifts of 
educational apparatus, provisions for special teachers, for the 
retirement of superannuated instructors, and numerous other 
purposes for which funds are not regularly available, are proper 
channels of expenditure for those who wish to put their super- 
fluous wealth to the best use. 

Schools for the Deaf are also deserving objects of benevo- 
lence that are almost entirely neglected. No other educational 
institutions make as large returns to society or to their pupils. 
The state appropriation usually suffices for ordinary expenses, 
but money is needed for development along many Hnes. With 
proper endowment they could pay salaries that would attract 
more capable instructors, could improve the industrial training, 
and could purchase books and apparatus that would greatly 
increase their efficiency. S. G. D. 

Homopheooas ^"^ ^^'^ number of the Review we print the 

^^j.jg first installment of a long list of homophenous 

words. The task of compiling it has been an 
onorous one and the lady who undertook it and has so ably 
carried it to completion deserves the thanks of teachers and of 

Editorial. 93 

the adult Deaf who will find in it a means of improving their 
lip-reading. The first thought on noting the great number of 
words that, so far as their appearance on the lips show,may stand 
for any one of several other words, is that lip-reading must be a 
hopeless task, but a study of the list will show that this is far from 
being the case. The fact that almost all the words similar in ap- 
pearance are very dissimilar in meaning and can seldom be used 
with the same context makes the occasions on which one who has 
learned to read by sentences, not by words, is likely to be misled, 
very rare indeed. Moreover, a review of this list with the aid 
of an expert lip-reader has demonstrated to us that many of the 
words given as similar, while having the same, or approximately 
the same, appearance so far as lip formation goes, can be rec- 
ognized, without any context, by the expression of the face and 
by certain movements of the muscles of the throat and cheeks. 
By pronouncing the words before a mirror, adult lip readers 
will learn to note these differences for themselves and thus come 
to distinguish the words more readily and cultivate the close- 
ness of observation that is essential to proficiency in the art. 

S. G. D. 

Wiscoflsln State The retirement from office of Mr. W. D. Park- 
lospector er, Wisconsin State Inspector of Schools for 

the Deaf, is greatly to be regretted. The 
intelligent interest he has taken in the education of the Deaf and 
the ability and energy with which he has discharged his duties 
have won for him the respect of the profession, while the prac- 
tical results of his administration have more than justified the 
creation of this office. We learn that the new State Superinten- 
dent of Instruction, Mr. C. P. Cary, has appointed Miss Anna 
Schaffer, of Chippewa Falls, to succeed him. We extend a hearty 
welcome to Miss Schaffer and hope she will be able to accom- 
plish much good, not only for the Deaf of Wisconsin, but for 
those of other states where the experiments there being made 
are watched with deep interest, S. G. D. 


The American Annals of the Deaf for January, 1903, Vol. 
XLVIII, pp. 56 to ^2, presents its usual annual tables of statistics 
concerning the pupils and teachers in American Schools for the 
Deaf present November 10, 1902. 

The number of schools increased from 118 in 1901 to 123 
in 1902, an addition of five, of which four are day schools and 
one a denominational or private school. 

A decrease of 76 is shown in the number of pupils in school, 
the total for 1901 bring 11,028 and for 1902, 10,952. This de- 
crease is apparent rather than real, as the West Virginia School 
with 158 pupils reported in the 1901 tables, gives no statistics 
for 1902. 

The number of pupils taught speech (column A) increased 
from 6,988 in 1901 to 7,017 in 1902, an addition of 29, while the 
number taught wholly or chiefly by the oral method (column B) 
IS shown to have decreased from 5,147 in 1901 to 4,888 in 1902, 
a reduction of 259. 

The number of academic teachers increased from 1,027 in 
1901 to 1,039, ^" addition of 12. The number ot articulation 
teachers increased from 641 in 1901 to 664 in 1902, an addition 
of 23. This is an increase of 3.6 per cent, in this class of teach- 
ers. The articulation teachers of the country now comprise 63.9 
oer cent, of the entire body of academic teachers employed: a 
year ago the percentage was 62.4. 

The following tables give the footings of the Annals' tables 
for the years from 1893 to 1903 inclusive, with percentages 
computed from them. (See also tables published in the The 
Association Review, June, 1902, p. 293 and pp. 300 and 301.) 

StatUtioa from the Annali. 



Number of pupils 
Tau«i,t Speech 

Percentage of pa pile 
T&U|;ht Speech 

















109 |54.4^ 
140 S4.0S6 
106 la*. 9% 
162 156. 4 ?t 
116 'ft7.4!t 

128 'lei.esfr 

1 lilt. 

8749 , 64»S Mm 
lOISi) 5917 ' 8072 
10087 II 02117 1 4089 

40. S% 1.27% 
•-2.8% 1.0236 











A, taught speech; B, Uught wholly ur chiefly hy the Oral Method; C, 
taught wholly or ohiefly by the Auricular Method . 

Statiatics from the Annali. 

Not iDcladlDg iDduBtrial 


ins ItiduBtrial 




Artie 11 IntioD 








64 1 

55 8% 







1 13.-.8 

1 1385 

1 1388 




064 1 4T.8S6 

Six additional schools are reported by the Annals located 
one in Chicago, one in Racine, Wis., one in Rhinelander, Wis., 
one in Galena, 111., one in Calumet, Mich., and one in New York 
City. One school in Manitowoc, Wis., is omitted, having beep 

96 Thi Associatim Rtvitw. 

The foregoing tables the direction and measure of the 
changes that they show, illustrated in the following diagrams: 































Pupils (&) Uugbt speech; <B) taught vholly or chiefly by the oral 
method; (C) taught wholl; or chiefly by theaorioular method. P. W. B. 

We regret to learn that Dr. Job Williams, Principal of the 
American School for the Deaf at Hartford, is suffering from 
ill health, and has been compelled to go to Arizona to recuperate. 
His Board of Directors has granted him six months leave of 
absence, and Dr. Gilbert O. Fay will be acting principal diuing 
that time. 

Porto Rico is to have a school for the deaf. A band of 
Sisters of Mercy of the Order of "Mission Helpers" recently 
sailed from New York to open and conduct such an institution 
on the island. 

EdUorial. 97 




An adjourned meeting of the Board of Directors of the 
American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf was held at the residence of Dr. Alexander Graham 
Bell, in Washington, D. C, on January loth, with the following 
present: Dr. Bell, President; Mr. Z. F. Westervelt, Secretary; 
Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, Miss Caroline A. Yale, Mrs. Gardiner G. 
Hubbard, Mr. Edmund Lyon, Miss Sarah Fuller, and Mr. 
Davidson, representing The Association Review. 

After the transaction of routine business, the following res- 
olution was adopted: 

Whereas, All American schools for the Deaf are distinctly 
educational in character, being an integral part of the great 
school system of this Country; Therefore be it 

Resolved: That placing the exhibits of these schools in 
the Department of Charities and Corrections at St. Louis is 
regarded by the Board of Directors of the American Association 
to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf as a serious 
mistake, and the Board earnestly request that the exhibits of 
schools for the Deaf be placed with the purely educational ex- 
hibits and separated entirely from the Department of Charities 
and Corrections at the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition, and they 
especially request this in behalf of all the day schools for the 
Deaf, which have at no time in their history been under the 
the direction of Boards of Charity, but have from the first been 
under the control of Boards of Education. 

In consideration of the active interest she has always taken 
in the work of the Association and her contributions in money 
and personal efforts to the promotion of its objects, Mrs. L. S. 
Fechheimer was elected a Life Member, and it was directed that 
her fee be paid from the general funds into the endowment fund. 

The Committee on Summer Meeting reported in favor of 
Bay View, Mich., for next Summer's meeting, but after careful 
consideration it was decided, on the recommendation of Western 
members of the Association, to hold it in or near Boston, to 
enable teachers to attend the meeting of the National Education- 
al Association and to avail themselves of the reduced rates of- 
fered in connection therewith. 

98 The Association Review. 

The Committee on Summer Meeting of last year was con- 
tinued in office. It consists of Mr. Z. F. Westervelt, Dr. Joseph 
C. Gordon, Mr. Richard O. Johnson, and Miss Sarah Fuller. 
Miss Fuller will be in charge of local arrangements. 

After a full and careful consideration of the advisability of 
establishing a summer school, the matter was referred back to 
the committee having the matter in charge, with the request that 
it make a report thereon at the Summer Meeting and that the 
whole question be submitted to the Association at large for 
consideration at that time. 

The officers of the Association for the past year were re- 
elected for the ensuing year. They are as follows : 

President, Alexander Graham Bell; First Vice-president, 
A. L. E. Crouter; Second Vice-president, Caroline A. Yale; 
Secretary, Z. F. Westervelt; Treasurer, F. W. Booth; Auditor, 
A. L. E. Crouter. 

The following standing committees were appointed: Execu- 
tive Committee, A. Graham Bell, A. L. E. Crouter, Caroline A. 
Yale, Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard, Edmund Lyon, and the 
Secretary, Z. F. Westervelt, ex-officio. Finance Committee, 
A. L. E. Crouter, term expires in two years; Edmund Lyon, 
term expires in three years. Necrology Committee, Miss Sarah 
Fuller and Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard. 

It should be explained in connection with the resolution on' 
the St. Louis Exposition that, in adopting it, the Board acted 
on definite information that the exhibits of schools for the Deaf 
and the proposed model school would be under the direction of 
the Superintendent of the Department of Charities and Correc- 
tions, Mr. Alvin E. Pope, who has resigned his position in the 
Nebraska School to accept this office. Dr. E. M. Gallaudet, 
Chairman of the Committee on exhibits of schools for the deaf, 
states, in a communication to the Washington Star, commenting 
upon the resolution, that there has at no time been any thought 
of classifying these exhibits with the Department of Charities 
and Corrections, and that space has been assigned them in the 
building designed for the Department of Education, S. G. D. 

Editorial. 9$ 


The following named persons have been elected to mem- 
bership in the American Association to Promote the Teaching 
of Speech to the Deaf by vote of the Board of Directors. The 
list includes those elected since the last report. 

Andrews, Harriet V., 3123 Lexington Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

Baer, Morris B., 15 Courtland St., New York, N. Y. 

Banford, Jessie, 86 Houston Ave., Muskegon, Michigan. 

Bretz, Marie Annette, School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Caiman, Henry L., 42 E. Twenty-third St., New York, N. Y. 

Cannon, Daisy M., 1009 Fifty-fourth Place, Chicago, 111. 

Delafield, Lewis L., i Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 

Eaton, Mary, School for the Deaf^ Jacksonville, 111. 

Hamlin, Orpha L., 98 N. Pine Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

Harrison, F. Barton, 43 Cedar St., New York, N. Y. 

Herman, Mrs. Kate S., Olathe, Kansas. 

Hough, Charles M., 550 Park Ave., New York. 

Irvine, Sarah, School for the Deaf, Mt Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lee, Virginia, School for the Deaf, Danville, Ky. 

Levy, Felix H., 115 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

MacVeagh, Charles, 40 E. Seventy-fourth St., New York, N. Y. 

Makemson, Ethel, School for the Deaf, Austin, Texas. 

Martin, Catharine E., Clarke School, 138 Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 

McGee, W. J., Washington, D. C. 

Mclver, C. D., Cave Spring, Ga. 

Miller, J. H., 511 Park St, Walla Walla, Washington. 

Owen, Helen, Streator^ 111. 

Parker, Willard, Jr., 159 Front St., New York, N. Y. 

Pearse, Lillian B., 6550 Yale Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Posey, Lillie, School for the Deaf, Austin, Texas. 

Root, Ettie B., Moline, Illinois. 

Rosenfeld, Wm. I., 18 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. 

Schmidt, Amkea, Neuer Market 32, Emden, Germany. 

Sister Philippe de Jesus, Inst, for Female Deaf, Montreal, Canada. 

Taft, Annie £., Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Taylor, Annah S., 6550 Yale Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Taylor, Bernice, School for the Deaf, Austin, Texas. 

Thomason, Pattie, School for the Deaf, St Augustine, Fla. 

Campbell, Mrs. A. M., Mt Vernon, New York, N. Y. 
Fechheimer, Mrs. L. S., 2359 Park Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Blank Form for Application for Activb MaicBmtSHiP 
IN THE American Association to Promote the Teach- 
ing OP Speech to the Deaf : 

•»**•■>■■ I ■■••» 

To F. IV, BOOTH, Gen, Sec'y and 7 reus., 

7J42 Rural Lane, Ml, Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

I hereby make application for Active membership in ike 
American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf 
for the year igo2. 

Enclosed please find $2,00 for the yearns dues. 



From Far and Near 
Graded Stories for Little Folks 


A Ii«iader for younger children, 00m piled by the Committee on Pnblloalioo of 
St«»rie8, authorized by the Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, to prapma 
series of Uead^rH, is on sale by the Publishers, 

The American edition is being reprinted in Harrisburg, Penn*. 



The book contains many short stories, is fully illustrated, a number of the Aliubm* 
tiouH being in colors. The paper is of the finest quality and the letter pren of the hail, 
and the biudinc: attractive and substantial. The book will be sold to Amerioaa Behoolt 
for the Deaf and to teachers of the deaf at THIRTY-FIVB OBNT8 (86 otB.) a OQpjT- 


Mrs. Sylvia C. Balis, Chairman, Belleville, Ontario, Canada. 

Sup't William A. Bowlks, School for the Deaf and Blind, Stannton, Virgliila, ' 

Mr. Oeorqb M. Teeoardbn, 469 Ella Street, Wilkinsburg, PeunayWanhL ^ 




KRAMK W. 300TH, - - Euitor 
S. O. DAVIDSON:, Associate: Editor 

7 kf livi ploy men t of Partial I fear lit g 

of Pupils in Institutions for the Deaf - - - \V. Mkrkkl ioi 

Cnrtent History in the School Room - - - - Jamks L. Smith 112 

My List of liomophenous Words — // - - - - Emma Snow 118 

Methods in Arithmetic Barton SknsknKt 132 

Formation and Development of 

Elementary English Sounds — V - - Caromnk A. Valk 140 
So7ne Don 'ts to he Observed in 

Teaching Speech to the Deaf— II - Sarah Jordan Monro 143 

Reviews 144 

Current Educatiotial Literature - - - - - - - 165 

77/^r Institution Press 181 

Speech Teaching in America?i Schools for the Deaf - E. \V. R. 190 

The Sign Language in American Schools - - 0\j.)V Hanson 195 


Th« Aiinisal Meetings 197 — Tf.'acliiiij^ by Irnlircrtiuii. by Wohtoii Jrukiiis, Wi — The 
Ai'oiihticim. iJOO. 

Department of Special Education, A\ E. A. ----- 201 

Special Announcement of National Educational As,sociatinn - - - 202 

Call for the Ayinual Meeting of the Association ----- 204 

Exhibits of American Schools for the Deaf and for the Blind 

at the Universal Ex positiojiy St. Louis, 100^ - . - . 205 

Day Schools in California 210 

CorrectioJis 211 



[Printing l>epArunentof the PenncyiTanift Institution for the I.U:af and iHimb] 

Vol. V, No. 2 $2.50 (lOs. 4d.) per year 

to Promi 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(tncoTponted Sepi. td. 1890-) 


ALKXAHbUK Cbauah B&u,> 


CAVQUTia A. Yalb 



A. L. K. Choi'TKK. 


F. W. Booth, 

(7343 Knnl Lane, Mt. Airy. Fhiladetpbia.) 

AiiKxajiueji Guttum Bull, Mna. QuwuKti 0. IItfiiti.i)ii»^ 

X. L. G. CRoiTrRK. 
IVm Kgpim ISOS. 

Ck«oi.ins A. T*I>K, 

jMiti>t) i'. Ooiitias, 

CnMtiira hiott, 
Ttna tafiw ifui. 


FtlCSnUtiO. JoilMOR. 

2. V. WurKRTiti 

Tho AiuorliMii AM»;Utliio in Promuia tbeT^Mihiiii; iir8[>«Bah Ui tbv Dntr niileaiuM 

•11 tta omobiUftUlp all purMcu vho ara luurvwtrO la lU iratk. Tbiu tbn prlvltexA of 

■MBbdtmhip 1b not rMti<«tod w UuuihrrM witiTelr fD^a^nd Id tb« laatrnctloti of dMf 

dilnut. tint b«<tantled to tnulaiJe Ultvetwraot Tni«tu(s of mhuols tor tiwiliMf, funtoti 

lanllans of iJmf olillilriin. Ihu tnianluil duf iIwiumIvm viho vUb tu aM lijr tbi . 

iif ihnir iulluiiui-u uiil by Uirlr Mi-'i|Mntlqn Van wutk tli*r bu 'lone m tuuoli Cbf 

1, atui aU otbar (MMnn* who majr hAva had tbeir bcuU tnaciicd wIUi a ootlr* W 

bw tbolr laUrnrt aixl la hotp OD tli« w«Tll- 

Sier; peiMua tweiTlD|{ ft "Muplu ddpj" uTTRR AaaociATiOM BSTiRW I« Invtbel to 


Vol. V, No. 2. 

APRIL, 1903. 



It lias been long a well-known fact that in our institutions 
ior llie dca{ there are .some children who have a normal sense 
Ipf hearing; others who arc more or less hard of hearing; and 
Mtili others who are only in condition to hear vowel sounds. 

Of late years exact experimentation has proved that among 

Ithose lieretofore considered totally deaf are a number capable 

NDf hearing a greater or less stretch of the musical scale. In con- 

tequencc it was Justly claimed that very few so-called deaf chil- 

I are totally deaf, but. on the contrary, that the greater per 

. have a certain amount of hearing. This fact established, 

■certain investigators brought to hglit the old idea of utilizing 

residuum of hearing power, and of training it by means of 

wpecial exercises. 

More especially since Prof. Dr. Urbantschitsch of Vienna 
md Prof. Dr. Bezold of Munich have brought the subject into 
ihe foreground, in many of the Austrian and German institution; 
br the deaf greater attention has been given to this interesting 
ise of the work. Systematic exercises for training the hearing 
re been worked out, whose aim is a threefold one; first, to in- 
srease the actual ability to hear; second, to give a better means 
f thought communication through an organic blending of the 
iptical sensations of lip-reading, the motor sensations of articula- 

iTranskted from tbe Germau by MiM Anna R. Camp, Chlcftgo, 111. 

I02 Tlir .Issnciatiou Rmetv. 

tion, and the acoustic sensations; and third, to improve the 
speech of the deaf, and make it more like that of a normal person. 

Have these exercises fulfilled the hopes set upon them? The 
many differinj^ opinions expressed seem to indicate that the 
aurists and teachers of the deaf are not agreed either about their 
real nature, or the results thus far obtained. While a number 
of doctors indulge in the greatest hope for the development of 
hearing, and foretell an extraordinary change in the present day 
method of instructing the deaf, others, as well as a great number 
of teachers, regard the whole thing as a waste of time and even 
go so far as to say that it is really harmful. Many instructors of 
the deaf do not deny that, given certain conditions, a definite 
amount of improvement can be gained through the use of special 
hearing exercises, but claim that the results thus attained have 
already been secured through the usual school instruction. 

As it certainly is to the interest of the education of the deaf 
to throw as much light as possible unon this much discussed 
question, it may be of some help to descv be the experience gained 
through an actual use of these hearing '^xercises in private cases, 
as well as in the class-room, and witli those totally deaf, as well 
as with the merely hard of hearing. 

In thus giving my own subjective opinion of the nature and 
eventful worth of these exercises, I desire simply to contribute 
something, however small, toward the furtherance of a good 

Emphasizing, as I wish to, that these exercises have been 
given to children totally deaf, as well as those with more or less 
hearing, the following experiment with one of the former cases 
may be of interest. A series of some twenty similarily construct- 
ed words were whispered into the ear. This exercise was con- 
tinued for a certain time, with the result that finally the child was 
able to repeat these words correctly. This was a convincing 
proof that the result obtained was not gained through the sense 
of hearing, but through an extremely keen tactile sense. 

Another child on entering the institute was apparently total- 
ly deaf, reacting to no vowel sounds spoken into the ear. Later, 
however, when under instruction the same child spoke with 
clearness, which argued the presence of hearing. As a matter of 

The Partial Hearing of Pupils in Sclwols for the Deaf. 103 

fact the boy soon proved capable of perceiving vowels in both 
ears. Here is an excellent illustration of the fact that very often 
a certain amount of hearing exists of which the children are not 
conscious. Children of such a class, and those who by first ex- 
amination display marked ability to hear vowels, show decided 
improvement in understanding speech through the ear, after a 
thorough training in hearing g^'mnastics. They are also capable 
of imitating- • liythm and modulation of tone to a certain extent. 
Accordingly words often used in exercise will be correctly under- 
stood much more frequently and with less intensity of tone than 
unfamiliar words and those seldom used in exercise, which will 
be either misunderstood or confounded with others. 

At first the memory for sounds is little or not at all educated. 
Little by little through exercise it is strengthened, and it seems 
certain that the thought process of children at such a stage will 
have as a basis, not only the optical image of the positions of the 
mouth, and the muscular sensations of the speech organs, but 
also that the acoustic image begins now to play a role. 

Even in dreams sound images will be reproduced, as was 
the experience of one of my best pupils. I had given this child 
hearing exercises for a period of six months^ when she related a 
dream of a locomotive whose whistHng and snorting she had 
plainly heard. Even after six months of training, this same child 
began to perceive new sound sensations, such as street noises, 
sounds of bells, songs of birds, etc., sounds which previously she 
had not noticed, and which therefore had never come into the 
field of consciousness. 

What is the cause of this increased power to hear speech 
which follows extensive exercise of the existing hearing? In 
what way has this been accomplished? Has the physical power 
of the hearing apparatus actually increased? Has the auditory 
nerve lately so torpid been aroused to new life? 

Personally I am convinced that the results attained in cer- 
tain cases may be traced back to a psycho-physical process in- 
volving, through determined effort, repeated enervations along 

1 Mr. Merkl haw forpjotten to statp that thiR same child had had three 
yesLTs* traininff in hparing previous to her work with him, and had beganjto 
notice all street noises, etc., two years previous. — Translator. 

I04 The Association Review. 

nerve paths, and coordinations through nerve centres, hereto- 
fore comparatively unused. It concerns itself with the training 
of what hearing still remains, and with the greatest possible use 
of the same in the service of the perception of speech. 

Let us take as an example a child, from birth so hard of 
hearing as to be unable to learn speech normally through the 
ear. Since his idea of hearing sounds and words is very in- 
definite, when spoken to he makes little or no response. Inter- 
course with the family through sounds consequently soon ceases, 
with the result that the function of the hearing apparatus 
becomes still further impaired, and the complicated speech 
process- remains quite unacquired. The nerve paths leading to 
the different nerve centers under consideration, namely the acous- 
tic, and speech centers, the idea and motor centers, as well as the 
necessary arrangements for connecting these centers, remain un- 
used, untraversed. Under such conditions this child will soon 
resemble one totally deaf, notwithstanding the hearing he still 
possesses. Similarly situated is a child who becomes deaf soon 
after he begins to learn speech. He, however, possesses the in- 
valuable power of discrimination, that the memory of the acts of 
having heard preserves, and which happily can be made distinct 
when the hearing exercises are begun. Nevertheless in such a 
case the attention, and acoustic memory, as well as the nerves, 
are little exercised, and the connecting paths are not as acces- 
sible as in the case of persons with normal hearing, who have 
received thousands and thousands of impressions. 

It follows then from the foregoing that an actual physical 
increase of the sensibility to sound does not necessarily take 
place as a result of the exercising and training of the hearing and 
speech functions through these hearing exercises. 

What is then the real task of the auricular method? It aims 
at reestablishing the faculty of understanding speech through the 
ear. This faculty through disuse has remained uneducated or 
gone to waste, but, provided some capacity for hearing is pres- 
ent, it is capable of being increased up to a certain point. The 
greater the amount of hearing, and the greater the ability to hear 
tones of varying intensity, the greater naturally will be the re- 
sult attained. 

The Partial Hearing of Pupils in Schools for the Deaf. 105 

The effectiveness of the exercises also depends to a great 
extent upon the position of the scale of the tones perceived; for 
as we know from recent discoveries, each vowel and consonant 
has a certain place in the scale of tones. For instance^ Prof. Dr. 
Bezold of Munich has established for the vowels the stretch 

In undertaking such auricular work what then is the princi- 
pal point to be considered? 

In my eyes it is the clearing up of the confused hearing 
sensations^ the differentiation of sounds. This comes principally 
through great concentration of attention. Through determined 
efforts and through an increased attention it is possible to lift the 
sensation of hearing over the threshold of consciousness. Where 
this is not possible, speech can naturally not be the outcome of 
conscious hearing. When our attention is absorbed by other 
circumstances we do not notice the striking of the clock, whereas 
should we fix our attention upon the clock we are able to hear the 
sound very easily. Clearly it struck just as loud when our 
thoughts were elsewhere, and exercised just as great a stimulus 
upon our hearing apparatus. Is not the same process possible 
with a person hard of hearing? Should he listen with concen- 
trated attention to hearing sensations would he not be able to 
perceive even stimuli of less intensity, outside stimuli which are 
not great enough to occasion any sensations, unless all other im- 
pressions are inhibited. It is certainly also an accepted fact that 
fixed attention in yet another way increases the clearness of hear- 
ing sensations. It creates better physical conditions for hearing 
by exerting an influence over the muscles controlling the hear- 
ing apparatus. 

The vowels, whose acoustic resonances are greater than 
those of the consonants, will naturally be more easily differen- 
tiated. And again the voice consonants will be heard much 
better than the breath consonants. It is certain that the latter 
are seldom correctly understood, for with a lessened hearing it 
is almost an absolute impossibility to perceive them. 

In such cases as I shall mention later, a skill in divining the 
meaning of a sentence from one or two words correctly heard 
takes the place of absolute hearing, and must be exercised as 

io6 The Association Review. 

much as possible. We need only to think how great a service 
this power of guessing is to us as normal persons. However, 
in order to possess this skill in guessing, there must be present 
in the mind a number of word images, which as apperceived 
images reinforce the perceived words. 

It is then the second task of the hearing exercises to educate 
the acoustic centre and the word memory; to accumulate acous- 
tic word images. Our familiar word images are compounded 
of sound sensations and the sensations of articulation. When 
these words strike our ears, the sensations thus produced will 
only be perceived when they meet and are reinforced by the 
images of sound sensations arising from the same impressions 
earlier assimilated. The greater number of these assimilated 
word pictures in the consciousness, the greater will be the power 
to understand through hearing. In this way we explain the fact 
that the hearing of our children keeps pace with the progress 
made in instruction, and with the increased intelligence developed 
through this instruction. 

While speaking of this subject I will now mention that (in 
my opinion) a systematic instruction in hearing is in order only 
after completing a course in articulation; for the imitation of the 
sounds of speech are only possible when the articulation of those 
sounds has been practiced. 

The elements of our speech are indeed sounds, but the 
structure of thought is formed out of the ideas of words. Words 
therefore must be principally exercised in order that their ever 
recurring combination of sounds may express certain experi- 
ences. An individual hard of hearing is in some sense in the 
same situation with one who is learning a foreign language, and 
who must submit to long continued exercises before he is in 
a position to perceive the new sounds, for which new pathways 
must first be worn. 

An experience, which every one who has done auricular 
work will recognize, is, that persons with but little hearing are 
often able to understand only those who give them the ex- 
ercises; a fact very easily explained, being merely a matter of 
individual differences in the formation of sound. Persons with 
normal hearing are similarly limited, for we must become ac- 

The Partial Hearing of Pupils in Schools for the Deaf, 107 

customed to different voices, and often understand very little 
when some one is first introduced to us, to say nothing of the 
difficulty arising from faulty articulation which we sometimes 

The greater or less fatigue which quickly shows itself during 
the hearing exercises is striking and therefore worthy of atten- 
tion. This fatigue indicates also the pronounced activity of the 
attention. How difficult it is for normal persons to follow a lec- 
ture word for word with unvarying attention. The attention as 
we know undergoes periodic variations, which in persons hard of 
hearing, for another reason, lead to early fatigue. I refer to the 
fact that they are lacking in any extensive background of word 
images with which the new impressions can be associated. Per- 
sons with normal hearing are so practiced in association that it is 
not necessary to hear clearly every word and every sound of that 
word. Consequently we can allow our attention periods of rest, 
which it is not possible for a person hard of hearing to take. 

So much concerning the worth of hearing exercises. In the 
beginning of my article, under the results to be obtained from 
these exercises I mentioned, clearness of articulation, intonation 
and variation of tone. But in addition it will also be granted that 
the external use of the existing remnant of hearing is sometimes 
of great service, and assists greatly the modulation of speech and 
the tone color of the vowels, so that both accent and rhythm are 
in this way exercised. An improvement of this kind is dependent, 
however, on a grade of hearing such that the pupil concerned 
hears his own voice. This is necessary for a comparison with the 
voice speaking in his ear. In the group of those with very little 
hearing, who notwithstanding all exercise are unable to differen- 
tiate the vowels, on account of their incapacity for this self-control 
through comparison, improvement of the articulation by hearing 
exercises is not possible. Glaring faults in the enunciation of 
the consonants can seldom be corrected through the 
ear, even if a reasonable amount of hearing is present. We meet 
daily with a similar phenomenon in normally hearing persons. 
How many of us articulate falsely single sounds such as "r" or 
"s," and are unable to perceive the difference between our own 
false reproduction and the correct articulation of another. How 

io8 The Association Review. 

much more difficult therefore must it be for one with imperfect 
hearing sensations to perceive the various shades of the con- 
sonant sounds^ and, using his limited hearing as a basis^ to 
articulate the same correctly. 

From the aforesaid, and from the earlier stated proposition, 
that without thorough previous instruction in articulation, speech 
cannot be learned from a successful auricular course, it follows 
that, as heretofore, the instruction in articulation will play a most 
important part in the education of the deaf. 

As to what children in the Institute for the Deaf shall be 
taught speech through the ear, one must reply that from a hu- 
manitarian standpoint, each child who shows the least particle 
of hearing should have the benefit of trials and exercises, the aim 
being to develope to its greatest extent what hearing they have, 
and to put it at the service of appropriating speech. Unfor- 
tunately^ on account of the limited time alloted for the education 
of their pupils, and the danger of overburdening and straining 
the teaching force in giving these exercises, as well as on account 
of financial considerations, the schools for the deaf can allow 
themselves to be guided only by motives of expediency. If from 
the beginning, or soon after the beginning of the auricular train- 
ing, it is evident that no practical use can be made of results 
gained through the expenditure of much time and the endless 
labor involved in such instruction, it should be discontinued. 
From the standpoint of the physician, or of the scholar,it may be 
very interesting to observe that by extensive training, and by 
using the auxiliaries of the hearing, sense of touch and combina- 
tion through association, it is possible to bring those children 
who show only a trace of hearing so far that they are able to 
perceive a small number of known words and phrases. But 
for practical use in life, for which we are working especially, such 
results are almost worthless. If such a child be not continually 
exercised, the results obtained through so much labor will be 
quickly lost and the whole work will be in vain. 

This consideration of practicability limits the hearing ex- 
ercises to those pupils of the schools for the deaf who at least 
show a good vowel hearing. Normal hearing children often 
found in schools for the deaf^ whose speech disturbance does not 

The Partial Hearing of Pupils in Schools for the Deaf, 109 

spring from a defect in the hearing apparatus, naturally must 
also be admitted to this class in order to acquire the function 
of speech. As many sound sensations as possible, especially 
through speech, should be given those children deemed suitable 
for auricular training, in order that, according to the physical 
law that every stimulus increases the sensibility for perceiving, 
the function of speech will be made more active. The greater the 
number of impressions made by the acoustic image of a word, 
the stronger the disposition which remains for future impres- 
sions, for each function is increased through use, just as vice 
versa it is decreased and finally becomes inoperative through 

Whether, as is claimed by many, an actual increase of hear- 
ing in the physical sense, resulting from extensive exercise, 
takes place, or whether the fact of an increased power to per- 
ceive speech can be explained through the psycho-physical pro- 
cess of the exercise of the function of speech, is perhaps at 
present still doubtful; but it is not doubtful that even a weak- 
ened ear, by strained attention and sufficient training, can ac- 
complish enough to arouse our astonishment. It is fully in ac- 
cordance with this, that children with considerable capacity for 
hearing are continually receiving stimuli in the usual class in- 
struction, and this chance stimulation, little by little, with grow- 
ing intelligence and increasing knowledge of language, to a 
certain extent trains the function of speech. Surely every in- 
stitution can point to a number of pupils who on entering showed 
only a vowel hearing; whereas on leaving the institute they were 
able to receive a large part of their language through the ear, 
without auricular training having taken place. If now the un- 
premeditated hearing exercises which are given incidentally 
through the usual school instruction, show such results in the 
development of the speech function, does it not go without say- 
ing that through systematic training and conscious modulation 
and accent exercises, much better results can be attained much 
more quickly? 

With the present organization of most schools, where the 
partially and totally deaf are instructed together, practical and 
systematic exercises during the usual school hours would 

no The Association Review. 

scarcely be possible or productive of much good. If those pupils 
with partial hearing, both in and out of instruction^ are always 
with the totally deaf, one cannot avoid the feeling that no good 
influence over the speech of the former can be exercised by the 
monotonous, wholly unrythmical speech of the latter. Neither 
do these children hear normal speech from the teacher, for he, 
having the totally deaf child always in mind, speaks slowly, often 
giving undue length to each sound, in order to facilitate lip- 
reading. In this way those ever recurring variations, which 
make normal speech so living and eflfective, viz., pitch, accent 
and rhythm, are to a great extent lost. Through this same con- 
tact, development of speech as regards an increased vocabulary, 
and a knowledge of grammatical construction, is certainly re- 
tarded. It would be possible by dividing these children into 
separate classes, to adopt a modified and quicker method with 
the hard of hearing; a method more like that used with normal 
children. Further, the fact that the totally deaf use signs more 
or less constantly must not be forgotten, for this influence also 
would be harmful to the development of speech in those hard of 

From the reasons given above it follows that separate in- 
struction for those capable of learning speech through the ear 
would be greatly to their advantage. Naturally the ideal course 
would be to place them in entirely distinct institutions, where 
they could be instructed according to their special needs. Where 
this is impossible, it might be worth while, in those institutions 
in which there are a sufficient number of children with hearing, 
to make up classes of picked children for special instruction, as 
will be done in 1902-03 at Dobling. 

Should this method of organization also prove impracticable 
the old way of instructing them in the same class room would be 
the only resource, and the disadvantages already mentioned 
would be unavoidable. The plan of giving a half hour's auricu- 
lar training outside of the usual instruction has few advantages, 
I think, for each child receives but a few moments exercise 
during which little can be accomplished. He really receives 
more sound stimulus during the usual instruction periods, es- 
pecially if the hearing is consciously used more than heretofore. 

The Partial Hearing of Pupils in Schools for the Deaf. 1 1 1 

In judging objectively of the worth of the auricular training, 
one reaches the conclusion that it cannot be rejected ad limits, 
but must be subjected to further trials, in order that by means 
of sufficient collected data a trustworthy judgment may finally 
be given. Naught can be gained through superior disregard, 
or biting scorn, and just as little through untruthful reports of 
results gained, for nothing hurts a good cause so much as to 
arouse hopes which can never be realized. 

In conclusion I am but voicing the thoughts of all true 
friends of the deaf when I express the hope that the ultimate 
judgment on speech instruction through the ear may result to 
the good of the poor child to whom Mother Nature has been 
but a step-mother. 


The real psychology of life is in its news,— Jules Verne, 

At the meeting of the National Educational Association in 
Minneapolis last summer, Archbishop John Ireland gave an ad- 
dress on the subject, "Devotion to Truth; the Chief Virtue of the 
Teacher." In the course of his remarks he spoke as follows in 
regard to the mission and character of the newspaper: 

"If I were to choose where outside of the class-room for the 
general welfare of humanity I should have devotion to truth pre- 
vail, I should name the newspaper. The newspaper is to-day 
pre-eminently the mentor of the people; it is read by all; it is be- 
lieved nearly by all. Its influence is paramount ; its responsibility 
is tremendous. Its province is to narrate facts — to give the 
truth, nothing but the truth, and all the truth — to allow both 
parties to a controversy to be heard — never to palliate or distort; 
never to omit, when that which is omitted may be of relevancy in 
the formation of public opinion; never to publish the doubtful as 
certain, the mere gossip as well-ascertained news; never, above 
all else, to put before readers error and falsehood. Facts given, 
the editor is at liberty to argue for them in favor of his own tenets, 
and even then let there be radiating through limpid lines the fair 
love of truth, rather than the wish to extol party or sect." 

The daily newspaper is becoming more and more the epi- 
tome of the state and nation, and of the life and achievements of 
the people who constitute them. For this reason the study of 
Current History in all schools is of the highest practical im- 
portance. This fact is being recognized, with the result that 
Current History is receiving more and more attention. But it 
has not yet attained the position in the curriculum of most 
schools that its value to the rising generation deserves. Much 
more attention is devoted to the study of ancient history and 
much less to that of Current History, than their relative import- 
ance calls for. The past is of value only in its bearing upon the 
present. We are training the present generation of children for 

Current History in the Schoolroom, 113 

the "living present" and the possible future. The great mass of 
facts and dates over which we spend so much time in the history 
of the past has little value in preparing our youth for the duties 
of the present. If the chief aim of modern education was to pro- 
duce scholars and philosophers, then the extensive study of the 
world's past history might be justified. But the great mass of 
our boys and girls will never get beyond the average common 
school course, and therefore it is essential that that course should 
be made as practical and useful as possible. The chief aim of all 
educators should be to adapt the curriculum of the schools so as 
best to prepare young people for intelligent citizenship, and to 
accomplish this it is necessary to make them familiar with the 
political, social, and moral questions of the day. In no way can 
this be done so effectively as by a systematic study of Current 
History, of which the daily newspaper, intelligently used, is the 
best text book. 

Important as the study of Current History is to all children, 
it is particularly so in the case of deaf children. Hearing chil- 
dren can learn much of it outside of school, from the conversa- 
tion of their elders and from public addresses and discussions. 
These sources of information are practically closed to deaf chil- 
dren, and there remains to them only the newspaper. If we can 
so direct our instruction to deaf children at school as to form in 
them the habit of reading the newspaper intelligently, we shall 
have done much more of real value to them in after life than if 
we fill their minds with a mass of facts relating to the peoples 
and events of bygone ages. 

If the importance of the study of Current History is admit- 
ted, the next question for consideration is, what method of study 
will produce the best results? The object of this paper is to 
present one method, which, so far as tested, has produced excel- 
lent results. 

More than ten years ago the Minnesota School for the Deaf 
began to teach Current History in the class-rooms systemat- 
ically. Enough copies of a certain monthly publication in Cur- 
rent History were subscribed for to supply the individual pupils 
in the advanced classes. The pupils were required to read, 
study, and stand examinations on these. The results were not 

114 The Association Rnnew, 

satisfactory enough, chiefly because the monthly publication did 
not keep up with the daily happenings of the world. Many 
events passed into history before the pupils arrived at them in the 
course of their study. Next the plan was tried of requiring the 
pupils to bring into the school-room daily, and to write on the 
blackboard, items that they gleaned from the newspapers in the 
reading-room. This was an improvement, but it still fell short 
of what was desired, for the pupils failed to make a good selec- 
tion of news, bringing in much that was trivial and unimportant, 
and leaving out matters of real interest and value as news. Then 
two or three of the teachers tried the plan of gleaning the news 
themselves from the daily newspapers, and writing it on the 
blackboard every morning. The pupils copied it in note 
books and studied it as before. This was a much better meth- 
od, but it had the disadvantage of taking up a great deal of time 
in the school room. 

When Superintendent Tate assumed charge of the school in 
i896,upon the retirement of Dr. Noyes, he introduced the system 
of teaching Current History by means of bulletin boards, which 
had been followed in the Missouri School. This system, briefly 
described, is as follgws: In the study room of the boys and ii 
that of the girls the re is a large blackboard. On these black- 
boards the teachers, by turns, write every day the cream of the 
news as gleaned from the daily papers. The pupils of the ad- 
vanced classes copy one or more of these items each, and the 
following morning write them on the blackboards in their 
respective school rooms. The teachers comment on them and 
explain where necessary. Some of the teachers require that the 
most important items be copied into note books for future 

I will now describe in detail the method of handling the 
news in one of the classes, the highest class in the Manual 
Department : 

Each pupil is required to bring at least one item of news 
daily, either from the bulletin boards or from newspapers. There 
are fifteen pupils in the class, and to give an idea of what they 
bring in, the follov/ing collection is presented, written one morn- 
ing a few days ago : 

Current History in the Schoolroom. 115 

The United States will send an armed fleet to Honduras 
very soon. Bonilla, who claims to have been elected to the 
presidency, has proclaimed himself President. 

The blizzard which raged in the West, is now prevailing 
along the Atlantic coast. 

Senator Hanna has introduced a bill at the request of the 
National Industrial Council to pension all ex-slaves who were 
freed bv the proclamation of President Lincoln during the War 
of the Rebellion. 

The ground floor of John Knox's house in High Street, 
Edinburgh, has been transformed into an old book store. 

The United States quarantine officials have declared Manila 
to be free from cholera, thus ending the quarantine which has 
lasted nearly a year. 

It is reported that there is very great danger of a revolt 
in Macedonia among the Christian and Ottoman population, 
on account of the Sultan's misgovernment. 

Governor Van Sar\t has issued a proclamation calling upon 
the people of Minnesota to contribute towards the relief of the 
famine sufferers in Sweden, Norway, and Finland. 

W. R. Estes, of Madelia, Minn., recently appointed United 
States consul at Antigua, British West Indies, was appointed 
on Governor Van Sant's staff with the rank of colonel. 

Governor Hickey of Nebraska says that the public schools 
are injurious to character, because they do not teach Christianity. 

The King of Italy expects to visit the King of England in 
the spring. 

King Edward is still confined to his apartments at Windsor 
Castle, but his progress is perfectly satisfactory to his physicians. 

B. B. Sheffeld is building an elevator at Le Sueur Center, 
to supply grain for his mills in this city. 

St. Paul — Chicago and Eastern roads have devised a plan 
for settling rate disputes. 

Congress may appropriate some money to help build and 
improve the country roads, so the rural mail carriers can travel 

President Roosevelt was asked to be arbitrator in the 
Venezuela trouble, but he declined. 

It is reported that President Loubet of France may visit 
the United States soon. 

The above are one day's news from the bulletin boards. 
The average is about the same, sometimes better, sometimes 

ii6 The Association Review. 

worse. It will be noted that there is a mixture of local, slate, 
national, and world news in the collection. 

The pupils write the news on the blackboards the first thing 
in the morning. Then, with all the class looking on, the teacher 
goes over each item. If errors of any kind are noted, the pupils 
are asked to point them out and correct them. The writer of 
each item is expected to be able to state just what it means. If 
a new word appears in an item, the writer is asked to define it, 
the understanding being that all new words must be looked up 
in the dictionary beforehand. If the name of any person ap- 
pears, the pupils are asked who it is, why noted, etc. Places 
are located on the maps. Carelessness in writing, spelling, punc- 
tuation, etc., are strongly censured. When an item is not under- 
stood at first reading, the teacher uses every effort to induce 
the class to think out the meaning for themselves, giving hints 
where necessary. Often the teacher thinks it wise to enlarge 
on some particular item, throwing side lights on it. Special 
attention is given to bringing out the reasons for things. Or- 
dinarily all this is done inside of thirty minutes. 

When all the items have been read, corrected, and com- 
mented on in this manner, the teacher selects the new words, 
names and phrases, and writes them on the blackboard with 
simple definitions opposite. A few of recent occurrence are here 
produced by way of illustration: 

asphyxiated — choked by poisonous air or gas. 
rush orders — orders to be filled in a hurry, 
hydrophobia — disease caused by the bite of a mad animal; 

the word means "hate of water." 
availed nothing — was of no use. 
**Cream City" — Milwaukee. 
Guild Hall — City Hall of London. 
Doukhoboers — A peculiar Russian religious sect, 
on the verge of — near; close to. 
Perseus — a famous Greek hero. 
Confucius — a famous Chinese philosopher who lived about 

600 years ago and founded a religion. 
Porte — a name given to the Turkish government, 
bullion — uncoined gold and silver. 
Protocol — a temporary agreement, usually between nations 

at war. 

Current History in the Schoolroom. 117 

These definitions are copied by the pupils into note books, 
and are reviewed nearly every day, until the pupils become famil- 
iar with them. Many of them are of frequent recurrence in the 
daily news. As a rule, four or five definitions are added every 

The main advantages of this method of studying Current 
History may be stated briefly as follows, in chance order: 

1. Cultivation of the memory — The pupils arc expected 

to write the items from memory every morning. 

2. Accuracy in copying — Carelessness in this respect is 

strongly condemned. 

3. Handwriting— Neatness and legibility are insisted upon. 

4. Punctuation and Capitals — These minor points receive 

close attention. 

5. Spelling — Inaccuracies in this respect are frowned upon. 

6. Geography — All places must be located on maps. 

7. History and Biography — Names of famous persons and 

their deeds are noted. 

8. Use of the Dictionary — Pupils are required to look up 

unfamiliar words in the dictionary. 

9. Reading understandingly — Pupils are expected to 

understand what their items mean as a whole. 

10. Reasoning — Pupils are stimulated to think out the 

idioms, and they are urged to remember them and 
use them, which many of them do. 

11. Use of idiomatic language — Special attention is called 

to the meaning of items that are not clear at first 

The objection to this plan will doubtless be raised that 
the selection and writing of the news every day by the teachers 
is too much of a help to the pupils; that it would be better for 
the latter to learn to read and select news themselves. In reply 
it can be said that all except the most advanced pupils cannot 
read the papers with sufficient understanding and judgment to 
select the best. If they read the papers at all, they will incline 
to the sensational features, and overlook those of real value. 
The teachers eliminate almost wholly the criminal news, at any 
rate so far as details go. It is hoped in this way to form in the 
pupils the habit of reading papers for valuable information rather 

ii8 The Association Review. 

than for sensation. Again, if our pupils are to read the news- 
papers after leaving school, it is essential that they should be- 
come familiar with the idiomatic style in simplified form, and by 
this every-day reading and explanation in the school-rooms, the 
pupils become more and more familiar with newspaper language. 
And lastly, a considerable proportion of pupils in each class, 
girls especially, will not read the newspapers assiduously out- 
side of the school room of their own volition. By bringing the 
best of the daily news into the school room, all the pupils are 
obliged to take part in the reading, and an interest is aroused in 
some who otherwise might never take to newspaper reading at 

I have outlined this method of teaching Current History, 
not with the belief that it is the best ever, but with the hope that 
this article may call forth suggestions and criticisms by which I, 
and others too, may profit. I have employed different methods 
of teaching this subject, but of all that I have tried, the one here 
described has given the most satisfactory results, and seems to 
arouse the most interest and attention on the part of the pupils. 

Continued from the Association Review of February, 1903. 



gramme, crab, cram, cramp, 

grand, grant, 
grant, grand, 
grape, crape, 
grate, crane, crate, grade, grain, 

grave, crave, 
graze, craze, grace, 
grease, crease, 
great, crane, crate, grade, grain. 

greater, crater, 
greaves, grieves, 
grebe, cream, creep, 
greed, creed, green, greet, 
green, creed, greed, greet, 
greet, creed, greed, green. 
grew, crew, grit, 
grid, grin, grit, 
gride, cried, grind, 
grieves, greaves, 
grim, crib, crimp, grip, 
grime, crime, g^pe. 
grin, grid, grit, 
grind, creed, gride, 
grip, crib, crimp, grim, 
gripe, crime, grime, 
gjistle, gjizzle. 
grit, grid, grin, 
gjizzle, gristle, 
groan, crone, grown, 
grocer, grosser. 

grog, crock. 

groom, croup, g^oup. 

gross, crows, grows. 

grosser, grocer. 

ground, crowd, crowned, g^out. 

group, croup, groom. 

grout, crowd, crowned, ground. 

g^ow, crow. 

grovvn. crone, g^oan. 

grows, crows, g^oss. 

grub, crumb, grum. 

grudge, crunch, crush, crutch. 

gruel, crewel, cruel. 

grum, crumb, grub. 

grumble, crumble, crumple. 

guard, cairn, card, cart, yard. 

guess, yes. 
guessed, g^est. 
guide, guyed, kind, kine, kite, 
guilt, gild, gilt, killed, kilt, 
gull, cull. 

gum, come, cub, cup. 
gun, cud, cut, g^t. 
gunner, cutter, gutter, 
gut, cud, cut, gun. 
gutter, cutter, gunner, 
guyed, g^ide, kind, kine, kite. 


ha, ah. 

hack, hag, hang, hank, 
hacked, act, hanged, 
hacks, axe, hags, hangs. 

'flu- Assacitilioit Rczicw. 

had, add, at, hand, hat. 

hade, aid, ain't, ate, eight, hate. 

hag, hack, hang, hank. 

Snaggle, angle, ankle. 

hail, ail, ale, hale. 

hair, air, e'er, ere, hare, heir. 

hale, ail, ale, hail. 

half, halve, have. 

hall, all, awl, haul. 

liallways, always. 

Jialt, hauled. 

halter, altar, alter. 

halve, half, have. 

ham, am, hap. 

hammer, amber, hamper. 

lianipiT.anibcr hammer. 

hand, add, at, had, hat. 

handle, addle. 

handsome, hansom. 

handy, auntie. 

hang, hack, hag, hank. 

hanged, act, hackt-d. 

hanger, anger. 

hallos, axi-. hacks, hags. 

hank, hack, hag, hang. 

hansom, handsome. 

hap, am, ham. 

harbor, arbor. 

hard, art, hart, heart. 

hardened, ardent. 

hare, atr, e'er, ere, hair, heir. 

hark, arc, ark. 

harm, arm, harp. 

harp, arm, harm. 

harps, arms. 

harrow, arrow. 

harsh, arch. 

hard, art, hart, hrart. 

has, as, ass. 

hash, ash. 

hasp, asp. 

hat. add, at, had, hand. 

hatchet, ashen. 

hate, aid, ain't, ate, eiehl, ha-'e. 

haul, all, awl, hall. 

hauled, halt. 

have, half, halve. 

haw, awe. 

hawk, awk. 

hay, a, aye. 

haze, ace. 

he, hey. 

head, end, hen. 

heady, eddy. 

heal, eel, heel. 

hear, ear, here. 

heard, earn, herd, hurt, urn. 

hearse, hers, 

heart, art, hard, hart. 

heat, eat, heed. 

licai'c, eve. 

heaves, eaves. 

heaver, ever, heifer. 

liL-rtRLM'ds^'e etch. 

Iieiiil, cat, heat. 

heel, eel, heal. 

heifer, ever, heaver. 

height, eyed, hide, hied, hind,rd 

heir, air, e'er, ere, hair, hare. 

hell, ell. 

helm, elm, help. 

help, elm, helm, 

hem, ebb, em, hemp. 

hemp, ebb, em, hem. 

hen, end, head. 

hence, hens. 

her, err. 

herd, earn, heard, hurt, urn. 

here, ear, hear. 

hers, hearse. 

hew, ewe, hue, yew, you. 

hews, hues, ooze, whose. 

hev, he. 

hid. hint, hit, in, inn, it. 

hide, eyed, heipht, 'lied, hind, I'd 

hie, aye, eye, high, I. 

hied. eyed, height, hide, hind, I'd 

hiffh. aye, eye, hie, I, 

liiuhland, island, 

hill, ill. 

My List of Honiophenous Words. 

Iiim, hip, hymn, imp. 

liind, eyed, height, hied, hind. I'd 

hinge, hitch, inch, itch. 

hint, hid, hit, in, inn, it, 

hip, him, hymn, imp, 

hire, ire, higher. 

liired, ironed. 

his, hiss, is. 

hiss, his, is. 

hissed, hist. 

hist, hissed. 

hit, hid. hint, in, inn, it. 

hitch, hinge, inch, itch. 

hits, its, 

hive, I've, 

ho, hoe, O, oh, owe, 

hoar, oar, o'er, ore, whore. 

hoarded, horde, oared. 

hoarse, oars. 

hoax oaks. 

hod, hot, odd. 

hoe, ho, O, oh, owe. 

hoes, hose, owes. 

hold, holed, old. 

hole, whole. 

holed, hold, old. 

home, hope, ope. 

hone, oat, ode, owed, owned. 

hoo, who. 

hope, home, ope. 

hardf, hoard, oared. 

hose, hoes, owes. 

hosed, host. 

hosier, osier. 

host, hosed. 

hot, hod, odd. 

hotter, otter. 

hound, out. 

hour, our. 

house, ounce. 

housed, oust. 

hovel, awful. 

howl, owl. 

howlet, owlet. 

hub, hum, hump. 

hue, ewe, hew, yew, you, 

hues, hews, ooze, whose. 

huff, off. 

hug, hung, hunk. 

hum, hub, hump. 

hump, hub, hum. 

hunch, hush. 

hung, hug, hunk. 

hunk, hug, hung. 

hunt, hut. 

hunter, udder, under, utter. 

hurl, earl. 

hurt, earn, he?rd. henl, urn, 

hush, hunch. 

husher, usher. 

hut, hunt. 

hymn, him, hip, imp. 


I, aye, eye, hie, high. 

ice, eyes, hies. 

I'd, height, hied, hide, hind. 

idle, idol, idyl. 

idol, idle, idyl. 

idyl, idle, idol, 

I'll, aisle, isle. 

ill, hill, 

imbrued, imbrute, 

imbrute, imbrude. 

immigrant, emigrant. 

imminence, eminence. 

immunity, impunity. 

immure, impure. 

imp, him, hip, hymn. 

impark embark. 

impenned. impend, 

impend, impenned. 

impugned, impute. 

impunity, immunity, 

impure, immure, 

impute, impugned. 

in, hid, hint, hit, inn, it. 

inch, hinge, hitch, itch. 

incite, ensign, inside, insight. 


The Association Review, 

indebted, indented, intended. 

indict, indite. 

indite, indict. 

inferred, invert. 

inn, hid, hint, hit, in, it. 

inrapt, in wrapped. 

inside, ensign, incite, insight. 

intended, indebted, indented. 

invade, inveighed. 

inveighed, invade. 

invert, inferred. 

inwrapped, inrapt. 

ire, hire, hirer. 

ironed, hired. 

is, his, hiss. 

island, highland. 

isle, ailse, I'll. 

islet, eye-let. 

it, hid, hint, hit, in, inn. 

itch, hinge, hitch, inch. 

its, hits. 

I've, hive. 


jack, jag, shack, shag, shank. 

jackal, jangle, shackle. 

jacket, jagged, shagged. 

jade, chain, shade. 

jail, shale. 

jam, chap, champ, jamb, sham. 

jangle, jackal, shackle. 

jaw, chaw, pshaw. 

jay, shah. 

jeer, cheer, shear, sheer. 

jel, shell. 

jeopard, shepherd. 

jerk, shirk. 

jest, chest. 

jet, shed. 

jib, chip, ship. 

jig, chick, chink. 

jjggle, jingle, shingle. 

jill, chill. 

jilt, chilled. 

jingle, jiggle, shingle. 

job, chop, shop. 

jog, chock, shock. 

joined, joint. 

joint, joined. 

joke, choke. 

jot, shod, shot. 

joys, choice. 

jug, junk, chuck, chunk, shuck 

juggle, jungle, chuckle. 

juice, chews, choose, shoes. 

jump, chub, chum. 

June, chewed, chute, jute, shoe 

jungle, juggle, chuckle. 

junk, jug, chuck, chunk, shuck 

jut, shunned, shunt, shut. 

jute, chewed, chute, June, shoo 


kaiser, geyser. 

keel, keen. 

keen, keel. 

kernel, colonel. 

key, quay. 

keys, geese. 

kick, gig, king, kink. 

kid, kin, kit. 

kill, gill, kiln. 

killed, gild, gilt, guilt, kilt. 

kiln, gill, kill. 

kilt, gild, gilt, guilt, killed. 

kin, kid, kit. 

kind, guide, guyed, kine, kite. 

kindle, kittle. 

kine, guide, guyed, kind, kite. 

king, gig, kick, kink. 

kink, gig, kick, king. 

kirtle, curdle, girdle. 

kit, kid, kin. 

kite, guide, guyed, kind, kine. 

kittle, kindle. 

kitty, giddy. 

knack, lack, lag, lank, nag. 

knave, nave. 

My List of Homophenous Words, 


knead, lead, lean, neat, need. 

knee, lea, lee, nee. 

kneel, deal. 

knees, lease, niece. 

knell, dell, tell. 

knew, gnu, lieu, new. 

knick-knack, tick-tack. 

knife, dive, life, live. 

knight, lied, light, lined, night. 

knit, lid, lint, lit, nit. 

knitter, litter. 

knob, knop, lop, nop. 

knock, loch, lock. 

knoll, dole, toll. 

knop, knob, lop, nop. 

knot, lot, nod, not. 

knout, loud, lout, noun. 

know, lo, low, no. 

known, load, loan, lode, lone, 

knows, nose. 


labour, neighbor, 

lace, lays. 

lack, knack, lag, lank, nag. 

lacker, laquer. 

lacks, lax. 

lad, gnat, land. 

lade, laid, lain, lane, late. 

ladder, latter. 

lag, knack, lack, lank, nag. 

laid, lade, lain, lane, late. 

lain, lade, laid, lane, late. 

lair, layer, neer. 

lamb, lamp, lap, nap. 

lame, name. 

lambkin, napkin. 

lamp-wick, lap-wing. 

land, gnat, lad. 

lank, knack, lack, lag, nag. 

lap, lamb, lamp, nap. 

lap-wing, lamp-wick. 

laps, lapse. 

lapse, laps. 

laquer, lacker. 

larch, large. 

large, larch. 

lash, dash, gnash, latch. 

latch, dash, gnash, lash. 

late, lade, laid, lain, lane. 

latter, ladder. 

laud, lawn. 

law, gnaw. 

lawn, laud. 

lax, lacks. 

lay, nay, neigh. 

lays, lace. 

lea, lee, knee, nee. 

lead, knead, lean, neat, need. 

lead, led, lend, lent, let, net. 

leaf, leave, lief. 

leak, league, leek. 

lean, knead, lead, neat, need. 

leap, neap. 

learn, dirt, turn. 

lease, knees, niece. 

leased, least. 

least, leased. 

leather, nether, tether. 

leave, leaf, lief. 

led, lead, lend, lent, let, net. 

lee, knee, lea, nee. 

leech, leach, liege, teach. 

lend, lead, led, lent, let, net. 

lerder, letter. 

lent, lead, led, lend, let, net. 

lessen, lesson. 

lesson, lessen. 

let, lead, led, lend, lent, net. 

letter, lender, 

lewd, loot, lute, newt, noon 

levee, levy, 
levy, levee, 
liar, lyre, 
lice, lies. 

lick, ling, link, nick, 
lid, knit, lint, lit, nit. 


The Association Review, 

lie, lye, nigh. 

lied, knight, light, lined, night. 

lief, leaf, leave. 

liege, leach, leech, teach. 

lieu, gnu, knew, new. 

life, dive, knife, live. 

lift, lived. 

light, knight, lied, lined, night. 

limb, Hmp, lip, nip. 

limber, nipper. 

limp, limb, lip, nip. 

limped, limpid. 

limpid, limped. 

lined, knight, lied, light, night. 

ling, lick, link, nick. 

linger, liquor, nigger. 

link, lick, ling, nick. 

links, lynks. 

lint, knit, lid, lit, nit. 

lip, limb, limp, nip. 

liquor, linger, nigger. 

lit, knit, lid, lint, nit. 

litter, knitter. 

live, knife, dive, live. 

lived, lift. 

lo, know, low, no. 

load, known, loan, lode, lone, 

loam, gnome, lobe, lope, 
loan, known, load, lode, lone 

lobe, gnome, loam, lope, 
loch, knock, lock, 
lode, known, load, loan, lone, 

lodge, dodge, nautch, notch, 
log, long, nog. 
lone, known, load, loan, lode, 

look, nook, took, 
loom, loop, 
loop, loom. 

loose, lose, news, noose, 
loot, lewd, lute, newt, noon, 


lob, knob, knop, nob. 

lord, lorn. 

lorn, lord, 

lose, loose, news, noose. 

lot, knot, nod, not. 

loud, knout, lout, noun. 

lout, loud, knout, noun. 

love, luflf 

low, know, lo, no. 

lub, lump, numb. 

lubber, lumber, number. 

luck, lug, lung. 

luff, love. 

lug, luck, lung. 

lull, dull, null. 

lumber, lubber, number. 

lump, lub, numb. 

lunch, lunge, nudge. 

lung, luck, lug. 

lunge, lunch, nudg:e. 

lurk, dirk. 

lute, lewd, loot, newt, noon, 

lye, lie, nigh, 
lynx, links, 
lyre, liar. 


ma, bah, pa. 

mace, baize, base, bass, bays, 

maize, maze, pace, pays, 
mad, bad, bade, bat, mat, pad, 

made, bait, bate, bayed, maid, 

mate, paid, pate, 
maid, bait, bate, bayed, made, 

mate, paid, pate, 
mail, bail, bale, male, pail, pale. 
maim, babe. 

main, bane, mane, pain, pane. 
maize, baize, base, bass, bays, 

mace, maze, pace, pays. 
make, bake, 
mall, ball, bawl, maul, pall. 

My List of Homophenous Words. 


mallet, ballot, palate, palette, 

pallet, pallid, 
malt, bald, bawled, 
mama, papa, 
man, ban, band, pan. 
manage, bandage, 
mane, bane, main, pain, pane, 
mangle, bangle, 
manner, banner, banter, batter. 

mannish, banish, 
mantel, mantle, 
mantle, mantel, 
manure, mature, 
many, penny, 
map, pap. 
mar, bar, par, parr, 
march, barge, marge, marsh, 

mare, bare, bear, pair, pare, 

marge, barge, march, marsh, 

mark, bark, barque, park, 
market, bargain, parquet, 
marry, parry, 
mars, bars, parse, 
marsh, barge, march, marge, 

marshal, martial, partial, 
marten, martin, pardon, 
martial, marshal, partial, 
martin, marten, pardon, 
martyr, barter, 
mascot, basket, 
mash, badge, batch, match, 

mask, bask, basque, masque, 
mass, bass, pass, 
massive, passive, 
mast, passed, past, 
master, pastor, 
mat, bad, bade, bat, mad, pad, 

match, badge, batch, patch. 

mate, bait, bate, made, maid, 

paid, pate, 
maternity, paternity, 
matrimony, patrimony, 
matron, patron, 
matter, banner, banu^r. batter, 

matting, batting, 
mattock, paddock, 
mature, manure, 
maul, ball, bawl, mall, pall, 
may, bay, bey, pay. 
maw, paw. 
maze, baize, base, bass, bays, 

mace, maize, pace, pays, 
me, be, bee, pea. 
mead, bead, beat, beeu meat, 

meed, meet, mete, peat, 
meal, peal, peel, 
mean, bean, mien, 
means, beans, 
meant, bend, bent, mend, 

penned, pent, 
meat, bead, beat, beet, mead, 

meed, meet, mete, peat, 
medal, meddle, metal, mettle, 

pedal, peddle, petal, 
meddle, medal, mettle, metal, 

pedal, peddle, petal, 
meed, bead, beat, beet, mead, 

meet, mete, peat, 
meeting, beading, beatinj-. 
mell, bell, belle, pell, 
mellow, bellow, 
melt, belt, pelt, 
member, pepper, 
men, pen. 
mend, bend, bent, meant, 

penned, bent, 
mention, pension, 
mere, beer, bier, peer, pier, 
merge, birch, perch, purge, 
merit, buried, 
merry, berry, bury, 
met, bed, bet, pet. 


The Association Review. 

metal, medal, meddle, mettle, 

pedal, peddle, pedal, 
mete, bead, beat, beet, mead, 

meat, meet, meed, peat, 
mettle, medal, mettle, metal, 

pedal, peddle, petal, 
mew, pew, pooh, 
mewl, mule, pool, 
mews, muse, pews, 
mice, buys, pies, 
mid, bid, bit, mit, pit. 
middle, piddle, 
midge, bitch, pinch, pitch, 
midst, bids, bits, 
mien, bean, mean, 
might, bide, bite, might, pied, 
mild, piled, 
mile, bile, pile, 
miles, piles, 
milk, bilk, 
mill, bill, pill, 
millet, billet, pillet. 
million, billion, pillion, 
mince, pins, 
mind, bind, pint, 
mine, bine, pine, 
miner, minor, 
minion, pinion, 
mink, big, pick, pig, pink, 
minor, miner, 
mint, pinned, 
minx, mix, picks, pix. 
mire, pyre, 
mirth, berth, birth, 
mislaid, mislate. 
mislate, mislaid, 
missal, missile, mistle, pistil, 

missed, mist, 
missile, missal, mistle, pistil, 

mist, missed, 
mistle, missal, missile, pistil, 

mite, bide, bite, might, pied. 

mitt, bid, bit pit. 
mitten, bidden, bitten, 
mix, minx, picks, pix. 
moan, bone, mown, pone, 
moat, boat, bode, mode, mote, 

mob, bob, mop, pop. 
mock, bog, pock, 
mode, boat, bode, moat, mote, 

model, bottle, mottle, 
moil, boil, 
molar, polar. 

mold, bold, bolt, bowled, polled, 
mole, bole, boll, bowl, pole, poll, 
money, muddy, putty, 
monk, buck, bug, bung, bunk, 

muck, mug, pug, punk, 
mood, boon, moon, 
moody, beauty, booty, 
moon, boon, mood, 
moor, boor, poor, 
moot, boot, mute, 
mop, bob, mob, pop. 
mope, pope, 
moppy, poppy. 

more, boar, bore, pore, pour, 
morn, born, borne, 
morrow, borrow, 
moss, boss, 
most, boast, post, 
mote, boat, bode, moat, mote, 

mottle, bottle, model 
mound, bound, bout, bowed, 

mount, pound, pout, 
mouse, boughs, 
mow, bough, bow. 
mow, beau, bow. 
mowed, boat, bode, moat, mode, 

much, budge, mush, 
muck, buck, bug, bung, bunk, 

monk, mug, pug, punk. 
mud, bud, bun, but, butt, pun. 

My List of Homophenous Words. 


muddle, bundle, puddle. 

muddy, money, putty. 

mug, buck, bug, bung, bunk, 

monk, muck, pug, punk, 
muggy, buggy, 
mule, mewl, pool, 
mum, bomb, bump, mump, 

pump, pup. 
mumble, bubble, bumble, 
mummy, puppy, 
mump, bomb, bump, mum, 

pump, pup. 
mumps, pumps, 
munch, bunch, punch, 
munion, bunion, 
muscle, bustle, mussel, muzzle, 

muse, mews, pews, 
mush, budge, much, 
music, musing, 
musing, music, 
muss, buss, buzz, pus. 
mussel, bustle, muscle, muzzle, 

must, bust. 

mustard, bustard, mustered, 
mustered, bustard, mustard, 
mute, boot, moot, 
mutter, butter, 
mutton, button, 
muzzle, bustle, muscle, mussel, 

my, buy, by, pi, pie. 
myth, pith. 


nag, knack, lack, lag, lank, 
nail, dale, tail, tale, 
nake, lake, take, 
name, lame, nape, 
nap, lamb, lamp, lap. 
nape, lame, name, 
napkin, lambkin, 
naught, gnawed. 

nautch, dodge, lodge, notch. 

nay, lay, neigh. 

neap, leap. 

near, leer. 

neat, knead, lead, lean, need. 

neck, deck, leg. 

nee, knee, lea, lee. 

need, knead, lead, lean, neat. 

ne'er, liar, layer. 

neigh, lay, nay. 

neighbor, labour. 

nerve, turf. 

nest, lest, test. 

net, lead, led, lend, lent, let. 

nether, leather, tether. 

new, gnu, knew, lieu. 

newel, duel. 

news, loose, lose, noose. 

newt, lewd, loot, lute, noon, 

next, text. 

nibble, nimble, nipple, 
nice, lice, lies, 
niche, lynch, 
nick, lick, ling, link, 
nickle, tickle, tingle, tinkle, 
niece, knees, lease, 
nigh, lie, lye. 
njggar, linger, liquor, 
night, knight, lied, light, lined, 
nimble, nibble, nipple, 
nine, line, 
ninth, lithe, tithe, 
nip, limb, limp, lip. 
nipper, limber, 
nipple, nibble, nimble, 
nob, knob, knop, lop. 
nod, knot, lot, not. 
noise, toys, 
nog, log, long, 
nominate, dominate, 
none, nun, nut. 
noodle, doodle, 
noon, lewd, loot, lute, newt, 



The Association Review, 

noose, loose, lose, news. 

nose, knows. 

not, knot, lot, nod. 

notch, dodge, lodge, nautch. 

note, known, load, loan, lode, 

noun, knout, loud, lout, 
nude, lewd, loot, lute, newt, 

nudge, lunch, lunge, 
null, dull, lull, 
numb, lub, lump, 
number, lubber, lumber, 
nun, none, nut. 
nurse, terse, 
nut, none, nun. 
nuzzle, tussel. 


O, ho, hoe, oh, owe. 

oaks, hoax. 

oar, hoar, o'er, ore, whore. 

oared, hoard, horde. 

oars, hoarse. 

oat, hone, ode, owed, own. 

odd, hod, hot. 

ode, hone, oat, owed, owned. 

off, huff. 

oh, O, ho, hoe, owe. 

old, hold, holed. 

omen, open. 

once, ones, was. 

one, won, wont. 

ones, once, was. 

ooze, hews, hues, whose. 

ope, home, hope. 

open, omen, 

ore, hoar, oar, o'er, whore. 

osier, hosier. 

otter, hotter. 

ought, aught, awed. 

ounce, house. 

our, hour. 

oust, housed. 

out, hound. 

out-bound, out-bowed, 
out-bowed, out-bound, 
out-cast, out-caste, 
out-caste, out-cast, 
out-side, out-sight, 
over-bowed, over-mount, 
over-do, over-due. 
over-due, over-do. 
over-dye, over-lie. 
over-lie, over-dye. 
over-mount, over-bowed, 
over-sea, over-see. 
over-see, over-sea. 
over-time, over-type, 
over-type, over-time, 
owe, ho, hoe, O, oh. 
owes, hoes, hose, 
owl, howl, 
owlet, howlet. 
own. hone, oat, ode, owed. 


pa, bah, ma. 

pace, baize, base, bass, bays, 

mace, maize, maze, pays. 
pack, back, bag, bang, bank, 

package, baggage, 
packed, pact, 
pact, packed, 
pad, bad, bade, bat, mad, mat, 

paddle, battle, 
paddock, mattock, 
paid, bait, bate, bayed, made, 

maid, mate, pate, 
pail, bail, bale, mail, male, pale. 
pain, bane, main, mane, pane, 
pained, paint, 
pains, panes, 
paint, pained, 
pair, bare, bear, mare, pare, 


My List of Homophenous Wards. 



>allot, mallet, palette, 

;t, pallid. 

I, bale, mail, male, pail. 

ballot, mallet, palate, 

:t, pallid. 

, bawl, mall, maul. 

ballot, mallet, palate, 

tte, pallid. 

ballot, mallet, palate, 

tte, pallet. 


, band, man. 

tie, main, mane, pain. 



ick, bag, bang, bank, 



mar, parr, 

)arge, march, marge 

d, barn, part, 
narten, martin, 
re, bear, mare, pair, 

k, barque, mark. 


bargain, market. 

, mar, par. 


irs, mars. 

i, barn, part. 

larshal. martial. 

5, mass. 

last, past. 


it, passed. 


pastor, master. 

pat, bad, bade, bat, mad, mat, 

patch, badge, batch, match, 
pate, baid, bate, made, maid, 

mate, paid, 
paternity, maternity, 
path, bath. 

patrimony, matrimony, 
patron, matron, 
patten, batten, 
pattered, pattern, 
pattern, pattered, 
pause, paws, 
paw, maw. 

pawned, bond, bought, pond, 
paws, pause, 
pay, bay, bey, may. 
pea, be, bee, me. 
peace, bees, peas, piece, 
peach, beach, beech, 
peak, beak, meek, peek, pique, 
peal, meal, peel, 
pear, bare, bear, mare, pair, 

pearl, purl. 

peas, bees, peace, piece, 
peat, bead, beat, beet, mead, 

meat, meed, meet, mete, 
peck, beck, beg, peg. 
peddle, medal, meddle, metal, 

mettle, peddle, petal, 
peek, beak, meek, peak, pique, 
peel, meal, peal, 
peep, beam. 

peer, beer, bier, mere, pier, 
peers, pierce, piers, 
peg, beck, beg, peck, 
pell, bell, belle, mell. 
pelt, belt, melt, 
pen, men. 
pence, pens, 
pendant, pennant, 
pennant, pendant, 
penned, bend, bent, meant, pent. 


The Association Review. 

penny, many. 

pens, pence. 

pension, mention. 

pent, bend, bent, meant, penned. 

pepper, member. 

perch, birch, merge, purge. 

pert, bird, burn. 

pest, best. 

pet, bed, bet, met. 

petal, medal, meddle, metal, 

mettle, pedal, peddle, 
petit, petty, 
petty, petit, 
phase, face, vase, 
phial, file, vial, vile, viol, 
phlox, flocks, flogs, 
phonograph, photograph, 
photograph, phonograph, 
phrase, frays, 
pi, buy, by, my, pie. 
pick, big, pig, mink, pink, 
pickle, mingle, 
picks, minx, mix, pix. 
piddle, middle, 
pie, buy, by, my, pi. 
piece, bees, peace, peas, 
pied, bide, bite, might, mite, 
pier, beer, bier, mere, peer, 
pierce, peers, piers, 
piers, peers, pierce, 
pies, buys, mice, 
pig, big, pick, mink, pink, 
pile, bile, mile, 
piled, mild, 
piles, miles, 
pill, bill, mill, 
pillet, billet, millet, 
pillion, billion, million, 
pillow, billow, minnow, 
pimp, bib, pip. 
pin, been, bin. 
pinch, bitch, midge, pitch, 
pine, bine, mine, 
pink, big, pick, mink, pig. 
pinned, mint. 

pins^ mince. 

pint, bind, mind. 

pip, bib, pimp. 

pique, beak, meek, peak, peek. 

pistil, missal, missile, mistle, 

pistol, missal, missile, mistle, 

pit, bid, bit, mid, mitt, 
pitch, bitch, midge, pinch, 
pith, mjrth. 
pitied, pitted, 
pitted, pitied, 
nix, minx, mix, picks, 
place, blaze, plays, 
plaid, bland, plait, plan, plant, 

plain, blade, plane, plate, played, 
plait, bland, plaid, plan, plant, 

plan, bland, plaid, plait, plant, 

plane, blade, plain, plate, played. 
plank, black, blank, plaque, 
plant, bland, plaid, plait, plan, 

plaque, plank, black, blank, 
plat, bland, plaid, plait, plan, 

plate, blade, plain, plane, played, 
platter, bladder. 

played, blade, plain, plane, plate. 
plays, blaze, place, 
pleas, please, 
pleasant, blessed, 
plead, bleat, bleed, pleat, 
please, pleas, 
pleat, bleat, bleed, plead, 
pledge, blench, 
plied, blight, blind, plight, 
plight, blight, blind, plied. 
plod, blot, plot. 
plot, blot, plod, 
plows, blouse, 
poodle, boodle 

My List of Hamophenous Words. 


pool, mewl, mule. 

poop, boom. 

poor, boor, moor. 

pore, boar, bore, more, pour. 

pop, bob, mob, mop. 

pope, mope. 

poppy, moppy. 

port, porte. 

porte, port. 

porter, boarder, mourner. 

post, boast, most. 

pot, pod. 

potion, motion. 

pound, bound, bout, bowed, 

mound, mount, pout, 
pouter, powder, 
pour, boar, bore, more, pore, 
pout, bound, bout, bowed, 

mound, mount, pound, 
jxjuter, powder, 
powder, pouter, 
power, bower, 
pow-wow, bow-wow. 
pox, box. 

praise, brace, brays, braze, prays, 
prank, brag, 
prate, braid, brain, brayed, 

pray, bray, prey, 
prayed, braid, brain, brayed, 

prays, brace, brays, braze, praise, 
preach, breach, 
presedent, president, 
president, presedent. 
prevent, brevet, 
prey, bray, pray, 
price, pries, prize, 
prick, brick, brig, bring, brink, 

prig, prink, 
pries, price, prize, 
prig, brick, brig, bring, brink, 

prick, prink, 
prim, brim, 
prime, bribe. 

principal, principle. 

principle, principal. 

prink, brick, brig, bring, brink, 

prick, prig, 
prize, price, pries, 
profit, prophet, 
prog, prong, 
prompt, propped, 
prong, prog, 
prounounce, pronouns, 
pronouns, pronounce, 
prophet, profit, 
propped, prompt, 
proud, browed, brown, prowl, 
prowl, browed, brown, proud, 
prude, brewed, brood, bruit, 

brute, prune, 
prune, brewed, brood, bruit, 

brute, prude, 
psalter, Salter, 
pshaw, chaw, jaw. 
puddle, bundle, muddle, 
puff, buff, muff, 
pug, buck, bug, bung, bunk, 

monk, muck, mug, punk, 
pull, bull, 
pullet, bullet, 
pump, bomb, bump, mum, 

mump, pup. 
pumps, mumps. 

pun, bud, bun, but, butt, mud. 
punch, bunch, munch, 
punk, buck, bug, bung, bunk, 

monk, muck, mug, pug. 
pup, bump, mum, mumm,mump, 


puppy, mummy. 

pure, mure. 

purge, birch, merge, perch. 

purl, perl. 

purrs, burrs, purse. 

purse, purrs, burrs. 

puss, bus, buzz, muss. 

putty, money, muddy. 

puzzle, bustle, muscle. 






Plato said: "The study of Arithmetic is chiefly valuable 
for the wonderful effect it produces upon the thinking instru- 
ment." It certainly furnishes a wide field for mental activity. 
It lends itself readily to illustration, which is especially valuable 
to those whom nature has destined to absorb knowledge chiefly 
by way of the eyes. 

Much of the value of arithmetical training, however, lies in 
properly presenting the subject. There is little mental training 
involved in teaching arithmetic by rule, as in that case pupils are 
satisfied in achieving results without properly understanding the 
subject. Rules are readily forgotten; and having taken the 
place of proper mental training in the first place, to what extent 
is a child benefited by his mathematical course if taught by that 
method? Rules should follow as a result of experience, but 
should not be taught by the teacher. 

