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Harvard University 

Monroe C. Cutman Library 

of the 
Graduate School of Education 

Thb Association 




KRANK V/. BOOTH, - - Editor 
S, G. DAVIDSON. Assistant Editor 

Volume IV 





Printed at the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 

Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Penn. 


Adams, Mabel Ellery, Trying the Use of the Akoulalion, 87. 

Aid Society for Deaf-Mutes and Blind, at Lyons, France, review of re- 
port of, 282. 

Akerly Samuel, Letter from, to Dr. Cogswell., 1821, August 28, with Cogs- 
well's reply, 1821, October 15, 38; refs. to, 19, 20, 36, 447. 

Akoulalion, the, 87. 

Allen, Edward E., loi, 194, 195, 196, 290, 366, 369. 

Allen, Jessie B., 52. 

American Annals of the Deaf, review of January number, 85; of March 
number, 176; of May number, 278: of September and November 
numbers, 476; statistics from, editorial, 95; refs. to, 63, 129, 134, 173, 
292, 293, 300. 

American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 
Nominations to Membership, 94: Notice of the Summer Meeting and 
Summer School, 98; proceedings of the annual meeting of the Board, 
99; notice of the postponement of the Summer Meeting and tlie pro- 
posed Summer School, 197; report from the committee on Summer 
School, 197; call for annual meeting of the Association, 19S: pro- 
ceedings of the annual meeting of the Association, 407; List of Mem- 
bers, 498; refs. to, 262, 284. 

American School for the Deaf at Hartford, see Hartford, Conn.. School. 

A New Aid for the Instruction of the Deaf, by G. Forchhammer, a review, 

A New Expedient for the Teaching of the Deaf, by G. Forchhammer, 413. 

Aphasia, Muteness and, by Dr. H. Gutzmann. a review, 379. 

Are W and Y Ever Consonants, by Anna M. Black. 42. 

Argentine Republic, Schools for the Deaf in, a review, 393. 

Argyle, Blanche E., 52. 

Arkansas Deaf-Mute Institute, see Little Rock, Ark.. School. 

Ashcroft, Harriet E., Report of the Mackay Institution for Protestant 
Deaf-Mutes and the Blind, at Montreal, a review, 59. 

Assarotti, Rev. O., 155. 

Association Review, 69, 96, 97. loi, 129, 258. 285, 480. 

Atwood. Lois E., an obituary sketch, by Isabel Vandewater Jenkins, 49. 

Austin, Texas, School, 496. 

Austria-Hungary schools for the Deaf, a review, 68. 

A Visit to the Principal Italian Institutions for the Deaf, by Miss 
Schmidt, 455. 

A Work of Humanity, a review, 492. 

Bacon, John. 441, 443. 

Balis, J. C. 290. 

Banerji, J. N., Calcutta School for the Deaf, 354; Report of the Calcutta 
School, a review, 481. 

Becker, C, 377- 

Bell. Alexander Graham, Historical Notes Concerning the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf, 19, 1.^9, 439: Postponement of the Summer 
Meeting and the proposed Summer School. 197: Address before the 
National Educational Association (Department of Special Educa- 
tion), 360; refs. to, 94, 99. 100. loi, 171, i94, i97, 19^. -85, 290, 291, 335. 
360, 367. 368, 372, 391. 415. 472. 

Bell, Mrs. Alexander Graham, 372. 

Bell. Alexander Melville, 241. 323, 424. 426. 

■RHl. navid C. ohituj^rv notice of. 407- 

Belleville. Ontario. School. What tbc Pn.rrnts of the Pupils and Former 
Pupils say about the Institution, a review. 50: review of report, 253. 

iv Index, 

Bezold, Dr., Deaf-mutism according to Auricular Observations, a review, 

Bingham, Cornelia D., 365, 366. 

Bjorset, Hans, The Proper Forum, a criticism of the article by Dr. A. 

L. E! Crouter in the American Annals of the Deaf, "Changes in the 

Method of the Pennsylvania Institution," a review, 63; refs. to, 132, 

Black, Anna M., Are W and Y Ever Consonants, 42. 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung, review of November i and 15, and 
December i. 1901, numbers, 67; of January and February, 1902, num- 
bers, 162; of March i and 15, and April i numbers, 260; of June and 
July numbers, 378. 

Blind-Deaf, the, a Supplement to *The Deaf-Blind," by William Wade, a 
review, 480. 

Booth, Frank W., The Teachers' Bu'-eau, 89; The Wisconsin Round 
Table, 90; The Oral Method and Manual Environment, 90; Letter of 
Helen Keller, 92; Nominations to Membership, 94; The Annals 
Statistics, 95; The Summer Meeting and Summer School. 98; Annual 
Meeting of the Board, 99; Statistics of Speech Teaching in American 
Schools for the Deaf, 134; The Summer School Postponement, 187; 
The Passing of the Sign Method, 188; Helen Keller's Own Story, 190; 
The Deaf Blind at School, 192; The Mississippi Institution Building 
Burned, 194; Meeting of Executive Committee of Department XVI, 
N. E. A., 194; The Hubbard Memorial Buildini?. 284; Helen Keller's 
Own Story, 285; The Statistics of Speech Teaching, 287; The Iowa 
School Fire. 289; The Exhibit at the St. Louis Exposition. ^89: The 
Wisconsin School's Fiftieth Anniversary, 2(jo; Report 011 Statistics 
of Speech Teaching in America. 292; Graded Stories, 312: Prctceed- 
ings of N. E. A. Meeting at Minneapolis, 360; The Lesson to be 
Learned by the General Teacher from Teaching Language to the 
Deaf, a review, 478; refs. to, 94. 100, 194, 195, 291, 365. 371, 408. 409, 
410, 411. 

Boston, Mass., School, review of report, 57. 

Boulder. Montana, School, review of report, 481. 

Boyd, Hypatia, 167. 

Boyer, A., 173, 

Bowles, William A., Report of the Virginia School for the Deaf and the 
Blind at Staunton, a review, 153. 

Brackett, J. W., 446. 

Braidwood, Thomas, 148, 448. 

Braunschweig, Germany, School, review of report, 282. 

Breckenridge, Mary S., 177. 

Bridgman, Laura, 471, 472. 

Brohmer, R., Utilization of the Remnants of Hearing, a review, 378. 

Buckmaster, G., 447. 

Budapest, Hungary, School, 491. 

Buenos Ayres School, review of report, 158. 

Buff and Blue, The, 269. 

Burt, Mrs. W. N., 85. 

Caldwell, William A., Understanding Versus Expression, a leview, 85. 

Can We Do More for the Education of the Deaf, by Mr. Lobe, a review, 

Calcutta School for the Deaf, by J. N. Banerji, 354; review of report, 481. 

Care of the Speech of Children in the Family and the School, by Albert 
Gutzmann, 107. 

Carter, Franklin, 373. 

Gary, C. P., 52, 54, 290, 496. :' 

Casanova, Luigi, 458, 462. ^ 

Ceroni. G. B., 45.«>, 456. 

Chappie, B. P., 365. ' 

Chauncey, Charles, 441. . , ^ 

Index. V 

Cheefoo, China, School, review of report, 82. 

Christiania, Norway, Public School for the Deaf, a review of report, 493. 

Church for the Deaf in Stockholm, The Need of a, a review, 266. 

Church Mission to Deaf-Mutes, 398. 

Clarke School for the Deaf, See Northampton, Mass., School. 

Clarke, Thomas P., 296. 

Clarke,. Mrs. Thomas P., 296. 

Clarkson, Matthew, 447. 

Clerc, Laurent, his letter to Dr. Cogswell, alluding to release of Stans- 

bur/s bond, 32; refs. to, 23, 27, 30, 141, 144, 146, 440, 441, 442, 443. 
Clinton, DeWitt, 20, 29, 36. 
Qippinger, £. £., 496. 
Cloud, J. H., 289. 
Cochrane, W. A., 290. 
Cogswell, Alice, 440. 
Cogswell, Mason F., Prospectus of Hartford School, 23; Letter to, from 

Laurent Clerc on the release of Stansbury's bond, 32; letter to, from 

Dr. Akerly with reply, 38; ref. to, 440. 

Columbus, Ohio, School, 63. 
Companion, The, extract from, 477. 

Compulsory Education of the Deaf, by G. Kraft, a review, 483. 
Construction and Activity of the Brain with Special Reference to Speak- 
ing and Speech by H. Hoffmann, 313. 

Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, Proceedings of Six- 
teenth Meeting at Buffalo, a review, 282. 

Convention of Austrian Instructors of the Deaf, a review, 482. 

Copenhagen, Denmark, School, review of report, 281. 

Correction, 497. 

Council Bluffs, Iowa, School, 289, 496. 

Course of Instruction, a schedule for, by H. Hoffmann, a review, 165. 

Crane, Mrs. Charles R., 291. 

Crouter, A. L. E., Discussion of his article on "Changes of Method in 
the Pennsylvania Institution," by Hans Bjorset, 63; Report from the 
Committee on Summer School, 197; Report of the Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, a review, 249; refs. to, 94, 99, 
100, loi, 195, 407, 409. 

Curriere, France, Institution for Deaf Mutes, statistics published by the 
professors of, a review, 69. 

Damon, Alice, 366. 

Danger, O., Upon the Organization of the Education of the Deaf in 
Prussia, 122, 201. 

Danville, Ky., School, review of report, 152. 

Das Taubstummenbildungs-Wesen im Jahrhundert in den Wichtigsten 
Staaten Europas, by Johannes Karth, a review, 387, 490. 

Davidson, S. G., on Dr. Harvey W. Milligan, 403; Deaf Boys at Harvard. 
405; Supplementary Schools, 494; The Schools, 496; ref. to, loi. 

Day Schools, early discussion of, in Historical Notes, 449. 

Deaf Artists at the Paris Salon, a review, 61. 

Deaf-Blind, prints for the, a review, 87; now at school, 192. 

Deaf Boys at Harvard, by S. G. Davidson, 405. 

Deaf Congregation at Copenhagen, a review, 376. 

Deaf-Mutism according to Auricular Observations, by Dr. Bezold, a 
review, 484. 

Deaf School. News, of Cheefoo, China, a review, 82. 

Deaf, the, and His Education, by Giulio C. Ferreri, a review, 385. 

Defective hearing, prevalence of in Prussia, 163. 

Delavan. Wis., School, 51, 90. 290, 496. 

De TEpec, Charles Michel, 144, 147, 273, 447. 

Denys, Paul, 183. 

Detroit Association of Parents and Friends of Deaf Children, 244. 

vi Index. 

Department XVI of the Xati<_»nal Kdiicaiicnal Association, see National 
Educational Association. 

Die Doves Blad, review of October, November and December, 1901, 
numbers, 79; of January, 1902, number, 175. 

Die Kindcrfehlcr, review of No. 6, Vol. VI, 71. 

Dobyns, J. R., Report of the Mississippi Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb at Jackson, a review, 173. 

Dow, J. J., 291, 366, 368. 

Draper, Amos G., 480. 

Kddy, Emily, 290. 

Editorials, b.9, 187, 284, 494. 

Education of the Deaf Abroad, Impressions and Comparisons, by G. 
Ferrcri, a review, 76. 

Education of the Deaf in Prussia, by O. Danger, 122, 201. 

Effatha Society for Promoting the Christian Instruction of Deaf-mute 
and Blind Children, at Dordrecht, Netherlands, review of report, 88. 

El Sordo Mudo Argentino, review of May and June, 1902, numbers, 392. 

lily, Charles W., Report of the Maryland School for the Deaf at Fred- 
erick, 154. 

Ely, William, 143. 

Em den, Germany, School, review of report, 493. 

I'ngelke, August, 382. 

Enseignement logique de la langue francaise aux Sourds-Muets, a re- 
view, 77. 

Enseignement pratique de la langue francaise, a review, 77. 

En Storslagen Laronstalt, by Otto Solomon, a review, 80. 

Erd, Robert L., 279. 

Everett, Ruth, 471. 

I'^veryday English, Book One, Language Lessons for Intermediate 
Grades, by Jean Sherwood Rankin, a review, 472. 

Experimental Phonetics, by John G. McKendrick, 327. 

Faribault, Minnesota, School. 365, 476. 

Fearon, J., Report of the Nova Scotia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
at Halifax, a review, 254. 

Ferreri. Giulio C. The Oral Method in the School at Frankfort-on-Main, 
i; on the International Congress of 1900, a review, 7y, on the educa- 
tion of the deaf abroad, a review, 76; on the battle of methods, a 
review, 86; The Psychic Development and the Pedagogical Treat- 
ment of Children who are Hard of Hearing, 232; The Oral Method 
and its Fitness for the Instruction of the Deaf, 344; Victorious Amer- 
ica. 357; The Deaf and his Education, a review, 385; refs. to, 122, 
125, 156. 157. 158, 164, 258, 270. 366, 374. 375, 376. 

Finch, Henrik, his work at the Trondjhem, Norway, School, by Lars 
A. Havstad. 132: ref. to, 259. 

Finkh, K., on Jorgenscn's observations regarding the work of the Fred- 
ericia, Denmark, school, dvring the period of 1881 — 1900. a review, 
68; on the organization of Swedish Institutions for the Deaf, 490. 

Finland schools for the Deaf, a review, 81. 381. 

First Lessons in Speech, b}' Anna C. Hurd, a review, 475. 

Fish, N., 447. 

Fisher, A. H. T., 58. 

Fletcher, Katharine, The Instruction of Wisdom, 217. 

Florence, Royal Inst, for the Deaf at, a visit to, by Miss Schmidt, 465. 

Fonner, M. D., 55. 

Forchhammcr, Joh. Geo., A New Aid for the Instruction of the Deaf, a 
review, 390; A New Expedient for the Teaching of the Deaf, 413. 
refs. to, 65, 66, 160, 383. 480. 

Formation and Development of Elementary English Sounds, by Caroline 
A. Yale, 240, 323. 424. 

Fornari, Pascal, The honors to, a review, 74; Program for a Normal 
course of lessons for teachers, a review, 255; ref. to, 156. 

Index. vii 

Frankfort-on-Main School, Oral Method in the, by Giulio C. Fe-reri, i. 
Fredericia, Norway, School, 68, i6o, i66, 383. 
Frederick, Md., School, review of report, 154. 

Fuller, Sarah, Report of the Horace Mann Sch. at Boston, a review, 57. 
Gallaudet College, see Washington, D. C, College and School. 
Gallaudet, Edward M., Notice regarding exhibits at St. Louis World's 
Fair, 48; refs. to, 168, 289, 290. 

Gallaudet, Thomas, obituary sketch by Rev. J. M. Koehler, 396; ref. to, 

Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins, his letter to the Board of Directors of the 
Hartford School relative to his difficulty with Stansbury, 29; Letter 
regarding him from Stansbuiy to his brother, 31; refs. to, 23, 27, 33, 
34, 38, 40, 41, 139, 141, 168, 396, 440, 441. 

Games and Joys of our Deaf Children, by E. Lamprecht, a review, 260, 

Gard, F., his letter addressed to Philanthropists of the United States, 19; 

ref. to, 443. 
Gardner, Hannah, 54. 
Geddes, J. T., 496. 
Genoa School for the Deaf, a history of the, a review, 155; account of a 

visit to, by Miss Schmidt, 464. 

German Naturalists and Physicians, Section on Diseases of the Nose, 
Throat, and Ear, Third Meeting at Hamar, a review, 270. 

Ghislandi, Eliseo, 455. 

Gibolet, on methods of instruction, a review, 62. 
Gilby, F. W. G., 480. 
Gillespie, Frances E., 279. 

Gillett, Philip G., Testimonial and Resolutions on his death adopted by 
the American Association, 99; ref. to, 403. 

Gloshaugen, Norway, School, 88. 

Godwin, A. J., 86. 

Gomez, F. Vasquez, 393. 

Gomez, J. P. Diaz, 392. 

Goode, Cornelia S., 193. 

Gordon, Joseph C, loi, 195, 273, 291, 365, 366, 369, 408. 

Graded Stories, editorial, 312. 

Graff, Eugene, 270. 

Grascr, 162. 

Greenlaw, Margaret C, 56. 

Greenoblc, France, School, 389. 

Grosvenor, Melville Bell, 284. 

Grow, Chas. M., 154. 

Gruver, E. A., loi, 194, 196, 290. 

Gutzmann, Albert. Care of the Speech of Children in the Family and the 

School, 107; Preparatory and Supplementary Education of the Deaf, 

a review, 487. 

Gutzmann, H., The different forms of Muteness and Aphasia, a review, 

Hale, E. E., letter to, from Helen Keller, 92. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, School, review of report, 254. 

Hall, Frank H., 480. 

Hall, Percival, 280. 

Hamar, F., 61, 390. 

Hamar, Norway, School, 132. 

Hanson, Olof, The Sign Language in American Schools, 129; Compara- 
tive Statistics of Methods of Educating the Deaf in the United States; 
a review, 479. 

Hammond, H. C, 289. 

Harris, William T., 363, 371, 473. 

viii Index. 

Hartford, Conn., School, review of report, 59; refs. to, 23, 26, 29, 31, 32, 

38, 139, 141, 145, 148, 440, 443, 444, 445, 449, 450, 451, 452. 
Havstad, Lars A., Notes from Norway, 132; refs. to, 63, 82, 259. 
Hcfferen, Helen M., 367. 
Heidelberg, Baden^ School, 382. 
Historical Notes Concerning the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, by 

Alexander Graham Bell, 19, 139, 439. 

— , Appendix 40, The Letter of M. Card, the Deaf Teacher of Bor- 
deaux, France, dated April, 1816, which was brought to Amer- 
ica bv William Lee, U. S. Consul at Bordeaux, 19. 

— , Appendix 41, Prospectus Announcing that the Hartford School 
would open on the 15th of April, 1817, under Gallaudet and 
Clerc, with Rev. Abraham O. Stansbury and Wife in Charge 
of the Domestic Concerns, 23. 

— , Appendix 42, Letter from Rev. Abraham O. Stansbury to his 
Brother Arthur in New Yo'-k, Describing the Hartford School 
and the Life of the Pupils, 26. 

— , Appendix 43, Stansbury*s Letter to his Brother Suggesting his 
own Name for the Superintendency of the Proposed New 
York Institution, 28. 

— ^, Appendix 44, The Difficulty between Gallaudet and Stansbury: — 
Gallaudet's Letter to his Board, 1817, Sept. 4, and Stansbury's 
Letter to his Brother, 1817, Sept. 17, 29. 

— ^ Appendix 45, Clerc's Letter to Cogswell Alluding to the Release 
of Stansbury's Bond, 18 18, May 7, 32. 

— , Appendix 46, The Opening of the New York Institution, 1818, 
May 20, with Rev. Abraham O. Stansbury as Superintendent 
and Principal, 34. 

— , Appendix 47, Quotations from the Letters of Rev. Abraham O. 
Stansbury after he became Principal of the New York Insti- 
tution, 1818, Sept. 4; 1820, Feb. — , and March 12, 37. 

— , Appendix 48, Rapprochement between the New York Institution 
and the Hartford School. Letter from Dr. Akerly to Dr. Cogs- 
well, 1821, Aug. 28, with Cogswell's Reply, 1821, Oct. 15, 38. 

— , Appendix 49, Extracts from the Early Reports of the Hartford 
School Showing the Attitude of the School towards Speech 
Teaching, 139. 

— , Appendix 50, Gleanings from the Philadelphia Newspapers of 
1816, 439. 
Hitz, John, 186, 475. 

Hobart, Almira I., The Wisconsin Round Table, 51; refs. to, 53, 183. 
Hofgaard, Elias, 132. 
HoflFmann, H., on a course of instruction, a review, 165; Construction and 

Activity of the Brain with Special Regard to Speaking and Speech, 

Holmestrand, Norway, Public School for the Deaf, 88. 

Holy Home of the Misericordia, in Porto, Portugal, review of report, 

Home Instruction, early discussion of, in Historical Notes. 449. 
Home for Aged and Infirm Deaf at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 400. 
Horace Mann School, Boston, see Boston, Mass., School. 
Household School for the Deaf in Finland, a review, 381. 
Howard, Jay Cooke, 280. 
Howes, P., 446. 
Howe, Samuel G., Proceedings of the Celebration of the One Hundredth 

Anniversary of his Birth, a review, 470; ref. to, 92. 
Hubbard, Gardiner Greene, 284. 
Hubbard, Mrs. Gardiner G., loi, 284. 
Hubbard Memorial Building, The, editorial, 284. 
Hudson, Henry, 143. 
Hunaeus, Andreas Herman, 70, 

Index. ix 

Hurd, Anna C, First Lessons in Speech, a review, 475. 

Hurley, Margaret, 55. 

Hutchinson^ Emlen, Report of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf 

and Dumb, a review, 249. 
II Sordomuto e la sua Educazione, Giulio C. Ferreri, a review, 385; ref. 

to, 344. 
Illustrations: illustrating some muscles used in speech, 8 — 12, 114 — 118, 

209 — 213; diagram illustrating Speech Statistics from the American 

Annals, 97; diagram illustrating statistics of Sign Language, 131; 

diagram illustrating progress of speech teaching in America, 292; 

portrait of Rev. Thomas Gallaudet, opp. page 313; illustrating ex- 
perimental Phonetics, 328 — 336; Mannoral System, opp. page 422. 
Institutions de Sourds-Muets. Statistique, 1901, a review, 69. 
International Congress, The, for the Study of the Education and Assis- 

ance of Deaf-Mutes, of 1900, a review, 72; refs. to, 170, 270. 
International Reports of Schools for the Deaf. Made to the Volta 

Bureau, January, 1901, 184. 
Iowa School Fire, The, editorial, 289. 
Iowa School for the Deaf at Council Bluffs, see Council Bluffs, Iowa, 

Italian Institutions for the Deaf, A Visit to the Principal, by Miss 

Schmidt, 455. 
Jackson, A. W., 480. 
Jackson, Miss., School, review of report, 173; building burned, 194, ref. 

to, 496. 
Jacobson, H., 107, 455. 

Jenkins, Isabel Vandewater, on Lois A. Atwood, 49. 
Jenkins, Weston, 278. 
Jennings, Alice C, 58. 
Johnson, Joe., 479. 
Johnson, Richard O., loi, 
Johnson, Samuel, 448. 
Jordon, C. M., 290, 360. 

Jorgenson, George, 68, 160, 166, 262, 383, 384. 
Kaata, Ragnhild, 132. 
Karlskrova, Sweden, School, 80. 
Karth, Johannes, The State of the Education of the Deaf in the 19th 

Century in the Most Important Countries of Europe, a review, 387, 


Keisel, Theodore, 480. 

Keller, Helen, letter to E. E. Hale, 92; her own story, editorial, 190, 285; 
refs. to, 376, 472, 473, 475- 

Kelley, A. H., 364, 

Kentucky Institution for Deaf-Mutes, see Danville, Ky., School. 

Kemer, J., 381. 

King, E. W., 446. 

Koehler, J. M., obituary sketch of Thomas Gallaudet, 396. 

Kraft, John, 376, 483. 

Kyhlberg. O., 159. 

Labagh, A., 447. 

Lamprecht, E., The Games and Joys of our Deaf Children, a review, 
260, 261. 

Language Teaching by Speech, Method for, by C. Perini, a review, 155. 

Larsen, N. K., Formal Exercises in Speech, a review, 66. 

La Plata, Buenos Ayres, school, 303. 

L' Echo des Sourds-Muets, a review of the December, 1901, and January, 
1902, numbers, 175; of March and April numbers, 263; of July num- 
ber, 395. 

Lee, William, 19, 21, 439, 440, 442, 443. 

Le Messager de TAbbe de TEpee, a review of Vol. 33, Nos. 21 and 22, 
78; of March, 1902, No., 204; of June and July Nos., 394. 

X Index. 

Le Reveil des Sourds-Muets, a review of the April number, 269. 

Les Sourds-Muets in Norvege, by Professor Uchermann, a review, 82. 

Lesson to be Learned by the General Teacher from Teaching Language 

to the Deaf, by F. W. Booth, a review, 478. 
Letters addressed to the Editor, by Olof Hanson, 129; by J. N. Banerji, 

Letter of Helen Keller, editorial, 92. 
Lewis, Z., 446. 
Lindsay, G., 447. 

Liot, A., Why Do the Deaf Speak Badly, a review, 389. 
Lip-Reading, What it Ought to Be, by William Van Praagh, 45. 
Little Rock, Ark., School, 496. 
Lobe, 164. 

Long, J. Schuyler, 478, 496. 
Lone Star Weekly, 91. 
Loofbor-ow, Horace, 35, 36. 
Lyon, Edmund, loi. 
Lyons, France, Aid Society for Deaf-Mutes and Blind, review of report, 

Mackay Institution for Protestant Deaf-Mutes and Blind, Montreal, a 

review, 59. 
Mangioni, Fran., 465. 
Mann, A. W., 399. 
Mann, Mary A., 56. 

Marage, his speaking machine, a review, 67. 

Maryland School for the Deaf at Frederick, see Frederick, Md., School. 
Mathison, Robert, Report of the Ontario Institution for Deaf and Dumb 

at Belleville, a review, 59. 253, 
McAloney, S. T., Report of the Montana School for the Deaf and Blind, 

a review, 481. 
McCotter, Maria Anna, Report of the Buenos Ayres School, a review, 

McCowen, Mary, 289, 290, 291, 367, 369. 

McCowen Oral School, 365, 366, 369. 

McDaniel, Nettie, 475. 

McKendrick, John G., Experimental Phonetics, 327. 

Mechanism of Speech, by Frank A. Reed, 245. 

Membership List of the American Association to Promote the Teaching 

of Speech to the Deaf, 498. 
Memoria del Instituto Nacional de ninas sordomudos, see Buenos Ayres 

Metodo per insegnare la lingua ai Sordomuti con la parola, a review, 155. 
Metronome, the, 460. 
Milan. Royal Institution for the Deaf at, account of a visit to, by Miss 

Schmidt, 455. 
Milan, Institution for Indigent Deaf from the Coimtry, account of a visit 

to, by Miss Schmidt, 458. 
Milligan, Harvey W., obituary by S. G. Davidson, 403. 
Mills, Mrs. Annetta T.. Report of Cheefoo, China, School, a review, 82. 
Minnesota School for the Deaf, see Faribault, Minn., School. 
Mississippi Institution for Deaf and Dumb, see Jackson, Miss., School. 
Mitchell, James, 148. 
Mitchell, Samuel L., 19, 20, 35, 36, 447. 
M'Leod, Dr., 447. 
Model Library of Books for Deaf Children, loi. 

Monaci, Silvio, 15S. 466, 467. ^ ,. t. ^ i^r 

Montana School for the Deaf and Blind at Boulder, see Boulder, Mon- 
tana, School. 
Montevideo, Uruguay, School, 393. 
Morris, Minnie E., 176. 
Munson, R., 447, 

Index. xi 

Murphy, J. J., 53. 

Muscles, Some, Used in Speech, by Adella V. Poitcr, 7, 113, 208. 

Muteism and Aphasia, Different Forms of, by H. Gutzmann, a review, 


National Educational Association, Department XVI (Department of 
Special Education), notice of meeting at Minneapolis, loi; report of 
meeting of Executive Committee, 194; program of, 290; proceedings 
July, 1902, meeting, 360; ref. to., 473, 474, 480. 

National Geographic Magazine, a review of March and April Nos., 183; 
of May No., 283; of August No., 395. 

Natural Science in Schools for the Deaf, by J. Kerner, a review, 381. 

New Members, lists of, 102, 199, 411. 

Newspapers and Periodicals quoted or referred to:- American Annals of 
of the Deaf, 85, 95, 176, 278; Blatter fur Taubstumnienbildung, 67, 162, 
260, 378; Deaf School News, 82; De Doves Blad, 79, 175; Die Kinder- 
fehler, 71; El Sordomudo Argentino, 392; Le Reveil des Sou'-ds 
Muets, 269; L, Echo des Sourds-Muets, 175, 263, 395: Le Messager 
de TAbbe de I'Epee, 78, 274, 394; Lone Star Weekly, 91; National 
Geographic Magazine, 183, 283, 395; Nordisk Tidskrift for Dof- 
stumskolan, 68, 159, 258, 382; Organ der Taubstummen Anstalten in 
Deutschland, 68, 166, 264, 390, 490; Rassegna della Educazione dei 
Sordomuti, 156, 255, 374; Rassegna di Pedagogia e Igiene per 1' Edu- 
cazione dei Sordomuti, 74; Revue Generale de TEnseignement des 
Sourds-Muets, 61, 168, 267, 389; Revue Internationale de Pedagogie 
Comparative, 269; Revista de Instruccion Primarie, 174; Smaablade 
for Dofstumme, 70, 167, 262, 376; Taubstummen-Courier, 66, 161, 265, 
491; The Companion, 477; Tidning for Dofstumma, 80, 266, 394; Vor 
und Fortbildung Atr Taubstummen, 487. 

New York, N. Y., Washington Heights School, 19, 20, 28, 34, 38, 446. 

New York, N. Y., Lexington Avenue School. 198, 407. 

Nitchie, J., 447- 

Nominations to Membership, editorial, 94. 

Nordin, Frederick, Report of Wenersborg, Sweden. School, a review, 272. 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan, a review of Nos. 8 and 9, 1901, 63; 
of Nos. 10 and 11, 65; of No. 12, 1901 and No. i, 1902, 159; of Nos. 2 
and 3. 258; of Nos. 5 and 6, 382. 

Normal Course of Lessons for Teachers, a program for, by P. Fornari, 
a review, 255. 

Northampton, Mass., School, review of report, 373. 

North Stafford Joint School Authority, at Stoke-upon-Trent, England, 
review of report, 60, 

Norway, Notes from, by Lars A. Havstad, 132. 

Norwegian Agricultural School for the Deaf, a review, 377. 

Nova Scotia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, see Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, School. 

Nugent. Anna E., 53. 

Nyborg, Denmark, School. 66, 383. 

Obituaries: of Henrik Finch, 132; of Cornelia S. Goode, IQ3: of Thomas 
Gallaudet, 396; of Harvey W. Milligan, 403; of David C. Bell, 497. 

Ontario Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, see Belleville, Ont., School. 

Oral Method, early discussion of, in Historical Notes, I4i8, 447. 

Oral Method, The, and its Fitness for the Deaf, by GiuHo C. Ferreri, 

Oral Method and Manual Environment, editorial, 90. 

Oral Method in the School at Frankfort-on-Main, Giulio C. Ferreri, i. 

Oregon School for Deaf-Mutes, see Salem. Oregon, School. 

Organ der Taubstummen Anstalten in Deutschland, a review of the 
November, 1901, number, 68; of the January, 1902, number. 166: of 
the February number, 264; of the June number, 390; of the August 
and September numbers, 490. 

Ostmann, Dr., 163. 

xii Index, 

Palmer, James, 447. 

Parents Associations, 366. 

Paris, France. School, a review, 276. 

Parker, W. D., 51, 90, 365, 368, 290. 

Paulmier, L. P., 157. 

Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, see Philadelphia, Mt. 

Airy, School. 
Perini, Carlo, 155, 457, 460. 

Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind, 470. 
Peterson, Peter. N., 86. 
Philadelphia, Mt. Airy, School, review of report, 249, refs. to, 21, 63, 130, 

409, 410, 449, 450, 451, 452, 480. 
Physical Characteristics of Pupils, by James L. Smith, a review, 476. 
Pipetz, Gustav, 68. 
Polke, Ludvig, 65. 
Pope, Alvin E., 289. 
Porter, Samuel, 426. 

Porto, Portugal, Holy Home of the Misericordia, review of report. 271. 
Potter, Adella F., Some Muscles Used in Speech, 7, 113, 208. 
Preparatory and Supplementarv Education of the Deaf, by Albert Gutz- 

mann, a review, 487. 
Prussia, Upon the Organization of the Education of the Deaf in, by O. 

Danger, 122, 201. 
Prussia, Teachers of the Deaf in, a review, 384. 
Psychic Development and Pedagogic Treatment of Children who are 

Hard of Hearing, by Giulio C. Ferreri, 232. 
Putnam, George H., The Making of the Man, 428. 
Rankin, Jean Sherwood, Everyday English, a review, 472. 
Rassegna della Educazione dei Sordpmuti, a review of Vol. IX, N0.2, 

156; of No. 3, 255; of Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7, 374- 
Rassegna di Pedagogia e Igiene per TEducazione dei Sordomuti, a review 

of September, October, and November, 1901, numbers, 74. 
Rauh, 389. 
Read, Colin, 447. 

Reed, Frank A., Mechanism of Speech, 245. 
Reed, Katharine F., 51. 
Relatorio dos Actos da Mesa da Santa Casa da Misericordia, a review, 

Report of the American School at Hartford for the Deaf, review of, 56. 
Report of the Braunschweig, Germany, Institution for Deaf-Mutes, re- 
view of, 282. 
Report of the Buenos Ayres National Institute for Deaf Girls, a review 

of, 158. 
Report of the Calcutta Deaf and Dumb School, review of, 481. 
Report of the Christiania, Norway, Public School for the Deaf, a review, 

Report of the Garke School for the Deaf at Northampton, Mass., a re- 
view, 373. 
Report of the Copenhagen, Denmark, Royal Institution for Deaf-Mutes, 

Report of the EflFatha Society of Dordrecht, Netherlands, for Promoting 

the Chrisitian Education and Instruction of Deaf-Mute and Blind 

Children, review of, 88. 
Report of the Emden, Germany, Institution for the Deaf, review of, 493. 
Report of the Holme strand, Norway. Public School for the Deaf, review 

of, 88. 
Report of the Horace Mann School at Boston, Mass., review of. 57. 
Report of the Kentucky Institution for Deaf-Mutes at Danville, 152. 
Report of the Mackay Institution for Protestant Deaf-Mutes and the 

Blind at Montreal, Canada, review of, 59. 
Report of the Maryland School for the Deaf at Frederick, review of, 154. 

Index. xiii 

Report of the Mississippi Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, review of, 

Report of the Montana School for the Deaf and Blind at Boulder, review 

of, 481. 
Report of the North Stafford Joint School Authority at Stoke-upon- 

Trent, England, review of, 60. 
Report of the Nova Scotia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at Halifax, 

review of, 254. 
Report of the Ontario Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Belleville, 

review of, 253. 
Report of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, review 

of, 249. 
Report of the Rotterdam, Netherlands, Institution for Deaf-Mutes, review 

of, 88. 
Report of the Stade, Hanover, Provincial School for the Deaf, review 

of, 175. 
Report of the South Sweden Deaf-Mute Association, review of, 493. 
Report of the Trondjhem, Norway, Public Schools for the Deaf, 88. 
Report of the Valencia, Spain, Institution for the Deaf and Blind, 78. 
Report of the Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind at Staunton, review 

of, 153. 
Report of the Wenersborg, Sweden, Institution for the Deaf, review of, 

272, 493. 

Report of the Seventy-Third Meeting of German Naturalists and Physi- 
cians, Section on Diseases of the Nose, Throat and Ear, review of, 

Report of the Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf at Buffalo, 
N. Y., review of, 282. 

Report of Porto, Portugal, Holy Home of the Misericordia, review of, 

Report of Lyons, France, Aid Society for Deaf-Mutes and Blind, review 
of, 282. 

Report to the Swedish Ministry of Public Instruction on his Journey 
and Visits to Various Schools for the Deaf, by J. Walin, a review, 382, 

Report Presented to the Direction of the National School for the Deaf 
(Mexico) by F. Vasquez Gomez, and the opinion of his report by 
special commission, a review, 393. 

Reviews, 56, 152, 249, 373, 471. 

Revista de Instruccion Primarie, a review of Vol. XII, Nos. 7 and 8. 174. 

Revue Generale de TEnseignement des Sourds-Muets, a review of July 
and October, 1901, numbers, 61; of November and Decembe**, 1901, 
and January, 1902, numbers, 168; of February number, 267; of May 
and June numbers, 389. 

Revue Internationale de Pedagogic Comparative, a review of the Febni- 
ary and March, 1902, numbers, 269. 

Rhodes, Richard Silas, 480. 

Robinson, Warren, 54. 

Rogers, Augustus, Report of the Kentucky Institution for Deaf-Mutes 
at Danville, a review, 152. 

Rogers, A. C, 365, 366. 

Rome, Royal Institution for the Deaf at, a visit to, by Miss Schmidt, 463 

Rose, W. L., 446. 

Rosing. Hedevig, 258. 

Rosral Institution for Deaf-Mutes at Copenhagen, see Copenhagen, Den- 
mark, School. 

Rotterdam, Netherlands, School, review of report, 88. 

Roul, Col., 442. 

Russ, John, 145. 

Salem. Oregon, School, 496. 

Salmon, Otto, Sketch of the Wenersborg, Sweden, Institution, 80. 

Sanford, H. R., 368. 

xiv Index. 

Schleswig, Germany, School, 382. 

Schmidt, Miss, A Visit to the Principal Italian Institutions for the Deaf, 

Schneider, 69. 

Schools, The, editorial, 496. 
Schools for the Deaf in the United States and in Canada, arranged 

alphabetically according to location, 296. 

Schools for the Deaf, International Reports, Compiled by the Volta 
Bureau, 184. 

Scott, J. B., 446. 

Scuri, E., on honors to P. Fornari, a review, 74; refs. to, 75, 156, 375. 
Sicard, Abbe Roch Ambroise, 141, 144, 147, 148, 149, 157, 273, 440, 445. 
Sign Language, Abuse of the, by its Friends, by J. L. Smith, a review, 

Sign Language in American Schools, The, by Olof Hanson, 129. 

Sign Method, The Passing of the, editorial, 1S8. 

Smaablade for Dofstumme, a review of November and December, 1901, 
numbers, 70; of January, 1902, number, 167; of February, March, 
and April numbers, 262; of July numbers, 376. 

Smith, Jennie C, 52, 366, 368. 

Smith, J. L., The Use and Abuse of the Sign Language by its Friends, 
a review, 176; Physical Characteristics of Pupils, a review, 476. 

Some Views of a Russian Professor on the Education of the Deaf, by B. 
Thallon, a review, 171. 

South Sweden Deaf-Mute Association, review of report, 493. 

Speaking and Speech, Construction and Activity of the Brain with Special 
Regard to, by H. HoflPmann, 131. 

Speaking machine of Dr. Marage, a review, 67. 

Speech, Anatomical and Physiological Study of the Anatomy of, a review, 

Speech, Mechanism of, by Frank A. Reed, 245, 

Speech, Some Muscles Used in, by Adella F. Potter. 7, 113, 208. 

Speech Teaching and Speech Reading, Justification of, by Elsie Steinke, 
a review, 479. 

Speech Teaching in American Schools for the Deaf, 1893- 1901, Tables of 
Statistics Compiled from the American Annals of the Deaf, 134 — 137. 

Speech Teaching in American Schools for the Deaf, 1884-1902: diagram 
showing progress, 292; percentage figures relating to, 293; supple- 
mentary investigation summary, 293. 

Speech Teaching in American Schools for the Deaf, 1902: Statistical 
Tables relating to, 298 — 300; Tables relating to Supplementary Inves- 
tigation, 301; Notes relating to, 304 — 311. 

Speech Teaching in Canadian Schools for the Deaf, 1893-1901, Tables 
of Statistics Compiled from the American Annals of the Deaf, 138. 

Speech Teaching in Canadian Schools for the Deaf: Statistical Tables 
relating to, 302; Tables relating to Supplementary Investigation, 303. 

Speech of Children, Care of the, in the Family and the School, by Albert 
Gutzmann, 107. 

Spencer, Robert C., 290. 

Spindler, Mr. and Mrs. Erwin, 67. 

Stade. Hanover. School, review of report, 175. 

StaflFord, May M., 281. 

Stanford, John, 19, 20. 

St. Ann's Church for the Deaf. 398. 

Stansbury. Abraham O., Letter from, describing the Hartford School, 
26; his letter to his brother suggesting his own name for the superin- 
tendency of the New York School, 28. Letter from Gallaudet to his 
Board regarding difficulty with him. 29; his letter to his brother re- 
garding Gallaudet, 31 ; letter from Clerc regarding release of his bond, 
32; his installation as Principal of the New York School, 35; quota- 

Index. XV 

dons from his letters after he became Principal of the New York 

School, Z7\ refs. to, 23, 39. 
Stansbury, Mary, 35, 36. 
Stanford, J., 19, 20, 447. 
State of the Education of the Deaf in Europe in the 19th Century, in the 

most Important Countries of Europe, by John Karth, a review, 387. 

Statistics: regarding graduates of the Fredericia, Denmark, School, 65; 
institutions for the Deaf, and proportion of the deaf to the general 
population, 69; The Annals Statistics, 95; The Sign Language in 
American Schools, 129; Speech Teaching in American Schools for 
the Deaf, 1^3-1901, compiled from American Annals, 134; Speech 
Teaching in Canadian Schools for the Deaf, compiled from the 
American Annals, 138; defective hearing among public school chil- 
dren, 163; Epochs and Causes of deafness, 173; the Deaf and Blind 
in Chile, 174; Schools for the Deaf, International Reports, 184; The 
Deaf-Blind now at School, 192; French Schools, 272; methods of 
instruction. 1882-1901, 281; Progress of Speech Teaching in American 
Schools. 1884-1902, 292; Speech Teaching in American Schools, for 
the Deaf, 1902, 298-301; Notes relating to Statistics of Speech Teach- 
ing in American Schools, 304 — 311; Speech Teaching in Canadian 
Schools for the Deaf, 1902, 303: Education of the Deaf in Europe, 
388: Comparative Statistics of Methods of Educating the Deaf in the 
United States, 479; of Deaf in Austrian Schools, 483; Deaf-Mutism 
according to Auricular Observations, 484. 

Statistics, the Annals, editorial, 95. 

Staunton, Va., School, review of report, 153. 

Steinke, Agnes, 279. 

Steinke, Elsie, Justification of Speech Teaching and Speech Reading, 

a review, 479; ref. to, 53. 
Stewart. Dugald, 148. 

Storia del R. Instituto Nazionale dei Sordomuti in Geneva, a review, 155. 
Story, A. J., 60. 
Struve, Karl Freidrich, 162. 
Sullivan, Anna, 54. 
Sullivan, Margaret, 192, 286, 475. 

Summer School for the Training of Articulation Teachers, 98, 187., 197. 
Supplementary Schools, editorial, 494. 
Sweet, Caroline C, 57. 
Swedish Association of Teachers of the Deaf, 25th Anniversary of, a 

review, 395. 
Swedish Institutions for the Deaf, Organization of the, by K. Finckle. 

a review, 490. 
Swiler, J. W., 290. 
Syle, Henry Winter, 399. 
Tate. Tames N., 365, 368. 480. 
Tamburini. Rev. Dr., 463, 464. 
Taubstummen-Courier. a review of the November. 1901, number, 66; 

of the February, 1902, number, 161 ; of the March and April Numbers, 

265; of the October number, 491. 
Taylor, T. C, 447. 
Teachers' Bureau, The, editorial, 88. 
Terry, Seth, 151. 

Texas School for the Deaf, see Austin. Texas, school. 
Thallon, B.. Some Views of a Russian Trofcssor (M. VassilieflF) on the 

Instruction of the Deaf, a review, 171. 
The Instruction of Wisdom, bv Katharine Fletcher, 217. 
The Making of the Man, by George H. Putnam, 428. 
The Psychic Development and the Pedagogical Treatment of Children 

who are Hard of Hearing, by GinHo C. Ferrcrj, 232, 
Thompson, Jonah, 441, 443. 

xvi Index. 

Tidning for Dofstummen, a review of No. 6, 1901, 80; of February, 1902, 
number, 266; of June number, 394. 

Tidskrift for Dofstumma, a review of numbers 33 — ^44, Vol. V., 81. 

Tilghman, William, 441, 443. 

Tillinghast, E. S., 177. 

Tillinghast, J. A., 178. 

Tornari, Professor, 460. 

Trondjhem, Norway, School, review of report, 88, work of Henrik Finch 
as Principal, by Lars A. Havstad, 132. 

Uchermann, Les Sourds-Muets en Norvege, a review, 82. 

Upon the Organization of the Education of the Deaf in Prussia, by O. 
Danger, 122, 201. 

Utili^ion of the Remnants of Hearing, by R. Brohmer, a review, 378. 

Valeifea, Spain, Institution for the Deaf and the Blind, review of report, 

Van Praagh, William, Lip-Reading, What it Ought to Be, 45. 

VassilieflF, M., 171. 

Vatter. Joh., 492. 

Victorious America, by Giulio C. Ferreri, 357. 

Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind, see Staunton, Va., School. 

Volade-Gabel, J. J., 274. 

Volta Bureau, 184, 271, 374, 473, 475. 

Wade, William, The Blind-Deaf, a Supplement to "The Deaf-Blind," 
a review, 480, refs. to, 87, 192. 

Wadsworth, Daniel, 26, 33, 143. 

Wait, William B.. 183, 195. 

Waitzen, Hungary, Royal Institution for the Deaf, a review, 491. 

Walker, E. W., 496. 

Walker, Sanmel Teft, 480. 

Wallin, J., Report of his Journey and Visits to Various Schools for the 
Deaf, a review, 282. 

Walsh, T. A., 183. 

Walther, Ed., 387. 

Washington, D. C, College and School, 86, 370. 

Watkins, Margaret, 496. 

Watzulik, Albin M., Interview with Mr. Vatter, a review, 492. 

Wennerberg, Gunnar, 63. 

Wenersborg, Sweden, School, a review, 80, 270, 490; review of report, 493. 

Wentz, Clayton, 496. 

Westervelt, Z. F., Proceedings of Annual Business Meeting of the Amer- 
ican Association, 407; refs. to, 100, loi, 408, 411. 

Whittlesey, Mr. and Mrs., 33. 

Why Do the Deaf Speak Badly, by A. Liot, a review, 389. 

Wialen, Miss, 381. 

Williams, Job, Report of the American School at Hartford for the Deaf, 
a review, 56. 

Wines, Fred H., Manuscripts in possession of, 26, 28, 31, 37. 

Wisconsin Round Table, by Almira I. Hobart, 51; editorial, 90. 

Wisconsin School for the Deaf, see Delavan, Wis., school. 

Wisconsin School's Fiftieth Anniversary, the, editorial, 290. 

Woodbridge, Ward, 26, 33. 

Worcester. A. E., 42$. 

World's Fair at St. Louis, Exhibits of Schools for the Deaf at, 48. 

Wurttemberg Association of the Deaf, 265. 

Yale, Caroline A., Formation and Development of Elementary English 
Sounds, 240, 323, 424; Report of Clarke School for the Deaf at North- 
ampton, Mass., a review, 373; refs. to, 94, 100, loi, 285, 476. 

Yale College, Manuscripts in the Library of, 32, 38. 

Zable, John H., 439. 

Zurich, Switzerland, School, 392. 

The American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 

Albxandbr Graham Bhll. 

A. L. E. Croutkr, Caroline A. Yaxe. 

Z. F. Westkrvblt. 

A. L. E. Croutbr. 


F. W. Booth, 
(7342 Rural Lane, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.) 



Term Expires 1902. 

Albxander Graham Bell, Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 

Term Expires 1903, 

Carolikb a. Yale, Edmund Lyon, Richard O. Johnson . 

Term Expires 1904. 

The American Association to Promote the T*?aching of Speech to the Deaf weloomes 
to its membership all persons who are interested in its work. Thus the privilege of 
membership is not restricted to teachers actively engaged in the instruction of deaf 
children, but is extended to include Directors or Trustees of schools for the deaf, parents 
or guardians of deaf children, the educated deaf themselves who wish to aid by the 
weight of their influence and by their co-operation the work that has done so much for 
them, and all other persons who may have had their hearts touched with a dt;sire to 
show their interest and to help on the work. 

Every person receiving a "sample copy" of The Association Review is invited to 
join the Association. The membership (or dues) fee is $2.00 (8s. 4d.) per year, pay- 
ment of which to the Treasurer secures (after nomination to and election by the Board 
of Directors) all rights and privileges of membership together with the publications of 
the Association, including The Association Review, for one year. To non-membera^ 
the subscription price of The Association Review is $2.50 (lOs. 4d.) per year. 



Vol.. IV, No. I. 

FEBRUARY, 1902. 




When one is on the point of visiting a school, which for 
many years has acquired fame for the excellent results obtained 
in instruction, one becomes willingly or not, a victim to sugges- 
tion. One generally goes there with the mind predisposed for 
finding everything good. I also have feared this predisposition, 
although my colleagues know how rarely praise is on my lips 
when judging what results are obtained with the deaf. It is 
not necessary to say that in coming to Frankfort, I was well 
disposed towards the famous school of V^tter, as much for the 
incontestable worth of the man, who for many years has direct- 
ed it, as for the opinion which one has of it in general, after 
reading the pamphlet of Fehmer*. 

However I wished to see clearly, and I think I was free 
from every prejudice in the visit, of which I intend to give the 
readers of the "Educazione" a brief account. 

The new building of the school, inaugurated on the 20th of 
Nov., 1900, is found in the open place "where the two large 
Avenues of Guntherberg and Rothschild meet. The eastern 
facade, which is of the early German renaissance style, has a 
saijth-west view over the Gunthersberg avenue, which in time 

'Translated for The Association Review by the author, from L'Ed- 
zione dei Sordomuti. 

*A. H. Fehmer's Bericht uber die Taubstummen-Erziehungs-Anstalt 
Frankfurt am Main, 

2 The Association Reznezv. 

will probably be filled with other buildings, opposite to the In- 
stitute. This remains at present quite open, as if it were in a 
large square. This circumstance is worthy of note, as it confers 
upon the new building a glory 61 light and of sunshine, two 
things which are as necessary for our Institutes and for our 
pupils, as is their daily bread. 

The Institute, as a boarding-school, has the double aim of 
a school and a home. As a school, it is enough to say that 
Vatter is the Principal, as well as a teacher in it, to have a 
guaranty which corresponds to the aim of the Institution. As 
a home, it is entrusted to the care of Mrs. Vatter who alter- 
nates, attending to the education of the children, and to the 
duties inherent to the office of matron. The means for the 
material welfare are without defect. Steam, well conducted and 
directed, serves to heat every part of the house, which is lighted 
in even the smallest rooms by gas or electric light. On every 
floor, and in every necessary place, one can always find hot and 
cold water ready. It is a modern Institution with all the neces- 
sary comforts of today. 

Accustomed as we are to the long summer vacations, which 
are the ruin of three quarters of our year's work, it makes a 
certain impression to find the pupils and teachers already at 
work in the middle of September. And this, in my opinion, is 
another reason for that impulse to speech, which in Italy we 
have not yet obtained not even in those schools which are 
considered with reason as the best organized. Because that im- 
pulse is not due alone to the continuous lessons, but also to the 
intercourse and the life in common of the pupils with the 
teachers, which it is not possible to have except in the Institu- 
tions where there are few pupils. 

In the large Institutions, as the pupils are divided accord- 
ing to age, and the grade of instruction into different depart- 
ments, the same phenomenon happens very naturally, which is 
found, with another aim, in the Penitentiary establishments. 
There is need of a more rapid means than speech, for com- 
municating the news of the events happening without and with- 
in. Besides our pupils do not even have to learn this means of 
communication; the more intelligent have it in themselves; the 

The Oral Method in the School of Frankfort-on-the-Main. 3 

others learn it at sight. Permit me to make an observation on 
this subject, which may seem strange, but which I desire to 
make, because I believe that also here an auto-suggestive 
illusion is possible in the teachers themselves of the deaf. They 
believe that speech always takes the place of the gesture; this 
would be true if we had succeeded in eradicating artificial sig^s 
from our schools, when the teaching of speech was introduced. 
Now instead, it has happened that our pupils, with gesture and 
with speech, or better still with gesture and with a certain oral 
mimicry which is only a corrupted portion of lip-reading, have 
at their disposition a much more rapid means of communication, 
than the exclusive use of signs would be. Now, in a small In- 
stitute the pupils do not need this means, where they remain 
together all day long, in school and outside, and therefore in a 
more favorable condition for being informed simultaneously 
of what happens about them, and what may, and must be com- 
municated to them from without. This observation which I 
have made to myself at other times, in the study of our practical 
pedagogy, returned to my mind clearly, as I entered the In- 
stitute of Frankfort. 

It was the morning of the 13th of September about ten 
o'clock. The Principal was at breakfast in his apartment, the 
pupils were at play in the garden, each one however had a piece 
of bread in his hand. 

The janitor being absent for the moment, I asked a little 
girl, whom I met on the stairs, where the Principal was, and she 
replied in the most natural manner that he was upstairs. And 
she went herself immediately to inform him of the arrival of a 

I was introduced into the office of the Principal, a large 
room with two large windows looking into the garden, where 
as I have already noticed the pupils were at play. There I had 
an agreeable surprise, I must confess. All the deaf children were 
taking their recess, all were in movement, boys and girls; no 
one was in a bad humor, all were happy, and no one made 
a gesture. When they needed to call each other, they would 
touch one another, and as quickly look each other in the face, 
because the communication was oral. This was for me indeed 

4 The Association Retriew. 

an agreeable surprise, as I had never before had the opportunity 
of seeing deaf children at play, who did not gesture among them- 
selves, not even with natural signs. But this, I repeat, I be- 
lieve cannot be found except in small Institutions, which contain 
so small a number of pupils that they all can stay together. 

There are now in the Institute of Frankfort about forty 
pupils, not more. They are divided into four classes, or rather 
four class-rooms, in one of which are found two sections, those 
admitted last, and those of the last course. Mr. Vatter in per- 
son alternates the teaching of the two sections, going here and 
there to watch the work of his assistants. 

Mr. Vatter received me cordially, and showed me how he 
gives lessons, a very simple method, without actual preoccu- 
pation for the immediate result. One sees from Vatter's way 
of doing, how one can teach different classes for many years. 
I will not say that he does not experience fatigue; only I noticed 
that he has, as few others, the art of making the deaf speak wth 
the least expenditure of force on his part. He has however a 
strong, baritone voice, which he uses gradually in inverse re- 
lation to the classes. I mean to say by this, that he uses the pro- 
longed notes only in the first class, coming gradually to the 
normally spoken word in the last class, in which he explains pro- 
fane and sacred history, and other branches of elementary in- 
struction, in the same manner that one uses with the hearing. 

The advantage, first remarked by Fomari, and afterwards 
noted by me in the schools of Zurich and Munich, in regard to 
the richness of the German language in significative monosyl- 
lables, appears very evident in the school of Frankfort. Chil- 
dren who have received three or four months' instruction, per- 
form at command easy actions, indicate the presence of things, 
and of persons, call by name the persons themselves, knowing 
already in the first months of instruction their own name and 
that of their companions. I also heard personal names of three 
syllables pronounced in the first class. And here an observa- 
tion will come apropos, and serve to prevent, I hope, an objec- 
tion which is not new in regard to the school of Frankfort. I 
noticed that the pupils of Vatter are as deaf as others ; there can 
not be any selection used there in the admission of only the best. 

The Oral Method in the School of Frankfort-on-the-Main. 5 

I will say more. I found in the third class a child who could not 
follow her companions any farther, because she was in the great- 
est degree deficient. This fact alone is sufficient to make one 
understand, that if selection had been used, this child would not 
have been admitted. But I did not find among the other pu- 
pils either individuals exceptional in intelligence, or for a nat- 
ural voice. 

One can understand the pupils of Frankfort well, because 
they speak with accent. Vatter pays more attention to the accent 
than to the word. He does this from the first lesson, shaking 
the children (too hard, it seemed to me), accustoming them to 
the tapping of the foot, to the movement of the arms, and to all 
those helps which the music teacher uses to make the pupil un- 
derstand the pitch of the note. One would say that the accent 
of the word is the preoccupation of the Frankfort school. 

In the second class the children use already the grammat- 
ical vocabulary, which serves very well to call their attention to 
the correctness of the expression. The care of the pronun- 
ciation is, as in the first class, principally directed to the accent. 
Each child repeats and repeats, until the pronunciation is good. 
The program seems to be this: little, but good. In the third 
class Vatter improvised a lesson of Political Geography which 
the pupils understood very well. My presence suggested by as- 
sociation the Triple Alliance, and from this he passed to indicate 
the Nations friendly and not friendly to Germany. The names 
of the heads of the Nations were read rapidly from the lips, and 
the lesson was concluded with a fine chorus for repeating two or 
three propositions, which they had formed, and which Vatter 
wished pronounced with the accent well spoken. 

In the fourth class the lesson was given by a pupil of Vat- 
ter's. It is unnecessary to say that the imitation of his master 
was perfect. They explained the words and sentences of a little 
poem, inserted by Vatter at page 64 of his reading-book (2d 
part). In the same manner and by way of practical examples, 
the words of an easy problem in Arithmetic were explained, 
which the pupils executed, each on his own account, at the 
blackboard. I must also say that all the pupils, without excep- 
tion, had a good handwriting, such as to resemble the perfect 

6 " The Association Review. 

hand of Vatter. The blackboards have double lines made in 
such a manner as to contain a fine, even writing of 5-6mm. in 
size, judging by the eye. 

In the last class Vatter gave his History lesson, explaining 
a chapter of the elementary book of Griesinger and Hirzel (Erz- 
ahlen aus der Weltgeschichte). Here also the teacher has his eye 
and ear always directed to the pronunciation of each pupil, who 
repeats with the desired accent the sentences explained, as well 
as those used from time to time to explain the text. Person- 
ally, I cannot say that I learned any thing new during my visit, 
as regards the manner of giving lessons, as I have been — Cleaving 
modesty apart — a great scholar of the pure German method and 
of the writings of Vatter from the beginning of my professional 
career. However, that insistence on the accent did me good, 
and I hope that I have gained a greater faith in the possibilities 
of certain Oral results. 

It gives me pleasure to conclude my brief account, with the 
thought expressed by me in the Album of the visitors to the 
Frankfort school, under the fresh impression of the visit made: 
"My visit to this school has confirmed me in the opinion that it 
is just to regard Vatter as our master in the application of the 
pure Oral Method" 




I. Extrinsic Muscles Attached to the Hyoid Bone. 

The muscles of the hyoid bone are important factors in the 
production of voice, and since they are among those most di- 
rectly under the control of the will, they are susceptible of a high 
degree of training. As applied to a number of these, the train- 
ing consists in so bringing them under control that they may be 
restrained from contraction during voice production and thus 
prevented from interfering with the action of the muscles essen- 
tial to pure tones. This training is nearly if not quite as im- 
portant as the development of the essential muscles. 

Fotu* of the muscles of the hyoid bone are essential agents 
in voice production; one of these, the thyro-hyoid has already 
been described; the other three also affect greatly the quality of 
tone, and their action will therefore be explained somewhat at 

Sterno-Hyoid Muscle: — ^This muscle is well shown in 
Fig. VII. It is fastened below to both the collar-bone and 
the breast-bone at their place of joining, extends upward 
past the thyroid cartilage, and is attached at its upper end to 
the body, middle part, of the hyoid-bone; its place of attach- 
ment to the collar-bone and breast-bone being considerably 
further back than its upper attachment to the hyoid bone. 

Action: — "When acting alone, it pulls the front part of the 
hyoid bone downward, carrying with it the horns, because there 
is so much more freedom of movement behind near the spine, 
than in front. When, as in artistic singing," and in the best 
speech, "the thyroid cartilage is held firmly against the under 
side of the hyoid bone, this muscle, in pulling down the hyoid 
body, will pull down also the front part of the thyroid cartilage. 
The rear part of the cartilage will follow also, almost without 

8 The Association Review. 

any tilting forward of the whole cartilage, for the same reason, 
namely, that the movement near the spine is so much more free 
than near the front of the neck." This is due to the fact that 
the larynx is so loosely connected with the spine by the muscles 
of the pharynx that it slides up and down with the utmost 

Figure VII. 


Hoscles of fa;old-bon« (from Henle's Motikellehre}. 

The problem now is "to find what muscular force is adapted 
to resist this easy pulling down of the combined larynx and 
hyoid bone. Of course such an opposing muscle must extend 
upward from either the bone or the cartilage, it matters little 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 9 

from which, for in correct voice production they are, as has been 
said, always bound firmly together by the thyro-hyoid muscles." 
Such a muscular force is represented in Fig. VIII, which, un- 
fortunately, but poorly represents the hyoid bone and the attach- 
ment of the muscle. 

Figure VIII. 

QenlD-byald moscle. 
HoscIm of the toiigue. [Gra;.] 

Hyo-Glossus Muscle: — ^This muscle is fostened at its 
lower end to the whole extent of the hyoid horns, and extends 
upward and a little forward into the tongue. "It lies almost whol- 
ly to the rear of the down-pulling stemo-hyoid muscle and so is 
favorably placed to act in opposition to it. In contracting it would 

lo The Association Review. 

pull the horns strongly upward if it were not for one obstacle — 
the great looseness and easier downward movement of the tongue. If 
no other muscles were active, the tongue would be pulled down 
farther than the horns were pulled up, and but little tilting force 
could be applied; consequently, a low position of the tongue is 
pernicious." But in artistic singing and in the best speech the 
tongue is held up firmly by muscles connecting it with the chin, 
the palate, and the styloid process of the temporal bone. Thus 
held, the hyo-glossi muscles cannot by their contraction move 
the tongue down, but "will pull upward with all their powerful 
force upon the hyoid horns, necessarily dragging up with the 
horns the rear part of the thyroid cartilage." If at the same 
time the equally strong sterno-hyoid muscles are pulling down- 
ward upon the extreme front part of the hyoid bone, a powerful 
tilting force will be applied which will act upon the thyroid cartil- 
age as well as upon the hyoid bone, and as the cricoid is not 
free to move, the thyroid will swing upon the cricoid joints, 
(shown in Fig. I), the niche between the cricoid and thyroid will 
be closed, the points of attachment of the ends of the vocal 
shelves will be separated and the shelves themselves will be 
stretched. In this action the thyro-cricoid muscle assists some- 
what. It will soon be shown how the cricoid cartilage is held 
firm. At present it must be taken for granted. 

Omo-Hyoid Muscle: — ^The sterno-hyoid is assisted by the 
less powerful omo-hyoid muscle which also pulls downward upon 
the connected hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage. It is attached 
above to the lower border of the body of the hyoid and below 
to the shoulder blade. It is well shown in Fig. VIII. 

2. Extrinsic Muscles Attached to the Thyroid Cartilage. 

Fig. IX shows two other muscles which assist those just 
described in tilting the thyroid cartilage upon the cricoid. 

Palato-Pharyngeus Muscle : — "The palato-pharyngeus 
muscle extends all the way from the soft palate to the larynx. 
By looking into the mouth with the tongue flattened, two arches 
or pillars of flesh may be seen far back, extending down from 
the roof of the mouth on each side. Each arch is formed of 

Some Muscles Used in Speech, ii 

two folds which start at the middle line of the mouth's roof and 
curve outward and downward. Only the rear arch is visible in 
the above diagram, for the parts are looked upon from behind. 
In the mouth or from the front, only a small extent of the rear 
pillars can be seen above the tongue." These rear pillars are 

Figure IX. 

8Ide-Tl«w of the larynx. 

the palato-pkaryngei muscles. In the diag;ram they are seen to 
extend far downward and, on the whole, somewhat backward, 
being fastened below to the upper horns of the thyroid and 
the rear borders below these horns. "A portion of the palalo- 
pharyngeus muscle is fastened above to the rear edge, or border 
of the hard palate, the edge which can be felt easily by rubbing 
the end of the finger backward along the roof of the mouth till 
the hard, bony part, the hard palate is found to cease and the 

1 2 The Association Review. 

soft palate, or fleshy mass to begin." "Another portion is 
fastened above, in the soft palate, to its fellow of the opposite 
side, and the fibres which compose it, according to Henle, are 
the ones which extend all the way down to the rear borders and 
horns of the thyroid cartilage, while the portion first mentioned 
is fastened below to the sides of the pharynx, and does not bsten 
upon the larynx." 

Figure X. 

Btjloid proo«M 

TenMT Mid 
levfttor pkUti 


Ren edfM ol 
thrrold »TtIlag» 


The lATjnz, tongue and palate, Tiewed from beUnd. 

Action: — "As the palalo-pharyngeus muscle descends with 
so bold a curve outward, it must need to shorten somewhat in 
order to take up its slack {for want of a better expression) before 
it can pull upward upon the larynx. It is almost a sphincter- 
muscle, for in straightening these outward curves it draws the 
enclosed space (seen behind and above the tongue) almost to a 
slit/' bringing "toward each other the borders of the whole 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 13 

curve seen in the diagram to extend downward to the larynx. 
Since it likewise draws the larynx upward and the soft palate 
downward, it acts very much like drawing together the mouth 
of a bag by a string about its borders; but the horns and rear 
borders of the thyroid cartilage will still hold the lower ends 
apart and prevent complete sphincter action. In swallowing, 
it thus draws the palate down upon, and the sides of the pharynx 
in upon the food to force it downward. It also aids in swallow- 
ing by drawing the larynx upward from its position close against 
the most forward part of the spine's curve, to a point above^ 
where the spine inclines backward and leaves a free space be- 
tween itself and the larynx through which the morsel of food 
can descend more easily." 

In correct voice production the palato-pharyngeus muscle 
has several offices: 

Since it inclines backward as it descends, as shown in Fig. 
IX, "it would, if employed alone, draw the soft palate downward 
and backward; but this would leave the nasal passages (seen in 
the diagram) wide open and cause nasal tones." However, at 
the same time, "the muscles seen in the diagram to rise from the 
sides of the palate to the skull (the tensor and the levator-palati) 
are in contraction to prevent this downward movement, so that 
the backward pulling of the palato-pharyngei muscles alone could 
have effect, helping to close the opening from the throat to the 
nasal passages, and thereby preventing nasal qualities. A still 
more important vocal office of this muscle is its influence upon 
the larynx due to the decided forward, as well as upward, direc- 
tion of its fibres: for the soft palate lies well in front of the rear 
borders of the thyroid cartilage," thus affording "a long leverage 
to tilt this cartilage forward upon the crico-thyroid joint far 
below. But the whole larynx is so easily drawn upward that 
this forward pulling force could have little application unless 
the larynx were withheld from rising by down-pulling muscles." 

Sterno-Thyroid Muscle: — ^This muscle is attached at its 
upper end to the thyroid cartilage just below the lower end of 
the thyro-hyoid muscle. The oblique line of its attachment to 
the thyroid cartilage is shown in Figs. VI and IX. As the name 
indicates, the sterno-thyroid is fastened at its lower end to the 

14 The Association Review. 

breast-bone. The cut end of this muscle is shown in Fig. VII. 
As shown in Fig. IX, the muscle passes almost directly over the 
crico-thyroid joint and therefore could have but little, if any, 
power to tilt the thyroid either forward or backward. 

Combined Action of Palato-Pharyngeus and Sterno- 
thyroid: — ''Although the soft palate is not indicated in Fig. 
IX, the forward inclination of the palato-pharyngeus is ex- 
hibited. As before observed, the contraction of this muscle 
would pull the larynx upward and draw the upper and rear part 
of the thyroid cartilage a little forward; but as the larynx, after 
leaving the forward curve of the spine, would find more and 
more space behind it as it rose, the lower part of the thyroid 
cartilage, together with the cricoid would be quite as free to 
move backward as the upper part forward, and consequently 
there would be no change in the relative positions of the two 
cartilages; that is, there would be no tilting forward of the thy- 
roid cartilage upon the crico-thyroid joints, and therefore no 
stretching of the vocal shelves. Indeed, if the whole larynx 
were drawn loosely upward, there would be hardly an appreci- 
able forward tilting of the larynx as a whole. But, if the muscles 
which pull the thyroid cartilage downward were also contract- 
ing, the palato-pharyngei muscles could not draw the larynx up- 
ward and their forward fulling force surely would pull the upper 
part of the thyroid cartilage forward, swinging it on its joints, 
or hinges, where its lower horns embrace the back of the cricoid. 
The vocal shelves would be stretched, because the cricoid cartilage 
now could not move backward, being already in contact with the most 
forward curve of the spine, 

"The cricoid cartilage now would act as a firmer fulcrum, 
being withheld from moving either up or down by the muscles 
under discussion, and from moving backward by the spine," 

3. The Spine. 

Mr. Howard is the first of the many voice-physiologists to 
mention the spine as an essential agent in voice production. 
After a paper demonstrating its office had been read by him 
before a gathering of musicians at the World's Fair, a leading 
musical authority present characterized this discovery of his as 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 15 

the greatest that had been made in regard to the voice during 
the nineteenth century, and possibly the greatest ever made. 
All other physiologists seem to have overlooked the fact that 
were its backward movement not checked by the spine, the cri- 
coid cartilage would be swung backward by the thyroid with no 
tilting of the latter upon the cricoid joints and so no stretching 
of the vocal shelves. Its acoustic influence has also been un- 
noticed by others, although without it the tone would have no 

4. The Balance of Muscles. 

The necessity for muscular adjustment or balance is well 
shown by the study of the muscles of the larynx. It is invariably 
true that every muscular force acting in any direction is opposed 
by a force acting in the opposite direction. In artistic singing 
and in the best speech the opposing forces employed are of equal 
power. Therefore the up-pulling and down-pulling forces act- 
ing upon the larynx during singing or speech should be of the 
same intensity. 

Whenever the force pulling upward upon the larynx exceeds 
that pulling downward, the larynx rises, and, conversely, when- 
ever the force pulling downward exceeds that pulling upward, 
the larynx sinks. In the former case the up-pulling muscles 
are, of course, shortened and all the down-pulling ones length- 
ened; and in the latter case the down-pulling muscles are short- 
ened and the up-pulling ones lengthened. In either of these 
positions there is loss of power; for it is an established law that 
a muscle loses in power when shortened beyond its natural ex- 
tent. Probably a muscle also loses in power when lengthened 
beyond its natural extent. Consequently when the larynx is 
drawn either up or down, the thyroid tilting muscles cannot 
stretch the shelves so powerfully. 

It is also true that if the larynx either rises or sinks, it loses 
the only position in which it can remain in close contact with 
the spine; its natural position being directly in front of the for- 
ward bend or curve of the spine, which recedes from the larynx 
both above and below. "The posterior surface of the cricoid 
plate is the only part that can come in contact with the spine; 

1 6 The Association Review. 

and if the larynx is drawn downward or upward, the cricoid 
leaves the forward bend of the spine and finds behind itself an 
intervening space. This, however, does not occur in rising until 
the larynx has moved farther than the fraction of an inch which 
separates it from the hyoid bone." The necessity for this con- 
tact of the cricoid and the spine has already been shown. Still 
another reason for this position of the larynx is that just here 
the anterior surface of the spine (the fifth vertebra) is especially 
free from muscles, being very firm and smooth, and, therefore, 
well adapted to resist the backward movement of the cricoid. 

5. Tests. 

Test No. 2. The Position of Larynx. — Push the end of 
the finger down between the collar and the neck and draw it up- 
ward until it reaches the cricoid ring. Sing a low, a medium, 
and a high tone in succession, or repeat any forcibly spoken 
vowel, or the words, "How far," "O, yes," on different pitches. 
If this bony ring sinks at all at the beginning of the tone or if 
it rises more than the quarter or third of an inch that measures 
the distance of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage from 
the hyoid bone, know that you are in error. 

The movement of the cricoid ring indicates that of the whole 
larynx. As the voice ceases the larynx should, of course, return 
to its former position. There should be no rigidity of larynx 
during either singing or speech. It should move upward to 
come in contact with the hyoid bone, and then, within narrow 
limits, the closely bound larynx and hyoid should have great 
freedom of movement, i. e., the cricoid cartilage should not leave 
its position against the fifth vertebra, but should move freely 
on the vertebra. 

Test No. 3. The Use of Muscles Pulling Downward 
UPON THE Larynx. — ^" Again push the finger down between the 
collar and the neck and press it backward, just above the breast- 
bone, with the gentle force required to feel the windpipe; then, 
still pressing gently backward, draw the finger tip a trifle to one 
side without losing the windpipe. Now sing," or speak with 
energy, and if the finger is not pushed forward by the swelling 


Some Muscles Used in Speech, 17 

muscle to the front of the still felt windpipe, "be assured that 
your whole throat adjustment must be wrong." 

"The swelling is caused mainly by the contraction and for- 
ward straightening of the sterno-hyoid muscles. If they do not 
thus straighten forward, it is proved that the essential shelf- 
straightening agents^ this muscle and the upward stretching 
hyo-glossi muscles^ are acting either too feebly or not at all ; that 
the thjrroid cartilage is not being tilted forward upon the crico- 
thyroid hinges with sufficient force, and that the stemo-thyroid 
muscles^ also pressed upon, are likewise inactive." 

The swelling of these muscles is also apparent to the eye. 
The musical as well as the spoken voice should be used, and with 
the former the swelling will be found more marked, quite filling 
the hollow usual at this point. The hollows above the collar- 
bone will also be filled by the swelling of the omo-hyoid. 

Test No. 4. The Use of Palato-Pharyngei: — ^"Hold a 
hand-mirror before the mouth while standing with your back to 
a window. Gently press down the middle of the tongue with 
the forefinger so that the rear comers of the roof of the mouth 
will be seen and the posterior pillars of the fauces (the palato- 
pharyngei muscles) will be visible against the back wall of the 
mouth. Sing a tone, low, high, or medium," or say "ah" forcibly. 
If the pillars separate, know that you are far astray; if they re- 
main unmoved, less in error; while, if they come toward each 
other, thus making the angle at their summit smaller, be assured 
that so far your palatal habits are probably correct." 

"It is probable that not one in twenty of those who apply 
this test will find the result favorable. The effort to enlarge the 
rear part of the mouth's cavity is taught so universally, and, un- 
fortunately, employed by nearly all untaught singers so instinct- 
ively, that it would appear to be the correct one, were that opin- 
ion not disproved by mechanical principles to which bones and 
muscles are subject as completely as wood and wire." 

That these muscles really act as they have here been de- 
scribed to do, has been proved by Mr. Howard by many post- 
mortem experiments upon the larynx, and also by bringing these 
muscles in his own throat voluntarily under control during voice 
that their action might be studied. 

1 8 The Association Review. 

The muscles considered in this paper may be put in tabular 
form; thus: 

Muscles which tilt the thyroid cartilage upon the cricoid — 

Up-pulling Muscles. { ^^[S^^tryngei. 

C stemo-hyoid, 
Down-pulling Muscles, } omo-hyoid, 

( stemo-thyroid. 

(To be continued.) J 





The Letter of M. Gard, the Deaf Teacher of Bordeaux, 

France, dated April, 1816, which was brought to 

America by William Lee, U. S. Consul at 


From the Freeman's Journal and Columbian Chronicle, pub- 
lished at Philadelphia, Friday, Dec. 27, 1816, p. 2, col. 3). 

[Frequent allusions to the letter of M. Gard are found in 
our technical works relating to the education of the deaf; but the 
letter itself does not seem to have been re-printed since it first 
appeared in 1816. The copy here presented fails to state the 
name of the person to whom it was addressed; but, Drs. Stan- 
ford and Ackerly in their report upon the Deaf and Dumb of 
New York (published in 1816), say that it was "directed to Dr. 
Mitchill''— (Review III, p. 437). 

In the History of the New York Institution (published by 
the Volta Bureau in 1893) the following statements occur: "In 
1816 William Lee, Esq., on his return from Bordeaux, France, 
where he had been Consul^ brought a circular letter from Mr. F. 
Gard, the distinguished pupil of the Abbe St. Sernin, and for 
many years a teacher at the Institution of Bordeaux. The let- 
ter was written in excellent English^ which M. Gard had studied, 
and was addressed to 'Philanthropists of the United States', and 
contained an offer of himself as teacher of the deaf and dumb. 

*By Alexander Graham Bell. Six chapters of this work have been 
published in Vol. II, also Appendices A to P, see Index to Vol. II. For 
Appendices Q to 39, see Index to Vol. III. — Ed. 

20 The Association Review. 

Mr. Lee handed it to Samuel L. Mitchill, M. D., a physician 
in this city, and a man eminent in his day for learning, philan- 
thropy and social influence. Dr. Mitchill's sympathies were 
at once aroused, and he conversed with Rev. Mr. Stanford, who, 
as has been mentioned, had met a number of deaf-mutes in the 
course of his ministrations, and with Dr. Akerly, whom he 
knew as a man with a heart open to every call of benevolence. 
These three gentlemen called a meeting at the house of Rev. 
Mr. Stanford." • * • * * "This meeting resulted in 
another more public at Tammany Hall." • • * * * 
"The gentlemen who first met on this interesting subject, were 
still firm in their purpose, and the meetings which were sub- 
sequently convened, were attended by those only who wished 
a school established in New York. In the spring of 1817, they 
accordingly met and organized a list of officers and directors, 
at the head of which was the Hon. DeWitt Qinton, and a peti- 
tion was presented to the Legislature for an Act of Incorpora- 
tion" * • * * "and on the 15th of April, 181 7, the New 
York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb acquired a legal exist- 
ence with the usual corporate privileges. By an interesting 
coincidence this was the same day that the school at Hartford 
was opened for the reception of pupils." It will be seen from 
the above that the letter of M. Gard led to the establishment of 
the New York Institution. — ^A. G. B.] 


For Freeman's Journal. 

Mr. M. Corkle. — As the propriety of establishing 
a school, for the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb in 
this city, where it is known there are several in that sit- 
uation, besides many in the state, has been repeatedly 
stated in the public prints, and supported by many in 
private conversation of this interesting subject — I think 
it right to make it known, that a professor in the 
School for the Deaf and Dumb, at Bordeaux has of- 
fered his services to a gentleman in this city, (by the 
following letter written in English) to come to the 
United States, for the purpose of teaching those un- 
fortunate persons ; and I have no doubt he may yet be 
procured, providing a competency is secured to him. 

Historical Notes. 21 

No more shall be said on the subject at present, but 
that if it be seriously desired to institute a School in 
Philadelphia, a meeting should be called, when the sen- 
timents of the citizens may be taken on the occasion. 
My own opinion is, that there is great room for a 
School in Philadelphia, for many of the unfortunate 
persons in the state who will be objects of instruction 
in it cannot go to that at Hartford. 

A. B. 

It ought to be stated that Mr. Lee, late consul of 
the United States at Bordeaux^ speaks in the highest 
terms of Mr. Card's character and talents; and that in 
a letter to the gentleman to whom Mr. Card's letter is 
addressed^ he says that Mr. Card brought him the letter 
to correct, but that he preferred sending it without the 
least alteration. 

The original letter from Mr. Card^ is left at the 
Athenaeum, for public inspection. 

Bordeaux, April, 1816. 

You will perhaps be surprised at the liberty I take 
in addressing you; but, being governed by motives of 
humanity, and encouraged in my design by some mili- 
tary gentlemen, and merchants of the United States 
now in this place, I beg leave to claim your attention 
for a moment on the situation of the unhappy persons 
in your country who have the misfortune to be deaf 
and dumb. Afflicted, myself, with these infirmities, and 
feeling with great sensibility for all those in the same 
situation, I have enquired of the American gentlemen 
who have visited our Institution, in Bordeaux, for the 
instruction of the deaf and dumb, whether there ex- 
isted any similar establishment in the United States. 
Being informed that no such schools had been estab- 
lished with you, and learning that, among your deaf 
and dumb, all those who had not the means of going to 
Europe, were deprived of instruction, I feel an ardent 
desire to devote my labor and existence to procure for 
them the inestimable blessing of the education of which 
their organization is susceptible, and which is so indis- 
pensable both for their own happiness, and to render 
them useful members of society. I was educated, my- 
self, in the Institution of the deaf and dumb of this 

22 The Association Review. 

city; and having acquired by long application, a perfect 
knowledge of the most approved method of instructing 
this unfortunate portion of society, I have, for these 
eight years, exercised the functions of teacher, and have 
also acquired a tolerable knowledge of the English lan- 
guage. If the American government, or benevolent 
individuals of your country, are disposed to form an 
Institution in the United States, I would willingly go 
there for the purpose. I can procure satisfactory testi- 
monials of my moral character, and my capacity for 
teaching the deaf and dumb, from the American Consul, 
and several respectable military and commercial gentle- 
men of the United States, who honor me with their 
friendship and esteem. I will entirely depend on the 
wisdom and judgment of the American government, or 
of the individuals who undertake to assist me in the 
proposed establishment, to fix the mode and plan of its 

Our Institution here, is calculated for sixty poor 
students, at the expense of the government, which pays 
for each 600 francs per annum, and 24,000 francs for 
the professors, and sundry other charges; to which is 
to be added the expense of a suitable building, beds, 
linens, &c.; making the aggregate expense about 1,000 
francs annually for each individual; the rich pay the ex- 
pense of their children; and if, as I have been told, a 
considerable portion of the deaf and dumb in the United 
States have the means of paying for their instruction, 
the expense to the government, or a private society, 
would be inconsiderable. For myself, I do not claim 
great emoluments; my desire and object is to serve an 
afflicted portion of humanity. I have a wife, and soon 
expect to be a father; my only ambition is to procure 
a comfortable existence for my family. 

If you think your government cannot, from its 
formation, establish such an Institution, will you inform 
me what probability there is of any one of the State 
governments undertaking to create such an establish- 
ment; or whether, in your opinion, individuals subscrip- 
tion could be raised for its formation. 

Your worthy Consul, Mr. Lee, has given me great 
encouragement; but I wish to feel secure of a compe- 
tency before I undertake a voyage, as it would not be 
prudent in me to let go a certainty for an uncertainty; 

Historical Notes. 23 

having, from the Institution here, a salary of 1800 
francs^ besides other emoluments. 

I should be highly flattered by your honouring me 
a reply to this; on which, permit me to say, I calculate, 
from the knowledge I have from Mr. Lee, of your 
patriotism^ and useful labors. 

I have the honor to be, with high respect, sir, your 
humble servant, 

Fs. Gard 

Professeur a Tecole Royale des 

sourd-muets, a Bordeaux. 


Prospectus Announcing that the Hartford School 
Would Open on the isth of April^ 1817, 

HAM O. Stansbury and Wife in Charge 
of the Domestic Concerns. 

(From the Connecticut Mirror, Monday, March 24, 1817.) 


Through the politeness of the Directors of the 
Connecticut Asylum for the education of the DEAF and 
DUMB, we have been favored with the following Pros- 
pectus, which we with pleasure lay before our readers. 
We presume that the editors of neighboring news- 
papers, will cheerfully publish it for the information of 
the public. 

The directors of the CONNECTICUT ASYLUM 
for the education of the DEAF and DUMB, take this 
method of informing the public^ that the course of in- 
struction, under the immediate superintendence of the 
Rev. T. H. Gallaudet and Mr. Laurent Clerc, will com- 
mence on the iSth of April next. A convenient house 
has been procured for the temporary accommodation 
of the pupils, the domestic concerns of which will be 
conducted by the Rev. A. O. Stansbury and lady, whose 
care over the interesting fomily to be committed to 
their charge will, it is fully believed, answer all the 
reasonable expectations, and insure the warmest con- 
fidence, of parental solicitude. 

While the Directors gratefully acknowledge the 

24 The Association Review. 

goodness of God in all the success with which He has 
been pleased thus far to crown their feeble efforts in 
his service, and while they would devoutly rely on Jesus 
Christ, the great Head of the Church, to make their 
future labours subservient to the best interests, both 
temporal and spiritual, of the unfortunate objects to 
be entrusted to their care; it is with deep regret, that 
they are under the necessity of pleading the poverty of 
the Asylum, at its very outset, as an obstacle in the way 
of receiving charity-scholars, excepting from those few 
towns which have contributed to its resources. Very 
considerable have been the expenses which have nec- 
essarily accrued during two years past, in preparing 
one of our own citizens to superintend the course of 
instruction in the Asylum, by enabling him to visit sim- 
ilar institutions in Europe, and to bring back with him 
a most interesting foreigner, himself deaf and dumb, 
as an assistant in this new and arduous department 
of education. These expenses have been almost en- 
tirely paid by the citizens of Hartford, and all of them 
from funds raised within the state. — ^The funds which 
have since been contributed in some of the larger towns 
of the neighbouring states, furnish an income adequate 
only to the support of a very small number of pupils; 
in applying which the directors feel themselves bound 
to have a reference always to the wishes of the sub- 
scribers residing in such towns, with whom they will 
speedily communicate on this subject. — ^The donation 
made by the State of Connecticut will be directed in its 
proper channel, as soon as it is ascertained, whether it 
was intended to constitute the commencement of a fund 
for the relief of the indigent deaf and dumb; or to be 
used for this object, as the exigencies of the Asylum 
might require. So that at present no provision can be 
made for charity-scholars from places which have not 
furnished funds for this object. 

A candid public, will, it is hoped, duly understand 
and appreciate the correctness of such a course of pro- 
cedure, especially, as the want of funds has not arisen 
from the want of exertions which have been faithfully 
made for several months past. The future more ample 
patronage of the benevolent will it is hoped enable the 
Asylum to erect suitable buildings, and to conduct its 
concerns upon a scale which will make it eminently and 
extensively useful, especially to such of the unhappy. 

Historical Notes. 25 

(and very many such there are) as have added to their 
other affecting calamity, that of poverty; and this barrier 
may even now be removed, if the towns in which such 
unfortunate reside will contribute the sums necessary 
for their education and support. In fixing the amount of 
these sums the directors have adjusted it at a rate far 
below what the past expenditures of the institution and 
its future current expenses would justify, trusting to a 
kind providence in some way or other to make up such 
deficiency, and to that Being, who hath the hearts of all 
men in his hands^ that He would raise up in the places 
and neighbourhood where they reside benefactors for 
the poor deaf and dumb. 

The term of time necessary for the instruction of a 
pupil in the common elementary parts of education will 
be from three to six years, according to age and capaci- 
ty; such a period has been found absolutely indispensable 
at the European institutions nor will it be deemed long 
when it is considered^ that more than this is spent for 
the same object by those children who are in posses- 
sion of all their faculties. The improvement of pupils 
would be much accelerated, if before being sent to the 
asylum they could be taught to form and join the let- 
ters of penmanship legibly. 

Many applications have already been made for 
admission, and it is expected that the first class will 
speedily be filled up, after which none can be received 
until the ensuing year. Future applications must be 
made by letter ( post paid) to the undersigned Commit- 
tee, who in answering and complying with them will 
always have regard to priority in point of time. 


1. The Asylum will provide for each pupil, board; 
lodging; washing; the continual superintendence of 
health, conduct, manners and morals; fuel, candles, sta- 
tionary and other incidental expenses of the school 
room; for which, including tuition, there will be an an- 
nual charge of Two hundred dollars. 

2. In case of sickness the necessary extra-charges 
will be made. 

3. No pupil will be received for a less term than 
one year, and no deduction from the above charge will 

26 The Association Review. 

be made on account of vacations or absence except in 
case of sickness. 

4. Payments are always to be made one quarter in 
advance, for such pupils as reside within the state, and 
six months in advance for such as reside without it, for 
the punctual fulfillment of which satisfactory security 
will be required. 

5. Each pupil, applying for admission^ must not 
be under nine years of age, of good natural intellect, free 
from any immoralities of conduct, and from any con- 
tagious or infectious disease; — sl certificate of such 
qualifications will be required^ signed by the clergyman 
of the place in which the pupil resides or by two other 
respectable inhabitants. 

By order of the Directors. 

MASON F. COGSWELL, \ mmmitu. 
DANIEL WADSWORTH, | ^^^*''^^- 

Hartford, March 21st, 1817. 

f9*The editors of Newspapers favourable to the 
interests of the deaf and dumb are respectfully requested 
to give the above prospectus two or three insertions. 


Letter from Rev. Abraham O. Stansbury to his Brother 

Arthur in New York, Describing the Hartford 

School and the Life of the Pupils. 

1817, July 12, 

(From manuscript in the possession of Dr. Fred H. Wines, 
Assistant Director of the Census, Washington, D. C. — a collat- 
eral descendant of the Rev. Mr. Stansbury.) 


"Hartford, July 12, 1817. 

" I feel among strangers here, as if 

I was completely cut off from the family We 

hear often from persons visiting the Asylum, that you 

& mother are well you will naturally expect 

me to give some account of our situation here. First, 
then, it is in regard to situation, everything that could 

Historical Nates. 27 

be wished. The house is on the main street^ & com- 
modious with an extensive view in the rear — ^you see a 
finely cultivated country with houses here & there half- 
covered in trees — ^all wooden, some two stories mostly 
are painted red & sometimes not painted at all — ^two or 
three more polished shine in white, a small river is seen 
like a looking glass reflecting the beautiful shrubbery & 
trees on the margin, which nearly hide it from the sight 
— ^three handsome county seats with porticoes & lofty 
pillars — out houses fences & other marks of wealth 
around them, improve the prospect from my study win- 
dow, which also overlooks a spot of garden 25 by 45 
feet — ^here grows Lettuice & radishes & beets & beans 
& com & cucumbers & cabbages, with a few plants of 
purslain^ pigweed and red root with plenty of fine young 
parsley, as it would appear, but which like false religion 
is the more dangerous from its appearance. Hetnlock, 
in fact; spared and nursed when it first made its ap- 
pearance, but now it expands its shoots, the object of 
my greatest aversion. I have declared a war of exter- 
mination opposite to the study door is 

that of the bed room." (Then follows a long, interesting 

description of his apartments and furnishings) 

"To show you our family of 21 mutes, an interesting 
group. They are making rapid progress, & all the visi- 
tors go away highly pleased : No doubt you have seen 
the account of the President's visit to our Establish- 
ment, he paid the greatest attention & expressed him- 
self very handsomely, congratulated us on having so 
well succeeded in so benevolent a plan — ^many persons 
( ? ) all appear sensibly affected — for my 

own part I find no abatement in the interest, these ob- 
jects excited, but rather an increase, it has not that 
vivacity which belongs to all new impressions, but there 

is more of depth and solidity I instruct them 

in writing an hour a day & find them apt scholars — 
they submit to regulations without much trouble & the 
Domestic economy proceeds in silent regularity — ^the 
morning assembles them all to worship— till 7 they 
amuse themselves & then breakfast — after which they 
look over their lessons, at 9 school begins — ^the rooms 
are below — one occupied by Mr. Clerc & the other by 
Mr. G. — ^the lessons are written down on slates placed 
on easles. These are so large that the writing (with 
chalk & paste) may be read by the tutor from his sta- 

28 The Association Review. 


tion — at noon the prisoners come forth & wash off the 
Dust — ^by I dinner is on the table — & after dinner the 
pupils retire to sew, &c: in their rooms and walk & play 
till 2 then write till 3 — ^boys one day girls another — ^at 
3 school collects — ( ? ) 6 dismisses — then 

comes tea & after tea a walk or a visit till 9 when all 
assemble again for worship — the boys make their bow 
and go to bed — ^the men sit up and talk with their 
fingers & read on their board lessons — (printed on the 
Lancaster plan) for an hour, when men & women boys 
& all vacate the busy Dining Hall & we shortly retire — 
thus passes day after day & I feel thankful to be use- 
fully employed — ^you will ask me what do I find to em- 
ploy my time ? I go to market & during school hours 
read & write & see people who call on business & as 

[Mr. Stansbury then goes on to write at considerable length 
on religious subjects, showing plainly that his own ideas, con- 
stituting solid Scotch Presbyterianism^ were not in accord with 
the religious views of the persons at Hartford with whom he 
was associated. — ^A. G. B.] 


Stansbury's Letter to his Brother Suggesting his own 

Name for the Superintendency of the Proposed 

New York Institution, 181 7, Aug. 3. 

(From manuscript in the possession of Dr. Fred. H. Wines, 
Assistant Director of the Census, Washington, D. C.) 


Under date of 1817, August 3d, from Hartford, Mr. Stans- 
bury writes: 

"With regard to the Asylum everything flourish- 
es, but I do not see how on the present plan, the Deaf 
and Dumb of New York are to be instructed. I have 
no doubt but an Institution might be established there 
on the same system that is pursued here, and should 
the way open for my superintendence there, it would be 
far more agreeable than to continue here, as I see some 

Historical Notes. 29 

things in this, which threaten its destruction, but over 
which I have no control — my views embrace a plan 
which can be carried into effect with the greatest facil- 
ity and which I will communicate when we meet. In 
the meantime, I wish you could see DeWitt Clinton and 
know what are his ideas, as I understand a large sub- 
scription is to be taken up in New York for this Asy- 
lum which is now nearly full of pay scholars only, and 
no persons are instructed as teachers and when any- 
thing is said on this head, the only reply is, that per- 
haps it may not be expedient to furnish New York 
with teachers, which might raise up a rival establish- 
ment — ^then you see what the love of being in general 

is, when men come to act I mention these 

matters to you in confidence, as I conceive it is of 
the first importance that ( ? ) plan should be 
adopted for an institution for New York which shall 
foil — ( ) same mode of instruction as that pur- 
sued here. I have written to Mr. (M ? ) in 
whose judgment I have great confidence: he will see 
Dr. McLeod and others. I am aware how much your 
time must be engrossed, but perhaps on a subject of so 
much importance, you may be able to spare an hour. I 
wish with all my heart you could step into the stage 
and come here — ^to see the most interesting of all 
sights, a collection of intelligent young persons emerg- 
ing from blank ignorance, into the knowledge of the 
world around them and the God who made them." 


The Difficulty between Gallaudet and Stansbury: — 
Gallaudet's Letter to his Board, 181 7, Sept. 4, 


1817, Sept. 17. 

Extract from Gallaudefs letter to his Board of Directors Con- 
ceming the domestic affairs of the Connecticut Asylum, 1817, Sept. 4. 

(From Life of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, by his son, Ed- 
ward Miner Gallaudet, New York, Henry Holt & Co., 1888, 
p. 124). 

30 The Association Review. 

"Mr. is bound by his contract to take care 

of the pupils on the Sabbath. Commodious seats in 
church were provided for them by the Committee ; but 

Mr. and Mrs. absolutely declined sitting with 

them. The care of them has, of course, devolved on 
some of the Directors and the Principal, who will con- 
tinue cheerfully to accompany them to church on one 
condition, that Mr. be made explicitly to un- 
derstand that in this particular, he is to exercise no con- 
trol over them, and especially, that he is not in the face 
of the whole congregation to make signs of rebuke at 
them, thus situated under the care of the Principal, very 
much, as has often been the case, to the mortification 
of the elder pupils, especially the young ladies. 

"I am told by my friend, and fellow laborer, (Mr. 
Qerc) that he is sometimes neglected in the gratifica- 
tion of so simple a want as that of a piece of white 
bread, and that when the mistress of the family, who 
is well acquainted with his wishes in this respect, makes 
not provision to have them always gratified, and when 
he has asked the servant for so small a favor and been 
told that 'the house can not furnish it,' with his accus- 
tomed good nature he has contented himself with a 
draft of milk alone. * * * • I would beg leave, 
respectfully, to inquire whether the Principal of the In- 
stitution is not entitled to some kind of authority within 
its walls ; whether the pupils are to regard him as quite 
on a level, out of the school room, with themselves; or 
whether he is to have the right of interposition or con- 
trol, should he see the pupils ill-treated, their conduct 
and language, as it has often been, very much misap- 
prehended, and themselves incapable of understanding 
the signs which are awkwardly and vehemently made to 
them ? Are they to feel themselves destitute of redress 
in case of grievances; of an interpreter in case of a mis- 
take; of a friend in case of abuse? These things are 
suggested not, I hope, from feelings of wounded pride, 
as has been most ungenerously attributed to me, nor 

Historical Notes. 31 

from a wisH to exercise authority, which is by no means, 
to me at leasts a pleasant task, but from the conviction, 
and surely it is a sober one^ that the usehilness of that 
man is soon at an end^ who^ filling a public station of 
responsibility, and called to form the minds, and con- 
duct the education of those who look up to him as their 
teacher and guide, suffers the loss of that respect with- 
out the enjo3rment of which both himself and his office 
must soon become contemptible." 

Extract from Stansbury's letter to his brother, 1817, Sept. 17, 

(From manuscript in the possession of Dr. Fred. H. Wines, 
Assistant Director of the Census, Washington, D. C.) 

Under date of 1817, Sept. 17, Hartford, Conn., Mr. Stans- 
bury writes: — 

"Since I left you I wrote a letter but concluded 
not to send it, as matters were still unsettled — ^meeting 
after meeting was held, in which proposals were 
brought forward that to smooth Mr. G.'s feelings we 
should quit — ^the resolution passed, & the Committee 
came accordingly to know on what terms I would 
agree to go, without examining into facts; that they 
had no fault whatever to find, but that Mr. G. had 
stated that 'we could not get along together' — I took 
a day to consider & wrote a summary of my views, con- 
cluding, that as there was no ground of dissatisfaction, 
& it was not necessary for Mr. G. to board in the house 
he could board elsewhere — ^that there could be no 
ground of dissatisfaction, unless we interfered with 
each others duties. My representation had the desired 
effect; the Gentlemen were satisfied where the difficulty 
arose & concluded to define our respective provinces; 
that in future there might be no interference assuring 
me that they did not wish me to go away and behaving 
in the most friendly manner. 

"Thus my dear Brother has my kind Master dis- 
appointed the machinations of a malignant enemy & 

32 The Association Review, 

restored peace. I do not enter into particulars, but 
must say that I never ( ? ) so perfect a specimen 

of what I consider the character of a Jesuit. I am now 
on my guard, & pray to be guided in the right way striv- 
ing as much as lieth in me to live peaceably with all 

men Our famify is now small as all the pupils 

but 9 are ggne to see their parents." 


Clerc's Letter to Cogswell Alluding to the Release 
OF Stansbury's Bond, 1818, May 7. 

(From manuscript on file in Yale College Library.) 

Hartford, the 7th of May, 1818. 

My dear friend: — 

Your letter which was handed me on my return 
from Guilford where I went with Mr. Howell on a visit 
to the Miss Fowlers, was truly welcome. Thank you 
for the expression of your kindness & of that of Mrs. 
Cogswell & Mary & Alice, which it contains. Be as- 
sured the affection is mutual. I have been thinking of 
you all and wish you much pleasure in New-york & a 
safe return home. 

Since you left us, there have been two meetings of 
the Directors. At the first, the release of Mr. Stans- 
bury's bond was brought on the carpet & postponed; 
but much encouragement was given him by some of the 
Directors. My own opinion, on this subject, is that 
our Institution will be charged with illiberality, if the 
restriction is not taken off, I suppose we may be 
thought to dread his competition; but I feel he may 
prejudice the Gentlemen in N. Y. against our system 
bv misrepresenting it, as he knows so little of it. At 
the second meeting, it was voted that I should be re- 
quested to write an address to be delivered at the time 
of the public exhibition of the Asylum which will be 
sometime this month. I have complied with this re- 
quest. As for the enlargement of our school-rooms 
nothing has been done as yet, and I feel quite grieved 
that no stronger interest is felt in providing immedi- 
ately for our urgent necessities. I must however be 
satisfied with performing my duty, & perhaps our Di- 

Historical Notes. 33 

rectors will learn from some gjeat inconvenience that 
more dispatch is necessary. 

Mr. Gallaudet spent a few days in New Haven and 
did not arrive here until tuesday morning, his health 
appears to be better; but I fear it is only the effect of 
leisure which a few days labour & especially his disap- 
pointment at finding nothing improved in the Asylum, 
will destroy. I rejoice, however, at his putting his life, 
his health & his all in the hands of a Being whose wis- 
dom is [equal] ^ only equally by his goodness who does 
not afflict us for his pleasure, but for our profit. In his 
hands, I wish Mr. Gallaudet to be, & I pray [God]^ that 
God would give him grace to submit to all his divine 
will. Mr. Orr is expected in the course of this week. 

Mr. Woodbridge is still in Boston & is not ex- 
pected until tomorrow. He had an opportunity of talk- 
ing with Governor Brooks & some of the Gentlemen 
composing the Committee respecting the Deaf & 
Dumb; and if, as we hope, the legislature of Massachu- 
setts are generous enough to provide for us, we will 
willingly transfer our Pupils to Boston. Do not think 
me ambitious, my dear friend; my only desire is to see 
the foundation of our Institution settled, that when I 
return to France, I may be easy on the future fate of 
my brothers in misfortune & tell my countrymen that 
the Americans are not inferior to the Europeans in 
benevolence & munificence towards these unfortunate 
beings. Several of our students have already returned 
from their vacation, & the others I suppose, are on 
their way. Among the new, three have arrived, & the 
others are expected daily. 

Our friends in this neighbourhood are well except 
Mr. Wadsworth who is one while well, another time 
sick. They are cleaning their houses & preparing 
Cakes for the election day. Mr. & Mrs. Whittlesey 
have had many reasons to be afflicted, on the evening 
of the day in which Mrs. Whittlesey arrived at the 
Asylum they received the sad news of the death of the 
wife of one of her brothers, and next week absolutely 
on the same day, their second son left them, we hope, 
for the better world, after five days sickness. Although 
not quite consoled, they are well enough to watch over 

*Thc bracketed words are in the original manuscript, written but 
crossed out. — A. G. B. 

34 The Association Review. 

our domestic concerns. I have presented to them your 
regards & they return theirs to you. 

Our Deaf & Dumb pupils & especially Miss Dil- 
lingham send their best respects to Mrs. Cogswell & 
yourself & their love to Mary & Alice. I visit Eliza- 
beth, Catherine & Mason from time to time, they are 
well & long to see you again. 

Farewell my dear friend, please to remember me affec- 
tionately to Mr. & Mrs. Stevens & their sons & 
daughter, & to all our very good friends, & believe me 

Your sincere friend 

Laurent Clerc. 

P. S. Mr. Gallaudet whose numerous concerns 
since his arrival, have prevented him from writing to 
you, wishes to be affectionately remembered to your 
family & to all his friends. He has seen (Mrs. ? ) 
Talcott who is comfortable. 

Dr. Mason F. Cogswell. 

(addressed) Dr. Mason F. Cogswell, 

care of Peter W. Redcliffe. 

New- York. 

(postmarked) Hartford, Conn. May 7. 


The Opening of the New York Institution, 1818, May 20, 
WITH Rev. Abraham O. Stansbury, as Superin- 
tendent AND Principal. 

(From History of New York Institution, published by the 
Volta Bureau, 1893). 

[We have no information concerning the action of the 
Directors of the Hartford School upon the proposition to re- 
lease Mr. Stansbury from his bond, and take off the restriction 
mentioned by Laurent Clerc (see Appendix 45). It appears, 
however, that the French system adopted in Hartford, was not 
pursued in the New York Institution. In the first Report of the 

Historical Notes, 35 

New York Institution, January i, 1820, (reprint of 1894), the Di- 
rectors allude to the instructors as follows : — 

"The Rev. A. O. Stansbury, Superintendent and 
teacher, is the Principal. He is a gentleman of classi- 
cal erudition and has been successful in his efforts in 
instructing the pupils under his care. He attends to 
the oldest and most advanced scholars. Miss Mary 
Stansbury, assistant teacher, takes the next class, 
where the pupils are taught to put words together into 
sentences, and find words for the expression of their 
own thoughts, after seeing an action performed. Miss 
Stansbury is a lady of amiable manners and deport- 
ment, capable and attentive, and gives great satisfac- 
tion to the Directors. Mr. Horace Loofborrow, assist- 
ant teacher and clerk, has charge of the third class. 
This gentleman has been employed since first July last, 
and has given satisfactory manifestations of his useful- 
ness. In the class under his tuition, the pupils learn 
their letters and words, and express the same by sig^s 
indicative of a knowledge of their meaning and import." 