The rule for finding the area of a circle is to multiply the 
square of the radius by the decimal 3.1416. I was taught this 
rule when a boy, always referred to it when doing problems in 
circular measurement, and also forgot it from year to year, 
because it had no meaning except as a means of achieving a 
result. The same result will be produced in teaching the deaf 
in that manner; their minds are constituted like our own. They 
forget readily what they do not comprehend. 

The deaf, however, prefer to do their arithmetic by rule and 
from memory. They have an aversion to the reasoning 
process ; if they can come by the result in another way, they will 
do it. The mind activity involved in learning language and 

Methods in ArithmeHc. 133 

speech in the early stages of their school life is largely that of 
memory, observation, and imitation. They learn to do things 
by doing them — rather a low form of mental activity, but a 
necessary one at that stage. Doing things right because you 
understand what you are doing, is an infinitely higher form of 
mental activity, which should replace the other as the child 
grows older. 

The children need to learn arithmetic by doing problems; 
but, if they do not have a proper conception of the units they are 
using in their arithmetical work, they will soon be enveloped in 
an intellectual mist. I remember a girl who once found how 
many acres in a field of given dimensions. Upon being ques- 
tioned as to the size of an acre, she marked out the dimensions 
with her hands; it was about 12 inches long and 6 inches wide. 
We go out on the campus and measure an acre for the benefit 
of each class, but we are also careful to add that an acre may 
have any shape. Repetition is not the cure for all vagueness. 
Pupils can easily learn to do things right without understanding 
them. We must turn to the unit again and again. We must 
picture or bring actual relations into view. To tell a child that 
he should have multiplied instead of divided, without further 
explanation, is a grievous pedagogical error; because it puts the 
child in the right way of doing a problem without his under- 
standing better than he did before you told him what to do; and 
of all pupils whom it is hard to tie down to facts, the most hope- 
less case is the one who knows how to do something and yet 
does not understand what he is doing. He thinks he knows 
how, and all the teacher's explanations fall upon his mind like 
water on a duck's back. 

Now, it is evident that much work must be done by way of 
illustration and objects if we wish to get pupils to the higher 
grade of mental activity — to do things right because they 
understand what they are doing; for the mind persists in follow- 
ing the old rut of learning to do by doing. The latter method is 
the only one to be followed with feeble-minded children; but, if 
a child has an average amount of intuitive knowledge, we do 
him harm by not appealing to his understanding at every 

134 The Association Review. 

After a child understands the four fundamental operations, 
he is in control of useful information, if he knows how to apply 
it. A child may be able to do the operations with facility and 
yet fail ignominiously in a simple test involving a little 
"common sense/* because he fails to grasp the relations of 
things. Our chief work is in so picturing conditions that pupils 
apprehend the relations we wish them to perceive. 

In attempting the solution of a problem, the child's mind 
works somewhat in this order — "Shall I add or subtract, multi- 
ply or divide? " Unless he understands the relations involved 
in the problem, he will be largely influenced in his action by the 
size of the numbers, by a word or two in the problem, by a faint 
recollection as to how a former problem bearing some resem- 
blance to the one in question, was done; these and other 
considerations determine the action of the child and, of course, 
often lead to ridiculous results. 

Reasoning consists in making comparisons. If we wish to 
get children to reason, we must get them to compare things. 
We compare things by subjecting them to a measure. Why is 
it that arithmeticians have chosen dollars, cents, yards, feet, 
inches, miles, acres, pounds, etc., to talk about? Why do they 
not talk about the latest fad, or some other subject more inter- 
esting? Because they want to develop the reasoning faculty 
through these units of measure. 

After the pupils have become thoroughly familiar with a 
measure, it may be withdrawn. The presence of the unit of 
measure does not assist the reasoning process. Of course, if 
the power of thinking is low, instruction must linger longer in 
the concrete. We will do well, however, to remember that we 
rca^iOn with ideas and not with objects. 

If ideas become less distinct as time passes we should 
develop them again in the same way as we did before, thus 
deepening the impression. Some children grasp an idea once 
for all; others forget, and must be frequently reminded. The 
teacher is not responsible for these traits of character. They 
may have been forming a hundred years ago. He works with 
such material as he has, and will be unable to produce like re- 
sults. Tt is -> ^o-i!^on error when confronted by the poor work 

Methods in Arithmetic. i35 

of a pupil to infer that the pupil was not sufficiently well ground- 
ed in concrete work. In many cases the mind has not responded 
in a degree commensurate with the training given, and would 
not have succeeded well under any method. The world with all 
its objects has been before the human race for thousands of 
years without very much developing the reasoning faculty of 

Mental training does not consist in looking at objects, but 
in making comparisons. The chief work of a teacher in 
arithmetic is to place the subject matter in such a light as to 
make it easy for dull children to draw conclusions. His work 
is to lead his pupils in the path of least resistance and thereby 
stimulate the reasoning faculty to activity. 

To illustrate how a train of ideas may be set in motion, so 
as to end in useful knowledge and in the training of the under- 
standing, let us lay bare the significance of the decimal 3.1416 as 
it applies in circular measure. 


Before attempting the study of the circle, children should 
be familiar with the rectangular and triangular measurements. 
The areas of triangles and rectangles should be mapped out 
so that the children can readily perceive the operations neces- 
sary to find the number of units of measure. 

In taking up the study of the circle, pupils should be taught 
that the curved line is the circumference, and that the plane 
enclosed by it is the circle. Many people think of the curved 
line as the circle. The diameter is a straight line passing through 
the center with both ends terminating in the circumference. The 
radius is the distance from the center to the circumference. 
After the pupils are familiar with these terms and can pronounce 
or spell them correctly, we ask which is longer, the diameter or 
the circumference. The pupils perceive that the circumference 
is longer than the diameter, and answer accordingly. The next 
step is to determine how many times as long as the diameter the 
circumference is. Measure accurately the diameter of a cylinder, 
and likewise measure accurately its circumference with a tape. 
It will be found, by dividing the length of the circumference by 


The Association Review. 

the length of the diameter, that the former is about 3.1416 times 
the latter. It is then in order to give problems involving this 
fact. State no rule for finding the circumference; that would 
not further explain matters. 

Having done with linear measure, we then proceed to find 
the area of the circle in square inches. By drawing a circle with 

Fig. I. 































































^ . 










^ K 





















































^w //JJt^^J^J^ 

two perpendicular diameters, and chords, an inch apart, parallel 
to these diameters, we have the circle mapped out in square 
inches and parts of squares, as is seen in Figure I. 

The pupil, in looking at Figure I, sees the difficulty in ascer- 
taining the number of square inches, because of the parts of 

Methods in Arithmetic. 


squares adjacent to the circumference. We find that there are 
approximately 96 whole squares in the circle. By combining 
the parts along a 90 degree arc, we find that there, are over 4 
squares; or, along the entire circumference, the sum of the 

Fig. II. 

J: Jg 

parts would be about 17 square inches. So the area of the 
circle would be approximately 96+17^113 square inches. 

The object in presenting this figure is to arouse interest 
and to show the difficulties presented by the problem. We would 

138 The Association Review. 

not have sufficient time to map out every circle of which we 
wished to find the area; and, at best, we could not find the exact 
area by this method. 

Now, my own experience has been that the pupils are deeply 
interested in finding out a way of coming by the result; and 
when you tell them that you will teach them a way, their minds 
are in a receptive state for the information. So the object for 
which you have striven in introducing Figure I has been 

In introducing Figure II, we show the children that it is a 
circle of the same size as the one in the first figure, inscribed in 
a square. The two perpendicular diameters and the sides of the 
square are drawn heavy, thus bringing into relief four squares 
having the length of a radius as the length of each side. The 
area of one of these squares is 36 square inches or R >- R. 

We now ask the children if th6 four squares are entirely 
in the circle. They readily see that a part of each square lies 
without the circle. The next question is: *'Do you think there 
are over three squares in the circle?" A majority think there 
are. You then explain to the pupils that if all the parts lying 
outside of the circle can be subtracted from one square and there 
is space left in that square, there must be an area of over three 
squares in the circle. We select the square O G C E from which 
to make the subtractions. 

By placing one leg of the dividers on point C, with a radius 
equal to the radius of the circle, we inscribe the arc E F G, which 
is equal to the arc H M G. The space lying beyond the arc 
E F G in the lower square is exactly equal to the space lying 
without the circle in the square above it. Now, it remains to 
be seen if we can subtract the two other parts lying within the 
circle from the space between the two arcs in the square O G 
C E. We mark spaces between the two arcs with numbers, the 
same as we mark approximately equal spaces in the comers 
lying without the circle. Where two or more spaces without 
the circle bear the same number, their sum is considered equal to 
a space bearing the same number between the two arcs in the 
square from which we are making the subtractions. After care- 
fully making all these subtractions, there will be about five and 

Methods in Arithmetic. 139 

three thirty-second ( 5^^)squares left. There are 36 square inches 
in a square. One square inch ^^V ot a square; 5^^ squares 
=W >^A^= iWrof a square, or .1415- of a square; or if meas- 
ured more accurately in a larger circle, it will be about .1416 
of a square; which added to the other 3 squares makes 3.1416 
squares in a circle, each square having the length of R as the 
length of each side. 

Now, I know that the reader will say this is hard for the 
average deaf pupil to understand; it would be, if he were obliged 
to dig out the meaning of the language in which the explana- 
tion is here set forth; but the deaf child sees the explanation in 
the figure. You simply point to the equal parts, and show him 
what is left in the one square after you have subtracted all the 
parts lying within the circle. This explanation is only given to 
children who have studied decimals. It has given me great 
satisfaction because it has given the pupils great pleasure. They 
understand it and are eager to do problems involving a knowl- 
edge of circular measure. We immediately introduce the 
cylinder, showing that the base of a cylinder is a circle, and that 
on each square inch of this circle may be placed as many cubic 
inches as the cylinder is inches high. If a cylinder is 16 inches 
high, there will be 16 cubic inches on each square inch. Pile up 
the cubic inches of wood, so that the children apprehend the 
reality of things. This kind of work I regard of transcendent 
importance in its effect on dull minds. 





VowKLS — Front Scale. 

E LONG. [f] 

Chart Spellings : ee, -e, ea, e-e. See examples. 

Formation : — Voice moulded by passage through the closest 
possible vowel aperture over the front of the tongue. 

Quantity : Long. 

Examples: see, w^, m^at, these. 

Professor Bell says that in the formation of this souud '*the 
tongue rises convexly within the arch of the palate, and presses 
laterally against the palate and back teeth, leaving only a very 
narrow aperture for the voice, between the middle of the tongue 
and the palate.'' Guttmann describes the position for this sound 
as **mouth widest, tongue very much arched ; with its tip press- 
ing against the lower inner surface of the lower incisors ; larynx 
carried farthest upward.'* 

Method of Development:—!. Imitation. Vibration may be 
felt in the larynx; on the chin; under the chin; also on the top of 
the head. II. By contrast with ah. III. From th vocal. Draw 
the point of the tongue forcibly back from the position for M, its 
sides being held against the upper side teeth. The action in this 
case will be most distinctly felt under the chin. IV. From s ox z 
in the same way as from th, V. By manipulation from th vocal 
or 2. 

/short, [f] 

Chart Spelling: -i- 

Formation : — Aperture over the front of the tongue slightly 
wider than for e long. 

Elementary English Sounds. 141 

Quantity : — Short. 

Ex.: p/n. 

Method of Development: — By contrast with e, attention being 
directed chiefly to difference in quantity, but also to the difference 
in position. The relative length of sounds may be taught by at- 
tracting the pupils' attention to the period of vibration of each in 
the throat. These may be presented by lines on the wall slate or 
by directive gestures. In contrasting e and I it is sometimes well 
to make the pupil aware of the expansion of the pharynx by plac- 
ing the hand on the teacher's throat when I is given. 

A 1.0NG. [Or] 

Chart Spellings: a-e ai, ay. 

Formation: — The first or radical part of this sound results 
from a position of the front of the tongue a little lower than that 
for I. The second part of this sound, which is a glide or vanish, 
is the vowel e. 

Quantity : — This sound is diphthongal, the long radical part 
being placed first and the short glide last. 

Ex,: cake, hail, say. 

Method of Development : — I. By contrast with i. II. The at- 
tempt to combine d and e, will often produce the desired sound. 


Chart spelling : -e-, — y, ea. 

Formation : — General position the same as that for the radical 
part of d but with a slightly wider aperture. 

Quantity : — Short. 

Ex. r^d, cand^y, br^ad. 

Method of Development : — I. By shortening the radical part of 
a. II. By contrast with a. III. By running down the scale from 
e until this position is reached : — I, f , (JT, I. 


Chart Spelling ; -a- 

Formaiiort : — General position the same as that for^, but with 
slightly wider aperture. This is the lowest position in the front 
vowel scale. 

142 The Association Review, 

Professor Bell says that '*the enlargement of the formative 
aperture is caused by the depression of the middle of the tofigue 

Quantity: — Short . 

Ex.: cat. 

Method of Development>-\, By contrast with ah, II. By run- 
ning down the scale from e until this position is reached ; — I, T, 
Or, I, L. III. By widening the position for i. 




In the February issue of Tne Association Review, several 
dont's were contributed. The following are sent for the present 

Don't try to teach the position for any of the point of tongue 
consonants until the "second position" has been mastered. 

Don't allow the pupil to place his hand upon the chin of 
the teacher nor upon his own chin to feel the vibration of the 

Don't blow nor puff out breath for final p. 

Don't call the attention of the pupil to the vibration of the 
voice in the lips while giving the sound of m. 

Don't allow the slightest pressure of the lips when giving 
the sound of w. 

Don't attract the attention of the pupil to the nose for the 
vibration of the voice in giving the sound of w, n, and ng. 

Editorial Note — The following extract from a private let- 
ter received from an experienced and successful teacher of the 
deaf emphatically re-enforces Mrs. Monro's admonition "Don't 
allow a pupil to feel the vibration of the voice in the throat," 
published in the February issue of the Review: 

"I am so glad Mrs. Sarah Jordan Monro said what she did 
in the last Review about touching the larynx, for I have been 
convinced^ ever since I studied vocal culture, that this practice 
resorted to by many articulation teachers, is the chief cause of 
constriction among the deaf. I think every articulation teacher 
should take a course under an expert vocal teacher. I have 
learned far more of the mechanism of speech from such instruc- 
tors than I ever did from teachers of the deaf." 


American Annals of the Deaf, Washington, D. C, March, 

"An Inquiry into the Relative Value to the Deaf of Speech 
and Speech Reading" is the title of an interesting article by Mr. 
Paul Lange, of Delavan, Wisconsin. Of sixty-four deaf persons, 
all of whom can speak and read the lips to a greater or less ex- 
tent, whose opinions on this question were asked by Mr. 
Lange, forty-three think speech the more valuable, eight give 
the preference to speech-reading, and thirteen consider the two 
accomplishments of equal value. 

"A Clear Voice from Across the Sea" is a review by Miss 
Sarah Harvey Porter, of Washington, D. C, of Mr. F. Werner's 
pamphlet "The German Method, and the Classification of Deaf- 
mutes according to Natural Ability, with a Plan of Divsion for 
the Province of Hanover." Miss Porter is always an entertain- 
ing writer and what she has to say in this article will be read 
with interest and profit by people who may disagree most 
radically with her views on oral instruction. There are, un- 
questionably, points of weakness in the oral method as in every 
device of man for repairing the defects of nature, and its best 
friends are not those who ignore them and resent having them 
pointed out, but those who welcome criticism and seek to find 
therein all that may be of profit to their work and to their pupils. 
We regret there is not space to review the article at length: we 
should like to present to our readers some of the many suggestive 
things it contains, and also to point out to the writer that she 
is, in places, quite as illogical as she would make Mr. Werner 
out to be. For instance, referring to some statistical tables in 
the pamphlet under review, she makes the familiar quotation, 
"Falsehood may be classed, progressively according to its 

Reviews. 145 

iniquity, under three headings, lies, damned lies, and statistics," 
and straightway refers us for a refutation of the tables to some 
statistics in the Annals. 

Other contents of this number are: "The Importance of 
Early Training for the Deaf-Blind," by K M. Barrett, of Austin, 
Texas; "A Petition to the King," from the deaf of Great 
Britain, asking that the combined method be used in the schools 
of that country; "Recent German Publications," a review by 
John Heidsiek; "The Second Round Table of Wisconsin 
Teachers," by Paul Lange, of Delavan, Wis.; "Exhibits of 
American Schools for the Deaf and Blind at the Universal Ex- 
position, 1904;" Poetry; School Notes and Miscellaneous. 

AVestern Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb, at Edge wood Park, Pa. — Report for the years end- 
ing September 30, 1901, and September 30, 1902. 

The building destroyed by fire in 1899 has been replaced by 
three buildings, an administration hall and separate residences 
for the girls and the boys, all connected by corridors. The 
school is now in good working order, but it has been necessary 
to incur a debt of $100,000, which it is hoped the state legisla- 
ture and the contributions of the charitable will soon enable the 
corporation to discharge. While imposing great burdens upon 
the directors and the principal of the institution, the fire has 
been to the advantage of the deaf children of the western part of 
Pennsylvania in that it has made possible the inauguration of 
numerous improvements in the housing and instruction of 
pupils. The following, from the report of Mr. Burt, the princi- 
pal, is of special interest : 

"As we are now able to carry out the long cherished plan 
of separating the little children from the larger and at the same 
time of establishing an oral department where the oral method 
shall be pursued both in school and out, a brief outline of our 
proposed plan may be acceptable. The Executive Committee 
authorized me to admit children, who are well developed 
physically and mentally, at six years of age. This is two years 
younger than we have admitted them heretofore. It is thought 
by many teachers that oral training may be profitably under- 

146 The Association Review. 

taken at this age though doubtless the gain is at the Facrifice of 
home training and a mother's care which children of ihat age 
should have. To make this loss as little felt as possible special 
attendants will be provided to look after the little ones at play, 
at their meals and at night. The usual school exercises will be 
required, but they wall be somewhat modified to suit the age of 
scholars, and will be supplemented by kindergarten work and 
games. They will occupy play grounds apart from the older 
pupils, and every encouragement will be given to maVe them 
use spoken language at all times. They will be in charge of 
teachers and supervisors who are wholly ignorant of conven- 
'tional signs. This special training will cover a period of two 
years and at the end of that time may be contiviued longer if the 
results justify such continuance. It is sincerely hoped that the 
earlier admission will not curtail the latter end of the school 
course, but rather will lengthen it so that abundant opportunity 
may be given to all the boys to learn a trade and to the girls to 
learn cooking and general housework under a competent 

The Teacher of the Deaf, Published under the auspices of a 
Committee of the National Association of Teachers of the 
Deaf, Great Britain. Vol. I, No. i. 

We congratulate the teachers of the Deaf of Great Britain 
upon at last having an official organ, and upon the character of 
the first number of the periodical. It is edited by Susanna E. 
Hull, of Bexley, Kent, and Arthur J. Story, of The Mount, 
Stoke-on-Trent, and its purposes are to record the work of the 
r\ssociation, serve as a medium for the discussion of educational 
subjects, elevate the standard of requirements in teachers, and 
disseminate a knowledge of the work among the general public. 
Mr. Richard Elliott, in "A Few Words of Welcome to our New 
Organ," points to the American Annals o( the Deaf as an illus- 
tration of what it may hope to accomplish. 

"Registration," one of the articles in the number, discusses 
a subject that is attracting much attention in the Kingdom. 
The government requirement necessitates no training in the 
education of the Deaf, but is the same as for primary teachers of 
normal children. It was decided at a late meeting of the Asso- 
ciation that the three bodies that issue special certificates of 

Reviews. i47 

Qualification to teachers of the Deaf— The Training College at 
Fitzroy Square, the Training College at Ealing, and the College 
of Teachers, London — should appoint a joint Board of Exam- 
iners to issue certificates, and the hope is expressed that such 
licenses to teach will be accepted by the Board of Education as 
equivalent to its own. The matter is now in the hands of the 
three training colleges referred to, and if they agree to the plan 
it will probably solve a very puzzling question and, incidentally, 
promote uniformity of methods and results. 

"For the Defence" is a well written and well argued de- 
fence of the oral method by Mr. J. A. Weaver of Halifax, Nova 
Scotia. He claims that if the results in intellectual development 
of the pupil by this method are unsatisfactory it is due not to 
teaching by speech, but to incompetent teachers and to the 
ignoring of educational principals. If instructors will recognize 
and act upon the fact that speech is an educational means, and 
not the end, and will employ it to develop the reasoning powers 
and train the child to the intuitive acquisition of knowledge, the 
method will be found sufficient for impartmg a good education. 

The final statement of the Bessant Memorial Fund shows 
that £88 i6s was collected, of which £15 was expended in the 
erection of a memorial tablet in the Manchester Schools and 
the balance was presented to Mrs. Bessant. 

Other contents are "Home and Foreign Notes," "The 
Arnold Library," "Our Study Table" (book reviews), "School 
News," "Notes from the School Room," and reports of meetings 
of the National Association and its branches. 

Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the 
Blind, Seventy-first annual report. ' 

This report contains the usual large amount of interesting 
reading regarding the excellent institution in South Boston, and 
its pupils. The feature of most interest to teachers of the deaf 
is the account of the progress made by the deaf-blind children 
and the recital of the processes employed in their education. 
The rapid advancement of all these pupils and their ultimate 

148 The Association Review. 

high attainments in knowledge, intelligence, and the power of 
expression should dispose of the idea that their successful in- 
struction is dependent upon exceptional natural ability, and a 
study of the methods by which such results are obtained, should 
lead to improvements in the teaching of other children. Does 
the fact that our pupils are not blind as well as deaf constitute a 
sufficient excuse for the inferiority of their composition exercises 
when compared with those of Elizabeth Robin, Thomas Stringer, 
and others, specimens of whose work are given in this report? 
With the deaf-blind, conditions are such as to compel in the pro- 
cesses of their education mental development in the highest 
degree and of the highest quality. They must form clear and 
definite mental images, must reflect, compare, reason, deduce, 
with the intermediation of few material objects, so all the mental 
faculties are being constantly exercised. With the deaf, there 
is choice of an easier and apparently more effective method of 
teaching by objects, models, pictures, maps, and apparatus ap- 
pealing to the eye, but making few demands upon the mind. 
Does not the difference in results suggest that there is too much 
of this objective teaching and that it would be well to compel 
our children to depend more upon insight and less upon visual 
images? Language is itself an abstraction and it is but natural 
that a mind trained to abstract thinking should rapidly acquire 
proper forms of expression. 

Clarke School for the Deaf, at Northampton, Mass., Thirty- 
fifth annual report. 

Mr. Franklin Carter, President of the corporation, in his 
report to the Board of Education, refers to the great difficulties 
in the way of teaching deaf children to speak, and of teaching 
them through speech, and emphasizes the importance of provid- 
ing the school with every facility for attaining the best results. 
In this connection he speaks of the need for a school building 
which shall contain, in addition to class rooms, an assembly hall 
and a museum "with models of flowers and birds and the physical 
features of the different countries, and other natural objects, 

Reviews. 149 

and especially apparatus illustrating the progress of civilization." 
He reiterates the plea made in last year's report for a compulsory 
education law that will compel parents of deaf children to avail 
themselves of the provisions made by the schools of the state, 
or if the manual method is preferred, of some school teaching 
by that method, as, for instance, the Hartford school, of whose 
work he speaks in the highest terms. 

Referring to the educational improvements made in the year, 
Miss Yale speaks of the advance made in the teaching of ele- 
mentary science, or nature work, preparatory to instruction in 
geography. Regarding the young men, graduates of the school, 
who last June completed the course at Harvard University (See 
The Review of October, 1902), she says: 

**That these young men won their degree by fair work and 
not by *the sympathy of the instructors' must be evident when 
i\ is remembered that the entrance examination papers bear no 
names and are examined by professors having no knowledge of 
the individual students." 

Illinois Institution for the Education of the Deaf and 
Dumb, at Jacksonville, 111. Thirty-first biennial report. 

This school had an enrollment during the year ending June 
30, 1902, of 558 pupils. Superintendent Joseph C. Gordon 
specifies the following as additional buildings needed to complete 
the material equipment of the school: an isolation hospital; 
a school, studio and library building; and a cottage for teaching 

Regarding the oral work, he says : 

"We have not yet succeeded in giving to our pupils facility 
in spoken English to the degree which we believe is attainable. 
To accomplish better results our classes should be smaller, the 
instruction in many cases should be more thorough, the drill 
upon phonetic elements more frequent, and practice in speak- 
ing short sentences intelligibly, more persistent. We are glad 
to note an improvement in the quality of the speech from year 
to year, and are confident that the skill, zeal and enthusiasm of 


150 The Association Review. 

our teachers will continue to produce better and better results 

as time ^oes on. 

"However imperfect the speech of the deaf may be as a means 
of communication with the outside world, the discipline and the 
knowledge gained in acquiring this speech, and the kind, quality 
and degree of mental development thus acquired, have an in- 
calculable value in fitting the deaf-mute to master alphabetic- 
language and to feel, think and act as an educated human being. 
A deaf-mute may be educated without speech but in this cky 
and age of the world such a one going forth from our schools 
is an anomaly, and he will always carry the marks of an imperfect 

Alabama School for the Deaf at Talladega. — Biennial Re- 
port, 1902. 

Like many others, this school is outgrowing its accom- 
r.:odations, and Mr. Johnson calls attention to the necessity for 
an a])i)ropriation for the erection of a new dormitory building. 
'ilic legislature is also asked to amend the law regulating the 
term of attendance so as to permit the principal to extend it 
from ten to fourteen years when circumstances make it advis- 
able. This recommendation, he says, is based upon the follow- 
ing grounds: 

"As our school has increased in efficiency the gratifying 
result has followed that many of the pupils manifest a much 
more lively appreciation than ever of what the state is doing for 
them, and are more anxious to perfect themselves in their 
studies and in the various departments of handicraft. The facts 
are at present that in order to better enable us to mold the 
character and train the thoughts and habits of our pupils it is 
necessary to receive them at an early age. And in the develop- 
ment of speech, and in instruction in the art of lip-reading it 
is necessary to the best results that we receive our pupils when 
they are young. A child coming to us at seven years of age, is 
with us from five t« seven years, until he is twelve or fourteen 
years old before we can begin his training in any of the depart- 
ments of handicraft. He then has only three terms in which to 
acquire a knowledge of one or more of the branches in our in- 
dustrial department." 

Reviews, 151 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung [Journal of deaf-mute 
Education] No. 23 and 24, Berlin, December i and 15, 1902, 
and i6th year, Nos. i and 2, Berlin, January i and 15, 1903. 

"The Deaf-mute Institution at Paris a Hundred Years Ago/' 
by W. Weise. In the year 1802 the well-known German philan- 
thropist and author, J. H. Campe, undertook a journey to Eng- 
land and France, partly for study and partly for recreation. The 
interesting description of his journey has gone through many 
editions, and is even now read with pleasure. What interests 
us most is a visit Mr. Campe paid to the Paris institution for the 
deaf, whose director at the time was Mr. Sicard. In view of the 
recent development of deaf-mute instruction in France, it may 
be interesting to give a brief extract from Mr. Campe's book, 
showing how things were managed a hundred years ago. By 
special invitation from Sicard, Campe paid a visit to the institu- 
tion on the 15th of August, 1802. We reproduce his own de- 

"What principally distinguishes this institution from sim- 
ilar ones in Germany is: first, that Mr. Sicard imparts his in- 
struction in a thoroughly scientific manner, and treats his pupils 
to so many transcendental subjects, that it looks as if it was his 
intention to produce nothing but philosophers; second, that, like 
his predecessor, the famous Abbe de TEpee, he entirely renoun- 
ces the idea of teaching the deaf to speak, and confines his efforts 
to enabling the deaf to make themselves understood by a lan- 
guage of signs or by correct and rapid writing; third, that he 
teaches his pupils a two fold language of signs, one of which I 
would call the natural and the other the artificial. The former 
consists in expressions of the face, gestures and movements 
w^hich have some natural reference to the ideas to be repre- 
sented; whilst the latter consists in writing in the air with the 
finger. At his request the visitors, of whom there were quite a 
number, put questions which might have puzzled any other 
person, e. g., how he managed to give his pupils some idea of 
the gender of words. 

To solve this problem he began to express the idea of man 
by signs indicating strength, and of woman by signs of weakness. 
To show that he had understood, a deaf-mute immediately wrote 

152 The Association Review, ' ' 

the words "man" and "woman" on the blackboard; and then in 
jocose manner showed by signs that his teacher could have indi- 
cated these ideas still better, and to show what he meant made 
such a sour, sullen and somber face (man) that some of the 
spectators got scared, and then such an indescribably sweet 
and smiling face (woman) that the ladies who were present broke 
out into loud applause. Thereupon Mr. Sicard by very simple 
and easily understood signs indicated that the next point was not 
the idea of *man' and *woman' but the general ideas underlying 
the same; and the deaf-mute wrote on the blackboard: male and 
female; and to show that he had thoroughly understood his 
teacher, wrote the word geixder. Now, one of the visitors pro- 
pounded the question why certain words had been made of the 
male and others of the female gender. Mr. Sicard assured us 
tl at such a question had never yet, within his knowledge, been 
asked, and that he himself was curious what answer the young 
and highly intelligent deaf-mute, by the name of Massieu, would 
make. He explained the question to him by signs. For a short 
while Massieu stood wrapped in meditation. All of a sudden 
his features brightened up, his eyes sparkled and with the assur- 
ance of a man who feels that he has made an important discovery 
he said, by signs, that the character of the sound had probably 
the deciding influence, rough and harsh sounding words being 
of the male and sweet sounding words of the female gender. 
This of course would not apply in many cases; but he, as a deaf- 
mute, could see no more natural reason. He mentioned inci- 
dentally that he had been told that there were languages which 
had three genders, male, female, and neuter; which idea ap- 
peared to amuse him so much that he broke out into loud and 
long laughter." 

"First meeting of the East Prussia Association of Teachers 
of the Deaf" by G. Groh, held in October, 1902, in Konigsbcrg. 
"Explanations and Instructions for the Parents and Guardians 
of Deaf Children, for Clergymen, Municipal Authorities, and 
others who Come in Contact with the Deaf," by J. A. Wilen, 
Leksand, Sweden; easily understood hints regarding the causes, 
character and varieties of deafness, the proper way of instructing 
the deaf, etc.: Mr. Wilen is of opinion that the term "deaf-mute" 

Reviews. 153 

is utterly improper, and should in all instances be replaced by 
the word "deaf as actual muteness occurs only in the exceedingly 
rare cases of defects in the organs of speech, e, g., an enlarge- 
ment of the tongue. Parents who from a misguided feeling of af- 
fection for their children, keep them at home instead of sending 
them to a school for the deaf, are guilty of a grave neglect. 
"Review of the Development of the Education of the Deaf in 
the Province of East Prussia during the last 25 years" by W. 
Mecklenburg. "Meeting of the Association of Saxon Teachers 
of the Deaf held at Dresden in November. Owing to lack of 
space we refrain from giving details of the various meetings 
mentioned in these reviews. It may be stated, however, that,- 
at all these meetings throughout Germany and Austria, great 
eagerness was evinced by all the participants to do their utmost 
in promoting the cause to whicfc they had devoted their lives* 
best efforts, to learn from others, and in a spirit of harmony 
to pursue their high ideals. From the "Miscellaneous Com- 
munications" we gather the following: on the ist of December, 
1900 (the date of the last census) Prussia, with a total population 
of 34472,509, had 31,278 deaf, of which number only 61 1 received 
no instruction. The Norwegian Agricultural School for the 
Deaf will be opened sooner than was originally expected. 
Liberal contributions were made by private individuals, the 
Government added a sum thereto, and a farm near Sandefjord 
has been bought, two-fifths of whosd land is arable ground and 
three-fifths meadowland and forests. It is expected that the 
school will be opened in April, 1903. A short agricultural 
course has also been added to the institution in the public 
school for the Deaf at Christiania, and the last three months 
of the scholastic year are to be exclusively devoted to practical 
exercises; for the girls; cooking, washing, ironing, milking, etc., 
and for the boys: shoemaking, tailoring, carpentering, field and 
garden work. 

Numbers i and 2, January, 1903. 

"The Education of Teachers of the Deaf in the Kingdom of 
Saxony." An address delivered at the annual meeting of the 
association of Saxon teachers of the Deaf, Dresden, November 
1st, 1902, by Dr. Schumann of Leipzig. Dr. Schumann de- 

154 ^*^ Association Review. 

plores the fact that Saxony does not yet possess an institution 
for the education of teachers of the deaf, and expresses the hope 
that soon she will no longer be behind other nations, and more 
especially other states of Germany in this respect, such as 
Prussia, which has provided such a training since 1811, Bavaria 
since 1890, and Baden, since 1887. "The Life and Personal 
Book in the Institution for Deaf-mutes" by E. Lamprecht. 
Most of the German institutions for mentally weak children 
keep, at the request of the government authorities, so called 
"Life and Personal Books," which it would be well also to 
introduce in institutions for the deaf. This book gives, I, 
general data relative to: i, the physical condition of the child, 
2, its mental capacity; 3, its memory; 4, its speech — if any; 5, 
special characteristics, special proclivities. IL The results of 
the instruction in the different branches. III. Observations 
relative to the physical condition of the child whilst at school. 
A small 8 vo. book containing about ten leaves is all that would 
be needed for a personal record of a deaf person from infancy 
to youth. First: there would be general data (two leaves) giving 
name of the child, name, residence and social status of the 
parents; the cause of deafness; special occurrences and pheno- 
mena during the pregnancy of the mother; residence and food 
of the mother during this period; disturbing influences, sudden 
excitement or fright, etc., extraordinary and unnatural pheno- 
mena in the body of the child. Second; the baby age. Here 
it will be particularly difficult to make entries; most parents do 
not devote special attention to deaf babies, because in the first 
place they do not in the beginning notice that the faculty of 
hearing is lacking; and in the second place because in most 
cases they do not possess the time and intelligence to observe 
the mental and physical development of their child, and its dis- 
turbances, in its various stages. Nevertheless, this period in 
the life of a deaf child forms the most interesting period. Now 
is the time to ascertain how and when the lack of the sense of 
hearing becomes noticeable; how the other senses began to show 
themselves more lively and well defined; whether the deaf baby 
commenced later than other babies to show an interest in its 
surroundings, etc. 3. The so-called play age (2 to 6 years): 

Reviews. 155 

2 leaves; 4, the age of learning (6 1014): 2: leaves. The entries 
relative to these two periods will not offer as many difficulties 
as those under 2, as the phenomena are much more intelligible 
even for parents who do not possess much of an education. The 
difference between deaf and hearing children now becomes more 
pronounced and more distinguishable from month to month and 
year to year. Here entries should state when and where the 
deaf child began to express its thoughts by gestures, when and 
how it began to manifest its feelings of gratitude, respect and af- 
fection; whether when shown representations relating to relig- 
ion, some religious feeling showed itself, and in what manner. 
5. the age of youth (2 leaves). Among the ''Miscellaneous 
Communications" we notice a short but well written description 
of the church for the deaf in Oxford Street, London. As soon 
as the minister, Rev. T. W. Gilby, has taken his place in the 
pulpit, he presses a button, and an electric light, which cannot 
be seen by the congregation, strongly illumines his face, like a 
picture. This is necessary; for although he speaks his sermon, 
he above everything tlse makes himself understood to his 
hearers through the sign and finger language. "Report on the 
conference of Directors and teachers of institutions for the deaf 
in the Prussian Province of Saxony" held at Halle, November 
14th and 15th, 1902. Among the subjects discussed we note the 
following: "The most suitable age at which deaf children should 
be admitted to institutions." In the Province of Prussian 
Saxony children are not admitted before the completed 7th year 
and not after the completed 12th year. "Is it advisable to 
apprentice deaf children who have left school in the town where 
the school is located." "Hill on the German and the French 
method," by M. Mohnhaupt. Hill, of course, is strongly in favor 
of the German method, and says among the rest: "Viewed 
from a purely theoretical point of view, the French method may 
have some advantages over the German method, but it is a mat- 
ter of supreme indifference whether a method is only theoretical- 
ly good or bad, since the true test of the method is its practical 
application, and since it is intended to produce results for prac- 
tical life," and in another place he says: "The Germans have 
made it their object to prepare their deaf pupils as much as pos- 

156 The Association Review. 

sible for practical life, and to render them capable of an active 
intercourse with their hearing fellowmen. And any one who has 
the real welfare of the deaf at heart, and who does not close his 
eyes to the advantages of the French system, will rejoice in this 

Among the book reviews we note a reference to two large 
and artistically finished pictures published by A. Pichler, Witwe 
und Sohn, Vienna, Austria, at the cheap price of 2 kronen (about 
40 cents) each, intended as an ornament and means of instruc- 
tion for the schoolroom. The pictures are executed in color, one 
representing a cabinet maker's shop, with the foreman planing 
off a board, the journeyman sawing, and the apprentice boring a 
hole in a piece of wood, and the other showing bricklayers at 
work on the wall of a house, and laborers bringing bricks, mor- 
tar, etc. These pictures are in every sense true works of art, 
and we are glad to learn that representations of other trades 
will soon follow. 

Of the advertisements one might prove of interest to teach- 
ers of the deaf in this country as showing the average salaries 
of their German colleagues. Two teachers (either male or fe- 
male) are needed at the institution for the deaf in Buren in the 
Prussian Province of Westphalia. The places are to be filled 
by Easter, 1903, and the following salaries are offered: a male 
teacher until definitely appointed, 1500 mark ($357) after def- 
inite appointment, 1800 mark ($428) and gradually rising to 
3500 mark ($833) per annum, with an annual sum for rent vary- 
ing from 150 mark ($35.70) to 300 mark ($71.40) per annum; 
female teachers until definitely appointed, 1200 mark ($285.60), 
after definite appointment, 1500 mark ($357) gradually rising 
to 2500 mark ($595) and 150 mark ($35.70) for rent. 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan [Scandinavian Journal 
of Deaf-mute Instruction], Goteborg, Sweden, November 
12, 1902. 

F. Nordin: Report on the third annual meeting of the 
Association of Danish teachers of the deaf, held at Nyborg in 
April, 1902. J. Wallin: Report to the Swedish Ministry of 

Reviews. 1 57 

Public Instruction on his visit to various foreign institutions: 
The school at Nyborg, Denmark. This school possesses 
special interest on account of the methods which Director Forch- 
hammer tests in giving instruction to his pupils. Among these 
we mention the imitative instruction, reading in unison, sound- 
writing, the hand-alphabet, and the phonoscope. Director 
Forchhammer starts from the idea that the best and most natural 
way of teaching speech to the deaf is the same which is followed 
in teaching it to hearing children, i. e., the imitative way. The 
hearing child hears a word, its meaning is repeated to him 
again and again, till the child finally repeats it and makes use of 
it in its proper connection. In the same manner the deaf should 
acquire speech, but while the hearing child acquires it through 
the ear, it is imparted to the deaf child either through sight, 
writing or lip-reading. The whole difference consists in this 
that the hearing child receives the impression, the images, 
through the ear and the deaf through the eye. For both the 
imitative method is the simplest and most natural. Great dif- 
ficulties, however, are encountered in lip-reading as the speech 
is to a very great degree undistinguishable to the eye, because 
several sounds require the same position of the mouth, e, g., m, 
b, p; n, d, t; f, v, etc., whilst some cannot be seen at all, as k, g, 
ng, etc. For this reason, a start must be made with a visible 
written word; but as our writing has the great drawback that 
different sounds are indicated by the same sign, it becomes neces- 
sary to have a complete sound-writing as the basis for imitative 
instruction in speech, in order that the deaf child may acquire 
the correct ideas. This alphabet of .written sounds comprises not 
less than 120 different letters, if we may so call them, but with 
certain groups of fundamental forms running through it all. 

In order that full justice may be done to this method, it is 
necessary that the pupil should speak as much as possible. The 
word must be seen and spoken many times, before it is fully 
understood and its knowledge is firmly grounded. This is ac- 
complished by reading in unison, which therefore, like the written 
sound, becomes one of the cornerstones of the imitative method. 

Director Forchhammer adds another cornerstone to his 
method, which is intended to render easy and sure lip-reading 

158 The Association Review. 

possible, so that reading in unison and answering in unison may 
go on uninterruptedly even after the teacher has spoken. This 
is accomplished by certain movements and positions of the right 
hand and its fingers to indicate diflerentsounds, especially those 
which require the same position of the lips, and those which can- 
not be seen distinctly. [See '*A New Expedient for Teaching 
the Deaf," in The Association Review of December, 1902.] 

As regards teaching speech to the deaf. Director Forch- 
hammer considers it immaterial whether the pupil receives the 
word by writing or from the lips of the teacher, as both are ac- 
quired by the sense of sight. 

By the imitative instruction, based on reading in unison 
from written sounds or from the lips of the teacher, and aided 
by the hand-alphabet, the pupils are, as Director Forchhammer 
expresses it, fairly "submerged in speech." 

The method of procedure is as follows : On the blackboard 
a short piece is written in sound-writing selected by the teacher 
with due regard to the knowledge of the pupils regarding the 
subject or idea of the piece. The pupils stand before the black- 
board, and whilst the teacher beats time with his stick the pupils 
read in unison point after point, and finally the whole piece, 
everything being repeated a number of times. The teacher 
convinces himself that the Dupils understand the various new 
words in the pieces, and gives explanations whenever needed. 

After the piece has been read ten or fifteen times, the pupils 
write it in their copy books, each pupil by himself going up to 
the blackboard and reading it under the superintendence of the 
teacher who corrects any mistakes in the pronunciation. This 
finishes the piece for that day. On the next day they again read 
in unison several times, whereupon questions relative to the 
piece, as a general rule one to each idea or point, are written on 
the blackboard below the piece. After these questions and their 
answers have been read in unison several times, the pupils write 
them in their copybooks, and each pupil, whilst doing it, reads 
to the teachers as on the preceding day, and is corrected by him. 

On the third day the piece, with the questions and answers, 
is read in unison several times, whereupon it is wiped off the 

Reviews. 159 

On the fourth day the piece is dictated to the pupils who 
write it on their slates. Whilst the teacher examines and cor- 
rects what one pupil has written, the others read the piece aloud 
from their copy-books. As soon as a pupil is done writing, he 
must read aloud from his copybook the last piece that was on the 

On the fifth day the pupils ask each other the previously 
given questions which they are supposed to know by heart. Each 
pupil puts three questions, so that finally all get questions and 
all answer them three times. 

As, therefore, a piece is treated on five successive days, and 
as each day a new piece is given, five pieces are treated every 
day. They must, consequently, be short in order to go through 
the above described course. A piece with its questions is read 
in unison fifty to sixty times in five days. 

We give a specimen of these pieces : 

"Thursday, June 13th. 
"Yesterday we were at Holman. Mr. Hansen talked to a 
fisherman. The fisherman had many nets which he set in the 
water. He has a boat in which he sails. He catches plaice 
and cod." 

Questions: When were we at Holman? 

With whom did Mr. Hansen talk? 
What did the fisherman have? 
What does he catch? 

All the pieces are dated, and in general appearance re- 
semble entries in a diary. 

To aid the reading in unison very extensive text books have 
been prepared, written in large distinct characters and as a 
general rule beautifully illustrated. To indicate the accent to 
be given to each word, there are special signs before the word 
in red ink. 

Similar unison-readers, true masterpjeces in execution, 
exist for different subjects (language, Bible history, natural 
philosophy, geography, and even arithmetic) and are used till 
the third class is reached, when printed text books are employed. 

The unison reader is placed on the blackboard, the pupils 
stand before it in a semi-circle, and read in unison under the 
direction of the teacher. 

i6o The Assodaiion Review. 

The explanation of words and sentences in the higher class- 
es is often given in this way, that after the pupils have read in 
unison a piece from a printed book, they must read the piece 
by themselves and go to the teacher to ask an explanation of 
anything they don't understand. 

Director Forchhammer g^ves decided preference to amus- 
ing and humorous pieces, fables, and other easily understood 
pieces, as the pupils are much more interested in such and re- 
member them better. 

F. N. (Fredrich Nordin) "Thomas Gallaudet/' biography 
with portrait taken from the Association Review. — Communi- 
cations from different countries. 

Die Kinderfehler [The Defects of Children], 7th year, 5th and 
6th part, Langensalza, 1902. 

Any literature might well be proud of possessing a peri- 
odical of this character, containing as it does learned and 
exhaustive treatises by prominent German specralists on every 
phase of the subject, i". e., all the illnesses and defects of children, 
their causes, prevention and remedies. We are of course 
specially interested only in articles treating of the defects of the 
organs of speech and hearing. The present number contains 
two articles of this character, viz: *.*The Development of the 
Speech of Children and its Hindrances" by Dr. Hermann 
Gutzmann, Berlin. It is of course impossible within the narrow 
limits of a magazine article to do full justice to the subject, as 
Dr. Gutzmann himself states, much less can an adequate idea 
of the article be obtained from a brief review. We shall never- 
theless endeavor to give its salient points. 

Four periods of the development of speech may be distin- 
guished. The first is the cry-period of the child. The cries of 
a child are nothing but reflex productions of the voice which 
moreover are not observable in all cases, as children frequently 
greet the light of the world by sneezing. Ancient philosophers 
have extensively treated this subject, and thought these cries 
were a protest of the child against the misery awaiting it in this 
world; some even went as far as to say that the cries of boys 

Reviews, i6i 

contained principally the vowel "a" and that of the ^rls the vow- 
el "e" and that in their own way they thus made complaint of 
the fall of Adam and Eve. As regards the later speech, the cry 
period has special significance in so far as the cry-breathing 
foreshadows the type of the later speech breathinjg. 

The second period does not begin until the child has be- 
come quieter and begins to take some pleasure in its surround- 
ings. It frequently lies awake without crying. In addition to 
the movements of the organs of speech, and thereby — of them- 
selves and voluntarily — the first sounds are developed, which are 
at first uncertain and tentative and are produced by all the or- 
g^ans of articulation, although the lips and the tip-end of the 
tongue take the largest part. A mother's love has from time im- 
memorial found a deep significance in this stammermg and en- 
deavored to find a mother's name — mama — in these first tenta- 
tive beginnings of speech. 

The third period is likewise a period of stammering, which, 
however, differs very much from the second or reflex period, 
as it is characterized by the faculty of the child awakening with 
wonderful strength, and by the strange desire to imitate. The 
mental faculties of the child are more fully developed, the organs 
of its senses are put to a fuller use, seeing becomes observing, 
hearing — listening, touching becomes feeling for objects. This 
period is probably the most important in the entire speech-de- 
velopment of the child. 

The fourth period is characterized by the circumstance that 
the child not only hears and understands spoken words and 
imitates them, but that it also makes use of them of its own ac- 

Among the hindrances to the development of speech, 
should be mentioned those of the peripheric channels. Even 
if the child is hard of hearing or deaf, the cry-period is main- 
tained in exactly the same way as with a hearing child, but 
during the second period a difference becomes noticeable. This 
period of stammering is therefore much more limited in deaf 
children, and is sometimes missed entirely. In lively and other- 
wise talented but deaf children, we sometimes find even the third 
period of the development of speech, that of spontaneous imita- 

1 62 The Association Review, 

tion, simply based on the optic impressions of speech. Hill 
mentions instances where children who were absolutely deaf 
from birth learned to imitate simple sounds like papa, mama, 
ball, bow wow, etc., and even spoke them of their own accord. 
The hindrances of the central processes are of course much 
more numerous and varied than those of the peripheric chan- 
nels. Among these are the rather rare cases where the sensor- 
ial center of speech does not reach its development, in spite of 
good hearing. The most frequent are probably the purely 
psychical hindrances, often occurring in otherwise very bright 
children. The child evidently feels that its imitation of speech 
does not reach the perfection of its model. A feeling of disgust 
is created and the child gives up its attempts. Dr. Gutzmann 
declares that this is not merely a theoretical statement, but 
I hat in practice he has met with a number of such cases. Hin- 
drances can be caused by the affections of some more distant 
part of the body, e. g., by a'wrong diet, and still more by worms. 
Dr. Gutzmann mentions a case in his own practice where the 
presence of worms in the entrails of the child stopped the de- 
velopment of speech, which immediately continued its natural 
course after the child had been cured of the worms. In all the 
above mentioned cases the hindrances can be overcome with 
comparative ease, whilst this becomes much more difficult in 
hindrances of a psychical kind, but they too are overcome in 
the same manner as the muteness of deaf children by giving most 
careful and special attention to the optical and tactile channels. 
There are finally innate hindrances of the motorial center. 
Such children are slow in learning to run and slow in learning 
to speak. In such cases the difficulty in imitating is preserved 
for an unusually long time. Here likewise the only remedy is 
the constant speaking to the children, making the greatest pos- 
sible use of the optical and tactile channels. Lastly there should 
be mentioned the hindrances caused by sickness or by defects 
of the organs of articulation. On the other hand the shortened 
band of the tongue or the growing fast of the tongue to the in- 
side of the mouth, is very rarely a hindrance to the development 
of the speech. Dr. Gutzmann considers it a great abuse, when 
as is done in many of the rural districts of Germany, midwives 

Reviews. 163 

in a rough manner tear the band of the tongue of the baby with 
the nail of the thumb. Among the rural population this is con- 
sidered just as important as vaccination. Dr. Gutzmann states 
that among the thousands of children with defective speech 
whom he has treated, he found only seven or eight where it 
became necessary to loosen the band of the tongue. The abuse 
referred to is probably caused by the idea prevailing since the 
days of Aristotle that tongue and speech are synonymous ex- 
pressions; which is by no means the case, as is shown by the 
very instructive work by the English physician Twisleton, 
entitled "The Tongue not Essential to Speech." 

In another article in this journal, Mr. E. Lamprecht, 
teacher in the Provincial Institution for the Deaf at Koslin 
(Pomerania), urges all teachers of the deaf to constantly, care- 
fully and systematically observe the development, mental and 
physical, of their deaf pupils; and likewise to trace their history 
before entering the institution, the health and physical condition 
of the parents and the early surroundings of the- children. By 
thus gradually obtaining a complete history of a deaf child, it 
will be possible for the teacher to direct his efforts in the right 
ways to strengthen what is weak, and to develop what still offers 
sound hope of ultimate success. 

L'Educazione del Sordomuti [The Education of Deaf-mutes] 
Third Series. First year, Nos. i and 2, Siena, January and 
February, 1903. 

We gladly welcome this old-established journal which after 
having ceased to be published for about a year, has again begun 
to appear; and, as we hope, is entering upon a new era of pros- 
perity and usefulness under the able editorship of G. Ferreri. 
The following articles are contained in these two numbers: 
•*The Vocabulary of Our Pupils," by G. Ferreri; "A New 
Study," by Dr. Bezold. The leading idea in Dr. Bezold's article 
is to gain reliable statistics of the deaf on the basis of careful 
and continued observations by professional aurists. "A New 
Means for Teaching Deaf-mutes," a review of the method follow- 
ed by Mr. Forchhammer in the school at Nyborg, Denmark. 
'The Paris Congress of 1900." 

164 • The Association Review. 

Smaablade for Dovstumme [Leaflets for the Deaf], 12th year. 
No. 89, Copenhagen, Denmark, January, 1903. 

"Report to the Ministry of Public Instruction by the pastor 
of the deaf-mute congregation in Copenhagen for the years 1901 
and 1902. The work of this devoted minister, Rev. Mrjorgen- 
sen, was by no means an easy one. Although the congregation, 
owing to various adverse circumstances, does not possess a 
church of its own, it succeeded in renting a church, more con- 
veniently located than the former one, where there was divine 
service every Sunday. There was quite a number of baptisms, 
weddings and funerals. Twice a month Mr. Jorgensen gave a 
Bible explanation in his own home, sometimes attended by as 
many as thirty deaf. He founded a temperance society, and 
spent a great deal of time in visiting the deaf in their homes, 
whilst his wife started a sewing society. An assistant. Rev. Mr. 
Heiberg, traveled through the Provinces during his summer 
vacation and preached and administered the communion in a 
number of cities where there was a considerable number of deaf. 
Thus we see that not only the physical and mental but also the 
spiritual welfare of the deaf in Denmark is in good hands. "A 
Trip Through Iceland" [continued] by Viggo Hansen. We 
learn, incidentally, from this well-written description of travel, 
that there are at the present time (1902) about 70 deaf in Ice- 
land, which is quite a large number, in proportion to the popula- 
tion (70,000). Among the ^'Miscellaneous Communications" 
we note that on the 9th of November, 1902, a kindergarten 
school for deaf infants was opened in Copenhagen. 

••Effata,*' a Journal for Promoting the Welfare of the Deaf, loth 
year, Nos. 3 and 4, Fredeficia, Denmark, December, 1902, 
and January, 1903. 

"What Shall I Do to Become More Proficient in Speech?" 
[continued] by A. K. Larsen. The answer is: First Read a 
good deal; second, write and copy a good deal. Put down 
every day a number of questions, questions which you have 
asked other people, and which other people ask you, and put 
down the answers. 


The Daily Plan — Marguerite Stockman Dickson, in Popular 

Several years ago there appeared in one of our prominent 
educational magazines the following question: "How many even- 
ings last week did you spend in making over an old dress, when 
YOU should have been planning your work for the next day at 

Much might be said in answer to this question (from the 
point of view of the teacher who makes over old dresses, not as 
a wild dissipation, but as a means of covering her nakedness), 
but it is not my purpose to discuss it now. The part of the 
quotation to which I would call your attention is that which re- 
fers to "planning your work for the next day at school." 

Many things have been said and written about the daily 
plan, until, perhaps, it would seem to you that there is nothing 
left to say. "Day books" flourish, and the conscientious teacher 
of the "plan brigade" looks with scorn or pity, according to her 
temperament, upon her erring sister whose day's work has not 
been reduced to a schedule hours before it is begun. And still 
no one seems to feel that "daily planning" may be overdone. 

Before you lay down the paper in disgust, let me assure you 
that I do not believe in helter-skelter planless work any more 
than you do. Indeed, it is more planning, rather than less, that 
I am asking for. Again I must explain — by more planning I 
do not necessarily mean more hours spent in toiling beneath 
the flickering gas light. I mean more real planning and less 
writing about it. I mean fewer such entries as these in the day 
Monday : 

Reading — page 131. 

Spelling — ten words taken from reading lesson. 

Language — lesson on errors selected from Friday's com- 

Arithmetic — ten examples — denominate numbers, etc. 

1 66 The Association Review. 

This seems to me a culpable waste of time. Why write near- 
ly a dozen words to remind you of those compositions weighing 
alike on your arm and on your weary spirit? You will re- 
member them, never fear. 

Aji^ain — I mean fewer of such reflections as these, while your 
pen hovers over the plan book: 

"Another day on verbs won't hurt them, I guess." 

"Fll gfive them one more test on multiplication. Why they 
don-t multiply better is a mystery to me." 

"They haven't half learned those capitals of the South 
American republics. Well, I won't give them anything new till 
those are done." 

"Fm tired of multiplication of fractions, and I believe the 
children are, too. Fm going to start them on division. Per- 
haps they'll do better on that." 

In my childish days, nothing so filled my soul wfth despair 
as to be told to "use my judgment," at critical moments. I 
was so painfully aware that I had no judgment. When such re- 
marks as the foregoing come to my knowledge — and I think 
you will all admit that they have a familiar sound — I wonder 
whether many teachers do not share my childish lack. 

Perhaps "another day on verbs won't hurt them," except 
in the negative sense that he who does not advance goes back- 
ward. It may be that the multiplication is bad enough to be a 
mystery to others as well as yourself. But why test it again? 
Why not teach a little for variety? 

The fact that the capitals of the South American states are 
a hopeless chaos in your pupils' minds may be beyond all ques- 
tion; but you have spent three days already in your grim de- 
termination to have that one thing thoroughly done before at- 
tempting another. Is it worth another day? How much of 
your children's lack of knowledge of the industries of those same 
South American states will have to be charged to the four days 
spent on capitals? 

Perseverance is a good quality, and loose ends hanging here 
and there may spoil a piece of work. But there seems to me 
a painful lack of the idea of proportion in the minds of most 
teachers. And I believe that the daily plan encourages this lack, 
stimulates it, multiplies it, until it seems to me one of the most 
alarming tendencies in our teaching force. 

What farmer, what merchant, what housekeeper plans only 
for the coming day? Have we not all a pitying scorn for those 
who live from hand to mouth? My "Down East" ancestors 
called them "shiftless," and I think the word might well be ap- 
plied to many teachers of my acquaintance. 

Current Educational Literature, 167 

The housekeeper who knows that the linen closet is stocked 
with piles of immaculate, daintily scented sheets, that the larder 
is equal to any emergency, that the lamps are trimmed and ready 
when the shadows fall, knows a peace which her shiftless sister 
can never hope to possess. And the teacher who is ready — not 
with to-morrow's number lesson, but ready with a plan which 
puts to-morrow in its proper place in the mosaic of the week, 
the term — has a vision clear enough to see the heights toward 
which she travels; while her perhaps equally conscientious neigh- 
bor, struggling on from day to day, may never see the glory of 
the hills beyond, but only the stones and pitfalls which beset her 
daily path. 

Teachers have a reputation of being narrow in their views 
of life. And again I say I believe the everlasting daily planning 
helps to make them so. Get away from your work, my friends, 
far enough to see it all, once m a while. Is it a term's work in 
arithmetic? There are essentials and non-essentials, even in 
arithmetic. How can you distinguish them with the whole so 
close before your eyes? Percentage, interest, profit and loss, 
customs and duties, taxes, bank discount, true discount, partial 
payments, averaging of accounts, square and cube root — "there 
is the list," you say, "as the course of study gives it. What have 
I to do except to take them up, one by one, and teach them?" 

Much, my friend. There are subjects on that list that most 
of your pupils will scarcely hear mentioned after the school doors 
have closed behind them. Mental discipline? Yes, no doubt, 
but will you give a week to averaging accounts for mental dis- 
cipline, and only the same time to interest for mental discipline, 
plus practical, every day value? I leave it for you to say. 

The first step, it seems to me, in planning a term's work — or 
if your course of study is outlined by years, a year's work — ^is to 
stand away and look at it broadly. Seek for relative values. 
Then try fitting the work to the time. 

Ah ! now there is trouble. One says "Our course is cram- 
nicd with work. I never get through." Very likely. The teachers 
whose day books never leave their hands frequently don't get 
through. Sometimes the teachers who plan on a larger scale 
don't either, but they are more likely to than their near-sighted 

Another objection — this time with a frown: "How can I 
tell whether my class this year will be bright like the one two 
years ago, or stupid like the last one? That bright class learned 
long division in a week. The other one took six !" 

True, classes vary, and time must vary with them. But 
which is better, to struggle along with a slow class, taking double 

1 68 The Association Review. 

time for everything, and leaving untouched at the end of the 
term perhaps the most important of all; or, with relative value 
always in sight, to so adjust the time that the non-essentials will 
be slighted, if something must be, and the essentials saved? And 
how can you do it, except by a broad survey of the whole? The 
wise teacher never makes her plan to cover every day or every 
week of the term. Leave a little "unassigned time," as we call 
it on our programmes. It will give elasticity, buoyancy to your 
plan, and peace to your soul. 

The next step, and after all only the first step repeated on 
a different scale, is the making of a plan for every topic you have 
assigned a place on your yearly plan. Again, relative value must 
be your watchword. "What can I do in a week on South 
America?" You might spend a week teaching your class to 
make accurate memory maps of the continent, but it would 
scarcely be wise. Throw out the non-essentials, and make your 
mental question, "What of all things I might teach about South 
America, if there were time, shall I select as most likely to make 
this week's work tell, in broadening these childdren's minds." 
The process of elimination is useful in other lines than mathe- 

Let us suppose the topic planned. What next. Now, if you 
like your daily plan — but T doubt if you need it after all. That 
topic in geography or history or language that you have pond- 
ered over — has it not become almost a part of yourself? Here 
it lies before you in your note book — two weeks' work on the 
Pilgrims at Plymouth. That means, perhaps, six lessons, and 
with that fact in mind it is more than likely that your planning of 
the topic has fallen naturally into six parts. Suppose — well, 
suppose anything you like. A slow class? Draw upon your un- 
assigned time. A very bright class? Do additional outside work. 
A lack of interest? Search your plan and your preparation. It 
is possible that you have planned for yourself rather than for 
your class. There are thousands of contingencies that may arise, 
but well planned work usually slips along with remarkable 
smoothness. Whenever some obstacle does appear, learn to 
adapt. Your plan will not prove the hindrance you anticipate. 
It will, whatever comes, be a prop upon which you can lean and 
be at ease. 

Does it sound like a great deal of work? Perhaps — but it 
is work that helps to make peace in the school-room, and a sense 
of security in the teacher's mind. If you are skeptical, try it 
with one sludy. and observe the sense of relief with which you 
turn to that hour in the tumultuous day. You are ready for 
it. You know not only about to-day's work, but you can fit 

Current Educational Literature. 169 

to-day's work into the perfect whole. And when you have tried 
it with one, you wtll try it with all. You will cultivate a broader 
view of things; you will become expert in finding relative values; 
you will learn to cast out, without fear, the non-essentials; and 
you will achieve an occasional evening to devote to that old 
dress, if it needs your attention. 

The Relation of Geography to the Other Subjects of an 
Elementary Course of Study — By Supt. T. H. Ann- 
strong, in Education. 

Just what constitutes geography has never been clearly 
defined. The text-book says it is the science which describes the 
earth. It has four sub-divisions: political, physical, mathemati- 
cal, and commercial; each defined respectively as the branch of 
geography which treats of the earth in relation to man; in rela- 
tion to nature; in relation to the other planets; and in relation 
to the commercial transactions of men. 

While for convenience these four subdivisions have been 
made, on reflection it becomes evident that they are entirely in- 
separable. We speak of night and day; but our wisest philos- 
ophers have never been able to make clear the line of demarka- 
tion. Would it be possible to teach a child the location of a 
volcano without teaching something of the phenomena connected 
therewith? How could you teach him of the tropics without 
reference to the earth's revolution around the sun and the inclina- 
tion of its axis? It would be likewise senseless to attempt to 
teach the child of our great lakes, rivers and oceans, without 
teaching him something of their use as commercial agencies. 

Intimately associated and interwoven with geographical 
study is man. Man is the real center in the study of political 
and commercial geography. He is the clearer of forests, the 
drainer of marshes; the builder of cities, canals and railroads. 
He is the living, active principal who fills the uninteresting earth 
with Hfe and interest. The child cares but little for the earth, 
its formation or subdivisions only as a man has given to it life 
and interest. The plant and animal life are subordinated to 
man's use. And plants and animals, because of their depend- 
ence on soil and climate, make these particular phases of study 
of interest. 

It is thus easily comprehended that geography embraces not 
only the subdivisions enumerated above, but much of the materi- 
al classified under the head of geography is, in reality, history, 
zoology, botany, geology and astronomy. But to know much of 

lyo The Association Review. 

these subjects in their relation to man must necessitate the liking 
of another and very important branch, namely, literature. In 
acquiring a knowledge of these branches a child must broaden his 
mental grasp and enlarge his fund of ideas: but as language is 
but the expression of ideas, language may be added to the list of 
subjects closely allied to geography. 

Very likely the arguments presented above will be conceded 
by many teachers, but that the teaching of these subjects should 
be correlated or coincident will be denied by many for the follow- 
ing reasons: First. Geography as already taught, covers a 
period of eight years. To drag in all this added material would 
materially lengthen the course. Second. There is a beginning, 
a middle, and an end to each of these branches of study which 
is not coincident with geography. 

That geography as generally taught requires eight years, 
I grant. That so much time is necessary, I am not so ready 
to concede. The proper food for a babe is milk. If we feed 
him beefsteak, pork or beans, his stomach rejects them. Why? 
Because nature did not make a baby's stomach for such food. 
Feed him the beefsteak later and he enjoys it — not only does he 
enjoy it, but he thrives on it. Possibly by using certain artificial 
drugs we might succeed in feeding solid food to very young 
children, but no one believes for a moment that they would be 
healthy under such treatment. 

There are two plans for teaching geography in common use ; 
the text-book plan which begins the study with certain formal 
definitions, and the later but more generally accepted plan of 
beginning with the immediate locality of the child and proceed- 
ing by gradual steps to the village or city, township, county, 
state, country, etc. Of these two, by far the most rational is the 
latter, but both are bad. Such a mental diet is worse in effect on 
the mind than pork and beans on the digestive apparatus. It 
is a veritable hard-tack. What does he care about the earth or 
its position in space? Why should he have interests in bound- 
ary lines, cities and villages remote from his enviroment? 
Learn them, of course he will, because the good Lord has given 
him a memory; but such have no interest for him. Proceed 
then, by requiring him, later, to locate each day ten or fifteen 
unheard of places with strange foreign names, made up from 
four to ten syllables, and let his geography lesson consist largely 
of this from day to day. Is it any wonder that eight or even ten 
years, as is often true, is consumed in this sort of a mental 
"cram?'' Is it any wonder that mental nausea and intellectual 
dyspepsia is too often the result of this forced and unnatural 
school-room diet? The reason, then, that eight years is con- 

Current Educational Literature. 171 

sumed in the study of geography is because it is taught in such 
a manner as to stifle interest rather than to stimulate it. 

As intimated before, the child is first, last, and all the time 
interested in man: what he does, how he lives, what he wears, 
what he eats, etc. It is, of course, conceded that the child is al- 
ways interested in his environment. Having gathered certain 
geographical conceptions from his surroundings by means of 
field excursions and familiar talks with his teacher, such as de- 
scribes the atmosphere, moisture, heat and their influence on 
life, also certain definite conceptions of land and water for- 
mations, and having had his curiosity aroused by coming in 
contact with people from foreign lands; he is now prepared to 
listen with interest and enthusiasm to anything he may be told 
or anything which may be read to him about curious or primi- 
tive people in other lands. At first he has no interest in definite 
statements of time or place. "Once upon a time/' or "In a 
country far away" is sufficiently definite for the child; but grad- 
ually he comes to desire to know where these places are. The 
map may now be utilized to give to the stories of myth and le- 
gend a "local habitation and a name." From the fairy story, 
the myth, and the legend he now begins to desire true stories, 
mostly of heroes. "Is it true," is the question always first to 
follow a story. These stories he wishes to give definite location 
that they may be the more real. Each of these periods in the 
child's life, we shall designate respectively as the "Mythical" 
and "Heroical." The first extending through the first three 
years of a child's school life, the second through the next three 
years, and the third, the thinking or reasoning period, has its 
beginning in the seventh and eighth years, and continues on 
through the high school. 

During this first period the child gains a knowledge mostly 
of curious and primitive people of the globe, and a general 
knowledge of the relative position of the continents, oceans, and 
some of the leading countries. He also acquires a taste for and 
interest in the best of literature and history — for mythology is 
but primitive history and literature combined. 

During the second period he becomes acquainted with the 
great characters who have made history and literature and who 
have developed the arts and sciences. He thus strengthens his 
desire for history and acquires a fair knowledge of the geography 
of all continents. He knows considerable of great authors and 
their homes. If wisely taught, he has either read or heard read 
some of the productions of these authors suited to his age. He 
has seen copies of the great masterpieces and has some know- 
ledge of the great masters. He has become acquainted with 

172 The Association Review. 

the animal and vegetable life on sea and land in connection with 
his studies concerning what men do. He knows much of the 
influence of climate and soil on productions and the westward 
advance of civilization. He is able to state the cause for the 
location of great cities and has especially become interested in 
the development of the western continent. 

Of course, during both of these periods, the child has been 
led to express himself freely in both oral and written language. 
In the latter he has been taught capitalization, the easier forms 
of punctuation, correct spelling, paragraphing and neatness. In 
the former he has been taught to stand on his feet and express 
himself clearly in the presence of his fellows. 

Fortified now with a broad and general knowledge of the 
world and its people, in all their relations, and able to express 
his thought clearly, if not always grammatically, the child enters 
the third period of his elementary school course well prepared 
to think clearly, reason logically, from cause to effect, and ex- 
press clearly his conclusions. He is certainly well prepared now 
to study geography and grammar as sciences and to take up the 
definite study of some masterpiece in literature. After a year's 
study, he should be prepared to finish geography and take up in 
connection with his study of grammar and literature an intensive 
study of American history. 

After eight years, the child is well prepared to enter the high 
school, well qualified to do his work thoroughly in history, litera- 
ture, language and the sciences. 

It thus seems that literature, history, nature-study and geog- 
raphy may be correlated. That the literature and history may 
proceed co-incident with geography and each conform to the 
best accepted principles of pedagogy by beginning with that 
which is primitive and childlike, and allowing each to grow con- 
formably with the mental development of the child. 

We do not by any means attempt to say that all the knowl- 
edge attainable from one branch of study can be correlated 
with that of another. We have attempted to show, simply that 
correlation does exist and can be utilized in acquiring much of 
the knowledge attainable from most of the branches of study 
used in the primary and grammar school. And that as an ad- 
vance knowledge of any subject is attained, each subject of 
study may be more isolated and studied as a separate science, 
also that time is saved; the intellectual horizon broadened; in- 
terest stimulated; reason strengthened; and of course character 
broadened and developed. 

By bringing all knowledge to the mind with its relation to 
other branches of knowledge made evident, we are doing what 

Current Educational Literature. 173 

eventually must take place in the mental process of assimilation, 
before any knowledge can be apperceived. 

In this paper we have attempted to show that geography 
is really much broader than the text-book definition would 
imply, that neither of the much used plans of procedure is ra- 
tional with the mental growth of the child, that interest in man 
leads to interest in geography, and that this interest should pre- 
cede a formal study of geography, that this interest may be 
aroused by following the scheme of study having its inception 
b^sed in the interest aroused by a knowledge of mythical and 
heroic characters: that when a child is ready for a study of real 
characters he has an interest for the study of geography be- 
cause he desires to give characters in whom he has interest, a 
definite habitation; that having the acquired interest it is an 
easy step to lead him to further geographical research ultimat- 
ing in a breadth of knowledge and a mastery of facts from 
which he is able to make some deductions and draw reasonable 
conclusions. By this method he becomes reasonably well in- 
formed in history, literature and nature-study and is now well 
prepared to think independently and reason logically. The ul- 
timate result of this is to develop a well-rounded, sturdy char- 
acter, thoroughly prepared for the high school, or if necessity 
compels to go forth into life, fairly prepared for the duties of 
citizenship, with a desire created for the best in literature and his- 
tory and ability to earn an honorable livelihood. To some, this 
may seem an idle dream; but the scheme has been thoroughly 
tested in practice and has proven worthy of all claims here made 
for it. The plan is not irrational or difficult, and certainly mer- 
its a fair trial by all teachers interested in bringing about the 
highest mental development of those intrusted to their care. 


Kindergartens — By Wilson Farrand in Educational Review. 

Of the problems that concern the school, the first that 
thrusts itself upon us is that of the kindergarten. It is with 
fear and trembling that one ventures upon this topic, for he is 
a brave man who dares to lay profane hands upon its sacred 
mysteries. Let me hasten to assert that I am not attacking 
the kindergarten. I am simply suggesting, with all possible 
deference, that the last word about the kindergarten has not 
yet been said, that there is still a problem to be solved, and a 
problem not altogether easy of solution. 

The problem of the kindergarten is suggested by its results. 
Of its excellent results when applied to the children of the very 

174 ^^^ Association Review. 

poor, often with intellects stunted by improper nourishment and 
unfavorable surroundings, there seems to be little doubt. In 
fact I am not sure but one can say with safety that the kinder- 
, garten is admirably adapted to the children of the very poor and 
of the very rich, whose parents alike, because of ignorance or 
because of indifference, because of stress of life or because of 
social strenuousness, are unable to give them that care and that 
training that come best from the parent's hand. With the bright, 
normal child, however, coming from the typical American home, 
the results in many cases — not all — are such as to arouse serious 

It is difficult to summarize these results with confidence and 
accuracy, for it is not easy to tell with certainity how much is 
due to the child's personality and home training, and one is soon 
forced to the conclusion that there is as much difference between 
individual kindergartens as between individual schools of higher 
grade — or even as between individual colleges. Still, in spite of 
the difficulty of the case, certain impressions are formulating 
themselves with growing distinctness in the minds of careful 
observers. There is an increasing distrust of the physiological 
soundness of some of the kindergarten ideas, caused by the many 
cases of eye strain and nerve irritation that appear to be traced 
directly to its doors; there is a feeling prevalent that many kinder- 
garten children develop an undue sentimentalism and an ab- 
normal imagination; and many primary teachers are of the 
opinion that the children who come to them, while alert and 
responsive in mind, are lacking in power of continued applica- 
tion and in capacity for independent work. There are no new 
criticisms, but the number of those who make them is increas- 
ing, and they cannot be lightly brushed aside. 

A little study of the kindergarten, its origin, its theory, and 
its growth, throws some light on the subject. Froebel was a 
great man, with a keen insight into child nature. He was an 
educational prophet, with a message of truth and of power, but 
he was not inspired, and he was not infallible. His pedagogy 
was better than his philosophy. His educational precepts are 
often distinctly sounder than the symbolic and mystical ideas 
on which he bases them. He developed a system of elementary 
education in many respects admirably adapted to child nature, 
but curiously permeated with his symbolic ideas. It was a sys- 
tem adapted in its external features to the children with whom he 
came in contact, stolid German children, largely of the peasant 
class and from three to five years of age. Now, given a system 
like this, based on an everlasting truth, but permeated by a ques- 
tionable and seductive philosophy, and adapted in its external 

Current Educational Literature. 175 

features to children of a particular type, is there not call for un- 
usual judgment and discretion when it comes to developing the 
system and applying it to children of another race and tempera- 
ment? When it is interpreted by immature young women, fre- 
quently of the sentimental order, who after a "normal course" 
of a few brief months are graduated as priestesses of the mystic 
cult, and when this system, so interpreted, is applied to high- 
strung, nervous American children of six and seven, often two 
and sometimes three years beyond the kindergarten age, is there 
anv wonder that the results should be what I have said observers 
find them? 

Let me repeat that I am not attacking the kindergarten. I 
am only trying to save it from its friends. Let me also hasten 
to add that there are kindergartens and kindergartens, and that 
the results are not all alike. My object is simply to raise the 
question whether the kindergarten enthusiasm has not outran 
itself, whether there is not good reason for feeling that the de- 
velopment of the kindergarten in this country has been too rapid 
for normal, healthy growth, and whether the problem thus raised 
is not one that in its solution calls for the highest and the best 
educational thought of the country? 

Department Work in Grammar Schools— By Supt. Frank 
M. Cooley, Evai sville, Ind., in The School Journal. 

Department work in grammar grades of the public schools 
has attracted some little attention in certain quarters, during 
recent years, and it may be interesting to gather opinions, based 
upon actual experience as to the results. If department work 
is a help to the young people in grammar schools, if it gives 
additional incentive to work, if it strengthens the teaching force, 
if it makes the boys and girls more self-reliant, then it would 
seem that wise policy should make it a part of the regular school 
work wherever practicable. 

The following opinions are based upon nine year's experi- 
ence with department work in the same system of schools. The 
plan has been in operation in the sixth, seventh, and eighth 
grades only, as experiments have prove that it is not well adapt- 
ed to the lower grammar grades. 

I. Department teaching gives teacher an opportunity to 
specialize. It gives teachers an opportunity to push investiga- 
tion to some definite conclusions, and to make immediate use 
of such investigations. It also affords an excellent opportunity 

176 The Association Review. 

for teachers to teach such subjects in which they themselves 
are naturally interested — this is not possible when the entire 
range of school subjects constitutes a teacher's work. 

2. Department teaching gives a teacher a wider range of 
the subject taught, as the work assigned to any one teacher 
covers a period of three years, instead of being confined to one 
half year or one year, at most. This is a g^eat strengthener, in 
as much as the weaknesses which usually crop out in the 
higher grades because of faulty work in the grades below, may 
be anticipated and thus avoided. One of the most glaring weak- 
nesses in the usual methods of assignment of school work is the 
narrow range of subjects — a few pages in grammar — a few pages 
in history — and these are so sandwiched into the course of study 
that the teacher scarcely realize anything of value from the 
work that has preceded, and is little interested in that which is 
to follow. 

3. Department teaching strengthens the teaching corps, be- 
cause teachers are now lined up beside each other, and com- 
parisons are easily and naturally made. It is true that the weak 
teacher now comes into contact with a larger number of pupils, 
and such influence cannot be but harmful, but it is also true that 
the strong teachers come in touch with more children. But the 
strongest feature at this point is that teachers themselves are 
spurred to do their best as never before. If five teachers get 
on well with a certain school, while the sixth is constantly in 
trouble, either in matters of discipline or in inability to interest 
the pupils, the question naturally arises, "Why this difference 
between my work with this school and the work of another 
teacher?" "Why are they disorderly when I am in charge, while 
they are orderly at other times?" "Why are they uninterested 
in the subject which I teach, while interested in all other sub- 
jects?" Sooner or later this teacher will awake to a realization 
of the fact that the "fault is in herself," not in the subject taught 
or in the pupils. 

4. Department teaching relieves monotony and children 
enjoy the change. This is not a slight factor in favor of this 
division of school work. In the lower grades children attend 
school because they must attend, even if they choose not to do 
so. In the upper grammar grades other incentives than the 
"must" are necessary, and the variety given the school life by 
a number of different teachers is no small part of the interest de- 
manded to hold pupils in school. Pupils always enjoy the change. 
They say "The time goes so fast now." The monotony which 
once was has given way to greater variety, and has added interest 
to the life of the school. 

Current Educational Literature. 177 

The American Teacher — By William H. Maxwell in the 
Educational Review. 

If education is necessary to conserve the two main objects 
for which society is organized — to promote individual develop- 
ment and to secure equality of opportunity to all; if, further, 
universal education is necessary to the preservation of our 
republican institutions ; and if, lastly, education involves the de- 
velopment of the highest ethical qualities, as well as the acquisi- 
tion of our intellectual inheritance, in order to adjust the child 
to his environment ; surely it follows that the person to whom this 
ail-important work is intrusted cannot be too accomplished, can- 
not be too highly trained, and cannot be held to too rigid an ac- 
countability. If we think of the teacher's work as the foundation 
and the safeguard of our political institutions, we may not un- 
reasonably suppose that he should possess some of the attributes 

of a statesman. If we keep before our minds the vast task of 
introducing the young into their intellectual inheritance, we may 
look for the mark of the philosopher. If we think of his duties 
in the inculcation of a high morality, we may regard him as "an 
under-shepherd of the Lord's Httle ones," even as a great evange- 
list. If we think of the battles he is called upon to fight, especial- 
ly in our great cities, against ignorance and vice and against the 
abhorrent forces that would prostitute the public schools to sel- 
fish purposes and drag them in the mire of party politics, we may 
think of him as the soldier of a hundred battles. Ofttimes, too, 
when we see his high-mindedness in presence of affront, his for- 
titude in resisting tyranny, and his patience in opposing intrigue 
and enduring scandal, we should not be far amiss in placing the 
crown of martyrdom on his brow. There are few in whom are 
found mixed all these qualities of the ideal teacher. One such 
there was, however, whom Chicago knew well — Francis Parker. 
Him the University of Chicago delighted to honor, for he was a 
statesman, and he was a philosopher, and, he was an evangelist, 
and he was a soldier, and in very truth he was a martyr. The 
rnemor>^ of such a martyr is the seed of the schools. To few 
in any age are given the great abilities and the great opportuni- 
ties that made Francis Parker the heroic figure he was. Yet 
none need despair. The opportunities for efficiency come to 
every teacher. The humblest mistress in a country school, who 
inspires her pupils with the thirst for knowledge, the love of 
truth, and the desire for the higher life, is as truly in the class 
of real teachers as Socrates or Froebel, Pestalozzi or Parker. 

178 The Association Review. 

A Fundamental Error — Editorial in Atlantic EHncational 
Journal . 

One of the fundamental, and often fatal, errors of the teacher 
and the school course is the attempt to educate the children for 
some fancied higher mission in life — "higher sphere," it is called. 

I once said to a teacher, "Let's make our teaching take hold 

on the lives of these children in their homes, and in the homes 

which they will make for themselves as carpenters, bricklayers, 

plasterers, blacksmiths, small farmers, small merchants, ordinary 

citizens, or the wives of such." She replied, "But they must not 

follow these occupations. I cannot bear to think of their doing 
so." So, apparently, think many teachers, and they would edu- 
cate all the children for teachers, clerks, gentlemen of leisure, 
speculators, or "to get office." 

But the great majority must follow the less honorable call- 
ings of their fathers — if, indeed, any one calling or occupation 
is more or less honorable than another except as it be more or 
less honestly or skillfully followed. The masses of children — ev- 
ery child — must be educated ; but educated to fill more complete- 
ly the sphere to which nature and circumstances have called 
them — to be discontent, not at laboring at the common tasks 
of life, but at performing them unintelligently and unskilfully. 
To put intelligence and skill, heart and soul, grace and culture, 
into all necessary labor and into every condition of life; to re- 
move from these the grinding and despairing slavery of blind and 
helpless ignorance: to turn the "hand" into a living, thinking, 
feeling, aesthetic, ethical human being; to enlighten, purify, and 
sanctify every walk of life — this is the purpose and the mission of 
education. This is what Pestalozzi had in mind when he proposed 
to regenerate and save the world by the power of universal educa- 
tion. "I will turn the car of education around," said he. It should 
no longer tend toward that which is foreign to the child's life, 
burdening it with a load of erudition impractical and impossible 
of assimilation : but it should bririg the child to the full possession 
of that which touches its every-day life. Gertrude, with her own 
children and the children of her unfortunate neighbor, became 
his model. It is through the agency of education of this kind 
that the world must be redeemed. 

The teacher's prayer should be, not that his pupils may be 
taken out of the world of their fathers, but that they may be saved 
from the evil of that world. If there be those capable of rising 
to higher things, the firm and ample base provided by this edu- 
cation will form their surest support for the higher life. 

Current Educational Literature. 179 

Excess Drill on Non-Essentials — Edwin C. Broome, in 

Another means of reducing over-strain is to prune out non- 
essentials, and teach the essentials better, — a process of shorten- 
ing and enriching the elementary school course. We Ameri- 
cans have the pernicious habit of marking progress by pages, 
rather than by topics, or better, by degrees of mental strength. 
Many superintendents map out the work in that way in certain 
subjects, and expect a high degree of thoroughness in the work 
assigned. Arithmetic is the worst offender in this respect. Teach- 
ers drill, drill, drill, as though salvation depended on the com- 
plete mastery of each page and every precious example upon it. 
When, as adults, we stop and realize how little arithmetic is real- 
ly necessary for an intelligent person to succeed well in life, we 
must confess that no subject in the curriculum could be so readi- 
ly dispensed with as an independent study as arithmetic. It is 
doubtless true that all the arithmetic an intelligent person needs 
can be acquired, with good teaching, in tw^o or three years. The 
undue emphasis put upon arithmetic is due to our exaggerated 
idea of the value of accuracy. We hal)itually demand of children 
a degree of accuracy which we as adults seldom possess or find 
it necessary to possess. We teachers seem to have a peculiar 
horror for gaps in the education of our children; as though a 
fact not learned today never would be learned, and would some- 
how be a stumbling block for future success and happiness. Un- 
til I visited a school-room once last year, I never knew that there 
were five distinct kinds of decimals, — finite decimals, infinite 
decimals, circulating decimals, pure-circulating decimals, and 
mixed-circulating decimals. When I realized suddenly that I 
had been using decimals for several years in making up a school 
register or calculating the interest on my little bank account, 
ignorant of this hiatus in my knowledge, the discovery came like 
the shock of a lost opportunity, never to be regained. How 
many of us have been seriously handicapped because we never 
knew all the capes on the coast of North and South America in 
their order? It is thoroughness in such non-essentials as these 
that make school life a burden to many a child. No wonder a 
bright boy frequently brings us to our senses by the query: 
**What's the use in learning all that stuff?" It isn't a matter of 
great importance that a child know the name and location of all 
the capitals in the United States. Few adults, except professional 
teachers, know them. Capitals are frequently insignificant places 
from a geographical point of view. It is as useless, also, to teach 
children carefully the boundary of Patagonia or the Soudan. 

i8o The Association Review. 

There is no mental training in such work, nor are the facts them- 
selves of any sig^nificance. Thoroughness is a lame excuse for 
such teaching. In both arithmetic and geography there are 
things far more important than these. Under ordinary con- 
ditions a pupil has 1600 lessons in arithmetic during his passage 
through our elementary schools. The French boy during his 
elementary course has about one-third as many. Yet, as Presi- 
dent EJiot says, "The French are quite as skillful with numbers 
as the Americans." The subject of arithmetic can be shortened 
one-half, and, at the same time, greatly enriched by cutting 
out unnecessary and confusing distinctions in topics, by reduc- 
ing the number of examples to be worked, by avoiding all un- 
necessary puzzles, and by more skillful teaching. 

What Business Men Think is Needed — From the Min- 
neapolis Times. 

Not very long ago the New York State Teachers' Associa- 
tion inaugurated some very interesting investigations relating 
to the effectiveness of public school work in their state. They 
sent queries to four hundVed and nine prominent business men 
and asked these men to say from personal observation whether 
the schools, as now organized, properly prepared children to 
earn their living, and in what way instruction might be improved 
to that end. 

We have not room to quote the consensus of opinion upon 
all the various queries asked, such consensus appearing in a re- 
cent number of the Commercial-Advertiser, but the following 
suggestions strike us as being particularly forcible and valuable 
to all who have official connection with public schools: 

Insist on accuracy in arithmetic. 

Have more male teachers. 

Teach bovs "how to think." 

Have lectures by successful business men. 

Give us practical arithmetic. 

Special instruction to defectives must be provided. 

Make the English work practical as well as cultural. 

Have a gymnasium in every school. 

Favor restriction rather than expansion of the course. 

Of the four hundred and nine men very few failed to have a 
good word for the high schools. Most of the men sard they 
would prefer a high school graduate, other things bemg equal. 
All, however, were in favor of greater care in the primary grades 
and all recognized that without a good foundation the superstruc- 
ture would be unsatisfactory. 

The Institution Press. 

Compulsory Education and Its Relation to the Defective 

The following is part of a paper read by Mr. Henry W. 
Rothert, Superintendent of the Iowa School for the Deaf, be- 
fore the Quarterly Conference of the Board of Control and 
Superintendents^ at Des Moines, and printed in the Hawkeye. 
After a full and convincing exposition of the merits and obliga- 
tions of compulsory education in general, and the Iowa law in 
particular, he makes this powerful plea for the deaf and othei 
defective classes : 

The law is not as broad and extending as it might be, not 
covering all cases of voluntary or enforced absenteeism, nor is 
it as definite in its coercive restrictions as its most ardent 
friends would desire. It must be regarded as the pioneer meas- 
ure recognizing and incorporating into our statutes the 
principles of Compulsory Education. 

In its enforcement errors, omissions, and imperfections 
will be discovered and the same remedied, inserted, or removed 
by future legislation. 

The term "proper mental and physical condition" should be 
modified and qualified. It is here where the line pf distinction 
is drawn. These words form the verdict which sends the normal 
child to the opening portals of enlightening education, while it 
commits the defective child to within prison bars of debasing 

The more favored brother and sister by the strong arm of 
the law are removed from careless, indifferent supervision, while 
the less favored having no legal rights are compelled to remain 
where no authority can reach, no law protect. 

The child who through sickness, accident or inheritance 
wanders in mental darkness, or who in visionless apathy ex- 
periences only its animal cravings, or who isolated and alone is 
beyond the reach of the human voice, is certainly entitled to legal 
protection, to legal assistance. 

1 82 The Association Review. 

The mental germ can be stimulated and developed, the 
morbid apathy of a sightless soul changed to an intelligent 
realization of a spiritual existence, and the cheerless isolation 
dissolved into conditions surrounding a social, intellectual and 
moral being. 

True, the developing processes are different, and certain 
temporary or permanent physical deficiencies may debar the 
attendance of a defective child, at what is commonly termed 
the public school, yet, recognizing the rights of this class, as 
well as protecting the community at large, the state has erected 
and IS maintaining institutions and schools in which special 
methods for their betterment, improvement and education are 
practised. The doors of these institutions and schools are open 
and room provided for all. Why not compel the attendance of 
every child ready to enter? 

Why exempt from the operations of a beneficent law a 
class for whom compulsory attendance means more by far than 
it does for the majority? 

With ignorant and vicious parents it is the defective child 
which is made the target of outbursts of temper and passion, 
which is chained down to the menial servitude of exacting 
drudgery and which when by animal instincts it escapes from the 
cutting stingfs of the parental lash, becomes a prey in the outer 
world to immorality, vice and crime. 

But there is another class of parents far different in type 
and disposition, whom no intelligent appeal will influence, no 
picture of the darkened future of their child attract, who are 
glided only by their emotions and whom only the enforced re- 
quirement of such a law can reach. Actuated by parental love, 
centering their affections upon the defective child, separation 
from it is nigh to sajring "good bye for ever." 

Years come and go and that darling child is retained at 
home, growing up in comparative ignorance to be in after life 
a shame and a curse to that weak yet loving household. Strange 
as this may appear, many such cases come under the observa- 
tion of those connected with institutions for defective youth. 

At the opening of our school this year a deaf boy lo years 
of age was brought from a distant part of the state by his father 
who had thus been prevailed upon by his neighbors and the 
minister of his church. Remaining with us a day, and return- 
ing the following day, he sought and received all pertinent in- 
formatioTi, visited school rooms, dining room and dormitories. 
conversed freely with officers and teachers and became so 
satisfied and impressed that he thanked God such a school ex- 

The Institution Press. 183 

isted within the boundaries of Iowa. The boy was duly en- 
rcdled, sent to his class and was contented. 

But when the parting hour arrived, the dread of separation 
overshadowed the father's judgment and holding tenactily his 
boy by the hand, with tears gushing forth profusely he said : 
"It is all right but I cannot leave him, I must take him home 
again." He left with his boy. For that father a compulsory 
law is humane^ for that boy a right. 

There is yet another class of homes so called at the hearth- 
stones of which stands the destitude defective child in utter 
desolation and helplessness. 

. It is where the illiterate foreign immigrant has his abode 
and rears his children. A stranger to our customs and institu- 
tions, shiftless and careless as to the future, governed solely by 
self, he pays no heed to the conditions of his ever increasing 
family save and except when the members thereof can con- 
tribute to hrs own desires, gratify his own appetite and provide 
for his selfish indolence and comfort. 

His feeble-minded, blind or deaf child is as rubbish in that 
unholy hovel, treated as unclean and as an interference, as the 
whims of superstition or the whiles of debauchery may prompt. 

Should not the law in its majesty interfere and wrest from 
the clutches of such degrading influences and surroundings the 
innocent though defective, the poor but human child? 

In passing may we express the hope that the measure now 
pending before congress to debar all illiterates be speedily 
passed and approved. 

Not so with the intelligent foreigner who seeks iti a free 
country the future happiness and welfare of his children. He 
soon identifies himself with church and school, perhaps that 
church in which he can worship according to the dictates of his 
own conscience and that school that is presided over by his 
own countrymen, and yet even with many of these there is an 
unwarranted disposition to retain the defective child at home, 
either by reason of ignorance as to the blessings extended by 
our public institutions or through fear the child (as partly at 
least in the case of the deaf) will acquire a language different 
from its mother tongue. 

To all such a compulsory law would be no hardship: on the 
contrary by the machinery of its enforcement a knowledge of 
the advantages and results of methods and training for the de- 
fective classes would be brought to their own, yea to every fire- 
side. The information so transmitted would be accomplished 
by the mandatory order to avail themselves of the opportunites 
offered and provided for. 

184 The Association Review. 

Concerning admission to the Institution for Feeble-minded 
Children^ the organic law provides "every child and youth re- 
siding within the state, between the ages of five and twenty-one, 
who by reason of deficient intellect is rendered unable to acquire 
an education in the common schools is entitled to receive the 
physical and mental training and care of this institution at the 
expense of the state." 

The wording should be changed so as to read in substance 
"every child, etc., must receive physical and mental training at 
this institution or elsewhere at the expense of the state or at the 
cost of the person responsible for said child or youth." 

Why compel the taxpayers of Iowa to establish and main- 
tain an institution, the advantages of which can be accepted or 
rejected according to the inclination or whims of a small min- 
ority of its population? 

Why not protect the property holder in his forced invest- 
ment and reimburse him by the return of interest in relief and 

Relief as to the daily observance of and occasional con- 
tact with the so-called "lower grades" and protection from the 
irresponsible acts and possible irregularities of the immature 
and undeveloped at the time and in the future. 

And as to the child, let the mandatory power of the state 
extend over this defenceless, unfortunate one, superceding the 
authority of the parent, and vouchsafing a chance at least for 
a possible release from the bondage restraining its imprisoned 
soul and in accordance with a more than human mandate: "In- 
asmuch as you have done it unto one of the least of these you 
have done it unto me." 

The law establishing and making provi-sions for the govern- 
ment and maintenance of the College for the Blind recognizes 
the right of these sightless children to an education at the ex- 
pense of the state. With this class no mental deficiency retards 
the developing processes, the germ of intelligence rests with the 
blind as with the seeing and they are as responsive to intellec- 
tual training as their more fortunate brothers and sisters. 

The fact that there are comparatively few in any community 
can not be urged as a reason why a compulsory attendance law 
should not be made applicable to them. If "Education is in the 
highest sense the charge of political society, an important 
agency for the promotion of morals and an assurance for con- 
tinued progress for everything that is wise and beneficent in 
our present civilization," then society in organized government 
should see to it that no exemptions whatever be permitted 
and that no local influence of any kind deprive any child of the 

opportunities offered. 

The Institution Press. 185 

Providing opportunities and not compelling their accep- 
tance is like tilling the soil and not putting in the seed. 

Education is a greater boon for the deaf than perhaps for 
any other class of children. Totally debarred from intercourse 
with the speaking world by reason of his want of means of com- 
munication in infancy and early youth, he pleadingly follows in 
anxious but mute expectancy or obedience the awkward gestures 
and facial contortions of his kindred. His mental faculties im- 
planted by an all wise Providence lie dormant by reason of the 
unyielding crust surrounding, and unless relieved he is con- 
demned to a helpless life of mental inactivity and silent, hopeless 
seclusion. But when the crust is broken, an avenue to reach 
his inner soul provided, when means are placed at his command 
by which he can receive the impression of a dawning intelli- 
gence, he readily extends his receptive condition, and soon casts 
off the shell of ig^norance and darkness, assumitig his rightful 
position as a youth in pursuit of knowledge and consequent hap- 
piness. His defect (want of hearing) is no longer a bar to his 
mental development, and entering the race with his normal con- 
temporaries he presses steadily forward and onward reaching 
the goal at the same place while perhaps not at the same time. 
After which engaging in the avocations of daily life, surround- 
ing himself with the comforts of a happy home^ accepted in in- 
telligent society and endowed with the priceless inheritance of 
American citizenship he becomes the peer and equal of his fellow 
men. Should such a child with a such a future be restricted 
and restrained by reason of the indifference, ignorance, greed 
or sentiment of its parent? 

In many of the European countries where the principles of 
compulsory education obtain, its sheltering folds are extended 
over the defective and the normal child alike. In our country 
but few states of the Union have recognized either the rights 
of the defective child or the community in which it lives or may 
live by authoritatively requiring his or her attendance at schools 
erected and maintained for their improvement and betterment. 
If the writer is correctly informed there is upon the statute 
books of only three states a compulsory law for the Deaf. It 
may be pertinent at the ending for the purposes of this paper 
to quote from one of these, the Oregon Law, as follows : 

"Whereas the State has provided an institution for the 
free instruction of all resident deaf-mute children of lawful 
school age, every parent, guardian or person having control of 
any child or children afflicted with deafness, shall be required 
under the penalties hereinafter specified, to send such child or 
children to said institution for a period of not less than six (6) 

1 86 The Association Review. 

months of each year between the ages of eight and sixteen years 
unless children be taught in a private school, etc. etc. 

"There being no law compelling and requiring that deaf- 
mutes attend the deaf-mute school, and it being for the best 
interests of the people of the State that these children should 
be properly educated, this act will take effect and be in full force 
from and after the approval by the Governor." 

[Note — Approved, February, 1891.] 

In conclusion may I express the hope that these footprints 
thus clearly defined upon the golden shore of the Pacific Ocean, 
may erelong also be found upon the fertile prairies of Iowa — 
and that justice holding the scales with impartial hands will se- 
cure an equal poise as between the necessities of those endowed 
with a full measure of human senses, and the needs of those 
who though less favored by the possibilities of their future, add 
weight and consideration. 

The Summer Meeting. 

The directors for the American Association to Promote 
the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf at a recent meeting decided, 
according to the Silent Hoosier, to hold a summer meeting in 
Boston this year so as to enable those wishing to attend to take 
advantagfe of the low rates to the convention of the National 
Educational Association which also meets in that city. This is 
a very proper and wise move. If the meeting must be held in 
the east it is much the best plan to have it coincident with the 
great national educational gathering, or immediately there- 
after, so that we of the west and southwest can afford to attend 
and attend too without being out half a year's salary. We cer- 
tainly feel under obligations to the officers of the Association for 
this action. It is a course that we have advocated in season 
and out for years. The Association may rely upon a respec- 
table delegation from Texas. Another very important thing 
the directors have decided upon is the holding of a summer 
school for the training of teachers in speech. This enterprise 
has been discussed and contemplated for several years. It was 
decided to have a school last summer on condition that a certain 
number pledged themselves to take the course and pay the tui- 
tion, but it failed to materialize for the reason that the required 
support was apparently not forthcoming. The reason for this 
lack of sufficient support was, as we maintained at the time, that 
the estimated expense to the teachers was placed too high. 

The Institution Press. 187 

Both the proposed tuition and the estimated cost of board was 
too high for teachers of ordinary means, the very ones who need 
to and would, under more favorable circumstances, avail them- 
selves of the instruction offered. We trust that the plans for 
this year contemplate an expense within the reach of a greater 
number. At any rate, we feel very hopeful as to the successful 
issue of this year's venture. If the figures are not altogether 
too high-toned the Association may expect quite a number of 
teachers from Texas to take the course. We believe in pro- 
gress down here and in securing the best of everything that we 
can afford. There was one feature in last year's plan which 
we believe was hardly a wise one. It was the one requiring 
teachers to have had one year's experience before they are 
eligible to take the course. This, in our opinion, should be 
abandoned, or at least modified. It bars out persons qualified 
in every other particular but that of experience who wish to 
enter the profession. Besides, it encourages the very practice 
which the Association should make it its object to break up, 
that of the employment by the schools of untrained teachers. 
If the Association does not wish to assume the responsibility 
of training green hands for a few weeks and then turning them 
out with a certificate to teach, they might require such to come 
for two summers before securing a certificate of proficiency. 
In other words, they might have a course for inexperienced 
teachers different from that for those who have had previous 
experience or give them thorough preliminary training the 
first year and let them take the course provided for teachers of 
experience the second year. By adopting such a policy the 
constantly increasing demand for trained oral teachers could 
be met and the Association would be instrumental in raising the 
general level of ability employed in teaching speech, an attain- 
ment which is or should be one of the primary aims of the As- 
sociation. — The Lone Star Weekly. 

Is Normal Sight Necessary? 

Our attention has been called to the report of a school for 
the deaf in which the superintendent makes the assertion that 
only six per cent, of the pupils of that school are incapable of 
oral instruction. "Such instruction," writes the friend who 
brought the statement to our notice, "presupposes normal vis- 
ion. Is there ninety-four per cent, of pupils in any kind of 
school with such vision?" 

1 88 The Association Review, 

This brings up the question, "Is normal vision necessary to 
the success of the oral method?" We have not statistics at 
hand on the subject of vision among school children, but have 
seen assertions that in some schools wherein careful examina- 
tions have been made as high as forty per cent, of the pupils have 
been found with defective sight. Such statements, however, 
must be taken with consideration of the fact that there might 
exist slight abnormalities in the eyes of the children which were 
discoverable by the methods of examination^ but which really 
are so slight as to offer no interference to the free use of the or- 
gan, and for practical purposes might be considered not to exist 
at all. But we believe from personal observation that in any 
school, deaf or hearing, will be found more than six per cent, 
of the pupils whose vision is so defective as seriously to inter- 
fere with their work. If, then, defective sight is a thing which 
prevents success in oral training, the case is made against the 
school which claims that only six per cent, of its pupils do not 
succeed by oral methods. 

But is normal sight necessary to such success ? To this 
our answer must be no. In the oral departments of every 
school for the deaf will be found pupils who wear glasses, and 
others who should. We have known adults who were very de- 
fective in sight to be excellent speech-readers and children who 
had to have seats closest to the teacher in the school-room 
who stood second to none in the class in their ability in that 
line. There seems to be something beyond the mere ability to 
see the movements of the lips and tongue which enables some 
to interpret those movements into speech. Just what this is has 
never been satisfactorily explained, and those interested fall 
back upon the time-worn and hackneyed remark, "Speech- 
readers are born, not made." There is a mental quality apart 
from alertness, educational attainments, or reasoning power, — 
a sort of instantaneous responsiveness to visual impressions 
which is not wholly dependent upon keeness of vision, — ^that 
makes a speech-reader. Fortunate indeed is he who possesses 
the faculty. To those who do not, speech-reading may be 
learned and practised with pleasure and profit, but not with the 
highest success. — The Silent Hoosier. 

The Retirement of Hon. R. A. Mott. 

The Minnesota Companion of February ii tells of the 
retirement of Judge R. A. Mott from the Board of Directors 
of the State Schools for the Deaf and the Blind, the Governor 

The InstUution Press. 189 

having farled to reappoint him on the expiration of his term, 
January i. The Companion speaks as follows of his connection 
with these institutions: 

Judge Mott's official connection with the Faribault state 
institutions has been completed by the act of the State Execu- 
tive. But so long as those three great and useful institutions 
continue to exist and do their work, just so long will his name 
stand forth prominently in their history. He presided at their 
birth; he fostered them in the days of their infancy and weak- 
ness; and he glorified in their strength and achievements as 
years brought stability. 

Hon. R. A. Mott was one of the three original Commis- 
sioners appointed, in 1863, to establish a school for the deaf 
and blind in Faribault. The other two Commissioners gave 
little time or thought to the matter, so that almost the whole 
work devolved upon Mr. Mott. Those early years of the school 
were most trying ones, and might well have daunted a less de- 
termined spirit than that of Mr. Mott. But the man who had 
fought his way through life from early boyhood against heavy 
odds, proved himself equal to the occasion, and the three great 
institutions that have grown from the small wooden store build- 
ing containing seven pupils in 1863, are the result of his labors. 

From his appointment as Commissioner in 1863 until his 
retirement, Mr. Mott has served continuously, except for a 
brief period in the sixties. It constitutes a course of nearly 
forty years in the service of the state. No question of his in- 
tegrity has been raised in all those years and we believe that 
no man has ever served the State of Minnesota so long, so 
efficiently, and so faithfully, with so little material return to 




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The following statistics have been compiled from the Annals 
in the same manner as in former years. In the Annals the vari- 
ous schools are recorded according to methods of instruction 
used as Combined^ Oral, Manual, Manual Alphabet and Oral- 
Manual Alphabet. The Combined System schools employ all 
methods that have been found adyantageous in educating the 
deaf, many of the pupils being taught entirely by speech in the 
class room. But it is generally understood that all or nearly all 
the schools reported in the Annals as Combined recognize and 
use the sign language for chapel services, public addresses, lec- 
tures, etc., although in many of them it is restricted or even ex- 
cluded from the classroom. The Manual schools are similar to 
the Combined except that for lack of means or other untoward 
circumstances, they are unable to give instruction in speech. 
Manual Alphabet schools use the manual alphabet but reject 
the sign-language in and out of the classroom. Those recorded 
as Oral schools are supposed to exclude both the sign-language 
and the manual alphabet, although in point of fact this is not 
strictly the case in some of them. 

Those classed as Oral-Manual Alphabet are understood to 
use the Oral and Manual Alphabet methods in separate depart- 
ments and to exclude the sign-language. But in the Illinois 
Institution the sign-language is still used for chapel services, 
etc., practically as in other Combined schools, and therefore in 
these statistics this school is included among those that use the 


The Association Rczncw. 

By adding together the number of pupils in the various 
kinds of schools, we have the following for the year 1902: 
I. Sign-language used: 

Pupils in Combined Schools 8250 

** in Manual Schools 105 

*' in Illinois Institution 481 

8839 or 80.7% 

2. Manual Alphabet, but no sign-language : 

Pupils in Western Pennsylvania Institution 178 

'* in Mt. Airy, Manual Department 81 

209 or 1.8% 

3. No Sign-language, no Manual Alphabet: 

Pupils in Oral Schools 1433 

'* in Mt. Airy, Oral Department 471 

1904 or 17.5% 

10952 iro.0% 

Tabular statement of sign-language in American schools 
for the deaf from 1900 to 1902 inclusive. 



Sign Lan- 
guage used. 

Manual Al- 
phabet but no 
sign language. 

No sign lan- 
guage. No 
Manual Al- 












1900, Nov. 10. . . . 
19 Jl, Nov. 10.... 
1902, Nov 10... 





16 8% 


— 1 




The Ann I Elsewhere in this issue will be found the call 

Meetl ^^^ ^^^ Annual Meeting of the American 

Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf. It has been decided not to hold a Summer 
Meeting, as it is felt that few teachers would care to attend both 
it and the meeting of Department XVI (The Department of 
Special Education) of the N. E. A.^and the Association does not 
wish to interfere in any way with the work of that organization. 

The purpose in holditig the Annual Meeting in Boston at 
the time determined upon is to take advantage of the reduced 
rates offered in connection with the convention of the National 
Educational Association to assure a large attendance for the 
consideration of important questions affecting the future work 
of the American Association. It is also desired to encourage 
members to become affiliated with the Department of Special 
Education and with the general body of educators. 

The Department has not, in the past, received the en- 
couragement it deserved from teachers of the deaf. This was 
no doubt largely due to its unfortunate designation as "The De- 
partment for the Deaf and Dumb, Blind, and Feeble-Minded." 
The change of name and the enlargement of its purpose — ^to 
consider methods of education for all children demanding special 
means of instruction — makes it now a dignified and important 
section of the general educational association. 

Teachers of the deaf, of the blind^ and of the feeble-minded 
each have their own conventions for the consideration of their 
special work. It would not be possible for the Department 
meetings to take the place of these, nor is it intended that they 
shall do so. The object, as stated in the platform adopted at the 
last meeting, is, "To bring persons engaged in the education of 
children requiring special methods of instruction into contact 
and affiliation with teachers in general for the interchange of 
ideas for mutual benefit," 

198 The Association Review. 

This association with educators of normal children will be 
of great advantage to teachers of the deaf; it will be broadening, 
strengthening, educative; it will help to keep them out of ruts 
and increase their efficiency in a hundred ways. It should ever 
be borne in mind that we are training our children to take their 
place among normal men and women, on as nearly as possible 
an equal footing. It is the public schools that fix the standard 
of attainment, and a knowledge of what they are doing and pro- 
pose to do is the best possible g^ide for determining the direc- 
tion and the end of our own efforts. 

It is proposed to send classes of the deaf and the blind to 
the St. Louis Exposition to exhibit before the general public 
the processes of their education and their attainments. That is 
good : even in the midst of the numerous attractions and dis- 
tractions of an occasional great exposition people will learn 
something of our work and will carry away a better idea of what 
is being done for these children. But it will be better by far if, 
year after year, by argument and by visual demonstration, it be 
impressed upon the great body of educated men and women 
from all parts of the country who compose the N. E. A. that our 
institutions are schools, and that our graduates are fitted to dis- 
charge intelligently their duties to self and to society. It .will 
not only benefit our schools by bringing them additional pupils 
and more liberal support^ and the teachers by the enhanced con- 
sideration in which they will be held, but will make smoother 
the path of many adult deaf and blind by correcting misunder- 
standings of their condition and capabilities. 

General teachers and the normal child will also benefit by 
the meetings of the Department, but on that point we shall not 
speak at present, merely referring our readers to the ad- 
dresses before the last convention published in the Review of 
October, 1902. What we wish is to impress upon all teachers of 
the deaf the importance of availing themselves of this opportu- 
nity to be enrolled in the ranks of one of the largest and most 
progressive bodies of educators in the world. To do so is not 
only a high privilege, but a duty they owe to themselves, to their 
pupils, and to the cause they serve. S. G, D. 

Editorial. 199 

No one will be found to question the value 
iiui} I ^^ system, whether in business or in study. 

In the daily routine of life, we must have a 
fixed time for every duty, a regular place for every article. 

So in our studies, although all truth is one, we must for 
convenience mark off certain boundaries to define the fields of 
geography^ arithmetic, grammar and the rest, and these fields 
we must cultivate in a fixed order, to ensure regularity and 
thoroughness in our work. 

Yet there is in education a danger that systematization 
may be carried too far. 

Education is a growth^ and while growth usually moves 
steadily on under fixed conditions, it receives, from time to time, 
irregular impulses which sweep it on at many times its usual 
rate. At such times the customary fixed regimen must be made 
to bend somewhat, if the best results are to be obtained. 

In teaching we do well to take up one head of the subject 
after another in regular order, to make sure that nothing is over- 

But we ought, at the same time, to keep well in hand our 
reserves, whatever facts we may know about this universe, and 
constantly to keep in exercise the co-ordinating power of the 
mind to seize upon and bring forward whatever truth, from 
whatever quarter, will shed light upon the topic under con- 

And very often the illuminating truth may be something 
apparently very far removed from the point in hand. 

A side glance often takes in a little detail missed by a full 
gaze; a fire on flank may sweep away resistance that would 
check the most determined assault in front. 

That teaching of a subject which confines itself to the text- 
book, or to the strictly logical development of facts, gives, as 
it were, only the ground plan and elevation of the edifice. We 
should have these accurate "to the nail," and as well, a picture 
which includes atmosphere, perspective, color and light and 
shade. It is the side lights from other sources than the book, 
from other, often remote, fields of study that give us all this 
wealth of effect. 

200 The Association Review. 

This consideration should be a powerful incentive to study. 
How well we could teach anything if we knew everything ! 

Are we dealing in our work with a subject of study so 
simple that it seems hardly worthy of occupying our best ef- 
forts ? 

But if we could know it, like Tennyson's flower in the cran- 
nied wall, roots and all and all in all, we should know what God 
is and man is. Weston Jenkins. 

The newspapers have of late contained lengthy 
The Acoasticoo and enthusiastic reports of demonstrations 

made of the merits of the "Acousticon," which 
is said to be a great improvement on the "Akoulalion" and the 
"Akouphone/' devised by the inventor of these instruments, Mr. 
Miller Reese Hutchison. A letter of inquiry as to in what re- 
spects it differs from the instruments with which the profession 
has been made familiar through numerous exhibitions at schools 
and conventions has brought the following reply from Mr. Cur- 
rier, Principal of the New York School, who has seen it tested : 

Dear Sir : — In reply to your favor of yesterday, making 
inquiry concerning the "Acousticon," and wherein it differs from 
the "Akoulalion" or "Akouphone," I would state that so far as 
I am able to determine, the difference consists in portability and 
adjustability, by which I mean that the size of the mstruction 
outfit has been reduced from the cabinet or case to a hand size, 
and that the corresponding instrument to the "Akouphone" has 
been made adjustable to various degrees of carrying power, so 
that it will be to the ear what the various styles of lenses are to 
the eye. Other than that, there is no difference between it and 
the first instruments of Mr. Hutchison. 

I might add that he has succeeded in perfecting a battery 
which is so small as to make it easy to be carried; the battery 
of course being the foundation upon which the effectiveness of 
the instruments rests. Very truly yours, 

Enoch Henry Currier. 

It is encouraging to know that the instrument has been im- 
proved, for we are thus warranted in hoping that the principle 
upon which it works is a sound one and that it may ultimately be 
so perfected as to provide relief in many cases of deafness that 
have been considered hopeless. S, G, D, 

Editarial. 201 


A request made to Mr. Edward E. Allen, President of the 
Department of Special Education, N. E. A., for information 
regarding the meeting in Boston next summer^ has brought the 
following reply : 

Overbrook, Pa., March 29, 1903. 
Mr. S. G. Davidson, 

Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

My Dear Sir : — ^Arrangements have not yet been perfected 
for the coming meeting in Boston of the National Educational 
Association. However, much has already been done, and the 
program of the Department of Special Education is in good 
shape though not quite ready for publication. 

The meetings will take place within the five days, July 6 to 
10, 1903. You will infer from the enclosed folder that the exact 
time and place of the department meetings have not been an- 

On January i and 2, 1903, the Department Presidents met 
President Eliot in Boston and besides discussing matters of de- 
tail, received from him several instructions. Thus each De- 
partment will meet in two morning sessions, bringing them into 
unusual prominence. The full program of every Department 
will present but four (4) general topics, each of which is to be 
treated in two (2) papers of twenty (20) minutes and discussed 
in four (4) papers of seven (7) minutes each. General discus- 
sion will be invited after each topic has been treated as above 

The topics for the Department of Special Education are : 

1. The influence of the study of the unusual child upon the 
teaching of the usual. 

2. Should the scope of the public school system be broad- 
ened to take in all children capable of education and, if so, how 
should this be done ? 

3. How can the term "charitable" be justly applied to the 
education of any children ? 

4. What do teachers need to know about sense defects 
and impediments ? Messages from specialists in medicine. 

Each topic will be presented and discussed by strong 
speakers, and it is hoped that the meetings will be well attended. 
Assurances come from every quarter that the Boston Conven- 
tion will be the largest in the history of the Association. Here 

202 The Association Review. 

is a magnificent opportunity for bringing "persons engaged in 
the education of children requiring special means of instruction 
into contact and affiliation with teachers in general for the inter- 
change of ideas for mutual benefit." 

Very truly yours, 

Edward E. Allen, 

President, Department of Special Education, N. E. A, 



The Forty-second Annual Convention of the National 
Educational Association will be held in Boston, Mass., July 
6-IO, 1903. 

The usual rate of one fare for the round trip, plus the $2.00 
membership fee, has been granted by the railway lines of the 
New England Passenger Association, and will doubtless be con- 
curred in by all railway lines of the United States and Canada. 
Tickets will be extended for return until September ist on the 
usual deposit plan. 

The Local Convention Commmittee at Boston is now fully 
organized and has already formed extensive plans for the busi- 
ness and the entertainment of the Convention. 

Edward R. Warren, of Boston, has been appointed Secre- 
tary and Chairman of the Local Executive Committee, and, with 
several assistants, will have entire charge of all local convention 

All sessions of the seventeen departments will be held in 
halls and churches in the immediate vicinity of Copley Square. 
The general sessions will be held in the large auditorium of the 
Massachusetts Mechanics Association. 

No single hotel will be chosen as general headquarters, but 
the various states will establish their respective headquarters in 
the several hotels about Copley Square, thus insuring superior 
accommodations not only for headquarters rooms but for the 
members from each state who may desire excellent and reason- 
able hotel entertainment. 

EdUarial. 203 

Unusual opportunities will be furnished members for visi- 
ting the various points of interest m and about Boston. To this 
end all sessions of the Convention will be held in forenoons and 
evenings only, leaving the afternoons free for recreation and ex- 
cursions. These afternoon excursions will be under the direc- 
tion of the Local Convention Committee and will be provided 
with a sufficient number of expert guides to secure the utmost 
profit as well as entertainment. 

All department meetings will occur in the mornings and 
the general sessions in the evenings, thus bringing the depart- 
ment sessions into unusual prominence. In view of this arrange- 
ment a meeting of the Department Presidents was recently held 
in Boston for conference with President Eliot to arrange the 
most profitable programs for department meetings. 

The railway and steamship lines terminal in Boston, give 
assurances of extensive and attractive excursions, following the 
convention, at low rates, to all the seacoast, island, mountain, 
and lake resorts of New England, and of eastern Canada, in- 
cluding Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland. 

Assurances come from every quarter that the Boston con- 
vention will be the largest in the history of the Association. No 
effort will be spared by the citizens of Boston, the Local Con- 
vention Committee, and the officers of the Association to make 
it also the best. 

All active members are especially requested to co-operate 
with their respective state directors in organizing parties for the 
Boston Convention. 

The Program-Bulletin will be issued earlier than usual, and 
will contain full details as to the railroad and hotel rates, local 
and after-convention excursions, rates of living at New England 
resorts, and full details as to the convention programs. Copies 
may be obtained after April ist, on application to the under- 

Application for entertainment in Boston, or for other local 
information, should be addressed to Secretary, Edward R. 
Warren, Room 701, No. 60 State street, Boston, Mass. 

Irwin Shepherd, Secretary, N. E. A., 

Winona, Minn. 

204 The Association Review, 



To THE Members of the American Association to Promote 
THE Teaching of Speech to the Deaf: 

The thirteenth Annual Meeting of the American Associ- 
ation to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf will be 
held in Boston, Mass., at the Horace Mann School, No. 178 
Newbury Street, on Saturday, the nth of July, at 10 o'clock 
A. M. 

The special business will be the election of three Direc- 
tors to serve for three years in place of the retiring Directors 
whose terms expire in 1903, viz., Alexander Graham Bell, Mrs. 
Gardiner G. Hubbard, and A. L. K Crouter. 

The question of enlarging the Board of Directors will also 
come up for consideration, and the proposed amendments to the 
constitution offered at the last meeting of the Association, and 
published in The Association Review, Vol. IV, page 410, will 
come up for action. 

The question of the advisability of establishing a summer 
school for the training of articulation teachers will also come 
up for discussion, and the Committee on the summer school will 
report to the Association at large. The subject of future meet- 
ings of the Association will be considered in connection with 
the project for the summer school. 

It has been decided to hold the Annual Meeting in Boston, 
in order to afford the members the opportunity of attending the 
meetings of the National Educational Association, to be held 
m that city, July 6 to 10, 1903. In order to secure reduced rail- 
road rates, members should be in Boston not later than the 7th 
of July. For information concerning the N. E. A., address Mr. 
Irwin Shepherd, Secretary, N. E. A., Winona, Minnesota. 

The headquarters of the American Association to Promote 
the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf will be established at the 
Copley Square Hotel, where our Local Committee have made 
arrangements for the accommodation of members at reasonable 
rates, provided those who intend to take advantage of this ar- 
rangement will write at once to the hotel for reservations. 

Editorial. 205 

Through the courtesy of the authorities of the Horace 
Mann School, the school building — which is conveniently lo- 
cated — ^will be thrown open during the morning hours as a meet- 
ing place for the members of the Association. 

For further particulars concerning local arrangements, ad- 
dress Miss Sarah Fuller, Chairman of the Local Committee, 
Horace Mann School, Boston, Mass. 

Arrangements are being made for a banquet to be held in 
Boston on the evening of Friday^ July loth (the closing day of 
of the N. E. A.). A reasonable charge will be made to members 
who desire to attend, and prominent members of the N. E. A. 
will be invited as guests of the Association. 

On the following morning, Saturday, July nth, the Annual 
Business Meeting of the Association will be held as stated 
above. It has not been considered advisable on the present oc- 
casion to conduct a regularly organized Summer Meeting with 
sessions for the reading of papers, etc., as such proceedings 
would duplicate in some respects those of the Department of 
Special Education of the N. E. A. The Association desires to 
co-operate in every way with the Department of Special Edu- 
cation, and not be in any sense a rival to it. 

(Signed) Alexander Graham Bell, 

President of A. A, P. T. S, D, 
Z. F. Westervelt, 1331 Connecticut Avenue, 

Secretary, Washington, D. C. 

School for the Deaf, Rochester, N. Y. 


School work prepared by the deaf and the blind does not 
differ materially from that prepared by normal children. Visitors 
at an exposition notice the similarity of this work, but cannot 
conceive of the widely different processes by which it is pro- 
duced; neither can they appreciate the disadvantages which 
handicap the deaf and the blind. It is not what these pupils are 
taught, but how they are taught, that most interests the public. 

2o6 The Association Review. 

Model Schools. — ^The Exposition authorities have decided 
to provide accomodations for model schools for the deaf and 
for the blind, which will be maintained from June i until De- 
cember I, 1904. The Committee representing the Convention 
of American Instructors of the Deaf and the Committee repre- 
senting the American Association of Instructors of the Blind will 
assist in organizing and managing these schools. It is the policy 
of these committees that all methods of instruction shall be fairly 
represented. They have adopted the following plans : 

There will be two model schools, one for the deaf and the 
other for the blind. Thirty rooms or spaces (fifteen for each 
school) will be reserved in the Palace of Education. About 
twenty-two of these spaces (eleven for each school) will be oc- 
cupied by classes. This will require the presence of at least 
ninety pupils and twenty-two teachers each day the schools are 
in operation. The total number of pupils present at any one 
time will not exceed 120. Each class will be conducted with the 
least number of pupils possible to illustrate the method involved, 
and will in no case exceed six pupils. Only classes will be ac- 
cepted where the method used differs from the processes ordi- 
narily followed in public school work. 

Representation. — Any State may send two classes^ one of the 
deaf and the other of the blind, for a period of one or two months. 
Eleven or more States may thus be represented at the same time. 
As the classes change every month or two, all States will have an 
opportunity of being represented. Some States have expressed 
a desire to represent more schools and others to send more 
classes or to occupy more time. As there are 40 schools for the 
blind and 123 for the deaf, there should be no difficulty in filling 
the time and the space. Arrangements can be made for institu- 
tions to send classes not listed in the diagram, provided applica- 
tions are made in time. 

Dormitory. — A convenient dormitory with playgrounds will 
be provided by the Exposition Company. Experienced matrons, 
supervisors, and attendants will be selected or approved by the 
committees. Every convenience and precaution possible will be 
employed for the safety and the comfort of the children. The 
teacher representing an institution will be responsible for his or 

Editorial. 207 

her pupils from the time they leave the dormitory for school until 
they return, when they will be placed under the care of experi- 
enced supervisors. If desirable a school may send a supervisor 
to take charge of its pupils outside of school hours and accom- 
pany them about the grounds. 

Expenses. — Furniture for the dormitory will be made in the 
cabinet shops of institutions and loaned to the schools, unless 
otherwise provided. The products of the industrial classes will 
be sold as souvenirs to pay for the raw material used. The total 
expenses incurred by the committees for maintaining the schools 
and the dormitory for each week will be divided by the number 
of pupils present, and each State or institution will be charged 
in proportion to its representation. By these plans expenses 
will be reduced so that it will cost but little more to keep a class 
here than at the home school. Many institutions are willing to 
pay the entire cost from the institution's funds. Some State 
commissions in charge of the State appropriations for the Ex- 
position will pay part and others will pay all of these expenses. 

Class Work. — The model schools do not exclude the dis- 
play of finished class work. The walls of each room or space will 
be lined with cases and wall cabinets for the display of articles 
similar to those being produced in that space. For example, the 
walls of the shoeshop will be filled with cases for the display of 
shoes made in different institutions. This affords an opportunity 
for suitable classification and avoids unnecessary and uninterest- 
ing duplications, which have always been a great waste of space 
to the company, of time to the visitors, and of money to the ex- 

The committees can have the cases and wall cabinets made 
more cheaply and with more uniformity than the individual 
schools. However, if an institution wishes to make its own cases, 
plans may be sent to the committees. The expense of installa- 
tion and care of these exhibits will be met by the exhibitors. 

The name of each State and school sending a class will be 
placed over the space occupied by that class. A list of States and 
institutions which are to fill the spaces will be displayed and also 
portraits of classes which have once occupied them. Arrange- 
ments are being made to have the printing class publish a book 

2o8 The Association Review, 

containing a portrait of each class and an engraving of the 
school from which it came. This will be accompanied by interest- 
ing material concerning the deaf and the blind. 

The model schools will be among the most instructive fea- 
tures of the Exposition. They will attract wide attention at home 
and abroad. No State^ institution, or school can afford to be 
without representation in this united effort. What a State does 
for its deaf and its blind is an index to the character of its popula- 
tion, to its wealth and resources, and to the ability of its officials. 
Large sums of money are yearly spent for the education of the 
deaf and the blind, and the public have a right to know what is 
being done for them. The State is also entitled to the privilege 
of displaying its educational advantages. Above all the deaf and 
the blind will be benefited by a more just and accurate public 

Applications for participation should be made to the secre- 
taries of the committees. 

Key to the Plan of Exhibit. 
School for the Deaf: 

Room I. School for the deaf-blind. 

2. Primary oral class. 

3. Advanced oral class. 

4. Object and action work. 

5. Language and other primary methods. 

6. College display. 

7. Gallery of eminent instructors. (Models of 
schools, etc.) 

8. Statistics, publications, etc.(Volta Bureau^ etc.) 

9. Shoeshop. 

10. Art class. 

11. Sewing or cooking class. 

12. Tailor shop. 

13. Sloyd class. 

14. Carpenter-shop. 

15. Printing office. 
A. Platform for recitations and songs in the sign 











Editorial. 209 

School for the Blind: 

Room 16. School for the deaf-blind. 

17. Writing class (usin^ the Braille or New York 
point system). 

18. Reading class. 

19. Object work. ♦ 

20. Language, geography, and other primary 

21. Display of high-school work. 
" 22. Gallery of eminent instructors. (Models of 

schools, etc.) 

23. Statistics, publications, etc. 

24. Basket-making. 

25. Weaving class. 

26. Sewing or cooking class. 

27. Music room. 

28. Library, including printing display. 

29. Bookbinding or upholstering. 

30. Broom factory. 
B. Band platform. 

Other industrial classes can be substituted for these, pro- 
vided applications are made in time. 

Committee Representing the Convention of American 

Instructors of the Deaf. 

Chairman, E. M. Gallaudet, President of Gallaudet College, 
Washington, D. C. 

Vice-Chairman, N. B. McKee, Superintendent of the Mis- 
souri School for the Deaf, Fulton, Mo. 

Secretary, A. E. Pope, Department of Education^ Univer- 
sal Exposition, St. Louis, Mo. 

Treasurer, Henry C. Hammond, Superintendent of the Kaa- 
sas School for the Deaf, Olathe, Kansas. 

Miss Mary McCowen, Supervising Principal of the Chicago 
Public Day-Schools, Chicago, 111. 

Rev. James H. Cloud, Principal of Gallaudet School, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Committee Representing the American Association of 

Instructors of the Blind. 

Chairman and Treasurer, S. M. Green, Superintendent of the 
Missouri School for the Blind, St. Louis, Mo. 

Secretary, J. N. Freeman, Superintendent of the Institution 
for the Education of the Blind, Jacksonville, 111. 

2IO The Association Review. 

B. B. Huntoon, Superintendent of the Kentucky Institution 
for the Education of the Blind, Louisville, Ky. 

M. Ana^os, Director of the Massachusetts School and 
Perkins Institute for the Blind, South Boston, Mass. 

W. B. Wait, Superintendent of the New York Institution for 
the Blind, New York City. * 

K E. Allen, Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Institution 
for the Instruction of the Blind, Overbrook, Pa. 

A. J. Hutton, Superintendent of the Wisconsin School for 
the Blind, Janesville, Wis. 


The California Legislature has passed a bill providing for 
the education of deaf children in the public schools, which 
declares that "the Board of Education of every city, or city and 
county, or board of school trustees of every school district of 
this state, containing five or more deaf children, or children who 
from deafness are unable to hear common conversation, be- 
tween the ages of three and twenty-one years, must establish 
and maintain separate classes in the primary and grammar 
grades of the public schools, wherein such pupils shall be taught 
by the pure oral system of teaching the deaf." 

Another act, providing for kindergarten instruction in the 
public schools, declares that "in cities or school districts in 
which separate classes have been or may hereafter be 
established, for the instruction of the deaf, children may be ad- 
mitted to such classes at the age of three years." 

Another act, relating to the apportionment of school funds, 
l)rovides that in districts providing classes for the instruction of 
the deaf, an additional teacher shall be employed for each twelve 
deaf children, or fraction of such number. 

An act governing the state census requires that the Census 
Marshal shall report the number of those who from deafness are 
unable to hear common conversation. 

Mr. Reckweg to whose efforts the signature of the 
Governor is largely due, is a deaf gentleman of Los Angeles, 
He was bom deaf and was educated in the school of Dr. Hirsch 
in Rotterdam. He came to this country about thirty years ago 

Editorial, 211 

and acquired the English language both in its written and 
spoken forms by his own exertions without special instruction. 
He speaks well and reads the lips very readily. He is now in 
Washington on his way to Rotterdam to participate in celebrat- 
ing the 50th anniversary of Dr. Hirsch's school. He was an 
enthusiastic advocate of the oral method, and he was largely 
instrumental in founding the oral school in Los Angeles, and 
has now again been instrumental in gaining state aid for that 
and other oral day schools in California. He is accompanied by 
his daughter — a bright girl of 18 — ^who hears and speaks. 


We have been requested by the author to make the following 
corrections and emendations to the article on "A Visit to the 
Principal Italian Institutions for the Deaf," which appeared in 
the December, 1902, number of the Review : 

The title, page 455, should read "A Visit to Same of the 
Principal Italian Institutions for the Deaf." 

On page 460, "11 lavors professionale" should read "II lav- 
oro professionale." 

On page 460, "Professor Tomari" should be Professor 

On page 464, "Russian" should read Prussian. 

On page 465, the beginning of the second paragraph should 
read : There is in Rome no separation between poorly and 
normally endowed children but at the beginning of 1903 the 
poorly endowed children will be gathered all into one class. 

On page 466, in speaking of the work in drawing the name 
of the drawing master, Professor Cav. Luciano Castag^a, should 
have been given. 

On page 466, part of the paragraph near the bottom should 
read : Besides the Director, Dr. Monaci, who is a priest, three 
lady teachers and three helpers (assistiente), live in the institu- 
tion which is a boarding institution, but they have nothing to do 
with the care of the household, which is in charge of a lady house- 

213 The AssociatioH Review. 

On page 467, 30,000 lire should read 10,000 M., and 1 
paragraph near the bottom, in its criticism of the lesson, shol 
read : Although the teacher gave liis lesson perfectly well, I« 
not like the dry, well known way in which the subject i 
treated. It was the same method I myself had employed fofr 
ly, and when I gave expression to my thoughts. Dr. Mo< 
caused another course to be taken : "Get me a glass of v 
etc." The teacher knew well how to make this lesson inter* 
ing to the children. 

On page 469, the second sentence of the second paragr^ 
should be altered lo read, at its close : I could not help e 
sing a feeling of shame, thinking how often I got impatient « 
my children during lessons. 

To llie list of schools for the deaf there should bead! 
Miss F. L. WilHioyte's Private Day School for the Traininj 
Speech for Deaf Children before they are of School / 
Frankfort Street, Columbus, Ohio; founded, March 6tlL 
Mrs. G. \V. Saltz with two pupils.a boy and a girl,one If 
the other became so in infancy. The school is to S^_ 
nucleus for a flome similar to that established in PhilA 
by Miss Mary S. Ciarrett, where the present instructor, 
Willhoyte, received her training. 


for the 


A. private school for pupiU with defective heulng which 1b eqalpp«d nnd condiu 
ou the ume scale as tha finest private ichoola of New York. InstniotiaD is wboltf a 
t'repantiou for any oolletce orforbiuiueu. Lip-readtng tanght to adults. Uearingdi 
opad br BcientiBc treatnieiit. While adults are received, tt Is greatly to the advanta 
hildren to be(;in their study before reachinj; the age of six. 


42 Wast 7eth 8tr*»t, Naw York. 




FKANW W. HOOTH, - ■ Editor 
S. a. liAVIUSON, ABSofiAiic Ki>n-(.K 

3Hne. 1903 

Dr.Josefih Claybaiigh Cordon John HiTZ 213 

James; An Unufual Puffil • ■ • Mary S. Brkckkxkiugk 228 

Foriiialion and Dnelopment of 

lildiunlary Hiii;lish Sounds — 17 Caroi.ikk A. Yai.k 231 

A/y l.islef Ifomophai^us Words — /// - - Emma Snow 241 

Semf Didiiiiic (Jucstinns (5. I''i-:hki:ri 254 

Drdication. ExenUfs al Ikr Mihtaukei- 

SfllOo/ ...... I^AliKA E. I'KTTAI'IKCK 2(>3 

The Finnish Sfhooh Jonx Hirz 268 

SoDif Don' is la be Ohetird in Tetuhing 

Spft-rh lo Ihc /kaj — /// - - ■ Sarah Jokhan Mi-nko 271 


AiuiiihI lti;iH>rt i>rtliu I'riiiiKvWania IiiKtitiilioii fur tlir Dcflf ami Diinili, S7l!; Aniifri- 
i-ai> AiiiialK »l' tiK' rVaf. TM: L'KiIiK^ixioiiv Hi-i Smb-iiiiiii (Skua, llulv), :;74: 
Ori'an Hit T.itilrHtiiit'iiiMi.Aii»iaIli:ii ill IkiilM-lilaiKUFrii.lliii;!. <i<-iiiiuii^). LTH; 
lii-viic i:ii'iii-r,>it.- <lr IViisriKiii'iiK'iil <li's S>iir<lH MiiriN (I'liris), l'ls:>: N.-riliVk Tiil- 
Hkrifl fur Dorfiiirnhkoluii (Uulebor;:. t^ni-di-ii), •^1: VA Siiiloitiiitu Ar;;<'tiliiiU 

([llltllOM A)Tl»), SS3. 


Th<- S<-li<>.>l in ('1iii:a, ^t; To Slu<ly Ainarii'aii S.^lionN, 2?9:Thc I.imilou Ciiiircn-iK-.-, 
200; An Ai-iiitMic ]'riili1<iii, l>y O. (■VrrcH, ::UO:Traiiiiiii' and ICnowtfili-o. I»y V.. H. 

The Metlhv^ vf t/ic O-nfinn,-,- of .'iiif'erinlnidaits and Principals - 394 

Department of Sp--iial luliOii lion. N. E. A. jyij 

Thf School Exhibits ill Si. I.Mis jo; 

Margaret Gurdncr - 2f|.S 

The California Day S.liool l.are _-o.i 

Slalistics of Speech 'fiothin^ in Aimriian Sihuo/s /"/ f/te Drai ■ yfio 


H'rintlnj; Dcparusentuf ilie reiiDSTKsulii liu>Uiiiti<)>i forvliv l-iaf an.l I<iib.1<] 

Vol. V. No. 3 $2.50 MOs. 4(1. 1 per year 

The American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 

Alexander Graham Bell. 

A L. E. Crouter, Caroline A. Yale. 

' Z. F. Westervelt. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 


F. \V. Booth, 
(7342 Rural Lane, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.) 


Albzandkk CtRAnAU Rei.l. 

Mr8. Gaudiner G. Hubbard. 

A. L. E. CRorTKR. 
Term Kxpirei i:*OS. a. Yai.f. 

JoSKPH C. (t«»UI)ON, 

Kdmi'M) Lyon. 

Sarvh Kr/LLKK. 
Ttrm Kxpiret i:.*0.'». 


Z. F. Westkrvklt 


The .Anu^ri.'.aii Assooiat'on to I*rnnint.« tho 'IVaobinj^ of Speech to the Deaf welcomes 
to its iri<*n)h.*rs!nj» all iMisniis w»u» :irc intcrcsliMl in its wt)rk. Thus the privilege of 
inouiher.ship i"< im* rr^rriftrij t«» ti*;n*bors actively engii^ed in the in.struotion of deaf 
chiMriMi. liu* jsv^ct- n-iiil to inolridc Din'Oiurs or Triistofs of schools for the deaf, parents 
or }/:iar«ii*ns «»r lij-ai' rhiiiin-n. tlic iMiii.\iri.'«l •li;:il' theniselvts who wish to .aid by the 
wnj^iir it( tni'ir '«ni!:i«'U«"- ui».l hv \\)**h i»'»-oi..«r:ition the work that has done so much for 
ihi'm. .iiui ;ill oiiior jM-.rsi'iis who miiy ii;ivtt li/ul»*ir hearts touched wllli a cit-sire to 
hhow f.hfir iir.'-rc -i a!:-: u* ho\v <»n !hi' wo>*U. 

Kvrry |.j.r-«tn i.-.-.-s /irj;^ a •s.imij.'i- ''oj y" ^'rTiiK A^-sdciatiox Rkvikw is invited to 
j«»iii tin* A«-s«v'..iii«'*;. Tl:.- nicir,"."! -Ii';» .'(•!■ •!if><) ^f Is ??2.')0 (Ss. 4d.) j»er j'ear. pay- 
ni'.n* •»»* w'lii-:; !•» i.i-.. T:-. .j-ii-f.' -'.•••in* ^ {at?«jr imrnination ioami i«lcclion by the Board 
nf ]>:n-.'*nr>; i\\\ !«'^hts uiii) M'lv '!:-^t'> cJ" i»M i!.l;t':'Mhip ti^j^rthcr With tlic pubUcations of 
i\i'.: \.>»>M»'iati:iii. Msi'l.niiii:? TiiL AssiMMATioN ili-.viKW, for on« year. 'Vo non-number$, 
liif s«ibs-r-!sn«iii priiv t)f Tn!-: .\s«OiiATroN Hmvp'w -s |'2.r)i) (I0.s. 4i1. ) per year. 




Vol. V, No. 3. 

JUNE, 1903. 


Among the names of the present generation, none assuredly 
arc generally better known, and especially familiar to educators 
of the Deaf, than that of Dr. Gordon, late Superintendent of the 
Illinois Institution for the Education of the Deaf, at Jackson- 
ville, who, in the midst of an ever widening career of usefulness, 
after a brief illness of three days, departed this Hfe, April 12th, 

Dr. Gordon was born at Piqua, Ohio, March 9th, 1842, and 
came to Illinois with his parents in 1850, settling first tempor- 
arily at Jacksonville, and then more permanently at Island Grove, 
midway on the road to Springfield, where his father. Rev. John 
M. Gordon, a Presbyterian Minister, established a colony of 
Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. Subsequently the elder Gordon 
nided in tonnding Monmouth College, whose main building owes 
largely its existence to his efforts. Here it wr^s that Dr. Gordon 
graduated in 1866, and where in 1893 the honorary degree 01 
Ph. D. was conferred on him. His first connection with the 
work of educating the deaf began at the Indiana Institution, 
under the superintendence of Thomas Maclntyre, where he 
entered in the year 1869 as special teacher of "articulation and 
reading the lips," as authorized by the Board of Trustees in the 
year previous. In 1873 ^^ entered the College Faculty of the 
Columbia Institution for the Deaf, having been appointed to the 
professorship of mathematics and chemistry, where in 1891 he 

214 The Association Review, 

also assumed charge of the "Department of Articulation, and the 
Xormal Department of Gallaudet College," the former having 
been authorized under Act of Congress, appropriating "the sum 
of $3,000 for the expense of instructors of Articulation." After 
having served the National institution at Washington, under 
President E. M. Gallaudet, for nearly a quarter of a century, he 
assumed, July ist, 1897, charge of the Illinois State Institution, 
then the largest of existing schools for the deaf, of which he con- 
tinuously served most acceptably as Superintendent up to the 
time of his death. Having, from the commencement of his 
career as instructor of the deaf, taken special interest in the 
teaching of speech, as Superintendent he here greatly extended 
the scope of this instruction, constantly, by indefatigable energy, 
bringing an increased number of pupils under ^ its in- 
fluence. The process by which he effected this he designated 
as "the intuitive method, because in all departments language 
is taught directly without the intervention of artificial sig^s be- 
tween the idea and the word." The faithful adherence to his con- 
victions aimed upon closely following the mandates of his 
associates in the profession, and the effects which resulted from 
this course in the institution over which he presided are forcibly 
set forth in the following extract from his last report, rendered 
July 1st, 1902. 

"It is worthy of note that the English language in its written 
and spoken forms is becoming more and more the language of 
our school rooms. The more faithfully and intelligently the 
methods approved by the superintendent are practiced in the 
class rooms, the better are the educational results in every way. 

"In the application of improved methods of instruction, which 
have stood the test of time, the instruction in speech and the 
actual use of speech in daily lessons and school-room work have 
gradually affected larger and larger numbers of pupils. A care- 
ful study of the facts behind the figures in our tests and examina- 
tions should remove all doubts as to the correctness of the course 
we follow. Our course of action has not been determined by 
the inclination of the superintendent, nor does it rest upon his 
personal unsupported judgment. 

"The policy of this school, especially in the matter of speech 
teaching, has been prescribed for it by the unanimous votes of the 
convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, and the Con- 

Dr. Joseph Claybaugh Gordon, 


ference of Principals of American Schools for the Deaf, the only 
bodies which have spoken, or can speak^ for the entire profes- 
sion in America. The resolution adopted at the nth convention 
of American Instructors of the Deaf, in session at Berkeley, 
California, in 1886, and reaffirmed by the 14th convention^ which 
was held in Flint, Michigan, in 1895, at which time it was in- 
corporated in the constitution of the convention^ reads as 
follows : 

*' 'Resolved : That earnest and persistent endeavors should 
be made in every school for the deaf to teach every pupil to 
speak and read from the lips, and that such efforts should be 
abandoned only when it is plainly evident that the measure of 
success attained does not justify the necessary amount of labor.' 

"In accordance with this advice, it is the practice of the 
Illinois school to give every pupil a long continued and fair trial 
under expert teachers of speech. 

"The other resolution governing the practice of this school 
was adopted by an unanimous vote at the Seventh Conference of 
Superintendents and Principals of American Schools, which met 
at Colorado Springs, August 8-1 1, 1892. This action was as 
follows : 

" 'Resolved : That it is the sense of this conference that in 
all schools for the deaf pupils who are able to articulate fluently 
and intelligently should recite orally in their classes, and be en- 
couraged to use their vocal organs on every possible occasion.' 

"In compliance with this advice, we afford the opportunity 
to pupils who can recite their daily lessons by word of mouth 
to do so. 

"The practical effect of the application of the two resolutions 
in this school is shown by the growth of the oral department, as 
shown in Table XVIII. 


"Number of pupils in the Oral and Silent Departments, 
respectively, of the Illinois School for the Deaf, for ten years 
ending June 30, 1902.^ 

Silent Department 
Oral Department.. 








1895 1896 1897 

429 418 383 
68! 801 138 

497I 493 521 

1899 1900 

273; 250 
260, 296 

533' 5^6 







ipp 30— 31— Thirty-first Biennial Report of the Trustees, Superintend- 
ent and Treasurers of the Illinois Institution for the Education of the Deaf 
and Dumb. 

2i6 The Association Review, 

Dr. Gordcwi was wedded to no mere theory, he was emi- 
nently practical, and hence was deservedly recognized as a high 
authority by educators generally upon all educational matters 
appertaining to the deaf. Whatever intelligent practice com- 
mended, and wise experience approved, he utilized to promote 
the physical, mental and spiritual welfare of his pupils in the 
kindergarten, preparing for college, and in chapel exercises. 
Physical training, technical skill, mental and ethical culture, in 
in his broad, comprehensive and practical ideas of a genuine 
education, to the extent that circumstances would admit, all 
received due attention. Whatever he felt convinced was best 
and right — that was to him a duty inviolably to be followed, and 
to its accomplishment he devoted with judicious fearlessness his 
entire energies. Whatever position he assumed would clearly 
be defined — standing forth in bold relief if necessary, yet uni- 
formly presented with becoming courtesy and dignity to whilsom 
opponents, who never failed to respect this inborn manliness. 

At conventions of educators of every phase, Dr. Gordon, 
when present, constituted a prominent figure. His immediate 
prt)fessic)nal associates constantly sought his valuable and ever 
ready service in some form, either as essayist, to participate in 
discussions, serve on important committees, or as an executive 
officer of some kind. We find him already at Indianapolis m 
1870 serving the seventh convention of American Instructors of 
the Deaf, first as temporary, and then as permanent secretary, 
with Dr. E. A. Fay as associate. In 1874 he contributed to the 
Annals an abridged article from the Italian, entitled *'The Edu- 
cation of the Deaf-Mute by Means of Articulation," followed in 
1876 by reviews of P. Fornari's works, " The Speaking Deaf- 
Mute/' "Key to Speech for Italian Deaf-Mutes," issued in 1872, 
and of Moritz Hill's work, entitled: "First Book for the Instruc- 
tion of Deaf-Mutes in Language," (issued in Italy by P. Fornari, 
1873.) 1" 1^8-2 he contributed to the Annals, "Biographical 
Sketch of Horace Gillett," and at Jacksonville, at the tenth meet- 
ing of the Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, we 
find him enrolled a member, and participating in debates, notice- 
able emphasizing the importance of using the manual alphabet ; 
commending the publication, entitled "The Raindrop" as being 

Dr. Joseph Claybaugh Gordon, 217 

most admirably adapted for reading matter for deaf-mutes ; 
necrological tribute to Horace Smith Gillett,etc., etc. In 1884 we 
find in the Annals "Remarks on Auricular Instruction," givinj^ 
a brief history of the same from the earliest inception, (1779). 
and "Picture Games as an Aid to Teaching" read during the 
meeting of the third Convention of Articulation Teachers of the 
Deaf, where we find him also offering a resolution, which was 
favorably acted upon, requesting the Convention of American 
Instructors of the Deaf and Dumb to organiize a section of the 
Convention for the promotion of articulation teaching. Subse- 
quently as member of a committee appointed by this convention 
"to make kivestigation of the subject of tests of hearing, together 
with the best of the methods of the treatment and cultivation of 
latent aural power," he reported the result of its conclusion, 
December, 1884. (See Annals, Vol. XXX.) During the same 
year. Dr. Gordon presented an exhaustive paper on "Historical 
Experiments in Associated Education" before the meeting of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, held in 
Philadelphia, in September, which, in substance, he had delivered 
at the special meeting of the National Educational Association, 
President T. W. Bicknel presiding, held in the State Senate 
Chamber, Madison, Wisconsin, July i6th, to consider the subject 
of "Deaf-Mute Instruction in Relation to the Work of the Public 
Schools." In the December following appeared also the report 
of "a committee on the hearing of the Deaf." In 1885 appeared 
a review in the Annals of the Janet Byrne's booklet, entitled, 
"Picture Teaching for Young and Old," likewise, "Hints to 
Parents of Young Deaf Children, Concerning Preliminary Home 
Training," a paper prepared from the notes of an informal lecture 
to the "Parents' Class," at Dr. Bell's Private Experimental 
School in Washington, D. C. In 1886 appeared a sketch of Dr. 
Maclntyre's connection with conventions of instructors, also 
"Notes on Manual Spelling," illustrated by specially prepared 
front view cuts of the one hand alphabet, drawn and engraved 
from photographs made under the personal supervision of Dr. 
Gordon, and esteemed a model of perfection. In the year 1886 
also appeared a paper concerning Deaf-Mutes in the United 
States, prepared at the instance of the Briti'sh Government, and 

2i8 The Association Review. 

"presented to the House of Commons, by command of Her 
Majesty, in pursuance of their address dated August 13, 1885," 
under miscellaneous documents. No. i, of which the officer of the 
British Legation in transmitting the same states: "Enclosed here- 
with is an able and elaborate memorandum drawn by Professor 
Gordon of the Columbia Institution, dealing particularly with the 
organization of the various institutions for deaf-mutes, with the 
systems of education followed, with the occupations and trades 
of deaf-mutes, and with questions of heredity/'In 1889 appeared 
in the Annals an able review of the comprehensive work of Ludo- 
vic Gug^illot, entitled : "How to Make Deaf-Mutes Speak,"pre- 
ceded by a preface of Dr. Lacharriere, and in 1890, a review of 
the reports by Marius Dupont of the National Institution in 
Paris, on auricular instruction. 

In 1891 we find Dr. Gordon, who already in 1884 was en- 
rolled an active member of the Convention of Articulation 
Teachers of the Deaf, " also enrolled in its legitimate successor," 
The American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speecb 
to the Deaf, organized August, 1890, during the progress of the 
Twelfth Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, taking 
an interested and active part in its instructive sessions. 

In 1892 appeared the voluminous work issued by the Volta 
Bureau," to signalize an educational movement of international 
interest," entitled : "Education of Deaf Children : Evidence of 
Edward Miner Gallaudet, and Alexander Graham Bell, presented 
to the Royal Commission of the United Kingdom, on the con- 
dition of the Blind, the Deaf and Dumb, with accompanying 
papers, postscripts and an index, edited by Joseph C. Gordon, 
then professor of mathematics, etc., in the National College for 
the Deaf, Washington, D. C." This comprehensive and valuable 
work having been issued solely for distribution to the more im- 
portant institution and reference libraries, was followed in the 
same year by "Notes and Observations upon the Education of 
the Deaf, with a revised index to Education of Deaf Children," 
a lesser work intended for readers in general, nevertheless con- 
taining valuable treatise not embraced in the larger volume, 
including among other matters, brief notes in regard to the pro- 
gress of speech-teaching, several international and other con- 

Dr, Joseph Claybaugh Gordon. 219 

ventions, statistics of employments in which the educated deaf in 
the United States, Italy and Prussia were engaged, and a com- 
plete list of the libraries and institutions where the larger work, 
"Education of Deaf Children," could be consulted. 

During the same year we find Dr. Gordon participating in 
the conference of superintendents and principals held at Colorado 
Springs ; in the Annals, contributing a review of the "Lyon 
Phonetic Manual," and an interesting paper entitled : "The New 
Departure at Kendall Green/' consisting in " First, an extension 
of the College course of study, to include instruction and practice 
in speech and speech reading ; and second, the introduction into 
College life, in intimate association with deaf undergraduates, of 
a small number of highly recommended and carefully selected 
hearing students for a postgraduate course of study and training 
of one year, preliminary to becoming teachers in schools for the 
deaf." The following year (1893), he submitted to the World's 
Congress of Instructors of the Deaf, convened at Chicago, an 
interesting chart and statistical paper entitled, "Oral Work in 
Schools Using the Combined System."An article entitled, 
"Recent Progress in Aural Surgery" appeared in the Annals 
in 1894, and in the same year at Chautauqua he assisted ^s 
secretary in organizing "The Association to Promote Auricular 
Training" — where and when he also delivered an illustrated and 
highly instructive lecture before the fourth Summer Meeting of 
the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf, entitled : "Progress in the Amelioration of Certain 
Forms of Deafness and Impaired Hearing." In 1895 Dr. Gor- 
don actively participated in the proceedings of the Fourteenth 
Convention of the American Instructors of the Deaf, held at 
Flioit, Michigan, as a member of the committee on order of 
business, as chairman of the Oral Section, delivering the Opening 
Address replete with instruction, and conducting with habitual 
ability its proceedings, in like manner as chairman of the Auricu- 
lar Section delivering the Opening Address, and Conducting its 
proceedings. During the convention he likewise delivered a brief 
address "On Higher Education of the Deaf," and otherwise 
enhanced the interest of its proceedings. At the Fifth Summer 
Meeting of the American Association to Promote the Teaching 

220 The Association Review. 

of Speech to the Deaf, held at Mt. Airy, 1896, Dr. Gordon re- 
sponded to the address of welcome, and as representative of the 
Volta Bureau, read its reports from European schools, and 
participated in discussions. Governor John R. Tanner havino; 
tendered him the Superintendency of the Illinois State Institution 
at Jacksonville, he accepted the same after some hesitation, and 
assumed charge, July ist, 1897. Immediately following, at the 
Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the National Educational As- 
sociation in Milwaukee, Dr. Gordon, as chairman of the Round 
Table, organized among members specially interested in the edu- 
cation of the deaf, "made appropriate comprehensive introduc- 
tory remarks, full of interest and valuable to all educators pres- 
ent," and likewise submitted a petition signed by Alexander 
Graham Bell, Director of the American Association to Promote 
the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, and forty-five others, for the 
establishment of a new department to be named the "Depart- 
ment for the Education of Classes Requiring Special Methods 
of Instruction," which, on motion of Director N. M. Butler, was 
allowed after substituting for the above name that of "Depart- 
ment for the Education of the Deaf, Blind and Feeble-Minded," 
6f which, in the course of the session, Dr. Gordon was elected 
first president for 1897-98, and actively participated in its largely 
attended and interesting proceedings. As president of the new 
department, number sixteen, Dr. Gordon issued his "Bulletin 
No. I," in which he preliminarily stated : 

"The object of our Department is two fold ; first to bring 
our work as educators of the Deaf more prominently before edu- 
cators in general, bringing them into sympathy with this work, 
and second, to bring ourselves more closely into touch with the 
best educational thought of the day, and into better acquaintance 
with its representatives." ***** 

Among the papers elicited by a letter addressed, June ist, 
1897, to the Superintendent of the Volta Bureau requesting in- 
formation as to whether "any established or commonly agreed 
upon system of international nomenclature for descriptive pur- 
poses existed, was a response embodying a simplified classi- 
fication of the methods of instruction, followed during the suc- 
ceeding year by a paper prepared by Dr. Gordon showing "the 
difference between the two systems of teaching deaf-mute chil- 

Dr, Joseph Claybaugh Gordon. 221 

dren the English language," issued as a "supplement elucidating 
circular of information, No. 4." 

Dr. Gordon's "first statement," or report, covering the busi- 
ness transactions of the Illinois Institution for the biennial 
period ending June 30, 1898, displayed such thorough pedagog- 
ical knowledge, administrative abihty and comprehensive scope 
of treatment, that, in the estimation of educators generally both 
in his own country and abroad, he at once took high rank as 
eminently fitted to preside over the largest existing school for the 
deaf. In this report, Dr. Gordon, among other things, recom- 
mended that steps be taken to drop the words "and dumb," and 
substitute "school" for the word institution, and so modify its 
le^al title as to read "Illinois State School for the Deaf," which 
change eventually the legislature duly enacted. 

At the meeting in Washington City, July 7-12, 1898, of the 
National Educational Association, Dr. Gordon, as presiding 
officer of Department Sixteen, delivered the opening address, 
most acceptably conducted the highly interesting and largely 
attended proceedings, exercised general supervision of the exer- 
cises, and elaborate exhibits, and at the Fifteenth convention of 
the American Instructors of the Deaf, held July 28 to August 2, 
following, we find him chairman of the Oral Section, participat- 
ing actively in discussions on various topics, tendering brief 
responses to queries, etc. etc. At the Sixth Summer meeting of 
the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf, held at the Clarke School, Northampton, Mass., June 
22-28, we find Dr. Gordon offering an important resolution insti- 
tuting a committee to confer with the Director of the United 
States Census, so as "to secure under the existing law, if pos- 
sible," a proper enumeration of the blind and the deaf. On this 
committee, which eventually achieved the object for which it was 
appointed, served, with Dr. A. G. Bell as president, also Drs. J. 
C. Gordon, A. L. E. Crouter, Hon. Edmund Lyon, and Mr. F. 
W. Booth. Early in 1900 appeared interesting "Tabulations 
Relating to the Instruction of the Deaf, for 1899, prepared for 
the Educational Congress in Paris, compiled from statistics 
found in the American Annals, the Association Review, and other 
sources, by J. C. Gordon, Superintendent of the Illinois School 

222 The Association Review. 

for the Deaf," issued by the Institution Press. July nth, 1900, 
Dr. Gordon delivered in Charleston, S. C, the opening address of 
the sessions of Department Sixteen of the National Educational 
Association, **discussed briefly the progress which is being made 
in the education of the Deaf," etc., and presided at the business 
sessions of the department. At the Sixteenth Meeting of the 
Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, held at Buffalo, 
N. Y., July 2-8, 1901, Dr. Gordon displayed exceptional activity 
as Chairman of the Oral Section, and in regard to Kinder- 
gartens, technical training, trades union relations, domestic 
science, etc., showed keen insight and familiarity with the sub- 
jects under discussion, indicated furthermore where to obtain 
desirable instructors, and finally delivered obituaries of John H. 
Brown and Thomas Officer. In the meeting of Department 
Sixteen of the National Educational Association at Detroit im- 
mediately following, (July nth), Dr. Gordon responded to 
Superintendent Martindale's address of welcome, reviewing the 
five years previous: served on several committees, and for the 
November Annals, prepared a thoughtful and comprehensive 
obituary of the late Superintendent Philip Goode Gillett, em- 
bodying the memorial resolution of the Board of Trustees, and 
instructors of the Deaf of the Illinois Institution. During the 
year also appeared a reprint from the New Era of March 23rd, 
succinctly giving an account of the "progress in deaf-mute in- 
struction in the United States," which found its way to every 
known region of the earth. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Board of Directors of the 
American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf, held at Washington, D. C, December 28, 1901, Dr. J. 
C. Gordon, was duly elected a member of the Board, to fill the 
unexpired term of the late Dr. Philip G. Gillett, and assigned to 
the special committee of arrangements for the next Summer 
Meeting. At the following annual meeting, June nth, 1902, Dr. 
Gordon was re-elected to fill the full term of three years. 