The following is quoted from the History of the New York 
Institution, published by the Volta Bureau, 1893, p. 12. — 
A. G. B.] 

On the 22d of May, 181 7 the Board of Directors 
met for the first time. Their first act was to appoint a 
committee to write to England for a teacher, under the 
impression that the system of articulation, introduced 
by Braidwood, would be of more value than the French 
system, which discarded it. No answer was received 
till the summer of 1818, when the terms demanded were 
so exorbitant that it was impossible to accede to them. 

On the 24th of March, 1818, the Deaf and Dumb 
of New York were collected in the Court room of the 
City Hall, and lent an affecting influence to an address 
delivered by Dr. Mitchill to an assemblage of the prom- 
inent ladies and gentlemen of the city, upon the ne- 
cessity of making provision for their education. On 
the 2oth of May of the same year, Mr. Abraham O. 
Stansbury, a gentleman of liberal education, who had 
been a year in the Asylum at Hartford, in charge of the 
administrative department, occupied a room which the 
city authorities had kindly set apart in the Almshouse, 
and whom, after waiting in vain to hear from Europe, 

36 The Association Review. 

the Directors of the New York Institution had engaged 
to take charge of their new school. Around him were 
grouped four young deaf mutes, who had been brought 
to him that morning, and whom he was in the act of 
teaching the letters of the manual alphabet. They were 
to live at home and come to him every day. Before the 
close of the year 1818, had been gathered thirty-three 
pupils, and Miss Mary Stansbury had been engaged as 
an additional teacher. Twenty-four of these pupils 
were day scholars, and nine were boarders, who, with 
the other additions during the first eleven years, were 
accommodated in rooms hired at 41 Warren Street for 
their benefit. Some of these were paying pupils, but 
the expenses of the majority were defrayed by charit- 
able contributions, and by the City of New York, which 
agreed to make an annual appropriation of $400. 

At the Annual Meeting of the members of the In- 
stitution, composed of ladies and gentlemen who had 
agreed to pay three dollars annually, or thirty dollars 
in one sum, held on the third Tuesday of May in that 
year, in accordance with the terms of the charter. Dr. 
Mitchill was elected President, in place of DeWitt 
Clinton, who, having been elected Governor, felt con- 
strained to retire. In the Spring of 1819, as the num- 
ber of pupils had reached forty-seven, it was found 
impossible to support the Institution on the limited re- 
sources they could command, and Dr. Akerly, as Sec- 
retary of the Board of Trustees, accompanied by Mr. 
Stansbury and eleven of his pupils, proceeded to Al- 
bany, and held an exhibition before the Legislature. 
The result of the favorable impression thus created was 
the passage, on the 13th of April, 1819, of two acts — 
one making a direct appropriation of $10,000 from the 
State treasury, and the other securing to the Institution 
a moiety of the tax on lotteries in the city of New York, 
• from which, for fourteen years thereafter, a consider- 
able part of its income was derived. 

In June following Mr. Horace Loofborrow was 
engaged as an assistant teacher. * * * * ^r, 
Stansbury departed for Europe in May. 1821, and Mr. 
Horace Loofborrow was made principal. The adminis- 
trative department of the Institution was placed in the 
hands of Dr. Samuel Akerly, as Superintendent and 
Physician, who occupied this post till February 183 1. 

Historical Notes. 37 


Quotations from the Letters of the Rev. Abraham O. 

Stansbury after he became Principal of the New 

York Institution^ 1818, Sept. 4; 1820, 

Feb. — , AND March 12. 

(From Manuscripts in the possession of Dr. Frederick H. 
Wines, Assistant Director of the Census, Washington, D. C.) 

Under date 1818, September 4, writing from New York, 
Mr. Stansbury says: — 

"The Institution flourishes and the public are high- 
ly gratified at the improvement of the scholars 

I hope with Mr. Sears assistance &c. to improve in this 
hitherto impracticable attainment. I find him an ami- 
able young man, and hope that he will do well here." 

(Evidently writing of Mr. Sears, he says) 

"he is the son of the Sheriff of Orange County and was 
a pupil of yours — but by the death of his father, is left 

to depend on his own exertions for a living." 

"I see your old friend G. Hyer frequently, he is a mem- 
ber of the little society at Mr. Rich — ? and one of our 
Directors, besides which he has placed his *Son Tom' to 
board with us, to separate him from evil company &c." 

Under date 1820, February, he writes from New York: — 

"In answer to your inquiry I can only say, that 
having made an arrangement with a gentleman who 
goes to England in April, it is not probable that I shall 
go there, nor in fact have I any plan of proceeding after 
the first of May, when my engagement expires. If the 
Directors conclude to make an exhibition at Albany it 
may be thought necessary for me to go — in which case 

I shall have the pleasure of seeing you It 

will be an emancipation to leave this Institution, yet 
there is a high satisfaction in having so far succeeded in 
its establishment; my principal regret is, that notwith- 
standing repeated representations to the Board of the 
expediency of having a proper character to succeed me, 
nothing has been done & all that I have acquired will 
be in a great measure lost. I am now endeavoring, to 
secure one point, by having the system of signs for 
numbers engraved — ^when it is done I will send you a 

38 The Association Review. 

few copies Mr. Ward is collecting cash but 

he succeeds very moderately here." 

Under date of 1820, March 12, New York, he writes: — 

**My last was in reply (to yours?) of Feb. 25 re- 
specting our Board, and giving some of my reasons for 

resigning the Station in which I have labored 

it is a work of usefulness — sufficient to warrant all the 

privation my success has exceeded my hopes — 

but when measures are adopted by those who have the 
direction calculated to ruin the prosperity of the Insti- 
tution^ I am left without alternative. At the last meet- 
ing of the Board I therefore gave in my formal dismis- 
sion, since then I find the Directors are anxious to pre- 
vent a change and have appointed tomorrow to confer 
with me on the subject, possibly such terms can be ad- 
justed i*s may enable me to renew the engagement for 

another year rest assured I shall not act 

rashly or unwisely for I feel deeply the responsibility 
of my situation." 


Rapprochement between the New York Institution and 
THE Hartford School. Letter from Dr. Akerly 
TO Dr. Cogswell, 1821, Aug. 28, with Cogs- 
well's Reply, 1821, October 15. 

(From manuscript on file in Yale College Library). 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 

New York, 28th. Aug. 1821. 
Dr. Mason F. Cogswell. 

Dear Sir: — 

The Committee of Instruction have directed me to 
send you for the Library of the Hartford Institn. for 
Deaf & Dumb a work lately published here entitled 
"Elementary Exercises for the Deaf & Dumb" &c. This 
work has grown out of our wants in this Instn. & prob- 
ably never would have been published if Mr. Gallaudet's 
book had been in use in our school. I never saw but 

Historical Notes. 39 

one copy of it & that was brought by Mary Rose I be- 
lieve from Hartford. We were informed by our late 
superintendent that it could not be procured for the use 
of our school, therefore after experiencing difficulties 
for the want of method or plan, I was set to work and 
compiled the volume I send you. I have been induced 
thro. Mr. Stansbury to believe that an unfriendly dis- 
position existed in your Institn. towards us, & I was 
not alone in that belief, wherefore no intercourse has 
taken place between us. The cause of that belief being 
removed in the change which has taken place in the 
management of this Institn., we now hope that an inter- 
change of good wishes and offices may begin & con- 
tinue between our Institutions as is fit & becoming men 
& Christians in pursuit of the same objects thro. 
Charity and benevolence. We wish success to yours 
and all other Institns for the D & Dumb. 

I have the first report of your Instn. Will you be 
so good as to send me your 2nd, 3rd & 4th. 

With respectful consideration 
I am Dr Sir, your most obdt. 

Samuel Akerly, Secy. 

(Addressed) Mason F. Cogswell M. D. Hartford, Conn. 

(Filed) Doctr. Sam'l. Akerly's letter & my answer. 

Aug'st 1821. 

[Enclosed in the above letter from Dr. Akerly, appears the 
following copy of Dr. Cogswell's letter in reply, with erasures 
and additions as shown. — A. G. B.] 

Dr. Sam'l. Akerly, 

Hartford, Octr. 15th, 182 1. 
Dear Sir: — 

Your favor of the 28th of Aug'st. I rec'd about 
a week since, accompanied by a work entitled "Elemen- 
tary Exercises for the D & D." &c. presented by your 
Committee of Instruction, to the Library of the Hart- 
ford Instn. &c. & although there has been no meeting 
of our Directors, since the rec't. of your Communica- 
tion, I do not hesitate to offer your Committee my sin- 
cere thanks, on their behalf, for this distinguished evi- 
dence of good-will, manifested towards our Instn. my 


The Association Review. 


own personal thanks are due, likewise, to you Sir, & of 
which I request your acceptance. As I have never 
been engaged in the business of instruction, I do not 
consider myself a competent judge of the real merits of 
yV work, & I have not, as yet, had an Oppty. of obtain- 
ing the opinions of our Instructors, as they [have just 
returned]^ have all been absent during a vacation, 
which has just terminated. I am satisfied however, 
from a hasty perusal of it, that it will be considered, as a 
valuable addition, to the limited number of treatises, 
heretofore published on this interesting subject. 

I regret that Mr. Stansbury should have led you 
into an error, respecting Mr. Gallaudet's first Element- 
ary Book. It has been for sale at our Book Stores in 

this City ever since its publication/ ^ any number of 
copies might have been obtained , on application to Mr. 
Gallaudet or our Booksellers^y ^Nor was this the only 

error into which you were led by Mr. S. and had you 
known him then as well as you do now, you might prob- 
ably have been spared the trouble of believing "that 
an unfriendly disposition existed in our Institution to- 
wards yours." Where nothing has been done, nothing 
ought to be implied. Whatever might otherwise have 
been our feelings on this subject, the unexpected, & I 
think I may say without the imputation of boasting, the 
unexampled success of our Institution, has placed us 
beyond the reach of envy or jealousy towards any other. 
The peculiar circumstances under which your Institu- 
tion commenced, the Principal you first employed, & 
the entirely different mode of instruction, which you at 
first adopted, rendered it not only useless & inexpe- 
dient, but also totally forbade us from holding any in- 
tercourse, respecting the Deaf & Dumb, however much 
we might have wished it. Now that yoiu" Institution 
has assumed a new character, & you have come forward 
with friendly advances, we will willingly accept your 
profTered kindness, & wish you every success, that your 
benevolent exertions deserve.* 


We reciprocate the sentiment that "an interchange 
of good wishes & offices may begin & continue be- 

*The bracketed words are in the original manuscript, written but 
crossed out. — A. G. B. 

'Ink-lines encircle parts of the letter in the original manuscript as is 
indicated. — ^A. G. B. 

Historical Notes. 41 

tween our Institutions as is fit & becoming men & 
Christians, in pursuit of the same objects [thro]^ of 
charity & benevolence." 

You will receive with this oui* 2nd, 3d, 4th & 5th 
Reports. Present my respects to the gentlemen of 
your Committee & believe me, dear sir 

your friend 

& Servt. 

M. F. Cogswell. 

[Written in pencil in the blank sheet of this letter, apparent- 
ly in a different handwriting, is the following. — ^A. G. B.] 

I regret that you should have been led into an 
error respecting Mr. Gallaudet's Elementary Book — 
but it has been always for sale at the Book Stores in this 
City, ever since its first publication; & any number of 
copies might have been obtained without application 
to Mr. Gallaudet, — nor did we know till the receipt of 
your letter, that it was not in the hands of all those who 
could wish to make use of it. — 

— I am also sorry that you have supposed that an 
"unfriendly disposition existed in our Institution to- 
wards yours," — I think this should not have been im- 
plied as nothing (concerning?) it has been done by us, — 
the entirely different mode of instruction adopted in 
New-york would have rendered any communication on 
our part, on the subject of the Deaf & Dumb only use- 
less & (unimportant?) but obtrusive, — But I can assure 
you ["that our sincerest wishes are for your success."]^ 
We accept with the utmost pleasure your proffered 
kindness, — & wish you every success that your benev- 
olent exertions so fully entitle you to— 

[Below this on the same page, apparently written with a 
different pencil, possibly by the same person, appears the follow- 
ing. — A. G. B.] 

(Which, it is but justice to him to say, was prepared 
under the pressure of the arduous duties of a new estab- 
lishment, & intended rather to serve a present emer- 
gency, [within]^ for want of something better, than to 
be considered as anything like an exemplar of the actual 
course of lessons given at the school.) 

(To be continued.) 

'The bracketed words are in the original manuscript, written but 
crossed out.— A. G. B. 



In the old grammars in which we had our first lessons we 
were taught that ''The vowels are a^ e. t, o^ Uy and sometimes w 
and^"; and I think that most, if not all, of the more modern text 
books of Language Lessons, make the same statement, at least I 
have never seen any assertion differing materially from this. 
What does *' sometimes w and^'* mean ? Does it mean when^ is 
sounded like i at the end of a word, as haby^ lady, body, etc., when 
it is short i (I), or as some say long e (e=ee) — and in my, by, why^ 
when it has the long i (i) sound ; and final w after a as in daw, 
caw, jaw, law, when it represents what is usually called broad a 
as in all=au or aw, after e when it forms the diphthong ew 
equaling u long {u), or after o when it forms the diphthongal 
sound ow equaling ou as in cow, owl, toitm, brow, (w is silent be- 
fore r as in ivren, Tvry, wring and in some few words such as sword, 
answer, toward, two : therefore does not count) ? In other cases 
where w smdy are initial preceding the principal vowels a, e, i, o, 
and u, are they consonants? Is not w equivalent in such cases 
to 00 long as in boot, cool, moon, and y to e long (i=ee) ? 
Try any word beginning with w followed by any one of the five 
principal vowels, and substitute oo as in moon (vide Century Dic- 
tionary, o as in move) for w in same ^ord, e. g., was water ^ 
wH, wind, wild. First slowly or separately, as oo as, oo ater^ 
00 H, 00 Ind, 00 lid, — then rapidly allowing the vowels to coalesce. 
In passing or gliding from the position of oo to the following 
vowel we produce the slight buzzing or friction which changes 
the quality of the pure vocal oo, but this is unavoidable in the 
passage from the one vowel to the other. 

Now try^ in the same way you, ydm, yis, yale. The position 
of the vocal organs for initial y is that of long e {e=ee), separating 

Are W and Y ever Consonants t 43 

thus, e oo(=u)j e dm, e A, e ale — now coalesce. Do we not in 
changing the position of the vocal organs from e to the other vow- 
els, give the little friction sound produced by a closer (we call e 
the closest vowel. Is it?) approximation of the tongue to the 
roof of the mouth or hard palate ? This, I suppose, is considered 
sufficient reason for dubbing initial w and j/ consonants. '*Well,*' 
some one will say, **how about the words woo and yeV^ I still 
hold that if you try to repeat the sounds of 00 or e, finishing the 
first one and beginning again, that is, separating them, not holding 
the position and prolonging the one sound, e. g., oo-\-oo not 0000^ 
e-\-e not eeee — the result would be the same. In fact it would be 
much the same if we paired quite a number of different vowel 
sounds. In trying to combine and e, we get what is called the w 
sound in between — something like this, we — 1 do not mean the 
word owe which is simply equal to by itself or long — thus 0. I 
amt if we are not careful, will sound like ah yam. Long and i (I) 
have the 00 and e vanish . Then try some consonant and vowel com- 
binations, e. g., J ure=sure and s ugar^=sugary we get the swish or 
sh sound in the passage from s to the e-\-oo^=u, and these two words 
degenerate into shure and shugar. Just so with the much mooted 
culture^ Don't you f and all their relatives, vanishing in chur or choor 
instead of iure. Most of us, even when not descended from the Pil- 
grim stock have to give our lower jaw and tongue a peculiar jerk 
or twist to keep from becoming '*culchured.** Donchu know? But 
I am wandering. To return to my starting point or my stated 
subject. It seems to me w and y should be classed as always 
vowels. If so, then wh is an aspirated 00^ produced by narrow- 
ing or contracting the labial aperture, or it could be called a vo- 
calized aspirate, and not as some claim the aspirate h before the 
w sound. We call v a vocalized/, or A a vocalized p, neither 
one comes before the other — the voice and breath expulsion are 
given simultaneously. H also before a vowel is combined with 
it or coalesced in the same way. Qu we say equals kw, then if 
w equals 00^ qu equals koo, and in passing to the next vowel we 
produce what is called the w sound. 

I always teach the h, a;, wh, qu, and y in combination with 
the principal vowels, and never try to teach them as separate 
elements. It seems to me that when we try to give them alone, 


The Association Review. 

they loose their identity, if they can be said to have any. Like 
some other elements, they are equivalent to some one or more, or 
are modified by other, elements. I never have satisfied myself 
that I could utter them separately and that which I cannot utter 
easily or satisfactorily myself, I do not try to teach the deaf. 



I fancy that I can read on the lips of many of my hearers, 
the expression, "What! Lip-reading again?" Yes; lip-reading 
again, and I fear that with me it will be a plea for lip-reading un- 
til the end of the chapter. I do not intend repeating what I have 
said about lip-reading in former papers, but my extensive and 
varied experience proves to me more and more, that lip-reading 
is of the greatest importance to us in our work, and that we shall 
never do justice to the little ones confided to our care unless we 
succeed in making them good lip-readers. In a former paper 
on lip-reading I proved beyond a doubt that we ought to make 
it the principal object of our tuition, since the power of under- 
standing what is spoken is of far greater value than even speech 
itself. Lip-reading, face-reading, or speech-reading plays also 
an important part in the lives of hearing people. Many hearing 
people are slightly deaf and never find it out. When attending 
a public place of worship, a lecture, or a place of amusement, we 
prefer to face either the clergyman, the lecturer, or the actors, 
because in all instances "sight assists hearing." In large fac- 
tories where the noise of machinery prevents the workers from 
hearing each other's voices the workpeople communicate by 
moving their lips only. I feel sure that every teacher of the deaf 
will find that the best thing he can do for his pupils is to develop 
lip-reading, which ought to be the "real substitute for hearing." 
I will explain later on why it is not always so. When ought the 
instruction in lip-reading to be started? My reply is: During 
the child's babyhood. Whenever people come to consult you 
about their deaf babies, advise them to speak constantly; never 
mind whether the child understands or not. The hearing child 
receives the sound impressions by means of hearing, and accord- 

*A paper read before the National Association of Teachers of the 
Deaf, at Oxford, England, July 31, 1901. 

46 The Association Review. 

ingly understands before it can speak, so the deaf child will 
understand what is said to him by following the movements of 
the mouth. Our hearing children understand the meaning of 
everj^hing said to them before they can actually talk, and it is 
this power that we should try to give to our deaf children. Keep 
constantly talking to a deaf child. He will notice the actions 
you perform simultaneously with your lip movements, and he 
will learn to understand the meaning expressed by the move- 
ments of your face. This synthetic lip-reading ought to be en- 
couraged to its fullest extent. By the time that the child is sent 
to school he will naturally watch the faces of his teachers, and 
lip-reading will become a natural thing to him. I am often 
amused by the expression/'We shall have an hour's lip-reading." 
Do we ever say to a hearing child, "We shall have an hour's 
hearing?" In school instruction lip-reading is divided, as I have 
stated on former occasions, into two sections — ^mechanical and 
mental. I will not enter here on the mechanical exercises nor 
give any details about mental Up-reading. The methods of 
teaching are known to you. The simple question we have to 
ask is, "Why is lip-reading not what it ought to be ?" The an- 
swer is, "Because you sign to your child." You make it easy 
for him to understand what you mean without rel3ring on the 
eyes and the lip movement exclusively, and I repeat here that 
no signs whatever should be used, even at the commencement 
of our work. I quote what Director Vatter repeats in his 
"Organ" of May, 1901. He says that "the pure (German) oral 
system absolutely allows no signs. We consider it superfluous 
here to give reasons for this statement. The pure (German) 
oral system knows no so-called preparative instruction by means 
of signs. The preparing for the real instruction is limited 
to the showing of objects and afterwards illustrating those 
objects by pictures, etc. Further, by letting the children point 
out similar colours and forms, to have exercises for breathing 
and gymnastics, and when showing pictures, etc., always speak- 
ing to the deaf child, using such words as 'What?' 'What does?* 
'Who?' 'How?* etc., and here you will find that the eye of the 
pupil will hang on the teacher's lips. Also, when the first ideas 
are communicated we do not recognize any signs^ while we em- 

Lip-Reading: what it ought to be. 47 

phatically declare that pointing at an object, as well as the ac- 
tual performance of an action (without any conventional sign 
for it) is not to be considered as a sign." It is undoubtedly true 
that lip-reading ought to be the exclusive vehicle for communi- 
cating instruction to the deaf, and although one has no personal 
feeling in the matter, signs ought to be rigorously excluded as 
they are certainly detrimental to the acquisition of lip-reading, 
and it is for this reason only that pure oralists so energetically 
protest against their use in the early stages of instruction. You 
must give an opportunity to your young deaf pupils to speak as 
much as possible, not only to their teachers and their fellow pu- 
pils, but to the outside world. Let them go out on errands, do 
shopping by themselves, but have them watched that they lip- 
read and speak. Speak distinctly without trying to make lip- 
reading too easy by unnatural face movements, give your chil- 
dren the opportunity of reading many people's mouths, and 
make even the younger pupils lip-read from one another in the 
earlier stages the first sounds and combinations of sounds. 
From the side of the teacher the same phraseology should be 
avoided. You will find that a bad speaker who is a very good 
lip-reader will get on better socially than a good speaker who is 
a bad lip-reader. We must strain, therefore, every nerve to 
make lip-reading as perfect as possible, and to the question what 
it ought to be, I answer, a perfect substitute for hearing. How 
to obtain the same is to avoid gestures altogether. Speak, and 
speak for ever, dispense with all signs, and do not write too 
much, and you will find that success in lip-reading will be the 
result and — ^your reward. 


Gallaudet College, 
Washington, D. C, Dec. 17, 1901. 

To Principals and Superintendents of Schools for the 
Deaf in the United States. 

Dear Friends: — It is proposed by the authorities of the 
World's Fair to be held in St. Louis in 1903, to provide a com- 
modious building to be used exclusively for educational exhibits, 
and space is offered for a special exhibit of the work carried on 
in schools for the deaf. 

In the opinion of the Executive Committee of the Con- 
vention of American Instructors of the Deaf, it will be very 
desirable that a full exhibit of our schools should be made at 
St. Louis. 

Acting for the Committee I take this opportunity of calling 
the attention of heads of schools to this matter. 

All who saw the exhibit at the Chicago Exposition will re- 
member the great interest which was felt in it. The number of 
schools represented was large, and visitors to the Exposition 
gained much valuable information as to what was possible in the 
education of the deaf and what was being done in their behalf 
throughout the country. 

The authorities of the World's Fair at St. Louis give as- 
surance that a space even greater than that offered at Chicago 
can be given to the schools for the deaf if it is desired. 

It will not be possible to determine how much space shall 

be asked for until the purpose of the several schools of the 

country as to exhibiting is manifested. I therefore earnestly 

request that the heads of schools for the deaf in the United States 

will communicate with me at an early day on this subject, giving 

an idea, if possible, how much space would be desired for each 

school. Very truly yours, 

E. M. Gallaudet, 

President of the Convention of American Instructors of the 
Deaf and Chairman of the Executive Committee.. 



The beginning of the holiday season in Talladega^ Alabama, 
was suddenly darkened by the death of Miss Lois E. Atwood. 
She died of heart failure. It came as a shock to her friends, for 
though she had been ill a couple of weeks with a fever, no such 
ending was anticipated. Indeed, the doctor had only just told 
her she was better and could soon sit up. But quietly and with- 
out warning, on the evening of the 23rd of December — 

"God's finger touched her and she slept." 

The next morning, at the house of a friend, we said farewell 
to ail that was mortal, and her presence went out of our sight 
forever. Accompanied by an old friend, Mr. Alfred Wood, the 
remains were taken to Columbus, Ohio. The sad home coming 
was on the evening of Christmas day when all the rest of the 
world was making merry. Her parents have this consolation 
in the loss of their only child that though her life was short, 
counted by years, she had not wasted it, but used it to help her 
less fortunate fellow creatures and thus lived in deeds. 

Lois E. Atwood was born in Arkansas while her father, 
Mr. Ralph H. Atwood, was connected with the school for the 
deaf there under the Superintendency of the late Mr. Carruthers. 
Her later home was in Columbus, Ohio, where her father taught 
in the school for the deaf there. Thus from infancy she was 
thrown in that environment which helped her to a thorough 
understanding of the deaf, of their capabilities and limitations, 
and fitted her so well for the work. 

In the fall of 1891, she became connected with the Alabama 
School, teaching there for three years, going from hence to take 
a position in the Ohio School, and in 1897 returning to the Ala- 
bama School with increased experience to remain till her death. 
She was a faithful, conscientious teacher, interested in her work, 
and always busy. Nor did she drop that interest when the 


The Assoctaiian Review. 

school-room doors closed behind her. She liked to see what 
others were doing and compare notes on methods. "I so dis- 
like the idea of getting into ruts," she said once to the writer. 
She was a faithful attendant at the Conventions. Indeed an 
acquaintance once said she began to attend them with her father 
almost before she was out of pinafores. Members of the Asso- 
ciation to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf will re- 
member her well, for she was a member and missed few if any of 
its gatherings. That she was valued as a teacher of the Alabama 
School goes without saying, and she will be greatly missed. 

She had an equable disposition and a cheery presence. 
Kindness was second nature, and of her it may truly be said, 
"Where she met a stranger, there she left a friend." 

Being sociably inclined she had joined two or three societies 
and clubs, and so was well known to the town people among 
whom she had many warm friends. Though her presence has 
gone from among us, not so her memory, for it will be many a 
day before those connected with the school will cease to talk of 
her or her friends to think of her and recall some gracious act. 



Wisconsin, as the readers of the Review are doubtless 
aware, abounds in Day Schools for the deaf — seventeen or 
eighteen in number — ^which are scattered throughout the state. 

Last July Mr. W. D. Parker, State High School Inspector, 
was appointed Inspector of all the schools for the deaf which are 
supported by the State. He has taken hold of his work with 
marked interest. One of the first evidences of his earnestness 
was the Round Table for teachers of the deaf which he arranged 
to be held in connection with the State Teachers' Association 
in Milwaukee, Dec. 26-28, 1901. There were two sessions on 
Dec. 2^ and 28. 

Twenty-eight teachers responded to the invitation by their 
presence, eight of these being from the State School at Delavan. 
A fine program, well planned and carried out, in part by papers, 
was supplemented by informal discussions that proved sugges- 
tive and inspiring. 

Some features of "Peculiar Pupils" were volunteered by 
different teachers. 

A most excellent "Exemplification of First Year Work" 
was shown by Miss Katharine F. Reed of the Milwaukee Day- 
school, with three children. She led the children through the 
successive steps, imitation, inhalation, and exhalation, to con- 
sonants, spoken, read, and written, with their combinations, 
followed by vowels treated in the same way, and later by words. 
In each case the same order was observed, the teacher speaking 
the elements, combinations, or word; the child speaking it; the 
teacher writing the same; and finally the child writing it. Ex- 
ercises for developing touch and training the sense of sight were 
given, as well as those for distinguishing between high and low 
tones, first with the guitar, later by feeling the throat of the 

52 The Association Review, 


The work of language building was finely developed with a 
second year class under the guidance of Mrs. Sarah Sorenson 
in which the use of the "Five Slate System" was well illustrated. 

Prof. C. P. Cary, Superintendent of the State School for the 
Deaf, was introduced. He commented upon the excellent work 
which had just been presented, and the knowledge of pedagogy 
which was necessary to bring it about. 

Mr. Miller, Chairman of the Milwaukee School Board, 
spoke in behalf of the Phonological Institute, organized about 
twenty years ago, which had started and fostered the Milwaukee 
Day-school, at present under the efficient management of Miss 
Frances Wettstein. 

In her remarks on the "Teacher's Responsibility for the 
Promotion of Hearing," Miss H. Ray Kribs of Sheboygan, 
stated that she would continue the exercises and tests to promote 
hearing for weeks and months, since she believed that learning 
to distinguish merely vowel sounds is an aid to the production 
of better voices for speech. 

Miss Jennie C. Smith of Eau Claire, gave some suggestions 
for "Busy Work." In the beginning this may be clay modeling, 
paper cutting, pasting, making paper chains, stringing beads, 
building with blocks. Later, the pupil may spend his spare time 
in writing, drawing, painting, illustrating, number work and lan- 
guage lessons with pictures that he has drawn or cut from papers. 
Miss Smith also suggested plans for "Encouraging Speech and 
Writing at Home." Secure the co-operation of the parents. 
Invite them to school to see how you teach; show what the child 
is able to do; send home lists of words and sentences which you 
wish him to use at home in expressing his wants. Encourage 
him to bring written work to school which he may have been 
assisted to do. 

"Games, in and out doors" were given by Miss Jessie B. 
Allen of Eau Claire, and Miss Blanche E. Argyle of Black River 
Falls. Interesting indoor games are, "Hide the thimble," and 
other articles; bean bags, grace hoops, ten-pins, jacks, marbles; 
"Drop the handkerchief," "Roll the platter," "Buttvon, button," 
authors, crokinole, caroms, dominoes, and checkers. We may- 
play "house," "school," "church," "store," "train," "milkman," 

The Wisconsin Round-Table, 53 

"fireman/' "circus," "Indian," "doctor," "go fishing," "to mar- 
ket," "take a street-car ride." Some out-door sports which deaf 
children enjoy are running matches, jumping contests, tug of 
war, tag, ball, hide and seek, prison goal, fox and geese, and 
"Pussy wants a comer." 

Miss Elise M. Steinke of Delavan, read a paper entitled 
"Justification of Speech and Speech-reading." 

"Should a Teacher Overlook any inaccuracy in Speech 
or Writing ?" was the topic assigned to Miss A. I. Hobart of 
Delavan. She said that ordinarily corrections should be made, 
but with caution else sensitive pupils may become discouraged 
and make no further effort. Mistakes which occur frequently 
may be most effectively impressed by being brought to the atten- 
tion of the entire class. The child should not be constantly 
interrupted at the expense of thought. Letters should be care- 
fully corrected for in these the child is trying to express his 
thought in the best way. 

Miss Huldah Rudolph of Sparta, spoke of "The Sentence 
as a Unit in Speech." The ear of the hearing child is constantly 
struck with complete sentences and perfect idiomatic forms. 
Present sentences in the same way constantly to the eye of the 
deaf child by speech and writing. Some of these are impressed 
on the memory. The sentence method makes better speech 
readers, develops mind, is an avenue for expressing ideas, g^ves 
better emphasis, accent, more natural intonation of voice, be- 
sides a fluency and continuity of speech, such as cannot be ob- 
tained by any other method. 

In the lively discussion which followed it was the general 
opinion that, notwithstanding the value of the sentence as the 
unit, which we may constantly use in speech to the deaf child, 
and which he may understand before learning to speak, there 
needs to be much mechanical drill on elements in the beginning 
as a foundation for good speech. 

Some Devices for "First Number Work" were given by 
Miss Anna E. Nugent of Fond du Lac. 

"Number Work" was also discussed by Mr. J. J. Murphy 
of Delavan. 


The Association Review. 

Mr. Warren Robinson of Delavan in his paper on "The 
Relation of the Deaf Child to Language/' said that the deaf 
stand as foreigners in their relation to the English language with 
the difference that foreigners receive millions of impressions 
through the ear which the deaf do not have. Yet many deaf- 
mutes have attained a remarkable command of language, under- 
stand books, and are able to secure information from them on 
all sorts of subjects. Writing is the chief means in learning 
language, next comes finger-spelling which is three times as 
rapid as writing. 

Miss Anna Sullivan of Fond du Lac, gave an account of her 
experiments with the Akoulalion, through which she had come 
to the conclusion that for the majority of the deaf the results 
were too meager for the time spent upon it. 

Miss Hannah Gardner of Appleton, illustrated what may be 
the "Character of Teachers' Stories," by testing a few: 

1. The Indians — how they lived. 

2. The Pilgrims — ^how they lived. 

3. Comparison of two previous stories. 

4. The Indians and the Pilgrims — how they met. 

5. The Christmas Story. 

6. The Story of the Bear. 

7. The Story of the Frogs and the Toads. 

Superintendent C. P. Cary of Delavan, spoke on "Develop- 
ment of the Imagination." We no longer speak of developing 
the different faculties as if they were parts. The individual is 
looked upon as a unit. Certain kinds of discipline assist the 
development of the imagination, others assist the reasoning. 
The deaf have no imagery relating to sound, but can recall what 
they have seen and touched. The teacher must appeal to some- 
thing which they have had in their experience. The highest type 
is the constructive imagination by which we take various ele- 
ments that we know and unite them to build something different 
from what has ever been known. It will avail little to talk to 
pupils in words unless a corresponding picture is formed. To 
develop imagination in geography, the child must be taken out 
of doors to become familar with elements in the country around 
from which to build. 

The Wisconsin Round-Table. 55 

The subject of "Discipline — need, end, method," was pre- 
sented by Mr. W. A. Cochrane and Miss M. D. Fonner of Dela- 
van, and Miss Margaret Hurley of Wausau. Mr. Cochrane 
said in part: Child study is necessary that the method of disci- 
pline may be suited to the temperament of each child. In moral 
questions pertaining to honesty, purity, and right living, definite 
commands should be enforced. The teacher may be the recog- 
nized friend and counselor whose pervading spirit is love. That 
one who can inspire the respect and honor of pupils has largely 
solved the question of discipline. Discipline should be uniform; 
an uneven enforcement of regulations is subversive of good 
order. It is questionable whether the application of the rod is 
ever of permanent value. 

Miss Fonner thought that as the school is much like the 
world, the child should be taught the necessity of obedience to 
school regulations as the foundation for obedience to all law. 
Punishments should be retributive rather than arbitrary in order 
that the child may be made to feel that the inconvenience, dis- 
comfort, pain, or disgrace is merely the natural consequence 
of his misdeed or omission. 

Miss Hurley added that the discipline of deaf children is 
often so utterly neglected by parents as to throw the entire re- 
sponsibility upon the teacher. So far as possible secure the 
co-operation of the parents. Be in your personality what you 
desire your children to become. 

The committee appointed to decide as to the advisability of 
continuing the Round Table recommended its continuance in 
connection with the next annual meeting of the State Teachers' 
Association. Future arrangements for it were left in the hands 
of Inspector W. D. Parker. 


Biennial Report of the American School at Hartford 'for 
the Deaf; 1901. 

The Directors' report refers with pardonable pride to the 
eighty-five years of service of the Hartford school. The com- 
pletion of a new and modern building — Cogswell Hall — to be 
devoted exclusively to the use of the primary and oral depart- 
ments^ gives additional occasion for congratulation, as it is con- 
sidered one of the best planned and equipped buildings in the 
country for the purposes for which it was intended. 

The report of the Principal, Dr. Job Williams, gives the at- 
tendance April I, 1899, as 167; and April i, 1901, as 154. A 
new law of the state of Maine withdraws state aid heretofore 
granted from all its deaf children taught out of the state, trans- 
ferring all such to the state school at Portland; consequently 
there have been no Maine pupils in the school since June, 1899. 
Dr. Williams refers feelingly to the resignations of Miss Mar- 
garet C. Greenlaw and Miss Mary A. Mann, the former after 
forty-seven years of service, the greater part as matron, and 
the latter after forty-five years work as a teacher. A touching 
tribute is also paid to the memory of Miss Caroline C. Sweet 
whose thirty-one years of faithful and conscientious work in the 
school makes her loss an exceptionally severe one. The fact is 
mentioned that the series of text-books of which Miss Sweet was 
the author, has been used in more than sixty of the schools for 
the deaf in the United States, as also in schools in Canada, Eng- 
land, Ireland, Australia, and in fact, wherever the English lan- 
guage is spoken. 


Reviews. 57 

Dr. Waiiams recounts the numerous and extensive im- 
provements made in the several departments of the school. Re- 
ferring to the new building he says: 

"Our Primary Building, so long and urgently needed^ was 
completed early last fall, and on the nineteenth of September 
was opened for the reception of pupils. It is a great improve- 
ment to have the younger children in a building by themselves 
where all the arrangements are suited to their special needs." 

A detailed description of the building follows which shows 
it to be modern and complete and with every necessary con- 
venience for the prosecution of the best work. A new system 
of heating has been installed which furnishes heat to all buildings 
on the grounds from a single central plant. The old shop build- 
ing, built in 1822, where probably was given the first manual 
training in connection with any school in this country^ has been 
removed. Described as antiquated, unsightly, inconvenient, and 
a blemish to the grounds, its removal has greatly improved the 
appearance of the yard and g^ven the boys ampler room for out- 
door games. A new industrial building has been erected (since 
this report was published), and we believe it is now in use. This 
new building was made possible by the subscriptions of generous 
friends of the school. 

Dr. Wiliams refers to the methods of instruction briefly 

as follows: 

"As to methods of instruction we are taking careful note of 
the condition, policy, and achievements of the various schools 
throughout the country, and endeavoring to make our school- 
work up to date in all respects." 

The Report is fully illustrated with well executed and well 
printed half-tones showing the various buildings and depart- 
ments of the school. 

Report of the Horace Mann School, Boston, 1901. 

The Committee oh the Horace Mann School reports an 
attendance at the close of the year in June, 1901, of one hundred 
and twenty-six pupils. It mentions the fact of the adoption at 
the beginning of the year of the "course of study prescribed for 
the other public schools of Boston." Continuing the report 
says: "Apt, faithful teachings and earnest, conscientious study 

58 The Association Review. 

have produced results which fully justify the hope that this 
standard of attainment may be reached by increasing numbers 
of deaf-bom pupils." A quotation from a section of the Regu- 
lations of the Public Schools sets forth the aims of the school : 
"The school is designed to give an elementary English educa- 
tion, but, as a preparation for this it must first impart to pupils 
entering as deaf-mutes the meaning and use of ordinary lang- 
uage. It aims to teach all of its pupils to speak and to read 
the speech of others from their lips." 

Manual training is made a prominent part of the school 
work as the following shows: 

"Manual training in this school, as in others, is accorded 
its rightful place as an important factor in the education of its 
pupils. A carefully arranged plan of work takes every child in 
the primary department through a course of training for the 
eye and hand which prepares them to begin the use of wood- 
working tools intelligently, skilfully, and successfully. It also 
serves as a good introduction to sewing, which was taught last 
year to nearly all of the girls in the grammar department and to 
a limited number of boys. These pupils were in different stages 
of advancement, some made garments and learned how to do 
various kinds of mending, others were taught dress drafting and 
dressmaking, and others learned to do fine needlework. A num- 
ber of the boys showed commendable skill with the needle, and 
were able to do good work upon the sewing machine. . 
All of these differing forms of manual training are so many 
strong appeals to the latent powers of a child's mind, and have a 
far-reaching influence over him. He yields to them readily and 
is moulded quite unconsciously by them. One has only to fol- 
low the child in successive lessons to understand the transform- 
ation that is going on under the spell of a magnetic, skilful 
teacher, and to learn that as a moral force in a child's life man- 
ual training is almost unequaled." 

The report reproduces from Boston newspapers in which 
they appeared three poetic contributions written by A. H. T. 
Fisher and Alice C. Jennings, who were pupils of the Horace 
Mann School in its early days. They are most creditable pro- 
ductions and worthy the place given them. They are presented 
"not as a result of the work of the school, but as showing that 
deafness, even when occurring at an early period in a child's 
life, is not necessarily a barrier to intellectual growth." 

Reviews. 59 

Report of the Mackay Institution for Protestant Deaf- 
Mutes and the Blind, at Montreal, 1901. 

The Superintendent, Mrs. Harriet E. Ashcroft, reports the 

presence during the year of 62 pupils, six of whom were blind. 

She regrets the prevalence of the asylum idea in connection 

with the Institution, and urges the use of the name "The Mackay 

School for the Deaf and the Blind." Referring to the methods 

of instruction employed she says: 

"Our system of instruction corresponds as nearly as pos- 
sible to that in use in common schools, and in leading schools 
for the deaf. In the class-rooms, we continue to give promi- 
nence to the teaching of speech and speech-reading, as it fur- 
nishes the deaf with the readiest means of communication with 
hearing people and makes them more like those in full posses- 
sion of their senses. We therefore encourage our pupils to talk 
at all times, in school and out of school." 

The Examiners' Report, presented after the annual exam- 
ination of the school in May, makes special comment upon the 
speech and lip-reading work of the school in the following ap- 
preciative words: 

"The Examiners desire to express their appreciation of the 
work done in the lip reading and the articulation classes. After 
all, the great purpose of the Institution is to so educate the 
pupils that they may take their place in the world as independent 
and self reliant people, quite capable of providing for themselves 
and discharging the duties resting upon them as Christian men 
and women. The exceedingly difficult task of so teaching the 
students that they can converse freely with people generally, 
reading the lips with accuracy and expressing their own ideas 
in articulate language, seems to have been accomplished with 
success. Many of the pupils are able to answer questions, re- 
ceive instruction and express themselves accurately without the 
use of any signs whatever, save such as are common to spoken 

Belleville, Ontario, Institution for the Deaf and Dumb: 
What the Parents of Pupils, and former Pupils say about 
the Institution. 

This is a pamphlet of 80 pages, made up of letters from par- 
ents of present pupils, and from former pupils themselves. The 

6o The Association Review. 

letters were received in response to a circular sent out by Super- 
intendent Mathison to parents asking their opinion as to the 
progess and care of the children attending the school, and to 
former pupils asking them what they are doing and how they 
are prospering, and for their opinion or estimate of the value 
of the instruction that they received while at school. There 
are some 700 to 800 such letters and they all speak in high terms 
of the school and the benefits it has conferred. A score or more 
of illustrations showing rooms and buildings, and groups of chil- 
dren and graduates, adds much to a book that must possess 
great interest to the persons to whom it specially relates. 

Report of the North Stafford Joint School Authority, 

at Stoke-upon-Trent, England, 1901. 

This Report is upon a school started four years ago to pro- 
vide for the deaf and blind children of six cities or districts of 
North Staffordshire. It is thus a joint school and is governed 
by a so-called Joint School Authority, a commitee in fact, with 
representatives upon it appointed by the several city school 
boards. The school has grown rapidly and now numbers 68 
deaf, 42 blind, i dumb, and i blind and deaf. 

The headmaster, Mr. A. J. Story, in his report on the deaf 
department, refers to the methods of instruction employed as 

"Sixty of the 68 children are taught on Oral methods, while 
the remaining 8 are using the Manual alphabet. The Oral 
method of educating the deaf is undoubtedly superior to the 
Silent method for the majority of the Deaf, and has been used in 
every case in which it appears advisable in the interest of the 
child. But there are, and probably will always be, children 
whose condition, mental or physical, and age render the appli- 
cation of Oral methods impracticable: and on the principle of 
"the best for the child" instruction has been given on the Silent 
method already referred to. The physical and intellectual con- 
ditions of the deaf vary, and it is therefore certain that in a 
school like our own, which accepts all children presented, these 
Silent methods must ever find a place. 

"Under either method the aims are similar. The actual 
means of communication only differs. The subjects of instruc- 

Reviews. 6i 

tion under each method are scripture, writing, reading, arith- 
metic, geography, composition, object lessons, &c. In the ac- 
quirement of all these the difficulty is that of language, of which 
the child knows no word on admission. The crux of the whole 
question of deaf mute education is in the acquirement of the 
language of the country, and according to its degree of attain- 
ment is the child's progress in all other subjects. 

"The manual instruction subjects include drawing, brush- 
work, kindergarten and varied occupations, modelling, carpen- 
try and turning; as well as sewing, knitting, machine sewing 
and cookery for the girls. All the children appear to. derive 
much pleasure from these manual exercises, and where possible 
they are trained to originate their own designs. These manual 
subjects are made to teach their own language of technicalities, 
and thus by the co-ordination of all to a common end — ^the 
power of expression is connected and correct English is ad- 

The Report as a whole is, for an English Report, unusually 

full, and hence unusually interesting. 

Revue Generale de renseignement des Sourds-muets 
[General Review of the Instruction of Deaf-mutes], Paris, 
July, October, 1901. 

Contents of the July number: "Deaf-mute artists in the 
Salon of 1901," by Camille Vathaire. Among the prominent 
deaf-mute artists who have established their recent works we 
mention Albert Mille, who has a most charming portrait of a 
woman seated on a chair and reading a letter. Oliver Cheon: 
"The Alps seen from my window." Georges Ferry: "Mary Mag- 
dalen and other women wandering disconsolately after the death 
of Christ, in the neighborhood of Jerusalem." Among the sculp- 
tors we mention Fernand Hamar, who exhibits a very spirited 
statue of Marshall Rochambeau which — as the Review states — 
is destined for the city of Washington, D. C. Truly, art is one 
of those fields in which many deaf-mutes of various countries 
have won distinction, and which, being peculiarly adapted to 
their condition, holds out rich promise of fame and emolument. 
This article is embellished by a photogravure of the statue of 
Rochambeau. "The necessity of having an interpreter for deaf- 

6a The Association Review. 

mutes in courts of Justice, by Ad Belanger. The writer, a pro- 
fessor in the National Institution for Deaf-mutes at Paris was 
in May, 1901, officially called to Chartres to act as interpreter 
in the case of a young deaf-mute accused of a crime. The deat 
mute was convicted and received a sentence of three months in 
prison. The punishment, though light, was well deserved in 
this case; but without the assistance of the interpreter, the 
chances were that the deaf-mute would either have gone free — 
as being considered irresponsible for his acts, or would have 
received a heavier punishment than he deserved. "French be- 
nevolent societies for the aid of deaf-mutes," by Marius Dupont 
(conclusion). Reviews, and miscellaneous communications. 

Contents of October number: Distribution of prizes at the 
National Institution for Deaf-mutes. Two discourses delivered 
on this occasion are given in full ; the first by Mr. Giboulet, one 
of the professors. After calling attention to the fact that the 
first efforts to educate deaf-mutes were made in France, the 
country of the Abbe de TEpee, he says that from France the 
movement spread throughout the entire world; and in our days 
we witness a noble spirit of rivalry among the different nations, 
to increase the number of their schools, to endow them liberally, 
so as to bring the benefits of an education, which the employ- 
ment of a new method has rendered more and more expensive, 
within the reach of all deaf-mutes. He points to the noble ex- 
ample set to all other countries by the United States which, as 
he says, occupies the first rank with its 115 schools, and which 
in less than ten years has almost doubled the number of its insti- 
tutions for deaf-mutes and of its teachers, expending annually 
about 5 million francs for this purpose whilst its school buildings 
represent a capital of at least 60 million francs. 

As regards methods, Mr. Giboulet says: "The 19th cen- 
tury has witnessed a strife, fierce but generous and fruitful at 
the same time, regarding the methods of instruction ; this strife 
has ended in the victory of the present method, which, better 
than any other, enables the deaf-mute to come into the closest 
possible contact with the outside world. Thanks to this method, 
our classes, formerly silent, have been filled with a murmuring, 
growing constantly louder, and have been transformed if not 

Reviews. 63 

into schools of eloquence, at least into true laboratories of 
speech. The oral method has entirely changed our deaf-mute 
instruction, and has inaugurated a new era, which promises still 
further and more glorious development in the 20th century." 
The second discourse was by Mr. Marguerie, who seconded the 
wish expressed by Mr. Giboulet to have schools for deaf-mutes 
established in all the Departments of France, thus carrying out 
the provision of the school law that primary instruction shall be 
given to all children of school-age, including deaf-mute children. 
The National Institution at Paris would then hold the place 
which naturally belongs to it, viz. : to be a normal school for the 
education and training of teachers of deaf-mutes. "What Pro- 
fessor should teach the highest class?" by Auguste Boyer. "Dr. 
Castes" — a brief biography of this eminement French scientist 
(accompanied by his portrait) who, born at Bordeaux in 185 1, 
has become one of the authorities as regards diseases of the ear, 
nose, and throat, and has recently in acknowledgment of his ser- 
vices been created a chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Bibli- 
ography: We notice here "Programmes of the Ohio Institution 
for deaf-mutes/' giving copious extracts from the same. 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan [Scandinavian Journal 
of Deaf-mute Instruction], Goteborg, Sweden, Nos. 8 and 
9. 1901. 

"Gunnar Wennerberg, obituary.'* In memoriam of one of 
the most prominent deaf-mute teachers of Sweden, chiefly in- 
strumental in pushing the passage of the law of 1889, which 
greatly improved the condition of deaf-mute education in Swe- 
den. "Changes in the method of the Pennsylvania Institution," 
translation, by Mr. L. A. Havstad, from American Annals of the 
Deaf. "The proper Forum," by Hans Bjorset. Mr. Bjorset 
states that some time ago he read Dr. Crouter's article in the 
American Annals [the one just referred to], and thought how 
delighted with it all friends of the speech-method would be, and 
how some practical application of the article would be made in 
Norway. Little did he dream, however, how soon and in what 

64 The Associatian Review, 

manner this would be done. Dr. Crouter's article is found in the 
January issue of the American Annals, and already on the 28th 
of January, 1901, Mr. Havstad sent his translation of Dr. Crou- 
ter's article to the Committee on education and ecclesiastical 
affairs of the Norwegian Parliament, as an appendix to his re- 
port on his journey in America, stating in transmitting the same 
that the article was of the greatest importance, and that it was 
calculated to set at rest all doubts as to the justice of the meas- 
ures taken 10 years ago in Norway, as regards the method of 
deaf-mute instruction. Dr. Crouter's article gives statistics of 
the Pennsylvania Institution from 1881-1899, which show the 
victorious progress of the speech method in that Institution. 
But as in all cases, we must also here say: "Audiatur et altera 
pars" (Let also the other side be heard). According to the 
most recent statistics of the American Schools for Deaf-mutes 
published in the same number of the Annals as Dr. Crouter's 
article, only 53.61 per cent, [the corrected figures show 63.04 
per cent. — Ed.] of the 10,608 scholars of the 115 schools receive 
instruction in speech (only 42.77 per cent, according to the 
pure speech-method). This proves conclusively that, in spite 
of the rapid progress which the speech-method has of late years 
made in America, about one-half of the deaf-mutes do not 
yet receive instruction in speech. Against this background 
Dr. Crouter's article should be held, to be seen in its right light. 
It cannot have the same effect on specialists who work under 
conditions where the speech-method is already the general 
method. The matter stands simply thus, that here in Norway 
we have already gone through the same process of develop- 
ment which America is going through now, and which appears 
to have reached its climax in Dr. Crouter's article. But in 
the Old World signs begin to show themselves of a reaction. 
There are many indications that the people are no longer abso- 
lutely certain that all deaf-mutes should learn to speak, at any 
rate not to that extent it was formerly considered necessary. 
Strange to say, such indications begin to show themselves in 
Germany — the cradle of the speech method. In these condi- 
tions, Mr. Bjorset thinks, the Norwegian Parliament is not the 
proper forum before which this question should be settled, much 

Reviews. 65 

less should an cxpartc defence of one method be submitted to 
the Parliament as an ofHcial document on which to base its de- 
cision. Nevertheless, Mr. Bjorset, and, as he thinks, all special- 
ists in the field of deaf-mute instruction, will hail Dr. Crouter's 
article with joy as a vigorous defence of the speech-method; 
'"but," he says in conclusion, "we are prepared to appreciate it 
as it should be appreciated, as the expression of the opinion of 
an enthusiastic man, in regard to which — especially as he is a 
witness in his own case — ^we are bound to wait, as taught by ex- 
perience, the judgment of the future." "The question of meth- 
ods," by G. Forchhammer, an article by the veteran Danish 
teacher of deaf-mutes, carefully weighing the advantages and 
disadvantages of the different methods. In connection with the 
question of sound-orthography, he calls attention to the great 
difference in the various languages between the pronounced and 
the written sound, which is particularly noticeable in a language 
like the Danish, and which makes it almost impossible to lay 
down rules which would apply to several languages. Miscella- 
neous communications: Among these we note the fact that a 
merchant of Goteborg, Mr. August Rohss, has given 30,000 
kronor ($8,040.00) to the Home for Blind Deaf-mutes at Weners- 
borg, Sweden, showing the interest taken in the. welfare of these 
unfortunates by private individuals. 

Numbers 10 and 11, 1901: "Some Statistics," by Ludvig 
Polke, Fredericia, Denmark. By an order of the Danish Minis- 
try of Public Instruction, the clergymen of the State Church 
(Lutheran) were requested to send in annual reports concerning 
deaf-mutes in their parishes who had graduated from Danish 
deaf-mute schools, principally to show what means these deaf- 
mutes employed in their intercourse with normally endowed 
persons. Mr. Polke only had access to the reports concerning 
the Fredericia Institution. From these reports it appears that 
in their intercourse with hearing persons, of the 117 deaf-mutes 
graduated from the Fredericia Institution, 96 (82 per cent.) 
used speech, 12 (10 per cent.) speech and writing, i (about i 
per cent.) speech and the hand-alphabet, 4 (3 per cent.) speech 
and signs, 3 (about 3 per cent.) writing and signs, and 1(1 per 
cent.) signs exclusively. In their intercourse with deaf-mutes 

66 The Association Review. 

(only ii6 reports received), 93 (80 per cent.) used speech ex- 
clusively, II (9 per cent.) speech and writing, i (about i per 
cent.) speech and the hand-alphabet, i (about i per cent.) 
speech, writing, and signs, 7 (about 6 per cent.) speech and 
signs, I (about i per cent.) writing, and 2 (about 2 per cent.) 
writing and signs. "The Question of Methods/' by G. Forch- 
hammer, Nyborg, Denmark (concluded from the last number). 
Mr. Forchhammer states that he considers "reading in unison" 
(or as he calls it "chorus-reading") of special importance. He 
says: "The first and foremost condition is this that you get all the 
voices to produce the sounds in exact unison by leading them 
with a baton. At the Nyborg Institute this reading in unison is 
done either from words and sentences written on the black- 
board, or from books specially prepared for the purpose at the 
Institute. During the course of a year quite a number of these 
little books have been prepared, each devoted to a separate sub- 
ject, e. g., biblical history, natural history, history of Denmark, 
etc." Mr. Forchhammer considers these books and these exer- 
cises a perfect success, and earnestly recommends them to all 
teachers of deaf-mutes. "Formal exercises in speech," by N. K. 
Larsen (continued from No. 5). The principal points touched 
on in the present article are: the value of corrections by the 
teacher before and after the formal exercises ; can a pupil derive 
practical benefit from his knowledge of the rules by previously 
going over the words he is going to speak? The formal ex- 
ercises strengthen the speech instinct by transforming its vague 
ideas into clear certainties. The formal exercises are a guarantee 
for clearness of speech; the time which should be devoted to 
these exerciises. Reviews of periodicals and reports. Mis- 
cellaneous communications. 

Taubstummen-Courier [Deaf-route Courier], lyih year, Vienna, 
Nov. I, 1901. 

This monthly of 12 pages in small quarto, edited by Ed. Ne- 
pevny, appears to be a model journal, devoting of course most 
of its space to news and reports from Austria, but also giving 
bright sketches of travel, reports of foreign institutions, and per- 

Reviews. 67 

sonal news and correspondence relating to deaf-mute education 
from all parts of the world. The present number contains a 
brief biography, accompanied by likenesses, of Mr. and Mrs. Er- 
win Spindler, both deaf-mutes — he since his 6th and she since 
her 1st year. Mr. Spindler who now resides in Leipzig, is one 
of the most talented German artists, and his beautiful paintings 
chiefly representing scenes in the Alps, and of life among the 
Tyrolese, have met with universal favor. Mr. Spindler has for 
many years been secretary of the Leipzig association of deaf- 
mutes, and his talented wife who accompanies him on his annual 
trips to the mountains, is President of the Leipzig association 
of deaf-mute ladies. In the most energetic manner Mr. and 
Mrs. Spindler devote all their time to the promotion of the inter- 
ests of deaf-mutes and to art. They both received their first 
training in German deaf-mute institutions; and their life and ac- 
tivity may well be termed an illustration of the excellence of 
the German system. 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung [Journal of Deaf-mute 
Education], Berlin, November i, November 15, December 
I, 1901. 

Contents of November number: "Compulsory education of 
deaf-mutes, according to the draft of the new law concerning 
compulsory education," by H. Hoffman. "Third meeting of the 
teachers of deaf-mutes of the Prussian Province of Silesia," held 
at Ratibor, in the beginning of October, 1901. "Reply to the 
criticism of certain utterances of Mr. G. Neuert at the Hamburg 
Congress of deaf-mute teachers," by G. Neuert. Miscellaneous 
communications : " A speaking machine." It is reported from 
London that Dr. Marage has succeeded in constructing a ma- 
chine which clearly and distinctly pronounces the five vowels. 
This machine is not a phonograph reproducing words spoken in- 
to an apparatus; but it actually produces the vowels. The ma- 
chine is an exact reproduction of the mouth of a human being, 
in the construction of which the plastic substance used by den- 
tists is employed. Dr. Marage intends to make a practical use 
of his machine, by applying the principle underlying the same to 

68 The AssociaHon 

the steam whistles used on vessels so that they can produce vow* 
els. In this way phonetic syllables might be obtained which 
would form an international alphabet for signals exchanged be- 
tween vessels. "Schools for deaf-mutes in Austria-Hungary/' 
from a Report on these Schools published by Gustav Pipetz, 
teacher of deaf-mutes at Graz; it appears that in Austria-Hun- 
gary there are 34 institutions for deaf-mutes with 2276 scholars 
and 257 teachers. The polyglot character of the Austria-Hun- 
garian Empire is shown by the fact that the language used in 
instruction in 13 institutions is German, in 8 Hungarian, in 3 
Bohemian and German, in 2 Bohemian, in 2 Polish, in 2 Slovenic, 
in 2 Italian, in i Italian and Slovenic, and in i Croation. 

Contents of November 15 number: "The height, strength, 
and duration of sounds, the proper intonation in speaking, and 
some other matters connected therewith," by P. Kockelmann. 
"The spiritual care of deaf-mutes in the Canton Berne, Switz- 
erland," by Eugen Sutermeister. Statistics. 

Contents of December i number: "The new Prussian Law 
concerning the care and education of neglected children, and 
its significance for the education of deaf-mutes," by E. Ulbrich. 
This law took effect on the ist of April, 1901. "The spiritual 
care of deaf-mutes in the Canton of Berne, Switzerland," by 
E. Sutermeister (concluded). Miscellaneous communications. 
Reviews of recent books. 

Organ der Taubstummen Anstalten in Deutschland [Or- 
gan of the Deaf-mute Institutions in Germany], Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, November, 1901. 

"Jorgensen's Observations regarding the work of the 
Friedericia (Denmark) Institution for Deaf-mutes during the 
period 1881-1900," by K. Finkh. Translation from the Danish. 
During this period of 19 years the scholars in the Friedericia 
Institution have been instructed by the speech-method, with ex- 
cellent results, and the school has been graded, i. e., the scholars 
have been divided into different classes according to their capac- 
ities, especially in the matter of their natural abilities, thus put- 
ting the more backward children in one class, and the brighter 

Reviews. 69 

scholars in another. Mr. Jorgensen says in conclusion: "For 
many years I have been an ardent advocate of the speech-meth- 
od, but never have I been more thoroughly convinced of the ex- 
cellence of this method over against all other methods, than now 
in my old age. [He was for 24 years teacher in the Copenhagen 
Institution and 19 years in the one at Friedericia.] The 
speech-method is sure to advance victoriously and will finally 
conquer all difficulties." "Observations on the first of Finkh's 
ten commandments for deaf-mutes" (see Association Review 
for December, 1901, page 485), by M. Schneider. The command- 
ment in question reads as follows: "Open your mouth wide 
enough to let the vowels sound pure and full." Mr. Schneider 
is of the opinion that this commandment, as formulated by 
Finkh, does not altogether hit the nail on the head, as the posi- 
tion of the tongue is of the first importance in pronouncing the 
vowels with their proper sounds; and in this article he follows 
up this idea in its details. "What has proved a hindrance to the 
spread of Herbart's ideas?" by H. Hoffman, of Ratibor. An 
article of general educational interest, without any bearing on 
the education of deaf-mutes. "Thomas Scherr as an educator." 
Extracts from a speech delivered at Zurich, Switzerland, on the 
23d of September, 1901, by Director Utringer, in commemora- 
tion of Scherr who during the first half of the 19th century la- 
bored zealously, by his writings and by his teaching, for the 
cause of deaf-mute education in Switzerland. "On Reading and 
Education," by H. Hoffman, of Ratibor. Reviews of books 
and periodicals. Miscellaneous commtmications. 

Institutions de Sourds-Muets. Statistique, igoi. Published 
by the professors of the Institution for Deaf-mutes at Cur- 
riere, France. 

This little pamphlet of thirty-two pages gives the most re- 
cent and most complete statistics of the institutions for deaf- 
mutes which we have seen for sometime, and their collection and 
compilation doubtless involved no little amount of labor; in most 
cases the sources of information are given. The first part con- 

70 The Association Review, 

tains the general statistics of all countries of the world, whilst 
the second, and larger part, gives the detailed statistics of all the 
French institutions. It is, of course, impossible to reproduce 
here the entire work, so we would advise anyone who is inter- 
ested in the matter to procure this little pamphlet, which can 
doubtless be obtained at a reasonable price, and use it as a book 
of reference; we give in the following some of the most import- 
ant figures: In 1901 — ^presumably at the beginning of the year — 
there were in Europe 395 institutions for deaf-mutes, with about 
2700 teachers, and about 22,000 scholars, distributed as follows: 
Germany: 91 institutions — ^approximate number of deaf-mutes 
to every 10,000 of the population: 9.66. Austria: 34 institu- 
tions — ^proportion of deaf-mutes to every 10,000 of population, 
10.15. Belgium: 12 — ^4.39. (The first figures always give the 
number of institutions, the second the number of deaf-mutes to 
every 10,000 inhabitants.) Denmark: 8 — 6.20. Spain: 10 — 7w^6. 
France: 68 — 6.26. The Netherlands: 4 — ^3.33. Great Britain 
and Ireland: 45 — 5.45. Italy: 50 — ^7.34. Norway: 7 — 9.81. 
Sweden: 19 — 11.80. Switzerland: 16 — ^24.52. Portugal: 3 — 6.9. 
Turkey: i — y.y, Roumania: i — 7,7. Greece: i — y.y, Servia: 
I — 7.7. Luxemburg: i — 7.7. Russia: 26—7.34. In Africa there 
were seven institutions, as follows: Algeria, i; Egypt, i; Cape 
Colony, 4; Natal, i. America: 131 institutions, viz.: Canada, 7; 
United States, 116; Cuba, i; Mexico, i; Chile, i; Brazil, i; Ar- 
gentine Republic, 3; Uruguay, i. Asia: ten institutions, viz.; 
China, 2; Indo-China (French Colony), i; India, 3; Japan, 4. 
Oceanica: six institutions, viz.: Australia, 5; New Zealand, i. 
The total number of institutions for deaf-mutes throughout the 
world was, therefore, 549; and the approximate number of deaf- 
mutes (taking an average of 74 to every 10,000 of population) 
was as follows: Africa, 96,200; America, 107,300; Asia, 606,800; 
Europe, 307,566; Oceanica, 38,520; in all, 1,153,386. 

Smaablade for Dofstumme [Leaflets for Deaf-mutes], Copen- 
hagen, Denmark, November-December, 1901. 

This number contains a biography (with portrait) of the 
eminent Danish painter Andreas Herman Hunaeus, born in 

Reviews, jx 

1816 and died in 1866. When only ij years old he lost his hear- 
ing entirely by a fall down a staircase. After having been edu- 
cated at the Copenhagen Institution for deaf-mutes, he was ap- 
prenticed to a house-painter^ but soon showed such signs of a 
decided artistic talent that he got a free place in the National 
Academy of Design. His paintings gained prizes at various 
Danish expositions, and especially as a portrait painter he occu- 
pies a high rank. His paintings are more than 500 in number, 
his last work being a portrait of Princess Dagmar, the present 
Dowager Empress of Russia. Hunaeus is another shining ex- 
ample of what deaf-mutes can accomplish in the realm of art. 
As usual this journal gives an account of former scholars of the 
Danish institutions for deaf-mutes and thus forms a bond of 
union among them. Many a former scholar may have pleasant 
remembrances of some of his fellow students, and may wonder 
what has become of them in after life. The "Leaflets" keep track 
of most of them, as far as possible, and by looking over its files 
he may learn the whereabouts of former friends and school com- 

Die Kinderfehier [The Defects of Children], a Journal specially 
devoted to pedagogical pathology. Langensalza, Germany, 
Vol. 6, No. 6. 

"Disappointed Expectations; thoughts of an educator re- 
garding the inner (soul) life of children" (concluded), by Prof. 
Fomelli — ^translation from the Italian. "Report of the meeting, 
at Jena, in August, 1901, of the Association for studying the life 
of children in health and sickness" (concluded), by Dr. Stroh- 
meyer and W. Stuckenberg. "Progress in the education of tea- 
chers," by Ufer. " The Brussels Association for the protection 
of children suffering from some defect of the senses/' by W. 
Stuckenberg. "An international association for the study of 
epilepsy and the care and treatment of epileptic persons" — ^a 
brief account of the first meeting of this Association at Wash- 
ington, May 15th and i6th, 1901. "Carrying out the new Prus- 
sian law of care and education," by J. Triiper. The law aims at 

72 The Association Review, 

giving proper care and education to neglected children. "Re- 
sults of Reformatory-education." "A book for our readers," 
by Ufer — s. short preliminary notice [a fuller notice will be given 
in a future number] of an important work by Dr. Demoor of 
Brussels, Belgium, entitled: "Children suffering from some 
defect and their educational treatment in the home and in the 
school." Reviews of recent works. 

Exposition Universelle de 1900. Congres International 
pour I'etude des Questions d'education et d'assistance des 
Sourds Muets, tenu a Paris, des 6 au 8 Aout, 1900 [World 
Exposition of 1900. International Congress for the study of 
questions relating to the education and assistance of deaf- 
mutes, held at Paris, from the 6th to the 8th of Aug., 1900] . 
Report of L'Educazione dei Sordomuti, translated (into 
French) by Jules Auffray. Followed by the minutes and 
official summaries by Dr. Martha, of Asnieres, Seine, De- 
partmental Institution for deaf-mutes. 1901. 

The lamented Goguillot^ who young in years but old in ex- 
perience, has given us a masterly work upon the teaching of 
speech to the deaf, passed away several years ago. The "Revue 
Internationale" which was animated and sustained by him, he 
having collected about himself a valiant company of colleagues^ 
outlived him only a short time. The "Revue Francaise" had 
also yielded to the power of inertia which usually invests so 
easily the isolated. It did seem as if the Oral method had no 
longer in France any courageous advocates, who with word 
and independent work should be a continual and salutary incite- 
ment to those having little faith in a method which must be 
practiced without rest and without retreat. One might name 
legions of valiant teachers who labor in silence, the quiet work- 
ers of the schools. But these forget the great teaching of the 
Master of teachers^ who commanded us to show our good works 
to others. 

It seemed, in short, as if one had no longer any right to 
expect the word of good tidings from France. But the year 

Reviews. 73 

1900 arrived. The International Congress which met in Paris, 
on the occasion of the World's Exhibition, revealed to us clearly 
that the faith in the Oral Method, far from being extinct, is 
steadily reviving by the work of the colleagues of Asnieres. An 
unfortunate misunderstanding, caused certainly by personal 
spite, prevented many valiant and expert teachers from coming 
to Paris on that occasion. However the word and the work 
of the clever and valiant Baguer, the indefatigable director of the 
Institute of Asnieres^ served alone to animate for the good those 
who came^ and to conduct the work of the Congress to a glo- 
rious end. No one could wish for a better success than that 
which it had, in closing with the confirmation of the votes given 
20 years before at the memorable Congress of Milan. 

All this seemed clearly exposed in the report which Prof. 
Ferreri published scarcely one month afterwards in his "Educa- 
zione dei Sordomuti." This report did not suffer diminution in 
its intrinsic and relative value, either in the publication of other 
particular reports, or of the official report published the past 
year. The deliberation^ however, was good, of the Committee 
of Directors of the Institute of Asnieres^ to provide for the 
translation and reprinting of what had been written in the Italian 
periodical already mentioned. Praise is therefore due to Mr. 
Laurent Cily, the deserving President of that Committee, to the 
members of the general counsel, who approved the proposal, and 
to Mr. Jules Auffroy who translated with rare competence the 
thoughts of the Italians into French. 

The result of all this is a fine voltune just published at the 
Institut departemental d' Asnieres, Seine. Here are the contents: 

1. Report of the work of the Congress, by G. Ferreri. 

2. An article upon the Congress, by C. Perini. 

3. The Exhibition of 1900 and the Congress, by G. 


4. The publications of the Institute of Asnieres, by G. 


5. A Medical Study of the Dr. Saint-Hilaire, by G. 


6. The process of teaching. Dr. Julien Pioger, by G. 


74 The Association Review. 

7. The Institute of Asnieres, by G. Morbidi. 

8. The Official Report of the proceedings, by Dr. Martha. 

9. List of the delegates to the Congress. 

10. General list of the members of the Congress. 

The volume, in a splendid edition, is rendered still more in- 
teresting by a series of fine illustrations which represent the 
pupils of the Institute of Asnieres in their school-rooms and at 

Rassegna di Pedagogia e Igiene per rEducazione del 
Sordomuti [Review of Pedagogy and Hygiene for the Edu- 
cation of the Deaf], Naples, Italy, September, October, 190 1. 

"The honors to Prof. P. Fornari," by E. Scuri, the Editor of 
this Review and Principal of the Royal Institute for the Deaf 
at Naples. In this article is given the particular account of the 
ceremony which took place on the 6th of October, in Milan, for 
the presentation of a Gold Medal to the celebrated Prof. Fornari. 
The initiative of this honor was taken by an old deaf pupil, G. 
Prettini, and the medal was coined by the public subscription 
of the colleagues, friends, and pupils of the great teacher. P. 
Fornari was a teacher of the deaf in the R. Institute of Milan for 
35 years, and afterwards became principal and professor of the 
Normal School for training teachers, in the same institution. 
He was also one of the most valiant advocates of the Pure Oral 
Method. Among his innumerable publications on the popular 
education, and on the instruction of the deaf, "The Proceedings 
of the Second International Congress at Milan" (1880) is of 
great importance. P. Fornari was the General Secretary of 
that Congress. The defective organization of the Italian schools 
for the deaf obliged Prof. Fornari to retire before his time from 
the active field of the education of the deaf, but he continues 
fearlessly with his pen the struggle towards the high ideal, which 
is the reform and the progress of the schools for the deaf. The 
gold medal, which was offered to Prof. Fornari, has on one side 
the image of the master; on the other side is engraved the fol- 

Reviews. 75 

lowing inscription: To Pascal Fomari — ^well merited advocate — 
for the education of the people — for 35 years — an active teacher 
of the poor deaf — ^an example— of liberty, of doctrine, of ac- 
tivity — offered by — ^his colleagues, pupils, friends, and admirers 
— MCMI. "The question of the R. Institute of Rome," is still the 
subject of several articles by E. Scuri, P. Fornari, and G. Ferreri. 
This subject is of the greatest importance to the Italian or- 
ganization of the schools for the deaf. It has happened too often 
that the committees of the Institutions, as well as the Govern- 
ment, place as president men who have never engaged in, nor 
been interested in the education of the deaf. This was the case 
in the last election for the President of the Royal Institute of 
Rome, an election which was strongly opposed by the above 
mentioned writers who are the principal representatives of the 
Association of the Italian Teachers of the Deaf. This weari- 
some polemic was one of the reasons why the Italian periodical 
"L'Educazione dei Sordomuti" was obliged to cease its publi- 
cation. "Upon Public Examinations," by E. Vanui. "Elemen- 
tary Language," by the Hermit of Maggiate. Under this 
strange title we recognize P. Fomari, who from his home at 
Maggiate (near Novara) sends his wise counsel on the very in- 
teresting subject of the teaching of language to deaf children; 
"For the Deaf of Sicily," by F. De Grazia Crapani; Necrology 
of Pasqualo Cardo, the late Principal of the Institution of the 
Deaf at Molfetta (Bari), is written with great affection by E. 
Scuri. "Bibliography," by E. Scuri and Lazzerotti. Among 
the various notices we read that the Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion has appointed Prof. Scuri to arrange a plan of reform in 
regard to the compulsory instruction of the deaf in Italy. 

The December number of this Review presents the follow- 

I. "The Pedagogical and Social Problem of the Italian 
Deaf-Mutes," by E. Scuri, is the title of the beginning of a study 
on the conditions of the Italian deaf and the legal organization 
of their instruction. The Minister of Public Instruction, Hon. 
Nasi, charged Prof. Scuri to prepare a plan of reform, and Prof. 
Scuri went to Rome for this purpose, in order to examine the 
different schemes which had been presented to the Ministry 

fS The Association Review. 

since 1872. He found that none of these schemes can be applied. 
In the present article Prof. Scuri explains the ideas upon which 
he intends to base the new program. 

II. "The Education of the Deaf Abroad. Impressions and 
Comparisons/' by G. Ferreri. The author gives the first part of 
his Report on the Education of the Deaf in those countries which 
he has been visiting since last September. In this article he 
gives an interesting account of his visit to the Institute of Frank- 
fort and of the special attention which is given at that school to 
the accent of the word. On this subject the following points are 
noticeable: "In general it is the lack of a just accent which 
makes the word of deaf speakers so little intelligible^ and the 
same occurs in the speech of every person who by nature, or 
from habit, speaks only in one tone. In our case it is not only a 
question of the tonical accent of the word, but of the intonation 
of the speech. This is so true that monotony is rarely notice- 
able in single words. And it is indeed the same phenomenon 
which we regret in the results of the oral method. Our pupils, 
in fact speak better and clearer in the first classes than in the 

last ones The intelligibility of the word is not in direct 

relation with the exactness of the physiological alphabet, but 
with the intonation of the speech. For this reason it is not easy 
to observe some defects in the speech of normal persons them- 
selves. They have many times small defects, often limited to 
one or two sounds of the alphabet, or to the quality of the voice, 
but all these things remain unobserved if the accent is regular 

and the speech is alive In the speech of the deaf all the 

smallest defects are evident, because the lack of intonation, 
which is the principal acoustic figure, renders the perception of 

the details clearer and more noticeable They pronounce 

with mathematical exactness all the sounds of the word in their 
correct individual and absolute value, but owing to the lack of 
the necessary reciprocal and relative influence of the sounds, 
the just intonation is lost, which would render the speech intelli- 
gible, although less perfect in its details. In our schools we do 
not pay great attention to this. But it is, indeed, to this point 
that the efforts of the teachers must be directed, if they wish to 
improve the speech of the deaf." 

Reviews. 77 

Enseignement pratique de la langue francaise. Notions 
graduees de grammaire et de style a Tusage des Institu- 
tions de Sourd-Muets dirigees par les Freres de Saint- 
Gabriel. Partie du Maitre [Practical teaching of the 
French language. Graduated exercises in grammar and 
style for the Institutions of the Deaf under the direction of 
the Freres de Saint-Gabriel. Book for the Teacher.] 
Curriere. 1900. 

This is a fine volume of 485 pages^ which contains a great 
quantity of lessons and tasks for the pupils grouped according to 
the ideological teaching of the language. The book is divided 
into 28 chapters. There are given brief but clear and well order- 
ed notions about the grammar, the parts of speech, the construc- 
tion of sentences, the order and graduation of the ideas, and on 
the style suitable for the various forms of composition. Al- 
though the teaching of the deaf is continually subjected to the 
unexpected, nevertheless it frequently happens that it is neces- 
sary to set in order the matter taught, or to give to the teaching 
a regular movement, according to the grammar, or to the natural 
class practice of the things explained. In this volume the 
teacher finds a good guide and a good method to develop the 
practical teaching of the language, and to guide his pupils to 
take an active part in conversation upon the different subjects 
studied in the school or outside, and at the same time to co- 
operate strongly in the development of their own intelligence. 
The method is based on the motto "la repetition est Tame de 
I'instruction" (repetition is the soul of instruction), and we will 
add that repetition is the most efficacious argument, especially in 
a school for the deaf. 

Enseignement logique de la langue francaise aux sourds- 
muets. [Logical Teaching of the French language to Deaf- 
Mutes], Institut des Freres de Saint-Gabriel. 3 vols. 

These books are the continuation of the preceding volume. 
While that is a g^ide for the teacher, these are dedicated to the 
pupils. Nevertheless in these books also the teacher can find a 
kind of guide for his teaching, not only in each lesson prepared 

78 The Association Review. 

for the pupils, but also in the general and theoretical out-look, 
given in the preface of each volume. We think that all this 
French method is useful for every teacher of the deaf. 

Memoria leida el dia 15 de Diciembre de 1901 en el 

solemne acto de la distribucion de premios a los alumnos 
del Colegio de Sordomudos y de Ciegos de Valencia [An- 
nual Report of the Secretary of the Institution for the Deaf 
and Blind at Valencia, Spain], 1901. 

The Secrectary of the Committee, Mr. Ed. Sans Bremon, 
reports that the efforts made in order to give a vigorous life to 
this Institution have succeded very well. He attributes this 
success to the work of the teachers and of the Principal, and 
gives a proof of the growth of the Institution, relating how dur- 
ing the last year the number of the pupils had grown from 98 to 
120. The Institution has received several contributions for the 
building. The Report contains a list of the names of those who 
have contributed toward the debt remaining on the building. 
They hope next year to have paid it all. The financial condition 
of the Institute has also allowed an increase in the number of 
teachers and assistants. The Institute of Valencia, like all 
others in Spain, is mixed, that is, a boarding and day school to- 
gether. In regard to the teaching, no reform has been applied, 
as the programs of the preceding years corresponded well 
with the aim of the school. All the pupils, and especially the 
boarding pupils, attend many religious exercises. 

Le Messager de TAbbe de TEpee [Abbe de TEpee's Mes- 
senger], published by the Abbe Ed. Rieffel at Curriere, 
France, Vol. 33, Nos. 21, 22, November i, 15, 1901. 

These numbers contain accounts of the celebration of var- 
ious festivals, religious and secular, which are so numerous es- 
pecially in the southern countries of Europe, and bring a good 
deal of sunshine into the monotonous life of toil of the lower 
classes, also continuations of various stories, such as the "Deaf- 
mute Robinson Crusoe," " Simon the Raggatherer," and num- 

Reviews, 79 

erous anecdotes. Abbe Rieffel evidently understands the art 
of making a journal with the most pronounced religious tend- 
ency, at the same time bright, and entertaining for all classes of 

De Doves Blad [Journal for deaf-mutes], Christiania, Nor- 
way, October, November, and December, 1901. 

Besides the usual articles of an edifying character, these 
numbers contain the following: "A warning against Nicholson's 
ear-drum skins/' issued in German papers and signed by the 
Chief of Police at Berlin. It appears that during the year 1901 
an advertisement was published extensively in continental 
papers, to the effect that a rich lady had donated a large sum to 
Nicholson's Institute, Langcott, Gunnersburg, London, W., in 
order that indigent deaf-mutes could be supplied with these 
"ear-drum skins" free of charge. It appears that a deaf-mute 
read this advertisement and wrote to the institute. In reply, 
he received a printed circular stating that it was absolutely nec- 
essary to use in connection with these skins a medicine which 
would be forwarded on the receipt of a sum equivalent to $3.50. 
This money the deaf-mute sent, and in return received a package 
containing two so-called "ear-drum skins" and three bottles of 
medicine. The postage was 92 cents, so that the total cost was 
$4.42. When these medicines were chemically analyzed, it was 
found that the one bottle contained a solution of glycerine in 
ether, the other a mixture of rice-flour, sugar, and some dried 
and pulverized vegetable matter, and the third a decoction of 
sarsaparilla. Each of these bottles of medicine could not pos- 
sibly have cost more than 5 or 6 cents; and the "ear-drum skins" 
proved perfectly worthless. "Agricultural school for deaf- 
mutes." This school, so far, exists only on paper; but the pro- 
moter of the scheme, Mr. Boycsen, who relies on private benev- 
olence for the realization of this plan, is working hard to collect 
the necessary funds; and there is reasonable hope that at no 
distant day such a school will be established in Norway. The 
Christmas number contains a view of Bethlehem, with the star 
of the wise men shining over it, and some other pretty Christ- 

8o The Association Review. 

mas illustrations, amongst the rest, a little deaf girl sitting be- 
fore a lighted Christmas tree, with her hands folded in prayer. 
The remaining part of this number is filled with short Christmas 
stories and poems. 

Tidning for Dofstumma [Journal for Deaf-mutes], Stockholm, 
Sweden, No. 6, 1901. 

In this number the historical sketches of the Swedish Insti- 
tutions for deaf-mutes are continued. This time a sketch (ac- 
companied by a view of the building) of the Karlskrona Institu- 
tion is g^ven. This school intended for deaf-mutes in the south- 
ern provinces of Sweden, was founded in 1865, and from that 
year till the end of 1890 261 scholars have received instruction. 
The remaining portion of this number is taken up by miscel- 
laneous articles and sketches of travel. 

Contents of the December 15 number: The Prussian Law 
concerning the education of minors suffering from some defect 
of the senses, and its significance for the education of deaf- 
mutes," by Emil Ulbrich, a well written article, but only of local 
interest. "The fiftieth anniversary of the Institution for Deaf- 
mutes at Petershagen, in Westphalia, Prussia. Miscellaneous 
communications, reviews, and notices. 

En storslagen Laroanstalt [a grand educational institution], 
by Otto Salomon. 

In this little pamphlet of seven pages, Mr. Salomon gives a 
sketch of the Wenersborg institution in Sweden, stating at the 
very beginning that he is not going to describe an institution 
possesing vast palatial buildings, with numberless recitation 
rooms, and a course of instruction covering nearly every branch 
of human knowledge. Nothing of the kind; but what Mr. Salo- 
mon admires in the Wenersborg Institution is the spirit of chari- 
ty which founded it, the liberality with which, in spite of innum- 
erable difficulties, it has been supported, and the love of our 
fellow beings which has found a tangible and glorious expres- 
sion. A special feature of this admirably managed institution 
is the "Home for Blind Deaf-mutes," 

Reviews. 8i 

Tidskrift for Dofstumma [Journal for Deaf-mutes], Borga, 
Finland, Vol. V, No. 33-44, January-December, 1901. 

This Journal is published ten times a year, at Borga, Fin- 
land, in the Swedish language. We are glad to welcome it for 
the first time among our exchanges; and as we have the whole 
year's publication before us, we are enabled to get a good idea 
of its objects and its scope. The first number contains a brief 
review of deaf-mute education in Finland during the year 1900. 
We learn from this review that in Finland there are eight schools 
for deaf-mutes, seven of which — at Uleaborg, Jakobstad, Abo, 
Borga, St. Michel, Knopio, and Jyvaskyla — ^are supported by 
the Government, and one — ^at Kurikka — ^by private benevolence. 
The number of scholars in all these schools during the year 1900 
was about 500, and the number of teachers 58. There are in 
Finland quite a number of deaf-mute associations, for the dis- 
cussion of subjects pertaining to the education of deaf-mutes, 
and for mutual improvement and aid. In June, 1900, these 
associations held a meeting at Helsingfors, attended by about 
200 persons, which through its earnest discussion of live subjects 
attracted a good deal of attention throughout the country, and 
led to the formation of a general Finnish Deaf-mute Association. 

That this journal endeavors to benefit, instruct, and amuse 
all classes of readers is evident from a glance at this year's num- 
bers. A well written explanation of the petitions of the Lord's 
Prayer extends throughout the year, as well as a translation of 
the famous Russian novelist, Ivan Turgenjew's novel "Mumu." 
There are sketches of travel and brief notices regarding the 
progress of deaf-mute education at home and abroad. The 
journal contains no heavy scientific articles, but is in every sense 
of the word a popular journal. 

Report of the Deaf-mute Association of Copenhagen, Den- 
mark, for the year 1900- 1901. 

This association is in a flourishing condition. It recently 
erected a Home for aged deaf-mutes — a view of which accom- 
panies the Report. It is a fine building of seven stories afford- 

82 The Association Review. 

ing ample room and comforts for the aged. The number of 
members is 619. The income of the association is derived from 
the dues paid regularly by each member, from legacies, and 
voluntary contributions. A certain sum is paid to each member 
in case of sickness, and in case of death a sum sufficient to insure 
a decent burial. Among the members are many prominent citi- 
zens of Copenhagen and other places in Denmark. 

Les Sourds-Muets en Norvege [Deaf-mutes in Norway] . 
Professor Uchermann. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Lars A. Havstad we are in- 
formed that this work has been translated into French, thereby 
bringing it more readily within the reach of American teachers. 
It is in two volumes, and can be had from the publisher. Alb. 
Cummermeyer, bookseller, Christiania, Norway. 

Deaf School News, Chefoo, China, Vol. Ill, No. 5. 

This very interesting publication, printed on rice-paper by 
mimeograph process, at the Chefoo school for the deaf, and sent 
out semi-occasionally to the friends of the school, contains in 
the present number the report of the Superintendent, Mrs. An- 
netta T. Mills. This report gives so clear a picture of the con- 
ditions surrounding the work Mrs- Mills is doing that we are 
sure our readers will be glad to have opportunity to peruse it. 
With the exception of the financial exhibit, the report is as fol- 

"In sending out our financial statement for the last three 
years I wish especially to acknowledge God's goodness to us, 
first, that we were able to obtain this beautiful site for the 
school home and to put up buildings that are so comfortable; 
second, that the health of the pupils has been good, and that 
they have all made fair progress; third, that the interest in the 
School has increased so that the yearly income has met the 
necessary expenses. Though there have been times when we 

Reviews. 83 

have been nearly at the end of our funds we have not been left 
long in anxiety but God has supplied us, often by gifts from quite 
unexpected sources; or we have been able in other ways, that no 
less evinced His care, to meet the need; fourth, that my native 
assistants have given such faithful, cheerful service, relieving me 
as far as possible of labor and responsibility, that I might give 
my time to work that they could not do ; lastly and not least by 
any means, is the privilege of receiving so many friends in the 
school-room, whose kind words of appreciation have been both 
helpful and encouraging. 

"We would like to thank, again, the Jriends who have re- 
membered our needs— especially those in the home lands. We 
realize that it requires a good deal of faith to deny oneself, of 
perhaps necessary things, in order to carry on a work so far 
removed and so vag^e as this for the deaf in China. Our hearts 
grow tender as we think of little deaf children in Great Britain 
and America denying themselves for our sakes, and the money 
that comes is very precious. 

"A little study of the appended financial statement will show 
that the local gifts have increased from $20.00 in 1898, to over 
$50000 last year; and those from the Chinese from $5.00 to over 
$80.00. The income from the sale of photographs, candy, rent 
of rooms, etc., has given us a neat little sum of $359.60. There 
was a decrease last year of over $200.60 in the gifts from Ameri- 
ca, due probably to the unsettled state of affairs in this country. 
The expenses of two of the boys have been provided for by 
friends in China. The mortgage of $550000 has been assumed 
by a friend at a much lower rate of interest, which saves the 
school a yearly sum of $165.00, and is equal to a gift of that 

"Of the fourteen boys in attendance last year before the 
Boxers movement began only nine returned last autumn. Two 
new ones have been received, making our present number eleven. 
There has been no regular trade taught but several of the boys 
help with the printing and toning of the photographs, which 
trains both eye and hand. 

"In looking forward into the future, the needs of the school 
are very definite. First, we want to pay off the mortgage ; then 

84 The Association Review, 

we must have a dormitory for twenty boys, so that we can send 
an invitation to the parents of the sixty deaf boys, that we know 
about, to bring their children to school. Twenty will probably 
come — possibly more. We would like to do this next autumn. 

"The most important thing to be planned for, however, is 
the continuity of the work. I must return to America in the 
spring of 1903, and wish to remain there two years. I do not 
know of anyone in China, who has had experience in this line 
of teaching, who is free to step in and help us. If there are any 
such I shall be glad to correspond with them. If workers are 
to come from the homeland they should do so very soon, in order 
to get a good start in the Chinese language before they have to 
take charge. I should like that special prayer be offered, that 
we may be divinely guided in this very important matter. I 
would be willing, for the sake of the work, to give the school 
permanently into the hands of any competent teacher of the deaf 
who would make it his life work. There will be some place for 
me when I wish to return. I have often wished that I could be 
multiplied by ten, for I see so much work to be done. So I do 
not fear to have my place here supplanted, for I can find another. 

"If a gentleman and his wife, both trained teachers of the 
deaf, could come they would find a wide field and great possi- 
bilities before them. The boys' school should be enlarged, and 
a department for girls opened under the care of the lady, and 
trades should be taught in each. There would be many oppor- 
tunities for evangelistic work among the friends of the pupils, 
which might be far-reaching in its results. Then there may come, 
in the near future, the opportunity of training native teachers, 
who will open schools in other parts of the Empire. Wc cannot 
hope for this right away, but it is sure to come in time. 

"But to do all this we need a good active Committee in the 
home-land. Mr. John Nasmith of Toronto, Canada, has ex- 
pressed his willingness to act on such a Committee. He has 
seen the School and knows all the conditions under which it 
works. The argument has been made against such a Committee 
on the ground that its members would be separated by so great 
distances that it would be nearly impossible to have business 
meetings ; but there are societies already formed for the advance- 


ment of deaf-mute education, that have annual meetings. One 
of these societies might be willing to add another duty to those 
already assumed, and so aid this class of our brothers and sisters. 
Their work would be much like that of our Foreign Mission 
Boards, viz., to interest people, see that the financial needs are 
met, provide for the continuity of the work, and give confidence 
to the public that their gifts will be used for the purpose desig- 
nated. They would hardly be expected to legislate on the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of the school. That duty would 
belong to the local Committee. Such a Committee seems 
practicable, and without it the worker is handicapped and bears 
too heavy a responsibility. The condition of the country, while 
it is not all that we could wish, is such that missionary work may 
be pushed with confidence, especially in this Province of 

i ft 


American Annals of the Deaf, Washington, D. C, January, 

The first article of this number of the Annals is a descrip- 
tion of "The New Buildings of the Western Pennsylvania Insti- 
tution/' by Mrs. Wm. N. Burt. The article is fully illustrated 
and the description is in careful detail, making it of especial 
value to those wishing to refer to it in working up plans for 
similar buildings. 

Understanding versus Expression," by William A. Cald- 
well. Mr. Caldwell in this article expresses the conviction that 
in all the systems of instructing the deaf the tendency has been 
to direct effort too exclusively to teaching expression and not 
enough to the development of the understanding. In other 
words, the effort is made to teach the deaf to write well or cor- 
rectly, rather than to read easily and understandingly. This it 
is urged results in one-sided development, and moreover a sur- 
plus development in the direction where it will be of least prac- 
tical value. The article presents a number of ingenious tests 
and exercises designed to develop the reading power, or the 
power to understand, which will be suggestive and helpful to 
teachers desiring to reach the result at which they aim. 

86 The Association Review, 

"Machinery as a factor in teaching the deaf," by A. J. God- 
win. In this article the writer, himself an expert in the use of 
all printing machinery, holds that the deaf can manipulate all 
kinds of machinery in the office including the linotype, and also 
the various machines used in other trades; and he urges 
that the deaf need only the opportunity to learn to handle ma- 
chines used in the trades, to become skilled in their use. 

In the next paper Mr. Peter N. Peterson makes "A Plea 
for more Technical Language in the Schoolroom/' urging that 
closer and more intimate relations should exist between the 
literary and industrial departments of our schools with it in 
view that the technical language of the trades shall be system- 
atically and thoroughly taught by giving time and place to it in 
the regular school-work. There can be no good reason why 
the two departments of our schools should not co-operate and 
co-ordinate in the manner and to the extent suggested in the 
paper, for only the best results could flow from such a union 
of forces and interests. 

Mr. Giulio Ferreri, now of Washington, but recently of 
Siena, Italy, gives us "Another word about the battle of meth- 
ods," which is a reply to an article on the same subject in the 
November Annals. Mr. Ferreri has since coming to this coun- 
try visited a number of schools in New York, Philadelphia, and 
Washington, and from his observations as so far made he ex- 
presses it as his conviction "that the future is for oral teaching." 
Still he has much to say in favor of the combined system, or 
rather as he puts it, of a combined system. Thus, while himself 
"a convinced and experienced oralist," and while contending 
for the oral method as the best for the elementary education of 
the deaf, he sees advantages in the employment of a combined 
system for their secondary and higher education. Gallaudet 
College is cited as an example of the successful giving of a 
higher education by means of a combined system, and the writer 
notes that the warmest advocates of the combined system that 
he has met in America are in Gallaudet College. Favoring as 
he does a combined system for purposes of a higher education, 
the particular form or combination approved of assumes interest, 
and this is found to be that form employing the manual alphabet 

Reviews. 87 

and writing as the principal means of instruction. The article 
is an interesting one from every point of view as giving the first 
impressions of an intelligent and observant foreigner. 

"Trying the use of the Akoulalion/' by Mabel EUery Adams. 
This is the most satisfactory report as to tests with the new 
hearing instrument we have yet seen, and this because it is an 
accurate account of every step of procedure in the experiments 
made, and given by a teacher who understands the significance 
and bearing of every incident developed in the progress of the 
tests. The subject of the experiments is a boy, pronounced ab- 
solutely deaf by the aurists, yet evidently with enough hearing 
to recognize certain sounds. Miss Adams says of the results 
obtained^ "that the experiment has not gone far enough yet to 
show anything except the one fact that the child does hear or 
receive some sensation different from anything which he re- 
ceives without the instrument." It may be hoped that further 
account of the work will be given. 

Mr. William Wade in "Prints for the Deaf-Blind," makes a 
change in the position heretofore held by him that the "Moon" 
print should be learned first by the deaf-blind, because it is the 
easiest to learn. He now holds that the "Point" system should 
be first used, because it is the one most readily written, and it 
is a decided gain for the pupil to be able to write what is taught 
him, and then read it as fast as written. 

"The World's Fair at St. Louis in 1903," by E. M. Gallau- 
det, is published elsewhere in this issue. 

"Tabular Statement of American Schools for the Deaf, 
November 10, 1901," with accompanying matter, by the editor, 
is the usual annual statistical compilation published by the An- 
nals. Editorial review of the tables is made elsewhere. The 
feature, a new one^ of a complete list of American instructors 
of the deaf, is a most valuable one, and we believe we but give 
voice to a general wisih of the profession that it may be a per- 
manent one, appearing hereafter annually in connection with 
the tables. 

"A Reply to the Review of Farrar's 'Arnold on the Educa- 
tion of the Deaf," is a reply by Mr. A. Farrar, Jr., to certain 

88 The AssociaHon Reviiw. 

criticisms made upon his book in a review of it in the November, 
1901, Annals. 

"School Items," and "Miscellaneous" complete the number. 

I. The Public School for Deaf at Trondhjem, Norway; a. 
the Public School for Deaf at Gloshaugen, Norway. 
Two reports of institutions for deaf-mutes in the Scandi- 
navian countries for the year 1900-1901. 

The Trondhjem School had 72 scholars, and the one at 
Gloshaugen 45. Besides the regular studies, instruction was 
given in wood carving, shoemaking, and tailoring. 

Reports Received. 

1. Report for the 48th year, 1900- 1901, of the Deaf-Mute 
Institution at Rotterdam, the Netherlands. During the year 
147 deaf-mutes were instructed. 

2. Thirteenth Report of the Society "Eflfatha," having its 
seat at Dordrecht, the Netherlands, for promoting the Christian 
education and instruction of deaf-mute and blind children. Al- 
though the institution maintained by this society is located at 
Dordrecht (number of scholars in 1901: 25), its members are 
scattered through all portions of the Netherlands. 

3. Report for 1900-1901 of the Holmestrand (Norway) 
public school for deaf-mutes. The number of scholars during 
the year was 53, distributed in six classes. 


The Teachers' ^^ annual report of the General Secretary to 
Boreao ^^^ Board, presented at the December meet- 

ing, gave figures upon the teachers' bureau 
work of the office during the year that may not be uninteresting 
to the members generally of the Association. The number of 
persons making use of the office during the year was 83, of whom 
56 were teachers, 20 were principals of schools, and 7 were par- 
ents of deaf children. In the correspondence of the office, 14 
per cent, of the communications received — 184 in all — and 10.4 
per cent, of the communications sent out — 256 in all — related to 
the agency work. Just how many of the 56 teachers secured 
positions through the office can not be told, but the fact that the 
year closed with but four teachers on the list still unemployed, 
and these of limited experience or trainings suggests in some 
degree the amount of service rendered. The twenty schools 
and seven parents served made use of the office in cases two, 
three, and four times during the year. 

The repeated calls for trained and experienced teachers and 
the difficulty of satisfactorily meeting the calls in not a few in- 
stances^ was the chief embarrassment of the work^ and it was 
most evident that the demand for such teachers is at present far 
in excess of the supply. It may be hoped that in the coming year 
more teachers of experience and with established records for 
successful work may place their names with the office, thus 
making it possible to meet oftener very urgent calls, and at the 
same time frequently to place such teachers not only in desir- 
able positions, but in fields of work where their usefulness may 
be much enlarged 

90 The Association Review. 

The meeting of the Wisconsin teachers of the 

Roood-Table ^^^^ ^^ Milwaukee as a Round Table, — a re- 

port of which is given elsewhere in this 
issue, — and the promise of similar meetings in the future in 
connection with the meeting of the State Teachers' Association, 
give evidence that the new order of things in Wisconsin means 
harmony and union of forces among the schools, friendly inter- 
course and the prevalence of a helpful and sympathetic spirit 
among the teachers, and earnest and aggressive activity 
generally along practical and progressive educational lines. To 
State Inspector W. D. Parker, who has recently been placed in 
supervisory charge of all the schools for the deaf of the state, 
is given the credit of arranging for the Round Table meeting, 
and he is to be congratulated, not only upon the success of this 
meeting, but also upon the evidence it affords of his own earnest 
determination to make his office an important factor in the work 
of the education of the deaf and a helpful force in its development 
and upbuilding. We predict that much good will result from the 
annual winter meetings of the Wisconsin Round Table. 

The following editorial expression — taken from 
The Oral Method ^^^ j^^^^ g^^^. v^^ekly, published at the Austin, 
and Manual ^ , , , ,. , 

Environment lexas, school — upon the disadvantages attend- 

ing the practice of the oral method in a manual 
environment, is worthy the most careful reading and thought- 
ful consideration by all earnest students of present educational 
methods and conditions in this country. It is in its substance 
a frank statement of the handicap with which, in the nature of 
the case, oral teaching must contend when surrounded by the in- 
fluences and the machinery of manual methods — the latter in 
visible and constant operation. The editor is also the principal 
of his school, one of the largest combined schools of the country, 
with over half its pupils taught by speech methods, he therefore 
speaks with full knowledge of the conditions he describes. Be- 
sides this, he is a close student, a careful observer, and thor- 
oughly competent from long and varied experience to pass upon 
the subject, and that he presents a clear and exact picture of 


Editorial. 91 

the situation and conditions described will scarcely be gainsaid. 
That all will agree with him in all his contentions, is not to be 
expected; the points are too vital for that; but there is little 
doubt that he gives voice to a general feeling and a more or less 
common thought in the minds of Principals of combined system 
schools in this country today. The editorial speaks for itself 
upon the question raised, and in the part that is of general ap- 
plication it is here presented: 

It would be rather going against probabilities to 

declare that even the best-conducted of our combined-system 
schools, in which the oral pupils mingle freely with the manual 
pupils and the prevailing means of communication is manual, 
are as successful in speech teaching as the best of our oral 
schools, in which the prevailing medium of communication, out 
of the class-room as well as in it, is spoken language. It would 
not be reasonable to expect it, and the sooner those who make 
such a claim cease doing so the better for all concerned. It is 
a question in our mind, and has been for some years, whether 
under present conditions much of the effort toward teaching 
speech in combined-system schools is not practically thrown 
away. They are doing the very best they can under the circum- 
stances — most of them at least — but they are laboring against 
untoward conditions. Is it possible to give our pupils practical 
speech in an atmosphere that is manual? Will their speech ever 
be anything but the result of a process of translation where the 
customary medium of communication is manual, tending con- 
stantly to a habit of molding the thought in the forms of panto- 
mimic or gesture expression? These are questions confronting 
us with an insistence that we can not evade, and they are ques- 
tions that every conscientious person must sooner or later 
frankly ask himself and decide. That our American schools will 
ever become exclusively oral we do not believe. Years of actual 
experience in teaching speech to deaf children and most intimate 
contact with many oral pupils of all grades and varieties of in- 
tellect, besides careful observation of the methods and results of 
well-trained, energetic, painstaking, resourceful teachers con- 
vinces us that universal speech for the deaf is a will-o'-the wisp. 
The problem then resolves itself into this: Shall we go on as 
we have done, allowing the pupils of our manual and oral depart- 
ments to mingle freely in chapel, dormitory, dining-room, work 
and play, or shall we separate them entirely, preventing as much 
as possible contact between them, making, in a word, the two 
departments practically two distinct schools? Were this done 
and manual means of communication rigidly excluded from the 

92 The Association Review, 

oral department, would the gain in verbal language and, per con- 
sequence^ in the command of idiomatic English, compensate the 
pupils for the loss of pleasure and of the most impressive moral 
and religious training possible, that attainable through the 
medium of signs and dactylology in chapel? This is a question 
that most conscientious educators of the deaf are seriously ask- 
ing themselves and one that by no means all have settled. If 
they ever settle it in the affirmative the result will not be hard to 
foresee, and the desired end will soon be an accomplished fact." 

We feel that we but share a pleasure with 
Helen Keller Review readers in presenting the following 

letter from Helen Keller to Rev. E. E. Hale, 
D. D., and read by him at the memorial exercises held in Fre- 
mont Temple, Boston, upon the occasion of the commemora- 
tion of the hundredth birthday of Dr. Howe, founder of Perkins 
Institution for the Blind: 

My Dear Dr, Hale: My teacher and I expect to be present 
at the meeting tomorrow in commemoration of the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of Dr. Howe's birth. I am writing now to 
tell you that I hope you will express the heartfelt gratitude of 
those who owe their education, their opportunities, their happi- 
ness to him who opened the eyes of the blind and gave the dumb 
lip language. 

Sitting here in my study, surrounded by my books, enjoying 
the sweet and intimate companionship of the great and the wise, 
I am trying to realize what my life might have been if Dr. Howe 
had failed in the great task God gave him to perform. If he had 
not taken upon himself the responsibility of Laura Bridgman's 
education and led her out of the pit of Acheron back to her 
human inheritance, should I be a sophomore at Radcliffe College 
today — ^who can say? But it is idle to speculate about what 
might have been in connection with Dr. Howe's great achieve- 

I think only those who have escaped that death-in-life ex- 
istance from which Laura Bridgman was rescued can realize how 
isolated, how shrouded in darkness, how cramped by its own im- 
potence is a soul without thought or faith or hope. Words are 
powerless to describe the desolation of that prison house, or the 
joy of the soul that is delivered out of its captivity. When we 
compare the needs and helplessness of the blind before Dr. Howe 
began his work, with their present usefulness and independence^ 

Editorial. 93 

we realize that great things have been done in our midst. 
What if physical conditions have built up high walls about us? 
Thanks to our friend and helper, our world lies upward; the 
length and breadth and sweep of the heavens are ours! 