At the meeting of the National Educational Association in 
Minneapolis, July 9, 1902, the resolution offered by Dr. J. C. 
Gordon, chairman of committee on resolutions, that Department 
Sixteen be styled "Department of Special Education, relating 

Dr, Joseph Claybaugh Gordon. 223 

to children demanding special means of instruction," was favor- 
ably acted upon and adopted. His exhaustive report for the two 
years ending June 30, 1902, was replete with pedagogical observa- 
tions of importance and instructive statistical tables, clearly 
established his masterly skill in managing so large and 
diversified an institution, and constitutes of itself a crowning 
monument to the full measure of the man upon whom devolved 
so great a trust as that accorded by the great State of Illinois 
to Joseph C. Gordon. 

His wide scope of knowledge, administrative ability, and 
ever ready spirit to utilize these in behalf of individual and or- 
ganized effort to serve fellow men, rendered him not only in 
educational and philanthropic lines an important and desirable 
factor, but likewise in many other phases of social and civic 
duties. Among others, the Volta Bureau, in which he took a 
deep and active interest from the period of its inception, and 
which he has served as representative on various occasions, is 
largely indebted to his ever ready counsel and far-sighted sug- 
gestions in successfully formulating a course of action calculated 
eventually to constitute it the World's great Exchange of 
upon all matters appertaining to the cause it has been established 
to serve and to promote 

Dr. Gordon was married in 1878 to Miss Anna Sibyl Wads- 
worth of Cincinnati, Ohio, who with three children, George, a 
graduate of Princeton, now completing his law studies at Har- 
vard ; Grace, a senior at Smith College, and Sibyl, attending 
school in Jacksonville, survive him. He leaves also two brothers, 
Rev. George J. Gordon, of Hebron, Indiana ; John R. Gordon, 
of Pueblo, Colorado, and three sisters ; Mrs. Cowan, wife of Rev. 
James P. Cowan, of Indianapolis, Indiana ; Mrs. James Nevin, 
of Pittsburg, Penna.; and Mrs. Dr. Coulson, of Boulder, 
Colorado. He was a devoted husband and most exemplary 
father; an active member of the Presbyterian Church, who 
taught in its Sunday School; yet a man of broad religious views, 
and generous impulses for fellowmen. He was a member also of 
the Literary Union, and of the Sons of the American Revolution. 

That he was the full measure of a man, I will in evidence 
cite some of the tributes paid his memory by professional 

224 T'Ae Association Review, 

associates and friends: "Dr. Gordon had genial manners, and an 
attractive personality. He made friends readily, and his friend- 
ships were usually strong and lasting. He was a clear thinker , a 
ready writer, a forcible speaker, a successful teacher, an efficient 
superintendent, a public spirited citizen; a true disciple of the 
Master, always ready to deny himself for the sake of others. His 
death leaves a vacant place in the profession, and in the com- 
munity that cannot easily be filled." Another says: "He stood in 
the front rank as a thinker on educational subjects among his 
associates engaged in the instruction of the Deaf. His mind was 
turned especially in the direction of the natural sciences, and he 
was not only thoroughly well informed on these subjects, but was 
capable of original research, and he made distinct contributions 
in some lines suggested by his work among the deaf ; withal a 
man of distinguished appearance, of agreeable manners and ex- 
tremely interesting in conversation, a high minded gentleman 
and a Christian." Another says : "He will be remembered as a 
scholarly and able representative of the profession of teaching 
the deaf. But more than this, by the hundreds of students at 
college, and others who have come directly under the influence 
of his personality, he will be remembered as a sympathetic friend, 
and an earnest teacher, ever ready to assist the deserving, and 
encourage those who were ready to give up. Many an offending 
student will recall his standing kindly between him and the stern 
discipline of the faculty in the effort to avert his suffering 
penalty." Another says : "He had a faculty for statistics and 
technical knowledge, such as was perhaps not equalled by that 
of any other man in the profession; this, together with his in- 
cisive mind and his capacity for grasping and retaining a vast 
fund of general knowledge, made him an authority respected by 
all. Perhaps no man living was better informed upon matters 
pertaining to the deaf. Notwithstanding his ability to speak with 
authority upon many subjects, he was a modest man, never ob- 
truded his vi^ws unpleasantly upon others, and withal possessed 
a kind heart and genial disposition." A former collegiate pupil 
says among other things : "He was such a consummate master 
of the particular branches of science which he taught, that he 
allowed every student the greatest freedom of thought. In the 

Dr, Joseph Claybaugh Gordon. 225 

class room he never dampened the ardor of a student who went 
wrong. It was indeed a great pleasure to sit at his feet and learn. 
Being more a leader than a follower. Dr. Gordon stood in the 
very front ranks as an educator." "A deep thinker, an erudite 
scholar, earnest, courageous and kind, a man of engaging man- 
ners, a delightful companion and a steadfast friend. He lived a 
conscientious, clean and honest life." "A discerning and dis- 
criminating judgment and great capacity for work." "Of his 
mental attainments and philanthropic spirit it were useless to 
speak, they are known to all men in the profession." "Whatever 
he undertook to it he devoted all his energies." Editorially it is 
written of him : "In the death of Dr. Gordon the cause of the 
deaf loses a most zealous friend, the State a most efficient and 
faithful public servant, the educational world a brilliant scholar, 
and teacher, and the community at large, a high-minded, noble 
hearted, public spirited citizen." "He was keen, alert, progres- 
sive, and kept in close touch with all the latest and best for the 
advancement of the unfortunate children to whose education he 
had devoted his life. In addition to renowned ability as an in- 
structor, he was a bright business man, and the management of 
the institution under him has been above criticism. According 
to the opinion of everyone he was 'the right man in the right 
place.' " 

"The Rev. A. B. Morey, who delivered the funeral dis- 
course, paid to the departed, the following tribute : 'There was 
a man sent from God, whose name was John. This is true of 
every man, whatever his name. Everyone is sent of God into 
this world to do a certain work, and live a certain life. That was 
Dr. Gordon's idea of life. To him life was a mission, a heaven- 
sent mission, and not a mere purposeless existence with no 
divine plan behind it. And as a proof, his looking upon things 
of this world not as an end in themsleves, but as a means of help- 
ing: him to do the work and duty which his God-sent life in- 
volved. That gave earnestness to everything he did. He knew 
that the man was sent from God. He knew it and realized it and 
acted upon it. Men have different ways of looking at themselves, 
but whoever omits God from his place, degrades life into a mere 
physical existence. On the other hand, whoever realizes it is 
God that worketh in him to will and to do lifts life up into the 
light of heaven. Our greatest power is on the religious side of 
our Nature. Physically we are crushed before a breath of wind. 

226 The Association Review. 

but religiously we have omnipotence as the science of our 
strength." * * * * Dr. Gordon's simple, loving faith, his broad 
Catholic spirit, his unswerving integrity, his upright and trans- 
parent life are known to us all. He had that valuable, perhaps 
most valuable of intellectual possessions — ^judgment, sound sense 
and discretion which made him a wise counsellor and a safe 
adviser. A true friend, a faithful officer, a noble man, a childlrke 
Christian, the kindest of fathers, the tenderest of husbands.' " 

The floral tributes at the funeral were numerous and elab- 
orate, and the cortege, following the remains from the institu- 
tion where the final services were held, to the railroad station to 
be conveyed to Monmouth for interment, was one of the largest 
ever witnessed in Jacksonville. Governor Richard Yates and his 
staff, besides other notable officials, attended in a body, and 
among the active and honorary pall bearers present, were Dr. 
A. Graham Bell of Washington, D. C; Trustees, T. M. King, and 
W. W. Watson ; Judges E. P. Kirby and Charles A. Barnes ; 
Superintendent H. C. Hammond of Olathe, Kansas; Superin- 
tendent N. B. McKee of Fulton, Missouri; Prof. Frank H. Hall; 
Acting Superintendent C. P. Gillett, and others. The teachers 
of the institution assembled and tendered their sympathies to 
the family by resolution closing with the words : "We rejoice in 
their rkrh heritage of the example of a noble life, which at the 
last was laid down with a simple courage that was beautiful. He 
said : *A11 is well,' and for him it was a glorious Easter Day." 

Among other manifestations of sympathy and deep regard 
appeared the following tribute from his former colleagues of 
Gallaudet College : 

"At a meeting of the Faculty of Gallaudet College, held on 
April 14th, 1903, it was voted to spread the following minute 
upon the records, and to transmit a copy of the same to the 
family of our late colleague. Dr. Gordon, and to furnish one to 
the editors of the college magazine for publication : 

"The Faculty of Gallaudet College desire by this minute to 
express their high appreciation of the character and services of 
their former associate, Dr. Joseph Claybaugh Gordon, who died 
April 1 2th, 1903. 

"His successful work in the Indiana Institution as a young 
teacher: in Gallaudet College, as Professor of Mathematics and 
Chemistry for twenty-four years, and Professor-in-charge of the 
Department of Articulation, and the Normal Department for 

Dr, Joseph Claybaugh Gordon. 227 

four years; and in the Illinois Institution as Superintendent for 
six years ; and his many valuable contributions by pen and voice 
to promote the education of the deaf, gave him an eminent place 
in our profession ; his strong public spirit, earnest patriotism 
and deep religious feeling made him an excellent citizen, while 
his amiable disposition, genial manners and warm-hearted 
friendship won our esteem and affection. We mourn his death ; 
we cherish his memory ; we offer his wife and children in this 
their great bereavement, our sincere and respectful sympathy/* 

Verily to no one more than to our departed friend are ap- 
plicable the assuring words of Scripture : 

"IVcll done, thou good and faithful servant; thou hast been 
faithful over a fetv things, I will make thee ruler over many things; 
enter thou into the joy of thy Lord" 



There is a boy in our school who deviates much from the 
rest of our pupils. He is rather small for his ten years, with 
a closely knit frame, slow in movement, and with deep set 
eyes. His habitual expression is one of stolidity — half indif- 
ference and half incomprehension, though at times his eyes 
brighten, his whole face becomes animated, and one feels that 
speech is just on the tip of his tongue. But that is his peculiar- 
ity — that he cannot talk. 

His hearing is practically perfect. He can hear a whisper, 
and prove that he hears it by obeying any simple command, and 
by repeating words and short sentences. 

Up to the time he came to school he had never talked, and 
his mother sent him here hoping he could be taught to speak. 

When he entered school two years ago last September, he 
was put in the class of another teacher. She told me that dur- 
ing his six months with her she never heard him speak any word 
but "Mama,'' and that was only a few times when he was cry- 
ing with an attack of homesickness. 

The latter part of his first year in school he was transferred 
to my class. I think the only word I heard him speak voluntari- 
ly during his first three months with me was "Home." That 
was one day while he was standing in the corner as a punish- 
ment for having teased a classmate. 

He, plainly, does not derive the pleasure from speech that 
the deaf children do. He does not want to talk. I can not 
hear of any other child of like mental make up, nor have I been 
able to get any practical help or suggestions in regard to the 
best methods of teaching him; so, for want of better knowledge, 
I have given him the same language work I have given the deaf 
children, and have talked to him as much as possible. 

James: An Unusual Pupil. 229 

From his entrance to school he was drilled on the elemen- 
tary sounds, and learned to read them from the printed chart 
and from script, though his voice is weak. 

His progress in school has been that of the class, and no 
more in spite of his hearing, for he has little ability to remember 

Last year, his second in school, I tried to make him ask for 
candy. The rest of the class would say "I want some candy." 
James would repeat each word after me, but not for many days 
could I persuade him to attempt the sentence alone, and it was 
only by depriving him of his share of the candy until he asked 
for it that he could be induced to speak. 

He has always been a quiet child, willing to sit still and 
averse to any physical effort. I hear that he sometimes plays 
with the other boys on the play ground but I have never seen 
him at any active sport. He prefers to loaf rather than share 
in the games. 

He could not write when he came to school. The first year 
he learned to write twenty or thirty words but in an almost illeg- 
ible hand. His writing is still restricted, but now he has 
several hundred words at command, which he can write, if not 
gracefully, at least readably. 

He knows the meaning of, and can speak aloud any word 
he has written, but when the opportunity comes to use the 
words in sentences he is utterly at a loss, apparently being un- 
able to combine the words to express his idea. 

He can, however, take a piece of paper and write on it a 
journal, with correct date, of from eight to twelve sentences. 
He has never written more than three sentences on any one 

He can speak the answers to such questions as these: — 
What is your name? Where do you live? Do you love me? 
Are you well? Did you fall? Do you like peanuts? How 
many shoes have you? Where is the knife? Etc. 

To give an illustration of the mental peculiarity : One day 
last year I told him to put the slates in the closet. Some other 
child had heedlessly put the books where the slates belonged. 
James stood with a half dozen slates in his hands, gazing in- 

230 The Association Review. 

dig^antly at the books, and he stood there for many minutes, 
till the books were moved. 

One morning less than a month ago, he studied a journal 
of ten sentences which I wanted him to memorize and recite. 
He spoke four sentences with only a little help. In the fifth 
sentence he came to the word "was" and stopped. I opened 
my watch and waited patiently for fifteen minutes, James^stand- 
ing by my side, and occasionally looking at the word. At the 
end of the fifteen minutes I pointed to the word and asked in my 
sternest tones, "What is that, James?" He said slowly, "Was." 

Why did he not say it sooner? I am sure I do not know. 
That is a typical case, his saying a dozen longer words and then 
stopping at a short one. Usually I do not wait more than a 
fraction of a minute before I make him give the elements of the 
word, and then I say the word and make him repeat it after me. 

His home is in Henderson, and last year he learned to direct 
to his mother the letters he writes her each week. Though 
he could write Henderson easily he always had trouble in say- 
ing it. He said "Hen-son-der" until one day recently when 
I worked with him about fifteen minutes and made him repeat 
the word many times. Now he can speak it quickly and well. 

His mother went to Chicago last autumn to spend the 
winter. For several weeks James brought me the envelopes 
to address. One day I wrote the address on it and laid the 
letter aside. James picked it up and pointed to the lower left 
hand corner, where I had forgotten to write "Second Floor 
Front." That is as typical of his memory for facts as the other 
instances are typical of his inability to remember spoken words. 

Of late there have been few days when he has not come to 
me to tell me something that has happened, which he seldom 
did last year. He tells the interesting point in gestures or signs 
usually prefixed by a word and sometimes interspersed with a 
few other words. 

Sometimes he makes a sign for a word and speaks what he 
intends to be the same word but it turns out to be something 
quite different. He knows as soon as he has said it that he has 
used the wrong word. I think that is one reason that he does 
not talk more, because he knows he will fail to satisfy his own 
critical faculty. 





Vowels — Back Scale.^ 

OO. (Long) 

Chart spellings : oo, (r)u-e, (r)ew. 

Formation — Back of the tongue raised high, with lips closely 
rounded by side muscles as for wh. Prof. Bell says in regard to 
the lips, "The corners of the lips should meet, and their central 
edges approximate, without projection" 

Mr. D. Greene in his "Manual of Articulation Teaching" 
says of this sound : "When the lips are rounded, they must, of 
course, be protruded at the same time ; the tongue is drawn 
back in the mouth and its back part is raised. But as all this is 
the natural and inevitable result of the rounding of the lips, it 
is best to let well enough alone and not trouble the pupil by call- 
ing his attention to it." Guttmann says that this sound has 
"Lowest position of the larynx ; back of the tongue slightly 
arched; lips thrust forward so as to form a narrow, nearly cir- 
cular opening." 

Quantity: Long. 

Example: iood, rule, br^w. 

iProfesRor Bell says, **Every lingual vowel may be rounded, but the 
'back'-vowels furnish the only English elements of this class- 

. . . .The degree of labiU contraction corresponds with the aperture of the 
lingual vowel as modified by the high, mid, or low position of the tongue. 
Thus *high' vowels are rounded by a close position of the lips; *mid* vowels 
by an intermediate position; and the 'low' vowels by a broad labial aperture; 
as in: oo (close), oh, (middle), aw (broad).** 

232 The Association Review. 

Method of Development — I. Imitation. II. Contrast with 


aw. III. With the lips in position for 00 let the combination 

koo be repeated several times while the pupil's hand is held on 
the teacher's throat. 

00. (Short) 

Chart spelling: 00. 

Formatioft : — Tlie tongue and lips are in nearly the 

same position as for oo^ but the aperture is slightly more open. 

Quantity : Short. 

Example : hook, 


Method of Development — Shorten 00. 

O. (Long) 
Chart spellings: o-e, oa, o, ow. 

Formation — The first or radical part of this sound is pro- 
duced by a position slightly wider than for 00 short. The second 
part, which is a glide or vanish, is 00 long. 

Quantity : This vowel is diphthongal, the first part being 

long and the second short. 


Example: stone, boat, potato, snow. 


Method of De^'clopment — By contrast with ow (ow as in cow). 


Chart spellings : aw, au, o(r). 

Formation — ^The back of the tongue a little lower than for 
the radical part of the preceding vowel ; the lip aperture being 
greater ; with its vertical diameter longest. 

Quantity : Long. 

Example : saw, haul, for. 

Method of Development — I. Contrast with ah. II. From 
the radical part of o by widening the aperture slightly. 

O. (Short) 

Chart spelling : -o-. 

Formation — The tongue slightly lower than for the preced- 
ing sound. Lip aperture less rounded. This is the lowest back 

Elementary English Sounds, 233 

Quantity : Short. 

Example : not. 

Method of Dezelopmefit — Shorten the preceding sound. 


Chart spelling : a(r). 

Formation — The tongue should be soft and flat on the floor 
of the mouth, the point just touching the lower teeth. The teeth 
should be separated about a finger's width. 

Quantity : Long. 

Example : arm. 

Method of Development — Imitation. 

Note — As this vowel is, frequently, the one firKt taught, too great care 
can hardly be given to the quality of the voice secured and the unstrained, 
natural use of the vocal organs. Seldom should any other vowel ho at- 
tempted until this one is given in a satisfactory manner. 

U. (Short) 

Chart spellings: -u-, a, ^a(r), o(r), 

-e(r), i(r). 

Formation — General position the same as for a(r), but the 
back of the tongue is a little higher. 
Quantity : Short. 

Example : cwp, china, collar, cobr, bak^r, thetr. 
Method of Development — Shorten the preceding sound. 

I. (Long) 

Chart spellings : i-e, igh, — ^y. 

Formation — The first or radical part of this vowel is Italian 
a or ah, the second part is a glide or vanish to long e. 

Quantity : This vowel is diphthongal, the first part being 
long and the second short. 

Example : side, ntght, hy. 

Method of Development — I. Combination of the two parts, 
n. By contract with a. 


Chart spellings : ou ow. 

Formation — The first or radical part of this vowel is the 


same as for long a (r), the second part is a glide to 00. 

234 5^*^ Association Review. 

Quantity : The first part of this diphthong is long, the second 
is short. 

Example : prowd, arw. 

Method of Development — I. Combination of the two ele- 
ments. II. By contrast with 6. 


Chart spellings : oi, oy. 

Formation — ^The radical part of this vowel is aw, the glide 
is short i. 

Quantity : The long radical part is followed by the short 

Example — oii, boy. 

Method of Development — Combmation of the two elements. 

U. (Long) 
Chart spellings : u-e, ew. 

Formation — This sound is composed of e and oo. 

Quantity : The first element in this diphthongal sound is 
short, the second is long. 

Example : use, iew. 

Method of Development — I. Combination of the two 
elements, taking care that their relative lengths be regarded. II. 
First take position for e or i, draw the tongue back forcibly to ur 
and round the lips. 


Chart spellings : ur, er, ir. 

Formation — The whole tongue should be low and flat in the 
mouth. The teeth should be but slightly parted. 

Quantity : Long. 

Example : fur, hn*, str. 

Method of Development — From a(r). Retain the same 
tongue position but nearly close the teeth. 

Elementary English Sounds, 235 


The order which it is advisable to follow in teaching the 
elementary sounds is one of expediency simply. It would, no 
doubt, be possible to teach them in the order of their natural 
arrangement in groups and scales, but it is vastly easier for a 
little deaf child if he is aided in accomplishing the work of ac- 
quiring these sounds by a judicious order in teaching so that 
he may not be confused by attempting to learn at the same time 
elements too closely resembling each other in formation. The 
breath consonants may be well taught first, then voice consonants 
and vowels. We would suggest the following order as one which 
presents, possibly, as few difficulties as any other. 

Teach Group I first. When that is complete, teach the 
sounds contained in II and III at the same time, taking sounds 
alternately from each. 

Group I. 

I. h 





7. s 

2. wh 


8. k 

3. f 



9. sh 
10 ch 

Group II, 

I. v 






13- 1 

2. th 





14. X 

3- z 


r — 



4. m 






Group III, 


I. a(r) 






13- -i- 

2. 00 





14. oi 

3 aw 





15. a-e 

4. ee 





16. -a- 

17. -e- 

♦9. 10. 11 and 12 may well be taught together, the final b, d, g, j, Immiijt 
tauglit later. Ch is eomeUnies better taught later than the place assigued 
it in Qroup I. 

236 The Association Review. 

If deemed advisable to teach consonant w, zh and consonant 
y — , w — should be taught as vocalized wh, zh as vocalized sh^ 
and y — as consonant e, or a closer form of the vowel ee. 

We have omitted from this list of sounds selected for de- 
scription some sounds found in the speech of most educated 
people, but we believe that we have omitted none that are essen- 
tial to an intelligible pronunciation of our mother tongue. 

General Notes on Elementary Sounds. 

"Resonance in an unobstructed oral passage is the charac- 
teristic feature of the vowels; and the peculiar resonance in the 
case of each vowel is what mainly distinguishes it individually 
from the others. Obstructive action is the leading feature of 
the consonants; and the kind and manner of the obstruction is 
what mainly distinguishes one consonant from another. 

"Obstruction is, indeed, not absent from the vowel. The vo- 
cal cords are set in vibration only as they obstruct the outgoing 
stream of breath. But this action does not go to differentiate the 
vowel qualities. There is, too, for the vowels, what may in one 
sense be called an obstruction in the oral passage; but only, or 
mainly, as involved in the formation of a vowel chamber, and thus 
as re-enforcing instead of obstructing the sound, and as subservi- 
ent to the resonance that imparts the vowel quality. So far as it 
acts otherwise it gives to the vowel more or less of a consonantal 
character. '^9 

"Resonance, on the other hand, is not absent from the con- 
sonants. The nasals, n, m, ng^ are marked as such by their 
peculiar resonance; and each has a different resonance to distin- 
guish it from the others. The same is true of the sonant mutes, 
b, d, g. But all these are ruled out from the vowel category by 
the absolute closure of the oral passage. Except in the nasals 
and the sonant mutes, whatever resonance there may be has no 
share in forming the characteristic quality of the consonant." 
— Preface to International Dictionary, i8go, 

"The accepted theory of vowel formation, is that the vowels 
are produced by adjustments of the oral cavity in such ways as to 
reinforce for the vowels respectively, certain of the 'overtones' 
or 'upper partials' or harmonic notes, that are contained in the 
tone produced in the larynx. As regards the palatal vowels, the 
'front vowels' of Prof. Bell, I, at one time, supposed, as others. I 

Elementary English Sounds. 237 

believe, have done, that the part of the oral cavity especially con- 
cerned was that between the front of the tongue and the soft 
palate. I have been led, however, to the conclusion that the 
part between the back of the tongue and the soft palate and the 
back wall of the pharynx is equally efficient, and its action equally 

**These vowels are divided into what Prof. Bell calls high, 
mid and loWy — of which the vowels in eat, ate, at, may be taken re- 
spectively as examples, — according as the front of the tongue 
is more or less depressed. It is remarked by Henry Sweet 
('Hand-book of Phonetics,' p. 211), referring to Bell's diagrams, 
that not 'only is the tongue lowered [in the front], but the point 
of greatest narrowness is shifted back, the size of the resonance- 
chamber being thus increased in both directions.' He adds that 
the passage to this chamber may be as narrow for so-called *low' 
as for one that is *mid' or *high'; this passage being the place 
of greatest constriction between tongue and palate. 

"The vowels as high, mid, and low, are subdivided, by Prof 
Ikll aiicl Mr. Sweet, into the *narrow' and the *wide.' This dif- 
ference, according to Mr. Sweet, depends on the shape of the 
upper surface of the tongue, as pressed upward convexly, or as 
relaxed and flattened. The effect would obviously be, while al- 
tering the shape of the passage, to make it narrower or wider. 
In fact, the whole of the tongue is lowered as the passage is wid- 
ened. Examples are : feet, narrow; Ht, wide; fate, without the 
vanish, narrow, pet, wide : hat'e, narrow ; hat, wide. My own 
view is that there should be marked more than two degrees of 
the narrow and the wide. 

**But what 1 now aim to show is that, whether high, mid, or 
low ; and of each of these, whether narrow or wide, there is a 
resonance-cavity behind, as well as before, the place of greatest 
narrowness, and corresponding in size with the one before ; 
that is to say, smaller for the high, larger for the mid, and still 
larger for the low ; and, as I conjecture, tuned each to the same 
pitch with the one corresponding in front, so as to respond to 
the same harmonic note in the tone from the larynx. One effect, 
of course, fs to shorten at each end the narrow passage, or part 
of the greatest constriction for the mid, and still more for the 
low." — Professor Samuel Porter, Report of Convention, 1884. 

"It mav be affirmed : 

"I. That the consonants modify the vowels with which they 
are associated in position, tone, inception and termination. 

"II. That the positions of the organs in articulating the 
consonant sounds are influenced by those of the vowels which 
precede or follow. 

238 The Association Review. 

"III. And it is also manifest that the organs of speech are 
always endeavoring to minimize muscular effort in combining 
sounds for the sake of ease, or as in mechanics, to economize 
force and avoid undue friction. 

"IV. But the action of the organs of speech is facile or 
difficult, simple or complex, according to their relative positions 
and the muscular energy required in shifting them." — Arnold's 
Manual, Vol. I, 

"If the breath pour out continuously, and the chest fall, the 

lungs will soon be exhausted the breath in articulation 

is exploded from the mouth, and not from the chest. The space 
within which the air is compressed is above the glottis, and the 
effect of the compression must not be communicated below the 
glottis." — BeWs Principles of Speech and Dictionary of Sounds, 
p. 162. 

Among the Articulations there are various degrees of 
quantity. The vocal articulations are essentially longer than 
the non-vocal but in each class there are varieties. Thus: The 
Breath Obstructives, P, T, K, are the shortest. 

The Breath Contrnuous Elements, F, Th, S, Sh, are the next 

The Shut Voice Articulations, B, D, G, are the next in 

The Close Continuous Voice Articulations, V, Th, Z, Zh, 
are longer still. 

The Open Continuous Voice Articulations (or Liquids) L, 
M, N, Ng, are the longest simple articulations. 

Wh, W, Y, R, are not included, because these articulations 
do not occur after vowels, but only as initials in English ; and 
all initial letters, whether voice or breath, are alike in quantity." 
— BeWs Principles of Speech and Dictionary of Sounds. 

^"According to Dr. Ernest Brucke, of Vienna, the three 
vowel sounds of E, (as in he) A (as in ah,) and 0, (as in oh?!,) are 
the fundamental sounds upon which the system of vowels rests ; 
the other vowels being only intermediate sounds resulting from 
these three. Of these three vowels, A is produced without any 
change in resonator (i. e., the pharynx, and the oral and nasal 
cavities); O by lengthening it and narrowing its exterior end, 

1 The O wherever it appears in the followiDg quotation is intended to 

represent our English 00. 

Elementary English Sounds. 239 

and E by shortening it and narrowing it. Or, with respect to the 
length of the resonator, we may say it is greater with O, and 
least with E, and intermediate with A. 

"Let us begin with A. Separate the jaws so far as to admit 
the thumb between the teeth ; keep the lips perfectly still, with- 
out pressing them against the teeth, or thrusting them out, but 
in such a way as to leave the extremities of the front teeth slight- 
ly visible ; then perform a sounding expiration. The tongue 
should be perfectly flat and inactive, at the bottom of the oral 
cavity; or, better still, it may be made to assume a longitudinally 
concave position. A is the only vowel in the production of which 
the hyoid bone preserves the same position as when the organs 
are inactive ; the larynx, however, is carried upward, somewhat, 
so that the sounding air column, issuing from it, shall strike more 
forcibly against the roots of the upper incisors than against any 
other part. 

"The transition from A to E is effected by the elevation of the 
larynx and the hyoid bone, without the relative positions being 
altered ; from A to O by the larynx being drawn downward as far 
as possible away from the hyoid bone, which is carried forward 
somewhat. The production of E (as in h^) requires the greatest 
narrowing of the oral passage, and the greatest shortening of the 
resonator. The Hrst is effected in this way : the middle portion 
of the tongue is brought on both sides in contact with the palate, 
while its tip is made to press against the lower incisors (without, 
however, projecting beyond them) and its body being placed so 
as to present a longitudinal cavity through which the air passes. 
The second is effected by carrying the larynx upward as far as 
possible, while the resonator at th^ opposite end is shortened by 
drawing the corners of the mouth back in the direction of the 
ears. In the production of O (as in coot), the larynx occupies 
the most depressed position. The resonator is consequently the 
longest and is narrowed at its exterior end. The lips are thrust 
forward in such a way as to leave only a small, nearly circular 
opening between them. The tip of the tongue, which with E 
was placed against the lower incisors, is drawn back a little from 
the teeth and held on a level with the edges of the lower incisors, 
while the back of the tongue is slightly arched." — Guttmann's 
Gymnastics of the Voice, 

The following is a list of the English vowels numbered from 
I to 13. Those which when accented are always long are marked 
( — ): those which are always short (w); and those which are 
sometimes long and sometimes short ( — w): 

240 The Association Review, 

Numerical Notation of English Vowels. 

1 ( — ) eel pull, pool. (v-. — ) 13 

2 (-')ill old, (— ) 12 

3 (— ) ale ore, (— ) 1 1 

4 (^^ — ) ell, ere on, all, (^.^ — ) 10 

5 (w) an up, urn, (w) 9 

6 ( — ) ask earn, ( — ) 8 

7 (— ) ah 
— Bell's Principles of Speech and Dictionary of Sounds. 

*'The cavities which modify vowels consist not only of the 
visible cavity in front of the vowel aperture, but also of one 
simultaneously formed behind the tongue ; and these two res- 
onance chambers are of different pitch." — BeWs Visible Speech 
and Vocal Physiology. 

"A vowel is a syllabic sound moulded by a definite and 
momentarily fixed, or tense configuration of the free channel of 
the mouthy and creating no oral sybilation or friction in its emis- 
sion. A vowel without a fixed configuration loses its syllabic 
effect and becomes a glide, and a glide with sibilation or friction 
in the oral channel becomes a consonant. Consonants, like 
glides, are merely transitional sounds, but their configurations 
may be held, so as to receive syllabic impulse, in which case a 
consonant without a vowel has the effect of a syllable. All 
vowels make syllables. Primary vowels are those which are most 
allied to consonants, the voice-channel being expanded only so 
far as to remove all fricative quality. The same organic adjust- 
ments form 'wide' vowels when the resonant cavity is enlarged 
behind the configurative aperture ; — the physical cause of 'wide' 
quality being retraction of the palate, and expansion of the 
pharynx." — Inaugural Edition of Visible Speech. 



COiniinicd from the Association Review of April, 1903. 

puzzle, bustle, muscle, mussel, 

pyre, mire. 


quacks, wags, whacks, wax. 

quail, wail, whale. 

quake, wake. 

quart, ward, warned, wart. 

quarter, warder. 

quarts, quartz. 

quartz, quarts. 

quash, wash. 

quaver, wafer, waver. 

quay, key. 

queen, wean, weed, wheat. 

quell, well. 

quench, wench. 

quest, west. 

queue, cue, coo. 

quick, whig, wick, wig, wing, 

quicken, wicked, wicket, 
quid, quint, quit, whit, win, wit. 
quill, will. 

quilled, quilt, willed, wilt, 
quilt, quilled, willed, wilt, 
quince, wince, wins, 
quint, quid, quit, whit, win, wit. 
quip, whim, whip, 
quire, choir, wire, 
quit, quid, quint, whit, win, wit. 
quite, white, whine, wide, wind, 
quote, won't. 


rabbit, rabid, rapid. 

rabble, ramble. 

rabid, rabbit, rapid. 

race, raise, rays, raze. 

race, razor. 

rack, rag, rang, rank, wracks 

racket, ragged. 

rag, rack, rang, rank, wrack. 

rage, range. 

ragged, racket. 

raid, rained, rate, reigned. 

rains, reins. 

raise, race, rays, raze. 

ram, ramp, rap, wrap. 

ramble, rabble. 

ramp, ram, rap, wrap. 

ran, rant, rat. 

ranch, rash. 

rang, rack, rag, rank, wrack. 

range, rage. 

rank, rack, rag, rang, wrack. 

rant, ran, rat. 

rap, ram, ramp, wrap 

rapid, rabbit, rabid 

rapper, wrapper. 

rapt, wrapped. 

rash, ranch. 

rat, ran, rant 

rays, race, raise, raze. 

raze, race, raise, rays. 

razor, racer. 

read, reed. 

read, red, rend, rent, wren. 


Thi Association Rtutew. 

ready, ruddy. 

ream, reap. 

reap, ream. 

rebate, remained, repaid. 

rebel, repel. 

rebound, remound. 

recede, receipt, reseat. 

receipt, recede, reseat. 

recite, reside, resided. 

red, read, rend, rent, wren. 

redoubt, redound, renown. 

redound, redoubt, renown. 

redder, render. 

reed, read. 

reef, reeve. 

reek, wreak. 

reeve, reef, 

referred, revert. 

refers, reverse. 

refuse, reviews. 

reigned, raid, rained, rate. 

reins, rains. 

relied, relight, 

relight, relied. 

remained, rebate, repaid. 

remind, repined. 

remount, rebound. 

rend, read, red, rent, wren. 

render, redder. 

renowned, redoubt, redound. 

rent, read, red, rend, wren. 

repaid, rebate, remained. 

repassed, repast. 

repast, repassed. 

repel, rebel. 

repined, remind. 

reseat, recede, receipt. 

resent, reset. 

reset, resent. 

reside, recite, resigned. 

resigned, recite, reside. 

rest, wrest. 

reverse, refers. 

revert, referred. 

rate, raid, rained, reigned. 

reviews, refuse. 

rheum, room. 

rhyme, ripe. 

rib, rim. 

rice, rise. 

rich, ridge. 

riches, ridges. 

rick, rig, ring, rink, wring. 

rid, writ. 

ridden, written. 

ride, right, rind, rite, write. 

ridge, rich. 

rifle, rival. 

rig, rick, ring, rink, wring,. 

rigger, rigor, ringer, wringer 

right, ride, rind, rite, write. 

rigor, rigger, ringer, wringer, 

rim, rib, rip. 

rimple, ripple. 

rind, ride, right, rite, write. 

ring, rick, rig, rink, wring. 

ringer, rigger, rigor, wringe.»^ 

rink, rick, rig, ring, wring. 

rip, rib, rim. 

ripe, rhyme. 

ripple, rimple. 

rise, rice. 

rite, ride, right, rind, write. 

rival, rifle. 

road, roan, rode, rote, row< 

roam, robe, rope, 
roan, road, rode, rote, rowc 

roar, rower, 
rob, romp, 
robe, roam, rope, 
roc, rock, 
rock, roc. 
rod, rot. 
rode, road, roan, rote, row< 

roe, row. 
roes, rose, rows, 
role, roll. 

My List of Hontophenous Words, 


roll, role. 

romp, rob. 

room, rheum. 

root, route, rude, rued. 

rope, roam, robe. 

rose roes, rows 

rot, rod. 

lote, road, roan, rode, rowed, 

rouge, ruche, 
rough, ruff, 
round, rout, 
rout, round, 
route, root, rude, rued, 
row, roe. 
rowed, road, roan, rode, rote, 

rower, roar, 
rows, roes, rose, 
rub, rum, rump, 
rubble, rumble, 
ruche, rouge, 
ruck, rug, rung, wrung, 
ruddy, ready, 
rude, root, route, rued, 
rued, root, route, rude, 
ruff, rough. 

rug, ruck, rung, wrung, 
rum, rub, rump, 
rump, rub, rum. 
run, runt, rut. 
runt, run, rut. 
rut, run, runt. 
rye, cry, wry. 

sack, sag, sang, sank, sacque. 

sacks, sax, yax. 

sacque, sack, sag, sang, sank. 

sad, sand, sat. 

saddle, sandal. 

safe, save. 

sag, sack, sang, sank, sacque. 

said, cent, scent, send, sent, set. 

sail, sale. 

sale, sail. 

saloon, salute. 

Salter, psalter. 

sand, sad, sat. 

sane, sate, seine. 

sat, sad, sand. 

sate, sane, seine. 

sauce, saws. 

save, safe. 

saver, savor. 

savor, saver. 

saws, sauce. 

sax, sacks, yax. 

scab, scamp. 

scamp, scab. 

scanned, scat, scant. 

scant, scanned, scat. 

scat, scanned, scant. 

scene, cede, seat, seed, seen.. 

scenes, cease, seas, seize, sees. 

scent, cent, said, send, sent, set. 

science, zions. 

scrabble, scramble. 

scramble, scrabble. 

screed, screen. 

screen, screed. 

scrim, scrimp, scrip. 

scrimp, scrim, scrip. 

scrip, scrim, scrimp. 

scull, skull. 

sea, see. 

seal, ceil, zeal. 

seam, seem, seep. 

seap, seam, seem. 

sear, cere, seer. 

search, serge, surge. 

seas, cease, scenes, sees, seize. 

sects, sex. 

see, sea. 

seed, cede, scene, seat, seen. 

seem, seam, seep. 

seen, cede, scene, seat, seed. 

seep, seam, seem. 

seer, cere, sear. 


The Association Review. 

sickle, single. 

side, cite, sighed, sight, signed, 

sider, cider, 
sieved, sift. 
sift, sieved, 
sighed, cite, side, sight, signed, 

sighs, size, 
sight, cile, side, sighed, signed, 

signed, cite, side, sighed, sight, 

signet, cygnet. 
simple, cymbal, symbol, 
sin, sit. 
since, sins. 

sing, cinque, sick, sink. 
single, sickle. 
sink, cinque, sick, sing, 
sins, since. 
sister, xyster, 
sit, sin. 
site, cide, side, sighed, sight, 

size, sighs, 
skate, skein. 
skein, skate, 
skid, skin, skit. 
skim, skip, 
skimmer, skipper. 
skin, skid, skit, 
skip, skim, 
skipper, skimmer, 
skit, skid, skin, 
skull, scull, 
slab, slam, slap, 
slack, slag, slang, slank. 
slag, slack, slang, slank. 
slain, slate, 
slam, slab, slap, snap, 
slang, slack, slag, slank. 
slank, slack, slag, slang. 
slant, slat, 
slap, slab, slam, snap. 

slat, slant. 

slate, slain. 

slay, sleigh. 

sleigh, slay. 

sleight, slide, slight. 

slew, slue. 

slick, sling, slink. 

slid, slit. 

slide, sleight, slight. 

slight, sleight, slide. 

slim, slip. 

sling, slick, slink. 

slink, slick, sling. 

shp, slim. 

sht, slid. 

sloam, slope. 

sloe, slow. 

slope, steam. 

slow, sloe. 

slue, slew. 

slues, sluice. 

slug, slung, slunk. 

sluice, slues. 

slum, slump. 

slump, slum. 

stung, slug, slunk, snug. 

slunk, slug, slung, snug. 

smack, spank. 

smatter, spatter. 

smear, spear. 

smell, spell. 

smelt, spelled. 

smelter, spelter. 

smite, spied, spine, spite. 

smoke, spoke. 

smout, spout. 

smudge sponge. 

smug, spunk. 

smut, spun, sput. 

snack, snag, stack, stag, st 

snag, snack, stack, stag, st 

snail, stale. 

snake, stake, steak. 

snap, slab, slam, slap. 

snare, stair, stare. 

My List of Homophenous Words. 


sees, cease, scenes, seas, seize. 
, seignior, senior, 
seine, sane, sate, 
seize, cease, scenes, seas, sees. 
sell. cell. 
sellcFj cellar. 

send, cent, said, scent, sent, set. 
senior seignior 
sense canse. 
sensual, censual. 
sent, cent, said, scent, send, set. 
serf, serve, surf. 
Serve, serf, surf. 
session cession. 
set. cent, said, scent, send, sent, 
setter center 
sew so, sow 
sever zephyr 
sex, sects. 
shabby, chamois, 
shack. Jack, jag. shag, shank, 
shackle, jackal, jangle. 
shad. chat. 
shade, chain, jade, 
shaft, chaffed. 

shag. Jack, jag. shack, shank, 
shagged, jacket, jagged, 
shah, jay. 
shale, jail. 

sham, champ, chap, jam, jamb. 
shamble, chapel, 
shame, shape. 

shank. Jack, jag, shack, shag, 
shape, shame. 
share, chair. 
sharp, charm, 
shatler. chatter, 
shave, chafe, 
she. gee. 

sheaf, chief, sheave. 
shear, cheer, jeer, sheer, 
shears, sheers, 
sheath, sheathe, 
sheathe, sheath, 
sheave, chief, sheaf. 

shed, jet. 

sheep, cheap, cheep. 

sheer, cheer, jeer, shear. 

sheers, shears. 

sheet, cheat. 

sheeting, cheating. 

sheik, cheek. 

shelf, shelve. 

shell, jell. 

shelve, shelf. 

shepherd, jeopard. 

sherry, cherry. 

shied, chicle, shine. 

shilling, chilling. 

shimmer, shipper. 

shin, chin, chit, gin, jiti. 

shine, chide, shied. 

shingle, jiggle, jingle. 

ship, chip, jib. 

shipper, shimmer. 

shirk, jerk. 

shirred, shirt. 

shirt, shirred. 

shoat, shone, showed, shown. 

shock, chock, Jock, jog. 

shod, jot, shot. 

shoe, chew, shoo. 

shone, shoat, showed, shown. 

shoo, chew shoe, 

shoot <:he\vefl, clmte, June, jute, 

shop, chop, job, 

shorn, short. 

short, shorn. 

shot, jot, shod. 

showed, shoat, shone, shown. 

shown, shoat, shone, showed, 

shrug, shrunk. 

shrunk, shrug. 

shudder, shutter. 

shuck, chuck, chunk, jug. 

shunned, jut. shunt, shut. 

shunt, jut, shunned, shut. 

shut, jut, shunned, shunt. 

shutter, shudder. 

sick, cinque, jig, sing. sink. 


The Association Review. 

sneer, steer. 

sniffy stiff. 

snivel, stiffen. 

snob, slop, stop. 

snood, stood. 

snoop, stoop. 

snore, store. 

snout, stout. 

snub, stub, stump. 

snuff, stuff. 

snug, stuck, stung, stunk. 

so, sew, sow. 

soar, sore, sower. 

soared, sword. 

sob, sop. 

sock, song. 

sod, sot. 

sold, soled. 

sole, soul. 

soled, sold. 

some, sub, sum, sup. 

son, sun. 

song, sock. 

soon, sued, suit. 

sop, sob. 

sore, soar, sower. 

sot, sod. 

soul, sole. 

souse, sows. 

sow, so, sew. 

sower, soar, sore. 

sown, zone. 

sows, souse. 

spanned, spat. 

spank, smack. 

sparred, smart. 

spat, spanned. 

spear, smear. 

sped, spend, spent. 

spell, smell. 

spelled, smelt. 

spelter, smelter. 

spend, sped, spent. 

spent, sped, spend- 

spice, spies. 

spied, smite, spine, spite. 

spies, spice. 

spin, spit. 

spine, smite, spied, spite. 

spit, spin. 

spite, smite, spied, spine. 

splint, split. 

split, splint. 

spoke, smoke. 

sponge, smudge. 

spout, smout. 

sprained, sprayed. 

sprayed, sprained. 

sprig, spring. 

spright, sprite, spryed. 

spring, sprig. 

spun, smut, sput. 

spurned, spurred, spurt. 

spurred, spurned, spurt. 

sput, smut, spun. 

squad, squat. 

square, swear. 

squat, squad. 

squib, swim. 

squid, squint. 

squint, squid. 

stab, stamp. 

stack, stag, stank. 

stag, stack, stank. 

staid, stained, state, stayed. 

stained, staid, state, stayed. 

stair, snare, stare. 

stake, snake, steak. 

stalk, stock. 

stamp, stab. 

stare, snare, stair. 

starred, start. 

start, starred. 

state, staid, stained, stayed. 

stayed, staid, stained, state. 

steak, snake, stake. 

steal, steel. 

steam, steep. 

steel, steal. 

steep, steam. 

My List of Homophenous Words. 


steer, sneer, 

stem, step, steppe. 

step, stem, steppe. 

steppe, stem, step. 

stick, sting, stink. 

stiff, sniff. 

stiffen, snivel. 

stile, style. 

stilled, stilt. 

stilt, stilled. 

sting, stick, stink. 

stink, stick, sting. 

stock, stalk. 

stoned, stowed. 

stoop, snoop. 

stop, slop, snob. 

store, snore. 

stout, snout. 

stow, slow, snow. 

stowed, stoned. 

straggle, strangle. 

straight, strained, strait, strayed. 

strained, straight, strait, strayed. 

strait, straight, strained, strayed. 

strangle, straggle. 

strayed, straight, strained, strait. 

struck, strung. 

strung, struck. 

stub, snub, stump. 

stuck, snug, stung, stunk. 

stud, stunned, stunt. 

stuff, snuff. 

stump, snub, stub. 

stung, snug, stuck, stunk. 

stunk, snug, stuck, stung. 

stunned, stud, stunt. 

stunt, stud, stunned. 

style, stile. 

sub, some, sum, sup. 

succor, sucker. 

suck, sung, sunk. 

sucker, succor. 

sued, soon, suit. 

suit, soon, sued. 

suite, sweet. 

sum, some, sub, sup. 
summer, supper, 
sun, son. 

sup, some, sub, sum. 
supper, summer, 
surf, serf, serve, 
surge, search, serge, 
swab, swamp, swap, 
swamp, swab, swap, 
swap, swab, swamp, 
swear, square, 
sweet, suite, 
swig, swing, 
swing, swig, 
swinge, switch, 
switch, swinge, 
sword, soared, 
symbol, cymbal, simple. 


tab, dab, dam, damn, dan.p 

tamp, tap. 
tack, tag, tank, 
tacked, tact. 

tackle, dangle, taggle, tangle, 
tacks, tax, task, 
tact, tacked, 
tag, tack, tank. 
taggle, dangle, tackle, tangle, 
tail, dale, nail, tale, 
taint, deigned, 
take, lake, make, 
tale, dale, nail, tail.^ 
tall, doll, 
tally, dally, 
tame, '^ame, tape. 
tamp, dab, dam, damn, damp, 

tab, tap. 
tan, dad, tat. 

tangle, dangle, tackle, taggle. 
tank, tack, tag. 
tap, dab, dam, damn, damp, 

tab, tamp. 
tape, dame, tame, 
taper, tapir. 


The Association Review. 

tapir, taper. 

tare, dare, tear. 

tart, dart. 

task, tacks, tax. 

tassel, dazzle. 

tat. dad, tan. 

tattle, dandle. 

taught, taut, tawed. 

taut, taught, tawed. 

taw, daw. 

lawcd taught, taut. 

tax, tacks, task. 

tea, tee. 

teach, leach, leech, liege. 

team, deem, deep, teem. 

teamster, deamster. 

tear, dare, tare. 

tear, dear, deer, tier. 

tears, tierce, tiers. 

tee. tea, 

teem, deem, deep, team, 

teens, deans, tease, 

tell, dell, knell. 

ten, dead, debt, den, dent, tend, 

tend, dead, debt, den, dent, ten, 

tender tenter, tetter. 
tense, dens, dense. 
tent, dead, debt, den, dent, ten, 

tenter, tender, tetter, 
tenth, death, length, 
terse, nurse, 
test, lest, nest, 
tetter, tender, tenter, 
text, next. 
than, that, 
that, than. 
thawed, thought. 
the, thee, 
thee, the. 
their, there, 
then, thin, 
thick, thing, think. 

thicken, thicket, 
thigh, thy. 
thin, then, 
thing, thick, think, 
think, thick, thing, 
thought, thawed, 
thread, threat, 
threat, thread, 
threw, through, 
throe, throw, 
throne, throat, thrown, 
through, threw. 
throw throe. 
thrown, throat, throne, 
thumb, thump, 
thump, thumb. 
thy, thigh. 

ick"tack, knick-nack. 

ickle, dingle, tingle, tinkle. 

de, died, diet, tied, tight. 

e, die, dye. 

ed, died, diet, tide, tight. 
tier, dear, deer, tear. 
■, tears, tiers. 

ers, tears, tierce. 

ight, died, diet, tide, tied. 

ill, dill. 

iller, dinner, tinder, tinner, 

imber, dimmer, timbre. 

imbre, dimmer, timber, 
dime, type. 

!n, did, din, dint, tint, tit. 

nder, dinner, tiller, tinner, 

ne, dine. 

inge, dish, ditch. 

ngle, dingle, tickle, tinkle. 

inker, digger. 

inkle, dingle, tickle, tingle. 

inner, dinner, tiller, tinder, 
tint, did, din, dint, tin, tit. 
tip, dim, dip. 
tipple, dimple. 

My List of Homophenous Words, 


tire, dire, dyer. 

tithe, ninth, lithe. 

titter, dinner, tiller, tinder, 

to, dew, do, due^ too, two. 
toad, don't, dote, toat, toned, 

tottle, dottle, 
toe, do, doe, dough, tow. 
tog, dock, 
toggle, noggle. 
told, tolled, 
toll, dole, knoll, 
tolled, told. 

tomb, doom, dupe, tube, 
tome, dobe, dome, 
ton, done, dun, tun, tut. 
toned, don't, dote, toad, toat, 

tongs, dogs, 
tongue, duck, dug, dung, tuck, 

too, dew, do, due, to, two. 
tool, tulle. 

toot, dude, dune, tune, 
tore, door, 
torn, dom. 
tot, dod, don. 
touch, dutch, 
touchy, dutchy. 
tough, dove, duff, 
toughed, tuft, 
tow, do, doe, dough, toe. 
towed, don't, dote, toad, toat, 

towel, dowel, 
tower, dower, 
town, doubt, down, 
toys, noise, 
trace, trays, 
track, drag, drank, 
tracked, tract, 
tract, tracked. 

trade, drained, trained, trait, 
trained, drained, trade, trait. 

trait, drained, trade, trained, 
tram, drab, drachm, dram, tramp, 

tramp, drab, drachm, dram, 

tram, trap, 
trap, drab, drachm, dram, tram, 

trawl, drawl, 
tray, dray, 
trays, trace, 
tread, dread, trend, 
treat, treed. 
treble, tremble, 
treed, treat, 
tremble, treble, 
trench, dredge, drench, 
trend, dread, tread, 
tress, dress, 
tribe, tripe, 
trick, drink, trig, 
tricker, drinker, trigger, 
trickle, trinkle. 
trig, drink, trick, 
trigger, drinker, tricker. 
trill, drill, 
trim, drip, trip, 
trinkle, trickle, 
trip, drip, trim, 
tripe, tribe, 
triplet, driplet. 
troop, droop, troupe, 
troupe, droop, troop, 
trout, drowned, 
truck, drug, drunk, trunk, 
trudge, drudge, 
true, drew, 
trump, drub, drum, 
trunk, drug, drunk, truck, 
trussed, trust, 
trust, trussed, 
try, dry. 

tub, dub, dumb, dump, 
tube, doom, dupe, tomb, 
tuck, duck, dug, dung, tongue. 



The Association Review. 

tuft, toughed. 

tug^ duck, dug, dung, tongue, 

tulle, tool, 
tumble, double, 
tun, done, dun, ton, tut. 
tune, toot, dude, dune, 
turf, nerve, 
turn, dirt, learn, 
tusk, dusk, 
tussel, nuzzle, 
tut, done, dun, ton, tun. 
twice, twines, 
twin, twit, 
twines, twice, 
twinge, twitch, 
twit, twin, 
twitch, twinge, 
two, dew, do, due, to, too. 
type, dime, time. 


udder, hunter, under, utter, 
umber, upper, 
unblessed, unpleasant, 
under, udder, hunter, utter, 
undid, unknit. 
undo, undue, unto, 
undyed, untied, 
unfailing, unveiling, 
unfounded, confounded, 
unknit, undid, 
unknown, unload, 
unload, unknown, 
unmade, unpaid, 
unpaid, unmade, 
unpleasant, unblessed, 
unseat, unseen 
unseen, unseat, 
unstate, unstayed, 
unstayed, unstate. 
untied, undyed. 
unto, undo, undue, 
unveiling, unfailing, 
unwebbed, unwept. 

unwept, unwebbed. * 

upper, umber. 

urn, earn, heard, herd, hurt. 

use, goose. 

usher, husher. 

utter, hunter, udder, under. 


vague, fake. 

vain, fade, fain, faint, fate, feij 

feint, fete, vane, vein, 
vale, fail, veil, 
van, fad, fan, fat, vat. 
vane, fade, fain, faint, fate, feij 

feint, fete, vain, vein, 
vase, fase, phase, 
vast, fast. 

vat, fad, fan> fat, van. 
vault, fault, 
vaulter, falter, 
veal, feel, 
veer, fear, 
veil, fail, vale, 
vein, fade, fain, faint, fate, fei 

feint, fete, vain, vane. 
vend, fed, fen, fend, vent, 
venerate, federate, 
vent, fed, fen, fend, vend, 
verb, firm, 
versed, first, 
very, ferry, 
vetch, fetch. 

vial, file, phial, vile, viol, 
vice, vies, 
victual, fiddle, 
vie, fie. 

vied, fight, find, fined, 
vies, vice, 
view, few. 
views, fuse. 

vile, file, phial, vial, viol. 
vim, fib. 
vine, fine. 

viol, file, phial, vial, vile, 
violent, violet. 

My List of Homophenous Words. 


violet, violent, 
viper, fiber, 
vision, fission, 
vocal, focal, 
vo^e, folk, 
voiced, foist, 
volley, folly, 
vowed, found, fount, 
vowel, foul, fowl. 


wad, wan, wand. 

wade, wait, waned, weight. 

waddle, wattle. 

wage, wedge. 

wags, quacks, whacks, wax. 

waif, waive, wave. 

wafer, quaver, waver. 

wail, quail, whale. 

waist, waste. 

wait, wade, waned, weight. 

waive, waif, wave. 

wake, quake. 

wall, waul. 

wan, wad, wand. 

wand, wad, wan. 

waned, wade, wait, weight. 

ward, quart, warned, wart. 

warder, quarter. 

ware, wear, where. 

warm, warp. 

warp, warm. 

wart, quart, ward, warned. 

was, once, ones. 

wash, quash. 

waste, waist. 

wattle, waddle. 

waul, wall. 

wave, waif, waive. 

waver, quaver, wafer. 

wax, quacks, wags, whacks. 

way, weigh, whey. 

we, wee. 

weak, week. 

weal, wheal, wheel. 

wean, queen, weed, wheat. 

wear, ware, where. 

weather, wether, whether. 

webbed, wept. 

wed, wen, wend, went, wet, 

when, whet, 
wedge, wage, 
wee, we. 

weed, queen, wean, wheat, 
week, weak, 
weigh, way, whey, 
weight, wade, wait, waned, 
weld, welt, 
welt, weld, 
wen, wed, wen, wend, wet, 

when, whet, 
wench, quench, 
wend, wed, wen, went, wet, 

when, whet, 
went, wed, wen, wend, wet, 

when, whet, 
west, quest, 
wet, wed, wen, wend, went, 

when, whet, 
wether, weather, whether, 
whacks, quacks, wags, wax. 
whale, quail, wail, 
wheal, weal, wheel, 
wheel, weal, wheal, 
wheeled, wield, 
whelm, whelp, 
whelp, whelm, 
when, wed, wen, wend, went, 

wet, whet, 
where, ware, wear, 
whet, wed, wen, wend, went, 

wet, when, 
whether, weather, wether, 
whew, woo. 
whey, way, weigh, 
which, wish, witch, 
whig, quick, wick, wig, wing, 

while, wild, wile, 
whim, whip. 


The Association Review, 

whip, whim. 

whine, quite, white, wide, wight, 

wind, wine, 
whirled, world, 
whit, quid^ quint, quit, wind,win, 

white, quite, whine, wight, wide, 

wind, wine, 
whither, wither, 
whitlow, window, 
who, hoo. 
whoa, woe. 
whole, hole, 
whom, whoop, 
whoop, whom, 
whore, hoar, oar, o'er, ore. 
whose, hews, hues, ooze, 
wick, quick, whig, wig, wing, 

wicked, quicken, wicket, 
wicket, quicken, wicked, 
widow, willow, winnow, 
wield, wheeled, 
wig, quick, whig, wick, wing. 

wight, quite, whine, white, wide, 

wind, wine, 
wild, while, wile, 
wile, while, wild, 
will, quill. 

willed, quilled, quilt, wilt, 
willow, widow, winnow, 
wilt, quilled, quilt, willed, 
win, quid, quint, quit, whit, 

wind, wit. 
wince, quince, wins, 
wind, quid, quint, quit, whit, win, 

wind, quite, whine, white, wide, 

wight, wine, 
window, whitlow, 
wine, quite, whine, white, wide, 

wight, wind, 
wing, quick, whig, wick, wig, 


wink, quick, whig, wick, wij 

winnow, widow, willow, 
wins, quince, wince, 
wire, choir, quire, 
wish, which, witch, 
wit, quid, quint, quit, whit, win 

witch, which, wish, 
wither, whither, 
woe, whoa, 
won, one, wont, 
wont, one. won. 
won't, quote, 
woo, whew, 
wood, would, 
wooden, wouldn't, 
word, whirred, wort, 
world, whirled, 
wort, whirred, word, 
would, wood, 
wouldn't, wooden, 
wrack, rack, rag, rang, rank, 
wrap, ram, rap. 
wrapped, rapt, 
wrapper, rapper, 
wreak, reek. 

wren, read, red, rend, rent, 
wrench, wretch, 
wretch, wrench, 
wriggle, wrinkle, 
wring, rick, rig, ring, rink, 
wringer, rigger, rigor, ringer, 
wrinkle, wriggle, 
writ, rid. 

write, ride, right, rind, rite. 
written, ridden, 
wrote, road, roan, rode, rot 

wrung, ruck, rug, rung, 
wry, cry, rye. 

xyster, sister. 

My List of HoinophenoHS Words. 


yacht, caught, cod, con, cot, 

god, got. 
yak, yank, 
yank, yak. 
yard, cairn, card, cart, guard, 

yarn, cairn, card, cart, guard, 


year, gear. 

yes, guess. 

yet, get. 

yew, ewe, hew, hue, you. 

yoke, yolk. 

yolk, yoke. 

yon, gone. 

you, ewe, hew, hue, yew. 

your, ewer. 

[These words were inadvertently omitted from thetr proper 
place in the April Review.] 

pluck, plug, plung. 
plug, pluck, plung. 
plum, plumb, plump, 
plumb, plum, plump, 
plumber, blubber, plumper, 
plume, bloom, 
plump, plumb, plum, 
plumper, blubber, plumber, 
plunder, blunder. 

plung, pluck, plug. 

plunge, blush, plush. 

plush, blush, plunge. 

pock, bog, mock. 

pod, pot. 

poise, boys. 

polar, molar. 

pole, bole, boll, bowl, mole, poll. 

polled, bold, bowled, bolt, mold. 

pond, bond, bought, pawned. 

pone, bone, moan, mown. 



I think that the reader will now be desirous of knowing 
whether in the practice of the school, and in all the minutiae of 
teaching, our colleagues in America have made greater pro- 
gress than we. Now this I do not dare to affirm in regard to 
the scientific principles on which our didactic work is based ; 
but I can say that in the practical part they have gone much 
farther than we have. 

One must observe in the first place that on account of the 
great liberty which is given to the teacher in the American 
schools, one hears discussed as something new, questions that 
have long since been laid aside in our special literature in 
Europe. However, while in Europe these questions have re- 
mained mere theories, in America they are put to the proof of 
practical experience, and thus a judgment can be made favor- 
able or not, and a decision taken for the future. 

Everything considered, our colleagues across the Atlantic 
have two great advantages over us: the material and moral or- 
ganization of the schools, and the much greater length of the 
scholastic course. They are advantages which permit them to 
experiment with every new proposal made in Pedagogy and 
Didactics, and to provide better for practical results. But in order 
to show this more clearly, I will treat particularly the most vital 
questions and also those of general interest for our schools. 

§1. Pronunciation and Speech.* 

It has recently been noticed by the American teachers them- 
selves, that the oral method is in a period of truce in respect to 
the increase of the schools which are more or less oral. How- 
ever one must not think that this means loss of faith, nor arrest 
of development. Even a superficial visit to the schools would 

'From the "American Notes about the Education of the Deaf," a book 
soon to be published in Italy by G. Ferreri. — XII. Chapter, §i. 

Soffte Didactic Qt^stions. 255 

persuade one that this inaction is more apparent than real. All 
the ener^es of the principals and teachers tend to one and the 
same object, which is to establish in the most definite manner 
possible, the fundamental principles of teaching speech to the 
deaf. And the effect of this collective tendency is seen also in the 
institutes where the combined system includes the teaching of 
articulate speech. 

Notwithstanding the beneficial effect of all this study and 
labor to render the teacher more capable of his mission, there 
exist marked divergences in regard to the teaching of .speech. 

For the sake of brevity, I will merely allude to two of these 
divergences of opinion, as those on which principally depend the 
practical direction of the schopl of articulation : 

The first is that of the absolute and relative value of the 
vowel and consonant elements of the word in regard to its in- 

The second is the same one which was discussed at the Con- 
ference of Zurich in Sept. 1901, by the Director G. KuU, on the 
subject: **The teaching of articulation in the schools for the 
Deaf, should it be analytical or synthetic." 

As to the first of these questions, we cannot discuss it on ac- 
count of our incompetence, the difference between the two lan- 
guages — Italian and English — ^being so great, that while with us 
the vowels are the foundation of speech, they may have in En- 
glish only a secondary importance. 

Dr. Bell, who is certainly an authority in matters of Pho- 
netics and Elocution, affirms that in English the vowels have a 
secondary importance as to that of the consonants in respect to 
the intelligibility of speech. It is just the contrary of our lan- 
guage. We can say to the teacher of articulation: "Make sure 
of the vowels and the pronunciation will be intelligible 
even if some of the consonants are not perfect." It 
is true, however, that also in Italian the fundamental 
sounds of the vowels undergo variations in the accent of 
the word, but these variations are never such as to alter the posi- 
tion and the specific sound of the vowel. Perhaps it is due to this 
condition that the Italian language is the most susceptible to the 
metrical form of the classical languages (Latin and Greek); 

256 The Association Review, 

whUe in English, at least at present, the classical rules for deter- 
mining the length of the syllables are quite useless. In order 
to render artificial pronunciation intelligible in English, it is nec- 
essary above all to reach perfection in the consonant sounds, 
and perhaps this is an advantage for our colleagues of the En- 
glish tongue as the number is almost unlimited of fundamental 
vocal sounds and of those modified by the various consonants 
which precede or follow them. Besides the English language is 
preeminently monosyllabic, and therefore in the phonetic group- 
ing of the sentence the same word n^y be now protonic and now 
postonic. The intelligibility of the sentence depends however 
more upon the accent of the phonetic grouping than upon the in- 
dividual value of the syllable or word. This, to tell the truth, 
happens also more or less in other languages. Indeed the speech 
is not intelligible always on account of the fluidity of the vocal 
sounds and the clearness of the voice, but it is so on account of 
the tonic accent of the word and sentence. But if we consider well, 
in our language the accent falls exclusively on the vowels, and 
the intonation of the laryngean sounds covers, like "the mantle of 
charity," the multitude of defects in the word, and gives us the 
acoustic illusion of having heard the word pronounced perfectly, 
when it is really our ears that complete it according to the well- 
known accent of the sentence. But as to this, in every language 
we must be indulgent to the deaf, rendered speaker by art. No 
matter how hard we may try to perfect his speech, it will always 
be the duty of normal persons to accustom themselves to the 
speech of the deaf. 

The few exceptions which are presented to us by pupils yibo 
have regained in the oral school a clear voice and fluid speech 
and also not lacking in a certain intonation, only serve to con- 
firm the rule. They are, however, an advantage to us because 
they keep present before us the ideal of our work, which can 
never be reached, but can be more or less approached. But when 
we present such cases at our public exercises in order that they 
may pay the expense of the ceremony, we cheat the public and 
deceive ourselves. The aesthetic, musical quality of speech will 
always be wanting in him who lacks the sense of hearing, which 
is the only means for correction and perfectk)n of speech. 

Some Didactic Questions, 257 

Visiting one day a school in America, I was struck by the 
answer of a boy, who said in a clear voice and with natural pro- 
nunciation "yes ma'am." I said at once to the teacher: "That 
boy can hear a little, or he has heard lately;*' and it was really 
so. "Well," I added, "we must be satisfied if the others succeed in 
saying yes, without anything more." 

The other of the two questions, although connected in part 
with the first, has now become of general interest. We also 
have often asked ourselves whether it would be better to follow 
the analytical or the synthetic process in first teaching speech to 
the Deaf and Dumb. 

Now, in order to avoid a misunderstanding a consideration 
is necessary. Mr. KuU, already referred to, calls that process of 
teaching synthetic which, starting with the elements, comes step 
by step to the formation of the word and the sentence. I, instead, 
have always called this process analytical, in conformity with 
what has already been written upon synthetic lip-reading. 

That process of articulation, on the contrary, should be syn- 
thetic which those claim to follow, in saying the entire word to 
the deaf from the very beginning, without preoccupation as to 
the elements which compose the syllables and words. Also 
Prof. Fornari, in translating the thesis of Kull, found himself in 
front of the same question, and wrote an article to demonstrate 
that both parties were right, as the matter depended upon the 
way in which it was considered. (See Rassegna di Napoli, 
February, 1903, pages 26-27). ^^ explanation is therefore neces- 
sary in regard to it. I shall call that process analytical which is 
generally followed in the schools of articulation, based first upon 
the works of Bonet and Amman, and then upon those of the 
modem educators who followed its principles (Gog^illot and 
Marchio for example.) 

I have seen that in the best oral schools of the United States 
they follow this same process as regards articulation, but they 
prefer to go on with the synthetic lip-reading. In this way the 
children of the kindergarten and the pupils of the first course are 
rendered capable of reading words and sentences from the lips 
before they are able to reproduce them with their own voice. 
And this one understands. In order to read from the lips a word 

258 The Association Review. 


or a short sentence, or better still to get from it the synthetic, 
optical figure, it is not necessary to know part by part the ele- 
ments which compose it ; but on the contrary in order to repro- 
duce one and the other, it is indispensable to reach the synthesis 
I'V way of analysis, and to reproduce one by one the vocal and 
consonant elements from which the whole results. 

It has been demonstrated by the greatest teachers of Ger- 
many that it is necessary for the best success of our teaching, 
and hence more suitable and opportune, to follow the process 
used until now, that is, "passing from the single elements to the 
phonetic unity of the word and sentence." I will therefore refer 
the reader to the most recent publications on this subject, and 
pass on to speak of the state of the question in the American 

The American advocates of the synthetic process (which 
seems to me an error after the observations I have made in the 
schools of the United States), maintain that the analytical pro- 
cess is not natural but artificial. However, they wish that one 
should speak to the deaf child just as to the hearing one, and in 
this they accept the great principle of Mr. Hill in all its exten- 
sion : "Develop language in the deaf-mute in the same manner 
in which it is done by nature in the life of the child endowed with 
all his senses.*' 

Now, it seems to me that there is a misunderstanding here. 
It is true that one does not teach the hearing child the elements 
of speech singly, for it learns to speak from hearing as well as by 
sight; but can one therefore state that the hearing child learns 
speech by the synthetic process? 

Meanwhile let us consider the facts. 

The hearing child in the long process of learning speech, 
always starts with the phonetic elements, coming step by step 
to the pronunciation of the entire word. Every one may have 
observed, as I did some years since in observing the development 
of speech in a hearing child : 

iProtokol der XXVIII. Konferenz wurtterabergischer und badisber 
und der X. Konferenz scbweizerischer Taubstummenlebren am 9, 10 und 11 
Sept. 1001, in Zurich, page 48-70. — (See Raasegna della Edu^iazione dei 
sordomutiy Jan. 1903, page 10). 

Some Didactic Questions. 259 

1. That the normal child in its first attempts to reproduce 
the word, associates the acoustic images with those of sight, 
directing the eye constantly towards the mouth of the speaker. 

2. That in these attempts the normal child repeats aloud, 
as well as to himself in an undertone, the single syllabic sounds 
which have made the greatest impression on him^ and which he 
wishes to repeat in addressing the word to the persons who ap- 
proach him. 

3. That in this process of learning words, the normal child 
also succeeds in imitating the oral sounds according to the order 
of their mechanical difficulty and of their adaptation to the vari- 
ous parts of the vocal organs. 

This does not prevent their saying at an early age words 
that seem to be entire, but which are only understood by those 
who are accustomed to hear their childish jargon every day. 

No one therefore can doubt the fact of this graduated dif- 
ficulty in the adaptation of the vocal organs, and in the phonetic 
perceptions which are shown in the counter-proof offered to us 
by the mothers and nurses : 

1. Who foster in the beginning (and sometimes so long as 
to injure the correct pronunciation of the child), the childish de- 
fects of speech, changing the consonants into others which are 
easier, mutilating in fact the language in such a way that it would 
hardly be recognizable, were it not for the vowel sounds, when 
indeed these are not too cruelly tortured. 

2. They contract the long words, in which the succession 
of vowels and consonants is varied, and the result is that one 
hears only the pronunciation of the last consonant or of some 
one near it. 

3. Besides it is too common a thing to have escaped the 
observation of any one, that certain lingual sounds, simple and 
compound (r, s, gna, glia, z), are acquired by the hearing and 
normal child later than the others, limiting ourselves here to the 
Italian language. Indeed sometimes the mechanical difficulty 
in imitating them is so great that the child does not speak them 
perfectly even when he enters the primary school. 

Besides it is very common to say that a normal child stutters, 
when he is not yet capable of imitating articulate speech to 

26o The Association Review. 

From what has been said, not to be verbose, it results that 
really every child learns to speak by an analytical-synthetic 
process. It starts with the elements of the word, and only by 
means of innumerable repetitions and attempts at imitation it 
succeeds in composing with its lips the entire word as a phonetic 

Therefore in my opinion, those oppose the natural pro- 
cess of learning to speak, who claim to teach the deaf-mute at 
a very early age to pronounce by repeating to him the entire 
word without first preparing his organs by means of analytical 
exercises, and without insisting on the correction of the ele- 
ments pronounced. 

As I have already observed, this is the negative method 
which they wish to apply in the kindergarten school of Phila- 
delphia (Bala) and worse still upon which they wish to found a 
Normal School for the training of teachers. 

In all this matter, there is, I think, a great misunderstand- 
ing. And in this idea I have been confirmed by a treatise by Miss 
Garrett which I have just read in order to give a more exact 
account of what she had said to me personally : 

"Every one with whom a deaf child comes in contact should 
talk to it and encourage and aid it to articulate. Deaf babies 
begin to say ma-ma-ma just as hearing babies do, but as a rule, 
it is not encouraged in them;" she then adds : "if it were, and 
the child properly guided to further articulation, it would talk." 
Ah! but there is one sole difficulty, whether the deaf child can 
be properly guided by the first one with whom it comes into 
contact, as certainly does happen to the normal hearing child, 
who listens long before it speaks, repeating then at first only the 
elements of the word heard, and of these elements only those in 
which the proper dynamic relations have been established be- 
tween the various components of the mechanism of language. 
Now it is clear that this difficulty cannot be overcome without 
preparation, and without a systematic process of teaching. 

From the observations and comparisons made in the various 
kindergarten schools and in the first classes of the special institu- 
tions, I can conclude that articulate speech is taught to American 
and English deaf children with the best results when the analyti- 

Some Didactic Questions, 261 

cal method is used, and where they proceed in the same man- 
ner as in our oral schools.^ That which is acquired more 
easily is the synthetic lip-reading, but this depends on the fact, 
already noted, that the English language is composed, at least 
two-thirds of it, of monosyllabic words, or of those which can be 
reduced to such in the pronunciation with a predominance of 
consonants. Hence the advantage of making the deaf under- 
stand early the practical value of their efforts in the oral 

One can make every compound syllabic word assume the 
meaning of a normal word, independently from the way it is 

It must be noticed in regard to writing, that in some schools 
the children learn simultaneously by lip-reading and writing, 
not only a vocabulary of nouns (beginning with the proper 
names of their school-fellows and relations and of the personnel 
of the school) but also quite a long list of familiar phrases and 
commands, warnings and judgments, which form the solid base 
of a linguistic patrimony. This advantage is reflected also in 
the acquisition of the spoken word, from the well-known fact of 
the association between the various sensorial images as stimu- 
lus and material of perception. 

In other schools where they do not admit the importance of 
the elements of the word, they postpone the writing. They as- 
sociate the entire word with the object, image, person and action, 
but not with its written form. And in this respect it happens to 
the deaf as to the uneducated hearing, who do not know how to 
write the words which they have had on their lips for many years. 
This, however, does not make any impression in an English 
speaking country, where every one must tell how he writes his 
name, or that of some one to whom he refers in conversation and 

iThe Enprlish language has however special oxigencies. Every instruc- 
tion of the elements should bo subordinated to a real and exact system of 
phonetic writing, in order that the pupil should accustom himself to trans- 
late the written word orally. This has not in fact an absolute value, as the 
pronunciation of vowels and consonants depends in a great measure upon 
their various positions in the different words. In some schools 1 have seen 
special tablets on the walls, to which the attention of the pupil was called 
in order to make him remember the phonetic value of cert^iin ccnnbiualions. 
All this is said in regard to the hcM organ?r.od ^ral fc1\u()1s. 

262 The Association Review, 

who is not personally known by the person spoken to. And this 
which is said of proper names should be repeated for all the 
words heard for the first time, even by educated people. The 
reason of this lies in the arbitrariness of the pronunciation, and 
in the difference in pronunciation in the different mouths. 

Before closing this paragraph I wish to allude briefly to 
another question which greatly interests the oral teacher. I 
mean that of the quality of the voice in the deaf who are taught 
to speak at a very early age. 

I did believe, and theoretically speaking, there is reason to 
consider it true, that facility of vocalization and fluidity of pro- 
nunciation must stand in relation to the earliness of the instruc- 
tion. Success in this should be still easier to attain where pre- 
cision in the elements of the word is not insisted upon,and where 
one is satisfied with any mechanical imitation. It is enough if 
the child moves its lips and emits a sound no matter how in- 
distinct, which impressed me as a laryngean mumbling. The 
teacher always approved of the result, and then sent the little 
one back to frolic with its mates, until it should come in its turn 
again to pronounce a larva of speech, which the teacher herself 
only understood by indulgence. This, to tell the truth, also hap- 
pens in the beginning in those schools where they make use of 
all the noted manoeuvres of the oralists, the indication of the 
point of articulation, the position of the vocal organs and the 
adaptation of the various parts of the mouth. But as they try 
to seize the opportune moment for the natural education of the 
voice, it frequently happens that we hear some very clear voices 
which give hope for the future. At the first glance one naturally 
thinks that the kindergarten must offer the most favorable 
conditions : 

1, For the naturalness of the voice. 

2. For the fluidity of speech, which depends on its exercise 
and development when the vocal organs are in the highest de- 
gree flexible. 

However in the later results of the teaching these advan- 
tages almost entirely disappear, and "the voice of the deaf is a 
fatality for all, even before the change of voice which becomes a 
common disaster for the children who had a natural stimulus in 

Some Didactic Questions, 263 

the traces of hearing remaining to them, as well as for those who 
beg^an to speak at a very early age. So that in the course of 
instruction they cannot be distinguished from those who never 
had been to the kindergarten. 

In conclusion, the early teaching of the oral method does 
not give those advantages which had been hoped for from 
theoretic reasons, in the physical and physiological conditions 
of the vocal organs. Hence the same differences between boys 
and girls, the same defects in the ipertrofic development of the 
larynx, the same exaggerations of facial mimic, as in the move- 
ment of the tongue and jaw in the production of sounds and 

It is now believed, and also formerly it was believed by some 
of the colleagues, that these defects might be overcome by apply- 
ing the following rules in the first teaching of speech : 

1. Divert the attention of the child from the points of 'ar- 
ticulation, and above all, from the larynx. 

2. Do not insist too long at one time upon the correction 
of certain sounds, and upon the precision of the single positions. 

3. Be very parsimonious in the use of touch, directing the 
attention to the diaphragm rather than to the chest and to the 
throat, for regulating the breathing and the holding of the breath. 

These are the rules which certainly should improve the work 
of the teacher of articulation; but they do not give as far as I 
have been able to observe, all the desired effect. 

Based upon these rules we can therefore establish this 
general rule : "The less consciousness the deaf pupil has of his 
own movements, the less exaggerated and the more natural will 
his pronunciation be." 




April 8 and 9, 1903, are red letter dates in the calendar of 
the Milwaukee, Wis., School for the Deaf. They marked the 
formal opening^ and dedication of a new building, one of the 
handsomest and best equipped in the country. 

The building comprises eight class rooms, a manual training 
room, a recitation and drawing room, the Principal's office, an 
assembly room having around its walls shelves to be raised and 
used as tables for the childrens' lunch, a teachers' rest room, a 
library, play-rooms, dining-room, kitchen and bath-room. The 
decorations and furnishings of many of the rooms were gifts of 
individuals. Some of the rooms are tinted a gray-green with 
dark green boards, others a light ecru with brown boards, the 
woodwork in all being white. The coloring throughout the 
building and the decorations generally were done under the 
supervision of Mr. George Niedeken, the young artist who 
planned and executed the beautiful mural paintings of the kinder- 
garden room, the gift of Mr. Charles Pfister. 

These paintings form a wide frieze around the room and 
represent scenes in Europe. Each contains one or more chil- 
dren. One is a scene on the coast of Brittany, another a German 
village. Four of the scenes are from the Park de Morceau, 
Paris. The latter and the German scene illustrate the effect of 
morning, afternoon and evening light, the setting sun and the 
after-glow. The room is further furnished with palms and ferns, 
a singing bird and an aquarium. 