It is pleasant to think that Dr. Howe's noble deeds will re- 
ceive their due tribute of affection and gratitude, in the city 
which was the scene of his great labors and splendid victories for 

With kind greetings, in which my teacher joins me, I am 
affectionately your friend, 

Cambridge, Nov. 10. Helen Keller. 


The Board of Directors of The American Association to 
Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf decided at its an- 
nual meeting held in Washington, D. C, Dec. 28, 1901, to under- 
take the establishment and maintenance of a summer school of 
training for teachers of the deaf, to begin the coming summer, 
provided a sufficient number of persons to warrant its opening 
should signify in advance their desire to avail themselves of the 
privilege of attending such a school. 

The purpose of the school will be to give inistruction and 
training in oral methods of teaching the deaf. All teachers of 
the deaf, of at least one year's experience, and all parents and 
relatives of deaf children desiring to avail themselves of its 
benefits, will be eligible to membership, under such rules and 
regulations as may be prescribed by the Committee in charge. 
If applicants present themselves in sufficient numbers to war- 
rant it, separate courses will be provided for those who have 
had previous experience in oral work and for those who have 
not, each class to be under the care of trained instructors. 

The Committee may state at this time that a central and 
convenient location for the school has been decided upon at 
Chautauqua, N. Y.; that an experienced and thoroughly com- 
petent staff of lecturers and teachers is being selected; that a 
full and complete course of study and work is in course of prep- 
aration at the hands of experienced and skillful instructors, and 

94 The Association Review. 

that the estimated cost of board to students will be from six to 
eight dollars per week, and for tuition not more than forty dol- 
lars for the full course of six weeks. 

The Committee in charg-e, however, do not feel warranted 
in proceeding further with the project without some more defi- 
nite information as to possible attendance than they now possess, 
and therefore request that all persons desiring to take the course 
shall signify their i;itention to do so to Mr. F. W. Booth, General 
Secretary, 7342 Rural Lane, Mount Airy, Philadelphia, on 
or before March 31st next. As soon as a sufficient number of 
names has been received, further and more definite steps in the 
way of organization will be taken by the Committee, of which 
due notice will be made to all interested in the establishment of 
the school. a. L. E. Crouter, Chairman, 

Alexander Graham Bell, 
Caroline A. Yale, 
Sarah Fuller, 
Committee in charge of the Summer School, 

The request sent out by the President of the 

om na oiis Association in December to the members, that 

each one make nomination of at least one 

other person for membership, met with a most gratifying re- 
sponse and brought an unexpectedly large number of nomina- 
tions. Most of these nominations — those received up to and 
including January 15 — have been acted upon by the Board, and, 
as the list published elsewhere shows, the membership of the 
Association has through them been materially enlarged. This 
is in the extreme encouraging, for it is recognized that other 
things being equal the strength of an association and the amount 
of good that it can accomplish is in direct proportion to the size 
of its membership body. 

The nominations received since January 15 will be acted 
upon soon, and elections will be noted in the coming April num- 
ber of the Rf.vtew. In the meantime it may be stated nomina- 
tions to membership are always welcomed, and they will be re- 
ceived and acted upon sent in at any time during the year. 

Editorial. 95 


The American Annals of the Deaf for January, 1902, (Vol. 
XLVII^ pp. 50 to 66), presents its annual tables of statistics 
concerning the pupils and teachers in American Schools for the 
Deaf present Nov. 10, 1901. The number of schools increased 
from 115 in 1900 to 118 in 1901, an addition of three; and the 
total number of pupils increased from 10,608 in 1900, to 11,028 in 
1901, an addition of 420, or very nearly 4 per cent. 

The number of pupils taught speech increased from 6,687 ^^ 
1900, to 6,988 in 1901, an addition of 301, or 4.5 per cent. The 
number of pupils taught wholly or chiefly by the oral method in- 
creased from 4,538 in 1900, to 5,147 in 1901, an addition of 609, 
or 13.4 per cent. 

The number of academic teachers increased from 1,010 in 

1900, to 1,027, an addition of 17, or 1.7 per cent; and of all teach- 
ers including industrial teachers, from 1,353 ^" 1900, to 1,385 in 

1901, an addition of 32, or 2.4 per cent. The number of articula- 
tion teachers increased from 588 in 1900, to 641 in 1901, an addi- 
tion of 53, or 9 per cent. The articulation teachers of the coun- 
try now comprise 62.4 per cent, of the entire number of academic 
teachers employed. 

A closer comparison of increases is interesting. While the 
total number of pupils increased by 420, the number taught 
speech increased by 301, and the number taught wholly or chiefly 
by speech by 609, the latter increase being considerably larger 
than the increase in pupils. 

The significance of these differences may be assumed to 
be that in the shifting of school population the pupils going out 
from the school every year — numbering approximately 1,400 to 
1,600 — are in large portion from manually taught classes, while 
the new pupils coming into the schools at the commencement of 
each term — ^approximately 1,800 to 2,000 in number — are being 
placed in larger proportion than ever before under oral instruc- 

The following tables giving the footings of the Annals 
tables for the years from 1893 to 1901 inclusive, with percent- 
ages computed from them, are presented to show the extent and 
character of the changes that are taking place in the work of 


TA^ Association Review. 

speech-teaching in American schools. (See also tables published 
in the Association Review, June, 1901, Vol. Ill, p. 281 and 
p. 291.) 


Statistics from the Annals. 































Number of pupils! 

Taught Speech . 































Percentage of pupils 
Taught Speech 



7% 0.66% 


A, taught speech ; K, taught wholly or chiefly by the Oral Method; C, 
taught wholly or chiefly by the Auricular Method. 


Statistics from the AnnaU, 

Not including Industrial 

Including Industrial 















62 4% 

• • • • 

• • B • 

• • • • 

• • • • 


■ • • ■ 

• « • • 

• ■ ft • 

• • • • 











Four new schools are noted by the Annals, located at Rock 
Island, 111., San Francisco, Cal., Bay City, Mich., and Saginaw, 
Mich. One school, located at Derinda, 111., is omitted, having 
been discontinued. 



The foregoing tables are in the direction and measure of the 
changes that they show, illustrated in the following diagrams: 


Percentage of Pupils Tauf^ht 

Perceutag^e of Academic Instruct- 
ors who are Articulation Teachers. 






























































^ 5^ ^ ?^ ?5 55 ^ ^ 5^ 

Pupils (A) taught speech; (B) taught wholly or chiefly by the oral 
method; (C) taught wholly or chiefly by the auricular method. 

A limited number of bound volumes of the Review is offered 
to Institutions at the following rates: For Vol. I, bound in cloth, 
$1.00; for Vol. II, bound in cloth, $2.00. For prices of other 
publications of the Association, see advertisement in this number. 
Ill order that these latter publications may be placed in the hands 
of all members of the Association who may not have them, the 
prices have been reduced to amounts covering little more than 
postage^ and entire sets are offered at $2.00 per set. 

gS The Association Review. 



The Committee in charge of the arrangements for the 
Seventh Summer Meeting of the American Association to Pro- 
mote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, has appointed Chau- 
tauqua, New York, as the place of meeting. The dates have 
not been definitely selected, but it may be expected that the 
meeting will be held in and extend through the last week in 

It is unnecessary here and at this time to speak of the advan- 
tages afforded by Chautauqua as a place of meeting, for those 
who were in attendance at the Association meeting of 1894, held 
at Chautauqua, have full knowledge of them, and all others may 
be assured that no better meeting place, all things considered, 
could be chosen. 

Awaiting formal and detailed announcements from the 
Committee^ it may be stated that the arrangements with the 
Chautauqua Assembly permit of the use, by the Association, 
of the Assembly grounds and of such buildings as may be 
needed, and that admission to the grounds, as well as to all gen- 
eral lectures and meetings held on the grounds, will be granted 
free to all active members of the Association showing their mem- 
bership card (the Treasurer's receipt showing annual dues paid 
for the current year) at the gate. Boarding facilities exist in 
abundance upon the grounds, and any information desired in re- 
gard to boarding places and prices of board may be obtained by 
addressing the Secretary of the Chautauqua Assembly, Chautau- 
qua, New York. The Association headquarters will be estab- 
lished at the Athenaeum Hotel. The usual reduced railroad 
rates of a fare and a third for the round trip will be granted 

It is expected that the Summer School will be held in the 
same place as the Summer Meeting and immediately following 
it. The Committee in charge of the arrangements for the school 
issues a statement, printed elsewhere in this number, which is of 
especial importance on account of the request it contains, and 
attention is directed to this statement. It will be necessary be- 
fore further steps are taken looking to the perfecting of the ar- 

Editorial, ^ 99 

rangements for the Summer School for the Committee to have 
assurance that a sufficient number of persons stand ready to 
enter the school for the purpose of pursuing the course of study 
and training that it will provide. At this stage of the proceed- 
ings the entire question of the establishment of the school hinges 
upon the securing of this assurance, and so it is of the utmost 
importance that persons expecting to take the course give early 
information of the fact in accordance with the directions of the 
Committee. It now remains for those engaged in the work to 
determine the question whether a summer school of training for 
teachers of the deaf shall be established this coming summer or 
not. We most sincerely hope that a sufficient number will make 
application for admission to the school to justify its opening and 
that announcement mav soon be made that the establishment of 
the school is assured. 


The annual meeting of the Board of Directors of the Ameri- 
can Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, 
was held on December 28, 1901, at Washington, D. C, at the 
residence of President A. Graham Bell. The meeting was called 
to order at 1 1 o'clock a. m., President Bell in the chair. There 
were present the following members of the Board: A. Graham 
Bell, President; A. L. E. Crouter, Vice-President; Z. F. West- 
ervelt, Secretary; Edmund Lyon, Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard, 
Miss Sarah Fuller; also F. W. Booth, General Secretary and 

Action was taken upon the death of Dr. Philip G. Gillett, a 
member of the Board, in the adoption of the following testimo- 
nial and resolution: 

Dr. Philip G. Gillett died at his home in Jacksonville, Ill- 
inois, October 2nd, 1901. Dr. Gillett was elected a member of 
the Board of Directors of the American Association to Promote 
the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, at the Board's first meet- 
ing and was thereafter continued on the Board by successive 
elections until the time of his death. He also filled the office 
of President of the Association from July, 1893, to March, 1899, 
in which position he labored zealously and efficiently. In this 
capacity he visited all the schools for the deaf in the United 

loo The Association Review. 

States, and won friends for the cause wherever he went. This 
work, under the auspices of the Association, was in harmony 
with some of his early ideals, as he was among the first to take an 
interest in speech teaching. Throughout his long career as an 
educator of the deaf, he was ever on the alert for better aids and 
methods, and was unusually successful in discovering and adopt- 
ing them. "He was one of those men to whom it is given to dis- 
cern through the mists of custom and prejudice, something of the 
lineaments of absolute truth." Not only was he endowed with 
rare intellectual gifts, but he was possessed of a bright and genial 
nature, which sweetened all he did, and made him a heart to 
heart friend. 

Perhaps no better characterization of Dr. Gillett can be 
found than the following verses from Whittier: 

'*Such was our friend, formed on the good old plan, 
A true and brave and downright honest man ? 
His daily prayer far better understood 
In acts than words, was simply doing goodJ*^ 

It is not our purpose at this time to dwell upon his life's 
work, which is evidenced by enduring monuments, but rather to 
offer a tender tribute to the memory of our esteemed co-laborer 
and friend; it is therefore 

Resolved: That this testimonial be placed on the records of 
the Association, and a copy thereof be forwarded to Mrs. Gillett. 

The vacancy in the membership of the Board created by the 
death of Dr. Gillett^ was filled by the election of Dr. Joseph C. 
Gordon, Superintendent of the Illinois School for the Deaf at 

The question was considered and the preliminary step taken 
looking to enlargement of the Board of Directors of the Associa- 
tion through amendment of the Constitution, notice of which 
amendment is to be presented at the annual meeting of the 
Association the coming summer. 

The following amendment to the by-laws was enacted: 

Section VI. Any associate or honorary member may be- 
come an active member by the annual payment of $2.00. 

The election of officers of the Board for the ensuing year re- 
sulted as follows: President, Alexander Graham Bell; ist Vice- 
President, A. L. E. Crouter; 2nd Vice-President, Caroline A. 
Yale; Secretary, Z. F. Westervelt; Treasurer, F. W. Booth; 
Auditor, A. L. E. Crouter. The following standing Conmiittees 

Editorial. loi 

were appointed: Executive Committee — A. Graham Bell, A. L. 
E. Crouter, Caroline A. Yale, Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard, 
Edmund Lyon, and the Secretary, Z. F. Westervelt, ex-officio. 
Finance Committee — Edmund Lyon, term expires in one year; 
A. L. E. Crouter, term expires in two years; Z. F. Westervelt, 
term expires in three years. Necrology Committee — Sarah 
Fuller and Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard. 

A letter from Mr. S. G. Davidson, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on the model library, was read in which he recommended 
a revision and a republication of the catalogue of the library. 
It was voted that the Committee be continued and that the rec- 
ommendation of the Chairman be carried out by the publication 
of the revised catalogue in the Association Review and also 
in pamphlet form. 

The Committee on the Summer School made report 
through its Chairman, Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, of progress upon 
the plans for the school. Miss Sarah Fuller was added to the 
Committee. Thus enlarged the Committee consists of Dr. A. 
L. E. Crouter, Chairman, Dr. A. Graham Bell, Miss Caroline 
A. Yale, and Miss Sarah Fuller. 

Dr. Z. F. Westervelt, Mr. Richard O. Johnson, and Dr. J. 
C. Gordon were appointed a Committee on the Summer Meet- 
ing to be held the coming summer, with the duty of arranging 
for the place of meeting and preparing a programme. 

The Board then adjourned to meet on Monday, December 
30, at Albany, New York. This meeting was held and the an- 
nual report of the Secretary was formally filed with the Secre- 
tary of State in accordance with the requirements of statute. 

The next meeting of the National Educational Association 
is appointed to be held at Minneapolis, July 7-11, 1902. Depart- 
ment XVI will have its usual programme and exercises, 
announcement of which will be made in due time. The officers 
of the Department this year are President, Alexander Graham 
Bell, Washington; Vice-President, Edward E. Allen, Philadel- 
phia; Secretary, E. A. Graver, New York. 

I02 The Association Review. 


The following persons have been elected to membership in 
the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf. The list includes those elected between the dates 
December i, 1901, and January 15, 1902: 

Ahrens, Howard E., 821 Schuylkill Ave., Reading, Pa. 

Allen, Henrietta E., 98 N. Pine Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

Allen, Jessie B., Summit Ave., Eau Claire, Wis. 

Baer, Morris B., 15 Cortland St., New York, N. Y. 

Bamford, Lillian, School for the Deaf, Omaha, Neb. 

Bardeen, Judge Chas. V., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Bartoo, Dell, School for the Deaf, Jacksonville, 111. 

Beardsley, Jessie, Gary, S. Dak. 

Beatty, Frances A., Doylestown, Pa. 

Beattie, Grace, School for the Deaf, Colorado Springs, Col. 

Bell, Clara L., School for the Deaf, Edgewood Park, Pa. 

Bell, Mary, Danville, Ky. 

Best, Fred. C, Wis. National Bank, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Bishop, Mrs. Mary W., 515 S. Bernard St., Spokane, Washington. 

Blackwell, Annie R., 37 Granada Road, Southsea, England. 

Bramford, Miss, 116 Eighteenth St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Brown, Mary E. Penn. Avenue, corner Lexington, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Bruce, Mrs. G. H., Danville, Ky, 

Butler, Henry L., Boyer St., Mt Airy, Philadelphia. 

Byam, Mrs. Mary S., Chelmsford, Mass. 

Carter, Clyde, School for the Deaf, Little Rock, Ark. 

Castle, Mrs. Rebekah H., 425 Sheridan Road, Waukegan, 111. 

Champlin, Dr. Helen K., 662 Clarke Ave., Cleveland, • Ohio. 

Chapin, Alma L., 65 Garden St., Hartford, Conn. 

Coburn, Alice, Delavan, Wis. 

Coffin, Mrs. F. S., Cuero^ Texas. 

Conrey, N. P., Cal. Bank Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Crenshaw, Nathaniel B., Girard Trust B'ld'g, Philadelphia. 

Crouch, Rev. John F., W. Mt. Pleasant Ave., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

Cumptun, Dr. Don. M., 57 W. Fort St., Detroit, Michigan. 

Cuyler, T. DeWitt, Land Title B'ld'g, Broad & Chestnut Sts., Phila. 

Daniels, Caroline S., Clarke School, Northampton, Mass. 

Dantzer, Rev. C. O., 11 Mason St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Davies, Mrs. C. F., 3757 Prairie Ave. Chicago, 111. 

Dimmick, Ella J., School for the Deaf, Edgewood Park, Pa. 

Donald, Ida M., Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Donovan, Judge Joseph W., 32 Bagley Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Donovan, Mrs. Joseph W., 32 Bagley Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Downing, A. U., School for the Deaf, Edgewood Park, Pa. 

Editorial. 103 

Driggs, Frank M., School for the Deaf, Ogden, Utah. 

Driver, Wm. R., 125 Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

Dreyfuss, Miss, 74 E. Seventy-ninth St., New York, N. Y. 

Dunham, Mrs. Pearl, Moberly, Mo. 

Dustan, Gertrude L., Clarke School, Northampton, Mass. 

Eaton, Blanche B., Contocook, N. H. 

Eddy, Frances N., School for the Deaf, Ogden, Utah. 

Eddy, Mabel G., School for the Deaf, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Ehrich, L. R., Colorado Springs, Col. 

Ellsworth, William W., Union Square, New York, N. Y. 

Emerson, Grace M., 98 N. Pine Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

Euritt, Mrs. G. D., School for the Deaf, Staunton, Va. 

Ferguson, Fannie, Romney, W. Va. 

Finch, Marion, Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Firth, Emma M., Cor. 69th St & Normal Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Fish, Simeon G., Mystic, Conn. 

Flatley, Stella, River St., Eau Claire, Wis. 

Florence, Mrs., Marietta, Ga. 

Fornari, Prof. Gav. Pasquale, Borgomanero, (Novara), Italy. 

Foster, Alice S., 253 W. 76th St., New York, N. Y. 

Frankenheimer, Miss R., 23 W. Seventy-first St., New York, N. Y. 

French, Parmeal, Boise, Idaho. 

Frieschmann, Carl, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Gardner, Hannah, School for the Deaf, Appleton, Wis. 

Gantz, Mrs. Wm., Anchor, III. 

Gillman, Dr. R. W., 107 W. Fort St., Detroit, Michigan. 

Golden, Etta M., Marinette, Wis. 

Grossman, Gertrude H., 1328 Conn. Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Grosvenor, Edwin A., Amherst, Mass. 

Grosvenor, Melville Bell, 1331 Conn. Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Gruver, Rev. C. B., West Sand Lake, New York. 

Haeseler, Helen M., Mystic, Connecticut. 

Hammerslough, Julius, 830 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Hartz, Dr. Henry J., 27 Adams Ave. East, Detroit, Michigan. 

Hazard, F. R., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Hazard, Mrs. F. R., Syracuse, K. Y. 

Hendrickson, Dora P., Delavan, Wisconsin. 

Henry, Mabel, 112 W. Seventy-fifth St., New York, N. Y. 

Hill, Martha, School for the Deaf, Bay City, Mich. 

Hoge, Mrs. J. Hampton, Roanoke, Va. 

Holliday, George L., 28 Meridan St., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Holt, Ellerbe, Boulder, Mont. 

Hoyt, Julia E., 307 Woodland Place, Jacksonville, 111. 

Humbert, I. S., School for the Deaf, Little Rock, Ark. 

Hynson, Mrs. Perry, 1465 E.' Broad St., Columbus, Ohio. 
Jaick, Cora, School for the Deaf, Omaha, Neb. 

I04 The Association Review. 

James, C. D., Eureka Springs, Ark. 

Jayne, Henry LaBarre, 505 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 

Johnson, Fanny, 21 12 August St., Austin, Texas. 

Keiser, Dr. Max, 388 Franklin St, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Kennedy, Nannie, Dayton, Ohio. 

Kent, Annabelle, 60 S. Clinton St., East Orange, New Jersey. 

King, Mable M., School for the Deaf, Jacksonville, 111. 

Kinnaird, Sarah, Rockford, Illinois. 

Kirkpatrick, Mrs. Helen F., Knoxville, Tenn. 

Knowlton, Mrs. Dexter A., Stephenson St., Freeport, 111. 

Latham, Charles H., Mystic, Conn. 

Laurent, F., Sr., E. Mt. Airy Ave., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

Lehman, Arthur, 16-22 William St., New York, N. Y. 

Leonard, Ella M., Mystic, Connecticut. 

Leverett, George V., 53 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

Lewis, Hon. George A., 268 Elmwood Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Lochhead, Grace R., School for the Deaf, Jacksonville, 111. 

Loeb, Miss R., 116 W. Seventy-eighth St., New York, N. Y. 

Lyle, Mary, Danville, Ky. 

Mahony, Catherine A., School for the Deaf, Halifax, N. S. 

Manning, F. M., Mystic, Conn. 

Marsh, Matilda L., 600 Park Ave,, Patterson, N. J. 

Marshall, Wm. N., Cave Spring, Ga. 

McAloney, Mrs. T. S., Boulder, Mont. 

McCord, Jeanette, Rome, N. Y. 

McFall, Dr. Guy H., 32 Adams Ave. West, t)etroit, Michigan. 

Mclntire, Wm., 4020 Ogden St., W. Philadelphia. 

McKeen, Frances, Clarke School, Northampton, Mass. 

McKinney, Rachel, 1007 Grand River Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Meyer, Helen, School for the Deaf, Scranton, Pa. 

Montague, Helen, Asylum Ave., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Mooers, Mary H., School for the Deaf, Sta. M., New York, N. Y. 

Morgan, Mrs. Colin D., "Milton," Hochelaga, Montreal, Canada. 

Morgan, Henry, Aurora, Cayuga Lake, N. Y. 

Morgan, James, Phillips Square, Montreal, Canada. 

Munger, Mrs. H. M., Mexia, Texas. 

Nathan, Mrs. H., 1203 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Nelson, Elizabeth, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

North, Ralph, 7301 Boyer St., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

Noyes, Henry B., Mystic, Conn. 

Nugent, Anna, 12 Elm St., Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Orr, Nannie C, School for the Deaf, Salem, Oregon. 

Palm, Elnora, School for the Deaf, Austin, Texas. 

Palmer, Robert, Noank, Conn. 

Park, Mabel M., School for the Deaf, Devils Lake, N. Dak. 
Parker, W. D., Madison, Wis. 

Editorial. 105 

Parsons, Col. Francis, Hartford, Conn. 

Paton, Bessie, School for the Deaf, Rochester, N. Y. 

Peck, Alfred, 138 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Pennycook, Ida M., 158 E. Elizabeth St., Detroit, Mich. 

Pollak, Robert R., 7 Foxcroft House, Cambridge, Mass. 

Pollock, Isabel, 8 Clauricarde Gardens, London W., England. 

Pope, A. E., School for the Deaf, Omaha, Neb. 

Pugh, M. Louise, 945 S. Paul St, Rochester, N. Y. 

Quigley, Rt. Rev. J. E., 1025 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Read, Lizzie, Danville, Ky. 

Reade, H. L., Jewett City, Conn. 

Reid, Mary, School for the Deaf, Halifax, N. S. 

Renand, Dr. George L., 27 Adams Ave. East, Detroit, Michigan. 

Rhoades, John H., 559 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Richmond, Mrs. Harold, 88 Cooke St., Providence, R. I. 

Robie^ Alice, 116 Eighteenth St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Robinson, Louise, Cave Spring, Ga. 

Rogers, Martha, School for the Deaf, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Rogers, Mrs. Rev., Granville, Ohio. 

Rosenbaum, Mrs. S., 48 W. Eighty-fifth St., New York, N. Y. 

Rosenfeld, Mrs., 53 W. Eighty-ninth St., New York, N. Y. 

Rosenfeld, Wm. I., 19 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y, 

Rothchilds, Mrs. M., 129 W. Sixty-ninth St., New York, N. Y. 

Sachs, Mrs. Samuel, 46 West Seventieth St, New York, N. Y. 

Safford, Jean A., 1503 35th St., Washington, D. C 

Schoolfield, Allen T., Boulder, Mont 

Schrock, Nellie J., School for the Deaf, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Scott, Fanny M., Mystic, Connecticut 

Sharp, B. F., School for the Deaf, Trenton, N. J. 

Sibley, Mrs. Hiram W., East Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

Simpson, Mrs. M. L., Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Sister Philip of Jesus, Female Deaf and Dumb Institute, Montreal, Can. 

Smith, Herbert Knox, Hartford, Conn. 

Solfisburg, Lydia, Aurora, 111. 

Sondheim, Phineas, 27 William St., New York, N. Y. 

Spencer, Margaret, School for the Deaf, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Stegman, Mrs. Louise W., 1096 First Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Stein, Miss S., 59 E. Sixty-fifth St, New York, N. Y. 

Steinke, Agnes, School for the Deaf, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Stern, Bernhard, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Stewart, Rev. Dr. George B., Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y. 

Stinson, Carrie R., Boulder, Mont 

Sturtevant, G. H., 537 Caledonia Ave., Oakland, Cal. 

Sykes, Miss S., "The Barnard," 71st St, Central Park W., New York. 

Taylor, Mrs. Benj. F., Cor. Olive St & Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Taylor, Ellen, Danville, Ky. 


The Association Review. 

Tucker, Bessie A., 4221 Chambers St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Underwood, J. C, S7 Clifton St, Dorchester, Mass. 

Upham, N. Louise, Clarke School, Northampton, Mass. 

Van Benscoten, Irene, School for the Deaf, Edgewood Park, Pa. 

Van Dusen, Katherine G., Pa. Oral School, Scranton, Pa. 

Walker, M. Frances, Talladega, Alabama. 

Walters, Katharine B., Fergus Falls, Minn. 

Way, F. Burr, School for the Deaf, Staunton, Va. 

Wells, Mable, School for the Deaf, Washington Heights, New York. 

Wheeler, Frank R., School for the Deaf, Faribault, Minn. 

Wheeler, Homer C, 1709 Cambridge St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Wheeler, Mclvin H., 1709 Cambridge St., Cambridge, Mass. 

White, Marie M., 65 Garden St., Hartford, Conn. 

Whitley, Catherine, Emporia, Kan. 

Whitney, Mary C, Clarke School, Northampton, Mass. 

Wilbur, Robert P., Mystic, Conn. 

Williams, Gwendolyn, 5201. Drexel Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Wolf, Mrs. F. R., 118 W. Fifty-seventh St., New York, N. Y. 

Wood, Mary, Academy St., Trenton, N. J. 

Wood, Susie L., School for the Deaf, Austin, Texas. 

Yeager, William J., Reedsville, MilHin Co., Pa. 

Teachers wishing positions and Superintendents wishing 
teachers may avail themselves of the office of the General Secre- 
tary of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf so far as it may be of service to them. The 
General Secretary aims to keep a list of teachers and one of 
superintendents, belonging to the above classes, for use by any 
person who may apply for them. Teachers filing their names 
and addresses with the General Secretary, should state the length 
and character of their experience, and give such other informa- 
tion as would be helpful to a Superintendent in making appoint- 


of systematic instruction in language, in four volumeB, by 
CAROLINE C. SWEET. Price, $3.84 per dozen. 

Single copy, 40c. 


Sixty short stories prepared for young pupils, compiled by IDA V 

HAMMOND. Price, $3.84 per dozen. 
Single copy, 40c. 


Short stories prepared for young pupils, compHed by IDA V.| HAMMOND 

Price, $4.20 per dozen. Single copy, 45c. 


Contains nearly a hundred short stories and seventy-five conversations for 
practice in language, prepared by WM. Q. JENKINS, M. A. 
Price, $6.00 per dozen. Single copy, 60c. 


One hnndred stories gathered from United States History, compiled by 
JOHJN E.CRANE, M. A. Price, $9.00 per dozen. Single copy, 90c. 

*A Primer of English and American Literature." 

By ABEL S. CLARK, M. A., with 25 portraits of authors. 
Price, $7.80 per dozen. Single copy, 75c. 


Examples of the correct Encrlish usage, by WILLIAM a. JENKINS, M. A, 

Price, $6.00 per dozen. 


Stories for Language Study." 

Adapted to pupils of the third or fourtli or«\(le, compiled bv JANE 

BARTLETT KELLOGG. Price, $4.20 per dozen. 




io6 The Association Review. 

Tucker, Bessie A., 4221 Chambers St, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Underwood, J. C, 57 Clifton St, Dorchester, Mass. 

Upham, N. Louise, Clarke School, Northampton, Mass. 

Van Benscoten, Irene, School for the Deaf, Edgewood Park, Pa. 

Van Dusen, Katherine G., Pa. Oral School, Scranton, Pa. 

Walker, M. Frances, Talladega, Alabama. 

Walters, Katharine B., Fergus Falls, Minn. 

Way, F. Burr, School for the Deaf, Staunton, Va. 

Wells, Mable, School for the Deaf, Washington Heights, New York. 

Wheeler, Frank R., School for the Deaf, Faribault, Minn. 

Wheeler, Homer C, 1709 Cambridge St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Wheeler, Mclvin H., 1709 Cambridge St, Cambridge, Mass. 

White, Marie M., 65 Garden St., Hartford, Conn. 

Whitley, Catherine, Emporia, Kan. 

Whitney, Mary C, Qarke School, Northampton, Mass. 

Wilbur, Robert P., Mystic, Conn. 

Williams, Gwendolyn, 5201. Drexel Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Wolf, Mrs. F. R., 118 W. Fifty-seventh St, New York, N. Y. 

Wood, Mary, Academy St, Trenton, N. J. 

Wood, Susie L., School for the Deaf, Austin, Texas. 

Yeager, William J., ReedsviUe, Mifflin Co., Pa. 

Teachers wishing positions and Superintendents wishing 
teachers may avail themselves of the office of the General Secre- 
tary of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf so far as it may be of service to them. The 
General Secretary aims to keep a list of teachers and one of 
superintendents, belonging to the above classes, for use by any 
person who may apply for them. Teachers filing their names 
and addresses with the General Secretary, should state the length 
and character of their experience, and give such other informa- 
tion as would be helpful to a Superintendent in making appoint- 



A course of systematic instruction in language, in four volumes, by 

CAROLINE C. SWEET. Price, $3.84 per dozen. 

Single copy, 40a 


Sixty short stories prepared for young pupils, compiled by IDA V 

HAMMOND. Price, $3.84 per dozen. 
Single copy, 40c. 


Bhort stories prepared for young pupils, compHed by IDA V.i HAMMOND 

Price, $4.20 per dozen. Single copy, 45c. 


Contains nearly a hundred short stories and seventy -five conversations for 

practice in language, prepared by WM. Q. JENKINS, M. A. 

Price, $6.00 per dozen. Single copy, 60c. 


One hundred stories gathered from United States History, compiled by 
JOHN E.CRANE, M. A. Price, $9.00 per dozen. Single copy, 90c. 

"A Primer of English and American Literature." 

By ABEL S. CLARK, M. A., with 25 portraits of authors. 
Price, $7.80 per dozen. Single copy, 75c. 



Examples of the correct Encrlish usage, by WILLIAM a. JENKINS, M. A, 

Price, $6.00 per dozen. 

"Stories for Language Study." 

Adapted to pupils of the third or fourth srade, compiled bv JANE 

BARTLETT KELLOGG. Price, §4.20 per dozen. 







The Science of Sijeech. Board Price, |0 60 

The Faults of Speech. Cloth " 60 


Inaugural Edition, 4to. cloth Price, $4 00 

Sounds and their RelatioiiH, cloth ** 2 00 

Principles of Speech and Dictionary of Sounds, (New Edition) '* ) 50 

University Lecttii res on Phonetics, paper, '* 100 

Manual of Visible Speech and Vocal PhysTolo<ry " 50 

English Visible Speech in 12 Icksous, English Edition " 60 

»* *♦ German ** •* 50 

" " " •* Italian " *• 50 

Visible Speech Reader " 40 

Class Primer of Visible Speech ** 25 

Explanatory Lecture on Visible Speech " 16 

Visible Speech Charts 8x12. Seven in the set with explanatory text ** 60 

** " ♦' 15x21 without text, Vowels and Consonantal each.... ** 20 


Manual of Speech Heading and Articulation Teaching " 25 


Elocutionary Manual. Principles of Elocution " 1 50 

Essays and PosfKcripts on Elocution ** 125 

Em)>hasized Liturgy " 1 00 

Address to National Association of Elocutionists, ** 15 

On the Use of Notations iu Elocutionary Teaching " 15 


World Enjjlish — The Universal Language '* 25 

Hand-Bo(»k of World English. Readings " 25 

Universal Steno.Phonography » *' 75 

English Line Writing " 60 

Popular Shorthand, ** 15 


Sermon Reading and Memoriter Delivery ** $0 25 

Phonetic Syllabication, ** 15 

Note on Syllabic Consonants, ** 15 

Speech Tones ** 15 

The Sounds of R " 15 

The Cure of Stammering, etc. English Edition (1866) " 15 

Education of the Deaf; Notes and Observations, J. C Gordon. Ph. D...... •* 1 00 

Facial Speech Rea<ling ; H. Gutzraaiin, M. D. ; paper ** 25 

Marriages of the Deaf in America ; E. A. Fay, Ph. D. ; cloth *' 5 00 

Histories of American Stdiools for the Deaf, 3 vols. ; cloth ** 10 00 

Heleu Keller Souvenir, No. 2, 1892-1899; cloth " 2 00 

Teachers receive the usual discount. 
Trade t<;rnis upon ap))lication. 

Arnold's Manual and other British publications supplied upon order. London Agents for 
Volta Bureau Publications : Wm. Wesley and Son, 28 Essex St. Stiand. 

Address : 


JOHN IIITZ, Superintendent. Washington City, D. C 







J\9r\\f 1902 



Adei^i^a F. Potter 


0. Danger 


Olof Hanson 


I>RS A. Havstad 


F. W. B. 


Care of the Speech of Children . - - 
Some Muscles Used in Speech — /// 
Upon the Organization of the Ediuation 

of the Deaf in Prussia — I 
The Sign-Language in American Schools 
Notes from Norway - . 

Speech Teaching in American Schools 
Historical Notes Concerning the Teaching 

of Speech to the Deaf - - . - Ai^exander Graham Bei.!, 139 

Reviews • 

Report of the Kentucky Institution at Danville, 152 — Report of the Virginia School 
at Staunton, 153— Report of the Maryland School at Frederick, 154— Storia del R. 
Instituto pel Sordomuti in Genoa, Italy, 155 — Metodo per inseguare la linga ai 
BOrdomuti con la parola (Milan), 155 — Rassegnadella Educazione del Sordomuti 
(Naples), 156— Memoria del Instituto Nacional (Buenos Ayres), 158 — NorditkTid- 
skrift for Dof8tumskolan(Goteborg, Sweden), 159 — Taubstummen Courier (Vienna), 
161 — Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung (Berlin), 162 — Organ der Taubstummen 
Anetalten in Deutschland (Frankfort-on-the-Main),166 — Smaablade for Dofstumme 
(Copenhagen), 167 — Revue Generale de rEuseignmcnt des Sourda-Mueta jParis), 
168— -Report of the Mississippi Institution at Jacksonville, 173 — Revista de Instruc- 
cion Primarie (Santiago, Chile), 174 — L'Echo des Sourd-rauets (Paris), 175 — Report 
of the Provincial School for the Deaf at Stade, Prussia, 175 — De Doves Blad (Chris- 
tiania), 175— American Annals of the Deaf (Washington), 176 — National Geographic 
Magazine (Washington), 183 — International Reports of Schools for the Deaf, 184 


The Summer School Postponement, 187 — The Passing of the Sign Method, 188— 
Helen Keller's own Story, 190— The Deaf-Blind now at School, 192— The Mississip- 
pi Institution burned, 194 — Meeting of the Executive Committee of Department 
XVI., N. E. A., 194 

Postponement of the Summer Meethig and Summer School - - 197 

Report from tlu Committee on Stim^ner School 197 

Call for the Annual Meeting of the Associatio7i - - - - 198 

New Members --- 199 



[Printing; Department of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dnmb] 

Vol. iV, No. 2 $2.50 (lOs. 4d.) per year 

The American Association to Promote tbe 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 


A. 1,. E. Crouter, Caroline A. Yale. 

Z. F. Westervew. 

A. 1,. E. Crouter. 


F. W. Booth, 
(7342 Rural Lane, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.) 


J08KPH 0. Gordon, Barah Fuller, Z. F. Wbstbrtblt. 

T&rm ExpirM 190 f. 

Alszaudbb Gbahah Bbll, Mrs. Gabdinbb G. Hubbard. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 

Term Mtpires 1903. 

Carolikb a. Yalb, Edmund Lton, Richard O. Johnson. 

Term Expiree 190^, 

The American AgsociatioD to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf welcomea 
to its membership all persons who are interested in its work. Thus the privilege of 
membership is not restricted to teachers actively engaged in the instruction of deaf 
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Vol. IV, No. 2. 

APRIL, 1902. 




It is language which first makes man "human/* and the 
sound of the speech is the expression of its true character; con- 
sequently speech is naturally one of the objects of that care 
which a healthful education of children renders necessary. 
Sound speech is just as much a condition of the full and free en- 
joyment of life^ as general health of body and mind. A person 
possessing a defective speech loses in comparison with other 
persons whose equal, or even superior, he may be in all other 
respects. The danger of a deterioration of our speech is greater 
than ever in our fast and busy modern age. Even with the best 
intentions it will be impossible for the teacher to correct defects 
in articulation and speech with which the scholars were afflicted 
before they became of school age; and it is a sad fact that among 
the school children in the German Empire there are 80,000 to 
100,000 who stutter. 

In order to clearly define the idea of a healthy speech, it 
will be best to state what we understand by unhealthy or de- 
fective speech. We mean here a stuttering, stammering, lisp- 
ing, nasal speech, also a shouting, blustering, or scolding speech, 
a speech which is pitched too high, has no body to its sound, in 
't a speech with is not aesthetical. To combat these ten- 

* Abstract of a paper read January 25th, 1901, by Albert Gutzmann, 
rector of the City Institution for Deaf-mutes at Berlin, at a meeting 
the "Association for the Education of Children in Accordance with the 
Ics of Health/' Abstract prepared by H. Jacobson, Washington, D. C. 

io8 The Association Review. 

dencies is the object which the healthy care of the speech has 
in view. 

Speech is a faculty which is not innate in man ; every human 
being is born speechless. Gradually does the child learn to 
speak, and unconsciously speech is developed with the other 
bodily and mental faculties. The means of speech every one 
possesses at birth, but in its development it is subject to 
disturbances by disease or from other causes. To discover and 
counteract these causes should be our aim. Mechanical speech 
is produced by the prompt co-operation of the apparatus of 
speech — ^tongue, teeth, and lips; the apparatus of sound — ^the 
throat; and the organs of breathing — ^the lungs. Without 
breathing there is no sound, and it follows that the act of breath- 
ing plays a most important part in speaking, and that defective 
or irregular breathing works injury to speech. The breath- 
ing of children should therefore be watched, and if necessary, 
regulated. We, consequently, are led to the question, "What 
is healthy breathing and what is not?" The correct and healthy 
breathing is rib-breathing. It is produced by the direct action 
of the muscles of breathing which are attached to the walls of the 
chest. This action may be seen and felt. Rib-breathing is the 
breathing of healthy, normal man. Thus breathes the soldier 
when marching in the ranks, the athlete when exercising, the 
busy laborer earning his bread in the sweat of his brow, the 
actor on the stage, the sacred orator in the pulpit, the legislator 
in our parliament. Thus we breathe when our body is in a 
position which excludes rest and comfort; whilst the so-called 
stomach-breathing is the companion of ease, peculiar to early 
childhood and to old age, the periods of rest in human life. To 
show that a correct position of the body is of great importance 
for breathing, and therefore for the hygienic care of speech, we 
will state that an adult person draws his breath 13 times a 
minute when lying down, 19 when sitting, and 23 when standing. 
For children which show a tendency towards defective and not 
vigorous breathing we would recommend exercises in energetic, 
full, and regular breathing, so as to have complete control over 
the lungs during the breathing, which exercises may be given 
by every mother. With small children these exercises are best 

Care of the Speech of Children. 109 

introduced by leading them to a conscious use of the air ducts, 
e. g., inhale and exhale through the nosejnhale through the nose 
and exhale through the mouth, inhale through the mouth and 
exhale through the nose, exhale and inhale through the mouth; 
the same^ putting the hand against the side of the body, plac- 
ing the hands back of the head, raising the arms, etc. 

It will be important to cast a side glance at the psychology 
of speech, i. e., the action of the brain in producing speech. Let 
us for a moment realize in what manner a child learns his mother 
tongue. It is well known that this is principally effected through 
the sense of hearing. Thereby the word which is heard is noted. 
This is done through the brain, and in that part of the brain 
where this noting down of words is effected, there is the center 
of speech, viz., that faculty whereby we become conscious of 
language, where we receive or perceive words. We all know 
what an effort it requires to perceive and hold a hitherto un- 
known word, and it is scarcely necessary to state that without 
attentive listening, without the repetition of the word until it 
becomes the sure property of our memory, and without an un- 
derstanding of the meaning of the word, progress in acquiring 
speech is impossible. It is therefore of the utmost importance 
to educate the attention of the child, to cultivate its word- 
memory, and to assure a complete understanding of the idea 
represented by the word. The understanding of words is only 
a part of the speech, the speaking itself is another part. As 
the nerves carry the heard word to a certain part of the brain, 
thus they set the organs of speech in motion from another part 
of the brain. The French scientist Broca found this "word 
moving center" in the wall of the third winding of the left part 
of the forehead. If this place is injured, the speech is disturbed, 
and what we call aphasia takes place. If the organs of speech 
are defective or do not work regularly, disturbances take place 
which we designate as stammering or stuttering (stuttering is 
a defect of the speech, stammering a defect of the pronunciation). 

Turning to the development of speech, we distinguish 
several phases. The first of these covers the period of baby- 
hood. The yelling of children during this period is not without 
significance for the development of speech. The baby ex- 

lio The Association Review. 

ercises lungs and voice, an excellent preparatory exercise for 
speaking. Screaming from some special cause should of course 
be checked by ascertaining the cause. But the tendency to 
screaming is found in all healthy babies^ and the mother should 
not be discouraged thereby. Nature demands her right, and 
the baby must scream, even if it is not ailing. Care should of 
course be taken that babies do not cry themselves hoarse; for 
that spoils the voice. 

During this first period of the development of speech, the 
senses of sight and hearing are exercised. The sense of sight 
plays an important part. Even grown persons will at meetings 
try to find a place where they have a good view of the speaker, 
in a theater of the actor or singer. It is, therefore, strongly 
to be recommended to let a child with defective speech observe 
correct speaking, and note the movements of the organs of 
speech and the position of the speaker among its surroundings. 

The sense of hearing is, of course, absolutely indispensable 
for the acquiring of sound speech, and must likewise go through 
a certain development until it is perfect. Children should, there- 
fore, from the very earliest age be accustomed to listen attentive- 
ly to the speech of others; for superficial hearing frequently 
develops superficial speech. One should convince oneself wheth- 
er the child has heard exactly, by causing it to repeat what 
it has heard. This can, of course, only be done when the child 
has learned to speak a little. It is by no means unimportant 
what sort of speech the child hears even at this early age. It 
will distinguish the harsh tone of voice from the gentle ; and care 
should be taken, in the interest of training the speech, to let 
the child hear a correct, even, and well modulated speech. 

In the second stage of the development of speech we notice 
that the child imitates speech. Whilst during the period of baby- 
hood it seemed to take delight exclusively in its own babbling, 
it now endeavors to imitate the speech of those who are con- 
stantly with it. The desire to speak which nature has planted 
in the child, will now develop powerfully; and if we desire 
that our children should speak well, we should furnish them 
with good examples. If the child hears its mother or nurse 
speak only correctly, distinctly, and with the proper modulation, 

Care of the Speech of Children, in 

It will strive to imitate this example and gradually acquire the 
same correct and beautiful speech. There is much sinning in 
this respect by adult persons constantly indulging in so-called 
**baby-talk" with children. Later when the child goes to school, 
it begins to notice that it is lacking in this respect, it becomes 
the object of mockery by other children, and this inheritance 
from the nursery may have an injurious effect on its speech, 
and even on its character and its future life. But even if this 
"baby talk" is not indulged in to any great extent, many a 
mother sets a bad example to her child by speaking too fast. 
Speaking slowly means speaking distinctly, so that every syl- 
lable is fully and properly pronounced. Care should also be 
taken in the selection of servants, to obtain such as will at least 
speak fairly correct German. I could cite more than one in- 
stance where neglect in this matter has produced the most far- 
reaching consequences which made themselves felt till late in 
life, and interfered with the advancement of young persons in 
business or profession. 

It is, furthermore, of the utmost importance that no persons 
whose speech is in any way defective should hold positions as 
teachers. Speaking too fast — ^which, I am sorry to say, seems 
to be one of the failings of the fair sex, in whose hands the first 
education of children principally rests, is a very bad example for 
the child; and I believe that I am not saying too much, when 
I maintain that here are found the causes of the most glaring 
defects in the speech of children. When the child hears a per- 
son speak fast, it wants to speak just as fast, and so to speak 
stumbles in its speech, and finally becomes a confirmed stutterer. 
I consider stuttering as one of the worst defects of speech. In 
endeavoring to cure the child, the greatest care should be taken 
that the child does not become conscious of its defect. The 
child should not become aware of our intentions. It would, 
e. g., be utterly wrong to imitate the stuttering of the child, in 
order to show the ugly sounds. By setting a good example 
the child should be influenced; speak very slowly to the child, 
let it repeat very slowly what has been said, let it heave a breath 
before speaking the word; do this yourself to show how it is 
done, and observe the effect on the child. Tell the child short 

112 The Association Review. 

stories, somewhat long drawn in the vocalization, and let it re- 
peat these stories sentence by sentence in the same manner. 
Tell the child some request shall be granted if it can express 
it without stuttering. At an early age it is comparatively easy 
by the exercise of some patience and perseverance to cure a 
child of stuttering, whilst at a later period in life it becomes a 
hard and often impossible task. Prevention is here, as in all 
cases, the best cure. Stuttering seems to be contagious, and it 
should be the aim of parents and teachers to remove children 
who show a tendency to stuttering at once from contact with 
persons suffering from this defect of speech. 

Before the child enters school, the parents should use their 
utmost endeavors to have their child speak correctly and without 
defects, for it will be found well nigh impossible to conquer the 
evil in school. In fact it would not be a bad idea, as has been 
proposed, not to admit any stuttering children to school until 
in their home they have been cured of this defect. 

In conclusion I can not but express the ardent hope that, in 
view of the circumstance that the hygienic treatment of speech, 
or if I may use the term, the science of curing the defects of 
speech, opens out a wide and important field of research, a spec- 
ial professorship for this science might be established at our 
university: and that the time is not far distant when the students 
in our Normal schools (teachers' seminaries) are made fully and 
thoroughly acquainted with the character of the various defects 
of speech, and with the preventive and curative measures. Only 
when this is done, conditions will be created such as are abso- 
lutely indispensable to the proper care and preservation of our 
beautiful mother tongue. 




I. Muscles of the Tongue. 

In the last paper the hyo-glossus muscle was described as 
playing an important part in the stretching of the vocal shelves 
by extrinsic effort. As was there stated, its effectiveness in 
the production of pure tone is dependent upon other tongue 
muscles without whose assistance its contraction would simply 
pull the back of the tongue downward toward the hyoid-bone. 

These assisting muscles furnish a firm support for the 
tongue so that the hyo-glossus muscle cannot by its contraction 
thus pull it downward, but will pull upward upon the united 
hyoid-bone and thyroid cartilage, tilting the latter upon the 
cricoid and thus stretching the vocal shelves. This firm sup- 
port is furnished by three muscles which are so placed that 
they can directly or indirectly raise the tongue, and two of them 
are attached to firm parts. It is needless to say that these 
muscles can support the tongue only by changing their ordinary 
condition of relaxation to one of contraction. 

Stylo-Glossus Muscle: — ^This muscle is fastened above 
to the styloid process which projects inward and downward 
from the cranium a little above and in front of the ear. As 
shown in Fig. XI, the muscle extends downward and forward 
along the side of the tongue to its tip. Some of its fibres pass 
inward among those of the hyo-glossus muscle and others among 
those of another tongue-raising muscle, the palato-glossus, which 
will soon be described. 

Action: — Since the stylo-glossus muscle extends forward 
as well as downward, its contraction would pull the tongue both 
backward and upward, but in correct singing and speech this 

114 7'A« Association Review. 

backward movement is prevented by another tongue supporting 
muscle, the genio-kyo-ghssus. 

Genio-Hyo-Glossus Muscle: — "The lowest strip of this 
muscle extends from the chin to the body of the hyoid-bone. 
All the rest of the fibres extend to the tongue, spreading from 
the chin in nearly all directions — upward and backward into 
the body of the tongue, outward and backward to its sides, and 
even forward to its tip." This is well shown in Fig. XI. 

I'ipure XI. 

Qenio-bjoid muscle. 
Hnsclea of the toDgne. [Qray.] 

Action; — "The fibres extending backward would in con- 
tracting pull forward upon the tongue and hold it firm against 
the backward pulling of the stylo-glossus muscle, thus enabling 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 115 

the latter to put forth a much stronger effort, of which only 
the up-puIHng share would have effect upon the position of the 

Palato-Glossus Muscle: — ^The palato-ghssi muscles, or 
anterior pillars of the fauces, were described in connection with 
the palato-pharyngei muscles. By looking into the mouth with 

Figure XII. 

Front t1«w of the detoendlng palmt« mmoleH. (iMuhka.) 

the tongue flattened, these pillars may be seen extending down 
from the roof of the mouth on each side in front of the tonsils. 
On reaching the tongue some of the fibres extend forward along 
its sides with those of the stylo-glossi muscles, while others pass 
into the sides. The palato-glossi are shown in Fig. XIl. 

1 16 The Association Review. 

Action: — ^The palato-glosstis can by its contraction pull the 
tongue upward or the soft palate downward. It is dear that 
before it can do either it must straighten its curve. Although 
favorably situated to pull upward upon the tongue, it is too 
small to balance the down-pulling force of the comparatively 
large hyo-ghssus muscle. Its thickness is given as about one 
seventeenth of an inch^ and its breadth one-eighth of an inch. 
While not the greatest up-pulling force^ this muscle probably 
assists the larger stylo-glossus in preventing the depression of 
the tongue. 

Test No. 5. Use of the Tongue-Supporting Muscles: — 
Look into the mouth while singing or speaking. If the whole 
tongue falls below its natural level or if a groove is made in its 
middle line toward the back^ you may know that the whole or a 
part of the up-holding effort is not being made. The sinking of 
the whole tongue would indicate that no up-pulling force was 
active, while the groove in the middle would show that this part 
was being pulled down by some of the fibres of the hyo-glossi 
muscles, while the sides were held up by the styb-ghssi muscles. 

Test No. 6. Use of the Palato-Glossus Muscle: — 
Press lightly with the end of the finger against the front of the 
tonsil. Sing or speak, and know that you are so far right if it 
moves inward toward the middle of the mouth; wrong if it does 
not move inward. 

The palato-glossus muscle, which here curves outward while 
relaxed, straightens on contraction, drawing inward the tonsil. 
If the tonsil remains unmoved this palato-glossus muscle cannot 
be contracting. 

Test No. 7. Use of the Genio-Hyo-Glossus Muscle: — 
"Turn the tip of the tongue upward until it touches the inside of 
the upper front teeth and their gums, while you hold the mouth 
open to singing width. Push the end of the fore finger diagonally 
(sidewise) under the somewhat up-turned side of the tongue, thus 
necessarily bearing the corner of the mouth a very little back- 
ward. Press the finger tip very gently into the fleshy mass 
which is felt upon the side of the tongue just back of the so- 
called 'string/ and sing a middle or high note, or even a power- 
ful low-one." "If the flesh does not press against the finger, be 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 117 

assured that the highest form of artistic delivery is impossible; 
for the stylo-glossi muscles are either inactive or are drawing 
the tongue too far backward and too little upward." In this 
test the swelling of the muscles will be but slight during speech; 
in singing it is more marked. 

Figure XIII. 

EmUcIilui tnbe. 

Tensnr palatl mascle. 
moBcle. H&mnlu proems. 


The pttUte uid tho taryos viewed fVom bebind. 

2. Muscles of the Palate. 
By moving the finger back along the roof of the mouth it 
will be found that the part just back of the hard palate is very 
soft and can be easily pushed up. This is the aponeurosis, a 
strong, inelastic, fibrous tissue in which all the palatal muscles 
end and which joins them to the hard palate. Just beyond this 
aponeurosis is felt the muscles of the soft palate. Four pairs of 
muscles start out from the sides of the palate, two extending 


The Association Review, 

downward and two upward. The former, the pcUato-pharyngei 
and the palato-gbssi, have already been described. The two 
pairs extending upward hold up the soft palate against the 
down-pulling of the muscles just named, "for if this support 
fails, the whole chain of muscles from palate to breast will be, 
in a sense, let down, enfeebled by being shortened, and with- 
held instinctively from even making the effort still possible, from 
fear of undue straining upon a tender unsupported fleshy mass." 
Levator Palati: — The levatores-palati, shown in Figs. X 
and XIII, are attached to wedge-shaped portions of the tem- 
poral bones above and behind the palate, the two blunt points, 
one on each side, being about an inch and a half apart. "From 
these points and also from the Eustachian tubes, the two mus- 
cles extend downward, forward, and slightly inward to the sides 

Figure XIV. 

Upper end of levator p&lati 
muscle where it is Attached 
to the cranium. 

Soft palate raised bf leva- 
tores palati. 

Soft palate at its natural 

Lower end of palato- 
pharyngeus muscle where 
«; it is attached to the larynx. 

of the soft palate, where, as microscopic scrutiny shows, they 
spread out, some fibres passing in a downward curve to the 
middle of the palate, there meeting those of the other side; 
others passing further forward to fasten themselves upon the 
rear edge of the hard palate. The fibres which pass in a down- 
ward curve to the middle of the palate intersect those of the 
palato-pharyngei muscle already described, and certain fibres 
even unite with the latter muscles and accompany them in their 
downward course." 

Action: — As has been said, the palato-pharyngei muscles 
would, if employed alone, draw the soft palate downward; and 
to prevent this, the levatores palati muscles must contract with 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 119 

equal force^ thus furnishing a firm support against which the 
palatO'pharyngei muscles can pull strongly upward upon the 
horns of the thyroid cartilage to tilt it upon the cricoid and 
stretch the vocal shelves. 

These two pairs of muscles have been compared to two 
intersecting loops, although Fig. XIV would more nearly rep- 
resent their relations to one another. The heavy lines rep- 
resent the relative positions of the muscles in their ordinary 
state of relaxation, while the dotted lines represent their posi- 
tions when the soft palate has been drawn upward by undue 
contraction of the levatores-pahti. 

"The widening of the back part of the mouth erroneously 
taught by many instructors, can be effected only by an extreme 
measure of this fault. As seen in the diagram the levatores-pahti 
muscles separate as they rise from the sides of the soft palate, 
while the descending muscles, the palato-pharyngei, on contrac- 
tion will converge, or draw nearer together." "The fact that 
the latter muscles are spread apart at their upper ends, visible 
in the back of the mouth, shows them to be almost wholly in- 
active and proves that an essential thyroid-tilting and shelf- 
stretching agent is not employed. The resulting tone cannot 
be the best possible, or nearly the best." 

The levatoreS'palati muscles also support the palate against 
the down-pulling of the palato-glossi muscles which, "although 
much weaker than the palato-pharyngei muscles, would pull the 
palate down were it unsupported, and therefore be unable either 
to raise the tongue or hold it firm against the essential down- 
pulling of the hyo'glossi muscles which tilt the thyroid cartilage 
with shelf-stretching eifect." "The levatores-palati muscles, 
therefore, support the palate against the down pulling of two 
pairs of muscles, those extending from palate to tongue and 
those from palate to larynx." They are assisted by another 
pair of muscles now to be described. ' 

Tensor Palati: — "The tensores-palati muscles are fastened 
above to the Eustachian tube and neighboring parts of the 
skull. Ihey descend almost perpendicularly till they reach a 
little hook-like projection (the hamular process) around which 
they turn and pass horizontally inward to fasten their terminat- 

I20 The Association Review. 

ing tendons into the soft palate and its aponeurotic connection 
with the hard palate." 

The hamular process projects downward "behind and above 
the last back tooth, and also nearer the middle of the mouth 
than the teeth. Indeed, it might be compared to a tooth about 
as thick as a knitting-needle growing downward from the bone 
just behind the upper jaw. It points downward at first and 
then curves slightly outward like a hook, hence its name 'ham- 
ular.' It can be felt easily by pressing upward with the finger 
a little behind and inside of the last upper back tooth." Both 
the hamular process and the tensor palati muscle are seen 
clearly in Fig. XIII. The muscle is also seen in Fig. X. 

Action: — "The tensor-palati can contract with consider- 
able force, for it is fastened above to the base of the skull; but 
several trials upon different subjects so far have failed to reveal 
the tensing or tight-drawing eifect upon the soft palate which 
is usually ascribed to it. When its muscular part is pulled in 
the direction of its fibres, the whole soft palate will be moved a 
little forward and its front edge or aponeurosis drawn a little up- 
ward with no detectable sidewise stretching or tension. It is 
possible that it prevents excessive downward displacement of 
the front edge of the soft palate and does, therefore, act as a 
support against the severe downward pulling of the palato-glossi 
and especially of the palato-pharyngei muscles which likewise are 
attached in part to this aponeurosis." 

AzYGos UvuLfi: — Only one palatal muscle remains, the 
azygos uvulce, seen in Figs. XII and XIII. "It forms the inner 
muscular part of the little pendent piece, often popularly called 
the soft palate, which may be easily seen to hang down from the 
middle of the soft palate." 

Action: — "Upon contraction, it draws the whole uvula in- 
ward into the palate, pointing it backward as it rises. It is 
hard to see what vocal office it can have, though many absurd 
views have been advanced regarding it. It may render the 
whole palate a little more firm so that it will support the down- 
pulling muscles more effectively. Whether usefully or only 
sympathetically, it certainly contracts upon high tones with 
sufficient force to remove the uvula from sight." 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 


Summary of Muscles, 

Of the Tongue, ^ 

Of the Palate, 

I stylo-glossus, 
( palato-glossus. 

down-pulling, \ hyo-glossus, 

forward-pulling, \ genio-hyo-glossus. 


( levator-palati, 

J „. ( palato-pharyngeus, 

down-pulling, ^ Jalato-glossus 

azygos uvulae. 

{To he continued.) 

[Note. — ^The words "the above diagram/' used on page ii 
of the February number, refers to Figure X on the page follow- 
ing. And in the same figure, the side-wording "The palato- 
pharyngeus muscle" is omitted although the line pointing to 
the muscle is there.] 





[The following is an abridgment of a paper by Mr. O. 
Danger, Director of the School for the Deaf in Emden, Germany. 
The original paper was very full in its treatment, covering the 
entire ground of its subject in general and in detail, and contain- 
ing with the rest much valuable appendix and tabular matter 
the most of which the limitations of our space compel us, much 
to our regret, to omit. — Ed.] 

In the year 1853, C. W. Saegert, principal of the Royal 
Institute for the deaf in Berlin, was nominated Inspector Gen- 
eral of the education of the deaf in Prussia. In this position 
he had an office and voice in the Ministry of Public Education 
and Public Worship. His task consisted in this: "To take no- 
tice from time to time of the state of the existing Institutes for 
the education of the deaf; to indicate what according to his 
opinion and experience seemed necessary for the instruction 
and education of the deaf; to keep in correspondence with the 
respective local and provincial authorities, and to indicate 
through them what would be best to do." After the death of 
Saegert (1879) this office was not given to a specialist any more, 
because they feared it might give rise to a separation of what 
concerned the education of the deaf, from that of the common 
schools, as had happened in the first half of the century. Dr. 
Schneider who did much good work for the public instruction 
in Prussia, had this office until he retired. At present Prof. Dr. 
Waetzold has the office of counsellor for the aflfairs of the deaf 
at the Ministry. 

In virtue of the law of March nth, 1872, all the Prussian 
Institutes for the deaf were placed under the supervision of the 
State, as regards their object of education and instruction; but 

^Translated and abridged by Giulio C. Ferreri, Washington, D. C. 

The Education of the Deaf in Prussia. 123 

by a Royal decree of July 27, 1885, this right of supervision on 
the part of the State was transmitted to the Provincial school 

Now, if one should infer from these legislative provisions, 
that the principal difference in the organization of the German 
and American schools lies in the fact of the German being cen- 
tralized, while centralization is entirely lacking in the United 
States, this would not be exact. They say in fact, that in virtue 
of the law of May nth, 1872, the Institutions for the deaf were 
placed under the supervision of the State only in regard to their 
object of education and instruction. In every other respect the 
niles of 120 of the Prussian Provincial ordinance of June 21, 
1875, ^re in vigour, according to which the care of the deaf 
belongs to the Provincial administration. The election of the 
principal and teachers, the ratification of the didactic plans, the 
approvation of the statutes, etc., all this depends upon the 
State's right of supervision; all the rest however is the business 
of the Provincial authorities who receive an annual sum from 
the treasury for the maintenance of the Institutions for the deaf. 
The State has a more extended right over the Royal Institute 
of Berlin. But let us see more particularly what are the rights 
above mentioned of the State in the matter of the instruction 
of the deaf. 

I. The attestation on the part of the State of the technical 
capacity of the principals and teachers. It is well known that Hill 
in his work "Gegenwartige Zustande" laments that the principal 
as well as the teachers did as they liked. Dr. Neumann, prin- 
cipal of the Institute of Konigsberg, declared already in 1859 
"that it was owing alone to his entire ignorance of this special 
branch of education, that he had supposed one could teach the 
deaf at the same time that he exercised his profession as a 
preacher and also taught in other schools." But until the law 
of the Provincial ordinance of 1875, ^^^ principals of the Normal 
schools in many places officiated also as principals of the Insti- 
tutions for the deaf, as the responsible office of technical direc- 
tor was considered a secondary matter. 

The principals of the Normal schools were at least ped- 
agogues. One could therefore suppose that they must have a 

1 24 The Association Review, 

knowledge of what was proposed to them by the technical su- 
perintendent of the schools. But it was worse in those places 
where the office was expected to confer the ability. Thus for 
example in the 70th year of the past century in a residence 
city of Germany, the principal of the Institute for the deaf was a 
linen merchant. In this case the head teacher was indeed to be 

An end was put to this bad condition of things in Prussia, 
by the law establishing examinations for teachers and principals 
of the Institutions for the deaf (April 4th, 1878, and June nth, 
1881). It was in fact established that only those could be ad- 
mitted as teachers in the Institutions for the deaf: i, candi- 
dates of Theology and Philology, arid graduates of the Normal 
school, who, after having graduated from the Normal course, 
had also passed successfully the two examinations for the de- 
gree of teacher; 2, the women approved of already as teachers 
in the three grades of the girls schools : all who had at least for 
two years assisted as apprentices in some Institution of the 
deaf, and afterwards had obtained in consequence of a special 
examination, the diploma as teacher of the deaf. 

There was established in every Province a special examin- 
ation committee for the teachers' examinations. The examin- 
ations are oral and written, and year by year the place for the 
examination to be held is established at some Institute for the 
deaf. For the candidates who cannot acquire the necessary 
knowledge for the special teaching of the deaf in any other way, 
there is opened a Normal school at the Royal Institution of Ber- 
lin. The theoretical lessons are given by the Principal and one 
of the best teachers of the Institute, together with a professor 
from the University; the practice is done in the classes. The 
teachers — from 6 to 10 — who follow the course receive regu- 
larly an annual subsidy of 1,200 marks. 

When one has been engaged as an ordinary teacher of the 
deaf for a period not l^ss than five years, he may apply by means 
of his superior, to the minister of Public Instruction to be ad- 
mitted to the examinations of Principals. These take place only 
in Berlin, under the presidency of the counsellor on the affairs 
of the deaf at the Ministry. 

Among the members of the Examining Committee are some 

The Education of the Deaf in Prussia, 125 

of the Provincial Counsel of the schools, and some principals of 
Institutes for the deaf. In these examinations the candidates 
besides giving proof of their practical ability in teaching, are also 
examined in general culture, and must give proof of a knowl- 
edge of English and French, and a little Latin, and be able to 
read fluently a book written in any of these languages. 

The Minister of Public Instruction can dispose annually of 
a sum of 20,000 marks for the higher culture of the teachers of 
the deaf. These funds are also used in aid of the teachers who 
travel for the purpose of study. 

II. Ratification of the plans of instrtiction on the part of the 

The fundamental principles of the didactic plans for the 
Prussian Institutes of the deaf must be submitted to the approba- 
tion of the Minister of Public Instruction. These Institutes are 
required to inform themselves in regard to the family, the re- 
ligious and civil community to which their deaf pupils have be- 
longed since their birth. 

As independent members of these communities, they must 
be able to understand the language independently, and to learn 
to express themselves in the language used by their neighbours. 
Therefore they must be instructed not only in, but by means of 
the German method, and the use of the artificial mimic is ex- 
cluded from the teaching. 

A uniform didactic plan for all the Prussian Institutes does 
not exist, and it would be difficult to adopt one on account of 
the decentralization of the education of the deaf. One could 
even doubt whether the time has yet arrived to propose such a 
general, satisfactory, and unprejudiced didactic plan. At first 
each Institute had its own special plan. Then they succeeded 
in giving the same plan to all the Institutes of the same Prov- 
ince. This is prepared, according to the consultation of all the 
Principals of the Institutions of the Deaf of each Province, by 
the authorities of administration, which are composed of a Com- 
mission from the Minister of Public Instruction and several 
members of the Provincial School Board. 

All the didactic plans however are agreed in this, that the 
aim of instruction in an Institute for the defective (and certainly 
among these are to be found our deaf), must be limited. The 


The Association Review. 

State has no interest in giving to the defective a higher instruc- 
tion that that which the common schools give to the pupils en- 
dowed with all the senses. It leaves the rest to the wealthy 
parents of the deaf. 

Manual training is not taught in any Institute of Prussia, 
as is usual in the American Institutions. The reason is because 
in America the pupils are received at any age until 20 years; the 
Institutes of Prussia instead are only for children from 7 to 10 
years of age. 

The didactic plan which follows is for the Institute of the 
Province of Hannover, but with slight changes it would apply 
to all the Institutes of Prussia: 



Number of lessons weekly 














. 8th 

1. Speeoh-TeaohiDg. 

a. ArticulatioD aud mechanical 

b. ReadiDff and speech teaching, . . . 





c. Object-teaching, 


d. Grammatical exercises, 


e. Pronunciation, 


f. Writing, 


2. Religion. 

a. Biblical History, 

• • • • 



b. Catechism 


c. Preparation for devotions, 


8. Arithmetic. 

4. Knowledge about the native couutry 
and Geography 








6. History, 


6. Natural Science 


7. Penmanship 








8. Drawing 





■ • • • 





•. Gymnastics 







For the girls: 
Domestic work, 




For the boys: 






• • V a 



Agriculture (4 optional lessons per 

The Education of the Deaf in Prussia. 127 

III. The Statutes of the Institutions for the deaf depend upon 
the Government, 

It has been injurious to the instruction in the Prussian 
Institutes for the deaf that^ until a few years ago, the deaf 
were not announced to the authorities^ nor received into the 
schools until they were too old. Until 1901 compulsory in- 
struction for the deaf in Prussia was limited to the Province of 
Schleswig-Holstein alone. In October, 1892, the following 
provisions were made to obviate this injury: 

1. The local authorities must include deaf children also in 
the list to be consigned to the teacher of the place. 

2. The teachers must every year after examining the list, 
notify the school inspector in regard to the deaf children of 
school age, before the 15th of May. 

3. . The school inspector must present the list before June 
1st to the civil authorities^ (Provincial counsellors, magistrates.) 
These must then send it, not later than June 20th, to the Direc- 
tion of the Institute for the deaf, which then will attend to the 

The admission of the poor deaf in the Institutes does not 
meet with any difficulty ordinarily^ since the law of July 11, 1891, 
because according to that law the expenses incurred are charged 
to the charitable institutions. It is often more difficult for deaf 
children belonging to families not of the very poor^ to pay even 
part of the tuition. It is to be hoped that this difficulty will 
be diminished or eliminated by the law for compulsory educa- 
tion which will probably be presented in the year 1902. 

From what has been said it is evident that the opportunity 
has been given to the Institutes for the deaf in Prussia, to ac- 
quire real and true development, with the necessary unity of 

As to the character of the Institutes, — ^they are as follows : 

One (i) Institute belongs to the State (in Berlin). 

Forty-six (46) are Provincial (3 of which are separated but 
under the same principal). 

Three (3) are municipal. 

Seven (7) are private, or dependent on associations. 

128 The Association Review. 

The scholars of lo Institutes live in the Institutes, (these 
are boarding-schools), but the deaf who live in the city are 
allowed to attend the school as day-scholars. The same per- 
mission is given by the 32 day-schools. The greater part of 
the pupils of these day-schools are lodged by the principal in 
suitable houses, (generally two by two). The principal is aided 
by his teachers in the care of these day-scholars. 

Ten of these Prussian Institutes are therefore mixed schools, 
that is, they admit day-scholars as well as boarders. In the 
mixed Institutes, the boarding schools are to be specially rec- 
ommended for the children who are morally spoiled or difficult 
to educate, and also for children in poor health and of little 
intelligence, who can find in the Institute the necessary care 
and assistance. 

{To be continued,) 

Editor The Association Review: 

In accordance with your request I present herewith statis- 
tics of the Sign Language in American Schools compiled in the 
same manner as those published in the Review of June, 1901. 
As I understand that you desire to publish these statistics from 
year to year, and in order to bring them in conformity with your 
other statistics, I have made one change in the basis of the fig- 
ures: in the statistics presented a year ago the figures were 
based on the total number of pupils present during the year 
1900; in those presented below the figures are based on the 
attendance on certain days, November 10, 1900, and November 
10, 1901. This will account for the difference in the figures 
given now and last year. The relative proportion in the dif- 
ferent classes is however practically the same. 

To those not familiar with the Annals statistics the follow- 
ing explanation may be appropriate. In the Annals the various 
schools are recorded according to methods of instruction used, 
as Combined, Oral, Manual, Manual Alphabet, and Oral-Manual 
Alphabet. The Combined System schools employ all methods 
that have been found advantageous in educating the deaf, many 
of the pupils being taught entirely by speech in the class room. 
But it is generally understood that all or nearly all the schools 
reported in the Annals as Combined recognize and use the sign 
language for chapel services, public addresses, lectures, etc., 
although in many of them it is restricted or even excluded from 
the class room. The Manual schools are similar to the Com- 
bined, except that for lack of means or other untoward circum- 
stances, they are unable to give instruction in speech. These 
schools are few and small. Manual Alphabet schools use the 


The AssodaHon Review. 

manual alphabet but reject the sign language in and out of the 
class room. There is only one such school at present. Those 
recorded as Oral schools are supposed to exclude both the sign 
language and the manual alphabet, although in point of fact this 
is not strictly the case in some of them. 

Those classed as Oral-Manual Alphabet are understood to 
use the Oral and the Manual Alphabet methods in separate de- 
partments, and to exclude the sig^ language. But in the Ill- 
inois Institution the sign language is still used for chapel serv- 
ices, etc., practically as in other Combined schools. 

The following statistics have been compiled from the An- 
nals. I. By adding together the number of pupils in the Com- 
bined and Manual schools and including the Illinois Institution, 
the number of pupils in schools which recognize and use the 
sign language was 8645 in 1900, and 8967 in 1901. 2. By add- 
ing together the number of pupils in the Manual Alphabet 
school, and the Manual Alphabet department of the Mt. Airy 
school, the number of pupils in schools and departments which 
use the manual alphabet but not the sign language was 196 in 
1900, and 211 in 1901. 3. By adding together the number of 
pupils in the Oral schools including the Oral department of the 
Mt. Airy school (but not that of the Illinois Institution for 
reasons above given) the number of pupils in schools which rec- 
ognize neither the sig^ language nor the manual alphabet was 
1767 in 1900, and 1850 in 1901. 

Or to put the above statistics in tabular form : 


Sign Lan- 
guage used 


Manual Al- 
phabet but 
no sign lan- 


No Sign 
no Manual 




Pupils P't'ge 





.900, Nov. 10 









1901, Nov. 10 








The Sign Language in American Schools. 












I . 

1. Sign language ased. 

8. No sign langaage, no mannal 

% Mannal alphabet but no Bign 

Olof Hanson, 

Mankato, Minn., March 4th, 1902. 



The principal of the State School for the Deaf at Tron- 
clhjem, Henrik Finch, died February 2d, 1902, in his sixty- 
second year. He was a very able man and had for many years 
been the leader of the party opposing the universal application 
of the oral method. He himself taught by the manual method — 
the pure one, without signs — from 1878, when he became princi- 
pal, until 1891, when the oral method was made the only one 
employed in Norway. Before 1878 he had used the old French 
method, manual alphabet and signs. Mr. Finch always held 
that only sixty, perhaps seventy, per cent, of the pupils ought to 
be taught by the oral method. 

It may be mentioned that the Government Inspector of 
abnormal children's schools has always been closely in accord 
with Mr. Finch as to opinions, but the National Assembly has 
not yet been persuaded that the decision of 1891 was wrong. 

Another of Mr. Finch's followers is Mr. Bjorset of the 
Holmestrand school, who has, however, also opinions of his 

It is a peculiarity of the Norwegian school system that the 
pupils of low intellect are brought together in one school, that 
at Hamar, and the principal here, Mr. Elias Hofgaard, — ^by the 
way the teacher of Ragnhild Kaata — strongly supports the oral 
method, only allowing natural signs to a greater extent amongst 
feeble-minded children. 

The aim of the partisans of the late Mr. Finch is to have the 
method changed at the Hamar school, but they do not quite 
agree as to what system should take the place left by the oral 
method, some wishing to have the feeble-minded children educa- 
ted by the sign-manual method, doubting the eflfectivity of the 

Notes from Norway, 133 

pure method of alphabet and writing as to such pupils. I do 
not believe that any change is imminent as long as Mr. Hof- 
gaard is at the head of the Hamar school. 

The late Mr. Finch's now vacant place will be difficult to 
fill. He was so able a man and so conscientious a worker that 
even his antagonists feel that the cause of the education of the 
deaf in Norway has sustained a great loss. We have not many 
such men to lose. 

The Association Rtvitw. 




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Extracts from the Early Reports of the Hartford 

School Showing the Attitude of the 

School towards Speech Teaching. 


[The following extracts from the first three reports of the 
Hartford School contain everything in these reports relating to 
the teaching of speech, and the attitude of the school towards 
articulation teaching. They also contain the history of the 
school, its general policy, and a description of the methods of 
instruction pursued. 

Most of the early reports, if not all of them, were written by 
the Rev. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, although other names are 
appended, and his name does not appear at all in this con- 

The following extracts are taken from Gallaudet's letter to 
his Board of Directors dated January 11, 1830 (before the ap- 
pearance of the 14th Annual Report, May 8, 1830), in which he 
recites various services he had rendered the Institution without 

"Our vacations are but two months in the year; 
during some of these, it has fallen to my lot, in common 
with the other instructors, to remain and take a general 
oversight of the establishment, and of such of the 
pupils as did not return home, and during others, and 

*By Alexander Graham Bell. Six chapters of this work have been 
published in Vol. II, also Appendices A to P, see Index to Vol. II. For 
Appendices Q to 39 see Index to Vol. III. For Appendices 40 to 48 see 
Vol. IV, pp, 19 to 41, — Ed. 

I40 The Association Review. 

nearly all of the vacations in the spring, I have been de- 
tained by the business of the annual meeting happen- 
ing at that time, and by the preparation of the annual 
reports, twelve of which I have written, and arranged 
and prepared the original compositions of the pupils 
for the press: a labor demanding no small amount of 
time and care." ******* "j^ support 
of this position, may I allude to the peculiar difficulties 
which I had to encounter, and which, by the blessing of 
God, I overcame while in Europe; to the amount of 
funds which I was instrumental in raising; to the succes- 
sive annual reports which I have prepared, to the im- 
pressions made by means of addresses, and sermons, 
and public exhibitions, on legislatures and the inhabit- 
ants of some of our largest cities, and on the Congress 
of the United States, favorable to the prosperity of the 
Institution; to the securing, by previous correspon- 
dence and by my own personal attendance on their re- 
spective legislatures, the appointment of commissioners 
from the New England states, and the abandonment 
of projects almost ripe for execution, for the establish- 
ment of other schools, and the concentration of public 
patronage on one for all New England;. to the conduct- 
ing for years a very delicate and difficult controversy, 
if it may be so called, with the New York Institution, 
and affording complete satisfaction to the Commis- 
sioners chosen on the part of that state to visit the In- 
stitution of the superiority of our mode of instruction ; 
to the enlisting the feelings and good will of hundreds 
of respectable visitors from all parts of the union; to 
the carrying on a correspondence with distinguished 
individuals, and officers of government with regard to 
the interests of the deaf and dumb generally and the 
welfare of this institution more particularly; to the 
making improvements in the course, and manner of in- 
struction, and in the religious exercises of the pupils; 
to the educating some pupils who are now assistant 
teachers, and to the furnishing in the early progress 
of the school specimens of the attainments of the pupils 
which excited surprise even in the older establishments 
in Europe; and in these, and other ways, to the secur- 
ing to this institution, while yet in its infancy, the ap- 
probation and patronage of our own country, and an 
elevated rank among those of long standing in foreign 
countries. So far as I have been instrumental, under 

Historical Notes. 141 

the support of a kind superintending Providence, in the 
accomplishment of these objects; and, so far as I have 
performed the more ordinary business of the institution • 
with promptness, dispatch and success, ought not a 
proper regard to be had to the qualifications in the 
possession of which I originally entered into your em- 

"x\re not the services of all public agents and pro- 
fessional men estimated in this way, and ought my ser- 
vices, then, to be estimated by the precise number of 
hours and minutes that it has taken me to render them ; 
or ought I in this respect to be placed on a level with 
younger men, who have not had the same advantages 
of experience and of education as myself?" 

The above extracts are taken from the Life of Thomas 
Hopkins Gallaudet, by his son Edward Miner Gallaudet, Henry 
Holt & Co., New York, 1888, pp. 171 and 183.— A. G. B.] 

(From First Report of Hartford School, 1817, June i). 

"About two years since, seven persons met in this 
city, and appointed a committee to solicit funds to en- 
able Mr. Gallaudet to visit Europe, for the purpose of 
qualifying himself to become an instructor of the Deaf 
and Dumb. The generous promptitude with which 
means were furnished, put it in his power to embark 
soon after for England. Not meeting with a satisfac- 
tory reception at the London Asylum, he went to Edin- 
burgh. Here new obstacles arose from an obligation 
which had been imposed upon the institution in that 
city not to instruct teachers in the art for a term of 
years; thus rendering unavailing the friendly desires 
of its benevolent instructor, and the kind wishes of its 
generous patrons. After these repeated disappoint- 
ments and discouragements, in which, however, let us 
behold a providential hand, Mr. Gallaudet departed for 
Paris, where he met with a very courteous and favor- 
able reception from the Abbe Sicard, and soon com- 
menced his course of lessons in the establishment over 
which that celebrated instructor presides. An ar- 
rangement made with Mr. Laurent Clerc, himself deaf 
and dumb, one of the professors in the institution of 
Paris, and well known in Europe as a most intelligent 
pupil of his illustrious master, enabled Mr. Gallaudet 

142 The Association Review. 

to return to his native country with this valuable assist- 
ant, much sooner than had been expected. By this 
circumstance, a new zeal in the cause was excited, in 
some measure commensurate with the more favorable 
auspices under which the interests of our Asylum now 
appeared. They arrived in this place in August last, 
and soon after visited some of our large cities for the 
purpose of soliciting funds for the establishment; with 
what success, may be learned by referring to the treas- 
urer's account connected with this report. Many in- 
stances of individual munificence will be found re- 
corded in the list of donations. The patrons of this 
institution need not our thanks: They have a higher 
gratification in the reflection, that they have contrib- 
uted to the means which are now using, for shedding 
light upon many an immortal mind, which, but for their 
munificence, might otherwise have remained in dark- 
ness. We solicit their prayers that the means they 
have furnished may be so blessed as to promote the 
cause of Christ, and the eternal welfare of those who 
are here benefited by their bounty. 

"In May, 1816, the legislature of this state passed 
an act incorporating this institution; and in October 
last made a grant of five thousand dollars in aid of its 

"The establishment was opened on the 15th April, 
and it already contains upwards of twenty pupils, 
whose names are subjoined to this report. A number 
of them are of full age, some of whom have expressed 
much interest at the attempts which have been made, 
as yet in a very imperfect manner, to explain to them 
some of the simplest doctrines of revelation. 

"When we look back we have surely cause for 
abundant gratitude to God for what has already been 
accomplished; and although we have to lament that 
our means are altogether inadequate to the support 
and instruction of those pupils who are in indigent cir- 
cumstances, let us look forward with humble confi- 
dence that HE by the word of whose power the dumb 
spake, can prepare the way before us, and will if he see 
fit, make use of this Asylum as an instrument, not only 
to increase the temporal happiness of those who may 
become objects of its care, but to communicate to them 
a knowledge of himself as their only Saviour, and of 
those mansions of rest where all will equally rejoice in 

Historical Notes. 143 

the participation of happiness without imperfection, 
and without end. 

"Hartford, June ist, 1817. 


WILLIAM ELY, 1^ Committee." 


(From Second Report of Hartford School, 1818, May 16). 

"Thus far the labours of the instructors have been 
principally directed to the improvement of the pupils in 
written language. This is the only avenue to the various 
departments of knowledge which books contain, and 
which must, forever, be inaccessible to the deaf and 
dumb, until they become familiar with the powers and 
use of letters in their various forms and combinations. 
This, also, is necessary even for the purposes of their 
common intercourse with mankind, most of whom 
know nothing of the manner in which thoughts can 
so easily and distinctly be expressed by signs and 

"Some simple lessons, however, have been given 
the pupils in astronomy, and geography; and their 
views of the world which they inhabit have been much 
enlarged by occasional descriptions of its mighty and 
diversified population, with its varieties of climate, 
manners, customs, and government. Still, correct 
orthography, the meaning of words, and their combi- 
nation into phrases and sentences, have been the ob- 
jects of instruction to which the attention of the teach- 
ers has been, and must, for some considerable time to 
come, yet be, principally, directed. The magnitude of 
their task, in this respect, will doubtless be duly appre- 
ciated by all reflecting minds, when it is considered, 
how many years of patient labour must be bestowed 
even upon those youth who are in possession of all 
their faculties, before they are able to read and write 
their mother tongue correctly; possessing, too, as they 
do, a most invaluable privilege of which the deaf and 
dumb are deprived, — the constant opportunity of learn- 
ing language by their daily intercourse with mankind. 

"How far the use of written language, as a me- 
dium for the communication of thought, has been suc- 
cessfully taught in the Asylum during the past year, 

144 The Association Review. 

may be perhaps estimated from a few specimens of the 
compositions of some of the most advanced pupils, 
entirely original with regard to thought, style, choice 
of words, and orthography, which are annexed to this 
report/' * * "The system of instruction, in its general 
outlines, is like that so successfully pursued in the In- 
stitution in Paris. It sprung from the wonderful genius 
of the Abbe De L'Epee. His successor is the venerable 
Abbe Sicard who still, in the decline of life, enjoys all 
the freshness and energy of youth, and like some 
stately tree of the forest, extending its arms, as if for 
the support and protection of the plants which fondly 
encircle its trunk, spreads his parental care over the 
unfortunate children to whose happiness his talents and 
life have been devoted. This father of the deaf and 
dumb is now exhibiting, even to this new world, the 
most satisfactory proof of the admirable perfection to 
which he has carried the system of his predecessor, in 
the attainments of his interesting and worthy pupil. 
This system, however, so matured in all its philo- 
sophical principles, and so sure of efficacy in its prac- 
tical result, is yet, in some respects to be accommo- 
dated to the peculiar structure and idioms of our own 
language. The regular course of lessons in the Asylum 
is yet to be reduced to method, and its instructors, with 
the exception of Mr. Clerc, to whom our country will 
ever be indebted for the possession of his curious and 
ingenious art, are yet under his skill and guidance, to 
be trained to the complete mastery of the science and 
practice of their profession. 

"The instructors have felt it to be their duty to 
exert themselves to convey useful religious knowledge 
to their pupils, and there is reason to believe that their 
exertions have not been without success. In a regular 
series of written lectures, always explained and illus- 
trated by signs, the principal events recorded in the 
sacred volume, with some of its essential doctrines, 
have been communicated to the most attentive group 
of expectants of delight, which perhaps the eye ever 
witnessed. To their astonished view has been opened 
the sublime idea of the Infinite and Eternal God, the 
Creator and Sustainer of all things, concerning whose 
existence and character some of these imprisoned 
minds seemed to have had scarcely any conception, 
while those of mature age, who had been led by the in- 

Historical Notes. 145 

struction of their friends to the contemplation of some 
Being in the heavens, evidently had formed of him the 
most crude, and, in some instances, the most absurd 
notions. A knowledge, also^ of the souls immortality, 
of a future state of retribution^ and of the manner in 
which their eternal existence may be rendered happy, 
has been^ in part at least, unfolded to them. They 
have been taught, too, how much love they owe to their 
Heavenly Father; how they ought, by their own ex- 
pressive language of signs, to pray to him; and how 
they are bound to imitate the example of Christ in 
the habitual exercise of charity and good-will towards 
all their fellow-men. The more advanced pupils have 
understood these truths to a very considerable extent, 
and all have made such progress in the acquisition 
of religious knowledge, as to sanction the belief, that 
nothing but persevering efforts will be necessary for 
the complete development to their minds of those 
truths, the understanding and belief of which, under the 
blessing of God, will conduce to their own present and 
future happiness, and fit them for usefulness in the 
world. It is a fact, too, which ought to encourage the 
hopes, and animate the prayers, of all the friends of 
the Asylum^ that the knowledge already imparted to 
the pupils has had a very happy influence upon them; 
while the eagerness with which they receive instruction 
and the interest with which thev often converse about 
it with their teachers, and among themselves, afford 
a truly animating prospect." ********* 

"In the name of the Directors, 

JOHN RUSS, Clerk. 
''Hartford, May 16, 1818." 

(From Third Report of Hartford School, 1819, May 15.) 

[This report contains the policy of the school, a statement 
of the methods of instruction employed, and defines the attitude 
of the school towards articulation teaching. It contains also 
a list of pupils; receipts for board and instruction, containing 
incidentally the names of parents of the pupils; the by-laws of 
the Connecticut Asylum; and a prospectus in which occurs the 
following passage: "Cases have occurred in which, from the 

146 Tlie Association Review. 

want of sufficient information with regard to the regulations 
of the Asylum, it has been found necessary to refuse admit- 
tance; and the friends of the pupils have thereby incurred the 
expense of a long and useless journey." (See Appendix P, 
Review, Vol. II, p. 518). 

This report also contains a copy of an act passed by the 
General Assembly of the State of Connecticut, 1819, May i, 
changing the name of the Institution from "The Connecticut 
Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb 
Persons/' to "The American Asylum at Hartford for the Edu- 
cation and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb." — A. & B.] 

"It was necessary to send abroad for a knowledge 
of the art of instructing the Deaf and Dumb. This art 
must be communicated to others. It must in some 
measure be accommodated to the peculiar structure 
and idioms of our language. All this demands new 
teachers, time, patience and labor. ****** 

"The Congress of the United States has made a 
generous grant to the Asylum of more than 23,000 
acres of land. ***** 

"During the past year the pupils have been dis- 
tributed into five classes under their respective teachers. 
The course of instruction has been that which was 
concisely laid down in the last report. The instructors, 
by a constant familiar intercourse with the deaf and 
dumb, which a residence under the same roof with 
them has furnished, and still more, by means of the 
daily lectures on the language of signs, which have 
been given by their ingenious and experienced as- 
sociate, Mr. Clerc, have made such attainments in the 
acquisition of the principles of this science, that they 
hope very soon to become masters of their profession, 
and thus to secure its advantages, beyond the danger 
of loss. 

"Their efforts have still been, and will continue to 
be directed to the improvement of the pupils in written 
language. Four different modes of communication are 
employed in conductingthe business of instruction. The 
first, on which all the rest are founded, and without 
which every attempt to teach the deaf and dumb would 
be utterly vain and fruitless, is the natural language 
of signs, originally employed by the deaf and dumb 
in all their intercourse with their friend^ and each othe 

Historical Notes. 147 

singularly adapted to their necessities, and so signifi- 
cant and copious in its various expressions^ that it 
furnishes them with a medium of conversation on all 
common topics the very moment that they meet^ al- 
though, before, entire strangers to each other, and 
it is even used by themselves, in a vast variety of in- 
stances, to denote the invariable operations of their 
minds and emotions of their hearts. 

"The second mode of communication, is the same 
natural language of signs, divested of certain peculiari- 
ties of dialect which have grown out of the various cir- 
cumstances of life under which different individuals 
have been placed, reduced to one general standard, and 
methodized and enlarged by the admirable genius of 
the Abbe de L'Epee and the still more ingenius im- 
provements of his venerable successor, the Abbe Si- 
card, so as to accommodate it to the structure and 
idioms of written language, and thus to render it in 
itself a perspicuous, complete and copious medium of 
thought, bearing so strong an affinity to the Chinese 
language of hieroglyphical symbols, that what the pro- 
found Mr. Morrison, in the preface to his very elaborate 
dictionary of the language of that singular people, says 
of the one, may with exact truth be applied to the other. 
' To convey ideas to the mind by the eye, the Chinese 
language answers all the purposes of a written medium, 
as well as the alphabetic system of the west, and per- 
haps, in some respects better. As sight is quicker 
than hearing, so ideas reaching the mind by the eye, 
are quicker, more striking and vivid, than those which 
reach the mind by the slow progress of sound. The 
character forms a picture, which really is, or by early 
associations is considered, beautiful and impressive. 
The Chinese fine writing darts upon the mind with a 
vivid flash, a force and a beauty of which alphabetic 
language is incapable. Chinese writing is also more 
permanent than the alphabetic system, which is ever 
varying its spelling with the continually changing pro- 
nunciation of the living voice. Perhaps the Chinese 
written language has contributed in some degree to 
the unity of the Chinese nation.' All this without ex- 
aggeration, is equally true of the language of the deaf 
and dumb when reduced to a regular system, so that 
it differs from the Chinese language, only, or principal- 
ly, in this respect, that the latter forms its symbols with 

148 The Association Review. 

pencU, while the other portrays them by gesture, the 
attitudes of the body and the variations of the count- 

"The third mode of communication, is by means 
of the manual alphabet^ by which the different letters 
of our English language are distinctly formed by one 
hand. — ^This enables the deaf and dumb, after they have 
been taught the meaning and use of words^ to converse 
with their friends with all the precision and accuracy 
of written language, and with four times the rapidity 
with which ideas can be expressed by writing. A per- 
son of common understanding can very soon learn this 
alphabet, and it affords to all who will bestow the tri- 
fling pains which are necessary to acquire it, a ready, 
easy, sure and expeditious mode of conversing on all 
subjects with the deaf and dumb. 

**The fourth mode of communication, is by means 
of writing. This is habitually employed in the school 
rooms, and by it the pupils are taught the correct or- 
thography of our language, to correspond by letters 
with their friends, and to derive from books the vast- 
treasures of knowledge which they contain. 

'* Articulation is not taught. It would require more 
time than the present occasion furnishes, to state the 
reasons which have induced the Principal of the 
Asylum and his associates not to waste their labor 
and that of their pupils upon this comparatively use- 
less branch of the education of the deaf and dumb. In 
no case is it the source of any original knowledge to 
the mind of the pupil. In few cases does it succeed so 
as to answer any valuable end: But its real value may 
well be estimated from the opinion of one of the most 
distinguished philosophers of the age, who for many 
years resided in Edinburgh, where Mr. Braidwood, 
perhaps the most accomplished teacher of articulation 
to the deaf and dumb which the world ever saw, lived 
and kept his school. The mere mention of the name of 
Dugald Stewart, is sufficient to give force to any senti- 
ments which so profound an observer of the human 
mind may have expressed on this interesting subject. 
In his acount of James Mitchell, a boy born blind and 
deaf, published in the transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, Part First of Vol. VII, page 39, he says: 
— * But Sicard's aim was of a different, and of a higher 
nature; not to astonish the vulgar by the sudden 

Historical Notes. 149 

conversion of a dumb child into a speaking automaton) 
but, by affording scope to those means which nature 
herself has provided for the gradual evolution of our in- 
tellectual powers, to convert his pupil into a rational 
and moral being/ — ^And again, page 46. * I have been 
led to insist at some length on the philosophical merits 
of Sicard's plan of instruction for the Dumb, not only 
because his fundamental principles admit of an obvious 
application (mutatis mutandis) to the case of Mitchell; 
but because his book does not seem to have attracted 
so much notice in this country as might have been ex- 
pected among those who have devoted themselves to 
the same profession. Of this no stronger proof can be 
produced, than the stress which has been laid, by most 
of our teachers, on the power of articulation, which can 
rarely, if ever, repay to a person born deaf, the time 
and pains necessary for the acquisition. This error was, 
no doubt, owing, in the first instance, to a very natural, 
though very gross mistake, which confounds the gift 
of speech with the gift of reason; but I believe it has 
been prolonged and confirmed in England, not a little, 
by the common union of this branch of trade with the 
more lucrative one, of professing to cure organical im- 
pediments. To teach the dumb to speak, besides, (al- 
though, in fact, entitled to rank only a little higher 
than the art of training starlings and parrots), will al- 
ways appear to the multitude a far more wonderful feat 
of ingenuity, than to unfold silently the latent capacities 
of the understanding; an effect which is not, like the 
other, palpable to sense, and of which but a few are 
able either to ascertain the existence, or to appreciate 
the value. — It is not surprising, therefore, that even 
those teachers who are perfectly aware of the truth of 
what I have now stated, should persevere in the diffi- 
cult, but comparatively useless attempt, of imparting 
to their pupils that species of accomplishment which is 
to furnish the only scale upon which the success of 
their labours is ever likely to be met with by the public' 

"Abandoning, then, the comparatively useless at- 
tempt to teach their pupils articulation, the instructors 
in the Asylum, have laboured rather to convey import- 
ant intellectual and religious knowledge to their minds 
by means of the four modes of communication which 
have been already mentioned. With what success these 
labours have been crowned can be best appreciated by 

I50 The Association Review. 

those who have had an opportunity of witnessing the 
very satisfactory progress of the pupils; by the inspec- 
tion of their own original compositions; and from the 
testimony of their parents and friends, who, it is con- 
fidently believed, have in all cases expressed the most 
unqualified approbation of the attainments which they 
have made in a comparatively short space of time. 

"The mere improvement, of the pupils, however, 
in intellectual knowledge has formed but a part of the 
plan which the Principal and his associates, together 
with the Superintendent and his lady have pursued. 
The original design of this Institution was to make it 
the gate to heaven for those poor lambs of the flock who 
have hitherto been wandering in the paths of igno- 
rance, like sheep without a shepherd. Separated, for 
a season, from their own families, they have been as- 
sembled under the same roof, having their teachers for 
their companions and friends, and provided with a tem- 
porary father and mother to whom they could contin- 
ually resort for protection and counsel. As fast as 
their opening understandings have been capable of re- 
ceiving the simple doctrines of the gospel, have these 
doctrines been unfolded to their view. Most of the 
important facts recorded in the sacred oracles have 
been communicated to them, and the interesting truths 
of revelation addressed to their consciences and urged 
upon their acceptance. During the past year, both in 
the school and in the family, those who have had the 
care of their government and instruction, have wit- 
nessed occasional seasons of seriousness among them 
when it seemed as if God was of a truth very near to 
their souls. 'What shall I do to be saved ?* is a ques- 
tion which, in hundreds of instances, has been proposed 
by many of them in their own expressive language, 
with a look of entreaty more earnest than words could 
describe. And it is a fact which should be very encour- 
aging to all the lovers of evangelical truth, that the 
humbling doctrines of salvation alone through the blood 
of JESUS CHRIST, and of sanctification alone through 
the influences of that SPIRIT which HE died to pur- 
chase, have been the very doctrines which have af- 
forded these children of misfortune consolation, en- 
couragement and support. The phraseology of their 
Divinity continually alludes to JESUS CHRIST. He 
seems to be the palpable object of faith upon which 

Historical Notes. 151 

their minds most easily fasten. Under the direction 
of the heads of the family they surround the morning 
and evening altar of devotion. Their supplications to 
their Father who is in Heaven are expressed by their 
teachers in their own native language of signs- No 
one who witnesses the almost breathless attention with 
which they encircle the organ of their communication 
to heaven, and the intenseness with which they observe 
the petitions which he offers up, can doubt for a mo- 
ment, that all of them think the duty in which they are 
engaged a very serious one, that most of them under- 
stand its true import, and that many of them actually 
worship the Father of their spirits in spirit and in truth. 
"What is still more affecting, the fact has often 
occurred, and among a large proportion of the whole 
number of pupils, not excepting the very youngest, 
that silent, unostentatious and retired, they have been 
observed, secretly offering up, by signs and gestures, 
their broken and imperfect, though sincere requests to 
their Father who is in Heaven. 'Does God understand 
signs?' is a question which they have more than once 
put to their guardians, and an answer in the affirmative 
has brightened their faces with the liveliest expressions 
of gratitude and hope and joy. ******* 

"In the name of the Directors, 

"Hartford, May 15, 1819." 

(To be continued.) 


Thirty-ninth Biennial Report of the Kentucky Institution 
for Deaf-Mutes at Danville. 1901. 

The Board of Commissioners, through its President, makes 
a strong appeal for enlarged facilities for the rapidly increasing 
number of children in the school. There have been no addi- 
tions to the buildings in many years, and in the last ten years 
the attendance has doubled. The Commissioners ask for two 
buildings to cost $25,000 each, one for little boys, and the other 
for little girls; also for a steam plant and laundry to cost $20,- 
000; also additional annual appropriation of $5,000. 

[Since the above was put in type, the Legislature has 
granted to the school $60,000 for buildings and $4,000 additional 
allowance for purposes of maintenance. — Ed.] 

The superintendent of the school, Mr. Augustus Rogers, 
reports an attendance of 356 pupils, with a total enrollment 
during the two years of 483. The Census Bureau reports give 
the names of over 700 deaf children of school age in the state, 
showing a large number not enjoying the benefits of an educa- 
tion. It would be useless however to attempt to get these 
children into the school until the crowded condition of the build- 
ings is relieved. 

With reference to the methods of the school the Superin- 
tendent speaks as follows: 

"The methods most used in the education of deaf children 
are the manual method, in which writing, finger spelling, and the 
sign language to a limited extent are employed; and the oral 
method by which deaf children are taught to articulate, or to 
speak, and to read the lips, receiving instruction by noting the 
movement of the lips of the teacher and by writing, making no 
use of the conventional sign language and the manual alphabet. 
Those schools using the latter method only are known as oral 
schools, while those using both methods are generally designa- 

Reviews, 153 

ted as combined method schools, and it is to the latter class 
that this institution belongs. 

"Every child, who enters our school at a proper age, is 
given an opportunity to learn speech and lip-reading, but if after 
a fair trial little or no progress is made, we transfer it to the 
manual department where it is taught by the manual method as 
explained above. 

"Of the pupils in school at this time, 141 are taught orally. 
It should not be understood that these oral pupils have no 
knowledge of the sign language, or that they receive no instruc- 
tion through this language, for we use signs freely in our 
morning chapel services, and all of our pupils use them out of 
school in their daily intercourse with each other. 

"Until the present year, we have had a number of pupils, 
from five classes of the manual department, who received a drill 
in articulation of fifty minutes each day under one of our oral 
teachers, but after noticing carefully the progress of these pupils 
for several years, we have decided that it is not advisable to con- 
tinue this work longer, and that it is more profitable for this 
teacher of articulation to devote her whole time to one class." 

Biennial Report of the Virginia School for the Deaf and 
the Blind at Staunton. 1901. 

The report of the Superintendent, Mr. Wm. A. Bowles, 
gives the school enrollment of 212 pupils, which number fills the 
dormitories to their utmost capacity and compels the rejection 
of fifteen or twenty eligible children. The census returns show 
over 700 deaf children and blind children of school age in the 
state, which leads Mr. Bowles to urge that provision be made 
for the education of the colored deaf and the colored blind of 
the state who it may be inferred have not at present any educa- 
tional privileges. Mention is made of two of the graduates of 
the school having passed the entrance examination to Gallaudet 
College, and it is added that they are the first congenitally deaf 
pupils of the school who have succeeded in doing this. 

Regarding the course of instruction Mr. Bowles says: 

"The course of instruction is about what is found in our pub- 
lic schools. The first object in the education of the deaf is to 
give them a command of written English, as that is to be the 
mode of communication with the great majority of them, when 

154 The Association Review. 

they go out from school. A part of each Sunday is devoted to 
the study of the Bible, with such instruction as to avoid all sec- 
tarian teaching. Our instruction in the Deaf Department for the 
most part is by the combined method, i. e., partly by signs, 
partly by manual spelling, and partly by the oral method. All 
who possess special aptitude for speech and lip reading are put 
into the articulation or oral classes." 

Application is made for a new school building to cost 
$9,000 and an addition to the dining-room to cost $3,500. These 
additions if made will provide room sufficient for all needs for 
fifteen years to come. 

A "Session Book" is issued as a pamphlet which gives a 
complete time-table and programme for the year, showing 
among other things the duty days and hours of the teachers 
with their turns in chapel, study hour, and as editors of the 
school paper. 

Report of the Maryland School for the Deaf at Frederick. 

The principal, Mr. Chas. W. Ely, reports an attendance 
during the past two years of 129, with 100 present this session. 
The retirement from the work is noted of Mr. Chas. M. Grow 
who himself deaf had been a teacher of the deaf continuously 
for fifty years. 

With regard to methods employed the Principal states the 
practice of the school as follows: 

"Every pupil at entrance is put in a speech class under a 
skillful teacher of experience and is continued there for a year. 
At the end of that time there is a re-classification, the less 
promising cases being transferred to other classes where their 
instruction is continued by other methods, some of them how- 
ever receiving daily lessons in speech. 

"In other classes we employ the language of sig^s to a 
limited extent, finger spelling and writing. We endeavor by the 
shortest and most efficient means to reach the mind and heart 
and develop the mental and moral powers. We aim to give 
the pupils the ability to express their thoughts in correct 
English and as far as possible to furnish their minds with needed 
knowledge. Our course of study is similar to that of the public 

Reviews. 155 

Storia del R. Institute Nazionale pei Sordomuti in Geneva 
[History of the Royal National Institution for the Deaf in 
Genoa], by Rev. S. Monaci. Second edition. Genova, tip. 
Sordomuti, 1901. 

In the month of May, 1801, the Rev. O. Assarotti began in 
his room the instruction of some poor deaf in Genoa. His 
private school soon became the most important Institution for 
the Deaf in Italy. They say that O. Assarotti used an eclectic 
system, but from the beginning he adopted the didactic means 
of the French school. He had also an epistolary correspond- 
ence with the celebrated Abbe Sicard. 

The fame of the school of Genoa attracted many clever men 
to study the method of instructing the deaf, and this was the 
origin of the diffusion of this special branch of education in 
Italy.. For this reason O. Assarotti was justly called the Ital- 
ian De TEpee. 

Rev. S. Monaci, the Principal of the Institution of Genoa, 
gives us a particularized history the work of O. Assarotti 
and of his successors, and of the development of the school of 
Genoa from its foundation until our day. The first edition was 
published in 1892, when the second national meeting of the It- 
alian teachers took place in the Royal Institution of Genoa. 
But the second edition of it is entirely a new work, rich in 169 
historical and statistical documents, and 88 fine illustrations. 
It is a very fine volume of 331 and CCXLII pages. 

This new edition was published at the expense of the Insti- 
tute, on the occasion of the centennial commemoration of its 
opening, (May, 1901). 

Metodo per insegnare la lingua ai sordomuti con la parola 
[Mtlhod for leaching language to the deaf by speech]. 
C. Periiii. Milano, 1902. 

Of this work, issued for the first time in 1878, Prof. Ferreri 
wrote: *'The Manual of Prof. Perini is the most complete 
among the practical treatises for the teaching of language ac- 
cording to the oral system. It is therefore to be recommended 
to young teachers. They can take from it much knowledge and 

156 The Association Review. 

find in it a guide for the graduated teaching of the language, 
even if they do not follow the method of this Manual." (The 
Deaf-mute and his Education. Vol. II, p. 324.) 

Prof. Perini has reprinted his Manual now, with many di- 
dactic notes and with some very useful instructions on the sub- 
ject of teaching language, in the introduction of the Manual 
and in the preface of every grade of the lessons. 

There are 177 lessons divided into three courses. Every 
course is divided into several grades, as follows: 

I course. — ist grade, 19 lessons; 2d grade, 20 lessons; 3d 
grade, 9 lessons; 4th grade, 11 lessons; 5th grade, 18 lessons; 
6th grade, 5 lessons. 

II course. — ist grade, 12 lessons; 2d grade, 21 lessons; 3d 
grade, 12 lessons; 4th grade, 13 lessons. 

III course. — ist grade, 8 lessons; 2d grade, 5 lessons; 3d 
grade, 8 lessons; 4th grade, 8 lessons; 5th grade, 8 lessons. 

As the conclusion of this work, one reads a valuable chap- 
ter on the teaching of matters of general culture in the schools 
for the deaf. This work has been translated into French. 

Rassegna della Educazione del Sordomuti [Review of the 
Education of the Deaf]. Vol. IX, No. i, No 2. Naples. 

The Rassegna of Naples, which now enters the 9th year of 
its life, adds to its title that of the magazine of Siena, L'Educazi- 
one dei Sordomuti, which was obliged to suspend publication 
last December. Thus with the title is also added to the 
Rassegna the collaboration of Prof. G. Ferreri, who although 
at present making a tour in the United States, does not cease 
to write upon the education of the deaf for several magazines 
of our specialty. 

The Rassegna now contains all the living energies of the 
Italian school of the deaf, having for its principal redacteurs 
the prominent Directors of the Association of the Italian Teach- 
ers of the Deaf — Fornari, Scuri, Ferreri. 

The program which the renovated magazine proposes to 
itself is condensed in the following words: 

Reviews, 157 

"To form the national conscience of a great educational 
work in favor of a class of unhappy people for which until now 
public and private charity have provided; to form in the poor 
deaf the conscience of their rights and duties toward their 

The first number of the new year contains a good con- 
tribution to the study of the most vital questions of our school. 

The principal and more valuable articles are the following: 

1. The XXVIIIth Conference of the Teachers of the Deaf 
in Zurich, by P. Fomari. 

2. Biennial Conference of the English Teachers of the 
Deaf at Oxford, by G. Ferreri. 

3. About the Public Examinations of the Deaf, by V. 

4. The Phonograph and the Deaf. 

Another interesting part of the Italian magazine is the 
Bibliography, in which is given an account of every publication 
upon the deaf in the world. But the Bibliography is not limited 
to the examination of the modern publications ;G. Ferreri begins 
a review of some publications of our special literature which 
have remained little known, or are rare. This retrospective re- 
view will be a useful contribution to the history of the Pedagogy 
of the Deaf. The first work which is the object of Prof. Fer- 
reri's analysis is the book published by Mr. L. P. Paulmier, the 
prominent companion of the celebrated Abbe Sicard, under the 
title: "Considerations sur I' instruction des sourds-muets" (Consid- 
erations upon the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb) Paris, 1844. 
This article seems to be very interesting for the history of the 
French school, and Prof. Ferreri demonstrates with a literal 
quotation from the book itself, the circumstance that the famous 
results of the French school were the effect of the education of 
a few exceptional pupils, who could by means of writing, and 
after many years of application, reach an uncommon grade of 
instruction. Another remarkable Bibliography of G. Ferreri 
is the criticism of the recent English publication: "Arnold on 
the Education of the Deaf: A Manual for Teachers: Revised and 
rewritten by A. Farrar." Among the Miscellaneous we read 
a brief account of the Annual Meeting of the Directors of our 

158 The Association Review. 

Association, which took place the 28th of December, 1901, at 
Washington. A second Italian edition of the ist volume of the 
Manual: "II sordomute e la sua educazione," (The Deaf and his 
Education), by G. Ferreri will soon be issued. 
The February number presents the following: 
An article "which demonstrates that arithmetic is not an 
opinion," by E. Scuri. The author shows that the good fi- 
nancial condition of the Royal Institution for the Deaf in Rome 
is not owing to the merit of the present Administrators, but is 
due to the provisions taken in 1841 by the Pope Gregorio XVI 
and, after 1874, by the Italian Government. At present the 
Provincial Administration of Rome provides for the support of 
80 pupils. 

"Another word about the battle of methods," by G. Ferreri. 
The same article was issued in the January number of the 
American Annals, of which we gave an account in the February 
number of our Review (see page 86). 

Memoria del Institute Nacional de ninas sordoniudas cor- 
respondiente al ano 1900 [Report of the National Institute fur 
Deaf Girls, for the year 1900]. Buenos Ayres, 1901. 

With the decree dated Jan. 13, 1901, the Government of 
the Argentine Republic separated the department of the deaf 
girls from the National Institute of Buenos Ayres, thus giving 
origin to a new Institute dedicated exclusively to the education 
of girls. Miss Maria Anna McCotter became its principal. 
She now gives the first annual report of the new Institute. In 
order to interest the Government in extending the instruction 
of the deaf. Miss McCotter prefaces her report with some brief 
considerations upon the conditions of the deaf, and the neces- 
sity of their education. 

The writings of Prof. G. Ferreri (Italy) and of Dr. E. Saint- 
Hilaire (France) served as a base for the pedagogical part of 
the report. 

We learn besides from this report that in 1895 the census 
demonstrated the existence of 5627 deaf in the Argentine Re- 
public. Of these Argentines 2623 were males and 2466 were 

Reviews. 159 

females. The others, 538, were foreigners, 347 males and 191 
females. The proportion between the number of deaf, and the 
total population of the country is i^ per 1000. In comparing 
these figures with those of other nations, we find that the 
Argentine Republic contains more deaf than any other country 
except Switzerland. 

The Institute has two departments: i. A Normal school 
for the training of teachers of the deaf; 2. A school for the ed- 
ucation of the deaf who are of school age. 12 pupil teachers 
attend the Normal school. The deaf pupils are 40. The meth- 
od used is the pure Oral, introduced in Buenos Ayres by the 
Italian Serafino Balestra who was rightly called "the Apostle 
of Speech." 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan [Scandinavian Journal 
of the Instruction of the Deaf], Goteborg, Sweden, No. 12, 
1901, No. I, 1902. 

No. 12, 1901: "Dr. O. Kyhlberg," a biography — ^accom- 
panied by a portrait — of Dr. Kyhlberg, for 25 years the very 
efficient and successful Director of the Manilla (Sweden) Insti- 
tution for the deaf, and the Normal school for teachers of the 
deaf connected with that Institution. "Formal exercises in 
speech" (continued), by N. K. Larsen. "Report of the meeting 
of teachers of the deaf, blind, etc.. May, 1901, at Abo, Finland," 
by Oskar Wichman. The meeting expressed its opinion rela- 
tive to the question of the insufficient number of schools for the 
deaf, weak minded children, etc., that: ist, the Government 
should at the earliest possible opportunity found a number of 
new schools for the deaf to meet the growing want; 2nd, the 
Government should place the schools for weak minded children 
on the same footing as those for the deaf and the blind, and 
establish a number of such schools; 3rd, that with these schools 
there should be connected homes for aged weak minded per- 
sons, and asylums for incurable idiots; and 4th, that if all other 
means fail to give education, instruction, and aid to these 
neglected classes of human society, compulsory education for 
all such children should be introduced by the Government. 
Miscellaneous communications. 

i6o The Association Review. 

No. I, 1902: "Gerda Bergqvist," with portrait, a brief 
sketch of the life of Miss Bergqvist, one of the most efficient 
and successful teachers at the school for the deaf at Karlskrona, 
Sweden, born in 1858, and died June 29th, 1901. "A difference? 
Yes^ there is a difference," by George Jorgensen, Friedericia, 
Denmark. The article refers to one by Director Forchhammer 
of Nyborg, [Nordisk Tidskrift, 1901, No. 5 J, in which Mr. 
Forchhammer expresses his joy at the change made in the 
method of instruction at the Friedericia Institution which — in 
his opinion — removes the difference of methods existing be- 
tween the Nyborg and the Friedericia Institution. He refers 
principally to the reading in unison. This manner of reading, 
however, differs in the two institutions. Since the establish- 
ment of the Friedericia Institution in 1881^ reading in unison 
was gradually introduced in all classes. At the beginning of 
every school hour^ a single word or a sentence or a combination 
of several sentences was written on the black board and read in 
unison by all the scholars. To lead such reading so as to pro- 
duce good results, is no easy matter. The person who leads 
must not only have a good ear but he must also possess a 
considerable amount of experience. Owing to circumstances 
beyond the control of the Director there were 30 changes in the 
staff of teachers at the Friedericia Institution during the period 
1881-1896. The consequence was the reading in unison was 
frequently not what it should have been^ and gradually these 
exercises at the beginning of every school hour had to be aban- 
doned in many case, and at any rate were no longer obligatory. 
At last^ in 1894, the staff of teachers seemed to have reached a 
state of permanency; and it was Mr. Jorgensen's desire to again 
introduce the reading in unison. We give in the following his 
own words: "Whilst considering this matter, I became strongly 
impressed with the idea that a great deal would be gained, if 
this reading in unison could be applied in all school hours, 
throughout the entire hour, and in all branches of instruction, 
and not only at the beginning of every hour for a few minutes. 
I reasoned in this wise: If I have 10 scholars in a class, and the 
length of the school hour is 50 minutes, and if I give the same 
length of time to each scholar, 5 minutes will be all the time 

Reviews, i6i 

during which the scholar will speak. If there are 5 hours, in- 
struction a day, each deaf child has only 25 minutes a day for 
practicing speech. But if the reading in unison is managed in 
a rational manner^ each scholar will have at least 3 hours a day 
for speaking exercises." On the strength of these observations 
Mr. Jorgensen again introduced the reading in unison, at first in 
the lower classes; and with such excellent results as to cause 
him to extend it to all classes. When in 1891, Mr. Forchham- 
mer was made Director of the Nyborg Institution, he also 
introduced reading in unison; but with this difference that for 
the writing on the black-board the phonetic alphabet which Mr. 
Forchhammer had constructed after long and laborious studies, 
was used. And herein lies the principal difference in the meth- 
ods of instruction followed at the Nyborg and the Friedericia 
Institutions. Although both employ reading in unison, it is 
based on different principles. Each of these two institutions 
may, therefore, he said to follow its own method, and time only 
can show which will produce the better and more lasting results. 
"Rancdani" (from the Revue Generale), by A. F. Nystrom. 
The story of a young deaf person of Italian birth who came to 
Paris about the year 1900, and spoke a strange language of his 
own, neither Italian nor French; showing the strange phenom- 
enon of a deaf person who, through a very imperfect education 
and through the force of circumstances, acquired a written 
language entirely diflFerent from the language of his native 
country, but nevertheless a language following a certain system 
and invariably employing the same terms for the same objects. 
When asked for his name, he wrote it: "Rancdani." Reviews 
of books and periodicals. Miscellaneous communications. 

Taubstummen-Courier [Courier of the Deaf], Vienna, Feb- 
ruary, I, 1902. 

This monthly publication of 12 quarto pages is of course 
mainly devoted to matters which will be of interest to the deaf 
in Austria, but also keeps its readers abreast of everything 
going on in other countries. The Viennese are proverbial for 

i62 Tke Association Review. 

their cheerful character and for their love of innocent amuse- 
ments. We, therefore, find in this journal accounts of several 
balls given by associations of the deaf, foot-ball games, and 
other athletic exercises, showing that the deaf of the city of 
Vienna spend many a pleasant hour at these social reunions. 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung [Journal of the Educa- 
tion of the Deaf], Berlin^ January i, and 15, February i, 
and 15, 1902. 

Contents of the first number: "Changes in the Regulations 
for the examinations of teachers of the deaf in Prussia/' by 
E. Biittner. "Dr. Karl Friedrich Struve," by Dr. Schumann, 
Leipzig. Schumann shows in this article that it appears from 
a perusal of the large collection of newspapers and periodicals 
from the end of the i8th century, found in the library of the In- 
stitution for the Deaf at Leipzig, that Dr. Struve, district phy- 
sician at Barua^ Saxony, who died in 1807^ was not only a man 
of humane views, having the interest of all his suffering fellow 
beings at heart, but that by his pen he advocated the instruction 
of the deaf on a most liberal basis. Considering that at a time 
when comparatively little interest was taken in the education 
of the deaf in Germany, he contributed numerous articles on 
the subject in newspapers, he may, in a theoretical sense, well 
be termed a pioneer of the education of the deaf in his native 
country. Miscellaneous communications. 

Contents of the 2d number: "Educational Counsellor 
Graser," by E. Reuschert. Graser was born in 1766 at Eltmann, 
in Lower Franconia (Bavaria), of poor parents, and had already 
as quite a young boy to work for his daily bread. But, being 
an exceptionally bright boy, he managed to study for himself 
in his leisure hours. Kind-hearted persons who took an inter- 
est in him, enabled him to attend college, and finally the Univer- 
sity of Wiirzburg, where he studied theology, and made such 
rapid progress that in his 20th year he became Doctor of Divin- 
ity and was ordained a priest. But his ardent desire was to 
work in the field of education, and for many years he most ably 


Reviews. 163 

filled various places as Director of educational institutions in 
Bavaria. He died at Munich in 1841. His work as an educator 
was by no means confined to the school-room, but his greatest 
merit consists in the large number of works on education pub- 
lished by him, which paved the way for a more thorough and 
liberal system of education in Bavaria, and which even at this 
day are considered as standard works on the subject. It must 
be mentioned as a curious fact, that Graser who never was 
actually engaged in the education of the deaf, nevertheless took 
the deepest interest in their well-being and advancement, and 
published the following works on the education of the deaf, 
which show that he had given deep thought to this subject: 
"The deaf-mute given back to human society by lip and sound 
language," 1829; 2d edition, 1834; "Urgent call for regular in- 
struction of deaf-mutes," 1830; "The infant education of deaf- 
mutes." Miscellaneous communications: We note a report 
from Marburg in the Prussian Province of Hesse-Nassau, on 
the investigations made by Dr. Ostmann, Director of the Hos- 
pital for diseases of the ear, throat and nose at Marburg. Dr. 
Ostmann carefully examined the scholars in the public schools 
of the Marburg District, and published the results of his exam- 
ination, from which it appears that of the 7537 children exam- 
ined 2142 (28.4 per cent.) were hard of hearing in one or both 
ears, or were afflicted with still more serious defects of hearing. 
Similar examinations in other parts of Germany showed the 
same results. It is astonishing to note that the percentage of 
boys suffering from defective hearing (30 per cent.) was larger 
than that of the girls (26.8 per cent.). From official documents 
It appears that during the period 1867-1896, 18,318 men had to 
be dismissed from the Prussian army on account of defective 
hearing, whilst the proportion in the Bavarian army was still 
more unfavorable. Dr. Ostmann is of opinion that by proper 
treatment more than 50 per cent, of boys suffering from defec- 
tive hearing can be cured so that they can hear distinctly at a 
distance of 8 meters (about 26 feet), and can, therefore, no 
longer be termed deaf. Announcement is made from Munich 
that from the 21st of May till the 4th of June, 1902, a course of 
lectures will be delivered for aurists and teachers of the deaf 

1 64 The Association Review. 

by prominent specialists. The subjects will be: i. Introduction 
to the examination of the ear of deaf-mutes; 2. Introduction to 
the anatomy and physiology of the organs of speech; 3. Intro- 
duction to the speech-instruction of partially hearing deaf- 

Contents of No. 3: "Educational Counsellor Graser" (con- 
cluded), by E. Reuschert. Miscellaneous communications: 
Meeting of the Association of the teachers of the deaf of Berlin, 
held January nth, 1902. One of the principal speakers, Mr. 
Lobe, in a carefully prepared speech treated the question, "Can 
we do more for the education of the deaf ?" He recommended 
the following: i. Compulsory education; 2. Preventive meas- 
ures: the teacher should endeavor to become acquainted with 
the family conditions of his scholars. One way to reach this 
object is the introduction of meetings of the parents at stated 
intervals, with the view to learn the needs of their children. 3. 
Visits in the families of the scholars; 4. Material assistance. 
Many parents live in very straightened circumstances, and when 
they leave home to earn their living, either lock up their chil- 
dren or let them run on the street. Such children will not make 
good scholars. 5. Strict discipline; 6. Bring more sunshine 
into the school, i. e., the authorities should appropriate the 
necessary means for combining pleasure with instruction, by 
excursions into the country, visits to museums, zoological gar- 
dens, and other places of interest. 7. Regular religious ser- 
vices in the school; 8. Endeavor to get friends for the deaf 
among hearing persons; 9. Make more use of the newspaper 
press, since the majority of the public are ignorant as regards 
the deaf and their needs; 10. Get hearing play-fellows for the 
deaf. Under the head of "Italy," notice is taken of the circum- 
stance that the double (November and December) number, 
1901, of the Italian journal "L'Educazione dei Sordomuti" is the 
last, at least for the present, as owing to various difficulties, this 
publication has been discontinued. The "Blatter fiir Taub- 
stummenbildung" regrets this exceedingly, and speaks in the 
highest terms of the Editor, Prof. Giulio Ferreri, one of the 
most zealous champions for the cause of the deaf in Italy, who 
for 12 years published the "Educazione" with signal skill and 

Reviews. 165 

devotion; this journal will be sadly missed by many teachers of 
the deaf in Germany. 

Contents of No. 4: "Clearness and a definite aim in arrang- 
ing the course of instruction/' by H. Hoffmann, Ratibor. Mr. 
Hoffmann recommends the following as a suitable course of 
instruction for eight years: 

I. Preparatory Grade. 18 hours per week; during the 
first three quarters: speaking, reading, and writing, alternating. 
During the last quarter: instruction in speech 9 hours: object 
lessons in connection with writing and reading, 9 hours. 

n. Primary Grade (2d and 3d years). 15 or 14 hours 
per week. 2d year: object-lessons, 6 hours; instruction in the 
various parts of speech, 3 hours; free instruction in language, 
2 hours; reading, 2 hours; exercises in speaking, 2 hours. 3d 
year: object-lessons, 5 hours; instruction in the various parts 
of speech, 3 hours; free instruction in language, 2 hours; read- 
ing, 2 hours; exercises in speaking, 2 hours. 

HI. Secondary Grade (4th, sth, and 6th years). 14 
hours per week. 4th year: instruction in the various parts of 
speech, 4 hours; object-lessons, 3 hours; reading, 2 hours; free 
instruction in language, 2 hours; exercises in composition, 2 
hours; exercises in speaking, i hour, sth year: instruction in 
the various parts of speech, 4 hours; object-lessons, 2 hours; 
reading 3 hours; free instruction in language, 2 hours; exer- 
cises in composition, 2 hours; exercises in speaking, i hour. 
6th year: instruction in the various parts of speech, 5 hours; 
reading, 4 hours; free instruction in language, 2 hours; exer- 
cises in composition, 2 hours; exercises in speaking, i hour. 

IV. Higher Grade (7th and Sth years). 16 hours per 
week, 7th and Sth years: reading, 6 hours; grammar, 6 hours; 
free instruction in language, 2 hours; exercises in composition, 
2 hours. 

The above course of instruction merely comprises speech 
and language. In addition there should be religious instruc- 
tion, I to 3 hours a week during all the eight years, and instruc- 
tion in geography, history, natural history, and physics i to 2 
hours a week from the Sth to the Sth year, both inclusive. 

1 66 The Association Review. 

Organ der Taubstummen-Anstalten in Deutschland 
[Organ of the Institutions for the deaf in Germany], by J. 
Vatter, principal teacher and Director of the Institution for 
the deaf in Frankfort-on-the-Main, 48th year, January, 

This number contains: "Report of the 28th meeting of 
Wiirttemberg and Baden teachers of the deaf, and the . loth 
meeting of Swiss teachers of the deaf/' held at Zurich, Septem- 
ber 9th, loth and nth, 1901. This meeting was attended by 116 
delegates. The subjects for discussion were the following: i. 
"The pure speech-method and the education of the mind"; 2. 
"Object-teaching in schools for the deaf; 3. "The maximum 
and minimum of school-hours, work hours, and recreation hours 
in schools for the deaf; 4. "Exercises in instructing the deaf; 
5. "Which instruction in articulation deserves the preference — 
the analytical or the synthetical ?" 6. "In what manner can 
the weak-minded deaf be most efficiently instructed ?" 

"What speaks in favor of the methods pursued at the 
Friedericia (Denmark) Institution," (conclusion), by F. Nordin. 
Among the advantages of the Friedericia Institution are fur- 
ther mentioned: that the teachers — both male and female — 
receive salaries which — for Scandinavian circumstances — are 
exceptionally good; that persons of first class ability can, 
therefore, be employed; that here — ^as throughout Denmark, 
education of the deaf is compulsory; and that there is a special 
minister for the deaf who travels through the country, preaches 
to the deaf and attends to their spiritual wants. "Speech- 
method or sign-method ?" by George Jorgensen, Friedericia. 
Jorgensen for 24 years employed the sign-method and for 21 
years the speech-method in instructing deaf children, and is 
therefore familiar — as few others — ^with the theory and prac- 
tice of both methods. Jorgensen is of opinion that for the 
present, in Denmark, it is impossible to instruct all the deaf 
according to the speech-method, simply because there is a 
lack of teachers who are willing to make a sacrifice for the good 
cause. For this requires true self-sacrificing love for the deaf, 
efficiency, and untiring energy. Even if the scholar of a speech- 
school — after confirmation in the Lutheran church (the Danish 

Reviews. 167 

state church) — which marks the end of his course and his going 
forth into the world, were to make but little use of speech and 
lip-reading, he would^ nevertheless, if a graduate of a pure 
speech school, be more favorably situated than a scholar who 
has received his instruction in a sign or writing school. "Re- 
views of Books": Among these we notice a very kind and favor- 
able review of Hypatia Boyd's work, "Paul Binner and his 
noble work among the Deaf," by Hoffmann of Ratibor, Silesia, 
a countryman of Binner's who was a native of Silesia. 

Smaablade for Dofstumme [Leaflets for the Deaf]. Vol. XI, 
No. 81. Copenhagen, Denmark, January, 1902. 

As usual, this number contains some bright sketches; 
amongst the rest an anecdote of the famous deaf-mute Danish 
painter Hunaeus — ^accompanied by a reproduction ot one of his 
most famous paintings, viz.: "The evening before Easter Sun- 
day," when, according to an old custom, all Copenhagen turned 
out for a promenade on the ramparts — ^now razed to the 
ground — ^to see and to be seen. The poet Hans Christian 
Andersen went one morning early to the annual exhibition of 
paintings in Copenhagen, and there met Hunaeus, whom he did 
not know at all, standing before one of his own pictures. 
Hunaeus slapped the poet on the back, pointed first to himself 
and then to the picture to indicate that he had painted it. An- 
dersen, who could not understand this strange behavior, hurried 
out and told the doorkeeper that there was a crazy man in the 
picture gallery. When the doorkeeper explained that this was 
undoubtedly the deaf painter, Hunaeus, Anderson immedi- 
ately hastened back to make his excuses to Hunaeus. Seeing 
a man standing before the same picture, he gave him a good 
slap on the back, pointed to the picture and then to the man 
with his friendliest smile; when the man who was not Hunaeus 
— ^who had meanwhile gone to another room — turned round ab- 
ruptly with the exclamation: "Are you crazy, man ?" Both 
Hunaeus and Andersen later had many a good laugh over this 

1 68 The Association Review. 

Revue generale de I'Enseignement des Sourds-Muets 
[General Review of the Instruction of the Deaf], Paris, 
November, December, 1901, January, 1902. 

Contents of the November number: "Instruction of the 
deaf in Denmark," by A. Hansen. "The deaf in their relation 
to the French law, their rights and their duties/' by Ad. Belan- 
ger. *'Dr. Edward M. Gallaudet, President of Gallaudet Col- 
lege," by A. Legrand, accompanied by an excellent likeness of 
Dr. Gallaudet. We reproduce the principal portions of this 

"An old Puritan once said that God had shaken three king- 
doms through a sieve, in order to obtain the seed which he 
sowed in New England. This is not altogether exact; the hardy 
emigrants as well as the wild refugees who laid the first founda- 
tions of the vast Republic of the United States, whose prodig- 
ious activity astonishes our Old World, belonged to many dif- 
ferent countries of Europe. And from the * best blood ' of more 
than three nations the North American race has sprung. It 
may, therefore, be asserted without any exaggeration that the 
French Huguenot element which combined with the other con- 
stitutive elements in but a small proportion, is the one whose 
influence has left more traces behind it than any other. No 
less attached to political and religious liberty than the Puritans^ 
possessing a character as proud and inflexible as the Scotch, 
imbued wdth all the love of science and the fine arts by which 
the Germans are distinguished, possessing even to a higher de- 
gree the charm and the courtly manners of the English cava- 
liers, and the calm courage common to all the ancestors of the 
Americans, the Huguenot emigrants can count among their 
descendants, statesmen, divines, and soldiers second to none in 
the history of the United States. 

"Does Dr. Edward M. Gallaudet derive not only his name 
but also the most striking features of his character from his 
Huguenot ancestry ? We are certainly justified in beHeving 
this, and his countrymen corroborate it. Born in 1837, he was 
only fourteen years old when he finished his studies in the ex- 
cellent High School of Hartford, Conn., his native city. The 
death of his father, the venerable Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, 
which occurred at that time, forced him to abandon the plans 
which his family had formed for his studies; and he obtained a 
position in the Phoenix Bank of Hartford. His talents and his 
energy procured for him rapid advancement; and he was only 
eighteen years old when another financial establishment offered 

Reviews, 169 

him a more remunerative position. He refused it, preferring 
to complete his liberal education, interrupted by the death of 
his father, and entered the Junior Class of Trinity College, from 
which he graduated two years later. Thus, before having 
reached the age of twenty, he had acquired those excellent 
habits of order and systematic work which a business education 
produces, and had in addition gone through the severe mental 
discipline of a college education. 

"Whilst pursuing his studies at Trinity College, Mr. Gal- 
laudet made his debut as a teacher of the deaf, by taking charge 
of a class at the American Asylum in Hartford, where he spent 
several hours each day. Whilst pursuing his studies, he even 
accepted a call as principal of a school for the deaf in China, 
which American missionaries intended to establish. But the 
internal troubles of the Chinese Empire caused him to abandon 
this plan. 

"In 1856 Mr. Gallaudet was formally appointed at the Am- 
erican Asylum but he resigned his position soon afterwards, 
again to accept an important position in a bank, whilst at the 
same time preparing himself for the ministry. 

"Before, however, he was able to realize this new plan, he 
was invited by the Hon. Amos Kendall, the well known states- 
man and philanthropist, to preside at the organization and 
assume the responsibilities of the direction of the 'Columbian 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind,' to which Con- 
gress had granted a charter. Although Mr. Gallaudet was then 
only twenty years of age, without any special experience in the 
education of the deaf, his knowledge of business matters and 
his financial qualifications fully justified the flattering offer made 
to him. At the time he took charge of the Institution at Wash- 
ington, it received its first scholars; this was in May, 1857. 
Seven years later the 'National College for the Deaf was 
founded, and annexed to the Institution. As Mr. Kendall about 
this time had found it necessary to withdraw from active duties. 
Dr. Gallaudet at once took his place as member and chairman 
of the board of administration. Considering that for 44 years 
he has been at the head of the Kendall Green Institution, that 
he was actively engaged in laying its modest foundation, that 
he, constantly progressing, brought it to the high rank which 
it occupies at the present time, and established in connection 
with it an institution of secondary instruction, which is unique 
in the world, it must be said that above everything else he owes 
to his able management of this institution the place which his- 
tory will assign to him among contemporary administrators and 

170 The Association Review, 

"His talents as an organizer are universally recognized. 
The external arrangements, the regulations, the course of study 
at the Kendall Green Institution, down to the smallest details^ 
are his work. Methodical, exact, and prompt in the exercise 
of his functions, he has understood to direct the work without 
interfering with the special work mapped out for each one. Ex- 
ceedingly happy in the choice of his subordinates, he exercises 
such an influence over them that the work done by all bears the 
impress of his mind. The legitimate influence which he exer- 
cises, as well as the authority which undoubtedly belongs to his 
position, have never led him to force the distinguished profes- 
sors who labor under his direction to share his views in every 
respect, so as to constrain their own ideas or to hide their pref- 
erences concerning the methods of teaching. 

"His energy, his tact and perseverance enabled him to ob- 
tain from Congress, in spite of strong opposition, large appro- 
priations, which made it possible for him to create a model 
institution meeting the requirements of the intellectual training 
and the exigencies of the physical culture of his students." 

After giving a full account of the position taken by Dr. 
Gallaudet at the Paris Congress of 1900, as regards the most 
suitable and successful method of instruction for the deaf, which 
will be known to our readers from the accounts of that Con- 
gress given in previous numbers of the Association Review, 
Mr. Legrand continues: 

"Faithful to our principle of impartiality, we make no com- 
ment on Dr. Gallaudet's utterances at the Paris Congress. Suf- 
fice it to say that at the present time two men represent the 
education of the deaf in the United States: A. Graham Bell 
and Edward M. Gallaudet. One is the champion of the oral 
method, and the other the advocate of the mixed method — the 
combined system. Both have their enthusiastic admirers. The 
authority which attaches to their names is only equaled by their 
devotion to the cause. It is hardly necessary to add that Dr. 
Gallaudet is immensely popular with the deaf-mutes. They have 
for a long time fully appreciated the brilliant qualities and the 
boundless devotion of the President of the Washington College. 
His energetic defense of the sign language, and the limits set 
by him to oral teaching have contributed not a little towards 
that warm mutual sympathy which shows itself every time Dr. 
Gallaudet meets deaf-mutes, whether they be speaking or not. 

"If the students look upon him as their friend, the pro- 
fessors, his colleagues and co-laborers, have invariably shown 
liim an esteem of which he may well be proud. When only nine- 

Reviews. 171 

teen years old, he was elected one of the Secretaries of the Con- 
vention of American Instructors of the Deaf, and has taken part 
in nearly all the annual meetings of the same. For a long time 
his name has figured among the members of the executive com- 
mittee of that powerful association, over whose meetings he 
presided in 1901^ and whose discussions he will also direct in the 
future, as he has just been re-elected as its President. He has 
made many journeys to Europe in order to make personal ob- 
servations of the methods pursued and the results obtained in 
the principal European institutions for the deaf. In 1886 he was 
invited to visit Great Britain at the request of the Royal Com- 
mission of London. Both he, and his illustrious opponent and 
friend Dr. A. G. Bell, made an address before this Commission, 
as representatives of the American schools and methods. 

"Dr. Gallaudet made use of his leisure moments to compile 
a 'Manual of International Laws' which enjoys great popu- 
larity in the American Colleges. Besides being an active mem- 
ber of numerous scientific literary and patriotic societies, he has 
published a great deal on the education of the deaf, all of ex- 
ceedingly g^eat interest, besides a number of documentary re- 
ports which prove invaluable to the historian. 

"It is well known that the statue of Thomas Hopkins Gal- 
laudet adorns the beautiful park which surrounds the College 
at Kendall Green. We must state, in conclusion, that the Fed- 
eral Government, in recognition of the eminent services ren- 
dered by this family of educators to the cause of the silent world, 
resolved some years ago to give the name of Gallaudet to the 
first and so far the only institution for the secondary education 
of the deaf. We take the liberty hereby publicly to add the 
voice of the Revue Generale to the well merited homage." 

Contents of the December number: "Some views of a 

Russian professor on the instruction of the deaf," by B. Thallon. 

A criticism of the recent work by M. Vassilieff, professor at the 

Imperial Institution for the Deaf at St. Petersburg, entitled: 

"Method of instructing the deaf by speech here used in the sense 

of articulation, lip-reading, and speech, writing, and reading." 

Mr. Vassilieff bases his program for the instruction of the deaf 

on the following principles: ist. In the first degree — or stage 

of instruction — each word taught should serve as the basis for 

the comprehension of other words and represent an entire 

group of words. In teaching one creates, so to speak, a nest 

in the mind of the child which the words of the same group (or 

family) will gradually fill. 2d. These words must have a widely 

1/2 The Association Review. 

extended signification, i. e., constitute a language sufficient for 
the verbal relations of the child with its surroundings. [Thus 
among the terms signifying relationship, Mr. Vassilieff selects 
the word "parent" (French), covered in English by the term 
"relative," which the child may apply to his brother, father, 
grandfather, uncle, cousin, etc.] 3d. The words composing the 
first degree of the program must belong to all parts of speech 
so as to permit of the formation of the proposition. 4th. The 
words most needed to express the common necessities of every 
day life should be taught first. On these principles Mr. Vassi- 
lieff ararlges his course of instruction. He divides it in five de- 
grees. The first comprises 300 words and the simple proposi- 
tion; the second brings the stock of words up to 1,000, the third 
to 3,000, the fourth to 5,000, and the fifth and last to 7,000 words. 
"The deaf and their relation to the French law" (conclusion), 
by Ad. Belanger. Necrology. Miscellaneous reports and com- 

Contents of the January, 1902, number: "The time needed 
for instruction in articulation," by A, Liot. Nearly all who at 
this time are engaged in the instruction of the deaf are agreed 
that the oral method constitutes a forward step, a progress, but 
all state at the same time that the results obtained by the appli- 
cation of this method have not entirely realized the expecta- 
tions entertained with the regard to it. This disproportion be- 
tween efforts and results is due to various causes, among which 
the principal one — in Mr. Liot's opinion — ^is the short time de- 
voted to articulation. The most practical way to remedy this 
defect is to reduce the number of scholars in classes of artic- 
ulation. Their number should in no case exceed five, so that 
the teacher can give ample time to each scholar. Mr. Liot 
says in conclusion: "This would of course increase the ex- 
penses of the school, but I feel convinced that the oral method 
cannot be applied without cohsiderable expense. Either one 
should be willing to bear this expense, or give up the method." 
"The Chronophotography of the word" (first article), by H. 
Marichelle. Mr. Marichelle is of opinion that this method of 
analyzing the movements of sounds, will, if perfected, serve ist, 
to make the study of the acts of phonation more precise; 2nd, 

Reviews. 173 

to improve the present methods of teaching speaking, pronun- 
ciation, either in speech or song, and articulation ; 3d, to perfect 
the art of lip-reading. "Statistics as to the epochs and causes 
of deafness in children," by A. Boyer. In 1895 and 1896 very 
careful statistics, in regard to this matter, were taken at the 
National Institution for the Deaf at Paris, with the following 
results: Statistics of the epochs of deafness: of the 228 children 
at the institution, 116 were born deaf, 23 became deaf during 
their first year, 26 in the second year, 21 in the third, 18 in the 
fourth, 8 in the fifth, 7 in the sixth, 3 in the seventh, 2 in the 
eighth, I in the ninth, and 3 in the tenth. Statistics of the 
causes of deafness : 37 lost their hearing through meningitis, 22 
through convulsions, 14 typhoid fever, 9 falls, 4 mumps, 4 affec- 
tion of the glands, 2 bronchitis, 2 scarlet fever, 2 croup, 2 fright, 
I affection of the almonds of the ear, i whooping cough, i vio- 
lent detonation close to the ear. One child had lost hearing 
suddenly at the age of nine, without any appreciable cause. 
Necrology. M. Colmet Daage (with portrait), late member of 
the consulting commission of the National Institution for the 
Deaf. Bom 1844, died 1901. Miscellaneous reports and com- 
munications: "The Deaf in Norway"; "Causes of Deafness." 
Reviews of books and periodicals: Course of instruction for 
schools of the deaf, published by the Hungarian Ministry of 
Public Instruction. The i6th meeting of American Instructors 
of the Deaf in American Annals. 

Eighteenth Biennial Report of the Mississippi Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb, at Jackson. 1901. 

The Superintendent, Mr. J. R. Dobyns, reports an increase 
in attendance during the past two years of 77 pupils, and says 
that the probability is that during the next two years over two 
hundred children will be asking for admission. Additional 
room is a necessity. The Superintendent has given up the cot- 
tage in which his family lived, that it may be used for little boys, 
and teachers that have been boarding in have been provided for 
outside to make room for pupils. 

174 The Association Review. 

The school is now educating a little deaf-blind child, Maud 
Scott, and the narration of the successive steps taken to arouse 
the child's dormant intelligence and to start her in the ways of 
learnings is exceedingly interesting. 

The Superintendent makes an earnest recommendation that 
the Institution be removed to a new location and provided with 
suitable and comfortable buildings. The present location is in 
the heart of the city of Jackson, and the buildings are old and 
in need of extensive repair; besides more room is needed which 
can not be provided at the present location. 

The school employs the "combined system/' which, in the 
words of the Superintendent, means, "we teach every child that 
is able to learn, to speak and read the lips; instruct by speech, 
manual spelling and writing, having recourse to signs to explain 
the meaning of words when it would otherwise take up too much 
time. The classes are divided into Manual and Oral.** 

[Since the above review was written news has come of the 
complete destruction of the main building of the Institution by 
fire. This of course will compel a new building and probably 
it means a new location for the school.] 

Revista de Instruccion Primarie [Review of Primary Instruc- 
tion], Vol. XII, Nos. 7 and 8; Santiago, Chile; March and 
April, 1898. 

No. 7 contains an article on schools for the blind, and in- 
cidentally gives some statistics relative to the number of blind 
and deaf in Chile, from which it appears that, according to the 
census of 1885, there were in Chile 3,036 blind, 2,619 deaf, and 
1683 deaf-mutes. No. 8 contains a brief article on the Chile 
school for deaf-mutes, stating that for various reasons the 
school has not been very well attended of late years. The 
method employed at the school is that of lip-reading; and the 
course of instruction comprises reading, writing, arithmetic, 
drawing, manual work, and gymnastics. The school is sup- 
ported by the Government, and instruction is given free. 

Reviews. 175 

L'Echo des Sourd-muets [Deaf-mute Echo], Paris, December, 
1901, and February^ 1902. 

This is a monthly newspaper, in the full sense of the word; 
but of course devotes special attention to matters of interest 
to the deaf. These numbers are accompanied by the Report 
for the year 1901 of the "Mutual Aid Society of the Deaf in 
France." It appears that during the year the Society aided 27 
persons out of work, procured work for 67, placed a number of 
deaf children in schools, and bore a number of funeral expenses. 
The Society has its headquarters in Paris but its members, each 
of whom pays a small annual sum^ are scattered through all 
parts of France. 

Fourth Report of the Provincial School for the Deaf at 
Stade, Province of Hanover, Prussia. 

The report covers the period from 1893 to 1901, and the 
school was during that period attended by 140 scholars^ of 
whom 72 were deaf from their birth, whilst 70 had become deaf 
from various diseases. As usual in such Reports of German 
schools, the report proper is followed by some treatise; in the 
present case on "the German method and the division of deaf 
pupils according to their mental capacity," by F. Werner, one 
of the teachers. 

De Doves Blad [Journal for the Deaf], Christiania, Norway, 
No. I, 1902. 

Most of the articles in this journal are of a pronounced 
religious and edifying character, as will appear from some of the 
titles: "Lord, let it (the fig tree) alone this year also; if it bear 
fruit"; "The faith of my childhood"; "In the eleventh hour"; etc. 
a page or two however, are also given to communications rela- 
tive to the education of the deaf in different parts of the world. 

176 The AssociaHon Review. 

American Annals of the Deaf, Washington, D. C. March, 

This number opens with a paper on "Programmes and 
their Value," by Minnie E. Morris of Cleveland, Ohio. It is 
shown that the usual value of a programme enabling the teacher 
to apportion the time properly among the various classes and 
subjects taught, is supplemented by other values: the use of a 
programme teaches promptness, justice, the value of time, to be 
exact in work, and to be systematic and orderly. A specimen 
programme is presented and its use is explained in detail. 
Speaking of correcting mistakes in written work, the writer 
makes a point that may well be emphasized by repetition: "The 
line must be drawn between correcting and teaching. True, 
all correcting is or should be a species of teaching; but when 
teaching principles, correcting mistakes should play a minor 
part, while in correcting mistakes no attempt should be made 
to teach principles." 

An anonymous paper on "Instruction in Manners" presents 
some good thoughts on a too much neglected subject. As the 
writer says: "We often hear the deaf criticised as rude and ill 
bred, but we who know them understand that their apparent 
lack of good breeding is not from intention, but from ignorance 
and timidity." Parents, unable to teach their children, are to 
an extent unable to train them; to whom then must the deaf 
child look for training but to his teachers and supervisors. Su- 
pervisors and attendants are frequently men and women of little 
education, and their ideas of the proper things to do are exceed- 
ingly limited. It follows that the part of the work of training 
in good manners that falls to them will be but poorly done. The 
writer relates an instance of meeting a deaf young man at a 
dinner whose manners in the drawing-room were exemplary, 
but coming to the table he astonished the company by his lack 
of table manners. It was afterwards found that the young man 
came from a school where the pupils were allowed to eat their 
meals with very little supervision. The writer urges that it is 
just as important to have supervisors capable of instructing in 
table manners as to have teachers capable of conducting rec- 

Reviews. 177 

"Notes on Language Teaching/' by E. S. Tillinghast of 
Danville, Ky. The special point of this paper is the suggestion 
that it makes that teachers in the progress of their work keep 
a record of the characteristic mistakes made by the pupils; and 
that such records made by teachers of different schools and 
working by different methods be brought into comparison^ with 
the view that the results obtained by the various methods as 
thus presented may be utilized in shaping and perfecting the 
order and details of a systematic course of instruction in lan- 
guage. A record of the kind suggested is given in which it is 
shown that out of a total of 327 errors made, 202 or 61.5 per 
cent., relate to the use of the verb. From this and other facts 
the writer deduces that the mastery of the verb is the crucial 
test of the pupil's command of language, and how to teach the 
verb properly is the most important question the primary 
teacher has to solve. It is pointed out that the persistent teach- 
ing and use of a single form of the verb — as the present tense 
form — ^to the exclusion of all other forms, for a prolonged period 
in the beginning, establishes habits of misuse of the form taught 
that it is exceedingly difficult to eradicate, and the record shows 
that of 188 mistakes in the verb, nearly one third of them were 
the use of the present tense form for the past. 

In "Useful Devices for a Primary Class," Miss Mary S. 
Breckenridge of Danville, Ky., presents a number of helps that 
she employs to make obscure points plain. To distinguish be- 
tween vocal and non-vocal elements, colored crayons are used, 
a red line under a breath consonant being made to suggest the 
red lips and to symbolize thereafter the breath felt upon the 
hand when held before the lips. Giving voice after final &, d, 
and g is thus corrected by drawing the red line under the ele- 
ments. And again the proper quantity to the short vowels may 
be indicated with another color, as a little dash of green beneath 
them. Tense forms of the verb are differentiated to the eye more 
clearly if different colors are used. Further devices are sug- 
gested in the "Five Slate System," in counting, in teaching 
color and texture, and writing, in journal-writing, and in the use 
of rewards. 

"The Social Status of the Deaf in the Past— IV." This is 

1 78 The Association Review. 

the concluding paper of a valuable and interesting series by 
Mr. J. A. Tillinghast, Fellow in History and Political Science, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. The series is a careful 
compilation, the result of exhaustive and studious research, of 
all that has been written and preserved concerning the deaf and 
their social status in the successive ages of the world's history. 
Any review of these papers would fail to do justice to them that 
did not give them far more space than can here be spared. Suf- 
fice it to say the writer of the papers has done his work well, 
and with the completion of his task he may be assured that the 
service that he has rendered to history and to students of history 
of the present and of comini^ times, will be recognized and ap- 
preciated as of great and permanent value. 

"The Abuse of the Sign-Language: by its Friends; by its 
Foes," by James L. Smith of Faribault, Minn. This paper pre- 
sents undoubledly the strongest defense of the sign-language 
and the strongest plea for its use in the instruction of the deaf, 
that have yet been made. Himself deaf the writer is a master 
of the language of signs, and being a teacher with many years' 
experience in the practice of sign-language methods, he will be 
accepted as an authority on the question — or at any rate on the 
sign-language side of it. The salient point of the paper is its 
plea for what is termed the "proper use" of the sign-language 
as against its improper use or its abuse, and it is well shown 
that the abuse of the language comes most from its friends— in 
their excessive or grotesque use of it, in their qualified or luke- 
warm championship of it, or in their ignorance or injudicious- 
ness resulting in a manner of use to arouse prejudice and to 
bring the language into direpute. The writer warns against 
the deterioration of the language, and upon this point he says: 
"The sign-language, like other languages, is subject to rapid 
deterioration at the hands of the ignorant, the injudicious, and 
the careless. But the sign-language runs a far greater risk in 
this respect than other languages, for it has no written or print- 
ed literature to preserve it in its purity." And he notes the 
several ways in which the language may deteriorate, namely, 
(i) by the introduction of ineleci^ant, though usually expressive, 
signs, corresponding to slang in spoken languages; (2) by the 

Reviews, 179 

imperfect making of signs^ i. e.^ only half making them, or mak- 
ing them in a careless and slipshod fashion, so that they lose 
nearly all their grace of suggestiveness ; (3) by making them 
improperly, so that their original derivation is lost sight of; (4) 
by the accompaniment of facial contortions, and unnecessary 
movements and attitudes of the limbs and body. A protest is 
entered against the spirit of mere toleration of the sign-language 
in some schools and the attitude of apology maintained toward 
it by the authorities. To quote the writer: 

"They say, *VVe do not teach signs.' Thus what is really a 
most useful auxiliary in the education and happiness of the deaf 
is neglected, forced into the background, treated as the *ugly 
duckling' of the family, and consequently undergoes marked de- 
terioration. They do not teach signs. The signs are left to 
themselves, then. The children learn them spontaneously, the 

younger from the older Instead of saying, *We do not 

teach signs/ it would be more creditable if we could say, *We 
teach signs; we use every endeavor to secure their correct and 
graceful use by teachers and pupils; and we try to keep them 
under control, that they may not be subjected to the abuse of 
overuse/ " 

To the end that the sign-language shall be preserved and 

receive proper cultivation, the writer urges that in all schools 
where it is used at all, it be systematically taught to the pupils, 
and that new teachers be trained in its use. This advice if 
followed would be a turning back to the common practices of ten 
and twenty years ago, and we doubt much if the profession at 
large will be persuaded to that, even if thereby the sign-language 
may be perserved for the minor uses to which it may be put. 
While we can not have other than admiration for the loyalty of 
the writer to the sign-language, and respect for his opinions and 
the opinions of those in accord with him as to the value of the 
language for certain purposes, we believe he must himself be 
doubtful upon the main question of the adequacy and utility of 
the sign-language as an educational instrument for use in a 
school for the deaf, for along with his plea for the preservation 
of the language and its cultivation, he delivers himself of the 
following significant expression and warning regarding its use 
in actual school practice. After urging that signs be taught to 
pupils and to new teachers, he says: 

i8o The Association Review. 

"But all this should be accompanied by the warning that 
signs must not be used all the time. Exclude them nearly, or 
entirely, from the classroom. With all the force of moral sua- 
sion and example, diminish their use among the pupils outside 
of the classroom." 

It may be suggested in passing that the average teacher — 
the type of the great class that must be considered in this con- 
nection — will hardly be able to use moral suasion, or any other 
kind, effectively thus in two directions at the same time, encour- 
aging on the one hand the learning of the sign-language and 
the cultivation of it, and discouraging on the other hand its use 
in actual school work and outside practice. Most teachers are 
so constituted intellectually and morally that they must treat 
the sign-language — considered as an educational factor — either 
as a good thing or as an evil thing, and the same thing at all 
hours of the day and in all departments of the work, for other- 
wise they will not be able to maintain that consistent attitude 
toward it before their pupils necessary to give moral suasion 
when exercised effective force. 

The remainder of the article, is devoted to the question of 
the abuse of the sign-language by its foes. It names the points 
raised against the sign-language by its opponents as follows: 

I. They are unpleasant to the sight. 

'2. They lack expressiveness, and do not rise to the dig- 
nity of a language. 

"3. They retard, or prevent, proficiency in speech and 

"4. They cause 'mutisms' and prevent the mastery of En- 

If the counts had been limited to the last two, they would 
have covered all that are seriously made by the foes of the sign- 
language; for but few teachers object to the sign-language be- 
cause it is unpleasant to the sight, and still fewer deny that it 
is a language. However, the main argument is directed to 
meeting the last two points, which it does fairly well. We are 
glad of the argument; and our only regret is that it is not even 
stronger and more convincing, for the sign-language is with 
us as the one easy thing for deaf children to learn, and none 
would welcome it to their aid more than teachers of the deaf — 

Reviews. i8i 

regardless of methods followed — could it be harnessed to any 
really profitable utility. The first of the two chief points made 
against the sign-language, the writer meets thus: 

"Does the sign-language per se retard or prevent profi- 
ciency in speech or lip-reading? Its opponents claim that it 
does, and hence they would abolish it utterly. But I think that 
the case is by no means proved. I am ready to admit that an 
unrestricted use of signs will retard progress in speech and lip- 
reading. But if signs are kept under control, and used for stim- 
ulating ideas and for explanation, it is a question whether the 
additional stimulus that they impart to the mind is not an ad- 
vantage. Some of the best speakers and lip-readers among the 
deaf in America today graduated from schools in which the use 
of signs was permitted." 

Cases are cited of good speech and lip-reading developed 
notwithstanding a free use of the sign-language. It is indeed 
gratifying that there are such cases and we wish there were 
more, and that they proved more — more than merely the fact 
of good teaching, a kind of teaching fortunately always possible 
no matter what the otherwise unfavorable conditions may be. 

Upon the final count of the indictment relating to the al- 
leged tendency of the sign-language to cause "mutisms" and to 
prevent the mastery of English, the argument is well advanced 
that the poorly taught, whether deaf or not, or if deaf, whether 
taught by signs or without signs, are all alike in this, that they 
use poor English abounding in "mutisms." The argument on 
this point is as follows: 

"Errors in English, which are common to all who are learn- 
ing the language, are due to lack of familiarity with it. To call 
them 'mutisms' in the case of the deaf, and ascribe them to the 
use of signs, is assuming a position that is not supported by 
facts. The errors of the infant just learning to talk, the gram- 
matical errors that cling to hearing children for years, and are 
never entirely overcome by some; the blunders of foreigners 
learning our language; the peculiar errors made by the deaf 
educated in an atmosphere of signs; and the identical errors 
made by the deaf taught orally, entirely without signs, as is 
claimed — all these belong to the same class, though varying in 
degree^ and are caused by the intricacies of the English lan- 
guage and the difficulty of mastering its idiom. As good an 
authority as Philip Gilbert Hamerton says that it takes twenty 

1 82 The Association Review. 

years to learn a foreign language. Is it, then, any marvel or 
reproach that the deaf and foreigners make such errors on short 
acquaintance with English ?" 

A large number of specimens of faulty English written by 
foreigners with small knowledge of the language are given for 
the purpose of proving, as we take it, that poor English and 
"mutisms" are not caused primarily and solely by signs, or 
in other words, that faulty English and "mutisms" may exist 
where there is no knowledge of signs. The point as stated is 
undoubtedly proven, but it is wholly negative proof even con- 
ceding that it bears in any way on the main question. The in- 
dictment against signs, it seems to us, still stands — ^that the use 
of signs hinders, and in many cases prevents, the mastery of 
English^ for the use of signs is the non-use of English^ and in 
just the measure of this non-use of English it is the non-learn- 
ing of English. 

The remainder of the article is devoted largely to the pre- 
sentation of specimens of composition in which poor oral work 
is brought into comparison with good manual work; and cases 
are cited where pupils have had oral instruction without ap- 
parent benefit, then have received manual instruction making 
more or less progress under it, which as evidence leads the 
writer to say: 

"Such cases as I have cited^ all of which have come under 
my personal observation, seem to me to prove conclusively that 
oral environment does not necessarily produce good English, or 
sign environment bad English." 

The article concludes with a statement showing briefly the 
writer's exact position upon the question of the sign-language, 
also his attitude toward speech-teaching, and in view of all that 
has been given, it is proper to quote it: 

"My object in writing this article has not been to eulogize 
the sign-language, but to defend it where it needs defense — from 
many of its friends who speak of it and use it carelessly and in- 
judiciously, and from foes who misrepresent it and cast unjust 
aspersions upon it. 

"I am fully in accord with the opinion of the majority of 
American educators of the deaf, as expressed clearly and con- 
cisely in the oft-quoted Berkeley resolution. I believe that 

Reviews, 183 

every deaf child should be given opportunity to learn to speak 
and read the lips. I believe in the restriction of the sign-lan- 
guage in all schools to its proper use as an auxiliary. But I 
hold that it is a rank injustice to neglect it and allow it to de- 
teriorate, as is so often done of late years. And, finally, an ex- 
perience of many years among the deaf, both at school and out 
in the world, leads me to affirm that, under proper conditions 
and with proper restrictions, the sign-language adds to, rather 
than detracts from, the intellectual, moral, and social welfare 
of the deaf." 

'*The Wisconsin Round Table," by Almira I. Hobart of 
Delavan, Wis. This report of a meeting of Wisconsin teachers 
of the deaf held at Milwaukee, Dec. 26-28, 1901, was in its sub- 
stance printed in the February number of the Review. 

The remaining papers of this number are '*A Triumph of 
Humanity," by Paul Denys of Belleville, Canada; "The Battle 
of Methods — ^a Rejoinder," by T. A. Walsh of Namur, Belgium; 
"Proposed Summer School for the Training of Articulation 
Teachers," an announcement by the Committee in charge. No- 
tices of Publications. School Items. Miscellaneous. 

National Geographic Magazine, Washington, D. C. 

The March number of this magazine presents the following 
table of contents: "The Possibilities of Alaska," C. C. George- 
son; "Sarichefs Atlas, 1826," Marcus Baker; "Magnetic Survey 
of the United States — with chart, L. A. Bauer; "Sven Hedin in 
Tibet;" "American Progress in Habana" — with illustrations; 
"Cuban Railways," Albert G. Robinson; "The Storm of Feb- 
ruary 25-28, 1902"— with chart, Alfred J. Henry; "Agriculture 
in Alaska," Henry Gannett. Geographic Notes. Geographic 

Contents of the April number: "Recent French Explo- 
rations in Africa,"— illustrated, by Charles Rabot; "Proposed 
Surveys in Alaska in 1902,"— with map, by Alfred H. Brooks; 
"Ocean Currents," by James Page. Geographic Notes. 
Geographic Literature. National Geographic Society. 

1^4 The Associatiofi Rcviciv, 

International Reports of Schools for the Deaf. Made to the 
Volta Bureau, January, .901. Washington, D. C. Gibson 
Bros 1902. 

This Report, the second of its kind — the first having been 
issued in 1896 — is one more object lesson in demonstration of 
the great work that the Volta Bureau, as an institution "for the 
increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf/* is do- 
ing in its special field of labor. The Report is, moreover, in 
the elements of intrinsic value that it possesses, another evidence 
of the broad, far seeing wisdom and well directed philanthropy 
that brought the Volta Bureau into being, and that thus made 
this publication, with much other work of equal merit, possible, 
for it could scarcely be imagined such a Report as this before 
us being undertaken and carried to successful issue by any 
other existing agency or institution. 

The world is coming closer together in all its fields of 
thought and labor, and perhaps in no other more rapidly than in 
our own professional field; and we believe that the Volta Bureau 
is, as it has been from its beginning, a most active and potent 
agency to this end. While having its local home, the Bureau is 
peculiarly a world institution in all that it contemplates and in 
all the utilities that it serves, and growing recognition of this 
fact must more and more, as time goes on, make it the accepted 
world agency and clearing house through which many minds and 
many interests may in the coming years unitedly labor in the 
economical and rapid advancement of our professional work 
along its best and most acceptable lines. 

The "International Reports of Schools for the Deaf" will do 
much to direct attention to the world work the Volta Bureau is 
doing, and to win recognition of it in all quarters, thus bringing 
to it larger and heartier cooperation, and rendering it thereby 
increasingly effective of its aims and purposes. 

Coming to the Report itself, it is a document of fifty-six 
8 vo. pages of closely printed matter. It is alphabetical in its 
arrangement, first by continents, second by countries, third by 
states, fd^rth by cities, and finally, as in London, by local dis- 
tricts ard streets. Everv known school for the deaf in the world 
has thus its place, and can be found by turning to it, with the 



detail of facts of chief importance relating to it. Thus are given 
the location of a school — ^its country, state^ county, city, street^ 
number; its corporate title or name; the date when it was 
founded or opened; by whom or by what agency founded; the 
name of its executive officer; its character — private, public, 
boarding, or day-school; the method — oral, manual, or com- 
bined; the number of teachers employed; the number of pupils 
congenitally deaf; the number of pupils with some hearing pow- 
er; and the total number of pupils in attendance. Closely fol- 
lowing these details, given in tabular form, are notes relating 
additional facts and details of the schools of much value and in- 
terest, and they contribute greatly to the usefulness of the Re- 
port in all cases where information is required regarding for- 
eign or little known schools. 

The total number of schools in the world, as reported, is 
645, Europe leading with 450, and North America coming sec- 
ond with 135; the numbers of teachers and pupils bear about 
the same proportion, there being in Europe 3,152 teachers and 
25,821 pupils, and in North America 1,489 teachers and 11,760 

The following is the summary table of the Reports, show- 
ing totals by continents. The initials in the table, S. H. P., 
mean that the pupils recorded m the column have some hearing 






North America 
South America 



















8. H.P. 


















No summary is given showing classification of schools and 
pupils with regard to methods of instruction employed, and as 

1 86 

The Association Reznew. 

that is a matter of interest, we have gone over the tables and 
the counts give the following figures: 



Orali 386 

Combined 89 

Oral and manual 26 

Mixed 21 

Manual 7 

Mimic 5 

Sign 8 

Eclectic 3 

Manual alphabet 2 

Oral and mixed 2 

Oral and dactylolgy 2 

Writing and aactylolgy 2 

Writing 2 

Manual and sign 2 

Oral and writing 

Manual, combined, and oral 

Oral and aural 

Oral and sign 


Any and all 
















1 Schools are counted as Oral which are returned as Oral, Oral pure, 
Pare oral, Lautsprache or Deutsche methode, and Heine Lautsprache. 

The Reports will, we understand, be widely circulated, and 

when sent to schools will be accompanied by a circular letter 

in the vernacular known to be familiar to recipients, embracing 

the English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, 

Russian, and Swedish languages. The hiture policy of the 

Volta Bureau with regard to these "Reports" is given by the 

Superintendent, Mr. John Hitz, in the circular letter as follows: 

"We propose to issue these Reports, consisting of a com- 
plete list of all known Schools for the Deaf, hereafter, decen- 
nially, and trust that you will be pleased to cooperate with this 
Bureau in rendering, so far as your school is concerned, the 
Report for 1910 as complete as possible. Blank schedules for 
the purpose will be mailed to you early that year." 


-. « Shi ^^ ^^^ express as we believe a general re- 

PostiMMi t ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ necessity that exists for the 

abandonment for the present of the project 
for a Summer School of training for teachers of the deaf. From 
all evidence coming to us, the desire for such a school is wide 
spread and earnest, not a few letters received — aside from 
those making application for admission to the school — showing 
interest that was unmistakable and a desire for the school that 
will be satisfied only in its actual establishment. Thus^ while 
the number of bona fide applications received was not suffi- 
cient to warrant the Committee in proceeding with arrange- 
ments for the school as planned for the coming summer, the 
correspondence had upon the subject was, in its amount and 
character, such as to give not only great encouragement, but 
to make it almost a matter of duty on the part of the Board to 
keep the project still in view and to take measures to bring it 
finally to a successful issue. The correspondence gave to the 
Committee much information, and this, with the further study 
that can now be had of the conditions, makes possible modi- 
fication of the plan upon lines to render it not only more practi- 
cable in its details, but also more generally acceptable to those 
it is designed to benefit. 

Of course what may be done is now a question for the 
future and for the Board in its discretion to determine, but 
as the necessity for a Summer School for teachers of the deaf 
has been felt to exist, this necessity will, as the years pass and 
the work enlarges, not grow less, but rather greater and to an 
extent, as we believe, to force the question to early issue and 
to some very practical solution. 

The report of the Committee on the Summer School, 

1 88 The Association Review, 

through its Chairman, to the President of the Association, rec- 
ommending the postponement of the Summer School, and the 
announcement of the postponement by the President, of both 
the Summer Meeting and the Summer School, are given else- 
where. We direct attention to these, and especially to the re- 
port of the Summer School Committee as suggesting the lines 
which future action relating to the project may be expected to 

-.- p . - Apropos of the discussion of the sign 

AL es MM At. a method and its existence or non-existence in 
the Si|[a-Method , . . , . , 

the systems of mstruction practiced m the 

schools of this country, the quotations from the early Hartford 
School Reports relating to signs and their uses, as given in this 
number in "Historical Notes," assume new and peculiar inter- 
est. That the sign method was used in the early days of our 
American schools, and that it was believed in with a species of 
faith amounting almost to religious conviction, are abundantly 
manifest. It was evidently in the early day the one method 
underlying all other methods, and the chief and indispensable 
part of them all. As such it was made the subject of much 
thought and study by able teachers using it, and their effort to 
develop and improve it brought it, it may be conceded, in time 
to a relatively high state of perfection and efficiency. 

There is every reason to believe that the sign method prac- 
ticed by the early teachers prevailed for many years, not only 
in the parent Hartford school, but also and naturally in all the 
other schools of the country. The writer's own experience as 
a teacher is confirmatory of this, for in our entrance upon the 
work — only a little more than a score of years ago — it was our 
principal recommendation and chief qualification, our life-long 
familiarity with signs; and from the beginning we were system- 
atically and thoroughly trained in the sign method of instruc- 
tion by a master of it, and we studied it, practiced it, and de- 
fended it upon occasion, through all the early years of our 
teaching experience with hardly a thought that there was any 
other method of educating the deaf worthy the name. But 

Editorial. 189 

while we know when the sign method of instructing the deaf 
ceased to exist in our own experience and practice — we do 
know this almost to a day — the question arises, just when did 
it pass entirely out of use from all the schools for the deaf in 
the country. This is a question of historical interest, not to 
say importance, and it should have answer if answer can be 
given. Was it at the famous Indianapolis Convention (1870), 
when the sign method was the subject of chiefest consideration 
and bitterest contention ? Or sixteen years later, at the Cali- 
fornia Convention, when the oft-quoted resolutions in favor of 
giving every deaf child opportunity to learn to speak, were 
passed ? Or at the New York Convention (1890), when the 
illustrious and lamented Dr. Peet exploited once again his in- 
genious signs-spelling-speaking-writing system, with all its 
factors in simultaneous operation; and at which Convention the 
American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf was organized by a handful of its members? Or was 
it at the Chicago World's Congress (1893), when a paper by a 
Superintendent still at the head of a large school, upon methods 
of using the sign-language in the school-room, was listened to 
with attention and interest? Or was it when, in 1894, the Penn- 
sylvania Institution abandoned the sign method in its manual 
department, and — ^the first school in the country after the 
Rochester School to do so — adopted the manual alphabet 
method in its place? Or has it been sometime in the recent 
half dozen years, when — with no proclamation, no demonstra- 
tion, the schools still practicing the sign method have, as with 
one common impulse, taken the step forward and put the meth- 
od aside and abandoned it ? 

Some changes, even great ones oftentimes, come on so 
slowly, working the while so quietly and insidiously to their 
end, that they are completed before we know or realize it, and 
pronouncement of their completion comes, when made, of 
necessity unexpectedly, and usually with a jar that startles. 
And this has been the effect of the pronouncement recently 
made by high authority, in the course of argument, that "the 
sign method does not exist in this country nor any other." We 
are little disposed to question the truth of the pronouncement 

190 The Association Review. 

thus made; some have done so, but it is possible they only pro- 
claim in their questioning a belated awakening. For our own 
part we hope the pronouncement is literally and exactly true, 
that the sign method of instruction no longer exists anywhere 
nor is practiced in any school for the deaf in the world. It is 
surely a consummation devoutly to be wished, and, if it be a 
consummation actually arrived and accomplished, there is 
indeed cause for rejoicing. 

But the question recurs as to the time of the change, or 
of its completion, the time of the actual passage into non-exist- 
ence of this method that has known the work of the instruction 
of the deaf so long, serving, it must be conceded, always faith- 
fully if not well. We would not raise a monument to the sign 
method, for it is hardly worthy that honor, but in the interest of 
historical accuracy, and in all seriousness be it added, we should 
have recorded for preservation and future use the exact and 
undisputed date of its demise. The question then is, just when 
did the sign method cease to exist? 

We have almost ceased to wonder at any- 
Hclcn Keller's ^j^.^^^ j^^j^^ j^^jj^^ attempts, and hardly 

^ more at anything she accomplishes. If she 

has not genius — ^we are not yet ready to admit this, nor to deny 
it — she certainly has those other elements of character and of 
power that, possessed, ever make for greatness and lead to 
worthy achievement. The remarkable thing is no longer her 
mentality, nor any one of her many accomplishments: these 
have come to be a matter of course. But it is, and will remain 
to the end, the wonderful fact, that all of knowledge, of devel- 
opment, and of culture, and these severally in no small meas- 
ure, have come to this brave spirit, this joyous healthy mental- 
ity, solely through her one remaining learning sense — ^and that 
the poorest of them all — the sense of touch. The story of a 
life, shut out from all sight and sound impressions and experi- 
ences, and yet that has found through feeling free avenue 
and expression in terms that the hearing and seeing world 
understands, will possess almost the elements of novelty and 

Editorial. 191 

interest that it would have were it penned by an inhabitant of 

another sphere. And such is indeed "The Story of my Life/' 

as written by Helen Keller for the Ladies' Home Journal, and 

now appearing serially in that publication^ beginning with the 

April number before us. 

The editor of the publication gives in his foreword, a brief 

description of Helen's method of composition. He says: 

"As the feat may seem almost incredible, it may be in order 
to say at the beginning that every word of this story as printed 
in the Journal has actually been written by Helen Keller her- 
self — ^not dictated, but first written in "Braille" (raised points); 
then transferred to the typewriter by the wonderful girl herself; 
next read to her by means of the fingers; corrected; then read 
again to her, and in the proof finally read to her once more. It 
is the editor's hope to be able to publish at the conclusion of 
Miss Keller's own story a supplementary article by one of her 
friends, explaining in detail, exactly how this marvelous work 
was done." 

Space does not permit review of the story in all its inci- 
dents and details, but teachers will be especially interested in 
the particular incident that it seems was most determinative in 
bringing Helen under proper educational conditions and in- 
fluences, and interested, moreover, in knowing the important 
part Dr. Bell played in the matter. It was after or during a 
visit to a famous oculist in Baltimore, who, unable to cure the 
child of blindness, advised her father upon his future course. 
But we will allow Helen to tell it in her own words: 

"Doctor Chisholm received us kindly, but could do nothing. 
He said, however, that I could be educated, and advised my 
father to consult Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, of Washington, 
who would be able to give him information about schools and 
teachers of deaf or blind children. Therefore, in accordance 
with the Doctor's suggestion, we went to Washington to see 
Doctor Bell, my father with a sad heart and many misgivings, 
and I wholly unconscious of his anguish, finding pleasure in the 
excitement of moving from place to place. Child as I was, I 
at once felt the tenderness and sympathy which endeared Doc- 
tor Bell to so many hearts, as his wonderful achievements 
enlist their enthusiastic admiration. He held me on his knee 
while I examined his watch, and he made it strike for me. He 
understood my signs, and I knew it and loved him at once. 
But I did not dream that that interview would be the door 

192 7%/ Association Review. 

through which I should pass from darkness into light, from 
isolation to friendship, companionship, knowledge, love. 

"Doctor Bell advised my father to write to the principal 
of the Perkins Institution, in Boston, the scene of Doctor 
Howe's great labors for the blind, and ask him if he had a 
teacher competent to begin my education. This my father did 
immediately, and in a few weeks there came a kind letter from 
Mr. Anagnos with the comforting assurance that a teacher had 
been found. This was in the summer of 1886. But Miss Sulli- 
van did not arrive until the following March. 

"Then I came up out of Egypt and stood before Sinai, and 
a power divine touched my spirit and gave it sight, so that I 
beheld many wonders. And from the sacred mountain I heard 
a- voice which said, 'Knowledge is love and light and vision.' " 

Helen's story of her life will be continued, as we under- 
stand, in the several numbers of the Journal through the sum- 


In response to a request to Mr. Wm. Wade of Oakmont, 
Penn., he sends us the following complete list of deaf-blind per- 
sons now under instruction at various schools in this country. 
There are thirty names in the list, and each name means a vol- 
ume as we read in it its own special story of the translation of 
a human soul from the earth of physical and mental darkness 
to a heaven of intellectual and spiritual light. It is indeed a 
noble list as showing what this generation is doing toward dis- 
charging its full duty to children of all classes and in all con- 
ditions in giving them education, a duty moreover, it is need- 
less to say, that former generations have in this special part al- 
most wholly neglected. 

At Perkins Institution for the Blind, Boston: 

Edith M. Thomas, W. Elizabeth Robin, Thomas 
Stringer, Cora A. Crocker, Marian Rostron. 

At the New York Institution for the Deaf at Fanwood: 
Stanley Robinson, Katie M. M'Girr, Orris Benson, 
Catherine Pedersen. 

■ Editorial, 193 

At the Ohio Institution for the Deaf at Columbus: 

Leslie F. Oren, Carrie Lorna Self, John Porter Riley, 
Frances May Riley. 

At the Illinois Institution for the Blind at Jacksonville: 
Jessie Stewart, Emma Kubieck. 

At the South Dakota School for the Blind at Gary: 
Linnie Haguewood. 

At the Virginia Institution for the Deaf and the Blind at 
Nora Horton, Terry Crocket Cox. 

At the Mississippi Institution for the Deaf at Jackson: 
Maud Scott, Loca Pate. 

At the Colorado Institution for the Deaf and the Blind at 
Colorado Springs: 
Lottie Sullivan, Ralph Woodin. 

At the Western Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind: 
Maggie Castor. 

At the Louisiana Institution for the Deaf at Baton Rouge: 
Louis Daron. 

At the North Carolina Institution for the Blind at Raleigh: 
Beulah Templeton. 

At the Wisconsin School for the Deaf at Delavan: 
Eva Halliday. 

At the Texas School for the Deaf at Austin: 
Ruby Rice, Edgar Korte, Addilee Pruitt. 

At Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass.: . 
Helen A. Keller. 

The sad news comes of the death at her late home in Madi- 
son, Indiana, of Miss Cornelia S. Goode. Miss Goode was a 
most earnest and successful teacher, and a woman of high 
Christian character, and her death is a distinct loss to the work. 
She was widely known, having taught successively in the In- 
diana, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, California, and Wisconsin In- 

194 The Association Review. 



The main building of the Mississippi Institution for the 
Deaf at Jackson, was burned to the ground on March i8th. 
Fortunately the fire occurred in the day time and no lives were 
lost, all of the 150 children being safely removed. The fire 
originated immediately over the hospital in which there were 
at the time six or eight pupils sick in bed. In a space of time 
less than two minutes after the last child was removed, that 
part of the building fell in, consuming the beds on which the 
children had been lying. The loss was $40,000; insured for 
$15,000. The small loss itself indicates the character of the 
building destroyed, and it may be felt that the burning was 
really no great calamity. At any rate it insures to our Mississ- 
ippi co-laborers a new building, the one thing they have been 
hoping and praying for these many years. Two years ago 
the prospect was so favorable of a new building, that plans 
were drawn and published showing an admirably arranged 
structure to cost $200,000, but it proved a veritable "castle in 
the air" for our patient friends living in the ancient ram- 
shackle, for the Legislature at the last, through some slip, 
failed to make the necessary appropriation. The old plans will 
now no doubt be brought to the light, and the fine building that 
they contemplate will soon be under way. 




The Executive Committee of Department XVI of the 
National Educational Association met in business session at 
the Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, Friday afternoon, March 14, 
1902. All the members of the Committee were present, name- 
ly. Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, President, Mr. E. E. Allen, 
Vice-President, Mr. E. A. Gruver, Secretary. Dr. Bell pre- 
sided. Mr. F. W. Booth, editor of the Association Review, 
was present and took part in the deliberations. After several 
hours of discussion relative to the subject of re-organization. 

Editorial. 195 


the Committee adjourned to meet Saturday, March 22, at the 
Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind, Overbrook, Pa., to 
further consider the question of re-organization^ and the ques- 
tion of the programme for the Department at the meeting of 

the National Educational Association to be held in Minneapolis 
in July. 

The Committee met according to arrangement at Over- 
brook, Saturday afternoon, March 22. All the members were 
present, also Mr. F. W. Booth, and Mr. William Wait of the 
New York Institution for the Blind, by special invitation of the 
Committee. Dr. Bell presided. 

The Committee approved the resolution offered by Dr. A. 
L. E. Crouter, passed at the business meeting of the Depart- 
ment at Charleston, S. C, in 1900: **That for purposes of 
meeting we come together as one body, and that hereafter at 
each meeting the sub-departments for the deaf, the blind, and 
the feeble-minded be considered as a whole and not separately 
as is now the case." 

The Secretary then read the motion of Dr. J. C. Gordon 

passed at the business meeting of the Department at Detroit, 

Mich., in 1901, as follows: "That the report of the Committee 

on re-organization be referred to the Executive Committee, 

consisting of the officers-elect for the ensuing year, to report 

at the next meeting of the Department, and that the same 
Committee prepare a programme for the next meeting." 

Mr. E. E. Allen then read the report on re-organization 
offered to the Department at Detroit in 1901, and which was 
referred to the Committee, as follows: 

"The Section shall meet as one body and not as three sep- 
arate bodies, as has been the case. 

"It shall hold its meetings as closely associated in place as 
may be with the general meetings. 

"Its officers shall occasionally make an effort to get a 
paper on some phase of special education into the general 
meetings of the Association. 

"A serious effort shall be made to get at least one such 
paper into some section or department of the National Educa- 
tional Association other than Section XVI. 

"Encouragement shall always be given to having in the 
Section meetings papers and discussions by those not directly 
connected with the work of special education. 

196 The Association Review. 

"Exhibitions of the work of special schools or pupils had 
in connection with any meeting of Section XVI, shall be edu- 
cational in character and of high standard, or^ if sporadic, shall 
be particularly illustrative of one or more papers presented at 
the same meeting. When possible and practical, exhibits of 
the work of special schools shall be placed side by side with 
similar educational exhibits from other kinds of schools. 
Papers and discussions coming before Section XVI shall be 
general in treatment, or of such character as to be interesting 
and instructive to teachers in general; to that end, therefore, 
all controversy over special methods and systems shall be out 
of order and as such dispensed with." 

After due consideration, the Committee approved the 

suggestions contained in Mr. Allen's report, and begs to make 

the following recommendations: 

1. The name of the Department shall be, Department of 
Special Education — relating to childreyi demanding special means of 

2. The object of this Department shall be to bring per- 
sons engaged in the education of children requiring special 
methods of instruction into contact and affiliation with teachers 
in general, for the interchange of ideas for mutual benefit. 

3. All communications shall be non-technical in charac- 
ter for the purpose of securing an interchange of ideas between 
those engaged in general and those engaged in special educa- 

4. To secure from specialists papers of general interest 
for presentation to the general Convention or its Sections. 

5. To secure from prominent educators the presentation 
of papers before this Department. 

6. All matters to be presented at any meeting shall be 
approved in advance by the Executive Committee. 

The chair appointed Mr. Allen to secure the co-operation 
of the teachers of the blind in making an interesting pro- 
gramme for the meeting in Minneapolis, and Mr. Gruver to 
secure papers from the teachers of the deaf, and agreed himself 
to do what he could to secure interesting papers from general 
educators for Department XVI and to represent the Depart- 
ment at the meeting of the general Convention. 

It was also agreed to invite the officers of the several In- 
stitutions at Faribault, Minn., to constitute a local committee 
on arrangements. 

Editorial. 197 


To the Members of the American Association to Promote the Teach- 


ing of Speech to the Deaf: 

A sufficient number of applications for admission to the 
proposed Summer School not having been received by the 
Committee in charge to warrant the opening of the School 
upon the plan outlined in the published notice in the February 
number of the Review and the March number of the Annals, 
the Board of Directors of the Association hesitate to assume 
the responsibility of opening the School with the resources now 
at their command^ and therefore have decided it advisable to 
postpone the project until another year, thus giving them- 
selves ample time to provide ways and means to carry out their 
plans upon a more liberal basis than was contemplated the 
present year. 

The Committee in charge of the Summer Meeting, feeling 
that it is highly desirable that the Summer Meeting be held in 
conjunction with the proposed Summer School when opened, 
has recommended its postponement also until another year, 
which recommendation the Board has unanimously approved. 

Notice is therefore given to the members of the Associa- 
tion and all others interested, that the Summer Meeting of the 
Association and the Proposed Summer School, announce- 
ments of which were made for the coming summer as men- 
tioned above, are hereby postponed until another year. 

Alexander Graham Bell, 

President of the Association. 



Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, 

President American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf. 

My dear Sir: — In behalf of the Committee on the Proposed 

Snmmer School of Articulation, I beg to report that there have 

been received to date but nine bona fide applications for 

membership in the proposed classes of work. As this number 

198 The Association Review. 

falls very far short of the number (25) fixed by the Board at 
their meeting in Washington in January, as necessary for the 
successful opening of the school, I would suggest the advis- 
ability of postponing all further action until another year when 
the project may be taken up under somewhat changed con- 
ditions. Through correspondence by the General Secretary 
the Committee have learned: i. That there is a small but 
apparently well grounded demand for the establishment of such 
a school; 2. That the school^ if established at all, must be 
operated on more economical lines than was contemplated this 
year; 3. That its location must be a central one^ one reason- 
ably accessible to all schools and thoroughly healthful and 
agreeable; and 4. That the training and instruction to be af- 
forded must be of the highest possible character. With these 
conditions well met, there is no reason, in my judgement, why 
the proposed school should not become a pronounced success. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. L. E. Crouter, Chairman. 



To the Members of the American Association to Promote the Teach- 
ing of Speech to the Deaf: 

The Summer Meeting appointed to be held at Chau- 
tauqua, N. Y., having been postponed, the annual business 
meeting of the Association will be held at the Institution for 
the Improved Instruction of Deaf-Mutes, 904 Lexington Ave., 
New York City, on Wednesday, June 11^ at 11 a. m. The date 
and place of meeting have been fixed by the Board of Directors; 
and the special business will be the election of three Direc- 
tors, to serve for three years, in place of the retiring Directors 
whose term expires in 1902, viz.: Z. F. Westervelt, Sarah 
Fuller, Joseph C. Gordon. 

There will be no literary exercises^ but a mere formal busi- 
ness meeting to comply with the Constitution. An amend- 
ment to the Constitution will be offered to increase the mem- 
bership of the Board of Directors. For further particulars ad- 
dress Dr. Z. F. Westervelt, Secretary, Rochester, N. Y. 

Alexander Graham Bell, 
Z. F. Westervelt, President of the Association, 


Editorial. 199 


The following persons have been elected to membership 
in the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf. The list includes those elected since the 
last published report to and including March 15, 1902: 

Alcorn, Larry M. W., 6550 Yale Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Applewhite, Alice, School for the Deaf, Jackson, Miss. 
Beatty, Mrs. H., 207 Simcoe St., Toronto, Ontario. 
Bingham, Horace T., College Park, San Jose, Cal. 
Blomkvist, Rektor J., Dofstumskolan, Orebro, Sweden. 
Bosham, Judge Geo. L., Little Rock, Arkansas. 
Boyd, Hypatia, School for the Deaf, Delavan, Wis. 
Browne, A. Dana, School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Bruhn, Martha, 100 Pearl Gore St., Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
Calhoon, Nannie, School for the Deaf, Jackson, Miss. 
Camp, Annie R., 2559 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Carter, Florence, School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Clayton Fred A., Doylestown, Pennsylvania. 
Cuadra, Louis E. Sepulveda, Instituto de Ciegos, Carreo Cen- 
tral Santiago, Chili. 

Dahn, Grace, Le Couteulx St. Mary's Inst, for the Deaf, Buf- 
falo, N. Y. 

Deem, Charles S., School for the Deaf, Jackson, Miss. 
Eastburn, Hugh B., Doylestown, Pennsylvania. 
Erwin, Hugh, School for the Deaf, Jackson, Miss. 
Fagan, Rose A., 772 East i88th St., New York, N. Y. 
Fjortoft, I. A., School for the Deaf, Vibes gade 6, Christiania, 

Fondelius, Gunnar, David Bargaresgata No. i, Stockholm, 

Goldsmith, Rev. Father, Institution for the Deaf, Bombay, 

Goshom, Eugenia, Clifton, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Greene, Grace G., School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

Guinness, Stella S., School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

Guldberg, F. O., H. Olufsgade 17, Christiania, Norway. 

Hart, Frank, Doylestown, Pennsylvania. 

Harvey, Annie, School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

Hayden, Herbert B., 923 Twentieth St., Rock Island, Illinois. 

Hoffmann, Hugo, Prov. Taubstummanstalt, Ratibor, Germany. 

Hofgaard, E. H., School for the Deaf, Hamar, Norway. 

Humrich, C. P., Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 

Joiner, Enfield, School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

200 The Associatum Review. 

Jones, Mabel Kingsley, School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Phila. 
Jorgensen, Kand. G., Det kongl. Dovstummeninstitut, Freder- 
icia, Norway. 

Kearny, Alfred, School for the Deaf, Jackson, Miss. 
King, Marian, Jacksonville, Illinois. 
Kirkpatrick, Miss A., 916, i4^St., Rock Island, Illinois. 
Kyhlberg, Dr. O., Manilla, Stockholm, Sweden. 
LaRue, Ida, School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lee, Jane, School for the Deaf, Jackson, Miss. 
London, Bessie A., School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Miller, Wm. E., Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 
Newcomer, Waldo, 56 W. Biddle St., Baltimore, Md. 
Newlee, Clara Ellen, 6550 Yale Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 
Nordin, Mrs. Elizabeth Anrep, Forsstanderinna for Skolhem- 
met for blinda dofstnmma, Wenersborg, Sweden. 

Olin, Caroline L., School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Osterhout, Alice, School for the Deaf, Scranton, Pa. 
Page, John, State House, Little Rock, Arkansas. 
Pybas, Adelaide H., School for the Deaf,Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Roberts, Emma, School for the Deaf, Mystic, Conn. 
Saunders, Adah, School for the Deaf, Jackson, Miss. 
Steiner, Bernard C, Enoch Pratt Library, Baltimore, Md. 
Stone, Elizabeth A., Sch. for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Thorne, Mrs. R. Edgar, 351 Victoria Ave., Montreal, Quebec. 
Tilson, Mary D., School for the Deaf, Trenton, N. J. 
Tingley, Elizabeth Scott, Sch. for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Phila. Pa. 
Titze, Gerhard, Dofstumskolan, Karlskrona, Sweden. 
Taylor, Mrs. Jean McN., School for the Deaf, Jacksonville, 111. 
Tuttle, Mary W., School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Waldo, E. F., Birmingham, Michigan. 

Walther, Eduard, Der Konigl. Taubstummenanstalt, EJsasser 
Str. 2y, Berlin, Germany. 

Watzulik, Albin Maria, S — A, Altenburg, Germany. 
Wetzel, J. W., Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 

Whitney, Mary M., School for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Wilson, Marti Keene, 435 Clinton Ave., Albany, N. Y. 
Young, Elizabeth R., Sch. for the Deaf, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 
Young, Mrs. M. C, School for the Deaf, Jackson, Miss. 

Life Member. 

Bell, Mrs. Alexander Melville, 1526 Thirty-fifth St., Washing 
ton, D. C. 


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Education of the Deaf; Notes and Observations, J. C. Gordon. Ph. D.,..., " 1 00 

Facial Speech Reading ; II. Gutzmann, M. D. ; paper " 25 

Marriages of the Deaf in America ; E. A. Fay, Ph. D. ; cloth " 5 00 

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June, 1902 

Upon the Organization of the Education of the 

Deaf in Prussia — // O. Danger 201 

Some Muscles Used in Speech — IV - - - Adklla F. PoTTBR 208 

''The Instruction of Wisdom'* - - - Katharine Fletcher 217 

Children Hard of Hearing - - - - GiULio C. Ferrer i 232 
Formation and Development of 

Elementary English Sounds — / - - Caroline A . Yale 240 

Mechanism of Speech ----- Frank A. Reed 245 


^Report of the Pennsylvania Institution at Mt. Airy, 349--ReDort of the Ontario 
Institution at Belleville, 253 — Report of the Nova Scotia Institution at Halifax, 
254 — Rassegna della Educazione del Sordomuti (Naples), 255 — Nordisk Tidskrift 
for Dofstumskolan (Qoteborg), 258 — Blatter for Taubstummenbildung (Berlin), 
260 — Smaablade for Dofstumme (Copenhagen), 2G2— L'Echo des Sourds-Muets 
(Paris), 263— Organ der Taubstummen Anstalten in Deutschland (Frankfort), 
364— Le Messager de PEpee (Curriere, France), 264 — Taubstumma Courier 
(Vienna), 266— Tidning for Dofstumma (Stockholm), 266— Revue Generale de 
renseignement des Sourds-m nets (Paris), 267 — Revue Internationale de Pedagogie 
Comparative (Paris), 269 — Le Reveil des Sourds-muets (Paris), 269--Eugene 
Graff, 270— International Congress at Paris, 270 — Meeting of German Naturalists 
and Physician!, 270— Relatorio dos Actos da Mesa da Santa Casa da Misericordiado 
Porto (Portugal), 271 — Der Taubstummen-Fuhrer (Treves, Rhenish Prussia), 272 — 
Report of the Institution for the Deaf at Venersborg, Sweden, etc., 272 — American 
Annals, 278— Reports Received, 281 — Proceedings of the Sixteenth Convention, 282 — 
National Geographic Magazine, 283 


The Hubbard Memorial Building, 284— Helen Keller's Own Story, 285— The Statis- 
tics of Speech-Teaching, 287— The Iowa School Fire, 289— The Exhibit at the St. 
Louis Exposition, 289 — The Wisconsin School's Fii'tieth Anniversary, 290 — Pro- 
gramme of Department of Special Education, N. E. A., 290 — Graded Stories, 812 

Report on the Progress of Speech'Tcaching i7i America - F. W. B. 292 



[Printing Department of the Pennsylvania IniJtitution for the Deaf and Dumb] 

Vol. IV, No. 3 $2.50 (IDs. 4d.) per year 

The American Association to Promote 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 

Alkzandbs Graham Bklu 

A. L. E. Crouter, Caroline A. Yale. 

Z. F. Westbrvelt. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 


F. W. Booth, 
(7342 Rural Lane, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.) 


JoBBPH C. GoBDON, Sarah Fullbr, Z. F. Wbstbbtblt, 

Term Expires 1902, 

Albxandbb Graham Bell, Mrs. Gabdinbr G. Hubbard. 

a. L. E. Croutbr. 

Term Expires 190S. 

Oaroliite a. Yale, Edmund Lyon, Richard O. Johkson. 

lerm Expires 1904, 

The American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf weloomes 
to its membership all persons who are interested in its work. Thus the privUege of 
membership is not restricted to teachers actively engaged in the instruction of deaf 
children, but is extended to include Directors or Trustees of schools for the deaf, parents 
or guardians of deaf children, the educated deaf themselves who wish to aid by the 
weight of their influence and by their co-operation the work that has done so much for 
them, and all other persons who may have had their hearts touched with a desire to 
show their interest and to help on the work. 

Every person receiving a '^sample copy" of The Association Review is invited to 
join the Association. The membership (or dues) fee is $2.00 (Ss. 4d.) per year, pay- 
ment of which to the Treasurer secures (after nomination to and election by the Board 
of Directors) all rights and privileges of membership together with the publications of 
the Association, includiug The Association Review, for one year. To non-memborif 
the subscription price of The Association Review is $2.50 (10s. 4*1.) per year. 




Vol. IV, No. 3. 

JUNE, 1902. 





It has already been noticed that in Prussia they have in con- 
sideration the two following circumstances in regard to the 
educational work for the deaf: 

1. The majority of the pupils come from the inferior and 
the middle classes of society. 

2. The deaf are abnormal individuals. A not small part 
of them are affected, besides with deafness, with other imper- 
fections of mind and body, or with those abnormal conditions 
which were the consequences of the disease which destroyed 
their hearing. 

In regard to the first of these circumstances, the manage- 
ment of the majority of the Institutions for the deaf is simple. 
As to the first and second, the pupils are treated somewhat 
better than they would be, if, like hearing pupils, they should 
remain in their own families. This however has no evil con- 
sequences although it might be hurtful if they became accus- 
toned in youth to a style of living suitable to a more elevated 
social position. 

Besides this, as they are abnormal individuals, there is no 

cr.Fon why they should receive ^n instruction superior to that 

hey would have received if they had remained at home in their 

own fair.ilv like their brothers and sisters. One searches in 

"Translated and abridged by Giulio C. Ferreri, Washington, D. C. 

202 The Association Review. 

vain therefore in the didactic plans of the Prussian institutes 
for any thing scientific; no program requires more than that of 
a simple elementary school, and every where they are restrict- 
ing the program more and more to those branches which are 
taught in the elementary schools for hearing children. 

It happens however that even what the school for the deaf 
demands in matter as in form is still too difficult for the deaf 
who are less endowed in mind and body, and the percentage 
of these unfortunates is still greater among the deaf than 
among the hearing. For hearing children of little intelligence 
they have already in Germany special schools with less obliga- 
tion in regard to instruction or with much more limited didactic 
programs. One feels the need of this even more in the Insti- 
tutions for the deaf; and hence the appropriateness of separate 
instruction for the less intelligent deaf, as they already have in 
the provinces of Schleswig-Holstein and of the Rhine. It is 
to be hoped that the example will be followed elsewhere. 

One would also seek in vain in Prussia the gigantic public 
Institutes like those which North America possesses. Those 
of Breslavia (200 pupils) and of Ratibor (279 pupils) are really 
private institutions. 

In regard to the general organization it should be noticed 

1. Tliat the children of normal intelligence^ and those of 
abnormal intellect, (and also often abnormal body), are in- 
structed in separate Institutes. 

2. The Institutes, which admit pupils every year, number 
about 80 pupils, with about 9 teachers, including the principal. 

3. In the Institutes which admit pupils only every two 
years^ the number of pupils must not be greater than 40 with 
5 teachers including the principal. 

From the most recent statistics they have the following 
results for Prussia: 

Number of institutes, 55 (with 3 supplementary schools for 
the less intelligent). 

Number of classes, 403. 

Number of pupils, 4051 (of whom 2257 are male and 1794 

Number of teachers, 460 (including the principals). 

The Education of the Deaf in Prussia, 203 

"He who wishes the good of the school, will first of all pro- 
vide for the teachers." This is an old saying, but always true 
however. How are they in this respect in Prussia? One must 
reply that there still remains something to be desired. One 
cannot deny however that the authorities of some of the Insti- 
tutes have the commendable intention of improving the condi- 
tion of the teachers, but they are prevented by scarcity of means. 

The salaries are not the same every where, but also living 
is more or less expensive in the different places where the Insti- 
tutes are found. They have the largest salaries in Berlin. There 
the principal of the Royal Institute receives, besides lodging, 
6000 marks ($1500) a year, and the principal of the Municipal 
school 4800 marks ($1200). The other teachers also are well 
paid in Berlin. The ordinary teachers of the Royal Institute re- 
ceive, besides a compensation for lodging, 4370 marks ($1100) a 
year, and those of the Municipal Institute 4750 to 4800 marks 
(about $1200), besides a compensation for lodging. The female 
teachers however of these Institutes receive, besides a com- 
pensation for lodging, 2940 marks ($735) a year. 

Those who receive the least at present are the teachers of 
Angerberg^ a small town of scarcely 5000 inhabitants. They 
receive 3616 marks ($900) a year. 

In comparison with the salaries of the American teachers, 
those of Prussia are very low^ but the educators here have cer- 
tain advantages over their American colleagues. 

1. All the male and female teachers have a fixed position 
for life. Except in case of bad conduct, they are sure of remain- 
ing in their position for life. And while the authorities cannot 
ever remove them from their post, they have the right of resign- 
ing when they wish. 

2. The increase of their salary is regulated in a manner 
(from 3 to 3 years) to allow them to plan with security upon the 
progressive improvement in their condition. 

3. They have also the right to pension when on account of 
age, or physical or mental weakness, they are no longer able to 
teach, and they receive then a part of the salary, not as charity, 
but as a right. And the benefits of the pension, graduated in 

204 The Association Review, 

proportion to the years of service, are extended also to the 
widows and the children under age. 

They also receive honors for merit, which one does not have 
in America. 

The Prussian Institutes for the deaf are schools for deaf 
children, like the elementary schools for hearing children. The 
Institutes therefore have finished their tasks in regard to them, 
when, after the scholastic course of 8 years (at about i6 years of 
age) they send them back to their families. The starting of the 
deaf in ordinary life is the business of their relatives and guard- 
ians. In regard to the practice of religion, it is the affair of the 
church to which they belong. In respect to an industrial edu- 
cation, when the deaf have reached the age to exercise a trade, 
the charitable organizations are obliged to provide for them. 
But as this would not be sufficient for the purpose, the Prussian 
Institutes, not having a special department for the industrial 
education, interest themselves in time by helping the pupils who 
have graduated from their Institutes in starting in work. There 
has existed ever since 1817 a royal decree which establishes the 
payment of a premium of 150 marks (about $40) for the trades- 
man who has initiated a deaf-mute in the exercise of a trade. 
This premium will only be paid at the end of the apprenticeship. 
The premium can also be obtained by dressmakers who have 
taught their trade, for a year at leasts to a deaf girl. 

There is still much to be desired in the spiritual care of the 
adult deaf, who, on account of their large numbers, cannot be 
admitted to divine service on Sunday in the Institute of the city 
where they live, and therefore, little by little, they lose the habit 
of attending church. It will be necessary to provide special 
services for them by a pastor of their own. 

The Prussian Institutes have no provision for the assistance 
of. the deaf who are poor. But still they have been able to put 
together special funds for helping them during the course of 
instruction, in regard to clothes, school books, etc., and later 
for the implements of trade, sewing machines, etc. 

The question has also been carefully considered concerning 
the special treatment for the hearing of our pupils, and in 
regard to auricular teaching. 

The Education of the Deaf in Prussia. 205 

A ministerial decree of Sept. 7th, 1898, was made in order 
to recommend special medical treatment by a physician for the 
pupils of the Institutes of the deaf. 

There was also ordered a special instruction for the physi- 
cians of the Institutes of the deaf, in respect to the organs of 
hearing and speech, so that they may be able to perform the 
ordinary treatment of common diseases of those organs, and 
to judge eventually of the necessity of special treatment. With 
this object two special courses of lessons (1900-1901) were 
given at the Royal Institution of Berlin. Every physician who 
look part received a subsidy from the Government of 300 
marks ($75). These courses had also the good effect of making 
the relations between the physicians and educators more inti- 
mate and cordial, and to increase the knowledge of both parties. 

The observations made on these occasions upon the pupils 
of the R. Institute of Berlin, showed also that special medical 
research and a continuous care of the organs of hearing, of 
speech, and of sight are of the greatest advantage even for the 

The plan of instruction for physicians in regard to the prop- 
er observation and treatment for deaf children comprised: 

1. The general sanitary conditions for the school. 

2. Deafness in relation to the examination and treatment 
of the ears, and of the faringo-nasal cavity. 

3. Examination and treatment of the throat and larynx. 

4. Examination and treatment of the ears. 

5. Physiology, psychology, and pathology of speech. 

6. Instruction of the deaf. 

7. Necessary treatment for the deaf who have left the 

The Government of Prussia also took notice of the rumours 
of an awakening and improvement of the sense of hearing pro- 
claimed at first by Prof. Urbantschitsch of Vienna. It is well 
known that the results did not correspond with what had been 
promised at the beginning. Prof. Bezold of Munich recom- 
menced the researches on the same subject, which were put 
into practice by the Director of the Central Institute of Munich 

2o6 7%# Association Review, 

(Bavaria). In 1899 a Congress of physicians and educators of 
the deaf took place in the same Institute, in which also the 
Prussian teachers took part, who were sent there by the 
Government and by the Provinces. On that occasion the 
Director of the Institute of Munich showed the results obtained; 
they were not however such as to induce the authorities of the 
Prussian Institutes to make the slightest alteration in the didac- 
tic plans in vigour until then. 

From what we have considered above, we can now draw our 
conclusions and affirm that the matter of the education of the 
deaf in Prussia has derived its advantages from centralization, 
and also from the opposed system, and that the method pursued 
at present offers opportunity and gives an impetus to a good 
and progressive development. From the center, that is from 
the Ministry of Instruction, no commands are given in regard 
to the instruction in the Institutes, even in the limits permitted 
to them by the law of May nth, 1872. The Ministry do more 
and better than command: they govern and guide. As long as 
the Institutes proceed according to the German method, they 
are given sufficient liberty of action. In this sense also the 
great Institutions of East Prussia might improve their condition. 
In regard to what concerns the care of the deaf, the Govern- 
ment authorities of Prussia even exceed what is imposed upon 
them by the law just mentioned. What is now needed is a law 
for the compulsory education of the deaf, which would aid in 
removing the obstacles which still impede the progress of this 
educational work. It is true that under the present conditions 
compulsory education is less necessary than in the past, especi- 
ally in regard to the Institutes. But these ought to be placed, 
by a legislative provision, in a condition to receive pupils at the 
most favorable age for instruction. The limit according to what 
experience teaches us, and also the most favorable time for 
beginning instruction^ is seven years of age. But until the 
relatives of deaf children are obliged to comply with this rule, 
on the part of the school, they will continue to wait until the 
extreme opposite limit of 12 years of age. These adult pupils 
are a burden to the Institute which is thus prevented from 

The Education of the Deaf in Prussia. 207 

receiving pupils at the prescribed age of 8 years. When once 
the law for compulsory instruction is obtained, it will also be 
easier to secure the separation of the deaf of little intelligence, 
but who are still capable of receiving instruction. 




I. Muscles Which Should be Restrained from Con- 
traction During Voice Production. 

The faults of voice production thus far considered have 
been committed because essential muscles have either failed to 
act or have acted with disproportionate force. For instance, 
the sinking of the larynx may be due to inaction of the up- 
pulling stylo-glossi and palato-pharyngeiy or, as is more probable, 
these may not be inactive, but the down-pulling sterno-hyoid 
and omo-hyoid may be contracting more forcibly thus destroy- 
ing the balance and pulling the larynx downward. 

Another class of faults arises from the contraction of mus- 
cles which interfere with the action of whose which have been 
described as essential to pure tones. Although such muscles 
scarcely come within the scope of these articles, yet the prac- 
tical benefits to be derived from a knowledge of their action are 
so great as to call for at least a slight description. It somewhat 
simplifies matters to learn that these interfering muscles are all 
attached to the hyoid bone. They are able in two ways to 
counteract the force of those muscles which tilt the thyroid 
cartilage upon the cricoid and stretch the vocal shelves; either 
by neutralizing the force exerted by the tilting muscles, or by 
pulling the united larynx and hyoid bone away from the spine. 
These interfering muscles are shown in Figs. XV and XVI. 

Mylo-Hyoid, Genio-Hyoid, and Genio-Hyo-Glossi 
Muscles : — ^The myb-hyoid muscle, seen in both diagrams, forms 
the floor of the mouth. It is attached to the hyoid bone, and to 
the lower jaw all around. Above this muscle may be seen in 
Fig. XV, the genio-hyoid, extending from the chin to the hyoid 
bone; and, still above this, the lower fibres of the gcnio-hyo-glossi, 
also extending straight back from chin to hyoid. 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 209 

Action: — ^These muscles can pull the hyoid bone forward, 
and with it the larynx, when they are united as in singing or 
speech, thus drawing the cricoid away from the spine, or leaving 
it in stich loose contact as to prevent the tilting of the thyroid 
upon the cricoid, and the stretching of the vocal shelves. A part 
of another muscle can disturb the action of the essential vocal 
muscles in the same way. This muscle, the digastric, is shown 
in Fig. XVI. 

Figure XV. 

Side view of the l«ft half of toDgue- &nd ohlu-mnBcleB, the right half 
having been sliced awaj by a perpcii(iiciil*r cut. [MantU.] 

Digastric Muscle: — "This muscle really consists of two 
muscles joined together near the hyoid bone by a tendon. As 
Fig. XVI represents, it starts from the cranium a little behind 
and inside of the styloid process and extends downward and 
forward till it almost reaches the hyoid bone ; here it turns in a 
bold curve to continue virtually as a new muscle, now forward, 
and very slightly upward, to fasten itself upon the inner side of 

2IO The Association Review. 

the chin. Though it does not quite reach the hyoid bone, it is 
connected with it in two ways: (i) by a broad band of aponeu- 
rosis, or non-elastic fibrous tissue, which binds it firmly to the 
body of the hyoid bone and to the part of the horns close to 
the body; (2) by the stylo-hyoid, which it pierces near the hyoid 

Figure XVI. 

Side view of mtuoles attaohed to the b^oid-bone. \Qray,'\ 

"The digastric is one of the most mischievous of all the 
interfering muscles, because it can disturb in so many ways." 

Action: — "As both of its parts have an upward inclination, 
they can combine to pull the hyoid body strongly upward, thus 
counteracting the essential down-pulling thyroid-tilting muscle, 
the stemo-hyoid, and also the assistant, the omo-hyoid muscle; 

Some Muscles Used in Speech, 211 

for they pull upward upon the body of the hyoid bone, just op- 
posite where the latter muscles pull downward. 

"2. Its forward part can pull the whole bone and attached 
larynx forward, and thus loosen or remove the cricoid cartilage 
from the spine. 