The Binner room, furnished by Mr. Oscar E. Binner as a 
memorial to his father, Paul Binner, first principal of the school, 
is an attractive one. The coloring is ecru for the walls with dark 
boards and a frieze of medallions in green and white, represent- 
ing a mistletoe design. A number of casts and pictures, 
including a portrait of Paul Binner, are about the room, the idea 

Dedication Exercises at the Milwaukee School, 265 

being to represent each country by a picture from its best known 
artist. The room is occupied by the highest grade. 

Mr. William D. Sawyere decorated a room for the smaller 
children, using pictures of children. One by Dr. Wurdemann 
is similarly furnished. Mr. William Steinmeyer furnished the 
American room with pictures showing the progress the country 
has made from the time of its discovery to the present. The 
decorations of the room donated by Miss Alice Chapman consist 
of fine casts in bas-relief of some artistic masterpieces, among 
them the Delia Robbia and Donatella cherubs, one of Raphael's 
madonnas and one of Michael Angelo's. Another room was the 
gift of Mr. I. Friedman, and another the gift of the Ladies' 
Auxiliary of the Phonological Institute. The furnishings of 
the office were partly provided by the city and selected by Miss 
Wettstein, principal of the school, and partly by the gift of Mrs. 
August Uihlein. The walls are ecru, the rug blue, the furniture, 
consisting of desk, chairs, table and document case, being of 
weathered oak. Growing ferns and lace curtains give the room 
a cosy as well as an artistic air. The teachers' rest-room was 
furnished by the alumni of the school. Besides those who 
furnished whole rooms, were many who contributed to the dec- 
orative fund. The entire building is profusely lighted both by 
gas and by electricity. 

On the evening of April 8 the building was thrown open for 
public inspection and a reception, tendered by the Ladies' Auxil- 
iary of the Phonological Institute, was held in the kindergarten 
room, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell of Washington, D. C, being 
the g^est of honor. Among other out-of-town guests were Miss 
McCowen, Superintendent of the Chicago schools for the deaf, 
with several teachers. Miss Van Adestine of the Detroit school 
for the deaf, and four teachers. Miss Schaeffer, State Inspector of 
Wisconsin schools for deaf, Mr. Walker, Superintendent of the 
State Institution for the deaf of Wisconsin, and Mr. Cary, State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, and a number of principals 
and teachers from schools for the deaf throughout the State. 

At the close of the hour devoted to the reception the many 
guests repaired to the assembly room where the dedicatory 
exercises were held. They were opened by an address of wel- 

266 The Association Review. 

come from Mr. H. O. Siefert, Superintendent of the City schools. 
Mr. J. A. Sheridan spoke in behalf of the Board of Directors of 
which he is president. Mr. C. P. Gary gave a short address in 
behalf of the State. There were also short addresses by Mr. 
Walker, Miss Schaeffer^ Mr. Quin in behalf of friends in general, 
Mrs. J. M. Pereles for the Ladies' Auxiliary of the Phonological 
Institute, Miss Wettstein, Principal of the school; Mr. Carl 
Frieschman, organizer of the Phonological Institute, and Mr. 
R. C. Spencer, its President. The latter gave a brief history of 
the development of the Milwaukee Day School for the Deaf from 
the organization of the Phonological Institute in 1879, ^*^d ^^e 
opening of the first day school in 1883, ^'^^ Mr. Paul Binner as 
teacher with eight pupils in one little room, to the present school 
with nine teachers and and its handsome building under the 
principalship of Miss Wettstein. 

Following this was the address of the evening, by Dr. Bell, 
who came to Wisconsin in 1885 to advocate the passage of the 
bill establishing day schools with state aid for instruction by the 
oral or German method. Then he came in response to the in- 
vitation of the Governor of the State. Now he came on the in- 
vitation of the Board of Education. 

Mr. August F. Mueller, Chairman of the Committee on the 
School for the Deaf and President of the Parents' Association, 
introduced the speakers. 

Dr. Bell traced the development of day schools for the deaf, 
a movement in which Wisconsin was the pioneer, to the present 

"The day school movement is growing all over the West," 
said Dr. Bell. "You have not yet touched us very much in the 
east. I wish you would. In New York State there are eight 
large institutions but not one day school. At first it was believed 
necessary, in order to educate the deaf, to take <^hem away from 
their homes and let them associate only with thoise similarly 
afflicted. This has been proven a wrong theory. The progress 
in teaching is based on the theory that the child must be taught 
so that he can go into the world at large to associate with hear- 
ing and speaking people and to be one of them. The place for 
the deaf is with the hearing. The ideal arrangement for schools 

Dedication Exercises at the Milwaukee School. 267 

for the deaf is to have them additions to the hearing schools. 
Small classes for deaf children and much contact with hearing 
children is the best plan to follow. 

"The ideal school for a deaf child is a school with only one 
child in it. The highest success in the teaching of the deaf has 
been reached by individual instruction." 

On April 9th the school kept open house all day. Exempli- 
fications of the methods were given in the various class rooms, 
and games and fancy drills in the assembly room by the children 
to demonstrate the rhythm work. There were also short ad- 
dresses by graduates of the school. In the manual training 
room was an exhibit of the handiwork of the children in draw- 
ing, sewing, weaving, carving, pyrography and carpentry. 

In the evening a banquet was held in the assembly room 
with nearly one hundred guests present. 

This was a time of celebration and congratulation for the 
work accomplished. Telegrams and letters of congratulation 
were received from many friends interested in the work, among 
which were those from Senator Mills, Superintendent Martin- 
dale of the City Schools of Detroit ; Dr. Wilmarth, Superinten- 
dent of the State School for Feeble-Minded Children, Miss Sarah 
Fuller, Mr. Currier, Dr. Gallaudet, and Miss Barry. 

The president of the local school board presided as toast- 
master. The toasts, which were interspersed with music, were 
responded to by Dr. Bell, by the Superintendent of Publiclnstruc- 
tion, the Superintendent of the State Institution, the Superin- 
tendent of the City Schools, the Principal of the Detroit School, 
the Principal of the Eau Claire School, the President of the State 
Normal School, Supervisor of the Chicago Schools for the Deaf, 
members of the Phonological Institute, Miss Wettstein and 
others, including Mrs. Paul Binner. Mrs. Binner said : "This 
is a great growth from the little school started by Mr. Binner 
twenty years ago. I want to thank you from the bottom of my 
heart, as I must speak for him. My only regret is that he is not 
here. But the work is nobly carried on by others, especially by 
Miss Wettstein, who was Mr. Binner's first pupil and also his 
first assistant teacher.. It was his request that she carry on this 
work and she has done so with the greatest success." 

Editor The Association Review: 

Among the professional visitors from abroad during the 
present year, Miss Emilia M. Serenius, late principal of one o! 
the more recent schools for the deaf, established in Northern 
Finland, of which at present she is matron and head instructress, 
located at Uleaborg, a city of some 20,000 inhabitants, deserves 
some special notice; both on account of the circumstances in- 
volved in her visiting American schools during a period when 
they may be seen at their best, and the thorough manner in 
which she set about doing the work she came for. As an emi- 
nently capable and practical instructor, she did not content her- 
self merely in paying a flying visit to schools generally, but 
selected certain typical ones where it was believed she might 
gain knowledge in special lines she was desirous of studying. 
To each of these, since her arrival in America, she has devoted 
more or less time, extending in some instances even to three 
weeks, with a view to familiarizing herself with every detail she 
thought might prove of advantage to her own, and other schools 
of Finland. 

Primarily, it is of exceptional interest to observe the far- 
sighted educational policy the Finnish Goverjiment pursues in 
securing the best possible instructors for the deaf, and then in- 
spires them annually with increased interest personally to achieve 
the broadest possible knowledge of what is being done in their 
special line of work by the most advanced of nations. With this 
in view, the Finnish Government at present, is not content to ex- 
act that every teacher of the deaf for its eight schools shall first 
secure a certificate qualifying him or her to teach in the public 
schools, but previous to appointment he must have attended 
some one or more schools for the deaf two years, in theoretical 
studies and practical class training. To facilitate this, the govern- 
ment sets apart annually three thousand marks to be propor- 

The Finnish Schools. 269 

tionally awarded to such candidates for teacherships as apply 
for the same^ and prove themselves deserving thereof. 

Furthermore, the salaries of teachers of the deaf in Fin- 
land, considering the economical manner of living, which exists 
there, may be termed, if not liberal, quite fair, a lady teacher 
starting with nineteen hundred marks,and a male teacher, twenty- 
five hundred marks per annum, with an increase of ten per cent, 
for every five years of satisfactory service rendered, until this 
reaches thirty years of service, when they are retired on full pay. 
But the peculiar feature to which I would here invite special at- 
tention, is the further incentive which the Finnish Government 
gives its teachers to attain the highest possible standard, in the 
fact that it now annually, and has for a number of years past, set 
apart three thousand marks as stipends to be awarded to teachers 
desirous of going abroad for several months during school terms, 
their regular salary remaining unimpaired, provided they supply 
at their own expense, qualified and acceptable substitutes. This 
stipend is apportioned every year among three or more teachers 
in sums according to the locality of the schools the applicants 
indicate they wish to visit. Thus Miss Serenius, who several 
years ago, visited in like manner, typical schools in Sweden, Den- 
mark and Germany, this year elected to visit certain American 
schools, and for that purpose, was awarded the larger share of the 
three thousand marks appropriated for the purpose. In the 
case of two other instructors who elected to visit schools in 
Sweden and Denmark, the stipend awarded to them was far less, 
but ample to co^er their expenses, whereas in that of Miss 
Serenius, she, owing to the great distance and increased expense 
of American travel, may have to supplement somewhat from 
private funds. The State Board of Education in Helsingfors, 
the capitol, exercises through its exceptionally efficient inspector 
General of Schools for the Deaf, Mr. Walther Forsius, entire 
supervision of the instruction of the deaf, including the disburse- 
ments of the appropriations made in behalf of these schools, by 
the legislative branch of the Finnish government. To it also 
must be transmitted all reports of schools and especially those 
exacted of teachers availing themselves of the stipend above 

270 The Association Review. 

Another feature of the methods pursued in the instruction 
of the Finnish deaf, and which it would seem experience approves 
as correct, is the fact that all young children enrolled in the 
primary schools for the deaf enter them as boarders, and of the 
eight years school term remain there from two to four years, 
when they are put out to board, singly or in groups of two and 
three with suitable families, where it is held they have better 
opportunities to learn lip-reading from a variety of people than 
at the school, and thus far without in any manner impairing 
their speech or the earlier discipline inculcated by the school. 

In conclusion, as to the methods employed in the instruction 
of the deaf of Finland, it may be briefly stated that in the First 
Division of deaf enrolled, are children from eight to twelve years 
of age. These are all instructed orally. The Second Division 
embraces backward children found after a year's trial unsuitable 
to be orally instructed, and uninstructed youths and girls from 
twelve to fourteen years of age. These are taught solely by 
writing and the manual alphabet. The Third Division embraces 
absolutely dull and uninstructed adult deaf of any age, who are 
then instructed by. gestures, signs or in any possible other 
manner. John Hitz, 

Superintendent of the Volta Bureau. 
May i8, 1903. 




Letters of inquiry which I have received indicate gratifying 
interest in the statement — "Don't allow a pupil to feel the vibra- 
tion of the voice in the throat." 

The practice, so common among teachers of deaf persons, 
of centering the thoughts upon the vibration of the voice at the 
vocal bands is largely responsible for the disagreeable quality 
noticeable in many voices. 

Resonance and purity of tone are not possible under con- 
ditions which exist when this plan is followed. 

The best teachers of those who hear have not, for many 
years, worked directly upon the vocal bands and surely we ought 
not to follow with the deaf, whose speech and voice organs are 
like those of hearing persons, a course which has long since been 

Those who teach speech to the deaf have been longer in ap- 
preciating the fact that they should seek help in their work from 
teachers of those who hear, than have instructors in other depart- 
ments of study. 

The "Don'ts" which I have to present for this issue of 
The Review are the following: — 

Don't fail to distinguish between a true and a false nasal 

Don't teach a pupil to use his voice until he has gained con- 
trol of his tongue in "the first position." 

Don't let a pupil feel the vibration of the voice in the chin 
nor upon the teeth in giving the sound of s nor of the vocalized 

Don't require too much voice in giving the sound of s nor 
of vocalized ih. 

Don't neglect the recoil in the consonants. 

Don't fail to recognize the value of rh3rthm in teaching 
speech to the deaf. 

*This is the third article of a series, the first of which appeared in the 
February, 1903, Review. 


Annual Report of the Board of Directors of the Pennsyl- 
vania institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Mt. Airy, 

Philadelphia, 1903. 

The report of President Hutchinson shows a total enroll- 
ment during the year of 562 pupils, an increase of 20 over last 
year. The number in attendance at the time of the report was 
501. The expenditure per capita was $279.60, or $19.60 for 
each pupil in excess of the state appropriation. 

The report of the Superintendent, Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, to 
the Hoard of Directors, contains the usual amount of interesting 
information about the pupils and the school. We gather from a 
table giving the causes of deafness that 232 pupils were born deaf, 
this number being exactly divided between the sexes. Numer- 
ous improvements have been made about the buildings and 
grounds, mostly the work of the boys who are learning car- 
pentry, painting, brick-laying, etc. There has been a decided 
improvement in the health of the pupils and in the intellectual 
work, consequent on the greater attention paid to physical train- 
ing. Regarding speech teaching. Dr. Crouter says : 

'^Excepting in three classes manually (by means of the manu- 
al alphabet and writing) taught, speech methods were observed 
in individual and class work throughout the whole school — 
in class-room, in workshop, in the gymnasium, and in all chapel 
exercises. To teach speech as a sort of vocal accompUshment 
is of no practical value to the deaf, it is simply time wasted. It 
must be put to practical use not only as a means of instruction 
but for purposes of intercourse between officers, teachers and 
pupils, and among the pupils themselves. Without such use, good 
speech and good lip-reading are impossible. With the introduc- 
tion of the best methods of speech-teaching, carefully system- 
atized at every stage of the work, there has been a very notice- 
able advance made in these two branches during the past two 
years. This has been accomplished by sheer hard work on the 

Reviews, 273 

part of the instructors. There has been no neglect of other 
branches taught ; on the contrary, they have been pursued with 
better results. Better speech and better Hp-reading have proven 
a decided aid to better language work, better work in arithmetic, 
and better results in all branches of study taken during the 
course. With us as a school speech-worjc and language-work 
may be said to go hand in hand, the former slightly leading, the 
latter a close follower. The practical value of speech and lip- 
reading is to be found at the homes of the pupils where they 
have daily intercourse with relatives and friends. So tested the 
speech of our pupils is found to be of almost inestimable value. 
Parents, relatives and friends have testified in the most empha- 
tic manner as to the ease and readiness with which they are able 
to communicate with their children upon all topics of daily inter- 
course. This is the crucial test of our work in speech, not the 
ability to pronounce some selected list of words, seldom or nearer 
used, nor to catch from the lips some test line or paragraph, 
trials that, in many instances, would be sufficient to puzzle the 
average hearing child. Said an active young business man, a 
former pupil of the school, "I am carrying on a business involv*- 
ing thousands of dollars each year. I always rely upon my 
speech and lip-reading in my business transactions. I never use 
paper and pencil for purposes of communication, and do not 
believe one in ten of my patrons know that I am deaf." 

American Annals of the Deaf, Washington, D. C, May, 1903. 

The contents of this number are a sketch of the late Harvey 
William Milligan, by Pxlward P. deary, of Jacksonville. 111.: 
**Somc Lessons in Auricular Training," by Anna R. Camp, of 
Chicago, recounting experiments in training the hearing of a 
l)artly deaf girl ; *The Note Book," by Warren Robinson, of 
Delavan, Wis., an adverse criticism of the practice of having 
pupils copy into books things they are taught instead of master- 
ing them by a mental process; "The Correlation of History and 
Language," by Laura MacDill, of Council Bluffs, Iowa; "Men- 
tal Characteristics of Pupils," by James L. Smith, of Faribault, 
Minn., the third article of a series that has been commented upon 
in previous numbers of the Review : memory, the perceptive 
faculty, and the logical faculty are investigated in a practical 
manner and discussed interestingly ; notices of the postpone- 

274 The Association Review. 

ment of the meeting of the Conference of Superintendents and 

Principals from the coming summer to 1905, of the Annual 

Meeting of the American Association to Promote the Teaching 

of Speech to the Deaf, and of the Meeting of the Department of 

Special Education, N. E. A. Among the Notices of Publications 

we find interesting reviews the Annual Report of the Wisconsin 

Inspector of Schools, **A Contribution to the History of the 

Instruction of the Deaf/' by A. Reg^ard, Paris, and Helen 

Keller's "The Story of My Life." The last is from the pen of 

Weston Jenkins, and is a very scholarly and interesting article, 

deserving of a more prominent place in the magazine. Among 

the School Notes is an appreciative sketch of the late Joseph C. 

Gordon, from which we take the following admirable estimate 

of his character : 

"Dr. Gordon had genial manners and an attractive person- 
ality, the fruit of an amiable disposition. He made friends 
readily, and some of his friendships were strong and lasting. 
He was a clear thinker, a ready writer, a forcible speaker, a 
successful teacher, an efficient superintendent, a public-spirited 
citizen, a warm-hearted friend, a true disciple of the Master, 
always ready to deny himself for the sake of others. His death 
leaves a vacant place in the profession and in the community that 
cannot easily be filled." 

L*Educazione Dei Sordmuti [The Education r.f tb^ Deaf] 
A Monthlv Magazine edited by G. Ferreri. Third Series. 
Volume XXVI of the Collection. 

January, 1903. — *'On the Vocabulary of Our Pupils," an 
article by Prof. Ferreri, in which he demonstrates the necessity 
of the repetition of words and phrases in our schools. He recom- 
mends us to give the preferance to simple and common language 
because the deaf as well as hearing persons do not use the com- 
plicated sentences of philosophical demonstration in the daily 
contingencies of life. I do not mean by this, he concludes, that 
we must make a choice of words and phrases which are philo- 
sophically and grammatically easier. This would lead the modem 
school back to the jargon of the ancient school, which unfortu- 
nately franFmitted to us, and still preserves in masiy of our 

Reviews. 275 

schools, the laconism of expression, and the ridiculous syntax of 
the mimic sentences. We must not^ however, choose the lan- 
guage to be taught, but only pay the greatest attention not to 
deviate from the natural process of learning, which is offered to 
us by the hearing child in his first endeavors to speak with those 
about him. 

A long report is dedicated to the recent study of Prof. 
Bezold in regard to the traces of hearing which remain to the 
deaf, and their utilization for aural teaching. 

Among the miscellaneous news and comments, we have 
read a good and favorable report upon the Sarah Fuller home 
for little deaf children in West Medford. 

February, — A quite unfavorable judgment is given of 
the new expedient for the teaching of the deaf recently proposed 
by G. Forchhammer of Nyborg, about which we have already 
published in the paper read at the third meeting of the Danish 
teachers of the deaf. (See The Association Review of last 
December). A large space is devoted to the bibliographical 
examination of the more recent publications. A special study 
of the International Reports of the Schools for the Deaf made to 
the Volta Bureau shows how much the American work is ap- 
preciated in Europe. Mr. Ferreri is giving to the readers of the 
Educazione all useful information in regard to the educational 
work of the deaf in the world. In every number of the Italian 
Review we read the contents of the American and European 

March — A critical study is dedicated to the report of Miss 
Schmidt upon her visit to the principal institutions for the deaf in 
Italy, translated from the German by Dr. H. Jacobson and 
published in our Number of December. In order to demonstrate 
the value of the contribution of Dr. John Wallis to the first 
teaching of the deaf in Europe, Mr. Ferreri takes in close ex- 
amination the pamphlet of M. Regnard of Paris, who in a recent 
study denied any importance whatever to the work of the famous 
mathematician of Oxford. Mr. Ferreri begins the publication 
of some letters of Dr. Wallis which have been quite unknown in 
our literature. Certainly these letters have never been trans- 
lated into Italian, neither-have they been collected together. The 

276 The Institution Press. 

translation of the first half of the XI Chapter of Bezold's work- 
is the best means to show the practical process followed by 
Bezold in order to measure and appreciate the traces of hearing 
existing in the 456 deaf examined by him. 

Among the "News and Comments" we find many interest- 
ing things, and we think it will give pleasure to our readers to 
find in another part of this number, the translation of one of 
ihem about **an Acoustic Problem." 

Organ der Taubstummen-Anstalten in Deutschland [Organ 

of the deaf-mute institutions of Germany] 47th year, Nos. i 
and 2. Friedberg, Germany, January atid February, 1903. 

"Art Should Play a More Important Part in the Education 
of Our Children, Also of Our Deaf-mute Children " by H. Hoff- 
mann. A movement, started at Hamburg, to educate children 
more than has been done hitherto to the appreciation of the beau- 
tiful in art and nature, makes itself felt in educational circles in 
Germany. The main object appears to be to limit the education 
which is principally given for acquiring that knowledge which 
aims at the merely useful, and create an enthusiasm for the ideal, 
and thus, by influencing the young generation, to lift humanity 
from mere trivial and material views to a true appreciation of 
the beautiful. Not only can this be done by instruction in draw- 
ing, painting, singing, and literature, but also by making the 
school-room attractive, and by decorating its walls with repro- 
ductions of well known paintings — which some German publish- 
ing houses have of recent years published in excellent quality 
and at cheap prices. The various associations of German artists 
have furnished a long series of pictures of religious and historical 
subjects, landscapes, views of cities, illustrations of well known 
poems, so that there is the greatest variety to choose from. In 
answer to the question, "What position shall the education of 
the deaf take relative to this artistic movement in education 7' 
it must be said that, as a general rule, the deaf here have a very 
lively appreciation of the beautiful. Since instruction in singing 
and the recitation of choice pieces of the classic literature, is 
with them out of the question, the object should be to awaken 

Reinews. 277 

in the deaf a sense for form and color, to accustom the eyes to 
distinguish what is truly beautiful, and to enable the hand to pro- 
duce beautiful objects. More even than with hearing children, it 
will be important to tastefully arrange and decorate the recitation 
and dwelling rooms of deaf children. Some of the German 
institutions for the deaf with the bare walls of their rooms, give 
to the visitor the impression of a poorhouse rather than a school, 
not because there is no money to acquire objects of art, but 
simply because the idea prevailing in the last generation, that the 
main object of the school is merely to teach the children some- 
thing useful, still prevails to a large extent, to the exclusion of 
more idealisms. The useful, of course, is not to be neglected, but 
it can easily go hand in hand with the aim to awaken in the chil- 
dren, at an early age, a true appreciation of the beautiful. 

"Report of the Conference of the Directors and Teachers of 
the Institutions for the Deaf in the Prussian Province of Saxony, 
held at Halle, November 14th and i8th, 1902." The following 
subjects were discussed: The experience hitherto gained in sep- 
arating the deaf scholars according to their mental capacity; the 
most suitable age for receiving deaf scholars at the institution ; 
is it to be recommended to apprentice deaf scholars who have 
finished their course, in the place where the institution is located? 
— A practical result was the foundation of a "Deaf-mute Aid 
Society for the Province of Saxony." The object of this aid 
society will be to aid needy deaf, by giving pecuniary assistance 
to particularly needy and worthy persons, by establishing em- 
ployment bureaus for the deaf in all the larger cities, by furnish- 
ing needy deaf with tools and material to establish themselves 
in business, by furnishing sewing machines to poor deaf seam- 
stresses, and finally by establishing a home for aged and feeble 

"How and in What Measure Can and Should We in Teach- 
ing the Deaf to Speak, Follow Hill's Principle : Develop the 
Speech in the Deaf Child just as Life Produces Speech in the 
Hearing Child ?"An address delivered at the December con- 
ference of the teachers of the Temesvar (Hungary) institution, 
by Josf Roboz. We can but briefly touch on the main points of 
this interesting address. I. By the "pure German method" we 

278 The Association Review. 

understand the method of instruction by which the deaf, to the 
entire exclusion of the mimic speech, are taught in and by means 
of the spoken language, in such a manner that every new word, 
every new expression is exclusively taught by speech, the scholars 
read the words from the lips of the teachers, and this is followed 
by writing and reading. 2. Hill's principle, however, must not 
be taken in a literal sense. Hill himself did not do this, and his 
text books for the lower classes prove sufficiently that the deaf 
cannot be taught to speak in the same manner as a hearing child 
acquires speech in the home and family circle. 3. Hill's principle 
can. therefore, only be taken in this sense that, as the hearing 
child learns to speak words in connection with the objects which 
it sees, so the deaf child shall be given such a direct instruction 
in speech as is based on objects which it sees or actions which 
it witnesses. 4. Hill's principle is strongly opposed t6 the in- 
struction of the deaf child in the understanding and use of the 
forms of speech as given in a grammar. With the deaf the form 
must be directly connected with the object for which it stands. 
5. Hill's efforts and those of his followers are, therefore, entire- 
ly misunderstood by those who call that method a higher 
development of Hill's system, by which the deaf during the first 
four years of schooling are to practice speech only by conversa- 
tion on occasional subjects. This method, justly called the "imi- 
tative method," must on the contrary be termed a retrogression 
from Hill's method. 6. If we desire to further develop the meth- 
od of Hill and Vatter in accordance with their principles, we 
must employ a constructive method of instruction in speech 
which, taking into account the special defect of the deaf, and the 
physical and psychological laws of speech, presents, according 
to a firmly fixed gradual course, word for word, expression for 
expression, form for form, so that the preceding leads clearly to 
an understanding of the following. 7. The constructive meth- 
od, which is the only one which meets the requirements 
of the pure German method, requires that in instruction justice 
should be done to every side of the formation of language, 
i. e., even in the lower to every class (second year) the 
instruction in speech should be arranged as follows: a, in- 
struction in mechanical speaking; &, object lessons; c, instruc- 

ReiAews. ■ i -- ^^^ 

tion in reading; d, instruction in language (grammatically); 
e, written exercises; f, conversational language. 8. The con- 
structive method is much better adapted to the nature and 
special defect of the deaf than the imitative or conversational 
method. It offers to the deaf a firm support by taking in the 
the deaf child; and never loses sight of the fact that the little deaf 
child has, so to speak, no sense whatever for the forms of 
speech, that his sense of speech develops only after many years' 
instruction, but never reaches the strength which we find in hear- 
ing children. 9. In using the term "conversational method" 
it should be borne in mind that the constructive method by no 
manner of means entirely excludes the catechetical form of in- 
struction (questions and answers), but that it will be advantage- 
ously employed in the lower grades. 10. The conditions of suc- 
cessful instruction by the pure German method are the following: 
a, small institutions, no huge boarding schools ;d, a special teach- 
er for every class; c, no more than eight to ten scholars in the 
lower and ten to twelve in the higher classes; d, grading of the 
scholars according to their capacity; eliminate the mentally back- 
ward; e, special readers and text books for the deaf; f, thorough 
education of the teachers for their special calling; g, strict dis- 
cipline in the institutions; conscientious and persistent work by 
the teachers. 

**The Life of Johann Hinrch Kroger," by K. Finckh: Kroger 
(lied in February, 1903, 95 years old, and 47 years of his life were 
devoted to the instruction and care of the deaf at the institution 
iti the city of Schleswig. Kroger never wrote down his recol- 
lections of the olden times, although they would make an in- 
teresting volume, but communicated them orally to his many 
friends, and Mr. Finckh's object in this article is to save from 
oblivion some of the reminiscences of this Nestor of deaf-mute 
instruction. In the "good old times" the scholars had no vacation 
whatever. The consequence was that frequently children did 
not see their parents for years, only when the children were to 
be confirmed the parents came to witness the solemn ceremony, 
and often a child would blush and incredulously shake his head 
when told that the old man in his simple coat and with his bony 
hands was his father. On the other hand it happened more than 

ii .hsociatifln Rcznew, 

. imc to take his son home, after the end of 

.'k ihe wronp^ hoy and did not discover the 

. ^^^ reached the old homestead and exhibited 

M liis mother, hrothers and sisters, when the him back to the institution and finally dis- 

.iter considerable search. A new scholar, already 

- Id. entered the institution with a big pipe in his 

. Md become so accustomed to smoking that he had 

• .ivd to smoke his pipe during recitation hours anH 

>c ]»lcased. For two years the institution harbored a 

.,. -iciif hoy. Although suspicions as to his deafness began 

v. I seemed impossible to obtain convincing proof. So, 

•no of the teachers, accompanied by a servant, took a 

::id asked the pretended deaf boy to take a sail with them 

»v Sohlei — the narrow arm of the sea on which the city of 

.. • ; ^w ij: is situated. When arrived at a considerable distance 

, ..; I hi- shore, the teacher whispered audibly to the servant, 

\i'\v wo will throw that fellow in the water, nobody sees us, and 

•».»vl\ will care!" when the boy uttered a piercing cry. and 

»x ji'.vd them to spare him. At one time the scholars had been 

. .'.vd to write compositions on the subjects of their dreams. One 

»r I hem had produced an excellent and highly poetical essay so 

I ! the teachers, in solemn conclave, thought they had discovered 

I true genius among their scholars and proposed that the essay 

should be published in the "Organ" under the title "The Mental 

Product of a Deaf Child," when fortunatelv it was discovered that 

the little scamp had literally copied the essay from a dream book. 

Many of the scholars often proved refractory, and owing to the 

lack of proper discipline nothing could be done with them. One 

of the scholars was so bad that when King Frederick VI. of 

Denmark (till the year 1864 Schleswig belonged to Denmark) 

visited the institution, this scholar was locked up in a dark out- 

li'>i;*;c, for foar that lie would make a scene. With all his sense 

of bnmor. Kro^fcr was a conscientious, faithful and most efficient 

teacher of the deaf, and much of the excellence of the well knovm 

Schleswig institution is due to his earnest and untiring labors. 

TTc 11 vrd to cpp tlie dav when the so-called "good old times" had 

given way to a more rational method of education, and some 

Reviews. 281 

years before his death he received the Prussian order of the 
"Crown" in acknowledgment of his long and eminent services. 
"Ragnhild Kaata, the Deaf and Blind Scholar of Elios H. 
Hoflfgaard": Ragnhild Kaata was born May 23rd, 1873, among 
the mountains of Norway, in Vestre Slidre, as the child of poor 
peasants; and was a healthy and happy child till at the age of 
three she had the scarlet fever, in such a violent form that the 
physicians gave her up. As by a miracle she recovered ; but 
alas, when restored to health, she was found to be deaf and blind 
and deprived of the sense of smell. Thus secluded from the 
outer world, she spent eleven years of her childhood 
Eke a prisoner in his cell, in which no ray of light and no 
sound enters. Her only recreation was to rock her little brothers 
and sisters to sleep. When she had reached the age of 16 some 
well disposed people became aware of her condition, and through 
the press awakened public interest in her case, so that a consider- 
able sum of money — amongst the rest 3000 Kroner from America 
— ^was collected, and she was enabled to enter the institution 
for the deaf at Hamar in January, 1888. At that time she seemed 
hardly like a human being. For days she sat in her place stolidly 
and without taking the slightest interest in her surroundings : 
only every now and then she uttered a sound resembling a deep 
sigh. Whenever any one approached her, she acted like a wild 
animal, stamped the floor with her feet, roared and scratched. 
She was, moreover, suffering from such a violent and offensive 
catarrh of the eyes, nose and ears, as to render her isolation 
necessary from sanitary reasons. After a few months of medical 
treatment, however, she was in a condition that instruction could 
begin. The speech-method had been introduced in the Hamar 
institution, and Mr. Hoffgaard says: "I therefore determined to 
instruct her according to that method. I must confess that I had 
considerable misgivings as to the success of my experiment. At 
first Ragnhild would not allow any one to touch her mouth; on 
the other hand she was disposed to feel the mouth of others, to 
ascertain whether they were friendly or hostile. In the begin- 
ning I took her into the class and let her feel my lips. She was 
also allowed to feel the lips of other children, to give a light smack 
to one, and pull the hair of another, which evidently seemed to 

282 The Association Review. 

afford her pleasure. Gradually she permitted me to touch her 
lips. Instruction in articulation could now commence. On the 
whole I followed exactly the same method as that observed with 
seeing deaf. Of course the positions of the organs had to be 
ascertained by touch, and the entire instruction shaped in sudi 
a manner as to make her believe that it was only play. For, 
as soon as she noticed a more serious endeavor, she was unwil- 
ling to proceed. She sat down and would not do a thin^. When- 
ever I approached her, she ag^in became like a wild animal. I 
had to remain the companion of her play. We blew out a candle, 
we blew little paper balls by our breath along the floor, and crept 
after them on all fours to see who would first find the ball. Wc 
breathed with open mouth for the letters h, f and s, and in be- 
tween we danced. It was a strange instruction, but no one 
saw us, and for the time being we were both blind. After 
Ragnhild had learned to feel the sounds from the lips and to 
pronounce them, I taught her to read and write. We wrote 
with chalk, with lead pencils, or with the finger on the table, on 
the blackboard or in the hand. In reading we at first used 
letters cut from paste board, and pasted on wood, so that they 
could be put together to form syllables and words. This method, 
however, took too much time; and I finally conceived the idea 
to write raised letters and words with a mixture of varnish and 
soot, which dried quickly and immediately became as hard as 
stone. As a pen we used a tin tube of the size of a thick short 
penholder, pointed at the end, so that in writing the liquid flowed 
out like a thin thread. Much was gained thereby, and soon 
Ragnhild had acquired a little library of words and short sen- 
tences. I shall never forget the hour when Ragnhild gathered 
the meaning of some words. I had selected the names of three 
objects which we had before us. These I repeated continually 
for several days. At last it dawned upon her that the words signi- 
fied these objects. Beside herself with joy, she ran out to the 
teachers and the servants. All had to feel her lips, to show that 
now she could speak and tell the name of this and that object. She 
again came to me, took my arm, and led me hither andthither.She 
had to feel my lip to ascertain how the names for the various 
objects were pronounced; and she was so eager that she would 

Reviews. 283 

hardly take time to grasp one object, before she passed to an- 
other. Some words were long, others short, some had an "a/' 
others an **i" and this amused and interested her in the highest 
degree. From that day on I had no more difficulty, and never 
was there a scholar so eager to learn as Ragnhild. It was also a 
very happy hour for Ragnhild, when it became clear to her that 
by writing she could communicate her thoughts to absent per- 
sons. She wrote with a lead pencil on common writing paper 
which had been fastened to a ribbed slate so that she could feel 
the ribs through the paper. She also read and wrote common 
print, the latter by means of a printing machine, which I had 
caused to be manufactured for her — and which, by the way, 
gained a prize at the Copenhagen Exposition. Ragnhild did 
not receive much instruction — during the first year only an hour 
a day. My many other duties did not permit me to devote more 
time to her. But, nevertheless, she made rapid progress, more 
rapid even than most seeing deaf. When Mrs. Lampson, of 
Boston, visited Ragnhild during the summer of 1889, she could 
already speak a few sentences, and when during the winter of 
1889-1890 the Crown Prince of Sweden came to see her, she was 
able to carry on a short conversation with him. When the Crown 
Prince told her that he would grant her pecuniary assistance, 
she exclaimed, beaming with joy : "The Crown Prince is very 
kind. I shall buy a cow, and shall make my parents a present 
of a big cow !" As Ragnhild's instruction progressed, a vast 
change came over her entire being. Persons who had not seen 
her for some time could hardly recognize her. The dull Ragn- 
hild, without interest in anything around her, had become a lively 
child, eager to learn. She was, so to speak, constantly making 
voyages of discovery, talking with the teachers, the servants, her 
fellow scholars and with guests. She had acquired a knowledge 
of everything pertaining to the house, yard and garden, as few 
of the other scholars. In between she would sit in her rocking 
chair and talk to herself — ^this person had done so and so, and 
another had said this or that; then she would burst out into a 
happy laughter. She had a truly humorous vein. , If time hung 
too heavy on her hands, she would open one of our doors and 
make some jocose remark. The next moment she would 

284 The AssociaHon Review. 

laughingly run away, if she found that we were after her. The 
possibility of speaking had made her happy. As her stock of 
words increased, the inarticulate sounds which deaf-mutes often 
utter when excited, disappeared entirely. The means for Ragn- 
hild's instruction were not very large, and only one teacher, and 
he only part of the time could devote his efforts to her. And as 
she proved to be talented, and had to be classed among^ those 
scholars who, after the articulation instruction has been finished, 
are easily guided further, her instruction was entrusted to 
younger teachers. In the year 1897 she was confirmed in the 
Lutheran church. It now appears as if she was desirous of 
dividing her time between her home and her friends at the insti- 
tution. Now, she has become endowed with speech, she begins 
to feel a little independent of us, her teachers, for which — ^I must 
confess it — we are sorry, for we all like her. The whole world 
is now open to her. Lively and full of humor, she likes to be the 
center of a little circle, of which she is the queen. It is a pleasure 
to see how she converses even with children four or five years 
old. By Ragnhild's case it has been proved for the first time 
that the blind-deaf can be successfully instructed by the speech 
method, and that solely by the aid of touch they can learn to 
speak and read the words of others from their lips. The speech- 
method appears to be easy for the blind deaf, easier even than 
for seeing deaf. The blind can by the touch feel the positions of 
the organs of speech which the seeing deaf notice with the eye. 
He can likewise feel the sounds which are formed farther back 
in the mouth, e. g., "g" and "k" and distinguish the sounds which 
to the eye assume about the same position of the organ, e. g., 
m, b, p, or n, d, t, and e, and all this is done by the admirable 
sense of touch, by lightly placing two fingers on the lower lip of 
the speaker, whilst the thumb rests on the throat. If the condi- 
tions of the mouth are less favorable, three or four fingers are 
placed against the upper lip, whilst the thumb retains its 

Reviews. 285 

Revue Generale de Tenseignement des Sourds-Muets 
[General Reviewof Deaf-mute Education], 41)1 year, Nos. 
7 and 8, Paris, January and February, 1903. 

"Essay on the Conditions Which Should Assure Success 
in Teaching a Deaf Child to Speak," by B. Thallon (first and 
second articles): Mr. Thallon divides these conditions into two 
groups : essential conditions and conditions of secondary import- 
ance. The essential conditions are the following : First, the 
necessity for the teacher to draw from the knowledge which 
science possesses relative to the formation of sounds all the 
deductions that can be drawn therefrom, and to rigorously apply 
the principles gained from this source. Second, the necessity to 
employ for instruction in speech methods which conform to these 
principles. Among the conditions of secondary importance Mr. 
Thallon mentions those which relate, first to the duration of the 
course of articulation ; second, to the number of scholars to be 
entrusted to each teacher ; third, to the manner of dividing the 
scholars among the different classes. Under the head of "es- 
sential conditions" Mr. Thallon gives further details. The 
actions which the deaf child must learn to execute in order to 
become a speaking child have for their object : First, the emis- 
sion of sounds ; Second, to give the proper accent to each vowel 
and consonant : Third, the combination of several phonetic 
elements to form a syllable ; Fourth, the intonation — First the 
voice: the laryngean sound or the voice contributes to the for- 
mation of all phonetic elements. It would, therefore, be a grave 
mistake to endeavor to make a deaf person speak without en- 
abling him to produce the laryngean sound correctly, easily and 
without hesitation. The various grades through which the 
scholar will have to pass are naturally the following : he must 
learn to use the laryngean sound, to regulate the duration of the 
sound, to vary the intensity and the height and depth of the 
sound, to produce the laryngean murmur which accompanies 
most consonants. Second, the vowels and consonants: to teach 
the deaf child to produce all the vowels and consonants of our 
language is the most important and at the same time the most 
difficult portion of the task of a teacher of the deaf. The me- 
chanism of all articulate sounds may be traced to the action of 

286 The Association Review, 

the two glottis, the one the laryngean which produces the voice, 
the other the buccal, susceptible of being moved, which produces 
the difference between vowels and consonants. In order that 
the vowel or consonant be issued correctly and purely, it is first 
of all necessary that each of the glottis, considered by itself, 
should act in the proper manner, and in the second place that 
their action should be suitably coordinate. To sum up : 
success of teaching the deaf to speak depends upon having the 
teaching of the vowels and consonants comply with the following 
conditions : 

The schc^ar in pronouncing each vowel should accompany 
it by what Mr. Thallon terms " the glottal explosion;" he should 
know how to regulate at will the duration, intensity and (to a 
very limited extent) the height and depth of the sound ; he must 
know how to produce exactly and without the least hesitation the 
laryngean murmur which accompanies the sonorous consonants; 
he must reproduce the various forms which are produced by the 
buccal glottis with the greatest possible approximation, and 
avoid to exaggerate the movements of the teeth and the force 
with which the sounds are issued; and finally, he must know how 
to coordinate the action of the laryngean and buccal glottis. 

As usual each number of the "Revue" is embellished by an 
engraving. The January number contains a portrait of Roch- 
ambroise-Augustin Bebian, who did much to further the educa- 
tion of the deaf in France. He was born in 1789 on the Island 
of Guadeloupe, French West Indies. After having successfully 
finished his studies at the Lyceum Charlemagne, and the Royal 
Institution for the deaf at Paris, he soon entered that institu- 
tion as a teacher, and was finally appointed censor of studies, a 
most important post, as its duties implied the supervision, modi- 
fication and improvement of the course of studies. Owing to 
failing health he returned to Guadeloupe in 1834 and died there 
in 1839. Bebian's influence makes itself still felt in France 
through the works which he published, the most important of 
which are "Eulogy of the Abbe de TEpee" (1819) whicn gained 
the prize of the Royal Academy of Sciences, and particularly his 
'^Manual of Practical Instruction of the Deaf" (1829). The 
February number gives a portrait, accompanied by a short bio- 

Reviews. 287 

graphy of Marie-Joseph Baron de Gerando, born at Lyon in 
1772 and died in 1842. His whole life work was devoted to the 
interests of the deaf, and his influence made itself more particu- 
larly felt by his publications. He published more than twenty- 
five volumes, the most important of which is "The Education of 
the Deaf-Mutes Which are Born Deaf" (two vols.) 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan [Scandinavian Journal 
of Deaf mute Education,], Nos. i, 2 and 3, 1903, Goteborg, 

These numbers contain short biographies, with portraits, of 
two prominent Swedish teachers of the deaf: Jehubba Blomk- 
vist. Director of the deaf-mute institution of the Province of 
Orebro and Varmland. Mr. Blomkvist is an ardent advocate 
of the speech-method, and is of opinion that it should be em- 
ployed with all deaf who possess normal intelligence and normal 
organs of sight and speech, i. e., 80 to 90 per cent, of all the deaf; 
provided, however, that instruction in articulation is imparted 
with such care, discretion and energy that the speech really be- 
comes the means of communication between the deaf and his 
daily companions. 

A.J.Hagstrom, one of the most efficient and careful teachers 
of the deaf which Sweden has produced, will soon be able to look 
back on thirty years' work in the calling to which he has devoted 
all his energy. He is Director of the School at Hemosand, and 
all who have seen him among his scholars testify that it is a true 
pleasure to witness his manner of imparting instruction, which 
is not only interesting but infuses true enthusiasm in the scholars 
for the subjects taught. Mr. Hagstrom is a many sided man, 
and last but not least it should be stated that he possesses artistic 
talents both in drawing and music. Sweden has produced many 
able and talented teachers of the deaf, but Blomkvist and Hags- 
trom stand in the front rank. 

Two articles treat of the question of lip reading, the one by 
Johansen, Director of the Institution at Fredericia, and the other 
by Forchhammer, Director of the Nyborg Institution, both in 
Denmark. Forchhammer favors a combined system which he 
terms the "mouth-hand" system, whilst Johansen advocates the 

288 The AssociaHan Review, 

speech method pure and simple. Johansen sums up his views 
used by nearly all persons when conversing with the deaf, it 
should form the basis of our instruction. 2. Systematic read- 
ing exercises without any artificial aid should be introduced in 
the schools for the deaf from the lowest to the highest class. 
Forchhammer^ on the other hand, says : "Use lip-reading for 
everything which rs so easy and plain that it can be read at once. 
Use the "mouth-hand" system for everything which (at least 
momentarily) is so new and difficult that it could not be read off 
at once. Mr. Forchhammer adds : "When, on various occasions, 
I have felt it my duty to point out the difficulties of lip-reading, 
this was not done to discourage people from lip-reading, but 
simply to show the necessity of using, by the side of lip-reading, 
concrete means of communication. Lip-reading will certainly not 
suffer thereby." 

El Sordomuto Argentine [The Argentine Deaf-mute], a 
monthly review. Buenos Ay res, 1903. 

This number contains a review of the work done during the 
scholastic year 1902, and gives an account of the examinations 
held at the various Argentine schools for the deaf, as best cal- 
culated to give an idea of what has been accomplished. Some 
years ago this subject awakened but little interest among the 
general public in the Argentine Republic, whilst all this is 
changed now. The examinations were held in the presence of 
large and select audiences, and the press gave full accounts, a 
thing which would almost have been unheard of some years ago. 
A large part of this number is taken up by extracts from the re- 
ports of various journals. The new interest awakened in the 
education of the deaf in one of the most progressive states of 
South America, augurs well for the future, and we may soon 
learn that the Argentine Republic, whose educational system, 
fashioned to a large extent on that of the United States, is of un- 
usual excellence, will have supplemented it by a systematic effort 
to give to the deaf the same education which the hearing enjoy. 


From Cheefoo, China, comes the pleasant 

^^^ ^^Chlna "^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ school for the deaf which Mrs. 

Annetta T. Mills is building up, has reduced 
its debt by the sum of $1500. $5375 remains to be paid, but it 
should not take long to raise this amount among the friends of 
education in America. The school is doing a work tiot to be 
measured by the number of its pupils, for it is the sole institu- 
tion of the kind in a country containing fully ioo,oeo deaf mutes 
and it should be liberally supported as an object lesson of what 
can be done with such children and as a training school for 
Chinese teachers who will in time carry the light of knowledge 
to the remotest parts of the empire. Almost all the encourage- 
ment and financial support that it has received has come from 
this country and to us will be awarded the credit for its success 
and for the larger results dependent thereon. Surely, there is 
no more worthy foreign mission to which Americans could 
give their money. Members of the American Association and 
others of our readers who may wish to assist in its work should 
remit to Mr. Z. F. Westervelt, Principal of the Rochester, N. Y., 
School for the Deaf. S. G. D. 

The letter from the Superintendent of the 

To Study Volta Bureau, relating to the visit of Miss 

American Schools ^ ^ t- 1 j ^ a i. • 4.1. 

^erenius of Fmland, to America, contains the 

very interesting information that the Government of Finland 

annually makes an appropriation to aid teachers of the deaf to 

visit schools in other countries during term time. Hitherto, the 

visits of Finnish teachers seem to have been limited to European 

countries. This year, for the first time, a teacher has been sent 

to America. 

290 The Association Review, 

Why should not America follow the lead of Finland in this 
respect? It would certainly be very greatly to the advantage of 
our best teachers to have the opportunity of visiting other 
schools in this country and abroad during school term. Ameri- 
can teachers can better afford to visit Europe, than European 
teachers can to visit America, because of the great difference in 
the cost of living. 

We are glad to welcome Miss Serenius to America and 
trust she may be able to carry back with her much information 
of value to the deaf of Finland. 

Teachers of the deaf in America who are 
The London . ^^^^^^ ^^^j ^^^ summer should make 

Conference ? ^ . ^ 1. t^. - , r^ t 

It a pomt to attend the Biennial Conference 

of the National Association of Teachers of the Deaf of Great 
Britain, to be held in London, July 7th to loth. An interesting 
programme of work for the sessions will be provided, among 
the subjects to be discussed being such as "Compulsion," "At- 
tendance," "Manual Instruction," "Registration," "The Pro- 
fessional Outlook," etc. The Braidwood Medal for the best 
paper on "The Ideal Teacher of the Deaf" will be awarded, and 
there will be demonstrations of practical teaching and visits to 
schools and institutions at work. The officers of the conference 
desire us to extend for them a cordial invitation to all American 
teachers to be present. For further information address Frank 
G. Barnes, Secretary, School for the Deaf, Homerton, London, 
N. E. S. G. D. 


Perhaps we have to do with a simple case of 
Pi^ljlgnj sensorial pathology, but so far as we know it 

has never yet been proposed as a subject for 
the teachers of the deaf, nor has it been placed in relation with 
the aural exercises, so that it seems opportune and interesting 
to call the attention of educators and otologists to a fact which 
we designate at present as "an acoustic problem." 

Editorial. 291 

All teachers of the deaf have certainly noticed the phenom- 
enon to which we allude. It is today a noted fact that many of 
the deaf-mutes possess traces more or less appreciable of hear- 
ing, or rather their deafness, even though congenital, is not al- 
ways total. 

The question now is not to seek how or in what degree the 
traces of hearing may be utilized in teaching speech ; this ques- 
tion is as yet premature, at least for the otologists of Italy. We 
only wish to observe that some deaf-mutes with appreciable 
traces of hearing show irritation under acoustic sensations, not 
excepting that of the voice speaking close to their ear. We have 
noticed already this phenomenon in the adult deaf instructed by 
means of the mimic alone, and at first we believed it to be an 
exaggerated reaction on their part. Later when experimenting 
with acoustic exercises, not however in a systematic manner, 
\vith deaf youths in course of instruction, we observed the same 
phenomenon. The exercises which were undertaken with a 
childish curiosity by the pupils, soon came to an end with their 
rejection of every instrument. At first I attributed the aversion 
felt by the deaf to a prolonged use of the ear-trumpet, as also to 
to the use of speech in teaching by hearing, to psychic fatigue 
alone. There are in fact the same reasons for explaining the 
phenomenon of fatigue in the field of the hearing as in that of 

Reflecting afterwards upon the different signs of reaction 
and upon the circumstance that the first to abandon the exer- 
cise were those pupils who possessed the most appreciable traces 
of hearing, it seems opportune to propose a solution of the prob- 
lem, which we will formulate in the following terms : "On what 
depends the exaggerated sensibility in many deaf-mutes who 
have traces of hearing existing ?" 

We believe that those best able to reply to this question are 
the otologists, who have made experimental researches based 
upon the continuous series of tones. (Bezold system). It may 
be that this question may seem too ingenuous to scientific men ; 
but for the educators of the deaf it constitutes however a real and 
true problem, and its solution might perhaps explain a circum- 
stance of great practical value, that is of the imperfect corres- 

292 The Association Review. 

pondence between the theory of systematic acoustic exercises 
and of the resulting effects of aural instruction. 

We have tried for our part to seek a passable explanation 
of the circumstance noted, in the theory of Charcot about the 
plurality of sensorial types, and have concluded that the deaf can 
never be an acoustic type, on account of their poverty in images 
of this order. And this theory might be confirmed : 

1. By the opposition of many of the deaf to the oral meth- 
od, preferring to remain by themselves in the world of silence. 

2. By the inefficacy of the aural system in cases where the 
evident traces of hearing had given rise to great hopes. 

3. By the exaggerated idea of the acoustic effects of speech, 
song, laughter, and of other causes of sound or noise on the part 
of the totally deaf, or blind-deaf (Laura Bridgman and Helen 
Keller as typical examples). 

However, these would be too hasty conclusions. Let us 
then await the response of science. With this however the con- 
tribution of the educators of the deaf is not excluded, who 
perhaps have gone further than I in practical experiments, and in 
the study of questions similar to the present one. G. Ferreri. 

The training of the mind prepares one to meet 
IC^ "led *" ^"^^ overcome in the struggle for success in 

any calling, while knowledge is but an inciden- 
tal acquisition to one trained to think. Let us be practical in our 
teaching in this direction. Let progress be by the slower path 
of sound reasoning and good judgment, rather than by the 
easier, but less efficient process of cramming. 

When we do away with this "idolatry of knowledge," we are 
in a fair way to educate. How often, day after day, bright minds 
have no opportunity to show what possibilities are theirs because 
so much time is taken in conning long lessons in the text books, 
storing the mind with a vast amount of information which serves 
no practical use under the sun. 

Pupils are often able to absorb large quantities of formal 
knowlcdp^e from the text book, but show no progress in origi- 

Editorial 293 

nality of thought and expression. Is not our method of instruc- 
tion wrong when this is the case ? Is not our work in the school 
room still tinged by methods that have had their day and "ceased 
to be " ? 

It behooves us frequently to take account of stock and see 
how much real progress has been made. To begin with, we 
would note that about one half of the matter learned in history, 
geography, nature studies, etc., will be wholly forgotten a short 
time after leaving school. One fourth is probably of doubtful 
value. It serves rather to satisfy the minds of the outside world, 
who have preconceived ideas of what an education should be, 
and the rest of the child's education consists of a certain amount 
of mental training, which is by far the most valuable part. We 
must keep in mind that the ability to learn is of more value than 
the thing learned. We have a lifetime in which to acquire 
knowledge, but only a few years, — the time in school, — in which 
to train and develop the mind and, in our special work, to 
acquire a command of language. 

The gymnasium gives opportunity for the most perfect 
physical development, and so likewise the school room should 
be the field for practice in mental gymnastics. If we are to fit 
the deaf to fill positions in life similar to those filled by the hear- 
ing, then there must be a large amount of training along those 
lines of thought and action which successful hearing persons 
are pursuing. It is by closely looking at the environment of the 
business man, the farmer, the mechanic, and the laborer, that we 
are able to sec what is most necessary to be learned by one who 
may at some time occupy such a position. It is obvious that 
in the short time that pupils remain in school much must be left 
out and a careful selection made of what we will teach. 

To me it seems absurd to teach, say, third year pupils, 
studies of nature and attempt to cram them with facts with which 
even the well informed are not conversant, when they are not 
yet able to carry on an intelligible conversation. The mysteries 
of coral formations and the production of caoutchouc are in- 
teresting bits of knowledge, but are out of place while the child 
is struggling to acquire the language for the expression of his 
simpler and more useful experiences. In selecting material for 

294 ^'^^ Association Review, 

the pupils to learn, we should always apply to it the test of its 
practical benefit. 

The daily conversation of people is seldom upon topics found 
in nature study books, scientific works, etc. The life of most 
individuah is one of scheming, judging, and thinking. So with 
the pupils. Their work should be upon matters that give mental 
exercise. It should be constructive and original in its nature, 
and not a display merely of the accumulated knowledge of other 
and better thinkers. E. G. Hurd. 


To the Members of the Conference: 

The first Conference of Superintendents and Principals 
(sometimes erroneously referred to as the Sixth Convention) 
was held at Washington, D. C, May, 1868; the second at Flint, 
Michigan, August, 1872; the third at Philadelphia, July, 1876; 
the fourth at Northampton, Massachusetts, May, 1880; the fifth 
nt Faribault, Minnesota, July, 1884; the sixth (Gallaudet Confer- 
ence) at Jackson, Mississippi, April, 1888; the seventh at 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, August, 1892; and the eighth and 
last, after an interval of eight years, at Talladega, Alabama, Jun«, 
1900. At the meeting of the Convention of American Instruc- 
tors of the Deaf held at Flint in 1895, a special session of the 
members of the Conference present was held for the purpose of 
taking over the control and supervision of the American Annals 
of the Deaf, which theretofore had been under the supervteion 
of the Convention, and for other special business brought before 
it. A special session of the members of the Conference present 
was also held at the meeting of the Convention of Instructors at 
Columbus in 1898, to receive the report of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and elect a new Executive Committee. 

At the first meeting in Washington no provision was made 
as to how often the Conference should meet, but at the Conven- 
tion meeting in Indianapolis two years later it was agreed by the 
t)e held alternating with the Convention which met quadren- 

Editorial. 295 

nially. This custom prevailed until 1892, after which there was 
no regular meeting of the Conference until the Talladega 
meeting in 1900. At this last meeting, which, while not large, 
was enthusiastic, the consensus of opinion was that the meetings 
of the Conference should be held regularly and triennially, the 
general idea being that the meetings of the Conference, the 
Convention, and the Association could be made to alternate and 
thus avoid making the Conference secondary or incidental to 
any other gathering. It was believed that the regular gathering 
of Superintendents and Principals could be made of unusual 
interest and value along practical lines relating to management, 
matters of legislation, salaries, and wages, courses of study 
literary and industrial, higher education in Our State schools, 
our relation to the College, the advantages and disadvantages 
of day-schools and their supervision and relation to the State 
school, post-graduate courses, aid and supervision for the deaf 
subsequent to school life, and many other subjects constantly 
brought to a Superintendent's attention and not usually touched 
upon at our other meetings except in an incidental and most 
superficial manner. It was also the belief that State officers and 
trustees of schools should be urged to attend the Conference. 

This, therefore, is the year for the regular meeting, but 
difficulties present themselves not thought of in 1900. The 
Association meeting, which it was thought would be held in 1902, 
win be held in Boston this year, and in 1904 the Convention 
meets in Morganton, North Carolina. Now, the Conference is 
to meet either this summer or next, there is no other way open 
except to meet at the same time and place with one of the other 
gatherings, for it is almost certain that Superintendents would 
not wish to attend two meetings at different times and places 
during the same summer. Meeting with one of the other 
gatherings, the sessions would naturally be only incidental to the 
larger gathering, and would be very brief and probably limited to 
one session of strictly business nature — thus making the Con- 
ference entirely foreign to what we would wish it. 

Under existing conditions, therefore, the Executive Com- 
mittee, after full thought and advice in the matter, considers it 
proper and wise to postpone the holding of the Ninth Conference 

296 • The Association Review, 

of Superintendents and Principals until the summer of 1905, the 
place and date to be hereafter selected. In the meantime, the 
Executive Committee will hold a meeting (due notice of which 
will be given) either at Boston or at Morganton for the purpose 
of auditing the accounts of the Annals and for the transaction 
of any other business that may be presented, including proposals 
for 1905, making proper report of its doings through the Annals. 
It is hoped this action of the Committee will be approved. 
Respectfully submitted. 

April 2, 1903. Chairman, 


The following is the program for the sessions of the Depart- 
ment of Special Education of the National Educational Associa- 
tion meeting in Uoston, July 6-10, as given in the official pro- 
gram-bulletin of the Association: 

Wednesday Morning, July 8. 

1. President's Address — Edward E. Allen, principal of the 
Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

2. The Influence of the Study of the Unusual Child upon the 
Teaching of the Usual — Frank H. Hall, ex-superintendent 
of the Institution for the Blind, Jacksonville, III.; George 
E. Johnson, Dean of the lower school. University School, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Discussion — Francis Burke Brandt, professor of pedagogy, 
Central High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

3. Should the Scope of the Public School System be' Broad- 
ened to Take in All Children Capable of Education, and if 
so. TTow Should This be Done? — Alexander Graham Bell, 
Washington, D. C; Miss Mary C. Green, ex-superintendent 
of special classes for the blind in the Board Schools, London, 

EditoricU, 297 

Discussion — Thomas D. Woods, M. D., professor of Physical 
Training, Teachers' College, Columbia University, New 
York City; Miss Ellen Le Garde, director of Physical Train- 
ing, including that of backward children. Public Schools, 
Providence, R. I.; G. Ferreri, ex-vice-principal of the School 
for the Deaf, Siena, Italy. 

4. Report of the Commission on Statistics Relative to Children 
in the Public Schools of the United States Who Need 
Special Methods of Instruction — F. W. Booth, editor The 
Association Review, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Friday Morning, July 10. 

1. How Can the Term Charitable be Justly AppHed to the 
Education of Any Children? — Charles W. Birtwell, general 
secretary. Children's Aid Society, Boston, Mass.; Edward 
A. Fay, vice president of Gallaudet College, Washington, 
D. C. , editor of American Annals of the Deaf. 


2. What Teachers Need to Know About Sense Defects and 
Impediments: Messages chiefly from Specialists in Medi- 
cine — Clarence J. Blake, M. D., professor of Otology, 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.; Myles Standish, 
M. D.; instructor in Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical 
School, Boston, Mass.; Allen Greenwood, M. D., Ophthal- 
mologist, Boston, Mass.;Eugene Crockett, M. D., specialist 
on diseases of the nose and naso-pharynx, Boston, Mass.; 
Mrs. E. J. Ellery Thorpe, specialist on speech defects, New- 
ton Center, Mass. 



The Department of Education of the St. Louis Exposition 
has issued a revised edition of the circular concerning the 
Exhibits of Schools for the Deaf and the Blind in connection 
with the St. Louis Universal Exposition of 1904 which contains 
the follow^ing additional information : 

These schools are provided for in the official classification 
of the Exposition under Group 7, Department of Education, 
Classes 19 and 20, respectively. 

It is the policy of the Committees that all methods of in- 
struction shall be fairly represented. 

298 The Association Review. 

The Exposition Company assumes no risk or responsibility 
for the heahh or safety of the pupils, and no expense except to 
furnish a building to be used as a dormitory. 

Visitors will be convinced of the intellectual capacity of the 
deaf and the blind, and their ability of self-support by this open 
demonstration, and it is to be hoped the operation of these 
schools will permanently impress upon the public mind the idea 
that the training of the deaf and the blind is purely educational 
and in no sense a matter of charity on the part of the State. 

Any school or institution not desiring to enter into this 
collective exhibit, and to share the benefits of this plan, is at 
liberty to make an independent application for space to the Chief 
of the Department of Education. 


The death of Miss Margaret Gardner, a teacher in the 
Milwaukee Day School for the Deaf, occurred on the 14th of 
April, after an illness lasting but a few weeks. 

This sad and unexpected event following so closely the date 
which marked the dedication of our new school building, serves 
to remind us that in the midst of joy is the ever present sorrow; 
that when the future seems most bright and promising, often 
comes the severest blow. 

Words are but feeble carriers for the expression of our feel- 
ings, as we realize the sense of personal loss which has come to 
each one of us and to our school. 

The life of Miss Gardner was an example of unselfish 
devotion and usefulness to all who were associated with her in 
her home, church, school and social life, and all bear witness to 
her many excellent traits of character. 

As a teacher, she was efficient, faithful, kind, patient and 
sympathetic to a marked degree. 

As a friend we ever found her ready and more than willing 
to do a kindness or favor, which was only one proof of her noble, 
generous nature. 

While our hearts still yearn for the companionship which we 
miss so sadly, for our consolation we reflect upon the simple 
courage, founded on the Christian's hope, with which she laid 
down her life here to enter the paradise of the blessed. 

With the blessed assurance that "all is well," we bow in 
humble submission to the Divine Will. To the bereaved family 

Editorial, 299 

\vc extend our sympathy and bid them take comfort and rejoice 
in their heritage of the example of a noble life spent in well-doing. 

The Teachers. 


In the April number of the Review we gave extracts from 
the laws relating to the establishment of day schools in the state 
of California passed by the legislature at its recent session. 
According to the copies of the bills from which we quoted, the 
provision of such schools was made obligatory. We have since 
learned that, as finally passed, by the substitution of the words 
*'may at their discretion" for the word "must," in the principal 
act, the law leaves the matter to the judgment of the school 
(^flicers. Following is the act as signed by the Governor, March 
9, 1903. 

Section i. A new section is hereby added to the Political 
Code, is to be known as sixteen hundred and eighteen, to read as 
follows : 

161 8. The board of education of every city or city and 
county, or board of trustees of every school district in this State, 
containing five or more deaf children, or children who from deaf- 
ness are unable to hear common conversation, between the ages 
of three and twenty-one years, may in their discretion establish 
and maintain separate classes in the primary and grammar 
grades of the public schools, wherein such pupils shall be taught 
by the pure oral system for teaching the deaf. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from 
and after its passage. 

During the month of April, Dr. A. Graham Bell, President 
of the Association, visited Milwaukee, Wis., where he was the 
guest of honor on the occasion of the dedication of the new 
building of the Milwaukee Day School for the Deaf. Later he 
went to Indianapolis to confer with Mr. Johnson regarding the 
Annual Meeting of the Association, and to Chicago, where a 
dinner was given in his honor by the teachers of the Chicago 
day schools. We learn from the daily press that Dr. Bell has 
lately resigned the presidency of the National Geographic 
Society to devote his time to the study of aerial navigation and 
to other objects in which he is deeply interested. 


The Association Review. 

Spi-ech-tcacliiiig in Amtrican Schools for the Deaf 1899 — 1903. 




















1 1 





















k ' 





II i 


i i 


'The (liagranis represent graphically the percentage of pupils taught 
spccrh in schools for the lieaf in the United States and Canada, according 
lo tile statistics which have been gathered annually by the Review since 
iSi/j, The speech-statistics collected by the Annals are now given sep- 
arately in ihc February number of the Review. (See this volume 
pp. 94—0), 

The fiRiircs on which the above diagrams are based are given on the 
opposite pase. and the columns are numbered to correspond to Ihe curves 
upon the diagrams. 

I, Total taught Speech, (Summation of all Cases). 

i. S|)eecii utcd as a mcaits of instruction (u-ilh or ivithoul spelling or 
sign- language). 

,t. TauRhl Speech, bill Spcfoh not used as means of instruction, 

Mp,\NS ok iNSTkUtTlON IN ScilOni, AND OuTSIDE. 

4, 'I'auKht by Speech (no sfeHine. no sign-language). 
.1, Taught by Speech and Spelling (no sign-language). 
<i. Tavigbt by Speech. Spelling, and Sign- Language. 

School Room UsAr.E, 
(Without reference to outside instruction^. 
7. T.iuKlit by Speech (no spelling, no sign-language). 

5. Tjiughl by Speech and Spelling (no sign-language). 
9. Taught by Speech, Spelling, and Sign-Language. 

Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching. 



Number of Pupils. 

1899 . 
1901 . . 
1902 . . 
1903 . . 











1899 ... 
1900* ... 
1901 .... 




3020 1 
2506 1 
2331 1 




















School-room U 

s sst 






















1900 . 
1903 . 




I School-room Usatrt? 

sss" s sst~~ 



















Taught by Speech 

"S 8S~ 

































3% I 
15.3% I 
12.2% I 

Symbols employed in above Table: 

8 SrKECii without Hpclliiif]: or .sicn-lanpfuage. 

88 8PKKCH «^8PKiiLiNG witb sipii-laiimiapc. 
85?8 8PKECH, Spelling and Sion-Lanouage. 
» See corrected Table Vol. li p. 449. 
t Including unclassified ca^es taught by 88. 
X Including unclassified caxes taught by SSS. 











8 4% 



United StatoH. 





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Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching, 



DEAF. April 22, 1903. 


Taught Wholly by the Oral Method. 

Pupils tauj^ht by speech and speech -read- 
ing without bein^ taught at all by the 
sign language (Query 2) 2,331 

United States 

Number , Per cent. 

of I of 

PuDils Pupils 

Taught Partly by Oral Methods. 

Pupils taught by speech and speech read- 1 
ing together with a manual alpha-' 
bet, without being taught at all by' 
the sign language. (Query 3) 

Pupils taught by speech and speech read-j 
ing, and also taught by the sign] 
language and manual alphabet, 
(Query 4) | 

Total taught partly by Oral Methods. . . 

Taught Speech. 

Pupils with whom speech is used as a 
meansof instruction (including thosej 
taught wholly by the Oral Method, 
and those taught partly by Oral 

Pupils taught opeech but with whom 
sneech is not used as a means of in- 
struction (Query 5) 

Pupils taught speech but returns un- 

Total taught speech 

Not Taught Speech 

Pupils taught exclusively by silent Meth- 
ods of instruction 

Total pupils in 129 schools in the United 


Total pupils in 6 schools in Canada 









60 3% 














Per cent. 



















The Association Review. 


THE DEAF.— APRIL 22, 1903. 



pupils with whom speech is used as a 
means of instruction. 

Query 2 

SPRRcn (without 8pellin|r or sip^n-lan 
gua^e) used both in the KcbcM)i-room 
and outside : 

Total taught by Speech (without spellinu 
or sign-language. ) 

Query 3. 

(a) Speech (without spelling or sign-Ian- 
guage)usedin the school-room; but 
SPELLiNci (without sign-language) 
also used outside in chapel exercises, 
workshop instruction, etc 

(6) Speech and Spelling (withoutsigii- 
language) used both in the school 
room and outside (including unclas- 
sified cases 

Total taught by Speech and SPELiiiNc, 
(without sign-language) 



Query 4. 

(a) Speech (without spelling or sign- 
language ) used in tlie school-ro(Mn : 
but Spkllino and SioN-LANnuA(»K 
also use<l outside in chapel exercises, 
workshop instruction, etc 

(6) Speech and Spelling (without sign- 
language) used in the school-room ; 
but SiON-LANOUAGE aiso uBcd out- 

(r) Speech, Spelling and Sionlan- 
ouAc.E used both in the school-room 
and outsido (including unclassified 

Total taught by Speech, Spelling and 

Total with whom speech is used as a 
means of instruction 

School-Room Usage 

Speech (without spelling or sign-lan- 
guage) used in the school-room. 
Summation of all cases 

Speech and Spelling (without sign-lan- 
guage) used in the school-room. 
Summation of all cases 

Speech, Spelling and Sign-language 
used in the school-room. Summation 
of all cases 








Per cent. 


Per cent. 







































Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching, 310 


(1) The above statistics liave been received in reply to the following 
queries and supplementary questions: 

Query i. Total number of pupils in this school, April 22, 1903. 

Query 2. Number taught by speech and speech-reading, (without 

being tairght at all by the sign-language or manual 
alphabet) ? 

Query 3. Number taught by speech and speech-reading, together 

with a manual alphabet, (without being taught at all 
by the sign-language) ? 

Query 4. Number taught by speech and speech-reading, and also 

taught by the sign-language and manual alphabet. 

Query 5. Number taught speech and speech-reading but speech not 

used as a means of instruction ? 

Supplementary Enquiry and Remarks. 

As stated in the Review for June, 1902, Vol. IV, p, 304, we have in 
contemplation a change in the nature of the questions asked by the 
Review, based upon the means of communication employed in the 
schoolroom and outside. In order to preserve the continuity of our 
statistics, it has been deemed advisable to make no change for the pres- 
ent in the main questions asked, but to vary the supplementary ques- 
tions in a tentative manner so as to arrive at a more satisfactory form 
to be substituted for the old. In this connection we shall be very glad to 
have your views relating to the best form of questions to bring out the 
character and extent of speech-teaching in American schools for the deaf. 

Query 2 is intended to elicit the number of pupils who are taught 
wholly by the oral method, without receiving instruction through the 
medium of the sign-language or manual alphabet, either in the school- 
room or outside, in chapel, work-shop, etc. It is understood that in the 
cases returned in answer to this query, speech (without spelling or sign- 
language) is used both in the schoolroom and outside. 

Query 3 is intended to elicit the number of pupils who are taught in 
part by oral methods, and in part by means of a manual alphabet, but 
who receive no instruction whatever through the medium of the sign- 
language. In this connection we should like to know whether the 
manual alphabet is used in the schoolroom in conjunction with speech 
and speech-reading; or whether its use is limited to outside of the school- 
room. If you return pupils under the head of Quer>% 3. please fill in the 
following supplementary details: 

(a) Speech (without spelling or sign-language) used in the school- 
room; but spelling (without sign-language) also used outside 
in chapel exercises, workshop instruction, etc., with pupils. 

(b) Speech and spelling (without sign-language) used both in the 
schoolroom and outside, with pupils. 

Query 4 is intended to elicit the number who are taught in part by 
ortil methods, and in part by sign-language methods. In these cases 
we should like to know whether the sign-language is used in the school- 
room in conjunction with speech and speech-reading; or whether its use 






Per oat 



VMfffc villi «W«B apMCJk k Md ■• ■ 





Srauni (•Mbnnt ■pelliH or «iK»-b> 

Toul uaxht bj-BpeMh (wHkmt aptUlMe 





»I(Ki ummI ouuldfl III fhkpel citrciww. 



18 - 


(ft) ai'KRcK »rid Si-KLLisd (wIlhoulsiRii. 
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room BDil (luuiila (tnclndliig anc\»it- 


Totiil Utitfht Sy gPKBCu Knii Stki-lino 



»« ^^B 

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IliiCliaKfl ) UHml til t.liP itrlioiil-riiiiiii 

oliio iiHw,l'.iM',- ,|'. .,; ,'i,,,'„.lr>;.T.'ls<>i>, 

-vurk^lui, , , ■ 

(6) ai'KKriii. . 1 ■■ .il:,.nt.hlK"i- 

UllK-ini:.., „-,,[ .„ III.. -,-i |.,„,.i„ 

Imt Kii)N~i,an.i|;a.ik bIxo itaod out. 



{*)arKi«-ii, HrKLMiio Mid SiiiK ij»N- 
nvknt uwil botli in lh« achool-moin 






T«U1 with whom opmh \» umA m « 



IS 2* 

giiiiKc) ui-«t in U«* nrftonTntooL 
Sonr.mi.ii.'.nfyfall (MM 



Tumlii-r 111 im|iil- in ilii> ■ 1 
-i; laiU'lil' :i1 ;ill I-) 'I- 

311 The Association Review, 

is limited to outside of the schoolroom. If you return pupils under the 
head of Query 4, please fill in the following supplemental details relating 
to them: 

(fl) Speech (without spelling or sign language) used in the school- 
room, but spelling and sign-language also used outside in 
chapel exercises, work-shop instruction, etc., with pupils. 

(b) Speech and spelling (without sign-language) used in the school- 
room; but sign-language also used outside with pupils. 

(c) Speech, spelling and sign-language used both in the school- 
room and outside, with pupils. 

Query 5 is intended to elicit the number of pupils who receive instruc- 
tion in articulation without speech being used as a means of instruction — 
the number taught speech and speech-reading, but not taught by speech 
and speech-reading. The pupils we wish to record under this head are 
not taught by the oral method at all, but receive instruction in the use of 
their vocal organs for a limited period each day, or at least occasionally, 
their general education being carried on by silent methods of instruction. 

(2) Talladega School (Ala.): Mr. Johnson says, "We have five 
classes, average number in each class 12, where speech and lip-reading 
is the vehicle of communication in the classroom, but all of these chil- 
dren attend the chapel where signs are used, and are in societies of 
various kinds where signs are used. Spelling, writing, signs and speech 
are used in the workshop." 

(3) Little Rock School (Ark.): Queries i, 243; 2, 29; 3, 22; 4, o; 
5, 22; Supplementary Queries 3a, 29; 3b, 22; these use signs out of 
school; 4a, o; 4b, 22; 4c, o; Miss Frances K. Gillespie, writing for 
Mr. Yates, says: "There are 51 pupils in our oral department. 29 of 
these arc taught by speech, and 22 are taught by speech and speech- 
reading, together with the manual alphabet. In addition to these there 
are 22 who arc taught in manual classes but receive instruction in speech 
and speech-reading for about 20 minutes a day. All of our pupils use 
signs when out of school. Most of the industrial teachers are deaf men. 
are unable to speak or read the lips, and are obliged to give instruction 
by spelling or signs." 

(4) Hartford School (Conn.): Mr. G. O. Fay gives figures upon 
which we base our classification, but he says, '*We have no classification 
that answers at all to your five queries." 

(5) Kendall School (D. C): Mr. James Denison. Principal, re- 
ported 50 pupils under Query 5. but cut this out, returning them instead 
under Query 4. with the note, "I consider that speech and speech-reading 
as taught here, is used as a means of instruction. It is made effective in 
teaching language in many ways." 

(6) Gallaudet Colllege (D. C): Our figures are based upon 
the Annals statistics for January. 1903. which show total number of pupils, 
97; taught speech, 49: taught wholly or chiefly by the oral method, 4. 

(7) Cave Springs (Ga.): Mr. Connor writes: "I have heard of 
these" — pupils not taught at all by the sign-language or manual alpha- 
bet — "but have never seen a deaf person instructed without signs, and 
don't believe I ever will." In regard to the orally taught pupils, **We 
ti<^e speech with all as a means of instruction as far as possible, and then 
resort to anything that will help us along." 

Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching. 312 

(8) Morgan St. School (Chicago, III.) Queries i, 6; 2, o; 3, o; 4, o; 
5, 6; Supplementary Queries: 3a, o; 3b, o; 4a, o; 4b, o; 4c, C. (As no 
pupils are returned under Query 4, we presume that 4c is in error, refer- 
ring really to pupils returned under Query 5), 

(9) Chicago Public Day-Schools (111.): Summary. Queries i, 146; 
^. ^34; 3f 5; 4. o; 5, 6. One pupil with paralyzed jaw is taught entirely 
by the manual alphabet. Supplementary Queries not summarized. 

(10) South May St. School (Chicago, 111.): Queries i. 46: 2, o; 
3. 46: 4 signs are not taught; 5, o; "We use the combined method — 
spoken and written language. Signs are allowed as a means of con- 

(11) Streator School (Illinois): Statistics of Tu"c» 1902. 

(12) Evansville School (Ind.) Total number of pupils from Annals 
iti January, 1903. Mr. Gallagher writes: "For lack of funds, no speech 
ttacher has been employed in this school since last January. Fmm 
Docenibcr 1901, to last January, my daughter, who had received 
special training in the McCowen Oral School, filled the position of 
teacher of speech, and all the pupils received instruction under her for 
part of the time each day." 

(13) Indianapolis School (Ind.): Speech in schoolroom, speech. 
spelling, signs outside with 123 pupils includes 49 kindergarten pupils, 
with whom natural gestures incidental to kindergarten methods are used. 

(14) Olathe School (Kan.): Mr. Hammond reports: 'Total number 
of pupils. 235; 2, all pupils use the sign-language and .spelling outside oi 
school, in the chapel and in the work-shops, etc.; 3, number of pupils 
taught orally in the school without the sign-language as a regular means 
of instruction, and with only an occasional use of spelling, 63. (The en- 
deavor is made to make the instruction in these classes as purely oral as is 
possible. Now, of course, rather than fail to get an idea into the child's 
head, any means would be resorted to) ; 4. number of pupils taught in 
the schoolroom partly by the oral method and partly by the manual 
method, 25: 5, number of pupils taught articulation and lip-reading as an 
accomplishment, 14." (In view of the above we have placed 63 pupils 
under 4b, and 25 pupils under 4c.) 

(15) Baton Rouge School (La.): We have 51 pupils in the oral 
classes. While these pupils are taught speech in the class-rooms, they 
use signs and the manual alphabet on the outside, that is, in chapel, shops, 
etc. Jno. Jastremski. 

(16) Portland School (Me.): There are 92 pupils, all but 6 of 
whom are taught through and by speech, writing, etc., and when it is 
necessary, an idea is spelled or signed. Few of the teachers understand 
or can use signs. "Some of the teachers may be learning signs from the 
pupils, but vice versa. No." 

(17) Baltimore, McCulloh Street School (Md.): Statistics of 
Jimc, 1902. 