"3. Its rear part is guilty of a peculiar and pernicious fault, 
by drawing the hyoid bone backward with the aid of the stylo- 
hyoid, while the forward part of the muscle pulls forward with 
still greater force, aided by the muscles just described. The 
fault is made manifest to the ear during voice only by its 
peculiarly choked and impure sound, though neither loud nor 

Stylo-hyoid-Muscle: — ^This slender muscle is shown in 
Fig. XVL "It is fastened above to the styloid process, and 
though at first it lies a little below and outside of the digastric, 
it approaches it in its descent, and meets it near the hyoid bone ; 
here it splits into two parts, to embrace the digastric muscle, 
but unites these parts again, to continue as one part, and finally 
fasten itself upon the hyoid bone just where the body joins the 

Action: — "The stylo-hyoid assists the rear portion of the 
digastric, having nearly the same direction. It can therefore 
oppose the down-pulling of the sterno-hyoid and omo-hyoid, 
and thus weaken their thyroid-tilting effect." 

Of these interfering muscles, the genio-hyoid, the forward 
part of the digastric, and the lower fibres of the genio-hyo-glossi, 
all have their front ends attached to some part of the lower jaw, 
and are evidently designed to open the mouth by pulling the 
lower jaw downward. "But the jaw would fall to vocal position 
by the force of gravity alone, if the tongue were loosened from 
the roof of the mouth, and the lips parted, and these muscles 
would do little harm even though they did shorten themselves 
to favor this movement." 

"The entire group of jaw muscles which pull the hyoid bone 
forward and upward so injuriously, can make a powerful effort 
only when the lower jaw is held up by other muscles connecting 
it with the cranium. Of these there are three : the temporal, the 

2 1 3 The Associatiou Review. 

iiiasseter, and the internal pterygoid." These 
Figs. XVII, XVIII. and XIX. 

Figure XVII. 

Temponl mascle. 

View of the temporal muflcle. [Reduced from Qras.] 
Action: — The office of these powerful muscles is to draw 
the lower jaw upward against the upper as in mastication. Their 

Figure XVIII. 

View i>f the masseter muaule. 

action may be studied by placing the hand against the side of the 
face while moving the jaw as in chewing. 

Some Muscles Used in Speech. 213 

The sensation excited by the correct use of the essential 
muscles is much less than that exerted by these pernicious jaw 
muscles. This is due in part to the fact that in correct voice 
production there is but slight displacement of the organs; the 
palato-hyoid bone, etc., being held in their natural positions 
while these muscles are contracting strongly. 

It is easy to see how the singer, and especially how the deaf 
speaking child, is tempted to use these interfering muscles. 
Since they move the jaw they would seem to be legitimate 
muscles of speech, and, in seeking some effort which can be felt, 
he brings these into use, but always with disastrous results. 

Because of the pernicious effect of the use of these muscles 

Figure XIX. 

gold muHile. 
Side view of jaw muscles. 

Upon the singing voice, there has grown up the theory of "relax- 
ation." The pupil is told to keep the throat perfectly relaxed, 
and in following such a direction the essential muscles are also 
checked, and an artistic tone becomes impossible. 

Tests for the use of Interfering Muscles. 
Test No. 8. Place the finger against the front of the 
liyoid bone. If there is too much flesh to admit of actually 
feeling the bone, simply push backward at the angle of chin and 

214 ^^ Association Review^ 

neck, for the movement of the bone will move the flesh with it. 
Then sing or speak on different pitches, and, if the finger is 
pushed forward by the bone, be assured that the force exerted 
by the thyroid-tilting^ shelf-stretching muscles is being coun- 
teracted by the four jaw muscles which are pulling forward the 

Test No. 9. Place the thumb under the chin in front of 
the angle of chin and neck. Sing or speak, and if the muscles 
are felt to harden and push down, know that the same fault is 
being committed as in the above test. 

Test No. 10. Place the hand against the side of the face, 
and if the muscles are felt to stiffen during singing or speech, 
you may know that the up-pulling muscles are holding the jaw 
supported, and thus assisting the down-pulling to counteract 
the thyroid-tilting forces. By looking in a mirror the stiffening 
may be seen. 

Interfering Muscles: 

Attached to 
the hyoid-bone. 


forward-pullinff, < ^^"! ', ^ ^ \ ^^ 
^ ^ genio-hyo-glossi, 

, forward part of digastric. 
J „. ( rear part of digastric, 

Pulling upward upon the lower jaw, ] masseter, 

internal pterygoid. 

2. Ways in Which Muscle Development May Help 

THE Deaf. 

A word in closing as to the benefits of muscle training as 
applied to the deaf. In regard to pitch much may be done. The 
very high voices so often met with would indicate either that the 
muscles pulling downward upon the lar)mx, the sterno-hyoid 
and sterno-thyroid, are wholly inactive, or that those pulling 
upward, probably the palato-pharyngei, are acting much more 
powerfully, or still again, that the efforts of the down-pulling 

Some Muscles Used in Speech, 215 

muscles are being counteracted by the contraction of the inter- 
fering muscles. By careful development of the down-pulling 
stemo-thyroid and sterno-hyoid, and by acquired control of the 
pernicious jaw muscles, the pitch cannot fail to be lowered. 
Contrariwise, the low guttural voices indicate that the palato- 
pharyngei are either inactive or that the down-pulling stemo- 
thyroid and sterno-hyoid are overpowering them and pulling 
the larynx downward. By bringing into use or strengthening 
the up-pulling forces such voices may be gradually raised to the 
normal pitch. 

Although, as elsewhere stated, the method of development 
is not within the province of these papers, it may not be amiss 
to say just here that exaggerated use of the muscles is often 
necessary in order to restore to the normal. When by long 
misuse, the muscles are falsely adjusted to each other, or, in 
other words when the balance is lost, there is no way in which 
it can be so quickly restored as by continued isolated use of the 
opposing weaker muscles. For instance, a pupil whose voice 
was abnormally low, has been required to spend much time on 
exercises intended to strengthen the palato-pharyngei and to 
give control of pitch; and as soon as these objects were in a 
measure attained there followed much drill in reading and talk- 
ing in a very high voice with the result of marked improvement 
in the pitch of the ordinary voice. 

By teaching the deaf child the use of the palate muscles in 
the formation of vowels there will be gain, not only in intelligi- 
bility but, through less need of lip action, gain also in ease and 
naturalness of speech; the appearance of the child will be im- 
proved and the speech as addressed to both ear and eye will be 
more normal. 

The huskiness apparent in so many of the voices of the deaf 
is usually due to weakness of muscular effort. The vocal shelves 
not being sufficiently stretched remain too far apart, thus allow- 
ing too much breath to escape. By strengthening the extrinsic 
muscles and bringing them into correct use in speech, the vocal 
shelves will be stretched and this huskiness can not fail to dis- 

2i6 The Association Review. 

Nasality, that bete noir of teachers of the deaf, is^ of course, 
caused by incorrect use of the palate muscles and can be re- 
moved by their development and correct use. 

The line along which the most marked improvement can 
be made is doubtless in that indefinable something which we 
call quality. Huskiness and nasality of which we have spoken 
come, it is true, under this epithet, but we will all agree that the 
term represents a vastly wider concept. It is defect in quality 
which so often renders the voices of our deaf children painful to 
strangers and which sometimes makes unintelligible the most 
correctly articulated speech. Since it must in the nature of 
things be true that well-trained muscles correctly used cannot 
fail to give pleasant agreeable voices, why may not such voices 
be acquired by all deaf children of ordinary mental capacity ? 
Do not the disagreeable unnatural voices of our deaf pupils of 
themselves proclaim the fact that we, their teachers, have not 
ourselves known the correct use of the vocal muscles? 

In re-reading Miss Allen's paper on "Voice Culture," to 
which I made reference at the beginning of these articles, I am 
forcibly impressed by her appeal for the study of vocal music by 
all teachers of the deaf. But little can be done for the children 
without this previous training of the muscles of the teachers. 
Utter ignorance of music, or, as it is often expressed, "no voice" 
for singing, need be no bar to this voice culture. Indeed it may 
be an advantage for, as the weaker muscles become strong by 
training and are brought into correct use, qualities previously 
unknown to the voice appear one after another and our faith 
grows in the possibilities of such training for our pupils. There 
is an added advantage in the fact that in singing all voice pro- 
ducing muscles are called upon more strongly than in speech. 

The purpose of these papers will have been fulfilled if they 
have made clear that in so far as we can succeed in strengthen- 
ing the undeveloped muscles of the deaf children and in bring- 
ing them into correct use during speech, in just so far will the 
resulting voices approach those of the hearing in pitch and in 
quality. By training continued during all the years of a child's 
school life, what may we not accomplish ? 



In a time-honored volume whose every page is weighty 
with condensed thought we find the statement, "Iterations are 
commonly loss of time." This is a judgment pronounced by 
the most illustrious man that ever had a seat upon the English 
woolsack, a man so great that the glory of having conceived the 
Instauratio Magna is not considered enough for him, and every 
now and then we are assured that to him belongs the even 
greater glory of having created Hamlet, King Lear and Othello. 

But, conceding all the claims made for the Baconian author- 
ship of Shakespeare from their earliest inception in the fertile 
brain of Delia Bacon to their latest recrudescence in the cere- 
brum of the enthusiastic Mrs. Gallup, (the names suggest an 
interesting query. May it be that a prophet of to-day might 
safely echo, apropos of the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy, the 
wail of the disheartened and dying king over his enfeebled 
sovereignty, "It came in with a woman and it will go out with a 
woman"? Heaven grant it!) it still remains to be said, and the 
statement may probably be made without fear of contradiction 
from Mrs. Gallup or anybody else, that Francis Bacon, Baron 
Verulam, Viscount St. Albans, and Bard of Avon was never an 
instructor in a school for the deaf. What then could have been 
his qualifications for speaking on the subject of iteration ? 

We of "The Profession," who have had an experience which 
my Lord Bacon's narrower life denied him, know full well that 
in our line of work iteration is our only hope. We therefore 
venture boldly to dispute the dictum of the great Chancellor, 
and confidently to assert that in all probability no one valuable 
truth has ever been uttered so many times in any of our school- 
rooms that it would not have been better for some pupil in that 
room if it had been repeated once more. 

2i8 The Association Review. 

In view of this fact, and bearing also in mind another de- 
liverance of his Lordship's on the same subject when in his Fal- 
stafHan disguise he cries out against the "damnable iteration" 
which is almost too much for even his saintly qualities to with- 
stand, I have been endeavoring of late to devise a scheme by 
which I might retain the desirable, and eliminate what Sir John 
was pleased to call the "damnable," characteristics of everlasting 
repetition, especially in the presentation of ethical truth — the 
very department of speech in which the worthy knight found 
iteration so offensive. 

The broad, fundamental ideas which are the bases of all 
right conduct, the great life-giving thoughts which regulate a 
man's behavior to his fellows, are not named legion ; they are not 
too many to be accommodated, and that without crowding, in 
an intellect of very moderate capacity; the old Hebrew jurist 
made what has long been considered a very decent summary in 
ten short sentences ; but, few and easily apprehended as they are, 
the forms of speech in which they have found expression are 
indeed Protean. Endowed with immortality, after having 
served the age and nation which gave them birth, they have 
reappeared from time to time, as God has willed, to repeat their 
salutary lesson in distant climes and speaking with other voices. 

These ideas are the common property of the race, and an 
individual of any kindred or nation or people or tongue is free 
to appropriate them, clothe them anew as best suits himself, and 
offer them again to his fellow men. The moralist presents them 
by themselves, in all their stern severity; the philosopher utilizes 
them as pillars and buttresses in the temple which he rears for 
succeeding ages; the satirist mockingly repeats them with a 
bitter laugh at the ridiculous figure which poor human nature 
cuts in struggling to attain to such high standards ; the historian 
weaves them incidentally into his fascinating tale which goes on 
like a magazine story "to be continued," and which shall reach 
its "Finis" only when mortal man shall at last lay down his 
weary pen; the novelist employs them with the hope of giving 
verisimilitude to the creations of his brain, so like— or must we, 
in the majority of cases, say so very unlike? — the men and 
women of flesh and blood; and the poet, facile princeps among 

"The Instruction of Wisdom." 219 

them all, takes us to the Mount of Transfigfuration and shows 
them to us glowing with such divine radiance, and shows us our 
old world beneath their blessed sway so ennobled and glorified, 
that, while we linger on that sacred height, the heart within us 
takes fresh courage and we feel — ^in spite of present suffering 
and wrong — ^that the earth will not always be at strife with 
heaven, and that humanity can calmly wait the sure and certain 
coming of the golden year. 

And manifold as are the repetitions of these old, everlasting 
truths, mankind never seems tired of listening to them as they 
echo down the ages. To one who has even a slight acquaint- 
ance with the literatures of different periods of the world's his- 
tory, and who has at the same time a love of literary form, of 
what Walter Pater so happily calls "the finer accommodation 
of speech to the vision within," there are, I suppose, few keener 
pleasures than that of noting the varied felicities of the "speech" 
in which the great seers have thus attempted to reveal what 
would seem to have been the one same "vision." 

Now, as teachers, our business with a child is to enable his 
untrained eyes to catch some glimpse of these high ideals of life, 
without which he might as well — and for that matter, might 
much better— have appeared on our planet in the days before the 
evolution of the soul. In other words, among the different 
sciences and arts, of which we must give him some knowledge, 
it is preeminently our business to teach him the science and art 
of right living — a sufficiently comprehensive task, I admit, and 
simply appalling as it stands here in plain black and white, but it 
is too late now to be groaning over that. The time to draw back 
from this labor, compared to which it cannot be denied that the 
labors of Hercules were as naught, was when we were making 
our contract with principal or board of trustees, and stipulating 
for our salary. For, although this kind of instruction may not 
have been nominated in the bond, we may be very sure that in 
the High Court of Equity the obligation to impart it will be held 
to be as binding upon us as if we had acknowledged it before a 
justice of the peace. 

To those of us who are a little uncertain as to our own 
ability to pass an entirely satisfactory examination in the de- 

220 The Association Review, 

partment of right living, it is a relief to have somebody else do a 
part of the talking. We feel that there are lips from which 
counsels of perfection would be likely to fall with somewhat 
more weight than from our own. And, fortunately, they are not 
far to seek. One has only to step through the library door- 
way to find himself in the presence of those lofty souls whose 
God-given mission it has been to inspire with some degree of 
high purpose, and strength and steadfastness, the countless gen- 
erations of mankind. 

Here, then, let the teacher who is sick with the thought of 
his own incompetence bring his flock. If he fears, as he may 
have good reason to, that the iteration of his own sorry com- 
monplaces will prove as unprofitable to his hearers as Prince 
Hal's admonitions did to the incorrigible Jack FalstaflF, let him 
avail himself of the gracious privilege of occasionally diversify- 
ing them with the almost infinitely varied utterances of the kings 
of thought who vouchsafe to hold audience within library walls. 
Let him keep silence once in awhile and listen with his pupils to 
the masters who teach in this schoolroom. 

It was with the thought of securing the aid so ungrudgingly 
bestowed by these potent helpers that, some time ago, I began 
the practice of giving to my class short quotations, mainly re- 
lating to conduct, to be copied and preserved in books to which 
nothing else was admitted except brief notes concerning the 
authors quoted. The primary object in this work was to give 
these young people a sort of consensus of the opinions of the 
wise upon the subject of character-building, with the hope that 
as a result some important truths would be more firmly im- 
pressed upon their minds and would eventually become powerful 
factors in their lives. I will admit that the plan commended 
itself to me also as likely to afford a pretty good opportunity 
for some valuable linguistic work in the study of figurative and 
elevated diction, for the acquisition of considerable knowledge 
about books and authors, and for the cultivation of literary per- 
ception and taste. 

That this effort has not been fruitless seems very certain 
to me. It has plainly been an interesting and impressive fact, 
when once clearly evident to these boys and girls, that Homer 

''Instruction of Wisdom," 221 

and Plato and Shakespeare talked about such simple things as 
telling the truth and choosing good companions and being 
friendly and unselfish and kind. And this has had in a measure 
the same effect on them that it has had on the rest of the read- 
ing world, the deepening of the conviction that there is nothing 
better even in the estimation of the greatest minds than the 
common, everyday virtues. 

The pleasure which this slight study of scraps of good liter- 
ature has given, and the mental benefit resulting therefrom, have 
been shown by the frequent question, "Can't we have a quota- 
tion to-day?" and the not uncommon exclamation, "That is 
fine!" when something of especial dignity or beauty has been 
written on the wall slate to be copied. The recurrence of the 
same idea began very soon to attract the attention of my young 
friends, and their ability to recognize an old thought in a new 
dress has been very greatly developed. 'For instance, a little 
while ago an extract from one of the odes of Pindar — given be- 
low — concerning the irrevocableness of human action was un- 
der consideration, and, before a single word of explanation from 
me, was referred by most of the class to the lines from the 
**Rubaiyat" — "The moving finger writes"^-etc., when I asked 
them what Pindar's words reminded them of. Probably, how- 
ever, they would not at that time have recalled Omar's stanza 
if it had not been often repeated before. I have had a good 
many of these extracts committed to memory, believing things 
of this kind to be as essential to an education as, say, the capi- 
tals of the South American states. Not that I would be under- 
stood as speaking disparagingly of those esteemed capitals. We 
want to know them and to have our children know them, but 
there are other things that we also like to know and to have 
our children know. 

The selection of quotations following is not a copy of any- 
body's "Gems of Genius" or "Words of Wisdom" or "Pearls of 
Price," but is a part of an original compilation which, as has been 
said, has proved of such real service to my pupils that I have 
thought some of it might be interesting to others. Of course it 
would be intolerable at one dose as given here, but administered 
a pellet at a time it has certainly worked well. Here it is any- 

222 The Association Review. 

way. I give it for whatever it may be worth, remembering the 
remark of the English-hating Heine on leaving Westminster Ab- 
bey, as he dropped a shilling into the hand of the old verger, 
saying that he would have made it two if the collection had been 

"Truth is the beginning of every good thing, both in heaven 
and on earth." — Plato. 

"Be it mine to dwell among the good and to win their love." 

— Pindar. 
"Think that this day never dawns again." 

— Dante's Purgatorio. 

"For though we slepe, or wake, or rome, or ride, 
Ay fleth the time, it wol no man abide." 

— ^Geoffrey Chaucer. 

"To all who think good thoughts, speak good words and do 
good deeds. Heaven, the best world, belongs." 

— ^The Avesta (Zendavesta). 

The thing was true, but all truths are not to be spoken at 
all times." — Seneca. 

"The soul is dyed by the thoughts." — Marcus Aurelius. 

"As the Sandwich Islander believes that the strength and 
valor of the enemy he kills pass into himself, so we gain the 
strength of the temptation we resist." 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

"A friend should bear his friend's infirmities." 

— Shakespeare. 

"A quarter of an ounce of patience provideth for such 
inconveniences." — Montaigne. 

"Kind hearts are more than coronets." 

— ^Alfred Tennyson. 

"Let not thy hand be stretched out to receive and shut when 
thou shouldest give." — Ecclesiasticus. 

Traduce nobody." — Erjismus. 

'Let a man try faithfully, manfully, to be right ; he will grow 
daily more and more right." —Thomas Carlyle. 

"Cicero described a room without books as a body without 
a soul." — ^Anonymous. 





"The Instruction of Wisdom." 223 

This life is but the cradle of the other." 

— ^Joseph Joubert. 

'Derive useful lessons from past errors." 

— George Washington. 

■Being gentle of mind, bright of countenance; honoring 
the gods^ dispensing joy." — The Rig- Veda. 

" Love thyself last." — Shakespeare. 

"The sunbeam says^ *Be happy.' " — William Wordsworth. 

"Procrastination is the thief of time." — Edward Young. 

"If it is not right do not do it; if it is not true do not say it." 

— Marcus Aurelius. 

"When duty whispers low, *Thou must,' 

The youth replies, *I can.'" — Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

"How good to live and learn! " — Robert Browning. 

"The moving finger writes; and, having writ. 
Moves on: nor all your piety nor wit 
Shall lure it back to cancel half a line, 
Nor all your tears wash out one word of it." 

— Omar Khayyam. 

"Mistakes are lessons of wisdom." — Arthur Helps. 

"Let him have the key of thy heart who hath a lock on his 
own." — Sir Thomas Browne. 

"Difficulties are things that show what men are." 

— Epictetus. 

'Every violation of truth is a sort of suicide in the liar." 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

'Steer right onward." — ^John Milton. 

"I would not willingly pass one day of my life without 
comforting a sad soul." — George Herbert. 

[On Ash- Wednesday] : 

"The trivial round, the common task. 
Will furnish all we ought to ask — 
Room to deny ourselves, a road 
To bring us daily nearer God." —John Keble. 

"Books are the voices of the dead." 

— William E. Gladstone. 

"An honest man's the noblest work of God." 

— ^Alexander Pope. 



224 The Association Review, 

"Venerate the gods and bless them, and do good to men." 

— Marcus Aurelius. 

"The undiscovered country, from whose bourn 

No traveller returns." — Shakespeare. 

"Strange, is it not? that of the myriads who 
Before us passed the door of darkness through 

Not one returns to tell us of the road^ 
Which, to discover, we must travel too." 

— Omar Khayyam. 

"Pathless the things beyond, pathless alike to the unwise 
and the wise." — Pindar. 

"The wise man will ever want to be with one who is better 
than himself." — Plato. 

"The reward of one duty is the power to fulfil another." 

— George Eliot. 

"The only way to have a friend is to be one." 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

"The voice is powerful of a faithful friend." — Homer. 

"Politeness is a kind of anaesthetic which envelops the 
asperities of our character so that other persons shall not be 
wounded by them." — ^Joseph Joubert. 

"Life is a leaf of paper white, 
Whereon each one of us may write 
His word or two, and then comes night. 

Though thou have time 
But for a line, be that sublime! 
Not failure but low aim is crime." 

— ^James Russell Lowell. 

"What then is that about which we ought to employ our 
serious pains ? This one thing — thoughts just and acts social 
and words which never lie." — Marcus Aurelius. 

"Words without thoughts never to heaven go." 

— Shakespeare. 

'Be not censorious." — Francis Quarles. 

'Bright thoughts, clear deeds, constancy, fidelity, bounty 
and generous honesty are the gems of noble minds." 

— Sir Thomas Browne. 

"The trick of laughing frivolously is by all means to be 
avoided." — Lord Chatham. 




Be curteys." — ^The Knight of La Tour Landry. 

"The Instruction of Wisdom/' 225 

"If you would not be known to do anything, never do it." 

—Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

"Look just as pleasant as you can — it's contagious." 

— Anonymous. 

"Evil is wrought by want of thought^ 

As well as want of heart." — ^Thomas Hood. 

"Kindness, nobler ever than revenge." — Shakespeare. 

"The child is father of the man." — William Wordsworth. 

"Now it is in my power to let no badness be in this soul." 

— Marcus Aurelius. 

"Serve God, and show kindness unto parents and relations 
and orphans and the poor and your neighbor." — ^The Koran. 

[On Good- Friday] : 

"Set thyself, therefore, like a good and faithful servant ot 
Jesus Christ, to bear manfully the cross of thy Lord who out of 
love was crucified for thee." — Thomas a Kempis. 

"God uses us to help each other." — Robert Browning. 

"Squander not time, for that is the stuff life is made of." 

— Benjamin Franklin. 

"Flowers — ^the jewelry of God." — ^Thomas De Quincey. 

"Hail, ye small, sweet courtesies of life I for smooth do ye 
make the road of it." — Laurence Sterne. 

"The gods sell us all the goods we get from them." 

— Old Greek Proverb. 

"That best portion of a good man's life — 

His little, nameless, unremembered acts 

Of kindness and of love." — William Wordsworth. 

"Carrye noe tales." — Roger Ascham. 

"Silence is a great virtue, it covers folly, keeps secrets, 
avoids disputes, and prevents sin." — William Penn. 

"Above all other books be conversant in the Histories." 

— Lord Bacon. 

"In my opinion a man's first duty is to find a way of sup- 
porting himself, thus relieving other people of the necessity of 
supporting him." — ^Thomas Henry Huxley. 


Kepen wel thy tonge." — Geoffrey Chaucer. 

226 TJu Associatian Review. 


'Coward fear, which oftentimes encumbers men^ so that it 
turns them back from honored enterprise." — Dante's Inferno. 

"Omit speaking whatever is without sense and reason." 

— Epictetus. 

"Sow good services; sweet remembrances will grow from 
ihem." — Madame de Stael. 

"It is a man's duty to have books. A library is not a luxury 
but one of the necessaries of life." — Henry Ward Beecher. 

"Beware chief ely of ydlenes." — Roger Ascham. 

"Never meddle with other folks' business." 

— ^William Penn. 

"Know your own business and mind it." — ^William Penn. 

"Who dares think one thing, and another tell, 

My soul detests him as the gates of hell." — Homer. 

"A boy is better unborn than untaught." 

— George Gascoigne. 

"Men may rise on stepping stones 

Of their dead selves to higher things." — ^Alfred Tennyson. 

"I find this world a very pretty place." — Charles Lamb. 

"Miracles are good, but to relieve a brother, to draw a 
friend from the depths of misery, to pardon our enemies — ^these 
are greater miracles." — ^Voltaire. 

"I don't think much of a man who is no wiser to-day than 
he was yesterday." — ^Abraham Lincoln. 

"Admiration grows as knowledge grows." 

— Robert Browning. 

"Read biographies of great men, statesmen, soldiers, philos- 
ophers, saints. There is no kind of reading more interesting, 
or which has a greater influence on character." 

— Benjamin Jowett. 

"Never value anything as profitable to thyself which shall 
compel thee to break thy promise, to lose thy self-respect, to 
hate any mah." — Marcus Aurelius. 

"As ever in my great Task-master's eye." — ^John Milton. 

"Beware of entrance to a quarrel." — Shakespeare. 

"Read what is worth remembering and then — remember 
it 1" —Edward Everett Hale. 

*'The Instruction of Wisdom/' 227 

"Keep thyself in peace, and then shalt thou be able to make 
peace among others." — ^Thomas a Kempis. 

"No book, I believe, except the Bible, has been so univer- 
sally read and loved by Christians of all tongues and sects as 

Thomas a Kempis' 'Imitation of Christ/ " — Thomas Carlyle. 

'Knowledge is the food of the soul." — Plato. 

'Write nothing, say nothing, think nothing which you do 
not believe to be true before God." — ^Joseph Joubert. 

"There is always time enough for courtesy." 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson. 



"Hast thou heard a word against thy neighbor ? Let it die 
within thee, trusting that it will not burst thee." 

— Ecclesiasticus. 

"It is better to read a fine old book through three times 
than to read three new books through once." 

— ^Ainsworth R. Spofford. 

"There are some that live without any design at all, and 
only pass through the world like straws on a stream. They do 
not go, but are carried." — Seneca. 


Politeness is the flower of humanity." — ^Joseph Joubert. 

"The sea that to itself takes all — eternity !" 

— William Wordsworth. 

"The world deals good-naturedly with good-natured 
people." — ^William Makepeace Thackeray. 

[On Decoration Day] : 

"On Fame's eternal camping-ground 

Their silent tents are spread; 
And Glory guards with solemn round 

The bivouac of the dead." — ^Theodore O'Hara. 

"I wished to live honorably whilst I livedo and after my life 
to leave to the men who came after me my memory in good 
works." — ^Alfred the Great. 

"Over fruitful earth and beyond the sea hath the light of 
fair deeds shined, unquenchable forever." — Pindar. 

"Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm." 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

228 The Association Review. 

"The evil thought is at first like a thread of spider-web, but 
finally it becomes like a cart-rope." — ^The Talmud. 

"When you are obliged to speak ill of your neighbor look 
upon your tongue as a sharp knife in a surgeon's hand about to 
cut nerves and tendons." — St. Francis de Sales. 

"O God, that men should put an enemy in their mouths to 
steal away their brains !" — Shakespeare. 

"And Nature had a robe of glory on." 

— Percy Bysshe Shelley. 

"I look out of the window and think, *0 perfect day ! O 
beautiful world I O good God !' " — Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

"This air which is so sweet 
That in my soul I feel the joy of it." 

— William Wordsworth. 



Kind words are the music of the world." — ^Anonymous. 
No noble task was ever easy." — ^Thomas Carlyle. 

"Let thy oaths be sacred, and promises be made upon the I 

altar of thy heart." — Sir Thomas Browne. 

"Good name in man and woman, dear my lord. 

Is the immediate jewel of their souls." — Shakespeare. 

"If I were a boy again I would school myself to say *no' 

oftener." — ^James T. Fields. 

"Read the best books." — Erasmus. | 

"A large part of the education which is obtained by the 
students of a school is that which they themselves give to one 
another." —Arthur T. Hadley. | 

"Every year adds its value to a friendship as to a tree." I 

— ^James Russell Lowell. 

"He is mighty who subdues his passion." 

— ^The Talmud. 

"Be bold as a leopard and swift as an eagle and fleet as a 
hart and strong as a lion to do the will of thy Father which is 
in Heaven." — ^The Talmud. 

"It takes a good deal to make people understand that if 
they break the Tables of Stone the pieces will cut their feet." 

— Rudyard Kipling. 

''The Instruction of Wisdom" 229 

"Give not thy tongue too great a liberty." 

— Francis Quarles. 

'Vse not to lye." — Roger Ascham. 

Tor fearless virtue bringeth boundless gain." 

— ^William Wordsworth. 

'In matters of duty first thoughts are commonly best; they 
have more in them of the voice of God." — Cardinal Newman. 



Keep good company." — George Herbert. 

"I awoke this morning with devout thanksgiving for my 
friends." — Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

"No book is serviceable until it has been read and re-read, 
and loved and loved again, and marked so that you can refer to 
the passages you want in it, as a soldier can seize the weapon 
he wants in an armory." — ^John Ruskin. 

"Read and think." — Charles Lamb. 

"Death is not the end of life, but only one of the events in 
life." —Phillips Brooks. 

"Live unto the dignity of thy nature." 

— Sir Thomas Browne. 

"If I were a boy again I would school myself into a habit 
of attention oftener. I would remember that an expert on the 
ice never tries to skate in two directions at once." 

— ^James T. Fields. 

"Sweep away utterly all frothiness and falsehood from your 
heart; struggle unweariedly to acquire what is possible for every 
God-created man — a free, open, humble soul." 

— Thomas Carlyle. 

"The golden reins make not the horse the better." 

— Seneca. 

"Whoso would be a man must be a non-conformist." 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

"It is impossible that a man can keep company with one 
who is covered with soot without being partaker of the soot 
himself." — Epictetus. 

"To have learned without retaining doth not make knowl- 
edge." — Dante's Paradiso. 

"Fair seed-time had my soul." — ^William Wordsworth. 

230 The Association Review. 

'Trifles make perfection, but perfection is no trifle." 

— Michael Angelo. 

"The habit of doing what you do not care about, when you 
would much rather be doing something else, is invaluable. It 
would have saved me a frightful waste of time if it had ever been 
drilled into me in youth." — ^Thomas Henry Huxley. 

"A man's reach should exceed his grasp." 

— Robert Browning. 

"Give me [Socrates] leave to advance that your greatest 
pleasure is to have good friends." — Xenophon's Memorabilia. 

"A wound given by a word is oftentimes harder to be cured 
than that which is given with the sword." 

— Sir Henry Sidney in a letter to his son Philip. 

"Be true to your word and your work and your friend." 

—John Boyle O'Reilly. 

"There is a frankness which is brutal, and I detest it; a 
frankness which is indiscreet, and I fear it; a foolish frankness, 
and I pity it; there is also a frankness which is delicate, oppor- 
tune, good — honor to it!" — ^Joseph Roux. 

'Youth is not rich in time, it may be poor; 

Part with it as with money." — Edward Young^. 

'Speake not everye truth, for that is vnneedfuU." 

— Roger Ascham. 

"How far that little candle throws his beams ! 
So shines a good deed in a naughty world." 

— Shakespeare. 

"A man's true and only happiness is to live in hope of some- 
thing to be won by him, in reverence of something to be 
worshipped by him, and in love of something to be cherished by 
him — ^and cherished forever." — ^John Ruskin. 

"Our doubts are traitors, 

And make us lose the good we oft might win, 

By fearing to attempt." — Shakespeare. 

"A spirit of little daring draggeth him backward by the 
hand." — Pindar. 

"A rich guerdon waits on minds that dare." 

— ^William Wordsworth. 

"Try to know the best that is known and thought in the 
world." — Matthew Arnold. 



''The Instruction of Wisdom, 231 

"Truth is the hiest thing that man may kepe." 

— Geoffrey Chaucer. 

"Contend not with peevish words." — ^Thomas a Kempis. 

"Art may not be the bread but it is the wine of Hfe." 

— ^Jean Paul Richter. 

"This good Cometh to one, that to another, and many are 
the roads to happy life by the g^ace of gods." — Pindar. 

"In order to do anything in this world that is worth doing, 
one must not stand shivering on the bank, and thinking of the 
cold and danger, but jump in and scramble through as well as 
he can." — Sidney Smith. 

"Now of deeds done, whether they be right or wrong, not 
even Time, the father of all, can make undone the accomplish- 
ment." — Pindar. 

"What we ought not to do we should not even think of 
doing." — Epictetus. 

"The purest treasure mortal times afford 

Is spotless reputation." — Shakespeare. 

"To do good for evil is a method taught from heaven 

to keep all smooth on earth." — Sir Thomas Browne. 

"Give us knowledge, sagacity, quickness of tongue, holi- 
ness of soul, a good memory, and then the understanding that 
goeth on growing." — ^The Avesta. 

"Grant me, O Lord, to know that which is worth knowing, 
to love that which is worth loving." — ^Thomas a Kempis. 

The ending end of all earthly learning being virtuous ac- 
tion." —Sir Philip Sidney. 




The need of specialization in all the branches of study and 
of teaching was keenly felt in the second half of the 19th century, 
and one may say that this need has been answered in large 
measure not only on the part of students, but also on the part 
of the authorities chosen to take care of the institutions of 
culture and instruction. From this are derived innumerable 
advantages for the progress of the science of education, and for 
the rapid and sure advancement of every kind of study and re- 
search. What has remained somewhat backward in this respect, 
for reasons not necessary to mention at present, was the com- 
mon schools, for whose perfect organization it is to be hoped 
that the 20th century will arrange. 

As however it is reasonable and just that one should came 
only by degrees to the solution of the most complex problems, 
one cannot and must not fail to recognize the value of the single 
contributions whose sum will constitute sooner or later, the 
secure basis for sound reforms and for legislative provisions. It 
seems to me that a precious contribution to this problem of the 
specialization of the common schools is brought by Prof. Karl 
Brauckmann in his recent publication upon the psychic develop- 
vient and the pedagogkal care of children who are hard of hearing,'^ 

It is a well known fact that for a long time one regarded as 
stupid and intellectually deficient these poor children who for 
the lack of a perfect sense of hearing, remained almost separated 
from the rest in the common schools, founded for the collective 
instruction of a number of children of every age and capacity. 
They were obliged later to recognize this number as excessive, 
even when constituted of children who were normal in mind and 

^Die psychische Entwicklung und padagogische Behandlung schwer- 
horige Kinder. Von Karl Brauckmann. Berlin. 1901. 

Children who are Hard of Hearing. 233 

Prof. Brauckmann is not a simple theorist in this kind of 
study but is in a favorable condition to draw his conclusions 
from personal observation and from the facts of the school and 
of life^ as he is the Principal of a special Institute Qena) for the 
education of children who are hard of hearing, or have entirely 
lost the sense of hearing after having learned their mother 
tongue. He can therefore truly say that this essay is the fruit 
of personal observation and experience. The same author 
published already in 1896 another important work upon the im- 
perfections in the sense of hearing in children, in regard to their 
learning to speak; but in this new work of his, he studies the 
subject from the point of view of physiological psychology and 
of education. 

The work is divided into four parts, of each of which I will 
endeavor to give here an abridged account. 

I. Th^ sensations of the child who is hard of hearing. 

The first sensations of a child who is hard of hearing, to be 
taken into consideration, are of course the acoustic ones, which 
are exactly those which present the greatest difficulty in being 
verified experimentally. First, because the child is not able to 
give us an exact account of the impressions received by him 
from the sources of sound; secondly, because the most import- 
ant part of the hearing apparatus is hidden from objective ob- 
servation and otoscopic examination, as the labyrinth remains 
impervious as long as the individual is alive. Besides all this 
one must notice the fact that the acoustic sensation results from 
a combination of impressions which differ in infinite degree one 
from the other, as the intensity, the quality, the duration, the 
fullness of the vibrations of sound. One must also think of the 
many and delicate parts of the hearing apparatus which have 
not yet been measured with certainty in regard to their ex- 
tension and activity in the complicated act of acoustic sensation. 

The author takes in review all the physiological and patho- 
logical conditions of hearing, in order to indicate the miserable 
state of the child who is hard of hearing, and who remains shut 
out from all the delicate acoustic sensations. He comes to the 
conclusion that: **The acoustic world of him who is affected 
by auricular disease is not only smaller and more restricted, but 

234 7"^ Association Review, 

it is quite another thing from that of him who possesses normal 
hearing.'' And then it is an undeniable fact that the intensity 
of the sensations has a certain psychic influence. From this 
comes an injury to all the other fields of sensation. But that 
which has the most injurious influence upon the intellectual de- 
velopment of the (leaf child is his imperfect perception of speech. 

The author then passes to a more particular consideration 
of the psycliic development of him who lacks perfect hearing 
for the perception of speech. He examines for this purpose the 
three categories of sensations upon which are based the pos- 
session of a language — the sensations of feeling, of hearing, and 
of sJL^ht — passing in review the analvtical experiences of Oscar 

II. The life of ideas avd the eharaefer of the ehihf ii:hn is hard 
of hearing. 

The lack of a perfect sense of hearing, whether it be c<>n- 
genital or acquired in tender infancy, deprives the children so 
affected of a series of ideas which are met with in language. So 
that even when they have acquired this language or rather the 
vocabulary of the words analogous to the nuances of sounds, 
or the music of speech, they do not have clear ideas correspond- 
ing to these words. And consecjuently other fields of thought 
suffer aho. Among these must be noticed in the first place the 
idea of movement, which is always lacking in the child who is 
hard of hearing. The dance, the march, declamation, song are 
all acts Vvhich proceed parallel wnth the acoustic sensations, 
and so thev cann«»t reach the deaf cliild with the mathematical 
precision which hajn^cns to him who possesses a perfect sense 
of hearing. 

The same may be said f(^r the visual field of thought, mak- 
ing exception fc^r tliose cases whore defective hearing is also ac- 
companied by defective sight. 

One must reflect also that many ideas are not simple but re- 
sult from the union of various elements, or from remembered 
images in different ^qX^s, of sensation. For example the idea of 
rain lacl^s in the mind of the deaf its acoustic element. From 
the point of view of psychic development the examination is 
important wliich the author makes of the idea of time and of 

Children who are Hard of Hearing. 235 

numbers^ following upon what Wundt has already presented on 
this subject in his principles of physiological psychology. 

But the impressions, the sensations^ and the ideas which 
form the principal and substantial part of the process of thought, 
are those which refer to speech. This results from the fact that 
we associate, if possible, each of our sensations and ideas with a 
word. Let us think for example of the idea of an apple. In it 
we find as component parts of the idea the visual perception of 
fornix of color, and of size, those remembered images of many 
visual sensations and of those which are relative as smell and 
touch. We add to these the oral images, that is the acoustic 
which produces in us the sound of the word applCy and that 
movement which accompanies the pronunciation. The word is 
therefore the central point and the representation of an entire 
series of sensations and ideas. Hence the psychic value of the 
word as an instrument of analysis, and as a means for the pro- 
cess of thought which raises it from the material sensation to 
the mental acts of abstraction, generalization, judgment, con- 
sciousness, individuality, personality, etc. Speech which is 
transmitted from generation to generation contains also the ele- 
ments of continuity in the development of all national and human 
culture. From this comes its importance not only as an in- 
strument of thought but also as a means of communication, of 
instruction, of education, and of commerce. It is clear that he 
who cannot appropriate wholly to himself this means must 
remain in a restricted psychic world. This is the case of the 
child who is hard of hearing, and if one does not find the way 
to develop in him the knowledge of the language, this arrested 
development will have for its consequence the child's remaining 
in a very low degree of spiritual life, because it is obliged to live 
only in connection with sensible and present things, that is, with 
superficial sensations. 

The following series gives in their natural coordinated order 
the defects to which the child who is hard of hearing is con- 

I. The articulation of words suflFers an arrested develop- 
ment in him. 

236 The Association Review. 

2. The child is deprived of the cause of the oral sensations 
and ideas, and with this of the sensations and ideas of hearing 
and motion. 

3. The associations between the sensations and the ideas 
of the word and of the object remain in consequence un- 
developed, as well as the connection of words as sensible sig^s, 
with the sensations and ideas. 

4. There is no transition from the particular to the general 
and therefore the process of ideas and of logical thought is 

5. Speech fails in its office as a means of communication, 
commerce, learning, and education. 

Naturally gradual differences are found according to the 
age in which the affection occurred, and according to the treat- 
ment applied; but these are differences of degree. One has a 
substantial difference only in the case where the hearing began 
to grow less after the child had already acquired the language. 
In this case the defects above mentioned are lessened or are 
lacking entirely; but the further acquisition of the language is 
seriously compromised. 

As regards language, children who are hard of hearing may 
be divided into two groups: 

1. Children who from serious diminution of the sense of 
hearing are no longer able to keep up in the natural way with 
rapid perception of the acoustic form, and the acquisition of the 
movement of speech. 

2. Children who still possess a little hearing, but who 
nevertheless have not succeeded in getting a full possession nor 
a sufficient use of speech. 

There are still degrees of difference to be found in both 
these groups, which depend upon the time in which the illness 
occurred. And this circumstance should put the parents, educa- 
tors, and physicians on their guard against the danger of 
classifying as deficient the diildren who do not follow the ordi- 
nary course of public instruction from the sole defect of hearing. 
That the number of them is relatively great, the author demon- 
strates by two facts which have fallen under his personal obser- 
vation. Of 38 children who were excluded from the public 

Children who are Hard of Hearing. 237 

schools as feeble-minded, 9 were simply semi-deaf. In another 
case 9 of 30 were also found. 

In the examination of the hearing power, one must there- 
fore be very cautious and the author very justly observes that 
one may also be deceived in regard to the deaf and dumb, as they 
often respond with signs of assent to what one supposes to be 
sensations of hearing. Hence the case of frequent false alarms 
of the overthrow of deafness on the part of educators and of 
inexpert physicians. And I am particularly pleased that the 
experience of the author confirms my opinions published since 
1898 after my visit to the schools of Vienna and Munich.^ 

III. The pedagogical treatment of the semi-deaf child. 

The first thing to do for the deaf children with the object 
of beginning their instruction, is the examination of the function 
of hearing, to see whether it is a case to be treated or to be 
helped with the use of special instruments. 

The principal defects of the function of hearing in such 
children may be: 

1. A general arrested development of the power of move- 
ment which resolves itself into a defective coordination of the 
different groups of muscles, and into a defect of rhythm. 

2. A direct injury in the field of acoustic sensation, and an 
indirect one in the other categories of sensations. 

3. A consequent injury to the life of ideas. 

From these defects are also derived as a consequence the 
other special ones of speech, mentioned already in the pre- 
ceding paragraphs. 

Granted the importance of the hearing function, it is worth 
while to investigate if, and how much, this defect may be reme- 
died by means of methodical auricular exercises. Here the 
author begins to examine the question of systematic exercises, 
which has been much discussed in recent times by the educators 
of the deaf and dumb. Naturally one must admit that it is one 
thing to be a deaf-mut^, and quite another to be hard of hearing. 
In the first, there is either no hearing power whatever, or it is 
such as not to allow the perception of determined and variated 

*Sec "La Facolta uditiva nei sordomuti," by G. Ferreri. Florence. 

238 The Association Review. 

sounds such as those of articulated speech. In the second, the 

hearing power although injured is still always in a more or less 

marked degree capable of receiving with advantage an auricular 


When however the diagnosis of the defective hearing is 

established in possible Hmits, one may determine in what, and 

how many cases, and with what means one should proceed in 

the education of the remnant of hearing for the perception of 


*'In regard to children who are hard of hearing/' says the 
author, **we hold firmly that they will not succeed in acquiring, 
by means of systematic acoustic exercises, the normal acoustic 
perception, and that all the other defects which are found in 
their psychic develoi)ment on account of their defective hearing, 
cannot be eliminated in this way." 

It is true however that no one has yet invented spectacles 
for the ears. 

The pedagogical treatment of children with defective hear- 
ing must begin at home and be continued in the school. One 
must first of all persuade the parents and friends of the little 
deaf children to free themselves of the prejudice which makes 
them abandon the children to themselves because they cannot 
hear them well. Instead one should use every means to elimi- 
nate in the deaf child all the bad habits which it cannot correct 
by itself, and which are inherent to defective hearing. It is a grave 
error of the parents to allow these bad habits to become invete- 
rate, because it is only the continued habit which has rendered 
them so serious. The school then has for its task to accustom 
these children to observe every thing that can and must attract 
their attention. One should even make special exercises direct- 
ed to the acoustic attention, and one must remember that the in- 
strument best adapted for this purpose is the human voice. To- 
gether with the acoustic attention one must also exercise the 
optical, and that of touch, besides the muscular sense which is 
so defective with the deaf, especially concerning speech. 

In this connection the author makes mention of all the 
various combinations of exercises, which while they develop in 
the child the habit of attention, predispose him to a thorough 

Children who are Hard of Hearing, 239 

The instruction of deaf children imposes the following 
duties upon the teacher: 

1. To accustom them to a correct and fluent articulation; 
to write and read easily; to read easily from the lips; and as far 
as possible^ to perceive by hearing the spoken word. 

2. To communicate to them the treasure of the language 
and of ideas, and to render them capable of making use of it at 
will in every circumstance. 

To reach this end the school must avail itself of all the 
means already in practice in the Oral method for the instruction 
of the deaf. 

In the last part of his work, Brauckmann studies: i, the re- 
lation between the optical and acoustic perception of the word; 
2, the part which the movements of speech have in this; 3, the 
forms and time of association; 4, the images of movement to be 
used in teaching the mother tongue and foreign languages. 

The conclusion of this study is that hearing and lip-reading 
and book-reading do not appeal directly to the idea of the thing, 
but the moving image of the word does so. Now this image 
assumes all its importance in speaking and in writing, which are 
both forms of Oral expression. Hence the necessity of giving 
the greatest attention to an exercise of the movements of 
speech^ which saves both teacher and pupil much time, fatigue 
and annoyance. "One must always think," concludes the author, 
"that the movements of speech represent the pritnary phenome- 
non of it, and the acoustic images the secondary one." 





Speech is said to consist of a series of significant sounds pro- 
duced by emissions of breath, variously modified. These element- 
ary sounds and the letters which represent them are divided into 
two general classes : vowels and consonants. 

An edition of Walker's Dictionary bearing date of 1828 dis- 
tinguishes between these two classes of sounds in the following 
words : *'A vowel is a letter which can be sounded by the human 
voice without the aid of any other letter.'* A consonant, it says, 
is **a letter which cannot be sounded without the aid of some 
other. " In marked contrast to this we find the following distinc- 
tion made in the introduction of Soule and Wheeler's **Manual of 
English Pronunciation and Spelling": **A vowel sound is a sound 
produced by an unobstructed utterance of the breath (as in whis- 
pering,) or of the voice (as in speaking aloud), more or less 
modified by the position of the tongue, the soft palate, and the 
lips, or by the motions of the lower jaw in varying the cavity of 
the mouth. The letter which represents such a sound is called a 
vowel'y but this term is sometimes applied to the sound itself." '*A 
consonant sound is a sound produced by the partial or the total ob- 
struction of the breath or the voice, on passing through the mouth 
or the nose, by the contact or the approximation of two of the 
organs of speech, as the two lips (^, wh^ ni)^ the lower lip and the 
upper teeth (/, z*), the tip of the tongue and the upper teeth {ih as 
in thi?i, th as in ihis)^ the tip of the tongue and the hard palate {sh^ 
zK), the back of the tongue and the soft palate (^, ng) ; or it is a 
sound produced by an utterance of the breath at the moment of 
separating two of these organs {k^p, t). The letter which rep- 
resents such a sound, and sometimes the sound itself, is called a 
conso7iant (from the Latin corisonans^ meaning literally sounding 
with,) a name probably suggested by the fact that a vowel sound 

iThi8 series of papers by Miss Yale, giveu origiually in The Educator, 
will be reprinted in response to repeated requests. — Ed.] 


Ekmentary English Sounds, 241 

is usually joined with a consonant sound in forming syllables, 
though not meant to imply, as some writers seem to have sup- 
posed, that no consonant sound can be uttered without being 
joined with a vowel sound/* 

Professor Alexander Melville Bell says: '* Vowels are throai 
sounds which simply pass through the varying mouth-channels; 
consonants are sounds formed in the mouthy as the result of fric- 
tion, compression, or interception of the breath." In another 
case he says: **The channel of the mouth, and also the formative 
aperture for every vowel must be free from interruption or con- 
striction; otherwise the vowel is changed into a consonant. This 
is the characteristic difference between vowels and consonants. 
All consonants have an obstrucuon or compression of some part 
of the mouth channel, producing an effect of friction, sibilation, 
buzzing, or intermittance of sound. Many of the vowels, there- 
fore, give rise to consonants when their aperture is slightly 
compressed Vowel sounds are all syllabic.'' Else- 
where he says: **The vowels are the material of speech, and the 
articulations,^ are the joints or hinges by whose motion the vow- 
els are separated from each other and are affected in their dura- 

The number of vowel and consonant sounds hi our language 
as given by various authorities varies greatly. The five vowel 
letters are asserted by Walker (1828) to have seventeen sounds; 
while the Century Dictionary gives twenty-one vowels and diph- 
thongs, and Professor Whitney states that this last number is 
greatly increased, **even in the mouths of the best speakers," by 
abbreviation and lightening. 

Some authorities divide vowels into pure and impure, or 
simple and compound. Other authorities avoid such classifica- 
tion, but speak of the long diphthongal sounds of a, f, by and u. 

Professor Alexander Melville Bell's system of Visible Speech 
classifies vowels, according to formation ^^^ front or hack vowels 
(front or back of the tongue being the chief modifying organ); 
also as high or low vowels (referring to the position of the tongue 
in the mouth). All diphthongal sounds are classified as diph- 
thongs as a, f, oWy etc. 

iThe word *'articulatioD" is here limited to oonsonants. 

242 The Association Review. 

Consonants are divided into spirants, sibilants, nasals, labials, 
dentals, gutturals, etc. 

The following charts are the result of an attempt to classify 
the elementary sounds of our language according to their organic 


wh — w 

( ca 

C -< CO 




' ce 
c -( ci 

.p b m 

d n 1 

f V 

th th 


k g ng 


sh zh y — 

pVj I x=ks qu=kwli 

— ge 

Elementary English Sounds. 243 

111 examining this chart it will be noted that the left hand line 
is occupied by the English breath consonants ; the second line by 
the voiced forms of tlit ^ame sounds ; the third by the nasal sounds. 
The horizontal arrangement classifies these sounds according to 


00 00 o— e aw — o 

(r)u-e oa au 

(r)ew — o o(r) 



ee —1— a— e — e— —a- 

-^ ai — y 

1 2 

ea ay ea 



u— ur 

— er— re 





— ir 


1 r\ 

/^ r\ 



n /^ 


1 U 


U U 











In this arrangement of vowel sounds the upper line contains 
the scale of back round vowels (those modified chiefly by the back 
of the tongue and the rounded aperture of the lips). The second 

244 The Association Reviiw. 

line contains the scale of front vowels (those modified chiefly 
by the front of the tongue). The lowest line contains all the 
diphthongal sounds; for a and o, although previously appearing 
in the scales to which their radical parts belong, are repeated here 
as being by their compound forms properly classified with diph- 

An attempt is also made in these charts to teach the simple 
rules of pronunciation. For illustration, a-g (representing a) when 
contrasted with -a- (representing a, is easily made intelligible by 
the introduction of the same consonants in both sets of blanks; as 
— rat^, rat ; haU, hat, etc. The dictionary and diacritical marks 
ma3» be of use later but not for little children. They will not 
find diacritical marks over the words in their books or marking 
the pronunciation of words in their letters from home, but they 
will, if familiar with the principles of pronunciation represented 
here, know that final £ modifies the sound of the vowel preceding 
it making a, a ; e, e ; i, i ; o, d ; «, u. They will know that r 
filial modifies the vowel which it follows and become itself only 
a glide; etc., etc. In thi« way words are made to pronounce 
themselves to the eye of the child. 

Sometime later an hour with the dictionary will make dia- 
critical marks available for the pronunciation of long, hard 
words and exceptions to rules of spelling, but for hundreds of 
words the rules indicated by the arrangement of the few dashes on 
these charts will be suflScient. When a class has built up these 
charts, sound by sound, as they have gained the ability to give 
each, comprehending the meaning of each dash and figure, they 
will find themselves in possession of no small amount of help to- 
ward mastering the difficulties of English pronunciation. 

{To be continued.) 



In coming before this Association I do not come as an ex- 
perienced specialist in teaching speech to the deaf, but on the 
other hand with years of study and practical experience in teach- 
ing more than eight hundred pupils who have been afflicted with 
other forms of speech impediment, which gives me thoughts 
that may be of practical benefit to you who are so vitally inter- 
ested in this subject. 

Speech is the result of mechanical operations. The study 
of the manifestation of these operations forms a basis for the 
study and teaching of lip-reading. 

Since the lips only comprise one set of muscles used in the 
articulation of words, it follows that much of what is said must 
be made out from the context. A whole sentence will often 
be puzzling to the deaf person because a simple letter or ele- 
ment is not articulated with precision. 

Perfect articulation means precise positions and actions, 
and with persons of normal speech is an indication of keen in- 
tellect. It may be a benefit to us to fully realize that our men- 
tal grasp is unconsciously judged by our fellow men from our 

The animal does not articulate any sound: the idiot has a 
very slovenly articulation. The voice of the animal may be 
more powerful and clear than the voice of the human animal 
who has great intellectual capacity, but the voice is the ther- 
mometer of the physical and not of the mental strength or 

Many a good physician today judges and bases his decision 
of the vitality of the patient upon the strength of the voice quite 

"Extracts from a lecture delivered at the Board of Education Rooms, 
Detroit, Michigan, before the Detroit Association of Parents and Friends 
of Deaf Children. 

246 The Association Review. 

as much as upon the strength of the pulse. The ordinary lay- 
man bases his decision of the mental strength of his associate 
upon the distinctness of his articulation, though he may not be 
aware of the fact. It therefore behooves us all "to talk dis- 
tinctly and, I might also add, slowly^ for slowness lends dignity 
to the thought to be expressed. 

The judge in his official capacity, should be a slow talker 
if he desires to conduct the work of the court with a dignity 
becoming to the office. If we as parents and friends would talk 
slowly and articulate our words distinctly, we would take a great 
burden from the teacher and make her work in teaching our 
children many-fold lighter. 

There would be little sense in giving to a child who is be- 
ginning to learn to read writing the manuscript of a proverbial 
Philadelphia lawyer^ yet the same child, after years of experi- 
ence, might be able to read that same kind of writing as readily 
as he would read a printed article. Yet this is what we ask 
children to do when we ask them to read the motions of the lips 
when fhe motions are not in conformity with the standard of 
articulation. We not only ask the child to do this but we ask 
him to read without hesitation, words with part of the charac- 
ters entirelv eliminated. 

To help the child in its work when it is learning to read 
the lips it would be a good plan for the parents to take exercises 
for the development of the ten muscles that control the action 
of the lips. These exercises will be a benefit to the parent as 
well as a lielp to the child, for when the muscles become strong 
and flexible from exercise, they will be more exact in executing 
the movements required by distinct artictilation. The parent 
will also find that the reflex action upon his own mind will cause 
him to have a clearer thought and better understanding of what 
he is talking about. 

At the beginning of this paper I said that speech was the 
result of mechanical operations. If I were a perfect mechanic 
and knew enough of these operations I could make a machine 
that could be operated with a pair of bellows or a bicycle pump 
that could say any word or sound that can be uttered in this 
or any other language by any race of people. I would be able 

Mechanism of Speech. 247 

to construct a machine that could imitate the voice of any vocal 
artist in the land. Of course there is only one Great Mechanic 
to whom we can look for perfect work. The thought I desire 
to emphasize is this, that speech is purely mechanical. Hold 
the sides of the tongue so as to compel the breath to pass over 
the end of a blunted tongue that is brought close to the upper 
gums and slightly separating the teeth, blow the air through 
this crevice, and you will produce the sound of the letter "s"; 
add to this vocalization and you will get the sound of "z." 
Change the position so as to present the part of the tongue a 
little further back to the gums, and round the center of the 
tongue a little and you have the "sh" sound. So we can go 
through the entire list of sounds that go to make up the lan- 
guage and we will find that with the exception of the letter "h" 
each sound has a special position of the articulating organs for 
its best production. 

The lisper will substitute the position of the "th" for the 
"s" position and will say: "Thith ith a thweet thort of thound," 
instead of "This is a sweet sort of sound." 

The Frenchman has no "th" sound in his language and he 
substitutes the "s" and "z" for the two "th" sounds and says: 
"I sink zat zis is right, instead of "I think that this is right." 

The sounds represented by the letters "p," "b," and "m" 
seem to have the same action at the lips. The child should be 
taught to watch the throat as well as the lips for the manifesta- 
tion of these sounds. The "p" sound is an aspirate and passes 
the throat without vibrating the vocal cords or enlarging the 
pharynx. The "b" sound is a sub-vocal and its production 
lowers the larynx, vibrates the vocal cords, and enlarges the 
pharynx by filling it with sound. The enlargement of the 
pharynx shows quite distinctly under the chin, and the lowering 
of the larynx is indicated by the downward action of what is 
commonly known as the "Adam's apple." 

In the work of correcting any form of speech impediment 
the old thread-bare saying that "knowledge is power" is a tru- 
ism that should be our watchword and motto. These unfortu- 
nate children who are dumb because they cannot hear need not 
grow up to be a drag upon the family and the community and 

248 The Association Review. 

a burden to themselves, although they are deprived of a faculty 
that should have been their rightful inheritance from an all- 
wise Creator. Almost every one of them can be taught to talk 
and to read the conversation of their friends and associates 
from the manifestations of the actions of the organs of articu- 

It has seemed hard to understand why these dear unfortu- 
nates are so afflicted, but time will develop the great plan. If 
it had not been for this class of sufferers scientific knowledge 
of speech production would have been many years delayed. 
ITie knowledge that is being sought for and gained on their 
account will one day be crystalized into a science. That science 
will form the basis for the art of transmitting thought by clearly 
vocalizing, thoroughly resonating, accurately breaking up, 
molding, and modifying the column of air as it comes from the 
lungs and sending it from the lips in the form of perfect and 
pleasing words. When this science is thoroughly understood 
and taught in the schools and colleges, the world will owe to 
the deaf a debt of gratitude that it will never be able to repay. 


Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Institution for the 
Deaf and Dumb at Mt Airy, Philadelphia. 1902. 

President Emlen Hutchinson reports on September 30^ 
1901, an attendance of 486 pupils, and an average attendance 
during the year of 497 pupils. Forty-two pupils were admitted 
during the year of which number 37 were bom in Pennsylvania, 
two in Connecticut, two in New York, one in North Carolina, 
and only one in a foreign country, a record which, as Mr. 
Hutchinson observes, speaks well for the administration of our 
national immigration laws. 

The Legislature appropriates $250 toward the maintenance 
of each pupil. The expense however to the Institution for the 
past two years has averaged $270.20, the excess of cost being 
made up by bequests and donations, and from income thereon. 

Referring to the course of instruction pursued in the school, 

the President says: 

"No material change was made in the course of instruction 
heretofore pursued in the Intellectual Department. As will be 
seen by the Superintendent's report, about ninety-four per cent, 
of the pupils in attendance were instructed by the oral method, 
and by this is meant that with these pupils neither the sign lan- 
guage nor even the manual alphabet was used^ but instruction 
was given solely by word of mouth and by writing. The remain- 
ing six per cent, of our pupils were taught by manual methods^ 
but the sign language was not used at all as a means of impart- 
ing information, but instruction was given solely through the 
manual alphabet and writing. All the pupils in the Manual De- 
partment were first placed under instruction in the oral depart- 
ment, and were transferred to the manual only after they had 
failed to make such progress as their opportunities made it rea- 
sonable to expect. No child is placed in the Manual Depart- 
ment until the most diligent efforts have been made to teach him 
in the oral, and until it is clear that he comes within the re- 
striction imposed by the Legislature of 1899, that every child 
should be taught orally unless physically incapable of being so 

250 77if Association Review. 

Dr. A. L, E. Crouter, the Superintendent, states that of the 
486 pupils present, no less than 223, or nearly 46 per cent., are 
reported as bom deaf. This is an unusually large proportion, 
even 33 or 35 per cent, being considered large. Dr. Crouter is 
led to believe that parents have made mistakes on this point in 
ignorance of actual causes of deafness in their children. 

The Superintendent reports gratifying advancements made 
in the Industrial Department, the Department of Physical Train- 
ing, and the Department of Domestic Economy. Coming to 
the Intellectual Department and its work, he says : 

"Of the pupils admitted to the Intellectual Department 
during the past year, but five were under the age of seven; ten 
were seven and under ten ; and twenty-seven were ten and over. 
The average age at admission was much higher than usual. 
This higher age has its advantages. Pupils are physically and 
mentally stronger, and better able to endure the strain of study. 
There is much difference of opinion as to the age when deaf 
children may most wisely and profitably be placed under regular 
instruction. Some maintain that instruction should begin at 
three, others as early as two years of age, but it is my experience, 
and I believe the experience of the great body of American and 
European instructors, that the age of seven, certainly not 
younger than six, is as a rule, the best age at which to begin the 
regular and systematic instruction of a deaf child. It is a mis- 
take to suppose that in the case of a young deaf child there can 
be no mental development without formal instruction, and that 
unless the child be hurried off to some school or home at an age 
when he should be left to amuse himself in the nursery or at his 
mother's knee his best mental development will be endangered 
for all time. The young deaf child, with each new experience, 
develops mentally much as the young hearing child does. He 
acquires ideas; he reasons. He thinks but he has not the power 
to express his thoughts to any but his most intimate friends. 
He must be taught to express his ideas through ordinary chan- 
nels, through speech and through writing. Hence the 
establishment and maintenance of special schools for his instruc- 
tion and education. But it is not wise to require him to make 
mental effort beyond his physical powers to endure. Mental 
effort should keep pace with physical growth. During the in- 
fantile period, the daily experiences of his active young life will 
prove sufficiently conducive to the best mental development of 
the young deaf child, and not until he has reached the age of 
six or seven years should he be taken from his home and placed 

Reviews. 251 

under systematic training of any kind. The records of this 
school during the past twenty years do not show that the best 
work is done by pupils who have come to it at the tenderest age, 
on the contrary, as a rule, the best results have been attained 
by those who have come to us at an age when their physical and 
mental powers were considerably developed and when they were 
better able to appreciate and endure the work required of them. 
"But while the formal instruction of the deaf child ought 
not to be begun at too early a period in its life, neither should it 
be delayed, as is too frequently the case, until a time when it is 
too late to attain the best results of his training. Deaf children 
whose education has been neglected until they have passed the 
age of sixteen or seventeen years seldom make satisfactory 
progress in their studies. Their normal faculties through long 
disuse, have become so dulled and dormant that it is almost 
impossible to arouse or excite them to activity, and as a result 
they seldom get beyond the primary or intermediate stage of 
school work." 

Dr. Crouter's long and varied experience in the work of 
the instruction of the deaf, first as an exceptionally skillful 
teacher for many years by manual methods, and later as Super- 
intendent, also for many years, of the (now) largest purely oral 
school — in its main department — ^in the world, lends to anything 
he may say upon the subject of methods special importance and 
value. We quote him upon this subject as follows: 

"There were no changes during the year in the methods of 
instruction pursued in the Intellectual Department. The oral 
method was continued with good results with the great majority 
of pupils in attendance, fully 94 per cent. Instruction in the 
various branches taught was given orally and in writing, neither 
the sign language nor the manual alphabet was used. This 
method seems to be commending itself more and more to heads 
of schools for the deaf, and their instructors, in this country. In 
the oral schools it is always applied ; in the manual or combined 
schools the number of pupils receiving the benefits of this form 
of instruction is constantly increasing. No less than 6167 out of 
a total of 1 1022 taught in the schools for the deaf in this coun- 
try, last year, were taught wholly, or in part, by oral methods. 
This is a remarkable change, when it is remembered that a gen- 
eration ago there was no school in the country in which oral 
methods of instruction were pursued. Speech to the deaf child is 
doubly important, it not only enables him to hold social converse 
with his fellows after the manner that is common to almost all 
mCH; it places him in a position where he can the more readily 

252 The Association Review. 

command the means of self-support. The deaf man who can 
speak and read the lips, even imperfectly, commands positions 
and employment much more readily than one who has never en- 
joyed the benefit of such training. Says a writer in a recent num- 
ber of the Annals: 'The ability to converse increases their (the 
deaf) happiness and even their earning capacity in a world of 
work, especially in times when employment is difficult to obtain. 
One (leaf man, a lip-reader, estimates that it adds at least twenty- 
five per cent, to a deaf man's value to his employer. Possibly it 
adds more than that to his income in dull times. For of two 
workmen of equal ability and faithfulness an employer will nat- 
urally choose the one to whom he can most easily tell what he 
wishes done. How often when we have been seeking employ- 
ment for a deaf boy or girl have we heard such expressions as 
this: "Oh, there is plenty of hearing help, I could not possibly 
have the patience to write ever)rthing." But if we could say he 
or she was a good lip-reader, the aspect of the case was altered 
at once.' 

"While the great body of our pupils, as already stated, enjoy 
the benefits of oral methods of instruction, there remains a small 
portion, six per cent., who, because of inability to profit by that 
method, are taught by manual methods, the manual alphabet 
and writing being used. The sign language is not used. These 
pupils, thirty in number, for the most part (two-thirds of them) 
have been transferred from the oral department. It is true 
they are backward pupils and will not make any great advance- 
ment under the change. It is thought advisable, however, to 
give them the opportunity, and possible benefit, of a change of 
method. They constitute three classes and are provided for. in 
every way, in the Advanced Department, Wissinoming Hall. 

"The percentage of successful effort under oral methods 
compares very favorably in this school, where no distinctions 
are made for purposes of admission and instruction, with the 
results attained in the best schools in Germany where, as is 
well known, the oral method has been almost exclusively pur- 
sued for over a hundred years." 

Dr. Crouter then quotes a long list of opinions of eminent 
and experienced educators of Europe, all strongly favorable to 
the oral method. (For these opinions see Review, Vol. Ill, 
pp. 386-387.) 

The reports of the heads of the several departments of the 
school, and of the physician, oculist, and dentist, give interesting 
and valuable information, besides being suggestive of the 
breadth and completeness of the work done in this Institution, 

Reviews. 253 

Annual Report of the Ontario Institution for ihe Deaf and 
Dumb at Belleville. 1901. 

The Government Inspector, Mr. T. F. Chamberlain, reports 
the number of pupils in this school during the year as 300, vary- 
ing in age from seven to twenty-seven years. He refers to the 
new department of Sloyd teaching as doing excellent work, and 
he hopes for the early introduction of a department of photog- 
raphy. He speaks with pride of the fact that the more than 
1200 pupils who have taken the course in the school have all, 
with scarcely an exception, done well in life, many of them in 
responsible positions. The per capita cost of maintenance for 
the year was $184.92. 

The Superintendent, Mr. Robert Mathison, gives as a part 
of his report, the petition of the adult deaf of Great Britain to 
the government in favor of the combined system of instruction 
in the schools. In this connection Mr. Mathison says that in 
Great Britain the tendency has been for many years away from 
the oral method, and that in a majority of the schools oralism 
has been replaced by the combined method. 

Mr. Mathison speaks of the various aids to hearing that are 
brought before the public from time to time in not very hopeful 
terms, and he gives some space to a discussion of the Akouphone. 
He is doubtful if this instrument can help the really deaf, and 
deprecates the extravagant claims that have been made for it, 

A list of "Teachers* Examination Questions" is a valuable 
feature of this report, and it might well be published separately 
and placed in the hands of every teacher of the deaf in the coun- 
try. No teacher could go through these questions and exer- 
cises carefully and not find very many that would be suggestive 
of work to which he could profitably give attention with his own 
class. The writer remembers similar lists of "Examination 
Questions" published in former years in reports of this school, 
and recalls the many uses to which he put them in the several 
lines of his work. 

In his report of the annual examination, Mr. Duncan 
Walker speaks of the articulation work of the school as follows : 

"In the articulation classes there are sixty pupils, of whom 
about two-thirds 'read the lips' readily and speak quite distinctly. 

254 The Association Review. 

Most of the others experience some difficulty in understanding 
the lip movements and their articulation is more or less defective. 
This work requires a great deal of patience and perseverance and 
the fact that such good results have followed their efforts must 
be encouraging and gratifying to the two teachers who have 
charge of this important branch of instruction." 

Report of the Nova Scotia Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb at Hali&ix. 1901. 

The Principal, Mr. J. Fearon, in his report to the Directors, 
gives the attendance during the year as 124, of which number 104 
are from Nova Scotia, 7 from Prince Edward Island, 2 from 
Bermuda, i from New Brunswick, and 10 from Newfoundland. 
Speaking with reference to the work of the Intellectual Depart- 
ment, the Principal says: 

"The school is divided into nine classes in charge of teachers 
of different degrees of experience and ability. The successful 
education of the deaf requires, much more than the hearing, the 
services of experienced and capable teachers. To take a little 
deaf child of average intelligence and educate him successfully 
on the oral method, that is to say, teach him to speak intelligibly 
and read the lips of those around him with facility, requires on 
the part of the teacher very great patience, perseverance, and 
faithfulness, as well as experience and real teaching ability. A 
school with a staff of teachers capable of this would be an ideal 
one. When we fail to teach an intelligent deaf child successfully 
on the oral method, the fault is not in the method but in our- 
selves. As a means of communication writing or manual spelling 
is much easier, especially in the earlier stages of the child's edu- 
cation; and as it is human nature to seek the path of least resist- 
ance it is not surprising that so many advocate this means of 
communication rather than that of speech and speech reading. 
The spread, indeed the survival of the oral method, will depend 
upon the keeping up of a supply of thoroughly trained and effi- 
cient teachers capable of responding in every way to the strain 
that oral teaching demands . I am glad to report that from year 
to year the teaching staff here is improving, is becoming more 
experienced, and better work — especially oral work — is being 
done. Lately the Institution was fortunate in securing the ser- 
vices of Mr. j. A. Weaver and Miss Mary Reid, two trained and 
successful teachers from the School for the Deaf at Margate, 

Reviews, 255 

Distinct advancement has been made the past year in the 
introduction of Manual Training for the boys and Domestic 
Science for the girls. There is a considerable number of chil- 
dren of school age in the Province not under instruction which 
leads Mr. Fearon to urge the enactment of a compulsory educa- 
tion law in the interest of such children. It is suggested that 
the earlier years of a deaf child's life while he is still at home 
would be made more fruitful of intellectual development if par- ' 
ents would talk to him as they do to their hearing children. 
Upon this point Mr. Fearon says: 

"As a rule, when parents discover that their child is deaf 
they treat it accordingly, and communicate with it by gestures 
and crude signs. If instead of this they would direct the child's 
attention to the motion of the lips and talk to him as they do 
to their hearing child, they would do much to pave the way for 
systematic instruction in speech and speech-reading which the 
child receives on coming to school. They would discover also 
that the child learns very soon to distinguish the names of com- 
mon objects^ commands, etc, on the lips, and that a means of 
communication in this way can be established. Many helpful 
suggestions might be given to the parents, but unfortunately as 
things now are, it is not until the child is eighty ten^ or twelve 
. years of age, and the parents make application for his admission, 
that the school is aware of his existence. I would suggest that 
the Education Office, through the public school teachers, be 
asked to assist in finding out the whereabouts of deaf children at 
as early an age as possible, and that a circular also be sent to 
doctors^ clergymen, and the local newspapers requesting their 

Rassegna della Educazione del Sordomuti [Review of the 
Education of the Deaf], Naples, Italy. No. 3, March, 1902. 

"What is Science?" by P. Fornari. The able and gifted 
professor of Milan, although he has retired from active teaching, 
continues to recommend studies which are necessary for the 
teachers of the deaf, in order to develop and improve this branch 
of education. The author gives, as a conclusion of his article, 
the following program for a Normal course of lessons for teach- 

256 The Association Review. 

Part I. Granted the basis of an anatomical and physiolog- 
ical study of the organ of speech in its conditions and in its 
function, a critical research is necessary in order: 

1. To find what laws direct the movements of the nerves 
and muscles of the vocal organ for the production of the ele- 
ments of sound; what obstacles can be opposed to them in the 
j>articular cases; how it is possible to avoid or suppress them. 
For that however it is necessary: 

a. To study the traditional and written alphabet, to com- 
pare it with the physiological one in order to discover what there 
is incorrect, what lacking, what useless; 

b. To discompose every single alphabetical sound in its 
physiological elements; 

c. To observe what physiological conditions are demanded 
for the reproduction of the sounds either alone or in a combi- 

d. How the false sounds can be eliminated. 

2. To seek the various relations between the different 
sounds in their reciprocal functional influence; how that in- 
fluence can aid or produce a disturbance ; how and why the same 
sounds are modified by the contact; what order and what rules 
must be followed in teaching. 

3. To study the general psycho-physiological laws, which 
we must have always present, and also what principles must be 
observed in such a delicate work as this, which has contray 
nature itsef to deal with. 

4. It is also necessary to know what pedagogical rules are 
derived from study, attention, and memory in every work or 
psychic function. 

5. To look for what laws and through what rational way 
a voluntary, yet imposed movement, can be changed into a 
reflex, automatic one, without operating against the rules 

6. From what signs one can perceive that the work is 
being converted into fatigue; how it is possible to repair or con- 
trol it for the economy of force. 

Part 11. As lip-reading was always considered a thing of 
secondary importance, i. e., only as a consequence of learning 
to articulate and to speak, we must seek to find: 

T. In what lip-reading consists as a physio-psychological 

2. Whether comparison is possible, and if so what com- 

Reviews. 257 

parison can be established between lip-reading, and written 
reading for hearing persons. 

3. What psychic purpose we must attain with it, and how 

to do so that the seeing of the deaf should be like hearing for us 
in regard to its effects in the cerebral centres. 

4. What and how much of the power of integration takes 
place in lip-reading, and upon what physiological and psycho- 
logical laws that power depends. 

5. What consequences we can deduce from the studies 
mentioned for the practice of lip-reading. 

6. With what pedagogical principles one can promote this 
delicate art in order to perfect it. 

Part III. In regard to the teaching of oral language it is 
necessary to examine: 

1. How a production which was originally merely acoustic, 
can aquire a psychic equivalence without that specific quality and 
only for its kinetic nature; 

2. With what didactic principles one may give to the 
speech of the deaf the value and the rank which it possesses for 
hearing people; 

3. Through what ways (logical and material) the hearing 
child learns the maternal tongue, and what are the most suitable 
means for teaching that language to the deaf; 

4. What special appearances the problem of teaching takes 
for us in regard to the special circumstances that, i, the hearing 
child acquires ideas successively with the acquisition of lan- 
guage, an4 2, that the deaf child has already acquired several 
ideas associated with phantasms or with signs when he enters 
school; and how we may resolve this problem; 

5. Under what conditions and in what limits one could 
follow, with the deaf, the natural way of the mother without any 
regard to the formal side of language, so that one can proceed 
with the imitative method instead of the constructive one; 

6. How the two above mentioned methods can be recon- 
ciled with each other; 

7. With what pedagogical means one can produce in the 
deaf the need, will, and pleasure in speaking, and how to produce 
in him the sentiment of the language. 

The program of Prof. Fornari can be recommended for the 
study and consideration of every teacher of the deaf. 

"The Speech of the Deaf and its Obstacles" is the subject 
of an article by R. Scardigno, a woman teacher of the Provincial 
Institution at Molfetta. 

258 The Association Review. 

Under the title "Among books and papers/' G. Ferreri 
gives to the Italian readers an anal3^ical account of the Ameri- 
can press, and in the first place, of the contents of our Review. 
G. Ferreri publishes also an Italian translation of a curious ac- 
count of a deaf girl who without any special instruction succeed- 
ed in learning to speak and to read by the lips, even in the dark, 
by putting her fingers on the mouth of her sister. The fact was 
related by Rev. Gilbert Burnet of England, in one of his letters 
published in order to give a Report of his travels through 
Switzerland, Italy, and Germany in the years 1685 and 1686. 
Rev. Burnet met the girl in Geneva (Switzerland), but he wrote 
about her in his letter from Rome. Mr. Ferreri was induced to 
publish this curious report of the English clergyman for two 
reasons: ist, because this fact is an argument proving that lip- 
reading may be a natural means for the substitution of the sense 
of hearing, at least as much as signs to which was g^ven im- 
properly the name of natural language of the deaf; 2nd, because 
lip-reading has become the best didactic means for the oral edu- 
cation of the deaf-mute-blind. 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan [Scandinavian Journal 
of Deaf-mute Instruction], Goteborg, Sweden, No. 2, No. 3, 

No. 2. "Hedevig Rosing," by I. A. F. — 3, biography of this 
noble woman who devoted the best years of her life to the edu- 
cation of the deaf. She was born in Denmark in 1827, came to 
Norway in 1865, where she married her cousin, Anton Rosing, 

who died in 1867. In that year she received an appointment 
as teacher in one of the public schools of Christiania which 
position she held till 1872, when she became a teacher in Bal- 
chens Institution for the Deaf. She at once entered into her 
new work with her whole soul, and endeavored to further the 
cause of the deaf not only by her ardent and enthusiastic labor 
in the school, but also by writing numerous newspaper articles, 
and several text-books for the instruction of the deaf. Her 
conviction, that the best means for making the deaf capable 
of communicating with hearing persons by speech, were small 
schools where the pupils could have intercourse with hearing 
and speaking people, the division of the pupils according to their 
capacity, and a more careful and thorough instruction in artic- 
ulation, was strengthened by a journey in 1880, when she visited 

Reviews. 259 

the most prominent schools for the deaf in Denmark, Germany, 

Switzerland, Italy, England, and Scotland. On her return she^ 

therefore, founded with aid from the Government^ a school of 

her own in one of the suburbs of Christiania^ where she followed 

her own ideas without fear or favor. Owing to her advanced 

age she resigned her position in 1895; and in appreciation of her 

eminent services, the Norwegian Parliament (Storthing) voted 
her an annual pension of 1200 Kroner ($321.60). A portrait of 
this faithful woman accompanies the article; and we are glad to 
see her earnest and kindly face, which tells the story of her life — 
a life of devotion to a good cause. "An answer and a question 
for Mr Bjorset," by Lars A. Havstad. This article relates to 
the statements made by Mr. Bjorset under the heading of "The 
proper Forum/' in the Scandinavian Journal (see Association 
Review for February, 1902, page 63)^ where the author finds 
fault with Mr Havstad for accompanying his report to the Nor- 
wegian Parliament by a translation of Dr. Crouter's article on 
"Changes in the method of the Pennsylvania Institution." 
Mr. Havstad amply justifies what he did; and^ in conclusion asks 
Mr. Bjorset what method he would like to see introduced in 
Norway besides the one in vogue at the present time. "Formal 
speech exercises" (concluded), by N. K. Larsen, Nyborg, Den- 
mark, — principally applicable to exercises in the Danish lan- 
gtiage. "Some observations concerning the correspondence of 
our journal," by the Editor. Literature: A criticism of "Pho- 
netics," by Otto Jespersen, Copenhagen, 1899, 634 pages, — a 
work showing much earnest study and based on important 
scientific principles, which deserves to be carefully read by all 
persons in the Scandinavian countries who take an interest in 
the deaf. Miscellaneous communications. 

No 3: "Henrik Finch," by Mr. Bjorset, — biography, with 
portrait, of Henrik Finch, the very able and energetic Director 
of the public school for the deaf at Trondhjem, Norway, 
who died very suddenly in the prime of life February 2nd, 1902. 
Finch was a man adapted to the teaching of the deaf as few men 
are; and for 27 years devoted himself to this calling with all his 
soul's strength and zeal. "Meeting of the Association for the 
advancement of the deaf at Abo, Finland, November 9, 1901," 
by A. Eliel Nordman. This Finnish Association has the follow- 
ing object in view: "Its object is to work for the advancement 
of the deaf of Finland: ist, by endeavoring to find suitable 
employment for them, and by aiding them in every possible way 
to earn a livelihood; 2d, to assist deserving deaf by loans or 
gifts of money, enabling them to set up in business for them- 

26o The Association Review. 

selves; 3rd, to see to it that the deaf, after leaving^ the institu- 
tions, have a chance to take part in supplementary courses of in- 
struction, and to look after their spiritual interests; 4th, to sup- 
ply the deaf with suitable books and periodicals ; 5th, to influence 
parents and guardians to send deaf children to institutions for 
the deaf at the proper time." '*Deaf persons who pass an ex- 
amination as teachers," from the French, by E. J. The ex- 
amination is held by a board, and comprises the following sub- 
jects: orthography, composition, arithmetic (first series of the 
examination papers), drawing, penmanship, gymnastics (second 
series), history, geography, constitution of France, geometry, 
physics. Review of books: Otto Jespersen: "Instruction in 
language, Copenhagen, 1901." Nystrom: "The leading features 
of the development of the education of the deaf in Sweden," 
Orebro, 1901. 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung [Journal of Deaf-Mute 
Education], Berlin, March i, 1902, and March 15 and April 
I, 1902. 

March i number: "The games and joys of our deaf chil- 
dren," by K Lamprecht. Pestalozzi, the great Swiss educator, 
has said that "some people go so far as to deny that the deaf 

have any memory, judgment and reasoning power, and that 
they feel filial affection, gratitude, compassion." Some of the 
writers of former centuries even place the deaf on the lowest 
step of humanity and consider them little better than animals. 
Our modern writers have, it is true, driven all these erroneous 
notions into well-deserved oblivion; but still more might be done 
in this direction. In our days, when the "Psychology of In- 
fancy" is a question of absorbing interest, it becomes our duty 
to fathom more and more the stages in the mental development 
of our deaf children; and to encourage researches in this direc- 
tion is the main object of Mr. Lamprecht's article. For the. 
deaf child no less than for the hearing one, the days of the ten- 
derest infancy are days full of sunny joyfulness. Their games, 
from the earliest attempts of the baby to handle and pull any- 
thing it gets hold of, to the more rational games of more ad- 
vanced infancy, are full of deep meaning. In the first part of the 
article, which is to be continued, Mr. Lamprecht reviews at con- 
siderable length the various games and joyful impressions 
based on perception by the senses, here of course principally 
taste, smell, sight, and touch. We consider this well written 

Reviews. 261 

article as worthy of the study by all wellwishers of the deat and 
full of suggestions for further thought. 

March 15 and April i number: "Games and joys of our 
deaf children" [concluded] , by E. Lamprecht. After discussing 
the various games, the author sums up his conclusions in the 
following remarks: "Not only does the child by playing devel- 
op its physical streng^h^ but it thereby also absorbs something 
of this infinitely rich and wide world and learns to live in and 
with this world. Soon it begins to feel at home in animated na- 
ture and from the pleasure of observing and imitating animal 
life there arises a love for nature which otherwise would be 
sought in vain. It is still more important for the deaf child to 

playfully learn to know human life and by imitating it in its va- 
rious phases to obtain at least some little insight into its deep 
significance. In playing, the distinct individuality of each child 
begins to show itself; here we first learn to know on the one side 
the passive natures given to contemplation, and on the other the 
vigorous active natures. Here the width and narrowness of the 
mental horizon, the independence of the one and the dependent 
nature of the other, manifests itself. The very first games played 
with other pupils of the institution press to a certain extent the 
capacities of the deaf child into the service of human society. 
Often during the first weeks or months at the institution, to use 
the poetical language of a wellknown author, 'the first chain 
binding the child to human society is woven from flowery gar- 
lands.' Here the child is enabled to show and develop its capac- 
ity for governing, for resistance, its bearing and forbearing, 
in fact every flower and root of human society. Here the child 
also learns for the first time to bend its will to an unqualified 
*musf by obeying the rules of the game; here it learns to execute 
these rules when playing father, mother, or teacher, and to ob- 
serve justice and honesty in the game. The games and pleas- 
ures of the deaf child are, therefore, of far more importance for 
its future development than is generally imagined." "Speech 
delivered at Aix-la-Chapelle, February ist, 1902, by P. Rontgen, 
in honor of the 50th anniversary of the Director of the Aix-la- 
Chapelle Institution for the deaf, Counsellor Linnartz." Aix- 
la-Chapelle was the first place in Rhenish Prussia to found an 
institution for the deaf, and its flourishing condition is in no 
small degree owing to the energy and untiring efforts of Dr. 
Linnartz. "The principles of instruction in articulation," a 
paper prepared for the Paris Congress of 1900, by G. Forchham- 
mer; translated and abridged by E. Schloesser. 

262 The Associatum Review. 

Smaablade for Dovstumme [Leaflets for Deaf-mutes], Copen- 
hagen, Denmark, February- March, April, 1902. 

February-March: We regret to learn from this number 
that, for the present at least, the hope that the deaf of Copen- 
hagen would receive a church of their own, which seemed in a 
fair way of being realized, has been disappointed, as the Danish 
Parliament failed to appropriate the necessary sum of 18,000 

Kroner^ which the Ministry of Public Instruction had asked for 
this purpose. The measure, however, will again be introduced 
at the next session, and there are reasonable hopes that it will 
pass. Meanwhile a church building has been rented, the govern- 
ment giving 300 kroners towards the rent. "The Reading So- 
ciety of the Deaf." This society held its annual meeting for the 
election of officers on the 22nd of February. The Library of the 
Society increased considerably during the year; and 508 volumes 
were taken out. The Society receives a small annual sum from 
the Ministry of the Interior which is principally spent to pay 
prominent men to lecture from time to time before the society. 
Among the subjects of these lectures were, "The Paris Ex- 
position of 1900," "Gordon in Africa," "The Paris Commune, 
1871," "Greenland, its nature and inhabitants." 

April: This number notes with satisfaction that in Feb- 
ruary, 1902, Mr. George Jorgensen, Director of the Institution 
for the Deaf at Fredericia, Denmark, had been elected associate 
member of "The American Association to Promote the Teaching 
of Speech to the Deaf." The reading circle of the deaf con- 
tinued its useful activity during the month, and, as in former 
months, had engaged lecturers on different subjects, among 
which we note "Associations of the deaf in foreign countries," 
"The political condition of Russia, nihilism, etc.," "The great 
French Revolution." Among the anecdotes which invariably 
brighten the pages of this periodical, we note the following: A 
very deaf gentleman of Aalborg, Denmark, went to Copenhagen 
to consult a famous specialist for diseases of the ear, and re- 
turned to his home completely cured of his deafness. Almost 
immediately after his return to Aalborg, he paid a visit to the 
house of an acquaintance, where he met the lady of the house 
and a gentleman whom he had never seen before. Not knowing 
the favorable result of the deaf gentleman's trip to Copenhagen, 
she talked to him in a very loud voice and addressing the strange 
gentleman said in a softer tone: Mr. X. is a very amiable 
gentleman, but he is not very bright and so deaf that you must 
almost yell to make him understand anything." Imagine the 
astonishment of the lady when Mr. X. said: "It is possible 

Reviews, 263 

that the lady is right in stating that I am not very bright, but 
thanks to Dr. M. of Copenhagen I am no longer deaf in the 
slightest degree. Glad to have found you so well and lovely. 
Give my respects to your husband and tell him that I can hear 
very well." 

L'Echo des Sourds-Muets [The Echo of Deaf-mutes], Nos. 9 
and 10, Paris, March and April, 1902. 

Although this is a monthly, its form, general makeup, and 

the manner in which the news of the day is presented, stamp it 

as a "newspaper" in the proper sense of that term. It is written 

and edited entirely by the deaf. Under the title, "A noble effort," 

in No. 9, notice is taken of a discourse delivered on the i6th of 

October, 1901, by Mr. Falgairolle, the public vice-prosecutor at 
the court of Nancy, and published subsequently as a pamphlet 
of 72 pages entitled, "The social, civil and legal status of the 
Deaf." The writer of the notice state's that he was absolutely 
carried away, when reading the pamphlet, by the eloquence and 
clear statements of the author and the mass of facts adduced in 
support of his statements; all intended to show the general ca- 
pacity of the deaf, the great intelligence of many of them, and the 
benefit which the human race in general could derive from them. 
Mr. Falgairolle, in his rapid review of the application of the an- 
cient Roman Law to deaf-mutes, has opened up a perfect mine 
of interesting facts in the history of France; and we may possibly 
see the proof produced that in the days of the ancient Romans, 
the deaf were by no means so neglected as is generally supposed. 
"Victor Hugo and the Deaf." At its session of February 9th, 
1902, the "Mutual Aid Societv of the Deaf-mutes of France" 
unanimously resolved to participate in the Victor Hugo Centen- 
nial celebration ; and in this connection various utterances of the 
celebrated poet concerning the deaf were called to mind. It may 
not be generally known that his heart was filled with sympathy 
for the deaf. As early as 1850, in a letter to the deaf poet Pelis- 
sier, Victor Hugo states regretfully that sickness prevents him 
from being present at a meeting in behalf of the deaf, and says 
in conclusion: "Tell your friends how much I love them, tell 
them that my whole sympathy is with them, and that I consider 
the accession of the deaf to moral and intellectual life as one of 
the most magnificent and decisive achievements of our age." 
In 1880 Victor Hugo became one of the patrons of the "Mutual 
Aid Society of Deaf-mutes," and at his suggestion, the words 
"of France" were added to its title. 

264 The Association kevtew. 

Organ derTaubstummen Anstalten in Deutschland [Organ 
of the Deaf- Mute Institutions in Germany], Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, February, 1902. 

"Minutes of the 28th annual meeting of Wiirttemberg and 
Baden teachers of the Deaf, and of the loth annual meeting of 
Swiss teachers, held at Zurich, September 9th, loth, and nth, 
1901" (continued). "A genuine disciple of Pestalozzi" — z. biog- 
raphy of August Frese, born in 1834, in Northwestern Germany, 

and died in 1890. Frese worked for almost seven years at the 
Emden Institution, and in 1882 followed a call extended to him 
to become the successor of "Father Arnold," in the institution at 
Riehen, near Bale. Here he met, in the beginning, with great 
difficulties. The teachers, servants, and many of the older pu- 
pils left the institution because they did not like Frese's more 
energetic measures. He therefore had to procure a new staff 
of teachers, and build anew on the old foundation. And emi- 
nent success crowned his efforts. Teachers of the deaf came 
from foreign countries to visit Riehen, and the enthusiastic des- 
cription of his visit given by the Danish teacher Jorgensen, made 
Riehen, in the full sense of the word, the Mecca gf all German 
teachers. Under Frese's direction Riehen changed from a 
boarding school for select scholars to an institution for the deaf, 
whose doors were never shut for any deaf child which gave the 
least promise of being profited by instruction. "Heinicke and 
Cranz," by Dr. Schumann, Leipzig. From original documents 
in the Royal Library at Berlin, Dr. Schumann has drawn a 
characteristic sketch of the literarv feud between Heinicke and 
Cranz. Reviews of books. Miscellaneous communications. 

Le Messager de TAbbe de TEpee [The Messenger of the 
Abbe deTEpee], Curriere, France, March ist and 15th, 1902. 

Besides news from various parts of the world concerning 
the education of the deaf, we find in these numbers some ex- 
cellent religious articles; one on "Penitence," by the editor, the 
Abbe Rieffel: and another on "Prayer." In the last-mentioned 

article the following passage occurs: "When there is in a family 
a poor, or aged person, or one who has been confined to a bed 
of sickness for a long time, we often hear people say that it 
would be a blessing if the Lord would take this person home 
because he or she can no longer work or render any service. 
And often it is this very person who is the most useful in a family 

Reviews. 265 

or community; for her prayers are the guardian angels who keep 
away evil influences and bring rich blessings to all." Thus 
even those who are deprived of one or more of their senses, the 
deaf, the blind, the feeble, may, even if unable to work fill a use- 
ful place in Christian society. "A journey to Abyssinia": In 

December, 1900, several brethren of the religious order of Saint 
Gabriel went as missionaries to the Somali coast in Abyssinia, 
and, at the request of the Abbe Rieffel, one of them, Brother 
Cyprian, has furnished a most entertaining and exceedingly well 
written account of their journey. Abbe Rieffel also maintains 
what might be termed an employment office for deaf persons, 
and in these numbers there are several advertisements asking 
for deaf persons as clerks, gardeners, servants, etc. 

Taubstummen-Courier [Courier of the Deaf], Vienna, Austria. 
Nos. 3 and 4; March i, and April i, 1902. 

Contents: "The Wiirttemberg Association of the Deaf." 
An account of the 21st General Meeting, held at Stuttgart, Feb- 
ruary 2nd, 1902. The association, whose object it is to aid deserv- 
ing deaf in cases of sickness, or lack of work, and to pay a cer- 
tain amount to the survivors in case of death, is in an exceed- 
ingly healthy financial condition, and the revenue far exceeds 

the expenditure. "The spiritual care of the Deaf in Switzerland," 
by Eugene Sutermeister (concluded). The author relates many 
touching and interesting incidents from his journeys through 
various parts of Switzerland in the capacity of an itinerant 
preacher to the Deaf. Not far from Berne he met a farmer 
who took him to his house, and introduced him to a young deaf 
boy whom, from charity, he had taken into his family. In spite 
of his hard daily labor, the farmer had found time to teach his 
protege and had succeeded after years of devoted efforts; so 
the boy, amongst the rest, could say intelligently some simple 
prayers. In a little out of the way village he met two deaf sisters. 
C)nly one had had the advantage of being educated at an insti- 
tution for the deaf. When she returned home, she became her 
sister's teacher, and did not rest until she had taught her to 
speak. This paper gives very full accounts of the condition 
of the deaf, and of the progress made in their education in vari- 
ous countries of the world. Full reports are also given of festi- 
vals, balls, theatricals, etc., given by associations of the deaf in 
Austria; and the cheerful character of the Viennese, who are 

266 The Association Review, 

known all over Europe as people who always look at the bright 

side of life, and enter heartily in all innocent amusements, 

does not deny itself even among the deaf. "The Deaf in 

Literature''; of course principally confined to German literature. 
A well known poem by Robert Prutz is cited, *'The Deaf 
under the Lindentree." Silvio Pellico, the Italian author 
who was confined in prison for a long time, owing to his liberal 
utterances, gives in his famous work, "My Prison," a deeply 
touching description of one of his companions, a deaf child five 
or six years old, the son of a robber; gradually Silvio Pellico 
and the deaf child became firm friends. Heinrich Heine, one 
of the greatest lyric poets of Germany in his fragment, "The 
Rabbi of Bacharach," gives a sketch of a beautiful deaf boy liv- 
ing in Bacharach on the Rhine, where he followed the occupa- 
tion of a fisherman in order to support not only himself but his 
aged grandmother. The Rabbi and his handsome wife, Sarah, 
engaged the boy, who was generally called "Silent William," to 
take them in his boat on the Rhine and the Main to the city of 
Frankfurt. Silent William with his beautiful deep blue eyes 
could not take them off Sarah, and when they had landed, and 
the boy turned his boat homeward, he cast one long ardent look 
after her, and soon he and his boat had disappeared in the gath- 
ering mists of the evening. "Silent William greatly resembles 
my departed brother," said Sarah. "Yes," replied the Rabbi, "all 
angels resemble each other." The Hungarian novelist, "Maurus 
Jokai," in his novel, "The Fools of Love," gives a deeply touch- 
ing sketch of a sick deaf child. It might be well worth while for 
a student of literature to gather all the instances where noted 
writers of fiction have chosen the deaf for the subject of their 
sketches or poems. 

Tidning for Dofstumma [Journal for Deaf-mutes], 12th year. 
No. I, Stockholm, February, 1902. 

"The Need of a Church for the Deaf at Stockholm." The 

strange and deplorable fact is recorded that during the second 

half of the year 1901 not a single divine service for the deaf has 

been held at Stockholm, with the exception of "spoken 

sermons" to deaf girls, delivered every other Sunday at the 
school for the deaf. This fact is all the more to be regretted, as 
the deaf in the city of Stockholm number about 300. The prin- 
cipal cause of this condition appears to be the following: Hith- 
erto divine service was held every Sunday in the Hall of the As- 

Reviews. 267 

sociation of the Deaf by one of its older members. On account 

of advanced age and bodily infirmity this gentleman has been 

compelled to give up his voluntary missionary activity; and 

none of the other members of the Association could or would 
continue it. There is, consequently, strong reason for appoint- 
ing a special preacher for the deaf. But so far, the prospects 
are not very encouraging. The Minister of the Interior has 
been urged to take the matter in hand, but probably the petition 
rests in a pigeon hole of the Ministerial desk. "Who was the 
first teacher of the deaf in Germany?" Hitherto Samuel Hein- 
icke was supposed to be the first German who taught the deaf. 
It appears, however,, from statements in German journals, that 
he had a predecessor. A certain M. W. Hollander in Munich 
states that he has come across an old coarsely printed little 
hook of 32 pages containing an account of a Rev. Johann David 
Solbrig, born in the 17th century, who gave instruction to two 
deaf children in his parish, Hindenburg in the Province of 
Brandenburg. The book which is written by Rev. M. Solbrig, 
and published by him in 1727, states. among the rest "that 
through the grace of God he succeeded in teaching these poor 
deaf children the entire catechism." Heinicke in Germany 
started his first school in 1778, and Abbe de TEpee in France in 
1770. Solbrig died soon after publishing the book above re- 
ferred to; his work was discontinued and he was soon forgotten. 

Revue Generale de I'enseignement des Sourds-muets 
[General Review of deaf-mute instruction]. Vol. Ill, No. 7. 
Paris, January, February, 1902. 

January: "The time necessary for teaching articulation," 

by A. Liot. Nearly all teachers of the deaf are agreed that the 
speech-method is a great step in advance; but at the same time 

it is stated by all teachers that the results do not appear to be 
commensurate with the efforts. The main cause of this univer- 
sally acknowledged disproportion between efforts and results 
is — according to Mr. Liot — owing to the circumstance that too 
little time is given to the teaching of articulation, and that the 
articulation classes are too large. Properly speaking, there 
should be one teacher to each pupil; but as this is an impossi- 
bility, the maximum number of pupils in each class should be 
five. Only in these conditions can the full benefits of the speech- 
method be reaped. "The chronophotography of the word/' by 
H. Marichellc. "Statistics of the epochs and causes of deafness 

268 The Association Review. 

in children," by A. Boyer. This number contains also a short 
biography, with a portrait, of Mr. Colmet Daage, born in 1844, 
and died in December, 1901, member of the consulting Com- 
mittee of the National Institution for Deaf-mutes at Paris. Mr. 
Daage took the deepest interest in the education and advance- 
ment of the deaf, and devoted much of his leisure time to their 
welfare. He was especially active in procuring suitable em- 
ployment for old pupils of the Institution, and often went to 
considerable trouble, writing letters and running round among 
his friends to further his benevolent purposes. "Reply to the 
article of Mr. Marichelle, relative to auricular teaching^" by 
Dr. Marage; and a "Reply to Mr. Marage's remarks," by Mr 
Marichelle. Bibliography: "The Deaf-mutes of Norway," re- 
view of a work bearing this title by Mr. Uchermann, professor 
at the Christiania University, by V. Hervaux. "Course of 
study and methodical instruction for the schools for the deaf in 
Hungary," published by the Hungarian Ministry of Public In- 
struction, review by L. Danjou. Reviews of periodicals. 

February: "Gallery of former Principals of the National 
Institution for the Deaf at Paris." Mr. A. Boyer, one of the 
professors, after much patient research, has at last succeeded in 
obtaining large and well executed portraits of all the Directors, 
which now ornament one of the halls of the Institution. The 
series, embracing fourteen portraits, beginning with the Abbe 
de TEpee, 1760-1789, and ending with Alexandre Debaix, 
1889-1895. "Some Danish Statistics," by A. Hansen, professor 
at the Nyborg (Denmark) Institution. "The chronophotography 
of the word" (concluded), by H. Marichelle. This article is ac- 
companied by 79 illustrations showing the position of the lips 
in pronouncing different words. "The National Institution for 
the Deaf at Bordeaux, France." This excellent Institution 
which was founded in 1786, and whose first Principal was the 
Abbe Sicard, received both boys and girls till the year 1859, 
when the French Government decided that in future the Paris 
Institution should be reserved for boys, and that of Bordeaux 
for girls. In 1870 the Institution was housed in a mag^iificent 
new building of the inner court of which a view is given. Mis- 
cellaneous information: "The social, civil, and legal status of 
the deaf in France," a discourse delivered at Nancy, on the 
i6th of October, 1901. Bibliography: "The Deaif in Norway" 
(concluded), by V. Herveaux, Reviews of periodicals. 

Reviews. 269 

Revue Internationale de Pedagogie Comparative [Inter- 
national Review of comparative Pedagogics], published 
monthly. 4th year, Nos. 2 and 3, Paris, February and 
. March, 1902. 

"Conference of deaf-mutes held at Chambery, January 26th, 

1902," by Jules Weill. "The oral method at the school for the 

deaf at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany," translated from the 

Italian of G. Ferreri's article. "Transformation of the school 
at Montesson/' by L. Albanel. This school is virtually a re- 
formatory for children who, owing to the neglect of their par- 
ents and lack of proper training have fallen into vicious habits; 
and Mr. Albanel proposes that this school, which hitherto has 
only received boys, should in the future also receive — in a sep- 
arate building — girls, and by introducing various changes in 
the management become a model reformatory. "Sanitariums 
for children/' by A. O. Karnitzky, Kiefl, Russia. "Orthography 
simplified/' reproduced from the journal "Le Reformiste." Re- 
views of foreign journals. "Professional Instruction of the 
Blind," by F. Laurent. "The Institution for deaf, and for blind 
children" at Lyon, Villebourne. "Address delivered by Gas- 
ton Bonnefoy at Nancy, on the social, civic, and leg^l status of 
the deaf." Reviews of books: "The Evolution of Life/' by Dr. 
L. Lalay; "Descartes," by Paul Landorney; "City Schools/' 
by Ch. Drouard. 

Lc Reveil des Sourds-Muets [The awakening of the Deaf], 
published monthly, 3d year. No. 18, Paris, April, 1902. 

"The misdeeds of anonymous writers/' showing by various 
examples the mischief wrought in otherwise happy families of 
deaf persons by anonymous letters received by the husband, ac- 
cusing his wife of infidelity, by Remy Magne. "The Popular 
Society of the Deaf/' by Marcel Mauduit, giving a description 
of a circle of popular instruction founded at Epernay. "His- 
tory of the Institution for deaf girls at Bordeaux/' by G. Car- 
pentier. Reports, and communications relating to the educa- 
tion of the deaf, from various parts of France and foreign 
countries. Among these communications we note the follow- 
ing: "The Buff and Blue states that President Roosevelt has 
been requested by letter, when his Royal visitor. Prince Henry 
of Prussia, comes to Washington, to take him on a visit to Gal- 
laudet College. The writer of this letter thinks, that, after the 
Prince has inspected this college, he would decide to place his 

270 7%# Association Review. 

son there. This would certainly be a good advertisement for 
Gallaudet College. But what would the German teachers say 
to this?'' 

Eugene Graff, biography of a deaf person, by Henri Gaillard, 
Paris, 1902, a pamphlet of 10 pages with portrait of Mr. 

The simple story of the life of a deaf man, bom in 1862, and 

therefore now in the prime of life. In 1882 Mr. Graff came to 

Paris where he engaged in the occupation of carving in wood, 

and where in 1885 he married a charming deaf girl. He is the 
father of two beautiful girls endowed with all their senses. Mr. 
Graff, however, did not only distinguish himself as an artistic 
woodcarver of high rank, but as an ardent and untiring worker 
in the cause of the deaf, and as a prominent member of various 
associations for mutual aid and advancement. 

International Congress for the study of questions relating 
to the education of the Deaf, held at Paris 1900. Asnieres, 

This handsome volume of 128 pages, embellished by nine 

beautiful photogravures illustrating the various branches of 

instruction of the deaf, and a plate reproducing 39 faces of deaf 

persons in the act of pronouncing vowels and consonants and of 
reading, is mainly a French translation of Ferreri's "Report on 
the Paris Congress," published in L'Educazione dei Sordomuti, 
and contains, in addition, a brief report on the section of hear- 
ing persons at the Paris Congress by Dr. Martha. 

Report of the seventy-third meeting of the German Natur- 
alists and Physicians in Hamburg, September 28, 1901. 
Section on diseases of the throat, nose, and ear. 

Among the many communications made to the German 

meeting of the otologists, we have an interesting paper by Dr. 

Hartmann of Berlin, the author of "Die Taubstummheit and 

Tanhstummenbildung" [The Deaf and their Education]. The 
Doctor comes to the following conclusions": i. As a con- 

Reviews, 271 

siderable number of children with curable deafness are found 
in the schools and are not treated, there is sufficient reason for 
recommending medical examinations in the schools. The physi- 
cians should discover the cause of the deafness and endeavor 
as far as possible to remedy it. 2. In cities where there are 
otologists it is desirable that they should co-operate with the 
school physicians. 3. Children with a high grade of deafness 
uninfluenced by treatment should receive special attention, just 
as in cases of deaf-mutes, since the mental development remains 
in a very low state. 4. Very deaf children must be treated by 
learning lip-reading and by extra studies so that they may pro- 
fit by class instruction. If these precautions cannot be ob- 
served, the children should be handed over to Institutions for 
the deaf." 

Relatorio dos Actos da Mesa da Santa Casa da Misericordia 
do Porto [Report of the Administration of the Holy Home 
of the Misericordia at Porto]. 1900-1901. 

This Report contains the Transactions of the Committee 
who preside over the Administration of the various benevolent 
Institutions of Porto (Portugal). Among these is also an In- 
stitution for the Deaf, founded in that town in the year 1893 by 
the generosity of Mr. Rodriguez d' Araujo. The Institution is 
considered a charitable House and at the same time a school. 

The principal, Mr. Jose da Trindade, says that in the last 
school-year there were 44 pupils in the school (37 boys and 7 
girls). The Institution is a boarding-school, but day-scholars 
also can be admitted to the lessons. In fact four of the 44 pupils, 
who attended the school, remained at home with their families. 

There is also a Normal school for the training of the 
teachers. The course is two years. Two new teachers gradu- 
ated there last year. The Committee expresses its thanks and 
appreciation to the principal, and to the teachers for their good 
and constant work in the application of the Oral system, which 
gives the best results. The industrial instruction too is well or- 
ganized there, and the pupils initated into a useful life and labor. 
The Institute is in friendly correspondence with the Institution 
of Milan (Italy), and with the Volta Bureau (Washington), from 
which it has received several publications for its library. 

272 The Association Review. 

Der Taubstummen-Fuhrer [The Guide of the Deaf] , published 
twice a month at Trier (Treves), Rhenish Prussia. 7th year. 
No. 7, April I, 1902. 

This is the first time this journal has come under our notice. 

It is of a distinctly religious character, making the improvement 

of the spiritual condition of the deaf its main object ; but general 

news, relative to everything which may interest deaf-mutes, is 
not neglected; and it contains communications from various 
parts of Germany concerning institutions for the deaf, associa- 
tions, etc. 

Fourth Report of the Institution for the Deaf at Veners- 

borg, Sweden, and Remarks on the French Institutions 
for the Deaf," by Fredrik Nordin, Director of the Veners- 
borg Institution. Venersborg, 1901. 

The last mentioned Remarks are of special interest, as in a 

concise form they give a clear idea of the education of the deaf 

in France, both past and present. They are the result of personal 

observations made by Mr. Nordin during a journey to France, 

the means for which were furnished by the Government. 

As regards the number of deaf in France, the authorities 
vary considerably. Mygind in 1876 stated that among a total 
population of 36,905,788 there were 21,395 deaf, i. e., 5.8 to every 
10,000 of the population. During the Paris Congress of 1900, 
Dr. Ladreit de Lacharriere gave the number of deaf as 19,579, 
not counting, however, Paris and the Department of the Seine. 
He also stated that of the deaf of school age, 3,287 were being 
instructed. Another member of the Congress, Dr. Bonnefoy, 
stated that the deaf between the ages of 6 and 12 numbered 6,000, 
that of this number, 1,000 were too backward to receive instruc- 
tion, and that of the remaining 5,000, 3,600 actually attended 
school. These figures are for the year 1889. If the total num- 
ber of deaf in France, as given by Lacharriere, not counting in 
Paris and the Department of the Seine, is correct — which is 
highly probable — ^the total number with Paris and the Depart- 
ment of the Seine would very likely reach that given by Mygind. 
If Bonnefoy states that the number of deaf in France who do 
not enjoy the blessings of education is 1,500, this must be con- 
sidered as somewhat of an exaggeration. This does not, how- 
ever, prove that France does not stand in need of compulsory 
education for her deaf, a question which led to lively discussions 
at the Paris Congress; but owing to the large majority of mem- 

Reviews. 273 

bers of the religious orders and their supporters, no result was 

reached at this Congress. 

At the present time there are in France about 70 schools 

for the deaf, of which at least 50 are in charge of religious orders. 

It must be acknowledged that they have done a noble work for 
the deaf of their country from the time of the Abbe de TEpee to 
the present day. It is highly probable, however, that the new 
law regarding religious orders, if adopted by the French Parlia- 
ment, will diminish their influence very considerably. Of the 
French schools three are Government schools, viz., those at 
Paris, Bordeaux, and Chambery; one is maintained by the au- 
thorities of a Department, seven are supported by the Depart- 
ments or municipalities, and the rest are private schools. Of the 
three Government schools only one, that at Chambery, receives 
both girls and boys as pupils; Paris receives only boys and Bor- 
deaux only girls. Of the Department or municipal schools 5 re- 
ceive both boys and girls, 2 only boys and i only girls. Of the 
private schools 24 receive both boys and girls, 9 only boys, and 
17 only girls. Many of the French schools for the deaf can look 
back upon a long period of usefulness. It is well known that 
the Paris Institution is the oldest in the world, and that those at 
Angers and Bordeaux are among the oldest. Already prior to 
1850 France had 34 schools for the deaf. 

In giving a historical review of the methods followed in the 
French schools Mr. Nordin states that he has mainly followed 
Dr. Joseph C.Gordon's "Notes and Observations upon the Edu- 
cation of the Deaf," Washington, 1902. It is a well known fact 
that the Milan Congress of 1880 worked a revolution in the edu- 
cation of the deaf. It has been assumed that the French and the 
American method which was in vogue till 1880, were identical; 
but if we examine into the subject more closely we find that two 
radical, revolutionary reforms, as regards methods, were sug- 
gested in France prior to the Milan Congress, and that the lead- 
ing French educators of the deaf had during the course of that 
year been quietly at work in building a bridge which would 
make the transition from the sign method to the oral method 

It should be remembered that the Abbe de TEpee invented 
and the Abbe Sicard completed an artificial system of gestures 
for instruction in language. These "methodical signs," which 
are never used in conversation, reproduced words rather than 
thoughts, and were joined together by positions of the hand to 
indicate the facts and conditions of grammatical analysis. By 
learning these "methodical signs" by heart, and by accumulating 
a written stock of words, the pupil was enabled to give an almost 

274 T'Ae Association Review. 

exact reproduction in writing of sentences dictated by means of 

these signs. It is clear that this could be accomplished simply 

through the memory, whilst the pupil did not at all grasp the 

subject. The weak points in this method were soon discovered 
by ingenious men; but the fame of its originators upheld it. A 
practical familiarity with Abbe de I'Epee's system has been lost 
to such a degree that probably none of the living teachers could 
reproduce the Lord's Prayer by these ''methodical signs." 

Saint Sernin at Bordeaux could not yet entirely free himself 
from the fetters of the "methodical signs," but he simplified them 
and employed more and more the natural gestures of the deaf. 
He used this language of natural gestures for developing the 
understanding, and taught his pupils to translate direct from 
these gestures into the written language. Sicard's brilliant suc- 
cessor, Bebian, soon emancipated himself from de TEpee's and 
Sicard's method, and like Saint Sernin employed natural gest- 
ures. By means of his method the deaf pupils became familiar 
with a language of gestures which was developed from mimics, 
and they even learned to translate from the language ot gestures 
into the written language. This complete revolution in methods 
was favored by the Government authorities, and was gradually 
adopted by the majority of the French schools. The next rev- 
olution in the French method was produced by J. J. Valade- 
Gabel. This distinguished disciple of Pestalozzi taught in the 
Paris School 1826-1838, was director of the National Insti- 
tution at Bordeaux from 1838 till 1850, and finally became Gov- 
ernment inspector of the schools for the deaf. This untiring 
reformer introduced at the Bordeaux Institution the intuitive 
method in instruction in language in its written form. He at- 
tracted the attention of specialists to his method by annual 
courses and lectures from 1839 till 1850, and in 1857 published 
his famous work, "Method for the use of primary teachers for 
teaching the deaf the French language without the intermediary 
of the sign language." This important work was favorably re- 
ceived by the leaders of the French education of the deaf; and 
in 1875 Valade-GabeFs method was officially recognized by the 
Ministry of the Interior. This method which substituted the 
eye for the ear, employed writing, and abandoned signs as a 
means for learning language, was adopted either entirely or in 
conjunction with older methods by the majority of the French 
schools many years before the Milan Congress. We must not 
fail to mention the important part taken by Mr. Claveau, general 
Inspector for several schools for the deaf, in introducing the 
oral method and abandoning signs. Immediately after the 
Milan Congress he laid before the Ministry of the Interior a 

Reviews. 275 

series of reports on this question, which led to important 

changes in methods. A journey abroad undertaken for the 

purpose of studying the education of the deaf in other countries, 

in company with the Principal of the Bordeaux Institution, Sis- 
ter AngeHque, led to the introduction of the pure speech method 
in that Institution, which therefore, became a shining example 
for other French schools. At the Paris Institution the pure 
speech-method was introduced immediately after the Milan 
Congress, and several of the teachers who were instrumental 
in introducing this reform, are still in active service at that In- 

Valade-Gabel's method is based on two leading principles: 
the first, that language shall be taught without either methodi- 
cal or natural gestures, and the second, that instead of begin- 
ning with words, developing and explaining them, each one by 
itself, the beginning should be made with sentences. The fol- 
lowing introductory remarks to the practical part of his famous 
work should be borne in mind by all teachers of the deaf: "In- 
struction of the deaf consists of realities, of the unforeseen. It 
is impossible to fix all its details beforehand." Another well- 
known truth, which serves as the motto for this part, likewise 
deserves to be remembered: "Repetition is the soul of instruc- 
tion. Thereby the lessons are not only indelibly engraven on 
the mind of the pupil, but new light is also thrown on them." 

In the practical part of the work Valade-Gabel divides in- 
struction in two courses. In the first the lessons are grouped 
according to certain grades and series, intended to teach the 
pupil the fundamental outlines of language itself, its commonest 
forms, and their order. In the second course the means are 
furnished for enlarging the pupil's thoughts and knowledge, to 
give precision to his thoughts and to familiarize him with the 
use of phrases of a less elementary character, and to lead him 
finally to the spontaneous expression of his own thoughts. 

The first course embraces four sections. In the first 
section the pupil learns to understand imperative (in the gram- 
matical sense of the term) sentences, and the pupil learns to 
carry out orders. He starts from the single sentence in its 
shortest — ^the imperative — form. The pupil begins with carry- 
ing out short orders, e. g., to go and jump. Soon there are 
joined to the imperative from an object — the accusative, — 
adverbs, and attributes. Later the imperative form in the 
plural is taken up. The second section acquaints the pupil 
with the infinitive. The pupil continues to obey and begins to 
issue orders. He has learned to think the teacher's thought 
and express it as his own. The infinitive is also taught in con- 

276 The Assodatum Review. 

nection with the imperative, e. g., "Charles, tell Paul to em- 
brace Julius." The third section teaches the question form. 
The pupil now learns to understand the indicative form and its 
use in making answers. Here we, therefore, have questions 
in connection with answers. Here the pupil also first learns the 
affirmative and negative forms of answers. In the fourth section 
the indicative form is used in connection with the imperative. 
The pupil is led to relate: e. g.^ "Charles, say to Frank that he 
shall embrace Julius." Charles gives an account of the act and 
says: "Frank embraced Julius." 

The second course embraces six sections. The first is in- 
tended to enlarge the stock of words; the second makes the 
pupil acquainted with new forms, such as the articles, the com- 
parative, pronouns; in the third the pupil learns a number of 
phrases and expressions, e. g., For what purpose? it is found, 
to hinder, to permit — ^also synonyms; in the fourth the pupil 
learns the passive of the verb; in the fifth, the numerals and the 
divisions of time; the sixth finally teaches the rudiments of re- 
ligion. The two above described courses cover the first four 
years of instruction. 

It will be seen that Valade-Gabel's method is a grammat- 
ical method. A very striking feature of the method is the im- 
portant part played by the imperative form. Mr. Nordin states 
that the method, even with its present modifications, appeared 
to him somewhat monotonous; but he cannot overlook its many 
very excellent features. The philosopher Frank, who in Valade- 
Gabel's time had been commissioned to examine the method, 
states that especially in Bordeaux he had tested its results, and 
had found that they exceeded those reached in other places. He 
let the pupils give an account of a complicated act performed 
by himself in their presence, he let them describe a picture with- 
out title, he let them improvise a letter, or he gave them his- 
torical or grammatical questions to solve; and everything was 
done to his complete satisfaction. 

The above somewhat full account of the method has been 
given, because it forms the historical basis for the method which 
at the present time is employed in the national institutions in 
Paris and Bordeaux and many other French schools for the 
deaf. The course of instniction at the National Institution of 
Paris is based entirely on Valade-Gabel's method. 

The Paris Institution: The following are the more import- 
ant dates in the history of the Institution: 1760, Abbe de TEpee 
opened his school in his own house, continued his work till his 
death in 1789, and in 1785 had already 72 pupils. 1790, Abbe 
Sicard, de TEpee's successor, moved the school to the Celes- 

Reviews, 277 

tine Convent given for that pitrpose by the Government; 1791, 
the National Assembly created 24 free places at 350 francs 
each; 1792, the first girls were admitted as pupils; 1794, by de- 
cree of the National Convention the Institution was moved to 
the former Seminary Saint Magloire. Though the buildings 
have in course of time been considerably modified and enlarged, 
the Institution still occupies this location. The buildings at 

present represent a value of about two million francs. They have 
an imposing and aristocratic character. The large courtyard, 
which the visitor first enters, is partly shaded by an enormous 
old elm tree, more than nineteen feet in circumference and ot 
corresponding height, said to have been planted in 1600 by 
the famous minister Sully; and its noblest ornament is a fine 
atatue of the Abbe de l*Epee by a former pupil, Felix Martin. 

At the head of the Institution is a Director appointed by the 
Minister of the Interior. There is a treasurer (who also has the 
same function as regards the Institution for the Blind), a private 
secretary for the Principal, and several clerks. The staff of 
teachers numbers 29, 18 of whom have the title "Professor," and 
give instruction 4 hours a day on 5 days of the week; 8 are 
assistant teachers, and 3 are "repetiteures" (tutors) who super- 
vise the pupils' studies outside of school hours. Surveillance over 
the pupils outside of study and school hours is exercised by an 
overseer, an assistant overseer, and 6 subordinates. The chief 
overseer is appointed by the Minister of the Interior. Instruc- 
tion in various trades is given by 8 teachers. The health of the 
pupils is looked after by a physician, an assistant physician, a 
specialist for diseases of the ear, and a dentist. A special chap- 
lain attends to the spiritual wants of the pupils. The . total 
number of persons employed in the Institution from the Direc- 
tor to the charwomen is 90. Healthy, substantial food, good 
wine both at dinner and supper, a bath every two weeks, and 
plenty of recreation and exercise in the open air serve to keep 
the pupils, as a general rule, in exceptionally good health. 

The library contains about 7000 volumes; and the archives 
contain many rare and exceedingly valuable manuscripts and 
autographs of de TEpee, Sicard, Itard, de Gerando, and many 
others. The museum contains a rich collection of apparatus 
etc., for the instruction of the deaf. 

Pupils are received from the ages of six to twelve, and must 
show some aptness for intellectual and technical instruction. 
The number of pupils, coming from all parts of France, was, in 
1900, 265. The course of instruction covers 8 years; besides a 
supplementary course founded by a legacy of the famous Dr. 

278 The Association Review. 

Itard. The pupils are divided into four groups: preparatory, 

lower, intermediate, and higher division. 

The expenditure during the last year (1899) was 447,230 

francs (i franc equals 19.3 cents) towards which the Govern- 
ment contributed 226,000 francs. 

Besides the usual subjects of instruction, an opportunity is 
afforded to the pupils to learn shoemaking, tailoring, carpenter- 
ing, woodcarving, bookbinding and gardening. The institution 
has its own printing establishment w^here pupils are instructed 
in printing, and from which all the reports and other publica- 
tions of the institution have been issued for many years. 

The Bordeaux Institution: Founded in 1786 by the then 
archbishop of Bordeaux, Champion de Cice, who during a jour- 
ney to Paris had visited Abbe de TEpee's school and had be- 
come deeply impressed by what he saw there. On his return 
he selected from among his young priests a man who appeared 
to be particularly suited to the task, who went to Paris to study 
Abbe de TEpee's method, and on his return opened the Bor- 
deaux school. That man was Abbe Sicard. In 1793 the In- 
stitution began to receive assistance from the Government, a 
small sum at first, and now 1 10,000 francs per annum. 

Only girls are received at this Institution; the number of 
teachers (female) is 32. The domestic arrangements, course 
of instruction, etc., are very similar to that of the Paris Insti- 

Mr. Nordin, in conclusion, gives an account of the Depart- 
ment of the Seine Institution for the deaf at Asnieres; but lack 
of space forbids the giving of further extracts from Mr. Nordin's 
admirable report, the perusal of which will give the reader a 
particularly clear and correct idea of what France is doing for 
her deaf children. 

American Annals of the Deaf. Washington, D C. May, 1902. 

This number of the Annals opens with "A few Whys and 

Hows," by Weston Jenkins, Talladega, Ala. In this paper, Mr. 

Jenkins urges that the "one thing needful" in the use of lan- 

gtiage by deaf children is intelligibility, and even lucidity, rather 
than merely grammatical correctness, which is the test usually 
applied in the schoolroom. Mr. Jenkins affirms with too much 
truth that the tendency of classroom teaching is strong in the 
direction of regarding the sentence as an end in itself, and as 
something which has fulfilled its purpose if it conforms to the 

Reviews. 279 

laws of its own structure. It is suggested that a shipping clerk 

uses language with far more grammatical propriety than an 

Adirondack guide or a Cape Cod whaling captain, but he 

probably uses it far less effectively; it is further pointed out that 
the best and clearest English of our time is written by men of 
science. To correct the faults of the schoolroom method of 
language teaching, the writer urges a close correlation of the 
work of all departments of an institution, that the schoolroom 
language should be used constantly and everywhere, and more 
especially in the industrial departments where the knowledge 
comes through such use to be looked upon as a practical matter 
and essential to the smart workman, which so many pupils are 
ambitious to be. 

"The Theory and Practice of Instruction for an Oral Class 
of Beginners," by Frances E. Gillespie, Little Rock, Ark. This 
is the second article of a series, and it gives the details of actual 
schoolroom work and material that are so helpful to young 
teachers and suggestive even to those of larger experience. 
Specimen term and daily programmes are presented, together 
with element charts and a long list of paraphernalia of speech 
teaching with brief explanation in each case of their purpose and 

The question, **Should the Swedish or Ling system of gym- 
nastics alone take the place of the so-called American eclectic 
s^'stem in schools for the deaf?" is answered with a strong neg- 
ative by Robert L. Erd of Flint, Mich. 

"The Mania of Exaggeration in the Educational Work for 
the Deaf," by Giulio Ferreri. That there has been in times past 
undue exaggeration in the work of the education of the deaf in 
the exhibition of the results of instruction, is well known, and 
as the writer shows, it has not been confined to any one period, 
or country, nor has it lent itself especially to the exploiting of 
any. one method. The writer deprecates the tendency to mag- 
nify results, of showing only the best and hiding the medium 
and the poor, as not only dishonest and ultimately defeating its 
own ends^ but as arresting or seriously delaying the develop- 
ment of a true and advanced science of pedagogy as applied to 
the special work of the education of the deaf. The paper is an 
admirable one and is especially to be commended to readers as 
suggesting the high level that all our professional contro- 
versy should maintain, and as showing moreover that a fair and 
judicial style of treatment in no way militates to weaken the con- 
vincing force of argument presented. 

"Theory versus Practice," by Agnes Steinke, Indianapolis. 
This is a paper noting "some differences between the Oral 

28o The Association Review. 

Method in Germany and in America." In it the writer gives 

to America teachers the benefit of her personal observations 

and study of the methods of German schools, indicating certain 

points of difference in the aim and detail of practice as she found 
it in Germany and as she is familiar with it in America. The 
points given would seem to be very well worth studying, with it 
in view the securing of possible advantages to the work as pur- 
sued in our own schools. As is well known the term in school 
of deaf children in European schools is much shorter than the 
term given here in America, and this leads the writer to say in 
closing her article: "The longest term in any of the German 
schools is eight years. The majority are six and seven, and 
one, I believe, is five. When I think of what is accomplished 
there, and then think of the length of our course, I appreciate 
that the differences in practice are of much greater consequence 
than they at first appear." 

"Men and Women Teachers," by Jay Cooke Howard, Du- 
luth, Minn. This paper notes a protest made recently by busi- 
ness men in Chicago and Boston against the kind of boys that 
the public schools turn out — that they lack application, do not 
have enterprise, are not proficient in mathematics, and make 
poor material from which to produce business men. The writer 
believes that the reason for this condition of things is found in 
the fact that now more than formerly the care of the schools 
and the education of the children are left in the hands of women. 
He argues that boys to be made manly and to have aroused in 
them manly ambitions, should have, in certain proportion at 
least, men teachers to teach them. He would have in every 
school *'about as many good men teachers as women teachers, 
and then they can hope to graduate manly boys and womanly 

"Scientific Courses at Gallaudet College," by Percival Hall, 
Washington, D. C. In response to an earnest demand for it 
the College at Washington has been making effort during the 
past two years to provide a scientific course to be pursued by 
such of the students as may wish it and are capable of carrying 
it through, this to enable students completing the course "to 
enter with advanced standing, in either the second or third year 
class, a special scientific or technical school for the hearing, 
where they can complete their work." The graduates of the 
scientific course will be given the degree of Bachelor of Science 
which degree it is the intention of the Faculty shall demand as 
much application and ability as the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
The writer justifies the establishment of the new course in the 
following argument: 



"Graduates in science should make just as good teachers, 

clerks, or Government employees as any other graduates. They 

may also have the advantage of being able to step into positions 

in chemical manufacturing works, assayers' offices^ or survey- 
ors' or engineers' offices — positions not open to the ordinary 
graduate. Those who have the means can enter technical 
schools with advanced standing and graduate with the best in- 
struction the country affords. They will be somewhat handi- 
capped by deafness, but this handicap has been overcome by 
others and can be overcome more easily with better preparation. 
Without great extra expense to the College a few students 
each year can be trained in the foundations of general chem- 
istry, civil engineering, architecture, agricultural chemistry, or 
assaying. This is about all the technical work Gallaudet ought 
to do for the present." 

"Deafness and Cheerfulness," by May M. Stafford, Mar- 
quette, Mich., a review. "International Reports of Schools for 
the Deaf," a review by the editor. A table is given in this re- 
view, showing the number of schools in the world under the 
several methods of instruction — ^as compiled from previous re- 
ports and this one — in the years 1882, 1895, and 1901. This 
table is here reproduced: 


Mbthods of Inrtruction. 




















The remainder of this number is given to notices relating 
to the postponement of the Summer Meeting and the proposed 
Summer School of the Association, and to the Meeting of De- 
partment XVI, N. E. A., and to School Items. 

Reports Received. 

I. Report of the Royal Institution for Deaf-mutes at 
Copenhagen for 1900-1901, and of the Government Institution 
for persons suffering from impediment of speech. 

The number of pupils was 71 and of teachers and assistants 
19. The institution for persons suflfering from impediment of 

282 The Association Review. 

speech is in its third year. It has two divisions, viz., the first for 

f pupils that stutter, and the second for those who from some 

physical or other cause have an imperfect pronunciation. The 

first division numbered 91 pupils of whom 17 per cent, were com- 
pletely cured, and 45 per cent, showed very decided improvement. 
The second division numbered 36 pupils. The time spent at the 
institution varied from 9 days to 12 months. The results have 
on the whole been satisfactory. 

2. Report of the Institution for Deaf mues at Braunsch- 
weig (Brunswick), Germany, for 1901-1902. 

This Report — ^which gfives on the title page a view of the 
Institution, showing it to be a handsome and commodious build- 
ing — differs from general Reports of this kind by giving in the 
form of a diary, the important events of the year from day to 
day. Thus it states under date of May 8th, that the birthday of 
the Prince Regent of Brunswick was duly celebrated by an ex- 
cursion to the woods in the morning and a feast of chocolate and 
cakes in the afternoon. August i6th: Excursion to the Hartz 
Mountains. Mention is made of the dinner which consisted of 
venison and potatoes. September 5th: a number of interesting 
publications (mentioned by titles) received from the Volta 
Bureau, Washington. The number of pupils was 60, and that 
of the teachers and assistants 9. 

3. Eighteenth annual Report (for 1900) of the "Aid So- 
ciety for Deaf-mutes and Blind," at Lyon, France. 

The means by which the Association accomplishes its work 
are: reports, publications, conferences, workshops, schools, mu- 
seums, expositions, scholarships, pensions, rewards and prizes, 
financial aid. Revenue: 18,311.05 francs ($3,534.03); expendi- 
ture: 16,829.40 francs ($3,238.07). 

Proceedings of the Sixteenth Meeting of the Convention 

of American Instructors of the Deaf at Buffalo, N. Y., July 
2-8, 1901. 

This volume of 354 8-vo. pages contains the proceedings of 
the Sixteenth Convention of American Instructors, held at 
Buffalo during the past summer. The report of papers and dis- 
cussion is complete, and of the discussions unusually accu- 
rate, showing excellent work on the part of the secretaries and 

Reviews. 283 

stenographers. The list of members as printed shows 271 ac- 
tive and 37 honorary members, making a total of 308. An un- 
usual number of necrological notices is given which is in it- 
self evidence of a commendable effort to make this part of the 
Report complete. An excellently arranged index will prove its 
value many times over to everyone having occasion to refer to 
the volume. 

The National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D. C. 
April, May, 1902. 

The April number of this magazine gives the following table 
of contents: "Recent French Exploration in Africa/' illustrated, 
by Charles Rabot; "Proposed Surveys in Alaska in 1902," with 
map, by Alfred H. Brooks; "Ocean Currents," by James Page; 
Geographic Notes; Geographic Literature; Proceedings of the 
National Geographic Society. 

May number: "Recent Explorations in the Canadian 
Rockies," illustrated, by Walter D. Wilcox; "A Great African 
Lake," with map, by Sir Henry M. Stanley; "Coal Resources 
in Alaska"; "The Hubbard Memorial Building"; Geographic 
Notes; Proceedings of the National Geographic Society. 


The H bb rd ^" April 26, 1902, in Washington, D C, was 

Memorial Baildior ^^^^ *^^ corner stone of the "Hubbard Mem- 
orial Building." This building now being 
erected in memory of Gardiner Greene Hubbard by his chil- 
dren, is the gift of Mrs. Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who joins 
her children in establishing this memorial to her husband. The 
building is designed to be the home and headquarters of the 
National Geographic Society, of which Mr. Hubbard was Pres- 
ident from the date of its organization, January 20, 1888, to the 
day of his death, December 11, 1897. 

This building as a memorial possesses especial interest for 
our readers in the fact that Mr. Hubbard was a Director and 
Vice-President of the American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf from the time of its founding 
until his death, and because of his valuable labors in behalf of 
the deaf and their education by oral methods extending over 
a period of many years. 

In the corner stone as it was laid were sealed and deposited 
various documents and papers and coins of historical value, the 
ceremony taking place in the presence of Mrs. Gardiner Greene 
Hubbard and all the surviving descendants of Mr. Hubbard to- 
gether with a few personal friends. The stone was laid by 
Melville Bell Grosvenor, the infant g^eat grandson of Gardiner 
Greene Hubbard, in the arms of Mrs. Hubbard. 

Mr. Hubbard's work for the deaf was fittingly recognized 
and memory of it was perpetuated by including among the 
documents deposited in the comer stone, copies of his own 
writings upon the subject of the education of the deaf published 
at various times, together with the writings of others relating 
more fully of his work of inaugurating and promoting the teach- 
ing of the deaf by oral methods, to which he gave generously of 

Editorud. 285 

his time and thought during the greater part of his long life. 
Among the documents and publications thus deposited were : 
a pamphlet entitled "The Education of Deaf-Mutes: Shall 
it be by signs or articulation?" by Gardiner Greene Hubbard, 
published in 1867; a book entitled "The Story of the Rise of the 
Oral Method in America, as told in the writings of the late Hon. 
Gardiner G. Hubbard/' compiled and arranged by his daughter, 
Mrs. Alexander Graham Bell; copies of the Association Re- 
view, Vol. I, No I, containing an account of the life of Gardiner 
Greene Hubbard, by his wife, Mrs. Gertrude M. Hubbard — 
with a portrait and signature, and Vol. H, No i, containing the 
opening chapters of "Historical Notes Concerning the Teaching 
of Speech to the Deaf/' published as a tribute to Mr. Hubbard's 
labors on behalf of the deaf, written by his son-in-law^ Alex- 
ander Graham Bell; and a copy of the National Geographic 
Magazine^ Vol. IX, No. 2, containing an address delivered at 
a memorial meeting of the National Geographic Society, Janu- 
ary 21, 1898, by Miss Caroline A. Yale, on behalf of the Ameri- 
can Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

The Ladies' Home Journal for May contains 

SJn'sto*"*''" ^^^ second installment of "The Story of My 

Life," by Helen Keller, and naturally the inter- 
est grows as the story proceeds. For our teacher readers, the 
story in the parts that relate to Helen's education, as they reveal 
or suggest the manner of it, and the method — so far as there was 
a method — ^will be of the greatest interest. The first steps in the 
process of teaching her to read, and the difficulties encountered 
in leading her up to an apprehension of the meaning of such 
words as "love" and "think," will appeal especially to teachers of 
the deaf. But the following paragraphs we believe reveal the 
essential secret — almost with the fidelity of an instantaneous 
photograph — of the "method" that has given us, or contributed 
at least to give us, this educational marvel of the age. While we 
cannot think that a mere method can give us a Helen Keller, in 
any creative sense, we do believe that the method employed in 

286 The AssociaHan Review. 

any case is an important factor as the open door and the well 
prepared way along which intelligence may proceed and be led 
normally and rapidly to its own highest and best development. 
Miss Sullivan's method was evidently the method of the hour, of 
the moment indeed^ and of the occasion, and undoubtedly it was 
more largely inspiration than premeditation; yet it was method, 
and method because philosophical, rational, at each step an 
economical adaptation of fitting and adequate means to desired 
ends. It is perhaps as remarkable as anything that Helen her- 
self as the pupil has the clear perception that she evinces of the 
manner of her learnings and of the operation of the various 
teaching influences and forces involved in it. But all tliis and 
more is suggested in Helen's own narration: 

"My teacher is so near to me that I scarcely think of myself 
apart from her. How much of my delight in all beautiful things 
is innate, and how much is due to her influence, I can never telll 
I feel that her being is inseparable from my own, and that the 
footsteps of my life are in hers. All the best of me belongs to 
her — there is not a talent, or an aspiration, or a joy in me that 
has not been awakened by her loving touch. I wonder if I shall 
ever be able to render to another a service comparable to this. 

"From the beginning of my education Miss Sullivan made 
it a practice to speak to me as she would speak to any hearing 
child, the only difference being that she spelled the sentences 
into my hand instead of speaking them. If I did not know the 
words and idioms necessary to express my thoughts she supplied 
them, even suggesting conversation when I was unable to keep 
up my end of the dialogue. This process was continued for 
several years; for the deaf child does not learn in a month, or 
even in two or three years, the numberless idioms and expres- 
sions used in the simplest daily intercourse. The little hearing 
child learns these from constant repetition and imitation. The 
conversation he hears in his home stimulates his mind and sug- 
gests topics and calls forth the spontaneous expression of his 
own thoughts. This natural exchange of ideas is denied to the 
deaf child. My teacher, realizing this, determined to supply the 
stimuli I lacked. This she did by repeating to me as far as pos- 
sible, verbatim, what she heard, and by showing me how I could 
take part in the conversation. But it was a long time before I 
could find something appropriate to say in the nick of time. 

"My teacher realized that a child's mind is like a shallow 
brook which ripples and dances merrily over the stony course of 
its education and reflects here a flower, there a bush, yonder a 

Editorial. 287 

fleecy cloud; and she attempted to guide my mind on its way, 
knowing that like a brook it should be fed by mountain streams 
and hidden springs^ until it broadened out into a deep river, 
capable of reflecting in its placid surface, billowy hills, the 
luminous shadows of trees and the blue heavens, as well as the 
sweet face of a little flower. 

"It was my 'teacher's genius, her quick sympathy, her loving 
tact which made the first years of my education so beautiful. It 
was because she seized the right moment to impart knowledge 
that made it so pleasant and acceptable to me. Any teacher can 
take a child to the classroom, but not every teacher can make 
him learn. He will not work joyously unless he feels that liberty 
is his, whether he is busy or at rest; he must feel the flush of 
victory and the heart-sinkings of disappointment before he takes 
with a will the tasks distasteful to him and resolves to dance his 
way bravely through a dull routine of textbooks." 

Elsewhere in this issure are given the annual 
\ * h T hi ^ statistical tables of speech-teaching in Ameri- 
can Schools for the Deaf. The returns are in 
response to the same questions that have been used in previous 
inquiries, but in this inquiry supplemental questions have been 
used with the design to show by the returns received the differ- 
ences that exist throughout the schools between the "in the 
school-room" practice and "outside the school-room" practice 
as regards the several means of instruction employed. This 
distinction is an important one and one that has never before 
been made, and it is a distinction that many principals have 
wished to have recognized to enable them more exactly to des- 
cribe the speech-work of their schools and to give it its true 
place and value relative to the entire work that they are doing. 
The returns as tabulated show that the supplemental ques- 
tions have assisted materially to secure a -stricter construction 
of the regular questions and a closer classification of pupils 
taught speech by the several methods. This is a gratifying 
result, for the stricter and closer the classifications the greater 
their value for purposes of comparison and study as showing 
actual movements or growth, with the directions of the lines that 
development is taking and following. We believe that the 

288 The Association Review. 

returns from future inquiries will show an even stronger tenden- 
cy to close and careful classification, as all come to feel the 
importance of it and the desirability of it for the purposes in 

Turning to the tables themselves we find that the total num- 
ber of schools in the United States has increased by eight, from 
ii6 to 124 in the year. The increase of pupils can not be stated 
for the reason that the present statistics, unlike those of former 
years, are based on the number of pupils actually in attendance 
upon a certain day, which number is somewhat less than the 
yearly attendance. The entire number of pupils reported as in 
school on April 25, is 11069. Of this number 7164, or 64.7 per 
cent., are being taught speech; and with 6276, or 56.7 per cent., 
speech is being used as a means of instruction. The former 
percentage is the same as last year's, the latter is slightly 
larger. Somewhat more material changes are made in other 
features of the inquiry as will be noted by referring to the dia- 
gram and the accompanying table. It is quite fair to believe 
that these changes both in their direction and measure are due 
to the influence of the supplementary questions as requiring and 
enabling a stricter construction of the main questions than has 
probably heretofore obtained. 

The table giving the summary of the supplementary inquiry 
(see p. 293), with corresponding lines in the illustrating diagram 
opposite, shows that of the total number of pupils in school 
3400, or 30.6 per cent, were taught in the school-room by purely 
speech methods; in addition to these, 1812, or 16.4 per cent., 
were taught in the school-room by speech and spelling, and 318, 
or 2.9 per cent., by speech, spelling, and signs. This table will, 
we believe, be especially interesting arid valuable for comparison 
purposes in the coming years and it is well to have it started at 
this time. 

Space does not permit extended comment upon the returns 
and their showings, and we refer readers to the tables them- 
selves as given, with the assurance that they will find in them 
much to interest and instruct as to the character of the speech- 
teaching in our schools as well as the amount of it under the 
several and different methods employed. 

Editorial. 289 

For the third time in its history the Iowa 
School Fire School at Council Bluffs suffers the loss of its 

main building by fire. The building was 320 
feet in length, 60 feet in width, with four-story wings and a five- 
story central section, and a south addition 125 by 60 feet two 
stories high. The loss on the building is estimated at $200,000, 
and on the contents, $50^000. The state does not insure its 
property, so the loss is total. There were 265 pupils in the 
school, but by great good fortune the fire broke out in the day- 
time, so there were no casualties. No cause is known for the 
fire, and it is supposed to have been from spontaneous combus- 
tion starting as it did in an attic. The reports all speak in the 
highest praise of Superintendent Rothert and the teachers and 
officers of the school for their self-sacrificing efforts in behalf of 
the children and the saving of all property belonging to them^ 
while in most cases their own losses were total. 

The school-house and a number of other detached buildings 
remain uninjured, so it was found possibe to retain a part of the 
children until the end of the term, the remainder — ^the younger 
children — ^being sent to their homes at once. Plans for a new 
structure are being discussed, with the cottage plan strongly 

Th E hibh t th ^^^ committee in charge of the arrangements 
St. Louis Exposition ^^ exhibits of schools for the deaf to be made 

at the Exposition at St. Louis in 1904, held 
a meeting at Fulton, Mo., early in April, and later some of the 
members consulted with the authorities of the Exposition in 
St. Louis. We are informed that the Exposition authorities 
are well disposed toward the project and will favor a very full 
and complete exhibit of the schools of the country, and the com- 
mittee itself hopes to secure a general co-operation on the part 
of the schools to bring about this result. The committee con- 
sists of President E. M. Gallaudet of Washington, chairman ex- 
officio; Mr. N. B. McKee of Fulton, Mo., vice-chairman; Mr. H. 
C. Hammond, Olathe, Kansas; Rev. J. H. Cloud, St. Louis, Mo.; 
Miss Mary McCowen, Chicago, 111.; and Mr. Alvin E. Pope, 
Omaha, Neb. 

290 The Association Review, 

-. -.,, , The Wisconsin School at Delavan on April 

The WisGOosin , , , , /. r . t i- i 

Sch r Fift* th ^' celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the 

. . day of its founding. The exercises were ap- 

propriate to the day and included an address 
by Superintendent C. P. Cary, a history of the school by Mr. 
W. A. Cochrane, a paper on pioneer work in speech-teaching 
by Miss Emily Eddy, an address by President E. M. Gallaudet, 
and a poem by Mr. J. C. Balis. An incident of the occasion 
was the presentation to the school, on behalf of the La Crosse 
Association for the Deaf, by its President, of a fine portrait of 
ex-Superintendent J. W. Swiler, which was received with 
thanks by Superintendent Cary. Among those present from 
abroad were Hon. Rob**rt C. Spencer of Milwaukee, State In- 
spector of Schools for the Deaf W. D. Parker^ and Miss Mary 
McCowen of Chicago. 


Department XVI — Department of Special Education — of 
the National Educational Association, meeting in Minneapolis, 
July 7-1 1, 1902, will hold its sessions in Plymouth Church, on 
the afternoons of Wednesday, July g, and Friday, July 11. 

The officers of the Department are Dr. Alex. Graham 
Bell, Washington, D. C, President; Mr. E. E. Allen, Over- 
brook, Pa., Vice-President; and Mr. E. A. Gruver, New York 
City, Secretary. 

The following programme for the Department has been 

. Wednesday Afternoon, July 9. 

1. Address of welcome — Dr. C. M. Jordan, Superintendent 
of Schools, Minneapolis^ Minn. 

2. President's address — Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, 
President of the Department, Washington, D. C. 

Editorial. 291 

3. Lessons to be learned by the General Teacher from 
Teaching Language to the Deaf — F. W. Booth, editor As- 
sociation Review, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

4. What Minnesota is doing for the Education of Blind 
and Deaf Children and Children of backward Mental Develop- 
ment — ^The Minnesota Institutions. 

5. A Comparison of Kindergarten Methods for the Deaf 
and the Hearing Child — Miss Mary McCowen, Supervising 
Principal, Chicago Day Schools for the Deaf, Chicago, 111. 

6. What can we do to Facilitate the Instruction of Chil- 
dren in the Public Schools who have Defective Faculties? — Dis- 
cussion led by Dr. J. C. Gordon, Superintendent of the Illinois 
School for the Deaf, Jacksonville, III, to be followed by resolu- 
tions of recommendation on the subject. 

Friday Afternoon, July ii. 

1. Some Lessons for the General Teacher to be Learned 
in Teaching the Blind — ^William B. Wait, Superintendent, New 
York Institution for the Blind, New York City. 

2. Importance of giving Special Instruction in Lip-read- 
ing to Children of Defective Hearing in the Public Schools — 
General discussion. 

3. The Special Work of Teaching the Blind — E. E. Allen, 
Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind, 
Overbrook, Pa. 

4. "Necessary Evils," J. J. Dow, Superintendent of the 
School for the Blind, Faribault, Minn. 

5. How to Correct Defective Speech in Public School 
Children. Discussion led by Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Pres- 
ident of the Department. 

6. The Organization of Associations of Parents of Deaf 
Children as an Aid to Schools. Discussion led by Mrs. Charles 
R. Crane, President of the Chicago Association of Parents of 
Deaf Children. 

7. Drawing as a Means of Expression — Discussion. 










W fV 

. — 


















— ' 


























^M 1 



The diagram represents graphically the percentage of pupils taught 
speech in Schools for the Deaf in the United States. (For figures see 
Review I, 74-106; II, 90-91, 299-815, 448-449; III, 89-90, 281-297; IV, 95-96, 
293-309.) The light lines represent Columns A, B and C of the Annals; the 
dark lines, the statistics of the Association Rbyibw. 

Pebcbntages fbom Speech-Statistics of thb Annalb. 

A. ToUl Taught Speech. 

B. Taught wholly by the Oral Method. 

C. Taught wholly or chiefly by the Auricular Method. 

Pebcbntages fbom Speech-Statistics of the Rbtibw. 

1. ToUl Taught Speech. 

2. Speech used as means of instruction. 

8. Speech not used as means of instruction. 

4. Taught by Speech and Speech-Reading (no manual spelling, no sign 

utnguage. ) 

5. Taught by Speech and Speech-Reading and manual spelling {no sign- 


6. Taught by Speech and Speech -Reading and manual spelling and sign 


The dotted lines point to the percentages obtained from the supplement- 
ary Investigation *ln the school-room.'' See Table on next page. 

Speech Teaching in American Schools, 
























24 7% 

1 27% 

61.4% 53.1% 
64.0% 55.5% 
64.7% 56.0% 


5.1% 23.7% 










*If the precedent of past years is followed, the Anuals statistics for 1902 
will be collected in November, 1902, and published in the Annals for Jan- 
uary, 1908. 

Concerning pupils returned under Queries 2, 8, and 4, see Table Y. 

In school-room 

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workshop, etc. 

Details not stated 

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304 The Association Review. 


(1) The above statistics have been received in reply to the following 
Queries and Supplementary Questions: 

Query i. Total number of pupils in this school April 25, 1902 ? 

Query 2. Number taught by speech and speech-reading, without 
being taught at all by the sign-language and manual 
alphabet ? 

Query 3. Number taught by speech and speech-reading, to- 
gether with a manual alphabet, without being taught 
at all by the sign-language ? 

Query 4. Number taught by speech and speech-reading, and 
also taught by the sign-language and manual alpha- 
bet ? 

Query 5. Number taught speech and speech-reading but speech 
not used as a means of instruction, 


1. We have in contemplation a change in the nature of the question.^ 
asked by the Review, based upon the means of communication employed 
in the school-room and outside, but it has not been thought advisable to 
make any change this year because of the difficulty of comparing the new 
statistics with those collected during previous years. We would ask you, 
however, to answer as fully as practicable the Supplementary Questions 
given below, as the replies will enable us to judge whether or not it 
would be wise to make the contemplated change in the future. In this 
connection we should be glad to have your views relating to the best 
form of questions to bring out the character and extent of speech-teach- 
ing in American schools for the deaf. 

2. Query 2 is intended to elicit the number of pupils who are taught 
wholly by the oral method, without receiving instruction through the 
medium of the sign-language or manual alphabet, either in the school- 
room or outside, in chapel, work-shop, etc. 

3. Query 3 is intended to elicit the number of pupils who arc taught 
in part by oral methods, and in part by means of a manual alphabet, but 
who receive no instruction whatever through the medium of the sign- 
language. In this connection we should like to know whether the man- 
ual alphabet is used in the school-room in conjunction with speech and 
speech-reading; or whether its use is limited to outside of the school- 
room. If you return pupils under the head of Query 3, please fill in the 
following supplemental details: 

Manual alphabet excluded from the school-room, but used 
outside in chapel exercises, work-shop instruction, etc., 
in cases. 

Manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in 


4. Query 4 is intended to elicit the number who are taught in part by 
oral methods, and in part by sign-language methods. In these cases we 
should like to know whether the sign-language is used in the school-room 
in conjunction with speech and speech-reading; or whether its use is 
limited to outside of the school-room. If you return pupils under the 
head of Query 4, please fill in the following supplemental details relating 
to them: 

Sign-language excluded from the school-room, but used 
outside in chapel exercises, work-shop instruction, etc., 
in cases. 

Sign-language used both in the school-room and outside m 


Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching. 305 


5. Query 5 is intended to elicit the number of pupils who receive 
instruction in articulation without speech being used as a meaf^ of in- 
struction — ^the number taught speech and speech-reading, but not taught 
hy speech and speech-reading. The pupils we wish to record under this 
head are not taught by the oral method at all, but receive instruction in 
the use of their vocal organs for a limited period each day, or at least 
occasionally — ^their general education being carried on by silent methods 
of instruction. 

(2) Talladega School (Ala.): Statistics of June, 1901. 

(3) Little Rock School (Ark.): Queries i, 175 white, 27 black; 
2, 41; 3, none; 4, none; 5, 8. 

(4) Telegraph Ave. School (Oakland, Cal.): Supplementary 
Questions — Queries 3, manual alphabet used in the school-room and out- 
side in 4 cases; 4, sign-language used in the school-room and outside in 
2 cases. 

(5) Colorado Springs School (Colo.): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 4, sign-language excluded from the school-room but used outside 
in 58 cases. 

(6) Hartford School (Conn.): Query i, 172; remaining Queries, 
blank. Dr. Williams writes: "Your first question is the only one I can 
answer with any sort of satisfaction. So much depends upon what you 
mean by the sign-language. Do you mean now and then the use of a 
sign? or do you mean the occasional use of a sign phrase? or even an 
occasional use of a sentence ? or do you mean the constant use of the 
sign-language ? What one might call the sign-language, another might 
term natural gestures. You can make no accurate comparison, by the 
answers you will get to any such set of questions because those answering 
them look at things so differently. What one calls using the sign-lan- 
guage another does not. 

"Two of our classes have as nearly pure oral work as you will find 
anywhere. Several other classes have as much, and others use very few 
signs, but depend upon speech, spelling and writing. The rest of the 
school use chiefly writing and spelling, but use somewhat more freely the 

"Our chapel exercises are sometimes conducted almost entirely by 
spelling, and sometimes very largely by the sign-language." 

(7) Mystic School (Conn.): Miss Damon says: "We have two 
children here this year who are not deaf, but when they came had ab- 
solutely unintelligible speech. They are taught in the same classes with 
the deaf children and by the same methods, but of course get their chiei 
development through their ears. One of them will be discharged in June; 
the other retained another year at least." 

(8) Washington School (D. C): No statistics furnished. 

(0) Cave Spring School (Ga.): Statistics of June, 1901. 

(10) Ashland and Wrightwood Aves. School (Chicago, 111.) 
Supplementary Questions — Query 4, sign-language used both in the 
school-room and outside in 7 cases. 

(11) Evergreen Ave. School (Chicago, 111.): One pupil in the 
school suffers from partial paralysis and is not being taught speech. 
Supplementary Questions — Query 4, sign-language used both in the 
school-room and outside in 13 cases. 

(12) Harrison St. School (Chicago, III.): One pupil in this school 
has paralysis of the lower jaw and is not being taught speech. Supple- 

3o6 The Association Review. 

mentary Questions — Query 4, sign-language used both in the school- 
room and outside in 14 cases. 

(13) Morgan St. School (Chicago, 111.): Supplementary Questions 
— Query 4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 
7 cases. 

[Miss Mary McCowen, the Supervising Principal of the Chicago 
Schools, reports the total number of the pupils in the schools under 
her charge: Queries i, 178; 2, 135; 3, o; 4, 41; 5» o. She further says: 
"Your question called for the number of children belonging in the school 
on a certain date which in our school necessarily omitted all pupils 
absent from sickness. As these numbered twelve, our total number 
should really read 190. Since April 25 the Wicker Park (Evergreen 
Ave. and Robey St.) School has been moved to the Schley School at 
North Oakley Ave. near Potomac Ave."] 

(14) South May St. School (Chicago, 111.): Supplementary 
Questions — Query 3, manual alphabet used both in the school-room and 
outside in 49 cases. Miss Cosgrove writes: "This is a Combined school 
in which speech and speech-reading together with the manual alphabet 
and writing are used. The sign-language is not allowed in any of the 

(16) Jacksonville School (111.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
4, sign-language excluded from the school-room, but used outside in 361 
cases. Of these pupils Dr. Gordon says: "361 orally taught. In 
general, finger spelling is not used with these pupils but cases and occa- 
sions arise in which finger spelling is restored to." The 160 pupils 
taught speech and speech-reading but speech not used as a means of in- 
struction are "in manual alphabet classes." 

(16) Rockford School (111.): Miss Kinnaird says: "I have en- 
rolled six pupils. Two are from the other schools and only come for 
forty-five minute lessons daily in speech-reading. The others stay all 
day and are taught entirely by the oral method." 

(IT) Evansville School (Ind.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 15 cases. 

(18) Indianapolis School (Ind.): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 4, sign-language excluded from the school-room, but used outside 
in 75 cases; sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 
57 cases. 

(10) Council BluflFs School (Iowa): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 3, manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in 
104 cases. 

(20) Olathe School (Kan.): Queries i, 240; 2, o*; 3, o*; 4, 50; 5, 
S3. Mr. Hammond adds this explanatory foot-note: "^According to your 
desire for strict construction. All our pupils attend chapel and get ideas 
from signs there." 

(21) Danville School (Ky.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
4, sign-language excluded from the school-room but used outside in 96 
cases; sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 26 

Mr. Rogers says: "Would suggest January instead of April as the 
month to gather statistics from schools for the deaf. In the southern 
states nearly ip per cent, of the pupils go home to work. 

"Would prefer this form in getting statistics as to speech teaching 
and its use in our schools: 

"i. Total number of pupils, 

Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching, 307 

"2. Number taught by speech and speech-reading and who use 
speech only as a means of communication out of school, 

"3. Number taught speech and speech-reading and who use speech 
and the manual alphabet as a means of communication out of school, 

"4. Number taught by speech and speech-reading and who use 
speech, the manual alphabet and signs as a means of communication 
out of school, 

"5. Number taught speech and speech-reading, but speech not used 
as a means of instruction, pupils using sign-language and manual alphabet 
altogether out of school as a means of communication." 

(22) Baton Rouge School (La.): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 4 sign-language excluded from the school-room, but used outside 
in 60 cases. 

(23) Chinchuba School (La.) : Statistics of June, 1901. 

(24) Portland School (Me.): Miss Taylor reports 92 pupils in 
school, and 86 pupils "taught by speech and speech-reading and also 
taught by signs and manual alphabet." She adds the following sugges- 
tion: "How many teachers in your school can interpret or deliver a 
lecture in the sign-language ? No one is capable of teaching what he 
does not understand himself." 

(26) McCulloh St School (Baltimore, Md.): Statistics of June. 

(26) Saratoga St. School (Baltimore, Md.) : Supplementary Ques- 
tions — Query 4, sign-language excluded from the school-room, but used 
outside in 18 cases. In 24 cases the sign-language is used "to a limited 
degree. Most of the time the manual alphabet is employed." 

(27) Frederick School (Md.): Queries i, 100; 2, 33; 3, o; 4, 23— 
sign-language used to some extent with all these cases; 5, 9. 

(23) Beverly School (Mass.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside In i case. 

(29) North Detroit School (Mich.): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 3, manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in 
12 cases; Query 4, sign-language used both in the school-room and out- 
side in 13 case.s. Mr. Bentrup says: "Our school being in the period 
of transition from German to English, it is necessary to make use of the 
sign-language more extensively than we might desire in the class-rooms. 
Three pupils are being instructed by manual alphabet and signs only, 
preparatory to confirmation. 'Tis my humble opinion that questions 3 
and 4, being divided into a and 6, as given in supplement, would make 
all clear." 

(30") Faribault School (Minn.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
4, sign-language excluded from the school-room but used outside in 63 
cases. Mr. Tate adds: "Signs are supposed to be excluded from school- 
room. This is largely true in entire school." 

(31) Cass Ave. School (St. Louis, Mo.): Supplementary Ques- 
tions — Query 4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside 
in 12 cases. "In all generad assemblies of pupils the sign-language is 
used by the lecturer." 

(32) South St. Louis School (Mo.): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 12 

(33) Boulder School (Mont.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 14 cases. 

3o8 The Association Review. 

(34) Omaha School (Neb.): Supplementary Questions: Mr. 
Stewart writes, "All classes taught alike by signs in chapel and shops." 

(36) Trenton School (N. J.): Supplementary Questions— Query 
3, manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in (5i cases; 
Query 4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 21 
cases. Mr. Walker writes: "I would say that I use an hundred square 
feet of writing in chapel, but supplement with some gesture and speech." 

(36) Santa Fe School (N. M.) : Mr. Larson writes that the school 
has not been in session during the school year. 

(37) Brooklyn School (N. Y.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
3, manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in 69 cases. 
**The sign-language is used as a medium of communication but the pupils 
are not taught by signs." 

(38) Buffalo School (N. Y.): Supplementary Questions— Query 
3, manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in 135 cases. 

(39) Fordham School (N. Y.): Supplementary Questions — ^Query 
3, manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in 109 
cases. "We make no restrictions as to signs during recreation hours.' 

(40) Malone School (N. Y.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
3, manual alphabet excluded from the school-room, but used outside in 
4 cases; manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in 77 

(41) Washington Heights School (New York, N. Y.): Supple- 
mentary Questions — Query 3, manual alphabet used both in the school- 
room and outside in 417 cases. Mr. Currier says: "I think Query 3 is the 
nearest to the truth. We have oral classes wherein speech is the medium 
— but in case of an error which was not readily corrected by lip-reading, 
the manual alphabet would be used to complete. I have therefore in- 
cluded all in a single class." 

(42) Rochester School (N. Y.): Supplementary Questions — Query 
3, manual alphabet excluded from school-room, but used outside in chapel 
exercises, workshop instruction, etc., "in a good many cases in articula- 
tion class-room — but no particular importance is attached to it"; manual 
alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in "all cases except 
the speech reading and speech training class exercises." 

(43) Rome School (N. Y.): Queries i, 124; 2, o; 3, o; 4, 51; 5, 51. 
To an inquiry if the two classes each of 51 pupils, were one and the same 
group, Mr. Nelson replies: "I would state that there are fifty-one pupils 
taught Articulation in our school^ and that they are one and the same 
group, i. e., the fifty-one pupils taught speech and taught by the sign- 
language and manual alphabet, and the fifty-one pupils taught speech, 
but speech not used as a means of instruction^ are one and the same 

(44) West Chester School (N. Y.): Queries i, 205 boys; 2, o; 3, 
205; 4» o; 5, o. The following statement accompanies the reply: 

"Replying to your Supplementary Questions I beg to state that 
signs are used in chapel on Sunday mornings in interpreting the brief 
address generally made by the attending clergyman, the interpreter 
being one of the teachers. Signs are also used in the shops and as a 
means of communication among the pupils themselves in their hours of 
recreation. In class exercises speech and the manual alphabet are used. 

"In the light furnished by your Supplementary Questions it would 
seem that I should have answered Query 4 instead of 3, as the instruc- 
tions given in the chapel and at Sunday school, and the directions of the 
various industrial teachers certainly constitute a not unimportant part 

Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching. 309 

of a boy*s education as a whole, even though they are not employed at 
all in literary work." 

(45) Morganton School (N. C): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 4, sign language excluded from the school-room, but used outside 
in all industrial cases. Mr. Goodwin says: "Oral pupils attend chapd 
where signs are used.** 

(46) Devils Lake School (N. D.): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 11 
cases, limited to use in explaining where oral work fails. 

(47) West Sixth St. Oral School (Cincinnati, O.): Miss Osborn 
says: "All our teaching is by speech or writing. Pupils are allowed to 
communicate in any way they can on the play grounds. Few conven- 
tional signs are known by them and we never have occasion to refer to 
their use or non-use any more than teachers in the hearing public 
schools. The supplemental questions presented are well adapted to 
their purpose." 

(48) East Sixth St. School (Cincinnati, O.): Supplemental Ques- 
tions—Query 3, manual alphabet used both in the school-room and out- 
side in conjunction with speech in 13 cases. 

(49) Cleveland School (O.): Queries i, 59; 2, 52; 3, o; 4,0; 5,2; 6, 
number taught by writing, 5. 

(60) Columbus School (O.): Supplementary Questions — Query 4, 
sign-language excluded from the school-room, but used outside in 235 
cases. Mr. Jones writes: 

"Please find enclosed your blank filled as best I can. The answer to 
Query 4 is as near right as we can make it and answer any of your 
questions, yet it will leave a wrong impression on those who will not 
look for the answer to your Supplementary Question. The answer to 
the Supplementary Question is not the exact truth as signs are occasion- 
ally used by our teachers. I enclose you a supplementary report which 
I think enables us to place our Institution in a true light before the 

The supplementary report is as follows: 

"i. Total number of pupils in school April 25th, 1902, 530. 

"2. Number who use the manual alphabet and sign-language in 
conversation out of school and have chapel instruction in them, 530. 

"3. Number whose conversation out of school with hearing people 
is in speech, 200. 

"4. Number whose conversation out of school is in finger spell- 

"5. Number who are taught in school-room by both finger spelling 
and sign-language as basis of instruction, 280. 

"6. Number who are taught speech and by speech in oral schools, 

"7. Number who are taught in school-room by finger spelling as 
the basis of instruction, see No. 5. 

"8. Number taught in school-room by finger spelling and sign- 
language and who take special lessons in articulation, 15. 

"9. Number whose chapel and other congregational instruction is 
in speech, 

"10. Number whose chapel and other congregational instruction is 
in finger spelling 

"You will observe that I have omitted such expressions as "without 
being taught at all by," "exclusively," etc. These limitations make it 
impossible for a large number of the schools to answer your questions 
truthfully. For instance, the oral schools in this Institution are as pure 

3IO The Association Review, 

oral as I have seen in any of the twenty-three schools I have visited in 
the United States, yet there are times when natural and conventional 
signs are resorted to by both teachers and pupils. At the same time I 
feel sure that such signs are in no way detrimental to the development of 
speech and lip reading. Teachers are very much alike — all being human 
— ^and it is hardly probable that in one section of the state the oral teach- 
ers are more careful or better regulated than in another portion. For 
this reason, I think we should be satisfied with the terms "oral schools" 
and "manual schools." Surely we will offer less temptation for uncon- 
scious misrepresentation. Your request for suggestions is my apology 
for offering this supplementary list with note." 

(51) Guthrie School (Okla.): Miss L. K. Thompson writes: **I 
regret to say that there has been no oral work done in our school this 
year and for this reason. The school has been crowded. No provision 
was made for another room and another teacher as I hoped there would 
be, so I have had to take into my class the overflow from the other two, 
and oral work has been entirely crowded out. When I came here it was 
with the understanding that I was to do oral work. I had material for 
an oral class and would have continued the work if I could have com- 
manded the means to do so. I hope this condition will not continue 

(52) Salem School (Ore.): Supplementary Questions — Query 3. 
manual alphabet used both in the school-room and outside in 6 cases. 
Mr. Wentz says: "Sign-language used only for the Sunday rehgious 
exercises; but the younger oral pupils do not attend these services, but 
have their own instead." 

(53) Cedar Spring School (S. C): Queries i, 122; 2, 32*: 3, o: 
4. 8; 5, o. Mr. Walker adds the foot-note: "♦N. B. — ^We use signs with 
ail of our pupils in chapel and work shops and they are allowed to use 
signs when out of school-room." 

(54) Sioux Falls School (S. Dak.): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 4, sign-language used both in school-room and outside in 2 cases : 
"sign language not excluded anywhere in this school; the greater use of 
manual alphabet encouraged everjrwhere." 

(55) Knoxville School (Tenn.): Mr. Moses says: "All of our 
pupils receive instruction through manual alphabet and signs in chapel, 
shops, etc. Forty (40) of them we call oral pupils, though an occasional 
sign or finger-spelled word is used with them in the school-room in an 
emergency. This is not encouraged. It is not forbidden. Fifty (50) 
pupils have oral instruction, oral drill, oral gymnastics, or whatever you 
may choose to call it. I mean lessons at stated times from oral teachers 
that they may learn speech and lip-reading. With twenty-three (23) 
pupils the teacher tries to use nothing but writing and the manual 

(56) Austin School (for whites) (Tex.): Supplementary Ques- 
tions — Query 4, sign-language excluded from the school-room, but used 
outside, in practically all cases; sign-language used both in the school- 
room and outside, in very few if any cases. 

(57) Ogden School (Ut.): Supplementary Questions — Query 4. 
sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 28 cases. Mr. 
Driggs says: "We are so few in numbers that it is very difficult to have 
things as we hope to some day. 

In all we have 62 deaf pupils. 

9 of these do not receive any instruction in speech. 
25 of them are taught speech, or articulation and lip-reading, and 
are taught their regular lessons by manual methods. 



Report on the Progress of Speech Teaching, 311 

"The others, 28, are taught one or more subjects by speech and 
speech-reading, and go into manual classes for some of their instruction. 
All chapel exercises are conducted in the sign-language and manual al- 
phabet, which all pupils attend." 

(58) Delavan School (Wis.): Queries i, 200; 2, 120; 3, o; 4, o; 

5, o. Mr. Gary says: "In our senior class the instruction while oral, is 
supplemented by finger spelling and signs." 

(69) Rhinelander School (Wis.): Supplementary Questions — 
Query 4, sign-language used in the school-room in i case. Miss Greener 
says: "The school here is a day school, so no outside instruction is 

(60) St. Francis School (Wis.): "The sign-language and manual 
alphabet are used both in school-room and outside." 

(61) Stevens Point School (Wis.): Statistics of June, 1901. 

(62) Winnipeg School (Manitoba): Supplementary Questions- 
Query 4, sign-language excluded from school-room but used outside in 
IS cases. Mr. McDermid says: "Your questions may not be answered 
correctly so will make this explanation: We have one oral class in 
which no signs or manual alphabet are used and all instruction is given 
by oral methods. Outside the class, in work shop, chapel, play, etc., 
signs and manual alphabet are used." 

(63) Halifax School (N. S.): Queries i, loi; 2, 55; 3, 10; 4, o; 5, o; 

6, number taught by writing and the manual alphabet without being 
taught at all by the sign-language, 36. Mr. Fearon writes: "My 
answers to the queries you send me will not give a correct description 
of our school. In our advanced class we have nine pupils two of whom 
do not articulate. For the sake of these two the teacher is compelled 
to use the manual alphabet a good deal. In the other oral classes con- 
taining in all 56 pupils only speech and writing are employed. The re- 
maining 36 pupils are taught manually without the use of signs at all. In 
the assembly hall or chapel only the manual alphabet is used as far as 
the teacher is concerned, but the pupils who articulate reply to ques- 
tions orally. In the workshops writing, the manual alphabet and speech 
are used but it would be impossible for me to say in what proportion. 
The sign-language is not recognized at all, but of course the pupils too 
frequently use it on the playground. 

"It would be interesting to know to what extent the pupils in the 
diflFerent schools communicate with one another orally out of school 
hours. Is the communication as full as it would be by the manual 

(64) Berri St. School (Montreal, P. Q.): Supplementary Questions-— 
Query 4, sign-language used both in the school-room and outside in 
chapel exercises, work-shop instruction, recreation room, and on various 
occasions, in 5 cases. 

.(65) Mile End School (Montreal, P. Q.): Father Gadieux writes: 
"We have but two groups of pupils: first, those taught wholly by the 
oral method, without receiving instruction through the medium of the 
sign-language or manual alphabet, either in the school-room or outside, 
in chapel, work-shop, etc.; second, those taught by the sign-language 
and manual alphabet both in the school-room and outside; but, in the 
school-room, the sign-language is tolerated only when teaching re- 
ligion. In all other cases, in the school-room, the manual alphabet, ac- 
tions and writing are the only means through which our pupils receive 
instruction: it is what we call, the action-teaching." 

312 TTii Association Review. 

Specimen pages of the "First Book of Graded 
Graded Stories Stories for Little Folks" have been received. 

The book is the fruits of the labors of the 
committee appointed last summer at the Buffalo meeting of the 
Convention of American Instructors, and it is to be ready for 
delivery about June i. The pages before us show evidence of 
excellence in every feature of the work — in style, paper, type, 
arrangement, illustrations, and finally, subject matter. The illus- 
trations are especially fitting and attractive, and they will serve 
their purpose well of making clear the meaning of the text to 
the children for whose entertainment and instruction the book 
has been prepared. The Committee is to be congratulated upon 
the promptness that it has displayed in the completion of this 
part of its work. Other volumes of more advanced grades are, 
we understand, to be brought out, making finally a complete 
series of story readers. This volume of nearly 200 pages may 
be procured of the publishers, Geo. N. Morang & Co., Toronto, 
Canada. Price 25 cents. 

Teachers wishing positions and Superintendents wishing 
teachers may avail themselves of the office of the General Secre- 
tary of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf so far as it may be of service to them. The 
General Secretary aims to keep a list of teachers and one of 
superintendents, belonging to the above classes, for use by any 
person who may apply for them. Teachers filing their names 
and addresses with the General Secretary, should state the length 
and character of their experience, and give such other informa- 
tion as would be helpful to a Superintendent in making appoint- 

Wanted: By a New York City school, an experienc^-^ 
and successful teacher of the deaf in the intermediate grad( 
Address W., care of Editor of Association Review. 

Wanted: By a young lady carefully trained in the Oraj 
Method, a position as oral teacher in a school for the deaf. A(' 
dress R., care of the Association Review. 


A conrse of systematic instruction in language, in four volumes, by 

CAROLINE C. SWEET. Price, $3.84 per dozen. 

Single copy, 40c. 



Sixty short stories prepared for young pupils, compiled by IDA V 

HAMMOND. Price, $3.84 per dozen. 
Single copy, 40c. 


Short stories prepared for young pupils, compiled by IDA V.| HAMMOND 

Price, $4.20 per dozen. Single copy, 45c. 



Contains nearly a hundred short stories and seventy-five conversations for 

practice in language, prepared by WM. G. JENKINS, M. A. 

Price, $6.00 per dozen. Single copy, 60c. 



One hundred stories gathered from United States History, compiled by 
JOHN B. CRANE, M. A. Price, $9.00 per dozen. Single copy, 90c. 

''A Primer of English and American Literature." 

By ABEL S. CLARK, M. A., with 26 portraits of authors. 
Price, $7.80 per dozen. Single copy, 75c. 



Examples of the correct English usage, by WILLIAM O. JENKINS, M. A. 

Price, $6.00 per dozen. 

" Stories for Language Study." 

Adapted to pupils of the third or fourth grade, compiled bv JANE 

BARTLETT KELLOGG. Price, $4.20 per dozen. 







The Bcienceof Speech. Board Price, $0 60 

The Faults of Speech. Cloth " 60 


Inaugural Edition, 4to. cloth Price, $4 00 

Sounds and their Relations, cloth '' 2 00 

Principles of Speech and Dictionary of Sounds, (New Edition) ** 1 50 

University Lectures on Phonetics, paper, •* 1 00 

Manual of Visible Speech and Vocal Physiology " 60 

English Visible Speech in 12 lessons, English Edition " 50 

»t »* »* " German " " 60 

" " " •' Italian " " 60 

Visible Speech Reader ' " 40 

Class Primer of Visible Speech " 85 

Explanatory Lecture on Visible Speech ** 15 

Visible Speech Charts 8x12. Seven in the set with explanatory text '* 60 

** " ** 15x21 without text, Vowels and Consonantal each '* 20 


Manual of Speech Reading and Articulation Teaching '' 25 


Elocutionary Manual . Principles of Elocution " 1 50 

Essays and Postscripts on Elocution " 1 25 

Emphasized Liturgy " 1 00 

Address to National Association of Elocutionists, " 15 

On the Use of Notations in Elocutionary Teaching " 15 


Wo'ld English — The Universal Language •* 25 

Hand-Book of World English. Readings «* 25 

Universal Steno-Phonography " 75 

English Line Writing " 60 

Popular Shorthand, ** 15 


Sermon Reading and Memoriter Delivery " $0 25 

Phonetic Syllabication, ** 15 

Note on Syllabic Consonants, " 15 

Speech Tones, " 15 

The Sounds of R " 15 

The Cure of Stammering, etc. English Edition (1806) " 15 

Education of the Deaf ; Notes and Observations, J. C. Gordon. Ph. D., .... •• 1 00 

Facial Speech Reading ; H. Gutzmann, M. D. ; paper " 25 

Marriages of the Deaf in America ; E. A. Fay, Ph. D. ; cloth '* 5 00 

Histories of American Schools for the Deaf, 3 vols. ; cloth " 10 00 

Helen Keller Souvenir, No. 2, 1892-1899; cloth ** 2 00 

Teachers receive the usual discount. 
Trade terms upon application. 

Arnold's Manual and other British publications supplied upon order. London Agenta for 
Volta Bureau Publications : Wm. Wesley and Son, 28 Essex St. Strand. 

Address : 


JOHN HITZ, Superintendent. Washington City,D C, 

ci^<c. r I i H'/ 




K. W. BOOTH . - - . E^DITOR 

S. O. DAVIDSON, AssiSTJ^NT Edixor 

October, 1902. 

Co7isiniction and Activity of the Brain with Special 

Regard to Speaking and Speech - - - H.Hoffmann 313 

Formation a?td Development of Elementary 

English Sounds—I I - - ^ - Caroline A. Yale 323 

Experimental Phonetics - - - John G. McKendrick 327 

The Oral Method and Its Fitness for the Deaf - GiULio C. Ferreri 344 

Calcutta School for the Deaf .... J. N. Banerji 354 

Victorious America GiULio C. Ferreri 357 

The National Educational Association Meeting — 

Department of Special Educatio7i . . - - F. W. B. 362 


Report of the Clarke School at Northampton, 373— Rasse^rna dclla Erlucazinno 
dei Sordomuti, ( Naples), 374— Sraaablade for Dovstumme, (Copenhagen), 376— 
Blatter fur Taubstummenbildunir, (Berlin), 378— Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstnm- 
skolaii, (Goteborg, Sweden), 382—11 Sordomuto ela Sua Educazione, (Siena), 385— 
Das Taubstnmmenbildungs-Weseu im XIX Jahrhuudert, Johannes Karth, (Bres- 
lau), 887— Revne Generalo de I'enseignement des Sourds-Muets, (Paris), 389— 
Organ der Taubstummen-Anstalten in Deutschland, (Friedberg), 390— El Sordo- 
mudo Arffentino, (Buenos Aire*), 392 — Infoime Presentado a la Direccion de la 
Eseuela National de Sordmudos, (Mexico), 393— Le Messa«er de I'Abbe de PEpee, 
(Curriere), 394— Tiduing for Dofstumma, (Stockholm), 394— L' Echo des Sourds- 
Muets, (Paris), 395— National Geographic Magazine, (Washington), 395. 


Rev. Tho?nas Gallaudet - - - Rev. J. M. Koehler 396 

Dr. Harvey IV. Milligan - ' 403 

Deaf Boys at Harvard -------- 405 

Anmial Business Meeting of the Association ----- 407 

New Members 4^1 



[Printing Depwtment of the Pennsylvania Inatitutlon for the Deaf and Dumb] 

Vol. IV, No. 4 $2.50 (lOs. 4d.) per year 


The American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 

Ai^EXANDBK Graham Bbll* 

A. L. E. Crouter, Caroline A. Yale. 

Z. F. Westervelt. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 


F. W. Booth, 
(7342 Rural Lane, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.) 


Alexander Graham Bell, 

Mrs. Qabdihbr G. Hubbard. 

A. L. E. Crouter. 

Term Expires 1905. 

Caroline A. Yale, 

Edmund Lyon, 
Term Expires 1904. 

Richard O. Johnson • 

Joseph C. Gordon, 

Sarah Fuller, 
Term Expires 1905, 

Z. P. Wbstertri-t. 

The American Atisociation to Promote the^Teachin^ of Speech to the Deaf welcomes 
to its membership all perbons who are interested in its work. Thus the privilege of 
meviibership is not restricted to teachers actively engaj^ed in the instruction of deaf 
children, but is extended to include Directors or Trustees of schools for the deaf, parents 
or guardians of deaf children, the educated deaf themselves who wish to aid by the 
weight of their inlluence and by their co-operation the work that has done so much for 
them, and all other persons who may have had their hearts touched with a deuire to 
show their interest and to help on the work. 

Every person receiving a "sample copy" of The Association Review is invited to 
join the Association. The membership (or dues) fee is $2.00 (8s. 4d.) per year, pay- 
ment of which to the Treasurer secures (after nomination to and election by the Board 
of Directors) all rights and privileges of membership together with the publications oi 
the Association, including The Association Review, for one year. To non-memberi, 
the subscrii)tion price of The Association Review is $2.50 (lOs. 4d.) per year. 




Vol. IV, No. 4. 

OCTOBER, 1902. 



Plato's saying, "The gods have given to the brain, because 
it is the divine and governing element in our being, in accord- 
ance with the model of the universe, the form of the globe, 
this being the most perfect of all forms," proves that even the 
ancients sought to find the connection between the construction 
and the activity of the brain. The brain was supposed to be 
the seat of the soul, but up to the present day the question as to 
the substance of the soul has not been settled; for there are as 
many different views regarding the soul as there are different 
philosophical systems. To give our own views concerning the 
soul does not come within the scope of this article. Here we 
intend to deal more with the contents of the soul, and the 
manner in which this contents is formed, in as far as it can be 
explained from our knowledge of the construction of the brain. 
We must first cast a brief glance at the constrmtion of the brain, 
the workshop of the mind. The brain is an organ consisting 
of several differently shaped portions whose component parts 
more or less resemble each other. Connection with the spinal 
cord is made by prolongation of the same [Fig. i, M], which 
in its construction resembles the spinal cord. Enclosed in this 
prolongation of the spinal cord there is a canal which widens 
toward the top and forms the fourth cavity of the brain, over 

314 ^'^ Associalum Review. 

which the little brain [Fig. i, Cb], extends in the shape of an 
arch. From each half of the little brain cross fibres start, which 
first run underneath the same, meet in the center and form the 
so-called "Pons Varolii" [Fig. i, VI]. Underneath this bridge 
is found the continuation of the prolonged spinal cord, and even 

Figure i . 

ItoRloD of 


1/^. I, the loner surface of the bnin; A the lobe of the forehead: B the 
lobe of the temple; Oe the ourpua ckUoeum; Ob the little brain; M the me- 
dulla eloQgata; P the appendix of the brain; / the olfactory oerre; U the 
Optio nerve; ///, TV, VI the nerveH of the mosclea of the eye; V the trige- 
minue; FJ/tbe facialis; Fiil the nerre of bearing;/? the toDt;°e and tfarott 
nerve; X the lung and stomaoh nerve; XI the accessoms; XII the tongue 
oerve. No. VI Is placed on the Pods Varolii. 

before reaching the "bridge," the lengthwise fibres of the spinal 
cord divide into two bundles running in different directions [Fig. 
I-] The parts of the brain consist of cellular or fibrous sub- 
stance, the former having a gray and the latter a white color. 
The spinal cord as well as its prolongation also consist of gray 

Construction of the Brain. 


nerve substance enclosed in white substance; only, in the brain 
itself this substance is more plentiful than in the spinal cord. 
The above-mentioned bridge and the lobes of the brain are ac- 
cumulations of gray nerve substance. But there are more of 
these accumulations. Thus we see above the lobes four hemi- 
spherical raised points [Fig. 2, C. Q.]; we further mention the 
optic nerve (hill of sight), the "corpus callosum," and the sur- 
faces of the hemispheres surrounding the hind brain (little 
brain). Continuing to indicate and determine the different 

Figure 2. 

i7the hemisphereB of the large brain: C8 the corpus callosam; Th optio 
nerve (hill of slight); Pthe pineal gland; Pt the appendix of the brain: OQ 
the pituitary body (?) (four hilU^; Cb the little brain or cerebellum; M the 
medulla elousata; I-Xll the tweiyo pairs of brain-nerves; 8p 1^ Sp X, the 
two upper spinal cord nerves. 

parts of the brain, we notice that in the four hemispherical points 
(the four hills, the pituitary body ?) and the lobes of the brain, 
the entrance to the third cavity of the brain, the midbrain is 
found. It is narrow, and is surrounded by the optic nerve (hill 
of sight) [Fig. 2, Th], which may be considered as the final 
portion of the lobe. The third cavity is covered by a fine mem- 
brane which is connected with the pineal gland [Fig. 2, F.], 
whilst its bottom extends into the "Hirn-anhan^' (appendix) 
[Fig. 2. Pt.] In each of the hemispheres of the brain there is 

3i6 The Association Review, 

likewise a cavity, the lateral brain cavity, an entrance to which is 
found on both sides of the midbrain cavity, and the bottom of 
which is formed by the "corpus callosum" (streifenhugcl). As 
the last mentioned, and the optic nerve (hill of sight), are con- 
nected with each other by nerve fibres, there is an uninterrupted 
road from the prolonged spinal cord (medulla elongatd) to the 
corpus callosum. The two brain-hemispheres cover all the 
portions of the brain enumerated so far. On the surface they 
show convolutions, known by different names, separated by deep 
furrows or fissures. One of these runs from the back and 
the top to the front and bottom and is called the fissure of Sil- 
vius. It is important as forming a starting point for the division 
of the hemispheres of the brain into five lobes to each hemis- 
phere. For in front of it is the lobe of the forehead, under- 
neath it the lobe of the temple, above it the lobe of the crown 
of the head, with its continuation towards the back, the lobe of 
the back part of the head, whilst the fifth lobe, also called "Reil's 
Island," only becomes visible when the bands of the fissure of 
Silvius are drawn asunder. We will now mention some of the 
principal convolutions referred to above. In the lobe of the 
forehead [Fig. i. A] we find the lower, middle, and upper con- 
volution of the forehead; in the lobe of the temple, the lower, 
middle, and upper convolution of the temple, in the lobe of the 
back part of the head, the convolution of the back of the head. 
Both hemispheres of the brain are separated by a deep furrow, 
and connected below by transverse fibres [Fig. i, CC]. 

As has already been stated, the entire mass of the brain 
consists of cells (the white substance consists of fibres running 
through the interior, connecting the accumulations of gra> 
substance, the centers, with each other, or rising to the sur- 
face). The cells, however, are not of uniform shape and ar- 
rangement — which justifies us in presuming that each one has 
to perform a different duty, and that the portions of the brain 
are of a higher and lower order. Thus we may consider the 
surfaces of the hemispheres as the regions where the sensation 
of the action of the senses is noticed and where the mind plays 
its active part. The portions of the brain lying lower, between 
the large lobes of the brain and the spinal cord, must b^ CPn- 

Construction of the Brain, 317 

sidered as ranking lower and serving the sensations of the or- 
gans, which simply serve to make us conscious of our own 
body, its needs, and of the increase or decrease of the force of 
its actions. The uniform cells form on the surface of the brain 
separate fields or regions, which, however, do not form one un- 
broken complex^ but are interrupted by regions of a different 
kind. Twelve pairs of nerves start from the brain. Commenc- 
ing at the front and passing to the back, they are the following: 
the olfactory nerve [Fig. 2, 1], the optic nerve [Fig. 2, II], fol- 
lowed by the motorial optic nerve [Fig. 2, III]. The same pur- 
pose is served, viz., to aid in moving the muscles of the eye, by 
the fourth and sixth pair of nerves [Fig. 2, IV, VI]. The fifth 
pair of nerves is the tripartite nerve [Fig. 2, V] which imparts 
sensation to the skin of the face, moves the muscles employed in 
mastication, and finally produces the sensations of touch and 
taste in the tongue. The seventh pair, the facial nerve [Fig. 2, 
VII], gives motion to the muscles of the face; the eighth pair 
is the nerve of hearing [Fig. 2, VIII], followed by the ninth pair, 
the tongue and throat nerve [Fig. 2, IX], and by the tenth pair 
[Fig. 2, X], the lung and stomach nerve. The eleventh, the 
spinal cord nerve [Fig. 2, XI], starts from the marrow of the 
spinal cord, passes through the prolonged spinal cord (medulla 
elongata) and leaves the skull through an opening together with 
the tongue and throat nerve, to produce motions of the throat 
and neck; the last pair of nerves is the nerve of the tongue 
[Fig. 2, XII] which serves to move the tongue. The twelfth to- 
gether with the fifth, seventh, and eleventh pairs of nerves are 
principally employed in producing the motions of speech. 
(English physiologists consider the first and second pairs of 
nerves as separate parts of the brain, and comprise the 7th and 
8th in one pair; so that they count only nine pairs of brain- 

The question as to the character of the activity of the brain 
may briefly be answered as follows: The nerves leading from 
the organs of the senses to the brain (sensorial nerves) trans- 
mit to the brain motions which are carried as far as the shell 
of the brain and are felt there. These sensations produce in 
us a picture of our surroundings ; in fact — as Meynert teaches — 

3i8 The Association Review. 

the consciousness of the nerve-cells and the objects themselves 
are inseparable. Only frequent repetition of the impressions 
received by the senses produce lasting sensations, which, as 
ideas, become part of our consciousness. But nerves do not 
only lead to the brain, but also from the brain to the outposts 
of the body. They are the paths travelled by the impulses to 
motion from the brain to the various parts of the body (motor- 
ial nerves). 

We must now observe the activity of the brain somewhat 
more closely in accordance with the theory advanced by 
Flechzig: The organs of the senses transmit to each of the 
cellular ridges of the surface of the brain the impressions re- 
ceived, and effect this by means of the sensorial nerves whose 
end points spread over one half of the ridge, whilst the other 
half shows the spreading starting points of the motorial nerves. 
It was necessary to clearly define the location of the ridge as- 
signed to each organ of the senses, in order to explain the 
mechanism on which the activity of the brain is based. It seems 
that Prof. Dr. Flechzig in Leipzig has succeeded in doing this. 
In his opinion, the ridge or center of the sense of touch, where 
we become conscious of things we touch, lies in the wall of the 
brain back of the upper part of the forehead and the front part 
of the skull. The motorial nerves which start from this region, 
extend into the organs of touch : the hands, arms, and feet, the 
muscles of the trunk of the body and of the neck, and into the 
muscles of the eyes and the organs of speech. The region of 
the sense of smeU lies above the nose on the lower surface of 
the brain. The region of the sense of taste probably lies along 
the edge of that of the sense of touch. The region of the sense 
of sight occupies the entire inner surface of the lobes at the 
back of the head and a narrow strip of the outer arch of the 
head; whilst the region of the sense of hearing occupies the two 
transverse convolutions of the lobes of the temples. All these 
regions belonging to the senses take up about one-third of the 
total surface of the brain. The other two-thirds belong to 
regions forming a separation between the regions of the senses 
and causing them to appear like islands. They are called the 
regions or centers of association. Whilst the centers of the 

Construction of the Brain. 319 

senses show differently formed cells, these centers of asso- 
ciation have one and the same formation of cells. They form 
three distinct regions: the one in front back of the forehead 
over the eyes, the second below the back part of the crown of the 
head; whilst the third forms the so-called Reil's Island. Each 
center of the senses sends to this point numerous nerve-fibres 
which combine into a knot in each of the centers of asso- 
ciation and make it possible to bring into closer association 
the sensations of the different centers of the senses. Because 
of this, these three great centers are called centers of asso- 

We would state here that the activity of the centers of the 
senses is by no means confined to making us conscious of the 
observations of our senses^ but that they also serve to form into 
groups the material which they have received. Thus several 
sounds produced at the same time become an accord; simul- 
taneous or rapidly succeeding impresssions of touch give the 
idea of a body; sounds combine to form a word. This grouping 
of the various sensations in the centers of the senses is effected 
by the aid of the nerve-fibres which in this region are very 
numerous in the wall of the brain. From this it follows that 
the arrangement of the centers of the senses also furnishes the 
explanation of the origin of ideas relating to space and time. 
But as we stated above, one impression — it is true — will produce 
a sensation, but it is not sufficient to retain it by the memory, 
and if necessary to reproduce it as an idea. It may be con- 
sidered as a fact that each idea is based on the sensation of 
more than one cell of the brain. But then the depositing of 
the ideas cannot be effected in the various centers of the senses 
but in the centers of association, because only in these centers 
the sensations experienced by different cells enter our con- 
sciousness simultaneously. From the position which these as- 
sociation centers occupy as regards the centers of the senses 
which surround them, the purpose of each will become clear. 
As the hind association center is surrounded by the senses of 
touch, sight, and hearing, it is the place where the ideas of 
objects which are tangible and visible, of impressions received 
by the sense of hearing, therefore also of the sounds and signs 

320 The AssocioHon Review. 

of words, are formed and stored. The eye and the ear supply 
these centers which we employ more than any others in the ac- 
quisition of knowledge. The more or less rich manner in which 
the hind association centre is supplied furnishes the test as to 
the mental caliber of a man; and in mentally strong men this 
center is more developed than in others. The middle asso- 
ciation center, the "island/' we find to be connected with the 
front association center, with the centers of the senses of smell 
and hearing and with the third convolution of the forehead, the 
center for mechanical motions of speech; it, therefore, unites 
nerves from all portions of the brain concerned in the formation 
of speech. To this center belongs the ccnnbination of sensations 
of hearing with the motion of the lips, the tongue, the throat, 
and in fact all organs of speech. The front association center 
is in close proximity to the center of touch, and stores remini- 
scences and ideas of all the sensations which are experienced 
here, and of the various phenomena accompanying the mani- 
festation of different impulses. As the front and back asso- 
ciation centers of both hemispheres of the brain are connected, 
it may be supposed that they act together. The "island" of the 
left half of the brain is not very str(Migly connected with that 
of the right half; which circumstance leads to the supposition 
that each acts more or less for itself. There is likewise but 
slight connection between the front and back association 
centers; and it is probable that the center of touch forms the 
connecting link. Thereby the importance of this part of the 
brain is increased, as it not only creates consciousness of 
bodies, but also combines the various stocks of knowledge, and 
bases thereon active creation by the brain. It produces the 
idea of the "I." 

How then can the process of speaking and of speech be 
explained, after what has been stated above? The first at- 
tempts of a little child to speak show themselves as babbling, 
caused by a feeling of pleasure. The motions which are to be 
observed in this first attempt at speech start from the prolonged 
spinal cord, or the region of the "Pons Varolii," as these 
portions of the body contain the beginning of the motorial 
nerves of sight; but the incitement to these motions starts 

Construction of the Brain, 321 

from the wall of the great brain, from the center of the sense 
of touch. Children without the large brain do not babble, 
and do not give vent to their feelings ; all they can do is to pro- 
duce unarticulated sounds. Soon the child will have recol- 
lections and ideas of its speech-motions^ just as it will also 
notice its own babbling and crying through the sense of hear- 
ing. At the "island" ideas of motion meet ideas of hearing 
and associate themselves, so that^ without the intervention of 
the will, the sensations of hearing will produce speech-motions 
(involuntary formation of sounds). In voluntary speaking the 
process becomes more complicated. To explain this process, 
the existence of a region in the wall of the brain must be pre- 
sumed from which an impetus is conveyed to the organs of 
speech. This region must be sought in the third convolution 
of the forehead. Nerves lead to this region from the "island" 
where the association of the ideas of motion and hearing was 
efifected. If from the "island" an impetus reaches the third 
convolution of the forehead produced by ideas of motion and 
hearing, the organs of speech are put in action. The formation 
of sounds is arbitrary; but, whenever the formation of sounds 
is effected through ideas of hearing, the road taken by the im- 
petus is as follows : the ear, the fissure of Silvius, the center of 
the sense of hearing, "island," third convolution of the fore- 
head, front central convolution, facial nerves, nerve of the 
tongue. As the combination of sounds to words has already 
been effected in the center of the sense of hearing, and the fix- 
ing of ideas thereof takes place in the corresponding associa- 
tion center, it will easily be understood that the rendition of 
words must be effected in the same way as that of single 
sounds. The speaking of words whose meaning is understood 
requires the aid of the hindmost association center, where the 
combination of images, as produced by sight, hearing, touch, 
etc., is effected, because nerves lead from this center to the 
center of the senses concerned. If the child has some time 
before seen a crowing rooster, a barking dog, or a swinging 
bell, the image was formed in the center of the sense of sight, 
and the sound in that of the sense of hearing; as both these 
centers of senses send out nerves into the hindmost asso- 

322 The AssociaHon Review. 

elation center, it is here where the association of the two ob- 
servations is effected. Numerous nerves leading hence to the 
'island" and to the third convolution of the forehead take care 
of the naming or expression of the image, or through the ren- 
dition of the name by sound or the expression by sound 
make the image the property of our consciousness. In loud 
intelligent reading the images of letters and words are observed 
by the center of the sense of sight in order to lie ready as 
ideas combined with the ideas of their meaning in the hindmost 

The explanation of the gradual development of the speech 
of children is found in the fact that, at the birth, the brain of 
the child is not yet complete in all its parts. Thus the mental 
centers, especially, do not fully develop until all the centers of 
the senses have been fully formed and have been connected 
with the former by nerve fibers. Although a former theory 
(a great deal in this whole field of investigation is of course 
purely h3rpothetical) maintained that in babbling and in re- 
flectory speech, the entire process took place underneath the 
wall of the brain, and that consequently only the centers lying 
underneath this wall played an active part, Mr. Flechzig has 
satisfactorily demonstrated that even here, at the very begin- 
ning of speech, certain parts of the wall of the brain must be con- 
sidered the theatre of action, and that the bundles of nerves 
I h'^^g underneath the wall of the brain must be considered in the 

light of stations on the nerve-route and switches for the direc- 
[ tion to be given to the impetus, in so far as they do not serve 

j. to receive the impressions of the organs of the senses. 






Formation: — Lips shut then separated with an audible ex- 
pulsion of breath. Ex., ;kn, o^n, hq^. In regard to this sound 
Prof. A. M. Bell says, **The formation of P consists, ist, in a 
steady, equal contact of both lips, so as to retain the breath per- 
fectly behind them; and, 2nd, in an equal and rapid disjunction 
of the lips, to allow the breath to escape.'* In the ** Introduction*' 
to Soule and Wheeler's ** Manual of English Pronunciation and 
Spelling" this sound is said to be ** formed by a firm contact of 
the edges of both lips and a compression of the breath within the 
mouth and pharynx, followed by a sudden separation of the lips, 
allowing the compressed breath to escape." Guttmann in his 
**Gymnastics of the Voice," says that**/' is formed by closing 
the lips tightly, separating the oral from the nasal cavity by 
means of the palate, and emitting the air compressed within the 
oral cavity by suddenly opening the lips." 

Method of Development: — Imitation. If a narrow strip of 
paper or a feather be held before the lips as the sound is given, 
the breath striking it will show the pupil its proper force and 
direction. Avoid exaggeration in movement. 

B. [0] 

Formation: — Lips shut, as for /, and held while voice is 
given. Ex., Aox, fe^y, \xJ), Professor A. M. Bell says that the 
oral action in^ and b is precisely the same; **but while the or- 
gans are in contact, the glottis is brought into sonoroas position, 
and an instantaneous effort of voice is heard before the separa- 
tion of the organs." 

324 The AssocuUion Review. 

Gattmann says, **We may, in fact, say that with b the lips are 
opened by the voice, and with pf simply by the air. With p the 
lips must be closed tightly but not so with *.*' Dr. Arnold in 
his ** Manual*' teaches that in this sound the lips are less closely 
compressed than for^, stating that this is true of all vocal conson- 
ants as compared with their corresponding non-vocal forms. Pro- 
fessor Bell says ''/'and B, T and D, A^and G, are pairs of articula- 
tions formed by exactly the same organic motions, the only dif- 
ference being in the material which the actions modify ; whispered 
breath in the one case, vocalized breath in the other." 

Method of Development: — Contrast with p. The pupil, placing 
his hand on the teacher's chest, repeats with her p, py 
pt bu, bu, bu, feeling the vibrations in the chest, also 
in the throat, lip and cheek when voice is added. The sound 
of b is somewhat difficult to teach alone, and when so taught is, 
as a rule, forced and disagreeable in combination. A better result 
may be obtained by teaching it at first in combination with a vowel. 
This relieves the pressure and gives a clear sound. Teach b inital 
as bu (31) and b finals ub. using the * 'natural vowel" first in 
combination with it. Then drill upon it — initial and final — with 
all the other vowels. It may sometimes l^e advisable to write 
final ^as 3p, thus indicating a closing breath vanish. Arnold 
considers b as simply a "voice stop" and therefore to be taught 
as final first. 

M. [8] 

Formation: — Lips shut while voice passes through the nasal 
passages. Ex., i«e, lamp, him. Professor Bell says that "the am- 
tact of the soft palate with the back of the tongue forms the Eng- 
lish element A^ C, in which the voice passes entirely through the 
nostrils," and that the soft palate is *^ approximated to the tongue 
for the English articulations i^andA^;in forming which, the 
voice escapes by the nose only, but reverberates in the mouth; 
where it is shut in, by the lips for M, and by the tongue and 
front of palate for A^." The duration and also the amount of vo- 
cality of this sound, as well as of other liquids, vary greatly in 
different combinations: before and after non- vocal consonants it 
is short and has but slight vocality; before vocal consonants and 

Elementary English Sounds, 325 

vowels it is longer and when final it sometimes becomes even 
syllabic in quantity. Compare lamp, smoke, moon, rythm. 

Method of Development: — Imitation. Attract the pupil's at- 
tention to the closed lips and let him feel the vibration in the lips 
and, if necessary, also in the nose. Great care needs to be ex- 
ercised lest the pupil gives the sound of ng with m. This defect 
may often be detected by inducing the child to attempt ma. If 
the back of the tongue is raised high, mnga will be given instead 
of ma. 

T. [O] 
Formation: — Point of the tongue shut against the upper gum, 
then removed with an audible expulsion of breath, Ex., /op, ci/y, 

Method of Development: — I. Imitation. II. By analogy, 
from p. Let the pupil see that the action is the same in giving 
both sounds although neither the active nor the passive organ re- 
mains the same. If necessary, practice the action with the point 
of the tongue against the upper lip before applying it in its normal 

D, [01] 

Formation: — Point shut as for /and held while voice is given. 
Ex., ^og, gar//en, ol//. See remarks on shut consonants as quot- 
ed under B, 

Method of Development: — Contrast with /. Attract the atten- 
tion of the pupil to the vibrations in the chest, throat and also in 
the tongue when ^£^, ^£^, ^£^ is given. The same reason favors 
the teaching of this element in combination with a vowel that has 
been stated in the case of h. Final d may be written di, 

N, [W] 
Fonnation: — Point of the tongue shut against the upper gum 
while voice passes through the nasal passages. Ex., ^20, a»y, 
pi«. See remarks under formation of M, 

Method of Development: — By analogy from m. Let the pupil 
see that the character of the two sounds is the same, the only 
difiFerence being the application of the point of the tongue to the 
upper gum instead of the lower lip to the upper lip. Let care be 
taken that ng is not given witli n. 

326 The Associaiiott Review. 

K, [O] 

Formation: — Back of the tongue shut against the palate, then 
separated with an audible expulsion of breath. The precise point 
of contact varies considerably according to the vowel position 
with which it is combined. C (hard) and ck are also spellings for 
this sound. Ex.. ^eep, «irt, nro^^ery, boo^. 

Method of Development: — I. By analogy from p and /. Let 
the teacher attract the pupil's attention to the similar action in 
these sounds by repeating again and again p- -/- -k, p-'t- -k, 
p' ' t' 'k, II. Induce the pupil to attempt / while the point and 
front of the tongue are held down. 

G. [€] 

Formation: — Back of the tongue shut against the palate and 
held while voice is given. The point of contact varies for this 
sound as for k. See remarks on shut consonants as quoted under 
B, Ex.,^0, a^ain, do^. 

Method of Development: — Contrast with k. Let this sound be 
taught in combination with a vowel as suggested for b and d. 
The vibrations of the voice may be felt in the chest, throat and 
back of the neck when ^«, giiy gu is given. Pinal g may be 
written g^^ 

Ng. [6] 

Formation: — Back of the tongue shut against the palate and 
held while voice passes through the nasal passages. See note on 
liquids under M, Ex., siwger, ring. 

Method of Development: — I. from ^z and n by analogy. II. 
With the mouth open pass a steady stream of breath through the 
nose, then vocalize it. 

{J^o he continued.) 



The movements of the organs of voice and speech are so 
complicated as to require for their elucidation the application 
of many methods of research. When one speaks there are 
movements of the lips, tongue, soft palate and larynx, and some- 
times movements of the muscles of expression. Then, again, 
there are special characteristics about vowel sounds which 
apparently distinguish these from the sounds of musical instru- 
ments. Thus questions arise as to the true nature of vowel 
sounds, and as to what is the physical constitution of a word of 
several syllables. It has also been suggested that language 
might be recorded, not by letters or syllables, but by signs or 
symbols which would indicate what had to be done by the vocal 
and articulating organs for the production of any given sound. 
There might thus be a physiological method of expressing 
speech by a series of alphabetical symbols for sounds varying in 
pitch, intensity and quality. It will be seen that experimental 
phonetics constitutes a wide field of research, not only of great 
scientific interest, but also one having practical aspects not at 
first apparent. From the nature of the investigation, also, the 
problems seem to be specially suited for the application of the 
graphic method of research. 

In 1875, an investigation was carried out by Havet and 
Rosapelly in the laboratory of Prof. Marey in Paris, in which 
the pressure of the air in the nose, the movements of the lips, 
and the vibrations of the larynx were simultaneously recorded. 
Special contrivances were devised for transmitting these move- 
ments to three of Marey's tambours, so arranged as to record 
on the surface of a blackened drum three superposed curves 

^Read before the Section of Physiology at the meeting of the British 
Association in Glasgow, September 13, 1901, and condensed from 
Nature, Vol. 6Sf No. 1678. 


The Association Review. 

which indicated the order of succession, duration and intensity 
of the movements of the organs. The emission of air from the 
nostril indicated movements of the soft palate, and these were 
signalled by an indiariibber tube introduced into one nostril 
while the other end was connected with a tambour, as in Fig. i. 
A small electromagnetic apparatus was placed over the larynx, 
and by making and breaking a current the vibrations of the 
larynx were transmitted to another tambour. The movements 





Fio. 1.— A metbad to 

of the lips were recorded by a device which caused the pressures 
to act on a third tambour, as is shown in the figure. 

This method was found to give characteristic tracings for 
the sounds of consonants, but the records obtained from vowel- 
sounds were all very much alike. It was also observed that if 
one of the tambours did not act, say the one recording the vi- 
brations of the larynx, it was difficult to distinguish the tracings 
of certain consonantal sounds. Thus p resembled b, so far as 

Experimental Phonetics. 










a V. 

b a 


a m 

m « 

"\ r 


P. h. 
V. I. 
M. 1. 

a f 

■ WiMMIl^. 

f a 

O »C« *« • ••••■•• w^ • 9 

a w. 

iv a 





P. n. 
V. 1. 

b a 

V • 

V a 

-A r 

P. n. 
V. 1. 
M. 1. 

m a 

-^"— r— "^-~~" ■~ 


a m 


8 1A ••>• ••••P«>««*««* i» 9 



a b. 

p. n. 
V. 1. 
M. 1. 


m a 


a m b a 




10 y d. 


PiQ. 2.— Tracings of nsi^al, laryngeal and labial movements in the pronunciation of 

various phones. 

330 7'Af Association Rcficw. 

tlie movements of the lips and the nasal pressures were con- 
ecrned, but with b there is a vibration of the larynx as well, 
while this is absent in the tracing of />. In Fig. 2 is shown a 
table in which is depicted the traces obtained on uttering the 
vowel a either before or after various consonants. In these 
tracings, p « indicates nasal pressure, v / vibrations of the 
larjnx. and M / movements of the mouth. Five examples are 
given of combinations of a with consonants. If there is no 
emission of air from the nostrils, the line p k is unbroken and 
horizontal, but if there is emission then an elevation is seen as 
in A 3 with in, or m a. A sinuous line in v / shows thr.t the 
larynx vibrates, but if there is no laryngeal vibration the line 

special laboratory for research in phonetics. 

Erperimcnial Phonetics. 331 

Prof. Marey, whose earlier researches are well known to 
have had much to do with the development of the kinemato- 
graph, employed, so long ago as 1888, chronophotography to 
catch those evanescent changes of the countenance, the sum 
total of which give expression to the face in speech. In Fig. 3 
are seen the changes of expression in a woman's face in speak- 
ing during a period of half a second. If these successive pic- 
tures are projected by a lantern there is an animated face on the 
screen. In this way Marichelle succeeds in placing before the 
eyes of deaf-mutes images of the movements of S]n.-ec!i which 
they are urged to imitate. 