(18) Frederick School (Md.): Queries I, 102; 2, 52; 3, 10; 4, 6; 5, 
o. Supplementary Queries unanswered, but Mr. Ely notes that "All 
pupils attend chapel where signs and spelling are used." We have there- 
fore placed his oral pupils as follows: 4a, 52; 4b, 10; 4c, 6. 

(19) Calumet School (Mich.): Queries i, 8; 2, 8; 3, o; 4, o; 5, o; 
Supplementary Queries. 3a, o: 3b, o; 4a Speech (without spelling or 

313 'The Association Review. 

sign-language) used in the schoolroom; but spelling and sign-language 
also used at home with one pupil who previously attended a sign school; 
4b, o; 4c, o. 

(20) Flint School (Mich.): Total 403 pupils. Mr. Clarke says: 
"These questions in my opinion, being such as when unaccompanied by 
a long explanation, would put this school in a wrong light, I prefer not 
to answer them." Statistics of June, 1902. 

(21) Jackson School (Miss.): Queries i, 143; 2. o; 3, o; 4, o; 5, o. 
Mr. Dobyns says. "We endeavor to instruct everywhere without the use 
of signs, except in the chapel". Supplementary queries unanswered. 
Statistics of June, 1902. 

(22) Cass Ave. School (St. Louis. Mo.): Queries i, 35; 2. 15; 
3, 20: 4. o; 5, o. Supplementary Queries 3a, o; 3b, o; 4a, 30; 4b, o; 4c, o: 
Sister M. Adele returned "all" pupils under 3a and then cut this out and 
put 30 pupils under 4a. We presume this means that "all" pupils should 
have been under 4a, and that 30 is an error for 35. 

(23) South St. Louis School (St. Louis, Mo.): Queries i, 19; 2, o; 
3, o; 4, 16: 5, o. Supplementary Queries 3a, o; 3b, o: 4a. 3; 4b, 3; 4c, 16. 

(24) Trenton School (N. ].): Queries i, 140: 2, 48; 3. o; 4, 92; 5, o. 
Supplementary queries, 3a, o; 3b, o; 4a, 48; 4b, o; 4c, 92. 

(25) Santa Fe School (N. M.): No session here this term because 
of no funds granted this year. Lars M. Larson. 

(26) Albany School (N. Y.): Statistics of June, 1902. 

(27) Fordham School (N. Y.): "Our pupils are left free to con- 
verse together by whichever method they prefer." 

(28) Malone School (N. Y.): Queries i, 79; 2, 9; 3, 70; 4, o; 5, 32. 
Supplementary queries, 3a, 9; 3b, 70; 4a, o; 4b, o; 4c, o. As 32 pupils 
are taught speech but not taught by speech, we assume that the remain- 
der. (47) are taught by speech and spelling, and so have placed them 
under 3. 

(29) Washington Heights School (N. Y.): Supplementary Queries: 
I think 3b is the nearest to our practice. In some of our cissses we use 
spelling but rarely in place of writing or to prevent loss of time when 
an obscure word is used and is not readily recognized upon the lips, but 
since it is used in emergencies, I place this school under 3b. 

Enoch Henry Currier. 

(30) Rochester School (N. Y.): "All receive special articulation 
and special speech reading exercises, but speech is used as a means of 
instruction with all classes or grades. All also have silent means of 
instruction the larger part of the time." 

(31) Westchester School (N. Y.): Queries i, 204: 2, o; 3, 204; 
4. o: 5, o. Supplementary Queries 3a, o; 3b. 204 used in the schoolroom; 
4a, 204 speech with spelling in the schoolroom. Signs are not taught but 
they are used outside of the schoolroom as a means of communication 
between the pupils themselves, interpreting religious instructions given 
in the chapel (on Sundays) and in the various workshops;" 4b, o; 4c, o. 
In view of the above we have placed the 204 pupils under the head of 4b. 

(32) Devil's Lake School (N. D.): All pupils use signs outside 
of schools and in shops. 

Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching. 314 

(33) Cincinnati Oral School (O.): Supplementary Queries: The 
5 questions seem to me to completely cover the ground desired, and will 
if accurately answered, give us a comprehensive report of the extent Oi^ 
speech teaching in our American schools. Virginia A. Osborn. 

(34) Cleveland School (O.): Miss Barry writes: "The 3 pupils 
returned under Query 5 are taught wholly by writing, no signs, no spell- 
ing. They receive a very little instruction in speech and speech-reading 
each day — simply to spare their feelings. They are enthusiastic oralists 
and insist upon being heard." 

(35) Columbus State School (O.) : This report is true on general 
lines, but is not specifically so. J. W. Jones. 

(36) Salem School (Ore.): Statistics of June, 1902. 

(37) Cedar Springs School (S. C): Reference only to school- 
room work. 

(38) Sioux Falls School (S. D.): Queries i, 47; 2, 10; 3, 2; 4, 10; 
5, o; Supplementary Queries 3a, 2; 3b, o: 4a, o; 4b, o; 4c, o; Signs and 
spelling are used in all classes in the school in connection with all speech- 

(39) Knoxvillc School (Tenn.): Of 250 pupils. 72 are taught 
speech, and are taught mainly by speech, the instruction received by 
■uriting, being excepted of course. Thomas L. Moses. 

(40) Austin School (for colored) (Tex.): Superintendent Jenkins 
telephones me the number present April 22 "about 65." No oral work 
done there. J. W. Blattner. 

(41) Austin School (for whites) (Tex.): Query i, 445; including 
I industrial and 4 blind deaf. Supplementary query 4c, 240, signs very 
little used in school. 

(42) Ogden School (Utah): Total, 80 pupils. 13 of these come 
under (a) Query 4, 34 under (b) Query 4, and ^^ under (c) Query 4. 8 
of the z^ pupils last mentioned come under Query 5. 

(43) Romney School (W. Va.): Query i, 170; 2, o; 3, 23; 4, 6; 
5, o. Supplementary queries: 3a, o; 3b, o; 4a, o; 4b, 29; 4c, o. 

(44) Halifax School (N. S.): Queries i, g6; 2, 53; 3, 10; 4, o; 5. 7. 
Supplementary Queries: 3a, All. Nearly all our children have learned to 
spell on the fingers and while speech and writing is only used in the 
classrooms, teachers, etc., are permitted to spell to such children as fail 
to read the lips in workshops, playrooms, etc.; 3b, o; 4a, o; 4b, o; 4c, o. 

(45) San Juan School (Porto Rico): A school of ten pupils under 
the direction of Mother Fidelas has been estabhshed here. Methods of 
instruction not given. 

315 The Association Review. 

^. ^ . ,, . In this issue of The Review are fifiven the an- 

The Statistics off i c. .• .• re it- i.- • * 

nual Statistics of Speech 1 caching in American 

■^^ Schools for the Deaf. As will be seen, there 

has been a departure from the method of previous years in 
tabulating the returns from the enquiry addressed to the heads 
of institutions. Tabic II giving, in addition to the responses to 
the main queries, the number of pupils instructed under each 
of the methods particularized in the supplementary questions. 
These latter, in addition to providing for a closer and more exact 
classification of methods, have made possible the correction, in 
several instances, of the answers to the main queries, wherein, 
through misunderstanding and evidently with reference to class- 
room usage alone, principals or superintendents have returned 
as taught wholly by speech, pupils with whom signs are used in 
the chapel, workshops, and elsewhere out of school. 

The figures in the tables speak for themselves, and their 
comparative values and their relation to the development of 
speech-teaching in America are so clearly shown in the diagram 
on page ^^(>3 that extended comment would be superfluous. There 
are, however, a few points to which attention should be partic- 
ularly called, or which require explanation. 

There are 196 more pupils in schools for the Deaf in the 
United States in 1903 than there were in 1902. 397 more pupils 
are taught speech this year than last. 517 more pupils are 
taught wholly or partly by speech and speech reading. These 
figures show that the growth in the teaching of speech has been, 
as compared with the increase in the number of pupils, more than 
twice as great, while the increase in teaching by speech (wholly 
or partly) has been more than two and a half times greater than 
the number of admissions for the year. To state it in another 
way, not only arc all the 196 new pupils (or an equivalent 
number) taught to speak, but 201 of the pupils previously ad- 
mitted and not taught speech have been brought under such 
instruction, while 321 more than the number admitted this year, 
or 120 more than the increase in the number taught to speak, 
have been transferred from manual to oral classes where they 
arc taught wholly or partly by speech and speech-reading. This 
means that a much larger proportion of the deaf are being taught 

Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching, 316 

speech than formerly, and that with many more who have been 
l.'iught to speak merely as an accomplishment, speech is now 
being employed as a means of instruction. 

In the number taug^ht wholly by speech there has been an 
apparent decrease of 175, or 1.9 per cent., but this is explained by 
the fact that several hundred pupils who were formerly returned 
a?- instructed by this method have been placed either, by the heads 
of the schools, or by ourselves while compiling the statistics 
in the light of the information contained in the replies to the 
supplementary (juestions, among those who are taught by 
speech and spelling, or by speech, spelling and signs. That 
this is the true explanation is shown by comparison with other 
figures, and by the fact that in the diagram the dotted lines 
continue substantially the lines 4, 5, and 6. 

()f the pupils taught wholly by speech in the school-room, 
(without reference to outside instruction), there is shown the 
steady, continuous growth of previous years; the increase being 
1 52, or a little less than i per cent. A most remarkable change 
is shown in the number taught in the school-room by speech, 
s])elling, and signs, it having increased within the year from 938 
to 1487, (from 8.5 per cent, to 13.2 per cent.). This is a very 
gratifying showing, representing, as it doubtless does, a change 
as far as i)ractical from signs to speech with pupils who have 
previously been taught under the manual method. 

S. G. D. 



The death of Mrs. Sadie J. Corwin, a teacher in the Mis- 
souri school for the deaf, has been chronicled in many of the 
institution papers. Mrs. Corwin was a successful teacher, and 
a woman of beautiful character and marked intellectual abilitv. 
As a young girl, Sadie Crabbs was a remarkable pupil of the 
writer, especially in a class of lip-readers whose proficiency in 
that difficult art he has never seen excelled. The class was com- 
posed of intelligent semi-mutes. A favorite exercise of this 
class was the reading aloud of long selections from choice 

31? The Association ILvicw, 

litcralurf. c.irc hciiij; taken by the teacher that the selection 
was new to the class. The seleeti<Mi was read aloud by memben 
(if the cla*-.^. from hcj^innini^ to end, too rapidly to be 
meniorizAMl. I he teaeher. or a member of the chiss would then 
read a sins^k' \ersr. <»r paia^raph. which tlie members of the 
class repeated imm ilie H[)s. The same exercise was taken {roin 
the H|JS «iiil\. on the folh»win<;- (kiy. as a review. Frequently, 
for tl»e pur})MSL' «»f drill in lij>-rea<ling the words iti a verse or 
paraj^raph wm- taken singly from the lij>s in the reverse order, 
bej^imiinj^ with the la>t word, lint little time was wasted upon 
words that proved to be obscine upon the lips. The members 
of this class read one another's lips and carried on conversa- 
titm by lip-nading with apjKirently no effort, and, in the latter 
part of the iirsl year, anecdotes and short stories were taken 
from the teaclur's lips antl frnm the lijis of one another without 
j)revions readinj^. and with bm little difficulty. The writer has 
met many of the bi-st lip readers in America but he has never 
come across aimilur rl:i>s of yonnj:^ men and women so pro- 
ticient in the diilicnli art. Iosej>h (.'. ( lorilon in the New Era. 

A lifnited mimber of b'uind volumes of the Review is offered 
to Institutions at the f(»llowin'^ rates: l'\)r \'ol. 1, bonucl in cloth. 
Si.rx): f. ir \'ol. II. bound in cloth, $j.oo. For prices of other 
pid)licalions <»f the As«^ociati<i!i,see advertisement in this number. 
In order that these hitter iniblications may be placed in the hands 
of all inend>ers ol the Association who may not have thcni. the 
prices have been reduced to amounts covering little more than 
postajL^e. and entire sets are olTered at $2.00 per set. 




KRANK W. ROOXH, - - Kditor 
S. a. DAVIDSON, Associate Kditor 

October \m 

Ai4g24st Frese O. Danger 318 

The Detroit Day School for the Deaf— Illustrated - - - - 322 

Proceedi?ij^s of the Department of Special Education^ 

N. E, A, Edward E. Allkn 343 

Report of the Amiual Mcetini^ of the Americayi 

Association Z. F. Wkstkrvklt 363 

Historical Notes Coyicerning the Teachiufr 

of Speech to the Deaf - - - Alkxandkr Graham Kkll 369 


Data t'roMi Iiistitiitious fur the Doaf, :n9— American Aimals of the Deaf, :J81 — Orf^an 
der Tan1>stiiinTncii-Aiistalten in Deiitscliland, 38:i — Blatter fur TuiibKtunimenir.hiung. 
i{84 — Rasbtspia deUa Ediirazione dei Sorduniuti. :J87 — Kl Sordomiido Ari^t'iitiiui. y88 
— L'Kducazlone dc'i Snrdomuti, 3S9 — Ue]if)rt of the i?ohoul for the Deaf at. Porto, 
Portupjal, :J90- -■< >n thi* Necessity of a Sure Means of (/ommuuication in the Instruction 
of the Deaf, :j9l--I/[di0Kia,39:i! — La Voce nel liu(;ua^^io e nel cant^, 395 — Visildo 
Speech, the first A ttem]tt in Japan to adopt I *rofurtsor Bell's System in Tearhinij 
the Japanese Lan^^ua^^e. '^VXy — Mono^ra]>hs on the PMucatioH of the Blind and Deaf 
in the Kyoto, Jai>an, Institutiun. 397 Self- Instruction in Lip- Heading, 398 -The 
**Grange" Ueadin;; iJook for Deaf Chihlreu, 398 


The Boston Meetings, 399 — The Death t>f Dr. Lailreit de I^acharricn*, 400 — Amou«>; 
the Schools, 401 

Testimonial to Dr. J, C, Gordon - - . . - . ^q^ 

Neu- Members --.---.-.- ^^q^^ 

Notes and Notices . . . . ^oi 




[Printiue Deparunent of the Peniuylrania InAtUatiun for the Deaf and I>umb] 

Vol. V, No. 4 $2.50 (108. 4d.) per year 

The American Association to Promote th 
Tcachino; of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 

Alkxandkk Gkaham Bell. 

A. L. K. CRorTKK. Carounk A. Yalk. 

Z. F. Westkrvelt. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 


F. \V. Booth, 
7342 Rural Lane. Ml. Airy, Philadelphia.) 


Caroli!«b a. Yalk. 

Z. F. WlisiTEUVKLT. 

Ki'MPM) Lyon. 
leryn Kxpiret I9f''f. 

Skuxii Fi i.i.r.K, 
Term Kxpirti iLhKj. 

HicHARi) O. Johnson . 

E. A. GuuvKK. 

Ai.»XAN!»i:u GuAiiAM Hku., Miis. (ffAiiuiNRii G. Hubbard. 

A. L. K. ('ito''iKK. 

7>rm Krpiret i:*fi' . 

Tls<* A". •• .••:\:i .\.->K-.\'..%i'Atu t.i rro:ii.»t<: llu* Tvicliiii;; of Spevoli to the Deaf welcoxn* 
to its aunilh;-.-: •}• nil jhtho:!3 who .in; iiitprfsU'iI in jt.s work. Thus the privHego < 
M v-'jjiii ."fthii* > :.«•: :::-:r:i-!f.i to tiM-'in-rsi Hi.'tivi:y «.'n!^iLf(.'ti in tlie instrnctioii of dej 
0:..: ! "«•:!. I:: .- . \ *••?•. *;• 1 'i* :M''hj'!«* l):ri-i*!<'r- ur Trust «««'.^ i>r schools for tho tloaf, p.trcn 

•I. ••.'■ .".i* !"•••!. cIji' oiiM.'it:'! .li.if Th.Miisi^lvf .«% \\\\n wish lo aid by tl 
'.I- „'.••• .ii" ?•.•••.' ...•'•; !. ••• ;'. 1 '«.• :':••.?• •• •-••'«• -ilioT: :]io wurk that has «lonf ho much f< 
ils-'f. v.- ./. ' .•••...•::' V !. I •:..i;, ;:•»!• * ;•) :!siir ).(M"Ss t-HioiieW wirh a dctiirv 1 



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.'. '^iKi*. ri«»v Kr.viKw is iiivitfd 1 

'. • ;> .^•.','«!i rS.-^. 4d.> i»«T year. j):ii 

• -i:.'-'"! T'i:i! •! fI**ot:«»n by !h»; J '.■»•»! 

:. = •• '•/.-•.: p'-r V itli til," jmbr.i .'• -ls « 

s-i'.v. s'.^p 11:..; yoar. To «.••.•.-..•:•* '.-.'/^r 

::.v:;.\L :••:i•.v:.2i?Tl•J^S. ..:]> r-S.^VTUlTS ARE SOUCirX^D. LIFE 
..c:..i:?ft I'Ai iJf. }jT/..:VV.C: VTPfiS" THS PAYMENT OF 3oO. 


Vol. V, No. 4. 

OCTOBKR, 1903. 



On the 30th of May, iijcx), there died in the country of 
Peslalozzi. at Riehen, near I>fde, Switzerhmd, an educator who 
by his striving after a lofty ideal, ])y his piety and his self-sacri- 
ficint^ love for the unfortunate, proved himself a genuine fol- 
lower of IV'stalozzi. but who at the same time stood on the firm 
ground of the realities of life, and who knew well how to till this 
ground, August Frese. lie was horn in the north of (jcrmany, 
at Sievern, District of Lehe, Hannover. The tourist docs not 
find anything attractive in the vast plains of Northern (jermany. 
lUit as the endless desert produces a powerful impression on him 
whose eye has been opened to its peculiar beauty, thus it is also 
with the vast plain. Corresponding to the character of th^ 
country, its inhabitants are distinguished by honesty, constancy, 
strong reasoning powers, sobriety and piety. Frese was a 
genuine son of the soil, but differing from many of his country- 
men in this respect, that his mind was wide open to new impres- 
sions, and of these he received many during his lifetime. 
Called to the care of children from the plow, which he wielded 
on his father's farm, he left his home in 1859 after finishing a 
four vears' course at the Normal School in Stade. Now other 
impressions began to exercise their influence on him: the hills, 
moor and plain, the vast ocean, and finally the lofty mountains. 
On the seashore a daughter of the moorland, who for several 
years had aided him in his great work among the unfortunate, 
became his faithful wife. 

Deaf-mute children were Frese's first scholars. P»ut when 
in 1 861 he receive<l a call to devote his energies to the weak- 

319 The Association Review, 

minded and idiotic, he felt that he must follow this call. He gave 
up his position at the Royal Institution for Deaf-mutes at Osna- 
briick, and became a teacher at the Institution for Idiots at 
Langenhagen, which at that time was in private hands. There 
he was required to create something entirely new, and he had 
well grounded hopes that he would succeed by following the 
only tnie principle of all education, the family education. In 
the beginning the founders of this institution showed their will- 
ingness to proceed on the lines pointed out by Frese, but 
gradually, the institution became from a family a boarding 
school of such large dimensions as to leave no room for the ef- 
forts of Frese, the teacher. Thus he saw himself excluded from 
the gjand work of a true educator of the weak-minded and idiot- 
ic, and the results of the work did no longer satisfy him. After 
seven years full of trials, he returned to his former place at the 
Institution for Deaf-mutes at Osnabriick. But his yearning to 
be closer to the unfortunates whose service he had made the 
aim of his life, and to be to them more than a mere teacher, in- 
duced him in 1875 to accept the position of Director of the 
Eastern Frisian Deaf-mute Institution at Emden, which was 
at that time a private institution. In such an institution there 
is frequently more opportunity for independent activity than in 
a government institution. Tliis applied particularly to the 
Emden institution, and Frese soon showed that he was able to 
manage affairs in an independent manner. Till the time when 
I^Vese went to Emden, Rossler of Osnabruck had been the 
leader whom he followed; Rossler himself was a follower of Hill 
at Weissenfels. It is well known how much Hill has done for 
the education of deaf-mutes; his special merit consisting in this 
that he brought the education of deaf-mutes into closer relations 
with the public school system than had been the case in most 
parts of Germany. It is true that the fundamental principles of 
general education apply to deaf-mutes no less than to those who 
are in the full possession of all their faculties, and that in the 
education of children who are lacking in one or more of their 
senses greater stress should be laid on these principles and their 
strict observance than in the education of normally endowed 
children. But the similarity in the education of normal and de- 

August Frese. 320 

fective children extends only to the fundamental principles of 
education which are derived from psychology and physiology; 
whilst in practice and in the details there is often a wide differ- 
ence between the two systems of education. Rossler, as we have 
stated, was a follower of Hill, and Frese was therefore indirectly 
a follower of the same leader. But as soon as circumstances 
permitted him to be more independent, there was for him no 
longer any blind faith in authorities. More especially did he 
strongly advocate a direct connection between words and ideas 
and rejected the intermediary of pictures which have often 
hindered the immediate union of words and ideas just as signs 
or gestures had done formerly. Frescos book, **Streiflichter 
auf das Gebiet des ersten Unterrichts der Taubstummen" 
(Sidelights on the Subject of the First Education of Deaf-mutes), 
is a magnificent work, and it is only to be regretted that it has 
not been continued beyond the first stage of schooling. But 
Frese was more a man of action than of the pen — although he 
knew how to wield the pen in a masterly manner. 

Soon after another and important change was to influence 
Frese's work. In the little village of Riehen near Bale a small 
institution for deaf-mutes had been founded half a century ago 
by "Father Arnold," which, more than any other institution 
of this kind, was based on family education. This institution had 
quietly done a noble work for many years, when it was, so to 
speak, discovered by Mr. Jorgenscn, a Danish teacher of deaf- 
mutes. Frese likewise made a pilgrimage to Riehen and became 
so fascinated that he spent his entire vacation there. When 
taking leave of Father Arnold he promised him to continue 
his work, whenever a call should be extended to him. 

This was not done immediately after Arnold's death. The 
superintendence of the institution was at first entrusted to a 
man of high scientific attainments but not a specialist in this par- 
ticular branch of education. But when some time later a call 
came to Frese from Switzerland, he felt in conscience bound 
to accept it. 

In Riehen Frese might have lived "like the centurion of 
Capernaum." He had only to say: "Come here! go there! do 
this!" and his commands were obeyed at once. He might have 

321 The Association Review. 

spent his days in contemplative leisure like Father Arnold dur- 
ing the last years of his life, and as his immediate successor was 
compelled to do from sheer force of circumstances. There were 
men there to guide the helm. But Frese was not cut out for 
this sort of life. He had esteemed and loved "Father Arnold;*' 
but for the second time it became apparent that he did not know 
anv blind faith in authorities. As soon as he saw that even 
Arnold's work, like every human work, stood in need of reforms 
and was capable of being reformed, he firmly took the helm into 
his own hands. 

Now a strange thing took place. Frese, who, in matters of 
religion had always been a member of the extreme orthodox 
party, and who has not hesitated to use his pen in warfare 
against the modem theology, was all at once considered not 
to possess sufficient piety! just as if truth and clearness were 
contradictory ideas. But Frese was neither discouraged nor 
frightened, stood firmly at the helm and continued to stand there. 
Things which could not be harmonized, must be separated. 

Riehen is no longer, what it was years ago, the Mecca of 
teachers of deaf-mutes. It is far more than this. From a board- 
ing school for select pupils it has, under Frese's direction, be- 
come in the true sense of the term an institution for deaf-mutes, 
in which, however, instruction and family education are as 
closely connected as is generally only possible in small 

"Excelsior — higher, higher!*' thus Frese wrote during the 
very period of his fiercest struggle to a former colleague, "Above 
the dust we shall and can wander, above the dust we should 
teach our little ones to wander, above the dust we already 
wander when we look into the gentle innocent eye of a little 
child, and through the eye into its heart, sanctified to the Lord. 
But our aim is still higher, higher!" 

And now Frese has gone up higher, he has gone home! On 
the 1 2th of June, 1900, his pupils, fellow-laborers and friends 
accompanied his remains to their last resting place in the quiet 
village of Riehen. Although paralysis of the heart brought his 
life to a premature end — he was only 65 years of age — ^his life 
work has not been in vain. 




Herewith is submitted the required report of the Detroit 
Day School for the Deaf, and the Normal Training Department, 
in llieir relations to the public school system, together with such 
explanations and illustrations as may make the work of the 
education of the deaf more generally understood. 

In 1893, the justice of the demand for some means by which 
deaf children might remain in their homes, and still receive the 
benefits of an education, was recognized by the Detroit School 
Board, and a small class was organized under the direction of one 
teacher. This was soon felt to be inadequate to meet the de- 
mands of the large number who wished to avail themselves of 
its privileges, and eflforts were made to extend them. 

In the Superintendent's report for 1898, he suggested that 
legislation be secured by which the city would receive a certain 
amount per annum from the state for each child attending the 
school maintained by the city, to enable the Board to increase 
its capacity; and to extend the same privileges to other cities 
throughout the state, thus following the example of Wisconsin, 
Illinois, and Ohio, which had previously established similar day 
school systems. 

The need for such schools was manifested in other parts 
of the state as well, and the result was the enactment by the 
Legislature of 1899 ^^ ^^e following "Day School Law": 

'Reprinted from the Fifty-ninth Annual Report of the Board of Edu- 
cation of the City of Detroit. 

323 The Association Rcvicxv. 


Authorizing School District Boards, Boards of Trustees of 
Graded Schools and Boards of Education in Cities to Estab- 
lish and Maintain Day Schools for the Deaf, and Authoriz- 
ing Payment Therefor from the General Fund. 

The People of the State of Michigan enact: 

Section i. That upon application by a school district board, 
board of trustees of a graded school, or board of education of any 
city of this state, to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
he shall grant permission to such board to establish and main- 
tain, and such board shall thereupon be empowered to maintain, 
within the limits of its jurisdiction, one or more day schools, 
having an average attendance of not less than three pupils, for 
the instruction of deaf persons over the age of three years, whose 
parents, or guardians in the case of orphans, are residents of the 
State of Michigan. 

Section 2. Any board which shall maintain one or more 
day schools for the instruction of the deaf shall report to the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction annually, and at such other 
times as he may direct, such facts concerning the school or 
schools as he may require. 

Section 3. The State Treasurer is hereby authorized and 
directed to apportion and pay out of the "General Fund" annual- 
ly to the treasurer of any board maintaining a school or schools, 
which shall be established in accordance with this act, the sum 
of one hundred and fifty dollars for each deaf pupil instructed 
in any such school for nine months during the school year, and 
a part of such sum proportionate to the time of instruction of 
any such pupil so instructed less than nine months during each 

Section 4. The money received from the State Treasurer, 
as provided in section three of this act, shall be kept separate 
and- distinct from all other funds by the treasurer of the board 
receiving it, and shall be known as "the fund for the support 
of schools for the deaf," and shall be paid out for no other 
purpose than for the payment of salaries of teachers of schools 
of the deaf, as herein provided, and for school appliances, and 
all sums not expended under this act shall be returned to the 
State Treasurer and credited to the primary school interest fund. 

Section 5. All teachers in such schools shall be appointed 
and employed as other public school teachers are appointed 
and employed. All persons appointed to teach in any such school 
shall have had special training for teaching, and shall also have 
had special training in the teaching of the deaf, including at least 

Detroit Day School for the Deaf, 324 

one year's experience as a teacher in a school for the deaf. The 
so-called "oral" system shall be taught by such teachers, and 
if after a fair trial of nine months, any of such children shall, for 
any reason, be unable to learn such oral method, then no further 
expense shall be incurred in the effort to teach such child so un- 
able to learn such oral method in such primary schools. 

Section 6. For the purpose of this act, any person of sound 
mind, who, by reason of defective hearing, cannot profitably be 
educated in the public schools, as other children are, shall be 
considered deaf. 

This act is ordered to take immediate effect. 

Under this law, greater possibilities presented themselves, 
and two new teachers were added to the Detroit school during 
the first year. A school was established at Grand Rapids, and 
since then others have been organized at Muskegon, Menom- 
inee, Saginaw, Bay City, and Calumet. Four teachers are now 
employed at Grand Rapids, and one at each of the other cities. 

The demand for teachers trained in the oral method of teach- 
ing the deaf has always been in excess of the supply, and it soon 
became evident that some provision for such training was neces- 
sary if the requirements of these schools were to be efficiently 
met. It appeared, for several reasons, that such a department 
would be most advantageously conducted in connection with the 
Detroit school, and in September, 1900, the classes were central- 
ized in an easily accessible part of the city. Thrs permitted 
the grading of classes, more teachers were employed, and a 
Normal Training: Department was organized. Upon this re- 
organization the German oral method was introduced and it is 
now used exclusively with all pupils. 

Our enrollment of pupils during the present year has 
numbered forty-three, divided into six groups, and represent- 
ing seven grades, arranged according to the course of study of 
the other city schools, with the addition of special work in articu- 
lation, speech-reading, auricular training, and language. The 
material used, the illustrations, and the manner of presentation 
must certainly be adapted to meet the special needs of the deaf, 
but the underlying principles are exactly the same in each case. 
The cultivation of attention, observation, imitation, expression, 
and obedience is not peculiar to the education of the deaf alone. 

325 The Association Review. 

Exercises for the development of the senses of form, color, touch, 
rhythm, etc., are a part of the curriculum of every well organ- 
ized kindergarten and primary school. They are even more es- 
sential to our pupils, and form an important part of the first 
year's course. 

After completing the eighth grade in the School for the Deaf, 
our pupils are expected to be able to enter the High School, if 
they so elect, and finish the course with hearing pupils. This is 
b?ing successfully demonstrated by our graduate of last year, 
who has this year satisfactorily completed her first year in the 
High School. 

There are now seven teachers, not including the special, 
teachers, who direct the work in art, physical culture, and pen- 
manship ; nor those of the manual training department, who 
have charge of cooking, sewing and sloyd. Tlie normal students 
also have practice work in the school, especially during the sec- 
ond semester of their course. 

The plan of associating the deaf with the hearing children 
for sloyd and cooking has proven very satisfactory, — a deaf and 
a hearing child working together. A special teacher accom- 
panies each class to assist the children with the language per- 
taining to the work. 

Cardboard construction with the younger children is carried 
on by the class teachers, who also assist the special teacher in 
the girls' sewing classes. Basket weaving, with willow and raffia, 
was added to the occupations during the spring term. During 
the coming year we hope to extend and improve this manual 
training, so necessary to a school for the deaf. 

The "Association of Parents and Friends of Deaf Children" 
has, during this year, held its meetings at the school, where the 
parents and teachers may be brought into closer sympathy, to 
their mutual benefit, as well as to the better interests of the 


*"A Normal Training Department shall be maintained in 
connection with the School for the Deaf, the principal of the 

*Rules of Board of Education. 

Detroit Day School for the Deaf. 326 

school to be required in addition to other duties as such principal, 
to give instruction to students admitted to such department. 


"Applicants entering the Normal Department shall be re- 
quired to hold a Detroit teacher's certificate, or its equivalent, 
or shall have completed one year of the advanced course of a 
State Normal School. After having attended the School for the 
Deaf for observation and practice work for one year, members 
of the normal class shall be examined in : 

1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Organs of Speech and 

2. Science of the Elements of Speech. 

3. History of the Education of the Deaf. 

4. Special Pedagogy for the Deaf. 

*Upon recommendation of the principal of the Training 
Department of the School for the Deaf the Superintendent of 
Schools and the Chairman of the Committee on Teachers and 
Schools shall issue diplomas to graduates, si-gn same, and trans- 
mit to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction for his 

**In addition to other qualifications, applicants must furnish 
evidence of sound physical health. 


**The membership of the normal class shall be determined 
by the Superintendent and the principal of the school, after the 
number of students to be admitted for the year has been 




The purpose of this department is to furnish teachers, 
trained in the oral method of teaching the deaf, for the Detroit 
Public Day School and for other similar schools throughout the 
State of Michigan. 


The course of study extends over a period of one year, and 
students are admitted in September. During the year they 
puruse a three-fold course — ^theory, observation, and practice 

327 The Association Review. 

work. One recitation period daily is devoted to the former, the 
remainder of the time being spent in actual observation, or prac- 
tice in the school-room. The range of the practice is wide, as 
every grade is represented in the school. 


First Semester. 

Psychology and Science of Educaton — 

At the Washington Normal, if a satisfactory course has not 
previously been completed in a normal school. 
Anatomy and Physiology of Organs of Speech and Hearing — 
Work illustrated by charts, casts, and specimens, 
and supplemented with lectures by specialists of the throat 
and ear. 
Science of the Elements of Speech — 
Acoustics and the General I^ws of Sounds — 

With special reference to voice production. 
Use of Binner Chart. 

Second Semester. 

History of the Education of the Deaf — 

Development of different methods. Methods in use at the 
present time. 
Special Pedagogy for the Deaf, including — 

Special language teaching for all grades, illustrating the use 
of toys, pictures, the '*tag exercise," action work, stories, 
journals, compositions, "five-column slate," and current 

Sense Training — Exercises for the more acute development 
of the senses of sight, including form, size, surface, number, 
color, etc., and touch, including form, size, number, sur- 
face, texture and vibration. 

Auricular Training — How to test hearing. How to make 
use of and develop sound perception, if any exists. Actual 
tests with pupils. 

Speech Reading — Special work for the semi-deaf. 

Reading — Text and supplementary readers best adapted to 
the deaf. Library reading for children. 

Detroit Day School for the Deaf. 328 

Render Reports on Library Books Read — 

This course is supplemented by reading from the Public 
Library, which has made a special effort to place at our 
disposal books relating to the education of the deaf, and 
from our own library, which is constantly increasing. 

Results of the course in theory are tested by examinations. 
A thesis is also required at the close of each term. 

Fall term — Speech Teaching. 

Winter term — Some phase of History of Education of the 

Spring term — Special Language Teaching, or Sense Train- 


First Semester. 

Upon entering, a week's general observation, throughout 
the grades, is permitted, before students are assigned to definite 
grades for four-week periods. During the fourth week they 
may assist the class teacher with minor subjects. 

First week in grade — Study of class as a unit. 

Second week in grade — Study of an individual pupil. 

Third week in grade — Observation of a subject presented by 
the teacher. Preparation of a lesson plan for the following week. 

Fourth week in grade — Teach subject observed, under the 
supervision of the teacher, and write criticism on the lesson plan. 

Observations of the first and second week are directed in 
different ways, and the results are submitted by means of papers, 
which are discussed in the normal class. 

To correlate with the "Science of the Elements" and "Chart 
Work under the course in theory, during the second quarter the 
observation is especially directed to articulation. 

First week in the grade — Observation of the articulation 
of the class as a whole, noting general defects. 

Second, third and fourth weeks — Study of the faults of 
speech of individual children, and means used to overcome them. 
Preparation of exercises for their correction. Papers discussed 
in normal class. 

Special lessons in speech with beginning classes, or lessons 
presenting new or difficult combinations, or for overcoming some 

329 The Association Review. 

particular fault of speech, are arranged for the observation of 
the entire normal class, in connection with this articulation work. 
During the last quarter of this term, students teach, under 
supervision, at least one period a day, during the second, third 
and fourth weeks in grades. Subjects taught are such as to 
especially require articulation work. 

Second Semester. 

Model lessons, for the observation of students, are given 
throughout the grades by the principal and teachers, to illustrate 
all phases of work given under "Special Pedagogy for the Deaf," 
including "**Special Language Teaching," "Auricular Training," 
"Speech Reading" and "Sense Training". 

Preparation of plans and presentation of lessons in geog- 
raphy, history, number, etc. 

During the last quarter, students spend one week in each 
grade, teaching a language period every day. For one day, 
during each week, she takes entire charge of the dass^ preparing 
her own plans for lessons. 

Work in physical culture, art, sewing, and basket weaving, 
with a view of assisting a director, or teaching the same in Day 
Schools, is carried on throughout the year. 

Texts used: 

History of the Education of the Deaf Arnold 

Elements of Speech Paul Binner's Lectures 

Principles of Speech A. M. Bell 

Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Organs 

Paul Binner's Lectures. Dr. Hewson, in First 
Summer Meeting Report. Arnold. 

Method of Articulation Teaching Paul Binner 

Sound Tyndall 

Psychology James and Titchener 

Compayre's History of Pedagogy Payne 

References and Coli^ateral Reading. 


Association Review. 
History of American Schools. 
Bell's Publications. 
Arnold's Publications. 

Detroit Day School for the Deaf. 330 

Reports of Meetings of the A. A. P. T. S. D. 

The Voice Warman 

Rush on the Voice. 

Gymnastics of the Voice Guttman 

Throat and Its Functions Elsberg 

Speech and Its Defects Potter 

Speech for the Deaf Story 

Shut Your Mouth Catlin 

Life and Education of Laura Bridgman Lamson 

Helen Keller. 

Children of Silence • Seiss 

Manual of Articulation Teaching Greene 

Method of Teaching Deaf Mutes to Speak Bonet 

Hand Book of Psychology Sully 

Froebel and Education Through Self Activity ' Bowen 

Comenius and Educational Reform Monroe 

Herbart and the Herbartians De Garmo 

Sub-conscious Self Waldstein 



Oral language is the principal subject of instruction through- 
out this course, and all other branches are subordinate to it. 
Subject matter presented and grading of classes correspond 
to the hearing schools. Every subject of study, however, 
teaches the language peculiar to itself, and becomes in a degree, 
a language lesson. Upon entering the grammar grades, the 
methods of instruction approach those of the hearing school, till, 
in the more advanced work, they differ but little. 

Our aim must be, through speech, and speech reading, and 
their association with verbal language, to restore the child, as far 
as possible, to a normal condition, and place him on an equality 
with his hearing associates, in respect to their vernacular and 

Untrained deaf children are usually very deficient in the 
powers of attention, observation and imitation, — ^the three great 
essentials of education. It is to their cultivation, especially of 
attention, that the efforts of the preparatory work are directed. 
These are mental efforts directed and controlled by the will, so 
that sense experience is made a subject for thought and reflection 
or directed to some definite end. The greater the number 

331 The Association Review, 

of these mental images the more certain and precise is our 
thought. Thus the training of the senses is the foundation of 
mental education and rational judgment, and the value of pre- 
liminary exercises to aid this development cannot be over-esti- 

All mental development is possible through the senses; but 
with one of the principal avenues (hearing) through which this 
is brought about, almost or quite destroyed, it is plain that either 
the mind cannot be developed to its former possibilities, or that 
the remaining senses must supply the deficiency. We believe 
that this loss can be to a great extent compensated for by the 
cultivation of the other senses, particulary those of sight and 

This may be best accomplished by a course of muscular, 
sense, breath and voice gymnastics; and auricular training for 
those pupils who have any degree of sound perception. 

Such a preparation has its advantages in that, from the 
beginning, the teacher's work is placed upon a scientific basis, 
and no time and labor are wasted, trying uncertain experiments. 
The oft-repeated exercises on the elements of speech are the best 
means of producing in the pupil an instinctive, spontaneous ac- 
tion of his organs; and during the preparatory work the control- 
ling influence which the teacher exerts insures a normal, easy 
action of the organs, and all secondary or subordinate produc- 
tions, either as tone or noise, can be eliminated at the very 


I. Imitation Exercises. 

Aim — To cultivate attention and imitation. 

a. Class in unison, following the teacher in movements 
easily imitated, as, walking, sitting, standing erect, sitting 
erect, head erect, shoulders back, marching, running, etc. 

b. Movements of the arms, hands, feet. 

c. Gymnastics of the face — Opening and shutting the 
mouth, eyes. 

d. Jaw movement, — vertical, sideways. To secure flexibil- 
ity of the lower jaw, and a quiet position of the tongue. 

Detroit Day School for the Deaf. 332 

e. Lip apertures for vowels — Without voice — e, a, u. 

• • • 

f. Positions for consonants. 

2. Rhythm work. 

a. Develop the idea of time. Study of different kinds of 
time, as, four-four, three-four, two-four. 

b. Expression of these with the hands, feet and body- 
movements. First by counting, then with music. 

c. Marking time, marching, skipping, calisthenics with 
music. Particular attention to the accent. 

d. Application of accent to speech work. As soon as a 
few elements are taught, give in combination in a series, 
and place accent, as, fe, fe, fe'. Application of accent to 
words and emphasis of words in sentences. 

3. Vibration. 

Aim — To distinguish between strings of rapid and slow 
vibration, applying this knowledge to distinguishing be- 
tween high and low pitch in voice work. 
The study of vibration foUows the study of textures and 
strings. A piano, guitar, zither, or other string instrument may 
be used. The child places his hand upon the instrument where 
he can best feel the movement. 

a. Comparison of high and low pitched strings. With 
closed eyes, he distinguishes between these two pitches. 
After he is positive about these, add medium pitches, then 

b. Comparison of voice, felt in the teacher's throat with the 
vibration of strings. 

c. Comparison of voice felt in the teacher's throat, with 
those felt in his own throat. 

II. — Sense Gymnastics. 

I. Form. 

a. Splint and stick laying. With colored splints or sticks, 

in imitation of the teacher. 
Figure reproduced without the teacher's aid. 
Reproduced on the blackboard with crayon of the same 

color as the sticks. 

333 ^^'^ Association Rcviciv. 

b. Textures and designs of cloth, paper, etc. 
^Matching similar textures. 

'Matching similar designs in different colors. Materials 
used — cloths, tapestry, wall paper. 

c. Writing — Tracing and copying, using the blackboard 
or wide-spaced paper, and soft pencils. 

d. Drawing and paper cutting. 

Encourage children to make drawings, however crude, 
to express themselves. Direct attention to most striking 
objects, such as animals, with their actions, and let them 
reproduce with crayon, or, by paper cutting. 

2. Form and size. 

Recognition by sight, not employing touch. 

a. Of small geometrical solids. A small solid is shown, 
and returned to the basket of similar forms. A child is 
then called upon to select it. Various exercises using 
duplicate models may be introduced, until all the forms 
are presented. 

b. Surface — Outline form of models. Pieces of thin wood, 
or cardboard called "tablets" are used in the same way. 

c. Length and size. For length, use splints, or pencils of 
different lengths. For size, use a set of baskets, or a set 
of blocks, or balls of different sizes. 

3. Form and Color. 

a. Sets of objects which are alike in all respects are used. 
Matching a red ball with a red ball, a blue card with a 
blue card. The color chart, using only the standard 
colors, afterward add tints and shades. 

b. Different materials. Match red wool with red silk, 
a red dress with a red on the color chart. Find all the 
red in the room. 

c. Match pictures. "Picture games." 

d. Water colors. Paint circles, squares, oblongs, etc., 
without line. Paint to line. Free expression. 

4. Touch. Recognition by touch, not employing sight. 
(Blindfold child.) 


Detroit Day School for the Deaf. 334 

a. Recognition of their toys by the sense of touch alone. 

b. Of small solids. Same solids as used under "sight." 
Give form to the child, allowing him to examine it care- 
fully with his hands. Place among the others and have 
him select, depending solely upon the sense of touch. 

e. Surface forms. Same models as when surface was 
studied through sight. 

d. Length and size. Same models as were used before un- 
der sight. 

e. To recognize difference in weight. Balls of same color 
and size, but of different weights are used. Hollow rub- 
ber balls weighted with one, two, three and four ounces 
of shot are good. Blocks of minerals having different 
specific gravity are also good. 

f. Textures. Same as used for sight. Select one which 
has been previously examined, from among the others. 
Match, using touch alone. Use cottons, wools, silks. Dif- 
ferent textures, weights and qualities. Also fur. Strings 
of different sizes and textures. 

Number. — Counting and the application of number to objects 
they know about. To know and lip-read these. "Show me two 
ears." "Find two chairs." "Minna has one mouth," etc., in 
connection with language work. 


Much of the work in sense training is given as an aid to or 
a preparation for direct speech teaching, or to lip-reading. The 
observation and imitation of motion, to final lip and face move- 
ments, is a preparation for lip-reading, and the imitation of these 
is a preparation for articulation, which is begun, simultaneously, 
on the first day of school. 

Breathing Exercises. — ^Although many of the physical exer- 
cises of children make special demands on the breath, they are 
not sufficient, nor of the nature, to regulate its action for speak- 
ing purposes, and special exercises are necessary to gain this 
power and control. Those who hear and speak have been un- 
consciously using these forces since they formed the first word, 

335 The Association Review. 

so their lungs and muscles are highly developed. Deaf children 
use them only for respiration, and their action is limited. 

These exercises are arranged to aid in the development of 
the lungs, and the cultivation of proper breathing habits ; to 
teach them to control or economize the breath in speaking; as 
an aid in pitching voice ; to g^ve an idea of long and short 
vowels, and to assist in teaching syllabication and accent. 

Exercise I. 

a. Lips closed, inhale, filling the lungs completely. 

b. Hold, from one to five seconds. 

c. Exhale forcibly through the mouth. Blow out a lighted 
candle. Blow away pieces of paper, graduated in weight, 
from light to heavy. Blow bits of cotton, wool, or feathers. 

Exercise II. 

a. Lips in e position. Inhale through the nose, complete- 
ly filling the lungs. 

b. Hold from one to five seconds. 

c. Exhale forcibly through the mouth ; lips in a position. 

d. Repeat a and b. Exhale with lips in e position. 

e. Repeat a and b. Exhale with lips in u position. 

Exercise III. 

To give power to control the expiratory muscles. 

a. Repeat a and b. 

b. Exhale slowly in whispered ha. 

Exercise IV. 

After a repetition of a and b, the breath is exhaled as in III, 
but in a loud voice, using first the sound of ha, then he, 
then hu. This exercise trains the tongue and the soft 
palate. The sound of ha requires the soft palate to be 
held in a raised position and also necessitates a quiet 
position of the tongue. 

The above exercises are used during the first two years 
introducing No. IV after the pupils can speak the vowels. With 
very young children or physically weak pupils, great discretion 
must be used so that no dizziness or fatigue is produced. 

With the beginning of the third year these may be added : 

Detroit Day School for the Deaf. 336 

Exercise V. 

a. Fill the lungs with three inhalations, taken in succes- 
sion, with a pause of a second between each. 

b. Hold the breath from five to ten seconds. 

c. Exhale in three expirations, in form of whispered ha. 

Exercise VI. 

a. Same exercise, taking six inspirations. 

b. Hold in the same manner as before. 

c. Exhale in six expirations, reserving enough breath to 
count aloud one, two, three, at the end of the expiration. 
Not a total exhaustion of the lungs, as it is weakening. 

Breathing exercises in connection with arm movements in 


Voice Gymnastics. 

"From the simple to the complex" is a pedagogical maxim 
which is nowhere more applicable than in teaching the deaf to 
articulate. Begin with the simplest sounds, and gradually 
proceed to the more difficult, until all are mastered. The 
simplest sounds, selected from the child's point of view, will be 
those best seen, best felt, and easiest of execution, since with 
hearing excluded, he is dependent upon sight and touch. 

While all teachers agree that some such order of procedure 
is necessary in teaching these elements, it is interesting to note 
that no two children will encounter the same difficulties in the 
acquisition of speech. 

When pupils have gained some idea of attention and imita- 
tion, which will be acquired in about a week, this real work of 
speech teaching should begin. The position for an element is 
assumed by the teacher; the pupil observes and imitates. Use 
the mirror for visible elements, and to correct defects; and the 
sense of touch for concealed movements, and vowels. F and p 
are excellent for a beginning, as they have definite positions, 
are easy of execution, and the organs used in their formation 
can be seen by the child. The effect of the breath can also be 
seen against a slip of paper, or the lighted candle, which adds to 
his interest. 

The succession in which the consonants are presented, is 
based upon physiological laws governing their production, — from 

•: ^yak aod lip-read an ckm e ul , it is 

II form. aDd pUccd npan Ae board, and 

ri. whtdi b cDtnpiJcd hf the dass as tbr 

-\i £000 as an clcmait it learned it is 

h i.tne alrtradr known, and drilled. Con- 

alM vowel* and consonants, fihaag the 

ri'in in snccession bocomes fluent, as pa', 

.-Vccetit i* applied to words of more than 

lemphasis applied to short sentences. 

combinations ihonid be mastered 

Thf aim in tliis early articulation 

^caf. 338 

sounds and their com- 

•I tluency in their execu- 

new words and ideas, but 

. drill. 


has hearing, or even sound percep- 
•clls, whistles, piano, tuning fork, 

.; — Ability to hear vowels, — if not able 
ween them, ability to tell how many 

sounds with objects, as the bell with its 
liistle with its sound, voice with throat vibra- 
i .ct the child see the object, and know that the 

ognize the sound through the ear alone. To 
lie number of times it is given. 
lout seeing, to distinguish between two sounds 
oiisly learned. To distinguish all sounds learned, 
i Using e, a, u with tubes. (Sometimes a child will 
ar one and not the other.) Add the other two, and 
hen the other vowels. 

Teach known words containing these vowels. (Known 
on the lips.) 

c. Teach known sentences. 

d. Voice modulation in sentences. 

Marked results in ability to hear have been gained during 
the last two years. Some children, who had sound perception, 
I)ut who were not at that time able to distinguish between the 
sounds of a bell and a whistle, have, under training, developed 
so that they are now able to distinguish vowels. Others, whom 
we found could hear voice, but could not speak or distinguish 
vowels or words, can now hear words which they have learned, 
when spoken very loudly. 

339 The Association Review. 

In all these cases, speech teaching, and thus the proper 
association of sounds with the muscular movement, as well as 
with the idea, has been a very important factor in auricular de- 
velopment. The children in these cases hear what they have been 
taught to speak. The effect of even a little hearing soon mani- 
fested itself in increased ability to modulate the voice, and we 
feel that much improvement may be made in this direction. 
W'c hope, during the coming year, to make more accurate tests, 
and secure a more complete classification. 


"Develop speech in a deaf child in the same way that nature 
does in the hearing child." 

In order to better understand the treatment necessary to 
obtain this development, let us take a brief glance of the condi- 
tion of the two children during the five years prior to their 
entrance upon school life. 

The hearing child, during this time, lives in a world of 
sound and speech. A child is a natural imitator, and he has 
the best of teachers — his mother. All the favorable relations 
and circumstances of domestic life furnish material for the first 
lessons. She does not trouble him with grammatical rules, but 
after using all the material within doors, the streets, the people, 
the shops, the country, become subjects of living language 

"To amuse, to astonish, to delight, are her methods of pro- 
voking inquiry, and a thousand questions are asked and 
answered. Then as occasions for repetition are constantly re- 
curring, the learning of language is steadily advancing. He 
learns also from the almost uninterrupted flow of conversation 
around him, much of which, although not intended for him di- 
rectly, interests and instructs him." 

When such a child enters school his teacher finds him al- 
ready provided with language acquired in the home life, and able 
to express his simple ideas and wants. He has also a store 
of experience and outside information. They have a common 
starting point from which the teacher perfects this language and 

Detroit Day School for the Deaf. 340 

proceeds to special instruction. Even if such a child never 
enters school he is, in a way, educated by this constant use of 

And what has the little prisoner of silence been doing during 
these five years ? He also is an imitator, and imitates what he 
sees, the motions around him. As a result he presents himself 
as a candidate for knowledge, destitute of verbal language, using 
in its stead a few rude gestures of little intellectual value. He 
is familiar with and perhaps tired of toys and objects of which 
he does not even know the names. He is generally not under- 
stood by the people around him, and is not infrequently subject 
to violent outbursts of temper because his experience has taught 
him that by this means he has commanded attention, and ob- 
tained what he desired. 

The deaf child knows nothing of the direct relation of names 
to objects as learned intuitively by the hearing child, who at 
once imitates and applies them. The first conception he has of 
language is when he realizes that everything has a name. He 
then learns that the forms produced by the lip movements of the 
teacher, the articulate word spoken by himself, and the written 
form mean the same as the object or action itself. During this 
period, slips of cardboard bearing the printed and written names 
are attached to all the objects in the room including the toys, 
and this list is gradually increased until it includes everything 
he uses. By a process of repeated association he comes to rec- 
ognize the lip movement and the name on the slips as repre- 
sentative of the object itself. 

Although objects in their variety of form and color are in- 
teresting to these children, action is still more so, and this is 
made use of at once. Commands such as come, go, walk, run, 
are given and executed by the teacher, and movements imitated 
by the little pupils until they associate the spoken word with the 
action. He also learns his own name and the names of his 
classmates, and such common expressions as are incidental to 
his demands for language, or to express his daily wants. 

When a number of objects and actions are known, the con- 
struction of the sentence is begun, using still the direct associa* 

341 The Association Review. 

tion of objects and actions with words. ^Five slate boards arc 
used, or one board is ruled into five sections. The first rep- 
resents the subject of action, the second the action, the third 
the object, and the fourth and the fifth the phrase. You will 
understand how exciting and real this may be, when you know 
that not only the names, but also the objects themselves find a 
place in these columns, while the actions are executed. This 
lays a foundation for logical thinking. They see at once if a 
member of a sentence is missing, and learn to think in complete 
sentences. With this as a basis, the plurals, the pronouns, the 
tenses, capitalization, punctuation, etc., will be introduced as the 
necessity for expression demands them. 

"Everything can be used to teach language." Every study, 
every lesson presents its own vocabulary and language forms. 
Every event is an opportunity for a living language lesson which 
the wise teacher never neglects. Special opportunity for this 
spontaneous expression is provided in the conversation period, 
where the pupil may tell about things most interesting to him- 
self, and for his often imperfect expression, good idiomatic 
English is given. Usually these forms reappear rn the journals 
which the pupils are taught to keep, showing that the perfect 
form has been made his own. 

No subject in our school is receiving more attention at pres- 
ent than the teaching of language, and it would require too much 
space to give a detailed plan of the many phases under which the 
subject is treated. 

"Our children enter school at four or five years, destitute 
of speech or language. Word by word, sentence by sentence 
their vocabulary is acquired and the simplest elements of con- 
struction are learned, till the teachers are able to talk to the deaf 
child as the mother does to her hearing child, but the deaf child 
will have reached the age of six or seven years. As the time is 
thus shortened, we cannot always wait for the favorable occa- 
sion to present language, as the mother does, but must some- 
times create the occasion to suit the limited time. As we are 
obliged to find out the quickest way to put them in possession of 

*Miss Barry's plan. 

Detroit Day School for the Deaf. 342 

this language, we must anticipate nature, and collect and arrange 
objects and incidents which will best set forth the principal 
phases of this wonderful life of ours, and all this in the form best 
suited to these children." 

In closing permit me to acknowledge the hearty apprecia- 
tion by myself and teachers of the substantial support given by 
the Board of Education, and of the interest taken by the public 
generally. Our thanks are also especially due to you, for your 
counsel and co-operation, which have been' such important 
factors in our success. Very respectfully, 




The meetings at Boston of the Department of Special Edu- 
cation, — commonly called Section XVI — of the National Educa- 
tional Association, were this year conducted on the plan adopted 
last summer at the Minneapolis meeting. This was that the 
educators of the deaf, the blind, and the feeble-minded should 
have a common session instead of each a separate one as was 
done formerly, and that the subjects treated should be confined 
to those that would be of general interest. There were two ses- 
sions, held in the First Baptist Church, on the mornings of July 
8 and lo. Mr. Edward E. Allen, of the Pennsylvania School for 
the Blind, at Overbrook, was president, and Miss Sarah Fuller, 
of the Horace Mann School for the Deaf, at Boston, secretary. 

At the Wednesday session about 200 were present. Mr. 
Allen opened the meeting by briefly pointing out that our work 
of teaching the deaf, blind, and feeble-minded was educational 
and that the questions which might be discussed in our section 
might with just as much propriety be treated in the other sec- 
tions of the N. E. A. Nevertheless the work of teaching children 
with defective faculties presents so many questions which would 
help teachers in training normal children that they are worthy a 
full and proper discussion such as could not be found for them 
in the other section meetings. This section justifies its being if it 
brings our teachers into close relation with the hosts of general 
teachers who gather at such a convention. The teachers of our 
section represent three classes of children. As we have severally 
. our own special conventions where we may discuss our own 
peculiar questions, the topics discussed here should be such only 
as are of general interest to all, and they should be discussed in 
a spirit of absolute good fellowship. Wc all suffer from the em- 

Proceedings of Department of Special Edueation, 344 

phasis the public is wont to put upon the *'charity" side of our 
work. Here is a chance to bring out the fact that our work is 
educational. Let us work together cordially to this end. 

It will be seen that the topics for papers and discussions, and 
the speakers, were chosen with special reference to this point, 
and to showing the relation of our work to general education. 

Mr. Frank H. Hall, ex-superintendent of the School for the 
Blind at Jacksonville, Illinois, was called upon for the first paper 
upon the subject: The Influence of the Study of the UnusucU Child 
upon the Teaching of the Usual, Mr. Hall said briefly : 

Strictly speaking every child is unusual as its individuality 
develops and there is no "usual child," no "average child"; but 
there are classes of unusual children, made so by a common de- 
fect, like the blind, the deaf, and the deaf-blind, and a study of 
them may become a source of unusual helpfulness in the teaching 
of normal children. The influence of such study upon the teach- 
ing of usual children has so far been small because little attention 
has been given to it. ^ In the case of the blind the work has not 
been understood to be similar to that of educating the usual 
child, but has been considered "wonderful" and "marvelous." 

The necessity of a sense-basis in the educational process is 
conceded by all. Thought deals with the images of things per- 
ceived through the senses, then with imaginative creations. 
"Emancipation from bondage to the things of sense" is necessary 
in sense-training, and too much time in the training of the nor- 
mal child may be devoted to sense-perception. This mistake 
might be avoided could the educator understand just how much 
each of the senses contributes to the necessary working sense- 

Observation of the "unusual child" is instructive here. From 
the blind child we learn what seeing contributes; from the deaf, 
what hearing contributes. Comparison of the blind and the deaf 
with normal children and with each other, leads us to this con- 
clusion : 

The sense-perception basis is narrower with the blind than 
with the deaf or the normal. Thought-power seems to be in in- 
verse ratio to the amount of sense-perception. But sense-per- 
ception often contributes to earning power. In scholarship the 
deaf are, as a class, far below the blind. In power and in disposi- 
tion to earn, they are the superiors of the blind. Too much time 
devoted to sense-perception with the usual child will make him 
like the deaf child, quick to see with the natural eye, but not pro- 
foundly thoughtful, hence incapable of the higher appreciations 

345 The Association Review, 

and enjoyments. Too little time devoted to sense-perception 
with the usual child will make him like the blind, "narrow" and 
"bookish," incapable of using his knowledge for the good of 
others, incapable of earning enough to provide for his physical 
wants and for such material necessities as make the higher in- 
tellectual life desirable and possible. Balance must be main- 
tained, particularly in the first years of school, between eye and 
ear training. 

This section can do a gjeat work by bringing together 
teachers of subnormal children and others interested in the more 
important problem of determining educational values in the 
training of normal children. 

Mr. George E. Johnson, dean of the Irving School, Univer- 
sity School, Cleveland, Ohio, followed Mr. Hall, thus, — 

What pathology has done for psychology, doubtless the 
study of defective children can do for the understanding of the 
normal child mind. In the study of defectives, we examine, as it 
were, a section of the mind. Here faults are written in the large. 
By the process of subtraction we see, in the case of the deaf or 
the blind, what it is that the mind receives through the several 
avenues. We understand more clearly the relation of sight, 
hearing, and touch, in instruction and the acquisition of knowl- 
edge, and we are enabled more wisely to select and apply meth- 
ods in school work. 

Evolution and physiological psychology are the key words 
to method in the new education. To the teachers of defectives, 
we are largely indebted for the theory and practice of physio- 
logical education, dictated first by Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and 
Froebel, first successfully practiced by Periere, De TEpee, Itard, 
and Seguin. 

The types of the unusual child are many. But we consider 
here the three g^reat classes, the deaf, the blind, and the feeble- 
minded. The deaf are less emotional, less sympathetic, less al- 
truistic than the blind or the normal. Music and the voice, by 
which the feelings are best expressed, do not appear in the world 
of the deaf. 

A comparison of the achievements of the deaf and the blind 
seems to show an intellectual superiority on the part of the blind. 
Since the eye is the most important sense organ, being the me- 
dium of the great majority of all our sense impressions, and the 
organ most relied upon in education, this fact seems rather 
startling. The ancients who classed the deaf with idiots, but had 
more regard for the blind, attributed the mental deficiency of the 
deaf to their (supposed) inability to acquire language. The an- 
cients were not wholly wrong. What intellectual inferiority 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education. 346 

there may be on the part of the deaf is due largely to deficiency 
in language power. Language is the vehicle of thought and is 
essential to the development of a high degree of intelligence. 

Tlie deaf are observing; they see much, reflect less. The 
blind have far fewer sense impressions, but make more of them. 
They are thrown back upon reflection. 

A grave doubt arises as to whether there is not an excessive 
use of the eye in the training of normal children, whether we 
have not swung too far away from the use of the ear for the 
good of the child's intellect and soull 

The study of feeble-minded children presents entirely differ- 
ent conditions from those of the deaf and the blind. The feeble- 
minded child has all the avenues of the normal child. The diffi- 
culties are of centralization more than of avenues of approach. 
The difficulties encountered in teaching the normal child are met 
greatly magnified in the feeble-minded. The teacher of the 
feeble-minded has been forced to the physiological method. He 
has emphasized more than anyone else the value of object teach- 
ing, of sense training, of hygiene, of individual attention. He 
has found that all he does must be done in accord with certain 
established facts of evolution and in harmony with the laws of 
physiology. The education of the feeble-minded has emphasized 
the value of play in education, and demonstrated the necessity of 
adapting instruction to the stage of development of the^ child. 

The study of the unusual child has put the individual child 
in our midst; has made for sympathy; has disclosed the seat of 
the difficulty, showing that supposed stupidity was often the re- 
sult of defect of eye or ear; has emphasized the value of play and 
spontaneity in education; has helped to fix the relative import- 
ance of the several sehses in education ; has emphasized the im- 
portance of sense trainirig; has practically created the physiologi- 
cal method ; has made clearer the application of evolution to edu- 
cation; nas kept in the foreground the social object of education, 
rendering the helpless, helpful members of society. The schools 
for unusual children present the best object lessons available to 
the teacher of normal children. 

In the absence of others speakers appointed on the pro- 
gramme, the discussion of the papers was confined to Dr. 
Francis Burke Brandt, professor of pedagogy. Central High 
School, Philadelphia, and to Mr. Charles F. F. Campbell, of 
South Acton, Mass., a former instructor at the Royal Normal 
College and Academy of Music for the Blind, London, England. 

Dr. Brandt said in substance: 

347 ^''^ Association Reznew. 

Speaking from the point of view of the training of the nor- 
mal child, I believe that the study of the unusual child has already 
produced an influence upon the teaching of the usual child that is 
illuminating, instructive, and inspiring. In the first place, such 
study has demonstrated the almost infinite possibilities of educa- 
tion. Sometimes in our public schools we are in danger of turn- 
ing away from children because they are dull or stupid or incap- 
able of being taught. But one Laura Bridgman, and one Helen 
Keller, have taught us more than all our child study investiga- 
tions put together, that there is an avenue to every soul. Such 
cases have taught, too, the larger lessons that the twentieth cent- 
ury must regfret the nineteenth century dictum of the survival 
of the tit to put in its place the higher principle of fitting to sur- 
vive. In the second place, such study has demonstrated the 
superior effectiveness of special methods and special teachers to 
accomplish ends which meet the individual needs of the child. In 
connection with this subject such studies as superintendent 
Hall's point out the relative value of the senses, as well as the 
importance of ultimate emancipation from the senses, together 
with the necessity of training for some form of social service, 
and that all this can be of incalculable worth in revising our 
methods in handling the normal child. Again, such study has 
been highly illuminating as to the importance of right conditions 
in training a child. The favorable conditions which prevail in 
many institutions for the special training of special children, the 
fewness of pupils assigned to teachers, the assignment of special 
subjects to teachers, the adequacy and adaptability of equip- 
ment, and the respect, sympathy, and resources of trustees, have 
important lessons for those in authority who administer the 
training of the normal child. Summed up, the study and 
training of the unusual child have rendered the greatest service 
to the elevation of the individual and the progress of humanity 
to the extent that it shows that there is no depth scarcely of 
physical, intellectual, and moral defect on the part of the in- 
dividual which the impulse of Christian motive, the intelligence 
of modern science, and the energy of civilized society combined 
cannot reach. 

Mr. Campbell continued the discussion as follows: 

With the blind it is necessary to begin at once to prepare for 
remunerative occupation. The normal child needs a similar sys- 
tem and has greater opportunity, having a larger field open to 
him. That he needs immediate training for all possible ends, not 
for higher education only as at present given, is shown by the fig- 
ures in the state school reports. Only an extreme minority con- 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education. 348 

tinue higher education after the high school, indeed a large per- 
centage of grammar school pupils do not enter the high school. 

Example of a pupil at the Royal Normal College and Acad- 
emy of Music for the Blind, London, England : With a blind child 
there, it is recognized at once that there is to be a struggle for a 
livelihood. The child starts his training with the assumption 
that he may ultimately go to Oxford or Cambridge, to be 
possibly a lawyer or a minister. Before ten years of age, how- 
ever, he is started in music, for that profession offers the 
greatest opportunities for the blind. Thus the possibility of 
failure in one direction is provided for in another. Before the 
child is fourteen years of age it is generally clear whether a legal, 
ministerial, or musical profession is advisable, but all this time 
he has had the best of manual training so that, if these more 
advanced mental professions do not promise, his attention is 
concentrated upon a calling requiring manual dexterity. Thus 
every contingency has been provided for and in ample season. 

Application of this to the seeing child : The large majority, 
owing to family circumstances, must go to work in some factory 
or store by fourteen years of age. Since many must work thus 
early, the public schools should provide preparation for this, as 
well as for higher education. Clear thinking is needed in the 
best work, even of manual labor, for it is not human machines 
that are required but artisans. If public schools offered such 
commercial and technical training, parents would strive to main- 
tain their children longer in school to avail themselves of an edu- 
cation having so practical a value. 

The ideal should be held out to the pupils that because they 
cannot go to college a great and useful career is not closed to 
them but rather, by careful application to some congenial art or 
craft, they may become designers and creators. The supreme 
end of education will thus be to make them better citizens and, 
as president EJiot has said, more able to enjoy life. 

Topic II — Should the Scope of the Public School be Broadened 
to take in all Children Capable of Education, and if so. How should 
this be Done? was to have been opened by Dr. Alexander Graham 
Bell. Dr. Bell was, however, ill and forbidden by his physician to 
leave home at the time. This was a source of great regret to the 
president and to the audience. Miss Mary C. Greene thereupon 
presented her paper. Miss Greene has devoted her long life to 
the cause of the blind, having been 28 years in charge of the 
classes of blind children in the Board Schools of London. The 

349 The Association Review. 

paper was full and practical, and the author gives the foUowing 

summing up: 

Cripples, the deaf, and the feeble-minded in large cities, may 
receive their whole education under the public school system, 
each group by itself in centres which may be quite apart from the 
ordinary public school, the feeble-minded and the deaf requiring 
specially trained teachers. The blind may be taught by a specisd 
teacher, at a centre closely connected with a public school in the 
instruction of which they can participate for a part of each day. 
They must be transferred from the public school to an institution 
for the completion of their training. 

The topic was discussed in four short papers. Thomas D. 

Wood, M. D., professor of physical training, Teacher's College, 

Columbia University, N. Y., spoke the following thoughts: 

The ideal of education to-day is that it shall prepare the in- 
dividual for human society and citizenship. In our country the 
state demands that everyone shall have a certain amount of edu- 
cation as a safeguard to the community, and it undertakes to 
provide this amount of required education and more for those 
who desire it. It would be most natural and economical to have 
all educable children who are to be taught at public expense live 
at home and attend public school. Generally speaking the child 
should not be separated from his home both for his own sake 
and the sake of the indirect influence of outside educational 
forces upon the home; but facilities should be enlarged to 
take in all except such as could only be educated in institutions. 
Children deficient mentally and morally, yet capable of beii^ 
trained to be self-supporting and desirable members of society, 
should be separated from these children in special schools like 
the Hilfschule of some European cities. The deaf and the blind 
should be trained in special schools and live at home if possible 
up to the age of adolescence, when they may complete their 
training at special institutions maintained by the state. The in- 
struction of all unfortunate and deficient children, whether done 
at public or private expense, should be under public supervision. 

Miss Ellen Le Garde, director of physical training in the 
Providence Public Schools, including classes for backward chil- 
dren, continued the discussion with a paper of which the follow- 
ing is an abstract: 

I. The city of Providence, R. I., in 1894, opened three 
schools for mentally backward boys and girls. Their success 
justifies the belief that the public school system in all large cities 
should be broadened to include all such deficients capable of any 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education. 350 

2. Feeble-minded children and those of physically arrested 
growth are to be found in all school buildings. Duty of physical 
director where medical inspector does not exist, or of principal 
where physical training is not provided, to remove deficients to 
special schools, to be educated more carefully along slower lines 
of progfress. 

3. Germany the pioneer, 1863; Norway, 1874; England, 
1892; Switzerland and Austria later;Prussia since i88omaintains 
special classes for mental defectives. Obligatory in towns of over 
20,000 population. Duration usually six years of attendance. 
Proportion of school population in England and continent i 
per cent. 1 

4. Providence the pioneer in America in 1894. Boston, 
Chicago, and Philadelphia in 1899. Providence has three schools 
incorporated in school system, maintained by school funds. 
Average to a teacher, 15 pupils. Children educated thus either 
returned to the regular schools, or remain during school life, be- 
ing trained for self-support or, if absolutely necessary, sent to 
an institution for defectives. 

5. Methods of inlstruction. Plan of education: the three 
"R's," Language, Geography, Singing, Drawing, Gymnastics, 
Manual Training, i. e., sewing, basketry. 

6. Cost about $5 per month per pupil. Teachers marvels 
of tact, patience, and perseverance. All trained in Providence 
schools and graduates of same. Schools under care of special 

7. About 80 per cent, of children cured. Majority go to 
work. Made self-respecting, clean, mannerly, young men and 
women. Not a menace, but source of good to the community, 
justifying the effort and expense. 

8. Future of schools. Medical inspection necessary of daily 
schools to determine deficients. Daily medical inspection about 
to be inaugurated. School lunch to be provided. Hope to cen- 
tralize the three schools in one and pay transportation of pupils. 
Provide extension of manual training, proper work rooms, and 
extension of physical education in well equipped gymnasium. 

Mr. John T. Prince, agent of the Massachusetts Board of 

Education, was the next speaker. The* following is an abstract 

of his paper: 

Public school education is constructive in helping to create 
high ideals and intelligence, and preventive in helping to hinder 
pauperism and crime. It is a wise provision of statute law for the 
upbuilding of society and for the happiness and usefulness of in- 
dividuals that every normal child shall be assured of a common 

351 The Association Review. 

school education. It is no less the state's duty for its own pro- 
tection to make obligatory the training of educable defectives 
and the care of those who are not capable of improvement. This 
training and care should be carried on either in institutions 
under the direction of the state, or directly in connection with 
the local public schools. 

Those children only who do not need institutional treatment 
should be trained at home in separate groups. For the cities and 
large towns this will not be a difficult matter as has been shown 
by experience. For country districts provision may be made for 
carrying children to a central school, or for establishing small 
home schools in convenient localities. These schools should be 
under the charge and superintendence of the local public school 
authorities. In states like Massachusetts where district super- 
vision prevails the schools may be under the direction of the 
superintendent and district committee, the expense of the schools 
being borne by the towns from which the pupils come. In coun- 
try districts whose unit of government is the county, the schoc^s 
may be organized and controlled by the county board and 
county superintendent, and the expense of carrying them on will 
be borne by the county. 

It is therefore right and feasible for all educable children to 
be included in the scope of the public school system and to share 
its benefits and obligations. It is also right and feasible for the 
state to place all educable children of a certain age under the 
statutory requirement of compulsory school attendance to the 
end of giving all its citizens the benefits of intelligence and self- 
support and of guarding itself and society against the dangers of 
ignorance and crime. 

Dr. Walter E. Femald then spoke. Dr. Fernald is super- 
intendent of the Massachusetts School for the Feeble-Minded, at 
Waverley. He said in brief: 

Until recently it was thought that feeble-minded children 
could be educated only in special schools, and these schools were 
regarded as strictly educational. The methods used in them 
were radically different from methods then in use in schools for 
normal children. They corresponded to the methods of educa- 
tion developed by the introduction of the kindergarten idea. 
Properly equipped teachers could then not be found outside 
of the institutions. 

Special day school classes for the feeble-minded have been 
in existence twenty years in Europe and they should now be es- 
tablished in all large centres of our country. Parents with com- 
fortable homes prefer such classes. Many parents who will not 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education. 352 

send to an institution will send their children to day classes. 
With the existence of such classes all these children would be 
under training earlier than they now are. These classes can be 
quickly organized, do not involve large expenditure of money, 
and the expense is assessed on the community receiving the 
benefit. The special classes of London may well serve as models. 
The children should be selected under expert medical advice and 
should not be imbecile or idiotic. Their training must beg^n on 
a lower plane than the lowest grade of the public school. Phys- 
iological education of the special senses and training of the mus- 
cles must prepare the way for intellectual training. Progress 
will be very slow and gradual. 

The study of the life history of feeble-minded persons, how- 
ever, shows facts which must not be ignored. All degrees of 
mental defect are the results of defect or inferiority of the brain, 
and no such person is ever "cured." A certain small proportion 
may become "self-supporting^ but not self-controlling." By far 
the greater number need oversight and supervision as long as 
they live. A very large proportion of them eventually become 
public charges. The brighter class are easily influenced for evil 
and are likely to become prostitutes, vagrants, or petty criminals. 
They should be protected from their own weakness and the 
cupidity of others. Especially should they be prevented from 
marriage and the reproduction of their kind. Feeble-minded 
children may be tolerated in a community, but it is a great re- 
sponsibility to inaugurate a plan which does not withdraw the 
defective adults. 

There being a little time left Mr. B. Pickman Mann, of 
Washington, the son of Horace Mann, was asked to say a 
few words. He responded by assuring the meeting of his interest 
in the morning's proceedings and the profit he had derived from 
them; in fact, he continued felicitously, that as he listened to the 
papers and the portrayal of the scientific care and equipment 
given to the training of special children, he considered not so 
much how the public schools should be broadened to take in 
the special schools, but how the scope of the special schools 
might be broadened to take in the public schools. 

The papers and discussions of the morning being at an end 
the president announced as committee on nominations, Messrs. 
A. L. E. Crouter, F. H. Hall, E. A. Fay, G. E. Johnson, and 
W. E. Fernald. 

353 The Association Reznew. 

The Friday morning session of the department opened with 
a paper by Dr. Edward A. Fay, vice-president of Gallaudet Qd- 
lege, Washington, D. C, and editor of the American Annals for 
the Deaf, on Topic III, How can the term *'Charitabk" be justly 
applied to the Education of any Children f The following is an ab- 
stract of Dr. Fay's paper: 

The earliest American schools for special classes were estab- 
lished on the model of British schools. The British schools were 
founded and maintained entirely by private charity and, like all 
English free schools of that day, were regarded as charitable in- 
stitutions. But in America free schools were not so regarded. 
The duty of the state to provide education had long been recog- 
nized, and as soon as the special schools were established they 
applied to the legislatures for support on the ground that their 
children had the same right as others to education at public 
expense. The justice of this claim was recognized and the state 
paid a per capita rate for the pupils in attendance. This arrange- 
ment still continues in a few of the older states. 

So far as the education of pupils is paid for by the state it 
cannot be called charitable, for the state has no right to dispense 
charity. But if we consider these older schools from the point of 
view of their origin, their corporate character, and their endow- 
ment, they may be classed, legally at least, as charitable institu- 
tions. The same is true of our incorporated colleges and univer- 
sities; in the eye of the law they are charitable institutions. But 
the legal sense is not the common sense; in the popular concep- 
tion the idea of charity is not associated with colleges and univer- 
sities; they are regarded as educational institutions, because their 
purpose is educational. Our special schools are also educational 
in their purpose and there is no more reason for regarding them 
as charitable than for so regarding colleges and universities. 

What has been said of the charitable character, from a legal 
point of view, of special schools applies only to a few of the older 
states. The great majority of American schools for special classes 
are public schools established by the state legislatures and main- 
tained wholly by public taxation. There is no reason whatever 
for regarding them as charitable. 

In nineteen states the special schools are classed by the 
state authorities as purely educational, and in twenty-two as 
charitable or partly charitable and partly educational. Even in 
those states where they are rightly classed the popular concep- 
tion lags behind the official recognition. 

One reason why the unthinking public is slow to recognize 
the true classification is that the unfortunate names of asylum and 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education, 354 

institution still cling to the schools, though in many states they 
have been officially abandoned. 

Another reason is that the state provides food and shelter 
as well as instruction. But this is not done as an act of charity, 
but as a necessary incident of education. It is more economical 
than to provide instruction for the children at their scattered 
homes. If the food and shelter were a charity, the state would 
have no right to give it. 

The heads of schools are sometimes responsible for the er- 
roneous classification to some extent, when they welcome -the 
assistance of boards of charities, and when in asking support 
from legislatures they appeal to motives of charity rather than 
of justice. 

The effect of applying the term charitable to the education of 
any children is (i) to give the general public an erroneous impres- 
sion of the character of the work; (2) to create in the minds of 
parents a prejudice against the school and sometimes deter them 
from sending their children; (3) to humiliate and embitter the 
pupils, or to degrade and demoralize them. 

The latest state to place its school for the deaf and the blind 
in the purely educational class is Virginia. The superintendent 
of that school says that the result has been to increase the attend- 
ance, awaken the interest of the public, arouse the ambition of the 
pupils, and produce better work in school and shop. 

The topic was discussed by Mr. Wm. B. Wait, principal of 
the New York Institution for the Blind, New York City, in a 
paper of which the following is an abstract: 

This question presents three of the most important words 
in the English language: children, "For of such i« the kingdom 
of Heaven"; education, the salvation of children and the hope of 
mankind; charity, greater than hope, and better than faith. 

The basic idea presented is that of classification. Right 
classification is a condition necessary to good results. Wrong 
classsification gives imperfect results. Right classification is 
necessarily scientific and helpful. Wrong classification is neces- 
sarily unscientific and harmful. Concretely, classification may be 
represented by the base of a right-angled triangle; method, by 
the altitude ; and results, by the hypothenuse. If classification be 
correctly extended and methods be poor, the side showing results 
will be disproportionate and inadequate; likewise, if we have 
wrong classification and our methods be absolutely correct, still 
the side showing results will also be disproportionate and in- 
adequate. Furthermore, error in classification will inevitably 
produce error in method. 