It is interesting, in the next place, to trace the efforts that 
have been made by physicists and physiologists to record the 
pressures produced by sound waves and more especially those of 
the voice. In 1858, Leon Scott invented the phonautograph, 
seen in Fig. 4. In its first form this instrument gave very im- 
perfect tracings, but it is of great a,s being the fore- 
runner of the phonograph. It was much improved by Rudolph 
Konig, of Paris. Donders, in 1868, was the first to use the in- 

332 The Association Review. 

strument in the investigation of vowel-tone. Then came the log- 
opraph of Barlow in 1876. which was a membrane furnished with 
a rigid but Hght lever having its fulcrum at the edge of the mem- 
brane while the power was applied from the centre of the mem- 
brane. This gave more accurate tracings, that is to say, tra- 
cings that indicated with more precision the variations of pres- 
sure on the membrane. Examples are given in Figs. 5, 6, 
and 7. 

In Fig. 5 at a the membrane is at rest; at b the lever is 
raised by the sudden emission of the consonant 6, and this is 
succeeded by the prolonged vibration of the vowel e. Fig. 6 
gives a different picture for ^ 6; a is the vowel e; b the closure 
of the lips at the beginning of the consonant; this closure lasts 

Fig. 5.— Tracings of 
the sound 6 e. 


A e 

Fio. 7.— The sound b e b. 

during c, and d is due to the elasticity of the air compressed in 
the mouth. In Fig. y,h eb, we find the elements of Fig. 5 and 6. 
By the logograph the consonantal sounds were alone depicted, 
the records of the vowels being very imperfect. 

There was still a demand for a recorder of greater accuracy. 
Schneebeli, in 1878, devised an instrument seen in Fig. 8. 
From the center of a parchment membrane arises a thin but 
rigid steel plate; attached to this, near the point, is another steej 
plate passing horizontally from the edge of the metallic ring: 
carrying the membrane. The movements of the membrane arc 
five times increased in amplitude, while the extreme lightness 
of the lever reduces to a minimum the effects due to inertia. 
Examples of curves obtained by this method are shown in 
Fig. 9. 

Experimental Phonetics. 333 

A very sensitive apparatus, termed the Sprachseichner, has 
also been introduced by Hensen for recording the delicate vi- 
brations of a membrane. Vahiablc observations have been made 
with the aid of this instrument by Wendeler, on consonant 
sounds, by Martens, on vowels and diphthongs, and by Pipping, 
on vowels. 

Such are some of the mechanical contrivances that have 
been devised for recording the movements of a membrane. 
None are free from error; however delicate they may seem to 
be, owing to the inertia of the parts, and consequently other 
arrangements were demanded. In 1862 Rudolph Konig inlro- 

Vt<i. H.— ArraiiKeiiiviit of Scboeebell [or recordlni; moTementa nt a membranu. 

duced his well-known method of showing the movements of 
membranes by manometric flames. The apparatus is now so 
well known as to require no detailed description. Gas is led 
by a tube into a small capsule of wood, the cavity of which is 
divided by a thin membrane. The gas passes into the rieht 
half of the cavity and escapes into a small burner, where it is lit. 
If sound waves are diverted by a small conical resonator into the 
left half of the capsule the membranous partition vibrates, there 
are alternations of compression and of rarefaction in the gas 
on the right side, and the flame is agitated, moving upwards 
and downwards with each vibration. The method of Wheat- 

334 7^^ Association Rci'iczv. 

stone of dissociating the flames by a rotating mirror is then 
employed, and a sinuous ribbon is seen in the mirror. The 
ribbon is cut vertically into teeth, some larger, some smaller. 
The larger, less frequent, correspond to the fundamental tone of 
the sound, the smaller to the harmonics that enter into the com- 
position of the compound tone on which the quality of the vowel 
depends. These flame pictures are only seen for an instant, and 
many efforts have been made to fix them by photographic meth- 

Doumer obtained a brilliant flame by burning carburetted 
hydrogen in oxygen, and he also introduced into such re- 




-l^H|/«VVV^'VWw*VM*^Vi,/H%Al,/l4»/iay^ ^2£, 


Fio. 9.— Curves of various vowels and of the consonant r recorded by the apparatus 

of Schneebeli. 

searches a chronophotographic method by reproducing the 
images of a flame acted on by a tuning-fork of knowft pitch. 
Marage, to whose researches we shall afterwards refer, feeds the 
capsule with acetylene, and thus obtains a luminous flame. 

It will be observed that all manometric flames seen in a 
rotating mirror are inclined, as their composition is due to a 
horizontal and vertical translation, and the faster the mirror is 
rotated the more they are inclined. 

Efforts have also been made to analyse sounds by photo- 
graphing a ray of light reflected from a vibrating mirror. 
Long ago, but without photography, Czermak applied this 
method to the phenomenon of the pulse, and in 1879 Blake 

Experimental Phonetics. 335 

devised a mirror for thus recording speech. He used a small 
metallic plate, in the centre of which was a small hook which 
is attached to a very light mirror delicately swung on two 
pivots. A ray of light is thrown on the mirror by a convex 
lens; after reflection it again traverses a lens and falls on a 
photographic plate in movement. Sharp, well-defined images 
are thus obtained. 

The invention of the tinfoil phonograph by Edison in 1877, 
and the improvement of the instrument by the labors of 
Edison, Graham Bell, and others in more recent years, has made 
it possible to investigate phonetic phenomena with the aid of 
this instrument. In 1878 Fleeming Jenkin and Ewing devised 
a method of recording curves from the imprints on the tinfoil 
covering the drum of the phonograph, and these curves were 
submitted to harmonic analysis. This was also attempted by 
A. M. Mayer in the same year. The subject was taken up by 
Hermann about 1890, and he obtained valuable tracings by 
using the wax-cylinder phonograph. He succeeded in obtaining 
photographs of the curves on the wax cylinder, a beam of light 
reflected from a small mirror attached to the vibrating disc of 
the phonograph being allowed to fall on a sensitive plate while 
the phonograph was slowly travelling. In 1891 Hoeke meas- 
ured with great accuracy the dimensions of the marks on the 
wax cylinder, and from these constructed the corresponding 
curves. This method has also been adopted by Maridelle. 
McKendrick, in 1895, photographed the marks on the wax 
cylinder of the phonograph, and in 1896 he devised a recorder 
for enlarging the curves on the well-known principle of the 
syphon recorder. In 1899 Scripture, of Yale, investigated 
vowel-sounds with the aid of the gramophone. He transcribed, 
by an ingenious mechanical device, the marks on the gramo- 
phone disc into the forms of curves, and made a minute analysis. 
Lastly, Marage, in a series of masterly papers, reinvestigated 
the whole subject of vowel-tones with the aid of a chrono- 
photographic method and a special form of syren invented by 

The various experimental methods we have described have 
been chiefly directed to an examination of the nature of vowel- 

336 7 he Association Rci'iciv. 

sounds. What is it that ^ives the pecuHar quality to the 
sound of a vowel? How is it that we can, by the ear. 
identify the sound of any vowel, whether it be spoken or sung? 
How is it that if we sing; a vowel on the notes of a scale we can 
still identify the vowel, whatever may be the pitch of the note on 
which it is sung? The scientific investigation of the nature of 
vowels begins with Willis, who, in 1829, imitated the larynx by 
means of a reed, above which he placed a resonator, tuned to one 
of the harmonics of the reed. He also imitated vowel-tones bv 


holding an elastic spring against the edge of a toothed wheel, 
and he placed the vowels in the following order — ou, 0, a, c, i. In 
each case a compound tone was produced which retained the 
same pitch so long as the wheel revolved at the same rate. By 
keeping the wheel revolving at a uniform rate, and at the same 
time changing the length of the spring which was allowed to 
vibrate, Willis found that the qualities of various vowels were 
imitated with considerable distinctness. In 1837 Wheatstone, 
in a criticism of Willis, made some important suggestions. In 
1854 Grassmann announced a theory as follows: The vocal 
cords excite the resonances of the cavity of the mouth; the ton- 
ality changes with the degree of opening of the mouth by the 
development of some of the harmonics of the fundamental tone 
emitted by the larynx. According to this view, the buccal cavity 
acVls bv its resonances certain harmonics to the fundamental lar- 
yngeal sound. Grassmann classified the vowels according to 
the number of harmonics which they contained, in the following 
table: — 


In sounding a the mouth is widely opened and the fundamental 
and eight harmonics are produced; in the third series, on the 
contrary, there is only one harmonic sounded, which is more 
and more acute as we pronounce the vowels in the order ou, u 
and /. The vowels of the second series, 0, cu and c, are tran- 
sitional between the first and the third. Thus we pass from a to 
oil by 0, from a to u by n<, and from a to i by e. 

Experimental Phonetics. 337 

Donders showed that the cavity of the mouth, as arranged 
for the giving forth of a vowel, was tuned as a resonator for a 
tone of a certain pitch, and that different pitches corresponded 
to the forms of the cavity for the different vowels. This he dis- 
covered by the peculiar noise produced in the mouth when the 
different vowels are whispered. The cavity of the mouth is then 
blown like an organ-pipe and by its resonance reinforces the cor- 
responding partials in the rushing wind-like noise. Then the 
question was taken up by Helmholtz. He attacked it both by 
analysis and by synthesis. He analyzed the vowel-tones by his 
well-known resonators, aided by his own singularly acute ear, 
and he attempted to combine, by means of tuning-forks, the 
tones which he thought existed in a vowel, so as to reproduce 
the sound of the vowel. In the latter part of the investigation 
he was by no means successful. These investigations led Helm- 
holtz to put forward in succession two theories as to the for- 
mation of vowels. The first was that, as in all musical instru- 
ments, the quality or timbre of the vowel depends on the fun- 
damental tone, reinforced by certain partials or over-tones, of 
which a number are produced by the vocal cords along with the 
fundamental tone, the reinforcement depending on the reson- 
ance qf the cavities above the vocal cords. This theory was up- 
set by the use of the phonograph. If a vowel is sung to the 
phonograph while the cylinder is travelling at a certain speed, 
the vowel-tone will be reproduced with exactly the same quality 
if the cylinder is driven at the same speed, but if it is driven fast- 
er, then the quality of the vowel will be changed, so much so as 
to be scarcely recognisable. M. Marey narrates that Donders 
and he first made this observation when it so happened that the 
two savants were present in Paris at a public demonstration of 
the phonograph soon after its invention. Donders sang the 
vowel tones to the instrument, and then asked the operator to 
vary the speed of the cylinder during the reproduction. Then 
the vowel a became 0, and e became ou. Thus while the phon- 
ograph reproduces in a wonderful way the tones of musical in- 
struments without change of quality, it cannot transpose vowel- 
tones without altering their character. This special character 

338 The Association Review. 

or quality cannot, then, depend on the overtones reinforced by 
the oral cavities being simple multiples of the fundamental tone, 
and Helmholtz's first theory had to be abandoned. 

This led Helmholtz to advance a second theory as follows: 
Each vowel is characterised by a certain harmonic or partial 
tone, of constant pitch, whatever may be the pitch of the note on 
which the vowel is sung or spoken. Attempts were then made, 
notably by Helmholtz and Konig, to fix the pitch of the charac- 
teristic partial tone or vocable, and there appeared to be consid- 
erable differences in the results of the two distinguished ob- 
servers, differences amounting to as much, in some cases, as 
three semi-tones. 

The next step was, as has already been explained, to tran- 
scribe the marks on the wax cylinder of the phonograph, made 
on singing or speaking a vowel, into sinuous curves and to sub- 
ject these to harmonic analysis. It is not difficult, in compara- 
tively simple cases, to obtain a curve which is the algebraic sum 
of the ordinates of several sinussoidal curves, but it is not so 
easy to do the reverse operation, namely, to analyse the curves. 
Fleeming Jenkin and Ewing, afterwards Schneebeli, Hensen, 
Pipping and Hermann, have done this in accordance with the 
theorem of Fourier and the law of Ohm. In particular, Hermann, 
by a beautiful and ingenious method, has analyzed the curves ob- 
tained by his photographic device, and has modified the theory 
of Helmholtz. His statement is that the oral cavity produces 
independently a harmonic or partial tone which has no definite 
relation to the fundamental tone emitted by the larynx. A 
vowel, according to him, is a special acoustic phenomenon, de- 
pending on the intermittent production of a special partial, or 
"formant," or "characteristique." The pitch of the "formant" 
may vary a little without altering the character of the vowel. 
For a, for example, the "formant" may vary from fa to la, even 
in the same person. He has also attempted, but not with com- 
plete success, to reproduce the vowel-tones by synthesis. 

There are thus three theories: (i) the first of Helmholtz, 
now abandoned, that the pitch of the partials is represented by 
simple multiples of the vibration periods of the fundamental ; (2) 

Experimental Phonetics. 339 

the second of Helmholtz, that the pitch of the characteristic par- 
tial is always fixed, but has a definite relation to the pitch of the 
fundamental ; and (3) that of Hermann, that the pitch of the char- 
acteristic partial or "formant" is not absolutely fixed. 

The difficulty of harmonizing these theories has stimulated 
the zeal of many workers, and in particular Dr. Marage has 
been remarkably successful in his researches into the nature of 
vowels. He first of all criticises the second theory of Helm- 
holtz, pointing out that the failure to reproduce the vowels by 
synthesis is strongly against it. Thus while, by tuning-forks, 
the pitch of which is that of partials of the fundamental tone, 
oUy and a may be badly reproduced, it has been found impos- 
sible to reproduce e and i. He then objects to the theory of 
Hermann, namely, that the vowel is an oral intermittent and 
oscillating tone ; first, that the method of recording the vowel on 
the wax cylinder of the phonograph causes grave errors, be- 
cause the mouthpiece, tube, air chamber, and vibrating disc all 
profoundly modify the vowel; second, that the method of analy- 
sis by Fourier's theorem assumes that the vowel curves are 
constituted by superposed simple curves, which is precisely the 
question at issue, and therefore the argument is a petitio 
principii; and third, that the data obtained by his method have 
not enabled Hermann to reconstruct the vowels with greater 
success than Helmholtz. Marage then enters upon his own 
method, which consists essentially of using a special apparatus 
constructed on Konig's principle of manometric flames, but so 
simple as to be practically free from sources of error; that is to 
say, there is no mouthpiece, tube or lever. The pictures of the 
flames were produced photographically by feeding the flame 
with acetylene gas, and chronophotometrical records were tak- 
en with each experiment. He then finds that the flame pictures 
of I, u and ou show one flame, e, eu and o two flames, and a 
three flames. So that the classification of the vowels by 
flames is exactly that of Grassmann. Each vowel, when all 
errors have thus been got rid of by simplifying the apparatus, 
always gives the same picture for any given note. The picture 
is that of a continuous periodic curve, and the number of periods 

340 The Association Review. 

in a second corresponds to the laryngeal note, while the form of 

the period characterises the vowel. With the same vowel the 

period changes with the note. When the note is near the pitch 

of ordinary speech, the period varies very little. This is not so 
when the vowel is sung; the period then disappears until there 
is only the laryngeal note. Marage has also by synthesis re- 
produced the vowels with remarkable success. His first ex- 
periments with resonators were not quite satisfactory; he could 
reproduce ou, o and a, but not e and i. He ascertained, how- 
ever, that to reproduce a the resonator must be tuned to the 
third harmonic or partial of the note on which a was sung; that 
to reproduce e, eu and o the best result was obtained when the 
resonator gave the second partial; and i, u and oxj were imi- 
tated (but not successfully) when the resonator was in unison 
with the laryngeal tone. 

Marage finally devised a syren rotated by an electric motor 
and consisting of a disc having in it a triangular window rep- 
resenting the glottis. The air is driven, under pressure, through 
this aperture and then falls on another disc having windows cut 
out of it in groups according to the nature of the vowel to be 
synthetically reproduced. Thus the disc for a has four groups, 
each group consisting of three triangular slit-like windows; for 
and E the disc shows five groups, each consisting of two slits; 
and for i and ou there are many slits, without these being ar- 
ranged in groups. The slits are very large for o and narrow 
for E, and large for ou and narrow for i . He then moulded a 
series of casts of the interior of the oral and pharyngeal cavities 
of a human subject, as these were adapted for the singing of the 
different vowels, and from them constructed masks or head- 
pieces which could be placed over the syren so that the air 
escaping from it passed through cavities of the mask. He 
found that if air was driven through the masks under a pressure 
of only 7 centimetres of water, the timbre of the corresponding 
vowel was at once perceived, as in whispering. Marage's view 
is that to form a vowel the true vocal cords vibrate in a horizon- 
tal plane, in such a way as to influence by their greater or less 
degree of approximation the escape of air. 

Experimental Phonetics. 341 

If the air escapes in three little puffs as it were (the cords 
vibrating during each puff a number of times equal to the pitch 
of the note on which the vowel is spoken or sung), so that there 
are intervals between the groups of puffs, then the vowel a is the 
result. The oral resonator is in unison with the sum of the vi- 
brations and the vowel is emitted. If the resonator (either art- 
ificial or the oral cavity, as in life) is tuned to the third harmonic 
of this note, then the vowel a is modified; the same applies to e 
and o, which have the second harmonic, and in passing from the 
one vowel to the other it is sufficient to change the aperture of 
the glottic opening. Thus for a, if the fundamental note is m, the 
oral resonator must be tuned to ^n; for e and o, if the fun- 
damental is n, the oral resonator gives 2n; and for i and ou the 
resonator is in unison. If this is not so, then the quality of the 
vowel is much altered. Thus if the syren gives a, and the plate 
used is that for ou, then the sound is a modified. This agrees 
with the experience of teachers of singing, who hold that a bad- 
ly sung vowel is a vowel-sound emitted into a cavity adjusted 
for another vowel. Marage has also found that when the 
sounds of his syren, aided by the masks, are examined by the 
manometric method, the flame pictures appear as they may be 
expected to do, that is, groups of three flames for a, of two for e, 
Eu, and o, and of one for i, u and ou. Vowels then, according 
to him, are due to an intermittent aero-laryngeal vibration, 
strengthened by the oral cavity and producing ou, o, a, e and i, 
when it is in unison with the sum of the vibrations; transformed 
by it, and giving origin to other vowels, when there is no unison; 
and the number of intermittences gives the fundamental note on 
which the vowel is emitted. If the oral cavity acts alone, the 
vowel is whispered; if the larynx acts alone, the vowel is sung; 
and if the two act the vowel is spoken. Marage has applied 
his method with much success in testing the ear and in the^ 
treatment of mutes who are not absolutely deaf. His memoir 
is characterised by great simplicity and at the same time by 

But the study of vowels is not the only result of recent re- 
search in phonetics. The analysis of consonantal sounds is 
now being carried out by various workers, such as Pipping, 

342 The Association Rroiciv. 

Scripture, and Lloyd. Meyer^ in Hermann's laboratory, has 
investig:ated the pitch of words, sentences and syllables in 
speech. This has also been studied by phonographic tracings 
by Marichelle. The whole subject has also a practical bear- 
ing, as the knowledge acquired enables the teacher of deaf 
mutes so to instruct his pupils in the use of their organs as to 
avoid the deary monotone of those who learn to speak by watch- 
ing only the movements of the lips. 

It only remains to notice the remarkable monograph of 
Jespersen. This is an attempt to aid the study of phonetics by 
the use of a scientific nomenclature to express sounds, so that 
just as the chemist represents by letters and figures the nature 
of a chemical substance of complex constitution, so the student 
of phonetics may be able to express the sounds of words by 
symbols. The visible-speech system of Melville Bell consisted 
of symbols which expressed more or less accurately the phys- 
iological movements to be made, or the position to be assumed, 
during the pronunciation of a given sound; but the symbols of 
Jespersen are letters and figures. The letters or figures, how- 
ever, to be useful must have a physiological meaning. Strictly 
speaking the symbols denote, not sounds, but the elements of 
sounds. Thus so simple a sound as m is physiologically the 
lesult of (a) lips shut; {b) point of tongue resting in the bottom 
of the mouth; (c) surface of tongue not raised towards the pal- 
ate; {d) nasal passage open; {e) vocal cords vibrate; and {f) air 
expelled from lungs. The attempt of Jespersen may be called 
an analphabetic system of writing, symbolising, not sounds, but 
the elements of sounds. At present it is severely technical, but 
it seems to "provide a means of writing down and describing 
phonetic minutiae in a comparatively easy and unambiguous 
manner." It will do for the phonetician what symbolism does 
for the mineralogist. It is a kind of algebra for speech sounds. 

In advocating the establishment of a photographic museum, 
to be a visual register of the past, Janssen recently wrote as fol- 
lows: "Photography registers the chain of phenomena during 
time, just as writing registers the thoughts of men during the 
ages. Photography is to sight what writing is to thought. If 
there is any difference, it is to the advantage of photography. 

Experimental Phonetics. 343 

Writing: is subject to conventionalities from which photog^raphy 
is free; writing employs a particular language, while photog- 
rai)hy speaks the universal language." 

But if there is to be a museum of photographs, appealing to 
the sense of sight, why should we not have a museum of sounds, 
in the shape of phonograph records, appealing to the sense of 
hearing. How little can we tell from written characters the 
exact sounds of ancient Sanskrit, or how Demosthenes spoke 
in Greek or Cicero in Latin? Would it not now be interesting 
to hear the exact accent of old English, or the Scotch of the fif- 
teenth century ? All dialects should be carefully registered and 
put aside for future consultation, and thus we would do for the 
ear what we do for the eye. No doubt such a collection of 
phonographic records would help onwards the science of lan- 



Summary. — In what the efficacy of a method consists. — 
The reasons for the diffusion of the mimic system. — The reasons 
of the worth of the oral method, and its nature- — What the oral 
method was in the first historical period of our pedagogy- — The 
special advantages offered by the oral method- — Articulated lan- 
guage and its value in comparison to the language of action. — 
Articulated language as a bond of sociability and as a means for 
human improvement. 

The efficacy, and hence the greater fitness of a method in 
comparison with others, must result first of all from the results 
obtained from its practical application. We have seen in the 
preceding chapter how, in the education of the deaf, predomi- 
nance was given now to this^ now to that of the methods already 
defined, which <;eemed to the educators to give, in various cir- 
cumstances, the best results. As, however, the judgment of the 
different educators on this subject was always subordinated to 
relative and subjective circumstances, the story of our pedagogy 
does not offer us a decisive criterion by which to give here any 
conclusions. It seemed to some that one might legitimately 
conclude that the mimic system was the most suitable for the in- 
struction of the deaf, because it was the most widely diffused. 
But the adoption of that method, if one considers well, in con- 
nection with the historical development of our teachmg, was not 
always preferred because better in itself than the others, but only 
because it was easy to practice with little preparation on the part 
of the teacher, and because it was adapted to the simultaneous 
instruction of many pupils. In fact, it was enough to find a man 

iFrom the Manual pt Prof. Ferreri for the Teachers of the Deaf "II 
Sordomuto e la sua Eduoazioue.*' Pedagogia, Vol. I. Chap. Vlll. Page 

Tlie Oral Method — Its Fitness for the Deaf. 345 

of good will, and some sort of a room, to be able to found an in- 
stitution for the deaf. Hence the success of the mimic system; 
success increased by the fact that each believed he was giving a 
religious instruction to the deaf when he succeeded in learning 
the manual alphabet and in making more or less spiritual ges- 
tures, accompanied by grimaces now pathetic, now severe, ac- 
cording to the matter explained. In short, the mimic system 
was more fortunate than good, as it was well adapted for making 
people believe that the deaf could succeed by its means in being 
instructed in matter relatively difficult; it is even today regarded 
kindly by those who desire to come to the aid of the abandoned 
deaf. To this circumstance we must ascribe the fact that it was 
the mimic system which took the first place in generalizing the 
instruction of the deaf, first in Europe, immediately after the 
opening of the school in Paris, and then in the colonies and mis- 
sions of the other parts of the world. 

In the historical part of this study, we shall see how the 
courageous spirit and *'the inflexible will of Samuel Heinicke had 
to struggle to preserve the precious inheritance of the oral 
method against the perils which menaced it from the west." 

Laying aside now every preconceived idea as to the worth 
of the methods we have seen applied in the instruction of the 
deaf, let us pass on to examine the fitness of the oral method 
and the possibility of its application in our schools. 

The deaf-mute, as expressed by the word itself, unites in 
himself two serious defects, the one of which is the cause of the 
other. Now, because of this reason of causality, that defect 
which constitutes the first cause of this grievous misfortune must 
be the one to be principally noticed; that is, the one to which it 
would be necessary to pay the greatest attention. But it is not 
so. For the deaf it has happened as it usually does in the 
world of natural phenomena. In these it is generally the ef- 
fects which call the attention to the research of the causes of the 
physical facts, and these causes are not always to be discovered. 
At the present day it seems evident and unnecessary to reflect 
that the cause of dumbness is, in the majority of cases, deafness. 
Yet much time was necessary before this knowledge was admit- 
ted into public opinion. For public opinion, as is shown from the 

346 The AssaciaHon Review, 

word mute alone being used almost always to designate the deaf- 
mute, regarded the deaf-mute, in fact, as an unfortunate being 
because he could not speak. This shows how they placed his 
misfortune more in the effect than in the true cause. And the 
appearance seemed to justify the fact. Of the two defects which 
constitute the complex phenomenon of deaf-mutism, the first is 
not so noticeable as the second. We perceive indeed that an 
individual is "mute" before knowing that he "does not hear" In 
short, the deaf are distinguished by their lack of speech, just as 
the blind are by their lack of sight. For this reason the first in- 
structors of the deaf directed at first their efforts to speech ; for 
this reason the first means applied for the instruction of the deaf 
was articulation ; for this reason, also, those who afterwards had 
recourse to other means recognized that, all things considered, 
**it is the lack of speech*' in the deaf which prevents him from 
taking an active part in human intercourse. It was too evident 
a fact that the deaf, even when they had reached a notable 
degree of culture, always remained — without speech — isolated, 
apart by themselves, and this was not well. All the means which 
arc used for the instruction of the deaf, except articulated 
speech, tend, in fact, to separate them from society. And not- 
withstanding the fortunate diffusion of the mimic system and of 
the manual alphabet, the prophecy of the French abbot has been 
fulfilled, when he wrote that: "all the world would not be dis- 
posed to make their thoughts run from their fingers for the con- 
venience of the deaf." 

If then the society of speakers cannot go to the deaf, the 
deaf must go to the society. But this is only possible by means 
of the oral method. With the oral method properly applied, 
as based upon the scientific knowledge of the functions of the 
vocal organs^ and according to the process devised by the 
teachers of artificial pronunciation, one puts the deaf-mute in a 
condition to produce speech, making his own organs of respira- 
tion and phonation active. But by means of this the deaf would 
only be conducted half way; he must also reach the com- 
prehension of speech as spoken by others, understanding it from 
the movements of the visible parts of the vocal organs of him 
who speaks. Now this double object is attained by one and the 

The Oral Method — Its Fitness for tlic Deaf. 347 

same process of teaching. The deaf learns the elements of the 
spoken word by using, under guidance of the teacher, his senses 
of sight and touch. Thus production and perception of speech 
are two acts intimately and reciprocally connected, and a little 
continuous and graduated application is enough to reduce sight 
to be the habitual stimulus of the deaf, just as hearing is the 
natural stimulus of the speech of hearing people. 

Here lies the essence of the oral method, and also its value 
and importance as a means for the sociability of the deaf. 

The oral method, however, was not always so understood. 
Hence its poor success, which in the lack of results took away 
the courage, faith, and constancy of many educators of the deaf, 
who returned to the old method of the French school after the 
poor success of their first attempts. 

Many of the educators, especially in the first historical per- 
iod of our pedagogy, did not hold lip-reading in just considera- 
tion; indeed, sometimes they did not take any care of it at all, 
but instead had recourse to other auxiliary means, which besides 
rendering almost impossible any communication of the deaf- 
mute with his own family and neighbors, made the oral method 
unnatural, and speech became an accessory almost entirely neg- 
lected. Given these circumstances, it is not surprising that 
the oral method did not give the practical results which were an- 
ticipated and promised in theory. One should note also that it 
was this lack itself which brought discredit on the oral method 
every time that they applied it in union with others. Given the 
circumstances of the peculiar conditions of the deaf-mute and his 
strong tendency towards economy of attention and of the use of 
his vocal powers, when one offers him other means for the per- 
ception of speech (dactylology, writing and the mimic), the edu- 
cation of the sight becomes neglected entirely, and lip-reading 
becomes impossible. 

It is therefore a great merit of the modern school to have 
established with its congresses and its didactic works the pro- 
cess now delineated by the oral method. The German school 
had not succeeded in doing this, for although it was opposed 
from pedagogic-didactic principles to the French school, still it 
admitted the mimic as an auxiliary to speech. We read in the 

348 The Association Review, 

critical historical work of M. Hill that "just as the Neo-German 
school prohibits the use of the so-called artificial means for de- 
veloping the intelligence, so it is far from denying to gesture 
(mimic language) a suitable place in the instruction of the deaf, 
and from excluding the use of it absolutely." ^ 

Granted therefore that the results of the oral method were 
frequently compromised by the concomitance of other means 
sought for outside of speech and from the insufficient prepara- 
tion of the educators, let us see what are in reality the advan- 
tages which render the oral method the most fitting for the in- 
struction and education of the deaf. 

The greatest advantage of the oral method over every other 
is so plain as to persuade every one without need of long and 
elaborate disquisitions. The deaf-mute taught the art of speech, 
and who has learned to speak himself, and to understand the 
speech of others from the movements of the lips, is capable of 
entering and taking an active part in the society of those who 
speak. It is a question of habit on his part, as well as of those 
who approach him, to learn to lessen the harshness of his speech 
in an aesthetic sense. In a short time the parents, relatives, 
friends, and acquaintances, and all who approach the deaf-mute, 
will accustom themselves to understand his speech without diffi- 
culty, although inharmonious and unadorned. This is a fact, and 
is of such great importance for the social life of the deaf-mute 
as to almost exceed the other advantage by means of which the 
warmest advocates of the oral method demonstrate and prove its 
excellence- The greatest advantage of the oral method, wrote 
Tarra, "appears from its being the most suitable means for his 
(the deaf-mute's) radical instruction, for his moral redemption, by 
the development of his intellectual and moral powers." In fact, 
it is rationally presumable that when one succeeds in excluding 
from the use of speech every kind of sign in which the phantas- 
magoric element predominates, we shall obtain exceptional re- 
sults in the development of the intellectual powers in the instruc- 
tion of the deaf. The advocates of the mimic system must soon 

1 M. Hill, Der geirenwartige Zustaiid flp8 Taubstummen-Bildung-Wesena 
iu Deut8cblaud. Weimar, 1806. 

The Oral Method — Its Fitness for the Deaf. 349 

see this who concentrate all their attention on writing as the 
most exact means for teaching language. 

Another advantage of speech lies in the fact, still denied by 
some, that articulaced speech does not leave the deaf chilled in 
the communication of their affections and sentiments. This 
would occur, if^ as erroneously judged sometimes, the teaching 
of speech to the deaf was reduced to a material, mechanical pro- 
cess. But when language is taught in a manner intimately asso- 
ciated with the mental conceptions, it acquires for the deaf, as 
for the hearing, the highest psychic value of language thought, 
and of the living expression of the soul, which must be intimate 
and felt. Now, the articulated word is the most intimate lan- 
guage and the most felt which can be given, as that which cor- 
responds to the needs of human nature, having in it the physi- 
cal-physiological character, in respect to the organism which 
produces it, and that ethic-psychic one in respect to the imme- 
diate translation of the idea which arises or communicates itself. 
In fact, the spoken word, while it can associate itself with the ex- 
pression of the face, and with the spontaneous movements of the 
whole body, remains always immaterial and. incorporeal, and is 
therefore the most fitting expression of abstract and spiritual 

When therefore the deaf-mute succeeds in restraining the 
phantasmagoric element in favor of the purely intellectual ele- 
ment, the result is that he thinks and feels and wills in the same 
manner that these acts are produced in individuals endowed with 
all the senses. 

On the other hand it is true that those who live with the 
adult deaf, even when educated, find him somewhat lacking in the 
life of affection. But the reason of this phenomenon must be 
sought for in the profound gap left by his early education in af- 
fection. The maternal caresses, even when not entirely lacking, 
did not have one-half the significance nor the value for him 
that they have for the hearing child. These children hear them 
accompanied by loving language which educates the heart and 
makes an impression on the mind. "Silence," writes Tarra, "is 
such a deep void that it cannot be filled, and nothing can sub- 
stitute the comfort of the communication of the heart by means 
of the lips." 

350 The Association Review. 

In social relations, therefore, the oral method is the most fit- 
ting and advantageous for the deaf, as it is the most suitable for 
his intellectual and moral culture. This will be shown even 
more clearly by the comparison which we have yet to make be- 
tween articulated language and the language of action. 

''Articulated language" — thus Augusto Conti defines it — "is 
a series of vocal sounds used by human society to express their 
needs." This series of vocal sounds, however, which constitute 
language, are not natural signs of their ideas, but are arbitrary 
signs. This is demonstrated by two facts: first, from there not 
being any resemblance between the idea and its sign; secondly, 
from seeing one and the same idea expressed in different lan- 
guages with different words- The truth is that as the relation 
between the articulated sounds and the ideas is arbitrary, so also 
the methodic system of the signs may acquire the essential qual- 
ities of a language, and give to the mind as many different signs 
as there are ideas. De TEpee aimed at this end, and his follow- 
ers succeeded, as we know, in instructing the deaf with a lan- 
guage of action. 

Comparing, however, the utility of these with that of articu- 
lated language, it is clearly shown, says Balmes, that the utility 
of this is much greater than that of gestures. The voice lends 
itself, in fact, to reflections of combinations which the gestures 
cannot imitate. And the word, as Beccaria observes, (Trattato 
dello Stile), does not present the idea only, but, together with 
it, more or less some other additional images. This advantage 
is perhaps lost by the deaf who reads from the lips, because 
sound is perhaps the true source of these additional images. 
However for him remains the simplicity and spirituality which 
give to speech the advantage of excluding every accessory 

Another inestimable advantage of speech over gesture lies 
in the circumstance that these render conversation in the dark 
impossible^. This shows how natural the correspondence is be- 

^1 have seen some crrph of <leaf-blin(l-.speakerK with whom one could 
rominunicate with a mimic tnii generis, of which tht^ Bubstantial part was 
formed by means of the manual alphabet. In thiH cane it ik equivalent t4) 
bcin^ in the dark even for the hearing interlocutor. But those are ezcei>- 

The Oral Method — Its Fitness for the Deaf. 351 

tween the or«:an of speech and that of hearing. But from the 
moment that the relations between the signs of articulated lan- 
guage and the things signified is arbitrary, it is evident that no 
one can learn it without being taught by others. One must 
not conclude from this, however, that neither is speech natural to 
man, but only that the using of one articulated sign or another 
does not depend on nature. For this reason the poet sings : 

*'A natural action is it that man speaks; - 
But whether thus or thus, doth nature leave 
To your own art, as seemeth best to you *' 

— Dante. Par. XXVL 130, Longfellow' a translation. 

We have seen that man in his insufficiency as an infant ex- 
pects everything from his family and from society, and that these 
come to his aid until he becomes self-reliant. To arrive at this 
stage of life, man has also need of being instructed in order to 
render him capable of individual reflection. Now, sufficient is 
provided for this need by means of articulated speech, which is 
the strongest bond of sociability, as the language of a whole 
people is the most powerful bond of nationality. Let us see 
how this happens. 

First it is necessary to distinguish between the idea and true 
language, which consists in understanding clearly the nature of 
the thing; the one is acquired by intellectual perception, the 
other by reflecting upon the ideas acquired, and it cannot be 
formed without internal speech. We have seen already how the 
language does not succeed in expressing the thought adequately, 
it having been already observed that this perception, of which the 
symbolical sign is in some cases suitable, depends upon the pos- 
session which the thought has taken of itself, by means of the in- 
strument of spoken language. Man is therefore a speaker, be- 
cause naturally sociable, or, as Aristotle observed: "the only 
speaker among the animals." And as a man who lives outside 
of society is regarded as a sad phenomenon, thus there never 
could be a time when men should not need language for the ex- 
change of their sentiments, needs, affections, and thoughts. 
Sociability and speech are therefore two properties which in man 
are summoned in turn, because they are derived from his quality 
of a reasonable being, and are the fundamental condition of the 

352 The Association Review, 

perfectibility of the human individual, as well as that of the hu- 
man family. 

It is speech, indeed, which places us in reciprocal communi- 
cation with our fellow creatures : by it the most delicate and sim- 
ple relations of ideas are transmitted to us; without it the human 
mind would be shut in upon itself and would not carry to others 
more than a very small part of what it experiences and feels. 
Without speech civil and political relations would never have 
been established, and domestic society would be limited alone 
to the preservation of the species; that is, to purely an animal 
end, as occurs with the brutes. 

But speech does not limit itself to the communication of 
spirits between themselves, but is also the strongest bond of the 
ideas, not only to fix them and to remember them, but also to 
connect them in judgment and reasoning; hence one must con- 
sider speech as an instrument of great value for the interior de- 
velopment of thought. 

Speech is for the spirit a kind of tablet to which one can have 
recourse when one needs to recollect, to arrange and clear the 
ideas. Associated sometimes with a single word, the memory 
will preserve the remembrance of long operations and only by 
pronouncing this word, or reading it, or hearing it one feels his 
mind developing that series of knowledge which was acquired 
by the experience of long years, and in which one finds con- 
densed the fruits of the acquisitions of all humanity. Because 
language responded to so many necessities of the spirit it was 
necessarv that it should be, as the articulated speech is, such a 
sign as to be disposable at any instant, and which should also be 
susceptible of infinite modifications for expressing the varieties, 
the gradations, the categories and the different and most varia- 
ted kinds of ideas. 

To all these the organ of speech lends itself readily; with the 
greatest possible facility and rapidity it performs all the move- 
ments necessary for the infinite combination of sounds- The 
mechanism of speech, the great facility with which it responds to 
the commands of the will, clothing the thought with sensible 
form, is such a marvellous thing as to justify, to a certain point, 
the old philosophic opinion that language was necessary to 

The Oral Method — Its Fitness for the Deaf, 353 

thought, and that one could not think without speaking, inter- 
nally at least. Who could note the time which passes between 
the conception of the thought and its spoken expression ? If 
then we reflect at the whole function of speech, it appears to us 
the most marvellous expression of the being of man. Think for 
a moment of an orator who speaks to a numerous audience. 
How many ideas of every kind are communicated at the same 
instant to the minds of all the hearers ! The sensible and the in- 
sensible; the simple and the complex; judgments, reasoning, 
comparisons, analysis, synthesis, all is expressed with the same 
facility of mental conception. A thought arises in the mind of 
the orator, and in the same instant it is clothed in a sensible form 
by his lips, and communicates itself to the minds of his hearers • 

However this series of operations is effected, it was neces- 
sary that the thought was conceived, that the will moved the or- 
gans of speech to clothe it sensibly, that the sensible form found 
in the air. an uninterrupted conductor, that vibration in vibration 
should penetrate into the external ear, and from this to the 
ways of transmission and perception, which are established 
from the center to the brain center, in that mysterious corres- 
pondence which connects the intellectual activities between 
them; that the intellect finally sees in speech, so perceived, the 
index of the idea, and that this index in unlimited number, in 
inexpressible variety, in gradations and nuances the most subtle 
and delicate, in abstruse combinations, with a reciprocity of sen- 
timents of a thousand kinds, establishes a communication of 
ideas and aflfection between him who speaks and them who listen, 
as between two solar rays which carry to us from a great dis- 
tance light and life. And all this work is not the privilege of 
the learned. Whosoever enjoys the integrity of his senses and 
of their organs is at the same time active and passive in the ad- 
mirable function of the spoken word. 

It is not therefore an hyperbolical affirmation to say that 
articulate speech is the most natural means and the most suitable 
for human improvement. One may also say more, that as "the 
greater perfection of the being consists in the power of produc- 
ing other beings similar to himself," so in speech lies the perfec- 
tion of the human intellect, which in it and for it reproduces its 

Editor of the Association Review. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked me to give my many American 
friends a little glimpse of me and my work through The Review. 
I gladly accept your invitation^ but of myself I can only say that 
I am doing my self-imposed but pleasant duty right loyally and 
with, I believe, fairly good results. 

It will be six years, next August, since I returned to India 
from the west. During all this time we have been strenuously 
at work to have a local habitation of our own. These six years 
saw the country passing through two most severe famines — fam- 
ines not only unprecedented in their severity, but also in bring- 
ing the antipodes together — for it seems wonderful how the suf- 
ferings of such far off people touched the chord of sympathy of 
your hearts, and you sent us timely and princely help out of your 
abundance. With famine and plague around us, and with our 
extreme poverty, it has been no easy task to raise subscriptions, 
but still we have been so far successful that we collected money 
enough to acquire for £3,333 a plot of land measuring about two 
acres, and the foundation stone of the building was laid by His 
Honor Sir John Woodburn, K. C. S. I., Lieutenant Governor of 
Bengal, on the 8th of April last. 

You will probably ask me what method of teaching we fol- 
low in our school. Well, we call our school an oral school, and 
we are, I believe, right, as the accepted sense of the term goes — 
yet it is not strictly oral. We believe in the oral method of 
teaching, but we have a class where natural gestures are most 
freely used. I think I should explain what I mean by natural 
gestures. We have no systematic system of conventional signs 
such as you call the sign language. Nor have I as yet been suc- 
cessful in adopting the finger spelling to our letters of the alpha- 
bet, for there is a peculiar way of sometimes joining two or more 
letters together in writing and then the combination looks alto- 

Calcutta School for the Deaf. 355 

gether like a new character. But what we do in this class is to 
freely use living- and explicit actions and gestures — a great deal 
much more than would be allowed in an orally taught class — in 
explaining things. The regular instruction of the class is done 
by and in writing and in articulate reading. Some of the pupils 
do speak some, but not much. It is a class composed of pupils 
who have failed to respond to the oral method of teaching. 
Pray, do not misunderstand me. I have told you what we are 
doing, but nothing is further from my mind than to enter into a 
discussion upon the subject of the method of teaching. India is 
not ripe for that yet. But as history repeats itself, the old con- 
troversy of the New Continent may appear in our midst in a new 
garb of language when India has got a large number of schools 
for the deaf. Whatever the method of instruction may be, I 
would welcome a new school in any part of India. Indeed, not 
long ago I had a call from one Mr. Jacob Burkhard, a member 
of the American Mennonite Mission in Dhamtara, in Central 
India. The mission has got together about 600 famine orphans, 
amongst whom there are about a dozen deaf-mutes. The mis- 
sion authorities thought of sending them to our school; but I 
advised Mr. Burkhard to start a school for them in their own 
mission, for I had no manner of doubt that the generous patrons 
of the mission would help him in his laudable enterprise, and in 
the course of a few years he would have a large school. Mr. 
Burkhard knows finger spelling and something of the sign lan- 
guage, and his school, when it comes into existence, will be a 
manual school. 

Then we follow what is known as the word method. We be- 
gin by teaching words and not elements. For this purpose we 
have collected together a list of very simple words — words easy 
of articulation and of very common use. When a pupil has 
learnt, say fifty words or so, he is also given short and easy sen- 
tences. These sentences are in no wise grammatically arranged, 
but such as represent simple ideas without any regard for time 
or person. Let me explain: We do not teach him "I run," "you 
run," "John runs," or "I jumped," "J^^" jumped, etc. All per- 
sons and time are promiscuously used to suit the occasion. That 
is, we do not wait to use the past or future tense until the pupil 

356 The Association Review. 

has got some fair idea of the present form. Of course this is for 
beginners. But as they advance in language we draw their at- 
tention to differences of time, person, etc., and to the elementary 
rules of grammar. Later on, primers and elementary readers, 
used in ordinary schools, are placed in the hands of the third and 
fourth year pupils. Henceforward their education, generally 
speaking, coincides with that of hearing children. 

I may call our school a mixed school in that we have both 
boarders and day-scholars. This makes matters very awkward 
and hard for us, for the day-scholars are generally very irregu- 
lar. Our task is made still more difficult by our not having any 
fixed time for admission. We admit new pupils whenever they 

There are 200,000 deaf-mutes in India. In the presidency 
of Bengal alone they number no less than 70,000. Of these wc 
have only thirty-four in our school, with five teachers, including 
myself. Of my assistants, one is a lady who teaches the girls, 
of whom there are seven in the school. Our national sentiment 
will not admit of boys and girls being taught together. 

Our school has just entered into the tenth year of its exist- 
ence. The school course is for ten years, but there is not a single 
pupil left who came to us in 1893, when we opened it. Of the 
pupils who have left the school, some have gone to the Govern- 
ment School of Art, one has been apprenticed to a photographer, 
two have become goldsmiths earning a decent living, and one has 
got a position as draftsman in the office of the Surveyor-General 
of India. Besides giving ordinary school education, we teach 
them freehand drawing, wood-engraving, and tailoring. 

J, N. Banerji. 
Calcutta, India. 




An Italian writer, who visited the United States at the time 
of the Cuban war, sent a series of interesting articles to Italy for 
publication in a newspaper. Afterwards he collected these ar- 
ticles in a book, with the title: "L' America vittoriosa*' (Victorious 
America !) 

I am visiting this country, as you know, for quite a different 
purpose, and in time of peace; but I also have the intention of 
writing a report in order to give an answer to my European col- 
leagues who wish to know what the United States is doing for 
the education of the deaf. Well, every time that I think over 
my future report, I cannot free myself from the suggestion of 
that title, 'X' America VittoriosaT Yes, America is victorious 
also in national educational work, because here the instruction of 
all citizens is provided for, and, before all, of those who cannot 
become useful citizens without a special education. 

Although I am now in a good condition for making com- 
parisons, yet I am not quite sure of being able to express in 
words my particular impressions. However, I do not wish to 
lose this opportunity for expressing my general impression that, 
in regard to the education of defective children, in Europe we 
are idealists, while in America you are practical. As great a 
difference, you see, as that which lies between "to be or not to 

In Europe we speak and write much — too much, perhaps — 
and we have the best ideas and the finest theories on the general 
education of the child, and particularly of the deaf, as well as of 

" A paper read at the Minneapolis Meeting of the National Educa- 
tional Association, before the Department of Special Education, July 1 1, 

358 The Association Review. 

the feeble-minded ; but we have not the means to put these ideas 
and theories into practice. Here I find the contrary. The 
Americans put into practice our ideas, and they make every ef- 
fort to do it well. In Europe we have a large and rich special 
literature on the education of defective children, but there I have 
never seen put into practice, so largely and liberally, the sug- 
gestions of science in regard to the care and education of these 
children as is done in every state of this American Union. And 
here I find also the best schools for the deaf. 

When I say this to my European colleagues they will cer- 
tainly ask me also for the reasons of this great difference. 

During my journey from Boston I was reading the *'Ameri- 
can Notes" of Rudyard Kipling. At the end of the first chapter 
the author observes that **In America money is everything." 

You know better than I with what wit and meaning Kipling 
made such an observation, but I am glad to complete the sen- 
tence, saying, if not with wit, at least with truth: In America 
money is everything, because only with money is it possible to 
put into practice the theories; and this is true of every kind of 
knowledge and energy. What else but the lack of material 
means prevents the majority of the civilized nations from 
spreading the benefits of primary instruction? Money is in this 
case the first and fundamental condition; and I could illustrate 
my proposition with a quantity of facts and comments. But I 
am sure of not exaggerating when I say that, comparatively 
speaking, there is not another country in the world where so 
much money is spent for the national education as is done in the 
United States. More than this, while money is certainly of 
fundamental importance, I must add another reason. I have 
had many opportunities to realize that in America there are, 
besides money, also the best moral means. Among them I am 
glad to enumerate the following ones: 

1. A great sympathy and active charity for all unhappy 

2. A strong desire and great energy for putting into prac- 
tice what science suggests in order to help them. 

3. Intelligence, training and study in those persons who 
are called to teach in and direct the special institutions. 

Victorious America, 359 

Therefore, to the inquiry of my European colleagues: What 
are the Americans doin^ for the education of the deaf ? I can 
answer withotit any hesitation : They are doing the best which it 
is possible to do in the present condition of science; and in a not 
far distant futtire they will be our guide in the progressive devel- 
opment of our special line of education. "Victorious America !" 



First Session. — Wednesday, July 9, 1902. 

The Department was called to order at 2.30 p. m. in the 
Hennepin Ave. Methodist Chtirch, Minneapolis, Minn., with Dr. 
Alexander Graham Bell, President, in the chair. 

A vocal solo by Mrs. Maud Ulmer Jones, accompanied by 
Miss Margaret Gilmore, introduced the regular program of the 

Dr. C. M. Jordan, Superintendent of Schools, Minneapolis, 
Minn., delivered an address of welcome, which was responded to 
by the President, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell; United States 
Commissioner of Education, Dr. Wm. T. Harris; and Prof. Au- 
gustus H. Kelley, Boston, Mass. 


We have arrived at an important and critical period in the 
history of the Department. This Department originated with 
the teachers of the deaf — the blind and feeble-minded had no part 
in the original plan; they were brought in as a concession. For 
many years teachers of the deaf had felt an isolation, and they 
had a feeling that they wanted to come into affiliation with other 
teachers of the country that they might gain something of value 
from them. But when, on their first application to the officials of 
the National Educational Association, they found that they 
could not be received as a Department for the Deaf, because all 
other special classes would ask to be likewise set oflF, others were 
included with us, and we were labelled with the name, "Deaf 
and Dumb, Blind, and Feeble-Minded." Thus we were consti- 

Department of Special Education. 361 

tuted of incongruous elements, with little in common. Teachers 
of the deaf did not like these associations, nor did teachers of the 
other classes. They did not wish to be known as defectives, or 
classified by a defect. A number of names were proposed for 
the Department, but none seemed to fully satisfy. Finally, at 
the Detroit meeting last summer, a committee was appointed, 
consisting of the executive officers of the Department, to reor- 
ganize the Department and to make effort to have its name 
changed. This committee acted and it adopted the following 
platform : 

1. The name of the Department shall be: Depart- 
ment of Special Education — relating to Children De- 
manding Special Means of Instruction. 

2. The object of the Department shall be to bring 
persons engaged in the education of children requiring 
special methods of instruction into contact and affilia- 
tion with teachers in general for the interchange of 
ideas for mutual benefit. 

4. All communications shall be non-technical in 
character for the purpose of securing an interchange of 
ideas between those engaged in general and those en- 
gaged in special education. 

4. To secure from specialists papers of general 
interest for presentation to the general Convention or 
its Sections. 

5. To secure from prominent educators the pres- 
entation of papers before this Department. 

6. All matters to be presented at any meeting 
shall be approved in advance by the Executive Com- 
mittee. ' I I ' 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Association, 
yesterday, the request for the change of the name of the Depart- 
ment was presented, and it gives me pleasure to announce that 
the request was granted by unanimous vote. So we are now and 
will hereafter be known as the "Department of Special Educa- 

The special idea of the Department is to secure an iiitcr- 
change of ideas. Heretofore our papers have been technical — 
teachers of the deal have written addressing themselves to 
teachers of the deaf, and the teachers of the blind to teachers of 
the blind, etc. But teachers of the deaf, and blind, and feeble- 

362 The Association Review. 

minded, have their own conventions for all this. At this mo- 
ment the teachers of the blind are having a convention, and our 
Vice-President is now absent in attendance at that convention, 
unable thus to be present. 

Now we don't want at our meetings papers that may be pre- 
sented by special teachers at their own conventions. The first 
object of the Department is that our members may attend the 
meetings of other departments, and when we have anything tech- 
nical we should address other departments. We don't want to 
talk to our own kind of teachers; we want to speak to public 
school teachers. 

There is one special point on which we can all come to- 
gether. A large number of pupils are in the public schools 
who have defective sight, or hearing, or are backward. The 
number having defective hearing probably outnumbers the total 
deaf-mute population. These pupils are not deaf enough for 
special schools. What is done with them, or for them ? They 
are drifting along in the public schools, and teachers do not 
know what to do with them. Now, can't we, who teach the to- 
tally deaf, can't we give you information who are teaching the 
partially deaf ? And the teachers of the blind and of the feeble- 
minded, can they not help teachers who have children in their 
schools who are partially blind, or who are backward. This De- 
partment should give special attention to these pupils. 

The basal idea of this Department is an interchanging of 
ideas between specialists and ordinary teachers. So when we 
listen, we want men, not specialists like ourselves, but some 
great, broad men to come to look down upon our little fields, like 
Dr. Butler, and Dr. Harris whom we have with us today. It 
used to be that schools for the deaf were shut off from all affilia- 
tion with other schools, but now we are graduating our pupils 
into the public schools. Columbia College, New York, has the 
distinction of having graduated the first congenital deaf student. 
And now, at the last commencement, Harvard University grad- 
uates three deaf men. These men received their preparatory 
training at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf, Boston, and 
Clarke School for the Deaf, Northampton. We are progressing 
in these matters, and the line of progress is for affiliation be- 

Department of Special Education. 363 

tween special schools and their work with the ordinary education 
system. There is no limit to which the blind cannot aspire, and 
it is beginning to be so with the deaf, and with the deaf-blind, as 
witness the case of Helen Keller, both deaf and blind, and yet 
now successfully pursuing a college course among the hearing 
and seeing. 

Dr. Wm. T. Harris, United States Commissioner of Educa- 
tion. — It seems to me that this meeting will be considered an 
epoch, not only to teachers of the deaf, of the blind, and of the 
feeble-minded, but to teachers of all other classes of children. 
I enter heartily into Dr. Bell's plan by which mutual benefit will 
result to special and general teachers alike. The special teacher 
focuses his mind on special difficulties ; then invents methods and 
devices by which the difficulties are removed. Then he gives 
papers relating to these devices, and general teachers learn for 
their own uses. 

There are various defects over which we must lift our pu- 
pils; if they are not attended to the children become morose and 
disheartened. What a stream of reforms will come in the 
methods of the land through the meetings of this Department 
and through hearing your papers. A visit to a school for the 
feeble-minded in Lincoln that I once made, was worth more to 
me than much that was gained from normal study of normal chil- 
dren. The will power is a necessary factor to be used to develop 
the intellect, and the feeble-minded child is especially lacking in 
will power. He is trained upon the line of his lack. Control of 
the will is the first step; this taken, other steps may be taken in 

The German poet gives answer to the query, "What makes 
life worth living ?" Life is worth living if you can only do some- 
thing by which you can make others better. This body by spec- 
ializing will systematize the matter by lifting defective children 
over the threshold of difiiculty. Then by detailing their methods 
to general teachers, they multiply twenty fold and more the 
great benefits they confer. 

364 The Association Review. 

Prof. A. H. Kelley, Boston, Mass. — I remember with what 
delight I listened to Dr. Bell at the Horace Mann School, where 
the product of the work is the same as in our fields in a different 
way. I am asked to speak of Helen Keller, but about all that 
can be said of her has been said by Dr. Bell in speaking of her 
and of the three deaf young graduates of Harvard. The work 
being done by special classes is in line with what you are 
proposing in this Department. In my district in Boston I have 
one of these special classes, and we have adopted the name of 
your department. We have, in fact, three of these classes. Why 
not more? It is exceedingly difficult to secure just the right 
kind of teachers to lift these children over the threshold of diffi- 
culty of which Dr. Harris speaks. Our method is to visit — with 
the teacher — ^the homes of parents. I picked up little Harry S., 
nine or ten years of age, ragged and out at the toes. I turned 
him over to one of our bright, sympathetic teachers. I took 
her to his home and found a younger brother, even more 
defective. We took Harry and the little brother away from 
home to Waverly, where they are being cared for and trained. 
But these children in with other children are stumbling blocks of 
the class. What are they doing ? Something with their hands — 
what is the psychology of this ? The better way of doing is 
setting the children to working with their hands. We must de- 
velop the motor power of the brain before the other powers. A 
child, as long as his teacher sat by, could do anything he was 
asked, but without the teacher he would do nothing. We de- 
cided we must have something else, and we brought in the man- 
ual training bench, the saw, the plane, etc. At once the boy was 
happy : something was brought into his life that meant happiness. 

I believe this is one of the grandest movements that has 
been started, and Dr. Bell's name will be handed down as one 
who has done much to bring into these darkened lives light, and 
new power and new life. Dr. Bell has asked the question if we 
have statistics as to the proportion of pupils that have defective 
powers. To a certain extent they have been collected, but not 
to an extent such as to give definite facts. But the start is being 
made. With sixty pupils in a room, in order to do i(ood work, 
they ought to be pretty much alike. If we could only get classes 

Department of Special Education. 365 

down to normal size, the work could be more specialized. We 
have made request of teachers that they send us names of all 
pupils considered as defective. Upon these cases being investi- 
gated, some are found not sufficiently defective; the others are 
segregated. "What effect has such an inquiry upon parents?" 
I am asked. We get around that by adopting the names — 
special school, special teacher, the latter specially qualified, 
avoiding the name feeble-minded in any connection. 

Upon motion of Dr. J. C. Gordon, of Jacksonville, 111., the 
Secretary was authorized and directed to send a telegram to the 
Convention of Instructors of the Blind, in session at Raleigh, 
N. C, conveying greetings, with a cordial invitation to partici- 
pate thereafter in the proceedings of the Department. 

A paper was read by Mr. F. W. Booth, editor of the Asso- 
ciation Review, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, on "The Lesson to be 
Learned by the General Teacher from Teaching Language to 
the Deaf." 

Music. — Vocal solo, Mr. D. Alvin Davies. 

Mr. James N. Tate, Superintendent of the School for the 
Deaf, Faribault, Minn., read a paper on the subject, "What Min- 
nesota is doing for her Deaf Children." 

This was followed by a paper by Mr. B. P. Chappie, instruc- 
tor in the School for the Blind, Faribault, Minn., on "What Min- 
nesota is doing for her Blind Children." 

Dr. A. C. Rogers, Superintendent of the School for the 
Feeble-Minded, Faribault, Minn., next addressed the Depart- 
ment on "What Minnesota is doing for the Feeble-Minded" 

The President, upon motion of Prof. W. D. Parker, State 
Inspector of Schools for the Deaf, Madison, Wis., appointed the 
following committee on nominations: Prof. W. D. Parker, Dr. J. 
C. Gordon, Dr. A. C. Rogers, and Mr. J. J. Dow, Faribault, 

Miss Cornelia D. Bingham, Principal of the McCowen Oral 
School, Chicago, 111., gave illustration of work with pupils of the 
school present. 

366 The Association Review, 

On account of the lateness of the hour and the brevity of the 
exercises just witnessed, it was decided to devote Thursday 
morning to the presentation of school work by the children of 
the McCowen School. 

Thursday, July lo, 1902. 

A special session of the Department was held on Thursday 
morning from 9.30 to 12 oclock, during which time Miss Corne- 
lia D. Bingham, Principal, assisted by Misses Andrews, Cannon, 
Pearse, Taylor, and Freedman, gave an exhibition of school 
work with thirteen pupils of the McCowen Oral School, Chica- 
go, 111. The exercises covered four grades, from the kinder- 
garten ti) the advanced work of the school, and were witnessed 
by a large and interested audience. 

Second Session. — Friday, July 11, 1902. 

The Department convened at 2:30 p. m.. Dr. Bell, President, 
in the chair. 

The President suggested that a committee on resolutions be 
appointed, and a motion in accordance with the suggestion was 
passed. The following named persons were appointed as the 
Committee: Dr. Joseph C. Gordon, Jacksonville, 111.; Mr. J. J- 
Dow, Faribault, Minn.: Dr. A. C. Rogers, Faribault, Minn.; 
Miss Alice Damon, Mystic, Conn.; Miss Jennie C. Smith, Eau 
Claire, Wis. 

Music. — Vocal solo. Miss Inez Adell Davis, accompanied 
by Miss Eualie Chenevert. 

The following telegram, received from the Vice-President 
of the Department, Mr. Edward E. Allen, attending the Conven- 
tion of Instructors of the Blind, in session at Raleigh, N. C, was 
read: "Blind Convention endorses report of Committee on 
Reorganization. Congratulations." 

The President introduced Signor G. Ferreri, ex-vice-prin- 
cipal of the Siena, Italy, School for the Deaf, who addressed the 
Department, giving his impressions of the work of instruction of 
the deaf as carried on in American schools. 

A paper on "The Organization of Associations of Parents of 

Department of Special Education, 367 

Deaf Children as an aid to Schools/' was read by Mrs. Helen M. 
Hefferen^ President of the Illinois Mothers' Congress. 

Discussion followed, participated in by Dr. A. Graham Bell, 
Prof. W. D. Parker, State Inspector of Schools for the Deaf, 
Madison, Wis., Senator Stout of Wisconsin, and Miss Mary 
McCowcn, Supervising Principal of the Day Schools for the 
Deaf, Chicag^o, 111. 

Dr. A. Graham Bell, the President. — There is no other thing 
more important than this of bringing the parents of deaf children 
into close touch with the work being done for their children. 
There are associations of parents in Boston, Chicago, Milwau- 
kee, Los Angeles, Halifax, Cincinnati, and other places. Why 
should there not be associations of this kind in connection with 
the public school work? Mrs. Bell took up the work of organiz- 
ing an association at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, and it has been of 
inestimable advantage to the Baddeck Academy. Why should 
there not be an association of parents in connection with every 
public school in the country ? 

A member stated that there was such an association in St. 

W. D. Parker, State Inspector of Schools for the Deaf, 
Madison, Wis. — Some years ago there was organized in Mil- 
waukee what is known as the Phonological Society in connection 
with the school for the deaf. This society has extended its work 
and influence to other cities in Wisconsin, and there are now in 
successful operation eighteen day schools for the deaf in the 
state, a number of them with parents' associations as adjuncts. 
There should be encouragement to the idea of joint effort of 
parent and teacher in the education of the child. 

Senator Stout, of Wisconsin. — We should bear in mind that 
our school work will go much better if we interest the parents 
in that work. The school house door should be open to parents 
at all times. More than that, school boards and teachers should 
meet frequently. Finally, it should be on the program that the 
school children should visit the industries of the town. 

Mary McCowen, Supervising Principal, Chicago Day 
Schools for the Deaf. — We began organizing parents in Chicago 
as a matter of necessity. The hours of the children, before and 

368 The Association Review, 

after school, had to be utilized for the benefit of the children, so 
we had to brings in the parents. We taught them how to help 
the deaf children out of school. In our meetings we taught the 
mothers by questions and answers. After the first six months 
the mothers organized local mothers' classes. We have nine 
local mothers' classes in Chicago. They hold meetings at various 
times — some on Sunday as the only time possible. In some 
districts the parents are mostly foreigners, some not under- 
standing English, or seeming not to. But we talked to them 
and soon we found that they did understand. 

In our day schools we have the long summer vacation. We 
have started vacation schools — and they are very popular. Par- 
ents contribute money, several hundred dollars, for their support. 
In one of our day schools the hearing children have organized a 
club to assist the little indigent children. 

The next paper presented was by Mr. James J. Dow, Super- 
intendent of the School for the Blind, Faribault, Minn., on "Nec- 
essary Evils." 

This paper was discussed by Prof. H. R. Sanford, of New 
York, Dr. A. Graham Bell, Prof. W. D. Parker, Miss Jennie C. 
Smith, Principal of the Day School for the Deaf, Eau Qaire, 
Wis., and Mr. J. N. Tate, Superintendent of the School for the 
Deaf, Faribault, Minn. 

Prof. H. R. Sanford. — In cases of otherwise perfect hearing 
but of imperfect utterance, is the defect somewhat like color- 

Dr. A. Graham Bell, the President. — As a general rule the 
defect is a mental one, and usually such children are suitable for 
the feeble-minded school. However, I visited the day schools 
for the deaf of Wisconsin and found there had come into them 
some children of this kind. 

Prof. W. D. Parker. — There are eight children of this kind 
in the schools, all being benefitted. 

Miss Jennie C. Smith, in charge of the Day School for the 
Deaf, Eau Claire, Wis. — I had two cases of this kind. 

Dr. Bell. — ^The trouble is we learn to speak by the poorest 
process of imitation. 

Department of Special Education, 369 

J. N. Tate, Superintendent of School for the Deaf, Faribault, 
Minn. — I suppose that every superintendent of a school for the 
deaf has had children come to him who are dumb because of 
some mental defect. They do not belong to us because they are 
not normal mentally. 

A paper by Miss Mary McCowen, Supervising Principal of 
the Chicago Day Schools for the Deaf, on "A Comparison of 
Kindergarten Methods for the Deaf and the Hearing Child," was 
followed by exercises by the four grades present of the McCowen 
Oral School, Chicago, 111., under direction of Miss Cornelia D. 
Bingham^ Principal, and her assistants. 

Business Meeting. 

The Department at 5.30 o'clock, Friday afternoon, at the 
close of the regular program, continued in session as a business 
meeting. Prof. W. D. Parker, chairman of the Committee on 
Nominations, presented the following report: 

For President — Edward E. Allen, Overbrook, Pa. 

For Vice-President — Mary McCowen, Chicago, 111. 

For Secretary — Miss Sarah Fuller, Boston, Mass. 

Upon motion the report was accepted and the persons nomi- 
nated were elected. 

Dr. J. C. Gordon, chairman of the Committee on Resolu- 
tions, presented the following report: 

Report of Committee on Resolutions. 

The Committee on Resolutions, to which were referred all 
resolutions, report the following, and unanimously recommend 
their adoption: 

I. Resolvedy that this Department approves of the action 
of the Board of Directors, changing the name and defining the 
scope of the Department, and recommends the adoption of the 
report of the Committee upon Reorganization, which is ' as 

I. The name of the Department shall be "Depart- 
ment of Special Education — Relating to Children De- 
manding Special Means of Instruction." 

370 The Association Review, 

2. The object of this Department shall be to bring 
persons engaged in the education of children requiring 
special methods of instruction into contact and affilia- 
tion with teachers in general, for the interchange of 
ideas for mutual benefit. 

3. All communications must be non-technical in 
character, for the purpose of securing an interchange 
of ideas between those engaged in general and those en- 
gaged in special education. 

4. To secure from specialists papers of general in- 
terest for presentation to the general convention or its 

5. To secure from prominent educators the pres- 
entation of papers before this Department. 

6. All matters to be presented at any meeting shall 
be approved in advance by the Executive Committee. 

2. Whereas, the usefulness of this Department in its work 
calls for information and statistics gathered systematically, from 
a largfe field; and 

Whereas, it is desirable that this information be made 
available at the next meeting of the National Educational As- 

Resolved, that a committee be appointed and authorized to 
confer with the National Bureau of Education, with a view to se- 
curing a compilation of existing statistics relative to children in 
the public schools who need special methods of instruction, and 
the gathering of more complete returns from the large cities of 
the United States. 

3. Resolved, that the efforts of the school authorities of the 
city of Boston to provide special instruction in special classes for 
pupils whose mental development is impeded by such physical 
conditions as partial deafness, imperfect sight, etc., is worthy of 

4. Resolved, that the graduation of persons deaf from birth 
or from early childhood, with academic degrees from Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, and the University of California, as well as from 
Gallaudet College for the Deaf; and of blind students from many 
colleges, is worthy of note by this body as an encouragement to 
high endeavor on the part of pupils and teachers alike. 

Department of Special Education. 371 

5. Resolved, that the larger and freer use of written lan- 
guage and of speech, from year to year, by pupils in schools for 
the deaf is a progressive step worthy of note and of commenda- 

6. Resolved, that day schools for young deaf children, with 
efficient teachers and competent supervision, should be encour- 
aged, especially for such children as cannot be reached by institu- 
tions or boarding schools, which, with their manifold advan- 
tages, cannot cover the entire field in many states. 

7. Resolved, that the thanks of this Department be ex- 
tended to Wm. T. Harris, LL.D., U. S. Commissioner of Educa- 
tion, and other prominent educators who have addressed this 
Department, also to the local committee of arrangements, and to 
the ladies and gentlemen taking part in the musical program, 
also to Miss Cornelia Bingham, for the living exhibit from her 
school in Chicago, and to Dr. A. Graham Bell, LL.D., our Pres- 
ident, for invaluable services rendered to this Department. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) J. C. Gordon, Chairman, 

Upon motion the resolutions were adopted by the Depart- 
ment as read. 

In conformity with the second resolution the President ap- 
pointed Mr. F. W. Booth, editor of the Association Review, 
as the committee to compile and gather statistics relative to chil- 
dren in the public schools who need special methods of instruc- 
tion, to report at the next meeting of the National Educational 

Upon motion the Department adjourned. 

Department headquarters were maintained throughout the 
sessions of the National Educational Association at parlors 222, 
West Hotel. 

An interesting and impressive exhibit of products of the 
industrial work carried on at the School for the Feeble-Minded, 
Faribault, Minn., was shown in the parlors of the Hennepin 
Avenue Methodist Church. 

372 The Association Review. 

The occasion of a dinner given on the evening of Friday, 
July nth, at the West Hotel, to members and friends of the 
Department, by Dr. and Mrs. A. Graham Bell, was rendered 
doubly enjoyable and memorable by the fact of its being the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of Dr. and Mrs. Bell's wedding day. 

F. W. Booth, Secretary, 


Clarke School for the Deaf, at Northampton, Mass., Au- 
gust 31, 1901. 

The President of the Corporation, Franklin Carter, ac- 
knowledges with thanks the action of the Board of Education in 
increasing the annual allowance for each pupil in the school to 
$250, a sum which, however, is still more than thirty dollars less 
than the annual per capita cost for care and instruction. He 
makes an earnest plea for compulsory education for the deaf, 
from which we make the following extract relating to the rights 
and the duty of the State in such connection : 

"If the State stands ready to pay for the instruction of deaf 
children many times the cost to the towns and cities of the 
teaching of normal children, it may be assumed that the State 
fully recognizes a duty to the deaf child. In view of this recogni- 
tion, has not the State the right to say that every deaf child 
within its own borders, not otherwise efficiently taught (unless 
sickness or disability other than deafness makes it impossible), 
shall be made to share in the benefits of its provisions? Or has 
the tenderness of parents for the unfortunate boy or girl, the 
reluctance to commit the one especially dear because of this in- 
firmity for so many months in a year to unknown guardians, 
any validity in the face of the great enlargement of vision and 
power that the instruction will bring to the child? Is this not a 
relation in which an ignorant and fond parent may blight the 
normal life of one dependent on him, and thus greatly limit the 
service to the community of one possibly gifted in some direc- 
tion? Ought not the state to suppress vigorously a sentimen- 
tality so mawkish that all true perspective as to the significance 
of love and duty, discipline and power is lost?" 

374 ^*^ Association Review, 

Mr. Carter also speaks of the importance of at once placing 
in a school for the deaf those who lose their hearing after arriv- 
ing at school age in order that they may not, through neglect, 
lose the attainments in speech, language and mental growth al- 
ready made. That this plea is quite disinterested, is shown by 
the fact that the Clarke School has its full complement of pupils 
and therefore would not be benefited by such a law as is sug- 

The Principal states that no radical changes were made in 
methods of instruction, but there is abundantly indicated in her 
report the steady, healthful growth that the profession has come 
to expect of her school. We note that more special drill in 
speech-reading was given to young children with satisfactory 
results; that there was more systematic training of the hearing 
power retained by some pupils; and more extensive use was 
made of blue-prints, the Perry pictures, and pen and ink draw- 
ings to illustrate the pupils' lessons. 

Rassegna della Educazione del Sordomuti [Review of the 
Education of the Deaf], Naples, No. 4, April; No. 5, May; 
No. 6, June; Nos. 7 and 8 (in one), July and August, 1902. 

No. 4, April: "The Education of the Deaf in Foreign 
Countries" contains an account of a visit made by Prof. G. 
Ferreri in the schools for the deaf in England. This account 
is limited to the Normal School of London, where Mr. Van 
Praagh has practiced for many years the oral system with the 
best success. A humorous article of Folchetto still treats the 
well-knov^m question of the Royal Institute for the Deaf in 
Rome. The purpose of the Volta Bureau, for the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf (Washington), is well 
explained in a letter from G. Ferreri to the Editor of the 
Rassegna. Among the miscellany we read an important notice 
about the good intention of the Minister of Public Instruction to 
present to the legislative chambers a special bill for the increase 
of the education of the Deaf in Italy, 

No. 5, May: C. Lazzerotti, a teacher in the Royal In- 
stitution for the Deaf at Rome, reminds his colleagues, in a short 

Reviews, 375 

and poetical article, of the proposal made at the last Congress 
of Rome to meet again at Naples. E. Scuri gives an account 
of the last numbers of the French Revue Generale, making some 
just observations on the teaching of articulation. G. Ferreri 
publishes regularly a review of the American magazines on the 
education of the Deaf. A special library has been instituted 
by Prof. Scuri, as first Vice-President of the Italian Association 
of the Teachers of the Deaf, in order to provide the colleagues 
with pedagogical, scientific and literary books. This library 
is dedicated to the name of Prof. Pasquale Fornari, late Director 
of the Royal Normal School of Milan. 

No. 6, June: "For the Hearing of the Deaf," is an article 
by G. Ferreri, who gives a particular account of his personal 
impressions about the use of the Akoulalion in some American 
schools. Prof. Ferreri is not convinced of the utility of the in- 
strument, and takes the occasion to reaffirm his opinion, ex- 
pressed some years ago when he went purposely to examine this 
subject at Vienna. His conclusion is the same: "With the chil- 
dren who possess an appreciable remnant of hearing, the best 
results of the auricular system are those obtained by means of 
the natural voice." The "Hermit of Maggiate" renews his com- 
plaints against the public and official examinations of the Deaf, 
which only give a false idea of our educational work. "A Pro- 
posal for the Tutelage of the Deaf is made by Prof. G. Ferreri. 
The writer accuses the Legal Medicine of partiality in taking 
into consideration on the subject of criminality among the Deaf, 
only the crimes of the Deaf themselves, and neglecting those 
crimes committed by so-called normal persons against and with 
the Deaf. The proposal is suggested to the author by the fre- 
quent cases in which the process in law against those who at- 
tempt the honor of the Deaf is arrested by the ignoble influ- 
ence of money or social position. 

Nos. 7 and 8, July and August (in one), is as follows: 
"The Project of a Law for the Instruction of the Deaf in 
Italy," by E.. Scuri, Director of the Royal Institution for the 
Deaf, at Naples: It appears that the project of this law prepared 
by Minister Nasi does not contemplate compulsory education of 

376 The Association Review, 

the deaf, but shows, to compensate for this omission, a broad 
and wide foresight in the arrangement of the courses of instruc- 
tion. As soon as the Italian Parliament shall have passed this, 
or some similar law, we shall make it the subject of a more ex- 
tended notice. "Helen Keller," by G. Ferreri: Mr. Ferreri 
gives an account of several interviews he had with Helen Keller 
at Washington, to whom he was introduced by Mr. John Hitz, 
the Superintendent of the Volta Bureau. Mr. Ferreri was 
deeply impressed by Miss Helen Keller, as appears from his 
account, in which he says: "The impression which I received at 
my first interview with Helen Keller, was so suggestive and 
peculiar that I cannot express it in words. To do justice to the 
subject, I ought to wield the pen of an Emerson or Maeterlinck. 
I must, therefore, refrain from reproducing mental impressions 
and confine myself to mere externals." At Cambridge, Mass., 
Mr. Ferreri had the pleasure of inspecting Helen Keller's li- 
brary, to see her work on the type-writer and attend lectures at 
Radclifle College. "First Reunion of Austrian Teachers of the 
Deaf," by Romisto di Maggiate: At this reunion Mr. John Kraft, 
Director of the Institution at Dobling, near Vienna, stated, 
among the rest, that in order to guarantee to the deaf an educa- 
tion and instruction as perfect as possible, the following con- 
ditions should be complied with: i. The course of instruction 
in all institutions must be 8 years at the very least (better still 
9 years); 2. The Government should provide special training 
of teachers of the deaf, especially as regards pedagogics; 3. 
There should be a uniform method for all institutions. 4. llie 
Government should provide all text books and educational ma- 
terial. "Drawing in Schools for Deaf-mutes," by S. Rossignani. 

Smaablade for Dovstumme [Leaflets for the Deaf], 12th year, 
No. 85, Copenhagen, Denmark, July, 1902. 

"The Deaf Congregation at Copenhagen:" As stated in a 
previous number of the Association Review, the hope of 
this congregation to obtain a house of worship was disappointed. 
The Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs and Education, however, 
informed the Bishop of Zealand, to whose diocese this congre- 

Reviews. 377 

gation belongs, that for the coming fiscal year the sum of 1000 
kroner [$268.00] would be allowed to the congregation from the 
Public Treasury, divided as follows: 520 kroner for traveling 
expenses of the pastor, 300 kroner for rent of a church, and 180 
kroner as salary of an organist. "The Mutual Feeling of Au- 
thority in the Deaf-Mutes," by C. Becker (continued from a pre- 
vious number) : Although the deaf have their proper authorities 
among the hearing people who have come in contact with them, 
they ought not to give the hearing persons more trouble than 
their peculiar circumstances cause; and if they nevertheless do 
this, there is evident need that they should have natural authori- 
ties among their own number, to whom they can look up, and 
whose advice and recommendations they can follow. The great 
question is, who shall be selected for such positions. There arc 
deaf persons in Denmark who occupy prominent positions; but 
they are either too proud or lack the ability to undertake the 
work. It will, therefore, be the duty of hearing persons to pro- 
cure for us our own natural authorities who have both time and 
ability to work for their fellow deaf, and to whom, owing to their 
elevated social position, the great mass of the deaf may look up 
with due respect. "The Norwegian Agricultural School for the 
Deaf": A great many people are of the opinion that it is better 
for the deaf to learn some trade and come to the cities where 
they meet other deaf with whom they can have intercourse, 
whilst in the country they are frequently oppressed with a sense 
of their loneliness, and become melancholy or actually lose their 
minds, of which there have been several instances. These ob- 
jections, however, cannot be supported by the actual facts. In 
the first place, the deaf who leave our institutions at the present 
time are much better prepared to have intercourse with hearing 
persons than was the case in former times, and there is, conse- 
quently, not near as much danger as formerly that they will be- 
come lonesome; and in the second place, work in the cities is 
constantly harder to procure, as there are in most of the Nor- 
wegian cities more mechanics than are needed and can earn a 
decent livelihood; and as in all fields of employment there is a 
strong and growing competition. The deaf should, therefore, 
be encouraged to attend the agricultural school. Work on a 

378 The Association Review. 

farm, in company with hearing persons, is, so far at least, much 
easier to procure; and the labor in the open air will make the 
deaf healthier and happier, and in the long run more independ- 
ent than they could ever be in the crowded cities. 

Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung [Journal of the Educa- 
tion of the Deaf], Vol. XV., Nos. ii, 12, 13 and 14; Berlin, 
June and July, 1902. 

"Utilization of the Remnants of Hearing" by R. Brohmer 
(Weissenfels) : This question has been discussed for some time 
by teachers of the deaf, a few being of the opinion that, as sug- 
gested by Dr. Bezold of Munich, a great deal more attention 
should be given to the remnants of hearing, whilst the majority 
do not share these views. It is too early to reach a definite con- 
clusion. The results of the investigations which have been set 
on foot at various institutions will, however, have real value only 
if the investigation has been conducted in the right manner. 
From the experience at the Weissenfels institution it seems ad- 
visable that the following course should be pursued: i. The chil- 
dren who are supposed to possess some remnants of hearing 
should be examined by an aurist by means of the continued 
series of sounds. 2. Teachers of the deaf — not physicians — 
should make an examination by speech, and should carefully 
note what sounds the children are able to hear prior to the be- 
ginning of the exercises. 3. The character of the speech of each 
child should be ascertained by teachers of the deaf by obtaining 
replies to the following questions: a. What is the general sound 
of the speech ? b. To what degree are the different vowels 
clearly pronounced? c. How is, as a general thing, the pronun- 
ciation of the consonants? d. Which vowels are pronounced im- 
perfectly? e. Is the speech fluent? f. How is the articulation? 
and g.y the enunciation? A, Is the speech, as a general rule, in- 
telligible? This process should be repeated at certain stated in- 
tervals, to ascertain whether there has been any change? Dr. 
r)ezold's experiments, as given in his interesting work, "The 
hearing capacity of the Deaf" (Wiesbaden, 1896), will in all cases 
serve as a safe guide, as he shows which of the continued series 
of sounds are still heard, in other words which portions of the 

Reviews. 379 

acoustic apparatus are still intact; and as he has ascertained 
how long each sound is heard by a deaf person, and instituted a 
comparison between this length of time and that during which a 
normal ear hears a sound. 

The objects which are to be reached by utilizing the rem- 
nants of hearing are self-evidently the following: i. To start 
normal activity at the ends of the acoustic channel. 2. To develop 
the sensorial centre. 3. To develop the motorial centre; and 4. 
To promote a smooth and distinct pronunciation. 

Among the "Miscellaneous Communications" we note a re- 
port from Leipzig where the General Association of the Deaf 
recently held a very successful memorial festival in honor of 
Samuel Heinicke, who in 1778 founded the first German institu- 
tion for the deaf, at Leipzig. One of the features of the celebra- 
tion was the performance by deaf actors of two classical Ger- 
man comedies, the first by pantomime, accompanied by the read- 
ing of the text by a hearing lady; whilst in the second piece the 
spoken language was used by the actors. The large and intelli- 
gent audience loudly applauded both performances, and the 
leading theatrical journal of Berlin, which was represented at 
the celebration, considers both performances a full and genuine 

"The Different Forms of Muteness and Aphasia," by Dr. 
H. Gutzmann, Berlin. A paper read at the meeting of the As- 
sociation of Berlin Teachers of the Deaf, December 14, 1901 : 
Dr. Gutzmann starts out with the idea that it is important for 
teachers of the deaf to clearly distinguish the various forms of 
muteness and aphasia. So far, no attempt has been made to 
classify these various forms. By "muteness" Dr. Gutzmann 
understands those forms of lack of speech where this defect 
showed itself already during the period of development of the 
speech, or where there never was any speech; whilst by the term 
"aphasia" he understands cases where, after the faculty of speech 
had been fully developed, disturbances of different kinds led to 
loss of speech. In observing the pathological phenomena ac- 
companying the various forms of muteness and aphasia, it may 
be said that all forms of muteness must be considered as ob- 
stacles stopping the natural development, whilst all forms of 

380 The Association Review. 

aphasia are disturbances occurring at a later period. The stop- 
ping of the natural development of the speech may be caused 
in at least three different ways, viz: i. By a cessation of the 
action of the senses (hearing, sight, touch) ; 2, By the anomalous 
heightening of the sensations of the nerves; 3, By disturbances 
which hinder the effect which the stored sensations exercise on 
the development of the motorial centre of speech. 

The various forms of aphcisia may be grouped as follows: 
I. Cortical sensorial aphasia: disturbances of the sensorial 
center of speech, loss of ability to write freely, to write from dic- 
tation, to comprehend writing; whilst the faculty of mechanical 
copying has been preserved. The understanding of spoken 
words and the ability to speak after others, are lost ; mistakes in 
speaking will also occur. 2. Sub-cortical sensorial aphasia: The 
disturbances of speech are the same as in the first group; there 
are no mistakes in speaking; whilst the written speech has been 
left entirely undisturbed. 3. Trans-cortical sensorial aphasia :Thert 
is no understanding of spoken words, but the faculty to speak 
after others has been preserved. Mistakes in speaking will occur. 
The understanding of written speech has been lost. Reading 
aloud without understanding what is read and writing in all its 
forms are preserved. Only in spontaneous writing mistakes 
will occur. 4. Cortical motorial aphasia: The faculty of speak- 
ing spontaneously and after other persons is lost; the under- 
standing of speech remains undisturbed, all forms of reading 
and writing, with the exception of mechanical copying, are lost. 
5. Sub-cortical motorial aphasia: the disturbances of speech are 
the same as under 4. The faculty to read aloud has been lost, 
whilst writing in all its forms and the understanding of writing 
has been preserved. 6. Tratis-cortical motorial aphasia: spon- 
taneous speech is lost. The faculty to speak after other persons 
and the understanding of speech are maintained, whilst sponta- 
neous writing has been lost^ writing from dictation, copying, 
reading aloud, and understanding of writing remain undisturbed. 
We have given the above extracts from Dr. Gutzmann's essay, 
not because we deem his remarks of great practical use, but 
simply as one of the first attempts at a scientific classification 
of muteness and its various causes. 

Reviews. 381 

"Natural Science" in Schools for the Deaf," by J. Kerner 
(Essen) : A very exhaustive treatise on the question how much 
and in what manner should natural science be taught in schools 
for the deaf. After speaking of heat, its causes and its spread, 
the currents of the air, etc., the author speaks of the winds and 
their causes. To illustrate his method we quote the following: 
"Light this candle! Open the door a little! Hold the candle in the 
upper part of the opening — the room being heated — and the 
flame of the candle is blown toward the outside. What is the 
cause of this phenomenon? The current of warm air which 
passes out of the room. Hold the lighted candle in the lower 
part of the opening, and the flame is blown inward. What is 
the cause of this? The cold air which streams in from the out- 
side? Then follow: the currents of the sea, steam, fog, clouds 
and rain, snow, hail, dew, hoar frost; finally steam and its force, 
and the steam-engine, the atmosphere, the balloon, the diving- 
bell, the pop-gun, the bellows, the suction-pump, the fire engine, 
etc., etc., all treated in the same practical way. 

Among the "Miscellaneous Communications" we note: "A 
Household School for the Deaf in Finland": A school of this 
kind was opened at Loimijoki in the spring of 1901. Its object 
is to educate deaf girls to become competent servants. The 
founder of this school, or rather this "home" is Miss Wialen, 
formerly teacher at the school at Abo, who has established it 
at her own expense. Miss Wialen has endeavored to distribute 
the instruction and work according to the capacity of each girl; 
thus one has charge of the stable containing seven cows, another 
has charge of the chicken yard, another has to do all the clean- 
ing and scrubbing in the house, another the cooking, etc. From 
time to time one girl is transferred from one field of labor to an- 
other, so gradually they all take their turn at all household 
duties. In their free hours the girls can spin, weave, sew, knit 
and mend. In the heavier work such as washing, baking and 
brewing, all take part. We would mention here that to prepare 
(brew) a wholesome home-made beer is counted among the 
female accomplishments in most of the northern countries of 
Europe. The mental development of the pupils is not neglected, 
and for an hour every evening and on Sundays Miss Wialen 

382 The Associatiott Review. 

engages her pupils in helpful conversation on secular and re- 
ligious subjects. All of Miss Wialen's pupils have been selected 
from the very poorest classes, and whilst they are at her home 
she amply supplies them with clothing, shoes, etc. 

The legislature of the Grand Duchy of Baden (Germany) in 
its sessions of June 20 and 2t, 1902, by a large majority passed 
a resolution to establish a new Institution for the Deaf (the 
third in Baden) near Heidelberg, and appropriated the necessary 
money for buying a suitable lot and for starting the course of in- 
struction. In this new institution partially deaf pupils shall be 
instructed separately from the totally deaf. 

From the 21st of May till the 4th of June a course of in- 
struction and information for aurists and teachers of the deaf 
was held at the Central Institution for the Deaf at Munich, 
Bavaria, and was attended by 31 persons, from Bavaria, Wurt- 
temberg, North Germany, Austria, Hungary and Japan. Dr. 
Bezold delivered lectures on the examination of the deaf, rel- 
ative to remnants of hearing, by his continued series of sounds; 
Dr. Wanner on the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the 
organs of speech; Dr. Koller on his method of teaching speech. 

Nordisk Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan [Scandinavian Journal 
of the Instruction of the Deaf] , T. Goteborg, Sweden, Nos. 
5 and 6, 1902. 

"Report of J. Wallin to the Swedish Ministry of Public In- 
struction on his Journey and Visits to Various Institutions for 
the Deaf:" This is the first of the series of articles, and g^ves an 
account of the German institution at Schleswig (under the Dan- 
ish Government till 1864, when, after the war between Denmark 
and Germany, the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were ceded 
to Germany), and the Danish Institutions at Fredericia and 
Nyborg. The Director of the Schleswig institution is Mr. Au- 
gust Engelke, who has labored at this institution for a long 
number of years, first as a teacher and then as its Director. Al- 
though 70 years of age he is in the full enjoyment of his health 
and strength, and is at his post from early morning till late at 

Reviews. 383 

night. The institution has both boarders and day scholars; the 
number varying between 64 and 72. The annual expense of a 
pupil at Schleswig is between 600 and 700 mark ($142.80 to 
$166.60). The salaries of the teachers vary from 2^100 to 3,800 
mark (about $500 to $900). Pupils are received at the age of 
7 or 8. The number of hours of instruction, including gymnas- 
tics, is from 36 to 39. 

The majority of teachers are gentlemen, only two ladies be- 
ing among the number. Here, as throughout Germany, there ap- 
pears to be considerable prejudice against female teachers. It 
is thought that, as a general rule, women are not strong enough 
physically to stand the wear and tear incidental to a teacher's 
position. The method employed at Schleswig is the pure speech- 
method, and the course of instruction embraces reading, writ- 
ing, arithmetic (6 hours a week), history, geography, natural 
history, physics, manual work of various kinds, and gymnastics. 
Religion is likewise taught, during the last two years 6 hours a 
week. There is in the Province of Schleswig-Holstein an asso- 
ciation for the support of the home for aged and infirm deaf, 
connected with the Schleswig Institution numbering 28,175 
members. The expenses of this home for the fiscal year 1899- 
1900 were 7,441 mark ($1^770.95), all contributed by members 
of the Association. 

The Danish Institutions for the deaf at Fredericia and 
Nyborg: The instruction of the deaf in Denmark is compulsory 
since 1817, and work among the deaf has been carried on ever 
since 1798. The development of the Danish schools for the 
deaf has been phenomenal, and in many respects they have been 
the pioneers for the whole of Scandinavia. The Director of the 
Fredericia Institution is G. Jorgensen, and of the Nyborg in- 
stitution G. Forchhammer, both exceedingly able and energetic 
men. At Fredericia, which is the principal institution, children 
of school age are taken in from all parts of the kingdom. The 
first year they spend in the preparatory class. At the end of the 
year they are divided into those who are only deaf, who are sent 
to Nyborg, those who are deaf and cannot speak at time of ad- 
mittance, who remain in Fredericia and are subdivided in two 
divisions, and backward children who are sent to the sign-school 

384 The Association Review. 

at Copenhagen. About 25 per cent, go to Nyborg and 20 per- 
cent, to Copenhagen. The consequence is that Fredericia has 
a pure unmixed school of deaf pupils, subdivided according to 
their ability. The classes are therefore particularly even, i. e. 
the pupils in each are all, as nearly as possible, of the same ca- 
pacity. The Fredericia Institution can record most excellent 
results. Fredericia has both boarders and day-scholars, about 
evenly divided. Nyborg has only day scholars, and Copenhagen 
only boarders. A peculiar arrangement at Nyborg and Fred- 
ericia is this, that in all the recitation rooms the walls above the 
wainscoting are painted a slate color, so that they can be used 
for writing thereon with chalk, to which use they are put very 

Mr. Jorgenson at Fredericia is a thorough believer in the 
old adage of a sound mind in a sound body, and that bodily ex- 
ercise will render the pupils mentally brighter. A great deal of 
time is, therefore, devoted to gymnastics, walks, games, bathing, 
work in the garden, manual and household labor. Once a week 
the girls in the two highest classes help the women in the homes 
where they are placed, with cooking, and also accompany them 
to the market. 

From the "Miscellaneous Communications" we learn that 
in 1901 there were in Prussia 456 teachers of the deaf. Of these 
10 were upwards of 65 years old and 18 between 65 and 60. Of 
these 28, 17 were directors of schools. The average age of a 
Prussian teacher was 42^ years, and the average length of ser- 
vice 22 years. 

In Germany there is a law according to which teachers are 
responsible for any injury which their pupils inflict on them- 
selves or on others during the time they are under the teacher's 
care. In order to protect themselves the teachers have been 
compelled to take out policies in accident insurance companies 
with the special understanding that in case of accidents to the 
pupils the company pays the indemnity. During the last six 
months of the year 1901 such insurance was paid in 34 cases. 
In not less than 15 cases indemnity was paid on the ground of 
real or alleged injury caused by bodily punishment of pupils. 

Reviews. 385 

A course of preparatory instruction for deaf children be- 
tween the ages of 3 and 7 will be opened in Goteborg, Sweden, 
on the 1st of September, 1902, in some of the infant schools for 
hearing children. Instruction will be imparted by a teacher 
specially appointed for this purpose. The expenses will be met 
by the interest of a fund of 61,000 kroner collected for this ob- 
ject among the people of Goteborg and the neighborhood. 

II Sordomuto e la sua Educazione [The Deaf and his Educa- 
tion], Siena, I. Vol. (Pedagogy) — Second Edition — 1902; II. 
Vol. (Didactic), 1895; III, Vol. (History), 1896. 

We give here above the title of a manual for the teachers 
of the deaf, which Prof. Ferreri published in Siena in the years 
1895-96. The work is divided into three volumes. Tlie first 
one (Pedagogy) contains XV. chapters and an appendix on the 
results of the instruction of the deaf in regard to the teaching 
of language. This volume has been published now in its second 
edition and we are very glad to give to our readers the trans- 
lation of the eighth chapter in the present nupiber of our Review 
hoping that this specimen will show the value of the Italian 

The second volume (Didactic) is divided into three parts: 
I. Articulation; II. Language; III. Other subjects of in- 

In the first part particular attention is given to the word 
physically considered. The author indicates: (a) the preliminary 
exercises for articulation; (b) the rules for the teaching of the 
elements of the words and of the various sounds: simple vowels; 
combinations of vowels; simple consonants and combinations 
of consonants; (c) the rules for the phonetical unity of the word 
in the combination of several sounds, from the simple syllable 
to the complex sentence. He shows afterwards the means 
through which the deaf are accustomed to speech, and the 
various grades of teaching. 

The second part is a complete study on the theoretical and 
practical relation between the thought and the word. Particular 

386 The Association Review, 

chapters are dedicated to lip-reading, and to the means of teach- 
ing the language (objects, pictures, actions, and scenes from real 
life, dialogue, occasional teaching, writing, reading, etc.) In re- 
gard to the grammar, a special study is made on the absolute 
and relative value of the word in speech as a theoretical in- 
troduction to the teaching of the morpholog>' of the syntax and 
of the figurative and real signification of the words and of the 
phrases. Finally, rules are given for the graduated teaching 
of composition and of the use of familiar and vernacular lan- 

The third part consists of a chapter only, divided into four 
paragraphs. The author premises that every subject in a 
school of the deaf is a matter for the teaching of language and 
observes that, when the deaf knows the language, everything 
can be taught to him without difficulty. Therefore the rules for 
the teaching of religion, history, geography, arithmetic, etc., 
are the same as those of the common schools, only with the 
difference of the extension of the programmes. 

The third volume is the History of the Instruction of the 
Deaf from its origin to our days. 

The author could consult the most important publications 
on the subject issued in Spain, in England, in France and in 
Germany. He gives in this volume the criticism of the first 
works which appeared in those countries from the XVI. century. 
A comparative study is dedicated to the French and German 
schools in order to show the reasons of the diffusion of the 
various systems in the education of the deaf. A large historical 
account of these systems in France, in Germany and in Italy 
shows the progress of the oral method in Europe in the period 
1830-1880. The last chapter (XIV.) contains a summary ex- 
position of the present state of the education of the deaf in the 
various countries of the civilized world. 

The manual of Prof. Ferreri, as well as many other of his 
writings upon the education of the deaf, is diffused among the 
educators of Italy who follow its rules in practical teaching and 
it is also much prized in some foreign countries by those edu- 
cators of the deaf who, being familiar with the Italian language, 
can consult it with great advantage. 

Reviews. 387 

Das Taubstummenbildungs-AVesen im XIX Jahrhundert 

in den Wichtigsten Staaten Europas. Ein Ueberblick uber 
seine Entwickelung. — Im V^erein mit auslandischen Vert- 
retern desTaubstummenfaches herausgegeben von Johannes 
Karth, Lehrer an der Taubstummen-Anstalt zu Breslau. 
Breslau, 1902. Verlag von Wilh. Gottl. Korn. [The State 
of the education of the deaf in the XIX century in the 
most important countries of Europe. An outlook over its 
development. Edited by Johannes Karth, a teacher in the 
institution for the deaf in Breslau, in union with foreign 
representatives of the education of the deaf] . 

This is a fine volume of 428 pages containing an historical 
exposition of the development of the instruction of the deaf in 
the most important countries of Europe. 179 pages are dedi- 
cated to Germany — a tout seigneur, tout honneur! — and it is really 
the case to say: "Germania docet." 

Karth's work is well worthy of taking its place near that of 
the book: "Geschichte des Taubstummen-Bildungswesen," pub- 
lished in 1882 by Ed. Walther, the Principal of the Royal Insti- 
tute for the Deaf in Berlin. Yet, we can say that Mr. Karth's 
study completes that of Mr. Walther, because it is always true 
that in historical matters the more authoritative voice is that 
of posterity. Mr. Karth's work gives us a well ordered, retro- 
spective view of the development of the special pedagogy of the 
deaf in Prussia and Germany, saying very little about people and 
much about things; hence the great importance of his work. 
There are two chapters, subdivided into various articles, which 
give in their titles alone a clear idea of the contents: i. On the 
external development, or the material organization of the edu- 
cation of the deaf; 2. On the internal development, or the 
theoretical and practical development of the German school in 
its three grades corresponding with the names of Heinicke, 
Jager and Hill. In regard to the other countries of Europe, 
which have contributed to the development of the pedagogy of 
the deaf, Mr. Karth asked his colleagues of the various nations 
for information, and their reports are published in extenso, or 
condensed in such a manner that their monographies would be 
most adapted to the economy and plan of the book. The Euro- 
pean countries are not classified according to their respective 
importance as to the education and assistance of the deaf, but 


The Association Review, 

they come in alphabetical order, so that every subjective judg- 
ment or personal appraisal is eliminated. 

Here is the list* of the countries, which shows their work 
in favor of the Deaf, with the indication of the author, or of the 
publication from which Mr. Karth condensed the necessary 
notices: Belgium — E. Gregoire, Berchene, Sainte- Agathe ; Den- 
mark — G. Forchhammer, Nyborg; Finland — V. Forsius, Hel- 
singfors; France — Hamon du Fougeray, Le Mans; Great Brit- 
ain — Dr. Eichrolz, London; Holland— Brugmans and Roorda, 
Groningen; Italy — G. Ferreri, Siena; Croatia and Slavonia — ^J. 
Medved, Agram; Norway — F. O. Guldberg, Christiania; Austria 
— G. Pipetz, Graz; Russian West Provinces — Migge, Mitan; 
Russia — Rau, Mosca ; Sweden — F. Nordin, Wenersborg ; Switzer- 
land — Kull, Zurich; Spain — M. Pathoff, Madrid; Hungary — S. 
Varadi, Budapest. 

In the conclusion of the book Mr, Karth gives the following 
interesting summary in which, as he says, "the figures speak 
for themselves," and which shows clearly the progressive devel- 
opment of the education of the deaf in Europe. 







Great Britain 






RusHia West Province 




Spain , 


Number of 
the Institu- 
tions for tbp 
Deaf in the 
year 1800. 





At the end of the XIX 
Century (1900), 
























1 1784 






' 885 
















* In the translation of the geographical names the alphabetical order 
is^ of course, changed. 

Reviews, 389 

Revue General de Tenseignement des Sourds-muets [Gen- 
eral Review of the Instruction of the Deaf], Vol. IV., Nos. i 
and 2, Paris, May, June, 1902. 

May: "Why Do the Deaf Speak Badly?" by A. Liot. The 
author is of the opinion that this undoubted fact is due in great 
part to the hurried course of instruction, and advises teachers to 
proceed not only methodically but exceedingly slow in their ar- 
ticulation classes. The conditions which he considers indispen- 
able for making the deaf speak well are the following: i. No 
more than five pupils in articulation classes. 2. Make the teach- 
ing of the elements of pronunciation and syllabication the main 
points in instruction. 3. Do not allow the child to speak, ex- 
cept in the presence of the teacher, unless it is sufficiently sure 
of its organs. Mr. Liot states, in conclusion, that too great care 
cannot be exercised in the beginning. He would prefer to have 
a teacher of articulation let his pupils pronounce the vowels and 
consonants in too ornate a manner rather than be content with 
an approximative pronunciation. In a supplement, the article 
from the journal "riUustration" is concluded. Seven very ex- 
cellent illustrations show the professor and his pupil engaged in 
teaching various sounds, viz.: i. The sound "i", vibrations at the 
top of the skull, the position of the tongue. 2. The sound "n," 
vibrations of the nostrils. 3. "t," sensation of an explosion. 4. 
**f/' slow whistling. 5. "pa," "p," sharp whistling; "a," vibrations 
of the larynx. 6. The professor correcting a wrong position of 
the tongue. A full page illustration deserves special notice. It 
represents a class in anatomy. The professor stands to the left 
writh a human skeleton by his side, and twelve pupils, some stand- 
ing and some sitting at their desks, eagerly follow his explana- 
tions with their eyes. As a life-like reproduction of a higher 
class of the deaf this picture can hardly be excelled. "Deaf Art- 
ists in the Salon of 1902:" As in former years, the Salon showed 
excellent work by the deaf in painting, sculpture, engraving, 
lithography, and decorative art. 

June: "The School for the Deaf at Grenoble, founded and 
directed by Mr. Rauh," by B. Thallon. We here see the strange 
spectacle of a German — Mr. Rauh was born in Bavaria and fin- 
ished his studies at the Normal School of Bamberg about the 

390 7 he Association Review. 

year 1830 — establishing in a French city a school for the deaf, 
which he directed from its foundation in 1841 till 1865, and 
where he instructed pupils according to the oral method. His 
school, founded by his own slender means and contributions 
from well-wishers, numbered every year from 15 to 25 pupils; 
and owing to his gentle but at the same time energetic manner, 
proved a great success from the very outset, and in its earliest 
stages already attracted the attention of the Minister of Public 
Instruction, who granted pecuniary assistance to Mr. Rauh, who, 
in the most devoted and self-sacrificing spirit, gave all his time 
and means towards this noble object. 

This number contains an engraving showing the allegorical 
figure ornamenting the pedestal of the statue of Rochambeau, 
recently erected at the southwest corner of Lafayette Square in 
the city of Washington. All visitors to Washington will admire 
this grand and spirited work of art; and it will be all the more 
interesting to learn that it is the work of a deaf sculptor, Mr. 
F. Hamar. 

Organ der Taubstummen Anstalten in Deutschland [Or- 
gan of the Institutions for the Deaf in Germany], 48th year, 
No. 6, Friedberg, June, 1902. 

"A New Aid for the Instruction of the Deaf," by G. Forch- 
hammer, Nyborg, Denmark. The ultimate aim of all schools 
for the deaf is the mental development of the pupils. In conec- 
tion therewith, however, the speech-school has for its special 
object to train the pupils in speaking and lip-reading. The 
greatest hindrance in reaching this last mentioned object is 
found in the fact that the deaf can only read a comparatively 
small fraction of the sounds from the lips of the speaker. This 
lip-reading will, therefore, always remain more or less imperfect. 
If the deaf could see the inner organs of speech (tongue, palate 
etc.) as well as the lips, they could grasp the spoken word as well 
as hearing persons. With the view^ to remedy this defect, Mr. 
Forchhammer has constructed a system of positions of the hand, 
to indicate the positions of the inner organs of speech. In this 

Reviews. 391 

way the spoken word becomes just as visible to the eye as it is 
audible to the ear. Mr. Forchhammer states that, at the sug- 
gestion of Dr. Graham Bell, he has, with the view to the future 
publication of a pamphlet giving a full and detailed description 
of the system, taken a number of photographs of these positions 
of the hand indicating the more important sounds in several of 
the best known languages. Whenever this pamphlet appears. 
The Association Review will give an extended notice of the 
same. For the present it will suffice to confine ourselves to a 
few general remarks regarding Mr. Forchhammer's system: 
Whilst speaking, the speaker holds the hand before his breast in 
such a manner that the pupils, their eyes b«ing fixed on the lips 
of the speaker, can at the same time distinguish the positions of 
the hand, of which the principal ones are as follows: The 
movements of the ligaments of the glossis are indicated by bend- 
ing the wrist outwardly and inwardly. The movements of the 
palate are indicated by moving the wrist straight up and down; 
the positions of the tongue by half closing the hand and stretch- 
ing out different fingers; the vowels by the thumb, and the con- 
sonants by other fingers; whilst the articulations of the tip of the 
tongiie are, as far as possible, indicated by stretching out differ- 
ent fingers singly, e. g., "s" by stretching out the little finger, 
"1" the middle finger, etc., "n-d-t" by stretching out the fore 
finger. The articulations of the back of the tongue are indicated 
by simultaneously stretching out several fingers, and the con- 
sonant "r" by turning the hand. This so-called "hand-system" 
has been followed at the Nyborg institution for some time; and 
as the fear had been expressed that by this system lip-reading 
might be prejudiced, an investigation was made, in order to get 
at the absolute facts; and a comparison instituted between dicta- 
tion from lip-reading and dictation from lip-reading accompanied 
by positions of the haiid of the speaker. The result of quite a 
number of dictations was that in the upper class the dictations 
from lip-reading showed a percentage of 22 mistakes whilst there 
was only a percentage of 3 — 4 in the dictations from what we will 
term "combined lip and hand reading." 

From the "Miscellaneous Communications" we glean the 
following: The Report for 1 900-1 901 of the Zurich (Switzerland) 

39* The Association Review, 

Institution for the Blind and Deaf shows that this institution, 
which has been in existence for 92 years, fully meets all the re- 
quirements for instructing and educating the blind and deaf of 
the Canton of Zurich, but that there is g^eat need of a separate 
establishment for weak-minded deaf and blind, who at present 
are in the same classes with other and bright pupils, and prove a 
great hindrance. The number of pupils is 55 in 5 classes. In 
Hungary, three new institutions for the deaf were founded in 
1901, at Szegedin, Erlau, and Jolsva. 

£1 Sordomudo Argentine. Revista Mensual. Organo del 
Instituto Nacional de Sordomudos. Ano II, Nos. 7 y 8, 
Mayo y Junio de 1902. [The Argentine Deaf-Mute. A 
Monthly Review of the National Institute for the Deaf at 
Buenos Aires. Argentine Republic. II. year. Nos. 7 and 
8, May and June, 1902]. 

After a suspension of three years, we see with great pleasure 
the reappearance of this periodical, issued by Prof. J. P. Diaz 
Gomez, the valiant Vice-Principal of the National Institute for 
the Deaf at Buenos Aires. This publication is of great import- 
ance for the various states of South America, where the Spanish 
language is spoken. In the concert of spoken and written 
languages for the cause of the education of the deaf, one felt the 
lack of this language, which was the first in which the deaf were 
taught to speak. Here are the contents of the first number of 
the resurrected magazine: "El Sordomudo Argentino" — His Re- 
appearance, — by the Editor; "A Letter from the Poet D. Carlos 
Guido y Spano"; "Psycho — Physiology of the Language of 
the Deaf in the Idiot and in Aphasic Persons," a paper by Dr. 
Horace G. Pinero; "L'Educazione dei Sordomuti," by J. Pablo 
Diaz Gomez; "The Speech of Many of the Deaf," as a principal 
point of accusation against the German system : contribution to 
the teaching of articulation," by P. Kopka. (Translated by Prof. 
G. Ferreri); "Psychology of Language," by N. R. D' Alfonso, 
(Translated by J. P. Diaz Gomez); "The Need of Protecting 
the Deaf Child before His School Age," by L. Moyzone; "The 
Acoustic Power of the Deaf," by G. Ferreri ; Bibliography and 
Reviews of the periodicals; Foreign and Domestic News. 

Reviews. 393 

Under the latter title we read that the Government of the 
Argentine Republic has decided to give a secure management 
to the Institution of La Plata, the first of the provence of 
Buenos Aires (founded in 1857, but closed several times after 
the date of its foundation until last year). 

One good effect of the instruction of the Deaf in Argen- 
tine has been the decision of the Government of the Uruguay 
Republic to open an Institution for the Deaf at Montevideo. 
For this purpose six lady teachers have been sent to Buenos 
Aires to be trained in the special teaching of the deaf, in the 
National Institution for girls. 

Informe Presentado a la Direccion de la Escuela National 
de Sordmudos por el profesor Francisco Vasquez Gomez 
y dictamen emitido por la Comision respectiva. Mexico, 
1902. [A Report presented to the Direction of the National 
School for the Deaf, by Prof. F. Vasquez Gomez, and the 
opinion of this report expressed by a special commission]. 

Two years ago the Government of Mexico directed Prof. 
F. Vasquez Gomez to visit some of the best schools for the Deaf 
in the United States. Prof. Gomez came to our country, and 
after seeing a few of our schools, made a report to the Principal 
of the National Institution for the Deaf in Mexico. In his report 
Prof. Gomez proposed some reforms, among which seemed less 
opportune those concerning (i) the adoption of the combined 
system; (2) the adoption of auricular teaching; (3) the abolition 
of the teaching of drawing. 

All this resulted in an elaborate study of the report of 
Prof. Gomez, made by a commission. The special commission 
charged with this delicate task consisted of Prof. Luis G. Villa, 
Adolfo Huet and Representative Daniel Garcia. The conclu- 
sions of the commission, contrary to those of Prof. Gomez, were 
adopted by the Direction of the National Institution at Mexico, 
for the following general considerations: 

394 The Association Review. 

1. The system of classification by different groups of pu- 
pils, proposed by Prof. Gomez, would require triple the number 
of teachers, and at the same time would cause confusion and 
disorder in the classes. 

2. If the teaching of drawing and lithography were sup- 
pressed, the pupils would be deprived of one of the surest means 
of subsistence, because the majority of the old pupils of the 
National Institution live by the exercise of these arts — ^photo- 
graphy, lithography and painting. 

Le Messager de TAbbe de I'Epee .[The Messenger of the 
Abbe de I'Epee], Curriere, France, June ist and iSth, July 
1st and 15th, 1902. 

In these four numbers of this excellent semi-monthly jour- 
nal, we find, besides the usual accounts of institutions for the 
deaf in all parts of the world, several articles of a pronounced 
religious tendency, such as "The Heart of Jesus," "The Tree and 
its Fruits," which, in accordance with the aim and spirit of this 
journal, to care for the spiritual welfare of the deaf, elucidate re- 
ligious truths in so simple a manner as to benefit even very 
young readers. In an article entitled, "The Marriage of the 
Deaf," the writer deems it his duty, owing to the many unhappy 
marriages, to point out the solemn character of the union be- 
tween man and wife, and to warn the deaf not to enter the 
sacred state of matrimony, as is, alas ! so often done, in a light- 
minded and thoughtless manner. In glancing over these num- 
bers of the "Messenger of the Abbe de TEpee," we are more 
than ever impressed with the earnest, but at the same time 
kind-hearted and we may well say, fatherly spirit, which per- 
vades its pages. To do good to his dear deaf children is the 
motto of Abbe Rieffel, the editor. 

Tidning for Dofstumma [Journal for the Deaf], No. 3, 1902, 
Stockhom, Sweden, June, 1902. 

This journal, which does not give many lengthy articles, but 
a great variety of communications from all parts of the world, 
and bright sketches, gives an account of the 25th anniversary 

Reviews. 395 

meeting at Stockholm on the 30th of June, 1902, of the Swedish 
Association of Teachers of the Deaf. From the reports it appears 
that the association has done much good during the 25 years of 
its existence, not only by strengthening the bond of union among 
the teachers, and by mutual encouragement in the performance 
of their important duties, but also by discussing many ques- 
tions relating to the instruction and general welfare of the deaf. 
Special subjects of discussion at this meeting were, amongst the 
rest, the spiritual care of the deaf, the establishment of a journal 
for the deaf, and the pensioning of aged or disabled -teachers. As 
regards the question of homes for aged deaf, the journal deeply 
deplores the fact that while other countries have a number of 
such institutions (Germany 12 or 13, the largest for 400 persons, 
Denmark i, Australia i), the poor and aged deaf in Sweden have 
to go to the poor house. 

L'Echo des Sourds-Muets [The Echo of the Deaf] No. 13, 
Paris, July, 1902. 

We learn from this number that a Miss Sybertz who had for 
a number of years been at the head of a religious institution for 
the education of poor children, and who died recently, left the 
sum of 500,000 francs (about 100,000 dollars) to the National In- 
stitution for Deaf-mutes. It is encouraging to see instances of 
such noble benevolence even in countries where gifts to educa- 
tional institutions are, on the whole, not as frequent as in this 

National Geographic Magazine, August, 1902. 

The two leading articles of this number are "Problems of 
the Pacific — The Commerce of the Great Ocean," by Hon. O. P. 
Austin*; and "Shortening Time Across the Continent," by Henry 
Herbert McClure. There are also reports of the Fieldwork and 
of the Topographic Work of the United States Geographical 
Survey, in 1902, and the usual amount of valuable information 
under the headings of Geographic Notes and Geographic Liter- 




^^ After he had served his own generation by the ivill of God, he 
fell on sleep. ' * — Acts 13-36 . 

**/« this our brother we have lost a man whose ministry has been 
a precious and beautiful fragrance , lasting consistently to the endy 
and as beautiful at the end as at the beginning." — Bishop Potter. 

'*//is life was an inspiration,'' — Public Ledger . 

The universal testimony to the character of our departed 
friend is so sufficiently expressed above that this sketch might 
end right here; but there is no risk of saying too much of one 
whose long and useful life so conspicuously adorned the doctrine 
of God by good works no less than by faith and love, — ^nor can 
one who knew him well and loved him more refuse to add a trib- 
ute of affection and esteem. 

Thomas Gallaudet, Priest, Doctor in Divinity, Doctor of 
Humane Letters, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, June 3d, 
1822. His father was the Rev. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, a 
Congregational minister, founder of public schools for the Deaf 
in America. His mother was Sophia Fowler, one of the first 
pupils of the Hartford School, whose unusual attractiveness of 
person and lovely traits of character soon won her teachers 
heart and hand. From his parents Thomas Gallaudet inherited 
the characteristics that distinguished his life — qualities of mind 
and heart which have made the name of Gallaudet memorable 
in the annals of America. 

Little is known of his early youth. However, from what we 
know of his character in maturcr years we can easily imagine 
that he was a dutiful son, gentle, studious, devout, and of a lov- 
able disposition. 

Rev. Thomas Gallaudet. 397 

He was early prepared for college, and desired to enter 
Yale, of which his father was a graduate, but finally went to 
Trinity, Hartford, whence he graduated with the Bachelor's de- 
gree in 1842, at the age of twenty. 

For a year he taught in country schools near Hartford, and 
in 1843 h^ accepted a call to teach in the New York Institution 
for the Deaf. Speaking later of this period he said, "The exam- 
ple of my father, the training of my deaf-mute mother and my 
early associations, all predisposed me to enter upon my duties 
with genuine enthusiasm." 

In 1845 he married Elizabeth K. Budd, a graduate of the 
New York School, to whom he had become attached while she 
was still a pupil. As he himself said, he was thus bound more 
closely to the people among whom God was fitting him to ex- 
tend the Kingdom of Christ. Seven children were born to them 
of whom six are now living, five daughters and one son. An- 
other son died in infancy. 

Early in life he conceived the idea of systematic religious 
work among the adult deaf. This was doubtless suggested to 
him by the daily prayers and Sunday services inaugurated by his 
father in the Hartford School. * 

Soon after going to New York he took up the study of The- 
ology in the Episcopal Church. How he became a Churchman 
is thus related: While visiting a relative he came across a Prayer 
Book bearing the name of an ancestor. Examining it he be- 
came interested with the result that he was confirmed. He was 
wont to say that "It was not I who left my ancestral Church but 
my ancestors who left theirs. I did but return to it." In 1850 
he was ordained Deacon and a year later he was advanced to the 
Priesthood. Although feeling called to the ministry, he con- 
sidered it his duty to continue teaching. In 1850 he began a 
Bible class for the adult deaf which grew so rapidly that he was 
obliged to seek larger rooms. Of this class he said, twenty- 
three years later, "We were laying the foundations of a super- 
structure of which we then had no conception." Yes, it is the 
building of "a workman that needeth not to be ashamed." 

When he became a Priest, more definite thoughts of his 
future work came to his mind, although "the light dawned very 

398 The Association Review, 

gradually." It was at the funeral of one whom he called "one 
of the most gentle and lovely of my deaf-mute friends" that he 
"resolved, with God's help, to try to found a church to promote 
the temporal and spiritual welfare of the deaf-mutes of New 
York and vicinity." His idea was to associate the deaf and hear- 
ing in one parish, and he soon found friends who encouraged 
him to make a beginning. The chapel of the New York Uni- 
versity was engaged, and on the first Sunday in October, 1852, 
began a parochial life that, for fifty years, has been identified with 
the religious history of this country. The Parish grew rapidly, 
and in 1858 Dr. Gallaudet resigned teaching to devote himself to 
his religious duties. A year later the Church and Rectory so 
long known as St. Ann's, in West Eighteenth St., near Fifth 
Avenue, was purchased. A heavy debt ($50,000) was incurred, 
which the friends of the youthful pastor considered a crushing 
burden. His faith was supreme, however; and the prosperous 
growth of the Parish proves that the venture was more than 
reasonable. A few years ago the property was sold for two 
hundred thousand dollars, and the Parish united with that of St. 
Matthew's, in Eighty-fourth St. A new building was erected in 
One Hundred and Forty-eighth St. for the deaf congregation, 
which retains the name of St. Ann's. The Parish of St. Matthew 
is "pledged to support St. Ann's Church for Deaf-Mutes for all 
time." Dr. Gallaudet was Rector Emeritus of St. Matthew's 
and Vicar of St. Ann's. In 1859 he visited Philadelphia, Balti- 
more and various other cities in New York, New England and 
Pennsylvania, and gradually ministrations more or less regular 
were established at many points with the help of clergymen 
familiar with signs, and deaf lay-readers; and after St. Ann's 
had become self-supporting, it was felt that the work there 
should be supplemented and made more effective by promoting 
similar work in other parts of the country. Accordingly, in 1872, 
"The Church Mission to Deaf Mutes" was incorporated, with 
Dr. Gallaudet as General Manager. The plan was to make it ia. 
General Society with which all the missions should be affiliated. 
This was not realized, however, and the "Church Mission" is now 
limited in its operations to the Dioceses of New York, Long 
Island, and Newark. Elsewhere the missions exist independ- 

Rev, Thomas Gallaudet. 399 

ently under the different Diocesan authorities. However, the 
Society gave strong impetus to missionary work among the deaf 
all over the country. 

One of the first important results was the ordination to the 
Diaconate, in 1876, of a deaf man, the late Rev. Henry Winter 
Syle, M. A., by Bishop Stevens of Pennsylvania. This ordina- 
tion was the first of its kind in the history of Christendom and 
was not accomplished without strong opposition from Bishops, 
Clergy and lay-men. Bishop Stevens defended his course in a 
sermon which will always have a foremost place in literature 
concerning the deaf. A short time after, the Rev. A. W. Mann 
was ordained Deacon by Bishop Bedell of Ohio, who, by the way, 
had been a Director of the New York Institution and a staunch 
supporter of Dr. Gallaudet. Both Deacons were made Priests 
together by their respective Bishops in 1883. Since then seven 
other deaf men have received orders in the Episcopal Church 
and another is studying to that end. 

Missions to the Deaf now reach into almost every Diocese 
of the Church. Ten clergymen are constantly employed, with 
some twenty-five lay-helpers. There are over two thousand 
communicant members. All Souls' Church in Philadelphia with 
over 300 communicants is the outgrowth of Dr. Gallaudet's visit 
in 1859, and from it sprang the mission in Central Pennsylvania 
with over 400 communicants. Grace Mission in Baltimore, with 
nearly 100 active members, and St. Thomas' Mission in St. 
Louis, with about as many, are other instances proving not only 
the results but the possibilities of Dr. Gallaudet's venture of 
faith. One of the itinerant missionaries, the Rev. A. W. Mann, 
Mrhose field covers the vast area of the Middle West, has pre- 
sented over 800 deaf-mutes for confirmation in his busy life of 
over twenty-five years and has a record of almost one thousand 

Within recent years other religious bodies have taken up 
similar work, in many cases with good results. While deploring 
sectarian divisions and earnestly praying for a reunited King- 
dom of Christ on earth, Doctor Gallaudet had no ill will for those 
who differed with him. Always deeply sensible of the rulings of 
Providence, he felt that the developments of his work in ways 

400 The Association Review. 

which were not his own were evidences of the Divine Will and 
gratefully acknowledg^ed it. 

Among the monuments to his love and labors is the Home 
for Aged and Infirm Deaf Mutes near Poughkeepsie with which 
his name is intimately associated. As early as 1853 he foresaw 
the need of such a Home, but it was not until 1873 that his 
youthful forecast was realized. In that year the Home was 
opened, in a rented building in New York City, under the control 
of the **Church Mission." A svstematic effort was made to se- 
cure funds for support and for the purchase of a location in the 
country, and in 1885 the Society was able to purchase a fine farm 
of one hundred and fifty-six acres on the. banks of the Hudson 
River in the neighborhood of Wappinger's Falls. There was a 
commodious mansion of most attractive appearance and sur- 
roundings with room for fifty inmates. A considerable indebt- 
edness was incurred in the purchase of this property, but the 
energy and enthusiasm of Dr. Gallaudet secured benefactions 
which not only extinguished the debt but largely increased 
the endowment fund. Two years ago the Home was destroyed 
by fire. Nothing daunted, the indefatigable founder, even then 
in "the shadow of the valley," set about rebuilding on a larger 
and better scale. The new building is about completed and is 
a noble testimonial to him who planned it. His great wish was 
to see his dependent family again located there. But this was 
not to be— he died on August 27, 1902. The future support of 
the Home is assured by its endowment; and it may be safely as- 
sumed that its founder's friends will never allow its work to be 

Dr. Gallaudet's interest in the education of the deaf did not 
cease when he gave up teaching, on the contrary he sought 
every opportunity to advance it here and abroad. He was a 
Director of the New York Institution, the Western New York 
Institution, the Northern New York Institution, the School at 
Beverly, Mass., and possibly one or two others. In the founding 
of all these schools, except the first named, he took an active 
part. He also assisted in the movements which led to the es- 
tablishment of the schools at St. Louis and Scranton, and gave 
valuable advice to the promoters of the school at Preston, Eng- 

Rev. Thomas GaUaudet. 401 

land. It was the writer's privilege to be with him at several 
congresses of the deaf and their friends in Great Britain and 
he gladly bears testimony to the earnestness with which the 
good Doctor advocated the cause of deaf-mute education there, 
especially higher education. In all he made ten voyages to 
Europe, each time doing something for the welfare of the deaf 
there. His presence was always gladly welcomed, his sugges- 
tions given respectful attention and adopted when expedient. 

Dr. GaUaudet had decided views upon the value of signs to 
the deaf for purposes of instruction, communication, social in- 
tercourse, mental and moral improvement and public worship. 
He strongly supported the ** Combined System" and was the un- 
compromising opponent of those who seek to abolish altogether 
the use of signs in any way and for any purpose. Few persons 
have had the familiar acquaintance with the "sig^-language" 
that he had; and none could excel him in its use. It was his 
"mother tongue," and with his long years of experience with it 
in every relation of family and pastoral life, he felt that he was a 
credible witness when he gave his "testimony as to its being a 
clear and distinct language by itself." He repeated again and 
again his firm conviction that "signs are to the deaf what sounds 
are to the hearing "; and he testified often that in preaching to 
deaf-mutes he lost all consciousness of the English language 
and thought directly in signs — so well did he grasp their genius. 
He recognized the value of oral instruction but considered the 
use of signs in many ways advantageous to even those who 
profited by it. 

While the deaf were ever in his thought and affection, they 
did not bound his sympathies, which touched every good cause; 
and many are the charities outside of their domain in which he 
had a part. The New York Home for Incurables, the House 
of Rest for Consumptives, the Homes for Old Men and Aged 
Couples, and the Sisterhood of the Good Shepherd, of which he 
was the Pastor, had their inception in his parish. 

He was long a member of the New York Historical Society; 
of the Clergymens' Retiring Fund; of the New York Church- 
mens' Association; of the Huguenot Society of America; and an 
honorary member of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

402 The Association Review. 

As a preacher he was clear, earnest and reverent. His sign 
delivery was beautiful and possessed a grace and eloquence 
which charmed his congregation and held their close attention. 
He had none of the exaggerated affectation of gesture that so 
often verges upon buflFoonery, but he was forceful, even vehe- 
ment of action, when occasion required; and the humor he could 
express by signs was inimitable. He had powers of voice and 
abilities of elocution which would have distinguished him as a 
pulpiteer. Bishop Potter in his address at the funeral said, 
** Nobody who ever heard him read the service, and who knew 
what a singularly fine organ he had, and with what dignity and 
stateliness he could make himself heard in any congregation, 
could be unmindful that he was, as it were, putting one gift upon 
the shelf, in order that he might use the other for that people to 
whom he was bound in so many and such tender ways. I have 
always thought that his consecration of his gifts to their service 
was one of the finest things in the history of religion in this land." 

He was a true pastor. He judged men with keen discrim- 
ination to which he added a tender charity. He was conscien- 
tious in the discharge of his duties and faithful to those who 
trusted him. His patience was extreme. He was never harsh, 
although he did not withhold rebuke when it was needed. No 
matter how undeserving or ungrateful one might be, he was al- 
ways ready to allow "another chance." His sublime faith in 
God was one of the finest notes of his character. Did any one 
express doubt or impatience, his invariable reply was "We shall 
see; God will point the way." His aim and prayer was to lead 
his people nearer to God; and he answered well the description 
by Goldsmith in hi^ "Deserted Village": 

**To relieve the wretched was his pride. 
And e'en his failings lean'd to Virtue's side; 
But in his duty prompt at every call. 
He watch'd and wept, he pray'd and felt for all; 
And, as a bird each fond endearment tries 
To tempt its new fledg'd offspring to the skies, 
He tried each art, reproved each dull delay. 
Allured to brighter worlds and led the way." 

Dr. Harvey W. MiUigan, 403 


Dr. H. W. Milligan who died at his home in Jacksonville, 
Illinois, on July i6th, was at one time a man of much prom- 
inence among educators of the deaf. He was born in Alford, 
Mass., in i830,and graduated from Williams College in i853,and 
in 1862 entered the University of Pennsylvania to study medi- 
cine, supporting himself while there by teaching in the Penn- 
sylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. He subsequently 
relinquished his purpose of following the profession for which 
he had been preparing and accepted^ in 1865, the position of 
Principal of the Wisconsin School for the Deaf, where he re- 
mained until 1868, when he was called to the Illinois School. 
It was while at the head of the Wisconsin School that he, in com- 
pany with Dr. Gillett and a number of other leaders in the work 
of teaching the deaf, while on their way to attend the National 
Conference of Principals held in Washington, D. C, in May, 
1868, paid a visit to the Clarke School, at Northampton, Mass., 
in order to observe the methods and results of the work done 
there. Several of them, notably Dr. Gillette Dr. Milligan, and 
Dr. Talbot, were very closely questioned by other members of 
the Conference as to what they had seen, and in the course of 
debate much skepticism was expressed regarding the value of 
oral instruction, but these three gentlemen, while not professing 
to be converts to the method, testified to the honesty and to the 
value of the work being done at the Clarke School. The open- 
ing remarks of Dr. Milligan, on this occasion, express the at- 
titude with which they entered upon' the investigation and the 
conclusions that were forced upon them by the evidence of their 
senses : "I do not know that I can say anything in addition to 
what has already been said. It is difficult for any person to 
knock over all the work of years; even though he has been labor- 
ing to build a cob-house, it makes him distressed to see it fall. 
I do not mean to say that our teaching has been of the cob-house 
order. I went to Northampton, not believing, for physiological 
reasons, that those who had no auditory nerve could ever learn 
to speak and articulate and it is not pleasant to me to find out 
that they can. (Laughter). I am willing to say that I am dis- 
appointed; but it is so, that they do talk. We cannot get around 

404 The Association Review, 

it, and we have got to put up with it, for they won't stop talking 
for all our resolutions." 

In 1882 Dr. Milligan accepted the chair of history and Eng- 
lish literature in Illinois College, where his value as an instructor 
was quickly demonstrated and he won the love and veneration 
of the students by his personal worth. Aside from his college 
work, he was closely identified with all movements for the social, 
educational, or religious advancement of the city, and was 
founder or a leading member of several of its most prominent 
societies. He was author of "The Government of the State of 
Illinois," a valuable reference and text book. He is survived by 
his wife, a daughter, and a son, L. E. Milligan, a teacher in the 
Colorado School for the Deaf. We close this necessarily brief 
sketch of his life with the following tribute paid him in the col- 
umns of the Jacksonville Daily Journal: 

"With the bereaved wife and children, all Jacksonville 
mourns the loss of Dr. Milligan. To know him was to love him, 
and a more widely respected citizen the community never had. 
Noble, constant, gifted, he was an ideal gentleman, and to the 
very end of his long and useful life he maintained his activity 
and, withal, his kindness and thoughtfulness for others. Of 
literary, retiring tastes, still he was ever ready to take his stand 
for public welfare, and was broad minded enough not to be 
bigoted. He was a friend to all; a lover of books; a patriotic 
citizen; a scholarly professor; a talented writer; and above all, 
a noble Christian man." 


In his address before the Department of Special Education, 
National Educational Convention^ the President of the Ameri- 
can Association refers to the graduation, last June, of three deaf 
young men from Harvard College. These were Homer Wheeler, 
Robert PoUak, and Tilston Chickering. Melvin Wheeler, a 
brother of Homer^ also completed his studies there, but did not 
receive a degree, having taken a special course because of ill 

Of these boys we learn that Homer and Melvin Wheeler 
and Robert Pollak were all born deaf, while Tilston Chickering 
was partly deaf in infancy and is believed now to be wholly so. 
The first three received their early education at the Clarke 
School, Homer being there nine years, Melvin eleven years, 
and Robert, who had received three years previous instruction 
from a private teacher, four years. They are said to have been 
exceptionally bright and hard-working pupils. After completing 
their course at the Clarke School, the Wheeler boys entered the 
second year of the English High School in Cambridge and grad- 
uated from the regular course, while Pollak spent the same 
length of time in the Brown-Nichols Preparatory School in Cam- 
bridge. Homer Wheeler and Pollak then passed the entrance 
examinations to Harvard and took the regular course in the 
Lawrence Scientific School, but Melvin Wheeler, because of the 
condition of his health, remained at home. He, however, con- 
tinued his studies with his brother and so well did he keep pace 
with him that he was able to enter college for the third year 
work, and to complete the course with credit. 

Tilston Chickering spent six years in the Horace Mann 
School, in Boston, where his scholarship was that of an average 
pupil of studious habit of mind. From there he entered the 
Berkeley School where he prepared for the Harvard examina- 

4o6 The Association Reznew. 

tions. He does not appear to have been a particularly brilliant 
student, but to have won his degree by steady, persistent effort. 
While in the college the young men were all members of various 
societies and took an active part in the social life and athletics. 
Homer Wheeler and Robert Pollak will become civil engineers 
while Tilston Chickering will do further work in the Lawrence 
Scientific School with the intention of ultimately becoming a 
mechanical engineer. 

The school and college history of these boys should be an 
incentive and an encouragement for other deaf boys to surmount, 
as they have done, the barriers their affliction places in their way 
to a liberal education. It is interesting to note the stress their 
instructors in the college place upon the value of speech and 
lip-reading in pursuing the studies of the course. One of them 
is represented as having sacrificed his beard in order that his 
deaf students might the more easily understand him. 



The Annual Business Meeting of the American Associ- 
ation to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf was held 
on Wednesday, June nth, 1902, at the Institution for the Im- 
proved Instruction of the Deaf, corner of Lexington Avenue 
and 64th Street, New York City. 

The Meeting was called to order at 11 o'clock, First Vice- 
President Dr. A. L. E. Crouter in the chair. The following 
members were present: Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, Philadelphia, Pa; 
Dr. Z. F. Westervelt, Rochester, N. Y. ; Mr. F. W. Booth, Phila- 
delphia, Pa; Mr. Edward P. Clark, Washington Heights In- 
stitution, New York City; Mr. E. A. Gruver, Miss Margaret R. 
Marshall, Mrs. P. W. Carhart, Mr. P. W. Carhart, Miss Edith 
B. Nesbit, Mr. Timothy F. DriscoU, Mrs. Timothy F. Driscoll, 
Miss Margaret Worcester, Miss Lydia Cook, Miss Mary B. 
Shaw, Miss Carrie H. Summers, Miss May E. Turner, and Miss 
Julia Connery, Institution for Improved Instruction, New York 
City. The call for this meeting published on page 198 of the 
Association Review for April, 1902, as follows, was read: 

Call for the Annual Meeting of the Association. 

To the Members of the American Association to Promote the Teach- 
ing of Speech to the Deaf: 

The Summer Meeting appointed to be held at Chau- 
tauqua, N. Y., having been postponed, the annual business 
meeting of the Association will be held at the Institution for 
the Improved Instruction of Deaf-Mutes, 904 Lexington Ave., 
New York City, on Wednesday, June 11, at 11 a, m. The date 
and place of meeting have been fixed by the Board of Directors; 

4o8 The Association Review, 

and the special business will be the election of three Direc- 
tors, to serve for three years, in place of the retiring Directors 
whose term expires in 1902, viz.: Z. F. Westervelt, Sarah 
Fuller, Joseph C. Gordon. 

There will be no literary exercises, but a mere formal busi- 
ness meeting to comply with the Constitution. An amend- 
ment to the Constitution will be offered to increase the mem- 
bership of the Board of Directors. For further particulars ad- 
dress Dr. Z. F. Westervelt, Secretary, Rochester, N. Y. 

Alexander Graham Bell, 

Z. F. Westervelt, President of the Association. 


The minutes of the last annual meeting of the Association, 
held at the Western New York Institution for Deaf-Mutes, 
at Rochester, N. Y., on Tuesday, May 28th, 1901, were read and 
approved. , 

The Secretary then read the letter addressed to himself, 
dated April loth, 1902, (which was a duplicate of the letter ad- 
dressed to the President), making nominations for the office of 
Director, in accordance with Section II, Article V of the Con- 
stitution, nominating Z. F. Westervelt, of Rochester, N.Y., Sarah 
Fuller, of Boston, Mass., and Joseph C. Gordon, of Jacksonville, 
111., to fill the places made vacant by the expiration of the terms 
of office of the three Directors named in the call. 

Acting President Crouter appointed, as inspectors of 
election, Mr. Gruver and Miss Marshall, and directed that the 
Association should proceed to ballot for Directors, under the 
supervision of the inspectors; (quoting Article V, Section II) 
"No person could be eligible to office who had not been nominat- 
ed in writing to the President and Secretary, at least one month 
prior to the day of election;" therefore no one, other than those 
whose names had been read could be elected. The inspectors 
collected the ballots and reported to the President who an- 
nounced that Z. F. Westervelt, of Rochester, Sarah Fuller, of 
Boston, and Joseph C. Gordon, of Jacksonville, 111., were elected 
Directors of the Association for three years, their term of office 
expiring at the close of the Summer Meeting in 1905. 

Annual Meeting of the American Association. 409 

. Mr. F. W. Booth, Treasurer, presented his annual report 
to the Association as follows: 

Treasurer's Report for the Year ending June ii, 1902. 

Balance as per Report of May 28, 1901 $1,028 01 


Life membership fees. Miss Emma Snow and Mrs. Edmund 

Lyon 100 00 

Alexander Graham Bell, annual subscription itSOO 00 

Mrs. S, Sachs, subscription 10 00 

L. S. Fechheimer, annual subscription 2500 

Annual membership dues 1,012 00 

Subscriptions to Association Review 14 7o 

Sales of publications 21 85 

Advertising in Review 32 00 

American Security and Trust Co., income from invested funds. . 1,205 11 

Interest on bank deposits 20 52 

$4,969 19 

Salary and wages account $2,41 1 63 

Printing Review, 6 numbers 769 15 

Printing, job-work, circulars of information, etc ii5 52 

Translating, reviewing, etc 147 23 

Binding, mailing, postage on Review, etc 48 60 

Wrapping paper i 75 

Engraving 41 67 

Fee for Treasurer's bond 10 50 

American Security and Trust Co., two life membership fees 

transferred to Permanent Endowment Fund 100 00 

Postage, express, telegraphing, traveling, etc 292 13 

Balance 1,031 01 

Approved June 11, 1902, 

A. L. E. Crouter, Auditor. 

$4,969 19 
F. W. Booth, Treasurer. 

The report was accepted and approved. 

Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, as special committee, presented a re- 
port on the request made by the Board of Directors of the As- 
sociation for the establishment at the Pennsylvania School for 
the Deaf, of a Normal Training Department; — that the Penn- 
sylvania Board of Directors had decided against the establish- 
ment of such a Department in that Institution. Upon motion 
the report was accepted and the committee discharged. 

4IO The Association Review. 

The following amendment of the Constitution was submitted 
to the Association, under the provision of Article V, by Dr. A. 
L. E. Crouter: 

Amend Section i, Article V, of the Constitution as follows: 

Strike out the Word "nine," second line, and insert " twenty- 
one." Strike out the word "three/' same line, and insert "seven." 
Add at the end of the first sentence after "years," the following: 
"provided, however, that no retiring director shall be eligible for 
re-election for the term next ensuing; and provided, further, 
that three of the seven directors thus elected at any annual meet- 
ing shall not be actively engaged in the work of teaching the 
deaf." And further, by adding the following words to the last 
sentence regarding the appointment of inspectors of election 
for directors : "in case of failure of the President to appoint, by 
the chairman of the meeting." 

As thus amended, Section i. Article V, will read as follows: 

The Board of Directors shall be composed of twenty-one 
members of the Association, seven of whom shall be elected by 
the Association at each annual meeting to serve three years, 
provided, however, that no retiring director shall be eligible for 
re-election for the next term ensuing; and provided, further, that 
three of the seven directors thus elected at an Annual Meeting 
shall not be actively engaged in the work of teaching the deaf. 
Directors shall be elected by ballot under the supervision of in- 
spectors to be appointed by the President; in case of failure of 
the President to appoint, by the chairman of the meeting. 

Mr. F. W. Booth also submitted an amendment of the Con- 
stitution^ as follows, under the provisions of Article VIII, 
Section i; to amend Article V^ Section i, of the Constitution, as 
follows : 

Strike out the word "nine," second line, and insert "twenty- 
one." Strike out the word "three," same line, and insert "seven." 
Add at the end of the first sentence after " years", the following: 
"Provided, however^ that not more than two of the retiring di- 
rectors shall be eligible for re-election for the term next ensuing; 
and provided, further, that three of the seven directors thus elect- 
ed at any Annual Meeting shall not be actively engaged in the 
work of teaching the deaf." And further, by adding the follow- 
ing words to the last sentence regarding the appointment of in- 
spectors of election for directors: "in case of failure of the Pres- 
ident to appoint, by the chairman of the meeting." 

Annual Meeting of the American Association, 411 

As thus amended. Section i, Article V, will read as follows: 

The Board of Directors shall be composed of twenty-one 
members of the Association, seven of whom shall be elected by 
the Association at each annual meeting to serve for three years; 
provided, however, that not more than two of the retiring 
directors shall be eligible for re-election for the term next en- 
suing; and, provided, further, that three of the seven directors 
thus elected at an Annual Meeting shall not be actively engaged 
in the work of teaching the deaf. Directors shall be elected by 
ballot, under the supervision of inspectors, to be appointed by 
the President ; in case of failure of the President, by the chairman 
of the meeting. 

Acting President Crouter stated that these amendments, 
submitted for the consideration of the Association, under the 
provisions of Article V of the Constitution, would be laid upon 
the table to be voted upon and accepted or rejected at the next 
Association meeting. 

Upon resolution, the General Secretary was directed to 
print the By-Laws, revised to date, and to furnish copies to 
members upon request; the number and form to be left to the 
discretion of the General Secretary. 

It was moved that the General Secretary secure from the 
Committee on Necrology its report for publication in The Re- 

The minutes were read and approved, and the meeting ad- 

(Signed) Z. F. Westervelt, 



The following persons have been elected to membership in 
the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf since date of the last report: 

Archibald, Carrie H., 1225 Chestnut St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Baker, Nettie, 6550 Yale Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Bannister, Ina E., Potsdam, N. Y. 

Beatty, Gordon, 207 Simcoe St., Toronto, Canada. 

Bell, Frances K., Fulton, Mo. 

Bennett, Florence E., Macon, Mo. 

Betson, Anna L., Greensboro, Caroline Co., Md. 

412 The Association Review. 

Blomkvist, J., Dofstumskolan, Orebro, Sweden. 
Camp, Anna R., 2559 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Carhart, P. W., 904 Lexinfrton Ave., New York, N 
Carhart, Mrs. P. W., 904 Lexington Ave., New Yc 
Connery, Julia, 904 Lexington Ave., New York, N, 
Cooper, Jennie Alston, Charlottesville, Va, 
Curtiss, Louise A., Waverly, Illinois. 
Driscoil, Timothy F., 904 Lexington Ave., New Yoi 
Fjartoft, F. A., Skole for dove. Vibes gade 7, 

Flagg, Helen J., West Hartford, Conn. 
Carman, Tillie, 841 Holland Ave., Wilkinsburg, Pa 
Gilroy, Elizabeth P., Mystic, Conn. 
Gordon, Kathlena W., Hauppange, L, I, 
Guldberg, F. O., St. Olafs gade 17, Christiania, No 
Gutzmann, Albert, Stadt. Taubstummenschule, O. ] 

49, Berlin, Germany, 
Hare, Wm. B., School for the Deai, St. Augustine, ] 
Howe, Henry S., Essex St., Longwood. Brookline, 
Howe, Sarah B., Tuileries, 270 Commonwealth A' 

Jones, Elizabeth Ogwen, 2021 Edna Ave., Scranton, 
Jones, Geo. A., 137 Water St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Jayne, Henry La Barre, 505 Chestnut St., Philadeip 
Mears, Willard S., 36 East 20th St., New York, N. ^ 
Mekhert, Martha E., 40 Clifford St., Roxbury, Mass 
Nesbit, Edith B., 904 Lexington Ave., New York, 
Porter, Mrs. Alice M., Pierce Building, Huntington 

ton, Mass. 
Purtell, Mary J., St. Joseph's Inst., 113 Buffalo Ave, 

New York. 
Putnam, Geo. H., School for the Deaf, Olathe, Kan; 
Riedle, Anna R., Wilmington, Ohio. 
Rice, W. E., 137 Water St., Qeveland, Ohio. 
Ross, Edith, Olathe, Kansas. 

Russell, Jane L., School for the Deaf, Jacksonville, 
Spencer, Margaret J., 1012 N. Capitol Ave., Indiana^ 
Steiger & Co., E., Newspaper Box 298, New York, ] 
Thompson, Mary H., 38 Rutland Sq., Boston, Mass. 
Thompson, Fannie E., Pittsboro, N. C. 
Thurber, Amey, 170 Broad St., Providence, R. I. 
Turner, Mary E., 904 Lexington Ave., New York, 1 
Way, Frances Burr, School for the Deaf, Staunton, '^ 
White, Wm. Jr., 714 Arcade Building, Philadelphia, 


A courae of systematic instruction in language, in four volumes, by 

CAROLINE C. SWEET. Price, $3.84 per dozen. 

Single copy, 40c. 


Sixty short stories prepared for voung pupils, compiled by IDA V 

HAMMOND. Price, $3.84 per dozen. 
Single cop3% 40c. 


Short stories prepared for young pupils, compHed by IDA V.: HAMMOND 

Price, $4.20 per dozen. Siugle copy, 45c. 


Contains nearly a hundred short stories and seventy-five conversations for 

practice in language, prepared by WM. Q. JENKINS. M. A. 

Price, $6.00 per dozen. Single copy, 60c. 

f c 


One hundred stories gathered from United States History, compiled by 
JOHN E. CRANE, M. A. Price, $9.00 per dozen. Single copy, 90c. 

"A Primer of English and American Literature/' 

By ABEL S. CLARK, M. A., with 25 portraits of authors. 
Price, $7.80 per dozen. Single copy, 75c. 


Examples of the correct Enjjlifih usage, by WILLIAM Q, JENKINS, M. A. 

Price, $6.00 per dozen. 

f f 

Stories for Language Study." 

Adapted to pupils of the third or fourth orade, compiled bv JANE 

BARTLETT KELLOGG. Price, $4.20 per dozen. 


amehicaii school at hartforo, for m deaf 

I ni iimiiiuiiui 



The Science of Speech. Board Price, |0 50 

The Faulta of Speech. Cloth. ** 60 


1 naugural Edition, 4to. cloth Price, $4 00 

SoundH and their Relations, cloth. •* 2 00 

]*rinciple8 of Speech and Dictionary of Sounds, (New Edition) •* 1 50 

University Lectures on Phonetics, paper, * *' 1 00 

Manual of Visible Speech and Vocal Physiolofry " 50 

English Visible Speech in 12 lessons, English Edition ** 58 

»* •* *' German ** •« 50 

** " " •* Italian " *« 50 

Visible Speech Reader " 40 

Class Primer of Visible Speech *• 25 

Explanatory Lecture on Visible Speech *' 15 

Visible Speech Charts 8x13. Seven in the set with explanatory text '* 60 

** " 15x21 without text, Vowels and Consonantal each ** 80 



Manual of Speech Reading and Articulation Teaching •* 25 


Elocutionary Manual. Principles of Elocution •* 1 50 

Essays and Postscripts on Elocution ** 1 25 

Emphasized Liturgy ** 100 

Address to National Association of Elocutionists, " 15 

On the Use of Notations in Elocutionary Teaching •* 15 


Wo»-ld English — The Universal Language " 25 

Hand-Book of World English. Readings ** 25 

Universal Steuo-Phonography ** 75 

English Line Writing *' W 

Popular Shorthand, *« 15 


Sermon Reading and Memoriter Delivery ^ ** #0 25 

Phonetic Syllabication, " 15 

Note on Syllabic Consonants, " 15 

Speech Tones, ** 15 

The Sounds of R " 15 

The Cure of Stammering, etc. English Edition (1866) " 15 

Education of the Deaf ; Notes and Observations, J. C. Gordon. Ph. D., " 1 00 

Facial Speech Reading ; H. Gutzmann, M. D. ; paper " 25 

Marriages of the Deaf in America ; E. A. Fay, Ph. D.; cloth ** 5 00 

Histories of American Schools for the Deaf, 3 vols.; cloth " 10 00 

Helen Keller Souvenir, No. 2, 1892-1899; cloth ** 2 00 


Teachers receive the usual discount. 
Trade terms upon applioation. 

Arnold's Manual and other British publications supplied upon order. London Agents for 
Volta Bureau Publications : Wm. Wesley and Son, 28 Essex St. Str&nd. 

Address : 

JOHN HITZ, Superintendout. Washington, City, D.C. 








KRANK Wr. BOOTH, - - Editor 

Decenben 1902. 

A New Expedient for the Teaching of the Deaf - G. Forchhammer 413 
Formation and Development of Elementary 

English Sounds — /// . - . - Caroune A. Yale 424 
The Making of the Man - - - - George H. Putnam 428 
Historical Notes Concerning the Teaching 

of Speech to the Deaf - - Alexander Graham Bell 43^ 

A Visit to the Principal Italian Institutions 

for the Deaf Miss Schmidt 455 


Proceedings at the Celebration of the One Handredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
Samuel Gridley Howe, 471— Everyday English, by Jean Sherwood Rankin, 472— 
First Lessons in Speech, by Anna 0. Hurd, 475— American Annals of the Deaf 
(Washington), 476— The Blind-Deaf, a supplement to **The Deaf-Blind," by Wil- 
liam Wade, 480— Report of the Montana School for the Deaf and the Blind, 481— 
Ninth Annual Report of the Calcutte Deaf and Dumb School, 481— Proceedings of 
the First General Convention of the Austrian Instructors of the Deaf, 483 — Deaf- 
mutism according to Auricular Observations, by Dr. Bezold (Munich), 484— Prepar- 
atory and Supplementary Education of the Deaf, by Albert Gutzmann (Berlin), 
487— Organ der Taubstummen Anstalten in Deutschland (Friedberg), 490— Taub- 
stammen-Courier, (Vienna), 491. 


Supplementary Schools, 494— The Schools, 496— David C. Bell,— 497. 

Names and Addresses of Members 49^ 



[Printinc Department of the PennaylTania louititatlon for tbe Deaf and Dumb] 

Vol. IV, No. 5 $2.50 (lOs. 4d.) per year 

The American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

(Incorporated Sept. i6, 1890.) 

Albxandbr Graham Bell. 

A. L. E. Croutsr, Carounk A. Yalb 

Z. F. Westervelt. 

A. I^. E. Crouter. 


If. W. Booth, 
(7342 Rural Lane, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.) 


Albxandek Graham Bkll, Mrs. Gabdirbr G. Hubbasd. 

A. L. E. Croutkr. 

Term Expire* 1903, 

Carolink a. Yalk, Edmund Lyon, Richard O. Johhson 

2'erm Expire* 1904, 

Joseph C. Gordon, Sarah Fuller, Z. F. Westbrtblt. 

Term Expire* 1905, 

The American Association to Promote the^Teaching of Speech to the Deaf welcomes 
to its membership all persons who are interested in its work. Thus the privilege of 
membership is not restricted to teachers actively engaged in the instruction of deaf 
children, but is extended to include Directors or Trustees of schools for the deaf, parents 
or guardians of deaf children, the educated deaf themselves who wish to aid by tho 
weight of their influence and by their co-operation the work that has done so much for 
them, and all other persons who may have had their hearts touched with a d^lre to 
show their interest and to help on the work. 

Every person receiving a '^sample copy'' of The Association Review is invited to 
join the Association. The membership (or dues) fee is $2.00 (8s. 4d.) per year, pay- 
ment of which to the Treasurer secures (after nomination to and election by the Board 
of Directors) all nirhts and privileges of membership together with the publications of 
the Association, including The Association Review, for one year. To non^member*, 
the subscription price of The Association Review is $2.50 (10s. 4d.) per year. 


Vol. IV, No. 5. 

DECEMBER. 1902. 


highest aim of the school for thi 
cnt of its pupils. But, besides thi: 
ccial object to train its pupils in 

greatest difficulty the oral school 
ini lies in the fact that the deaf car 
sech sounds from our lips; becau! 
ane-half, of the sound-producing 
the eye. Consequently the lip-re; 
perfect. We have both good and 
will be the case all over the work 
: deaf could see the internal speech- 
■, the vocal chords — as distinctly a; 
I understand speecli as clearly as v 
is what I wished to attain by con; 
tioiis to accompany the oral speed 
the positions of the inner organs, 
lis extension the oral speech will 
1 it is audible to the ear. 
out diminishing the demand of t 
y in reading from the lips alone 
leans of communication which wi 

414 ^he Association Review. 

importance, both for instruction and for intercourse between the 
deaf themselves. 

The necessity of ilhistrating such specially invisible posi- 
tions as the very important positions of the vocal chords has al- 
ways been evident to me, and when, nearly eleven years ago, I 
began my activity in the school for the deaf, I constructed a set 
of hand positions for this use. (Vid: "Udkast til en dansk 
Artikulationslare," Tidskrift for Dofstumskolan, 1894-97. 

It was however not until later, while I was writing my book, 
**Imitativ Sprogundervisning i Dovstummeskolen paa Basis af 
Skrift (Lydskrift, Lydretskrivning), Nyborg 1898," ("Der im- 
itative Sprachunterricht in der Taubstummenschule auf der Basis 
der Schrift, Leipzig, 1899," translated by Gopfert), that I saw 
the necessity of having a complete set of illustrations of all the in- 
visible organ-positions, a kind of "Phonetic Manual-Alphabet." 
(I first used this term, though the principle is more analphabetic 
than alphabetic). 

I then set myself the task to construct a complete system of 
this kind and after trying different variations I had the system 
ready in its chief outlines by December ist, 1898. 

The rest of the school year, however, I went on with my 
own experiments. In the next school year, September, 1899 — 
July, 1900, I tried the system in one class. In the school year 
1900 — 1901 the system was dealt w-ith at the weekly teachers' 
meetings and a regular training in the school was begun. The 
last alteration, tending to make the use of it more fluent, was 
made in the summer of 1901. 

It is of course no small matter to introduce such a new prin- 
ciple in a whole school. It has been no slight work for my col- 
leagues — after the recent introduction of phonetic writing and 
rather immediately after the carrying through of the imitative 
principle— to have to introduce and learn themselves a new ex- 
pedient of so special a kind. Thanks to the energy and general 
phonetic training of the staff the whole matter has, however, 
proved comparatively easy. And when first the teachers and 
the older pupils are quite familiar with the system, there will be 
no difficulties for the younger children, keen observers as they 
are. Nor will the training take up any extra time when, in the 

A New Expedient for Teaching the Deaf, 415 

future, the system will be introduced along with the articulation 
and supporting this. 

On special application from Dr. A. Graham Bell, the famous 
inventor of the telephone and the champion of the oral method 
in America, whom I met at the International Deaf-Mute Con- 
gress in Paris, 1900, 1 have had a set of photographs taken of the 
positions of mouth and hand for the most important sounds of 
the best known languages. As it is my intention to publish a 
fuller account of this, I shall here only briefly sketch the system : 
While speaking, the hand is raised in front of the breast, 
so as to enable the pupil to see the hand-positions while his eye 
is fixed on the mouth of the speaker. This is made possible 
partly by the extension of the retina in the eye, which gives a 
certain size to the field of view, partly by the simplicity and dis- 
tinctness of the hand positions, which make it superfluous to 
keep the axis of the eye fixed directly on the hand. 

The movements of the vocal chords are illustrated by mov- 
ing the wrist out and in: the opening and closing of the glottis. 
The movements of the soft palate are illustrated by mov- 
ing the wrist down and up : the lowering and raising of the soft 

The positions of the tongue are illustrated by the stretching 
out of different fingers, with the half-shut hand for the starting 
position. The movements of the tongue for the vowels are 
illustrated by the thumb, those for the consonants by the fingers 
in the following way: 

The point articulations are as far as possible given by the 
different fingers used singly, thus ^ by stretching out the little 
finger; / by stretching out the middle finger; the position com- 
mon to «, d, t, is given by stretching out the forefinger. 

The back articulations are given by stretching out more than 
one finger at a time, for example, ng, g, k =^the whole hand. 

The transitions from point to back in the tongue articulation 
are illustrated by corresponding transitions in the hand posi- 

The consonant r, which in the different languages is articu- 
lated now by the point, now by the back of the tongue^ is illustra- 
;C(1 by a turning of the hand. 

4i6 The Associatiofi Review, y 


As will be seen, the different organ positions in the mouth ^i 
are as far as possible given by different organ positions in the 
hand, whereof follows that it is possible, with the hand as well as 
the mouth, to begin one movement of the organ before the other 
is finished. It is hereby made possible for the system to follow 
the speech almost at the usual rate. The system will therefore 
probably be found to be both quicker and easier in use than any 
existing manual alphabet. 

The Hand-System may be useful in instruction: 

(i) In articulation, as a means of illustrating the inner 
organ positions; we have already been able to observe how easy 
it is to correct the articulation, as we have only to show with the 
hand the forgotten or wrongly articulated speech sound. 

(2) In acquiring knowledge through language: 

If you here follow the rule that everything new and difficuh 
is illustrated by accompanying movements of the hand, but 
everything known and easy with the mouth alone, the use and 
natural limits of the system are indicated in few words. 

As one of the most pleasant uses to which the system has 
been put I can mention the reading of literature in the upper 
classes. In two weekly lessons of half an hour I have read in 
this way, besides many other things, not a few of Andersen's 
Fairy Tales, with some necessary simplifications. I always re- 
peat what I read last time with the mouth alone, and then read 
the new piece with accompanying hand movements. Thus 
everything is read twice to the children, once as mere lip-reading;. 
It has been gratifying to observe not only the interest with which 
all follow the reading, but also the increased interest in home- 
reading which has been the result thereof. 

Perhaps, however, the system will have its greatest signifi- 
cance as a congruent linguistic means of communication in the 
mutual intercourse of the deaf as a compensation for the artifi- 
cial signs. (Vid: the following "Theses for Discussion.") 

As we have at this school already for some years chiefly 
based the teaching on reading, and as we have now as a further 
supplement added the new Hand-System, the apprehension 
which has been occasionally expres^^ed — ^that the lip-reading 
might sv.fFcr hcMThy — will strain male itself heard. 

A New Expedient for Teaching the Deaf. 417 

In order to make sure about this point we have, since the 
autumn of 1900, at the weekly meetings at our school, introduced 
a series of controlled dictations with the deaf children of the 
different classes. 

The colleagues present take notes of the way of dictating: 
The pronunciation (in phonetics), the rate (by means of a rate- 
watch), eventual exaggeration of the articulation, and besides 
this, of late, the size of the mouth opening for the low vowels 
(the vertical distance between the teeth in millimeters). 

As far as possible the dictations are corrected on a uniform 
principle, without any heed being taken of orthographic errors, 
and the number of errors is noted. By dividing by the number 
of dictated words the percentage of errors is found. 

The material is vet too scarce for a final decision (it would 
have been better if we had begun several years ago) ; but every- 
thing seems to point in the direction that neither the use of read- 
ing as the base of the teaching, nor the introduction of the new 
hand-system can have diminished the lip-reading powers of the 
children. In class three (the fourth school-year) 1901-1902, a 
series of dictations given without any repetition by the class- 
mistress to all the deaf children of the class gave an average of 
9 per cent, errors; and in the second class (third school-year), 
the result was similar. And in conformity with our fundamental 
principle, these children have not had any lip-reading except 
what has been naturally connected with the lessons imparted 
already by means of writing. 

A comparison between dictations with the mouth alone (oral 
dictations) and dictations with mouth and hand (mannoral dic- 
tations, has also been the object of investigation. 

Of the results from the school-year 1900-1901, the following 
is an extract: Class Seven (the highest class): 

(i) The average of a consecutive number of rather easy 
dictations (composed by the staff; the title written on the black- 
board) : 

Every lesson dictated 

Oral dictation once, 

By the staflf, 17% errors 

By the chaplain, assistants, etc., 34% errors 

three times, 

1% errors 
23% errors 

41 8 The Association Review. 

(2) The average of a consecutive number of rather more 
difficult dictations picked out at random from an ordinary book 
meant for normal children (no title given): 

Kvery lesson dictoted 

/■ -* • >> 

three tlinefs 

}2^ errors 

Oral dictation once, 

By the sUff 20% errore 

For comparison: Class Six, same year: average of the 
same rather difficult dictations: 

Mannoral dictation (every lesson dictated once) 4% errors. 

We see hereby that even an easier lesson dictated three 
times by the mouth alone is less easily understood than a more 
difficult lesson dictated once by help of the hand. 

The tests made in the current school-year (1901-1902) have 
chiefly been carried on with the view of further comparing oral 
and mannoral dictations (besides which we have also begun to 
compare dictations given word by word with connected dicta- 
tions). The dictations are picked out at random from a book 
which is not quite easy and not known to the children (the same 
book which was used for test 2 last year, but rather shorter 
pieces) and dictated by the staff, without any repetition what- 
ever, alternately as oral and mannoral dictation. Highest class 
(7th): The average of a longer series: 

Oral 22% errors.— Mannoral 3 — 4% errors. 

It is interesting to compare the results for a good lip-reader 
and a bad one. In our present Class Six we have two such con- 
trasts. In the oral dictations (the more difficult pieces) one has 
10-20 per cent, errors, the other has 40-50 per cent. But the 
mannoral dictations of the bad lip-reader were of the same 
quality as the oral dictations of the good one (the dictations 
given word by word.) 

All these results will probably be still better as regards the 
mannoral dictations when in the course of time the system has 
been learned from the lower classes of the school. 

Of special interest is the case of a boy of thirteen years, who 
can speak but is perfectly deaf, whom we had occasion to test 
comparatively soon after his entering school. At first he could 

A New Expedient for Teaching the Deaf. 419 

only read scattered words from the lips; but the percentage of 
errors decreased in the course of a fortnight as follows: 

20 per cent, in the oral dictation. 

20 per cent, in the mannoral dictation (dictation connected- 

50 per cent, in the mannoral dictation (word by word). 

Now, a few months after, he can understand almost anything 
we say to him if spoken slowly and assisted by the hand; and 
also his proficiency in pure lip-reading has increased consider- 

Before closing I wish to mention, as an illustration of the 
superiority of the mannoral system, an experiment I made last 
autumn during a visit at this school of the well-known French 
linguist,M. P. Passy, and a Dane, Hr. Cloos. 

We went into the room of Class Two (third school-year). 
I asked M. Passy to write ^ French sentence for me on a bit of 
paper. Showing the articulation of the sentence with mouth and 
hand (but without using the voice) — in French, but with Danish 
sounds — I succeeded in making the deaf children of the class 
repeat the sentence in chorus without hesitation so distinctly 
that Hr. Cloos, who did not know what they were supposed to 
say, could understand the sentence: "/e suis tres content de vous 
voir travailkr." 

Theses for Discussion. 

1. "All teaching must be done (directly or indirectly) by 
help of Imitation. But imitation requires a perfect congruence 
of reception and reproduction." (Congruence equals conform- 
ity point for point. Ex.: congruence between sound and pho- 
netic notation.) 

2. "The Oral Method, as it is at present, lacks every con- 
gruence" : 

(i.) "The spoken language is incongruent with the lan- 
guage as seen on the lips: We have m=b=p, n=d=t (=1), 
ng— g=k (=often invisible), h= always invisible, etc." 

(2.) *The spoken language is incongruent mth the written 
language: We have superfluous signs (silent letters), we lack 
signs for length, stress, etc., and wc have wrong or inconsistent 
notations in a great many cases." 

420 The Association Review. 

3. "The deaf have a right to demand the language to be 
presented to them in a shape which is congruent with that in 
wliich we demand them to reproduce it." 

4. **The oral method as hitherto developed has had no 
congruent means of communication, neither between teacher 
and pupil nor among the pupils themselves. The oral method 
cannot be said to have done its duty by its pupils until it shall 
have examined what congruence there is in the means of com- 
munication it demands them to use among themselves — and shall 
have supplied the want satisfactorily." — "Imitativ Sprogunder- 
visning i Dovstummeskolen/' pp. 14, 15, and 27; German edition, 
pp, 15 and 31. 

5. It is an evident proof of the lack of congruence of the 
oral means of communication that the deaf taught by the oral 
method supplement the lip-reading with signs. 

6. **The oral method has neither the power nor the right 
of forbidding the deaf to supplement lip-reading by signs.*' 
Although varying according to the different degree of visible- 
ness of the language and to the mental capacity and training of 
the pupils, the signs have been **a necessity to the deaf in their 
mutual intercourse, because the means of communication we 
have offered them gives only a fraction of the language," — "Ex- 
pose des principes de Tarticulation," Copenhague, 1900, p. 37. 

7. The Mannoral System (systeme manoral) which I have 
invented makes the oral method satisfy the need the deaf feel of 
a congruent means of communication. 

8. Through the use of the system from the lower classes 
of the school all artificial signs will be rendered superfluous and 
the conversation of the deaf will in an increased degree keep 
within the limits of the language. 

9. The younger pupils will be able partly to learn the lan- 
guage from the older ones. 

10. The Mannoral System renders superfluous the Ameri- 
can Mixed Method, being in itself a mixed method on the base 
of the Oral Method. 

11.^ The Mannoral System makes it possible to use a uni- 
form method throughout the teaching of the deaf: Oral Method 

A New Expedient for Teaching the Deaf. 421 

for all Deaf supplemented if wanted by a number of assistant 
signs according to different children and different subjects. 

12. The introduction of a uniform method will do away 
with the present method-controversies and facilitate the dis- 
tribution of the children according to their mental capacity. 

13. Through the introducing of congruent means of com- 
munication it will be possible to aim at a higher acquirement of 
knowledge. (Compare the results from Stockholm, where the 
B-pupils — the less gifted pupils — ^taught by the hand-alphabet 
method attain at least the same standard as the A-pupils — the 
best gifted pupils — taught by the oral method). 

14. The sum of knowledge which it will be possible to im- 
part to every single deaf-mute will, through the use of congruent 
expedients, chiefly depend on his mental capacity. 

15. The accumulation of "uneigentliche Taubstummen" 
of both kinds (semi-deaf and semi-mutes) and with every degree 
of mental capacity — as at this school — renders it difficult to 
impart to each pupil the sum of knowledge corresponding to his 
(or her) mental capacity; and it is unjustifiable to go on with it 
in the future. 

16. The teaching of language (the mother-tongue) ought 
to be from the beginning an imparting of knowledge — knowl- 
edge of life and its events. The language ought to be acquired 
indirectly, through the imparting of knowledge rather than by 
special language-teaching. 

17. All the advantages which in my book: "Imitativ 
Sprogundervisnig i Dovstummeskolen" I ascribed to writing, 
especially the phonetic writing, as a congruent means of com- 
munication, may be ascribed as well to the Mannoral System, 
which is nothing but phonetic writing in the air, written simul- 
taneously with mouth and hand. 

.18. The phonetic writing, the Mannoral System and pure 
lip-reading will mutually supplement each other, phonetic writ- 
ing for stricter drill (according to school-methods), the Mannoral 
System for more spontaneous communication of new matter (at 
school, at the school-home and in walks, visits at museums, etc.), 
lip-reading for the treatment of familiar subjects: repetition, ex- 
aminations^ and the like. 

422 The Association Review, 

19. By means of the new expedient the teaching of the 
mother tongue may be made more free than has hitherto been 
the case. 

20. At divine services, continuation schools (colleges), 
great gatherings of the deaf, hearing of deaf witnesses in court, 
and the like, the Mannoral System will (for those who have 
learned it) be a perfectly reliable means of communication. 

21. At divine-services for adult deaf-mutes the linguistic 
signs of the Mannoral System will be of greater value (for those 
who have learned it) than the artificial signs, which are often 
not understood by the deaf taught by the oral method. 

22. Natural signs, expressive mimics and suitable acting 
will preserve their value in the new system and may be combined 
with it without any difficulty. 

23. For the instruction in lip-reading to adult deaf (fur 
spater ertaubte) the Mannoral System may be used as a tran- 
sition to acquiring proficiency in free lip-reading (eventually 
instead of the lip-reading in so far as this cannot be acquired). 
In the big towns, lectures, divine services, and the like might be 
arranged for such persons familiar with the system. 

24. By eventual introduction of the principle in different 
countries the uniform use of the same hand positions for the 
same sounds will be of great importance. My system has the 
advantage that the signs are not chosen arbitrarily. It follows, 
as far as possible, scientific and practical rules, paying regard to 
the different sound systems in the chief European languages. 

The accompanying photographs show the hand positions 
for the most important English sounds. The outermost figures 
to the right and to the left each represent more than one sound ; 
because the difference between them can be seen on the mouth. 
In the other sounds the difference lies inside the lips and is there- 
fore shown by the hand, even if the difference in some cases may 
be visible, or may be made visible by a marked pronunciation. 
Each sound is marked by a phonetic letter as well as by a sign 
from Bell's Visible Speech. 

It must be remembered that the positions of the thumb only 
refer to the tongue positions for the vowels: back-mixed-front. 
For the consonants the thumb must give the position for the 

A New Expedient for Teaching the Deaf. 423 

next vowel. In the above illustration the consonants are gen- 
erally shown in the back position. The pupils must, however, 
be trained in using the consonants combined with all the back- 
mixed-front positions without any exception. 

When necessary the wide-positions can be shown by a low- 
ering of the forearm. In connected speech the indication of the 
wide-position may be left out as the difference primary-wide 
is so intimately connected with the length of the vowel that 
through this it is rendered visible to the eye. 

Closing of the glottis is not used in English, but in articula- 
tion (as a useful drill of the vocal chords) it can be shown by 
bending the wrist towards the body — the opposite direction of 
the movement for voiced-voiceless. 

If still finer articulatory distinctions should be wanted than 
those contained in the above system, the necessary signs may be 
indicated by the left hand as '^modifiers." These are left out in 
connected speech. 





Consonants — (Continued). 
F. [3] 

Formation: — Under lip shut agfainst the edges of the upper 
front teeth while breath is sent out over the lip and between the 
teeth with a fricative sound. The lip should be so applied to the 
teeth as to leave no large openings. Professor A. M. Bell says 
that "F is correctly formed by applying the middle of the lower 
lip to the edge of the upper front teeth, leaving merely intersti- 
tial apertures for the breath between the sides of the lip and the 
teeth." Ex., fsiu, soft, if, 

Mctlwd of Development: — Imitation. Show the force and 
direction of the breath by using a slip of paper or a feather. 

y. [3] 

Formation: — Lip shut against the upper teeth as for f and 
held while voice is given. Ex., ^'oice, sez'en, sat'e. 

Method of Development: — Contrast with f. Let the teacher 
repeat f, v, f, v, f, v, while the pupil .'eels the vibration in the 
throat and lip. 

Th} [15] 

Formation: — Point of the tongue resting lightly against the 
inner surface or the edge of the upper teeth w^hile breath is sent 
out between the tongue and teeth. Care should be taken that 
the tongue does not protrude from between the teeth. Within 
the mouth the front or top of the tongue is raised slightly. Avoid 
the raising of the lower lip so high that the resulting sound is a 
combination of th and f. Ex., thiriy au//ior, moth. 

Method of Dez'elopment: — L Imitation. II. By analogy from 
f. Let the pupil see that the same action is required for giving 

Elementary English Sounds, 425 

the two sounds; that the passive or^an — the upper teeth — 
remains the same, but that the active organ is the point of the 
tongue in th while it is the lower lip for f. III. An imperfect th 
may often be corrected by inducing the pupil to attempt s while 
the tongue is held between or against the teeth. 

Miss A. E. Worcester, in outline lessons to which we are 
indebted for many suggestions in these notes, said, "The key of 
all development of one sound from another lies here. Keep 
steadily before the pupil's mind and sight the action of the al- 
ready familiar sound: his attempt being simply to perform the 
same actions under different circumstances" 

Th^ [M] 

Formation: — Point of the tongue resting against the upper 
teeth as for th^ and held while voice is given. Ex., //te, fa/Aer, 
W\th. I 

Method of Development: — I. Contrast with th^. II. By anal- 
ogy from V as tK^ from f. 

S. [O] 

Formation: — Fore part of the tongue raised so as to leave 
only a small center aperture between it and the hard palate. 
Through this aperture the breath passes out striking against the 
edges of the nearly closed teeth. It appears to be of little im- 
portance over just what point of the surface of the tongue the 
center aperture is made — whether at the tip or a little farther 
back, — if only the angle at which the stream of breath strikes 
against the edges of the teeth be right. Professor A. M. Bell 
says: '"The nearly horizontal position of the tongue for this 
element requires the teeth to be very closely approximated, — but 
without touching." C before c, i, and y (c soft) also has this sound. 
Ex., sitf basket, ye.y, cent, cider, rypress. 

Method of Development: — I. Imitation. Show the pupil the 
center aperture over the tongue and attract his attention to 
the central stream of breath to be plainly felt through the nearly 
closed teeth. Use a strip of paper or a feather to show direction 
and force of breath. II. Nearly close the teeth while giving 
whispered e. III. Manipulation from th.^ As the general posi- 
tion of the tongue is nearly identical with that of th, while the 

426 The Association Review. 

tDiiguc endeavors to retain the position and continue the sound 
of th^ let the point be pushed gently back. 

Z [«5] 

Formation: — Center aperture over the fore part of the tongue 
as for s\ teeth in same position; breath vocalized. This sound 
is also rc])rescntcd by s\ Professor Porter, in the preface to the 
International Dictionarv, savs of this sound that "When final in 
a syllabic and not followed immediately by a vowel or other son- 
aiit element, it takes a vanish of a surd s sound." Ex., ^one, 
frozen, burr::, hi^. 

Method of Dez*clofmcnt: — I. Contrast with s} Let the pupil 
feel the vibration in the teeth, chin and throat. II. Nearly close 
the teeth while giving r. III. Manipulation from th^ as s from th.^ 

S/i. [Q] 

rormatiou: — Fore part of ilie tongue raised so as to form a 
ccnler aperture slightly larger and farther back than for j. 
Through this aperture the breath passes out striking against the 
edges of the nearly closed teeth. Ex., ^Ae, hnshel, fish. 

Method of Dci'ehpynent:—!. Imitation. Show the pupil the 
teeth and attract his attention to the wide stream of breath. A 
diagram of the position of the tongue in the mouth may be of 
assistance. II. Contrast with s, attracting the pupil's attention 
lo the altered position of the tongue and to the wider stream of 
breath. III. .SVr may frequently be obtained from voiceless r 
by simply closing the teeth while the pupil attempts to retain the 
tongue position for r. 

Zh. [ffi] 

Formation: — Tongue and teeth in the same position as for sh 
but voice is given instead of breath. This sound is represented 

in our language by s or s.^ It does not occur initial. Ex., . 

mea.mre. arrure. 

Method of Dez'eloptnent: — I. Contrast with sh. Let the pupil 
feel the vibration in the jaw, chin, back of the neck and throat. 

Formation: — Point of the tongue turned up to the spring of 
tlie hard palate and made to vibrate by a stream of breath 
directed over it. Prof. A. M. Bell says: "When the tip of the 

Elementary English Sounds. 427 

tongue is narrowed and presented without contact to the upper 
gum or front part of the palate, the passage of the breath causes 
the tongue to quiver or vibrate more or less strongly, and the 
sound of r is produced." R final cannot be classed as a conso- 
nant sound. Ex., run, laurel, . 

Method of Dez^elopment: — I. Imitation. Show the pupil the 
position of the tongue and let him feel the vibration in the tip of 
the tongue while the sound is being given. II. By analogy from 
th.^ Let the pupil observe that the character of the vibration in 
the tip of the tongue is the same in the two sounds but that the 
point of application differs. 

Note. R may be considered as non-vocal when following a 

non-vocal consonant. Contrast pray - - r bray; try dry; 

crow grow, etc. 

(To be continued.) 




*'We have learned to make money, but we fail to make men/* 
said General Armstrong. And one might add concerning an- 
other large class of men, "They have made a name, but failed 
to make a character." Wealth and fame are the twin ambitions 
tliat rule the world, and it is not strange that men do not reap 
what they do not sow, nor gain what they do not seek. The 
man that consciously aims to rlcvclop his character to the utmost 
IS as rare as the rich man in heaven, and what can we expect of 
«lic child under the conditions? The child is thrown into the 
iin'dsi iA contending forces — the school against the influence of 
h(jnie and society, with the odds against the school; for the 
Icaclier's sphere is largely intellectual and the work is usually re- 
garded as a task, while the opposing forces appeal to him on his 
social side and by means of his enjoyments. Is it difficult to 
j)r edict the result, when the teacher advises the pupil to "lay 
u]) treasure in heaven," but struggling humanity is engaged in 
the one great endeavor to pile up dollars on earth? Is it not 
difficult to instil into the minds and hearts of children the beauty 
i.'f the Golden Rule, when almost every word and act of the 
world as they see it is a living illustration of David Harum's 
version — "Do unto the other feller the way he'd like to do unto 
you, — an' do it fust"? 

It is this condition and these influences that the schools are 
obliged to meet, and when all the problems of the school room 
have been solved, when a careful studv of the conduct of the in- 
dividual in school and in after life has been made, it will be found 
that success — the success which makes the diligent student, that 
which gives power in the battles of life, that which shines forth 
in the world as character — depends upon the influences we bring 
to bear upon the child to create and develop right motives. It 
is the teacher's great problem to make the pupil feel that the 

The Making of the Man. 429 

glory and perpetuity of the monument above ground depends 
upon the care and skill bestowed upon that which is below the 
surface, and that his life is the monument he is building, not for 
a day, but for eternity. It is a problem of great difficulty ; for the 
child sees the pleasures of the present moment as through a field 
glass, while the future good for which his teachers are urging 
him to strive and offer up his sacrifices is seen with the field glass 

What are the motives that influence the child, and how are 
they to be treated? Are they to be strengthened or restrained? 
Are they to be eradicated, or turned in a new direction? It is 
when we begin to consider these questions that the importance 
of right training at the start forces itself upon our attention. 
To strengthen and turn in new channels in early years does not 
prove difficult, but to restrain and eradicate in later life taxes the 
teacher's resources to the utmost. 

The great faults of child training are the bondage to system 
and a discipline of fear and force in the school, and unlimited li- 
cense out of school, neither plan being, suited to the child's best 
development. Instruction on moral subjects is good as far as 
it goes, but it does not go far enough to do any good. In order 
to build character there must be knowledge of what is right and 
just and wise, and action resulting from freedom of choice. On 
the negative side there should be punishment of misdeeds, 
prompt and certain,, as near a natural consequence of the act 
as possible, and free from personal feeling or caprice. Punish- 
ment should approach in character the inflexibility of nature's 
laws. Character is largely the result of bringing these forces 
to bear on the child during his earliest years. I believe the 
weight of testimony will bear out my experience that the young 
man's character is practically formed for life in the primary and 
intermediate schools. The succeeding years but bear him on 
in the channels of habit and aim already formed. Changes 
sometimes come, like revolutions, the result of overwhelming 
forces late in life, but the fundamental principles of justice, honor, 
courage, concentration, self-control, and ambition are estab- 
lished at a very early age, and changes are confined almost en- 
tirely to details. Even in apparent revolutions in character it 

430 The Association Review. 

is only the development of forces, long latent, and favorable 
conditions, that give Mr. Hyde his opportunity to overcome Dr. 
Jekyll. The forces contending in the nature of most men are so 
evenly matched that it requires little in the way of temptation to 
tip the scale from one side to the other. But in early years it is 
possible in most cases to establish right convictions on moral sub- 
jects, and by proper exercises to form habits and build up char- 
acter strong enough to withstand the temptations of later life. 
The first appeal must be made to the intellect. The child 
must be made to think right. Kind words may do it; sarcasm 
has done it; a thrashing is sometimes the best way to make the 
child think, but these are correctives. What can be done in the 
way of instruction in the school room to lay the foundation for 
right thinking? It seems to me that simple stories that point 
a moral reach the mind and form the judgment better than any 
other kind of instruction. The stories should deal with the con- 
crete, and leave the abstract for the pupil to dig out for himself. 
Such stories, selected with care, may be made the basis of com- 
parison for all succeeding stories, historic facts, and the acts of 
the children themselves. If the pupil has once pronounced 
sound judgment in a case where his own interests were not in- 
volved or his passions excited, he may quickly be convinced of 
his own error, when he has forgotten himself, by suggesting the 
comparison between his own act and the story that meets his 
case. By forming a judgment in calmness and without pre- 
judice, not only has the mind received an impression that creates 
-tendency, but a standard has been set up, and pride operates 
strongly to keep the pupil from receding from his position. Les- 
sons especially directed to impress each trait of character should 
have a place in the course, and serve as a basis of comparison in 
all future work. Biography should be studied, not so much for 
the incidents, as for the traits of character revealed in them. 
Biography, wisely treated, forms one of the strongest influences 
in the making of men. From these simple stepping-stones the 
pupil, guided by teachers of cultured brain and sympathetic 
hearts, should advance through the fields of literature, con- 
firming sound judgments and gaining ideals of beauty and of 
power at every step, and inspiration to spur him on to victory. 

TIw Making of the Man. • 431 

The next step is action — the putting into practice of the les- 
sons of the school room to confirm habits of right doing before 
adverse influences can begin theif deadly work. It is the action 
in which the child thmks, decides, and executes for himself that 
is to make the man. Though the lessons and practice in the 
school room are of great importance in influencing the mind, 
the play-ground is the place where the great lessons of justice, 
truth, honor, self-control, and executive ability are brought out 
and impressed or the opposite traits become confirmed. 

There is too little control exercised over the hours of play, 
even in schools which control the whole of the pupil's time. 
There is need of a teacher on the play-ground as certainly as in 
the school room, — not to drive, but to lead in a great variety of 
exercises and games, made as free and spontaneous as possible. 
The teacher that enters into the spirit of the game will not have 
to use force to secure justice,' honor, and observance of rules. 
His greatest work will be to so organize the play that every one 
shall have an opportunity to play all parts of the games and es- 
pecially to have practice in the^art of leadership. There are 
always a few, who, by reason of superior strength and force of 
will, take the lead in everything and keep it through their whole 
career in school, while others of a retiring disposition as natu- 
rally gravitate into positions of slavish followers. In unre- 
stricted play these self-appointed leaders develop the qualities 
of arrogance and pride; and on the other hand, discontented fol- 
lowers, incapable of attracting the attention or wielding the 
power of their more forceful companions, harbor envy, hatred, 
and revenge, or, what is far worse, become inactive and spiritless. 
Every child should have an opportunity to develop execu- 
tive ability. "For whosoever hath, to him shall be given" is 
nowhere emphasized so much as on the play-ground, and the 
boys that need most to exercise and develop force of will are 
the ones that are set aside to keep score or watch the game. 
These wall-flowers should be gathered up and organized in a 
game of their own and given an opportunity to develop them- 
selves, — ^and a push, if necessary. In all games which involve 
competition, let all the pupils in turn act the part of umpire or 
judge; for in no other position does a child develop so rapidly 

432 The Association Review. 

his qualities of courage, concentration and decision, and gain 
ideas of honor and justice. There are many lively games for 
children that should be early brought into use to develop atten- 
tion, alertness, and leadership; but chief among the objects to be 
gained is the habit of working together in harmony, all uniting 
in acts for the common good or the common pleasure. This 
principle should be made prominent in all games — it will reach 
its highest development in foot ball, where the team works as 
a unit, and each member subordinates his own individuality in 
order to perfect the machine. 

If these lessons can be crystallized into habits, the pupil will 
go out into the world with something far better than mere book 
learning. By all means let us have a "Master of Sport/' — not 
only a man who knows games from "ring-around-the-roses" to 
football, but a man who understands character and the making 
of the man on the play-ground. In the rough and tumble of a 
football game, when fists begin to fly, of what use are the lessons 
of the school room in the excitement of the moment? But a 
teacher's jolly laugh and "Take it like a man" turn the tide at 
once and the game goes on — and one scarcely realizes that a 
great lesson in self-control has been given. The lessons of the 
school room may be called up afterwards, and a stronger im- 
pression made. It is this action and reaction between the school 
room and the play-ground that develops in the pupil the strength 
to gain the mastery over self and win the victory for right. 

The motives that influence the pupil during these earlier 
years are simple ones — the desire to excel, to stand well in the 
eyes of his companions, and to secure the approval of his teacher, 
if the teacher is what he ought to be. But there comes a time 
when manhood awakes, when the youth looks further than the 
day's pleasures, and ambitions begin to stir within him. It is at 
this turning point, usually between fourteen and eighteen, that 
the greatest care is needed to draw the mind towards the higher 
ideals of human destiny. It is at this time, however, that in- 
struction generally centers on lifeless forms and with the re- 
straint of the school room petrifies rather than inspires the 
youth's better nature. Out of school he keeps up the same cease- 
less grind, or jumps to the opposite extreme — an aimless leisure. 

The Making of the Man, 433 

The time-serving teacher or educator that allows such a condi- 
tion to exist is not dead as some say — it might be better if he 
were — ^but he is a microbe that breeds death. At no other peri- 
od of life does the youth need so much, in school and on the play- 
ground, the influence of a teacher and companion of noble na- 
ture and exuberant life^ one that can inspire as well as lead in the 
struggle for life on a higher plane. More and more as I grow 
older do I see how a few master minds that I knew in the school 
room have written their names in my heart and planted the seed 
of better things. 

With every year of study and observation the conviction 
grows stronger that the character of the teacher is the great 
factor in the making of the man. Children are hero-worship- 
pers — they bow down before the man of muscle or the man 01 
brains, and such a man^ if he sympathise with his pupils, can do 
anything. If he possess this sympathy with noble purposes and 
high ideals, we have the right man for the teacher. In his sym- 
pathy for the pupil, he need not depart a hair's breadth from 
right and justice — it is simply in the point of view, the manner 
of getting at right decisions that makes the child look upon the 
teacher as a friend to be consulted and trusted. The teacher 
is the life of the school — his character, not his learnings is the 
foundation of all growth, mental as well as moral; for it is only 
through the stimulated and inspired will that the pupil makes 
effort in any direction. But the making of the teacher is too 
broad a subject for this article and deserves to be treated by 

Much has been written in regard fo the military system as 
a means of making men and much has been claimed for it. A 
writer in a recent magazine has given an exhaustive analysis of 
the methods and results of the military system at West Point. 
He acknowledges that its code of honor and justice is an artifi- 
cial one^ and recent revelations at West Point seem to prove this 
to be true, even if the case be no worse. But what does it all 
amount to, if it succeeds in making the soldier and fails to make 
the man? 

The truth is that in one respect only does the military sys- 
tem attain excellence and this is in the matter of efficiency. 

434 ' T'ft^ Association Rroiew. 

This alone, however, is sufficient to recommend it to every one 
interested in the training of the young. Much credit is given 
to the careful and rigid marking system which obtains at West 
Point. To state the matter briefly, the marking system accom- 
plishes its remarkable results at West Point, because it is applied 
to educational methods that require practice as well as study; the 
student has something to do as well as to learn, and efficiency 
in action is conditioned on diligence in study. To apply the 
marking system to primary and secondary schools in which 
courses of study require everything to be learned and almost 
nothing to be put into practice, only aggravates an evil already 
a weakness in all of our schools. It puts a premium on ma- 
chine work, and fosters in the pupil the motive to gain high 
grades, regardless of the method or the effect on mental power 
and moral character. The pupil that memorizes subject-matter 
that he does not comprehend for the purpose of gaining high 
grades in examination is not only building a foundation of men- 
tal weakness for all future work, but he is also undermining his 
character; and it is because our methods encourage this kind of 
work that the product of our schools is so largely sham. Not 
only in the military department, but in all other departments 
of learning in which practice depends on study, and hand works 
with brain for the accomplishment of results, we shall find effi- 
ciency to a remarkable degree. To memorize the text of mili- 
tary science for the purpose of passing an examination with a 
grade of seventy-five per cent, is not sufficient; study must re- 
sult in a hundred per cent, movement on the drill-ground. No 
failures are so apparent or so stimulating as those attempts to 
apply what we have learned, because they show us our real 
power as an executive and our real worth as a man. 

In order to develop this efficiency and stimulate each indi- 
vidual will into an active engine of progress, there must be 
something more in every lesson than a task for the memory. 
There must be something to do, something to apply to daily life, 
something to work into habits and principles until character is 
formed. It is easy to suggest plans and ideas for this training, 
but it takes much hard work on the part of the teacher to carry 
them out. It consists in making work depend on the under- 

The Making of the Man. 435 

standing of written directions; problems learned in the school 
room to be worked out in the shops; difficulties and quarrels be- 
tween pupils written out by those concerned and decisions on 
the same rendered by every member of the class; more responsi- 
bility in the school room, opportunities being given the pupil to 
lead and control^ taking the teacher's place ; more action, less 
writing from memory. By their very nature these exercises 
cultivate the power of attention and become an efficient means 
of training the will. Every effort should be made to complete the 
exercise — ^to make it a work of art. Furthermore, this system 
should prevail during every hour of the day and the pupil should 
be made to feel that he may be called on to give an account at 
any moment. Have less forbidding of wrong things — more 
direction in doing right things. Redeeming the time with good, 
must be the watchword. 

We now have methods and exercises designed to increase 
intelligence, develop judgment and efficiency, cultivate self-reli- 
ance and self-control, and train the pupil in numerous other vir- 
tues, but we have yet to establish the ruling motive — the direc- 
tion of the will to high ideals and worthy ends — and the ambition 
to be successful in the best interpretation of that word. Huxley 
in his essay on "A Liberal Education" compares life to a game 
of chess — ^the interest in learning the rules and the attention one 
gives to the playing of the game are what we ought to give to 
the game of life. In one way or another this analogy should 
be constantly before the pupils. They show no lack of interest 
in their games^ and it ought not to be difficult for them to ap- 
preciate the comparison. Every lesson ought to have some 
bearing on this important game of life, and this relation should 
be made clear. Do you know whether or not the lessons you 
teach have any effect in forming the pupils' opinions and estab- 
lishing their principles? Test it. The calls for expressions of 
judgment should be constant. To get the pupil to commit him- 
self honestly is the first step and a long step toward forming his 
character. I have been surprised at the sincerity of their deci- 
sions and their willingness to listen to reason, when some point, 
overlooked in a too hasty judgment, has been brought to their 

436 The Association Review. 

attention. History, biography, and literature give many op- 
portunities for this exercise. 

During the past two years, a certain time every week has 
been set aside for the discussion of "problems," — problems in 
which the pupils are concerned, problems of state, or anything 
that they have gleaned from the papers. These free discussions 
form not only an admirable exercise in language, such as they 
need most to know, but they are often successful in destroying 
the first seeds of prejudice, especially in matters of institution 
life. One can hardly imagine the -under-current of ill-feeling, 
worry, and unhappiness, that has no other source than misunder- 
standing and misconception. These things all have a part in 
forming the character, and should not be left to themselves ; for 
if they are set right at the beginning, they are right for all time 
and it establishes a foundation for cumulative results which can- 
not be estimated. In cases where pupils show a tendency to 
take the wrong side of a question, an exercise in the form of a 
debate, the pupil always taking the side commonly accepted as 
right, will often be found sufficient to turn the scale in the right 
direction. Suggestion, even without the aid of hypnotism, is a 
powerful agency, and what the pupil studies for the purpose of 
defending in argument, he finally learns to believe. This prin- 
ciple is established by some remarkable cases in history, and I 
have seen enough of its results to be convinced of its usefulness. 
Another influence may be found in the tendency of our pupils 
to look ahead and anticipate pleasurable occasions — it affords 
opportunities for strong comparisons and stimulating lessons. 
This is the secret of the high ideal — ^to live for the higher pleas- 
ure and more lasting happiness of a permanent good. 

Not only do these methods and exercises give the pupil a 
strong predisposition towards the right, but they establish a 
class opinion, which becomes an important ' factor in ordinary- 
cases of discipline. This class opinion is almost always right, 
and no stronger influence can be brought to bear upon a rebel- 
lious pupil than to be made to feel that the judgment of his 
classmates is against him. How often do teachers inflict punish- 
ment, which is just in itself and ordinarily would be upheld by 
the class, but there is something in the manner of the teacher 

The Making of the Man. 437 

and his attitude toward the boy that takes from the punishment 
the appearance of justice, and the class opinion veers over to the 
bov's side! Is there anv doubt of evil effect? The boy be- 
comes a hero and more than ever confirmed in his opposition 
to the teacher, and the cISlss has been given a push in the wrong 
direction which will be difficult to remedy. The love of justice 
is really strong in the young and it forms a good foundation 
stone on which to build character. It is because use is made 
of this principle that trial by a school "court" is so valuable. 
It is not at all necessary that all the intricacies of court pro- 
cedure be carried out; the benefit is in securing an exhaustive 
discussion of the rule which has been violated and establishing a 
healthy public opinion in the school; the judgment and penalty 
are necessary, but these are the least of the benefits to be gained. 

Exercises to establish individual traits of character are 
valuable, but there is a higher aim yet — to unify these traits in 
the ideal man or the ideal woman and to become imbued with 
the desire to reach this ideal. I have had pupils write out their 
aims and construct their ideals, which they have amended from 
time to time as new ideas and principles become established in 
their minds. I believe it is well to have a purpose clearly stated, 
but I have always counselled against any insincerity or extra- 
vagance in this work. These records are, of course, the result 
of all the influences that surround the pupil, and the value of 
making the records cannot be estimated, but they often show 
which influences are most effective and thus they become valu- 
able to the teacher. 

It is the highest purpose of our schools to make the man. 
The principles brought forth in this article are general — the de- 
tails must be worked out by every teacher for himself. Every 
teacher is to solve these problems as if he were training his own 
boy, — with the loving interest of the parent and the critical mind 
of the philosopher. This earnestness should prevail in the plan 
and organization of the whole school. It means more expense 
perhaps, more work, and especially more thought. It means 
disappointment often times; for the teacher will see the labor of 
months go down before some slight temptation; but I cannot 
believe that the work is lost or the teacher's effort a failure — 

43^ The Association Review, 

sometime it will prove its worth. But the only thing that really 
concerns the teacher is to do his duty with the light he has— 
the results must be left with a higher power. I have written of 
the boy and the making of the man; I do not think there is any- 
thing that will not apply equally well to the girl'and the making 
of the woman. Is it all worth while ? Let Horace Mann 
answer, "Yes; if it was my boy." 





Gleanings from the Philadelphia Newspapers of 1816. 

[Files of the following. Philadelphia newspapers preserved 
in the Congressional Library^ Washington, D. C, have been ex- 
amined by Mr. John H. Zable for notices relating to the deaf: — 
Poulson's American Daily Advertiser^ General Aurora Adver- 
tiser, Weekly Aurora, Freeman's Journal and Columbian Chron- 
icle; and the Portfolio. 

The examination related to the issues published between 
the dates August i, and December 31, 1816; but so many notices 
were found in Poulson's Daily Advertiser that the search in that 
paper was carried back to June 8, 1816^ and forward to March 
19, 1817. 

Mr. Zable notes the following numbers as missing from the 
Congressional Library file : — General Aurora Advertiser — issues 
of November 30 and December 26, 1816, missing; Freeman's 
Journal and Columbian Chronicla — issues of August 6, October 
29, November i, 5, 8, 12, 19, and 29, 1816, missing. 

The material collected by Mr. Zable includes items relating 
to. William Lee, the American Consul at Bordeaux, the original 
promoter of the New York Institution. — ^A. G. B.] 

(From Paulson's American Daily Advertiser, published at 

1816, July 20: "Lee of Bordeaux, not being able to continue 

the exercise of his consular functions, is about 

"By Alexander Grahani Bell. Six chapters of this work have been 
published in Vol. II, with Appendices A to P, see Index to Vol. II. For 
Appendices Q to 39* see Index to Vol. III. For Appendices 40 to 48, sec 
Vol. IV, pp. 19 to 41. — Ed. 

440 The Association Review. 

to embark for the United States." (Extract 
from a letter from a gentleman in Paris, to his 
friend in Philadelphia, dated May 24.) 

1816, Au^. 5: "The ship Lag^ira, Capt. Norton, which ar- 
rived at this port yesterday, sailed from Bor- 
deaux on the 1 2th of June, and from the river 
on the 1 8th. 

Mr. Lee, American Consul, and family, 
came home in the Laguira." 

1816, Aug. 13: Letter from New York, dated August 10, an- 
nouncing arrival of ship Mary Augusta, from 
Havre, having on board Rev. T. H. Gallaudet 
and Laurent Clerc; with brief statement of pro- 
posed Hartford School. 

1816, Aug. 28: Communication from Hartford, Conn., con- 
gratulating public on return of Gallaudet with 

1816, Sept. 13: Letter from Boston, Mass., dated September 

7, headed "Interesting to Humanity," an- 
nounces arrival of Clerc, Gallaudet and Cogs- 
well in Boston, and speaks of the proposed 
Hartford School. 

This issue also contains a poem by Lydia 
Huntley "Addressed to a very interesting and 
intelligent little girl, deprived of the faculties of 
speech and hearing." (Alice Cogswell, A. G. B.) 

1816, Oct. 18: Contains Clerc's definition of gratitude — "The 

Memory of the heart." 

1816, Oct. 24: About the conviction of a criminal upon the 

testimony of a boy born deaf and dumb. 

1816, Dec. 5: Call for public meeting to be held in Washing- 
ton Hall on Saturday next, to demonstrate the 
eflBciency of the system of instruction pursued 
by the Abbe Sicard as displayed in the attain- 
ments of Mr. Clerc 

1 8 16, Dec. 7: Call for the meeting in Washington Hall re- 
peated. This issue also contains an article en- 
titled "Deaf and Dumb," quoted from the 
United States Gazette, in relation to the pro- 
posed meeting in Washington Hall, which con- 
cludes as follows : — "It is not intended to make 
any call at the meeting upon the benevolence of 
the persons assembled, but t© show them what 
has been done, what can be done, and what 

Historical Notes, 441 

ought to be done in behalf of a most unfortu- 
nate and interesting class of human beings.*' 

i8i6, Dec. 12: Proceedings in full of the public meeting held 

at Washington Hall, South Third Street, on 
Saturday afternoon, the 7th inst. Hon. William 
Tilghman, Chief Justice, in the Chair; John 
Bacon, Secretary. This contains an abstract of 
the address by Charles Chauncey, Esq.; also 
Clerc's address in full as read by Gallaudet; 
also resolutions thanking Clerc, and appointing 
a committee of ten to appoint suitable persons 
to receive contributions and report proceedings 
in the public prints of the city, also Clerc's re- 
plies to questions. The whole signed by Wil- 
liam Tilghman, President; John Bacon, Secre- 
tary. ^A long article of about 2700 words. 
These proceedings were also published in full 
in the Commercial Advertiser, N. Y., December 

12, 1816, quoted from the Philadelphia True 
American. See Review HI, 343; they also ap- 
peared in the Freeman's Journal, December 13, 
1816, — see below. — ^A. G. B.) 

This issue also contains a report from the 
committee appointed to select suitable persons 
to wait upon the inhabitants of city and district 
to receive contributions to aid in the instruction 
of the deaf and dumb in the United States. 
Signed William Tilghman, Chairman; Jonah 
Thompson, Secretary. (The same report ap- 
pears in the Freeman's Journal of December 

13, 1816 — see below — but is there supplemented 
by a long list of names of persons added to the 
Committee. — ^A. G. B.) 

This issue also contains a letter* entitled, 
"Pause for a Moment," signed by "Argus." 

1816, Dec. 14: Contains a "Reply to Argus,"* by "A Philadel- 

phian" : — Another reply to Argus* by "Philadel- 
phus," and an article* relating to the fourth 
meeting of New York citizens at the Mayor's 
office, New York, December 6, 1816, signed 

1816, Dec. 16: A letter* signed "Public Good." 

^Reproduced below. — A. G. B. 

442 The Association Review. 

1816, Dec. 18: A letter^ signed "Pensacola"; and a "Reply to 

"Philadelphus/' ^ signed by "Philalethes." 

18 16, Dec. 20: An anonymous letter* criticizing the reply of 

"Philalethes" to **PhiIadeIphus," and a short 
article headed "The Deaf and Dumb." 

1816, Dec. 28: An anonymous poem entitled "Deaf and 

Dumb," quoted from U. S. Gazette. 

(From The General Aurora Advertiser, published at Phila- 

1816, Aug. 2: . "A CARD" by Col. Roul, relating to Consul 


18 16, Aug. 12: "Mr. Capelano, one of the finest sculptors of 

Europe, has arrived in this city with Mr. Lee 
from Bordeaux," &c. 

18 1 6, Aug. 16: "Col. Roul, a French officer arrived in Baltimore, 

has published an acknowledgment of gratitude 
to Mr. Lee, late Consul at Bordeaux, for his 
assistance and hospitality, which enabled him 
to escape the vengence of the Bourbon 

1816, Oct. 24: Article referring to a petition presented to the 

Legislature of Connecticut for a grant of money 
in aid of the Hartford school, speaks of Clerc, 
and quotes some questions asked him with his 

1816, Nov. II: Letter from "A Son of New York," in relation 

to the third meeting of New York citizens, held 
Nov. 4, 1 816. 

This issue also contains a letter from Wil- 
liam Lee, formerly Consul at Bordeaux, ad- 
dressed from "No. 5 Broadway, New York," 
and headed "Interesting to Frenchmen," in 
which Mr. Lee speaks of the organization of a 
company under the title of "The Colonial 
Society," for the purpose of assisting French- 
men to make a settlement on the banks of the 

^Reproduced below. — A. G. B. 

Historkel Notes. 443 

Ohio and Mississippi. .He signs the letter as 
Vice-President of the Society. 

(From Freeman's Journal and Columbian Chronicle, published 
at Philadelphia.) 

1816, Dec. 13: Full proceedings of public meeting held at 

Washington Hall, South Third Street, on Sat- 
urday afternoon, the 7th inst., signed by Wil- 
liam Tilghman, President, John Bacon, Secre- 
tary. (Also published in Paulson's Daily Adver- 
tiser, December 12, see above. — A. G. B.) 

This issue also contains a report of Com- 
mittee appointed at the public meeting held at 
Washington Hall, December 7, 1816, to select 
suitable persons to wait upon the inhabitants 
of the city and district to receive contributions 
to aid in the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb 
in the United States. Signed William Tilgh- 
man, Chairman, Jonah Thompson, Secretary. 
(The same report appeared in Paulson's Afneri- 
can Advertiser, December 12, 1816, see above, 
but is here amplified by the addition of a long 
list of names of persons selected. — A. G. B.) 

1816, Dec. 27: This contains the celebrated letter of M. Gard, 

the deaf teacher of Bordeaux, France, dated 
April, 18 1 6, which was brought to America by 
William Lee, U. S. Consul at Bordeaux, and 
which led to the establishment of the New 
York Institution. M. Card's letter is prefaced 
by a communication signed "A. B." (Pub- 
lished in full in the February Review IV, 19. — 
A. G. B.) 

This issue also contains the following news 
item relating to Lee: — "The Senate of the 
United States has confirmed the appointment 
of William Lee, Esq., late Consul at Bordeaux, 
to be Accountant of the War Department." 

This issue also contains "A toast, given by 
Mr. Laurent Clerc, at a thanksgiving dinner in 


444 ^*^ Association Review. 

The following are some of the articles alluded to above: — 

Extracts from the Philadelphia Newspapers of i8i6. 

Letter from Argus. 
(From Paulson's American Daily Advertiser, 1816, De- 
cember 12.) 

Pause for a Moment. 

It is certainly due to the citizens of Philadelphia, 
(who are about to be called upon for donations in aid 
of an establishment for the instruction of the Deaf and 
Dumb,) that they understand distinctly, that the money 
which may be collected is to be applied towards the 
support of an institution founded at Hartford in 
Connecticut. In the proceedings of a meeting re- 
cently held for the promotion of this object, the inten- 
tion is not as clearly stated, as it might have been. It is not 
asserted that ambiguity was the result of design, though 
it is manifest, that the locality of the establishment for the 
nourishment of which our bounty is solicited, is not 
mentioned in any part of the doings of that meeting. 

We are far from wishing to enfeeble the charitable 
dispositions of our fellow citizens, but they ought to 
know that in the city and neighborhood of Philadelphia, 
it is supposed, not less than one hundred of the unfortu- 
nate Deaf and Dumb can be found, who demand our 
sympathy and assistance, at home. Justice required this 
exposition, and now let every one act as they deem 


a^'Editors of newspapers who have or may pub- 
lish the proceedings of the meeting alluded to, will per- 
form an act of justice to their subscribers by inserting 
the above. 


Reply to Argus by a Philadelphian. 
(From Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, 1816, December 

It appears to me that Argus is unnecessarily 
alarmed for the interests of Philadelphia, in warning the 
citizens to reflect before they contribute to so laudable 

Historical Notes. • 445 

an Institution as that proposed to be founded in Con- 
necticut for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb. 

Why should we withhold our patronage and assist- 
ance in establishing a school so universally useful be- 
cause it is not in, and for the particular benefit of, our 
own City. 

It is probable that sufficient funds cannot be imme- 
diately raised to form more than one Institution, and 
with equal propriety might all our States and Cities, say 
^Place the school with us and we will give freely. Fie 
upon it! Fie upon it! I blush to think that so selfish 
a sentiment should rise in the breast of a Philadelphian, 
famous for their liberality to all Public improvements. 

From the encouragement given by a few Gentle- 
men of Boston and Connecticut, who were at the ex- 
pense of sending a Gentleman to France to learn from 
the Abbe Sicard, his mode of instructing the Deaf and 
Dumb, it is more easy and practicable, as well as more 
just, to commence the School in Connecticut, from 
whence in a short time Teachers may be obtained for 
the instruction of these unfortunate persons throughout 
the United States. 

I hope our Citizens will distinguish themselves by 
a liberal contribution to the founding of this Establish- 
ment wherever the gentlemen who have undertaken it 
think proper to place it. 

I would suggest to the Managers of the School 
the propriety of receiving children from all parts of the 
United States, on as low terms as the Institution can 
afford, and of giving equal instruction gratis, to those 
children whose parents cannot afford to pay any thing. 

A Philadelphian. 
December 12. 

Another Reply to Argus by Philadelphus. 

(From Paulson's American Daily Advertiser, 1816^ De. 
cember 14.) 

Fellow Citizens: 

A statement, headed ''Pause for a Moment'' has re- 
lieved some anxieties I have had upon reading the pro- 
ceedings of those "who felt an interest in the instruction 

446 The Association Review. * 

of the Deaf and Dumb." — Had it been explained at that 
meeting, that this application was for the support of an 
Institution in a distant state, or had Philanthropic gen- 
tlemen, who are able and willing to sustain the Charities 
of our neighbours, themselves have done it, so far well. 

But appointing ward committees to enjoin our 
citizens to do it, when they have so many calls upon 
them for charities at home, and for the Deaf and Dumb 
too in our own state, appears to require remark. 

The Citizens of Philadelphia rank as high as any 
part of the Union for their liberality and substantial 
public charities, on all proper occasions ; they ought not 
to be pressed upon with too many solicitations for dis- 
tant places, some of which that have formerly been 
urged upon them, have been declared by the Cities the 
money was sent to, unnecessary and not desired by 

The writer considers himself a Philanthropist, and 
apprehends his private annual charities need not shrink 
from a comparison of any of the respectable gentlemen 
of the meeting; but he is of opinion that the noble spirit 
o! the pul)lic of this city, should not be so frequently 
drawn upon, as to deter from exertions on proper oc- 


Advocate's articles about the New York Movement. 

(From Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, 1816, De- 
cember 14.) 

Deaf and Dumb. 

New York December 12. 
At a meeting of a number of citizens, to take into 
consideration the propriety and practicability of form- 
ing an institution in the city of New Yofk, for teaching 
the Deaf and Dumb, held according to adjournment, on 
the 6th instant, in the mayor's room, city hall, General 
Matthew Clarkson in the chair — 

Resolved, That Messrs. Z. Lewis and J. Nitchie, of 
the 1st ward— Messrs. J. W. Brackett and P. Howes, of 
the 2d ward— Messrs. J. B. Scott and H. Wheaton of 
the 3d ward— Messrs. E. W. King and W. L. Rose of 

Historical Notes, 447 


the 4th ward — Dr. Mitchell and the Rev. J. Stanford, of 
the 5th ward — Mr. Colin Read and the Rev. Dr. 
M'Leod,of the 6th ward — Me