355 ^*^ Association Review. 

It should be observed that the proposition before us refers 
to no special class of children, but to all children: to those of the 
rich and of the poor, the normal, abnormal, and subnormal, the 
vagrant child, the idiotic child. Can the term charitable be 
properly applied to the education of any of these children? 

If a certain stone be improperly classified as good building 
material and be used in the construction of a house, it will make 
no difference to the stone, but may be of vital importance to the 
occupants of the house. If a farmer classifies his cow as a butter 
maker when its milk should go to the cheese factory, it is of no 
importance to the cow, but is of importance to the farmer, and to 
the butter or cheese factory. When, however, children of any 
class or condition are improperly classified, the inevitable result- 
ing loss must first fall upon them, and as both by nature and by 
law they are incapable of self-defence, it becomes the duty of 
parents, teachers, and of the administrative agencies of the state, 
not merely to shield them from physical harm, but to protect 
them from self-negation, social disparagement, and degrada- 
tion. It is unfortunate that any educational institution should 
ever have deemed it necessary to accept classification for the 
sake of money considerations. Educational institutions, if classed 
as charitable, may get more legacies than they otherwise would; 
but the cause of education cannot fail to be hindered and its 
standards lowered when money is received as charity. The 
education of all children is absolutely necessary to the well-being 
of the state, and they should be granted and should receive all 
things, whether directly essential or merely incidental to their 
education, as matter of right and sound policy, and not as charity. 

If a maximum of good results is dependent upon right classi- 
fication and correct methods, what must be the effect on a child 
if he be classed as a recipient of charity, when he should be en- 
couraged to put forth every effort to be self-respecting and self- 
reliant? If the word "charitable" were to be placed over every 
kindergarten, public school, and college in our land, the edu- 
cational results would immediately be reduced to a minimum, 
and no claim or pretense of charity could prevent it. 

Why then should children bereft of one sense be classed in 
this way? A gentleman once said to me, "Our charitable society 
is aiming to create the impression that we are using the term in 
the higher sense of 'good-will to men.' " The affections of love 
and good-will, however, are exercised between persons whether 
of the same or of widely different situations in life, independent 
of those conditions of poverty and pecuniary need which are the 
sole basis for acts of charity. Moreover, a policy or system which 
incapacitates individuals for growth into true manhood is neither 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education. 356 

an expression of good-will nor of charity, and should have no 
recognition either in our statute or our common law. 

In 1875, ^^' Samuel G. Howe, while principal of the Perkins 
Institution for the Blind and a member of the Massachusetts 
State Board of Charities, with great foresight secured the enact- 
ment of a statute by the Massachusetts Legislature, recognizing 
the Perkins Institution for the Blind as a distinctly education^ 
institution, and placing it entirely under the jurisdiction of the 
educational authorities of the state. Surely no one will question 
the wisdom or the authority of Dr. Howe in a matter of this 

It can safely be said that the only assurance of the largest 
success of the wprk of special schools, and the only hope for 
children who have been deprived of some of their faculties, rest 
upon the avoidance of this needless and false classification. 

As has been so clearly pointed out in the admirable paper 
of Prof. Fay, there can be but one right answer which is, the 
term "charitable" cannot be justly applied to the education of 
any children. 

Topic IV, IVhat Teachers need to know about Sense Defects 
and Impediments — messages chiefly from specialists in medi- 
cine — ^was next presented for consideration. The discussion 
was opened by Dr. Clarence J. Blake, professor of Otology, 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Dr. Blake said in 

Medical inspection of public schools, first proposed at the 
medical congress in Philadelphia in 1876, and since become 
general, might do a still larger service by using more fully the 
knowledge of specialists always ready for public service. 

Children who are thought to be backward or even idiotic 
are sometimes found to be merely deaf. The association of the 
American Otological Society and the American Association of 
teachers of speech to the deaf has been productive of much 
good. In the Horace Mann School this society found that out 
of 150 pupils eight per cent, could be helped enough to take 
their places with other hearing children, and that an added five 
per cent, could be helped so that the hearing would materially 
aid them in acquiring articulation; also that from ten to fifteen 
per cent, could have their latent hearing aroused by speaking 
tubes and other appliances. 

A pronounced need in the direction of hearing is more likely 
to be helpfully met than one which requires investigation for its 
detection. It is to such cases as the latter that special attention 
should be g^ven, for bPAJing is largely an involuntary process, 

357 T'A^ Association Review. 

and one may lose one-half the normal hearing before the practi- 
cal, basal, normal average is reached. This condition, however, 
draws upon the nervous reserve more than we are aware of. 
The special examination of large numbers of school children 
shows that the impairment of hearing is generally accompanied 
by fatigue^ symptoms due to the effort to make the other senses 
compensate for the failure of hearing to do its normal share. 

A large proportion of the cases of partial deafness may be 
helped. The cause is usually inflammation of the middle ear 
due to catarrh or eruptive diseases of childhood, especially scar- 
let fever. Among the wealthier classes, diseases of the ear in- 
ducing partial deafness are not nearly so prevalent as among 
the poorer classes such as will make use of the education 
provided by the public schools. 

Dr. Blake then urged a careful examination by the teachers 
of all public school children to ascertain if there were cases of 
deafness among them, and he presented a careful series of tests 
for such examinations. The cases of deafness found, he said, 
should be turned over to a medical expert who should keep a 
record of his examinations, and of the reference of cases to 
hospitals or infirmaries together with the result of treatment. 
(This system of tests cannot be given here, but every public 
school teacher should read Dr. Blake's paper in full and have 
it for reference.) 

Such tests, if adopted, would be of inestimable value to 
certain children and would do much to simplify the problems 
with which the teacher has to deal in determining educational 

Dr. Myles Standish, instructor in Ophthalmogy, Harvard 
Medical School, Boston, Mass., continued with a paper an 
abstract of which follows: 

It has become a usual custom in our public schools to ex- 
amine the eyes of new pupils by the test-card. When any child's 
vision is below normal, this method works well: the impaired 
vision is detected and the child's parent notified. When, how- 
ever, the test seems to show normal vision, the eyes are sup- 
posed by the teacher to be perfect and further test has not been 
made. To show that there may be a grave mistake made here 
is the object of this paper. 

The child with far sight can, by means of the muscles of ac- 
commodation, see perfectly at varying distances for a short 
time. The test card does not necessarily detect the far sighted 
eye and the child's vision may be pronounced normal. The 
accommodation of such an eye requires a large expenditure 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education. 358 

of nervous energy equaling sometimes the amount expended 
by a normal eye in the process of seeing. The double ex- 
penditure of energy soon exhausts the reservoir of nervous 
force and certain phenomena present themselves. In school 
children this exhaustion is expressed first, in headache, coming 
on after continued near work; second, in lack of muscular 
control, which we call nervousness; third, in mental inability to 
grasp an idea presented through the eyes; and finally, in in- 
attention. The ultimate outcome of this nervous strain may be 
a disinclination on the part of the children to apply themselves 
and possibly a resulting breakdown from which, they recover 
only on being taken from school. Such symptoms point just 
as surely as tests with the test-cards do to imperfect vision and 
should be reported to the proper authority. 

Children with normal vision form, if not watched, vicious 
ocular habits. Holding the book too near the eyes will, if 
continued, make a normal eye permanently short sighted; and 
the teacher who permits it is guilty of great negligence and 
starts the children out in life with a serious handicap. 

But teachers are not the only sinners against children's 
eyes. Architects and superintendents of publtc buildings are 
often much to blame. The light should be arranged so that 
it can fall from the left. Light from windows in the back of 
the room does pupils' eyes little good and teachers' eyes much 
harm. The walls of the school-room should be a very pale 
green or blue, never red, brown, or chocolate, and in dimly 
lighted rooms may be yellow. The desks should be so arranged 
that the books can be inclined at angle to prevent the bend- 
ing of the head and the cramping the muscles and vessels of 
the neck; but they should be so arranged that the children can- 
not lounge forward upon them. 

Allen Greenwood, M. D., Ophthalmic Surgeon, Boston City 
Hospital, followed, saying in substance : 

Embryology shows that the eye is largely formed from a 
prolongation outward of the same embryolog^cal structure that 
forms the brain. This means a frequent association of defective 
brain and eye development. The most common defects are 
those of shape, causing hypermetropia and astigmatism. These 
two defects, if considerable, make close application very difficult 
and fatiguing or impossible, largely preventing the mental im- 
provement to be expected from proper instruction. Backward 
children with even considerable degrees of these defects can 
often with an effort pass the ordinary school tests, so I have 
suggested that every apparently dull and backward child in our 
public schools should have a thorough examination of the eyes 

359 '^^^ Associatiofi Review. 

even though the ordinary school tests show nothing abnormal. 
Many apparently backward children are only so by reason of 
their eye defects, the correction of which will put the child out of 
the class of mentally deficient. 

The improvement to be obtained by correcting refractive 
defects in the lowest grades of imbeciles is not marked or none 
at all, but in the higher grades of the inmates of our schools for 
feeble-minded considerable may be accomplished. 

It is in the backward children of our public schools, how- 
ever, that the greatest good may be accomplished. Here strik- 
ing results are often obtained which emphasize the necessity 
of looking for eye defects as the cause of retarded mental im- 

Dr. Eugene A. Crockett, assistant in Otology, Harvard 

Medical School, Boston, Mass., was the next speaker. 

Dr. Crockett confined his attention to cleft palate and ad- 
enoid vegetations in the naso-pharynx, two diseases which in- 
terfere so considerablv with the formation of the throat as to 
retard the development of the child's voice. Qeft palate is one 
of the oldest diseases recognized in medicine, yet it is often 
neglected if unaccompanied by hare lip. The operation for 
cleft palate is much more likely to be successful in a young child 
than in an adult. The condition is easily recognized by in- 
spection. If it includes any considerable part of the soft palate 
there is marked interference with consonant sounds; the pe- 
culiar pitch of the voice rendering such sounds as may be well 
pronounced diflficult to understand. Special voice instruction is 
of little use until the cleft is closed. An operation gives best 
results if it is successful: if unsuccessful, a plate should be worn. 

Adenoid growth which always has been much more 
frequent was not recognized until 1868. In our latitude, from 
five to six per cent, of all school children have it. The facial 
expression of the child having it is almost diagnostic, and large 
growths interfere with speech in a characteristic way. The 
upper lip is short, upper jaw narrow, nose narrow, and face 
full under the eyes. The roof of the mouth is arched and the 
line of the teeth irregular. The child is a persistent mouth 
breather and is apt to snore or to breathe hard during sleep. 
The child is likely to have repeated colds in the head, a thick 
nasal voice, and difficulty in pronouncing certain consonants. 
In many cases there is a history of deafness, earache, and slow 
progress in school. 

Such difficulty in speech as results from interference with 
the soft palate due to the pressure of the growth will be re- 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education. 360 

moved by the removal of the growth at any age, but such ob- 
struction of speech as comes from the narrowing of the nasal 
chamber will only be remedied by the removal before the 
frame-work of the nose, pharynx, and mouth has assumed 
permanent shape — that is, before ten or twelve years of age. 
The ideal time for the operation is between the ages of three 
and five. 

Results from operations in cases of over eighteen or twenty 
years old have been quite unsatisfactory as far as effect on the 
voice is concerned. An added reason for this, beside the on.e 
referred to above, is that persistent mouth breathing, particular- 
ly at night, keeps up a constant irritation of the pharynx and 
vocal chords and destroys the fineness of the tone. 

Curiously enough, the parent, in most instances, is less 
observant of his own child: therefore it is to the teacher we must 
look for an early recognition of the child's deficiencies and advice 
as to their repair. 

The closing paper on this topic was given by Mrs. E. J. 

Ellery Thorpe, specialist on speech defects, Newton Centre, 

Massachusetts. The following thoughts are taken from this 


With persons having speech impediments to be corrected, 
Mrs. Thorpe had for some time worked along in the usual 
way — teaching the separate sounds, then gradually combining 
them into words and into sentences — until a case came to her 
which was made steadily worse by such training. 

At this time, the centennial year, she met Madame Seiler, 
in Philadelphia, who was doing the same work in much the same 
way except that her great emphasis was put upon "making a 
tunnel of your body"; "letting there be no stop along the way." 
By trying Madame Seller's process, Mrs. Thorpe had great 
success and showed to her own satisfaction that where there 
is speech impediment there is a contraction somewhere, in the 
throat, lips, tongue, or jaw, and it is this that must be got rid 
of. She stopped teaching the consonant sounds, which teach- 
ing may simply increase the difficulty, and taught the free use 
of the vowel sounds only. 

The primary cause of speech impediment is weakness in the 
breathing muscles and a consequent misplaced strength in the 
muscles that can impede the breath in its outward passage. 
Therefore the first thing to do is to train strength into the 
breathing muscles. Some children are deficient in the imitative 
power. These need to learn the formation of articulative 

361 The Association Review. * 

Secondary causes of speech impediment are fright, any dis- 
ease affecting the throat, and imitation. Against this latter, 
children should be specially guarded. Cases range from mild to 
severe. Many outgrow the difficulty with the increase in 
strength of the breathing muscles. Sometimes tact on the part 
of the teachers carries the child over the difficulty — saying the 
difficult word, changing the subject, snapping the fingers, tap- 
ping on the floor to distract attention wrongly focussed. Sing- 
ing lessons occasionally bring relief. Hearing others talk and 
being unable to express oneself in turn is a fearful strain. The 
time will come when it will be considered a crime to let a child 
grow up so. What can be done to obliterate this evil? First, 
apply the great law of prevention. Teach the child from the 
beginning to speak with breathing muscles. Let it learn the 
vowels first, as the vowels are the word. If all the energy of 
articulations i>s placed in the breathing muscles, instead of in 
the mouth, the jaw, and the tongue, the continuity of the breath 
or vowel sounds will not be interfered with. 

When the child goes to school, he should find the teacher's 
voice a model; and the teacher herself should be acquainted 
with the foregoing facts and know how to correct speech im- 

In 1893, there were 500 children in the schools of Boston 
who spoke with difficulty. Statistics show that the number in 
the United States who have trouble of this kind is nearly three 
times that of the deaf-mute, blind, and feeble-minded put to- 
gether. To three of these classes every advantage is given that 
money and science can provide; to the fourth, having equal 
claim, no relief is offered. 

A report from the Committee on Statistics of Defective 
Sight and Hearing of Public School Children was read. As it is 
expected that this report will be published in full in the forth- 
coming December number of the Review, no abstract will here 
be made of it. 

At the business session of the Department the president 
appointed the following named persons as a committee to con- 
tinue the investigation into the number and conditions of pupils 
having defective faculties who attend the public schools, and to 
report at the next meeting of the department: F. W. Booth, 
Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Chairman; Percival Hall, Gallaudet 
College, Washington, D. C; O. H. Burritt, Institution for the 
Blind, Batavia, New York; Clarence J. Blake, M. D., Boston, 
Mass.; F. Parke Lewis, M. D., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Proceedings of Department of Special Education. 362 

The following minute was presented by Dr. E. A. Fay, and 
adopted : 

"The Department of Special Education of the National 
Educational Association desires by this minute to express its 
high appreciation of the character and services of its late 
member and former president. Dr. Joseph Claybaugh Gordon, 
who died April 12, 1903. Dr Gordon was active in the meet- 
ing of the Round Table of Teachers of the Deaf held in con- 
nection with the meeting of the Association in Milwaukee in 
1897, which resulted in the establishment of this department. He 
was elected the first president of the department, took a promi- 
nent part in all its meetings, and was a strong believer in the 
possibilities of its usefulness. 

In his death we mourn the loss of one whose work as 
teacher, superintendent, writer and speaker gave him a high 
place in our ranks, while his amiable disposition, attractive per- 
sonality, and genuine friendship won our affection and esteem. 
We offer to his bereaved wife and children the assurance of our 
sincere and respectful sympathy. 

Officers were elected for the ensuing year, as follows : Pres- 
ident, J. H. Jones, Columbus, Ohio; Vice-President, F. W. 
Booth, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa.; Secretary, Elizabeth Van 
Adestine, Detroit, Michigan. 

Upon motion the meeting was ordered adjourned. 

Editorial Note: For the above report the editors have to 
thank Mr. Edward E. Allen, the president of the department, 
who has taken unusual pains to secure full and accurate ab- 
stracts of all papers read. 



The Annual Meeting of the American Association to Pro- 
mote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf was held in Boston, 
Massachusetts^ at the Horace Mann School, at ten o'clock A. 
M., Saturday, July ii, 1903. 

Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, First Vice-President, called the meet- 
ing to order. 

The following members of the Association were in atten- 
dance: Miss Julia R. Bateman, HaHfax, N. S.,; Susan E. 
Littlefield, South Boston, Mass.; Hon. John Hitz, Washington, 
D. C; Sarah Fuller, Boston, Mass.; Mabel E. Adams, Quincy, 
Mass.; Edna L. Hobart, Boston, Mass.; Martha L. Hobart, 
Boston, Mass., Virginia A. Osborn, Cincinnati, Ohio; John D. 
Wright, New York City.; Harriet B. Rogers, North Billerica, 
Mass.; Caroline A. Yale, Frances W. Gawith, Bessie N. 
Leonard, Cora L. Blair, and Abby Tilden Baker, Northampton, 
Mass.; J. R. Dobyns, Jackson, Miss.; Dr. Z. F. Westervelt, 
Mrs. Adelia Fay Westervelt, Rebecca E. Sparrow, Helen C. 
McNall, and Edmund Lyon, Rochester, N. Y.; Mary S. Breck- 
enridge, Danville, Ky.; Anna Morse, Jacksonville, 111.; Elbert 
A. Gruver, New York City; Helen Keller and Anne Mansfield 
Sullivan, Wrentham, Mass.; Dr. E. A. Fay, Washington, D. C; 
Robert C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Wis.; Daisy M. Cannon and 
Rhea Friedman, Chicago, 111.; Alvin E. Pope, St. Louis, Mo.; 
Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, Philadelphia, Pa.; Richard O. Johnson, 
Indianapolis, Ind. ; Dr. Edward M. Gallaudet, Washington, D. 
C; S. G. Davidson, Philadelphia, Pa.; Mrs. C. R. Crane, 
Chicago, 111.; Jennie C. Smith, Eau Claire, Wis.; Mary Mc- 
Cowan, Cornelia D. Bingham, and Endora Montgomery, Chi- 
cago, 111.; Mary Hyde Carroll, New York City; Eklward E. 
Allen, Philadelphia, Pa.; Candace A. Yendes, Edgewood Park, 
Pa.; W. O. Connor, Cave Spring, Ga.; John W. Jones and Mary 

Annual Meeting of the American Association. 364 

Greener, Columbus, O.; Mary True, Bethel, Me.; Elizabeth 
Van Adestine, Detroit, Mich.; Wm. B. Hare, St. Augustine, 
Fla.; Anna R. Camp, Chicago, 111.; John E. Ray, Raleigh, N. 
C; Frances Wettstein, Milwaukee, Wis.; Katharine E. Barry, 
Cleveland, O.; M. Anagnos, Boston, Mass. 

The call for the meeting, issued by the President, and 
published in the Association Review for April, was read. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting of the Association 
by consent stood approved. 

The chairman announced that the first business would be 
to consider the amendments to the Constitution presented in 
writing by Dr. A. L. E. Crouter and Mr. F. W. Booth at the 
meeting of the Association held on Wednesday, June nth, 1902, 
at the Institution for the Improved Instruction of the Deaf, New 
York City. (Each of these amendments had for its main purpose 
to increase the membership of the Board of Directors from 
nine, the present number, to twenty-one. Dr. Crouter's amend- 
ment further provided that no retiring Director at any election 
should be eligible to succeed himself, while Mr. Booth's amend- 
ment provided that no more than two retiring Directors should 
be thus eligible.) 

The amendment proposed by Dr. Crouter was read and 
a motion made by Dr. E. M. Gallaudet to lay the resolution up- 
on the table was defeated. 

A motion, by Mr. Edmund Lyon to adopt the amendment as 
read, was lost and the amendment rejected by a majority vote. 

The amendment presented by Mr. F. W. Booth was then 
read, and upon motion by Mr. Edmund Lyon was also rejected 
by a majority vote. 

Under the provisions of Article VIII of the Constitution, 
Mr. Lyon presented in writing the following amendment: 

To amend Section I, Article V, of the Constitution as fol- 
lows : 

In the second line, strike out the word "nine** and in its 
place insert **fifteen"; strike out the word "three" same line 
and insert "five," and further add to the last sentence: " in case 
of failure of the President to appoint, by the Chairman of the 

365 The Association Review. 

As thus amended Section i, Article V, will read as follows: 

The Board of Directors shall be composed of fifteen 
members of the Association five of whom shall be elected by the 
Association at each Annual Meeting, to serve for three years. 
Directors shall be elected by ballot, under the supervision of 
mspectors, to be appointed by the President: in case of failure 
of the President to appoint, by the Chairman of the meeting. 

Chairman Crouter stated that these amendments presented 
for consideration in writing under the provisions of Article VIII 
of the Constitution, would be laid upon the table, and that, in 
order to adopt them, they would have to receive the afiirmative 
vote of two-thirds of the members present at the next meeting of 
the Association, whether it be general or special. 

It was on motion, 

Resolved, That in the event of the adoption of the amend- 
ment to the Constitution duly proposed by Mr. Edmund Lyon, 
at the next Annual Meeting of the Association nine directors 
shall be elected to serve as follows: five for three years, two 
for two years, and two for one year. 

In conformity with the resolution adopted at the last meet- 
ing directing the General Secretary to print the by-laws, re- 
vised to date, copies of the by-laws printed under this resolution 
were distributed to the members present, and the chairman 
stated that copies would be furnished to all members of the As- 
sociation upon request made to the General Secretary and 

The chair called upon the secretary to present to the As- 
sociation the names of such persons as had been nominated for 
Directors, in conformity with the provisions of Section 3, of 
Article V, of the Constitution. 

The Secretary stated that under date of June i, 1903, there 
were placed in the hands of the President and Secretary the fol- 
lowing nominations in writing: Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, 
of Washington, Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard, of Washington, and 
Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, of Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, and that as 
these were the only persons nominated according to the require- 
ments of the Constitution to fill the places made vacant on the 
Board of Directors by expiration of the terms of office of Dr. 

Annual Meeting of the American Association. 366 

Alexander Graham Bell, Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard, and Dr. 
A. L. E. Crouter, no others could be voted for. 

Upon resolution duly presented and adopted, the Secretary 
was directed to cast a single ballot for the three persons whose 
names had been presented. Mr. Lyon and Mr. Gruver having 
been, by President Bell, appointed tellers, the ballot cast under 
their supervision was announced by the chairman, in the election 
of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard, and 
Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, as members of the Board of Directors, 
their term of office to expire at the close of the Summer Meet- 
ing in 1906. 

The chairman announced the appointment of the com- 
mittee appointed by the Board to cooperate in the interests of 
teaching speech to the deaf with a committee appointed by the 
American Instructors of the Deaf at the St. Louis Exposition, 
the committee named being Mr. Richard O. Johnson, Mr. Ed- 
mund Lyon, and Mr. E. A. Gruver. 

The Association then listened to a communication from 
Dr. Edward M. Gallaudet, chairman of the committee on the 
St. Louis Exposition, appointed by the Convention of American 
Instructors of the Deaf, explaining the purpose of his committee 
to encourage a full presentation of the work of oral schools in 
charts, photographs of classes, school apparatus and furnishings, 
living exhibits, together with courses of study, text-books, 
etc., and whatever could be presented that would make clear the 
plan and scope of the work of oral schools. And in doing this 
he welcomed the cooperation of the Association committee 
appointed by the Board. 

Mr. Alvin E. Pope, chairman for the Model Schools for 
the Deaf and the Blind at the St. Loui's Exposition, followed 
with an explanation of the arrangements that have been made 
and that are contemplated for this feature of the Exposition. 

Vice-President Crouter expressed the thanks of the As- 
sociation to Dr. Gallaudet and to Mr. Pope for their very full 
and courteous presentation of the matter. 

The Treasurer's report of the funds of the Association was 
presented as follows: 


367 The Association Retnew. 

Balanee, as per Report of Jane 11, 1902 $1082 06 


Life Menib«r8hip Fee, Mrs. A. M. Campbell 50 00 

Annual Subscription, Alexander Graham Bell IMX) 00 

Annual Subscription, L. S. Fechheimer 25 00 

Annual Membership Dues 884 00 

Subscriptions to Association ReTiew 12 60 

Sales of Publications 14 79 

Advertising in Association Review 86 60 

American Security & Trust Co , Income from Funds 1201 89 

Interest on Bank DeposiU 18 85 

#4775 11 

Salary and wages account $8020 07 

Printing Association Review, 5 numbers 671 06 

Printing— job work, circulars of information, etc 121 89 

Translating, reviewing, and contributions 165 85 

Wrapping, postage, and express on Reviews 29 98 

Engraving 1128 

Fee for Treasurer's Bond 10 00 

American Security «& Trust Co., two Life Membership Fees, 

transferred to Endowment Fund 100 00 

Postage, express, telegraphing, travelling, etc 202 48 

Balance 448 11 

June 30, 1908. $4775 11 

F. W. Booth, Treasurer. 

Miss Yale presented the report of the committee on 
Summer School. The report was upon resolution accepted 
and ordered filed and the committee continued. 

The chair announced the election by the Board of Directors 
of Mr. Elbert A. Gruver to the place upon the Board made 
vacant by the death of Dr. Joseph C. Gordon. 

Upon motion, the following greeting to be sent by wire 

to Dr. A. Graham Bell, at Beinn Bhreagh, Baddeck, Nova 

Scotia, was adopted with enthusiasm: 

"Best wishes to Dr. Bell and hopes for his speedy recovery. 
Association Meeting is interesting and harmonious. Only re- 
gret is the enforced absence of the President." 

On motion the Secretary was instructed to express to the 

General Secretary, Mr. F. W. Booth, our regret for his absence, 

and our wishes for his speedy recovery and prolonged use- 


Annual Meeting of the American Association, 368 

Miss Fuller presented the report of the Necrology Gom- 
mittee, giving the following names of members of the Associ- 
ation who had died during the past year^ with the names of the 
persons who prepared notes for presentation at this time: 

Dr. J. C. Gordon (Mr. Johnson); Miss Antonia B. Hope- 
man (Mr. Westervelt) ; Mrs. Gilbert O. Fay (Miss Yale). 

By motion duly made and carried, the report of the Necrol- 
ogy Committee was accepted, with the request that the notes 
be printed in the Association Review. 

Upon motion duly made and carried, it was 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Association be extended to 
Miss Fuller for her untiring labor during the past week in be- 
half of Section Sixteen of the N. E. A., and for the labor in 
arranging for the reception given last evening, and for the use 
of the Horace Mann School as the place of this Summer Meeting 
of the Association. 

Meeting adjourned. 

Z. F. Westervelt, Secretary. 

The following additional names of members in attendance 
upon the annual meeting were received too late for insertion in 
their proper place: E. W. E. Thompson, Brookline, Mass.; 
Carrie Billings, Flint, Mich.; Alice H. Damon, Mystic, Conn.; 
Caroline S. Daniels, Northampton, Mass.; Mrs. Geo. Hutchins, 
Dorchester, Mass.; Katharine King, Columbus, O.; Kate F. 
Hobart, Mary H. Thompson, Martha E. Melchert, Ida H. 
Adams, Mrs. Alice M. Porter, Boston, Mass.; Eliza L. Clark, 
West Medford, Mass. 




Discussion in the Christian Observer in i8i8 Concern- 
ing THE Advisability of Teaching Speech to the Deaf. 

[From the Christian Observer, August, i8i8,p. 514. — On file 
at the Boston Public Library.] 



To the Editor of the Christian Observer : 

My own observation having led me to doubt 
whether it be expedient, on the whole, to teach the deaf 
and dumb to articulate sounds, as is the customary 
practice in the various excellent seminaries which have 
been instituted in Great Britain for their instruction, I 
was induced to apply to a friend who, I knew, had taken 
a particular interest in this subject, for information up- 
on it. He has seen much of the methods which are 
practised at the deaf and dumb institutions both in Eng- 
land and in France, and can himself converse intelligi- 
bly, and even rapidly, with the deaf and dumb in both 
countries. It appeared to me, therefore, probable that 
it would be in his power to throw some light on a ques- 
tion of no small importance to these objects of general 
commiseration. I transmit to you an extract from his 
reply to my inquiries ; and if his remarks shall appear to 
you to deserve the attention of the public, I am per- 
suaded you will not refuse them a place in your useful 
miscellany. B. 

"All language is employed either to convey from 
one mind to another what is passing within itself, or to 

'By Alexander Graham Bell. Six chapters of this work have been 
published in Vol. II, with Appendices A to P, see Index to Vol. II. For 
Appendices Q to 39, see Index ta Vol. III. For Appendices 40 to 50, 
sec Index to Vol. IV. — Ed. 

Historical Notes. 370 

excite certain trains of thought or emotion in the one 

which is addressed. This is true even with regard to 

words denoting objects of sense, and still more em- 
phatically with regard to terms of generalization or 
abstraction, and those which express the emotions of 
the heart, the purposes of the will, or the operations of 
the mind. My grand effort, then, would be, as soon as 
possible, to teach my pupils that they have within them 
something which feels and thinks; that this something 
is called the soul; that it is unHke any thing which 
they can see, taste, smell, or touch; that it will 
never die; and that, when the body is laid in the grave, 
it will be happy or miserable. It is wonderful to see 
the readiness with which they understand these truths ; 

and Mr. *s mode of unfolding them by the 

analytic process is most admirable. I would next lead 
them, by easy conversation, to mark the various states 
of this soul ; and this, by the way, they are as capable of 
doing as those who can employ written or spoken lan- 
guage. I would refer them to their dreams, to their 
recollections of home and kindred, to their forgetful- 
ness, to their hopes and wishes, their fears and passions. 
Thus they are taught to exercise reflex acts of mind; 
and I uniformly observe that those who can mark and 
describe, with the greatest precision, the operations of 
their own minds, make the most rapid progress in the 
acquisition of written language, and of religious truth. 
The reason of this is obvious. Every word we employ 
denotes some relation existing between the human mind 
considered as an observer, an agent, or a patient, — and 
some external object or internal emotion, purpose, or 
thought. Take the whole range of the visible creation, 
of the thousand influences which it has upon us; of the 
various modes by which we are affected by our fellow 
men; of all moral, religious, and intelligent agency; and 
you will find, that the soul stands as it were in the centre 
of this mighty amphitheatre of existences, which it either 
regards with the eye of cool observation, or yields 
to, as the procuring causes of the various changes it 
experiences in all its various operations. It must then 
know itself, in order to know these innumerable re- 
lations which it sustains, and to be able to comprehend 
the terms which denote them. And I believe it will be 
found, that in every endeavour which we make to as- 
certain the precise meaning of a word, we involuntarily 

371 The Association Retnew. 

look back through the history of our own minds, and 
call to remembrance the various occasions upon which 
and modes by which we were affected by the object 
which such a word is intended to denote. — I say, 'A 
tree is green ;' you immediately think of some particular 
tree which through the medium of the eye once affected 
your mind. I say, 'Honesty is the best policy;' you in- 
voluntarily recall instances of your own conduct, or of 
conduct in others which has been addressed to your 
own mind, in order to fix the import of these words. 
I say, 'although' is a word denoting the existence of 
something in spite of the existence of some other thing, 
which might seem to prevent the existence of the former. 
You forthwith think of some occasion in which your own 
mind was affected, in that manner which the term 'al- 
though' is intended to denote. I speak to you of myself, 
or of God the great Father of our spirits ; and every con- 
ception which you can possibly form of my mind, or of 
the Eternal Mind, must be derived from what you know 
of your own. 

"Now, if I could only succeed in getting pupils to 
mark accurately the states of their minds, when certain 
objects, whether physical, moral, or intellectual, are pre- 
sented to their view; I should have only to tell them, 
that such states, under such circumstances, are described 
by such and such words, and my work would be done. 
Bring the object and the mind into contact, which can 
easily be done by gestures ; bid the pupil notice the effect 
of this contact upon his own mind; the name then is 
only setting up a sort of land-mark, to which you can 
afterwards easily refer in the progress of the future dis- 
covery of truth and acquisition of words. 

"There is really no more intrinsic connexion 
between written and spoken words and ideas, than be- 
tween signs and ideas: indeed, the language of the deaf 
and dumb is abundantly more significant than, any 
other, in as much as it denotes that change which takes 
place in our bodies and countenances by the movements 
of the soul ; and so far as intellectual processes bear any 
analog^y to the motions of matter, it shadows forth 
this analogy in very striking and significant emblems. 
'What moves my foot?' I asked a class of deaf and dumb 
one day, after having explained to them purely by signs, 
that when I thought and wished to have my foot move, 
it did so. 'Your mind moves your foot' was the uni- 

Historical Notes, 372 

versal reply. I then told them purely by signs, that 
I could not control the motion of my heart. 'What 
moves my heart?' Some answered, 'God moves your 
heart ;' and others, *God's mind moves your heart.' 

"You ask of me my reasons for thinking that the 
deaf and dumb ought not to be taught articulation. 
Without going into any elaborate discussion of this 
subject, I beg leave to refer you to some remarks on 
the inexpediency of this branch of the education of the 
deaf and dumb, from the pen of one of the first philoso- 
phers of the age, who resided in Edinburgh many years, 
and had a continual opportunity of witnessing the efforts 
of Mr. Braidwood, who was probably the most success- 
ful teacher of articulation to the deaf and dumb that 
ever lived; I mean Dugald Stewart, who, in his- account 
of James Mitchell, the deaf, dumb, and blind lad, ex- 
presses himself very strongly on this subject; and so 
strongly, that if the opinion of so great a man, and 
so profound an observer of the human mind, is worth 
any thing, it must be decisive so far as human authority 
can have weight. 

"I believe, too, the experience of all the schools 
for the deaf and dumb, in which articulation is taught, 
will prove that the instances of success for any useful, 
practical purpose, are so rare as to render the general 
attempt inexpedient. It was matter of wonder to me, 
while I often witnessed the intercourse of the deaf and 
dumb with each other, and with their instructors too, 
to observe how seldom they resorted to the language of 
the lips. Am I not correct in this? To make this lan- 
guage of articulation truly useful to them, it is not 
enough that they learn to utter many single words or 
some common phrases, or even to understand tolerably 
well their instructors, with the peculiar motions of 
whose organs of speech they become familiar. They 
ought to make such proficiency as to be able to make 
themselves understood by the mass of mankind, and 
also themselves to understand the continued discourse 
of a stranger. I very much doubt whether one in one 
hundred, after six years' instruction, can do this. Let 
the experiment be made by one hour's conversation on 
indiflFeretit subjects. Now this business of articulation 
is attended with numerous inconveniencies: it is not 
the natural language of the deaf and dumb, and is there- 
fore peculiarly irksome to them: it is purely mechanical, 

» » 

r>€ A zwcatum. 

one fltfv jae2. to 

cnaracr^r: x cnomscs die sixxuxs oc 
•n^ dies' acreacofi to it^o 

l>Kxx^ y>fnrrhrng like die e&^rt ve sct^uLd sve to 
to acJi^xire ran IangTxsi^«» ar die sazixe rl.iir : k ' 
rmm^rt^^ 'jaixjc axttt atigTxe bcdi oa die part of 
icrtxcton asui the popils^ niasanadi as t^ sv2a&ic 
Tisxfjd o€ vocrb. tbeir accrrrc, and die <Sftereaots 
n orthoepy and orth*:fgrapaT, tmrst be cScaxfr 

rntgiicated — ^a task oc trcmecdijcs ci&sItT, and 

a bopeiess ooe: a pmextfs tlie mstmctor tracoi 
derotin^ lies labors to more popcis, and to a 
portant part oc edzxatzoo — die actsal coimnuHi 
rA ksovkdge^ and the izn£3irEng of die powers of the 
htnnan rnrnd: and Et <£scoaragcs the popSs br its ex- 
treme trksotneness: wbereas. eo mmimk arioo br tbeir 
own langna^^ of signs, the basis of all tbeir instmctioii, 
and of wbicb ocr written and spoken language is onhr a 
trafuhtum. h easy and delighttol to them- I migiit 
also add^ that it dnrerts the mind of the instructor from 
that to which ail his ingenuity and skill shocdd be <fi- 
rected, improring the language of signs, on whicfa ererr 
«tep m the instruction of the deaf and dtimb most <rf 
necessity rest. 

"Besides, how much more interesting to a person 
of feeling and taste (though this, to be sure, is a thing 
f)i minor consideration; is the silent language of the 
countenance, gestures, and the fingers, than die harsh 
and discordant sounds which they must utter who can- 
T)rjt regelate and modif\' the tones of their voice! 

"But I will rest the whole matter on two experi- 
ments. Let a pupil of the French school, who has been 
taught one year, be compared with one of equal intelli- 
gence in the English school who has been taught two 
years, and I will venture to say, the former will have 
made as much progress in written language and in the 
true import of words as the latter. 

"The other experiment to which I allude is, that 
two pupils shall he required to communicate their 
thoughts intellijT^ibly to a stranger who has learned the 
finger alphabet (which may be learned in a few hours); 
the one by articulation, and the other by this alphabet; 
and also to receive answers — in the one case from the 
lipH, and in the other from the hand; and let it be noticed 

Historical Notes. 374 

which of the two will accomplish this object with the 
most dispatch. I will pledge myself to talk more rapid- 
ly with a well-instructed deaf and dumb person on any 
subject proposed, by means of the finger alphabet, than 
any deaf and dumb person taught articulation can do 
with yourself. There are in this city, I dare say, one 
hundred acquaintances of my deaf and dumb friend 

Mr. , whom you know, who can converse with 

him on the fingers with five times the rapidity with 
which the most adroit penman can write. Can the deaf 
and dumb who articulate carry on conversation with 
this rapidity? By the way, it is matter of astonishment 
to me, that the schools in Great Britain should persist 
in using the alphabet on both hands, when the French 
alphabet on one is just as distinct, and more graceful, 
flowing, and rapid; while it leaves one hand at liberty 
to make signs, or for various other useful purposes. 
It is often of immense advantage to be explaining by a 
sign with one hand, the very word which you are spell- 
ing with the other. But my thoughts have carried me 
too far. Pardon my prolixity, and also the hurried 
manner in which I write; but I am stealing the time for 
writing from the hours of slumber. Adieu." 


[From the Christian Observer, December, 1818, p. 787. — On 
file at the Boston Public Library.] 

To the Editor of the Christian Observer: 

Will you permit me to make an observation or two 
on an article that appeared in your Number for August, 
entitled, "The Expediency of teaching the Deaf and 
Dumb to articulate." The nameless correspondent of 
your correspondent B. says, "My grand effort would be, 
as soon as possible, to teach my pupils that they have 
something within them that feels and thinks," etc. This, 
to say the least of it, appears to me to be an effort with- 
out an object. They are as conscious of the capacity 
as their teacher. But by what name they are to desig- 
nate the faculty — ^whether animus, dme, or soul— will de- 
pend upon him. 

It has often excited my astonishment to meet with 
persons^ otherwise very intelligent, either altogether 
sceptical, or quite lost in the labyrinth of metaphysical 

375 The Association 

fancies, when the subject of teaching the naturally deaf 
and dumb has been agitated by them. I never could 
account for it in any other way than by supposing that 
they had not attentively considered wherein these mutes 
resemble, and wherein they differ from, the rest of their 
. species. Are they not dumb only because they are deaf. 
The resemblance, I think, is complete in natural capacity 
to apprehend. The difference consists in an accidental 
defect, precluding the acquisition of a mother-tongue in 
the ordinary way. Give them this and you supply them 
with a fulcrum, to overthrow the mass of ignorance 
that weighs them down. The wall of separation re- 
moved, they are no longer aUme in the social circle — 
they are enlivened by conversation — instructed by the 
page of history^-enlightened and comforted by the rec- 
ords of eternal truth — and are in every view, elevated 
to the rank of their fellow-beings. All this, I maintain, 
is accomplished by the plain, rational, and practicable 
method of teaching them the language of the country 
where they happen to be situated, or, in other words, 
giving them a mother-tongue. 

To effect this, we must, if we expect success, follow 
the course by which words have acquired value and 
significancy with ourselves: we therefore name things 
to the deaf and dumb, and teach them to name them 
also. By things is not here meant external objects only, 
or such insulated names as grammarians call substan- 
tives, but all that IS the subject of our percipient faculties, 
in the form of being, attribute, action, and relation. Be it 
remembered, that we came to the possession of our 
mother-tongue, the foundation of the whole super- 
structure of our most refined speculations, solely by 
the reiteration of those names (words or phrases) being 
made intelligible to us, through the medium of the 
organ of hearing, as constantly applied to the percep- 
tions which they serve to note. Happily for the deaf 
and dumb, words or names may be seen and felt, as well 
as heard. The arts of writing and printing speak to the 
eye: certain visible characters have a conventional value; 
and combinations of these characters serve men to name 
or call by, as well as articulate sounds, of which thev are 
to us the representatives. It is necessary, therefore, 
I conceive, on the very threshold of our instruction 
of the deaf and dumb, if we mean to teach them written 
language, to make them well acquainted with the charac- 

Historical Notes, 376 

tcrs or letters, their intention and value, before we 
trouble them with the application of their combinations. 
They may be shown to them in succes^on. They may be 
formed by the hand with pen or pencil: still they are 
something external, and very unmeaning to the mute 
learners. Not so when you teach them a series of move- . 
ments (or distinct actions) of the organs of speech, 
which they can see in others, and feel in themselves, as- 
sociable in their minds and memories with the charac- 
ters they have been required to look at and to trace. 
From that time these become the indices or exponents 
of things, and acquire a value with the learner as the 
representatives or names of acts they have learnt to per- 
form by organs hitherto dormant, but which they feel 
to be perfectly well adapted to the use they have been 
taught to make of them. Letters (the alphabet of the 
language they are about to learn) are no longer strange 
unmeaning strokes; they have become intimately con- 
nected with the very frame of the learners — a part of 
themselves, as it were. For, efface the tablet of the deaf 
incipient speaker, or remove him from the means of 
writing, he can still go through his acts, associated with 
the visible appearances in question, and presently be- 
comes sensible of a new power, that of being readily able 
to excite, in others, associations similar to his own — he 
sounds a letter, we write it — ^wc sound one (letting him 
see, of course the motion of our organs), he writes it. 
Is not this conversation? Can it be doubted whether 
the parties understand each other? 

Is, then, this simple convention unimportant? Is 
it not the very basis of all artificial language; and is this 
additional hold of a thing to be remembered of little 
worth? Those only, I conceive, will answer in the af- 
firmative who have not sufficiently attended to the oper- 
ations of their own minds, and who have overlooked 
the force of association and analogy in every mental 
process. Details would carry me far beyond the limits 
of a communication like this, else it were easy to 
demonstrate that the principle applies a fortiori to 
words, or combinations of letters, as the nomenclature 
of thought. 

In this view, teaching articulation to the deaf and 
dumb rests its most important advantages on its utility, 
as the means to an end; namely, the more speedy and 
perfect acquisition of language ; not the fanciful passig- 

377 T'Ae Association Review. 

raphy of methodized signs (that could be useful only 
were all the world deaf and dumb, or to whole com- 
munities of such mutes), but the language of their fami- 
lies, their neighbours and countrymen; that which, in 
fact, would have been their mother-tongue, had nature 
not deprived them of the usual inlet. It is needless, 
therefore, I think, to waste time in talking about har- 
monious or inharmonious pronunication : no rational 
person ought to expect the speech of those who never 
heard, to be modulated into rhythmical harmony; music 
and oratory may, and must, be readily given up. But 
there are other valuable ends to be answered by artic- 
ulation: the most important of all is that already msisted 
upon; the next to it is the communication of thought. 
For I am warranted in saying, that ninety-nine out of 
every hundred deaf and dumb persons (memory and in- 
tellect being acute) may be brought, provided the educa- 
ation be begun sufficiently early, to articulate in a 
manner not intolerably harsh, and abundantly intelligible 
to all who are in habits of intercourse with them. And 
who, I would ask, are so much interested in understand- 
ing them? But suppose the worst; let them fall in with 
strangers, whose ears, unaccustomed, to their less 
perfect articulation, feel it unpleasant, or even unin- 
telligible. What hinders their use of writing, the manual 
alphabet, or *iook and gesture," if required? Is there 
any thing to preclude this simply from the circum- 
stance of their being able to converse in another way 
with those who like to hear them, because they can 
readily understand them? It must not for a moment 
be imagined that teaching to speak narrows the capacity 
for other modes of communication: signs, when duly 
estimated, are used as the connecting link between the 
deaf and their teacher. Articulation hinders nothing; 
it furthers much ; it is a superadded faculty, and may be 
used or not, at pleasure. It is felt and valued as such 
by all who, with it, have acquired a knowledge of the 
language used by those around them: it is thus felt, 
also, by the parent, the brother, the friend, and com- 
panion, of these unfortunate individuals. 

It is far from my wish to make comparisons that 
might lead to invidious discussions. I reluctantly, there- 
fore, allude to the terms "French school" and "English 
school," brought forward in the paper which gave rise 
to these remarks. But I must affirm, that if the com- 

Historical Notes. 378 

parison should be found to be as disadvantageous to 
the "English school" as B's correspondent states; it 
will arise from other causes than the one to be in- 
ferred from his words. Is this gentleman aware that 
the venerable Principal of the "French school," while 
in London, expressed his conviction of the advantages 
of teaching articulation to the naturally deaf and dumb, 
declaring his intention of introducing it into the institu- 
tion at Parts on his return? And that, if the journals of 
a few months back may be credited, it has actually been 
there introdjiced with some success? 

Not having read or heard, that I remember, the 
observations of Professor Dugald Stewart on the sub- 
ject, I cannot reply to them: but no name can weigh 
against convictions derived from actual observation. 

"The methodizing and perfectioning of signs" falls 
properly to those who think the deaf and dumb incap- 
able of learning a language common to their country- 
men, or who imagine the generalization of ideas by 
manual signs the most perfect of all languages. If it be 
so, why not substitute it in the place of all others? 


Data from Institutions for the Deaf. 

Mr. Frank B. Yates, superintendent of thtf Arkansas School 
for the Deat published last spring an interesting compilation, 
in tabular form, of the answers received to inquiries regarding 
matters on which the heads of institutions frequently need to 
be informed. In thus placing the data at the service of other 
superintendents, he has done a favor which we are sure is high- 
ly appreciated. There are in all 48 questions, which were ad- 
dressed to 49 schools, 6 of which make no reply to any of the 
queries. Of the remaining 43, a large proportion do not an- 
swer the questions relating to salaries, apparently not caring 
to have such details of their affairs made public. 

The table gives the number of pupils in each school, the 
number of literary teachers, the number of pupils in the speech 
department, number of pupils in the manual department, and 
number of teachers in manual department. The replies to the 
query as to the proper size of a speech class place the number of 
pupils at from 6 to 12, most favoring 10; while the estimate of 
the proper number of pupils for a manual class ranges from 8 
to 18. The lowest salary paid to a male teacher of speech, with 
board, is $600^ and highest, $1,300; without board, lowest $700. 
and highest $1,600. For female teachers of speech, the salaries 
are, with board, lowest $450; highest $1,200; without board, 
lowest $400, highest $1,400. Manual teachers receive, with 
board, males, from $447 to $1,300; females, from $400 to $1,200; 
without board, males, from $800 to $1,600; females, from $500 
to $1,250. Industrial teachers receive, with board, from $400 
to $1,000; without board, from $600 to $1,100. Art teachers 
are paid, with board, from $300 to $555; without board, from 
$525 to $1,100. The per capita cost of maintenance and in- 

Reviews. 380 

struction ranges from $135 to $300. 20 schools think their per 
capita allowance should be increased, while 9, among which we 
note the one having the lowest, do not. The salaries paid super- 
intendents or principals vary from $850 to $3,000. The lowest 
salary paid inexperienced teachers is $90, and the highest, $500. 

Regarding the proper age for admission of pupils, one 
gives as low as 4 and one as high as 9, but 6 and 7 years are 
favored by the majority. The number of years the pupil should 
remain in school is given at from 9 to 13. Two principals say 
they should remain indefinitely until they complete the course. 

To the question whether speech teaching is advancing or 
on the wane in the United States, 26 claim it is advancing; i 
that it is waning; and 6 that it is stationary. Asked whether 
speech pupils should be put in separate buildings located on the 
same grounds with and close to sign pupils, yet be forbidden to 
associate with them and learn signs^ 26 answer "No"; 2, "Yes." 
To the query whether speech pupils should be placed in separate 
classes, and taught wholly by speech in a school where sign and 
speech pupils mingle freely, 33 say "Yes"; 2, "No." 12 favor 
separate classes in both speech and drill classes, and 22 do not. 
12 favor drill classes in speech pupils taken from manual classes, 
and 23 do not. 33 superintendents or principals believe in the 
combined system of instruction; 5 in the oral; and i in the 
manual. 32 believe in signs; 4 do not; i favors them in lectures 
but not otherwise. 8 believe signs should be encouraged in 
the school-room; 18, that they should not; and three others g^ve 
a qualified affirmative. 21 believe that signs should be used in 
the school-room; 8 that they should not; and 10, to some ex- 
tent. 3 say that writing and the manual alphabet should take 
the place of signs entirely; 27, they should not; and 6 say "large- 

6 think that teachers should board in a school for the deaf; 
23, that they should not; and 2 answer "both." 2 claim teach- 
ers should be required to eat with pupils; 29, that they should 
not. All believe superintendents should be allowed to appoint 
their support. To the question, "Should inexperienced teach- 
ers ever be appointed in schools for the deaf?" 9 answer "Yes"; 
23, "No"; and 6 say "it depends." 33 favor increasing de- 

381 The Association Review. 

serving new teachers' salary yearly until a fair salary is reached; 
I does not ; i says teachers should be paid for services rendered 
or as experience warrants. In answer to, **Shoiild pupils be 
required to do dining-room or laundry work, except to learn 
how to do it?" 13 answer "Yes"; 24, "No." With one exception 
all are agreed that this work should not be permitted to interfere 
with school work. The superintendents and principals are 
unanimous in endorsing the cottage system for little ones. 

The tabulated answers are accompanied by numerous foot 
notes explanatory of or qualifying them. In a concluding note 
Superintendent Yates says: "In answer to our question, 'Please, 
in a few words, give your definition of a combined system 
school for the deaf,' we received a great number of answers. 
We believe the following answer will be about the concensus 
of opinion: It is a school which uses any, or all methods, or 
systems and instructs each child by that method which best suits 
its individual capabilities and needs, the chief aim being mental 

American Annals of the Deaf, Washington, D. C, September! 

The leading article in this issue is "Libraries in State 
Schools for the Deaf," a thesis for the degree of Bachelor of 
Library Science in the State Library School of the University 
of Illinois, presented June, 1903, by Miss Helen T. Kennedy, 
formerly librarian in the Illinois School at Jacksonville. It con- 
tains much interesting information regarding the size, char- 
acter, circulation, and methods of using the libraries in the 
various schools for the deaf, and offers suggestions on their 
organization and cataloguing to those who may have them in 
charge. There is also a discussion of the value of reading to 
the deaf, and of the methods for cultivating a taste for profitable 
literature. The author believes that the librarian should be 
neither a teacher, clerk, or other officer of the school to whom 
the duties of the position would be subsidiary, but one who 
would devote her whole time to the work. A list of most popular 
books in the various schools is a valuable feature of the article. 
"Schools for the Deaf and the Blind not Charitable Institutions" 

Reviews. 382 

a paper read by Dr. E. A. Fay before the meeting of the Depart- 
ment of Special Education, N. E. A., last July, an abstract of 
which is given in the report of that meeting in this issue of the 
Review. It is a full, clear, and logical statement of the grounds 
on which schools for the deaf claim to be educational, not chari- 
table, institutions. 

*The Meeting of the Department of fecial Education, of 
the National Educational Association, Boston, 1903," and "The 
Thirteenth Meeting of the American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf," occupy much space in the 
number. **The Importance of Developing the Artistic Faculties 
of our Pupils," by Mary Roland Beattie, teacher of art in the 
Flint, Michigan, School, contains little that is new, but states in 
an interesting way facts that should be kept before the profes- 
sion. There is the usual collection of school notes and mis- 

Organ der Taubstummen-Anstalten in Deutschland [Or- 
gan of the Institutions for the Deaf of Germany]. Friedbcrg. 
June, July, and August, 1903. 

"The meeting of the Association of German Teachers of 
the Deaf." This meeting which is expected to be very largely 
attended by teachers, not only from Germany but also from 
foreign countries, is appointed to be held at Frankfurt-on-the- 
Main, September 27th to 30th, 1903. 

"Defects in the organization of the Norwegian system of 
deaf-mute education," by J. A. Fjortoft, Christiania. Only one 
year of probation is allowed for dividing the pupils according 
to their talents and their ability to derive real profit from in- 
struction in the different branches. This time should unques- 
tionably be extended, for one year is too short for the teacher 
to form a correct judgment of his different pupils. Two years 
will probably meet all reasonable demands. Another and still 
greater defect of the Norwegian organization is this, that of 
the five institutions for the deaf only two have instruction in 
articulation. It is well known that instruction in articulation 
is most wearing on the nerves and general health of the teach- 
ers. The remedy is to found independent schools, where pupils 

383 The Association Rcziczu. 

are received everv two vears. Another defect is this, that iti the 
schools where deaf children are received first, those who have 
learned to use speech at least to some extent, are mixed with 
the newly received children. No one can prevent that signs 
will form the daily means of communication among the chil- 
dren. The remedy is an organization under which all children 
capable of being educated shall remain in one and the same 
school till their confirmation. The main point in every or- 
ganization is the proper division of the pupils according to 
their capacity. **The motions of expression and their relation to 
speech; II, the sign language as a further development of these 
motions; III, the formation of sounds as a further development 
of these motions," bv H. Hoffman, Ratibor, Germanv. '*In- 
struction in history in institutions for the deaf," bv K. Krai?s. 
"Biography of Wilhelm Hirzel, Director of the institution for 
the deaf at Gmiind," by Griesinger; in commemoration of 
Hirzel's eightieth birthday, July 17, 1903. The life of a man 
who from his earliest youth devoted all energy to the education 
of the deaf; and this with eminent success. Whenever the 
history of German deaf-mute education is written, Hirzel's name 
will occupy a prominent place. 

**\Varning against the introduction of instruction in weav- 
ing in schools for the deaf," by K. Finckh, Schleswig. In 
the beginning of April, 1903, an exposition of articles of the 
weaving schools in Sweden and Finland w-as held at the Ministry 
of Public Instruction in Berlin. These articles had been collect- 
ed by Counsellor Hansen of Kiel during a journey through the 
northern countries of Europe. Everybody was surprised to see 
the many and often truly artistic creations of the hand loom; and 
the press of Berlin in giving an account of this exhibition asked 
the question how it was that the German schools did not pro- 
duce similar work. Mr. Finckh thinks that certainly manuil 
labor should be taught more than it is at present, but that the 
introduction of instruction in weaving in the German schools 
would be a mistake. Grown up deaf girls of the wealthier classes 
may engage in weaving as a pleasant and artistic recreation; but 
in Germany — where the conditions are far different from those in 
Sweden and Finland and where machinery has long since 

Rcvicivs. 384 

crowded out the hand loom — deaf children, the majority of 
whom belong to the poorer classes, should be taught some 
trade which, as soon as they leave the school, enables them to 
earn their bread. "Art in the School/' by Hugo Hoffmann, 
Ratibor, Germany. Twenty or thirty years ago the educational 
apparatus in the German schools was of the poorest de- 
scription. This, of course, applied also to the schools for the 
deaf. But with the great industrial and commercial develop- 
ment of Germany, following upon the establishment, in 1871, of 
the new German Empire, a new impetus was also given to educa- 
tion; and one of the results is that, among the rest, it is the 
avowed object of the school to awaken in the pupils an ap- 
preciation of all that is beautiful in art and nature. A large 
firm in Leipzig deals exclusively in pictures to be used in the 
school-rooms. These pictures are by no means of the cheap, 
trashy kind, but are prepared by German artists of the first rank, 
and finished in a truly artistic manner. The price of each 
picture, as large as a large wall map, and ready to hang, is only 3 
marks (71 cents). The subjects embrace: the history of civiliza- 
tion; natural history, geography, history; industry, commerce, 

Among the miscellaneous communications we note that 
Mr. Eugene Lutermeister of Aaran, Switzerland, a very talented 
deaf person, well-known among the German speaking nations 
by his beautiful poems, has by the Synod of the Berne Church 
been appointed itinerant preacher to the deaf in the Canton 
of Berne. This meets a long-felt want, and every Sunday Mr. 
Lutermeister preaches to the deaf in the country districts. 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung [Journal of Deaf-mute 
Education], Berlin. June, and August, 1903. 

These numbers contain the following quoted subjects: 
"History of the development of popular 'readers' for schools," 
by P. Odelga. "The School for the Deaf at Genoa," translated 
from the Italian of Professor Ferreri, by K. Baldrian. "The 
responsibility of the railroad as regards the deaf": From Vienna 
it is reported that in November, 1902, Franciska, the daughter 

385 The Association Review. 

of Joseph Blaha, a farmer of Kunwitz, went to the River March 
to get some sand, and on her way back had the misfortune in 
crossing the railroad to be run over by a train whose approach 
it was impossible for her to notice with her eyes, as the track 
made a sharp curve at that point. She was hurt so badly that 
one foot had to be anfiputated and her spine was bent so as to 
produce a hunchback. Her father sued the railroad for dam- 
ages, and although the railroad fought the case from one court 
to the other, maintaining that her father should not have al- 
lowed his deaf daughter to go out by herself, the supreme court 
of the empire at Vienna, to which the case had finally been 
taken, awarded her — as being deaf and therefore unable to hear 
the approach of the train — the sum of 10,000 crowns ($1,930), 
and 90 thalers (18 cents) a day for life. "Industrial Education 
of the Deaf: Tlie Director of the School for the deaf at Posen, 
Prussia, Counsellor Radomski, addressed a petition to the Prus- 
sian Lower House to increase the premium which has to be 
paid to tradesmen for a deaf person whom they take as ap- 
prentice, from 150 to 200 marks. Owing to the rise in the price 
of all the necessaries of life, tradesmen are more and more un- 
willing to take deaf persons at the lower premium, and the deaf, 
after leaving school, find it more difficult than formerly to obtain 
employment. The appropriation committee of the Lower House 
has referred the petition to the Royal Ministry of Public In- 
struction, and there are reasonable hopes that it will eventually 
be granted. Counsellor Radomski, after giving a brief history 
of his petition and the causes which led to it, gives some 
general statistics from which we quote the following: In the 
institutions for the deaf of Prussia there are at present 41 18 
pupils. As the course in nearly all these institutions occupies 
eight years, 519 pupils, on an average, leave the schools every 
year of which number about 75 per cent, or in round figures 
400, take up some trade. If we make a deduction of about 10 
per cent, for deaths, the premium has to be paid for 360, the 
annual sum for that purpose — assuming that among that 
number there are 200 males and 160 females — would, if the pre- 
mium of the former were raised 50 and that of the latter 100 
marks (to 200 for males and 250 for females), amount to only 

Reviews. 386 

26,ocx) marks ($6,185) per annum; which the government can 
surely afford to pay. As an instance how a person deaf from 
birth can, by proper training, rise to prominence, we refer to a 
treatise by Dr. Walter Kuntze entitled, "An examination of the 
composition of German and American clover and various kinds 
of vetches during the different stages of their growth, and the 
influence of certain fertilizers on the composition of vetches"; 
which treatise (published in 1903) gained the author the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Leipzig. Al- 
though the treatise is by persons acquainted with the subject 
pronounced a classical work and of the greatest value to 
farmers, it is of special interest to all friends of the deaf as show- 
ing what our present education of the deaf can accomplish. 
Kuntze was born in Halle, and was so hard of hearing from his 
birth that it was only possible by means of the speaking tube to 
have some slight but very imoerfect communication with him. 
His first instruction he received from a private teacher of the 
deaf in his native city, and then entered the institution for the 
deaf at Brunswick. Here het was soon considered the brightest 
scholar of the institution. In a short time he could rapidly 
read every word from the lips of the teacher, so much so that 
instruction could be imparted to him exactly as if he could hear. 
In 1882, Kuntze entered the institution at Hildesheim, where, 
for various reasons, he did not feel at home. When his father 
wrote to the director concerning his son, he replied, "Your son 
no longer needs a teacher of the deaf. Send him to some 
college!" Kuntze, therefore, returned to Halle, entered the 
college, passed his examinations brilliantly, and was fully de- 
termined to become a writer on scientific and philosophical sub- 
jects, when his health broke down ; and he was advised by his 
physician to choose some career which would keep him in the 
open air most of the time. He, therefore, chose agriculture, 
studied practically on a farm in Mecklenburg; and now, totally 
restored, manages a large farm of his father's and devotes his 
leisure moments to scientific subjects bearing on agriculture. 
As Kuntze is comparatively young yet, it is certain that he will 
make a name for himself as an author and an authority in agri- 

387 The Association Review. 

Rassegna della Educazione dei Sordomuti [Review of the 
Education of the Deaf], edited by E. Scuri. Naples. Feb- 
ruary, March, April and May. 

The followitig from the American Annals for May is quoted: 
**In reply to the criticism of the Atinals of last September 
(Vol. XLVII, p. 379), upon the low standard of attainment ad- 
vocated by Mr. G. Ferreri in the revised edition of his 'II Sor- 
domuto e la sua Educazione/ Mr. Ferreri explains in Rassegna 
for February, i903» that he did not mean to assert that all the 
deaf without exception are Inferior in mental capacity to hearing 
persons, nor to oppose under all circumstance provision for the 
higher education of such as are capable of pursuing it. In his 
argument he had especially in mind the schools of Italy, and 
it was in consideration of their limited resources that he advocat- 
ed a low standard, believing that the aim should be to ^ve a 
minimum instruction to as large a number as possible rather 
than a fuller instruction to a favored few. It does not then 
necessarily follow, as we inferred, that, if he is right, we in 
America, with our higher standard of attainment, are all wrong." 

P. Fornari explains the debate which has arisen between 
the various writers concerning Oral instruction, in regard to the 
method of the first instruction, if it should be analytical or 
synthetical. That is, whether one should teach the entire word 
or its elements. Putting aside the choice of terms, the author 
holds that the first teaching of the deaf must be based upon the 
elements of the word, coming by degrees to the formation of the 
complete word. This is also the opinion of KuU, the principal 
of the school at Zurich, who treated the same subject at the 
Congress of 1901, held at Zurich, by the teachers of Switzerland 
and South Germany. 

P. Fornari in an almost humorous article speaks of the 
requisites necessary for a good teacher of articulation, of 
which we give a brief summary: 

Physical requisites: 

I. A fine mouth of normal shape, size, and movement; 
with regular teeth, white and clean, having no windows or 
doors. The angle of the lower jaw must be such that in speak- 
ing the lower incisors are sufficiently separate from the upper 

Reviews. 388 

ones to allow the tongue to be seen. A flexible tongue, rather 
narrow and pointed. 

2. A face, if not beautiful, at least interesting. It is not 
w ell, however, to have a face made irregular by the eyes or nose, 
or unsymmetrical in shape, or disfigured by scars or any other 
physical deformity. Nor a nervous face, or silly or even a stupid, 
rigid, wooden, apathetic one; and neither a gloomy face, nearly 
frowning, or too changeable, restless, without a smile, or apt to 
giggle or to sneer. 

3. In person not deformed, of a dignified presence with- 
out affectation, erect carriage but not stiff. 

4. A healthy, robust, strong constitution, capable of en- 

5. A pronunciation without defect. 

6. A valid age, that is from 20 to 40 years at the most, 
with the obligation of having the teeth replaced if any have been 

Mental requisites: 

1. An intellectual patience. 

2. An energetic character, frank, cheerful, and jovial. 

3. Artistic taste. 

4. Good temper. 

5. To have an ideal, that is to aim for the greatest possible 

G. Ferreri gives a specimen chapter of his notes on the 

schools of the United States. This volume, which promises to 

be interesting for all educators of the deaf, has the following 

title : "Education of the Deaf. Comparative notes in regard to 

the American Schools." 

El Sordomudo Argentine [The Argentine Deaf-Mute]. Nos. 
II, 12, and a supplementary December number. Buenos 

A biographical sketch of Prof. P. Fomari, the former 
principal of the R. Normal School of Milan, precedes an article 
by him containing good advice to young teachers of the deaf. 
He recommends study and practical experience, for he believes 
that these two things will suffice to persuade one that the Oral 
Method is the best, the only one in the world which can really 
restore the deaf-mute to social life, transforming him into a 
complete man. 

389 The Association Revtew. 

"The speech of many of the deaf as the principal motive 
for accusation against the German method," is the conclusion 
of a study published in the Blatter fiir Taubstummenbildung, 
and translated by G. Ferreri. P. Molina gives some statistical 
notes in regard to the education of the deaf in Spain. The 
figures show that although Spain is really the cradle of the in- 
struction of the deaf, yet at present she provides this blessing 
for only a privileged few. The Institution of Madrid is the only 
official school for the deaf. Barcelona, Salamanca, Santiago, 
Burgos, Zaragoza, Sevilla e Valenza are the existing schools 
there. Add to these, three small private schools. Comparing 
the number of deaf now admitted to school, with the number 
of those existing in Spain, and the result is that only 342 
per cent, enjoy at present the benefit of the schools. J. R. 
D*Alfonso concludes his study on the "Psychology of Lan- 
guage.'* The supplement to number 12 contains a report of the 
scholastic exercises held in Buenos Aires and in La Plata. The 
editor, J. Pablo Diaz Gomez, translates from Italian into 
Spanish the entire Appendix of the first volume of "The Deaf 
and his Education," by G. Ferreri, with the title: "The Teaching 
of Language to the Deaf." 

L' Educazione del Sordomuti [The Education of the Deaf], 
edited by G. Ferreri. Siena, Italy. March, April, May, 
June, and July. 

The editor of this periodical, in order to demonstrate the 
historical importance of the works of Dr. Wallis, professor of 
mathematics at Oxford, in regard to the instruction of the deaf, 
has collected and translated the letters of Wallis to Boyle, 
Beverly, and Amman (1661-1700). These letters are preceded 
by some bibliographical notes in regard to the author, and by 
a biblographical notice statinj^f zvhcre and how these same letters 
were published. He also publishes a complete translation from 
the German of chaptetr XI of the new study of Dr. Bezold 
(Munich), upon the traces of hearing found by him in examin- 
ing 456 deaf persons. 

Reviews. 390 

P. Fornari has undertaken the translation from the Ger- 
man of Dr. Gude's book about the Laws of Physiology and 
Psychology on the formation of movement and the instruction 
of the deaf. Copious notes in the translation illustrate and ex- 
plain the worth of the German publication. E. Scuri refers to 
the conclusions and propositions made at the Italian Pedago- 
gical Congress held at Naples (1900), upon the question: "What 
contribution can the elementary teacher give to the education 
of the deaf?" There is reproduced in this magazine the article of 
Mrs. S. J. Monro, published in the February number of our 
Review. The editor calls the attention of the Italian teachers 
of the deaf to the importance and value of breathing through 
the nose, and expresses the hope that a special exercise for 
regulating the respiration of the deaf may result in improving 
their voice. 

L'Educazione offers in each number abundant notices of 
schools for the deaf in every part of the world, and the editor 
wishes to ask the American Institutions through us, to send him 
the annual and biennial reports published in the United States. 

The editor in speaking of the sad condition of deaf artisans 
and artists, proposes an exhibition of the works of art by the 
Italian deaf, in connection with the great exhibition which they 
are preparing to hold at Milan in 1905. This proposal is sus- 
tained and upheld by P. Fornari, who invites the friends of the 
deaf to join in a voluntary subscription for meeting the neces- 
sary expenses in order to realize this idea. 

There is a collection of the notices which have reached 
Europe in regard to the acousticon of Mr. Hutchinson, but 
Italian criticism throws cold water upon the fire of enthusiasm 
aroused bv these notices. 

Report of the School for the Deaf at Porto, Portugal, 
for the year 1 901 -1902. 

The director of the Deaf-Mute Institute Aranjo Porto, 
Portugal, in his annual report for the school year 1901-1902, 
reports forty-four pupils in the school at the beginning of the 
school term (June 30, 1901). During the year, 15 pupils entered 

391 The Association Rcz'icw. 

the school and 9 left, thus making a total of 49 pupils in the 
school at the beginning of the term 1902- 1903. Of these, 40 
were males and 9 females. Their ages ranged from 7 to 18 
years. The director dwells upon the importance of limiting the 
time when pupils may enter the Institute to the first few days at 
the beginning of the school year, and so obviate the necessity of 
forming new classes, which greatly interferes with the regular 
course of instruction. 

Special rooms have been fitted up during the year for 
manual training. In addition to receiving regular instruction in 
trades, the pupils do considerable work for private parties dur- 
ing the year. In January, 1902, the Institute opened a special 
course in pedagogy, attended by three pupils. The curriculum 
of the school embraces: Articulation and language, penman- 
ship, elementary and geometrical drawing, freehand drawing, 
painting, water color, modeling, reading and text interpretation, 
grammar, analysis, arithmetic and the metrical system, geogra- 
phy, history of Portugal, ethics, gymnastics, shoemaking, tailor- 
ing, and printing. 

<<On the Necessity of a sure Means of Communication 

in the Instruction of the Deaf," by G. Forcbhammer, 
Director of the Institution for the Deaf at Nyborg, Den- 

We may well congraulate Denmark, always prominent in 
the matter of deaf-mute education, on having produced a work 
like the present. It is a handsomely printed volume of 272 pages, 
in large 8 vo. and may well be termed a classical and exhaustive 
work on the subject, just such a one as we would expect from 
Mr. Forchhammer with his long and large experience. Our 
space is too limited for lengthy extracts from the book; we 
possibly do not agree with everything Mr. Forchhammer says, 
but the book in English form would certainly prove interesting 
also to American readers. We give here the headings of the 
different chapters: Tlie terms "congruence" and "correspond- 
ence." By the first term Mr. Forchhammer understands the 
agreeing, point for point, of two like series, e. g., two series of 
signs of language; whilst by the second term he understands the 

Reviews, 392 

agreeing of two series which are unlike. Speech as a means of 
communication for the deaf, with the two sub-headings: i. 
Studies concerning the modulation of sounds, and 2, articulation 
in schools for the deaf. Speech as a means of communication 
with the deaf, lip-reading. Writing as an aid to the speech 
method, as a means of communication for pronunciation (writing 
sounds). Writing as a means of communication in language. 
Acquiring speech: with the following sub-headings: The way 
in which a normally endowed child acquires speech; Nature an 
aid to instruction; Instruction in foreign languages in the 
common schools; Imitative instruction in speech in schools for 
the deaf. Free means of communication: the "mouth-hand" 
system. The importance of remnants of hearing. 

Lr'Idiozia [Idiocy], by Dr. Paul Sollier, Translation from Eng- 
lish into Italian, with a Preface and Notes of P. Parise. 

Our readers can see and consult the English edition of this 
book, in which they find much that is new in regard to child- 
study. The Italian edition adds to the scientific value of this 
work by a precious contribution of pedagogical experience. P. 
Parise, a teacher of the deaf according to the Oral Method, has 
attended for many years to the education of feeble-minded 
children, and therefore he is in a favorable condition for com- 
menting upon the suggestions of science for the education of 
these unhappy children. 

The work is divided into ten chapters: Definitions, Qassi- 
fications, Causes, Pathological Anatomy, Symptomatology, Will, 
Diagnosis, Course and Duration, Complications and Results, 
Prognosis, Treatment. 

Among the various definitions of idiocy given by the 
author, the opinion of Seguin seems quite important from the 
pedagogical point of view, according to whom the feeble-minded 
children are normal, but less advanced than other children 
of the same age, both in physical and psychic conditions: be- 
sides this he thinks that idiocv does not show itself until from 

393 ^^^ Association Review. 

the eighth to the fifteenth year of age, and then in consequence 
of the condition of the brain. 

Attention is the key to the diagnosis of idiocy, but the study 
of this presupposes the existence of sensation and perception. 
Attention is also the basis of the education and of the intellectual 
development. Therefore taking attention as the starting point 
of our researches, we can classify idiocy in the following manner: 
I. Absolute idiocy (complete impossibility of attention); 2. 
simple idiocy (feebleness and difficulty of attention); imbecility 
(instability of attention). 


Attention stands in relation with the liveliness of the first 
impressions. Hence as these are very faint in deficient children, 
it results that either their attention is not awakened, or only so 
with the greatest difficulty. This defect prevents the child 
from perceiving the sensations clearly, which in this way remain 
isolated and without any connection between them. From this 
comes the lack of ideas and of knowledge, and hence the state 
of idiocy which progresses continually. The arrest in psychic 
development in deaf children is due to the same cause; but as the 
intelligent deaf child can put his other senses into action, his 
attention can be awakened immediately and exercised. There- 
fore the preparatory schools and the kindergartens are to be 
recommended for deaf children who are not yet of a school age. 

Their preparation for school cannot be accomplished better 
than in the kindergarten. Their attention is put into action not 
only in the brief lessons and in the Froebelian exercises, but 
also and perhaps still more in the common recreations. It is, 
however, necessary to distinguish between the two forms of 
attention. The first is spontaneous and natural, the other de- 
termined and acquired. In the examination of backward chil- 
dren, one should aim at the first form, because the second can- 
not be other than the result of their early education. In order 
to initiate this, one must make use of the credulity of children, 
derived from their lack of reflection. This in fact cannot come 
until later, that is, when the child in believing the first com- 
munications, begins to form ideas and to acquire primary knowl- 

Reviews. 394 

Feeble-minded children are generally affected by perversion 
of the instincts. Since the most valuable instinct to be used for 
the early education is that of imitation, it is necessary for the 
teacher to discover if in the child the imitation is real, or if it 
is perverted into a stupid dissimulation. The importance of 
education for children who from physical or psychic defects re- 
quire a special school, is enforced by the fact of the existence 
of a hereditary organic memory. Given this circumstance, the 
educator has a good foundation for his work of forming and de- 
veloping the child, even when of very small intelligence. Another 
element upon which to base the education is constituted by the 
sentiments, afterwards come the emotions and their expression. 

Many authors believed it wise to found the classification of 
idiocy upon the development of language; but comparative ob- 
servations made between the symbolic forms of expression used 
by the idiotic and those used by normal children have not justi- 
fied this classification. 

In regard to the deaf, however, the examination of the sense 
of hearing should be the foundation of all. It is a fact well 
known to educators of the deaf, that often individuals with a 
perceptible remnant of hearing are the most intractable to learn- 
ing the spoken word. In such cases one should distinguish 
well between idiocy and deaf-mutism, because the number of 
these hearing-mutes is increasing, and wrongly so, the percent- 
age of the deaf of little intelligence. 

The opposite case is also frequent, that there are idiots 
who succeed in pronouncing quite well, not only words but also 
entire sentences, without being able, however, to seize their 
meaning: and thus they offer us a proof that words and ideas 
can be entirely independent of each other. 

Of great importance are the hints which the author Dr. 
Sollier, and the commentator P. Parise, give in this valuable 
pamphlet, upon the diagnosis, prognosis, and the treatment of 
idiocy, and of all the psychic disturbances of children of little 
intelligence. We believe that the study of this work must offer 
a secure basis also for the education of the deaf, and we would 
therefore recommend this work of Sollier to the educators of 
the deaf. 

3<55 T'/ir Association Reziew. 

La Voce ncl linguaggio e nel canto [The Voice in Language 
and in Song], by Prof. G. Ferreri, Docent in the R. Uni- 
versity of Rome. 

These are six lectures given at the Popular University of 
Rome by Prof. Gherardo Ferreri, a specialist for the diseases of 
the ear, nose, and throat. The author describes thoroughly the 
organs of speech, comparing them with those of the vertebrate 
animals. Afterwards he speaks about the voice and respiration, 
giving many valuable indications on the intensity, pitch, and 
quality of the voice. Many useful hints are given in connection 
with the art of phonation in speech and song. "In various in- 
dividuals, says Prof. F., the differences of voice depend upon 
the size of the larynx; the larger it is, the lower the voice is; the 
smaller it is, the higher the voice is." The greatest defect of 
the voice of the deaf is included in this principle, and teachers 
should be careful to avoid developing to excess the larynx of 
their pupils. A favorable condition for a good phonation is the 
regular, rhythmical, and continuous movements of the chest and 
lungs. For this purpose it is necessary to provide a rather 
large development of the thorax. Special exercises are suggest- 
ed in order to acquire a regular function of the respiration 
through the nose. 

Visible Speech, the first attempt in Japan to adopt 
Professor A. Melville Bell's system in teaching the Japanese 
language; by Shinji Isawa. Tokyo, Japan. 

The author is probably the most distinguished educational 
authority in Japan. Although he has written many educational 
treatises, and more exhaustive works devoted to various special 
phases of education, it appears he never prepared strictly text 
books for schools, but devoted his labors generally to elucidat- 
ing principles and impressing upon others the necessity of their 
practical application. A man of a logical trend of mind and 
keen intellectual grasp, he early discovered in attempting to 
learn divers foreign languages, that owing to the want of any 
universally recognized scientific standard of phonetics, and the 
absence in his own country of properly qualified instructors, his 

Reviews. 396 

efforts to acquire correctness in foreign pronunciation were 
questionable. He therefore went abroad, and soon discovered 
that his apprehensions were well founded. Upon arrival in 
America, he soon realized that his pronunciation of English 
was faulty, and could not be understood, and he himself could 
not understand when he was spoken to in English. This fact 
disturbed him greatly until one day in 1876, at the Philadelphia 
Centennial Exposition, whilst engaged in examining the educa- 
tional exhibits, he observed among other, to him, strange 
devices, an illustrated system of universal alphabetics invented 
to teach the deaf how correctly to articulate English. He ex- 
amined the subject critically, and felt convinced that if the deaf 
could thus be taught to articulate correctly, there was no reason 
why the system should not prove equally applicable in teaching 
English pronunciation correctly to the Japanese. He at once 
determined to seek the author and inventor of what was termed 
"Visible Speech," and went to Boston, where he was cordially 
received by Professor Bell, and, in a comparatively brief space of 
time, had his faults of speech effectually corrected. His per- 
sonal practical experience caused Mr. Isawa to espouse the 
cause of "Visible Speech." On returning to Japan satisfied 
that the scientific basis of Visible Speech amply covered a scope 
wherewith primarily to secure a correct pronunciation of his 
own native language, (which, owing to faulty instruction had 
sadly deteriorated in certain provinces), he first set about to pre- 
pare the way by visiting, in 1899, localities in northern Japan 
where this deterioration had been most deplorable, and deliver- 
ing lectures upon the subject before the educational association 
of that region. Although, as usual in such efforts, he encount- 
ered untold opposition on the part of those addicted to the errors 
they had grown up with, his labors nevertheless bore effective 
fruit, and two teachers were sent to Tokio to be instructed in 
Visible Speech and its adaptation in correcting faulty Japanese 
pronunciation. After completing their training, these instructors 
returned to their several provinces, and meeting with signal 
success in the schools where they taught, the system will no 
doubt eventually be generally adopted, as its prime mover, Mr. 
Isawa, at present, and for years past, has occupied the highest 

397 ^^'*' Association Rn'ic7if. 

position in the educational department of the imperial gfovem- 
ment of Japan. The author, however, does not content him- 
self practically and scientifically in thus correcting the faults 
which crept into the pronunciation of the Japanese language 
owing to the want of a fixed educational standard, but insists 
that the same system shall be applied in Japanese institutions 
to the teaching of all foreign languages. It certainly speaks 
well for the keen discernment of Mr. Isawa in having discovered 
this effective means wherewith to secure, for all time, a correct 
pronunciation of the Japanese vernacular, and its endorsement 
by his government redounds anew to the credit and wisdom 
which uniformly in the interest of their people animate the 
rulers of Japan. 

Monographs on the Education of the Blind and Deaf in 
the Kyoto, Japan, Institution. 

Professor Nakamura, instructor of the blind, in part one, 
devotes considerable space to an argument showing the de- 
sirability and necessity of educating the blind, and states that 
their general trend has been to acquire skill in mass»age, or 
perfect themselves as musicians. 

Part two of this volume is devoted to the instruction of the 
deaf, by Professor Watanabe, who states that dactylology and 
the Oral Method being considered preferable, are employed. 
Considerable space is given to show the manner of phonetical- 
ly using the manual alphabet, and likewise to illustrations ex- 
planatory of instruction in articulation given by means of the 
Bell system of Visible Speech, which is here used in class instruc- 
tion. In conclusion, apart from "Kohi Koho, the great scholar," 
and "Kekuichi, the statesman," the known occupations of 76 
graduates are given as follows: 

One each — hotel owner, dyer, umbrella maker, doll manu- 
facturer, fan painter, screen manufacturer, shoemaker, scale- 
maker; two each — velvet artists, merchants, weavers, laborers; 
three each — furniture dealers, machinists, farmers; four each — 
teachers; six each — housekeepers; nine each — embroiderers; ten 
each — tailors; fifteen each — students, (clerks.) 

Reviews, 398 

Self-Instructor in Lip-Reading, Elwurd B. Nitchie, New 

This book as the author informs us is intended not for the 
deaf-mute, but for those commonly called "hard-of-hearing." 
The author is himself of the latter class, so his work is "the out- 
come of experience, both as a lip-reader and as a teacher of lip- 
reading." The aim of the book is to enable the learning of the 
art of lip-reading without the direct help of a teacher, and the 
lessons and exercises present material in an orderly develop- 
ment to that end. The work is an octavo of 162 pages, and is 
published by the author, address 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

The **Grangc'* Reading Book for Deaf Children, by S. Ku:- 
ner. Director of the Jews' Deaf and Dumb Home, London. 

This is a little book of 24 pages, designed, as the author 
says in his preface, "to help the teacher in a small school, where 
it is so frequently desirable that one section of a class should be 
profitably occupied while another is receiving more direct at- 
tention." The first part of the work consists of charts made up 
of consonant and vowel elements with key words, in series and 
order consistent with the author's plan; the latter part consists 
of short language exercises, the greater number of them being 
based on the Moritz Hill pictures of which they aim to be de- 
scriptive. The book may be had of the author only, at 61 Night- 
ingale Lane, Balham, London. Price 4 shillings ($1.00) per 
dozen, postage paid. 


Th BflstM ^^^ meeting of Department XVI — ^the De- 
^ .. partment of Special Education — of the Na- 

tional Educational Association, and the Annual 
Meeting of the American Association to Promote the Teaching 
of Speech to the Deaf, held in Boston during the summer, were 
both very successful and pleasant affairs. The Department 
meetings were conducted on different lines from those of pre- 
vious years, in accordance with the change in its purposes and 
methods decided upon at the Minneapolis Convention. Instead 
qf small, separate gatherings of teachers of the deaf, the blind, 
and the feeble-minded, each with its interest concentrated on 
its own special work, there were general sessions open to all 
who were connected with the education of children who, for 
any reason, required special means of instruction, and to those 
who might seek, in the experience of the teacher of the ab- 
normal, a philosophic basis for the better development of the 
normal child. As thus conducted, the Department is no longer 
a loose confederation of distinct bodies without mutual interests 
and of but trifling importance as the duplicating in an imperfect 
manner the work of the associations of teachers of the three 
classes represented in it, but a compact organization, with a well 
defined purpose, that is certain in time to work much good, not 
only for defective children in special schools, but also for the 
many thousands who, while able to pursue their studies in the 
general schools, suffer from the ignorance of teachers regarding 
their needs and the best way of meeting them. 

As the National Educational Association exerts a powerful 
influence upon legislation in school matters, the recommenda- 
tions of this Department will carry much greater weight than 
those of an association of teachers of the deaf or of the blind. 

EdUoriul. 400 

a-nd it may do much to further a better ot^tiization of the 
schools for these classes, and to induce greater Hberality in 
their support. It cannot be questioned, for instance, that the 
able exposition made by Dr. E. A. Fay of the principle, that 
schools for the deaf and for the blind are not charitable but ■ 
educational institutions, will not only obtain a much wider 
publicity but will appeal with greater force to the mind of the 
legislator and the publicist from the pages of the report of the 
National Educational Association than it would as part of the 
proceedings of the American Association of Teachers of the 

The Meeting of the American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf was only for the transaction of 
necessary business. It is greatly to be regretted that a regular 
summer meeting with its school of practrce could not be held, 
as it would certainly have been more largely attended than 
any previous meeting. The expressions of regret over the 
change in the programme that it was thou^t necessary to make 
late in the spring, were numerous and, in some quarters, where 
the circumstances were not fully understood, vigorous in tone. 
There appears to be a general sentiment in favor of regular 
annual meetings with a summer school for the training of teach- 
ers of speech, and this we believe the Association will shortly 
arrange for. 

Those who attended the Department and the Association 
meetings are under obligations to Miss Sarah Fuller and her 
staff for the many courtesies shown them, and especially for the 
pleasant reception given them at the Horace Mann School on 
the evening of July loth. S. G, D. 

Tfce Dealk of Information comes of the death, on the 4th of 

Dr. Ladreit de August, 1903, at his home in Paris, of the emi- 

Lacbarrlere nent physician. Dr. Ladreit de Lacharriere, at 

70 years of age. Dr. de Lacharriere will be remembered by 

readers of the Review as the President of the Hearing Section 

of the International Congress for the study of questions relating 


40I The Association Review. 

to the education and assistance of the deaf, held at Paris in the 
summer of 1900, and it was undoubtedly due to his earnest en- 
thusiasm and unwearied labors that the great success of the 
Congress was due. Dr. de Lacharriere held for four years the 
position of assistant physician, and for thirty-two years follow- 
ing, the position of physician-in-chief to the National Institution 
for Deaf-Mutes in Paris, from which latter position he retired 
in 1899. He took a lively interest in all questions relating to 
the welfare and advancement of the deaf, informing himself 
fully upon them. On the question of methods he was an un- 
wavering oralist. The high esteem in which he was held by his 
countrymen is evidenced by his numerous honors and offices, 
the government having decorated him an Officer of the Legion 
of Honor of France, and he being also an Officer of the Acade- 
my, a Commander of the Order of Isabelle la Catholique, and 
Chevalier of the Orders of Leopold de Belgique and of Christ 
du Portugal. For thirty years he was at the head of the "Societe 
Centrale d'Education et d'Assistance des Sourds-Muets," and 
latterly occupied the honorary position of general secretary to 
the society. F. W. B. 

There have been few changes of importance 
Amoof the Schools made among the executive officers of the 

schools for the deaf during the past summer. 
Mr. Charles P. Gillett, who was appointed acting superintendent 
of the Jacksonville, 111., school on the death of Dr. Gordon, has 
been elected superintendent. His long experience as a teacher 
and in other capacities in connection with the institution, and 
the traditions inherited from his noble father. Dr. Philip G. 
Gillett, make him a man peculiarly fitted for the position. 

Mr. James Simpson, superintendent of the South Dakota 
School for twenty years, has resigned to devote his whole at- 
tention to stock farming. He is succeeded by Miss Dora Donald, 
lately superintendent of the South Dakota School for the Blind, 
and known to our profession for her remarkable success in 
teaching the deaf-bHnd girl Linnie Haguewood. 

Editorial. 402 

Dr. Job Williams of the American School at Hartford, who 
was last year given six months' leave of absence, has resumed 
his duties, much improved in health. 

There have been numerous changes among the teachers of 
the schools. Among the more important we note the retire- 
ment of Miss Harriet E. Hamilton, who has been connected 
with the Rochester, N. Y., school since it was opened, and that 
of Mr. Linnaeus Roberts, a prominent member of the Western 
Pennsylvania School staff. 

Among material improvements accomplished or projected 
are, at the Kentucky School, a new steam heating and power 
plant and laundry building, and two new dormitories, to accom- 
modate one hundred and twenty pupils ; at the New York (Fan- 
wood) School, alterations in stairways and erection of fire escapes 
at a cost $18,000; at the Mt. Airy, Pennsylvania, School, the 
addition of a large cylinder press to the equipment of the print- 
ing office, and minor improvements; at the Tennessee School, 
the erection of a cottage for boys, to cost $8,500; at the Utah 
School, a new heating plant in a separate building, and a large 
gymnasium and shop building, also other improvements, at a 
total outlay of $20,000; at the Virginia School, the erection of a 
new building; at the North Dakota School, improvements at a 
cost of $20,000; at the Minnesota School, an addition to the 
cabinet shop, and a new school building of stone to be completed 
by January ist; at the Montana School, a new power-house and 
laundry, and a dynamo for electric lighting; at the Illinois 
School, a new chapel, studio and Hbrary building is to be erected, 
and new steam and electric plants will be installed. 

Mrs. Margulies and Mrs. Anderson who have jointly con- 
ducted a private school at Washington Heights, New York, 
have dissolved partnership, the former now conducting the 
"Reno Margulies School for Children with Defective Hearing," 
at 534 W. 187th Street, and the latter, "The Washington 
Heights School for Children with Defective Hearing," at 847 
St. Nicholas Avenue. The Wright Oral School has been re- 
moved to No. I Mt. Morris Park, New York City. 

S. G. D. 

403 The Association Review. 


At a special meeting of the Board of Directors of the 
American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf, held in Boston, July 8th, 1903, the following testi- 
monial to Dr. Joseph C. Gordon was adopted: 

Resolved, That by the death of Dr. Joseph C. Gordon, the 
Directors of the American Association to Promote the Teaching 
of Speech to the Deaf have lost a cherished colleague, the cause 
of speech-teaching a most sincere and zealous friend, the educa- 
tional world a brilliant scholar and teacher, and the community 
at large a high-minded, noble hearted, and public spirited citizen. 

Resolved, That the Directors tender their sincere sympathy 
to the family of their lamented associate for the great loss they 
have sustained. 

Resok'ed, That the Secretary of the Board be directed to 
enter these resolutions upon a separate page of the minutes, 
and to send a copy of them to the greatly bereaved family. 


The following named persons have been elected to member- 
ship in the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf by vote of the Board of Directors. The list 
includes those elected since the last report : 

Bahr, Lulu C, San Bernardino, California. 

Bell, Lucie Lee, School for the Deaf, Danville, Ky. 

Bryant, Belle, 809 Holland St., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Carlisle, Charles, Big Rapids, Michigan. 

Cason, Mary, Romney, West Virginia. 

Connick, Thomas, Dixie, Walla Walla Co., Washington. 

Curtis, Louise, School for the Deaf, Jacksonville, 111. 

Dunbar, Eva, Staunton, Va. 

Fairbank, Marion E., School for the Deaf, Austin, Texas. 

Fechheimer, Edwin S., Winnetka, Illinois. 

Field, Fannie, School for the Deaf, Baton Rouge, La. 

Fisk, Pauline, Crosby Place, Brattleboro, Vermont. 

French, Martha F., 983 Hancock St., Wollaston, Mass. 

Graham, James D., Pasadena, Cal. 

Gordon, Mrs. John R., Portland, Conn. 

Gottlieb, Leo, Trinidad, Colorado. 

Greeno, Mrs. Isador L., 338 N. State street, Chicago, 111. 

Griswold, Mary B., 502 E. First St., Duluth, Minn. 

Editorial. 404 

Herman, Kate S., Olathe, Kan. 

Humphrey, J. F., 122 E. Platte St., Colorado Springs, Col. 

Johnson, Fanny, School for the Deaf, Austin, Texas. 

Keppel, Mark, Room 47, Court House, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Libby, Mabelle J., 291 Spring St., Portland, Maine. 

Lightfoot, A. B., Big Rapids, Michigan. 

Lindsey, J. H., Charlottesville, Va. 

McClure, D. E., Lansing, Michigan. 

McDermid, W. D., School for the Deaf, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Millard, J. B., 315 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Nitchie, Edward B., 156 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Nixon, Bertha M., 246 Prospect St., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Pope, Alvin E., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rogers, Howard J., St. Louis, Mo. # 

Sanxay, Olive, School for the Deaf, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Sauter, Emily E., School for the Deaf, Boulder, Montana. 

Schafler, Anna E., Supervisor Schools for Deaf, Madison, Wis. 

Shermer, Charlotte, Sparta, Wisconsin. 

Smith, Ina, S. Farwell St., Eau Claire, Wis. 

Stuart, Ethel M., School for the Deaf, Halifax, N. S. 

Unkart, Gustava. School for the Deaf, Rome, N. Y. 

Woodruff, Miss M. L., Sch. for the Deaf, Colorado Springs, Col. 


Copies of the proceedings and the papers in full as read 
at the Boston meeting of the Department of Special Educa- 
tion, N. E. A., may be obtained as a separate pamphlet by ad- 
dressing Irwin Shepard, Secretary of the National Educational 
Association, Winona, Minn. Price, 10 cents per copy. 

The name of the chief executive officer of the Oklahoma 
school for the deaf .was given in the statistical tables of our June 
number as Pearl H. Dunham. It should have been H. C. 
Beamer, who is contractor and superintendent in charge of the 

Teachers wishing positions and Superintendents wishing 
teachers mav avail themselves of the office of the General Secre- 
tary of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf so far as it may be of service to them. The 
General Secretary aims to keep a list of teachers, and one of 
Superintendents, belonging to the above classes, ready for use 
by any person who may write for them. 


405 The Association Review. 

The Association Review is a publication of the American 
Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deal 
It is sent free to Active Members of the Association. Active 
membership is obtained upon payment to the Treasurer of the 
membership fee of two dollars ($2). or its equivalent in foreign ji 
currency — 8s. 4d. in English money; 8m. 2pfg. in German i 
money; lofr. 2c. in French money; 7 kr. 50 ore. in Norweg^ian, *? 
Swedish, and Danish money; and lol. 2c. in Italian money. j 
Postal moncv orders should be drawn on Philadelphia, in favor " 
of F. W. Booth. ! "i 

for the 

A private school for ]ui])il8 with defective hearing which \n equipped 
and conducted on the same ncale as the finest private schools of New York. 
Instruction is wholly oral. Preparation for any college or for buelnen. 
Lip-reading taught to adults. Hearing developed by scientific treatrnent. 
While adults are received, it is greatly to the advantage of children to be^in 
their study before reaching the age of six. 


1 IVIt. IVIorrls Parle, New Yoric City. 


Reprints in pamphlet form of the series of papers that have *. 
appeared in recent numbers of the Review on **Formation and 

Development of Elementary Eng^lish Sounds." by Caroline A. !, 

Yale, may be obtained by addressing the office of the General -1 

Secretary. Price for single copies, 25 cents. rj 

— 3 

Reprints in pamphlet form of **My List of Homophenous 'i 

Words," by Emma Snow, may be obtained through the office '■-] 

of the General Secretary. Price for single copies, 25 cents. ^ 




KRA.NK W. rJOOTH, - - Kditor 
S. G. DAVIDSON, AssociA.XE Kiditor 

December, \m 

On Teaching the Surd, or Deaf ami Conscquniily 

Dumb, to Speak ----- Wiijjam Tiiorxton 406 

An Educational Neglect ... - Edward B. Nitciiir 415 

An Aj^riadtural School for the Deaf - - Lars A. Havstad 421 

Teachers atid Physicians G. Fkrkkri 423 

The Relative Value of Speech and Up- Reading - A. Farrar, Jr. 431 
Report of Committee on Statistics of l^efective Slight 

and Hearin^r of Public School Children 436 


Rc!]K»rt nf tho Arnoritrau School at llartfonl for tlie Deal'. 444 — Thi» Teacher of the 
Deaf (Der»)y), 447— Tho M«\-»seii«?er (liclfait), 449— Anioru-an Annals of tho Deaf 
( Wasliiiiutoii;, 45H — NordUk Tidskrift for I)<ifstunisko1an (<t«»tfhorj;), 453 — Die 
KinduifehlcT (^Lan^ensalza;, 459 — Tratuniionto Pt*d:i|;o^u*o do Los Stinlonindos, 463 
— Hevms <M'ncraUMlrt rEnsn^uemuut de« Sou rd-s-Mm-ts (Paris;, 164 — Berieht der 
TaiibHtiniiinenanstalt fur Ffaniburfj, 4»»5 — Pt-nsieri Suirinsivn^monto DeirArithnie- 
tioa ai SoT-floniuti, 465 — Le l8titu/.ioni Americano per I'eduoazione dci Sord(»iui]ti, 
466 — Mi>niori:i del Instituto Nacioual, 467 

7 he Institution Press --------- ^gg 


Helen Ivtllfr Day at the Exi»osition, 46J»— Ohl Testament Stories. 470—Teach Lau- 
<;iiago Idiomatically hy James L. Smith, 471 — Mr. Hit/ in Hurope, 474 

Notes and Notices 479 

Names and Addresses of Members 481 



[Printins Deparuaent of the PeniuiylTania Institution Cor tho Deaf and Dumh] 

Vol. V, No. 5 $2.50 (lOs. 4d.) per year 

The American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 

Alexander Graham Bkll. 

A. L. E. CRorTRR. Caroline A. Yalk. 


Z. F. Westbrvelt. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 


F. \V. Booth. 
• 7342 Rural I^uie, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.) 


C-AKOi.iNK A. Vai.i:. 

Z. F. Wkmtriivri t. 

Ki)MrNi> Lton, 

'lerm fCxjnre$ 19' f 4, 

Sah mi K» i.i.kk. 
Term /ixjnrei IIWO. 

KirHAKI) (>. .)i>llN80!f 

K. A. Gk(7vbk. 


A. L. K. (-RonTBu. 

Term Iirpira !90r,, 

Tho Airj"r:i'.in Ar^.-m'iation t.> l*rorri<»tt* the* T»»ai!hin£f of Speech to th<*. Deaf welcomes 
lu Jtd meii»h»rs:.ii» 'ill p'TSdus who arc ifiteresti'd in it8 work. Thus the privilege of 
moiiiborshij) .s nnt. rostrirft**! tii t<^a('h(?rs activi'ly eiip^as^od in the instruction of deaf 
<»h'i<irfii, l».*t '.< i\^T« !!-i.'«l to )!i.'!tidc« I>in«'tor*» <»r Trustocs of Fi:hrN>l8 for the deaf, parents 
or jruiniiaii-* •••{* ••••.i'" »r'.!Mr«!i, thi- cduiMttNl doaf theniRelvefi who wish to aid by the 
w»* j^h: of \\n i: '-.X'. :«':.■•!■ a»id Kv thrir tr-i-oinTation the work that ha8 done 80 much for 
thorn, ar.-'J i-.V i-iii-r jH-r.-^.w;- v, j;.i may havr iiud iheir hearts touched with a desire to 

KviTv • . • ! '•••■*• :vi!ii- a •s.i::r.'H« •-•i.y*' <»f TnK -VHftorrATiON Review is invited to 

.i»;:i :i.' A- ••••t'-:!. T:-- r-M'tis-.i-ryrv;:. ij..-il'7rs) fr<». is $3.00 (8s. 4d.) per year, pay- 

1 '.'.T'.'V M . wT 

o- ;■•..'• 

■ • . • • 

■at't'.'* iiniiiinatioii to and election by the Baani 
\ ":«■:;.;.> • !' '"• niht'i-Nliii) together with the publicationn of 
ti'.<» .A*.-.' •'■:. -rs: !i. :.„:';'• •. As:^'>^■!^l! I O.N ItKViKvv. for one year. To non'mtmhert^ 
tho siV-.r.i-'«i. Ts--ci.- .»r Tn!- \-"««^'i\rr«»N J{kvikw iR $2.!>0 TlOs. 4d.) per year. 



Vol. V, No. 5. 

DECEMBER, 1903. 



The difficulties under which those have laboured, who have 
attempted to teach the surd, and consequently dumb to speak, 
have prevented many from engaging in a labour that can scarce- 
ly be exceeded in utility; for some of those to whom nature has 
denied particular faculties have in other respects been the boast 
of the human species ; and whoever supplies the defects of for- 

1 First published in 1793, in Volume III of 'Transactions of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for Promoting UsefUl 
Knowledge/' The essay immediately follows in the * 'Transactions" a dis- 
sertation by the author, of which the following is the complete caption: 


which was honored with the Magellanic Gold Medal, by the Philosophical 

Society January, 1793. 

GUAGE, illustrating, by a philosophical Division of SPEECH, the 
Power of each Character, thereby mutually fixing the Orthography and 


Cur mescirb, fudens rBAvs, qvam discrrk malo? 

Hor: Ars Poet: v. 88. 

With an Ebsat on the mode of teaching the DEAF, or SUIiD and conse- 
\ quently DUMB, to SPEAK." 

[In this republication of the essay effort has been made to preserve the 
spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, and other typographical features of 
the original publication. — Ed. Review.] 

2 For a slcetch of the life of William Thornton, with portrait, see Asso- 
ciation Review, Vol. II, No. 2. 

407 The Association Review, 

mation, and gives to man the means of surmounting natural im- 
pediments, must be considered as a benefactor. There have 
been many successful attempts, in divers nations, to procure to 
the deaf and dumb the modes of acquiring and communicating 
ideas. — The methods however are slow and imperfect. — ^The 
written and spoken languages are so different, that they become 
to such pupils two distinct studies. It is necessary that they ac- 
quire a knowledge of objects, by seeing their use, that they also 
become acquainted with the several words which when written 
become the representatives of these objects, and besides the dif- 
ficulties which present themselves in pronunciation, they are to 
remember that the different words which are written, and some- 
times with nearly the same letters, are of different signification; 
and in speaking require different pronunciations of the same 
character — this is an obstacle that can not be possibly avoided 
by the present mode of writing, and the languages become as 
difficult as Hieroglyphics. 

Some of the difficulties of acquiring a language when deaf, 
may be conceived by those that are experienced in learning for- 
eign tongues, where they are not commonly spoken, although 
aided by translations and dictionaries; but the man that hears 
nothing, has not the advantage of a child who learns by the con- 
stant chat of his parents and attendants, and who can obtain no 
pleasures but through the medium of speech — ^he hears and is 
constantly learning — to teach him is the amusement of every 
one; but the deaf receives his stated lessons, difficultly and sel- 
dom. — There is no book which by the figures or drawings of 
things have appropriate terms, nor is there a language which 
has appropriate characters. — The more I revolve in my mind 
this subject, the more I am astonished that even the most im- 
proved nations have neglected so important a matter as that of 
correcting their language; I know of none, not even the ^Italian, 

**'Cia8cheduno sa, che, come non v* ^ cosa, che piCl dispiaccia a Dio, che 
IMngratitudiue, ed inosservanza do' suoi precetti; cosi nou v' 6 nieute cbe 
cagioni mafi^gioriuent^^ la desolazione delP universo, che la cecity, e )a superbia 
deeli uomini. la pazzia de* Qentili, IMgnoranza, e rostinazione de* Oiiide!, 
• Scismatici.*' 


TfiaskeduDO sa, ke kome, Don y' ^ coza, ke piu displatCia a Die, ke 

On Teaching the Surd.' 408 

that is not replete with absurdity; and I shall endeavour to shew 
the facility with which the deaf might be taught to speak, if 
proper attention were once paid to this important point. ^ 

I have attempted to shew that in the English language there 
are^ thirty characters, and must suppose a tdictionary according 
to this scheme of the alphabet, upon which I mean to build 

the Method of teaching the Surd and consequently 

Dumb to speak. 

It is necessary to examine first, whether the dumbness be 
occasioned by merely the want of hearing, or by malconforma- 
tion of the organs of speech. If the latter there is no occasion 
to proceed, but if the former be the cause, the method of at- 
tempting to remove such an impediment may be pursued in the 
following manner. 

1st, They must be led, if young, to attempt to pronounce, 
by imitating the motions of children in speaking, and, as every 
thing at first would appear to them unmeaning, a child who can 
speak must be told to pronounce the letters, which you desire 
the deaf child to learn. If you succeed with difficulty, to pre- 
vent discouraging the deaf, the child who speaks must be made 
to pronounce slowly, distinctly, and with many repetitions, that 
the deaf may suppose the other to be in the same predicament; 
but if you have two deaf persons to teach at once, the first les- 
sons only need be given in this manner, for the progress of both 
will be at first perha;ps much alike. 

2dly, The pupil must be not only sensible when he makes 
the proper sound himself, but must also be able to distinguish 
these sounds in others. In teaching to pronounce, you must open 
the mouth, and shew the situation of your tongue as nearly as 
you can, then dispose your lips in such a manner as to give the 
sound, making apparently a more forcible exertion than com- 

ringratitudfne ed inosaorrantsa de auoi preetfettl; ooaai uon ▼' d niente kt 
kadjioni madjormeDnte la desolat8ioD« deir uniyerso, ke la tCetfita, e la 
auperbia del* i omini, la patsia de* Djeutili, riniorantsa, e rostinatsione de 
Djudeei, e nzmatitfl. 

^Requires a new character (the aspirate of 1) 

f Mr. Sheridan's or Dr. Eenriok'a may give some aid, till a dictionary be 
published upon this plan. 

409 The Association RnArw, 

mon. The pupil will try to imitate it. He will make no doubt 
a sound of some sort, either vocal or aspirate — If that sound 
b^ contained in the language you mean to teach him, point im- 
mediately to the letter which you find is the symbol, and repeat 
it so often, that he can neither forget it, nor have any idea of the 
symbol without that sound, nor of the sound without the sym- 
bol — If the sound be vocal let him feel at his own throat, and at 
yours, that he may be made sensible by the external touch that 
the sounds are the same, and he will with more facility be en- 
abled to give the aspirates by pronouncing them without a trem- 
ulous motion in the throat, which is the sole external mode of 
learning him the difference. When you teach the aspirate of any 
letter by a simple breathing, the organs being somewhat similarly 
disposed, he perhaps may stumble upon another vocal or aspi- 
rate: if so, shew him the letter he obtains by the error, as if you 
had no intention, in that instance, to teach the letter in affinity 
with the last; and let him repeat the sound, whether vocal or aspi- 
rate, till he is perfectly acquainted with it, and the appropriated 
character. You must then turn to another, taking care, that 
while he acquires, he does not forget, and let him often repeat 
them. When you have proceeded through the greatest part of 
the letters in this manner, and find that either the vowels or as- 
pirates which correspond to each other are wanted, you must 
take such as it would be proper to begin with, and I think that 
none would serve better than v — f ; j — sh^ ; z — s ; th* — th* ; 
in which, if the pupil be sensible, he will soon discover a connec- 
tion, and will be induced to search for the same affinities in the 
other letters, whether the language he learns contains them or 
not — It will be necessary, according to the age and disposition 
of the pupil, to use different methods of disposing his organs ; 
not only by letting him feel, how your tongue is raised to the roof 
of your mouth, pushed forward, depressed, withdrawn, &c. but 
also to dispose his, by your fingers, and have a looking glass 
always present, to shew him wherein he errs in not justly imitat- 

iln the original publication this element is represented by one of the 
characters of a ''uniyersal alphabet" presented and discussed in the pre- 
ceding dissertation. Not haying the character in type, its English equiva- 
lent is substituted. — Ed. Rbyibw. ] 

On Teaching the Surd. 410 

ing you ; and also to let him see when he is right in his efforts. 
This will teach him what is necessary. 

3dly, To know what others say, when they converse with, or 
ask him any question. This is the most difficult in teaching the 
surd, because most of the letters are formed in the mouth and 
throat, out of sight ; and here vision alone obtains the mean- 
ing. The mirror, however, will facilitate much the mode of 
learning what others say, by the deaf man's conversing with 
himself before it, but in presence of his teacher, to prevent 
his making mistakes, in the formation of the true sounds : 
and there are more guides in acquiring what words are spoken 
by others, than people in general imagine ; for so many of 
the letters which make a visible effect upon the organs, in their 
formation, enter into the composition of words, which may in- 
deed contain many that do not make much effect, that if all the 
former were written down, it would give to the eye, a kind of 
short-hand ; and is almost as easily caught by the watchful eye 
of the attentive deaf, as short-hand without vowels is read by 
the experienced stenographer. Both arts require long practice, 
but both are very attainable. 

When he has learned the true *sounds of the thirty letters, 
in the English language, he will be capable of reading as well as 
of speaking, and he ought to have a catalogue of objects, de- 
signed or represented, that he may affix proper ideas to proper 
terms. — Thus a child may be taught to read, to speak, to under- 
stand others, to write, and obtain a knowledge of things at the 
same time. 

The greatest difficulty that the deaf have to surmount, in 
making a quick progress, in general conversation, has been the 
want of a proper dictionary, or, rather, of a properly written 
language ; for if they pronounce the letters well, and attempt to 
join them, so as to read words as they are now written, it would 
be unintelligible. — The dictionaries of Dr. Kenrick and Mr. Sher- 
idan, would very much assist at present, for the deaf should have 
an opportunity of acquiring the sounds of words, whenever they 

*See the preceding dissertatinn Page 280 et seq: — also the table of 

411 The AssaciatUm Review. 

were disposed to learn, without being obliged to have recourse 
to others: but there are many defects, as well as mistakes, in 
Mr. Sheridan's, and though I have not seen Dr. Kenrick's, I 
know the manner, and it must also be defective, because in 
neither work, have letters been invented for the sounds not be- 
fore represented. — If the dumb had the advantage of learning a 
language properly spelled, every time they read in a book, the 
sounds would be impressed upon the mind, and reading would 
offer an eternal source of improvement, both in correct speak- 
ing, and in matter; and thus might a person, who had once learned 
his letters, be capable of reading everything correctly, and a 
child would not have to learn a language in merely learning to 
read; thirty sounds only would be required, and he would have 
no idea of the possibility of substituting a wrong letter in writ- 
ing, for one which he could properly pronounce; thus, spelling 
would not be a study in writing. I speak now, not only in favor 
of the deaf and consequently dumb, but of all others, who have 
not yet learned to read. Some of these ideas I have often re- 
peated, but repetition is admissible, when we consider with how 
much difficulty truth is made to grow in a soil where prejudice 
has permitted error to take deep root. 

Many of the dumb learn to communicate by their fingers, 
forming an alphabet, by pointing at each finger, by shutting 
them separately, by laying various numbers of fingers upon the 
other hand, first on one side, then on the other, and by different 
signs, passing through the whole scale of sounds — and compos- 
ing words by visible motions, which are agreed upon by a friend. 
They also write, and learn the meaning of things, by referring 
to the representatives of words instead of the words themselves, 
and the meaning of things would be as easily taught by this 
mode as by the ear, provided there were as much repetition in 
one case as in the other. 

It is necessary, that the dumb have each a book, in which 
should be written under proper heads, the names of familiar 
objects, and under them those things which have a connection, 
beginning with genera, and descending to species. 








^ a 

.S 2 

bo O 




413 The Association Review, 

As the pupil will be taught to read, to speak, to write and 
understand things at once, the teacher should force him to leave 
no name unpronounced, unwritten, or unread; and the pupil 
should be, at the same time, taught to observe the motions 
made by the organs of speech in his preceptor, and likewise to 
examine his own in a glass, and to draw the object, which may 
be done in a book either arranged according to the use of the 
thing, or put promiscuously with its name written under; and 
if the word be incorrectly spelled, to write it properly besides, 
or look in one of the corrected dictionaries. All these methods 
will impress his mind so strongly, that he will seldom have oc- 
casion to refer to his book; and by this method he will also at- 
tain to a great proficiency in drawing. 

The actions and passions should be acted to the pupil, and 
no movement made without shewing its meaning, and noting it 
down by writing, that words may increase in exact proportion 
to the increase of knowledge, and the progress which a student 
will make by this method will in a short time be astonishing. 

If a teacher were to undertake the instruction of several at 
once, which would indeed be most adviseable, it would be ex- 
ceedingly proper to procure as many prints or drawings of 
common objects as could be had, and even of the same objects 
in different postures and positions, with the name and action 
written beneath, and these arranged under different heads ac- 
cording to their relation to each other. The walls of the room 
might be covered with them, screens, portfolios and books also 
contain others, to which they might constantly have access. 
Colors ought also to be painted in squares, with their names at- 
tached, after them the shades and the various colors obtained 
by mixing simple bodies. They ought also to go through vari- 
ous courses of natural history, natural and experimental philos- 
ophy, including chemistry, by which they will see the extensive 
variety that even artificial mixtures and combinations of bodies 
will produce. The names, the processes, and results should be 
written, that nothing be lost. Space and time should be meas- 
ured, and all the parts of discourse made familiar by examples, 
as a sensible man would see occasion. 

The utility of attempting to teach the dumb to speak, has 

On Teaching the Surd. 414 

indeed been disputed by many, not only on account of the dif- 
ficulties which are judged insurmountable, the imperfect man- 
ner in which the pupils articulate, and the disagreeable noise 
they make in endeavouring to pronounce, but also on account of 
the difficulty with which they understand what others say, and 
more especially when they can be comprehended so well by 
writing, and made useful members of society by drawing. — ^The 
imperfect manner in which they speak depends not upon the 
pupil, if of common capacity, but upon the teacher; and I am 
confident, from short trials I have made, that the art is to be 
perfectly obtained by the foregoing method. The difficulty of 
understanding what others say I have already considered (page 
410 art. 3d) and though writing is a very necessary qualification, 
yet pen and paper are not always at hand. Drawing I approve 
of, as useful to every one, and perhaps more particularly so to 
a person whose want of natural faculties deprives him of many 
sources of amusement. But speech is so useful upon every oc- 
casion, that to attain it is to facilitate the very means of existence: 
for if a deaf man was even always provided with a book and pencil 
he would often meet with persons who could not read, and one 
sentence if only imperfectly spoken would convey more mean- 
ing than all the gestures and signs which would be made. 

A deaf person not perfectly skilled in reading words from 
the lips, or who should ask anything in the dark would be able 
to procure common information by putting various questions, 
and by telling the person that, as he is deaf, he requests answers 
by signs, which he will direct him to change according to cir- 
cumstances. — If he had lost his way, if he enquired for any one, 
if he wanted to purchase anything, and in all the common oc- 
currences of life, his speech would be so useful, that it would 
certainly more than repay the trouble of obtaining it; especially 
as it would be a mode of facilitating every other acquirement. 



Many cases of apparent dullness or inattention among 
school children are really only the result of deafness. Perfect 
hearing in both ears is possessed by less than five per cent, of 
the population, but the vast majority of the remaining 95 per 
cent, are entirely unaware of their aural defects. So among 
school children, in cases of backwardness caused by deafness, 
very few of the children know that they are deaf. Several years 
ago in New York City, Dr. Sexton found in a certain school 76 
cases of deafness, of which only one had been known before. In 
Terre Haute, Ind., Dr. Worrell discovered 98 cases, only one 
of which, again, had previously been known. The ignorance of 
teacher and child in regard to these cases misleads them both to 
attribute an inherent stupidity to what is actually caused by deaf- 
ness. Parents who find their children gradually falling behind 
believe the same. And when the pupils reach the higher grades 
and an age when they are sensitive to the apparent difference 
between themselves and other children, they drop out of school. 
Thus those, who because of their physical handicap are really 
in greater need of a thorough education than their brighter fel- 
lows, are deprived of it through ignorance of their true condition. 

This matter was suggested to me by Dr. H. A. Alderton, of 
Brooklyn. Desiring definite information as to the conditions 
prevailing in our public schools, I sent letters of inquiry to the 
public school authorities of the first twenty-five cities in popula- 
tion in the United States, and of six other cities selected because 
of their location or their reputation. From these thirty-one 
letters twenty-three replies were received. While not conclusive, 
they indicate a grave neglect in this matter on the part of a very 

1 Reprinted, with the author*8 permiHsion, from The Leader. 

An Educational Neglect, 416 

large proportion of the school authorities. The questions were 
as follows: 

1. Is the hearing of the school children tested ? 

2. How often ? 

3. What per cent, of the children are found defective in 
one or both ears ? 

4. What is done in the way of seating to help those found 
to have defective hearing ? With what results ? 

5. What, if anything, is done in the way of instruction in 
lip-reading to help such children ? With what results ? 

Of the twenty-three replies received, only eight give the 
direct affirmative to the first question. One of these, Boston, 
states that medical visitors test the hearing of such children as 
attract the attention of the teacher. Inasmuch as the teacher 
is as often ignorant of the deafness of a child as is the child him- 
self, such testing fails to discover previously unknown cases. 
Of the other replies. New York, Philadelphia, and Minneapolis 
give a qualified affirmative, such as "no tabulated data," "not 
regularly," "only by the teachers." The remaining twelve re- 
plies give an unqualified "no," though a few, such as Baltimore 
where the schools have recently been reorganized, and Wash- 
ington City, hope to do something in the near future. Provi- 
dence has done much for backward children in general, but noth- 
ing in particular for the class of backward children we are at 
present considering. A number of replies mention institutions 
for the deaf and dumb, but such work does not touch upon the 
problem in hand. 

Usually a "no" to the first question carried with it a total 
lack of information in regard to the other questions. But in a 
few instances answers were essayed in regard to some of them. 
Washington City and St. Paul, though making no tests, state 
that the per cent, of defective hearing is "very small," or such 
cases "seem to be few." When they are recognized, however, 
the pupils are given front seats. In Cincinnati and Jersey City, 
where also no tests are made, care is taken to secure proper seat- 
ing tor all known cases of deafness. "Generally good results," 
is the Cincinnati report. "Children reputedly slow have shown 
rapid improvement." In reply to the fifth question, Mr. Henry 

417 T'/t Association Review. 

Snyder, Superintendent of the Jersey City Schools^ says : "Lip- 
reading is, of course, used as an aid, in fact, must be used, in con- 
nection with the teaching of phonics." 

It becomes of interest to examine the results in those cities 
where authorized tests have been made. 

In Springfield, Mass., in the spring of 1901, tests were made 
by five inspectors. In all the schools out of 8,535 pupils ex- 
amined, 407, or little less than five per cent., were found to have 
defective hearing. In one school the percentage of defects was 
found to be as high as 33, while in others it was less than one. 
The only reasonable explanation of so wide a variation is that 
different standards were employed by the different inspectors. 
The examination had a primary value, however, in pointing out 
to teachers many cases of previously unknown deafness, and 
thus allowing proper seating and desking to be made in those 
cases. The examination also had a secondary value which will 
be spoken of later. In reply to my fifth question, Mr. Thomas 
M. Balliet, Superintendent of the Springfield Schools, says : 
"Nothing has been done to instruct pupils, whose hearing is 
defective, in lip-reading. This ought to be done." 

In New Orleans the children are examined at irregular in- 
tervals, but no statistics have been kept. Proper seating is re- 
sorted to in all discovered cases of deafness, but nothing is done 
in the way of lip-reading. In Milwaukee tests were made two 
years ago, when 7.25 per cent, of the pupils were found to have 
defective hearing. In Denver and Los Angeles the tests are 
made annually, but the per cent, of defectives is not given. In 
all these cities, proper seating of the children gives "satisfactory" 
or "g^enerally favorable" results. 

In Cleveland thoroughly systematic attention is given to 
this matter. Tests are made of all pupils when they enter school, 
and those found defective are tested at the beginning of each 
subsequent year. By Gale's test, approximately two per cent. 
are found to be defective. This test is simple, and can be made 
directly by the teacher; and the first week of the school year is 
largely given up to making these tests, and similar tests for de- 
fective vision, and seating pupils accordingly. The results of 
proper seating are reported as "very beneficial." 

An Educational Neglect, 


Chicago bears the palm for work that has been done to dis- 
cover and help all defective pupils. The Department of Child 
Study has had this matter in charge for some years. The test 
for ear defects is made by an experienced examiner using Prof. 
Seashore's invention, the audiometer. Such tests have the ad- 
vantage of being absolutely reliable for purposes of statistics, 
inasmuch as no differences in the human voice or in the loud- 
ness of a watch tick enter into the test in any way. By these 
tests in Chicago made on 5,915 pupils ranging from eight to 
eighteen years of age, over 16 per cent, were found to be de- 
fective In one or both ears, by "defective" meaning that a pupil 
"would be seriously inconvenienced in detecting sounds of me- 
dium intensity, — i. e,, four or more points below the norm." This 
percentage is seen to be from twice to eight times as large as 
in those other cities where the tests were not made so carefully. 

Further examination was made in Chicago to discover what 
bearing defective hearing had upon school standing. All the 
pupils were divided into two groups, those in or above the 
proper grade for the respective ages being placed in one group, 
while those below grade formed the second group. Of those 
below grade 18.68 per cent, had defective hearing, while of those 
at or above grade the per cent, was only 14.43. Thus, while de- 
fective hearing does not mean that the child so afflicted is neces- 
sarily dull, it does mean that on the average such defects do con- 
stitute a serious handicap to any child's work in school. The 
exact figures are given in the subjoined table: 

Number tested 

Defective in one or both ears. 
Per cent, defective 





At or aboTe 








The percentages of those at or above grade and of those below 
grade were found to be surprisingly uniform throughout each 
age from eight to eighteen. 

In Chicago, as in other cities, the results of proper seating 
are found to be "good." Nothing in general is done in the way 
of instruction in lip-reading, but occasionally a child is allowed 

419 T'/it* Association Review. 

to enter one of the rooms for the deaf and dumb for a few weeks' 
instruction "with good results." 

Thus, while little has been done for these children through- 
out the schools generally, the results in the schools that have 
done something are a lesson for those other schools where the 
matter has been almost or quite neglected. The first thing is 
to find out which children are the defectives. No teacher needs 
wait for an "appropriation" to do this. Simple and suffidently 
satisfactory is Gale's test as used in Cleveland. The pupil stands 
at the blackboard with his back turned. The teacher dictates 
from the desk, speaking in the tone of voice used in teaching, 
and the pupil writes down the dictation. If the pupil does not 
hear well, the teacher advances the distance of one seat and 
desk, and again dictates, and continues so to advance until the 
pupil understands readily. The distance between the teacher 
and pupil is the distance at which he should be seated to do satis- 
factory work. The test should be made with each ear separate- 
ly, the pupil stopping one ear with a cloth over his finger. If 
the pupil is found defective in only one ear, care should be taken 
not to seat him on the wrong side of the room. The results of 
intelligent seating in cases of defective hearing have been so 
uniformly excellent, that failure to discover such cases and to 
seat them properly is inexcusable. From the smallest country 
school to the largest city school, this should be done at the be- 
ginning of each school year, or with each term when a change 
of teachers is made. 

Further, I have the faith to say that much can be done 
through instruction in lip-reading. As a teacher of lip-reading 
to the adult hard-of-hearing and as one deaf himself, I know 
what a help lip-reading is. The mere habit of watching the 
mouth helps even those who have no instruction in lip-reading 
whatever. Teachers should direct all pupils of defective hearing 
so to watch the mouth. As to systematic instruction, though 
work for such children has never been done, it would be a com- 
paratively simple matter to adapt some of the existing methods 
of teaching to this special work. Of course, expert instruction 
would be preferable, but the subject is not one too difficult for 
the average teacher; a little application would quickly make 

An Educational Neglect, 420 

most of them competent to give it. The time spent need not be 
over one hour a week, preferably split into two half hours. The 
results of such instruction with adults makes me confident in 
saying that it would greatly help these school children too. 
More, it would be of very great value to them not only in school 
but through life. 

One further result of discovering cases of defective hearing: 
In Chicago, Cleveland, and Springfield, whenever a child is 
found to have any sense defect, a report is made to the child's 
parents with the suggestion that the family physician be con- 
sulted. The great majority of cases of deafness are due to ca- 
tarrh ; if treated in time, they are preventable and curable. But 
neglected, they are the most difficult cases of deafness that an 
aurist is ever asked to cure. By making such reports to parents, 
therefore, many a case of adult deafness would be prevented. 
Dr. A. Graham Bell is authority for the statement that there are 
in this country 300,000 persons under twenty-five years of age 
who have become deaf since the age of twenty. Many of these 
cases would have been prevented if proper tests and treatment 
*iad been given during the school years. 



In Norway, as in most other countries, the deaf are general- 
ly taught a trade, and become tailors, shoemakers, joiners, car- 
penters, printers, painters, sometimes also lithographers, en- 
gravers, and so on. The consequence is that they will in most 
cases seek employment in the towns (cities), where there are 
gathered a large number of deaf people. This is not always for 
their good. 

Seeing this Mr. Eyvind Boyesen, a gentleman who is very 
well acquainted with the needs of the deaf, having for several 
years taught in a school for deaf children, and done much service 
to the Norwegian Association of the Deaf at Christiania, formed 
the resolution to give the deaf an opportunity of residing and 
making their livelihood in the country. In a short time he raised 
by private subscriptions the amount of 30,000 kr. ($8,000), and 
bought for 35,000 kr. a fine farm near Sandefjord, not far from 
the mouth of the Christiania fjord and quite close to the spot 
where the famed Viking Ship was exhumated some fifteen years 
ago. Here he has organized an agricultural school for young 
deaf men, giving them the elements of agronomy, cattle-tend- 
ing, dairy work, etc., and teaching them to keep in repair the 
agricultural implements. 

This spring the first pupils, six young men of about twenty, 
came to attend the course (which will last two years), and with 
them, and without having any hired hands, Mr. Boyesen was able 
to do all the farm work during the spring, summer, and fall. 
The products are sold at the little neighboring city and bathing 
place of Sandefjord. All these young deaf men speak, and Mr. 
Boyesen, his family, and servants address them orally, without 
signs. It was remarkable to see that those coming from the 
country, where they had been living without intercourse with 
other deaf, invariably spoke better than those having lived in 

An Agricultural School. 422 

town after having graduated from the elementary schools. 

The new agricultural school has no state subsidy other than 
the salary paid to the principal. The several local authorities 
pay for the students belonging to them, some private gentlemen 
and ladies pay subscriptions, and the profit of farming is sup- 
pdsed to cover the rest of the expenses. 

This is in Europe quite a new departure in the education of 
the deaf. It is to be hoped that it may prove successful. The 
energy and perseverance of Mr. Boyesen is the best guarantee 
of the ultimate success of the enterprise. As farmers or agri- 
cultural laborers the deaf will be less liable to "clannishness"; 
they will learn to converse more freely with hearing people; they 
will get a broader view of life; they will lead a healthier existence; 
and the number will be fewer who are lost in the slums of the 
great cities. 



The revival of the studies of pedagogy and physiological- 
psychology demonstrates — especially during the last twenty 
years — the intimate connection between organic and psychic ac- 
tivity, and the reciprocal action of the one upon the other. From 
this a new literature has arisen upon the mutual relations be- 
tween the physical and the intellectual and moral development of 
the child. The modern educator can find his way today in the 
complicated labyrinth of sensorial impressions and psychic ac- 
tivity of his pupil, if only he follows with vigilant care and intelli- 
gent interest the literature which has had its principal develop- 
ment in France and Germany. This advantage, theoretically at 
least, has been felt by students of medical science who are agreed 
in admitting that the education of the young must be based upon 
the imperious needs of hygiene and of a normal physical develop- 
ment of the child. 

One might observe that certain truths were also not hidden 
from the ancients, although forgotten or neglected during the 
course of centuries which with their vicissitudes arrest humanity 
or carry it backward on its march towards civilization and prog- 
ress. It is well to remember that while the Latin poet limited 
himself to only expressing a desire, with his "precamur ut sit 
mens sana in corpore sano" the modem man has transformed 
prayer into action and does not hesitate to admonish, "let us see 
to it that the good organic constitution of the child favors the 
efficacious action of the mind in its gradual development." 

It would be easy to display one's erudition by describing 
here the phases of evolution undergone by physical education 
from the time of Descartes until our day, but instead we must 
hasten to enter into the argument which is the object of the 
present article. 

Teachers and Physicians. 424 

The relation between teachers and physicians has been 
rendered more intimate and reciprocal from the moment that 
education could be defined as a function which favors and facil- 
itates the natural work of evolution; the work of nature is 
strengthened when joined to that of man. But it is also true that, 
with a few exceptions made for the most advanced nations, the 
questions of scholastic hygiene, from that of the school-buildings 
to that of the overwork of the brain, still remain a matter of the- 
oretic and speculative discussion. Now although one explains 
this in a measure by the actual conditions and by the difficulty of 
many experiments through which must result, sooner or later, a 
practical change in the science of education, it cannot be justi- 
fied in regard to the pedagogical treatment of abnormal chil- 
dren. For this the harmonious cooperation of physicians and 
teachers ought to have constituted the basis for an emendatory 
pedagogy (Heilpadagogik). 

We are, alas, instead only at the first stage of the problem, 
and although for nearly twenty years teachers and doctors have 
been trying to agree upon a more rational educative work for 
children defective in body and mind, still this agreement is far 
from being accomplished as yet. The causes for this phe- 
nomenon are many and various, but if we limit ourselves to the 
principal ones alone we hope to bring a useful contribution to- 
wards the solution of this important problem. 

We must naturally limit ourselves to the necessary coopera- 
tion of physicians and teachers in the modern school for the deaf. 
For this purpose it is well to call to mind two of the most recent 
publications which reflect in a measure the state of the question 
in Europe. 

The first is that of Mr. Karl Baldrian, an experienced teach- 
er of Dobling (Vienna), on the cooperation of physicians in the edu- 
cation of the Deaf^; the other we owe to the pen of Dr. Eloy Be- 
jarano, of the Institute of Madrid.* While the first gives us an 
idea of the need felt in countries of the German tongue for ati 
efficacious contribution on the part of physicians for the social 
restoration of the deaf; the second shows in part the reasons 

i**Die viiiwirkuiijf der Aerzte bei der Taubstumraenbildung." 
2 See department of Reviews. 

425 The Association Review, 

why this contribution is wanting: in the Latin countries of old 

A glance at these two writings will result, we hope, in show- 
ing us the condition of one of the most interesting questions now 
in discussion in regard to the modern school for the deaf. 

Mr. Baldrian begins by observing that if in any branch of 
education the harmonious work of medicine and science is neces- 
sary, it is in that of the education of the deaf. 

It is true, he says, that a consulting physician is not lacking 
in any institution for the deaf for cases of illness among the 
pupils, but it is also true that his work is very limited. One must 
consider, in fact, that it is not enough, in respect to the deaf, a 
general care such as every ordinary physician takes for hygienic 
conditions of the rooms used as schoolrooms, for recreation, etc 
Every one knows that a great number of our pupils are found 
in a miserable physical condition, and require special care on the 
part of the physician and teacher. This reminds me of a curious 
visit which I made some time ago to a school for deaf girls. 
There were about a dozen pupils. In all of them I noticed a 
physical and moral prostration, to which I soon was obliged to 
attribute the weariness and general apathy of the class, weari- 
ness and apathy which were reflected mutually from the pupils 
to the teacher and from her to them. I began to make a more 
particular examination of the different pupils, and in reply to my 
questions I received such a mournful litany of answers as to 
make me think I was in a hospital rather than in a school. One 
was afiFected with myopia; another who looked like a bagfull of 
matter, was under treatment for glandular scrofula; a third was 
enduring with the patience of Job the repulses of her school- 
mates, because she was affected by ozena ; a fourth was frequent- 
ly seized with such crazy fits as to give cause for serious appre- 
hension; a fifth had lost her left eye; a sixth, one does not know 
why said the teachers, was entirely refractory to reproof or to 

emulation — site would not learn 

But I will not extend the sad list of the conditions of that unfor- 
tunate class. It seems to me that I have said enough: i, to 
call to mind the fact that defective results do not always depend 
upon the imperfections of the method; 2, to confirm, and that 

Teachers and Physicians. 426 

any one can do who has had any real practice with the deaf, that 
which the colleague Baldrian so opportunely reminds us of, 
when he insists upon the necessity of a sanitary, accurate, and 
thorough examination of all the children who are admitted to a 
school for the deaf. 

The information which the parents of the deaf child can give 
in this respect is not sufficient. They themselves do not know 
whether their child is affected with other bodily infirmities be- 
sides that of deaf-mutism. Sometimes also, and this I have 
proved in preceding writings of mine, the parents will not tell 
all for fear of having {he unfortunate child sent home. 

An accurate examination should also be made by the phy- 
sician, accompanied by the Principal and the class-teacher, of the 
lungs of the new pupils, and in case of general weakness, and par- 
ticularly of the organs of respiration, the oral teaching should 
be postponed until the individual has been well fortified by a 
special treatment. For this end there ought to be connected with 
the ordinary course of instruction, a school of observation and 
of preparation, like the one already established by Mr. Stotzner, 
the Principal of the Institute of Dresden. The institution of the 
kindergarten which I saw in various places in the United States 
answers perfectly to this need, where the child is prepared for 
school with special care of mind and body. 

In cases where there is reason to fear a disposition towards 
tuberculosis, an examination must not be neglected, in order to 
protect the patient as well as his fellows from danger. 

In the second place is taken into consideration the work of 
the aurist, who alone is able to recognize the auricular condi- 
tions of the deaf pupil. The visit of the specialist to our pupils is 
not only of use to the educator in giving them knowledge of the 
defects and of the injuries of each organ of hearing, (perforation 
of the drum, suppuration, defective development, etc.), but he can 
also indicate what treatment is necessary and suitable for the 
good of the pupils. Besides this, it is well known that often the 
extraction of foreign substances may discover the existence of a 
power of hearing, at least for vowels. It may also be advisable 
in some cases to have an operation, for which, however, the con- 
sent of the parents should always be obtained. 

427 The Association Review, 

The systematic acoustic exercises must be taken by the ad- 
vice of the physician subordinated to that of the educator, and 
must be directed and carried on by the teachers. 

But the investigations cf the specialist should not be limited 
to the organs of hearing, which are dead in the majority of cases^ 
and for which there can be no hope of success in any rational 
treatment. One must extend the examination therefore in order 
to ascertain the physiological and pathological conditions of the 
mouth, nose, and the pharyngeal cavity, for it is known that cer- 
tain maladies, as for example the adenoid vegetation, have an 
injurious effect not only in a physiological respect, but also in 
that of the psychological development of our pupils. 

Let us hear what Dr. Gutzmann has to say in regard to this 
in his valuable study on "the development of speech and its impedi- 
fftcnt in the child" : 

**Among the preventive causes which not rarely produce 
mutism without deafness, belongs in a special manner the ade- 
noid vegetation in the naso-pharyngeal cavity. The lymphatic 
vessels of the throat are in close and reciprocal connection with 
the base of the brain, especially in children, and one must admit 
that with the adenoid vegetation is connected a species of lym- 
phatic stasis. Many observers of authority, and the same has 
also happened to me, have seen (after the removal of the adenoid 
vegetation) speech develop spontaneously in a most wonderful 
manner in children of 5 and 6 years of age, which had been pre- 
vented until then. And we find that 53 per cent, of the mute chil- 
dren without deafness are affected with adenoid vegetation." 

There are besides many and various reasons why the as- 
sistance of a physician in the diagnosis of deaf-mutism and in 
the prognosis and treatment of our pupils, is becoming every 
day more necessary. The artificial development of speech not 
only requires the intelligent work of the teacher, but also the 
guidance of the specialist-physician, who alone can discover the 
defects so frequent in all the parts of the vocal organs, and can 
suggest the most efficacious remedies. 

But, unfortunately, the necessity of the assistance of a spe- 
cialist-physician in our educational work makes us consider and 
demand "if such physicians, competent in the matter, exist?" and 

Teachers and Physicians. 428 

"if and how they are admitted among the personnel of the 

At this point an opportunity is offered us of entering into 
a discussion from which would result: 

1. That the ordinary sanitary personnel is not only unable 
to cooperate intelligently with educators for the lack of psycho- 
logical study in respect to the mental development of abnormal 
children; but also only in a limited way in respect to the physical 

2. That the assistance of a specialist-physician has not been 
considered necessary until now because of the distrust which 
educators had, and still have, of them. 

3. That this distrust has been strengthened and increased 
by the physicians usually employed by the Institute of the Deaf, 
for as they have not studied otology, rynology, nor laringology, 
they did not have a clear idea of these sciences and often de- 
preciated the results. 

4. That these results have been often compromised by the 
same specialists from having promised too much, and also some- 
times from having operated too much, giving in their practice 
too great a part to surgery, when all that was needed was a 
simple and easy therapeutics. 

5. That in the few and rare cases where a specialist-physi- 
cian has been added to the personnel of a school, his work has re- 
mained inferior to the need, and this from lack of preparation 
and of energy on his part, or because he did not find the neces- 
sary cooperation on the part of the Principal and teachers. 

I have condensed in the preceding points a long discourse, 
which I could also illustrate with a quantity of facts. I prefer, 
however, to refer to the two authors already mentioned, and 
verify by means of them the present state of the question. 

Mr. Baldrian extols the provision made by the Prussian 
government in 1900, as a very wise one, which relates to special 
courses to be given every year for the special instruction of the 
physicians employed by the Institutes for the Deaf. These 
courses have already taken place in Berlin and Munich, and 
have been largely attended by physicians and teachers from the 
various provinces of German speaking countries. 

4^y The 

^>n these ocoLsions the attentiofi of doctors and teaidiers 
wa§ directed to the necessitr of a spedai treatment tor die cres 
and teeth of the deaf pupils. As regards die ejes it would be 
superfluous to insist upon their importance and Tahie fior one 
deprived of hearinj^; as regards the teeth, it is onbr too wdl 
known how often they are irregular and of de fe ct i fc derekjp- 
ment in the deaf. 

The provision of the German government relieves us from 
the necessity of speaking of the need and importance of giving 
special instruction to the physicians employed in our schools. 
But, however, it offers us an opportunity of verifying that the 
lack of suitable knowledge in the ordinary* physician, is owing 
to the noted fact that in our universities there is seldom found 
a chair for the teaching of otolog\', and kindred sciences, and 
that where such instruction is given, it is never placed among 
the regular branches, but it is left to the option of the student 
to inscribe it as one of the special coiu'ses. Hence it follows 
that only those study it who wish to become specialists. This 
is a serir>iis defect, as I have already at other times had occasion 
to prove, anrl when one reflects that although the course of op- 
thahTioloj^y is required, yet, as is reasonable, those with diseases 
of the eye, for an efficacious treatment, go to an oculist and not 
to an ordinary doctor. 

It was this state of affairs which caused the passing of the 
resolutions by the National and International Congresses of the 
various otological societies established during the past twenty 
years. But as yet these resolutions remain in the region of rosy 
ideals, and they have again been sadly repeated in the XIV. 
Congress of Medicine, held the present year in Madrid. 

On that occasion Dr. Bejarano treated the subject of the 
medical-pedagogical treatment of the deaf, but was obliged to 
connect it with the general deficiency in the preparation of physi- 
cians, and in the lack of specialists. And we could confirm 
with facts observed during more than 12 years, that which Dr. 
Bejarano had to say in regard to the wretched answers given 
by the physicians to the questionary in common use in some of 
the Institutes, for the admission of pupils. 

It had been hoped, and such a hope seemed reasonable, that 

Teachers and Physicians. 430 

in process of time when these questionaries should be extended 
to all the schools (as is the case in Norway and Denmark), a 
collection could be made of them which would bring a valuable 
contribution to Etiology and to Pathogenesis and to the diag- 
nosis of deaf-mutism. And that from this benefit of a real 
importance, would certainly be derived a rational guidance for 
distinguishing the difference between medical and pedagogical 
treatment, and in consequence there would result progress both 
in the science of medicine and in that of education. 

But if all this is lacking as yet, it does not mean that we 
have renounced hope for the future. An intelligent cooperation 
between physicians and teachers must prepare the ground best 
adapted for comparative research on causes, and effects, and the 
medical-pedagogical remedies for deaf-mutism. 

In order to obtain this — rather than by the resolutions of 
Congresses, or by the direct intervention of governments, busily 
occupied in quite other affairs — one should trust to a harmonious 
understanding between teachers and physicians. They must 
both persuade themselves that if the Pathology of deaf-mutism 
is as yet almost unknown, it is owing to the hurtful and tradi- 
tional exclusion of the physician in the many and various mala- 
dies of infancy. 

As regards then the treatment and education of the deaf, 
in the present state of science in general and of physiological- 
psychology in particular, it is not allowed to separate the work 
of the physician from that of the teacher. 

One must remember, however, that to obtain such an union 
it will be necessary first of all for both parties to avoid every 
tendency to overrule each the other. It might be proved, in fact, 
that it was due in a great measure to this tendency in the mutual 
relations between the physician and teacher, which has retarded 
until now this most desired cooperation for the benefit of the 




Let me at the outset explain that by the above title I mean 
the value of speech and lip-reading compared with each other 
and not with other forms of expression. I do not, however, pro- 
pose to discuss the question from the pedagogical point of view, 
for to do so would re-open the floodgates of controversy in re- 
gard to methods of instruction. Nor do I propose to discuss 
it with reference to the social results of oral education — an 
equally wide and debatable subject. I intend rather to limit 
myself to the experience of the oral deaf and take as an accepted 
fact their ability to speak and read the lips with varying degrees 
of success in their every day life, and to consider which of the two 
accomplishments is of the most value and advantage to them. 
My paper is addressed chiefly to oral teachers, or perhaps I 
should rather say all who instruct their pupils in speech and lip- 
reading, whatever may be the precise method followed in their 
general education. 

Speech and lip-reading are so constantly associated together 
as if the one were the indispensable complement of the other, 
like the ear and speech with those who hear, that the idea of there 
being any difference in their practical value will to some appear 
strange. What, they will say, is the good of speech, if at the 
same time you cannot read it on the lips of another, or what is 
the good of lip-reading if you cannot speak well enough to be 
understood ? No doubt in theory the oral deaf who can speak 
fairly well should be able to read the lips equally well, or vice- 
versa, so that a proper conversational balance is maintained be- 
tween them and their interlocutors. In practice, however, such 
is rarely the case. The speech of the deaf may be understood 
by a considerable number of people, but it does not necessarily 
follow that the former on their part are able to read the lips of 
all the latter. 

1 Reprinted, with the author's permisMon. from The Teacht^rof the Deaf. 

Value of Speech and Lip-Reading, 430 

The fact that speech and lip-reading are not of equal value 
in the intercourse of life is one that has long been familiar to me 
both from personal experience and from observation of other 
oral deaf people, and it is at the present time the subject of in- 
quiry in America; 

I believe the experience of the oral deaf in regard to speech 
and lip-reading may be classed under one or other of the follow- 
ing heads: — 

1. Their speech may be so good and intelligible and their 
capacity for lip-reading so highly developed that the two balance 
each other and work in unison in conversation. They are then 
of equal value. This is the highest ideal that can be aimed at 
and realized in practice, implying a degree of facility in mutual 
oral intercourse between the oral deaf and their hearing inter- 
locutors that falls little short of that between hearing people. 

2. Their speech may be good and intelligible, but their 
capacity for lip-reading relatively limited and its value dependent 
on special conditions of intercourse, possibly involving the assis- 
tance of other modes of expression, such as writing and manual 

3. Their speech may be poor and not always intelligible, 
but their capacity for lip-reading may be relatively high. 

4. Their speech and lip-reading may both be so poor as to 
be of little or no social value, at any rate beyond a very limited 

The condition described in the first of these classes is more 
or less ideal, and I believe is seldom fully realized in actual prac- 
tice, and then usually only in certain circumstances, as between 
teacher and pupil at school, and in the intimate intercourse of 
family, social or business circles where the oral deaf attaining to 
this standard are well known and accustomed to move. 

Leaving the fourth class out of consideration as of no great 
account, T believe the experiences of most of the oral deaf who 
are fairly successful would be found to fall under the second and 
third classes, but chiefly under the second. • 

It has been and continues to be my good fortune to enjoy 
in exceptional cases an experience of the first class, but so far as 
intercourse at large is concerned and even with many intimates. 

431 The Association Review, 

my experience for the most part has been of the second class. 
I may illustrate this by one or two concrete instances. During 
the final stages of preparation for the London University Matric- 
ulation I had two special tutors, or "coaches," one for the classi- 
cal and the other for the scientific side — men who had no previ- 
ous knowledge of the deaf. My experience of the former was of 
the first class, so much so indeed that it would have been difficult 
to find another man whom it was so easy and pleasant to lip-read. 
The latter — ^the scientific tutor — although he understood me 
nearly as well as the other, was, on the contrary, very difficult to 
lip-read, and consequently conversation on his side was for the 
most part by writing — an experience of the second class. I say 
this in no disparagement of the gentleman. 

Again, to take another instance of recent date, at one of the 
conferences of the N. A. T. D., I met, not by any means for the 
first time, a man now dead, who was well known and highly 
esteemed the whole world over by all concerned with the deaf. 
He had little difficulty in understanding my speech, but his mode 
of speech made it all but impossible for me to read his lips proper- 
ly, and so he partly spelt on his fingers. Directly I had done 
with him, I was conversing with another gentleman whom I had 
seen only once or twice before, and the experience was altogether 
of the first class. The incident was not without its ludicrous 
aspect, as the former was known for a sceptic in regard to lip- 
reading and the other a firm believer in it. It proved the need 
of caution on the part of hearing people in giving testimony of 
their experiences with the oral deaf, and supplied a possible clue 
to the conflicting character of the views and evidence we are ac- 
customed to have on the subject. The above instances are simp- 
ly a few out of many, and typical of much of my intercourse 
through life. 

In regard to lip-reading it is difficult to say precisely why in 
such cases as these the one succeeded and the other failed in 
similar circumstances. The chief cause, however, lies in the 
different modes in which people speak, which in their visual 
effects are more varied than those who hear have any conception 
of, but other causes, chiefly dependent on constitution and tem- 
perament, play an important part in determining the particular 

Value of Speech and Lip-Reading, 432 

expression which speech takes in each individual. Contrary to 
what might be expected, the most highly educated, probably 
from their more studious and secluded habits, are not necessarily 
the most likely subjects for successful lip-reading. They are 
rather to be found amongst ordinary people of active and smart 
habits, and preferably the young. 

Similarly in regard to speech, some people understand me 
quite readily even for the first time, while others fail to do so after 
repeated trials. In this case it is still more difficult to give any 
satisfactory reason for such marked differences. Possibly it 
may be due to the possession or want of an "ear" for the peculiar 
and unusual intonation of the oral deaf. The difficulties con- 
nected with the practice of speech, however, are nothing so 
great as those connected with lip-reading. 

But to return to the point, if the question be put whether 
speech or lip-reading is of the most value under all circumstances, 
I most unhesitatingly give the preference to the former. This 
may be further illustrated in a more general way. Suppose an 
oral deaf person is brought into contact with, say, fifty different 
persons, including strangers and friends; if his speech is fairly 
good and intelligible, the probability is that most, if not all, of 
these fifty will understand him readily enough. On the other 
hand, each of these fifty will exhibit differences, sometimes con- 
siderable, in his or her mode of speech, and consequently our 
deaf person's capacity for lip-reading will not be equal to under- 
standing as many of his hearing interlocutors as understand him. 
He will readily understand a certain number, others with more 
or less difficulty, and some not at all. Thus it may well happen 
that while an oral deaf person may be fairly well understood by 
a number of people, his means of understanding them, on the 
other hand, may range from perfect lip-reading with a few of 
them to utter inability to read the lips of others. It is this dif- 
ference in the "personal equation," if I may call it so, which 
renders speech a comparatively certain and lip-reading a compa- 
ratively uncertain means of communication. 

A practical consequence of the greater value of speech as 
compared with lip-reading may also be seen in the following not 
uncommon case of a more individual sort. Suppose an oral deaf 

433 T^A^ Association Review, 

person casually meets a stranger with whom it is necessary to 
communicate; then if his speech is fairly intelligible he can not 
only make himself understood, but what is of importance, can 
explain his own situation and place his interlocutor in a position 
to communicate either by lip-reading, writing, or manual spell- 
ing, as the experience of the moment may determine to be most 
convenient for both. On the other hand^ if the deaf person is 
unable to make his r peech understood it is easily evident that he 
cannot make any progress at all by that means alone, so that 
even if he happens to possess a high capacity for lip-reading, this 
will not help matters much in his intercourse with the stranger. 

In this connection I may mention a circumstance which is 
another point in favour of my view of the relative value of speech 
and lip-reading. It is that hearing people as a rule prefer to hear 
the deaf speak, if they do so fairly well and intelligibly, rather 
than follow their finger spelling or read their writing. On the 
other hand, if these same deaf persons do not read the lips of 
hearing people very readily, the latter are not so disinclined 
either to spell on the fingers or write, if it facilitates conversation. 

Again, on the many occasions in daily life when the oral deaf 
are in shops, offices, hotels, railways, and such like circumstances, 
it is clear and intelligible speech that is found to be really indis- 
pensable, and usually suffices without any g^eat call being made 
on their capacity for lip-reading. We may indeed go so far as 
to say that the speech of the oral deaf is the essential and valu- 
able element in their intercourse, while it is more rarely that lip- 
reading alone is available without the aid of writing and manual 

There is still another factor which tells largely in favour of 
speech being of more value than lip-reading. It is that if the deaf 
speaker's speech is intelligible it is directly available and strikes 
home at once, whereas with lip-reading the hearing speaker 
has to address himself specially to his deaf interlocutor and speak 
slowly and distinctly. This is seen in the fact that the ordinary 
conversation of other people amongst themselves is seldom if at 
all followed by the oral deaf. 

In general, lip-reading is of the most value in the school 
and home, while speech is of the most value in life at large. In 

Value of Speech and Lip-Reading. 434 

the school it is necessary for a number of the deaf to follow the 
lips of one hearing person — the teacher — while in ordinary life 
one deaf person has to make himself understood by as many 
hearing individuals as he meets. 

I am, however, very far from wishing to appear to depreci- 
ate the value of lip-reading by placing it on a .lower level than 
speech. Whenever conditions of intercourse of the first class, 
or even of the third, are possible, lip-reading is simply invaluable, 
but under other conditions it depends very much on the nature 
of the personal equation how far it will go, and quite as often as 
not it has to be supplemented by writing and manual-spelling. 
This is sometimes regarded as though it were a confession of 
failure. Argument is not possible with critics who insist on 
finding in lip-reading a perfect substitute for hearing or not 
at all, and judge accordingly. I would, however, remark that the 
value of a means of communication like lip-reading, which is not 
always equal to the demands made on it, cannot be fairly judged 
by isolated instances of success or failure in the same individual, 
but must be estimated by the gain or loss in his general ex- 

Erroneous ideas are held by many as to the true relation of 
speech and lip-reading to each other, some even regarding the 
latter as the backbone of the oral method, strangely oblivious of 
the fact that lip-reading derives whatever natural validity it pos- 
sesses from speech. You may teach a deaf-mute to speak only 
and not practise lip-reading at all, but you cannot teach him 
lip-reading only without speech. Cases may no doubt occur 
of deaf-mutes, who, although they have not learned to speak, at 
any rate to some purpose, nevertheless can read the lips with 
fair success, but they are exceptional. Lip-reading, divorced 
from speech, is simply a set of arbitrary signs, for then it has not 
the natural reality or intuitive value due to the deaf speaker's 
consciousness that the facial signs he reads are the necessary 
effects of the organic movements of speech which he has already 
learned to produce in himself, and which he associates with the 
facial signs. 

So far as the question concerns the oral teacher, while he 
should aim at developing and employing lip-reading to the ut- 

435 The Assodatian Review. 

most, it is of still greater importance that he should secure a 
free and intelligible articulation in his pupils. This is after all 
the real test. Excellence in speech depends largely on the 
teacher's ability, but lip-reading depends more on the scholar's 
own ability — I might add knack — a fact remarked long ago by 
Bonet in his classical work. We cannot hope in all cases to 
secure the condition of things described in the first class of ex- 
periences, but much, very much, will be gained if the speech of 
the deaf is good and intelligible, and it may then be left to their 
hearing fellows to employ lip-reading, writing or manual spell- 
ing according to the capacity of the deaf to follow each individual 
by one or more of these means. 




Boston, Mass., July lo, 1903. 

To the President of the Department of Special Education of the 
National Educational Association. 

Dear Sir: Your Committee has experiAced considerable 
difficulty in collecting statistics concerning the number and per- 
centage of pupils in public schools who have defective sight or 
hearing, retarding their progress in school. 

Through the courtesy of the Hon. William T. Harris, a 
special circular of inquiry was sent out by the United States 
Bureau of Education to the superintendents of schools in cities 
having more than 25,000 inhabitants. 

The circular was sent to 160 city superintendents, 78 an- 
swers were received, and only in 19 cases were any statistics 
reported. Unfortunately there were only about half a dozen 
cases in which the figures were so arranged as to be capable of 
combination into a table. 

From the returns received by the Bureau of Education your 
Committee has compiled the statistics shown in the Appendix. 
Table I relates to defective vision: Total pupils examined, 34,- 
426; defective in sight, 4,603 or 13.4 per cent. Table II relates 
to defective hearing: Total pupils examined, 57,072; defective 
in hearing, 2,067, or 3.6 per cent. In these tables minor defects 
have been ignored and only marked cases included. 

These results indicate that large numbers of children in the 
public schools are handicapped in their progress through school 
by defective sight or hearing; and they suggest the importance 
of urging upon all superintendents of schools the advisability of 
testing the powers of sight and hearing possessed by their pupils, 
and of publishing the results. 

'Submitted to the Department of Special Education of the National 
Educational Association, at the Boston Meeting, July 10, 1903. 


The Association Review. 

Your Committee suggests that the Department of Special 
Education should appoint a Committee to examine and report 
upon the various means employed to test sight and hearing in 
the public schools and to collect comparative statistics concern- 
ing the results. 

Your Committee desires to express its great indebtedness 
to the United States Bureau of Education for so readily co- 
operating with them in its labors^ and would suggest the pro- 
priety of asking the Bureau of Education to continue the collec- 
tion of statistics of this character. 

Respectfully submitted^ 

F. W. Booth, Chairman, 

per A. G. B. 

Table I. 


Pupils ex- 

Pupils hayiDg 

marked defectiye 




Per cent. 

Bayonne, N. J 

Jersey City, N. J 



17 9 


Note 2. 

Utira, N. Y. (1897) 

Note 4. 

Utic»,N. Y. (1898) 

Worcester. Mass 

Note 5. 
Note 6 





Table II. 


Pupils ex- 

Pupils having 

marked defective 




Per cent. 

Bayonne, N. J 

Chicago. Ill 






Note 7. 
'Note 8. 
Note 4. 
Note 5. 
Note 6. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Utica, N. Y. (1897) 

Utica, N. Y. (1898) 

Worcester. Mass 





Statistics of Defective Sight and Hearing. 438 


1. Bayonne, N. /. — Superintendent Christie reported 4,610 pupils ex- 
amined; total number defective, 618; number with defective eyesight, 353; 
defective hearing, 115; other physical defects, 175. 

2. Jersey City, N. J, — Superintendent Snyder submitted a report by 
Dr. Wallace Pyle, oculist, concerning the results of the eye examinations 
of the children of the grammar departments of public schools Nos. i, 2, 
15, 20j and 22. 

Number of pupils examined 1,100 (girls, 542; boys, 558). Ages 
ranged from 9 to 16 years. 

Cases of astigmatism, 116 (girls, 56; boys, 60); defective distant 
vision, 251 (girls, 119; boys, 132); defective near vision, 33 (girls, 1$; 
boys, 18); number wearing glasses, 23 (girls, 14; boys, 9); cases of cross- 
eye, 19 (girls, 11; boys, 8); inflammation of eyes, 51 (girls, 23; boys, 28); 
trachoma, 13 (girls, 4; boys, 9). 

Number of cases having marked defective vision, and whose parents 
were notified of the existing defect, 197 (girls, 99; boys, 98). 

3. Pawtucket, R. I. — Superintendent Hervey reported that during 
school year 1900-1901 the teachers tested 4,663 children and found 517 
children who had one-half or less than one-half of normal vision in one 
or both eyes, and that 200 had marked defects in hearing; also tihat a 
large number of children had adenoid growths. 

4. Utica, N. Y. — Extract from 1897 report of Superintendent 
Griffith : 

During the spring of 1896 tests were made of the sight and hearing 
of all the children in the public schools. These tests were made by the 
teachers after instruction by a specialist. Snellen's test cards were used 
for testing the sight, and an ordinary watch for testing the hearing. A 
summary of the conditions revealed by the test is as follows: 

Whole number examined 6,113 

20-60 or lower 667 

20-10 or higher 23 

20-40 890 

20-40 to 20-60 48 

Astigmatism 1,187 

Astigmatism combined with headache 5& 

Color-blindness (nearly all to red) 134 

In the ear test, those who could hear less than one-third the aver- 
age distance for the class 406 

Those one-half to one-third this distance 399 

Counting both tests, there were 1,202 different pupils extremely de- 
fective, and 965 others who seemed to be quite defective, enough so to 
need examination by a specialist. Thus we found about 35 per cent de- 
fective in sight or hearing or both. This conditi